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Ethnographic Collections from the Assiniboine 
and Yanktonai Sioux in the 
Field Museum of Natural History 

James W. VanStone 

June 28, 1996 
Publication 1476 




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1 he forest structure, physiognomy, and fl( i irnal of Ecology, SI: 

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ind R. A. Schwarz, eds.. Spirits, Shamans, and Stars. Mouton Publishers, The Hague 

• 1946. The historic tribes of Ecuadoi, pp. 785^821. In Steward. J. H.. ed.. H.- 

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Ethnographic Collections from the Assiniboine 
and Yanktonai Sioux in the 
Field Museum of Natural History 

James W. VanStone 

Curator Emeritus 
Department of Anthropology 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Chicago, Illinois 60605-2496 

Accepted October 30, 1995 
Published June 28, 1996 
Publication 1476 


© 1996 Field Museum of Natural History 

ISSN 0071-4739 


Table of Contents 

Abstract 1 

I. Introduction 1 

The Assiniboine 1 

The Yanktonai 2 

George Dorsey as Collector 2 

II. The Assiniboine Collection 3 

Introduction — Previous Anthropological 

Research 3 

The Collection 3 

Tools 4 

Household Equipment 5 

Clothing 6 

Ceremonial Equipment 9 

Pipes and Accessories 9 

Clothing and Accessories 10 

Musical Instruments 12 

Personal Adornment 13 

Games 13 

Miscellaneous 14 

III. The Yanktonai Collection 15 

Introduction 15 

The Collection 15 

Household Equipment 15 

Toys and Games 16 

Ceremonial Equipment 18 

Pipes 18 

Musical Instruments 18 

Clothing and Accessories 19 

Miscellaneous Ceremonial 

Equipment 21 

Clothing and Personal Adornment 22 

Miscellaneous 24 

IV. Conclusions 24 

Acknowledgments 25 

Literature Cited 26 

Appendix 1 28 

Appendix 2 30 

Appendix 3 32 

Appendix 4 34 

Appendix 5 36 

List of Illustrations 


1 . Map of Montana and the Dakotas 
showing Yanktonai reservations 2 

2. Hammers, whetstone, quill smoother, 

hide scrapers 37 

3. Bags 38 

4. Berry bag 39 

5. Berry bag 40 

6. Bags, twisted sinew 41 

7. Dipper or ladle 41 

8. Belts 42 

9. Man's leggings 43 

10. Man's leggings 44 

11. Man's leggings 45 

12. Man's leggings 46 

13. Man's leggings 47 

14. Moccasins 48 

15. Moccasins 48 

16. Moccasins 49 

17. Moccasins 49 

18. Moccasins 50 

19. Moccasins 50 

20. Pipes 51 

21. Pipes, pipe bowl, pipe bag 52 

22. Headdress 53 

23. Dance cap 54 

24. Headdress 55 

25. Mirror cases, charm, fan handle, fan .... 56 

26. Drums, drumstick 57 

27. Rattles 58 

28. Knife sheath, games, necklace, hair 

parter, mirror case, clubs 59 

29. Pad saddle 60 

30. War club 61 


31. Bags 62 

32. Mortar, pouches 63 

33. Games 64 

34. Games 65 

35. Games 65 

36. Sled, games 66 

37. Pipes, pipe stem, pipe bowl 67 

38. Drum 68 

39. Rattles 69 

40. Sticks, whistle, rattles 70 

41. Shirt 71 

42. Shirt 72 

43. Hair ornament, dance feathers, webbed 
hoop, buckskin ring, necklace 73 

44. Dance necklace 74 

45. Shield 75 

46. Shield 76 

47. Dance wand, fans, necklace 77 

48. Dance headdress 77 

49. Dance wand 78 

50. Spoons, bowls 79 


51. Spoons 80 60. Belt 86 

52. Medicine bag 80 61. Hide scraper, earrings, hair parter, war 

53. Medicine bag 80 whistle, hammer 87 

54. Girl's robe 81 62. Spit, armbands, hammer, hair parter, 

55. Girl's robe 82 rattle 88 

56. Woman's leggings 83 63. Man's leggings 88 

57. Man's leggings and moccasins 84 64. Headdress 89 

58. Moccasins 85 65. Headdress 90 

59. Moccasins 85 66. Armband 91 

Ethnographic Collections from the 
Assiniboine and Yanktonai Sioux in the 
Field Museum of Natural History 

James W. VanStone 


The ethnographic collections of the Field Museum of Natural History contain 163 objects 
collected among the Assiniboine and Yanktonai Sioux by George Dorsey in 1900. Small col- 
lections were made for the World's Columbian Exposition by E. F. Wilson and Edward Ayer. 
The artifacts in these collections are described and illustrated. For comparative purposes, in- 
formation is included from previous studies of the Assiniboine, Yanktonai, and neighboring 
peoples on the northern Plains. 

I. Introduction 
The Assiniboine 

Although it is probable that just prior to Euro- 
pean contact the Assiniboine occupied the bound- 
ary waters area between Minnesota and Ontario 
as well as a large portion of south-central Mani- 
toba, there are no archaeological materials gen- 
erally accepted as Assiniboine. Their neighbors to 
the south and east were the Cree, with whom they 
maintained close relations. Although there is a 
Sioux tradition that the Assiniboine originated 
from the Yanktonai, there is no parallel Assini- 
boine tradition, and linguistic evidence shows no 
special closeness between the two (Parks and 
DeMallie, 1992, pp. 247-248). 

The first documentary mention of the Assini- 
boine as a separate tribe is in the Jesuit Relations 
in 1640, but no information is provided regarding 
their location or their relationship with the Yank- 
tonai Dakota. The construction of trading posts on 
Hudson Bay after 1670 brought about a more 
northwesterly movement of the Assiniboine and 
their Cree allies toward and beyond Lake Winni- 
peg in Manitoba. These two groups became mid- 
dlemen between the fur traders and more westerly 
tribes in a trade that was oriented toward York 
Factory on James Bay. 

After 1763 the Assiniboine began to drift in- 
creasingly to the south toward the international 
boundary. American trading posts on the Missouri 
River were an attraction, as were the contraction 
of bison ranges and the increasing importance of 
this animal. By 1825 the Assiniboine were estab- 
lished in American territory around Fort Union at 
the juncture of the Yellowstone and Missouri riv- 
ers (Rodnick, 1938, p. 103; Ray, 1974, pp. 4-13; 
Fowler, 1987, pp. 13-14). 

The Assiniboine acquired horses and firearms 
at about the middle of the 18th century. Although 
they were apparently always poor in horses, by 
1750 the Assiniboine had fiilly adopted the life- 
style of horse-mounted buffalo hunters typical of 
Plains peoples during the historic period. The 
Milk River Agency, intended for the Assiniboine 
and Algonquian-speaking Gros Ventre, was estab- 
lished in 1 870. In 1 873 it was moved to Fort Peck 
and the name was changed to Fort Peck Agency 
on 22 December 1874. Here the Lower Assini- 
boine were settled with a variety of Sioux refu- 
gees from Dakota Territory. Fort Belknap was es- 
tablished in 1873 for the Upper Assiniboine and 
Gros Ventre (Parks and DeMallie, 1992, pp. 248- 
250; Hill, 1974, pp. 100-101) (Fig. 1). 

By 1883 the buffalo had disappeared from the 
vicinity of both reservations, although the Assin- 
iboine at Fort Belknap were able to follow the 

FIELDIANA: ANTHROPOLOGY, N.S., NO. 26, JUNE 28, 1996, PP. 1-91 

Fig. 1. Map of Montana and the Dakotas, showing sites of Yanktonai reservations. 

nomadic life a few years longer because buffalo 
remained in the Little Rocky Mountains and along 
the Milk River. The disappearance of the buffalo 
compelled the Indians to settle permanently, and, 
increasingly dependent on the federal govern- 
ment, they were more receptive to the introduc- 
tion of farming (Rodnick, 1938, p. 3; Dusenberry, 
1960, pp. 44-46; Fowler, 1987, p. 53). In 1900 
there were 1,313 Assiniboine in the United States, 
694 at Fort Belknap and 619 at Fort Peck (U.S. 
Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1900, p. 644); in 1902 
425 Assiniboine were reported to be living on re- 
serves in Saskatchewan (Hodge, 1907, vol. 1, p. 

The Yanktonai 

Traditionally the Dakota or Sioux were divided 
into seven bands: Mewakantonwan, Wahpekute, 
Sissetonwan, Wahpetonwan, Yankton, Yanktonai, 
and Teton. The first four bands are designated as 
the Santee bands and speak the same dialect of 
the Dakota language. The Yankton and Yanktonai 
share a dialect, and the Teton speak Lakota, the 
third dialect of the language (Howard, 1976, p. 4; 
Parks and DeMallie, 1992, p. 235). 

When first encountered by Europeans, all seven 
bands were living in Minnesota. In the late 18th 
and early 19th centuries the Yankton, Yanktonai, 
and Teton began to move west. The Yankton 
moved into what is now southeastern South Da- 
kota, while the territory of the Yanktonai was lo- 

cated in that part of northeastern South Dakota 
and southeastern North Dakota east of the Mis- 
souri River. A brief account of traditional Yank- 
tonai subsistence activities and other aspects of 
their culture is given by Howard (1976, pp. 4- 

Today the Yanktonai are, for the most part, set- 
tled on four reservations: the Standing Rock Res- 
ervation in southern North Dakota, the Devil's 
Lake Reservation in central North Dakota, the 
Fort Peck Reservation in northeastern Montana, 
and at Crow Creek on the Missouri River in 
southeastern South Dakota (Fig. 1). In 1900 there 
were 1,047 Yanktonai living at Crow Creek and 
1,134 at Fort Peck. In addition, approximately 
half of the total population of Standing Rock 
(3,588) and Devil's Lake (1,041) were Yanktonai 
(U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1900, pp. 644, 
646, 648, 650). The Yanktonai also live in Canada 
on at least three reserves in Saskatchewan (Parks 
and DeMallie, 1992, pp. 238-239). Comparable 
figures for Yanktonai living in Canada are not 

George Dorsey as Collector 

George A. Dorsey joined the staff of the Field 
Columbian Museum (later the Field Museum of 
Natural History) in 1 895 as curator of anthropol- 
ogy. During his first 10 years at the museum, he 
concentrated on building the North American In- 
dian collections, an effort accomplished through 


a series of expeditions that he undertook himself 
or entrusted to various assistant curators. Dorsey 
firmly believed in concentrating money and en- 
ergy in selected locations to "fill in the gaps" in 
collections acquired from the World's Columbian 
Exposition of 1893. 

Dorsey's views on collecting are evident in his 
correspondence with various field-workers sent 
out under his direction (Rabineau, 1981, p. 34; 
VanStone, 1983, pp. 2-6; 1992, pp. 2-3). He con- 
sidered it important to "clean up" reservations 
because he did not believe that most regions were 
worth a second trip when so many other areas 
were poorly represented in the museum's collec- 
tions. Dorsey sought to collect broadly, but fo- 
cused his research on a small number of related 
groups. While at the museum the Caddoan peo- 
ples were the focus of his research studies, which 
he carried out in greater depth and detail than 
most other anthropologists of his day. He insisted 
that collections made by his colleagues be well 
documented and encouraged collaborators, such 
as H. R. Voth with the Hopi, to engage in research 
for the museum. 

In 1 897, the year after taking up his post, Dor- 
sey made his first field trip for the museum. On 
May 12 of that year, he and Edward Allen, the 
museum's photographer, left Chicago on a 4- 
month trip that included visits to the Blackfoot 
(Blood), Kutenai, Flathead, Haida, Tsimshian, 
Hopi, and Zuni reservations. The purpose of this 
expedition was "to secure ethnological and phys- 
ical anthropological material for the building of 
groups which would adequately portray the cul- 
ture and physical characteristics of these tribes" 
(Field Columbian Museum, 1897, pp. 186-188). 

Three years later, from May to July 1900, Dor- 
sey undertook an ambitious trip through the west- 
em states with similar goals in mind. He paid vis- 
its to, among others, the Sauk and Fox reserva- 
tions in Iowa, the Shoshone and Arapaho reser- 
vation in Wyoming, the Bannock and Nez Perce 
reservations in Idaho, the Paiute reservation in 
Nevada, the Ute reservation in Utah, the Umatilla 
and Klamath reservations in Oregon, as well as 
the Fort Belknap, Fort Peck, and Devil's Lake res- 
ervations, where he made the Assiniboine and 
Yanktonai collections described in this study. 
During this whirlwind tour of western reserva- 
tions he collected more than 1,800 ethnographic 
objects. Although precise information is lacking, 
he could not have spent more than a few days at 
each location. 

11. The Assiniboine Collection 

Introduction — Previous Anthropological 

The most complete account of the Assiniboine 
is that given by Edwin T Denig (1930), who was 
employed by the American Fur Company from 
1836 or 1837 to 1856 at Fort Union, the principal 
trading post in the United States of these Indians 
at that time; he was married to an Assiniboine. 
According to Ewers (Denig, 1952, p. 121), during 
his later years he was generally recognized as an 
authority on Assiniboine language and culture. 
His monograph is still considered the best source 
on these people. 

The first trained ethnographer to visit the As- 
siniboine was Robert Lowie, who spent the sum- 
mer of 1907 with the Stoney at Morley, Alberta. 
The Stoney, related to the Assiniboine, are a sep- 
arate tribe and speak a dialect so distinct that it is 
virtually a separate language from that of the As- 
siniboine. Lowie spent the month of August 1908 
at Fort Belknap. He published a monograph 
(1909) devoted primarily to social and religious 
life and mythology. David Rodnick spent 4Vi 
months at Fort Belknap during the summer and 
fall of 1935 and produced a study of cultural 
change (Rodnick, 1938). John Ewers did field- 
work at Fort Belknap and Fort Peck in the sum- 
mer of 1953 and published two articles, one deal- 
ing with the bear cult (1955a) and the other with 
the horse medicine cult (1956). The only research 
dealing specifically with Assiniboine material cul- 
ture was undertaken by Vem Dusenberry in 1959. 
Dusenberry apparently worked with a single in- 
formant, and his short article (1960) deals with 
only a few categories of material culture. 

The Collection 

Of the 77 Assiniboine objects described in this 
study, 62 were collected by Dorsey in July 1900 
(accession 689). Of this number, 34 were obtained 
at Fort Peck and 28 at Fort Belknap. Also includ- 
ed in this study are 9 objects from Fort Peck, ob- 
tained by E. F. Wilson in 1892 or 1893 (accession 
23) for the World's Columbian Exposition, and 4 
objects, also from Fort Peck, part of a large eth- 
nographic collection made for the Exposition by 
Edward Ayer, one of the founders of the museum 
(accession 112). The total number of inventoried 
Assiniboine objects in these three collections is 


80, 3 objects having been sold or lost. Except for 
provenience, these collections are largely undoc- 
umented. However, the accession lists in Dorsey's 
handwriting included in the files of accessions 
689 and 691 (see Appendices 3 and 4) include 
some ethnographic information and the prices 
paid. For the most part Dorsey apparently failed 
to follow the collecting advice he gave to other 
field- workers, a fact that can perhaps be explained 
by the extensive itinerary of his 1900 expedition 
and his consequently brief stay among the Assin- 
iboine. He may have kept a more detailed field 
notebook documenting this trip, but, if so, it is not 
now in the archives of the museum's Department 
of Anthropology. 

Objects in the Dorsey, Wilson, and Ayer col- 
lections are described under the following seven 
use categories: tools, household equipment, cloth- 
ing, ceremonial equipment, personal adornment, 
games, and miscellaneous. (See Appendix 1 for 
catalog numbers and proveniences. Catalog num- 
bers for each object are also in the text.) 


Trade in buffalo (Bison bison) hides was an im- 
portant activity for the Assiniboine, as it was for 
all the northern Plains tribes. According to Denig 
(1930, p. 541), 2 days were required for a woman 
to completely prepare one buffalo hide for market, 
and preparation of 25 to 30 robes was considered 
a good winter's work for one woman. 

After a hide was fleshed with a bone flesher, it 
was dried and bleached in the sun for a few days. 
Then it was laid on the ground and scraped evenly 
with an adze-like scraper, of which there are two 
in the collection. Both are of the elk (Cervus can- 
adensis) antler elbow type, with the distal ends 
flattened on the inner surface to receive a metal 
blade. The blades are missing on both scrapers, 
but they would have been wrapped with a strip of 
tanned buckskin and lashed to the haft with raw- 
hide thongs. At the proximal end of each scraper 
is a small hole for attachment of a thong to aid in 
maintaining a firm grip. Both scrapers are orna- 
mented with parallel incised lines and dots 
(60199, 60188; Figs. 2c,e). Denig (1930, p. 540) 
noted that this scraping procedure required a half 
day for a whole hide and was "very fatiguing 
employment." This form of scraper is common 
throughout the Plains. A similar implement from 
the Teton Dakota is illustrated by Densmore 
(1948, PI. Ih). 

If a hide was to be soft-tanned, it was treated 
with melted grease and animal brains or livers, 
heated, and rubbed with a porous stone or bone. 
The collection contains a single fragment of pum- 
ice-like stone that is identified in the catalog as a 
hide dresser (60201; Fig. 2f). The final tanning 
step involved further softening by moving the 
hide back and forth through a loop of twisted raw- 
hide or sinew attached to the underside of a lodge 
pole (Denig, 1930, pp. 540-541; Rodnick, 1938, 
p. 31). The collection contains a length of twisted 
sinew, which is described in the catalog as having 
been used in tanning. Cloth ties are attached at 
either end (60216; Fig. 6d). For the Blackfoot, this 
step in the skin-working process is described and 
illustrated by Wissler (1910, p. 64, PI. V). 

According to Wissler (1910, pp. 21-22, Fig. 1), 
the Blackfoot crushed berries with a stone ham- 
mer like the single complete example in the As- 
siniboine collection. It has a broad, flat sandstone 
head with a transverse groove around the upper 
end. The handle is wood, doubled and wrapped 
with rawhide and cloth, which passes around the 
head in the groove (60197; Fig. 2b). A quartzite 
hammerhead has a transverse groove around the 
middle (60191; Fig. 2g). The collection also con- 
tains a quartzite hand hammer that was used un- 
hafted. This implement is wider at the distal end, 
with a rounded proximal end for a better grip 
(60193; Fig. 2a). Denig (1930, PI. 66) illustrated 
two hafted stone implements, which he described 
as a "hatchet" and a "war club," that were 
among the few "ancient stone implements" he 
observed among the Assiniboine in the 1850s. 

A flat, oval quartzite pebble is identified in the 
catalog as a "sharpener," presumably a whet- 
stone. According to the catalog, it was used for 
sharpening the steel blades of hide scrapers, but 
it does not show obvious signs of use (60200; Fig. 
2h). A similar oval whetstone from the Teton Da- 
kota, described as being used for the same pur- 
pose, is illustrated by Densmore (1948, p. 174, PI. 

A curved bone implement pointed at one end 
is identified in the catalog as a porcupine (Ereth- 
icon dorsatum) "quill smoother," ornamented to- 
ward the proximal end with incised parallel 
grooves and dots filled with red pigment (60212; 
Fig. 2d). According to Lyford (1940, p. 44), "Af- 
ter the quills were sewn down they might be fur- 
ther smoothed by rubbing with a 'quill flattener,' 
a special instrument made of a smooth flat bone." 
A metal quill flattener from the Hidatsa is illus- 
trated by Oilman and Schneider (1987, p. 131). 


They call it a quill presser. The manner of using 
this implement is illustrated by Ewers (1944a, p. 

Household Equipment 

The collection contains two bags made from 
the whole skins of buffalo fetuses. On one the 
anus is closed with a piece of red wool stroud 
outlined with small blue heads, and the feet are 
sewn with sinew strung with blue beads. The V- 
shaped neck opening is covered with a piece of 
drilling. Narrow strips of red wool stroud and blue 
beads are sewn into the seams with sinew (60209; 
Fig. 3b). The second bag is unmodified except for 
a slit at the neck, which could be closed with 
twine lashing (60179; Fig. 3a). 

A bag in the Read northern Plains collection 
similar to these two was identified by the collector 
as a woman's work bag (Markoe, ed., 1986, pp. 
153, 161). In Dorsey's handwritten Hst for acces- 
sion 689 (Appendix 3), no. 60209 is identified as 
a bag for storing dried meat. A similar calfskin 
bag, illustrated by Ewers (1944a, p. 28), is de- 
scribed as containing a quill worker's equipment. 

Described in the catalog as berry bags are two 
large, oval skin bags with narrow openings. The 
first is made from a single piece of cowhide with 
the hair left on. It is sewn up the sides and has a 
wide strip of buckskin around the opening cut at 
intervals for a drawstring of the same material. A 
pair of ear-like pieces of skin are sewn on either 
side of this bag at the bottom (60217; Fig. 4). The 
second bag is similar in shape and made of fawn 
skin. A strip of buckskin approximately 3 cm 
wide is sewn into the seam on each side. The 
drawstring at the top is a strip of cloth (60208; 
Fig. 5). Neither bag shows berry stains on the 
inside. A similar bag from the Teton Dakota is 
illustrated by Densmore (1948, p. 176, PI. IVc) 
and is described as a bag for holding dried meat. 

The collection also contains three bags not 
identified as to use, two of which are rectangular 
in shape. The first is made from a single piece of 
soft-tanned buckskin sewn up the sides with sin- 
ew. The back is longer and forms a fold-over flap 
at the top. Paired, fringe-like strips of soft buck- 
skin are sewn on the flap and on the front just 
below the flap. Those on the flap are ornamented 
with large translucent green beads at the point 
where they are attached to the bag. There are 
broad bands of lazy-stitched white, light blue, 
dark blue, translucent yellow, and translucent red 

pony beads sewn across the seams on each side. 
A similar band of beads of the same colors is 
sewn around the edge of the flap. Two ear-like 
projections of soft buckskin are attached on either 
side at the bottom (60174; Fig. 6b). 

The second rectangular, pouch-like bag is made 
of buffalo hide with the hair left on. It shows signs 
of considerable use; much of the hair is worn off. 
It is made from a single piece sewn up the sides 
with sinew. There is a narrow flap at the back and 
a rectangular piece sewn on the front. The seams 
are covered with lazy-stitched green, clear, red, 
light blue, and dark blue pony beads. A single row 
of beads is sewn around the rectangular piece of 
hide fastened to the front of the bag. At either 
comer at the top are fastened a pair of metal 
cones, from the lower ends of which protrude yel- 
low-dyed horsehair (60192; Fig. 6a). 

The third bag is oval in shape and made from 
a single piece of soft-tanned buckskin sewn up the 
sides with sinew. A band of lazy-stitched white, 
green, dark blue, red, and translucent yellow pony 
beads covers the seams, and a double row of 
edged beads in the same colors is sewn around 
the opening. On the front and back just below the 
opening is a thread-sewn beaded design in white, 
red, and dark blue beads. Fringed flaps of soft 
buckskin are attached on either side at the bottom 
(60207; Fig. 6f). 

A single object in the collection, identified as a 
spoon in the catalog, was probably used as a ladle 
or dipper ; it is on exhibit. Made of buffalo horn, 
it has a wide, deep bowl with a pointed, upturned 
handle and is approximately 27 cm long (60204; 
Fig. 7). A similar Assiniboine buffalo horn ladle 
or dipper, identified as a spoon, is illustrated by 
Denig (1930, p. 414, PI. 65). Their method of 
manufacture is described by Dusenberry (1960, 
pp. 58-59). Ladles or dippers similar to these, al- 
though usually ornately carved, were frequently 
used during feasts and thus could be considered 
ceremonial objects. 

Pigments for painting the face and body were 
stored in small paint bags of soft-tanned buck- 
skin, of which there are two in the collection. 
One, painted with red pigment, resembles a pipe 
bag in having flaps at the mouth and a fringe 
across the bottom. There are beaded panels of red 
and white pony beads on each side, and the flaps 
are edged with white beads. Four large beads, one 
of them metallic, are strung on fringe elements 
(60176; Fig. 6e). Similar bags for the Blackfoot 
are described and illustrated by Wissler (1910, pp. 
72-73, Fig. 36) and VanStone (1992, p. 21, Figs. 


7e, 50d,g), and for the Sioux by Wissler (1904, 
pp. 251-252, PI. LI -4). A similar bag in the Read 
collection is attached to a bandolier (Markoe, ed., 
1986, p. 155). 

The second bag is much larger. It is rectangular 
and made from a single piece of soft-tanned buck- 
skin painted with brown pigment. At the top the 
edges are gathered and tied with a strip of buck- 
skin. There are feather and box (Kroeber, 1908, 
p. 152) designs in light blue, dark blue, pink, red, 
and yellow pony beads on both sides. Triangular 
buckskin flaps are sewn on the bottom corners 
(60171; Fig. 6c). This bag contains a sizable 
amount of fine-grained brown pigment. A third 
paint bag is attached to a mirror case and will be 
described in the section on ceremonial clothing 
and accessories. 


The collection contains three belts, two of 
which are described in the catalog as having been 
worn by children. The first has a narrow strap 
made of commercially tanned leather, undecorat- 
ed, with a small metal buckle. Attached to this 
belt is a small deerskin knife sheath, on the front 
of which are two beaded panels spot-stitched to 
the sheath with thread. The designs are geometric 
in white, yellow, dark green, light green, pink, and 
dark blue beads. Between the panels is a row of 
metal cones attached with string. At the lower 
edge of the sheath are two strips of rolled cloth 
wrapped with dark green, light green, and blue 
beads (16262; Fig. 8c). This is most hkely a boy's 
belt because it supports a single knife sheath. 

The second child's belt is much more elaborate, 
having four attachments. The strap is of commer- 
cially tanned leather decorated with brass tacks 
and with a heavy metal buckle. Attached to this 
belt are a knife sheath, navel cord case, match 
pouch, and awl case. The knife sheath, attached 
with a narrow strip of hide, is decorated on both 
sides with dark blue, yellow, red, and light blue 
beads sewn with a modified spot-stitch. On one 
side below the opening is a fringe of hide with 
metal cones with large red beads. At the lower 
end are a pair of hide strips wrapped with light 
blue, dark blue, and yellow beads with metal 
cones at the ends. The navel cord case, attached 
to the belt with a strip of cloth, is diamond-shaped 
and ornamented on both sides with light blue, red, 
dark blue, and translucent yellow beads sewn with 
a lazy stitch. Extending from the case in four plac- 

es are strips of hide ornamented with large metal 
beads. The deerskin match pouch, attached with 
a hide strip, is rectangular with a short flap. It is 
ornamented on the front with light blue, dark blue, 
yellow, red, white, and green beads. At the lower 
end is a hide fringe and on either side are paired 
strips of hide wrapped with dark blue, red, and 
green beads. The awl case, attached with a strip 
of hide, is a narrow tube of rawhide that tapers to 
a point at one end. There is a rawhide cap that 
fits over the opening. The tube and cap are or- 
namented with light blue, dark blue, red, white, 
and yellow beads sewn with a lazy stitch. Ex- 
tending from the distal end is a pair of hide strips 
wrapped with beads of the same colors and ter- 
minating in metal cones. This belt, probably a 
girl's, as indicated by the awl case, may at one 
time have had additional attachments as there are 
strips of cloth extending from the strap in two 
places. Beaded design elements on the attach- 
ments include diagonal checker rows, triangles, 
boxes or bags, feathers, and crosses, designs de- 
scribed by Kroeber (1908, p. 152) and Lyford 
(1940, pp. 73-74) for tribes of the northern and 
western Plains (16251; Fig. 8b). 

The third belt, a style worn by men, has a com- 
mercially tanned leather strap 5 cm wide with a 
small metal buckle. This belt has a very long trail- 
er consisting of four narrow strips of leather dec- 
orated with brass tacks. The strap has a border of 
white beads attached with a spot stitch. The de- 
sign elements, which include triangles and square 
crosses (Kroeber, 1908, p. 152; Lyford, 1940, p. 
73), are included in rectangular panels of white, 
light blue, dark blue, red, and yellow beads. The 
horizontal bead rows comprising the panels are 
crow-stitched (Wildschut and Ewers, 1959, p. 40, 
Fig. 41c), the elements pulling tight when the belt 
is worn (16253; Fig. 8a). 

The collection contains four pairs of men 's leg- 
gings that reached to the hips and were attached 
to a belt. All are sewn essentially from a single 
piece of deer (Odocoileus sp.) or antelope {Antil- 
ocapra americana) skin, sewn up one side with a 
fringe, although additional pieces were sometimes 
added, especially to widen the area in the vicinity 
of the hip. Three pairs have ties for attachment to 
a belt. 

The first pair is sewn with thread, and the fringe 
elements are narrow and long; the bottom edges 
are serrated. Paired strips of ermine skin are sewn 
into the seam just below the knee, and the ties are 
long strips of drilling. The entire surface of these 
leggings has been covered with a whitish clay. On 


one legging, additional ornamentation consists of 
angular horseshoe designs, which indicate partic- 
ipation in a horse raid (Lowie, 1909, p. 67), and 
X's, which represent wounds, in light blue and 
dark blue beads on one side; there are four par- 
allel sets of horseshoe designs in dark blue on the 
other side. The areas inside the horseshoes and 
around the X's are painted with yellow pigment. 
The other legging has three X's with yellow pig- 
ment on one side below the knee, and the other 
side is undecorated. On both leggings the whitish 
clay covering appears to have been applied over 
the beaded designs and the yellow pigment added 
later (60184; Figs. 9, 10). 

On the second pair of leggings the fringe is a 
separate piece sewn into the seam. The bottom 
edges are cut into a short, wide fringe, and there 
are no ties. A separate triangular gusset has been 
sewn in near the top. Decoration on this pair of 
leggings consists of six narrow parallel bands of 
red and white beads and a single row of white 
beads connected by a vertical band of white beads 
extending around both sides from below the knee. 
In between two of the bands on both sides of each 
legging is a pair of beaded horseshoe designs, 
four in yellow and four in green beads. Blotches 
of red pigment also occur between the beaded 
bands (16254; Fig. 11). 

The third pair of leggings is fringed along both 
edges, which are fastened together at intervals 
with fringe elements. The bottoms are fringed and 
lined with green cloth. A pair of skin ties is at- 
tached at the proximal end. There is no beaded 
decoration on this pair of leggings, but the entire 
surface is covered with brown pigment (60219; 
Fig. 12). 

The fringed sides on the fourth pair are fastened 
together at intervals with fringe elements, and the 
bottom edges are fringed. There is a pair of cloth 
ties for fastening to the belt. This pair of leggings 
is ornamented with eight parallel bands of red-, 
purple-, and white-dyed porcupine quills running 
around each legging in the area below the knee. 
Wide bands alternate with narrow bands, and each 
wide band is divided into three rectangular sec- 
tions. The center section, a box design, is purple 
with a white center, while the outside sections are 
red. In applying the quillwork bands, the spot 
stitch has been used, and the quills are held in 
place by two rows of stitches, the sinew being 
inserted through the hide between each fold of the 
quills (Orchard, 1971, pp. 19-21, Fig. 8). On the 
red portions of the wide bands, stitches have been 
made along the center of the rows of quillwork. 

Much of the surface of these leggings is covered 
with whitish clay, which was applied after the 
quillwork was in place (60202; Fig. 13). 

These buckskin leggings were probably worn 
in the Grass Dance, which, according to Rodnick 
(1938), was introduced to the Assiniboine by the 
Sioux in 1872 and was held by members of the 
Grass Dance Society at irregular intervals: 

The reason for giving the dance was that such a perfor- 
mance gave the Assiniboine whatever wishes they had 
concerning warfare, hunting, or good health. The danc- 
ing was done by members dressed in grass costumes, 
and the steps were usually impromptu, in time with the 
beating of the drum. (Rodnick, 1938, p. 40) 

Lowie (1909, pp. 66-70) and especially Long 
(Kennedy, ed., 1961, pp. 125-150) described the 
Grass Dance in considerable detail. Long noted 
that it was the principal Assiniboine dance and 
was composed of many "social parts," always 
concluding with a religious dance. Although orig- 
inally the dancers wore costumes of long slough 
grass, in more recent years there was no rule re- 
garding the wearing of a costume. The Grass 
Dance spread to many Plains tribes in the 1870s 
and has been described in detail for the Hidatsa 
(Oilman and Schneider, 1987, pp. 159-164). 

The Assiniboine collection contains 13 pairs of 
moccasins, 7 of which are identified in the catalog 
as having been worn by men; the others are not 
identified to sex of the wearer. At the time of Wis- 
sler's fieldwork among the Blackfoot in the early 
years of the 20th century, he observed no differ- 
ence between men's and women's moccasins 
(Wissler, 1910, p. 130). However, Long (Kennedy, 
ed., 1961, p. 90) reported that women always 
wore high-top moccasins, whereas men's were 

All the moccasins described here are made of 
buckskin and have flat rawhide soles and upper 
pieces with vertical heel seams. The opening for 
the instep piece, or tongue, is cut to a T and the 
tongue sewn to the transverse part of the cut. This 
pattern conforms to Hatt's series XIV (Hatt, 1916, 
pp. 185-187) and Webber's series 4Ab (Webber, 
1989, p. 52). Most Plains hard-soled moccasins 
belong to these series. Lowie 's (1909, p. 17) in- 
formants remembered an older type of "unsoled 
moccasin," presumably one piece and side sewn 
(Hatt, 1916, pp. 179-183), as described for the 
Blackfoot by Wissler (1910, p. 128, Fig. 78) and 
VanStone (1992, pp. 13-14, Figs. 35a,c). 

Three pairs of moccasins in the Field Museum's 
Assiniboine collection have separate wraparound 


top pieces. Eleven pairs are decorated with beads, 
one pair with porcupine quills, and one pair with 
both beads and quills. Most sewing appears to be 
with thread, and beads are either spot- or lazy- 
stitched. Because each pair of moccasins has in- 
dividual characteristics, they will be described 

60164-1,2 — These moccasins have ankle flaps 
of red and black wool stroud edged with white 
beads, two-piece wraparound cloth tops, and 
wraparound thong ties. Decoration on the uppers 
consists of curved vertical and horizontal rows of 
yellow, blue, white, and red beads, from which 
extend on each side two pairs of arrowhead- 
shaped designs in light blue, green, yellow, dark 
blue, and pink beads. Extending from the tip of 
the upper decoration is a pair of irregularly shaped 
designs in light and dark blue beads edged with 
white beads (Fig. 14b). 

60166-1,2 — The top pieces on this pair are 
formed from a single piece of cloth with wrap- 
around ties of the same material. The tongues on 
these moccasins are part of the uppers. Decoration 
on the uppers consists of a keyhole design in light 
blue, dark blue, pink, yellow, red, green, and 
white beads. Extending from the edges of the key- 
hole design toward the toes are pairs of feather 
designs in light blue and dark blue beads. There 
are blotches of brown pigment on the undecorated 
portion of these moccasins (Fig. 14a). 

60195-1,2 — Cloth wraparound top pieces occur 
on these moccasins, which have wraparound 
thong ties. A pair of short strips of hide are sewn 
as trailers into the heel seam. Beadwork covers 
most of the uppers. The basic colors are white and 
light blue, and the design elements are in light 
blue, dark blue, red, yellow, and pink beads. De- 
signs include a diagonal checker row across the 
upper, a box in front of the tongue, and triangles 
as border decorations (Fig. 15a). Assiniboine in- 
fant's moccasins with a somewhat similar com- 
bination of beaded designs are described and il- 
lustrated by Hail (1980, Fig. 38, p. 103). 

60165-1,2 — On these moccasins, short buck- 
skin ties are inserted through the uppers just be- 
low the edge. Beadwork covers the entire uppers. 
The basic color is light blue, with design elements 
in dark blue, red, and white beads. Designs in- 
clude a diagonal checker row across the uppers, 
from which extends a pair of feather designs. A 
vertical row of white beads extends around the 
moccasins at the level of the seam joining the soles 
and uppers. At intervals in this border are triangle 
designs in dark blue and red beads. On the sides 

of the uppers toward the back are boxes and tri- 
angles in red, dark blue, and white beads (Fig. 

60170-1,2 — The tongues on these moccasins 
are cut to a pair of flaps decorated on the front 
with vertical rows of blue and white beads and 
with a pair of metal cones at the ends, from which 
extend red-dyed horsehair. Short ties of buckskin 
are attached on either side of the uppers at the 
front. Elaborate buckskin trailers are sewn into the 
full length of each heel seam. The uppers are fully 
beaded, with the basic color being light blue. 
Three vertical rows of white beads circle each 
moccasin above the seam joining the sole and the 
uppers. Design elements in the blue areas include 
feathers in red, yellow, and green beads and boxes 
in blue and white beads. At intervals within the 
white area are tipis (Kroeber, 1908, p. 152; Ly- 
ford, 1940, p. 74) in green, red, and yellow beads 
(Fig. 16b). 

60173-1,2 — The uppers of this pair are edged 
with yellow cloth, and buckskin ties are attached 
on either side at the front. The entire uppers as 
well as the soles are beaded. The basic color on 
the uppers is white with floral designs in a great 
variety of colors. A band of green beads extends 
around the seam joining the sole and uppers. On 
it there are triangles at intervals in dark blue 
beads. On the soles the basic color is white with 
triangles, feathers, and box designs in red, dark 
blue, and light blue beads (Fig. 16a). 

60178-1,2 — This pair of moccasins has buck- 
skin ties at the front of the uppers and a pair of 
hide trailers sewn at the base of the heel seam. 
The entire uppers are covered with blue beads. A 
band of green and translucent yellow beads circles 
the uppers just below the edge. In front of the 
instep is a V-shaped design in green, yellow, and 
dark blue beads, from which extend a pair of 
feather designs in black and white beads. Box de- 
signs in dark blue and yellow beads occur at in- 
tervals around the side and back of the uppers, 
and there is a pair of triangle designs in green, 
yellow, and dark blue beads on each side just 
above the seam joining the sole to the uppers (Fig. 

60180-1,2 — The most distinctive features of 
these moccasins are the elaborate buckskin trailers 
sewn into the heel seam and a buckskin fringe 
sewn into a seam that runs down the center of the 
uppers. There is a rectangular tongue and ties that 
are inserted through holes at the front and back 
of the edges. The entire uppers are beaded with 
white beads. Box designs in green, yellow, and 


dark blue beads occur in front of the instep, 
around the edges, and just above the seam joining 
the soles to the uppers. On either side toward the 
back is a feather design in red and light blue 
beads, from which extend V-shaped lines at each 
end (Fig. 18a). 

60183-1,2 — The tongues on these moccasins 
are cut to a pair of flaps, and the buckskin ties 
run through a pair of holes at the back and front 
of the opening; there are buckskin trailers at the 
base of the heel seam. Beaded decoration consists 
of a rectangular design down the front of the up- 
pers, mainly of light blue beads, with stripe de- 
signs (Kroeber, 1908, p. 152) in red, dark blue, 
and green beads. At one end of this rectangle is 
a modified box design in dark blue and green 
beads. A band of light blue beads, with stripe de- 
signs in red beads, runs around the moccasins at 
the level of the seam joining soles and uppers 
(Fig. 17b). 

60187-1,2 — The uppers of this pair are edged 
with patterned cotton cloth, and buckskin ties are 
attached on either side at the front. Beaded dec- 
oration is confined to a solid semicircular design 
in yellow, red, and several shades of blue beads 
in front of the instep. Extending from this design 
on either side near the base of the tongue are what 
appear to be stylized flowers in light blue and red 
beads. Also extending from the solid design near 
the toe are three bars, two of red beads, with a 
bar of pale blue beads in the center (Fig. 18b). 

60220-1,2 — The uppers are edged with cotton 
cloth, and ties of the same material run through a 
pair of holes at the front and back of the opening; 
buckskin trailers are sewn into the heel seam. The 
dominant colors of the beadwork are pink and 
green. Designs are triangles in dark blue and red 
beads, edged with white beads, and crosses in 
dark blue beads (Fig. 19a). 

60203-1,2 — These moccasins have tongues cut 
to a pair of flaps and buckskin ties that run 
through holes at the back and in front of the open- 
ing; there are long hide trailers sewn into the base 
of the heel seam. This is one of two pairs of moc- 
casins ornamented with porcupine quills. The dec- 
oration is simple, consisting of a band of orange- 
dyed quills at the level of the seam that joins soles 
and uppers, a band running across the instep, and 
two parallel bands that extend from the tongue to 
the toe. The quills are folded so as to produce an 
interlocking sawtooth pattern and are held in 
place by two rows of stitches, the sinew being 
caught into the surface of the hide between the 

folds (Orchard, 1971, p. 25, Fig. 12, p. 28) (Fig. 

60223-1,2 — The uppers are edged with pat- 
terned cotton cloth, and the hide ties, stitched to 
the back with thread, run through holes at the 
front of the opening. Decoration involves both 
beads and porcupine quills. A band of light blue 
beads runs around the base of the uppers. At in- 
tervals along this band are triangle designs in dark 
blue and white beads. Parallel bands of orange- 
and purple-dyed quills are applied across the up- 
pers in a path or trail design (Lyford, 1940, Fig. 
21, p. 80) running from the instep to the toes. The 
quills are held in place by two rows of stitches, 
the thread being caught into the surface of the 
hide between each parallel fold of the quills (Or- 
chard, 1971, pp. 19, 21, Fig. 8) (Fig. 19c). Sioux 
moccasins with a similar combination of beaded 
and quilled designs are illustrated by Wissler 
(1904, PI. XXXVIII, 1). 

Lowie (1909, pp. 20-22, Figs. 5, 6) demon- 
strated the diversity of Assiniboine moccasin dec- 
oration in a series of illustrations. He observed 
that "practically every type of design found in the 
Northern Plains ... is represented on their moc- 

Ceremonial Equipment 

Pipes and Accessories — Writing with specific 
reference to the Blackfoot, Ewers (1963, pp. 33- 
34) noted that the smoking of tobacco played an 
important part in their religious, political, and so- 
cial life. Pipes were smoked as part of the ritual 
of opening sacred bundles and when making 
peace with enemies. During the years of the fur 
trade, Blackfoot chiefs smoked with traders before 
goods were exchanged, and etiquette required the 
offering of a pipe to the owner of a tipi and to a 
visitor. Both men and women also smoked for 
pleasure. These observations apply equally to the 
Assiniboine and other tribes of the central and 
northern Plains. 

Prince Maximilian (1843, p. 196) described the 
pipes of the Assiniboine as usually made of a 
blackish stone or dark clay in which they smoked 
kinnikinick, a species of bearberry {Arctostaphy- 
los uva-ursi) mixed with tobacco. According to 
Ewers (1963, p. 53), the Assiniboine at Fort Peck 
made pipes of a locally obtained gray stone "in 
the form of the typical Siouan calumet." One of 
his informants stated that the stem and the bowl 
holes were bored with an old knife "ground down 


slim," and the exterior was also shaped with a 
knife. After shaping was completed, the bowl was 
rubbed with tallow and placed over a brush fire 
to make it black. It was then polished with buck- 

Denig (1930, pp. 446-448) noted that the 
smoking of pipes was the most important element 
in all ceremonies, and its use was accompanied 
by motions that varied with the occasion. Among 
the most important ceremonies were councils be- 
tween two tribes for the purpose of making peace 
that were lengthy and very solemn. On these oc- 
casions the "real calumet" was used, and Denig 
provided a sketch and description of such a pipe. 
The pipe he illustrated (Denig, 1930, PI. 68) has 
a stem of ash wood decorated with porcupine 
quills, eagle feathers, beads, and strips of otter 
skin; the bowl is of catlinite. The head of a male 
mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) is mounted 
near the proximal end; the head of a red-headed 
woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) is 
sometimes used. Denig, who described in detail 
the movements of the pipe during peacemaking 
ceremonies, maintained that "the 'real calumet' is 
never opened [unwrapped] except in dealings with 
strangers." According to West (1934, pt. 1, p. 
128), the stem rather than the bowl was consid- 
ered the sacred part of the Siouan calumet. 

The Field Museum's Assiniboine collection 
contains eight pipes, all considerably less elabo- 
rate than the one described and illustrated by De- 
nig, and a single pipe bowl. The pipes range in 
length from 39 cm to 57 cm and have bowls of 
blackish calcareous shale. Six have round stems, 
recessed at both ends, four of which are plain 
(60162, 60218, 60222, 60190, 60194, 60215; 
Figs. 20b-e, 21a,c), one ornamented with five sets 
of parallel circular incisions once filled with red 
pigment (Fig. 21a), and one with three sets of par- 
allel bands in relief (Fig. 21c). The bowls of four 
of these have plain, block-like bases (Figs. 20b,d- 
e, 21c), whereas on one there are bands in relief 
at the proximal end around the opening (Fig. 21a). 
On one pipe, with a round stem, the base of the 
barrel-shaped bowl is ornamented with drilled 
holes and reinforced with lead at the proximal end 
(Fig. 20c). 

Two pipes have flattened stems recessed at both 
ends. On one the bowl is round, and the recessed 
area at the distal end of the stem is wrapped with 
a strip of cloth to maintain a firmer attachment to 
the bowl. At the proximal end of the stem the 
projection is covered with a copper or brass ferule 
(60198; Fig. 20a). On the other the bowl is round- 

ed and tapers toward the opening. The projection 
at the distal end of the stem was wrapped with 
cloth (60163; Fig. 21b), which now protrudes 
from the bowl. 

The single pipe bowl in the collection is similar 
in shape to those on the complete pipes but is light 
brown in color. It likely has not been rubbed with 
tallow, exposed to fire, and polished in the manner 
previously described (60185; Fig. 2 Id). 

Tobacco, a pipe, tampers, and lighting equip- 
ment were kept in a bag, with the pipe stem usu- 
ally projecting from the proximal end. The col- 
lection contains a single pipe bag with a fringe at 
the bottom and cut so as to form four ear-like flaps 
at the top. There is a buckskin thong attached at 
one side to tie the opening. This bag has a beaded 
panel on both sides. On the side shown in the 
photograph (60167; Fig. 21e), the panel has a bor- 
der of light green and a background of dark green 
and light blue beads. In the center is a triangular 
step or checker pattern in yellow and translucent 
red beads. There is a pair of cross patterns in 
translucent red beads on either side of the checker 
pattern. On the edges separating the two panels 
are parallel rows of yellow and light blue beads, 
and a series of short lines of dark green beads are 
set at an angle across the top. On the reverse panel 
the border is of light blue beads and the back- 
ground of dark green beads, with checker and 
cross patterns in light blue, translucent red, and 
yellow beads. At the upper end of each fringe 
element is a rectangular, faceted, translucent green 
bead. The flaps at the proximal end are edged with 
light green beads. 

Clothing and Accessories — Ceremonial 
clothing is represented in the Field Museum's As- 
siniboine collection by three headdresses. The first 
of these is a roach headdress, described in the 
catalog as consisting of a "deer's tuft." According 
to the accession list, it is made of porcupine guard 
hair, and the shorter, outside elements are made 
of orange-dyed deer tail hair. The entire base of 
the roach is covered with narrow strips of hide 
wrapped with orange- and white-dyed porcupine 
quills. Extending from the rear of the roach is a 
pair of trailers of ermine (Mustela sp.) skin 
wrapped at the proximal end with strips of red 
wool Stroud (15037; Fig. 22). The accession list 
indicates that it was attached to the scalp lock and 
worn in the Grass Dance. 

A dance cap is made from a billed cloth cap, 
the outside of which is covered with red cotton 
cloth. At the top of this cap is a roach, also de- 
scribed in the catalog as a "deer's tuft," consist- 



ing of soft and coarse hairs dyed red and black. 
The coarse black hair is actually from a turkey's 
(Meleagris gallopavo) "beard," the bristle-like 
feathers on the bird's breast. The roach is loosely 
attached in such a manner as to move when the 
wearer is in motion. At the top of the roach a flat 
bone spreader is attached with strips of rawhide. 
Standing upright on it is a short bone tube, from 
which extends a single golden eagle {Aquila chry- 
saetos) feather (16265; Fig. 23). Both of these 
roaches would have been worn in the Grass Dance 
(Lowie, 1909, p. 67; Kennedy, ed., 1961, pp. 127- 

A buffalo headdress is made from a single, 
rectangular strip of buffalo hide approximately 45 
cm long, backed with cotton cloth, that covers the 
head and extends over the shoulders. On either 
side at the front, shaved buffalo horns are attached 
with strips of hide. Extending from the base of 
each horn are bunches of golden eagle feathers 
and down, some of which are dyed green. There 
are ties of hide for fastening the headdress under 
the wearer's chin (602 1 1 ; Fig. 24). 

An object described in the catalog as a dancing 
head ornament is a dancing fan handle. It consists 
of a rolled strip of commercial leather sewn up 
one side with string and decorated with parallel 
rows of blue, white, and green beads. At either 
end are metallic beads strung on cord. Extending 
from the upper end of the rolled hide are three 
strands of heavy wire of equal length with loops 
at the distal ends. These wire strands are wrapped 
with purple- and white-dyed porcupine quills tied 
with a cord and thread in the manner described 
by Orchard (1971, p. 51, Fig. 30). At the distal 
ends of the wire strands, short strips of beaver fur 
are attached. Similar but longer strips of beaver 
fur are attached at either end of the rolled hide 
(16252; Fig. 25d). Presumably paper, or possibly 
feathers, was fastened in some manner to the wire 

A fan of golden eagle feathers may also have 
been associated with dancing. It consists of a 
complete wing wrapped at the proximal end with 
a strip of patterned cloth (60169; Fig. 25e). Ac- 
cording to the catalog, this type of fan was used 
only by old men, probably not only for cooling 
themselves but for incensing during ceremonies. 

Among all Plains tribes a newborn baby's navel 
cord was cut, dried, and preserved in a beaded 
case to protect the child from illness. According 
to Ewers (1958, p. 101), among the Blackfoot, 
boys' navel cord cases were usually in the form 
of a snake, while those of girls were lizard- 

shaped. The Assiniboine collection contains a di- 
amond-shaped buckskin navel cord case, possibly 
representing a stylized lizard. Both surfaces are 
covered with parallel rows of lazy-stitched beads. 
The design, a large cross, is the same on both 
sides. The colors on one side are yellow, light 
blue, and light green; on the other side they are 
yellow, light blue, and tan. Extending from each 
side and at the bottom are strands of buckskin 
strung with triangular, faceted, light blue beads 
(60175; Fig. 25c). An Assiniboine navel cord case 
with similar cross designs is illustrated by Lowie 
(1909, Fig. 9a, p. 25). Among the Sioux, the part 
of the navel cord that was sewn into these amulets 
was the bit that dried and fell off the child's body; 
the umbilical cord cut at birth was disposed of 
with the afterbirth (Raymond DeMallie, pers. 

Also presumably associated with ceremonies is 
a heavily beaded mirror case with an attached 
beaded strap. The strap is not long enough to 
serve as a belt, and the case may have been held 
in the hand during dances. The case is made from 
a single piece of buckskin sewn up both sides 
with thread. There is a long, separately attached 
fringe at the bottom. The decoration, identical on 
both sides, includes a pair of modified hourglass 
designs (Lyford, 1940, p. 74) in the center and 
triangle designs along each vertical edge. On one 
side the background color is white, with design 
elements in dark red and light blue beads edged 
with dark blue and green beads. On the reverse, 
not shown in the photograph, the identical designs 
are in yellow and green beads edged with dark 
blue beads. The vertical edges of the case are cov- 
ered with parallel rows of light blue, dark blue, 
and red beads. Attached with thongs at the top of 
the case is a broad beaded strap of buckskin bi- 
furcated at each end. Design elements, which in- 
clude triangles and diamonds similar to those on 
the front and back of the case, are in white, green, 
dark blue, and red beads (60224; Fig. 25a). 

The collection contains a mirror case with two 
attached bags that also appears to have been in- 
tended for ceremonial use. The heavily beaded 
case is rectangular, with a long, separately at- 
tached fringe at the bottom. On one side the back- 
ground color is pink, with a modified hourglass 
design in the center in light blue, green, dark blue, 
and red beads. On both vertical edges is a step 
pattern of triangles in light blue and dark blue 
beads. On the reverse, not shown in the photo- 
graph, the background is blue, and the center de- 
sign is identical except that the colors are dark 



green, dark blue, and red. Along the edges are 
triangle designs in yellow and red, outlined in 
dark blue beads. The vertical edges are covered 
with parallel rows of light blue, dark blue, green, 
and pink beads. 

Two small bags or pouches are attached to the 
mirror case on either side with thongs. One of 
these is a paint bag of soft tanned skin constructed 
of two pieces with a separate attached fringe. 
There is a pair of bifurcated flaps at the top and 
a beaded panel on each side. On one side the 
background color is blue, and there is a large tri- 
angle design in green and yellow beads edged 
with dark blue beads. At the top of this panel are 
three feather designs in dark blue and yellow 
beads. The decoration on the reverse, not shown 
in the photograph, is similar except for a modified 
hourglass design in red edged with dark blue 
beads, and the three feather designs are in light 
blue and dark blue beads. The flaps at the top are 
edged with light blue and dark blue beads. 

The other small bag is rectangular and contains 
a pair of circular brass earrings, attached through 
pierced ears, which project from the bag. This bag 
has a separate fringe and is heavily beaded on 
both sides. On one side the background color is 
dark blue, with a pair of triangle designs in green, 
dark blue, and red beads. Between these triangles 
is a diamond design in yellow edged with dark 
blue beads. The central design on the opposite 
side is in pink, dark blue, and yellow beads, and 
the border on both sides is decorated with yellow, 
pink, and dark blue beads. 

A broad, beaded carrying strap of red wool 
Stroud backed with buckskin is attached with 
thongs at the top of the mirror case. The basic 
ornamentation is in white beads, and designs are 
created by leaving open areas of the red wool 
Stroud. At either end is a rectangular design in 
pink and dark blue beads (16261; Fig. 25b). 

Musical Instruments — According to Denig 
(1930, p. 618), "Songs for dancing, medicine 
(that is, the practice of healing), and on other as- 
semblies are generally accompanied with drums, 
bells, rattles, flutes, and whistles, of all of which 
the drum is the principal instrument, ..." The As- 
siniboine collection contains two tambourine 
drums, which were also used in the hand game, 
introduced long after Denig's time. 

The frame of the first drum is made from a 
rectangular strip of wood 6.5 cm wide that has 
been steamed to form a hoop; the overlapping 
ends are held together by the lashing that binds 
the head to the frame. The drumhead of scraped 

skin is stretched over the frame and lashed to it 
through holes approximately 5 cm apart. Rawhide 
thongs extend across the open side and cross in 
the center, where knotted rawhide forms a hand- 
hold. The frame and both sides of the drumhead 
are covered with brown pigment but are otherwise 
undecorated. The drumstick is covered at the dis- 
tal end with cotton batting contained in a cloth 
bag wrapped and tied with a strip of red cloth 
(60181; Fig. 26c). 

The frame of the second drum is 5.5 cm wide 
and the ends are lap-spliced. The drumhead of 
scraped skin is lashed to the outside of the frame 
with thongs that pass along the inside and outside. 
These thongs also hold the lap-splice in place. On 
the back, three thongs wrapped in the center with 
rawhide form the handhold. The drumhead is cov- 
ered with brown pigment. The drumstick is 
wrapped at the distal end with cloth (60182; Fig. 

An Assiniboine tambourine drum similar to 
those in the Field Museum's collection is de- 
scribed and illustrated by Denig (1930, p. 619, PI. 
80, 1-2). Blackfoot drums described^ and illus- 
trated by VanStone (1992, p. 20, Figs. 46a, b, 47- 
49) are almost identical in construction. 

The collection also contains a drumstick that is 
much longer and more elaborate than those ac- 
companying the drums. The stick is wrapped with 
purple-, white-, and red-dyed porcupine quills that 
are folded over a single sinew thread running the 
length of the stick. At the distal end is a buckskin 
bag filled with some soft material and lashed to 
the stick. A single golden eagle feather extends 
from the tip of this bag. The proximal end of the 
drumstick is covered with a fringed sleeve of 
buckskin, from which extends a triangular flap of 
the same material, covered on one side with quill- 
work. The quills are held in place by two rows of 
stitches with the thread caught into the surface 
between each fold of quills (Orchard, 1971, p. 19, 
Fig. 8). The background is red-dyed quills, with 
three cross designs in white- and blue-dyed quills. 
Extending from the end of this flap is a buckskin 
fringe cut to long and short lengths. Metal cones 
are attached to the short lengths (60186; Fig. 26a). 
This drumstick was not for ordinary use with a 
drum but was part of the regalia of the Grass 
Dance Society and served as a badge of office. 
Long (Kennedy, ed., 1961, p. 132) mentioned four 
decorated drumsticks and described their use. 

Writing with reference to the Blackfoot, Wissler 
(1910, p. 85, Fig. 53) noted that rattles varied in 
size according to the ceremonies in which they 



were used. He described the most common type 
as having a bulb shaped from wet skin which was 
filled with sand. When dry, the sand was re- 
moved, and pebbles and a wood handle were in- 
serted. The Assiniboine collection contains four 
such bulb-shaped rattles. On all four the skin 
bulbs consist of two pieces sewn together with 
sinew. Both pieces extend to cover wooden han- 
dles, which are wrapped with strips of cloth. Two 
are undecorated (60196, 60206; Figs. 27b-c), and 
two, described as medicine rattles, have small per- 
forations that are described in the catalog as rep- 
resenting eyes and a mouth (60221, 60189; Figs. 
27a,e). Similar Assiniboine instruments, described 
as doctor's rattles, are illustrated by Denig (1930, 
p. 619, PI. 80, nos. 5, 6). A rattle in the Read 
collection made from a buffalo scrotum is de- 
scribed and illustrated in Markoe, ed. (1986, pp. 
109, 123). 

The collection also contains a single ring- 
shaped rattle, described in the catalog as a med- 
icine man's rattle. It is round, flat, and covered 
front and back with two pieces of scraped skin 
stitched together with sinew around the rim. A 
wood handle wrapped with skin extends from one 
side, at the end of which is a strip of fur and metal 
cones attached to a hide fringe. On one side of 
the ring there are crude designs in white pigment. 
On the reverse, which does not show in the pho- 
tograph, are splotches of red-brown pigment, 
daubs of white pigment around the rim, and a 
large circle of white pigment in the center (16256; 
Fig. 27d). According to Mason (1938, pp. 179- 
1 82), this is a drumstick rattle, serving both func- 

Personal Adornment 

The collection contains two necklaces, identi- 
fied in the catalog as having been worn by chil- 
dren. The first consists of a length of cord 
wrapped with pink, green, yellow, and red beads 
strung on thread and with a thong tie at each end. 
This necklace is in very poor condition (16257). 
The second is a choker necklace made from two 
parallel strips of hide wrapped with beads to hold 
them together. The basic bead color is pink, with 
design elements in white, yellow, light blue, dark 
blue, and red beads. There is a separately attached 
thong tie at each end (60172; Fig. 28c). 

A wooden hair parter, described in the catalog 
as having been used by women for parting the 
hair, is pointed at one end and has a large, flat. 

rectangular knob at the other (60213; Fig. 28d). 
Actually, men used them as well, and as cere- 
monial "scratchers" they were used in the Sun 
Dance, during which dancers were prohibited 
from touching themselves with their hands 
(DeLoria, 1929, pp. 410-411). Ewers (1986, Fig. 
189, p. 195) reproduces a watercolor by Charles 
M. Rosewell that illustrates the Plains Indians' 
use of the hair parter. 

A pair of brass earrings in a bag attached to a 
mirror case has already been described (16261; 
Fig. 25b). 

A small mirror case is made from commer- 
cially tanned hide and has a short, bifurcated flap; 
the mirror is missing. There is a beaded decora- 
tion on both sides and on the flap. On the front 
the background is of pink beads, with design el- 
ements in yellow outlined with dark blue beads. 
Along the sides are parallel rows of light blue, 
dark blue, and yellow beads. On the back, which 
does not show in the photograph, the background 
color is light blue, in the center of which is a box 
design of dark blue beads with pink beads in the 
center. Four inverted triangles extend from this 
design. Along the sides on the back are triangles 
in yellow and dark blue beads. The flap is orna- 
mented with light blue beads and parallel rows of 
dark blue beads. A separate hide fringe extends 
from the bottom of the case, and there are thongs 
to secure the flap in place (60177; Fig. 28f). 


One of the most widely distributed North 
American Indian games was the ring and pin 
game, so named by Culin (1907, p. 527) at the 
suggestion of Dorsey. The two games of this type 
in the collection, however, are designated as "pin 
and cup" games in the catalog. The two games 
are virtually identical, each consisting of seven 
deer phalangeal bones, perforated and strung on 
a thong with a wire needle at one end and a tri- 
angular piece of buckskin perforated with holes 
at the other (60205, 60263; Fig. 28b). One of 
these Assiniboine games is illustrated by Culin 
(1907, Fig. 737, p. 555). 

Dorsey 's description of the ring and pin game, 
an account no longer in the museum's accession 
records, is quoted by Culin: 

A game formerly much played by young men and wom- 
en, and known as the courting or matrimonial game. The 
cups [phalangeal bones] are swung forward and upward. 



the buckskin being held by the thumb and forefinger. As 
the cups descend the attempt is made to catch one or 
more of them on the end of the bodkin or to thrust the 
bodkin into one of the perforations in the triangular 
piece of buckskin attached to the end of the cord beyond 
the last cup. (Culin, 1907, p. 555) 

Dorsey goes on to assign numerical values to the 
various cups and the perforations in the buckskin. 
He further notes that at the time of his fieldwork, 
the game was played solely for pleasure, but he 
suggests that it had "deep significance" in the 
past. Denig makes no reference to the ring and 
pin game, but it is described and illustrated by 
Lowie (1909, pp. 18-19, Fig. 3), who noted that 
if a player caught the lowest bone on his pin, he 
won the game regardless of his opponent's score. 
James Owen Dorsey (1891, pp. 344-345) de- 
scribed this game among the Teton Dakota as pri- 
marily a gambling game, and this was probably 
true of the Assiniboine as well. 

The only other game in the collection is a set 
of dice consisting of eight crow (Corvus brachyr- 
hynchos) claws, eight heads of brass tacks, one 
rectangular piece of copper with a hole in the cen- 
ter, and eight plum stones with burns on one side 
(60161; Fig. 28e). Culin (1907, p. 177, Fig. 226) 
described this set of dice, but his description and 
illustration depict only five claws, five brass tacks, 
the piece of copper, and four plum stones. Dorsey 
provided Culin with the values of the various dice 
and noted that "As in other dice games, these ob- 
jects are tossed in a wooden bowl, the score being 
kept by counting sticks and 100 constituting a 
game" (Culin, 1907, p. 177). Denig (1930, pp. 
567-569, PI. 72) described in considerable detail 
and illustrated a dice game virtually identical to 
the one in the collection. He noted that the game 
was usually played by "soldiers and warriors" 
and "is often kept up for two or three days and 
nights without any intermission, except to eat, un- 
til one of the parties is ruined" (Denig, 1930, p. 
568). Lowie (1909, p. 18) briefly described a sim- 
ilar dice game. 


The so-called "pad saddle," consisting simply 
of hide bags stuffed with buffalo or deer hair and 
placed so that a pad fell over each side of the 
horse, was the type used by the Assiniboine and 
their neighbors (Ewers, 1955b, pp. 82-85). The 
collection contains a single pad saddle, approxi- 
mately 50 by 32 cm, of soft tanned buckskin with 

modified cross designs in white and dark blue 
beads at each comer. The edge seam joining the 
top and bottom skins is covered with red wool 
Stroud. Suspended from one corner is a strip of 
buckskin wrapped with light blue, dark blue, and 
red beads, from which extends the remains of a 
single feather From the center of each side of the 
pad extend rectangular flaps of soft buckskin used 
for fastening the girth to the saddle. Lying across 
the saddle and extending down the sides so as to 
cover these flaps is a badger {Taxidea taxus) skin 
backed with drilling and edged with red wool 
Stroud. The girth is a strip of commercially tanned 
hide 3 cm wide with a large metal buckle. The 
rawhide straps from which the stirrups are sus- 
pended are 6 cm wide. The wooden stirrups are 
covered with rawhide that was applied wet and 
lashed across the bottom with rawhide thongs. 
The entire saddle, including stirrup straps and stir- 
rups, is covered with grayish white pigment 
(60210; Fig. 29). Referring to the Blackfoot pad 
saddle. Ewers (1955b, p. 83) noted that a fully 
rigged saddle, including girth and stirrups, 
weighed less than 3 pounds and was no heavier 
than an American racing saddle. He believed that 
the pad saddle was the oldest form and "may 
have been virtually Plains-wide in its distribution 
in the 18th century" (Ewers, 1955b, p. 85). 

A single gunstock war club, so called because 
of its resemblance to a musket stock, is a type 
common on the Plains. Made of hardwood, it is 
rectangular in cross section, with a hole for a met- 
al blade on the outer edge at the convex bend. 
This club has a perforation running about three 
quarters of its length, and there is a hole at the 
proximal end for a hand strap. Currently on ex- 
hibit, it is approximately 85 cm long. Ornamen- 
tation consists of daubs of red paint and incised 
lines and cross hatching near the distal end 
(16258; Fig. 30). 

The collection also contains two slungshot 
clubs. The first has a stone head wrapped with 
fringed tanned buckskin; there are metal cones at- 
tached to three fringe elements. The head is at- 
tached to the handle with a pliable length of hide 
wrapped with tanned buckskin. The wooden han- 
dle is square in cross section and recessed at ei- 
ther end, the recessed areas being covered with 
sleeves of tanned buckskin (16264; Fig. 28g). 
This form of club permitted the head to swing 
freely so that it could be applied to the target with 
a greater force than a fixed-head club. 

The second slungshot club is elaborately dec- 
orated and may be a dance club carried by partic- 



ipants as a badge of office. In construction it is 
very similar to the previously described club. The 
buckskin-wrapped stone has a fringe, some ele- 
ments of which have attached metal cones. The 
covering is ornamented with yellow, red, and 
green pigment as well as vertical rows of black 
thread stitches. The pliable hide connecting the 
head and wood handle is decorated with red pig- 
ment and a pair of fur bands. The handle, rect- 
angular in cross section, is decorated with bands 
of red, black, and green pigment and brass tacks. 
The recessed areas at either end are covered with 
soft buckskin sleeves, and bands of fur with buck- 
skin fringes are attached at both ends of these ar- 
eas. The band at the proximal end of the handle 
includes fringe elements of red wool stroud 
(16263; Fig. 28h). According to Long (Kennedy, 
ed., 1961, p. 130), stone clubs with decorated han- 
dles were carried in the hand during the Grass 

Both men and women carried sharp, heavy 
bladed knives in rawhide sheaths that were worn 
at the belt. The collection contains one such knife 
sheath made from a single piece of heavy rawhide 
folded with a second piece across the top; there 
is a horizontal eye for the belt. This sheath is dec- 
orated on one side with multiple rows of brass 
tacks that also serve to hold the folded edges of 
the rawhide together (16259; Fig. 28a). 

III. The Yanktonai Collection 


On his extensive expedition in the summer of 
1900, Dorsey also collected among the Yanktonai 
at Fort Peck and their close relatives on the De- 
vil's Lake Reservation in central North Dakota. 
The Yanktonai share this reservation with the 
Santee and Sisseton. Very little published infor- 
mation is available for the Yanktonai, and there 
are no comprehensive accounts of their material 
culture. Mention should be made, however, of the 
watercolors of John Saul, a lower Yanktonai from 
the Crow Creek Reservation in South Dakota, 
which are largely of material culture items (How- 
ard, 1971; Brokenleg and Hoover, 1993). 

The Collection 

Dorsey collected Yanktonai objects represented 
by 39 catalog numbers at Fort Peck (accession 

689) and 52 at Devil's Lake (accession 691), 
where he also collected two Santee and eight Sis- 
seton objects (described in Appendix 5). Of the 
total of 101 objects from the two reservations, 7 
could not be located for this study. Like the As- 
siniboine collection, the Yanktonai material is 
largely undocumented except for provenience. 
The accession lists (Appendices 3 and 4), how- 
ever, include useful information. The collection is 
described here under the following five use cate- 
gories: household equipment, toys and games, 
ceremonial objects, clothing and personal adorn- 
ment, and miscellaneous (see Appendix 2 for cat- 
alog numbers and proveniences). 

Household Equipment 

The Yanktonai collection contains two bags 
made from whole antelope skins; they were prob- 
ably women's work bags. On the first of these 
bags most of the hair has been removed. The 
openings for the back feet are closed with fringed 
strips of hide ornamented with vertical rows of 
yellow, light blue, and dark blue beads sewn with 
a lazy stitch. The front feet are closed with similar 
fringed strips of hide wrapped at the proximal 
ends with pink, blue, and yellow beads. An ad- 
ditional opening is covered with a small rosette 
of light blue, dark blue, and tan beads sewn on a 
piece of red wool stroud. From the center of this 
rosette extend three narrow strips of hide wrapped 
with red-dyed porcupine quills. At the neck a gus- 
set of hide, slit for most of its length, has been 
added. Also added at the neck is a separate rect- 
angular strip of hide edged with red wool stroud. 
This separate strip is almost completely covered 
with lazy-stitched beads. The background color is 
yellow, and there are box designs in dark blue, 
red, and yellow beads. Sewing throughout is with 
coarse thread (60226; Fig. 31a). 

On the second bag the hair is virtually intact. 
The back legs are wrapped with hide thongs cov- 
ered with red- and green-dyed quills placed over 
strips of fringed blue wool cloth. The front legs 
are similarly wrapped with hide thongs, which in 
turn are wrapped with red- and white-dyed quills 
over strips of drilling. Two other openings are 
covered with small rosettes, one not shown in the 
photograph, of blue and white beads sewn on 
pieces of hide with a lazy-stitch. Extending from 
the center of these rosettes are pairs of hide 
thongs wrapped with red-dyed quills. A tear on 
the underside between the back legs has been re- 



paired with an inset patch of patterned cotton 
cloth. At the neck a wide, rectangular piece of 
hide edged with cotton cloth has been added. 
Around its lower edge is a notched flap of red 
cotton cloth. The neck strip itself is ornamented 
with five parallel bands of red-dyed quills. The 
quills are held in place by two rows of stitches in 
the manner described and illustrated by Orchard 
(1971, p. 19, Fig. 8). Sewing throughout is with 
thread (60227; Fig. 31b). Similar bags have been 
previously described in this study for the Assini- 
boine, for the Plains Cree (VanStone, 1983, pp. 
16-17, Fig. 24a), and the Blackfoot (VanStone, 
1992, p. 9, Fig. 18d). 

Described in the catalog as a berry bag is a 
rectangular cowhide pouch, with the hair left on, 
made from a single piece sewn up the sides with 
thread. It is more likely to have been a woman's 
bag for sewing materials. At the back is a small 
flap and a thong to serve as a tie. This pouch is 
ornamented along the sides with parallel rows of 
red, white, and blue beads that cover the seams. 
At the four comers are paired hide thongs, cov- 
ered in part with metal cones, from which extend 
red-dyed horsehair. Small loops of thread-sewn 
red and white beads formerly ornamented the 
edge of the flap, but most of these are missing 
(60231; Fig. 32b). 

A rectangular rawhide bag, described in the cat- 
alog as a girl's food bag, is made from an old 
parfleche. The front and back are a single piece 
sewn up one side with sinew. A separate hide 
fringe has been sewn into the upper third of the 
seam. The bottom is a separate piece with a fringe 
of soft-tanned hide sewn into the seam. The open- 
ing was edged with a fringed strip of the same 
material, but most of this is missing. The painted 
ornamentation on one side shows a framed rect- 
angle bisected by an hourglass-and-triangle de- 
sign with opposed triangles on each side in the 
center inside the frame. On the other side of the 
bag, not shown in the photograph, the rectangular 
frame has lines extending from the comers toward 
the center, with an hourglass design where they 
intersect. The painting was done with yellow, 
blue, black, and red pigments (60417; Fig. 32c). 

An irregularly shaped cowhide fragment, ap- 
proximately 40 by 60 cm, with the hair left on 
and dried so as to form a deep, bowl-like con- 
tainer, was probably used as a mortar. There are 
holes at intervals around the edges (60390; Fig. 
32a). According to the accession list, "In this is 
placed a flat circular [stone] on which meat, ber- 
ries, etc. are pounded." 

Toys and Gaines 

Like the Assiniboine, the Yanktonai played a 
variant of the widely distributed dice game. The 
collection contains a dice game consisting of six 
plum stones and an oval, maple wood dice bowl 
with a short upturned handle at one end. A ver- 
tical projection on the inside of the handle is 
carved to represent a human face (60421; Fig. 
33b). This game is described by Culin (1907, pp. 
185-186, Fig. 240), who illustrated 14 rather than 
six stones. Of the six stones remaining in the col- 
lection, four are bumed on both sides and two on 
one side (60369; Fig. 33c). According to Dorsey, 
who provided Culin with information conceming 
the game, "the plum stones are seared on one side 
with various devices, which occur in pairs with 
one odd stone." It is this odd stone that is appar- 
ently missing from the collection. Dorsey further 
noted that 

to play, the bowl is grasped with two hands and brought 
down sharply on the ground, so as to cause the dice to 
jump about. The counts are determined by the character 
of the upper sides of the dice. . .. This game is played 
exclusively by women and invariably for stakes. (Culin, 
1907, pp. 185-186) 

According to the catalog, this dice bowl was 
"used in feasts of the medicine lodge." Thus it 
was probably a feast bowl before being used for 
gaming. However, there are no remnants of grease 
on the inside. 

Also widely distributed, the hand game is rep- 
resented in the collection by two complete games, 
each consisting of a pair of short, square-cut 
sticks, one with a pair of notches and the other 
with four notches. For each game there are also 
eight counting sticks, two with three notches and 
six plain (60254; Fig. 33d). Culin (1907, pp. 317- 
318, Figs. 415, 416) described and illustrated a 
similar game from Fort Peck and noted that the 
game is sometimes called the moccasin game be- 
cause the short sticks are concealed under moc- 

Culin (1907, p. 399) described the snow snake 
game as "all that class of games in which darts 
or javelins are hurled along the snow or ice or 
free in the air in a competition to see whose dart 
will go the farthest." The collection contains two 
types of snow snake games. The first, more ac- 
curately termed ice gliders, consists of a pair of 
cow rib fragments, pointed at one end, from 
which extend two peeled willow twigs with red- 
tailed hawk {Buteo jamaicensis) feathers attached 



at one end. The proximal ends of the twigs are 
fitted into the vanes of the feathers (60249; Fig. 
33e). The feathers are missing from one bone 
fragment. In playing the game, the feathered 
bones are made to slide along the surface of the 
ice. According to the catalog, this game was 
played by young people. A similar game from 
Fort Peck is described and illustrated by Culin 
(1907, p. 418, Fig. 541). Walker (1906, p. 31) also 
described the game, and it is illustrated by John 
Saul (Brokenleg and Hoover, 1993, PI. 7). 

The second type of snow snake game consists 
of six peeled willow twigs, each approximately 
120 cm in length. There are different burned 
markings on each stick, presumably indicating 
ownership (60253; Fig. 35a). According to the 
catalog, these sticks were used in contests of skill 
and strength among young men and boys in win- 
ter. The sticks were hurled over the ice or on a 
level stretch of frozen ground. Walker (1906, p. 
32) described this game, and John Saul illustrated 
the sticks and their use (Howard, 1971, vol. 19, 
no. 3, pp. 27-28; Brokenleg and Hoover, 1993, 
PI. 7). 

According to Culin (1907, p. 420), the hoop 
and pole game "consists essentially in throwing a 
spear, or shooting or throwing an arrow at a hoop 
or ring, the counts being determined by the way 
the darts fall in reference to the target." The col- 
lection contains two forms of the hoop and pole 
game. The first, which includes two identical 
games, consists of a hoop and two pairs of sticks. 
The hoop is a peeled sapling wrapped at the splice 
with strips of cloth. There are four incised marks 
at equal distances on both sides of its circumfer- 
ence, as follows: a cross painted with blue pig- 
ment, a rectangular band painted black, another 
rectangular black band with a transverse cut paint- 
ed red, and four parallel notches filled with black 
pigment. All eight sticks are wrapped in two plac- 
es with strips of patterned cloth. Two pairs are 
painted red, with a piece of red cloth attached near 
one end. The other two pairs are painted blue, 
with a piece of black cloth near one end. The 
sticks are secured in pairs by a strip of patterned 
cloth fastened in the middle (60240; Fig. 33a). 
Culin (1907, pp. 508-509, Figs. 673, 674) de- 
scribed and illustrated a virtually identical game 
collected on the Fort Peck Reservation. Walker 
(1905, pp. 279-283) also described the game and 
its associated lore. 

The second type of hoop and pole game is also 
represented by two complete games that are iden- 
tical in design and decoration. Each game consists 

of a pair of sticks wrapped with cloth; at the prox- 
imal end, one stick is painted red and the other 
blue. A small square of red cloth is affixed to the 
distal end of one stick and a similar square of 
black cloth to the other. A cloth-wrapped curved 
stick is attached at the distal end and held in place 
by cloth-wrapped thongs extending from the 
curved piece to the stick. Two pieces of wood are 
lashed across the stick, each with a smaller piece 
of curved wood fastened so as to extend outward 
to form a finger rest. On one stick there are bands 
of red pigment near each end of the crosspieces 
and similar bands of black pigment on the cross- 
pieces of the second stick. Accompanying the 
sticks are rings of wood wrapped with cloth 
(60241; Fig. 34). Culin (1907, pp. 504-505, Figs. 
667, 668) described a similar game of the Oglala 
Sioux, collected on the Pine Ridge Reservation. 
According to his informant, the game was played 
by tossing the ring in the air and attempting to 
catch it on the end of the stick or one of its pro- 
jections. The game was called the elk game and 
played to bring success in the elk hunt. Howard 
(1976, p. 10) noted that the hoop and pole game 
was played to attract large game. The elk game is 
described by Walker (1905, pp. 286-288), and 
John Saul illustrated it in play (Howard, 1971, 
vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 3-5; Brokenleg and Hoover, 
1993, PI. 3). 

The collection contains a racket or lacrosse 
stick consisting of a long wooden handle curved 
and lashed at the distal end to form a hoop netted 
with thongs of deerskin (60362; Fig. 35c). Ac- 
companying this stick is a racket or lacrosse ball 
of soft deerskin filled with deer hair (60395; Fig. 
36b). This ball may not have been used with the 
stick just described because it is much larger than 
the stick's netted ring; it may be a shinny ball. 
Culin (1907, p. 614) described this racket and ball 
collected by Dorsey on the Devil's Lake Reser- 

According to Culin (1907, p. 616), shinny is 
usually a women's game but is played by men 
among the Assiniboine and Yanktonai. Like rack- 
et ball, in the shinny game the ball should not be 
touched with the hands but is batted and kicked 
with the foot. The collection contains a single 
shinny stick that is flat, carefully finished, slightly 
spoon- shaped at the distal end, and painted with 
red pigment (60262; Fig. 35b). Culin (1907, pp. 
640-641, Fig. 831) described and illustrated an 
identical stick collected at Fort Peck, and Walker 
(1905, pp. 283-285, 288) described both men's 
and women's shinny. 



The collection contains a rib bone sled made of 
six bones lashed together at each end with strips 
of patterned cloth; it lacks the hide seat. On all 
the ribs are markings in black pigment, which are 
described in the catalog as owner's marks (60248; 
Fig. 36a). The catalog also notes that this sled was 
used by boys for coasting downhill in winter. Cu- 
lin (1907, p. 716, Fig. 935) described and illus- 
trated a similar sled from Fort Peck. Ewers 
(1944b, pp. 180-187) described Blackfoot rib 
bone sleds and illustrated their use. 

A game played by women on ice is described 
by Culin (1907, p. 728) as being similar to shuf- 
fleboard. The collection contains a shuffleboard 
game consisting of a flat stone with a human face 
painted on one side with black pigment and two 
wooden cylinders painted with red pigment on 
one end (60251; Fig. 36c). Culin (1907, pp. 728- 
729, Fig. 955) described and illustrated a virtually 
identical game from Fort Peck that he collected 
in 1900. The cylinders were set up on the ice and 
struck with the stone, which was shoved along the 

The whipping top is one of the most widely 
distributed children's toys, usually played in win- 
ter on ice (Culin, 1907, p. 733). The collection 
contains four whipping tops, two of wood and two 
of horn. The wooden tops are peg-shaped. One is 
painted with black pigment on a flat surface 
(60236; Fig. 36g) and the other with red on a 
convex surface (60235; Fig. 36f). The two horn 
tops are made from the tip of the horn. One is 
hollowed out (60238; Fig. 36d), and the other is 
solid (60237; Fig. 36e). A whip is a peeled length 
of wood with two strands of hide suspended from 
the distal end (60250; Fig. 36h). Culin (1907, pp. 
446-447, Figs. 996-997) described and illustrated 
a similar top and whip from Fort Peck. He de- 
scribed the game of tops as played by the Teton 
Dakota. An area about 120 cm square is laid out 
with an open side. The players spin their tops out- 
side the square and attempt to direct them through 
the open side of the square while they are spin- 
ning. John Saul illustrated tops and depicted them 
in play (Howard, 1971, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 11-12; 
Brokenleg and Hoover, 1993, PI. 9). Ewers 
(1944b, pp. 180-187) described Blackfoot whip- 
ping tops and illustrated their use. 

Ceremonial Equipment 

Pipes — Smoking was no less important to the 
Yanktonai than to the Assiniboine and other 

Plains tribes. The collection contains four com- 
plete pipes, a pipe stem, and a pipe bowl. The 
complete pipes range in length from 20 cm to 64 
cm, with wooden stems and catlinite bowls. The 
first and longest has a straight stem, probably of 
cherry wood with the bark left on, recessed at 
both ends. The bowl is rounded and plain except 
for a projection at the distal end of the base 
(60366; Fig. 37a). The second complete pipe has 
a round stem recessed at both ends. Decoration 
consists of two sets of five circles in relief, one 
set at each end of the stem. Intervals between the 
circles are filled with red pigment. The bowl has 
two sets of six circles in relief, one around the 
opening and the others where the bowl joins the 
stem. A projection at the distal end of the base of 
the bowl has a series of incisions along its length 
and an incised X at each end. The recessed distal 
end of the stem was wrapped with cloth, now pro- 
truding from the bowl opening, in order to pro- 
vide a tighter fit into the bowl (60214; Fig. 37b). 
The stem of the third pipe has a projection at the 
distal end, is round for slightly less than half its 
length, and is deeply recessed toward the proxi- 
mal end. The bowl is V-shaped, with a pro- 
nounced lip at the proximal end (60370; Fig. 37f). 
The fourth pipe, described in the catalog as a 
"girl's pipe," has a short, unrecessed stem and a 
plain bowl (60375; Fig. 37d). It resembles a 
Blackfoot woman's pipe illustrated by Wissler 
(1910, Fig. 49, p. 83). John Ewers (pers. comm.) 
observed Assiniboine women smoking small el- 
bow pipes of catlinite in 1953. They smoked for 
pleasure and not in any ceremonial context. 

The single pipe stem in the collection is round 
and deeply recessed at both ends; the correspond- 
ing bowl is missing (60418; Fig. 37c). The pipe 
bowl is round with a projection at the distal end 
of the base, and a strip of cloth extends from the 
proximal end to aid in seating the stem (60365; 
Fig. 37e). 

Musical Instruments — The collection con- 
tains a single drum and stick that is constructed 
differently from the tambourine drums described 
for the Assiniboine. The frame is a rectangular 
strip of wood, approximately 5.5 cm wide, 
steamed to form a hoop and lap-spliced. The over- 
lapping ends are held together with wire. The 
frame is covered on both sides with two pieces of 
scraped skin lashed together around the center of 
the frame. The lashing was accomplished by 
weaving a heavy thong through closely spaced 
holes in each piece of scraped skin and securing 
them around a single thong circling the frame. A 



bundle of twisted thongs is attached along the side 
of the drum to form a handle. 

Because the drumhead is split near the frame 
on one side, it is possible to determine that a small 
brass bell was suspended on the inside of the 
frame below the handle to produce a noise when 
the drum was shaken or struck. A circle of red 
pigment, only half of which is still visible, was 
placed in the center of the drumhead on one side. 
The drumstick is actually a bulb-shaped rattle 
consisting of two pieces of deerskin, one with 
vestiges of hair still remaining, sewn together 
with sinew and extending to cover a wooden han- 
dle, which is wrapped with string. The bulb is 
filled with pebbles or shot (60423; Fig. 38). Dor- 
sey's accession list indicates that this is a healer's 
rattle rather than a drumstick. Perhaps it filled 
both functions. According to the catalog, this 
drum was "used in medicine when something is 
removed from the body by magic in curing the 
sick." Howard (1976, p. 9) believed that the dou- 
ble-headed drum was associated with the Grass 

In addition to the drumstick just described, the 
collection contains six bulb rattles. Two of these 
are constructed like the drumstick. The smaller 
has no handle wrapping (60420; Fig. 40d), where- 
as the larger is wrapped with a knotted strip of 
cloth at the proximal end of the handle. The ac- 
cession list mentions "traces of zig-zag line in red 
paint" on this rattle, but it is no longer visible 
(60368; Fig. 39a). The third rattle is similar in 
construction and has a handle wrapped with strips 
of cloth. Strips of soft-tanned deerskin are sewn 
into the seam near the distal end of the bulb 
(60391; Fig. 39b). According to the catalog, this 
rattle was used in the Bear Dance. Catlin (1848, 
vol. 1, pp. 244-245, PI. 102) noted that among 
the Teton Dakota, the Bear Dance occurred on 
several successive days before a party set out on 
a bear hunt. The chief medicine man wore an en- 
tire bear's skin, and the dancers wore bear masks 
while imitating the animal's actions. Among the 
Assiniboine the killing of a bear required the per- 
formance of a ceremony to placate its spirit (Rod- 
nick, 1938, p. 25). 

A more elaborate bulb rattle is painted with red 
pigment and has a handle wrapped with green 
cloth. Strands of red-dyed horse hair are attached 
at the distal end of the bulb. Extending from the 
proximal end of the handle are a pair of oval ap- 
pendages covered with parallel rows of dark blue, 
green, and yellow beads. Also attached in this 
area are narrow strips of tanned deerskin, wrapped 

at intervals with purple- and red-dyed porcupine 
quills with orange-dyed feathers fastened at the 
ends (60394; Fig. 39d). 

A completely different bulb rattle is made from 
a gourd and has a carefully worked wooden han- 
dle wrapped with strips of cloth. A wooden peg 
has been inserted into the distal end of the bulb, 
and at one time strips of cloth and red string were 
attached to it (60374; Fig. 39c). According to 
Howard (1976, p. 9), gourd rattles were rare, and 
their use was restricted to shamans and members 
of the Holy Dance Society. The Holy Dance was 
the Dakota equivalent of the Algonquian Midew- 

A rattle of rawhide is painted with red pigment, 
which covers the wooden handle (60260; Fig. 

A short stick with bark on the lower half and 
1 1 deer hoof fragments attached with thongs at 
the distal end is identified in the catalog as a 
"medicine" rattle (60228; Fig. 40f). 

Tied to a bird bone whistle is a piece of cotton 
cloth knotted around a glass marble. A red-dyed 
feather extends from the wrapping (60385; Fig. 
40e). Missing from this assemblage, according to 
the catalog, is a small brass bell. A cryptic state- 
ment in the catalog with reference to this whistle 
simply states "spirit blows." 

Clothing and Accessories — The Yanktonai 
collection contains eight objects that are described 
in the catalog as being specifically associated with 
the Grass Dance. A shirt of cotton cloth is essen- 
tially constructed of three pieces. The front, back, 
and shoulders are a single piece sewn up the sides 
with thread. Each sleeve is also a single piece. 
The lower edge, the cuffs, and the sleeves at the 
shoulder seams are cut to a rough fringe. A sep- 
arate narrow piece is sewn around the neck open- 
ing, and there is a thong drawstring. Red pigment 
has been applied, apparently indiscriminately, 
around the neck and shoulders, above the bottom 
edge, and around the cuffs. Each cuff has a rect- 
angular band of badger skin attached in two plac- 
es above the fringe (60255; Fig. 41). 

The primary decoration on this shirt is on the 
back. Along one side and extending from the 
shoulder to near the bottom fringe are two parallel 
bands of red and black pigment. Four horses are 
depicted, one in the center toward the shoulders, 
the second on the left side near the seam, the third 
in the center above the bottom edge, and the 
fourth on the left side overlapping the painted 
bands. The horse near the shoulder is painted red 
with a black head, mane, tail, and feet. The animal 



toward the bottom edge has a yellow body, blue 
mane, and gray tail, and the one near the left seam 
has a blue body, yellow mane, and blue/yellow 
tail. The fourth horse, which overlaps the painted 
bands, is all black with a red mane. These horses 
have slightly elongated necks, and their bodies are 
somewhat distorted by horizontal elongation. 

Just below the left shoulder, two women with 
long black hair and red dresses are depicted from 
the back. Although parts of these representations 
appear to be unfinished, the women seem to be 
wearing webbed hoops with a single attached 
feather in their hair, and one woman is holding a 
large hoop (60255; Fig. 42). Hoops, large and 
small, had many ceremonial uses. According to 
Ewers (1958, p. 114), Blackfoot men painted hu- 
man and animal forms on robes and other items 
while women were the creators of geometric de- 

Although this form of shirt is associated with 
the Ghost Dance, it is probable that this one was 
worn in the Horse Dance rather than the Grass 
Dance as noted in the catalog. This is indicated 
by the four horses colored to represent the four 
directions. Standing Bear's drawing of the women 
participants in Black Elk's (Oglala Sioux) Horse 
Dance shows one holding a large hoop (Neihardt, 
1961, opp. p. 170). 

A webbed hoop consists of a lap-spliced bent 
wood twig covered with rawhide webbing; the 
twig and webbing are painted with brown pig- 
ment. Attached to the center of the webbing with 
rawhide and sinew is a single golden eagle feather 
pendant (60243; Fig. 43d). According to the cat- 
alog, the feather is worn only by someone who 
has killed an enemy. Dorsey's accession list noted 
that it was worn on the head. According to Lowie 
(1909, p. 67), during the Assiniboine Grass Dance 
eagle feathers were worn by men who had slain 
enemies. The women in the painting on the shirt 
are wearing eagle feathers as regalia in a sacred 

A hair ornament worn during the Grass Dance 
consists of a length of braided horsehair in the 
center of which are attached five red-dyed prairie 
falcon {Falco mexicanus) feathers. The proximal 
ends of the feather spines are wrapped with sinew 
and attached to the horsehair with string (60246; 
Fig. 43a). 

A single red-dyed golden eagle feather is 
wrapped at the proximal end with sinew. Attached 
are four short lengths of soft deerskin, presumably 
for attachment to a headdress or to the wearer's 
hair. Strands of blue-dyed horsehair are glued to 

the tip of the feather. According to the catalog, 
this feather could only be worn by someone who 
had been wounded (60247; Fig. 43c). 

Identified in the catalog as a necklace is a sin- 
gle eagle feather wrapped at the proximal end 
with sinew. Attached to this feather at the proxi- 
mal end is a small ringed bag containing red pig- 
ment. Extending from this bag is a loop of two- 
strand deerskin covered with red pigment and a 
spiral-carved bone pendant (60245; Fig. 43f)- 

A more obvious necklace is identified in the 
catalog as a ''dance necklace/ring." Its major el- 
ement is a band approximately 6 cm wide edged 
with cotton cloth and consisting of parallel rows 
of hide, each of which is wrapped with red-, yel- 
low-, and blue-dyed porcupine quills. The design 
includes three triangles on each side. The triangles 
are yellow edged with blue, and the background 
is of red-dyed quills. At intervals along the out- 
side of this band are white-dyed feathers. In the 
lower center between the two sides of the band is 
a wooden ring, approximately 7 cm in diameter, 
lap-spliced at the ends and covered with rawhide 
webbing. Fastened in the center of the webbing 
with a strip of tanned deerskin is a bunch of long 
feathers dyed white (60244; Fig. 44). This neck- 
lace is exhibited on a manikin, and thus the back 
of the band of quillwork is not visible and could 
not be shown in the illustration. Quilled collars 
were a popular item of the Grass Dance costume. 

An object identified only as a buckskin ring is 
a strip of hide wrapped with light blue and dark 
blue beads. A single deerskin thong is attached to 
this beaded ring (60384; Fig. 43e). Dorsey's ac- 
cession list identified this ring as a "symbol of 
deer." Deer represented women's power and sex- 

The final object associated with the Grass 
Dance is a shield, consisting of a heavy metal rod 
bent to a ring, over which is stretched a piece of 
rawhide. On the back at frequent intervals there 
are holes in the rawhide through which is laced a 
rawhide thong, with similar thongs extending at 
right angles across the back serving as a handhold 
(60256; Fig. 45). The rawhide cover, applied wet 
to the metal ring, stretched tight as the thongs 
dried. The cover is painted with yellow pigment, 
and at the top near the edge a cluster of seven 
prairie falcon feathers is attached with strips of 
soft deerskin. The strips are attached to the feath- 
ers with thread wrapped around the proximal ends 
of the spines. Short strips of deerskin are sus- 
pended from the rim in three places, suggesting 
that at one time there may have been additional 



appendages, probably feathers, hanging from this 
shield (Fig. 46). 

The collection contains two golden eagle feath- 
er /an^. On the first the proximal end of the wing 
is bent back to form a grip (60386; Fig. 47c). 
According to the catalog, this fan was used by old 
men. The second fan is wrapped with brown cloth 
at the proximal end and has a loop of the same 
material to go around the user's wrist (60407; Fig. 
47b). Though traditionally used by old men, these 
fans became a popular Grass Dance accessory 
(Raymond DeMallie, pers. comm.). 

A buffalo dance headdress, so described in the 
catalog, consists of a buffalo scalp to which a pair 
of horns is attached with rawhide. A single golden 
eagle feather is fastened to one horn, and there 
are thongs, presumably for attachment of a similar 
feather to the other horn. A single white down 
feather is attached with string in the center of the 
scalp. Extending from the back are two rectan- 
gular trailers of buffalo skin backed with brown 
cotton cloth (60419; Fig. 48). Lowie (1909, pp. 
73-74) provided a brief description of the Assin- 
iboine Buffalo Dance, which he believed was in- 
troduced by a Plains tribe that he was unable to 
identify. Densmore (1918, p. 285) described the 
Teton Dakota Buffalo Dance. 

A dance feather is described in the catalog as 
having been "worn in war and sacred dance." It 
consists of a single golden eagle feather wrapped 
with cloth and thongs at the proximal end. Four 
strips of cloth, two white and two purple, have 
been inserted in the wrapping. The thongs extend 
to provide for attachment to a headdress or to the 
wearer's hair (60416; Fig. 43b). 

Miscellaneous Ceremonial Equipment — 
Three bowls and five spoons included under this 
heading are described in the catalog as having 
been "used in feasts of the Medicine Lodge." Al- 
though it has been impossible to obtain informa- 
tion about this organization among the Yanktonai, 
Long (Kennedy, ed., 1961, pp. 150-156), writing 
about the Assiniboine, described a "Medicine 
Lodge Dance," an important religious ceremony 
held annually about the middle of June. Prayers 
and offerings were made to Thunder Bird, the god 
of rain, each day of the ceremony. Some families 
offered sacrifices to the god for a safe journey 
through the summer and winter, promising a re- 
newal of sacrifices at the next annual dance. Oth- 
ers promised to entertain leaders of the "Medicine 
Lodge Circle" with a feast if they achieved suc- 
cess in war. According to Long, the Medicine 
Lodge Dance lasted 2 days and IVi nights, with a 

rest period beginning at midnight. Because people 
fasted during the ceremony, the utensils described 
here were presumably used in the feasts that fol- 

The first of the three wooden bowls used in 
Medicine Lodge feasts is large, deep, and oval, 
with projections at both ends. The slight projec- 
tion at one end is decorated with three brass nails. 
The projection at the opposite end is more pro- 
nounced and includes a pair of opposed notches. 
On the inside just below this projection, an animal 
face, identified on Dorsey's accession list as rep- 
resenting a rattlesnake, has been carved in relief. 
Two large brass nails form the eyes, and a pair of 
smaller ones represent the mouth. A long crack in 
one side has been repaired with molten lead and 
tacks (60373; Fig. 50c). This bowl is described in 
the catalog as "very old." Ewers (1986, pp. 166- 
173, Figs. 163-168) described and illustrated a 
number of Plains carved wooden effigy bowls. 

Another bowl described as "old" is deep, 
round, and made of burled hardwood. A projec- 
tion along the edge contains a single notch 
(60388; Fig. 50b). 

The third bowl is oval, with a rounded projec- 
tion at one end that has an ear-like knob on each 
side (60409; Fig. 50i). 

Of the five spoons specifically associated with 
Medicine Lodge feasts, one is made of wood and 
has an ovoid bowl. The handle is rectangular and 
slightly curved, with a rectangular panel at the 
proximal end on which a snake-like creature is 
carved in relief (60372; Fig. 51b). This spoon, 
currently on exhibit and thus not available for 
photography, is approximately 30 cm long. 

The other four spoons are made of buffalo horn 
with deep, ovoid bowls. The first has a straight 
handle, carved at the end to represent a rattlesnake 
(60412; Fig. 51a). This spoon, also on exhibit, is 
approximately 25 cm long. Two spoons have 
curved handles that terminate in carved heads, 
with the mouth and eyes indicated. According to 
the catalog, a cormorant (Phalacrocorax sp.) is 
represented on the handle of one (60411; Fig. 
50e) and a snake on the other (60393; Fig. 50g). 
The fourth, a child's spoon, has an upright handle 
with a knob at the proximal end (60379; Fig. 
50h). The catalog notes that it was used by a 
"very young member of the Medicine Lodge." 

The collection contains three additional horn 
spoons with ovoid bowls that are not associated 
with any particular ceremonial or religious activ- 
ity. One has a long, thin bowl and a handle with 
a knob that curves abruptly at the proximal end 



to represent a snake's head (60380; Fig. 50d). The 
second is larger with a plain, curved handle 
(60413; Fig. 50a), and the third has an upright 
handle that broadens and then narrows to a point 
at the proximal end (60392; Fig. 50f). 

A medicine bag in very deteriorated condition 
is made, according to the catalog, of mink (Mu- 
setela vison) skin. Although its poor condition 
makes accurate description impossible, the skin 
appears to have been slit, the contents of the neck 
and skull removed and filled with an unknown 
object wrapped in patterned cotton cloth, and the 
slit sewed up with sinew (60415; Figs. 52, 53). 
Attached in the area of the tail is a rectangular 
strip of buckskin, decorated on one side with pur- 
ple- and white-dyed porcupine quills, worked by 
the plaiting method using a pair of quills as de- 
scribed by Orchard (1971, pp. 32, 35, Fig. 18, PI. 
IX). Two buckskin panels with quills worked in 
the same manner and in the same colors are at- 
tached on either side of the rectangular strip at the 
point where it is attached to the mink skin. The 
panels and the rectangular strip are edged with 
metal cones, which at one time had tufts of red 
yam extending from them. 

A fox {Vulpes fulva) skin necklace in poor con- 
dition is slit down the center and sewn up with 
sinew for approximately half its length. According 
to Dorsey's accession list, it was worn over the 
head. The back legs and tail are covered with nar- 
row strips of tanned skin wrapped with yellow- 
and red-dyed porcupine quills. Fringes of skin 
wrapped with quills of the same colors extend 
from the back feet. The top of the head in front 
of the ears is covered with a fringed buckskin 
panel decorated with red-dyed quills. These quills 
are held in place by two rows of stitches, the 
thread being caught into the surface of the buck- 
skin panel between each fold of the quills (Or- 
chard, 1971, pp. 19, 21, Fig. 8). At the front of 
the panel is a fringe consisting of five narrow 
strips of buckskin wrapped for half their length 
with red-dyed quills. On one surface toward the 
center of the skin, a single eagle feather is at- 
tached along each edge (60371; Fig. 47d). 

Four heavy poles, identified in the catalog as 
''Ghost Dance sticks," are each approximately 
1 13 cm long and 4.5 cm in diameter. Their entire 
surfaces are painted with red pigment (60261). 

Identified as a dance wand is a staff approxi- 
mately 2 m long wrapped with alternating parallel 
bands of small white, yellow, and green beads. 
The staff tapers at the proximal end and the lower 
14 cm is unwrapped. This dance wand is on ex- 

hibit and is displayed with a marten skin medicine 
bag, not Yanktonai, looped over the proximal end 
(60422; Fig. 49). In the catalog this object is iden- 
tified as a "woman's scalp wand." 

Another object described in the catalog as a 
dance wand is a stick painted for most of its 
length with black pigment and ornamented in 
three places with the scalps of mallard ducks 
lashed on with sinew, five golden eagle feathers, 
and a strand of white beads. Included in the lash- 
ing for each duck scalp are strands of red-dyed 
horsehair. Similar strands are lashed to the distal 
end of one golden eagle feather, and a single 
white down feather is attached with sinew to the 
distal end of the strand of white beads (60259; 
Fig. 47a). Densmore (1918, opp. p. 72) illustrated 
a similar wand from the Teton Dakota. 

This dance wand was used in the Hunka (Hun- 
kaduanwpi) ceremony and is so identified in Dor- 
sey's accession list (see Densmore, 1918, pp. 68- 
77). Associated with it are two sticks with short 
rods attached, support sticks whose sharp ends 
would have been inserted into the ground, and a 
rod with blunt ends that was laid across them to 
form a rack against which two ceremonial wands 
were rested (60257; Fig. 40b). One is the rod with 
an ear of corn attached (60258; Fig. 40a) and the 
other the decorated wand just described (Fig. 
47a). All of these sticks are painted with blue pig- 
ment. According to the accession list, a previously 
described rattle (60260; Fig. 40c) was also asso- 
ciated with this ceremonial assemblage. 

Clothing and Personal Adornment 

The collection contains two girl's robes, both 
made of cowhide tanned with the hair left on. The 
first of these is decorated with 20 bands of quill- 
work, each band 0.03 cm wide, sewn on two par- 
allel rows of loop stitches (Orchard, 1971, pp. 24- 
25). The primary color of these bands is red, with 
short lengths of green-dyed quills at either end 
and at three equidistant intervals on each band. 
There is a pair of buckskin ties on one side for 
fastening the robe around the wearer's body 
(60232; Fig. 54). 

The second girl's robe is smaller, being approx- 
imately 125 cm in length. Because this robe is on 
exhibit, the illustration and the following descrip- 
tion are incomplete. The primary decoration on 
this robe is multiple rows of red-dyed quillwork 
applied in the same manner as on the previously 
described robe. There are tufts of red yarn at one 



end of each row and at two locations toward the 
center of the decoration. Running through the cen- 
ter of these bands and parallel to them is a wide 
band of white-, red-, and yellow-dyed plaited 
quills (Orchard, 1971, p. 32, Fig. 17). A single 
row of similarly plaited white-dyed quills is sewn 
on each of the front legs. Attached in three places 
on one side of the rows of parallel decorative 
bands are pairs of thongs, wrapped with red-dyed 
quills terminating in deer hoof segments. A single 
pair of thongs, similarly decorated, is attached on 
the other side. A pair of deer ears is sewn in the 
head area of the robe with strips of soft-tanned 
deerskin. Between these ears and the primary dec- 
orative bands and on either side of the wide, plait- 
ed central band are looping bands of white-dyed 
quills sewn on parallel rows of loop stitches 
(60230; Fig. 55). 

The collection contains a single pair of wom- 
an 's leggings, the upper section of which is made 
of drilling hemmed with black thread. A panel of 
tanned skin at the bottom is edged with cotton 
cloth and decorated with 13 horizontal rows of 
lazy-stitched light blue, yellow, green, dark blue, 
white, and pink beads. Design elements include 
crosses and triangles. The overlapping edges are 
closed with five two-strand laces to draw the leg- 
gings snug around the ankle (60367; Fig. 56). 

The single pair of men 's leggings in the collec- 
tion conforms to the usual northern Plains style 
that reached to the hip and attached to a belt. 
These leggings are installed on a manikin in an 
exhibit case, and the following description is lim- 
ited because the upper area and back are obscured 
by other garments. They flare toward the bottom; 
they are made of a single piece of tanned deer or 
antelope skin fringed along both edges, which are 
fastened together at intervals with single-strand 
hide ties. The three upper ties are ornamented 
with large blue and yellow beads. Along the bot- 
tom and up the outer edge, extending to the vi- 
cinity of the knees, is a strip of white beads. At 
intervals along this strip are parallel rows of red 
beads. Additional ornamentation on this pair of 
leggings includes four horseshoe designs, two of 
dark blue beads and two in red and white beads. 
Between these horseshoes and the fringe are 
crosses and partial crosses made of white beads 
with dark blue beads in the center. Near the bot- 
tom edge is a rectangular design in red and white 
beads as well as three triangular ornaments, one 
over the instep, another at the base of the inner 
fringe, and a third in the extreme comer of the 
flare. All of these design elements are worked di- 

rectly on the garment (60382; Fig. 57). The sym- 
bolism of the beaded designs on these leggings is 
noted on Dorsey's accession list. 

The Yanktonai collection contains five pairs of 
moccasins, one pair identified in the catalog as 
having been worn by men; the others lack a gen- 
der identification. All of these moccasins resemble 
those previously described for the Assiniboine in 
being made of buckskin and having flat buckskin 
soles and upper pieces with vertical heel seams. 
The openings for the feet are cut to a T, and the 
tongues are sewn directly to the transverse part of 
the cut. This pattern conforms to Hatt's series XV 
(Hatt, 1916, pp. 185-187) and Webber's series 
4Ab (Webber, 1989, p. 52). Three pairs are dec- 
orated with beads and one with beads and por- 
cupine quills. Most sewing appears to have been 
done with thread, and the beads are lazy-stitched. 
Each pair of moccasins will be described sepa- 
rately. All show considerable signs of wear. 

60363, 1-2 — The uppers of these moccasins are 
edged with cotton cloth, and a buckskin tie is in- 
serted through the uppers just below the edge. A 
band of vertical rows of yellow, light blue, dark 
blue, and brown beads is sewn around the foot 
just above the seam that joins the upper to the 
sole. The rest of the upper is decorated with pur- 
ple-, orange-, yellow-, and red-dyed quills. Par- 
allel bands of quills are applied across the upper 
in a continuous design that somewhat resembles 
the path or trail design illustrated by Lyford 
(1940, Fig. 21, p. 80). The quills are held in place 
by two rows of stitches, the thread being caught 
into the surface of the hide between each parallel 
fold of the quills (Orchard, 1971, pp. 19, 21, Fig. 
8). On the sides and around the back are vertical 
rows of red- and yellow-dyed quills sewn in the 
same manner (Fig. 58b). 

60239, 1-2 — These moccasins, described as be- 
ing worn by men, have uppers edged with cotton 
cloth and buckskin ties inserted through the up- 
pers just below the edge. Long hide trailers are 
sewn into the heel seam. Most of the uppers are 
covered with beads sewn with a lazy-stitch. The 
background color is light blue. Design elements 
include stepped triangles in dark blue, red, and 
yellow beads at intervals around the lower edge 
of the uppers and a pair of boxes in dark blue and 
yellow beads on either side just below the buck- 
skin ties (Fig. 58a). 

60376, 1-2 — The uppers have no edging, and 
buckskin ties run through a pair of holes at the 
front and back. Decoration on these moccasins 
consists of a band of lazy-stitched white beads 



across the instep, converging lines extending from 
this band to the toes, and a band around the moc- 
casins just above the sole. Box designs in black 
beads occur at intervals in these bands. On one 
side near the opening and on the heel are square 
crosses in black and white beads. On the other 
side is a double cross extending vertically from a 
circle. A similar circle is sewn on one side below 
the instep. All of these design elements are in 
black and white beads. Metal cones are attached 
down the center between the two converging rows 
of beads. According to the catalog, the double 
cross extending from a circle is the symbol for a 
leader in war, while the circles symbolize deer, 
stealers of women (Fig. 59a). The use of a central 
row of fringe or metal cones to delineate the front 
decorative panel is characteristic of Cheyenne 
moccasins (Markoe, ed., 1986, pp. 91, 93). 

60377, 1-2 — These moccasins have uppers 
edged with broad strips of patterned cotton cloth; 
there are no ties. The single design element on the 
instep is a large cross in blue, white, and yellow 
beads. According to the catalog, this design sym- 
bolizes "man killed another in blockhouse" (Fig. 

60387, 1-2 — ^The fifth pair of moccasins is on 
a manikin in an exhibit hall and is partially ob- 
scured (Fig. 57). The visible part of these moc- 
casins is fiilly beaded, the primary color being 
light blue. Design elements are in red, white, dark 
blue, and yellow beads. They include a diagonal 
checker row and rabbit ears (Lyford, 1940, p. 77). 

The collection contains a child's belt, also on 
exhibit, that consists of a broad decorative buck- 
skin band from which extends a pair of navel cord 
pouches of the same material. The band is orna- 
mented with vertical rows of lazy-stitched dark 
blue, light blue, yellow, and green beads arranged 
to form a series of boxes. On the pouches the 
primary color is pink, with design elements in 
translucent yellow, dark blue, and light blue 
beads. The drawstrings are strung with translucent 
white beads. Extending from each pouch is a 
fringe of buckskin, on each element of which 
seeds are strung. At the end of each fringe ele- 
ment is a metal cone, from which extends a tuft 
of red yam (60414; Fig. 60). The catalog notes 
that such a belt was given when the child was 1 
year old. 

A wooden hair parter is similar to the one pre- 
viously described for the Assiniboine. It is a 
peeled twig worked to a point at one end (60229; 
Fig. 61c). 

A pair of shell earrings, triangular in shape, are 

notched along the lower edges and attached to the 
ears with wire loops (60233; Fig. 61b). 


A hide scraper of the elk antler elbow type is 
flattened at the distal end to receive a metal blade. 
This scraper is decorated with incised lines and 
dots. According to the catalog, the dots represent 
the number of tanned hides, the crosses represent 
tipis, and the triangles are buffalo spears (60378; 
Fig. 61a). 

The collection contains a hammer, the head of 
which is of stone flattened at the distal end. Al- 
though most of the head and handle has a firm 
covering of rawhide, it seems likely that the 
wooden handle was doubled and passed around a 
groove in the stone head. There is a loop of deer- 
skin at the proximal end of the handle (60389; 
Fig. 61e). A similar stone hammer from the Teton 
Dakota is illustrated in Markoe, ed. (1986, p. 

A bird bone war whistle has black-dyed feath- 
ers and strands of red-dyed horsehair attached 
with rawhide at one end (60252; Fig. 6 Id). 

IV. Conclusions 

Studies of Assiniboine and Yanktonai material 
culture are virtually nonexistent even though there 
are collections in many American and Canadian 
museums. These collections are thus not well 
known even to ethnographers with a special in- 
terest in Plains cultures. The collections described 
here are neither large nor especially varied, and 
they certainly fail to encompass the range of ma- 
terial culture items made and used by these peo- 
ples. Nevertheless, it has seemed worthwhile to 
place on record collections that, although having 
limited documentation, were acquired by the Field 
Museum under controlled circumstances at a rel- 
atively early date, when traditional or modified 
traditional material culture was still available to 

There are a significant number of gaps in both 
collections. Items relating to subsistence are ab- 
sent, and most other material culture categories 
are poorly represented. Exceptions include an in- 
teresting assemblage of games in the Yanktonai 
collection and a sizable number of objects in both 



collections that have been identified as relating to 
ceremonial activities. 

Dorsey, who collected the bulk of the material 
described in this study, seems for the most part to 
have been without a specific collecting plan other 
than to fill exhibit cases in the newly established 
museum. Given the shortness of his stay on the 
reservations, he probably purchased whatever was 
brought to him for sale. Whether he collected with 
the assistance of a local trader or other person 
familiar with the reservation scene, as he did 
among the Blood in 1897 (VanStone, 1992, p. 23), 
is not known. 

Clearly, games were an important collecting 
area for Dorsey, so in this one area, at least, he 
had a plan. Culin (1907, pp. 29-30) explicitly ac- 
knowledged Dorsey's insistence on the systematic 
collection of gaming implements for the Field 
Museum. His willingness to share this information 
obtained by his own fieldwork and that of his 
Field Museum colleagues contributed greatly to 
Culin's monumental study of the subject. 

When this study was begun, it was hoped that 
meaningful comparisons could be made between 
the Assiniboine and Yanktonai collections, but be- 
cause of the idiosyncratic nature of both collec- 
tions this does not seem to be possible. One aspect 
of Plains material culture that has received con- 
siderable attention by ethnographers is decorative 
art, especially designs in beads and porcupine 
quills. In the earlier descriptions of Assiniboine 
moccasins, Lowie's (1909, pp. 20-22) observa- 
tions concerning the diversity of moccasin deco- 
ration were noted. Both Kroeber (1908, pp. 153, 
155, 158, 160-61) and Lowie (1909, pp. 19-20) 
noted the close relationship between the decora- 
tive art of the Sioux and the Assiniboine. They 
observed that although both employed many de- 
signs shared with other tribes, both made more 
frequent use of the box, cross, and feather de- 
signs. It is certainly true that in the collections 
described here, these designs are among those 
most frequently used by both the Assiniboine and 
Yanktonai, along with triangles and checker rows. 
However, the number of beaded and quillwork- 
decorated items in both collections is small. Be- 
cause Kroeber, Lowie, and others have not been 
successful in determining the meaning of individ- 
ual designs, it is not possible to know how much 
significance to attach to such resemblances. It is 
difficult to escape Wissler's (1927, p. 23) conclu- 
sion that "the beaded art of the Plains is an affair 
of the entire area, rather than of the tribe." 

As noted in the Introduction, Dorsey's first ex- 

pedition for the museum, in 1897, when he visited 
the Blackfoot (Blood) in southern Alberta 
(VanStone, 1992), was to collect for exhibition 
purposes. It seems likely that his second expedi- 
tion in 1900 was similarly oriented. His desire to 
visit as many reservations as possible during a 
restricted period of time suggests that he hoped to 
fill as many exhibit cases as he could with as wide 
a variety of Indian manufactures as possible. Be- 
cause of this interest in collecting broadly, the fact 
that he had already obtained elaborately decorated 
shirts, dresses, robes, and pipe pouches from the 
Blood many account for the absence of these 
items from the Assiniboine and Yanktonai collec- 

Given the materials that Dorsey and others did 
collect among the Assiniboine and Yanktonai and 
that are described in this study, it is necessary to 
consider whether they were in use at the time the 
collections were made. Writing about the neigh- 
boring Blackfoot, Ewers (1958, pp. 301-308) not- 
ed that by the early 1880s traditional crafts were 
beginning to disappear. Most skin clothing was 
replaced with items of cloth in the 1890s, but 
moccasins, because they were more comfortable 
than shoes, continued to be worn long after other 
items of traditional clothing had been replaced. 
The relatively large number of objects in both col- 
lections associated with ceremonies may perhaps 
be explained by the fact that many ceremonies 
had lost their meaning and were no longer per- 
formed. It is also likely that items of traditional 
material culture, long out of use, were preserved 
as heirlooms, their sentimental value eventually 
outweighed by the need for cash. Dorsey, like oth- 
er late 19th and early 20th century collectors, pre- 
ferred to avoid objects showing European influ- 
ences. His colleague, Stephen C. Simms, for ex- 
ample, made a conscious effort to avoid what he 
referred to as "Hudson's Bay things" when col- 
lecting for the Field Museum among the Plains 
Cree in the summer of 1903. Inevitably, therefore, 
the collections described here are highly selective 
of what people were actually using in their daily 
lives in 1900 and are more reflective of Assini- 
boine and Yanktonai material culture in the mid- 
19th century. 


I am grateful to Raymond J. DeMallie, Depart- 
ment of Anthropology, Indiana University, who 



encouraged me to undertake this study and pro- 
vided valuable assistance during every stage of its 
preparation. David E. Willard of the Field Mu- 
seum's Department of Zoology identified feathers 
used in the manufacture of artifacts in the collec- 
tions. The drawings were made by Lori Grove, 
and the photographs are the work of Diane Al- 
exander White, a museum photographer. James D. 
Foerster and Loran H. Recchia typed several 
drafts of the manuscript. Finally, I express my ap- 
preciation for the efforts of three reviewers, two 
of whom, Raymond J. DeMallie and John C. Ew- 
ers, identified themselves. 

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Appendix 1 

The Dorsey (Accession 689), Wilson (Accession 23), and 
Ayer (Accession 112) Assiniboine Collections 

Following is a list of the Dorsey Assiniboine collection described in this study, together with a few 
items collected by E. F. Wilson and E. Ayer. Artifact identifications are, with a few exceptions, those 
provided by the collectors. Numbers in the 16000s are items collected by Wilson and Ayer. 


Ceremonial Equipment 

60199 hide scraper (Fig. 2c), Fort Peck 
60188 hide scraper (Fig. 2e), Fort Belknap 
60201 hide dresser (Fig. 2f), Fort Peck 

60216 twisted sinew (Fig. 6d), Fort Peck 
60197 hammer (Fig. 2b), Fort Peck 

60191 hammerhead (Fig. 2g), Fort Peck 
60193 hand hammer (Fig. 2a), Fort Peck 

60200 whetstone (Fig. 2h), Fort Peck 
60212 quill smooother (Fig. 2d), Fort Peck 

Household Equipment 

60209 bag (Fig. 3b), Fort Peck 

60179 bag (Fig. 3a), Fort Belknap 

60217 berry bag (Fig. 4), Fort Peck 
60208 berry bag (Fig. 5), Fort Peck 
60174 bag (Fig. 6b), Fort Belknap 

60192 bag (Fig. 6a), Fort Peck 
60207 bag (Fig. 6f), Fort Peck 

60204 dipper or ladle (Fig. 7), Fort Peck 

60176 paint bag (Fig. 6e), Fort Belknap 

60171 paint bag (Fig. 6c), Fort Belknap 


Pipes and Accessories 











pipe (Fig. 20e), 
pipe (Fig. 21a), 
pipe (Fig. 20d), 
pipe (Fig. 20c), 
pipe (Fig. 21c), 
pipe (Fig. 20b), 
pipe (Fig. 21b), 
pipe (Fig. 20a), 
pipe bowl (Fig. 
pipe bag (Fig. 2 

Fort Peck 

Fort Peck 

Fort Peck 

Fort Peck 

Fort Peck 

Fort Belknap 

Fort Belknap 

Fort Peck 

2 Id), Fort Belknap 

le). Fort Belknap 

Clothing and Accessories 

15037 roach headdress (Fig. 22), Fort Peck 

16265 dance cap (Fig. 23), Fort Peck 

6021 1 buffalo headdress (Fig. 24), Fort Peck 

16252 dancing fan handle (Fig. 25d), Fort Peck 

60169 fan (Fig. 25e), Fort Belknap 

60175 charm containing navel cord (Fig. 25c), 

Fort Belknap 
60224 mirror case (Fig. 25a), Fort Belknap 

16261 mirror case with two attached bags (Fig. 

25b), Fort Peck 

16262 child's belt with attached knife sheath 

(Fig. 8c), Fort Peck 
16251 child's beh with attached knife sheath, 

amulet, bag, and awl case (Fig. 8b), 

Fort Peck 
16253 belt (Fig. 8a), Fort Peck 

60184-1,2 man's leggings (Figs. 9, 10), Fort 

16254-1,2 man's leggings (Fig. 11), Fort Peck 
60219-1,2 man's leggings (Fig. 12), Fort Peck 
60202-1,2 man's leggings (Fig. 13), Fort Peck 
60164-1,2 man's moccasins (Fig. 14b), Fort Belknap 
60166-1,2 man's moccasins (Fig. 14a), Fort Belknap 
60195-1,2 moccasins (Fig. 15a), Fort Peck 
60165-1,2 man's moccasins (Fig. 15b), Fort Belknap 
60170-1,2 man's moccasins (Fig. 16b), Fort Belknap 
60173-1,2 man's moccasins (Fig. 16a), Fort Belknap 
60178-1,2 man's moccasins (Fig. 17a), Fort Belknap 
60180-1,2 man's moccasins (Fig. 18a), Fort Belknap 
60183-1,2 moccasins (Fig. 17b), Fort Belknap 
60187-1,2 moccasins (Fig. 18b), Fort Belknap 
60220-1,2 moccasins (Fig. 19a), Fort Peck 
60203-1,2 moccasins (Fig. 19b), Fort Peck 
60223-1,2 moccasins (Fig. 19c), Fort Peck 

Musical Instruments 




drum and drumstick (Fig. 26c), Fort 

drum and drumstick (Fig. 26b), Fort 

drumstick (Fig. 26a), Fort Belknap 
rattle (Fig. 27c), Fort Peck 
rattle (Fig. 27b), Fort Peck 
medicine rattle (Fig. 27a), Fort Peck 
medicine rattle (Fig. 27e), Fort Belknap 
medicine rattle (Fig. 27d), Fort Peck 

Personal Adornment 



child's necklace. Fort Peck 
child's necklace (Fig. 28c), Fort Belknap 
hair parter (Fig. 28d), Fort Peck 
mirror case (Fig. 28f), Fort Belknap 

60205 ring and pin game. Fort Peck 

60263 ring and pin game (Fig. 28b), Fort Peck 

60161-1-26 dice game (Fig. 28e), Fort Belknap 




woman's (?) pad saddle (Fig. 29), Fort 





war club (Fig. 30), Fort Peck 



club (Fig. 28g), Fort Peck 


club (Fig. 28h), Fort Peck 


knife sheath (Fig. 28a), Fort Peck 

Missing from the Collection 

tobacco pouch (sold) 
hunting outfit (sold) 
armbands (unaccounted for) 


Appendix 2 

The Dorsey Yanktonai Collections (Accessions 689, 691) 

Following is a list of the Dorsey Yanktonai collections described in this study. Artifact descriptions 
are, with a few exceptions, those provided by the collector. 

Household Equipment 

60226 bag (Fig. 31a), Fort Peck 

60227 bag (Fig. 31b), Fort Peck 
6023 1 pouch (Fig. 32b), Fort Peck 

60417 girl's food pouch (Fig. 32c), Devil's Lake 

60390 mortar (Fig. 32a), Devil's Lake 

Toys and Games 


60254 (10) 
60254, 1-10 
60249, 1-2 

60253, 1-6 

60240, 1-5, 
5 no subs 

60241, 1-3 



dice bowl (Fig. 33b), Devil's Lake 

dice (Fig. 33c), Devil's Lake 

hand game. Fort Peck 

hand game (Fig. 33d), Fort Peck 

snow snake game, type 1 (Fig. 33e), Fort 

snow snake game, type 2 (Fig. 35a), Fort 


hoop and pole games (2), type 1, (Fig. 

33a), Fort Peck 
hoop and pole games (2), type 2 (Fig. 

33a), Fort Peck 
racket and lacrosse stick (Fig. 35c), 

Devil's Lake 
racket and lacrosse ball (Fig. 36b), 

Devil's Lake 
shinny stick (Fig. 35b), Fort Peck 
sled (Fig. 36a), Fort Peck 
shuffleboard game (Fig. 36c), Fort Peck 
whipping top (Fig. 36g), Fort Peck 
whipping top (Fig. 36f), Fort Peck 
whipping top (Fig. 36d), Fort Peck 
whipping top (Fig. 36e), Fort Peck 
whip (Fig. 36h), Fort Peck 

Ceremonial Equipment 


60366, 1-2 pipe (Fig. 37a), Devil's Lake 

60214, 1-2 pipe (Fig. 37b), Fort Peck 

60370, 1-2 pipe (Fig. 37p, Devil's Lake 

60375, 1-2 girl's pipe (Fig. 37d), Devil's Lake 

60418, 1 pipe stem (Fig. 37c), Devil's Lake 

60365 pipe bowl (Fig. 37e), Devil's Lake 

Musical Instruments 

60423, 1-2 drum and drumstick (Fig. 38), Devil's 

60420 rattle (Fig. 40d), Devil's Lake 

60368 rattle (Fig. 39a), Devil's Lake 

60391 rattle (Fig. 39b), Devil's Lake 

60394 rattle (Fig. 39d), Devil's Lake 

60374 rattle (Fig. 39c), Devil's Lake 

60260 rattle (Fig. 40c), Fort Peck 

60228 rattle (Fig. 40f), Fort Peck 

60385 whistle (Fig. 40e), Devil's Lake 

Clothing and Accessories 

60255 cotton shirt (Figs. 41, 42), Fort Peck 

60243 webbed hoop (Fig. 43d), Fort Peck 

60246 hair ornament (Fig. 43a), Fort Peck 

60247 feather (Fig. 43c), Fort Peck 
60245 necklace (Fig. 43f), Fort Peck 

60244 dance necklace/ring (Fig. 44), Fort Peck 
60384 buckskin ring (Fig. 43e), Devil's Lake 

60256 shield (Figs. 45, 46), Fort Peck 
60407 eagle wing fan (Fig. 47b), Devil's Lake 

60386 eagle wing fan (Fig. 47c), Devil's Lake 
60419 buffalo dance headdress (Fig. 48), Devil's 


60416 dance feather (Fig. 43b), Devil's Lake 

Miscellaneous Ceremonial Equipment 



















1, 1-4 

bowl (Fig. 50c), Devil's Lake 
bowl (Fig. 50b), Devil's Lake 
bowl (Fig. 50i), Devil's Lake 
spoon (Fig. 51b), Devil's Lake 
spoon (Fig. 51a), Devil's Lake 
spoon (Fig. 50g), Devil's Lake 
spoon (Fig. 50e), Devil's Lake 
child's spoon (Fig. 50h), Devil's Lake 
spoon (Fig. 50a), Devil's Lake 
spoon (Fig. 50f), Devil's Lake 
spoon (Fig. 50d), Devil's Lake 
medicine bag (Figs. 52, 53), Devil's Lake 
necklace (Fig. 47d), Devil's Lake 
Ghost Dance sticks (4), Fort Peck 
dance wand (Fig. 49), Devil's Lake 
dance wand (Fig. 47a), Fort Peck 
stick with ear of corn (Fig. 40a), Fort 

sticks (Fig. 40b), Fort Peck 

Clothing and Personal Adornment 

60232 girl's robe (Fig. 54), Fort Peck 

60230 girl's robe (Fig. 55), Fort Peck 

60367, 1-2 woman's leggings (Fig. 56), Devil's Lake 

60382, 1-2 man's leggings (Fig. 57), Devil's Lake 

60363, 1-2 moccasins (Fig. 58b), Devil's Lake 

60239, 1-2 man's moccasins (Fig. 58a), Fort Peck 

60376, 1-2 moccasins (Fig. 59a), Devil's Lake 

60377, 1-2 moccasins (Fig. 59b), Devil's Lake 
60387, 1-2 moccasins (Fig. 57), Devil's Lake 
60414 child's belt (Fig. 60), Devil's Lake 



60229 hair parter (Fig. 61c), Fort Peck Missing from the Collection 

60233, 1-2 earrings (Fig. 59b), Fort Peck 

60225 whistle (unaccounted for) 

Miscellaneous 60234 hammer (unaccounted for) 

60242 dice (unaccounted for) 

60378 hide scraper (Fig. 61a), Devil's Lake 60361 pipe (unaccounted for) 

60389 hammer (Fig. 61e), Devil's Lake 60383 feather (unaccounted for) 

60252 war whistle (Fig. 6 Id), Fort Peck 60408 charm (disposed) 


Appendix 3 

Accession 689 — Handwritten list by George A. Dorsey 

Note. — In transcribing the inventory lists reproduced in Appendices 3 and 4, several editorial changes 
have been made to the original manuscript. Bracketed five-digit numbers at the left are the Field Museum 
catalog numbers; the four-digit numbers are those assigned by Dorsey in the field. Writing hurriedly, 
Dorsey frequently used abbreviations and ditto marks; here the words are written out. For consistency 
and ease of reading, capitalization and punctuation have been regularized and the order of material in 
entries has occasionally been altered. In cases where Dorsey gave exactly the same form of an Indian 
word more than once, repetitions are omitted. Information in parentheses is taken from later typewritten 
inventories, presumably made or reviewed by Dorsey. Phonemic Dakota and Assiniboine forms in square 
brackets were provided by Raymond J. DeMallie and follow the orthography of Boas and Deloria (1941). 
Dorsey's sketches have been redrawn for clarity. 


nn — Fort Belknap, Montana 







Pin and cups — ta-se-hu [t'asihu 




Hide scraper 


'deer foot bones'] 

Assinaboine tribe — Fort Peck Reservation. Montana 

40 counters — any play 

1st cup = 1 
2nd cup = 2 
3rd cup = 3 
4th cup = 4 

Last cup = 40 = imbosat 



Medicine rattle — wakmuha 
[wakmiiha 'squash shell'] 
Pipe — chandupa [c'adiipa 




(Yanktonais form)] 
Stone pestle — rcas kekita [?] 




Bag (buffalo) — wojuha [wozuha] 


holes in buckskin = 4 





large hole in buckskin = 9 





= quoqh [?] 







Dice game [crossed out: (see 

[ ] 








Stone hammer 




Pipe — chanupe [c'gnupa] — 









Hide scraper 












Moccasins — hamp [h4pa] 




Hide dresser 








Leggings — hunska [huskd] 












Pipe bag — i-yush-kap [iyiiskapi 




Buffalo horn spoon 


'tobacco bundle'] 



Pin & cup — tasit-hu [t'asihu] 




Arm bands — hant-gawasha 
[ftQtkQhu iyiiskice (?)] 


each cup counts 2, except first 
= 5 



Fan — ingadt [ycdnu (?)] 


holes in skin - 4; 





big hole = 5 = game = 



Paint bag — waseha [waseha] 


chante [c'gte] - heart 



Necklace — wanump [wandp '(] 












Bag buffalo 





Amulet — checkpa [c'ekpd 

Paint bag 

Pouch — opiop [wop'iye] 




Fawn bag 









Bag (dried meat) — wokpan 

Saddle (squaw) — a waqeu [ak'\\ 






Buffalo headdress — tatanquapa 
[t'at'Qka p'd 'buffalo head'] 
Bone — used for creasing and 




Foetus berry bag — wozeu 



smoothing porcupine work — 






wipamnai [wipamnaye] 
Stick used by women for parting 




Drum — kamop [kamiipi] 


hair and coloring red — ap aso 





[\pazQ (?)] 







Pipe — Yankton Sioux 
















Braided sinew — used in 






tanning — tak-an [t'ak'g] 



[60217] 1789 Berry bag 




[60218] 1790 Pipe 


[60219] 1791 Leggings 




[60220] 1792 Moccasins 


[60221] 1793 Medicine rattle 


[60222] 1794 Pipe 




[60223] 1795 Moccasins 


[60224] 1742 Beaded glass case etc. 




Yankton[ais] Sioux — Fort Peck, 


[60225] 1801 

[60226] 1802 











[60235] 1811 




Whistle — whohu coyatanka 

[huhii c'oyat'gka 'bone 

Fawn skin bag — tactsa wozua 

[t'dhca wozuha 'deer bag'] 
Fawn skin bag 
Medicine rattle — wakumu 

[wakmii 'squash'] 
Hair parter — paiozipaga 

[p 'eyozgipazg] 
Painted robe — sinapoapi [sind 

owdpi 'painted robe'] 
Bag — tachinca [t'acica 'fawn'] 
Robe — sinapahtapi [sind ipdt'api 

'quilled robe'] 
Earrings — oni [o'j] 
Stone hammer — ihoichata 

Top — chan-ka wachipi 

[c'gkawac'ipi 'wood caused 

to dance'] 

Moccasins — hampa [hgpa] 
Ring game — the 4 sticks or 

shooting arrows = echutai 

[ic'iite 'something to shoot 


r^ = paienkai \paiygkapi 'hoop and 
pole game'] 

X — okechaiti {ok'iiata 'fork'] 

•Ml = bahope [pagopi 'grooved'] 

■^ = sabiapi [sabydpi 'blackened'] 
= black 

1.00 [60248] 1825 





























[60258] 1835 


•f* - ska [skaydpi 'whitened'] = 
[60241] 1817 Wheel and arrow— haka [hakd\ 2.00 

[1818 —not used] 
[60242] 1819 Dice— kasu kuto [k'gsiik'ute 'to .50 
play (plum stone) dice'] — 
pairs win 
[60243] 1820 Ring— chan [c'gkdeska .50 

'hoop'] — used in grass 
dance — feather worn only 

when enemy killed; worn on [60261] 

head — larger hole called koha [60262] 












[ ] 

Charm and ring — grass dance — 1 .00 

chankadeshka [c 'gkdeska] 
Necklace — grass dance — 

waminomini [wamniomni 

Headdress — grass dance — wapa 

kanaka [wap'egnaka] 
Red feather — wakadute [wakd 

diita 'red split/stripped 

feather'] — have been wounded 

before can be worn 
Ice sled — huhukazonta 

[huhiikazifta] — marks are 

Ice darts — huchinachute 

[hutinac 'ute] 
Whip for top — icasthinta 

[icdpsUe 'whip'] 
Ice game — 2 women — OQpapi 

[upapi 'they are placed'] — 

stones = ea [(yg] 
Flute — chiotanka [c'oyat'gka] 
Snow darts — pasadoniati 

Handgame — humpa pachopi 

[hgpaap'e ec'fipi] 'moccasin 

counters — chawiawa 

[c 'gwiyawa] 
bones — hapin uchkami 

[hgpinahma 'moccasin hider'] 

I „ „ I = napapahopi [nfipa 
gopi] — 2 notches 

C^IZ^ZI - topapahopi [topa 

gopi] — 4 notches 
Shirt — grass dance — 

minihuogadeti ['mnihuha okde 
'cloth shirt'] 
Shield — wahatchanka 

[wahdc 'gka] 
Hunkaduanpi [hffkd dowgpi 
'adoption sing']: 2 upright 
Hunkaduanpi: stick with com 

Hunkaduanpi: wand with feather 
Hunkaduanpi: rattle 

The four pieces form sort of 
altar. When chief gives great 
feast to show love for his fa- 
vorite son — altar is put — 
boy is known as chief child, 
etc. — father is known as 
hunkd. He distinguishes 
himself by painting two 
rows of dots down his face 
= aduanpi [adowgpi 'sing- 
ing for someone']. Com — 
prayer for big crop — used 
for seed com. 
4 Ghost sticks 
Shinney stick [comment by 
Dorsey: not received] 










Appendix 4 

Accession 691 — Handwritten list by George A. Dorsey 

Note. — See note on page 32. 
Devils Lake Reservation, North Dakota 

Cut Head Sioux 




Pipe — chandupa [c'adiipa] 



(squarish catlinite bowl; short. 

thick, round wooden stem. 

8%" long) 



Shinny stick — chiantamkapi 
[c 'Qt 'dbkapsica] 




Moccasins — hanpaipatapi [hgpa 
ipdt'api 'quilled moccasins'] 





Pipe — chandupi [c'adiipa] 














(Woman's) leggings — 

wiatahouska [wiyg t'ah^ska 
'women's leggings'] 





Rattle — wahamuha [wahmuha 
'squash shell'] 




Dice — kansu [k'gsu 'plum pits'] 


xi. echeana = alone [eceena 'only'] 

y^ ikcheka = common [ikceka] and 
.;!. ikcheka = common [ikceka] 

.jF=& okeha = next [ok' the] 

all up = sabyabese [sabydpi s 'e] = black 

= game = 10 points 
all down = skayapese [skaydpi s'e] = 

white = game = 10 points 
all white except "alone" = 4 points 
all white except "common" = 1 point 
all black except 2 = points 
all white except any 1 black = 1 point 







Fox skin — soh hinahawanapi 
[sygina ha wandp'l 'fox skin 




Serpent spoon — wabad usha 
kishka [wabdiiska k'ijkd 
'snake spoon'] 




Bowl — wakawozuti [wak'g 
woyute 'sacred food'] — very 
old — rattlesnake — used in 
spirit feast 




Rattle — wahamo hasha 
[wahmuha sd 'red squash 




Girl's pipe 




Moccasins — worn by man who 
has killed enemy 



leader in war 

deer = a stealer of women 

1854 Moccasins — man killed another 

in block house 

1855 Hide scraper — tanned as many 

hides as dots 

>< = teepee 

A = buffalo spear 

1856 (Child's) spoon 

1857 Spoon — wabadusha [wabdiiska 


1858 Pipe bag — chaukosuha 

[c'gk'ozuha 'tobacco pouch,' 
literally 'fire-steel bag'] 

1859 Leggings — wiatahonska [wic'd 

t'ahy.ska 'man's leggings'] 


[ ] 



person wounded and 
dragged out by wearer 

gives away ponies on com- 
ing to maturity — can paint 
in a peculiar way 

^^^ = throws away three blankets 
^^ = should be in Q 

O = big ring — hide thrown away 

^^ = brave man in war 

= otter skin 

W = steal horses — 1 = horse 

^^ = pipe thrown away 

[60383] 1860 Feather— worn by hunka [hykd 
'ritual adopter/adoptee'] in 
hair (red and white spiral 
striped quill and red feather) 

[60384] 1861 Ring (buckskin beaded)— 
chankadeska [c 'gkdeska 
'hoop'] (symbol oO deer — 
(used in) grass dance 

[60385] 1862 Whistle— spirit blows— 
huhuchoyatauka [huhii 
c'oyatgka 'bone whistle'] 
(attached to it is a small 
bundle containing a marble 
and red feather and a small 
brass bell attached 7" long) 

[60386] 1863 Fan used by old men — ichadu 







[60387] 1864 Moccasins — hanpaipatapi [hgpa 1.00 
wipat'api 'quilled m(x:casins'] 

[60388] 1865 Bowl— tsawaksicha [c'aH'dA:i/ca 1.50 
'wood bowl'] 

[60389] 1866 Hammer— ihuichate {wi'cat'e .25 

'instrument to kill with'] 
(stone head partly covered 
with greenish colored hide — 
hide covered handle — loop at 
end — used for pounding meat 
and berries) 

[60390] 1867 Par flesh— owakapa [oH'ditap'e] .50 
(of cow hide with hair — bowl- 
like with meal-like particles 
adhering. Raw hide receptacles. 
In this is placed a flat circular 
[stone] upon which meat, 
berries, etc. are pounded.) 

[60391] 1868 Rattle— hutatahomuke [utdta 1.00 

hmyke (?) 'sound of shooting' 
(?)] — used in the bear dance 



Spoon — wabadusha [wabduska 




Spoon — wabadusha [wabduska 








Shinny ball — tah pa [t'dpa] 


Santee Sioux 









Sisseton Sioux 







Headdress — tahe watchehe 
[t'ahe wdc'ihe 'deer antler 
feather head ornament'] — 
grass dance 




Armbands — hidkanhuja [hgtkyza 




Headdress — shonkakaha wapaha 
[s^ka ha wap'dha 'dog 
(horse) skin headdress'] 




Child's hammer — unfinished 








[not used for this accession] 



Hair parter — paozaipaza 
\p'ey6zgipaza] used by 
women for parting the hair 
and for painting the scalp red) 




Fork — tzanwiuze [c 'gwiyuze] 


Cut Head Sioux, Continued 



Fan — ichadu [icadu] 




Charm — hunka tawachihay 


[hukd t'awdcihe 'hunka's 
feather head ornament'] — 
(representing) a sea monster — 
unkatewhe [uktehi 'underwater 
monster'] (hair-covered stick — 
round stoen [stone] — feather 
attachments) [Note: specimen 
was consigned to waste] 

[60409] 1896 Bowl for medicine 

[60410] 1897 Bowl— hehan [hihg 'owl'] 

[60411] 1898 Spoon— bird— cormorant— 
bedoza [bdoza] 

[60412] 1899 Spoon — rattlesnake — setehhada 
Used in waka wachipi [wak'g 
wac'ipi 'sacred dance'] — a 
sacred dance — to join this 
society 100 or more feasts 
must be given 1 week or so 
apart — feast called wakan 
wohanpi [wak'g wohgpi 
'sacred feast'] — holy 
cooking — feast given 
whenever deer or buffalo is 
killed, etc. — feast is given to 
learn songs. 
Medicine bowl (no. 1897) made 
by priests — I got it from 
Machpiye ohetika. Powerful 
Cloud [Mahpiya Ohitika 
'Brave Cloud']; he got it from 
Tiowaste [T'iowaste], Good in 
House, and he got it from 
Oksana [Oksana 'Around' 
(?)], a great medicine man 
dead 30 years ago. 

[60413] 1900 Spoon 

[60414] 1901 Baby belt and navel sack- 
given when 1 year old — chek 
pozuha [c'ekpozuha 'naval 

[60415] 1902 Medicine bag — chaukozua 

[c'gk'ozuha 'tobacco pouch'] 

[60416] 1903 Feather— watchehe [wdc'ihe 
'feather head ornament'] 

[60417] 1904 Girls food bag— wozuha 
[wozuha 'food pouch'] 

[60418] 1905 Pipe 

[60419] 1906 Buffalo dance headdress— 
tatunkawapaha [t'at'dka 
wap 'aha 'buffalo bull 

[60420] 1907 Rattle 

[60421] 1908 Dice bowl 

[60422] 1909 Women's scalp dance wand — 
wachshe wapaha [wac'i 
wdpaha 'dance staff] — glad 

[60423] 1910 Drum — hiwaipiyet tachan 

[iwdp'iye t'ac'gc'ega 'curer's 
drum'] — whatever have 
something it is within — 
stick — iwapiye wahumuha 
[iwdp'iye wahmiiha 'curing 
rattle'] — used in "medicine" 
when something is removed 
from body by magic in curing 
the sick 









[ ] 
[ ] 



Appendix 5 

Dorsey's collection from the Devil's Lake Reservation (Accession 691) includes two objects 
identified in his accession list (see Appendix 4) as Santee and eight as Sisseton. These people lived 
so long with the Yanktonai that there can hardly have been any difference in their material culture. 
These objects are described here. 




A small pipe used by women and girls. It is no 
longer in the collection and is unaccounted for. 
A bulb-shaped rattle made from two pieces of 
rawhide sewn together with sinew. Both pieces 
extend to cover the handle, which is wrapped 
with cordage (Fig. 62e). According to Dorsey's 
accession list, there was a "globular charm" near 
the end of the handle, but this is now missing. 


60398 A man's leggings of green-dyed buckskin sewn 

from single pieces of deer or antelope hide with 60402 
fringes of the same material around the top, bot- 
tom, and along the sides. Rawhide loops along 
both sides are wrapped with orange-dyed quills. 
Beaded decoration consists of vertical rows of 60403 
triangle and feather designs in white, yellow, 
blue, and red beads along the sides near the 
fringe, two vertical rows of "horse tracks" in 
blue beads, and three modified cross designs in 
blue, black, and white beads. Extending from 
the upper edge is a pair of hide strips wrapped 
with blue and white beads. These strips termi- 
nate in metal cones, from which extend red yam 
and red-dyed feathers (Fig. 63). 

60399 A small headdress consists of a section of an- 
telope antler studded with brass tacks which fits 

across the forehead. A rectangular strip of fox 60405 
fur holds the headdress around the head. White 
feathers are suspended from the antler in two 
places. The accession list indicates that this 
headdress was worn in the Grass Dance. It is 
displayed on a manikin in an exhibit case, so 
the description and illustration (Fig. 64) are in- 
complete. 60406 

60400 A pair of armbands with rawhide ties is made 
from the lower legs of deer with the hair and 
hoofs intact. One armband is decorated with a 
cloth flower-like attachment. The hoofs have 
been drilled with small circular depressions that 
are filled with yellow pigment (Fig. 62b). An 
almost identical pair of Blackfoot (Blood) arm- 
bands was described and illustrated by Van- 
Stone (1992, p. 13, Fig. 34b). 

60401 A headdress made from the skin of a horse's 
head and neck, including a long, narrow section 
of the mane, part of which is dyed with red 
pigment. The horse's ears, one of which is held 
open with a strip of wood and the other with a 

piece of wire, are painted blue on the inside. A 
pair of small buffalo horns with red-tailed hawk 
feathers at their base are attached to the fore- 
head in front of the ears. The inside of the head- 
dress is lined with cloth fragments. The edges 
are lined with cotton cloth, and strips of ermine 
fur fastened together are cut to form a fringe. 
Across the front are cut crow feathers wrapped 
with sinew and attached with short buckskin 
thongs. Single golden eagle feathers are fas- 
tened with buckskin thongs to the mane in two 
places; a third feather is missing. At the end of 
the mane is a single black-dyed feather attached 
with string to a buckskin thong (Fig. 65). 
An oval piece of sandstone, roughly pecked on 
all surfaces, has a transverse groove around the 
center (Fig. 62c). It is described in the accession 
list as an unfinished child's hammer 
A pair of buckskin armbands is heavily beaded 
with a lazy stitch. The background color is dark 
blue, and in the center on one side is a box 
design in white, yellow, and red beads. Sus- 
pended from one side are three rawhide strips 
wrapped with red- and green-dyed quills, ter- 
minating in metal cones, from which extend 
white feathers. A piece of patterned cloth at- 
tached just above the quill-wrapped strips pos- 
sibly contains tobacco (Fig. 66). Because these 
armbands are in an exhibit case, the description 
and illustration are incomplete. 
A peeled twig worked to a point at one end and 
painted with red pigment was used as a hair 
parter (Fig. 62d). According to the accession 
list, it was also used for painting the scalp, ac- 
tually the part, down the center of the head from 
the forehead to the back of the head, red with 

A forked stick pointed at one end is wrapped 
for about three-quarters of its length with strips 
of porcupine quill plaiting dyed red, yellow, and 
blue; the plaiting is done over and under a par- 
allel pair of threads (Lyford, 1940, pp. 46-47, 
Fig. 5). Strands of yellow-dyed horse hair are 
lashed to the ends of the prongs with sinew. At 
the opposite end of the plaited area, the stick is 
wrapped with cotton cloth and a piece of 
fringed buckskin to serve as a hand grip (Fig. 
62a). This stick, actually a spit, was a badge of 
office held by servers who, with the aid of the 
spit, served dog meat to participants in the 
Grass Dance (Kennedy, ed., 1961, pp. 131, 



* h 




Fig. 2. a, hand hammer (60193); b, hammer (60197); c, scraper (60199); d, quill smoother (60212); e, scraper 
(60188); f, hide dresser (60201); g, hammerhead (60191); h, whetstone (60200) (fmnh neg. no. 112560). 




Fig. 3. a, bag (60179); b, bag (60209) (fmnh neg. no. 112562). 



Fig. 4. Berry bag (60217) (fmnh neg. no. 112563). 



Fig. 5. Berry bag (60208) (fmnh neg. no. 112564). 



Fig. 6. a, bag (60192); b, bag (60174); c, paint bag (60171); d, twisted sinew (60216); e, paint bag (60176); f, 
bag (60207) (fmnh neg. no. 112561). 

Fig. 7. Dipper or ladle (60204). 






\ -lam^ 







->i^ 'i ' 





Mi r-^ /"% 




Fig. 9. Man's leggings (60184) (fmnh neg. no. 112569). 



Fig. 10. Man's leggings (60184) (fmnh neg. no. 112570). 



1^ ~ 



Fig. 11. Man's leggings (16254) (fmnh neg. no. 112565). 



Fig. 12. Man's leggings (60219) (fmnh neg. no. 112566). 




Fig. 13. Man's leggings (60202) (fmnh neg. no. 112568). 



Fig. 14. a, man's moccasins (60166); b, man's moccasins (60164) (fmnh neg. no. 112754). 

Fig. 15. a, moccasins (60195); b, man's moccasins (60165) (fmnh neg. no. 112558). 



Fig. 16. a, man's mcKcasins (60173); b, man's moccasins (60170) (fmnh neg. no. 112752). 

Fig. 17. a, man's moccasins (60178); b, moccasins (60183) (fmnh neg. no. 112555). 




Fig. 18. a, man's moccasins (60180); b, moccasins (60187) (fmnh neg. no. 112557). 

Fig. 19. a, moccasins (60220); b, moccasins (60203); c, moccasins (60223) (fmnh neg. no. 112554). 



Fig. 20. a, pipe (60198); b, pipe (60162); c, pipe (60218); d, pipe (60222); e, pipe (60190) (fmnh neg. no. 



Fig. 21. a, pipe (60194); b, pipe (60163); c, pipe (60215); d, pipe bowl (60185); e, pipe bag (60167) (fmnh neg. 
no. 112572). 





Fig. 23. Dance cap (16265) (fmnh neg. no. 1 12576). 



Fig. 24. Buffalo headdress (6021 1). 



Fig. 25. a, mirror case (60224); b, mirror case with two attached bags (16261); c, charm containing navel cord 
(60175); d, dancing fan handle (16252); e, fan (60169) (fmnh neg. no. 112577). 



Fig. 26. a, drumstick (60186); b, drum and drumstick (60182); c, drum and drumstick (60181) (fmnh neg. no. 



Fig. 27. a, medicine rattle (60221); b, rattle (60196); c, rattle (60206); d, medicine rattle (16256); e, medicine 
rattle (60189) (fmnh neg. no. 112578). 



Fig. 28. a, knife sheath (16259); b, ring and pin game (60263); c, child's necklace (60172); d, hair parter (60213); 
e, dice game (60161); f, mirror case (60177); g, club (16264); h, club (16263) (fmnh neg. no. 112579). 



Fig. 29. Woman's (?) pad saddle (60210). 



Fig. 30. War club (16258). 




Fig. 31. a, bag (60226); b, bag (60227) (fmnh neg. no. 112594). 



Fig. 32. a, mortar (60390); b, pouch (60231); c, girl's food pouch (60417) (fmnh neg. no. 1 12593). 



Fig. 33. a, hoop and pole game, type 1 (60240); b, dice bowl (60421); c, dice (60369); d, hand game (60254); 
e, snow snake game, type 1 (60249) (fmnh neg. no. 112592). 



Fig. 34. Hoop and pole game, type 2 (60241) (fmnh neg. no. 112590). 

Fig. 35. a, snow snake game, type 2 (60253); b, shinny stick (60262); c, racket and lacrosse stick (60362) (fmnh 
neg. no. 112591). 




If f ?? 

Fig. 36. a, sled (60248); b, racket and lacrosse ball (60395); c, shuffleboard game (60251); d, whipping top 
(60238); e, whipping top (60237); f, whipping top (60235); g, whipping top (60236); h, whip (60250) (fmnh neg. 
no. 112589). 



Fig. 37. a, pipe (60366); b, pipe (60214); c, pipe stem (60418); d, girl's pipe (60375); e, pipe bowl (60365); f, 
pipe (60370) (fmnh neg. no. 112598). 



Fig. 38. Drum and drumstick (60423) (fmnh neg. no. 112596). 



Fig. 39. a, rattle (60368); b, rattle (60391); c, rattle (60374); d, rattle (60394) (fmnh neg. no. 1 12595). 



e~^ jT 

Fig. 40. a, stick with ear of corn (60258); b, sticks (60257); c, rattle (60260); d, rattle (60420); e, whistle (60385); 
f, rattle (60228) (fmnh neg. no. 1 12609). 




Fig. 41. Cotton shirt, front (60255) (fmnh neg. no. 112600). 




Fig. 42. Cotton shirt, back (60255) (fmnh neg. no. 1 12601). 



Fig. 43. a, hair ornament (60246); b, dance feather (60416); c, feather (60247); d, webbed hoop (60243); e, 
buckskin ring (60384); f, necklace (60245) (fmnh neg. no. 112603). 



Fig. 44. Dance necklace/ring (60244). 



Fig. 45. Shield, back (60256) (fmnh neg. no. 1 12751). 



Fig. 46. Shield, front (60256) (fmnh neg. no. 1 12597). 



Fig. 47. a, dance wand (60259); b, eagle wing fan (60407); c, eagle wing fan (60386); d, necklace (6037 1 ) (fmnh 
neg. no. 112599). 

Fig. 48. Buffalo dance headdress (60419) (fmnh neg. no. 1 12608). 



Fig. 49. Dance wand (60422). 



Fig. 50. a, spoon (60413); b, bowl (60388); c, bowl (60373); d, spoon (60380); e, spoon (60411); f, spoon 
(60392); g, spoon (60393); h, child's spoon (60379); i, bowl (60409) (fmnh neg. no. 112602). 



Fig. 51. a, spoon (60412); b, spoon (60372). 

Fig. 52. Medicine bag (60415) (fmnh neg. no. 

Fig. 53. Medicine bag, detail (60415). 









Fig. 56. Woman's leggings (60367) (fmnh neg. no. 112606). 



Fig. 57. Man's leggings and moccasins (60382, 



Fig. 58. a, man's moccasins (60239); b, moccasins (60363) (fmnh neg. no. 112607). 

Fig. 59. a, moccasins (60376); b, moccasins (60377) (fmnh neg. no. 1 12610). 



Fig. 60. Child's belt (60414). 




Fig. 61. a, hide scraper (60378); b, earrings (60233); c, hair parter (60229); d, war whistle (60252); e, hammer 
(60389) (FMNH neg. no. 112605). 



Fig. 62. a, spit (60406); b, armbands (60400); c, unfinished child's hammer (60402); d, hair parter (60405); e, 
rattle (60397) (fmnh neg. no. 112772). 

Fig. 63. Man's leggings (60398) (fmnh neg. no. 1 12771). 



Fig. 64. Headdress (60399). 





-■:■■■■.; . ^;-.■,:,>.^;3 

•.:-■•.■•...■.. E.-»,-*-.«i*..:U.,v.*as.*j 

Fig. 66. Armband (60403). 



\ S:i]irtt(\ li^iiinw of Otlu'i Fieldiana: / 


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