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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS 



IN 



AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY ANO ETHNOLOGY 



VOLUME 6 
WITH 3 MAPS 



FREDERIC WARD PUTNAM 

EDITOR 



BERKELEY 

THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 
1908 



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Cited as Univ. Calif. Publ. Am. Arch. Ethn. 



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CONTENTS. 

Number 1. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno and Neighboring Indians, 
S. A. Barrett, pages 1-332, maps 1-2. 

Number 2. — The Geography and Dialects of the Miwok Indians, S. A. 
Barrett, pages 333-368, map 3. 

Number 3. — On the Evidences of the Occupation of Certain Regions by the 
Miwok Indians, A. L. Kroeber, pages 369-380. 

Index.— Pages 381-400. 



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-UNIVERSITY OF CAUrORNIA PUBLICATIONS 

IN 

AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY 

Vol. 6 No. I 



9*. *{ 



THE ETHNO-GEOGRAPHY OF THE POMO 
AND NEIGHBORING INDIANS 



BT 

S. A. BARRETT 



BERKELEY 

THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

FEBRUARY, 1908 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS 
DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY 

The following publications dealing with archaeological and ethnol- 
ogical subjects issued under the direction of the Department of Anthrop- 
ology are sent in exchange for the publications of anthropological depart- 
ments and museums, and for journals devoted to general anthropology 
or to archaeology and ethnology. They are for sale at the prices 
stated, which include postage or express charges. Exchanges should be 
directed to The Exchange' Department, University Library, Berkeley, 
California, U. S. A. All orders and remittances should be addressed 
to the University Press. 



AMERICA* ARCHAEOLOGY AJfD ETHNOLOGY. (Octavo). 
Cited as Univ. Calit Publ. Am. Arch. Ethn. 

Vol. 1. No. 1. Life and Culture of the Hupa, by Pliny Earle Goddard. 

Pages 88, Plates 30, September, 1903 . . . Price, $1.25 

No. 2. Hupa Texts, by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pages 290, March, 

1904. Price, 3.00 

Vol. 2. No. 1. The Exploration of the Potter Creek Cave, by William J. 

Sinclair. Pages 27, Plates 14, April. 1904 . . Price, 
No. 2. The Languages of the Coast of California South of San 

Francisco, by A. L. Kroeber. Pages 52, June, 1904. Price, 
No. 3. Types of Indian Culture in California, by A. L. Kroeber. 

Pages 22. June, 1904 Price, 

No. 4. Basket Designs of the Indians of Northwestern California, 

by A. L. Kroeber. Pages 60, Plates 7, January, 1905. Price, 
No. 5. The Yokuts Language of South Central California, by 

A. L. Kroeber. Pages 213, January, 1907 . . Price, 



.40 
.60 
.25 
.75 
2.25 



Vol. 3. The 



5 Morphology of the Hupa Language, by Pliny Earle Goddard. 
Pages 344, June, 1905 Price, 

Vol. 4. No. 1. The Earliest Historical Relations between Mexico and 

Japan, by Zelia Nuttall. Pages 47, April, 1906. . Price, 
No. 2. Contributions to the Physical Anthropology of California, 

by A. Hrdlicka. Pages 16, Tables 5, Plates 10, June, 1906. 

. . Price, 

No. 3. Shoshonean Dialects of California, by A. L. Kroeber: 

Pages 100, February, 1907 Price, 

No. 4. Indian Myths of South Central California, by A. L. Kroeber. 

Pages 84, May 1907. Price, 

No. 5. The Washo Language of East Central California and Nevada, 

by A. L. Kroeber. Paces 67, September, 1907. Price, 

No. 6. The Religion of the Indians of California, by A. L. Kroeber. 

Pages 38, September, 1907. Price, 

Vol. 5. No. 1. The Phonology of the Hupa Language: Part I, The Indi- 
vidual Sounds, by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pages 20, Plates 8, 

March, 1907 Price, 

No. 2. Navaho Myths, Prayers and Songs with Texts and Trans- 
lations, by Washington Matthews, edited by Pliny Earle Goddard. 
Pages 43, September, 1907. Price, 

Vol. 6. No. 1 . The Ethno-Geography of the Porno and Neighboring Indians, 

by S. A. Barrett. Pages 332, Maps 2, February, 1908. Price, 3.25 

No. 2. , The Geography and Dialects of the Miwok Indians, by") In 
S. A. Barrett. Pages 36, Map 1, February, 1908. one 

No. 3. On the Evidences of the Occupation of Certain Regions [ cover, 
by the Miwok Indians, by A. L. Kroeber. Pages 12, Price, 
February, 1908. J .50 



3.50 



.50 



.75 
1.50 
.75 
.75 
.50 



.35 



.75 



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UNIVERSITY OP CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS 



IN 



AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY 
VOL. 6 NO. 1 



THE ETHNO-GEOGRAPHY OF THE POMO 
AND NEIGHBORING INDIANS. 

BY 

8. A. BARRETT. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Introduction ~ 7 

Ginzral Description 10 

Geographical Position 10 

Climate 10 

Flora 12 

Fauna 13 

Inhabitants 14 

Culture 22 

History 27 

Explorations 27 

Battlements - - 37 

California Missions 37 

San Francisco 38 

Fort Ross (Russian Settlement) 39 

San Rafael 40 

8onoma ~ 40 

American Occupation of California 41 

Influence of Settlement upon the Indians 43 

Reservations . - 46 

Mendocino Reservation 47 

Round Valley Reservation 49 

The Indians at Present 49 

Linguistics. 

Alphabet 51 

Linguistic Relationships 54 

Vocabularies - 56 

Porno 56 

Moquelumnan, Yuki 68 

Wintun 81 

Footnotes to Vocabularies 87 



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Arc io7^ 



2 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [Vol. 6 

PAGS 

Porno 95 

Lexical Relationships 95 

Phonetic Relationships 101 

Sounds 101 

Phonetic Variations 101 

Northern Dialect 102 

Central Dialect - - 102 

Eastern Dialect 103 

Southeastern Dialect „ 103 

Southern Dialect 105 

Southwestern Dialect - 105 

Northeastern Dialect _ 106 

Moquelumnan ~ 108 

Lexical Relationships 108 

Phonetic Relationships 108 

Sounds 108 

Phonetic Variations - 108 

Wintun 109 

Lexical Relationships 109 

Phonetic Relationships 110 

Sounds 110 

Phonetic Variations 110 

Yuki - Ill 

Lexical Relationships Ill 

Phonetic Relationships 113 

Sounds 113 

Phonetic Variations 113 

Relationships of the Linguistic Stocks 114 

Sounds 117 

Geographical Divisions. 

Poico 118 

Boundaries 120 

Divisions 121 

Sacramento Valley Porno 124 

Northern Dialect 124 

Boundaries 124 

General Description 127 

Coast Division 131 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites 131 

Old Village Sites 132 

Old Camp Sites 134 

Sites not Mentioned by Indians 135 

Valley Division 136 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites 136 

Old Village Sites 137 

Uninhabited Modern Village Sites 151 

Old Camp Sites 152 

Sites Not Mentioned by Indians 154 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 3 

PAOS 

Lake DiTision 155 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites 155 

Old Village Sites 155 

Old Camp Sites 157 

Modern Camp Sites 159 

Central Dialect _ 159 

Boundaries 159 

General Description 161 

Coast Division 162 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites 162 

Old Village Sites 163 

Old Camp Sites 166 

Valley Division 168 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites 168 

Old Village Sites 170 

Uninhabited Modern Village Sites 178 

Old Camp Sites 179 

Modern Camp Sites - 182 

Eastern Dialect 182 

Boundaries 182 

General Description ~ 185 

Upper Lake Division - 185 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites .~ 185 

Old Village Sites 186 

Old Camp Sites 190 

Modern Camp Sites 191 

Big Valley Division 191 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites 191 

Old Village Sites 191 

Uninhabited Modern Village Sites 198 

Old Camp Sites 200 

Southeastern Dialect 204 

Boundaries - 204 

General Description 205 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites 205 

Old Village Sites 206 

Old Camp Sites 209 

Southern Dialect 210 

Boundaries ~ 210 

General Description 212 

Bussian Biver Division _ 213 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites 213 

Old Village Sites - 214 

Old Camp Sites 224 

Gualala Biver Division ~ 224 

Old Village Sites „ 224 

Old Camp Sites 226 



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University of California Publications tn Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

PAGE 

Southwestern Dialect .. 227 

Boundaries 227 

General Description 227 

Coast Division 22ft 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites 228 

Old Village Sites .. 229 

Old Camp Sites „ 23S 

River Division 235 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites 235 

Old Village Sites „ 236 

Old Camp Sites 238 

Northeastern Dialect — . 239» 

Boundaries - 23fr 

General Description 240 

Salt Deposits .. 240 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites .. 244 

Old Village Sites 245 

Old Camp Sites 245 

Yum 246: 

YuTd Proper 248 

Boundaries 24ft 

General Description 249' 

Old Village Sites 249- 

Huchnom Dialect 256 

Boundaries 256. 

General Description .. 258 

Old Village Sites 258 

Uninhabited Modern Village Sites .. 266» 

Coast Yuki „ 260 

Boundaries 260 

General Description .. 261 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites 262 

Old Village Sites 262 

Old Camp Sites „ „ 262 

Wappo Dialect „ 263- 

Main Wappo Area .. .. 264 

Boundaries ... 264 

Sub-Dialects 26fc 

General Description 267" 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites 268 

Old Tillage Sites ... 26ft 

Old Camp Sites 274 

Clear Lake Wappo Area .. 274 

Boundaries -. 274 

General Description 275 

Old Village Sites 276- 

Uninhabited Modern Village Sites 277 

Old Camp Sites 27ft: 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indiana. 5 

PAGE 

Athapascan 279 

Boundaries 279 

General Description 280 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites 280 

Old Village Sites 281 

Wintun 284 

Boundaries 285 

General Description 288 

Northerly Dialect 289 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites 289 

Old Village Sites 290 

Southerly Dialect 290 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites 290 

Old Village Sites 292 

Old Camp Sites 297 

Sites Not Mentioned by Indians 298 

MOQUELUMNAN 301 

Western Dialect 303 

Boundaries 303 

General Description 303 

Old Village Sites 304 

Old Camp Sites 305 

Southern Dialect 305 

Boundaries 305 

General Description 306 

Coast Division 307 

Old Village Sites 307 

Valley Division 309 

Old Village Sites 309 

Northern Dialect 314 

Boundaries 314 

General Description 315 

Putah Creek Division 316 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites 316 

Old Village Sites 316 

Lower Lake Division 317 

Old Village Sites 317 

Costanoan 318 

Glossary 319 

Bibliography 330 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indiana. 



THE ETHNO-GEOGRAPHY OF THE POMO 
AND NEIGHBORING INDIANS. 



INTRODUCTION. 

This paper and the accompanying maps have been prepared 
from notes made chiefly during 1903, but in part during 1904 
and 1906, as part of the work of the Ethnological and Archaeo- 
logical Survey of California, conducted by the Department of 
Anthropology of the University of California through the mu- 
nificence of Mrs. Phoebe A. Hearst. 

The chief purpose of the present investigation has been to 
establish the aboriginal territorial boundaries of the Porno lin- 
guistic stock, and to determine the number of dialects of this 
stock, their relationships one to another, the exact limits of the 
area in which each was spoken, and the locations of the various 
ancient and modern villages and camp sites. Also, as environ- 
ment is a very potent factor in the life of every primitive people, 
the topography and natural resources of the region have been 
examined in order to have a knowledge of the surroundings of 
the people under consideration before passing to a study of the 
various phases of their culture. The territories of the Yuki and 
Athapascan stocks on the north and of the Northerly Wintun on 
the northeast of the Porno territory have been investigated and 
their limits and subdivisions determined only in so far as their 
inhabitants were in some direct relation with the Porno. The 
fullest information possible has, however, been obtained con- 
cerning all the territory lying between the Porno area and San 
Francisco Bay, as also concerning the Southerly Wintun ter- 
ritory. 

In order to accomplish this investigation, much traveling and 
field work have been necessary, as the Porno now living, as well 



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8 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

as the Indians of other stocks adjacent to them, are gathered into 
a number of villages ranging in population from a few indi- 
viduals to about one hundred, and separated from one another 
in many cases by considerable distances which must be traveled 
by stage or other conveyance through the mountains. All but 
one of these villages were visited at least once, and as many as 
possible of the Indians questioned concerning the sites of their 
former villages and camps and the boundaries of the territory 
held by the people speaking their respective dialects. In this 
manner the boundaries between dialects and linguistic stocks 
were ascertained from the people on both sides of them, and in 
many cases these were corroborated by neighboring people of 
other dialects or stocks. Thus the limits of each stock and its 
dialects were definitely established in most places. It has, how- 
ever, been impossible to obtain full information concerning cer- 
tain boundaries, especially of territories not actually inhabited ; 
and in such cases a probable boundary has been indicated on the 
maps and in the text. In most cases it has been possible to locate 
with reasonable exactness the sites of old villages and camps, and 
the cases in which such locations are doubtful have been noted in 
the text. 

In order to determine definitely the various dialects of the 
several linguistic families into which the people dealt with in the 
present paper are divided, vocabularies were taken from as many 
individuals as possible, thus giving material from many sources 
for the determination of lexical and phonetic relationships. 

In giving the locations of the various village and camp sites, 
as also of the stock and dialect boundaries, the Indians refer not 
only to the present white towns but also to a very great extent 
to water courses, mountains, and various other natural features 
of the country, and it has therefore been necessary to prepare 
maps which should be as correct as possible as bases upon which 
to indicate these locations. This, however, has been a very diffi- 
cult matter, as the existing maps of this region vary greatly from 
one another in such details. The accompanying maps are the 
results of comparisons of the existing maps of this region, and 
will be found to differ from some of them in minor points, for in 
addition to comparing the various state and county maps avail- 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Geogtapky of the Porno Indians. 9 

able it has been possible to add a few minor details from actual 
observations in the field. 

Information concerning the locations of former village sites 
has in almost every case been obtained from more than one in- 
formant. No attempt has been made to visit all of these loca- 
tions, for in the majority of cases there would be nothing to 
indicate the site, especially if it had been abandoned for a con- 
siderable length of time. The only landmarks left by an old 
village, the dance-house and sweat-house pits, become filled in the 
course of comparatively few years; and as the Indians, at least 
of the Porno stock, of this region formerly practiced cremation, 
burning not only the dead but also all their property, the evi- 
dences of former habitation are soon lost. All statements, there- 
fore, concerning the locations of former villages, as well as 
regarding inter-stock and inter-dialectic boundaries, are made 
upon the authority of Indian informants, and are not based on 
direct observations of the writer unless so stated or obviously the 
case. 

The statements as to the numbers of buildings and inhabitants 
at the various present villages are based on enumerations made 
chiefly during 1903, and, while these are numbers which are 
never constant for any length of time, they are practically correct 
for the present date. 

Thanks are due to Professor A. L. Kroeber, who has super- 
vised the work and has supplied information concerning the 
various Yuki dialects, and to Professor P. E. Goddard, who has 
furnished information concerning the Athapascans. Thanks are 
also due to Professor W. E. Ritter for the identification of shells 
used by the Indians, to Professor W. L. Jepson for information 
on the botany of this area, and to Professor W. C. Morgan for 
information concerning the chemical purity of the Stony Creek 
salt. 



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10 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION. 

The territory included in the present investigation and shown 
on the accompanying maps lies immediately north of San Fran- 
cisco Bay and covers Marin, Sonoma, Napa, Solano, Yolo, and 
Lake, together with the greater portions of Mendocino, Glenn, 
and Colusa counties, California. It extends about one hundred 
and thirty miles north and south, and about one hundred miles 
east and west. It reaches from the shore-line of the ocean to the 
Sacramento river, thus lying chiefly within what is known to 
geographers as the Coast Range mountains. This portion of the 
Coast Range, however, consists of two fairly distinct ranges of 
mountains. One of these, which has neither a name given to it 
by geographers nor one in common local use, may be here desig- 
nated as the outer range of the Coast Range, and extends along 
the immediate shore-line of the ocean. This range is compara- 
tively low, and varies from eight to twenty miles in width. The 
other, which may be designated as the inner or main range of 
the Coast Range, lies along the western border of the Sacramento 
valley, and varies from twenty to sixty miles in width. Between 
and through these mountains, within the territory described, flow 
many rivers and smaller streams, such as Russian river and the 
headwaters of Eel river, also Stony, Cache, Putah, and other 
large creeks which drain into the Sacramento river, and the 
numerous rivers and creeks flowing directly into the ocean. 
These streams water many fertile, sheltered valleys, each of 
which formerly contained one or more Indian villages. In addi- 
tion to these valleys included within the ranges of the Coast 
Range mountains, the present investigation also covers the south- 
ern part of that portion of the broad Sacramento valley which 
lies west of the Sacramento river. 

CLIMATE. 

The climate of this region is varied. Along the coast-line 
the climate is very mild, the temperature rarely rising above 
eighty degrees Fahrenheit in summer or falling to the freezing 
point in winter. The entire immediate coast-line is subject to 



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1908] Barrett. — The EtHno-Oeography of the Porno Indians. 11 

frequent heavy fogs which tend to maintain a constant even 
temperature. All along the coast, particularly in the regions 
about Point Arena and Point Reyes, there are at certain seasons 
heavy winds, usually from the northwest; but as a whole the 
climate along the immediate coast-line is very mild and equable 
at all seasons. The average annual rainfall ranges from about 
twenty or thirty inches in the southern portion of the area to 
forty or more in the northern portion. 1 

The western slope of the range of low mountains which ex- 
tends along the entire length of the coast-line has practically the 
same climate as the immediate shore, except that the rainfall is 
a little greater and snow falls occasionally during the winter. 

The eastern slope of this range has the climate of the region 
between the inner and outer Coast ranges. In this interior valley 
region, consisting of the valleys of Russian river, upper Eel river, 
and affluent streams, there are greater differences of temperature 
between summer and winter than on the coast, the mean maxi- 
mum in summer being ninety or ninety-five and the mean 
maximum in winter about sixty degrees Fahrenheit. On rare 
occasions the temperature in summer rises as high as one hun- 
dred and ten degrees; while in winter it often goes below the 
freezing point. The mean annual rainfall is from thirty to forty 
inches in the lower portions of the area, and somewhat more at 
higher elevations. Snow is rare in the valleys, hardly ever fall- 
ing more than three or four times in a season and then only very 
lightly, while several years may pass without any. The region 
about Clear lake has practically the same climate as the valley 
region. 

The higher peaks of the surrounding ranges, particularly 
those of the inner or main Coast Range, such as Sheetiron moun- 

1 PraeticaUy nothing has been published concerning the climate of the 
region nnder consideration; but from the climate of San Francisco as 
given in Alexander G. McAdie 's Climatology of California (United States 
Weather Bureau Bulletin L, 1903) some idea may be gained concerning 
the climate of that portion of the region which lies in the immediate 
vicinity of San Francisco bay. The mean annual temperature of San 
Francisco for a period of thirty-one years has been 56.1 degrees Fahren- 
heit, the warmest month being September with a temperature of 60.8 de- 
grees, and the coldest January with a temperature of 50.2 degrees. The 
mean annual rainfall is between twenty and thirty inches. Snow is almost 
entirely unknown, there having been not to exceed ten falls in San Fran- 
cisco during the past thirty years. 



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12 University of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

tain, St. John mountain, Snow mountain, and the Sanhedrin 
range, are often covered with a snow cap until far into the 
summer; while the lower peaks, such as Cobb mountain and 
Mount St. Helena, are usually covered with snow during the 
greater part of the winter. The summer temperature of the 
main Coast Range is somewhat lower, owing to greater elevation, 
than that of the valley region to the west and much lower than 
that of the great Sacramento valley to the east, where the tem- 
perature often rises to one hundred and twenty degrees. The 
rainfall is also greater in the main Coast Range than in the 
Sacramento valley, varying between twenty and forty inches in 
the mountains and between ten and twenty in the valley. 

FLORA. 

More or less timber is found in all parts of this area. The 
mountains along the coast are covered almost continuously from 
Mount Tamalpais, on the northern shore of San Francisco Bay, 
northward with a dense forest of redwood, Sequoia sempervirens. 
In this redwood belt and almost everywhere else in the mountains 
of the region the Douglas spruce, Pseudotsuga taxifolia, is very 
abundant. At the higher elevations of the inner or main Coast 
range sugar pine, Pinus Lambertiana, is found to a limited ex- 
tent; while one of the most characteristic and common trees of 
the lower elevations of the same mountains is the "digger" pine, 
Pinus Sabiniana. The yellow pine, Pinus ponderosa, is fairly 
common. 

The entire region abounds in oaks of many kinds, and it is 
from these that the chief supply of vegetable food of the Indians 
was derived, the acorns answering in the aboriginal culture of 
the region to wheat among civilized peoples. Throughout the 
valleys back from the coast one of the most common and striking 
trees is the valley white oak, Quercus lobata, which in former 
times studded the floor of almost every valley with large wide- 
spreading trees. This oak formerly provided a great part of the 
food of the Indians, not only on account of its abundance and 
accessibility, but also because of the excellent flavor of the acorns. 
Among the other oaks which are of importance to the Indians 
are: the California black oak, Q. Californica; the Pacific post 



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1908] Barrett.— Tk* BtkmhO^ograpkjf of the Porno India**. IS 

oak, Q. Garry ana; the tan-bark oak, Q. densi flora; and the maul 
oak, Q. chrysolepis. 

The madrona, Arbutus MengiesH, and the buckeye, Aetculus 
Calif omica, are common in the foothills and canyons throughout 
the region. Along the streams the pepperwood or California 
laurel, UmbeUularia Calif 'arnica, is common and is much used by 
the Indians. Three species of willow, Salix, are found along the 
streams. One of these, Salix argyrophyUa, is of particular im- 
portance to the Indians as a basket material. Groves of alder, 
Alnus rhombifoUa, are found along the larger mountain streams 
and near springs, but rarely along the larger streams in the open 
valleys. 

The wild grape, Vitis Calif omica, occurs almost invariably 
accompanying the alder groves. It is also found along the 
streams throughout the region, climbing upon almost every sort 
of tree. Among the most common shrubs are the different species 
of manzanita, Arctostaphylos, and the poison oak, Bku$ diver* 
siloba. 

In addition to the fruits of the trees and shrubs of the region 
the Indians formerly made use of the many smaller plants both 
as foods and medicines. The seeds of many grasses and flower- 
ing plants were used for food ; and various species of Trif olium 
and Compositae were eaten as greens. Not the least important 
article of food was the bulbs of the various species of lilies, which 
are perhaps more abundant in this region than in almost any 
other part of the state. At present these aboriginal foods are 
comparatively little used. 

FAUNA. 

While this region has been settled by the whites so long that 
little idea may be had from observation concerning the abun- 
dance and variety of game which the Indian formerly counted as 
a resource, there are still areas where deer are fairly plentiful 
and where a mountain lion or black bear is occasionally found. 
Since the coming of firearms, the elk, formerly very plentiful, 
and the grizzly, the only animal much feared by the Indians, 
have entirely disappeared. Though the larger wolf has also 



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14 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

disappeared the coyote has not. This interesting character of 
Indian mythology is still present, though in diminished numbers. 
The lynx is still found frequently. Smaller animals such as 
raccoons, civets, rabbits, squirrels, and others are also abundant. 
Water mammals have almost all disappeared. 

Among the birds which are of importance to the Indians, the 
two species of so-called quail, the valley quail, Lophortyx Cali- 
fornicus; and the mountain quail, Oreoriyz pictus, are among 
the first. Another is the California woodpecker, Melanerpes 
formicivorus. These three species are common throughout the 
region. Along the coast there occur the usual species of water 
birds, and certain of these, such as ducks, herons, loons, and 
others, are found in greater or less numbers about Clear lake 
throughout the year. Various hawks and the turkey buzzard are 
common throughout the region, and in former times the condor, 
or California vulture, was also to be found. The various species 
of smaller birds are yet plentiful. 

The usual California species of salt-water fishes are abundant 
along the coast, as are also various common species of molluscs, 
among which the mussel is the most esteemed by the Indians. 
In the waters of the Clear lake region there are several species 
of fresh-water fish, which form one of the chief sources of food 
of the Indians there. The rivers and smaller streams are stocked 
with trout and other small fish, and in season salmon are plen- 
tiful, particularly in the streams which flow directly into the 
ocean. 

INHABITANTS. 

Before the time of white settlement this territory was inhab- 
ited by Indians speaking seventeen more or less distinct dialects 
representing five linguistic stocks : the Porno, Yuki, Athapascan, 
Wintun, and Moquelumnan. These people lived in villages, for 
which the name rancheria, used by the early Mexican settlers, has 
come into common use. Each of these communities was inde- 
pendent of the others, and corresponded, in being the principal 
political unit existing among these people, to the tribe in the 
eastern part of the continent; but was by no means equivalent 



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1908] Barrett.— Tks Etlmo-Qoogrmpky of the Pome India—. 15 

to it in size and organization. 1 * There were no clans or totemie 
groups. There was no chief in the commonly accepted sense of 
the term. Among the Porno at least there were captains, as they 
are at present called, who had certain very limited authority, but 
acted more in the capacity of advisors to those under them than 
as dispensers of justice or as governors. These captains were of 
two classes, the ordinary or lesser captains, called in the Central 
Porno dialect mala'da tcayedQl, 1 * or surrounding captains; and 
the head captains, called tcayedttt bate', or big captains. A leaser 
captain looked after the welfare of all those directly related to 
him; and the result was that there were usually, though not 
always, as many captains in each community as there were par- 
tially distinct groups of individuals in that community. These 
lesser captains formed a kind of council which looked after the 
general welfare of the community at large. From among these 
lesser captains a head captain was chosen by the people at large, 
whose chief duties were to arrange for and preside over cere- 
monials, welcome and entertain visitors from other villages, 
council with the lesser captains as to proposed measures for the 
communal welfare, and particularly to give good advice to the 
peoj)le in general by means of discourses both at times of gath- 
erings for various purposes and at other times. The head cap- 
tain had slightly more authority than the lesser captains, though 
so far as conducting the affairs of government was concerned 
there must be a unanimous agreement among the captains before 
any particular project affecting the public good could be carried 
out, and all such action was influenced in the greatest measure 
by public opinion. While the office of head captain seems to 
have been entirely electoral, that of lesser captain was heredi- 
tary, passing from an incumbent to the family of his sister 
nearest his own age, kinship and descent here being in the female 
line, a man's real descendants being the children of his sister 
instead of himself. If he had no sisters, the captainship went 
to one of his own children or could under certain conditions be 

u Among the Yuki and the Athapascans this is not strictlj true as there 
appears to have been some approach to a loose tribal organisation among 
each. See the section below dealing in detail with the geographj and vil- 
lages of the Yuki. 

lb The sound values of letters used in Indian terms are given below in 
treating of the linguistic relationships of these stocks. 



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16 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

passed to other relatives, or even to the family of an intimate 
friend It was customary for a man at the approach of old age, 
or if incapacitated for any other reason, to abdicate, there being 
a considerable ceremony upon the occasion of the inauguration 
of his successor. Otherwise the office passed to his successor at 
the time of his death, the ceremony being conducted by another 
captain in the same manner as in the case of an abdication. As 
before stated, these captains were governed in the greatest meas- 
ure by public opinion and had very little absolute authority. 
They had the power to keep order at ceremonials and other gath- 
erings, and it was their duty to assist in the settling of disputes 
between individuals in so far as persuasion might aid in the 
adjustment. In cases of war, which almost always partook more 
of the nature of feuds than of open wars, a captain of the one 
side had the right to arbitrarily attempt to end the strife by 
sending to the captain of the other side a present of beads or 
other valuables with the statement that he desired peace and 
considered it time that the war should end. It was not actually 
incumbent upon the captain of the other side to accept the pres- 
ent, but it was rarely refused, as he considered himself morally 
bound to accept, and to return a present of like value. In almost 
all other matters, however, and particularly in matters pertaining 
to personal rights, the greatest possible independence of the in- 
dividual is found, there being almost no attempt at governmental 
control in such matters. • 

The people of a community possessed exclusive hunting, fish- 
ing, and food-gathering rights in the lands adjacent to their 
village, their claims being usually well understood and their 
rights respected by the people of neighboring villages. The 
village, thus holding as a community not only the site but also 
the hunting and food-gathering lands controlled by it, consti- 
tuted about the only political division.* 

In connection with this matter of government, as also in a 

consideration of the probable population of the region, there are 

certain areas in which the accompanying maps at first sight may 

'The name rancheria will here be used to designate a village com- 
munity with its territory. In speaking of inhabited modern villages the 
term is, however, used in its commonly accepted local sense to designate 
the village alone. 



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1908] Bamtt.— The Btkmc-Qeognpky of the Porno I nterns. 17 

be misleading. These are the several regions in which there are 
unusual numbers of old Tillage sites clustered in small areas, as 
about Clear lake and along Russian river about Healdsburg and 
between Hopland and Ukiah. These old village sites were, how- 
ever, not all inhabited simultaneously, and the numbers of indi- 
viduals at each differed very materially. Each community, as 
has been said, controlled a certain definite section of the country, 
the people of the community confining themselves very strictly 
to this and permitting no trespassing upon it by the people of 
other communities. These people did not, however, confine them- 
selves to a single village site within this area but moved about as 
occasion demanded. These moves were for various reasons. In 
case of the death of a number of individuals within a short 
period from contagion or other cause, or if the particular site 
inhabited was found to give bad luck in any way, or in case the 
supply of a particular sort of food became short in the imme- 
diate vicinity, and for various other reasons, it might be deemed 
advisable to move to a new site. The distance to which a com- 
munity moved was usually very short, never more than a few 
miles, and frequently less than a mile. This site might be occu- 
pied for many years, or it might be abandoned within a short 
time. Old sites might be reoceupied, and it was not unusual for 
part of the inhabitants of one of these villages to leave and estab- 
lish a separate village at a short distance from the old one. In 
such a case there were the usual captains and government, but 
it seems that, at least for a time after the establishment of this 
new village, both would be looked upon as parts of the same 
community, the inhabitants of each village attending ceremonies 
and other gatherings held at the other, not as guests, but as if 
actually living at the village where the gathering was held. Also 
in some of these areas there appear almost no uninhabited mod- 
ern village sites, while in those areas about which more definite 
information is obtainable there are many. This is due to the 
fact that except with especially good informants it has been 
impossible to determine the relative ages of the sites, it being 
usually maintained that all the sites mentioned were inhabited 
prior to the settlement of the country. 

It has been difficult to obtain explicit information as to which 



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18 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 

villages were simultaneously occupied, and the periods and se- 
quence of occupation of others, as also information concerning the 
relative sizes of the various villages. In fact it has been impos- 
sible to determine even approximately these points except in the 
cases of a very few limited areas, owing to the early occupation 
of the greater portion of the territory under consideration by 
either Spanish or American settlers and the consequent change 
of conditions. In the Big valley region on the southern shore of 
the main body of Clear lake there seem to have been three dis- 
tinct groups of people or community units: the kflLa'napd, ka- 
be'napo, and li'leek, occupying simultaneously separate village 
sites and holding each its definite portion of the lake-shore, valley, 
and adjacent mountains. As nearly as can be determined, the 
kuLa'napo occupied the lake-shore and valley from Lafceport east- 
ward to Adobe creek, and their principal village, at least imme- 
diately prior to the coming of the first settlers, was at kacfbaddn. 
The kabe'napo held the region between Adobe creek and a line 
passing about half way between Kelsey and Cole creeks, their 
principal village being bida'miwina. These two communities used 
the same language with perhaps very slight differences in the 
character of the phonetics, and in all other matters such as cul- 
ture they were identical, but they had separate governments and 
were entirely distinct from each other, sometimes even engaging 
in war against each other. There are in both these areas other 
village sites which may have at other times been the sites of the 
principal villages of the areas, but these were not all inhab- 
ited at the same time, and if two of the sites in any one of the 
areas were simultaneously inhabited, the people of both sites were 
considered as belonging to the same community. The third unit 
area of this valley was occupied by the li'leek, a people speaking 
the Yukian Wappo dialect, and extended from the eastern limit 
of the kabe'napo territory, between Kelsey and Cole creeks, east- 
ward beyond the limits of the valley proper to the vicinity of 
Soda bay. The chief village of this people was dala'dano. In 
these three groups are found the nearest approach to tribal units 
among the Porno, though these are obviously far from tribes as 
that term is generally understood with its political significance. 
Though there is here in each case a group of people having a 



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1908] Barrett.— Tk* Btkno-Goograpky of the Porno Indians. 19 

definite group name entirely different from that of their village, 
a condition very unusual for the Porno region, there appears to 
be no political significance attached to this name. The actual 
government of the people referred to by this name appears to 
have been in every way the same as that of the people of the other 
Porno villages where only the place name has been found applied 
to the people. In this respect the Porno differ materially from 
the Yuki of Round valley, among whom an approach to a true 
tribal organization is found, but who on the other hand appear 
to lack anything in the way of a group name. This condition 
among the Yuki is fully treated in the portion of this paper deal- 
ing with that stock. 

In this Big valley area it was also found that the sites of vil- 
lages established since the coming of whites but now abandoned 
were as numerous as the old ones. In thg portion of the Ukiah 
valley occupied by the people speaking the Central dialect, 
namely, that portion extending from the old village of ta'tem 
northward to the northern boundary of the dialect, the ratio of 
the abandoned sites of villages established in recent times to the 
old village sites is much smaller, the numbers being four and 
seven respectively. In this area eftlcadjal and ta'tem seem to 
have been the chief villages and were occupied practically all the 
time, while the others were occupied only by smaller numbers of 
people, or for short periods of time. Cfl'kadjal was the larger of 
the two and was occupied by the people called the yG'kaia. 

Judging then from the known conditions in these localities, 
it seems perfectly proper to suppose that in the areas in which 
the old village sites appear to be so numerous, — as for instance 
the region about Healdaburg, where thirty-seven old village sites 
appear along Russian river from the mouth of Markwest creek 
northward to the vicinity of Healdaburg, and on the lower course 
of Dry creek, a total distance of not over ten miles along the 
river, — a certain proportion of those given by the Indians as old 
sites are in reality sites that were inhabited subsequent to the 
settlement of the country ; and further, that of the remaining old 
sites only a certain proportion were simultaneously inhabited. 
Thus it will be seen that while there is no means of determining 
these proportions, owing to the small number of Indians now 



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20 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

living who have any knowledge of the areas in question, it is clear 
that in such areas the number of community units was probably 
much smaller than the number of old village sites mapped, per- 
haps not over one-third, or even less. 

This is of course true only in the cases of areas where the old 
sites appear to be very numerous, and must not be applied to the 
areas where they are few, for it is probable that in such areas 
only the names of the most important and permanent villages 
have been recalled by informants. This is particularly true of 
such areas as that along the coast from the mouth of Oualala 
river northward, which was if anything a more desirable place 
to live than the coast region of the Southwestern Porno area to 
the south of it, which appears, so far as the accompanying map 
shows, to have been much more thickly populated. 

Naturally there was a certain union of communities possess- 
ing a common language; but this was not a political union and 
was of a very indefinite nature. On the other hand, two or more 
villages speaking quite different dialects, or even belonging to 
entirely different linguistic stocks, might unite in war, ceremo- 
nials, and so on, particularly if their geographical positions 
tended to associate them.* In fact it would seem that geograph- 
ical and topographical causes, quite as much as linguistic affini- 
ties, controlled the associations of villages one with another, but 
that neither factor was at all absolute. 

While the Indians recognized the fact that the people of 
certain other villages spoke the same language as they themselves, 
they did not recognize the people of a linguistic family or dialect 
as a unit, or the territory occupied by a linguistic family or 
dialect as a unit area. Usually each village community was 

* An example of such anion is that of the people speaking the North- 
eastern Porno dialect with the people of the Yuki villages near Hullville 
in Gravelly valley. There is nothing in common between the languages 
of the two peoples; but the topography of the region is snch that com- 
munication was easier for this isolated branch of the Porno with the Yuki 
than with their Porno relatives in the main area of the stock. In this 
ease, however, the affiliation was not entirely a matter of geography, since 
there had been trouble between the Porno of the Northeastern and East- 
ern dialectic groups, and it may have been very much as a matter of pro- 
tection to themselves that the Northeastern Porno united with the Yuki, 
who are generally said to have been more warlike. Nevertheless, they 
did not join themselves to the Wintun, whose language was not further 
removed from their own, and whose territory was nearer and much more 
accessible, than that of the Yuki. 



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1908] Barrett.— The Bthno-Qeograpky of the Porno Indians. 21 

named separately and considered separate from the adjacent 
communities, its name most often being that of the particular 
village site combined with an ending signifying "there," "from 
there/' or "place"; the language there spoken being called the 
language of that particular village without reference to the 
neighboring villages using the same language. As above stated, 
there were also names, such as ktLLa'napft', kabe'napfl, and ydlcaia, 
which were applied to the people themselves, being entirely dis- 
tinct from the village names and retained by the people when 
they moved from one village to another. On the other hand, all 
the people occupying a valley, regardless of their linguistic 
affinities, were sometimes classed together; as, for instance, the 
Potter valley or the Ukiah valley people. Except for the pur- 
poses of designating immediately neighboring villages, there was 
comparatively little specific naming of peoples. The names 
"north people," "east people," "coast people," and so on, were 
used to designate all the pepole living in a given direction or 
within a given area of indefinite limits, regardless of linguistic 
or other relationships. 4 

The same lack of uniformity is shown, but to an even greater 
degree, in the names of topographic divisions. Names were given 
to valleys, mountains, rivers, lakes, rocks, and all important 
places, but these names were only local and were often hardly 
known outside of the immediate neighborhood in which they 
were used. Thus, in going from one village to another only a 
few miles distant, the name of an important river, lake, or moun- 
tain might change entirely, even though the two villages were 
within the same dialectic area. In the case of a stream of any 
considerable length, there was no name given by the people of 
any one locality to it as a whole; but any given portion of it 
received a name which was usually a compound of the word 
river with the name of the section of the country, such as the 
valley, through which it flowed. Very often villages were named 
for the valley or the portion of the valley in which they were 

4 Owing to this total lack of uniformity upon the part of the Indians 
in designating areas and linguistic relationships, it has been impossible 
to find names suited to the purposes of designating dialects and dialectic 
areas. It has, therefore, seemed advisable to select arbitrarily in most 
cases descriptive geographical terms, such as Northeastern, Western, Cen- 
tral, and so on, for these purposes in the present paper. 



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22 University of California Publications in Am. ArcK and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

situated, or for some stream, rock, or other natural feature near 
the site. 5 

CULTURE. 

In addition to certain general ethnological characteristics 
common to the Indians throughout California, the people with 
whom the present investigation is concerned possess features of 
culture, such as styles of dwellings and ceremonial lodges, certain 
implements and certain features of basketry, which serve to unite 
them with their immediate neighbors and to separate them from 
more distant peoples in the same general culture area. In the 
same cultural group with the Indians under consideration should, 
perhaps, be included the Maidu to the east and the main body of 
the Moquelumnan family to the southeast of the Wintun, and 
perhaps others. So little is known of the culture of certain fami- 
lies which are now practically extinct, such as the Yanan in the 
north and the Costanoan and others to the south, that it is im- 
possible to say how far the limits of this culture extended. Little 
ethnological work has as yet been carried on among some of the 
peoples above mentioned, but it seems probable that they have 
many beliefs and myths in common, and that there are general 
resemblances in ceremonials and medicine practices. On the 
other hand, there are other features in which the peoples of this 
group differ very considerably in different localities. 

' This lack of uniformity in the naming of localities, peoples, and topo- 
graphic features was noted by Gibbs in his "Journal of the Expedition 
of Colonel Bedick M'Kee," in 1851. After mentioning the ''bands" seen 
at Clear lake, he says: "They give to the first six tribes collectively the 
name of ' Na-po-bati'n, ' or many houses; an appellation, however, not 
confined to themselves, as they term the Russian river tribes the 'Boh- 
Napo-bati'n, ' or western many houses. The name ' Lu-pa-yu-ma, ' which, 
in the language of the tribe living in Coyote valley, on Putos river, sig- 
nifies the same as Habe-napo, is applied by the Indians in that direction 
to these bands, but is not recognized by themselves. Each different tribe, 
in fact, seems to designate the others by some corresponding or appro- 
priate word in its own language, and hence great confusion often arises 
among those not acquainted with their respective names. They have no 
name for the valley itself, and call the different spots where they reside 
after those of the bands. In fact, local names do not seem to be applied 
to districts of country, though they may be sometimes to mountains. 
Rivers seem to be rather described than named— thus Russian river is 
called here Boh-bid-ah-me, or 'river to the west.' "— Journal of the Ex- 
pedition of Colonel Redick M'Kee, Schoolcraft, Archives of Aboriginal 
Knowledge, in, 110. From the present investigations it appears, how- 
ever, that the people of a given locality take the name of that locality 
rather than that the locality takes the name of the people occupying it. 



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1908] Barrett.— TU Btkno-Qooarmpky of the Porno Indians. 28 

In the territory included within the limit* of the accompany- 
ing maps there are regions which differ materially in climate, 
topography, and, in what is even more important, flora and 
fauna. To these variations in environment very many of the 
differences in culture may be traced. In fact they, much more 
than differences of language, govern culture; for a particular 
feature of culture often extends through portions of two or more 
linguistic stocks which happen to lie within an area with a par- 
ticular environment. 

As has been shown, a large part of the territory under con- 
sideration lies within the ranges of the Coast Range mountains. 
These ranges of mountains, with their general northwesterly- 
southeasterly trend, quite definitely separate the larger topo- 
graphic divisions, each with its special features of climate, flora, 
and fauna; and, since culture here as elsewhere is to a great 
extent governed by environment, these topographic divisions may 
be taken as the basis of classification of the special cultural divi- 
sions or regions. The divisions thus made, which form long and 
narrow, north and south areas, may be designated as follows: 
the coast region, a narrow shelf of land immediately adjacent to 
the shore of the ocean; the redwood belt, covering the heavily 
timbered mountain range which closely follows along the coast- 
line and has here been designated as the outer range of the Coast 
Range mountains; the valley region, consisting of the drainage 
basins of Russian river, upper Eel river and affluent streams, and 
the portion of the Sacramento valley included within the limits 
of this investigation ; and the lake region, lying about Clear lake, 
and entirely within the inner or main range of the Coast Range. 
These topographical areas do not, however, correspond exactly 
to the regions of similar culture. The mountains along the coast- 
line are not forested south of a point a few miles south of the 
mouth of Russian river, and the lake region does not extend 
through all the portion of the inner or main Coast Range in- 
cluded in the present work. The portions of the main Coast 
Range north and south of the lake region therefore, as also the 
unforested southern portion of the range along the coast, are, so 
far as culture is concerned, classed with the valley region. Other- 
wise, however, the special characteristics of culture are confined 
quite strictly to the topographic divisions. 



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24 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

The coast region is, strictly speaking, confined to a narrow 
shelf of habitable land varying up to five miles in width, and, 
in elevation, from sea level at the few sand beaches, to several 
hundred feet along the cliffs. This narrow shelf of open country 
together with the adjacent mountains was sufficient to provide 
the vegetable food used by a large population. However, the 
chief source of food of this region was the ocean, where fish and 
molluscs of all kinds abounded. The redwood forest extended 
to the edge of this coastal shelf, and it was from the redwoods 
that the people of the coast region obtained their supply of build- 
ing material and, to a certain extent, their material for clothing. 
The houses in the coast region were built chiefly of slabs of red- 
wood bark and wood which were leaned together against a ver- 
tical center pole to produce a building of conical form. These 
houses could not, of course, be built very large on account of the 
material used ; but they were very warm and serviceable. The 
inner bark of the redwood, shredded and attached to a girdle, 
was used by the women as a skirt. There was no form of boat 
used along the coast. Redwood or other logs of suitable size were 
lashed together and made a serviceable raft, which was used not 
only on tide water of the many streams which empty into the 
ocean along this stretch of coast, but also for short journeys out 
from land, to sea-lion rocks and other rocks where game and 
molluscs might be had. Certain specialized forms of implements 
such as the elk-horn wedge used in obtaining the bark slabs for 
building purposes, and a specialized form of dip net, were char- 
acteristic of this coast region as a result of environment. While 
the basketry of the Porno is essentially the same throughout the 
entire area occupied by the family, there is one material, the root 
of the bracken, which is used more particularly on the coast than 
in the interior. 

The redwood belt, the area of dense redwood forest on the 
range of mountains immediately along the coast, was not much 
inhabited by the Indians, the only settled portions being the more 
open parts of the mountains and the few valleys along the eastern 
border of the belt. The Indians inhabiting these valleys usually 
built houses of the same sort as those of the coast division, and 
in other respects their mode of life resembled that of the coast 



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1908] Barrett.— The Bthmo-Qeography of the Porno Indian* 25 

people, so that, on the whole, they should probably be classed 
with them. 

From the point of view of culture, the valley region comprises 
the valleys of upper Eel river, Russian river, Petaluma, Sonoma, 
and Napa creeks, and the portion of the Sacramento valley in- 
cluded in this investigation; thus including, as before stated, 
somewhat more than what topographically constitutes the valley 
region. While the name valley region is given to this area it 
must be remembered that it is only a name. Within it there are 
many mountains of considerable height, and the greater portion 
of the area is covered with ranges of hills of varying heights; 
but the valleys were practically the only portions permanently 
inhabited. This area is a large one, and there are within it con- 
siderable differences of climate; but in general the character of 
the country, and to a great extent the flora and fauna, are uni- 
form. Perhaps the most striking cultural feature of this region 
is the grass-thatched house. In ground plan this house was as 
a rule rectangular or circular; sometimes, however, it was built 
in the form of an L. A framework of poles was erected, the 
poles being planted in the ground and brought together and 
bound along a horizontal ridge-pole at the top. This framework 
was then covered with a thatch of long grass, each row of the 
thatch being held in place by a horizontal pole which was cov- 
ered by the next higher row. In this manner a good water-proof 
structure was obtained, but it could usually be used for only one 
season. This was the winter house — the permanent structure. 
In the heat of the summer months it was the custom to camp 
along streams and in other shady places, temporary brush shel- 
ters being usually built for this purpose. In the valley region 
most of the streams are not large enough, particularly during 
the summer months, to float a canoe for any distance, and in 
consequence no canoes or rafts of any sort were made, except 
about the Laguna de Santa Rosa, where tule boats or balsas were 
used. The acorn provided the chief vegetable food, oaks of sev- 
eral species being very abundant throughout the entire valley 
region. Otherwise, all sorts of animals from elk down to squir- 
rels and gophers, and also many species of birds, were depended 
on for food, and there was developed a great variety of devices 



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26 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and BtHn. [Vol 6 

for their capture, which, while not confined to the valley region, 
were more commonly used here than in the others. The form of 
skirt used most generally by the women here was that made of 
the shredded inner bark of the willow. All of these cultural 
features, as will be readily seen, were governed by environment 
— in particular, an open grassy country with many game animals 
and comparative little water and but few fish. 

The lake region, a comparatively small and isolated, though 
evidently thickly populated area, developed some quite special- 
ized ethnological features. Here was found a third form of 
house, built very much like the valley house, but usually ellip- 
tical in ground plan and thatched with the tule rush. The frame- 
work of this was built in the same manner as for the grass house 
of the valley region, and the rows of thatch were secured to the 
frame in a similar manner. From the tule, which grows very 
abundantly about all of these lakes, there were also made mats 
which were spread upon the ground for serving food, or were 
used as beds and for a great variety of other purposes; slings 
with which to kill water birds; rough baskets, used particularly 
about fishing; and boats. The boats, which were really canoe- 
shaped rafts made of bundles of tule, were sometimes twenty or 
more feet in length; and, even if capsized, could scarcely be 
sunk. Qreen tule was shredded and used by the women in mak- 
ing their dress. Pish and water birds were very abundant about 
Clear lake and provided a great portion of the food supply. 
This circumstance led to the development of several specialized 
implements, some of which were not used elsewhere in the terri- 
tory here treated of. There were special nets for catching ducks 
and coots, a long-poled dip-net for deep-water fishing, and a 
special form of basketry fish trap. 

The cultural features typical of the several divisions are not 
confined exclusively to them and may be found outside of the 
general territory here considered ; but, within this territory, the 
several divisions made on cultural lines are fairly well defined 
and their characteristics, especially so far as governed by environ- 
ment, are in each case very constant. 

An ethnological line of division independent of the four 
topographic-cultural regions described, and forming the basis of 



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1908] Barrett. — The Bthno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 27 

a second separate grouping, passes through the northern portion 
of the territory under consideration in a general east and west 
direction. This division corresponds more nearly than the pre- 
ceding one to the linguistic divisions. This east and west line 
begins on the coast at the northern Porno boundary and sepa- 
rates the Coast Yuki and Athapascans from the Porno, the Yuki 
proper from the Yukian Huchnom and the Northeastern or Sac- 
ramento valley Porno, and the Northerly Wintun from the North- 
eastern Porno and the Southerly Wintun. The northern division 
thus includes the Oast Yuki, Athapascan, Yuki proper, and 
Northerly Wintun areas. The southern division includes the 
Porno, Yukian Huchnom, Yukian Wappo, Southerly Wintun, 
and Moquelumnan areas. This division is not strictly linguistic, 
however, since not only the Wappo who are well to the south but 
also the Huchnom who are immediately adjacent to the Yuki 
proper and would naturally be expected to be most similar to 
them culturally, have well marked cultural affinities with the 
Porno ; and the cultural differences between the Northerly and 
the Southerly Wintun, whose dialects are not radically dissim- 
ilar, are also quite marked. This distinction of a northern and 
a southern cultural area is based on very general differences in 
the mode of life, as also in the implements, basketry, and other 
articles manufactured by the people of the respective areas. 
These two more general cultural divisions are not so self-evident 
as the topographic-cultural areas previously described, and differ 
from them in not being due directly to the influences of environ- 
ment. 

HISTORY. 

EXPLORATIONS. 

The early history of California is very intimately connected 
with that of Mexico, of which country the state was a part for 
three hundred years. It owes its early discovery to the desire, 
not only of Spanish but also other navigators, to discover a sup- 
posed northern passage connecting the Atlantic and Pacific 
oceans. With this object in view Cortes, immediately after his 
conquest of Mexico, then called New Spain, sent out several ex- 
peditions, one of which, in 1534, discovered the peninsula of 



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28 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol.6 

Lower California. Eight years later Cabrillo reached what is 
now the bay of San Diego, and to him belongs the honor of the 
discovery of California, then called Alta California. He sailed 
on northward, making frequent landings and finding the Indians 
very hospitable, to a point nearly opposite San Francisco, and 
after his death his pilot Bartolomg Ferrello proceeded as far north 
as Cape Blanco in Oregon; but he made no landings along the 
coast and left no record of the Indians. 

From Sir Francis Drake comes the first record of the Indians 
north of San Francisco bay. Drake, having been attacked by 
Spaniards in the West Indies in 1567, determined to obtain re- 
dress by attacking the Spanish colonies and commerce of Amer- 
ica. His second privateering expedition was directed against the 
western coast of America, where, after over a year of successful 
treasure hunting, his vessel was laden with spoil and he deter- 
mined to seek the northern passage around North America as a 
route for his return to England. He therefore sailed northward, 
keeping well out at sea, until he encountered such cold and 
stormy weather that he was obliged to turn eastward and come 
to land, which he reached near Cape Blanco in Oregon. From 
here he coasted southward and finally anchored, June 17, 1579, 
in a bay just south of Point Reyes, # where he remained until 
July 28. 

The following account of Drake's stay in this locality is the 
earliest record of the Indians of this region, and antedates the 
Spanish mission records of these people nearly two hundred 
years. 

4 ' Next Day after their coming to Anchor in the Harbour afore- 
mentioned, the Natives of the Country discovering them, sent a 
Man to him in a Canoe with all Expedition, but began to speak 
to them at a great distance, but approaching nearer, made a long 
solemn Oration, with many Signs and Gestures after their man- 
ner, moving his Hands and turning his Head ; and after he had 
ended with great Shew of Respect and Submission, returned 

•The accounts of this voyage are not sufficiently explicit in the de- 
scriptions of this bay to remove ail doubt as to its exact location. Some 
who have investigated the subject hold that Drake entered San Francisco 
bay, but the majority are of the opinion that it was the small bay, known 
as Drake's bay, which is shut in by the southward and eastward projection 
of Point Reyes. 



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1908] Barrett.— This Bthno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 29 

again to Shoar. He repeated the Ceremony a second and third 
Time; bringing with him a Bunch of Feathers, like those of a 
black Crow, neatly placed on a String, and gathered into a round 
Bundle, exactly cut, equal in length, which (as they understood 
afterwards) was a special Badge worn by the Head of the Guard 
of the King's Person. He brought also a little Basket made of 
Bushes, full of a Herb called Tobah, which tied to a sort of Rod 
he cast into their Boat. The General intended instantly to have 
recompenced him, but could not perswade him to receive any 
thing, except a Hat thrown out of the Ship into the Water re- 
fusing any thing else, though it were upon a Board thrust off to 
him, and so presently returned. After this their Boats could 
row no way, but they would follow them, seeming to adore them 
as Gods. 

"June 21, their Ship being leaky, came near the Shoar to 
land their Goods, but to prevent any Surprize, the General sent 
his Men aahoar first, with all Necessaries for the making Tents, 
and a Fort for securing their Purchase; which the Natives ob- 
serving, came down hastily in great Numbers, with such Weapons 
as they had, as if angry, but without the least thought of Hos- 
tility; for approaching them they stood as Men ravished with 
Admiration at the Sight of such things as they had never before 
heard nor seen, seeming rather to reverence them as Deities, than 
to design War against them as mortal Men, which they discov- 
ered every Day more clearly, during the whole Time of staying 
among them. Being directed by Signs to lay down their Bows 
and Arrows, they immediately obeyed, as well as the rest, who 
came continually to them; so that in a little while there were a 
great Company of Men and Women to confirm this Peace which 
they seemed so willing to agree to, the General and his Men 
treated them very courteously, bestowing on them freely what 
might cover their Nakedness, and making them sensible that they 
were not Gods but Men, and had themselves need of Garments 
to cover their Shame, and persuaded them to put on Clothes, 
eating and drinking in their Presence to satisfy them, that being 
Men, they could not live without it; yet all would not prevail 
to persuade them that they were not Gods: In recompence of 
Shirts, Linnen, Cloth and the like, bestowed on them, they gave 



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30 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 

the General and his Company Feathers, Cawls of Network, 
Quivers for Arrows made of Fawnskins, and the Skins of those 
Beasts the Women wore on their Bodies. 

"Being at length fully contented with viewing them, they 
returned with Joy to their Houses, which are dug round into the 
Earth, and have from the Surface of the ground, Poles of Wood 
set up and joined together at the top like a spired Steeple, which 
being covered with Earth, no Water can enter, and are very 
warm, the Door being also the Chimney to let out the Smoak, 
which are made slopous like the Scuttle of a Ship : Their Beds 
are on the hard Ground strewed with Bushes, with a Fire in the 
midst round which they lye, and the roof being low round and 
close, gives a very great Reflection of Heat to their Bodies. The 
Men generally go naked, but the Women combing out Bulrushes, 
make with them a loose Garment, which ty'd round their middle, 
hangs down about their Hipps: And hides what Nature would 
have concealed : They wear likewise about their shoulders a Deer 
skin with the Hair thereon : They are very obedient and service- 
able to their Husbands, doing nothing without their command or 
consent: Returning to their Houses they made a lamentable 
Howling and Cry, which the English, though three Quarters of 
a Mile distant heard with Wonder, the Women especially ex- 
tending their Voices with doleful Shrieks." 

"Notwithstanding this seemed Submission and Respect, the 
General having experienced the Treachery of other Infidels, pro- 
vided against any Alteration of their mind, setting up Tents, and 
intrenching themselves with Stone walls, which done, they grew 
more secure. Two days after this first Company were gone a 
great Multitude of others, invited by their Report, came to visit 
them, who as the other, brought Feathers, and Bags of Tobah 
for Presents, or rather for Sacrifices, believing they were Gods; 
coming to the Top of the Hill, at the Bottom whereof they had 
built their Fort, they made a stand, where their chief Speaker 
wearied himself, and them with a long Oration, using such vio- 
lent Gestures, and so strong a Voice, and speaking so fast that 
he was quite out of Breath. Having done, all the rest bowed 
their Bodies very low and reverently to the Ground, crying Oh, 
as consenting to all had been said : then leaving their Bows and 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 31 

their Women and Children behind, they came down with their 
Presents in such an awful Posture, as if they had indeed ap- 
peared before a Deity thinking themselves happy to be near 
General Drake, and especially when he accepted what they so 
willingly offered, getting as nigh him as possible, imagining they 
approached a Qod. 

"Mean time the Women, as if frantick, used unnatural Vio- 
lence to themselves, striking dreadfully, and tearing their Cheeks 
with their Nails till the Blood streamed down their Breasts, 
rending their Garments from the upper Parts of their Bodies, 
and holding their Hands over their Heads, thereby to expose 
their Breasts to danger; they furiously threw themselves on the 
Ground, not regarding whether it were wet or dry, but dashed 
their naked Bodies against Stones, Hills, Woods, Bushes, Briars 
or whatever lay in their way, which Cruelty they repeated (yea 
some Women with Child) fifteen or sixteen times together, till 
their Strength failed them thereby, which was more grievous to 
the English to see, than themselves to suffer. This bloody Sight 
ended, the General and his Company fell to Prayers, and by 
lifting up their Hands and Eyes to Heaven, signified that their 
God, whom they sought to worship, was above in the Heavens, 
whom they humbly besought, if it were his Pleasure, to open 
their blind Eyes, that they might come to the Knowledge of 
JESUS CHRIST: While the English were at Prayers, singing 
of Psalms, and reading some chapters in the Bible, they sat very 
attentive, and at the End of every Pause, cried out with one 
voice, Oh I, seeming to rejoice therein, yea, delighted to so much 
in their singing Psalms, that after, when they resorted to them, 
they ardently desired that they should sing. After their De- 
parture they returned all that the General had given them, 
thinking themselves sufficiently happy in having free Access to 
them. 

"Three Days after June 26, the News having spread itself 
farther into the Country, another great Number of People were 
assembled, and among them their KING himself, a Man of 
comely Presence and Stature, attended with a Guard of an hun- 
dred tall stout Men, having sent two Ambassadors before, to tell 
the General their Hioh, or King, was coming; one of them in 



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32 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

delivering his Message spake low, which the other repeated Ver- 
batim with a loud Voice, wherein they continued about half an 
Hour; which ended by Signs they desired some Present to their 
King to assure him of coming in Peace, which the General will- 
ingly granted, and they joyfully went back to their Hioh. A 
while after, their King with all his Train appeared in as much 
Pomp as he could, some loudly crying and singing before him ; 
as they came nearer, they seemed greater in their Actions: In 
the Front before him marched a tall Man of good Countenance, 
carrying the Sceptre, or Mace Royal, of black Wood, about a 
Yard and half long, upon which hung two Crowns, one less than 
the other, with three very long Chains oft doubled, and a Bag of 
the Herb Tobah; the Crowns were of Knit- work wrought cu- 
riously with Feathers of divers Colours, and of a good Fashion, 
the Chains seemed of Bone, the Links being in one chain was 
almost innumerable, and worn by very few, who are stinted in 
their Number, some to ten, twelve, or twenty, as they exceed in 
Chains, are thereby accounted more honourable. Next the 
Sceptre bearer came the King himself, with his Guard about him, 
having on his Head a Knit work Cawl, wrought somewhat like a 
Crown, and on his Shoulders a Coat of Rabbet Skins reaching to 
his Waste. The Coats of his Guard were of the same Shape, but 
other Skins, having Cawls with Feathers, covered with a Down 
growing on an Herb, exceeding any other Down for Fineness, 
and not to be used by any but those about the King's Person, 
who are also permitted to wear a Plume of Feathers on his Head, 
in sign of honour, and the seeds of this Herb are used only in 
Sacrifice to their Gods. After them followed the Common People 
almost naked, whose long Hair tied up in a Bunch behind, was 
stuck with Plumes of Feathers, but in the forepart only one 
Feather like an Hord, according to their own Fancy, their Faces 
were all painted, some White, others Black, or other Colours, 
every Man bringing something in his Hand for a Present: the 
Rear of their company consisted of Women and Children, each 
Woman carrying a Basket or two with Bags of Tobah, a Root 
called Patah (whereof they make Bread, and eat it either Raw 
or Baked), broiled Fishes like Pilchards, the Seeds and Down 
aforementioned, and such other things: Their Baskets are made 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indiana. 33 

of Rushes like a deep boat, and so well wrought as to hold Water. 
They hang pieces of Pearl shells, and sometimes Links of these 
Chains on the Brims, to signify they were only used in the Wor- 
ship of their Gods ; they are wrought with matted down of red 
Feathers into various Forms. 

"General Drake caused his Men to be on their guard what- 
ever might happen, and going into his Fort, made the greatest 
shew possible of Warlike Preparations (as he usually did), so 
that had they been real Enemies they might thereby be discour- 
aged from attempting anything against them. Approaching 
nearer, and joining closer together, they gave a general Saluta- 
tion, and after Silence, he who carried the Sceptre, prompted by 
another assign 'd by the King, repeated loudly what the other 
spake low, their Oration lasting half an hour, at the close whereof 
they uttered a common Amen, in Approbation thereof: Then the 
Bang with the whole number of Men and Women (the little 
Children remaining only behind) came farther in the same Order 
down to the Foot of the Hill near the Fort; When the Sceptre 
bearer, with a composed Countenance, began a Song, and as it 
were a Dance, and was followed by the King and all the rest, but 
the Women, who were silent: They came near in their Dance, 
and the General perceiving their honest Simplicity, let them 
enter freely within the Bulwarks, where continuing awhile sing- 
ing and dancing, the Women following with their Bowls in their 
Hands, their Bodies bruised, and their Faces, Breasts and other 
Parte, torn and spotted with Blood : Being tired with this Exer- 
cise, they by Signs desired the General to sit down, to whom their 
King and others seemed to make Supplication, that he would be 
the King and Governor of their country, to whom they were most 
willing to resign the Government of themselves and their Pos- 
terity; and more fully to declare their meaning, the King with 
all the rest unanimously singing a Song, joyfully set the Crown 
on his Head, enriching his Neck with Chains, offering him many 
other Things, and honouring him with the Title of Hioh, con- 
cluding with a Song and Dances of Triumph, that they were not 
only visited by Gods (which they still judged them), but that 
the great God was become their King and Patron, and they now 
the happiest People in the World. 



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84 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [VoL 6 

"The General observing them so freely to offer all this to him, 
was unwilling to disoblige them, since he was necessitated to con- 
tinue there some time, and to require Belief in many things from 
them not knowing what Advantage it might bring in time to his 
own Country, therefore in the Name and for the Use of Queen 
Elizabeth, he took the Sceptre, Crown and Dignity of that Land 
upon him, wishing that the Riches and Treasures thereof, wherein 
the upper Parts abound, might be as easily transported thither, 
as he had obtained the Sovereignty thereof, from a People who 
have Plenty, and are of a very loving and tractable Nature, seem- 
ingly ready to embrace Christianity, if it could be preach 'd and 
made known to them. These Ceremonies over, the common 
People leaving the King and his Guard mingled themselves 
among them strictly surveying every Man, and enclosing the 
youngest, offered Sacrifices to them with a lamentable Shriek and 
weeping, tearing their Flesh from off their Faces with their Nails, 
and this not the Women only, but old Men likewise were even as 
violent in roaring and crying as they. The English much grieved 
at the Power of Satan over them, shewed all kind of dislike 
thereto by lifting their Eyes and Hands toward Heaven; but 
they were so mad on their Idolitry, that tho' held from rending 
themselves, yet when at Liberty, were as violent as before, till 
those they adored were conveyed into their Tents; whom yet as 
Men distracted they raged for again: Their Madnees a little 
qualified, they complained to them of their Griefs and Diseases, 
as old Aches, shrunk Sinews, cankered Sores, Ulcers, and Wounds 
lately received, wherewith divers were afflicted, and mournfully 
desired Cure for them, making Signs, that if they did but blow 
upon them, or touch their Maladies, they should be healed. In 
pity to them, and to shew they were but Men, they used common 
Ointment and Plasters for their Belief, beseeching God to en- 
lighten their Minds. 

"During their Stay here they usually brought Sacrifices 
every third Day, till they clearly understood the English were 
displeased, whereupon their Zeal abated; yet they continually 
resorted to them with such Eagerness, that they oft forgot to 
provide Sustenance for themselves, so that the General, whom 
they counted their Father, was forced to give them Victuals, as 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geofftaphy of the Porno Indiane. 35 

Muscles, Seals, and the like; wherewith they were extremely 
pleased, and since they could not accept of Sacrifices, they, 
hating ingratitude, forced what they had upon them in recom- 
pence, though never so useful to themselves : They are ingenious, 
and free from Guile or Treachery; their Bows and Arrows 
(which are their only Weapons, and almost all their Wealth) 
they use very skilfully, yet without much Execution, they being 
fitter for Children than Men, though they are usually so strong, 
that one of them could easily carry that a Mile together without 
Pain, which two or three Englishmen there could hardly bear; 
they run very swiftly and long, and seldom go any other Pace : 
if they see a Fish so near Shoar as to reach the Place without 
swimming, they seldom miss it. . 

"Having finished their Affairs the General and some of his 
Company made a Journey up the Country to observe their 
manner of Living, with the Nature and Commodities of the 
Country : They found their Houses such as you have heard, and 
many being fix'd in one Place, made divers Villages: The Inland 
was far different from the Sea shoar, it being a very fruitful 
Soil, furnished with all necessaries, and stored with large fat 
Deer, whereof they saw Thousands in an Herd, and Rabbets of 
a strange kind, having Tails like Rats, and Feet like a Mole, with 
a Natural Bag under their Chin, wherein, after they have filled 
their Belly abroad, they put the rest for Relieving their Young, 
or themselves when they are willing to stay at home. They eat 
their Bodies, but preserve their Skins, of which the Royal Gar- 
ments of the King are made. This Country General Drake 
called Nova Albion, both because it had white Cliffs toward the 
Sea, and that its Name might have some likeness to England, 
which was formerly so called. Before they went hence, the Gen- 
eral caused a Mountain to be erected, signifying that the English 
had been there, and asserting the right of Queen Elizabeth, and 
her Successors, to that Kingdom, all engraven on a plate of 
Brass, and nailed to a great firm Post, with the Time of their 
Arrival, the Queen's Name, and the free Resignation of the 
Country by the King and People into her Hands, likewise his 
Picture and Arms, and underneath the General's Arms. 

"The Spaniards had never any Commerce, nor even set Foot 



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36 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

in this Country, their utmost Acquisitions being many degrees 
Southward thereof; and now the Time of their Departure being 
at hand, the joy of the Natives was drowned in extream Sorrow, 
pouring out woful Complaints and grievous Sighs and Tears, 
for leaving them; yet since they could not have their Presence 
(they supposed them indeed to be mindful of them in their Ab- 
sence) declaring by signs that they hoped hereafter to see them 
again, and before the English were awake, set fire to a Sacrifice, 
which they offered to them, burning therein a Chain of a Bunch 
of Feathers. The General endeavoured by all means to hinder 
their Proceedings, but could not prevail, till they fell to Prayers 
and singing of Psalms, when allured thereby, forgetting their 
Folly, and leaving their Sacrifice unconsumed, and the Fire, to 
go out, imitating the English in all their Actions, they lift up 
their Heads and Eyes to Heaven as they did. On July 23 they 
took a sorrowful Leave of them but loath to part with them, they 
went to the top of the Hills to keep sight of them as long as 
possible, making Fires before, behind, and on each side of them, 
wherein they supposed Sacrifices were offered for their happy 
Voyage." 7 

T Early English Voyages to the Pacific Coast of America (from their 
own, and contemporary English, accounts). Sir Francis Drake.— Out 
West, XVIII, 75-79; Los Angeles, California, 1903. Hakluyt, writing in 
1600, records two much more brief accounts of Drake's voyage and his stay 
at Drake's bay, but these lack the minor, interesting details of the account 
reprinted here. — See Richard Hakluyt, The Voyages, Navigations, Traffiques, 
and Discoveries of the English Nation, III, 440-442, and 737, 738, London, 
1600. In the reprinted edition of Hakluyt 's work (London, 1810) one of 
these accounts appears, Vol. Ill, pp. 524-526. Among more recent publica- 
tions a brief account, giving substantially the same facts, is to be found in 
Theodore H. Hittell's History of California, I, 89-93, San Francisco, 1885. 

From the few Indian words given in the above account no conclusion 
as to the language of the people with whom Drake came in contact can 
be drawn. It may be noted however that among Moquelumnan peoples 
the word signifying captain is hd'ipu, which may be the same as the 
' ' Hioh ' ' given as the name of the king in this account. The expressions 
of assent and pleasure which are here noted are those commonly used not 
only by the Moquelumnan peoples of this region but by the Porno to the 
north of them where such expressions as 6, y6, or Iy6', the expression dif- 
fering with the locality, are heard, as evidences of approval of the senti- 
ment expressed by a speaker, or of satisfaction with the performance of 
a dance. 

Further in this connection it is interesting that the chronicler mentions 
baskets "like a deep boat" which it is to be presumed refers to. the canoe 
shaped baskets made particularly by the Pomo, whose territory lies but a few 
miles north of Point Keyes. Baskets of this specialized form are almost 
entirely unknown in California except among the Pomo and perhaps certain 
of their immediate neighbors. Further, the chronicler mentions that their 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 37 

In 1602 Sebastian Viscaino made a more detailed exploration 
of the California coast than had previously been made and rec- 
ommended that permanent settlements be established. But this 
was not undertaken until 1683, and was not successfully accom- 
plished until 1697, when missions were established on the penin- 
sula of Lower California by Fathers of the Jesuit Order. 

In 1768, the Jesuits, who had fallen greatly into disfavor with 
the government, were expelled from all of the Spanish posses- 
sions, and the missions in Lower California were placed in charge 
of the Franciscan Order. The Franciscans were thoroughly in 
accord with the government, and royal mandates were issued to 
the effect that not only Lower but also Upper, or Alta, California 
should be colonized at the earliest possible time. The civil and 
military authorities were to direct the expeditions, but were to 
be assisted by the Franciscan Fathers; and particular instruc- 
tions were given that the first settlements should be at San Diego 
and Monterey respectively. 

SETTLEMENTS. 

California Missions. 

In pursuance of these mandates, the first expedition left 
Lower California in 1769, the civil and military affairs being in 
charge of Governor Portola, the actual founding of the new 
missions in the hands of Father Junipero Serra. 

Having arrived at San Diego and arranged the preliminaries 
of the settlement to be made there, Governor Portola proceeded 
northward overland to establish the settlement at Monterey, but 
on reaching the site failed to recognize it and finally, in his 
search, passed on as far north as where San Francisco now stands. 



baskets of different forms were ornamented with shell beads and red feath- 
ers. This also points to the Porno culture. Ornamentation with shell beads 
was very rare among other California people and the covering of the entire 
surface of a basket with feathers, or as it is described here ' ' with a matted 
down of red Feathers" was, in aboriginal times so far as is known never 
attempted by any California people other than the Porno. These facts 
therefore point further to the tenability of the belief that Drake's landing 
was somewhere north of San Francisco bay, possibly even north of Point 
Beyes, though Porno of the Southern or Southwestern dialectic area may 
have journeyed down to Drake's bay bringing their boat shaped and orna- 
mented baskets with them, as these are only mentioned in connection with 
the very great gathering of Indians when their so-called king visited Drake. 



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38 



UnwenUy of California Fublications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 



He seems to have taken very little notice of the bay of San Fran- 
cisco or of the inhabitants of the region, but, having satisfied 
himself that he had passed Monterey, returned to San Diego. 
A second land expedition, sent from San Diego in 1770, in con- 
nection with a vessel, succeeded in finding Monterey and estab- 
lished the royal presidio of that name and the mission of San 
Carlos de Monterey. 

The reports which were immediately prepared and sent to the 
authorities in Mexico, setting forth the resources and promise of 
these new possessions, and detailing the founding of the new 
missions, were published, and were so highly gratifying, not only 
to the authorities and populace of Mexico but also to those of 
Spain, that within a short time provision was made for the estab- 
lishment of five new missions, two of which were to be north of 
Monterey. San Francisco was at once named as the site for one, 
but the actual establishment of the mission there did not take 
place until about six years later. 

San Francisco. 

For a short time after its discovery in 1769 San Francisco 
bay was not again visited; but in 1772 a land expedition left 
Monterey for the purpose of exploring it and the surrounding 
country, and with the object of passing around it and reaching 
Point Reyes, where it was supposed the best location for a settle- 
ment would be found. The party passed around the southern 
end of the bay and along the eastern shore as far as Carquinez 
straits, where they were obliged to turn back on account of being 
unable to cross the river. They were, however, greatly impressed 
with the magnitude of the bay and the fertility of the surround- 
ing lands. In 1774 another land expedition was sent which made 
a more detailed exploration of the region ; and in the summer of 
1775 the San Carlos, a paqueboat or barco of not more than two 
hundred tons burden, sailed into the bay and explored its numer- 
ous arms and channels. 

In accordance with orders issued in 1774 by the viceroy of 
New Spain, thirty soldiers with their families and twelve other 
settlers with their families were sent to San Francisco, where 
they arrived on June 27, 1776, and shortly after began work on 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 39 

the buildings of the new mission, known as San Francisco or 
Dolores, or in full, the Mission of San Francisco de Assisi at 
Dolores, which was the sixth of those established in California. 
Here was developed one of the most important early settlements 
and in due time the largest city on the Pacific coast of America. 

In 1804, with the founding of the nineteenth mission, that of 
Santa Inez, the establishment of missions purely for the purpose 
of converting the Indians may be said to have ended. The jegion 
north of San Francisco bay as yet remained almost wholly unex- 
plored and would probably not have been settled from the south 
for many years had it not been for the establishment of a Russian 
settlement from the north. 

Fori Boss (Russian Settlement). 

With the discovery of Alaska by Admiral Behring, in 1728, 
came the knowledge of its great numbers of fur seals and other 
fur-bearing animals ; with the result that in due time the Russian- 
American Fur Company was organized, with a charter which 
gave it a practical monopoly of all the fur trade of the north 
Pacific, as well as the right to take possession of and govern any 
new territory. Having thoroughly established itself in Alaska, 
where it had operated since 1799, the company began to widen 
its influence, and, in 1806 sent a trading expedition to California, 
which returned with such a favorable report of the country that 
it was determined to make a settlement somewhere on its northern 
coast. Accordingly, in 1809, an expedition was sent for the pur- 
pose, and some temporary buildings were erected at Bodega bay, 
about forty-five miles north of San Francisco. Finally, in 1811, 
after a thorough exploration of the coast and the lower course 
of Russian river (called by the Russians the Slavianska), a per- 
manent settlement was located at Fort Ross, about sixteen miles 
north of Bodega bay and eight miles north of the mouth of Rus- 
sian river. This was the first permanent settlement established 
north of San Francisco bay, and was looked upon with much 
disfavor by the Spanish, who, however, were not strong enough 
to do anything but protest, as is shown by the fact that the 
Russians remained at Fort Ross until 1840, when they voluntarily 
withdrew. 



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40 University of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [ VoL 6 

San Rafael. 

At last, probably partly on account of the danger of Russian 
encroachments from Fort Boss and partly on account of the 
unhealthful conditions at the mission of San Francisco, it was 
determined by both the civil authorities and the Franciscans in 
1817 to found an establishment on the northern shore of the San 
Francisco bay, and San Rafael was selected as the site. It seems 
that at first this was not a full mission but was termed an "assis- 
tencia," or branch of San Francisco. A chapel instead of a 
mission church was erected and the establishment was placed in 
charge of a supernumerary of the San Francisco mission. Never- 
theless San Rafael was from the first managed practically as a 
mission and became very prosperous. It was abandoned in 1843, 
nine years after the secularization enforced by the Mexican gov- 
ernment, and the mission properties were sold at auction in 1846. 

Sonoma. 

During the Mexican revolution there was no thought given 
by the Spanish-speaking people of California to the Russian 
settlement at Fort Ross, but in 1823, after Mexican independence 
seemed thoroughly established, attention was again directed to 
the Russians and it was determined to found a new Mexican 
establishment farther to the north. Accordingly, in that year, 
father Jos6 Altimera, after traversing with an escort of soldiers 
the region from where Petaluma now stands to the plains of 
Suisun and making a careful survey of the country, selected 
Sonoma as the most promising site. The building of a mission 
was begun on August 25. It seems to have been for some time 
the desire of the secular authorities to suppress both the San 
Francisco or Dolores and the San Rafael missions, transferring 
all of the Indians there to the new mission at Sonoma, which had 
been called San Francisco Solano, or New San Francisco; but, 
owing to the vigorous objections of the clerical authorities, both 
of the older establishments were allowed to continue. The mis- 
sion at Sonoma was abandoned about 1840, the mission properties 
probably being sold about the same time as those at San Rafael. 
Sonoma, the twenty-first mission founded in California, was the 
last of the old missions actually established and maintained for 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Oeography of the Porno Indian*. 41 

any length of time. In 1827 an attempt was made to found a 
mission at Santa Rosa, and some buildings were erected ; but there 
seems to have been no resident missionary appointed and it is 
unlikely that the work of converting the Indians there ever pro- 
ceeded very far. 

In 1834, the date of the secularization of the California mis- 
sions, a presidio was established at Sonoma and in the following 
year active steps were taken looking toward the settlement of the 
territory to the north and northwest, with the result that in a few 
years many settlers had established themselves throughout the 
more fertile valleys as far north as Ukiah, on the Russian river, 
and Big valley, on the southern shore of Clear lake. These points 
were the northern limits of Mexican settlement in the Coast 
Range mountains. Many of these settlers obtained grants of 
large tracts of land from the Mexican government, some of which 
were confirmed by the United States government after the cession 
of California to the United States. 

American Occupation of California. 

With the year 1840 American immigrants began to cross the 
mountains into California, but these additions to the population 
were very small until the discovery of gold in 1848, after which 
no obstacle seemed too great to be overcome in order to reach the 
west. The result was that within a few years the entire state 
had been settled not only by miners but also by those seeking 
permanent homes and openings for agriculture and trade. It is 
not necessary to detail the settlement of the region immediately 
north of San Francisco bay. It lacked the gold found in some 
other portions of the state and was not, therefore, sought by the 
first immigrants, who were chiefly gold-seekers ; but its settlement 
began shortly after the gold excitement and has continued stead- 
ily up to the present time. This settlement was attended by the 
usual friction between the Indians and the white settlers, with 
the result that the Indians are now dependents, residing on 
ranches by the permission of the owners, or that they have at last 
acquired title to small holdings of land which they own on a 
cooperative plan. 



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42 University of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol 6 

As to the population of this territory at the time of the 
founding of the missions at San Rafael and Sonoma, or in fact 
at any time up to the establishment of the reservations, there is 
no reliable information, but it is certain that the contact with the 
whites greatly decreased it at an early date. Some early settlers 
made estimates of the aboriginal population, but these are only 
estimates and are without doubt in most cases far in excess of 
the actual population. Menefee 8 says: "George C. Tount, the 
first white settler in Napa valley (who arrived here in 1831), 
said that, in round numbers, there were from 10,000 to 12,000 
Indians ranging the country between Napa and Clear lake. Of 
this number he says there were at least 3,000 in Napa County, 
and perhaps twice that number. It is only certain that they were 
very numerous, and that they have mostly disappeared. " 

The first information which may be taken as at all authentic 
is the estimate of Col. Redick MTfee, in 1851, as given by Gibbs* 
in his "Journal of the Expedition of Colonel Redick M'Eee, 
United States Indian Agent, through Northwestern Calif ornia," 
in which he says under date of August 21, 1851 : "The estimates 
made by Colonel M'Eee of the whole number, from the head of 
Russian river down, are as follows: In the valleys of Sonoma 
and the Russian river, 1,200; on Clear lake and the adjacent 
mountains, 1,000 ; on the coast from Port Ross southward to the 
bay, 500." It must be remembered that Colonel M'Eee expe- 
rienced some difficulty in inducing the Indians to assemble or 
even to give in an enumeration on account of the punishment 
inflicted by the United States troops during the previous spring, 
when many Indians about Clear lake and in the upper Russian 
river valley were killed as a result of what is known as the Stone 
and Eelsey massacre. It is therefore very likely that the num- 
bers given are smaller than the actual numbers of Indians in 
these localities at that time. 

As nearly as can be determined the present population, in- 
cluding mixed bloods recognized as Indians, within the limits of 
the territory under investigation is about as follows : 



9 C. A. Menefee, Historical and Descriptive Sketch-Book of Napa, So- 
noma, Lake, and Mendocino, p. 19; Napa City, CaL, 1873. 
• Schoolcraft, m, 112. 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 48 

Porno .. 800 

Yuki .. 40 

Athapascan 50 

Wintun 110 

Moquetamnan „ 35 

Total „ 1,035 

In these estimates there has been no account taken of any Indians 
not residing within the limits of the territory under investigation. 
According to the 1907 agency census there are some over six 
hundred Indians residing on the reservation in Bound Valley, 
which lies just north of the limits of the territory under con- 
sideration. A few Porno, and nearly all the surviving Yuki, over 
two hundred in number, are on the reservation. In respect to 
the Wintun also the number here given takes into account only 
those residing in the portion of the Wintun territory included 
in the accompanying maps. 

Influence of Settlement Upon the Indians. 

With the settlement of California the Indians became grad- 
ually changed in their habits and mode of life. The missions 
were founded ostensibly for the purpose of converting the In- 
dians to Christianity and the missionaries gathered the Indians 
about them at the missions to instruct them in the new faith. 
As a result villages were established near the missions and the 
Indians were gradually pursuaded to adopt Spanish dress and 
manners, as also to speak the Spanish language ; and this influ- 
ence was felt not only by the Indians originally living imme- 
diately about the site of a mission but also by others at greater 
distances who were induced to move to it. At the time of the 
founding of the mission of San Francisco, in 1776, there were no 
Indians at all on the northern end of the San Francisco penin- 
sula. Recent hostilities between those who usually lived here 
and their southern neighbors had resulted in the flight of the 
former to the northern shores of the bay, and to the islands in 
the bay. Under the protection of the mission they soon returned 
and others were gradually brought in, most of them settling in 
the immediate vicinity of the mission, but some along the eastern 
shore of the bay. Among these were some from the region just 



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44 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [ VoL 6 

north of the bay, but it is not likely that a very great number 
were brought from farther north than the section about where the 
town of San Rafael now stands. When the mission at San 
Rafael was founded in 1817, some of the Indians at San Fran- 
cisco were transferred to the new establishment. The number 
originally transferred was, according to Engelhardt, 10 about 230, 
although there seems to be little evidence as to the exact numbers 
transferred either at this time or later. The Indians of the vicin- 
ity of San Rafael, and some from as far north as Santa Rosa, were 
brought into the new mission until the time of the founding of 
Sonoma in 1823, after which the work of converting the Indians 
was extended still farther north. 11 The largest number at San 
Rafael in any one year was 1,140 in 1828," and the largest 
number at Sonoma was 996 in 1832. 1S 

The decree of secularization promulgated by the Mexican 
government in 1833 and executed in 1834 caused the abandon- 
ment of almost all the missions throughout the state within a 
few years thereafter and the consequent dispersion of the In- 
dians, who then returned to their former villages. In 1842 the 
numbers at San Rafael and Sonoma are said to have been reduced 
to 20 and 70 respectively. 14 

It was found necessary by the missionaries to use strong 
measures to preserve order in the villages about the missions and 



"Fr. Zephyrin Engelhardt, O. 8. F., The Franciscans in California, 
p. 440. 

n Concerning the Indians of Sonoma, Engelhardt says, p. 451: "At 
the end of 1824 the mission had 693 neophytes, of whom 322 had come 
from San Francisco, 153 from San Jose', 92 from San Rafael, and 96 had 
been baptized at the mission. By 1830, six hundred and fifty Indians had 
been baptized and 375 buried; bnt the number of neophytes had reached 
only 760. The different tribes of Indians that furnished converts were 
the Aloquiomi, Atenomac, Oonoma, Carquin, Canijolmano, Caymus, Che- 
moco, Chichoyoni, Chochyem, Coyayomi, Joyayomi, Huiluc, Huymen, La- 
catiut, Loaquiomi. Linayto or Libayto, Locnoma, Mayacma, Muticulmo, 
Malaca, Napato, Oleomi, Putto or Putato, Paluomanoc, Paque, Petaluma, 
Suisun, Satayomi, Soneto, Tolen, Tlayacma, Tamal, Topayte, Ululato, 
Zaelom, Utinomanoc." From this list of what Engelhardt calls tribes, 
but which are in reality only names of villages, it will be seen that the 
influence of Sonoma reached as far east as the Sacramento river, as far 
north as Coyote valley on Putah creek, or possibly to the southern end of 
Clear lake, and as far west as Tomales bay. 

" Engelhardt, Op. cit., p. 441. 

u Engelhardt, Op. cit., p. 453. 

14 Robert A. Thompson, Historical and Descriptive Sketch of Sonoma 
County, California, p. 11. 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 45 

to maintain the proper decorum at religions services; but not- 
withstanding the fact that some early writers charge the mis- 
sionaries with cruelty, force was not as a rule resorted to until 
after persuasion had been thoroughly tried, and even then noth- 
ing was done which could be a permanent injury to the offender, 
the missionaries being as a rule apparently very solicitous for the 
physical as well as the spiritual welfare of those under their care. 
As much, however, cannot be said of the military and the settlers 
either of the older Spanish and Mexican times or of the early 
days of the American occupation of the state. The worst treat- 
ment which the Indians received was at the hands of certain men 
who made frequent raids on the rancherias for the purpose of 
capturing Indians to be used on their ranches as vaqueros or 
work-hands, or in their households as servants. Children to be 
used as servants seem to have been chiefly in demand, although 
adults were often taken. In the days of the early Mexican set- 
tlers it was not uncommon for a ranchero with his Mexican 
vaqueros to surround a rancheria, kill any Indians who resisted, 
and then select from the remainder those most suited to his pur- 
pose. After the American occupation these excesses grew even 
worse and there were those who made a regular business of kid- 
napping children and selling them in the settlements about San 
Francisco bay and southward. These captives were virtually 
slaves and while there was not the practice of assembling a large 
number and working them under overseers, as was the case with 
the negroes, they were expected to obey every wish of their mas- 
ters and were sometimes punished severely for disobedience. 
The raids of the early Mexican ranchers rarely if ever extended 
farther north than the villages in the region immediately north 
of San Francisco bay, but those of the later kidnappers went as 
far north at least as Humboldt bay. While the last of these 
excesses were committed not later than about 1860 to 1865, and 
the Indians have been living in peace from oppression of this 
kind for forty or more years, there are still not a few of the old 
people who can tell of their own days of servitude. So far as 
can be learned the Russians at Fort Boss always treated the 
Indians of that region with fairness and consideration. 



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46 Unherrity of California Publications in Am, AroK and Bth*. [Vol 6 

RESERVATIONS. 

As soon as possible after the acquisition of California by the 
United States, the federal government turned its attention to the 
Indians of the newly acquired territory and set about establishing 
reservations for them. 

During the spring of 1851 Colonel Redick M*Kee, accom- 
panied by a small escort of soldiers, started northward from 
Sonoma for the purpose of exploring the country and ascertain- 
ing the condition of the Indian population, with a view to the 
establishment of reservations in the northern part of the state. 
He passed up the Russian river valley, making a short side ex- 
cursion into the Clear lake region, and thence on to the head- 
waters of Eel river, down which stream he passed to Humboldt 
bay. He interviewed as many as possible of the Indians, ex- 
plained to them the purpose of the government in establishing 
reservations, and attempted to induce them to agree to go on to 
reservations when these should be selected. It would seem that 
he tentatively set apart as a reservation an area of considerable 
extent lying along the western and southern shores of Clear 
lake. 15 The greater number of the Indians of the valleys of the 
upper Russian river and those of the Clear lake region agreed to 



u One Indian informant in speaking of the establishment of the reser- 
vation at Clear lake said that Colonel M'Kee made his camp at the Indian 
village of se'dileu and, after making presents to the Indians, told them 
that for all time the village of se'dileu with its surrounding lands should 
be their property and should serve them as a home where they should not 
be disturbed by white settlers. Another informant stated that the site 
of Colonel M'Kee 's camp was the Indian village immediately west of 
cabS'gok and about a quarter of a mile southeast of se'dileu. According 
to this same informant also Colonel M'Kee set apart as a reservation and 
deeded to the captains Hfilyd and PeriS'td of the kuLa'napo* and kabd'napd* 
respectively the portion of the southern shore of Clear lake extending 
from what is now known as McGough slough, which lies about a quarter 
of a mile west of se'dileu, eastward to Cole creek at the foot of Mount 
Kana'ktai or a distance of nearly three miles. The southern limits of 
this reserve could not be remembered by the informant. According to 
his report in Senate Executive Documents, No. 4, 32d Cong., Spec. Sess., 
136-142, 1853, where a full account of this visit to the lake region and the 
treating with the Indians is given, Colonel M'Kee spent three days at the 
camp above referred to, which he called Camp Lupiyuma. During this 
time he had several formal meetings with the captains of the surrounding 
villages with the result that a treaty was finally signed by eight captains, 
and also by certain of the other prominent Indians present, setting apart 
for reservation purposes what he terms in his report all of the Clear lake 
valley proper, which probably refers to the valley now known as Big 
valley on the southern shore of the main body of Clear lake. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indiane. 47 

move on to this reservation as soon as it was formally set apart. 
In view of this agreement he appointed Mr. George Parker Arm- 
strong as a temporary agent, whose duties were to visit the reser- 
vation frequently, to store and distribute any provisions that 
might be ordered for the Indians who had entered into the agree- 
ment, and to collect certain data concerning the Indians living 
along the coast, preparatory to their removal to the reservation. 
No official action, however, seems to have been taken concerning 
this proposed reservation. 



Mendocino Reservation. 

The first definite reservation in this portion of the state was 
what is known as the Mendocino reservation, established in 1856 
under the supervision of Colonel Thomas J. Henley, Superin- 
tendent of Indian Affairs in California. This reservation ex- 
tended along the Mendocino coast from Hare river, a small 
stream about half a mile south of Noyo river, northward to Hale 
creek, bildlrida, about a mile north of Ten-mile river ; thus giving 
a total length of about eleven miles. It extended about three 
miles back from the coast line, thus including a broad belt of 
redwood timber, and containing approximately twenty-five thou- 
sand acres. The first station and permanent headquarters were 
established a short distance north of Noyo river. Sub-stations 
were established as follows : Bald Hill, about three miles north- 
east of headquarters ; Ten Mile, near the mouth of Ten Mile river; 
Culle-Bulle. between Noyo and Hare rivers. Captain H. L. Ford 
was the sub-agent in charge of the reservation and each sub- 
station was in charge of an overseer. At Fort Bragg a company 
of soldiers was stationed to bring Indians to the reservation, and 
to keep peace among those already there. They had not only to 
go out and bring in the Indians from new localities, but also to 
return run-aways to the reservation. In addition to those al- 
ready inhabiting the country in the neighborhood of the reser- 
vation, Indians were brought in from various more distant 



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48 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 

points, 16 with the result that former enemies were brought into 
close contact, and the agent was often obliged to use his authority 
and even to call in the soldiers to prevent hostilities among them. 
Some attempt was made at farming and at educating the Indians ; 
but from the accounts, both written 11 and oral, of visitors to the 
reservation as well as the accounts given by early settlers and 
by Indians who were on the reservation at the time, there were 



" Captain H. L. Ford, after stating that since June, 1856, he had been 
in charge of the Mendocino reservation, says: "When I first went there, 
there were two or three hundred Indians who claimed that as their home; 
they were called Chebal-na-poma, Chedil-na-Poma, and Camebell-Poma; 
since I went there two hundred and fifty Calle-Nameras were moved there 
from the vicinity of Bodega, and they are all there yet; two hundred and 
forty Wappo Indians were moved there from Russian River Valley, from 
the vicinity of Fitch's ranch; one hundred and eighty were moved from 
Bancheria Valley, near Anderson Valley; upwards of two hundred were 
moved from Ukiah Valley; sixty Indians were moved from near the mouth 
of Sulphur Creek— all these Indians were tame Indians; upwards of three 
hundred wild Indians, called Yosul-Pomas, came in of their own accord; some 
time in the winter of one thousand eight hundred and fifty-nine, General 
Kibbe sent two hundred of the Bedwood Indians from Humboldt County ; of 
that number one hundred and eight were sent by order of Superintendent 
Henley to San Francisco; fifty-seven of those Indians are on the reserva- 
tion now, the rest have run away. During the past summer months I 
have received from the officers of Gen. Kibbe and Capt. Jarboe one thou- 
sand and seven Indians; these are from Pitt Biver, Hot Creek, Butte 
Creek, and Feather Biver; those received from Jarboe are all from the 
vicinity of Eel Biver and Bound Valley; they number about two hundred 
and nine or ten." State of California Legislature— Majority and Minor- 
ity Beports of the Special Joint Committee on the Mendocino War, 1860; 
Deposition of H. L. Ford; taken February 22, 1860, pp. 15, 16. 

" G. Bailey, Special Agent Interior Department, reports, November 4, 
1858, to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, as follows: "Notwithstand- 
ing these natural advantages the reservation has not thriven. There are 
but few Indians upon it, seven hundred and twenty-two according to the 
statement of the sub-agent in charge, and a great majority of these could 
in no wise be distinguished from their wild brethren. The whole place 
has an effete decayed look that is most disheartening. I saw it, it is true, 
at an unfavorable season of the year, but there were unmistakable indi- 
cations everywhere that whether considered as a means of civilization, or 
as purely eleemosynary, the system as tried here is a failure. ' ' Bep. Com. 
Ind. Affaire, for 1858, p. 301. 

In Alley, Bowen and Company's History of Mendocino County the 
authors, after some observations concerning reservations in general, say: 
"In the reservation under consideration, out of twenty-four thousand 
acres included in its limits, there were not that many hundred that were 
arable. No progress worth speaking of was made in the way of farming. 
A few acres were planted, and if the cattle and other stock were kept off, 
a small crop was grown, but it never was of any advantage to the In- 
dians." History of Mendocino County, California, p. 170; Alley, Bowen 
& Co., San Francisco, 1880. 

Concerning California reservations in general, J. Boss Browne pub- 
lished an article in Harper's Magazine, for August, 1861, entitled "The 
Indian Reservations of California." This was reprinted in Beach's In- 
dian Miscellany, p. 303 seq., Albany, 1877. 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indiana. 49 

many things left to be desired in its management and results. 
The reservation was discontinued in 1867. 

Round Valley Reservation. 

The Nome Cult Indian Farm was established, also in 1856, in 
Bound valley in the northern part of Mendocino county. This 
farm was at first maintained as, in a way, a sub-station of the 
Nome Lackee reservation, situated about sixty miles to the north- 
east, and about twenty miles west of Tehama. At the Nome Cult 
Farm were assembled, according to reports of the Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs, in addition to about three thousand Tuki of 
the vicinity, Indians from various parts of the Sacramento valley. 
While the establishment was maintained as a part of the Nome 
Lackee reservation, it would seem that some of the meat supply 
of the Mendocino reservation came from this farm, the live stock 
being driven out over a trail which led through the valley where 
Cahto now stands. 

In 1858 Nome Cult farm was changed to a regular reserva- 
tion designated as Bound Valley reservation, and about twenty- 
five thousand acres were set apart for reservation purposes. 
Various changes were made in the boundaries of the reservation 
until, in 1873, they were established so that a reservation of about 
one hundred and two thousand, one hundred and twenty acres 
was set apart. 

At the time of the abandonment of the Mendocino reservation 
the majority of the Indians who had been taken from the region 
about Bussian river and Clear lake, as also those from farther 
to the south, found their way back to their former homes and 
have remained there since. Some attempts were made to take 
them to the Bound Valley reservation, but there are at present 
on the reservation only a very few from this region. These are 
from Little Lake valley and from Clear lake. 

THE INDIANS AT PBESENT. 

Prior to the establishment of the reservations there had been, 
as has been seen, some settlement of this region and during the 
existence of the Mendocino reservation the settlement was very 
rapid. The result was that when the Indians returned to their 
former homes, after the discontinuance of the reservation, they 



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50 University of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 

found that their accustomed liberties were somewhat restricted. 
Many of the ranchers had cattle and other live stock which ranged 
the hills and greatly diminished the supply of wild seeds and 
other vegetable foods. Many of the valleys which had formerly 
supplied an abundance of such food were under cultivation. 
And with this decrease in the supply of vegetable foods went 
the decrease in game of all sorts. It even sometimes happened 
that former village sites were under cultivation and all trace of 
them gone. But it must not be supposed that these changes were 
entirely new to the Indians as they returned to their old homes 
after the discontinuance of the reservation, for while all the 
Indians were supposed to have been gathered on the reserva- 
tion, this was by no means the case. There was no time when the 
whole population of the area was present at the reservation. 
Many would not go voluntarily and evaded the force sent to 
bring them in; and others remained on the reservation only a 
short time whenever the authorities succeeded in getting them 
there. The result was that, according to the reports of .the agents 
in charge, it was necessary, at least during the first years of the 
reservation, to keep some of the soldiers constantly " gathering 
in" run-aways. 

The settlement of the country by whites after the discontin- 
uance of the Mendocino reservation was equally as rapid as that 
during its existence, with the result that the Indians found them- 
selves more and more restricted and more and more dependent 
upon labor for subsistence. They early took to working for the 
whites in the hop and grain fields, as wood-choppers, and in 
various other ways, and have always gained an independent live- 
lihood, receiving no government support as is the case with reser- 
vation Indians. They often settled on large ranches by the per- 
mission of the owners, who were usually glad to have them near to 
work on the ranch when needed. To a considerable extent the 
conditions are the same at the present time ; but in a number of 
cases the Indians have secured small holdings of land which they 
own and work on a cooperative plan. In such cases they are thus 
much more independent than formerly. Their mode of life has 
been entirely changed, the habits, dress, architecture, and imple- 
ments of civilization so completely replacing the aboriginal, that 
it is now only rarely that the latter are to be found in actual use. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 51 



ALPHABET. 

The characters used to represent the various sounds found in 
the languages under consideration are as follows 17 * : 

Vowels: 
a as in father. 

& of the same quality, but of longer duration. 
The macron is here used purely as a matter 
of convenience to distinguish a few words. 

ai as in aisle. 

e as in obey. 

e as in met. 

I as in machine. 

i as in pin. 

6 as in note. 

o English aw. 

u as in rule. 

u as in put. 

u as in but. 

a n , ai n , 6°, u n , P nasalized vowels. 

a, i, u obscure vowels. 

The macron (-), except in the case of a, has been employed 
entirely as a means of designating the quality of vowels and is 
no indication of quantity. 

The apostrophe ( ') following a vowel or consonant indicates 
a pronounced aspiration. 

Consonants : 19 
p, b, w, m, n, y, h as in English. 



"• In order to facilitate reference to them the Indian names of villages 
appear in italics. In such names the letters which appear in this alphabet 
as Roman are italicised and vice versa. 

"In describing the consonants used, the following approximate posi- 
tions of the tongue upon the roof of the mouth are mentioned; velar, on 
the rear half of the soft palate, post-palatal, on the forward half of the 
soft palate, medio-palatal, on the rear half of the hard palate, pre-palatal, 
on the forward half of the hard palate, and alveolar, on the alveolar or 
gingival arch. The positions of the sounds used in the various languages 
under consideration have, of course, thus far been determined only by 
observation and it is probable that when they are determined exactly by 
mechanical means some will be found to differ somewhat from the positions 
here given, depending much upon the individual speaking them. 



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52 Unwcrtity of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

k is the symbol which has been used to represent 

two different sounds: the post-palatal and 
medio-palatal voiceless stops. It has a post- 
palatal position when it precedes fi, u, 6, o, 
ft, or a; and is medio-palatal before I, i, e, 
or e. 

g is the sonant of k and its position is varied by 

the accompanying vowels in the same man- 
ner as that of k. 

t, d alveolar stops, voiceless and voiced respec- 

tively. 

t voiceless dental stop. In this sound the tongue 

very nearly approaches the interdental po- 
sition and may with certain speakers even 
do so. 

d the voiced sound corresponding to t. This is 

one of the most rarely occurring sounds in 
Porno. It does not occur in any of the 
words in the accompanying vocabularies, 
but is found in two or three of the names of 
village sites. 

t- an alveolar stop the position of which is a little 

farther back than t. It approximates the 
sound of ty, and is often distinguishable 
from tc only with difficulty. 

d* is the sonant of t*. 

n nasalized post-palatal sonant ; like English ng. 

x has the sound of the Spanish jota. 

g* is the sonant of x. 

c open pre-palatal surd. The sound is similar to 

the English sh. The corresponding sonant, 
j, is never found as an individual sound, but 
appears frequently in the combination dj. 

s, z open alveolar consonants, voiceless and voiced 

respectively. 



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1906] BamtU—TU Etkmo- O wog ro phg of tks Porno JwJtom. 5t 

$ This peculiar voiceless continuant it made by 

protruding the lower jaw to a very consid- 
erable extent and retracting the edges of the 
tongue to an almost pre-palatal position. 
Among the languages here treated it is only 
found in Moquelumnan and Wintun, and 
is only rarely used in either of these, par- 
ticularly the latter. 

f This is the ordinary labio-dental voiceless con- 

tinuant, and is one of the rarest sounds in 
native American languages. It is found 
only in two dialects of the Porno, the South- 
eastern and the Northeastern, and is not 
much used in either. The corresponding 
voiced sound is not found. 

1 ss in English let 

l This is a voiceless stop made with the tip of the 

tongue on the alveolar arch. The closure is 
followed by only a slight explosion, the air 
being allowed to escape laterally. It may 
have a short or long duration, depending 
upon the surrounding sounds. This is a 
comparatively rare sound in the languages 
under consideration and has so far been 
found only in Porno, Wintun, and Mo- 
quelumnan. 

I is the sonant of l, and approximates the sound 

of dl. It occurs more rarely than l. 

L resembles l, except that the tongue is some- 

what more retracted, and more relaxed so 
that there is almost no explosion ss the air 
escapes over the sides of the tongue. The 
sound approximates that of hL It is more 
rare in Wintun and Moquelumnan than l, 
and has been found also in a very few 
in Porno. 

r pre-palatal inverted sonant. 



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54 Univernty of California Publications im Am. Arch, and Ethn, [Vol. 6 

r r with a pronounced tongue-tip trill 

tc as in church. 

to as in sits. 

dj as j in jury, dz, as z in adz, though not found 

in the vocabularies here given, does occur 
in Porno. 

hw the voiceless w, as in who. 

t!, i/, p!, k!, tc!, ts!, s! stressed. 

LINGUISTIO RELATIONSHIPS. 

The basis of classification of the various peoples here under 
consideration is, as has been stated, entirely a linguistic one, de- 
pending on the total lexical dissimilarity of the four linguistic 
stocks: the Porno, Moquelumnan, Wintun, and Tuki; and the 
more or less close lexical relationships of the various dialects of 
each stock. While the term linguistic stock or family is here 
used with its ordinary signification, it must be remembered that 
the word dialect is not used in the restricted sense which ordi- 
narily attaches to it in speaking, for instance, of European lin- 
guistic divisions, but is used to designate any primary subdivision 
of a linguistic stock. In several cases in the present connection 
the differences between dialects are sufficient to warrant their 
separation into distinct languages according to customary usage 
in regard to European languages. The difference for instance 
between Southeastern or Northeastern and any of the other Porno 
dialects is probably as great or greater than that existing be- 
tween French and Italian or Spanish. Fully as great a differ- 
ence exists between the Yukian Wappo dialect and any of the 
other Yukian dialects. In the present consideration of these 
linguistic stocks and dialects they will be treated both lexically 
and from the standpoint of phonetic similarity and diversity. 
Both these considerations will be based on the following vocab- 
ularies of two hundred and eighty-two words, in the selection of 
which it has been the aim to bring together words of all the ordi- 
nary parts of speech and particularly to choose words of most 



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1908] Bamttr-TU EHmo-Qmvrmpkt of tU Pamo InOim ns , 66 

common occurrence and which would be most typical of the va- 
rious dialects. The matters considered will therefore be the 
lexical relationship and the phonetic character of the dialects of 
the Porno, Moquelumnan, Wintun, and Tuki languages taken 
separately, and finally a comparison of the general phonetic char- 
acter of these four languages and also a summary of the words 
common to them with a discuanon of the probable direction of 
borrowing wherever this is determinable. Since the portion of 
the Athapascan territory which borders the Porno is so small, and 
in view of the fact that the people inhabiting it are now being 
investigated by Professor P. E. Goddard, this linguistic stock will 
be omitted from these considerations. In the consideration of 
the lexical relationships such very limited vocabularies as are 
here used are even better in some respects than more extended 
ones would be, as they consist principally of common root 
words; but in the consideration of the other two points, the 
phonetic character and the borrowing of words by different 
stocks, these vocabularies are inadequate to give entirely decisive 
and satisfactory results. The statements concerning these last 
points must, therefore, be accepted tentatively, and are given not 
as final facts concerning these languages, but rather as indica- 
tions, shown by the vocabularies now at hand, of what will very 
probably be further proven when more material is available and 
more extended investigations along these lines are possible. 



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56 Univertity of Cotof9*mi* Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [Vol. 6 



i 



m 



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1 



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nn 



mi 






i 



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5 



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lllilli 



1 

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•* » O ^ QQ A O H 

rH rH rH rH iH rH <M Ol 



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1908] BarrttU—n» Sthmc Otogrmfk) of tM PMm ImKwu. ST 

Sis I s 

I lliliiiiij*Jj ill lltll* 



■a 



-illlllll h.il.Js.iiM* 



'lilliilillulliJjifiiiii 

llilllil|]ljiililiiitfi!i< 

d 

s. t 1 

kllllimliAh.AA.iui 

s ili!l s ||{i 



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56 University of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 



ifaililirii 



.1 



« 






! 



stitlii***! ill 1 ail I? 

Ililiiil^lf f *° 1 1 3 1 j 1 1 



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las ass rsiai 4 Is I* 31 

hi iliillSSii! 1 fili!?i 



s ^ i 9 1 I 

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5 



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IsssSI a3444 



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h oi co*tioet»aoa»OtH 



O H N CO *• IO(DSaO)OH 

iHlHHlH ** H H H H H 01 9) 



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1908] Barr*tt— Tk* Etkmo Qwo§rm§k$ of tk§ Fomo I n d b m * . 57 



* 



llHil<nli.]H.iij(l« 



■a 



iiiiiii U-IL jj.«i3it« 



i|li]|jj]lil|j|||jjiffiil: 



t.Ml.44SJ i 1 . - . •* 

il 

llljiiijjilillllllsflliil 



§ 
s 



^illl!iJihJj^ik§«j!ii 



'liiiiihhiiiuiiHiiiiflt 



433388£888S83SS8$;383!399393 



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58 Univer*ity of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [VoL <5 

I 

I -a s • -a I t 

1 «4- jf tf ^ 1 3 3 4t 3 -a i . 

1 jf 

* 11-s I eila. s IS i*t l\ 

9 | < ! 1 

^3 o e> 5 9 eft ^ »P 3* •a "? - ft 2 3 nhip4.j^9 

^a-s-s-aS Jfll 22 Is «i Is I 3i3^»s4 

^llilllllllillJi Uiflli 



*fiii1hfjilil!Jl &llfl 

9 

I it I I * 



1 \. 

tflllsiisiiellffll llstift 



% 



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1908] Barrett.— T*# ftfcw-0Mrr«pfty vf tU P*mo InHmn». W 



siij Ifiiililliiiiiiiilii 

iiiilllhiljilllltiliiiiii 

iliSihHiSlililiLiillli 
iiiiililitliilllLiiiiilli 

d 

IliHrifiiilihiiiiilrffli 






l ! §1 .Hi 1 S I 1 

*jlsiftifJiki«liliil1ltii* 



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60 VnfoortUtl of California Publication* in Am. AroK and Bthn. [VoL 6 



^liisiltliifilljli'iliils 



(O 



4 



1 



•0 



lliiiRiiiH-sIfailiSHa'sJ 



S 1 j 

• "8 
It J 6 

lillfijlilllaliil I HIS 



sJJS 



3 s 

i * a i Oil 

*.ilJm*1U*j*ij1 111*1134 



Mill! Jdfcsil Jsilllltfl 



i 



}iii»iiiifiiiiinmli!ii! 



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1908] Bamtt^TU Mtkmo Qm§fm§km of tU Porno In4ion$. 01 



h-ihi\ itilUiUhltiiti 

lis i 



^fililllflllf II Uijilitl 



i £ 



U jitlHllfilllliilSfsi: 



§ 



s e « 



-iihilliillflhlhll.ls!! 

* 1 f 

iJiiiiilhJiiffrJfiUslili 

j |i f i % . 

<iih]iifiJilf]]lliH>iii3 

j j liiiliiJ ii« if U 
fillillliltiliiiHlliitlit 



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60 Unwenity of CaUfornia Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [VoLC 

III- * # 



Ml- 4 *i 

*ii£iiJ£li*f3l1.a£!lS4il 



il 



1 i s «t | 



4 111 -s § * a 1 -a * 1 1 1 - -g* 

illlilllllljiliiiiiilllll 
iilllihlSliilidfflflli 



•9 



6 

I * ** 1 1*11 

ijfllfclilfijiijf 111*1234 



'* 



UllilJiitdiJatlli!?! 
iiiuilllffljltllffftlifl 



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1908] BamtU—Ths Mthmo Q oo § rop** of tU Porno !•#***. 61 



^iljilittUi li inula 

iu iiUtilhWihuutii 



§ 



2 1 o 



ihilHsliiihihil*!;!! 



^iuiiihJiiflilriiiJisl 

UlUAlhhliVAlnhull 



JillillliliiHIifiiiihtll 

48322222222232223252223222 



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60 Unwonity of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [VoLfl 



ill | t 



! 1 3 1 1 | 

MlliiJiuJIdiilJiMf 

fe . -8 J 11 Sill Meo f« -J 9 a glials 

s ' * 

IlllIilKlilallil 1IIS 



SJ5K 



o 

2 * s * i 



I tilt* li* a* fl - ..f4lv£l 

*ji6Ji1533ast !**3«ii AaYlTJ 






I S 1 S f * 1 1 | I JS a • 

UflllJihsllJllfllitl 



3 III 

tiiitiiiliihiilifff^li! 



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1908] BomtU—Ths Mtkmo Q m> § r«p*» of ik$ Porno !•#***. 61 



iiiul mlUiUhhhit 



* 






I a i i 

iisljillnil* li tiuililf 

lli JillHlliHllhilffa 



i 



2 e « 



IhilUilHllilhiltlsl! 
iiiihhJilfljifjUiiili 



iilliilltihifliiliSlJiti 

MinllfilllHiilliiltid 



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62 Unwertity of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 



S « "2 ■£ "3 'g ? •91-, «lll •9 , s3i*#J , 2 

J 2 3355 §12 



3 



^ « 



£ jit a a 

9j!]ill]Nii.ltih!ililiii 



*«S**i 1 vis Jllfi*jf*i3i' 



1 



— ,a id 

ijflll 1 lliiHiHii^llli 

I-&H* 8 lis s «f^ its I 



UHif i !l!.]tf]t«iiiili} 



4 



* 5 



*lllll I illJifltirsifll! 



31 ~ 



O 
43 



null 1 i!ildlhiiiiii h 



,0 «T3 






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1908] Borrett.—Ths StkmhQoogrmpk^ of tk* Porno /«*•**. 6S 

3i •? 1 111 « J J ..4 *l A 

St i la. ill i Shi. ^ Jill 

I i si-a* 1 ► S 

3»i 1 sillll I all ssiti 






111] ifjflf tisiiii!?!!? 



8 - 

Iltlii illlll lSili<ilil1i 



§ 



J»a 3 I,^flss Jail if- 

llJiii ft if il if.iii2i.ili 



*■ 



iuf ililii ii.ihiisHi 



fas , |ii i| i 

nlJIl hillf lliliiiliiii 

5 v o s n s *•***.***•*» saOQoaOQOooQOnooiaoo 



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64 University of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Sthn. [VoL 6 



«l liisslillslisil 



a^ 



1 i 



Siiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii Ji *iai 

. . 1 

I » 3 i 



o 



I 1 



1 1 



1 I 



<S .2 .a S 5 H d t *E ? — « S 9 c 

3si1*llls!3-l|3a ! a|l - B-go.i.a 



lisiUMilllml.Ji 



3 <3 3 a 

a a a a 



i 
1 



!2S «*! ^ 



MljIjHllihlliil.jiiiill 



iff 



liiirilflufiiiflLsi^u 

iSSSSS$S$8SS§§SSSSS§SaSS|S 



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1906] Borrett.—Tk* Bthmo^hogrmpkg of the Porno InOmnt. 66 



? . i 



1 i$« lIlJjS'J 

3 3 3 is" I 3slilill*5 

itiilll^llil^lliai 



*i 



I 



3* 11 lllitiiJilHlllh- 
i 

£jg I 5 i t S o 1 • J 9 1 s 1 1 

&&jPii!llLilllliilllli 



S If* 

I I I 3 * „. «l « all 111? 

i s Jit 

I a Jil 

1 1 1 * =9 «il11 



1 I t 

*s if J IlmJsHlJJlaffijI 

^« « N « NNNN«N6lN«NN05NNWe3MNN 



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56 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [Vol. 6 



*JHiJli£ls3S 



%.l 



1 , 

mm 



urn 



s 



E*€ 



1.SJ 



1 



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Ill 

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« « J* M M 



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ii 



lii iifgililiii 



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I illl sis 



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flllli 



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iH iH iH fH 



^ IO (D S QQ A O H 
fH il r-l fH i3 fH C* « 



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1908] B~ntU—TU Mtlmo Q m §r m § k $ of iU Porno /OiMC 5T 

! 



L - I a 



* iliillliij^Ji ill tuh* 

* 82 a Jill llSSS-SsAJs • ilssJ-8 



I,. ... ■! .i 



-llllllll ll.lisjh.fiixH 



MillilHillilllJiitill 



llHfilJlilj.llilh.fitfiif 

1 ? | 

<i1mttiiltKl.i!]ttJ&4 

I 11 1 I 

^iiiijilili.&i.^Ltijiii 

MillliillhJl. J .J.§.i!j4 

mil *u c 
tiiiiilf ifiiij a& illiisilff 

$83238Ss88SS8S3S8:5S83399393 



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58 University of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [Vol. 6 



! if 

* 11-8 i glla- s ji 3„e i| 



§ 



|2 g J, J" | 

ijHlJliltililflh llllli! 



I . 1 



<alil1l*lli3iihli kiflli 



5- ^--^-3 1-sssss 



^nnl JiliiiiJI l^llfi 



s. 



£ ■§ 



tflilsfilfiil^llllll lli'hl! 



4?55S5iSSSSS!8SfeSS85S88 3 8 S fe S g g 



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1908] Barr*tt.—Th4 Mtlmo GtOfT mph, of ik$ Porno I****. 69 



*isi rfiliiili!ai!!iiii?3 
-uljllhiiiiliiltlliliilf 

SiijilHIiSliliiiiniiilii 

\ -* 3 2 3 s, 

iiiiiilliflfiliiLiiliilii 



O 



iliHrfHltliHiithmlii 

^lisiHf^ihftliJliUlia 



i 



^liiiiiiliiiliriiiiilliilt 



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60 UnioenUy of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Btkn. [VoLC 



WllJiftlltfalljilfllllfl 



•g 4. g J 

J 2 1 1 • s li a , 9 1 1 s J 1 j .a f 

£jl]liJ*!l£*aJiifllllJ2)l 



lilllihlllialid 



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9 § a 

I * -a 8 1 till 

i*iljilMlii«i«flj<if1m: 



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liflinlutLJiiijIiiiitaai 



* 



IllllJil^ilJullilfl 



liliililhiiillllfffllif 

g? ^(HiHfHfHfHr-lvHfHfHr-lt-lfHfHiHr-lr-lfHr-lr-l 



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1908] Ba*r*tU—Th$ MUmoGtOfrqfa of ik$ Pomo !•#***. 61 



hiiul lilliiiliSiLii! 



i 






^iliiliHlli !1 HlJllid 



jitlHilillilliilstii- 



.3 - 



§ 



*« n 



Yhiliiilifitiiiiililil! 



Sjjiiliilhllifilifitisiili 

I il i i i i 

MlliiilhJiffllilifliiill 

ifl!illil!tilf<itHliitlif 

iaaaasaa&aasaaasaassaafsaa* 



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62 Unwer$ity of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Btkn. [Vol. 6 

►J 



S 

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1908] Barrett.— Ths Etkno- Q oo g rmpk y of ths Porno Indian*. 



I* 111 1 il 5t » 2*111 



& 111 I *s 



*ial 1 allllS 1 «il siitl 
illlll itilil lisillfl?!!* 

illiii ihlJl llsiiiihll? 



s 



2 | M * . Jtil ! 



Kim liltllMi.lllliJIi 

iflUl fflfll li.ijiJl.lll 

!i§ 3 a| Hjflg |* JJL.i lis 



UlJll Hilil Iflllillilil 

g o c t« n s llll^ t*ooooooaoo6naoaovaoA 



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64 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 



I S ill i 

*3 flissllllijiass i I i 

iil«lliiiiiiihfii i s *jj! 

t - 2 

1 •" * • a " 

<$|jass1iJl3i'39lSCs&«J!ll1li 

lija* rt|l§|iil!||?., | ill! fi 
^S i.illS J I.J a I I 

4lUl]!il!«)lil!iiililttil 

l 111 

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«!]jJi!fliilij1i}).jiii{i1 



UtiiihiiihiiiiLti^iij 

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1906] B*rr€tt.—Th4 Mtk*o-Q*O0f*pk9 of the Porno Indians. 66 



* itlji 



i s liiiiiy 
ii-Jiifiliili 






II Jlllfl.JllilllJlU 



« i *- 



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ft* 



iililLis^ilijIlili 



o 



8 I 5 j I ||] 

*8tii f^sLf.iffsllllif! 1 

* -a Si*s*iL*!jiia-i!iil32 



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66 



University of California Publication* in Am. AroK and Ethn. [VoL 6 



ii ! ! 



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1008] Barrett.— The Ethmo-Qeoffraphy of the Porno Indians. 67 



1 1 I '%'. 






(lilllllulUlj 






tills? 



HUH 







l2 2s 



§ 8fi| 



Hi I n s B I 

Is I I i I 3 s * s f a 3 * 1 s o * i • I a 

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Mil! iiliJfliflnHil 

g'2 8 5 £ S SSggSSSSfeSggCgSS 



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68 University of California Publications in Ant. Arch, and Sthn. [Vol. 6 

S 



m 

lllhlili lltfiljfllniil 



5 

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1908] Barrett.— The Ktkno-Geograp** of the Porno Indian*. 69 



I 1SIII2J 






.3]f!j*i*ta,«{<lll!ii>!i]3 
liltttiUttel \ iiiini 



w 



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^iltl!lllfJllllIfll»Sj|l1 

<iiiS'iiiiittjj]i)iiii]iii 



S * 1 1 #i s 



MllilflHIliiJJliHllllfii 



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70 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 



§ * a 

•» 1 £ 3 • a f -p % * fe 6 J Vs * s q 



h 



£ * 1 £ ? I r a i - B 3 - &- a *s - 8 if? §• j» * To •? I a % 



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1 SI « ? € |1 .s a i&&1 s 1 • 1 2 ? -o * fa £ a 



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S3 

ll fellas -s * .¥ ^fflssljsaa i 






3 ^ -S g § 

fill gill jiJIisiisiJlil! II 



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1908] BcrritU—TI* Etkoo Qoogrmfikw of t*# Porno Indim*. 71 

■a h'a'^t 111 ? . S 

^mm hUiuUuu ttUit 
B i i U i ! *; I* 

*ltiU ullilliliHlllKf* 

hifH'lliilfiiuiJIillili 
i * 1 ^. 



Utjf tJiiiiiiiiiialln i 

i 

I it *l I j 1* •*! I» 

Sill! I f lESlf JfLl^sifl&il]- 



*■ 



s 



IfiL il uliiidliilihi 



h 8. ii 



i 



Hllil iliiiiHlllmlilil 

|S38U 88SCSSSSgr:ggSS88SSS 



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72 University of California Publications in Am. AroK and Ethn. [Vol. 6 



"3 

*> I & +» B B 3* 






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gl - "8 



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*2 a 1 i 2 2 1 £ § f 1 1 II tf II 1 1 !f 1 8. a 3 

& isl a e I * 

d d ■) 

IliilllilBliJfillillalal 

ifiiu!lii a liiliiiiil!alsl 



^llil it lallallllilllalll 



- Is 1 I 

MitlltUitnlillsiisflll 

JN00fl»OH««jJU5$S»aOHNWTH|0$Ng»OH 

»Sooooooo>OiO>o>»a»»o>aoioooooooooort^j 



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1906] #mmtt.—Th4 Etkno-G*of ro fk y of ths Porno Indiom. 73 






i, I 



t 



« g « i 1 § a tiI * 

^ssssJSslsIa^l^lltliilJ 



! 

iijlh&n sjilillillill! 



..Ulllilllllllll !*!?* Sal 

Miilliiihl 11 fill £ Hi! 



2 



f« iitltillil I ill? ill 

II 11ll-s|illl?l II 11 l-iill-S II 

jg H HHHHrtHHOJWN«NNWWNN«P5«««nW 



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74 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 



6 



i 

al .a •£ 



ill *i 



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KiSflHiHiUHflJi -lil 



v 



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tlififiilitllllill ihihl 

111 MiUAi gllilll 
ape jm m s s s a s J 5 ^ s io & a 




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£ M £*J Is -' 



lis I 



111 * 



lillllllllllill^lil 

a 



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4 o 



liiaitifttvitilMi i*!h< 

JNttAOHNnflQttSOOaOHMffl ^ IO « S 00 O) o 

5ei5rteo^^^^^^*^^^ioioioio io to to to to iq » 

^iHi~|i-tflF-l»-tT-li-tiHiHi-tiHr-1f1iHi~liH iHiHrti-i^iHrH 



2 



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% 



1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Gooarapkff of the Porno Indian*. 



75 



i 111 



• 

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hrAUililitmhiHm'ii 



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l.lilliiiiiflfihhllid 



Is 4 1 i 

nliillliliiiiiiiiilhllli 









niiiilfli illili 



J 



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ilillilll 111 llitlilmli 

li lllflrflliimslllllil 

If 

j9 k 'ij gill 



lit, 

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Hiiii 



alii 



sSSS8S3$fe88gSgS2SgJ;ggSS88SS 



* 



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76 



University of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 



•g s § 3 * "S £ 1 * | 

« AS s i » .2 •! .3 JS 



*£1 



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55? 






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f*t* 



Kd 



"laiillfiishlaijiflmiif 



i. 



fa g* «jll|.jil#le|i4ii i sl.* 



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Is 



2: 



nil ll[ iiiiiiitn! 



sill 



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o «fl«Jaa«.aa 



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t|Iil!lill?!!!lil!llf1is 

-;«DsoOi3»OH(Mrtfo©sooaoHN«iiio«psfloao 
£aoaoooooo*o»o*o*&o»o»o»o*o*oooooooooo*-i 

^HHHHHHHHHHHHHHNO)0)01M«IMO)0)«M 



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1908] Barrett.— -The Etkno-Geography of the Porno Indian* 77 



U si\ .lllllllli 



*isi 



ail illlsKihifllii 



^itiiiiliiififirttiiliim 






i sl iiliiiiJHiill 



l^ss-s J3f 2ass«J 13S5 til 



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^jii^iihlnlsMilii^fl 



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78 University of California Publication* in Am. Arok. and Bthn. [Vol. 6 



& 

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1908] Barrtttr- TU Htkno-Ooogfpkg of the Porno Indian*. 79 



is *• 

"8.15' 

¥v 111 al 3 I 

f'S s. • a • 

I 111 * *"* * 1 

i m\*l\ iilisiilfitiiiii 



* 



!l ?' ll s * t i 

*J 1 i! I! liufiiiifliW! 

.il ! IS ii'lidiiiUiiifiil 
it * !! if i 

b ift 1 il l« I 

31 S 2 3 



Il ! II Il*i (illiliitittl 



^ * 4-P 2? *-? ..1 . I wJ4 g-3 _ . gg„ 

iS 8 ss ss sgssassssssggc 



*!* IS !! iiiliJfiJilii"* 



W co 

OJ W 



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80 



University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 



i 8 fc 



tL 1 



"sSfciisil-s. 






*{]iii 111 






8T 



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| 



lis 



^^ ^ JS «g. -g 






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1908] 



Barrett. — The Etkno-Geograpky of the Porno Indians, 



81 







WINTUN. 




Vo. 


EngHsk 


Southerly 


Xorthm-l 


1 


person 


pat-win 




2 


man 


wita 


win 


3 


woman 


poklla 


daki 


4 


boy 


teursi 


ktaina 


5 


girl 


Mita 


Inita-dakI 


6 


infant 


Ilaitcu 


elet 


7 


old man 


tciyak 


k!Ias 


8 


old woman 


xai 


pofas 


9 


father* 


tatsfl 


netau 


10 


mother 


nentcu 


nenin 


11 


husband 


naiwi 




12 


wife 


naiamftt 




13 


•on 


f« 




14 


daughter 


t« 




15 


brother (elder) 


labe-tcil 




16 


brother ( younger ) 


Lan-tcu 




17 


sister (elder) 


Lan-tcu 




18 


sister (younger) 


utcu-tcu 




19 


father '■ brother 


ta-tcfl 




20 


mother '■ brother 


apa-tco 




21 


father '■ sister 


utcu-tcu 




22 


mother's sister 


nentcu 




23 


father's father 


apatcfl 




24 


mother 's father 


apa-tcu 




25 


father '■ mother 


ama-tcu 




26 


mother '■ mother 


ama-tcu 




27 


son's son 


tai-tcu 




28 


daughter's son 


tai-tcu 




29 


son 's daughter 


tai-tcu 




30 


daughter '■ dau. 


tai-tcu 




31 


white man" 


teatoki-win 




32 


head 


duL 


PO 


33 


hair 


tt 


rumoi 


34 


face 


tus 




35 


ear 


mat 


mat 


36 


eye 


ca 


LUi 


37 


nose 


Linik 


suno 


38 


mouth 


kol 


kol 


39 


tongue 


tahal 


tahal 


40 


teeth 


el 


si 


41 


neck 


tukutuku 




42 


arm 


eala 


sala 


43 


hand 


eem 


sem 


44 


fingers 


kupum 


•em 


45 


nails 


teal 


ktai 


46 


body 


run 





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82 



University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 







WINTUN. 




No. 


English 


Southerly 


Northerly 


47 


belly 


daka, bus 




48 


breasts (female) 


Imit 


imit 


49 


milk 


unit 


unit 


50 


knee 


anak 


ndni 


51 


leg 


yir 


koll 


52 


foot 


mai 


Lelme 


53 


bone 


pak 


pak 


54 


rib 


Lome 


wehut 


55 


heart 


purfi 


tcidik 


56 


blood 


cak 


sak 


57 


liver 


tcela 


telA 


58 


lungs 


kosdl 


kos 


59 


stomach 


umumenf 


tcidik T 


60 


intestines 


pdt 


poto 


61 


excrement 


ten! 


teeni 


62 


chief 


sektu 


cektu 


63 


doctor" 


Ydmta 


hiydm 


64 


friend 


nikantcu 


lelcom 


65 


house 


kewel 


kel 


66 


door 


sinpe 


keli 


67 


floor* 


wole, SULt 


p5m 


68 


bed 


wdle, kama 




69 


sweat-house 1 " 


tsitsa-kewel 


el-kel 


70 


center-pole 


ddri,Hft 


wenemtoktcit 


71 


bow 


nun 


kfilsak 


72 


arrow 


ndk5 


doko 


73 


knife 


ddk6 


takdme 


74 


boat" 


nu 


tcdtcit 


75 


paddle 


kdki, lema 


Lapit 


76 


fish-spear 


Lewici 


tcimtcutsi 


77 


fish-net 


tcdrd, Luhe 


kdma 


78 


string 


kali 


diLa 


79 


deer-snare 


kada 


tcotkada 


80 


rabbit-skin robe 


Lukai 


udui 


81 


pipe* 1 


b5mit, bdti 


lol-kok 


82 


tobacco 


lol 


lol 


83 


shell-beads 


hiLi 


mempak 


84 


magnesite-bead8 


turfll 


tulul 


85 


bead-drill 


citcl" j 




86 


basket 


p6kdla«o* 


koko 


87 


awl 


aloli, tup 


titcup 


88 


burden basket 


aba 


padi 


89 


burden net 


surut 


cut 


90 


cradle 


funuk 


Lol 


91 


mortar basket 


kawi 


klawi 


92 


pestle 


t!usa 


cotok 



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1908] 



Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 



83 







WINTUN. 




No. 


English 


Southerly 


Northerly 


93 


comb 


tlba, penu 


hatu 


94 


mush-paddle 


taral 


ceyfi 


95 


skj 


pant!were«o» 


sgtatala 


96 


sun 


sun 


tuku 


97 


moon 


sunar 


tcanaL 


98 


8 tar 


tatimen 


Luiyuk 


99 


day 


sani 


po 


100 


night 


slndl 


leni 


101 


cloud 


k!ir 


kla 


102 


wind 


fudi 


Lehit 


103 


thunder 


kimI«o» 


tumumfl 


104 


fog 


tumi,kos* 


tumit 


105 


rain 


yurfi 


luha 


106 


snow 


yol 


ydla 


107 


fire 


po«* 


po 


108 


smoke 


LlLak, ndld 


n5k 


109 


ashes 


put 


puk 


110 


water 


mem 


mem 


111 


sand 


tliki 


tcuhel 


112 


earth, dirt 


k!Ir 


k!as 


113 


earthy world 


mundu«« 




114 


earthquake 


huyi 


pdm5k5 


115 


ocean 47 


tcubila-mem 




116 


stream 


kapai 


memaL 


117 


lake 


pdlpol 


tcahi 


118 


valley 


wilak 


kenkopol 


119 


mountain 


tftL 


tcoL 


120 


rock 


k5d5i 


con 


121 


obsidian 


ddkd, so 




122 


metal 


hiyerd 




123 


tree 


tok 


mi 


124 


wood 


*ok 


tcok 


125 


digger pine 4 * 


Muwa 


tcoTco 


126 


redwood 


sumu 




127 


white oak 


mule, l5 




128 


black oak 


sai 




129 


pepperwood 


sauli 




130 


elderberry 


ktau 




131 


manzanita 


eye 


paka 


132 


redbud 


laknu 


elep f 


133 


willow (white) 


pukum 


tcai 


134 


tule 


Laka, Lop 


Lap 


135 


angelica 


hutili 




136 


medicine 


wene 


memhene 


137 


poison 


usel, pftkom 


k6ta 


138 


acorn 


taka 


lu 



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84 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 





i 


WINTUN. 




No. 


English 


Southerly 


Northerly 


139 


wild onion 


buswai, pur 


kerimen 


140 


Indian potato 1 * 


£11, kdmtu 


ell 


141 


oat" 


ciniya 




142 


mush 


yiwit, atdl 


yiwit 


143 


pinole, meal 


kdri 


kdi 


144 


whiskey* 


kakma-mem 




145 


meat 


nop 


paLi 


146 


dog 


haiyu 


cukut 


147 


bear 


cflai 


tciL 


148 


grizzly bear 


cOai 


wemaL 


149 


black bear 


tfl5kl, uyum 


tciL 


150 


brown bear 


mowis 


sakatciL 


151 


coyote 


rutcai, sedeu 


sedet 


152 


panther 


pate 


cuta 


153 


deer 


nop 


ndp 


154 


antler 


tcili 


kllli 


155 


elk 


ldkdya«* b 


kolet 


156 


jackrabbit 


tcelo 


patkile 


157 


raccoon 


tcewdya 


tcikan 


158 


horse" 


kawaiyu 


kodit 


159 


cattle 


wakas 




160 


bird 


p€ti 


tcfltcit 


161 


condor 


mdldk, mul 


molok 


162 


bald eagle 


hasak 


pit 


163 


golden eagle 


loklok 




164 


hawk (w. redtail] 


) katcit 


celt 


165 


owl (great horned) timpirikf 




166 


buzzard 


bus 


hu* 


167 


duck (mallard) 


LaLat, lopet 


lade 


168 


quail (valley) 


m 


bitalat 


169 


meadow-lark 


bit 


witcolok 


170 


bluejay (valley) 


tcait 


tcaiktcaik 


171 


crow 


kak 




172 


blackbird 


tcakatii«2 c 


atat 


173 


hummingbird 


tuuluk 




174 


yellowhammer 


wololok 


tcio 


175 


red-h. woodpecker 


tarat 


toratat 


176 


mud-hen 


toLdk 


pelkalepkalep 


177 


turtle 


and 


an 


178 


frog 


watak 


watak 


179 


salamander 


tcayakamen 




180 


rattlesnake 


tiwil 


Letceu 


181 


fish 


tir 


tcit 


182 


salmon 


hfir 


nut 


183 


trout 


friya-tir, m51 


cdlat 


184 


mussel 







Digitized by 



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1908] 



Barrett. — The Bthno-Oeography of the Porno Indians. 



85 







WIXTTTN. 




No. 


Bnglieh 


Souther^ 


Norther 


185 


abaloni 


kola 




186 


clam 


kfik 




187 


loose 


p*ri 


dono 


188 


flea 


teftteo 


kdk!as 


189 


mosquito 


fosak 


teflcak 


190 


grasshopper 


taram 


nep 


191 


yellowjaeket 


LAn6 


p*rem 


192 


butterfly 


hoeolai** 




193 


white 


tcaldU 


I.fliyuket 


194 


blaek 


mfilti, sQIa 


knfa 


195 


red 


Mluka 


fedekit 


196 


striped 


tcaiki, lafi 




197 


large 


bene 


komoea 


198 


small 


kutei,«*« 


Inlsfef 


199 


good 


laiyok 


tcala 


200 


bad 


pore, data 


tcepa 


201 


stinking 


tub! 


Lala 


202 


sweet 


mflnuk*> r 


monnka 


203 


bitter 


aka, alalms 




204 


dead 


10mu 




205 


long 


yui, yflya 


keltla 


206 


short 


fdddi 


motit 


207 


round 


bakak«tf 




208 


I 


dju 




209 


my 


nanu 




210 


thou 


mi 




211 


thy 


matft 




212 


he 


piw 




213 


his 


fino 




214 


she 


pi, pile 




215 


hers 


filtno 




216 


we 


tcaket" 




217 


our 


nitcuna" 




218 


they 


pile" 




219 


their 


ultnd 




220 


north 


wai-yel-be 


wai-hai 


221 


east 


pu-yel-be 


pfll-bai 


222 


south 


w6-rel-be 


nui-hai 


223 


west 


no-mel-be 


num-hai 


224 


up 


pantl-be 


Mel-hai 


225 


down 


tcentl-be 


keu-hai 


226 


no 


ties 


el$wa 


227 


yes 


6—* 


heda 


228 


one 


eteta 


ketet 


229 


two 


pamputa 


palel 


230 


three 


punulta 


panftL 



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86 



University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 







WINTUN. 




No. 


English 


Southerly 


Northerly 


231 


four 


emusta 


Lawit 


232 


five 


etesemta 


teaneem 


233 


six 


serpulta 


sepandL 


234 


seven 


serputeta 


tcumiL 


235 


eight 


panemusta 


tseLawit 


236 


nine 


panemust&a 


cemaketet 


237 


ten 


pampasemta 


cema 


238 


eleven"* 


papusem-eteta 


cema-palel 


239 


twelve 


panLdmi 


panfiL 


240 


thirteen 


pampusem- 
punulta 


Lawit 


241 


fourteen 


pampusem- 
emusta 


tcancem 


242 


fifteen 


pampusem- 
etesemta 


pandl-tcancem 


243 


sixteen 


pampusem- 
serpulta 


atcketet 


244 


seventeen 


pampusem- 
serputeta 


palel 


245 


eighteen 


pampusem- 
panemusta 


pandL 


246 


nineteen 


pampusem- 
panemust&a 


Lawit 


247 


twenty 


etekai 


ketettcak 


248 


twenty-one 






249 


to twenty-nine 






250 


twenty-nine 






251 


thirty 


pfinLada 


tcancem 


252 


forty 


emus- 
pampusemta 




253 


fifty 


etesem- 
pampiisemta 




254 


sixty 


serpiiL- 
pampusemta 




255 


seventy 


serpute- 
pampusemta 




256 


eighty 


panemus- 
pampusemta 




257 


ninety 


panamustSta- 
pampusemta 




258 


one hundred 


punul- 








pampusemta*** 


259 


two hundred 


pamputa-senta 




260 


eat 


ba 




261 


drink 


ieti, tetule 




262 


run 


witili 




263 


dance 


ton 




264 


sing 


muhfi, k51a 


' 


265 


whistle 


puLpuLti 





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1908] 



Barrett.— The Etkno-Oeofftapky of the Porno Indians. 



87 







WINTUN. 


No. 


EngU$k 


AmOeWy 


266 


shake 


tukfoki"- 


267 


sleep 


klana 


268 


awaken 


dihd 


269 


see 


winl, teowl 


270 


like 


kaiyic 


271 


angyy 


mutt*** 


272 


strike 


bfiktt 


278 


fight 


nm6pefi 


274 


shoot 


Ilia 


275 


kill 


Hwfl*** 


276 


sit 


ham 


277 


stand 


pttcaiyfi 


278 


He (lay) 


t!al 


279 


#▼• 


d6yi 


280 


laugh 


L*ye 


281 


cry 


warn 


282 


shout 


popaiyfi 



Northm-ly 



FOOTNOTB8 TO VOCABULABIE8. 

»• There are certain eomparstiYely slight differences between the Southern 
dialect as spoken about CloYerdale, that is, north of the Wappo territory in 
Bnssian river valley, and on the upper course of Dry creek, and as it is 
spoken in the region from Healdsburg southward So fir as may be judged 
at present these differences are not sufficient to warrant separating these 
two regions into subdialectic areas, but the differences are worthy of note. 
For the sake of convenience the words of this dialect given in the vocab- 
ularies are all forms used in the northern part of the dialectic area and all 
cases where the form used in the southern region differs from that used in 
the northern are mentioned in footnotes. Similarly there appear to be cer- 
tain constant differences between the speech of the people who inhabited the 
northern part of the Northern dialectic area, and those who inhabited the 
southern and eastern portions. With the material at present available, how- 
ever, it is impossible to make such a separation of forms as has been done 
in the Southern dialect. The most noteworthy difference between these two 
parts of this area is the change of fi in the northern to I in the southern 
and eastern. 

*ku and kawi or kiwi, as it is found in some of the Porno dialects, 
are used, particularly in the Central dialect, where ku or kutc is the usual 
form, with the signification of small, as is seen from their use here in 
the words boy and girl which signify small man and small woman respec- 
tively. There seem to be slight differences in the use of this affix in the 
different part of the Central dialectic area. On the coast the affix precedes 
the word man or woman while in the valley region it follows it. Thus in 
the one case the words are kil-baia and ku-mata, while in the other case 
they are baia-kfi and mata-ku. 

a nata signifies young. 

"fa or fo, signifying person, is added by some informants to such 
words as infant, old man and old woman. 

* In almost all of the languages here under consideration the terms of 
relationship are used with the possessive pronoun. Wherever determin- 
able the pronoun has been separated from the root by a hyphen. Owing 



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88 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 

to the circumstances under which these vocabularies were obtained, it was 
impossible in some cases to determine whether the terms given were those 
used in speaking to the person or in speaking of the person mentioned. 
In most cases however they are the terms used in speaking of the person. 
Most of these terms of relationship are the same for both the person 
spoken to and the person spoken of except that in the former there is a 
short syllable added after the root word. For instance, in the Central 
dialect de or e is added in almost all terms and in the Eastern dialect a 
is usually so added. 

M ke-busa, my old man, is also used. 

* auke-atca-bunya is the form used in the southern part of this dialectic 
area. 

* awitkamen is also used. 

"ke-kawi and ke-ku, signifying in a broad sense my child, are used 
in the Northern and Central dialects as general terms to indicate both 
sons and daughters of all ages. If it is desired to specify the relative 
age or the sex of the particular child meant it is done by substituting the 
more exact terms signifying these for the general terms kawi and ku. 
Thus in the Central dialect ke-ba'ia-ku, my man little, is used to indicate 
a very small son, and ke-kewi'ts, my (full grown) boy, to indicate a 
grown son. The corresponding terms for daughters are ke-ma'ta-ku and 
ke-naco'i. 

* Another word used is auke-kawi. 

"According to one informant the term used by a man in addressing 
his son is ke-nata, while that used by a woman in addressing her son is 
pakin. 

** wim-f at is also used. 

m Older than the related parent of speaker. 

"* ameetmamee was given by one informant. 

"The term masan, which is found in at least three of the Porno dia- 
lects, signifies danger or dangerous, and is a term used to denote any dan- 
gerous animal, object or force, as lightning, a loud noise, or a falling tree, 
and was applied to the first Mexicans who rode into the region. In 
addition to this name, chiefly used in the Northern, Central, and Eastern 
dialectic areas, the term palatcai is also found, and informants say that 
it is a term which was introduced from the people living to the south, 
probably those of the Southern dialectic area in the vicinity of Healds- 
burg and Santa Bosa. According to one informant of the Northern dia- 
lect white men are also sometimes called tdfu, which also signifies blanket, 
and was given to the whites because they always had blankets to spread 
for beds. 

93 x5-mf o means literally white man. 

w ha'bu is the word used in the southern part of this area. 

M ihalwe is used in the southern part of this area. 

* a'tcet is used in the southern part of this dialectic area. 
** micut is also used. 

"* maastcak is also used. 

m The singing doctor is the one here referred to. 

"■ atca-weno-kaia, man-medicine- f, is also used. 

" In all dialects except the Eastern the words for floor and bed are the 
same. This is probably due to the fact that the Indians formerly slept 
upon the floor with very little in the way of bedding. The Eastern term 
simaga is formed upon the same stem as the word sleep with which the 
connection is obvious. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Bthno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 89 

n Sweat-house is used here as a general term. The word cane found 
in the Northern and Central Porno dialects is usually given in speaking 
of both the sudatory and the dance or ceremonial house. The two are dis- 
tinguished, however, as holi-cane, and kemane-cane, in the Northern dialect; 
and ho-cane and ke-cane or kiiya-cane in the Central dialect. 

Ma ama signifies earth and ta signifies house, the reference being to the 
fact that the houses were covered with earth. dhd-nam-ta, fire-build-in- 
house, is also used, as well as cana-ta. 

"It was stated in discussing the natural cultural areas of the region 
under consideration that no boats were used in the valley region except 
on the Laguna de Santa Rosa. Tule boats similar to those used about 
Clear lake were used here. The only means of water travel along the 
coast was a raft made of logs bound together with hazel or other binding 
material. 

* The word napa was given by Southwestern informants as the name 
of the complete fish-spear, but it was also obtained from informants 
speaking the Central, Eastern, and Southern dialects as the name of the 
detachable points only. As is suggested in speaking of the name Napa, the 
origin of which is not definitely known, there may be some connection 
between it and this Porno word. 

"* aadtfi was given by one informant. 

41 The word for pipe in most of the languages here under consideration 
is a compound signifying either tobacco stone or tobacco stick. The 
terms used in the Porno dialects, except in the Northeastern, signify to- 
bacco stone, notwithstanding the fact that the pipe of the region is made 
of wood. 

**• taleya-p5 is also used. 

4,6 pol-catane is also used. 

4,8 xaixd is also used. 

44 dnma is the term applied to any sort of a utensil whether made of fiber 
or other material. 

44 tcold is used in the southern part of this area. 

"Purdy in his, "Porno Indian Baskets and Their Makers," Land of 
Sunshine, XV, 444, gives kolob as the term signifying basket used at 
Lower lake, the southernmost arm of Clear lake. It is about the shores 
of Lower lake that practically all of the territory of the Southeastern 
dialectic area lies. 

**• tcimlsa is also used. 

Mb tdd-catui is the usual form of this word, but tdo-bala is also used. 

Mc iwe-da is also used. 

444 f alibikal and f alubakal were also given. 

49 One informant gave kabaa as fog and bisi as cloud. 

** kaba is also used. 

44 ama-miydl was also given. 

47 The terms used as names for the ocean convey various ideas. The 
people living inland usually use b6-xa, etc., signifying west water; while 
xa-batin, or other dialectic variations of this term, signifying water big, 
as well as xa-m5ts, water-salty, are also used. These last two terms are 
used particularly by the people living on the immediate seashore. 

"•bo-xa, west-water, is frequently used. 

4Tb a'ka-mdt8, water-salty, is also used. 

44 According to one informant wicali means east. 

44 It is probable that there is some confusion in the names of different 
species of pine, and that the names here given as those for Digger pine 
may in some cases be really the names of other species. 



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90 University of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

"By this term are meant the various bulbs, conns, and tubers used by 
the Indians for food, except the conn of Allium unifoliutn, and perhaps other 
species of Allium, popularly known as wild onion. 

a It appears that native wild oats grew as far north as the divide be- 
tween the Eel river and Russian river drainages and perhaps a little 
farther. In the Porno country they were used to a considerable extent for 
food, but the original Indian names have been hard to obtain, the Spanish 
term for grain having superseded them in most cases. 

"' Spanish semiya is also used, though bita-baa is the aboriginal term. 

nb ba-bana, tail-forked, is the aboriginal name of the oat, but the 
Spanish simiya is more frequently heard at present. 

" There was no intoxicating drink known to the Indians of this region 
before their contact with Spanish and English speaking people, and there 
is therefore no aboriginal word indicating such a drink. Contrary to the 
rule with introduced commodities whiskey did not bring its Spanish or 
English name into these languages; but descriptive terms are used in the 
several dialects. To the word water various modifiers indicating bad, 
strong tasting, and bitter are added. 

"■burakal is the generic term signifying bear, and is usually given in 
speaking of a grizzly for the reason that it is the sort of bear most commonly 
thought of. If it is desirable to distinguish among the species of bears 
the grizzly is called burakal-pitail, bear-white, or sometimes burakal-xabalal. 

■* Another informant gave bor-ka as the term signifying bears of the 
various species. 

* osin is used in the southern part of this area. 

M Horses and almost all other introduced animals and articles retained 
their Spanish names, particularly in the southern part of the territory 
under consideration. One informant says that when horses were first 
ridden by the Spaniards into the valley along Bussian river they were 
called by the Indians speaking the Central Porno dialect, kasizi-tcimau- 
kale, or elk ride for; that is, elk which could be ridden. It is likely that 
the same naming at first sight was done elsewhere and with other animals 
and objects, but the names have been forgotten. The same people called 
the first cattle they saw masa'n-pce or white man 's deer. 

•*• kiwena is also used. 

"* Another informant gave aiyfin. 

Me Another informant gave tcaai. 

" tsilak is used in the southern part of this area. 

M katait is used in the southern part of this area. 

"•Probably a different species from that referred to by the terms of 
the other dialects. 

Mb po and pol are also used in, the Northern, Central, Eastern, Southwest- 
ern and perhaps Southern dialects in referring to reddish substances, though 
there is some doubt as to whether they include the abstract idea itself. In 
the Southeastern and Northeastern dialects these become f 6 and f 51 in accord- 
ance with the usual phonetic laws of these dialects. 

" kuta is used in the southern part of this area. 

"* This term really signifies any sort of a mark or figure, as the design 
on a basket, etc. 

"mice and its different forms indicate a scent of any sort, while tiic-mice 
and nis-mice, which occur in the Northern and Eastern dialects, indicate any 
sort of a bad odor. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 91 

— The numerals used in the southern part of this dialectic area are in 
most cases the same as those used in the northern. The following varia- 
tions however are found: 

1. tcatca. 

2. akd or ako 

4. mltca or mit.a 

7. Iatk5 or latku 

8. kdmtca, kdmta 

10. tca-cutd, tca-co'to 

11. winan-tca 

12. winan-ko 

13. winan-sibo 

14. winamt-a 

15. wina-tuco 

16. wina-lantca 

17. wina-latko 

18. wina-kdmtca 

19. wina-tcatcd 
30. misibo-cuto 
40. mlt-a-cuto 
60. lantca-hai 

80. k6mtca-hai, kftrata-cuto 
200. ako-hai, ako-wl 

116 Porno numerals from eleven up vary in their composition. In the 
Northern, Central, Eastern, and Southeastern dialects eleven is ten plus 
one, while in the Southern and Southwestern dialects the element ten in 
the numeral eleven is omitted and the numbers from eleven up are simply 
plus one, plus two, etc. 

**8erpat3ta is more frequently used than sebaita. The former, how- 
ever, very closely resembles the Southerly Wintun seven and is, like sev- 
eral other Southeastern Porno numerals, very probably borrowed directly 
from that language, sebaita is given preference in the vocabulary because 
it seems probable that it is nearer the original form of this numeral in this 
dialect. 

Md As in the case of seven, the term which is believed to be a survival 
of the original one is here given. The Wintun panamusta is however more 
frequently used. 

09 It is worthy of note that while in most other respects the South- 
eastern Porno seem to have retained their language quite uncorrupted, 
they have incorporated many of the Wintun numerals, in some cases al- 
most without change. So far has this incorporation progressed that the 
aboriginal Porno numerals have nearly disappeared. In a few cases the 
aboriginal term and the Wintun appear combined, as is probable in the 
case of eighty, danwi-tal-pacem, in which danwi, equivalent to danwidi, 
is purely Southeastern Porno and -tal-pacem is probably Wintun. However, 
in most of the numerals the Wintun term has supplanted the Porno, or if 
the Porno still persists it is but rarely used. In cases where the latter 
condition prevails the Porno has been retained in the vocabulary, the 
borrowed Wintun equivalent being noted in a footnote. It is not unlikely 
that Powers was influenced to a considerable degree by the similarity 
between the numerals of these two languages when he classed the South- 
eastern Pomo, whom he calls the " Makh-el-chel, ' ' with the Wintun. 

ut caba-tal-pacem is also used. 

"•The form given in the vocabulary is probably a combination of 
Pomo and Wintun, danwi being equivalent to the Pomo danwidi, eight, 
and -tal-pacem being probably of Wintun origin. In addition to this term 
panamusta-tal-pacem is also used. 

** The usual signification of kali is sky. 



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92 University of California Publication* in Am. ArcK and Ethn. [VoL 6 

"' This term resembles the Northerly Wintun word for eight and may 
have been in part derived from that source, as people of the Wintun stock 
surround the Northeastern Pomo on three aides. 

MJ seLawika also was obtained as a term signifying nine. This, how- 
ever, very closely resembles the Northerly Wintun eight and may have 
been confused by the informant with that term. This is the more proba- 
ble for the reason that the Northeastern Pomo now live in close affiliation 
with the Northerly Wintun, who greatly outnumber them and whose 
language they speak in addition to their own. 

"•* Twenty-one to twenty-eight inclusive are formed regularly, that is, 
to the stem twenty is added in each dialect plus-one, plus-two, and so on. 

M1 cento and sentu are corruptions of the Spanish term for hundred 
which was introduced among these people with the first occupation of this 
region by the early Mexican settlers. These corrupted Spanish terms 
seem to have, in the dialects in which they appear, completely supplanted 
the original Indian terms. 

" m llbd-mta was given by another informant. 

"■ Informants sometimes add a directive ending, 1, in giving these 
cardinal points, thus making them really eastward, westward, etc. 

" kaf otki was given by one informant. 

*■ yaiyi is also used. 

116 dididimta was given by another informant. 

* dokili is used in the southern part of this area. 
*• kuyeyi is also used. 

•* waliko is also used. 
"* talik is also used. 
** gotca is also used. 
"* suya is also used. 
"* wiwaia is also used. 
** kltcdta is also used. 
"* waiwaiya is also used. 
•' hutui is also used. 
* J sitcisuk is also used. 
•°*totdk is also used. 
•' kir is also used. 
* m sakturll is also used. 

• l tumi is used to denote heavy fog, and kds light fog. 
*• kdiyft-liwa is also used. 

" po is also found in the Pomo dialects, where it has the forms po, p6, 
pdl, and f ol, signifying magnesite beads. 
•* wflak is also used. 
** sawatu is also used. 
* e tcapul is also used. 
"* balalik is sometimes also used. 
•*• kitcitQ is also used. 
* f tultulama is also used. 
•*« puyuka is also used. 

• pi is the demonstrative, that. 
•* The dual is pepe. 

M The dual is nepelnd. 
M The dual is hata. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 93 

"* wetis and la'ikas are also used. 

•* eteta-senta is also used, senta is evidently derived from the Spanish 
and eteta-senta is literally one-hundred. 

•* yukti is also used. 

•^Lupaku is also used. 

"* suZtusa is also used. 

" In the course of the present investigation only very limited vocabu- 
laries of the Yuki proper and the Coast Yuki dialects were obtained, and 
the author is indebted to Professor A. L. Kroeber for the greater part of 
the accompanying vocabularies of these two dialects, as also for a number 
of Wappo and Huchnom terms. The terms in the Wappo and Huchnom 
vocabularies which were contributed by Professor Kroeber are indicated by 
a dagger. All the terms in the Yuki proper and the Coast Yuki vocabularies 
were contributed by Professor Kroeber except those marked with an asterisk, 
which were taken by the author. 

"* kakutf is also used. 

"* huwalu is also used. 

*" un-ke was given by another informant. 

* mil and miil in Yuki proper and Coast Yuki respectively denote calf of 
the leg, and ta B t and t'et in Yuki proper and Coast Yuki respectively denote 
the thigh. 

"* metilekic is also used. 

* iwil-han denotes poison house; but dn-a-han, dirt house, was also ob- 
tained as the word for sweat-house. 

•^hitmol is also used. 

10 In the Wappo and Coast Yuki dialects the name for pipe signifies 
tobacco stone, but in Huchnom and Yuki proper tobacco stick is used. 

n t'uk is the term denoting coiled basketry. 

n A large and a small body of water are distinguished by the terms 
lele, a small open place, and tul, a large open place, used in connection 
with me, meaning water, the two terms being me-lele and me-hu-tul. 

n These two terms signify large valley or open place and small valley 
or open place respectively. 

" The application of this term to a valley is, or at least was originally, 
probably to a flat marshy piece of land, kat signifies flat and on-kat 
signifies land flat, but k 'at signifies wet and on-k 'at signifies mud, and it 
is not unlikely that the two ideas were more or less connected in the 
minds of the Indians, ukom signifies swamp or probably more exactly a 
flat valley which might become marshy; it may also be used to designate 
valley. 

n Chesnut in ' ' Plants used by the Indians of Mendocino County, Cali- 
fornia,' ' Cont. from U. 8. Nat. Herbarium, Vol. VII, No. 3, p. 307, gives 
"pol-cum-ol" as the Yuki name for Digger pine. 

"* aiu-hol is also used. 

"tsitsa is used by the Wappo with the signification of bear and also 
bird. The same term with slight variations is found in the Porno dialects 
with the signification of bird. 

"*holt'omt is also used. 

"fpdtmuf is also used. 

77 The Wappo dialect has pice meaning antler. The same term with 
phonetic variations is that used by the Porno with the signification of 
deer. 



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94 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

"This word signifies "sit fire be who." 

n a"s-itc and e 's-itc in the Yuki proper and Coast Yuki dialects respec- 
tively are composed of the root signifying blood and the diminutive itc 
which here seems to signify like. 

"k'in is used with the several significations of stink, sorry, pity, cry, 
and weep. 

n hulkelel really means ghost and not a dead body. This name is also 
used for white man. 

**• ki means that or he, and ka means strictly this. 

n The demonstrative. 

n us, inclusive, and mi, exclusive. 

M usat, inclusive, and miat, exclusive. 

" The dual. 

*• This term signifies literally water large at. 

" mipatopkitc and mipatalewa are also given. 

n mipatopkitc is also used. 

M hutcampa D wipan is nine. 

M This is also ten. 

n This is also eleven, molmi-huipoi was also given for nineteen. 

9U pawa-senta is also used. 

nb Literally two-hundred, the term ciento being derived from the Span- 
ish word signifying hundred. 

m Dance and sing are the same word. 

"* hakice is also used. 

** watis is also used. 

* See note 80. 



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1908] 



Barrett. — The BtkfUhQeography of the Porno Indians. 



96 



POMO. 
LEXICAL RELATIONSHIPS. 

In considering the lexical relationships of the Porno dialects 
one to another, only those words have been selected for compar- 
ison which have been obtained in all of the seven dialects. M In 
the accompanying vocabularies the number of such words, all of 
which it will be seen are words of common occurrence and most 
likely to show fundamental relationships among the dialects, is 
one hundred and eighty. Of this number fifty, or 27.8 per cent, 
have identical roots in the several dialects in each case, and two, 

TABLE I." 

8howing number and percentage of roots in each dialeet 
common to each other dialect; also average percentage of 
common roots in each dialect. 



N. C. 



8. 8W. 8B. NS. 



N. 



180 148 119 



111 110 



88 88 



c. 


82.8 
66.2 
61.7 
61.1 
46.0 
47.8 


180 


115 
180 


121 

98 

180 


118 
88 

122 
180 


84 
81 
82 
76 
180 


82 


B. 


64.0 
67.2 
66.6 
46.7 
46.5 


76 


8. 


51.7 
48.9 
45.0 
42.2 


78 


8W. 


67.8 
45.5 
43.8 


75 


8E. 


42.2 
41.7 


65 


NE. 


36.1 


180 



At. per. 60.9 61.9 53.0 56.37 64.5 43.58 42.77 



M On account of the great irregularity of root forms in numerals and 
the doubtfulness of some of the terms of relationship obtained, it has been 
deemed advisable to omit these from all considerations of both lexical and 
phonetic relationship, not only in dealing with the Porno but with the 
dialects of the other three stocks as well. Likewise all terms which are 
of Spanish origin have been omitted from these considerations. 

"For the sake of brevity in tabulating, the initial instead of the full 
name of each dialect is given. However, since the dialects have been 
given descriptive geographical names no confusion can arise from the use 
of the initial in this manner. 



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96 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

or 1.1 per cent., have entirely different roots in each dialect, 
thus leaving one hundred and twenty-eight, or 71.1 per cent., with 
root forms varying more or less from dialect to dialect, but each 
having the same root in at least two dialects. From this it will 
be seen that about one-fourth of this list of Porno words most 
commonly in use have identical roots in all dialects, while nearly 
all of the remaining three-fourths have the same roots in two or 
more dialects, but not the same in all dialects, the proportion of 
words with roots dissimilar in all dialects being so small as to be 
practically negligible. As the words of this list are among those 
most commonly used, it is presumable that they are the words the 
roots of which would be most similar in all the dialects, so that 
it is probable that a more extended list would show an increase 
over this very small percentage of words with dissimilar roots 
in all dialects; but it is doubtful if even with any larger list of 
reasonably common terms the proportion of these entirely dis- 
similar words would ever be very considerable. 

Considering now the relationships of the various Porno dia- 
lects to one another, it is apparent from table I, which shows 
both the actual number and the percentage of roots in each dia- 
lect held in common with each of the other dialects respectively, 
as well as the average percentage of such common roots in each 
dialect, that so far as the percentages are concerned the various 
dialects are related to each other, each dialect being taken sepa- 
rately as a base, as follows : 

TABLE II. 
Showing descending order of lexical similarity of Porno dialects. 

N. 



S.W. 
8.E. 

N.E. 



c. 


E. 


S. 


S.W. 


N.E. 


S.E. 


82.3 


66.2 


61.7 


61.1 


47.8 


46.0 


N. 


S. 


S.W. 


E. 


S.E. 


N.E. 


82.3 


67.2 


65.6 


64.0 


46.7 


45.5 


N. 


C. 


S. 


S.W. 


S.E. 


N.E. 


66.2 


64.0 


51.7 


48.9 


45.0 


42.2 


S.W. 


C. 


N. 


E. 


S.E. 


N.E. 


67.8 


67.2 


61.7 


51.7 


45.5 


43.3 


S. 


C. 


N. 


E. 


S.E. 


N.E. 


67.8 


65.6 


61.1 


48.9 


42.2 


41.7 


C. 


N. 


S. 


E. 


S.W. 


N.E. 


46.7 


46.0 


45.5 


45.0 


42.2 


36.1 


N. 


C. 


S. 


E. 


S.W. 


S.E. 


47.8 


45.5 


43.3 


42.2 


41.7 


36.1 



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1908] 



Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 



97 



From this table, as well as from a consideration of the aver- 
ages of the percentages of common roots as shown in Table I, it 
is apparent that the Central and Northern dialects are the most 
typical of the Porno language as a whole, these dialects possessing 
the greatest average percentages, 61.9 and 60.9 respectively, of 
roots held in common with other dialects, each of the dialects 
being taken as a basis of classification for every other dialect. 

Further, again considering the relationships shown by the 
average percentages, the dialects come in the following order: 
the Central, with 61.9 per cent.; the Northern, with 60.9 per 
cent. ; the Southern, with 56.37 per cent. ; the Southwestern, with 
54.5 per cent. ; the Eastern, with 53.0 per cent. ; the Southeastern, 
with 43.58 per cent. ; and the Northeastern, with 42.77 per cent. ; 
which relationship may be expressed graphically as in the fol- 
lowing diagram. 



100 



;n 



sw 



SE 



;ne 



■<M-H H- 



62: 56 : " ; 
61- 54: 

*3 






44*: 
43* 



Diagram showing the average percentage of roots held in 
common by any one Porno dialect with all the remaining 
dialects. 

Prom these relations of average percentages it appears that 
the seven Porno dialects fall into three groups : the Central and 
the Northern, with 61.9 and 60.9 per cents, respectively; the 
Southern, the Southwestern, and the Eastern, with 56.37, 54.5, 
and 53.0 per cents, respectively; and the Southeastern and the 
Northeastern, with 43.58 and 42.77 per cents, respectively. Each 
of these groups is separated to a considerable degree from the 
one nearest, while the constituents of each group are only com- 
paratively little different one from the other. This similarity is, 



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98 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol 6 

however, only one of average percentages of roots common to 
dialects, and by no means implies any close similarity between 
any two dialects in each group. In fact the last group men- 
tioned, that consisting of the Southeastern and Northeastern 
dialects, contains the two dialects which, while they are both most 
dissimilar to all other dialects collectively, are at the same time 
more dissimilar to each other than any other one of the dialects 
is to either of them. They possess only 36.1 per cent, of roots in 
common, while the smallest percentage of roots possessed in 
common by either of these with any of the other dialects is 41.7 
per cent., or 5.6 per cent. more. 

If arranged according to absolute lexical affinity one with 
another there would be five groups, as follows : The Central and 
the Northern ; the Eastern ; the Southern and the Southwestern ; 
the Southeastern ; and the Northeastern ; the last two being the 
most unrelated to each other of any two. 

Now combining these two relationships and thus considering 
the relationship shown by the average percentages of root forms 
held in common by the dialects, and considering also the relation- 
ships shown by the absolute lexical affinities, these dialects are 
related one to another about as follows : The Central and North- 
ern with 61.9 and 60.9 average per cents, respectively are the 
most clearly related to all the other dialects and may thus be 
taken to represent the typical existing form of the Porno language 
as a whole. At the same time the relationship existing between 
these two dialects is closer than that existing between any other 
two of the dialects, they having 82.3 per cent, of roots in common. 
The Southern, Southwestern, and Eastern dialects, with 56.37, 
54.5, and 53.0 average per cents, respectively are, so far as their 
average percentage relationships to the remaining dialects are 
concerned, closely related, but in respect to an actual connection 
one with the other the Southern and Southwestern are much more 
closely related to each other than either is to the Eastern. The 
Southern and Southwestern have 67.8 per cent, of roots in com- 
mon, while with the Eastern they have only 51.7 and 48.9 per 
cents, respectively of roots in common. Thus the grouping of 
these three dialects together by virtue of the closeness of their 
average percentages is a negative rather than a positive relation- 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 99 

ship, in that it shows them all to be about mutually unrelated to 
the remaining dialects, but does not in the least imply that they 
are mutually related one to the other. The last of the three 
groups made according to the average percentages contains the 
Southeastern and Northeastern dialects with 43.58 and 42.77 
average per cents, respectively. Here again the grouping is a 
negative one and shows these two dialects about mutually unre- 
lated to the remaining dialects, but even more than in the former 
case this grouping must not be understood to imply any mutual 
relationship of these two dialects, for they have only 36.1 per 
cent, of roots in common, which is a smaller per cent, than either 
of these dialects has with any of the other five. The least affinity 
shown between one of these dialects and another of the remaining 
five is between the Northeastern and the Southwestern, where the 
number of roots held in common by the two is 41.7 per cent., thus 
making these two dialects more nearly related by 5.6 per cent, 
than the Southeastern and the Northeastern. 

It is impossible without the use of three dimensions to show 
graphically the relationships of the seven Porno dialects to one 
another with any exactness. The following diagram, however, 
roughly shows these relationships. By virtue of their close rela- 
tionship one to the other the Central and Northern dialects are 
placed close together. By virtue of their possessing nearly equal 
average percentages of roots in common with the remaining dia- 
lects they are considered to form a group, which may be taken 
to most nearly represent the type of the Pomo language as a 
whole, and for this reason are given a centralized position in the 
diagram. The fact that they are so nearly related in the matter 
of possessing actual root forms in common is indicated by en- 
closing the two in the same area. It was noted above that the 
Eastern, Southern, and Southwestern dialects were about mu- 
tually unrelated to the remaining dialects, as is shown by their 
respective average per cents., but at the same time it was noted 
that so far as the actual number of roots held in common between 
the Eastern and the Southern or the Southwestern was concerned 
the Eastern was quite unrelated to the Southern and South- 
western, and also that the Southern and Southwestern were quite 
closely related one to the other. The fact that these three dialects 



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100 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

are about equally unrelated to the others is indicated by their 
arrangement along a short axis with the typical group, the 
Central and Northern dialects, as an approximate center. The 
fact that the Southern and Southwestern dialects are quite closely 
related is shown by their being placed in the same enclosed area, 
but the fact that they are not so nearly related to each other as 
Central and Northern are is shown by their being placed farther 
apart within their area than Central and Northern are within 
theirs. The fact that the actual root relationship between the 
Eastern dialect and the typical group is closer than that between 
the Southern-Southwestern group and the typical group is indi- 
cated by its being placed nearer the typical group area. In a 
like manner the relationships of the Southeastern and North- 
eastern dialects to each other and to the remaining dialects are 
expressed as nearly as possible in the diagram by placing these 
two at opposite ends of the long axis to show that they are about 
mutually unrelated to the remaining dialects, and by placing 
them at greater distances from the central typical group area 
than the Eastern or the Southern and Southwestern are placed, 
to show that they are more remotely connected with the presum- 
able original stem of the language than are any of these. The 
use of two axes is made necessary by the fact that the South- 
eastern and Northeastern dialects are not only more remotely 
connected with the central typical group than are the Eastern 



H 



"swl 



■ 1C N 



■El 



GO 



Diagram showing the approximate relationship of Porno dialects. 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 101 

or Southern and Southwestern, but that they are also very re- 
motely connected with these. Thus in placing them on this 
second axis their distances from the Southern-Southwestern 
group and from the Eastern area indicate this comparatively 
remote connection with these dialects. Further, by placing them 
at opposite ends of the axis the fact that they are very remotely 
connected with each other is shown. 

PHONETIC RELATIONSHIPS. 

The following sounds are found in the Porno dialects: 

Vowels : 

a, ai, e, e, I, i, 6, o, u, u, u. 

Consonants : 

kg t- d- t d t d pb 

n n m 

x g* c s z f hw w 

1 

L 

L 

r 

r 
y, h, tc, ts, dj. 

Phonetic Variations. 

The following phonetic variations 86 are found among the 
several Porno dialects. 

h in other dialects changes very regularly to x in Eastern and 
Southeastern. 

k in other dialects usually changes to x in Eastern. The 
same change is found frequently in Southeastern and occasion- 
ally in Northern. Both k and x in other dialects frequently 
change to g* in Eastern. 

t in other dialects occasionally changes to r or r in Eastern. 

tc in other dialects changes to k quite frequently in Eastern 

••Owing to the very limited amount of material from which to work, 
it is impossible at present to determine whether all the phonetic changes 
here noted are governed by any fixed sequences of sounds. However, from 
a few cases noted there is evidence that the preceding and succeeding 
sounds do govern at least some of these changes. 



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102 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

and a little less frequently to g*, g or x. tc in other dialects fre- 
quently changes to dj in Southern and Southwestern and in 
Northeastern it frequently becomes t or t. 

c in other dialects changes very frequently to x in South- 
eastern, and c in Northern and Central occasionally changes to k 
in Eastern, c in other dialects changes upon rare occasions to s 
in Northeastern. 

ts, which is apparently entirely lacking in Northeastern where 
tc regularly replaces it, is fairly constant in the remaining dia- 
lects. 

dj in Northern, Southern, and Southwestern occasionally 
changes to g in Eastern. 

1 is fairly constant in all dialects, but 1 final is occasionally 
replaced by n or m in Southern. 

b in other dialects changes in a few cases to p in Central. 

In the few cases in which f occurs in the Southeastern and 
the Northeastern dialects p is the corresponding sound found in 
other dialects. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that the various Pomo 
dialects are characterized by certain phonetic features as follows: 

Northern Dialect. 

The following phonetic changes from the other Pomo dialects 
are found in the Northern. 

k in other dialects changes occasionally to x in Northern, the 
same change being much more frequent in Eastern and South- 
eastern. 

k in the Eastern dialect occasionally changes to c in the 

Northern. 

Central Dialect. 

There are but few phonetic changes which are peculiar to the 
Central dialect, as follows : 

b in other dialects changes to p in Central in a few cases, and 
f , which occurs only in Southeastern and Northeastern, always 
changes to p in this dialect. 

k in the Eastern dialect occasionally changes to c in the 
Central. 

The suppression of open vowels is frequent in this dialect. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Oeography of the Porno Indians. 103 

Eastern Dialect. 

There are a number of phonetic changes peculiar to the 
Eastern dialect, as follows : 

The most frequently occurring phonetic change noticed is 
that of k in other dialects to x in Eastern. The same change 
occurs less frequently in Southeastern and still less frequently in 
Northern. 

In a very few cases k preceded by a and followed by 5 changes 
to g* in the Eastern dialect. 

dj in the Northern, Southern, and Southwestern dialects occa- 
sionally changes to x in the Eastern. 

c in the Northern and Central dialects occasionally changes to 
k in the Eastern. 

h in other dialects changes to x in Eastern and Southeastern 
in a few cases. 

There are a few cases where t in other dialects appears to 
change to r or r in Eastern. 

Initial t in other dialects changes to x, g' or h in a few in- 
stances, while medial t in others changes in a few cases to g' or 
k, all changes being apparently unaffected by the accompanying 
sounds. 

In a few cases 1 is added to monosyllabic words, but with no 
apparent regularity as to the accompanying sound. 

tc in other dialects occasionally changes to k and more rarely 
to x, g' or g in Eastern. 

In a very few cases dj or tc in other dialects changes to g in 
Eastern. 

Southeastern Dialect. 

The phonetic changes which characterize this dialect are in 
some cases striking. 

h in other dialects changes to x in the Southeastern and 
Eastern dialects in a few cases. 

c in other dialects changes quite regularly to x in South- 
eastern. 

k in other dialects occasionally changes to x in Southeastern. 
The same change occurs less frequently in Northern and more 
frequently in Eastern. 



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104 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

t final occurs frequently in Southeastern, usually preceded 
by i, sometimes by a or 6, and rarely by e or u. The remaining 
dialects have no corresponding sound in these words. 

In a very few instances tc in other dialects changes to ts in 
Southeastern. 

f , which is, as has been stated, one of the most uncommon 
sounds in native American languages, is found in this dialect 
and also in the Northeastern, the corresponding sound in the 
remaining Porno dialects being p. The change of b in other dia- 
lects to f in Southeastern apparently does not occur. From the 
accompanying list of words containing f it will be seen that this 
sound is usually followed by a or o, and occasionally by 5, u, 
and I. 

SOUTHEASTERN AND NORTHEASTERN DIALECT WORDS IN WHICH F 

OCCURS. 



English 


Southeastern 


Northeastern 


man 


mafo 




old man 


mutui-fa 




old woman 


kata-fa 




infant 


xiwi-fa 




human being 


umti-mfo 




white man 


xd, or xd-mf o 




daughter 


wim-fat 


fatada 


finger 




klafana 


excrement 


fa 


fa-himd 


intestines 


fa, or kokmai-fa 


fa 


deer snare 


beke-fuyim 




magnesite beads 


fdl, or f 51-huya 


f o, f ol 


basket 




fat 


blackbird 


kaafal 




frog 


faxats 




dance 


xe-mfdm 




shake 


kafotki 




poison 


kufll or kifil 




spring 


xakfa 




mush oak 


tsafa-budu 




root (used as medicine) 


fool 




burden basket 


falibikal, or falubakal 




a camp site on the 






shore of East lake 


kaalkfai 





fo, signifying people, is frequently used as a part of the name 
of a people, as, tia'm-fo, the people living in Coyote valley at the 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Oeography of the Pomo Indians. 105 

head of Putah creek, a'nam-fo, the people living in Upper lake 
valley. 

Southern Dialect. 

The following phonetic changes are found in the Southern 
dialect : 

1 in other dialects occasionally changes to n or m in Southern, 
in particular final 1 of others usually changes to n. 

b in other dialects changes to p in Southern in a very few 
cases. 

tc frequently changes to dj in Southern as also in South- 
western. 

Roots in other dialects, the vowels of which are a, frequently 
add a, usually before the root, in the Southern dialect, and there 
are a few cases of such affixing where the root vowel is not a. 

I and e are occasionally added to roots whose vowels are the 
same as the added vowel. 

I and hi are also frequently added but before stem vowels 
other than I, usually a, and sometimes u or o. 

Other rare cases of such additions of sounds occur, as o, ho 
and hu. ha does not appear to be so used. 



Southwestern Dialect. 

The phonetic characteristics of the Southwestern dialect are 
the following: 

tc in other dialects frequently changes to dj in Southwestern, 
as also in Southern. 

a is frequently added to roots in the Southwestern dialect 
and the same general statements concerning its use in the South- 
ern dialect are true here also. 

I is frequently, and hi is occasionally added, invariably to 
stems whose vowel is not i. The stem vowel is usually a, but 
sometimes u or o. 

A very few instances are found in which he and hu are added 
before roots. 

e is apparently never added in this manner. 



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106 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 

Northeastern Dialect. 

A few characteristic phonetic changes are found in the North- 
eastern dialect. 

tc in other dialects frequently changes to t or t in North- 
eastern. 

ts appears to be entirely lacking in the Northeastern dialect, 
being very regularly replaced by tc. 

c in other dialects changes upon rare occasions to s in North- 
eastern. 

f , which occurs in only a very few words in this dialect, ap- 
pears to have only p as an equivalent in the remaining dialects 
except in the Southeastern where f is also found. However, 
owing to the incompleteness of the present vocabularies it can 
not be definitely stated that the change of b in other dialects to f 
in Northeastern does not occur. 

As before mentioned, the conclusions here stated as to lexical 
and phonetic similarity and diversity of the various Pomo dia- 
lects are based on the larger general vocabularies, but in order 
to have in concise form a limited number of terms for purposes 
of comparison a shorter list of typical words found most com- 
monly in use among the Pomo is here given. While in general 
an inspection of these short vocabularies will show the same facts 
as to the existing similarities and diversities among the dialects 
there may be some cases where such an inspection would not yield 
precisely the same results. However, in this connection it must 
be remembered that to obtain the results above stated much larger 
lists of words were used, and it is to this fact that the apparent 
discrepancies in results are due. 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Qeogropmy of the Porno Indians. 107 



° 8 



_ |i 

f*!iiil*lliJlj£J<llf3jiidjfe!l : 

i 



J a Hi. IAiA iUtUi* .Hill Jill 

i 

8 !lillaliiliilllii5iiifl!isilli 



§ i i * 

3 



I lillillifiiiildllilidlilisiili 






I 

CO 



p 



.§ 



g Mll.lsdjldiJJiljujlilftiil: 



I i | 4 

s * *1t .Is * jJ-J J J Jll^u u silll fill- 



•C K 



I 



I 



.*■ 



fli2&IiilI1llll^Ii!ll!ili!ll 



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108 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 
MOQUELUMNAN. 

LEXICAL RELATIONSHIPS. 

In the three Moquelumnan dialects here under consideration 
two, the Southern and the Western, are comparatively closely 
related, the differences between them being only slight as com- 
pared with those existing between either of them and the North- 
ern. The Northern is, as might be expected from its isolated 
situation, quite different from both of these, and forms a very 
marked dialect. With the present limited amount of material 
at hand it is impossible to give accurately the percentage rela- 
tionships of these dialects one to another. 





PHONETIC RELATIONSHIPS. 






Sounds. 






The following sounds are found in 


the Moquelumnan dialects : 


Vowels : 








a, ai, e, e, T, i, 6, 


o, ti, u, ft. 






Consonants : 








kg 


t d t 




Pb 


n 


n 




m 


x g c 


s 

8 
1 




w 


L 








L 








y, h, tc, ts, dj. 









Phonetic Variations. 

Certain phonetic changes are found to occur in passing from 
one Moquelumnan dialect to another, as follows : 

tc in the Western and Southern dialects regularly changes to 
ts in the Northern. 

s in the other two dialects occasionally changes to c in the 
Northern. 

s or n in the Western and Northern dialects does in rare in- 
stances change to s in the Southern. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Pomo Indians. 109 

8 is, so far as has been found, entirely lacking in the Northern 
dialect, but fairly common in the Western and Southern. 

y in the other dialects occasionally changes to 1 in the North- 
ern, and there is one case each of an apparent change of m to 1 
and t to 1 in the Northern. 

s is frequently added, by some informants at least, to stems, 
usually after the stem, in the Southern dialect, and there is one 
case of c used in this manner. Neither of these relations appears 
in the Northern or the Western dialect. 

All other sounds appear to be constant in the three dialects. 

Thus it will be seen that the phonetic affinity between the 
Western and Southern dialects is, like the lexical, very close, 
while the Northern is much more separated phonetically as well 
as lexically from both of them. 

WINTUN. 

LEXICAL RELATIONSHIPS. 

Owing to the meagreness of the vocabulary of the Northerly 
dialect, 428 an adequate idea cannot be gained of the exact lexical 
dissimilarity of the Northerly and the Southerly dialects, but 
the dissimilarity of these two is very considerable; probably 
greater than between any two contiguous dialects of the other 
three stocks here under consideration. Within the Southerly 
dialectic area there are also differences between the language of 
the extreme south, and that of the northern part of the area in 
the vicinity of Indian and Little Stony creeks. These differences 
will probably, upon more extended investigation, prove sufficient 
to warrant a subdivision of this large area into two or possibly 
more subdialectic areas. The material now at hand is, however, 
inadequate to allow of a systematic study and classification of 
this territory into smaller areas. It is probable also that the 
language spoken in what has been here designated as the North- 

*■• Professor A. L. Kroeber, in his recent paper ''The Dialectic Divi- 
sions of the Moquelumnan Family in Relation to the Internal Differentiation 
of the other Linguistic Families of California," Amer. Anthr. n. s., VIII, 
655, 1906, distinguishes three primary divisions of the entire Wintun lin- 
guistic family, a northern, a central, and a southern, his central dialect 
being the same as the one here referred to as the northerly dialect within 
the territory under consideration in this paper. 



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110 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [VoL 6 

erly dialectic area will upon further investigation be found to 
have sufficient internal differences to warrant its separation into 
subdialects. The same is true of the language spoken in the ex- 
treme northern part of the Wintun territory, which apparently 
forms a dialect quite distinct from that which has been here 
designated as the Northerly dialect. 

PHONETIC RELATIONSHIPS. 

Sounds. 

The following sounds are found in the Wintun dialects : 

Vowels : 

a, ai, e, e, i, i, o, o, ti, u, u. 

Consonants : 

k t d t p b 

n m 

c 8 w 

8 



L 

L 



y, h, tc, ts. 

Phonetic Variations. 

Owing also to the meagreness of the Northerly vocabulary, 
combined with the dissimilarity of the roots in the Northerly and 
Southerly dailects, it is impossible to determine in full the pho- 
netic relationships existing between them. 

The most regular phonetic change found in the Wintun vo- 
cabularies is that of c in the Southerly to s in the Northerly 
dialect. 

t or t in the Southerly sometimes changes to tc in the North- 
erly dialect, but there is one case of the reverse change in which 
tc in the Southerly changes to t in the Northerly. 

There is also an indication that tc in the Southerly changes 
to k in the Northerly dialect, though only two such cases are 
found in the accompanying vocabularies. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Bthno-Geography of the Porno Indians. Ill 



YUKI. 

LEXICAL RELATIONSHIP. 

Owing to the limited and in part uncorroborated vocabularies 
at hand of the four Yuki dialects, 480 particularly the Coast Yuki, 
anything like an exact statement of the lexical relationships of 
these is impossible. It is evident that the four dialects fall into 
two groups. The Yuki proper, the Huchnom, and the Coast Yuki 
form one group, all having a large majority of their roots in 
common and being quite different from the remaining dialect, 
the Wappo, which has a very considerable percentage of roots 
which are different from those of the other dialects named. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the first group is subdivided 
territorially, the Coast Yuki being separated from the others by 
a narrow strip of Athapascan territory about Laytonville and 
Cahto, the three dialects are lexically related to one another in 
about an equal degree. 

The main Wappo territory, however, was separated from the 
other Yuki territory lying nearest to it by about forty miles of 
mountainous country, thickly settled by people speaking other 
languages and hostile to the Yuki proper, thus making communi- 
cation between the main Wappo and the main Yuki areas prac- 
tically impossible. Further, this comparatively small area was 
surrounded on all sides by the territories of other linguistic 
families and the Wappo seem to have associated, to some extent 
at least, with most of their neighbors. Thus all circumstances 
tended to produce the dissimilarity found between the Wappo and 
the other Yuki dialects. The small Wappo area on Clear lake 
was somewhat nearer geographically to the main Yuki area, but 
there seems to have been no communication between them, and 
as the Clear Lake Wappo area appears to have been occupied 
only in more recent times, it having been settled chiefly by people 
from the Western Wappo subdialectic area, the differences be- 
tween the language spoken here and the dialects of the main Yuki 



••Professor A. L. Kroeber in his "Dialectic Divisions ot the Moque- 
lumnan Family, etc.," op. cit., p. 654, distinguishes in addition to the four 
dialectic divisions of the Yuki certain minor divisions which have not yet been 
fully determined. 



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112 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

area are probably fully as great as those between the main Wappo 
and the main Yuki areas. 

Within the main Wappo area there are four subdialects rec- 
ognized by the Indians themselves, to say nothing of the language 
of the Clear Lake Wappo ; but, so far as the vocabularies taken 
from each of these shows, the differences are so slight that it has 
been found unnecessary to give each of them in full. Owing to 
the fact that nearly all of the Indians of the greater part of this 
section have disappeared, it has been very difficult to obtain 
adequate material from all of these subdialects for comparison. 
From the southernmost area, the one in which Yountville is sit- 
uated, only one very limited list of words could be obtained. 
From the other four areas fairly complete lists have been ob- 
tained. The differences between the subdialect of the Central 
area, the one in which Calistoga is situated, and the Western are 
practically negligible. The Northern, the area in which Middle- 
town is situated, and the Clear lake area show greater differences 
as will be seen in the following list of the words from the West- 
ern, Northern, and Clear Lake subdialectic areas in which any 
marked differences of roots occur. The slightness of the differ- 
ences among these subdialects is, however, evident from this list. 

Western Northern Clear Lake 



31 white man 


lai 


lai, keu-kaiel 


hucii 


41 neck 


hoaits 


huwalu 




51 leg 


tia 


tia 


lulu 


60 intestines 


hame 


hame 


kito 


71 bow 


luka 


lukma 




72 arrow 


metse 


tiwa 


metse 


78 string 


teti 


tapa 


leuma 


140 Indian potato 


awe 


awe 


mun 


142 mush 


yeke 


yeke 


como 


175 woodpecker 


palitc 


pallya 


panak" 


177 turtle 


mitci 


mitci 


lutce 


189 mosquito 


tutca 


tatcma 


tutca 


198 small 


kutiya 


hukutiya 


kutiya 


199 good 


huciiya 


tciwiki 


huciiya 


202 sweet 


tcumeki 


tcumeki 


hucinagase 


204 dead person 


tcftel 


tcoel 


matcalato 


225 down 


op 


op 


hop 


269 see 


nau- 


nau- 


peLa 


279 give 


tehesi 


tehesi 


mesi 


280 laugh 


kata 


kata 


katice 



r The Western and Northern Moquelumnan dialects also have panak. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 113 

PHONETIC RELATIONSHIPS. 

Sounds. 

The following sounds are found in the Yuki dialects : 

Vowels : 

a, ai, e, e, I, i, 6, o, a, u, ft, a n , ai n , I", 6 n , ft". 

Consonants : 

kg t- t d t p b 

h n m 

c 8 w 

1 

L I 

y, h, tc, ts, dj. 

Phonetic Variations. 

Owing to the marked lexical dissimilarity between the Wappo 
and the other dialects, and also to the fact that the Coast Yuki is 
not adequately represented in the accompanying vocabularies, 
only a few characteristic phonetic changes among the Yuki dia- 
lects are shown, and these are not found in very many cases and 
should be taken more as indicative of what may be expected to be 
shown when larger vocabularies of these dialects are available. 

Among the consonants there are but few changes which ap- 
pear at all prominently, but among the vowels there are some 
changes which are quite strongly indicated. This is contrary to 
the usual relation found in the other stocks where as a rule vowels 
are constant and consonants change. 

c and tc in the other dialects change to ts in Wappo in a very 
few cases. 

k in other dialects changes to tc or ts in Wappo in several 
cases. 

Of the phonetic changes which appear among vowels the fol- 
lowing are the most conspicuous : 

a in Yuki proper frequently changes to e in the (Toast Yuki 
dialect and the same change occurs somewhat less frequently be- 
tween Huchnom and Coast Yuki. 

e in Huchnom changes frequently to I in Yuki proper and 
occasionally to i in Coast Yuki. 



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114 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

There are several cases of 5 in Yuki proper changing to e in 
Coast Yuki. \ 

u in Huchnom changes frequently to a in Yuki proper and 
but little less frequently to e in Coast Yuki. The changes of u 
in Huchnom to 5 in YuM proper, and of u in Huchnom to I in 
Coast Yuki, are occasionally shown. 



RELATIONSHIPS OP THE LINGUISTIC STOCKS. 

As has been before stated, the four linguistic stocks here 
under consideration are completely different one from the other 
lexically, their separate classification depending entirely upon 
this complete difference. It is therefore impossible to make any 
comparison of lexical relationships among these stocks, the few 
words with common roots held by two or more of the stocks being 
due either to borrowing or to an onomatopoetic origin. 

In considering the matter of borrowed words it is obvious that 
onomatopoetic words must be omitted, and in the accompanying 
vocabularies there are therefore but two hundred and four words 
which are admissible to comparison. 98 Very few of these iden- 
tical forms occur in more than one stock and but two, the words 
for medicine and dog, occur in all of the stocks, and these are not 
found in all of the dialects of each stock. 

With the Porno, the Moquelumnan seems to possess the great- 
est number of roots in common, there being in the Western 
Moquelumnan dialect seven words with roots in common with 
the Southwestern Porno dialect, and six words with roots in com- 
mon with both the Southern and the Northern Porno. The South- 
ern and the Northern Moquelumnan have fewer roots in common 
with these respective Porno dialects, as is to be expected from 
their geographical position, Southern Moquelumnan, however, 
possessing practically twice as many as Northern. In view of 
the friendly relations existing between the Southeastern Pomo 
and the Northern Moquelumnan, and of their mingling at the 
southern shore of Lower lake, the southernmost arm of Clear 



"Numerals, pronouns, onomatopoetic animal names, all the terms of re- 
lationship except those most commonly used, and words introduced from the 
Spanish have been omitted from consideration. 



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1908] Barfett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 115 

lake, it is noteworthy that there is in the accompanying list no 
clear case of borrowing between these two. 

On the other hand, the Northern Moquelumnan and the 
Southerly Wintun possess the largest number, twelve, of roots 
in common of any two of the dialects of the different stocks under 
consideration, which is also striking, as the two peoples were 
separated from each other by considerable distances and high 
mountain ranges." The Western Moquelumnan also possess a 
comparatively large number, ten, of roots in common with the 

"When questioned concerning the people of the Southerly Wintun 
territory which lies to the northeast, east, and southeast of them, inform- 
ants of the Northern Moquelumnan dialectic area professed no knowledge 
of the country or the people in those directions except those at the vil- 
lages on the upper course of Cache creek, that portion lying west of the 
main or what has been here designated as the inner range of the Coast 
Range mountains. The villages in this upper Cache creek area were 
comparatively near the northern part of the Moquelumnan territory and 
the Moquelumnan had a passing knowledge of them, but were unable to 
name any more distant Wintun villages, that is, any of the Wintun vil- 
lages lying east of the mountains. They said that there were no people 
living in the direction of Sacramento valley for great distances and that 
the intervening region was such rough and mountainous country that they 
never traveled there and the people of that region never visited them in 
aboriginal times. They knew that people in those more remote parts 
spoke a language similar to that of the people along the upper course of 
Cache creek, but knew apparently very little about the language of any 
of the Wintun except that it was different from their own and from Porno. 
Among the few remaining individuals of that portion of the Southerly 
Wintun region which lies wholly within the Sacramento vaUey proper, 
that is, exclusive of the upper Cache creek area, corresponding ignorance 
concerning the people in the region of the Northern Moquelumnan area 
was found. This mutual lack of knowledge is due very largely to the 
topography of the country. The Wintun territory lies chiefly to the east 
of the main range of the Coast Range mountains, the only exception to 
this being along the upper course of Cache creek, where a comparatively 
small area was held by people speaking the Southerly Wintun dialect. 
This main range of the Coast Range mountains is high and rugged as 
compared to the mountains separating the Northern Moquelumnan people 
from any of their other neighbors, and it appears that in former times the 
Northern Moquelumnan and the Wintun of the Sacramento valley had 
practically no communication whatever, since there would be no advan- 
tage to either so far as the obtaining of foods, etc., was concerned in 
such communication. In this same connection it should be noted that 
even with the Wintun who lived on the upper course of Cache creek, that 
portion lying west of the main range of the Coast Range, there was, not- 
withstanding the close linguistic affinity, very little communication with 
their Sacramento valley neighbors, except on the occasions of ceremonies 
when Indians from comparatively remote sections congregated for cele- 
brations. The mountains here seem to have imposed a barrier to any 
frequent and regular communication between the Sacramento vaUey and 
the Clear lake regions, the Sacramento valley peoples associating one 
with another in a direction parallel to the trend of this range of moun- 
tains, while the peoples to the west, in the Clear lake drainage, associated 
similarly together. 



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116 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

Southerly Wintun, which is a noteworthy circumstance since 
these two dialects are separated from each other by dialects 
which possess fewer words in common with one or the other re- 
spectively. 

Loan words are almost entirely lacking in the Yuki dialects 
except in the Wappo, in common with which the Northern Porno 
possesses five, the Eastern Porno three, and the Southwestern and 
Southeastern Porno four each ; while the Western Moquelumnan 
and the Southern Wintun possess four and three respectively. 

In the cases of borrowing above discussed there are but few 
in which the direction of the borrowing can be even provision- 
ally asserted by virtue of the occurrence of the root in question 
in all or most of the dialects of one stock and in but one or two 
dialects of the other stock. There appear to be three clear cases 
of borrowing by the Wappo ; one of a Porno root, bird, one of a 
Moquelumnan root, father's brother, and one of a root, clam, com- 
mon to both Porno and Moquelumnan. The Moquelumnan seem 
to have borrowed one root, trout, from the Porno, while the re- 
verse is true of one root, infant. The Southerly Wintun have 
apparently borrowed four roots, lake, pepperwood, manzanita, 
and angelica, from the Moquelumnan, while the reverse is true 
of only one root, buzzard. However, as has been previously 
stated, the present vocabularies embrace in the main only a se- 
lected list of the most common words to be found in any language, 
and therefore words which would be most likely to remain con- 
stant throughout long periods of independent association of one 
people with another, and any considerable number of borrowed 
roots is naturally not to be expected under such conditions. How- 
ever, from the comparatively few cases present it would appear 
that the Porno has given to and not borrowed from other stocks, 
and that Wappo has borrowed from all of the other three. In 
the cases of the other stocks it is impossible at present to say, 
except provisionally, in which direction the borrowing has been. 
Undoubtedly more extended vocabularies would show greater 
numbers of roots in common among these stocks, particularly 
roots of words pertaining to objects and conditions of a local 
nature, but in no case is it probable that a sufficient number of 
common roots will ever be found to show the least genetic rela- 
tionships between any two of the stocks. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 117 

Sounds. 

The four languages here under consideration show no differ- 
ences in the vowels used in each except in the case of Yuki, which 
has, in addition to the vowels found in the others, certain nasal- 
ized vowels. All the linguistic stocks have e, i, o, u, both open 
and closed, and also a and u, besides the vowel diphthong ai. 
To these Yuki, excepting the Wappo dialect, adds the following 
nasalized vowels : a', ai B , i', 5", and u". 

Among the consonants, however, a greater diversity is shown. 
In Porno the consonants are distributed throughout the greater 
number of the possible positions from post-palatal to labial, the 
predominating sounds being in the post-palatal and the alveolar 
regions, and both surd and sonant being present in most posi- 
tions. The same is true of Moquelumnan, which however lacks 
certain of the sounds found in Pomo, namely, z, f , r and r, but has 
the unusual s. Wintun shows a striking lack of sounds made on 
the back part of the palate, k being the only post-palatal present. 
The predominating sounds are in the alveolar region; and here 
are found the unusual sounds s, l, I and L. Yuki shows a greater 
number of the post-palatal sounds than Wintun, but not so great 
a number as Pomo or Moquelumnan. Yuki also has a normal 
number of the sounds made about the alveolar region. 

In all of these languages, except Pomo, stopped sounds are 
much more common than open ones. In some the ratio is even as 
great as eight to three, but in Pomo the numbers of stopped and 
open s&unds are more nearly equal. All of these linguistic fami- 
lies except Wintun, have the three nasal sonants ft, n and m. The 
first, which is lacking in Wintun, is due to the influence of k which 
always follows it. Wintun has four lateral consonants, 1, 1, l and 
L, Pomo and Moquelumnan possess three 1, l and L, while Yuki 
has also three, 1, I and l. Inverted consonants seem to be re- 
stricted to Pomo and Wintun. In each of these languages the 
numbers of sonants and surds are about equal, the differences be- 
tween these numbers never being greater than one or two. 



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118 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 



POMO. 

The name Pomo, as the designation of a linguistic family, 100 
we owe to Stephen Powers. 101 The word occurs in the Northern 
dialect of this stock with the general meaning of village, and as 
a rule follows the names of the various villages to form the com- 
plete place name, as cane'-kai pomo, sweat-house-valley village. 

1M Gibbs (Schoolcraft, III, 112) gives Pomo as the name of a people 
living on the west branch of Russian river, but does not apply this or any 
other name to the Indians of the region as a whole. 

w In his opening chapter on the Pomo, Powers says: ''Under this 
name are included a great number of tribes or little bands— sometimes 
one in a valley, sometimes more— clustered in the region where the head- 
waters of the Eel and Russian rivers interlace, along the latter and around 
the estuaries of the coast. Below Calpella they do not call themselves 
Pomo, but their languages include them in this large family." (Tribes 
of Cal., p. 146.) He includes under the head of "true Pomo" also the 
people in the region about Gahto (ibid., p. 150) who have been shown by 
Professor P. £. Goddard to be of Athapascan stock (see note 97). He 
also includes the people in the Clear lake region except those about the 
lower end of Clear lake, namely, those about Lower and East lakes. 
He says: "In the Clear Lake Basin the Indians may be divided into two 
main bodies, those on the west side and those on the east side. On the 
west they are related in language slightly to the Pomo; on the east, 
equally slightly to the Patwin. . . . Big Valley and Kobb Valley 
were the principal abode of the western lacustrine tribes; Hosehla Island 
and the narrow shore adjacent that of the eastern." It will be seen, 
therefore, that with the exception of including the people of Cahto and 
the few Wappo on the southern shore of Clear lake, and excluding the 
people living about East and Lower lakes, Powers ' statements concerning 
the northern part of the territory occupied by the Pomo are approxi- 
mately correct. The map accompanying his volume does not, however, 
follow the boundaries described in his text. Beginning on the coast at 
a point a short distance south of Ten-Mile river, the northern line of the 
Pomo area according to this map runs in a southeasterly direction in such 
a manner as to entirely omit any portion of the Eel river drainage from 
the Pomo area. Presumably in an endeavor to more nearly follow Powers' 
text, which not only includes certainly the people of Cahto valley among 
the Pomo, but also provisionally those living farther down the south fork 
of Eel river and along the coast about Usal creek, Powell in his map of 
the * ' Indian Linguistic families of America North of Mexico ' ' shows two 
Pomo (Eulanapan) areas, a southern, substantially the same as that on 
the map accompanying Powers' volume, and a northern, much smaller 
and embracing the territory along the south fork of Eel river and about 
Usal creek, the two areas being separated by an unbroken Yuki territory 
stretching from the crest of the Coast range to the ocean. 

The work of Professor A. L. Eroeber shows that the Yuki held an area 
along the coast in this vicinity, but that it was not continuous with the 
main Yuki area in and about Bound valley; and further, that Powell's 
Pomo (Eulanapan) area north of the Yuki is incorrect. Amer. Anthr., 
n. 8., V, 729. However, as is outlined in the portion of this paper dealing 
with the Northeastern dialect, the Pomo did occupy a second area, but lying 
east instead of north of the main one. 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Geographp of the Porno Indian*. 119 

The word was also used as the name of one particular village 103 
in Potter valley at the source of the east fork of Russian river, 
and is perpetuated in Porno postoffice, situated only a short dis- 
tance from the site of the old Indian village. When used with 
the signification of village in general, the word is perhaps a little 
more frequently pronounced pti'ma than pti'md, as: can$'-kai 
po'ma, sweat-house- valley village (this is also called by other in- 
formants cane'-kai p5'm6). However, neither pfi'mft nor pd'ma 
can be asserted to be the only correct or standard pronunciation, 
for one is nearly as often used as the other. The first author to 
apply a name to any of the Indians forming part of this lin- 
guistic family was George Gibbs, 1 ** from whose Kulanapo Major 
J. W. Powell, following his principles of nomenclature, made the 
stock name Eulanapan. 104 K&la'napd, or more exactly kflLa'- 
napd, was at the time of Gibbs' visit to the region the name 
given to one group of people living in Big valley on the south- 
ern shore of the main body of Clear lake. Neither Pomo nor 
Kulanapan, nor in fact any other name, is known to the Indians 
as a general name for themselves as a linguistic stock, since, as 
has already been pointed out, they recognize almost no linguis- 
tic or political affinities beyond immediately neighboring vil- 
lages. Pomo is the term that has been most generally used by 
the whites 108 and is now in common use in both scientific and 
popular literature, and it seems advisable to retain it. 

The territory of the Pomo is divided into two parts : a main 
area, situated between the ocean and the main Coast Range, and 
covering portions of Mendocino, Lake, and Sonoma counties ; and 
a smaller, detached area, lying wholly within the drainage of the 



M See Pomo, p. 140. 
m Schoolcraft, III, 421. 

m Indian Linguistic Families of America North of Mexico, 7th Ann. 
Rep., Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1885-86, p. 87. 

im In addition to Powers, who uses Pomo as the name of the stock and 
also as part of the names of his various divisions of it, as "Kula Kai 
Pomo, Ballo Kai Pomo," and so on, it has been used by Bancroft (Native 
Races, I, 362, 448, 449), Powell (Ind. Ling. Fam., p. 88), Kroeber (Univ. 
Cal. Publ., Am. Arch. Eth., II, 152 seq.), Mason (Aborig. Amer. Basketry, 
Rep. U. S. Nat. Mus. for 1902, p. 326 seq., 1904), Hudson (Overland 
Month., XXI, 561, XXX, 101), Purdy (Land of 8unshine, XV, 438), and 
others. In addition to its being the name commonly used in print it is 
also popularly used in speaking of this particular people, their customs, 
basketry, and so on. 



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120 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

Sacramento river, and covering small portions of Colusa and 
Glenn counties. 

BOUNDARIES. 106 

Beginning on the coast at a point a short distance south of 
the southern end of Cleone beach, the boundary of the main 
Porno area runs in an easterly direction, passes about three miles 
north of Sherwood station, and thence, crossing Outlet creek, 
runs to the top of the ridge separating the drainages of Outlet 
and Tomki creeks. North of this portion of the boundary lie 
the Coast Yuki, the Athapascan and a portion of the Yukian 
Huchnom areas. The boundary then runs in a general south- 
easterly direction along the ridge between Outlet and Tomki 
creeks to the western side of Potter valley. Here it takes again 
an easterly course and crosses the head of the valley to the ridge 
on the eastern side, along which it runs for a few miles; thence, 
turning in a northeasterly direction, it passes on the north side 
of Big Horse mountain ; thence, turning in a southeasterly direc- 
tion, it runs along the ridge separating the drainage of the Bice 
fork of South Eel river from that of Middle creek ; thence along 
the high ridge east of Clear lake to Cache creek at a point about 
four miles from its source, the southern extremity of Lower lake, 
the southernmost arm of Clear lake. This portion of the boun- 
dary follows the general trend of the mountain ranges of the 
region, northwest and southeast, and separates the Porno from 
Yuki and Wintun territory. Prom this point the line runs in a 
general west-southwesterly direction, following Cache creek, to 
the lake, and thence, for a distance of about eight miles, to a 
point on the summit of the range separating the drainage of 
Clear lake from that of Putah creek, near the headwaters of 
Cole creek. Here the line turns in a southerly direction and fol- 
lows the range to Cobb mountain, where it again turns in a 
southwesterly direction, runs through the foot-hills to Russian 
river valley, and, crossing the river at a point about three miles 
up stream from the town of Geyserville, runs to the ridge be- 
tween Dry creek and Russian river. Here it turns in a south- 

im The boundaries here given are those of the main Porno area. For 
the boundaries of the isolated Northeastern area see the section devoted 
to the geography of this dialect. 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 121 

easterly direction, following this ridge, and recrosses the river at 
the great bend about five miles east of the town of Healdsburg; 
and thence, keeping the same direction, runs to a point between 
the headwaters of Santa Rosa and Sonoma creeks. East of 
this very irregular line are the territories of the northern Mo- 
quelumnan and the Yukian Wappo. Prom this point it runs in 
a general westerly direction along the water-shed which separates 
the drainage of Russian river from that of San Pablo bay, thus 
passing but a short distance north of the town of Cotati. 10T The 
line then runs through the low range on the western side of 
Santa Rosa valley to the headwaters of Salmon creek, which it 
follows down to the coast at a point about three miles north of 
Bodega Head. This portion of the boundary is all that can be 
considered as the true southern boundary of the Porno area. 
The Southern and Western Moquelumnan areas adjoin the Porno 
on the south. The western boundary is the shore-line of the 
ocean. All the territory included within the boundaries just out- 
lined is Porno, except the very small Clear Lake Wappo area 
which is entirely surrounded by Porno territory. 

To the north of this Porno area are the Coast Yuki, Atha- 
pascan, Huchnom, and Yuki proper areas; on the east are the 
Southerly Wintun, the Northern Moquelumnan, and the Yukian 
Wappo areas; on the south the Southern and Western Moque- 
lumnan areas ; and on the west is the ocean. 



DIVISIONS. 

The main Porno area covers portions of the four natural 
divisions previously defined: the coast, the redwood belt, the 
valley, and the lake regions, each well marked off by the topog- 
raphy of the country. The particular portions of these four 
divisions occupied by the Porno are as follows : 

The coast division is chiefly confined to a very narrow strip 
of habitable land lying immediately adjacent to the shore-line 



'"The mountains in this part of the bay region are much lower than 
those farther north. The divide between the Russian river and San Pablo 
bay drainages is no more than a swell in the floor of a broad valley and is 
almost imperceptible as one passes over it. 



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122 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

of the ocean. This strip consists of a gently sloping shelf ex- 
tending from the foothills to the shore-line, which, throughout 
almost its entire length, is formed by rocky cliffs. A dense red- 
wood forest begins at the foothills and extends eastward; but 
the coastal shelf is only sparsely wooded, there being small groves 
of a species of pine, Pinus Muricata, where any timber appears. 
The food supply is essentially the same as that previously men- 
tioned of the coast of the entire region. The open portions of 
this coast-shelf were formerly covered with native grasses and 
bulbous and seed plants, which furnished numerous vegetable 
foods; but the chief and most characteristic food of the people 
of this division was molluscs. Off the shore in many places are 
rocks which furnished molluscs of several sorts, especially mus- 
sels, and abalones, Haliotis. At the mouths of the many streams 
which empty into the ocean are sandy beaches which afforded 
favorable fishing places. 

The valley division comprises : first, the entire drainage basin 
of Russian river, between eighty and ninety miles in length if 
measured in an air line, except a small area near Healdsburg 
and Geyserville on the lower course of the main stream and a 
still smaller area near Centerville at the source of the east fork, 
which were held respectively by the Wappo and the Huchnom or 
Tatu, both of Yuki stock; second, the upper drainage of Outlet 
creek, an affluent of South Eel river ; and third, small valleys on 
Bancheria, Anderson, and Indian creeks, tributaries of Navarro 
river, as also numerous small valleys throughout the adjacent 
mountains. Within this area were many sparsely wooded val- 
leys, both large and small, almost all of which were permanently 
inhabited. Here were to be found acorns, grass and other seeds, 
bulbs, and various other vegetable foods in abundance. The 
neighboring hills furnished game of all sorts, and at certain 
seasons there was an abundance of fish in the streams. 

The lake region comprises the entire drainage basin of Clear 
lake except the southernmost extremity of Lower lake. 108 On 

"* According to current local terminology, four well marked divisions 
of Clear lake, separated one from another by straits, are known as Upper, 
Clear, East, and Lower lakes, and the name Clear lake is sometimes used 
of only one of these divisions, the largest and central, and sometimes, as 
by geographers, of the whole body. The Indians usually speak of the 
four separately. Clear lake is called by the people speaking the Eastern 



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1908] Barrett.— The Etkno-Qeogrvp** of ike Porno Indians, 123 

the shores of this large body of water were fertile, sparsely 
wooded areas producing an abundance of vegetable food, while 
the lake itself provided fish and water-birds, and the hills 
abounded in deer and other game animals. The village sites in 
this region were confined almost entirely to the immediate shores 
of the lake and to the islands in it. 

In addition to these three inhabited areas, there is a fourth 
which was almost uninhabited except at certain seasons of the 
year, and then only to a very limited extent. This is the belt of 
dense redwood forest covering the coast mountains, and extend- 
ing as an almost continuous forest from Mt Tamalpais on the 
northern shore of San Francisco bay northward beyond the limits 
of the territory under consideration. This belt of timber, vary- 
ing from a few miles in width at the mouth of Russian river to 
about twenty miles at Big river, forms a natural divide between 
the coast and valley regions. These redwood-covered mountains 
are quite steep, and in aboriginal times were traversable only 
with difficulty except along a few trails. There were many vil- 
lages along the eastern border of the belt of timber and even 
some permanent villages in more favorable localities within it, 
as along Gualala river in the territory of the Southwestern Pomo. 
In a great measure, however, the whole belt was uninhabited 
except for camps in the small open valleys where hunting and 
food gathering parties remained for a short time at certain sea- 
sons. 

While Pomo speaking six distinct dialects were distributed 
over these four topographical areas, it must be observed that the 
dialectic divisions did not at all conform to the topographical 
ones. The area of the Northern dialect extended over all four 
of the topographic divisions ; the Central dialectic area included 
coast, redwood belt, and valley; the Southwestern area was con- 



dialect, xa-bati'n, water (lake) big, and by those speaking the South- 
eastern dialect, xa-bite'n, which is simply a dialectic variant of the East- 
ern name. The Northern Pomo generally speak of it as cd'-katfl, east 
lake; but those of Scott's valley who owned its western shore usually 
called it xa'-matfi, water big. Upper lake is quite universally called 
xa'-kaiyad, lake head, this part of the lake being considered as the upper 
end and head of the entire body of water. East lake is called by the 
people of the Southeastern dialectic area elem-xawai. No name was ob- 
tained for Lower lake. 



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124 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

fined to the redwood and coast divisions ; the Southern area to the 
redwood and valley divisions; and the Eastern and Southeastern 
areas lay wholly within the lake region. On the other hand, the 
range of certain cultural features, which were directly dependent 
on physical environment, conformed very closely to the topo- 
graphic divisions. The typical dwellings of the coast were 
conical in form and constructed of slabs of redwood bark ; those 
in the valleys were usually rectangular or circular in ground plan 
with a frame of willow poles and thatch of grass ; and those of 
the lake region were generally elliptical, with a pole frame and 
tule thatch. On the coast the chief means of travel by water 
was a raft of logs tied together with vines or other binding ma- 
terial ; in the valleys no water travel was possible except on one 
or two lagoons; while in the lake region a serviceable canoe or 
balsa was made from the tule which is found there in great 
abundance. There are also certain slight differences in some of 
the other features of the material culture of the various parts of 
this region which serve to separate the divisions. 

SACRAMENTO VALLEY POMO. 

As this isolated area is occupied entirely by Porno speaking 
the Northeastern dialect, the consideration of its boundaries and 
physical and other features will be taken up when discussing the 
Northeastern dialectic area. 

NORTHERN DIALECT. 

BOUNDARIES. 

Beginning on the coast at a point a short distance south of 
the southern end of Cleone beach, the boundary of the Northern 
Porno area runs in an easterly direction, passes about three 
miles north of Sherwood station, and thence, crossing Outlet 
creek, runs to the top of the ridge separating the drainages of 
Outlet and Tomki creeks. From this point it runs in a south- 
easterly direction along this ridge to the western side of Potter 
valley on the headwaters of the east fork of Russian river. At 
this point it takes again an easterly course, crossing the head of 
the valley to the ridge on the eastern side, along which it runs 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-G*ograpky of the Porno Indian*. 125 

for a few miles; thence, turning in a northeasterly direction, it 
passes on the north side of Big Horse mountain ; thence, turning 
in a southeasterly direction, it runs for a short distance along the 
ridge separating the drainage of Rice fork of South Eel river 
from that of Middle creek. To this point the boundary of this 
dialect is also the inter-stock boundary and divides it from the 
Coast Yuki, Athapascan, Yukian Huchnom, and Yuki proper 
areas to the north. From here, taking a southerly course, the 
boundary passes along the ridge immediately west of Middle 
creek, passing but a short distance east of Tule lake ; and thence 
along the ridge which lies west of Upper lake, the northernmost 
arm of Clear lake, to a point, known as Rocky point, on the 
western shore of the strait joining Upper lake with the main 
body of Clear lake. The people speaking the Northern dialect 
held possession of the shore of Clear lake from this point south 
nearly to the town of Lakeport, a distance of about five and one- 
half miles. From the town of Lakeport the line runs in a gen- 
eral southerly direction to the summit of the ridge south of the 
southern headwaters of Scott's creek, and thence a short distance 
in a westerly direction to the ridge separating the drainage of 
Clear lake from that of Russian river. This portion of the 
boundary separates the Northern and Eastern dialectic areas. 
From this point the boundary extends in a northwesterly direc- 
tion along this ridge, passes over Red mountain, and thence 
probably to the ridge south of Mill creek, where it takes a west- 
erly course down into Russian river valley. 10 * Still keeping its 



m There it some doubt as to the exact position of the boundary in 
Ukiah valley. Some informants hold that the boundary runs across the 
valley as far south as Robertson creek, others that it follows down Rob- 
ertson creek from the west, thence up Russian river to a point at or a 
little north of the confluence of Mill creek with it, where it turns east- 
ward and runs to the summit of the range at the head of Mill creek sod 
thence southward along this range. Others say that it runs directly across 
the valley at Doolan creek. Still others on the other hand hold that it 
crossed the valley north of the town of Ukiah, some placing it at Acker- 
man creek, while others place it even as far north as a point about half 
a mile north of the confluence of the east fork of Russian river with the 
main stream. In this connection it should be noted that all seem to agree 
that in the period shortly before the occupation of the country by the 
whites the region about Ukiah and northward was occupied by people 
speaking the Northern dialect. One informant from the ydluua rancheria 
(Central dialect) says that originally his people owned all the territory 
in Ukiah valley as far north as a point about half a mile north of the 
confluence of the east fork with the main branch of Russian river, or a 



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126 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

westerly course, it runs across the valley to the summit of the 
ridge on the west; thence, turning in a southeasterly direction, 
it follows the ridge to a point near the head of Feliz creek and 
about due east of Boonville. From here it runs for a very short 
distance in a southwesterly direction and then, turning due west, 
crosses Anderson valley about a mile and a half south of Boon- 
ville, and continuing in the same direction finally runs to the 
summit of the ridge immediately west of Rancheria creek. It 
then follows up this ridge, in a general northwesterly direction, 
to a point about opposite the confluence of the north fork of 
Navarro river with the main stream, where it turns in a north- 
erly direction, crosses Navarro river only a short distance down 
stream from the confluence of the north fork with it, and runs 
to the ridge, known as Navarro ridge, which separates Navarro 
river from Salmon creek on the north. It then runs in a west- 
erly direction down this ridge to the ocean. All of this portion 
of the boundary, which is very irregular, separates the Northern 
from the Central dialectic area. The western boundary of this 
dialectic area is the coast-line. 

This very irregularly shaped area of the Northern dialect is 
contiguous on the north to the Coast Yuki, the Athapascan and 



distance of about Ave and a half miles north of the town of Ukiah. For 
some reason, which he did not know, the people of the Northern dialectic 
division had been allowed to occupy the portion of the valley about 
Ukiah and northward. When the informant was a small boy, probably 
about 1830 or 1835, there arose a difference between the Central yo'kaia 
and the ko'mli, one of the Northern villages on the town site of Ukiah, 
which resulted in the yS'kaia driving the kS'mli out. (The movements of 
these people are further detailed under the head of kS'mli, p. 138.) An 
informant belonging to the Northern dialectic group says, on the other 
hand, that his people formerly held this valley down to about four miles 
south of Ukiah. A difference arose between them and the yd'kaia people 
which resulted in war and finally victory for the yS'kaia. Thereafter the 
people speaking the Northern dialect owned only to a line about two 
miles and a half south of Ukiah. Still other informants of the Eastern 
dialectic group as well as others of the Northern and Central groups 
place the boundary about at this point, and in view of the great diversity 
of opinion concerning it it seems best to place it provisionally as given 
on the accompanying map: as running across the valley along a line about 
two miles and a half south of Ukiah. 

It would seem that Powers also obtained information to the effect 
that the territory of the Central dialectic group extended into the north- 
ern part of Ukiah valley. In speaking of the ' ' Yokaia, ' ' he sayB : ' ' They 
occupied the fertile and picturesque valley of Russian river from a point 
a little below Calpello down to a point seven miles below Ukiah. ' '—Tribes 
of Cal., p. 163. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indiana. 127 

the Yukian Huchnom areas. At the northeastern angle of the 
area, the territory of the Tuki proper adjoins it. On the east 
the territory of the Northern is adjacent to that of the Eastern 
Pomo, and on the south to that of the Central Porno. On the 
west is the ocean. This is territorially the largest of the dialectic 
areas of the Pomo. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

All four of the physiographic divisions previously described, 
the coast, the redwood belt, the valley, and the lake region, are 
represented in the Northern dialectic area. 

The whole coast territory of this dialectic area has an extent 
of about twenty miles, from Cleone beach, the northern limit of 
the dialect, to its southern boundary, the summit of the ridge 
separating Salmon creek from Navarro river. For the greater 
part of this distance a gently sloping shelf extends from the 
cliffs along the shore back to the timber line, a distance of from 
one-half to two miles. This coastal shelf is quite open, with here 
and there stretches of a species of pine, Pinus muricata, and other 
small trees and shrubs. Practically all the villages in this coast 
strip were near the shore. 

The redwood belt stretches eastward from the coast, as a 
densely wooded area from ten to about twenty miles in width. 
There were, so far as can be ascertained, no permanent villages 
within this area, and it was traversable only with the greatest 
difficulty except along two or three trails. 

The valley region in this Northern dialectic area is composed 
mainly of the territory drained by the upper course of Russian 
river, extending from a point probably about two and one-half 
miles south of the town of Ukiah, in Ukiah valley, northward to 
the sources of the river. This territory consists of several valleys 
separated from one another by canyons. From where the south- 
ern boundary of the dialect crosses the river, Ukiah valley ex- 
tends up to the junction of the east fork of Russian river with 
the main stream. From this point up to the confluence of Cold 
creek with the east fork the valley is known as Coyote valley, and 



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128 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

from the mouth of Cold creek up to the head of the east fork it 
is called Potter valley. 110 

The region from the town of Calpella up to the headwaters 
of the main stream is known as Redwood valley. 111 On Forqythe 
creek is situated a small valley, called Walker valley, which name 
is also given to the postoffice and old stage station there. In 
addition to the valleys on Russian river, there are three others 
in this area: Little Lake valley, 112 located on Outlet creek, a 



"* Coyote valley, cd'dakai, does not begin exactly at the mouth of the 
east fork, but, for about a mile above, the stream flows in a canyon. The 
valley proper is about three miles in length, and narrows at Fort Brown 
into a canyon which extends up the river to the mouth of the small stream 
above Gold creek. The valley, called Potter valley, extending from this 
point northward almost to the headwaters of the east fork, is very fertile. 
The Indian name of this valley in general use is bald'-kai, oat valley, but 
djuhu'la-kai, and guhula-xaxd, both signifying north valley, are used by 
the Northern and Eastern Porno respectively, living to the southward and 
southeastward. At the extreme head of Potter valley is the only territory 
on the upper course of Russian river which was not occupied by the Porno. 
This was the very small territory controlled by the Yukian Huchnom, 
also called Tatu, who had a single village at the extreme head of the 
valley. But, although the Porno did not own this area or possess recog- 
nized rights upon it, the Huchnom nevertheless were on such friendly 
terms with them as in no way to restrict them in their use of it. It would 
seem that the Huchnom always affiliated with the Porno rather than with 
the Yuki proper, to whom they are closely related linguistically, and that 
their general culture was nearer that of the Porno than that of the Yuki. 

m Strictly speaking, Redwood valley is located as above stated. Locally, 
however, the term is made to include the narrow valley which extends 
from a short distance south of the confluence of MiU creek with Forsythe 
creek southward to the confluence of the two branches of the river at a 
point a short distance north of the town of Calpella; as also the very low 
flat-topped divide separating the two valleys thus formed on the branches 
of the river. 

m Little Lake or Willits valley, called by the Indians mto'm-kai or 
bito'm-kai, is situated on the headwaters of Outlet creek. It was first 
mentioned by Gibbs (Schoolcraft, m, 115), who says: "This vslley, 
which the Indians called Betumki, or big plains, is eight or ten miles 
long and four or five wide." Later (p. 634) he spells the name "Be- 
tumke." Various other orthographies have been used by other writers. 
Powers (Tribes of Cal., p. 155) speaks of the people of this valley as 
"the Mi-toam' Kai Po-mo (Wooded Valley People)," which name is also 
used by PoweU (op. cit., p. 88). Bancroft (Native Races, I, 362, 448) 
calls them "Matomey Ki Pomos" and "Betumkes," and Alley, Bowen 
and Company (op. cit., p. 167), upon the authority of the late Mr. A. E. 
Sherwood, use " Ma-tom-kai ' f as the name of the valley, translating it 
"big valley." The town of Willits is situated in the upper or southern 
end of the valley, and Little lake lies at the northern end. The valley 
itself is large and very fertile, and formerly supported a considerable 
Indian population. This valley should not be confused with that lying 
along what is now called Tomki creek, whieh is to the east. Tomki comes 
from the Porno name for Little Lake valley, but has been applied by the 
whites to an entirely different valley and creek. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 129 

tributary of South Eel river, Sherwood valley, 113 located on 
Curley Cow creek, a tributary of Outlet creek, and Anderson 
valley, on the headwaters of Navarro river. 114 Anderson valley 
is one of the extreme southern portions of the Northern dialectic 
area. 

In the lake region the Porno of the Northern dialect occupied 
a limited area, consisting of the valley about Tule lake, 115 the 
greater part of the western shore of the main body of Clear lake, 
and Scott's valley 116 lying along Scott's creek. 



m Along its middle course Outlet creek is joined from the west by 
Curley Cow creek. This stream waters Sherwood vaUey, a fertile valley 
about three miles in length and from a quarter to a half mile in width. 
The old stage station at Sherwood is situated about half a mile from the 
lower or eastern end of the valley and about the same distance north of 
the present railway station at Sherwood. 

m One of the headwaters of Navarro river is Anderson creek along 
which lies Anderson valley, which is about eight miles in length and 
varies in width up to a mile. It lies along the extreme eastern border of 
the redwood belt. 

m Tule lake, the Eastern Porno name of which according to one in- 
formant is nau'axai, is a body of shallow water about two miles long by 
three-quarters of a mile wide, lying northwest of Upper lake, the northern 
arm of Clear lake, and connected with it by a ereek navigable to a canoe 
for a short distance from the latter. This stream is a continuation of 
Scott's creek, which empties into Tule lake on its western margin. On 
the northern and western shores of Tule lake, and extending northwest- 
ward for about five miles along an affluent stream, is a narrow valley 
known as Bachelor valley. The name xaiya'u xaxo, from xaiya'u, head, 
and xaxo', valley, is the name given by the people speaking the Eastern 
Porno dialect to the entire area about Upper and Tule lakes, though the 
name xaiya'u or kaiya'u has been incorrectly given by some informants 
as the name of a village in this vicinity, as it is also by Slocum, Bowen 
and Company, who, in their History of Napa and Lake Counties (Lake 
County, p. 34), give the following information on the authority of Augus- 
tine, a captain of one of the divisions of the people in Big valley at the 
southern end of the main body of Clear lake, from notes made in 1880 or 
1881: "The Ki-ou tribe had their rancheria at the west end of Tule lake, 
and at the time of the coming of the white settlers they numbered one 
hundred and twenty. The name of their chief is (or was) Ba-cool-ah. 
. . . The tribe now numbers only about forty." Also (p. 37) a trans- 
lation of the name is given, as follows : ' ' Ki-ou, head of the Lake people. ' ' 
The Northern Porno name of this locality is cina'1-kai, which has the same 
signification as xaiya'u-xaxo, and a Wintun informant from Cache creek 
gave mesu't as the name of Bachelor valley. To the east of Tule lake is 
a low divide through which Scott's creek flows to Upper lake. This 
divide formed the boundary between the Northern and Eastern dialectic 
areas, except at the point where the ereek cuts through, at which point 
the territory of the Northern dialect extended into the valley of Upper 
lake, the old village of maiyi' marking its eastern limit. 

"• Scott 's valley, lying to the west of the low range of hills along the 
western shore of Clear lake, is a long narrow valley which extends from 
a point on Scott 's creek about a mile southwest of the town of Lakeport 
to the southern end of Blue lakes and thence to Tule lake. The widest 
and most fertile part of the valley is its upper half. The people inhab- 



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130 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

The food supply of the various parts of this dialectic area is 
typical of the entire region under consideration, and, as has been 
previously stated, is about as follows: The coast people speak- 
ing this dialect depended chiefly upon the ocean for their food 
supply, fish and molluscs forming two of the most important 
articles of food. The vegetable food came from the seeds, roots 
and bulbs of the grasses and flowering and bulbous plants of the 
coastal shelf and from the oaks of the adjacent mountains. The 
chief food of the people in the valley region was the acorn, while 
other vegetable foods were provided by the wild grasses and bul- 
bous plants. Game was abundant in the mountains, and fish 
were plentiful in the streams at certain seasons of the year. The 



iting this valley held possession of the low range separating it from Clear 
lake, and also of a section of the lake-shore from Bocky point, on the 
western shore of the channel connecting the main body of Clear lake with 
Upper lake, southward nearly to the town of Lakeport. At the extreme 
head of Scott 's creek, and at a point about two miles north of Bed moun- 
tain, is a small valley called Eight-mile valley. The portion of the lake- 
shore above mentioned and Eight-mile valley are always given by the 
Indians as part of the territory belonging to the Scott 's valley people. 

Blue lakes above mentioned are three small, but very deep, lakes situ- 
ated in a narrow steep-walled canyon extending northwestward from the 
main canyon of Scott's creek, and draining into that stream. The lowest 
of the three lakes is called by the whites Wambold's lake, and the upper 
two, which are connected by a comparatively broad channel, have re- 
ceived the name Twin lakes. The Indians, however, name each separately, 
as follows: Wambold's lake is called xa'-silift or xala'-xatii, clam lake; 
the lower of the Twin lakes is called dil$'-xa, middle water, and the upper 
has received the name xa'-cinal, water (lake) head, which is a term applied 
with equal propriety to the head of any lake, as Upper lake, which is 
regarded as the head of Clear lake. The canyon in which Blue lakes are 
situated is not spacious enough to have accommodated a very large popu- 
lation, but the abundance of fish and water birds in and about these lakes 
would naturally have attracted at least some Indians had it not been 
for the fear of a fabulous monster which inhabited them. Several myths 
are told about these lakes and their much dreaded monster. A summary 
of one of these follows: There was once a village near the junction of 
the outlet of Blue lakes with Scott *s creek, Blue lakes being then only a 
spring. At this viUage lived a virgin who busied herself making a large 
and extraordinarily elaborate burden basket, but who kept her labor 
secret from all except her brother, who lived in an adjoining house. He 
assisted her by procuring quail plumes and woodpecker scalps, and by 
making shell beads to be used on the basket. When the basket was yet 
far from completion a male child was born to the virgin. She secretly 
hid him away, but her brother heard him cry, for he kept crying con- 
stantly, and finally came with bow and arrows to kill him, believing that 
he was not a human being. The brother finally found the child, whose 
name is given as Tsada't, but before he could destroy him, Tsada't spoke 
up and told him that he was not a human being and must not be killed. 
He then instructed the brother and sister to place him in the spring, first 
putting a red feathered basket on his head, a net about his body, a bead 
belt about his waist, strings of beads about his neck, and a feather belt 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indiana. 131 

food supply of the people of the lake region was similar to that 
of the valley people, except that to it was added the constant 
supply of fish and water birds found at the lakes. 

COAST DIVISION. 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites. 

In the coast region of the Northern dialectic area there are 
but three sites that are at present inhabited by Indians : one at 
the town of Port Bragg, another at Noyo, and the third at Little 
River. 

Fori Bragg, just outside the northwestern limit of the town 
of Fort Bragg and about half a mile from the shore-line of the 



about his head. Having done as Tsada't had directed, they were then 
told to return on the following day with the unfinished basket, some 
arrows and other articles, which were also to be placed in the water. 
Before dismissing them, however, Tsada't gave the brother a medicine 
song which would preserve them from destruction when visiting the 
spring, and told them that they must upon no condition look back when 
leaving the spring. Upon returning the next morning they found that 
the spring had enlarged and covered a considerable area. Tsada't had 
grown to be a huge monster, called Bagi'l, and lay always in the shallow 
water in plain view. The brother and sister followed the instructions 
given them and placed the basket and four arrows in the lakes. Ma- 
du'mda, the chief deity, came by the lakes next morning and told Bagi'l 
that to lie there in sight of passers-by would be unsafe for human be- 
ings, and then gave him songs which should serve to enlarge the lakes, 
saying that he must enlarge the lakes and then build a comfortable abode 
for himself back among the roots by the shore, and thus keep out of sight. 
Accordingly Bagi'l sang the songs and the water rose till it nearly reached 
the summit of the ridge on the north at the head of the canyon; but 
MadQ'mda again appeared and this time stopped Bagi'l from increasing 
the water further. Bagil then sang and deepened the lakes, made them 
very deep, and the water settled to its present level. People were then 
instructed never to go near the lakes and never to eat any fish or game 
from them. Thereafter when it became necessary to pass near these lakes 
the Indians avoided looking toward the lakes for fear that either the 
basket or Bagil might rise to the surface of the water and thus cause 
serious illness. The same practice is followed by the older people at 
present. Notwithstanding the presence of this monster and the dread of 
the vicinity, it is considered to be a most exceUent medicine (charm) if 
a person is able to swim across one of these lakes, which is a possible 
feat provided he knows the proper songs. Should he fail, however, death 
is the certain result. 

In connection with this Indian account it is interesting to note the 
recent finding by Professor R. S. Holway (Science n.s. XXVI, 382, 1907) 
of a former connection of the waters of Blue lakes and Scott 's creek with 
those of Bussian river. According to Professor Holway these waters 
formerly drained into Bussian river by way of Cold creek but were in 
comparatively recent prehistoric time diverted to the Clear lake drainage by 
a landslide which formed the ridge mentioned in the myth and which now 
stands about one hundred and sixty feet above the level of the lakes them- 
selves. 



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132 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

ocean. There were formerly five houses here and perhaps twenty 
people, most of whom came from the old villages in Little Lake 
and Sherwood valleys. During 1903, however, the majority of 
these people moved to the site of the old Noyo mill, leaving but 
two families at the Fort Bragg village. The inhabitants of this 
village as well as those of the other two along the coast above 
mentioned have made this vicinity their home almost constantly 
since the discontinuance of the Mendocino reservation in 1867. 

Noyo, on the site of the old saw-mill on the north bank of 
Noyo river near its mouth. These people have only occupied 
this place since 1903, having come here from Fort Bragg. There 
are here about fifteen persons. 

Little River, on a low ridge just south of Little river, about 
fourteen miles south of Fort Bragg. This village contains two 
houses and about six inhabitants who came originally from Sher- 
wood and Little Lake valleys. 

Old ViUage Sites. 117 

kadiu, on the north bank of Noyo river 118 and close to the 
cliffs at the shore-line. This site is only a short distance from 
the southern limit of the old Mendocino reservation and is very 
near the site of the headquarters of the reservation. Captain 
H. L. Ford, who was the first agent at and virtually established 
the Mendocino reservation, says that at the time of his arrival 
in 1856 there were two or three hundred Indians who claimed 
this vicinity as their home; "they were called Chebal-na-Poma, 
Chedil-na-Poma, and Camebell-Poma." 119 He does not state just 
where these people lived, but it is probable that these are the 
names of three different villages on or near the land covered by 



117 The original inhabitants of this portion of the coast region have 
almost entirely disappeared and it has been possible to obtain accurate 
information concerning only the more important and well known of the 
old village sites. 

118 The Indian name of Noyo river was tce'mli-bida, while n6'yo-bida is 
the name which was applied to Pudding creek, north of Port Bragg. ' The 
late Mr. A. E. Sherwood mentions the same names, applying them to the 
same streams. He says: "'Noy-o' was the name applied by the Indians 
to what is now known as Pudding creek, just north of Fort Bragg, while 
' Chem-ne-be-dah ' was the name of the stream now called Noyo river." 
Alley, Bowen and Company, op. cit., p. 168. 

"•Mendocino War, op. cit., p. 15. 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Gcogrophy of the Porno Indians. 133 

the reservation which extended from Hare river south of Fort 
Bragg northward to a small stream about a mile north of Ten- 
mile river, a total distance of about eleven miles. 

tcddam or tcatam, on top of the ridge just south of Caspar 
creek and at a distance of about a mile from the shore-line. This 
name was also applied to Caspar creek. 

dttclMel, at a point about a quarter of a mile west of the Pine 
Grove brewery, which is located about a mile and a half south 
of the town of Caspar. At or very near this village site there is 
an old shell-heap about three feet in thickness which covers an 
area of about eight hundred square feet. This heap is located 
about four hundred yards back from the shore-line and is com- 
posed of the shells of the various edible molluscs which are found 
so abundantly along this part of the coast, as also a certain 
amount of such other kitchen refuse as is usually found in such 
mounds. 

bu'ldam, from bul, the name of a certain large flat rock off 
shore near the mouth of Big river where mussels and other mol- 
luscs were formerly abundant, and dam, trail (a trail from the 
interior came to the coast at the mouth of Big river), 110 at a 
point about three-quarters of a mile back from the shore-line, and 
in the edge of the redwood forest on the ridge just north of Big 
river. Some Indians say that this village was located at the sand 
flat at the northern end of the Big river bridge, which is also 
correct, so far as can be learned from white sources. According 
to the statements made by one of the earliest white settlers on 
this section of the coast, he having arrived here in 1854, there 
were Indians living at the site in the edge of the redwoods, as 
above located, at that date. So far as can be determined, this 
site was almost continuously inhabited up to 1866, when the 
Indians moved down to the sand flats at the north end of the 
Big river bridge at the request of Colonel Lightner, who at that 
time acquired title to the land upon which the old village of 
bu'ldam was situated. They remained at this new site only about 
two years. The name bu'ldam was applied to Big river itself as 

m According to the late Mr. A. E. Sherwood (Alley, Bowen and Com- 
pany, op. eit., p. 168), "Big river was ealled Bool-dam, on account of the 
blow-holes around the bay at its month." Powers (Tribes of Cal., p. 155) 
and Powell (op. cit., p. 88) spell the name "bul-dam." 



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134 University of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

well as to the old village above mentioned. There .was a trail 
leading from this point up the river and over the mountains to 
Walker and Little Lake valleys, and thence to the other interior 
valleys. This was one of a very few trails connecting the coast 
with the interior and it would seem that it was more used than 
most of the others. Big river has a good sand beach at its mouth 
and tide-water extends for about four miles up the river, both 
of which circumstances, together with the abundant supply of 
molluscs along the rocky shore-line in the vicinity, made this a 
desirable site for a permanent village. 

kala'ili, on what is known as the "old" Stevens property just 
northeast of the present blacksmith shop in the town of Little 
River. According to Indian informants, this is the site of an 
old village which was inhabited permanently before the coming 
of white settlers. Since the coming of white settlers this place 
was resorted to, particularly during the winter, for the purposes 
of fishing and gathering molluscs, but it seems not to have been 
permanently inhabited during more recent times. The same is 
true of another site which is located just to the south of this and 
on the banks of the river itself. The present mill pond covers 
this site. Off shore in this vicinity there are "mussel rocks" of 
considerable extent and at present the Indians from the interior 
valleys frequently camp here during the summer and gather 
quantities of mussels and other molluscs for food. According 
to some informants, the chief trail leading from Ukiah valley to 
the coast ended at Little River, and was one of the earliest routes 
through the mountains. 

kaba'toda, on the top of the high, narrow ridge separating 
Albion river from Salmon creek, and indefinitely located at a 
distance of one or two miles from the ocean. 

Old Camp Sites. 

gaiyeti'l, near the cliffs at the shore-line about three-quarters 
of a mile north of the mouth of Pudding creek. 

kabe'tsitu, at a point about one hundred yards south of 
gaiyeti'l, above located. 

nffyd, on the north bank of Pudding creek near its mouth. 
The creek itself was called no'yo-bida by the Indians, but after 



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1908] Barrett.— The Bthno-Geography of the Tomo Indians. 135 

the coming of the whites the name was transferred to the larger 
stream south of Fort Bragg which now bears the name of Noyo 
river. The Indian name of Noyo river is tce'mli-bida. 

ya'kale, from ya, wind, and kale', tree (this name is derived 
from some trees which, like many of the trees in exposed places 
immediately along this part of the coast, have their tops bent 
far to one side and partly killed by the hard winds so common 
to this region), near the foot of what is known as Bald hill, and 
at a point about a mile north of Pudding creek and a mile and a 
half back from the shore-line of the ocean. 

djo'mo, from djom, a species of pine, and m6, hole, a short 
distance back from the cliff which rises abruptly from the south 
bank of Pudding creek. It is but a short distance also from the 
cliff which f onus the shore-line of the ocean at this point. 

to'ldam, from t6l, hollow, and dam, trail, at the edge of the 
redwood forest about a mile from the ocean up the ridge be- 
tween Noyo river and Hare river, called by the Indians n6'-bida, 
dust creek. 

Sites Not Mentioned by Indians. 

There are several shell-heaps along this section of the coast 
which mark the sites, usually, of camps where the Indians of 
former times assembled at certain seasons of the year for the 
purpose of gathering, eating, and drying molluscs and sea-weed. 
One of these shell-heaps is situated near the cliffs just west of 
the present Indian village at the northwestern limits of the town 
of Fort Bragg. Extending for several hundred yards along the 
cliffs are to be found scattered deposits of shells and camp debris 
usually not more than two feet in thickness in the deepest part. 
It is not known just when these deposits were formed, but it 
seems probable from their present condition that they were made 
during the time of the Mendocino reservation, of which this land 
formed a part. At a point about a mile and a half north of 
Big river, and about five hundred yards from the cliffs along the 
shore-line, are the remains of another shell-heap which bears 
evidence of a large deposit, but the cultivation of the field in 
which it is located has so obliterated the original limits that it is 
impossible to form any exact idea as to its former dimensions. 



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136 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 
VALLEY DIVISION. 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites. 

Asylum Rancheria, Guidiville, or Mushtown, about one-half 
mile south of the Mendocino State Hospital, and about three 
miles south-southeast of the town of Utriah, on a tract of five 
acres owned by the Indians themselves. This village consists of 
ten houses and about thirty inhabitants, of whom the majority 
came originally from the old villages in the northern part of 
Utriah valley, but some from Redwood, Coyote and Potter valleys. 
There is here a school maintained under the auspices of the 
Roman Catholic church. 

PinoleviUe, near the foot-hills on the south bank of Ackerman 
creek and about a mile and a half northwest of the town of Ukiah. 
This village is located on a tract of one hundred and fifty acres 
of land belonging to the Indians and comprises thirty houses and 
about one hundred and ten inhabitants. These people are mostly 
from the old villages in Potter valley, some having moved here 
within very recent years. A school is maintained at this village 
under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal church. 

Coyote Valley Rancheria, on the east bank of the east fork 
of Russian river at a point about two and a half miles from its 
confluence with the main stream. This village is located on land 
belonging to the Indians themselves and consists of six houses 
and about thirty inhabitants, who are mostly from the old vil- 
lages in Redwood valley. There are a few from Potter valley 
and two or three individuals from the Clear lake region. 

Potter Valley Rancheria, on the western side of Potter valley 
at a point about a mile south of the town of Centerville. This 
village is situated on the south bank of a small creek and con- 
sists of eleven houses and about fifty inhabitants. Here are to 
be found individuals from nearly all the former villages of this 
valley, including the Yukian Huchnom whose village was in the 
northern extremity of the valley. The inhabitants of the Potter 
Valley Rancheria are but a remnant of the very numerous former 
population of the valley. Some of the elder informants say they 
can remember a time when all the old villages in the valley as 
well as the two in the hills to the east were simultaneously in- 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Qeography of the Pomo Indians. 137 

habited, a fact which would give this region a very large popu- 
lation. There is at this village a school maintained by the Metho- 
dist Episcopal church. 

Redwood Vattey Rancheria, in Redwood valley on the eastern 
edge of the mesa lying west of the main branch of Russian 
river. It is about three miles north of the town of Calpella and 
contains four houses and about twelve inhabitants. 

Sherwood Valley Rancheria, at the lower or eastern end of 
Sherwood valley in the extreme northern part of this dialectic 
area. It is situated on the northern bank of the creek and 
consists of eight houses and about thirty-five inhabitants. About 
a mile and a half south of this village there is a family of six 
individuals, who should be included in the enumeration as they 
belong properly to this village. This would make the total pop- 
ulation about forty. 121 

There is no regular modern village in Anderson valley, but 
there are two families of Indians living there, one on the ranch 
of Mr. Thomas Rawles at a point about a mile west-southwest of 
Boonville, and the other just across the creek to the west of the 
town. There are in these two families about eight people all told. 

Old Village Sites. 

ka'tili, about two miles and a quarter southeast of the town 
of Ukiah and about half a mile east of Russian river. The resi- 
dence of the superintendent of the Mendocino State Hospital, 
situated on the north bank of Mill creek and only a short dis- 
tance from the stream, now stands on this site. As before stated, 
there is some doubt as to who owned the territory in this imme- 
diate vicinity, and it is claimed by some informants that the 
people who occupied this village spoke the Northern dialect; 
others say they spoke the Central dialect, and still others say 
that the language used by them was a mixture of the two, due 
to the fact, so they say, that the people of this village affiliated 
and intermarried with those of the Northern and Central villages 
near by. One informant stated that this village was the tem- 
porary home of the people formerly living at the old village of 

m See note 167, concerning early estimates of the population of this 
region. 



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138 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 

ko'mll on the town site of Ukiah after the war between them and 
the people of the yo'kaia village of co'kadjal. He also stated 
that this site was known by the name of ko'mll at that time. 

smi'wakapda, from sme'wa, wolf, ka, water 1 , and pda, creek, 
at the junction of the two branches of Mill creek at a point about 
a mile east of the Mendocino State Hospital. According to one 
informant there was a village here, the inhabitants of which 
spoke entirely the Central dialect, but according to others there 
was no village here, this name being that of Mill creek as a whole. 
The name given is in the Central dialect. 

tcldote'ya, near a spring about four hundred yards southeast 
of the court-house square in the town of Ukiah. The residence 
of Mr. B. B. Fox now stands on this site. 

kffmU, from kom, soda spring, and II, there, or kubu' JcbuUkeya 
in the Central dialect, just north of the limits of the town of 
Ukiah and half a mile north of the court-house square. At this 
place there is a mesa half a mile or more wide extending from 
the river bottom to the foot-hills. On the slope from the edge 
of this mesa to the river bottom is a large spring which the In- 
dians say was in former times noted for the excellence of its 
water and its constant flow. The village was located just west of 
this spring, from which the inhabitants obtained their water 
supply. This village seems to have been one of the more impor- 
tant villages in this valley and is often mentioned by the old 
Indians. At a time not very much antedating the arrival of 
white settlers in the valley, and within the memory of living indi- 
viduals, the original inhabitants of this village vacated it and 
moved to Scott's valley, where they lived with the Scott's valley 
people until scattered by the coming of the whites. Informants 
agree that there was a migration of the people of this village 
and that it was due to trouble between them and their neighbors, 
some saying that the trouble was between them and their neigh- 
bors on the north and others that the yo'kaia to the south were 
concerned. One informant from the yo'kaia rancheria (Central 
dialect) says that originally his own people held possession of 
all the territory in Ukiah valley north to a point about half a 
mile north of the confluence of the east fork of Russian river 
with the main stream, but for some reason people speaking the 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno Geography of the Porno Indians. 139 

Northern dialect were allowed to settle in this part of the valley 
and established the village of ko'mli. When the informant was 
a boy, probably about 1830 or 1835, there arose a difference be- 
tween the people of kd'mli and the Central village of cd'kadjal 
concerning the hunting and fishing rights in the northern part 
of the valley, and Kaland'I, the captain of the village of cd'kadjal, 
led a party against his northern neighbors and drove them from 
the valley. They went across the mountains to Scott's valley 
just west of Clear lake, and there took refuge with their friends, 
and the captain of the village in Scott's valley finally purchased 
from the people of cd'kadjal freedom from molestation of the 
refugees. This informant says, somewhat inconsistently, also 
that before finally going to Scott's valley these people first moved 
to ka'till, which he called ko'mli, where they remained for a year 
or two. They then went to Eight-mile valley, a short distance 
northeast of Red mountain, where they established the village of 
ko'mli, remaining here a little longer than at ka'till, and finally 
went on down into Scott's valley, where they remained perma- 
nently. Another, and more probable account, is that given by a 
very old woman whose former home was in Potter valley. Ac- 
cording to this informant, the difficulty between the people of 
ko'mli and those of cd'kadjal arose at a considerably earlier date 
than that above mentioned and was due to the fact that there 
was living at ko'mli a powerful doctor, siku'tsha by name, to 
whose poison the death of a yo'kaia man was attributed. Some 
of the yo'kaia from cd'kadjal attempted to kill siku'tsha, but he 
was able to escape and get over to friends at Upper lake. There 
was no regular war made by the yo'kaia people upon those of 
ko'mli, but the people of ko'mli preferred to leave their village 
and avoid trouble, so they went over to Upper lake by way of 
Coyote valley, Blue lakes, and Bachelor valley, and eventually 
found their way to Scott's valley. To explain the presence of a 
camp called ko'mli in Eight-mile valley, as above mentioned, is 
the fact that there is here a large soda spring from which it is but 
natural that the valley and the camp should take their name. 

kabegi'lnal, on the north bank of Sulphur creek, called xa-td't- 
bida, water-rotten-creek, at its confluence with Russian river at 
a point about a mile northeast of the town of Ukiah. 



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140 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

ctfkatcdl, near the south bank of Hensley creek at a point 
about three-quarters of a mile west of its confluence with Russian 
river. This site lies just west of the county road and is about 
two miles north of the town of Ukiah. 

cima'hau or cima'kawi, at the east end of the bridge across 
the main branch of Russian river at a point a short distance up 
stream from the confluence of the east fork with it. 

ca&ca'mkau, tca'mkawi, or bffmaa, on the north bank of the 
east fork of Russian river at a point about two and a half miles 
up stream from its confluence with the main stream. This site 
is located about an eighth of a mile down stream from the site 
where Cleveland's flour mill formerly stood. Prom all that can 
be learned this was formerly a very large village, and the prin- 
cipal one in Coyote valley. 

matu'ku, on the south bank of Cold creek, called matu'ku-bida, 
at a point about a mile up stream from its confluence with the 
east fork of Russian river. This site is located about two hun- 
dred yards south of the ranch house on the Hopper sheep ranch. 

tsoka'mo, from tsaka', smoke or native tobacco, and mo, hole, 
near the northern end of the bridge across Cold creek on the 
road leading from Port Brown to Centerville in Potter valley. 
While this particular part of the country is, on the whole, by no 
means so desirable for habitation as the larger valleys above and 
below, it appears that this village was a large and important one 
in former times. It is mentioned in connection with catca'mkau 
in the myths of the region. According to one of these myths 
the village of matuTrii, about a mile up Cold creek, was called 
tsaka'mo. 

katca'bida, from katca', arrow-head or obsidian, and bida', 
creek, in the extreme southern end of Potter valley and on the 
east bank of the east fork of Russian river. There is also a 
village one name of which is katca'bida in the extreme northern 
end of Redwood valley on the main stream of Russian river. 

Jcdla'lpicul, on what is known as the John Mawhinney ranch 
at a point about a mile south of the post office of Porno. 

pffmo, on the east bank of Russian river at a point a short 
distance south of the post office at Porno, in the southern end of 
Potter valley. The present Potter valley flour mill stands on 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 141 

this site. This village bears the same name as the linguistic 
family 121 to which its people belong. The first mention of a 
village by the name of Porno is that found in Gibbs' Journal. 128 
He gives Porno as the name of one of the peoples treated with by 
Colonel McKee, and in speaking of their language he says : * * The 
Ma-su-ta-kea and Porno, living farther up the west branch of the 
river, use the same as the Shanel-kaya of the east branch.' ' Thus 
he located the village in or about Redwood valley. However, 
no village of this name has been found in this valley and it seems 
probable that the location given by him is due to incorrect in- 
formation gained in the hurried journey through the region. 
McKee 124 speaks of "the Pomas," which undoubtedly refers to 
the people of this same village. Powers 125 speaks of the "Pome 
Pomos," and Hittell 126 mentions the "Pone Pomos." To these 
various spellings might also be added Powers' "Poam Porno," 127 
which he gives upon the authority of a white informant as the 
equivalent in scope of the "Ballo-Kai Porno"; at the same time 
stating that he was unable to get a verification of the term among 
the Indians. It has, however, been taken up by other writers and 
used as a name for the Potter valley people as a whole, and is 
entitled to mention also on that account. 

kale'sima, kale'lsema, or xale'sema, on the east bank of Rus- 
sian river at a point about a mile east-northeast of the present 
Potter Valley rancheria. 

se'dam, on the east bank of Russian river just east of the 
town of Centerville. This is the site of one of the largest of the 
old villages in Potter valley. Captain Ford 128 may have referred 
either to the people of this village or to those of canel when he 
said: "The Salan Pomas are a tribe of Indians inhabiting a 
valley called Potter's Valley." 

cane'l, or see'l, on the east bank of Russian river at a point 

m See Pomo, p. 118. 

in Schoolcraft, III, 112. 

** Minutes kept by John McKee, secretary of the expedition from 
Sonoma, through northern California, Senate Ex. Doc, Spec. Sess., 32d 
Cong., 1853, Doc. 4, p. 144. 

m Overland Monthly, IX, 504. 

m History of California, I, 730. 

m Tribes of California, p. 156. 

m Rept. Comm. Ind. Aff., 1856, p. 257. 



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142 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

about a mile north of the town of Centerville. It was located 
on the ranch of Mr. George Bush, formerly owned by Mr. Wil- 
liam Potter, for whom Potter valley was named. This was one 
of the most important villages in Potter valley and is said by 
some informants to have contained the largest population of 
any. 12 * According to another informant, seel was on the west 
side of the river and a village entirely separate from cane'l. 
According to this informant also there was still another village 
called a'mdala just north of seel. Corroborations of these state- 
ments were, however, not obtained. One of the villages near 
Hopland in the Central dialectic area is also called canel. The 
first mention of the Potter valley canel was by Gibbs 110 in his 
record of "the tribes present' ' at a council with Colonel McKee 
on the southern shore of Clear lake. Among others he mentions 
"the Shanel-kaya and Bedah-marek, living in a valley situated 
to the north of it (i.e., Clear lake), and on the east fork of Rus- 
sian river." The " Bedah-marek' ' here referred to were also 
mentioned by McKee 111 as "Me-dama-rec." The name has as yet 
not been found as the name of a village, or of any division. 
Bancroft 111 also mentions the first of these names upon the 
authority of Gibbs. The people of canel or of sedam may be 
the ones referred to by Captain Ford 188 as "Salan Pomas." 

ya'md, ya'ma, or ya'mu, at the foot of the mountains at the 
northern end of Potter valley. This site is very near the north- 
ern boundary of the main Porno area, being situated at the base 
of a small mountain called ya'-dand, wind-mountain, over which 
the boundary line between the Porno and Yukian Huchnom runs. 

mdtf tea, mutftca, or mitftca, near the foot-hills on the west- 
ern side of Potter valley, and at a point about two and a half 
miles northwest of the town of Centerville. 

tsfmpal, near the foot-hills on the western side of the north- 
ern end of Potter valley. According to one informant, there was 



"•According to one informant, the collective name bd'tel was applied 
to the village of canel and the camps nd'bad5, su1>utcemal and tulimhd' 
collectively. 

m Op. cit., p. 109. 

m Senate Ex. Doc, Spec. Sess., 32nd Cong., 1853, Doc. 4, p. 136. 

m Native Baces, I, 452. 

m Kept. Comm. Ind. Aff., 1856, p. 257. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 143 

no village at this place, but the name was given to a mountain 
at which flint of different colors was obtained. 

sfftca, or bata"ka, in the foot-hills on the western side of 
Potter valley, and near its northern extremity. It was but a 
short distance northwest of tsi'mpal. According to one inform- 
ant these two names, so'tca and bata"ka, were applied to two 
different places about four hundred yards apart, the latter of 
which only was inhabited. 

can&kai, from cane', sweat-house, and kai, valley, in a small 
valley of approximately circular form near the summit of Buck- 
ner mountain. It was located about six miles east of the town 
of Centerville in Potter valley. Buckner creek heads on the 
north side of this mountain and one of the tributaries of Middle 
creek heads on the south. According to some informants the 
name sweat-house valley was given to this valley because of its 
likeness to the pit of a sudatory. The people of the "Cha-net- 
kai tribe" referred to by McKee 184 are probably the same as those 
of this village. 

tcffmtcadUa, on the mesa just south of the town of Calpella, 
and at a distance of about two miles up the main stream of 
Russian river from the confluence of the east fork with it. 188 
The people of this village, called "Choam Cha-di-la Po-mo," are 
referred to by Powers 188 and, probably upon his authority, by 
Powell, 187 and Bancroft 188 . Powers translates the name "Pitch 
Pine People. ' ' The captain of this village at the time of the arrival 
of white settlers in the region was kaipe'la. His name was given to 
his people, and was applied by the whites in a general way to all 
of the Indians living in Redwood valley. It has been used with 
this broad significance by some early writers. The name still 
survives in Calpella, a town at the lower end of Redwood valley. 
The late Mr. A. E. Sherwood is authority for the statement that 
"Cal-pa-lau" signifies "mussel or shell-fish bearer." 188 



"* Senate Ex. Doc, op. cit., p. 136. 

m See note 167, concerning early estimates of the population of this 
region. 

"•Op. cit., p. 155. 

m Op. cit., p. 88. 

"•Native Baces, I, 362, 448. 

"• Hist, of Mendocino, op. cit., p. 167. 



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144 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

masu't, masu', or ciyo'l, the last of which names signifies 
shady, on the western affluent of Russian river at a point about 
three miles northwest of the town of Calpella. Some informants 
claim that this site is located on the west bank and some that it 
is on the east bank of this stream, and from all that can be 
learned it seems that both statements are correct, for it appears 
that both banks of this stream were inhabited at different times. 
The more recently occupied site was on the west bank, or rather 
in what is now the western part of the stream bed, as the river 
has shifted toward the west and has washed nearly all of this 
site away. Upon abandoning this site these people went to 
tco'mtcadila just south of Calpella. The people of this village 
are probably the ones referred to by Gibbs 140 as "Masu-ta-kaya," 
one of the " bands" which made a treaty with Colonel McKee at 
the Peliz ranch near Hopland. The same people were also men- 
tioned by McKee 141 as "Maj-su-ta-ki-as." 

kabela'l, or Jeati'l, on the mesa west of the main branch of 
Russian river, and at a point about three and one-half miles 
north of the town of Calpella. This village was located near the 
ranch house on the Berry Wright ranch. The name kati'l seems 
to have been given to this site at the time when the former inhab- 
itants of Walker valley settled here after the coming of white 
settlers. 

katca'bida, from katca', obsidian or arrow-head, and bida, 
creek, or da'picu, at the southern foot of Redwood mountain 
(capa'lawel) at the extreme head of Redwood valley. One of the 
villages in Potter valley on the east fork of Russian river was also 
called katca'bida. In his list of the various ' 'bands" of the 
Porno, Powers says: "In Redwood canon, the Da-pi-shul Porno 
(dapishul means 'high sun'; that is, a cold place because of the 
depth of the canon)." 142 The reference may be to this village. 

ka'tcake, on the southwest bank of Mill creek at a point about 
two and one-half miles up stream from its confluence with Por- 
sythe creek. 

ko'bida, or kaba'tbado, from kaba't, madrona, and bado', flat, 



140 Schoolcraft, III, 112. 

m Senate Ex. Doc, op. cit., p. 144. 

142 Tribes of California, p. 155. 



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1908] Barrett— The EtktUhGeography of the Porno Indians. 145 

on the east bank of Porsythe creek at a point a short distance 
south of the former stage station in Walker valley. According 
to one informant this was the last village occupied in this valley, 
the people being taken from here to the Bound Valley reser- 
vation. 

bita'danek, from bita', bear, and dane'k, throw out, on the 
southwest bank of Porsythe creek at a point about two miles up 
stream from the former stage station in Walker valley. 

cala'kana, from caba', hazel, and kana, t, at the extreme head 
of Porsythe creek. According to one informant who formerly 
lived in this valley, this site was the first one in this vicinity 
inhabited. Prom here the people moved to bita'danek, and then 
to koT>ida, from where they were taken to the Bound Valley res- 
ervation. The information concerning the succession of occu- 
pation of these sites may be correct, but it is unlikely that the 
first site occupied is definitely known to individuals now living. 
tanako'm, from tana', hand, and kom, bog, at a point in the 
mountains about four and one-half miles south-southeast of the 
town of Willits, which is situated in the southern end of Little 
Lake valley on Outlet creek. 

kacaida'mal, on the headwaters of Outlet creek at a point 
about six miles southeast of the town of Willits. 

ko'tsiyu, in the mountains at a point probably about two and 
one-half miles south of the town of Willits. 

behe'pata, from behe, pepperwood nuts, and patan, to pound 
or grind, at a point probably about two miles and a quarter 
southeast of the town of Willits and about the same distance 
north of the old village of tfanako'm. This site was very indefi- 
nitely located by informants. 

kabeca'l, at a point about a mile south-southeast of the town 
of Willits, and near the foot-hills on the western side of the 
valley. This village was located on the ranch now owned by 
Mr. Martin Baechtel. 

katoka'l, from kata', hollow, and kal, mussel, at a point about 
half a mile south of the town of Willits. 

mltffma, or cii'ncilmal, from cii'n, grape vine, cilin, hanging 
up, and mal, year, on the top of a knoll in the southwestern part 
of the town of Willits. This knoll rises from the general level 



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146 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

in such a manner as to stand apart from the adjacent foot-hills 
to the west of it and forms a prominent point. 

tsamffmda, in the edge of the redwood belt at a point about 
three miles west of the town of Willits. 148 

hodudu'kawe, from hodududu', milk snake, and kawe', to 
build, indefinitely located at a point about four and a half miles 
east-southeast of the town of Willits. 

cfftstu, from co, east, and tsl'u, corner, in the hills at a point 
about four miles east of the town of Willits. This site is located 
on a small affluent of Outlet creek. 148 

t&aka', near the site of the Northwestern Redwood Company's 
saw-mill at a point about two miles northwest of the town of 
Willits. 

yantf, on the southern shore of Little lake. 

kab&yo, from kabe', rock, and yd, under, indefinitely located 
at a point probably about three miles and a half northeast of 
Willits. 

baka'u or baka'uha, from baka'u, dam, and ha, mouth, on the 
northern shore of Little lake. 148 

cako'kai, from cak6', willow, and kai, valley, in the field just 
south of what is known as Rowe's station, an old stage station, 
at a point about three and a half miles southeast of Sherwood 
station. 

kula'Jeai, from kiila, probably the yellow water-lily, Nymphaea 
polysepala, and kai, valley, at a point about two miles south of 
Sherwood station, and on the southwestern shore of the small 
wet-weather lake on the Russell ranch. 144 



'"In speaking of Little Lake vaUey, to which he gives the name 
"Betumki," Oibbs, in Schoolcraft, HE, 116, says: "The names of the 
bands in this valley were the Nabob, Chow-e-shak, Chau-te-uh, Ba-kow-a, 
and Sa-mun-da. One or two others were said to be absent. The numbers 
given by those who came in amounted in all to 127 men, 147 women, and 
106 children. The total, including those absent, probably does not exceed 
450 to 475." Chau-te-uh, Ba-kow-a, and Sa-mun-da are probably cdtsiyu, 
baka'u (which is also called baka'uha), and tsamo'mda respectively, as lo- 
cated on the accompanying map. M'Kee (Senate Ex. Doc., op. cit., p. 146) 
records the same names with a slightly different orthography, as follows: 
"Nah-toh, Chow-e-chak, Shor-te-u, Ba-cow-a, and Sa-mun-da." 

m None of the early writers give the names of any of the villages in 
or about Sherwood valley. Powers (Tribes of Cal., p. 155) in giving the 
names of what he calls "bands" of the Porno mentions "the Ku-la Kai 
Po-mo" and says: "kula is the name of a kind of fruit, like little pump- 
kins, growing in water, as the Indians describe it." This is undoubtedly 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 147 

kabe'dano, from kabe', rock, and dano', mountain, at the 
ranch house on the Russell ranch on the northeastern shore of 
the small wet-weather lake about two miles south-southeast of 
Sherwood station. 

tfkai, from tl, string, and kai, valley, on the ridge just west 
of Outlet creek at a point about three miles east-southeast of 
Sherwood station. 

buta'ka, bear, at a point about two and a half miles east of 
Sherwood station. 

cane'mka, from cane', sweat-house, and muka', scorched, near 
the west bank of Outlet creek at a point about two miles north- 
east of Sherwood station. This site was rather indefinitely 
located but it is probably on the north bank of Curley Cow 
creek, the small stream which flows through Sherwood valley 
proper. 

so'satca, from so'sa, red ant, and tea, house, on the north bank 
of Curley Cow creek at a point about half a mile down stream 
from the present Sherwood valley village. 

tsi'kinidono, from tsildni, owl, and dano', mountain, at the 
Sherwood valley creamery about a mile and a quarter east of 
Sherwood station. 

bffcamkutci, from bo'cam, a sort of seed, and ku'tci, moss, at 
a point about half a mile east-northeast of Sherwood station, and 
near where the Sherwood Inn now stands. 

ma'tcata, from ma, ground, and tcata', between, at a point 
about half a mile northeast of Sherwood station. There is now 
a single Indian family living on this site, but there are plainly 



the fruit of the yellow water-lily above mentioned. The Northern and 
Eastern dialectic names of this plant are kula' and kuLa' respectively. 
However, it seems as probable that Powers 1 kola really signifies north, 
which is djohula, gtihula, tcu'la and tuhu'l in the various Porno dialects. 
At present the valley is called by some of the people to the south djuhu'la- 
kai or north valley. Its name is given by the late Mr. A. E. Sherwood 
(Alley, Bowen and Company, op. cit., p. 167) as " Che-hul-i-kai signifying 
north valley." Following Powers, Powell (op. cit., p. 88) also uses 
"Kula Kai Porno" as the name for the people of this vaUey. Powers 
(ibid) further says that the Sherwood valley people are called "Shi- 
bal-ni Porno (Neighbor People) " by the people of Cahto valley. In cor- 
roboration of this name it should be mentioned that a large hill which 
projects some distance into the valley from its southwestern side is called 
eabal-dand by the Indians now living in Sherwood valley. The former resi- 
dence of Mr. A. E. Sherwood is at the foot of this hill. The name, spelled 
"Shebalne," is also used by Bancroft (Native Races, I, 362, 448). 



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148 University of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

visible here a number of old pits which mark the sites of sweat- 
houses. 

kab&tsiu, from kabo', clover, and tsi'fl, corner, at a point 
about half a mile northwest of Sherwood station. 

kaa'ika, from kaa'i, crow, and ka, water, at a point about 
three-quarters of a mile southeast of Sherwood station. Accord- 
ing to other informants this site is located a short distance north 
of the residence of Mr. Louis Billodeaux in Sherwood valley 
proper, which would place it somewhere in the vicinity of the old 
village of bikeka'. 

tanaci% from tana', hand, and cil, hang down, immediately 
south-southwest of Sherwood station. 

behe'mkalum, from behe', pepperwood, and kaiu'm, gone, 
at a point about a mile and a half southwest of Sherwood station. 

matff, big, just southwest of the residence of the late Mr. 
A. E. Sherwood, about a mile and a half west-northwest of Sher- 
wood station. According to information obtained from Mr. 
Sherwood in 1903 there was at this site at the time of his arrival 
in 1853 a village of seventy-five or more inhabitants. This vil- 
lage remained for many years, and the pit of the old dance-house 
is at present plainly visible. 

kama'dokai, from ka, water, madd', cold, and kai, valley, at 
the residence of Mr. Louis Billodeaux, on the north side of Sher- 
wood valley proper and at a point about a mile and a half north- 
west of Sherwood station. According to information obtained 
from the late Mr. A. E. Sherwood, who moved to Sherwood valley 
in 1853, there is a very large deep spring, called ka'madd, a short 
distance east of the old village of mato'. 

bikeka', from bike', ground squirrel, and ka, water, in the hills 
north of Sherwood valley at a point about a quarter of a mile 
north of the residence of Mr. Louis Billodeaux and about a mile 
and three-quarters north-northwest of Sherwood station. Ac- 
cording to some informants there was a village called kaa'ika in 
this immediate vicinity. 

ka'ikitsil, from kai, valley, and kitsi'l, end, at the head of 
Sherwood valley proper, and about two and three-quarters miles 
northwest of Sherwood station. 

kdbe'dile, from kabe, rock, and dile', between or among, in the 



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1008] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 149 

mountains at the extreme head of Sherwood valley and about 
three and one-half miles northwest of Sherwood station. 

tca'ida, at a point about two and one-half miles north of the 
confluence of the north fork of Navarro river with the main 
stream, and about a mile northwest of the bridge across the north 
fork on the road from Boonville to Navarro. 

tcu'lgo, from tcuhu'l or tcu'ia, north, and gago', valley on the 
north bank of the north fork of Navarro river at a point about 
three miles from its confluence with the main stream. This site 
is but a short distance east of the bridge across the north fork on 
the road from Boonville to Navarro. 

hu'da, on the north bank of the north fork of Navarro river 
at a point about three-quarters of a mile up stream from the site 
of the old village of tcu'lgo above mentioned. 

djffmi, at a point about a mile and a quarter northwest of 
Christine. This site is just east of a very small pond which was 
miraculously created by Coyote because the old Prog woman who 
had possession of the spring about one hundred yards north of 
this place would give him no water. This happened after the 
destruction of the surface of the earth by fire. 

ka'tuuli, from ka, water, tuftl, old, and IT, place, on a small 
flat about fifty yards south of the store at Christine. This was 
formerly an important village, some of the larger ceremonials 
being held here. 

habe'djal, from kabe', rock, and dja, house, near the northeast 
bank of Navarro river at a point about two and one-half miles 
down stream from the confluence of Indian creek with it. This 
site is just up stream from the point where the road from Boon- 
ville to Greenwood crosses Navarro river, and takes its name from 
a large rock, the form of which resembles a house. One end of 
the wagon bridge rests upon this rock. Under the rock there was 
a large hole and pool of water which was noted as a good fishing 
place in the salmon season. 

ta'bate, from ta, sand, and bate, big, near the northeast bank 
of Navarro river on the Irish brothers ' ranch, at a point about 
two miles west of Philo. This name was used also as the name 
of the whole valley about Philo, while Navarro river, or at least 
the part along which this valley lies, is called taT>ate-bida by 



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150 University of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

the people living in this vicinity. Navarro river is also called 
noba'da-bida, from no, ashes, ba, tail, da, on, and bida, creek or 
river, which is the source of the present name, Navarro. Upon 
the authority of Mr. A. E. Sherwood, Alley, Bowen and Com- 
pany 145 give "Taa-bo-tah" as the name of Anderson valley, and 
Gibbs mentions "Tabahtea" 14 * as the name of a people living in 
this region. 

ctfmda, on the east bank of Indian creek at a point about a 
half mile south-southeast of Philo and a mile northwest of the 
confluence of Indian creek with Navarro river. 

nffpik, from no, ashes, and pik, mellow, at the site of the old 
Anderson valley flour mill. By one informant this is said to 
have been occupied so long ago that there is no record of the 
people who lived here. 

cu'naubasatnapotai, from cunau, pretty (t), basa't, forks, 
napo'tai, old village, just back on the slope of the foot-hills east 
of Anderson creek at a point about three miles down stream from 
Boonville. 

kabe'ela, from kabe', rock, and ela, to throw and miss, on the 
north bank of Anderson creek at a point about two and one-half 
miles down stream from the town of Boonville. 

le'mkolil, on the northeast bank of Anderson creek at a point 
about a mile down stream from Boonville. According to one 
informant the people of this village together with all those living 
farther down stream were called pda'-tfeya, signifying creek 
those people, while those in the villages farther up stream were 
called dano'-keya, signifying mountains there, both of which 
terms he gave in the Central dialect. He said further that the 
whole valley itself was called pda'-*eya-ma, or land of the pda'- 
f eya, and that the name applied to the people of Anderson valley 
as a whole was pda'feya. 

bu'lawil, near the south bank of Anderson creek at a point 
about a mile and a quarter southeast of the town of Boonville. 
The barn on the property of Mrs. Jane Burger stands on this 
site. 

[hile'msupda], Central dialect name, from kale', tree, msCL, 

"•Op. cit., p. 168. 
149 See note 102. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 151 

burned ( ?), and pda, creek, on the north bank of Anderson creek 
at a point about two miles and a half east-southeast of the town 
of Boonville. It appears that as a village this was a small place, 
there being only a few people who made this their permanent 
home, but others came here for short periods, particularly during 
the fishing and food gathering seasons. 

Uninhabited Modern Village Sites. 

ciyo'l, shady, on the north bank of Ackerman creek at its 
confluence with Russian river. One of the hop fields on the 
Bartlett ranch now covers this site. According to one informant 
also this village was located on the east bank of Russian river 
on the Howard ranch almost directly opposite the site as above 
given. 

co'dakai, in the southwestern end of Coyote valley at a point 
about a mile and a half up the east fork of Russian river from 
its confluence with the main stream. This village was occupied 
by the Yukian Huchnom for about five years after they left 
mulha'l in Redwood valley. 147 It was not, however, exclusively 
a Huchnom village, as there were Porno here also. The names . 
given to Coyote valley by the Northern and Eastern Porno respec- 
tively are cd'dakai and tca'mkawl. Powers 148 in speaking of what 
he calls "many little bands in diverse valleys' ' gives as one of 
them "the Sho-do-Kai Porno* ' and locates them in Coyote valley. 
Powell 149 gives the same, probably on the authority of Powers. 

bako'do, at the head of the small canyon in which the present 
Potter Valley village is situated and at a point about a mile and 
a half west of it. 

mulha'l, a Huchnom village in Redwood valley at a point on 
the east bank of Russian river about four and one-half miles 
north of the town of Calpella. 147 

On the property belonging to Mrs. Susan Ornbaun about a 
mile north of the town of Boonville in Anderson valley is the 
site of an uninhabited modern village, the name of which could 
not be learned. 



141 See mulha'l; also note 296. 
*• Op. cit., p. 155. 
"•Op. cit., p. 89. 



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152 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

bffgagdwi, from b6, west, gag6, valley, and wi or I, place, at 
a point about a mile and a half west of Boonville. This site has 
not been inhabited for twenty or twenty-five years. 

Old Camp Sites. 

se'satil, on the McClure ranch north of the Mendocino State 
Hospital, and at a point about two miles southeast of the town 
of Ukiah and half a mile east of Russian river. There are dif- 
ferences of opinion concerning this site. Some informants claim 
that it was only a food gathering place, while others say that it 
was a camp, and still others that it was a village. It seems most 
probable, however, that it was a camp, although there may have 
been people living here permanently at some time. 

ka"lem, just east of what is known as the Forks saloon at a 
point about a mile west of the confluence of the east fork of 
Russian river with the main stream. The camp called by one 
informant ca'malda and located in this immediate vicinity may 
have been this same site. 

nffbado, 1 * in Potter valley on the east fork of Russian river 
at a point on the west bank of the river about a quarter of a mile 
west of the old village of canel. This camp was used by the 
people of canel. 151 

su'butcemal, 1 ™ at a point about three hundred yards up stream 
from noT>ad6. This was also a camp of the canel people. 151 

tulimhff, 1 * at a point about half a mile west of sii'butcemal. 
This also was a camp of the canel people. 

pffdano, probably from po, red, and dano, mountain, at a 
point about three and one-half miles west of the old stage station 
in Walker valley on Porsythe creek. 

ta"skol or tca n skol, from tea, human being, and skol, laughing 
( !), on the ridge west of Outlet creek at a point near the con- 
fluence of Curley Cow creek with it, and about two miles east- 
northeast of Sherwood station. 

tcaha'wi, a camp for fishing on the northeastern bank of 
Navarro river at a point about a mile and a half up stream from 
Christine. 



"•See note 129. 

"'nd'badd and su'butcemal are situated so close together that it has 
been necessary to indicate the two on the map by a single symbol. 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 153 

ma'toUami, probably from maka'la, rabbit, and ml, place, on 
the ridge west of Navarro river at a point probably about two 
miles west of the old village of taT>ate or four miles west of Philo. 

kaci'mdalau, on the John Gough place at a point about two 
miles southeast of Philo. 

tsawa'takka, from tsawa'tak, a small species of frog, and ka, 
water, indefinitely located on the ridge between Anderson and 
Rancheria creeks at a point probably about a mile south of their 
junction. 

tce'ckalel, on the ridge between Anderson and Rancheria 
creeks at a point about three miles and a quarter west of Boon- 
ville. This camp was chiefly for acorn gathering. 

sa'latcada, on the ridge between Anderson and Rancheria 
creeks at a point about two miles and a quarter west of Boonville. 
This name is said to be derived from sa'la, redwood bark, and 
tca'da or dja'da, run away ( t), the connection being with a local- 
ization of a myth which is common throughout the Porno region. 
A summary of the myth is as follows: There were people living 
at lemkd'lil who ate the flesh of a monster and were transformed 
into deer. Of all the people living at lemkd'Ul there were but 
two, a brother and a sister, who did not eat the flesh of the 
monster, and they alone remained human. These two went out 
to sa'latcada to gather acorns and finally lived there as husband 
and wife. Their children were called fale"hm6, and were wild 
people who ate flesh and other foods raw, and took up their abode 
on a mountain called kano'-sama, mountain-mahogany beneath 
or at the edge of, in the range of mountains immediately west of 
Rancheria creek. They never associated with the ordinary people 
of the region, but on the other hand they seem to have done no 
particular harm to them. They often set fire to the timber and 
brush in the surrounding mountains, and they made a practice 
of capturing any man who hunted deer at an improper time and 
giving him training which tended to correct his methods of 
hunting. 

mapu'ika, from ma, ground, pu'i, anything greasy, sweet, or 
otherwise pleasing to the taste, and ka, water, at Boonville. 

kaitfnamaml, from kawi'na, turtle, ma, ground, and mi, place, 
near the south bank of Anderson creek at a point about two miles 
east-southeast of Boonville. This was a food gathering camp. 



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154 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

kca'kakyd, from kca, white oak ( ?), kale', tree, and yo, under, 
near the northern head of Anderson creek at a point probably 
about five miles nearly due east of Boonville. This was a food 
gathering camp. 

maca'l, on the western slope near the summit of the range 
separating the Russian river and Navarro river drainages at a 
point probably about four and a quarter miles east-northeast of 
Boonville. This- site is located about two miles due east of the 
ranch house on the Singley ranch, which is on a small stream 
called Soda creek at a point about two miles northeast of Boon- 
ville. 

mffwibida, from mo, hole, wi, place, and bida', creek, just west 
of the summit of the range separating the Russian river and 
Navarro river drainages, and at a point about a mile east of the 
old camp at po'taba. 

po'taba, near the head of the small creek called Soda creek, 
upon which the large Soda spring near the ranch house on the 
Singley ranch is located, and at a distance of about a mile and a 
half up stream from it. 

ka'hdwali, from ka, water, ho, hot, and wa'li, at ( t), near the 
summit of the range separating the Russian river and the Na- 
varro river drainages, and at a point about a mile due west of the 
ranch house on what is known as the Metcalf ranch. 

ka'tsami, from ka, water, and tsa'mi, a musty odor, at a point 
about a mile and three-quarters west-northwest of the old camp 
at pd'taba at the head of Soda creek northeast of Boonville. 

cki'tsil, an involuntary jerking motion, at a point about three 
miles northwest of the old camp at po'taba at the head of Soda 
creek northeast of Boonville. 

Sit es Not Mentioned by Indians. 

On the north bank of the south fork of Big river at the con- 
fluence of Dougarty creek with it is the site of what was probably 
an old village or camp. Before this land was tilled there was a 
small pit here which may have been that of a small sweat-house, 
and there are to be found even yet fragments of implements such 
as are common about old sites in this region. 

At a point about a mile and a half up the south fork of Big 
river from the above mentioned site, and about four hundred 
yards northeast of the hotel at the summer resort known as 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 155 

Handley's, is a site which was probably inhabited only after the 
coming of the whites to this region, and then for only a few years. 
Near the head of Indian creek in what is known as the Peach- 
land school district is a site which was probably formerly inhab- 
ited, as there are many fragments of implements as well as other 
evidences of former occupation to be found here. 

LAKE DIVISION. 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites. 
Scott's Valley Rancheria, about a mile northwest of the town 
of Lakeport, and on the west bank of Scott's creek. This village 
consists of five houses and about fifteen inhabitants, mostly 
former residents of Scott's valley, but with a few from other 
old villages. 152 This is considered and called a village by the 
Indians, although the houses are not assembled at any one site 
but are scattered for three-quarters of a mile along the creek. 

Old Village Sites. 

maiyi'y contagion ( ?), at the foot of the hills on the extreme 
western side of Upper Lake valley, and at a point a short distance 
north of Scott's creek, where it cuts through the divide between 
Tule lake and Upper Lake valley. This is the only point at 
which the territory occupied by people speaking the Northern 
dialect extended beyond the divide and into Upper Lake valley. 
This was a large village and the site seems to be one of the very 
old ones of this region. Many of the myths of the region mention 
maiyi' and some of the characters of the myths originate here. 
The residence of Mr. Sleeper stands just west of this site. 

mama'mamau, from mama', projecting, on a point projecting 
out into Tule lake from its northern shore near the outlet of the 
lake. This was probably never a very large village. It seems to 
have been occupied both before and since the coming of whites to 
this region. 

xaro' or xaro'malugal, from xaro', valley oak acorn black 
bread, malu', to bake, and gal, homeward, close to the shore at 
the head of a small bay extending northward from the northern 
part of Tule lake. This bay also bears the name xaro'. 

ho'mtcatt, from horn, nettle, and tcati', village, or kd'pbftfti, 

1-8 The notes as to population were made during the summer of 1903. 
At that time there were in addition to the houses mentioned the dilapi- 
dated remains of a native tule house. 



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156 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

in the Eastern dialect, from kop, nettle, and bfit'iu, knoll, at a 
point about three-quarters of a mile north of Tule lake, and near 
the foot-hills on the eastern side of the valley. The village was 
situated on a small knoll which rises from the general level of the 
valley. 

tstya'kabeyo, on the creek tributary to Middle creek heading 
on the south side of Buckner mountain. This village was located 
about three miles south of the village of canelcai, which was 
near the summit of Buckner mountain. Informants differ as to 
whether the inhabitants of this village were more intimately 
associated with the people of the Tule lake or the Potter valley 
region. This difference is, however, of very little importance, as 
the people of these two localities used the same language and were 
on friendly terms. 

sama'kahna, on the west bank of Scott's creek at a point about 
three and one-half miles north-northwest of Lakeport. 

tfwakal, on the western slope and near the summit of the 
ridge west of Clear lake, and at a point about two miles north 
of Lakeport. 

ndbo'ral, from no, ashes, bor, mud, and hnal, on, on the west 
bank of Scott's creek at a point about two and one-half miles 
north-northwest of the town of Lakeport. The people of this 
village may be the ones referred to by Gibbs ,M by the name of 
"Moal-kai," by McKee" 4 as "Moal-kai," and by Slocum, Bowen 
and Company 155 as "Boil-ka-ya." 

ka'raka, from kar, a dry limb filled with woodpecker holes, 
and ka, water, on the eastern border of Scott's valley at a point 
about a mile and a half north-northwest of Lakeport. A portion 
or possibly all of the area covered by this site is on the ranch 
owned by Mr. J. F. Burger. 

There is the site of a village, the name of which could not be 
recalled by the informant, on the west bank of Scott's creek at 
a point about a mile and a half northwest of the town of Lake- 
port. It is located on the ranch of Mr. M. C. Scudamore. 

m Schoolcraft, HI, 109. 

154 Senate Ex. Doc., op. cit., p. 136. 

m Op. cit., Lake County, p. 35: "The Boil-ka-ya tribe lived in Scott's 
Valley, and their number was one hundred and eighty, which has dwin- 
dled down to forty. Che-boo-kas was their chief. ' ' Also (p. 37) a trans- 
lation of the name is given, as follows: "BoU-ka-ya, a city built in the 
west." 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Oeograpky of the Porno Indian*. 157 

kabe'l, or xabe'l in the Eastern dialect, probably from kab€' 
or xaW, rock, on the eastern slope of a prominent point, called 
Rocky point, which projects from the western shore of the 
channel connecting the main body of Clear lake with Upper lake, 
its northernmost arm. There may be some donbt as to whether 
this was in the strictest sense a village. One informant says that 
on the higher ground was the site of the winter camp and down 
by the shore-line was the site of the summer camp, thus consid- 
ering the entire settlement as of the nature of a camp. Still 
other informants refer to the site as a camp, while some call it 
a village. However, it seems quite certain that whatever the 
status of the place in this respect was, it was at all times inhab- 
ited, and it has seemed best, therefore, to designate it as a village. 
It will be observed that the boundary line between the Northern 
and Eastern dialectic areas is made, on the map, to pass through 
this village, thus indicating that the place was a common ground 
for the people of both dialects. While the control of the place 
seems to have been left to the people of Scott's valley, there were 
no restrictions as to the rights of the Upper Lake people in this 
vicinity, and people from both Upper Lake and Scott's valley 
camped here and enjoyed equal rights in the adjacent waters of 
the lake. It would seem that this was a place of some consider- 
able importance in former times, as it is often spoken of by the 
old Indians in relating the early history of this section, and is 
frequently referred to in the myths. 

Old Camp Sites. 

bfftcawel, from b5, west, and tcawe'l, canyon, on the western 
shore of Tule lake at a point just north of where Scott's creek 
flows into it. 18 * 



"•According to one informant of the Eastern dialect bft'tcawel, or 
bo'kawel as it is called in the Eastern dialect, was not the name of any 
special site, but was applied to aU of that part of the valley of Scott's 
creek which extends from Tule lake to Blue lakes. According to this 
informant also there was a village, called baka'sa, a little to the west of 
the site given here. The name given to the portion of Scott 's creek from 
Blue lakes up to the vicinity of Lakeport is yima'bidame, from yi, no (t), 
ma, land, and bida'me, creek, while the name of that part of the creek 
west of Lakeport is a'nubidame, from a'nQ signifying anything behind an 
object. It is said that this last name was given by the people of the Big 
valley region because of the fact that Scott's creek was located behind 
the range of hills west of Lakeport. 



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158 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

yo'togago, from yd, south, fo, toward, and gago', valley, in a 
very small valley on the head of Scott's creek at a point about 
two miles and a half northeast of Bed mountain. 

kffmU, from kom, soda spring, and li, there, in a small valley 
known as Eight-mile valley situated at the head of Scott's creek 
and at a point about three miles north-northeast of Bed mountain. 
It appears that there was a trail leading from Ukiah valley 
through the mountains to Scott's valley which passed through 
this small valley and near the soda spring on the south side of it 
from which it takes its name. So far as can be learned this 
camp was used chiefly as a resting place for parties traveling 
between Ukiah valley and the Clear lake region, and as a camp 
for those who went there to bathe in and drink the water from 
the spring which was known to have certain medicinal properties. 
According to one informant this camp was the temporary home 
of the people of the old village of ko'ml! on the town site of 
Ukiah when they were compelled to leave that place owing to 
differences which arose between themselves and the yd'kaia people 
in the southern end of Ukiah valley. 157 The name "Cum-le- 
bah" 1M used by Slocum, Bowen and Company probably origi- 
nated in ko'mll. 

k&e'Ud, from kile'l, a caved embankment, and yd, under, on 
the western shore of Clear lake at a point about half a mile south 
of Rocky point at the strait connecting Upper lake with the main 
body of Clear lake. It seems probable that this camp was not 
very much used or that it was a small camp. 

kffbatap, from ko, belly, and bata'p, cut, also given as ko'ba- 
tamk, on the western shore of Clear lake at a point about four 
miles north of Lakeport. 

kaba'iy or xaba'i in the Eastern dialect, from kaba'i or xaba'i, 
wild onion, Allium unifolium, on the western shore of Clear lake 
at a point about two miles and a quarter north of Lakeport. 

kale'cokon, from kale', tree, and coko'n, crooked, on the west- 
ern shore of Clear lake at a point about a mile and three-quarters 

m See note 109, and kd'mli, p. 138. 

"•"The Cum-le-bah tribe was located in the upper end of Scott's 
valley, on the Deming place. Their number was ninety, but are now re- 
duced to thirty. Du-goh was their chief. ' ' Op. cit., Lake County, p. 35. 
Also (p. 37) a translation of the name is given, as follows: "Cum-le-bah, 
a kind of mineral water." 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 159 

north of Lakeport. There seems to be some doubt as to whether 
this place was occupied as a camp or not, some informants main- 
taining that there never was a camp or village here, while others 
claim that this is a camp site. 

katsa'mugal, from katsa', grass, and muga', seeds, on the west- 
ern shore of Clear lake at a point about a mile and a quarter 
north of Lakeport. 

kala'bida, from kala', clam, and bida', creek, on the western 
shore of Clear lake at a point about three-quarters of a mile 
north of Lakeport. This site is on the western shore of a small 
cove on the property of Mr. L. P. Burger. Another informant 
mentioned kubi' as the name of a small inlet in this vicinity and 
said that there was a camp or village by the name of kubi' located 
at the head of it. The name was, however, known to other in- 
formants only as that of an inlet, and it is possible that the site 
referred to by this informant as kubi' is kala'bida. 

Modern Camp Sites. 

da'tsin, on a small creek called da'tsin-bida which empties into 
the main body of Clear lake at a point about a mile and a half 
south of Rocky point on the western shore of the strait con- 
necting Upper lake with the main body of Clear lake. This 
camp, which is about half a mile back from the lake-shore, is used 
at present to a limited extent as a fishing camp. 

CENTRAL DIALECT. 

BOUNDARIES. 

From a point on the coast about half way between Salmon 
creek and Navarro river the boundary of the Central dialectic 
area runs for a distance of about eight miles up the ridge, known 
as Navarro ridge, which separates Salmon creek from Navarro 
river. Here it turns in a general southerly direction, crosses 
Navarro river at a point just down stream from the confluence of 
the north fork with it, and then runs in a general southeasterly 
direction along the range of mountains just west of Navarro river 
to a point about two and a half miles east-northeast of Mountain 
view. Prom here it runs due east, crossing Rancheria creek and 



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160 University of California Publications in Am. AroK and Ethtu [Vol. 6 

then Anderson valley, in which it passes about a mile and a half 
south of the town of Boonville, to a point near the head of Ander- 
son creek. Here it turns in a northeasterly direction and runs 
for a short distance to a point near the head of Feliz creek and 
about due east of Boonville, where it turns in a northwesterly 
direction and runs along the ridge separating the Russian river 
and the Navarro river drainages to a point near the head of 
Robertson creek ; thence, turning eastward, it crosses Ukiah valley 
and Russian river probably about two miles and a half south of 
the town of Ukiah. 150 Keeping this easterly direction the line 
passes up the ridge south of Mill creek to the divide separating 
the drainages of Russian river and Clear lake. The line to this 
point generally trends eastward, forms the northern boundary of 
this dialectic area, and separates it from that of the Northern dial- 
ect. Here, taking a general southeasterly course, the line follows 
the divide between Russian river and Clear lake to a point nearly 
due east of the town of Cloverdale, and separates the Central 
from the Northern and Eastern dialectic areas. It then runs in 
a westerly direction probably along the ridge just north of Sul- 
phur creek, and crosses Russian river at a point about two miles 
and a half up stream from Cloverdale and about half a mile south 
of the line between Mendocino and Sonoma counties. 160 Thence 
it passes westward about two miles, turns in a northwesterly di- 
rection, and follows the ridge west of Russian river to a point 
a short distance south of McDonald. Prom here it runs in a 
general westerly direction, crossing the head of Dry creek and 
passing south of the head of Rancheria creek to the head of Rock 
Pile creek. Here it turns west-southwestward and runs along 
the ridge separating the north fork of Gualala river from Rock 
Pile creek to the confluence -of the north fork with the main 
branch of Gualala river. This portion of the boundary runs in 
a general westerly direction, and separates the Central from the 
Southern dialectic area. Prom here the boundary follows Gual- 
ala river down to the ocean, and forms the boundary between the 



m See note 109. 

160 According to one informant the line crosses the river at a certain very 
deep pool, called kaptcn'idn, and the territory of the Central and Southern 
dialects was very exactly marked at the river by this pool. 



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1908] Barrett.— The Bthno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 161 

Central and the Southwestern areas. 161 The western boundary 
is the coast-line. 

This very irregularly shaped area is surrounded on three sides 
by Pomo territory, as follows : on the north by the Northern, on 
the east by the Northern and Eastern, and on the south by the 
Southern and Southwesterly dialectic areas. On the west is the 
ocean. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

The Central dialectic area extends over three of the natural 
divisions previously described: the coast, redwood, and valley 
regions. The portion of the coast region included within the 
limits of this dialectic area extends from the ridge separating 
Salmon creek from Navarro river southward to the mouth of 
Gualala river, a distance of about thirty miles. The northern 
part of this stretch of coast is a succession of high ridges with 
intervening deep, steep-walled canyons, in some of which flow 
streams of considerable size. Toward the south these ridges de- 
crease in height until in the vicinity of Alder creek the cliffs give 
place to a sandy beach which extends to the mouth of Garcia river. 
This beach is backed by large sand dunes, and farther back by a 
stretch of gently sloping open country a mile or so in width, to 
the foot-hills. This is the largest beach on the entire Pomo 
coast. With Point Arena, immediately south of Garcia river, the 
cliffs begin again and continue down to the southern limit of the 
area at Gualala river. Throughout the entire length of this sec- 
tion of the coast there is a strip of open country from a quarter of 
a mile to a mile and a half in width bordering the shore. 

Beyond this coast strip is the redwood belt extending east- 
ward over comparatively high and rugged mountains for from 
five to fifteen miles. Owing to the dense forest which covers these 
mountains they were not permanently inhabited, and were tra- 
versable only with difficulty except along one or two trails. 

The valley portion of the region covered by this dialectic area 
comprises the valley of Russian river from a point about two and 

m According to one informant this boundary terminates at the ocean at 
a point about half way between the mouth of Gualala river and Black point. 
This informant stated that the boundary was very definitely marked at this 
point by an old dead redwood tree. 



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162 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

a half miles north of the town of Cloverdale and a half mile 
south of the boundary line between Mendocino and Sonoma coun- 
ties 162 up to a point about two miles and a half south of the town 
of Ukiah. 168 The southern part of this portion of Russian river 
valley is narrow and hardly more than a river bed between the 
hills on either side. About two miles south of the town of Hop- 
land the valley widens to about a mile, and continues as a fertile 
river bottom, known as Hopland or Sanel valley, 164 for about five 
miles. It again narrows for a distance of about three miles, 
forming Knight's valley, and then widens once more to form 
Ukiah valley, which extends beyond the northern boundary of the 
dialect. Bancheria valley, a small valley situated along the up- 
per course of Rancheria creek, one of the headwaters of Navarro 
river, is also included in this dialectic area. 

As has been noted, each of the several regions of the Porno 
territory had its typical food supply. The chief food of the coast 
people was derived from the ocean, molluscs, particularly mus- 
sels, being very abundant, while the seeds and roots of the wild 
grasses and flowering plants of the open coast country, and the 
oaks and other trees of the adjacent mountains, provided vegetable 
foods. The people in the valleys derived their chief supply of 
vegetable food from the acorn, adding also the seeds of various 
grasses and flowering plants, and certain edible bulbs and conns. 
Various kinds of game were to be had in the mountains, and fish 
were plentiful at certain seasons in the streams. 

COAST DIVISION. 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites. 

pda'hau, from pda, river, and ha, mouth, about four miles 
up Garcia river from its mouth and about five miles northeast of 
the town of Point Arena. This village, which commonly goes by 
the name of the Manchester or the Garcia River rancheria, con- 
sists of fifteen houses and about sixty inhabitants, 165 among whom 



"■ See note 160. 
M See note 109. 

1M This valley is called by the people of the Northern Porno dialectic area 
cd'kowama, and by those of the Eastern area c5k5wa'iina-xaxo. 
168 See note 167. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 163 

are Indians from the old villages on Gualala river as well as from 
the old village of ko'dalau, on Brush creek at a point about two 
miles northeast of pdaThau. The Garcia river flows in this part 
of its course through a steep-walled canyon. The village is on 
the north side of the canyon and is located but a few hundred 
yards below the site of the former village of itce'tce. 16 * The 
old village near the mouth of Garcia river also bore the name 
pdaliau. 

Old Village Sites. 

dama'ldau, at a point probably about half way between Green- 
wood and Elk creeks, and at a distance of about half a mile back 
from the ocean. 

ka'uca, on what is called Cliff ridge between Elk and Green- 
wood creeks, and at a point near the north bank of the former and 
about a mile and a half back from the shore-line of the ocean. 
Standing near this site is a large dead redwood tree which is 
mentioned in some of the myths of the region as the one which 
enabled katca'-tca, one of the mythical beings, to escape from 
dand'-tca, another being who was pursuing him. This tree alone 
was large and strong enough to withstand the force of dano'-tca, 
which had been able to break down all the other trees up which 
katca'-tca had endeavored to escape. According to another in- 
formant this site is located at a point several miles farther up 
this same ridge. 

kasi'ltcimada, from kasi'l, redwood, tcima', to run up or ex- 
tend up stream, and da, ?, on the north bank of Alder creek and 
just east of the point at which the county road crosses the creek. 
This site is just south of the ranch house on what is known as the 
Luther Redemeyer ranch. 

ko'dalau, in the hills at a point about three and one-half miles 
from the ocean and near the north bank of Brush creek. This 



"* The present village is located on land belonging to the Indians them- 
selves, having been purchased and presented to them by the Northern Cali- 
fornia Indian Association. Up the hill, north of the present village, is the 
site of the former village that had been inhabited for twenty-five years or 
more, the Indians having abandoned it only in 1902. This same location 
was used before the coming of white settlers as a permanent village. It 
appears that during the occupation of this site as a village since the coming 
of the whites it was called, like the present village, pdVhau; but prior to 
that time, during its occupation as a permanent village prior to the coming 
of the whites, it bore the name itc§'tce. 



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164 University of California Publications tn Am. Arch, and Ethn. [ VoL 6 

was evidently quite a large village and was one of the permanent 
homes of the people who made camps along the shore-line and 
among the hills at tcido'bate, bo'cadilau, ef hobo and other points. 
According to another informant this site is located at a point 
about a mile up the same ridge from the place above mentioned. 

na'koca, on the north bank of Brush creek at a point about five 
and a half milei east of the town of Manchester. 

itce'tce, said to signify anything which bounces as it is pulled 
along, on the north bank of Garcia river and just up the hill from 
the present village of pda'hau. This site, it would appear, was 
once permanently inhabited as a village, being later, possibly only 
during the earliest white occupation of the country, occupied as a 
camp. About twenty-five years ago the Indians established their 
modern village at this site and occupied it until 1902, when they 
abandoned it to move a few hundred yards down the hill toward 
the river onto the land purchased for them by the Northern 
California Indian Association. 

pda'hau, from pda, river, and ha, mouth, near the north bank 
of Garcia river at the north end of the wagon bridge which 
crosses the river just north of Plumeville, almost due north of 
Point Arena. The Indian name of the present Garcia river 
rancheria, which is located about three miles up stream from this 
site, is also pda'hau. 

dje'comi, just south of the cemetery which is situated about 
three-quarters of a mile north-northwest of the town of Point 
Arena. 

ma'canena, from ma, ground, cane', sweat-house, and na or 
wina', on top of, on the northwest bank of the north fork of 
Gualala river at a point about seven miles from its confluence 
with the main stream. 

katsa'iwani, near the opposite bank of the north fork of Gua- 
lala river from ma'canena, and on the north bank of a small 
stream which flows into it. 

la'tc&pda, on the north bank of the small stream mentioned in 
connection with katsa'iwani, but at a point about a mile and a 
half up stream from that place. This site appears to have been 
the most important of the old sites on the head of the north fork 
of Gualala river and gave its name to the entire vicinity, the other 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 165 

villages in the neighborhood not being continuously inhabited as 
was the case with this one. However, the other sites must be re- 
garded as permanent old villages for the Indians say that they 
were never abandoned for so long but that houses remained there 
constantly, la'tcupda was located just north of what is known 
as Bock Pile, a prominent rocky mountain frequently mentioned 
in the myths of this region. There seems to be some doubt as to 
the exact location of la'tcdpda and kubahmd'i which lies in the 
Southern dialectic area. According to some informants these two 
villages were on opposite sides of the mountain, Rock Pile, above 
mentioned, which would bring kfibahmd'i a number of miles 
farther up Rock Pile creek than is indicated below. Prom the 
most reliable information obtainable, however, the locations given 
for these two sites seem to be the correct ones. 

ivtfkbedabau, from Iwf, coyote, kab§', rock, and daba'u, to 
split with the hand, on the opposite side of the small creek above 
mentioned from la'tcupda. The Indians say that this name is 
given to this site because of the presence of a bluish rock which 
stands about two feet out of the ground and has an area three 
or four feet square. This rock is filled with small shallow cup- 
pings and long narrow scratches or gashes, all of which are said 
to have been made by coyote. The rock is described as similar 
to certain rocks in the vicinity of the old villages of m&'yamuya 
and b6'd6no in Russian river valley, which are said by the Indians 
of that vicinity to be medicine rocks and to have formerly been 
used as eures for sterility. 

ma'tasama, from ma, ground, ta or tas, red, and sa'ma, near 
( ?), on the northwest bank of the north fork of Gualala river at 
a point about a mile northeast of the old village of ma'canena. 

tca'msumli, from tea, house, mad, said to signify charred or 
half burned, and li, there, on the ridge separating the headwaters 
of Garcia river from those of the north fork of Gualala river and 
at a point probably about two miles and a half from the old vil- 
lage of la'tcupda. 

kle'tel, from kale', tree, and ite'l, to peel off, in the mountains 
between Garcia river and the headwaters of the north fork of 
Gualala river at a point probably about three miles and a half 
northwest of the old village of la'tcfipda. 



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166 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

Old Camp Sites. 

bo'cadUaUy from b6, west, and ca'dilau, projecting point, on a 
projecting point of land at the shore-line just north of the town 
of Greenwood. This camp was at the southern end of the wagon 
bridge between Greenwood and Cuffey's Cove, about three-quart- 
ers of a mile to the north. 

tcidd'bate, at what is known as Bridgeport on the coast about 
two miles and a quarter south from the mouth of Elk creek. 

cane'uca, from cane', sweat-house, and wica', a small ridge, 
rather indefinitely located as being on the north bank of Gualala 
river at a point probably about twelve or thirteen miles up stream 
from its mouth. 

twi'yokca, from Iwi', coyote, yo, down or south, and kca, gulch, 
rather indefinitely located as being on the north bank of Garcia 
river at a point about three miles up stream from cane'uca. This 
site is probably the same as that mentioned by some of the whites 
of the vicinity, they having found stone implements and other 
evidences of former habitation at this place. 

bahe'myo, from bahe'm, pepperwood, and yo, under, on the 
north bank of Garcia river on what is known as the Campbell 
ranch. This site is said to have been located on the immediate 
bank of the river and was probably not over a mile distant from 
Iwi'yokca. 

kaiye"lem, from kaiye' manzanita, and Ile'm, between hills, 
near the south bank of Garcia river at a point probably about two 
miles up stream from bahe'my6. 

kawa'tcam, from kawa', bark, and team, to fall across, near 
the north bank of Garcia river at a point probably about four 
miles up stream from kaiye' lem. 

kacflcego, from kacil or kadi, redwood, and cego', ?, at 
Mountain View. The present hotel at Mountain View is located 
exactly upon this site. The Indian name is given because of the 
fact that there was formerly a small clump of redwoods near the 
spring at which the Indians always camped. 

ci'hdbd, at a point in the mountains about ten miles a little 
north of east of the mouth of Garcia river and about one mile 
west of Mountain View. This camp was used by parties gather- 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 167 

ing acorns and other vegetable foods while the camps along the 
shore-line were for the purposes of gathering molluscs and sea- 
weeds, and for hunting sea-lions and other game along the shore. 

ka'dalau, from ka, water, dala'u, to run down, in the bottom 
of the small gulch just south of the store in the small town known 
as Fish Sock, which is located on the coast at a point about three 
and a half miles northwest of Gualala. It would appear that 
this camp was only used by fishing parties and even then only 
rarely. The Indians claim that there were no regular camps be- 
tween this point and the town of Point Arena to the north, though 
there were certain places along this stretch of coast where they 
occasionally camped for fishing or sea hunting. 

ka'mli, anything thrown across, at a point about a quarter of 
a mile north of Bo wen's Landing and about a mile and three- 
quarters northwest of the town of Gualala. This site is probably 
the same as that referred to by certain white informants of this 
vicinity who have found here various evidences of aboriginal oc- 
cupation. 

iwf'tcal, from Iwi, coyote, and tea, house, near the ocean at a 
point about a mile northwest of the town of Gualala. 

sffwi, from s6, clover, and wi, place, near the north bank of 
the north fork of Gualala river at a point about a mile and a half 
up stream from its confluence with the main stream. 

tse'ki, said to signify low in the center, on the ridge immediate- 
ly south of the north fork of Gualala river and at a point about 
two miles east of its confluence with the main stream. 

Jcasa'sam, in the mountains between the north fork of Gualala 
river and Rock Pile creek and at a point about five miles east of 
the confluence of the north fork with the main stream of Gualala 
river. The Indians say that this camp was particularly used as 
a stopping place for those returning heavily laden from the coast 
to la'tuepda. They were usually easily able to make the trip 
from la'tcupda to the coast in a single day, but some found it too 
fatiguing to return with a basketful of fish or molluscs in a single 
day and would therefore spend the night at kasa'sam. 



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168 University of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 



VALLEY DIVISION. 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites. 

Hopland Rancheria, at a point about a mile nearly due north 
of the town of Hopland. This village is located on land belong- 
ing to Mr. A. W. Foster, and is on the first rise of the foot-hills 
east of Russian river. It consists of sixteen houses and about one 
hundred inhabitants, among whom are to be found not only peo- 
ple from the old villages in this immediate vicinity, but also some 
from those in Ukiah valley and some from those along the river 
south of Hopland. A school is here maintained under the aus- 
pices of the Roman Catholic church. 167 

yo'kaia, from yo, south, ka'ia, valley, Beatty Rancheria, or Cox 
Rancheria, about six miles south-southeast of the town of Ukiah, 
and in the foot-hills on the eastern side of the valley. Before the 
coming of the whites the people of this village lived chiefly at 
co'kadjal, a short distance northwest of this site. After their re- 
turn from the Mendocino reservation they lived at various places 
in this vicinity, chiefly on the western side of the valley, and 
moved to their present village only upon acquiring title to a tract 
of 145 acres of land extending from the east bank of Russian river 
back into the hills on the eastern side of the valley. The village 
which in 1903 consisted of nineteen houses and about eighty in- 
habitants, among whom were some from Hopland valley and some 
from the coast region of this dialectic area, has decreased until 
it contains not over fifty inhabitants at present. 168 There 
is here a large dance-house, which is, however, entirely 
modern, being octagonal in form, built of ordinary lumber, and 



m In Alley, Bowen and Company's History of Mendocino County, Cali- 
fornia, published in 1880, the following is said (page 173) of the Indian 
population at that time: "At the present time there is quite a village a 
few miles north of Sanel, the remnant of the Sanels, numbering perhaps one 
hundred and fifty. The village consists of some twenty thatched, dome-like 
huts, and in the center of it is located the inevitable sweat-house. South of 
Ukiah, about five miles, there are two or three small villages containing in 
all, perhaps, two hundred. Near Calpella there are, perhaps, fifty; east of 
Ukiah there are about one hundred. At Canto there is a village of about 
seventy-five; at Sherwood valley there are about seventy-five. Near Point 
Arena there is a village of probably one hundred; and at the mouth of Big 
river there is a rancheria of about one hundred. There are others scattered 
over the county but these are the main villages." 

m See note 167. 



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1908] Barrett— The Ethno-Oeography of the Porno Indians. 169 

entirely above ground. This building has not been used for 
dances for several years, but serves as a place of assemblage when 
occasion demands. In addition to the houses mentioned, there 
are a hop kiln and six barns. These people have on their land 
along the river a field of fourteen acres of hops, besides a field of 
grain, from both of which they derive a considerable revenue. 
There is a school at this village maintained under the auspices of 
the Roman Catholic church. During the summer months many 
of the inhabitants of this village move to the summer camp on 
the river near their hop field, while others move to the hop fields 
of various ranchers in the valley. The name yft'kaia, referring to 
the people of the southern part of Ukiah valley and more par- 
ticularly those of the old village of co'kadjal, has been used by 
various early writers. Gibbs 1 ** mentions the "Yukai" as a 
"band" living in what is now called Ukiah valley. Powers 170 
gives " Yo-kai-a" as the name of the people occupying Ukiah val- 
ley "from a point a little below Calpella down to about seven 
miles below Ukiah, ,,m and derives the name from "yo, down, 
below or lower, and kaia, valley." The late Mr. A. E. Sher- 
wood 172 gives the name "yo-kai-ah," with the translation of 
"deep valley." Also, various other orthographies have been 
used, as "Ukiah, or Yokai," 17 * "Ukiah," 17 * "Yokaya," 175 "Ya- 
ki-a," 17 * and "Yokia." 177 Purdy 178 uses "Yokaia Porno" with 
the translation of "South Valley People." Some confusion 
has arisen from the inconsistency of the alphabets employed by 
these various authors, particularly because of the likeness of some 
of these spellings of yS'kaia to those of Yuki, which name has been 
even more variously and inconsistently rendered. The name, 



m Schoolcraft, HI, 112, 113, 421. 

m Tribes of California, p. 163. 

in 8ee note 109. 

in History of Mendocino, op. cit., p. 167. 

m Bancroft, Native Races, I, 362, 449. 

m Capt. Ford, Bept. Com. Ind. Aff. 1856, p. 257. 

m Powell, op. cit., p. 89. 

m M , Kee, Senate Ex. Doc., op. cit., p. 144. 

m V. K. Cheenut, Plants used by the Indians of Mendocino County, Cali- 
fornia, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Botany, Contributions from 
TJ. S. National Herbarium, VII, no. 3, p. 303 seq. 

m Op. cit., Land of Sunshine, XV, 444. 



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170 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

now spelled Ukiah, is applied to the county seat of Mendocino 
county, and to the valley in which that town is situated. The 
first use of it other than as a purely Indian word is found in the 
name Yokaya Rancho. 179 

kabe'klal, from kabS', rock, and k !al, to rub, at the foot-hills 
on the opposite side of the valley from the yo'kaia rancheria, and 
at a point about five and a half miles south of the town of Ukiah. 
This site takes its name from a white rock, supposed to possess 
medicinal qualities, which stands a short distance west of it. 
There is here at present but a single house and five people. There 
is another house, in which six Indians live, on the flat east of this 
one and near the river. These people all belong to the yo'kaia 
rancheria and have lived at this place continuously only for about 
two years. Previous to this they usually spent only part of the 
year here. 

Yorkville Rancheria, near the west bank of Rancheria creek 
at a point about a mile and a half northwest of the town of York- 
ville. This village consists of only two houses and about ten in- 
habitants, and is situated on a tract of land belonging to the In- 
dians themselves. This tract, containing forty acres, a consider- 
able part of which is covered with redwood timber, was pur- 
chased by the Indians some years ago at a cost of six hundred 
dollars. 

Old Village Sites. 

holo'ko, near Echo at a point on Russian river about two miles 
north of the southern boundary of the Central dialectic area. 
There are two places here which were formerly inhabited, though 
at different times : one just north of the railroad station at Echo, 
and the other just east, across the river. 

ce'pda, on both banks of Wise creek at the railroad station of 
Cummiskey. 

kca'kaleyo, on the east bank of Russian river at a point about 
three quarters of a mile northeast of Cummiskey. 



m The orthography above given is that used by Alley Bowen and Com- 
pany (op. cit., p. 211), while Brackenridge uses Tokayo (Map of Mendocino 
County, op. cit). This rancho was an old Mexican grant of eight square 
leagues of land extending along Russian river for a distance of eighteen 
miles from a point about four miles north of Hopland to near the head of 
Redwood valley north of Calpella. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Bthno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 171 

ma'katcam, on the east bank of Russian river at a point about 
a mile and a half north-northeast of Cnmmiskey and about half 
a mile south of Squaw rock. 

kabe'yd, from kab£', rock, and yo, under, on the east bank of 
Russian river and directly east of Squaw rock. This site is about 
a mile and a quarter south-southeast of Pieta. 

ka'hwalau, on the east bank of Russian river, and just north 
of the confluence of Pieta cifeek with it. There was at this place 
a flat of considerable size to which the name kalrwalafL, which 
strictly is the name of the point at which the water from Pieta 
creek flows into the river, is applied. It would appear that there 
are several places on this flat which were formerly inhabited at 
different times. One informant gave the name kabetcelidda to 
one of these places, stating that this was the site of the principal 
village here at one time. Another informant, however, mentions 
this as the name of a summer camp about three miles up Pieta 
creek. It appears that ka'hwalau is the general name which was 
applied to the whole flat and the village no matter on what part of 
the flat it was located. 

yd'tce&k, from yo, south, and tce'uk, corner, near the east bank 
of Russian river at a point about three quarters of a mile north- 
east of Pieta. 

co'samal, at a point about a mile southwest of Fountain. 

iwtda, from Iwf , coyote, and da, trail ; or dano'lyo, from dano', 
mountain, and yd', under, just north of the railroad station at 
Fountain. The name danolyS was given also by another infor- 
mant to the village of ka'hwalau, but it seems probable that its 
application to Iwi'da is the correct one. 

haw? oka, from kawf , anything small, and ka, water, on the 
south bank of Feliz creek just south of the town of Hopland. 

cane'l, from cane', sweat-house, on the south bank of McDowell 
creek at a point just south of the town of Sanel or Old Hopland 
on the eastern side of Hopland valley. This is said, by both In- 
dians and early white settlers, to have been a very large village. 
Powers 180 mentions the village, which he calls "Se-nel," as being 
formerly very populous, and he shows a plan of the site as he 



1 Tribes of California, pp. 168, 169. 



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172 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 

found it at the time of his visit to the region. He says 181 also, 
" Besides the Senel, there live in the vicinity the So-ko'-wa, the 
La'-ma, and the Si'-a-ko, very small tribes or villages.' ' Gibbs 182 
mentions "the Sah-ne'ls" in his record of the Indians who en- 
tered into a treaty with Colonel M'Kee. And again, in speaking 
of their language, he says, "the Sah-nels, as also the Boch-he'af, 
Ubak-he'a, Tabah-te'a, and Moi-ya, living between them and the 
coast speak the 8ame. ,, MTJee 188 calls them "the Sai-nals." 
Powell, 184 probably following Powers, spells the name " Senel/ ' 
as do also Alley, Bowen and Company. 185 Bancroft 188 gives the 
name of the Indians the same as that of the present town: "The 
Sanels, Socoas, Lamas, and Seacos lived in the vicinity of the vil- 
lage of Sanel," and Mr. Carl Purdy 18T mentions them as the 
"Saneloe." The name is also found in "Rancho de Senel." 188 
Besides the village of cane'l here under consideration there is 
another village of that name in Potter valley on the east fork of 
Russian river. 

cffsamak, in what is called McDowell valley near the head of 
McDowell creek, and at a point about a mile and three-quarters 
northeast of Sanel or Old Hopland. It appears that this village 
has not been inhabited for many years and there are stories to the 
effect that many years ago the people of this village, which was 
at that time a very large one, were all taken by a contagious 
disease. This is also the village mentioned in one of the myths 
of the region which says that the people here at one time were 
miraculously changed to birds which flew away, the village never 
again being occupied. 

kawfmd, from kawf, anything small, and mo, hole, at a point 

m Ibid., p. 172. 

•"Schoolcraft, HI, 112. 

*" Senate Ex. Doc., op. cit., p. 144. 

m Ind. Ling. Fam., p. 89. 

"•History of Mendocino County, p. 167. 

"» Hist. CaL, I, 362, 450, 452. 

m Porno Indian Baskets and Their Makers, Land of Sunshine Magazine, 
XV, 442. 

"* The Bancho de Senel was an old Mexican land grant obtained by Fer- 
nando Feliz in 1844. It comprised four square leagues, covering Hopland 
or Sanel valley and the adjacent hills. Feliz, who was the first settler in 
this valley, built his adobe house only a short distance from the Indian vil- 
lage of cane'l. — History of Mendocino County, op. cit., p. 212, and N. B. 
Brackenridge's Official Map of Mendocino County, 1887. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Etkno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 173 

about one hundred yards east of Russian river and about a mile 
and three-quarters north-northwest of the town of Hopland. 
This site is near a large spring sometimes called the poison spring. 
ci&go, from cie', a kind of grass seed, and gagd', field or valley. 
On the small knoll just west of Largo station. The ranch house 
on the Crawford ranch now stands on this site. This was one 
of the more important of the old villages of this region. The 
people of this village are probably the ones referred to by 
Powers 189 under the name of "Si-a-ko" and by Bancroft 190 as the 



tflala, from si, f , and la'la, in the middle, on the north bank 
of McNab creek which empties into Russian river just north of 
Largo. The village was located on the "old" John Knight ranch 
and was but a short distance west of Russian river. 

le'ma, from i'le'ma, between or low down, in what is known as 
Knight's valley on McNab creek, and at a point about two miles 
from the confluence of that stream with Russian river. It ap- 
pears that this name was applied not only to the village itself 
but also to the entire valley and to the creek. The village of 
le'ma was one of the large and important villages of aboriginal 
times. It is probable that the people of this village are the ones 
referred to by Powers and Bancroft 191 by the name ' 'La-ma." 

hu'kdja, from huk, a mythical being resembling a bird, and 
dja or tea, house, near the north bank of McNab creek at a point 
about two and three-quarters miles up stream from its confluence 
with Russian river and about half a mile up from the old village 
of le'ma. This site was believed to be the home of the mythical 
being above mentioned and the vicinity seems to have been, by 
some at least, held in awe so that there is some doubt as to whether 
the site was ever inhabited by the Indians, at least in modern 
times. It was mentioned in connection with mu'yanmya, which 
is also a village with mythical associations. However, it was 
given by some informants as an ordinary village. 

mu'yamuya, the name of a mythical being, near the west bank 



"• Tribes of California, p. 172. 
"•Hist. Cal., I, 362, 450, 452. 

™ Powers, Tribes of California, p. 172. Bancroft, Hist. Cal., I, 362, 450, 
452. 



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174 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

of Russian river at a point about a mile and a half up stream 
from the confluence of McNab creek with it. There is consider- 
able doubt as to whether this site was ever inhabited by the pres- 
ent Indians, but it is given by some as an ordinary village. By 
others, however, it is given as the site of a village occupied by the 
mythical people only. According to one informant mu'yamuya 
was a great ugly-looking hairy man-like being nine or ten feet in 
height, who lived alone near a spring called kapa'sil, spring brush, 
in the brush at a point about a quarter of a mile south of the old 
village of le'ma. As any one passed by he would always make 
fun of them and invite them to gamble. No one ever paid any 
attention to his bantering, but passed on and as his back was 
turned mu'yamuya would run up and steal whatever the person 
was carrying and make off with it. On account of his strength 
and size the people were afraid to attack him at such times, but 
they eventually gave a big dance and feast to which he was in- 
vited, and there they endeavored to kill him. He warned them 
repeatedly that if he were killed some great calamity would befall 
them, but said that if they wished to dispose of him they must 
dress him up in a certain very rich costume and throw him into a 
big pool in the river at the foot of the cliff just north of the 
village of mu'yamuya. They, however, paid no attention to his 
warning and proceeded to pinion him and allow the women to 
pound him to pieces with pestles. They then threw the mangled 
remains away and rejoiced that they were at last rid of this vi- 
cious tormentor. But no sooner had they returned to the village 
than he also appeared, the pieces of his body having come to- 
gether and reunited. At other times he was known to have been 
attacked by grizzly bears while hunting and to have been chewed 
into bits by them and still to have survived. Finally after the 
people of this village had endeavored a number of times to kill 
mu'yamuya they determined to again try mashing him. They 
accordingly caught him and took him to the top of the cliff just 
north of the village and mashed his body completely, this time 
not overlooking any parts and particularly the great toe of his 
right foot. Under the nail of mu'yamuya 's great toe on the right 
foot there was a small hard kernel which when cut open and ex- 
amined was found to enclose his heart. It was the overlooking 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 175 

of this heart that had formerly baffled their attempts to kill him. 
This time, however, they cut out the heart and rolled the frag- 
ments of the body over the cliff into the pool below, also rolling 
large boulders after them. The boulders may now be seen at the 
foot of this cliff. The people then celebrated the occasion with a 
great dance, at the end of which all were transformed into birds 
which flew away, and the village has never since been inhabited. 

A hundred yards or so west of this site is a bluish stone which 
protrudes from the ground but a few inches. The surface of this 
is filled with small cuppings and scratches or gashes where the 
rock has been scraped and pulverized as a medicine for the cure 
of sterility. Other rocks of the same kind are located near the 
old village of bo'ddno. 

ta'tem, from ta', sand, and Ite'm, a small open place, on what is 
known as the Smith ranch now owned by Mr. Charles Yates on 
the east bank of Russian river at a point about two miles north- 
northwest of Largo and about seven and a half miles south-south- 
east of Ukiah. This village derived its name from the sandy flat 
upon which it was situated. In former times the river ran farth- 
er to the east and near this site, so that the site itself was over- 
flowed every year and covered with sand. The river has shifted 
its course so that at the present time it runs about a quarter of a 
mile west of the old site. At times of such high water the people 
of this village moved to a place but a short distance east of the 
village which was high enough to be dry, returning again to the 
sandy flat as soon as the water subsided. This was one of the 
largest of the old villages in Ukiah valley and was situated at the 
extreme southern end of the valley. From all that can be learned 
this village was nearly as large as co'kadjal 

tca'kca, from tea, house, and kca, canyon, just northwest of 
the present yo'kaia village and at a point about a quarter of a mile 
east of Russian river. The ranch house on the "old" Beatty 
ranch, now owned by Mr. H. H. Van Nader, stands on this site. 
It appears that this was originally only a temporary village, being 
occupied now and then for short periods of time, but that later, 
probably after the arrival of white settlers, it was occupied for a 
term of years. 



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176 University of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

cane'milam, from cane', sweat-house, and mila'm, burned or 
otherwise totally destroyed, at the house on Dr. King's ranch just 
east of Russian river and at a point about five miles south-south- 
east of Ukiah. 

c&kadjal, just north of the ranch house on the Rhodes ranch 
at a point about four miles and a half south-southeast of Ukiah. 
There was formerly a small pond at this place which was situated 
just west of the hop kiln and the ranch house, and it was on the 
east or northeast shore of this pond that the village was located. 
This was the largest of the yS'kaia villages and the largest village 
in the southern part of Ukiah valley. It appears that this village 
and ta'tem were the only two in this immediate vicinity which 
might properly be called permanent villages, although there were 
various others which were more or less continuously inhabited, 
but the people of the other villages seemed to consider these 
two as their real homes and it was here, particularly at co'kadjal, 
that large gatherings for ceremonial and other purposes were 
held. 

After what is known as the Bloody Island massacre at Clear 
Lake in 1850, when a detachment of troops under Captain Lyons 
visited that region to avenge the so-called Stone and Kelsey mas- 
sacre and succeeded in killing a large number of Indians who had 
taken refuge on Bloody Island, the detachment of troops crossed 
the divide into Russian river valley and killed many Indians 
there. Among the other places visited was co'kadjal, where, upon 
being met with a slight show of resistance, they killed, according 
to information obtained from Indians who escaped, about 
seventy-five. 

cane'neu, from cane', sweat-house, and ne'u, to place, on the 
south bank of Robertson creek at a point about three-quarters of 
a mile from its confluence with Russian river. The ranch house 
on the ranch now owned by Mr. Isaac Burk stands on this site. 
It appears that this was one of the smaller villages and was pos- 
sibly not continuously occupied in aboriginal times. However, 
after the coming of white settlers the people of cd'kadjal occupied 
this site continuously for several years. 

bo'kca, from bo, west, and kca, canyon, on the south bank of 
Robertson creek at a point about a mile and three-quarters from 



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1908] Barrett— The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 177 

its confluence with Russian river. This is near the bridge across 
Robertson creek at the Wilcox ranch. 

bffdono, from bo, west, and dono' or dano', mountain, just 
southeast of the county road at the point where it passes the 
ranch house on the Elledge ranch, and at a point about four and 
a half miles southwest of the confluence of Robertson creek with 
Russian river and about a mile south of the creek. This village 
is well back in the mountains and it appears that while it is was 
permanently inhabited in so far that there were a few people 
living here at all times, it perhaps should not be classed as one of 
the regular and permanent old villages. It was used by the peo- 
ple of cd'kadjal and the other villages in the valley as a food 
gathering and a hunting camp, they going here regularly at cer- 
tain seasons of the year; and in this way it may be considered as 
much a camp as a village in the strict sense of the term. A few 
hundred yards northwest of this site are two bluish rocks which 
project a short distance from the surface of the ground. The 
surfaces of these are covered with cuppings and furrows or gashes 
where the rock has been ground and scraped into a powder to be 
used as a cure for sterility. Another rock of this same sort is 
situated near the old village of mu'yamuya. 

dako'lkabe, probably from dakd', pestle, and kabe', rock, near 
the east bank of Rancheria creek at a point about two and a 
quarter miles south-southeast of the town of Boonville. Accord- 
ing to one informant the people of this village owned the adjoin- 
ing land for about a mile north of the village or about to the sum- 
mit of the ridge between Rancheria and Anderson creeks, which 
would place the boundary between the Central and Northern 
dialectic areas about as given on the accompanying map. This 
site is claimed to be a village by most informants, but there are 
those who state that the place was never inhabited and who know 
it only as a conspicuous pile of rocks. 

$a"noly6 9 near the east bank of Rancheria creek at a point 
about five miles down the stream from Yorkville. 

ko'thwi, near the east bank of Rancheria creek at a point about 
three miles down stream from Yorkville. 

cta'la, in a small valley southwest of Rancheria creek and at 
a point about three and a half miles northwest of Yorkville and 
a mile west-southwest of ko'thwi. 



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178 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

la'te, on the west bank of Rancheria creek at a point about a 
mile nearly due west of Yorkville. 192 

kala'icolem, at a point about a mile and a quarter south- 
southwest of Yorkville. 

kaiye'lle, at a point about three-quarters of a mile north of 
Whitehall. 

notce'tfyo, at Whitehall. 

mabffton, indefinitely located at a point probably a mile and 
a half a little south of east of Whitehall. 

la'li, indefinitely located at a point near the head of Ranch- 
eria creek and probably about two miles southwest of Whitehall. 

Uninhabited Modern Village Sites. 

katca'yo, from katca', flint, and yo, under, near the west bank 
of Russian river at a point about six and a half miles south of 
Ukiah. This village is located at the foot-hills on the Higgins 
ranch. Just up the hill from this site there is an outcropping of 
flint of various colors and it was here that much of the flint used 
for drill points and in the manufacture of various other imple- 
ments was obtained. It is this outcropping of flint that is re- 
ferred to in the village name. According to some informants this 

"• Powers in his tribes of California (p. 172) gives the Indians of An- 
derson and Rancheria valleyB as united politically. Under the head of 
"Koma'cho" he says: "These Indians live in Rancheria and Anderson 
valleyB, and are a branch of the great Porno family, though more nearly 
related to the Senel than the Porno proper. Their name is derived from their 
present chief, whose authority extends over both valleys." It is very un- 
usual to find the authority of a single individual extending farther than his 
own immediate village, and, in view of the fact that, according to present 
information, these two valleys were inhabited by people speaking different 
dialects, kSma'tco being really applied to the people in Anderson valley in 
the Northern dialectic area, it seems probable that Powers' statements on 
the subject do not give the condition in aboriginal times. It sometimes 
happens that the whites consider the authority of an individual Indian to 
extend much farther than it really does, and it is probable that the leader or 
captain referred to here was treated by the whites as having authority over 
the people inhabiting both of these valleys, and from this he may have come 
to be considered so by the Indians themselves, at least in so far as their deal- 
ings with the whites were concerned. Powell (op. cit., p. 88) and Bancroft 
(History of California, I, 362, 449) mention the same people, the former 
using Powers' spelling of the name, and the latter changing it to "Co- 
macho." Gibbs (Schoolcraft, III, 112) mentions four "tribes," the 
"Boch-he'af, Ubak-he'a, Tabah-te'a and Moiya," who, he says, lived be- 
tween the Senel valley and the coast. Tabah-te'a is evidently the village 
of tal>ate near Philo in Anderson valley. Boch-he'af is probably bSTceya, a 
name applied by the people of the Russian river valley to those living in 
Rancheria valley. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 179 

village was inhabited to a limited extent before the coming of 
white settlers, but from the most reliable information obtainable 
it appears that its occupation dates only as far back as the com- 
ing of settlers to the valley. 

kala'lndkca, from kalal-nS, white willow, and kca, canyon, on 
the small creek called kalalnokca-pda which runs from the west 
into Russian river on the Higgins ranch about six miles south of 
Ukiah. This site is located a short distance north of the creek 
at a point about a mile from the river. The village, the greater 
part of which was situated on the north bank of the stream, was 
occupied for about ten or fifteen years soon after the coming 
of white settlers to this region, and has not been inhabited for 
twenty-five or thirty years. 

buki'snal, from bfi, Indian potatoes, Iris, heart burn, and nal, 
forest, at a point about half a mile northeast of the hop kiln on 
the H. H. Van Nader ranch and but a short distance north-north- 
east of the present ySToiia rancheria. This site was inhabited for 
only a short time, but the name was always applied to this vicin- 
ity, which was used as a hunting ground in aboriginal times. 

bana'kaiyau, at the house on what is known as the Howell 
"home" ranch at a point about half a mile east of Russian river 
and about four miles south-southeast of Ukiah. 



Old Camp Sites. 

bated' adandy from batcft'a, angelica, and dan6', mountain, in- 
definitely located at a point about a mile and a half southwest of 
Echo. 

cabu'tukkawi, indefinitely located at a point about two miles 
west-northwest of Echo and about a mile and three-quarters 
southwest of Cummiskey. 

cete'ho, at McDonald. 

dyfftdn, from clyo', shade or shadow, and ton, f, at a point 
about a mile north of McDonald. 

a'kule, in the hills at a point about two miles northeast of 
Echo. 

ciyffksiti, at a point about two miles east-southeast of Foun- 
tain. 



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180 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [ VoL 6 

su'lmo, from sul, California condor, Cathartes Calif ornianus, 
and mo, hole, at a point about a hundred yards northwest of 
ciyokslti. These two sites are so close together that it has been 
necessary to indicate them on the map by a single symbol. 

ta'tf, at a point about a mile and three-quarters due east of 
Fountain. This camp bears the same name as a camp on Feliz 
creek west of Hopland. 

bffpda'wi, from bo, west, pda, creek, and wi, place, on Feliz 
creek at a point about a mile up stream from Hopland. This 
camp was located on both sides of the creek. 

tca'mna, from team, live oak ( f ) and nal, forest, at a point 
about two miles up Feliz creek from Hopland. 

ta'tf, at a point about three miles and a half up Feliz creek 
from Hopland. This camp bears the same name as a camp in 
the hills east of Fountain. 

ko'dakatc, arched or bowed up, at a point about four miles 
up Feliz creek from Hopland. 

habe'bot, from kabe, rock, and bot, scattered around in small 
pieces ( ?), in the hills north of Feliz creek at a point probably 
about half a mile north of the creek and three miles west of Hop- 
land. Some informants give this as a regular camp used in 
hunting, but others say that this place and vicinity were occupied 
by a mythical people who stole children and spoiled the luck of 
hunters, and there are myths which relate instances of both. 

bo'cema, near the north bank of McNab creek at a point about 
a mile and a quarter from its confluence with Russian river. 

bo'tcematc, from bo, west and tce'matc, narrow valley (?) at 
a point about three miles and a quarter up McNab creek from 
Russian river and about a mile and a quarter up the creek from 
the old village of le'ma. 

tcimona'l, from tcim, the plant Carex barbarae, and nal, 
forest, at a point about a mile north of Largo and on the east 
bank of Russian river. This was a camp used chiefly by the 
people of cie'go and derives its name from the fact that the Carex 
grew very abundantly and to an unusual height here. 

du'mt, near the confluence of Dry creek with Russian river at 
a point about six and a half miles south of Ukiah, and about a 
mile south-southwest of the present yd'kaia rancheria. The loca- 



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1908] Barrett — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 181 

tion given on the accompanying map is on the north bank of this 
creek, and on the Horst Brothers ranch, but according to other 
informants there was still another site on the south bank of the 
creek and about a quarter of a mile up stream. After the com- 
ing of the whites this site was occupied permanently for a short 
time by at least a few Indians. 

tcaco'l, at a point just south of the confluence of Robertson 
creek with Russian river. This site is located just east of the rail- 
road track on the Isaac Burk ranch and nearly due east of the 
ranch house. 

cffdono, from cS, east, and dSno' or dand', mountain, at a 
point about a mile east of Russian river and about four miles 
southeast of Ukiah. This site is located at the foot of a rocky 
peak about a mile south of Mill creek. 

kawfaka, at a point about a quarter of a mile west of Russian 
river and about three miles south of Ukiah. This site is located 
on the first bench of land up from the river bottom and is just 
west of a small slough which runs through the Cox and Dutton 
ranches. Before the coming of white settlers to this region the 
river itself ran in this slough, which is at a distance of about a 
quarter of a mile west of the present course of the river. The 
ranch house on the Cox ranch is situated on this site. 

camffka, near the south bank of Robertson creek at a point 
about three and a half miles up stream from Russian river. This 
camp seems to have been but little used and only an approximate 
location could be obtained for it. 

tcte'una, from tci'eu, said to signify the highest point on a 
stream to which large fish, such as salmon, can ascend, and una', 
or wina' on top of, at or near the ranch house on the Lucas ranch 
at a point about five miles up Robertson creek from its con- 
fluence with Russian river. 

boa'nd, from bo, west, and a'nu or a'n5, behind, in the moun- 
tains north of Robertson creek and at a point probably about four 
and a half miles west of Russian river and about two miles north 
of Robertson creek. This site was indefinitely located by infor- 
mants. 

ydma'caditc, from yd, south, ma, ground, and caditc, point; 
or yffmadtoU, at the Finney ranch on the eastern slope of the sum- 



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182 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

mit of the range separating the Russian river and the Navarro 
river drainages and at a point about five miles northeast of the 
town of Boonville. This site stands just south of the ranch house 
here. 

maca'l, in the mountains southwest of Bancheria creek and at 
a point about two and three-quarters miles a little north of west 
of the town of Yorkville. There was a large open field here 
where grasses and other vegetable foods were fairly abundant. 
This was, however, a hunting camp as well as a food gathering 
camp. 

battukalewi, in the mountains at a point probably about four 
miles due west of Yorkville. 

p&lma, from p61 or pS, red, and ma, earth, near the west bank 
of Rancheria creek at a point about a mile southwest of Yorkville. 

Modern Camp Sites. 

yo'kaia, from yo, south, and ka'ia, valley, on the east bank of 
Russian river on the ranch of the yo'kaia Indians. The perma- 
nent village is located in the foot-hills on the eastern side of 
Ukiah valley. Many of the Indians occupy this camp during the 
summer months. 



EASTERN DIALECT. 

BOUNDARIES. 

Prom a point on the Porno- Yuki interstock boundary a short 
distance southeast of Big Horse mountain, the boundary line of 
the Eastern dialectic area follows the interstock line which runs 
in a southeasterly direction along the ridge separating the drain- 
age of the Rice fork of South Eel river from that of Middle creek, 
and thence along the ridge east of Clear lake to a point about due 
east of the old village of ci'g5m near Morrison's landing. This 
boundary follows the general trend of the mountains in this 
region and separates the Yuki and Wintun territories from that 
of the Eastern Porno dialect. At this point the line takes a south- 
westerly course, coming to the lake shore at Bald mountain, kitcf - 
dano, where it turns in a southerly direction, passing into the 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 188 

lake and toward Mt Kanaktai, 1 * 8 finally coming to the northern 
boundary of the Clear Lake Wappo area 104 which it follows with 
its westerly trend to the southern shore of Clear lake at a point 
about a quarter of a mile west of the mouth of Kelsey creek. It 
here turns southward, passing from a quarter to a half mile west 
of Cole creek, and runs to a point about three and a half miles 
south-southeast of the town of Kelseyville where it turns eastward, 
crossing the head of Cole creek, and runs to the summit of the 
divide between the headwaters of Cole creek and the drainage of 
Lower lake, the southern arm of Clear lake. It then runs south- 
ward along this divide to a point near the head of Cole creek. 
This portion of the boundary separates the territory of the East- 



m Mt. Kanaktai is, perhaps, better known to the white inhabitants of the 
vicinity as Uncle 8am mountain, and it is so named on most maps. As 
nearly as can be learned the first name given to it by Americans was Mt. 
M'Kee, which was used by Gibbs (Schoolcraft, III, 100 seq.), and was evi- 
dently given to it in honor of Colonel Bedick M'Kee, United States Indian 
Agent, who explored the region north of San Francisco bay in 1851 for the 
purpose of locating reservations for the Indians. The name Kanaktai is 
derived from the Southeastern Pomo dialect name for the mountain, which 
is knolctai, from kno, mountain, and xatai, woman. The mountain is said 
to have some connection with a mythical woman. In Slocum, Bowen and 
Company's History of Napa and Lake Counties (Lake County, p. 37), and 
on the California State Mining Bureau 's ' ' Mineral Map of Lake County ' ' 
the spellings are "Konockti" and "Konochti" respectively. The people 
speaking the Eastern Pomo dialect call it caxalgunal-dand, caxa'lginal- 
dand, and dano'-batin (mountain big), the first, however, being most com- 
monly used. This name is also mentioned by Slocum, Bowen and Company 
(ibid.) with the spelling ' ' Sha-hul-gu-nal-da-noo. " The mountain is also oc- 
casionally called by the Eastern Pomo xunu'-dand, or luck mountain, which 
name it derives from the fact that certain plants, the roots of which are 
very powerful charms, particularly in gambling, are most efficient when 
obtained from this mountain. Along with this belief goes another that 
the mountain, which is of volcanic origin, and upon which there are said 
to be no springs or other sources of water, is the abode of numerous 
strange animals and beings, some of which are so potent that the sight of 
them causes death. The Wintun on Cache creek give the mountain the 
name be'n-toL, signifying "big mountain," which, however, is not con- 
fined to this peak, but seems to be applied by the Wintun in its immediate 
vicinity to any prominent mountain. As an instance, St. John mountain 
at the head of 8tony creek bears this name. The Moquelumnan of Coyote 
valley on Putah creek call it udi'-pawi, which also signifies "big moun- 
tain." 

m As has been previously stated, there was in no part of the waters of 
Clear lake any exact dividing line between the portions belonging to the 
people occupying the adjacent lands, so that any line run through the lake 
as a boundary between adjacent areas is only approximate and should not 
be considered as marking off any limits to the fishing or hunting privileges 
of the peoples in the vicinity. Nominally however, the people inhabiting the 
shore in any particular part of the lake were recognized to have a certain 
special part of the adjacent waters which they in a way controlled but did 
not monopolize or restrict to their own exclusive uses. 



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184 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

ern Pomo from those of the Southeastern Pomo and the Clear 
Lake Wappo. Prom the head of Cole creek the boundary takes 
a little more westerly course along this range of mountains, which 
connects Mt. Kanaktai with Mt. St. Helena, probably to Cobb 
mountain, and separates the Eastern Pomo from the Northern 
Moquelumnan area. The point at which the boundary leaves this 
range is not definitely known ; but it passes in a northwesterly di- 
rection along the divide separating the drainage of Russian river 
from that of Clear lake to a point near the southern headwaters 
of Scott's creek, separating in this portion of its course the East- 
ern from the Southern and Central Pomo dialectic areas. Prom 
here it runs east for a short distance, then north to the shore of 
Clear lake at a point just north of the town of Lakeport. Prom 
this point up to the strait joining the main body of Clear lake with 
its northern arm the shore was owned by people speaking the 
Northern dialect. There seem, however, to have been no restric- 
tions as to the use of any particular part of the lake itself by the 
people speaking either dialect: on the contrary, it seems rather 
to have been considered as common property and freely used by 
both. Prom Rocky point, on the western shore of this strait, the 
line runs in a general northerly direction along the low ridge 
which lies west of Upper Lake, crosses Scott's creek at its emer- 
gence into Upper Lake valley, and runs along the ridge separat- 
ing the drainage of Middle creek from that to the north of Tule 
lake, and finally intersects the interstock line at the starting point, 
a short distance southeast of Big Horse mountain. The North- 
ern dialectic area lies west of this portion of the boundary. 

The territory occupied by the people speaking the Eastern 
dialect is roughly trapezoidal in form, and is surrounded partly 
by other Pomo territory and partly by territory belonging to 
other linguistic families. On the northeast lies Yuki and Wintun 
territory and on the east are the areas of the Southeastern Pomo, 
the Clear Lake Wappo, and the Northern Moquelumnan, while 
on the southwest and west the territory is adjoined by the South- 
ern, Central, and Northern Pomo areas. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 185 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

The Eastern dialectic area lies wholly within the lake region, 
which has been previously described, and is divided by the main 
body of Clear lake into two parts : the northern or Upper lake 1 * 5 
division, comprising all the territory north of the main body of 
Clear lake ; and the southern or Big valley 190 division, comprising 
all the territory south of the main body of Clear lake. About 
the shores of Upper lake, the northern arm of Clear lake, and for 
several miles up Middle creek there extends a fertile valley sur- 
rounded on three sides by high, sparsely wooded hills. On the 
southern shore of Clear lake there is a still larger and very fertile 
valley, called Big valley, from which the division takes its name. 
Immediately to the east of Big valley Mt. Kanaktai rises to a 
considerable height, but is on the whole very barren as compared 
with the lower hills to the south and west. The valley itself is 
watered by several small streams. The principal villages of the 
Eastern Porno were near the lake shore in these two valleys, and 
thus as near as possible to the lake which was the chief source of 
food supply. The men took an abundance of fish with nets from 
their canoes and by means of weirs and traps set in the creeks, 
while water birds were always to be had and were especially 
plentiful at certain seasons of the year. The valleys and sur- 
rounding hills provided an abundance of acorns and other vege- 
table foods. On the whole the natural resources of the lake re- 
gion seem to have been exceptional, and there was undoubtedly 
a large population here in former times. 

UPPER LAKE DIVISION. 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites. 

yffbutihi, from y6, south, and bittu', knoll, near the west bank 
of Scott's creek at a point about two miles south-southwest of the 

"• Upper lake is a small body of water connected with the remainder of 
Clear lake by a narrow strait. It is called by all the people of the Eastern 
dialectic area xa'-xaiyau, water (lake) head, it being considered the head of 
Clear lake. The name is applied also to all the surrounding country even as 
far west as Bachelor valley and Tule lake. Upper lake is also sometimes 
called xa-xo'rxa. 

"* Big valley is called by the people in the Upper lake region, yo'-xag* 6i, 
or south valley, and by those of the Southeastern dialectic area, and also by 
the Wintun living on Cache creek, kala'mai. 



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186 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 

town of Upper Lake. The present village, consisting of only a 
couple of houses with half a dozen inhabitants, stands on the site 
of a very old and once populous village. This old village is often 
mentioned in the myths of this region in connection with maiyl', 
another old site located a short distance to the north. 1 * 7 

kabemato'lil, from kabe', rock and mai5lk, to scatter, on the 
west bank of Middle creek about two miles north of the town of 
Upper lake. This village, the largest of the villages of this dial- 
ect, consists of twenty-four houses and about one-hundred inhabi- 
tants, and is located on land belonging to the Indians themselves. 
Here are to be found inhabitants of nearly all the old villages of 
the Upper Lake division as well as a few individuals from the 
Big Valley division. In addition to the number of houses men- 
tioned there are in all nineteen other buildings, mostly barns, as 
many of the Indians keep horses and poultry. There is a large 
dance-house built a few years ago on modern plans. It is octa- 
gonal in form, entirely above ground, and is built of ordinary 
lumber. A school is maintained here under the auspices of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. 

Bank ranch, on the northeastern shore of Clear lake at a point 
about six miles southeast of the town of Upper Lake. This vil- 
lage consists of six houses and about twenty inhabitants. 

Old Village Sites. 

kabe'l, or xabel in the Eastern dialect, from kabe', rock. This 
site, which was mentioned when treating of the villages in the 
Northern dialectic area, lies on the eastern slope of a prominent 
point, called Rocky Point, which projects some distance from the 
western shore of the channel connecting the main body of Clear 
lake with its northern arm. There is some doubt as to whether 
this was in the strictest sense a village. One informant says that 
on the higher ground was the site of a winter camp, and down by 
the shore a summer camp, the entire settlement thus falling into 
the class of camps. Other informants also refer to the place as a 

m Sloeum, Bowen and Company, op. cit., Lake County, p. 35, say: "The 
Yo-voo-tu-ea were neighbors of the Ki-ous, and were just east of them, on 
the borders of Tule lake. Their former number was one hundred and fifty, 
which is now reduced to forty-five. Ja-ma-toe was their chief." Also 
(p. 37) a translation of the name is given, as follows: "Yo-voo-tu-ea, a 
small hill." 



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1908] Barrett. — The Bthno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 187 



camp-site, while some call it a village. At all events it seems 
quite certain that however the site may be classed, there were at 
all times a certain number of people living at it, and that for this 
reason it may be considered a village. The control of the place 
and surrounding territory seems to have been left to the Scott's 
valley people, who spoke the Northern dialect, and it may there- 
fore be considered as having belonged to them. The Scott's val- 
ley people did not, however, exercise any exclusive jurisdiction 
over the place, the people of the Upper Lake region coming and 
going at will and enjoying fishing and hunting rights equally with 
the Scott's valley people. For this reason the settlement may be 
considered part of the Eastern as well as the Northern dialectic 
area. Indicative of this community of interest the boundary line 
between the Northern and Eastern dialectic areas has been drawn 
on the map through the village site itself. This was evidently a 
place of considerable importance in former times, as it is often 
spoken of by the old Indians in relating the early history of this 
section and is frequently referred to in myths. 

yffbutuiy from yS, south, and bu'tfu, knoll, near the west bank 
of Scott's creek at a point about two miles south-southwest of the 
town of Upper Lake. This site, which is now occupied by the 
present small village of the same name, was once occupied by a 
large and populous village which is often mentioned in the myths 
of the region in connection with maiyl', another old site located a 
short distance to the north. 

kuca'dandyd, from kfLca', live oak, danS', mountain, and yd, 
under, on the south bank of Scott's creek at a point about a mile 
and a half southwest of the town of Upper Lake and about a 
quarter of a mile north of ydTbttffii. 

xd'walek, in Upper Lake valley at a point a short distance 
west of Middle creek and about three-quarters of a mile northwest 
of the town of Upper Lake. 1 * 8 



"•Slocum, Bowen and Company, op. cit., Lake County, p. 35, say: "The 
Quoi-lak, or Hwoi-lak, tribe was located just north of the town of Upper 
Lake, and near the residence of Benjamin Dewell. They numbered one hun- 
dred and twenty, but have only fifty now. Da-mot was their chief. " Also 
(p. 37) a translation of the name is given, as follows: "Hwoi-lak, a city 
of fire." One informant, a woman from the Upper Lake valley, says 
that da-md't was the name of one of the captains of the old village of 
xd'walek. 



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188 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

dand'xa, from dano', mountain, and xa, water, in the foot-hills 
about two miles northeast of the town of Upper Lake. This site 
is on the western slope of a hill overlooking the lake. Slocum, 
Bowen and Company undoubtedly refer to this village, the name 
of which they give as "Di-noo-ha-vah," 1M and it is probable that 
the same village is referred to by Mason 200 as "Danokakea." 

danffco, from dano' mountain, and co, east, about half a mile 
east of dano'xa and on the eastern slope of the same hill. 

cUwtlem, from diwf, coyote, and Ile'm, flat (t), on a small 
knoll a quarter of a mile southeast of the town of Upper Lake. 
The present residence on the Rice Estate stands on this site. 

behe'pal, from behe', pepperwood or California laurel, Um- 
bellvlaria Calif ornica, and pal, T, at the foot of the hills on the 
eastern side of Upper Lake valley at a point about three-quarters 
of a mile east of the town of Upper Lake. The site is near the 
ranch house on what is known as the "old" George Bucknell 
ranch. This village, which is also occasionally called gaT>ehe, 
from ga, house, and behe', California laurel, was also occupied in 
more recent times, there being a large village here about thirty- 
five years ago. This village was the scene of a great ceremony 
at about that time, the Indians from various parts of the region 
even as far west as the coast having gathered about the lake to 
await the end of the world. The ceremony was one introduced 
from the Sacramento valley region, several shamans from the 
vicinity of Grand Island having been brought over to conduct it. 
The series of ceremonies which was celebrated at this time ex- 
tended more or less continuously over a period of about two 



im 1 1 <pj ie Di- n oo-ha-vah tribe were on the north side of the head of Clear 
lake, but farther east than the last named," referring to xo'wallek. "They 
numbered one hundred, and are now reduced to about forty. Goo-ke was 
their chief." — Op. cit., Lake County, p. 35. Also (p. 37) a translation of 
the name is given, as follows: "Di-noo-ha-vah, a city built in the cut (cafion) 
of a mountain." One informant, a woman from the Upper Lake valley, 
says that her uncle guki' was a captain of the old village of dand'xa. 

*" Professor Mason in giving the interpretations of Porno basket designs, 
as furnished to the U. 8. National Museum by Dr. J. W. Hudson, says, 
' ' Danokakea, Mountain Waters tribe, ' ' and speaks of them as ' ' once living 
six miles north of Upper Lake, in the mountains on the headwaters of Mc- 
Clure creek, and a close affinity and neighbor of the Porno of Potter Val- 
ley. ' '— Abor. Amer. Basketry, op. cit., p. 328. It seems probable that this 
is the same village as dano'xa, although located some distance from that 
site as here given and spoken of as affiliated with the Potter valley peo- 
ple, which those of dand'xa were not. 



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1908] Barrett— The Bthno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 189 

years, the principal ones being held at xa'dalam on Kelsey creek 
in Big valley. At behe'pal a large dance-house of special form 
for the celebration of these ceremonies was built. It would ap- 
pear that these beliefs and practices were the result of the ghost- 
dance movement which influenced other Indians of northern 
California and Nevada in the early seventies. 

badd'nnapdti, bado'n, island, nap6', village, tl, old, on the 
southern slope of Bloody 101 or Upper Lake island, situated at the 
extreme northern end of Upper lake. The people of this village 
seem to have lived either here or at dand'xa as they chose. This 
and dand'xa were not, however, camps, but permanently estab- 
lished villages. This site is used at present by the Indians in the 
vicinity of Upper Lake as a fishing camp during certain seasons 
of the year. 

cxwa'y on the eastern shore of Upper Lake near its northern 
extremity. This site is almost due east of Upper Lake island. 
According to one informant the name clwa' is not a word taken 
from the ordinary language, but is a name given to this site by 
Coyote when it was a village occupied by the race of bird people 
who inhabited the earth before the coming of the present Indians. 

kaku'lkalemical, from kakfil, white oak, kale', tree and wfca'l, 
ridge, or bfftar, on the eastern shore of Upper lake at a point 
about a mile northeast of the strait joining Upper lake with the 
main body of Clear lake. 

Lafxputsum, from Lax, opening or inlet, and pH'tstLm, point, 
on the eastern shore of Clear lake at the end of the point which 
projects from the east to separate Upper lake from the main body 
of Clear lake at the strait which joins the two. Along the shore 
of Clear lake in this vicinity there is at some little distance from 
the shore a line of tule. There was a narrow passage through this 
where canoes entered from the open water of the lake to the 
landing place on the shore adjacent to the village, and it was 

m Bloody island receives its name from a battle, known as the Bloody 
island massacre, fought between the Indians of the Clear lake vicinity and 
troops in 1850. The Indians made a stand on this island, but were attacked 
by water, their retreat being cut off by land, with the result that a great 
number were killed. Although this is called an island it is not completely 
surrounded by water except during the rainy season, and is accessible by 
trails through the marshes on the north during the greater portion* of the 
year. Gibbs (Schoolcraft, III, 109) refers to this island as "Battle 
island." 



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100 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Mthn. [Vol. 6 

this passage or inlet through the tule which gave the village its 
name. 

ha'Uka, from ha'K, the edible fleshy covering of the nut of 
the California laurel, UmbelltUaria Californica, on the north- 
eastern shore of the main body of Clear lake and at a point about 
seven miles southeast of the town of Upper lake and half a mile 
southeast of the present Bank Ranch village. 

cfgom, on the northeastern shore of Clear lake at a point near 
Morrison's Landing, and about two miles southeast of the present 
Bank Ranch village. .Gibbs 202 mentions the "She-kom M as one 
of the " tribes' ' living on the shores of Clear lake, as does also 
M'Kee, 202 who spells the name "Che-com." Slocum, Bowen and 
Company also mention these people as the "She-gum-ba tribe." 204 

taa'wina, from ta or taa', sand, and wina', upon, or taa'yaaa, 
on the southern slope of a small ridge called tsawa'lxabe, from 
tsawa'l, a species of fish, and xabe', rock, which is just north of 
what is known as Bald mountain, kits!' dand. This site is about 
four and a half miles south-southeast of the present Bank Ranch 
village. 

Old Camp Sites.™ 

gala'iakaleyo, from gala'i, a kind of water bird, kale', tree, and 
yd, under, on the western shore of Upper lake at a point about a 
mile north-northwest of the old village of kabel at Rocky point. 
This camp was used chiefly for Ashing and hunting water birds. 

poli'tsuwi, on the western shore of Upper lake at a point about 
three and a half miles south-southwest of the town of Upper Lake. 

mate'biapdtt, from mate!, spliced(t), nap5', village, and ti, 
old, on the eastern shore of Upper lake at a point probably about 
three and three-quarters miles south-southeast of the town of 
Upper lake. 

~ Schoolcraft, III, 109. 

"• Senate Ex. Doc., op. cit., p. 136. 

"•"The She-gum-ba tribe lived across the lake from Lakeport, where 
Mr. Morrison now resides. They once numbered one hundred and sixty, but 
only about fifteen of them are left now. Leu-te-ra was their chief."— 
Op. cit., Lake County, p. 35. Also (p. 37) a translation of the name is 
given, as follows: "She-gum-ba, a city built across the lake." 

""All the camps about the shores of these lakes were primarily for the 
purpose of fishing, and seem not to have been occupied to any extent except 
during the special fishing season. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indiana. 191 

Modern Camp Sites. 

napffcal, from nap6', village, and ca, fish, or danffbidau, from 
dano', mountain, and bida'u, low, on the Western shore of Upper 
lake at its northern extremity. The place is also called Fish- 
camp by both whites and Indians. 

badffnnapoti, from bado'n, island, napo', village, and ti, old, 
on the southern slope of Bloody or Upper Lake island, situated 
at the extreme northern end of Upper lake. This present-day 
camp-site is also the site of a former village. 206 

BIG VALLEY DIVISION. 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites. 

Mission, on the lands of St. Turibius mission 207 on the west 
bank of hi'tcbfdame or Kelsey creek, or about three miles north 
of the town of Kelseyville. This village has an Indian name, 
xa'-gacd-bagil, water pond long; but it is rarely used, the village 
being usually called, by both whites and Indians, "The Mission.' ' 
It contains eleven houses and about sixty inhabitants, mostly from 
the old villages of Big valley. As some of the Indians keep 
horses, there are also four barns, making in all fifteen buildings, 
exclusive of course of the church and other mission buildings 
which stand at some distance from the Indian village itself. 

Old Village Sites. 

It appears that a very unusual grouping of villages into some- 
thing bordering upon political unity formerly existed in Big 
valley. Within this valley there lived people speaking two dis- 
tinct languages, the Pomo and the Tukian Wappo. The latter 
lived on the extreme eastern border and were but very few in 
number. These formed to a certain extent a distinct group po- 
litically. The remainder of the valley, however, although occu- 
pied by people speaking the same language, seems to have been 

m See badd'nnapftti, p. 189 and note 201. 

m Mission St. Turibius was founded by Rev. Luciano Osuna in 1870, in 
which year he secured 160 acres of land on the southern shore of Clear lake. 
Since 1887 the Franciscan Fathers have maintained their charge of the 
mission continuously. At present the buildings of the mission consist of a 
newly erected church, a residence for the missionaries, an old church, which 
was used as such for many years but is now used as a school building, and 
barns and other farm out-buildings. 



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192 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

divided into two distinct political groups, the kuLa'napS from 
kuLa', water-lily, and napo', village, and the kabe'napo from kabeV 
rock, and napo, village. The former held the territory from the 
vicinity of Lakeport around to Adobe creek, the latter that from 
Adobe creek eastward to the interstock boundary between the 
Eastern Porno and the Clear Lake Wappo. There appears to 
have been a definitely recognized grouping of the villages in- 
cluded within each of these areas into the above named units, 
which grouping was, of course, not so much for governmental 
purposes as for the common interests of offense and defense. 
There appear to have been at times differences between the 
ktiLa'napo and the kabe'napo which were settled by fighting, while 
at other times the two groups joined forces in some common cause. 
As an instance of this latter there is a story told concerning the 
diverting of the waters of Kelsey creek which, according to the 
Indians, formerly ran northwestward from the old village of 
bida'miwina instead of, as now, northeastward, and emptied into 
the lake at the little projecting point where the camp site of 
La'xputsum is located. On the map there appears a small stream 
running into the lake at this point and the Indians say that a de- 
pression marking the connection between the head of this stream 
and Kelsey creek is plainly visible, showing where Kelsey creek 
formerly ran to the lake by this course. The Indians say that 
when Kelsey and Cole creeks emptied into the lake separately 
there were two species of fish, hitc and tcai, of which the former 
ran up Kelsey creek only and the latter up Cole creek only, and 
from these two species of fish the creeks take their names, hftcbi- 
dame and tca'ibidame, respectively. The people living on and to 
the east of Cole creek were able to obtain the hitc only from or by 
the permission of the kabe'napo in whose territory Kelsey creek 
ran, and they were very anxious to have these fish run up Cole 
creek as well as Kelsey creek, and therefore proposed to change 
the channel of one of the streams so that the two would flow to- 
gether. This was opposed by the kabe'napo and the matter was 
agitated until an open war was the result. In this the Wappo 
were assisted by the Southeastern Pomo, at least those of the 
Southeastern Pomo who were near neighbors, and the kabe'napo 
were assisted by the kuLa'napo. The matter was, however, not 



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1008] Barrett— The Ethno-Oeography of the Porno Indiana. 103 

settled until there came a very high water in the creeks in the 
winter, at which time a few of the people from the Wappo village 
of dala'dano went over with digging sticks to Eelsey creek and 
there dug through the eastern bank at a very low point which 
connected by a natural depression in the floor of the valley with 
Cole creek, thus starting the water of Kelsey creek to flow in 
that direction. With this start it soon dug for itself a large 
channel and has since flowed into Cole creek at a point about a 
quarter of a mile from its mouth. The purpose of the Wappo 
was accomplished by this, for now both kinds of fish run up both 
streams. This is said to have occurred 90 years or more ago. 
On the other hand it is possible that the story is a mythical 
account of cause for an observed effect, namely, the fact that 
these two streams do now flow into each other near their mouth. 
Be this as it may, the story indicates that at times when there 
was a common cause in which to engage, the kuLa'napo and the 
kab'e'napo did join forces, but on most occasions they seem to 
have kept apart more or less, maintaining distinct territorial 
boundaries and distinct governments; and it should also be noted 
that they kept apart to a certain extent after the coming of the 
whites to this region. Professor A. L. Kroeber has also obtained 
information from a Clear lake Indian now living at the Round 
valley reservation to the effect that there was a division of the 
people into two groups such as are above mentioned. Such a 
division and grouping of villages is, as has been said, very much 
out of the ordinary among the Pomo and it seems very likely that 
the division in this case arose originally at a time of internal 
trouble, as for instance difficulties arising over hunting or fishing 
rights, and that this division of the people of the valley into two 
units, more properly factions than stable political unions, con- 
tinued to exist after the particular point at issue had been settled, 
though there is no probability that anything like a true confedera- 
tion ever existed among the villages of either group. 

Some informants give each of these names as that of a separate 
village and they were among the first Pomo village names to come 
into print. kuLa'napo is first mentioned by Gibbs, 208 who gives 
the "Hula-napo" as one of the "tribes" present at a council with 

"•Schoolcraft, in, 109. 



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194 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

Colonel M'Kee on the shores of Clear lake, and later 209 when 
treating of languages, he says, "Kula-napo. The name of one 
of the Clear lake bands. The language is spoken by all the tribes 
occupying the large valley." From this name Powell, following 
his principles of nomenclature, made the stock name Eulana- 
pan 210 which he applied to all the Porno. Slocum, Bowen and 
Company 211 say of this village, "The Hoo-la-nap-o tribe was just 
below the present site of Lakeport, on the place formerly owned 
by Dr. J. S. Downes. At one time there were two hundred and 
twenty warriors, and five hundred all told in the rancheria. They 
are now reduced to sixty. Sal-vo-di-no was their chief before 
the present one, Augustine." They also translate this name as 
"lily village." The name has been used by others with different 
orthographies, as: "Kura-napo, water-lily village" 212 and "Pal- 
anapo," 218 which is later corrected to "Talanapo" 214 and defined 
as "Pond Lily People." Powers does not mention this village 
particularly, but gives "Ka-bi-na-pek" 21B (kabe'-napo) as a typi- 
cal village "of the many in Big Valley." Eabenapo is also first 
mentioned by Gibbs, 216 by whom it is called "Habe-napo," mean- 
ing "stone house," and it is given as one of the six large villages, 
designated by Gibbs as "tribes" or "bands," in Big valley. 
M'Kee 217 mentions two of the "tribes" about Clear lake, viz: the 
"Ca-ba-na-po" and the "Ha-bi-na-pa," either one or both of 
which are probably meant for the kabe'nap5. Later 218 he states 
the numbers of these peoples as one hundred and ninety-five and 
eighty-four respectively. The name given by Slocum, Bowen and 
Company 218 is the same as that used by Gibbs. Powers 220 locates 

~Ibid., p. 421. 

*• Ind. Ling. Fam., p. 87. 

m Op. cit., Lake County, p. 35. 

m Mason, op. cit., p. 329. Given upon the authority of Dr. J. W. Hudson. 

m Purdy, Land of Sunshine, XV, 442. 

"Purdy's reprinted edition of "Porno Indian Baskets and Their 
Makers," p. 9, Los Angeles, 1902. 

m Tribes of California, p. 204. 

"• Schoolcraft, III, pp. 109, 110. 

m Senate Ex. Doc, op. cit, p. 136. 

"Ibid., p. 139. 

** ' ' The Ha-be-nap-o tribe were located at the mouth of Kelsey creek, on 
the north side. They numbered three hundred, but only about forty of them 
are left. Ba-cow-shum was their chief." — Op. cit, Lake County, p. 35. The 
name is translated, "a city of rocks." 

"° Tribes of Cal., p. 204. 



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1908] Barrett — The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 195 

the village, which he calls "Ka-bi-na-pek," on lower Kelsey 
creek, and Powell," 1 probably following Powers, also mentions it 
under this name. Mason, 222 upon the authority of Dr. J. W. 
Hudson, uses "Kabe napo" with the translation of "Rock vil- 
lage. ' ' Later 222 he uses also ' * Kabinapo. ' ' Purdy 224 uses ' ' Kabe- 
napo" with the translation of "Rock People.' ' Gibbs 225 in 
speaking of the people of Big valley gives them collectively the 
name "Na'-po-bati'n, or many houses,' ' and says: "The name 
'Lu-pa-yu-ma,' 220 which, in the language of the tribe living at 
Coyote valley, on Putos river, signifies the same as Habe-napo, is 
applied by the Indians in that direction to these bands, but is not 
recognized by themselves.' ' This is clearly a Moquelumnan term, 
as lu'pfl, signifying rock, occurs frequently in Moquelumnan 
village names. Moreover, the Moquelumnan name of the old 
village at Duncan's point, near Bodega bay, is lippula'mma, which 
is the same word as that used by Gibbs. Taylor 227 says, "On the 
borders of Clear lake lived the Lopillamillos or Lupilomis," and 
Bailey 228 in his report upon the Indians of the Clear lake region, 
says, "Upon the Lupillomi ranch, 229 near Clear lake, there are 
some three hundred Indians." The name "Lopillamillos" is also 
mentioned by Bancroft. 220 

boo'mU, to hunt around (named from the fact that there were 
many deer in the mountains immediately west of this site and it 

m Op. cit., p. 88. 

** Aboriginal American Basketry, op. cit., p. 329. 

"» Ibid., p. 368. 

*"Land of Sunshine, XV, 442 seq. Also Purdy's reprinted edition, op. 
cit., p. 7. 

"•Schoolcraft, III, 110. 

m The name given to the camp of Colonel M'Kee's party at Clear lake 
was "Camp Lupiyuma." — Senate Ex. Doc, op. cit., pp. 136 seq. 

m California Farmer, March 30, 1860, San Francisco, CaL 

"• Bept. Comm. Ind. Aff. for 1858, p. 304. 

"•The Lupillomi ranch here referred to is the old Lup-Yomi rancho, a 
large Mexican land grant about the shores of Clear lake. (Slocum, Bowen 
and Company, op. cit., Lake County, p. 41.) The original grant appears to 
have been made to four persons, and the expediente ceiled for thirty-two 
square leagues of land, including the whole of Clear lake and the surrounding 
land. A petition was filed in 1853 by the two Vallejo brothers for the con- 
firmation of a grant of sixteen leagues, one-half of the original cession, 
known as the Laguna de Lup-Yomi. The petition was denied. The name 
Lupillomi ranch remained, however, for many years after the American 
occupation. 

m Native Races, I, 363. 



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196 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

was therefore a good hunting ground), in the town of Lakeport 
on the knoll where the Bellvenue hotel now stands. 

kacfbadon, from kaci', a water plant said to somewhat resem- 
ble bamboo, and bado'n, island, just within the southern limit of 
the town of Lakeport, on the western shore of Clear lake. The 
village was located on the eastern slope of a knoll immediately 
south of the Lakeport flour mill. Just off shore at this point 
there is a small island upon which the plant kaci' grew, thus 
giving to the place its name. The first trading post in the region 
about Clear lake was established at this village, the trader taking 
baskets, beads, and such other articles as the Indians made, in 
exchange for his goods. 

kato'tnapoti, from kato't, shucks (the thin inner shell) of the 
nut of the California laurel, napo', village, and ti, old, near the 
east bank of a small stream known as Rumsey's slough, tslwi'c- 
bidame, Carex creek, and at a point about three miles southwest 
of the present village at St. Turibius mission. 

cabe'gok, on both banks of the small stream which empties 
into Clear lake at the old camp site of La'xputsum. This name 
is more particularly applied to the eastern of the two sites. Col. 
Redick M'Kee, United States Indian Agent, who visited Big val- 
ley August 17-21, 1851, made his camp in this immediate vicinity. 
According to one informant he camped at this village site, while 
according to another his camp was at se'dileu just north. During 
the previous year a party of troops under Captain Lyons had 
visited this region for the purpose of taking vengeance upon the 
Indians for what is commonly spoken of as the Stone and Kelsey 
massacre. They had passed through Big valley, which was at 
that time practically deserted, and had come up with the Indians 
toward the head of Clear lake, killing a large number on what is 
known as Upper Lake or Bloody island, thence passing over to 
the Russian river valley and back to San Francisco bay. The 
Indians say that Col. MTCee, in endeavoring to reestablish friend- 
ly relations with them, distributed presents of blankets, beads, 
axes, saws, and various other articles among them, and set aside 
as a reservation for their use that portion of Big valley lying 
between what is known as McQough slough (which lies about a 
quarter of a mile west of se'dileu) on the west and Cole creek on 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 1J>7 

the east, and extending indefinitely into the hills toward the 
south. He gave a writing to the two captains hulyo and perie'fd 
which the Indians understood to be a deed to this land. It is 
known that Col. M'Kee did at this time tentatively set apart a 
tract of land on the southern and western shores of Clear lake 
for reservation purposes, but this was never ratified and nothing 
further was done about the establishment of the reservation at 
Clear lake." 1 

hma f rag%m6mna, from hma'rak, dance-house, mo, hole, and 
wina', on top of, near the west bank of Kelsey creek on what is 
known as the Lamb ranch and at a point about a mile south- 
southwest of the present village at St. Turibius mission. 

za'gacobogil, from xa, water, gaco', pond, and bagil, long, 
where the present village at St. Turibius mission is located. There 
seems to be some doubt as to whether this was a regularly in- 
habited village, but there were people living here at least during 
the summer and it was used as a boat landing throughout the 
year. 

bxda'miwxna, from blda'mi, creek, and wina', upon or close to, 
on the east bank of Kelsey creek at a point about a mile and 
three-quarters down stream from the town of Kelseyville. Ac- 
cording to one informant the site here called Hcu'i-kale-xowa, 
black-oak tree in-f ront-of , which is here given as an uninhabited 
modern village site, is an old village site and was called bida'mi- 
wina. This however seems doubtful. 

nd'napoti, from n6, ashes, napd', village, and ti, old, in the 
eastern part of the town of Kelseyville. By most informants 
this is said to have been a very large permanent village inhabited 
by the Indians, but one informant says that it was a village in- 
habited only by mythical people, none of the present race of 
Indians ever having lived here. In corroboration of this it should 
be observed that this village is mentioned frequently in the myths 
of this region ; but on the other hand white settlers say that there 
were old dance and sweat-house pits plainly visible here up to a 
few years ago, and it seems very probable that this is the site of 
one of the regular old villages of this region. 

""For a full account of Col. M'Kee's visit see Senate Ex. Doc., No. 4, 
32d Cong., spec, seas., 136-142, 1853. 



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198 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [ VoL 6 

Some Indians say that this was the original home of the 
kabe'napo, but that it had not been inhabited for many years 
before the arrival of the first explorers. When Messrs. Eelsey 
and Stone got control of the ranch in Big valley in 1847 they 
assembled at Eelseyville all the Indians of this vicinity. The 
kab€'napo lived at nd'napotl and the kuLa'napti with others 
lived near the ranch house, an old adobe built at llcu'lkalexdwa 
on the west bank of Eelsey creek. The ranch above referred to 
is the Lupillomi rancho for which Captain Salvador Vallejo in 
1836 applied, in the name of himself, his brother Antonio, and 
two others, to the Mexican government. This grant comprised 
thirty-two leagues of land, embracing Big, Scott's, Upper Lake, 
and Bachelor valleys and adjacent mountains. Whether this tract 
was in reality ceded to him is not known, but he took possession 
and placed a major-domo and ten vaqueros in charge of a herd 
of cattle in Big valley about the year 1840. In 1847 Messrs. 
Stone and Eelsey came to take possession of the cattle and the 
establishment, they with others having bought the Vallejos' in- 
terest in Big valley. They built an adobe house on the west bank 
of Eelsey creek, as above mentioned, where they resided until 
1849, when they were killed by the Indians, which incident has 
been known as the Stone and Eelsey massacre. 

Uninhabited Modern Village Sites. 

xada'butun, from xa, water, da, 1 , and bfitu, knoll, at a point 
about a mile and three-quarters south-southeast of the town of 
Lakeport. 

xaUbe'm, on the east bank of Adobe creek at a point about 
two and a quarter miles northwest of the town of Eelseyville. 
Some years ago by a concerted action upon the part of nearly all 
the Indians of Big valley a small tract of land about this village 
site was purchased by them, the first payment only, however, 
being made upon it. After two years they found themselves 
unable to complete the payments on the land and were obliged 
to move. 

ma'natol, near the east bank of Adobe creek at a point about 
two miles west-northwest of the town of Eelseyville. According 
to one informant this is not the name of a village site but that of 



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1908] Barrett — The Ethno-Geography of the P&mo Indians. 199 

a large field. This informant, however, is a young man and may 
have confused this as the name of a field with kale-wini'-y5, tree 
large-swelled-knot under, which is the name of a locality imme- 
diately north of ma'natol. 

se'dtteu, from se or see', brush, and dile', in the midst of, at 
a point about three-quarters of a mile back from the lake shore 
and about a mile a little south of west of the present village at 
St. Turibius mission. 

xa'ikalolise, from xai, wood, kal6li, dry, and se, brush or 
thicket, at a point about half a mile south-southeast of the present 
village at St. Turibius mission. It is said that this village was 
inhabited for only four or five years. 

sd"bidame, from so, clover, and blda'me, creek, on a small wet- 
weather slough at a point about three-quarters of a mile a little 
west of south of the present village at St. Turibius mission. It 
appears that this site was also used to a limited extent, probably 
as a camping place, before the arrival of white settlers, as the 
Indians say that some of their number were taken from here to 
the missions about San Francisco bay when these were estab- 
lished. This undoubtedly means that the Franciscan Fathers 
visited Clear lake very soon after the establishment of Sonoma 
mission, to which, in all probability, the above mentioned Indians 
were induced to move. 

There is an uninhabited modern village site near the west bank 
of Kelsey creek and at a point about a mile southeast of the 
present village at St. Turibius mission. This site is on the ranch 
belonging to Mr. Robert Oaddy and appears to have been one of 
those inhabited not long after the coming of white settlers to the 
region. It was, however, not inhabited for very long, as a severe 
epidemic of whooping cough which took off many of the Indians 
caused them to move to another location. 

xa'dalam, from xa, water, and dala'm, dam, on what is known 
as the Clark ranch on the west bank of Kelsey creek at a point 
about a mile south of the present village at St. Turibius mission. 
As nearly as may be judged, the Indians moved here about 1870 
and remained for two years or perhaps a little longer. During 
this time an important ceremony which was introduced from Sac- 
ramento valley was held. An exceptionally large dance-house was 



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200 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

built, the diameter of the pit being measured by eight lengths of 
a certain very tall Indian lying upon the ground with his arms 
stretched over his head as far as possible. Shamans were brought 
from Grand Island on the Sacramento river and the Indians from 
the whole region even as far west as the coast assembled here to 
celebrate this ceremony and await the end of the world which was 
expected immediately. They are said by the whites to have num- 
bered upwards of three or four thousand in all, and the celebra- 
tions at this place lasted nearly a year, after which part of their 
number moved to behe'pal near Upper lake where the ceremonies 
were continued. 

Ucu'xkalexdwa, from licu'I, black oak, kale', tree, and xo'wa, 
in front of, t, on the west bank of Kelsey creek directly oppo- 
site the present town of Eelseyville. With the coming of Messrs. 
Stone and Kelsey to this vicinity in 1847 the Indians of the neigh- 
borhood were assembled at and near Eelseyville. The kuLa'napo 
and certain others settled at this site. 

Old Camp Sites. 

tstwi'cbidaminapoti, from tsiwi'c, Carex, blda'me, creek, napd, 
village, and ti, old, on the southern shore of Clear lake at a point 
about three miles west of the present village at St. Turibius 
mission. The immediate lake shore in this vicinity is thickly 
covered with tule but at this point there is a slight elevation 
in the tule and it is upon this elevation that the camp site is 
located. This site is located between the two streams bo'-xa- 
bidame, west water creek, known locally to the whites as Wool- 
ridge 's slough, and tsiwi'c-bidame, Carex creek, known locally to 
the whites as Rumsey's slough, which lies but a very short dis- 
tance east of Woolridge's slough. This elevation in the tule was 
so small that at times there was not sufficient room here for those 
who wished to camp, in which case some camped at tsa'lal just 
east of tsiwi'cbidame. 

tsa'lal, on the southern shore of Clear lake at a point about 
two and a half miles west of the present village at St. Turibius 
mission and on the east bank of a small stream called locally 
Rumsey's slough. 



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1908] Barrett— JThe Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 201 

batso'mkitem, from batso'm, a species of oak, and klte'm, said 
to signify a bushy top, on the southern shore of Clear lake at a 
point about two and a quarter miles west of the present village at 
St. Turibius mission. 

nffbutu, from no, ashes, and buffi, knoll, on the southern shore 
of Clear lake at a point near the west bank of Adobe creek and 
about two miles west of the present village at St. Turibius 
mission. 

Laxputsum, from Lax, an opening or inlet, and pu'tsHm, 
point, on a point which projects into Clear lake from its southern 
shore about a mile west of the present village at St. Turibius 
mission. According to informants the small stream shown on the 
map as running near this site flows in reality in the former bed 
of Eelsey creek which was diverted by the Indians so as to flow 
into Cole creek. 

batsu'tnise, from bateu'm or batsd'n, a species of oak, and se 
or see', brush, at a point about three-quarters of a mile west- 
southwest of the present village at St. Turibius mission. 

tsuba'haputsum, from tsftbalia, a species of willow used in 
basket making, and pfl'tsum, point, on the southern shore of Clear 
lake at a point about half a mile west of the mouth of Eelsey 
creek. This camp takes its name from a grove of willows on a 
point projecting for a short distance into the lake. There is also 
near this place a grove of cottonwoods in which there are a 
number of blue heron nests. This grove is called makd'kale, from 
mako', blue heron, and kale', tree. According to one informant 
this is the name of a camp at this point but according to another 
it is simply applied to the grove of cottonwoods above mentioned 
which are situated a little distance out in the tule. 

On the east bank of Eelsey creek at a point about a mile and 
a half up stream from the town of Eelseyville there is the site 
of an old camp, the name of which could not be recalled by the 
informant. This site has not been inhabited since an indefinite 
date, probably in the first part of the last century, as nearly as 
may be judged from the probable ages of certain individuals con- 
nected with the following story. This site was used as that of a 
fish camp by the kabe'napo, who then lived at no'naptiti, and 
was located on a side hill with no water in the immediate vicinity 



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202 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 

except that which flowed in the creek itself. There was here a 
fish dam or weir with the usual scaffold upon which the fishermen 
stood with their dip nets when fishing. A certain young man 
had been warned by his father that when fishing here at night if 
he should see sparks in the water up the creek he must leave the 
dam immediately, as these sparks indicated the approach of a 
huk, a mythical bird with supernatural powers for evil. 2 " The 
young man, however, did not credit the warning of his father and 
boasted that there was nothing in or about the creek of which he 
was afraid. One night his father was fishing on the scaffold and 
the young man told him to go into the house ; that he would re- 
lieve him and fish for a while. He had not fished long when a 
huk came down the stream and he immediately caught it in his 
dip net, took it ashore and killed it with a fish club. He went 
home and to bed without making any disposition of the fish which 
he had caught or of the huk which he had killed. In the morning 
he was found dead by his mother. His father immediately sus- 
pected the truth and went to the fish dam, where he found the 
dead bird. The fear then arose that the young man's action 
would also bring destruction upon the whole camp and possibly 
even upon the home village as well, and the father immediately 
went to no'napotl for me'nakf , a famous shaman. After discuss- 
ing the matter with the dead man's relatives it was decided that 
me'nakf should cut the bird into halves, one of which should be 
cremated, the other being hidden on the summit of Clark's peak, 
a prominent point on the western slope of Mt. Eanaktai. Ac- 
cordingly after performing an elaborate ceremony to prevent the 
poison of the bird injuring the people, me'naki cut the bird into 
halves and with further elaborate ceremony placed one-half upon 



** The huk is a mythical bird much dreaded, by some even to the present 
day, as it has the power of bringing immediate or future death, as well as 
bad luck in general. It is about the size of a turkey buzzard, is a brown or 
brick red in color with rather long and fine feathers, the quills of which are 
filled with a reddish liquid which flows from end to end if the feathers are 
turned up and down. According to some informants this liquid always flows 
up hill. Its legs are short and very heavy, both legs and feet being covered 
with hair. The head also is very large and covered with a fuzzy coat, while 
its bill is curved somewhat like that of a parrot. One of the surest signs of 
death is to hear one of these birds, particularly at night. Their cry is 
"huk" and death is sure to follow the unfortunate hearer in as many years 
as the bird cries "huk" at him, provided of course he is not immediately 
doctored in the proper manner. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Bthno-Qeography of the Porno Indiant. 203 

a funeral pyre prepared especially for the purpose. After the 
pyre had burned completely, what charred fragments of the bird's 
bones remained were collected, as is done in the case of the cre- 
mation of human beings. In this case the bones were placed in a 
fine basket and buried near the place of cremation. On the fol- 
lowing morning they returned to the site of the cremation and 
found that notwithstanding the fact that some fire remained 
among the ashes certain spots were very moist These presently 
became more moist and finally there was water standing in the 
little pit which had been dug before the fire was built. This 
water increased in volume until it finally ran over the side of the 
pit and became a large living spring, and all this in spite of the 
fact that formerly the whole hillside had been absolutely dry so 
far as any spring or seepage of water from it was concerned. It 
was thought that this spring was directly due to the poison of the 
huk and the camp was immediately abandoned and has never 
since been occupied. The spring still flows at this spot. The 
.other half of the huk was taken by me'nakl to the summit of 
Clark's peak and hidden where it remains to the present time. 
Consequently Clark's peak is a place never visited except by a 
shaman who knows the proper songs and ritual to prevent injury 
to himself and people, me'nakl was able to visit this peak at will 
and made use of the feathers of the huk in poisoning people, as 
did also a few other shamans. This poisoning was accomplished 
by touching the victim with the quill of one of the htik feathers in 
such a manner that a little of the red liquid contained therein 
would come in contact with his person. This produced sure and 
swift death. 

tsa'imamau, near the east bank of Eelsey creek at a point 
about four miles up stream from the town of Eelseyville. 

kawffaxa, from kaw5, toad, and xa, water or spring, at a point 
about a quarter of a mile due east of Highland Springs, on the 
headwaters of Adobe creek. Certain of the springs at this resort 
are hot and it seems to have been these that brought the Indians 
to this camp. The springs were known to the Indians to possess 
medicinal qualities, and those afflicted with certain ailments 
camped at kawo'axa, from which place they could easily go to the 
springs, the water of which they drank and also bathed in. 



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204 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

xa'ikaiyau, in a small valley at the head of Adobe creek and 
at a point about two and a half miles southeast of Highland 
Springs. 

Near the head of Cole creek and at a point about a mile east 
of Carlsbad Springs is the site of an old camp the name of which 
could not be recalled by the informant. This site is near some 
springs known as Mackentyre springs. 



SOUTHEASTERN DIALECT. 

Boundaries. 

From a point on the Porno- Wintun interstock boundary nearly 
due east of the old village of ci'gom, on the eastern shore of the 
main body of Clear lake, the boundary of the Southeastern dia- 
lectic area, which is here also the interstock boundary, follows 
the divide separating Long Valley and Bartlett creeks from Clear 
lake, to Cache creek at a point about four miles from its source, 
the southern extremity of Lower lake. This portion of the boun- 
dary runs in a northwesterly and southeasterly direction and 
separates this dialectic area from the territory of the Wintun 
which extends eastward into the Sacramento valley. From here 
the boundary turns in a general westerly direction and follows 
Cache creek up to the lake, and then on in the same direction to 
the summit of the range connecting Mt. Eanaktai with Mt. St. 
Helena. The territory to the south of this line was held by people 
speaking the Northern Moquelumnan dialect. At this point the 
boundary turns in a general northerly direction and runs north- 
ward along this range toward Mt. Eanaktai for a very short 
distance, coming to the southern boundary of the Clear Lake 
Wappo area near where it turns northward to form the eastern 
boundary of that area. It follows this boundary with its north- 
erly trend through the mountains immediately to the east of the 
higher range connecting Mt. Eanaktai with Mt. St. Helena, passes 
along the eastern slope of Mt. Eanaktai and finally runs into 
Clear lake at a point probably about a mile east of Soda Bay. 
It runs on in this same direction for a short distance to a point 
near the northern limit of jurisdiction of the Clear Lake 



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1908] Barrett — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 205 

Wappo. m From here it takes a more easterly course, coming 
to the lake shore at Bald mountain, and then running on in a 
northeasterly direction to the point of origin on the Porno- Wintun 
interstock boundary about due east of the old village of ci'gom. 
The southern extremity of this portion of the boundary separates 
the Southeastern from the Eastern Porno dialectic area, while the 
central part separates the Southeastern Porno from the Clear 
Lake Wappo territory. The northern half of this portion of the 
boundary separates the Eastern and Southeastern dialectic areas. 
This small, roughly triangular area is adjacent on the east to 
the Wintun, on the south to the Northern Moquelumnan, and on 
the west and northwest to the Eastern Porno and the Clear Lake 
Wappo territory. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

The greater part of the land surface of this area is high and 
rugged and totally unfit for habitation. There are, however, 
occasional short, level stretches along the shores of the lake, and 
there are a few small valleys in the surrounding hills and moun- 
tains. These were sometimes used for village and camp sites 
particularly for hunting and food-gathering; but the chief per- 
manent villages seem to have been located on the islands in the 
lake. like the Eastern Porno, these people lived largely by fish- 
ing and hunting water birds. 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites. 

Lower Lake Rancheria, on the north bank of Cache creek at 
a point about three-quarters of a mile from its source and about 
a mile and a half northeast of the town of Lower Lake. This 
village consists of four houses and about nineteen inhabitants, 
most of whom came originally from the old village of kd'I on 
Lower Lake island. 

xuna'dai, from xuna, tule boat or balsa, and dai, landing, 
commonly called the Sulphur Bank rancheria, on the eastern 
shore of East lake, the eastern arm of Clear lake, and at a point 
about half a mile north of the Sulphur Bank quicksilver mine. 
This village, consisting of eleven houses and about thirty-five 
inhabitants, is situated on the immediate lake shore opposite the 
~ See note 194. 



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206 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 

site of the former village of e'lem on Rattlesnake or Sulphur Bank 
island. There is here a sudatory of the old type which is in 
present use, and a very large old dance-house in ruins, no dances 
having been held in it for several years and no attempt made to 
keep it in repair. This village site is at a point on the shore which 
was used in aboriginal times as a boat landing, this being a con- 
venient place to draw the tule canoes up on shore. There was 
never a very extensive village at this place but it appears that it 
was used permanently to a certain extent, the principal village, 
however, being on the adjacent island. Its present occupancy as 
a permanent village dates back about thirty-five or possibly forty 
years. 

Old Village Sites. 

ca'kai, on the northwestern point of the peninsula which pro- 
jects northward from the southern shore of Clear lake and forms 
the strait which separates the main body of Clear lake from East 
and Lower lakes to the southeast. 

ke'celwcti, from ke'cel, blue clay, wai, said to be an ejaculation, 
on the southern shore of the strait connecting the main body of 
Clear lake with East and Lower lakes and at a point about a 
quarter of a mile northeast of the last mentioned site. 

tdyffUcitLalt, on the northeast point of the peninsula which 
projects from the southern shore of Clear lake and forms the 
strait which separates the main body of Clear lake from East and 
Lower lakes. 

klale'liyd, on the western shore of East lake at a point just 
southwest of the island, known as Buckingham's island, upon 
which the site of the old village of ka'mdot is located. 

ka'mdot, or le'makma or ka'ugu'ma 2 ** (Eastern Porno dialect 
names), on a small island, called Buckingham's island, near the 
western shore of East lake and close to the peninsula which sepa- 
rates East lake from the main body of Clear lake. One informant 
says that ka'mdot is applied also to Mt. Eanaktai. 

tsiwi', on the western shore of East lake just northeast of the 
small body of water known as Little Borax lake. The eastern 
side of Mt. Eanaktai is formed by very high and steep rocky cliffs 

** This name is also applied to the people living at elem. See also note 
239. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Bthno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 207 

which curve in such a manner as to resemble somewhat the form 
of an amphitheater, the pit of which is bounded on the east by 
East lake and is occupied principally by Little Borax lake. These 
cliffs were called kno'ktaikndyowa, from kno, mountain, tai or 
ktai, said to be an old woman, kno, mountain, and yo'wa, under, 
and were with the immediately surrounding hills much used as 
hunting grounds. The reference to an old woman in this name 
appears to be a mythological one. 

kffi, xffyi, cuta'uyomanuk (Northern Porno name), kaubff- 
holai (Eastern Porno name), or tull (Northern Moquelumnan and 
Southerly Wintun name), on the eastern slope of the small, low 
island called Lower Lake island at the extreme southern end of 
Lower lake, the southern arm of Clear lake. This was a large 
village and probably only a little smaller than the one on Sulphur 
Bank island in East lake. The first mention of the people of this 
village is that by Gibbs, 288 who calls them "Cho-tan-o-man-as," 
and states that they lived near the outlet of Clear lake. Powers 286 
classes them as a people entirely distinct from the Porno, and 
related to the Wintun. He gives their name as "Makh'-el-chel," 
and under that heading says: "This is the name by which they 
are known among the surrounding Indians and the Americans, 
but whether it originated with themselves I can not state. Their 
principal, and formerly only, abode was an island on the east 
side of Clear lake, a few miles above Lower lake. In their lan- 
guage hosch'-la signifies "island/' which has been corrupted and 
applied both to the island and the tribe ; and our undiscriminat- 
ing countrymen pronounced it with great impartiality Hessler, 
Kessler, Hesley, Kelsey, and several other ways." The same 
name is given them by Powell, 287 who probably takes Powers as 
authority, and Slocum, Bowen and Company 288 mention them 
under the name " Shoat-ow-no-ma-nook. " 

Qcube', on the eastern shore of Lower lake at a point about half 
a mile north of what is known as Floyd's Landing and about a 
mile and a half northwest of the outlet of the lake. 



~ Schoolcraft, III, 110. 

"•Tribes of Cal., p. 214. 

m Op. cit., p. 70. 

"•"The Shoat-ow-no-ma-nook tribe had their homes on an island near 
the lower end of the lake. They numbered one hundred and twenty, but 
only thirty are left Their chief was called Sam Patch.' 1 — Op. cit., Lake 
County, p. 35. 



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208 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

kuu'lbidai, on the eastern shore of Lower lake in what is 
known as Burns' valley and at a point about two miles north- 
northwest of the outlet of the lake. The residence of Mr. T. G. 
Turner now stands on this site. 

ktila'%, on the eastern shore of Lower lake in what is known as 
Burns' valley and at a point about two and a half miles north- 
northwest of the outlet of the lake. This site is separated from 
kuu'lbidai by a small creek. 

kla'ucel, on the eastern shore of Lower lake at a point about 
due west of Big Borax lake. 

kiye'utsit, on the southern shore of East lake at a point about 
two and a half miles west of Sulphur Bank. 

xuna'dai, from xuna, tule boat or balsa, and dai, landing, on 
the eastern shore of East lake at a point about half a mile north 
of Sulphur Bank and directly opposite the old village of elem on 
Rattlesnake or Sulphur Bank island. As the name of this village 
indicates it was a place used as a boat landing. Although it was 
inhabited permanently it appears that there was never a very 
large population here at any one time, the chief village being at 
elem on the island opposite. The present Sulphur Bank ranch- 
eria occupies this old site. 

e'lem, on the southern slope of Rattlesnake or Sulphur Bank 
island at the eastern end of East lake. This is a low island, 
covering about thirty-five acres, with its northern slope well 
wooded and its southern entirely open. This village was for- 
merly the largest in the Southeastern dialectic area and was only 
abandoned about thirty-five or forty years ago, when its inhab- 
itants removed to the adjacent mainland, where they now live. 
The Southerly Wintun called the neighborhood of Sulphur Bank 
mo'Labe. The people of the village of elem were called ka'-mina 
by the Northern Porno and xa'-wina by the Eastern Porno, both 
of which names signify water on top of or near to. Another 
name given to these people by the Eastern Porno was ka'uguma, 2 ** 



"•Slocum, Bowen and Company, op. cit., Lake County, p. 36, say: "The 
Cow-goo-mah tribe had their rancheria at the Sulphur Bank. They num- 
bered one hundred and thirty, but are now reduced to forty. No-tow was 
their chief, ' ' and continuing, ' ' The Le-mah-mah lived on an island just west 
of the Sulphur Bank. There were at one time one hundred and forty of them, 
but only about twenty remain. Beu-beu was their chief.' ' 



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1908] Barrett — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 209 

which was also applied to the people of ka'mdot on Buckingham's 
island. 

ktsu'kawai, or patolkaleyd (Eastern Porno dialect name), 
from patol, oak ball, kale', tree, and yd, under, on the northern 
shore of East lake and at a point about a mile northeast of the 
southern extremity of the point which forms the northern shore 
of the strait connecting the main body of Clear lake with East 
and Lower lakes. This site is on the ranch belonging to Mr. I. 
Alter. 

Old Camp Sites. 

klololaxa, from k!ol5, mortar stone, la, t, and xa, water, on 
the southern shore of the strait connecting the main body of 
Clear lake with East and Lower lakes at a point a very short 
distance west of the northeastern projection of the peninsula 
which separates the main body of Clear lake from East and Lower 
lakes. This site was used as a fish camp. 

kaa'lkfai, from kaal, tule, and fai or kfai, a flat open place, 
on the western shore of Lower lake at a point probably about 
three miles southeast of Little Borax lake. This village derives 
its name from the fact that there grew in this vicinity large quan- 
tities of the particular species of tule used in making tule boats 
or balsas and it was customary for boat makers to come here and 
camp during the seasons of the year when the tule was in proper 
condition for boat making. 

tsfa'bal, on the southern shore of Lower lake at a point prob- 
ably about two and a half miles west-northwest of the old village 
of kd'I on Lower Lake island. This camp was used as an acorn 
and food gathering camp. 

yd, at the southeastern extremity of Lower lake and on a 
narrow neck of land running into the lake from a point just west 
of its outlet. 

mu'cokol, on a very small peninsula which is almost entirely 
cut off from the mainland on the northern shore of East lake 
and about due north of Rattlesnake or Sulphur Bank island. 



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210 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 



SOUTHERN DIALECT. 

BOUNDARIES. 

Beginning at the junction of the north fork with the main 
stream of Gualala river the northern boundary of the Southern 
Porno dialectic area runs in a general easterly direction up the 
ridge separating the drainage of the north fork of Gualala river 
from that of Rock Pile creek, past the headwaters of the latter 
and onto the divide between the headwaters of Navarro river and 
of Dry creek. At a point a short distance south of McDonald it 
takes a general southeasterly course, following the ridge to the 
west of Russian river, and finally turns in an easterly direction 
and crosses the river at a point about two and a half miles north 
of the town of Cloverdale and half a mile south of the line be- 
tween Mendocino and Sonoma counties. 140 Continuing in this 
same direction it passes through the foot-hills to the summit of 
the range separating the drainage of Russian river from that of 
Clear lake ; thence, turning in a general southeasterly direction, 
it follows this range to Cobb mountain. 241 The portion of the 
boundary from Gualala river to the divide between the drainage 
of Russian river and that of Clear lake separates the Southern 
from the Central Porno dialectic area, and the portion running 
along this range to Cobb mountain separates it from the Eastern 
Porno area. From Cobb mountain the boundary takes a south- 
westerly course and, recrossing Russian river, runs to the divide 
separating the Russian river and Dry creek drainages, which it 
meets at a point about three miles northwest of the town of Gey- 
serville. Here it turns in a general southeasterly direction and 
runs along this divide to a point just west of Lyttons, where it 
takes a more easterly course along the continuation of this divide, 
which runs nearly due east for a short distance. Then the bound- 
ary runs southeast again to the southern part of the great bend 



*° See note 160. 

10 It has been impossible to determine definitely a portion of the boundary 
in the vicinity of Cobb mountain, but that here given is probably correct. 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 211 

in Russian river about due east of Healdsburg. 242 It here crosses 
the river and, keeping its southeasterly course, runs to a point 
between the headwaters of Sonoma and Santa Rosa creeks. From 
Cobb mountain to this point the boundary separates the Southern 
Porno and the Yukian Wappo areas. It here turns in a general 
westerly direction and passes along the water-shed separating the 
Russian river and San Pablo bay drainages 248 to the headwaters 
of Salmon creek, down which it runs for a short distance. This 
portion of the boundary of this dialectic area is also the inter- 
stock boundary between the Porno and the Moquelumnan terri- 
tories. From this indefinitely located point on Salmon creek the 
bttindary runs northward through the redwood belt and crosses 
Russian river, presumably, at a point a short distance east of the 
confluence of Austin creek with it. It runs, presumably, to the 
eastern head of Austin creek. 244 From this point it takes a west- 
erly course, passing just north of the western head of Austin 



** This portion of the western Porno- Wappo interstock boundary as here 
given is as it was at the time of the arrival of the first settlers in this sec- 
tion. Formerly, however, the Southern Porno owned that portion of the 
Bussian river valley known as Alexander valley and extending from the con- 
fluence of Elk creek northward about to the small stream called by the 
Wappo pd'pSetc, which flows into Bussian river just north of the old village 
of kolo'ko, as also the territory extending some distance into the mountains 
east of this valley. They had several villages in this area, the chief of which 
seem to have been ko'ticomota and ci"mela. For details concerning the war 
between the Porno and Wappo, which resulted in the Wappo taking posses- 
sion of this portion of this territory, see footnote relating to the boundaries 
of the main Wappo area. 

"•See note 107. 

** Along almost the entire length of the coast between the mouths of 
Gualala river and Salmon creek, near Bodega bay, the redwood forest begins 
almost at the shore-line — nowhere does the open land extend for more than a 
mile back from the cliffs — and continues as a solid belt of timber with but 
few open areas for many miles inland. This belt of timber was not inhabited, 
except in these small open areas, by the people of either the Southwestern or 
the Southern dialect, and portions of it seem to have been virtually unclaimed 
by either people. This is particularly the case in the southern part of the 
area and in part, at least, accounts for the fact that it was impossible to de- 
termine the exact boundary from Salmon creek to the head of Austin creek. 
As an evidence that a great part of this forested area was but little known to 
the Indians it may be noted that some of the Indians of the Southwestern 
dialectic area claim that the site of the present town of Guerneville was un- 
known to them until after the coming of the lumber mills to the region. It 
was then named moko'cpeulu, from mdko'c, stump, and pe'ulu, a corruption 
of the Spanish pueblo, on account of the many huge redwood stumps left 
after the felling of the trees for milling purposes. The people of the South- 
ern dialectic area seem to have known the site, at least using it as a camp if 
not a village. Their name for this site, ciydle, signifying shady place, seems 
to have been derived from the denseness of the forest. 



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212 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 

creek, crossing Hopper creek, and running to a point just west of 
the old village of mati'wi, where it turns in a northwesterly direc- 
tion, crosses the middle fork of Gualala river, and passes to the 
head of Fuller creek. Here it turns in a southwesterly direction, 
recrosses the middle fork of Gualala river, passes across the divide 
between the middle fork and the main branch of this river, and 
comes to the latter at a point about a mile up stream from the 
confluence of the two. It then passes down Gualala river to the 
confluence of the north fork with it. The Southwestern dialectic 
area lies west of this entire western boundary from Salmon creek 
to the north fork of Gualala river. 

This very irregularly shaped area of the Southern dialectic 
group is adjoined on the north by the territory of the Central 
Porno ; on the east by those of the Eastern Porno, and the Yukian 
Wappo; on the south by those of the Southern and Western 
Moquelumnan dialectic groups; and on the west by that of the 
Southwestern Porno. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

The Southern dialectic area is divided by the redwood belt 
into two parts, one in Russian river valley, the other on Gualala 
river. The former embraces the greater part of the valley of 
Russian river from a point about two and a half miles north of 
the town of Cloverdale 245 down to a rather indefinitely located 
point within the redwood belt several miles from the mouth of 
the river. 246 From the northern boundary down to about three 
miles north of the town of Geyserville the valley is from a quarter 
of a mile to a mile in width, and was owned by the Southern 
Porno, but from about three miles north of Geyserville down to 
the great bend of the river east of Healdsburg it was occupied by 
people speaking the Yukian Wappo dialect. From Healdsburg 
down to the southern line of the Southern dialectic area, thus 
including the drainages of Markwest and Santa Rosa creeks, there 
extends a broad fertile valley known as Santa Rosa valley. There 
is also a narrow but very fertile valley extending the greater 
length of Dry creek. The part of this area on Gualala river was 

** See note 160. 
■"• See note 244. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 213 

confined to the eastern bank of the main branch of the river along 
its lower course and to the headwaters of the middle fork. In 
the former area there is little real valley, the river itself and 
affluent streams flowing almost entirely in deep canyons and the 
adjacent mountains being heavily forested. In the portion of 
this division of the area which lies on the headwaters of the 
middle fork there is even less true valley land, but there is much 
more open country in the mountains. 

This dialectic group, inhabiting areas almost entirely within 
the valley region, had the characteristic valley foods: acorns, 
grass and other seeds, and bulbs and tubers; but game and fish 
were also plentiful. 

RUSSIAN RIVER DIVISION. 247 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites. 

bati'klitcawi or batinkletca'wi, from batf , alder, Alnus rhom- 
bi folia, kale', tree, and tca'wl, house, or toiolagotca (Western 
Moquelumnan dialect name), from io'tola, elderberry, and go' tea, 



*•* Early writers recognised the linguistic affinities of the inhabitants of 
the lower Russian river valley, and classed them all under the general name 
"Kainomero," which is at present recognised by the few Indians who sur- 
vive in that region, although its origin seems somewhat uncertain. The name 
itself has been variously spelled and the limits of the territory of the people 
to which it is applied variously defined. Gibbs (Schoolcraft, III, 102), in 
speaking of the Indians seen near Healdsburg, says, "The tribe to which 
they belong, and which has its headquarters at fitch's ranch, is called 'Kai- 
na-meah,' or, as the Spaniards pronounce it, 'Kai-na-me-ro' .... I 
was informed that this dialect extends as far back as Santa Rosa, down 
Russian river about three leagues to Cooper's ranch, and thence across to the 
coast at Fort Ross, and for twenty-five miles above." Powers (Tribes of 
Cal., p. 174) gives the limits of their territory much more correctly: "In 
Bussian River Valley, from Cloverdale down to the redwood belt and south 
to Santa Rosa Creek, and also in Dry Creek Valley, live the remnants of a 
tribe whom the Spaniards called the Gal-li-no-me'-ro nation. The Gallino- 
me'ro proper occupy Dry Creek and Bussian River, below Healdsburg, with- 
in the limits above named; while above Healdsburg, principally between 
Geyserville and Cloverdale, are the Mi-saT-la Ma-gun', or Mu-sal-la-kun', and 
the Rai-me'." Substantially the same information was obtained from In- 
dians now living about Healdsburg and Cloverdale. They say that the name 
kainomS'rd was given by the Spaniards of San Rafael mission to the Indians 
of Healdsburg and Santa Rosa upon the occasion of their being brought 
into the mission in the early part of the last century. They have no knowl- 
edge of the significance of the name, and can not give any name used by 
themselves prior to their taking this one. Applied first to the Indians from 
the immediate vicinity of Healdsburg and Santa Rosa, this name has now a 
broader use, being made to include the remainder of the people speaking 
this dialect, and formerly living about Cloverdale and on the upper course 
of Dry creek. Concerning the origin of the name Gallinomero Powers says 



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214 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

house, in the southern part of the town of Sebastopol. There is 
at present but a single house with about seven inhabitants here, 
but this was once a populous village. This house is located on 
the site of the old village which also bore the name bati'kletcawi. 
At a point about a mile east of the town of Sebastopol there is 
another family of about ten individuals, and there are several 
other places within the limits of this dialectic area where Indians 
may be found at times, as on the ranches near the towns of 
Windsor, Healdsburg and Cloverdale ; but the sites at Sebastopol 
were the only ones found which are inhabited regularly and per- 
manently. The total number of Indians, excluding those at the 
town of Sebastopol, regularly residing within this dialectic area, 
is not greater than twenty-five. 

Old Village Sites. 

cAy&le> from ciyo', shadow or shade, and le or li, place, at the 
town of Guerneville. The informant who mentioned this site 
gave it as that of a village, but from the nature of the country 
and the denseness of the redwood forests which extended for some 
distance on all sides it seems doubtful whether it was actually 



that he was unable to ascertain the original name of the people for them- 
selves, and concludes that the one in question came from Gallina, the name 
given by the early Spaniards to one of their "great chiefs." Concerning 
Mi-sal'-la Ma-gun', he says (p. 183), "A Gallinomero told me the name was 
a corruption of mi-saT-la-a'-ko which denotes 'long snake.' " (The North- 
ern Porno name of the striped water-snake is misaltale, or misa'kalak, while 
msa'kale is the form found in the Central dialect.) "Another form of the 

name is Mu-sal-la-kun' They and the Kai-me' occupy both banks 

of Bussian river from Cloverdale down to the territory of the Rincons 
(Wappos) about Geyserville. " The name is perpetuated in "Bancho de 
Musalacon," an old Mexican land grant extending, according to Bowers' 
Map of Sonoma County (1882), along Bussian river from about a mile 
north of Cloverdale to about six miles south of that place. This name, ren- 
dered "Masalla Magoons," is given by Bancroft (Native Baces, I, 449), 
and Powell (op. cit., p. 88) gives both "Misalamagun" and " Musakakun. ' ' 
Kainomero is also differently spelled by other writers: Taylor (CaL 
Farmer, March 2, 1860) uses Canimares, Thompson (Central Sonoma, p. 5, 
San Francisco, 1884, and History of Sonoma County, p. 70) calls them 
' ' Cainemeros, ' ' and Captain H. L. Ford in the Report of the Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs for 1856 (p. 257) speaks of them as the "Kyanamara," 
and again in the Beport on the Mendocino War (op. cit, p. 15) as "Calle- 
Namares." The "Gallinomero" of Powers seems to have been quite com- 
monly used by later writers, as Powell (op. cit, p. 88) and Mason (op. cit., 
p. 368). In "Porno Indian Baskets and Their Makers" (Land of Sun- 
shine, XV, 442) "GaUynomeros" is used, but Mr. Purdy in his reprinted 
edition of 1902 corrects the spelling to ' ' Gallinomeros. " Bancroft (Native 
Baces, I, 362, 363, 449) uses "Gallinomeros, Kanimares, and Kainamares." 



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1908] Barrett— The Ethno-Qtography of the Porno Indians. 215 

inhabited as a village, though it is quite probable that it was used 
as a camping place. Informants of the Southwestern dialect said 
that the vicinity of Guerneville was entirely uninhabited in 
aboriginal times, and they knew as its Indian name only mdko'c- 
peulu, from mdko'c, stump, and pS'tUfi, a corruption of the Span- 
ish pueblo. This name was given to that vicinity on account of 
the many large stumps left after logging for the lumber mills, 
which were established there at a comparatively early date after 
the American occupation. 

bu'dutcilan, on the north bank of Russian river at a point 
probably about five and a half miles up stream from Guerneville. 
This village was located on the ranch owned by Mr. Thomas Hill 
and was but a short distance down stream from the confluence of 
Markwest creek with Russian river. 

de'lema, on what is known as the Porter ranch, at a point 
about three-quarters of a mile west of the west bank of Russian 
river and at a point about two miles north of the confluence of 
Markwest creek with it. 

dohutmffkdni. This site was rather indefinitely located by 
the informant but was probably on the ranch owned by Messrs. 
White and Wilson at a point about a mile and a half east of 
Russian river and about a mile and a quarter north of Markwest 
creek. 

upawa'ni, on what is known as the Miller ranch at a point 
about a mile east of Russian river and two and three-quarters 
niiles southwest of the town of Windsor. 

katcilan, on the ranch formerly known as the Lewis ranch and 
tying just east of Russian river at a point about two and half 
miles west-southwest of the town of Windsor. 

kala'tken, on the ranch formerly owned by Mr. J. G. Dow, on 
the west bank of Russian river at a point about four and a quarter 
miles south of Healdsburg. 

behekauna, on the west bank of Russian river at a point about 
four miles down stream from the town of Healdsburg. 

ttfwida, near the east bank of Russian river at a point about 
two and a half miles a little south of west of the town of Windsor. 

bacaklend'nan, from ba'ca or be'ce, buckeye, kale', tree, and 
nonan, 1, on the ranch of Mr. J. W. Calhoun near the east bank 



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216 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [Vol. 6 

of Russian river at a point about two and a half miles a little 
north of west of the town of Windsor. 

catinen, near the west bank of Russian river at a point about 
three and a quarter miles south of the town of Healdsburg. 

hee'mm, near the west bank of Russian river at a point about 
two and three-quarters miles south of the town of Healdsburg. 

ka'wikawi, near the east bank of Russian river at a point about 
two and three-quarters miles a little east of south of the town of 
Healdsburg. 

bidutsa'kaleyo, on the west bank of Russian river at a point 
about a quarter of a mile down stream from the confluence of 
Dry creek with it. 

djffpten, on what is known as the Brumfield ranch at a point 
on the east bank of Russian river almost opposite the confluence 
of Dry creek. This may be the same village referred to by 
another informant as bfteka'wi. 

muka'smo, near the residence of Mr. J. D. Grant at a point on 
the east bank of Russian river about a mile and a half south of 
Healdsburg. 

amatidy from a'ma, ground, ha'ta, red, and iyd', below, near 
the north bank of a small stream called Mill creek which flows 
into Dry creek nearly at its confluence with Russian river. This 
site was located about half a mile from the west bank of Dry 
creek, ka'klya is the name of another site in this immediate vi- 
cinity, probably a very short distance up Mill creek, which was 
so indefinitely located by informants that it is impossible to give 
it a place on the map. 

u'pawam, on what is known as the Thompson ranch about a 
quarter of a mile west of Dry creek and about the same distance 
north of Mill creek above mentioned. 

ka'bekadogani, on what is known as the Hopper ranch just 
west of the bridge across Dry creek on the road leading from 
Healdsburg down the west bank of Russian river. This may be 
the same village referred to by another informant as dinasiunan. 

amalpuwa'U, on the west bank of Russian river at a point 
about a mile and a quarter down stream from Healdsburg. This 
site is located about a mile down stream from the Dry creek 
bridge and on the east bank of the creek. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 217 

hehvame'can, on the west bank of Russian river at a point 
about three-quarters of a mile down stream from Healdsburg. 

ka'totui, from ka'ion, lake or pond, and wi, place, near the 
north shore of a lake covering several acres which is situated 
about a mile and a half southeast of Healdsburg. This lake is 
on the low land of the river bottom proper and just at the joining 
of the river bottom with the slightly more elevated table land of 
the valley. In aboriginal times the lake itself was surrounded 
by a dense growth of shrubs and briars and was a place viewed 
with some awe by the Indians. There is a story told of a super- 
natural log which formerly floated about in this lake. In ap- 
pearance it was like an ordinary log five or six feet in length and 
eight or ten inches, possibly a foot, in diameter. It floated about 
the lake as an ordinary log might, but when people, particularly 
children, approached the lake the log would be seen to float to- 
ward them and come to the shore, where it would remain until 
they either stepped upon it or moved away. If they did the 
former the log moved rapidly out to the middle of the lake and 
there floated about for a long time. So far as informants could 
remember the log did not roll or in any way seem to try to throw 
off its cargo and no one was ever known to have been killed or 
even injured by such a ride. Nevertheless no one except the most 
daring ever ventured to step upon the log and it seems to have 
been particularly forbidden to children by their parents to under- 
take such a risk. Another strange thing in connection with this 
lake is the fact, which is attested by some of the oldest settlers of 
the region, that every evening there was to be heard coming from 
the lake a deep and very loud sound resembling somewhat that 
of a locomotive engine blowing off steam or the loud bellowing of 
a bull. This was said to be the sound made by the old frog- 
woman who lived in and controlled this lake and all things sur- 
rounding it. She is not represented as at all inclined to vicious- 
ness or as having injured Indians, nor was there formerly thought 
to be any direct connection between her and the miraculously 
moving log above mentioned. However, not many years after 
the settlement of this section by the Mexican rancheros there 
came a very wet season which raised the river so high that it 
flowed a stream into and out of this lake, taking with it the mirac- 



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218 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

Tiloiis log; and never since has the sound of the old frog-woman 
been heard in the evening. It is now believed by the Indians 
therefore that there was some connection between the two, of 
which they were formerly unaware. At the present time this 
lake is nothing but a mere pond, particularly in the dry season, 
as Mr. William Pitch, the original grantee of the rancho upon 
which it is situated, drained it and the adjacent land a short time 
after the freshet above mentioned. 

kolo'ko, at a point about two miles east-southeast of Healds- 
burg. 

kawa'mid, from kawa'n, pine, ama, ground, and yo, under, at 
a point about a mile and a quarter east-southeast of Healdsburg. 

yoci'kletowani, from yoci', white oak, kale', tree, and fowa'nl, 
stand up, at the south end of the wagon bridge across Russian 
river at Healdsburg. Another informant located this site on the 
west bank of the river at a point almost opposite the location here 
given. 

ba'ka'tsOd, just south of the railroad depot at Healdsburg. 

ka'le, from aka, water, and le or II, place. The plaza in 
Healdsburg now occupies the site of this old village. Immedi- 
ately south of this site there was formerly a small lake which 
gave the village its name. 

cu'takowi, on the north bank of Russian river in the south- 
eastern part of the town of Healdsburg. 

watakka'wi, from wa'tak, frog, a'ka, water or pond, and wi, 
place, at a point about three-quarters of a mile east of the town 
of Healdsburg. This site is at the foot of Pitch mountain 248 and 
is now covered by the Healdsburg cemetery. 

wotokka'ton, from wo'to, dirty or ashes, ka'fon, lake, at a 
point about a mile northeast of the last named site, and on the 
opposite side of Russian river. This village was located on what 
is known as the Luce ranch and the captain or leader of the 
people at this village was known by the Spanish name of San- 
tiago. He was also known by the name of mante'ka or so'£5, and 
it is from this latter name that Sotoyome is derived, the latter 
part of the name signifying "the home of." This name, Soto- 



m The Southern Porno name of Fitch mountain was given by one infor- 
mant as tsfu'nno. 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Oeography of the Porno Indians. 219 

yome, has come quite commonly into use in this vicinity from the 
fact that the old Mexican land grant of Mr. William Pitch was 
called the Sotoyome rancho. 24 * In connection with the Indians 
this name was used by Engelhardt, 260 who gives "Sotoyomi" in 
his list of the names of the various peoples who were among the 
converts at Sonoma mission, and Thompson 251 says that Pitch 
mountain was called by the Indians " Sotoyome,' ' by which name 
it is known to a limited extent among the whites at present. 

mukakotca'Li, from muka't, ant, and tcaTii, village, at the 
northeastern foot of Fitch mountain and at a point about a mile 
and a quarter northeast of Healdsburg. This village seems to 
have been one of the places at which at least some of the fighting 
between the Wappo and the Southern Porno in the war which 
finally gave the Wappo possession of Alexander valley took place. 
The chief fighting, however, was in Alexander valley proper in 
and about the village of cf'mela. 

baca'klekau, from baca', buckeye, kale', tree, and Ikau, bursted 
or broken, at the point about a mile north of Healdsburg where 
the roads leading to Lyttons and to Dry creek diverge. 

lu'ti, on what is known as the Miller ranch in Dry creek 
valley at a point about a mile and a half northwest of Healds- 
burg. This site is located on the east bank of the creek. 

watakkffm, back near the foot-hills at the edge of Dry creek 
valley and at a point about a mile and three-quarters north- 
northeast of Healdsburg. There seems to be some doubt as to 
whether this place was ever actually inhabited. One or two 
informants know the name as that of a locality but not as that 
of a village site, but others speak of it as a village. 

amaskatci'lan, near the foot-hills at the eastern edge of Dry 
creek valley and at a point about two miles north-northeast of 
Healdsburg. 

kabe'ton, from kabe', rock, and ton, under ( t), near the east 
bank of Dry creek at a point about two and a half miles north- 
northeast of Healdsburg. 

■"According to Bowers' "Map of Sonoma County," 1882, the Sotoyome 
Rancho comprised forty-eight thousand, eight hundred and thirty-six acres 
of land, including Fitch mountain and the present site of Healdsburg, as 
well as Alexander valley to the east. 

"• Op. cit., p. 451. 

m Sonoma County, p. 88. 



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220 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

catca'li, near the east bank of Dry creek at a point about 
three and a quarter miles up stream from the town of Healdsburg. 
The above location is probably the correct one, although one 
informant placed this site at a point about half a mile south of 
the old village of watakkd'wi. 

tdkffkalewi. This site was indefinitely located by one inform- 
ant as at or near Lyttons Springs in the low hills of the divide 
between Russian river and Dry creek at a point about a mile west 
of Lyttons. 

cawa'ko, or walnu'tse (Yukian Wappo name), from wal, war- 
riors, and nu'tse, small, near the west bank of Dry creek at the 
confluence of Pina creek with it. The name given to this village 
by the Wappo is said to arise from the contempt in which they 
held the Porno, they themselves being conceded to be more war- 
like than the Porno. 

kawiiikmtfman, near the east bank of Dry creek at a point 
about a quarter of a mile up stream from the confluence of Pina 
creek with it. 

takffton, on the east bank of Dry creek just up stream from 
the confluence of Warm Springs creek with it. 

kaho'wani, from ka or aka, water, ho, hot or fire, and wa'nl, 
t, at Skaggs Springs, on the east bank of Hot Springs creek, 
an affluent of Warm Springs creek. Mr. Mulgrew, the proprietor 
of Skaggs Springs, has found on this site a number of mortars, 
pestles, and other large stone implements as well as many arrow- 
heads and smaller implements. 

kab&ptewi, from kabe', rock, pte or bate', big, and wi, place, 
near the southwest bank of Bancheria creek, one of the extreme 
headwaters of Warm Springs creek, and at a point probably 
about a mile from the confluence of Rancheria creek with Warm 
Springs creek proper. This site was very indefinitely located by 
the informant. 

katsa'ndsma, from katsa', grass, no, ashes or dust, and sma, 
sleep, on the ridge separating the headwaters of Warm Springs 
creek from those of the middle fork of Gualala river and at a 
point about two miles north-northwest of Leppo's dairy, which 
is at the summit of this ridge and on the road leading from the 
Russian river valley to Stewart's point on the coast. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Bthno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 221 

dffwikatdn, from dd'wi, coyote, ka, spring or water, and *5n, 
tinder (t), on the ridge separating the headwaters of Warm 
Springs creek from those of the middle fork of Gualala river and 
at a point about a mile and a quarter northwest of Leppo's dairy 
above mentioned. 

hula'tid, from kula', probably a kind of plant, tl, t, and y5, 
under, on the summit of the ridge separating the headwaters of 
Warm Springs creek from those of the middle fork of Gualala 
river and at a point about three-quarters of a mile northwest of 
Leppo's dairy above mentioned. 

ama'Jco, on the east bank of Russian river east of the winery 
of the Italian-Swiss colony at Asti. This site is on what is known 
as the Black ranch or the old Landsbury ranch. 

md'titca'ton, a short distance west of Russian river and at a 
point about a mile and three-quarters south-southeast of Clover- 
dale. According to one informant this village was a very small 
one. 

Jcala'nko, on the west bank of Russian river at a point about a 
mile southeast of the town of Cloverdale. This site lies between 
the track of the California Northwestern railway and the river 
bank on the Caldwell ranch. 

a'ka'mdtcdldwani, near the west bank of Russian river at a 
point about half a mile southeast of the town of Cloverdale. 

mdk&'hmo, at the mouth of Sulphur creek just northeast of 
Cloverdale. It appears that this village occupied both banks of 
the stream and the name makaTimo was universally applied to it 
not only by the people of the immediate vicinity but also by the 
people of the neighboring dialectic areas. They recognized this 
as the chief village in the northern part of the Southern dialectic 
area, and applied the name maka'hmo not only to the village itself 
but more broadly to all of the immediate vicinity. According to 
one informant, a former resident of this village, the portion of the 
village lying south of Sulphur creek had a separate name, ga'ca- 
<ihmo, while the portion lying north of the creek was called 
gTcipte'fon. 

gatciti'yd, near the west bank of Russian river at a point about 
half a mile south of Preston. 

The following village sites are located in the broad valley, 



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222 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol 6 

known as Santa Rosa valley, lying south of Russian river and 
along Markwest and Santa Rosa creeks and about the Laguna de 
Santa Rosa. 

tce'tcewani, at the northern extremity of the Laguna de Santa 
Rosa and just west of the point where its waters flow into Mark- 
west creek. 

tsolika'm, at "old Windsor," about half a mile east of the 
present railroad town of Windsor. 

tffhmakau, on the north bank of the main stream of Markwest 
creek at the point where the wagon bridge on the road from 
Pulton to Windsor crosses it. 

butswa'li, on the west bank of the Laguna de Santa Rosa at 
a point about a mile from its northern extremity. 

cuta'want, at a point about two miles northwest of Santa Rosa. 

hukabet-a'tui, on the south bank of the Santa Rosa creek* 52 
at a point a short distance from the depot of the California 
Northwestern railway in Santa Rosa. 258 

kabetcfuwa, in the eastern edge of the town of Santa Rosa 
and at a point about a mile from the old village of hukabeta'wi. 

wtlok, at a point about three miles northeast of Santa Rosa. 
The "Huiluc" mentioned by Engelhardt 254 as among the Indians 
at Sonoma mission may have been either from this village or from 
wilikos on Sonoma creek a few miles to the southeast. 

ka'pten, on the western shore of the Laguna de Santa Rosa 
at a point about two miles from its northern extremity. 

caka'kmd, on the western shore of the Laguna de Santa Rosa 
at a point about three miles from its northern extremity. 



"■ According to Thompson (Sonoma County, p. 70) the Indian name of 
Santa Rosa creek was Chocoalomi. 

"* In speaking of the Indians in Santa Rosa valley at the time of its oc- 
cupation by the first permanent white settler, Sifiora Carillo, who arrived 
there in 1838, R. A. Thompson (Central Sonoma, pp. 4-5) says: "The prin- 
cipal rancheria was on the Smith farm, just below the bridge, at the cross- 
ing of Santa Rosa creek, on the road leading to SebastopoL Upon this site 
a Mission was commenced, probably by Father Amoroso. The Indians rose 
up and destroyed the incipient Mission buildings about the same time that 
the Mission of Sonoma was devastated." Theodore H. Hittell (History of 
California, I, 499) upon the authority of Duflot de Mofras (II, 6) says con- 
cerning this mission : ' ' With San Francisco Solano or Sonoma in 1828 ended 
the foundation of the twenty-one missions in Alta California. There appears 
to have been a twenty-second talked of, and an attempt was made to found 
one at Santa Rosa in 1827, but the project was abortive. ' ' 

~Op. cit^p. 451. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Oeography of the Porno Indians. 223 

tciLe'ton, on the western shore of the Laguna de Santa Rosa 
at a point about three and a half miles from its northern ex- 
tremity. 

kacXntui, on the western shore of the Laguna de Santa Rosa 
at a point about two and a half miles northwest of the town of 
Sebastopol. This site is located at what is known as Allen's hop 
yard. 

mastkawa'ni, near the western shore of the Laguna de Santa 
Bosa at a point about a mile and a half west-northwest of the 
town of Sebastopol. This site is located on the Sebring ranch. 

bati'kletcawi, or batifikletcawi, from bati, alder, Alnus rhom- 
bifolia, kale, tree, and tca'wi, house, or totolagotca (Western 
Moquelumnan dialect name), from Jo'Jdla, elderberry, and 
go'tca, house, just southwest of the railroad depot in Sebastopol. 
The site now occupied by the few Indians who live permanently 
in this immediate vicinity is also called by this same name and 
is the only site regularly and permanently inhabited by the 
Indians in the southern part of this dialectic area. 

akapo'lopolowani, at a point about a mile and a half southeast 
of the town of Sebastopol and on the road leading from Sebas- 
topol to Petaluma. 

bu'takatcatokani, at a point on the road leading from Sebas- 
topol to Petaluma about two and a half miles southeast of Se- 
bastopol. 

bffhosole, at a point on the road leading from Sebastopol to 
Petaluma probably about three miles southeast of Sebastopol. 

In addition to these old village sites, all of which are situated 
within the limits of the territory which was in possession of the 
people speaking the Southern dialect at the time of the arrival 
of the first settlers in this region, there are several others which 
now lie within that portion of the territory of the Yukian Wappo 
which embraces Alexander valley to the northeast of Healdsburg. 
These sites are, ko'ticomota or tcelhelle, cfmela or ossokd'wi, 
pipoholma or djelheldjiseka'm, malalatcaTii, acaTben, gaiye'tcin, 
and kok/ko, the information concerning which is given in con- 
nection with that regarding the old village sites in the Main 
Wappo area. 



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224 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [Vol. 6 

Old Camp Sites. 

Owing to the early settlement of the region under consider- 
ation and particularly that part of it lying along the lower course 
of Russian river from Healdsburg southward, and to the fact 
that the Indians who formerly inhabited it were at an early date 
removed to the missions about San Francisco bay, little infor- 
mation can now be obtained concerning village sites other than 
those which were the most important, and practically no infor- 
mation can be had concerning camp sites which were, of course, 
always of minor importance. It is quite possible that some of 
the sites lying in and about Healdsburg and immediately south- 
ward on both banks of Russian river which are here given as 
village sites are in reality camp sites, the confusion having arisen 
from the length of time since the country was actually inhabited 
in anything like its aboriginal state and the small number of 
informants now to be found. The following are the only camp 
sites mentioned by the Indians. 

itcatca'iLi, immediately south of the railway station at Asti. 

kawatca'nnd, at Leppo's dairy on the summit of the ridge sep- 
arating the headwaters of Warm Springs creek, an affluent of 
Dry creek, from those of the middle fork of Gualala river. This 
site is located at the point on the summit of this ridge where the 
road from the Russian river valley to Stewart's point on the coast 
passes over it. 

GUALALA RIVER DIVISION. 265 

Old Village Sites, 
kubahmo'i, near the south bank of Rock Pile creek at its con- 
fluence with Gualala river. 

** Powers (Tribes of Cal., p. 186) uses "Gualala" as the name of the 
people living "on the creek called by their name, which empties into the 
Pacific at the northwest corner of Sonoma County, ' ' and it has been used by 
Powell (op. cit., p. 88), Bancroft (Native Races, I, 362, 449), and Mason 
(op. cit., p. 368) with the same signification. At present a town as well as 
the river bears the name which is usually spelled as above given. Other 
orthographies are, however, used, as "Wallhalla" given on Bowers' "Map 
of Sonoma County" as the name of the river (residents of the region fre- 
quently pronounce the name walhala or walhaler), and "Valhalla" which is 
used by Thompson (Sonoma County, p. 7) upon the assumption that it came 
originally from the old Norse Valhalla. There is, however, nothing which 
directly shows this and it seems much more probable that it came from the 
Porno wala'li, or wa'lali, which in the Southern and Southwestern dialects is 
the name given to certain parts of Russian river, and is a generic term sig- 
nifying the meeting place of the waters of any in-flowing stream with those 
of the stream into which it flows or with the ocean. The present spelling, 
Gualala, is probably influenced by the Spanish. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 225 

kabite'yo, near the east bank of Gualala river at a point about 
a mile and a quarter up stream from the confluence of Bock Pile 
creek with it 

kawante' limani, from kawa'n, a species of pine, tell, flat head 
( ?), and ma'nl, ?, indefinitely located near the head of Buckeye 
creek, an affluent of Gualala river. 

kobo'te, from kd, ball, and ba'te, big or many ( t), on what is 
known as Biddle ridge north of the middle fork of Gualala river 
and at a point probably about two miles northeast of the conflu- 
ence of that stream with the main branch of Gualala river. 

ca'mti, in the mountains immediately north of the middle fork 
of Gualala river and at a point probably about three miles a little 
north of east of the confluence of that stream with the main 
branch of Gualala river. 

ma'hawica, from ma'ka, salmon, and wica', ridge, in the moun- 
tains immediately north of the middle fork of Gualala river and 
at a point probably about a mile and a half a little north of east 
of the old village of koba'te. This site is about midway between 
Buckeye creek and the middle fork of Gualala river. 

ma'hmo, on what is known as the "old" John Fisk place at 
a point about half a mile north of the middle fork of Gualala 
river and due north of the present village of po'tSl. 

matfwi, on the summit of the ridge separating the middle fork 
of Gualala river from the small stream known as Haupt creek 
(unnamed on the accompanying map) to the south. This site 
is almost due north of the present village of po'tol and is very 
near the boundary between the Southern and the Southwestern 
dialectic area. 

kawamtca'eli, from kawa'm, a species of pine, tea, house, and 
ell or li, place, immediately west of the stopping-place known as 
Noble's which is on the south bank of the middle fork of Gualala 
river and just down stream from the point at which Hopper 
creek, Wolf creek, and the north fork of the middle fork come 
together to form the middle fork of Gualala river. This site is 
in the grain field on the flat immediately west of Noble's barn. 

bfmukatdn, from bi'mu, a species of shrub, ka, water or 
spring, and ton, under, in the mountains immediately north of 
the middle fork of Gualala river and at a point about half a mile 
north of Noble's. 



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226 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

htwalhmu, from hl'wal, related to walali, the point at which 
two streams flow together, and hmu, T, at the point where Hopper 
creek, Wolf creek, and the north fork of the middle fork of 
Gualala river flow together to form the middle fork. The exact 
location of this site was not given by informants but it is probable 
that it was between Hopper and Wolf creeks. 

MwldXtem, from du'wi, coyote, and di'tem, said to signify 
to go on top of, near the south bank of Wolf creek at a point 
about a mile and a quarter up stream from its confluence with 
the middle fork of Gualala river. 

bu'lakowi, from btt, Indian potatoes, la, ?, ko, long, and wl, 
place, in the mountains between Wolf creek and the north fork 
of the middle fork of Gualala river and at a point probably about 
two miles northeast of the confluence of the two. 

Old Camp Sites. 

tca'yahakaton, near the east bank of Gualala river at a point 
probably about a mile and a half up stream from the confluence 
of Buckeye creek with it. A railroad built for logging purposes 
in connection with the Gualala lumber mills now runs through 
this site. 

du'tsakol, in the mountains east of Gualala river and at a 
point about a mile north of the confluence of the middle fork 
with the main stream. This site is near the end of a prominent 
ridge in this vicinity known as Biddle ridge. 

ka'tmatci, near the summit of the ridge separating the middle 
fork of Gualala river from the main stream and at a point about 
three-quarters of a mile southeast of the confluence of the two. 

kaba'tui, from kaba', madrofia, and tfi'I, forks (t), in the 
mountains north of the middle fork of Gualala river and at a 
point about a mile and a half northwest of the old village of 
hibu'wi. This site is very near the boundary between the South- 
ern and the Southwestern dialectic areas and is about a mile 
from the river. 

tsu'nno, in the mountains north of the middle fork of Gualala 
river and at a point probably a mile and a half northwest of 
Noble's. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Oeography of the Porno Indians. 227 

ka'Hle, from kasi'l, redwood, and le or li, place, at the head of 
Wolf creek, probably near its northern branch. 

kale'wica, from kale', tree, and wica', ridge, on the ridge sep- 
arating the headwaters of the north fork of the middle fork of 
Gualala river from those of Ranchero creek. 

SOUTHWESTERN DIALECT. 

BOUNDARIES. 

Beginning at the mouth of Gualala river the boundary of the 
Southwestern Porno dialectic area follows the course of the main 
stream of the river, 25 * first in a northeasterly and then in a south- 
easterly direction to a point about a mile up stream from the 
confluence of the middle fork with it. Here it turns in a gen- 
eral easterly direction and crosses the middle fork of Gualala 
river, where it again turns in a northeasterly direction and runs 
into the mountains, passing to the head of Fuller creek. Here it 
turns in a southeasterly direction, recrosses the middle fork of 
Gualala river, and runs to a point just south of the old village of 
mati'wi. From this point it runs in an easterly direction across 
Hopper creek and just north of the headwaters of Austin creek, 
at the most easterly of which it turns southward and runs to 
Russian river presumably at a point a little up from the con- 
fluence of Austin creek with it. 25T From this point it runs in the 
same general direction to Salmon creek, which is here the inter- 
stock boundary between the Pomo and the Moquelumnan terri- 
tories, at a point a short distance west of the town of Freestone. 
It then follows Salmon creek westward to the ocean. The west- 
ern boundary of this dialectic area is the shore-line. 

This rather long and narrow irregularly shaped area is 
bounded on the north, east, and south respectively by the Central 
Pomo, Southern Pomo and Western Moquelumnan dialectic 
areas, and on the west by the ocean. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

It will be convenient to divide this dialectic area into two 
parts : the coast division, and the river division. Along the im- 



*• See note 161. 
m See note 244. 



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228 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

mediate coast-line from the mouth of Gualala river to the vicin- 
ity of Stewart's Point there is a coastal shelf which is nowhere 
more than half a mile in width. A short distance south of Stew- 
art 's Point the foot-hills begin to run still nearer to the shore- 
line, leaving but a very narrow strip of level land ; and from the 
vicinity of Fisk's Mills to the mouth of Russian river the shore- 
line is a succession of cliffs cut by the deep gulches of numerous 
small creeks, and only here and there habitable stretches of level 
land along the cliffs. From the mouth of Russian river to the 
southern limit of the area there stretches a belt of high, open land 
averaging a little over a half mile in width. This comparatively 
narrow strip along the entire immediate coast-line was probably 
the most thickly populated portion of this dialectic area and is 
here designated as the coast division. 

Beginning with the foot-hills adjacent to the coast, the heavily 
timbered hills and mountains extend eastward beyond the limits 
of this dialectic area. In the northern part of the area the Gual- 
ala river runs in a deep canyon parallel to the coast-line, and 
separated from it by a high, timbered ridge. On both banks of 
the river and on the adjacent ridges are the sites of numerous 
old villages and camps, and this region is the one designated, for 
purposes of convenience, as the river division. To this division 
belong also the area along Austin creek and that along Russian 
river back from the coast. The separation of this dialectic area 
into coast and river divisions is more or less an artificial one, it 
should be remembered, for the actual distance of the river vil- 
lages from the shore was in no case more than a few miles. 

The foods used by all the people in this dialectic area were 
those characteristic of the coast region, as previously described. 
The various ocean products: fish, molluscs, and sea-weeds were 
plentiful; and acorns, grass seeds, bulbs, and other vegetable 
foods were found in the adjacent hills and mountains. 

COAST DIVISION. 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites. 

Stewart's Point, just south of the store at Stewart's Point, 
a shipping port for small coasting vessels. This is at present the 
site of a village of the Indians who are employed at work in the 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indiana. 229 

woods about Stewart's Point. Formerly, however, there was an 
old village, called dana'ga, located at this same site. The present 
village comprises six houses with a number of inhabitants vary- 
ing 158 with the amount of work to be had in the lumber woods. 
The permanent home of these people is at po'tol, commonly 
spoken of as " Charlie Haupt's ranch.' ' 

tcala'ntcawi, on the south bank of Russian river near its 
mouth. There are here two houses and about eight Indians, 
most of whom came originally from the region of Bodega bay. 
These houses are situated on the site of an old village which was 
called by the same name. 

Old Village Sites. 

kabaputce'mdU, from kaba, madrona, putce'ma, stand up 
straight, and II, place, at a point about two miles southeast of the 
mouth of Gualala river and near the shore-line of the ocean. 

see'ton, from see', brush, and ton, on ( t), at a point probably 
about four miles southeast of the mouth of Gualala river and 
near the shore-line of the ocean. This site is located on what is 
known as the Hans Peterson ranch. 

- tca'pida, at a point about a mile north of Black point. 

kaWnda, from kali, up (a steep place), and da, trail, about 
a quarter of a mile north of Black point. This is said to have 
been a comparatively small village. 

kdutfcal, from k6, mussel, and wica'l, ridge, at Black point. 
It appears that this was formerly a village of some importance 
and while it is not now inhabited permanently there is at the 
present time a family consisting of twelve Indians who are living 
temporarily on this site, kowl'cal is also the name of Black 
point itself, and is derived from the fact that just off the point 
there are mussel-rocks extending over a considerable area which 
formerly provided an abundant supply of these molluscs for food. 

dcma'ga, from dana', to cover up, and ga, T, at Stewart's Point 

just south of the store at the landing and about where the present 

Indian village now stands. This was formerly a large village 

and there were extensive mussel-rocks off the shore at this point 

as also at Black point a few miles farther north. 

"•When visited on July 7, 1903, the number at Stewart's Point was 
about fifteen, only three of the houses being occupied. 



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230 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn, [Vol. 6 

duwima'tcaeli, from du'wl, coyote, ma'tca, sweat-house, and 
e'li, place, at a point about a mile and a quarter south-southeast 
of Stewart's Point. This site is located on a small conical hill 
near the shore-line of the ocean and it is from the shape of this 
hill that the village is said to have derived its name. There is, 
too, a myth connected with this place which relates that Coyote 
built a sweat-house here. 

ShffmXdl, from ohS'm, nettle, and idl, place (f), at a point 
about a mile and a quarter south-southeast of Stewart's Point 
and just east of duwima'tcaeli. This is the site of a very ancient 
village and has been used in more recent times as a camp. 

kapa'ctnal, from kapa', bracken, and cinal, head, at a point 
about two miles northwest of Fisk's Mills and near the shore-line. 

tabate'wi, from ta, beach, bate', big, and wi, on, at Fisk's 
Mills. 

kabesila'wtna, from kabe, rock, sila', flat and wina', upon, at 
Salt point. The county road, which here runs near the shore- 
line, passes through or very near this site. 

tci"tdno, near the shore at a point about a mile southeast of 
Salt point. 

tciti'bidakati, from tcitf , a kind of bush, bida', creek, and 
kali, t, at a point about three-quarters of a mile north of the 
old village of sulmewi, at Timber Cove. This village bears the 
same name as a camp located at a point about two miles and a 
half farther up the coast. According to one informant there 
was formerly a village called tsuka'e, from tsuka', a small edible 
mollusc, Chlorostoma funebrale in this vicinity which may be 
the same as tcitrbidakall. 

su'lmewi, from sul, rope, me, T, and wi, place, on the north 
shore of Timber Cove. 

otffnoe, from oto'ne, the edible purple seaweed, on the south- 
eastern shore of Timber Cove and near Folmer Gulch. 

mete'ni, at Fort Boss. This site was at some little distance 
from the shore-line and just in the edge of the redwood forest 
which covers the adjacent mountains to the east. In speaking 
of the Indians of this region Powers 260 says, "Around Fort Ross 
there is a fragment of a tribe called by the Qualala, B-rus'-si, 

"• Tribes of Cal., p. 194. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 231 

which name is probably another relic of the Russian occupation." 
He refers to the occupation of Fort Boss and the adjacent country 
by the Russians from 1811 to 1840. Their control extended as 
far south as Bodega bay and it is possible that the name ' ' E-ri'-o ' ' 
which he says 260 is the name given by the Spaniards to the tribe 
living at the mouth of Russian River" may also have had a Rus- 
sian origin, though it is more probably Spanish. Both these 
names are given by Powell, 261 probably on the authority of 
Powers, in his list of Porno "tribes." The Indian name of the 
site of Fort Ross was, according to Thompson, 262 "Mad-shui-nui," 
while Bancroft, 268 upon the authority of Kostromitonow, says, 
"Chwachamaju (Russian Severnovskia), or Northerners, is the 
name of one of the tribes in the vicinity of Fort Ross," and 
again, upon the authority of Ludewig, "Severnovskia, Sever- 
nozer, or ' Northerners,' Indians north of Bodega Bay. They 
call themselves Chwachamaja. " 

bace'yokaili, from bace', buckeye, yd, probably under, ka, 
water, and elli or li, place, near the shore at a point about three 
miles southeast of Fort Ross. There is at this place a large 
spring which is shaded by buckeye trees, hence the name. 

pffmcana, from po, red, wi, place, and ca'na, ridge, on what 
is known as the Walter Fisk ranch at a point about four miles 
southeast of Fort Ross. This village derived its name from the 
fact that there is here a spring, the water of which sometimes 
has a reddish tint. 

tsu'kantitca/na/m, at a point probably about a mile nearly due 
north of the ranch house on the Charles Rule ranch and about 
two miles north of the mouth of Russian River. 

Jcalemala'to, at a point about half a mile north of the ranch 
house on the Charles Rule ranch and about a mile and a half 
north of the mouth of Russian river. 

kata'ka, at a point about a mile northeast of the ranch house 
on the Charles Rule ranch. 



•"Ibid. 

•°Op. cit, p. 88. 

m The Russian Settlement in California known as Fort Boss, p. 4, Santa 
Rosa, 1896. 

"• Native Races, I, 449. 



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232 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 

tsuba'tcemali, from tsfTba, a kind of bush, tce'ma, flat hole, 
and II, place, at a point about a mile northeast of the mouth of 
Russian river and about three-quarters of a mile back from the 
shore-line of the ocean. The ranch house on the Charles Rule 
ranch now stands on this site. 

tcamu'ka, at a point about half a mile west of the ranch house 
on the Charles Rule ranch. This site is on the same ridge as the 
ranch house above mentioned and is but a short distance from 
the shore, the ridge extending as a promontory for some distance 
out into the ocean. 

tcala'ntcawi, on the south bank of Russian River near its 
mouth. There are at present two houses on this old site in which 
about eight Indians live. The present settlement is also called 
tcala'ntcawi. 

a'ca'tcatiu, from a M ca, fish, and tca'fi, house, or talaLu'pu 
(Western Moquelumnan dialect name) from fa'la, stand up, and 
Lfi'pu or Lupfi, rock, at a point about half a mile from the 
northern extremity and near the summit of the ridge immediately 
south of the mouth of the Russian river. This high ridge pro- 
jects as a point some distance northwestward from the ridge ex- 
tending southward along the coast from Russian river, and shuts 
in and protects a fairly broad and deep body of water at the 
mouth of the river. This village was located near some promi- 
nent rocks which stand on the summit of this point and hence 
the name which the Moquelumnan people to the south gave to it. 

kabe'mdU, from kabe', rock, and mall, there or place (t), or 
Uppula'mma (Western Moquelumnan dialect name) at Duncan's 
point about six miles southeast of the mouth of Russian river. 
Southwestern Porno informants quite uniformly state that their 
territory extended only a very short distance south of the mouth 
of Russian river and none of them have so far been found who 
claim the territory as far south as Duncan's point, most of them 
stating that their territory only extended for a very short dis- 
tance south of the river. However, the Moquelumnan infor- 
mants of the vicinity are very positive in their statements that 
the territory of the Southwestern Porno extended as far south as 
Salmon creek, and that their own territory only extended as far 
north as Salmon creek. In the absence of any informants from 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indiana. 233 

the territory in question itself and in view of the probable cor- 
rectness of the latter of the two views given, it has seemed ad- 
visable to consider the territory lying between Russian river and 
Salmon creek as Porno, which places this village site within Porno 
territory. According to early writers the Coyote valley Moquel- 
umnan people called the Porno of Big valley on Clear lake by 
this name, which they spell "Lupayuma," "Lopillamillo," and 
other ways.** 4 

Old Camp Sites. 

kadjusa'mali, from a'ka, water, djusa'm, the bottom of a water- 
fall ( f), and mall, there or place ( ?), near the shore-line of the 
ocean about a mile southeast of the old village of kSwI'cal at Black 
Point. 

tulehale'yo, from tu'le, hummingbird, kale', tree, and yo, un- 
der, at a point a little over a mile northwest of Stewart's Point. 
This site was located near the shore-line and but about four hun- 
dred yards north of tciko'bida, the two being so close together 
that it has been necessary to indicate them on the accompanying 
map by a single symbol. 

tcikd'bida, from tclk6', to touch something with an object ( f ), 
and bida', creek, at a point about a mile northwest of Stewart's 
Point. This camp was located only about four hundred yards 
south of iulekale'yo. These two sites are so close together that 
it has been necessary to indicate them on the accompanying map 
by a single symbol. 

t ffntotcimatci, about three-quarters of a mile north-northwest 
of Stewart's Point. 

$iddjd"tumal%, from sul, snag of a tree ( ?), djo"to, to stand 
up, and mali, there or place ( t), at a point about a quarter of a 
mile north of Stewart's Point. One informant gave this as the 
name of a camp a short distance north of td'nidtcimatci. 

pacu'kitmawaU, from pa, excrement, culrit, small string, ma- 
wall, to place (f), about half a mile south of Stewart's Point. 

ma'timaH, near the shore-line of the ocean about two miles 
southeast of Stewart's Point. It is said that there is here a place 
some fifty or sixty yards in diameter which sounds hollow like a 



1 See p. 195. 



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284 University of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

drum as one walks over it. The dram referred to is, of course, 
the aboriginal Porno drum, which is simply a large section of a 
log worked to an even thickness of perhaps an inch and a half and 
placed, curved surface upward, over a long narrow resonance pit 
a foot or more deep. By stamping on this with the bare feet the 
drummer produces a deep hollow tone to the accompaniment of 
which the dancers move. 

he'mdlakahwalau, from hem or behe'm, pepperwood or Cali- 
fornia laurel, ma'la, beside, ka, water, and hwa'lau, to flow down 
or flow into, on the coast at a point about three miles southeast of 
Stewart's Point. 

batsa'tsal, from batsa'tsa, Cascara, on the coast at a point 
about three miles and a half southeast of Stewart's Point. 

du'wikalawdkdti, from dti'wi, coyote, ka'la, dead, and wa'kali, 
?, on the coast at a point about four miles southeast of Stewart's 
Point. 

bace'wi, from bace', buckeye, wi, place, at a point about three- 
quarters of a mile northwest of Fisk's Mills. 

sohffibida, from soho'i, sea-lion, and bida', creek, at a point 
about half a mile northwest of Fisk's Mills. 

tciti'bidakdU, from tciti', a kind of bush, bida', creek, and kali, 
T, at a point about a mile and a quarter south of Fisks Mills. 
This camp is situated at or near the point where the road which 
runs along the ridge just west of Gualala river, passing Seaview 
and Plantation, comes into the main coast road running from 
Stewart's Point down to Fort Boss. One informant mentioned a 
camp, called gasl'nyo, in this vicinity, and it is possible that 
tcitl'bidakali is the one meant. This name was also applied to 
an old village about two miles and a half down the coast from 
this camp. 

ta'tcbida, from tatc, sand, and bida', creek, about half a mile 
northwest of Salt point. 

ledama'li, just southeast of Salt point. 

di"kata, from di"kat, to whittle, rather indefinitely located 
about a mile southeast of Salt point. 

amaya'latci, from a'ma, ground, yala, level, and tci, f, at a 
point about two miles southeast of Fort Ross. 

ukutco'k (Western Moquelumnan dialect name), near a small 



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1908] Barrett.— The Bthno-Qeography of the Pomo Indians. 236 

creek which empties directly into the ocean at a point about two 
and a half miles southeast of the mouth of Russian river. 

tcXti, at a point about four miles southeast of the mouth of 
Russian river. 

napagipu'lak (Western Moquelumnan dialect name) from 
napa'gl, mussel, and pulak, pond, about a mile south of the old 
village of kabe'mali at Duncan's point and about seven miles 
south-southeast of the mouth of Russian river. 

hapa'mu (Western Moquelumnan dialect name) about two 
miles south of Duncan's point and about eight miles south-south- 
east of the mouth of Russian river. 

oyemu'ku (Western Moquelumnan dialect name) from d'ye, 
coyote, and mttlril, trail, on the sand-bar at the mouth of Salmon 
creek at the extreme southern limit of the Southwestern dialectic 
area as given by Moquelumnan informants. Southwestern Pomo 
informants do not claim the territory as far south as this site; 
but Moquelumnan informants assert very positively that their 
own territory extended only as far north as Salmon creek and 
that that of the Southwestern Pomo extended down to this 
stream. 

RIVER DIVISION. 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites. 

pfftol, from po, red, and katul, spring, what is commonly 
known as Charley Haupt 's ranch located near the head of Haupt 
creek, one of the southern affluents of the middle fork of Gualala 
river. This is located about nine miles a little south of east of 
Stewart's Point and about three miles south-southwest of Noble's, 
a ranch and stopping-place near the confluence of Wolf creek, 
Hopper creek, and the north fork of the middle fork of Gualala 
river, where these three streams join to form the middle fork of 
Gualala river. This village consists of six dwellings and a large 
dance-house and is located but a very short distance north of the 
ranch house on the Haupt ranch. The number of Indians living 
at this village varies somewhat according to the season, as it is 
the home of quite a number of Indians who at certain seasons of 
the year are employed in the lumber woods, bark camps, etc., 
along the coast; and in various capacities on the ranches in the 



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236 University of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

valleys. The total number who claim this village as their home 
is probably about sixty or seventy, and these are all to be found 
here when dances and ceremonials are held. During the greater 
part of the year, however, the average number probably does not 
exceed twenty. The name of this village arises from the fact that 
there is here a mineral spring, the water of which leaves a reddish 
deposit along its course, hence the name red spring. 

Old Village Sites. 

tcuma'ti (this name has something to do with the idea of sit- 
ting down), on the summit of the ridge between the main branch 
of Gualala river and the middle fork at a point about three miles 
from the confluence of the two streams. 

mutca'wt, from mutca', a sort of grass seed, and wl, place, on 
the summit of the ridge separating the main branch of Gualala 
river from the middle fork and at a point about six miles south- 
east of the confluence of the two streams, and about five miles a 
little north of east of the present village of po'tol. 

atcadnatca'wallt, from a'tca, man, clna', head, tca'wal, sitting 
down ( t), and li, place, on the eastern slope of the summit of the 
ridge just east of the main branch of Gualala river and at a point 
about four and a half miles nearly due west of the present village 
of po'tol. 

kaleca'dim, from kale', tree, and ca'dim, little ridge, on the 
eastern slope of the summit of the ridge just east of the main 
branch of Gualala river and at a point about four and a quarter 
miles nearly due west of the present village of po'tol. This site 
is not over a quarter of a mile southeast of the one last mentioned. 

tcala'mklamali, from tca'lam, a plant found abundantly at 
this particular place, ki, ?, and amali, flat ground (!), on the 
eastern slope of the summit of the ridge immediately east of the 
main branch of Gualala river and at a point about four miles a 
little south of west of the present village of po't5l and about a 
quarter of a mile southeast of the last mentioned site. 

ta'dono, from fa, bird, and dono' or dano', mountain, on the 
eastern slope of the summit of the ridge immediately east of the 
main branch of Gualala river at a point about three and three- 
quarters miles a little south of west of the present village of pd'tdl 
and about half a mile southeast of the last mentioned site. 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 237 

tla'tc&mawoH, from t!a, said to signify to wind around, 
tcti'ma, to place, and wall, on both sides, on the eastern slope of 
the summit of the ridge immediately east of the main branch of 
Gualala river at a point about two and one-half miles southwest 
of the present village of po't6l and at a point about two miles 
southeast of the last mentioned site. 

la'laka, from lala, wild goose, and ka, spring or water, on the 
eastern slope of the summit of the ridge east of the main branch 
of Gualala river at a point about two and one-half miles south- 
southwest of the present village of po'tol. 

kobotcitca'kati, from k6T>6, a kind of grass, and tcltca'kali, 
said to signify a narrow open strip of land, at a point on the 
summit of the ridge just west of the main branch of Gualala 
river and about a quarter of a mile north of Plantation. 

klca'iyiy from klca', sea gull, and yi, f , at a point about half 
a mile southeast of Plantation. 

tca'mdkdme, at a point about a mile northwest of Seaview. 
This village site lies to the west of the stage road running along 
the ridge from Seaview to Plantation. 

seepfnamatci, at Seaview. This site is directly in front, west, 
of the Seaview hotel. 

hXbu'wly from hlbu', Indian potato, and wf, place, at a point 
about half a mile north of the middle fork of Gualala river and 
about five miles east of its confluence with the main branch. This 
village site is probably in the vicinity referred to by Powers in 
speaking of the people whom he calls the Gualala. He says, 
"There is a certain locality on Gualala creek, called by them 
Hi'-po-wi, which signifies 'potato place.' " 265 

du'kacal, from du'kac, abalone, and al, t, at a point about half 
a mile north-northwest of the present village of p6't51. 

tana'm, in the mountains between the headwaters of Austin 
creek and the main branch of Gualala river, and at a point prob- 
ably about five miles southeast of the present village of po'tol. 

kaletcu'maial, in the mountains between the headwaters of 
Austin creek and the main branch of Gualala river and at a point 
about a mile and a half southeast of the last named site. 



"Tribes of CaL, p. 189. 



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238 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Eihn. [VoL 6 

tsapu'wil, in the mountains between the headwaters of Austin 
creek and the main branch of Gualala river, and at a point about 
three miles southeast of tana'm. 

Old Camp Sites. 

kddmicdbfftcali, near the summit of the ridge immediately 
west of the main branch of Gualala river and at a point about 
two and a half miles miles nearly due north of Fisk's Mills. 

ta'nahvmo, from tana', hand, and hf mo, hole, on the east bank 
of the main branch of Gualala river at a point about a mile and 
a half nearly due north of Seaview. 

cape'tdme, near the east bank of the main branch of Gualala 
river at a point about a mile northeast of Seaview. 

ma'tcdho, from ma, ground, and tcoTco, to kneel down upon 
both knees, on what is known as the Charles Wilson ranch on the 
summit of the ridge immediately west of the main branch of 
Gualala river, and at a point about a mile south-doutheast of 
Seaview. This was a camp used for purposes of food gathering, 
the immediate vicinity being open or sparsely wooded ridges 
which provided an abundance of grass seeds and bulbs. This 
site is located just south of the point at which the road leading 
from Fort Ross to Cazadero joins the one running along the ridge 
from Plantation to Cazadero. 

kabe'bateli, from kabS', rock, bate', big, and li, place, at or 
near Cazadero. An exact location could not be obtained for this 
site, one informant stating that it was near a large rock located 
a short distance southeast of Cazadero, and another that it was 
located near a large rock just north of that place. 

hatcfwina, from atcf, sedge, and wina', on top of, on the north 
bank of Russian river at Duncan's Mill, about five miles up the 
river from the ocean. 

tcaikosado'tcani, from tea, man, kd'sa, elbow, dd'tcani, to place 
one's hand upon, in the mountains at a point about three-quart- 
ers of a mile from the northeast bank of the middle fork of Gual- 
ala river and about the same distance east-southeast of the old 
village of hibu'wi. 

ne'kawi, from ne'ti, to lay anything down, ka, water or spring, 
and wl, place, at a point about three-quarters of a mile east north- 



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1908] Barrett — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 239 

east of the confluence of Puller creek with the middle fork of 
Gualala river. 

ta'tcaka, from ia'tc, sand, and a'ka, water or spring, at a point 
about a mile due west of the present village of po'tol. 

te'kdlewi, from te, elderberry, kale', tree, and wi, place, at a 
point about a mile and a quarter south-southwest of the present 
village of po'tol. 

NORTHEASTERN DIALECT. 

BOUNDARIES. 

The territory comprising the Northeastern dialectic area has 
been heretofore regarded as Wintun and is so designated on the 
maps accompanying Powers' "Tribes of California" and Pow- 
ell's "Indian Linguistic Families North of Mexico," but it was 
found in the course of the present investigations that a compara- 
tively small area situated on the headwaters of Stony creek is 
inhabited by a people speaking a dialect distinct from, though 
allied to, the several Porno dialects spoken in the main area of 
the stock lying west of the Coast Range. This fact was noted in 
1904. 266 

Beginning on the crest of the Coast Range, which forms also 
the divide between Sacramento and Eel rivers, at a point about 
half way between Sheet Iron and St. John mountains, the bound- 
ary of the Northeastern Porno dialectic area runs in a general 
easterly direction to the low hills immediately west of Stony 
creek or Big Stony creek as it is locally called. Here it turns 
in a southerly direction and crosses Big Stony creek just west of 
the confluence of little Stony creek with it. 287 Throughout this 
portion of its course the boundary separates the Northeastern 
Porno from the Northerly Wintun area. From this point on Big 



M American Anthropologist, n.8., VI, 189, 190, 1904. 

m It was impossible to determine exactly the western part of the north- 
ern boundary of this area, as it seems not to have been very clearly defined. 
The line is drawn on the map a short distance west of the confluence of 
Little and Big Stony creeks, but there seem to have been no very rigid re- 
strictions in the territory immediately at the confluence of these streams, 
both Porno and Wintun hunting and fishing there at wilL The food-gathering 
rights, however, were controlled by the Wintun living on Little Stony creek, 
and the territory was considered as belonging to them. 



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240 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

Stony creek it passes southward, along the low ridge separating 
Big and Little Stony creeks, for a distance of about four miles ; 
and thence, turning westward, it runs along a secondary ridge 
on the northern slope of the divide south of Big Stony creek val- 
ley to the crest of the Coast Range at a point near the head of 
the south fork of Stony creek. To the east and south of this 
portion of the boundary lies the territory of the Southerly Win- 
tun. The western boundary is the crest of the Coast Range, be- 
yond which the Tuki territory extends over the greater part of 
the region drained by the headwaters of Eel river. 

This small, detached Porno area was surrounded on the north, 
east, and south by Wintun territory, while the Tuki bordered it 
on the west. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

The people speaking the Northeastern Porno dialect thus lived 
in an isolated area consisting of the drainage basin of the upper 
headwaters of Big Stony creek, and were separated from the main 
Porno area by Tuki and Wintun territory and the highest por- 
tion of the Coast Range mountains. The portion of the valley of 
Stony creek held by the Northeastern Porno is from a quarter of 
a mile to three-quarters of a mile wide, and extends from the 
northern boundary of the area up nearly to the confluence of 
the south fork of Stony creek with the main stream. Low hills 
on the east separate this valley from the Sacramento valley, while 
on the west the Coast Range mountains rise very abruptly. Some 
of the highest peaks of this portion of the Coast Range are here : 
Snow Mt. and St. John Mt. The entire area is only sparsely 
wooded in the foot-hills, but there are considerable forests of pine 
on the higher mountains. Native grasses and flowering plants 
were formerly very abundant and these, together with the oaks, 
furnished vegetable foods, while game was plentiful in the moun- 
tains and fish were to be had at certain seasons in the streams. 

Salt Deposits. 
Among the foot-hills of Colusa and Glenn counties are several 
large seepages where salt-bearing water evaporates and leaves 
the salt crystallized upon the surface. The best known and prob- 
ably the largest of these seepages and salt-beds, as the surfaces 



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1908] Barrett. — The Mthno-Qeography of the Pomo Indians. 241 

upon which the salt crystallizes are called, is the one in what is 
known as Salt-spring valley about three and one-half miles north 
of the town of Stonyford and about a mile west of Big Stony 
creek. This salt-bed is situated on the northeast side of a very 
narrow valley and is surrounded on the east and south by low 
brush covered hills from which at many points brackish water 
seeps into the earth of the salt-bed. This earth, which covers 
about three-quarters of an acre, is, when dry, a dirty white in 
color and of the fineness of chalk dust, and forms a layer, reach- 
ing a depth of about three and one-half feet near the middle of 
the bed, over the ordinary black soil common in the vicinity. 
During the rainy season the salt does not crystallize, but during 
the summer months it forms a white coat, very much resembling 
snow, over the entire surface of the bed, and reaches sometimes 
a depth of three or four inches. It is then that it is gathered 
by the Indians and stored either in the crude state or after re- 
fining, which consists in dissolving the crude material in water 
from which it re-crystallizes upon evaporation of the water, leav- 
ing a finely-divided, white salt which is very palatable. 288 

It seems that the people speaking the Northeastern Pomo 
dialect exercised, or at least attempted to exercise, full property 
rights in respect to the salt at this particular place, and made it 
an article of trade with their neighbors, at least at times, though 
there are differences of opinion as to how they sold it. They 
themselves say that they sometimes sold the refined salt and that 
at other times they required a payment for the privilege of gath- 
ering the crude material from the salt-bed. Some of the Pomo 
from the Clear lake and upper Russian river region say they 
were not required to buy the crude salt, but at the same time 



"•Dr. W. C. Morgan of the Department of Chemistry of the University 
of California has made an analysis of the salt refined by the Indians from 
crude material obtained at the deposit in Salt-spring valley, and finds that it 
contains 28% of insoluble material. Of the soluble material 99.2% is 
•odium chloride, thus showing the soluble portion to be more pure than the 
ordinary salt of commerce. The refining process removes a large percentage 
of insoluble material from the crude salt, but the process, as this analysis 
shows, is inadequate to thorough purification. As before stated, the refined 
product is very palatable, and is white notwithstanding the fact that 28% 
of it is extraneous material. This latter fact is probably due to the circum- 
stance that the surface of the seepage is a finely-divided white earth. The 
refined salt is not perceptibly affected by damp weather because of its al- 
most total lack of magnesium chloride. 



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242 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [VoL 6 

there come from this region stories of salt-stealing expeditions to 
the Stony creek salt-bed. 

It appears that for many years past the Porno of the Clear 
lake and upper Russian river region have not obtained salt from 
the Stony creek salt-bed on account of ill feeling existing between 
them and the Stony creek people. One informant, a Huchnom 
Yuki in Potter valley, at the head of the east fork of Russian 
river, says that many years ago, when the Potter valley and 
Stony creek people were on friendly terms, some of the former 
went over to Stony creek and attempted to steal salt. A fight 
resulted in which some of the Potter valley party were killed. At 
the time there were some Stony creek people visiting in Potter 
valley and as soon as the news of the fight on Stony creek reached 
the villages of Potter valley these people were killed in retalia- 
tion. Since that time the Potter valley people have depended 
on the ocean for salt. 

Another informant from Big valley, on the southern shore of 
Clear lake, tells the following story of the salt trade : About 1825 
to 1835, as nearly as may be judged from events of known dates 
mentioned in connection with the story, a party consisting of In- 
dians from the villages in Big valley and the village of ci'gom, 
on the eastern shore of the main body of Clear lake, was organized 
to go to Stony creek to dance with the people there, and procure 
salt. A dance was held at one of the villages in Big valley be- 
fore the party left. After two days' travel they arrived at a 
village on Stony creek called in the Eastern dialect kee'wi-na from 
kee', salt, and wina', upon or near to. As was customary on 
such occasions, they halted a short distance from the village and 
dressed themselves for the dance, meanwhile sending one of their 
number to the village to announce their coming. All, both visi- 
tors and residents, went into the dance house and the dance was 
celebrated in the usual manner, being followed by a plunge in 
the creek. When the dancers returned from the creek some of 
the women of the village were busy pounding acorns into meal, 
and all seemed as it should be with the exception of one old 
woman who acted strangely and mumbled constantly hapuka- 
.maialtutsi'. No one seemed to understand what she was saying, 



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1906] Barrett— The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 243 

and some of the visitors remarked that she should be happy with 
all the rest. 

The visitors were soon served with food in the dance-house, 
and while they were eating the residents of the village all dis- 
appeared save the old woman, who came into the dance-house ges- 
ticulating wildly and repeating hapfikamaialtutsf in a loud, 
earnest whisper. Finally she took two sticks and made signs of 
shooting with the bow and arrow, and the visitors then under- 
stood that she wished to warn them of danger. Two of the party 
urged that all should return home at once, citing the fact that 
many people had been killed on account of the salt trade; but 
the others refused, saying that the people were perfectly friendly 
and they would stay and enjoy a good dance that night. The 
two, however, left, and had been gone but a short time when the 
residents of the village returned, accompanied by some of the 
members of nearby villages, all fully armed, and succeeded in 
killing all those in the dance-house. They then scalped their 
victims and stretched the scalps over rude baskets made for the 
purpose, each of which was fastened to a short pole (scalping 
was very unusual among the Porno). Having ornamented the 
scalps with beads and properly prepared them for the dance, 
they went to a village north of theirs (this village was indefinitely 
located by the informant but, from the description of its inhabi- 
tants, was undoubtedly a Yuki village), where scalping and scalp 
dancing were customary, and celebrated the massacre. The de- 
tails of the massacre and of the scalp dance which followed were 
learned by the Clear lake people only some years later, for the 
two men who escaped made good their safety without waiting to 
see any part of the outcome of the old woman's warning. 

A few years after the coming of the first American settlers 
into the Clear lake region, about 1840, m the Indians of Big val- 
ley organized a party which went over to a fish dam on the head 
of Stony creek and ambushed two Northeastern Porno fishermen, 
killing them as they came to the dam to look after their traps. 
They then scalped them, and a dance was held at one of the vil- 
lages in Big valley to celebrate the occasion. 

Since the time of the massacre the Clear lake people have 
never obtained salt from the Stony creek salt-bed, except very 
m See p. 198. 



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244 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [ VoL & 

recently since the white people have had fall possession of the 
land upon which it is situated. 

It is a significant fact that the Stony creek Porno were, at 
least in more recent times, on most intimate terms with the Yuki, 
who were very hostile to the Porno of the Russian river and Clear 
lake region. The Yuki enjoyed very great privileges within the 
Stony creek territory and, notwithstanding the great differences 
of language between the two peoples, intermarriage was not at 
all uncommon. 

There were regular trails to this salt-bed from Potter valley,, 
from Upper Lake valley, and from Round valley, as well as from 
the Sacramento valley. The trail from Potter valley, according 
to one informant, ran over Big Horse mountain and thence across 
Rice fork of South Eel river to Snow mountain, where it divided. 
If a party wished to buy salt, they took the trail leading directly 
down Stony creek; but if they intended to steal it, they passed 
on northward along the crest of the range to the north side of St. 
John mountain, where a trail led directly down to the salt-bed,, 
thus removing the danger of passing any villages. According 
to an informant from Upper lake the salt trail from that valley 
led in a northeasterly direction to some hot springs on the extreme* 
head of Middle creek, thence to Snow mountain, and on down 
Stony creek. If his people wished to steal salt they went this: 
same trail, but at night. No information could be had concern- 
ing the trail which led from Round valley and other parts of the- 
Yuki territory other than that it ran through a pass just north, 
of St. John mountain. 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites. 

Stony ford Rancheria, at a point about two and one-half milefr 
west of the town of Stonyf ord. This is the only village inhabited 
by people speaking the Northeastern Porno dialect. It is situated 
on the lower slope of the foot-hills a short distance north of Big 
Stony creek and consists of five houses and about twelve inhabi- 
tants who are practically all from the old villages of this valley. 
No name for this village was given by its inhabitants, but the 
people of the Southerly Wintun dialect living on Little Stonjr 
and Indian creeks call it no'pnokewi. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Bthno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 245 

Old Village Sites. 

tcee'tido, at a point about three and one-half miles north of 
the town of Stonyford and a mile west of Big Stony creek. This 
site is located on the northeast side of what is known as Salt- 
spring valley near the large salt-bed there.* 70 This village de- 
rived its name from the salt, tcee'. 

kakoska'l, or tco'kuabe in the Southerly Wintun dialect, on 
the west bank of Big Stony creek at a point about two and a half 
miles north of the town of Stonyford. This site is on what is 
known as the Bickford ranch. 

ta'taca, on the west bank of Big Stony creek at a point about 
two miles north of the town of Stonyford. 

kata'kta, on the west bank of Big Stony creek at a point about 
a mile and a half north of the town of Stonyford. 

duhultamtfwa, or nffminuibe in the Southerly Wintun dial- 
ect, on the north bank of Big Stony creek immediately north of 
the town of Stonyford. 

mihiltamti'wa, near the foot-hills east of Big Stony creek, and 
at a point about three-quarters of a mile northeast of the town 
of Stonyford. There is some doubt as to the name of this village, 
but the one given is probably correct. 

baka'mtati, or torodfhabe in the Southerly Wintun dialect, 
on the south bank of Big Stony creek at the site of the grist mill 
just north of the town of Stonyford. At the time of the coming 
of white settlers this was one of the largest villages in this valley. 

odi'laka, on the south bank of Big Stony creek at a point about 
two miles west of the town of Stonyford. 

amo'taXi, on the south bank of Big Stony creek at a point about 
three and one-half miles west of the town of Stonyford. 

tu'riiruraibida, near the south bank of themiddle fork of Big 
Stony creek and at a point about one mile northwest of the con- 
fluence of the south and middle forks. 

Old Camp Sites. 

pdkatca'huya, at a point half way up the southeastern slope 
of St. John mountain. 

wa'imun, near the summit of St. John mountain. 

*"See the section dealing with Salt Deposits. 



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246 Univenity of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 



YUKL 

The first writer to define the name Yuki was Powers, 271 by 
whom it was spelled "Yuka. ,,m He says, "The word yuka in 
the Wintoon language signifies 'stranger,' and hence secondarily 
'bad Indian' or 'thief,' and it was applied by that people to al- 
most all the Indians around them .... As a matter of 
fact there are several tribes whom both whites and Indians call 
'Yukas'; but this tribe alone acknowledge the title and use it." 
He says further, "Their own name for themselves is Uk-um-nom 
(meaning 'in the valley'), and for those on South Bel River 
speaking the same language, Huch-nom (meaning 'outside the 
valley'). Those over on the ocean are called Uk-ho'at-nom ('on 
the ocean')." The Bound Valley Yuki, according to Professor 
Kroeber, who has recently done work among them, call them- 
selves ukom-nom, and the coast Yuki uk-hot-nom, water big peo- 
ple. The Eden valley sub-dialect name for the Round valley 
people was onhuinom. Yuki is at present the accepted ortho- 
graphy, but others have been used, as: "Ukis," 274 "Yuca," 275 
' ' Yukiah, ' ' 276 and ' ' Euka. ' ' 27T On account of the inconsistencies 
in the alphabets used by those who have written about the Yuki 
some confusion has arisen, particularly because of the likenesses 
of some of these spellings to those of the Porno word yo'kaia, the 
name of a Central Porno village, which has also been variously 
spelled. 

Further evidence beyond that already quoted from Powers 
that the Yuki were a people more belligerent than their neighbors 
is found in the fact that they were called tcima'ia, signifying 
enemy, by the Porno to the south. The stories told by the In- 



m Overland Monthly, IX, 305. 

m In "Tribes of California" (p. 125) the spelling is changed to "Yu- 
ki." 

m Purdy, Land of Sunshine, XV, 442. 

m Mendocino War, op. cit, p. 33, Deposition of W. J. Hildreth. 

m Ibid., p. 50, Deposition of Dryden Lacock. 

*" Austin Wiley, Bept. Comm. Ind. Aft*, in Bept. Sec Int, 1864, in House 
Ex. Doc, 1864- '65, Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 280. 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 247 

dians also show them to have been of an aggressive spirit. 278 The 
name tcima'ia was applied more particularly to the people in- 
habiting the region about Gravelly valley, 270 and in the mountains 
along Bice fork and on the headwaters of South Eel river. The 
name has been variously spelled: " Shumeias, " 28 ° "Chumaya," 281 
"Chu-mai-a," 282 "Shumaya," 288 "Shumairs." 284 

The territory of the Yuki is divided into four parts : a main 
area inhabited by people speaking the Yuki proper and Huchnom 
dialects ; a coast division, here designated as the Coast Yuki, lying 
like the preceding north of the main Porno area ; a smaller isol- 
ated territory of the so-called Wappo or Ashochimi, south and 
east of the Porno territory ; and a very small area on the southern 
shore of Clear lake inhabited also by Wappo people who came 
originally from the main Wappo area farther south. This very 
small area forms, so to speak, a Wappo colony entirely sur- 
rounded by Porno speaking people, while the main territory of 
the Wappo is confined to the valley of Napa river, a small part 
of Russian river valley, and the intervening mountains ; and also 
a small area on the headwaters of Putah creek north of mount 
St. Helena. Except for the intervention of the small strip of 
Athapascan territory at Cahto and Laytonville, the Yuki north 
of the Porno would inhabit a continuous area stretching from the 
crest of the Coast Range, on the western border of the Sacra- 
mento valley, to the ocean. 



m Evidence of this is shown in the story of the massacre of the party 
of Clear lake Porno by those on Stony creek, and the subsequent scalp dance 
which was held with the Yuki. See the story of this massacre in the por- 
tion of this paper dealing with Salt Deposits. 

m One informant, an old Yuki woman, born in Gravelly valley, gave 
nu'fikfll as the name of the people formerly living in and about that valley, 
and it seems probable that this is a form of the word written by the whites 
"Nome Cult" (the name of the government Indian farm established in 
Bound valley in 1856, and later changed into a full reservation). The origin 
of the name is not known, but from the fact that nom, meaning west, occurs 
in Wintun, as nd'mlaki, it is possible that the term came originally from that 
source. 

M Powers, Overland Monthly, IX, 312; Bancroft, Native Races, I, 449. 

m Powell, op. cit., p. 136; Mason, op. cit., p. 440. 

"• Powers, Tribes of California, p. 136. 

M Mendocino War, op. cit, p. 49, Deposition of Dryden Lacock. 

"•Ibid., p. 50. 



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248 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 
TUKI PROPER. 

BOUNDARIES. 

The territory of the Yuki proper extends beyond the northern 
limit of the region under investigation and its northern boundary 
has therefore not been determined. The eastern boundary of the 
portion included in this investigation runs in a general southerly 
direction along the crest of the Coast Range, which here forms 
the watershed between the drainages of Sacramento and Eel riv- 
ers, passes around the head of the Rice fork of South Eel river 
and then takes a northwesterly course, along the divide separat- 
ing the drainage of this stream from that of Middle creek, to Big 
Horse mountain. To this point the boundary separates the Yuki 
proper from the Northerly Wintun, the Northeastern Pomo, the 
Southerly Wintun, the Eastern Pomo and the Northern Pomo 
areas successively. At Big Horse mountain it turns northward, 
crosses South Eel river probably just below the confluence of Rice 
fork with it, passes a short distance west of the town of Hullville, 
near which it turns in a northwesterly direction and, probably 
keeping a short distance east of Salmon creek, finally passes onto 
the southeastern extremity of the Sanhedrin range, along which 
it runs to a point near its northwestern end, where it turns in a 
westerly direction, crosses South Eel river probably at a point 
about midway between the confluences of Outlet creek and Middle 
Eel river with it, and meets the Yuki-Athapascan interstock line 
at a point probably a short distance southeast of the town of 
Laytonville. The territory of the Huchnom dialect is separated 
from that of the Yuki proper by this portion of the boundary. 
The western boundary of this portion of the Yuki territory prob- 
ably passes up the divide separating the south fork of Eel river 
from South Eel river and the main stream, 285 and so far as traced 
separates Athapascan territory from that of the Yuki proper. 

To the east of this very irregularly shaped area of the Yuki 
proper lies Wintun and Northeastern Pomo territory. On the 
south it is adjoined by the Eastern and Northern Pomo dialectic 
areas, while on the southwest the territory of the Huchnom, the 



'See note 294. 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 249 

only contiguous Yuki, adjoins it. On the west is the so-called 
Cahto Athapascan territory. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

The territory of the Yuki proper lies in a country much more 
rough and mountainous than any of the Coast Range to the south 
as far as San Francisco bay. The streams flow in deep canyons, 
the mountains being steep and high, and in the entire area there 
are but few places desirable as sites for villages. Round val- 
ley, 286 in which the town of Covelo is situated, on the headwaters 
of Middle Eel river, is the largest valley in the area of the Yuki 
proper, and in former times supported a large population. In 
the Sanhedrin range between Middle and South Eel rivers is a 
small valley, known as Eden valley, and on the upper course of 
South Eel river at a point a short distance above the confluence 
of the Rice fork with it is another small valley known as Gravelly 
valley. Hullville is situated in the latter. There are other 
smaller valleys in the mountains and along the streams, but the 
region as a whole is rugged. 

Almost all of the former inhabitants of the old villages of 
this dialectic area now live on the Round Valley Indian reserva- 
tion. 

Old Tillage Sites. 

In the matter of social organization the Yuki proper, their 
immediate Athapascan neighbors, and probably also the Coast 
Yuki, differ somewhat from the remaining peoples here treated. 
The Athapascan people living about Cahto and Laytonville on 
the extreme headwaters of the south fork of Eel river were very 
similar in their general culture to the Porno, while the Wailaki, 
who occupied the territory immediately northwest of Round val- 
ley in the mountains along the main stream of Eel river and 
westward, were very different in general culture from the Porno, 
being much more similar to, though still quite distinct from, the 
Yuki. Both the Yuki and the Athapascans had, instead of the 



m The Porno name of Round valley is maca'-kai, from maea, Indian hemp, 
Apocynum, and kai, valley. The late Mr. A. E. Sherwood in Alley, Bowen 
and Company's History of Mendocino County, p. 167, gives the name "Me- 
sha-kai" with the translation of "valley of tule or tall grass." 



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250 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol 6 

many villages which were politically and socially entirely inde- 
pendent, as among the Porno and others to the south, a grouping 
of their villages into a number of units which show some ap- 
proach to a loose tribal organization in that each unit group had 
what may be called a central governmental head. However, this 
banding together of villages into a group appears not to have 
been very stable either in the territorial extent of the group or 
in the firmness of the union of the villages constituting it. Also 
these groups lacked any special names by which they or their 
people were designated, while on the contrary there existed cer- 
tain other names, such as ukom-nom, which were used to desig- 
nate all the people within given physiographical limits regardless 
of whether they belonged to one or more of the above-mentioned 
groups. On the whole, therefore, this cannot be called a true 
tribal organization, though there is certainly an approach to such 
organization in a loose form. Opportunity has not been afforded 
to determine these tribal groups over the entire Yuki territory, 
but it seems probable that the conditions prevailing in Bound 
valley and the immediate vicinity are typical of conditions over 
the whole area of the Yuki proper. In respect to group names 
there are a very few instances occurring among the Pomo which 
point toward the existence of such names. These are possibly the 
remnants of an earlier group organization, though at the present 
time there is no case amon? the Pomo of a true political or social 
grouping of anything like a permanent kind. The names re- 
ferred to are kftLa'napS, kab€'napd and yS'kaia, names which were 
applied to groups of people inhabiting one or more villages con- 
fined within very small territorial limits, but who recognized no 
political or social unity corresponding to the name. The exist- 
ence of such special names for the people themselves of a village 
or of a small group of villages is very unusual among the Pomo, 
where the almost universal practice exists of designating a people 
by the name of the village which they occupy, or more broadly by 
the name of their valley, or still more broadly by the direction in 
which they live. 

The most detailed information obtained in connection with 
the above mentioned groups of the Yuki proper concerns the 
territory comprising the northern half of Bound valley with the 



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1908] Barrett. — The Bthno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 251 

adjacent foot-hills. Within this area there were a number of 
villages collected into three groups, each group being governed, 
in so far as any governing was done, by a chief called tiol hotek, 
chief big, who resided at one of the several villages of the group. 
This village was recognized as the seat of government. At the 
same time each village had its governor or lesser chief, called tiol 
uncil, chief little. The head chief administered the affairs of the 
group of villages, while the lesser chiefs cared for the people of 
their own special villages. The office of lesser chief and perhaps 
also that of head chief was hereditary and could pass to females 
as well as males in the proper order of blood relationship. While 
the groups were fully recognized, no special name appears to have 
been given to any of them, and the chief distinguishing feature to 
the Indians' minds appears to be the fact of the government of 
the several villages of the group by a head chief. No special 
name appears to have been given to a member of a group, he 
taking the designation of the particular village to which he be- 
longed, or, if spoken of by more distant people, of the valley itself. 
In the northern part of Bound valley and in the foot-hills to 
the north and east, both of which lie without the limits of the 
accompanying map, there were formerly three of these groups. 
The territorially largest of the three occupied the western part of 
the valley from a line passing approximately north and south 
about half a mile east of the present site of the Bound Valley 
agency and Indian school. Within this territory there were sev- 
eral villages. Names and locations for five, all of which lay near 
the foot-hills, were given by informants, as follows : tcotchan-Hk, 
mush-oak water, near where the residence of Mr. Westley Hoxie 
now stands, which is about a quarter of a mile east of the present 
agency. There is here a large spring from which the village is 
said to have derived its name. This appears to have been one of 
the smaller villages and the name of its lesser chief had been for- 
gotten by the informants. Mamecf cmo was located where the 
buildings of the agency now stand. The captain of this village 
was kumcume. There was a large dance-house here and the In- 
dians formerly celebrated ceremonies here as well as at certain 
of the other villages of the group. Out in the valley, and stand- 
ing almost separate from the adjacent foot-hills, about two miles 



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252 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

west of the agency, is a small wooded hill. At the eastern foot of 
this hill is the site of u'wi't, the chief village of the group. It 
was here that huntclsti'tak, the last head chief of this group, lived, 
and this village was recognized as the seat of government of the 
group. The special affairs of the village were administered by a 
lesser chief, olyo'si by name. There was a dance-house here, but 
ceremonies were also held at certain of the other villages, notwith- 
standing the fact that this was the residence of the head chief. 
A short distance to the west of the wooded hill above mentioned 
is a flour mill which stands on the site of another village, called 
ha'ke. There was formerly a dance-house at this village and 
ceremonies were held here. Informants could not recall the name 
of the lesser chief of this village. On the western shore of a small 
tule pond which lies near the western border of Round valley and 
about two miles southwest of the flour mill above referred to, is 
the site of another old village, called son. It is said by informants 
that the same person acted as lesser chief of both this village and 
u'wi't, a circumstance which is very exceptional for this whole 
region, as in all other cases known each village had its separate 
chief, or captain as he is commonly called. In addition to these 
five villages recalled by the informants there were several others 
of less importance, the names of which they could not, at the time, 
remember. 

The second group occupied a territory in Round valley im- 
mediately east of the group just described and extending for 
some miles northward into the mountains, including what is 
known as Williams valley and reaching as far northward as Blue- 
nose. The portion of Round valley itself which was held by this 
tribal group was very small and the only village recalled by in- 
formants was pomo', situated at the foot-hills in the northeastern 
extremity of Round valley. The residence of Mr. Ed. Smith 
now occupies this site. Though the greater portion of the ter- 
ritory and the greater number of the villages of this group lay in 
Williams valley to the north, the village of pomo' was the prin- 
cipal village and the home of the head chief. The last one of 
these head chiefs was huMalak. The names of some of the vil- 
lages in Williams valley were as follows, the names being given 
m order up stream from the mouth of Williams creek: mo'thuy- 



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1908] Barrett. — The BthnthGeography of the Pomo Indians. 253 

up, kilikot', lelha'ksl, nonuka"k, yukuwaskal, and mo'yi. The 
exact location of each of these villages was not given. 

The third group occupied a territory comprising a small por- 
tion of the northeastern part of Round valley proper and the 
valley along Middle Eel river immediately east of Bound valley. 
Thus the greater part of the territory of this group also lay with- 
out the limits of Round valley proper. The villages of this group 
which lay within Round valley were, so far as could be ascer- 
tained, the following : on-a n s, earth-red, or titwa, on what is known 
as the McCombre ranch. It lies in a small arm of Round val- 
ley partially shut off from the main valley by a low, timbered 
ridge, called locally Tule Ridge, which extends southeastward 
from the mountains surrounding the valley. This village was 
the most important of the various villages in the territory 
of this group, and was the residence of the last head chief, 
sintcitcmo'pse. In this same arm of Round valley and at a point 
a short distance north of ona*s is the site of another old village 
called son-ka'c, tule-ridge. This lay immediately east of the low 
ridge above mentioned from which the village took its name. The 
third village in this area was molkus, which lay at the immediate 
foot-hills just east of the cemetery now used by the nomlaki (Win- 
tun) people on the reservation. This village lay very near the 
line between the territory of this group and that of the group last 
outlined and may have been occupied partly by people of both 
groups. It appears however that its people recognized sintci- 
tcmo'pse as their head chief. 

As above stated, no tribal names appear to have existed, vil- 
lage and locality names being the only ones used. Thus people 
were referred to as of a certain village or, if spoken of by more 
distant people, as of a certain valley. The people of the various 
localities within the Yuki territory were referred to by the Yuki 
proper, as follows, the name of the locality or of the village being 
followed by the ending nom signifying 'people of: 

In Round valley, u'kom-nom, valley people. 

In Williams valley, northeast of Round valley, cipi-ma'1-nom, 
willow-creek-people, Kitcil-ukom is another name for Williams 
valley. 



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254 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [Vol. 6 

In what is known as Pobrman's valley to the northeast of 
Bound valley, uka'tcim-nom, from uk, water, katcim, not good, 
bad, and nom, people. 

At Blue Nose, a prominent mountain north of Bound valley, 
Ul-fam-nom, rock-sidehill-people. Professor Kroeber obtained 
nonlatc-nom as the name for the people of this vicinity. 

Along the head of Middle Eel river, ma'1-tcal-nom, creek-tcal- 
people. 

On Middle Eel river, at a point a short distance up stream 
from the confluence of South Eel river with it, utif-nom, fitiU 
people. According to information obtained by Professor Kroeber 
huitit-nom is the name of a people on the south fork of Middle 
Eel river, adjacent to the Yuki-Wintun boundary, the summit 
of the Coast Range. 

In Eden valley, in the Sanhedrin range south of Bound val- 
ley, wlt-ukom-nom, sidehill-valley-people. 

Along South Eel river in the vicinity of the confluence of Out- 
let creek with it, hutc-nom, mountain-people. This name was 
more loosely applied to all of the Yukian people speaking the 
dialect of this vicinity, but the name is said to have been original- 
ly applied to this more restricted region. 2?fam-nom also sig- 
nifies mountain people. 

In the vicinity of Travelers Home on South Eel river, yek- 
ma n l-nom, yek-creek-people. 

In Gravelly valley in which Hullville is situated, on-kol-flkom- 
nom, land on-the-other-side (!) valley people. This valley is 
well up toward the source of South Eel river. It was also called 
n&tc-ukom, literally gravel-valley. 

In the valley of Stony creek about Stonyford, iwil-han-nom, 
poison-house (i.e., sweat-house) -people. 

Along the immediate coast-line, that is the people living in 
what is here designated as the Coast Yuki dialectic area, fik-hot- 
nom, water-big-people. 

Further Professor Kroeber has obtained the following, all of 
which are names of villages with the ending nom added : 

sonlal-nom, at or near Poonkiny (p'tlnkini, wormwood). 

tcahe-lil-nom, redbud-rock-people, indefinitely located some- 
where toward Middle Eel river from Poonkiny. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Bthno-Qeography of the Porno Indiana. 255 

suk&-nom, a short distance north of the coal mine on the north 
bank of Middle Eel river at a point nearly due south of Covelo. 

sukcultata-nom, near Buck mountain, and Hull's creek, one 
of the affluents of the north fork of Eel river, flowing into it from 
the southeast. 

lil-cik-nom (rock-black-people), lil-cai-nom, or lil-nui-nom, 
about ten miles below the confluence of South and Middle Eel 
rivers, at a large rock west of the river. 

ta'-nom; ta' is an open hill-side east of Eel river and about 
west of Bound valley. This is the name applied to a people who 
lived mainly east of Eel river and northward along it as far as 
the Wailaki territory. The following villages are said to have 
been closely affiliated with the ta'nom, and all together were 
often spoken of as ta'nom: hatc-hot-nom, pomaha*-nom, and 
tUamol-nom, all lying east of Eel river, and kitcil-pit*' (flint-hole, 
or mine) lying west of it. Also ma n t-nom and kaca a sitc-nom, both 
indefinitely located. 

The ending nom which appears on most of these names, as also 
on many of the names of the Huchnom villages, does not signify 
village or place, but people, and is evidently related to the Wappo 
no'ma, used in the same manner, but said to signify village or 
home. 

The following are the villages of the Yuki proper located with- 
in the limits of the territory covered by the accompanying map : 

mo'tnoom (Huchnom dialect name), near the south bank of 
Middle Eel river at its confluence with South Eel river, utit- 
nom is the name of a people living at the confluence of South 
and Middle Eel rivers, according to information obtained by 
Professor A. L. Kroeber from the Sound valley Yuki. 

hunkoli'tc, on the north bank of South Eel river at a point 
a short distance southeast of Hullville in Gravelly valley. 287 

uwulutme (Northeastern Porno dialect name), at a point a 
short distance southwest of Hullville in Gravelly valley on South 
Eel river. 

Prom Yuki informants in Bound valley Professor A. L. Kroe- 
ber learned the names of two old village sites in Eden valley. 

m The Eastern Porno name of Gravelly valley is kutsa'ku-kai, starvation 
valley. The name Gravelly valley is given to it on account of its extremely 
gravelly and barren soiL 



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256 University of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [VoL 6 

One of these, k'iliku, is in the northern or lower end of the 
valley, while the other, witukom, is in the southern or upper end. 
The people of the latter owned the adjacent parts of the Sanhed- 
rin range. The inhabitants of Eden valley with those living at 
the confluence of South and Middle Bel rivers formed a sub- 
dialectic group of the Yuki proper. 

HUCHNOM DIALECT. 

Hu'chnom is the name by which these people were called both 
by themselves and by the Yuki proper. The Porno to the south 
called them Ta'tu, and they are at present commonly known on 
the Round valley reservation as Redwoods. The latter name arose 
from the fact that part of their number formerly lived at a village 
in Redwood valley at the head of the main branch of Russian 
river. This circumstance gave rise to the statement by early writ- 
ers that the whole of Redwood valley and surrounding territory 
belonged to them. Powers 288 gives "Huchnom" as the name which 
the Indians apply to themselves, but in treating of them he calls 
them "Ta-tu," adding, however, that that name is the one "ap- 
plied to them by the Porno of Potter valley,' ' and further that 
the particular people to whom the name was applied were those 
living in the extreme upper end of Potter valley. But he says 
also 289 that the name Huchnom was applied by the Yuki to all 
the people living along South Eel river and that its significa- 
tion was "outside the valley." 290 The name is spelled "Hooch- 
nom" by Mason 291 who also uses 292 "Taco," upon the authority 
of Dr. J. W. Hudson, in speaking of the Huchnom of Potter 
valley. Bancroft, 298 quoting from Powers' manuscript, speaks of 
the "Tahtoos." 

BOUNDARIES. 

Beginning probably at a point a short distance southeast of 
the town of Laytonville the boundary of the Huchnom dialect 
runs in a general easterly direction, crossing South Eel river at 

"• Tribes of California, p. 139. 

"•Ibid, p. 126. 

"• See Yuki, p. 556. 

M Op. cit., p. 368. 

m Ibid., p. 328. 

"• Native Races, I, 449. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 257 

a point half way between the confluences of Outlet creek and of 
Middle Eel river with it, to the crest of the Sanhedrin range, 
which it follows with its southeasterly trend to the headwaters 
of Salmon creek, a tributary of South Eel river, and thence, in 
the same direction, probably along the ridge just east of Salmon 
creek and a short distance west of Hullville in Gravelly valley. 
Near Hullville it turns in a southerly direction and runs to South 
Eel river which it again crosses, this time probably near the con- 
fluence of Bice fork with it. It then passes on southward and 
intersects the Porno- Yuki interstock line at a point probably just 
north of Big Horse mountain. Northeast of this portion of the 
boundary lies the territory of the Yuki proper. At Big Horse 
mountain the line turns in a general westerly direction and fol- 
lows the ridge just south of South Eel river to Potter valley, 
where it crosses the extreme head of the east fork of Russian 
river. From here it continues in a westerly direction for a short 
distance along the ridge just south of South Eel river and then 
turns in a northwesterly direction up the divide separating the 
drainages of Outlet and Tomki creeks. This divide it follows to 
the extreme head of Tomki creek. Here it takes again a west- 
erly course, crosses Outlet creek, and runs to a point a short dis- 
tance north of Sherwood valley. This portion of the boundary 
separates the Huchnom and Porno areas. From Sherwood val- 
ley it runs in a northerly direction probably following the divide 
between the drainage of Outlet creek and that of the South fork 
of Eel river to the starting point, a short distance southeast of 
the town of Laytonville, 2 * 4 thus separating the Huchnom terri- 
tory from the Athapascan to the west. 

On the north, northeast and east the territory of the Yuki 
proper is contiguous to this somewhat rectangular area of the 
Huchnom. On the south and southwest is the Northern Porno 
dialectic area, and on the west the Cahto Athapascan. 



m It has been impossible to determine, except approximately, the Eastern 
Yuki- Athapascan interstock boundary, and it is known that the line between 
the Yuki proper and the Huchnom areas crossed South Eel river at a point 
about half way between the confluences of Outlet creek and Middle Eel river 
with it, that it ran along the crest of the Sanhedrin range, and that it passed 
just west of Hullville in Gravelly valley ; but it has been impossible to deter- 
mine exactly the portions of the line from the ends of the Sanhedrin range 
to the western and southern boundaries respectively. 



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258 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

The Huchnom area lies almost wholly between the ranges im- 
mediately adjacent to the course of South Eel river and almost 
all of the villages were located on the banks of the river, the 
ruggedness of the mountains rendering them almost entirely 
unfit for habitation. The only portion of this dialectic area not 
between these ranges is a very small area in the extreme northern 
end of Potter valley on the headwaters of the east fork of Russian 
river. There was here a single Huchnom village, the inhabitants 
of which were, however, on most friendly terms with their Porno 
neighbors. While they owned the small area at the head of the 
valley they placed no restrictions on the use of it by the Porno 
and, in turn, they made use of the Porno territory in the valley. 
In fact, the Huchnom, not only of this village but also of the 
entire Huchnom area, were on much more friendly terms with 
the Porno than with their nearer linguistic relatives, the Yuki 
proper. Their cultural affinities also were with the Porno, while 
those of the Yuki proper appear to be more with the Wailaki and 
others to the north. 

There are no inhabited modern villages within the Huchnom 
dialectic area. The few remaining individuals speaking the 
Huchnom dialect are at the Bound Valley Indian reservation, 
where they are commonly known under the name of Redwoods, 
and in Potter valley on the east fork of Russian river, where they 
are usually called Tatu. 

Old Village Sites. 

cfpomul, on the east bank of South Eel river at the conflu- 
ence of Outlet creek with it. 

nonho m ho m u, on the northeast bank of South Eel river at a 
point about seven miles up stream from the confluence of Outlet 
creek with it. 

yek or stmlyaxai (Northern Porno dialect name), on South 
Eel river at a point about ten miles up stream from the con- 
fluence of Outlet creek with it and about seven mile? down stream 
from the confluence of Tomki creek with it. This village was 
situated on both sides of the river at a point only a short distance 



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1908] Barrett.— The Bthno-Geography of the Pomo Indians. 259 

down stream from the wagon bridge, known as Long's bridge, 
across South Eel river. 

mo% near the east bank of Sanhedrin creek at its confluence 
with South Eel river. 

mu'pan, or cii'ncil (Northern Pomo dialect name) from cii'n, 
grape-vine, and cil, bunch, on the east bank of South Eel river 
at the confluence of Thomas creek with it. 

mo'ikuyuk, or wa'mulu (Northern Pomo dialect name), at the 
confluence of Tomki creek 295 with South Eel river. This village 
occupied both banks of the river at this point. 

ha' n tupokw, or tadam (Northern Pomo dialect name), on the 
south bank of Tomki creek at a point about three and one-half 
miles up stream from its confluence with South Eel river. 

puke'mul, on the upper course of Tomki creek at a point 
probably about five miles northwest of its confluence with South 
Eel river. 

baa'wel (Northern Pomo dialect name), on the west bank of 
South Eel river at a point about a mile and a half down stream 
from the summer resort known as John Day's. 

li'lkool, or kalu'ydkai (Northern Pomo dialect name), at a 
point about a quarter of a mile up stream from John Day's on 
South Eel river. This village occupied both banks of the river 
at this point, the larger part, however, being on the south bank. 

kdmohmemiiikuyu'k or co'nba (Northern Pomo dialect name), 
on the north bank of South Eel river at a point about three miles 
up stream from John Day's. This village was located on what 
is known as Lowder's flat, a small flat on the north bank of the 
river at a point a short distance down stream from the con- 
fluence of Buckner creek with it. 

mumeme't, on the north bank of South Eel river at a point a 
short distance down stream from the confluence of Salmon creek 
with it. 

u'kufonanoon; or kale da, or te'lda (Northern Pomo dialect 
names), on the extreme headwaters of the east fork of Russian 

"•The valley called "Betnmki" by Gibbs, and various variants of that 
name by other early writers, is not situated along Tomki creek, but is Little 
Lake valley at the head of Outlet creek. See note 112. Tomki comes 
from mto'm-kai, the Pomo name of Little Lake valley, but has been applied 
by the whites to an entirely different creek and valley than the one intended 
by the Indians. The Huchnom name of Tomki creek is kilimil. 



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260 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

river and at the head of Potter valley. This was the only Huch- 
nom village lying outside of the drainage of South Eel river. 
A similar name has been found by Professor A. L. Eroeber among 
the Yuki proper, who now call themselves ukom-nom, which may 
originally have been the name only of the people of Round valley 
itself, or of a single village in it The Eden valley sub-dialect 
name for the Round valley people was onhui-nom. 

Uninhabited Modern Village Sites. 

mulha'l, in Redwood valley on Russian river, at a point about 
four and one-half miles north of the town of Calpella.* 9 ' 

cffdakai (Northern Porno dialect name), at the southwestern 
end of Coyote valley, and at a point about a mile and a half up 
stream from the confluence of the east fork of Russian river with 
the main stream. It seems probable that this village was occu- 
pied by the Huchnom for a few years after they left their former 
temporary village at mulha'l in Redwood valley. This was not, 
however, exclusively a Huchnom village, as there were Porno liv- 
ing here at different times. 197 

COAST YUKI. 

BOUNDARIES. 

The territory of the Coast Yuki extends beyond the northern 
limit of the region under consideration and its northern bound- 
ary 298 has not been determined. The eastern boundary was only 



"•Owing to the presence of the Huchnom at this village this entire val- 
ley was supposed by Powers and other early writers to belong to the Yuki. 
It seems, however, from information gathered from both Huchnom and Porno 
sources, that this was but a temporary village of the Huchnom and that they 
claimed no rights of ownership in the valley. As to the circumstances of 
their settling at this village there are conflicting opinions. One informant 
says that the Huchnom lived here for short periods before the coming of 
white settlers; another, that they moved here from Eel river after the com- 
ing of white settlers, and remained for about twenty years, after which they 
moved to cd'dakai. in Coyote valley near the confluence of the east fork of 
Busman river with the main stream, where they remained for about five 
years. 

"See also cd'dakai, p. 278. 

"•The boundary as determined by Professor A. L. Kroeber from Coast 
Yuki informants at Westport is indefinitely located on the north as between 
that town and Usal, about thirteen miles north of Westport. The region 
about Usal was Athapascan. — Amer. Anth., n.&, V. p. 729, 1903. Powers 
(Tribes of California, p. 155) incorrectly gives it as Pomo, calling the peo- 
ple "Yu-8&1 Pomo or Kam-a-lal Po-mo (Ocean people)." 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indiana. 261 

indefinitely determined but it is probable that it runs in a south- 
erly direction along the water-shed separating the drainage of 
the south fork of Eel river from that of De Haven and other 
small creeks along the coast-line and thence in a southeasterly 
direction along this same divide around the heads of the north 
fork and the main branch of Ten Mile river to the northern 
boundary of the main Porno area which it meets at a point prob- 
ably about four miles northwest of Sherwood. Throughout all of 
this course it separates the Coast Yuki and the Athapascan 
areas. Here it turns in a westerly direction and, separating the 
Porno and the Coast Yuki areas, runs to the coast at a point a 
short distance south of the southern end of Cleone beach.* 99 The 
western boundary of this area is the shore-line of the ocean. 

This area is adjoined on the east by the territory of the Atha- 
pascans and on the south by that of the Northern Porno, while 
the ocean lies to the west. 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

The Coast Yuki territory extends over portions of two topo- 
graphic divisions, the coast region and the redwood belt. At 
Cleone there is a sand beach about four miles in length and to the 
east of this the open coast country slopes gently back for from a 
quarter to three-quarters of a mile. From the northern end of 
this beach northward to De Haven creek the shore-line is char- 
acterized by fairly high cliffs, and north of this point the cliffs 
reach often several hundreds of feet in height. Several creeks 
cut these cliffs, flowing in very deep, steep-walled canyons, but 
the only stream of any considerable size within this area is Ten 
Mile river. A dense forest of redwoods begins a short distance 
back from the shore-line of the ocean and extends over the adja- 
cent mountains and beyond the eastern limits of the area. 



"° The information concerning these boundaries is conflicting, informants 
from different localities differing in their opinions as to what formed the 
line. According to information obtained by Professor A. L. Kroeber from 
a Coast Yuki at Westport the eastern boundary of their territory extended 
to the south fork of Eel river, known locally as Jackson valley creek, which 
agrees with information obtained by Professor P. E. Goddard among the 
Athapascans at Canto. 



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202 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. i 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites. 
Near the beach just south of the mouth of De Haven creek 
there are living at present a few Indians speaking the Coast 
Yuki dialect This place, however, should be counted rather as 
a temporary village than as a permanent one, since the people now 
living here do not remain continuously, but move about to a 
certain extent, their moving being governed chiefly by the places 
where employment is to be had. These people are mostly former 
inhabitants of the old village near the mouth of Ten Mile river. 

Old Village Sites. 

tcucamatce'm (Northern Porno dialect name), on the coast at 
a point about a mile north of Hardy creek. 

se'ecene (Northern Porno dialect name), at a point about a 
quarter of a mile southeast of Westport. 

bida'to (Northern Porno dialect name), a short distance back 
from the shore-line at the mouth of Ten Mile river. This was a 
very large village and occupied both banks of the river at this 
point. During the warmer season the people of this village fre- 
quently camped along the sandy beach which extends more or less 
continuously from the mouth of the river to the southern limit 
of the dialect just south of Cleone. The name bida'to was ap- 
plied also to Ten Mile river. Upon the authority of the late Mr. 
A. E. Sherwood Alley, Bowen and Company* 00 say, "What is now 
known as Ten-mile river, was called Be-dah-to, literally mush 
river, the name being applied on account of the quick sand at its 
mouth." However, this etymology remains to be established. 
Bedatoe is the name used by Mr. M. Q. Bailey, 801 Special Agent 
of the Interior Department, in speaking of these Indians. 

At what is called Mateo flat on the north bank of Ten Mile 
river at a point about five miles up stream from its mouth there 
is the site of an old village, the name of which could not be 
learned. 

Old Camp Sites. 

kdbe'dima (Northern Porno dialect name), at the shore-line 
near the north bank of De Haven creek. 



Op. tit, p. 168. 

1 Bept. Comm. Ind. Aff., 1858, p. 301. 



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1906] Barrett. — The Ethno-Qeography of the Pomo Indians. 283 

There is a sandy beach stretching more or less continuously 
from the mouth of Ten Mile river to the southern limit of this 
dialectic area, just south of Cleone, where the inhabitants of the 
old village at Ten Mile river made camps during the dry season. 
These camps were located at any advantageous spots along the 
entire four-mile stretch of beach. On the accompanying map 
a single camp location is given at a point about midway between 
the extremities of the beach; but it must be remembered that 
actually camps were made all along the beach and not especially 
at this particular location. A small surf-fish, as it is locally 
called, is abundant along this beach during the summer months 
and it was the presence of this fish that helped to determine the 
time and place of a camp. 

WAPPO DIALECT. 

The so-called Wappo, also designated by Stephen Powers as 
the "Ashochimi," 802 occupied two comparatively small areas, 
both entirely detached from the northern Yuki areas. The larger 
of these two, which it will here be convenient to designate as the 
main Wappo area, lies chiefly in Napa and Sonoma counties, to- 
gether with a small territory in the southern end of Lake county. 
The smaller area, which is very small when compared with the 
main one, has always heretofore been regarded as a part of the 
Porno territory. It lies along the southern shore of Clear lake and 
in the mountains adjacent, and will be designated as the Clear 
Lake Wappo area. Wappo is an Americanized spelling of the 
Spanish guapo, signifying courageous, valiant, or bold. It was 
given, according to Powers, 808 to these Indians by the Spaniards 
"when smarting under the terrible whippings which they used 



•"The names a'cdtea'mai and a'cdtentca'wi were applied by the South- 
ern Porno to all of the Wappo in the valley about Geyserville and southward 
along Busaian river, and this is undoubtedly the source of Powers' name 
''Ashochimi" which he applied (Tribes of CaL, p. 196) to all the people 
speaking the Wappo dialect The name is variously spelled by other writers: 
" Ashochimi " (Mason, op. cit., pp. 367, 440.), "Aschochimi (Powell, op, 
cit., p. 136.), and ' ' Ashochemie > ' (Bancroft, Native Baces, I, 648.). Ac- 
cording to Powers (Tribes of CaL, p. 168) also the Wappo living about Gey- 
serville were sometimes called the "Bineons," which is a Spanish term gig 
nifying inner corner. The Wappo of this particular vicinity called them 
selves mi'cewal. 

"» Ibid. 



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264 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

to suffer at the hands of that valorous tribe." Wappo is the 
usual spelling of this name, but the spellings Wapo* 04 and Wap- 
pa m are also found. 

MAIN WAPPO AREA. 

BOUNDARIES. 

Beginning at Cobb mountain on the water-shed separating 
the Russian river and Putah creek drainages, the boundary of 
the main Wappo area runs in an easterly direction through the 
foot-hills, crossing one branch of Putah creek in Coyote valley, 
to a point about three miles northeast of Middletown, where it 
takes a general southeasterly course through the mountains to 
the southwest of Putah creek, passing probably about three miles 
east of Pope valley, and thence probably along the range to the 
east of Napa river to a point about east-northeast of Napa City. 806 
This portion of the boundary separates the main Wappo area 
from the territory of the peoples speaking the Northern Moquel- 
umnan and the Southerly Wintun dialects. From here it runs 
in a westerly direction, crossing Napa valley just north of Napa 
City, the limit there being given as tide-water on Napa river. It 
then runs in a general northwesterly direction, passing just north 
of Glen Ellen and crossing the headwaters of Sonoma creek, to 
a point about midway between the headwaters of Sonoma and 
Santa Rosa creeks. To this point the boundary separates the 
Wappo area from Wintun and Moquelumnan territory. From 
here it runs in a more northerly direction along the hills to the 
east of Santa Rosa valley, crosses Russian river at its great bend 

•°* Bancroft, Native Races, I, 363, III, 648; Ford, Eept. Comm. Ind. Aff. 
1856, p. 257. 

"•Ford, Mendocino War, p. 15. 

•"The former inhabitants of Napa valley are almost entirely gone and 
it has been impossible to obtain definite information concerning the course 
of a portion of the eastern boundary of the area or as to its southeastern 
limits. The head of Napa valley has heretofore been regarded as the south- 
ern limit of the Wappo territory, and on the map accompanying Powers' 
"Tribes of California" the southern boundary runs only a very short dis- 
tance south of the town of Calistoga. In the course of the present investi- 
gation, however, it was found that the southern limit of this territory is tide- 
water on Napa river, or a point just north of Napa City, thus extending the 
boundaries formerly reported about twenty miles farther to the south and 
giving the Wappo the greater part of Napa valley. This fact has been noted 
in the American Anthropologist, n.s., V, p. 730, 1903. 



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1908] Barrett — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 205 

about four miles east of the town of Healdsburg, and passes along 
the ridge separating the drainage of Russian river from that of 
Dry creek, finally coming to the Russian river valley again at a 
point about three miles north of the town of Geyserville. 801 Here 
it turns in a general northeasterly direction, recrosses Russian 
river, and runs through the foot-hills to Cobb mountain. The 
Southern Porno dialectic area lies to the west and north of this 
portion of the boundary. 

North of the main Wappo territory lie the Southern Porno 
and the Northern Moquelumnan areas, and on the northeast those 
of the Northern Moquelumnan and the Southerly Wintun. On 
the south lie the Southerly Wintun and the Southern Moquelum- 
nan areas, while on the southwest that of the Southern Porno 
adjoins it. 



*" The western portion of the Pomo- Wappo boundary from the point at 
which it first crosses Bussian river northward to the point at which it 
turns east toward Cobb mountain is here given as it existed at the time of the 
arrival of the first settlers in this region. Formerly the Wappo did not own 
the portion of the Bussian river valley known as Alexander valley and ex- 
tending from the confluence of Elk creek with Bussian river northward 
about to the small stream called by the Wappo po'poetc, which flows into 
the river just north of the old Indian village of kolo'ko, as also the territory 
extending some distance into the mountains east of this valley. This terri- 
tory was held by the Southern Pomo who lived at several villages, the chief 
of which seem to have been kd'ticomota and ci' 'm€la. 

According to Powers (Tribes of Cal. 196, 197) there was a "portion of 
Bussian River Valley about ten miles in length north and south, and reach- 
ing across from mountain-top to mountain- top " which was ceded by the 
Pomo, whom he calls ' ' Gallinomero, ' ' to the Wappo, a treaty being entered 
into by the two peoples. From an old Wappo it was learned that the Pomo 
held the territory in question when he was a small boy, probably five to ten 
years before the arrival of the first Spaniards in Alexander valley. The 
Pomo then resided at the villages kd'ticdmdta and cT'mela. The Wappo of 
this vicinity, called the mTcewal, then resided at plpolkdlma just east of the 
town of Geyserville. The two peoples seem to have been on very friendly 
terms until the mTcewal at one time gathered a considerable quantity of 
acorns in the valley just north of the creek, po'poetc, which formed the 
boundary between the territories of the two peoples. These they left 
stacked in piles over night intending to return in the morning and carry 
them to their village. In the night, however, the people of the Pomo village, 
cT'mela, whom the mTcewal called onnatsTlic, stole these acorns and were 
tracked by the mTcewal to the village of cT'mela. The scouts sent out to 
track these people having reported, preparations were made to take revenge 
upon the onnatsTlic. Apparently mitcehe'l, the captain of the mTcewal 
village, took about ten men and stole into cT'mela near midnight and suc- 
ceeded in killing two of the onnatsTlic. The following morning, as was the 
custom among these people, the bodies of the two were cremated and dur- 
ing the cremation a large party from the mTcewal village attacked the 
mourners, killing many, driving the rest from the village and burning it. 
Those of the onnatsTlic who escaped went to some of the villages about 
Healdsburg and sent back* to the mTcewal messengers asking for a meeting 



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266 TJni/ver&ity of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [YoL 6 

SUB-DIALECTS. 

This territory of the Wappo is divided into four sub-dialectic 
areas, which may be designated as the Western, Northern, Cen- 
tral, and Southern. The boundary between the Western and 
Northern runs from Cobb mountain, on the northern interstock 
boundary, down the range connecting Cobb mountain with Mt. 
St. Helena to a point probably about four miles northwest of Mt 
St. Helena, where it changes its course and runs through the 
lower mountains west of Mt. St. Helena to a point about four 
miles northwest of the town of Calistoga, where it meets the 
northern boundary of the Central sub-dialect, which runs in a 
general southwesterly direction from a point on the Wappo- 
Wintun interstock boundary probably about five miles north of 
Pope valley, passes along the southern base of Mt. St. Helena 
and thence through the mountains to the west, approximately 
following the course of McDonald creek at a distance of a quarter 
or a half mile north of it, to Russian river, down which it runs to 
the Wappo-Pomo boundary at the point where it crosses Russian 
river. The line between the Central and Southern sub-dialects 



at which presents should be exchanged and the feud ended. The mi'cewal 
in the meantime cremated the onnatsilic whom they had killed. A confer- 
ence was arranged to be held near where the ranch house on the Lewellyn 
Hall ranch now stands. Here presents were exchanged between the captains of 
the two peoples, but nothing in the way of a treaty was entered into whereby 
the mi'cewal were to hold the territory in Alexander valley. On the con- 
trary, the mi'cewal captain told the onnatsilic captain that he and his peo- 
ple were at liberty to return to their former village at any time they wished. 
He replied, however, that his people had no desire to return to their former 
village and that the mi'cewal were at liberty to keep the valley and the 
adjacent country. Thus it would appear that there was really nothing in 
the way of a treaty agreement between the two, but the Porno simply 
deserted the vicinity of Alexander valley, probably for fear that other trou- 
ble might follow if they returned. Certain it is from the statement of this 
Wappo informant, who was present at the conference and although then quite 
young is probably well informed on the subject, that no payment was direct- 
ly made, the only exchange being the usual one of presents, in a way compen- 
satory for the dead and wounded on both sides, but in no way intended to 
bind any agreement for a cession of territory. 

Prior to this time the Wappo held Bussian river valley from the small 
stream, pd'poetc, already mentioned, northward to about two-thirds of the 
way between the towns of Geyserville and Asti, their territory extending as 
far west as the crest of the ridge between the Bussian river and Dry Creek 
valleys. 

The substance of the above story of the Wappo-Pomo war and the facts 
concerning the boundaries before and after it were also obtained more 
briefly from some of the Porno now living about Healdsburg who had rela- 
tives concerned in the war. 



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1908] Barrett — The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 267 

runs in a general southwesterly direction from a point on the 
Wappo-Wintun interstock boundary probably about three miles 
southeast of Pope valley, passes just north of the town of St. 
Helena, and meets the western Wappo- Porno boundary at a point 
probably about due east of Santa Rosa. 

While the Indians recognize differences in the languages 
spoken within these four areas and seem to have separated them- 
selves distinctly into these linguistic groups, the differences be- 
tween the sub-dialects were very inconsiderable. As was stated 
in speaking of the lexical relationships of the Yuki, vocabularies 
taken from all of the Wappo sub-dialects show differences one 
from another that are so slight that it has been considered un- 
necessary to print them separately in the accompanying vocab- 
ularies. The entire main Wappo area will therefore be treated 
as a unit regardless of sub-dialects. The limits of the sub-dialec- 
tic areas are, however, indicated on the accompanying map. In 
considering this matter of sub-dialects of the Wappo it should be 
remarked that the Indians say that the language spoken by the 
people occupying the Clear Lake Wappo area was identical with 
that spoken by the Wappo of what is here designated as the 
Western sub-dialectic area. Prom the very limited vocabulary 
obtainable it would appear that this statement is correct, for, al- 
though the differences between any two of these sub-dialects seems 
to have been very inconsiderable, the vocabulary taken shows 
practically no words in the Clear Lake Wappo varying from those 
of the Western sub-dialect. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

The Wappo of the main area occupied the portion of Napa 
valley extending from Napa City to its head at the southern foot 
of Mt. St. Helena. This portion of the valley varies in width up 
to about a mile and is very fertile. Tide-water on Napa river 
marks the southern limit of the area, thus placing it north of the 
marshy lands which extend several miles back from the bay 
shore. The valley is shut in on the east and west by ranges of 
hills, low in the southern part, but increasing in height toward 
the north and finally meeting with Mt. St. Helena. West of the 
western range lie the valleys of Sonoma creek and Russian river, 



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268 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

in the latter of which the Wappo owned a considerable area 
reaching from a point about three miles up stream from the town 
of Qeyserville to the great bend of Russian river east of Healds- 
burg. Also on the extreme head of Sonoma creek there was a 
small area belonging to the Wappo. North of Mt. St. Helena 
and east of the range connecting it with Mt. Kanaktai is a small 
valley about Middletown on the headwaters of Putah creek. The 
entire main Wappo area is well wooded, there being considerable 
forests of pine on the range between Mt. St. Helena and Cobb 
mountain, while the foot-hills and valleys have oaks and smaller 
trees and shrubs which formerly provided, together with wild 
grasses and other small plants, an abundance of vegetable foods 
for the Indians. Game was formerly plentiful in the mountains. 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites. 
Alexander Valley Rancheria, in what is known as Alexander 
valley on Russian river northeast of the town of Healdsburg. 
The village is situated at the west end of the Alexander valley 
bridge across Russian river at a point about four and a half 
miles northeast of the town of Healdsburg and consists of four 
houses and perhaps fifteen inhabitants. 

Old Village Sites. 

ka'imus, on the site of the present town of Yountville. The 

people of this village are the ones referred to by Menef ee 108 as 

"■Menefee, in speaking of the Indians of Napa valley, says, upon the 
authority of Mr. George C. Yount who was the first American settler in Napa 
valley: "At the time of Mr. Yount 's arrival in the valley, in 1831, there were 
six tribes of Indians in it, speaking different, though cognate dialects, and 
almost constantly at war with each other. The Mayacomas tribe dwelt near 
the hot springs (Aguas Calientes) now Calistoga, at the upper end of this 
valley, and the Callajomanas, on the lands now known as the Bale Bancho, 
near St. Helena. The Caymus tribe dwelt upon the Yount grant, to which 
they gave their name. The Napa Indians occupied the Mexican grant of 
Entre Napa, that is, the land between Napa River and Napa Greek, to which 
they also gave their tribe name. . . . The Ulucas dwelt on the east side 
of Napa river, near Napa City, and one of their words survives in Tulocay 
Banch and Cemetery. The Susol tribe occupied the Susol Grant, . . ." 
In speaking of the population he says: "In 1843 there were from fifty to 
one hundred on the Bale Bancho, four hundred upon the Caymus Bancho, 
six hundred upon the Salvador Bancho, a large number on the Juarez and 
the Higuera Banchos, and a still larger number at Susol. .... A few 
remain upon some of the ranchos named, but there are not one hundred all 
told in the entire county." This last statement probably refers to the date 
of publication of the "Sketch Book." C. A. Menefee, Historical and De- 
scriptive Sketch Book of Napa, Sonoma, Lake and Mendocino, Napa City, 
1873; pp. 18, 19. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 260 

the Caymus. This is a Spanish orthography of the Indian kai'- 
mus and has been quite universally used. 80 * The name is pre- 
served in Caymus rancho, 810 but is not now otherwise in use. 

annakfftanoma,* 11 bull-snake village, on the town site of St. 
Helena in Napa valley. The Callajolmanas spoken of by Mene- 
fee 812 as living on the Bale ranch near St. Helena may be the 
same as the people of annakd'tanoma. Bancroft 818 also mentions 
them upon the authority of Hittell. 

tse'manoma, from tse'ma, ear, and no'ma, village, in the foot- 
hills on the eastern side of Napa valley at a point probably about 
two miles northeast of the town of St. Helena. 

wflikos (Southern Moquelumnan dialect name), at the head 
of Sonoma creek. Taylor 814 mentions the "Guillicas" and states 
that they lived "northwest of Sonoma on the old Wilson ranch 
of 1846," as does also Bancroft 815 upon his authority. The ref- 
erence is undoubtedly to the people of wi'likos. The village of 
"Huiluc" mentioned by Engelhardt 816 may, however, refer to 
this village or to wi'lok a short distance northwest. The Guilicos 
rancho 817 includes the site of the old Indian village of that name. 
The name is also found as that of a school district in this vicin- 
ity 818 and is applied to the upper part of the valley along Sonoma 
creek. 

maiya'kma,* 19 at a point about a mile south of the town of 



** Engelhardt, op. cit., p. 451 ; Bancroft, Native Races, I, 363, 452 ; and 
various other writers. 

m The Caymus rancho was granted to Mr. Yount, above mentioned, and 
consisted of two square leagues of land about the present town of Yount- 
viUe— Slocum, Bowen and Company, op. cit., Napa county, p. 49; also King 
and Morgan's Map of the Central Portion of Napa Valley and the Town of 
St. Helena, 1881. 

*" The ending nd'ma which occurs so frequently on Wappo village names 
is evidently from the same root as -nom which occurs frequently in the Yuki 
proper and Huchnom dialects with the significance of people of. 

m See note 308. 

m Native Races, I, 452. 

•" California Farmer, March 30, 1860. 

m Native Races, I, 363, 450. 

•"Op. cit., p. 451. 

•"The Guilicos rancho is an old Mexican grant embracing 18,833 acres 
of land, lying along the headwaters of Sonoma creek to the southeast of 
Santa Rosa. — Bowers, Map of Sonoma, 1882. 

•"Thompson, Sonoma County, p. 5; and Central Sonoma, p. 4. 

•" One of the villages near the town of Calistoga was called by the peo- 
ple of the Southeastern Porno dialect xo'mui, the people of this part of the 
valley being called ma'imf o. 



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270 University of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

Calistoga near the head of Napa valley. According to one infor- 
mant this village was also called ni' Lektsonoma. Menefee 820 
mentions the "Mayacomas" as living near Calistoga, as does 
Bancroft 821 upon the authority of Hittell, and as do Slocum, 
Bowen and Company 822 upon the authority of both Menefee and 
Bancroft. Bancroft 828 also mentions, quoting from Taylor, the 
"Mayacmas" as inhabiting ''the vicinity of Clear lake and the 
mountains of Napa and Mendocino counties." It seems certain, 
however, that these people are identical with the Mayacomas 
of his list as above mentioned. The "Mayacma" mentioned by 
Engelhardt 824 as a "tribe" that furnished converts at the Sonoma 
mission undoubtedly refers to the people of this village, and it 
is not unlikely that by the "Tlayacma" mentioned farther on 
the same people are meant. The name is now used as that of a 
range of mountains which, according to Menefee, 825 is divided into 
two branches, one on the west and one on the east of Napa val- 
ley. The name is also applied to the mountains extending north- 
westward from Mt. St. Helena, 826 and to a school district lying 
to the east of Healdsburg. This is also evidently the origin of 
the name "Mallacomes" which is one of the names given to the 
old Mexican land grant 821 in Knight's valley. 

ni' Lektsonoma,* 28 from niLek, a species of hawk, tso, ground, 
and no'ma, village, just northeast of the town of Calistoga near 
the head of Napa valley. One informant says that this is simply 
another name for the village of maiyaTana. 

tse'lmenan* 2 * from tsel, charcoal, me, water, and nan, a well 
or other deep hole containing water, near the foot-hills at a point 
about a mile north of the town of Calistoga. 

mu'tutul, from mfi'ti, north, and Jul, large valley, in Knight's 
valley, in the mountains separating the drainage of Russian river 



•"See note 308. 

m Native Races, I, 452. 

*"Op. cit., Napa county, p. 44. 

•"Native Races, I, 461. 

•* Op. cit., p. 451. 

•" Op. cit., p. 33. 

•" Bowers, Map of Sonoma County, 1882. 

m See mu'tigtul. 

•"See note 319. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 271 

from that of Napa river, and at a point about four and one-half 
miles west of the town of Calistoga. Gibbs 829 mentions the "Mu- 
tistul" as living "between the heads of Napa and Putos creeks/' 
as does also Bancroft 880 upon Gibbs' authority. This name may 
also be the source of "Muticulmo" given by Engelhardt 881 as 
one of the "tribes" with converts at Sonoma mission. The old 
Berry essa rancho "Mallacomes or Muristul y Plan de Agua 
Caliente" 882 undoubtedly derived its name from this village. 

ko'tic&ndta, from ko'tic, black oak, and mo'ta, hill, or tcelhefUe 
(Southern Porno dialect name), from tcel, white oak (T), and 
helle, flat, at a point about half a mile northeast of the eastern 
end of the Alexander valley bridge across Russian river, and 
about five and a half miles northeast of the town of Healdsburg. 
According to the story of the Pomo-Wappo war 888 this village 
with others in Alexander valley was formerly occupied by the 
Southern Porno, who at that time owned the valley and surround- 
ing country. After the occupation of this valley by the Wappo 
this site was inhabited by them, its name changing to the one 
here given. 

cf'mela, from ci', clover, and mela, place (T), or Cssdkffwi, 
(Southern Porno dialect name), from o'sso, clover, and ko'wi, val- 
ley, on the northeast bank of Russian river at a point about a mile 
north of the present Alexander valley village and about five 
miles northeast of the town of Healdsburg. According to the 
story told concerning the Pomo-Wappo war 888 this village was the 
scene of the fighting. The Porno formerly occupied this site, and 
later upon the Wappo taking possession of that section they also 
occupied it, changing its name to that above given. 

fnpohfflma, from pi'po, white oak, hoi, tree, and ma, grove, 
or djelheldjxseka'm (Southern Porno dialect name), from dje'lhe, 
white oak (T), and djiseka'nl, T, on the east bank of Russian 



"•Schoolcraft, III, 110. 

•" Native Races, I, 462. 

m Op. cit., p. 451. 

""According to Slocum, Bowen and Company, op. cit., Napa Co., p. 50, 
this rancho, consisting of 17,742 acres, was located ' ' near the head of Napa 
valley, embracing the site of Calistoga and the country adjacent thereto," 
while Bowers on his "Map of Sonoma County" locates it in Knight's valley 
and gives it as comprising only 12,540 acres. 

*» See note 307. 



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272 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 

river due east of the town of Geyserville. This site is located at 
a point about a quarter of a mile up stream from the Geyserville 
bridge. The people of this village, who called themselves mi'ce- 
wal, and who were called by the Southern Porno a'cotca'mai or 
a'cotentca'wl, formerly owned only the portion of Russian river 
valley extending from a point about three miles up stream from 
Geyserville southward to the small stream, called by them po'- 
poetc, about four miles down stream. After the Pomo-Wappo 
war, in which it appears only the people of pipdholma and those 
of cfmela engaged, the territory of the Wappo was extended 
southward to the limits shown on the accompanying maps. The 
captain of pipdho'lma at the time of this war was mltce-hel, 
turtle anus, and he it was who led the Wappo against the Porno 
and later arranged a settlement of the feud with them. 

In addition to these villages along Russian river which were 
occupied by the Wappo, names of four other sites were obtained 
which, so far as can be learned, were not occupied by the Wappo 
but were occupied by the Southern Porno before the Wappo took 
possession of this section, and for which only Porno names could 
be obtained. These sites are all located in what is known as 
Alexander valley. 

mcdalatca'L%, from malala, mosquito, and tca'Ll, village, 
about half a mile north of Lyttons station. 

aca'ben, from a'ca, fish, and ben, probably a curved pond, at a 
point about a mile northeast of Lyttons station. 

gaiye'tcin, from ga'iye ° r ka'iye, manzanita, and tcin, to hang 
down, at a point about a mile north of Lyttons station. 

kolo'ko, from kolo, mortar basket, and k5, long, indefinitely 
located but probably on the northeast bank of Russian river at a 
point about three and one-half miles northeast of Lyttons station. 

The f olowing villages are located in other parts of the Wappo 
territory and had no connection with any other people than the 
Wappo. 

tekena'ntsonoma, from teke, the mineral left as a deposit after 
the evaporation of the water from the springs at the Geysers in 
Sonoma county, nan, well or other deep hole containing water, 
tso, ground, and no'ma, village, just north of the Geysers near 
the head of the main branch of Sulphur creek and at a point 
about twelve miles a little south of east of Cloverdale. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indian*. 278 

pe'tinoma, west of Putah creek at a point about a mile north- 
northwest of Middletown. This site is but a short distance north 
of the cemetery at Middletown. 

Iffknoma, from lok, goose, and ndma, village, or laka'hydme 
(Northern Moquelumnan dialect name), at a point about three- 
quarters of a mile northeast of Middletown and at present on the 
opposite side of Putah creek from that place. The creek former- 
ly ran to the northeast of this site but since the coming of white 
settlers has been diverted so that it now flows to the southwest of 
it. The valley about Middletown, probably taking its name from 
this village, was early known as Loconoma valley," 4 and the name 
"Lal-nap-o-een" m given by Slocum, Bowen and Company to a 
village in this valley probably refers to ldknd'ma. Their informa- 
tion concerning this village was obtained from Augustine, a for- 
mer captain of the kULa'napS, one of the divisions of the Eastern 
Porno in Big valley. Continuing, they say, "These are the 
Locollomillos of Bancroft's list." The statement made by Ban- 
croft Me is, "The Quenocks and Locollomillos lived between Clear 
Lake and Napa," and is made upon the authority of Taylor, who 
says, 887 "Before reaching Clear Lake from Napa there was a 
rancheria called Quenocks, and in their neighborhood were the 
Locollomillos." However, in view of the indeflniteness of these 
statements, particularly the original one (Taylor's), and the 
fact that the old Mexican grant m in Pope valley bears the name 
Locallomi rancho, it is possible that the people referred to as 
Locallomillos lived in or about Pope valley, though it seems more 
probable that they lived in the vicinity of Middletown. 

uyu'hanoma, on the east bank of Putah creek at a point about 
a mile and a half nearly due east of Middletown. 



m Slocum, Bowen and Company, op. cit, Lake county, pp. 4, 45. 

"•"The Lal-nap-o-een tribe had their habitat on the St Helena creek, 
just west of the present site of Middletown, in Loconoma valley. They 
numbered ninety but have dwindled down to ten. Chu-pnh was their chief; 
— Ibid, p. 36. — In the Eastern Porno district Lai signifies goose, and napd' 
signifies village; thus giving the same signification as the Wappo name 
lo'kndma. 

"•Native Races, I, 461. 

m California Farmer, March 30, 1860. 

"•The Locallomi rancho was granted to Julien Pope in 1841 and com- 
prised two square leagues of land in and about Pope valley. — Slocum, Bowen 
and Company, op. cit, Lake county, p. 50. 



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274 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

Old Camp Sites. 

mu'tistul, from mu'ti, north, and tul, large valley, in Knight's 
valley at a point about a mile a little east of south of the old 
village of the same name. 

kupe'tcu, at Harbin Springs about four miles northwest of 
Middletown. 

mehwale'lenoma, from me'wa, grape vine, lele, a small flat, 
and nd'ma, village, near the west bank of Putah creek at a point 
about three and one-half miles south-southeast of Middletown. 

holUe'lenoma, from hoi, wood, le'le, a small flat, and nd'ma, 
village, at the site of an old saw mill at a point about four miles 
nearly due south of Middletown and probably about two miles 
and a half west of Putah creek. 



CLEAR LAKE WAPPO AREA. 

BOUNDARIES. 

Beginning on the southern shore of the main body of Clear 
lake at a point about a mile east of Soda Bay, the boundary of 
the Clear Lake Wappo area runs in a general south-southeasterly 
direction, passing along the eastern slope of Mt. Kanaktai, to a 
point on the range connecting Mt. Kanaktai with Cobb mountain 
about two and a half miles northeast of Carlsbad springs, thus 
separating the Wappo area from that of the Southeastern Porno. 
At this point it turns westward and runs to a point about half 
way between Cole and Kelsey creeks, where it .turns and runs al- 
most due north to the lake shore which it strikes at a point about 
a quarter of a mile west of the present common mouth of Cole 
and Kelsey creeks, 889 throughout which course it separates Wap- 
po from Eastern Porno territory. It then passes for a short dis- 
tance into the lake, turns eastward and then southward, and 
finally arrives at the point of starting, about a mile east of Soda 
Bay. 

This small, approximately rectangular area is surrounded on 
all sides by Porno territory, the Southeastern dialectic area lying 

"• According to some informants Cole and Kelsey creeks formerly emptied 
into Clear lake separately and were brought to their present common chan- 
nel by artificial means. For a full account of this see p. 192. 



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1908] Barrett, — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 275 

to the east of it and the Eastern dialectic area surrounding it on 
the other three sides. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

This very small and isolated area was occupied by a people 
speaking a language which, so far as can be learned, was identical 
with that spoken in Alexander valley and in the vicinity of Gey- 
serville in the main Wappo area, from which section it seems very 
likely they originally came. In fact it is said by some of the 
Porno now living about Clear lake that the occupation of this 
area by the Wappo, whom they call li'leek, took place within com- 
paratively recent times. Prior to that time some of the Wappo 
from the vicinity of Geyserville had been coming regularly to 
Clear lake at certain seasons of the year for the purpose of fish- 
ing. These visits were received in a friendly manner by the 
Porno of that vicinity, and in time this practice resulted in the 
permanent settlement by the Meek of the village of dala'dano, 
thus establishing what might be termed a Wappo colony at this 
place. According to some informants the relations between the 
Meek and their neighbors remained friendly, and they inter- 
married with the kabe'napo, who were their nearest neighbors. 
According to other informants, however, there was not always 
the most cordial feeling existing between them, and the story told 
by some Porno informants concerning the diverting of the course 
of Kelsey creek 840 would tend to prove this assertion. Notwith- 
standing this story, the truth of which is not at all unlikely, it 
seems pretty certain that these people were, in general, on very 
good terms with their neighbors and did intermarry, at least to a 
certain extent, with the Porno. 

So far as could be learned they were never very numerous. 
They held only a very small part of the shore of Clear lake, about 
three miles; a sufficient amount, however, to afford fishing and 
hunting even if they had been restricted to their own immediate 
territory. This they were not, however, but probably fished and 
hunted at will over the greater part of the main body of Clear 
lake, as was the custom among all the other peoples living along 
the lake shore. The land occupied by them was chiefly of a 

••Seep. 192. 



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270 Unwerrity of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Sthn. [VoL 6 

rugged character, embracing as it did almost the whole of Mt 
Itanaktai with the surrounding foothills, and only a very small 
area of valley land along Cole creek and about Soda bay. Al- 
though owning it, they seem never to have restricted other peo- 
ples from visiting Mt. Kanaktai, which was a place frequented 
by the inhabitants of the whole lake region for the purpose of 
obtaining roots and other objects which were supposed to bring 
good luck, and also various medicinal plants which were much 
more powerful in their effects for having grown upon this moun- 
tain. Also in the matter of hunting within their territory there 
seem to have been, at least in more recent times, no particular 
restrictions, and they in turn hunted in the territory of their 
neighbors. 

The food supply of this area was that typical of the entire 
lake region, consisting of fish and water-birds at the lake itself, 
and of the usual game animals in the mountains, where there 
was also an abundance of acorns, grass seeds and other vegetable 

foods. 

Old Village Sites. 941 

dala'dano, from dala', flat plate-form basket, and dano', moun- 
tain, on the east bank of Cole creek at a point about a mile and a 
half from the shore of Clear lake. As before stated the people 
occupying this village were called lileek by their Porno neigh- 
bors, and it is very likely that this was the name used by them- 
selves, as the Porno say that it is a word of the Wappo language 
and therefore can not be translated by themselves. In corrobora- 
tion of this statement it should be noted that lil or lei is the term 
signifying rock in the various Tuki dialects. The latter part of 
this name, however, has not as yet been recognized as either Wap- 
po or Pomo. Slocum, Bowen and Company mention these people 
under this name, 841 and it is possible that this is the village re- 

•" Owing to the fact that the former inhabitants of the Clear Lake Wap- 
po area have almost entirely disappeared, it has been almost impossible to 
obtain the names used by them for their old village and camp sites, so that 
all of the names here given, except one, are those used by the Pomo of Big 
valley. The exception is the name of the old camp site near Soda Bay which 
is the name used by the people speaking the Southeastern Pomo dialect, thus 
making all of the names here given Pomo. 

•""The Lil-la-a-ak tribe had their location near the foot of Uncle Sam 
Mountain, on the west side. They numbered about one hundred, and about 
fifteen of them are left. Mim-ak was their chief." — Op. cit., Lake county, 
p. 35. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Bthno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 277 

ferred to by Gibbs* 48 as "Dano-habe" ("stone mountain") and 
by M'Kee 844 as "Da-no-ha-be." The site of the old village of 
dala'dand is a short distance south of the junction of the two 
roads leading from Kelseyville to Soda bay, and the site of a 
modern village called by the same name lies about one hundred 
and fifty yards north of it on the north side of this road. 

kabe'tsawam, from kab£', rock, and tsawa'm, braid (there is 
here a cliff the strata of which are so twisted as to somewhat re- 
semble braiding), on the east bank of Cole creek at a point about 
a mile and a half east-northeast from the town of Kelseyville. 
Directly across the creek and at a distance of about a quarter of a 
mile from this site is the site of a modern village which was called 
by the same name. 

Uninhabited Modern Village Sites. 

xa'dano, from xa, water, and dano', mountain, on the shore of 
Clear lake at a point just east of the present common mouth of 
Kelsey and Cole creeks. .There are differences of opinion as to 
when and by whom this site was inhabited, but according to one 
informant this was the site to which the li'leek moved after what 
is known as the Stone and Kelsey massacre which occured near 
the present town of Kelseyville. At that time the li'leek, to- 
gether with the kabe'napo, lived chiefly at the old village of 
no'napotl, having been brought there by Stone and Kelsey. After 
the killing of Stone and Kelsey the kuLa'napo and kabe'napd 
moved over into Scott's valley west of Lakeport, while the li'leek 
went to xa'dano. When the troops came in the following season 
to punish the Indians for the massacre they saw horse tracks 
leading from the vicinity of Kelseyville toward Scott's valley, and 
guided thither by them, passed the village of xa'dano without 
notice, by virtue of which circumstance the li'leek escaped the 
terrible fate which befell the others. As nearly as can be learned 
these people lived here only about two years. 

dala'dand, from dala', flat plate-form basket, and dano', moun- 
tain, at a point about one hundred and fifty yards north of the 
old village of dala'dand. Both were situated on the east bank 



•"Schoolcraft, III, 109, 110. 
""Senate Ex. Doc, op. cit., p. 136. 



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278 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

of Cole creek at a point about a mile and a half from the shore 
of Clear lake. The people who occupied this site were originally 
from several different sites and moved here after the celebration 
near Upper Lake of a ceremony (a form of the ghost dance) which 
had been recently introduced from the Sacramento valley. 

kabe'tsawam, from kabe', rock, and tsawa'm, braid (there is 
here a cliff the strata of which present a braided effect), on the 
west bank of Cole creek just across the creek from the old village 
of the same name. This site was, like dala'dano, occupied after 
the ceremony near Upper Lake, and its inhabitants were people 
from various old villages about the lake. 

Old Camp Sites. 

Itd'pbutu, from kop, nettle, and bu'fti, knoll, a summer camp 
of the lfleek situated between Cole and Kelsey creeks at a point 
about one hundred yards from their present junction. 

zoga'bidame, from xaga', obsidian, and bida'me, creek (so 
named because of the large amount of obsidian in this vicinity) , 
on the west bank of Cole creek at a point about three miles south- 
southeast of Kelseyville. This site is located on the Schuster 
ranch not far from the site of the ranch house which burned a 
few years ago. This camp seems to have been used particularly 
as a fish camp. 

huge'bnitegogo, from huge'lmite, the Wappo name of some 
sort of a mythical monster, and gagd', a Porno word meaning val- 
ley, east of Cole creek and north of the road leading from Kelsey- 
ville to Lower Lake, and at a point about three miles southeast 
of Kelseyville. 

katsi'lgago, from katsil, cold, and gagd', valley, an acorn 
camp at the Jimison ranch just west of the summit of the road 
leading from Kelseyville to Lower Lake. 

xa'xmdtmot (Southeastern Porno dialect name), at a point 
about half a mile southeast of the hotel at Soda bay. There was 
a spring here the water of which was unfit to drink, and the name 
was given to the site on this account. The water of this spring 
was used to bathe in and brought extreme good luck when so 
used. 



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1908] Barrett.— The Bthno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 279 



ATHAPASCAN. 846 

BOUNDARIES. 

The narrow strip of Athapascan territory shown on the ac- 
companying map is the southernmost extension on the Pacific 
coast of the territory of this great linguistic family, and since 
the Athapascan area in California alone continues far beyond the 
territory under investigation, its northern boundary has not been 
determined. The eastern and western boundaries have also not 
been determined accurately. The eastern boundary very prob- 
ably runs along the water-shed separating the drainage of the 
south fork of Eel river from that of South Eel river and meets 
the northern Porno boundary at a point a short distance north of 



•*• The area about Cahto and Laytonville has until recently been regarded 
as a part of the Porno territory. Powers, in his Tribes of California (p. 
147), says: "The broadest and most obvious division of the Porno family is 
into Eel river and Bussian River Porno. There are two tribes on Eel River, 
between it and South Fork, who call themselves Porno (Kastel Po-mo and 
Kai Po-mo), though it is an assumed name, because they belong to the 
Wailakki family, and prefer their company. It was mentioned heretofore 
that the Wailakki were rather despised by their neighbors; hence when any 
member of these two tribes intermarried with a true Porno, he or she went to 
live with that nation and learned their language; hence also the fact that 
nearly every man of the Kai Porno understands both Porno and Wailakki. 
Nevertheless, because of their name and their claims, I have included them 
here" (Le. among the Pomo). As nearly as may be judged from his loca- 
tion of the Kai Pomo who, he says, "dwell on the extreme headwaters of 
the South Fork, ranging eastward to Eel river, westward to the ocean, and 
northward to the territory of the Kastel Pomo," that is, to the vicinity of 
Blue Bock about twenty miles north of the town of Laytonville, they lived 
in Long valley, the valley called "Ba-tem-da-kai" by Gibbs (Schoolcraft, 
HI, 118), on the headwaters of the east fork of the south fork of Eel river, 
and only a few miles northeast of Cahto. Further, M'Kee (op. cit., p. 148) 
says that "Ba-tim-da-kai" valley is the "second large valley" on Eel river, 
and he gives " Cabadilapo ' ' as the name of the people inhabiting it, which 
further shows that the valley meant is what is now called Long valley. Of 
the Indians living in Cahto valley Powers (Tribes of California, p. 150) 
says: "We now commence with the true Pomo. The Ka-to Pomo (Lake 
People) were so called from a little lake which formerly existed in the valley 
now known by their name (Cahto). They do not speak Pomo entirely 
pure, but employ a mixture of that with Wailakki." Thus it seems that 
while Powers recognized that their neighbors in Long valley spoke purely 
an Athapascan dialect, he was led to believe that the language of the Cahto 
people was substantially Pomo, as is shown not only by his statements above 
quoted but also by a short list of numerals given by him on page 167 of his 
volume. From the statements of these early writers the people about Cahto 
and Laytonville have been considered true Pomo until very recently when it 
was shown by Professor P. E. Goddard (Amer. Anthr. n.s., V, pp. 375, 376, 
1903) that their language is Athapascan. 



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280 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [VoL 6 

Sherwood, thus separating the Athapascan from the Tuki proper 
and the Tukian Hnchnom territories. At this point it turns west- 
ward for a short distance, then turns northward, probably along 
the divide separating the drainage of the south fork of Eel river 
from that of Ten Mile river and the small streams along the im- 
mediate coast-line, and passes beyond the northern limit of the 
region under investigation. To the south and west of this portion 
of the line lie respectively Porno and Coast Tuki territories. 

To the east of this small area are the territories of the Yuki 
proper and the Huchnom, on the south is the Northern Porno 
dialectic area, and on the west is the Coast Tuki area. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

The greater portion of the Athapascan area under considera- 
tion lies in a rough, mountainous country, naturally uninhabita- 
ble. There are, however, a few very fertile valleys which former- 
ly supported a large population. The largest of these is Long 
valley, in which the town of Laytonville is situated. It extends 
for a distance of about ten miles in a northwesterly and south- 
easterly direction along the east fork of the south fork of Eel 
river and is about half a mile in width. Cahto valley, lying be- 
tween the heads of the south fork and the east fork of the south 
fork of Eel river, is about two miles in length by half a mile in 
width. Branscomb is situated in what is known as Jackson val- 
ley on the south fork of Eel river or, as it is locally called, Jack- 
son Valley creek. This is a small valley and is situated in the 
eastern edge of the redwood forest which extends from a short 
distance east of this point almost to the shore-line of the ocean. 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites. 

Laytonville* 47 There are two places near the town of Lay- 
tonville, one about a quarter of a mile north of the town and one 
about half a mile west, which are inhabited by Indians. At the 
former there are two houses and about twelve inhabitants, at the 
latter two houses and about ten inhabitants. 
todjihbi, at a point about half a mile west of the town of 



141 See note 346. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 281 

Cahto. 848 This village consists of four houses and about four- 
teen inhabitants, 848 and stands on the site of the former old vil- 
lage of the same name. 

Old Tillage Sites. 

netce'lig&t, at a point about nine miles nearly due west of the 
town of Laytonville and about three miles southeast of the con- 
fluence of the east fork of the south fork of Eel river with the 
south fork of Eel river. This village is on top of the ridge separ- 
ating these two streams and on the property of Mr. Jacob Lamb. 

yictciiAi'fikiiX, from yic, wolf, tciLtin, something lying down, 
and kut, creek, on the south bank of the east fork of the south 
fork of Eel river at a point about five miles west-northwest of the 
town of Laytonville. 

sentca'uktit, from se, rock, ntca'u, big, and kut, creek, or 
Tcabe'matd (Northern Porno dialect name), from kabg', rock, and 
mato', big, on Big Rock creek at a point about a mile and a half 
from its confluence with the east fork of the south fork of Eel 
river, or about five and a half miles nearly due west of the town 
of Laytonville. 

ka'ibi, from kai, nuts, and bi, in, on the northeast bank of the 
east fork of the south fork of Eel river at a point about three 
miles down stream from the town of Laytonville. 



•*• The name of this town and village is at present commonly spelled Cahto 
although Brackenridge on his "Official Map of Mendocino County, 1887" 
uses Carto. Powers (Tribes of California, p. 150) and Powell (op. cit., p. 
155), following Powers, spell the name Ka-to, while Powers at the same 
time notes the fact that the name of the valley is Cahto. Alley, Bowen and 
Company in their History of Mendocino county (p. 167) say upon the author- 
ity of the late Mr. A. E. Sherwood, ' ' Cah-to is the name the natives apply 
to both that location and the people who inhabited it. The word 'can' sig- 
nifies water, and 'to' means, literally, mush, and was applied to this section 
owing to the fact that there was originally a large swampy lake there, the 
greater portion of which was miry and boggy, being veritable water-mush — 
cah-to. The people were known to all surrounding tribes as Cah-to-pomo. " 
Substantially the same information was obtained from Mr. Sherwood in 1902. 
In considering the meaning of the name, however, it should be remembered 
that, in the Northern Porno dialect, lake is ka'tu, and it is not at all unlikely 
that Cahto may have originated directly from it, owing to the presence 
in the valley of a lake of considerable size. Bancroft (Native Races, 1, 362) 
also speaks of these people as the ' ' Cahto Pomos. ' ' Another name for the 
people of Cahto, given by Slocum, Bowen and Company (op. cit., Lake coun- 
ty, p. 28), also upon the authority of Mr. Sherwood, is ' ' Chehulikia, which 
signifies the north valley." Also see note 345. 

•••See note 167. 



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282 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 

nebffcegut, from ne, ground, bo'ce, hump, and gut, on top, on 
what is known as the Wilson ranch at a point about one mile west 
of Laytonville. 

seLgaitceli'nda, from se, rock, ijgai, white, and tcelin, run out, 
about three hundred yards east of the house on what is known 
as the "old" John Beed ranch about one mile north of Layton- 
ville. 

btintcnondi'lyi, from bfintc, fly, n6'ndil, settle upon, and yi'u, 
under, just northwest of Laytonville and but a short distance 
from the place now occupied by the Indians near Laytonville. 

ko'cbi, from koc, blackberry, and bi, there, at a point about a 
mile and a half west-southwest of Laytonville and on the south- 
west bank of the east fork of the south fork of Eel river. 

tcibe'takut, from tcfbe, fir, fa, tips, and kut, creek, at a point 
about a mile southwest of the town of Laytonville and about half 
a mile up the creek which drains Cahto valley from its confluence 
with the east fork of the south fork of Eel river. 

distegti'tsiu, from di'stfe, madrona, guts, crooked, and yi'u, 
under, on the western side of Long valley at a point about two 
miles south-southeast of Laytonville. 

todji'iabiy from to, water, djiL, ?, and bi, in, at the site now 
occupied by the Indians at Cahto. This site is on the west bank 
of the small creek running from Cahto into the east fork of the 
south fork of Eel river. 

buntctenondi'lkut, from buntc, fly, te, low (t), no'ndil, settle 
upon, and kut, creek, on the north bank of the northern branch of 
the head of the south fork of Eel river at a point about a mile 
south-southwest of Cahto. 

kucyfuyetokut, from kuc, alder, yi'u, under, to> water, and 
kut, creek, on the north bank of the south fork of Eel river at a 
point about three miles southwest of Cahto. This site is about 
half a mile east of the ranch house on the Clark ranch. 

ne'iyi, from ne, ground, and yi'u, under, probably signifying 
that the village was located under a projecting ridge, on the south 
bank of the south fork of Eel river at a point about three miles 
south of Branscomb. 

sene'tcktit, from se, rock, ne'tc, gravel, and kflt, creek, on the 
northwest bank of the small stream known as Mud Springs creek 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 288 

which is tributary to the south fork of Eel river. This site is 
about three miles a little south of east of Branscomb. There are 
on this creek and not far from this village site several springs 
which flow a very thin bluish mud, thus giving to the creek its 
name. 

tontce'hiit, from to, water, ntce, bad, and kiit, creek, at a point 
about a quarter of a mile west of the south fork of Eel river and 
about one mile southwest of Branscomb. 

senanscffc&t, from se, rock, nansa", hang down, and k&t, creek, 
on the east bank of the south fork of Eel river at a point about a 
mile and a half down stream from Branscomb. 



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284 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Sthn. [Vol. 6 



WINTUN. 

The first writer to use the name Wintun as the designation 
of a linguistic group, was Stephen Powers, who wrote upon the 
"Wintoons" in the Overland Monthly of June, 1874. This with 
the remainder of his series of articles in that magazine was re- 
printed with little alteration in his "Tribes of California," where 
we find the orthography changed to its present form and the 
limits of the territory defined as "the whole of the Upper Sacra- 
mento and the Upper Trinity." 850 Of the people inhabiting the 
lower portion of the Sacramento valley, he says, "On the middle 
and lower Sacramento, west side, there is one of the largest na- 
tions of the State, yet they have no common government, and not 
even a name for themselves. They have a common language, 
with little divergence of dialects for so great an area as it em- 
braces .... For the sake of convenience, and as a nucleus 
of classification, I have taken a word which they all employ, pai- 
wiri, signifying 'man,' or sometimes 'person.' " m On the map 
accompanying his volume, however, these territories are all in- 
cluded in the one Wintun area, but are separated from one an- 
other by a line which crosses the territory near the junction of 
Stony and Grindstone creeks. Powers further says,** 2 "The 
Wintun language has many words in common with the Patwin, 
a third or more according to my brief vocabularies," thus show- 
ing that he recognized that the two were related. His estimate 
of the percentage of similar words is probably somewhat low, but 
there is certainly a very great difference between the dialects 
spoken in such extreme areas as that bordering on San Francisco 
bay and that on the headwaters of the Sacramento river. His 
line of division between the Wintun and Patwin, extending 
across the territory at Grindstone creek, is only about eighteen 
miles north of the approximate line between the Northerly and 
the Southerly dialectic divisions, crossing at the confluence of Big 



■Tribes of Cal., p. 219. 
1 Tribes of Cal., p. 218. 
1 Tribes of Cal., p. 232. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Pomo Indians. 285 

and Little Stony creeks, as determined in the present investiga- 
tion. Powell, following his principle of priority, gives Copehan, 85 * 
formed from Gibbs' Copeh, 854 which he cites as one of the dial- 
ects 8M "spoken by the inhabitants of Putos creek,' ' as the stock 
name of the combined Wintun and Patwin of Powers. However, 
Wintun has survived and is now the more generally known name. 

BOUNDARIES. 

The territory of the Wintun extends beyond the limits of the 
region under investigation, so that only its southern with por- 
tions of its western and eastern boundaries are here given. Of 
these the western boundary only was accurately determined. Be- 
ginning on the crest of the Coast Range, which here forms the 
divide between the drainage of Eel river and that of Stony creek, 
at a point due east of the town of Covelo and west of Newville, 
the western boundary of the portion of the Wintun territory 
under consideration runs in a general southeasterly direction 
along the crest of the range to a point probably about half way 
between Sheet Iron and St. John mountains and separates it from 
the Yuki territory lying west of the Coast Range mountains. 
Here it turns in a general easterly direction and runs to the range 
of low hills immediately west of Stony creek, or Big Stony creek 
as it is locally called. 858 Here it turns in a southerly direction, 
crosses Big Stony creek just west of the confluence of Little Stony 
creek with it, and passes for about four miles along the low ridge 
separating the drainages of Big and Little Stony creeks. Thence, 
turning in a westerly direction, it passes along a secondary ridge 
on the northern slope of the divide south of Big Stony creek val- 
ley to the crest of the Coast Range at a point near the head of 
the south fork of Stony creek. This portion of the boundary 
separates the Wintun from the Northeastern Pomo area, which 
is thus surrounded on three sides by Wintun territory. From 



"•Ind. Lang. Fam., p. 69. 

m Schoolcraft, III. 421. 

"•The name kS'pe was not, so far aa can be learned from the Indiana 
now living in this Southerly Wintun area, applied to a village or linguistic 
division in this region. The word itself signifies grape vine. 

m See note 267. 



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286 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 

here it runs in a southwesterly direction along the divide between 
the headwaters of the Rice fork of South Eel river and Bartlett 
creek to the divide between Middle and Bartlett creeks, where it 
turns in a southeasterly direction and passes along the range east 
of Clear lake to Cache creek, which it strikes at a point about four 
miles from its source at the southern end of Clear lake. To the 
west of this portion of the boundary lie the territory of the Yuki 
proper and the Eastern and Southeastern Porno dialectic areas. 
Keeping the same southeasterly direction the boundary probably 
runs from here along the ridge between Jerusalem Valley and 
Morgan Valley creeks, crosses the latter near the confluence of the 
two, and thence, passing through the hills to the east of Jerusalem 
Valley creek, crosses Putah creek at a point about five miles east 
of Guenoc. From here it continues for a short distance in a 
southeasterly direction and then, turning in a southwesterly di- 
rection, it runs to a point probably about eight miles northeast of 
Mt. St. Helena. The small territory of the Northern Moquelum- 
nan dialectic group lies west of this portion of the boundary. 
At this point the boundary turns again in a southeasterly direc- 
tion, passes probably about three miles east of Pope valley, and 
then probably along the divide separating the drainage of Napa 
river from that of Putah creek to a point about east-northeast of 
Napa City, where it turns in a westerly direction, crossing Napa 
valley just north of Napa City, the limit here being given as tide- 
water on Napa river, and runs probably to the low divide separ- 
ating Napa and Sonoma valleys, throughout all of which course 
it separates the Wintun territory from that of the Yukian Wap- 
po. Prom here the boundary probably runs down this divide to 
the northern shore of San Pablo bay, MT the Southern Moquelum- 



m There are conflicting statements concerning the Wintun-Moquelumnan 
interstock boundary in the vicinity of Napa valley. One informant, a Moquel- 
unman woman, who live<i during the greater part of her early life at San Ra- 
fael Mission, says that the Wintun held the territory as far west as the range 
of low hills west of Sonoma creek, and gives a vocabulary of the language 
of a former husband who, she says, was born at a village near Sonoma and 
taken when a boy to Dolores mission at San Francisco. The vocabulary is 
clearly Wintun. The informant's knowledge, however, is of a time subse- 
quent to the founding of the Sonoma and San Rafael missions and it is not 
at all unlikely that the Wintun occupation of Sonoma valley dates only as 
far back as the bringing of the Indians to the missions by the Franciscan 
Fathers. The statement made by Gibbs (op. cit., Ill, 421) that "the lower 
part of Napa valley, and the country around the straits of Karquinez, were 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indian*. 287 

nan dialectic area adjoining this portion of the Wintun territory 
on the west. So far as can be determined the southern boundary 
of the Wintun territory was the northern shore of San Pablo bay 
and the lower course of the Sacramento river, while the eastern 
boundary of the portion of the Wintun territory under consid- 
eration was also the Sacramento river. 888 

On the west this large area is contiguous to the dialectic areas 
of three different linguistic stocks : the Tuki proper, the North- 
eastern, Eastern, and Southeastern Porno, the Northern Moquel- 
umnan, the Yukian Wappo, and the Southern Moquelumnan 
areas. To the south across San Pablo bay and the lower course 
of the Sacramento river lies Costanoan territory, while that lying 
across the Sacramento river to the east was held by the Maidu. 
Owing to the very early settlement of the region and the conse- 
quent disappearance of the Indians it is impossible to say to just 
what limits the territories of the various stocks occupying the 
lower courses of the Sacramento and the San Joaquin extended, 
but it seems probable that in addition to the contact of the Maidu 
and Costanoan territories above mentioned there was, at the ex- 
treme southeastern corner of the Wintun territory, a very short 



said to have been occupied by another tribe" than that in Sonoma valley, 
indicates that he obtained information to the effect that the Wintun territory 
did not extend farther west than Napa valley. The statement made by 
Taylor (Cal. Farmer, Mar. 30, 1860), on the other hand, that ''the Sonomos 
or Sonomis spoke a similar dialect as the Suisuns or Soo-i-soo-nes, would 
indicate that the region of Sonoma was held by the Wintun. However, the 
information upon which the statements of both Gibbs and Taylor are based 
is, like that obtained in the present case from the Moquelumnan informant 
above mentioned, of a time subsequent to the establishment of the Missions 
in this region, and is therefore subject to the same doubt. While the Moque- 
lumnan informant above mentioned places Sonoma valley in the Wintun 
territory, some other informants place not only Sonoma valley but also Napa 
valley within the limits of the Moquelumnan territory. It is a noteworthy 
fact that although the Indian informants differ as to the language spoken in 
these two valleys, they all agree in saying that the same language was spoken 
in both. Nevertheless, owing to the disagreement both among present Indian 
informants and among early writers upon this region, it seems advisable to 
leave the boundary, for the present at least, as located above, on the ridge 
between the two valleys, which location is the same as that given on the 
earlier maps of this region. 

"•The Northeastern Pomo dialectic area, the Northern Moquelumnan 
dialectic area, and the portion of the Yukian- Wappo area occupying Napa 
valley south of the town of Oalistoga, have heretofore been regarded as be- 
longing to the Wintun territory. These are, however, portions of the terri- 
tories of the stocks mentioned. The Wintun territory in these regions is 
thus somewhat smaller than formerly supposed. These facts were noted in 
the American Anthropologist, n.s., VI, pp. 189, 190, 1904 and V, p. 730, 1903. 



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288 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 

line along which the territory of the Yokuts adjoined it and also, 
in the same region, a still more slight contact of the Miwok or 
main Moquelumnan territory with it. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

The portion of the Wintun territory under consideration com- 
prises, roughly speaking, the southern half of that part of the 
Sacramento drainage lying west of the Sacramento river, and 
reaches from the river to the crest of the Coast Range mountains. 
The western part of this area lies entirely among the mountains 
of this range which in some parts, particularly toward the north, 
reaches very considerable altitudes, certain peaks being covered 
with snow until far into the summer. Throughout these moun- 
tains and the lower foothills to the east there are many streams, 
the valleys along which were formerly inhabited. The principal 
streams are Big Stony, Cache, and Putah creeks, while there are 
also many smaller streams, some tributary to these and some flow- 
ing independently of them. Along these streams there are many 
more or less spacious valleys affording excellent sites for Indian 
villages. The eastern part of the area under consideration, that 
part lying east of the foothills, is a level plain, in some places so 
low as to be below the level of the Sacramento river. In many 
places, particularly along the immediate bank of the river, there 
are large areas of tule or alkaline marsh into which the majority 
of the streams from the mountains debouch. The presence of 
these marshes, together with the unbearable heat of the summer 
made the region along the immediate river bank very undesirable 
for habitation, and it appears that the Indians preferred usually 
to live in, or at least near, the foothills. 

These marshes, however, had their advantage in that during 
the winter months they were the haunts of great numbers of water 
birds: geese and ducks of all kinds, as well as swans and other 
rarer species. This circumstance was the means of bringing 
many of the Indians from the mountain region over into the plain 
itself during the winter months for the purpose of hunting. The 
usual wild game such as bear, elk, deer, and smaller animals was 
abundant in the foothills and mountains, while acorns and the 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 289 

seeds of various grasses and flowering plants were found almost 
everywhere. 

This extensive area is divided between two dialects, which for 
present purposes it will be convenient to call Northerly" 8 * and 
Southerly. 85 * Only the extreme western portion of the boundary 
between these two dialectic areas could be determined. It was 
found that, starting from the Porno- Wintun interstock boundary 
near the point where it crosses Big Stony creek, this line crossing 
Big Stony creek at the confluence of Big and Little Stony creeks, 
passes eastward for an indefinite distance. It has been only pro* 
visionally drawn on the accompanying maps, where it is made to 
pass directly eastward to the eastern boundary of the stock at the 
Sacramento river. 

NORTHERLY DIALECT. 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites. 

Orindstone Rcmcheria, on the north bank of Grindstone creek 
at its confluence with Stony creek. The village consists of four 
houses with about sixteen inhabitants. There is here also a large 
dance-house which is now in use, especially during the winter 
months. 

Bridgeport. There are a few Indians living at Bridgeport 
on the east bank of Stony creek at a point about a mile and a 
half down stream from the town of Elk creek. 880 This is also 
an old village site. 

There is a single house with four inhabitants on the ridge 
immediately west of Stony creek at a point about eight miles 
north of the town of Stonyford. 



""• See note 428. 

m It has been possible to obtain only a limited vocabulary of the Norther- 
ly dialect, but from the material at hand it appears that the Northerly differs 
very considerably from the Southerly, and it is to be assumed that the dialect 
or .dialects spoken still farther to the north are still more different from the 
Southerly dialect. It appears (Professor A. L. Rroeber, Amer. Anthr. n.s., 
VIII, 655, 1906) that there are three principal Wintun dialects or dialectic 
groups: one in Glenn and Tehama counties, one to the north and one to the 
south. These would naturally be designated as Northern, Central, and 
Southern. The Central dialectic group is the one designated in the present 
paper as the Northerly of the two under consideration. 

m It was impossible to ascertain the number of Indians living here, as all 
were absent when the site was visited. 



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890 University of California Publications in Am. AreK and Ethn. [VoL 6 

Old Village Sites. 

kaldiel, at the town of Newville at the northern extremity of 
the area under consideration. 

There is the site of an old village, the name of which could 
not be obtained, at Bridgeport on the east bank of Stony creek 
at a point about a mile and a half north of the town of Elk creek. 
This site is still inhabited. 

tolo'kai, at the town of Elk creek at the confluence of Elk 
creek with Stony creek. 

tffba, at the confluence of Brisco creek with Stony creek. 
This site is on what is known as the Hansen ranch. 

da'tcimtcini, at a point a short distance west of Stony creek 
and about four miles up stream from the town of Elk creek. 
This site is located on what is known as the Troxel ranch. 

ca'ipetel, on the west bank of Big Stony creek near the con- 
fluence of Little Stony creek with it. This site is on the ranch 
of Mr. Joseph Mall. 

SOUTHERLY DIALECT. 
Inhabited Modern Village Sites. 

dihflavabe, from dl'hl, village, la, place, and LaT>e, there, on 
the northeast bank of Cache creek at a point about a mile and a 
half nearly due north of the town of Rumsey in Capay valley. 
This village consists of six houses and about twenty inhabitants, 
some of whom claim this immediate vicinity as their old home 
while others have more recently moved here from the Sacramento 
river about Colusa and northward. This village was formerly 
located at a point about half a mile farther up stream on the same 
side of the creek. It was known by this same name at that time 
as well. 

Lit, ground squirrel, at a point about two miles and a half 
west of the old village of mdnma'La upon the site of which stands 
the ranch house on what is known as the Smith Eakle ranch in 
the lower part of Cortina valley. This village is located in the 
hills near the north bank of a small stream flowing into Cortina 
creek, and consists of five houses and about thirty inhabitants. 
There is here also a large dance-house where dances are fre- 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indian*. 291 

quently held, this being one of the very few places within the 
area under consideration in which some of the old ceremonial 
customs may yet be found. 

Cache Creek Ridge Sancheria, on the slope of the ridge im- 
mediately west of Bartlett creek, and at a point about a quarter 
of a mile from the creek, and about a mile and a half south of 
the confluence of Long Valley creek with it. The Tillage consists 
of five houses and about sixteen inhabitants, who formerly lived 
at the village at the head of Long Valley creek, but in 1901 moved 
to the present village which is situated on land belonging to them. 
There is here a small dance-house erected in 1902 ; but owing to 
the death of the old medicine-man who caused its erection and 
had charge of it, it was closed in the summer of 1903. 

Cache Creek Rancheria or U'bti, at the confluence of Bartlett 
and Long Valley creeks. This village consists of six houses and 
about thirteen inhabitants, some of whom came from the old 
village situated on the main stream of Cache creek at a point 
about a mile and a half down stream from the mouth of Bartlett 
creek. A few hundred yards down the creek from this place is 
the site of a former village bearing the same name. 

Long Valley Rancheria, at the head of Long valley on Long 
Valley creek. This village consists of three houses and about 
ten inhabitants. The Indians of this village, as also those living 
down the creek in Cortina and Capay valleys, gave lol-la, tobacco 
place, as the name of Long valley and vicinity, and lol-sel, tobac- 
co people, as the name applied to the people of this vicinity, 
which agrees substantially with Powers, who says,** 1 "In Long 
valley are the Lol-sel, or Lold-la; lol denotes 'Indian Tobacco,' 
and sel is a locative ending ; hence the name means ' Indian tobacco 
place,' applied first to the valley and then to the people in it." 
Powers seems to have obtained an incorrect translation for the 
ending sel, which, as above stated, signifies people. The name 
given to this vicinity by the Eastern Porno is na'wek or na'wik, 
which is undoubtedly the source of Slocum, Bowen and Com- 
pany's "Now-wa-ke-nah" of whom they say, M2 "The Now-wa-ke- 
nah tribe lived in Long valley and their number was one hundred 



■■ Tribes of Cal., p. 219. 
•* Op. cit., Lake Co., p. 36. 



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292 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol 6 

and twenty. There are probably thirty of them left. Li-e-ta 
was their chief." They also state m that the people living in the 
extreme lower end of Long valley were called "Kai-nap-o," which 
is very likely, since the name given to Cache creek by the Eastern 
Porno is xa'i-napo-bidame, wood village creek. This name, 
spelled "Khainapo" is also given by Purdy m as the name of the 
Cache creek people. The name given to Cache creek by the 
people living in the vicinity of Long valley is tce'npabe, teen 
signifying down or low. 

Eipher's Creek Rancheria, on Hipher's creek at a point about 
two and a half miles south of the town of Stonyford. It consists 
of four houses and about twelve inhabitants. In addition to the 
dwellings there is here a large dance-house which was built very 
recently. Dances are held here frequently during the winter. 

A family of three Indians have a house on the west bank of 
Indian creek at a point about three-quarters of a mile south of 
its confluence with Little Stony creek. This is directly across 
the creek from what is known as the Mt. Hope school-house. 
There is here also a small sudatory. 

kaba'lmem, Oather Rancheria, or Hennehey's, on the head- 
waters of Indian creek at a point about six miles northwest of the 
town of Leesville. This village consists of six houses and about 
twelve inhabitants, and is located on the Hennekey ranch. 

At a point about a mile southwest of the town of Sites there 
are two houses with three inhabitants. 

Old Village Sites. 

One of the first sections of the region north of San Francisco 
bay visited by the Franciscan missionaries was the southern part 
of the Wintun territory, with the result that virtually all of the 
Indians from the extreme southern part of that section were 
early induced to move to the missions. It has therefore been 
impossible to obtain very much explicit information concerning 
this southern section, as the few Indians left in Capay and Cor- 
tina valleys came originally from these places or still farther 
north. Owing to the very limited time spent with these people, 



••Ibid. 

•"Land of Sunshine, XV, 444, 1901. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 293 

the information concerning even the region this far north is 
by no means complete. There is no reason to believe, however, 
that the whole Wintun area was not very thickly populated prior 
to the Mexican and American occupations, and a more extended 
investigation of the central and northern parts of this area, about 
which information is still obtainable, will undoubtedly show many 
more village sites than are at present known. 

su'skol, on the east bank of Napa river probably at or near 
the present town of Suscol, which derives its name from the old 
Indian term. The Indians of this village are probably the ones 
referred to by Menef ee 8 * 5 by the name Susol. 

tu'luka, or tu'lukai, from fuluka, red, near the Napa State 
Hospital about two and one-half miles southeast of Napa City. 
In speaking of the Indians of Napa valley Taylor** 6 says, "Below 
the town of Napa live the Tulkays," which evidently refers to 
the people of this village, as does also Menefee's name "Ulri- 
cas." 865 Bancroft** 7 mentions both of these as if names of sep- 
arate villages, and it is possible that his "Tyugas," who, upon 
the authority of Taylor, he says "inhabited the vicinity of Clear 
lake and the mountains of Lake and Mendocino counties ,,S68 are 
the same people, as also those referred to by Powers* 8 * when he 
says, under the head of "Re-ho," "This was one name of the 
tribe in Pope valley, derived from a chief. They were also 
called by the Patwin Tu-lo-kai-di-sel." The name has been pre- 
served in Tulucay rancho, an old Mexican grant of two square 
leagues of land lying east of Napa City. 

tcime'niikme, at Napa City.* 70 

yu'lyul, about two miles south of Suisun City. 

hesa'ia, at Suisun City. This may be the same village re- 
ferred to by a Yukian Wappo informant as he'lepnomano and 

■• See note 308. 

**Cal. Farmer, Mar. 30, 1860. 

m Native Baces, I, 363, 452. 

»■ Ibid, p. 451. 

"•Tribes of Cal., p. 228. 

m The name Napa is said my Menefee (op. cit., p. 19) to be an Indian 
word signifying fish, but no such word has been found in the Wintun, Wappo 
or Moquelumnan languages. The word is used, however, by the Porno as 
the name of the detachable points of the aboriginal fish gig or harpoon, and it 
is possible that this is the origin of the word now used as the name of the 
town and river, though no direct evidence to this effect was obtained from 
informants. 



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294 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 

said to have been loeated only a very short distance north of 
Suisun City. 

Wwai, waving, at the town of Winters on the north bank of 
Putah creek. The same name was also applied to Putah creek, 
at least along its lower course. Powers* 71 gives "Ii-wai'-to" as 
the name of a people living "on Putah creek at the foot-hills," 
at the same time noting that the aboriginal name of Putah creek 
was "Li- wai'." This also is probably the origin of the name 
"Linayto'or Libayto" given by Engelhardt 87 * in his list of the 
Indians at Sonoma mission. 

ku'ndihi, on the north bank of Putah creek at a point probab- 
ly about eight miles up stream from the town of Winters. 

tdpa'idihi, from idpa'i, a word said by the Capay valley Win- 
tun to come from the language of the people about Napa, its sig- 
nificance being unknown to them, and dfhl, village. This village 
was very indefinitely located by the informant as on the west 
bank of Putah creek at a point about twenty miles up stream 
from the town of Winters. Powers m gives "To-pai'-di-sel" as 
the name of the people living in Berryessa valley and it seems 
very probable that this is correct. The site has therefore been 
provisionally located on the map near Monticello. 

yffdoi, probably at Knight's Landing on the west bank of the 
Sacramento river, although one informant placed it at a point 
about four miles west of that place. The significance of this 
name was unknown to the informants questioned. Miss Eathryn 
Simmons 874 writing from information furnished by early settlers 
of Yolo county, says that the "Yodos .... occupied the 
region in and about Knight's Landing, and their chief, Yodo, 
is well remembered by old settlers." The name Yolo is said to 
have originated from this Indian word. 

pulih'puluLabe, about three miles north of Woodland and but 
a short distance south of Cache creek. 

tcu'rupLabe, at the old town of Cacheville, now called Yolo. 

katcituUhabe, about four miles southwest of Yolo. 

mosff, in the northern part of the town of Capay. No exact 



m Tribes of CaL, p. 218. 

m Op. dt, p. 451. 

m Tribes of Cal., p. 219. 

m Woodland Daily Democrat, February 16, 1906. 



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1908] Barrett — The Bthno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 205 

translation could be obtained for this name, but it was said to 
refer to the fact that the people of this village painted about 
their mouths with black paint at times of dances. 

k?H, indefinitely located at a point probably about two miles 
a little north of west of the town of Tancred. 

imf Ivabe, from %m%% blackberry, and La'be, there, about one 
mile south of Guinda. 

tu'bi, near the west end of the bridge across Cache creek north 
of Bumsey. 

stftca, at the east end of the bridge across Cache creek north 
of Bumsey. This site is just north of the wagon road at this 
point and is now covered by an orchard. 

cRhflaLdbe, from dilil, village, la, place, La'be, there, on the 
northeast bank of Cache creek at a point about half a mile up 
stream from the present village of the Capay valley Indians 
north of Bumsey. This site was occupied until a few years ago 
when the Indians moved, at the request of the owner of the land 
to the present village. The same name is now applied to the 
present village. 

ho' pa, indefinitely located at a point probably about three 
miles west of Bumsey and about one mile south of Cache creek. 

te'bti, indefinitely located at a point probably about three and 
one-half miles west-northwest of Bumsey and near the south 
bank of Cache creek. This village bears the same name as the 
old village at the confluence of Long valley and Bartlett creeks. 

On the south bank of Cache creek, at a point about a mile 
and a half from the confluence of Bartlett creek with it, is the 
site of an old village the name of which was not learned, which 
was inhabited for some time after the coming of white settlers. 
Some of the former inhabitants of this village now live at the 
Cache creek rancheria, at the confluence of Long valley and 
Bartlett creeks. 

hd'ld'kome, on the east bank of Bartlett creek at a point rather 
indefinitely located as about two and a half miles up stream from 
the confluence of Bartlett creek with Cache creek. 

tffkti, near the west bank of Bartlett creek at a point about 
opposite the present Cache Creek Bidge rancheria which is back 
on the ridge a short distance west of the creek. 



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296 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 8 

te'&tt, at the confluence of Bartlett and Long Valley creeks, 
at a point a few hundred yards down stream from the pres- 
ent Cache Creek rancheria which also bears the same Indian 
name. There is another old village bearing this same name farth- 
er down Cache creek and near the point where Bear creek empties 
into it. 

suku', possibly from sukui, a kind of seed, in the southern end 
of Bear valley on Bear creek at a point about eight and one-half 
miles south of the town of Leesville. This site is near the ranch 
house on what is known as the Ingrham ranch. 

monma'uiy from mon, madrona (both tree and berries), ma'La, 
to bake, where the ranch house on what is known as the Smith 
Eakle ranch in Cortina valley stands. This ranch is in the lower 
end of what is called Cortina valley, which lies along the upper 
course of Cortina creek. 

to'idihi, from to'i, top, and diTii, village, at a point about a 
quarter of a mile south-southwest of monma'La. 

uWhabe, just west of to'idihi, and only about half a mile 
southwest of monma'La. 

iMa'dihi, about a mile east of the present village of Let in 
Cortina valley. 

baka'khabe, about half a mile east of Let, the present Cortina 
valley village. 

tcfftct, on the east bank of Cortina creek at a point about a 
quarter of a mile north of the bridge which crosses the creek near 
the ranch house on what is known as the Jean Vann ranch, now 
occupied by Joseph Mahhas. 

kedi'ruibe, at the ranch house on the Jean Vann ranch, now 
occupied by Joseph Mahhas. 

waika'u, near the west bank of Cortina creek at the old ranch 
house on what is known as the "old" Brasfield place, now owned 
by Mr. E. B. Armstrong. The people who occupied this site are 
said to have come originally from near Sites. 

ha'me, on the west bank of Cortina creek at a point about a 
quarter of a mile south of waika'u. 

koti'na, named from a former captain or chief, near the east 
bank of Cortina creek on what is known as the "old" Robert 
Williams place at a point about half a mile south of the house 



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1908] Barrett. — The Bthno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 297 

now occupied by Mr. A. L. Koessell. It is from this that Cortina 
valley and the three Cortina creeks take their name. 

tffpiabe, at a point probably about five miles north-northwest 
of the town of Sites. 

ta'waisak (Northern Porno dialect name), on the east bank of 
Little Stony creek at a point about two miles south of the con- 
fluence of Little and Big Stony creeks. 

pa'kauibe, on the low ridge between Little Stony and Indian 
creeks at their junction. When visited there were the remains 
of several large dance-house pits at this site. 

mitca'wtCLdbe, on the east bank of Little Stony creek at a 
point about four miles southwest of the confluence of Indian 
creek with it. 

kula'habe, on the east bank of Little Stony creek at a point 
about five and one-half miles southwest of the confluence of 
Indian creek with it. 

edfuibe, on the west bank of Indian creek at a point about 
three miles south of its confluence with Little Stony creek. 

mi'ducuibe, on the west bank of Indian creek opposite the 
post office of Lodoga at a point about four miles south of the 
confluence of Indian and Little Stony creeks. 

tcuhehne'mLabe, on the west bank of Indian creek at a point 
about five miles and a half south of its confluence with Little 
Stony creek. The ranch house on the Hennekey ranch now 
stands on this site. The informants said that they could not 
translate the word tcuhel. It is noteworthy, however, that this 
word is found in the Northerly Wintun dialect and there sig- 
nifies sand, ti'ki, an entirely different word, being used in the 
Southerly dialect. The remaining parts of this name, mem and 
LaTbe, signify water and place respectively. 

puku'mLabe, near Cook's Springs at the head of Indian creek. 

u'lak, at a point about a mile northwest of the extreme head 
of Indian creek. This site is on the ranch of Mr. William Love- 
lady. 

Old Camp Sites. 

kuna'w, indefinitely located at a point probably about three 
miles northwest of Tancred and about one mile north-northwest 
of the old village of kl'si. 



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298 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [VoL 6 

Sites Not Mentioned by Indians. 

In the vicinity of Winters on the lower course of Pntah creek 
there are a number of old village sites. The information concern- 
ing these old sites was obtained chiefly from Mr. Joseph Wolf- 
skill, an old resident of Winters and a descendant of one of the 
first settlers of the Wolfekill grant. This grant, a large tract 
of land along Putah creek, was granted to Mr. William Wolfskill 
in 1840 and was occupied by his brother Mr. John R. Wolfskill 
about 1842. At the time of the latter *s arrival here there were 
no Indians at all living along Putah creek, at least in this vicinity, 
having all been removed to the missions about San Francisco 
Bay by the Franciscan Fathers some years before. The first 
Indians to come into the neighborhood were some refugees from 
the mines in the Sierra Nevada mountains. A year or so after 
Mr. Wolfskill's arrival, he saw coming across the plains northeast 
of Winters a single Indian who, when he arrived, said that his 
people had become exhausted on the plains from their long and 
hard journey and that he had started for the creek to bring water 
to revive them. Mr. Wolfskill told the Indian to bring his peo- 
ple to his camp and that there they should be provided with food 
and shelter. 

Mr. Wolfskill *s camp was a tule house on the south bank of 
Putah creek at a point about four miles up stream from Winters 
and about three hundred yards west of the present residence of 
Mrs. M. A. H. Wolfskill. The Indians having been fed and well 
treated by Mr. Wolfskill told him that their old home was in 
this vicinity and asked that they might be permitted to go to 
Sonoma mission and return with their families and live upon his 
premises. This request Mr. Wolfskill very gladly granted with* 
the result that in a short time a village or rancheria of consider- 
able size was established immediately about his camp. Not long 
after the establishment of this village three other villages were 
established, one on the north bank of Putah creek almost directly 
opposite this village. This, however, was only a temporary vil- 
lage. Another and more permanent village was established on 
the property now owned by Mr. John Coop on the north bank of 
Putah creek at a point a mile and a half north-northwest of the 
first site. Mr. Joseph Wolfskill, who knew the Indians of this 



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1908] Barrett.— The Sthno-Oeography of the Porno Indians. 399 

village intimately, gays that they spoke a language quite different 
from those of the village already mentioned on the south bank of 
the creek, but it was impossible to determine anything concerning 
the exact differences between the languages. It is evident, how- 
ever, from the few words remembered by Mr. Wolfskill that the 
people of the village on the south bank of the creek were Wintun. 
The third village was located on the property of Mr. J. E. Sackett 
on the south bank of Putah creek at a point about two and a half 
miles northwest of Mr. Wolfskill *s camp. In addition to these 
villages there was another temporary village established at a point 
about four hundred yards down stream from the village at Mr. 
Wolfskill *s camp. This, however, was temporary and was in all 
particulars practically a part of the main village near by. 

In addition to these villages, occupied since the settlement of 
this vicinity, there are a number of older sites which were occu- 
pied before the Indians were removed to the missions. One of 
these is located on the Smeisner ranch on the south bank of Putah 
creek at a point about five miles east of Winters. Mr. Joseph 
Wolfskill, who mentioned this site, says that there is here a very 
well preserved dance-house pit as well as other evidences of an 
old village site. Another one of these old sites is located just 
across the river from the town of Winters, the residence of Mr. 
Wm. Baker now occupying a portion of it. The first residence 
built here was an adobe built by Mr. Matthew Wolfskill about 
1856. At that time there was a large dance-house pit here which 
he filled in in order to make a foundation for his house, and an 
Indian who worked for him at the time said that this site was 
inhabited within his memory. A third site is located on the 
property of Colonel Taylor on the south bank of Putah creek at 
a point about a mile and a quarter southwest of Winters. This 
site is located in an orchard to the north of the county road, but 
there is still visible here a depression where a dance-house for- 
merly stood. This was evidently a large village extending toward 
the east some distance along the creek. At a point about two 
miles and a half southwest of Winters and on the property of 
Mrs. M. A, H. Wolfskill is the site of still another old village. 
There are at present practically no visible signs of this village 
owing to the fact that the field in which it was situated has been 



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300 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [Vol 6 

cultivated for many years. Old residents say, however, that 
there were formerly a number of dance-house pits and various 
other evidences of an old village here. At a point about five 
miles from Winters and about a mile southwest of the more re- 
cent old village first mentioned, is the site of an old village about 
which little could be learned, it not having been inhabited at all 
recently. Still another old site, about which little could be 
learned, is located about five miles southwest of Winters and 
about a mile southeast of the last. 

On the west bank of Cache creek at a point about half a mile 
northwest of the town of Tancred is the site of an old village 
which, so far as could be learned, was formerly quite extensive. 

On the east bank of Long Valley creek at a point about four 
and a half miles up stream from its confluence with Bartlett 
creek is the site of an old village which, according to the oldest 
settler of this valley, had a population of about two hundred, 
thirty years ago, and was abandoned about twenty years ago. 
The remains of several large dance-house pits are plainly visible 
here at present. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Bthno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 301 



MOQUELUMNAN. 

The Moquelumnan or Miwok stock as at present determined 
occupies three separate, more or less isolated areas. Two of these, 
with which the present paper has to deal, are comparatively small 
and are situated north of San Francisco bay. The third or main 
area is much larger and is situated in the Sierra Nevada moun- 
tains east of San Joaquin river. To the inhabitants of this last 
named area Powers* 75 gave the name Miwok, a name which 
they applied to themselves. He says, "north of the Stanislaus 
they call themselves mi'-wok ('men or people') ; south of it to the 
Merced, mi'-wa; south of that to the Fresno, mi'-wi." Following 
Powers, Miwok has been and is now used quite generally to 
designate this particular branch of the family, and by some it is 
used synonymously with Moquelumnan as the name of the entire 
stock. On the map accompanying Powers' volume, however, 
neither of these terms appear; instead Mutsun, a term derived 
from the name of a Gostanoan village near San Juan Bautista 
Mission, is given as the stock name of a people inhabiting not 
only the area under consideration but also the entire territory 
westward to the ocean, along which it extended from the entrance 
to Tomales bay on the north to a point some distance south of 
Monterey bay on the south, thus including correctly the detached 
Moquelumnan area immediately north of San Francisco bay, and 
incorrectly the territory of the Costanoan and the northern part 
of the Yokuts area. Powell, however, on the map accompanying 
his "Indian Linguistic Families," corrects in a great measure 
these errors of territorial limits, and adopts Moquelumnan as the 
stock name. The name Moquelumnan as applied to a linguistic 
family is due to Dr. R. G. Latham, who in 1856 proposed Moquel- 
umne as a name for a group of languages spoken over a roughly 
defined area. He says, 87 * "Hale's vocabulary of the Talatui be- 
longs to the group for which the name Moquelumne is proposed, 



m Tribes of California, p. 346, 347. He first spelled the name Meewoe 
in Overland Monthly, April, 1873, p. 822. 

m Trans. PhiloL Soc, London, 1866, p. 81 j EL Comp. PhiL, p. 414. 



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802 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [VoL 6 

a Moquelumne Hill (in Calaveras county) and a Moquelumne 
Eiver being found within the area over which the languages be- 
longing to it are spoken. Again, the names of the tribes that 
speak them end in — mne, Chupumne, etc.*' The name received 
its present form from Powell 877 according to his principles of 
nomenclature, but it has also been spelled in various other ways : 
Mokalumne, Mokelumnees, Mukelemnes, Mukeemnes, and Muth- 
elemnes. 878 As to the origin of the name Powers says, "On the 
upper Merced the word 'river' is wa-ka'1-la; on the Upper 
Tuolumne, wa-kal-u-mi ; on the Stanislaus and Moquelumne, wa- 
ka'1-u-mi-toh. This is undoubtedly the origin of the word *Mo- 
kelumne,' which is locally pronounced mo-kal-u-my. ,> As has 
been previously stated, the term Miwok was adopted by Powers as 
the name of the people of the main Moquelumnan area for the 
reason, as he states, that it is a term used by themselves as a name. 
This, however, is not true of the three dialects of the family lo- 
cated north of San Francisco bay, and therefore can not be urged 
as a reason for including them under that name. Furthermore, 
in view of the fact that the term Miwok has come quite generally 
into use as the designation of the particular portion of the family 
east of San Joaquin river, confusion will probably be avoided by 
still restricting it to that area and using the more cumbersome, 
though at present generally accepted, term Moquelumnan to desig- 
nate the entire linguistic family. 

As has been stated there are in the region north of San Fran- 
cisco bay two areas occupied by people of the Moquelumnan 
family, and thus forming islands, as it were, separated by con- 
siderable distances from the main area of the stock which lies 
east of San Joaquin river. The larger of these two detached 
areas is situated immediately north of San Francisco bay and 
covers nearly all of Marin county together with the southern 
part of Sonoma and probably a very small portion of Napa coun- 
ties. Within this area there are people speaking two slightly 
different dialects, the Western or Bodega, occupying only the 
territory immediately adjacent to the shores of Bodega bay ; and 
the Southern or Marin, occupying the remainder of the territory. 



•" Ind. Ling. Fam., p. 92. 

"•Bancroft, Native Races, I, 450, 451. 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 303 

The second of the two isolated areas is occupied by people speak- 
ing a single dialect, the Northern or Lake, and lies on the head- 
waters of Putah creek and in the valley at the southern extremity 
of Lower lake (the southernmost arm of Clear lake) thus forming 
an isolated area about forty miles north of the Southern dialectic 
area.* 79 

WESTERN DIALECT. 

BOUNDARIES. 

Beginning on the coast at the mouth of Salmon creek, about 
three miles north of Bodega Head, the boundary of the Western 
or Bodega Moquelumnan dialectic area runs in a general easterly 
direction, following the course of Salmon creek, to a point about 
a mile southwest of the town of Freestone. Here it turns south- 
ward and runs to the town of Valleyford, where it turns south- 
westward and runs down the Estero Americano or Valleyford 
creek to the coast. The western boundary is the shore-line of the 
ocean. 

This very small area is contiguous on the north to the South- 
western and Southern Porno dialectic areas, and on the east and 
south to the Southern Moquelumnan area, while to the west lies 
the ocean. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

Along this section of the coast the mountains are very low 
and there are considerable areas of open land along the ocean. 
There is a sand beach stretching along almost the entire length 
of the shore-line within the Western dialectic area and it was 
along this beach that the principal villages were located, par- 
ticularly about the shores of Bodega bay. Here were excellent 

m The Northern or Lake Moquelumnan dialectic area has heretofore been 
regarded as Wintun and it is so designated on the linguistic map accompany- 
ing Powers' "Tribes of California." In the course of the present investi- 
gation, however, it was found that this area is inhabited by a people speak- 
ing a Moquelumnan dialect, closely related to, though quite distinct from, 
the Southern and Western dialects immediately north of San Francisco bay. 
Powers in speaking of the Wintun, says: "In the head of Napa valley were 
the Wappo, and in Pope and Coyote valleys there was spoken a language now 
nearly, if not quite, extinct." This statement would seem to have been 
based on indefinite information concerning the Coyote valley language, but 
the area is included within the limits of the Wintun territory on the map 
accompanying his work. The fact that this area is occupied by a people 
speaking a Moquelumnan dialect was noted in the American Anthropologist, 
n.s., V, p. 730, 1903. 



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304 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

fishing places, and clams were abundant around the bay. The 
shell of one species of clam, found abundantly here, and said by 
the Indians to be found nowhere else along the coast, furnishes 
the material for the white clam-shell beads of this entire region 
and was formerly traded to the neighboring peoples, especially 
the Porno, among whom, according to the Indians, the art of bead 
making was most perfected. In addition to the coast villages 
there were villages in the small valley about Bodega Corners, and 
there were numerous places in the hills where camps were made 
during the seasons of food gathering. 

The former inhabitants of this dialectic area are almost en- 
tirely gone, there being not more than four or five full-bloods 
left. These live at the mouth of Russian river. 

Old Village Sites. 

Out on the sand spit which, on the south, shuts off Bodega 
bay from the ocean, is the site of an old village the name of which 
could not be learned. This village has probably not been in- 
habited for thirty-five or forty years. 

himeta'gala, from hl'me, shell fragments, and ia'gala, high, on 
the mesa at the southeastern extremity of Bodega bay. 

helapa'ttai, on the northeastern shore of Bodega bay at a 
point about two miles from the entrance to the bay. This site 
is just south of Jinancy's store and landing. 

hota'kala, from hofa'kala, up the hill, on the northeastern 
shore of Bodega bay at a point nearly due north of the entrance 
to the bay. It is about a quarter of a mile north of Jinancy's 
store and landing. 

tffkau, from foTsati, small bone whistle, on the western shore 
of Bodega bay at a point almost due east of Bodega Head. 
Bodega bay is cut off from the ocean on the west by a low rocky 
peninsula. The bay shore on the inner or eastern side of this 
peninsula is a sandy beach which is backed for a considerable 
distance, especially in the northern part, by sand dunes. It is 
on this shore of the bay at a point about a mile from the southern 
extremity of the peninsula that Wkati was situated. 

ke'nnekono, at the town of Bodega Corners. 

su'wutene, from sti'wu, pocket gopher, and te'ne, chest, on the 



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1908] Barrett— The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 306 

Captain Smith ranch, known also as the Adobe ranch, about one 
mile north of the town of Bodega Corners. 

Old Camp Sites. 

lakkenhu'tye, from laTcken, a gap between two hills, and 
hu'Iye, point, on the western shore of the northern extremity of 
Bodega bay. 

tauwakpu'lok, from faii'wak, shoulder, and pSlok, pond or 
lake, on the shore of a small pond which lies about three-quarters 
of a mile north of the northern shore of Bodega bay. 

SOUTHERN DIALECT. 

BOUNDARIES. 

Beginning on the coast at the mouth of the Estero Ameri- 
cano or Valleyf ord creek, the boundary of the Southern or Marin 
Moquelumnan dialectic area follows the course of that stream to 
the town of Valleyford. Here it turns northward and runs to 
Salmon creek which it strikes at a point about a mile southwest 
of the town of Freestone. This portion of the boundary separ- 
ates the Southern from the very small Western dialectic area. 
It then follows Salmon creek to a point about a mile and a half 
north of the town of Freestone. Here it turns in an easterly di- 
rection, running through the range of low hills between Freestone 
and Sebastopol and then along the water-shed separating the 
Russian river and San Pablo bay drainages,* 80 to a point between 
the headwaters of Sonoma and Santa Rosa creeks. This portion 
of the boundary separates the Southern Moquelumnan from the 
Southern Porno area. From here, turning in a general south- 
easterly direction, the boundary passes just north of Glen Ellen 
and runs probably to the ridge separating the drainage of 
Sonoma creek from that of Napa river, throughout which course 
it separates the Southern Moquelumnan and the Yukian Wappo 
areas. It probably then passes in a southerly direction down this 
ridge to the northern shore of San Pablo bay,* 81 thus separating 
Moquelumnan from Wintun territory. The remainder of the 



•" See note 107. 
m See note 101. 



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806 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

eastern boundary of this area is the shore of San Pablo and San 
Francisco bays as far as to the Golden Gate. The western bound- 
ary is the shore-line of the ocean. 

North of the Southern Moquelumnan dialectic area lie the 
Western Moquelumnan, the Southern Porno and the Yukian 
Wappo areas; and on the east are Southerly Wintun territory, 
and San Pablo and San Francisco bays. On the west it extends 
to the ocean except at the northwestern extremity where the 
Western Moquelumnan dialectic area adjoins it. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

The natural divisions of this area may be designated as the 
coast region, comprising all of the drainage along the immediate 
coast-line of the ocean, and the valley region, comprising all 
the drainage of San Pablo and San Francisco bays included with- 
in the limits of this dialectic area. The immediate shore-line of 
the ocean is formed by high cliffs, while the country for several 
miles back consists of a range of hills and mountains of heights 
varying from that of the low hills in the northern part of the area 
to 2592 feet on Mt. Tamalpais just north of the Golden Gate. 
This comparatively low range separates the coast and valley 
regions. The two chief portions of the latter, lying respectively 
along Petaluma and Sonoma creeks, are separated from each 
other only by a range of very low open hills. Petaluma valley 
is a broad open valley and forms a continuous plain with Santa 
Bosa valley immediately north of it along the lower course of 
Russian river, the two valleys being separated only by an almost 
imperceptible swell which forms the water-shed between Russian 
river and the streams which drain into San Pablo bay. Between 
Petaluma and the Golden Gate there are several smaller valleys. 
The area is only sparsely wooded, particularly in Petaluma and 
Sonoma valleys and the surrounding hills ; but there were in for- 
mer times enough oaks to furnish sufficient acorns to form, to- 
gether with the seeds of the grasses of the open country, the 
vegetable foods of the people. The ocean furnished fish and 
molluscs, particularly in and about Tomales bay, and game of all 
kinds was formerly abundant in the hills. There is no definite 
knowledge obtainable concerning fishing and other rights on the 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 307 

waters of San Francisco and San Pablo bays, but from all that 
can be gathered it seems probable that these were neutral grounds 
and that the Indians of the region all had equal rights in these 
waters off shore. So far as can be learned none of the islands 
of San Francisco bay were permanently inhabited. 

COAST DIVISION. 

There are at present only about six full-blood Indians speak- 
ing this dialect. They lived formerly about the town of Marshall 
on Tomales bay and for a number of years prior to 1904 made 
their home on a ranch near Bodega Corners, but are at present 
residing not far from Windsor in the Russian River valley. 

Old Village Sites. 

Owing to the fact that almost all of the former inhabitants 
of this area have disappeared and that the few who remain have 
been long removed from the old villages or were born at one of 
the missions and have, therefore, no first hand knowledge con- 
cerning the old villages, it has been unusually difficult to obtain 
accurate information, and so far it has been impossible to obtain 
full knowledge concerning the old sites. 

At Bolinas bay is the site of an old village the name of which 
has been forgotten by the informant. According to another in- 
formant there are no old village sites along the coast-line from 
the town of Sausalito to Point Reyes (tamal-hulye, bay point). 
This, however, seems very improbable. Taylor* 82 says, "The Bol- 
lanos and Tamales, Tamallos, or Tamalanos, had rancherias on 
Reed's farm, Bollenos Bay, Tamales Bay, Punto de los Reyes and 
their vicinities, and probably as far up as Bodega Bay, . . ," 
and Bancroft 88 * states that "on the ocean coast of Marin county 
were the Bolanos and Tamales.' 9 

dlemdlffke, from die, coyote, and lo'klo or l'okla, valley, near 
the town of Olema at the southern extremity of Tomales bay. 
Kostromitonow, who was for seven years director of the Russian 
colony at Fort Ross, says that the Indians of the vicinity of 



•■ Cal. Farmer, March 30, 1860, p. 50. 
•■ Native Baces, III, 363. 



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308 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

Bodega were known by the name "Olamentke,"" 4 which was, he 
says further,* 86 the name which they applied to themselves. Ban- 
croft 886 and Powers 867 both mention this name upon the authority 
of Kostromitonow. Engelhardt 888 applies the name "Oiemo- 
choe" to San Antonio, but without giving any particulars as to 
the reference. It seems probable from the context, however, that 
the "Rancho Laguna de San Antonio" which was located south- 
west of Petaluma and about midway between that place and To- 
males bay, is referred to, although there are also two creeks in 
this vicinity which bear the name: Arroyo San Antonio, and 
San Antonio creek. It is likely that the names Olamentke and 
Olemochoe, as also that of the present town of Olema, are derived 
from the name of the Indian village under consideration. 

etcaJco'lum, on the eastern shore of Tomales bay at a point 
about two miles south of the town of Marshalls. 

cdtffmkowi, or seklo'ke, on the eastern shore of Tomales 889 bay 
at a point a short distance south of the town of Tomales at the 



M K. E. von Baer and Or. von Heknersen, Beitrage zur Kenntniss des 
Bussischen Beiches, I, 80. 

••Ibid., p. 233. 

"* Native Baces, I, 449. 

m Tribes of CaL, p. 537. 

"* Op. cit., p. 442. 

"• In the Moquelumnan ta'mal, a general term meaning bay, is undoubt- 
edly to be found the source of various names in this vicinity which are now 
rendered Tomales, as follows: Tomales Point, Tomales bay, the town of 
Tomales, the rancho Balsa de Tomales, and the rancho Tomales y Baulines, 
as also Mount Tamalpais, which is an original Indian name for that 
mountain and is derived from ta'mal, bay, and pa'is, mountain. One 
informant speaking the Southern Moquelumnan dialect also gave the 
mountain the name palemus, but Tamalpais seems to have been the name 
most used by the Indians in former times. The change of ta'mal to tomales 
is probably due to Spanish influence. As before stated the Moquelumnan 
word ta'mal means bay, but this general term may be modified by terms of 
direction so as to designate a particular one, as, olom-tamal, south bay, 
which is the name given to Tomales bay by the Indians living in the vicinity 
of Bodega bay. The word in various forms was used as the name of the In- 
dians about Tomales and Bodega bays. Yon Kotzebue (South Sea, HI, 51) 
uses "Tamal," as do also Powers (Tribes of Cat, p. 195) and Engelhardt 
(op. cit., p. 451). Gibbs (Schoolcraft, III, 102) speaks of the "Tumaleh- 
nias", and Taylor (CaL Farmer, March 2, I860) calls them "Tamales, Ta- 
mallos, or Tamalanos," while Bancroft (Native Baces, I, 352) gives the 
names "Tomales^ Tamales, Tamallos, and Tamalanos." There is, however, 
no information given as to the exact locations of any of the villages inhabited 
by the people spoken of by these authors and it is to be supposed that the 
terms were general and applied to the people of that portion of the coast 
region about Tomales bay rather than specifically to any certain villages. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indiana. 309 

entrance to the bay. This is probably near the north bank of 
the Arroyo San Antonio, sometimes called Salmon creek. 

e'wapaii, near the town of Valleyford. 

oye'yomi, from o'ye, coyote, and yd'mi, place, at the town of 
Freestone. The grammar school building at Freestone stands 
on this site. Ole'yome, the name of one of the villages on Putah 
creek in the Northern dialectic area, is the same name with the 
dialectic change of y to 1, and Engelhardt's 8 * "Oleomi," who 
were among the converts at Sonoma mission may have come from 
either of these villages. 

paka'huwe, on the site of the town known as Old Freestone. 
One informant speaking the Western Moquelumnan dialect gave 
potawaiyoak, from po'tola, white, and yoa, earth or ground, 
named because of white dust or rocks at the site, as the name of a 
village at or near Freestone. 

VALLEY DIVISION. 

Old Village Sites. 

awa'niwi, at San Rafael. This site is located in the northern 
part of town. 

e'wu, at a point about three miles north of San Rafael. 

cdtomko'tca, at a point four and a half miles north of San 
Rafael. 

puyu'ku, at a point about a mile south of the town of Ignacio. 
This village is said by another informant to have been located 
near Pacheco, a station on the North Shore railroad at a distance 
of about five miles southwest of Ignacio. 

tcoke'ttce, at the foot of the low hills about half a mile south 
of the town of Novato. The vicinity of this village was early 
known as Novato, a term evidently derived from the Spanish 
colloquialism, novato or novata, signifying new or anything 
just begun. There were two Mexican land grants bearing this 
name, the Rancho Corte Madre de Novato and the Rancho de 
Novato, upon the second of which the later town of Novato was 
located. 801 The Indians of this vicinity seem also to have been 
known by the name of Novato. 392 



• Op. cit., p. 451. 

1 Dodge, Official Map of Marin County, California, 1892. 

1 Engelhardt, op. cit., p. 442. 



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310 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

dldmpfflll, at a point about five miles a little east of south of 
the town of Petaluma. This was evidently an important village 
and is often mentioned by early writers. Hittell m in recounting 
the trip taken by the party sent out from San Francisco in 1823 
to select a site for a new mission, says, "they crossed over to San 
Rafael and thence marched by way of a large Indian village 
called Olompali, to the neighborhood of what is now Petaluma." 
Bancroft," 4 upon the authority of Payeras, who wrote in 1818, 
says that "Olompali" was six leagues from San Rafael mission, 
and that the "Canada de los Olompalies" was visible from a hill 
near the mission. 896 Engelhardt 896 also speaks of this village, 
and von Kotzebue 897 mentions the "Guymen, Utschiun, Olumpali, 
Soclan, and Sonomi," and says of them that they "speak all one 
language; they are the most numerous of any in the mission of 
San Francisco." Powell 898 includes the "Olumpali" in his list 
of what he terms the Olamentke division of the Moquelumnan 
family. 

wotoki, on the west bank of Petaluma creek probably near 
what is known as Donahue's landing at a point about three miles 
and a half southeast of Petaluma. 

mele'ya, on San Antonio creek at a point probably about three 
miles and a half west-southwest of Petaluma. 

amaye'tte, on San Antonio creek at a point probably about 
five miles west-southwest of the town of Petaluma. 

e'tem, at the town of Petaluma. 899 

petalu'ma, from pe'ta, flat, and lu'ma, back, on a low hill east 
of Petaluma creek at a point probably about three and one-half 
miles a little north of east of the town of Petaluma. It would 
seem that this was a fairly large and important village. The 
hill, itself called petalu'ma, upon which the village was located, 
is a prominent feature of the landscape, and the name was given 



"•Hist. CaL, I, 496. 
** History of Cal., II, 331, note 19. 
"•Ibid., p. 331. 
"• Op. cit., p. 442. 
■" South Sea, III, 51. 
** Op. cit, p. 93. 

"•According to Thompson (Hist, of Sonoma County, p. 10) the Indian 
name of the site where Petaluma now stands was ' ' Chocuali. ' ' 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 311 

to a land grant, the Petaluma rancho, 400 comprising 66,622 acres 
and bounded by Sonoma and Petaluma creeks on the east and 
west respectively, thus including the hill peialu'ma and the broad 
plain adjacent. All circumstances tended toward the preserva- 
tion of the name, and it is now found as the name of a town, a 
creek, a township and a school district. Gibbs 401 mentions the 
"Petaluma valley" and Taylor 402 speaks of "the Petalumas or 
the Yolhios" as a people who lived near the town of Petaluma, 
as does also Bancroft, 408 who, however, says, probably referring 
to the days of the missions, that they with several other peoples 
lived in Sonoma valley. Bancroft 404 also mentions, quoting from 
old mission records, "Petlenum or Petaluma" as the name of one 
of the old rancherias, and Engelhardt 40 * gives "Petaluma" in 
his list of the peoples at Sonoma mission. According to one in- 
formant tule'yome, the name applied to a creek near this village 
site, was also applied to the village itself in addition to the name 
peJalu'ma. 

tutcaiye'lin, at a point about a mile northwest of the town of 
Petaluma. 

tu'bne, at a point about three miles northwest of Petaluma. 

siisu'U, at a point about four miles northwest of Petaluma. 

payine'tca, or dona'nto (Southern Porno dialect name), in- 
definitely located at a point about ten miles northwest of Petal- 
uma and about three and a half miles a little south of west of 
Cotati. 

uWyomi, or atcamotco'tcatui (Southern Porno dialect name), 
indefinitely located at a point probably about eleven miles north- 
west of Petaluma and about four miles west of Cotati. 

kota'tt, just north of the town of Cotati. The name of this 
village has been perpetuated in Cotate Rancho, an old Mexican 
land grant of 17,238 acres 406 situated in the vicinity of where the 
town of Cotati now stands. Concerning this name Thompson 407 

400 Bowers' Map of Sonoma County, 1882. 

m Schoolcraft, in, 101. 

"■ California Farmer, March 30, 1860. 

*" Native Baces, I, 363. 

m Ibid., p. 453. 

"Op. cit, p. 452. 

"•Bowers' Map of Sonoma County, 1882. 

m Central Sonoma, p. 3, footnote. 



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812 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [VoL 6 

says, "Cotate is an Indian word, of which we have* no definition. 
Cotate Peak is the original name of the crest near Santa Rosa, 
known as Taylor mountain." 

hu'tci, near the plaza in the town of Sonoma. It is apparent- 
ly from hu'tci that the old "Huichica Rancho,"** 8 derived its 
name. This is probably, also, the village referred to by Hit- 
tell 40 * as the one upon the former site of which the Sonoma mis- 
sion was built. Although with the founding of the mission in 
1823 many Indians from the neighboring country were brought 
in to Sonoma, 410 almost all have now disappeared, so that very 
little information is obtainable from the Indians concerning the 
old villages or the early conditions in this region. These Indians, 
brought to the mission by the Franciscan Fathers, soon lost their 
identity and true name, at least so far as any records are con- 
cerned, and were all known as the Sonoma or Sonomi Indians, 
also called Sonomellos, probably from the Spanish Sonomeno, 
which names are used almost universally by early writers. 
Gibbs, 411 however, states that the "Tcho-ko-yem" were a people 
formerly living in Petaluma valley, but at the time of his writing 
in Sonoma valley, and he gives a vocabulary of their language 
which is clearly Moquelumnan. The name, probably originally 
that of a single village, gained a wider significance, being used 
by Gibbs to designate all the Indians in the region from San Ra- 



408 The Huichica rancho is an old Mexican grant consisting of five and 
one-half square leagues of land southeast of Sonoma and southwest of Napa 
City. It was granted to Mr. Jacob P. Leese in two parts, one in 1841, the 
other in 1846.— -Slocum, Bowen and Company, op. cit., Napa county, p. 51; 
Bowers' Map of Sonoma County, 1882. 

m History of Cal., I. 498. 

410 Concerning the Indians at Sonoma mission Engelhardt says : ' ' The dif- 
ferent tribes of Indians that furnished converts were the Aloquiomi, Ateno- 
mac, Conoma, Carquin, Canijolmano, Caymus, Chemoco, Chichoyoni, Chocu- 
yem, Coyayomi or Joyayomi, Huiluc, Huymen, Lacatiut, Loaquiomi, Idnayto 
or Libayto, Locnoma, Mayacma, Muticulmo, Malaca, Napato, Oleomi, Putto 
or Putato, Palnomanoc, Paque, Petaluma, Suisun, Satayomi, Soneto, Tolen, 
Tlayacma, Tamal, Topayto, TJlulato, Zaclom, Utinomanoc." (Op. cit., p. 
451.) It is possible at present to locate only a portion of the ''tribes" or 
Tillages given in this list, but from those identifiable it is evident that In- 
dians were brought to this mission from as far west as the coast, at Tomales 
and Bodega bays, as far north as Coyote valley on the headwaters of Putah 
creek, as far east as the west bank of the Sacramento river, and as far south 
as the northern shore of San Pablo bay, and it is quite probable that among 
the unidentifiable names are some from beyond these regions, particularly 
toward the south and east. 

*" Schoolcraft, III, 421. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indiana. 313 

fael mission northward to Santa Rosa and eastward as far as 
Suscol, and by others in a still broader sense, as the name of 
a division of what they termed the Olamentke (Moquelumnan 
stock) and comprising all the Indians found in both Petaluma 
and Sonoma valleys. This latter broad significance is probably 
due to the mingling at Sonoma mission of the original "Tcho-ko- 
yem" people with those from various other villages. Probably 
with Gibbs as authority some later writers mention the "Tcho- 
koyem," 412 "Chokuyem," 418 and "Chocuyens." 414 

The name Sonoma it has been stated 415 is of Spanish origin, 
and is the name given by the first missionary at Sonoma to the 
"chief" of the Indians there and later applied to all the Indians 
at the mission. 416 Prom Indian sources it seems that there was a 
captain among them who was commonly called Sonoma, but whose 
Indian name was hd'ipus-folopo'kse, from ho'ipus, captain, and 
*6'ldpo, to respond. His native language was Southern Moquel- 
umnan. That the name Sonoma is of Spanish origin seems very 
doubtful, however, since there is no such Spanish word and no 
word from which this would have been easily corrupted. There 
is, however, in the village names of the Yukian Wappo dialect, 
the territory of which extends to within a few miles of Sonoma, a 
constantly recurring ending -tso'noma, derived from tso, earth 
or ground, and no'ma, village, as micewal-tso'nSma ; and it seems 
probable that this is the true source of the name Sonoma. The 
name is now in extensive use, there being a county, town, town- 
ship, school district, and creek all bearing it. 

te'mblek, at a point about a mile and a half west of the town 
of Sonoma. The people of this village are probably the ones 
referred to by Taylor 417 when he says, "The Timbalakees lived on 
the west side of Sonoma valley. ' ' Bancroft 418 upon the authority 
of Taylor, mentions the same people. 

iuVC, in the hills west of Sonoma creek and at a point probably 



*" Bancroft, Native Races, I, 450. 

*" Powers, Tribes of CaL, p. 195. 

•"Tuthill, History of CaL, p. 301; Thompson, Sonoma County, p. 8. 

«• Gibbs, Schoolcraft, m. 421. 

**• Thompson, Sonoma County, p. 8. 

'"California Farmer, March 30, 1860. 

m Native Baces, I, 450. 



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314 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 

about three miles west of the town of Sonoma. Very indefinitely 
located. 

wugUfwa, near Agua Caliente. 

lumenta'kala, in the hills forming the divide between the So- 
noma and Santa Rosa creek drainages, and at a point probably 
a short distance south of the Pomo-Moquelumnan interstock 
boundary. Very indefinitely located. 



NORTHERN DIALECT. 419 

BOUNDARIES. 

Beginning at a point on Cache creek about four miles from 
its source, the southernmost end of Clear lake, the boundary of 
the Northern or Lake Moquelumnan dialectic area runs in a gen- 
eral southeasterly direction, probably along the ridge between 
Jerusalem Valley and Morgan Valley creeks, crosses the latter 
near the confluence of the two, and passes through the hills east 
of Jerusalem valley to Putah creek, which it crosses at a point 
about five miles east of Guenoc. Prom here it runs for a short 
distance in the same direction, and then, turning in a southwest- 
erly direction, it runs to a point probably about eight miles north- 
east of Mt. St. Helena. East of this portion of the boundary 
lies the Southerly Wintun area. At this point the boundary 
turns in a northwesterly direction and runs through the moun- 
tains and into Coyote valley to a point about three miles north- 
east of Middletown and about a mile and a half southwest of 
Guenoc. Turning then in a westerly direction it runs through 
Coyote valley, crossing Putah creek, and passes to the summit of 
Cobb mountain. This portion of the boundary separates the 
Northern Moquelumnan from the Yukian Wappo area. It here 
turns and runs in a general northerly direction, following up the 
range connecting Cobb mountain with Mt. Kanaktai, to a point 
just east of the headwaters of Cole creek where it turns in a gen- 
eral easterly direction and runs through the foot-hills to the 
southern extremity of Lower Lake, and thence to Cache creek, 
down which it runs for about four miles to the point of starting. 



"• See note 379. 



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1908] Barrett — The Bthno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 315 

Prom CoBb mountain on to its northeastern extremity the bound- 
ary separates the Northern Moquelumnan from the Eastern and 
Southeastern Porno dialectic areas. 

To the north of the Northern Moquelumnan dialectic area 
lies the Southeastern Porno area, to the east is Wintun territory, 
and to the south the territory of the Yukian Wappo, while on the 
west the Eastern Porno area adjoins it. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

This area may be separated into the Coyote Valley 420 or Putah 
Creek 421 division, lying along Putah creek ; and the Lower Lake 
division, comprising the valley at the southern end of Lower lake 
with the surrounding mountains. Coyote valley is a narrow val- 
ley about four miles in length and extending as far down stream 
as a point a short distance east of the present Indian village of 
hukuliyume. It is surrounded by low brush-covered hills with 
the higher mountains in the distance. In these hills are several 
small valleys which, like Coyote valley, are very fertile and were 
in former times inhabited by the Indians. Lower Lake valley 
extends southward from the lake shore as far as the town of 
Lower Lake. The portion of it which lies along the lake shore 
is marshy and unfit for habitation, but it formerly afforded good 
hunting grounds for the Indians. In the southern part of the 
valley, as also in the part lying along the bank of Cache creek, 
are desirable sites for habitations and it was here that the old 
villages were located. This valley is surrounded by sparsely 



*" Coyote valley is also known by that name in the languages of some of 
the surrounding Indians. The Eastern Porno name of the valley is gunula- 
xaxoi, and the Southeastern Porno name is kll'win-xoi, both of which mean 
literally coyote valley. 

m The name Putah is not, as is often supposed, of Indian origin, but 
comes from the Spanish puta, meaning a harlot, and the name Putos was, 
according to Powers (Tribes of California, p. 219), applied by the early 
Spaniards to the Indians along lower Putah creek and later to the creek itself 
as well as to two land grants in Solano county. The word as the name of 
Indians has also been given by Engelhardt (op. cit, p. 451) as "Putto or 
Putato." The Wintun living on the lower course of this creek call it 
li'wai, which signifies waving, and by some it is said that there was for- 
merly a village on the north bank of the creek in the neighborhood of Win- 
ters which bore the same name. This village is probably the source of peo- 
ple called "Liwaito" by Powers (Tribes of California, p. 218), and "Linay- 
to or Liba^" by Engelhardt (op. cit., p. 451). Powers also states (Ibid) 
that the aboriginal name of Putah creek was ' ' Li-wai. ' ' 



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316 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 

wooded hills with higher mountains in the distance. To the west 
the range connecting Mt. Kanaktai with Mt. St. Helena rises to a 
considerable height, and on the south there is a lower though 
fairly high range, which separates the drainage of Lower lake 
from that of Putah creek. The inhabitants of Coyote valley as 
well as those in the immediate vicinity of Lower lake derived an 
important portion of their food supply from the lake where fish 
and water birds were abundant. Game of all kinds was also 
formerly very plentiful in the surrounding mountains. While 
the people speaking the Northern Moquelumnan dialect owned 
the lake shore only at the southern extremity of Lower lake itself, 
they were on very friendly terms with their Porno neighbors, who 
allowed them full hunting and fishing privileges on this arm of 
Clear lake, at least in its southern part. 

PUTAH CREEK DIVISION. 

Inhabited Modern Village Sites. 

huku'hyume or stwfyome, on the south bank of Putah creek 
at a point about a mile and a half down stream from Guenoc. 
This village consists of six houses and about twenty-five inhab- 
itants, and is the only inhabited village in this dialectic area. It 
was established about thirty years ago, its inhabitants coming 
from the old village of oie'yome about three miles and a half up 
stream. In addition to the dwellings there is here a small dance- 
house, now partly in ruins. 

Old Village Sites. 

cd'yome, on the south bank of Putah creek at a point about 
three and one-half miles down stream from Guenoc. This may 
be the village referred to as "Coyayomi or Joyayomi" by Engel- 
hardt 422 in his enumeration of the "tribes of Indians that fur- 
nished eon verts" at Sonoma mission. 

kebu'lpukut, on the shore of a small wet-weather lake about 
two miles and a half southeast of Guenoc. 

tumi'stumis, on the banks of a small tributary of Putah creek 
at a point about two miles and a half northeast of Guenoc. 



* Op. cit., p. 451. 



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1908] Barrett.~-The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 317 

dle'yome, from die, coyote, and yo'me, place, on the north 
bank of Putah creek at a point about a mile and three-quarters 
up Btream from Guenoc. This site has not been inhabited for 
about thirty years, the Indians having moved at that time to the 
present village of htikuTiyume about three miles and a half down 
stream. The name 6y€'yomi, of a village near Freestone in the 
Southern dialectic area, is the same as that of this village with 
the dialectic change of 1 to y. 5'le and o'ye, signifying coyote, 
enter very frequently into Moquelumnan names, as ole-ami- 
wu'we, coyote, ?, creek, which is the Northern Moquelumnan name 
of Putah creek. It seems probable that the Indians referred to 
by Taylor 428 and later by Bancroft 424 as the "Guenocks" lived 
in and about Coyote valley, although it is impossible to give them 
an exact location as apparently the name was never used by the 
Indians themselves. Neither is it, so far as can be ascertained, 
of Spanish origin, though it is used in the name of the old Mex- 
ican grant, the Guenoc Rancho, 425 and there is now in Coyote 
valley a small post office bearing this name. Slocum, Bowen and 
Company 426 give "koo-noo-la-ka-koi" as the name of the people 
living in Coyote valley. This is simply the Eastern Porno name 
of Coyote valley, but the people specifically referred to may have 
been those of the village of dle'yome. The "Oleomi" mentioned 
by Engelhardt 427 as among the "tribes that furnished converts" 
at Sonoma mission may refer to the people of this village or to 
those of Sye'yomi near Freestone in the Southern dialectic area. 

LOWER LAKE DIVISION. 

Old Village Sites. 

ka'wlyome, on the south bank of Cache creek at a point about 
a mile and a half down from its source, and about the same 
distance from the town of Lower Lake. 



m Calif ornia Farmer, March 30, 1860. 

-•Native Baces, I, 363, 451. 

""This grant was obtained by Mr. George Both in 1845, and contained 
six square leagues of land in Coyote valley and the adjacent territory along 
the headwaters of Putah creek. — Slocum, Bowen and Company, op. cit., Lake 
county, p. 46. 

m Op. cit, Lake county, p. 36. 

m Op. cit., p. 451. 



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318 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

tsftsapogut or ka'tcululukuwan (Southeastern Porno dialect 
name), in the northwestern part of the town of Lower Lake. 
This site is near the Scottman residence just north of the wagon 
bridge at Lower Lake. 

tu'leyome, at a point about two miles south of the town of 
Lower Lake. This site is located in the low hills south of Lower 
Lake and is on the east side of the county road on what is called 
the Dock Murphy ranch. 



COSTANOAN. 

A little information concerning the Indians who lived about 
the southern end of San Francisco bay was obtained from an old 
Moquelumnan woman whose early life was spent chiefly at San 
Rafael mission, but who lived for about a year on a ranch at 
Agua Caliente, near San Jose. She knows nothing of the lan- 
guage of the people farther south than San Jos6, but says that 
the people of San Francisco, Oakland and all of the Santa Clara 
valley as far south as San Jos6 spoke a language called polye, 
of which she was able to give a very limited vocabulary. The 
vocabulary is clearly Costanoan. The same informant says that 
during the days of the San Francisco mission people speaking a 
different language were brought over from the San Joaquin 
valley and settled on the eastern shore of San Francisco bay. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 319 

GLOSSARY. 
INDIAN TERMS FROM WHICH PLACE NAMES ARE DERIVED. 

Only such terms as were actually translated by the Indians 
themselves in speaking of the various place names are here given, 
and the bracketed initials following each definition indicate the 
stock and dialect to which the definition belongs. This does not 
mean, however, that this is the only dialect of the stock in which 
the term occurs with this meaning. The large initial indicates 
the stock, viz.: P, Pomo; T, Tuki; A, Athapascan; W, Wintun, 
and M, Moquelumnan. The small initials indicate dialects, viz.: 
n, Northern ; c, Central ; e, Eastern ; w, Wappo and Western ; y, 
Yuki Proper; s, Southern; se, Southeastern; etc. 

a"ca, fish [Ps, sw]. 

a'ka or a"ka, water or spring [Ps, sw], 

a'ma, ground [Ps, sw]. 

ama'li, flat ground (f) [Psw], 

a'mu, behind [Pc, b]. 

annako'ta, bull snake [Yw], 

a'nS, behind [Pc]. 

a n s, red [Yy]. 

a'tca, man [Psw]. 

atcT, sedge [Psw]. 

ba, tail [Pn]. 

ba'ca, buckeye [Ps]. 

ba'ce, buckeye [Psw]. 

bad8', flat [Pn]. 

bado'n, island [Pi]. 

bagi'l, long [Pi], 

baka'u, dam [Pn], 

bal8', oat [Pn] 

basa't, forks [Pn] 

bata'p or bata'mk, cut [Pn]. 

batco'a, angelica [Pc]. 

bate' or bate', big [Pn, s, sw], many (f) [Ps]. 

batT, alder [Ps]. 

batin, big [Pi]. 

batsa'tsa, cascara [Psw]. 

batso'm, a species of oak [Pe]. 

batsu'm, a species of oak [Pe]. 

be'ce, buckeye [Ps]. 

bene', pepperwood nuts [Pn, e]. 



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320 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [Vol 6 

behe'm, pepperwood [Pn, c]. 

ben, curved pond (f) [Ps], big [Ws]. 

bi, in or there [A]. 

bida', creek or river [Pn, sw]. 

bida'me, creek or river [Pi]. 

bidami, creek or river [Pi]. 

bida'fi, low [Pi]. 

bike', ground squirrel [Pn]. 

bi'mu, a species of shrub [Ps]. 

bita', bear [Pn]. 

bite'n, big [Psi]. 

bito'm, see mato'. 

bo, west [Pn, c, i]. 

b3'cam, a kind of seed [Pn]. 

bd'ee, hump [A]. 

boo'mli, to hunt around [Pi]. 

bor, mud [Pn], 

bot, scattered around in small pieces [Po]. 

bu, Indian potatoes [Pc, s]. 

bul, the name of a certain large flat rock off shore near the mouth of 

Big river [Pn], 
buntc, fly [A], 
buta'ka, bear [Pn]. 
bu'tu, knoll [Pi], 
ca, fish [Pi], 
caba', hazel [Pn]. 
ca'dilau, projecting point [Pc]. 
cadim, little ridge [Paw], 
caditc, point [Pc]. 
cako', willow [Pn]. 
ca'na, ridge [Psw]. 

cane', sweat-house or dance-house [Pn, c]. 
ci, clover [Yw]. 
cie', a kind of grass seed [Pc]. 
cii'n, grape vine [Pn]. 
cik, black [Ty]« 

cil, hang down [Pn], bunch [Pn], 
cilin, hanging up [Pn]. 
cina' or clnal, head [Pn, sw], 
cipi, willow [Yt], 
ciyo', shade or shadow [Pc, s]. 
ciyol, shady [Pn, s]. 
c5 east [Pn, c, i]. 
coko'n, crooked [Pn], 
cu'kit, small string [Psw]. 
cu'nau, pretty (f) [Pn], 
da, on [Pn], trail [Pc, sw]. 
daba'u, to split with the hand [Pc]. 
dai, landing [Psi]. 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Geography of the Porno Indians. 321 

dako', pestle [Pc]. 

dala', flat plate-form basket [Pi]. 

dala'm, dam [Pi]. 

dala'u, to run down [Pc]. 

dam, trail [Pn]. 

dana', to cover up [Psw]. 

danelc, throw out [Pn]. 

dano', mountain [Pn, c, i, bw], 

di'hi, village [Ws]. 

di'kat, to whistle [Psw]. 

dile', between, among, in the midst of [Pn, e]. 

diste, madrofia [A]. 

diwi', coyote [Pi]. 

dl'tem, to go on, upon or on top of (f) [Ps]. 

dja, house [Pn, c]. 

dja'da, run away (f) [Pn], 

djelhe, white oak (f) [Ps]. 

djom, a species of pine [Pn]. 

djd"to, to stand up [Psw], 

djuhu'la, north [Pn]. 

djusa'm, the bottom of a waterfall (f) [Psw]. 

d6no', mountain [Pc, sw]. 

dd'tcani, to place one's hand upon [Psw]. 

do'wi, coyote [Ps]. 

dultac, abalone [Psw]. 

dii'wi, coyote [Ps, sw]. 

ela, to throw and miss an object [Pn], 

ell, place [Ps, sw]. 

elli, place [Psw]. 

fai, a flat open place [Pse]. 

gaco', pond [Pe]. 

gago', valley [Pn, c, b], field [Pc]. 

ga'iye, manzanita [Ps]. 

gal, homeward [Pn], 

gala'i, a kind of water bird [Pi]. 

go'tca, house [Pw], 

guhula, north [Pi]. 

gunu'la, coyote [Pi]. 

gut, on top [A]. 

guts, crooked [A]. 

ha, mouth [Pn]. 

hali, the edible fleshy covering of the nut of the California laurel [Pi]. 

han, house [Yt]. 

ha'ta, red [Ps]. 

ha'u, mouth [Pc]. 

hel, anus [Yw], 

helle, flat [Ps]. 

hem, pepperwood or California laurel [Psw]. 

hlbu', Indian potatoes [Psw]. 



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322 University of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [VoL 6 

hi'me, shell fragments [Mw]. 

hfmd, hole [Psw]. 

hitc, a species of fish [Pi]. 

hi'wal, related to walali, which see. 

hma'rak, sweat-house, or dance-house [Pi]. 

hual, on [Pn], 

h5, hot or fire [Pn, s]. 

hd'dudfi, milk snake [Pn]. 

hdlpus, captain [Ms]. 

hdl, tree [Yw]. 

hdm, nettle [Pn]. 

hot, big [Yy]. 

hofc/kala, up the hiU [Mw]. 

hugelmite, a mythical monster [Yw]. 

hulye, point [Mw]. 

huk, a mythical being resembling a bird [Pc, e]. 

hutc, mountain [Yy]. 

hwalau, to flow down or flow into [Psw]. 

I, place [Pn], 

lka'fi, broken or bunted asunder [Ps]. 

fle'm, between hills [Pc], a flat [Pi]. 

i'lS'ma, between or low down [Pc]. 

imil, blackberry [Ws]. 

itel, to peel off [Pc]. 

ite'm, a small open place [Pc]. 

IwT, coyote [Pc]. 

iwil, poison [Yy], 

iwil-hass, sweat-house, literally poison-house [Yy]. 

Iy5', below [Ps]. 

ka, water [Pn, c, b, sw]. It has also a secondary meaning of spring, 

or a body of water such as a lake or the ocean, 
kaa'i, crow [Pn]. 
kaa% tule [Psi]. 
kaba', madrofia [Ps, sw]. 
kaba'i, wild onion, Allium unifolium [Pn]. 
kaba't, madrofia [Pn]. 
kabe', rock [Pn, c, b, s, sw]. 
kabd', clover [Pn]. 
kac, ridge [Yy]. 

kaci', a water plant said to somewhat resemble bamboo [Pi], 
kai, valley [Pn], nuts [A]. 
ka'ia, valley [Pc]. 
kaiya'u, head [Pi], 
kaiye', manzanita [Pc, a], 
kaku'l, white oak [Pi], 
kal, mussel [Pn]. 
k!al, to rub [Pc]. 
kala', clam [Pn], dead [Psw]. 
kala'ln5, white willow [PC]. 



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1908] Barrett.— The Etkno-Qeograpky of the Porno Indian*. 523 

kale', tree [Pn, o, b, 8, sw, si], up [Psw]. 
kaloli, dry [Pb]. 
kalfi'm, gone [Pn]. 
ka'mli, anything thrown across [Pc]. 
kapa', bracken [Psw]. 

kar, a dry limb filled with woodpecker holes [Pn]. 
kastt, redwood [Pc, s], 
kata', hollow [Pk]. 

katca', arrow-head [Pn], obsidian or flint [Pn, c]. 
katcim, not good, bad [Yt], 
ka'tdn, lake or pond [Pb]. 

katft't, shucks (the thin inner shell) of the nut of the pepperwood, Cali- 
fornia laurel [Pb]. 
katsa', grass [Pn, s]. 
katsi'l, cold [Pb]. 
katu', lake [Pn]. 
katul, spring [Psw]. 
kawa', bark [Pc]. 

kawam, or kawan, a species of pine [Ps]. 
kawe', to build [Pn], 
kawi', small [Pc]. 
kawi'na, turtle [Pn], 
kawd', toad [Pi]. 

kca, white oak [Pn], canyon or gulch [Pc]. 
kecel, blue clay [Psi]. 
kee', salt [Pi]. 
kS'ya, there [Pn] . 
kfai, a flat open place [Psi]. 
kica', sea gull [Psw]. 
kilel, a caved embankment [Pn]. 
kis, heart burn [Pc]. 
kitcil, flint [Yt]. 

kite'm, bushy top (f) of a tree [Pi], 
kitsia, end [Pn]. 
kli'win, coyote [Psi]. 
kn5, mountain [Pse]. 

k6, belly [Pn], ball [Ps], long [Ps], mussel [Psw], 
k6t>5, a kind of grass [Psw]. 
koc, blackberry [A], 
ko'dakatc, arched or bowed up [Pc]. 
kol, on the other side (f) [Yt], 
kolo, mortar basket [Ps]. 
k!615, mortar stone [Psi]. 
k6m, soda spring [Pn], bog [Pn]. 
k6'p, nettle [Pi], 
kft'pe, grape vine [Ws]. 
k5'sa, elbow [Psw], 
ko'tic, black oak [Yw]. 



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324 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [YoL 6 

kftti'na, the name of a former captain or head man of one of the South- 
erly Wintun villages [Wb]. 
kd'wi, valley [Pb]. 

ktai, old woman (probably mythical) [Psb]. 
kuc, alder [A], 
kuca', live oak [Pb]. 
kola', probably yellow water lily, Nymphaea polysepala [Pn], a kind of 

plant (f) [Ps]. 
kuLa' waterlily [Pb]. 
kut, creek [A] 
ku'tci, moss [Pn]. 
Ja, place [Ws]. 
Labe, there [Ws]. 

la'kken, a gap between two hills [Mw]. 
lala, in the middle [Pc], wild goose [Psw]. 
Lax, opening or inlet [Pi], 
le, place [Ps, sw]. 
le'le, small flat or small valley [Yw]. 
lS'ma, see i ' lS'ma. 
Let, ground squirrel [Ws]. 
Lgai, white [A] 

li, there, or place [Pn, c, s, sw], 
licuT, black oak [Pe]. 
HI, rock [Yt]. 
li'wai, waving [Ws]. 
lok, goose [Yw]. 
lo'kla, valley [Ms]. 
15'kl6, valley [Ms], 
lol, tobacco [Ws]. 
lu'ma, back [Ms], 
lu'pu or Lu'pu, rock [Mw]. 
ma, ground [Pn, c, bw] ; grove [Yw]. 
maca', Indian hemp, Apocymm [Pn]. 
madd', cold [Pn]. 
maiyi', contagion [Pn], 
malca, salmon [Ps]. 
maka'la, rabbit [Pn]. 
makd', blue heron [Pe], 
ma»l, creek [Yy], 
mala, beside [Psw]. 
maxa, to bake [Ws]. 
mala'la, mosquito [Ps]. 
mall, there or place [Psw], 
malu', bake [Pn] 
mama', projecting [Pn], 
ma'tca, sweat-house [Psw]. 
mate'l, spliced [Pb]. 
mato', big [Pn], 
mato'lk, to scatter [Pe]. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Geography of the Pomo Indians. 325 

mawali, to place (f) [Psw]. 

me, water [Yw], 

mSTiwa, grape vine [Yw], 

m§'la, place (f) [Yw]. 

mem, water [Ws]. 

mi, place [Pn]. 

mila'm, burned or otherwise totally destroyed [Pc]. 

mina', on top of or near to [Pn]. 

misaltalak, striped watersnake [Pn]. 

misa'kale, striped watersnake [Pn]. 

mi'tce, turtle [Yw]. 

mlam, see mila'm. 

mo, hole [Pn, c, b]. 

moko'c, stump [Ps]. 

mdn, madrofia (both trees and berries) [Ws]. 

md'ta, hill [Yw]. 

msa'kale, striped watersnake [Pc]. 

msu, burned or charred [Pc]. 

mttga', seed [Pn]. 

muka', scorched [Pn]. 

mu'ku, trail [Mw]. 

mu'tak, ant [Ps]. 

mutca', a kind of grass seed [Psw]. 

mu'ti, north [Yw], 

mu'yamuya, a mythical being [Pc]. 

na, on top of [Pc]. 

nal, forest [Pc]. 

nan, well or deep hole [Yw], 

nansa", hang down [A] 

napa, the detachable points of the aboriginal fish gig or spear [Ps]. 

napa'gi, mussel [Mw]. 

napo', village [Pe]. 

napo'tai, old village [Pn]. 

ne, ground [A] 

netc, gravel [A] 

ne'u, to place [Pc, sw], 

niliek, a species of hawk [Yw]. 

n5, ashes [Pn, c, e, b], dust [Ps]. 

nom, people [Yy]. 

nd'ma, home or village [Yw]. 

nd'ndil, settle down upon [A] 

ntca'u, big [A] 

ntce, bad [A] 

nutc, gravel [Yy]. 

nu'tse, small [Yw]. 

5h5'm, nettle [Psw], 

61e, coyote [Ms, n]. 

o'lSm, south [Ms]. 

on, earth, land [Yy]. 



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826 UnvocrtUy of California Publication* in Ah. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

5'ss6, clover [Ps]. 

dtd'ne, the edible purple seaweed [Psw]. 

5'ye, coyote [Mw], 

pa, excrement [Psw]. 

pa'tan, to pound or grind [Pn]. 

pat51, oak ball [Pse]. 

pa'wS, mountain [Mn]. 

pda, creek or river [Po]. 

pe'ta, flat [Ms]. 

pS'ulfi, village (from the Spanish pueblo) [Ps]. 

pik, mellow [Pn]. 

pi'po, white oak [Yw]. 

pit*, hole or mine [Yt]. 

p5, red [Pn, c, sw]. 

pdl, red [Pc]. 

pd'ma, village [Pn]. 

pft'mfi, village [Pn]. 

po'tola, white [Ms]. 

pte, big [Ps]. 

pii'i, greasy, sweet or otherwise pleasing to the taste [Pn]. 

pulak, pond or lake [Mw]. 

puiok, pond or lake [Mw]. 

putce'ma, stand up straight [Psw]. 

pii'tsum, point [Pe], 

saia, redwood [Pn]. 

sa'rna, near [Pc]. 

Be, brush or thicket [Pi], rock [A] 

see*, brush [Pe, sw]. 

sel, people [Ws]. 

sila', flat [Psw]. 

skdl, laughing [Pn]. 

sma, sleep [Ps]. 

sme'wa, wolf [Pc]. 

s6, clover [Pc, i]. 

sdhd'i, sea-lion [Psw], 

son, tule rush [Yy], 

so'sa, red ant [Pn]. 

Bd'td, a sir name [Ps]. 

su'kui, a kind of seed [Ws]. 

sul, vulture or California condor [Pc], rope [Psw], snag of a tree (f) 

[Psw]. 
jfi'wfi, pocket gopher [Mw]. 
ta, sand [Pn, c, e], beach [Psw], red [Pc]. 
ta, tops [A], bird [Psw]. 
t!a, to wind around [Psw]. 
taa', sand [Ps], 
ta'gala, high [Mw]. 

tai, old woman (probably mythical) [Pse]. 
tala, stand up [Mw]. 



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1908] Barrett.— The Bthno-Qeography of the Porno Indians. 327 

tarn, aidehill [Tt]. 

ta'mal, bay [Ms]. 

tana', hand [Pn]. 

tas, red [Pc]. 

tate, sand [Psw]. 

tafi'wak, shoulder [Mw]. 

tea, house [Pn, c, s], person or man [Pn, bw]. 

tca'da, run away (t) [Pn], 

tcahe, redbud [Yy]. 

teai, a species of fish [P*]. 

tcalam, a kind of plant [Psw]. 

tca'LI, village [Pb]. 

team, to fall across [Pc], live oak (f) [Pc]. 

tcata', between [Pn]. 

tcatT, village [Pn]. 

tca'ti, house [Psw]. 

tca'wal, sitting down (f) [Psw]. 

tcawe'l, canyon [Pn]. 

tca'wi, house [Ps]. 

tcel, white oak (f) [Ps]. 

tcelifi, run out [A]. 

tce'ma, flat hole [Psw]. 

tce'matc, narrow valley (f) [Pc]. 

teen, down or low [Wb]. 

tce'uk, corner [Pc]. 

tcinw, fir [A] 

tci'eu, said to signify the highest point on a stream to which large fish, 

such as salmon, ascend [Pc]. 
tcTk5', to touch something with an object (f) [Psw]. 
tci'Ltin, something lying down [A] 
tcim, the plant of Car ex barbarae [Pc]. 
tcima', to run or extend up stream [Pc]. 
tcima'ia, enemy [Pn]. 
tcin, to hang down [Ps]. 
tcitca'kali, narrow open strip of land [Psw], 
tciti', a kind of bush [Psw]. 
tcd'kd, to kneel down upon both knees [Psw]. 
tcotchan, mush oak [Yy]. 
tcuhe'l, sand [Wn]. 
tcuhu'l, north [Pn]. 
tcula, north [Pn]. 
tcuma', to place [Psw]. 
tcuma'ti, to sit down (f) [Psw], 
te, elderberry [Psw], 
te, low (f) [A], 
telce, mineral left as a deposit after the evaporation of the water from 

the springs at the Geysers in Sonoma county [Yw]. 
tS% flat head (t) [Ps]. 
tern, see ite'm. 



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328 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol 6 

te'ne, chest [Mw], 
t§'ya, those people [Pc]. 
ti, string [Pn], old [Pi], 
tilri, sand [Ws]. 
titam, mountain [Yy]. 
td, water [A] 
to, toward [Pn], 
toi, top [Ws]. 

to'kau, small bone whistle [Mw]. 
tdl, hollow [Pn]. 
tdl, place (f) [Psw]. 
toll, mountain [Mw]. 
to'lopo, respond [Ms], 
ton, under (f) [Ps], on (f) [Psw]. 
towa'ni, stand up [Ps]. 
tfi'tola, elderberry [Mw]. 
tsaka', smoke [Pn], native tobacco [Pn]. 
tsawa'l, a species of fish [Pe]. 
tsawa'm, braid [Pe]. 
tsawa'tak, a small species of frog [Pn]. 
tsel, charcoal [Yw], 
tse'ma, ear [Yw], 
tsi'kini, owl [Pn], 
tsTu, corner [Pn]. 
tsiwi'c, Carex [Pe]. 
tso, ground [Yw], 
tsulm, a kind of bush [Psw]. 

tsubalia, a species of willow used in basket making [Pe]. 
tsuka', a small edible mollusc, Chlorostoma funebrale A Adams [Psw]. 
tul, large valley [Yw]. 
tuluka, red [Ws]. 
tu'i, forks (f) [Ps]. 
tii'le, hummingbird [Psw]. 
tuul, old [Pn]. 
udi', big [Mn]. 
uk, water [Yy]. 
u'kom, valley [Yy]. 
wai, an ejaculation (f) [Pse]. 
wal, warrior [Yw]. 

wala'li, the meeting place of the waters of any inflowing stream with the 
waters of the stream into which it flows or with the ocean [Psw]. 
wall, on both sides [Psw], at (f) [Pn]. 
wa'tak, frog [Ps]. 
wi, place [Pn, c, s, sw], on [Psw]. 
wica', ridge (particularly a small ridge), [Pc, e, s]. 
wica'l, ridge [Psw]. 

wina', on top of or upon [Pc, E, sw], near [Pe]. 
wini', large swelled knot [Pe]. 
wit, sidehill [Yy]. 



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1908] Barrett.— The Ethno-Geography of the Pomo Indians. 329 

wo'to, dirty, ashes [Ps]. 

xa, water [Pn, e, si], spring [Pe]. 

xaba'i, wild onion, AUuim uni folium [Pe]. 

xabS' rock [Pe]. 

xaga', obsidian [Pe]. 

xag*6'i, valley [Pe]. 

zai, wood [Pe]. 

xaiya'u, head [Pe]. 

xala', clam [Pn], 

xaro', valley white oak black bread [Pn]. 

xatai', woman [Pse], 

xaxo', valley [Pe]. 

xaxo'i, valley [Ps]. 

xo'i, valley [Pse]. 

x6'wa, in front of [Pe]. 

xuna', tule boat or balsa [Pse]. 

xunu', luck [Pe]. 

ya, wind [Pn]. 

ya'la, level [Psw], 

yi, no (f) [Pe]. 

yic, wolf [A] 

yi'ii, under [A] 

yo, under [Pn, c, e, s, sw, se], down [Pc], south [Pc]. 

yo'a, earth or ground [Ms]. 

ydcT, white oak [Ps]. 

yo'me, the home of [Ps], place [Mn], 

yo'ml, place [Ms]. 

y5'wa, under [Pse], 



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330 Unwtiity of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [VoL « 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



A LIST OF PUBLISHED WOEKS IN WHICH MENTION IS MADE OP 

THE ABORIGINAL NAMES OF PEOPLES OB PLACES WITHIN 

THE TEBBITOBY UNDEB INVESTIGATION. 



Alliy, Bowin k Company: History of Mendocino County, California; San 
Francisco, 1880. 

Bailey, G.: Special Agent Interior Department — Beport Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs for 1858. 

Bancroft, H. H.: Native Baces, I, III; San Francisco, 1886. 
History of California, II; San Francisco, 1886. 

Babbitt, S. A.: A New Moquelumnan Territory in California; American 
Anthropologist n. s. V, 1903. 
The Porno in the Sacramento Valley of California; American Anthro- 
pologist n. s. VI, 1904. 

Bxach, W. W.: The Indian Miscellany; Albany, 1877. 

Bowies, H. B. : Second Edition. Map of Sonoma County, California . . . 
with additions and corrections to September 1, 1882. 

Bbackbnbidob, N. B.: Official Map of Mendocino County, California; San 
Francisco, 1887. 

Bbownk, J. Boss: The Indian Reservations of California; Harper's Maga- 
zine, for August, 1861. — Beach's Indian Miscellany; Albany, 1877. 

Cabtib, C. F.: The Missions of Nueva California; San Francisco, 1900. 

Chisndt, V. K.: Plants used by the Indians of Mendocino County, Cali- 
fornia; United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Botany; 
Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, VII, No. 3. 

Dodgi, George M.: Official Map of Marin County, California; San Fran- 
cisco, 1892. 

Dbaki, Sir Francis: Early English Voyages to the Pacific Coast of America 
(from their own, and contemporary English, accounts). Sir Francis 
Drake.— Out West, XVIII; Los Angeles, California, 1903. 

Engilhabdt, Ft. Zephyrin, O. S. F.: The Franciscans in California; Harbor 
Springs, Michigan, 1897. 

Ford, Captain H. L., Sub-agent in charge of the Mendocino Reservation: 
Beport of, to Thomas J. Henley, Superintendent of Indian Affairs 
for California; in Beport of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 
the year 1856. 
Deposition of Captain H. L. Ford, taken February 22, 1860. — State of 
California Legislature, Majority and Minority Reports of the Special 
Joint Committee on the Mendocino War, 1860. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Ethno-Oeography of the Porno Indian*. S81 

GIBB8, Giorge: "Journal of the Expedition of Colonel Bedick M'Kee," 
United States Indian Agent, through Northwestern California. Per- 
formed in the Summer and Fall of 1851, Schoolcraft, Archives of 
Aboriginal Knowledge, III. 

Goddard, Professor P. E.: The Eato Porno not Porno; American Anthro- 
pologist n. s. V., 1903. 

Hajeluyt, Bichard: The Voyages, Navigations, Trsifiques, and Disooveries 
of the English Nation; London, 1600. 
Beprinted edition of the above; London, 1810. 

Hildrxth, William J.: Deposition of William J. Hildreth, taken February 
24, 1860. — State of California Legislature, Majority and Minority 
Reports of the Special Joint Committee on the Mendocino War, 1860. 

Hittsll, Theodore H.: History of California, I; San Francisco, 1885. 

Hudson, Dr. J. W.: Porno Basket Makers, Overland Monthly (Second 
Series), XXI; San Francisco, 1893. 
Porno Wampum Makers, Overland Monthly (Second Series), XXX, 1897. 

King, M. G., and Morgan, T. W.: Map of the Central Portion of Napa 
Valley and the Town of St. Helena; San Francisco, 1881. 

Kostromitonow: See Von Baer. 

Kroebkr, Professor A. L.: Basket Designs of the Indians of Northwestern 
California; University of California Publications, Archaeology and 
Ethnology, II, 1905. 

The Coast Vuki of California ; American Anthropologist n. s. V, 1903. 

The Dialectic Divisions of the Moquelumnan Family in Relation to the 
Internal Differentiation of the Other Linguistic Families of Cali- 
fornia; American Anthropologist nj. VIII, 1906. 

Lacock, Dryden: Deposition of Dryden Lacock; taken February 25, 1860. — 
State of California Legislature, Majority and Minority Reports of 
the Special Joint Committee on the Mendocino War, 1860. 

Latham, Dr. B. O.: Transactions of the Philological Society of London, 
1856. 
Elements of Comparative Philology; London, 1862. 

Mason, Professor Otis T.: Aboriginal American Basketry; Studies in a 
Textile Art Without Machinery, Report United States National Mu- 
seum for 1902, 1904. 

MoAdis, Alexander G.: Climatology of California, United States Weather 
Bureau Bulletin, L, 1903. 

MoEek, John: Minutes kept by John McKee, secretary on the expedition 
from Sonoma, through Northern California. — Senate Executive Docu- 
ments, Special Session, 32nd Congress, March, 1853, Document 4. 

MxNxrxi, C. A.: Historical and Descriptive Sketch Book of Napa, Sonoma, 
Lake, and Mendocino; Napa City, 1873. 



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Mineral Map of Lake County, California. Issued by the California State 
Mining Bureau, Lewis E. Aubury, State Mineralogist. 

Powell, Major J. W.: Indian Linguistic Families of America North of 
Mexico. 7th Annual Beport Bureau American Ethnology, 1885-86. 

Powxrs, Stephen: Tribes of California, Contributions to North American 
Ethnology, III, 1877. 
The Northern California Indians, Overland Monthly; San Francisco, 
187274. 

Pubdt, Carl: Porno Indian Baskets and Their Makers; in Land of Sunshine, 
XV; Los Angeles, 1901, and Out West, XVI; Los Angeles, 1902. 
Mr. Purdy's reprinted edition, in book form, Los Angeles, 1902. 

Simmons, Miss Kathryn: Traditions and Landmarks of Yolo; Woodland 
Daily Democrat, February 16, 1905. 

Slooxjm, Bowen & Company: History of Napa and Lake Counties, Cali- 
fornia; San Francisco, 1881. 

Taylor, Alexander S.: Indianology of California, in The California 
Farmer; San Francisco, 1860-61. 

Thompson, Robert A. : Historical and Descriptive Sketch of Sonoma County, 

California; Philadelphia, 1877. 
Central Sonoma; San Francisco, 1884. 
The Russian Settlement in California Known as Fort Boss; Santa Rosa, 

1896. 

Tuthill, Franklin: History of California; San Francisco, 1866. 

Yon Baer, K. E., and Gr. von Helmersen: Beitrage zur Kenntniss des 
Bussischen Seiches, I; St. Petersburg, 1839. 

Von Kotzebue, Otto: A Voyage of Discovery into the South Sea and 
Beering's Straits, for the purpose of Exploring the Northeast Pass- 
age, London, 1821. 
A New Voyage Bound the World; London, 1830. 

Wiley, Austin: Beport, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, in Beport Secre- 
tary of the Interior, 1864, in House Executive Documents, 1864-65, 
V, No. 1. 



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(j$*{ <rU*U ) 





THE GEOGRAPHY AND DIALECTS OF THE 
MIWOK INDIANS 

BT 

S. A. BARRETT 

' ON THE EVIDENCES OF THE OCCUPA- 
TION OF CERTAIN REGIONS BY 
THE MIWOK INDIANS 

BY 

A. L. KROEBER 



BERKELEY 

THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

FEBRUARY, 1908 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS 

IN 

AMERICAN AROHAKOLOQY AND ETHNOLOGY _ 

VOL. 6 NO. 2 



THE GEOGRAPHY AND DIALECTS OF THE 
MIWOK INDIANS. 



BY 

8. A. BARRETT. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Introduction 333 

Territorial Boundaries 344 

Dialects 352 

Dialectic Relations 356 

Lexical 356 

Phonetic 358 

Alphabet 359 

Vocabularies 362 

Footnotes to Vocabularies - 368 



INTRODUCTION. 

Of the many linguistic families in California most are con- 
fined to single areas, but the large Moquelumnan or Miwok family 
is one of the few exceptions, in that the people speaking its various 
dialects occupy three distinct areas. These three areas, while 
actually quite near together, are at considerable distances from 
one another as compared with the areas occupied by any of the 
other linguistic families that are separated. 

The northern of the three Miwok areas, which may for con- 
venience be called the Northern Coast or Lake area, is situated 
in the southern extremity of Lake county and just touches, at its 
northern boundary, the southernmost end of Clear lake. This 



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334 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [Vol. 6 

area has been described and bounded in detail in "The Ethno- 
geography of the Porno and Neighboring Indians " which consti- 
tutes a part of the present volume. 

The second of the three areas lies on the northern shore of 
San Francisco bay, and comprises Marin county together with a 
small portion of the southern part of Sonoma and a very small 
part of Napa counties. Within this area are two dialectic divi- 
sions. The smaller, which may be conveniently termed the 
Western Coast or Bodega dialectic area, comprises a very small 
territory immediately about the shores of Bodega bay. The 
larger division may be termed the Southern Coast or Marin 
dialectic area, and occupies the remainder of the area. These 
two dialectic areas have also been described and bounded in the 
paper referred to above. 

The third or main area occupied by people belonging to the 
Moquelumnan or Miwok stock comprises, generally speaking, that 
portion of the western slope of the Sierra Nevada mountains 
which extends from Cosumnes river on the north to Fresno river 
on the south. 

Information concerning the two smaller Moquelumnan or 
Miwok areas in the Coast region was obtained, together with the 
other information embodied in "The Ethno-geography of the 
Pomo and Neighboring Indians," during the years 1903-6. The 
information here given, concerning the main or Sierra area, that 
inhabited by the people usually specifically known as the Miwok, 
was obtained during the summer of 1906, both investigations 
being made as part of the Ethnological and Archaeological Survey 
of California conducted by the University of California through 
the generous support of Mrs. Phoebe A. Hearst. The more 
recent investigation of the Miwok proper was combined with 
other work to which it was to a certain extent subsidiary. With 
a large area to be covered and limited time available, it was 
impossible to go into great detail in the determination of boun- 
daries and sub-dialectic differences. Sufficient information was 
however obtained to make possible a classification of the Miwok 
language into dialects, and a reasonably thorough determination 
of the boundaries of the family and of these dialectic divisions. 
As is almost always the case in working over the ethno-geography 



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1908] Barrett. — The Geography and Dialects of the Miwok Indians. 335 

of a large area at the present time when certain regions have 
been for many years uninhabited by the Indians themselves, there 
are portions of the boundaries which it is possible to determine 
only approximately. The doubt in respect to these lines has 
been noted both in the text and on the map. 

As before stated, the main Miwok area, the one here con- 
sidered, lies chiefly on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada 
mountains, the only exception being at its northwestern ex- 
tremity, where it extends out into the broad plain of the San 
Joaquin valley. Generally speaking, the Miwok territory extends 
on the north to Cosumnes river, on the south to Fresno river, on 
the east to the crest of the Sierra Nevada mountains, at least for 
the greater part, and on the west to the eastern edge of the broad 
plain which forms San Joaquin valley, except in that portion of 
the territory lying north of Calaveras river, where it extends out 
into the plain itself. This large area comprises, in whole or in 
part, Sacramento, Amador, Calaveras, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, 
Tuolumne, Mariposa, Merced, and Madera counties, and covers 
the greater part of the drainages of seven large rivers : the Co- 
sumnes, Mokelumne, Calaveras, Stanislaus, Tuolumne, Merced, 
and Fresno. Thus this main Miwok area, extending from the 
crest of the Sierras westward into San Joaquin valley itself, 
reaches over three physiographic divisions : the high ranges of the 
Sierra, the foot-hills, and at least a section of the plain of the 
San Joaquin valley itself. 

The climate and environment of this area are very varied. 
In the high mountain region along the headwaters of the rivers, 
most of which head above the snow line, the severity of the 
winters prevents a perennial occupation. This whole high Sierra 
region is covered with several feet of snow through a considerable 
part of the year, and almost all the higher peaks and ranges have 
perpetual snow. This snow covering renders even the lower alti- 
tudes of the high Sierras uninhabitable in the winter. Yosemite 
valley and other valleys of even lower altitudes were in former 
times abandoned by the Indians with the approach of winter. 
The high mountain region was, however, rich in certain vegetable 
foods. The vast ranges of this region were covered with conifers 
of many species, many of which, such as the sugar pine, furnished 



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336 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

a very important part of the native vegetable food. In addition 
to the many food-bearing conifers, there were a number of species 
of oak, which here as almost everywhere else in the northern and 
central parts of California furnished the chief food supply, the 
acorns of almost every species of oak being put to use. In addi- 
tion to these large trees, there were many smaller nut and berry 
bearing trees and shrubs, and many species of small plants bear- 
ing bulbs and tubers, as well as a great quantity of seed-bearing 
grasses and other plants. All of these were turned to good ac- 
count in furnishing the aboriginal food supply of the region. 
This almost limitless and varied supply of vegetable foods nat- 
urally attracted the Indians from the lower altitudes to the higher 
mountains during the summer months. Game was also abundant. 
Many species of animals and birds, such as deer, elk, and quail, 
wintered in the plains and foot-hills but moved to the higher 
mountains during the heat of summer. Fish were also abundant 
in the streams at this season. All these circumstances, combined 
with the excessive summer heat of the lower foot-hill region, 
tended to induce the Indians to move to the higher altitudes 
wherever possible. 

The foot-hill region, however, was not at all lacking in its 
food supply, particularly in the higher foot-hills. Here conifers 
were chiefly lacking, but there were various species of oak. There 
were also many smaller berry and nut bearing trees and shrubs, 
which, when combined with acorns, always the chief resource, 
and the bulbs, tubers, and grass seeds of the open meadows and 
hillsides, provided an abundance of vegetable foods. In the lower 
foot-hills trees of any size are few in number, being replaced by 
great areas of brush and open grassy meadows. As before men- 
tioned, many of the animals and birds are driven from the high 
Sierras by the winter snows to the foot-hills and to the plains of 
San Joaquin valley, where they furnished a good supply of game 
during that season. Fish were, of course, abundant in the many 
rivers and creeks which water this portion of the area. 

In the southern part of the main Miwok area, the foot-hills 
rise quite abruptly from the San Joaquin plains. This abrupt- 
ness grows less and less toward the north, until, in the vicinity 
of Calaveras river and northward, there is a long, very gentle 



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1908] Barrett. — The Geography and Dialects of the Miwok Indians. 337 

rise from the plains through the foot-hills to the higher Sierra. 
In fact it is difficult in certain northern parts to say definitely 
where the plains end and the foot-hills begin, so gentle and undu- 
lating are the first rises. It is here that the Miwok extended out 
into the San Joaquin and Sacramento plains, reaching to the 
edge of the tule marshes that border the delta of the San Joaquin, 
and to the easternmost of the several mouths of the Sacramento. 
This plains region is almost without trees of any kind, except a 
very few immediately along certain water courses. Otherwise, 
its vegetation is almost entirely confined to seed-bearing grasses 
and flowering plants. In temperature, the foot-hill and plains 
regions differ very little, the temperature in the summer often 
reaching one hundred and ten degrees Fahrenheit and sometimes 
even going higher. Of course, as the higher Sierra ranges are 
approached through the foot-hills, this extreme summer temper- 
ature decreases, until in the mountain valleys such as Yosemite 
the summer temperature never rises to an uncomfortable point. 
Snow almost never falls in the plains and but rarely in the lower 
foot-hills. There is however a moderate rainfall during the 
winter in both regions. 

With its abundant food supply, this large territory should 
have been able in aboriginal times to support an extensive popu- 
lation, and from all the information that can be gathered from 
the Indians, and from the evidences of old village sites, there is 
every reason to believe such to have been the case. At present, 
of course, comparatively few Indians remain. These live on 
small homesteads owned by themselves, or on ranches by per- 
mission of the white land owners. There is but one small govern- 
ment reservation for any of these people, about four miles east 
of Jackson in Amador county ; but there are not on the average 
over a dozen or so of Indians on this reservation at any one time. 
Those who do occupy the reservation receive almost no aid or 
rations from the government. It may therefore be said almost 
without qualification that all of the surviving Miwok are self- 
supporting. In some cases, families seem to be quite comfort- 
ably situated on quarter-sections of land belonging to themselves, 
though the majority are by no means so fortunate. That but 
few of the Miwok survive, and that these now find themselves 



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338 University of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [Vol 6 

more or less dependent upon white land owners, may be the more 
easily understood if it be recalled that immediately north of this 
area, on American river, gold was first discovered in 1848. With 
the gold excitement, and the rush of 1849 and following years, 
there was hardly a foot of gravel along the many streams in the 
whole Miwok area that was not panned or sluiced. With this 
sudden rush of many thousands of gold seekers, many of them 
with but very little respect for the rights of their fellow white 
men, and most of them with no respect for the rights of the 
Indians, it is little wonder that the latter soon found themselves 
dispossessed and that they rapidly decreased in numbers. 

Culturally, the Miwok, of course, are in a broad sense a unit 
with the Indians of the remainder of northern and central Cali- 
fornia. Among the Miwok there are certain cultural differences 
which, while of comparatively little importance in themselves, 
serve to separate the people into two divisions. These may be 
called the northern and the southern, with the region between 
Stanislaus and Tuolumne rivers as a sort of neutral ground 
where the special features of both north and south are found. 
In the northern of these cultural divisions, that portion of the 
Miwok territory north of Stanislaus river, the predominant form 
of cradle is made of small wooden cross rods lashed to two ver- 
tical sticks, the upper ends of which are bent over into bows 
in such a manner that they will support a flexible protection, 
such as a dressed skin, over the child's head. The cradle of the 
southern region is woven of many small vertical rods and has a 
regular hood of bent rods woven together in the same manner as 
the body of the cradle itself and lashed to it at the top and at the 
sides. The utensil used for stirring mush in the northern divi- 
sion is a paddle, whittled from a solid piece of wood, usually 
oak. That in the southern region is a loop of bent wood, usually 
an oak branch. Throughout the whole Miwok area, almost the 
only twined baskets made are the conical burden basket, the ellip- 
tical seed beater with a handle, and the triangular scoop-shaped 
basket used for winnowing and as a general receptacle. These bas- 
kets differ very little in the northern and southern areas, but in 
coiled basketry there is a marked difference between the two 
regions. In the north the foundation is usually of either one or 



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1908] Barrett — The Geography and Dialects of the Miwole Indians. 339 

three rods of willow, hazel, or other slender wood. In the extreme 
south, these wooden rods are almost entirely supplanted by a 
multiple grass foundation. 

The woven hooded cradle, the looped stick mush-stirrer, and 
the grass-foundation coiled basketry of the southern Miwok, they 
share with their neighbors of different family, the Yokuts and 
Shoshonean Mono. The peculiar cradle, wooden mush-paddle, 
and rod-foundation basketry of the northern Miwok, are found 
among the Maidu adjacent to them. It is therefore evident that 
the difference in regard to these implements can not be ascribed 
to independent cultural differentiations among the Miwok, but 
must be regarded as part of larger developments of culture af- 
fecting a region of which the Miwok held only part. 

These three examples are among the most striking differences 
between the two divisions of the Miwok, and grow to be par- 
ticularly noticeable in traveling through this region. A fuller 
investigation of Miwok implements, customs, and beliefs would 
very probably show other differences between these northern and 
southern regions. In the neutral region between Stanislaus and 
Tuolumne rivers both types of each of the above-mentioned uten- 
sils are found. While the grass-foundation basket is typical of 
the southern area, it should not be understood that the willow or 
rod-foundation basket is not made. In fact it really predom- 
inates, the grass-foundation basket being the most common in 
point of numbers only in the extreme southern part of the Miwok 
area, in and about Mariposa. Likewise, the wooden cradle with 
cross rods is more particularly characteristic of the extreme 
northern region. 

It has been impossible to investigate very fully such matters 
as ceremonial practices and mythology; but from information 
obtained on these points it seems probable that on fuller investi- 
gation along these lines considerable differences will be found to 
exist between the northern and southern Miwok in these respects 
also, no doubt with influence from the peoples to the north and 
to the south. As to the influence of the stocks to the east, the 
Washo and Shoshonean, and the northern branch of the Yokuts 
to the west, too little information is now available to make com- 
parisons possible; in the case of the Washo and Shoshonean 



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340 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

Indians because very little systematic work has yet been done 
among them, and in the case of the northern Yokuts because 
they are at present almost entirely extinct. 

Professor A. L. Kroeber* has shown that the Yokuts who 
formerly occupied the greater part of the San Joaquin valley 
proper and a portion of the adjacent foothills toward its southern 
end, have a social organization which is most unusual among the 
people comprising the various stocks confined entirely within the 
limits of California. These immediate neighbors of the Miwok 
had a true tribal organization, the whole stock being divided 
into at least forty small tribes. This, however, is the only case 
thus far reported among California peoples of such tribal organ- 
ization. The Miwok, like the remainder of the Californian 
stocks, lack any true tribal organization, as that term is generally 
understood with its political signification, though there are certain 
endings to place names : -umni, -amni, -emni, and -imni, which are 
identical with those found on some Yokuts tribal names, such as 
"Telamni," "Choinimni," "Wukchamni." This fact was 
noted by Professor Kroeber in discussing "The Dialectic Di- 
visions of the Moquelumnan Family in Relation to the Internal 
Differentiation of the Other Linguistic Families of California."* 
Therefore, with this fact in mind, and at the same time knowing 
that these particular endings were found also among the Maidu 
as parts of certain place names, such as Sekumne and Yalisumni,* 
an especial effort was made during the progress of the present 
investigation to discover the exact use of these endings among 
the Miwok and to determine whether they had any real connec- 
tion with a true tribal organization as among the Yokuts, or 
whether they were endings of mere place names as among the 
Maidu. The latter was found to be the case, the signification of 
the ending apparently being in all cases, "people of. " This end- 
ing is always found upon such terms as o'tcex or o'tce, the name 
of a village site a few miles west of Gait, and mo'kel, the name 
of a site near Lockford; the addition of the ending resulting 

■The Yokuts Language of South Central California, Univ. Calif. PubL. 
Am. Arch. Ethn., II, 169, 1907. 

» Amer. Anthr., n. s., VIII, 652-663, 1906. 

4 See the map accompanying Professor R. B. Dixon's "The Northern 
Maidu/ ' Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XVII, 125, 1905. 



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1908] Barren. — The Geography and Dialects of the Miwoh Indians. 341 

in the names applied to the people of the villages, respectively 
otceha'mni and mokelumni, signifying in full, people of o'tce or 
o'tcex and people of mSTsel. Notwithstanding the obvious similar- 
ity between these and the Yokuts tribal names, there is an essen- 
tial difference between the two. Whereas the Yokuts tribal name 
with its -umni ending appears to be very strictly applied to the 
people themselves of a certain community, it was quite indepen- 
dent of the name of the village in which they lived. For instance, 
the Choinimni now live at tice'tcu in the edge of the foot-hills on 
King's river. Further, these tribal names are a part of the in- 
heritance of the individual, and attach to the person belonging 
to the tribe no matter where he may be or how far he may move 
from the home of the remainder of his tribe. On the other 
hand, the Miwok employed such names as mdke'lumni entirely 
with the signification of " people of" the village of mo'kel; and 
should an individual permanently change his residence to o'tcex, 
he would then be referred to as an otceha'mni, the idea being that 
when he changes his place of actual residence he loses all con- 
nection with the name by which he has formerly been known. 
In this respect the Miwok resemble most if not all of the peoples 
of central and northern California, except the Yokuts. 

The only general names applied to people by the Miwok were 
terms formed upon the names of the cardinal points. Examples 
of such names are : Ja'muleko, northerners, from ta'man or f ama'- 
lin, north; hfsofoko, easterners, from hi'sum, east; tcu'mefoko, 
southerners, from tcu'metc, south; and olowifoko, westerners, 
from olo'win, west. This ending, which is equivalent to "people 
of," takes the following forms: oko, ok, k. That these names 
have no tribal signification is clearly shown by the fact that each 
is applied not to any particular people but to all people, no matter 
how near or remote, living in the given direction to which the 
name refers. These names, as also the terms applied to the car- 
dinal points, vary according to the laws of phonetic change in 
passing from one dialect to another. There are also certain dif- 
ferent endings used by different individuals speaking the same 
dialect. For example : the people living to the south are called 
tcti'mefoko, tcu'mmefok, and tcumie'ya, those to the east are 
called hi'sdfoko and hisu'wit. In the last term the ending -wit is 
really a directive with the signification of towards. 



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342 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

These different renderings of the same name have been taken 
by some early writers as the names of distinct, so-called, tribes. 
Powers in his "Tribes of Calif ornia" 5 notes that the greater 
number of the terms used by the Miwok to designate peoples are 
formed from the names of the cardinal points, but at the same 
time states that they also have certain names which they apply 
without reference to the cardinal points. Among these he men- 
tions "Chum-te-ya" as a people living on the middle Merced 
river, and the "Heth-to-ya" as a people living on the upper 
Chowchilla river. The former of these two names is tcumJe'ya, 
above mentioned, and the latter is simply a different form for 
hi'soJoko or easterners. This term is still used by the Miwok, 
having been obtained recently by Professor Kroeber among the 
Indians in the extreme southern end of the area. 

In the same connection Powers mentions certain other names 
of peoples which appear to be simply place names, in some cases 
with endings added. Such is "A-wa-ni," which is simply the 
name for Yosemite valley. Powers' term "Wal-li," which he 
gives as the name of a people on Stanislaus and Tuolumne rivers, 
and which he explains as derived from wallim, meaning down 
low, is really only the Miwok term signifying earth or ground, 
though wallim, really "toward the earth/ ' is used with the sig- 
nification of low or down. 

There is still another set of names applied to various peo- 
ples, those names derived from other than Miwok sources. 
These are very few, but there is one which is commonly used by 
the Miwok in the vicinity of lone and Jackson in Amador 
county as a name for themselves. This term, koni, has been 
mentioned by Powers 6 and by Professor Kroeber. 7 It is the 
name originally applied to these people by the Maidu to the north, 
and for some reason has come to be used by themselves. Also 
"Po-ho-no-chi," which Powers gives as the name of the Miwok 
in the extreme south and which is at present quite commonly 
applied to them, particularly by the Yokuts to the south, may be 
a name not referable to Miwok origin. The term is apparently 



• Contributions to North American Ethnology, III, 349, 1877. 

• Op. cit., p. 349. 

f The Dialectic Divisions of the Moquelumnan Family, etc., op. cit., p. 660. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Geography and Dialects of the Miwok Indians. 343 

not used by any of the Miwok as a name for themselves, and the 
only derivation which could be obtained for it from them was that 
it comes from poho'no, the name of Bridal Veil Falls in Yosemite 
valley, and tcl, an ending signifying location or origin. That this 
derivation is probably correct seems likely from the fact that the 
ending -tcl occurs quite frequently, used in the same manner with 
place names, in the southern part of the Miwok territory, though 
it was not met with in the northern and central parts of the 
region. An ending -tcl is also frequently found on true tribal 
names among the Tokuts immediately to the south. 

The importance of the name Yosemite makes it worthy of 
mention in this same connection. This great valley with its 
wonderful scenery is known the world over under the name of 
Yosemite, but to the few survivors of the Indians who once in- 
habited it and the surrounding territory, it is known by its orig- 
inal name, awa'ni. This name itself still survives in Ahwahnee, 
a settlement down on Fresno river some forty miles southwest 
of the valley to which the name rightfully belongs. The original 
name of Ahwahnee was wasa'ma. That the name Yosemite is 
incorrectly applied to this valley has been pointed out by Powers 8 
and others, and various explanations and derivations have been 
offered for it. So far as could be learned from the Indians who 
formerly lived in the vicinity of this valley, Yosemite is a cor- 
ruption of usw'mati or tthit'matl, the term applied to any species 
of bear and particularly to the grizzly. The derivation of the 
nam^ of the valley from that of a former captain or chief named 
yosemite or usu'mati, who was noted for killing bears, seems, 
however, to be doubtful. 

While the Yokuts to the south were divided into forty or 
more small tribes, each occupying one or more villages and inde- 
pendent of all the remaining tribes, — this independence even 
extending to the matter of language, so that each village-tribe 
had its own dialect, — inquiry failed to disclose any such condi- 
tion among the Miwok. Here, notwithstanding the fact that the 
territory occupied by the stock is a very large one, there are but 
four dialects, many separate villages speaking the same dialect. 
There appear to be certain slight sub-dialectic differences, but 

• Op. cit, p. 361. 



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344 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

these are not at all marked, and no clear differentiations of speech 
are recognized and no definite territorial limits are stated for such 
sub-dialects by the people themselves. There seems to be a total 
lack of anything resembling true tribal organization. Even a 
federation of villages does not appear to have existed. Each vil- 
lage appears to have had its captain or head man who exercised 
very limited powers of government over his people. The people of 
the particular villages kept for the most part to themselves except 
upon the occasion of the celebration of some ceremony or in case 
of war. In the case of the celebration of a ceremony, a difference 
of language in this region, as elsewhere in California, proved no 
barrier to association, since people not only of different dialects 
but also of entirely different linguistic families associated quite 
freely with one another upon such occasions. In the event of 
war among the Miwok, two or more villages might temporarily 
join in a common cause, in which case the captain or chief of the 
village which was instrumental in bringing about the federation 
took the lead and acted as the head of the united forces. In 
property rights also these Miwok villages were entirely indepen- 
dent, each having its own special territory with its hunting 
grounds, fishing streams, and food-gathering ranges, of which the 
last seem to have been divided, to a certain extent at least, into 
individual or family sections. The territory thus controlled by 
such a village was separated by certain well understood natural 
boundaries from the territories of adjacent villages. In these 
respects also, the Miwok resemble quite closely the Maidu and 
other north-central California stocks. Thus, on the whole, in 
matters of political organization and dialectic subdivision, the 
Miwok show practical identity with the great bulk of the central 
California stocks and are quite different in these respects from 
the Yokuts to the south. 

TERRITORIAL BOUNDARIES. 

The Moquelumnan or Miwok and Costanoan families were 
first classed as the same, being called the Mutsun, 9 named after 
a village at or near the mission of San Juan Bautista. The 
large Mutsun territory was made to comprise two areas, the 

' See map accompanying Powers ' ' ' Tribes of California. ' ' 



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1908] Barrett. — The Geography and Dialects of the Miwok Indians. 345 

larger reaching from the crest of the Sierras to the sea coast 
and extending from Cosumnes river and San Francisco bay on 
the north to Fresno river and the region between Monterey and 
Point Sur on the south. The smaller, equivalent to that now 
recognized as occupied by the Marin and Bodega dialectic divi- 
sions, lay along the northern shore of San Francisco bay and 
was separated from the larger only by this body of water. Sub- 
sequently, however, it was found that the Mutsun was not a 
single stock but comprised two, which were given, according to 
Powell 9 8 system of priority, the names Costanoan and Moquelum- 
nan. 10 As then determined, the Moquelumnan territory com- 
prised two detached areas, the larger lying on the western slope 
of the Sierra Nevada mountains and in the eastern part of the 
lower San Joaquin valley; the smaller lying immediately north 
of San Francisco bay and comprising a territory slightly larger 
than Marin county. Recent investigations, however, have dis- 
covered a third and still smaller detached area, occupied by the 
dialect which has for convenience been designated as the North- 
ern Coast or Lake dialect, situated in southern Lake county. 11 
The geographical relations of these three detached Moquelumnan 
or Miwok areas, as at present determined, may be seen upon the 
small sketch map of California which has been placed in a cor- 
ner of the map of the main Miwok area accompanying this paper. 
The larger of the two areas north of San Francisco bay is occu- 
pied by peoples speaking two slightly different dialects which 
for convenience have been designated, as before stated, the West- 
ern Coast or Bodega dialect and the Southern Coast or Marin 
dialect. Concerning the resources, topography, boundaries, and 
village sites of these three dialectic areas in the Coast region, 
nothing need here be said, as the subject has been fully 
treated in "The Ethno-geography of the Porno and Neighboring 
Indians." 

The remaining area, the one which may be called that of the 
Miwok proper, or the main Moquelumnan area, lies, as before 
stated, almost wholly on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada 

30 See J. W. Powell's map of the " linguistic Stocks of American Indians 
North of Mexico," 7th Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethn. 

U "A New Moquelumnan Territory in California. 1 ' Amer. Anthr., n. s., 
V, 730, 1903. 



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346 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

mountains and reaches from Cosumnes river on the north to 
Fresno river on the south. The only exception to this mountain 
habitat of the Miwok is the northwestern extremity of their ter- 
ritory, which extends down into the broad plain of the San 
Joaquin valley and reaches almost to San Joaquin and Sacra- 
mento rivers themselves near their junction. In fact it does 
actually extend to the easternmost of the several mouths of the 
Sacramento. A comparison of these limits of the Miwok area 
with those they present on older maps shows considerable differ- 
ences, particularly in the eastern and western boundaries. The 
northern and southern boundaries remain very nearly as when 
first mapped. The details of these differences will be discussed 
after the exact boundaries as determined during the present in- 
vestigation have been outlined. 

Beginning at the confluence of Cosumnes river with Sacra- 
mento river, the northern boundary of the main Miwok area very 
probably follows the course of the former up to the junction of 
the middle fork with the main stream, where it probably takes the 
course of the middle fork up to its head, and thence on up through 
the higher mountains to a point a short distance west of Silver 
lake. This northern boundary of the Miwok is probably the cor- 
rect one, though it should be noted that Miwok informants differ 
concerning certain parts of it, and that as no opportunity was 
found to question any of the Maidu living north of this line, no 
first hand evidence from that source can here be given. One in- 
formant maintained that the Miwok held the territory for a short 
distance north of the mouth of Cosumnes river, placing their 
northern limit a few miles north of the town of Elk Grove. Other 
informants, however, maintained that the Miwok held no territory 
whatever north of Cosumnes river, which information seems to 
agree with that given by the Maidu to Professor E. B. Dixon 
though, as stated in his paper on "The Northern Maidu," 18 his 
informants left some doubt as to the boundaries in this vicinity. 
Again, certain Miwok informants claimed that the territory in the 
immediate vicinity of Plymouth, nearly south of the confluence 
of the forks of Cosumnes river, was part of the territory of the 
Maidu. Others, however, claimed that it belonged to the Miwok, 

u Op. cit., p. 125. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Geography and Dialects of the Miwolc Indiana. 347 

but differed in opinion as to whether it belonged to the Plains or 
the Amador dialect. That this vicinity was held by the Miwok 
there seems little doubt, though it can not be definitely stated to 
which of the two dialectic areas it belonged. In respect to the 
eastern part of this northern boundary, the bulk of Miwok infor- 
mation gave the south fork of the Cosumnes as the northern limit 
of Miwok territory. This information, however, does not agree 
with that obtained from the Maidu by Professor Dixon, who 
places this portion of the Maidu-Miwok boundary definitely at 
the middle fork instead of the south fork. Therefore, since Pro- 
fessor Dixon's information on this point appears to be quite 
positive, and since a considerable amount of similar information 
was obtained from the Miwok in the course of the present inves- 
tigation, it seems highly probable that the middle fork does mark 
the boundary in this region. 

Prom the point just west of Silver lake the boundary runs in 
a southerly direction through the mountains and across the head 
of Mokelumne river, where it takes a more westerly course and 
runs to the vicinity of Big Trees, otherwise known as the Cala- 
veras big tree grove. Here it turns quite sharply to the south 
for a few miles and then to the east, going across the northern 
headwaters of Stanislaus river, and thence up the range separat- 
ing Aspen Creek from the middle fork of Stanislaus river, to the 
crest of the high Sierras, which it then follows, with its general 
southeasterly trend, to a point at or near Mt. Lyell. Both Miwok 
and Washo informants were questioned concerning the boundary 
between their territories and all agreed that the Washo owned 
the region for some distance down on the western slope of the 
Sierras, and that they held a narrow strip of territory down to 
the vicinity of Big Trees. The Washo placed the line definitely 
about three miles west of Big Trees, while some of the Miwok 
placed it between Big Trees and Gardner's about three or four 
miles to the east. Neither Miwok nor Washo inhabited the very 
high mountains during the colder season, but during the summer 
both camped there and seem to have been on very friendly terms. 
It also appears that although the ownership of the respective ter- 
ritory of each was fully recognized by the other, there were no 
exacting restrictions placed by either upon the other in their 



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848 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

territory. The same conditions apparently did not obtain im- 
mediately to the south of this region. There was hostility be- 
tween the Miwok and the Shoshonean "Paintes" along the por- 
tion of their boundary line at the southern head of Stanislaus 
river, although still farther to the south, in the vicinity of 
Yosemite valley and southward, the people of the two stocks were 
on very friendly terms, making amicable trading trips both ways 
across the summit of the Sierras. 

At Mt. Lyell the boundary turns in a southwesterly direction 
and follows the divide between the headwaters of San Joaquin 
and Merced rivers to the head of Fresno river. It then follows, 
in a general way, the course of this stream with its northeasterly 
and southwesterly trend down, at least, to a point a few miles 
west of Fresno Flat. Here it probably makes a slight swing to 
the south to include the vicinity of what was formerly known as 
Fresno Crossing, then returns to the river itself and continues 
down it to a point about due south of Raymond. The north- 
eastern part of this portion of the boundary separates Miwok 
from Shoshonean territory, while the southwestern part separates 
it from Yokuts territory. There is a possible deviation from the 
southern boundary as here given, in the vicinity of Ahwahnee. 
According to certain informants the boundary left the river here 
and ran for a short distance to the north, including Ahwahnee 
and vicinity in Yokuts territory. However, the bulk of the in- 
formation obtained places Ahwahnee in Miwok territory and 
runs the boundary between the Miwok and Yokuts directly on 
Fresno river itself, except, as above mentioned, where it swings to 
the south to include the vicinity of Fresno Crossing, at which 
point it was asserted by both Miwok and Yokuts informants that 
the Miwok occupied both banks of the river for a few miles. 

The western boundary of the Miwok territory is not as yet 
absolutely settled, but according to the best information obtain- 
able it follows the western edge of the foot-hill region — the actual 
meeting place of the broad plain of the San Joaquin valley with 
the foot-hills themselves — from the point above mentioned on 
Fresno river south of Raymond, to Calaveras river, down which 
stream it runs to a point a few miles northeast of Stockton. 
Here it turns in a general northwesterly direction and follows the 



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UNIV. CALIF. PUBL AM. ARCH. ETHN. 



VOL. 6, MAP 3 




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1908] Barrett. — The Geography and Dialects of the Miwok Indians. 849 

edge of the tule marsh east of San Joaquin river to the eastern- 
most of the several mouths of Sacramento river, up which it runs 
to the point of origin, the confluence of Cosumnes river with 
Sacramento river. As above mentioned, this western boundary is 
not yet definitely settled, but it is very probable that the limit 
here outlined is the correct one, as will be shown later. 

There are certain points wherein the boundaries here given 
for the Miwok differ from the limits formerly assigned to them. 
Formerly, the Miwok were supposed to have inhabited an area 
extending to the summit of the high Sierras throughout the whole 
north and south range of the stock, but it appears from informa- 
tion obtained from both Miwok and Washo informants that the 
Washo owned a considerable area about Silver lake and the head- 
waters of Mokelumne and Stanislaus rivers, their territory ex- 
tending in a sort of narrow tongue even as far west as the vicinity 
of the Calaveras grove of big trees. 

Concerning the western boundary of the Miwok area only 
Miwok information is available. All Miwok informants do not 
agree as to the language spoken by the people occupying the 
plains of the valley along San Joaquin river. The best informa- 
tion at hand, however, places the boundary at the eastern edge 
of the plains as far north as Calaveras river, thus bringing it 
thirty miles or more farther toward the east than has formerly 
been reported. In view of the fact that Miwok informants are 
not fully agreed upon this subject and also in view of the fact 
that it has formerly been supposed that the western boundary 
of the Miwok territory, throughout the greater part of its extent, 
was San Joaquin river itself, diligent search was made for some 
individuals who formerly inhabited this portion of the San 
Joaquin plains and from whom information concerning this 
subject might still be obtained today. However, owing to the 
early settlement of this region, most of which is rich agricultural 
land, and the consequent diminution and dispersion of its 
aboriginal population, no such individual was found, and it 
seems very unlikely that it will be possible in future to collect 
evidence from this source. In addition to the statements made 
by certain Miwok informants to the effect that the edge of the 
San Joaquin plains was the western limit of Miwok territory, 



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350 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

they were able to specifically name certain village sites; as, for 
instance, in the vicinity of Snelling on Merced river and in the 
vicinity of Oakdale on Stanislaus river, each lying but a few 
miles from the foot-hills. These village sites the informants 
definitely knew to have been formerly inhabited by people speak- 
ing the Yokuts language. In particular, two informants, now 
old people, one whose home before the coming of the whites was 
in the vicinity of Merced Palls on Merced river, and the other 
whose old home was near Knight's Ferry, on Stanislaus river, 
both of whom therefore should be most likely to know definitely 
concerning the peoples formerly living in the plains but a few 
miles distant, stated very positively that the plains in these two 
regions were held by people speaking the Yokuts language ; and 
they were able to give short vocabularies of the language used 
by their plains neighbors. In addition to these Yokuts villages 
in the plains of the immediate vicinity, these informants were 
also able to locate many of the Miwok villages among the foot- 
hills along the lower courses of these rivers. These and other 
informants maintained that the entire plains region east of San 
Joaquin river was occupied by the Yokuts, but that in the plains 
to the west of the San Joaquin a language entirely different from 
either Yokuts or Miwok was spoken. This would be Costanoan. 
In respect to this last statement, it would be of course quite 
unsafe with but this as evidence to assume that the Costanoan 
stock reached to the west bank of the San Joaquin. But this 
statement, meager as it is, adds a certain weight to those already 
published and placing the eastern Costanoan boundary on the 
San Joaquin. On the other hand, it must be remembered that 
the Yokuts were primarily a valley or plains people, that they 
held the plains on both banks of the San Joaquin, in the lower or 
northern end of the valley, and practically all of the plains on 
both sides of the river and about Tulare lake in the upper or 
southern end of the valley. In view of these facts it would be 
an unusual distribution to have Costanoan territory reaching to 
the river bank along this central part of the San Joaquin while 
practically all of the remainder of this great valley was, so far as 
is now known, in possession of the Yokuts. Therefore, although 
the evidence so far published points to the occupation of this 



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1908] Barrett.— The Geography and Dialects of the Miwok Indians. 351 

central portion of the San Joaquin plains lying west of the river 
by Costanoan people, the possibility of a Yokuts occupation of 
the whole plains region extending along both banks of the San 
Joaquin river should not be overlooked. 

In corroboration of the newly found continuous northern 
extension of the Yokuts territory east of San Joaquin river, it 
should also be noted that, as has been shown by Professor 
Kroeber, 15 the dialect spoken by the Yokuts formerly living in 
the vicinity of Stockton was very closely related to the Chauchila 
dialect spoken in the vicinity of the river of the same name, which 
is a number of miles north of Fresno river. Further, recent in- 
formation kindly furnished by Professor Kroeber is to the effect 
that his Yokuts informant living farthest north in San Joaquin 
valley, namely, near Raymond in Madera county, stated that the 
territory of the Yokuts extended, in the plains, beyond Chowchilla 
river, which stream lies itself north of the limits formerly assigned 
to that stock. No definite statement could be obtained from this 
informant as to the northernmost limits of the Yokuts territory, 
but she was certain that the Yokuts held both sides of Chowchilla 
river in the plains. Thus it would appear that while it is now 
impossible, on account of their probable total extinction, to obtain 
vocabularies and further direct evidence from the people who 
actually inhabited this section of the San Joaquin plains, there 
is little room for doubt that they were Yokuts, and that the 
Yokuts occupied a continuous area stretching from near Tehach- 
api on the south to the vicinity of the confluence of San Joaquin 
and Sacramento rivers on the north, thus making the territory 
of this stock one of the most extensive in California. 

This change of the western boundary of the Miwok from the 
San Joaquin river itself to the eastern edge of the plains of the 
San Joaquin valley, very greatly reduces the total area formerly 
accredited to the Miwok. In addition to this reduction of the 
Miwok area on the west, it is still further diminished in the north- 
ern part of its eastern border, where a considerable area on the 
headwaters of Mokelumne and Stanislaus rivers which was for- 
merly accredited to the Miwok has been found to belong to the 



"The Yokuts Language of South Central California, Univ. Calif. Publ., 
Am. Arch. Ethn., II, 311. 



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352 University of California Publications in Am. ArcK and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

Washo, the greater part of whose territory lies about Lake Tahoe 
and on the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada mountains. 

On the other hand, there are almost no parts of the Miwok 
boundary which have been extended so as to include more terri- 
tory than formerly. The recent map of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, showing the "Linguistic Families of American In- 
dians North of Mexico, " ie gives a detached northern Yokuts or 
"Mariposan" area which is made to include practically all of 
the plains of the San Joaquin valley lying between Cosumnes 
and Calaveras rivers, although the Bureau's earlier map of the 
same title 17 shows this territory as Moquelumnan. Information 
obtained in connection with the present investigation shows the 
earlier map to be more nearly correct and that the greater portion 
of this territory between Cosumnes and Calaveras rivers was 
part of the Miwok area. Further, there is now added to the 
Miwok territory a very small area in the vicinity of what was 
formerly known as Fresno Crossing on Fresno river, just west 
of Fresno Flat. Of these two areas the latter only, which is in- 
significantly small, may be considered as an actually newly deter- 
mined addition to the Miwok territory, since the earlier map of 
the Bureau of Ethnology has the Calaveras-Cosumnes plains 
region properly included in Miwok territory. Thus it appears 
from the present investigation that the territory of the Miwok 
proper is smaller by a very considerable amount than was for- 
merly supposed, and that, while it has lost considerable areas on 
the west, and northeast, it has gained practically nothing along 
any of its boundaries. 

DIALECTS. 

Within the main Miwok area, there are four markedly distinct 
dialects spoken, none of which have names given to them by the 
Indians. It has already been pointed out that the designating 
of people by the Miwok is done in two ways : either by a general 
name compounded from the term used for a given cardinal di- 
rection, this name referring to all people living in that direction, 
regardless of linguistic or other affinities; or by a local name,. 

"Accompanying Bulletin 30. 

17 Accompanying the Seventh Annual Report. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Geography and Dialects of the Miwok Indians. 353 

formed upon the name of the particular village in which the 
people spoken of reside. The same terms are used by them in 
reference to language, it being said of an individual that he 
speaks the language of the easterners or that he speaks the 
language of the certain village in which he lives. They do, of 
course, recognize a difference between dialects of their own 
language and also a still greater difference between the speech 
of themselves and their neighbors of different linguistic stock. 
But in neither case do they have any name specifically applied 
to a language or dialect as such. For convenience in referring 
to the dialects of the Miwok, it will thus be necessary to arbitrar- 
ily select names for them. The dialect spoken in the northwest- 
ern part of this area and lying chiefly in the plains of the San 
Joaquin valley may be designated as the Plains or Northwestern 
Sierra dialect. That spoken in the area immediately east of the 
last may be designated as the Amador or Northeastern Sierra 
dialect, and the dialects spoken in the remaining two areas may 
be designated as the Tuolumne or Central Sierra dialect and the 
Mariposa or Southern Sierra dialect. The word Sierra is here 
introduced into the names of these dialects in order to make 
more clear the distinction between the dialects of the main Miwok 
area situated in the region of the Sierra Nevada mountains, and 
the remaining three dialects which are spoken on or comparative- 
ly near the shore of the ocean and which have, therefore, been 
designated as the Northern, Western and Southern Coast dialects. 
Professor Kroeber in his paper on the "Dialectic Divisions of 
the Moquelumnan Family" 18 makes a tentative separation of the 
language spoken in the main Miwok area into three dialects, 
which he does not definitely name or bound, employing so far 
as possible names already in use in reference to the language 
spoken in the various parts of the Miwok area. The vocabulary 
given by him under the name Mokelumni is of the same dialect 
as that here designated as the Plains dialect. The Amador dialect 
is called Koni, with which he classes an Angels Camp vocabulary. 
In the south he places his Tosemite and Pohonichi vocabularies 
as practically identical. These two correspond to what is here 
designated as the Mariposa dialect. Professor Kroeber notes 



u Op. cit., pp. 659, 660. 



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354 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

that there are certain slight differences between the Koni and the 
Angels Camp vocabularies, and again between those from Yo- 
semite and the Pohonichi, but with the limited lexical material 
then available does not feel warranted in making definite separa- 
tions of dialects in these cases. With the present vocabularies 
at hand it appears that the Koni or Amador and the Angels Camp 
or Tuolumne are separate though closely related dialects. On 
the other hand it was observed in the course of the present inves- 
tigation that the language spoken in Yosemite valley and that 
spoken in the lower foothills about Mariposa were slightly differ- 
ent. This difference however does not appear to amount to more 
than a sub-dialectic one, and these two regions have therefore 
been classed together as possessing essentially the same speech, 
the Mariposa dialect. 

Owing to the different orthographies used in recording the 
vocabularies accompanying Powers' Tribes of California 1 * it is 
difficult to determine precisely to what one of the Miwok dialects 
each belongs. Of the twelve vocabularies given under the title 
of "Mutsun" eight are Miwok. Of these, five are from the 
dialects of the Sierra group and three are from those of the 
Coast group. Following Powers' numbering of these vocabul- 
aries, they belong to dialects as follows: number one, Amador; 
numbers two and nine, probably Tuolumne ; number eight, Mari- 
posa ; and number eleven, Plains. Those belonging to the Coast 
group of dialects are numbers four, ten, and twelve. The first 
two seem to resemble the Marin dialect slightly more than the 
Bodega, while the last seems to be nearer the Bodega. The dif- 
ferences between the Marin and Bodega dialects are, however, 
so slight that it is impossible to determine definitely to which 
any one of these three vocabularies belongs. Among these 
vocabularies there is none from the Northern Coast or Lake 
dialect. 

The Plains dialect is separated from the Amador dialect by a 
line probably running, in a general southwesterly direction, from 
the point at which the north, middle, and south forks of Cosum- 
nes river meet to form the main stream, to the vicinity of the 
junction of Sutter and Jackson creeks at a point a few miles 

" Cont. N. A. Ethn., Ill, 535 seq. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Geography and Dialects of the Miwok Indians. 355 

west of lone, where it turns in a southerly direction and runs to 
Calaveras river which it strikes at a point at or near where the 
boundary between Calaveras and San Joaquin counties crosses 
it, three miles or so down stream from the town of Comanche. 
Prom this point, it follows Calaveras river down to the point 
where the western interstock boundary comes to that stream. 
There is some doubt as to the location of the northern portion 
of this dialectic boundary, as the Indians differ in their opin- 
ions as to the dialect spoken at the town of Plymouth and in that 
vicinity, even as far south as Drytown. Some claim that the 
Amador dialect extended some miles west of Plymouth, while 
others claim that the Plains dialect extended a short distance 
east of that place. Still others maintain that the language 
spoken in the vicinity of Plymouth was not Miwok at all, but 
Maidu. This, however, seems quite doubtful, as the majority 
of the Miwok claimed the territory in this section as far north 
as Cosumnes river and the Maidu, according to Professor Dixon, 
claimed only as far south as the middle fork of Cosumnes river. 
The Plains dialectic area is practically surrounded on three sides 
by the territories of Indians belonging to entirely different 
linguistic stocks. On the northwest are the Maidu, on the west 
the Tokuts and possibly a small body of the Wintun or Maidu, 
and along a portion of the southern boundary the Yokuts also. 
Along the eastern part of its southern boundary, and along the 
entire length of the eastern boundary, the territory of the Plains 
dialect is contiguous to that of the people speaking the Amador 
dialect. 

The boundary between the Amador and the Tuolumne dial- 
ectic areas extends from the eastern Miwok inter-stock boundary, 
at a point in the mountains just north of the Calaveras grove of 
big trees, along the mountains to the north of the southern head 
waters of Calaveras river, passing about half way between El 
Dorado and Sheep Ranch, and thence on toward the southwest 
until it intersects the western inter-stock boundary probably at a 
point about southwest of Harmon peak. That this boundary 
passes over or near Harmon peak was definitely stated by in- 
formants, but it was impossible to obtain definite information 
concerning the extreme western end of the line. This dialectic 



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356 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

area is adjoined on the north by the territory of the Maidu, on 
the east by that of the Washo, on the south by the Tuolumne 
dialectic area, on the southwest by the territory of the Yokuts, 
and on the west by the Plains dialectic area. 

The Tuolumne dialectic area is separated from that of the 
Mariposa dialect by a boundary line beginning at or near Mt. 
Lyell, and following quite strictly, as nearly as could be ascer- 
tained, the water shed between Tuolumne and Merced rivers, thus 
passing north of Yosemite valley and including this in the Mari- 
posa area. The western extremity of this inter-dialectic bound- 
ary could not be definitely determined, but all indications point 
to the range separating the drainages of Tuolumne and Merced 
rivers in this western extremity as well as throughout the re- 
mainder of the line. The Tuolumne dialectic area is adjoined 
on the northwest by the Amador dialectic area, on the east by 
Washo and Shoshonean territory, on the south by the Mariposa 
dialectic area, and on the west by the territory of the Yokuts. 

The Mariposa dialectic area in turn is adjoined on the north 
by the Tuolumne dialectic area, on the southeast partly by Sho- 
shonean and partly by Yokuts territory, and on the west also by 
Yokuts territory. 

DIALECTIC RELATIONS. 

LEXICAL. 

The vocabularies here given consist of lists of words obtained 
in each case from several informants speaking the same dialect 
and residing in different parts of their particular dialectic area. 
The only exception is that of the Plains dialect where it was 
possible to find but a single informant. He spoke what he called 
the Mokelumne dialect. His vocabulary is, however, corroborated 
by a short list of otceha'mni terms obtained in 1904 by Professor 
Kroeber from several informants. 

Lexically the four dialects spoken in the Sierra Miwok area 
form a unit as compared with those spoken in the Coast Range 
region north of San Francisco bay. There are, however, very 
considerable differences in the roots found in the various dialects, 
the percentage of roots common to the four Sierra dialects in the 
accompanying vocabularies being as low as 35. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Geography and Dialects of the Miwolc Indians. 357 

The limited number of words in these vocabularies makes it 
impractical to attempt to determine the exact mathematical re- 
lations existing in respect to the number of stems held in common 
among all the dialects or between any two of them. Certain 
general relations are, however, evident. 

From an inspection of the list it appears that the four Sierra 
dialects fall into three groups: Plains, Amador-Tuolumne, and 
Mariposa. Of these the Plains dialect is the most distinct from 
the others, having fully 40 per cent of stems entirely peculiar to 
itself. The Amador and Tuolumne dialects are quite closely 
united, having about 80 per cent of their roots in common. The 
Mariposa dialect is removed by a considerable degree from the 
Amador-Tuolumne group, having only about 60 per cent of 
stems in common with it. It is, however, much more closely re- 
lated to the Amador-Tuolumne group than is the Plains dialect. 

Among the three Miwok dialects spoken in the Coast range 
mountains, the adjacent Marin and Bodega dialects are very 
closely related to each other. The connection between these two 
is on the whole even closer than that between the two members 
of the Amador-Tuolumne group. 

The northern Coast or Lake dialect is, however, different from 
the other two Coast dialects, and probably stands farthest re- 
moved of any from the typical Miwok stem. 

The dialects of the Coast group are apparently slightly more 
related to the Plains dialect than to the others of the Sierra 
region. The territory of the Coast dialects is geographically 
nearer to the area in which the Plains dialect was spoken, which 
fact, together with the somewhat closer lexical relationship, 
might be taken to indicate a former actual connection between 
the people of the two regions, with a subsequent intrusion of 
Wintun, or with a Miwok migration, as the cause of separation. 
However, the coast dialects contain so many totally different root 
forms from those found in the dialects of the Sierra group, that 
whatever the cause of separation may have been, it seems prob- 
able that the separation itself has been of long standing. 

In both the Coast and the Sierra groups there are a few 
terms borrowed from surrounding languages, but their number 



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358 University of California Publications in Am. ArcK and Bthn. [Vol. 6 

is so small as to be negligible in a consideration of the causes of 
divergence between the two groups. 

PHONETIC. 

The vocabularies here given contain too small a number of 
terms to make it possible to determine at all accurately the 
phonetic changes which occur in passing from one to another of 
the Miwok dialects. The following may, however, be taken as 
indicative of what will probably be found when fuller lists of 
words are available and longer study has been made. 

On account of the small proportion of terms which the Plains 
dialect has in common with the others, it is specially difficult to 
gain any idea of the phonetic relation of this dialect to the others. 
It appears, however, that the dialect is phonetically as well as 
lexically more different from the remaining three Sierra dialects 
than these are from one another. 

The sound u or u is of frequent occurrence as a final sound 
after certain sounds, particularly s and t, in the Amador, Tuol- 
umne, and Mariposa dialects, but is almost never so used in the 
Plains dialect. So marked is this difference, that as one travels 
through the Miwok territory it is one of the most noticeable 
changes in passing from the region of the Plains dialect to any 
of the others. 

The only phonetic changes which appear at all constantly in 
the short list of words here given are two, the change of t in the 
Amador, Tuolumne, and Mariposa dialects to s, c, or k in the 
Plains dialect, and the change of s in the Plains, Amador, and 
Tuolumne dialects to h in the Mariposa dialect. The latter 
equivalence is a very frequent one. There are no conspicuous 
changes occurring between the Amador and Tuolumne dialects. 

These three examples, the only ones which have appeared 
with any constancy, indicate that with fuller material several 
regular changes would become sufficiently evident to clearly dis- 
tinguish the four dialects phonetically. Here, as well as in the 
lexical consideration, the Amador and Tuolumne dialects seem 
to group themselves together, the Mariposa dialect to be some- 
what removed, and the Plains dialect still more distinct. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Geography and Dialects of the MiwoJc Indians. 359 



ALPHABET. 

The characters used to represent the various sounds found in 
the Miwok dialects are as follows: 

Vowels. 

a as in father. 

ai as in aisle. 

e as in obey. 

e as in net. 

I as in machine. 

i as in pin. 

5 as in note. 

o English aw. 

u as in rule. 

u as in put. 

u as in but. 

u is made with the lips considerably rounded. 

There is no exactly equivalent sound in 

English. 
u Similar to u but with lips more rounded. This 

sound approaches the French u, but is of less 

definite quality, 
u An obscure sound. 

The apostrophe ( ') following a vowel or consonant indicates 
a pronounced aspiration. 

Consonants. 

p,b,w,m,n,y,h as in English. 

k is a symbol which has been used to represent 

two different sounds : the post-palatal and the 
medio-palatal voiceless stops, the value given 
it in any case being governed by the tongue 
position of the vowel with which it is as- 
sociated. 

g is the sonant of k and its positions are varied by 

the vowel with which it is associated in the 
same manner as in the case of k. 



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860 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 

t, d alveolar stops, voiceless and voiced respectively. 

The latter occurs rarely in the Sierra group 
of dialects. 

t voiceless dental stop. In making this sound the 

tongue tip rests against the backs of the up- 
per teeth. 

t voiceless interdental stop. 

n nasalized post-palatal sonant ; like English ng. 

x has a sound usually approaching Spanish jota, 

but is sometimes distinguishable from h only 
with difficulty. 

g* the sonant of x. 

c, j open prepalatal consonants, voiceless and voiced 

respectively. 

s, z open alveolar consonants, voiceless and voiced 

respectively. 

s This peculiar voiceless continuant is made by 

protruding the lower jaw to a considerable 
extent and retracting the edges of the tongue 
to an almost prepalatal position. 

1 as in English let. 

l This is a voiceless stop made with the tip of the 

tongue on the alveolar arch. The closure 
is followed by only a slight explosion, the 
air being allowed to escape laterally. This 
sound has not so far been met with among 
the Sierra dialects and only occasionally 
among the Coast dialects. 

I the sonant of l. 

L resembles l except that the tongue is somewhat 

more retracted, and more relaxed so that 
there is almost no explosion as the air escapes 
over the sides of the tongue. The sound re- 
sembles that of hi. This also has not so far 
been found among the Sierra dialects and is 
found among the Coast dialects more rarely 
than is l. 



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1908] Barrett. — The Geography and Dialects of the Miwok Indians. 861 



tc 


as in church 


ts 


as in sits. 


dj 


as j in jury. 



SOUNDS. 

The following are the sounds found in the four Sierra Miwok 
dialects. 

Vowels : 

a, ai, e, e, I, i, 6, o, u, u, li, u, ii, u. 

Consonants: 

kg td t t pb 

n n m 

x c s w 

s 
1 
I 
y, h, tc, dj. 

The following are the sounds found in the three Coast Miwok 
dialects. 

Vowels : 

a, ai, e, e , I, i, 6, o, u, u, u. 

Consonants : 

kg t d t p b 

fin m 

x g' c s w 

s 
1 

L 

L 

y, h, tc, ts, dj. 



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802 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 



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1908] Barrett.— The Geography and Dialects of the Miwok Indians. 363 



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364 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Sthn. [Vol 6 



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1908] Barrett. — The Geography and Dialects of the Miwok Indians. 365 



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366 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 



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368 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 



FOOTNOTES TO VOCABULARIES. 

M The same informant gave sawe-hasi upon another occasion. 
n The same informant gave ocoo-hasi upon another occasion. 
" hiki is cradle in the Amador and Tuolumne dialects. 
M tokoldla is also used. 
M ukusft is also used. 

* koyapenuk is also used. 

* kdiyapi and ummisi are also used. 

" paumma is very similar to the Shoshonean term, pamo, pamu, found in 
the Shoshoni-Comanche and Mono-Paviotso dialectic groups (present series, 
IV, 94). 

"• kawatcu is also used. 

* wakalmu and wakalmuTo are also used. 

* wakal, wakalu and wakalmu are also used. 

"leka probably here refers to the white oak rather than to trees in 
general. 

n The Miwok recognize three different species of Manzanita. In the 
Tuolumne dialect these are called respectively eye, mokosu, and mokolkliie. 

"tcuku and several variants are met with very frequently throughout 
California, though by no means universally. 

n dletcQ and katuwa were also given as names for coyote in this dialect 

"• wataksaiyi is also used. 

M yololli is also used. 

* tcutcuyu is also used. 

n The directive ending -wit or -win signifying toward is frequently added 
to the roots of the terms of direction. 
" One informant gave naatca-kefie-uni. 
n One informant gave fttiak-mahu. 

* kalkini is also used. 



Berkeley, California, 

April 15, 1907. 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS 

IN 

AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY 
VOL. 6 NO. 3 



ON THE EVIDENCES OF THE OCCUPATION 

OF CERTAIN REGIONS BY THE 

MIWOK INDIANS 



BY 
A. L. KBOEBER. 



Since Mr. Barrett's paper on the Geography and Dialects of 
the Miwok Indians was sent to press and announced, but previous 
to its publication, there has appeared an article on the same sub- 
ject by Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 1 While these two contributions, 
which were made entirely independently, corroborate each other 
closely in the main, they differ on certain points. These differ- 
ences, which relate in part to the territory of the Miwok stock as 
a whole, and in part to tribal and linguistic divisions, it has 
seemed best to discuss briefly. » 

As regards descriptions of the boundaries of the Miwok stock, 
Mr. Barrett and Dr. Merriam agree closely for the most part. 
Considering the impossibility of obtaining absolutely accurate 
information at a time when the Indians are much diminished in 
numbers, in certain regions entirely extinct, and often dispos- 
sessed from their native habitats; considering also that one in- 
vestigator has probably been able to carry inquiries farther in 
certain sections and the other in other districts, and that in many 
cases one describes a boundary more in detail and the other sum- 
marily ; the agreement of their conclusions as regards the greater 
part of the Miwok territory is so close as to be strictly corrobor- 
ative. In one region, however, the differences are considerable 
and important. Mr. Barrett assigns to the Miwok no part of the 

1 Distribution and Classification of the Mewan Stock of California, Amer. 
Anthr., n. s., IX, 338-357, with map, pi. XXV. 



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370 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

San Joaquin-Sacramento valley proper except the district between 
Cosumnes and Calaveras rivers, extending to the Sacramento 
delta. Dr. Merriam adds to this territory a considerable region 
between the lower Sacramento and Cosumnes, a strip on the lower 
San Joaquin and in the Sacramento delta, the entire valley east 
of the San Joaquin between Tuolumne and Calaveras rivers, and 
the territory west of the lower San Joaquin as far toward the 
coast as Mt. Diablo. Such a wide discrepancy on the part of 
contemporary investigators is explainable only by the scantiness 
of available information, due to the almost total extinction of 
the former inhabitants of the valley districts in question. 

Dr. Merriam on the authority of one informant expressly 
counts the Chilumne of the east bank of the San Joaquin, just 
north of Stockton, as Miwok. All other evidence points to their 
having been of the Yokuts family. The Bureau of American 
Ethnology, both in its earlier and more recent map of the linguis- 
tic stocks of North America, assigns this area to the Yokuts. In 
Powell's paper of 1891, as well as in the "Handbook of American 
Indians," these people, following earlier authors, such as Cham- 
isso, are called Cholovone; but these sources say nothing of the 
linguistic affinities of the Cholovone that enables their being posi- 
tively placed in any family. The material on which the Bureau 
has classified them as Yokuts (Mariposan) has not been published, 
nor is it known whether Messrs. Henshaw and Curtain obtained 
any information regarding them, but a Cholovone manuscript 
by A. Pinart is referred to. This is probably the same as an 
article entitled "Etudes sur les Indiens Calif orniens : Sur les 
Tcholovones de Chorris," published in some source unknown to 
the author, and with which he is acquainted only through a sep- 
arate (paged 79-87) in the possession of Dr. R. B. Dixon. M. 
Pinart in this paper gives a vocabulary which is pure Yokuts. 2 

'Compare the following few selections: sky, tipxne; moon, hopem; at 
night, toine; rain, sheel; water, ilikie; rock, selel'; egg, hon; wood, ites; 
extinguish (evidently imperative), shaap-ka; the fire is out, shaap-inn-in 
(showing Yokuts intransitive and present-future suffix). The last two pages 
(86 and 87) of the copy available seem to be from some other language. 
None of the terms are recognizable as Yokuts; an r is used, which does not 
occur in Yokuts or in the first part of the vocabulary; names of tropical 
animals and plants are given; and several translations in the first part of the 
vocabulary are repeated but in connection with different native terms. — Dr. 
Dixon suggests that the pamphlet may be from the Actes de la Soci6t6 Phil- 
ologique of Paris, but like the author has no full set accessible from which 
to verify this supposition. 



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1908] Kroeber. — Occupation of Certain Regions by Miwolc Indians. 371 

He states that the Tcholovones, or better, Colovomnes (Cholo- 
vomne), inhabited a rancheria situated nearly where to-day the 
town of Banta (Bantas) is. The other rancherias related to the 
Cholovomnes and speaking the same dialect were Jacikamne 
(Tachikamne), beside the town of Stockton; Pasasamne (Pash- 
ashamne) ; Nututamne; Tammukamne; Helutamne; Taniamne; 
Sanaiamne; Xosmitamne. 8 All these rancherias were in San 
Joaquin county. A little farther up the San Joaquin river and 
on its affluents were the Lakkisamnes, the Notunamnes, and the 
Tuolumnes, 4 who spoke dialects very similar to the Yachikamne. 
M. Pinart's vocabulary was obtained near Pleasanton (Plaran- 
ton) in 1880, from a woman called Maria, of Yachikamne origin. 
She stated that she was the last survivor of this rancheria ; and 
that she had also lived in the Cholovomne rancheria, which, how- 
ever, had long since disappeared. The husband of Maria, Phil- 
ippe de Jesus, was a Lakkisamne Indian, that is to say, from a 
rancheria friendly and related to the Yachikamne. He corro- 
borated the statements of his wife, adding that he also had in- 
habited the Cholovomne rancheria, and that the Indians of this 
village did not differ in any way from the other Tulareno (Yo- 
kuts) Indians. 

In 1906 Jesus Oliver, near lone, stated to the author that the 
people of the vicinity of Stockton were called Chulamni. This 
term is evidently the same as Chilumne, and probably the same 
as Cholovomne and Tcholovone. 5 He belonged to these people, 
but owing to their extinction had mostly forgotten the language. 
The words and phrases he remembered are grammatically correct 
Yokuts that would be understood by the Indians as far away as 
Tule river reservation : ilik, water ; hites, wood ; hotol, fire ; ukun- 
ka, drink (imperative) ; hileu ma tanin, where are you going t 

It thus seems indubitable that a Yokuts-speaking body of 
Indians called by some form of the name Chulamni or Cholo- 
vomne lived in the plains on the lower San Joaquin in the vicinity 
of Stockton. 



• Cf . the Kosmitas of Chamisso in Kotzebue 's Voyage, III, 51. 

4 Gf. the Lakisumne and Fawalomne (for Tawalomnef ), cited in Bancroft, 
Native Races, I, 451. 

• Tchalabones and Teholoones in Chamisso, loc. dt. 



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372 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 

It is not quite so well established that the remainder of the 
plains region, from Calaveras river south, was Tokuts. But 
here too there is evidence only of Yokuts, not of Miwok occupa- 
tion. 

First of all there are three short vocabularies obtained by 
Mr. Barrett. One of these is from an Indian called Wilson, at 
Merced Falls, given as the language of all the people that for- 
merly lived below the edge of the foot-hills, in the open valley, as 
in the region of Snelling, and as far as Fresno. 

ilek, water okunk, drink 

osit, fire tuiku, shoot 

luiku, eat moktco, old man 

This is not only good Yokuts, but a dialect very similar to 
Chauchila, as shown by the assimilation of the vowel of the im- 
perative suffix -ka to the stem vowel. 

The second vocabulary is from Charley Dorsey, at Sonora, and 
was said to be of the language of Lathrop, a town situated not 
far from Stockton east of the San Joaquin. 

yet, one hapil, earth 

podoi, two ilik, water 

sopit, three silel, rock 

saat, eye uyits, wood 

teli, teeth katciu, coyote 

saba, mouth pulubhal, man 

hosip, north utubhai, chief 

hobotin, south utub, great 

dotu, east tooi, good 

latsu, west luika, eat 

tsupit, above ukudka, drink 
tuxil, below 

This is good Yokuts of the northern valley dialectic group, 
except that n and m have been throughout changed to d and b. 
This may have been an individual peculiarity. The verbal forms, 
like those in the preceding list, show the imperative suffix. 



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1908] Krocber. — Occupation of Certain Regions by Miwok Indians. 373 

Some words from this informant have no known Tokuts or 
other equivalents: 

hupil, fire telex, girl 

tsubuk, smoke hapal, arm 

sikel, ashes tsowotse, four 

bokos, manzanita kide, six 
dutodil, person 

The phonetic appearance of nearly all these words is however 
Tokuts. Abika, come here, and piska, tobacco (perhaps smoke), 
seem to show the Yokuts imperative ending -ka. 

Several other words seem to be Yokuts : 

tidela, world (attil-la, tkos, ear (tukj 

land)' tutas, foot (dadat, dad- 

watia, woman (water-ii, ate) 
girl) 7 

The third vocabulary is from Charley Gomez, a half-breed 
encountered by Mr. Barrett at Jamestown, and was said to be in 
the old language of the region about Knight's Perry on the Stan- 
islaus river, which is still his permanent home. This informant 
had been previously stated by the before-mentioned Jesus Oliver 
to be the son of an old man of the Tawalimni tribe, some time 
dead, who had lived at Knight's Perry. Of the habitat and 
language of the Tawalimni Jesus had no certain knowledge. He 
thought that they may have lived west of the San Joaquin, per- 
haps opposite Stockton, and that the old man Gomez, and perhaps 
others, moved to Knight's Perry from their original habitat. 
This is probably not the case, as the Tawalimni are evidently the 
Tuolumne, placed by Dr. Merriam in the valley between Stanis- 
laus and Tuolumne rivers, and by M. Pinart, with other ranch- 
erias, farther up the San Joaquin and on its tributaries, than the 
Yokuts villages in San Joaquin county. It is therefore more 
likely that as stated by the informant Gomez himself to Mr. Bar- 
rett, the language is that of Knight's Perry and the plains to the 
west. 



•Coconoon; Powers, Tribes of California, 575. 
'Calaveras County; ibid., 573. 



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374 University of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [VoL 6 

ilik, water husiusu, north 

hotol, fire seele, rain 

tooi, good luika, eat 

uyetc, wood huyoska, stand 

dotu, east puns, dog 

toxil, south utubhai, chief 

These are all Yokuts. The following belong to no known 
linguistic stock and probably rest in part on misunderstandings : 

aku, head hate, hand (Mi wok, hate, 

hitcku, eye foot) 

asi, ear hake, smoke (Mi wok, ha- 

uxu, nose (Costanoan us) kisu) 

ait, tongue kawatc, pipe 

us, nail (cf. nose) huti, tobacco 

oyis, foot aiyisi, bluejay 

kulo, arm (Miwok, koro, dapa, father 
foot) 

There is also the well known Yokuts vocabulary obtained by 
A. Taylor 8 at Takin rancheria at Dent's ferry on Stanislaus river. 
This place must have been near the present Knight 's Ferry, and 
the dialect of the same rancheria may be represented by this 
vocabulary and by the last. 

In the same connection may be mentioned the Coconoon Yo- 
kuts vocabulary from Merced river, collected by Adam Johnson 
and published in Schoolcraft and Powers. 9 

Finally it is significant that Dr. Merriam places no Miwok in 
the plains region between the Tuolumne and the Fresno river, 
though this territory has in the past — on the statements of Powers 
and Powell and in the absence of information — always been as- 
signed to them. If there were Yokuts here south of the Tuol- 
umne, and Yokuts north of the Calaveras, the intervening region 
of the same physiographic character is less likely to have belonged 
to the Miwok. 

The great similarity and practical identity of the Chulamni 
dialect with the Yokuts dialects spoken on the lower Chowchilla, 

'Reprinted from the California Farmer, XIII, 42, March 23, 1860, in 
Powers, Tribes of California, 570. 
•Schoolcraft, IV, 413; Powers, 570. 



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1908] Kr other. — Occupation of Certain Regions by Miwok Indians. 375 

lower Fresno, and upper San Joaquin are also much easier to 
understand now that it seems that the Chulamni were not cut off 
from their relatives by Miwok territory. In 1906 it was said : 10 
"The language of the Chulamni shows them undoubtedly to have 
been a very recent offshoot from the main body of the Yokuts," 
and in 1907 11 that "the isolated Chulamni of the region about 
Stockton is known to have belonged' ' to the immediate sub-group 
of "Northern dialects spoken in the plains" about Fresno and 
San Joaquin rivers. These conditions are now explained by the 
continuity of Yokuts territory. 

In the face of this evidence, and the lack as yet of any specific 
material such as vocabularies to the contrary, it seems that the 
whole valley east of the San Joaquin and south of the Calaveras 
was Yokuts, and that the Miwok habitat on the plains was con- 
fined to the region north of the Calaveras. 

The valley land west of the San Joaquin may also have been 
Yokuts. On the maps of the Bureau of Ethnology and the Uni- 
versity of California it has been assigned to the Costanoan family ; 
but there is no evidence known to the author in favor of such a 
view, other than the statements of certain of Mr. Barrett's in- 
formants. There are several indications that the region in ques- 
tion was Yokuts. In the accepted Yokuts territory, both north 
and south of Tulare lake, there were tribes, such as the Tulamni 
and Tachi, on the west as well as on the east side of the valley. 
M. Pinart's Cholovomne rancheria was at Banta, which is not 
far from Tracy, near the westernmost arm of the San Joaquin 
and west of the main channel. Jesus Oliver believes that a 
Tawalimni subsequently at Knight's Ferry came from the region 
opposite Stockton; however erroneous this view may be, it is 
probably founded on a similarity of language in the two places. 
The Yachimesi, or Yachichumne, mentioned as the original In- 
dians of Stockton, 11 and stated in 1906 by Jesus to have been 
at least near the site of the city, are put by Dr. Merriam west 
of the San Joaquin, between it and Mt. Diablo, which region is 



10 Boas Anniversary Volume, 65. 

u Present series of publications, II, 325. 

" Cited in Bancroft, Native Races, I, 452. See also the citation given by 
Dr. Merriam, which places a village of the Tachekumnas on the site of 
Stockton, and the above-mentioned statement of M. Pinart to the same effect. 



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376 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

also mentioned as their habitat by one of Bancroft's informants. 1 * 
It would thus seem that the entire plain of the San Joaquin valley 
from south to north, west as well as east of the central stream, 
was everywhere held by the Yokuts, a circumstance not suspected 
until Mr. Barrett's investigation. However this may be, and 
whether the land west of the lower San Joaquin was Yokuts or 
whether it was Costanoan, it seems clear that it was not Miwok. 

On the eastern side of the Miwok territory, the difference be- 
tween Dr. Merriam 's and Mr. Barrett's maps is only nominal, 
though at first appearance considerable. Dr. Merriam, it would 
seem, shows only territory permanently inhabited, and therefore 
leaves the entire higher Sierra region blank. He does not state 
that the entire western side of the higher Sierra above the Miwok 
foothills was occupied by Shoshoneans or Washo. Mr. Barrett 
shows as Miwok all territory claimed by them or used by them 
during the summer, and thus brings at least part of the eastern 
boundary to the crest of the Sierra. 

On the second point, that of tribes and dialects within the 
Miwok family, there is the same close agreement between Dr. 
Merriam and Mr. Barrett in the foothill region, and only the 
plains present differences of moment. The territory of the 
Northern, Middle, and Southern, or Amador, Tuolumne, and 
Mariposa, Miwok of both authors nearly coincides, and both make 
identical statements as to the practical unity of speech within 
each of the three areas and the absence of any distinctive tribal 
or group names for the people of the three areas or dialects. 

In the valley Dr. Merriam distinguishes ten tribes, who he says 
all spoke dialects of a common language, the Yatchachumne being 
the only one whose speech is somewhat doubtful. Of these ten, 
Mr. Barrett and the author have given the Mokosumni, Mokelum- 
ni, and Ochekhamni as Miwok. 14 The Chulamni, Tuolumni, 
Yachikumni, and Dr. Merriam 's Siakumne, 15 must be regarded 
as Yokuts. This leaves doubtful the affiliation of the Hulpoomne, 
the Wipa, and the Hannesuk. Judging only from their assigned 



u Ibid., from San Francisco Evening Bulletin, September 9, 1864. 

u Am. Anthrop., n. s., VIII, 659, 662, 1906. Ibid., also Lelamni, Tawa- 
limni, Sakayakumni, Walalabimni. Except perhaps the Lelamni, these are 
all mentioned by the informants cited by Bancroft, 450-455. 

" Also given in the citations by Bancroft, ibid. 



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1908] Kroeber. — Occupation of Certain Regions by Miwok Indians. 377 

geographical position, the Hannesuk were probably Yokuts, the 
Hulpoomne 1 ' more likely Miwok than Yokuts. The territory in 
which Dr. Merriam places the Hulpoomne has generally been 
considered Maidu. 

As regards the apparent tribes, each with its distinctive name, 
in the valley region, the question arises whether these, at least 
among the Miwok, are not really only villages, as affirmed by Mr. 
Barrett. 

M. Pinart throughout speaks of the Cholovomne, the Yachi- 
kamne, the Tuolumne, and the other groups mentioned by him, 
as rancherias, and does not once use the word tribe. The Cholo- 
vomnes "inhabited a rancheria or village situated nearly where 
the town of Bantas is to-day." "The other rancherias related 
to the Cholovomnes and speaking the same dialect were the Yachi- 
kamne, beside Stockton; the Pashashamne, M etc. "All these 
rancherias were in San Joaquin county.' ' "Farther up . . . 
were the Lakkisamnes, ,, etc. "Baptism administered to indi- 
viduals from this rancheria" (Cholovomne). Maria, of Yachik- 
amne origin, claimed "to be the last survivor of her rancheria;" 
she had lived also "in the rancheria of the Cholovomnes.' ' Her 
husband was "a Lakkisamne Indian, that is from a rancheria 
allied and related to the Yachikamne." And so on. 

The informant Jesus, when asked regarding the so-called 
Yachikumne, said that the word was not the name of a tribe but 
of a place, properly Yachik, near Stockton. Wana was another 
inhabited site, a short distance below the steamer landing in 
Stockton. He believed that it was to this place that his own 
ancestors, whom he called by the more general or tribal designa- 
tion Chulamni, belonged. Kui was a third site. 

Dr. Merriam himself speaks of several of his valley tribes as 
if they were village groups, the Mokozumne being the only one of 
which he gives a number of villages. He mentions the "principal 
rancheria" of the Hulpoomne near Preeport; the "principal vil- 
lage, Muk-kel (from which the tribe takes its name)" of the 
Mokalumne; and "La-lum-ne, a rancheria near Clements" which 
"may be included under the Mokalumne tribe as its inhabitants 

19 Mentioned as the Khoulpouni and Chulpun by Choris and Chamisso, 
cited ibid. The Hannesuk and Wipa do not seem to appear in any published 
lists. 



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378 University of California Publication* in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 6 

spoke the same language." The Ochakumne he calls also Oche- 
hak or Ochehakumne. Ochekh (Otcex) was obtained by Mr. 
Barrett as the name of a place. Hannesuk shows a similar end- 
ing. It seems likely that this term is literally the name not of a 
body of people but of their "principal village," which was "on a 
big river.' ' 

As all the evidence from this region bears out Mr. Barrett's 
statement that -amni is a suffix applied to place or village names 
to designate the inhabitants of such sites; and as Dr. Merriam 
states that all the tribes in question spoke dialects of a common 
language ; the conclusion seems warranted that all the Miwok of 
the plains formed a single dialectic group in every way analogous 
to the northern, central, and southern dialectic groups of the foot- 
hills, and that the Mokosumni, Mokelumni, Ochehamni, and oth- 
ers, instead of being co-ordinate with these three larger groups, 
found their equivalents, in the foothill region, in such rancherias 
as Awani or Upusuni. In Mr. Barrett's and the author's ter- 
minology, the northern, middle, and southern "Mewuk" are 
dialectic divisions or dialect groups, each comprising a number 
of independent villages; the valley "Mewko tribes," so far as 
they are Miwok, are independent villages collectively forming 
one, and only one, dialectic group, which is exactly co-ordinate 
with, for instance, the northern foothill group. 

It must be admitted that the habit of the plains Miwok, of 
speaking not of Mokel but of Mokelumni, not of Ochekh but of 
the Ochehamni, gives the impression that there were in this region 
true tribes. It is possible that intimate contact with the Yokuts, 
who so far as known were everywhere anomalous in possessing a 
true tribal organization, may have somewhat modified the political 
and social organization of the plains Miwok in the same direction ; 
but it is necessary to distinguish carefully between actual evi- 
dence of an approach to tribal organization, — which is so far en- 
tirely lacking — and the mere appearance of such an organization 
as produced by the plains Miwok use of a suffix meaning "people 
of." Every Yuki rancheria can in the same way be dignified 
into a tribe by laying undue stress upon the suffix -nom, "people 
of," which can be added to its name, and by emphasizing the fact 
that the Yuki have a habit of mentioning more frequently the 
inhabitants of a place than the village itself. Such conditions 



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1908] Kroeber. — Occupation of Certain Regions by Miwok Indians. 379 

are matters of linguistic idiom, and we should exercise the great- 
est reluctance to deduce from them, without further direct evi- 
dence, any conclusions as to the actual organization of the people. 
It cannot be too often reaffirmed that the only safe rule to follow 
in ethnological studies in California is invariably to assume, in 
the absence of positive information to the contrary, that the only 
actually existing units of organization are the village and the 
language or dialect, and that the tribe, in the ordinary sense of 
the word, and as an intermediate division, is absent. 

The ending -amni, which thus seems to be at the bottom of the 
differences of view regarding the Miwok " tribes," appears to be 
used in this stock principally or only in the northwestern or 
valley dialect. Mr. Barrett's examples of its employment and 
significance are all from this dialect; and all the Miwok groups 
mentioned by any author and having names showing this suffix, 
are from the territory of this dialect. This fact goes to explain 
why "tribes' ' like those of the plains have not been alleged among 
the foothill Miwok. 

While the ending -amni is found among the Yokuts, its em- 
ployment by them is different from that of the plains Miwok. 
It occurs on many tribal names, but is lacking from more, such 
as Tachi, Taudanchi, Gashowu, Pitkachi, Chauchila, Chukchansi, 
Choinok. The ending has no apparent meaning in Yokuts. Its 
subtraction from names like Choinimni, Telamni, Chulamni, 
Yauelmani, Tulamni, usually leaves no words that have meaning 
to the Indians or that are stems identifiable by the linguistic 
student. The suffix cannot be added to names of places to form 
designations of people ; the people at Tishechu are the Choinimni, 
not the Tishechimni, a term that would probably not be under- 
stood by the Yokuts. The universal Yokuts suffix that in its 
usage and meaning is the exact equivalent of valley Miwok -amni, 
is -inin: as in Alt-inin, people of alit; khomt-inin, southerners, 
people of khomot, south; padu-unun, people below; khosm-inin, 
northerners. The supposition may therefore be hazarded that the 
ending -amni is originally a Miwok ending, occurring at present 
chiefly or only in the plains or northwestern dialect of the Sierra 
or main division of the stock, with the meaning "people of;" 
that from this dialect its use spread, as an ending of tribal desig- 
nations, to the adjacent but linguistically unrelated Yokuts, 



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380 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Bthn. [Vol. 6 

among whom however, except possibly in the region in immediate 
contact with the plains Miwok, it did not remain a freely usable 
suffix, but crystallized in certain tribal names; and that it spread 
in the opposite direction to the Maidu, among whom it occurs on 
several names of what have been designated villages. 

In the case of the northernmost Yokuts, there is some doubt 
regarding the use of the ending -amni. If all M. Pinart's names 
are, as he says, village names, the stem of each word must have 
been used to denote the site of the village. It may be, however, 
that such names as Tachikamni are not Yokuts but Miwok for- 
mations, and that the Yokuts themselves spoke only of Yachik, 
as one of the places inhabited by the Chulamni tribe. It is prob- 
able that not all the extreme northern Yokuts names given by M. 
Pinart and Dr. Merriam are co-ordinate in scope. There are 
too many for them all to have designated tribes equivalent to the 
tribes of the Yokuts farther south, and M. Pinart's identification 
of them with village-communities indicates that at least some of 
the number were such. On the other hand the existence of dis- 
tinct tribes elsewhere among the Yokuts leads to a natural hesi- 
tance to accept all these names as only designations of village- 
communities, though such a departure from the normal Yokuts 
status might have been brought about by close association with 
the non-tribal plains Miwok. 

As regards Mr. Barrett's Marin or southern coast Miwok, in 
place of whom Dr. Merriam recognizes the Lekahtewutko and the 
Hookooeko, it is sufficient to say that Dr. Merriam states the 
language of the two divisions to be essentially the same, that the 
name of the Lekahtewutko is taken from Lekahtewut, 17 a ranch- 
eria near Petaluma, and that the name Hookooeko, which was not 
encountered by Mr. Barrett, is unexplained. It would seem 
therefore that in this region also a true but nameless unit of di- 
vision, a homogeneous dialectic group, has been split and the two 
fragments more or less arbitrarily designated by terms which in 
native usage were the names only of single villages, comprised, 
with numerous others, in a larger dialectic but non-tribal group. 

Berkeley, California, 
November 25, 1907. 

"Cited by Bancroft, Native Races, I, 453, as the "Lecatuit tribe" of 
Marin county, and by Powers, 195, as the likatnit 



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INDEX.* 



aca'ben, 272. 

a'ca'tcatiuy 232. 

Ackerman creek, 125, 151. 

Adobe creek, 18, 192, 198, 201, 204. 

Aesculus calif ornica, 13. 

Agua Caliente, 314, 318. 

Ahwahnee, 348. 

a'ka'mdtcdlowani, 221. 

akapo'lopoldwani, 223. 

a'kule, 179. 

Albion river, 134. 

Alder, 13. 

Alder creek, 161, 163. 

Alexander valley, 211 n., 219, 223, 

265 n., 266 n., 268, 271, 272, 275; 

rancheria, 268. 
Alley, Bowen & Co., 48 n., 128 n., 

132 n., 133 n., 147 n., 150, 168 n., 

170 n., 172, 249 n., 262, 281 n. 
Allium, 90 n. ; Allium unif olium, 90 

n., 158. 
Alnus rhombifolia, 13, 223. 
Aloquiomi, 44 n. 
Alphabet, 51, 359. 
Alter, I., 209. 
Altimera, Jose, 40. . 
Alt-inin, 379. 
Amador, county, 335, 337, 342; 

dialect, see Miwok. 
Amador-Tuolumne group, 357. 
amalco, 221. 
amalpuwa'li, 216. 
amaskatci'lan, 219. 
amati'd, 216. 
amaya'latci, 234. 
amayelle, 310. 
American occupation of California, 

44, 45, 293. 
American river, gold discovered, 

338. 
-amni, ending of tribal names, 378- 

380. 
Amoroso, Father, 222 n. 
amo'tati, 245. 
Anderson creek, 122, 150, 153, 160, 

177; valley, 48 n., 126, 129, 137, 

150, 151, 160. 



Angels Camp, 353; vocabularies, 

354. 
annakd'tandma, 269. 
Arbutus Menzieeii, 13. 
Arctostaphylos, 13. 
Armstrong, G. P., 47; B. B., 296. 
Ashochimi, 247, 263. 
Aspen creek, 347. 
Asti, 266 n.; Italian-Swiss colony, 

221. 
Asylum rancheria, 136. 
atcacinatca'walli, 236. 
atcamdtcd'tcawi, 311. 
Atenomac, 44 n. 
Athapascans, 9, 14, 15, 27, 55, 111, 

118 n., 120, 121, 260 n. 
Athapascan, area, 125, 248, 261, 

280; boundaries of, 279; stock, 

7; territory, 247, 257, 279. 
Austin creek, 211, 227, 228, 237. 
Awani, 342, 378. 
awa'niwi, 309. 

baa'wel, 259. 

baca'klekau, 219. 

bacakleno'nan, 215. 

bace'wi, 234. 

bace'yokaffi, 231. 

Bachelor valley, 129 n., 139, 185 n., 

198. 
bado'nnapdti, 189, 191. 
Baechtel, Martin, 145. 
Bagil, 131 n. 
bahe'myS, 166. 

Bailey, M. G., 48 n., 195, 262. 
baka'kLabe, 296. 
baka'mtati, 245. 
ba'ka'tsio, 218. 
baka'uha, 146. 
Baker, Wm., 299. 
bakd'do, 151. 
Ba-kow-a, 146 n. 
Bald hill, 47, 135. 
Bald mountain, 182, 190, 205. 
Bale rancho, 268 n. 
balolcai, 128 n. 
Balsas, 25, 26, 89 n., 124. 



• Univ. Calif. Publ. Am. Arch. Ethn., Vol. 6. 

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bana'kaiyau, 179. 

Bancroft, 119 n., 142, 143, 147 n., 
169 n., 172, 173, 195, 224 n., 231, 
266, 263, 264, 269, 270, 271, 273, 
293, 307, 308, 310, 311, 313, 317, 
376; Native Races, 371 n., 375 n., 
380 n. 

Bank ranch, 186; village, 190. 

Banta, 371, 375. 

Bartlett creek, 204, 286, 291, 295, 
296. 

Basketry, 24; coiled, 338, 339; 
twined, 338. 

bata"ka, 143. 

batcd'adand, 179. 

bati'kletcawi, 223. 

B&tim-da-kai, 279 n. 

batifikletcawi, 223. 

bati'ukalewi, 182. 

batsa'tsal, 234. 

batsd'mkitem, 201. 

batsu'mise, 201. 

Beach 's Indian Miscellany, 48 n. 

Bear, black, 13. 

Bear creek, 296. 

Beatty ranch, 175; rancheria, 168. 

Beckford ranch, 245. 

Bedoh-marek, 142. 

behekauna, 215. 

behe'mkalum, 148. 

behe'pal, 188. 

behe'pata, 145. 

Behring, Admiral, 39. 

Bellvenue hotel, 196. 

Berrye8So rancho, 271. 

Berry Wright ranch, 144. 

Betumke, 128 n., 146 n. 

Betumki, 259 n. 

bida'miwina, 197. 

bida'te, 262. 

Biddle ridge, 225, 226. 

bidutsa'kaleyd, 216. 

Big Borax lake, 208. 

Big Horse mountain, 120, 125, 182, 
184, 244, 248, 257. 

Big river, 123, 133, 134, 154. 

Big Bock creek, 281. 

Big Stone creek, 239, 241, 244, 245, 
285, 288, 289, 297. 

Big valley, 18, 19, 41, 46 n., 118 n., 
119, 185, 186, 189, 191, 194, 195, 
196, 198, 242, 273; division, 185, 
191; Indians, 243. 

bikeka', 148. 

bilo'bida, 47. 

Billodeauz, Louis, 143. 

bi'mukatSn, 225. 

Birds, 14. 

bita'danek, 145. 



bito'm-kai, 128 n. 

Black point, 161 n., 229, 233. 

Black ranch, 221. 

Blanco, Cape, 28. 

Bloody Island, 176, 189 n., 191, 196. 

Blue lakes, 130 n., 139, 131 n. 

Bluenose, 252. 

boa'no, 181. 

Boas Anniversary Volume, 375 n. 

Boats, tule, 24, 25, 26, 89 n. 

bo'cadilau, 166. 

bd'camkutci, 147. 

bd'cema, 180. 

Bodega, 48 n., 354; bay, 39, 195, 
229, 231, 302-5, 334; Corners, 
304, 305, 307; dialect, see Mi- 
wok; Head, 121, 303. 

bo'dond, 165, 175, 177. 

bo'gagdwi, 152. 

Bohbidahme, 22 n. 

Boh-Napobatin, 22 n. 

050108016, 223. 

Boil-ka-ya, 156, 156 n. 

boTcca, 176. 

Bolanos and Tamales, 307. 

Bolinas bay, 307. 

Bollanos, 307. 

bo'maa, 140. 

bo'o'mll, 195. 

Boonville, 126, 150-4, 160, 177, 182. 

bd'pda'wi, 180. 

bo'tcawel, 157. 

bo'tcemati, 180. 

Bowen's Landing, 167. 

Bowers, 219 n., 269 n., 270 n., 271 
n., 311 n. 

Brackenridge, N. B., 170, 172 n., 
281 n. 

Branscomb, 280, 283. 

Brasfield place, 296. 

Bridal Veil Falls, 343. 

Bridgeport, 166, 289, 290. 

Brisco creek, 290. 

Browne, J. Ross, 48 n. 

Brumfield ranch, 216. 

Brush creek, 163, 164. 

bucka'wi, 216. 

Buckeye, 13. 

Buckeye creek, 225, 226. 

Buckingham's island, 206. 

Bucknell ranch, 188. 

Buckner creek, 143, 259; moun- 
tains, 143, 156. 

bu'dutdlan, 215. 

buki'snal, 179. 

bulakowi, 226. 

bu'lawil, 150. 

Bulbs as food, 336. 

buldam, 133. 



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Bulletin, San Francisco Evening, 

376 n. 
buntcnondi'lyi, 282. 
buntctenondi'lkut, 282. 
Bureau of Amer. Ethnology, 352, 

370, 375. 
Burger, Jane, 150; J. F., 156; L. 

P., 159. 
Burk, Isaac, 176; ranch, 181. 
Burns' valley, 208. 
Bush, George, 142. 
buta'ka, 147. 
bu'takatcatokani, 223. 
bQtswa'li, 222. 
Butte creek, 48 n. 
Buzzards, turkey, 14. 

Gabadilapo, 279 n. 

caba'kana, 145. 

cabe'gok, 46 n., 196. 

cabu'tukkawi, 179. 

Cache creek, 10, 115 n., 120, 129 n., 
183 n., 185 n., 204, 286, 288, 
290-6, 300, 314, 315, 317; ranch- 
eria, 295, 296. 

Cache Creek ridge rancheria, 291, 
295. 

Canto, 49, 111, 118 n., 168, 247, 
249, 279 n., 281 ; Athapascans at, 
261 n. ; Athapascan territory, 
249, 257; valley, 118 n., 147 n., 
279 n., 280, 282. 

ca'ipetel, 290. 

ca'kai, 206. 

caka'kmo, 222. 

cako'kai, 146. 

Calaveras, big tree grove, 347, 349; 
county, 302, 335, 349, 355 ; river, 
335, 336, 348, 352, 370, 372, 374, 
375. 

Calaveras-Cosumnes plains, 352. 

Caldwell ranch, 221. 

Calhoun, J. W., 215. 

California and Nevada, Indians of, 
189. 

California, Alta, 28, 37; American 
occupation of, 41, 45; central, 
341 ; discovery of, 27, 28 ; dis- 
covery of gold in, 41; explora- 
tions, 27 ; Farmer, 374 n., Indians, 
22; laurel, 188, 196, 234; Lower, 
28, 37; northern, 338, 341; North- 
western railway, 221; southern, 
338; Spanish speaking people, 
40; State Mining Bureau, 183 n.; 
stocks, 340; north-central, 344; 
survey, Archaeological and Eth- 
nological, 7, 334; University of, 
375; Upper, 37. 



Calistoga, 112, 264 n., 266, 269 n., 

270, 271, 287 n. 
Callajolmanus, 269. 
Calle-Nameras, 48 n. 
Cal-pa-lau, 143. 
Calpella, 118 n., 128, 137, 143, 144, 

151, 168 n., 169, 260. 
Camebell-Poma, 48 n., 132. 
ca'mli, 225. 
camo'ka, 181. 
Campbell ranch, 166. 
Camp sites, modern, 159, 182, 191; 

old, 134, 152, 157, 166, 179, 190, 

200, 209, 224, 226, 233, 238, 245, 

262, 274, 278, 297, 305. 
Canada de los Olompalies, 310. 
canS'kai, 156, 
cane'-kai porno, 118, 119. 
cane'l, 141, 142, 152, 171. 
cane'milam, 176. 
cane'mka, 147. 
cane'neu, 176. 
cane'uca, 166. 
Canijolmano, 44 n. 
Canoe, 28, 124. 
Capay, town of, 294; valley, 290, 

291, 292; Indians, 295. 
cape'tome, 238. 

Captain, 15, 344; authority of, 16. 
Carez barbarae, 180. 
Carez creek, 196, 200. 
Carlsbad Springs, 204. 
Carquin, 44 n. 
Carquinez straits, 38. 
Caspar, town of, 133. 
catca'li, 220. 
catca'mkau, 140. 
Cathartes californianus, 180. 
catinen, 216. 
cawa'kS, 220. 
Caymus, 44 n., 269; rancho, 268 n., 

269. 
Cazadero, 238. 

Centerville, 122, 136, 140, 141, 143. 
ce'pda, 170. 
cetelid, 179. 

Chamisso, 370 seq., 371 n., 377 n. 
Cha-net-kai tribe, 143. 
Characters, sounds of, 361. 
Chauchila, 379. 
Chau-te-uh, 146 n. 
Chebalnapoma, 48 n. 
Chebal-na-Poma, 132. 
Che-boo-kas, 156 n. 
Che-com, 190: 

Chedilna-Poma, 48 n., 132. 
Chemoco, 44 n. 
Chesnut, V. K., 93 n., 169 n. 
Chichoyoni, 44 n. 



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Chiefs, Yuki, 251. 

Chilumne, 370. 

Chlorostoma funebrale, 230. 

Choam Cha-di-la Po-mo, 143. 

Chochyem, 44 n. 

Chocuali, 310 n. 

Chocuyens, 313. 

Choinimni, 340, 341, 379. 

Choinok, 379. 

Chokuyem, 313. 

Cholovomne, 371, 375, 377. 

Cholovone, 370 seq. 

Choris, 377 n. 

Cho-tan-o-man-as, 207. 

Chowchilla river, 342, 351, 374. 

Chow-e-shak, 146 n. 

Christine, 149, 152. 

Chukachansi, 379. 

Chulamni, 371, 374, 375, 377, 379, 
380. 

Chulpun, 377 n. 

Chu-mai-a, 247. 

Chumaya, 247. 

Chun-te-ya, 342. 

Chwachamaju, 231. 

cIS'go, 173. 

ci'gom, 182, 190, 242. 

ci'hobo, 166. 

cii'ncil, 259. 

cii'ncilmal, 145. 

cima'kau, 140. 

cima'kawi, 140. 

ci"mela, 219, 271. 

ciohutmo'kdni, 215. 

ci'pomul, 258. 

Civets, 14. 

ciwa', 189. 

ciyd'ksiti, 179, 180. 

ciyol, 144, 151. 

ciyole, 214. 

ciyo'ton, 179. 

cki'tsil, 154. 

Clans, 15. 

Clark's peak, 202, 203. 

Clark ranch, 199, 282. 

Clear lake, 11, 14, 17, 18, 22 n., 23, 
41, 42, 44 n., 46 and n., 49, 
89 n., Ill, 112, 114, 115 n., 
119, 120, 125, 129, 130 n., 139, 
142, 156-160, 176, 183-186, 194, 
196, 197, 200-210, 233, 241, 242, 
247, 263, 270, 273-278, 286, 303; 
333; basin, 118 n.; people, 243; 
region, 158, 243. 

Clements, 377. 

Cleone, 120, 262, 263; beach, 124, 
127, 261. 

Cleveland's flour mill, 140. 

Cliff ridge, 163. 



Climate, 10, 23, 335-7. 

Cloverdale, 87 n., 160, 162, 212, 214, 
221, 272. 

Coast Range, 10, 12, 23, 115 n., 118 
n., 119, 239, 240, 247, 248, 249, 
254, 256, 285, 288, 357; inner or 
main range of, 23; Mexican set- 
tlement, 41; outer range of, 23. 

Coast region, characteristics of, 24. 

Cobb mountain, 12, 120, 184, 210, 
211, 264-6, 274, 314, 315. 

Coconoon, 373 n., 374. 

co'dakai, 128 n. 

cS'dono, 181. 

coTcadjal, 19, 168, 175, 176, 177. 

co'katcal, 140. 

co-katu, 123 n. 

Cold creek, 127, 128, 140, 131 n. 

Cole creek, 18, 40 n., 120, 183, 184, 
192, 193, 201, 204, 274-8, 314. 

Colovomnes, 371. 

Colusa, 290; county, 10, 120; foot- 
hills, 240. 

comda, 150. 

Compositae, 13. 

co'nba, 259. 

Condor, 14, 180. 

Conifers, food-bearing, 336. 

Conoma, 44 n. 

Consonants, value of, 51, 

Cook's Springs, 297. 

Cooper's ranch, 213 n. 

Copeh, 285. 

Copehan, 285. 

Corte Madre de Novato, rancho, 
309. 

Cortes, 27. 

Cortina, creek, 290, 296, 297; val- 
ley, 290-2, 296, 297. 

cft'samak, 172. 

co'samal, 171. 

Costanoan, 22, 301, 318, 345, 351, 
375, 376; boundary, 350; family, 
344; stock, 350; territory, 287. 

Cosumnes river, 334, 335, 345, 346, 
349, 354, 355, 370. 

Cotate, 312; Peak, 312; rancho, 
311. 

Cotati, 121, 311. 

cdtomko'tca, 309. 

cotd'mkowi, 308. 

co'tsui, 146. 

Council, 15. 

Covelo, 249. 

Cox rancheria, 168, 181. 

Coyayomi, 44 n., 316. 

co'ydme, 316. 

Coyote, 189, 230; creek, 127, 149; 
valley, 22 n., 44 n., 128 n., 136, 



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Coyote — Continued. 

139, 140, 151, 195, 264, 303 n., 
314-7; Valley division, 315; Val- 
ley Bancheria, 136. 

Cradle, 338, 339. 

cta'la, 177. 

Cuffey's Cove, 166. 

Culle-Bulle, 47. 

Culture, 22, 338, 339; classified ac- 
cording to environment, 23; 
classified independently of en- 
vironment, 26. 

Cum-le-bah, 158, 158 n. 

Cummiskey, 171. 

cu'naubasatnapotai, 150. 

Curley Cow creek, 129, 147, 152. 

Curtin, 370. 

cu'takdwi, 218. 

cuta'uyomanuk, 207. 

cuta'wani, 222. 

dakoliabe, 177. 

dala'dano, 18, 277. 

dama'ldau, 163. 

dana'ga, 229. 

dano'co, 188. 

Dano-habe, 277. 

Danokakea, 188. 

danS'xa, 188. 

Da-pi-shul Porno, 144. 

da'tcimticni, 290. 

da'tsin, 159. 

Day's John, summer resort, 259. 

Deer, 33d. 

De Haven, 261; creek, 261, 262. 

delema, 215. 

Deming place, 158 n. 

Descent in the female line, 15. 

Dialects, number of, 14. 

Digger pine, 12, 89 n., 93 n. 

dihi'laLabe, 290, 295. 

dT'kata, 234. 

Di-noo-ha-vah, 188. 

distegu'tslfi, 282. 

diwi'lem, 188. 

Dixon, R. B., 340 n., 346, 347, 355, 

370. 
dje'comii, 164. 
djelheldjiseka'ni, 271. 
djo'mi, 149. 
djo'mo, 135. 

djS'pten, 216. 

djuhuTakai, 128 n. 

Dolores, 39, 40; Mission of S. F. 

de Assied, 39, 286 n. 
Donahue 'a landing, 310. 
dona'nto, 311. 
Doolan creek, 125 n. 



Dorsey, Charley, 372. 

Dougarty creek, 154. 

Douglas spruce, 12. 

Dow, J. G., 215. 

do'wikaton, 221. 

Downes, J. S., 194. 

Drake, Sir Francis, 28, 36 n., 37 n. 

Drake's bay, 36 n., 37 n. 

Dress, typical forms of, 24, 26. 

Drum, aboriginal Porno, 234. 

Dry creek, 19, 87 ns., 120, 160, 180, 

210, 212, 213 n., 219, 220, 224, 

265, 266 n. 
Drytown, 355. 
Ducks, 14. 
duhultamti'wa, 245. 
du'kacal, 237. 
du'ml, 180. 
Duncan's Mill, 238; point, 195, 

232, 235. 
du'tsakol, 226. 
Dutton ranch, 181. 
duwidl'tem, 226. 
du'wikalawakali, 234. 
duwima'tcaeli, 230. 

East lake, 118 n., 122 n., 123 n., 

205-9. 
Echo, 170. 

Eden valley, 254, 256, 260. 
edi'Labe, 297. 
Eel river, 10, 11, 23, 25, 46, 48 n., 

90 n., 118 n., 239, 248, 255, 261, 

279; drainage of, 285; south 

fork of, 280-3. 
Eight-mile valley, 130 n., 139, 158. 
El Dorado, 355. 
elem, 206 n. 
e'lem-xawai, 123 n. 
Elledge ranch, 177. 
Elk, 13, 336; creek, 63, 211 n., 265 

n., 289, 290; Grove, 346. 
Engelhardt, Z., 44, 219, 222, 269, 

270, 271, 294, 308, 309, 310, 311, 

313 n., 316, 317. 
E-ins'si, 230. 

Estero Americano creek, 303, 305. 
etcako'lum, 308. 
e'tem, 310. 
Etudes sur lee indiens calif orniens : 

sur lee Tcholovones de Chorris, 

370. 
Euka, 246. 
e'wapau, 309. 
e'wu, 309. 

Fauna, 13, 23, 336. 

Fawalomne (for Tawalomne), 371 n. 

Feather river, 48 n. 



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Feliz, 172 n; creek, 126, 160, 171, 

180; ranch, 144. 
Ferrello, Bartolome, 28. 
Finney ranch, 181. 
Fishes, 14, 336. 
Fishing, 16. 
Fish Rock, 167. 

Fish's Mills, 228, 230, 234, 238. 
Fish, Walter, ranch, 231. 
Fitch, William, 218, 219. 
Fitch mountain, 218, 219. 
Fitch's ranch, 48 n. 
Flora, 12, 23, 336, 337. 
Floyd's Landing, 207. 
Flumeville, 164. 
Folmer Gulch, 230. 
Food-gathering rights, 16. 
Food supply, 130, 162, 288, 336, 

337; vegetable, 335, 336. 
Foot-hills, 337, 348; of the Sierra, 

335; region, 336. 
Ford, H. L., 47, 48 n., 132, 141, 

142, 169 n., 214 n, 264. 
Forsythe creek, 128, 144, 145, 152. 
Fort Bragg, 47, 131, 132, 133, 135. 
Fort Brown, 128 n., 140. 
Fort Ross, 39, 40, 42, 45, 230, 231, 

234, 238, 307; Russian settle- 
ment, 39, 40. 
Foster, A. W., 168. 
Fountain, 171, 179, 180. 
Fox, B. B., 138. 
Franciscan, Fathers, 191 n., 199, 

286 n., 298, 312; missionaries, 

292; Order, 37, 40. 
Freeport, 377. 
Freestone, Old, 309; town of, 227, 

303, 309, 317. 
Fresno, 372, 301; Crossing, 348, 

352; Flat, 348, 352; river, 334, 

335, 343, 345, 346, 348, 351, 374, 

375. 
Fuller creek, 212, 227, 239. 
Fulton, 222. 

Gaddy, Robert, 199. 

gaiye'tcin, 272. 

gaiyeti'l, 134. 

gala'iakaleyd, 190. 

Gallina, 214 n. 

Gallinomero, 213 n., 265. 

Gait, 340. 

Game, 336. 

Garcia river, 161-6; rancheria, 162. 

Gardner's, 347. 

Gashowu, 379. 

gatciti"y5, 221. 

Gather rancheria, 292. 

Geysers, 272. 



Geyserville, 120, 122, 210, 212, 263, 
265, 265 n., 266 n., 268, 272, 275. 

Ghost dance, 278. 

Gibbs, 22 n., 42, 118 n., 119, 128 n., 
142, 144, 146 n., 150, 156, 169, 
172, 178 n. 183 n., 189 n., 190, 
193, 194, 195, 207, 259 n., 271, 
277, 279 n., 285, 286 n., 287 n., 
311, 312, 313; Journal, 141. 

Glen Ellen, 264. 

Glenn county, 10, 120, 289 n.; foot 
hills, 240. 

Glossary of Indian terms, 319. 

Goddard, P. E., 9, 55, 118 iu, 261 
n., 279 n. 

Gold, discovery of in California, 
41 ; on American river, 338. 

Golden Gate, 306. 

Gomez, Charley, 373. 

Gough, John, 153. 

Government, 15. 

Grant Island, 188, 200. 

Grant, J. D., 216. 

Grape, wild, 13. 

Grasses, seed-bearing, as food, 336. 

Gravelly valley, 20 n., 247, 254, 255, 
257. 

Greenwood, creek, 163; town of 
166. 

Grindstone creek, 284; rancheria, 
289. 

Grizzly, 13. 

Group names, 20. 

Gualala, 167, 230; river, 123, 160, 
161, 164-7, 210, 212, 220, 221, 
224-39; river division, 224. 

Guenoc, 286, 314, 316, 317. 

Guenocks, 317. 

Guerneville, town of, 211 n., 214, 
215. 

guhu'la-xaxo, 128 n. 

Guidiville, 136. 

Guilicos rancho, 269. 

Guillicas, 269. 

Guinda, 295. 

Guymen, 310. 

Habenapo, 22 n., 194, 195. 

ha'ke, 252. 

Hakluyt, Richard, 36 n. 

Hale creek, 47. 

Hale's vocabulary, 301. 

halika, 190. 

Haliotis, 122. 

ha'me, 296. 

Handbook of Amer. Indians, 370. 

Handley, 155. 

Hannesuk, 376-8. 

Hansen ranch, 290. 



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hapa'mu, 235. 

Harbin Springs, 274. 

Hare river, 47, 133, 135. 

Harmon peak, 355. 

hatcilan, 215. 

hatcTwina, 238. 

ha'Hupokai, 259. 

Haupt creek, 225, 235. 

Haupt, Charley, ranch, 229, 235. 

Hawks, 14. 

Healdsburg, 17, 19, 87 n., 88 n., 

121, 211-220, 223, 224, 265, 266 

n., 268, 270, 271; cemetery, 218. 
Hearst, Phoebe A., 7, 334. 
Heat, excessive summer, 336. 
hee'man, 216. 
helapa'ttai, 304. 
Helatamne, 371. 
helwame'can, 217. 
Hennekey ranch, 292, 297. 
he'malakahwalau, 234. 
Henley, Thomas J., 47. 
Henshaw, W. H., 370. 
Hensley creek, 140. 
Herons, 14. 
hesa'ia, 293. 
Hesley, 207. 
Hessler, 207. 
Hethtoya, 342. 
hlbu'wl, 327. 
Higgins ranch, 178, 179. 
Highland Springs, 203, 204. 
Higuero rancho, 268 n. 
Hildreth, W. J., deposition of, 246 n. 
Hill, Thomas, 215. 
himeta'gala, 304. 
Hioh, 31, 32, 33, 36 n. 
Hipher's creek, 292; rancheria, 

292. 
Hi'-po-wi, 237 n. 
History, Calif ornian, 27, 141 n.; of 

Mendocino, 143; of Napa and 

Lake counties, 129 n. 
Hittell, F. H., 36 n., 141, 222 n., 

269, 270, 310, 312. 
hi'walhmu, 226. 
hma'ragimowina, 197. 
hodudu'kawe, 146. 
hSlilelenSma, 274; 
ho'lo'kome, 295. 
Holway, R. 8., 131 n. 
ho'mtcati, 155. 
Hoochmon, 256. 
Hookoolko, 380. 
Hopland, 17, 142, 162, 171, 173, 

180; rancheria, 168; valley, 168, 

171. 
Hopper creek, 212, 225, 226, 227, 

235; ranch, 140, 216. 



Horst Brothers ranch, 181. 

Hoschla Island, 118 n. 

hota'kala, 304. 

Hot creek, 48 n. 

Hot Springs creek, 220. 

Houses, 124; typical forms of, 
24-6. 

Howell Home ranch, 179. 

Hoxie, Westley, 251. 

Huchnom, 27, 93 n., Ill, 113, 120, 
121, 122, 128, 246, 256, 257; 
area 125, 257, 258; dialect, 247; 
dialectic area, 127, 248; boun- 
daries of, 256; territory, 248, 
257, 280; Yuki, 242; villages, 
255. 

hu'da, 149. 

Hudson, J. W., 119 n., 188, 195 n., 
256. 

huge'lmitegago, 278. 

Huichica rancho, 312. 

Huiluc, 44 n., 222, 269. 

huk, 202, 203. 

hukabet.a'wl, 222. 

hu'kdja, 173. 

huku'hyume, 316, 317. 

Hula-napo, 193. 

Hullville, 20 n., 249, 254, 255, 257. 

Hulpoomne, 376, 377. 

Humboldt, bay, 45, 46; county, 48 
n. 

hunkali'tc, 255. 

huntcisu'tak, 252. 

Hunting, 16. 

hii'tci, 312. 

hutc-nom, 254. 

Huymen, 44 n. 

Ignacio, town of, 309. 
Implements, specialized forms of, 

24. 
Indian creek, 122, 149, 150, 155, 

244, 292, 297. 
Indians, of California, 14; north 

of S. F. bay, first records of, 28; 

present condition of, 49. 
Ingrham ranch, 296. 
lone, 342, 355, 371. 
itce'tce, 163, 164. 
itcatca'idi, 224. 
Iwi'da, 171. 
Iwi'kbSdabau, 165. 
IwT'tcal, 167. 
Iwi'yokca, 166. 
Jacikamne, 371. 
Jackson, 337, 342; creek, 354. 
Jamestown, 373. 
Jarboe, Capt., 48 n. 
Jepson, W. L., 9. 



[387] 



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Index. 



Jerusalem Valley creek, 286, 314. 

Jesuits, 37. 

Jesus, Philippe de, 371. 

Jimison ranch, 278. 

Johnson, Adam, 374. 

Joyayomi, 44 n, 317. 

Juarez rancho, 268 n. 

kaa'ika, 148. 

kaa'lkfai, 209. 

kaba'i, 158. 

kaba'lraem, 292. 

kabaputce'mali, 229. 

kaba'tbadd, 144. 

kaba'tdda, 134. 

kaba'tui, 226. 

kabeO^teli, 238. 

kabe'bot, 180. 

kabecal, 145. 

kabe'dand, 147. 

kate'dile, 148. 

kabS'dima, 262. 

kabe'djal, 149. 

kabe'ela, 150. 

kabegi'lnal, 139. 

ka'be'kadSgani, 216. 

kabe'klal, 170. 

kabel, 157, 186. 

kabelal, 144. 

kabS'mali, 232. 

kabe'mato, 281. 

kabematd'lil, 186. 

kabe'napfl, 18, 21, 46 n., 198, 202, 

250. 
kab€'ptewi, 220. 
kabesila'wlna, 230. 
kabetci'uwa, 222. 
kabSte'yo, 225. 
kabe'ton, 219. 
kabe'tsawaro, 278. 
kabe'tsitu, 134. 
kabe'yfi, 146, 171. 
Ka-bi-na-pek, 194, 195. 
Kabinapo, 195. 
Kabo'tsiu, 148. 
kacaida'mal, 145. 
kacl'badon, 196. 
kaeilcego, 166. 
kaci'mdalau, 153. 
kacl'ntui, 223. 
kadi'u, 132. 
kadjusa'mall, 233. 
kaTiowali, 154. 
kaho'wam, 220. 
ka'hwalau, 171. 
ka'ibi, 281. 
ka'ikitsil, 148. 
ka'imus, 268. 
Kai-nap-o, 292. 



Kainomero, 214 n. 
Kai Po-mo, 279 n. 
kaiye"lem, 166. 
kaiye'lle, 178. 
ka'kiya, 216. 
kakdska'l, 245. 
kaku'lkalewical, 189. 
kala'bida, 159. 
kala'icdlem, 178. 
kala'iel, 290. 
kala'ili, 134. 
kala'lndkca, 179. 
kala'nko, 221. 
Kalanol, 139. 
kala'tkin, 215. 
kale, 218. 
jEaleca'dim, 236. 
kale'cokon, 158. 
kaleda, 259. 
klaleliyo, 206. 
kalelsema, 141. 
ka"lem, 152. 
kalemala'to, 231. 
kalS'sima, 141. 
kaletcu'maial, 237. 
kale'wlca, 227. 
kall'nda, 229. 
kalpela, 143. 
kalu'yakai, 259. 
Kam-a-lal Po-mo, 260 n. 
kama'dokai, 148. 
ka'mddt, 206. 
kapa'cinal, 230. 
ka'pten, 222. 
ka'raka, 156. 
kaaa'sam, 167. 
ka'sfle, 227. 
kaatttcimada, 163. 
Kastel Po-mo, 279 n. 
katalca, 231. 
katakal, 145. 
katalrta, 245. 
katcaTnda, 140, 144. 
ka'tcake, 144. 
katca'yo, 178. 
ka'tcululukuwan, 318. 
katil, 144. 
ka'tffi, 137. 
ka'tmatcl, 226. 
katd'tnapdti, 196. 
ka'tSwi, 217. 
katsa'iwani, 164. 
ka'taami, 154. 
katsa'nosma, 220. 
katsa'mugal, 159. 
katsilgago, 278. 
ka'tuuH, 149. 
kaubd'kolai, 207. 
ka'uca, 163. 



[388] 



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Index. 



kla'ucel, 208. 

ka'ugu'ma, 206. 

kawa'mid, 218. 

kawamtca'ell, 225. 

kawantS'limani, 225. 

kawa'tcam, 166. 

kawatca'nno, 224. 

kawi'aka, 171, 181. 

ka'wikawi, 216. 

kawi'mo, 172. 

kawi'namami, 153. 

kawifikwiti'man, 220. 

ka'wiyome, 317. 

kawo'axa, 203. 

kca'kaleyo, 154, 170. 

kebu'lpukut, 316. 

ke'celwai, 206. 

kedi'rLabe, 296. 

kee'wi-na, 242. 

Kelsey, 198, 207; creek, 18, 183, 
189, 191, 192, 197-201, 203, 274, 
275 277 278. 

Kelseyville, 183, 197, 198, 200, 201, 
203, 277, 278. 

ke'nnekono, 304. 

Kessler, 207. 

Ehainapo, 292. 

Khoulpouni, 377 n. 

Kibbe, General, 48 n. 

klca'iyi, 237. 

Kidnapping, 45. 

kilelio, 158. 

k'iliku, 256. 

King and Morgan's Map, 269. 

King's ranch, 176; river, 341. 

Kinship in the female line, 15. 

Ki-ou tribe, 129 n. 

ki'si, 295, 297. 

Kitcil-ukom, 253. 

klye'utsit, 208. 

kle'tel, 165. 

Knight's Ferry, 350, 373-5; Land- 
ing, 294; valley, 162, 173, 270, 
271 n. 

ko'batap, 158. 

koba'te, 225. 

Kobb Valley, 118 n. 

koTnda, 144, 145. 

kobfttcitca kali, 237. 

ko'cbi, 282. 

kd'dakatc, 180. 

ko'dalau, 163, 167. 

Koessell, A. L., 297. 

ko'i, 207. 

kolo'ko, 170, 218, 272. 

kldlolaxa, 209. 

Koma'cho, 178. 

ko'mli, 126, 138, 139, 158. 

kdmdhmemutkuyu'k, 259. 



Konachti, 183. 

Koni, 353, 354. 

Konockti, 183 n. 

koomlcobdtcali, 238. 

ko'pbutu, 278. 

Kosmitas, 371 n. 

Kostromitonow, 231, 307. 

kdta'ti, 311. 

ko'thwi, 177. 

ko'ticomdta, 271. 

koti'na, 296. 

ko'tsiyu, 145. 

Kotzebue's Voyage, 371 n. 

kdwi'cal, 229. 

Kroeber, A. L., 9, 93 n., 118 n., 
193, 246, 254, 255, 260, 261 n., 
289 n., 340, 342, 351, 353, 356. 

kt8u'kawai, 209. 

kubahmo'i, 165, 224. 

kuca'dandyo, 187. 

kucyi'viyetdkut, 282. 

Kui, 377. 

kula'i, 208. 

kulaltai, 146. 

Kula Kai Porno, 119 n., 147 n. 

kula'Labe, 297. 

Kulanapan, 118 n., 119. 

kuLa'napo, 18, 21, 46 n., 119, 192, 
193, 194, 198, 200, 250, 273, 277. 

kula'tIS, 221. 

kuna'wi, 297. 

ku'ndihi, 294. 

kupe'tcu, 274. 

Kura-napo, 194. 

kuu'lbidai, 208. 

Lacatiut, 44 n. 

Lacock, Dryden, 247. 

Laguna de San Antonio, rancho, 

308. 
Laguna de Santa Rosa, 25, 89 n., 

222 223. 
Lakeport, 18, 125, 130 n., 156, 158, 

159, 184, 192, 194, 196, 198, 277. 
lakkenhulye, 305. 
Lakkisamne, 371, 371 n., 377. 
la'laka, 237. 
lali, 178. 
Lalumne, 377. 
La'-ma, 172, 173. 
Lamb, Jacob, 281; ranch, 197. 
Landsbary ranch, 221. 
Largo, 173, 175. 
la'tcupda, 164, 165, 167. 
la'te, 178. 

Latham, R. G., 301. 
Lathrop, 372. 
Laurel, California, 13. 
La'xputsum, 189, 192. 



[389] 



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Index. 



Laytonville, 111, 247, 249, 256, 257, 

279 n., 280, 281, 282. 
Lecatuit tribe, 380 n. 
ledamli, 234. 
Leese, Jacob P., 312 n. 
Leesville, the town of, 292, 296. 
Lekahtewut, 380. 
Lekahtewutko, 380. 
Lelamni, 376 n. 
lS'ma, 173, 180. 
le'raakma, 206. 
le'mkolil, 150, 153. 
Leppo's diary, 220, 221, 224. 
Let, 290, 296. 
Libayto, 44 n., 294. 
HculKalexowa, 198, 200. 
Lightner, Colonel, 133. 
Likatuit, 380. 
Lila'dihi, 296. 
lil-cik-nom, 255. 
lileek, 18. 

Lilies, used for food, 13. 
lilkool, 259. 
Lal-la-a-ak, 276 n. 
lil-tam-nom, 254. 
Linayto, 44 n., 294. 
Linguistic relationships, 54, 114; 

linguistic stocks, 14, 23. 
lippula'mma, 232. 
Little Borax lake, 206, 207, 209. 
Little Lake, 132; valley, 49, 128, 

128 n., 134, 145, 259 n. 
Little River, 132. 
Little Stony Creek, 240, 244, 285, 

292, 297. 
li'wai, 294. 
Li-wai'-to, 294. 
Loan words, 114. 
Loaquiomi, 44 n. 
Locallomi rancho, 273. 
Lockf ord, 340. 
Locnoma, 44 n; valley, 273. 
Locollomillos, 273. 
Lodoga, 297. 
lo'knSma, 273. 
Lold-la, 291. 
Lol-sil, 291. 
Long's bridge, 259. 
Long valley, 279 n., 280, 292; 

creek, 204, 291, 295, 309; Ranch- 

eria, 291. 
Loons, 14. 
Lo'pa, 295. 
Lopillamillo, 233. 
Lopillamillos, 195. 
Lovelady, Wm., 297. 
Lower lake, 89 n., 114, 118 n., 

120, 122, 122 n., 123 n., 204, 

206-9, 278, 303, 314, 316-8; 



island, 205, 207, 209; rancheria, 
205; town of, 205; valley, 315. 

Ludewig, 231. 

lu'li, 219. 

lumenta'kala, 314. 

Lu-pa-yu-ma, 22 n., 195, 233. 

Lupillomi, ranch, 195. 

Lupilonus, 195. 

Lupiyuma, 46 n. 

Lynx, 14. 

Lyons, Captain, 176, 196. 

Lyttons, 210, 219; station, 272. 

mabo'tdn, 178. 

maea'l, 154, 182. 

ma'canena, 164, 165. 

Mackentyre springs, 204. 

Madera county, 335, 351. 

Madrona, 13. 

madu'mda, 131 n. 

Mahhas, Joseph, 296. 

ma'hmo, 225. 

Maidu, 339, 340, 342, 346, 355, 356, 

377, 380. 
maiyalnna, 269. 
maiyi, 155. 
Maj-su-ta-ki-as, 144. 
maka'hmd, 221. 
ma'kalami, 153. 
maka'smo, 216. 
ma'katcam, 171. 
ma'kawica, 225. 
Makh'-el-chel, 91 n., 207. 
Malaea, 44 n. 
malalatca'Li, 272. 
Mallacoines, 270. 
Mall, Joseph, ranch, 290. 
Ma n l-tca'l-nom, 254. 
mama'mamau, 155. 
Mameci'cmo, 251. 
ma'natol, 198. 
Manchester, 162, 164. 
Manzanita, 13. 
mapuika, 153. 
Maria, 371, 377. 

Marin county, 10, 302, 334, 345. 
Mariposa, 339, 354, 370. 
Markwest creek, 19, 212, 215, 222. 
Marshalls, town of, 307, 308. 
masikawa'ni, 223. 
Mason, 119 n., 188, 188 n., 194, 

195, 214 n., 256. 
masu', 144. 
masu't, 144. 
Ma-su-ta-kea, 141. 
Masu-ta-kaya, 144. 
ma'tasama, 165. 
ma'tcata, 147. 
ma'tcoko, 238. 



[390] 



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Index. 



matelnapotl, 190. 

Mateo, 262. 

ma'timali, 233. 

matd', 148. 

Matomey Ki Pomos, 128 n. 

mati'wi, 225. 

Ma-tom-kai, 128 n. 

Mats, tule, 26. 

Mawhinney ranch, 140. 

Mayacma, 44 n. 

Mayacomas, 268 n, 270. 

McAdie, Alexander G., 11. 

McClure ranch, 152. 

McCombre ranch, 253. 

McDonald, 160, 179, 266. 

McDowell creek, 171, 172; valley, 

172. 
McGough slough, 46 n., 196. 
McNab creek, 173, 174, 180. 
Mehwale'lenoma, 274. 
Melanerpes formicivorus, 14. 
mele'ya, 310. 
Mendocino, 47, 170; county, 10, 

119, 160, 270, 293; Beservation, 

47, 48 n., 49, 50, 132 n., 135; 

State Hospital, 136, 137, 138, 

152 ; war cited, 132 n. 
Menefee, C. A., 42 n., 268, 270, 

293. 
Merced, 301; county, 335; falls, 

350, 372; river, 335, 342, 348, 

350, 356, 374. 
Merriam, C. Hart, 369 seq. 
mete'ni, 230. 
Methodist Episcopal church, 137, 

186. 
Mewko, 378. 
Mewuk, 378. 
Mexican, 40, 41, 45, 88 n., 92 n; 

government, 198; grants, 219, 

269, 270, 273, 293, 309, 311, 312 

n.; occupation, 293; rancheros, 

217; revolution, 40; settlement 

in the Coast Range Mountains, 

41; settlers, 14. 
Mexico, 27, 38. 
Middle creek, 120, 125, 156, 182-7, 

244 248. 
Middle Eel" river, 248, 249, 252-7. 
Middletown, 264, 273, 274, 314. 
mi'ducLabe, 297. 
Migration, Miwok, 357. 
miMltamti'wa, 245. 
Mill creek, 125, 125 n., 128 n., 137, 

138, 160, 181, 216. 
Miller ranch, 215. 
Missions, 191; California, 37; of 

Fort Boss, 39; of San Carlos de 

Monterey, 38; of San Francisco, 



[391] 



38, 40, 43; of S. F. de Assisi at 
Dolores, 39; of San Jose, 44 n.; 
of San Juan Bautista, 344, 301; 
of San Rafael, 40, 44 n.; of 
Sonoma, 40, 44 n.; of Santa 
Rosa, 41; secularization of, 40, 
41, 44. * 
mitca'wicLabe, 297. 
Mitoam Kai Porno, 128 n. 
mitd'ma, 145. 

Miwok, 288, 301, 302, 333, 337-355, 
369 seq.; boundary, dialectic, 
355; interstock, 355; main area, 
335, 336, 346; middle, 376; 
northern, 376; southern, 376; 
organization, political, 344; tri- 
bal, 340, 341; proper, 334, 345, 
352; territory, 335, 338, 343, 347, 
348, 352, 358; vocabularies of, 
362; villages, 344, 350. 
Dialects of, 352, 353, 354, 357, 
358, 359; Amador, 347, 353, 
355, 357, 368; Bodega, 302, 
334, 345, 354, 357; Central 
Sierra, 353; Coast, 357, 361; 
Lake, 345, 354, 357; Marin, 
334, 345, 354, 357; Mari- 
posa, 353, 354, 356, 357, 
358; Mokelumne, 356; 
Northern Coast, 345, 354; 
Northern Sierra, 353 ; Plains, 
347, 351, 353-8; Southern 
Coast, 334, 345; Southern 
Sierra, 353; Tuolumne, 353, 
356-8, 376; Western Coast, 
334 345 
M'Kee, Redick,*22 n., 42, 46, 141-4, 
156, 169 n., 172, 183 n., 190 n., 
194, 196, 197. 
Moal-kai, 156. 
Mokalumne, 302, 377. 
Mokel, 378; village of, 341. 
Mokelumne dialect, 356; river, 335, 

347, 349, 351. 
MokelumneeB, 302. 
Mokelumni, 341, 353, 376, 378. 
Mokosumni, 376, 378. 
Mokozumne, 377. 
Molluscs, 24, 122. 
mfinma'La, 290, 296. 
Monterey, 37, 38, 345; bay, 301; 

mission of San Carlos de, 38. 
Moquelumnan, 14, 22, 27, 36, 54, 55, 
108, 114, 115 n., 116, 117, 232, 
301, 345; dialectic groups, 212; 
lexical relationships, 107; phon- 
etic relationships, 108; varia- 
tions, 108; present population, 
43; territory, 227, 211, 287 n., 
288, 302, 305, 345. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Index. 



Moquelumnan — Continued. 

Northern dialect, 114, 115, 121, 
184, 204, 205, 264, 265, 285, 

286, 315, 316. 

Southern dialect, 114, 121, 

287, 303, 305, 306, 313. 
Western dialect, 115, 116, 131, 

227, 267, 302, 303, 305, 306, 
309, 334, 345. 
See Miwok above. 
Moquelumne, 301; hill, 302; river, 

302. 
Morgan, W. C, 9, 241 n. 
Morgan valley creek, 286, 314. 
Morrison's landing, 182, 190. 
md'titca'ton, 221. 
mS'tkuyuk, 259. 
md'tndon, 255. 
Mountain lion, 13. 
Mountain view, 159, 166. 
Mt. Diablo, 370, 375. 
Mt. Hope school-house, 292. 
Mt. Kana'ktai, 46 n., 183, 184, 185, 

202, 204, 206, 274, 314, 316. 
Mt. M'Kee, 183. 
Mt. Lyell, 347, 348, 356. 
Mt. Tamalpais, 12, 123, 306. 
md'wibida, 154. 
Moving of villages, 17. 
mto'm-kai, 128 n. 
mu'cOkol, 209. 
Mud Springs creek, 282. 
mukakStca'Li, 219. 
Mukeemnes, 302. 
Mukelemnes, 302. 
Mukkel, 377. 
Mulgrew, Mr., 220. 
mulhal, 151, 260. 
mumeme't, 259. 
mu'pan, 259. 
Murphy, ranch, 318. 
Mush-stirrer, 339. 
Mushtown, 136. 
Mussels, 122. 
mutca'wi, 236. 
Muthelemnes, 302. 
Muticulmo, 44 n., 271. 
Mutistul, 271. 
mu'tistul, 270, 274. 
Mutsun, 301, 345, 354. 
mu'yamiiya, 165, 173, 174, 177. 
Mythical beings, 163, 173; bird, 

202. 
Mythology, 186, 217, 339; coyote 

in, 14. 
Nabob, 146 n. 
na'koca, 146. 
Napa, 42, 89 n.; city, 264, 267, 

286, 293; county, 10, 42, 263, 



270, 302, 334; creek, 25, 268 n., 
271; river, 247, 264, 267, 268 n., 

271, 286, 293; State Hospital, 
293; valley, 42, 264, 269, 270, 
286, 303 n.; valley Indians, 293. 

napagipu'lak, 235. 

Napato, 44 n. 

Na'-po-bati'n, 22 n., 195. 

napo'cal, 191. 

Navarro ridge, 126. 

Navarro river, 122, 126, 127, 129, 
149, 150, 152, 153, 154, 159, 160, 
161, 182, 210; north fork of, 126. 

nebo'cegut, 282. 

nelyi, 282. 

nelmwi, 238. 

netce'ligut, 281. 

New Spain, 27, 38. 

Newville, the town of, 290. 

niLektsdndma, 270. 

no'badd, 152. 

Noble's, 225, 226, 235. 

nobo'ral, 156. 

n6T>utu, 201. 

Nome Cult Indian Farm, reserva- 
tion, 49. 

Nome Lackee reservation, 49. 

nd'minLabe, 245. 

nomlaki, 253. 

nd'napoti, 197, 198, 201. 

nS'nho^ho^u, 258. 

no'pik, 150. 

North Shore railroad, 309. 

Northwestern Redwood Company, 
146. 

ndtce'tiyo, 178. 

Notunamne, 371. 

Novato, 309; Bancho de, 309; town 
of, 309. 

Noyo, 132, 134; river, 47, 135. 

Nututamne, 371. 

Nymphaea polysepala, 146. 

Oak, 336; black, 12; maul, 13; 

Pacific post, 12; tan-bark, 13; 

valley white, 12. 
Oakdale, 350. 
Oakland, 318. 
Obsidian, 278. 
Ochakumne, 378. 
Ochehak, 378. 
Ochehamni, 378. 
Ochekh, 378. 
Ochekhamni, 376. 
ddilaka, 245. 
ohd'mtol, 230. 

Olamentke, 308, 313; division, 310. 
Olema, the town of, 307, 308, 
SlemaloTce, 307. 



[392] 



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Index. 



Olemochoe, 308. 

Oleomi, 44 n., 309. 

ole'yome, 309, 316, 317. 

Oliver, Jesus, 371, 375. 

Olompali, 310. 

olompo'Ui, 310. 

on-kol-ukom-non, 254. 

Oregon, 28. 

Oreotyx pictus, 14. 

Ornbaun, Susan, 151. 

Osuna, Bev. Luciano, 191 n. 

otceha'mni, 341. 

Otcex, 378. 

oto'noe, 230. 

Outlet creek, 120, 122, 124, 128, 

129, 145, 146, 152, 248, 254, 257, 

258. 
Overland Monthly, 141 n. 
oyemu'ku, 235. 
oye'yomi, 309, 317. 

Pacheco, 309. 

paculdtmawali, 233. 

Paiutes, 348. 

paka'huwe, 309. 

pa'kaLabe, 297. 

pakatca'huya, 245. 

Palanaho, 194. 

Palnomanoc, 44 n. 

Paque, 44 n. 

Pasasamne, 371. 

Pashashamne, 371, 377. 

Patah, 32. 

patd'lkaleyo, 209. 

Patwin, 118 n., 284, 285. 

payine'tca, 311. 

pda'hau, 162-4. 

Peachland school district, 155. 

Pepperwood, 13. 

petalu'ma, 310. 

Petaluma, 40, 44 n., 223, 310, 380; 

creek, 25, 306, 310, 311; rancho, 

311; valley, 306, 311, 313. 
Peterson ranch, Hans, 229. 
pe'tlnoma, 273. 
Petlenum, 311. 
Philo, 149, 150, 153, 178 n. 
Physiographic divisions, 127. 
Pieta, 171; creek, 171. 
Pifia creek, 220. 
Pinart, A., 370 seq., 375, 380. 
Pine, 133; digger, 12, 89, 93 n., 75; 

sugar, 12, 335; yellow, 12. 
Pinoleville, 136. 
Pinus, Lambertiana, 12; muricata, 

122, 127; ponderosa, 12; Sabin- 

iana, 12. 
pip6hdlma, 271. 
Pitch Pine People, 143. 



Pitkachi, 379. 

Pits of dance-houses and sweat- 
houses, 9. 
Pitt river, 48 n. 
Plantation, 234, 237. 
Pleasanton, 371. 
Plymouth, 346, 355. 
Poam Porno, 141. 
pd'dand, 152. 
Pohono, 343. 
Pohonichi, 342, 353, 354. 
Point Arena, 161, 164; town of, 

162, 164, 167. 
Point Reyes, 11, 28 and n., 36 n., 

37 n., 38, 307. 
Point Sur, 345. 
Poison oak, 13. 
Polcumol, 93 n. 
Political division, 16; organization, 

344. 
poli'tsuwi, 190. 
pd'-ma, 119, 182. 
Pomas, 141. 
Pome Pomos, 141. 
Porno, 14, 27, 36 n., 37 n., 43, 54, 
55, 91 n., 92 n., 95, 96, 114, 115 
n, 116-124 passim, 129 n., 140, 
141, 211, 240, 247, 250, 257, 261; 
boundaries of, 120, 124, 150, 182, 
204, 279; main area of, 121; of 
Sacramento valley, 27, 124; 
phonetic relationship, 101, 107; 
population, present, 42, 43; Rus- 
sian river, of, 244; territorial 
divisions of, 121; territory, 7, 
161, 233, 258, 280. 
Central dialect, 15, 19, 97-100, 
123, 126, 127, 137, 142, 150, 
161, 170, 177; phonetic 
changes in, 102. 
Eastern dialect, 20 n., 97-100, 
125, 156, 157, 182, 185-187, 
205, 274, 275, 286, 315; Big 
valley division of, 191, 233; 
phonetic changes in, 103; 
principal villages of, 185. 
Northeastern dialect, 27, 125, 
239, 240, 241, 248, 287; 
boundaries of, 239. 
Northern dialect, 97-100, 114, 
116, 123, 126, 127, 129, 184, 
187, 257, 261, 280; phonetic 
changes in, 102; possible 
sub-dialects of, 87 n. 
Southeastern dialect, 98, 99, 
100, 116, 123 n., 184, 192, 
204, 205, 269 n., 274, 315; 
phonetic changes in, 103; 
occurrence of f in, 104. 



[393] 



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Index. 



Porno — Continued. 

Southern dialect, 165, 210, 212, 
223, 224, 226; phonetic 
changes in, 105. 
Southwestern dialect, 20, 37 n., 
97-100, 114, 116, 123, 211 n., 
212, 225, 226, 235; phonetic 
changes in, 105. 

Porno - Moquelumnan interstock 
boundary, 314. 

Pomo-Wappo interstock boundary, 
211 n., 265 n. 

Pomo-Wappo war, 271, 212. 

Porno- Wintun interstock boundary, 
204. 

Porno- Yuki interstock boundary, 
182, 205, 257, 289. 

Pone Pomos, 141. 

Pond Lily People, 194. 

Poonkiny, 254. 

Poorman 's valley, 254. 

Pope, Julian, 273 n. 

Pope valley, 264, 266, 273, 286, 303. 

Populated area, 26. 

Population, Athapascan, present, 
43; aboriginal, estimated, 42. 

Porter ranch, 215. 

Portola, Governor, 37. 

po'taba, 154. 

pd'tol, 225, 229, 235, 237, 239. 

Potter, William, 142. 

Potter valley, 119, 120, 124, 128, 
136, 140, 142, 143, 144, 151, 152, 
156, 172, 242, 244, 256, 257, 258, 
260; people, 242; the Porno of, 
256; rancheria, 136, 141. 

Powell, J. W., 119, 143, 169 n., 172, 
194, 195, 207, 214 n., 224 n., 239, 
285, 301, 302, 310, 345, 374. 

Powers, Stephen, Tribes of Califor- 
nia, 91 n., 118 n., 119 n., 126 n., 
133 n., 141, 143, 144, 147 n., 151, 
169-173, 178 n., 194, 207, 208, 214 
n., 224 n., 230 n., 231, 239, 246, 
256, 260 n.,263, 264 n., 265 n., 
279 n., 284, 285, 291, 293, 294, 
301, 302, 303 n., 313 n., 315 n., 
343, 344 n., 354, 373 n., 374 n., 
380 n. 

po'wicana, 231. 

Preston, 221. 

Property rights, 344. 

Pseudotsuga tazif olia, 12. 

puke'mul, 259. 

pukumLabe, 297. 

pulu'puliiLabe, 294. 

Pudding creek, 132 n., 133. 

Punto de los Reyes, 307. 



Purdy, Carl, 89 n., 119 n., 169, 172, 

194 n., 214 n., 292. 
Putah, 44 n. ; creek, 10, 183 n., 264, 

268, 273, 274, 286, 288, 294, 298, 

299, 303, 309, 314, 316, 317. 
Putato, 44 n. 
Putos creek, 271, 285; river, 22 n., 

195. 
Putto, 44 n. 
puyulcu, 309. 

Quail, 336; valley, 14. 

Quercus calif ornica, 12; chrysole- 

pis, 13; densiflora, 13; Garryana, 

13; lobata, 12. 

Babbits, 14. 

Raccoons, 14. 

Baft, 24, 89 n., 124. 

Rainfall, average annual, 11. 

Rancheria creek, 122, 126, 153, 159, 
160, 162, 170, 177, 178, 182, 220; 
valley, 48 n. 

Bancho de Senel, 172 n. 

Rattlesnake island, 206, 208, 209. 

Bawles, Thomas, 137. 

Baymond, 348, 351. 

Bedemeyer ranch, Luther, 163. 

Bed mountain, 125, 139. 

Redwood, 12; belt, 23, 127, 161; 
belt, characteristics of, 24; for- 
ests, 214 n.; mountain, 144; In- 
dians, 48 n.; valley, 128, 136, 137, 
141, 143, 144, 151, 256, 260; val- * 
ley rancheria, 137. 

Bedwoods, 256. 

Beed ranch, John, 282. 

Seed's farm, 307. 

Be-ho, 293. 

Reservations, 46, 337; Clear lake, 
46 and n.; conditions upon, 48 
n.; Mendocino, 47, 48 n., 49, 50; 
Nome Cult Indian Farm, 49; 
Nome Lackee, 49 ; Bound Valley, 
43, 49. 

Rhodes ranch, 176. 

Rhus diversiloba, 13. 

Rice Estate, 188. 

Bice fork of South Eel river, 244, 
248, 249, 257, 286. 

Bincons, 263. 

Bitter, W. E., 9. 

Robertson creek, 125 n., 160, 176, 
181. 

Bock Pile, 165; creek, 167, 210, 224, 
225. 

Bocky point, 125, 157, 159, 184, 
186, 190. 

Roman Catholic church, 168. 



[394] 



Digitized by 



Google 



Index. 



Both, George, 317 n. 

Bound valley, 19, 48 n., 118 n,, 244, 
251, 252, 253, 254, 260; agency 
and Indian school, 251; reserva- 
tion, 43, 49, 145, 193, 249, 256, 
258. 

Howe's station, 146. 

Bole ranch, Charles, 231, 232. 

Ramsey, 290, 295. 

Bumsey's slough, 196, 200. 

Bussell ranch, 146, 147. 

Russian-American Fur Company, 
39. 

Bussian river, 11, 17, 19, 22 n., 23, 
25, 41, 42, 46, 49, 90 ns., 118 n., 
120, 121, 122, 125, 127, 128, 131 
n., 137, 138, 139, 140, 142, 143, 
144, 151, 152, 154, 160, 168, 170, 
171-182, 210, 211, 215-8, 220, 
221, 222, 224, 227-9, 231, 232, 
233, 235, 238, 241, 242, 256, 258, 
260, 264-8, 271, 272, 306; divi- 
sion, 213; drainage of, 184, 270, 
305; east fork of, 124, 127; val- 
ley, 42, 46, 48 n., 87 n., 120, 125, 
162, 165, 196, 212, 247, 265, 307; 
Porno, 279 n. 

Bussian settlement, Fort Boss, 39, 
40, 230. 

Bussians, 39, 45. 

Sackett, J. E., 299. 

Sacramento, 44 n.; county, 335; 
delta, 370; plains, 337; river, 
120, 239, 248, 284, 287, 290, 294, 
346, 349, 351, 370; valley, 10, 12, 
23, 25, 115 n., 199, 204, 244, 247. 

Sah-ne'lo, 172. 

Sakayakumm, 376 n. 

Salan Pomos, 141, 142. 

salatcada, 153. 

Saliz argyrophylla, 13. 

Salmon creek, 121, 126, 127, 134, 
159, 161, 211, 212, 227, 233, 235, 
248, 257, 259, 303, 305, 309. 

Salt-beds, 240, 245; trails to, 244; 
Stony creek, 9, 242, 243. 

Salt Point, 230, 234. 

Salt-spring valley, 241. 

Salt-stealing expeditions, 242. 

Salvador rancho, 268 n. 

Sal-vo-di-no, 194. 

sama'kahna, 156. 

Sa-mun-da, 146 n. 

Sanaiamne, 371. 

San Antonio, 308; Arroyo, 308, 

309, 310. 
San Carlos de Monterey, mission 

of, 38. [395 j 



San Diego, 37, 38. 
Sanel, 171, 172; valley, 162. 
Sanels, 172. 
Sanelos, 172. 
sa"n51y5, 177. 

San Francisco, 28, 37, 38, 39, 40, 44 
and n., 48 n., 310; bay, 7, 10, 12, 
28, 38, 40, 41, 45, 123, 196, 199, 
224, 249, 284, 292, 298, 301,-302, 
303 n., 306, 307, 318, 334, 345, 
356; mission of, 38, 39, 40, 43, 
44 n., 310, 318; climate of, 11; 
new, 40; peninsula, 43; settle- 
ments at, 38. 
San Francisco Solano, 40. 
Sanhedrin, 12; creek, 259; range, 

248, 254, 257. 
San Joaquin county, 335, 355, 371, 
373, 377; plains, 336, 337, 349, 
351; river, 301, 302, 346, 348, 
349, 350, 370-5; valley, 318, 335, 
340, 345, 346, 351, 352, 353. 
San Joaquin-Sacramento valley, 

287, 370. 
8an Jos6, 44 n., 318. 
San Juan Bautista, mission of, 344. 
San Pablo bay, 121, 211, 286, 287, 

305, 306, 307; drainage, 305. 
San Rafael, 40, 42, 44 and n., 309, 
310; mission, 213 n., 286 n., 310, 
312, 318. 
Santa Clara valley, 318. 
Santa Inez, 39. 

Santa Rosa, 41, 44, 88 n., 213 
n., 222, 267, 312, 313; Creek, 
121, 211, 212, 213 n., 222, 264, 
305, 314; Laguna de, 25, 89 n., 
39; valley, 121, 212, 222, 306. 
Santiago, 218. 
Satayomi, 44 n. 
Sausalito, the town of, 307. 
Schoolcraft, 22 n., 118, 128 n., 141 

n., 374. 
Scottman residence, 318. 
Scott's creek, 125, 129, 130 n., 131 
n., 155-8, 184, 185; valley, 123 n., 
129, 138, 139, 157, 158, 187, 198, 
277; rancheria, 155. 
Scudmore, M. C, 156. 
Seacos, 172, 173. 
Seaview, 234; hotel, 237. 
Sebastopol, 214, 222 n., 223, 305. 
Sebring ranch, 223. 
se'dileu, 46 n., 199. 
se'ecene, 262. 
seel, 141, 142. 
seepi'namatci, 237. 
see'tSn, 229. 
sekloTce, 308. 



Digitized by 



Google 



hidex. 



Sekumne, 340. 

seLgaitceli'nda, 282. 

senansa' a kut, 283. 

sene'tckut, 282. 

sentca'ukut, 281. 

Sequoia sempervirens, 12. 

Serra, Father Junipero, 37. 

se'satil, 152. 

Settlements, 37; American occupa- 
tion of California, 41, 45; of 
Fort Ross (Russian), 39, 40; 
influence of, upon the Indians, 
43; Mexican, in the Coast Range 
mountains, 41; San Francisco, 
38; Sonoma, 40. 

Shanel-kaya, 141, 142. 

Sheetiron mountain, 11, 230, 285. 

Sheep Ranch, 355. 

She-kom, 190. 

Shell-heap, 133, 135. 

She-qum-ba tribe, 190, 

Sherwood, 280; Inn, 147; station, 
146, 148, 152; valley, 129, 132, 
148. 

Sherwood, A. E., 120, 124, 128 n., 
132 n., 133 n., 143, 147 n., 148, 
150, 169, 249 n. 262, 281 n. 

Shi-bal-ni Porno, 147 n. 

Shoab-ow-no-ma-nook, 207. 

Sho-do-Eai Pomo, 151. 

Shoshonean, 339, 348, 376; terri- 
tory, 348, 356. 

Shumairs, 247. 

Shumaya, 247. 

Shumeias, 247. 

Si'-a-ko, 172, 173. 

Siakumne, 376. 

Sierra Nevada mountains, 298, 301, 
334, 335, 345, 352, 353,; foot- 
hills of the, 335; higher, 335, 
337, 347, 349; region, 376; sum- 
mit of the, 348. 

si'lala, 173. 

Silver lake, 347. 

si'miyaxai, 258. 

Simmons, Kathryn, 294. 

Singley ranch, 154. 

si'tca, 295. 

Sites, town of, 292, 296, 297. 

si'wakal, 156. 

slwi'yflme, 316. 

Skaggs Springs, 220. 

Slavery, 45. 

Slavianska, .39. 

Sleeper, 155. 

Slocum, Bowen & Co., 129 n., 156, 
158, 183 n., 186 n., 187 n., 188, 
190,, 194, 207, 208 n., 270, 271 
n., 273, 273 n., 276, 291, 312 n. 



smS'-wakapda, 138. 

Smith ranch, Eakle, 290, 296. 

Smith, Ed., 252. 

Smith ranch, Captain, 305. 

Snelling, 350, 372. 

Snowfall, 12, 335, 337. 

Snow mountains, 12, 240, 244. 

8d"bidame, 199. 

Social organization, 15. 

Soclan, 310. 

Socoas, 172. 

Soda, bay, 18, 204, 274, 276-8; 
creek, 154. 

sohd'ibida, 234. 

So-ko'-wa, 172. 

Solano, county, 10; San Francisco, 
40. 

son, 252. 

Soneto, 44 n. 

sonlal-nom, 254. 

Sonoma, 40, 42, 44 and n. 46, 312, 
313, 372; county of, 10, 119, 160, 
263, 272, 302, 334; creek, 25, 
121, 131, 211, 222, 264, 267, 269, 
286 n., 305, 311, 312; Indians, 
312; mission, 40, 44 n., 199, 219, 
222, 270, 271, 294, 311, 312, 316, 
317; settlements of, 40; valley, 
42, 286, 306, 313. 

Sonomellos, 312. 

Sonomeno, 312. 

Sonomi, 310; Indians, 312. 

so'satca, 147. 

so'tca, 143. 

Sotoyome, 218, 219; rancho, 219. 

Sounds of characters, 361. 

South Eel river, 120, 122, 129, 182, 
248, 249, 254-9, 260, 279; head- 
waters of, 247; Rice fork of, 
125. 

South Valley People, 169. 

so'wi, 167. 

Spain, 38; New, 27, 31. 

Spaniards, 231, 263, 265 n. 

Spanish, 92 n.; colonies, 28; mis- 
sion records, 28; navigators, 27; 
speaking people of California, 
40. 

Squaw rock, 171. 

Squirrels, 14. 

Stanislaus, 301; county, 335; river, 
335, 338, 339, 342, 347, 351, 373. 

Stewart's point, 220, 224, 228, 229, 
230, 233, 234, 235. 

St. Helena, 247, 267, 269. 

St. John mountain, 12, 183 n., 239, 
240, 244, 285. 

St. Turibius mission, 191, 196, 197, 
199, 200, 201. 



[396] 



Digitized by 



Google 



Index. 



Stocks, north-central California, 

344. 
Stockton, 348, 351, 370, 372, 373, 

375, 377. 
Stone and Kelsey massacre, 42, 

176, 196, 198, 277. 
Stony creek, 10, 83 n., 239, 244, 

254, 284, 285, 289, 290; people, 

242. 
Stonyford, 241, 245, 254, 289, 292; 

Rancheria, 244. 
su'butcemal, 152. 
Suffixes indicating tribal names, 

378, 379. 
Suisun, 44 n., 293, 294. 
suka-nom, 255. 
sukcultata-nom, 255. 
suku' 296. 
suldjd"tumall, 233. 
su'lmewi, 230. 
su'lmo, 180. 
Sulphur Bank, 208; island, 206, 

207, 208, 209; rancheria, 205; 

quicksilver mine, 205. 
Sulphur creek, 48 n., 139, 221, 272. 
Survey of California, ethnological 

and archaeological, 7, 334. 
Suscol, the town of, 293, 313. 
su'skol, 293. 
Susol, 293; grant, 268 n.; tribe, 

268 n. 
susu'H, 311. 
Sutter creek, 304. 
su'wutene, 304. 

Taa-bo-tak, 150. 

taa'wina, 190. 

Tabahtea, 150. 

ta'bate, 149. 

tabatS'wi, 230. 

Tachi, 375, 379. 

tadam, 259. 

ta'dono, 236. 

Tahtoos, 256. 

Takin rancheria, 374. 

takd'kalewi, 220. 

takd'ton, 220. 

Talanapo, 184. 

talaLu'pu, 232. 

Talatui, 301. 

Tamal, 44 n. 

Tamales, 307; Bay, 307, 308. 

Tamallos, 307. 

Tammukamne, 371. 

ta'nahimo, 238. 

Tancred, 295, 300, 297. 

tanaci'l, 148. 

tanako'm, 145. 

tana'm, 237. 



Taniamne, 371. 

ta'taca, 245. 

ta'tcaka, 239. 

ta'tcbida, 234. 

tla'tcumawali, 237. 

ta'tem, 19, 175. 

ta'ti, 180. 

Tatu, 122, 128 n., 256. 

tau'waku'lok, 305. 

ta'waisak, 297. 

Tawalimni, 373, 375, 376 n. 

Taylor, A., 214 n., 269, 270, 273, 

287 n., 293, 299, 307, 311, 313, 

317, 374. 
Taylor mountain, 312. 
tcaco'l, 181. 
tca'dam, 133. 
tcaha'wi, 152. 
tcahe-lil-nom, 254. 
tca'ida, 149. 
tcaikSsado'tcani, 238. 
tca'kca, 175. 
tcala'mkiamali, 236. 
tcala'ntcawi, 229, 232. 
tca'mkawi, 140. 
tca'mna, 180. 
tca'mokorae, 237. 
tca'msumli, 165. 
tcamu'ka, 232. 
tca'pida, 229. 
tca^skol, 152. 
tcatam, 133. 
tca'yahakatdn, 226. 
tce'ckalel, 153. 
tcee'tidd, 245. 
tce'tcewani, 222. 
Tchalobones, 371. 
TcBokoyem, 313. 
Tcholoones, 371 n. 
Tcholovones, 371. 
tcibe'takut, 282. 
tcido'bate, 166. 
tcidote'ya, 138. 
tcie'una, 181. 
tcikSlbida, 233. 
tclLe'tSn, 223. 
tcime'nukme, 293. 
tcimonal, loO. 
tci'ti, 235. 

tciti'bidakali, 2b0, 234. 
tci'tonS, 230. 
tciyolkitLali, 206. 
tcoke'ttce, 309. 
tcd'kLabe, 245. 
tco'mtcadHa, 143. 
tcd'mtcalila, 144. 
tcucamatce'm, 262. 
tcuhelme'mLabe, 297. 
tculgo, 149. 



[397] 



Digitized by 



Google 



I 



Index. 



tcuma'ti, 236. 

te'bli, 291, 295, 296. 

Tehama, 49; county, 289. 

te'kalewi, 239. 

tekena'ntsdnoma, 272. 

Telamni, 340, 379. 

telda, 259. 

te'mblek, 313. 

Temperature, 10. 

Ten-mile river, 47, 118 n., 261, 262, 

263, 280. 
Territorial boundaries, 344. 
Territory investigated, 10. 
Thomas creek, 259. 
Thompson, Robert A., 44 n., 219, 

222 n., 224 n., 231 n., 269 n., 

310 n., 311, 313 n.; ranch, 216. 
ti'kai, 147. 

Timber, extent of, 12. 
Timber Cove, 230. 
Tishechu, 379. 
Tlayacma, 44 n., 270. 
td'ba, 290. 
Tobah, 29, 32. 
toaji'Lbi, 280, 282. 
tdlimakau, 222. 
td'idihi, 296. 
tdltau, 304. 
tSTrti, 295. 
toldam, 135. 
topa'idihi, 294. 
To-pai'-di-sel, 294. 
Tolen, 44 n. 
tololuri, 290. 
Tomales, 44 n.; bay, 301, 306; 

Point, 308 n.. 
Tomki, 128 n. ; creek, 120, 124, 128 

n., 257, 258, 259. 
tontce'kut, 283. 
to'ntdtcimatci, 233. 
Topayte, 44 n. 
to'pLabe, 297. 
Topographic divisions, 23; names 

of, 21. 
Topography, 23, 121, 127, 345. 
torodi'Labe, 245. 
Totemic groups, 15. 
to'tola, 223. 
totolagotca, 223. 
Tracy, 375. 
Travelers' Home, 254. 
Tribal organizations, 15, 340, 341, 

250. 
Tribe, 377; not found, 14. 
tsla'bal, 209. 
Tsadat, 120 n. 
tsaka', 146. 
tsalal, 200. 
tsamd'mda, 146. 



tsa'nmamau, 203. 

tsapu'wil, 238. 

tsawa'takka, 153. 

tse'ki, 167. 

tse'lmenan, 270. 

tse'mandma, 269. 

tai'kinldand, 147. 

tsi'mpal, 143. 

tsi'tsapogut, 318. 

tsiwi, 206. 

tsiwi'cbidaininapdti, 200. 

tai'wida, 215. 

tsiya^kabeyo, 156. 

tsolika'wi, 222. 

tsubaTiaputsum, 201. 

tsuba'tcemali, 232. 

tsu'kantitcanawi, 231. 

t8u'nno, 226. 

Tubers as food, 336. 

Tulamni, 375, 379. 

Tulare lake, 350, 375. 

Tule, boats, 25, 26, 124; lake, 125, 
129, 155, 156, 184, 185 n.; ridge, 
253; river reservation, 371. 

tulekalS'yo, 233. 

tu'leyome, 318. 

tulT, 313. 

tulimho', 152. 

Tulkays, 293. 

tulme, 311. 

Tulocay ranch and cemetery, 268 n. 

Tu-lo-kai-di-sel, 293. 

Tulucay rancho, 293. 

tu'luka, 293. 

tuHukai, 293. 

tumi'stumis, 316. 

Tuolumne, 354; county, 335; peo- 
ple, 371, 373, 377; dialect, see 
under Mi wok; river, 335, 338, 
339, 342, 356, 370, 373, 374. 

Turner, T. G., 208. 

tu'rururaibida, 245. 

tutcaiye'lin, 311. 

Tuthill, 313 n. 

Twin lakes, 130 n. 

uka'tcim-nom, 254. 

Uk-ho'-at-nom, 246. 

Ukiah, 17, 41, 125 n., 126 n., 127, 
136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 152, 160, 
162, 168, 170, 175, 176, 178, 179, 
180, 181; valley, 19, 48 n., 125 
n., 127, 134, 136, 138, 158, 160, 
162, 168, 169, 175, 176, 182. 

Ukis, 246. 

u'kumnanddn, 259. 

ukutco'k, 234. 

uli'Labe, 296. 

uli'ydmi, 311. 



[398] 



Digitized by 



Google 



Index. 



Ulucas, 268 n. 
Ululato, 44 n. 
Umbellularia californica, 13, 188, 

190. 
Uncle Sam mountain, 276 n. 
upawa'ni, 215, 216. 
Upper lake, 122 n., 123 n., 125, 

125, 130 n., 139, 157-9, 184-9, 

191, 244, 278; division, 185, 186; 

Island, 189, 191, 196; valley, 155, 

184, 187, 188, 198, 244. 
Upper Tuolumne, 302. 
Upusuni, 378. 
Usal, 118 n.; creek, 118 n. 
utit-nom, 254. 
Utimonamoc, 44 n. 
Utschiun, 310. 
uwului'me, 255. 

Vallejo, brothers, 195 n.; Salvador, 
198. 

Valley division, 168; region, 23; 
characteristics of, 25. 

Valleyford creek, 303, 305, 309. 

Van Nader, H. H., 175; ranch, 179. 

Vann, Jean, ranch, 296. 

Vegetable foods, 24, 25, 124, 167, 
182, 335, 336. 

Village, political unit, 14. 

Village sites, 345, 350; inhabited 
modern, 131, 136, 162, 168, 185, 
191, 205, 213, 228, 235, 244, 262, 
268, 280, 289, 316; old, 337, 132, 
137, 155, 163, 170, 186, 191, 206, 
214, 224, 229, 236, 245, 249, 258, 
262, 268, 276, 281, 290, 292, 304, 
307, 316, 317, 309; uninhabited 
modern, 151, 178, 198, 260, 277. 

Villages, Miwok, 344, 350. 

Viscaino, Sebastian, 37. 

Vitis californica, 13. 

Vocabularies, 350, 356, 357, 358; 
Angels Camp, 354; Coast Yuki, 
68-80; footnotes to, 87, 368; 
Huchnom, 68-80; Miwok, 362; 
Moquelumnan, 68-80; Porno, 56- 
68; Wappo, 68-80; Wintun, 68- 
80 ; Vokuts of lower San Joaquin 
valley, 372, 373, 374; Yuki, 68- 
80. 

Von Baer, K. E., 308 n. 

Von Helmerson, Gr., 308 n. 

Von Kotzebue, 308 n., 310. 

Vowels, Pomo, 101; values of, 51. 

Vulture, Californian, 14. 

waika'fi, 296. 

Wailaki, 255, 258, 279 n. 

wa'imun, 245. 



Walalshimni, 376 n. 

Walker valley, 128, 134, 144, 145, 
152. 

Wallhalla, 224 n. 

walli, 342. 

walnu'tse, 2Z0. 

Wambold's lake, 130 n. 

wa'mulu, 259. 

Wana, 377. 

Wapo, 264. 

Wappa, 264. 

Wappo, 18, 27, 48 n., 54, 87 ns., 93 
n., Ill, 113, 116, 117, 118 n., 
121, 122, 219, 220, 264, 268, 303; 
area, 274, 275; eolony, 247, 275; 
dialect, 263; sub-dialects, 112, 
267; territory of, 266, 272. 
Clear Lake, 111, 112, 121, 183, 
184, 192, 204, 263, 267; 
boundaries, 274; territory, 
205. 
Main area, 263-8; boundaries 
of, 264; old village sites, 
223, 247. 

Wappo-Pomo, boundary, 266, 267; 
war, 266. 

Wappo- Wintun interstock bound- 
ary, 266. 

Warm Springs creek, 220, 221, 224. 

Wasama, 343. 

Washo, 339, 352, 356, 376. 

watakko'wi, 218, 219, 220. 

West Indies, 28. 

Westport, 262. 

White and Wilson, 215. 

Wilcox ranch, 177. 

Wiley, Austin, 246 n. 

wilipds, 269. 

Williams, creek, 252 ; Robert, place, 
296; valley, 252, 253. 

Willits, 145, 146; valley, 128 n. 

Willow, 13. 

wi'lok, 222. 

Wilson, 372; Charles, ranch, 238; 
ranch, 282; ranch, old, 269. 

Windsor, 215, 216, 222, 307. 

Winters, 294, 298, 299, 300. 

Wintoon language, 246. 

Wintoons, 284. 

Wintun, 14, 20 n., 22, 43, 54, 55, 
91 n., 92 n., 109, 115 n., 117, 120, 
204, 205, 207, 239, 284, 285, 293, 
355; boundaries, 285; creek, 183; 
lexical relationships, 109; phon- 
etic relationships, 110; present 
population, 43; territory, 182, 
240, 285-8, 292, 305, 315. 

Northerly dialect, 7, 27, 239, 
248, 289, 284, 297. 



[399] 



Digitized by 



Google 



Index. 



Wintun— Continued. 

SoutBerly dialect, 115, 116, 
121, 265, 290, 314; territory, 
115, 306. 

Wipa, 376, 377 n. 

Wise creek, 170. 

Wolf creek, 225, 226, 235. 

Wolfskill grant, 298. 
Wolf skill, John B., 298; Joseph, 
298, 299; M. A. H., 298; Mat- 
thew, 299; Win., 298. 

Wooded Valley People, 128 n. 

Woodland, 294. 

Woodland Daily Democrat, 294. 

Woodpecker, California, 14. 

Woolridge's slough, 200. 

wotokl, 310. 

wotokka'ton, 218. 

wugili'wa, 314. 

Wukchamni, 340. 

xaba'i, 158. 

xa-bati'n, 123 n. 

zada'butun, 198. 

xa'dalam, 189, 199. 

xa-dand, 277. 

xaga'bidame, 278. 

xa'gacdbagil, 19?. 

xa'ikaiyau, 204. 

xa'ikaldkise, 199. 

xa'-kaiyau, 123 n. 

xale'sema, 141. 

xalibe'm, 198. 

xa'-matd, 123 n. 

xaro', 155. 

xaro'malugal, 155. 

xa'xmdtmot, 278. 

Xosmitamne, 371. 

xd'walek, 187. 

xo'yi, 207. 

xube', 207. 

xuna'dai, 205, 208. 

Yachekumnas, 375 n. 

Yachichumne, 375. 

Yachik, 377, 379. 

Yachikamne, 371, 377, 379. 

Yachikumni, 376, 377. 

Yachiniesi, 375. 

ya'kale, 135. 

Yalisumni, 340. 

ya'ma, 142. 

yami', 146. 

ya'md, 142. 

ya'mu, 142. 

Yanan, 22. 

Yatchachumne, 376. 

Yates, Charles, 175. 

Yaudanchi, 379. 

Yauelmani, 379. 

Yek, 258. 

yictciLti'fikut, 281. 



yd, 209. 

yd'butui, 185, 187. 

ydci'kletowani, 218. 

Yodo, 294. 

yd'doi, 294. 

Yodos 294. 

yo'kaia, 19, 21, 125 n., 168, 169, 

182, 350. 
Yo'kaia Porno Indians, 169, 182; 
rancheria, 138, 170, 180; village, 
175. 
Yokaya rancho, 170. 
Yoknts, 288, 339, 341, 343, 344, 351, 
355, 356, 370 seq.; area, 301, 
352; territory, 348, 350, 351, 
356; villages, 350. 
Yolhios, 311. 

Yolo, 294; county, 10, 294. 
yoma'caditc, 181. 
Yorkville, 170, 177, 178, 182; 

rancheria, 170. 
Yosemite valley, 337, 342, 343, 348, 

353, 354, 356. 
Yosul-Pomos, 48 n. 
yo'tceuk, 171. 
yd'tdgagd, 158. 

Yount, George C, 42, 268 n., 269 n. 
Yountville, the town of, 268, 269 n. 
Yuea, 246. 
Yuka,246. 
Yukai, 169. 

Yuki, 14, 15, 20 n., 43, 54, 55, 111, 
116, 117, 120, 122, 169, 244, 246, 
249, 267; chiefs, 251; dialects, 9; 
lexical relationship, 111; phon- 
etic relationships, 113; present 
population, 43; Round Valley, 
246; stock, 7; territory, 182, 240, 
244, 250, 253, 285; tribal or- 
ganization of, 19. 

Coast, 27, 93 n., 94 n., Ill, 
113, 120, 121, 125, 126, 249, 
254, 261, 262, 280; boun- 
daries of, 260; territory, 
280. 
Proper, 27, 93 n., 94 n., Ill, 
121, 125, 127, 128 n., 247- 
250, 255-8, 260, 287; boun- 
daries of, 248; territory, 
280. 
See Huchnom. 
Yukiah, 246. 

Yukian Huchnom, 136, 280. 
Yukian Wappo, 191, 223, 286, 287, 
315; area, 211, 287, 287 n., 305, 
306, 314; dialect, 212, 313. 
yul'yul, 293. 
Yu-sal Pomo, 260 n. 
Zaclom, 44 n. 



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