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( Cbandrasenipa Kapastfta prabDu Communitig- ) 




Cbanbraseni^a Ikaigastba Iprabbu 


'* Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu 
Social Club, Poona/^ 


T. V. GUPTE, Chairman, 



Poena : 

Printed at the ''Israelite Press,," 

1904. -^Ii 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 


'T^HIS publication is intended to interest the Chandraseniya Ka_ 
* yasth Prabbu community only. It does not, therefore, pretend 
to appeal to a rery wide circle, but at the same time, it must be men- 
tioned liere that it contains information that rendered some service 
to Government in the inquiry of the ethnographic survey lately 
conducted by the Government authorities in this part of the country. 
Proceedings of the Chandraseniya Kayasth Prabhu gathering held 
on the 21st of July, 1901, and the important correspondence between 
the Provincial Superintendent of Census of the Bombay Presidency 
and the Chandraseniya Kayasth Prabhu Club published in this little 
book after Appendix No. 6, will give the reader an idea of the occa- 
sion of bringing together these notes and the ways in which that work 
was conducted by the institution with the help of the members of the 
Prabhu Historical Society, a branch of the Poona Club to which the 
inquiry was entrusted. The notes were required to be prepared in Eng- 
lish chiefly, because tlieywere to be examined, inspected, and recasted 
by an intelligent European officer of Government. These notes cannot 
l)e said to be sufficient for writing the general history of the caste — 
not even a sketch— but they would give the reader an outline of the 
system of Government in connection with the ethnographic survey, 
and the attempts of the Cbandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu Social 
I'lub, Poona, of systematically gathering the material from various 
quarters and embodying the same in the form in w^hich it appears in 
the pages of this book. 

The portion under the heading** Extracts from Bombay Gazetteer 
and other Publications " appended to this book at the end, is an 
after- til ought of tlie publisher. The publisher takes the liberty of 

inserting this additional material, because some of tlie important 
information was obtained by liim after the notes were sent to the 
Provincial Superintendent of Census and Ethnograpliy (Bombay) by 
the club, and some even after the book was put in print. It is hoped" 
that the additional information will be useful to Government as the 
'supplementary information' and as the 'corroborative iiiformntion' to an 
abler writer of the Prabhu caste who will, in future, take u]) tlie work 
of writing a full history of the caste either in Englisli or in Marathi. 
The publisher begs to write at the end of this book a few lines by 
way of explanation about the arrangement of the book, the legitimate 
inferences he is inclined to draw from the contents of the book, the 
views of various writers on Vaste' and tlie conclusions to be drawn 
from them, &c... S^c. 

The publisher takes this opportunity of expressing thanks 
on behalf of the Chandraseniya Kayasth Prabhu Social Club, Poona, 
to the members of the Prabhu community of Thana, Baroda, Indore,. 
Dewas, Maval and Poona without whose help it would have been 
very difficult to supply the information to Government and publisli 
this book. The publisher is personally obliged to Shrimant Bal- 
krishna Vithal Potnis for his kind help for months together in 
preparing the notes. 

Poona, June, 1904, Plrusiieu. 


The enquiry about the ethnographic questions naturally 
leads one to trace the history of ciste. " The Hii dus like all 
other civilized nations have passed through various stages 
of development— social, moral, religious, and intellectual. 
The ideas and beliefs which are found in the oldest documents 
rre not the same as those which we come across in later 
writings." The examination of the materials on the subject 
is no doubt laborious; when we turn to the literature of anci- 
ent times we find that there is hardly any ground to suppose 
that caste system in its present form ever prevailed. 
Tie general history of India and her people can be classified 
under the following periods— Vedic, Buddhistic, Puranic, 
aad historic periods. The literary records of these periods 
would therefore be good guides to investigate the subject. 

" It will be seen from the different texts that from a very 
early period the Indian writers have propounded a great 
variety of speculations re^^arding the origin of mankind, and 
of the classes or castes into which they found their own 
community divided. The most commonly received of these 
explanations is the fable which represents the Brahmans, 
Kshatriayas, Vaishyas and Shudras to have been separately 
created from the head (mouth) the breast or arms, the thighs 
and the feet of the creator. Of this mythical account no 
trace is to be found in any of the hymns of the Rigweda, 
except one in the Purasha Sukta (Page 7 Muir's Sanskrit 
Texts, Volume I), This celebrated hymn is the oldest that 
makes mention of the origin of mankind. The following is 
the extract of the 90th hymn of the loth book of Rigweda 
Samhita called Purusha Sukta ( hymn to Purusha ) that 
gives the origin of the Hindu races. sfl^S^ E^'^I^fST^nspq* 
frT: I 3;^ rT^^q^^q^ ^^^m^ ^ffSSTT^rT 11 (Brahman was his mouth, the 


Rajanya was made his arms, the being (called) Vaishya, 
lie was his thighs, the Shudra sprang from his feet). 

Dr. Haug in his tract ' On the origin of Brahmanism' p. 4 
thus remarks on this verse " Now according to this passage 
which is the most ancient and authoritative we have on the 
origin of Brahmanism and caste in general, the Brahman 
has not come from the mouth of this primary being the 
Purusha, but the mouth of the latter became the Brahmani- 
cal caste, 1. «., was transformed into it. The passage has no 
doibt an alle;^orical sense. Mouth is the seat of speech. 
The allegory thus points out that the Brahmans are teachers 
and instructors of mankind. The arms are the seat of 
strength. If the two arms of the Purusha are said to have 
been made a Kshatriya (warrior,) that means, then, that the 
Kshatriyas have to carry arms to defend the empire. That the 
ihighsof the Purusha weretransformed into the Vaishya, means 
that as the lower parts of the body are the principal repository 
of food taken, the Vaishya caste is destined to provide food 
for the others. The creation of the Shudra from the feet of 
the Purusha indicates that he is destined to be a servant to 
the others, just as the foot serves the other parts of the body 
as a firm support." (Page 14-15 of Mnir's Sanskrit texts, 
Volume I.) Dr. J. Muir observes in his preface to Sanskrit 
texts Volume I, *' there are other passages in the texts 
next, in chronological order to the hymns of the Rigweda 
which differ more or less widely from the account of the 
creation given in the Purusha Sukta, and therefore justify the 
conclusion that in the Vedic age no uniform orthodox and 
authoritative doctrine existed in regard to the origin of 
castes " Passages from the Taittiriya Sanhita ^rrrq ^[frTT 
Satapatha Brahman ^rjq^ 3W^ the Taittiriya Brahman, 
?i«Tt4 m^r^T the Vajaseniya Sanhita ^sr^^lq nftm and the 
Atharvan Veda ^rp^^q^^ give different theories of the 
creation of the universe and mankind, e. g. Taittiriya, 
Brahman, Ir?fi4 ^T^Tor describes Vaishya, class produced 


from Rigweda, Kshatriya from the Yajurveda and 
Brahman from the Samaveda, Satapatha Brahman says that 
Kshatriya was born from Brahma S'T existing in the form of 
' agni* (fire) hence nothing is superior to the Kshatriya, there- 
fore the Brahman sits below the Kshatriya at theRajasuya U3f- 
^^ sacrifice. Later on Manu gives various theories about the 
origin of castes and they are not in harmony with each other. 
He first adheres to the theory of Purusha Sukta given above, 
th^n he says mankind was created of the Brahma, a half of 
whom was man and the oth^r half was woman. Next he 
goes on describing that men were created from the ten Ma- 
harshis T\^f^ whom he first ushered in the world desirous of 
the creation of mankind. Vishnu,^^^ Vay u ^pr and Markandeya 
i?i%T7 Purans give theories of creation and castes which are ir- 
rcconciliable. At one place men of all the four castes are said 
to be offsprings of >5, a female the daughter of ^ 
the wife of ^^. At another place w^e find the four castes 
represented as descendants of ^^i^^. Some declare the 
distinction of classes to have arisen out of differences of 
character and action, others describe mankind as the off- 
spring of 3Tt4'1^ and TTTH^ while another distinctly declares 
that there was originally one caste. In this way the theories 
of creation of mankind and its caste do not appear to be uni- 
form in the sacred books "(ATuir's Sanskrit Text, Vol. i)At this 
period therefore the rigidity of rules of caste could not be 
found. Brahman was a Brahman by knowledge of religion 
and not by birth, according to Satpatha Brahman. According 
to one passage inAiteerya I rahman'^rM ^I?l'^,the descendants 
of a member of one caste might enter another by following 
the profession of the latter. The priestly caste did not acquire 
a monopoly of religious learning. They often came as 
humble pupils to Kshbatriya kings to acquire religious and 
divine knowledge " (Muir's Sanskrit texts, Volume I.) But 
in course of time rules of caste became more rigid and the 
real origin of the system was forgotten and the rule of dis- 
tinction of castes by profession was followed by the rule of 


the caste by birth and heredity, ^^^e also find the origin of 
certain castes in the descriptions given about the conflicts 
l;)etween the Brahmans and Kshatriyas for the ascendancy of 
one over the othe^. A series of legendary illustrations 
derived from the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and Puranas 
give an idea of the struggle which appears to have occurred 
in the early ages of the Indian history between the Brahmins 
and the Kshatriyas, aUer the former had begun to constitute 
an exclusive ^acerdotal class, but before their rights had 
become accurately defined by long prescription and when 
the member^ of the ruling class, were still indisposed to 
admj^itjieii pretensions, (l.^r^f ace .by Dr. Muir) " The legends 
pf>kingVena, ^^ Nahusha, ^ff? Nimi ^1 .and the quarrels of 
Vashistha «Tf^g- and Vishwamitra ft^Jjim are the best illus- 
trations of thi? struggle betvyeen the two classes for supre- 
macy. The legend of Bramhan Parasharam (the son of 3^^?^% 
Bramhan father, and "^^^ Kshatriya mother.^ killing the 
Kshatriya king, Kartaveerya ( Sahasrajuna, ) ^T<#q^ ( hfwt^ ) 
evinces that the bitterness of the epmity between the two races 
had reached its climax and we are told that Parasharam 
exterminated the Kshatriya class twenty-one times. (Dr. Muir's 
Sanskrit Text). The poetic enthusiasm lost sight of the 
.improbability of extermination of a class a second time after 
it was once exterminated. Dr. ^wuir when he draws his con- 
clusions upon this conflict between the Brahmans and the 
Kshatriyas, rightly observes " the legend of Parasharam as 
related, js of course fabulous. Not to speak of the miraculous 
powers which are ascribed to this hero, and the incredible 
number of exterminations which he is said to have executed, 
we cannot even suppose it probable that the Brahmans should 
in general have been sufficiently powerful and warlike to 
overcome the Kshatriyas by force of arms. But the legend 
may have had some such foundations in fact. Before the 
provinces of sacerdotal and military classes were accurately 
defined, there may have been cases in which ambitious men 
of the former successfully aspired to kingly domiuion just as 

scious of royal races became distinguished as priests and 
sages. But even without this assumption the existence of 
such legends is sufficiently explained by the position which 
the Brahmans eventually occupied with the view of main- 
taining their own ascendancy over the mind of the chiefs on 
whose good will they were dependent and of securing for 
themselves honour and profit, they would have an interest 
in working upon the superstitious feelings of their contem- 
poraries by fabricating stories of supernatural punishment 
inflicted by their own forefathers on their royal oppressors, 
as well as by painting in lively colours the prosperity of 
those princes who were submissive to the spiritual order." 
(pp. 478-479 Muir's Sanskrit Text.) 

vSuch is the account of the various theories about the 
origin of ' caste.' However, as we have been asked to give the 
legends and popular beliefs about the origin of the Chandra 
Seniya Kayastha Prabhus, we are required to turn to the 
Purana which gives the origin of this caste. RenukaMahatmya 
Adhyaya 47 (Chapter 47) in Sanhyadikhand, contained in the 
**5kandha Puran, chiefly relates the account of the Chandra- 
vSeniya Kayastha Prabhus and connects the stor^^ with the 
great fight of Brahman Parashram with the great and power- 
ful king ^TfM^ commonly known as H^WT^. It is a pity 
that a complete manuscript of the ^^jnyja^ Sanhyadrikhand 
could not be procured in spite of the attempts made to pro- 
cure it. In 1877 Mr. J. Jerson Da Cunha, member of the com- 
mittee of management of the Bombay Branch of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, published the text of H5IT21<^ rafter collecting 
fourteen manuscripts from various parts of India. He observes 
**somc of the copies betray the attempt to alter and interpolate^ 
others to mutilate rather than to circumvent to which may br 
added miscopying/' ^^ 

Even this publication does not contain the whole of the 
>or^rTTTT^?T. It is said that the Kokanasthas carefully suppressed 


or destroyed all copies of Sandliyadrikhaud wliere their 
origin is mentioned and the respectable Brahmin of Wai was, 
a few years ago, disgraced by Bajirao for having a copy 
of it ( Grant Duff's History of the Marathas Page g foot 
note ). The 47th chapter of Renuka Mahatamya 'tSf^miT^^ 
is however preserved in various documents and religious 
books such as TTJUHfr and the letter of the learned Brah- 
mans of Benaras who gave their decision about the purity, &c. 
of this caste on reference made to them by the Peshwa in the 
year 1779 A. D. on the subject. The materials for the history 
of the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus published by 
Rao Saheb B. A. Gupte in iSSi also contains the several 
passages from this missing Adhyaya (chapter.) A gentleman 
of this community by name Mr. Amritrao Abajee Karnik, 
late pleader in Akola, after great labour secured a copy of 
this Adhyaya from a^f Dravidi Brahman at Hydrabad (Dec- 
can), who had with him a complete cop}' of ^fTTlk^^. Mr- 
Karnik has incorporated this 47th chapter in his book* ^isi'^^fq 
^T^^^TJT^ ^'flf^^^ fmf (collection of the religious rights and 
privileges of the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus specially 
edited for the caste). We are thus able to make use of these 
materials in giving account of the legends and the popular 
traditions of the caste. 

The questions have been answered as concisel)' as possi- 
ble* but by way of explanation we have given our obser- 
vation upon each of the answers arrived at after gathering 
information from various places and sources. 





Cbanbraseni^a Ika^astba ptabbu. 

Question I. — Write in English and Vernacular the 
name of the caste with synonyms, if any, noting if any of 
these are used only by outsiders. 

Answer I- — '^^e name of this caste in full is ''Chandra 
seniya Kayastha Prabhu" "^^rSriifT^T ^^TP-i ^" commonly the 
community is called "Chandraseniya Prabhu" "'^^rS^^PT ^9 " or 
' Prabhu' "31H ' only. Sometimes people use the word 
*' Parbhu " "t^" in speaking about this caste, but that form 
(q?:H) is evidently a corrupt expression for the original 
Sanskrit word Prabhu. In records such as Sanads and other 
Royal Mandates and also in standard works such as "Rise of 
the Maratha Power" by Justice Ranade, nothing but Prabhu 
3ig is written. 


There are various theories about the origin of the name of the 
caste. Information from different quarters received by this Institu- 
tion gives various theories either based upon myth, legend, historical 
observations, philological inferences, mere surmises, or in some cases 
the frank mention of intentional perversion of facts by the rival 
Brahman caste about this name or part of the name. 

The final answer to this question as well as to all the others by 
this Institution has been framed after trying to reconcile the different 
versions by applying the test of authorities and discussion on the 
point by the members of the Institution. 

It will, however, be interesting to note some of the theories found 
in the information which would throw some light upon the answer 
to this question. 

The name of the caste is " Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu. " 
"^tsf^jftq ^FPT^ ITS'-" Out of these three words there is no differ- 
ence of opinion about the word " Cliandraseniya " ^fff^jfPT. All 
agree in saying that it means the descendants of the king "Chandra- 
sena" ^TS"^^ and his followers. Chandrasena ^tS^T was otherwise 
called Soma Raja tr^U^T who was the son of the Kshatriya king 
" Chandrasena " ^"llJT, himself the descendant of ^TFWT^ Sahas- 
rarjuna of the Haiyaya fT^ family of the Lunar Kshatriya Dynasty. 

The word " Kayastha " ^r^T^ when applied to this caste is 
said to mean, firstly according to the mythological legend fully 
narrated under question 6, resident in body. ^TFT body and ^^. 
resident in) because when Parashuram asked for the wife of Chandra- 
sen who had taken refuge with the sage Dalabhya ?[T^^ he pro- 
mised to give away tlie woman if the child in the womb be spared. 
Note the words 

Secondly, the word Kaystha ^fl^^ may mean resident in 
Ayodhya 3T%^ ( ^j^T-Ayodhya and ^ resident.) 5r^<r^HI«l. 
Anga '^^ means Ayodhya 3T%^ and very lik'^ly Kayastha came to 
be used as equivalent to Angastha, because '^^ and ^TR are inter- 
changeable words. Compare " Deshastha " ^5T^^ means resident in 
Desh *' Kokanastha " ^i^TT^ means resident in #^rT. The 
word Kayastha <FT^T^ when applied to ST^ Prabhu may be said to 
be used as an adjective. Kayastha Prabhu ^T^TF<T ^ Prabhu (king) 
turned into a Kayastha (writer.) — Note the words ^ ; SFT^TP-I^S^^MM- 

Published in ^. ^. jj. f . m^. — because the caste was compelled to 
take up the pen and give up the sword upon which condition alone the 

king Chandrasena's wife was allowed to remain alive with, ^e 
Kshatriya child in her womb, by Parashuram. Chitrugupta, the son. 
of the body of the God Bralimadeva, and therefore Brahma Kayastha 
was the recorder in heaven of the good and evil of mortals. He 
was Kayastha and the only writer and his profession was 
ordained to be followed by the posthumous son. Notes from Mr, B. 
A. Gupte of Indore, 

In the Poona Volume of the Bombay Gazetteer the "Kayastha 
Prabhus" «FT^T^ 5f^ are called"^ 5?r, Deviputra, but this is evidently a 
mistake arising from a confused notion about the Kayasthas of 
Bengal. The word " Kayastha Prabhu " is further translated as 
*' Lords-in-waiting" whicb is grammatically wrong, " ^ " does not 
mean "near," it means "resident in or within." {Notes from Mr. B. A. 
Gupte of Indore,) 


It is here to be mentioned that the "Kayastha Prabhu" or more 
properly " Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu" are quite different from 
the 'Sankaraj Kayasthas' or the 'Vaishya Kayasthya' of Gujarath, 
none of them being Prabhus. 

The word Kayastha ^FPTf^ as given in the Marathi into Englisb 
Dictionary by Mr. J. T. Molesworth, in the Edition of 1857, is des- 
cribed under a mistaken notion and is therefore misleading. ^FT^BT 
is the term used by him as showing the distinction between Pathare 
Prabhu and Kayastha Prabhu. The origin of the caste is mentioned 
there as of mixed blood which is evidently incorrect It is based on 
a remark in the work known as Jativivek. The author of Jativivek 
has stated at the outset vi ^ >^T^ ^\H ^^W^'^f^-- ^^: ^^^: II ^i^ ^• 
^^T^'e^TTrTT ^^H- 'jl ft^TTrr??: II. The classes Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vit- 
and Shudras are said to be natural born as described in the ( ^<>'^«'^ ) 
Purushasukta. The first three of these are twice born and their re- 
ligious duties have been separately described. He further says ^^^T^ 
^T^^(TT: HmriiHl^^t^irrHI HH; ^^ ^m^^rff^ ^IM«t5MR^^= ll^ll I- shal 1 
Speak of all those who were born of the (aforesaid) classes by 
Ml^ftlH and 3T5^ {by mixture of blood) and give their different 
names and avocations. The description of the word Kayastha given 

in Jativivek tallies with that given of Sankaraj Kayastha in Gaga- 
bhatti and is not applicable to this caste (compare the exact wording 
of sri mR^^ i under ^FTP4 with that of qriPTfT under ^^THT ^^TFi) 
The origin of Chandraseniva Kayastha Prabhu, Chitra Gupta Kayas- 
tha Prabhu and Sankaraj Kayastha is however separately given 
by Gaga Bhat. It is therefore beyond doubt that ^iimn^^ does 
not speak of Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus, who are of pure 
Kshatriya origin but only about the fl'^sr ^q^. This statement 
is borne oat by the fact that snfrrf^tf; was one of the authorities 
referred to by the Banares Brahmana in giving their decisions to 
the Peshawa of Poona w^hich will be mentioned hereafter. This 
mistake in Molesworth's Dictionary appears to have been made inad- 
vertently because no reference was made to the older works like 
^inf?^ of ^^5^^ which was written about 1000 years ago when 
the writers were free from jDrejudice and malice. Mr. Molesworth 
certainly did not care to kno\A^of the existence of the Puranik Litei- 
atiu'e, and therefore only took for his authority srifrTI^?'^ which is 
in no way an authority upon the origin of this caste. Jf ilie com- 
piler of the Dictionary had consulted the leaders of the "Chandra- 
seniya Kayastha Prabhu Community," or had referred to all the 
works on the subject he would have certainly given the correct 
description of the word. On reference to the ^?Tff?^3" of the 
^^n^, TTiTPTff, ^FTF4 ^iu, Jtrfl^^ft and even 3m?rf^?^, U^^+Mt^f^R 
and other works the learned Brahmans of Benares wrote to the Pe- 
shawa Darbar on the 8th day of the first fortnight of Shake 1701, i.e., 
1779 A. D., that the Prabhus are genuine Kshatriyas. This letter 
was used by the Peshwa of the time in settling the disputes between 
the Brahmans and this caste about "^fr^ ^rflM^R (tlie privileges 
of conducting religious ceremonies with Vedic Mantras.) The dis- 
pute was settled in favour of this caste on receiving this reply from 
the learned Brahmins of Benares to whom the controversy was spe- 
cially referred by the Peshwa Durbar under letter, dated the 10th 
of the first fortnight Margarshirsha for opinion. This will be given 
in extenso under remarks upon question No. 17. 

^^ Prabhu — From notes received about this word we find many 
versions about its meaning : — 

Firstly — Prabliu means king or superior, the common ancestor 
or leader of this caste being king '"Chandrasena," otherwise called 
Somaraja ^iTUif, the son of Chandrasena ^^^f. He had four sons 
viz., Vishwanath, Mahadev, Bhanu and Laxmidhar, out of these four 
Vishwanath was very learned, possessed of great many virtues and 
so he was called Mahaprabhu (the great Lord) T^fT^. Since then 
this caste is called '^^g'. (Renuka Mahatmya ). 

Secondly — Purab in Hindustani 5^^ means East, (just as J^^^CTT 
from 51^^?:^ or jtM^f. 5^ meaning eastern ^T^^ brother and 
^it^ mere Eastern.) In western part of India, Rajaputana, Gujarat 
and Bombay all emigrants from Cawnpur side are called ^^^\ or 
5PT^^ eastern brothers. The Prabhus who have a tradition that they 
came from Oudh might have been given the local name of Purab. 
The modern term Bhayya is possibly as cynical as our "Aryan 
brothers," the term introduced by western journalists and " cousins 
across the channel" used by the British journalists. — (yote from 
Mr. B. A. Gdpte of Indore.) 

Thirdly — This caste is sometimes called qrg Prabhu (misspelt) 
either by imeducated people who cannot pronounce the word correct- 
ly and properly (just as q"?:rTrqfHT Paratapsing for ^frrrfwT 
Pratapsing. q^^^W Parabhas for ^^\^ Prabhas or ^JJW^ or ^\h^ 
for Wl^f^ Paran ^W\ for ^^r Prana,) or by some Brahmins who 
were jealous of the progress and success in politics, of the Prabhus — 
Notes from Mr. B. A. Gupte. Vide also Bombay Gazetteer ^ Thana Vol, 
page 87. 

Fourthly — tt^ Parbhu may simply mean a "foreigner" Par 
^K * another' and Bhu ^ ' land.' as they are not natives of Maha- 
rashtra in which country they possibly received this appellation. 
It is also possible that they were first treated and called uit-landers 
or out-landers i.e., ^V^.— Notes from Mr. B. A. Gupte. 

In Grant Duff's History of Marathas, page 62, the origin of this 
caste is w^rongly suggested in the following sentence : — 

" The Deshmukh was a Mahratha, but the Deshpandya was a 

Purbhoo (or Parvoe), a tribe of the Sankarjatee, to wliom Sivajee 
was always partial." 

Parbhoo or Purvoe is merely a mis-spelling for Prabhu. Grant 
Duff does not mention this, while discussing the propriety of the 
name of the caste or anything of the kind. He only touches it inci- 
dentally while speaking about the favouritism of the great Shivajee 
for this caste. So also when Grant Duff says in this sentence that 
this tribe is of "'Sankarjatee," he does not assert it at a time when 
he writes about the origin of .the caste or about the history of its 
name. His statement therefore cannot warrant anybody to deem 
this caste to be "Sankarjatee " (mixed). It is evidently a mistake 
inadvertently made. It can clearly be shown that this caste is not 
"Sankarjatee. The mention in this sentence is quite unauthorita- 
tive, arising from the appellation SFTPT^ which merely showed the 
profession they undertook to follow. When it was so made, no 
investigation appears to have been madi? whether the caste was 
really so. On the other hand there are, as we have shown, authori- 
ties which show that this caste is pure Kshatriya, ^r^, the second 
of the regenerate classes. The Kayasthas are of three kinds : (1) 
sRT^FT^ Brahma Kayastha, or Chitragupta Kayastha : (2) Chan- 
draseniya or Dalalbhya Kayastha ^73"%Trq' ^^^^ ^R^^T ^?T^ or 
Kshatriya Kayastha cfrf^q WWi : (3) Sankraja Kayastah 

tiV.i^ ^[^T^ (^5^ Higir*-^ 3r-^TFT vo.) As this caste is termed 
^.mk'^ ^g the word <f:T^^ appears to have misled the author in 
inferring that the '^T^tF^ ^^T^ and the t^Jnr^T^;^ had the 
same origin. The genealogical table of Kshatriya kings as given 
in the " Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan" Vol. I, page 18, 
brings Yadu's lines of the Lunar Race down to "Sahasrarjun" ^TFW^^ 
of " Haihaya" %w^ dynasty, and the king *' Chandrasena" ^^^ 
to whom " Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus" have their origin, 
and are consequently " Chandraseniya " ^^^T^fPT, was from 
this " Haihaya" %f ^ dynasty, and therefore was killed in battle by 
• • Parashuram" ; M<5i<IH. 

Attempt has been made by Rajaram Shastri Bhagavat in his 

book ^K^^^ =^R ^JK, page 71, to give the origin of the word T^ 

or msg (misspelt) as a derivative of the Telegu word 5|Tg " Brayu" 
to write. The author does not hesitate to admit the risk of giving 
the derivation of the word in the way suggested. It will be seen 
that an attempt to give the derivation of the word misspelt must 
fall to the ground, because originally it was neither qrg nor qrcf or 
q^, it was ^g. 

In Marathi into English Dictionary by Mr. J. T. Molesworth 
(Edition of 1857) under the word q^g (misspelt) the same view as 
about " Kayastha*' seems to have been taken, and a reference to the 
"Kayastha" is given, which is a clear mistake. The Pathare Prabhus 
in their book called " Patana Prabhus" written for the Bombay 
Gazetteer, by Krishnanath Raghunathjee in 1879, have taken care to 
contradict this incorrect insertion in Molesworth's Dictionary, stating 
in the foot-note, that Mr. Shamrao has brought forward a mass of 
evidence in support of their purity of descent. A reference to our 
remarks on the word '* Kayastha" will clearly show that our view 
of this point is right. 

Question II. — Write in English and Vernacular the 
names of the Exogamous sub-divisions of the caste, if such 
sub-divisions exist. 

N.B. — By the term exogamous sub-divisions is meant 
a group from within which its male members cannot take 
their wives. 

Answer ||.~They fall into the following 26 exoga- 
mous sub-divisions, termed "Gotras" ^ : — 

I. ''Kashyapa" (^^^TT), 2. '*Krip" (fT), 3- ''Deval" 
(t^), 4, " Waidhruva " (t^ ), 5. •' Bhargava " (^r^) 
6. ''Shandilya" ' (WT^), 7. " Paingya" (q*^), 8. *'Atri" 
(3#), 9. '* Vishwamitra " (ft*gTT^), 10. " Garga" (^A), 
II. •' Bharadwaja, (Hn^J3f), 12. " Goutam" (%H^), 13. Ja- 
madagni" (ii'KTW.) 14, '* Vasishta" (^f%?), 15. " Bhrigu" 


(^!I), i6. " Agastt " (BTTT^rT), 17, " Raibha " (tH ), 18. 
"Bhagur" (>Tr!]j), 19. "Satikhyayana" (H^qrq^) ' 20. '• Mai- 
trayana" , (t^^ 21. "Gandhamadan" (n^iTT^JT), 22. "Vya- 
ghra" (5?Tm), 23. •* Kapil" (^K?5-), 24. " Pulah" (5^^), 
35. *' Samir" (^%) ** and 26. "Varun" (^^ ) 

The Gotras, however, do not indicate that a family 
using any one of the Gotras is the descendant of the parti- 
cular " Rishi" m^, whose name it uses, but it indicates 
that the ancestor of the family had accepted the particular 
Rishi as his Guru, and therefore he adopted the particular 
Gotra. This caste is purely Kshatriya <lf\^^, and is, therefore 
one of the the three regenerate classes, viz., Brahmans, 
Kshatriyas and Vaishyas who are authorized to perform the 
" Upanayana " (^-q^q^ ) ceremony obligatory upon the 
aforesaid '* Dwija" (fisrj twice born classes. The practice 
of not allowing marriage between families of the same Gotra 
is therefore observed out of reverence to the Rishis who were 
made preceptors (!j^) at the time for the *' Upanayana " 
ceremony by the ancestors of the families. 


The system of adopting Gotras and Provaras by the members of 
this caste is based on reverence to the Rishis. The Brahmans, when 
they say that they are of a particular Gotra, mean that the Rishi 
whose name they cite is their common ancestor, but when a Chandrase- 
niya Kayastha Prabhu cites a Gotra or Pravara, he only indicates that 
a particular Rishi, whose name he cites, was accepted to be the Guru 
of his family by one of his ancestors in times gone by. It many there 
fore be said that this caste has taken a loan of the Gotras and Pravar- 
as. Allowing marriages between families of the same Gotras 
of the Kshatriya class is therefore a wrong which does not go to the 
root of any mandatory precept of religion. This caste has therefore 
liberally connived at such instances of en'or, on the analogy of tlie 
principle of Factum ralet in law. When a mistake of the kind is 
detected, people of the caste are inclined to warn themselves not to 
repeat it. 

Question IIL — show the endogamous divisions of 
the caste, if such divisions exist. If the divisions consist 
of groups of the sub-divisions mentioned in Question II, 
sh ow the grouping. If they are distinguished by separate 
names, write the names in English and Vernacular. 

N.B. — By the term endogamous division is meant a 
group from outside of which its male members cannot take 
their wives. 

Answer 111- — There are no endogamous divisions of 
the caste. At one time ** Dawne Prabhus" ( ^^t jfg ) were 
considered as an endogamous sub-division, as this caste 
took food with them, but did not allow marriage with them. 
This caste after satisfying themselves that the " Dawne 
Prabhus" w^ere simply called so on account of their residence 
in the district of *'Daman," and that "Damane '' ^^1% was 
changed into " Dawane " ^^^, that they have all along been 
" Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus," and had gone to re- 
side there, allowed marriage connections with them. They 
are now treated without any distinction. 

Question IV- — state the limits within or beyond 
which marriage is prohibited, e.g., that a man must marry 
within the caste, but must not marry into his own or certain 
other sub-divisions, or within certain degrees of relationship 
or maj' not marry two sisters^ 

Answer IV- — a man must marry within the caste and 
outside the " Gotra" or the aforesaid exogamous sub-divi- 
sions. Persons again are forbidden to marry those who are 
related as " Sapindas " C^'^). This relationship extends 
to six degrees, when the common ancestor is a male 
and four degrees when this common ancestor is a female, so also 
the bride or the bridegroom must not be from the same "Gotra" 
or " Prawara" (5H^) i. e., they must not be of the same family 
nor invoke the same preceptor. In counting the degree the 
person under consideration is to be excluded and we have 


to begin from the bride or bridegroom and count exclusive 
of both six or four degrees upwards as the case may be, and 
if the common ancestor is not reached within those degrees 
on both the sides a marriage between the parties can be 


The General Hindoo Law applicable to the regenerate classes 
applies to this caste. 

Question V — Name any prohibitions on inter- 
marriage based upon (a) social status, (b) geographical or 
local position, (c) differences of religious belief or practice, 
(d) differences of changes of occupation. 

Answer V- — '^^^ Hindu Law lays down that a man must 
marry inside the caste only, and therefore the prohibition 
regarding inter-marriages does not depend upon the grounds 
noted in (a) to (d) of this Question, but simply upon the 
caste system. 

Question VI- — State the popular tradition, if any exists 
as to the origin of the caste, naming the common ancestor, if 
any, the part of the country from which the caste is supposed 
to have come, and the approximate time of its emigration, as 
marked by the reign of any particular king or the occurrence 
of any historical event, together with the number of genera- 
tions supposed to have intervened. 

Answer VI- — "^^^ popular tradition as to the origin 
of the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu caste can be traced 
to the legendary accounts mentioned in the Mahabharata and 
other Purans about the struggle which appears to have 
occurred in the early ages of the Indian history between the 
Brahmans and the Kshatriyas. The legends contain stories 
about the repeated exterminations of the Kshatriyas by the 
warlike Brahman Parashuram (Rama with axe). The incarna- 
tion of Parashuram was undertaken (according to the legend) 


by Vishnu for the purpose of exterminating the Kshatriya or 
warrior caste, which had tried to assert its authority over the 
Brahmanical caste. Twenty-one times Ram (Parashuram) 
is said to have cleared the earth of these men, but by various 
means some few" were preserved w^ho were able to perpetuate 
the race. (Hindu Mythology by \V. J. Wilkins, pages 135-136.) 
This Parashuram was the son of Brahman Jamadagni 
for his father and the Kshatriya Renuka for his mother. 
Renuka was the daughter of Renuka of the family of 
Ikshwaku. Parashuram killed Sahasrarjun, alias Karta- 
veerya. According to the Vishun Puran, Arjun was of the race 
of Yadu and ninth in descent from Haihaya, the great 
grandson of that prince. (Moore's Sanskrit Text, Vol I, 
page 477.) 

It is believed that Chandrasena was one of the hundred 
sons of Sahasrarjun. The popular tradition as to the 
origin of this caste is given in the Thana Volume of the 
Bombay (gazetteer, page 87, which runs thus : — 

" They (Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus) claim descent 
from Chandrasen, a Kshatriya king of Oudh. According to 
the Renuka Mahatmya of the Padma (Skanda ?) Puran, the 
story is that after Parashuram in fulfilment of his vow^ to 
destroy all Kshatriyas had killed Sahasrarjun and king 
Chandrasen, he discovered that Chandrasen's wife had taken 
refuge with Dalabhya, one of the Rishis or seers, and that 
she was with child. To carry out his vow Parashuram went to 
the sage who asked him to tell the object of his visit, assuring 
him that his wish would be fulfilled. Parashuram replied that 
he wanted Chandrasen's wife. The sage without any hesita- 
tion brought the lady, and Parashuram delighted wath the 
success of his scheme promised to grant the sage anything he 
might ask. The sage asked for the unborn child and Para- 


sliuram agreed to give him the child on the sage engaging 
that it and its offsprings should be trained as clerks and not as 
soldiers. The child was named Som-Raja and his sons Vish- 
wanath, Mahadev, Bhanu and Lakshmidhar and their des- 
cendants were called Prabhus— Kayastha Parabhus by the 
Sudras as they could not pronounce the word Prabhus. 
Brahmans in their hate and rivalry taking advantage of this 
mispronunciation declared that their true name was Parabhu, 
that is, bastard or people of irregular birth, but the word is 
spelt Prabhu in letters and deeds granted to those of the 
community who served the Satara and Peshwa Govern- 

The text containing the fuller account of the mythologi- 
cal legend incorporated in a letter from the learned 
Brahmans of Benares to the Peshwa, with its English 
translation is given hereafter. 

Such is the mythological legend about this caste as des- 
cribed in the Puranas which according to the opinion of the 
scholars are written between the eighth and the tenth 
century. Mr. Ramrao Narayan Pradhan, on page 5 of his His. 
tory of the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus, says that des- 
cendants of Chandrasena or Soma-Raja ruled over Oudh and 
parts of the north, and that about ninety-five generations had 
gone by when Mahapadmananda began his rule over Hasta- 
napur, i. e., Delhi. A great reformation took place in religion 
during the days of this Mahapadmananda and his successors 
who were knowm as Navanandas. These Navanandas were 
succeeded by kings of the Mourya dynasty among whom 
Chandragupia and Ashoka were very powerful and strong 
supporters of the Buddhist religion. Mahapadmananda is 
described in the Bhavishya Puran as a great persecutor of 
the Kshatriyas, who were the strong adherents of the old 



..ligion. Many Kshatriya families had to quit their homes 
and seek shelter with their brother kings. In these days 
of troubles the descendants of Chandrasena appear to have 
left Oudh. 

An old ('T^ ^m) Marathi Chronicle published in the 
magazine named ' The materials of the history of the 
Kayastha Prabhus', says that account of this caste is found 
in Sanhyadrikhand ^'^jj^ /. e., the description of the 
mountains ^^in^, ^Tf^ ^^ L c., the description of the 
mountain Abu and Prabhaskhanda ^pq^^j^ i. e., the 
description of Prabhas. A foot-note of Poona Volume 
of the Bombay Gazetteer supplies information that the 
Prabhus are found in Nepal. The Prabhu Ratnamala on 
page 12 informs us that nearl}^ eighty families left Oudh and 
resided at or near about Tal Bhopal. From these various ac- 
counts we are led to believe thatthe migration of these Kshatri- 
yas from Oudh must have taken place in the troublesome times 
of Mahapadmananda and his successors. All old documents 
also unanimously describe that this caste came from Oudh, 
There is again another evidence about this fact, that the 
original ^ place of the goddess Vinzai flwf or Vind- 
hyachalawasini, which is worshipped by some families of this 
community is shown on a hill known as Vindhyachal situated 
near Mirzapur in Oudh. In this very province the celebrated 
hermitage of the sage ^n^q Dalabhya, who is the pro- 
verbial protector of this caste from the persecution of Para- 
shuram in memory of which fact the caste has adopted a 
common Gotra Dalabhya in addition to the spe- 
cial one, is situated on the banks of the Ganges i6 miles from 
Raya Bareilly and 41 miles to the north of Fattepur. In this 
way some seem to have gone to Nepal and Kashmir, some 
must have taken refuge on the Abu mountains, some must 
have settled near Tal Bhopal, and others must have inhabit- 
ed in Prabhas. 


Although the Prabhus, who are fouud in Nepal and 
elsewhere, have no social intercourse with the Kshatriya 
Prabhus on this side, it seems very probable from the fore- 
going account that they are ail from the same stock, as all 
of them claim to be Kshatriyas. Those who went over to 
Kashmir established their principalities and acquired estates 
for the service they rendered to the state. Sir Romesh Chan- 
dra Datta says in his History of India that the ministers of 
Kashmir were almost all Kayasthas. He is not explicit in 
informing us whether the Kayastha ministers of Kashmir 
were Brahma Kayasthas or Chitragupta Kayasthas or Chandra- 
seniya Kayasthas, or they were Sankaraj Kayasthas. From 
the following little piece of evidence our inference is that 
they must be all Kshatriyas. The author of nsTrfu'^ofr, a 
Sanskrit historic poem which narrates the events of 'iftf^ 
and other Kashmir kings, was the son of a Prabhu minister 
wmr^ ^T^ 519. This suggests that the ministers of Kash- 
mir were Prabhus, i.e., lords, a synonym for Kshatri}'^. They 
must, therefore, generally be Kshatriyas. 

As narrated above nearly eighty families are said to have 
come from Oudh to Tal Bhopal about the time of ^r^TT^iR^ 
i.e.,: 724 years before the Shaka era (^9<^^r?Jr) and 
there they acquired great influence in the politics of the 
state . These were very hard days not only for these Ksha. 
triyas, but for all the Hindus who followed the old Vedic 
religion as the Budhistic religion had taken its root and was 
fast spreading throughout India. These Kshatriyas had also 
to undergo great troubles for their own religious rights. 
The history of this religious controversy about this period 
which was chiefly conducted by Baldev Prabhu and Harla] 
Prabhu is given in the observations on question No. 17. 

The author of Prabhuratnamala and some antiquarians 

are of opinion that the Gupta dynasty which ruled over 

Central India for more than eight centuries might have risen 


from these eighty families. The surnames of some families 
such as Gupte, Kaje, Pradhan, Chaturbala alias Chaubal, 
Randip alias Ranadive, Dalapati alias Dalavi, Thakur alias 
Thakre, and others, seem to have been adopted b}^ those fami- 
lies from the positions they held in Gupta period, just as the 
surnames of Chitnis, Fadnis,Potnis, Karkhanis, Sabnis, Jamnis 
and others, seem to have been accepted by some families from 
the occupation or post or office they held under the Maratha 

The Guptas had established their power in 319 A. D., 
and made their capitals at various places. That their rule 
spread all over the country is clearly proved by the stone 
inscriptions and coins and copper plates found at various 
places. That this Gupta dynasty had connection with their 
branch of the Haihaya Kshatriyas may be shown by a simple 
fact that their coins bear the mark of the goddess Saraswati 
(^^^) riding on a peacock with '.a. ' r?3TW or Tri- 
dent in her hand, which goddess is respected by this caste 
with great reverence even to this day (Bombay Gazetteer 
Thana Volume and V. K. Rajwade Vol IV, page 130,) 
as they live on pen and sword like the Toga warriors of 
Rome and had regard for the deity of their profession. 

Cunningham also says that the Gupta kings '^^5??, 
H[5!PT of Mahakosala were Haihaya kings of the 
• Lunar dynasty. He is also successful in tracing out a family 
which though called itself (z^S) Thakur claimed to 
be Kshatriyas of the Haihaya branch of the Lunar Kshatriya 
race which ruled over Mahakosala. ^(^1^^?^.) We 
have also Gupte and Thakur alias Thakre. We also trace 
our origin to a Haihaya prince of the Lunar Kshatriya race. 
This is certainly strengthening our belief that this caste 
should have originally some connection with the Gupta 


The Silhar and other kings in the Deccan and southernmost 
parts of India had once admitted suzerainty of the Guptas. 
Many Prabhu families seem to have turned to the Deccan and 
Karnataka probably as the representatives of the sovereign 
lord. Many of them held high posts at the courts of the 
Silhar princes and had assumed civil and military administra 
ton of the country. In a stone inscription found at Cheul 
which is dated as far back as 1088 A. D., the name of one 
Velji Prabhu is found (Journal Bombay Royal Asiatic Society 
Vol I, page 135). In the same way in a stone inscription of 
the time of a Silhar prince Aparaditya (sfqui^) dated 
1182 A. D., it is mentioned that Anantraya Prabhu sT^rRT^ SfS 
was the officer who governed Sahasasti ^fT^?t_now called 
Salsette Paragana. The inscription is described to have been 
written by one Kayastha by name Waling Pandit mfk^ qf^ 
proving that the Kaysthas are different from the Prabhus, 
and that the latter merely adopted it to show their modern 
profession. The Prabhus who settled in the Konkan, Mawal 
and Maharashtra about this time assumed civil administra- 
tion of the countr3^ They were then generally entitled as 
l^^flrr Deshapandits. Deshpandits now known as Des- 
hapande had to colonise the country and were also held 
responsible for the civil administration and also the rev-enues 
of the land. It was their right to write the documents per- 
taining to the land, as is the practice observed even now.* 
It is therefore quite natural that the stone inscription above 
referred to should have been written by Waling Pandit, 
of the Kayastha Prabhu caste. Almost all the Deshpandits 
or ])eslipandes in Mawal and Konkan are the Kayastha 
Prabhus. The history of their Watans shows that they were 
acquired by the families before the Mahomedan power was 
introduced and established in the Konkan and the Deccan. 


The fact that the Sanhyadrikhand, which is said to have 
been written about the lotti century, makes a mention of the 
Chandraseniya Prabhus, nam'' ''Kayasthas," to signify their 
new profession, is also a corroborative evidence that the Chan- 
drasenyia Kayastha Prabhus had settled on the slopes of 
Sahhyadri before or about this period. 

There is another inscription of the time of the Selhar 
princes. It is about a grant made by Silhar king, Hirpal 
to a Brahman, and the name of his minister ^^'^ ^ Laksh- 
man Prabhu has been mentioned in it. (Bombay Gazetteer, 
Thana Vol., Appendix) From the genealogie s of some of the 
families in this community we learn that the ancestors 
of some of them had served in olden times the kings of 
Chitore and rulers of such other places. The name of 
"Shripat Prabhu " of the ancestors of the Satara Chitnis 
family is said to have been inscribeds upon the pillar at 
Chitore in connection with a victory acquired by Rana Laksh- 
mana Siuha W^^or rlrf. The information is that there is an 
endorsement to that effect over an old geneological table in 
possission of the family. 

Konkan, i. e., Thana and Kolaba Districts, old northern 
boundary of Ratnagiri, i. e., the slopes of Sanhyadri including 
Poona, Satara, Kolhapur, Daman and Baroda states are the 
chief places where people of this community are found in great 
numbers, and it is generally believed that these places except- 
ing Baroda are the places where C. K. Prabhus came from the 
north and settled there. The population of this caste in Baroda 
State is so thick that but for the history of the Marathas one 
would conclude that this caste must have settled there dur- 


ing their progress from north to south. It would, however, 
be interesting to know which of these places were selected 
by this community when they came from the north and at what 
time. We have heard odl men say that the community came in 
large numbers from Chitore and the surrounding parts, to the 
Konkan and Mawal sides, and joined those who had already 
settled there, when " Mandavagad" was sacked by Allauddiu 
in 1295. We are thus to turn to the history of Mandavgad with 
a view to see what connection this community had with it. 
In the year 313 when the Gupta emperors took Malw^afrom the 
Shaka kings and there established their rule, this strong fort 
must have gone in their hands. We have however no clear evi- 
dence to show anything of the kind. We have ample proof to 
show that the Guptas had their full sway over parts of the coun- 
try up to Khandesh. There seemed to have been several fami- 
lies of the Guptas established at various places. The Guptas 
of " Mahakosal " ^IBT^^?? are well known, as one of them. 
This house was connected with the kings of " Wakatak" 
^]^z^, or Vindj^a Shakti ^^^T^%. In the same way there may 
have been some connection of the kings of Mandavagad with 
any of the Guptas. If what the Prabhuratnmala says be 
correct, "inscription found at the Ajanta caves and Toranmal, 
shows that Prawarsen ^^K^^ on of Prabhawati Gupta, 
^^r^rfr ?JH the daughter of " Shri Dev Gupte " was the 
lord of the fortress Toranmala." The mention of the 
maternal ancestors of a king in an inscription about his 
estates naturally suggests that it must have been inherited 
by him from the maternal side. Whether the descendants of 
this Prawarsen ^m:^^ ruled over Mandavagad and the 
territories under it is worth enquiring. The Vindya Shakati 
princes of whom this Prawarsen was born afterwards became 


very powerful and spread their dominions over Malwa down 
to Khandesh. Rai Malakadev uqH[?r^^ from whom the 
the fort was taken may have some connection with the 
Guptas through these Wakatak ^mz^ kings. 

History however attests that the king Rai Malakadev 
n^ ^cJ-^T^ of Mandawagada did all what was possible 
to save the fort and the kingdom. Nearly eighteen 
thousand Kshatriyas w^ere slain on the battle-field 
and at last the king left the fort, fied, and took 
shelter with his kinsmen residing on the Sahyandri. It is 
also said that he colonised valleys and called thera Malawa 
(m^^) which word may have afterwards been turned into 
Mawal (^TT^65) There is also an evidence to show that this 
communit}^ had once a connection with Mandavagada. A 
letter addressed to this community in the year 1703 A. D., by 
Shri Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj of Satara in favour of 
Ramchandra Mahadev Mandawagadkar, conclusively proves 
that this community once resided at Mandavagad. 

From the two inscriptions found at Cheool '^^^ land 
other places, we have already shown that the Prabhus had 
begun to settle in Konkan when the Silhar princes were the 
rulers of that country. The history of the Watans of Deshpan- 
des shows that they were obtained before the kings of the 
Bahamani dynasty had established their power in the Deccan 
Thus, we again come to the same conclusion that Konkan 
and Mawal were inhabited by this community in the tenth 
or eleventh century, and we are able to show that since then 
they not only did not migrate anywhere, but formed a factor 
of the Maratha power which was afterwards established. 
Let us first proceed to see whether the community had 
gone anywhere else in the Deccan to reside. We have 
already stated that several families had gone to the Kar- 
natak and represented there the paramount power. The 


surname of a family known in this community as Karnik 
^fi% is given in the Sanskrit list of surnames as '' Kar- 
natakas." The family must have returned back from Karnatak 
and hence must have been called ^^i^:^ "Karnataks." There 
are also instances of families who even now say that they 
first inhabited the provinces of Deccan Hyderabad and came 
over to this side after the Maratha rule was established. 
The Tamhanes and Fanses originally served the Mahomed- 
an emperors at Bedar and Bijapur. They subsequently 
entered the services of the Nizam and then came over to the 
Marathas. It is said that sanads in their possessions prove this. 
There are even now families staying in the Nizam's territory. 
They say they are Kshatriya Kayasthas and follow the 
Vedic religion. They allege they came from the north 
and entered Mahomedan service. Some Prabhus in the Kar- 
natak have even changed their religion into Jain religion, 
but they still call themselves as Prabhus, and are the holders 
of the estates just of the same nature of Deshmukh and 
Deshpande Watans. They are called "Desai" "^Tf. 

From all this we may fairly conclude that the Kshatriya 
Prabhus, nicknamed "Kayasthas," who couldkeep communi- 
cation with their caste men on the Konkan or Mawal side 
hkve formed one caste known as'* Chandraseniya Kayastha 
Prabhus." ^tf^TPT ^^P-T ^g. 

The account of this caste is very succinctly found since 
the introduction of the Mahomedan rule in the Deccan. The 
community helped that Government with an unsparing zeal 
in civil and military service. Peace was secured in the coun- 
try by the Mahomedan rulers by renewing the Watans of the 
Deshamukhs and Deshpandits or Deshapandes by ratifying 
their grants. 

After the great famine of 1396 a very signal service 
was rendered by these Deshamukhs and Deshapandes to the 


country by recolonising it and even by restoring peace in the 
country. At this time they had also to do military service 
in order to quell the rebellions raised by some mountainous 
tribes. The emperor of Bedar sent an army to help these 
Deshamukhs and Deshapandes in the settlement of the 
country in 1429 (Grant Duff's History). Some titles were 
also bestowed upon some of the Deshmukhs which were 
enjoyed by those families even to this day. The title*'3TH"T U^ 
of the Prabhu Deshmukh at Atone 3TTrT^5t the title 3T^ of the 
Prabhu Deshapande of Mawal and the title ^^^^ of the 
Prabhu Deshamukh of Nate are well known. We hear of the 
name of Parasharam Prabhu Karnik in a sanad granted as 
far back as 1426 by the emperor of Bedar to a Brahman. 

This caste has exhibited remarkable bravery, statesman- 
ship, loyalty and intelligence during the Maratha rule and 
has acquired great reputation as such. It was one of the chief 
sources and strength of Shiwaji and his successors. Murar 
Baji Deshapande of Mahad, Vishwasrao Nanaji, Dadji, 
Raghunath, were eminent military and civil Prabhu oflScers 
of Shiwaji. Balajee Aoji Chitnis was his chief adviser and 
secretary. Shiwaji was specially partial to this caste. 
On one occasion he dismissed all the Brahmans who 
held principal posts and engaged Prabhus in their 
places, and in reply to the complaints he remarked that 
while all the Musalman places of trust held by Brahmans 
had been given up without a struggle, those held by Prabhus 
had been most difficult to take and that one of Rajpuri had 
not yet been taken. (Bombay Gazetteer, Thana Vol). I^ingo 
Shankar and Visajee Shankar helped Rajaram in safely con- 
veying his family to Jinji. Khando Ballal played an impor- 


tant part iu the Maratha history in the reorganization of the 
Maratha power. Prayagji ^nant, the ancestor of the famous 
Raoji Appaji, defended the fort of Satara and Mahadajee 
Baji Pradhan, brother of the famous Murar Baji and the 
ancestor of the Sardar Potnis family restored Sinhgad and 
other places from the Mahomedans when Eajaram was at 
Jinji. These and others were the chief supporters of the 
New Hindu dynasty that was established in the Maharashtra. 
They were men whose prowess and counsel helped Shiwaji 
and his successors to found the empire. The sanad granted 
by the Nizam Assufja Bahadur Nizam-ul-Mulk Salar of Hy- 
derabad to Vyankat Pr abhu is said to testify the most gallaitt 
service he rendered to the state in the several campaigns 
he had undertaken. Vyankat Prabhu was bestowed in 
his old age with the Foujdari Jaghir of the districts of 
Fatiabad and (Aurangabad). His sons Lakshaman, 
Mahadev, and Govindrao succeeded to the Jahgir. 
Laxuman was afterwards very useful to the Bhosa- 
la of Nagpur and Akalkot in the establishment of their power. 
Even during the partial rule of the Peshwas, persons from 
this community, like the famous Sakaram Hari, for w'hose 
unswerving loyalty to his master Nana Phadnavis j^was 
extremely jealous, and Baburao Hari Gupte and Nilkant 
liao Page played a conspicuous part in the maintenance of 
the Maratha rule and keeping their own ground against the 
opposing elements. Murarao Daulat rendered a gallant 
service to the Shindia in capturing Gulam Kadir of Delhi, 
upon which the Diwani Mutalki sanad was obtained from 
the Emperor of Delhi. Raoji Appaji made the Gaikwar's 
rule firm in the Gujarath. Vithalrao Devaji's name is still 
held in gieat reverence and respect in Kathiawar. 

This caste has maintained its loyalty and honesty to the 
present day. Members of this community hold places of 
trust both in native states and under British Government. 



Under this question almost the whole history of the caste 
can be given. This, therefore, is the most important of all 
the questions. But it must be admitted at the same time 
that it would be very difficult to be accurate in giving a 
detailed account in answer to this question. In the first 
place there is such a scant}' record of the ancient history of 
India that would stand the test of scientific inquiry. Anti- 
quarians like Dr. Bhandarkar and Dr. Fleet, and historians 
like Colonel Tod hold the same view about the point. Dr. 
Bhandarkar in his latest publication (" A peep into the early 
history of India") says, ''India unfortunately has no written 
history. There are some chronicles written by Jains and 
others referring to kings and princes who lived from about 
the eighth to the eleventh centuries of the Christian era 
and ruled over Gujrath and Rajputana. There are also lives 
of individual kings. The Purans contain genealogies of 
certain dynasties. With these exceptions some time ago, we 
had absolutely no knowledge of the history of the different 
provinces of India before the foundation of the Mahomed- 
an Empire. But the researches of European and some 
native scholars and antiquarians have thrown considerable 
light over the dark period. The knowledge hitherto gather- 
ed cannot be pronounced to be very satisfactory or to be as 
good as written books would have supplied." The materials 
for the researches are gold, silver and copper coins, inscrip- 
tions engraved on rocks and columns and on the remains of 
ancient temples, and writings of foreigners. This is the 
state of things about the general history of India. Here we 
are to inquire about the history of a caste which is supposed 
to have migrated from its native place so early as two thou- 
sand or three thousand years ago. It is only because the 
caste belongs to a pure Kshatriya origin that some traces of 
history could be pointed out by way of material for resear- 
ches. Kshatriyas being kings wielded great power and as 
such made their influences felt wherever they were or wher- 


ever the}- went or moved from time to time. They left behidn 
them some monument about their sway over the parts they 
ruled, in such evidences as coins, etc. But time — long and dis- 
turbed time — made various changes and inscriptions on rocks 
or temples even became unreadable. Change of rule created 
new circumstances, and therefore, ruinous conditions of the 
convincing proof of the kind was all that could be seen in the 
mass of such evidence. 

If we look to the religious literature and therefrom try 
to gather some glimpses of the ancient history we are equal- 
ly disappointed. It has already been mentioned in the intro- 
duction that inconsistent or irreconcilable accounts are found 
in Vedic and Pauranic literature about one and the some point. 
But when there is so much only and nothing more jio depend 
upon, one is required to make the best use of what is availa- 
ble. When we first look to the Pauranic liteature we find that 
the origin of the caste is mentioned in the'^^j^ ^JWfrJ^^ of the 
^frf? ^ from ^w."-^ 5u^. We have therefore given the 
legend as found in that Puran. We have been asked in the 
question under discussion *' The popular tradition as to the 
origin of the caste' and we have given it. The belief of the 
people may or may not stand the hard test of new 
methods of sifting the matter of inquiry. Tradition is desired 
to be given and hence nothing but the legend could he 
mentioned. This popular tradition has already been recorded 
in the Government publication, viz, Bombay Gazetteer. 

As so many years have elapsed since the first migration 
of this caste from Ayodhya or Oudh there are so many gaps 
which though attempted to be filled up by giving circum- 
stantial evidence, that they must remain open for discussion 
and improvements. Leaving the Pauranic literature as it is for 
the popular belief we now turn to search the materials of the 
more creditable kind by the new light. Mr. Amritrao Abaji 
Karnik, late pleader, and Mr. Abasaheb Parasnis, who be' 
longed to this caste, have spared no pains to preserve intact 


the Puranic legend about this caste in their books called 
^^faff and ^Ifjft^ ^PT^^ STH >T^?f^frTT ^^Tf, They have also tried 
to assert the proper religious rights of the caste by confuting 
and refuting many theories. Another gentleman of our 
caste Rao Sahib B. A, Gupte of Indore has served the caste 
by publishing the *' Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhunchya 
Itihasachi Sadhane ^^^^ ^}$^^^J ffrr^wrEft Wiik in 1881. 
He has taken a proper historical view of the matter and has 
collected the material in the publication with the new light 
viz., historical writings. Mr. Ramrao Pradhan published a 
small pamphlet and has worked in the same line. Lately 
a volume called ** Prabhu Ratna Mala" ^^^^r5T was pub- 
lished under the auspices of the joint labour of the historical 
societies of Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu communities of 
Poona and Baroda. Mr. Sakharam Ganesh Muzumdar of 
Baroda has helped so much in bringing together some evi- 
dence of the credible]kind in the introductory chapter of the 
book. This serves a very good line to make a proper inquiry 
of the subject. His way of putting the subject gives good 
material for the researches of the history of the caste. No 
doubt in many places accuracy and citing of authorities are 
wanting, but in course of time that work can be done. It is 
with the help of these books, — particularly the Prabhu Ratna 
Mala srgCr^qTr^r introduction chapter that we could state 
in detail, some of the facts and incidents, which throw 
proper light upon the answer to this question particularly, 
and other questions generally. 

Question VII -is the habit of the caste settled or 
wandering ? Have they any recognized head-quarter in the 
Province ? If wandering, over what tract or country do 
they wander ? Are their migrations periodical or irregular, 
and what are the shape and material of their dwellings.'' 

Answer VII The habit of the caste is settled. They 
are not nomads. This question as it is put in Marathi is 
slightly different from that in K nglish. 



There appears to be distinction or difference in the wording 
this question in Marathi and English. Answer framed by this ins- 
titution is given of the English question. This Institution h^d 
circulated amongst the members of this community at different places 
copied both of Marathi and English questions. Almost all people 
have based their answers upon the Marathi question paper, which 
does liot exactly become the answer in point of the English question. 
It is, therefore, proposed to give here the Marathi text of the question 
and point out how it differs from the English question. 

Marathi question stands thus. : — 

v». 3TTm^?TT c^T=^r=^i l^^ mf^c5?m ^m^fj sn^ 3tt>(T anrr >r ^% 
%%k m^% f^nr ^^^^^ ? ^^i^rcr ^r=a[T f ^ ^^^t fe^i^ btt^^t ^m ? 

'?T T'^^rm 3TT?r ^B^m^ S^lf^ ^SRT 1fT<TT?r BTTT ^]Z^ Scff 5TT?rTcT. 
??Tr<r CTf o?IT=9rT iE%}^ ^iuf 3T«cTTcT ^ W.^l"^ %^^\ iTHcTTcT ? 

While the English question is :^ 

" Is the habit of the caste settled or wandering? Have 
they any recognized head-quarters in the province ? If wan- 
dering, over what tract of country do they wander? Are 
their migrations periodical or irregular, and what are the 
shape and material of their dwellings? 

Tlie word ^5^ ^R^?^f ^ril would moan places of reverence 
i.e., holy places like "^^^^fR and places of pilgrimage. The Marathi 
question further enquires about fft^^^n^r f%^n^ i.e., places of family 
gods. People, therefore, have answered the question in that light 
based upon the wording of the Marathi question. The answer of 
the Marathi question would be this : — 

The following are the places held in reverence : — 

1. ^!^r, Benares. 2. ^'TT, Gaya. 3. q^u Mathura. 4 -^^, 
Dwarka. 5. arr^^ Alandi. 6. tf Dehu. 7. ^^\^ Allahabad 

8 ijRT ^Fqrrftl^'t I'welve Jotilingatt. 

1 Sorti Somanath ^I^ff^RTTm. 

2 Shri Shaila Malli-Karjun Mf ltt^f«r^%^. 

3 Ujjani Mahakaleshwar ^^^r 'nn^T^'^. 

4 Onkar Mahandliata, Mamleshwar sI^'r^K^fr'T^rlT, q^^^. 

5 Shri Bhima Shankar Mf PTW^^. 
(5 Parali Vaijanath q^loJi^^Tr^. 

7 Rameshwar Setiibiindha vi^'9J: '^^i'^. 

8 Badrikedar ^rf?^^. 

9 Trinibakeshwar l^^^^r. 

10 Ghrishnesliwar ^T's^^in;. 

11 Gokarna Mahablesliwar ^r^of 7?fTer?rv^. 

12 Kashi wish wesh war frr^fif^v^r. 

9 ^? ft^rr^^ i?;/>7«f Vinayakas. 

1 Morjcrnm ^^lyrr Taluka Bhimthadi, District Poena. 

2 TheuT^^j: Taluka Haweli 

3 Ozar ^T?n: Near ^^c District Poona. 

4 Rajangaum ^srfJrqPT Taluka Sirur. 

5 Siddhatek wtzw. near Dhond. 
Murud (Pali) 5^ 

7 I^nyadri >''?TTTg- near %'^. 

8 Madha ^T near Pali, Bhore Territory 

10- W?5?: (ttrxt^T) Sidhapur. n. H^ ^oS^'TJC ^ ^?fT^ Bhawani 
of Tuljapur and Kolakpur. 12- The God ^=fTmq Dattatraya of 
^r^RT^T Ganagapur. 18. f^rff^^T Bhilawadi. 14. ;f^iir^ ^\€\ 
Narasoba's wadi. 


15. ^^ ^f]^^'9X Dhom Mahableahwar. 16. ^m\^ Nasik. 17. ^^^1^ 
Pandharpur. 18- ^V^^ Maliuli. 19- miiJU Saptashringi. 20- ^T^TP-l 
Jugannath and others, i.e., all the incarnationa of Shiv, Vishnu and 
the goddess Panyati and Laiumi, generally respected by the Hindus ; 
and all the places of holy waters. In fact, all the places . considered 
as ^ Kshetras and Dewasthanas \^'^\k by the Hindus in general 
are revered by the Prabhus. 

iM^TMrW is performed at Tirtbas (holy waters and not at 
Dewasthans, by performing Shi-adha ('iTT^;) these ceremonies are per- 
formed with the Vedic rituals like the Brahmans. 

The family gods and goddesses of this caste in the Presidency 
are :— tT^imr in the Karli Caves near Poona, ittu^ 'P^Tn WT Incarna- 
tion of Shiv at Jejuree, about 24 miles from Pooua, and f^^TTf or 
Ihw^ mB^\ near Tamhmini pass of the Saihyadri Range iu 
the Haveli Taluka, Poona District. 

Our antiquarian friend, Mr. B. A. Gupte, of Indore. inform.^ us 
that our community on that side and in Central India Jiave in 
Nemawar, another place of ^^[^^, a hill on the banks of the Narmada 
where ^+.MII was killed by her son Parasharam. However slie was 
afterwards restored to life. A temple called "^jll^^" is sUuated at 
Mandaleshwar on the banks of the river Narmada. ^t'^^'^ was the 
capital of ^g^li^ Sahasrarjuna of %Fq dynasty to whom this caste 
traces its origin. The name !pl^qT might have been derived from the 
surname of a family of the community who were kings and were known 
as Gupta kings. The temple might liave been founded and named after 
the Gupta kings. The situatiou of this temple confirms the idea that 
the Gupta kings ruled tlie district ou the banks of the Narmada. 
They were ^^^^ (era-makers). The date of their era has been 
fixed by Dr. Fleet and Dr. Bhandharker to be 319 A.D. (Dr. Bhau- 
dharker's " Early History of the Deccan" pages 126 to 131. " The 
kinship between Hinduism anil Biiddhisim" a lecture delivered by 
Henry S. Olcott. P. T. S. on 24th October, 1902, and printed in 1903. 
— Pngel.^). Prabhu Ratna Mala ])agos 17,18. Diitta's "History 


of Civilization in Ancient India '' Volume III, page 63.) Our friend 
also imforms ns that in Central India there is another !J^*qr at 
G wall or. 

Question VIII. — Do they admit outsiders into the 
caste ? If so, from what classes, by what forms and under 
what conditions. 

AnSWei* VIII- — 'I^he Chandraseniya Kayastha Pra- 
bhus do not admit outsiders into their caste, ^ for !the Hindu 
caste S3^stem does not allow one caste to be admitted in to 
another, be it higher or lower. 

Question IX-— is marriage infant or adult? If the 
latter, is sexual license before marriage recognized or tole- 

Answer IX- — As a rule girls must be "married after 
the completion of the eighth year and before attaining puberty, 
the boys generally being four or six years older. In this 
way child marriage and not infant marriage js allowed. No 
cohabitation or even familiarity or introduction is recognized 
or tolerated before marriage. 

Question X-— is (a) polygamy (b) polyandry, per- 
mitted ; if so, under what conditions and within what limits ? 
In the case of polyandry, must all the husbands be brothers ? 

Answer X- — Polygamy is allowed, but it is resorted 
to mainly in cases of failure of male issue. It is highly 
unpopular and has mostly died out. Polyandry is unknown. 

Question XI. — What form of marriage ceremony is 
in ordinary use ? Name the forms and state the essential 
binding portion of the ceremony. 

Answer XI — The first of the eight forms of marriage 
viz., *' Brahma" (^5T) form is followed by this community 


and the procedure is conducted according to the *' Rig 
Prayoga" (^^q^ri)* This Brahma form consists in the 
gift of the daughter clothed only with a single robe to a man 
presumably learned in the " Vedas" (^^) whom her father 
voluntarily invites and respectfully receives. In the actual 
marriage ceremony there are numerous forms, the following 
are the principal : — 

I. *• Wagdan "(jrr^R) i.e., gift by word. 2 " Simant 
Poojan" (^lirrrT ispf) i.e., reception and adoration of the 
bridegroom at the entrance of the town. 3 "Vadhugriha- 
gaman" (^^ ^g- jTq^) i.e., going to the place of the bride. 
4 " Madhupark" (^^r^) i.e., a respectful offering made to 
the bridegroom on his arrival at the door of the father of 
the bride. 5 "Parasparnireekshana" (t^^tt 1%%^), i.e., the 
ceremony of gazing through the screen called "Untarpat" 
(^rT^T?:) at each other, and of garlanding the bridegroom by 
the bride. 6 "Kanya Dan" (^-^[^^f) i.e., ceremony of giving 
away the girl in marriage, 7 "Viwalia Homa" (ft^Tf ft^) 
i.e., offerings oblations to gods by throwing ghee into the 
consecrated fire in honor of the marriage ; 8 "Pani Grahan" 
(Trms^^) i e., ceremony of espousing by the hand. 9 "Laja 
Homa" {^m iriT) i.e., offering oblation of parched grains into 
the conseciated fire, 10 "Saptapadi (^'■-rTT<fr) i.e., the cere- 
mony of the bride and bridegroom walking together seven 
steps after which the marriage becomes irrevocable. ,, 

The "Viwaha Homa" ending in ** Saptapadi" is the 
operative and essential portion of the ceremony. On comple- 
tion of this last step the actual marriage ceremony is con- 
sidered to be complete. 

While performing the ceremony under the Brahma form 
as used by the Brahmans, this caste has retained up to dale 
certain special customary observances which go to prove, or 
rather remind the community of their " Kahatriya " origin. 


Some ot the ill may be briefly noted here, (i) The marriage 
of the Prabhus" .iiust be in a ''Mandap" [W^) pendal — and 
in the presence of all the relations and friends like the 
" Swayamwar" (^q^i) system in a ** Sabha" (^^]) of the olden 
Kshatriya period ; whereas the Brahmins often perform their 
marriages in the inner parts of the house. (2) Holding un- 
sheathed swords crossway over the head of the couple from 
behind the bride and the bridegroom. This decidedly puts 
one in mind of the military precaution of the chivalrous age 
of India when the **Swayamwar" system was allowed by way 
of privilege to Kshatriyas. 


Hindu marriage is not a civil contract but a religious sacrament, 
and as such is ever binding. It cannot be nullified by any process after 
the completion of the ^?qT^. Under the ^^ form, the bridegroom must 
be learned in the Vedas. In these days, the test even amongst the 
Brahmans is not how much of the Vedic literature is studied by 
the bridegroom-elect, but how^ many University Examinations he has 
passed. An ordinary Brahman gentleman (iTf^) of the present day 
hardly knows daily 'N'-wrW. Education, therefore, is considered to 
mean education of the times. 

Question XII — is the remarriage of widows permitted ? 
If so, is the widow obliged or expected to be married to her 
husband's elder or younger brother ? If she does not marry 
a brother within what limits may she marry ? What form 
of marriage ceremony is used, and what is the essential and 
binding portion of it ? 

Answer Xil — l^lie remarriage of widows is not per- 
mitted. Remarriage is not even tolerated except by a few 
reformers. There are only two cases known and have taken 
place during the course of a couple of years. The parties 
have been excommunicated. 


Question X|||* — Under what circumstances is divorce 
permitted, and by what form is it effected ? May wives, who 
have been divorced, marry again ? 

Answer XIII — Divorce in its legal sense as commonly 
understood b}^ Hindu I^aw is not permitted. But a woman 
may be renounced by her husband for misconduct or change 
of religion, etc., but a wife so renounced cannot marry 
again. A man can be renounced by his wife for change of 
religion, but she cannot marry again. 

Question XIV — Do the members of the caste follow 
Hindu or Mahomedan Law of Inheritance, or a tribal custom 
of their own. 

Answer XIV — The community follows the Hindu Law 

of Inheritance. There is no tribal .custom of any kind in 
this respect. 

Question XV, — To what religion and to what sect 
within the religion do the caste belong ? If Hindus, do they 
by preference worship any special one of the regular Hindu 
Deities, and are there any reasons for this preference ? 

Answer XV. — They follow the ' Vedic" >^ form of 
religion and are mostly ** Shaiwas" (%^). They worship 
God "Shiv" (f^) in preference to other Deities in the Hindu 
Pantheon, the reason for this preference being usage immemo- 
rial Custom, and the superior potency of the deity. They are "Ad wait" 
aftrf thinkers and worship also " Vishnu " i^^ "Ganpati'* 
iT^q^^r and other Gods. 

Question XV|.— Name any minor Gods or patron 
saints specially worshipped by the caste. State what offer- 
ings are made, on what days of the week, and what class of 
people receive them. Is the worship of any of these Gods 
or saints confined to women and children ? 


Answer XVI^S"<^^ ^^ the minor Gods and Kula- 
swamis f rJ^tr as are admittedly manifestations of the Supreme 
are recognized by the "Prabhus." ''Khandoba T^f\^ and Bhai- 
rao" ^^ are regarded as incarnations of **Shiv," and the 
goddesses " Yekavira " ^^Crn "Vinzai" ftfrrf " Vyaghram- 
bari" ^^^f] are manifestations of "Parvati" Ti^rft the wife 
of the Great **Shiv. "Ganapati" is universally worshipped as 
he is an offspring of the divine pair "Shiva" and "Parvati." 
"Rama" xm and *' Krishna" f^ are worshipped as the in- 
carnations of the Supreme. ** Dattatraya" ^TfT^q represents the Indian 
Trinity and is composed of three divinities, viz : — "Brahma" SRTT, the 
Creator, "Vislmu" ft^ the Protector and " Shiva" ]^ the Destroyer. 
Maruti HT^rft is worshipped as the servant and messenger of "Rama" 
and is himself considered to be the incarnation of "Shiva" and 
the God of Health. 

There are no patron Saints specially worshipped by the Prabhus 
but the saints " Ramdas " ^m^ *'Ragnath" CiRT^ ".Tayram" 
3n?U^ "Yeknath" tt^^-I " Janardan " ST^nt^ " Dnyandev " ^TR^ " Tu- 
karam" g^JTU^T "Namdeva" ^^^^ and the great sage of "Akkalkote" 
and all the saints of "Bhaktiraarga" ^TI%^T'T period. — (Faith by devo- 
tion), are held in great reverence by this commnnity (as is 
done by all Hindus) : but their images are seldom worshipped. 

The gods specially worshipped by women are ** Jivantica" 
fsr^fffr^ " Hartalika " fT?rrTT^ *' Pithori " fq^(t and " Gouri " 
^K{, They are the incarnations of ** Parwati" — the wife of ** Shiva. " 
Children specially worship Gods "Ganpaii" and Saraswati," (God 
and Goddess of learning and wisdom respectively.) 

The offerings are made to the Sun, Fire, Earth, Planets and 
Pitaras generally. On the eleventh day of the dead, charity is given to 
Brahmins. On eclipse day charity is ijiven of salt and oil to " Mahars" 
and " Mangs." There are some daily charities and some on particular 
days as are mentioned in the "Pouranic" literature, such as Danchan- 
drika ^TT^rJ ^r and Wratark ^rTT^. 


Question XVII— Do the caste employ Bia. ..>.a:^ lor reli- 
gious and ceremomial purposes ? If so. are tiiese Brahinans 
received on terms of equality by other Bralimaus ? If they 
do not employ Brahmaus, what class of people serve them 
as priests ? 

Answer XVII — Tbey employ Brahmans for religious and 
ceremonial purposes for the recitals of the ** Mantras" H'T. but the 
actual ceremony is performed by the members of the community. 
These priests are received on term^ of equality by other Brahmans. 
No other class of Hindus are allowed to serve them as priests. 


The state of fact given under this answer varied as the tide 
of persecution of this Prabhu caste by the Brahmans rose or fell. 
The history of ^\^'^'^ Gramanyas (religious disputes) of this caste 
would not be out of place here. 

From the records it would be seen that the riglit of this caste 
to perform the religious ceremonies according to the vedic hymns 
was questioned very often and therefore controversy arose between 
Brahmans and Prabhus. During such times there were factions amongst 
the Brahmans themselves. Those who acted riglitly according to the 
shastras and immemorial custom in performing the ceremonies of 
Prabhus were hated by those avIio questioned this right of the caste 
which repeatedly proved itself to belong to Kshatriya origin Kshatriy- 
as are K^ Diwjas (twice born) and therefore they are entitled to 
privileges of Vedic rituals being used for ceremonies. Such Brahmans 
therefore who performed the ceremonies of Prabhus as usual were not 
received by Brahmans on terms of equality for a time only. When 
the dispute was settled, old order of things was resumed and ihe 
Brahmans performing ceremonies at Prabhus were again treated by 
their brothers on terms of equality Royal Mandates and Shankaracharja's 
Adnapatras btt^TN^ (orders) were required to be issued in favour of 
the rights of this caste when such disputes arose. Some instances may 
be given here when such persecutions took place. 


(1) About 671 years before tbe Shalivahan Shaka there appears to 
be an instance of a Gramanya ^tH"^^ (Disputes against Prahbus about 
their right of performing religious ceremonies against the Prabhu 
caste by Brahmans with Vedic Mantras.) Baldev Prabhu and anotlier 
were performing ^T^^T^f (a religious ceremony) with Vedic Mantras 
with the help of Brahman priests when other Brahmans excom nuni- 
cated those who performed such ceremonies at Prabhus. One Ramana- 
rayan and two others completed the 3T5^^ in spite of the obstruction 
by other Brahmans. The controversy was afterwards referred to 
"^ ^5j[ ^T^ i^xf^ Shri Vidyashanker Bharati, the then Shankeracharya 
who was at Benares. The Gramanya lasted for fifteen years. The 
Shankeracharya went to Bhopal about 656 years before Shaliwahan 
Shaka to settle the dispute. He decided in favour of the Prabhue 
and the Brahmans who were excommunicated for conducting ths 
ceremonies with Vedic Mantras at Prabhus were received on terms of 
equality again ^^Xs^ ^\m. page 12. 

(2) Another time the same controversy arose in the time of fTari 
Gopal Prabhu in Konkan when the Mahomedan authority referred 
both the castes to Benares Pandits. The Pandits headed by Jtrfl^ ^^ 
Govind Bhatta and supported by iTIfT^ar^gT ^W Mahableshwar Bhatta. 
^t^^ H^ Veteshvar Bhatta and f^^^ ^? Dinker Bhatta Takale 
gave decision in favour of the Prabhus and once again the 
Brahmans performing religious ceremonies with Vedic rituals at 
Prabhus were treated by other Brahmans with equality (^q^ ^}^ 
^(^ written in 1795 A. D. and published in the ^m^ ^T^pqr flrinwCr 


(3) Again a WWJ^ Gramanya against Prabhus in Shivaji's time 
( just about the time of the coronation of Shivaji ) took place. 
Moropant Pingle ( the then Peshwa of Shivaji and the rival of his 
Secretary Balaji Avji ) was the leader of the Brahmans in this dispute. 
Balaji Avji Prabhu chitnis was objected to preform Upanayana 
ceremony (thread ceremony allowed for Dwijas-twice bom classes ) of 
hia son with Vedic Mantras. But Shivajee referred the matter to 
the well known Gagabatta ^TTTPT? of Benares and others who gave their 
opinion ia favour of Prabhus and directed Raghunath Pandit ( the 


Panditrao one of the 8 ministers or aslitapradhaus ) to issue tlie 
Royal Mandate in favour of the Prabhus, which was accordingly done 
and Vedic ceremonies were allowed to be performed by Brahmans 
at Prabhu. (Order dated Margashirsha shudh 11 Shake 1591.) (Pages 
316-17 of Prabhu Ratnamala and =^l??f[qr ^FT^'^ ST?!^^ ff?rfraNT Hm 
^^^ ^ TT^T ^ also No. 2 ^Wi^ \ TFf \\.) 

(4) In the time Shahu Chatrapati of Satara the same controversy 
arose between Brahmans and Prabhus and a decision in favour of 
Prabhus was given by Royal Mandate (^iFT^ srg^ ^M^I^nI W^ ^ H, 
^ TR ^^, \^-\r ^^ ^ H^V ^ 'IFF ^) 

(5) In Nanayanrao Peshwa's time, the Peshawa issued an order 
prohibiting the Prabhus from performing the ceremonies with Vedic 
Mantras setting at naught the time honored custom and wise advice 
of the learned and impartial Ramshastri in favour of Prabhus. The 
result was that this yadi (order) was destroyed and thrown upon the 
dead body of Narayanrao Peshwa with the consent of the Peshwa's 
Councillors who agreed to allow the Prabhus to continue their privi- 
lege of performing ceremonies with the Vedic Mantras. =TO^^rq" ^^m^ 

^^S^^ ffrT^wr^ Hwr ^^ H ^r^*^ ^ ttt v, k, \. 

(6) In Sawai Madhowrao's time there was again a Gramanya of the 
same kind against the Prabhus when the controversy was as usual 
refered to Benares Brahmans with various queries. The Benares 
Brahmans discussed each and every point and decided in favour of 
Prabhus. (=^}glT5fFT ^J^^ ^g^qi fl'^'^roNt ^W ^ \, ^. Wf^ \ Pages 
14 and 19. ^^X \ ^W>'^ \. Pages 6 and 20.) 

7 The latest of the Gramanyas controversy of this kind was raised 
by Nilkant Shastri Thatte ]^^^ "^jmt ^ who blew hot and cold in 
the affair, about the year 1826 A. D. The Shankaracharya ^<tj<|xj|l| 
gave his decision in favour of the Prabhus and there the 
matter ended. That time the Brahmans had made a great row 
against the Prabhus conducting the ceremonies with Vedic Mantras 
by sending a complaint, dated 7th October 1831, to His Excellency 
the Governor in Council, Bombay. This complaint was signed by 


nearly two thouand and three hundred Brahmans of Poona and 
Wai. But the Bombay Government appears to have paid regard 
to the time-honored custom and declined to interfere in the affair. 
(Letter from the Government of Bombay imder the signature of Char- 
les Noris, Esq. Chief Secretary to Mr. Warden, Dy. Agent, Satara, 
dated 27th October, 1831, mentioned in page 74 of =^t?^^r^ W^^ ^ 
W^^^ ^^.) Such occurrences in the records of history were noted by 
persons hke the late lamented Justice Telang in the following remarks: — 

"In course of the quarrels between the Brahmans and the Prabhus 
in the Konkan the two parties once went to the local Bijapur officer for 
redress. He was a Mussalman and he pointed out that he knew nothing 
of the Shastras of the litigants. He therefore told them both to go to 
their principal sacred place, Benares and obtain a decision from the 
Pandits there and promised that he would enforce such a decision. 
The Bakhar goes on to say that the parties did accordingly repair to 
Benares when a great Sabha or |ssembly of the Pandits was held and 
after high debate it was determined that the Prahbus were genuine 
Kshatriyas and entitled to the benefit of Vedic ceremonies and to be 
taught the sacred Gayatri iTPn% verse. The Brahmins are said 
to have been satisfied and to have agreed to conduct the ceremonies for 
the Prabhus in the regular manner^ and it is stated subsequently that 
this was accordingly done, (see page 93 of "Gleanings from the Maratha 
Chronicles by the late Mr. Justice Telang. 

" In the time of Shaku again when Balaji Bajirao was Peshwa, 
the State had to deal with a dispute even then of long standing be- 
tween the Brahmans and the Prabhus. The dispute appears to 
have commenced as early as the days of Shivaji, and the settlement 
then arrived at was, apparently adhered to during the reigns of 
Sambhaji and Rajaram, and the greater part of the reign of Shahu 
himself. Towards the latter end of Shahu's reign, however, the dis- 
pute was rekindled as the Prabhus were much in favour with 
Shahu as they had been with Shivaji. The Brahmans of the day 
are charged, in the Prabhu chronicles, with having interpolated 
new verses into old Puranic and other books like the Sanhyadri 
Khanda, for the purpose of loweriug the status of the Prabhu caste. 


The dispute having come before Balaji Bajirao tlie Peshwa, he wrote 
to Shahu, recommending that the old practice should be adhered 
to, that the new quarrels raised by the Brahmans should be 
discountenanced, and that they should be given final and clear 
prders iu the matter. Shahu thereupon sent an order to all the 
Brahmans of Kbande and Mahuli (on the banks of the river Krishna) 
ordering that they should continue to perform all ceremonies, 
funerals and other as the same had been theretofore performed, 
during tlie regime of the Bijapur emperors, and also in the time 
of Shivaji, Sambhaji, Rajaram and Tarabai, and in the early days 
of the then current reign. They were directed " not to do anything 
new nor to break anything old:' At the same time with this order 
of the Sovereign the Panditrao Raghunath appears also to have 
addressed a communication to the Brahmans aforesaid, reciting briefly 
the order made by Shahu, and adding that the old practice 
should be revived. We learn, however, that although these orders 
were sent, the disputes were not in fact settled, as the Pratinidhi 
Jagjivanrao Pandit and his agent Yamaji, who were managing aU 
affairs at Satara on hehalf of Shahu, would not accept the settlement, 
seeing that Shahu's end was approaching. Subsequently, Shahu 
died, as was excepted, and Balaji Bajirao immediately placed botli 
the Pratinidhi and his agent Yamaji in prison, and ordered the old 
practice as regards ceremonies among Prabhu families to be resumed. 
That practice, then, continued undisturbed until the end of the ad- 
ministration of Madhavrao, and the beginning of that of Narayanrao." 
(Pages 83 and 84 of J. Telaug's "Gleanings from Mahratha Chronicles" 
Both these extracts have been enabodied in the Appendix by Justice 
Ranadeinhis/Riseofthe Maratha Power P.P. 278-79 and 264-66 

It must be noted here that these disturbances were the outcome 
not of religious fervour but of the jealousy between the Brahmans 
and the Prabhus consequent upon their sharp rivalry in politics. 


Question XVI 1 8- — ^o the caste burn, bury, or ex- 
pose their dead? If buried in what position? Where are 
the bodies or ashes finally disposed of ? 

Answer XVIII- — l^he Prabhus burn their dead, but 
infants who have not cut their teeth as well as persons dying 
of small-pox are buried. The ashes are finally disposed of 
as far as possible in holy waters, and when that is not possi- 
ble a few bones at least taken up from the ashes are 
consigned to holy waters. The heads of the dead bodies, 
when burnt or buried are placed at the North. 


In tills point the same religious code is obeyed and observances are 
observed by this caste as the Brahmans, because this caste is one of 
the Dwijas (twice born classes). 

Question XIX. — Are any ceremonies performed for 
the propitiation of (a) ancestors in general, (b) childless 
ancestors, (c) men who have died a violent death ; and if 
so, of what nature and at what season ? Is the ceremony of 
" Shraddha " performed or not ? 

Answer XIX,— *' Shraddhas" and funeral obsequies 
are the only ceremonies performed for the Uddhar 3^^ 
(salvation) and not for the propitiation of the dead ances- 
tors. No particular ceremonies are prescribed for 
the salvation, 3:^, of childless ancestors or persons who have 
died a violent death. The funeral obsequies are performed 
during the first thirteen days after death. The oblations of rice 
are offered every day in consequence of which the soul of the 
dead ancestor attains a spiritual body, limb by limb till on the 
thirteenth day it is enabled to start on its celestial journey to 
Heaven and during, the ist year after death the offering is 
repeated every month as the soul accomplishes portion 
of his journy Heavenward. Within twelve months from the 


commencement, the journey is brought to a termination in 
commemoration of which a Shraddha ceremony is performed 
on an extensive scale. On the anniversary of the death of the 
ancestor this ceremony continues to be repeated on each 
successive anniversary. In the dark half of "Bhadrapada*' 
Shraddha ceremony is performed for the ^:g[n: (salvation) of 
the manes on a date corresponding to the date of the death 
of the ancestor, technically called "Paksha" ^^ or '* Maha- 
laya" ^^W:^^ Shraddha. In default of not performing the 
*' Mahalaya Shraddha," on the proper date within the fort- 
night it could be postponed till any day before the sun enters 
the *'Vraschic" ^]^^ *' Capricorn." The Mahalaya Shraddha 
of a person dying a violent death is performed on the thir- 
teenth day of " Bhadrapad wadya" which is called *' Ghayal 
Trayodashi W^rc5 ^^[^^r i.e., the thirteenth day for the vio- 
lent death. Daily oblations of water are offered to the dead 
ancestor after " Sandhya" ^'^qr. These are the principal 
ceremonies performed in honor of the dead. The main por- 
tion of the ceremony consists in an offering of the funeral 
ball " Pinda" fq^l" made of rice. Three such are offered to 
the three paternal ancestors, three to the three maternal an- 
cestors, the rest of the ancestors receive a ball of wheat flour 
and the remote ones only receive oblations of water. The 
ceremonies about the dead are termed 3T^^ H^r^. The three 
regenerate classes are privileged to go through i6 Sanskars 
from birth to death. The ceremony of the dead is the iCth 
Sanskar. Garuda Puran and Dharma Sindhu are the chief 
authorities on the point. 

Question XX.— is the caste or any of its sub-divisions 
named after any animal, plant, weapon or implement? Do 
they show their reverence for any such object either by 
special worship or by abstaining from killing, eating, cutting, 
burning, using, or naming it ? 

Answer XX.— The caste is not named after any 



animal, plant, weapon or implement. Arms are worshipped 
on the ** Dassara" ^n holiday which signifies the commence- 
ment of the military expeditions each year and this 
worship is a reminiscence of warlike times. On the 5th day 
of the birth of a child a sword and a pen with paper and ink, 
are worshipped, the sword being a symbol of the Kshatriya 
profession and the pen, paper and ink, that of the present 
occupation of a writer. If there be no sword available a 
knife is now substituted. 

The cow is now regarded sacred and is worshipped as a 
deity. A cow is not killed or eaten or cut or burnt or yoked 
to the plough. It is not used for labour of any kind, and is 
universally regarded as a symbol of the deity " Gayatri" 
TTW. The only other animal worshipped by the "Pra- 
bhus " along with the rest of the Hindus is the serpent. 
This serpent worship has a mythological origin as according 
to our ancient mythology the solid form of this earth rests 
on the hood of the thousand-headed cobra called the "Shesh" 
^ whose mighty coils form also the resting place of 
the great Lord of the Universe. In honor of (this Indian 
Atlas) he divine cobra, the cobras ?rFT are worshipped once 
in every year on the (Nagpanchami) ^m^jft day, and in 
some families a golden image of a cobra is chosen as an 
object of special w^orship along with Shiva's Lingum. 

'*Tulas'* gr?^, ''Pimpal" fTT^ " Vad " ^ '' Aveli '* 
3TT^c5r "Shami"i^^ and " Oomber" ^^ are considered sa- 
cred trees and are worshipped generally on particular days 
assigned for the worship of each of them. '* Tulas" is found 
in every Hindu house and is daily worshipped by women. 
These animals and plants and trees are therefore held (just 
as the Brahmins hold them) in special worship by abstaining 
from killing, eating, cutting or burning. 

area which they possess and still enjoy the honours and privileges 
of a n^wan of Baroda. Dighe family -descendants of Vithalrao, 
Devaji, (the well-known Kathiawar Divanji,) the Ambegaokar family and 
some others are still honoured as First Class Sardars at Baroda* 
There are also many aristocratic famili es at Gwalior, Devas, Nagpore 
and other places. In far^t, a majority of this co'U'n'inity is constituted 
by an aristocratic class of people and we rarely find instances wlo 
have no history in the past, or who have no connection with an 
or Watan. 

At present even the posts, which the members of this community 
are found to hold, or the occupations they follow are equally im- 
portant and are of the same nature as were followed by their 
ancestors. They are as follows :-- 

CI). Ministers or Divans: — The important persons who enjoyed 
this honoured position or occupy even now are • Late Diwan Baha- 
door Lakshman Jagannath Vaidya, Diwan" of Baroda. Rao Bahadur 
J^arayanrao Wasudeo Kharkar, Diwan of Jamnagai- ; Rao Bahadur 
Uamchandra Sakharam Gupte, Karbhari of Sangle ; Rao Bahadur 
Kallyan Sitaram Chitre, Karbhari of Mi raj ; Rao Bahadur Balkrishna 
Narayan Vaidya, the present Administrator of Jamkhindi. R. B. Ra- 
ghunath Vyankaji, Sabnis, the present Diwan of the Maharaja of 
Kolhapur. The Fadnis family of Dewas State, S3aior Branch, is 
famous for statesmanship ; thev held posts equal to Finan'^e Ministers. 
They are at the head of the finance of the State up to the present 
time by right of heredity with Jahagirs. 

' (2). The Judicial and Legislative Branch, such as Hon. Ganga- 
dhar Mahdavrao Chitnis, member of the Suprem*^ legislative Council, 
R. S. Tipnis, District Judge, R. B. Dijee Govind. V. P. Gupte, D. N. 
Randive, G. D. Deshmukha, B. Y. Gupte, N. B. Chowbal, T. R. Kot- 
wal and other young graduates. 

(3). Revenue Ofiicers — such as Shankerrao Madhavrao Chitnis, 
B. A., C. S., Assistant Commissioner, C. P., S. G. Gupte, D. B. V. M. 
Samarth. There are also many Deputy Collectors and Mamlatdars. 


(4). Engineering Department.— This appears to be an unpopu- 
lar profession with this caste. Rao Saheb Sittarara Khanderao 
Vaidya, the well-known Engineer of the Victoria Terminus, the 
Municipal OflSces, Bombay, the BvcuTla Railway Offices, "the Sailors' 
Home," &c., was a single instance of the Chandraseniya Kayastha 
Prabhu who came to the front in this profession. There are again 
instances <>!' young men slowly taking up the line. Mr. S. S Gupte, 
L. C. E., and Professor M. G. Dongre, R. Sc, Tj. C E., who are now 
in the Kolhapur State will have, it is hoped, a bright career before 

(5). Inventor — Professor Bhise, whose name as an inventor of 
several useful contrivances and machines is Vv' ell knoTvn, not ouh in 
India, but also in parts of England and America, is a young member 
of this caste. 

(6). I^aw^^ers — There are many High Court Pleaders and District 
Pleaders in this caste. Mr. D. L. Vaidya is a Solicitor in Bombay. 
Mr. M. B. Chowbal, High Court Pleader, may be given as instances. 

(7). Police Department. — This also is deemed <"^ '>'^ -^T^roper 
or unsuitable line for the caste though there are a few instances of 
Prabhus being police officers and those thai have been nr e doing 
their duty creditably. Mr. Karnik of Nasik who thouk'h onlv an 
Inspector of Police, almost m Is single instaace ol <x Maiaiiii ki.oWiiig 
Native Police Officer in charge of the duty of tlie S^^crlnieiiu^^w uf 
Police. The present of a sword was lately given to him in a Darbar 
by Government in honour of his exploit in fighting with and 
arrest' ng a notorious dacoit. 

(8). Military Department — There have been some instances in the. 
Native States, such as B. A. Gupte, who served as Coiuuiander-in- 
Chief of the Indore army and Inspector General of Police ; S. G. Gnpte, 
who also served as Commandant of the Imperi i! Service, Holkar 
Lancers. Captain Janardan Sadashive Dighe is in the Cavalry of His 
Highness the Gaikwad. 

(9). Educational Department. The late lamented Narayan Jagan- = 


area which they possess and still enjoy the honours and privileges 
of a HAwan of Baroda. Dighe family -descendants of Vithalrao, 
Devaji, (the well-known Kathiawar Divanji,) the Ambegaokar family and 
some others are still honoured as First Class Sardars at Baroda. 
There are also many aristocratic famili es at Gwalior, Devas, Nagpore 
and other places. In far't, a majority of this co'n'n'inity is constituted 
by an aristocratic class of peojDle and we rarely find instances wLo 
have no history in the past, or who have no connection with an 
or VV a tan. 

At present even the posts, which the members of this community 
are found to hold, or the occupations they follow are equally im- 
portant and are of the same nature as were followed by their 
ancestors. They are as follows :-- 

CI). Ministers or Divans : — The important persons who enjoyed^ 
this honoured position or occupy even now are - Late Di wan Baha- 
door Lakshman Jagannath Vaidya, Diwan of Baroda. Rao Bahadur 
Narayanrao Wasudeo Kharkar, Diwan of Jamuagar ; Rao Bahadur 
Rkmchaiidra Sakharam Gupte, Karbhari of Sangle ; Rao Bahadur 
Kallyan Sitaram Chitre, Karbhari of Miraj ; Rao Bahadur Balkrishna 
Narayan Vaidya, the present Administrator of Jarakhindi. R. B. Ra- 
ghunath Vyankaji, Sabnis, the present Diwan of the Maharaja of 
Kolhapur. The Fadnis family of Dewas State, S3nior Branch, is 
famous for statesmanship ; thevheld posts eq\ial to Fin'in^e Ministers. 
They are at the head of the finance of the State up to the present 
time by right of heredity with Jahagirs. 

'' (2). The Judicial and Legislative Branch, such as Hon. Ganga- 
dhar Mahdavrao Chitnis, member of the Suprem-^ Legislative Council, 
R. S. Tipnis, District Judge, R. B. Dajee Govind. V. P. Gupte, D. N. 
Randive, 0. D. Deshmukha, B. Y. Gupte, N. B. Chowbal, T. R. Kot- 
wal and other young graduates. 

(3). Revenue Officers — such as Shankerrao Madhavrao Chitnis, 
B. A., C. S., Assistant Commissioner, C. P., S. G. Gupte, D. B. V. M. 
Samarth. There are also many Deputy Collectors and Mamlatdars. 


(4). Engineering Department.— Thi8 appears to be an unpopu- 
lar profession with this caste. Rao Saheb Sittarani Khanderao 
Vaidya, the well-known Engineer of the Victoria Terminus, the 
Municipal Offices, Bombay, the Bvculla Railway Offices, "the Sailors' 
Home," &c., was a single instance of the Chandraseniya Kayastha 
Prabhu who came to the front in this profession. There are again 
instances of young men slowly taking up the line. Mr. S. S Gupte, 
L. C. E., and Professor M. G. Dongre, R. So., Tj C K., who are now 
in the Kolhapur State will have, it is hoped, a bright career before 

(5). Inventor — Professor Bhise, whose name as an inventor of 
several useful contrivances and machines is Vv^ellknovrn, not ouh in 
India, but also in parts of England and America, is a young member 
of this caste. 

(6). liawyers — There are many High Court Pleaders and District 
Pleaders in this caste. Mr. D. L. Vaidya is a Solicitor in l^ombay. 
Mr. M. B. Chowbal, High Court Pleader, may be given as instances. 

(7). Police Department. — This also is deemed f^^ '^^^ -^r^roper 
or unsuitable line for the caste though there are a fevv instances of 
Prabhus being police officers and those that have been ar e doing 
their duty creditably. Mr. Karnik of Nasik who thou.trh onlv an 
Inspector of Police, almost a is single iiihtaace ol a. Maraini ki oWiiig 
Native Police Officer in charge of the duty of the S^pcrlnienu^^*- uf 
Police. The present of a sword was lately given to hira in a Barbar 
by Government in honour of his exploit in fighting with and 
arrest' !ig a notorious dacoit. 

(8). Military Department — There have been some instances in the 
Native States, such as B. A. Gupte, who served as Coiuuiander-in- 
Chief of the Indore army and Inspector General of Police ; S. G. Gupte, 
who also served as Commandant of the Imperi:;! Service, Holkar 
Lancers. Captain Janardan Sadashive Dighe is in the Cavalry of His 
Highness the Gaikwad. 

(9). Educational Department. The late lamented Narayan Jagan- 



nath Vaidya after whom the Karachi High School is named, and who 
was the f^rst Native gentleman nppointed by the British Government 
as the Director of Public Instruction, Mysore. Mr. Vinayak Sakha- 
ram Deshmiikha, B. A., the present Head Master of Thana, (now at 
Nasik High School) Mr. Vaman Khandero Vaidya, Deputy Educational 
Inspector, Kolaba, Balkrishna D. Inamdar M. A., T. D. Chitre, M. A., 
and a few other persons may be mentioned here as instances. We 
cannot but mention here that it was Mr. Naro Ramchandra, alias 
Nana Mahagaokar, a distinguished scholar of this caste, who first 
founded a private English school in Poona, and was thus the 
pioneer in the branch of private educational institutions. The 
institution founded by Nana Mahagaokar was afterwards incorporated 
into a new Institution known in the present day as " Poona Native 

(10) Authors in this line there are instances worth enumer- 
ating. If we look hack to the Maratha History almost all the material 
thereof had been prepared by the members of this caste. It has been 
admitted by frank writers that but for the ( ^i^ ) Bakhars (chroni- 
cles ) written by this caste there would have scarcely been any 
material for the Maratha History. Almost all the chronicles are the 
productions of this caste. Of the books on religious subjects, 
( m%-^ W^ ftsTT, ^ ^^'^y^, ^To^ ^^^, i^ f c8". ) said to have 
been published by Satara Government with the approval cf Pandits 
of the day and with the sanction of the British Government. The 
author of these works was Mr. Abasaheb Parasnis, a learned person- 
age of this caste. Books on science like agriculture and 
horticulture, the ( 3T^^fR{rr ) ( book on horse ) rpTI^JJT ( book 
on elephant ) ( ^m^ii<?j ) (book on cookery) by the late lamented Rao 
Bahadoor Ramchandra Sakharama Gupte, a book on agriculture 
and collection of materials of the history of the Kayastha Prabhus by 
Mr. B. A. Gupte, a book on Astronomy by Mr. M. K. Chitnis, B. A., 
L.L.B., and a calendar of nearly 120 years by Mr. Gholkar, have 
been held to be authorities on the subjects they treat. 

Journalists — There are some who contribute to the English 
dailies and a few that write for Marathi paper ; but editors as such 


there are only three (at Thana, Baroda, and Kolhapur) for Marathi 
papers. It can be said without contradiction that this caste has not 
the least liking for this business. They are indifferent for the cur- 
rent topics of politics, and hence they have a natural dislike for the 

(11). Doctors — These also can be counted on the fingers. Dr. N. R- 
Satpute, Dr. G. C. Chituis and Dr. G. A. Nadkar of Dhar with some 
students in the Medical College, are the only isolated instances. No 
reason can be given why people of this caste have not been entering 
this line. 

(12). ^j Trade, Commerce, Commission Agency, contracting busi 
ness, retail shop-keeping are all conspicuous by their absence. This 
caste being originally a Kshatriya race, it seems its members had not 
the tendency, nor have they picked up any, even in these days of compe- 
tition and struggle for existence of following mercantile calling which 
was the exclusive privilege of Vaishyas. So far, therefore, it can be 
eaid that in sticking to the avocation of penmanship and penmanship 
alone this caste has shown itself to be more conservative than any 

Question XXII. — if they are agriculturists state 
what position they usually occupy in the agricultural system 
i. e., are they — 

(i) Zamindars; ^ 

(2) Tenure-holders, specifying the kind of tenure they 
hold ; 

(3)* Occupancy or non-occupancy Raiyats, stating 
whether they have or claim any privileges in respect of rent ; 

(4) Nomadic cultivators, specifying the mode of culti* 
vation they follow ; 

(5) Landless day-labours, stating the manner in which 
they are paid* 

AnS^Ver XXII — some of them are agriculturistf 
(i) " Khots" analogous to zamindars. 

(2) Tenure-holders, such as Deshmukhs, Deshpandes, 
Patils, Kalkarnis, Mirasdars, Inamdars, Jahagirdars, Moka- 
shis, Nadgondas, Sir Deshmukhs and Malguzars. 

(3) Occupancy or non-occupancy Raiyats claiming part" 
ly or wholly remission in respect of the grant for the land 
they hold, such as Istamuraridars (permanent tenancy-holders . 

(4) There are no nomadic cultivators. 
(6) There are no landless day-labourers. 

Observations XXII. 

Those who can now be classed under the several headings of 
Agricultural system have become Landlords simply upon their origin- 
al profession dependent upon swofd and pen* They served th3 
several Governments of this country and received in return Jebagirs 
and other grants of land; instances of Inamdars Jahagirdars, Watan-. 
dars, and the holders of various kinds of tenure bear out the fact 

Question XXIII — if their occupation is that of: 

(a) Artizans, what is their industry and in what special 
material do they work, or abstain from working? 

(b) Hunters, do they catch game or vermin ? 

(c) Fishermen, do they catch fish only and also croco- 
diles and tortoises ? 

(d) Sweepers, do they remove night-soil or not ? 


Answer XXIII.— (a) No Prabhu is an artizan 
(b) a hunter (c) a fisherman or (d) a sweeper. The caste 
originally being " Kshatriya" (Military race) some of them 
are still fond of shikar which is practised as a pastime and 
not as a trade. 

Observations XXIII. 

This community is strictly conservative in the idea of its occupa- 
tion.and hence it has not swcfvcd from its profession of penmanship^ 

which it strongly believes to be the only one that was ordained to 
it after it was compelled to give up sword according to the legend, 
and therefore we find no instance of a Prabhu artizan, hunter, &c. 

Question XXIV — Name any implement or 
mode of working which is characteristic of the caste and also 
note whether there is any form or detail of their main occu- 
pation by abstaining from which they believe themselves to 
be raised above others of the same craft. 

Answer XXIV — Formerly sword and latter on 
pen can be mentioned as implements characteristic of this 
caste. The mode and working of this caste is writing or 
penmanship in its widest sense as explained under Question 
XX I. There is no 'form or detail of main occupation of this 
caste by abstaining from which they believe themselves to 
be raised above others of the same craft.' 

Question XXV — Do they habitually prostitute 
their (i) married and (2) unmarried women? 

Answer XXV. — They never prostitute their 
women married or unmarried. Hindu Shastras and the 
sacred marriage law prohibit any such profane practices, 
and the prohibition is strictly obeyed by the caste. 


Question XXVI.- which of the following ar- 
ticles of food do the caste eat or abstain from eating ; — flesh, 
wine, monkeys, beef, pork, the flesh of cloven-footed animals, 
fowls, scaly or scaleless fish, drocodiles, snakes, lizards, 
jackals, rats, other vermin, the leavings of other people? 
Is there any special article of food their abstaining from 
which tends in their opinion to raise them above some other 
caste which does not abstain from it ? 

AnSVe^er XXVI. — The Prabhus of the present 
day are, as a rule, vegetarians and in public dinners of the 
caste animal food of every kind is strictly excluded. But in 
private dinners mutton and scaled fish are admitted to the 
table. The Prabhus living in the up-country very rarely 
use it and some do not use it at all. As regards the use of 
wines and other drinks many people of this caste use them 
but very stealthily. One would not like that another of his 
own caste even should know his habit of using it. It may, 
therefore, be said that they drink on the sly. 

Observations XXVI. 

This caste does not eat leavings of any people n6t even of the 
members of their own caste. Tliis caste has to this day retained 
many of its original Kshatriya habits and customs, and it may be noted 
that its using animal food even now is an instance of tlie fact. 
The general influence of Buddhism and their daily contact with the 
Brahmins and other castes that have become vegetarians are perhaps 
the only reasons why this caste uses it scarcely and stealthily. 

Question XXVII.— Name the lowest well- 
known caste with which the caste will ; — 

(a) Eat Pakki. 

(b) Eat Kachi. 

(c) Drink. 

(d) Smoke. 

Name the highest well-known caste which will eat, etc. 
(as above) with the caste. 

Answer XXVII.- This caste does not eat 
Kachi, Pmkki. drink or smoke with any lower caste. No 
Prabhu would smoke cigar or chiroot or pipe or Jml-a^ etc** 
used b\' his caste fellow even, much less used by any other 
caste. The higher caste does not accept food or drink at the 
hands of the lower caste. The Brahmins generally do not 
object to Pakki at the hands of '' Prabhus" if cooked in milk 
or ghee. 

Excepting vegetarian Brahmins of Maharastra, the 
Chandraseniay Kayasth Prabhus will not take hich'i, pakhi 
water or hnh^ from any other caste. Guzerathi Brahmins are 
sometimes employed as water-bearers but not as cooks. 

Sources of Information. 

(i). Compiled from materials collected from the Thana 
Chandraseniya ivayastha Prabhu Club,Baroda Chandraseniya 
Kayastha Prabhu community assembled in a public meeting, 
De^^as public meeting of the caste, R. S. B. A. Gupte of 
Indore, ^ressis Narayan Raghuuath Deshpande of Uravda 
in Maval, Balkrishna Vithal Potnis, Kashinath Malhar 
Karnik and Ramchandra Nilkanth Inamdar, by T. V. 
Gupte, and adopted by the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu 
(community of Poona, under the auspices of the Chandra- 
seniya Kayastha Prabhu Social Club Poona. 


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' ^^m^iw^x,' ' ^mmw^ ' \m\k r^W3t?t tf^ 5^tH W^ 

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Wf^: II \ IQ'^^^'T: S^TF^^^cT WTT^ /? %^Fq IIj'^^R , 

fl^JIcf 3Teft 3T5lt 3TT^ 3TT5TT /^R^. m^.- ^ v ;,^T- 

^*^a^ rTjfT ^T^f^^ C^N1H5 ITf^^e^^ ^TH ^iVt?! ^fl^ ;?qt^,|j^> 
^55?5T gq^sr =^iq^':T. r^inTJ f=E[^5?TTf^^t<T 3?Tm '??Ijr!qTcT gr/jrcT^t ' 
^3?j"qi^ ^m5r f^^^T ^flcT Tlffc^J, ?!^|r ^Tx?IT ,%'TTg? f^^'^^m , . 

( ^ ) 

?m ^^^r ^^TR^'fi'T^: II ^ II "^iv^^l ^%wtM^i\^ ^ i^tr- 
f^cf: II 5n$nTrs^1[?^?Tr4^[ ^^mj ^frg^ ^v ii \ ii A\^m^ 
H?r fTW ^f#Cr^ ^' II 5[^^r%^r 'qfRFf^r'T^^Tr ^\m- 

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5r?r^F^^^ |f?T. 

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^^^ 3^F=^ II ^^ ?=^^Fs^4 tf^t: m^ \H\hm\ w\^^ II '^^^r 

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W n^r II » II ^m^Fi?: ^ITF^F^F ^F^^'^FVqqjfFJTR II ^f^% 
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^JTF^TFrTjl # ^F^^^F Jf'^M ^F^^F'T ^^\r^^ II ^ || ^f^T^ll- 

^wc ^5r g^rs'TF^j^ ^> ti T\^^ ^\'^^\^m iF^f^ ^jf^f- 

^^ II ^ II ^^ HF^F^f'^: ^(q ^F^f^F^ HI^Ffq^ || ^F^^qfiTrR 

TT^il: ^F^ ^F^^^F JT^igF*^: II < II rfm If ^x^^\^ ^\^A ^m- 
3^^ II ^TF^^m ^^F^Fm^FH^ ;jqF^^^ =^ IK II ^^i^^t 
^^m ^^^ ^\Ti^ Hirr ii q^^^F hff'^ ^^ ^^^ ^f'^j^hii \ <> ii 
w TFT ^^r^ \\ ^^wr q^^FT h^f^f ^f ^mmj ii ^^sb^f^ 

TF^*^: ^fIf^^'T T?FrJ?q: HUH ^''^ ^^ ^FF*^ %'| ^F ^m} 
^%\^ H m ?F?«T: Hfg^F^ ??FF% ^^ ^tf^rFJ^ II ^ X II q?qqf 

5cq?f ?n^T. '^t ^T?5T ^^>^f^, ft mruiTT jt^55 ?^^ xnmr^T^ i^n%A 
^ iv;%^ ??iTfT% aiS B\fm^ ?fT sTmrsr^ifpfT ^1^% snfq ^^ f^??T 

^frngjT ^^m ^tt^t ?m ^ttc^t ^jff^^ ^b ^'^tct. ^ft gj?m ?n% ^* 

( \ ) 

^\m \^ ^^ ^4 '^^^m II ^ct: mA H^ri? ^*?H^^q I gR: 

IM^ II A\^J W ^T^W ^^^RF ^^RcTF || TRiq H^^ ^fcTt 

?r: HRiq^r 3T^ II ? » II mJ^ ^^1=^ II ^=^^^1 HiRci f^^ 
^i^^mi %i\ II ^^"^ m ^]w^^\^ ^^in m ^\m\ IM^ l| 
^f^q ^^^ II Hff^^ ^^^J ^ T[JT ?^ ^JT|fr ll f^r ^^^^ 
^]% ci-H ^5 ^^^m 1 1 U ll ^^r ?:[%s5rq'[^R^4 ^r^^q-^qr- 
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^^^ ^^^'q ^A^v\^^^ II ^^^R^r^^^ %^^]^^J ^r>^i^ f^^r: 
5T^i II K II ^^r^HR> ^?r ^[^: ^^'^m] w'rm ii ct% ^^^?t: 
^^^^\^ ^mm ^m: \\ \^ W Tif^^r^r ^^^ %^T^^ ^]^' 
^^f^ II ^i Tm ^^\m\ fl^^r ^ iT%friTi^ II ^o ll R^Vr^Tr- 

^^frWreri^^RT^T: ^^' ll ^cT: Hfr^% TRF ^F^F^T'^TF-^- 
^F^ll \\ II fTFc^F ^FT?^F^%^ ^^^^F^f'^ "^mm^ II ^:FFT^rfF 
JR^s^FH m^%S^^ ^TF: II ^''x II R^cTF^^^ 5|^r m\ ^ff- 
^F^^^ rf^F II ?rq[sf F 1^^F5. ^Fq!rrT3§^:F'T3^R^=^ II WW W»^ 

J^F^^r II ^I^^^ P;^ :?rq^: ^r^^F ^l^^FflrT: II TF^IfT^TF H 


^]^^^^^ ^^^^]^\^^^r\l ll "^S ll ?ff: ^F^^^^:Fqfs^'H- f"^^?h^ 
^: ^W II HFCc^^iq^^^F^Tf^li^^FlffF^ g^cTFJi; II ^<\ II [^cl^q 

^r^? ^cFF f^^^c^r^^^^^'^^F 11 rft^^F^T wim^^j %J^^^mJ- 

^cT^FsH^^l II H?, II ^^^qFT^^# 1 '<?r%F: 'Rrq^F?^: II 
'R^I^FTq^F r^^ TcfF ^F'^?TF=i^ II ^^ II ^f^F'^H'T^t ^^: W\ 
MmV^'^'^T^H I Rfe^Rsf?^ '^]^A ^^J^w^m\^^ I R <f 1 1 ^f ^F^fmR 

=^ f^i'^^^T^p^*^^ ^m^ II WTit ^ ^^T^nt q^^ ^Tf^T ^qiM 

^n%^F II ^^ II cr;^ ?TF 3Tm^^^ ^5 ^1%^ =^F?e^F^ ^l^^«T 

?^W^F ^Kf ^tf% ^v\ 

'J^ ^J^A ?fTfT 3?§ JRia- 3?M iT^. fT jffjg imi^ JTTfT. 

( » ) 

^m^ ^m^ ^%^^ ^"^^ ^^\ ^m x\^^ ^\^ ^^^J^m 
-^] ^mw^^^ m ^'^^ ^^ \m ^\e %w ^"I^. ^r^^r^ ^iq 

^]m m^ II \ II ^R ^fiT-^^r^ ^i ^^{^ ^f? ctt ^[tri-^?!: 

^F f'^Cf^^F F?fV:F §F%. ^5^ ^^T*^ rfBF ^fIt^F rFT, ^T^Ff^^FH 
'^F'^^^^F'^^^ ^FfF, ^H IfI^. '^^'JH ^f^^rlt^^ ^q. 3^cF ^5, 
TFiFF^^W^ ??f% qJSS^icT f"^^^ If'I^ ^*^ ^qg fW^^ ^r?rT. 
'J5F ^^Fcflq^^ ^i?F^m? ^^F=^FT ^1%, ^FgS ffFfrFf^^rT ^JTFR^FT 
^FI^^IF'% ^F^F. '^F^ ^tFT-^ ^F>>5^qir'^ ^^ ^mf'T^^ 3??FF=^FT 
^HcF^ 3TF%^. '^ ^FiT^ '^^'TTF^ cF^-^^l^^ ^\^\ ^^^^ \^\^ 

sFFSF'ir =^m% ^F|rf, ^rm^*^ H?^^ ^f'^'tfKf %^^\ ( mf<f ) ?=^r 
JTFTFH^F^'^ f'^^f^ ^f^^ ^^f% %m. \ ^f^F?^^, ^f^^f'^^'?:, 

^ ^rqc5T JTit^^qr |viT% m^i^T^, ^T^qT=c?TT 4\^zi{ ^^^ %??tt^ 3if(&r 

( ^ ) 

^^i^R. FT^'^fq^ qF% ^mm^q H^ i^€m ^^Hr f^rfr, 
^^T f^^r^ tf^;^ Hrf^r tr<%; ? r?^ ^r^N ^f^r^^, '5n^ii^^'"s:, 

3T?TF^TT ^f"5, «FH ^m ^J^ ^?^mR^fT ^ pm^ ^FR 
^F^^F ^fCf. "^s^r H^f F=^ %W IfI^. ^^=^ ?F^^«riTF^ ^HF^ 
^F jfF^T^ f^^ F'^^FfFF'?^ ^^ ^\^]^ ^^ ^\]^^^^m ^F?#r. 
^I^ ^fFf-^?7F ^imj ^F ^^ m 5RfF ?TF ^5[n% ^F^. ^f^- 
^nf=q FH^. ^F'^^tfF p^F^ HFH^ ^?. ?f^^^ ^^1^ ^I^^ 
^^^ ^"T?^ %^F 5Fnjcf ^F^^ifF^ ^F^TFi. ^rlF^cFF ^F^ ^]^. 
^^[F'I Hqcj^T a[ HFT^^l fr^lF^^ s^^^FT ^F^rT=^ ^m ^\^J\^ 

^5^ f ^h ^fqif? o^^^]x ^[^^F. f^ ^^ ^?^i^. ^^^ 
^rfr. [^<?H^ TF^F ^F=^F i^ mij^ ^j% f^^5^ gr^r^Fq^^ 

^ ^iH^m. ] ^]^ ^'^-'"'^\^^^\ ^fiRFcHri: " ^^^\\% ^]i^' 

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ffcT -qiq^. '^ ^^5^: 5F^^^^fFTF^F^^ ^F^^F ^^ ^ cT^T^f- 
^^^. ^fg ^F ^^J^TFRiFcSF ^^, ^^^§^FF^. l^F ^F'^F^ TF% 

'^Ffr ^^'t^^t ^\'^^\ w*^j ^m^wAT ^^^\ mi^ f^^^ffI^^f; ^t^ 

STFTFFcFfF ^|rF ^qaTF ^F^o5^. JF^F^F^I^ ^FJ^ ^-^F ^^^F^ft 

^^\m tf^fh Fl[^fF. ^s^f '^f ^f^^ ^m^^m T^\H%mr\]^ ^f^. 

efFTRF% t^, r^F^F ^(lF?TfcT=^ ^rF^fl^. r'TFH^ hI ^^T^'UF'^- 
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jfF^ ^F^^^ 5Fg ^^F ^F^F^|Jg:q^?T ^F^r JFRFJ^cFT 3T^^, % 
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t% ^TJ^^fF^T^cT^ II ^ II fi^^l^F^'^e^FS^S'^F^F ^F^F^gMI 

( ^ ) 

W=^ q^^TRrf '^T^'^. 9TRF 5555^^ ^?fl^J^ ^[iTTr^ Q]^^, 

^[>^i% ^^, '^r^ g?^^ ^ ^^ Ht^^^ ^r% TT^Ti m\^, m^ 
^^r=^ ^ff. 'jff 5i^?^R ^frTr'?rg5 =^g^^ ^'fq^ ^r#; ?(5^>r 

5r^'|^F% f^^m ?^ ^^rTFT fFcTFrf.. ^FH ^^IH €t ^I^^f 
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^FF'Ij^F ^F ^^m. ^J^cB ^ff ^ qF|^ ^^. ^Fq^rTF'rF T[^. f 
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^f'^^ ^R'TTi^ II \ II ^F^TF1^e\% s^FHF ItF^^I gF'^: II cT^HF 

J^ fl^, c^tcT f^^^JTPT f T; iTf nitcT, m^^ JFTT^f Jff:, ^?^lfr ^TT% W- 

sft f^cfrt^^ n^r ^^'^ 3TT^ ^b^ ^tB, iTfT^^fr ^r ^w, ^^jt^ Ictf itt^t. 
sTrm^t^ROTc^ ^^ ^^t^^tt^ arrf ? a^i^rr ?#5fr% ymnrg^ in^^? JTf i- 

( ^ ) 

»t^t2r: II ^^m sn^rffr ^m: %^ ^"^^ ^k^ " II \ li ^^ 

qr ^«^[^ 5[| f^cq^ RqiW 5f[5%. rqtq ^'II'T f%* ^IZ^^ 

q^ ^, rqt% qfr ^^^fq 5rp^ %f%, ^flr q^rr^ ^n?%. 
'^'^^^^ II ^ X'^oi l^^ft^\^ ^^K^. qf? #1?^ ^^ 

?\T ^^^ ^ostk ^f!=n mi\^ 55f RqrsT ^? a?9#r ^ ^i\% a(M4)&l 
'i^ %'r55 f^jn^T i^sFiq ^swrir •ri>. 

TratisZotton o/ t?i« letttr addressed hy the Benares Panditda to 
the Peahwa Darhar, 

The Deccanee Royal Saints, Preceptors of religion and all the 
Brahmins residing in Poona, a City which forms as it were the heart 
and centre of the river Bheema, in the holy and beautiful district of 

Many salutes from Brahmins bearing surnames such as Bhat 

(^) Dharmadhikari >fq*Tf^^)and Shesha,($Br) and residing in the holy 
place (viz. Kasbi ^rfft ) which is adorned by Nandanawana ^^!^^ 
and Tricanttaca ]^^z^ in the district of Aryararta STT^J^. 

We duly received from Balajee Janardhan Fadnis the letter 
dated the 10th day of the white half of Margashirasha which h 


sent from Poona. Ther relate to the religious controversy about the 
Prahhusd. there they ask for authorities from sacred books as tc , the 
practices of the Prabhus. We gire in reply our opinion after eonsuV- 
ing Gagabhatti rrrxipi^ of Gagabhat, Kayastha Pradeep, Govind 
Bhatti of Govindbhata, Renukamahatraa which forms part of the 
Scai^dapurana, Shoodrakamelakani of Kama^arabhatta ra^nd Jati- ; 
wi:?7eka and other books of reference. , 

Kayasthas are said to be of three sorts (kinds)— (1) the Chitra- 
gupta Kayasthas (?) Dhalbhaga Gatri Kshatriya Kaya=}thas and 
(3) Kayasthas of the mixed blood. The origin of Chitra- 
gupta Kayasthas is given in the Puranas. He '( f%^!Jff ) 
was born from th© body of Brahma while he was con- 
templating how he should know the good and evil acta of living 
beings. He was a brilliant person with pen and ink in his hands. 
He was known as Chitragupta and was placed near the God of death. 
He was appointed to record the good and evil acts of men. He was 
a Brahmin possessed of supra sensible knowledge. He was a 
good sharing the offerings at sacrifices. AH the Brahmins offer 
him oblations of rice before taking their meals. He is called 
Kayastha because of his origin from. the body of Brahma. Many 
descendants of his bearing different Gotras still exist on this earth. 
From this it will be seen that Kayastha Brahmins of Karhada and 
Khandesha are the Brahma Kayasthas. 

^■Xr ;^ow about the origin of Chandraseniya Kahatriya Kayastha 
In'Rennukamahatma which forms part of the Skanda Purana, Skanda 
said — "In this way Parashurama having killed Arjuna and with his 
sharp arrows ready, ran after tlje demons and princes in order Ur 
destroy them. Being afraid of him some of the brave princes resort- 
ed t6 the Tault of heavens, some entered the nether regions others 
put on the appearance of Brahmins with the aid of matted hair, some 
became ascetics, others resorted to the jungles, some who stayed thei'e 
became dancers and actors and the others became flatterers at courts. 
The wife of Ghandras&na being pregnant went to the hermitage of 
Dalbhya. Afterwards Rama also came to the hermitage of I a'bh^^a. 
He was hospitably received by the saint by offering him holy water, 
a stool and a seat. Dalbhya, the prince of saints, gave a hospitable 
dinner to the great Parashurama at noon. At tbe time of dinner witli 
the " Aposhana " in their hands Rama asked of Dalbhya and Dal- 
bhya asked of Rama what each wakited from the other, and each of 
them granted what the other wanted. Afterwards being greatly 
pleased they made a meny dinner. Being seated after dinner after 
" pansupari " Dalabhya asked Rama to tell him what he wanted from 
him. Rama said " Give me the pregnant wife of Chandrasena who 
has come to your hermitage." Thereupon Dalabhya replied "I give 
you what you desire" ; but then you must give me what I prayed of 
you." Then he called Chandrasena's wife. She, slim and shaky, 
came. He gave her to Rama and Rama became pleased. Rama 

said " Now ask of me what you prajed for at tlie time of 
dirnier I shall give you what you de«ire." Dalabhya aaid " give 
me the fcetus of this woman." Rama said you have asked of 
me the very purpose for which I had come here, viz., the des- 
truction of the Kshatriyas. You have asked for the foetus in 
the body of this woman, therefore the child will be renowned as 
Kayastha when he begins to practice the Kshatradharma and when 
he is of age to perform sacrifices. Dalabhya, greatly pleased, replied 
that the child will certainly not be ill-natured. Rama, the destroyer 
of Kshatriyas, having abandoned that excellent fcetus went away from 
the hermitage; thereupon he became hot with anger and began killing 
whom he knew by the words of "Narada" and who had put on. 
difFerent appearances even though they were weaponless and even 
though they put their fingers in their mouths and begged protection 
of him. He was remembering the death of his father, first killed 
the ?T^ and then extended protection to those that were left. Scanda 
said " In this way this Kayastha was born of a Kshatrya woman 
from a Kashatriya. At the instance of Rama he was excommunicated 
from the Kastatradharma ("avocation of Kshatriya) bv Z^^^^. He was 
given the Kayastha Dharm a which was said to be of i'^'H^'H The Profes- 
sion of a king's Recorder was given him because he was named 
kayastha. (He married a wife from the family of the Chitragupta Kayas- 
thasandhis deicendents bore the Gotra of Dalbhya.) By Dalbhy's 
teachina they became pious and truth-speaking. They are always bent 
on good deeds and are devoted to the worship of Hari and Hara. Thread 
ceremony was performed on them as it was the religion of the 
Kshatriyas. The vedic rites and prayers like the "Nawa Graha*' 
sacrifices and the various religious hymns, they were allowed to per- 
form through priests. Such is tfie origin of the Chandraseniya 
Kshatriya Kayasihas bearing the Gotra of Dalabhya. 

Since great men insist it is necessary to meet their objections 
and satisfy them by sacred authorities. (1) There is one line in the 
Bhagawata which refers to the Kshatriyatwa of the Kshatriyas. It 
is as follows : — " The race of the Kshatriyas maintained their 
Kshatriyatwa up to the time of Nanda. It is impossible to construe 
this as meaning that all the Kshatriyas were destroyed. The race 
still continued under the name Kayastha Prabhua. The nama 
Kayastha refers to the asking of Dalabhya of the foectus in the body 
of Chandrasena's wife : and in ordinary parlance the word Prabhu 
became convertible with Kshatriya. (2.) Again a verse from Para- 
shra Smratti was misstated by Gagabhatta and inserted in hia Gaga- 
bhatti. It is as follows : — The Kayastha falls bv drinking the milk 
of Kapila cow" by having an immoral connection with a Brahmin 
woman and the study of the words of vedas." If this be so, pro- 


Jiibition would extend to all the three Kayasthap. But in the original 
Parasharasmrati the fourth line is different viz. p5[: '^'^^^IryrTfs;"^. 
(The Shudra will be lowered status of a Chandal i. c. low caste) 
three liigh castes are authorized to perform vedic rites, the prohibi- 
tion refers only to the Shudras. Castes formed by adnuxture arr 
included among the Shudras and the prohibition apphed to them 
also. If we read the verse as «iven in Gagabhatti no prohibition can 
be inferred in tlie case of the Shudras. Therefore the verse becomes 
unmeaning. (3.) The answer to the objection that the religious status of 
this caste suffered considerably by the immoral practices which formerly 
crept into it— is that in this K:diyuga ^%gTT such practices are seen 
in every caste e. g. in the ^^^ '^^[^ Brahn^ins of ^T^^ there 
is the unauthorized and irreligious practice of marrying sister's 
daughter. Again the ffr*-iif^t^ keep their girls unmarried till 
25. This also is a bad practice. In spite of all this, tliese castee 
did not lose their ^^5FfllT%^^ (the privi'ege of performing the six 
fold rites) nor did they become extinct. How then can the Prabhun 
be extinct. 

(4.) If it be objected that Prabhus Io:;t their caste by marrying 
in the same Gotra, viz. Dalabhya — the answer is that though a saint 
is generally the Gotra of the family which descends from him, the 
case of Kshatriyas is different. The Kshatriyas bear the Gotras of 
their preceptor. Dalabliya Gotra was assumed because Dalabhya 
protected the Kshatrias and taught them religion. Therefore this 
objection too does not stand. In early times marriage restriction did 
not exist in the case of Soma wamsha and ^nit?! and even now 
the word ^fJ bears the sftme meaningas ^ (5) If it 
be urged that the descendants of ^%^ were ^l^r^q- because his »on 
married a wife from the family of the f^^JjR ^^ ^T^^ ^RU^ the 
answer is that a eon begotten on a Brahmin woman by a Kshatriya 
is called ^ and is better than ^tt^^jt. That is the case even on the 
supposition of ^if^c^ii^. But then the Kayastlia that was bom from 
the body of Brahma ranked as "^ or ^vik and therefore above the four 
races and we find in many places in Purans ^]%q princes man-ying 
the daughters of jfvN^s whether they were prilling or not. 5i;^T^ 
gave his^daughter"^^qRl in marriage to ^^\^ therefore the descendents 
of the ^tiR-H^MHt^ cannot be irf^T^iT. The b?st ^r\ class is included among 
thej^fw ; it has also all the privileges of the Sijfw rituals. Who are 
the ^s^m ^m ^TPT^^fT ? He is a ^1?m ^^*^ WW^ who is known 
all over as such and who has a ^?«T TJ^. 

(8) How was it that the ^j1r%q ^^^r came to be called Pra- 
bhus ? The answer is that ^T^nTST had four sons R^g^mr, ^I^, ^Tf, 


and t^^l^^ ; of tliese T^^^^TT^ who was very clever and who possessed 
numerous qualities became WI^S i. e. very able. He was as it were 
the resort of wealth intelligenee beauty and benevolence. Thus 
ft^^l^ came to be called ^g and the word came in general use. 
Even now a man is generally named after his calling. (9) If it be asked 
that how could they (the descendants)marry having the same ancestor, 
viz. s^T^msT the son of ^^^ the answer is that even in early times, 
when there were only two races — the solar ^trf^'^n^ and the lunar, 
jj4 t^FT they intermarried. ^, ff^, and Ti^ were the descendants 
of the same ancestor and we find in Purans that ^F^PTTRF the daughter 
of a ^]^ was given in marriage to ^^ who was himself a ^TT^i^. 
That is the way how this world goes on. The four Varnas were born 
of the body of 5i§T^ ; so the creation of the original 5^ is time imme- 
morial whatever is customary should be taken as true. One day of Brah- 
ma Dev is equal to ten incarnations and it is said that 50 such years have 
elapsed. It is therefore difficult to ascertain when TT^UT lived. 
Besides we have the word of ^^ wliich'says that M<^<l^ gave protec- 
tion to those who begged it of him having held fingers in their 
mouths. These mingled with the other Kshatriyas. In short this world 
was created by the wiU of God and it goes on also by His will. 
One should not look to the family of ^ i. e. saints or the origin 
of rivers. The gi*eat sage ^^^iT is said to be born of a deer, sqrei 
was born of a fisherman, and the great sage ^RT? was born of ^5^^, 
and they became Brahmins by virtue of their austerities, why then 
look to the origin ? Many were born in this way. T^^^rPnr became a 
saint even though he was a Kshatriya. The same is the case with 
^?^^. The Konkan Brahmins marry in the same ^^X. If we look to 
their origin it is certainly queer. In short whose pedigree is without 
a flaw it who is immune from dissese ? This is God'i word. How 
will God approve of our idea of establishing a new order of things 
by up setting His own ? That he would nof certainly approve of it 
is being experienced. It is dangerous to taste poison, q^ and 'JrKT^ 
were born of ^]^. The Pandawas were each begotten by a different 
Father. Still tliey performed 3T*5J^ and other sacrifices. Lacks of Brah- 
mins dined at tlieir house. The bells in heavens chimed in their honour. 
J^T^ again had five husbands. She personally served food to millions 
of Brahmins. She being chaste and pure one goes to hell if one finds 
fault with her. In short the will of God is aU powerful Sunday, 
8th day of the white half of srf*^^ month of the year 1701 (^^.) 



(Page 316-17 of Prabhu Ratnamala.) 


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(Page 317^18.) 

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?^F CFH ^f'^^ 3TFDT5 PT^IT^ ^^r^#. 




{In formation from our Indore friend.) 

Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu. 

Sub-caste (Endo-gamos.) NU 

Family titles ( ^mJH ) 

I Ganide 1^ 2 Giipte jfi 3 Bahire iff^ 4 Dalvi aliaa Donde ^jS^i 
1!;^^ ^ 5 Nachane ^^^ 6 Kamthe f^nf^ 7 Dixit aliaa Dighe f^%<T ^ 
f^ 8 Gadakari »TT^[ 9 Rarara alias Raghav mi ^ XJ^ 10 Kshipre 
alias Raje f%^ ^ U^ 11 Shathe ^^ 12Jayawaiit 3rqTtT 13 Shringarpuro 
alias Tungar« ^^TT^ ^ ^Tlt 14 Javalekar alias Javale iRo^^ 3ife 
;fm^ 15 Karnatki alias Karnik Wi^J^ ^ ^f^RJ 16 Pradban ^>^ H 
Randive V^ 18 Sule §^ 19 Satpute «nT^ 20 Patanker qr^ffC 21 
Tamhane alias Tambe ?TW^ ^ Ht^ 22 Phansp V^ 23 Khatik (gfffj^B 
24 Bendre alias Durve. "tjr ^«^ jf 25 Vaidya %5I 26 Pan^ule qtg[^ 27 
Korde ^(t 2S Likhite fff<#I^ 29 Vivade mf^ 30 Da vane ^31 Va«:hul© 
^?! 32 Chitre f%^ 33 Mobile. ^^ 34 Vakhare f^^ 35 Muke 5% 3l> 
Ulkand ^^^ 37 Bbisbe ]K^ 38 Chaubal alias Chawak %T^w ^ ^«f«l5 
39 Khale w1^ 40 Tivekar f^tfTC 41 Deupatre. ^T?i^ 

Sections ( m^. ) 


1 Kiishyup ^f?T(T 2 Kripa fT 3 Raibhya ?^?? 4 Bbagur vn!pr -'» 
Naidhruvatfwf 6 Bbargara HT**!^ 7 Jamadagni irrm^^ 8 Bhrigu HJJ 
9 Garga t^ 10 Bharadwaja »Tinrir U Kapila ^^f^ 12 Deval ^^ i:> 
vShandilya 5Ttft^^ 14 Atreya ^'^^ 15 Maitrayan t^^nT»?T 16 Agaat* 
^TTrpTl 7' Pulaha 5^ 18 Paingya ^^ 19 Vishwamitra J^m^ 20 Gautani 
^frPT 21 Vasbishtha ^%y 22 Sf nkvayan ^Tr^qT«?JT 23 Gandbamadan Tif- 
i?K!r 24 Vyagbra %^ 25 Samir. ^. 

Note. — Nos. 1 — 4 cannot intermarry, so alao. Nos. 5 to 8 ; 
9 to 11; 12 and 13; 14 and 15 and 16 and 17, Nos. 18, 


to 25 can marry into apv section besides their own, subject to the 
general rule that the <th male and 4th female ancestors are not 
identical, a rule very carefully observed. That sectiou of this rule 
which is called T^rT^ ( q^ return and >r^ twig or creeper) means 
returning tlie twig or branch that is marrying a daughter from tlie 
family of the mother of the bridegroom. This is scrupulously 

Of the family n.ames originally belonging to the Ohandraseniya 
Kayastha Prabhus the following have been admittedly adopted 1>t 
the Marathas :— ., woi^ji'orii.ij wjia: 

(1) Gurude q^ (2) RanadTveT<5?f?rf' ^gjVp,^iiilje7nJ (4) Thakare Z^^ 
(5) Bhishe PI^T (6) Tungare grrR" (7) Dalvi ^63^ (8) Korde ^? 
(9) Vaidya t^^T (10) Patankar mz^W.X (11) Raje ?^^ and (12) Dabir ?3n^. 

^Y It would be impossible to prevent any faniily from adopting tl^e 
Burnames of their Patrons, masters or employers, and the process 
is very conspicuous among the Parsees among whom we have, Petits, 

Wellingtons, (hoopers. Meadows, Ashburners, and others, but the fact 
that authors of the community adopting the names of the superior 
f^ect, admitting the adoption deserves to be recorded. [Compare 
iShelke's Vaunsliavali, t^r^st and Dhairavo's Shannavakuli, ^fTT^-^gt 
2)ublished respectfully in Poona and Bombay.] 


One peculiar trait of this community is the at^quisition of land- 
or hereditary Vatans ; they seem to have domiciled themselvesr 
wherever they could succeed in obtaining possession of land ; and 
they pride in assuming official designations for their families, drop- 
j)ing the surname ( ^^^]^ ) but retaining its tradition and its gotra 
for religious or matrimonial purposes. As an instance a short 
sketch of the members of one family from Dabhol, who are Jay a wants 
is sufficient. From a family tree in the possession of Mr. R. N. 
fViamdar, the Honorary Magistrate of Poona it appears that 
(luring the last 5 or 6 hundred years the descendants of one man 
named Lingo vShankar liave acquired residence in 25 places and are 
known by 19 family names. (1) Tungar, (2) Shringarpur, (3) Raja- 
pur, (4) Yeshwantgad, (5) Yeshwi, (6) Duragjiwadi, (7) Satara, (8) 
Mulher, (9) Mahad, (10) Guralji, (11) Poona, (12) Mawal, (13) Th^na. 
<14)Charai, (15) Baroda, (16) Bassein, ri7) Shahapur, (18) Kohoch, 
(19) Bombay, (20) Hyderabad, (21) Panvel, (22) Gandagar, (23) Kol- 
hapur, (24) Indapur, (25) Chaool, (26) Dhabol and that the direct 


representatives of that single person are this day known as (1) Javale, 

(2) Tungare, (3) Javawant, (4) Shriugarpure, (5) Tipnis, (6) Karkha- 

nis, (7) Fadnis,(8) CJ}itnis,(9) Inamdar, (10) Adhikari, (11) Yeshwikar, 

1 2) Durupravadikar, (13) Deshpande, (14) Mulherkar, (15) Rajapurkar, 

16 ) Mahadker, (17) Patil, (18) Kohochkar and ( 19 ) Kulkami. 

; 1} an^rfif-irr^s (2^ gjir^-^qit (S) ^^t?[ (4) ^TKir-frin^ (5) lz^^w C6; 
^k^r1« (7) TT^^jftH (8) f^z^B (9) ^^]^^ riOj 3Tf^r^ (U) >^%-Wt^ 
'12; 5^TT^TTr-5^^T:^^ (13; \m\t (14) 5^^^lT^^ (15) TUn^-Tmr^^- 
^ (10) ^TfTT-T^rTT^ f 17) qr^tw (18) ^rr^-^tf^^C (19) fS^Tf. Of these 
19 family names 9 are derived from the domiciles and 9 from 

official designations while the remaining one is surname. [^^HTH] 

'.,♦ it m 

The family names given in the beginning have been adopted 
during pre-historic period and many have lost their meaning, biii 
tlie following is mere guess work or intrusion into the science 
of philology'. No traditions exists as to their origin : — (1) Gurude 
i Eagles among men.) The head men or chieftain. Those with the 
Eagle on tjheir flag. 

(2) Gupte— It is from Gupti the Sword-stick. 

(3) Bahire— Deaf. 

vi) Efeilvi— ^From ^t? dal (army) commandants. 

(5) Nachane — From ^Rofl a kind of grain or nach Jff^ dance. 

(6) Dixit — Performers of the great borse sacrifice. 

(7) Gad kari — Commandants of Fort. 

(8) Kshipre alias Raj e— Rulers of the tract watered by tbe Kshipra, 

a river in Malwa. 
(9)'Sbathe— -From Shat ^3 "cunning." 

1 0) Jayawant — The Victorious. 

11) Pradban — Ministers. ^ y^; 

12) Randive— The lights of tbe battle-field, mti^ *•■ 

13) Phanse — The Jack-fruit which is ''outwardly rougb but i»- 
. wardly soft." 

(14) Vaidya—Physicians. 

(15) Likhite— Writers. 

(16) Vivade — f^f^ Discussers, Ambassadors. 

17) Vaghule — The bat-like [compare^ fable of changing sides in 

(18) Chitre- The beautiful "like a picture." 

(19) Muke— Dumb. 

(20) Chaubal— #[^o5 CommanderB-in-Chief. 

Proceedings $f the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prahhu 
gathering held under the auspices of the Chandraseniya 
Kayastha Prabhu Social Club, Poona, on 2ht July, 
[90Iy in the late Rao Bahadur Pandurang Daji Adhi 
harts hall, 

1. Mr. Trimbak WasudcT Guptc, Secretary of the Institution, 
opened the meeting by reading the invitation card attached to this 
proceeding. Mr. Guptc stated that the work of the ethnographii; 
questions with their answers and obserrations was laid upon the 
table of the club 8 days as annomnced already ; that this general 
gathering of the community was to approve of the same and sanction 
its submission to R. E. Enthoven, Esq., I.C.S., Provincial Superin- 
tendent of Census. 

2. Mr. Ramchandra Nilkant Inamdar proposed and Mr. Kashi- 
nath Malhar Kamik seconded — 

That Sirdar Bhirrao Madhawrao alias Bapusaheb Potnis vhould 
preside on the occasion. 

The proposition was carried out unanimously. 

The President suggested that it would be inconvenient to read 
all the questions, answers and the observations thereon, he therefore 
wished that some of the selected questions with their answers should 
be read by Mr. Balkrishnarao Vithal Potnis and observations th«reon 
be summarized by Mr. T. V. Gupte. This was done by both the 
gentlemen at the sense of the meeting. 

4. Mr. Khanderao Shripat Mokashi proposed and Mr. Sakharam 
Ramchandra Chaubal seconded — 

That the work before the gathering be approved, endorsed and 
signed by the President and that a letter submitting the work t>e 
drafted by the Secretary and signed by the Chairman and be sent to 
the Provincial Superintendent of Census. Carried unanimously. 

5. Mr. B. A. Gupte of Indore proposed and Mr, R. D. Karkha- 
w and Dr. Satpute seconded — 


(a) Tlia<-. the thanks of this general meeting be conveyed to 
R. E. Enthoven, Esq., I.C.S., Provincial Superintendent of Census, 
Bombay, for his courtesy in giving this caste an opportunity of com- 
piling its history as written by its own members »nd public bodies. 

In putting the Resolution before the meeting Mr. Gupte re- 
marked that the political wisdom of avoiding unnecessary agitation! 
and heart-burnings in doing one's duty is a rare virtue and deserves 
\ to be publicly appreciated. 

(b) That Dr. Ramkrislma Gopal Bhandarkar, M. A. Ph. D., 
C.I.E., the great Antiquarian and Sanskrit Scholar of the century, 
be informed of the deep obligations he has laid the caste under by 
his advice and valuable suggestions on the draft replies of the ques- 
tions received from the Ethnographic Committee of Government, »nd 
that regret may be expressed at the valuable time he had to spend 
in convincing such laymen as the members of the committee of th« 

In putting the Resolution before the gathering Mr. B. A. Gupte 
laid much stress on the value of the hslp and added that although 
Dr. Bhandarker was above thanks it was his pleasant duty to express 
them just as an infant would naturally express its deep obligations 
to a nurse with a divinely sweet smile because it does not possess 
the power of speech. Carried imanimously. 

6. Mr. Ramchandra Nilkant Inamdar proposed and Mr. Bal- 
krishnarao Vithal Potnis seconded— 

That Mr. Gupte, of Indore be thanked for his coming over to 
Poona for this gathering especially. 

Carried unanimously. 

7. (a) Ramchandra Nilkant Inamdar, proposed and Mr. Raja- 
ram Chimnajee Gupte seconded — 

That Messrs. Balkrishna Vithal Potnis and T. V. Gupte 
be specially thanked for preparing the whole work. Carried 

(b) Mr. T. V. Gupte proposed and R. D. Karkhanis seconded — 

That Messrs. Kashinath Malhar Karnik and Ramchandra 
Nilkant Inamdar be thanked for gathering the material of 
the work prepared. 


In putting the Resolution Mr. Gupte said that he could not 
have completed the work with jVIr. Balkrishuarao Potnis, but for th<» 
exertions of Messrs. Karnik and Inamdar who rather showed them 
the way in compiling the bulky work. That as a Secretary of the 
Historical Society Mr, Inamdar gave the best help possible from time 
to time, and that the advantage of the vast reading of Mr. 
Kakasaheb Karnik (known student of history) was timely taken in 
preparing this work. 

Thanks were then proposed to the President. Carried out un- 

(Sd.) B. M. POTNIS, 



No. 410 of 1900. 


R. E. ENTHOVEN, Esq., LC.S., 

Provincial Superintendent of Census, 

Bombay Presidencv. 


Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu Social Club, 

Poona City. 

Camp Poona, 13th August, 190<). 


I have the honour to enclose herewith ten copies of certain] 
ethnographic questions dealing with information which is requiredl 
in connection with the census of 1901, and to enquire whether the 
(Committee of the Club will be kind enough to assist me by arranging 
to obtain replies to the questions from those who are in position to 
supply accurate information. 

I havs the honour to be. 
Your most obedient servant, 

(Sd.) R. E. ENTHOVEN, 
Provincial Superintendent of Ceneut. 


Poona, 26th September, 1901. 


Cliaiidraseniya Kayastha Prabhn Social Club, 


R. E. ENTHOVEN, Esq., 

Provincial Superintendent of Census, 

Bombay Presidency, 


With reference to your letter No. 410, dated 13th August, 1900. 
f am desired by the Committee of the Local Chandraseniya Kayastha 
IVabhu Club to forward replies to the questions therein referred to 
with the following remarks : — 

(a). Copies of your questions were forwarded to different town* 
but excepting Thana, Baroda, Maval, Dewas, and Indorc no replies 
have been received, nor is there any hope of creating interest in 
this subject. 

(b). The Committee of the Club has therefore to content itself 
with what materials they could rather together after repeated calls 
and earnest solicitations. 

(c). All the replies recorded and the information locally collect- 
ed were placed ad seriatim before the Club, the points freely dis- 
cussed and the final reply adopted, much stress was laid on the 
authorities that could be produced in print over mere traditions or 
unrecorded local stories. 

(d). Wherever possible every effort was made to avoid specula- 
tions in the body of the replies, but it has been deemed advisable to 
add a separate chapter of dissertations compiled from the Toluminoue 
criticism received. This chapter though extraneous to the definite 
requirements of your committee will, it is hoped, prove interesting in 
its own way. 

(e). The whole report has finally been adopted in the General 
Meeting of the caste on the 21st of July, 1901. 

(f). Thanks are due to Messrs, Ramrao Narayan Pradhan, Sakha- 



ram Gunesli Mujumdar, both of Baroda, and to R. S. B. A. Gupte of 
Indore and Mr. Narayanrao Deshpande of Urowda in Maval, Fadnis 
of Dewas State and Mr- V. G. Kotwal of the Thana Club. 

(g). Of the Poona workers Messrs. Ramchandra, Nilkuntha, 
Inamdar, Kashinath Malhar Karnik, Balkrishna Vithal Potnis deserve 
the special mention for the self-imposed task of collecting materials 
from published records of all sorts. As Secretary of the Poona His- 
torical Society of the caste Mr. Inamdar proved himself a valuable 
acquisition to the Committee of the Club. 

(h). But above all the strenuous and heavy task enthuiiastically 
undertaken and creditably carried out deserves recognition. To the 
exertions of Messrs. Balkrishna Vithal Potnis and Trimbak Vasudeo 
Gupte is solely due the accomplishment of the embodiment and con- 
solidation of the voluminous information and the separate prepara- 
tion of the dissertation (observation) chapter. But for tbem the 
Club would not have been able to do their work satisfactorily. 

(2). It is tlie earnest desire of the Club to publish this work 
in a separate book after it is revised by you and 1 am directed to 
solicit the favour of your recasting it in the form in which you would 
like to see it published. You have already placed the community 
under great obligations by giving them an opportunity to say their 
say and a critical examination thereof will add to their obligations, 
the resolution placed in the meeting of the caste is respectfully 
A copy of enclosed. 

(3j. It is impossible to conclude this letter without expreising 
the deep obligations under which Dr. R. G Bhandarker has placed 
the Club and the Committee by reading very carefully all the replies 
drafted by the Club and favouring them with suggestions and ad- 
vice invaluable. That a scholar of Dr. Bhandarker's standing should 
have borne with patience the crude and lay enquiries of a group of 
non -antiquarian students of History, that he should have spent hours 
with them as if to teach them how and what to write and that all 
this should have been done in a spirit of impartial and friendly 
advice was an advantage not to be over-rated. To him therefore I 
am specially directed to convey through Government the special and 
heavy obligation of the community. 

I beg to remain, 


Your most obedient servant, 


Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu Social 

Club, Poona. 


No. 1 pf 1901. 


R. E. ENTHOVEN, Esq., I. C. S., 

Superintendent, Ethnographic Survey, 

Bombay Presidency. 


Chandraseniya Kayastlia Prabhu Social Club, 

Poona, 1st October, 1901. 

I have the honour to . acknowledge the receipt of your 
letter of the 20th instant (of the last month ?) and accompani- 
ments containing replies to Ethnographical questions in so 
far as they relate to the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus, and to ask 
you to convey my thanks to the Committee for the care and industry 
with which they have applied themselves to the work of preparing 
these materials for au Ethnographical sketch of the caste. 

2. With the permission of the Committee I propose now to print 
a proof article for the recently sanctioned Ethnographic Survey from 
tliese materials and to submit it to you for any remarks you may have 
to oflPer. There will, I would add, be no objection to your issuing 
the article separately as proposed in para. 1 (i) of your letter. 

(o) For the purpose of prosecuting the Survey the full scope of 
which is explained in the enclosed papers, it is of the utmost im- 
portance to secure the assistance of the castes, tribes and committees 
which are to be dealt with in its records. I shall welcome at all 
times information carefully collected and compiled by such associa- 
tions on the lines which your committee has adopted, and I would 
ask you to convey my special acknowledgments to those gentlemen 
mentioned in your letter who have by their labours materially con- 
tributed to the success of the investigations set on foot on receipt of 
my list of questions. 

4. I shall have much pleasure in bringing to the notice of 
Government the names of gentlemen who assist in the production of 
the work described in the enclosed papers, embodying the result of 
the Ethnographic Survey of this Presidency. 


6. I would ask you in conclusion to inform the members of 
jour caste of the pleasure with which I have received tlie reiolutioh 
passed on July 21st last. I can only trust that representatives of 
other castes will come forward with equal readiness to assist me with 
information and advice concerning the origin, constitution, customs 
and ceremonies of the division of Hindu Society to which they m»y 

I have the honour to be, 
Your most obedient servant, 

rSd.) R. E. ENTHOVEN, 
Superintendent, Ethnographic Survey. 

No. 45 of 1903. 


R. E. ENTHOVEN, Esquire, I. C. S., 

Superintendent of the Ethnographical Survey, 

Bombay Presidency. 


The Secretaky, 

Chandraeeniya Kayasth Prmbhu Social Club, 


Camp Poona, 9th March, 19021. 


I have the honour to forward herewith d copies of the Monograph 
on "Prabhus" for distribution among the gentlemen who kindly 
assisted in preparing materialu for the same. 

T shall be glad to receive any criticism that you may be disposed 
to offer regarding the monograph as it now stands. The account ia 
marked "draft" as you will observe and is merely provisional. 
Ultimately it will be incorporated in the Ethnographical Glossarry 
of the Presidency but this will not be published for some years yet. 
In the meanwhile additional materials may be forthcoming, ot correc- 
tions may be found desirable. I trust your committee will continue 


to devote attention to tlie origin and customs of the caste and kindly 
keep me informed of the result. I shall be happy at any timt to 
discuss any questions that may arise, in a personal interview at 
^lo. 17, Queen's Gardens, between the hours of 12 and 4. 

I hmve the honour to be, 
Tour most obedient servant, 

(Sd.) R. E. ENTHOVEN, 
Superintendent of the Bombay Ethnographical Survey^ 

Poona, Ist September, 1903. 
Dear Sir, 

I enclose herewith copies of the important correspondence with 
the Provincial Superintendent of Census and Ethnography and re- 
quest to kindly furnish me with a note ef criticism and additional 
information (Vide Mr. Enthoven's last letter No. 45 of March 9th, 
1903) that you may be disposed to offer on the draft monograph sent 
to you some days back. 

2. The materials supplied to Mr. Enthoven by the Club could 
not be fully embodied in the draft monograph and therefore it is 
decided to issue them separately in print. (Vide Para 2 of Mr. 
Enthoven's letter No. 1 of October 1st, 1901.; This would further 
enable all the readers of the monograph to offer their criticism and 

I hope to receive your note of criticism and suggestions at your 
early convenience. 

Yours Sincerely, 

Chairman, Chndraseniya Kayastha Prabhn 
Social Club, Poona, 





Bomhatj CiazeJtfer Volume, II. — Surat and Broach pp. 52, Writers 
fSurat) — under the head of writers come three classes, Bramha- 
Kshatris (o36), Kayasths (981) and Prabhus (211 1. 

Kaira and Vanckmahal Vol. III. — 1\ 30 "The Kayastha 
Prahhus settled in Gujrath after its conquest by ti)e Marathasv" 

Bojiihay Gazetteer, Vol. A'.— Ratna.g^iri and Savantwadi pp. 118 — 
The only class of writers are Kayasth Prabiius with a strength of 664 
souls (males o41. females o2o). They are found in very small num- 
bers all over tire district, but cliiefly in the north, in DafX)li, Chiplnn 
and Khed. Anionic Kayastha Prabhus there are no sub-divisions. 
Except that none have li<?ijt eyes, they do not. in appearance or dress 
diflFer from Brahmans. They sj^eak Marathi correctly and have no 
separate dialect. They eat fislu mutton and ^me, but not domestic 
fowls. They are clean, neat and hard-working and in former dis- 
turbed times had a name for faithfulness and bravery. Though 
frugal in straitened circumstan'-'es, when prosperous thev are hos- 
pitable and fond of show and pleasure. Some are in Clovernment 
Service, some are cultivators, and few are hereditary ofHcers or the 
holders of land grants. In roli,<>ion they do not differ from Brah- 
mans. Their chief household god and goddess arc Khandoba and 
Bhavani. Their fatnily priests are Brahmans. They do not inte^r- 
ttiarry with other castes. CSaste disputes are settled by a mass 
meeting of the castemen. They send tlieir children to school, and are 
on the whole, prosperous. 

P. 412-13 (Savantwadij. — Under Writers come Prabhus with a 
strength of 19 souls. Descendants of men in British employ when 
the state came under their management ; they are outsiders from 
Ratnagiri and Thana. Since 187i^ all the Prabhus, except one 
family, have left Savantwadi. 

Kolala and Junjim, Vol. XI, 1883 A. 1).—Puge 46. Writers -Of 
writers tliere were two classes with a strength of 4,242 (finales 2,086. 
females 2,157) or 117 per cent, of Hindu population. Of these 4,182 
finales 2,059, females 2123) were Kayastha Prabhns, and 60 (males 26, 
females 34) Patane Piablms. Kayastha Prabhus are returned as 
found over tlie wliole district. So strong is the rivalry between Kayasth 
Prabhus and Brahmans that the Brahmans have put out of caste the 
jrriests who officiate for the Prabhus. In Pen no Brahman is allowed • 
10 take alms from a Prsbhu's house on j)ain of a fine of £1 (Rs. 10) 
and of excommunication, and no Prabhu is allowed to enter the 
Mahadev temple. As a class the men are middle-sized and slightly 
built, and tlio women graceful. They speak Marathi rnd are clean 
nnd hard-working. They are mostly writers and accountants, but 
some are husbandjnen and traders. Most of them live in one or two- 
storied brick or stone and lime built houses with tiled roofs. They 
cat iish, and the flesh of goats and sheep and drink liquor. Their 
liaily food is rice, pulse, vegetables, and fish. Both men and women 
dress like Konkan Brahmans. Amonnr them girls are married be- 
tween nine and eleven, and boys between twelve and sixteen. They 
burn their dead and do not allow widow marriage. Polygamy is 
allowed and practised. They are generally i^hagwats and have 
images of their gods in their houses. Their priests, who are Brah- 
mans, are treated with respect. They keep all Hindu holidays and 
fasts. Social disputes are settled by a meeting of the men of the 
caste, and the decision of the majority is respected. They send their 
l)oys to school and though the competition for clerkships has greatly 
ijicreased they are Htill well-to-do. 

Page 411 fJanjira). — Kayasth Prabhus, numbering 1,492, are 
found all over the state. In token of their Rajput descent Prabhus 
do not cat fowls. According to a local story, the reason is that the 
fowl's ))eak is like a pen, and the Prabhus b?ing writers, object to 
keep an animal who, like, themselves, lives by the pen. (The 
Rajputs ex))lain their dislike to hens on the ground that 
they are foul feeders. But the feeling is wide spread and is 
found among wild tribes who are not careful to eat only clean 
feeders, Tl)e feelings seem connected with the religious respect for 
I he cock. Perphaps it has its origin in the feelings that the spirits 
of the dead, wandering near their old home may have found a rest- 
ing place in the domestic fowls.) Except a few who are small traders, 
their occupation is State service and husbandry. Most of them are 
well-to do. 

Volume XfJL Vart /, (Thana). Pj). 87-89 -Writers included two 
classes with a strength of 5,213 souls (males 2,726, females 2,477) 

or 0'68 per cent, of the Hindu population. Of these 5,128 (males 
2.696, females 2,432) were Kayasth Prabhus, and 85 (males 40 
icmales 45) Patane Prabhus. 

Kayasth Prabhus are returned as numbering 5,128 souls and ai 
living in all parts of the district except in Mahim. They claim des- 
icnt from CJiandrasen, a Kshatraya king of Oudh. According to the 
ftenuka-Mahatma of Padraa Pnran, the story is that after Parashut 
ram, in fulfilment of his vow to destroy all Kshathriyas, had killed 
Sahasrarjun and king Chandrasen, he discovered that Chandrasen's 
wife had taken refuge with Dalabhya, one of the rishis oi: seers and 
iliat she was with child. To carry out his vow Parashurara went to 
the sage who asked him to name the object of his visit, assuring 
him that his wish would be fulfilled. Parashuram replied that he 
wanted Chandrasen's wife. The sage without any hesitation brough, 
the lady, and Parashuram delighted with the success of his scheme 
[promised to grant the sage any thing he might ask. The sage asked 
for the unborn child and agreed to give him the child, 
on the sage engaging that it and its offspring should be trained as 
clerks not as soldiers. The child was named Som Raja, and his sons 
VishA^anath, Mahadev, Bhanu, and Lakshumidhar, and their descend- 
ants were called Kayasth Parbhus by the Sudras as they could not 
jironounce the word Prabhus. Brahmans in their hate and rivalry 
taking advantage of this mispronunciation, declared that their true 
name was Parbhu, that is bastard or people of irregular birth. But 
the word is spelt Prabhu in letters and deeds granted to those of the 
community who served the Satara and Peshwa Governments. The 
services of the Kayasthas were early secured by the Musalmans. 
A colony was established near the Musalman city of Junnar in Poona; 
a second settlement, probably from Surat by sea, was made at Raju- 
puri in Janjira, whose ruler the Habshi admiral had a Kayasth 
Prabhu minister ; a third settlement was at Daman on the north 
border of the Thana district ; a fourth was at Baroda under the 
patronage of Raoji Appaji, the minister of the Gaikvad ; and a fifth 
was at Kalyan, from where they spread over the Thana district, 
iShivaji (1627-1680) was very fond of Kayasth Prabhus, and they have 
occasionally been supreme in the Satara, Kolhapur, Nagpur, and 
Baroda courts. According to a Maratha story in the possession of 
Rao Bahadur Ramchandra Sakharam Gupte of Poona, Shivaji on one 
occasion dismissed all the Brahmans who held financial posts and 
engaged Kayasth Prabhus in their places. In reply to the complaints 
of Moropant Pingle and Nilopant, his two Brahman advisers, he 
reminded them that, while all Musulman places of trust held by 
Brahmans had been given up without a struggle, those held by Pra- 
bhus had been most diflScult to take, and that one of them, Rajpuri, 
had not yet been taken. 

Their commoiieet surnames are Adhikaii, Cliiire, Donde, Gupte, 
Jayavant, Pradhan, Raje, Randive, Tamhane and Vaidya. They liave 
also family names, taken from official titles such as Chitnis, Parasuir^, 
Potnis, Tipnis, Deshmukh, Deshpande, Daftardar, Karkhanis, Phras- 
khane, Divan and Kulkarni. As a class the men are jniddle-sized and 
^^lightly built, fair with regular features and handsojne intelligent 
faces. Their women are refined and graceful. The young men gene- 
rally speak correct and well pronounced Marathi. But among some 
of the elders there are several peculiarities, chiefly the use of v for / 
and i for v as virada for irada^ Inayak for Vinaijak and IskvasJiver 
for Vishveshver, They are clean, neat, hardworking and faithful, and 
hold places of trust both in Native States and under the Britislj 
Government, to whom they have always been loyal. They are mostly 
writers and accountants, and regard such duties as their birthright. 
The keen rivalry between them and the Brahmans has made the 
Kayasths most staunch-supporters of each other, as the proverb says, 
'■ The crow, the cock, and the Kayasth, help those of their own caste/' 
(The Marathi runs, '' Kak, kukut, KayastJt, Svajatiche pariposhak.) 
Some are husbandmen, holders of hereditary grants of land, and 
traders. But most are clerks, quick and neat enough workers to hold 
their own against Brahman or any other rivals. Most of them li\'e 
in one or two-storied brick or stone and lime built houses with tiled 
roofs. On the ground floor there is a cook-room, a room for the gods. 
a dining-room, a receiving hall, and two or three sleeping-rooms. 
On the second story a public room Dlvdnkhdnd, a receiving room of 
guest chamber, the women's hall magghar, a store room and place for 
drying clothes, and two or three other rooms. They have a good 
store of furniture, copper, brass, iron and tin vessels, boxes, cots and 
bedding. Each family has a Kunbi servant and most have cattle and 
bullock carts. A good many have milch cows and she- buffaloes. 

They eat fisb, the flesh of goats and sheep, but deem fowls un- 
clean and never touch them. Some of them drink liquor. But the 
flesh eating and liquor drinking are done stealthily, as they like, as 
far as possible, to be supposed to live in the same way as Brahmans. 
Their daily food is rice, pulse, vegetables and fish, or pulse currv. 
They are fond of good living, and their caste feasts cost them from 
6d. to Is. each (4-12 annas) a head. In dining they sit on low 
wooden stools and eat from metal plates, apart from each other. 
Both men and women dress like Konkan Brahmans, the men in the 
middle-sized flat-rimmed Brahman turban, with a plain bordered 
vsraist cloth, waistcoat, short coat, a shoulder-cloth passed round the 
neck and falling to the knees, and Brahman shoes. Their women wear 
their hairlike Brahman woman, tightly drawn back and formed into 
a knot or bunch on the top of the head. It is generally hard to tell 

a Prabhu from a Brahman woman. They are equally richly dressed 
and with quite as much neatness and care. Of ornaments well-to-do 
men wear a gold ring on the little finger of the left hand. Their 
women wear the same ornaments as Brahman women. Most families 
have a rich store of good clothes for high days. The men generally 
rise between six and seven, and repeat a verse or two in praise of 
some god. Then, after a cup of tea or coffee, they bathe and worship 
their household gods and breakfast about ten. After breakfast they 
chew a packet of betelnut and leaves, and attend to their business. 
In the evening supper is generally over before eight and they retire 
to rest soon after. 

On the birth of a child, musicians play upon pipes and drums, 
friends and relations are called, a birth paper is drawn out by u 
Brahman astrologer, sweetmeats and betel nut are handed round, and 
the guests take their leave. On the fifth day friends and relations 
are treated to a cup of milk. On the sixth the goddess Sati is wor- 
shipped, and on the twelfth, the child is laid in a cradle and named. 
Boys are girt with the sacred thread either in their sixth or in their 
eighth year. Girls are married between nine and eleven, and boys 
between twelve and sixteen. They bujn their dead and do not allow 
widow marriage. Polygamy is allowed and practised. They art' 
generally Bhagvats, but they worship goddesses more than gods. 
They have images of their gods in their houses. They perform three 
of the six Vedic duties or Karmas, studying the Veds AdJiydian, 
sacrificing Yajan, and giving alms Dan. Their Priests wlm are 
Brahmans, ase treated with respect. They keep ail Hindu holidays 
and fasts. Social disputes are settled by a mfeting of the men of the 
caste, and the decision of the majority is respected. Those who dis- 
obey are cut off from marriage, dinner, and other caste ceremonies. 
Caste discipline shows no sign of decline. They send their boys Uj 
school, and though the competition for clerkships has greatly 
increased, they are still well-to-do. 

Nasik XVI 1883 : — Page 43. Writers include two classes, Ka- 
yasth Prabhus 150 (males 81, females 69) and Thakurs 488 (males 287, 
females 201) Prabhus mostly late arrivals from the Konkaii. 
hold high posts in the Revenue branch of the Publi<^ 
Service. Their prosperity greatly depends on the caste of the head- 
man in the Collector's Office, as there is a very keen rivalry between 
Prabhus and local Brahmans. As a class they are educated an d 

Page 41 — Kayasth or Kasth Brahmans have three houses in th»' 
village of Ghoti in Igatpuri, they are said to have come from Upper 
India within the last forty years^ 

VolumelXyil, Ahme!hiaga7\ Page 04 --65 :— Writers include two 
castes with a strength of 167. Of tliese 148 (males 77, females 71) 
were KayasthjPrabhus and 19 (males 14, females 5) were Patane 

Kayasth Prabhus are returned as numbering 148, and as found in 
the town of Ahmednagar and the sub-division of Jamkhed. They 
liave come from Kolaba and Tlmna in the Konkan in search of em- 
ployment, some of them being clerks in Government Offices and others 
Pleaders. They formerly held high posts under Government, and 
tliere is one Prabliu Inamdar in Jamkhed. In look, speech, food 
(irink, and dress they do not differ from their brethren in Kolaba 
Thana, and Poona. Details given iu the Poona Statistical 
Account. They eat flesh and drink liquor, and, as a rule, 
are clean, orderly, honest, thrifty, and hospitable. They are clerki 
and pleaders and as a class are well-to-do. 

They rank next to Brahmans and above Kunbis. During the time 
of the Peshwas the Cliitpavans are said to have treated Kayasth 
Prabhus very harshly because they wore the sacred thread and because 
tliey were dangerous rivals both as soldiers and civil officers and clerks. 
Their family gods are Ganpati, Khandoba, Tuljabhavani, and other 
Brahmnnic gods, and they keep regular Brahmanic feasts and fasts. 
'Their Priest is a Deshasth Brahman, who conducts all their ceremo- 
nies. They worship their family gods with sandal paste and flowers 
d:dly and offer them food. Early marriage and polygamy are allowed, 
widow marriage is forbidden, and polyandry is unknown. Their 
social and religious customs do not differ from those of their caste 
])eople in Kolaba. They send their children to school and are a 
jmshing class. 

Bombay Gazetteer, Vol. XVIII, PaH I, Poana.— Page 192-193. 
Kayastli Prabhus are returned as numbering 830, and as found over 
tlie whole district except Junnar. They claim to be Kshatriyas. 
According to their story, after Parashuram had killed Sahasrarjun 
and king Chandrasen, he discovered that Chan drasen's wife had taken 
refuge with the seer Dalabhya, and that she was with child. To 
complete his vow to kill the whole of the Kshatriyas, Parashuram went 
to the sago, who received him kindly, asked him why he had come, 
and promised to grant his wishes. Parashuram replied that he wish- 
ed to kill Chandrasen's wife. The sage produced the lady, and 
ParashuMm, pleased with the success of his scheme, promised to grant 
the sage whatever he asked for. Dalabhya asked for the unborn 
child, and Parashuram, bound by his promise, agreed to spare the 
mother's life on condition that the child should be bred a writer not 

a ?<ildier, and that instead of Kshatriyas liis descendants should be 
railed Kayasths, because the child was saved in his mother's body or 
Kaya. The boy was married to Chitragupta's daughter, and waa 
giver* the title of Prabhu or lord. Kayasths are divided into Ghitra- 
gii|>i Kayasths, Cliandraseni Kayasthas and Sankar Kayasthas. The 
Ohandrasenis have no sub-division except Damani Prabhus, who, in no 
way, differ from the rest, and have a special name only because they 
lived for a time at Daman in the north Konkan. Kayasths have 
(jioti-as or family stocks and pravars or founders, and forty two sur- 
iiumes. People bearing the same surname and belonging to the same 
family stock do not intermarry. In appearance, Kayasths closely 
resemble Konknasth Brahmans. They are fair and middle-sized, 
with regular features and thick black hair. The men wear the top 
knot and moustache, but neither beard nor whiskers. The women 
are fairer than the men and handsome. They wear the hair tied in a 
knot at the back of the head, use false hair, and deck their hair with 
flowers. Tiieir home speech is Marathi, which both men and women 
speak correctly. Their houses are stocked with furniture, copper, 
brass, iron and tin vessels, boxes, cota, bedding, glass hanging and 
brass lamps. Each family has a servant, and most have cattle, 
liorses, dogs, parrots, and bullock carts, Their houses vary in value 
from £50 to £2,000 (Rs. 500-to 20,000) ; their furniture from £10 to 
£200 (Rs. lOa to 2,000); a man's stock of clothes from £7 to £50 
Rs. 70 to 500); a woman's, a child's from £10 to £200 (Rs. 100-2000). 
their ornaments are worth £30 to £500 (Rs. 300—5000). They eat 
fish and the flesh of goats and sheep, but secretly, as they prefer to 
be considered vegetarians, and drink both country and foreign liquor. 
Their daily food is rice, pulse, vegetable, fish or pulse curry, milk, 
curds and whey. They drink tea or coffee, are fond of good living, 
*nd their pet dishes are gram oil-cakes and wheat and sugar semi- 
circular cakes or karanjas. A family of five spend every month on 
their food, if rich. £5 to £7 10s. (Rs. 50-75), if fairly off £3 to £4 
(Re. 30—40), and if poor £2 10s. (Rs. 25- 30), Their feasts cost 6d. 
to Is. (4 — 8 as.) a guest. Both men and women dress like MarathA 
Brahmans, and it is often hard to tell a Kayasth Prabhu from a 
Brahman. They are generally richly and most carefully and neatly 
dressed. Of ornaments well-to-do men wear gold necklaces and 
finger rings, and the women the same ornaments at Brahman women. 
They are hardworking, hospitable, orderly, and loyal ; but extrava- 
gant and fond of show. They are writers, husbandmen, money- 
lenders, and money-changers. They are generally Bhagvats or fol- 
lowers of Vishnu, and are termed Deriputrais or goddess* children, 
because they worship the early local mothers more than the regular 
Brahman gods. They have house images of Annapnma, Vishnxi, 
Balkrishna, Bhavani, Granpati, Khandoba, and MahadeT. Their 


Priests are Desliastli Brahmans, whom they treat with great respect, 
They keep the regular Hindu fasts and feasts, and settle social dis- 
putes at meetings of the castemen. 

On the sixth day after a child ia born they worship the goddes3 
gathi and name the child on the twelfth. They gird their boys 
with the sacred thread before they arc ten. They marry their girls 
before they are twelve, and their boys before they are twenty, 
The details of their birth, thread-girding, and marriage ceremonies 
differ little from thoie of Patane Prabhus. A thread cer* mo ay costs 
them £10 to £50 (Rs. 100—500) and a marriage £50 to 50 ' (R.3. 500 - 
5,000). They burn their dead and do not allow widor marriage. 
They send their children to tchool and hold their own a^ w iters in 
• pite of the competition of Brahmans and other non-writer classes. 

Bombay Gazetteer^ Saiara^ Vol. XTX. — Pages 56 — 57. — Writers 
include two classes with a strength of 536. The details are : 
SiTARA Writers, 1881. 





Ksyasth Prabhus 

Patane Prabhus 








Kayasth Prabhus are returned as numbering 340^ and as found 
trer the whole district except in Patan. They hare no sub-di^isioni 
l^nd look like Maratha Brahmans. They are generally fair, middle- 
mzed, and regular featured. The men keep the top knot and mous- 
tache, but not the beard or whiskers, and women wear the hair tied 
in • knot behind the head and deck their heads with flowers. Botli 
men and women dress and speak like Maratha Brahmans, and un- 
like them, eat fish and flesh and drink liquor. They are neat, clean, 
hardworking, faithful, and loyal. They are writers and accountant?^ 
and regard clerkship as their birthright. They worship the usual 
Brahmanic gods and goddesses, and observe all their fasts and feasts. 
Their Priests are Deshasth Brahmans whom they pay great respect. 
They settle social disputes at meetings of the castemen, send their 
boys to school; and are a steady class. 

Bombai/ Gazetteer, Sholapur, Vol. TA' :1884 — Piiges 44 -45. Writers 
include two classes with a strength of \SL Of these 111 (males ol, 
females GO) were Kavasth Prabhus, and--7o (males ol females 42) 
were Mud liars. 

Kayasth Prabhus are returned as numbering 111 and as founp 
over the whole district except in Malsiras. Tliey claim to be Kshat- 
riyas and to be descended from Chandrasen, an early Xing of Oudh. 
Some of their surnames are Kandive, Tamhnne. and Vaidya. They 
are middle-sized, slightly built and fair, and their women are grace- 
ful. They speak Marathi and are clean, neat and hardworking. Most 
of them are writers. They live in substantial buildings with walls of 
mud and stone and flat roofs. They eat fish and flesh and drink 
liquor, but very stealthily. On the birth of a child they hold the 
family impure for ten days. On the sixth day tliey worship the 
goddess Satvai and on the twelfth cradle and name the child. They 
gird their boys Avith the sacred thread before they are ten years old 
and marry them before they come to manhood. They marrv their 
girls before they are ten, and spend £20 to £100 (Us. 200 - 1,0 JO) on 
a child's marriage. They burn tkeir dead, forbid widow marriage 
and practise Polygamy. Polyandry is unknown. They worship all 
Brahmanic gods and goddesses, but so greatly prefer to worship 
goddesses that they are known as Devibhakts or goddess worshippers. 
Their PriPvSts are Deshasth Brahmans and they keep the usual fasts 
and festivals. They go on pilgrimage to Benares, Nasik, and Pan- 
dharpur, and believe in witchcraft and soothsaying and consult 
oracles. They settle social disputes at meetings of the castemen. 
Ther send their children both boys and girls to school and keep their 
girls at school till they are alx)ut twelve years old. In spite of their 
small numbers and of the keen competition for clerkship they hold 
their own against Brahman and other non- writer classes whom they 
term intruders. They are decidedly well-to-do. 

Bombai/ Gazfttfier, Vol. XXI 1884 Bdgauvi :- P:ige 07- Kayastha 
Prabhus are returned as ntimbering 98 and as found chiefly in lielgaum 
and Ghikodi. Three families who are settled in Pargatl in Khanapur a re 
said to have been brought by Sliivaji from the Kolaba District. One 
of these three families has the title of Subhedar, and enjoys certain 
cash allowances. The other Kayastha Prabhus who are in Govern- 
ment Service are all from Kolaba District. They have no sub-divi- 
sions. The local Kayasths are darker and stronger than those of 
Kolaba or Batnagiri. The men wear the headscarf or nimal insteiad 
of the turban ; in other respects their dress does not differ ivoux that 
of their castemen in the Korikan. They speak Marathi and 
separate dialect. They eat fish, mutton and game but not domestic 


fowls. They are clean, neat, and hardworking, hospitable and fond 
of show and pleasure. Most of them are land-owners, and a iew who 
have come from Kolaba are in Government Service. Their household 
deities are Khandoba aud Bhawani. Deshastha Brahmans are their: 
family Priests. Caste disputes are settled according to the opinion 
of the majority of the castemen. The Swami of Sankeshvar is their 
religious teacher or Guru. They burn their dead, forbid widow 
marriage, and shave their widows' heads. They send their boys to 
school and are a prosperous class. 

Bombay Gazetteer^ Vol. XXIV. Kolhapur : — Page 64 — 65 — Writers 
Prabhus, or Lords, are returned as numbering 286 and as found 
scattered over the whole State. They are of two classes, Kayasth 
Prabhus and Patana Prabhus. Most Kolhapur Prabhus are Kayasths. 
Sivaji (1627 — 1680) had great faith in Prabhus and raised them to 
high Military and Civil Posts. The Kolhapur Kayasth Prabhus are 
believed to have come from the Konkan and Satara since the rise of 
the Maratha state of Kolhapur (1710). The few Patana or Bombay 
Prabhus are said to have came during the last fifty years. Of the 
origin of the Kayasth Prabhus the books, give three accounts. Ac- 
cording to the Padma Puran they are descended from Chitragupt who, 
was created by Brahma to record the actions of mankind ; according 
to the Renuka Mahatmya of the Skand Puran they represent a 
Kshatriya King of Oudh named Chandrasen ; and according to an 
account given in the Shudra Kamlakar, which is probably a Brahman 
play on the word Parbhu or bastard, a corruption of the word Prabhu 
or lord, they are descended from a Kshatriya and his mistress. The 
Patana Prabhus claim a Rajput origin. It seems they represent 
Rajput settlements from Anhilvada Patan in North Gujarat 
(A. D. 1139) along the Thana coast near Bombay. The Patana 
Prabhus properly have no surnames, though of late they have begun 
to copy the Maratha practice. 

Among Kayasth Prabhus Dikshit, Garude, Gholkar, Khatik, 
Pradhan, Raje, Shringarpure, Tamhne, and other surnames are in use. 
They have also family names from official titles, as Chitnis, Jamnis, 
Karkhannis, Pharasnis, Phadnis, and Sabhasad. The two classes of 
Prabhus differ little in appearance. As a rule the Patanas are larger, 
darker, more robust, and manly ; some Kayasths are unusually fair 
and delicate featured. Their women are middle-sized, fair, and 
good locking. Their home speech is Marathi. The Kayasth Marathi 
differs little from the Chi tpa van's and the Patana's home speech is 
marked by the use of Gujarati, Portuguese and English words. 
Though there is no caste objection to the eating of fish and flesh, 
most Kolhapur Prabhus live like Brahmans on rice, pulse, and vege- 


tables. They dress like Brahinans and wear the same ornaments. 
Ihey are clean, neat, liard working, and faithful. The Kayasths are 
given to the worship of local goddesses rather than of the regular 
(ieities. In other respects their religious rites, fasts, and feasts, and 
tlieir social customs differ Httle from those of Marathaa and Maratha 
Brahmans. Social disputes are settled by the elders of the caste, 
ihey send their boys and some of their girls to school and are well- 
to-do. (A detailed account of Prabhus is given in the Poona Statisti- 
cal Account.) 



Rangoo Bapujee Vakil 


H. H. The Raja of Satara, 1843, 
Page 270-274. 

Translation of a Petition from Balaji Baji Rao TradhaUy Minit- 
ter of Shahu Maharaj Ghuttraputtee to his Maje^y the Raja of 
Sattara, wntteu A. D. 1749. 

May it please your Majesty, 

The Brahmins of Sattara and their brethren of Kasi (Benares), who 
have recently arrived in the city, have been holding the moat violent 
altercation on the subject of the Prabhu caste, some giving their 
opinions in favour of the latter, and some for former, in the differen- 
ces which have arisen between them. As these disputes may lead 
to unpleasant consequences, and may endanger the public peace, I 
respectfully solicit your Majesty will issue an ordinance, commanding 
the Kasi Brahmins forthwith to return to their homes, and refrain 
in future from indulging themselves in controversies upon doctrinal 
points ; which can lead to no ultimate good ; and I humbly request 
that Your Majesty will graciously be pleased to command, with re- 
ference to the Prabhu caste, that the other Brahmins also should not 
interfere with their observances, in any manner ; but allow them to 


continue, as they have done, from ancient times, without being an- 
noyed by the former. 

True Copy. 


Pundit Sumimth. 

Tranalatian of a Paricana, or Mandate, issued hi/ the liaja of 

Shahu Maharaj Ghuttraputtee, who reigiied in 1749, to the 

of Kerh, Maholi, and Parashram Moholi, three villages, 

m the hanks of the Krishna, in the Territories of Sattara, 

date^^i^^^uarii, 1749. 

tureen yi 
UB consii 
jects of 
antiquity, tJ 
allowed to ex( 
manner as y 
disputing with 

represented to us that differences have arisen be- 
the Hindus of the Prabhu caste, which has occasioned 
pain ; seeing that both of you are inhabitants, and sub- 
you must be aware that the Prabhu caste is of great 
Indus of which have, from time immemorial, been 
the rites and ceremonies of their sect in the same 
Ives. You are, therefore, commanded to abstain from 
lem upon any points of doctrine, or to interfere witli 
their practices^t^^It is enjointd also, that you comport yourselves 
towards them, a&.your predecessors have done ever since the time of the 
Mussulman Sovereigns of Bijapur, through the successive reigns of 
Sewaji Maharaj ,jjtoibaji Maharaj, Rajaram Sahib, Tarawu Sahib, 
even to our owBpBfte. You must not abolish, nor modify any of the 
mncient and estl^^shed usages of the Prabhus ; nor may you intro- 
duce »ny ini\oylt^on of your own to offend their prejudices, but you 
must conduct ybtiHelves in a friendly manner towards them, and 
avoid all religio^^ Controversy and disputes. 

(Signature 'Qf the Maharaj) 

True C,9f!(y> 



[ Pundit Sumuuth, 


Translation of a Letter from Baji Rao Raghunath Pradhan, vii- 
nister of the Raja of Sattara, to Abadosi Takle, Chief Brahman on 
the part of the Frabhus, written in 1798. 

It is well known to you that the Brahmins of the village of Pen 
and the Hindus of the Prabhu caste have been disputing upon reli- 
gious subjects for a period of eight or nine years, in the course of 
which the former have succeeded in obtaining an order from Peishwa 
to the effect that the Prablius should not be allowed to continue those 
practices and observances to wliich the Bralimins had such strong 
objections. Both parties have recently had recourse to me for the 
settlement of their disputes. I have desired the most learned Pundits 
o refer to the Shastras, after wliich they gave their opinion that the 
Brahmins were not authorized to enforce their pretensions against 
the Prabhus, and that the latter ought to continue in the enjoyment 
of the same religious liberties and privileges as they had previously 
done. You will, therefore, act in conformity with this injunction. 


(Seal of Bajirao.. 

True C(»py. Pundit Sumunth 

Trandation of a letter from Sanhcshwar Sioami, Chief of the 
Brahmins, to Raqhawa Cifarie, another Brahmin (Shastree of great 
note at Poonah), Kartihshudh the 10th, 174S. {November 1826.) 

You arc aware that for several days the Brahmins of Poonah 
liave been disputing amongst themselves on the subject of the 
observances practised by the Prabhus, and as I was on my journey to 
the Godavery to bathe in that sacred stream, and Poonah being 
on my way I stopped for a short time at Parwati, (a small village 
near Poonah). Balajee Punt Natoo, Ghintaman Rao, Patwurdhan, 
iiud a considerable number of other Brahmins hearing of my- arrival 
<ame to see me, and requested me to take the subject of their 
dispute into considenition. They wanted me to issue a charge 
t(t all Brahmins to prevent the Prabhus from exercising those 
observances, which are offensive to the fomier, and the 
cause of the disputes between the two parties. P>om the manner in 
which this request was made ])y individuals just named, I was 
constrained to acquiesce in their wishes. Being present yourself on 
the occasion, you rose, adjured me on the sanctity of the Veds, the 


water of the Ganges, the Tulsi leaf and in the presence of Ishwa, to 
give a solemn pledge that I would assemble the most learned Pandits 
of the law, and by a reference to the Veds and Shasiras, obtain their 
impartial verdict as to whether the present religious jobservances of 
the Prabhus be authorized or not in those sacred volumes. 

You know that without any reference whatever of the sort, my 
opinion of the existing practices of the Prabhua is that those practices 
are undoubtedly authorized, both in the Veds and in the Shastras, 
and that the Prabhus have been tolerated in the profession and practice 
of their peculiar religious opinions and observances. You are aware 
also of the circumstances under which I was obliged to give my 
sanction to the injunction against them eontpapy to the dictates 
of my own conscience, in consequence of what I had to appre- 
hend, had I refused, from Balaji Punt Natoo, and Chintaman Rao. You 
inow, moreover, that they are the open enemies of the Prabhu caste, that 
Jialajee Punt Natoo is a Creature of the Company, and that the lands I 
hold might have been in jeopardy, had I ventured to place myself in 
opposition to him. I now declape that the injunction in ques- 
tion unduly obtained fpom me, and is consequently, 
invalid; and that the passage ''Chandra Senie Kaestia Prabhu' in 
the Veds and Shastpas authopises the Ppabhu caste to 
continue in the exepcise of theip peculiap customs, with- 
out being* subjected to be annoyed by any sectapian op 
hetepodox Bpahmins. 

Seal of Sankeshwar Swami. 

True Copy. Pundit Suman. 


Ika^astba lEbucational IReform 
Series 1Ro« 3. 

P reface 

We regret to note tliat some modern ethnograpliers have com- 
mitted serious blunders in describing the origin and varna of the 
Kayasthas. This is in a large measure to be attributed to their 
ignorance, as foreigners, of the rites and customs of the Hindus a? 
irell as the original Sanskrit authorities. They have confused the 
three divisions of Kayasthas together, and have consequently failed to 
give a trustworthy account of tiieir origin and status. While discuss- 
ing the question of the nationality of Kayasthas, it should always be 
borne in mind that they are found to exist under three distinct classes 
at the present day : — 

(i) Chitragupta-vansi Kayasthas, inhabiting chiefly the N.-W. P, 
and Oudh, Behar, Rajputana, Central Provinces, Bombay and Punjab 
and tracing their descent from Sri Chitragupta, 

(ii) Chandraseti-vansi Kayasthas, whose descent is trac; 
ed from Chandra S^n who flourished in the Tretayug in the days of 
Parasu Ram, aud who are found in th« Southern parts of India un- 
der the popular name of Pirhhus, 

(iii) Bengali Kayasthas, an offshoot of Chitragupta-vansi Kayaa- 
thas, who migrated from Kanauj in N.-W. P. and settled in Bengal. 
They are now called Ghosh, Bose, Mittra, Dutt, etc., and have now, 
on account of their separate living, formed quite a distinct class. 
They are to be found in Bengal under the name of Bengali Kayas- 

(Sd,) SOHAN LAL, b.a^ 


Aligarh (N.-W. P.) 
2dth Juhj, 1901. 


Raja Lachhman Singh himself has, in an extensive review of the 
Kayastha Etlinologif, admitted his mistake and withdrawn his state- 
ments. We quote here a translation of the extracts of his review on 
the Kayastha Ethnology, dated 16th May, 1877. Sajs the Raja : — 

"In the Memoirs of the District of Buhmdshahr, I have given 
short account of all the tribes and castes found in that district. The 
book contains among others an account of the Kayasthas also. When 
I wrote that hook I included Kayasthas among Sudras according to 
the stock of information I possessed at that time. I have since receiv- 
ed an English pamphlet bearing the name of Kayastha Ethnology... 

now though the arguments brought forward in this treatise 

serve as refutation to what I have written in the Memoirs, they are 90 
eonclusive that it wojld be unjust on my part not to admit their 
validity. It is for this reason that I take this opportunity of review- 
ing what I have mentioned in that book. Had I seen this pamphlet 
at the time of writing the Memoirs, I •hoald have necessarily in- 
corporated in my account of the Kayasthas, the concluiions arrived at' 
by this treatise. Munshi Kali Prasad has proved on the authority of 
Skanda Purana that Chandpasen-vanshi Kayasthas doubt- 
lessly are KshattPiyas---. I agree with Munshi Kali Prasad 

on this point, and I think others also will be of the sam? opinion, -as. 
there can be no ground to form a different conclusion. With respect 
to Mathur, Bhatnagar, Srivastav^a and others of the twelve sub- 
divisions of Kayasthas, whom tradition affirms to be descended from 
Qhitraguptn, the Padma Purana declares that their progenitor was 
(ihitragupta, a son of Brahma, and in the Bhavishya Purana, Brahma 
himself calls Chitragupta a Kshattriya." — (Pp. 8-9). 

We now pass on to Mr. Nesfield who, in his brief view of the 
caste system ot the N.-W. P. and Oudh, has given a short account of 
the origin and status of Kayasthas. On page 46, para 101, he says : 
*Hhey are descended from the Posthumous son of Chandra Sen," 
this remark, though correct in itself, is yet a misleading one. Those 
who are not acquainted with the divisions of the Kayasthas will come 
to a conclusion that the posthumous son of Chandra Sen was the 
progenitor of all the Kayasthas. But such is not the case. He was 
the grand sire of the Chandra Sen-'vanahi Kayasthas only and not of 
the Chitra^upta-vanshis. Had Mr. Nesfield been acquainted with 
these two divisions, he would have never committed aueh a serious 
blunder.— (Pp. 10.) 


I. Extract fmm the Vyavastha No. 60, dated the loth July ■ 
ISOV^ of the Pandit, Sudder Dewany Adawlat, Agra. 

The Kayastlia is not a Sudra ; the Sudra was produced from the 
feet of Brahma. Chitragupta, the progenitor of the Kayastlia, was 
pro 1 need from the whole body of Brahma. 

By the order of Parasu Ram, the son of a Kshatriya was depriv- 
ed of his military occupation, and designated a Kayastha. It is re- 
lated in the Puranas. 

T[. Vyavastha | of the Pandits of Poona, dated Samb:\t 1858 
(A. D. 1771) oil the authority of the Skanda Parana, Sudra, K.amala- 
kara, KayastJias Pradipa (by Ganga Bhatta J) and other bo )ks and 
signed by the undermentioned Pandits. It is to the effect that 
Chandrasena vansi Kayasthas belong to the Kshatriya class. . 

Maharastras—l Narayana Bhatta, 2 liala Bliatta, 3 Sakharama 
Bhatta, 4 Vapu Pandits Dharmadhikari, 5 Sambbu Pandita Dhar- 
madhikari, 6 Chintamani Dharmadhikari, 7 Gorindarama Sesha, 8 
Ilarirama Pandita Seslia, 9 Maninath Pandita Sesha, 10 Visveswara 
Pandita Sesha, 11 Hira Pandita Sesha, 12 Bechana Bhatta Mouni, 13 
Uanc'iandra Bhatta Tare, 14 Bala Bhattaji Payagunde, 15 Sriram a 
Dikshita, 16 Somanatha Punatambakara, 17 Meghanada Deva, 18 
iSripatinatha Deva, 19 Mukunda Deva, 20 Jaya Krishna Deva, 21 
Chintamani Pandita Puraga Karanatakas, 22 Chhina Bhattaji Arde, 
20 Visudeva Sastri Gurjara, 24 Bala Dikshita Apaji, 25 Sivarama 
Tiliatta Atare, 26 Vapu Bhatta Rayakar.i, 27 Ganesa Bbatta Khande- 
kara, 28 Ganesa Khandekara, 29 Ganesa Bhatta Bhagavata, 30 Deva- 
rama Bhatta Khanrade, 31 Kasirama Bhatta Mandu, 32 Sakharama 
Bhatta Ramadhikara, 33 Sambbu Bhatta Bharde^ 34 Vaidyanatha 
J^hatta Kavimandana, 35 Manirama Patha. 36 Sakharama Patha, 37 
liaghunatha Bhatta, 33 Bhikum Bhatta Viswarup, 39 Yadavarama 
Bhatta, 40 Rapurama Bhatta Nirmathe, 41 Dhodapla, 42 Hari Bhatta 
Viswarupa, 43 Chintamani Joshi, 44 Kashinatha Dikshita, 45 Balam 
Bhatta Dala, 46 Narayana Deva, 47 Balam Bhatta Madhavakara, 48 
Jayarama Joshi, 49 Bala Joshi Karnatahas, 50 Sambhu Dikshita 
Kanade. 51 China Dikshita Kanade, 52 Rama Bhatta Khande, 53 


Bcichana Blialta Kanade, 51 Marari Bhatta Kanade, 55 Baijanatha 
Bhatta Runade, Vajasaneyis, 56 Kasinatha Dilcsliita, 57 Mxhadeva 
lihatta Vajapeyi, 58 Matiiii Rama Bhatta, 59 Veiii Rama Pandita 
Pathaka C/iltpavanas, 60 Bala Diksliita Udaka. 61 Balkrishna Bhatta, 
Gandara. 6:^ Bala Dikshita Godabole, 63 Anantrama Bhatta Patavar- 
dliana, (51 Ramr-handra Diksliita Peya, 65 Visnii Xath Dikshit, 66 
Karishi a Dikshita Lcle, 67 Yajneswaras Dikshita Planakara, 63 
Vinayak.i Rare, 69 Bhishana Bliatta Bale, 70 Raghunatha Bhatta Rore,. 
71 Chill taniani Bhatta Karalekara, 72 Balarria Bhatta Karalekara, 73 
Chiiitamirii Kadake Dik-^hita, 71 Dahoda Dikshita Chitale, 75 Ga- 
ne>ha Bhatta Kadape, 76 Nilakantha Dikshita, 77 Jagannatha Bhatta 
Maliarashtra, 78 Krishna Bhatta Kelakara, 76 Oaiiesa Bhatta Sariiga- 
pala, SO Apa Dikshita Bayale. (Pp. 24-5). 

VII r. Vyavastla of the Pandits of Kashi, dated Samvat 1931, 
C0TTe3p.>nding to 1873 A. D. It is based npon the authority— of 
Padnia Parana, Skanda Parana, Altai jja, Kama Dhenu, Gaga Bhatti 
and Sn Ira KamalaJiara and is signed by the following Pandits, and 
is to t'le effect that the : n estors of the Cliitraguptavansi and 
Chandpasena-vansi Kayasthas were of the Kshattriya class. 

1 Sikharam Bhatta, 2 Ananla IMiatta Sarma. 3 Bhikuji Pant, 4 
liaja llama Sastri, 5 Narayan Bhatta, 6 l^hamdhiraja, Dharraadhikari 
7 Vamanaeharya, Assistant Professor of Sanskrit and Mathematics, 
Govern lien t College, Benares, 8 Ranichandra Sastri, 9 Bapudeva Sastri, 
O.I.E.'^^ Professor of Mathematics, Government Sanskrit College, 
Benares, 10 Pandit Vibhava Rama, 11 Bala Krishna Sastri, 12 Bhaiy, 
Sastri, 13 Narasinha Sastri, 14 Narayana Sastri, 15 Ganesha Sastri, 
16 Bala Sastri Acharya, Professor of Hindu Law, Government College, 
Benares regarding whom The Honorable Ra3 Saheb Vishva Natha 
MaLdalik, in his English Treatise on Hindu Law says, that he was 
one of the greatest authorities on Hindu Laws in India. 17 Purushot- 
tama Sastri, 18 Ganga Dhara Sastri,'- 19 Raja Rama Sastri, 20 Raja 
Rama, formerly Professor of Hindu Law, Government C*ollege 
Benares, 21 Dhonda Sastri, 22 Nana Sastri, Pauranik, 23 Dhundhiraj, 
Dikshita, 24 Keshava Sarma. 25 Rama Krishna Sastri, 26 Damodara 
Sastri, f 27 Vaishva Natha Sastri, 2^ Yajneswara Sastri, 29 Bala 


Sastri, 30 Lachmi Natha Dravira, 31 VaidyaNatha Dikshita Chaudhri, 
32Madhava Arliaiya, 33 Bhaoo Sastri, 34 Bapoo Sastri, 35 Chandra 
Sekhara, 3() Sri Radlia Mohana, 37 Sii Tara Charana Tarkaratna. 
Professor of Sanskrit Grammar, Government College, Benares, and 
President of tlie Sabha of v\'^ Maharaja of Benares, 38 Bechan Rama, 
Professor of Pankhya Philosophy, Government College, Benans, 
39 Sitala Prasad Tevrari, Professor Government College, Benares, 40 
Sri Kali Prasada, Professor of Logic, Government College, Benares, 
41 Sri Kailas Cliatidrat Professor of Gi-aniraar, Government College, 
Benares, 42 Rama Misra Sastri, J Assistant Professor of Sankhya 
Philosophy, Government Colle.ij^e, Benares, 43 Becha Rama, Professor 
of Bengali, (rovernment College, Benan.'s, 44 Vishnu Hari, 45 Veni 
Madhava Sastri, 4() Deva Krishna, Professor of Astronomy, Govern- 
ment College, Benares, 47 Rama Natha, Librarian of Sanskrit Book» 
Government CoUege, Benares, 48 Rama Jasan Sarma, 49 Pyare lal, 
50 Devi Dayalu Tewari, 51 Gopi Natha Tewari, 52 Rajaji Jyotshi, 53 
Siva Rama, 54 Bhairava Datia, 55 Vamadeva, 56 Amvika Datta, 57 
Janki Prasada, 58 Rakshapala, 59 Baladeva, 60 Govinda Achari, 61 
Syam Chai-an, C2 Viswa Nath Agnihotri, 63 Siddhyeshwara, 64 
Thakur Das Deva, 65 Navina Narayana, 66 Sri Madana Molana 
Seromani, 67 Ananda Chandra, 68 Sri Rama Dhara, 69 Sri Kedara 
Natha, 70 Sri Kali Kumara, Assistant I'rofessor of Grammar, Govern- 
ment College, Benares, 71 Karimamaya Deva, 72 Sri Jaya Rama 
73 Sri Kaiiiiia i\j.nta, 74 Sri Satisa Chandra, 75 Madhusudana Nyay 
Vaglsha, 7G Hari Natha Bhattacharvaya, 77 Sri Hara Charana, 78 
Kashi Natha, 79 Sakti Datta, 80 Tula Rama, 81 Sri Krishna Natha, 
82 Hari Krishna Vyasa, 83 Dwarka Datta, 84 Indra Datta, 85 Yagesa, 
86 Lakshmana Jyotishi, 87 Kuvera Pati, 88 Basti Rama Dwivedi, 
Professor of Sanskrit Grammar, Government College, Benares, 89 
Bhawani Pr.isada, 90 Jawahir Tewari, 91 Vishwa Rupa, 92 Sri Ram 
Govinda, 9 5 Sri Harsha, Reader of Bhagavata, 94 Srimat Ananta 
Sanaa, 95 Rama .\ianoratha.— Pp. 2i— 30) 

IX. Vifatfcstha, dated l5th of Phalguna Suk'a. 193) Samvat, on 
the above subject. '*The conclusion arrived at by Pandits of Benares 
as to the Chitragupta vansi and Chandpasenvansi Kayasthaa 
of the Kshattriya caste is conect and agreed upon." 


1. Pandit Ganga Dhara Upadhyaya, son of Pandit Yageawara 
Upadhyaya, son of Pandit Ghintamani Upadhyaya, resident of Benarea 
Mohullah Jatanbar, free-rent holder, Jangipur, district Jaunpur. — 
(Pp. 30—1.) 

XV. Translation of a Vyavastha of the Pandits of Kashmir : — 

**Rai Hara Sukha Rai, Kayastha, proprietor of *Koh Nur Press' 
requested Maharaja Dhiraj Sri Ranabir Sinha Bahadur of Kashmir, 
Jammu and Tibet, etc., the moon of whose bounty and fama illumi- 
natea the world, to decide the vcrna of the Kayastha caite." 

Hereupon the said Sri Maharaja Sabha, having favourably con- 
sidered the request, referred the question to an assembly of Pandita 
of Kashmir gathered in his temple on the auspicious day of tlie 
Ekadasi. All these Pandits, who had read Vedas and had a thorough 
acquaintance with the Sastras, Smritisy Dharma Sastras and Puranas 
etc., having fully considered and perused the Vyavasthas of the 96 
Pandits of Kashi (Benares) and that of the Pandits of Jammu, agreed 
in the conclusion that in the Puranas the Chitragupta-vansi and 
Chandpasenvansi Kayasthas have been held to be of the 
KshatPiya class- A mention of the birth of Chitragapta Kayastha 
and of the duties assigned to him has been made in Padma Purana ; 
and in a description of the Katha of Parasuramji. Chandpasen- 
vansi Kayasthas ape peppesent^d to be bopn ofKs hat- 
piya papents and there is a Sloka here to the effect, ' ,** i^ have 
g-iven to this child* that Dhapma of Kayastha which 
belongrs to Chitpagupta " 

Gaga Bhatta has in his Vyavastha represented two sorts of Kayas- 
thas to be Kshatriyas and written thus : — 

" The ancestors of both the Chitragupta and Chandrasena van»i 
Kayasthas are Kshatriyas and hence those belonging to the above 
two vansis ought to be considered Kakatriyas." 

Signed hy 1 Pandit Kolanandaji, 2 Pandit Mahananda Rajanak, 
3 Pandit Makund Saheb, 4 Pandit Vid Saheb, and other 33ti 
Pandits.— (Pp. 32—3.) 




Hindu Mythology, Page 230-31. 

Papshapama- — ' Rama with the axe.* The first Rama and the 
sixth Avatara of Vishuu. He was a Brahman, the fifth son of Jama- 
dagni and Renuka. By his father's side he descended from Bhrigu, 
and was, par excellence, the Bhargava ; by his mother's side he 
belonged to the royal race of the Kusikas. He became manifest in the 
world at the beginning of the Tretayuga, for the purpose of repres- 
ing the tyranny of the Kshatriya or regal caste. His story is told 
in the Mahabharata and in the Purans. He also appears in the 
Ramayana, but chiefly as an opponent of Ramachandra. 

According to the Mahabharata, he instructed Arjuna in the use 
of arms, and had a combat with Bhishma, in which both suffered 
equally. He is also represented as being present at the great war 
council of the Kaurava Princes. This Purasurama, the sixth Avata- 
ra of Vishnu, appeared in the world before Rama or Ramachandra, 
the seventh Avatara, but tl«ey were both living at the same time, 
and the elder incarnation showed some jealousy of the younger. 
The Mahabharata represents Parasurama as being struck senseless 
b}^ Ramachandra, and the Ramayana relates how Parasurama, who 
was a follower of Siva, felt aggrieved by Rama's breaking the bow 
of Siva, and challenged him to a trial of strength. This ended in 
his defeat, and in some way led to his being *' excluded from a seat 
in the celestiid world." In early life Parasurama was under the pro- 
tection of Siva, who instructed him in the use of arms, and gave him 
the Parasu or axe, from which he is named. The first act recorded 
of him by the Mahablirata is that, by command of his father, he 
cut off the head of his mother, Renuka. She had incensed her 
husband by entertaining impure thoughts, and he called upon 
each of his sons in succession to kill her. Parasurama alone 
obeyed and his readiness so pleased his father, that 
he told him to ask a boon. He begged that his mother might 
be restored pure to life, and, for himself, that he might be invincible 
in single combat and enjoy length of days. Parasuram's hostility to 
the Kshatriyas evidently indicates a severe struggle for the supre- 
niacv between them and the Brahmaua. He is said to have cleared 


the earth of the Kshatri^^as twenty-one times, and to have given the 
earth to the Brahmans. The origin of his hostility to the Kihatriyas 
is thus related : — Kartavirya, a Kshatriya, and king of the Haihayas, 
}iad a thousand anns. This king paid a visit to the hermitage of 
Jamadagni in the absence of that sage, and was hospitably entertain- 
ed by his wife, But when he departed he carried off a sacrificial calf 
belonging to their host. This act so enraged Parasurama that he 
pursued Karta-rirya, cut off his thousand arms and killed him. In 
retaliation the sous of Kartavirya killed Jamadagni, and for that 
murder Parasurama vowed vengance against them and the whole 
Kshatriya tslcg. '"J'hrice seven times did he clear the earth of the 
Kshatriya caste, and he filled with their blood the five large lakes of 
iSamanta-panchaka." He then gave the earth to Kasyapa, and retired 
to the Mahendra mountains, where he was visited by Arjuna. 
Tradition ascribes the origin of the country of Malabar to Parasurama. 
According to one account he received it as a gift from Varuna, and 
according to another he drove back the ocean and cut fissures in the 
Ohats with blows of his axe. He is said to have brought Brahmans 
into this country from the north, and to have bestowed the land 
uy)on them in expiation of the slaughter of the Kshatriyai. He bears 
the appelations Khanda-parasu, 'who strikes with the axe,* and 
>«yaksha, 'inferior.' 

Page 151-2 

Karta-vipya. — Son of Krita-virya, king of the Haihayas. This 
IB his patronymic, by which he is best knovrn ; his real name was 
Arjuna " Having worshipped a portion of the divine being called 
Dattatreya, sprung from the race of Atri, he sought and obtained 
these boons, viz., a thousand arms and a golden chariot that went 
wheresoeiver he willed it to go ; the power of restraining wrong by 
justice; the conquest of the earth and the disposition to rule it 
righteously ; invicibility by enemies, and death at the hands of the 
man renowned over the whole world. By him this earth was per- 
fectly governed." and of him it is said : — "No other king shall ever 
equal Karta-virya in regard to sacrifices, liberality, austerities, 
courtesy and self-restraint." ** Thus he ruled for 85,00() years with 
unbroken health, prosperity, strength and valour." — V. P. He visited 
the hermitage of Jamad-agni, and was received by that sage's wife 
with all respect ; but he made an ill-return for her hospitality, and 
carried off by violence "the calf of the milch-cow of the sacred 
oblation." For this outrage Parasurama cut off his thousand arms 
and killed him. In another place a different character is given to 
him, and more in accordance with his behavior at Jaraad-agni's hut. 
*' He oppressed both men and gods," so that th© latter appealed to 


Vighnii for succour. That god then came down to the eatth as 
Parasu-rama for the especial purpose of killing him. Karta-virya 
was the contemporary of Ravana, and when the demon monarch 
came "in the course of his campaign of conquest to Mahishmati 
(the capital of Karta-virya), he was captured without difficulty, and 
was confined like a wild heast in a corner of his city. The 
statement of the Vayu Purana is that Karta-virya invaded Lanka, 
and there took Ravana prisoner. 


From an account of Khatrts 



Part I, Chapter I, Page 10-11. 

The Puranas describe this struggle in the form of a legend in 
which Parshram, a Brahmin, is said to hare fought with the 
Kshatriyas and extirpated them 21 times. He is then said to have 
lieen conquered by the Kshatriya leader Rama. 

With respect to this Icgnd Mr. R. C. Dutt says, " It would seeni 
that this story indicates the real rivalry and hostilities between the 
priests and the warrior castes, — indications of which we have found 
in a literary form in the Upanishads." ^5 

Stripped of its poetic character the legend would mean that 
Parshram (the axe-bearer), a raja or a powerful and warlike minister 
of some weak raja, in order to increase the power of the Brahmina 
put many Kshatriyas to death and exiled others because they objected 
to the rapid growth of the Brahmins' power. 

It has been admitted on all hands by both the Western and 
Eastern scholars thht the main storj' of the Ramayana, relates to 
facts which, if they took place, ^^ occurred after those of Mahabharat. 
From the fact of the legend relating that Parashram was vanquished 
by Rama it appears probable that the struggles between the Khsha- 
triyas and the Brahmins took place befora the facts of Ramayana. 


Now Colonel Tod is of opinion that the probable date of the claim of 
Vishwamitra to the equality of Kshatriyas and Brahmins which he 
calls " the last struggle in which BrahminJwod would be obtained by 
the military " may be put down as two hundred years before the facts 
of Ramayana.^7 When it is remembered that the date of the war of 
Kurukshetra has recently been proved, very ably, by a learned 
Professor of Madras Presidency College to be between 1415 B. G. an«l 
1430 B. C. and that the date of the main storj^ of Ramayana has been 
loosely given by Dr. Hunter as 1000 B. C. we may reasonably put 
the date of Parshram after the war of Kurukshetra which sliows that 
the Aryan civilization had not yet reached modern Oudh though it 
had gone beyond modern Dehli. 

This conjecture is supported from another source which I think 
probable. At the distance of about 5 miles from Agra is a village 
named Rainka, ^^ the name of Parshram's mother, and the tradition 
is that the village was the seat of Parshram. There is also a temple 
of Shiva which is said to have been erected by Parshram. The ruins 
around the village show the previous greatness of the village. Now 
if the story of the struggle of Parshram and the Kshatriyas was pro- 
bable it becomes true from the situation of the village which is 
beyond Delhi. 

15. Ancient India, Vol. I, p. 212. 

16. Mr. B. C. Dutt rejects them altogether. 

17. Tod's Rajasthan, Vol. I. edition 1829, page 29. 

18. The Muhammadan author of Sayyar-ul-mutakhrin on page 
7, VoL 1, of his work, writes it Rangta, 


Fart Ily Chapter I.~Page 20-21. 

I. — Mr. Gooroodass Bannerji, M. A. D. L., after giving the 
primitive meaning of the word as an ' enclosure for kine, a fortresa' 
and quoting Professor Max MuUer as authority for this meaning says, 
*• Gotra, as used in the above rule, means a family descended from 
one of the several patriarchs, who are according to some twenty-four, 
and according to others, forty-two in number ; so that, taking the 
higher estimate, there are forty- two gotras in all. Now since a 
woman by her marriage passes from her father's gotra to that of her 
husband, therefore, in order that two persona miiv be of the same 


Gotra, each of tliem must be descended from the common 
patriarch through an uniaterrupted line of males. As these patri- 
arclis, or founders of grotas, were Brahmins, the Kshatriyas *nd 
Vaisbyas (expect perhaps those who are descended from Brahman 
fathers and mothers of their own classess, and who are held by some 
to belong to the same classes, respectively, as their mothers), can 
have no gotra of their own. But they have adopted the gotra of the 
spiritual guides or family priests of their remote progenitors. Mann 
applies the foregoing rale to all the three twice born classes alike 
(Hindu Law by Gooroodass Banner] i, M. A. D. L., edition 1879, 
page 51-59. 

II. — In another Book we find gotra the name of the prinutive- 
sage from whom the Brahmina supposed themselves to be descended. 
The other castes have no gotra's of their own. But they use the name 
of the gotra of their priest " (Commentary on the Hindu Law by 
Jogendra Smarta Siromani, M. A. B. L., edition 1885, page 4C.) 


From introduction to the Peshwas Diaries. {A paper 

read before the Bombay Branch #/ the Royal 

Asiatic Society.) 

The Hcn. Mr. Justice M. G. RANADE, m.a. l.l.b., c.i.e. 


Page '»5. — As between caste and caste, the Peshwas held the 
balance evenly, even when the interests of the Brahmin priests were 

affected The right of the Parbhus to use Vedic 

formulas in worship had indeed been questioned in Narayanrao 
Peshwa's time and they were ordered to use only Puranic forma 
like tlie Shudras. This prohibition was however resented by the 
Prabhus and in Bajirao IPs time old order appears to have been 
cancelled, and the Parbhus Avere allowed to have the munj 
OP thpead cepemony pepformed as befope. 

Copy of paper found in the possession of Shrimant 
Bhaoo Saheb Khasgiivale of Baroda, 


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Co/>y 0/ an extract front painted Vaunsh Vriksha 
in possession of the family of the Satara Raja procured 
and shown by Shrimant Raghunath Bajerao Potnis 
Inamdar and Hon. Magistrate Poona. 

f^^llpTf^ H?Hf^H%^5f ^^tsBf^^^^ 'a^s^^?!^ 

wf^ ^[3^5 ^^' iirii 


From information contained in a Vanshaval in possession 

of the Raja Saheb of Satara as told by a 

Prabhu friend who had an occasion 

to look into the paper in the 
Satara Record (rceivrd by the publi- 
sher on the 24th August 1903,) 

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Mr. Dhondo Balkrishna Sahasrahuddhe Assistant Master 

Poona High School. 

(1889 A.D.) 


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Beit and Rayyety October 17, 1903 (Calcutta,) 

The derivation of the word Kayasth, writes a Maliratta KayBsth 
is plain enough to any unbiassed mind. Stha in Sanskrit means 
** resident of " as m grihasth, gramath, DeshastJi, KonJcunasth, 
Angasth, Vangasth, &c. It never meant from or out of " and 
therefore does not indicate " from the body of," Territorial or Local 
is the application and meaning of Stha. Until therefore some one 
shows examples of the use of the term in which it means " from " or 
*' out of,' — the accepted sense of locality is the only rational clue to 
its real meaning. As to the word Kay a, it possibly means Oud, or 
Ayodhya. Knowing as every Sanskrit scholar does, that Anga is the 
name of Oud, and that in the ultre poetic Sanskrit language,, 
synonyms are often used to signify even proper names, it is easy 
to prove that Kayasth means nothing more or less than Angasth or 
residents of Oud. Examples of such territorial names are plenty, 
such as Oriya, Andhia, Kathi, Gujerathi, Maratha, BeiiL-ali, Mad- 
rasi, Punjabi, Kashmiri, &c. There are Brahma Kayastbas, fight- 
ing Kayasthas, writing Kayasthas, trading Kayasthas, artisan 
Kayasthas, mental Kayasthas, and mixed Kayasthas, just as there 
are similar or allied divisions among the Scotch, English, German. 
French or any other nation. They are found in Kashmir, the 
Punjab, Gujerat, Maharastlira, the United Provinces, the Central 
Provinces, Berar, Bengal, Assam and Burma, retaining the territorial 
adjunct as Kayat, Kat, Kast, or Kayasth, and adding occupational 
or social adjectives subsequently acquired. Kayasth is, therefore, 
a na'ion. Their social position differs in different provinces and 
io'alities, according to the presence or absence of the sacred thread, 
and the nature of the occupation. There need, therefore, be no 
odiou?5 comparisons drawn between a nation and a caste or occupa- 
tional grjup like the Bengal Yaidyas as is being don© by writers in 


the " Dawn." The Vaidyas are physicians, distinguished from 
"medicine men" or herbaliat by the undeniable fact that they had 
and have access to Sanskrit texts, a privilege denied to non-Aryan* 
and even non-Bralimans. They are therefore Brahmant of soma 
sort, just as the Vaidyas of Bombay are ttill called False Brahmans. 
It is an occupational offshoot of the sacerdotal class. The nick 
name "ambastha" given to them by sectarian writcm has no autho- 
ritative or corroborative evidence to substantiate it. All over the 
Puranas and in the Skandh-Puran particularly, one finds nothing but 
abuses of and insinuations against, rival creeds, but that is just aa 
it should be in a house divided against itself, built on a foundation 
of tribes formed out of blood feuds. One has to see what the ra- 
tional history of a nation, race, tribe, or caste is likely to be, and 
this theory is placed before the Bengalis for dispassionate consider- 

Extract from ^* Indian caste'^ by the late Mr. John 
Wilson, D. D. F, R, S. 

The Maithili Brahmans. 

Part II Pages 192-3 : — The Maithila Brahmans derive their 
designation from Mithila, an ancient division of India, the king of 
which was Janaka, the father of Sita, the wife of Rama the hero of 
the Ramayan. It comprehended a great portion of the modern districts 
of Tirhut (olim, Tirabhukti, 'bank boundary') Saran and Purniya, and 
also part of the adjacent tracts of Nepal. 

(Hamilton s Nepal P. 45 Hamilton''s Gazetteer V0I. II P. 663.) 

Page 195 — The Maithil Brahmans are scattered not only over the 
provinces above indicated, but are found in some of the towns of Nepal, 

Bengal and Central India They are respected for their learning, 

and especially for their knowledge of the Nyaya system of philosophy. 
The Brahmans of other provinces, who refuse to eat and intermarry 
with them do not object to unite with them in Adhayan, or ceremo- 
nial reading. Some Maratha Brahmans go to Tirhut to study the 
Nyaya. They indulge less perhaps in animal food than the other 
Panch-Gauda Brahmans. 


Sudkarak Dated Monday 9th November 1903, 

Edited by 


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U x-wrr '^ 

^m 3rn^r ^^ ^5( ^^ ^i^ ^J^^^ ^^^^ mf^ ^^m 
HR^ ^. ^^mr ^^^:=^r ^iTF f^RF^g^R^H ^^^t^ ^- 



Hfew General ©becrvatione on Caetc S^etcm^ 

Dr. Bhandarker on "Social History of India " publislied in 
Indian Social Reform, edited by Mr. C. Y. Chintamani says : — 
More than four thousand years before Christ according to the 
latest researches, the Sanskrit-speaking people called the Aryas 
penetrated into India from the north-west. They were at first 
settled in Eastern Kabulistan and along the upper course of the 
Indus ; and thence they gradually descended the river to the south 
and spread also to the east in the upper part of the country watered 
by the five rivers of the Punjab. Their progress at every step was 
resisted by another race or races which in the Rigveda are disignated 
by the name of Dasyu or Das. The Dasyu are contrasted with the 
Aryas and are represented as people of a dark complexion who were 
unbelievers, i. e., did not worship the gods of the Aryas and perform 
the sacrifices, but followed another Law. The Aryan gods, Indra and 
Agni, are frequently praised for having driven away the black people, 
destroyed their strongholds and given their possession to the Aryas. 
From " day to day," it is said in one hymn, '* he (Indraj drove the 
people who were black, all alike, from one habitation to another." 
Those who submitted were reduc d to slavery, and the rest were driven 
to the fastnesses of mountains. The process was carried on in all parts 
of the country to which the Aryans penetrated. The old word Dass 
came to denote a " slave" generally, and the word Dasyu acquired 
the significance of a " robber," as those aborigines who had betaken 
themselves to mountain fastnesses subsisted on robbery. The latter 
word came also to signify " one beyond the Aryan pale" as these 
tribes of robbers were. While the Aryans were in the Punjab they 
were divided into a good many tribes, each having a king of its own 
and a family or families of priests. There were among them three 
social grades or ranks. To the first belonged the priests, who com- 
posed Brahmarv^ (with the accent on the first syllable), i. e., songs or 
hymns to the gods and knew have how to worship them, and were 
called Brdhmans (with the accent on the second syllable). The second 
grade was occupied by those who acquired political eminence and 
fought battles, and were called Rajans. All the other Aryas were 
referred to the third grade and were distinguished by the name of 
Visas or people generally. 

These three classes formed one community, and such of the 
aborigines as had yielded to the Aryas were tacked on with 
as foUjth grade under the name of Dasas, which word had 
now come to signify slaves or servants. Such grades existed amongst 
ancient Persians also. In the course of time these grades became 
hereditary and were called Brahmans, Eajanayas and Visyas or des- 


cendants of the old Brahman-*, Rajjans or Visis. The fourth class 
came to be called Sudras. which probably was at first the name of the 
aborigioal tribe which had acquired a distinct position in the com- 
munity, and was afterwards generaUsed. These four castes are men- 
tioned in one of the hitest hymns of the Rigveda. The first two form- 
ed definite classes with a definite sphere of duties and were the 
arisocracy of the community. Since the Vaisya class included all other 
Aryas, there was a tendency in it towards the formation of sub- 
classes or communities and possibly tliese were such sub-classes^ 
which according to some formed independent castes. The Sudras 
being the aborigines, there were in all Ukelihood sev^eral castes 
amongst them corresponding to the several races which inhabited the 
country before the invasion of the Ary^as. These were of course 
denied the privilege of keeping the sacred fire or performing the 
sacrifices ; and were not allowed to read or study the Ved is. The 
two highes'. castes do not seem in the times to which the old religious 
literature refers to have split up into sub-castes. No sucli are refer- 
red to in that Uterature, though they are supposed by some scholars 
to have existed. There were tribes of Ksliatriyas or Rajanyas and 
Gotras of Brahmans ; but no castes. With his social constitution the 
Aryas spread over the whole of Northern India, and the Sudra 
population incorporated with their community became so large that 
it influenced the hiture development of the country. The Sanskrit 
language was corrupted and tlie V^ernaculars began to be formed. 

Page 3 to 5 

«- ♦ * 

But politics and war were the special occupation of the 
Kshatriya. They also devoted themselves to philosoply and litera- 
ture ; and in the Upanishads they were several times mentioned as 
teachers of rehgious philosophy and Brahmans as learners. In one 
place it is said that Brahmvidya was first cultivated by them. It was 
on account of this philosophic culture that religious reformers sprang 
from their ranks. Buddha was a Kshatriya and so was Mahavira, the 
founder of Jainism. Vasudeva whose name is closely connected 
with the Bhakti School either as the name of the Supreme Being or 
as a teacher, was a Kshatriya of the Yadava clan. A Brahman may, 
says Apastamba, study the Vedas under a Kshatriya or Vaisya lea- 

clicr when reduced to that necessity. Page 7 to 8 

o 'St * e 

Gautama, the author of a Dharmasatra, permits a Brahman's 
dining with a twice-born (Kshatriya or Vaisya) who observes his 
religious duties 17, 1. (Pages 9 to 10.) 

Commensality within and not without a group is almost in 
all cases another characteristic of caste. But in the olden time we 
fee from the Mahabhrata and other works that Bhamiiis Ksliatriyas 
Vaisyns could eat the food cooked by each other 


The result is that Hindu Society is now cut up into more than 
three tliousand castes. Page 13. 

It is generally supposed that abstinence from meat is an essential 
condition of Brahamansun. But according to all authorities Bralmaans 
and other twice born used meat in ancient times. The flesh of five species 
of live clawed animals is permitted to be eaten into DhaiTna Sutras ; 
and even beef is allowed by Apastamba (1-17 30-37) But the in- 
fluence of Buddism and later of Jainism threw discredit on the 
practice, (of eating meat) and those who reedited Hindu Law in the 
fourth century of the Christian era and later, i. e. the writers of the 
Smrites, of Manu and Yajnavalkya lay down the old permissive 
precept, but hedge it round with so many restrictions that it amounts 
almost to prohibition. But in mordern times the Brahmans of Bengal 
Mithila, Kashmir and Sindh do use meat ; while in countries which 
were for a long time under the influence of Budhism and Jainism, 
such as Guzrathi even the lower caste abstain from it. Page 15. 

Pride and other feeling that divide man from man have had 
full swing in the History of India and sympathy and fellow feeling 
has been confined to the narrowest to possible sphare 

The downward course which began many centuries ago has 
landed us here. And anxiously thinking about the matter, one asks 
himself why should this degeneration have gone on continuously for 
a long time without impediment. The reason seems to be that the 
tyranny under wliich tlie Hindus has lived from times immemorial 
has weakened their moral fibre if not entirely destroyed it. We have 
been subject to a three-fold tyranny ; Political tyranny, Priestly 
tyranny, and a Social tyranny or the tyranny of Caste. Crushed down 
bv this no man has dared to stand and assert himself. Even religi- 
ous reform^'s have shunned the legitemate consequences of their doc- 
trines to avoid coming into conflict with the established order of 
tilings. The promptings of his better nature or the pangs of cons- 
cience a Hindu has had to suppress for fear of the three agencies, and 
now the better nature has almost ceased to prompt or the conscience 
to bite. At present, however, though we live under a foreign 
Government we enjoy a freedom of thought and action, such as we 
never enjoyed before under our own Hindu princes. But have we 
shown a capacity to shake ourselves free from Priestly and Social 
tvranny ? 1 am afraid, not much. But this is certain, that unless 
we rouse our conscience and cultivate the higher feelings of our 
nature and, with the strength derived from these, stand erect against 
priest and caste, there is no hope of our being able to turn back the 
current of deterioration and degradation that has been flowing from 
the very olden times and increasing in force as it advances. Page 

Rai Bahadur Lala Bay Kath, B. A., Ludge, Court of Small 


Causes, Agra. " on Fusion of sub-castes in India, published in Indian 
Socdal Reform" says : — 

-:;:- « «- & iS 

The Vedas and the epics carry us back to the good old days of 
India when there were no castes and " the whole world consisted of 
Brahmans only. 

Created equally by Brahma men have in consequence of their 
acts become distributed into different orders. Those who became 
fond of indulging their desires and were addicted to pleasure and 
were of a severe and wrathful disposition, endowed with courage and 

unmindful of piety and worship those Brahmans possessing the 

attributes of Rajas (passion) became Kshatriyas. Those Brahmans 
again, who, without attending to the duties laid down for them be- 
came possessed of the attributes of goodness fSatwa) and passion and 
took to the practice of rearing of cattle and agriculture be came 
Vaisyas. Those Brahmans again who were addicted to untruth and 
injuring others and engaged in impure acts and had fallen from 
purity of behaviour on account of possessing the attribute of darkness 
(Tamasj became Sudras. Sej)arated by occupation Brahmans became 
members of the other three orders." (Mahabharata, Maksha Dharma, 
Chap. 188. " Neither birth nor study nor learning constitutes 
Bralunanhood. character alone constitutes it." (Mahabharata, Vana 
Parva, Chap. 313, Verse 108) 

Manu also tells us that "a Sudra can became a Brahman and a 
Brahman a Sudra," and we read in the Mahabharata that " a person 
not trained in the Vedas is a Sudra, and that whoever conforms to 
the rules of pure and virtuous conduct is a Brahmana" (Mahabharata, 
Vana Parva, Chap. 180, verse 32). Judged by this standard many 
of those who now claim to be and are recognized as Brahmans, and 
many who are now treated a Sudras will soon cease to be to regarded 
It is, however, impossible to bring modern Hindu Society to recognize 
character as alone determining one's caste. Claims of birth cannot 
be ignored in the face of the deep-rooted and the universal belief of 
the Hindus in birth alone determining the class of society to which a 
person belongs. Or can the work of centuries of priesty influence 
on the one hand and ignorance and superstition of the laity on the 
other be at once removed ? Page 145-46. 

The social and religious divisions of the Indian people are now 
based upon an " exclusive devotion to heredity and custom manifest- 
ed in the inclination to exalt the small over the great, to exaggerate 
the importance of minor considerations, and thus obscure that of the 
more vital. Liturgy and ceremonial observances usurp the place of 
moral and spiritual ideas, with the result that the sanction of religi- 
on is applied to all the relations of social intercourse. Rank and 
occupation are thus crystallized into hereditary attributes, a process 


which ends in the formation of a practically unlimited number of 
self centred and mutually repellant groups cramping the sympathies 
and the capacity for thought and action. 

The present subdivision of castes is due to ereographical division:^, 
trade, distinctions and differences in form of worship. Page 150. 

The caste arrogance of the Brahman which first sent these evil 
spirits abroad has corrupted the whole nation and descended to the 
vers^ lowest strata of the population not only has caste demo- 
ralized society at large, but it is a constant source of oppression 
within its own particular ranks. Page 163. Reform in the Caste Sys- 
tem. — Reform in the present system of castes and subcastes is therefore 
absolutely required by the altered conditions of Indian Society. 
Caste as I have already said, cannot be banished from India any more 
than from any other soil. But it may be so reformed as to foster 
good instead of evil. 

The task of the reformer in this respect is, however, full of 
difficulties, but if he keeps steadily in view the ideal of expansion 
rather than contraction of nationality as has hither to been done, he 
shall be successful in the end. Page 163-64. 

Tbe Aryans of old did not relinquish '"' duty from love of money 
nor from fear of death nor from dread of society." Let modern 
Aryans if they wish to be a nation do the same. 

Mr. R. C. Dutt, in "Ancient India " writes : — " It is only 
iu the Puranic period which followed the Budhistic era that 
it (priestly superiority^ threw an impenetrable gloom over a gifted 
but ill-fated nation. In the earlier j^eriods so long as the nation 
had the life and the strength of youth, it made repeated at- 
tempts to throw off priestly supremacy and to assert its free-born 
rights. The Kshatriyas made an attompt to assert themselves in the 
very period of which we are now speaking (i. e. Epic Period from 
1400 to 1000 B, C), as we have already seen. And the Kshatriyas 
made a still mightier attempt later on to throw Brahman ism over- 
board, and adopted the Budhist religion all over the land. With the 
extinction of Budhism such attempts seemed to end, and priestly 
supremacy became ten times worse than before." Vol. I, page 229. 

h «• ■:::• *' w 

" However much therefore, we may deplore the commencement 
of the caste system, we should never forget that the worst results of 
that system, — the yriesthf monopoly of learning, the diHunion in tJic 
hody of the people, and the absolute social separation among castes 
were unknown in India until the Pauranik times. (Page 238.) 

*' No nation has just reasons to be proud of its past as the 
Hindus. But the proudest nations of the earth are at the same time 


those who are the most keenly aliv© to their short-comings and most 
eagerly assiduous in removing them ; and greatness does not long 
survive where such endeavour is wanting. India, too, has had her 
short-comings, and it is necessary that we should remember them, 
and seek to remove them. And we should never forget that 
monopoly is hurtful to those who hold it, as to those who are 
excluded from it ; and that a monopoly of learning and honour is the 
worst kind of monopoly that the world has kuown. The nation is 
degraded under a permanent social subjection, and then drags down 
the monopolists ia the common national ruin." Vol. III. Page 148. 

^'Yery high authorities have described caste as the "express badge 
of Hinduism," and M. Barth considers that this institution is not 
merely tlie symbol of Hinduism, but its stronghold, and a religious 
factor of the very highest order." (Baines' Census Report, 1893, 
quoted in ^TRrfi?? ^TW^^ of Mr. Narayenrao Bhawanrao Pawgi. Page 6.) 

" In the history of the world, India lived because India's was 
the spirit of humanity which could not die. She was the earliest of 
tlie Arvan peoples, the first born of the mightiest races, she had for 
lier guides and instructors spiritual sages, and rishis, and divine kings. 
It was. therefore, that India's religion and her social system was per- 
manent at its foundation, whatever might appear on the surface. 
These liad in themselves the possibility of a revival, though they 
might have disappeared for a time. These were the four great castes, 
which they would find in every Scripture spoken of continually and 
woven into the growing history of the nation. The caste-system had 
enshrined it a principle which was based on a truth which was the 
truth of natural order." (Mrs. Anne Besant on India and its mission 
Lecture delivered in Bombay, January, 1891. Quoted in Vol. VIII. 
of Mr. Narayenrao Pawgi's book, Page 170.) 

The import of Mr. N. B. Pawgi's writing in Marathi in his book 
called »TTrrftq^ ^M»^.. Vol. VIII. — Varna Vyavastha is the everlasting 
sign or characteristic of Hindus. It was not created by the Brahmins 
for their selfish motives or for gaining supremacy over others, but 
it was organized with a foresight to have the spark of ability, 
power and sense of duty retained by the different classes. The chief 
object of V^arna Vyarastha was the principle of division of labour. 
In course of time this object was kept aside by mistake, and therefore 
number of castes was increased and the bad results were experienced 
by the caste prejudices. Thereby union and mutual confidence were 
destroyed and the social atmosphere was darkened, or it became 
dusky with the dust of quarrels and hatred. 



3T^=^ ff^^cf ^f|. ^FT'JT, rU ^1%^ f ^Fcfi^ 3TH5 ^iTl^ 

^{^^ tmr. rf^ri*^ cqf^r ^f ^\^^ w>-^\ i\^u miw^x 

^^ ^i^^RF ^T^\^^\ ^re^^i^ ^tf^ob^. p^ge 256-257. 
%?^r^r, 5F^q> ^F'HiTTRrfi sh^tt si'ttct. ^rht, ^^grgr" 

^r^^ iTiw ^5^ m gri^^q^ ^^mx ^^ 


(S« — Z)2aJ caste depend en hirth ? 
^ns. — JYot so in ancient Jndia. 

cT^irr ^^gfl ^^ikr ^^nm ii 

M A N U . 

Tliere is no distinction of castes, the whole universe is the pro- 
geny of Brahma, for all men were created equal in the beginning ; 
by actions fKarmas), they acquired various castes. A Shudra may be 
come a Brahmana, and a born Brahmana may be degraded to the 
rank of a Shudra, so also one born a Kshatriya or a Vaishya. (The 
Prasnottara Vol. IX No. 101 June 1899. Page 136). 

(£. — Xi^Jio is then a ^lahman ? 

^^^ ^Fof^lrTc^^T ^^^\^% 3T-cT^f|«r ^r^r^^^ ^^^» 
^^rT^ir^^^ri Hr^[?^3T^fr^f^fq ^crrq^qr ^r^rii^ ^r^^rlcf:- 

{Vajrasuchl Upnkhad.) 


He who has realised that the Atma is one withont a second, that. 
as He is devoid of all differentioe of genus, attribute or activity, that 
He is free from the sixfold human infirmities (grief, delusion, decay, 
death, hunger and thirst), that He is free from the sixfold stages of 
existences (origination, existence, modification, increase, decrease,, 
destruction), that He is true, knowledge, bliss and infinity ; that 
Himself unmodified, He is the substrate of all modifications ; that 
He is the Inner Ruler of all created things, that He is all-pervasive,, 
in and out, like space or ether ; that He is indivisible, all joy» 
Immeasurable, Unproveable, known by intuition alone. He is the 
most direct cognition, like a plum in one's hand -a person who has. 
realised God — vision in this way, who is free from lusts and attach- 
ments, Ac, who is endowed with sama and dama, &c, (subjection of 
the senses and of mind), who is free from envy, desire, expectations, 
delusion, &c., whose mind is untouched by pride, hypocrisy, &c., 
such a person alone is a Brahmana according to the real meaning of 
all Rerelations, Traditions, Puranas, Itihasas. There can be no 
Brahminity in anything else. 

Such was the high ideal of a Brahmana. Nowadays however, a 
Brahmana is one who is born of Brahmana parents, for nowadays 
caste is determined by birth only. (Tiie Prasnottara Vol. IX No. 105 
October 18U9, Page L»41-242). 

Extract from Prasnottara, Vol. X, No. 109 : — 

The system (caste system) is an universal one, and the subject 
should receive a different treatment on three lines (1) Historic as 
explaining the modes of lives of the Hindu race, once a very powerful 
nation. (2) Cosmic, as to its origin and motive in the evolution of the- 
cosmos, and (3) Political, as dealing with the evolution of the minor 
cosmos — the world and iti inhabitants 

We see that according to this system, a nation is divided into 
four main classes — the lalx)aring, the commercial, the ruling and 
the spiritual 

"Before 1 proceed any further I must state that, by these classes 
I do not mean that they are independent classes, isolated from the 
family life, but that they are all composed of family men, discharg- 
ing different functions in the national life according to the level of 
their respective physical, mental, moral and spiritual evolution. 
Thus, those who are physiealh/ robust but weak in other respects 
were entrusted with the office of serving and agriculture ; those who 
were intelleetualh/ superior, were entrusted with commerce which 
needs a calculating mind ; and those who were morally strong, could 
disregard their own comforts and earthly lives on the call of duty, 
and were alive to the sufferings of others and had a perfect sense of 
justice, were entrusted with the duties as ruler ; whilst those who 
eould rise above the material world and could devote their lives in 


outward poverty to the contemplation of the Supreme were made th« 
custodians of the spiritual welfare of the nation. Thus, we see that 
tUese four classes are the necessary ingredients for a national life— a 
tact which cannot be denied by anv sound politician. And it must 
be admitted by all that a nation, to have a national hfe for itself, 
must have its own labouring men, (the cultivators and the serving 
class) to serve the country with a devoted heart." 

Extract from Dr. Wilson on^Indiancaste"— The meaning, Sphere, 
Authority, and symbols of caste: —Caste is not an Indian word. Its 
original form, Casta belongs to the Portuguese, by whom it was 
ordinarily used among themselves to express " cast," " mould," 
" race," "kind," and " quality." It was applied by the Portuguese, 
when they first arrived in the East to designate the peculiar system 
of religious and social distinctions which they observed among the 
Hindu people, particularly as founded on race The Indian word 
wliich particularly corresponds witli caste is Jati, equivalent to the 

Lation r/m.s, (in the inflected form gent—) and Greek " race or 

nntion,'' while J at i-hheda, the representative of the foundations of 
tlio caste-system, means the "distinctions of race (r/entls discrimina.'') 
Varna, anotlier word used for it by the Hindu-s, originally meant a 
difference in colour. Gradually these Indian words, conveniently, 
rendered by "Caste," have come to represent not only varieties of race 
and colour, but every original heriditar\\ religious, instituted, and 
conventional distinction which it is po3sil)le to'imagine. (page 12-13.) 

Caste has its marks, signs, and symbols and symbolical acts 
as well as its laws and customs ; and very gi'eat stress is laid by it 
on their constant exliibition. The grand index of Hinduism is the 
tuft of hair on the crown of the head — called in Sanskrit Chuda or 
Shihha, in Maratlii Shendi and in Tamul Kndame -which is left 
there on the performance of the sacraments of Tonsure, on 
the first and third year after birth in the esse of the three first 
classes of the Hindus (see Manu ii 35. j In consequence of this 
mark Hinduism is popularly known as Shcnd'i-Dharma or reli- 
gion of the Shendi (see Molesworth'.s Marathi Dictionary, sub voc) 
In the eighth year after the conception of a liranman (the represen- 
tative of the ]Driestly class,) in the eleventh from that of a prince or 
Kshatriya, and in Uie twelfth from that of a 7?s/i or Vaishya, the 
agriculturist and merchant the investiture with the sacred cord 
should occur (Manu ii 30.) Thougli this sacrement in the case of 
these classes particularly eager for its. Special blessings may be 
resorted to by them in their fiffth, sixth, or eighth year respectively 
(Manu ii 37.) It should never be delayed in the case of a Brahman 
beyond his sixteenth year ; nor in that of a Kshatriya beyond his 
twenty second, nor in that of a Vaishya beyond his twenty-fourth 
(Manu ii 38)" (Page 15-16.) 

Revd. J. Murdoch in his book 'Tapers on Indian Reform 'Caste'" 
writes the following under the headings 'Advantages of Caste' and 
'Disadvantages of Caste' :-— 

"Advantages- 1 Division of labor secures a certain degree of 
excellence. 2 Some measure of protection. 3 Cleanliness. 4 Respect 
for Authority. 5 Moral Restraint. 

Disadvantages — 1 Physical Degeneration. 2 National Poverty- 
3 Intellectual Progress Hindered. 4 flostility to Social Reform. 5 
Individual Liberty is crushed. 6 The Growth of Nationality is hinder- 
ed. 7 Discord between Classes. 8 The heart is hardened against suffer- 
ing. 9 Caste seeks to degrade nearly the whole Human Race, and 
ranks some beneath the Brutes. 10 Caste fills a few with Pride and 
Arrogance. 11 Caste concentrates religion on outward ceremony, and 
perverts moral feeling." 

The above extracts will give the reader some idea of tlie two 
sides of the question with regard to the object, motives and working 
of the "Caste Systems." 


Conservatism is a force which we cannot afford to 
forego or forget. Yen may talk and act in a way that 
appears to be the result of your voluntary efforts^ but 
you are unconsciously influenced by the traditions in 
which you are born, by the surroundings in which you 
are brought up , by the very milk which you have drunk 
from your mother's breasts or influenced by those things 
in the world which you cannot disown. To say that it is 
possible to build up a new fabric on new lines without 
any help from the past is t^ say that I am self -born and 
my father and grandfather need not have troubled 
for me, Mr. JUSTICE RANADE, (Indian Social 
Reform by C. F. Chintaman, Part II page 60.) 

■T must be mentioned here at the outset that the publisher makes 
■ no pretenct of possessing originality nor there is an attempt 
to make an exhibition of the store of knowledge as he is conscious 
that he has no fund of the kind. Oriental scholars of the West and 
East have expressed their views after carefully studying the question 
of "caste system" as that is the characteristic of the Hindu nation. 
Drs. Wilson, Muir, Haug, Bhandarker, Mr. R. C. Dutt, Justice Ranade 
Rev. Sherring, Wilkins, Mr. Bhawanrao Pawgi and Theosophists like 
iMrs. Anne Beasant and others have written and said a good deal about 
the propriety or impropriety of this system which is a kind of 'riddle' 
to m»ny. Although there appear to be two sides of the question, 
when we look into the arguments of the above mentioned scholar! it 
is so interesting to note the difference of opinion in as much as there 
is great force of reasoning in the arguments of both the sides. I 
should like to refer the reader to big works written on "Caste" by 

several of the above mentioned scholars of the west and east if they 
w^ant to have an exact idea of the points of difference in their views 
It is enough for our purpose to note that some are of opinion that the 
institution of ' caste, is the greatest so(;ial tyranny created by the 
Brahmins to have a kind of suprimacy over all the people and to 
have the monopoly of knowledge for themselves, that the nation is 
ruined socially by the severity of the caste rules and regulations. 
Others say that the divisions in the society like the 'caste' system are 
natural in any nation and are also necessary for tiie organized forma- 
tion of any society. 

We must also inquire into the question whether it is worth our while 
to think about the intricate riddle of the institution, whether it is desire 
able in these days to go into the details, of the same and whether it is of 
any practical benefit to exhaust ones energy' in arriving at any con- 
clusion on the points of the origin of caste, creed, customs, manners, 
habits, forms and formalities of any race in India or it is simply 
fruitless to be after the question, whether the question is important 
from social, moral, literary or practical point of view or would it be 
©nlyan amiless affair expected to create no sympathy and whether there 
was any valid reason to write the pages of this book. 

In the first place there are no two opinions about the fact that 
originally there was no distinction of caste or varna even. Tliere may 
be difference of opinion about the utility or otherwise of the caste 
system but both the sides agree in saying that there wa,.3 only one 
caste, that there were no restrictions about interdining or inter 

Note the following orthodox opinion mentioned by Rev. J. Mur- 
dock in his book on caste : — 

Bhagwat Puran — There was formerly only one Ved, only on^ 
God, Narayan, one Agni and one caste. ' 

Vayu Puran — There were then (in the krit age) no distinction 
of castes. 

The reader will also note the following which is the transla- 
tion of a passage from Purans mentioned in " Dr. Wilson on caste." 

" The colour (varna, meaning primarily colour and afterwards 
caste) of the Brahmans was white ; that of the Kshatriyas red ; that 
of the Vaishyas yellow ; and that of the Shudras black." 

" Those red-limbed Brahmans (twice born) who w^re 
fond of sensual pleasure, fierv, irascible, prone to daring, and who 
had forsaken their duties, fell into the condition of Kshatriyas." The 
yellow Bralunans who derived their livelihood from cows, and agri- 
culture, and did not practise their duties, fell into the state of Vaishy- 
as. The Brahmans who were black, and liad lost their purity, who 
were adicted to violence and lying who were covetous and 
subsisted by all kinds of work, fell into the position of Shudras. 
(p. 268-69).'' 

It appears that tlie terms Brahman, Kshatriya and Vaishya werj 
originally used more a? connotations than simply as denotations though 
no doubt rules were made to preserve the denotations which were 
to exiblt conotative faculties. Brahman for instance should connote 
stuidard of high character attained by a strict morality, self-sacrilice, 
contentment, spiritual guides, kind heart equanimity of feeling, 
heedlessness of worlrlly comforts, thirst after knowledge of the Supreme. 
M'hf^e inner qualifications are to be read by marking the denotations 
about his personality whi:;h are shown by the conduct of his life, his 
habiis manners and hissymbols such as ^^T, n"^, ^TtnCfrf ^1^ &c. In 
course of time more attention appears to have been given to the denota- 
tive forms and formalities by which a man was called Brahmin Kshatriya 
Vaishya or Shudra. Later on. any person born in the family of a 
Brahman who kept up the denotative form was considered to be a 
Brahmin and Avas respected as such though void of the connotations or 
denotations of a true Brahmin. Tiie duties assigned to a Brahmin were 
consistaut with his inner qualification viz., study, teaching, perform- 
ance of sacrifice, sacrificing for others, also making and receiving gifts. 

It is said that the tliree Gunas ( OT ) or universal tendencies 
of nature by their influence upon the nature and constitution of man 
create three classes of man. Satwa Br^ or the harmonizing tendency 
of nature, when it predominates in a man, makes him perfectly 
angelic and urges him on to follow a* life which is pre-eminently 
superior and nijas V3^ or the self-centering tendency when it reigns 
supreme in the nature of a man makes him an ordinary self-seeking 
many of whom we see around us. And Tamas rJ^^ or disorganizing 
tendency of nature when it prevails in the nature of a man, makes 
him a brute who knows nothing else than the mere satisfaction of 
animal appetites. Observations of the pre|X)nderating force of any of 
these Gunns therefore might have given rise to the nomenclature of 
the classes Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya and Shudra. 

This theory is supported by the fact that according to the old 
texts there are Brahmin horses, Kshatriya horses, Vaishya horses and 
Shudra horses, so also there are the classes of Brahmin Kshatriya 
A'aishya and Shudras amongst the serpents even. Also there are said 
to be such classes in gems and jewels. Many people are aware that 
according to the science of Astrology amongst the Grahas or planets 
there are Brahmans, Kshatriyas. Vaishyas and Shudras. (e. g. 
Jupitor iind Venus are considered to be Brahmans ; Sun and Mars 
Kshastriyas Mercury and Moon Vaishyas and Saturn, Rahu and Ketu 
Shudras. Internal feeling of nature might have exhibited some lustre 
or colour upon the face of a person just as anger makes a man red, this 
must have given rise to the nomendature of castes or Vornus (colours.) 
A Hindu Astrologor ascertains by the scientific calculation that accord- 
ing to the horos cops some persons are Brahmans and Kshtriya. some 
Vaishya and some are Shudras whatever be their caste, i. e. a Brahman 
considered by society m:iy be a Shudra and vicr versa according 
to the horoscope. Tliis also shows the origin of the nomenclature. 

Mixture of these Guna^ might hare given rise to distinct castes 
or moulds in each of these original classes viz., Brahmin Kshatriya 
Vaishya and Sliudra and in course of time mere birth in a particular 
caste or mould made the person entitled to hare the privileges of the 
parent caste which in fact gave him a particular social status to which 
he liked to cling. The tendency of the people appears to have been 
towards such clinging by the historical evidence and each caste did 
not like to interfere into the profession or duties assigned to any 
other. This probably kept up the order of society. But the law 
of competition came in and the rule 'fittest will surviro' made people 
to wrestle for struggle for existence and the old duties wtre naturally 
neglected not to say forgotten. 

The following extract will give the reader an idea of the view 
ahout the duties and laws for the Hindu Society laid down for 
different ages : — 

" Tapa was the highest duty in the Krita Yuga ; knowledge, in 
the Trita ; and sacrifice in the Dvapara ; while the giving of largeness 
it the highest duty in the Kali. The Dharma freliprious law) of 
Manu was for the Krita ; that of Gautama for the Treta ; that of 
Shankhva and Likhita for the Dvapara ; and that of Parashara is far 
the Kali." (Page 396 97 Dr. Wilson on caste.) 

" A Brahman should receive the Upanayana (thread ceremony) in 
his eighth year from conception or birth: a Kshatriya in liis ele- 
venth ; and a Vaishya, in his twelth. A Brahman not receiving it 
before his sixteenth year, a Kshatriya before his twenty- second year, 
and a Vaishya before his twenty- fourth year, are to be eiteemed 
Vratyas and fallen from the Savitri. F. 6. 29 (degraded.) 

If it is urged that Kshatriyas are extinct from this world 
because there are none amongst Hindus who follow the strict pro- 
fession of a Kshatriya the same can be said to be true of a Brah- 
man. In these days of competition who has k*pt up to the tradi- 
tional profession? Each caste interferes into the profession of another 
and therefore mere profession cannot be the safe jjuide to know the 
particular caste It will not be far from truth if the bublisher ventures to 
say that Prabhus have more conservatively kept up to their traditional 
profession. According to the mythology they were first warriors, 
in course of time they were ordained to be writers. One can find 
hundreds and thousands of Brahmins following the professions of 
penmanship leaviner their priestly profession, but no one is able to 
point out a single Prabhu following the profession of a priest. This 
is because a Prabhu firmly believes that he has no privilege of 
taking ^^joiT howsoever profitable the profession of a priest may 
be and howsoever straitened his circumstances may be to induce him 
become a f^^^. Then if it is urged that the proper observances 
of the religious precept and ^^W^ alone will allow a par^oa to 

keep up his status, many of the Bralirains will not be entitled to be 
considered as Brahmins. How many of the Brahmins observe eren 
their daily religious observances called <t^W. Sandliya ^im 
and Pooja are forgotten by many and yel they are treated as Brah- 
mins. Their locial status is not lost in the eyes of the public for 
all practical purposes, nor by the present Hindu law a» administered 
in the courts of justice in points of adoption, succession, and other 
things regulated by the personal law to wliich he ia subjected. 

Sext as to whether it is worth our while to tliink about the 
subject. The publisher thought with many others of his caste that it 
is not desir^ible to discuss caste questions in these days of western 
culture as tliat may rake up the old quarrels about the caste 
prejudices but tlie question has been morally forced upon 
us as well as upon all castes by the lately started Ethnogrvtpliic 
department of Government upon historical basis. In this presidency 
Government had already dealt with this question from historical 
stand point in 1881 or 1883 when the volumes of Bombay Gazetteer 
were composed »nd compiled with the splendid exertions of Sir 
James Campbell. Nearly after quarter of a century Government is 
induced to look into the subject by setting up Ethnographic 
survey. In a printed paper sent to the Poona Prabhu Club, Mr. 
Enthoven says '" starting from the point already reached by Sir James 
Campbell and his band of workers, it should, I believe, be possible 
to produce, in course of the next five years, an adequate survey ©f 
the tribes iiid castes of I lie presidency in a form which promises 
to be of permanent scientific and administrative value." He also 
says 'there are it may be noted, nearly 500 castes and tribes in the 

Presidency exclusive of Sindh Thus it will be seen that 

the proposed enquiry into the origin, constitution, customs, occu- 
pation and physical features of the tribes and castes of Bombay is 
one which must necessarily cover a very wide area." 

While remarking about the peculiar ethnological features of the 
several Districts of the Presidency, Mr. Enthoven observes, " In 
Gujrath multiplicity of caste divisions was found to be a noteworthy 
feature of the higher ranks of society ; in the wide plains of the 
Deccan we are struck by comparative uniformity. In usinnf this ex- 
pression, it is not intended to refer to the lax use of terms which 
has included under the designation of 'Maratha such opposite pole* 
of the social sphere as 'Brahmans' and 'Ramofihia'. But uniformity 
of a kind and to a perceptible degree, is here noticeable and suggestive. 
In the Deccan also the student is brought into close contact with 
the Mai'athas, a tribe now outwardly little distinguishable from a 
caste, whose origin and social configuration are still matters on which 
very divergent opinions are expressed." This shows that Government 
wants to make a thorough inquiry from a historical stand [X)int for 
the purpose of detailing the distinction without difference caused 
by the uniformity or similarity in appearance seen by a super.fioial 

observer. For this purpose another scheme appears to have been 
laid out by Government to ascertain the minute distinctions by 
setting up researches on 'anthropometrical' line. TJiis being an 
entirely scientific line, the result cannot be guessed beforehand. 
Tliia inquiry by collecting material for researches of the anthropo- 
metrical survey lends additional and corroborative help to the results 
arrived at by the compilers of the " Bombay Gazetteer " and the latest 
progress of the ethnographic survey. All these three tests (viz., (1) 
inferences from information in Bombay Gazetteers pubhshed about 
a quarter of century before ; (2) the result of the latest ethnographic 
survey by securing answers to the 27 questions issued under the 
signatures of Messrs Denzil, C. J. Ibbretson, John C. Nesfield and 
H. H. Risley autiiorised by G. R. No. 3286, dated 31st August, 1894; 
(3J and the results of the anthropometrical research) appear to be 
intended to be applied to the question of caste system so that there 
should not be an error as far as possible in determining the social status 
of each caste by looking to its past historical condition and the 
present social condition from an intellectual, moral "or social stand- 

It is the present position of each caste that is to be determined. 
This appears to be the intention of Government because Mr. 
Enthoven says 'Further south, effort should be made to 
classify and delineate the Hindu castes and tribes as they are found 
to be organized at the present day.'' The line of Government in the 
inquiry of this subject is better understood by the following words 
of Mr. Enthoven : * Special inquiry should be devoted to the eluci- 
dation of the extent to which traces of Aryan origin are to be found 
in the higher castes' and to the existence amongst these castes' of a 
later or scythic strain due to Post Aryan invasions, a probable factor 
in the ethnic development of some of the highest castes that has so 
far failed to attract sufficient attention. In this connection, the fair 
complexions of the Chitpavans of the Konkan and Deccan and the 
Saraswats of Kanara should mark these Brahmins as a special object 

for anthropometrical observation 'To sum up, we should endeavour 

to present a living picture of the people, of the Presidency, 
from Jacobabad to Bhatkal, from Bhusawal to Bombay with an 
orderly and scientific summary of their probable origin, their present 
social organization, occupation and status ; their customs, beliefs and 
physical pecularities, in form convenient for reference. ' This can best 
be secured by arranging the results of previous research and of the 
present inquiries in the order adopted in the specimen question 
paper which forms part of the Resolution of the Government of 
India, and which is reprinted as Appendix B to this note " (which is 
the subject of this little book.) 

These remarks of Mr. Enthoven the Provincial Superintendent 
of Census and Ethno,2fraphy, can give the reader an idea of the object 
of Government, their line of work and their method of conducting the 

etlinographic survey of the Presidency and of their circumspection 
in weighing the evidence obtained by having recourse to the above- 
mentioned three tests. 

Next as to the Extracts from Bomhay Gazetteer and other Puhli- 

catious : — Extracts from Bombay Gazetteer about Prabhus are given 

in this book vrith a view to have before the reader the information 

from Government record pubHshed so many years ago in a con- 

sohdaed form for ready reference. Although the main story 

about mythological account of the caste and the description about 

the general trait of their character are the same in the volumes 

of different districts, there would be found some information 

peculiarly local or interesting, e. g., Vol. Ill gives us infonnation 

that Prabhus settled in GuJTath after its conquest by the Marathas. 

The information is important because some may think by the large 

population in a place like Baroda that Prabhus might be the natives 

of Gujrath. Vol. X ^''SavantwadiJ gives a peculiar information that 

since 1872 all Prabhus except one family have left Savantvvadi. At 

present there may be a few more families of the Prabhus in that 

state. Vol. XI gives the local information that the rivalry between 

the Brahmins and Prabhus is peculiarly strong in Kolaba District. 

Such estranged feehng between the two castes is conspicuous by its 

absence in the District of up-country ; this gives one the idea of the 

culture in these districts. The same volume (Janjira) gives us the 

];eculiar notion ascribed to this caste about the beak of a fowl and 

the conservatisim of sticking up to their avcxjation of penmanship. 

In Vol. XIII mention is made of the comparative uniformity 

spoken of by Mr. Enthoven, as a Prabhu cannot be distinguished 

from a Brahman by a stranger. It also states caste discipline 

shows no si.2rn of decline. The reader is to see how much 

change there has been of late years in this point, wdiether 

it be change for good or bad. Vol. XVI gives one an idea 

of the Kayasth Brahmans as disdnguished from Kayasth 

Prahhus, though both appear to have migrated from Upper India. 

Extracts from Rungo Bapooji's Book (11-14) Kayastha Education 

series (P 15-20) Peshwa Diaries by Mr. J. Ranade, (F. 25) "Sudharak" 

Newspaper (P. 36-41) are useful under observations upon the 

answer to question 17. The extracts from 'Kayastha Education' 

series (P. 15-20) are no doubt about the Chitra Gupta Vansi' 

Kayasthas in k. W. P., between whom and the Chandra- 

seniya Kayastha Prabhus of the Deccan there is no commensality 

of interest or similarity of customs, manners, habits, or forms 

and formalities of the present day. Both do not interdine or* 

intermarry. In fact, botli of them do not know each other at all. 

Mention is made in the extracts of Vyavasthas ofthe Chan- 

drasen Vansi Kayasthas which may mean, to denote Chandra- 

seniya Kayasthas Prabhus of the Deccan. The Vyavastha of the 

Pundits of Poona given in one of .the extracts shows clearly 


that it was about tliis caste known at present as Prabhus in tliis p«rt 
of the country, hence the publisher thought it adrisable to incor- 
porate it in this little book as additional information for readers.) 
i^ut all the information given under observation upon the question 
will give the reader an ideu hovr the ancestors of the Prabhu 
Ciiste were anxious to keep up their socio-relicious status in different 
times in opposition to the rival class who threatened to pull them 
down from their place in society by snatching away the religious 
rights and privileges of the Prabhus. Whether the sonety of the pre- 
sent day will care to attach any importnnce to these persecutions 
and disputes, of the olden times is quite a different question. 
That does not lower its historic importr.nce. Besides that jride 
about social status is not peculiar ^.o Prabhus. Note the following:— r 
'' Pride of ancestry, of family and personal position and occupation, 
and of religions pre-eminence, which, as will be immediately 
seen, is the grand characteristic of *cnste', is not peculiar to India. 
Nations and peoples, as well as individuals, have in all countries, in 
all ages, and at all times, been prone to take exaggerated views of 
their own importance, and to claim for themselves a natural and 
historical social superiority to which they have had no adequate title. 
That spirit which led many of the olden tribes of men to consider 
their progenitors as the direct offspring of the soil on whick 
they trode as the children of the sun, moon and other heavenly 
bodies in whose light they rejoiced or as the procreations or mani- 
festations of the imaginary personal gods, whom they worshipped, 
has been very extensive in its influence throughout the world." 
fPart I Page 9. Dr. Wilson on caste.) 

These things may be based upon sup3rstition, mythology or 
even fables of antiquity, yet they are important and interesting in 
themselves to a student of history and philosophy, even though he 
is anxious to prize the scientific inquiry to the utmost degree. It is 
said 'Historic pride clings to masses as well as to individuals, con- 
ducing to honourable pride when rightly felt.' (Tod's Rajasthan 
A^ol. I preface.) 

It has been observed by the philosophical traveller. Dr. Clarke, 
that 'by a proper attention to the vestiges of ancient superstition, 
Tye are some times enabled to refer a whole people to their original 
ancestors, with as much, if not more certainty, than by observations 
made upon their language ; because the superstition is engrafted 
upon the stock, but the language is liable to change. (Travels 
in Scandinavia Vol. I P. 33 quoted in Tod's Rajasthan.) 

"However important may be the study of military, civil, and 
political history, the science is incomplete without mythological 
history ; and he is little imbued with the spirit of philosophy, who 
can perceive in the fables of antiquity nothing but the extravagance 
of a fervid imagination. Did not other consequences result from the 

study of mytlialogy, tliaa the fact, that in all ag3^ and countries, 
man desecrated his reason and voluntarily reduced liiinself below the 
level of the brutes that perish, it must provoke inquiry into the cause 
of this degradation, such an investigation would develop, not only 
the source of history, the handmaid of the art and science, but the 
origin and application of the latter, in a theogny typical of the 
seasons, their changes and products. Thus Mythology may be con- 
sidered the parent of history. (I'od's Rajsthan Vol. I P. P. 275 39)." 

It will thus be seen that Mythology is as much important for 
tracing historical truths as any other scientific method. The Prabhu 
caste preserved their socio-religious status by frequently asserting 
their rights to the religious privileges, and therefore these extracts 
were considered by the publisher to be important enough to be given 
as additional information. Government also wants to ascertain the 
present social position of each caste as ur.derstood by the Hindu 
society in general and as enforced by law in each case whatever be 
the cause of its origin. . 

Extract from Hindu Mythology by F. Dawson is giren on Pag© 
21-23, because this caste as well as all those who claim to belong to 
Kshatriya race trace their ori<?in to tlie struggle between Parashuram 
and Kartavirya otherwise called Sahasra Arjun. The caste claims a 
direct descent to Sahasra Arjun who belonged to the Haya Haya 

Extract from 'an account of Khatris* (P. 23) gives the result of 
the inquiry of the date of the struggle between Brahmans and 
Kshatriyas of the time of Parashuram Avtar. It also gives a 
circumstantial evidence by marking the situation of the town called 
Ranika (24). If Dalbhays' Ashram (hermittage) is pointed out to li© 
near Raibaraeily and Parashuram's mother's place of residence near 
Agra, is it not possible that the ancestors of this caste might be the 
original residents of Uppar In Jia as this caste connects the origin to 
the fight of Parashuram with Karta Virya or Sahasrarjun. 

Extract about Grotra (P 24-5) would support the observation under 
reply to question II. 

Extract about the ^^T^ToJ of Takale ( Page 20-27 ) the general 
priest of the Prabhu caste shows that this caste had come down frorn 
Upper India and particularly from the country called fqrp4?J 
or near abou the place as their former priest was one U^RT"^ W\^\ of 
Mythil. The place of residence of the caste is more clearly and defi- 
nitely shown by the extract from the ^W^^s of Chitnis family given 
on Page 2S which is said to have been iu the SaUira Record. 

Extract from mr^ ^'^c^^ Page 29-30 shows the division of the 
country known in ages gone by and the sif.uation i»f the country then 
called 3tT which is very near the country called ^^T This extract 


would give the reader an idea that the Prabhiis must be from 
afT i.e. country near Ajudya on the banks of ^5 They must 
not have their residence in tl or Bengal. 

The list of names given in P. 31-33 shows that the caste must 
liave come from Upper India to Mandavgad in Central India. Such 
names are peculiarly known to be from Upper India even now. The 
surnames given in the list are of the Chandraseniya Ka^-astha Prabhus 
an the Deccan. 

Extract on Page 28 from the Vansha Vriksha shows the dis- 
tinction of the kind of writing believed to have been ordained to 
th^ three kinds of Kayasthas, viz., 1, writing of the religious literature 
2, writing of the Court or Durbar literature, a:id 3, the writing of 

Extract from Dr. Wilson's bock given on Page 35 shows the 
situation of the country called Maithil and information about Maithil 
Brahinans vvlio appear to be tlie original priest of the Prabhu caste 
(see Takles ^^[^5J P. 26-27) as Prabhus cama. from a country near 
Maithil. It is quite possible that they should have their priest from 
their own district of residence or near about the same. 

Extract from and iRayyet Page 34-3') should be read under 
observation to question I about the origin of the word Kayastha. 

One of our Baroda friends informs us that in a dictionary 
known as ^\'^ tr^ under ^]^] 3T*^ ^m the meaning of the word 
'Kaya'^^T is distinctly sfiven as Ayudhya3T%^ If that be correct there 
should be no doubt that Prabhus' original residence must have 
been ^r^f:^^ and Kayastha naturally may mean to be resident of 
3Tqt^-^ ( ^^ = 3T^-^ ^ «= resident in. ) The publisher got this 
niformation after the book was put in print. 

Now let us see whether discussion about the socio-religious 
status of any caste is of any use from a practical standpoint. Every- 
body is aware that Law is the most practical science. None 
can escape from the clutches of Law even though he be ignorant of 
the principles of the same. 'Ignorantia legis non excusat- -Ignorance 
of law is no excuse' — is the maxim. Let us therefore see whether Law 
has any thing to do with the socio-religious status of any people. 
Hindu Law is a personal Law and all Courts in India administer it 
according to the doctrines of the school of the particular Province 
where parties reside. In Bombay customary Law is respected above 
everj^thing. 'Clear proof of custom outvreighs the written text 
of Law'. Customs of particular people based upon Mythology will 
alone therefore decide the questions of Hindu law in this Presidency. 
For instance illegitimate sons in the three higher classes never 
take as heirs, but are only entitled to maintenance under Hindu 
Law. When therefore a question about an illegitimate son's right 
comes in a law court the inquiry into tlie question whether his father 
belonged to any of the three higher classes will be necessary. In 


fact, that will be a point in issue. To ascertain that a particular person 
belonged to a particular class of the three higher classes, viz., 
Brahamin, Kshatriya,Vaishya his socio-religious status will have to be 
inquired into. Whether Munj ceremoney was performed, whether the 
custom of wearing ^T^TT^IrT (sacred thread) was adhered to ; whether in 
fact he was ffsr twice born will have to be inquired into and proof 
of minute details will be admissible. In su^h cases all the informa- 
tion based upon Mythology, history and customs will be relevant. 
If a man be proved to belong to the Dwija class his illegitemate 
son will have the right of maintenance only and his estate will go 
to his ^r^ (legitimate) son, whereas if he be proved to be Shudra 
his property will be inherited by the illegitimate son with the 
legitimate son, so also in the case of adoption it is necessary to 
inquire whether the parties belong to any of the Dwija (twice 
born) classes or they are Shudras. In this way the question becomes 
practically important. Even the dress of a particular person may 
lead one to decide the social status of a man ; so if there be a change 
in the dress nationality will not be easily known. The Hindu Dharma 
is in one place described as Shendi Dharma because the pecularity 
of all the Hindus is having a Shendi ^T^ (particular shape of hair 
on the head) Now-a-days of course no particular care is taken to 
preserve these symbols, though generally head dress of a Hindu 
is the chief symbol that is kept up for recognition It is 
desirable that the nationality should be kept by keeping up some 
pecuHarity of dress. While speaking about Hindus' present dress 
Principal Selby of the Deccan College save : 'The Hindu dress, at 
present, is in a most chaotic and unsatisfactory state. What sort of 
a dress is it becoming ? It is no national or distinctive dress. It is 
a sort of amorphous combination of Hindu and English things. It is 
not graceful ; it is hardly decent. The way in which a man takes 
himself in society is not a small matkr. The English idea was that 
Hindus dress themselves in flowing robes of spotless white ; that was 
what we expected until your dress was spoiled. The Easterns had 
an instinctive eye for harmony of colours. On the aesthetic princi- 
ples, a dark complexion requires a white dress to set it off. Dingy 
colours which we use are unfit to you. In the matter of dress there 
is an absolute retrogression, a decline in aesthetic taste." These 
remarks are important as they were made by an Englishman, who is 
the famous cducationiast of our time and who has every right to 
a(lvise young men of the Hindu community by giving out his frank 
opinions on such points. Whether a person is a Hindu, Mahomedan, 
Parsee or European is yet known easily by the appearance of his 
dress and manners, because the denotations are yet preserved to a 
great extent showing the nationality. No one is able to ridicule 
a young Hindu if he imitates a European dress as that does not 
deprive him of the caste to which he belongs. There has been a 
kind of toleration in this respect or a kind of licence given by the 
society, but would it not be better to try to have in us the good 


qualities and spirit that lies Uildeir the Eiirbpean coat or ha?, 
otherwise it will be simply taking the shell and leaving the kernel. 
Industry and curiosity are the two things that must be acquired by 
the Hindus in general and by Prabhus in particular. Love of these 
two things is sure to make a Prabhu rise high in the estimation 
of Society // he but sticks to his traditional high character 
and faithfulness. 

The publisher begs to be excused for delay in publishing this 
little book owing to various private difficulties to spare time to look 
to the printing work. 

In conclusion the publisher ventures to say that time has not 
yet come when we can forget or forego the feeling of the distinction 
of caste and such other conservatisms, howsoever we may advance in 
western education as is shown by the words of late Mr. Justice Ranade 
quoted at the heading of these remarks. The publisher cannot 
close this remark chapter without quoting Dr. Bhandarkar's frank 
and enthusiastic expressions. : — 

" I do not wish you however, to obliterate all distinctions at once . 
Caste has become so inveterate in Hindu Society that the endeavour 
to do so wiU only result in the formation of new castes. But 
the end mast steadily be kept in view. We must remember 
that caste is the greatest monster we have to kill. Even education 
and intercourse as regards food does not destroy it. The feeling that 
we belong to a certain castp and are different from those constituting 
another caste returns again and again in a variety of slmpe, even 
when we have broken through the restraint imposed by caste as regards 
eating and drinking , and if not studiously driven away will ever 
keep us apart from each other and prevent the formation of homo- 
geneous nationality. I will ask you to consider whether a pledge not 
be guided by caste considerations in the disposal of your patronage if 
you happen to he placed in a position of intiuence and in tiie whole 
of your ordinary practical life, and to act in all matters except inter- 
marriage and inter-dining as if you belonged to one community, will 
not be a more effective pledge. You might also gradually j^ledge 
yourself to dine with members of sub-castes." (Dr. Bhandarker on 
Social Reform .j 


1. The original place of residence of the Pra- 
bhus must have been in the northern parts of India 
where Aryans appear to have first arrived and 

2. They are the descendants of those Aryans 
who were called the Kshatriyas and they have been 
considered and treated as Dwijas. 

^ 3. Their present position or status in the Hindu 
Society, is that of writing Kshatriyas than fighting 
Kshatriyas as they think that they were compelled 
to give up arms and were ordained to take up the 
avocation of penmanship. It is the status of the second 
of the three regenerated classes called Kshatriyas and 
therefore they enjoy all the rights and privileges 
allowed to Dwijas under the authority of repeated 
decisions of the religious head, Royal mandates and 
clear proof of custom. 






CHE undersigned has already published in ' Jagat 
Samachar' of the liberal offer of Mr. T. V. Gupte 
of advancing Rupees two hundred for printing the 
Etlmographic Notes sent by the Poona Prabhu Club 
to the Provincial Superintendent of Census and 
Ethnograpy. Donation was invited for the book. Mr. 
T. V. Gupte had consented to give the net profits for 
the benefit of an institution of the caste and had 
undertaken to bear the loss himself if the sum of 
donation realized be not sufficient to defray the ex- 
penses of printing, &c. The estimated cost was not 
wrong as the notes occupied not more tha^ 
80 or 85 pages of the book. But Mr. Gupte made 
an addition of more than fifty pages after the 
book was put ' in print. He however sticks to 
his promise in the interest of the Prabhu caste, 
The amount of donation realized is nearly Rupees 
one hundred and fifteen, while the cost of printing, 
&(•., is likely to be nearly Rs. three hundred. The 
undersigned therefore makes this appeal to the 
members of C. K. Prabhu community to appreciate 
Mr. T. V. Gupte's work and requests those who 
liave not yet paid anything, to^send in their donation 
I0 him so that there may remain some profit for the 
benefit of an institution of the caste. Donation not 
less than As. 8 will be accepted as formerly advertised. 
Money should- be sent to Mr. T. V. Gupte Pleader, 
335, Shanwar Peth, Poona City. 

(Sd.) R. N. INAMDAR, 

C. K. Prabhu Historical Society, Poona. 
Poona, August 1904^ 


Syracuse, N. Y. 
Stockton. Colif.