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189 1. 



'4sf I 



In preparing an English edition of Professor Kluge's famous work, the Trans- 
lator has aimed at making the book as easily comprehensible to English 
students as the original work is to Germans. To this end he has given the 
chief meanings of all the German words, some of which are rather obscure, and 
are not to be found in any German-English Dictionaries hitherto published. In 
assigning the equivalents to the words quoted from foreign languages, great care 
has been taken to give as closely as possible the corresponding English mean- 
ing to the words. In all cases of doubt, the Translator has consulted English, 
French, and German Dictionaries of foreign languages, such as — 

Sanscrit (Monier Williams). 

Greek (Liddell and Scott ; Pape). 

Latin (White and Riddell ; Lewis and Short ; Smith ; Georges). 

Gothic (Skeat). 

Anglo-Saxon (Toller ; Bosworth ; Leo). 

Middle English (Stratmann). 

Icelandic (Cleasby). 

Old High German (Graff ; Schade). 

Middle High German (Miiller ; Lexer). 

Lithuanian (Schleicher's Handbook). 

Dutch (Calisch). 

Swedish (Helms). 

French (Sachs; Clifton and Grimaud; Littre; Brachet; Fleming and 

Italian (Ferrari; Baretti). 

Spanish (Neumann and Baretti ; Lopes and Bensley). 
Welsh (Pugh). 

A few misprints and errors in the order of words of the German edition 
have been corrected, but they are not of sufficient importance to be specially 


On the completion of the present work, it is to me a pleasant duty to express my 
thanks to all those who have rendered its execution possible, and have helped to 
give it its new shape. 

I might have mentioned, under the separate words, those scholars who have 
discovered any etymological data bearing upon the vocabulary of our mother- 
tongue ; the vast extent of etymological literature deterred me, however, from 
doing so. There is no Teutonic scholar or linguist of any repute who has not 
by his researches either helped to determine the etymology of some German 
word or actually settled it. It would have been an extremely toilsome and yet 
useless task to give the name of the discoverer of the etymology of each word ; 
and how frequently have several scholars at the same time deserved credit for 
clearing up the history of a word. 0. Schade, in his " Old German Dictionary," 
has with untiring industry collected materials from the copious literature for 
the older period, and has received the thanks of specialists. I could not expect 
that those who may use my book would wade through the numerous errors and 
occasional imperfections of scientific investigation in order to form their own 
opinion on the evolution of particular words. By foregoing such a plan I 
obtained space, in spite of the limited compass to which this book was confined, 
to describe pretty fully the actual development of the word itself. 

If my attempt to give a brief, clear, and connected view of the history of 
each element of our vocabulary has been in any degree successful, a great part 
of the credit is due to the men who have watched over the germs planted by 
the great founders of our philology, and have in the course of the last twenty 
years made them bloom anew. In their foremost ranks I view with pleasure 
those whose academical instruction I was permitted to enjoy, and others who in 
friendly intercourse have taught me much and stimulated me in my work. The 
fact that some of them too have testified their kindly, helpful sympathy with 
the new edition has been highly grateful to mc, in the interest of the subject I 
have at heart. 


I have also received, since the first appearance of my work, encouragement 
in various ways, even from anonymous and unknown readers of this book, who 
have made communications to the author respecting dialectic, etymological, and 
other pertinent facts. Much of it has proved useful for the new edition. Moreover, 
all reasonable objections of critics have been duly considered. In particular 
points the book has gained much by the notices of Herren Birlinger, Franck, and 
Hager; and a detailed, critical letter of my Swedish friends, Prof. A. Noreen 
and Dr. E. Brate, has placed in the most liberal manner at my disposal nume- 
rous valuable improvements and new combinations. For dialectic communica- 
tions I am indebted to Herren W. Gordack of Konigsberg and F. Holthausen 
of Gottingen, and especially to Prof. Hermann Fischer of Tubingen, who gave me 
access to his rich stores of Swabian dialectic materials. For the Jewish-German 
words which the book contains Prof. Euting of Strassburg placed materials at 
my disposal. Valuable connecting details, for which I had to resort to the 
liberal help of specialists, I owe to Herren K. von Bahder, O. von Bohtlingk, 
P. von Bradke, B. ten Brink, K. Brugmann, S. Bugge, C. Cappeller, H Fischer, 
W. Franz, F. Holthausen, A. Horning, H. Hiibschmann, R. Kohler, Th. 
Nbldeke, K. Schorbach, O. Schrader, R. Thurneysen, B. Wheeler, and E 

I have been especially helped and cheered by the liberal sympathy of Pro- 
fessors A. Leskien of Leipzig, W. Meyer of Jena, H. Osthoff of Heidelberg, 
and E. Sievers of Halle. They have with praiseworthy liberality made over to 
me for publication very many new investigations of importance, and have also, 
by their corrections, objections, and retrenchments, given to many articles a 
greater fulness and completeness. 

For the careful extension and completion of the old Index, the author is 
much indebted to Herr Vincent Janssen of Kiel, who will very shortly publish 
independently complete Indexes to this book. 

For all the stimulus and sympathy, help and encouragement, I have received 
in the old as well as in the new edition, I beg to express my most sincere 


Strassburg, July 1883. 
Jena, October 1888. 


It cannot be denied that the study of German etymology is held in less esteem 
among us, and is pursued with less zeal, than that of French. This fact is not sur- 
prising ; for how easily the results of Romance philology can be made evident to a 
man of classical training, who has in Latin the chief source, and in his own native 
German the most important subsidiary source of French entirely under his com- 
mand ! And what gratification there is in viewing through the medium of etymology, 
well-known words in a new light ! 

If German etymology could be built up to the same extent as French, from the 
materials furnished by the better known civilised languages, it would certainly 
have long ago evoked the same appreciation as is now shown for French. But the 
perception of historical connections is made more difficult when the earlier stages of 
the language are not so accessible as Latin is for the history of Romance words. A 
scientific knowledge of German etymology rests upon facts, whose coherence can 
only be explained by going beyond the limits of the chief civilised languages. It is 
impossible, however, for the student to go so far back, unless all the difficulties are 
smoothed and explained, and all the necessary details for ascertaining the history 
of a word are placed before him. In investigating a German word, we cannot and 
must not stop at Middle High German, the only earlier stage of our mother-tongue 
with which every educated man has some acquaintance ; and even Old High German, 
the oldest literary period of German, is not, except in a very few cases, sufficient for 
the needs of the etymologist who knows how to appreciate the importance of philology 
in acquiring a knowledge of the history of the German language. 

It is these pre-historic periods of German that furnish the indispensable foun- 
dation for etymological inquiry. Not until we have obtained an insight into the 
difference between the High German and Low German system of consonants 
can we determine the relations of a German word to its Teutonic cognates ; not 
until we have thoroughly mastered the relations of the Gothic consonants to 
those of the allied Aryan languages are we able to understand the comparison of 
a word with its Greek and Latin cognates. To explain the earlier stages of develop- 
ment in German, and to throw light upon them as a chief means of ascertaining the 
history of a word, is the task of historical grammar. The etymologist must, if he 
wants to produce conviction, presuppose a general knowledge of the main crises in 
the history of our mother-tongue. 

To the scientific acquisitions of the present century we owe the knowledge of a 
primary period of the history of the German language, which is authenticated by no 
other record than the language itself. The literary records of the old Hindus, 
unlocked to the learned world at the end of the last century, led to the pregnant 


discovery that the Teutons, several millenniums before our era, spoke one and the 
same language with the ancestors of the Hindus and Persians, the Greeks and 
Albanians, the Italics and Kelts, the Slavs and Armenians, a fact which clearly 
proved that they were descended from the same tribe. The primitive seat of those 
tribes, which, in conformity with the utmost limits of the settlements of their 
descendants, have been designated Indo- Teutons, Indo- Kelts, and also Indo- Euro- 
peans, was the South of Europe, or more probably Asia. 

Scientific investigation, which has been endeavouring for more than half a 
century to unlock the common source of their language from the later records of 
the various Aryan tribes, bestows on it the highest praise for its wealth of forms, 
the development of which has been traced by German grammarians in our mother- 
tongue down to the present day. The vocabulary of this primitive speech is proved 
by some of its offshoots to have been exceedingly rich, and at the same time capable 
of extension ; but its fundamental perceptions and ideas were limited. The fact that 
it expressed the most necessary relations and wants of life has made it the treasury 
from which the various Aryan languages have drawn their supply of words. Of 
this old hoard German too has preserved no small a portion, even down to the 
present time. 

Compare our terms for expressing degrees of relationship with those of the 
allied languages, and these words, with slight divergences in sound, or with 
unchanged significations, will be found in the whole of the Aryan group. Of 
course the stock of such terms was far greater than we might suspect from the few 
which have remained to us. At one time we had, e.g., various designations for 
' mother's brother ' and ' father's brother' (comp. Df)cim and better with Lat. avun- 
culus and jmtiiius), for 'father's sister' and 'mother's sister' (comp. AS. faftu and 
mAdrie with Lat. amita and matertera). This implied wealth of pre-historic terms 
for degrees of kinship can be only understood by us as existing at a time when our 
ancestors lived together in clans as shepherds and nomads. When with the changing 
years the more fully developed relations of kinship lost the old inherited terms, how 
seldom have alien designations attempted to oust the native words, and how seldom 
with success ! Compare Dufel and Xante with 93atcr and 2J?utter, ©ruber and Sdjivejicr, 
Dljetm and SWidjme, Diejfe and 9ttd?te, better and S3afe, (£djn>a()et and ©djuneger, <Sd)tmt and 
<&$) n?ager. 

The terms for expressing kinship, whose unimpaired vigour we see in German, 
are, in combination with the numerals up to a hundred, an infallible indication of 
the Aryan origin of a language. Thus German testifies also by its old inherited 
numerals its close relation to the allied languages. Moreover, the designations of 
parts of the body are specially characteristic of all Aryan tongues. If German in 
its later development has lost many of them (comp., e.g., OHG. gebal, ' skull,' equiv. 
to Gr. K«f>dkr], under OHefrel), yet it preserves in most cases the old inherited words; 
Jpirn, D(ir, 23raue, 9iafe, 3af)it, £ate, 33ug, SldJfef, 9lrm, ©He, 91agcl, Jfnie, Qfttj?, gel! recur 
sometimes in one, sometimes in several of the allied languages. The knowledge 
too of natural history was displayed in the primitive speech by some essential words. 
Of the mammals, apart from the domesticated animals (see 93iet), Jtitft, Dd)\t, ^mib, 
geljteit, 9tefj, and <Sd)af), only a few destructive quadrupeds, such as 5Udf and 2Waug, 
5Mbev and &afe (see also Sdr), have been transmitted to German from that primitive 
linguistic period. The names for birds and trees are, however, but rarely common 
to several languages of the Aryan group (see 9lar, .Rranidj, SSirfe, gofj", Sicfjte, and 


33ud)e). Of inanimate nature also the primitive people had only a limited percep- 
tion ; few names for the periods of the day and the year were coined, and, as might 
have been expected, the circle of their religious ideas was narrow. Only the German 
words 9iad)t, 9JJonat, and ©omntcr have corresponding terms in several allied tongues ; 
the two old Aryan gods of light, Dieus and Aus6s, have left their final traces in 
Alemannic 3te3tag and in German Dftent. 

There is a further rich supply of isolated words in our mother-tongue inherited 
from the primitive stock. They relate chiefly to the most simple and natural 
expressions, needs, and activities of life ; jlefyeit, gcljeit, cffen, becfen, fdjiMfcen, tiarft, jung, 
ueu, »of(, fuf, mitten, burr, &c, are derived from the primitive speech. In moral 
conceptions our mother- tongue inherited the stems of Swunb and geitib, liefon and 
fyaffen, l)abern and ttugett from the old vocabulary. 

With the division of the primitive Aryan people into tribes, which may have 
been caused by religious and political dissensions, or perhaps only by the constant 
increase in number, and with the migration of these tribes from their primitive 
home, the Teutonic language may be said to begin. The old materials partly sufficed 
for the constant growth of perceptions and ideas. Old words received a new shade 
of meaning ; the root (Sans, mf) for 'to die ' acquired the signification of 'murder'; 
' the dear, the cherished one ' became ' the freeman ' ; ' to follow ' came to mean ' to 
see ' (fcljen) ; ' to split ' was extended into ' to bite ' (be iflcit), and ' to persist,' ' to stride,' 
were developed into ' to live ' (teben) and ' to mount ' (fteigen). Derivatives from 
existing stems assumed characteristic significations ; in this way ©ett, Jfeiiig, Jtinb, 
fd)6n, and 9Boge originated. On the other hand, we note the loss of old roots, which 
in other Aryan groups developed numerous cognates ; the roots j)6, ' to drink,' and 
do, ' to give,' which we recognise in Lat. potare and Gr. Treiraica, and in Lat. dare and 
Gr. Si'&a/it, have completely disappeared in Teutonic. Of other primitive roots we 
find in Teutonic only a few slight relics nearly disappearing, some of which will in 
course of time vanish altogether. The root ag, ' to drive ' (in Lat. ago, see Slrfer), the 
root an, ' to breathe' (in Lat. animus and Gr. uvf/ios), the root glw, ' to live' (in Lat. 
vivere, see querf), have never had in Teutonic, during the period of its independent 
development, such a wide evolution as in Latin and Greek. In the case of such 
words, when the idea is a living one, the term that supplants them already exists 
before they die out ; in fact, it is the cause of their disappearance. Occasionally, 
however, we find in the Teutonic group characteristic word stems, which we look 
for in vain in the sphere of the allied languages, although they must once have 
existed there too in a living form. Such primitive stems as Teutonic alone has 
preserved may be at the base of tunfen, gefcen, fiird)ten, fcdjtcit, ffiefyen, tyalteii, <fcc. Other 
roots peculiar to the Teutonic languages may owe their existence to onomatopoetic 
creation during the independent development of Teutonic ; such are perhaps Uiitgen 
and niefeit. 

Only such a pliancy of the primitive speech could keep pace with the higher 
intellectual development which we must assume for the progress of the Teutonic 
group after the first division of dialects. The capacity of our race for development 
is sufficient, even without the assumption of foreign influences, to account for the 
refinement and development of the conditions of life among the Teutons during the 
second period of the primitive history of our language. The growing susceptibility 
to the external world resulted in the extension of the sphere of the gods, the contact 
with foreign nations led to a refinement of social life, and with both these the 


conception of propriety grew up. What an abundance of new ideas and words, 
which were foreign to the primitive speech, had now to be evolved ! 

In fact, we find among the Aryans but a slight agreement in the designations of 
ethical ideas ; gut and libel, utilb and org, l;clb and treu, are specifically Teutonic ; Stbcl, 
Gbe, and fd)woren have no exact correspondences in the remaining Teutonic languages, 
©ctt, £immef, ^cllc, Grbe, as well as SBoban (see 2But), greia (see frti), and £enar (see 
tenner), owe their existence to the special religious development of the Teutons, 
while we find the belief in elfish beings (see (5(f) even in the Vedas. 

It is true that this increase does not altogether suffice to characterise the develop- 
ment of the languages of the Teutonic group. If we assign the year 2000 b.c. as the 
latest date for the Aryan division of dialects, the second period of the history of th 
German language would end with the beginning of our era. This interval of two 
thousand years, at the end of which we assume the development of the consonant 
and vowel forms peculiar to Teutonic, as well as the settlement of the Teutons in 
Germany, has no well-defined divisions with prominent characteristics ; but the later 
evidence of the language indicates in this pre-historic period so many points of con- 
tact with civilised nations as would in historic times probably be regarded as form- 
ing a new epoch. 

The Teutonic tribe, with the western group of nations of the Aryan stock, had 
left its eastern home as a pasturing people. Evidence in the language itself subse- 
quently shows us these people with their flocks on the march. The term tageweide, 
current in Middle High German, could exist as a measure of length only among 
a race of shepherds in the act of migrating ; only nomads could count their stages by 
periods of rest (0?aficu). That the great stream of Aryan tribes poured through the 
South Russian lowlands (the Italics and Kelts had shown them the way) is antece- 
dently probable, and this theory is finely illustrated by the history of the word Jpanf. 
Here we see the Teutons in contact with a non-Aryan people in the south of Russia ; 
and so, too, the foreign aspect of the Teutonic word <2itber (comp. (Srbfe also) testifies 
to the pre-historic contact of our ancestors with people of a different race, whose 
origin can unfortunately no longer be determined. We suspect that its influence on 
the Teutons and their language was manifested in a greater number of loan-words 
than can now be discovered. 

On the other hand, the emigrant Aryans, whom we find at a later period in our 
part of the world, and whose languages were differentiated only gradually from one 
another and from the primitive speech, were led by constant intercourse to exchange 
a large number of terms expressive of the acquisitions of civilisation, which the 
individual tribes would perhaps have acquired only after a longer independent 
development. Numerous words are peculiar to the European Aryans, which we 
seek for in vain among the Indians and Persians. They relate chiefly to agriculture 
and technical products, the development of which did certainly not take place at the 
same time among all the European peoples belonging to the Teutonic stock. Occa- 
sionally the language itself bears witness that correspondences in the languages 
spoken by the Western Aryans are due only to the adoption of words by one people 
from another (see ndfyen). Thus the stems of old words such as fden, ntaljlen, mdljfn, 
and ntclfen, whose Aryan character is undoubted, will not necessarily be regarded as 
genuine Teutonic, since they may have been borrowed from a kindred people. 

The evidence of language, which alone gives us a knowledge of the primitive 
contact of the Teutons with foreign and kindred people, is unfortunately not full 


enough, and not always transparent enough, to furnish sufficient material for a clear 
view of these pre-historic events. It is generally acknowledged that the intercourse 
with the neighbouring Slavonic people took place in the second period of the history 
of the German language. For the influence of the Kelts upon the Teutons, Slmt and 
3Reid) afford valuable testimony, which at the same time shows what decisive results 
can at times be obtained from language itself. We have in the term to>clfi§ the last 
offshoot of the Teutonic word Walk (borrowed from the Keltic tribal name Volcae), 
by which the Kelts were formerly designated by the Teutons. 

The name by which the Teutons called themselves is unfortunately lost to us 
Our learned men have therefore agreed to use the Keltic term which was customary 
among old historians, and which, according to the testimony of the Venerable Bede, 
was applied in England to the immigrant Anglo-Saxons by the Britons even in 
the 8th century. The national character of the Teutons and the type of their 
language were for a very long period after the division into tribes the same as 
before. In the last century before our era, when numerous Teutonic tribes became 
known to the ancient world, we have not the least evidence to show that the lan- 
guage had branched off into dialects. The same may be said of the time of Tacitus ; 
but his account of the genealogy of the Teutonic tribes seems to have some connec- 
tion with divisions into dialects, recorded at a later period. 

The linguistic division of the Teutons into an Eastern group, comprising Goths 
and Scandinavians, and into a Western, including the English, Frisians, Saxons, 
Franks, Bavarians, Swabians, and Alemannians, is generally regarded as undoubted. 
The evidence of language goes, however, to prove that a close connection exists only 
among the West Teutonic tribes ; and unless Tacitus' ethnogony includes all the 
Teutons, his group of tribes, comprising the Ingaevones, the Erminones, and the 
Istaevones, are identical in fact with the Western division. The permutation of 
consonants and the development of the vowel system, which we assume to have 
been effected before the beginning of our era, were the chief characteristics of all 
the languages of the second period ; but the most important factor in the develop- 
ment of West Teutonic was the uniform attrition of the old final syllables. With 
the operation of this law in West Teutonic begins the decay of the old inherited 
forms, most of which were lost in the third period. The German language is now 
entering upon a stage of development which had been reached by English some 
centuries ago. 

But in spite of this loss of forms, the language retains its old pliancy in undi- 
minished force ; after independent words, even in the second period, had been 
transformed into suffixes and prefixes, the language still possessed new elements 
which were ready to replace what had been lost. Moreover, the same forces operate 
in the later history of the vocabulary as in the primitive Teutonic period. 

Thus West Teutonic has preserved the stems of old words, which in Gothic and 
Scandinavian have either died out or have fallen more or less into the background ; 
gcljen, fteljen, tfjun, Bin, fcdjten, jievben, as well as 93nfen, Dbfi, genet, grog, &c, are the 
essential characteristics of a West Teutonic language. Other words, such as 9lad?bur, 
clcitb, gefunb, Stfeffer, #etrat, and 9tad)Hgalf, owe their existence to later composition. 
But, above all, the absence of numerous old words, preserved by Gothic or Scan- 
dinavian, is a main feature of the West Teutonic group. But this is not the place 
to adduce every loss and every compensation which has diminished and re-shaped 
the old elements in the sphere of languages most closely allied to German. 


The pre-Old High German period— the third period of our mother-tongue, which 
is not attested by literary records — has, however, acquired its distinctive features by 
new contact with the languages of civilised nations, which added new elements to 
the existing material : above all, the contact with the Romans resulted in an ex- 
change of productions and contrivances. However fond we may be of overrating the 
influence of Latin on the West Teutonic languages, yet it cannot be denied that it 
materially widened the most various spheres of ideas. 

Words which point to active commercial intercourse, such as SKunje and *Ffunc, 
©trajje and SWcite, tftfte and Sacf, ©fel and $fau, were made known in the pre-High 
German period, probably even in the first century a.d., to our forefathers both 
mediately and immediately by the Romans. Contemporaneously with these the 
Latin nomenclature of the culture of the vine was naturalised in Germany in the 
words Skin, 2»cfi, Saucr, JMter, and Sridjter. Not much later a rich terminology, 
together with the Roman style of building, was introduced ; SKaiier, better, ©oiler, 
<gpctd)er, hammer, SBeifyer, 3iegct, $feiler, ^fojlen, $rW> and numerous other cognate 
ideas, evidently bear the stamp of a Latin origin. The adoption of the Southern 
method of building in stone, however, brought about a transformation of the entire 
domestic life. When a migratory life is exchanged for a permanent settlement, the 
example of a highly civilised people cannot fail to furnish abundant material for 
imitation. We are not surprised, therefore, to find in the language itself the influ- 
ence of even Roman cookery and of Roman horticulture before the Old High 
German period ; JlodE>, Jtiid)e, <2<$ufiel, J?cffc{, 93ecfen, SifdJ, (Sfjig, <Senf, ^feffcr, Jtcfyf, ^flanje, 
{Rettig, Miixtis, Jttimmcl, J?irfd)e, $firfxc&, ^fiauute, Dttitte, gcicje, &c, testify how ready the 
German of that period was to extend his knowledge and enrich his language when 
he exchanged the simple customs of his ancestors for a more luxuriant mode of life. 

It would, of course, be a too hasty assumption to explain such Southern alien 
terms (a few Keltic words such as carrus, carruca, and paraverediis, see barren, 
J?urd), and $fevb, were introduced through a Roman medium) from the importation 
of products and technical accomplishments which were unknown to our ancestors 
till about the beginning of our era. We have indubitable reasons, supported by the 
extent of the Teutonic exports to Rome, and not merely linguistic reasons. We 
know from Pliny's Natural History that the Teutons furnished effeminate, imperial 
Rome the material for pillows by the importation of geese ; eoque processere deliciae 
ut sine hoc instrumento durare jam ne virorum quidem cervices possint. This suggests 
to the historian of languages the connection of the Latin origin of ^fawtt, tfijfett, and 
^fufyt with Pliny's account ; our ancestors adopted the Latin designation for the 
articles which the Romans procured from Germania, Thus our $ful?( with its 
cognates attests the share Germania had in the decline of Rome. 

With Greece the Western Teutons have had in historical times — the word 9lr$t 
does not prove much — no immediate contact producing any influence on the German 
language. It was really the Romans who made known to the new conquerors of the 
world the name of that nation which at a subsequent period was destined to affect 
our development so powerfully. But the settlement of the Goths in the Balkan 
peninsula (their latest descendants were the Crimean Goths, who died out about the 
beginning of the last century) had such an influence on the Western Teutons that 
they have left traces even in our mother-tongue ; the first knowledge of Christianity 
spread from them among the other Teutons. Our oldest supply of loan-words bearing 
on the Christian religion belongs to Greek terminology, which never existed in the 


Roman Church ; the words birdie and *J5faffe, <Sam3tag and spftnjtag, we undoubtedly 
owe to Greek influence, through the medium of the Arian Goths ; and probably the 
same may be said of (Sngel and £eufe(, S9ifcr)of and *Pftngjkn. The connection between 
the German tribes and the Goths, which we think can be recognised in other words 
expressive of religious ideas, such as £cibe and taufcn, lasted till the 7th century ; the 
Alemannians were until the year 635 a.d. under the dominion of the Gotbs. Orthodox 
Christianity of the Middle Ages, which supplanted Arianism, was no longer in a 
position to reject entirely the naturalised terminology, and thus our mother-tongue has 
preserved down to the present day some expressions of Gothic- Arian Christianity. 

All the words that Romish missionaries introduced into German also evidently 
bear the stamp of a later linguistic period. Not until the development of the 
peculiar system of sounds in High German — a new permutation of consonants 
divided from this point High German from Low German— does the influence of 
Romish Christianity begin to express itself in the language. From the end of the 
8th century our mother-tongue remained for more than two hundred years in the 
service of religious literature. It is the period in our history in which literary 
records appear, and during that time High German was greatly influenced by 
Romish Christianity. A large number of Latin words was naturalised among us ; 
for ecclesiastical offices and dignities, for ecclesiastical rites and appurtenances, we 
adapted the current terms consecrated by the official language of the Church, such 
as *pricfter, SPvobji, 2lbt, 3JJond>, Syenite, <Stgvijr, Jtfiftev, SRefiner, 2flejfe, geicr, fegnen, prebtgcn, 
faficicn, Mrbammen, -ftreuj, Jfelcf), Drgcf, SUtur, <fcc. The unceasing pliancy of our language 
is attested by the fact that some German words were constructed on the model of 
the Latin, such as Scidjte, from confessio, ©e»atter, from compater, @en>iffen, from 
conscientia. The Church brought learning with a new nomenclature in its train ; 
contemporaneously with the ecclesiastical Latin words, ©djirte, fdjmben, Xinte, 93rief, 
received among us the rights of citizenship. 

While the Old German vocabulary was enriched by such materials, there existed 
a store of words which is dying out in the literary language, and is prolonging to 
some extent its semi-conscious life in the old popular songs. At the same time the 
terminology of war receives a new impress ; old words for ' combat,' such as gund, 
hilti, badu, hadu, disappear as independent words, and leave behind indistinct traces 
only in proper names, such as ©iintfycr and §ebung. Words such as mark (see SWdfyre), 
and ©er, 9iecfe, and SEciganb have been brought down as archaic terms to the Middle 
High German period. 

With the rise of chivalry the old German terms applied to war must, as may be 
imagined, have undergone transformation ; as it was French in its essential charac- 
ter, it also introduced French loan-words among us. French influence, which first 
made itself felt in Germany about the year 1000 a.d. (the word fein is, perhaps, the 
earliest loan-word of genuine French origin), has never ceased to operate on our 
language. But it reached its zenith with the introduction of chivalry, as it did once 
again at the time of the Thirty Years' War. It is therefore not to be wondered at 
that words relating to war and the court, such as Sauje, (Solbat, Q3atafl, Jfajhfl, Xurnicr, 
Slbcnteucr, have been borrowed from the French vocabulary in exchange, as it 
were, for the stock of Teutonic words connected with war which passed some 
centuries earlier into French (comp. French auberge, gonfalon, marechal, heraut 
under £cvberge, $al)iic, SWavfdjaK, and Revolt). Moreover, courtly and fashionable words, 
such as fofteit, licfern, prtifen, and prtifen have also passed into Germany. 


When the linguistic influence of the West had reached its culminating point, 
Slavonic began to make itself felt on the German Eastern marches. As it was due 
to neighbourly intercourse among the border tribes, it was at first insignificant and 
harmless. But several words which came to light in this way, such as £elmftf<fe, 
©ren^e, Jhrotmct, $ettfd?e, ^etfdjaft, and <Sdjcp$, gradually won for themselves from the 
13th century a place in the language of our literature. 

These are in their main features the facts of those periods of the history of the 
German language whose material has furnished the essential contents of the present 
work. In those periods lie the beginnings of most of the words whose origin 
demands a stricter etymological investigation. 


abstr. = abstract, 
ace. = accusative 
adj. = adjective, 
adv. = adverb, 
adverb. = adverbial. 
Alem. = Alemannian. 
Amerie. = American. 
Arab. = Arabic. 
Armen. = Armenian. 
Armor. = Armorican. 
AS. = Anglo-Saxon. 

Bav. = Bavarian. 
Bohem. = Bohemian. 
Bret. = Breton. 
Burg. =Burgundian. 

causat. — causative. 

Chald. = Chaldean. 

Chin. = Chinese. 

class. = classical. 

collect. = collective. 

comp. = compare. 

conj. = conjunction. 

con jug. = conjugation. 

contr. = contracted. 

Corn. = Cornish. 

CrimGoth. = Crimean Gothic. 

Cymr. = Cymric. 

Dan. = Danish. 

dat. = dative, 
declen. = declension, 
denom. = denominative, 
dial. = dialect, dialectic, 
dimin. = diminutive. 
Dor. = Doric. 
Du. = Dutch. 

E. = English. 
E Aryan = East Aryan. 
East Tent. = East Teutonic. 
Egypt. = Egyptian. 
e-qmv. = equivalent. 
Europ. = European. 

f. = feminine. 
Finn. = Finnish. 
Fr. = French. 

Franc. = Franconian. 
frequent. = frequentative. 
Fris. = Frisian. 

Gael. = Gaelic. 
Gall. = Gallic, 
gen. = genitive. 
Goth. = Gothic. 
Gr. = Greek. 

Hebr. = Hebrew. 
HG. = High German. 
Hung. = Hungarian. 

Ic. = Icelandic 
Ind. = Indian, 
indeclin. = indeclinable, 
infin. = infinitive, 
inflect. = inflected, 
instrum. = instrumental, 
intens. = intensive, 
inter j. = interjection, 
interr. = interrogative, 
in trans. = intransitive. 
Ion. = Ionian. 
Ir. =s Irish. 
Ital. = Italian. 

Jew. = Jewish. 

Kelt. = Keltic. 

Lapp. = Lappish. 

Lat. = Latin. 

Lett. = Let tic. 

LG. = Low German. 

lit. = literal(ly). 

Lith. — Lithuanian. 

Lom bard = Lombard ic. 

Lower Rhen. = Lower Rhenish. 

m. = masculine. 
MidDu. = Middle Dutch. 
MidE. = Middle English. 
MidG. = Middle German. 
MidGr. = Middle Greek. 
MidIIG. = Middle High German. 
MidLat. = Middle Latin. 
Mid LG. = Middle Low German. 
ModDu. = Modern Dutch. 


ModE. = Modern English. 

prep. = preposition. 

ModFr. = Modern French. 

pros. = present. 

ModGr. = Modern Greek. 

pret. = preterite. 

ModHG. = Modern High German 

prim. = primary. 

ModIc. = Modem Icelandic. 

primit. = primitive(ly). 

ModLG. = Modern Low German. 

pron. = pronoun. 

ModTeut. = Modern Teutonic. 

pronom. = pronominal. 

Mongol. = Mongolian. 

prop. = properly. 
Proven. = Provencal. 

n. =: neuter. 

Pruss. = Prussian. 

naut. = nautical. 

nom. = nominative. 

redup. = reduplicated . 

Norw. — Norwegian. 

refl. = reflexive. 

num. = numeral. 

Rom. = Romance. 

Russ. = Russian. 

Aryan = Old Aryan. 

OBulg. =01d Bulgarian. 

8. = singular. 

ODu.= Old Dutch. 
OFr.= Old French. 
OFris. = Old Frisian. 
OHG. = 01d High German. 
OIc. = Old Icelandic. 

Sans. = Sanscrit. 
Sax. = Saxon. 
Scand. = Scandinavian. 
Scyth. = Scythian. 
Sem. = Semitic. 

OInd. = 01d Indian. 
OIr. = Old Irish. 
OKelt.= Old Keltic. 
OLat. = Old Latin. 
OLG. = 01d Low German. 

Serv. = Servian. 
Slav. = Slavonic. 
Slov. = Slovenian 
Span. = Spanish, 
str. — stron^. 

onomat. = onomatopoetic. 

subst. = substantive. 

OPers. = 01d Persian. 

Suff. = Sllffix. 

OPruss. = Old Prussian. 
ord. = ordinal. 

super. — superlative. 
Swab. = Swabian. 

or ig. = original (ly). 

Swed. = Swedish. 

OSax. = Old Saxon. 

OSlav. = Old Slavonic. 

OSlov.= Old Slovenian. 

Teut. = Teutonic. 

OTeut. = Old Teutonic. 

Thrac. = Thracian. 

trans. = transitive. 

partic. = participle, 
perf . = perfect. 
Pere. = Persian. 

Umb. = Umbrian. 
UpG. = Upper German. 

Phcen. = Phoenician. 

Pied. = Piedmontesc. 

vb. = verb. 

plur. =plural. 
Pol. = Polish. 

voc.= vocative. 

Port. = Portuguese. 

W.= Welsh. 

poss. = possessive. 
Prak. = Prakrit. 

West Sax. = West Saxon. 

West Teut. = West Teutonic. 

pref . = prefix. 

wk. = weak. 

An asterisk (*) signifies that the form adduced is only theoretical. 


tCt, tCtd), a frequent suffix in the formation 
of the names of hrooks and rivers (or 
rather the places named after them) ; on 
the whole, :<\fy (Uvaefc, €teuiacfy, ©aljad), 
Ototacf), (Scfjivaqact)) is more UpG, sa more 
MidG, and LG. (gnlba, SBevra, <Sd)n?aqa) ; 
from OHG. aha, 'running water,' Goth. 
ahwa, ' river ' (for details see 2lu), whence 
also the names of the rivers Sla (Westph.), 
Di)t (Hesse). 

Jlctl, m., 'eel,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. OHG. dl, m., a term common to the 
Teutonic dialects ; comp. OIc. dll, AS. tie', 
E. eel, Du. aal (allied perhaps to Sllaut 
i.). No original affinity to the equiv. Lat. 
anguilla, Gr. ?7x«Xw, U possible, for the 
sounds of the Teut. words differ too much 
from it ; even from *anglu-, OHG. al or 
AS. ml could not he deri ved. Besides, th ere 
is no hereditary stock of names of fishes 
possessed in common by Teut. and Gr. and 
Lat. (see gifd)). — Jlalraupe, f., 'eel-pout' 
(also called Slatquappe, see Gitappe), an eel- 
. like fish, originally called 9iaupe merely ; in 
MidHG. rUppe, OHG. rAppay as the Mid 
HG. rutte (the equivalent and parallel 
form) indicates, tlie base of the word is 
probably supplied by the Lat. ruJbita, from 
which, through the Teut. custom of dis- 
placing the accent in borrowed words 
(see Slbt), we get r&beta, and then, by the 
assimilation of the consonants through 
syncope of the intermediate e, the forms 
mentioned ; names of fishes borrowed in 
OHG. from Lat. rarely occur. See Guayye. 

Jlcnr, m., from the equiv. MidHG. ar, 
OHG. aro, bl, ' eagle ' ; a prim. Teut. word, 
which has also cognates outside the Teut. 
group. Comp. Goth, ara, OIc. are, m., 
'eagle' ; further OIc. qrn, OHG, MidHG. 
urn (to which is allied ModHG. Slrnolb, 
OHG. .lra/ioft. orig. sense 'eagle-guardian'), 
AS. earn, 'eagle,' Du. arend, 'eagle' ; pri- 

marily cognate with OSlov. orllu, Lith, 
er&is, ' ea^le,' Gr. 6pvts, ' bird,' Corn, and 
Bret. er. W. eryr, ' eagle.' See Slbler. 

Jlcts, n., from the equiv. MidHG., OHG. 
and OLG. ds, n., ' carcase, carrion' ; comp. 
the equiv. AS. ties; allied to ejfen. 

ab, adv., also a prep, in older ModHG. 
(hence the modern abbanben, lit 'from the 
hands,' as well as Swiss patronymics like 
?lb bet glid). Sib bev £alb), 'off, away from,' 
from MidHG. abe, ab, prep., 'down from, 
away from, off,' adv., ' down,' OHG. aba, 
prep., 'away from, down from here,' adv., 
'down.' Corresponding to Goth, af (ab), 
prep., 'down from there, from' (also adv.), 
MidDu. af, ave, OLG. af, equiv. to AS. of, 
E. of j orig. cognate with Gr. dir6, Sans. 
dpa, ' away from.' Of course phrases like 
ab ^amburo, do not contain the OG. prep., 
but are due to incorrect Latinity ; since 
the 17th century commercial language has 
adopted Latin expressions. 

JtbCttb, m., ' evening,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. Absnt (dbunt) ; OHG. dband, 
m. ; corresponding to OSax. dband, Du. 
avond, AS. tiefen, 1 evening,' whence E. eve ; 
also the deriv. AS. tiefning, E. evening 
(comp. morning) ; OIc. aptann; similarly 
Goth, andanahti, orig. sense 'forenight,' 
and sagqs, lit. • setting.' The SEurop. term 
corresponding to Gr. tartpos, Lat. vesper, is 
non-Tent (comp SQ3efl and 2Binter). A verb 
abm (ecben), ' to grow dusk,' adduced from 
the Swiss dialects to explain Slbcitb, can 
be none other than a later derivaiive of 
Sibenb. Moreover, Slbenb (base Sp-) can 
scarcely be connected with ab (base apo), 
as if Slbenb were the waning period of 
the day. According to old Teut notions, 
the evening was regarded rather as the 
beginning of the following day. See 
(Boiutabenb and gufhtacfjf. 

Jlbcnfcuer, n., 'adventure,' from Mid 


( 2 ) 


UQ.dventiure, f, 'occurrence, a marvellous, 
fortunate event, a poem on such a theme, 
sources of the court poets ' ; the latter 
is derived from Fr. aventure (MidLat. 
adventuw, allied to MidLat and Horn. 
advenire, 'to happen'). 

abet, adv. and conj., ' hut, however,' 
from MidHG. aber (aver), abe (ave), adv. 
and conj., 'again, once more, on the con- 
trary, but' ; OHG. abur, uvar, adv. and 
conj. with both meanings ; to this OHG. 
avardn. ' to repeat,' ModHG. (UpG.) afern 
is allied. Comp. Goth, afar, prep., ' after,' 
adv., ' afterwards,' OIc. afar, 'very,' in 
compounds ; the word does not occur 
in Sax. dialects, but its deriv. OSax. 
abaro, AS. eafora, 'descendant' (comp. 
Goth, afar, 'afterwards'), exists. It is 
probably related to ab and its cognates ; 
comp. further Sans, dpara, ' the later,' 
apardm, adv., 'latterly, in future,' apart, 

aber, &ber, adj. (UpG), dfer (Franc), 
'free from snow, laid bare'; from the 
prim, form *dbar, dbiri (dfiri) ; orig. cognate 
with Lat. aprieus, ' sunny.' 

^Iberglcmbe, m., 'superstition,' first 
occurs in early ModHG. (15th cent.) ; 
since Luther it has made its way into 
ModHG. ; orig. a LG. word (comp. Sflbebar, 
2>emut), as the vowel-sounds indicate. LG. 
aber, for over, ober, points to OLG. *otar- 
giltibo (Du. overgeloof), 'superstition,' which 
is formed after the model of Lat. superstitio; 
comp. Dan. overtro, Sw. ofvertro, but also 
in MidLG. btgeldve, Du. bijgeloof. 

(thermal, adv., first occurs in ModHG, 
for the equiv. MidHG. aber, 'again, once 
more,' formed with the suffix mat 

Jlberrauf e, f., ' southern-wood,' a cor- 
ruption of Lat-Gr. abrotonum (Fr. aurone), 
due to its supposed connection with (Jtaute ; 
see also (Sbtifc. 

JlbcrttJtfj, m., 'false wit, craziness,' 
from MidHG. aberwitze, abewitze, ' want of 
understanding,' from MidHG. abe, ' away 
from,' as in MidHG. abegunst, ' envy, 

abgcfcimf, see %tim. 

^Ibgoff, m., 'idol,' from MidHG. and 
OHG« abgot, n., ' idoi, idolatrous image' ; 
note the retention of the older gender 
of ©ctt as late as MidHG. ; comp. Goth. 
afgups, 'godless' (antithesis to gaguj>s, 
1 pious ') ; hence ?ll\jett is properly ' false 
god ' ; see Jlbetwifc. 

Jlbgrurto, m., ' abyss, precipice,' from 

MidHG. abgrunt, m., most frequently ub- 
griinde, n., OHG. abgrunti, n., 'abyss,' pro- 
perly ' declivity ' ; comp. Goth, afgrundipa, 
j., ' abyss.' 

ablctrtft, adj., ' oblong, oval,' first occurs 
in ModHG., formed on the model of Lat. 

Jlblafi, m., ' sluice, remission,' from 
MidHG. abld}, m., OHG. dbld$, n., 'in- 
dulgence, remission, pardon ' ; comp. Goth. 
dfUts, m., ' remission, pardon.' allied to 
af-letan, ' to remit, pardon,' OHG. ob-ldftan. 

abxnurk fen, see meiufyln. 

Jlbfeife, f., ' wing, aisle,' from MidHG. 
apsite, f., ' the domed recess of a church,' a 
corruption of MidLat. and OHG. absida 
(Gr. dv/'/s), ' vault,' due to its supposed con- 
nection with site, ' side.' 

abfpenfllQ, adj., 'alienated, disaffected,' 
first occurs in ModHG., from OHG. spen- 
sttg, 'seductive,' allied to OHG. spanst, 
' allurement ' ; see under ©efpenfl and ttnbm 

Jlbf, m., 'abbot,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. apt, abbet, abbdt, OHG. and MidHG. 
abb&t,m.; comp. Du. abt,A&. abbod(w\ih an 
abnormal d), and less frequently abbot, E. 
abbot. Borrowed with a change of accent 
in OHG. from MidLat. abbdt- (nom. sing. 
abbas), ' abbot' ; coin p. Ital. abdte, Fr. abM, 
Olr. ahb, ace. abbaith. It will be seen 
under Jtreuj that in words borrowed from 
Lat the stem of the oblique cases as well 
as the noinin. often forms the base ; with 
regard to the ecclesiastical terms borrowed 
in OHG. comp. among others SRcucfy, 91onnc, 
$avft, $riejhr, $robft. 

jlbfet, f., 'abbey,' from MidHG. aptei, 
abbeteie, OHG. abbateia, f., 'abbey' (for 
*abbeiaX), formed from MidLat. abbatia, 
under the influence of OFr. abbaie, and 
based upon abbdt. 

abfrttttttig, adj., from the equiv. Mid 
HG. abetriinnec (ahetriinne), OHG. aba- 
irunntg, adj., ' recreant ' ; orig. sense, ' he 
who separates himself from,' for trennen 
contains the same stem. Comp. also OHG. 
anttrunno, 'fugitive,' MidHG. triinne, 'a 
detached troop.' 

,Jlb3Ucbt, f., 'drain, sewer,' first occurs 
in ModHG., germanised from Lat. aquae- 
ductus (whence also Swiss Slften, ' conduits'). 
See Slnfcaudjf. 

ad), interj., 'ah ! alas !' from MidHG. 
ach, OHG. ah; to this is allied MidHG. 
and ModHG. 9ld), ah, n., ' woe,' and its 
deriv., which first occurs in ModHG., dcfcjnt, 


( 3 ) 


orig. sense, ' to utter Slcfy ' (formed like 
ifyrjen, butjen). 

Jldjcti, m., ' agate,' from MidHG. achdt, 
achdtes, equiv. to Gr-Lat. achates. 

Jld)c, Rhen. for JJladjeit. 

Jld)ef, see &f>re. 

ttdjcltt, Jew., ' to eat,' from Heb. &khdl, 
* to eat.' 

Jldjfe, f., 'axle, axis,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. ahse, OHG. ahsa, f. ; comp. Du. 
as, AS. tax, f., E. axle (even in MidE. 
eaxel-tree occurs, E. axle-tree), with de- 
riv. /, like OIc. o'xull, m., 'axle'; Goth, 
*ahsa, or rather *ahauls, is, by chance, not 
recorded. The stem ahsd-, common to 
the Teut. languages, from pre-Teut. aksd, 
is widely diffused among the Aryan 
tongues ; it is primitively related to Sans. 
dl:Sa, in., Gr. &Zuv, Lat. axis, OSlov. ost, 
Lith. aszis, 'axle'; the supposition that 
the Teut. cognates were borrowed is quite 
unfounded ; comp. 9kb. The orig. sense 
of Aryan alcso- remains obscure ; with the 
root ag, 'to drive,' some have connected 
Lat. ago, Gr. &yu. See the following word. 

.Jlcfyfel, f., 'shoulder,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. ahsel, OHG. ahsala, f. ; comp. 
AS. eaxl, OIc. qxl, f., 'shoulder'; Goth. 
*ahsla, {., is wanting. It is probable that 
the Teut. word is connected with the O. 
Aryan Slcbje ; Lat. axilla (Olr. oxal), 
'arm-pit,' and dla, 'arm-pit, wing,' are 
also cognate with it. In OTeut., Goth. 
*ahsla (Aryan *aksld) has a still wider 
family, since forms with Teut. 6, Aryan d 
in the stem belong to it; comp. AS. 6xn, 6cu- 
sla, ' arm-pit,' and OHG. tiohsana, MidHG. 
iiehse, uohse, f., 'arm-pit,'Du. oksel,' shoulder.' 

ctdjt, num., 'eight,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. ahte, OHG. ahto, common to the 
Teut. and also to the Aryan groups. Comp. 
Goth, ahtau, AS. eahta, E. eight, Du. acht, 
OSax. ahto ; further, Sans. aStdu, Gr. <J*cti6, 
Lat. octo, Olr. ocht, Lith. asztunl, prim. 
Aryan okt6, or rather okt6u, ' eight' Re- 
specting acfyt $age see the historical note 
under iflacfyr. 

$d)f , f., ' outlawry, ban,' from MidHG. 
dhte, ahte, f., 'pursuit, proscription, out- 
lawry, ban ' ; OHG. dhta (AS. 6ht), f., ' hos- 
tile pursuit.' Goth. *dhtjan. • to pursue,' 
is wanting. Comp. OSax. dhttan, AS. ihtan 
(from anhtjari), ' to pursue.' Teut *aflhtian, 
■ to pursue,' and *a»ht6, ' pursuit,' seem to 
be based on a non-dental root, which is 
perhaps connected with the cognates of 
tng (Aryan root angh). 

arf)tcn, vb., ' to have regard to, esteem, 
value,' from MidHG. ahten, OHG. aht6», 
' to heed, ponder, take care ' ; allied to 
MidHG. ahte, OHG. ahta, f., ' heed, paying 
attention.' Comp. Du. achten, AS.eahtian, 
'to ponder'; also with deriv. I, OIc. oztla 
(Goth.. *ahtil6n), 'to suppose, think.' It 
is based upon a Teut. root ah, ' to sup- 
pose, think ' ; comp. Goth, aha, ' under- 
standing,' ahjan, ' to believe,' ahma, ' spirit' 
The Aryan root ak is widely diffused, yet 
no other language coincides with the signi- 
fication of the Teut. cognates. 

cufytev, LowG. for after. 

$djfertt>afTer, 'back-water.' See under 

cidjaett, vb., see ad). 

.Jlcuer, m., 'field, arable land,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. acker, OHG. accliar 
(ahhar), m. ; a common Teut. and OAryan 
word corresponding to Goth, akrs, m., AS. 
ozcer, E. acre (aker), Du. akker, OSax. ukkar. 
Teut. *akra-z, m., from pre-Teut. agro-s ; 
comp. Sans, djra-s, m., ' pasture-ground, 
plain, common,' Gr. &yp6s, Lat. ager (stem 
a 9 r °-)> ' field.' It is certainly connected 
with the Ind. root aj, 'to drive' (comp. 
Xrijt, allied to tretben), Lat. ago, Gr. &yu, 
to which in OIc. aka, 'to drive,' was 
allied. " Thus djra- signifies in the widest 
sense ' field and common,' orig. as ' pasture- 
land,' the greatest part of which, when 
tillage supplanted the rearing of cattle, 
was used for crops." The transition in 
meaning was, probably, completed on 
the migration of the Western Aryans to 
Europe ; moreover, the root ar, ' to plough, 
till,' is West Aryan ; comp. Gr. ip6w, Lat. 
arare, Goth, arjan, OHG. erian, OBulg. 
orati, ' to plough.' See Slrt. 

Jlbcbctf, m. (Holland, ooijevaar), a Low 
G. name for the stork, MidLG. odevare, 
MidHG. odebar, OHG. odobero (in Old Ger. 
times the term was, moreover, prevalent in 
Germany). No certain explanation of the 
word can be given ; it is most frequently 
interpreted as ' bringer of children, of good 
luck' (comp. 9l(lob). Respecting the LG. 
vowel-sounds see 9lbervjlaube. 

Jloel, ni., ' nobility,' from MidHG. adel, 
in., n., ' lineage, noble lineage, noble rank, 
perfection,' OHG. adal, n. (and edili, n.), 
' lineage, esp. noble lineage ' ; correspond- 
ing to OSax. atSali, n., 'body of nobles, 
notables, nobility,' Du. adel, AS. atSelu, 
n. plur., ' noble birth,' OIc. atSal, ' disposi- 
tion, talent, lineage.' In Goth, the stem 


( 4 ) 


<tji (by gradation 6}>) is wanting ; to it 
belong OHO. ttodil, n., ' patrimony, home ' 
(ModHG. Wti^.from OHO. UodulrMi or 
Ublanb, from Uodal-lant), OSax. ffiil, AS. 
itiel, m., 'patrimony, home.' Hence the 
fundamental idea of the Teut. root ap, hy 
gradation 6}> (from Aryan &t y , seems to he 
' by transmission, inheritance.' The aris- 
tocratic tinge evinced by the WestTeut 
cognates is not remarkable when we con- 
sider the early period ; only the patrician 
had a 'family' ; genealogies of nobles (in 
old documents) reach back to the OTeut. 
period ; the names beginning with Slbct are 
primitive, SllfonS, influenced by Bom. from 
OHQ. Adalfuns, Adalheid, Adalberaht, 
Slbolf, from Atha-ulf; also the deriv. OHG. 
Adalung. See too SlHcr, ebcl. 

Jlber, f., 'vein,' from MidHG. dder, 
OHG. Mara, f., ' vein, sinew,' correspond- 
ing to MidLG. ader, ' vein, sinew,' Du. ader, 
AS. ckdre, f., 'vein ' (rarely &Sr), OSw. apra, 
ModSw. ddra; also without the deriv. r, 
OIc. ctiSr (the r is simply a nomin. suffix), 
f., ' vein ; ' the Goth, cognate ip is not 
found. The pre-Tent. it- has been con- 
nected with Gr. 1/Top, 'heart,' fjrpov, 'abdo- 
men,' and here it must be recollected that 
MidHG. and MidLG. dder in the plur. may 
signify ' bowels.' 

Jlofor, m., ' eagle,' from MidHG. adel-ar 
(also adel-arn), m. ; prop, a compound, 
'noble bird of prey.' It is noteworthy 
that 2lat in ModHG. is the nobler term, 
while Slblcr serves as the name for the 
species without any consciousness of its 
origin from 3lDcl and Slar. OHG. *adal-aro 
appears by chance not to be recorded. 
Corresponds to Du. adelaar (besides arevd). 

afcrtt, vb., ' to repeat,' an UpG. word ; 
MidHG. atferen, OHG. afardn. See under 

jt*ff, suffix used to form names of rivers 
(Criajf, OHG. Eril-affa, gftaff, OHG. Asc- 
affa), and of places (esp. in Franc, and 
Hess., comp. J&oneff), allied to which -ep, p 
(also Westpli.), occurs as an unchanged 
LG. form, e.g. in 8eimc|». The base *apa 
is Kelt, (equiv. to Lat. aqua, ' water,' Goth. 
ahtra, 'river'). 

,Jlffc, m., 'ape, monkev,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. affe, OHG. affo, m. ; also in OHG. 
the feminine forms affa, affin, affinna, 
' female ape.' A word common to the 
Teut. group, unrecorded by chance in Goth, 
alone, in which, by inference from OIc. 
ape, AS, apa, E. ape (whence Ir. and Gael. 

apa), Du. anp, the form must have been 
*apa. Facts and not linguistic reasons lead 
to the conclusion that a/xin- is a primitive 
loanword with which OBuss. opica, OBoh. 
opice, is connected, and through commer- 
cial intercourse reached the Teutons by 
some unknown route. On account of the 
assonance it is very often referred, without 
sufficient reason, to Sans, kapi (Gr. kjJtoj), 
'ape' ; at all events, it is certain that no 
word for Sljfe common to the Aryan, or 
even to the West Aryan, group does exist. 

JlffoHer, m., 'apple-tree.' See 9lpfd. 

Jljff ev, m., ' buttocks, backside,' from 
MidHG. after, OHG. aftaro, m., 'funda- 
ment, anus'; lit. 'the back part,' from 
MidHG. after, OHG. aftar, adj., 'behind, 
following' ; akin to Goth, aftana, ' from be- 
hind,' A S. after, E. after ( LG.and Du. achter), 
Goth, aftra, ' back, again.' It is certainly 
allied to Goth, afar, 'behind,' and the cog- 
nates discussed under afccr. — Sifter; in com- 
pounds is lit. ' after,' whence the idea of 
'counterfeit, baseness'; comp. MidHG. 
aftersprdche, 'slander, backbiting,' after- 
wo>t, 'calumny'; the older meaning, 
' after, behind,' is preserved in ModHG. 
?lftermtete, smufe, met. Note too Suab. 
(even in the MidHG. period) aftermoiitag 
for ' Tuesday.' 

Jlftlci, f., from the equiv. MidHG. agleie, 
OHG. ageleia, f., ' columbine,' which is de- 
rived from Lat. aquilegia, whence too the 
equiv. Fr. ancolie, Du. akelei. 

Jll)Ie, f., from the equiv. MidHG. die, 
OHG. dla, f., 'cobbler's awl.' To this 
is allied the equiv. OHG. deriv. dlvmsa, 
dlansa, f. (with the same suffix as <Senj>) ; 
prop, alesna (Swiss alesne, alsne), whence 
the Bom. cognates — Span, alesna, Ital. 
lesina, Fr. aline, 'awl,' are borrowed ; 
comp. Du. (Is, 'awl' (from *alisna), AS. 
chl (in the Orkneys alison), OIc. air, ' awl.' 
The consonance with Sans, aid, f., 'punch, 
awl,' points to an O Aryan word ; there 
existed also a widely ramified Aryan root 
to designate articles of leather. See Sauiu 
and ©aide. 

affmen, vb., in nad)u^mett, which is 
wanting in MidHG. and OHG. ; from the 
equiv. MidHG. dtnen, ' to measure a cask, 
gauge,' figuratively ' to estimate,' from Mid 
HG. and MidLG. dme, ' ohm ' (cusk = about 
40 trails.). See Cljm. 

Jlrjn, m., 'grandfather, ancestor,' from 
MidHG. ane (collateral modified form ene), 
OHG. ano, m., 'grandfather' ; akin to the 


( 5 ) 


Alem. dimin. &fjni, ' grandfather.' Further 
ModHG. ?U)tte, MidHG. ane, OHG. ana, f., 
' grandmother.' To these are allied Mod 
HG. Urafytt, MidHG. urane, urene, OHG. 
*urano, m., great-grandfather'; in OHG. 
alt-ano, altar-ano (for the force of ur* in 
Uratyne see vx-). The class is peculiar to 
G., being foreign to the remaining Teut. 
dialects ; comp. also (Snfel — really a dimin. 
form — which belongs to it. There is no 
doubt that Lat. anus, * old woman,' is a 
primit. cognate. Perhaps the Teut. mas- 
culine name OHG. Anelo (AS. Onela, OIc. 
Ale) is allied to it. 

afjnoen, vb., ' to punish,' from MidHG. 
anden, OHG. antdn, anaddn, 'to punish, 
censure,' allied to OHG. anto, anado, m , ' in- 
sult, embittered feeling, anger.' It corre- 
sponds to OSax. ando, ' exasperation, anger,' 
AS. anda, onejxi, ' zeal, vexation, hatred,' 
whence andian, ' to be angry ' ; moreover, 
Goth, preserves in uz-anan, 'to die,' the 
root an, ' to breathe, respire, snort,' which 
appears in these words. Comp. OIc. ande, 
m., 'breath, spirit,' qnd, f», 'breath, soul' ; 
and also AS. iSian, ' to breathe' (implying 
Goth. *anj)j6n), AS. orup, ' breath' (Goth. 
*uzanj?), orpian, ' to breathe,' OIc. $rendi, 
' breathlessness.' The root an, preserved 
in all the cognates, is OAryan, and means 
' to breathe ' ; comp. Lat. animus, anima, 
Gr. &v€/j.os, connected with the Aryan root 
an, 'to breathe, respire.'— af;ufcen, vb., 'to 
forebode ' ; see afynen. 

Jlf>ttC, f., ' boon ' (of flax or hemp), from 
MidHG. dne, older ayene, f., ' chaff' ; OHG. 
or/ana, f., ' chalf ; ' also AS. *agon, agne,Mid 
E. awene, E. awns, Goth, ahava, Olc. qgn, 
' chaff.' In these cognates two really dif- 
ferent roots seem to have been blended in 
various ways ; the meaning 'chaff' would 
be applicable to the one, just as the exact 
Gr. correspondent &x v V, ' chaff, foam ' (of 
the sea), likewise points to Aryan aghnd 
(comp. besides Gr. &x v P 0V , ' chalf '). The 
other is perhaps lit. 'prickle, awn,' and 
belongs to the root ali (Aryan ak) ; see 

af)ttett, vb., ' to forebode, suspect,' from 
MidHG. anen, ' to foresee, forebode,' foreign 
to the older period and to the rest of the 
Teut. dialects ; it has been connected with 
the OAryan root an, ' to breathe, respire,' 
60 that it may be a primit. cognate of al)tt- 
beit, under the influence of which it also 
appears in ModHG. as aljufcen. It is better, 
however, to regard it as a derivative of 

the prep, an; allien, lit. 'to befall, seize, 
attack' (properly said of ghosts or visions). 

ttf)ttitd), adj., from the equiv. MidHG. 
dneltch, OHG. dnagilih (*dnallh), adj., 
' similar.' It corresponds to Goth, dnaleikd, 
adv., ' similarly ' ; from the OTeut. (Goth.) 
prep, ana (see an) and the suffix lid) ; see 

$Ijoro, m.. 'maple,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. and OHG. dhorn, m., the d of which 
is inferred from the Swiss dial. ; comp. Du. 
ahorn. It is primit. allied to Lat. deer, n., 
'maple' (Gr. &kcl<ttos) and Gr. dKara\U t 
' j uniper berry.' The G. word, at all events, 
cannot be regarded as borrowed from Lat. 
Foranother old name see under SWapljclbcr. 

Jlf)rc, f., ' ear ' (of com), from the plur. 
of MidHG. eher, OHG. elrir, aldr, n., ' ear ' 
(of corn) ; corresponds to Du. aar, AS. ear 
(from *eahor), E. ear. As the derivative r 
standsforan older s, Goth. ahs,n. (gen. alisis) 
and OIc. ax (also S\v. and Dan.), 'ear' 
(of corn), are identical with it ; so, too, 
OHG. ah, ' ear ' (of corn). Comp. besides 
OHG. ahii, ModHG. 9ld?ct, ' prickle, spike ' 
(of corn), (with regard to the ch, comp. Bav. 
ddjer, ' ear of com,' AS. and Northumb. 
cehher), AS. egle, 'spikes' (of corn), E. 
ails, eils ' beard of wheat or barley,' LG. (in 
Brockes) (Site, 'spike '(of corn), Goth. *agij>1 
Comp. also Slfyne. The Teut. root ah, which 
consequently, specially means ' spike, ear' 
(of corn), agrees with Lat. acus (gen. aceris), 
n., ' corn-prickle.' It may be said generally 
that a root, ah, with the primary meaning 
' pointed,' is very widely developed in the 
Ayran group ; comp. Gr. Akwos, ' a kind 
of thistle,' &Kaiva, '<;oad,' &kuv, 'javelin,' 
Aicpos, ' at the point,' Lat. acus, aculeus, acies 
(see <Sd(). 

Jlfyrcn, m., ' vestibule ' (dial.), from 
MidHG. gro, m., ' floor, threshing-floor,' 
also ' ground, bottom,' OHG. erin, m. (Goth. 
*arins), to which OIc. arenn, m., ' hearth,' 
corresponds. Further, OHG. Sro, OIc. 
jqrve, ' earth,' as well as Lat. area, ' court- 
yard, threshing-floor,' Lat. arvum, 'plain, 
cornfield,' and Gr. tpafc, 'to the ground,' 
may be cognate. 

aid)cn, see cid)cn. 

Jlfttct, see 8lgWi. 

JUabctffor, m., 'alabaster,' from Mid 
HG. alabaster (Goth, alabastraun), from 
Lat-Gr. alubastrum. 

JUcmt (1.), m., ' chub* (a fish), from the 
equiv. MidHG. alant, OHG. alant, alnnt, 
m., corresponds to OSax. alund; allied la 


( 6 ) 


01c. Slunn, 'a fish'; of obscure origin, 
perhaps akin to Slal. 

JManf (2.), m., 'elecampane ' (a plant), 
from the equiv. MidHG. alant, OHG. alant, 
m. ; of obscure origin ; it has been sup- 
posed to be connected with the equiv. 
Span, and Port. ala. 

JUarm, m., ' alat•m, , first occurs in Mod 
HG., like E. alarm, from the equiv. Fr. 
alarme ; the latter is derived from Ital. 
allarme, prop., all' arme, ' to arms.' See 

JUmm, m., ' alum,' from MidHG. alun, 
m., ' alum,' from the equiv. Lat. alumen, 
whence also Lith. alunas, Eng. and Fr. 
alun, E. alum (AS. celifne, also efne). 

Jllbc (1.), f., ' alb.' from MidHG. albe, 
OHG. alba, f., ' a white vestment used at 
mass,' formed from the equiv. EcclLat. 
alba (E. alb). 

Jllbc (2.), f., ' bleak, whitebait,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. albel, m., formed from 
the Lat. albula, whence also Fr. able. 

JUbeere, SUbeftna,, LG. 'black currant,' 
even in MidLG. albere ; al- is generally 
connected with 9llant (2). Corresponding 
to Du. aalbes, aalbezie. 

^Uber, f., ' white poplar,' from MidHG. 
alber, OHG. albdri, m., 'poplar'; prob. 
borrowed from Rom. ; comp. Ital. albaro, 
which is connected either with Lat. albus 
or with Lat arbor; OHG. arbar, 'poplar,' 
occurs once. 

albem, adj., ' silly, foolish,' earlier Mod 
HG. a/ber, from MidHG. dlwasre, ' simple, 
silly,' OHG. dlaiodri, ' kind, friendly, well- 
disposed' (with an interesting change of 
meaning from OHG. to MidHG). The 
OHG. adj. signifies also ' truly, quite true ' ; 
so Goth, wers, ' true,' also means ' friendly ' 
by inference from un-wirjan, ' to be un- 
willing, displeased ' (comp. too OHG. miti- 
wdriy ' friendly '). See todfyt and all. More- 
over, albem has not the present meanings 
in the UpG. dialects ; Luther introduced 
it from MidG. into the written language. 

JMdjimic, f., ' alchemy,' from late Mid 
HG. alcliemie, f., which is derived from the 
equiv. Rom. cognates — Ital. alchimia, Fr. 
alchimie — the origin of which from Arab. 
al-kimtd and the earlier Gr. xiyt6j, 'juice,' is 
undoubted. A I- as the Arab, article is still 
seen in Sllfali, Sllforan, SUfabe, Sllljarabra, 
SUfobot, SUaebra. See 9Ufo»en. 

JMfana'errf, f-, ' foolery,' from MidHG. 
ale-vanz, m., ' trick, roguery, deceit' ; con- 
nected with OHG. giana-venzon, ' to mock ' 

(ihe al- of MidHG. as in albem ?), also gir- 
lefanj and gant. 

JU&ouen, m., ' bedchamber, alcove.' 
first occurs in ModHG. from Fr. alcdre 
(comp. also E. alcove), which with its Rom. 
cognates is based upon Arab, al-qobbak, 
1 vault, tent' ; comp. Sldumie, also SUtyambva, 

all, adj., ' all, whole,' from MidHG. and 
OHG. oi(infl. gen. alien), adj., 'entire, each, 
every one ' ; a word common to the Teut. 
group ; it corresponds to Goth, alls, OIc. 
allr, AS. eall, E. all, Du. al, OSax. <d, with 
the same meanings. There is also anOTeut. 
form ala- in compounds and derivatives ; 
comp. OHG. and OSax. alung, MidHG. 
aleitc, * entire, complete,' Goth, alamans, 
plur., 'everybody,' OHG. ala-wdr, 'quite 
true' (see albem), alaniuwi, 'quite new.' 
Probably Goth, alia- as a participial form 
is based upon an older al-na- (comp. voll, 
SBofle), since ala- shows that the root was 
al or rather ol. Whether Goth, alan, ' to 
grow up ' (see alt), is a cognate, remains 
uncertain ; in any case, the Kelt, words, 
Olr. uile, ule, ' entire, each, all ' (base olio-), 
and AV. oil, ' entire,' are rightly compared 
with it, while Gr. flXoi, on account of Sans. 
sdrvas (from Aryan solvo-s), ' entire, each,' 
must be kept apart. — ttllein, adj., * soli- 
tary, sole,' from MidHG. aUein, al-eine, 
like MidE. al-one, E. alone.— ctllmahlicf). 
atlm&liQ, adj , * gradual,' earlier allmdcr/- 
lidj and al(gemad), from MidHG. almech- 
lich, ' slow ' ; the later form allmdlig is based 
upon 9JJal, ' time,' but the MidHG. form 
upon gemaeh. — JUltttcnbe, f. (Alem.), 
' common land,' from MidHG. almtnde, f., 
' common ' ; on account of the MidHG. 
spelling almeinde and algemeine, the deri- 
vation from gemeine is probable (OHG. 
*alagimeinida). The derivation from an 
assumed OHG. alagimannida, ' commu- 
nity,' must be rejected, as such a form 
could never have existed. — Jiilob, n., 
'allodial estate, freehold,' first occurs in 
ModHG., adopted from Mid Lat. allodium, 
which is the latinised form for the OG. and 
OFranc. alddis, OHG. al-6d, 'entire pro- 
perty or possession, free property ' ; comp. 
OSax. da, AS. edd, 'estate, possession,' 
OHG. 6tag, * wealthy.' To this the Teut. 
proper name Odoardo, Edward, is allied. 

^FU m , f., ' mountain pasture,' equiv. to 

JUtttanad), m., ' almanac,' first appears 
in early ModHG., from Fr. almanack, which 


( 7 ) 


with its Eom. cognates is said to have come 
from Arab, through Span., like other words 
beginning with 9U* (see SUdjtmie, 9Ufo»en). 
But as the Arab, word fur calendar is cer- 
tainly not SKmanadj, but taqulm (Milan. 
taccuino), the derivation from Gr.-Egyp. 
&\(ievixiaK(L, 'calendar' (found in the Eccl. 
Hist, of Eusebius), is much more likely to 
be correct. 

JUtttofen, n., 'alms, charity,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. almuosan, OHG. alamuo- 
stin-y alamdsan, n. ; corresponds to Du. aaU 
moes, AS. celmesse, E. alms, OIc. olmusa, f., 
' alms.' The derivation from Lat.-Gr. i\efj- 
HoatiPT), 'sympathy, compassion, alms,' is 
incontestable ; as the OHG. collateral form 
elemosyna, elimosina indicates, the Lat.-Gr. 
origin was as firmly accepted in the OHG. 
period as the derivation of OHG. chirihha, 
'church,' from KvpiaKdv. Yet the question 
remains how the ecclesiastical word found 
its way so early into the Teut. languages, 
so as to become a common possession of 
the MidEurop.and Northern Teutons. The 
absence of a corresponding Goth, word 
is explained by the fact that we obtained 
the word from the Rom. nations, as the 
congruent phonetic form proves : common 
Rom. alimosna, in accordance with Fr. 
aumdne, OFr. almosne, Prov. almosna, Ital. 
limosinaj allied also to Olr. alrnsan, OSlov. 
almuSino, Lith. jalmuSnas. 

JUp, m., 'nightmare, incubus,' from 
MidHG. alp(b),m., 'spectre, incubus, night- 
mare, oppression caused by nightmare' ; 
prop, a term applied to mythical beings, 
AS. celf, OIc. dlfr, 'elf, goblin' (the Scan- 
dinavians distinguished between fairies of 
light and darkness) ; these appear to be 
identical with the OInd. rbhti, (lit. ' inge- 
nious, sculptor, artist'), the name of three 
clever genii (the king of the fairies was 
rbhukSdn). By the ASaxons, nightmare 
was called celfddl, alfsoyofta, 'elf-malady, 
elf-sickness (hiccough), ' (lumbago in the 
Eng. dialects is termed aw/shots, AS. ylfa 
gesceot). Com p. further (Slf (proper names 
like SUfcoin, SUfreb, have Sltb as their first 

JUpc, f., from the equiv. MidHG. albe, 
f., ' mountain pasture,' allied to Lat. alpes, 
so too OHG. Alpun and Alpi, ' mountain 

JUratmc, f., ' mandrake,' from MidHG. 
alrAne, OHG. alrtina, f , ' mandrake, sorce- 
ress'; this, as the component -rAne indi- 
cates, is a priniit. term, which has been sup- 

posed to be connected with old Teut. 
mythical beings who do their work secretly 
(comp. Goth, r&na, ' secret' ; see rauuen). 

ttls, conj., ' as,' from MidHG. als, dlse, 
dlsd, 'likewise, thus, as, as if, because,' 
hence prop, identical with alfo ; OHG. 
alsd, ' likewise, like,' is a compound of al, 
' entirely,' and s6, ' thus,' like the exactly 
corresponding AS. ealswd, whence E. as, 
from eal, ' entirely,' and swd, ' so.' 

alfo, adv., related to ah?, like ModE. also 
to as, identical in every respect with the 

alt, adj., from the equiv. MidHG. and 
OHG. alt, adj., ' old ' ; the corresponding 
OSax. aid, AS. eald, E. old, have the same 
meaning ; Goth. a!J>eis (instead of the ex- 
pected form *alda-), ' old.' The West 
Teut. form al-da- is an old t6- participle 
(Lat. al-tus, 'high'), like other ModHG. 
adjs. (see under fatt), and belongs to Goth. 
alan, ' to grow up,' OIc. ala, ' to bring 
forth' (priniit. related to Lat. alo. Olr. alim, 
'1 nourish'), therefore lit. 'grown up.' 
Hence perhaps it was used orig. and chiefly 
in reckoning age, &c. (comp. Lat. X annos 
natus), but afterwards it was also used at an 
early period in an absolute sense, ' vetus.' 
See Sitter, ©(tern. 

JUtar, m., 'altar,' from MidHG. dlter, 
altdre, altawe, under the constant influ- 
ence of Lat. altdre, which forms the base. 
Comp. altdri, dlteri, found even in OHG. ; 
the word was introduced by Christianity. 
Goth, uses hunsla-staf>s, lit. ' temple-table ' ; 
AS. wlhbed for *wihbe6d\ ' sacred table ' (see 
wetfien and Scute). 

filter, n., ' age, antiquity,' from MidHG. 
alter, OHG. altar, n., 'age, old age ' (opposed 
to youth) ; comp. the corresponding OSax. 
aldar, ' life, time of life,' AS. ealdor, * life,' 
OIc. aldr, ' age, hoary age,' Goth. *aldra-, 
in framaldrs, ' of advanced age, in years.' 
An abstract term formed from the root al, 
' to grow up, bring forth,' mentioned under 
alt, and the suffix -tro- frequent in Gr. and 
Lat. See further cognates under ffictt. 

JUfroife, see Ohefter. 

JUfoor&crrt, plur., from the equiv. 
MidHG. altvordem, OHG. alt-fordoron, m. 
plur., 'forefathers,' lit. 'the old former 
ones,' from OHG. fordoro, ' farmer.' With 
regard to the signification of alt- in this 
compound, comp. OHG. and MidHG. all- 
vater, ' grandfather,' OHG. alt-hirro, * an- 
cestor,' OHG. alt-may, ' forefather.' 

Jlmbofj, m., ' auvil,' from MidHG. erne- 


( 8 ) 


L6x, GHG. anabd^, m., 'anvil'; a specifi- 
cally G. word allied to OHG. bfyan, MidHG. 
bd^en, 'to beat, strike.' Comp. AS. bedtan, 
E. to beat (see JBttfujj, SJeutet, fccffclti). 
Whether OHG. ana-b6^ is formed by the 
imitation of Lat. incus (allied to cudere) is 
uncertain, for the smith's art was early 
developed among the Teutons without any 
Southern influence. The corresponding 
terms AS. anfilt, E. anvil (also OHG. ana- 
faiz), Du. aanbcld, MidLG. anebelle, Dan. 
ambolt, are similarly formed. 

Jlmeife, f., from the equiv. MidHG. 
Smeiu (emeze, whence ModHG. (Smfc), 
OHG-. dmei^a, f., 'ant'; note ModHG. 
dial. ametee, OHG. dmeitza. It corresponds 
to AS. cemette, E. emmet, ant. The deriva- 
tion can scarcely be ascertained with cer- 
tainty, as the relations of the vowels of the 
accented syllable are not clear ; the OHG. 
form dmei^a evidently indicates a connec- 
tion with emfta, ;9lmetfe, lit. 'the diligent (in- 
sect).' On the other hand, OHG. d-meizza 
and AS. ce-mette point to a root mart, 'to 
cut, gnaw' (see under fKetjjet), so that it 
would signify 'gnawing insect ' (MidHG. 
and OHG. d- means 'off, to pieces'). Du.and 
LG. mier, 'ant,' is more widely diffused than 
Stntciff, CiimGoth. miera (Goth. *miuzj6), 
AS. m$ra, E. mire, Sw. mfra, * ant ! ; orig. 
' that which lives in the moss, the moss 
insect,' allied to Teut. memo- (see 9RccS). 
A word formed from the Lat. formica is 
probably at the base of Swiss wurmeisle. 

JlmeImoI)(, n., ' starch-flour,' from Mid 
HG. amel, amer, OHG. amar, ' eummer- 
spelt' ; tlie ModHG. signification seems to 
be influenced by Gr.-MidLat. amylon, 1 finest 
meal ' (E. amel-corn). 

Jlmmann, m. ( Alem. ; the Franc, term 
is -£>etmbi"ira,f), 'chief magistrate, bailiff,' 
from MidHG. amman, a shortened colla- 
teral form of ambetman, 'magistrate, bail iff'; 
orig. sense, 'servant, official,' afterwards 
also ' magistrate.' See also Slutt. 

Jlmmc, f., ' (wet-)nurse, foster-mother,' 
from MidHG. amine, f., 'mother, in so far 
as the child is fed by her ; (wet-)nurse,' 
OHG. ammn, f. ; allied to OIc. amma, 
'grandmother' (Suab. and Bav. even yet 
' mother '). Probably an instinctive sound, 
since, undoubtedly independent of the 
Teut. group, Rom. also and other lan- 
guages have similar words for Slntmt ; 
comp. Span, and Port. ama. 

Jltttmeiff or, m., 'chief magistrate,' from 
MidHG. ammeister, from ambetmeister, like 

Imn, from Slmfrotmann ; MidHG. am- 
manmei8ter and ammeister, ' president of the 
guilds 'of Strasburg).' 

Jlmmer, f., from the equiv. Mid 110. 
amer, OHG. amero (*amaro), m., ' yellow- 
hammer,' with the deriv. OHG. and Mid 
HG. amerinc, 'yellow-hammer,' MidLat. 
amarellus, which may have been formed 
from the G. word ; E. yellow - hammer 
(©clcamnter) is a corrupt form. Whether 
OHG. *amaro was derived from OHG. 
amar, 'summer-spelt,' is as doubtful as its 
relation to Slntfd. 

$mpel, f., ' lamp,' from MidHG. ampel 
(also ampulle), OHG. ampulla, f., * lamp,' 
also ' vessel.' Borrowed in OHG. from 
Lat. ampulla, ' flask, vessel,' whence also 
AS. ampelle, OIc ample, ' vessel ' (LG. 
pulle, ' bottle '). 

Jlmpfer, m., 'sorrel,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. ampfer, OHG. ampfaro, m. ; allied 
to the equiv. AS. ompre ; an adj. used as a 
substantive. Comp. Du. amper, 'sharp, 
bitter, unripe,' OSw. amper, 'sour, bitter,' 
OIc. apr (for *ampr), 'sharp' (chiefly of 
cold) ; also LG. ampern, ' to prove bitter to 
the taste.' Sauc.rautVfcr (also corrupted to 
Saner; ramf) is a tautological compound like 
SSinKjunb. In case Teut. ampra-, from 
*ambro-, represents the prop. Aryan *amr6-, 
Sans, amid, 'sour' (also 'wood-sorrel'), 
and Lat. amdrus, 1 bitter,' are primit. cognate 
with this word. 

JUttfol, f., 'blackbird,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. amsel, OHG. amsala, f. It corre- 
sponds to AS. 6sle (6s- fromams-), E. ousel ; 
the equiv. Lat. mirula (Fr. merle), whence 
Du. meerle and E. merl are borrowed, may 
represent *me J suht, and have been orig. 
cognate with 9lntfc(. Its relation to Slmntct 
and to Goth, ams, ' shoulder,' is uncertain. 

Jlmt, n., ' office, council, jurisdiction,' 
from MidHG. ammet, older ambet, OHG. 
ambaht, ambahti, n., ' service, office, occu- 
pation, divine service, mass' ; a word com- 
mon to the Teut. group. Comp. Goth. 
andbahti, 'office, service' (from andbalds, 
'servant,' OHG. ambaht, 'servant'), AS. 
anbihJ, ambiht, n., 'office, service,' ambi/tt, 
m., 'servant' (obsolete at the beginning 
of the MidE. period), Du. ambt, OSax. am- 
baht-skepi, 'service,' ambaht-man, 'servant.' 
The relation of the common Teut. word 
to the Gall.-Lat. ambactus (mentioned in 
Caesar's Bell. Gall.), ' vassal,' is much dis- 
puted. The WestTcut. words may be best 
explained from Goth. and QTent.dndbahta-, 


( 9 ) 


and the genuinely Teut. aspect of such a 
vorcl cannot indeed be ilenied, even if the 
origin of -lahts cannot now be determined 
(and- is a verbal particle, ModHG. ant;). 
The emphatic testimony of Festus, how- 
ever, is against the Teut. origin of the 
Gall.-Lat. amhactus; ambacttisapudEnnium 
lingua gallica servus appellatur. This coin- 
cides with the fact that the word can be 
fully explained from Kelt. ; amhactus con- 
tains the Kelt, prefix amb- (Lat. amb-), 
' about ' ; and ag is an oft-recurring verbal 
root (see Slcfcr) in Kelt, meaning 'to go' ; 
hence amhactus, ' messenger ' (lit ' one sent 
hither and thither'), from which comes 
Mid Lat. ambactia, ambactiala, 'errand' 
(Ital. ambasciata, Fr. ambassade, ' em- 
bassy '). This explanation of the Lat.-Rom. 
cognates makes it possible that the OTeut. 
class was borrowed from Kelt, and trans- 
formed (Goth, andbahts for amhahts) ; in 
any case, it was borrowed in prehistoric 
times (comp. 9ieirf)). 

cm, prep., adv., 'on, by, along,' from 
MidHG. ane, OHG. ana, prep., adv., 'on, in, 
upon' ; it corresponds to Goth, ana, prep., 
adv., ' on, upon, in,' AS., E. on, prep., adv., 
Du. aan, OSax. an. Primit. allied to Gr. d.v&, 
' upon, on,' Zend ana, ' upon,' Lat. an- in 
anhelare, ' to respire,' OSlov. vu (for *on). 

cmbcrcutmcit, vb., 'to fix or appoint 
(a time),' with a dialectic transmutation of 
d into au (013av.), or the word was based 
by popular etymology on 9tattm, from Mid 
HG. rdmen (rasmen), ' to make proposals, 
aim, strive' (berdmen, 'to fix'), OHG. 
rdmin, OSax. rdmCn, ' to aim, strive,' Du. 
beramen, 'to fix' ; allied to MidHG. rdm, 
' goal ' (root rS, as in 9lete ?). Further OFr. 
aramir, ' to define legally ' ?. 

Jlttbacr)f, f., 'devotion,' from MidHG. 
a»ddht, OHG. dnaddht, 'attention, devo- 
tion'; MidHG. ddht, I'., 'thought,' is a 
verbal abstract from MidHG. and ModHG. 

%{nba\ia)C, f., 'drain,' older ModHG. 
dduc/te, transformed from Lat. aquaeductus. 
See abjufy. 

anc»cr, adj., 'other, different, second,' 
from MidHG. ander, OHG. andar, 'the 
other' ; it corresponds to Goth. an]mr, 'the 
other,' OIc. annarr, AS. 6Ser, E. other, Du. 
ander, OSax. diiar, 6<Sar. The meanings 
' the second, one of two, the other,' are 
due to a comparative form (Aryan dnteros, 
' one of two,' Lat. alter). Comp. the corre- 
sponding Sans, dntara-, 'different from,' 

Osset. andar, 'otherwise than, with the 
exception of,' Lith. dntras, ' the other.' 
The root an- is proved by Sans, and Zend 
an-ya-, 'another.' With OHG. andar, 
' other,' is also connected OHG. antardn, 
' to imitate.' 

Jln&ers, see eittjr. 

Jlnfcont, in., from the equiv. MidHG. 
and OHG. andorn, ' horehound, the plant 
Marrubium' ; the suffix -orn as in Slfyoui ? 
The root has not yet been explained. 

cmfacrjen, see*gdd)rc. 

Jlncjel, m. and f., from the equiv. Mid 
HG. angel, in., f., 'sting, fish-hook, hinge 
of a door,' OHG. angul, m.. ' sting, point, 
fish-hook' ; diminut. of OHG. avgo, 'sting, 
door hinge,' MidHG. ange, ' fish-hook, door 
hinge.' Comp. AS. ongel, E. avgle, AS. 
onga, ' sting,' OIc. qngull, ' fish-hook,' allied 
to ange, 'sting, point' (Alem. angel, ' bee 
sting,' angelmuck, 'stinging fly'). The 
supposition that the primit. and widely dif- 
fused cognates are borrowed from Lat. an- 
gulus, 'angle, corner,' is untenable ; OBulg. 
aglu, E. avgle, AS. angul, 'angle, corner,' 
are, however, primit. allied to it ; so too 
@ita,fant>, Slugclfatfyfett. The root idea of the 
Teut. cognates is 'pointed.' An Aryan 
root onk, ' to be pointed,' also lies at the 
base of Lat. uncus, Gr. fry/cos, 6yicivot, • barb,' 
AyKiarpop, 'fish-hook,' Sans, anka, 'hook,' 
Osset. Ungur, 'hook, hinge,' Olr. 4cad, 

cmcjeneljm, adj., ' agreeable, pleasant,' 
from MidHG. gename, late OHG. gindmi, 
adj., 'acceptable, agreeable' (without the 
prefix an-), allied to ncfymett. Comp. Goth. 
andanSms, ' agreeable,' allied to and-niman, 
' to accept' 

Jlttftcr, m., ' paddock, grass plot,' from 
MidHG. anger, OHG. angar, m., ' pasture 
land, grass plot, arable laud' ; allied to OIc. 
eng, enge, ' meadow, pasture ground.' Tne 
cognates can scarcely be derived from cage, 
' narrow ' (Teut. root ang). Trustworthy 
correspondences are wanting. 

^nftcpdjf, n., 'face, presence,' from 
MidHG. angesiht, n., ' aspect, view,' MidG. 
also ' face' ; allied to ©ejidjt, fcfyeit. 

Jlncjff, f., from the equiv. MidHG. 
ang>8t, OHG. angust, f., 'anxiety, appre- 
hension ' ; this abstract form is wanting 
in the other OTeut. dialects, the suffix st 
being also very rarely found ; comp. iDicnft. 
But it must not be assumed therefore that 
the OHG. angust is borrowed from Lat. 
angustiae, ' narrowness, meanness.' It is 


( io ) 


rather to be regarded as a genuine Tent, 
derivative from the root ang appearing in 
tnge, especially as the OSlov. in its primit. 
allied azostl, 'contraction,' shows the same 
derivation. Hence Slngfl must he consi- 
dered as primit. cognate with L;it. angustiae. 
See bange and enge. 

unhcifd)tg, adj., from the equiv. Mid 
HG. antheiyc, anthei}e. adj., ' bound, en- 
gaged,' influenced byfyeifcfoen ; the MidHG. 
adj. is derived from MidH( J. and OHG. an- 
thei$, ' vow, promise,' which, like Goth. 
andaliait, ' confession,' AS. ovdettan, ' to 
confess,' is composed of the particle ant- 
and the root hait, ' to hid.' 

Jlttis, in., from the equlv. MidHG. ants, 
also enis, n., 'anise,' borrowed perhaps 
even before the MidHG. period from Lat. 
antsum (Gr. dMow), 'anise,' whence also 
Fr. ants, E. anise. 

^Ittfec, m., ' butter,' an Alem. word, from 
MidHG. anke, OHG. ancho, 'butter' ; the 
genuine G. term for the borrowed word 
©utter, for which, in the OHG. period, anc- 
smero or chuo-smero, lit. ' cow-fat' (see 
(Sdjmeer), might also be used. Goth. *agqa 
for OHG. ancho is not recorded. It is 
certainly allied primitively to the Ind. root 
afi.j, ' to anoint, besmear,' and to Lat. unguo, 
* to anoint ' ; coinp. Sans, djya, ' butter- 
offerinir,' Olr. imb (from imben-), ' butter.' 

£lrtfeer(l.), m., 'anchor,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. anker, late OHG. ancliar. m. ; cor- 
responding to Du. anker, AS. (even at a very 
early period) oncor, E. anchor, OIc. akkere, 
'anchor.' A loan-word early naturalised 
among the English, and before 1000 A.D. 
even among the MidEurop. Teutons and in 
the North. From Lat. ancora (comp. Ital. 
ancora, Fr. ancre, f. ; allied also to Lith. 
inkaras, OSlov. anukura, ankura), in con- 
nection with which the different gender of 
the Teut. words is remarkable. In OHG. 
there exists a genuinely native word for 
'anchor' — senchil, m., sinchila, f. 

Jlnfecr (2.), m., ' a liquid measure,' Mod 
HG. only, from Du. anker, which, like the 
equiv. E. anchor, points to MidLat. anceria, 
ancheria, 'cupa minor' (smaller cask) ; the 
origin of the cognates is obscure. 

Jltilefjen, n., 'loan,' from MidHG. an- 
lehen, OHG. analihan, n., ' loan of money on 
interest,' from a\u and ittyn. 

<mrud)ig, adj., also anrudjtig, 'disre- 
putable,' ModHG. only, formed from rudSbar 
under the influence of riedjen. See ruc$tbar. 

Jlnftolf , f., ' institution,' from MidHG. 

anstalt, * founding ' ; sftalt is an aostract 
from jie ((en. 

cmffctff, see ©tatr. 

ant ■-, prefix, preserved in ModHG. only 
in 9lnt4tfc and Slnt;tr<ort (see also 5Smt, att; 
t>cifd)ig, and -£>ant>iverf). It is found in the 
early periods in many noun compounds, 
to whicli ModHG. ent; is the correspond- 
ing prefix of verbal compounds. Comp. 
MidHG. and OHG. ant-, Goth, anda-, AS. 
and-, ond- (comp. E. answer under Slut; 
roort) ; also the Goth. prep, and, 'on, upon, 
in, along.' The orig. meaning of the prefix 
is 'counter,' which makes it cognate with 
Gr. ami, ' against,' Lat, ante, 'before,' Sans. 
dnti, ' opposite.' 

JlnilifS, n., from the equiv. MidHG. 
antlitze, n., late OHG. antlizzi, n., ' coun- 
tenance'; allied to the equiv. collateral 
forms MidHG. antliitte, OHG. antlutti 
{analdti), n., 'countenance.' Two origi- 
nally different words have been combined 
in these forms. It is probable that OHG. 
and MidHG. antliz corresponds to AS. and- 
wlita, m., OIc. analit, n. (comp. Goth, anda- 
wleizn, n.) ; comp. Goth, wlits, m., ' face,' 
wlaitdn, Olc. lila (for *vlUa), ' to spy ' ; the 
root wltt (pre-Teut. id'td), preserved in 
these words, has not yet been authenticated 
beyond the Teut. group. With these cog- 
nates were combined those from Goth. 
ludja, 'face,' parallel to which an equiv. 
*anda-ludi, for OHG. antlutti, n., ' coun- 
tenance,' must be assumed. 

JlntttJorf, f., from the equiv. MidHG. 
anticurt, f., OHG. antvmrti, f., 'answer,' 
beside which there is a neut. form Mid 
HG. anluiirte, OHG. antwurti, Goth, dnda- 
icaurdij lit. 'counter-words' (collective). 
Comp. ants ; also, AS. andsicaru, E. an- 
swer, under fdMr-crcn. 

Jlpfcl, n., ' apple,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. apfel, OHG. apful (also afful, plur. 
epjUi), m. ; a word common to the Teut. 
group, by chance not recorded in Goth. 
Comp. Du. and LG. appel, m., AS. appel, m. 
(in the plur. neut.), E. apple, OIc. eple, n., 
'apple' (Goth. *aplus,m.l). The apple- 
tree in WestTeut. is *apuldr, f. ; comp. 
OHG. affoltra, AS. apuldr, which are pre- 
served in the local names ModHG. Slffclteru, 
9lffaltracl>, (Slpctba ?), Du. Apeldoren, E. Apple- 
dore. In spite of this diffusion throughout 
the entire Teut. group, and of the mention 
of wild apple-trees in Tacitus, the whole 
class must be recognised as loan-words 
(Dbjl has no connection whatever with 


f TI ) 


them). They must, however, have been 
borrowed long before the beginning of our 
era, since the Teut. p in apla- has, in accord- 
ance with the permutation of consonants, 
originated in a prehistoric b; comp. Ir, 
aball, uball, Lith. obulys, OSlov. abluko, 
1 apple.' As nothing testifies to the Aryan 
origin of these oblu- cognates (in Lat. 
mdlum Gr. A"?^°")> found only in the North 
of Europe, we must assume that the word 
was borrowed. The derivation from Lat. 
malum Abellanum (the Campanian town 
Abella was famed in antiquity for its 
apples), is on phonetic and formal grounds 
doubtful, although in the abstract (comp. 
s 4>firjicfy) the combination is interesting. No 
other explanation of how it was borrowed 
has yet been found. It is noteworthy that 
for 9(ugapff(, ' pupil,' apful alone (as well 
as ougapful) can he used in OHG. ; comp. 
AS. ceppel, n. (plur., also masc), E. apple 
of the eye (also eyeball), Du. oogappel ; but, 
on the other hand, OIc. augasteinn. 

$prtf, m., ' April,' from the equiv Mid 
HG. aprille, aberelle, m. ; from Lat. April is 
(comp. Fr. avril, Ital. aprile), borrowed at 
the beginning of the MidHG. period in 
place of the genuine OHG. 6starmAn6d, 

Jlr, in., n., a square measure (about 
120 sq. yards), ModHG. only, formed from 
the equiv. Fr. are (Lat. area). 

$(vheit, f., ' work, labour, employment,' 
from MidHG. arbert, arebeit, OHG. ar(a)bei', 
f., ' labour, toil, distress.' Corresponding to 
OSax. artidi, n., 'toil, hardship, suffering,' 
arbM, f., and Du. arbeid, m., AS. earfoft, 
earfefie, n., 'toil, hardship,' ear/efte, adj., 
' difficult,' Goth. arbaips(d),f., 'oppression, 
distress' ; OIc. erfiSi, n., 'toil,' erfiSr, adj., 
'difficult, toilsome.' Hence 'toil' must be 
accepted as the fundamental meaning of 
the cognates, and therefore any connection 
with the stem of (Srfce is improbable. It 
has been compared with greater reason with 
OSlov. (Russ.) rabota, f., ' servants' work,' 
and rabu, robu, 'servant, thrall,' as prim, 
cognates, although this comparison is open 
to doubt Lat. l&boTy ' work,' is at all 
events certainly not allied to it. 

,Hrd)C, f., 'ark,' from MidHG., arclie 
(also arke), OHG. arahha (also archa), f., 
' Noah's ark.' The ModHG. form with ch 
(instead of k) seems to point to Upper Ger- 
many (Luther's Bible has dloafy Jfajhn) ; 
OHG. buoh-arahha, 'book-chest,' MidHG. 
arche, ' chest, money-chest' It corresponds 

to Du. ark, ' Noah's ark,' AS. euro, m., earce, 
f., ' chest, covenant, ark, box,' E. ark, OIc. 
ork, f., 'chest, coffin, Noah's ark,' Goth. 
arlca, f., ' box, money-box, Noah's ark.' 
This widely diffused word was borrowed 
at an early period from the equiv. Lat. 
(also Romance) area, which, as the mean- 
ings of the Teut. group coextensive with 
those of the Lat. indicate, was not perhaps 
naturalised on the introduction 01 Chris- 
tianity, to which the more recent meaning 
of ' Noah's ark' may reler. Both the word 
and the thing had probably at the beginning 
of our era found their way to the Teutons 
with Lat. cista. See Jtifte and <£arf. 

arg, adj., 'bad, severe, hard,' from Mid 
HG. arc(g), 'vile, wicked, stingy, avari- 
cious,' OHG. arg, arag, 'avaricious, cow- 
ardly, vile' ; also OHG. arg, MidHG. arc(g\ 
'evil, vileness, wickedness.' Comp. AS. 
earg, adj., 'cowardly, slothful' (no longer 
found in E.), OIc. argr, 'cowardly, effe- 
minate' (also ragr). Paul the Deacon cites 
arga as an abusive term among the Lom- 
bards. Through a Goth. *args the Teut. 
word may have made its way into Span, 
and Finn. ; comp. Span, aragan, 'sloth- 
ful,' Finn, arka, 'cowardly.' As it is not 
easy to deduce the meaning 'cowardly' 
from 'avaricious,' which appears chiefly in 
OHG., we must assume that the root idea 
of the Teut. arga- was ' vile, base,' of which 
'avaricious' and 'cowardly' would be spe- 
cialisations resulting from the liberal hos- 
pitality and bravery which characterised 
the Teutons. This word, like almost all 
words within the ethical sphere, is pecu- 
liar to Teutonic ; comp. arm, befe, gut, ixUi. — 
cirflcrtt, 'to annoy, vex, fret,' from Mid 
HG. erqern, 'to incite to evil, deteriorate, 
corrupt,' OHG. ergir&n, argiron, 'to make 
worse.' from the comparative of arg. From 
this ModHG. &rger, m., is formed (comp. 
9lu$fafc from astftyia, ©eij from flcijftt, 
Jpanbfl from Ijanfccln, Cpfer from rpfmt) ; in 
MidHG. erge, OHG. argt, f., 'malice.' — 
JitQWOfytl, m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
arcwdn, m. (comp. SOabu), 'suspicion, mis- 
trust' ; comp. ModHG. Slrglijt, L from Mid 
HG. arclist, f., 'cunning, malice,' from arg ; 
even in OHG. arcwdnen, ' to suspect,' oc- 
curs, MidHG. arciccenen. 

drflern, vb., see arg. 

Jlrtcsbaum, m., 'service tree,' from 
MidHG. OHG. arliz-boum, in., 'acernus, 
cornus' ; scarcely allied to Qxlt. 

Jlrm, in., ' arm, branch,' from the equiv. 


( >2 ) 


MiilHG. arm OHG. aram, arm, in.; a word 
common to the Teut group ; comp. OSax. 
arm, Du. arm, AS. earm, E. arm, OIc. armr, 
Goth, arms, in., 'arm.' Like many terms 
for parts of the bo<ly (see Slri'd), gufj, #cq, 
Stmt, 91ao,tl, &c.), 9lrm extends beyond the 
Teut dialects. It is.primit related to Lat. 
armus, 'the topmost part of the upper 
arm, fore-quarter' (Gr. ippAs, 'suture, joint, 
shoulder,' belongs to another division), 
OBulg. rame,, 'shoulder, arm,' Sans, trmd-s, 
m., 'lore-quarter, arm.' See Grmcl. 

arm, adj., 'poor, unfortunate, miser- 
able,' from the equiv. MidHG. arm, OHG. 
aram, arm, adj. ; comp. OSax. arm, Du. 
arm, AS. earm (obsolete in E.), OIc. armr, 
Goth, arms, adj., 'poor.' A term common 
to Teut, with no correspondence in the 
allied Aryan group ; comp. fcarmfierjig, at$, 
ttid). — Jlrtttttf, f., from the equiv. Mid 
HG. armuot, f., armuote, n., ' poverty,' 
OHG. aramuott, f. : a derivative of the 
Goth. adj. *arm6f>s ; comp. G tttebf, &tintat. 

Jlrmbruff, f., 'crossbow,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. armbrust, n., which must 
be a corruption of MidLat. arbalista, arcu- 
balista,ht. 'bow for projectiles' (Lat. arcus, 
Gr. f3&\\eiv). A compound of Slrm atid 
S3ruft is, properly speaking, impossible in 
G., especially as the MidHG. word is 
neut From MidLat. arbalista conies the 
equiv. Fr. arbalete; comp. E. arbalist, Du. 
armborst, Ital. balestra, from the last of 
which the older ModHG. Qklcftft, 'cross- 
bow for shooting bullets,' is boirowed. 

$rtttcl, see SrmrL 

Jlrmuf , see arm. 

.Brnolb, see 9lar. 

£lrfd), m., *ar3e, fundament,' according 
to the analogous cases cited under birfefyftt, 
from an older 9lrS, MidHG. and OHG. ars, 
m., ' arse.' It corresponds to the equiv. Mid 
LG. ars, ers, Du. aars, naars (with prefixed 
n), AS. ears, E. arse, OIc ars (and rass, 
coin p. argr and ragr, see ar»j), m., 'arse.' 
Teut. arsa-z, m., from 6rso-s, is rightly held 
to be priuiit allied to Gr. 6fif>oi (pp for rs), 
'coccyx, rump' ; akin to Olr. err, f., ' tail, 
end, point'?. Comp. the remark under 

Jlrf, f., 'kind, sort, species, manner,' 
from MidHG. art, m., f., 'innate peculi- 
arity, nature, condition, kind ' ; OHG. art, 
is not recorded with these meanings, nor is 
the word found elsewhere. Instead of 
this there occurs the homonymous OHG. 
art,!., 'tillage, ploughing,' with which arttin, 

' to inhabit, cultivate,' is connected ; further, 
OSax. ard, m., 'dwelling-place,' AS. eard, 
m., 'dwelling, native place,' OIc. qrt), f., 
' harvest, produce.' These cognates, which 
belong (see Slrftr) to an OTeut and Aryan 
root, ar, ' to plough ' (Lat arare, Gr. &p6w, 
&c), are scarcely allied to MidHG. art, m., 
f., ' nature, condition ' ; comp., however, 
ai'oftitung from gwclnini. It is. more pro- 
bable that Slrt is connected with Lat ars 
(gen. plur. arti-um), 'method, art,' and 
Sans, rtd, 'method.' The compounds 
9lrtarfer, artbar, artfiaft contain MidHG. and 
OHG. art, 'agriculture, tillage,' and be- 
long consequently to the Teut and Aryan 
root ar, 'to plough.' 

Jlr3enet, £ (in the 17th cent accen- 
ted on the SI also), ' medicine,' from 
MidHG. arzenle (erzonte), f., 'art of heal- 
ing, remedy.' The OHG. word does not 
occur, but only a derivative OHG. erzinen, 
giarzintin, MidHG. erzenen, 'to heal ;' the 
verb, by its sufiix, suggests Goth, lekintin, 
AS. Iwcnian, OHG. lahhindn, ' to heal. ' 
From OHG. gi-arzin&n, the MidHG. sub- 
stint arzenle, which did not appear until 
a later period, might then have been 
formed with a Rom. termination. The 
assumption that MidHG. arzenle referred 
to Archigenes of Apamea (in Syria), a 
fiimous physician, is untenable ; if this 
assumption were correct, we should have 
expected OHG. *arzin, or rather *arzino, 
' physician,' which, however, u nowhere 
to be found. Besides, OHG. arzintin 
formed into arzdt, 'physician,' under the 
influence of the genuinely Teut. and Goth. 
IShinSn^ OHG. Idhhinfin, 'to heal,' makes 
any reference to Archigenes quite super- 
fluous. Moreover, MidHG. has also a 
form arzatte (MidDu. arsedte), ' medicine.' 
See Strit. 

-Hr^f , m., ' physician,' from the equiv. 
MiuHG. arzet, arzdt, OHG. arzdt, m., a 
specifically Germ, word, unknown to Eng., 
Scand. and Goth. Its early appearance in 
OHG., in which OTeut. Idhki was the more 

Krevalent form, is remarkable (comp. Goth. 
ieis, 'physician,' AS. Idee?, E. leecli ; also 
the ModHG. proper name 2dd?nrr, from 
MidHG. Idchenare, ' enchanter,' lit. ' physi- 
cian'). The MidDu. form arsatre, OLG. 
ercetere, ' physician ' (MidLG. arsle), proves 
the origin from the oft-recurring Frauc and 
MidLat. archiater (i.p\iaTpin), ' physician ' 
(espec. physician-in-ordinary to the king). 
There are no phonetic difficulties in con- 


( 13 ) 


necting OHG. arzdt with arzdter, arcidter, 
archidter, since the OLG. and MidDu. form 
itself points to the Mid Lat. form. Moreover, 
the technical terms of Greek physic found 
their way at an early period to the West 
(comp. 93ud)fe, ^jlafht), hat always through 
the medium of Lat. and Rom. The unique 
arzdte(r) was entirely unknown to Rom. 
(Ital. medico, OFr. mire, Fr. me'decin, which 
of course were also unknown to Teut.). 
Concerning arz-, erz-, as the representative 
of Gr. &px 1 -, see (Sr^. The theory advanced 
on account of ModHG. SWufytaqt, 'mill- 
wright,' that OHG. arzdt is from Lat. ar- 
tista, is on phonetic and historical grounds 
unwarranted. MidLat. artista was not 
used for medical practitioners until late in 
the Middle Ages (comp. ModFr. artiste 
veterinaire) ; the word too is unknown in 
earlier Rom. On the other hand, we meet 
with archiatri even as far hack as the 
Frank, king Childebert and Charlemagne. 
See besides Slrienei. 

Jls, n., Jlfj, ModHG. only, from the 
equiv. Fr. as, m., ' the ace (of dice or 
cards), a small weight ' (Lat. as). In Mid 
HG. the prevalent term for the ' ace (of 
dice)' was esse, which comes from Lat. assis 
(a later collateral form of as). Comp. !Dait$. 

Jlfcf), see Slrfdj.— Jlfcfj, m., 'pot, basin, 
bowl ' (to which 9l|"d;fud)en is allied), from 
MidHG. asch, OHG. asc, m., 'dish, basin, 
boat ' ; lit. ' of ash.' See (£}d)t. 

Jlfdje (I.), f., 'ashes, cinders,' from Mid 
HG. asche (esche), OHG. asca, f., 'ashes' ; 
corresponds to Du. asch, AS. asce, cesce, t'. t 
E. ashes (hut also sing, in bone-ash, potash, 
&c.) ; OIc. aska, f., 'ashes'; akin also to 
the abnormal Goth. azgS, f., 'ashes' (but 
Span, ascua is borrowed). Trustworthy 
correspondences in other languages are 
wanting, nor is ©fdje allied to it. — Jlfd^cn- 
brdoel, see under brobetu— ModHG. Jlf- 
6)et'., 'ash,' in the compound Slfcbfvmitt- 
irocfy (forwhich the MidHG. form is aschtac), 
occurs even in MidHG. in compounds. — 
£fd)i<xud), m., 'shallot,' MidHG. asch- 
touch, a corruption of the equiv. MidLat. 
ascalonium. See ©cfyatotte. 

Jlfd)C (2.), f., 'grayling,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. asche, OHG. asco, m. ; scarcely 
allied to 9lfd)e, as if the fish were named 
from its ash-grey colour; Ital. lasco. 

Jlffel, m., espec J?cllcraffef, 'woodlouse,' 
ModllG. only ; generally derived from 
Lat. asellus, ' little ass,' and might have been 
named from its grey colour ; comp. Gr. 

&vos, iviffKos, 'ass, woodlouse,* Ital. asello, 
' woodlouse.' Yet the ffof the ModHG. word, 
as well as the dialectic variant atzel, might 
militate against this derivation ; hence a 
pre-Teut. stem at, att (allied to efim 1) seems 
to be at the base of it. Comp. also GfeL 

Jiff, m., ' bough, branch,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. and OHG. ast, m., ' branch,' corre- 
sponding to the equiv. Goth. asts. The 
term is unknown to the other dialects, yet 
its great antiquity is incontestable because 
of the agreement of Teut. astaz (a permu- 
tation of the pre-Teut. ozdos; comp. 3)<ajl, 
and the examples cited there of the permu- 
tation of the Aryan zd, so", to Teut. st) with 
Gr. tffoj (6<r9o$), ' brand 1, twig, knot, node 
(of a tree) ' ; the latter with Armen. ost, 
■ brand),' is likewise based upon osdos. The 
meanings of the Gr. word admit the sup- 
position of its being allied to MidLG. 6st 
(LG. aust), Du. oest, AS. 6st, ' knot, node ' 
(Aryan stein 6sdo-). 

Jig, see Jlas and Jls. 

Jlfettt, m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
dtem (dten), OHG. dtum y m., 1 breath, spirit 1 ; 
comp. MidHG. der heilege dtem, OHG. der 
wtho dtum, 'the Holy Spirit;' ModHG. 
collateral form (prop, dialectic) Dbem. The 
word is not found in EastTeut. ; in Goth. 
ahma, 'spirit,' is used instead (see adjten). 
Comp. OS ix. dfiom, Du. adtm, AS. cefim 
(obsolete in Eng.), ' breath.' The cognates 
point to Aryan itmon-, Sans, dtmdn, m., 
'puff, breath, spirit'; also Olr. athach, 
' breath,' Gr. a.rp.6% ' smoke, vapour.' 
Whether ModHG. Slbcr and Gr. Ijrop, 
' heart,' are derived from the root St, ' to 
exhale, breathe,' contained in these cog- 
nates, is questionable. 

Jiff e, Jit f t, in., ' father,' dialectic, from 
MidHG. atte, OHG. atto, 'father.' The 
mutation of the ModHG. is diminutive, as 
is shown by the final i of the Swiss Utti. 
Allied to Goth, atta, 'father' (whence At- 
tila, MidHG. Etzel, lit. ' little, dear father'), 
perhaps also to Olr. aite, 'foster-father' 
(from attios), OSlov. otlcl, ' father.' 

JUtid), 111., from the equiv. MidHG. 
attech (atech), OHG. attali (attuh, atah), 
' danewort,' borrowed and extended at an 
early period from Lat. acte (Gr. Akttj, iucrta), 
< elder-tree.' Comp. gatttd) from Lat. lac- 
tuca, also JDattct from dactylos. 

JU,)cf, f., 'magpie' ; see under Gljhr. 

ctfjOit, vb., ' to corrode, etch, bait,' 
from MidHG. etzen, OHG. ezzen, 'to give 
to eat,' lit ' to make eat ' ; factitive of effm. 


( 14 ) 


Jlu, JlltC, 'river islet, wet meadow, 
fertile plan,' from MidHG. ouwe, f., ' water, 
6tream, water-land, island, peninsula, mea- 
dow-land abounding in water, grassy plain'; 
OHG. ouwa, from old *auj6- (the presumed 
Goth, fui-m, comp. OHG.-MidLat. augia). 
It corresponds to OIc. ey and AS. Sg, fg, f., 
' island,' to which AS. tglond, iglond, E. 
island, Du. eiland, 'islam),' are allied ; so 
too Lat. and Teut. Batavia, Scandinavia; 
Goth. *aujd- (for awj6-, avoid-) has lost a g 
(comp. SJtiere). The theoretical form agwjd-, 
prop, an adj. used as a subst., ' the watery 
place,' as it were (hence ' water-lund,' i.e., 
\ island ' or ' meadow '), belongs to Goth. 
ahwa, f., ' river,' which with Lot. aqua is 
based upon Aryan dkiod. The names of 
places ending in a {e.g. Sutba) and ad) (e.g. 
VLvaty) still preserve the OHG. aha equiv. 
to the Goth. ahwa. See ta and tad). 

ttud), adv. and conj., 'also, likewise,' 
from MidHG. ouch, OHG. ouh, ' and, also, 
but.' It corresponds to OSax. ok, Du. ool; 
OFries. dk, AS. edc, E. eke, OIc. auk, ' be- 
sides,' Dan. og, 'and, also, but,' Sw. och, 
Ic. ok; Goth, auk, 'then, but'; an adv. 
common to Teut. Some refer this auk to 
the Teut. root auk (Aryan aug), ' to in- 
crease,' wlience OHG. ouhh&n, ' to add,' 
OSax. dkian, AS. yean, OIc. auka, Goth. 
aukan, ' to increase,' are derived (Lat. 
augere, aug-ustus, Sans, vgrds, 'powerful,' 
ojas, ' strength,' are allied to them) ; comp. 
AS. t6-edcan, ' moreover, also.' Others 
trace Teut. auk to a compound of two 
Arvan particles, au and ge (Gr. aft, ye). 

^UC, f., ' ewe,' dialectic, from MidHG. 
ouwe, OHG. ou, f., 'sheep.' Comp. AS. 
eowu, E. ewe; primit allied to Lat. ovis, Gr. 
ofc, Lith. avis (OSlov. ovica), ' sheep.' See 

Jlucr, in SUieredja, m., from the equiv. 
MidHG. dr, dr-oclise, OHG. dr, drohso, m., 
' aurochs ' ; corresponds to AS. dr, OIc. drr, 
(u- stem). The fact that even Roman 
writers knew the Teut. term under the 
form drus points to *drus (not dzus) as 
the Goth, form ; comp. Teut. and Lat gU- 
sum, ' amber,' similar to AS. glosre, ' resin.' 
Hence the proposed explanation of dr 
from Sans, usrd-s, m., ' bull,' must be put 
aside. Internal evidence cannot be ad- 
duced to show that the OGerm. word is 
non-Teut. ; the assertion of Macrobius that 
drus is Kelt, proves nothing. — JUtcrI)af)rt, 
m., even in MidHG. the equiv. drhan 
(and orhan), m., 'blackcock,' with drhuon 

(or/iuon), ' grey hen,' occurs. Slucrljjf)H was 
evidently compared with 9luerodj$, the one 
appeared to be among the birds of the wood 
what the other was among animals of the 

OUf, adv., prep., 'up, upwards, on, upon,' 
from MidHG. and OHG. df, adv., prep., 
' upon ' ; corresponds to OSax. dp, AS. dp- 
Upp, and its equiv. E. up; Goth, iup, adv., 
'upwards, aloft ' differs remarkably in its 
vowel. Probably pri mit. Teut. *ilppa, ' up,' 
is allied to cben and iibcr. 

aufmuijen, see mufcen. 

£ufv\xt)V, see 9hd)t. 

aufttriegcht, see nriegeln. 

Jluge, »•, 'eye,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. ouge, OHG. ouga, n. ; a word common 
to Teut. ; comp. Goth, augd, OIc. auga, 
AS. edge, E. eye, Du. oog, OSax. 6ga, 'eye.' 
While numerous terms for parts of tlie 
body (comp. 2lrm, gufj, -£>erj, ^inn, Jtitte, 
Cr/f, &c.) are common to Teut. with the 
other Aryan dialects, it has not yet been 
proved that there is any agreement with 
respect to 9lucje between Teut. and Lat., 
Gr., Ind., <fec. Of course there is au unde- 
niable similarity of sound between the 
Aryan base oq, ' eye,' and Lat. oculus, Gr. 
6tr<re for *6kJ€, 6<f>6dkfjU>s, Snra, &c, Sans. akSi, 
OSlov. oko, lath, aki-s, 'eye.'— Jlugcnltb, 
see Sib. 

.ZUtflltff, m., formed, after being based 
anew on Lat. and Rom. augustus, from the 
equiv. MidHG. ougest, ougeste, OHG. augusto, 
agusto, m., ' August' (the genuine OGenn. 
term is (Jtntemonat, OHG. aran-mdnCt). 
Comp. Fr. aodt, Ital. agosto. It was bor- 
rowed in OHG. at the same time as Didvj 
and ajfai. 

aus, adv. and prep., ' out, forth, from, 
by reason of,' from the equiv. MiilHG. and 
OHG. «&3, adv., prep. ; corresponds to Goth. 
dt, adv., ' out (thither, hence),' AS. dt, ' out 
(thither, hence), out of doors, outside,' E. 
out, Du. uit, prep., adv., 'out,' OSax. dt. 
Comp. aujjen, aupcr. The common Teut. dt 
(from dt-a ?) is based upon Aryan dd (ud) ; 
comp. Sans, ud, a verbal particle, ' out, out 
(thither), aloft, upwards.' 

Jlusfafj, m., from the equiv. late Mid 
HG. dysatz, m., 'leprosy' ; a singular, late 
and regressive formation from the Mid 
HG. subst. d$setze nnd dyetzel^ leper,' Mid 
HG. tiyetzig, adj., ' leprous,' OHG. dys&zzo, 
dysdzeo, BL, ' leper ' ; lit. ' one who lives 
outside, separate ; those who were afflicted 
with leprosy were exposed. Considering 


( i5 ) 


the very late appearance of the subst. 
SUtSfafc, in contrast to the early OHG. 
ti^sdzeo, 'leper,' there is no doubt that 
9lu3fa{s is a recent formation, like &tcjer 
from avijetn. The Goth, word for leprosy 
is Jyrutsfill. 

JUtfier, f., ' oyster,' ModHG. only, from 
earlier ModHG. "Aster, from Du. oester, 
which, with the equiv. AS. dstre, E. oyster, 
Fr. huitre, Ital. ostrica, is based upon 
Lat. ostrea, ostreum, Gr. 6<rrpeov, ' oyster, 

austveiben, see SBetbe and Stnge- 

auswenbiQ, see luenben. 

Ctufcett, adv., 'outside, out of doors, 
without,' froni MidHG. A^en, OHG. H^ana, 
A^dn, adv., prep., 'out of doors, outside, 
out, without' ; corresponding to AS. Aton, 
adv., 'from without,' Goth. Atana, adv., 

prep., 'from without, outside, out' ; from 
OTeut. At. See auS. 

aujjer, adv. and prep., ' except, unless, 
apart from, without,' from MidHG. A$er, 
OHG. ^30?-, prep., ' out— here ' ; corre- 
sponds to OSax. 'Alar. 

JUef, f. (with a dental added as in £ufte, 
^>abid>t, and Dbjl, &c), from the equiv. Mid 
HG. ackes (late MidHG. axt), f., OHG. 
acchus (plur. acchussi), f., ' axe.' It corre- 
sponds to OSax. accus, Du. aaks (from akes), 
AS. tex (from *03cces), E. ax, axe, OIc. ox, 
Goth, aqizi, f., ' axe.' The Teut. word is 
based upon Aryan agest, or rather agzt 
(akst) ; comp. the prim, cognate Gr. &£ivy, 
'axe,' with which perhaps the equiv. Lat. 
ascia, in case it stands for ac-scia, is con- 
nected. Lat. acies, 'sharpness,' and Gr. d»cij, 
' point,' as well as Sans, acri, ' edge ' (see 
&ljte, (Stfe), are not allied to &rt. 


bctctr, adj., from the equiv. MidHG. 
and OHG. har (nom. MidHG. barer, barwtr, 
OHG. barir), adj., 'naked, bare, denuded, 
free, empty.' It corresponds to OSax. bar, 
AS. bar, E. bare, OIc. Lerr, 'naked, bare' ; 
Goth. *baza- is wanting. The r of the 
non-Goth, dialects is an old s (not r) as 
is proved by the affinity to OSlov. bom, 
Lith. basas, 'bare-footed,' which, as well 
as the Teut. adjs., point to an Aryan 
bhosd-s, ' denuded ' (with regard to the anti- 
quity of this idea see nacft). Comp. also 
Armen. bok, 'naked,' which is based upon 
bhosko- ; besides, E. bald (MidE. balled) 
points to a Goth, participle *bazl6ps (AS. 
*bodlod). Perhaps entbffjren is also con- 
nected with the root bhes. Comp. further 

~g&aas, m., ' master,' a LG. word ; comp. 
Du. baas; orig. perhaps it was a term of 
endearment used in addressing superiors 
(comp. 9hmm, SDJuljme, 83ube, Sufjle). It is 
undoubtedly connected with 93afe, 'aunt on 
the father's side,' because 93afe, 33aaS — 
93afe(, are also titles given by domestics 
to their mistress. Yet it is astonishing 
that the area of diffusion of 93aa£, m. (LG.), 
and Safe, f. (MidG. and UpG), is different. 
Perhaps 'paternal' was the root idea of 
both word?. 

Imbboln, see pa^eto. 

"gSadj, m. (MidLG. and LG., fern.), from 
the equiv. MidHG. bach (plur. beche), m. 
(MidG. fern.), OHG. bah, m., 'brook.' 
Comp. OSax. bski, MidLG. beke, Du. beek ; 
a corresponding Goth. *baki-, m., is want- 
ing ; beside which the equiv. AS. becc, and 
OIc. bekkr (whence E. beck), m., presuppose 
a Goth. *bakki-. No Aryan root bhag- witli 
a meaning applicable here can be found ; 
both HG. barfen and Gr. xryi), ' source,' are 
scarcely allied to it, though Sans, bhanga, 
' breach, wave ' (see 93ntdj) may be so. 

~g&<X<f)burXQe, f., 'speedwell, brooklime' 
(Veronica beccabunga), from MidHG. bungo, 
OHG. bunge, 'bulb' ; allied to OIc. bingr, 
' bolster,' and more remotely with Sans. 
baha, 'dense,' Gr. xaxfa?. 

33ache, f., 'wild sow,' from MidHG. 
bache, OHG. bahho, m., 'ham, (flitch of) 
bacon' (Swiss and Bav. bachen) ; similarly 
the corresponding MidLat.ftoco and MidDu. 
bake mean 'ham, pork,' and 'pig.' Comp. 
Prov., OFr., and E. bacon, borrowed from 
Germ. The Teut. root bak contained in 
these cognates is further allied to the cog- 
nates of ModHG. 93atfe. 

"■2.>ad)ftcIv-\ f-» ' water- wagtail,' formed 
from the equiv. MidHG. ica^erstelze, OHG. 
watferstelza ; the second part of the com- 
pound is connected with <&te(}e. This term 
is only HG.; comp. with it Du. kwikstaart, 


( 16 ) 


Xorw. quickstiert, E. wagtail, LG. wippstert, 
Dan. vipstiert ; also Gr. ffei<roirvyls ltal. 
squassacoda, codatremola, cutrctta, Fr. hoche- 
queue ; but Span, andario, which meant 
lit ' brook-trotter.' 

^ac&, n., 'a deep wooden dish, in which 
food is served for a certain number of 
the crew ' ; borrowed, like many technical 
terms of sea-life, from LG. ; LG. back, 
' dish,' E. buck (' tub, vat ') ; com p. ModFr. 
bac, 'brewer's vat or tub,' borrowed from 
this word or the Du. bak. It has been 
derived from Late Lat. bacca, ' water ves- 
sel,' whence also Fr. bac, 'ferryboat,' Du. 
bak, E. bac, 'a flat-bottomed boat' Pro- 
bably S3ccfen is allied to it. 

"jHadtborb, n., 'larboard,' from LG. 
(comp. the preceding word) ; com p. Du. 
bakboord (AS. bacbord), whence also the 
equiv. Fr. bdbord; lit. 'the left side of the 
ship to the back of the helmsman, who 
is steering with his right hand, the left 
hinder-part of the ship.' Du. and E. back is 
an OTeut. word, which was, however, very 
early obsolete in HG. (see the following 
word) ; OHG. bah, OSax. bak, AS. bcec, E. 
lack, OIc. bak, n., 'back,' Goth. *balc, n. 
From LG. is also derived HG. Sorb. See 
the latter. 

jSadte (1.), 'gS a die it, nt, especially 
used in the compounds with 9lfd);, gutter;, 
hence the lit meaning, 'buttock.' The 
correct HG. form, which has the regular 
permutation of k to ch, is seen in Mid II G. 
cache, OHG. bahho, 'ham, flitch of bacon' 
(yet MidHG. also ars-backe, m.), which 
as 'bacon' made its way into OFr., and 
thence into Eng. also. Although it has 
been connected by the linguistic instinct 
of ModHG. with the following word, they 
are not allied ; it is more probable that 
3kd)e and the stem bak, discussed under 
SJacfbcrb, is most closely connected with it. 

33adie (2.), in., f., also "gBadiett, m. (the 
latter espec. in the compounds 93arfett$afnt, 
sjlretd)), 'cheek' ; from MidHG. baclce, m., 
'jaw, jawbone, cheek.' OHG. has the 
doublets bacclio (whence the MidHG. and 
ModHG. ck) and bahho, which produce 
MidHG. bache. Comp. MidHG. kinntbache 
beside kinwbacke, which compound too, 
even in OHG. (as chinni-baliho), is more 
frequent than the simple word ; comp. 
OSax. kinni-bako, Du. hinnebakken. It is 
still uncertain whether Lat. bucca, 'cheek,' 
is allied to it ; its initial b might have 
arisen from bh, as in barba (see 93art) ; but 

the two differ in meaning ; while the Lat. 
signifies ' the inflated cheek,' the G. word 
orig. denoted 'jaw.' 

badictt, vb. (dial. UpG. bafyn), 'to 
bake,' from MidHG. backen, bachen, str. 
vb. ; doublets are found even in OHG. 
bacchan, bah/tan, str. vbs. ; OHG. cch is 
based upon the double consonants l:k 
(OSax. bakkeri, 'baker,' Du. baklcen, 'to 
bake); but ch presupposes a simple k. 
Comp. AS. baean, str. vb., E. to bake, as 
well as E. batch, from MidE. bacche, AS. 
*bcicce, where cc points to the ckof the Mod 
HG. word. Whether a Goth. *baltkan or 
*baqan, str. vb, must be presupposed is 
uncertain ; the pre-Teut. form of the verbal 
root is Aryan bh3g,&s is shown by its prim it. 
kinship to Gr. 4>(!ryu, 'I roast' ; the affinity 
of Lat fdcus, ' hearth,' is doubtful. 

"23a6. n., 'bath,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. bat{d), OHG. bad, n. ; comp. Du. 
bad, AS. bee]j, E. bath, OIc. 5aS, 'bath.' 
An important word in relation to the 
history of OTeut. civilisation ; even the 
Roman writers testify that bathing (comp. 
further laben) was a daily necessity to the 
Teutons. As a verb, a denominative was 
already formed in the OTeut. dialects, Mid 
HG. and ModHG. babett, from OHG. badun, 
Du. baden, AS. ba/rian, E. to bathe; Goth. 
*bap&n is not recorded. The dental of the 
cognates is derivative, hence ba (Aryan 
bhd) is the root syllable, (comp. bafjett, 
in that case allied to it), to which OSlov. 
banja, 'bath,' banjati, 'to wash, bathe,' be- 
longs. — jjjctoeit, the name of a place, is 
prop. dat. plur. of 93ab, 'at the baths' (so 
too E Bath) ; probably an imitation of 
Lat. aquae in names of places. 

"gijafcer, m., 'barber,' from MidHG 
badaere, ' one who looks after the bathers 
in the bath-house.' " In the later period 
of the Middle Ages it was a custom to <:et 
the beard shaved and the hair cut by the 
SBaber at the end of the bath." 

baf ! baff ! paff I onomatopoetic term 
for the report of a gun ; first occurs in 
ModHG. Allied to ModHG. bajfett, 'to 
bark,' from MidHG. baffeii, beffen; comp. 
MidE. bafferiy E. to beff; of recent onomat. 

bcifjett, ' to yelp,' derivative of bdffm. 

bdgertt, ' to torment, plague,' prob. 
allied to OHG. bdgan, MidHG. bdgen, str. 
vb., 'to contend, quarrel.' Akin to Ir. 
bdgim, 'I contend,' bag, 'combat'; hence 
the Aryan root is bhigh, bh6gh. 


( i7 ) 


■§3ag$er, m., ' dredging-machine ' ; like 
many Words with gg (comp. Slaggc), it is 
not prop. HG. (since gg in HG. must have 
been changed to ck), but from LG. bagger, 
identical with Du. bagger, ' mud at the 
bottom of water.' 

bcifoert, vb., ' to warm by poultices, fo- 
ment, toast (bread),' from the equiv.MidllG. 
bain, bmjen, OHG. bdjan, bdan. The Teut. 
root is bi, from pre-Teut. bid, to which ba- 
of the OTeut. words for 53ab is related by 
gradation. The orig. sense of the primit. 
stem bhi, by gradation bha, was probably 
* to make warm by washing, bathing.' 

"gSafytt, f., 'path, track, career,' from 
MidHG. bane, ban, f., m.,'road, way' ; allied 
to MidDu. bane, Du. baan. No word iden- 
tical with this is found in any of the older 
periods of the Teut. group. The cognates 
of bcljttftt are probably allied to it. 

~§$ai)Ve, f., ' barrow, bier,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. bdre, OHG. b&ra, f.; Goth. 
*Mra or *berS, f. ; AS. beer, bcere, E. bi-r ; 
E. barrow (MidE. barewe), belongs to a dif- 
ferent gradation since it presupposes Goth. 
*barwa; comp. OIc. barar, plur. 'bier,' 
Goth. *bar6s. The pre-Teut. phonetic form 
is bhird-. From the OHG. word is derived 
the equiv. Ital. bara (barella), Fr. biere. 
The root is the primit. Aryan bher, ' to 
carry,' which is widely diffused, and ap- 
pears in ModHG. 33iitfce, gcMren, ©cbttrt, as 
well as in 3ubev; it occurs in Ind. as b/iar, 
In Gr. as <t>ep, in Lat. as jer. From this 
root the OTeut. languages, in agreement 
with all the other Aryan tongues, formed 
a str. vb., Goth, balvan, OHG. beran, Mid 
HG. bern (the latter means only 'to bear 
fruit, produce, give birth to'), AS. beran, 
E. to bear. Comp. espec. gefcdren. 

"gScti (1.), f., 'bay of a window,' from 
MidHG. beie, 'window,' which with the 
following word is of Rom. origin ; comp. 
E. bay, Fr. baie, ' bay (of a window).' 

"ggttt (2.), f., ' bay,' derived through LG. 
r from E. bay (MidE. baie), which was bor- 
rowed from Rom. ; Fr. baie, Ital. baja, 
Span, and Iber. (in Isidore), baja, 'haven' ; 
prop, identical with the preceding word. 

"•J.iaftc, f., ' a mark at the entrance of a 
harbour as a warning against shallows, 
buoy'; from Fris. like other technical 
terms relating to the sea, Fris. bdken (comp. 
23acf), whence LG. bdke, Du. baak. It is 
based upon Goth. *baukn, n., which by a 
regular change became bedcen, 'beacon,' in 
AS. ; comp. E. beacon and beckon. OHG. 

bouhhan, MidHG. bouchen, OLG. bdean, 
' beacon, model,' are corresponding terms. 
Thus the OTeut. word meant generally 
'sign.' 5kfe has been restricted to a 
definite caution signal. 

"gjttlbter, m., for ©artier. 

^alc^e, f., see f&dd). 

falcon, see 93alfeit. 

bato, adv., ' soon, nearly, quickly,' based 
upon an OTeut. adj. which signified 'quick, 
bold, brave ' ; Goth, balps, ' bold,' preserved 
only in derivs., AS. beald (with the change 
of p after I to d, comp. 2Balb, fatten), E. 
bold, OIc. ballr, ' bold, impudent, auda- 
cious ' ; also OIc. baldr, AS. bealdor, ' prince,' 
whence the name of the god 53aftet. In 
HG. the meaning tended towards ' bold, 
quick ' ; OHG. and OLG. bald, MidHG. bait 
(gen. buldes). 'bold, zealous, quick' ; comp. 
Ital. baldo, 'bold.' The development of 
meaning of the OHG. adv. baldo, MidHG. 
balde, is thus ' boldly, — quickly, — imme- 
diately.' The abstract Sdlbe, which is con- 
nected with it, meant lit. 'boldness,' like 
Goth, balpei and OHG. baldl; MidHG. 
belde, 'audacity ' ; the meaning of the Mod 
HG. subst. is based immediately on the 
adv. To this word are allied proper names 
like S3afbuin, as well as Fr. Baudouin (ap- 
plied to the ass). 

"g&albacfyixi, m., ' canopy,' not from Mid 
HG. baldekin, 'raw silk from Bagdad,' but 
from Ital. bahlacchino, which is identical 
with the MidHG. word, but has been spe- 
cialised in meaning to the canopy made 
from such stuff. 

"§3aIortcw, m., 'valerian,' from MidHG. 
baldrian, from Lat. Valeriana; comp. the 
E. term. 

"gSaleffei:, m., see SlrmBntfl. 

"g-Jalft, m.,'skin, case, bellows, brat,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. bale (plur. beige), OHG. 
balg, plur. balgi, belgi, m. ; Goth, balgs, plur. 
balgeis, 'leather bottle,' lit. 'the flayed skin 
of an animal for keeping liquids.' On 
the root balgi- is based AS. belg, bylg, E. 
belly (93alcj, with the specialised meaning, 
'swollen body'), and E. bdlmos, plur. 
The primary idea of the root is ' swelling 
out' ; from the same root the OTeut. dia- 
lects form a str. vb. belgan (see ^dttcr), 
meaning 'to swell' ; OIc. bOlgcnn, 'swollen' ; 
OHG. belgan, MidHG. belgen, 'to swell, be 
angry.' The pre-Teut. form of the stem 
according to the laws of the permutation 
of consonants is bhelgh, and to this corre- 
sponds Ind. barh (with the initial aspirate 



( 18 ) 


displaced), 'to be great, strong' ; also Olr. 
bolgaim, ' I swell,' Ir. bolg, Gall.-Lat. bulga, 
' bag.' It is also possible that HG. 93alcj is 
cognate with Lat. follis (from *folvis, */olg- 
vu). Comp. farther SBulcje. 

bahien, vb., lit. ' to talk angrily, quar- 
rel,' then ' to cudgel ' ; derived from the 
verbal root belg, ' to swell out,' discussed 
under 93atg ; comp. OHG. belgan, MidHG. 
belgen, meaning ' to be angry.' 

"•J.hrtkcn. m., ' beam, baulk, loft,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. ba'ke, OHG. balcho, m. ; 
comp. AS. balca, E. baulk, Du. balk, ' baulk' ; 
in Scaud. beside the corresponding bdlkr, 
* fence, boundary-line,' there occurs with a 
different gradation bijdlk-, 'baulk' (Goth. 
*lrUka), in AS. likewise bolc<>, 'gangway' 
(Goth. *bulka). From Teut. balkoii, Fr. 
balcon and Ital. balco are derived. The 
Aryan form of the root is bhalg, hence 
Gr. (pd.Xa.'yii, <f>d\ayy-os, 'oval piece of wood, 
trunk of a tree,' has been compared with 
it, but the nasal of the second syllable ren- 
ders the comparison dubious. 

j!.>ttU, (1.) m., 'challenge (of hounds),' 
belongs to the stem of befleu. 

2,ialt (2.), m.. 'ball,' from the equiv. 
MHG. bal (gen. balles) or balle, ballen, m. 
OHG. ballo, m., balla, f. ; AS. *bealla is 
wanting ; E. ball (MidE. balle) is borrowed 
from the Rom. word Fr. balle, which was ob- 
tained from German. OIc. bollr, ' ball,' pre- 
supposes Goih. *ballu8. The root bal- ap- 
pears also with a further gradation in 53olle 
(in QJolfier too?) ; comp. further 23cf(eit. 

p.Jall (3.), m., 'dancing entertainment,' 
from Fr. bal, ' ball ' ; OFr. bailer, ' to dance,' 
and its Rom. cognates have been derived 
from Gr. /SaMtfw, ' I dance.' 

■^.Jallaft, in., ' ballast,' like other mari- 
time expressions, from LG. ; comp. Du. bal- 
last, E. ballast. In MidHG. simply last, 
' ballast,' whence the equiv. Fr. lest is de- 
rived. The first component of the com- 
pound is obscure ; it is scarcely of Irish 
origin (Kelt. 6a/, ' sand '), nor is it likely 
to be identical with OIc. bdra, 'sea.' On 
account of Dan. baglest, ' ballast.' the least 
improbable derivation is from bak, ' back,' 
discussed under 93acfe (1.). 93a((ajl might 
perhaps be ' load behind or in the rear.' 

"2.5aUci, f., 'jurisdiction,' from MidLat. 
ballia, formed from Fr. bailli, bailif, 
'steward' (MidLat. balltvus, E. bailiff), 
which is formed from Lat. bajulus, with 
the suffix -tvus. 

"2.$ttHert, m., ' bale, pack,' identical with 

4 -8a((, which, as MidHG. allt and OHG. ballo 
show, was formerly a weak masc. ; in con- 
nection with the difference of form arose a 
difference of meaning; orig. sense 'round 
bundle of paper,' then 'a certain quantity 
of rolled or packed paper.' E. bait and Du. 
baal are borrowed from Fr. balle (also bal- 
lon), which was again obtained from Germ. 

ballen, vk, 'to clench (the fiUtV from 
MidHG. ballen, 'to form into a ball.' 

' to make worse by altering ' ; derived from 
58alll)orH,a publisher in LUbeck (1531-1599), 
who in his 'enlarged and improved' edi- 
tions of an ABC book was always making 
fresh mistakes in his 'emendations.' 

"JMrtlfam. m., 'balm, balsam,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. ha/same, balsem, m , OHG. 
balsamo, m. ; Goth, balsan, with a very re- 
markable deviation ; comp. Arab, balasdn. 
The Germ, word is derived from Gr.-Lat. 
balsamum {fiakaanov), whence also Fr. baumc 
(E. balm), Ital. balsamo. 

"£).>al ], m., ' pairing time (of birds),' from 
MidHG. baize (besides valz), m. ; of obscure 

bammeln, also bctmbdn, vb., 'to 
dangle,' first recorded in M'»dHG.. hence 
it may be an onomatopoetic word collateral 
with btntmetn, bemmeltt, ' to tinkle.' 

"g3anb (1.), m., ' volume,' orig. identical 
with the following word. 

^Scmo (2.), n., ' band, ribbon,' from 
binDm; MidHG. bant, plur. bender (and 
bant), n., OHG. bant, plur. bentir (and bant). 
Comp. OSax. band, Du. band, m.,OIc. bandy 
Goth, by another derivation bandi (whence 
AS. bend, E. bend, as well as a later band 
derived from Fr. bande). See the preced- 
ing and the following word. 

"p.)cm6c, f., 'cushion,' in 93U(arbbanbf, 
from Fr. bande; similarly derived in the 
sense of ' crew.' The Rom. word — Fr. bande 
(Ital. banda), ' band, strip, gang, troop,' is 
derived from OHG. bant, Goth, bandi. 

bdnoicten, vb., ' to restrain, tame,' from 
bdnbtii, ordinarily only in the compound 
unbattbig ; MidHG. bendec, ' tightly bound, 
fettered,' hence bdnbiflcn, ' to put in fetters.' 

battgC, adj. ami adv., 'anxious(ly), 
uneasy, uneasily,' from MidHG. and 
MidLG. bange, adv., 'anxiously,' and subst. 
'anxiety, tare.' The root is ange, which 
further appears in Slitcjfl ; as enge is the cor- 
responding adj., batute can only be based on 
the MidHG. adv. ange, OHG. ango, the 
adv. afterwards becoming an adj. The b 


( 19 ) 


lias arisen from the unaccented prefix be 
(bt), as g in ajaubeit, Qtabe, from ge. See 
bariitfKrjtg, bleiben. 

"§3angcrf , m., ' orchard,' for bdn-, bdm- 
gart, MidHG. boumgartej comp. 9? aunt and 

^IJanft, f., ' bank, bench, reef,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. banc, plur. benke, OHG. 
banch, plur. benchi, m., f. ; comp. AS. bene, 
f., E. bench, OIc. beklcr. Besides the stem 
bariki- (from pre-Teut. bhangi-), Teut. pos- 
sessed others which are recorded in words 
borrowed by Romance ; comp. Ital. banco, 
banco, pa»ca, Fr. banc, banque, &c See 
the following words. 

"gjemfcert, earlier SBanfart, SSanfljari, m., 
' bastard, bantling,' from MidHG. banchart, 
m., 'illegitimate child,' lit. ' a child begot- 
t- n upon the bench'; a compound of 
$3anf. The second part is sljart, appearing 
in proper names as ©ebbart, diehityart, and 
is formed by assimilation to Skftarb (older 
93ajlart, also written 23ajlr/art). 

"2«Janhctf, n., 'banquet,' borrowed be- 
fore the middle of the 16th cent, from 
Fr. banquet, which (with Fr. banc, Ital. 
banco, ' table ') was perhaps derived from 
the German stem of 93anf. 

"2.> arm, m., ' ban, outlawry, decree,' 
from MidHG. and OHG. ban(nn), m., ' order 
under threat of punishment, prohibition ; 
jurisdiction and its sphere.' It corresponds 
to AS. bann, E. ban, and belongs to an obso- 
lete s:r. vb. bannan, of which the primary 
meaning was 'to order or forbid under 
threat of punishment.' The root is sup- 
posed to be la, pre-Teut. bha- ; nn was 
perhaps a suffix (comp. riiuien), and pro- 
perly belonged only to the pres. of the str. 
vb., but was afterwards joined to the ver- 
bal stem. To this pre-Teut. bha- belongs, 
in accordance with the permutation of con- 
sonants, Gr. <f>a. in <pd-ffKu, (fry-fii and Lat. 
fa in /any the Teut. meaning must then 
have been very definitely specialised. From 
the Teut. word the Rom. cognate Fr. ban, 
' public proclamation' (OFr. arban, 'arriere 
ban '), is derived. 

"planner, m., 'banner, militia,' from 
MidHG. bauer, more usual banier, baniere, 
f., from Fr. banniere, which has been de- 
rived from the stem of Goth, bandwa, 
bandwC, 'sign.' Comp. MidLat. bandum 
in Paul the Deacon, l vexillum quod ban- 
dum appellant. See fattier. 

pjjanfe, f., 'space in a barn near the 
threshing-floor,' from MidG. and LG. ; the 

word is wanting in MidHG. and OHG. 
From *bans- arose AS. bos. E. dial, boose 
(boosy, ' cattle-trough '), and OIc. bass, ' cow- 
house.' The Goth, has bansts, f., ' barn,' in 
which the stem has been increased by the 
deriv. -ti-. 

tbox, adj. suffix which is derived from a 
complete adj., properly bare, MidHG. bare, 
OHG. bdri; it means lit. 'bearing,' comp. 
fructytbar, (ajtbar. also banfbat ; later on, when 
it became a suffix, it assumed the present 
meaning. The older adj. is a verbal form 
of the str. vb. beran (see under SJafyre), 
Teut. root ber (Aryan biter), ' to bear, carry.' 
In AS. too -bcere appears, e.g. in wmstmbebre, 
' fertile,' leblUbdbre, ' Lucifer.' 

ji3ar (1.), m., ' (paving) beetle,' from 
MidHG. bern, ' to strike, beat,' whence 
also Mid HG. ber, f., ' blow, stroke.' OHG. 
berjan, Goth. *barjan, agrees by the per- 
mutation of consonants with Lat. ferio, 'I 
strike,' as well as OBulg. borja, ' I fight ' 
(OIc. berjask, ' to fight') ; it is based on the 
root bhtr, ' to strike.' 

2$ar (2.), m., 'bear.' The Lat. name 
of the animal (ursus) descends from the 
pre-Aryan period, just as Gr. dp/rros and 
Ind. rkSa-s (ursus for *urcsus). It is re- 
markable that the Teutons have aban- 
doned this old Aryan term for 'bear' 
(rlcs6s, Teut. orhsa-s), since they have re- 
tained other names of animals. In Mid 
HG. we have ber, OHG. b'ero, AS. bera, E. 
bear, OIc, bjorn, ' bear ' (Goth. *baira). The 
Teut. beron- is a subst. form based upon 
an Aryan adj. bliero-, equiv. to Lith. beras, 
' brown ' (Lat. furvus ?), from the root of 
which, bher and ModHG. 93tbcr, braun, may 
also be derived; in using the adj. as a 
subst. the Aryan rksos is understood. Note 
that 23raun is the name of the bear in the 
OG. animal fables. 

"23dr (3.), m., ' brood -boar,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. and OHG. bir, 111., which, 
with OSax. bir-sicin, AS. bdr, E. boar, 
points to Goth. *baira-. 

"•llarbe, f., ' barbel,' from MidHG. barbe, 
f., OHG. barbo, in., which is based upon 
the equiv. Lat. barbus. The fish derived 
its name from barba, 'beard,' on account 
of its beard-like appendages ; from the 
Lat. word comes Fr. barbeau (from Mid 
Lat. barbellus), whence E. barbel, as well 
as barb; comp. also Ital. barbio, M>arbel.' 

"pjarbicr, m., ' barber,' early ModHG. 
only, borrowed from Fr. barbier (MidLat. 
barbarius, ' barber '). 


( 20 ) 


"23ctrcf), in., 'castrated hog,' from Mid 
HG. bare (barges), OHG. barug and barh; 
comp. AS.bear/i, bearg, E. barrow, Du. 6an/, 
berg, OIc. bqrgr; Goth. *bargws (*b ngus). 
No evidence of a pre-Teut. stem bharg/i, 
bhark, for ' hog,' can be adduced from 
Other languages. Lat. verres and Sans. 
vardha-s, ' boar,' cannot be allied to it, any 
more than Lat. porcus, which belongs to 
gerfel. It is more probable that Russ. 
borov (primit. Slav. *borovu) is a cognate. 

■j$ard)ettt, m., 'fustian,' from MidHG. 
barchant, barchdt, barchet, m^ formed from 
MidLat. barcdnus, ' cloth from camels' 
hair ' ; derived, like 93erfan, from Arab. 
barrakdn, ' coarse stuff.' 

1$areff, n., 'skull-cap, hood,' adopted 
in the 15th cent, from Fr. barrette, MidLat. 
birrStta, a deriv. from L:it. birrus, birrum, 
'cloak, pallium.' 

■gSctrfee, f., 'barque, boat,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. barke, f. ; corresponds to 
Scand. barke, 'barque' ; not of Germ, ori- 
gin. The cognates are based upon an equiv. 
Rom. class with the primit. forms barca- 
bariea (found even in the 7th cent, in 
Isidore) ; comp. Fr. barque (besides OFr. 
barge, from MidLat. barica; whence E. 
barife, LG. S3arfe), Ital. barca; Olr. bare 
is of similar oiigin. The ultimate source 
of the cognates (Spain?) is uncertain. 

■jSdrlctpp, m., 'club-moss' ; orig. sense 
' bear's paw ' ; comp. the Lat.-Gr. term lyco- 
podium formed from it ; allied to OHG. 
lappo, lit. 'palm of the hand.' 

jScirme, f., 'yeast,' borrowed from the 
equiv. LG. barme, m., which corresponds 
to AS. beorma and E. barm. Lat. fermen- 
turn (if it does not belong to formus, Gr. 
8epn6s, ' warm ') is perhaps akin to it. Teut. 
b, Lat. /, are Aryan bh. 

baxmfyer^xQ, adj., 'compassionate,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. barmherzic ; related to 
ModHG. and MidHG. erbarmen, OHG. ir- 
barmSn. This stem has been connected with 
a Teut. word barm, ' bosom ' (E. barm, from 
AS. bearm, Goth, barms, OHG. and OLG. 
burm, MidHG. barm, m.) ; hence erbarmen 
means lit. 'to cherish in one's bosom, press 
to one's heart.' Perhaps the equiv. Goth. 
arman, 'to move to pity,' and armaid, 
'compassion,' stand in a similar relation 
to Slrm, the lit. meaning of the verb being 
'to take in one's arms, cherish.' Others, 
however, are of opinion that trbarmen con- 
tains a b derived from bi (like bange, derived 
from bwange), so that it would be more akin 

to Goth, arman. But in that case either a 
secondary meaning, 'misericors,' in addi- 
tion to 'miser,' must be assumed for Teut. 
arm, for which there is no support ; or we 
niu-t regard it as an imitation of a Lat.- 
Chri.-t. term, Goth, arman, horn arms, like 
Lat. misereri, from miser; indeed HG. arm- 
herzi, 'misericors,' and irbarmherzida (Goth. 
armahalrtifra), ' misericordia,' render it cer- 
tain that Christianity coined the words to 
express a Lat.-Christ. idea ; comp. Scmut, 
©iiabe, &c. 

j$artt, m., 'crib, hayrack above the 
crib,' from the equiv. MidHG. bam, m., 
OHG. barno, m. ; AS. bern, E. barn, is 
equiv. to Germ. <2d)euer. The Germ, and 
Eng. words are not, perhaps, identical, but 
only of a cognate stem ; the stem of the 
Eng. word is bar-, which appears in Goth. 
*baris, ' barley,' AS. bere, E. barley, and is 
cotrnate with Lat. far, j 'arris, ' spelt,' OBulg. 
burii, 'a species of millet' ; AS. bern is ex- 
plained from bere-ern, ' barley-house.' 

"§3aron, m., ' Baron,' not from the equiv. 
MidHG. barun, but from the Fr. and MidL 
Rhen. form baron, which is found in the 
16th cent. ; MidLat. baro, baronis, is by 
some based on Kelt, bar, 'man,' and by 
others on AS. beorn or on OHG. baro, 
'man, vassal.' 

"gjarre, f., ^arrcn, m., 'bar, ingot,' 
from MidHG. barre, f., ' bolt, railing,' which 
comes from Fr. barre. 

jScttfd), m., 'perch,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. bars, m. ; there is also a deriv. 
form MidHG. and OHG. bersich; comp. the 
corresponding Du. baars, AS. bars, bears, 
E. dial, barse (bass) ; allied to the com- 
pounds Sw. abborre, Dan. aborre (rr from 
rs), with the same meaning. The cognates 
cannot have been borrowed from the equiv. 
Lit. perca; they are more akin to the Teut 
root bars (bors) in 93crjk, Sh'irjlf, signifying 
' to be bristly.' 

baxfd), adj., 'rough, rude,' a modern 
word, appearing also in Du. (larsch) and 
Sw. (barsk), but foreign to theUpG. dialects. 
It is not found in OTeut. In Swiss dialects 
the term is barodsch (with the accent on 
the second syllable), in which perhaps the 
base of barftfy is preserved ; Ital. brusco (Fr. 
brusque) may be connected with it. In 
Swiss occurs also bars' in the phrase bars' 
gd, 'to go alone' ; it also means 'without 
a hat, a coat.' Both significations point to 
its deriv. from bar. Yet barfeb may have 
originated in the Teut. root bars, 'to be 


( 21 ) 


bristly, rough,' mentioned under tlie pre- 
ceding word, especially as Du. barsch means 
lit. ' rough.' 

"§3arf, m., 'heard, cornh, harb,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. bart, OHG. bart, m. ; comp. 
Du. baard, AS. and E. beard. For this Teut. 
word, the existence of which is proved by 
the ethnical term gattgobartm to be ex- 
tremely remote, skegg was used in Scand. 
The pre- Teut. form of Goth. *barda, f., 
was, in accordance with the permutation 
of consonants, bhardhd — which is also pre- 
sumed by OSlov. Lrada (with the usual 
loss of aspiration and metathesis of the r), 
and Lat. barba (with b for dk when next to r, 
comp. rot, SBort ; the initial b is from bh, as 
in 33arfe ; in other cases initial bh is Lat./). 
Com p. also Li th. barzdd, • beard ' (for *barJd). 

"gUarte (1.), f., 'broad axe,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. barte, OHG. barta, f. ; in 
Bav.-Suab. the word,, which is properly 
North G., does not occur ; allied to ODn. 
and OSax. barda, OIc. barfia (OFr. barde, 
'hatchet,' is borrowed from Teut.). From 
this word OSlov. bradyj., 'axe,' is borrowed. 
The words are derivatives of the stem 
bhardh- appearing in 93art ; the axe is, as 
it were, 'the bearded thing,' OIc. skeggja, 
' broad axe,' being related in a similar way 
to skegg, 'beard'; likewise MidE. barbe 
(from Lut.-Rom. barba) signifies, among 
other things, 'edge of the axe.' Comp. 

jJ3arfe(2.), f., 'baleen,' aderiv. of ©art, 
first occurring in ModHG., and akin to 
93arte ; comp. E. barbs, from Lat. barba; 
Du. baarden, plur. 

~g&afe, f. (dialect, designating any of 
the remoter degrees of relation on the 
female side, e.g., in the Basle dial, 'aunt, 
niece, cousin'), 'cousin, aunt,' from Mid 
HG. base, OHG. basa, ' father's sister ' ; the 
AS. and Fris. dialects have a word allied to 
aktct; AS. fajru, OYrit.fethe. The Teut. 
type fapdn is certainly only a term of en- 
dearment for fa/jar-, fadar-suestar, ' father's 
sister.' Probably OHG. basa is also a pet 
or childish name for the proper badar-, 
fadar-siresd. The same might be said of the 
variant MidG. and LG. IBaff, and with the 
necessary qualifications of the masc. SBaafl. 

■^iJafl, m., ' inner bark of trees, husk,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. bast (also buost 
with gradation), OHG. *bast, iu., n. It 
corresponds to AS. bast, E., Du. and OIc. 
bast, Goth. *bastus. Hence the deriv. OHG. 
and MidHG. besten, ' to strap,' as well as the 

Rom. cognate basto, ' pack-saddle ' (>ee 
under 33ajtait), with which Swiss bast, 
' saddle,' agrees. There is no justification 
for deriving the words from binfcctt, for the 
absence of the nasal, the occurrence of st 
(for which we should have expected ss from 
dh + t), and the gradation in MidHG. buost 
render such a derivation impossible. The 
resemblancein sound between thisword and 
bittbcn proves nothing as to the etymology ; 
this popular and superficial derivation w;;s 
suggested by the use of bast. The Teut. 
word, which is more probably connected 
with the root bes appearing in Scfeti, found 
its way into Rom. ; comp. Ital. basta, ' bast- 
ing, stitching.' 

"glaff orb, m., ' bastard,' from Fr. bdtard, 
baslard (Ital. bastardo), borrowed in the 
Middle Ages (MidHG. bastart). MidE. 
bast, ' illegal marriage,' and OFr. fils de 
baft, 'illegitimate son,' indicate the pri- 
mary meaning of the Rom. word, which 
came to England with William L, and at a 
later period made its way to Scandinavia. 
The. OFr. bastard (Fr. bdtard) has a Teut. 
termination ; see Stknfcrt. The first part of 
the word, which in MidE. and OFr. signi- 
fies ' illegal marriage,' is generally derived 
from MidLat. and Rom. bastum, ' pack- 
saddle ' ; comp. Ital. and Span, basto, Fr. bdt, 
'pack-saddle.' SJajkrb would then mean 
'the son of a pack saddle' (comp. SBafi) — 
the saddles serving the Spanish muleteers 
as beds ; comp. SBattfert. Scand. bastarfir, 
whence some would derive the modern 
Europ. word, did not reach the North be- 
fore 1200 a.d. nearly. 

■23a(Ict, f., 'bastion,' from earlier Mod 
HG. bastte; comp. OFr. bastie (allied to 
Oltal. bastire; Fr. bdtir) ; it is akin to 
5kftion, f., borrowed from Fr. bastion, Ital. 

£!3ctg (1.), m., ' ba«s,' derived like many 
other musical terms from Ital. (basso). 

bctfo (2.), compar. adv., 'better,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. ba^, OHG. 603 ; comp. 
OSax. bat-bet, AS. bet from batiz (Goth. 
*batis) ; it is an old adv. from the adj. dis- 
cussed under beffrc. The almost invariable 
use at. present of the adv. bcffcr, instead of 
the older bajj, is due to the fact that the 
formation of the adv. was no longer under- 
stood, and that the adj. at the same time 
has in every case assumed an adv. function. 

"2.>atbcnjicl. m-i 'germander,' a corrup- 
tion of Lat. betonicula, dimin. of Lat. be- 
tonica, whence MidHG. batdnje. 


( 22 ) 


■gSaljeit, m., 'a coin' (about a penny), 
from MidHQ. batze, m., 'small coin of the 
town of Bern with the Bernese coat of 
arms, a bear' (MidHG. beta, ModHG. 33afc, 
$efc) ; comp. J?reujet, SRappen. Hence Ital. 
baszo, 'money.' 

7J.5mt, m., ' construction, structure,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. and OHG. bu, in. See 
bauen, fflube. 

~j&aii($), m., 'belly, bulge,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. buch, OHG. buh (hh), m. ; 
the corresponding AS. buc (E. dial, buck, 
' the inner part of a carriage ') has the same 
meaning ; OIc. bukr, ' body, waist.' It is 
uncertain whether 33aud) belongs to the 
Sans, root bhuj (corap. L it. fungor), * to take 
food,' or to Sans, bhuj, 'to bend' (Saucr-, 
lit. 'the flexible part'). Perhaps it is 
connected with Gr (pfoica (for <f>vy<TKa ?), 
' stomach, blister ' ?. It is certainly not akin 
to AS. bodig, E. body, OHG. botah, * body,' 
nor is it allied to Gr. <f>a.ytiv, * to eat ' (Sans. 
bhaj, ' to enjoy, partake of). 

baud)Ctt, vb., ' to steep in hot lye ' (LG. 
biiken, MidLG. bAken), from the equiv. Mid 
HG. buclien, OHG. *buhMn; E. to buck 
(dial, to bonk), for which even a MidE. 
term bouken occurs a few times, points to 
AS. *bucian; to these Swed. byka, ic. bauka, 
and Norw. boykja, are allied. Tiie word is, 
moreover, diffused through most of the 
Tent, languages, and correctly represents 
MidHG. bile/ten/ only in the Bav. dialect 
is the word unrecorded. Hence the exist- 
ence of a Tent, verbal root buk (to which 
AS. buc, ' pail,' is allied ?) is undoubted, and 
the Rom. cognate, Fr. buer (Ital. bucare), 
1 to wash,' is more probably borrowed from 
the Tent than vice versd. The Kelt origin 
of baitcbett (Bret, boukat, ' to soften ') is im- 

"23cutbe, see 93ube. 

batten, vb., 'to build, construct, culti- 
vate,' from MidHG. buioen, OHG. and OLG. 
buan (weak vb. with traces of a strong 
inflexion), ' to dwell, inhabit, till, plant' ; 
with regard to the meaning ' to dwell,' 
comp. 93au, 93auer, and SBube. To the 
OHG. buan corresponds Goth, bauan, ' to 
dwell, inhabit.' The root, in accordance 
with the law of the permutation of con- 
sonants, is pre-Teut. bhU, which, on com- 
parison with Sans. b/<H, Gr. #tfw, Lat. fui 
(futurus), &c, must mean • to be, become, 
arise, beget,' With the same root are con- 
nected the following nouns, which are of 
importance in determining its primary 

sense : OInd. bhumw, ' earth,' bhutis, ' 
tence,' <f>vfia, 'produce' (comp. also QJauni), 
<t>6fftt, ' nature,' <pv\ov, <f>v\^, ' trihe, race.' 

jSctuer (l.),n.and m., ' birdcage,' a word 
foreign to the UpG. dialects, from MidII< :. 
bur, used only in the sense of 'sojourn, 
birdcage ;' but OHG. IrAr has the further 
meaning of 'house, chamber.' AS. bur, 
'dwelling' (to which E. neighbour from 
AS. neahgebur is related ; similarly the 
more general meaning of 93auet appears in 
HG. SRadjbarX E. bower, with which E. dial. 
bire (' cowhouse '), AS. bfire, is connected. 
The pre-Teut. form would be bhur6, with 
ro as a deriv. sulrix. See the three follow- 
ing words. 

gaiter (2.), m., in Crrbauer, SHcferbaiicr, 
' tiller,' from MidHG. bAwcere, OHG. b&dri 
(Goth. *bauareis is wanting), the term lor 
the agent, from batten. 

^axxex (3-)> ni., 'rustic, peasant,' histo- 
rically and etvmologically different from 
95aucr (2.), for the MidHG. form is geb&r, 
OHG. giburo, m., which belongs to the 
OTeut. bur, 'dwelling.' discussed under 
93aucr (1.), and meanslh. ' co-dweller, joint- 
occupier,' then ' neighbour, ft llow-ciiizen ' 
(comp. @efe[(e, ' one who shares the same 
room '), and at a later period ' fellow-villa- 
ger, peasant, boor.' See also 91acfobar. 

"g&autn, m., ' tree,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. and OHG. bourn, m. ; corresponds to 
OSax. Mm, Du. boom, AS. beam, m., 'tree,' 
whence E. beam (beam in sunbeam is quite 
another word ; G. Saum is E. tree) ; E. boom 
is LG. and Du. Mm, ' tree.' The correspond- 
ing Goth, bagms and OIc. batSmr have the 
same phonetic form. The cognates, with 
Gr. <f>vfia, ' produce/are usually derived from 
the Teut. root bA, Aryan bl<u\ ' to become, 
arise,' discussed under bauen. 

bautnetn, vb., simply ModHG. 'to 
hover as on a tree' ?. See, however, bummefii. 

bdumctt, vb., 'to rear,' ModHG. only, 
lit. ' to lift, oneself up like a tree.' 

jSaufcf), ui., 'pad, bolster,' from Mid 
HG. busc/t, m., 'cudgel, blow causing blis- 
ters, swelling.' If ' cudgel ' is the primary 
sense, the word may be connected with 
MidHG. b6$en, OHG. bS^an, from bautan 
see Slmbefj, 93eutd, Setfu^) ; bAt- would be 
another stage in gradation, and before the 
suffix sch from sk the dental would inevi- 
tably disappear ; comp. h:\t.fustis, 'cudgel,' 
from *bhdd-stis. 

bemfett, vb., 'to carouse, swell,' from 
93au$, MidHG. bAs, 'inflation, swelling due 




to repletion'; the like stem also in E. to 
bouse, Mid LG. b&scn, ' to carouse ' ?. 

^cmfen, plur., 'buildings,' ModHG. 
only, from bauen. 

baxen, vb., 'to box, cuff,' from LG. 
bdxen, which is again allied to OHG. bd- 
gan, MidHG. bdgen. St?e bdgern and 93cttget. 

"gSajctr, m., ' bazaar,' ModHG. only ; 
borrowed from Fr. bazar (ultimate source 
Pers. bdzdr, 'market-place'). 

be-, prefix from MidHG. be, properly a 
verbal prefix from OHG. and Goth. &?, which 
has no definite meaning ; identical with 
the prep, bet, from OHG. and MidHG. bt 
(Goth, bi), AS. bt, E. by. For be there 
appears a shorter syncopated form in battgc, 
(Srbarmcn ? barfcfy ? bietbett, S3locf. See speci- 
ally bei. 

bebett, vb., ' to tremble, shake,' from 
MidHG. biben, OHG. bibin, ' to shiver, 
tremble ' ; Gr. <f>^ofiat, on account of the 
non-permutation of P to p and because of 
the e oi the root syllable, cannot be origi- 
nally cognate with bfben. The OTeut. word 
hasiy coiiip. OSax. b'66a, OIc. bifa, AS. beo- 
Jian (from bikdn). OHG. bibit, ' he trembles,' 
corresponds exactly to Sans. bibhiti, ' he is 
afraid,' in which bi- (for bid) is the redupli- 
cated syllable, and bhi for bhai is the aug- 
mented root syllable. The OInd. verb bid, 
' to be afraid,' forms its pres. by reduplica- 
tion — bibhimi, bibhesi, bibhiti; to these 
Goth. *bibaim, *bibais, *bibai}>, would cor- 
respond ; this present was then, on account 
of its apparent deriv. ai, classed among the 
weak verbs in ai (Goth, habaijy, OHG. ha- 
bit). The root bht (Sans, bhi, ' fear,' bhimd, 
* fearful ') is found in OSlov. boja sg, ' I urn 
afraid,' besu, * demon,' Lith. bybti-s, ' to be 
afraid,' bdime, ' fear,' bajus, ' terrible,' baisd, 
' fright ' (and perhaps Mod HG. betlen). Bi- 
is one of the lew examples of reduplication 
in the pres. tense preserved in the Tent, 
group (comp. jittern), just as the perfect 
ModHG. tl)dt, from OHG. teta, is the sole 
instance of reduplication preserved in the 
perf. tense. 

"§3ec^cr, m., 'beaker, goblet,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. b'echer, OHG. behhar, beh- 
hdri, m. ; comp. OLG. bikeri, Du. beker, 
OIc. bikarr, whence MidE. biker, E. beaJcer. 
These cognates are derived from LowLat. 
bicarium, allied to Lat. bacar (' vas vina- 
rium,' according to Festus), and still appear- 
ing in Ital. bicchiere. The Lat. word was 
naturalised in Germany perhaps as far back 
as the 7th cent., probably at the same 

period as JMcfy, since its c was changed into 
hh, ch. 

~*.\cd\, m., 'baker,' only dial. (Alem., 
Suab., Bav.), from MidHG. becke, OHG. 
tyccho, akin to bacfen ; the Goth, form may 
have been *baqja; ModHG. SBecfer is a 
recent form with the termination -er de- 
noting the agent (AS. bcecere, E. baker). 
Iu ModHG. 33ecf, SBcecfb,, as well as 93dcfcr, 
have been preserved as family names. 

^cdiClt, n., 'bowl, basin,' from Mid 
HG. becken, becke, OHG. tycchtn, beccht, n. ; 
the latter comes (comp. @d)ufie() from Low- 
Lat. and Rom. bacctnum (comp. Ital. bacino, 
Fr. bassiri), ' basin ' ; its cc being double, did 
not undergo permutation, but remained 
as cc, ck. Baccctnum lias been derived 
Irom the LateLat. bacca, 'vas aquarium,' 
discussed under 5kcf ; comp. spitfelfjaube. 

*g$ebc, f., ' gratuity ;' borrowed from the 
LG. bede. It corresponds to MidHG. bete, 
'command,' which still exists in ModHG. 
with the meaning 'request, prayer.' 

"giJeere, f., 'berry,' from the plur. of the 
equiv. MidHG. ber, OHG. 6gn, n. ; comp. 
Goth. *busi (only in weinabasi, n , ' grape ' ; 
OSax. wtnheri). The OHG. r in beri pre- 
supposes a Goth, bazi; to the 8 of the Goth, 
word Du. bes corresponds ; in AS. berie, E. 
berry, the a has been changed into r. See, 
however, Seftitg. Foreign cognates are want- 
ing ; yet the Sans, root bhas, 'to chew,' is 
perhaps akin (Goth, basi, orig. 'the edible 
substance'?); no connection with OHG. 
beran, ' to carry ' (see ge bdten), or Lat. bacca, 
' berry,' is possible. 

'p.Jcct, n., 'bed (of a garden)' ; earlier 
ModHG. SBctt still common to UpG. ; 
really identical with ©ctt, for the MidHG. 
has bet, bette, OHG. betti, meaning also 
' (garden) bed.' According to its form 
93cet (comp. Stette') has arisen from the 
neut. siiifr. badi, Qktt from the cases in dj 
(gen. badjis, dat. badja, neut. ace. plur. 
badja, &c). Comp. Goth. neut. sing, badi, 
neut. plur. badja. E. bed is also used in 
the same sense as 58cet (so even in AS. 
riscbed), E. bed of rushes, hotbed. 

"g&cclc, f., ' beetroot.' This word, like 
the names of many other edible vegetables, 
has come from Lat. ; bita was borrowed 
even before the 8th cent, and naturalised in 
Germ., for it appears as bie$a (the ie from 
i, comp. ^Jrieftcr, QJrief, SxtQtl, fRicntf, Spiegel, 
OHG. Pietar, from Lat. I'etrum, &c.), With 
the permutation of t to 3 ; whence Mid 
HG. biey. The ModHG.' $)e«te may have 


( 24 ) 


been based anew on Lat. bita, or bare been 
taken from the LG. btte, thus displacing 
the older bie$e, which is still found in Bav. 
From Lat. and Rom. bita (Itul. bieta, F. bctte), 
AS. bite (whence E. beet) is also derived. 
In another group of words borrowed from 
Lat., Lat. i became t (com p. Qxiet, from 
firiae) ; hence the dial, beifse (ei from Mid 
HG. t) also appears occasionally for beete, 

bcfefylett, vb., 'to order, command, com- 
mend,' MidHG. bevel/ten, becelen, 'to hand 
over, entrust, deliver, command'; OHG. 
bifelhan, bifelahan, ' to hand over ' (also 
' to hide, bury, entrust, recommend '). The 
chief meaning of the Goth. str. vb. filhan 
in compounds with the particles ga-, vs-, 
is also ' to bury ' ; anafilhan approximates 
the ModHG., 'to command, enjoin'; it 
means 'to give, hand over, commend, 
recommend.' AS. bef Man (for befeolhan), 
'to entrust, make over, devote oneself.' 
Hence the primary meaning of the primit. 
Teut. str. vb. bifelhan is ' to entrust, hand 
over, hide.' The Teut. root felh- is based 
upon pre-Teut. felh ; it is a mistake, there- 
fore, to connect the word on account of its 
earlier meaning, ' to bury,' with Lat. sepe- 

~g&off<£)Cn, n., 'a clergyman's bands,' 
diminut. ofbeffe (LG.), ' amess, cap worn by 
officials in Rom. Catli. churches,' the origin 
of which is obscure. In MidHG. both 
words are wanting ; the latter is found 
even in MidLG. 

bcgebrcn, vb., ' to desire, crave, re- 
quest,' from the equiv. MidHG. begem, 
chiefly in the simple form g'ern, OHG. 
g'er&n ; the r probably belongs to the stem, 
because gem as a no-partic. points in that 
direction ; comp. gent, @ier. 

begirmcit, vl>., 'to begin,' from the 
equiv. Mid H.G.beginnen,OHG.beginnan ; it 
corresponds to Goth duginuan, AS. &-, be-, 
on-ginnan t E. tobegin, OLG. biginnau, with 
a similar meaning. This verbal stem, 
which appears at an early period only in a 
compound form, is based upon a pre-Teut. 
to-, bhi-Icemc6, with permutation of k to 
Teut. g. For the Aryan root ken comp. 
OBulg. po-£lna (infih. po-fyti), 'to begin,' 
konl, ' beginning.' 

bef)ttftcrt, vb. (to which fceljaglidj is 
allied), ' to be comfortable,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. behagen; OSax. bihagdn, AS. on- 
hag'an, 'to suit, pleise,' OIc haga y 'to ar- 
range.' OG. has only a str. participle, OHG. 

bihagan, MidHG. behagen, ' fresh, joyous, 
comfortable' (hence ModHG. tad SMjaatti, 
Uitbcfiaaen) ; the old str. vb. no longer exists 
in Teut. Probably the Ind. root cak is 
primitively related to it— gakn&mi, ' am 
strong, able, helpful, beneficial,' fahrd-s, 
•strong'; comp. further #ag, £erfe, and 
r/fgen, which with the same phonetic form 
approximate the earlier meaning 'to help, 

behctupfen, vb., 'to mantain, assert,' 
not from MidHG. behaupten, which means 
' to behead.' This word, which first ocean 
in ModHG., is rather derived with a change 
of meaning from MidHG. behaben, 'to hold 
fast, keep, maintain.' 

bcbenbe, adj., 'nimble, agile, active,' 
from MidHG. behende, adv., ' suitably, con- 
veniently, skilfully, quickly ' ; in OHG. we 
should have expected bi henti (dat.), for 
which zi h$nti, 'at once,' occurs. The prep, 
is compounded with the dat. of the sul>>t. 
hant, OHG. henti • comp. the similar origin 
of abfyaufcen under ah 

"g&efydrbe, f., 'the authorities,' first re- 
corded in ModHG. from tyeren, MidHG. 
zno behozren, ' to belong to, be one's due.' 

"jHebuf, m., ' behalf, advantage,' from 
MiuHG. behwif, m., ' business, purpose, 
means to an end' ; root haf (in fyefcea), as 
also in E. behoof, AS. behof. 

bet, prep, and adv., 'by, near, about' ; 
the accented form of the unaccented prefix 
bey the Goth used in both cases bl; the 
Englishman makes a distinction like the 
German ; AS. bl, E. by, but be as a prefix. 
OHG. bl and bi- (coinp. also 93eid}te,93cifpifl). 
In Goth, bl means 'around, near' ; hence 
its kinship with Gr. ip<f>l, Lat ambi- is 
probable ; the loss of the first syllable am- 
abo occurein the OTeut word for bcibc ; the 
base is probably ambhi- ; comp. also um. 

~%&cid)te, f., 'confession,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. blht, contracted from MidHG. and 
OHG. bijiht, bigiht ; a regular verbal noun 
from MidHG. bejehen, OHG. bi-jehan, ' to 
confess, acknowledge.' The simple form 
jehan, usually signifying ' to say, speak out,' 
also means occasionally ' to avow, confess' ; 
hence OFr. gehir. Tiiis verb jehan may 
possibly be connected with ja, which see. 

bctoe, num., ' both,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. beide, bide, m., f., (beidin, n.) ; 
OHG. beide, bhle (beido, f., beidiu, n.) ; 
OHG. and MidHG. have also a remarkable 
variant with e (OHG. and MidHG. bide), 
although ei in other instances in HG. is not 


( 25 ) 


changed into i before dentals. In investi- 
gating the word beifce we must start from 
the tact that the stem of the num. had 
really no dental ; AS. begen, bd, Goth, bai 
(OIc. gen. beggja), 'both.' Allied in the 
other Aryan languages to Sans, ubhdu, Gr. 
&fi<f>w, Lut. ambo, OSlov. oba, Lith. obit, 
■with a syllable prefixed. The G. forms 
with a dental are undoubtedly secondary ; 
they obtained their dental by the blending, 
at a comparatively late period, of the pri- 
mary 5a- with the forms of the article, so 
that OHG. bide arose from bS and de, betditt 
from bei and diu, MidE. byt/ie (E. both) from 
AS. bd and fid (OIc. ba]?er from bai and 
fcaiz). In Goth, ba is combined with the 
article ba p6 skipa, ' both the ships' ; simi- 
larly in Gr. &}>L<pio. By assuming such a 
combination in WestTeut. the following 
ModHG. dial, forms in all genders are ex- 
plained • Bav. bed, bod^ beid, Suab. bid, bued, 
boad, Wetterau bed, bud, bad. 

"§3etfu|SJ, m., 'a species of wormwood 
used in seasoning food' ; the MidHG. and 
OHG. word was written bib6"$, hence the 
semi-LowG aspect of the ModHG. word. 
OHG. bibo$ is cognate with anabti^ (see 
Slmbcjj), and connected with an OTeur. 
verb bautan, ' to pound ' ; bibfy, ' spice 
pounded and mixed with food.' The LG. 
form of the OHG. word is bivdt, and hence 
arose the ModHG. SSetfujj, by the awkward 
attempt of popular etymology to connect 
btv6t with a well-known word. 

"gSetgo, "§3eitgc, f., ' a pile arranged in 
layers' (an UpG. word), from MidHG. 
bige, OHG. bigo, 'shock (of corn)'; hence 
Ital. bica, ' pile of sheaves' ; conip. E. bing 
(heap of alum), Scand. bingr, 'bolster'; 
comp. S3arf)bunije. 33cncje has eu by being 
based on bidden. 

■gjcit (Bav. 93eid)l), n., 'hatchet,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. bll, Mhel, OHG.. UhaJ, 
blal, n. (comp. the similar stages in the 
derivation of %t\[t from flhala) ; comp. Mid 
LG. bll, ' axe.' On account of OIc. bllda, 
' axe,' OHG. bihal must probably be traced 
to blfcl, bttl (for Id from pi comp. ©emaljl). 
Hence there may be a connection with the 
cognates from blitd discussed under beijjcn ; 
(is to the meaning, comp. especially Lat. 
Jluilo, ' I split" (Olr. Mail, 'axe,' is primit. 
akin). On the other hand, it is, of course, 
not impossible that OHG. bVml may be 
connected with 93icfe. 

bctlcn, vb., 'to bring deer to a stand 
by baying,' formed from MidHG. and OHG. 

Ml, ' the moment when the deer stands at 
bay; encircling by the baying hounds'; 
MidHG. btlen, ' to bring to a stand by bay- 
ing,' intr. 'to bark.' No kinship with feelleit 
can be proved ; it is more probably con- 
nected with the root bi in beben (for a deri- 
vative in I from the latter word comp. Lett. 
baile, ' fear,' bailus, ' timid,' Sans. bhtrb, 
1 timid'). In that case MidHG. and OHG. 
M-l would be lit ' time of fear.' 

"gjjeilt, n., ' bone, leg,' from MidHG. 
bein, OHG. bein, n. ; comp. OLG. bin, AS. 
ban, E. bone; ModHG. preserves the 
earlier meaning 'bone' still existing in 
UpG. in the words ©eiuljauS, Glfenbein, 
gifdjbein, galjbein, ©cbein ; the later signi- 
fication, ' lower part of the thigh,' is re- 
corded even in OHG., MidHG., and OIc. 
The OIc. beinn, adj., ' straight,' favours the 
supposition that originally at least the 
straight thigh-bones were termed 53eine 
(bones). Goth. *bain, n., is by chance not 
recorded. A primit. Teut. word with the 
primary meaning 'bone,' which cannot, 
however, be traced farther back (Lat. os, 
Gr. 6<rr£ov, Sans, astlu, asthan, to which an 
Aryan osth-, ' bone,' would correspond, are 
not represented, on the other hand, in the 
Teut. group). Comp. further (Siebeiu. 

"gSeifptel, n., ' example,' from late Mid 
HG. bispil, mostly btspel, n., 'fable, alle- 
gory, proverb,' OHG. *btspell (for bt comp. 
bet and 99eid)te). Comp. AS. btspell, ' ex- 
ample, parable ' ; formed from OHG. and 
MidHG. spel (11), ' tale, fable, rumour,' 
Goth, spill, ' legend, fable,' AS. spell, E. spell 
(gospel from godspell), 'tale, fable' ; spell 
(to which Fr. epeler, 'to spell.' is akin) is 
the term for literary composition in prose, 
and hence is as important for the history of 
primit. Teut. civilisation as Sift, fingcrt, <kc. 

beifjeit, vb., 'to bite,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. bt^en y OHG. bttfan; cognate with 
Goth, beitan, AS. bitan, E. to bite. A pri mit. 
Teut. verb with the sense of ' to bite, which 
has, however, as is shown by the cognate 
tongues, been specialised from the more 
general meaning 'to make smaller, to split 
with a sharp instrument.' Comp. Lat. 
findo, Sans, root b/iid, ' to split, break to 
pieces ' ; in OTeur. poetry betfjen is also used 
of the sword — a remnant of the earlier 
meaning. JBeil, too, if primit. akin to it, 
must be connected wiih Lat. jindere, 'to 
split' Comp. bitter, which signilifs orig. 
'piercing.' From the same root 93ip, Mid 
HG. and OHG. W3, m., is derived, to which 


( 26 ) 


AS. bite, E. bit, corresponds ; 2Mj5(fycti is a 
diniiiiutive of it. ModHG. SBtffen, from 
MidHG. bi^y, OHG. W330 ; OLG. bUi, E. 

"gjeifjlier, no., 'loach,' adopted from 
Slav. (Bohem. piskof, Russ. pishdrt), and 
based by popular etymology on betjjen (the 
fish is also called <£te inbeijjer, ' river-loach,' 
©djtammbetjjer, 'pond-loach'). 

betjett, vb., 'to cauterise, pickle, etch,' 
from MidHG. bei^en (beitzen), weak vb., 
'to macerate, make soft, hawk at birds' ; 
OHG. 6 iyn (beizzen), orig. sense ' to cause 
to bite,' is the factitive of OHG. bi^an, see 
beijkn. The corresponding E. to bait (a 
hook, a horse on a journey, and hence to 
put up, halt at a place, also to allure) is 
derived from the Scand. beita, which is 
identical with OHG. beizzan. 

befclommcn, see Jtlamnt. 

j$eld)e (I.), f., 'a kind of salmon' ; of 
obscure origin. See Q3e(djf. 

l$eld)e (2.), U 'coot,' from MidHG. 
belche, OHG. tylihha; Lat. fulica seems 
allied to it, although OHG. Ith implies a 
Lat. g ; the Germ, guttural suffix is the 
same as in Goth, dhaks, 'pigeon.' See also 
£abicr/t, jfrauid). 

belemment, vb., ' to cheat,' a LG. word, 
from MidLG. and Du. belemmeren, ' to hin- 
der, molest,' and allied to ModHG. lafym ?. 

bdfern, vb., 'to snarl, nag,' ModHG. 
only ; an intensive form of the following 

bcllcit, vb., from the equiv. MidHG. 
b'ellen, HG. b'ellan, ' to bark, bellow ' ; AS. 
bellan, E. to bell (of a stag at the rutting 
period) ; the E. word indicates accordingly 
that the primary meaning was more general 
than simply ' barking, bellowing.' If an e 
root be assumed, OBulg. bleja, ' bleat,' and 
Lat. fleo, ' I weep ' (6, / from bh and bhle 
for bhel), may be compared. Others have 
explained the WestTeut. root bell from belz, 
bels, bhels, which would result in its being 
cognate with Sans. bhaS, 'to bark,' bhdS, 
4 to talk.' Comp. Lith. balsas, ' voice, tone ' ; 
see, too. the following word ami ©uf(e. 

■g8ellf)amtttel, m., 'bell-we:her,' Mod 
HG. only ; a LG. word (UpG. herma, equiv. 
to §ett>maitn, ' herdsman \ corresponding 
exactly to Du. bel-hamel, E. bell-wether. Fr. 
clocheman, clocman (of Germ, origin), also 
Fr. mouton a la sonnette, make the connec- 
tion of 93ellfyammel with Du. bel, MidDu. 
and AS. belle, E. bell, indubitable. In Fr. 
animal fables the bell-wether has the pro- 

per name Uclin (akin to Fr. bslier, 'ram'), 
from the Du. bel, ' little bell,' whence also 
Fr. bdliere, ' ring of a bell-clapper.' 

"§3clf , ni., 'straits,' akin to OIc belte, AS. 
and E. belt, baldrich (OHG. bah), 'girdle. 
shoulder-belt ' 1. 93elt is thus a ' zone of 
land ' ?. The cognate Lat. balteus is, accord- 
ing to Varro, a Tuscan word. 

bcljcn, vb., ' to graft,' also pclj?» ; Mid 
HG. belzen, OHG. belzdn with the same 
meaning ; cognate with Provenc. empeltar, 
1 to graft,' which, with Fr. pellttier, ' fur- 
rier ' (see 5JM$), belongs to Lat. pellis. 

"28emme, f., ' slice of bread,' first occurs 
in ModHG. ; a LG. and MidG. word, a de- 
riv. of the dial, bammen, ' to eat,' which may 
have been *bazm6n in Goth., and is per- 
haps primit. allied to the Sans, root bhas, 
' to chew.' 

"gSenoel, m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
bendel, OHG. bentil; comp. MidE. bendel, 
OIc. bendell ; akin to btnfcen. 

"£3engel, m., 'cudgel,' then in a figura- 
tive sense ' rude person, blackguard,' from 
MidHG. bengel, m., 'cudgel.' Comp. E. 
bangle (club), from the verb to bang, OIc. 
banga, 'to strike, beat,' LG. ba>gen. The 
Teut. stem bang-, 'to strike,' seems to have 
been nasalised from the root bdg, men- 
tioned under baron. 

"gSemte, t'., ' wicker cart,' MidHG. only; 
an old Alem. and perhaps orig. Kelt, word 
which Festus records as old Gallic benna. 
Comp. Fr. bvnne, ' dosser,' AS. binn, E. bin. 

bertfcbett, Jewish, ' to pronounce the 
benediction, say grace,' from Lat. benedi- 

bccjttcm, adj., ' convenient, comfort- 
able,' from MidHG. bequdme, OHG. biqud- 
mi, ' suitable, fit.' Akin to AS. gecwime, 
MidE. tcwems, cweme, ' agreeable, suitable' ; 
qemi-, the base, is a verbal adj. from Goth. 
qiman, OHG. chuman, 'to come,' for whicli 
the meaning ' to be fitting, to suit,' already 
existing in Goth, gaqimifi, 'it is fitting,' is 
presupposed ; comp. AS. becuman, E. be- 
come. See fcmmcn and Lat. convenire, ' to 
fit in with, be becoming, suit,' which is 
primit allied. 

bcrappen, vb., ' to pay,' ModHG. only. 
The comparison usually made with rupfeit 
must be abandoned ; it means ' to give 
Stamen' (a coin of small value having the 
impress of a raven). Comp. SRappm and 
bledjen (to give SBledj, i.e. money). 

b'ercmmen, see anberaumen. 

beretf , adj., ' ready, prepared,' from 


( 27 ) 


MidHG. bereit, bereite, OHG. bireiti, ' ready 
and willing, obliging; armed, ready'; 
com p. AS. fftrcede, rcede, E. read/// Goth. 
garaids, 'appointed,' does not correspond 
exactly. The word may belong to the root 
discussed under retten (comp. OHG. reita, 
* carriage '), with the orig. sense of ' to equip 
with armour'; like fertig, it would thus 
mean properly ' ready for a journey'; comp. 
Olr. riadaim, * I am going on a journey,' 
riad, 'practicable (of a route), passable.' 
On account of the similarity in meaning 
comp. fftticj. 

^crg, m., ' mountain,' inherited from 
the OTeut. vocabulary ; OHG. berg, Mid 
HG. berc(g), m. Comp. AS. beorh(g), espe- 
cially 'barrow' (called byrgels also), E. 
only in the deriv. ' to bury ' (AS. byrgan)t 
from *burgianj the Goth, form *bairga- is 
deduced from the deriv. bairgahci, ' moun- 
tain range.' The rules for the permutation 
of consonants demand a pre-Teut. bhdryho-; 
with this is connected Sins, brhant, ' high ' 
(6 from bh, because the aspiration at the 
beginning of the root was, on account of 
the following aspirate, necessarily lost) ; h 
is ghy Zend barezanh, ' height,' berezant, 
'high' ; Olr. brigh, 'mountain' (ri, Sans. 
r, might be compared wiih the ur of 93urcj), 
Armen. berj, ' height,' barjr, ' high,' W. and 
Armor, bre, ' mountain, hill,' W.bry, 'high.' 
Also the Kelt, proper names Brigiani and 
Brigantes, like the Teut. Burgunden, Bur- 
gundiones (lit. ' nionticulae '), and the name 
of the town Brigantia (Bregenz). Hence to 
the root b'tergh belong the primary mean- 
ings 'high, rising ground' (OSlov. brtgii, 
1 bank (of a river),' is borrowed from G.) ; 
perhaps 93m\} is derived from this root, if 
it does not come from betgen. The attempt 
to connect 93erg with Goth, fairguni and 
Hercynia, identical with the latter, must 
be abandoned. With jit SBergf, 'up, on 
end,' comp. MidHG. ze tal, 'down.' 

bcvQett, vb., 'to hide, recover (from 
shipwreck),' from MidHG. bergen, ' to hide, 
secure,' OHG. bergan; comp. Goth, bair- 
gan, gabairgan, ' to keep, preserve,' AS. be- 
organ, MidE. bergen, 'to preserve, protect.' 
There are other E. words with a different 
though allied meaning ; AS. byrgan, E. to 
bur//; AS. byrgels(OLQt.burgisli), Y,.burials, 
burial. For a similar division of a primary 
meaning see under befer)fcrt. The root berg, 
burg, pre-Teut. bhergh, bhj-gh, with the 
primary meaning ' to lay somewhere for 
safe keeping,' is found outside the Teut. 

group only in OSlov. briga, 'I take care 
(of), wait upon.' 

"g8eticl)t, 111., ' intelligence, report,' from 
MidHG. benht, ' report, instruction, recon- 
ciliation.' Akin to xed)t. 

"gSerfcan, m., ' a kind of cloth, fustian,' 
from MidHG. barragdn, barkdn, from Mid 
Lat. barracdnus (Fr. bouracan, Ital. bara- 
cane), E. barracan; comp. ©ardent. 

"giterKne, f., 'coach,' first occurs in 
ModHG., from the equiv. Fr. berline, f. 
(comp. gantauer), properly 'a Berlin car- 

■pcrttrfcttt, 111., ' amber' ; bern is a LG. 
form for brenn, therefore properly SSrenn- 
jlein (combustible stone) ?. The Teut.-Lat. 
word is glesum, preserved in AS. glcere, 
' amber, resin.' 

^crfcrfecr, m., first occurs in ModHG, 
borrowed from the Scand. berserkr, lit. 
' bear-skin garment,' then ' a savage warrior 
who gets furious during the fight' ; from 
OIc. ber-, 'bear,' serkr, 'garment.' 

bcrftett, vb., ' to burst, crack,' from Mid 
HG. bresten, OHG. brestan, ' to break, tear, 
burst,' impersonal ' to be wanting, lacking' ; 
er for re is properly LG. and MidG. ; comp. 
Du. bersten, AS. berstan, E. to burst. Comp. 
further the Aryan root bhrest (cognate with 
the root of bred)en), in Olr. brissim, ' I 
break ' (ss from st). 

tbevi , "gSerk, in proper names, from Mid 
HG. berht, OHG. btrahl, 'shining' ; comp. 
Goth, bairhts, AS. beorht, E. bright. 

■gSerfrctm, m., 'Spanish camomile or 
pellitory,' based by popular etymology on 
the proper name Bertram (lit. 'shining 
raven,' see 9rabc), and derived from bitron, 
for Lat.-Gr. pyrethron (iriptdpov). 

bcrttcfjf tflf , ' infamous, notorious,' a 
partic. adj. from a weak vb. used even 
by Luther — bcvudjtujcu, ' to defame,' for 
which bctudjteit was the common form in 
the 16th and 17th cents. Comp. ©erndjt, 
as well as anrudn'g and rudjbar ; all these 
words are cognate with rufen, and are de- 
rived, as is shown by the ch for / before t, 
from LG. 

^Berajtt, m., ■ beryl,' from MidHG. 
beri'le, barille, brille, m., formed from Lat.- 
Gr. berijllusj also brille, ' spectacles ' ; see 
SBriKe, $«{e. The Gr.-Lat. term is derived 
from Prak. viluWiga, Sans, vaid&rya. 

"gilcfanmart , m.,'mizzen-niast,"' $5cf£n- 
fcrtel, n., mizzen-sail,' from Du. bezaav, 
'mast nearest the stern of a ship,' which is 
connected with E. mizzen, Fr. missatrw, Ita). 


( 28 ) 


mezzana (the Rom. wonl, n deriv. of Lat. 
nxedius, is properly 'middle-mast'). 

befd)alcn, vb.", ' to cover (a maiv),' first 
occurs in ModHG. ; a denominative from 
Mid HO. schel, schele, m., 'brood stallion.' 
bee <8d>el(foettcut. 

bcfd)eiben, vb., 'to distribute, assign, 
summon,' from MidHG. bescheideii, OHG. 
bisceidan, • to divide, decide, relate, report.' 
Tlie ModHG. and MidHG. partic. beschei- 
deii, meant prig, 'definite,' then 'clear, dis- 
tinct^ intelligible, prudent.' See fcfyciben. 

bcfdjncittfeln, bcfdmuffeht, be- 
fdjnuppcrit, vb., ' to sniff at' ; akin to the 
E. vbs. to snivel, snuff, snuffl'', and fdmauKit. 

befd)Ummc(tt, vb., 'to deceive,' from 
fdJuutmdit, ' to worry.' 

bofd)ttppcn, vb., ' to scale, deceive,' 
from LG. ; the cognate words of the same 
group show that pf, not pp, is the strictly 
HG. form. It seems to belong to the stem 
of 01c. stoj.a, 'to deride'; MidDu. scop, 
' derision.' To the same stem belongs an 
OTeut. term lor 'poet,' AS. scop, OHG. 
scopf, which, on account of its meaning, is 
important for the right conception of poetic 
composition among our ancestors. 

sBcfd)tt>ei:oC, f., 'difficulty, grievance, 
malady,' from MiiiHG. besiccerde, f., ' op- 
pression, grief,' allied to fefwer. 

befd)tt>td)tifl<m, vb., 'to appease, com- 
pose.' The Germans connect this word in- 
stinctively with jcr>u>ciflftt ; it forced its way, 
however, in the last half of the preceding 
cent, from LG. into the written language, 
and its cht is the earlier HG.ft; it corre- 
sponds to MidHG. siriflen, ' to pacify,' 
OHG. siciftdn, ' to be quiet.' The stem is 
the same as in Goth, sweiban, ' to cease, 
leave off' ; with this the cognates of 
f<6wcijtn accord fairly well both in sound 
and meaning ; the Tent, root su*b, swig, 
is based upon the Aryan smq (jnctg in Gr. 
aiydu; see under fcfyivcignt). 

jScfett, m., 'besom, broom,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. besen, besitrt, b'esme, OHG. 
besamo; it corresponds to AS. besma, E. 
besom, Goth. *bisma, which have the same 
meaning ; a pre-Teut. word of obscure ori- 
gin ; perhaps SSeere and 99ajl are allied. 
Since the Eng. dialects point to an AS. 
bisma, ' besom,' it is possible that the word 
is connected with SBitfwinb, and the Teut. 
root bis, ' to move in a restless, excited 

"2.5c firu^. LG. word, a diminutive form, 
like the MidLG. equiv. beselce, n., 'small 

berry' ; akin to Du. bes, Goth. basi. See 
under 33ecrr. 

beffcr, compar. adj., 'better' ; see th<- 
corresponding adv. bafj ; superl. belt ; from 
MidHG. be^er, best (be^ist), OHG. bey 
^iro, b'$$istj- corresponds to AS. betera, 
oetst, E. better, best/ Goth, batiza, batists. 
Even inprimit. Teut. gut formed its degrees 
of comparison in this way, which might be 
represented in Ind. by *bhadyas-, *bhad- 
iStha-. The etymology of ModHG. gut it 
difficult to get at ; in the case of beffer we 
are assisted by the cognate root in 93uJK, 
the primit. meaning of which is ' utility ' ; 
the ethical notion arose from that of in- 
terest. At all events, thus the matter stands 
from the merely Teut. point of view. It 
has been connected more remotely with 
Olnil.bhadrd-s, to which the primary mean- 
ing 'shining' is assigned ; but in this sense 
the ind. word cannot be cognate ; it belongs 
to the root bhand, anil would consequently 
become *buntrs in Goth. The chief signi- 
fications of bhadrd-s, however, are 'capable, 
salutary, prosperous,' which are in closer 
approximation to the idea of interest. Of 
these meanings beffcr and bejt might form 
the degrees of comparison. 

bcfialff, partic. of bt|Uf(nt, for which 
bffiedt is now used. 

beff at t en, vb., ' to convev, bnrv,' from 
jiatt, (Etdttf. 

befltlbcrrt, vb., 'to cover with dirt,' 
from MidHG. siiheen, sulwen, 'to soil,' also 
siiln, OHG. sttllen, AS. sljlian, Goth, saul- 

befchtbett, vb., 'to deafen, bewilder, 
confuse,' lit. ' to make deaf.' See taub. 

befen, vb., 'to entreat, pray,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. beten, OHG. betdn; comp. 
Goth, bida, OHG. beta, ' request, prayer.' 
Formed from the Teut. root b\d (Aryan 
b/ridli), discussed under bitten. 

j23cff, n., 'bed,' from the equiv. M;d 
HG. bet, bette, OHG. beti, bttti, n. ; comn. 
AS. bedl, E. bed, Goth. badi. For ModHG. 
53ctt the form SBftb, is found in the 18th 
cent, (e.g., in Gessner), just as for 93«t the 
word 33ctt is used popularly (and in Mid 
HG.) ; comp. Sett. The signification ©eft 
('garden-bed') makes the connection with 
the Lat. root in fodio, 'to bury,' possible 
(comp. W. bedd, ' grave ' ; also OSlov. boia, 
'I prick'); Goth, badi (Lat. *fddium), 
might therefore have arisen from Aryan 
bhodhiom. The primary meaning was pro- 
bably 'an excavated spot'; the significa- 


( 29 ) 


tion already common to the Teut. j;roup, 
' bed, lectus' (akin to OSw. boedhil, 'nest'), 
may be elucidated by reference to the cave- 
dwellings of the Teutons (see 2)img). In 
early times the bed was evidently dug like 
a niche in the sides of the subterranean 
dwellings. The meaning 'bolster,' com- 
mon to lc. &e5Y and Finn, patja (borrowed 
from Goth.), does not, it is true, harmonise 
with this explanation. 

~g&ettel, m., ' beggarv, trash,' akin to 
M\dRG. betel, < begging/ 

betteltt, vb., 'to be*/, live by beegiiiL',' 
from the equiv. MidHG. b'etelen, OHG. be- 
tal&n, a frequentative of bitten ; to this Set- 
tler, from b'eteleere, OHG. b'etaldri, is allied. 

bctud>en, behidyt, adj. and adv., 
'quiet(ly), reserved(ly)' ; of Hebr. origin 
(bdt&ach, 'confident sure'). 

~§&et%el, jjj'ef^el, m., ' small cap,' from 
MidHG. (MidG.) bezel, f., 'hood.' 

be\x6)c, see baitdje. 

bcUQen, vb., 'to bow, humble,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. bougen, OHG. bougen, 
boucken ; it corresponds to AS. began, btgan, 
' to bow,' E. to bay, ' to dam (water) ' ; facti- 
tive of biegeu ; lience lit. ' to cause to bend.' 

"§3eule, f., 'boil, swelling,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. biule, OHG. bulla, *Ullea, 
f., 'blister' ; comp. AS. b$le, E. bile (also 
boil), Du. buil, ' boil ' ; Goth. *bulj6, ' swell- 
in^,' is connected with Goth, ufbauljan, ' to 
inflate,' and stands probably for *bAgwli6, 
properly 93ucfct (hump) ; akin to biccjcit. 

;28euttbe, f., from the equiv. MidHG. 
biunde, OHG. biunt, 'a vacant and enclosed 
plot reserved for a special wing or onlhouse, 
enclosure' ; no connection with Lat. fun- 
dus is possible. MidLG. biwende, 'an en- 
closed space,' shows that an OHG. *bi-want, 
'that which winds round, a hedge,' is im- 
plied. Respecting bi, 'round about,' see 

;2.)eufe (1.), f., 'kneading trough, bee- 
hive,' from MidHG. biute, f., OHG. biutta, 
f„ with the same meaning ; it presupposes 
Goth. *biudja. 93utte is the most nearly 
allied, unless the latter is of Bom. origin. 
The derivation from OHG. biot, Goth. 
biufcs, AS. be6d, ' table,' seems uncertain ; of 
course AS. be6d also means 'dish.' 

"peufe (2.), f., 'booty,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. biute ; on account of Du. buit, 
OIc. bpte, ' booty, exchange,' hence b§ta, 
'to exchange, divide,' the t indicates that 
the word was borrowed. E. booty is derived 
from the OIc. bpte, but it has also been 

confused with boot, 'uain, advantage' (see 
Sujk). The t would have hecnmefs, tz in 
HG. As t would represent the dental in 
Goth., bieteit, Goth. 6i«c?a«cannot,aceording 
to the laws of the permutation of con- 
sonants, be allied to SBeute ; we must assume 
that the root of the hitter is Goth. Mt, pre- 
Teut. blind. Fr. butin, 'booty,' is borrowed 
from these cognates. Comp. Olr. buaiil, 
' victory.' 

"§3cuf el (1.), m., 'a ripping chisel, a piece 
of wood for beating flax,' first occurs in 
ModHG. ; the t points to a LG. origin ; in 
HG. we should have expected A in Mid 
HG. 3 (MidHG. b6yl, ba$el). Comp. LG. 
bcetel, AS. bytel, E. beetle (for beating flax) ; 
from a root baut, 'to strike, beat' (AS. 
bedtan, E. beat, OIc. bauta, OHG. Mftan), 
which still appears in Slntbefj. 

IJBeufel (2.), in., 'purse,' from MidHG. 
biutel, m., n., 'purse, pocket,' OHG. butil; 
com]). Du. buidel (, 'purse'; Goth. 
*bHdils. The word cannot, however, be 
traced farther back than OHG. ; its kin- 
ship to bieten, root bud, from bhudli, would 
throw no light on the meaning. 

"g&Clltyeie, f., ' cooper's mallet for driv- 
ing on the hoops.' SJeitt--, like SBeutef, 
'beetle,' belongs properly to LG. ; rfjete, 
'rammer, hammer,' from MidHG. heie, 
OHG. heia, ' hammer ' ; hence 93mtfjeie, 
'driving hammer.' 

bevov, conj., 'before,' from MidHG. 
bevor, OHG. bifora; comp. the correspond- 
ing E. before, from AS. beforan. 

beXDCQCtl (l.)» vb., ' to move/ from Mid 
HG. beuegen, OHG. biwi'gan. See MM, 

bcwCQCiX (2.), vb., 'to stir, excite,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. bewpjen, OHG. bitcecken, 
biwegen, factitive of the preceding. See 

^.Jouhmc, m., first occurs in ModHG., 
from MidHG. bewtsen, ' to instruct, show, 
prove ' ; comp. toeifen. 

be3td)f en, bc,}td)ttg<m, vb. ; the former, 
with a change in meaning due to judjttgen, 
is also written bejudjten, 'to accuse of, 
charge with ' ; derivatives of a MidHG. 
subst. biziht (bezMit), f., ' accusation ' ; comp. 
jet ben. 

^Scjtrft, m., 'circuit, district, sphere,' 
from MidHG. tire, 'circle, circumference, 
district'; from Lat. circus, 'circle.' The 
word, as z for Lat. c shows, was borrowed 
verv early during the OHG. period. 

33ibet, f., 'bible,' from MidHG. bibel, 
of which there is a variant, biblic (E. bible, 


( 30 ) 


Du. bijbel, Fr. bible) ; formed from Gr.-Lat. 
biblia. Comp. &ibd. 

jjjibcr, m., ' beaver,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. biber, OHG. bibar, m. ; it corre- 
sponds to AS. beofor, E. beaver, Du. bever, 
OIc bj6rr, Gotli. *bibrus. A term common 
to the Aryan family, originally signifying 
a 'brown' aquatic animal; Lat fiber 
(OGall. Bibracte), OSlov. bebrii, Lith. tebrus 
(most frequently ddbras), ' beaver.' Olud. 
babhrUs as an adj. means ' brown,' as a 
subst masc ' great ichneumon ' ; bhe-b?<r- 
<i-s is a reduplicated form of the root bher 
in f&ax and braun. The primitive tribe 
from which the Indo-Teutons are de- 
scended had ere its dispersion several fully 
developed names of animals ; comp. Jpunb, 
Jfruj, 2Hau<5 Self, &c. The Teut. word had 
at an early period supplanted the Lat. 
fiber in Rom., LateLat. biber, Ital. bevero, 
Span, bibaro, Fr. bievre, from Teut bebrti-, 

■gSibernelle, ^unpmeUe, "gfiutper- 
ttCUC, f., ' pimpernel,' corruptions of the 
MhlLat. botanical term pipinella, pimpi- 
nella. Even in MidHG. various corrup- 
tions are produced by popular etymology ; 
Fr. pimprenelle. 

■Ji td:e. (., "SStCKCl, m., ' pickaxe,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. btcke, bickel, m. ; comp. 
MidHG. bicken, OHG. (ana)btcchan, wk. 
vb., ' to prick, thrust' ; allied to AS. becca, 
E. bick-iron. It is probably conned ed fur- 
ther with a Kelt-Rom. class (Ital. becco, Fr. 
bee, Du. bek, l beak,' Fr. bSche, ' spade,' Ital. 
beccare, ' to hack,' &c.) ; it is possible that 
AS. becca, ' pickaxe,' is allied to Ir. and 
Gael, bacc, ' hook.' 93fil seems to come 
from another stem. 

bibmcrt, wk. vb., an UpG. word equiv. 
in meaning to bfbm, 'to tremble, shake,' 
and allied to it; MidHG. biiemen, 'to 
tremble,' OHG. *bidim6n, must represent 
*bibim6n, bibintin; respecting the relation 
of the consonants comp. OHG. pfedamo 
and its variant pebano under ^Jfcbe. The 
OHG. bibin&n is an intensive form of OHG. 
biben. See bfben. 

"33ieber, ' fever ' ?. Only in compounds 
with stiff, ;fruut, strurj. Comp. MidHG. 
biever, n., ' fever.' Its relation to Lat febris 
is ambiguous ; it is probably a corruption 
of vieber. See gifbfr. 

bteoer, adj., ' staunch, honest,' from 
MidHG. biderbi, OHG. biderbi, 1 serviceable, 
useful,' then ' brave, gallant ' (comp. btffft 
for a similar change of idea) ; lit. ' suitable 

to one's need or purpose,' for the adj. is a 
compound of the stem of burftn, ' to 1*> 
in need of,' and the prefix bi, which has 
retained its earlier accent without being 
replaced, as it usually is, by 61. The Goth, 
form was perhaps *bi}>arba ; further, the 
adj. is identical with fcftb. 

btCQCrt, vb., ' to bend, curve,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. biegen, OHG. biogan, Goth. 
biugan, ' to bend.' In Eng. the word be- 
longs to a different class, AS. bdgan, E. to 
bow; Du. biugen; comp. beugfn, the factitive 
of this verb. Root bilg, from pre-Teut*; the k of which is changed in the 
regular manner into h in SBuljtl, OHG. buhil. 
In OInd. we should have expected *bhuc 
instead of the recorded bhujijior g), which 
agrees with the Teut. word only in the 
sense of ' to bend ' ; Lat fugio, Gr. Qefryu, 
have the more remote signification 'to 
flee,' which AS. b&gan also shows. Further 
cognates are SSocien and bie^fam (AS. bUhsom, 
brixom, whence E. buxom). 

JZ&iene, f., 'bee,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. bine, bin, f., OHG. bint, n. ; 61 is the pro- 
per root syllable, as is shown by OHG. bia, 
Du. bij, AS. bed, E. bee, OSw. bt (OIc. by- 
fluga) ; the n of the weak declension is re- 
tained in the deriv. OHG. btnij the form 
binni (from binja-), which we should have 
expected, is not recorded. Besides these 
there are OHG. and MidHG. forms with *, 
OHG. btna, f., MidHG. bin, f. (Austr. dial. 
93fin) ; they are related perhaps to MidHG. 
bin like Goth, sunns to Sans. sAnus, Goth. 
qlwa to Sans.j'Jfo-, &c. ; comp. <Sobn, CUtfcf, 
laut, ©djauffl. Lith. bitis, Ir. bech, ' bee,' 
seem allied, though they have a different 
suffix. The word is based on a root bh\ ' to 
be afraid,' discussed under bfbfii ; hence 
93iftte is perhaps ' the trembler ' ?. Respect- 
ing QSiftttttbret comp. 9kot. ©ittunferb was 
an early remodelled form for OHG. bini- 
char. 23itnfatu, n., a botanical term, lit. 
1 a plant that the bee is fond of sucking.' 

jSier, n., ' beer,' from the equiv. MidHG. 
bier, OHG. and OLG. bior, n., comp. Du. 
bier, AS. be&r, E. beer, OIc. bj&rr ; Fr. Here 
is borrowed MidHG. 6ier. There can \>m 
no connection with Lat 6160. Sans, pibdmi ; 
nor can Gr. rtur, OInd. pivas, 'a rich 
drink,' be cognate. It is rightly thought to 
be akin to an OTeut.term for 'barley ,'OLG. 
and AS. bed (OIc. bygg), from Teut *bevy 
wo-, l>ased on a pre-hist. *bhewo-, while the 
cognates of 93i« point to a deriv. *bhewro-. 
Thus 93ifr is equal to ' barley-juice' 1. 


( 31 ) 


■§tUefe, I$tfe, f., ' north-east wind,' ear- 
lier, SSeienrinb (with the regular ei), from the 
equiv. bise, OHG. bisa, whence Fr. bise. 
A Teut. root bis, biz, 'to rush in excitedly,' 
nlsoappearsiuMidHG.and ModHG. (dial.), 
bisen, ' to run about like cattle tormented 
by horse-flies' (with this is connected Mod 
HG. dial, beiern, with a change of « into 
r, in Hess, and Henneberg., with the same 
meaning) ; comp. further OSw. blsa, ' to 
run,' Dan. bisse, 'to run excitedly.' Per- 
haps the root bi, ' to tremble,' is nearly 

"gSteff , m., in SSiejlmilcfc, from the equiv. 
MidHG. biest, OHG. Host, m. ; comp. AS. 
be6st, and its deriv. AS. basting, E. beast- 
inus, biestings. ModHG. dialects have also 
remarkable parallel forms with br, like OIc. 
d-brystur, ' beastings,' e.g. Swiss briek (brieS), 
which may be connected with 83ruft, OHG. 
brust, AS. breost. Beyond the Teut. group 
(whence OFr. bet, ModFr. beton is bor- 
rowed) the stem has not yet been traced ; 
it is most frequently compared with the 
equiv. Gr. irvfc, Sans. piyuSa. Yet a Teut. 
root bius seems to underlie biese, beise, 'to 
milk,' in the Wetterau dial. 

biefcn, vb., ' to offer, make a bid,' from 
MidHG. bieten, OHG. biotan, 'to offer, 
present, command' (similar meanings are 
united in the MidHG. word for befeljlen) ; AS. 
be6dan, 'to announce, offer' ; E. bid com- 
bines the meanings of Germ, bieten and bitten. 
Goth, anabiudan, ' to command, arrange,' 
faurbiudan, 'to forbid' (OHG. farbiotan, 
MidHG. verbieten, AS.forbeddan, E. forbid). 
Goth, biudan, as well as the whole of this 
class, points to a pre-Teut. root bhudh; 
Gr. wvO (according to the well-known rule 
for <f>v6) in, irv6io0a.i, 'to' ask, 
demand, learn by asking, hear,' approaches 
one of the meanings of the Teut. vb. ; the 
latter has an active signification ' to pub- 
lish, communicate,' while the Gr. middle 
vb. means 'to know by report, obtain in- 
formation.' With the sensuous meaning 
of HG. bieten is connected the OInd. root 
budh (for bhudh), ' to make a present to 
one ' ; yet it most frequently means ' to be 
watchful, a>tir.' then ' to observe, notice' ; 
and with this is associated OBulg. bildUi, 
Lith. budeti, 'to awake'; Lith. budrus, 
' watchful' ; also Lith. bafcsti, ' to chastise,' 
and Olr. buvle, ' thanks.' It is a prim. 
Aryan verbal stem with a great variety of 
meanings, the chief of which are 'to pre- 
sent (make a present to one) — to enjoin 

(to command, communicate) — to be active, 
awake.' To the same stem belongs an 
OTeut. word for 'table, dish' (both con- 
ceived as the dispensers of food ?), which 
has been mentioned under SBeute (Goth. 
biu}>s, AS. bedd), also bote, from MidHG. 
bote, OHG. boto (AS. boda, whence E. to 
bode), lit. 'herald.' 

j23ifang, m., 'enclosure, ridge,' fn>m 
MidHG bttanc. m., 'circuit, ridge between 
furrows,' OHG. bifang, 'circuit,' from bi- 
fahan, 'comprise, encircle.' With respect 
to the accented verbal prefix in the subst. 
compound, comp. bet, where ' around ' is 
also quoted as one of the OTeut. meanings 
of bi. SMfang (in opposition to 93eiivie(, 
btspel) retains, like bieber, the old short 
verbal prefix ; comp. bieber, $8ift>, SBeunbe. 

bictotf , adj., ' bigoted,' first occurs in 
ModHG., borrowed from Fr. big A. but 
based in spelling on ©ctt. 

~jBild), f., 'dormouse,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. bilch, OHG. bilich (whence OBulg. 
pluchii, 'dormou>e,' is borrowed?); bit- is 
primit. cognate with W. bele, 'marten.' 

j!3ifb, n., 'image, portrait, representa- 
tion,' from MidHG. bilde, OHG. bilidi, n., 
'image, figure, parable, prototype'; simi- 
larly OSax. bilithij there is no correspond- 
ing word in E. or Goth. (*bUiJn). The 
derivation from a stem bil-, with which 93eil 
has been absurdly connected, is untenable ; 
bi- is probably the prep, be- (comp. bieber, 
93ifaiivi, 93infe) ; *lipi is allied to lipu-, 
' limb ' (see ®lieb) ; the compound signifies 
lit. 'a copy of a limb, counterfeit limb'?. 
It is impossible to connect it with E. build, 
which belongs rather to AS. bold, ' a build- 
ing,' and bauen. 

fill, f., from the equiv. E. bill, which, 
Fr. billet, belongs to MidLat. bdla, 

33We, f.. ' hatchet,' from MidHG. bil 
(-.'en. bilks), 'pickaxe,' OHG. bill; AS. 
bill, ' sword/ E. bill (' sword, chopper,' also 
' axe ') ; not cognate with 93eil. 

billifl, adj., adv., ' reasonable (-ably), 
cheap (-ly),' for an earlier billicfy, used even 
in the last century, from MidfiG. billtch, 
OHG. (recorded since Williram) billkh 
(adv. MidHG. billtche, OHG. billlhho). 'con- 
formable, becoming'; cognate with AS. 
bilevrit, MidE. bileunt, 'simple, innocent.' 
It has been said, without sufficient reason, 
that this class was borrowed from Keli. 
Comp. other cognates under SBeic^bilb, 


( 32 ) 


"gSUfCttftrauf, n., ' henbane,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. bilse, OHG. bilisa, f. ; also 
a dial, form bilme, equal to Dan. bulme, 
AS. beolene (Span, beleiio). The stems bilisa, 
beluna, common to the Tent, group, cor- 
respond to Lat. fdix, filix, 'fern,' but 
more closely to Russ. belend, Pul. bielun, 
• henbane.' Comp. further MidDu. beelde, 

bin, see fcitt, vb. 

j3ims, m., "gjimsffcm, 'pumice-stone,' 
from the equiv. Mid II G. bumez, OHG. 
bumiz; hence we should have expected 
ModHG. S3itmc$. The relation between 
Stvtu\ and Lat. cruc-em is similar to that 
between 93ume$ and the type, Lat. pumic-em 
(nom. pumex). The i of the ModHG. form 
is MidG, as in .Rut, *Tji(}. From Lit. 
•pumex (Ital. pomtice) are also derived Du. 
puimsteen, and AS. pdmicstdn. With re- 
gard to * for 2, see SSiiife. 

btnbett, vb., ' to tie, bind,' from MidHG. 
linden, OHG. bintan. corresponds to OSax. 
and AS. bindan, E. to bind, Goth, bindan y 
the meaning does not change, hence it was 
the same in primit. Tent, as in ModHG. and 
Eng. The pre-Teut. form of tlie root must 
have been bhendh ; comp. the correspond- 
ing Sans, root bandh, 'to chain, fasten'; 
Lat. (with / for bh initially) offendimentum, 
'bond, cable'; Gr. ireifffua for *irivOana, 
' bond,' also v€ndep6s, ' father-in-law,' as 
well as Sans, bdndku, 'a relative.' In 
Tent, numerous forms are derived by gra- 
dation from the sarue root (e.g. SBaiib, E. 
bond, bend). Ital. benda, ' bandage,' ben- 
dare, ' to bind np,' are borrowed. 

^ingclttrauf, n., earlier Suitgcffraut, 
' mercury' ; 33uitcjef, a name of a plant, from 
MidHG. bunge, OHG. bungo, ' bulb." See 

binnen, prep., ' within,' from MidHG. 
(MidLG. and MidDu.) binnen ; comp. the 
corresponding AS. binnan, 'within,' from bi- 
innan, with suppression of the i of bi, as 
in bailee, barmbcrjia,. See iiutcit. 

^infc (Swiss SBinj), f., 'rush,' from the 
plur. of the equiv. MidHG. 61/13, bine^ 111., 
OHG. binu$, m. ; comp. OSax. binut, AS. 
beonet, E. bent, bent grass, as well names of 
places, 53entlrt), 93ent^ctm, with a LG. vowel. 
The most probable derivation is that given 
in the OHG. period, by Notker, from bi- and 
na$ (see nafj) ; hence lit. ' that which grows 
in wet places.' LFranc. and LG. h&ve a 
stem biusa corresponding to Du. bies, Mid 
LG. bese, which are not cognate with 33tuj>. 

^irhc (Swiss 53d*e, S:vcr», f., 'birch,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. birhe (UpG. 
birdie), OHG. bird/a, birihha ; comp. AS. 
birce, E. birch ; also Du. berk, AS. beorc, 
OIc. bjork, Goth. *bairka, f., or *bairkj6, f. 
This term, common to the Teut. group, is 
one of the few names of trees of primit. 
Aryan origin (comp. 93uct)f) ; the pre-Teur. 
form is bhtrgd (bhergyd), and corresponds 
to Sans, bhtiija, m., 'a kind of birch' (neu. 
also 'birch bark'), OSlov. bnza, f., Lilh. 
be lias. 

"j^intc, L, 'pear'; the n belongs pro- 
perly to the inflexion ; MidHG. bir (and 
still dialectic), plur. birn ; OHG. bira, 
'pear.' Derived from the Lat. plrum, or 
rather plur. plra. On account of the initial 
b of the German won), the date at which 
it was borrowed can hardly be placed 
earlier than the 9th cent. The Goth ap- 
plied to the ' mulberry-tree' the apparently 
cognate term bairabagms. E. pear, AS. 
peru, Du. peer, are based upon the Rom. 
word (Ital. and Span, pera), derived from 
Lat. pirum. Respecting the change of 
gender see *J>flaumc. 

bivfd)CTl, vb., from the equiv. MidHG. 
birsen, 'to chase with hounds, to shoot 
deer' ; s after r became seh, as in Clrnf, 
tatjft, £orfd)e, Ijcrrfdjfii, >§ivfd), Jtirfd)?, Miix- 
fdnter, nurf<t) ; from OFr. berser (MidLat. 
bersare), ' to pierce with an arrow.' 

bis, conj., adv., ' until, as far a?,' from 
MidHG. 613 (for which nnze, unz most Fre- 
quently occur) ; in OHG. it was perhaps 
bia$, i.e. bid is a compound of bi (see bet, 
Goth, bt) and 03 (OHG 03, 'to,' Goth, at, 
Lat. ad) ; bia$ became 613, ' until ' Earlier 
ModHG. has a variant bitze, bitz, which 
likewise arose from an older bi and ze, 'to.' 
Similarly ModHG. unz is composed of unt 
(Goth, und) and ze. — btsfanct, from the 
equiv. MidHG. bissolange, 'so long, hither- 
to,' for fo'3 s6 lange, ' until so long.' 

"D.'irctm, m., 'musk,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. bisem, OHG. bisam, bisamo, from 
MidLat. bisamum, which u of oriental 
origin (Hebr. besem, Syr. besmo). 

j5ifd)of, m_, 'bishop,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. bischof (v), OHG. biscof (to which 
SBilfou is related) ; Du. bisschop, AS. bisceop, 
E. bishop, with the same meaning. In Goth, 
with a closer adherence to the primit. term 
(iwiijKoiroi), alpiskaUpus. This widely dif- 
fused word was probably adopted, like tin; 
Arianism of the Goths (comp. ,ftird)e), from 
the Greeks without passing through Ro- 


( 33 ) 


mance. Tlie Lat.-Rom. origin is indeed 
supported by the initial 6 as well as the 
loss of the original e at the beginning ; 
comp. ltal. vescovo, OFr. vesque (also evesque, 
ModFr. 4vique, and Olr. epscup). Conip. 
further OSlov. jeptslcopu. 

"gStfTen, m., ' l>it, morsel,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. bitfe, OHG. fo'330; comp. AS. bita, 
E. bit, and beifjett. 

fief am, n., ' bishopric' Even in Mid 
bischtuom and bistuom, OHG. bisce- 
tuom, from biscoftuom. By a similar change 
23t3marcf was formed from bischoves marc ; 
on the borders of such a mark the property 
of the tribe was situated. 

■p3i(§, "gUtfjC^en, 'bit, trifle,' from beijjen. 

uitfen, vb., ' to b*& entreat, invite,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. and OHG. bitten 
(from bitjav, bidjan) ; it is a str. vb. of the 
class e — a — d — e. Comp. Goth. bidjan, ba}>, 
bedum, bidans ; AS. biddan; in E. to bid, 
both bieten and bitten appear ; E. to beg, 
from AS. bedecian (Goth. *bidaq6n 1 comp. 
Teut.and Goth. *bidaqa, 'beggar'). The str. 
vb. belonged originally to the i class (Goth. 
bidja, *baip, *bidum, bidans might therefore 
be conjectured) ; a trace of this gradation 
is shown further by the factitive Goth. 
baidjan, AS. bdidan, OHG. beiten, with the 
meaning ' to order, demand, compel.' The 
root bkeidh, blmlh, accords with Gr. vi0 
(lor <piO, according to the well-known rule), 
ireldu), ' to induce by entreaties, get by ask- 
ing, persuade, convince'; to this belongs 
also Lat. fido (equiv. to the Gr. Mid. Voice 
irdOofiat), 'to rely on a person.' With this 
meaning an OTeur. bid an t 'to await, wait 
with full confidence' (Goth, b idan, OHG. 
Mian, AS. bldan, E. to bide), has been con- 
nected. The Germ, noun 2Mtte is OHG. 
bita, most frequently beta, Goth. bida. See 
betett, @cbct. 

biffcr, adj., * hitter,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. bitter, OHG. bittar. This t, since 
it comes before r, represents the t common 
to the Teut. cognates ; before / the permu- 
tation of t to 3, tz does not take place (comp. 
©iter, tauter, tittetn) ; OLG. bittar, AS. bittor, 
biter, E. and I hi. bitter ; hence we should 
have expected Goth. *bltrs, for which a form 
with a remarkable Cii, baitrs, 'bitter,' 
occurs. The word is undoubtedly cognate 
with beijjeit (root bit, inf. bltan); the adj. 
properly signifies ' pricking, sharp,' being 
now, like beiften, restricted to the taste. For 
other cognates comp. beifjen. 

blad), adj., ' Hat,' from MidHG. black; 

it is, like Swiss blache, ' a large board,' re- 
lated to flaeb. 

■gSIacfcfifdj, m., ' cuttlefish,' from LG. 
Mackflsk. Blak is the LG. term for ink 
(blakhorn, 'inkstand'); comp. AS. bla>c, 
' ink,' E. blade (a colour and shoemaker's 
black), OHG. block. 

U.Haf)C, f., 'coare linen,' from Mid 
HG. balhe, bid, f. ; a dialect, widely dif- 
fused word, with the parallel forms bliil>e, 
plane, blache, plauwe ; the primit. form is 
Goth. *blahwa1. 

bldbcn, vb., ' to inflate,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. blozjen, OHG. bldjan, wk. vb. (the 
OHG. word also means ' to blow ' ) ; comp. 
AS. bldwan, E. to blow. The Teut. root bid 
(bli) agrees partly with Lat. flare (Aryan 
root bhld) ; blafen, 33fott, and ©fatter are 
also closely related to it. S3lafen especially 
seems to have arisen from the shorter root, 
also preserved in ^Matter, by adding s to 
the stem of the present. 

"plttfeetr, m., 'chandelier' (in Voss), 
from the equiv. LG. and Du. Mater; comp. 
AS. Meecern; from the MidLG. and Du. 
blalcen, ' to burn, glow.' For further Teut. 
and Aryan cognates see under 83(i£. 

bid nil, adj., ' bright, drawn (of a sword),' 
from the MidHG. Mane, OHG. blanch, 
'gleaming, white, resplendently beauti- 
ful.' Comp. E. blank ('white'), (AS. Manca, 
blonca, OIc. blakkr, ' white or grey horse') ; 
related to OIc. blakra, ' to gleam' ; formed 
by gradation from the root blek in 93li($ 
(conip. also blecfeu). The adj. made its way 
into Horn. (ltal. bianco, Fr. Mane), whence 
83(anfett with a Rom. suffix ; comp. also 
blafeti. The less frequent bliuf— a recent 
formation from the verb — is found as a 
parallel form to btanf in ModHG. 

"p.Hanllfcbcif, n., 'busk' (whalebone in 
a corset), corrupted in ModHG. from Fr. 

"2.51a To, f., 'blister, bubble, flaw,' from 
MidHG. bldse, OHG. bldsa; the last two 
specially mean ' urinary bladder.' Comp. 
flatter and blafen. 

bfafen, vb., 'to blow, sound, smelt,' 
from MidHG. bldsen, OHG. bldsan, 'to 
breathe, snort' ; comp. the equiv. Goth. 
bltsan; in E. only the deriv. AS. blast, E. 
blast, has been preserved. The s of blafen, 
which does not occur in the root bhlS of the 
cognate languages, is considered by some 
to be simply a present suffix which was 
not joined to the stem until a later period ; 
in that case bldfyen and 53Uttter may be cog- 



( 34 ) 


Date. The OTeut wonls with iuitial bl 
separate into two groups ; the one, contain- 
ing bidden, ©tatter, blafen, btufyen, S3lutf, seems 
to be based on tiie primary meaning of 
'swelling,' the other, comprising blanf, blafj, 
Hinfeit, bWrfctt, blt|en, blau, SBledj, Slut, on the 
notion of ' shining.' 

blag, adj., 'pale, faint (in colour),' from 
MidHG. b'as, 'bald,' figuratively 'weak, 
trifling' ; the earlier signification is 'shin- 
ing' (comp. ©lafce, from gldnjen) ; allied to 
OHG. bias, 'whitish.' Hence by muta- 
tion SSldfie, f., ' a white spot on the fore- 
head,' OIc. bles (earlier Dan. bits), MidLG. 
blare (but blusenhmgst, ' horse with a blaze'), 
Du. blaar, ' cow with a blaze.' With the 
meaning 'shining,' AS. blase, E. blaze, Mid 
HG. bias, n., 'a torch,' are connected. 

■^Uott, n., 'leaf, blade, newspaper,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. and OHG. blat, n. ; 
comp. the corresponding Du. Mad, AS. 
bleed, 'leaf,' E. blad'.; Goth. *bla}>. The 
dental of these cognates seems to be a suf- 
fix ; bla- from pre-Teut. bhlo-, as well as 
Lat. fol-ium, Gr., <f>v\\ov, 'leaf,' may have 
been formed from a root bhol, bldd. It is 
uncertain whether Goth. *blada- is really 
a partic. with an Ayran suffix 16-, with the 
meaning ' having ceased to bloom ' or ' fully 
grown.' See bluljm. 

flat i ex, f., ' pock, pustule,' from Mid 
bldtere, f., 'bladder, pock,' OHG. bldt- 
tara, f., 'bladder'; comp. Du. blaar, AS. 
bldedre, E. bladder. The Goth, form would 
be *bliJr6 (or bladrd 1 see Matter), with drd- 
as a suffix, corresponding to Gr. rpa. (see 
Slber, Matter) ; for US as a root syllable see 
blafen, bidden. 

blent, adj., from the equiv. MidHG. 
bid (Gen. bldwes), OHG. bldo, ' blue ' ; comp. 
Du. blaauw, AS. Haw, and with a suffix 
bltewen ; E. blue (from MidE. blew) is bor- 
rowed from Fr. bleu, which, with its Rom. 
cognates (Ital. biavo, from *blawo), is of 
Germ, origin. The primit cognate Lat. 
jidvus, ' flaxen, yellow,' ha«, like so many 
names of colours, changed its meaning 
compared with the Germ. word. 

£3Iducl, m., 'beetle, rolling-pin,' de- 
rived from the following word. 

Mttuert, vb., 'to beat, drub'; instinc- 
tively allied by Germans to blau (bfau 
fcfylagen, 'to beat black and blue'). It is 
based, however, on a str. vb., MidHG. bliu- 
wen, OHG. bliuwun, 'to beat' ; comp. the 
equiv. AS. *ble6wan, whence E. blow; Goth. 
bliggwan, 'to beat' (with an excrescent <#), 

for bliwan. The root seems to be blu, from 
bhlu- ; it can hardly be related primitively 
to blatt, nor is it possible to derive *bliwan 
from a root bhliw for b'-ligw from bhligh 
(comp. ©dmtf, 9Uerc), and to compare it 
with hat. fltger*. 

"^fccf), n., 'thin metal plate, tin plate,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. blkch, OHG. 
bleh, n. ; it corresponds to OIc. blik, n., 
'gold, thin plate of gold.' In Eng. the 
word is not to be met with ; it is formed 
by gradation from the root blik, which 
appears in blfid)ett, and means 'shining.' — 
j3Ied)ett, 'to pay money,' comp. beruvpm. 

blcdtcn, vb., ' to show one's teeth, grin,' 
from MidHG. blecken, 'to become visible, 
show,' OHG. b'ecclien (Goth. *blokjan). 
Factitive of a Goth. *blikun, which, accord- 
ing to the law of the permutation of con- 
sonants, is cognate with Gr. <t>\i-yu, ' to 
burn, shine' (comp. 0X07- in #X6£, ' flame '), 
Lat. flagro, ' to burn,' and the Sans, root 
b/irdj, ' to shine.' OHG. btycclien also 
means ' to lighten, gleam, shine forth.' 
For further details see UMifc. 

l$Iet, i)., ' lead,' from the equiv. MidHG. 
bit (Gen. bliwes), OHG. bllo (for *bltw), 
' lead ' ; it corresponds to OIc. bltf; Goth. 
*bleiwa- is wanting. Tlie word cannot be 
traced farther back ; it is not found in 
Eng., the term used being lead (Du. loot ; 
comp. 2ct). 

blcibctt, vb., ' to remain, continue,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. bliben, OHG. biliban ; 
comp. the corresponding AS. belt/an, Goth. 
bileioan, ' to remain ' (the factitive of which 
is bilaibjan, ' to cause to remain, leave 
over ' ; AS. Ice/an, E. to leave). It is allied 
neither to Lat. linquo nor to Gr. Xt/xw, to 
which IetJ)en is more akin ; biltbo, ' I re- 
main,' must be based on pre-Teut lipd 
(Sans, root lip, ' to adhere ') ; Gr. \11rap6i, 
'greasy, shining,' Xbrot, n., 'fat,' Xlirop^w, 
' I persist,' comes nearest to the meaning 
of the lent. vb. ; comp. OSlov. lipnati, 
Lith. lipd, 'to adhere, remain.' With the 
former meaning, ' to adhere,' ModHG. 2eber 
is connected, and with the latter, ' to per- 
sist, abide,' the ModHG. 8eib and gfbtit. 
See the separate words. 

bletcf), adj., ' pale, wan,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. bleich, OHG. bleih; comp. AS. 
bide, bltece, E. bUai; Du. bleek, OIc bleikr, 
'pale,' from the root blik appearing in 
bWidjen. Derivatives : ModHG. SMetd^e, f., 
' bleaching, bleach ing-yard, wan appear- 
ance ' ; fcleidjfti, ' to bleach, turn pale. 


( 35 ) 


bleidjen, vb., ' to lose colour,' etbleicfyen, 
' to grow pale,' from MidHG. blichen, * to 
shine, blush,' OHG. blihhan; comp. AS. 
bllccu>, MidM bltken, 'to turn pale' ; OIc. 
blikja, ' to appear, shine, lighten.' The i 
root of Slav, blislcati, ' to sparkle ' (for *blig- 
skati),blesku, i splendour,' Lith. blaivytis, 'to 
clear up,' is more closely connected with 
the word than the e root in <l>\£yu, * to burn, 
flame.' The pre-Teut. form of the root 
was perhaps bhlig, meaning ' lustre ' (comp. 
also 93tedj, Ueity ; further OHG. Mick, see 
©H{$).— ]$teid)er(f), m., 'pale-red wine, 
claret,' a recent deriv. from bleidj. 

jlUcihc, f., ' whitebait, bleak,' Du. term 
for a sj)ecies of white fish ; comp. Du. 
blei, MidLG. and MidDu. bleie, AS. blcege, 
E. *blay ; from blajj&n for *blaigj&n (comp. 
OHG. reia, AS. rouge, from raigjon; see 
under CM)). As ModHG. fHi<f e is a parallel 
form of OHG. rtia, so MidHG. and ModHG. 
(Swiss) blicke is a variant of LG. bleie. The 
primary meaning and further cognates are 
uncertain ; OHG. bleihha, MidHG. bleiche, 
Avould point to a connection with bleid) 
(comp. OIc. bligja, ' to glance at '). 

blenben, vb., ' to blind,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. btynden, OHG. blpnten; comp. AS. 
btyndan, whereas E. has to blind based 
upon blind; factitive of blinb. It is re- 
markable in connection with this word 
that an old form, *blandj<m, as it would be 
written in Golh., is derived by gradation 
from an adj. (blinds, Goth.) ; a str. vb. 
blindan, ' to be blind,' has never existed. 
93lenbe, 'blind, screen,' first found in Mod 
HG., is a deriv. of blenben. 

■^SUmMtng, m., 'mongrel,' from Mid 
HG. blanden, OHG. blantan, ' to mix ' ; 
Goth, blandan. This OTeut. str. vb., mean- 
ing ' to mix,' is based, according to the laws 
of the permutation of consonants, on a 
pre-Teut. root bhlandh, not iound in any 
other word. 

blelften, * to patch,' see under *piacfen. 

j&ItCR, m., ' glance, look, gleam,' from 
MidHG. blick, ' splendour, lightning, 
glance'; corresponds to OHG. blic (blicches), 
in., 'lightning' (also blicfiur, 'electricity'). 
The orig. sense of the MidHG. word was 
probably fyellet ©ttaf/l (a bright flash), (Strati 
bein^ used figuratively of the eye as of 
lightning ; the physical meaning of the 
stem has been preserved in 93li$. The 
root is shown under bWcfen, and especially 
under 93lifc, to be the pre-Teut. b'deg. 

blinb, adj., 'blind,' from MidHG. 

blint(d), ' blind, dark, murky, hidden, null,' 
OHG. blint; comp. the corresponding Goth. 
blinds, AS. blind, E. blind. An ancient but 
very remarkable factitive form from this 
adj., with no parallel str. vb., is blenben 
(Goth. *blandjan). It is still undecided 
whether d is an old partic. suffix, like 
Gr. -tos, Lat. -tus, Sans, -tas ; considering 
the meaningof the word, it might easily be 
connected with the Sans, root bhram, ' to 
move unsteadily ' (partic. b/trdntd-s). Yet 
its kinship with Lith. blandyti, ' to cast 
down the eyes,' blindo, blisti, ' to grow dark,' 
is more probable (comp. OIc. blunda, ' to 
close, blink the eyes,' E. to blunder). — An- 
other word for ' blind ' in the Aryan group 
is Lat. caecus, Olr. cdech; Goth, haihs, cor- 
responding to these, means ' one-eyed.' 
It seems, moreover, that in i he Aryan lan- 
guages there were no terms for ' blind, deaf, 
lame, dumb,' and other infirmities, com- 
mon to all of them ; there is only an agree- 
ment between two or three languages at 

]23Itnl>fdjtetd)e, see under fdjletcfjen. 

btmfcett, vb., ' to "learn, twinkle, blink,' 
first occurs in ModHG. ; related to blank, 
blink, adj. ; comp. Du. blinken, MidE 
blinken, E. to blink. The root may be iden- 
tical with that of bleiclfjen (bltkm), the i- 
root becoming nasalised ; blinfen would 
then be regarded as a verb of the e class, 
and blanf a secondary form. 

blinjeln, vb., ' to blink, wink.' It may 
be connected with blinb; yet comp. also 
OIc. blunda, ' to blink,' and Lith. blandyti, 
' to cast down the eyes.' 

"jKUf^, m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
blitze, blicz>; blicz, m., 'lightning' (Swiss 
even now blitzq for bliktz) ; a derivative 
of MidHG. bliczen, 'to lighten,' OHG. 
blecchazzen (formed like the equiv. Goth. 
lauhatjun). Allied to the earlier OHG. and 
MidHG. blic, 'lightning.' The Teut, root 
blek corresponds to Aryan bhleg, bhlog, in Gr. 
i>\iyu>, ' to burn, blaze,' <f>\6£, ' flame,' Sans. 
bhrdj, ' to radiate, sparkle ' (whence Sans. 
bharga{s), ' splendour,' and bnrgu, 'the spe- 
cial gods of light '), as well as Lat fulgur, 
fulmen (for *fidgmeri), ' lightning.' To the 
Aryan root bhleg the following also belong: 
Du. bliksem, OSax. bliksmo, bliksni, 'light- 
ning,' Du. blaken, ' to flame.' AS. blascern, 
blacern, ' candlestick ' (see 93lafcr), and per- 
haps blanf (comp. further blerfen and 93li(f ). 

j$Iodt, m., 'block, log, prison,' from 
MidHG. bloch, ' log, plant, a sort of trap.' 


( 36 ) 


In the latter signification (to which Mid 
HG. bloclcen, * to put in prison,' is related) 
it represents OHG. bil6h (with syncopated 
i; see other similar examples under bei), 
* lock-up,' which belongs to an OTeut. str. 
vb. l&kan, * to lock ' (comp. further E. lock; 
see ?od)). The meaning ' log, plank ' (Mid 
HG. b'.och), is probably based on a different 
word, which is most likely related to 93alfm; 
even in OHG., bloh occurs. The cognates 
passed into Rom. (Fr. bloc, bloquer), whence 
again ModHG. blccftercn, E. to block. 

bfdbe, adj., 'weak, dim-sighted, imbe- 
cile,' from MidHG. blocde, * infirm, weak, 
tender, timid,' OHG. bttdi, OSax. bim, 
'timid.' Comp. AS. bledp, 'weak/ OIc. 
blaufrr ; Goth. *blauj?us, ' weak, powerless,' 
may be inferred from its deriv. wk. vb. 
Uaupjan, ' to render powerless, invalid, to 
abolish' According to the permutation of 
consonants, the pre-Teut. form of the adj. 
may have been bhl&utu-s, with the primary 
meaning * powerless, weak.' Yet the stem 
cannot be traced farther back. From this 
word Fr. Slouir, ' to dazzle/ is borrowed. 

blofcett, vb., ' to bleat,' ModHG. simply, 
of LG. origin. Comp. LG. bloken, blelcen, 
MidDu. bloiken. 

blonb, adj., ' blonde, fair,' from MidHG. 
blunt{d), 'fair,' which first appears when 
the Fr. influence began (about 1200 A.D.), 
and is undoubtedly of Fr. origin. Fr. blond, 
Ital. biondo, MidLat. blundus, give the im- 
pression that these words were borrowed 
from Teut., especially since other Tent. 
names of colours have been adopted by 
Rom. (comp. blau, btanf, braun). The earl ier 
periods of OTeut. have, however, no adj. 
blunda-. The connection of MidLat. and 
Rom. blundo with blinb (OIc. blunda) maybe 
possible (comp. Lith. pry-blinde, ' twilight'), 
especially as the meaning of the names of 
colours is variable. 

blofj, adj., 'bare, destitute, mere,' from 
MidHG. bl6%. 'exposed, naked' ; it corre- 
sponds to MidLG. and MidDu. bloot, ' bare,' 
AS. bledt, 'poor, wretched' (OIc., 
' soft, fresh, tender,' as well as OHG. M63, 
'proud,' have a divergent meaning). On 
account of the UpQ. and LG. Mutt (dial.), 
Swed. blott, 'unfledged, uncovered, unclad,' 
the origin of Teut. blauto-, 'mere,' is dubi- 
ous. Perhaps btcfcc is a cognate. 

blufcen, vb., 'to bloom, flower,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. bliien, blilejen, OHG. 
bluqjan; a wk. vb., which, however, judging 
by AS. bldivan (E. to blow), 'to bloom,' formerly strong ; Goth. Hldjan. The 
Teut. stem bid- has a wide ramification in 
particular dialects; the primary se: 
' to bloom.' It is further apparent in many 
words for Sfatt ('leaf') and Slume ('flower 1 ); 
see the following word, where the non- 
Teut cognates are discussed. 

"JUfltmc, f., 'blossom, flower,' from Mid 
HG. b'uome, m., f., OHG. bluoma, f. (bluomo, 
m.) ; comp.. OSax. bl6mo, Goth. bl6ma, AS. 
bloma, E. bloom, -man- is a deriv. sullix ; 
the root bid (see Hufte") shows that SMttnie 
is lit. 'the blooming plant.' The follow* 
ing an; also Teut cognates of 5Mume : — 
Du. bloesem (besides bloem), AS. bldstm, 
blostma, E. blossom; perhaps their s be- 
longs, however, to the root ; this is indi- 
cated by MidDu. bloscn, 'to bloom,' which 
points to the close connection between E. 
blossom and Lat. flortre for *Jl6se-re, JlCs 
(flor-is for *Jlosis). A root bhl6 without 
this s appears in Olr. bldth, ' blossom,' K. 
dial, blooth, 'flower.' See further the fol- 
lowing word, also 35lute and 93fatt. 

"gUltJI, m. (Suab. and Swiss, bhceSf, n.), 
from the equiv. MidHG. bluost, f., ' bio.— 
som'; Goth. *blos-ts is connected perhaps 
with the Aryan root bhl6s, 'to bloom,' pre- 
served in AS. U6s-tma, hut./lorere (for *Jlds- 
ere). See SBlume and 93lute. 

j&Iuf, n., ' blood, race,' from the eqniv. 
MidHG. bluot, OHG. bluot, n. ; it corre- 
sponds regularly to Du. bloed, AS. b!6d, E. 
blood. An OTeut word meaning ' blood,' 
which is common to all the dialects ; comp. 
Goth, bldfra- (for *bl6da-). Pre-Teut. Uldto- 
does not appear in any cognate language 
with the same meaning. The Aryan lan- 
guages have no common word for blood. 
With respect to the Teut word, it is still 
undecided whether it belongs to a root bl6, 
'to bloom.' Comp. also E. to bleed (for 
*blodjan). For 33lureo,ct see 3gc(. 2Mut; 
in compounds like btutjuno., bdttarm, has 
nothing to do with Slut, but is dial, with 
the meaning ' bare, naked ' ; UnG. and LG. 

blufrtmfftfl, see runjluj. 

bluff, see blobe. 

"§\li\lc, f., 'blossom, bloom, prime,' from 
the plur. of the equiv. MidHG. bluot, plur. 
bliiete, OHG. bluot, plur. bluoti, f. ; Goth. 
*bl6J>s, AS. blid. See bluett, JBlume, SStufr, 
Slut, and Slatt. 

"23od)er, Jew., 'youth, student,' from 
Hebr. back&r, 'youth.' 

^ocft, m., 'buck, he-goat, ram,' from 


( 37 ) 


the equiv. MidHG. bock (gen. bockes), OHG. 
boc, in. ; corresponds to Du. bole, AS. bucca, 
E. buck, OIc. bulckr and bultkr (Gotli. *bukks, 
*bid-ka, m.). Like so tnany name3 of ani- 
mals (comp. e.g. Slue, @cifj), 33ocf too may- 
have descended from primit. Aryan times ; 
comp. Olr. bode, from primit. Kelt, bucco-. 
Although it is not quite impossible tliat 
the whole Tent, class was borrowed from 
Kelt., yet it seems more probable, on 
account of Armen. buc, 'lamb,' and Zend 
biiza, 'he-goat' (Aryan primitive form 
bhuga), that it was only primit. akin to 
Kelt. Fr. bouc maybe derived from Tent 
or Kelt. Another OTeut. word (related 
to Lat. caper, Gr. ic&irpos) is preserved in 
ModllG. Jpabcrgetjj.— Serf, 'mistake,' Mod 
HG. only, seems to be a pun due to Mod 
HG. SScruofj, ' blunder.' The origin of the 
phrase ctueit ©erf fd)tejjen Cto commit a 
blunder') is not clear ; note, however, that 
etite Severe fcfytefjett is 'to fall head over 
heels.' — Sod (whence Fr. boc), for ©erfbtcv, 
which first occurs in ModHG., is an abbrev. 
of Giitborf (now (Simberfcr SMcr); comp. the 
origin of Skater. 

■gjo&sbeitfel, m., 'old prejudice,' first 
occurs in ModHG., and connected instinc- 
tively by Germans with 23orf ; it is, how- 
ever, of LG. origin, bocks- representing boks 
('of the book'). The women of Hamburg 
used to carry their hymn-books at their side 
in a satchel, which they were always fond of 
wearing. When applied to a sort of bottle, 
93crfdbeutct has a different origin, and means 
properly ' the scrotum of the buck.' 

j$OOCU, m., 'bottom, ground, soil, loft,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. boden, bodem, gen. 
bodemes (the dial. ModHG. bodem is still 
used, comp. the proper name SBofcnter), 
OHG. bodam, m., which still exists in the 
cognate dialects and language*. OHG. 
bodam points, however, not to Goth. *bu}>- 
ma-, but, with a remarkable irregularity, to 
*budna-, the corresponding AS. botm, E. 
bottom, exhibiting a further irregularity in 
the dental. Goth. *budna- seems probable, 
since the non-Teut. languages of the Aryan 
stock point to bhudhme», bhudhn.6- as the 
*tem ; Gr. trvO^v, 6 (lor *<pvdfj.fy, see bieten), 
'bottom' ; hut. fundus (for *fudnus), Sans. 
budhnd- (for *bhudhnd-, by the same rule 
as in Gr.). It is a primit. Aryan word, 
with the meaning 'bottom, ground,' but is 
not connected, however, with a str. vb. in 
any Aryan language. — SBobenfee obtained 
its name during the Carolovingian period 

(formerly Lacus Briyantinus, < Lake Con- 
stance') from the imperial palace at Bo- 
dema (now Bodmann), which may be the 
plur. of the subst. S3ocen. 

"giJoomeret, f., 'money advanced on the 
security of the ship's keel or bottom' (i.e. 
the ship itselfX from Du. bodmerte, E. 
bottomry (whence Fr. bomerie). 

33ofirt, m., ' puck-ball,' ModHG. only, 
properly 'knave's fizzling' (see under Jyift); 
comp. AS, iculfes fist, the name of the plant 
(E. bulljist), of which Gr.-Lat. lycoperdon is 
a late imitation. 

^.JoctCtt, to., ' bow, arc, vault, sheet (of 
paper),' from MidHG. boge, OHG. bogo, m., 
'bow'; comp. AS. boga, E. bow; Goth. 
*bnga. Properly a deriv. of btegctt, hence 
orig. ' curve, bend,' connected with the 
equiv. cognates of 93ud)t ; comp. further 
the primit. Teut. compounds (IKeitbccjcn, 

■gSofcte, f., 'plank, board,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. bole; comp. OIc. bolr 
(whence E. bole), ' trunk (of a tree)' ; per- 
haps connected with MidHG. boln, ' to 
roll,' Gr. <pd\ay*, ' trunk.' See 33ofhmf. 

■ggofittC, f., ' bean,' from MidHG. bdne, 
OHG. bona, {.; the corresponding AS. 
bean, E. bean, Du. boon, OIc. baun, have 
the same meaning. The early existence of 
this word is attested by the name of the 
Fris. islands, Baunonia. It has not vet 
been possible to find a connecting link 
between the primit. Teut. term and the 
equiv. Lat. faba, OSlov. bobu (Gr. </>o.k6s, 

bofencit, vb., ' to wax (a floor), polish,' 
first occurs in ModHG. from the equiv. 
LG. b6nen ; comp. Du. bocnen, ' to scour,' 
AS. bdnian, 'to polish' (E. dial, to boon, 
'to mend roads'). Allied to these is the 
MidHG. bfanen (orig. HG), ' to polish ' 
(Goth. *bdnjan). The Teut. root bdn, from 
pre-Teut. b/idn, 'to shine, glitter,' is pro- 
bably connected with the Gr. root 4>ou> 
(if>aivw), Sans, bhdnu, 'sheen, light, ray,' 
Olr. bdn, 'white.' 

j^johncttftcb, 'bean-song' (in the phrase 
ehvafl gcl)t fiber taS 83c()iienlieb, applied to 
something incomparably good) ; the word 
may be traced as far back as the 15th cent., 
but the song itself has not been discovered. 
It may have been an obscene poem, since 
the bean among various nations is adopted 
as the symbol of lewdness (comp. the 
mediaeval bean-feast, Gr. xvavtfia). 

"^dfenfeofc, m., ' bungler, clumsy work- 


( 38 ) 


man,' first found in ModHG. ; generally 
asserted to be a popular corruption of Gr. 
f}&vav<ros, which means ' artisan ; ' but it is 
inexplicable how ihe Gr. word found its 
way into popular speech. It is more pro- 
bably of real German origin, although the 
primary meaning cannot be got at ; we must 
begin with the fact that the word is native 
to LG., and is chiefly used in Tailors' 
Guilds. We must probably regard hase as 
a LG. form for §ofe (see 3lberg(aube, 9lbebar). 
33cf)tt is generally considered to be a LG. 
word for 39ur>ne, 'garret'; hence 93of)tu)afe 
is perhaps ' one who makes breeches in the 
garret, petty tailor ' (opposed to one whose 
workroom is on the first floor). 

bobrcn, vb., ' to bore, pierce,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. born, OHG. bordn; coinp. 
the corresponding Du. boren, AS. borian, 
E. to bore (and bore, 'hole made by boring') ; 
Goth. *badr6n. The prim. Teut. bdrdn, ' to 
bore,' is primit. cognate with Lat. forare, 
' to bore, Gr. <f>apa.u, ' I plough ' ; Sans. 
bhurij, ' scissors,' belongs to the same root, 
and in Ir. there is a verbal root berr, from 
bherj, meaning ' to shear.' The primary 
meaning of tins root bhar, which differs 
from that appearing in ©eburt and Lat, 
fern, Gr. <p£pw, was probably 'to fashion 
with a sharp instrument.' Comp. ModHG. 
dial. 93cf>rer, ' woodlouse,' E. bore. 

"gSot, m., ' baize,' ModHG. only, from 
LG. baje, Du. baai, which is borrowed from 
Rom. (Fr. boie) ; perhaps E. baize is pro- 
perly a plur. 

"g&oifalfy m., « bay-salt,' ModHG. only, 
of LG. origin, for ffiaifalt ; comp. 93ai and 
E. bay-salt. 

jJBoje, f., 'buoy,' from the LG. b'je, Du. 
boei, E. buoy, which are borrowed from 
Rom. ; comp. Fr. boude, ' buoy,' OFr. buie, 
* chain, fetter,' whence MidHG. boie, ' fet- 
ter.' The ultimate source of the word is 
Lat. boja, ' fetter ' ; the buoy was originally 
a floating piece of wood with a rope fastened 
to it. 

"gjolcben, m., ' cod,' like 93eld)e (1.), from 
the equiv. MidHG. balche; of obscure ori- 

:bolb, in compounds like SRaufbolb, 3Bi|$- 
bofb, &c, from MidHG. bolt, gen. boldes ; 
it is the unaccented form of the MidHG. 
adj., bait, ' bold,' which is discussed under 

botfceit, vb., 'to roar, bleat,' ModHG. 
only, and perhaps cognate with bfdcn, 
which had formerly a wider signification 

than in ModHG. ; comp. Du. bulktn, ' to 
bellow, bleat' 

boll, adj., 'stiff (of leather), brittle, hard' ; 
ModHG. only ; origin obscure. 

■^.'ollc (1.), f., 'onion,' properly iden- 
tical with the following word ; both arc 
subdivisions of a probable primary mean- 
ing, 'bulbaceous' It is hardly probable 
that Gr. j3oX/36y, Lat. bulbus (whence E. bulb), 
' bulb, onion,' had any influence on the 
meaning. See also 3»tcbe(. 

|3oUc (2.), ' bulb,' from MidHG. bolle, 
OHG. bolla, f., ' bud, bowl ' ; comp. the 
corresponding AS. bolla, 'vessel, bowl,' 
E. bowl (ModHG. 95int>tf, is borrowed from 
Eng.). Interesting forms are OHG. hir- 
vibolla, 'skull,' and the equiv. AS. hed- 
fodbolla. It is evident that there was 
orig. some such idea as 'boss-shaped' in 
the OTeut. word ; comp. further MidHG. 
boln, OHG. boldn, ' to roll, throw, hurL' 

poller, m., 'small mortar (for throw- 
ing shells),' ModHG. only, a deriv. of the 
MidHG. boln, ' to throw,' mentioned under 
the preceding word ; comp. late MidHG. 
boler, ' catapult.' 

■^JoIIttJerfc, n., 'bulwark, bastion,' from 
late MidHG. bolweri; 'catapult, bulwark,' 
in the former sense cognate with the pre- 
ceding word ; in the latter probably con- 
nected with 93cl;le ; Du. bolwerk, E. bul- 
wark. The Teut. word in the sense of ' bul- 
wark,' which belongs to it since the 15th 
cent., found its way into Slav, and Rom. 
(Ru.«s. bolverk, Fr. boulevard). 

jBol,}, "g3ol3Cn, m., 'short arrow-bolt,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. bolz, OHG. bolz, 
m. ; comp. the equiv. OIc. bolte, AS. bolt, E. 
bolt; allied to Du. bout, 'cramp-pin.' The 
word has the same meaning in all dialects, 
and in all the various periods of the Teut. 
languages. We may assume a pre-Teut. 
bh\d6s, with the meaning ' bolt, dart ' ; yet 
no such word outside the Teut. group can 
be adduced. 99cl$m cannot be immediately 
akin to MidHG. boln, ' to throw, hurl,' since 
the Teut. t could not be explained as a 
deriv. from pre-Teut d. But it is at least 
possible, on account of the great antiquity 
of the cognates, that they were borrowed 
from Lat. catapulta and remodelled. 

■§3omba(tn, m., 'bombasine,' ModHG. 
only, from Fr. bombasin, whence also E. 
bombasine; the original word is Lat-Gr. 
bombyx, 'silkworm, silk.' 

jSontbalf, m., borrowed in the 18th 
cent, from E. bombast, which is not cognate 


( 39 ) 


with iro/iwi}, 'pomp, parade,' Fr. pompe ; iis 
orig. sense is ' cotton,' then ' padding,' and 
finally 'inflated language.' Its ultimate 
source is Lat. bombyx; comp. the preceding 

"gjoof, n.j 'boat,' ModHG. only (not 
found in Luther), borrowed from LG. 
boot; comp. the equiv. Du. boot, AS. bdt, 
E. boat, OIc. beitr. This word, which is 
still unknown to the UpG. dialects, is at 
all events native to England, whence it 
made its way during the AS. period into 
OIc. (bdtr), and in MidE. times to the Con- 
tinent (Du. boot). The origin of AS. bdt, 
OIc. beitr, has not been discovered ; like 
many other nautical terms, this word too 
is first recorded in Eng. Moreover, the 
assumption that the word was borrowed 
in primit. Teut. times must be discarded. 

"gBorb, m., ' board,' borrowed, like many 
other nautical expressions (see the preced- 
ing word), from LG. Bord, as a naval term, 
is found very early in AS., where it is 
explained by tabula; in HG. the word 
would end in t, as MidHG. and OHG. bort 
(gen. bortes), 'ship's side,' testify; besides 
Otanb or Oiamft is the more frequent term 
in UpG. for what is called b.rd in LG. 
E. board combines two quite different 
words ; the one, AS. bora, signifies lit. 
' board, plank ' (Goth. fCtubaurd, ' foot- 
board,' to which Du. dambord, 'draught- 
board,' is allied), and is primit. cognate 
with HG. Srett ; the other means only 
' edge.' See Sort and Srett. 

"g&Svbe, f. (the Sorbe of Soest), 'fertile 
plain, plain bordering on a river'; from 
LG. borde, MidLG. geborde, 'department,' 
prop. ' propriety,' corresponding in form to 
OHG. giburida. 

3$oroeU, n., 'brothel,' ModHG. only, 
from Fr. bordel (whence also E bordd 
and brothel), a Rom. deriv. from Ger. Sort, 
'board,' and meaning orig. 'a hut.' 

botbievctl, vb., ' to border (a dress),' 
from Fr. border, which comes from Ger. 

"gSoretfd), "§3orrdfcf), m., 'borage' 
from the equiv. Fr. bourrache (comp. Ital. 
borragine), whence also the E. term. 

borgctt, vb., 'to borrow, lend,' from 
MidHG. borgen, OHG. borgln, orig. 'to 
watch over, spare a person,' then 'to remit 
him his debt, to borrow ' • also ' to be surety 
for something' ; similarly AS. borgian, 'to 
protect' and ' to borrow,' E. to borrow. Since 
the meaning 'to watch over' underlies 

both borgett, ' to borrow,' and burden, ' to be 
responsible,' the word may be compared 
with OBulg. brega, 'I take care of.' The 
root may have been Teut. borg-, pre-Teut. 
bhergh- ; perhaps bergen is to be connected 
witli the same root. 

I&otke, f., 'bark,' a LG. loan-word, 
which is not found in UpG. The proper 
HG. is {Riiibe. Comp. LG. barke, Eng. 
and Dan. bark, OIc. bqrkr, 'bark'; Goth. 
*barkus is not recorded. Its connection 
with bmjen (in the sense of 'concealing') 
may be possible as far as its form is con- 
cerned ; but on account of Sans. bhUrja, m. 
' birch,' n. ' birch-bark,' its relation to Sirfe 
is more probable. 

"^ortt, m., 'fountain,' LG. form for 
HG. Srunnen. 

1$5rfe, f., from Mill II G. burse, 'purse, 
small bag,' also ' a number of persons living 
together,' OHG. burissa, 'pocket.' Comp. 
Du. beurs; of Rom. origin (Fr. bourse, Ital. 
borsa) ; the Rom. class is derived finally 
from Gr. ftipoa, 'hide.' This word sup- 
planted an OTeut. term which shows a 
similar development of meaning — OIc 
pungr, 'leather bottle, scrotum, purse,' 
Goth, puggs, OHG. scazpfung, ' purse.' 

JKorfl, m., ' burst, chink,' from bcrflen. 

gBorfle, f., ' bristle,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. borste, f., burst, borst, m., n., OHG. 
burst, m., n. ; comp. AS. byrst, and with a 
suffix /, brj/stl, E. bristle; Goth. *baurstus 
or *baursts, f., is not recorded. Bars- is 
the Teut. form of the root ; comp. further 
E. bur, from AS. *burr (for *burzu-, pro- 
perly ' bristly '). Pre-Teut. bliers- shows 
itself in Olnd. bhrS-(i-, 'point, prong, cor- 
ner'; also in Lat. fastigium, 'extreme 
edge ' ?. Comp. SurjU. 

"28ort, n., 'board,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. bort; comp. Goth, fdtubaurd, 'foot- 
stool,' OSax. and Du. bord, AS. bord, ' board, 
shield, table,' E. board (see Sorb). The 
OTeut. word bord meant tne same as Srett, 
to which it is related by gradation ; the 
apparent metathesis of re to or is OTeut., 
as in forfd)en in relation to fracjen ; Srett, 
Sort mav be represented in Ind. as brddhas, 
brdhas. " See Srett. 

"gjorfc, f., 'ribbon or trimming of gold 
thread and silk,' the earlier meaning is 
simply 'border'; MidHG. borte, 'border, 
frame, ribbon, lace' (comp. further the 
cognate. Sorb), OHG. borto, 'seam, trim- 
ming' (whence Ital. bordo, ' border, frame,' 
Fr. bord). 


( 40 ) 



bflfc, adj., from the equiv. MidHG. 
base, OilG. b6si, • bad, useless, slanderous.' 
A word peculiar to (Jerm., not found in 
the other dialects ; the primary meaning, 
lidding from OHG. bCsa, * buffoonery,' 
\usdn, 'to vilify,' was probably 'speaking 
malevolently.' If -si- were regarded us a 
sullix, Gr. <f>au\ot (perhaps for <pav<r-\os), 
with the evolution of meaning 'trifling, 
bad, wicked,' would be connected with befe. 

'g&ofcwidyt, nii, 'villain, scamp,' from 
MidHG. bccseu-Utt, OHG. bOsiwiht. See 

"§305f)Cif, 'malice,' from MidHG. and 
OHG. bdsheit, without mutation, because t, 
the cause of the mutation, was soon synco- 
pated. (S'tnpvren is not cognate. 

boflTdn (1.1 vb., 'to play at skittles' ; 
allied to MidHG. bSzen (without tiie de- 
riv. I), 'to strike' and 'to play at skittles.' 
See Slmbcfj and 93cute(. 

boffcln (2.), vb., 'to work in relief,' 
from Fr. bosseler, whence also E.' to emboss. 

"giote, in., 'messenger,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. bote, OHG. boto; comp. OLG. 
and ODu. bodo, AS. boda, 'messenger.' To 
this a3ctfd)aft, from MidHG. boteschaft, 
botschqft, OHG. botoscaft, butascaf (OSax. 
bodscepi, AS. bodscipe), is related. See 
<Ed)aft. Bote (Goth. *buda) is the name of 
the agent, from the root bud, Aryan bhudh, 
appearing in bitten. 

^ioltdycr, ii».> 'cooper,' name of the 
agent, from the following word. 

12.>oUid), m., 'tub, vat,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. botech, boteche, ni , OHG. botahha, 
f. ; it is probably related to the cognates 
of ^utte ; comp. further AS. bodig, E. body, 
OHG. budeming, perhaps also ModHG. 
93ebett 1. Considering the deriv. of Mod 
HG. 93ifd)of from episcopus, we may assume 
that 93cttid) is allied to Lat-Gr. apotheca; 
comp. Ital. bottega (Fr. boutique). 

"^Uowlc, f., from the equiv. E. bowl. See 
Q3oUe (2.). 

boxen, vb., ModHG. only, from the 
equiv. E. to box. 

brad), adj. (espec. in compounds such 
as 93rad)felb, &c), 'uncultivated, fallow,' 
merely ModHG. In MidHG. there is only 
the compound brdchmdn6t, 'June,' which 
contains a subst. brdche, 1'., OHG. brdhha 
(MidLG. brdke) y 'aratio prima,' as its first 
component ; 93rad)e is 'turning up the soil 
after harvest ' ; from brcd)en. 

^3 retch, n., 'refuse, trash,' from Mid 
LG. brak, 'infirmity, defect,' properly 

' breach ' ; comp. E. brack (' breach, flaw '). 
See crcd)cn. 

p.> niche, in., 'setter, beagle,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. and MidLG. bracke, OHO, 
braccho ; scarcely akin to AS. race, E. 
ra<h ('setter'), and OIc. rakke; in this 
case the initial 6 of the Ger. word would 
be equal to bi (see be;, bet), which U 
improbable. E. brack ('setter, beagle'), 
from MidE. brache, is derived from OFr. 
brache, which, with its Rom. cognates 
(comp. I till, bracco, Fr. braque, bracket), is 
of Ger. origin. If we must assume Goth. 
*brakka-, the word, on account of the mean- 
ing 'hound,' might be connected with Lut, 
fragrare, 'to smell strongly.' 

j$radm>afrer, n., 'brackish water,' first 
occurs in ModHG., from LG. brakwater, 
comp. Du. brakwater; to this E. bra<k 
('salt'), Du. brack, 'salty,' ate allied; E. 
brackish water. 

jSrcicjen, m., 'brain' (LG.), from Mid 
LG. bregen, equiv. to Du. brein, E. brain, 
AS. brcegea; no other related words are 

fram, see QkemBfeve, uerbramen. 
ramfecjel, n., 'gallant-sail' ; "§3ram- 
flancjC, f., 'gallant-mast,' ModHG. only ; 
of Du. origin ; comp. Du. bramzeil, with 
the same meaning. 

2$ ret no, m., 'fire, conflagration, morti- 
fication, blight,' from the equiv. MidHG. 
brant{d), OHG. brant, m. ; comp. AS. 
brand, E. brand, OIc. brandr, 'brand, resi- 
nous wood'; from bremten. The root is 
bren (from the Germ., the Rom. cognates 
Ital. brando, ' sword,' Fr. brandon, ' torch,' 
are derived). S3raiibniarfcn, 'to burn in a 
mark,' first occurs in ModHG. 

brcmben, vb., ' to surge,' ModHG. only, 
from LG. and Du. branden, wliich is con- 
nected with 93ranb, and means lit. 'to 
blaze, to move like flames' ; from this 
Q3raitbung is formed. 

"jHJranocr, m., ModHG. only, from the 
equiv. Du. brander, 'a ship filled with 
combustibles for setting the vessels of the 
enemy on fire, fireship.' 

lSraf)tte, f, 'outskirts of a wood.' See 

"gJraflTc, f., ' rope at the end of the sail- 
yards, brace,' first occurs in ModHG., from 
Du. bras, Fr. bras (from brachium), pro- 
perly 'arm,' then 'a brace (on a yard).' 
Ukafjen, ' to brace, swing the yards of aship,' 
is Du. brassen, from Fr. brasser ; comp. also 
K brace (* a yard rope '), of the same origin. 


( 4i ) 


|Srttf]fett, in., ' bream,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. bra/isen, brasem, OHG. brahsa, 
bralisima, brahsina, m., f. ; the UpG. 
dialects still preserve the form Skadjeme 
(the forms 95ra(Te, f., SSraftnt, m., are Mid 
LG. and MidGer.). Comp. the equiv. 
Du. brasem, E. brasse. From OGer. is de- 
rived Fr. brSme (horn brahsme ?), whence E. 
bream is borrowed. The class belongs per- 
haps to an OTeut. str. vb. brehioan, 'toshine.' 

"g^rafcn, ra 1 'roast-meat,' from Mid 
HG. brdte, OHG. brdto, m. ; in the earlier 
periods of the language the word has the 
general meaning 'tender parts of the body, 
flesh,' but in MidHG. the modern mean- 
ing is also apparent. To this AS. brcede, 
' roast-meat,' is allied. Comp. the follow- 
ing word. 

btCltetl, vb., ' to roast, broil, fry,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. brdten, OHG. brdtan ; 
comp. Du. braden, AS. brmlan, 'to roast' ; 
a Goth. str. vb. *bredan is to be assumed. 
The root may have been a pre-Teut. b/ired/i 
or bhrit; in support of the latter we may 

Serhaps adduce OHG. brddam, quoted un- 
er '-Bcobcm. 53ruten (Goth. *brbdjari) might 
also be assigned to the same root. The 
pre-Teut. bhrSdli is also indicated by Gr. 
vprflu (if it stands for <pprjQw ?), * to consume, 
set on fire' (chiefly in combination with 
vvpi). See also SMb^tet. 

brcittcfjen, vb., ' to use, need, want, re- 
quire,' from the equiv. MidHG. brUcheu, 
OHG. brdhhan; comp. the corresponding 
AS. brAcan, 'to enjoy,' also 'to digest, 
tolerate,' E. to brook; Goth. *br£kjan, 'to 
use, enjoy.' Notfound Scand. The 
pre-Teut. form of the root bhrUg accords 
with Lat. fruor, which originated in 
*fruvor for *frugvor ; the Lat. partic. 
fructus, which phonetically is identical with 
gcbraudjt and Goih. br-Ahts, shows the final 
guttural of the root, ami so does Lat. fruges, 
&c. The following are Teut. noun forms 
from the root brUk (bhrAg) : ModHG. 
J8wu#, m. (comp. OHG. brA'i), Goth. 
brdis, AS. brtfce, OHG. brAchi, 'service- 
able, useful.' 

"jBrauc, £> ' eyebrow ' from the equiv. 
MidHG. brd, brdwe, OHG. brdica, f. ; a 
pre-Teut. and more remotely old Aryan 
word, which was perhaps *brhva in Goth. 
The OGall. and Kelt, brlva, identical with 
this word, signifies 'bridge,' and is especi- 
ally important as proving the connection 
between these cognates and those of 33rncff. 
OHG. brdxca (Aryan bhriwd) is related by 

gradation to Aryan bhrA, which is proved 
by AS. brA, E. broxo, OSlov. bruvi, Sans. 
bluH, Gr. 6-<frpvs. Comp. further Olc. brd, 
OLG. brdha (for brdica), AS. brdiw, m., 
and also perhaps Lat. frons, ' forehead.' A 
widely diffused Aryan root. The ModHG. 
SBWMK has added to the stem the suffix n, 
which belonged to the declension of the 
weak form 93ratte (comp. 39ieite) ; similarly 
Olc br&n, corresponding to AS. brA, was 
formed from bril and the n of the weak 
declension (in AS. the gen. plur. is brAna). 
23taue, like the names of many limbs and 
parts of the body (see gu§, 9liere, £crj, ?ebcr, 
9htfe), originated in the primit. Aryan 
period. The orig. meaning, however, of 
the primit. Aryan bhrft-s (' eye)-brow,' is 
as difficult to discover as that of ^frj. See 
also 33viicfe. 

braxxen, vb , 'to brew,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. brAwen, briuwen, OHG. briuwan; 
comp. the corresponding Olc. brugga, Du. 
brouwen, AS. bre&tvan, E. to brew. To the 
OTeut root bru (from Aryan bhru-, bhrSw), 
' to brew,' which may be inferred from 
these verbs, belongs Phryg.-Thrac. fipvrov, 
' beer, cider,' which perhaps stands for Gr. 
*<ppvrov, also Lat. defrUtum, 'must boiled 
down,' Olr. bruthe, 'broth,' bruth, 'live 
coals, heat,' bruith, ' cooking.' It is shown, 
moreover, under 93rob that the meaning of 
the root bhru- was at one t i me more general ; 
comp. further trebetn. On account of the 
gutturals, Gr. <ppvyu, Lat. frtgo, cannot be 
cognates. Comp. also hotetn, 93rob. 

brcum, adj., 'brown,' from MidHG. 
brAn,' brown, dark-coloured, shining, spark- 
ling,' OHG. brAa; comp. the correspond- 
ing Du. bruin, AS. brdn, E. brown, 
Olc. brfrnn. This Teut. term passed into 
Rom. (comp. the cognates of ltal. bnmo, 
Fr. bran; see SBlcnb) ; hence also Lith. 
brunas, 'brown.' The proper stem of Aryan 
biir-Hna-, appears in Lith. beras, ' brown ' 
(comp. 93ar), and reduplicated in OInd. 
babhru-s, ' reddish brown, bay ' (this form 
of the adj. being apparently a common 
Aryan term for a brownish mammal living 
in water ; comp. 93iber) ; hence it may be 
right to assign Gr. 4>pi»>ri, <ppvvos, ' toad,' to 
this root. Respecting 9?raun as a name for 
the bear, see 93ar.— "•?.', ninne. f., from Mid 
HG. briune, ' brown Nft' related to r-raun 
(as a malady, ' brownish inflammation of 
the windpipe '). 

gratis, m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
brtis, ' noise, tumult' ; perhaps cognate with 


( 42 ) 


AS. br$san, E. to bruue.—btaufetl, vb., 

• to roar, bluster,' from the equiv. MidHG. 
br&sen ; comp. Du. bruisen, 'to bluster,' 
from bruit, 'foam, froth' ; to this 93raufe, 
f., • watering-pot,' also belongs. 

■JJrau fd)C, f., ' bump, bruise,' from Mid 
HgT br&iche, ' a swelling with blood under- 
neath' ; to this E. brisket and OIc. brj6sk, 
' gristle,' are allied. The stem common to 
all these must have meant ' roundish ele- 

jBrauf , f., ' bride, betrothed,' from tlie 
equiv. MidHG. brAt, OHG. brAt, f. Goth. 
brAps (stem brAii-) means * daughter-in- 
law ' ; from this comes brA}>-faJ)s, ' lord of 
the bride ' (faf>s corresponds to Gr. »6<rts, 
which stands, as v&rvia indicates, for v&tis, 
corresponding to OInd. patis, ' lord '), i.e. 

* bridegroom.' The MidHG. brAt signifies 
'the young, newly married woman' ; the 
borrowed ModFr. bru, earlier bruy, is, on 
account of its meaning, connected most 
closely with Goth. brAfcs. ' daughter-in- 
law ' ; comp. vtfupy, ' betrothed, bride, 
daughter-in-law.' In Eng. we may com- 
p;ire AS. brpd, ' betrothed,' E. bride, which 
are primit. allied to the Germ. ; comp. also 
E. bridal, from AS. br§d-ealo, hence orig. 
' bride-ale.' E. bridegroom is based upon 
E. groom, and represents AS. brtfdguma, 
the second component of whicli is Goth. 
guma, ' man,' corresponding to Lat. homo 
(primary form ghomon). The ModHG. 
©rdutiflam is identical in etymology with 
the AS. word ; comp. OHG. brAtigomo, Mid 
HG. briutegome, in which the first part is 
properly gen. sing. (comp. 9lad)tiijafl). The 
Teut. root form brAdi- has not yet been 
explained etymologically ; it is a word 
peculiar to Teut., like 28eib and grau. 
Goth, qino, 'woman,' MidHG. hone, are 
based on an ancient form ; comp. Gr. 71*1), 
Sans, gnd, ' woman.' 

brat>, adj., ' excellent, manly, brave,' 
ModHG. only, from Fr. brave, the origin 
of which is not established (from Lat. bar- 

bred)cn, vb., ' to break,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. br'echen, OHG. brehhan ; comp. the 
corresponding Goth, brikan, OLG. and AS. 
brecan, E. to break, Du. brehen, ' to break.' 
From a root brek common to Teut., which 
is derived from pre-Teut bhreg ; comp. Lat. 
frangere, the nasal of which is wanting m 
frSg-i. The ModHG. SBradbfctb, $8ru<$, *8ro- 
d en, are formed by gradation from the same 

^i, see ^racjen. 

gjrct, m., ' broth, pottage,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. bi-t f brie, m., OHG. brio, m., 
allied to Du. brij, AS. brtw, ' pottage ' ; 
Goth. *breiwa- (Goth. *breiws is related to 
OHG. brio in the same way as Goth, saiws 
to OHG. seo). It is hardly possible that 
the word is connected with the root br&, 
discussed under rrauen. Did a root brt, ' to 
cook,' exist? comp. OIc. brtme, ' fire.' Gr. 
tppivau (root <j>plK) has been suggested. 

brcif, adj., ' broad, wide,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. and OHG. breit ; it corresponds to 
OSax. brid, Du. breed, AS. brdd, E. broad, 
Goth, braids, 'broad.' Probably from pre- 
Teut. mraitd-, akin to the root mrit pre- 
served in Sans., ' to fall to pieces ' (properlv 
'to extend'?). 

'SBreme, ' edge, border.' See ttertrdmen. 

prcmc, ^Sremfe, f., ' gadfly.' Comp. 
MidHG. br'&me, brem, OHG. bremo, 'gadfly.' 
Sremfe is LG. for HG. ©rente ; comp. OLG. 
brimissa, AS. brimse, MidE. brimse. OHG. 
bremo would be in Goth. *brima, m., SBremfc, 
Goth. *bri»tisi, f. Yet E. breeze (horsefly) 
cannot be cognate, since bredsa (and not 
brimes) is its AS. form. The root of 93remfe, 
discussed under rrummeu, is brem (pre-Teur. 
bhrem, hat. fremere), ' to buzz, hum,' whence 
also Sans, bhramara, m., ' bee.' 

"gSretttfe, f., 'drag-shoe,' from MidHG. 
brimse, f., ' barnacle, muzzle.' It cannot 
be identified with 93remfe, 'gadfly' (see 
Sreme), because the latter indicates a Goth. 
brimisi, while SBremfe, 'drag-shoe,' points 
to a Goth, brami'sjd. For Sirentff, 'drag,' 
dialectal forms such as bram (with a aud 
the loss of the suffix s) have been authen- 
ticated, but of a root brain with some such 
meaning as ' to press, squeeze,' there is no 
trace. The suffix s recalls Goth, jukuzi, 
'yoke,' from the equiv. juk; comp. also 
aqizi, 'axe.' 

brennen, vb., 'to bum, scorch, sting, 
distill'; it combines the meanings of Mid 
HG. brinnen, str. vb., ' to burn, give light, 
shine, glow,' and its factitive brennen, wk. 
vb., ' to set fire to, cause to bum' ; the for- 
mer is Goth., OHG. and OLG. brinnan, ' to 
burn' (intrans.), the latter Goth, brannjan, 
' to set tire to.' Comp. AS. birnan (intrans.), 
bcernan, bernan (trans.). E. to burn, is 
trans, and intrans., like the ModHG. word. 
Under S3ranb attention is called to the fact 
that only one n of the Goth. verb, brinnan 
belongs to the root ; the second n is a 
suffix of the present tense (comp. also 


( 43 ) 


tinnen, rmnen) ; the form with simple n is 
seen in AS. bri/ne, 'conflagration' (from 
bruni). A root bren-, pre-Teut. bhren, with 
the meaning ' to burn,' has not yet been 
authenticated in the other Aryan lan- 

bren&eln, vb., 'to taste burnt,' first oc- 
curs in ModHG. a frequentative form of 

^veffie, f., 'breach, gap,' ModHG. 
only, from Fr. brbche, whence also the 
equiv. Du. bres. The Fr. word is usually 
traced back to the OG. stem of bredjett. 

"§3rctf , n., ' board, plank, shelf, counter,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. br'et, OHG. br'et, 
n. ; corresponds to AS. bred, n. ; Goth. 
*brid, n. It has been shown under 53ort, 
'board,' that the OTeut. word for SSrett had 
two stems, primarily identical and sepa- 
rated only by gradation, viz., bredo- and 
bvrdo-, whose connection might be repre- 
sented thus : Iud. bradhas is related to 
brdhas, as Aryan bhre'dhos is to bhrdhds, n. ; 
MidHG. br'et combines the meanings 'boai d, 
6hield,' &c, like AS. bord; see also Jtctb. 

^refjel, m., f., 'cracknel],' from the 
equiv. MidHG. bnzel, also breze, OHG. 
brezitella and brizita (bergita) ; allied to 
Bav. die bretzen, Suab. briitzg, brdtzet, Alsat. 
brestell. The Suab. form as well as OHG. 
brizzilla presupposes a Teut. e; but the 
vowel sounds of the remaining forms are 
uncertain. It is most frequently referred 
to MidLat. brdcellum (whence brazil, and 
by mutation brSzil 1), or rather brdcliiolum, 
'little arm' (the different kinds of pastry 
are named from their shape ; comp. e.g. Mid 
HG. krdpfe, 'hook, hook-shaped pastry') ; 
MidHG. broezte would be brdc/iilum. From 
OHG. brezitella the Mo.iHG. ©retjhlle 
(Strassb.) was produced, while breztella was 
resolved by a wrong division of syllables 
into 93rebf;telle ; thus we deduce in Mod 
HG. Xavfe from 5»fitapff, *'•«. Sufisjlapfe. 
The absence of the word in Rom. (yet comp. 
Ital. bracciatello) seems to militate against 
the derivation of the whole of this class Irom 
Lat. bracchium. In that case OHG. brgita, 
brezita, might perhaps be connected with 
AS. bi/rgan, ' to eat,' Olr. bargen, ' cake.' 

^Srtef, m., 'letter, epistle,' from MidHG. 
brief, OHG. brief, m. ; from Lat. brSvis 
(scil. libellus) ; the lengthened S from 6 in 
words borrowed from Lat. becomes ea and 
then ie (comp. $rU jler) ; Lat. brevis and 
breve, ' note, document.' The HG. word 
had originally a more general signification, 

' document,' hence the ModHG. vcrbricfen. 
MidHG. and ORQ.brief, 'letter, document,' 
and generally 'a writing.' When the 
OTeut. Runic characters were exchanged 
for the more convenient Roman letters 
(see fcfjreibett as well as SJud?), the Germans 
adopted some terms connected with writ- 
ing ; OHG. briaf appears in the 9th cent, 
(the Goth, word is bbka, 'document'). 

grille, f., 'spectacles,' from late Mid 
HG. barille, berille, brille, ' spectacles ' (Du. 
bril) ; properly the gem Lat.-Gr. beryllus 
(the syncope of the unaccented e is amply 
attested by banu,e, bleibeit, gtauben, &c.' ; 
comp. 99m)f(. 

brittgett, vb., 'to bring, accompany,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. bringen, OHG. 
bringan ; comp. OSax. brengian, Du. bren- 
gen, AS. bringan, E. to bring, Goth, brig g an, 
bringan, 'to bring.' The Aryan form of 
this specially Teut. word, which is want- 
ing only in OIc, would be bhrengh (bhrenk ]) ; 
no cognates are recorded. 

"§3rinb, m., 'grassy hillock, green 
sward,' from LG. brinJc, comp. OIc. brekka 
(from *brink6), f., both meaning ' hill ' ; 
akin to E. brink, and OIc. bringa, ' mead.' 

brtnnen, see bremten. 

■glrife, f., from the equiv. E. breeze 
(whence also Fr. brisel;, 

■j^roc&e, "g&rodien, m., ' crumb,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. brocke, OHG. broccho, 
m. ; Goth. *brukka, m., for which gabruka, 
f., occurs : formed by gradation from 
bred)en (comp. Jrctte from treten) ; deriva- 
tives biotfctit, breefdio,. 

TUrocnpcric, f., * rough pearl,' ModHG. 
only, from Fr. baroque, Port, barocco (Span. 
barueco), 'oval.' 

brobeltt, brubeln, vb.. 'to bubble,' 
from MidHG. brodeln, vb. ; hence MidHG. 
aschenbrodele,* scullion,' from which 9lfd?en- 
brcbcl, ' Cinderella,' comes. See 93rot. 

"gSrobcttt, m., ' fume, exhalation,' from 
MidHG. brddem, m., 'vapour,' OHG. brd- 
dam, ' vapour, breath, heat' AS. brde.}>, 
' vapour, breath, wind,' E. breath, are per- 
haps cognate, so too ModHG. braiv n 1. 

g&vombeerc, f., 'blackberry,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. brdmber, OHG. brdmberi; 
lit. ' bramble-berry,' OHG. brdmo, Mid 
HG. brdme (also ' briar ' generally). Akin 
to AS. br&m, E. broom (ModHG. ©ram, 
'broom for besoms); AS. brSmel, 'thorny 
plant,' E. bramble, Du. braam, 'bramble- 
oush, whence Fr. framboise. 

ISrofcmt, in., "gjrofcunc, f., 'crumb'; 


( 44 ) 


connected iu-tinctively by Germans -with 
g*(si and Sameit ; comp., however, Mid 
IIG. brdsem, brCsme, OHG. brdsma, OI.G. 
brtismo, 'crumb, fragment' (Goth. *brausma, 
'crumb,' is not recorded). It is related 
either to the Teut. root brut, which appears 
in AS. breOtan, ' to break,' or to AS. brysan, 
OFr. bruiser (E. to bruise), from a Kelt.- 
Teut. root bras, which the UpGerm. dia- 
lects preserve in broffteii,' 'to crumble' 
(whence, too, OSlov. bruselu, 'sherd,' brus- 
nati, 'to wipe off, rub off'). 

"jJSrofcrjcn, n., 'sweetbread,' first oc- 
curs in ModHG., from LG. ; com p. Dan. 
bryslce, E. brisket See S3raufcf)c. 

*g&tot, ])., ' bread, food, leal,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. brCt, OHG. br6t, n. The 
form with t is strictly UpGer. ; comp. LG. 
brOd, Du. brood, AS. bread, E. bread, OIc. 
brautS. The old inherited form for 93rot 
was iaib (Goth, hlaifs) ; and ancient com- 
pounds like AS. Idafird (for *hldfward), 
'loafward, bread-giver,' E. lord, preserve 
the OTeut. word (see SJaib), in addition 
to which a new word peculiar to Tent, 
was formed from a Teut root. To this 
root, which appears in braucu, we must 
assign the earlier. and wider meaning of 
' to prepare by heat or fire ' ; comp. AS. and 
E. broth (Ital. broda, ' broth,' is of Teut. ori- 
gin) and hebrtn. In 23ret it would have 
the special signification 'to bake.' There 
is a strange OTeut. compound of 33ret-, 
MidHG. bVbrdt, ModHG. S3imembret, AS. 
beObredd, E. beebread, all of which sig- 
nify 'honeycomb,' lit. 'bread of bees'; 
in this compound the word 39vet appears, 
singularly enough, for the first time. In 
earlier AS. the modern meaning, 'bread,' 
is still wanting, but it is found even in OHG. 

^rud) (1.), m., ' breach, rupture, crack,' 
from MidHG. bruch, OHG. bruh, m. ; 
formed by gradation from bredjen. 

jKritd) (2.), m., n., 'damp meadow, 
marsh, bog,' a Franc-Sax. word from Mid 
HG.6ruoc/i,OHG. bruohQih), n. m., 'marshy 
soil, swamp'; comp. LG. br6k, Du. broelc, 
'marsh-land,' AS. brdk, 'brook, current, 
river,' E. brook. Similarly MidHG. ouice 
combines the. meanings of 'water-stream, 
watery land, island.' It is possible that 
WestTeut. *broka- is allied to tredjen, a 
supposition that has been put forward on 
account of the AS. meaning 'torrent' ; in 
that case the OHG. sense ' swamp ' would be 
based upon 'a place where water gushes out.' 

33ttld) (3.), f., n., 'breeches,' from Mid 

HG. bruoch, OHG. bruol,{hh), f., 'breech** 

covering the hip and upper part of the 
thigh' (akin to AS. brec, E. breech) ; comp. 
the corresponding AS. br6c, plur. brfa, E. 
breeches, MidLG. br6k, Du. broek, OIc. brO/.; 
' breeches.' It has been asserted that the. 
common Teut. br6k- has been borrowed 
from the equiv. Gall.-Lat. brdca (likewise 
Rom., comp. Ital. brache, Fr. bratcs) ; but 
AS. brec, ' rump,' shows that 93rud) contains 
a Teut. stem ; hence the Gall.-Lat. word is 
more likely borrowed from Teut. ; comp. 

"j^ri'lCUC, f., 'bridge,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. briiclec, OHG. brucka, f., which 
points to Goth. *brugjo, f. ; comp. Du. 
brug, AS. bryg, E. bridge. Besides the 
meaning 'bridge,' common to WestTeut., 
the OIc bryggja (likewise LG. briigge) is 
used in the sense of 'landing-place, pier,' 
while bru (equal to ModHG. 93raue) is the 
proper Scand. word for 'bridge.' 53rucfe 
(from *brugj6-) is undoubtedly allied 10 
OIc bru; no common Aryan term for 
bridge can be found. OSlov. bruvl also 
means both 'eyebrow' and 'bridge,' and 
OHG. brdira (see under 93raw) is identical 
with OG.dl. brine, 'bridge,' both of which 
point to Aryan bhrSicd. With regard to the 
transition of *braut to *brugi, see 3u\3citc. 

'gjruber, m., 'brother, friar,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. bruoder, OHG. bruodar ; 
comp. Goth, brujxir, AS. brCpor, E. brother; 
Du. broeder, OSax. brdthar. Inherited, like 
most words denoting kinship, from the 
period when all the Aryans formed only 
one tribe, without any dill'erence of dialect; 
the degrees of relationship (comp. Dfyeint, 
better, Qkfe) at that period, which is sepa- 
rated by more than three thousand years 
from our era, were very fully developed. 
The primit. form of the word 93rutcr was 
bhrat6{r), nom. plur. bhratores ; this is 
attested, according to the usual laws of 
sound, both by Goth.-Teut. brfifrar and Lat. 
frdter, Gv. <f>pdrijp, OInd. bhrdtar-, OSlov. 
bratrii; all these wonls retain the old 
primary meaning, but in Gr. the word has 
assumed a political signification. 

^ri't^C, f., from the equiv. MidHG. 
biiifje, 'broth, sauce.' The root of the 
word must not be sought in rrauen, which 
is based upon bru- ; brii>je would be in 
Goth, br&ja, Teut. root brd, in MidE. breie, 
.MidDu. broeye. From the same stem Mid 
HG. 93rut has been formed, with a dental 
suffix. The wk. vb. is briiren, MidHG. 


( 45 ) 


briiejen, bruen, ' to scald, singe, burn ' ; 
coinp. Du. broeijen, ' to warm, brood ' ; in 
earlier ModHG., too, etufjen signifies 'to 
•brood.' In spite of the meaning, the con- 
nection with 93rucfy is, on phonetic grounds, 

"jJ3ruI)(, m., ' marshy copse,' from Mid 
HG. brtiel, in., 'low-land, marshy copse,' 
OHG. bruil; from Fr. breuil, Prov. bruelh y 
'thicket' ; of Kelt, origin (brogil). 

bvixlicn, vb., ' to roar, bellow, low,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. briielen; in UpG. dia- 
lects even now bride, brilele. The remark- 
able short u of ModHG. compared with 
MidHG. He may be explained by t]ie prer. 
briilte, where the shortness of the vowel is 
produced by the following double conso- 
nant ; OHG. *bruowil6n\s wanting ; allied 
perhaps to E. brawl 1. From the root brd 
\* to scald ') in the sense of ' to bubble' ?. 

brummen, vb., ' to growl, snarl, 
grumble,' from MidHG. brummen, wk. vb., 
' to grow], hum,' a deriv. of the MidHG. 
str. vb. brimmen, ' to growl, roar ' (comp. the 
equiv. MidE. brimmen). This again is cog- 
nate with MidHG. bremen, OHG. breman, 
6tr. vb., 'to growl, roar,' since mm belongs 
properly only to the pres. and not to the 
other tenses. The cognates of the stem 
brem-, which these verbs indicate, also in- 
cludes OIc. brim, 'surge,' MidE. brim, 
1 glow ' (E. brimstone) ; other related words 
may be found under SSrcmfe. The Tent, 
root brem, pre-Teut. bhr'em, appears in Lat. 
freinere, ' to gnash,' with which some are 
fond of comparing Gr. fipifieiv, 'to rumble.' 
The Olml. bhram as a verbal stem signifies 
' to move unsteadily ' ; bhramd, n^ ' whirl- 
ing flame,' bhrmi, m., ' whirlwind.' Hence 
the meaning ' to rush, gnash,, crackle,' seems 
to have been developed from a vibrating 
motion, especially that of sound. See tho 
following word. 

"§3nmft, f, 'rutting-time,' from Mid 
HG. brunft, f., ' fire, heat, rutting season of 
deer, cry.' The MidHG. brunft is of dual 
origin ; in the sense of ' heat' it belongs to 
tuemieit, S3vanb. 33runft, ' the rutting season 
of deer,' was rightly connected, as early as 
Lessing, with hummctt, since it "indicates 
the impulse of certain animals to copula- 
tion, that is to say, of those that roar or 
bellow in the act; ignorance and negli- 
gence have transformed this word into 
23nmji" (Lessing). 

3$rumt, 'gSrimncri, "§3orn, m., 'foun- 
tain, spring, well.' The form with the me- 

tathesis of the r is LG. ; the first two are 
based upon MidHG. brunne t m., ' spring, 
spring- water, well ' ; OHG. brunno (beside 
which a form pfuzzi, ' well,' from Lat. pu- 
teus, appears in OHG. ; comp. ^fufce). It 
is based upon an OTeut. word ; Goth. 
brunna, 'spring,' AS. burna (for brunna), 
E. bourn ('brook'). Sruttnm has been 
derived from brennen, for which a primary 
meaning 'to heave, seethe ' (comp. MidHG. 
LG. s6t, ' well, draw-well ') is assumed with- 
out proof. Gr. <pp£a.p, 'well,' scarcely points 
to a root bhru, ' to heave,, bubble ' (cognate 
with braum?) ; nn may be a suffix, as per- 
haps in ModHG. Sciuic 

^3riinrtC, f.,. recently borrowed from the 
equiv. MidHG. briinne (OHG. brunna), f., 
' breastplate ' ; comp. Goth, brunjd (whence 
OFr. brunie), OIc. brynja, AS. byrne; not 
from brennm; the appellations 'glowing, 
shining,' ecarcely suit the earlier leather 
breastplates. Olr. bruvnne, ' breast,' is more 
probably allied. From Teut. are borrowed 
OFr. broigne and OSlov. brunja, 'coat of 

^VUttff, f., from the equiv. MidHG. 
brunst, f., 'burning, fire, glow r heat, devas- 
tation by fire ' (SSnmjijeit, see SSnmft) ; 
OHG. brunst,. Goth, brunsts. In Eng. this 
deriv. from the root of bremten is wanting 
(comp. Jtunji from fctttten) ; the s before the 
suffix t is due lo the double n of the verb. 

jJSruff , f., ' breast, chest, pap,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. brust^OUG^ brust r f.; it cor- 
responds to Goth, brusts, a plur. noun (con- 
son, stem),, f.,. Du. and LG. borst. In the 
other OTeut. dialects the words correspond- 
ing exactly to Goth, brusts are wanting ; 
they have a peculiar neut. form : AS. breOst, 
E. breast, OIc. brjdst, OSax. breost, which 
are related by gradation to HG. 33rujr. This 
term for breast is restricted to the Teut. lan- 
guages (including Olr. bruinne, ' breast ' ?), 
the individual members of the Aryan group 
dilfering in this instance from each other, 
while other parts of the body (see SBug) 
are designated by names common to all of 
them. Of the approximate primary mean- 
ing of 93ruji, or rather of the idea underlying 
the word, we know nothing ; the only pro- 
bable fact is that the primitive stem was 
originally declined in the dual, or rather 
in the plural. 

;ltritf , f., ' brood, spawn, brats,' from 
MidHG. and OHG. bruot, f., ' vivified by 
warmth, brood, animation by warmth, 
brooding, heat' ; comp. Du. broed, AS. br6d, 


( 46 ) 


E. brood. The dental isderiv. ; br6, as the 
root-syllable, is discussed under f8tut)t ; the 
primary root signified ' to warm, heat.' — 
briitcn. ' to brood,' from MidHG. briieten, 
OHG. bruoten (Goth. *br6djan) ; com p. AS. 
bridan, E. to breed (with the further signifi- 
cation * to beget, bring up '). E. bird, AS. 
bridd, ' the young of birds, little bird.' are 
often incorrectly allied to bruten ; AS. bridd 
would be in Goth. *bridi (plur. bridja), 
and consequently the connection of the E. 
word with HG. bruten (Goth. *br6djari) be- 
comes impossible. It is worth noticing 
that Du. broeijen, LG. brayen, and ModHG. 
dial, bcii^en partake of the meaning of bruteru 
See bruben. 

p;} it be, m., 'bov, lad, rogue, knave (at 
cards),' from MidHG. buobe (MidLG. bdve), 
m., ' boy, servant, disorderly person' (OHG. 
*buobo and Goth. *b6ba are wanting); a 
primit. Ger. word, undoubtedly of great 
antiquity, though unrecorded in the vari- 
ous OTeut. periods (yet note the proper 
names identical with it, OHG. Buobo, AS. 
B6fa). Comp. MidDu. boeve, Du. boef (E. 
boy is probably based upon a diminutive 
*b6fig, *b6fing). 'Young man, youth,' is 
manifestly the orig. sense of the word ; 
comp. Bav. bua, 'lover,' Swiss bua, 'un- 
married man.' To this word MidE. babe, 
E. buby are related by gradation ; also 
Swiss, babi, bdibi (most frequently tokxe- 
bdbi, tittibdbi), ' childish person ' (Zwingli 
— " SBaben are effeminate, foolish youths") ; 
akin to this is OHG. Bubo, a proper name. 
The OTeut. words babo-bfibo are probably 
terms expressing endearment (comp. &tti, 
SBaff, SDhtfune), since the same phonetic 
forms are also used similarly in other cases ; 
comp. OSlov. baba, 'grandmother'; further, 
Ital. babbe'o, 'ninny,' Prov. babau, 'fop' 
(late Lat. babumis, ' foolish '), Ital. babbole, 
'childish tricks.' 

jSudj, n., ' book, quire,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. buoch, OHG. buoh, n. It differs 
in gender and declension in the various 
OTeut dialects ; Goth. bdka. f., and b6k, 
n., f., signify ' letter (of the alphabet) ' 
in the sing., but 'book, letter (epistle), 
document' in the plur. ; akin to OSax. 
b6k, ' book,' Du. boek, AS. bde, f., equiv. to E. 
book. The sing, denoted orig., as in Goth., 
the single character, the plur. a combina- 
tion of characters, 'writing, type, book, 
letter' ; comp. Goth, afstassais bdkds, ' writ- 
ing of divorcement ' ; wadjabdkds, ' bond, 
handwriting ' ; frabauhta bdka, * deed of 

sale.' The plur. was probably made into 
a sing, at a later period, so that ModHG. 
93u<b signified lit. ' letters (of the alpha- 
bet).' The OTeut word, which even on the 
adoption of Roman characters was not sup- 
planted by a borrowed word (see 93rirf), 
made its way, like the word 93ud)f, into 
Slav, at an early period ; comp. OSlov. buky, 
'beech, written character' (plur. bulcuve, 
' l>ook, epistle '). Sucfc was used in the ear- 
liest times for the runes scratched on the 
twigs of a fruit-tree (see reifjni) ; hence it 
results from Tacitus (Germania, 10) that 
aSud) (lit. 'letter') is connected with OHG. 
buohha, ' beech.' The same conclusion fol- 
lows from the Ger. compound Sudulabf, 
which is based on an OTeut. word — OHG. 
buo/istab, OSax. bScstaf, AS. bdesteef (but E. 
and Du. letter), OIc. bdhtafr. Undoubtedly 
the Germans instinctively connect SSiufcjiabe 
with 95uc6 and not with 93tubf. As far as the 
form is concerned, we are not compelled to 
accept either as the only correct and primit! 
Teut. word ; both are possible. Historical 
facts, however, lead us to regard 93udj ftabe as 
93ucbenftab. Willi the term SBudbenftab the 
early Germans intimately combined the 
idea of the rune scratched upon it, and con- 
stituting its chief value. Comp. the follow- 
ingword and tRuttf. 

g3ucf)e, f., ' beech, beech-tree,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. buoche, OHG. buoh'ia; AS. 
b6c-tre6w, with the collateral form bice (from 
boeciae), E. beech. The form b6c has been 
preserved in E. bucktruist, buckwheat ; comp. 
OIc. b6k, Goth. *b6ka, 'lwech.' The name 
of the tree is derived from pre-Teut. ; 
according to Lat. fdgus, ' beech,' and Gr. 
<j>ay6s, <prjy6s, its Europ. form would be 
bhdgos. The Gr. word signifies 'edible 
oak.' This difference between the Gr. 
word on the one hand and the Teut. -Lat. 
on the other has been explained " by the 
change of vegetation, the succession of an 
oak and a beech period"; "the Teutons 
and the Italians witnessed the transition 
of the oak period to the beech period, and 
while the Greeks retained <pny6t in its orig. 
signification, the former transferred the 
name as a general term to the new forests 
which grew in their native wastes." Comp. 
(5iif. Sud)e is properly 'the tree with 
edible fruit' (comp. Gr. ipayeiv, 'to eat,' 
and <pvy6s), and hence perhaps the differ- 
ence of meaning in Gr. may be explained 
from this general signification, so that the 
above hypothesis was not necessary. 


( 47 ) 


jJ3ud)S, m., "gjuchsbaum, 'box, box- 
tree,' from the equiv. MidHG. and OHG. 
bultsboum; formed from Lat. buxus, Gr. 
wv£os ; comp. Ital. bosso, Fr. buis, E. box. 

"gHudjfe, f., 'box, pot, jar, rilie,' from 
MidHG. biihse, 'box, magic-box, firelock' ; 
OHG. buhsa, from *buhsja, from Gr. irv£is, 
' a box of boxwood (7ri5|os), medicine-box.' 
The Gr. medical art was in vogue in the 
Middle Ages anions all civilised nations, 
consequently some Gr. medical terms found 
their way into German. See ?lqt, $flafhr. 
Comp. AS. and E. box, ltal. bossolo, Fr. 
bossette, 'box.' 

■§3ucf)t, f., 'bay,' first occurs in ModHG, 
from LG. bucht; comp. Du. bogt, E. bought 
(from MidE. boght), 'a twist, bend,' and E. 
bight (from AS. byht) ; properly a verbal 
abstract from btegeit. 

72.5ucfte( (1.), m., ' boss, stud,' from Mid 
HG. bucket, m., f., 'boss of a shield' ; from 
OFr. bode (whence Fr. boucle, ' buckle '), 
which is based on Lat. buccula, ' beaver of a 
helmet, boss.' 

■gjucfcel (2.), "gfucfcel, m., ' back, hump,' 
from MidHG. bucket. The Swiss bukel (not 
*buxel) points to a primary form bugg- (see 
biegen, SStiljel, 33itgel), not directly to budfen, 
from biegen (root bug). 33ucfet is lit. 'a 
curve, bend.' 

■§8udten, vb., 'to stoop, bow,' from Mid 
HG. biicken, 'to bend, bow' ; frequentative 
of biec\en, like fofymucfen of fdjmiegen. The 
Swiss bukxfi points to OHG. bucchen (Swiss 
bukx, 'bend ') ; comp. LG. buclcen, 'to stoop.' 
See 33ucfel. 

"gSudrntfl, m., 'bloater' (also JBArftincj, 
based on 33ucfttng, 'bow,' from biegen), from 
the equiv. MidHG. and MidLG. biickinc ; 
comp. Du. bokking, which is probably a 
deriv. of 33otf, Du. bok, 'hircus'; in fact, 
the fish is also called boxhorn (bockshorn) 
in MidDu. 

J$ltOC, f., * booth, stall, shop,' from Mid 
HG. buode, f., ' hut, tent ' ; corresponds to 
MidE. b6J>e, ' taberm*,' E. booth; OIc. b0S, 
f., 'dwelling, hut, tent,' has a different 
vowel, and is based on the widely diffused 
root bAbhd, 'to dwell, stay.' By a dif- 
ferent derivation E. to build, AS. bold, 
boil, ' dwelling,' OFris. bold, OIc. b6l, OLG. 
bodal, are produced from the same root. 
So too Olr. both (bothdn), 'hut,' from 
*bu-to, as well as the words discussed 
under baiten. Lith.-Slav. buda, ' booth,' 
and Bohem. and Silesian 33aube, 'shep- 
herd's hut,' are borrowed. 

'gSftflfel, m., ' buffalo, boor, buff (leather),' 
from MidHG. biiffel, m., 'ox'; borrowed 
from Fr. bufle, Lat. bubalus, Gr. /3ot5/3oXos; 
hence also E. buff. 

"23ttfl, m., ' bend, flexure, hock, how (of 
a ship),' from MidHG. buoc(g), OHG. buog, 
in., ' upper joint of the arm, shoulder, 
upper joint of the leg, hin, hock' ; comp. 
Du. boeg, 'ship's bow,' AS. bdg, bdh, 'ar- 
mus, ramus,' E. bough ('the joint of a tree,' 
as it were). The Goth, word may have 
been *b6gus (from pre-Teiit. bhdghu-s) ; 
comp. Sans, bdhus (for bhdghu-s), 'arm, 
fore-arm, fore-feet,' also Gr. iraxw, irijxvt 
(for <t>axvs), ' elbow, fore-arm, bend of the 
arm,' Armen. bazulc, 'arm.' On account 
of the Aryan base bhdghu-s the derivation 
of ModHG. 33ug from biegen (root bug, pre- 
Teut. bhuk), is impossible. The ancient 
terms for parts of the body, such as 9lnn, 
33 ug, §erj, Staff, Stiere, &c, are based upon 
obscure roots, of which we find no further 
trace anywhere ; they belong, in fact, to 
the most primitive vocabulary of Aryan 
speech. — gSugfprief, n., from the equiv. 
Du. boegspriet; comp. the equiv. MidE. 
bouspret, E. bowsprit (Fr. beaupre"). 

^MxqcI, m., 'curve, arc, guard (of a 
gun),' ModHG. only, derived from biegett 
(OTeut. baug, 'ring,' corresponding to §ugef 
from OTeut. haug) ; comp. Du. beugel, 
' hoop, stirrup.' 

"gjurjel, fKitr>I, m., from the equiv. 
MidHG. biihel, OHG. bull, buhil, m., ' hill' ; 
it is probably rightly referred to the Aryan 
root bhuk, bhUg, ' to bend.' See biegcn and 

2;{uf)fe, m., 'lover, paramour,' from 
MidHG. buole, in., 'near relative, lover, 
sweetheart ' ; likewise MidHG. buole, f., 
' lady-love ' (OHG. Buolo, m., as a mascu- 
line name only) ; the implied correspon- 
dences in the cognate Teut. dialects are 
not recorded. It is scarcely disputable, 
however, that a primit. Germ, word lies 
at the base of 33iU)tf. Since 33ube in Up 
Germ, dialects signifies 'lover' also, it is 
perhaps connected with 33lU)lf, which may 
be a term of endearment formed from it, 

IMubnc, f., 'stage, gallery, orchestra,' 
from MidHG. biine, biiu, f., 'ceiling of a 
room (a meaning still preserved in Swiss), 
board, lath ' ; the latter is at all events the 
primary meaning. Perliaps AS. binii, ' crib, 
box,' E. bin, are allied by gradation to 
MidHG. biine. The origin of the words 
lias not yet been explained. 


( 43 ) 


j8fibrc, f-> ' bed-tick,' ModHG. only, 
from LG. biire; probably cognate with Fr. 
bure, ' coarse stulIV 

Hi ulQC (Swiss, also 93u%jf), f., ' leather 
water-pail,' from MidHG. bulge OHG. 
balga, ■ leather bag ' ; MidE. and E. bilge, 
bulge, from *bylcge. The cognates are allied 
to Salg (Goth, balgs, '•leather bottle, bag'), 
MidLat. bulga. 

-guile (1.), m^'bull,' MidHa only, 
from the equiv. LG, bulk; comp. Du. bid, 
bol, E. bull (in AS. only the deriv. bulluca, 
'bullock,' appears); akintoOIa&ofe, 'bull' ; 
Lith. bullus is not a cognate ; root bel in 
Wltn ?. 

HJutlc (2.), f^ ' bottle,' first occurs at a 
late period in ModHG., corrupted from 
buttel, Fr. bouteille. 

guile (3.), f., ' bull, papal edict,' from 
MidHG. bulle, f., 'seal, document, bull' 
(AS. bulle, E. bull, ModFr. bulle). From 
Lat. bulla, lit. ' water bubble,' then ' boss, 
knob (on a door),' finally 'a ball attached 
as a seal to documents' ; whence also 93i((. 

bumbfew, vb., 'to bounce,' ModHG, 
only ; a recent onomatopoetic word. 

bummeln, vb., ' to dangle,' simply Mod 
HG. from LG. bummeln; an onomatopoetic 
word of recent origin. 

Hjunb, m^ from the equiv. MidHG, 
bunt\d), * bond, fetter^ confederacy ' ; re- 
lated to binbett. 

"gSfittbel, n.,. 'bundle,, parcel,' ModHG. 
only, though existing in AS. (byndel,. E. 
bundle) ; related to binben. See the pre- 
vious word. 

bunbtft, adj., 'binding,, valid, terse,' not 
from MidHG. biindec, 'firmly bound,' but 
formed from Du. bondig, 'binding, firm' ; 
the latter word is akin to biufccn. 

buitf,. a<lj., 'gay, mottled, variegated,' a 
MidG. and LG. word (for which geflerft, 
gefprecfelt, &c, are used in UpG.), from the 
equiv. MidHG, bunt (inflected bunter) ; nt 
shows that the word caunot have been 
handed down from OHG., for nt in OHG. 
would have become nd in Mid HG. Akin to 
MidLG. bunl, MidDu. bout, also with -nt-. 
SMutt was borrowed in the MidHG. period ; 
the MidHG. signification, ' with black spots 
on a white ground' (ModHG. bunt is Mid 
HG. missevar), supports the view that it 
was borrowed from MidLaUpMndus^'dotted^ 
spotted' (for the loss of the medial c comp. 
Ital. punto, 'point,' as well as Sinte). In 
spite of this explanation the absence of the 
word in Rom. is remarkable. On account 

of the earlier reference to fur-skin (Mid 
HG,and WuXLG.bunt, n., also signifies 'fur- 
skin'), MidLat. mus ponticut, 'ermine,' lias 
been suggested, the meaning of which 
would suit excellently were there no ob- 
jection to the form of the expression. 

"ghtttJCtt, 'gjuttjef, in.,' punch, stamp,' 
from MidHG. punze t 'burin, chisel' ; the. 
latter word is borrowed from Rom. (Ital. 
pwnaone, Fr. poingon t Lat. punctionem), 
whence also E. punch, punchvon, puncher. 

"jliuroe, f., 'burden, load,' from the 
equiv. MidHG, biirde, OHG. burdi, f. ; 
it corresponds to Goth, baurfcei, ' burden, 
load ' ; AS. byr}>cn, f., E. burthen, burden, 
have an n suffix ; allied to OTeut. beran, 
' to carry.' See SBaljre. 

jBurg, f., 'stronghold, citadel, castle, 
fortified town,' from MidHG. burc(g), 
OHG. burg, burug, f., 'enclosed, fortified 
place, stronghold, castle, town.' Comp. 
OSax. burg, Du. burg, AS. burh (plur. byrg), 
E. borough, bury, burrow (especially in com- 
pounds), Goth. baurgSi In the OTeut. 
dialects 93urg corresponded to the modern 
town, Ulfilas translated ir6\is by baurgs. 
According to the Germania of Tacitus, the 
Teutons had no urbes, but their oppida 
were mentioned as early as Caesar (De Bell. 
Gall). With Gr. irvpyos, 'tower,' the OTeut. 
Surg accords neither in form nor meaning. 
The OTeut. word appears strangely enough 
in Armen. as burgn, and in Arab, as burg, 
which probably owed their immediate 
origin to late Lat. burgus (whence the 
Ronx words Ital. borgo^wbourg, 'market- 
town' ; so too Olr. borg, 'town'). In this 
sense the word is solely Teut.,and belongs 
with 33erg to an Aryan bhr-gh-, which also 
appears in Olr. bri (gen. brig), ' mountain, 
hill,' but scarcely to the verbal stem of 
bcrgetu The words for 'town' were not 
formed until the separate Aryan tribes 
ceased their wanderings and became per- 
manent settlers; comp. also ©arten. 

H5urgc, m., 'surety, bail,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. biirge, OHG. burigo, m. 
We may assume a Goth *bafrrg!a, which 
would, however, be distinct from bafirgja, 
' citizen.' OIc. d-byrgjast, ' to become bail.' 
Allied to bcrgen ; the root is pre-Teut. 
bhergh, with the orig. sense ' to take care 
of, heed.' 

HJltrfd)c, m., 'fellow, apprentice, stu- 
dent,' properly identical with ModHG. 
93crff, from MidHG. burse, f., 'purse, 
money-bag, society, house belonging to a 


( 49 ) 


society, especially to a students' society.' 
From the last meaning, prevalent in the 
15th cent, the ModHG. acceptation of 
93ttrfdje (s after r became sch, as in 9lrfd), 
Jpirfd)) was developed, just a3 perhaps 
grauenjimmer from ^wueitgemad) ; comp. the 
existing phrase aUt$ $aut among students, 
AS. geogofi. ' a company of young people,' 
similar to E. youth. 

jJ3urffe, f.', 'brush,' from MidHG.taVste, 
f., a deriv. of 93etjre ; the equiv. E„ term is, 
however, of Rom. origin (Fr. brosse). 

"gSltrjel, m., • purslane,' from MidHG. 
and OHG. burzel, corrupted from the corre- 
sponding Lat. portulaca. 

jJBitrael, m., ' hinder part of an animal, 
buttocks, brush (of a fox),, scut,' &c ; Mod 
HG. only ; allied to btrqeln, purjeln?.. 

blXt^eltt, vb., 'to tumble head over 
heel*,' from the equiv. MidHG. bilrzen, 
burzeln; the word cannot be traced farther 

■gSufcf), m., 'bush, thicket, plume (of a 
helmet),' from MidHG. busch, bosch, OHG. 
base, m., ' bush, shrubbery, thicket, wood, 
cluster'; comp. E. bush, Du. bos, 'cluster/ 
bosch, ' copse,' bussel, ' cluster.' There are 
similar forms in Rom., Ital. bosco, Fr. bois, 
which are traced back to a MidLat. buscus, 
boscus. — Allied to £3ufcf)cl, 'cluster,'' from 
MidHG. biischel, m. 

jJStife, f., ' herring-boat,! not from Mid 
HG. buze, OHG. buzo (z for ts), but from 
the equiv. Du. buis, to which OIc. btiza,, 
AS. butse (in butsecearlas), E. buss, also cor- 
respond. There are similar words in Rom. 
— MidLat. buza, bussa, OFr.. busse, buce. 
The origin of the cognates is probably not 
to be sought for in Teut. ; the source 
whence they were borrowed is uncertain. 

"jSltfen, m M 'bosom,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. baosen, buosem, OHG. buosam, 
buosum, m.. ; comp. OSax. b6sm y Du. boezem, 
AS. bfism, E_ bosom; in East-Teut. (Goth., 
Scand.) the corresponding word (Goth. 
*b6sma-) is wanting. It may perhaps be 
allied to 93ug, MidHG. buoc, ' arm,, shoulder' 
(pre-Teut. bli&ghu-) ; but since a pre-Teut. 
b/idghsmo, bhdlcsmo- does not occur in the 
cognate languages,, nothing can be cited in 
favour of that explanation \ at all events, 
9)uieit is not allied to biegen.. 

Citric, f., 'bust,' ModHG. only, from 
Fr. buste. 

"gUtfjaar, "gSuflTarb, m., 'buzzard'; 
the first form is a popular corruption 
of the second, which first occurs in Mod 

HG., from Fr. busard, ' mouse-hawk, buz- 

^iUtfjc, f, 'penance, atonement,' from 
MidHG. buoy, OHG. buo$a, f., 'spiritual 
and legal atonement, compensation, relief '; 
OSax. b6ta, 'healing, relief; AS. Ut, E. 
boot ('use, gain, advantage'); also E. bote 
(' wergeld \jirebote, firtboot (' a free supply 
of fuel '), housebote (' prison expenses,' then 
'a free supply of wood for repairs and 
fuel '), Goth. b6ta, ' use.' Under the cog- 
nate adjs. beffer, beft (comp. bii§en in iiidtn 
bufjen, 'to repair,' OHG. buozzen; AS. 
bstan), will be found the necessary remarks 
on the evolution in meaning of the stem 
bat contained in these words. Comp, »ergu- 
tett, 'to make atonement, give compensa- 
tion' (@rfa{s) ; ©rfafc denotes a substitute 
of equal worth. Comp. also eh»a3 gut 
tnadjen, 'to make good a loss,' &c. See 

"gBuffc, f., 'flounder,' first occurs in 
ModHG., from LG. butte; comp. the corre- 
sponding Du. bot, MidE. but. Origin ob- 

■§3uffe r ~$&ltile, f., from the equiv. 
MidHG. biite, biilte, biiten, OHG. butin, f., 
' tub, butt' ; the cognate LG. and E. words 
contain an abnormal medial t; AS. bi/tt, 
'flagon,' E. butt, OIc. bytta. These indi- 
cate that the HG. word was borrowed in 
the OHG. period, when the shifting of t to 
tz was already accomplished. In the cog- 
nates the meaning varies, 'leather pipe, 
cask,' just as in the Rom. class from which 
they were borrowed — Span, bota, ' leather 
pipe,' Fr. botte, 'butt.' To OHG. butin 
(MidLat. butina), MidHG. biiten, the Mod 
HG. deriv. ©uttnev (from MidHG. biitencere), 
' cooper ' (likewise a frequent surname), is 
also related. 

battel, m., 'beadle,, jailer,' from Mid 
HG. biitel, OHG. butil, m., 'a messenger 
of the law ' ; comp. AS. bydel, * messenger,' 
E. beadle (which is based both on the AS. 
bydel and on a MidE. word of Rom. origin — 
MidLat. bedellus, ModFr. bedeau, ' beadle ') ; 
allied to butcit. 

gutter, f., 'butter,' from the equiv. 
MHG. buter, f., m., late OHG. butera, f. ; 
the same medial dental appears in Du. 
boter, AS. bntere, E. butttr. This necessi- 
tates the assumption that the HG. word 
was first introduced into Germany about the 
10th cent It is derived, though changed 
in gender (btr Sutter, however, is com n ion 
to the UpGer. dialects), from the Rom.- 



( 50 ) 


MidLat. butyrum (whence Fr. beiirre, lta'.. 
burro), late Gr.-Scyth. poCrrvpo*. Yet the 
art of muking butter was known in Ger- 
many ere the introduction of the term 
from the South of Europe. Butter was 
called Slnff, as is still the case in Alem. ; 
comp Slnfe and Jterne ; perhaps the process 
in tne south was different, and with the 
new method came the new term. The art 
of. making cheese may have found its way 

earlier, even before the middle of the 9th 
cent., from the South of Europe to the 
North. See Jtdfe. 

^JufjCtt, m., 'core, snuff (of candles).' 
first occurs in ModHG. ; cognate with the 
equiv. Swi-s bake, f. (batzi, bdtzgi). Ths 
structure of the word resembles ModHG. 
(dial.) ©rofcen ; see under @rieb6. Probably, 
therefore, SSufeeu represents *bugze, *bHgu^ 
(Swiss b&ke, from *bauggj6) 1. 


See &. 


b<X, adv T ., 'there, then, since,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. ddr, dd, OHG. ddr ; the 
loss of the final r (Car still remained in 
ModHG. ; see bar) is seen also in other 
advs. : MidHG. sd, from OHG. sd, sdr, 
'soon, at once' (cognate with E. soon), 
comp. »o. AS. fxfsr, E. there, corresponds 
to OHG. ddr; Goth, par (instead of the 
expected form *}>$r). The adv. is formed 
from the OTeut. demonstr. pron. J>a-, Gr. 
to-, described under ber ; the r of OHG. 
ddr and Goth. J>ar appears in OInd. tdrhi, 
'at that time' (hi is an enclitic particle 
like Gr. 7/) ; comp. also Sans, kdrhi. 'when,' 
under ivo. As to the variation of demonst. 
and relat. meanings in ba, see ber. 

~Q<t<f), n., ' roof, cover, shelter,' from 
MidHG. dach, n., 'roof, covering, ceiling, 
awning,' OHG. dah; it corresponds to AS. 
Jxec, ' roof,' E. thatch, OIc. f>ak; Goth. *}>ak, 
' roof,' is wanting, the term used being 
hrdt, the primit. Teut. term for ' roof,' allied 
to 5)ecfm. The art of constructing houses 
(see under ©iebel, Sirjt, Sqm&, Sbi'ir, Sd?n?ellf, 
iemte, 3itnmer, &c.) was not yet developed 
when the Teutons were migrating from 
East to West ; hence most of the technical 
terms are peculiar to Teutonic. The pri- 
mary meaning of the word £ad) is ap- 
parent, since it is formed by gradation 
from a Teut. root J?ek, Aryan teg, 'to 
cover' ; Lat. tego, tegere; Gr. riyos, n., 
' roof ; the same stage of gradation as in 
HG. 35adj is seen in Lat. toga ('the covering 
garment '), Lat. tuyurium, ' hut' The same 
root appears in Gr. with a prefix s, <jriy<*, c I 
cover,' ffriyij, 'roof,' as well as in Lith. ttdjas, 

' roof,* Ind. sthdgdmi, ' I cover.' Hence 
the HG. 3)adj, like the equiv. Gr. 7/701, 
ariyri, Lith. st6gas (akin to stigti, ' to 
cover'), signifies properly 'the covering 

Pctdjs, m., 'badger,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. dalis, OHG. aahs, m. ; undoubt- 
edly a genuine Teut. word, like %\\&)t, 
33ad)i3, though it cannot be authenticated in 
the non-Germ, languages (Du. and LG. das). 
It was adopted by Rom. (MidLat. taxus, 
ItaL tasso, Fr. taisson). It is probable that 
the animal, specially characterised by its 
winter burrow, received its name from the 
Aryan root teks, 'to construct.' In OInd. 
the root takS properly signifies ' to con- 
struct skilfully, make, build' (a carriage, 
pillars of an altar, a settle), while the 
name of the agent formed from it — takian 
— denotes 'carpenter, worker in wood.' 
To the same root belong Gr. t6$ov, ' bow,' 
t(ktuv, ' carpenter ' ; in Teut. also OHG. 
d'ehsala, MidHG. dehsel, ' hatchet, axe.' 

"Dad)foI. f., 'box on the ear'; like 
Dfyrfeige, properly a euphemism used in 
jest for a blow. £a(fytel is an older (Mid 
HG.) form for battel. Comp. further the 
term Jtopfniifff, 'blows on the head,' the 
orig. sense of which expresses, of course, 
something different from what is usually 
understood by the word. See 91uf. 

baf)lett, vb., 'to talk nonsense,' from 
the LG. ; comp. E. to dally (the initial d 
indicates that the word was borrowed), 
which is traced back to OIc Jyyljoy 'to 

palles, m., 'destruction, ruin,' Jew.; 


( Si ) 


properly the Jewish winding-sheet worn 
on the great 'day of atonement' (hence 
orig. 'to wear the Sa(U$')> from Hebr. 
taltth. According to others, the word is 
based on Hebr. dalhlt, 'poverty.' 

bctmcxlo, adv., ' at that time, then,' Mod 
HG. only. In MidHG. the expression is 
des mdles, ' at that time.' See 9JJat. 

Pamafl, n., 'damask,' early ModHG., 
derived, like Du. damast, E. damask, from 
Rom. (coinp. Fr. damas, Ital. damasto) ; 
based on the name of the city 2)amcu5fu3. 

Pambocfe, Pambjrfd), m., ' buck ' ; 
in ModHG. often written £amm; in the 
attempt to find some cognate for this un- 
intelligible word. MidHG. tdme, from 
OHG. tdmo, ddmo, m. ; the word is of Lat. 
origin, ddma (Fr. daim, m., daine, f.). It 
is remarkable that in AS. the labial nasal 
is lost — AS. dd, E. doe ; perhaps the latter 
is of genuine Teut. origin. The initial d 
of the ModHG. word is due to the Lat. 
original, or to LG. influence. 

Qambrett, n., 'draught-board,' for 
©amcnbrett, from 2)ame, which was first 
borrowed by ModHG. from Fr. dame (Lat. 

bamifd), b&xnlidf, adj., ' dull, drowsy, 
crazy,' ModHG. only ; a MidG. and LG. 
word (Bav. damiS, taumif) ; from a Teut. 
root pirn, equiv. to Sans, tarn (tdmyali), ' to 
k'et tired, out of breath,' whence Lat timu- 
lentus, 'drunk.' Probably allied to the 
cognates of bamment. 

famm, m., ' dam, dike, mole,' MidHG. 
tam(mm) ; the d of the ModHG. word com- 
pared with the t of MidHG. points to a 
recent borrowing from LG. ; comp. Uu. and 
E. dam (a bank), OIc. dammr. Goth, has 
only the deriv. faurdammjan, 'to embank, 
hinder ' ; akin to AS. demman, E. to dam, 
ModHG. bamnmt. 

b&mmevn, vb., ' to grow dusk, dawn,' 
from MidHG. demere, f. (also even MidHG. 
dememnge', f.), OHG. demar, n., 'crepuscu- 
lum,' a deriv. of a Teut. root f>em, Aryan 
tern, ' to be dusk ' (see also bamifdj). OSax. 
preserves in the Hrliand the cognate adj. 
thimm, 'gloomy'; allied to MidDu. and Mid 
LG. deemster, ' dark.' A part from Teut. the 
assumed root tern, meaning ' to grow dusk,' 
is widely diffused ; Sans, tama*, 'darkness ' 
(exactly corresponding to OHG. demar), 
tamrds, 'obscuring, stilling' ; tdmisrd, f., 
' dark night ' ; Ir. temel, ' darkness,' temen, 
' dark grey.' With the latter words Lat. 
tenebrw, ' darkness,' is connected (br in Lat. 

from sr ; n for m on account of the follow- 
ing labial, a process of differentiation) ; 
OSlov. tima, ' darkuess,' Lith. tamsu.*, 
• dark,' tamsa, f., ' dusk,' te'mti, ' to grow 
dusk.' In the earlier Germ, periods we 
have further MidHG. dinster, OHG. din- 
star, which are so related to Sans, tdmisrd, 
' night,' and Lat. tenebrw, as to imply a 
Goth, Jrinstra- as an adj. stem ; in that case 
t lias intruded between * and r, as in @djtt*- 
fter. With regard to MidHG. dinster comp. 
also ModHG. biifler and ftttjler. 

Dantpf, m., ' vapour, steam,' from Mid 
HG. damp/, tampf, m., ' vapour, smoke ' ; 
tampf seems to have been the strictly HG. 
form ; allied to the equiv. OIc. dampe, E. 
and Du. damp, ' moisture' ; not recorded in 
the earlier periods. Formed by gradation 
from a str. vb. — MidHG. dimpfen, ' to fume, 
smoke,' which has disappeared in ModHG.; 
its factitive, however, still exists — bampftii, 
MidHG. dtmpfen, orig. sense, ' to cause to 
smoke,' i.e. ' to stifle (it fire).' See also 
bumpf ; buttfel may also be allied to it. 

Pcmh, m., ' thanks, acknowledgment, 
recompense,' from the equiv. MidHG. and 
OHG. danc, m. ; corresponds to Goth, pagks 
(panfo), AS. J>anc, E. thanks; Etymologi- 
cally £anf is simply ' thinking,' hence ' the 
sentiment merely, not expressed in deeds.' 
See benfen, biinfett. 

barm, adv., from the equiv. MidHG. and 
OHG. danne, 'then, at that time, in such 
a case, thereupon' ; properly identical with 
benn ; in MidHG. and OHG. danne is used 
indill'erently for benn and batttt. AS. fconne, 
Jjoenne, E. then. The OTeut adv. is based 
on the pronominal stem J>a- (comp. ber) ; 
yet the mode of its formation is not quite 
clear. Comp. ba, ber, and the following 

bcmttOtt, adv., only preserved in the 
phrase Men baiuien, 'thence, from thence' ; 
MidHG. dannen, OHG. dannana, danndn, 
and dandn, 'inde, illinc' ; AS. jxinon, E. 
thence. Fur Goth . *J>anana the word ]>a]>r6, 
formed from the same root, was used. 

bar, adv., 'there,' etymologically iden- 
tical with ba (whence the compounds baran, 
baritt, barum, &c.), and with OHG. dara, 
' thither.' 

barbcit, vb., ' to suffer want, famish,' 
from MidHG. darhn, OHG. darben, 'to 
dispense with, be deficient'; corresponds 
to Goth, gajxirban, ' to abstain from ' ; AS. 
fna>fan, ' to be in need of.' The verb is 
derived from the same root (J>erf)aa burfm 


( 52 ) 


which see ; iis primary meaning is ' to he 
in need of.' 

Parm, m., 'gut, intestine,' from the 
eqniv. MidHG. darm, OHG. daram, m. ; 
eomp. AS. pearm, OFris. therm, Du. darm, 
OIc. Jxirmr, m., Swed. and Dan. tarm. Cor- 
responds in the non-Teut. languages to Lat. 
trdmes, ' way,' Gr. rprjua, • hole, eye,' Tpdjxu, 
'perineum,' from root tar, 'to traverse.' 
Hence the orig. sense of £arm was pro- 
bahly ' passage.' — Allied to the collective 
(Sebaritt (ModHG.), n., 'entrails,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. gederme, OHG. gider- 
mi, n. 

PatTC, f., ' kiln for drying fruit, malt, 
<fec.,' from the equiv. MidHG. darre, OHG. 
darra, f. ; akin to MidLG. darre, iSwed. 
(dial.) tarre: like benen, burr, from an, 
OTeut. root pern, pre-Teut. ters, upon which 
are based ModHG. 35nrjt, buvjten, with a 
specialised meaning. The root ters appears 
in Gr., 'to become dry,' repaalvu, 
' to dry ' ; in relation to ModHG. 2)arre the 
equiv. rapaos and rapaia, ' hurdle for dry- 
ing fruit,' deserve special notice. The 
words connected with the root ters are cited 
under ©utjl, since they, like iDurjt, have 
been similarly restricted in meaning. Lat. 
torreo, for *torseo, corresponds in form and 
idea to ModHG. borren ; comp. further 
Lat. torris, ' firebrand,' torridas, ' parched.' 
From Teut. ]>arrian, Fr. tarii; ' to dry up,' 
is derived. See bevren, burr, ©urji. 

bctfo, conj., 'that,' from MidHG. and 
OHG. day, corresponds to OLG. and E. 
that, Goth, fiata; etymologically identical 
with ba#, the neut. article. See bcr. 

Paifd, f., 'date' (fruit), from MidHG. 
datel, tatel, taiele, f. ; from Rom., — Fr. datte, 
Ital. dattilo, the primary source of which 
isGr. 5dim>\os, ' date ' (comp. Sltticfy) ; hence 
too Du. dadel, E. date. 

Pttltbc, f., akin to the equiv. MidHG.. 
dilge, f., ' stave ' ; the ModHG. b compared 
•\yitli MidHG. g shows that the modern 
word cannot be a continuation of the Mid 
IIG. form. UpGer. has preserved the word 
dauge, corresponding to MidHG. dlLge; 
comp. Du. duij, 'stave.' OIc. J>Afa, f., 
' entrenchment, rampart,' does not appear 
to be related. In Rom. is found a word pho- 
netically allied and equiv. in meaning — 
Fr. douve, 'stave ' (but also ' moat ' ; hence 
this is connected with the OIc. word 
quoted) ; it was most likely borrowed from 
Du. or LG. The Scand. ]>itfa and the 
MidHG. dtige look very much like Teut. 

words whether they are allied or not. We 
cannot possibly derive MidHG. duge from 
Gr. 5oxi}, ' receptacle.' Respecting the per- 
mutation of b (/) and g, see Urcmbe. 

fcetuern (1.), vb., ' to last, endure,' from 
the eqniv. MidHG. dAren, tilren, from Lat. 
a-Amre (Fr. dunr). £>auer, f., is simply a 
ModHG. form from banerit. E. to dure 
(endure) conies from Fr. durer. 

bauetn (2.), bcoaucrn, vb., 'to cause 
pity, sorrow, regret ' ; the initial d indicates 
that the vb. was borrowed from MidG. and 
LG., for the MidHG. form was tHren; mich 
ttiret ein ding or eines dinges, ' that appears 
to me to be (too) expensive, dear' ; tilren is 
related by gradation to tetter, MidHG. tiure ; 
for the change from 4 to iu comp. trauna, 
with AS. dreOiig, E. dreary. It is remark- 
able that the verb, which, judging by its 
gradation, must be very old, is utterly 
wanting in the older dialects. 

Pcumten, m., ' thumb,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. and MidLG. ddme, OHG. dUmo, 
m. ; comp. Du. duim, AS. fiAma, E. thumb ; 
OIc. purnall, pumalfingr. The same deriv. 
with the suffix I is seen, but with a change 
of meaning, however, in AS. ]>t/mel, E. 
thimble (Goth. */}Ama). This word ' thumb ' 
is consequently common to the Teut group; 
even the other fingers had each its special 
name in the OTeut. period. The AS. terms 
middefinger, midlesta finger, se gold finger, se 
lltla finger, are in complete accord with 
ModHG. SMittelftttget (middle-finger), ®elb- 
ftnger (ring-finger), and ber Heine gtncjer (the 
little-finder), respectively. These terms 
are not formed, therefore, like ©aumeii from 
an old independent stem ; in this way 
JDaumcn is proved to be primit., though ety- 
mologically it is not quite clear ; the pre- 
Teut. form may have been *tHmon, perhaps 
akin to tiimeo, 'to swell'?. In that case 
2)iiumen would be equiv. to 'swollen fin- 
ger'; comp. also Sans, tumrd-s, as 'greasy, 
fat, vigorous,' and t&tuma-s, 'strong,' Zend 
ttima, ' strong,' with Lat. tum-eo. Gr. tv\<k, 
Tv\rj(S), 'callosity, swelling, knob, hump,' 
are based upon a root tU, while the Lat. 
cognates point to turn. The orig. sense of 
both may have been ' to swell, be thick.' 

Paunc, Punc, f., 'down,' ModHG. 
only, from the equiv. LG. d-Ane, f. ; comp. 
OIc. dtmn, m., E. down. Hence the initial 
dental proves that the ModHG. word U of 
LG. origin, for since the Scand. and Eng. 
words begin with d, a genuine HG. word 
would necessarily have an initial t. The 


( 53 ) 


origin of Scand. dunn is obscure. See 
(Sicer, glaum. 

"$ClU5, n., 'deuce (of dice), ace (of 
cards),' from MidHG. d4s, ids, with the 
same meanings ; late OHG. d&s. From a 
Rom. word originating in the Lat. duo; 
OFr. dous (ModFr. deux, Pro v. duas, from 
Lat. *duos for duo), whence E. deuce. Dice- 
playing was a favourite amusement even 
among the Teutons described by Tacitus 
(Germ. 24) ; unfortunately, however, we 
can gather nothing from his brief remarks 
88 to the details and technical terms (but 
seegcfallen, £unb, <8au) of the OTeut. game ; 
the words died out at an early period, and 
with the new games from the South new 
Row, words have been introduced. See 
2lfj, Sreff, bcppcltt. 

Pedjctttf, ni., 'dean,' from MidHG. de- 
chent, tecltant(d), MidHG. and OHG. techdn 
from Lat. dScdnus, whence also Ital. decano, 
Fr. doyen (E. dean). 

Peq)er, m., ' a tale of ten hides,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. techer, decker, m. n. ; 
borrowed by MidHG. from Lat. decuria. 

IPedie, f., 'cover, ceiling, disguise,' from 
MidHG. declce, f., ' cover, covering, cover- 
ing up'; OHG. de.chi, related to the fol- 
lowing word. 

OCdtCtt, vb., 'to cover, screen,' from the 
equiv. ModHG dpiken, OHG. decchan; the 
latter (with cch- from kj) from *pakjan, 
which was most likely the Goth, form ; 
comp. AS. p$ccan (obsolete in E.) ; OIc, 
pekja, ' to cover.' pakjan is a deriv. of the 
Aryan root teg (discussed under 5)ad)), 
which appears with the same meaning in 
Lat. tegere, Gr. <r-T4yeiv, Sans, sthagdmi. A 
str. vb. pekan corresponding to tego, areyu, 
is nowhere recorded within the Teut. group ; 
the wk. vb. has assumed its function. 

ocftig, adj., ModHG. only, from LG. 
deftig; the latter, with E. daft, AS. gedceft^ 
'mild, meek, gentle' (Goth, gadaban, 'to 
be fitting '), and perhaps with HG. tapfer, is 
derived from a Teut. root dab, dap. See 

PcflCtt (1.), m., ' valiant warrior' ; it is 
not etymologically a sort of figurative sense 
of !X)egen (-2.), though the tendency of Mod 
HG. is to regard it thus, in such expres- 
sions as alter Jpaubeacn, ' a practised swords- 
man,' &c. While SDecjen, 'sword,' first ap- 
pears in the 15th cent., 2>a,en, ' hero,' is an 
OTeut. word, which is wanting in Goth. 
(*pigns) only. Comp. OHG. degan, AS. 
pegn, ' retainer, attendant,' E. thane (from 

pegn) ; MidHG. degen, ' hero.' There is no 
phonetic difficulty in connecting these 
cognates (Goth, pigna-, from telend-), as is 
usually done, with Gr. riKvov, ' child ' ; the 
difference in sense may be paralleled by 
AS. magu, ' boy, son, servant, man.' But 
since pegn was already an established tech- 
nical term in the OTeut. system, we must 
in preference regard ' vassal' as the primary 
sense of the word. We have too in Goth. 
puis (stem piua-) for pigicd-, 'servant, 
attendant' (AS. p.o, pe6w, OHG. diu; see 
S£)inte and bteitcn), a more suitable connect- 
ing link. Moreover, pegn, £eo,eu, would, 
if cognate with rin-vov, be related to tUtu, 
' to give birth to,' roicevs, ' begetter,' tokos, 
'birth,' and Sans, takman, 'child.' 

PcflCtt (2.), m., 'sword,' first occurs in 
late MidHG, see iSeom (1.); from Fr. 
dague, ' dirk.' 

bcifXXClX, vb., ' to stretch, extend, 
lengthen,' from MidHG. and OHG. denen, 
dennen, wk. vb., ' to stretch, draw, strain' ; 
comp. Goth, vfpanjan, 'to extend'; AS. 
penian, pennan, ' to stretch.' The Goth. 
panjanis a deriv. of a str. vb. *penan, like 
pakjan, ' to cover,' from a str. vb. *p'ekan 
(Lat. tego) ; panja and pena are primit. 
cognate with Gr. reivw. The root ten is 
widely diffused in the Aryan group. Sans, 
root tan, ' to strain, widen, extend (of time), 
endure'; tdntu-s, m., 'thread,' tdnti-*, f., 
'line, rope' ; Gr. rdvu, T&vvuai, rdais, rivuv, 
' sinew,' raivia, 'strip'; OSlov. teneto, ten- 
oto, ' cord,' Lat. tinus, ' cord,' Lith. tinklas, 
* net.' The idea of extension is shown 
also by the root ten (Lat. teneo, tendo) iu 
an old Aryan adj. ; see burnt and ©ctme. 
A figurative sense of the same root is seen 
iu bomtern ; the evolution of meaning may 
be ' extension — sound — noise.' 

Pcid), m., 'dike'; MidHG. tick, m. ; 
since the HG. word would, according to 
phonetic laws, begin with t, we must sup- 
pose that it has been influenced, like 
JDamvf perhaps, by LG. ; comp. LG. dlk, 
Du w dijk, AS, dtc, E. dike. Respecting their 
identity with HG. £cid) and E. dilce ('a 
ditch '), see £eidj. 

Pctcr)fcf (1.), f., ' pole, thill, shaft,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. dthsel, OHG. dihsala, f. ; 
comp. Ola pisl, AS. ptxl, ptsl, Du. di&sel, 
OLG. tltlsla, f. It has no Connection with 
E. thill, which is related rather to ModHG, 
£iclf. A word peculiar to the Teut. dialects, 
and of obscure origin ; perhaps Lat. temo, 
' pole, shaft,' is primit. allied (if it represents 


( 54 ) 


teixnio; comp. Ala from *axla, under Sldjftl). 
Tlie Aryans had learnt the way to build 
wiiggons in their Asiatic home ere they 
separated into different tribes : this is 
proved by the words 3cd), 91abe, €?ab, 

Pcid)fcl (2.). f > 'adze' ; comp. MidHG. 
d'elisel, OHG. dehsala, ' axe, hatchet' ; from 
a Teut. root />e/'«, equiv. to Aryan te&s. 
Comp. OSlov. tesati, 'to hew,' Lith. taszyti, 
4 to hew, fashion with an axe,' Sans, tatean, 
'carpenter' (see under J'acbe). The ei of 
the ModHG. word is based upon a variant 
fit/is, which is MidG. and LG. ; numerous 
HG. dialects preserve the old e. 

bcxxx, pronom. adj., ' thy,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. and OHG. din, corresponds 
to Goth. }>eins y AS. pin, E. thy, thine; re- 
lated to bu. 

pemattf, Ptamanf, m., 'diamond, 
adamant,' from the equiv. MidHG. dia- 
mant, dtemant, from Fr. diamant, Ital. 
diamante (Lat. adamantem). 

Pcttiut, f., ' submissiveiiess, humility,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. demuot, diemuot, 
diemiiete, OHG. deomuoti, ' condescension, 
gentleness, modesty.' The correctly de* 
veloped form from the OHG. deomuoti 
would be ModHG. 5)iemute ; the present 
form is due partly to LG. influence, partly 
to its having been connected with 9lvtnut ; 
but while in the latter silt is properly a suf- 
fix, OHG. deomuoti, f., is a compound. The 
second component is a deriv. of OHG. 
muot (see QJJut) ; OHG. dio, however, is 
Gotli. J>ius (stem piwa- ; comp. bienen, 
5)tntf, and also ^ecjen), 'hind, servant'; 
JDcmut is ' the befitting quality of a servant, 
the disposition of the attendant.' Neither 
the word nor the idea is OTeut. (the Goth, 
said hauneins, 'abasement, baseness,' for 
2>emut) ; both were introduced by Chris- 

betXQeln, vb., from the equiv. MidHG. 
te,»geln, ' to sharpen by hammering, beat, 
hammer' ; the ModHG. d points, as in the 
case of 2)eidj, to a LG. influence ; comp. 
AS. dencgan, * to knock, ding,' E. to ding. 
Akin toOHG. tangol, 'hammer'; Golh.*dig- 
fficav, 'tostrike,' indicated also by OSwed. 
diunt/a, ModSwed. ddnga, is not recorded. 

benketl, vb., ' to think, call to mind, 
conceive, believe,' from MidHG. de,nlcen, 
OHG. deiichen, 'to think, bear in mind, 
devise, excogitate'; corresponds to Goth. 
Jxiqtyan (}>ankjan), ' to consider, ponder, 
reflect,' AS. jjencan. E. to think, is an 

intermediate form between AS. pelican, ' to 
think,' and J>yncan, ' to seem.' JDtnfen is 
in form a factitive of bihtfen, which was 
originally a str. vb., meaning ' to seem'; 
'to make a thing seem' is 'to consider, 
ponder.' See biinfen. 

bcnrt, conj., ' for,' from MidHG. danne, 
denne, OHG. danne, danna ; identical witli 

bev, art., 'the,' formed from the OHG. 
and MidHG. detnonstr. and relat. stem d'e- ; 
comp. Goth. f>a-, Gr. to-, OInd. ta-. The 
details belong to grammar. 

bexb, adj., 'compact, stout, blunt, un- 
couth,' derived in form from MidHG. derp 
(b), ' unleavened,' but blended in meaning 
with a word berbf, bcrb, ' worthy, honest ' 
(see bteber), deduced Irom OHG. and Mid 
HG. biderb*. MidHG. derp, OHG. derb, 
' unleavened,' are equiv to OIc. fcjarfr, AS. 
fceorf, E. therf. ©ieber is related to bebi.rfett, 
but betb, 'unleavened,' on account of its 
meaning, cannot belong to the same stem ; 
it is connected rather with the root vcrberben. 

befto, adv., ' so much the,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. deste, d'est, late UHG. desde ; 
in an earlier form two words, des diu (de$, 
gen., diu, instr. of the art.) ; the Goth, 
word was simply f># (instr. of the art.) ; 
thus, too, AS. py before comparatives, E. 
the (the more, bcflo mefjt). 

"Qeube, see 2)ieb. 

Pcuf , f., ' doit, trifle,' simply ModHG., 
from Du. duit, 'smallest coin' (whence 
also E. doit) ; the latter is of Scand. origin ; 
OIc. Jrveit, 'a small coin' (from pvita, ' to 
cut '). 

belli en, vb., ' to point, beckon, inter- 
pret, explain,' from MidHG diuken, tiuten, 
OHG. diuten, vb., ' to show, point, signify, 
notify, explain, translate' ; Goth. *piud- 
jan- comp. OIc. J>0a. In place of piudjan, 
Goth, has a form J>iuJ>jan, 'to praise, laud,' 
which, however, is scarcely identical with 
beuten. Probably the latter signifies rather 
'to make popular'; Jnuda is the Goth, 
word for ' nation ' (see beutfcfy). Comp. Mid 
HG. ze diute, 'distinct, evident,' and 'in 
German' (diute, dak sing, of diuti, tiute, 
f., ' exposition, explanation ') ; note too 
AS. gej>e6de, ' language' (as the main charac- 
teristic of the nation). 

beut fcf), adj., ' German,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. diutsch, tiutsch; the initial d of 
the ModHG. and MidHG. words is MidG., 
the earlier form, teutfdj (MidHG. tiutsch), 
is UpGer., and was, especially by the Up 


( 55 ) 


Ger. writers, constantly u?ed till the end 
of the last century. OHG. diuti<k (for 
MidLat. theodiscus, the earliest records of 
the word are in the years 813, 842, 860), 
' German,' nroperly only ' pertaining to the 
people' (OSax thiudisca liudi, 'Teutons') ; 
Goth, preserves the corresponding Jriudiskti, 
adv., in the sense of 'like a heathen' (in 
close connection with Gr. idviK&s). The suf- 
fix isle denotes ' pertaining to.' The subst. 
MidHG. diet, OHG. diot, diota, ' people,' 
upon which this word is based, is pre- 
served in such compound proper names 
as SJtettid), 2)ctlef, !£etmclb, 3)etmat ; as an 
independent word it is also obsolete in 
Eng. ; AS. J>e6d ; Goth. Jnuda, f. The 
OTeut. subst. is based upon a word — 
pre-Teut. teutd, ' people ' — found in many 
We>t Aryan languages ; comp. Lith. tautd, 
f., 'country,' Lett, tauta, 'people, nation' ; 
Olr. Math, 'people' ; Oscan touto, 'people' 
(Livy calls the chief magistrate of the 
Campauian towns l medix tuticus'). Thus 
the word betttfd) has a singular and com- 
prehensive history ; it was used in the 
earliest OHG. and MidLat. writings only 
of the language (since 845 A.D. Theodisci 
occurs also as the name of a people, and 
first of all in Italy) ; beutfd), 'popular,' was 
the term applied to the native language 
in contrast to the Lat. ecclesiastical speech 
and the Lat. official phraseology. We 
may note E. Butch, because it is restricted 
to the language of Holland ; till about 
1600 A.D. the people of Holland were con- 
vinced that their language was German. 

oibbcrn, vb., Jew., 'to talk' (espe- 
cially in a low voice), from Hebr. dibbdr, 
' to talk.' 

Md)f,adj., 'close, dense/dial, d'icht (Liv. 
and Esth.), from MidHG. dthte, 'dense.' 
The absence of the diphthong is probably 
due to LG., since the word does not occur in 
UpGer. (Suab. and Bav.). Corresponds to 
Olc. f>Mr, ' dense ' (related to Goth. *f>eihts, 
as I4ttr, ' light,' to Goth, leihts) ; allied to 
the Teut. root fcinh (see gebeifyen), just as 
Goth, leihts to the root ling (see gelingen). 
E. tight, from MidE. ttht, has an abnormal 
t for th initially, probably due to the in- 
fluence of Swed. and Dan. tcet; in MidE. the 
normal thiht is also found. For another 
derivation see btrf. 

bidften, vb., 'to invent, imagine, write, 
fabricate,' from MidHG. tihten, l to write, 
draw up (in writing), compose, invent, ex- 
cogitate'; the ModHG. meaning is very 

much restricted compared with the fulness 
of MidHG. Even in the 16th and 17th 
cents, ©tdjtet (MidHG. tihtcsre) meant gene- 
rally 'writer, author,' and was applied to 
the prose writer as well as the poet. The 
origin of bidden (OHG. tHit6n, 'to write, 
compose '), from Lat. dictate, ' to dictate,' 
late Lat. also 'to compose,' may have 
favoured the change from ttd)tm to bidden ; 
AS. dihtan, which is of the same origin, 
has the further signification ' to arrange, 

Mdt, adj., 'thick, stout, corpulent,' from 
MidHG. die, dicke, adj., 'thick, dense, fre- 
quent,' OHG. dicchi, 'thick, dense'; in 
Eng. too the double meaning of the adj. 
obtains ; comp. Olc. pykkr, pjgklcr, AS. 
piece, E. thick. Corresponds to Olr. tiug 
(from *tigu), ' thick,' so that we must pre- 
suppose a Goth. *Jnqus. Beside which the 
double sense, ' thick, dense,' makes the 
kinship with btd)t probable. In OHG. the 
meaning 'dense' has been preserved in 
2)icf id)t, lit. ' a place densely overgrown ' 
(orig. used by sportsmen) ; in MidHG. 
dicke is the equiv. term. 

Pieb, m., ' thief,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. diep(b), OHG. diob, m.; common to 
the Teut. group ; comp. G»th. f>iufs(b), Du. 
dief, AS. pedf, E. thi'f. The word cannot 
be traced beyond Teut. In the sense of 
' 3Mebflal)l,' E. has a form with a dental 
suffix— AS. />$//>, f. (Olc. /tf/S, f., Goth. 
*J>iubiJ>a), E. theft. The form in HG. is 
a j- stem — OHG. diuba (diuva), MidHG. 
diube (dime), earlier ModHG. £>eube (as 
late as Logan, 1604-1655), which is now 
met with only in 2Bilbbeube, ' petty poach- 
ing.' The latter forms the base of ModHG. 
35iebfkfy(, in MidHG. diepstdle and diupstdle 
(OSwed. Jnufdolet), lit. 'theft-stealing.' 
The second part of the compound expresses 
the same idea as the first ; 35teb is simply 
the concrete which has replaced the ab- 
stract ; comp. Goth. Jriubi, n., and its adv. 
form jriubjd, 'secretly.' Besides thema.-c. 
Dieb, there existed in OHG. and MidHG. 
a feminine form, which in Goth, would 
have been *}>iubi; comp. OHG. diupa, Mid 
HG. diupe, ' female thief.' We must seek 
for the primit. word in a pre-Teut. root 
with a final p; this is proved by OHG. 
diuva, MidHG. diuve, f., ' theft ' ; comp. the 
Arvan root tup, * to duck,' under SDudjt. 

"Dido, f., ' plank, board,' from MidHG. 
dU, dille, f., m., ' board, partition of boards, 
boarded floor ' (in LG. ■ vestibule '), OHG. 


( 56 ) 


di/i, 111. (neut, J), dilUi, f., with the same 
meaning, Originally Teut. peloz, piliz, 11., 
* board,' wa3 piljon, ' made of boards ' ; 
comp. AS. pel, ' board,' OIc. pilja, ' rowing 
seat' (Finn, teljo 'ship's beam, oar-bench,' 
comes from Teut.). Comp. further Du. 
deel, 'board, floor,' MidLG. dile, 'board.' 
Lith. tile, ' plank of a boat,' OSlov. tilo, 
' ground,' Sans, tala-m, ' surface,' seem to 
be primit. allied ; also Lat, tellus, 'earth ' ?. 

Molten, vb., ' to serve, attend upon, be 
of use to,' from the equiv. Mid II G. dienen, 
OHG. diondn (OSax. thion6n) ; comp. Du, 
dienen, Goth. *piun6n. The latter is formed 
in the same way as reikinSn, ' to rule,' from 
reih, ' ruler,' fraujin&n, 'to be master of,' 
from frav ja, 'master' ; that is to say, bienen 
is based upon Goth, pius (stem piwa-), ' ser- 
vant, menial.' Comp. AS. pe6w, ' servant,' 
OHG. deo, ' menial ' (comp. ©euutt) ; also a 
fern, form, Goth, pirn, OHG. and MidHG. 
diu, 'maid-servant'; another similar old 
fem. form is ModHG. 3)ivne. The corre- 
sponding abstract — iStenfr, MidHG. dienest, 
m., n., OHG. diondst, n. (comp. OSax. Uio- 
nost, n.), is worth noting from the gramma- 
tical point of view on account of the suttix 
st (comp., also AS. ofost, ' haste,' with 
the same suilix). From Goth. frauji»assus, 
'rule,' piudinassus, ' reign,' we should have 
expected Goth, frlunassus, ' the state of a 
servant, service,' that is to say, the Germ. 
6uffix -niss for nest. Moreover, before the 10 
of Goth, piwa- a g may have disappeared 
(comp. ?lue, 9Zicre), so that the Teut. root 
was possibly pegw ; in that case the OTeUt. 
pejrwz, ' sword ' (Goth. *pigns), would be- 
long to the same stem as btenen and £>eo.en. 

Ptensf ttg, m., ' Tuesday,' a West Teut. 
word, which has quite as important a bear- 
ing upon the religious views of the Teutons 
as Djlern. Originally there were three 
names for the day. One contains in the 
first component of the compound the name 
of the OTeut. god Tin, to whom the day 
was sacred ; OIc. Tysdagr, AS. Ttwesdcrg, 
E. Tuesday, preserve this name in the 
gen. (comp. Goth, baurgswaddjus, just as 
if 33ura3mauer were used for 33uranianer ; 
see 91ai|ttaa(l). OHG. Zio (OIc Tyr) is a 
primit. deity whose worship the Teutons 
brought with them from their Asiatic 
home ; it is identical with Or. Zeus (for 
Sjevs), gen. At6s (for 5iF6s, hence correspond- 
ing to Goth. *Titi8-dags) ; Lat. Jupiter, Jovis 
(for *dj«vis) ; Sans. Djdus, gen. Divas; orig. 
the word meant simply ' sky,' then the shy 

personified as a god. Among the Teutons 
%\w appears as a god of war ; this change 
of meaning is explained by the supposition 
that Xtu, corresponding to the Greek Zeus, 
was at first regarded simply as the chief 
god, but was afterwards connected with 
the main occupation of our ancestors, i.e. 
war (see fufnt). From Tiu, OHG. Zio, 
'Tuesday' in OAlem. is termed (OHG.) 
Ziostac,(M.idllG.) Ziestac {Ziestag'm Hebel). 
Another appellation is the OBav. Ertuc 
(Erchtag), instead of which, on the adop- 
tion of Christianity in the east of Suabia, 
the word qftermwntig, ' after Monday,' was 
introduced. In the Franc, and Sax. dia- 
lects the term dingestag has existed from 
time immemorial, and was at one time in- 
correctly thought to mean ' court-day ' (see 
£ing). The latter word, however, is based 
rather on an attribute of the OTeut. Tiu, 
who in aTeut.-Lat. inscription is designated 
Mars Thingsus. Thinx is the Lomb. term 
for 35ituj, 'assembly of the people,' hence 
Thinxus, the god of the assemblies. Among 
the Sax., Fris., and Francon. tribes Tues- 
day was sacred to this god ; comp. MidDu. 
dinxindach, MidLG. dingsedach, earlier 
ModHG. dingsdag. 

bicfer, pron., 'this, the latter,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. diser, OHG. disir, eailier 
desUr; corresponds to AS. pes, E. this. See 
the grammars for further details, 

Piefrid), m., ' false key ' (in UpGer, 
9ladjfd)tuffd), occurs late in* MidHG. ; the 
age of the word and of its meaning is at- 
tested by the loan-word Swed. dyrk (Dan. 
dirk), which has the same signification, 
and is, like the ModHG. proper name 
©ierf, ' Deny,' a pet name from JDietricb, 
' Derrick.' Similarly, instead of ' £)ietrtd\' 
$eterdjen (^etetfen), 'Peterkin,' and JUaih5 
(JlloScfyen), 'Nick,' are used, probably be- 
cause $eter, 'Peter,' like 35ietrid), 'Der- 
rick.' and 9iifclau£, ' Nicholas,' are favourite 
Christian names, which might serve to veil 
(in thieves' slang?) the term 'false key' 
(comp. Ital. grimaldelld) The word in 
MidHG. is mitesliixxel, OHG. afterslu$yl. 

PtH, m., 'dill/ In ModHG. the LG. 
form is current, just as in the case of $afcr. 
MidHG. tille, f., m., is used of the same 
umbelliferous plant (anethum), OHG. tilli, 
n. ; comp. AS. dile, E. dill ; of obscure 

Pinft, n., ' thing, matter, transaction/ 
from MidHG. and OHG. dinc(g), n., ' thing, 
matter,' prop, 'judicial proceeding, court- 


( 57 ) 


day ' (for a similar change of meaning 
cotup. <&atf)c) ; the corresponding Scand. 
ping (thing), meaning * judicial transac- 
tion, court-day, court of justice,' is well 
known. The OTeut. ping (Lonib. thinx) 
is therefore connected with the old mahal, 
niapl, as 'assembly of the people' (see 
©ematjl). In Eng. the subst. (AS. ping, 
n., E. tiling) has essentially the ModHG. 
meaning ; but the deriv. pingan, 'to make 
a treaty,' pingian, 'to settle, adjust,' and 
pingang, ' mediation,' imply also ' treaty, 
discussion.' In ModHG. a remnant of the 
earlier meaning remained in bitigcn, from 
MidHG. 'to hold a court, negotiate, make 
a treaty ' (whence ModHG. 93ebingung, ' sti- 
pulation '), and specially ' to conclude a bar- 
uaiQj buj", hire' (also generally 'to talk,' 
like AS. pingian, ' to talk ') ; so, too, in 
ttcvtfycibiijen, 2>tcuStag. Hence the primary 
meaning of the subst. is ' public transac- 
tion in the folk-moot,' lit. 'term' ; this is 
supported by Goth, peihs, ' time,' from pre- 
Teut. te'nkos (equal to Lat. tempus). The 
Aryan base of Lomb. thinx, OHG. ding, 
is tenkos. The OBulg. teza, f., 'judicial 
transaction,' is of Teat origin. 

PutucI, m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
dinkel, OHG. dinchil, m., ' bearded wheat, 
spelt ' ; of obscure origin. 

Phtfc, see Sinte. 

Pipfam, m., ' dittany,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. didam, diptam; borrowed from 
Gr. dlTTTa/ju/os. 

Pinte, f., ' lass, hussy, wench ' (not 
found in UpG.), from MidHG. dime, 
dierne, OHG. diorna, 'maid-servant, girl, 
wench.' Comp. Du. deem, OSax. thiorna, 
OIc. perna, f. ; in Goth, probably *piwair- 
n6; comp. widuvcairna, 'orphan,' orig. sense 
perhaps ' widow's son.' Thus, too, *piioalr- 
nd, 'menial's, thrall's daughter, who is 
therefore herself a slave, i.e. a servant.' 
The deriv. syllable is a diminutive sufiix 
(comp. (S'id)f)cni) ; the stein is indisputably 
pina-, ' menial.' For further cognates, see 
bieucn, JDeijnt. 

pi ft cl, f, ' thistle,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. distel, m. and f., OHG. distila, f., distil, 
m. ; corresponds to Du. and LG. distel, AS. 
pistel, E. thistle, OIc. pistell. Modern LG. 
and Eng. dialects have t in the accented 
syllable ; hence the root is ptst ?. Akin 
to Goth, wiga-deind, 'milk-thistle'?. 

Pdbel, m., 'peg, wedge,' from MidHG. 
tiibel. m., ' pin, plug, nail ' ; OHG. tubilt, 
D., 'plug' Comp. E. dowel, Du. deuvik, 

< plug.' The Teut. root dub, upon which 
it is based, appears in Swed. dubba; so, 
too, perhaps in Litb. dubti, ' to get hollow,' 
daubd, diibt, ' pit.' The d of the ModHG. 
word is due to MidG. influence. 

bod), conj., ' vet, however,' from Mid 
HG. doch, OHG odh, 'yet,' also ' although' ; 
#, on account of the toneless nature of the 
conj., is shortened from 6 ; Goth, pduh, cor- 
responding to AS. p-d/i, E. though. Scarcely 
from pa (variant of pata, HG. da$) and vJi, 
* and.' Goth, pauh is lit. ' and that' 1. 

Pod)f , m, ' wick.' The strictly ModHG. 
form should be dacht, which is still dialec- 
tal, as well as the variant tacht, with the t 
from p, as in taufeiib. MidHG. and OHG. 
laid, m. n. ; comp. OIc. pdttr, * thread, 
wick.' A Teut. root, pel), pig, still ap- 
pears in Swiss dcegel, ' wick,' Bav. ddlien, 
Alsat. doclie, ' wick.' In the non-Teut. 
languages no primit. root tek has as yet been 
found. For another OTeut. term for Sedjt, 
see under 5Biecf)e. 

Podt, n., ' dock,' simply ModHG ; from 
the equiv. E. dock, the origin of which is 
very obscure. From E. and Du. (dok) the 
word was adopted by Swed., Dan., Mod 
HG., and ModFr. 

Potfte, f., 'doll,' from MidHG. tocke, 
f., 'doll,' also ' young girl,' OHG. toccha, 
' doll.' The word is not found in the 
oldest periods of the other dialects, nor 
can the ModHG. meanings, 'skein, yam,' 
be authenticated from MidHG., OHG., and 
the early stages of connate languages ; yet 
there is no reason to doubt the real Teut. 
origin of the word. 

PoftftC, f, 'bulldog, mastiff,' simply 
ModHG., from the equiv. Du. and E. dog 
(from about 1050 a.d. the word occurs in 
AS. as docga), whence also Fr. dogue. With 
regard to HG. gg, as a proof of a word being 
borrowed from LG., comp. St«89f> 

Poljle, f., 'jackdaw,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. tdhele, idle, tdhe, OHG. tdJia, f. ; 
primary form *d$hic6, dSwd, according to 
AS.*ddwe, E. daw, whence also E. caddow, 
' daw ' (the first part of the compound is 
AS. cd, Du. M, OHG. chdha, 'daw' ; so, 
too, E. chough). From Teut. pah train is 
derived Ital. taccola, 'magpie.' 

PoI)rte, f., 'gin, noose, springe,' from 
MidHG. don. done, f., 'stretching,' OHG. 
dona, ' branch, twig.' !Tct)ne is the 'branch 
bent or stretched for catching birds.' The 
Aryan root ten, ' to stretch, extend,' is dis- 
cussed under fcetnteit, buna. OBulg. tonoto, 


( 58 ) 


1 cord, noose,' Lat. tenas, 11., ' cord,' Sans. 
tantu-s, tantrt, ' wire, cord,' Gr. rhwp, 
sinew,' are closely allied in meaning to 
£cf)Hf. So too OHG. donAn (Gotli. *}>unan), 
'to exert oneself.' 

Pohcc, pouches, m., ' fundament,' a 
Jewish word, but of doubtful etymology ; 
hardly from Hebr. tdchath, ' underneath.' 

pold), m., 'dagger, dirk,' simply Mod 
HG. (from the beginning of the 16th cent.), 
derived like the equiv. Du., Dan., and Swed. 
dolk, from Slav. (Boheni. and Pol. tulich ?). 

Poloe, f., ' umbel,' from MidHG. tolde, 
f., ' top or crown of a plant or tree,' OHG. 
loldo, m. ; the ModHG. word has appa- 
rently a LG. initial sound. The root is 
did (pre-Teur. dliel), as is indicated by 
OHG. tola, ' grape-stalk.' From Aryan 
dhel, Gr. 06\os, 'dome' (allied in meaning 
to ModHG. £clbe, 'umbel'), is formed by 
gradation. Yet 0dXXw, ' to sprout, bloom,' 
6d\os, n., 'young shoot, twig, may also be 

pole, f., 'canal,' from MidHG. *dol, 
OHG. dola, f., ' pipe ' ; akin to LG. and Fris. 
dole, 'pit, ditch.' 

Poltncf fcf), m., ' interpreter,' from tlie 
equiv. MidHG. t-dmetsche, tolmetze, tul- 
metsche ; a Turk, word (North Turk, tilmac) 
which found its way into MidHG. through 
Magyar (tolmdcs) or Slav. (OSlov. tlumuct, 
Pol. tlumacz, Buhem. tlumaS) ; also in 
MidHG. tolc, tolke (comp. further Du. folk), 
'interpreter,' from OSlov. tluku, (whence 
also Lith. tullcas, Lett, tulks, 'interpreter'). 

Pom, m., ' cathedral, dome, cupola,' 
ModHG. only, borrowed from Lat. aomus 
(for domus del; comp. the Goth, word 
gudhAs, ' the house of God, church '). An 
earlier loan-word is OHG. tuom (also dom), 
MidHG. tuom, 'a bishop's collegiate church, 
cathedral,' which was naturalised in Ger- 
many about the 9th cent. ; comp. OHG. 
scuola from Lat. scdla, as if it were scdla; 
so tuom for tdm from ddmus; see ©djule. 
The form Sum, developed from MidHG. 
tuom, kept its ground till the beginning 
of the last century. 

Poittter, m., ' thunder,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. doner, OHG. donar, m., corre- 
sponding to AS. punor, E. thunder; Goth. 
*J>unara-, m. It is the OTeut name for 
thunder, under which also the weather-god 
was worshipped (see £onner$tag). The 
name comes from the Aryan root ten, dis- 
cussed under beljncn, £or>nf, and burnt. In 
its application to sound we meet with this 

root in Gr. twos, 'string, rope, stretching, 
tone, accent,' Sans, root tan, * to resound, 
roar,' tannyitnUs, 'roaring, thundering,' 
Lat tonare (AS. J>un»an, Goth. *J>un6n, ' to 
thunder'), Lat. tunitrus; the latter corre- 
spondences are, on account of their mean- 
ing, the most closely allied to the Teut 

Ponncrsfag, ' Thursday,' from Mid 
HG. doutrstac, duurestac, OHG. donares- 
tag ; comp. Du. donderdag, AS. Jjunresdoeg, 
E. Thursday, OIc. }>6rsdagr ; the day sacred 
10 the OTeut. sod faunar (OHG. Donar, 
OLG. Thunar, OIc. Jj&rr for Jxmraz) ; see 
!DUn$tU3 and SBccfoe. A remarkable form 
occurs in MidHG. (Bav.), pfinz-tac, ' Thurs- 
day,' from the equiv. Gr. xiu-KTtf. 

boppcltt, vb., 'to play at dice,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. dcppeln, from MidHG. top- 
pel, ' dice-playing,' which corresponds to 
Fr. doublet, ' doublet' (at dice). See 25au$. 

OOppclt, adj. (a parallel form, £oppt(, 
occurs in the compounds JDoppclabler, £)op- 
pclkjanget), 'double, duplicate, twofold,' Mod 
HG. only, from Fr. double; MidHG. dublin, 
'double,' is a deriv. from the same source. 
The final t of the ModHG. word is a 
secondary suffix, as in §lrt, Dbjr. 

Porf, n., ' village, hamlet,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. and OHG. dorf, n. ; an 
OTeut. word ; comp. OSax. thorp, Du. dorp, 
AS. frorp, E. tlwrp, throp (existing now only 
in proper names); OIc. J>>rp, 'hamlet'; 
Goth, paurp signifies 'fields, land,' while 
in the other dialects the ModHG. meaning 
of the word is current (in Goth, haims, 
'village'; sea J£>eim). The meaning of 
ModHG. (Swiss) dorf, ' visit, meeting,' con- 
nected perhaps with OSlov. trugu, ' mar- 
ket,' deserves special notice. If the hisiory 
of the word is rendered difficult by such 
variations of meaning, it is made still more 
so by the Kelt. *tfbo, 'village'; W. tref, 
' village' (to which the name of the OGall. 
tribe Atrebatcs is allied), also connected 
with Lat tribus, ' tribe.' Moreover, OIc. 
fiyrpa, 'to crowd,' is closely akin to Gr. 
TOppy, Lat. turba, ' hand.' Note too AS. 
prep, prdp, ' viUage,' Lith. trobd, £, ' build- 

Pom, m., ' thorn, prickle,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. and OHG. dorn, m. ; corre- 
sponds to Goth. paurnus, OIc. porn, AS. 
porn, E. tlwrn, Du. doom, OSax. thorn, 
'thorn'; from pre-Teut trnu-. Comp. 
OSlav. trunu, 'thorn,' Sans, trna, 'blade 
of grass.' 


( 59 ) 


borrctt, vb., from the equiv. MidHG. 
dorren, OHG. dorren, ' to get dry, dry up ' ; 
comp. OSax. thorron, Goth. *f>aurzan. A 
deriv. oijjorz-, which appears inbiirr ; comp. 
Lat. tomre, ' to dry ' (torret i* exactly equiv. 
to OHG. dorrit, Goth. * Jjaurzaip). Instead 
of the form */?aurza», Goth, has gapaursnan 
(OIc. fcorna), ' to get dry, dry up,' which 
is differently derived (comp. $)arre, burr). 

Porfd), m., 'torsk,' simply ModHG, 
formed from LG. dorsch; corresponds to 
OIc. frorskr, E. torsk, tusk, from the equiv. 
Dan. torsk. 

Porfd)e, f., 'cabbage-stump, cole-rape,' 
with LG. initial d, trom MidHG. torse, 
* cabbage-stump,' OHG. turso, torso, '. stalk' ; 
lor the change of s to sch comp. birfdjen. 
There is a parallel Rom. class (Ital. torso, 
OFr. tros, * stump, morsel ') which is un- 
doubtedly of Teut. origin. The HG. word 
is probably primit. allied to the Gr. Ovpaos, 
1 wand.' 

&orf, adv., 'there, in that place,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. dort, OHG. dorot, pro- 
bably from darot ; Goth. *parapa (formed 
like dalajja), would be the corresponding 
adv. in answer to the question where 1 The 
OHG. has dardt, * thither ' ; derived from 
bar, ba. 

Pole, f., 'box,' first occurs in ModHG., 
from LG. do«e, Du. doos (Dan. daase). 

Poff, Poftett, m., 'marjoram,' from Mid 
HG. doste, toste, OHG. tosto, dosto, m., 
' wild thyme.' It may be really identical 
with MidHG. doste, toste, m., ' bunch, nose- 
gay,' so that ' thyme ' would be a specialised 
meaning. The Goth, word was probably 
*t>usta, ' shrub.' Further cognates to help 
in determining theroot are wanting. Comp. 

potter (1.), m. and n., 'yolk,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. toter, OHG. totoro, tutar-ei; 
the ModHG word seems to have a LG. 
initial sound. Corresponds to OSax. dddro, 
Du. dojer, AS. dj/dring, 'yolk' ; a pre- 
Tent. term for the ' yolk of an egg ' (see also 
(Si). AS. dott, m , ' point, spot,' E. dot are, 
on account of LG. dott, dStte, 'yellow part 
of the egg,' to be derived from the same 
Aryan stem dhut ; the orig. 6en*e of JDottcr 
may have been, therefore, 'point in the 
egg.' The E. term yolk, AS. geolca, is lit. 
' yellow part,' from AS. geolo, equiv. to E. 
yellow. In OIc. bldme, 'yolk.' 

Potter (2.), m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
toter, in., ' gold-pleasure ' ; comp. MidE. 
doder, E. dodder ('toad-flax') ; Dan. dgdder, 

Swed. dgdra. Perhaps allied to hotter (1.), 
so that the plant was named from its colour 
(or from the similarity of its seeds to the 
yolk of an egg?). 

Pottdjes, see £cfe,?. 

Poufes, m., ' prison,' Jew., from Hebr. 
tafas, ' to seize, take prisoner.' 

Prctd)e, in. (with a MidG. d), 'dra- 
gon, kite, termagant,' from MidHG. trache, 
(UpG. tracke). OHG. trahho (UpG. traccho), 
m. ; the ModHG. initial sound is to be 
regarded in the same way as in bidjten 
(comp. MidLG. and MidDu. drdke). The 
word was naturalised in Germany before the 
8th cent. ; as in the case of the bird ©rctf, 
' griffin,' the dragon as a fabulous beast 
furnished material for the imaginative 
faculty of the Germans, and supplanted 
the native mythological creations. The 
E. loan-word is equally old — AS. draca, 
E. drake (in drake-fly or dragon-fly). The 
word is based on Lat. (Rom.) draco (dracco), 
which again is derived from Gr. Sp&Kwv, 
'dragon, lit. 'the sharp-sighted animal' 
(from Stpitofiai). E. dragon, is of recent 
Rom. origin (Fr. dragon). 

Pral)t , m., ' wire, file,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. and OHG. drdt, m. ; comp. Du. 
draad, AS. prced, equiv. to E. thread, OIc. 
/>r«Sr, Goth. *J>re)js ; a dental deriv. of the 
Teut. root prS, ' to turn, twist,' which ap- 

{ tears in ModHG. breljen . The pre-Teut trS 
ies at the base of Gr. rprjim, ' hole,' which 
is identical in form with ModHG. iDra^t ; 
for the meaning comp. brefyen, $)arm. 

Prafte, LG, see (Sittertdj. 

brail, adj., ' tight, twisted, stalwart, 
active,' simply ModHG., akin to MidHG. 
dr'el, OIc pearle, adv., ' firmly, strongly, 
very ' ; from briflcn ?. 

Prong, m., 'crowd, throng, pressure,' 
from MidHG. dranc(g), m., ' throng, op- 
pression.' Comp. Du. drang, 'pressure, 
throng, desire,' AS. geprang, equiv. to E. 
throng ; from bringrn. 

britngett, vb., 'to press, pinch, dun,' 
from MidHG. dre,ngen, factitive of brina.rn. 
2)rangfal in early ModHG. ; sfal is the fre- 
quent ModHG. suffix, the older form of 
which is as isal, Goth, id, AS. and E. -Is. 
Goth, formed from the same stem, but by 
a different gradation, an abstract Jrreihsl, 
' hardship, oppression.' 

brmts, orcutfjctt, 'outside, abroad,' 
from barauS, baraujjm ; comp. MidHG. drabe, 
from dar abe ; ModHG. bran, from barati, 
brin, from barm. 


( 60 ) 


5rccf)fcln, vl>., 'to turn (on a lathe),' 
deiiv. of MidHG. drilisel, drahsel, 'turner,' 
in Goth. *J*rihs<U; bretjm (root jW, trf) 
cannot l>e closely allied to brccfyfcln ; it 
must rather be connected with a root con- 
taining a guttural, />rSlw- or pr(h. Gr. 
Tfxwonai (with x for A;), and Lat. torqiteo 
(Gr. dr/xwcroj, 'spindle,' Lat. torcular, 'oil- 
press'), point to a root trek, ' to turn.' The 
OHG. ardltsil, 'turner,' is probably the 
only remains of this root in Teut. ; in Mid 
HG. and also in UpG. and LG. dialects 
brcfycn (MidHG. drcsjen, drcen) signifies ' to 
turn (on a lathe).' See brefyeu. 

Prccft, m., 'dirt, mire, tilth, dung,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. dree (gen. -ekes), m., 
'dirt'; OHG. *drecch, Goth. *J>riI:k, m., 
are supported by OIc. prelchr, m., *dirt' 
{Dan. draclc). Perhaps derived from the 
meaning 'sediment, lees,' so that Gr. rpO$, 
rpvyds, 'lees, sediment, fresh must' (with 
v for 0?), may perhaps be compared. 

bref)Cn, vb., ' to turn, whirl, wind,' from 
MidHG. drcsjen, drcen, *to turn, turn 
round,' OHG. drdjan. The Goth, form 
may have been /> aian (comp. lvrtyeit, Goth. 
waian ; faen, Goth, saian) ; comp. Du. 
draaijen, ' to turn (on a lathe) ' ; AS. frrd- 
tcan (comp. sdican, vdican), and MidE. 
fcrdwen, 'to turn,' are str. vbs., while the 
ModHG. verb is wk. even in OHG. The 
assumed Goth, form *}>ravin, ' to turn,' 
was undoubtedly conjugated strong (pret. 
*}mi}?r6). }>rS is the verbal stem common 
to Teut, from which a subst., 2>ral)t, mean- 
ing ' twisted thread,' was formed by adding 
a dental suffix. This subst. proves most 
clearly that the root of fcrcficn did not end 
in a guttural, and that therefore ModHG. 
2>red)0l«r, from OHG. drdhsil, cannot be 
allied to fcrefyett. In ModE., to throw (' to 
turn '), is obsolete. The root pri is from 
pre-Teut. trS, ter ; this appears in Gr., with 
the meaning 'to bore,' in numerous deri- 
vatives. ' To bore ' is a specialisation of the 
meaning 'to turn,' ro\&rpTrrot, 'porous,' 
rprj/xa, 'hole,' avvrpTJcau, rerpalvw, 'to bore 
through,' Ttptw, ' to bore, turn on a lathe ' 
(comp. MiuHG. drcejen, 'to turn on a 
lathe'), rdpros, 'turner's chisel,' riptTpov, 
Lat. terebra, ' borer.' Comp. also ©arm. 

brei, num., 'three,' from MidHG. and 
OHG. dri, which is prop, simply the noni. 
masc. ; the rest of the old cases are obso- 
lete in ModHG. ; AS. jrrt, Jrreo, E. three, 
Goth, preis, from *prijis. It corresponds 
to Aryau trejes, equiv. to Sans, trdyas, Gr. 

rpth, from rpija, Lat. tres, OSlov. trljf. 
SDlti, like the other units, is a primit. word. 
See 2)riUi$, £ritre. 

breifl, adj., 'bold, audacious, 8elf-con> 
fident,' simply ModHG., from the equiv. 
LG. drtste (hence breijt is not found in the 
UpG. dialects) ; comp. OSax. thrtsti, Du. 
driest, AS. frrtste, ' bold, daring.' The simi- 
larity iu the initial sound with Lat. tristis, 
' sad,' is perhaps of no etymological value ; 
as, however, a similar change of meaning 
is met with in the cognates of ModHG. 
tapfer, Lat. tristis and OSax. thrtsti may 
perhaps be derived from a common root. 
Otherwise it might well be connected with 
fcringen, OSax. thrtsti, for thrlltsti, from 
prinh-sti ?. 

bret&tg, see jig. 

bvefd)en, vb., 'to thresh.' from the 
equiv. MidHG. dreschen, OHG. dreskan; 
corresponds to Du. dorschen, AS. Jxrscan 
(for prescan), E. to thrash, t/tresli, (comp. 
MidHG. dreschen, which also means 'to 
torment'); Goth. J>rUkan. Threshing was 
practised in primit. Teut. times, as this 
common term testifies. The Teutons, 
even before they became settlers, and 
hence while they were still migrating 
were acquainted with the most elementary 
methods of agriculture ; comp. the various 
kinds of com, and also $jhta,, (§#$(, 93ret, 
&c. The Teut. cognates found their way 
intoRom., — Ital. trescare, 'to trample, move 
the feet about, dance,' OFr. trescJie, 'chain- 
dance.' From these the OTeut. method 
of threshing may be easily inferred. Tlie 
flail (2>ref<f)jlfgel) came from Italy through 
the medium of Rom. (see ijlegel) ; for this 
a simpler term is found in OHG. driscil, 
MidHG. and ModHG. drisehel. The mean- 
ing of the Teut. base tresk is probably ' to 
stamp noisily, tread ' ; comp. Lith. tras- 
keti, ' to rattle, clatter,' OSlov. triskii, 
' crack,' troska, ' thunderclap.' E. threshold 
is mostly connected with t>wfd)en, OTeut. 
frreskan, regarding it as the threshing-staff, 
or as the place at the entrance to the house 
where corn was threshed. 

fcrtllcrt, vb., ' to revolve, bore, drill,' 
from MidHG. drillen, ' to turn, make 
round ' (with the partic. gedrollen, ' round '). 
The meaning 'to bore' comes from LG. 
drillen (see brttjtn, bredjfcln, for the con- 
necting link between the meanings), akin 
to Du. drillen, E. to thrill, and also LG. 
drall (MidDu. drel), 'round, turning,' 
which is formed by gradation. The cog- 


( 61 ) 


nates point to a Teut. root prel, 'to turn 
on a lathe).' — brillett, 'to plague' or 'to 
drill (recruits), 5 may be derived from the 
first or the second meaning. 

Prillic^, m., 'ticking,' from MidHG. 
drilich, drilch, m., ' a stuff woven with three 
threads'; an adj. signifying 'threefold' 
formed into a subst. ; see 3nnflt<fy. Dri- 
is the older form for fcrei in compounds (see 
britte, 3w\U, ami ©rilling) ; OHG. drlfalt, 
' threefold.' OHG. driltch, ' threefold, con- 
sisting of three threads,' is the convenient 
Ger. rendering of the Lat. trttix (trtlicem), 
' triple - twilled,' from licium, 'thread.' 
Similar formations maybe seen in Stmflicb 
and Suntntet. 

Prilling, m., ' triplet, one of three born 
at the same time,' simply ModHG., formed 
like 3»t fling. 

bringctt, vb., ' to press, crowd, pierce,.' 
from MidHG. dringen, OHG. dringan, ' to 
compress, throng, press on,' then also ' to 
plait, weave' (MidHG. drlhe, 'embroider- 
ing needle ') ; comp. Goth, preihan (eih 
from inh), 'to throng, oppress, cramp, 
afflict.' The Teut. root is prinhw, prang;. 
comp. also with OHG. dringan,. OSax. 
thringan, AS. pringan, 'to press,' OIc. 
pryngva. The h was retained by MidHG. 
drlhe, f., ' embroidering needle,' whence 
MidHG. drihen, ' to embroider.' — With the 
general meaning ' to press ' are connected 
ModHG. ©rang, braitgen, ©cbrdnge (OHG. 
gidr$ngi), Goth, praihns, ' crowd ' (in faihu^ 
praihns, ' wealth ') ; E. throng. With the 
Teut. cognates Lith. trenkti, 'to shake, 
push,' trdntwias, 'din, tumult,' Lett, trceht, 
'to shatter,' are primit. allied. 

btittc, ord. of brci, 'third,' MidHG. 
dritte, OHG. drilto ; corresponds to Goth. 
pridja ; AS. pridda, E. third, pri- is the 
stem (see ©rillicfy), dja the suffix, which 
forms the ordinal from the cardinal ; it is 
-tio- in Lat. tertius Sans, trtiya-s. — Priffcl, 
n., 'third part, third,' from MidHG. drit- 
U il. 

Progc, f., 'drug,' ModHG. only, from 
Fr. drogue, which with its Rom. cognate 
droga (ltal., Span.) is usually derived from 
Du. droog (see tvccfni) ; yet there are essen- 
tial reasons for ascribing the word to an 
Eastern origin. 

broken, vb., ' threaten,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. diCii), wk. vb., which is the deno- 
minative of an earlier dro, f., 'threat.' The 
more ancient vb. is ModHG. brancn, from 
MidHG. drouwen, drouwen, OHG. drewen, 

drouwen; Gotb. *praujan, AS. predn pred- 
de) (equiv. to E. to threaten). OHG. dr6, 
drda (gen. drawa), corresponds to AS. pred ; 
Goth, prawa is wanting, gen. prawtis, f., 
1 threat.' In E the word is obsolete. Be- 
yond Teut there are no cognates. 

Prof)ttC, f., 'drone.' The strict HG. 
form is %t( f)ne, Xxtne (so still in Saxony and 
Austria),, according to MidHG. trene, tren, 
OHG. trenoy m. ©refute is a LG. form de- 
rived from Sax. drdn, plur. drdni, to which 
AS. drdn, plur. drdm, E, drone, correspond ; 
both point to Goth. *drainus, *drSnus, 
while OHG^ treno assumes perhaps Goth. 
*drina; the relation between the theoretical 
Goth, forms has not yet been definitely 
fixed. The base drSn seems to appear in 
brofjnen (Goth. drunjus y ' loud sound '). 
From the same root probably a Gr. term 
for ' bee ' is formed — revOp^vri, ' a sort of 
wasp or humble-bee ' (also avOpfyij, ' wild 
bee' 1 — comp. too revOpySdiv, avOprfSdiv), also 
Lacon. 0pd>va.£, ' drone.' 5Mene, like ©rotnif, 
is a primit. Teut. term. See the following 

broIjttCtt,. vb.,. ' to roar, Bumble, creak, 
drone,' simply ModHG., borrowed from 
LG. dronen ; comp. Du. dreunen, OIc. 
drynja, vb., c to drone, roar,' OIc. drynr, 
m., 'droning,' Goth, drunjus, m., 'loud 
sound.' See derivatives of the same root 
drcn, dhren, under JDrctuie ; comp. besides 
Gr. 6pr}vos, ' lamentation.' 

btrolttg, adj., 'droll, ludicrous, queer,' 
simply ModHG, from LG. dndlig s Du. 
drollig; E. droll (subst. and adj.), also adj. 
drollish ; Fr. drdle, ' droll, merry.' None 
of these are recorded in the older periods 
of the several languages, hence their origin 
(Rom. % Teut. ?) is obscure. The deriva- 
tion from the Scand. name trgll applied to 
ghostly monsters is improbable, for in the 
Scand. dialects the word has an initial t 
while the ModHG. bvollig and its cognates 
have d. 

ProfJTel (1.), f-> 'thrush,' a LG. form 
from MidLG. drosle, OSax. throssela, throsla; 
the strictly UpG. term for JBrpJTct is Bav. 
©rofdjef, from MidHG. drdschel, f. ; comp. 
OHG. drdseela, f., also without the deriv. /, 
drdsca, drdscea, f. ; the latter form corre- 
sponds to AS. prfisce (from *prauslci6), E. 
thrush. E. throstle, from AS. prostle, ' me- 
rtil.i,' corresponds to MidHG. drostel; in 
Goth, the latter would be *prustla and the 
former praitska(nr rather *prauskjo v ) ; akin 
to Gr. rpVywv, ' turtle-dove,' from *Tpv<ry<bv !. 


( 62 ) 


(Jump, on tlie other hand 01c. prgstr, in., 
4 thrush,' Goth. *prastus. This abundance 
of words which are undoubtedly closely 
allied renders any sure comparison with 
cognate words beyond Teut. a difficult task. 
The Lat. turdSla, ' thrush,' may l>e for 
*trzdila; in that case the tt of MidHG. 
drostel, E. throstle, is shifted from sd (see 21 jl, 
©erftf, SKajt, 9leji) ; turdSla is a derivative 
of turdus, ' thrush,' closely connected with 
OIc. prgstr, m. (Goth. *prastus, m.). Lith. 
has a longer form for IDroffel, with an initial 
$ — str&zdas, which makes the origin of st 
of MidHG. drostel from zd, sd, a certainty. 
Russ. droztlii, OSlov. drozgu, are abnormal. 
The words of the Teut group found their 
way into Rom. : ModFr. trdle (from *prasla, 
*prastla). — S)rcffet is one of the few names 
of birds found in several Aryan languages 
at the same time, and entirely free from 
the assumption that they were borrowel. 

proflTel (2.), f., 'throat, throttle, Adam's 
apple,' preserved only in the deriv. erbroffeln, 
' to throttle, strangle ' ; not allied to 2)rofffl 
(1.), as is shown by MidHG. dro^y, f., 
' gullet, throat.' Comp. OHG. dr<n$a, AS. 
protu, f., E. throat, and. likewise E. throttle 
isubst. and vb.), an I deriv. There is a 
parallel group with an initial s added (see 
SDroffet (1.), £ad)) _; MidHG. 8^0336, OLG. 
strotu, 'throat, windpipe,' Du. stroot; see 
ftrofcen. From HG. the word found its 
way into Rom., — Ital. strozza, 'throat,' stroz- 
zare, ' to strangle.' 

Profl, m., 'chief magistrate' (a LG. 
word), from MidLG. droste, drossite; the 
latter is identical with MidHG. truhtscey, 
ModHG. Srucfofejj ; for £>rofht see also under 

Prudi, m., ' pressure, oppression, print- 
ing, proof,' from MidHC. druc (-ekes), m., 
' pressure, violent impact, rebound, hostile 
encounter,' OHG. druckj corresponds to 
AS. }>ryc (cc supported by ofpryce), ' pres- 

brudten, brudten, ' to pre.*s, oppress, 
hug, print,' from MidHG. driieken, drucken, 
OHG. drucchen (comp. AS. pryecan, ' to 
press'), MidHG. drucken, an unmodified 
UpG. variant, has a specialised meaning 
in ModHG. In Goth, the subst. would be 
*prukks, the vb. prukkjan. Since the Mid 
HG. vb. driieken is equiv. to ' to press, 
throng, oppress, thrust oneself,' the mean- 
ings harmonise well with bringen, which is 
based upon an Aryan root trenk, while 
trurfen would be derived from a root trek 

without the nasal ; the Ik of the theoreti- 
cal Goth, form originated probably in kit. 
— I>rudtfcn, ModHG. a frequentative, 
form of brucfen. 

Prube, f., 'sorceress,' LG. ; MidHG. 
trute, f.. 'demoness, nightmare'; Drubtnfu§, 
MidHG. trutenvuo^. In spite of its wide 
diffusion (Dan. drude, Gothland, druda), the 
form of the word is obscure, for it is im- 
possible to see to what the MidHG. ini- 
tial t and ModHG. d are related. Perhaps 
MidHG. trute is to be connected with the 
adj. traut ; in that case JDrube would be a 
euphemism similar perhaps to Gr. Eume- 

Prufe (1.), f., 'ore with a drossy or 
crystal surface,' simply ModHG. ; of ob- 
scure origin. 

Prufe (2.), 'glanders,' ModHG. ; iden- 
tical with iDriife. 

Prufe, f., 'gland, kernel, swelling of 
the glands,' from MidHG. driiese, druose 
(whence the ModHG. variant druse, but 
only in a special sense) ; OHG. druos, 
druosi, f., 'glanders,' Goth. *pros or prdhsi ?, 
is wanting ; so too in E. there is no cog- 
nate term. 

Prufetl, plur., an UpG. word for 'dregs, 
lees,' from MidHG. druosene, OHG. truos- 
una (UpG. dialects have ue in the accented 
syllable) ; corresponds to Du. droesem, Mid 
Du. droesene, AS. drdsn, ' dregs.' The base 
is perhaps Goth. *dr6hsn6, to which E. 
dregs, M.odHG. Zxtbtx, Sredjer are also 

bit, 2nd pers. pron., 'thou' ; from Mid 
HG. and OHG. du, and the collateral Mid 
HG. and OHG. d4; comp. AS. pti, E. thou ; 
Lat. tu, Gr. rtf, «n), and Sans, tvam, are 
prim, cognates. The details respecting the 
Arvan pronom. stem belong to grammar. 

Pucafen, m. (ducat, m., rarely fem. in 
earlier ModHG.), 'ducat,' from late Mid 
HG. duedte, m. (Mid Lat. duedtus). 

Pud)t, f., Pudjtbtmfc, and Puff, 
' rowing seat, thwart ;' the form with / is 
HG., that with ch LG. ; OHG. dofta, f., OIc. 
popta, f., 'thwart'; OHG. gviofto, prop. 
' comrade on the thwart,' AS. gepufta, ' com- 
rade.' One of the prhn-Teut. naval terms 
developed during the migrations of the 
Teutons ; see {Rubrr, Sfgcl, SHaft, <Sdnff, &a 
That the LG. form found its way into HG. 
is not remarkable after what has been said 
under ©orb, SSufe, and SSoot. The OTeut. 
word for 'thwart' (Goth. *pu/(6, f.), be- 
longs probably to a root tup, ' to squat 


( 63 ) 


down' ; comp. Lith. tupeti, ' to squat,' tupti, 
'to squat down.' 

buc&Ctt, vb., ' to bow, duck, stoop, dive,' 
with LG. initial d, from MidHG. tucken, 
tiicken, ' to incline the body quickly, bend, 
bow ' ; prob. a frequentative of MidHG. 
tOchen, ' to dive,' which see. 

Pucfttttciufer, 'sly, stealthy person,' 
appears in MidHG. as tockelmuser, 'sneak, 
hypocrite ' ; the ModHG. form is based 
anew on burfen, MidHG. tucken. A parallel 
form £iitfmaufor is based on Zudt, 'malice,' 
the second part of the compound being 
connected with MidHG. musen, prop. ' to 
catch mice,' then (with thievish intent), 
' to sneak.' 

bubeftt, vb., simply ModHG. formed 
from the equiv. Pol. dudli6, ' to play the 
batrpipes,' from dudy, ' bagpipe.' 

Puff (1.), f., see JDtt($t. * 

Puff (2.), m., ' exhalation, odour,' with 
LG. initial d, from MidHG. tuft, m., ' va- 
pour, fog, dew, rime,' OHG. tuft, ' frost ' ; 
of obscure origin. 

bulbett, vb. (unknown to the Suab., and 
perhaps also to the other UpG. dialects), 
' to bear, tolerate, suifer,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. and OHG. dulten ; a denominative 
of OHG. dult, MidHG. didt, f., ModHG. 
©ebulb. The Goth used frulan for bulben 
without the dental deriv. (OHG. dolSn, 
MidHG. doln y both far more general in 
meaning than the ModHG. bufben, 'to 
suffer' ; AS. polian, ' to suffer '). The pre- 
Teut. root is tel, tol, tU, which appears, 
exactly corresponding to the meaning of 
the Teut. cognate*, in Gr. r\fj-vai, ' to 
suffer,' tMi-uuv, 'miserable,' iroKfoXas, 'much 
enduring,' &c. Lat. tolerdre and ertragen 
(Lat. perferre), show that Lat. tollo (panic. 
latusiox*tld-tus; pret. tuli,h-om <>ffero),&n(l 
Gr. Tokfiav, ' to venture, endure,' may be 
cognates. Hence, the primary sense of the 
root appearing in the graded forms tel, 
tol, tie, tld, is ' to bear, tolerate.' See 

Pulf, f., Bav. 'fair,' with MidG. initial 
rf, from MidHG. tult, f., 'fair, church fes- 
tival, dedication festival,' OHG. tuld. The 
word is the OTeut. term for ' festival ' ; 
Goth, dulfrs, f., ' festival, holiday.' 

immm, adj., 'stupid, silly,' from Mid 
HG. turn (gen., -mmas), tump (gen. -bes), 
'stupid, foolish, weak in understanding, 
dumb,' OHG. tumb. In Goth, dumbs, OIc. 
dumb): the adj . is equi v. to AS. and E. dumb ; 
the OHG. word, in addition to the mean- 

ings of MidHG., has likewise the significa- 
tion ' deaf,' which also belongs to bumm in 
early ModHG. ' Dull in sense and intel- 
lect' may be the primary sense of the adj., 
which has not yet been found in the non- 
Teut. languages ; fhtmm too has a peculiar 
history ; see fdjmecfett, fyeR. Words express- 
ing the perceptions of one sense are often 
transferred to those of another. Hence 
Goth, dumbs, 'dumb,' OHG. tumb, 'deaf, 
dumb,' may possibly be allied to Gr. rvtp\6s, 
' blind ' (root dhubh ; rv<p by the well- 
known rule for 6v<p). This conjectural 
etymology is quite as uncertain as that 
offered under !Dieb. 

butttpf, adj., ' damp, dull, heavy,' Mod 
HG. only ; formed by the weakest stage of 
gradation from MidHG. dimpfen, str. vb., 
'to fume, smoke'; comp. also MidHG. 
dumpfen, diimpfen, ' to fume, damp.' The 
oriy. sense of the adj. is probably 'smoky,' 
i.e. 'damp,' or 'dimming the sight and 
dulling the hearing'; bumyf appears in 
Uu. dompig, with the meaning 'damp, 
gloomy.' Perhaps the word is connected 
with buitfct ; comp. E. dank. 

Punc, f., 'down, dune,' simply Mod 
HG. from the equiv. LG. diine (OSax. 
*duna), Du. duin (whence Fr. dune) ; re- 
specting ModHG. it from Du. ui, comp. 
SBufe, ©iiten. Akin to AS. dtin, 'hill,' E. 
down (' plateau '). So too E. down, adv. ; 
for AS. ad&ne, ofdune, ' from the moun- 
tain, towards the valh-y,' corresponds 
exactly to MidHG. ze tal (comp Fr. ci 
mont, ' up the stream \ Likewise Gr. 
0vpafr, ' before the door, has the general 
meaning 'outside'; MidHG. ze berge is 
'aloft, upwards'; comp. ModHG. bie, 
Qaaxt jtebett einem ju 53er\je, ' one's hair 
stands on end.' The diine group (E. dorcn) 
seems to have spread from Eng. into Du. 
and LG. (comp. besides 93afe, Scot, $raf)m). 
Hence the assumption that AS. Jdn is of 
Kelt, origin is not to be discarded — Olr. 
dun, 'hill' (comp. the OKelt. names of 
towns ending in dUnum, August odnnum, 
Lugdunum) ; though the attempt to show 
that it is priniit. allied to Gr. Oit> (110111. Ots), 
'sea-beacli,' and Sans, dhdnu-s, 'dry land, 
continent, inhospitable land,' cannot be 
recommended ; AS. dun would be pre- 
Teut. dh&nd (the indubitable form of the 
cognate word in Ind.). 

puna, m., with LG. initial d; 'dung, 
manure, from MidHG. tungf, f., 'dung, 
manuring' ; MidHG. tunc, ni., f., signifies 


( 64 ) 


*an underground — prop, dung-covered — 
chamber occupied in winter,' and especially 
•the underground weaver's room'; OHG. 
tunra, 'manuring,' E. dung (subst.. and 
vb.) ; OHG. tunc, 'weaver's room under- 
ground' hunger from late MidHG. tunger). 
This double meaning of the cognates is ex- 
plained by the remark* of Tacitus (Ger- 
mania, § 16) and Pliny (Hist. Nat. y 19, 1). 
'Dung' is the primary sense of the cog- 
nates of 35uitg and bumjen ; in the other 
Aryan languages, however, no priinit. cog- 
nates can be adduced. 

buttkel, adj., 'dark, gloomy, obscure,' 
with MidG. initial d; from MidHG. 
tunkel, 'dark, dull, damp,' OHG. tunchal 
(with the parallel form tunchar, MidLG. 
dunker). By another stage of gradation 
OIc dipkkr, OFris. djunk are formed from 
the same root ; they presuppose a Goth. 
*digqs (pre-Teut. dhengwos). The priinit. 
allied E. dauk points to a connection with 
bumfcf (Tent, root dinq, dump). 

jDunfccf, m., 'fancy, imagination, arro- 
gance, prejudice,' simply ModHG. Related 
to the vb. bfmfett, from MidHG. dunken 
(pret. dithte), ' to seem, appear to,' OHG. 
dunchan (chiefly impers. with dat.), ' to 
seem' (pret. dulita) ; Goth, pvgkjan, puhta, 
mostly impers. with dat. 'to seem'; AS. 
pyiican,E. to t/iiu&, which, however, really 
represents the meanings of AS. penceui, 
OHG., MidHG, and ModHG. benf en. <Dfnt- 
fen appears to. have been originally a str. 
vb.,of which benfen was perhaps the factitive 
form. The Tfeut punk, pank, is based upon 
an old Aryan root tng, teng, and this, again, 
appears in OLat. tongere, ' to know' (comp. 
Praenest tongitio, ' notion '). Comp. benfen, 

burnt, adj., 'thin, slender, attenuated,' 
from the equiv. MidHG* diinne, OHG. 
dunni; comp. AS. pynne, E. thin, OIc. 
punnr, Du. dun, Goth. *punnus. The 
adj. retained the primit. meaning 'thin,' in 
all the periods and dialects of Teut. The 
stem punnu is preserved in OHG. dun- 
teengi, AS. punwenge, OIc. punnvange, 
'temples,' prop, 'thin cheek' (comp. Mod 
HG. dial. JDuninge, ©uitcge, 'temples'). 
The adj. is priinit. Aryan, in the form 
UinH-s (respecting Tent, nn comp. Juitn, 
9)?unn) ; comp. OInd. tanu-s, ' long, drawn 
out, narrow, thin'; Lat. tenuis, 'thin, 
narrow' ; Gr. raw-, existing only in com- 

{jouuils, denotes 'drawn or stretched out, 
ong ' ; comp. which has the same 

meaning ; OSlov. tlnulcu, ' thin,' ha> a 
suffix. The idea of attenuation comes 
from 'extension in one direction, drawn 
out lengthwise,' still retained by the Ind. 
and the Gr. adjs. Lat., Teut., and Slav, 
deprived the orig. meaning of one of its 
characteristics. In OInd. and Gr. there 
occurs a verbal stem, tanu (raw), with the 
primary sense 'to stretch out^ extend.' 
Comp. beljnen, 2)ol)nf, S5ciuter, and the fol- 
lowing word. 

Uhtrtfi, m., 'vapour, fume, mist,' from 
MidHG. dunst, tunst, m., f, ' steam, vapour,'. 
OHG. tunist, dunist, dunst, 'storm, breath' ; 
respecting the MidG. initial d. comp. 3)ufr, 
bunfcl. Corresponds to AS. dtist (for *dunst), 
E. dust. Teut. duns-, for dwuns-, is based 
upon an Aryan root dJiwens, which still 
appears in Sans, dhvans, 'to fall to dust' 
(dhvasti,, ^falling to dust'). 

buret), prep., 'through, owing to, by,' 
from MidHG. durch. dur, 'through,' also 
' for the sake of,' OHG. duruh, durh ; 
comp. OSax. thurh, AS. purh, E. through 
and thorough. Goth. pairh, ' through,' with 
an abnormal vowel, is related to the OHG. 
d'erh, 'perforated,' with which are con- 
nected OHG. durhily durihit, MidHG. dicr- 
hel, diirkel, ' pierced, porous,' AS. J>prel (for 
pyrhiV), 'hole' (comp. 9h"ijler), as well a3 
Goth. pairkd, f., 'hole' (k, from kk, for 
knl).. The prepos* might easily be a case 
of an older adj., perhaps the ace. neut. 
Besides the passive meaning of OHG. derh, 
'pierced,' an active sense, 'piercing,' may 
also be added. The base perh would be 
best defined by ' to pierce, penetrate,' which 
recalls the HG. bttngen ; the former is 
based upoa a pre-Teut. root terk r the latter 
upon a root trenJc. The connection with 
Lat. trans is exceedingly problematical. 

ModHG. with MidG. vowel au; MidHG. 
and MidG. durMAht, partic. for MidHG. 
durchliuhtet, '•illustrious,' from durhliuhten, 
'to shine, light through, illuminate.' See 
(Stlaiicfyt, Uneaten. 

biXrf en, anom. vb., ' to be allowed, ven- 
ture) need,' from MidHG. diirfen, durfen, 
a preterite pres^ 'to have reason, cause, 
be permitted, need^ require' ; OHG. dur- 
fan, preterite pres., 'to lack, be destitute 
of, require, be in need of • comp. Goth. 
pa&rban, Du. durven, AS. purfan, ' to be 
in need of.' In addition to the Teut root 
pitrf, purb, Swiss points to an old parallel 
form Jwrp. In the ModHG. deriv. barben, 


( 6 5 ) 


23eburfni$, Dlotbuifr, btebei, &c, the primary 
sense of the root frrf, from trp, 'to be 
destitute of, lack,' still appears. 

burr, adj., 'dry, meagre, barren,' from 
MidHG. diirre, OHG. durri, ' withered, 
dry, lean' ; corresponds to Du. dor, OLG. 
thurri, AS. fiyrre, Goth, fratirsus, 'dry' 
(with regard to IIG. rr, from Goth, rs, 
comp. irre, Quite). From a pre-Teut. adj. 
fiurzu-, ' dry, withered,' which belongs to 
a root f>urs, from pre-Teut. trs. As a re- 
sult of the restriction of the word — pro- 
bably in primit. times — to denote the dry- 
ness of the throat, we have the OInd. 
irsUs, 'greedy, panting,' and ModHG. bur; 
{ten ; as applied to the voice, or rather 
speech, trs appears in Gr. rpavKbt, 'lisp- 
ing,' for *7paav\6$ (comp. 6av\6s, 'dense,' for 
*5a.Tv\6s, Lat. densus), and OInd. tr$td-s, 
'hoarse, rough (of the voice).' With the 
general meaning 'dry r ' ModHG. JDarre, 
bcrrett, and their cognates are connected. 

Purff , m., ' thirst,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. and OHG. durst, m. ; comp. MidLG. 
and Du. dorst, AS. fryrst, E. thirst ; Goth. 
paurstei, f., ' thirst.' The final t of the OHG. 
and Eng. words is a deriv., as may be inferred 
from Goth, pafirseip mile, ' I am thirsty.' 
The further comparisons made under £)aire, 
bcrren, biiir, amply prove that the short 
form jiors, from pre-Teut. trS, signifies ' to 
be thirsty' ; comp. especially OInd. trhiaj, 
1 thirsty/ trhid, f., ' thirst,' trS, str. vb*. (3rd 
pers. sing. trSyati, Goth fcaurseij?), ' to pant, 
be thirsty'; trS&-s, 'panting.' 

Pufcl, m., 'dizziness,' simply ModHG., 
from LG. dusel, 'giddiness'; a genuine 
HG. word would have had an initial (, as 
OHG. tusig, 'foolish,' 6hows ; the latter 
corresponds to AS. dysig, 'foolish,' ~E^dizzy. 
To the root dus (dhus), contained in this 

class, belong Sfjor, tfycricfyr, with the genuine 
HG. t initially. A different gradation of 
the same root dus, from Aryan dhus, ap- 
pears in AS. dwtes, Du. dwaas, ' foolish.' 

Pttfi, m., ' dust, powder,' simply Mod 
HG., from LG. dust; corresponds to E. 
dust (but see further 25unft). The final t is 
probably a deriv. ; dus, the root, may be 
the weakest form of an Aryan dhwes ; 
OInd, dhvas, dlivahs, seems to have been 
always nasalised ; it signifies ' fly about like 
dust, scatter dust when running swiftly,' 
which is in harmony with the meaning of 
JDujl, 'dust.' 

bilflev, adj. (unknown to UpG. ?), 
'gloomy, dismal, sad/ from the equiv. LG. 
duster, d-Aster ; comp OSax. thiustri, AS. 
fceostre, fipstre, 'dark.' MidHG. dinster, 
OHG. dinstar, OHG. finstar, OSax. Jinistar 
are remarkable parallel forms expressing 
the same idea ; so too AS. peSstru, ' dark- 
ness.' The primary form may be seen in 
the stem of bammern, Goth. *J>imis, ' twi- 
light,' OInd. tdmas, 'darkness' ; Lat. tene- 
brae (for Hemebrae) comes nearest perhaps 
to MidHG. dinster. f is interchanged with 
f> in ftucfef, AS. pcecele; in the same way 
ftufkr might be related to dinstar (from 
JAnstar). These guesses are, however, too 

Pitfc, Pcufc, "gitfc, f., 'paper bag, 
screw ' ; merely ModHG. from LG. tiite 
(akin to Du. tuit, 'pipe' ?) ; respecting the 
LG. and Du. ii sound, see under SSiife. In 
Swab, and Bav. the terms are gugge, gucken. 

Pttfijettb, n., 'dozen,' from the equiv. 
late MidHG. totzen, with an excrescent 
final d (see 3entaub, Sflcttb) ; from Fr. dou- 
zaine (comp. Ital. dozzina), whence also E. 
dozen, Du. dozijn ; ultimately derived from 
Lat. duodecim. 


§bbc r f. r 'ebb,' merely ModHG., bor- 
rowed, like many terms relating to the sea, 
from LG. ; comp. Du. ebb, ebbe, f., Dan. ebbe, 
Swed. ebb, m. The word is first found in 
AS., where ebba, m., is the form (comp. E. 
ebb, whence also Fr. e'be), nautical terms 
being generally recorded at an earlier period 
in that language than elsewhere ; comp. 
23eot, 8ecf, Scbete (2.), ©tevcit, and SJorb. 
Had the OTeut word been preserved in 
Ger. we should have expected OHG. eppo r 

ModHG. ©We. It is possible that the 
word is connected with the cognates of ebctt 
(©bbe, lit. ' leveller,' ? ' plain » ?). Yet Gbbf, 
from its meaning, is more appropriately 
connected with Goth, ibuks, 'backwards, 
back' (OHG. ippihh6n, 'to roll back'); 
hence Sbbe is lit. ' retreat' ; the connection 
with eben (Goth, ibns) is not thereby ex- 
cluded. Scand. has a peculiar word for 
(Sbbe— ; fjara, ' ebb,' fi/rva, ' to ebb.' No 
Goth, word is recorded. 


( 66 ) 


cben, adj., ' even level, plain, smooth,' 
from MidHG. then, OHG. eban, adj., 'level, 
flat, straight'; common to Teut. under 
these meanings, but it is not found in any 
other Aryan group ; comp. OSax. eban, 
Du. even, AS. efn, E. even, OIc. jiifn, Goth. 
tbns, 'level.' Akin perhaps to Goth, ibuks, 
adj., ' backward ' (see (Sbbe ). Apart from 
Teut. the stem ib in the form ep or ebh has 
not yet been authenticated ; Lat. ckquus 
(Sans, ika), cannot, on account of phonetic 
differences, be regarded as a cognate. — 
cben, adv., 'even, just,' from MidHG. 
eb*ne, OHG. ebano; comp. OSax. ifno, AS. 
e'fne (whence E. even) ; the old adv. form 
of the adj. (Comp. neben.) 

fSbertbcmm, ni., ' ebony-tree,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. and late OHG. ehinus, 
adopted as a foreign word (still declined 
after the Lat. method in OHG.) from Lat. 
ebenus (Gr. l^evos). 

(Sbcr, m., from the equiv. MidHG. eber, 
OHG. ebar, m., ' wild boar ' ; corresponds 
to AS. eofor, m., ' wild boar ' (E. York from 
AS. Eo/ortvic, lit. ' boar- town '), Olc.jgfurr, 
'wild boar,' figuratively 'prince' (&\so jor- 
bj&ga, ' a kind of sausage') ; Goth. *ibrus, 
*ibarus. With the pre- Teut. base epr&s 
some have connected OBulg. vepri, m., Lat. 
aper, m., 'wild boar.' Similarly in the 
terms for tyerfct and ©djtveitt, the West 
Aryan languages only partially agree. 

(Sbrtl3, m., ' southern-wood,' from the 
equiv. late MidHG. eberilz (ebereize), f., from 
Lat. abrotanum (whence also aberrant?, see 
aber), but corrupted by connection with 

ed)f, adj., 'genuine, real, legitimate,' 
nimply ModHG. adopted from MidG. and 
LG., where echt is the normal correspondent 
of MidHG. and OHG. Shaft, 'lawful'; 
comp. Du. edit ; akin to OFris. d/t, ' law- 
ful' ; from (£i)t, compared with which the 
adj. has retained the old meaning of (Btyc, 
' law.' By means of the law-books based on 
the Saxon Code the LG. adj. found its way 
into HG., but not until after Luther ; yet the 
word does not occur in the UpG. dialects. 

gdt, n., gdte, f., 'edge, corner,' from 
MidHG. ecke, f. (seldom neu.), 'edge of 
weapons, point, corner, brim,' OHG. ekka, 
{., ' point, edge of a sword.' Corresponds 
to OSax. eggui, f., ' edge, sharpness, sword,' 
AS. ecg, 'comer, point, edge (of a sword, 
&c), sword,' E. edg; OIc. egg, f., 'point' ; 
Goth. *agja, f., is not recorded. The 
meaning ' point, sharp edge,' which origi- 

nally was the most prominent in the cog- 
nates (see also So,a,e), recalls the develop- 
ment in ModHG. Drt. The Tent root 
ag(ah), pre-Teitt. ok (Goth. agj6-, from 
Aryan akya-), with the primary meaning 
' pointed,' is found in very many non-Tent, 
languages, since ModHG. &fyre and the non- 
Teut. words cited under that word are 
primit. allied to it, as are also Lat. acies, Gr. 
diets, ' point,' both in form ami meaning. 

{idier, f., ' acorn,' simply ModHG., from 
MidG. and LG. ecker, 'acorn, beech nut' ; 
there is also in UpG. a word *acheren prim it. 
allied and equiv. to Swiss ach^ram (Bav. 
akram). Comp. the corresponding Goth. 
akran, n., ' produce, fruit (generally),' OIc. 
akarn, n., AS. ozcern, E. acorn, Du. aker, 
' acorn.' Since the meaning ' acorn, beech- 
nut,' is a recent specialisation in compari- 
son with Goth, akran, 'produce, fruit,' the 
cognates may l>e connected with Goth, akrs, 
HG. 9lcfer, and perhaps also with L\t\\, ugn, 
' berry,' unless the latter is more closely 
allied to Lat. uva. In any case its kinship 
with (Sicbe must be denied, since the latter 
would be *aiks in Goth. The mntntion of 
the stem in ModHG. and LG. Stfer must be 
explained by a Goth. *akrin. 

Cod, adj., 'of noble birth or qualities, 
excellent, generous,' from MidHG. edel, 
edele, OHG. edili (adal-), adj., ' of a good 
family, noble, high-minded'; a deriv. of 
9lbel, OHG. adal. Comp. OSax. eMi 
(aftal-), 'of a good family, noble,' from 
atSali, 'noble family,' AS. <eoV«, 'noble, 
distinguished.' For details see 9lbff. 

ggel, see 3gel. 

{SflflC, f., ' harrow,' simply ModHG., 
from LG. egge ; likewise ffloen from LG., 
because a corresponding HG. word would 
be t rff n or egett. The MidHG. word is egede, 
OHG. egida, f., ' harrow,' OHG. ecken (par- 
tic, gi-egit), ' to harrow,' MidHG. (gen. 
Comp. L)u. e:ge, AS. ege'&e; Goth. *agjan, 
' to harrow,' *agi/>a, ' harrow,' are not re- 
corded. The Teut. root ag (eh), ' to liar- 
row,' from pre-Teut. ak, ok, is most closely 
connected with Lat. occa, ' harrow,' Lith. 
akeiti, ' to harrow,' akeczos, ' harrow,' OConi. 
out, W. oged, ' harrow.' The West Eur. 
cognates may also be further connected 
with Qidt (Lat. acies). 

efye, adv., ' before,' from MidHG. S, a 
parallel form to ModHG. eljr, MidHG. Sr, 
like ModHG. ba from bar, tuo from war. 
See fljer. 

(Sb,e, f., ' marriage, wedlock, matrimony,' 


( 67 ) 


from MidHG. e, iwe, f., * customary right, 
justice, law, marriage,' OHG. Swa, l, 'law, 
marriage?; corresponds to OSax. io, m., 
'law,' Du. edit, 'marriage' (from i-haft, 
see ed)t), AS. tie, tietv, {., ' law, marriage.' 
These West Tent, cognates aiwi- might be 
derived from aigwl-, aihwi, and connected 
with Lat. aequum (base aiqo-). To this 
there is no objection from the linguistic 
standpoint, for it is probable that the cog- 
nates similar in sound and signifying ' time, 
eternity,' are totally different from those 
just quoted ; comp Goth, aiws, OHG. ewa, 
AS. tie, tiew, ' time, eternity,' which are 
allied to Lat. aevum, aeternus, Gr. aldv, 
aUl; so too Sans, ayas, 'duration of life.' 
Yet the first group might also perhaps be 
connected with Sans, iva, m., 'progress, 
course, procedure, custom.' 

eber, er)f , adv., ' sooner, earlier, rather,' 
from MidHG. and OHG. Sr (e), 'formerly, 
previously,' compar. adv. ; comp. Goth. 
uiris, ' formerly,' from air, ' early,' also AS. 
tier, E. ere. See et;e, erfh 

erjcrn, see @r$. 

(Sr)ni, see 9l(?n. 

1§t)Xe, f., 'honour,' from MidHG. ire, 
OHG. ira, f., ' honour, fame, sense of 
honour'; corresponds to OSax. ira, f., 
' honour, protection, pardon, gift,' AS. dr, 
f., ' honour, help, pardon ' (drian, ' to spare, 
pardon '), OIc. eir, {., ' pardon, gentleness.' 
Goth. *aiza is by chance not recorded ; it 
is probably allied to Goth, ais-tan, 'to 
shun, respect,' which is undoubtedly primit. 
akin to Lat. aes-tumare, 'to acknowledge, 
value.' It is probably connected with the 
San?, root iS, ' to desire, seek to obtain.' 

§i, m., ' egg,' from MidHG. and OHG. 
ei, n., ' egg ' ; common to Teut. with the 
same meaning, although Goth. *addjis, n. 
(comp. OIc. egg), is wanting ; ada, however, 
is found in Crim. Goth. Comp. OSax. ei, 
Du. ei, AS. tiej, n. E. egg is borrowed 
from Scand. egg. Between the Teut. aias 
(ajjas), n., 'egg,' and the corresponding 
terms in the West Aryan languages there 
is an unmistakable agreement of sound, 
although the phonetic justification for the 
comparison has not yet been found ; comp. 
Lat. drum (LowLat. *dvum, on account of 
Fr. oenf), Gr. tj>6v, OSlov. jaje, aje (from 
the base *ejo-l), Olr. og, 'egg.' Arguing 
from these cognates, Teut. ajjas, n., has 
been derived from e"wjo-, 6wjo-, and con- 
nected with Lat. avis, Sans, vi, 'bird.' In 
East Aryan no corresponding word is found. 

(pibe, f., 'yew,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. twe, OHG. iwa, f. (MidHG. also 'a 
yew-tree bow ') ; comp. the corresponding 
AS. tw, e&w, E. yew, and OIc. yr, m., ' yew ' 
(and 'bow'). Goth. *eiws is by chance 
not recorded. Swiss tche, tge, OHG. tha, 
OLG. fch, AS. eoh, prove that the word 
had originally a medial guttural ; hence 
the primary form Goth. *eihwa ?. From 
the Teut. word, MidLat. tvus, Fr. if, Span. 
iva, 'yew,' are derived. The relation of 
OHG. twa, tha, AS. tw, eoh, to Olr. do, 
W. yw, 'yew' (Lith. jevd, 'bird -cherry 
tree,' OSlov. iva, ' willows'), has yet to be 

Cptbirrf), m., 'marsh mallow,' from Mid 
HG. ibische, OHG. tbisca, f., ' marsh mal- 
low, dwarf mallow ' ; borrowed early from 
the equiv. Lat. ibiscum (Gr. ipiaicos). 

(Sid)?, f., ' oak, oak-tree,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. eich, OHG. eih (hh), f. ; a term 
common to Teut., but by chance not re- 
corded in Goth. (*aiks, f.) ; comp. Du. eek 
(eik), AS. dc, I, E. oak. In Iceland, where 
there are no trees, the old word eik, f., 
received the general meaning 'tree' (for a 
similar change of meaning see (§fd)e, ftcljrf, 
Xamte; comp.Gr. dpvs, 'oak, tree (generally).' 
The term «i/c- is peculiar to Teut. ; whether 
it is connected with OIc. eikenn, adj., 'wild,' 
and with the Sans, root ej, 'to shake,' 
is undecided. 

(Stcbef, f., from the equiv. MidHG. 
eichel, OHG. eihhila, 'acorn, fruit of the oak' 
(corresponding to Du. eikel). The form was 
orig. a diminutive of @id?e, ' the offspring 
of the oak,' as it were ; the derivative is 
wanting in E. and Scand. (Bfttttt, ModHG, 
is not a cognate. — {Sid)born, n., 'squirrel,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. cichorn, OHG. 
eihhorn(*eicchorn according toSwissetX-xer), 
but corrupted at an early period by con- 
necting it with £eru. The primit. Teut. 
base cannot be discovered with any cer- 
tainty, since the word has been trans- 
formed by popular etymology in all lan- 
guages. Du. eekhoren corresponds to the 
HG. form. AS. dc-wern (earlier dcweorna), 
'squirrel,' is abnormal, and apparently a 
compound ; still more remote is the equiv. 
OIc. ikome, from eik, 'oak, tree.' The 
implied Goth (primit. Teut.) word *aika- 
wairna (*eikawairna) seems by its forma- 
tion to resemble Goth, widuwairna, OHG. 
diorna (see SDirne) ; in that case AS. dc- 
weorna (OIc. ikorne) might be a diminutive 
of aik (Ik ?), ' oak,' meaning lit. ' little oak- 


( 68 ) 


animal'?. Comp. tlie diminutive forms 
HidLat squiriolus, ModHQ. eid^erndjeii, 
OSlov. vSvcrica. On the other hand, somu 
maintain that weorn'm AS. dcweorna means 
'tail,' while others connect it with Lat. 
viverra, derived from a North Europ. word 
(Lith. vovere", OSlov. veverica). At all 
events, since tlie Tent, cognates include 
OIc, AS., and OHG., we need not suppose 
the word was borrowed from a Southern 
Horn, term ; Lat. sciHrus (Gr. oidovpos), Fr. 
ecureuil, Span, esquilo (MidLat. squiriolus) 
— whence E. squirrel — are too remote in 
sound from the Teut words. There is no 
reason for assuming that the Teut. word 
was borrowed from another source. 

eidfen, aid)en, vb., 'to gauge,' from 
MidHG. token (ahten), ' to survey, gauge, 
inspect' ; akin to MidHG. iche, tch, f., 
'measure, official standard, office of weights 
and measures > ; corresponds to Du. ijl; 
'gauge, stamp,' ijken, 'to gauge, stamp.' 
In LG and MidLG ilce, f., means ' gauge 
mark, instrument for gauging,' generally 
'a pointed instrument, lance/ for which 
reason the cognates have been derived from 
a Teut. root Ik, 'to prick.' Yet MidHG. 
ahten points to a connection with ahten. 
In UpG. pfedjten (see $egel) has a parallel 
form pfedjen. The solution of the diffi- 
culty with regard to aidjett has not yet 
been found. The spelling of the word with 
OBav. ai is also remarkable, since in Suab. 
and Bav. ei corresponds to the MidHG. t. 

gtd)f)orn, see (5id)e. 

(lib, m., ' oath, execration,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. eit(d), OHG eid, m,j a 
word common to Teut., but not found in 
the other groups ; Goth, aifie, OIc. et'oV, 
AS. dp, E. oath, Du. eed, OSax. eth, m. • 
for the common Teut. aipa-z, from pre- 
Teut. 6i-to-s (comp. Olr. oelh, ' oath '), no 
suitable cognate has yet been found. @fje 
and its cognates are scarcely allied to it, 
though (Sifcam may be so. 

(Stoctllt, m., 'son-in-law,' from MidHG 
eidem, m., c son-in-law,' also ' father-in-law ' 
(comp. Setter, <Sd)tt>ager, 33afe, 9?effe, with 
regard to the fluctuating meaning), OHG. 
eidum, ' son-in-law ' ; corresponds to AS. 
diSum, OFris. dthum, ' son-in-law.' Goth. 
*aipmus (?) is wanting, the word megs (see 
SDiage) being used. This merely West Teut. 
term, the derivation of which appears to be 
similar to that of Dfjeim, is connected with 
MidHG. eide, OHG. eidl, Goth, aipei, 
* mother.' It is not impossible that it may 

he allied to @ib also ; comp. E. son-in-law. 
In Sual). and Alem. (Sitam is unknown, 
the word used being £i>d;termanit. 

@ibc, f., 'awn, beard,' LG. See ftfirc. 

(Sibcd)f<;, f., from the equiv. Midi It I. 
egedehse, OHG. (gidehsa, f., 'lizard' ; like 
(fidjfycut, the word has been corrupted in 
various ways in the other languages of the 
West Teut. group, so that it is impossible 
to discover its primary meaning. Du. 
haagdis, hagedis, ' lizard,' is based on hang, 
'hedge,' in MidDu. eggedisse; AS. dp'exe, 
whence E. ash, asher, ' water-newt,' is alto- 
gether obscure. The component OHG. 
-dehsa, AS. -p'exe (to use Sdjfen, ' lizard.-,' 
in natural history as an equiv. term for 
(Saurter, ' Saurian.',' is a mistake due to a 
wrong derivation), may be connected with 
the Aryan root teles, ' to make,' which ap- 
pears in 5)acb3 ; OHG. egi-dehsa, lit. ' one 
who inspires fear'?. Comp. OHG. <.gi, 
Goth, agis, ' fear,' primit. cognate with Gr. 
dx os > ' p:dn, sadness.' 

giber, (Siberians, f., ' eider-duck,' 
simply ModHG. from LG. eider; the latter, 
like E. eider, eider-diick, is from Ic. cbpr 
(gen. cepar), wpekolla, 'eider-duck' (Mod. 
Ic. cb is pronounced like ei). Eider-down 
wa3 brought by the Hanse traders from 
Iceland to England and Germany, and 
from the latter imported into Sweden 
(Swed. ejder, ejderdun). To the OIc. depr, 
Sans, dti-, ' water-bird,' may correspond ; 
the latter, it is true, is mostly connected 
with (Snte ; comp. further Norw. Adder, 
Swed. (dial) Ada, 'eider-duck' (from OIc. 
*dpr, without mutation). 

(Stfer, m., ' zeal, fervour, passion,' from 
late MidHG. ifer, m. (ifern, n.), 'zeal, 
jealousy.' Tlie word appeared at a remark- 
ably late period (15th cent.), and its pre- 
vious history is quite obscure ; it found its 
way from UpG., in connection with Luther's 
translation of the Bible, into LG., Du., Dan. 
and Swed. Nothing can be adduced in 
favour of the assumption that the word 
was borrowed from UpG. eifern. An older 
Ger. adj., etfer, 'sharp, bitter' (as late as 
Logan), OHG. eivar, eibar, 'sharp, bitter,' 
AS. dfor, ' sharp, bitter,' might perhaps be 
cognate with ModHG. ©ifer. 

citfCtt, adj., ' own, pertinent, peculiar, 
odd,' from the equiv. ModHG. eigen, OHG. 
eigan ; an adj. common to Teut.; comp. 
OSax. igan, Du. eigen, AS. dgen, E. own, 
OIc. eiginn; Goth, used stcis for *aigans. 
The old adj. eigen is, as the suffix n show?, 


( 69 ) 


prop, a partic. ending in -ana- of a vb., 
which only appears, however, as a pret.- 
pres., meaning ' to possess,' throughout the 
Teut. group ; comp. Goth, digan, (dihan), 
OIc. eiga, AS. dgan, * to have' (E. to owe), 
pret. in AS. dhte, in E. ought, whence also 
AS. dgnian, E. to own. The Teut. root 
aig (aih), from pre-Teut. aik, preserved in 
these words, has been connected with the 
Sans, root tg, 'to possess, have as one's 
own,' the partic. of which, icdnd-s (tgdna-s\ 
agrees exactly with HG. eigan, Goth. 
*aigans. In ModHG. %xad)t (which see) 
we have a suhst. formed with a dental 
suffix (Goth, aihts, * property, possession,' 

<Siilano, n., ' isle,' from MidHG. eilant, 
einlant(d), 11., 'land lying by itself, island' 
(comp. MidHG. eilif, from 6HG. einlif, see 
elf). (Sin here has the meaning 'solitary, 
alone,' as in Sinftebter, (Stttcbe. E. island, 
and Du. eiland, are not allied ; they belong 
to Slit ; see the latter. 

eilevt, vb., 'to hasten, hurry,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. and MidLG. Hen, OHG. "den 
(Ulen from iljari) ; akin to AS. tie, OFris. 
He, OIc. il (gen. iljar), ' sole of the foot.' 
If the I be accepted as a deriv., as it often 
is in other words, we obtain the widely 
diffused root 1, ' to go,' as the source of the 
cognates ; comp. Gr. livai, Lat. ire, Sans. 
root i, ' to go,' OSlov. iti, Lith. eiti, ' to 
go.' See gefyctt. 

etlf, see elf. 

§ix\XCY, m., ' pail, bucket,' from the Mid 
HG. eimber, ein-ber, m., OHG. eimbar, ein- 
bar, m., n., ' pail ' ; corresponds to OSax. 
Smbar (immar), Du. emmer, AS. dmbor, om- 
bor, m., ' pail.' Apparently a compound of 
ein- (Goth, ains) and a noun formed from 
the root ber (Gr. <pep, Lat. fer), ' to carry,' 
which is discussed under 93alne, 93uvbe ; 
hence 'a vessel to be carried by one per- 
son'?, or rather ' a vessel with a handle ' t 
In reality, however, the words cited are 
only popular corruptions, which were sug- 
gested by Qahex (OHG. zwi-bar) as well as 
by OHG. sumbiriin) ; for undoubtedly 
OHG. ambar, AS. ombor, are the older 
forms, as is also proved by the borrowed 
words, OSlov. aboru, Piuss. wumbaris, 
' pail ' ; in that case it would be connected 
with Gr. &n<t>op&. Note too the diminutives 
OHG. amprl (MidHG. emmer 1), AS. em- 
bren, ' pail,' formed from OHG. swnbirt(n). 

em, nuin , from the equiv. MidHG. and 
OHG. ein, ' one,' also the indef. art. even 

in OHG. and MidHG. ; comp. OSax. Sn, 
Du. etn, AS. dn (E. one, as a num. a, an, as 
indef. art.), OIc. einn, Goth. ains. The 
num. common to Teut. for 'one,' orig. 
ainos, which is primit. cognate with Lat. 
■Anus (comp. communis and cjemetn, ' com- 
mon '), and also with Olr. 6en, OSlov. inu, 
Lith. venas, Pruss. ains, 'one.' From this 
old num., which strangely enough is un- 
known to East Aryan (in which the cog- 
nate terms Sans. Ska, Zend aha, 'one/ 
occur), Gr. (dial.) has preserved olv6s, 'one,' 
and otvt}, ' the one on dice, ace.' See ©ilaub, 
(Sittobe.— einanbev, 'one another,' thus 
even in MidHG. einander, OHG. (in the 
oblique cases) einander, pron., ' one an- 
other' — a senseless combination of the 
nom. ein with an oblique case of anber ; e.g. 
OHG. sie sind ein anderen ungellh, ' they 
are unlike one another' (lit. the one to the 
other), zeinanderen quedan, ' to say to one 
another ' (lit. one to the others), for which, 
however, by a remarkable construction, 
zeinen einanderen may be used in OHG. — 
(Etttbeere, f., ' one-berry, true-love,' simply 
ModHG. ; the assumption that the word is 
a corruption of juniperus is not necessary 
in order to explain the word. Comp. Ic. 
einer. — gtinfttu, f., ' simplicity, silliness,' 
from MidHG. einvalt, einvalte (-velte), f., 
OHG. einfaltt, f., ' simplicity, silliness ' ; 
comp. Goth, ainfalpei, f., ' silliness, good- 
nature ' — an abstract noun from Goth, ain- 
faips, ' silly,' OHG. and MidHG. einfalt, 
'silly,' whence OHG. einfalttg, MidHG. 
einveltec, adj., ' silly.' See fait. — etttQC- 
ffeifd)f, see ftleifdj.— (Smgewcibe, n., 
' entrails, bowels, intestines,' from MidHG. 
ingeweide (AS. innop from *inwdj>), it., 
' bowels,' for which geweide, n., also mean- 
ing ' food,' chiefly occurs ; ModHG. ein; for 
ModHG. tn, ' within, inside ' ; OHG. weida, 
' food, pasture.' Therefore Singetveibc must 
have meant lit. 'the food that has been 
eaten,' and afterwards ' the organs at work 
in digesting it' ; comp. also auflnxiben, 'to 
disembowel.' See 2Beibe. — Ctttig, adj., 
' agreed, sole, only,' from MidHG. einec(jg), 
OHG. einag, adj., 'sole, only' ; a deriv. of 
ein.— @mooe, f., from the equiv. MidHG. 
tincede, eincete, einSte, f., ' solitude, desert,' 
OHG. eindti, 11., ' solitude, desert.' By be- 
ing based on obe, the MidHG. and ModHG. 
word received its present form ; properly, 
however, -6ti in the OHG. word is a suffix 
(comp. #eimat, SDicnat, Slrmut) ; Goth. *ain6- 
dm (comp. mannisk-6dus, ' benevolence ') is 


( 70 ) 


wanting ; comp. AS. dnad (from dndd), 
OSax. Snddi, * desert ' ; the suffix -Sdtis cor- 
responds to Lat. -dtns (senatvs, mayi&tra- 
tus). — outfitm, adj., 'lonely, solitary,' 
pimply ModHG. derived from ein and the 
suflix of lancu'am, roonnefatn, cljrfam. See 
jfam. — Csinftcocl, m., from the equiv. Mid 
HG. einsidel, einsidtle (also even tinside- 
Irere), m , OHG. einsidUo {einsidillo, Goth. 
*ainsi J>lja), ' hermit ; ' an imitation of Gr. 
avaxupyrris, Lat. anachoreta, basing it on 
OHG. sedal, ' seat.' See jtebeln. 

Ctn, adv., ' in, into,' from MidHG. and 
OHG. in, adv., 'in, into,' beside which 
Mill HG. and OHG. in with the same mean- 
ing. The Ion;,' form was derived from the 
short, as is proved by the connection with 
the cognates of in, which see. 

etttff, adv., from the eqniv. MidHG. 
einst, einest, OHG. einist, adv., ' once, at one 
time'; an obscure deriv. of ein; in AS. 
denes, E. once, to which OHG. eines, Mid 
HG. tines, 'once, at one time,' also corre- 
spond. Comp. OHG. andnres, anderist, 
MidHG. anderes, anderst, ' otherwise,' as 
similar formations. 

{Shtf racfjf. f., ' concord, harmony, agree- 
ment,' from tlie equiv. late MidHG. ein- 
traht, {., which, however, belongs, as a Mid 
G. word, to trefen ; hence MidG. cht for ft. 
OHG. preserves the correct form eintroft, 
' simple.' Comp. 3n>tetrad)t. 

ettt3eln, adj. and adv. (in Suab. and 
Bav. einzacht), 'single(ly), sole(ly), indivi- 
dually),' from the equiv. MidHG. einzel, 
a modification of the older and more fre- 
quent einHilze, OHG. einluzzi, ' single, 
alone '; comp. Thur., and Sax. eelitzg (Slizx), 
* unmarried,' from MidHG. einliitzec (OHG. 
einluzzo), ' unmarried.' The second com- 
ponent belongs to ModHG. 2co«3 (OHG. 
hlio^an) ; OHG. ein-luzzi, ' one whose lot 
stands alone.' Comp. also OIc. einhlitr, 

emfltg, adj., * only, sole, unique,' from 
MidHG. einzec, 'single,' a developed form 
of OHG. einazzi (adv., einazzim), the zz of 
which is deriv., as in emftfl (comp. Gr. 
KpirrrdSios with a cognate suffix). 

$is, n., 'ice,' from the equiv. MidHG. 
and OHG. ts, n. ; a word common to TeuL ; 
comp. Du. ijs, AS. is, E. ice, OIc. iss, ' ice ' 
(Goth. *eisa is by chance not recorded). 
Outside the Teut. group no term identical 
with this can be found. It is still unde- 
cided whether it is connate with (Sifen (root 
U ' to shine ' ?) or with Zend isi (' ice ' ?). 

(Siisbcht, n., a North Ger. word, from the 
equiv. LG. tsbfn, MidLG. Ubin, 'hip-bone' ; 
comp. Du. ijsbeen, isdtbeen, 'the socket of 
the hip-bone,' AS. isbdn, m. The first part 
of the compound seems to contain a subst. 
isa-, 'gait, walking,' which Sans. eSa, m., 
4 hastening on,' resembles. 

{St fen, n., 'iron, weapon, sword, fetters,' 
from MidHG. an I MidLG. isen (tsern), 
OHG. Isan, tsarn, n., ' iron ' ; corresponds to 
Du. ijzer, AS. tsern, tren, E. iron, OIc. team, 
Goth, eisarn, 'iron.' Its relation to ©is is 
still undecided; it is most closely connec- 
ted with Olr. lam, ' iron ' (for *isarno-), 
whence OIc. jam (Dan. jern) is borrowed. 
It is less certain that OHG. ir, Goth, aiz, 
Lat. aes, ' bronze,' are allied to it The 
deriv. r of the earlier forms is retained by 
ModHG. etfern, which is based on MidHG. 
tserin, tserntn, OHG. isarnln, adj., 'of iron.' 

eifel, adj., ' vain, idle, useless, void,' 
from MidHG. ttel, adj., 'empty, vacant, 
vain, useless, fruitless, pure, unadulterated,' 
OHG. Ital, 'empty, vacant, vain, boast- 
ful ' ; corresponding to OSax. idal, ' empty, 
invalid,' Du. ijdel, AS. tdel. 'empty, use- 
less, worthless,' E. idle. The orig. mean- 
ing of the adj. was probably 'empty' ; but 
if we accept ' shining' as the primary sense, 
it follows that the word is connected with 
Gr. aldw, Sans, root idh, ' to flame.' 

(pjfer, n., 'pus, matter, suppuration,' 
from MidHG. eiter, OHG. eitar (eittar), n., 
' poison ' (especially animal poison) ; Goth. 
*aitra- is wanting ; an old tr remains un- 
changed in HG. (see treu, jtttern). Comp. 
MidLG. and Du. etter, AS. dttor, attor, E. 
atter (? pus, poison'), OIc. eitr, n. Also a 
variant without the suffix r (Goth. *aita-) ; 
comp. OHG. and MidHG. ei$ (Alem. eisse, 
Bav. aiss), m., ' abscess, ulcer,' with a nor- 
mal permutation of t to 33. The Teut. 
root ait, 'poisonous ulcer,' has been rightly 
connected with the Gr. otSos, n., otdfia, 11., 
'swelling,' olSdw, 'to swell'; hence the 
root is Aryan oid. 

(Sltcf, m., ' nausea, disgust, aversion,' a 
ModHG. word, which has obtained a wide 
circulation through Luther (he used the 
form (Scfct; unknown in the contempora- 
neous UpG. writings). A MidG. word with 
obscure cognates ; it is perhaps connected 
with AS. dcol, 'burdensome, troublesome' 
(base aiklo-), and probablv also to LG. ertern, 
' to vex ' (Du. akelig, ' terrible,' E. ♦ ache ■ ?). 
The h in UpG. ljeifet (Swiss, heikxd) may 
be excrescen t, as in tjcifd)eru These cognates 


( 7i ) 


have probably 110 connection with a Teut. 
root erk, ' to vomit, nauseare,' to which old 
UpG. erkele, 'to loathe,' E. irksome, to irk, 
allied. — {Sfrefnctme, ' nickname,' simply 
ModHG., in MidHG. d-name, prop. < false 
name' ; from LG. cekelname ; com p. Swed. 
oknamn, ' nickname,' OIc. aukanafn, ' epi- 
thet, surname ' ; from the Teut root auk, 
' to increase.' See aud). 

(fid), iSlon, see (Slcntier. 

{|tefcmf, see (Stfenbeitt. 

elettb, adj., 'wretched, pitiful, miser- 
able, despicable,' from MidHG. ellende, 
adj., ' unhappy, woful, living in a foreign 
countr}', banished,' OHG. eli-lenti, 'ban- 
ished, living out of one's country, foreign, 
alien, captive' ; corresponding to OSax. 
di-lendi, : alien, foreign. To this is allied 
the abstract (Slcnb, n., from MidHG. ellende, 
OHG. di-lenti, n., ' banishment, foreign 
country,' MidHG. alsp, ' want, distress, 
misery,' OHG. also, ' captivity,' OSax. eli- 
lendi, n,, ' foreign country.' The primary 
meaning of the adj. is 'living in, born in 
a foreign country ' (comp. (§lfa{3, from early 
MidLat. Absatia, from OHG. Elisd^o, lit. 
'incola peregrinus,' or 'inhabitant of the 
other bank of the Rhine'). Goth. aJjis, 
' another,' is primit. cognate with Lat alius, 
Gr. dXXos (for &\jos), Olr. axle, 'another' ; 
comp. the corresponding gen. OHG. and 
AS. elks, ' otherwise,' E. else. The pro- 
nominal stem alja-f was even in the Goth, 
period supplanted by an/iara-, 'another.' 
Comp. Sftecfe. 

glenliev, n.,also (Stat, gtfenb, m. and 
n., ' elk,' first occurs in ModHG. with an 
excrescent d (as in SNottb) ; borrowed from 
Lith. dnis, 'elk' (OSlov. jeleni, 'stag'), 
with which OSlov. lani, 'hind' (from 
*olnia), is primit. allied. From the Mod 
HG. word Fr. dan, ' elk,' is derived. The 
genuine OG. term for (Slen is ($ld) (E. elk); 
comp. MidHG. elch, like, m., OHG. elaho, 
AS. eolh, OIc. elgr. The last word (origi- 
nating in algi-) is termed alces in Caesar's 
Bell. Gall, with which Iiuss. losi (from 
OSlav. *olsi1) is also remotely connected. 
Perhaps OG. (Sldj facilitated the introduc- 
tion of the Lith. word. 

^If, m., simply ModHG. borrowed in 
the last century from the eqniv. E. elf 
(comp. £alle, #eim) ; also ModHG. ©Iff, 
f. ; for further references see Sl(p. The 
MidHG. elbe, dbinne, f., shows that a cor- 
responding ModHG. would have 6 in place 

elf, et(f, num., ' eleven,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. eilf, eilif, einlif, OHG. einlif; a 
term common to Teut. for ' eleven.' Comp. 
OSax. illetan (for inlibari), AS. dndleqfan, 
endleofan (for dnleofan), E. eleven, OIc. ellifu, 
Goth, ainlif. A compound of Goth, ains, 
HG. ein, and the component -lif in 3»iHf 
(Goth, ttcalif). In the non-Teut. lan- 
guages only Lith. has a corresponding for- 
mation ; comp. Lith. v'enOlika, ' eleven,' 
twy.lika, ' twelve,' lry.'ika, keturiblika (and 
so on up to nineteen) ; the/of the Ger. word 
is a permutation of k, as in 2Dolf (Xtkos). 
The signification of the second component, 
which is met with in Teut. only in the 
numbers (If and jnjclf, is altogether uncer- 
tain. Some have derived the compound, 
upon which the Lith. and Teut. words are 
based, from the Aryan root h'k, ' to remain 
over ' (*ee tetljen), or from the Aryan root 
lip (see Meifeen), and regarded elf as 'one 

(SIfenbem, n., from the equiv. MidHG. 
helfenbein, OHG. helfanbein, n., ' ivory,' 
but based anew on (Slefcmt. How the word 
came b the initial h (AS. ylpendbdn), which 
is also ound in MidHG. and OHG. helfant 
(also less frequently elfant, equiv. to AS. 
ylpend), ' elephant,' is not known. It is 
possible that the excrescent h at the begin- 
ning is due to the word being connected 
with fyelfeit (in the Middle Ages special 
healing qualities were ascribed to ivory). 
Perhaps the word was obtained not from 
Romance, but from the East, from Byzan- 
tium (Gr. i\£<pai>T-) ; for the word would 
probably correspond to Lat. (ebur] eboreus 
had it been introduced into Ger. through a 
Romance medium. Comp. Ital. avorio, Fr. 
ivoire, ' ivory,' Du. ivoor, E. ivory (yet also 
Span, marjil, Port, marfim). — With regard 
to the meaning of the second part of the 
compound (53ein, lit. ' bone '), see SSein. 

(§(te, f., from the equiv. MidHG. die, 
ele, eln, elne, OHG. elina (and elin), f. ' ell ' ; 
corresponding to Goth, aleina (wrongly 
written for *alina1), OIc. qln, AS. eln, f., 
E. ell, Du. el, elle ; all these words signify 
' ell,' which is derived from the lit. mean- 
ing ' fore-arm ' (comp. gufj, ©panne, Jtlafter, 
as standards of measure). The word in the 
form Sliud is also preserved in other Aryan 
languages. Comp. Gr. <L\imj, 'elbow, arm,' 
Lat. ulna, 'elbow, arm, ell,' Olr. uile, Sans. 
aratni, OSlov. lakutl (from *olk&i{), Lith. 
6lekti* (ulektii), 'elbow, ell,' are more re- 
mote ; they also contain, however, the 


( 72 


common Aryan 6le- (whence too SUjtf?). 
From the Teut. *alina the Romance cog- 
-Ital. ahia (Ft. aune) — are borrowed. 
— gllenbogou, gUbOQCW, m., from the 
equiv. MidHG. eflenboge, elenboge, OHG. 
e'inbogo, m., ' elbow.' Comp. Du. elleboog, 
AS. e.lnboga, m., E. e^iow, OIc. glnboge, nu, 
' elbow,' lit. ' bend of the arm.' 

gjller, see ©rle.— glfcbeere, similarly. 

(Slrtfjje, f., 'minnow,' akin to MidHG, 
and OHG. erlinc. See fftfe 

(Slffer, f. (in Swiss cegtrSt, on the Mid- 
Rhine atzel, Suab. /itfte and kteger$\ ' mag- 
pie,' from the equiv. MidHG. egclster, agel- 
stcr, aglaskr, OHG. aglastra, f. ; corre- 
sponding to OLG. agastria, LG. dgster, 
Du. eXsfer, aakster, ' magpie.' Its origin is 
altogether dubious ; -striCn seems here, as 
sometimes in other cases, to be a fem. suffix. 
The meaning of the base ag-ul- may have 
already been ' magpie,' as is indicated by 
OHG. agazza, 'magpie' (hence ModHG. 
atzel for agze-l; comp. 5Bli|, Senj, {Jhtnjcl), 
AS. 09a, 'magpie.' From the OTeut. 
(type *agatja), Ital. gazza, and Fr. agace, 
are derived. 

(Stfent, plur., from the equiv. MidHG. 
(seldom occurs) eltern, altern, plur., OHG. 
eltiron, (altrori), plur., 'parents'; corre- 
sponds to OSax. elliron, Du. ouders, ouderen, 
AS. yldran, OFris. aldera, ' parents ' ; the 
plur. of the compar. of alt used as a subst. 
in West Teut. only. In AS. the corre- 
sponding sing, yldra in AS. denotes 'father.' 
For a similar evolution of meaning comp. 
£<rr, Sunder. 

empfcmgett, empfmben, see nth. 

cmpor, adv., ' upwards, aloft,' from Mid 
HG. enbor, enbore, adv., ' into or in the 
heights'; OHG. inbore, in bore, with the 
same meaning ; a combination of the prep. 
in with the dat. of OHG. and MidHG. bor, 
'upper space' (OHG. also 'summit'), the 
origin of which is obscure. It scarcely be- 
longs to the root ber, ' to carry ' (in 93aftre) ; 
more probably to entperm. The p of the 
ModHG. word is based on an early ModHG. 
medium form entbdr, from which ettfyct, 
entpor, must have been produced. 

CUtporcn, vb., ' to excite, enrage, (refl.) 
to revolt,' from MidHG. enbceren, OHG. 
(occurs only once) anab&ren, ' to raise ' ; 
akin to MidHG. Mr, m., 'defiance, revolt.' 
The origin of the cognates is uncertain, 
because it is difficult to determine whether 
the r is primitive or whether it is by a later 
change based upon s (z) ; with bor, ' upper 

space' — see empcr — there seems to be a 
connection by gradation of u to auj 
JIG. bcfe (OHG. Msi) is not allied. 

cmfig, adj., 'busy, active, assiduous, 
industrious,' from MidHG. $my.c, em^c, 
OHG. pnaftig, emi^ig (also with tz), ' con- 
stant, persistent, continuous'; Suab. and 
Alem. have fhijjig, instead of the non-exis- 
tent cmftij. A derivative by means of the 
suffix -ig from OHG. emiy, whence Mid 
HG. eme^iche. Its connection with SJiujje 
is questionable, since a- as an accented 
prefix is not to be found. AS. cemetig, 
emtig, ' free, empty,' E. empty, is not allied. 
With greater probability, the West Teut. 
term for 'ant' (see Slineife) is related to 

fSnbe, n., ' end, aim, termination,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. ende, OHG. enti, m., 
n. ; corresponds to OSax. $ndi, m., Du. 
einde, AS. ende, m., E. end, OIc. ender, ende, 
m., Goth, andeis, m., 'end.' The common 
Teut. stem andja-, from pre-Teut. antyu-, 
is closely connected with Sans, dnta-s, in., 
' boundary, end, edge, border,' Olr. it 
(from anto- ?), * end, point' 

(Sn&hrie, f., 'endive,' early ModHG. 
only, formed from the equiv. MidLat-. 
and Rom. endivia (Lat. intibus). 

eng, adj., ' narrow, close, strait, con- 
fined,' from the equiv. MidHG. and Mid 
LG. enge, OHG. pigi, angi; corresponds 
to Goth, aggwus, OIc frigr (seldom qngr), 
* narrow,' Du. eng; from the Tent, root 
ang, Aryan angh, preserved also in Shtgjr. 
Comp. Lat. angustus, angnstice, angere (see 
also fringe), as well as Sans, anlrfi, ' narrow,' 
unhas, n., 'narrowness, chasm, oppression,' 
OSlov. qziiku, 'narrow,' Gr. &yx u , 'to 
strangle,' Armen. anjiJ;^ If. cum-ung, 
' narrow.' 

{Sngel, m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
engel, OHG. eng\l, angil, m., ' angel ' ; cor- 
responding to OSax. engil, Du. engel, AS. 
engel (but E. angel is borrowed from the 
OFr. angele), OIc. engell, Goth, aggilus, m., 
1 angel.' The cognates which are diffused 
throughout Teut. are borrowed from the 
ecclesiastical Lat. angelus, or more pro- 
bably from Gr. &yye\os, 'angel.' How they 
were borrowed cannot, it is true, be dis- 
covered with any certainty (comp. Seufcl). 

(Sngerling, m., 'grub of the cock- 
chafer,' from iMidHG. engerlinc, MidHG. 
OHG. engerinc(g), m., 'coin-weevil,' a rk-- 
rivative of OHG. angar, angari, MidHG. 
anger, enger, 'corn-weevil'; scarcely con- 


( 73 1 


nected directly with eitije. It is more 
probable that Lith. anksztirai, ' measles 
(of swine), cockchafer grabs,' Pol. wyjry, 
* measles (of swine),' are primit. cognates. 

(girtfte, m. (unknown to UpG.), from 
the equiv. MidHG. enke, m., ' farm servant, 
hind,' OHG. encho, *ancheo (*ankjo\ m., 
'servant'; corresponds only to OFris, 
inka and LG. enke, * servant.' It is uncer- 
tain whether the word is primit. cognate 
with Lat. ancilla, * maid - servant,' since 
Lat. c would be normally changed into LG, 
h or g; perhaps, however, it is based on 
the Aryan root ank or ang. 

£ttfccl(l.), m., 'ankle,' from MidHG, 
qnlcel, m., OHG. e,nchil, anchal, m. ; nume- 
rous prim it. variants obscure the etymology. 
OIc. qkkla, n., AS. q.ncleow, n. (E. ankle), 
MidDu. anclau, OHG. anchldo, 'ankle- 
bone,' seem to be modifications of the 
primary form, but do they suggest any 
connection with JUaue (comp. AS. ondcleOw 
with oncleOw) ?. There is a difficulty in 
determining the relation of OHG. eixchil, 
anchal, to anchldo, and their further con- 
nection with MidHG. anke, m., 'joint of 
the foot, nape' (even now Slnfe in UpG. 
and MidG. dialects is the term for 'nape, 
neck '), OHG. enclia, f. (from ankia), ' thigh, 
tibia' (Fr. anche, 'reed, mouthpiece'). 
Perhaps allied to Sans <itt(/a, 'limb,' aiiguri, 
' finger.' 

(Sltftel (2.), m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
enenkel, eninkcl, m., late OHG. eninchilt(n), 
n., 'grandson.' Since even in MidHG. 
the forms gnikel and qnikliii appear, Mod 
HG. (Snfel is most closely connected with 
a form cnekel, in which the medial e was 
syncopated. The termination inkltn is 
frequently found as a diminutive fuffix ; 
comp. AS. scipincel, ' small ship,' lipincel, 
' small limb,' OHG. le.wincliiU(n), ' small 
lion,' huoninchili(n), 'chicken.' Hence 
OHG piinchill is a diminutive of 9ll)n, 
OHG. ano (Goth. *ana, gen. *anin-s), 
' grandfather,' and signifies lit. 'little 
grandfather, grandfather's child'; comp. 
the similar evolution of meaning in Lat. 
avunculus (see JDIjcim). In the non-Teut. 
languages there is probably another corre- 
sponding term besides the word cited under 
9ll)tt— OSlov. viinukii, 'grandson.' 

cnfs, prefix, ' forth, from, out, away,' 
from MidHG. ent-, OHG. int-, an un- 
accented prefix corresponding to the ac- 
cented ant-, which is of the same ori- 
gin. In words with initial /, ent- even 

in MidHG. becomes emp-, hence entpfait- 
<jen (from fangctt), cntpfiufccti (from ftnbni), 
empfeljten (fcefeljten), OHG. int-fdhan, int- 
Jindan, *intfelhan. The meaning of the 
prefix belongs to grammar. — enfbef)rett, 
vb,, from MidHG. cnbern, OHG. (int-1) 
inberan, * to do without, want' ; a corre- 
sponding vb. is wanting in the OTeut. 
dialects. The meaning of OHG. in-beran- 
can hardly be deduced from beran, ' to 
carry ' (see 93afyre, gefcarcn, SBfivbc) ; whether 
it is connected wiili fcaar, OSlov. bosit, from 
an Aiyan root bhes, * to be empty,' remains 
uncertain, because the prefix has no very 
definite meaning, and because no other 
verb from this root has been found. 

gltf C, f., 'duck,' from the equiv. MidHG. 
ente (for *enete), ant (plur. e,nte), OHG. anut, 
enit, f. ; a term common to Teut. ; comp. 
MidLG. anet(d\ Du. eend, AS. amed, OIc. 
qnd, f., ' duck.' The assumed Goth, form 
*anu}>s points to a primit. kinship with Lat. 
anat-, 'duck,' with which some have also 
connected Sans, dti (see, however, ©iter), as 
well as OSlov. ati, Lith. dntis, * duck.' For 
the E. term 'duck' (AS. dike), see taucfycn). 
— (pttf eridj (Suab. antrecht), m., * drake,' a 
modification of MidHG. antreche, OHG. 
antrahho (Dan. andrik) ; probably the cor- 
rect form is *anutlrahho'\. In LG. simply 
£>rafe, equiv. to E. drake, which has certainly 
nothing to do with 5)rad)e, ' dragon,' Lat. 
draco. Other terms for drake are LG. erpel 
in Pomerania, weddik in Mecklenburg, and 
wart in Holstein, all of obscure origin. 
Note further Swiss and Bav. (Sntvccjcl for 

Cttf ent, vb., ' to board (a ship),' simply 
ModHG., formed like Du. enteren, from 
Span, entrar (Lat. intrare). 

cnfftCftCtt, adv., 'against, in opposition, 
towards,' from MidHG. engegen, OHG. in- 
gegin, and ingagan, ail v. and prep., 'toward*, 
against' ; comp. OSax. angegin, AS. ongedn, 
E. again; see flcgen. — cntrflftcf, 'exaspe- 
rated, irritated,' partic. of MidHG. entriisrev, 
' to take off one's armour, to disconcert' (Du. 
and LG. ontrusten, ' to disturb ') ; see rtijhit. 
— entfei$et\, ' to displace, depose' ; (refl.) 
' to be shocked, terrified,' from MidHG. ent- 
s$tzen, ' to lay aside, disconcert, be afraid,' 
from MidHG. entsitzen, OHG. intsizzen, 'to 
lose one's seat, fear, terrify,' Goth, andsitan, 
' to shun, fear.' 

cnftDC&cr, particle, 'either,' from Mid 
HG. eintweder, an uninflected neu., corre- 
sponding 03 a disjunctive particle to an 


( 74 ) 


oDct following ; in MidHG. eintueder, is 
mostly a pron. (sometimes with oder follow- 
ing, ' one of two,' corresponding to OHG. 
ein-de-weder (*ein-dih-wedar), ' one of two' ; 
see jpcber. The origin of the OHG. de- is 
obscure ; see feitt. 

(Spljeu, m., 'ivy,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. ephbu, ebehou, OHG. ibahewi, n. ; even 
at the present day the word is pronounced 
Gp4 fU in UpGer. dialects (Franc, Suab., 
and Alem.), partly corrupted to flidbj^cu, 
while the ModHG. pronunciation has been 
influenced by the written language. Of 
course it is impossible to say positively 
whether £eu is to be regarded as the second 
component, especially as the other forms 
are difficult to explain. OHG. has also 
ebawi, ebah, AS. tfig, E. ivy, MidLG. tflSf, 
twldf, Du. eiloof, 'ivy.' The base of the 
cognates seems to be a common Teut. iba- ; 
yet no definite clue can be found. 

(f ppid), m., ' celen', parsley,' with LG. 
consonants, from MidHG. epfich, OHG. 
epflh, n., which are preceded by the shorter 
forms, MidHG. epfe, effe, OHG. epfi, n. 
This word, like other names of plants con- 
nected with horticulture and cookery, was 
borrowed previous to the OHG. period (see 
Mcfyl) from Lat. ; the original word in this 
instance is apium, which denotes a species 
of umbelliferous plants, comprising parsley, 
celery, &c. ; only in Mod 11 G. has (Sppicfy 
been confused in meaning with (fpfatt. 

er, pron., 'he, it,' from MidHG. and 
OHG. er, corresponding to the equiv. Goth. 
is, from a pronom. stem of the third person 
i-j comp. Lat. t-s(Lat. id, Goth, ita, OHG. 
and MidHG. e'3, ModHG. eg). Akin to the 
Sans, pronom. stem i-. 

er*, prefix, signifying ' transition, begin- 
ning, attaining,' from MidHG. er-, OHG. 
ir, ar, ur-, the unaccented verbal prefix 
from the accented ur-. See the latter. 

1§vbe, n., 'heritage, inheritance,' from 
MidHG. erbe, OHG. erbi, arbi, n., 'inherit- 
ance'; a word common to Teut.; comp. 
the equiv. Goth, arbi, AS. yrfe (obsolete in 
E.), Du. erf, OSax. ertii. Akin to (Erbe, m., 
' heir, inheritor,' from the equiv. MidHG. 
erbe, OHG. erbo, arbeo (Goth, arbja), m. 
With the Teut. root arbh, ' to inherit,' some 
have connected the Olr. comarpi, 'joint 
heirs,' and Gr. 6p<pav6s, Lat. orbus, ' or- 
phaned,' Armen. orb, ' orphan ' ; (Srbe, lit. 

grbfe, f., ' pea,' from the equiv. MidHG. 
anweiy erweiy ericiy f., OHG. arawei$, ar- 

wiy f. ; corresponding to OLG. erit, Du. 
erwt, ert f OIc. ertr, plur. The cognate-t 
are probably borrowed, as is indicated by 
the similarity in sound to Gr. ipipwOoz and 
6pofioi, 'chick-pea' (see Sllmofen) ; comp. 
also Lat. ervum, ' bitter vetch,' akin to the 
equiv. AS. earfe. Direct adoption from 
Gr. or Lat. is impossible ; the way it wa< 
introduced cannot be discovered. Probably 
(Stbfe is one of the words which Gr. and 
Teut. have obtained from the same source, 
as in the case of -§anf. In Eng., Lat pisum 
(Fr. pois) was adopted for 'pea' early in 
the AS. period ; comp. AS. peose, pise, E. 
pease (and pea). 

(fra)fag, Bav., see aMenStag. 

(Srbe, (., ' earth, ground, soil, world,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. erde, OHG. erda, 
f. ; a word common to Teut. ; comp. Goth. 
airpa, OIc. jgr'S, AS. eorSe, E. earth, Du. 
aarde, OSax. ertha, f., 'earth.' To the 
dental derivative er-J>6-, OHG. ero, 'earth,' 
also belongs ; so too Gr. tpa$e, ' to earth,' 
and perhaps Lat. arvum, ' arable land ' ( AS. 
eard), as well as the old Aryan root ar, 
'to plough'; see Slcfer, Slrt.— gtbbeere, 
f., 'strawberry,' from the equiv. MidHG. 
ertber, OHG. ertberi, n. ; perhaps not really 
a compound of (Stbe, but of OSax. erda, 
' honey-flower, common balm'; yet Swed. 
jordbar, tells in favour of a compound of 

etbxoffeltl, see £>roffet (2). 

(preignts, n., ' event, occurrence,' for an 
earlier erougiiis from MidHG. erbugen, OHG. 
ir-ougen, ' to show.' OHG. ougen, Goth. 
augjan, ' to show,' are derivatives of Sluc^e. 
Hence erougnis means lit. ' what is shown, 
what can be seen.' The spelling Sreionis, 
found even in the 16th cent., was due to 
the corruption of a word no longer under- 

evfafyretl, vb., ' to experience, come to 
know, learn, undergo,' from MidHG. er- 
varn, 'to travel, inquire, investigate, pro- 
claim ' ; akin to faljren.— erQot$en, erge- 
lien, vb., ' to delight,' from MidHG. erge:- 
zen, ' to cause to forget (espec. grief), com- 
pensate for' ; factitive of MidHG. ergey 
yn, ' to forget.' See tter^effen. — erfyaben, 
adj., ' sublime, exalted, superior to,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. erhaben, which is pro- 
perly a partic. of MidHG. erheben, ' to raise 
aloft.'— erittttcrn, vb., 'to remind, ad- 
monish,' (refl.) ' to recollect, remember,' 
from MidHG. innern, inren, ' to remind, 
inform, instruct,' akin to inner. 


( 75 ) 


1§xker, m., ' bow, projection (of a build- 
ing), balcony,' from the equiv. MidHQ. 
arker, erker, in. ; the latter u formed from 
MidLat. arcora (a late plur. of Lit. arcus, 

evlctuben, earlier erf euben, vb., ' to allow, 
permit, grant,' from MidHG. erlouben (er- 
leuben), OHG. irlouben (irlouppen), ' to 
allow ' ; comp. Goth, uslaubjan, ' to permit, 
grant,,' AS. dlfifan. Tlie original meaning 
of erfaubeit, like that of gfauben, is ' to ap- 
prove,' which is also inherent in the Teut. 
root lub, upon which the word is based 
(comp. gob, fieb, ©(aube, which are connected 
by gradation of the root lub, Hub, laub). 
An old abstract of ertauben appears in Mod 
HG. ttrtauft. 

erlattc^f , adj., * illustrious, noble,' from 
MidHG. erlinht (with a MidG. vowel erWit), 
'illuminated, famous'; a particof erliuhten. 
See leucf/ten and fSurcf/laut. 

(Srle, f., ' alder,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. erle, OHG. e.rila, elira (to this is allied 
ModHG. (Strife 'minnow,' OHG. erlinc,\\t. 
'elder fish'?). Comp. LG. eller, Du. els 
(ModHG. (Slcbccre, ' wild service-berry '), 
AS. alor, E. alder, OIc. qlr, elrer, elrej 
Goth. *alisa (*aluza) appears in Span, alisa, 
' alder,' Fr. alize, ' wild service-berry.' The 
change of the orig. OHG. elira to erila is 
analogous to Goth. icairil6s compared with 
AS. weleras, 'lips' (see (Sfjtg). Cognates 
of (Srle, like those of 93ud)e, S3irfe, &c, are 
found in the non-Teut. languages. Comp. 
OSlov. jelicha, Lat. alnus (for *alsnus), 
•alder.' Comp. lUme. 

^rntcl, m., ' sleeve,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. ermel. OHG. ermilo, armilo, m. ; 
diminutive of Slrut. Comp. the diminutive 
form of %<x\\$, MidHG. viustelinc, 'mitten,' 
also MidHG. vingerlin, 'ring (worn on the 
finger),' dimin. of Singer, E. thimble, dimin. 
of thumb. 

{Srnfi , m., ' earnestness, seriousness, grn- 
vity,' from MidHG. ernest, m., OHG. emust, 
n., f., ' contest, earnest, decision of charac- 
ter ' ; corresponding to Du. ernst, AS. e»r- 
nost, 'duel, earnest,' E. earnest; the suffix 
-n-ust as in SMenft ; see also Slttflft. Akin 
also to OIc. orrosta, 'battle' ; the stem er 
{erz 1, ers ?) is not found elsewhere with a 
similar meaning ; the evolution in mean- 
ing resembles that of Jfampf, Jfriecj. The 
cognates in other Aryan languages are un- 
certain. — The adj. ernft, simply ModHG., 
is represented by Srnesthaft in MidHG. and 
by ernusthaft and ernuslltch in OHG. 

(Sfttf C, f., ' harvest,' from the equiv. M»d 
HG. erne, f., like ModHG. J&uftf, from tbfl 
equiv. MidHG. hiiffe, plur. of Am/; MidHG. 
erne (Franc, and Alem. Urn), a plur. used 
as a sing., is related similarly to OHG. araii, 
' harvest,' which, like Goth, asans, ' har- 
vest, autumn,' is connected with a root as, 
' to work in the fields,' widely diffused in 
OTeut. Comp.Goth.#s?im(>ii,AS. 
gsnfi), 'day-labourer,' OIc. qnn (from *aznu), 
f., ' work, season for tillage' ; akin to OHG. 
arndn, 'to harvest' (AS. e<irnia», equiv. 
to E. to earn, OIc. drnal), MidHG. asten, 
1 to cultivate.' Probably Lat. anntma (for 
*as»6na), 'produce of corn,' belongs to the 
Teut. root as. 

erobern, vb., 'to conquer, win,' from 
MidHG. er-obern, * to excel, conquer,' allied 
to ober, fiber. — erdrfcrn, vb., 'to discuss, 
determine,' formed from late MidHG. in- 
tern, ortern, ' to examine thoroughly,' from 
MidHG. ort, 'beginning, end.' — crqutcnctt, 
vb., 'to revive, refresh,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. erqiu'cken, 'to reanimate, wake 
from the dead,' OHG. ir-quicchan ; allied 
to fecf, €luecf fUber, rerqutcfen.— erfd)uf fern, 
see ©cfyutt. 

erft, adj., 'first,' from MidHG. Srst, 
OHG. irut, ' the first ' ; corresponding to 
OSax. Srist, AS. chest, ' the first' ; superlat. 
of the compar. form cited under efyer. Goth. 
airis, adv., formerly,' airiza, ' predecessor, 
ancestor,' OHG. Sriro (Srro), ' predecessor' ; 
the positive is preserved in Goth. air. adv., 
' early,' AS. cer, adj., adv., ' early,' OIc. dr, 
adv., ' early ' (OHG. ir-acclw,r, ' awake 
early '). Probably the stem air-, on which 
the word was based, was used orig. like 
friif), only of the hours of the day. It is 
connected most probably with Gr. fat, 'early 
in the morning.' 

crflichcn. vb., 'to stifle, choke,' from 
MidHG. ersticken, intrans., ' to be stifled,' 
and ersteclcen, trans., ' to stifle.' 

crwci^nctt, vb., • to mention, call to 
notice,' formed from the equiv. MidHG. 
gewehenen, OHG. giimhinnen, giwahannen 
(pret. gi-ivuog, partic. ghoa/itand giwahinit). 
allied to OHG. giwaht, ' mention, fame.' 
Goth. *wahnjan belongs to the root wok, 
w6q (Teut. wah), ' to speak,' which is widely 
diffused in the Aryan languages. Comp. 
Lat. vox, ' voice,' vocare, ' to call,' Gr. 6<r<ra 
(for FoKJa) and 6w- (for F ot), ' voice,' trot 
(for Firm), ' word,' Sans, root vac, ' to say, 
speak.' In Teut. this old root was not so 
widely developed. 


( 76 ) 


gr,3, n., ' ore, metal, bra*s, bronze,' from 
the equiv. MiilHG. (rze, arzr, OHG. erizzi, 
aruzzi, aruz, 11. ; an obscure word, which is 
unknown to the other Teut dialects ; pro- 
bably borrowed under the form azuti, ar- 
vmti I In Goth, ais, AS. dr, E. ore, OHG. 
and MidHG. eV, ' bronze,' whence the OHG. 
and MidHG. adj. Srin, ModHG. ehetn ; 
these are primitively cognate witli Lat aes, 
'bronze,' and Sans, ayas, 'metal, iron.' 

{girfo prefix, ' arch-, chief,' from MidHG. 
erz- ; comp. MidHG. erz-erigcl, -bischof, 
-priester; OHG. only in e.rzi-bischof ; cor- 
responding to Du. aarts in aarts-engel, 
aartsbisschop, AS. arcebiscop, E. archbisliop, 
AS. arcengel, E. archangel ; from the Lat.-r 
Gr. prefix archi- (&px<--), much affected in 
ecclesiastical words. HG. and Du. ex- 
hibit the late Lat. pronunciation, arci 
(see Jfreuj) ; Goth, ark-aggilus, 'archangel,' 
from archangelus, like AS. arce-, retain the 
older sound of the c. Comp. also 5lv$t. 

CS, pron., ' it,' from MidHG. e'3, n. sing., 
and its gen. es, OHG. e'3 (gen. es) ; formed 
from the Aryan pronom. stem of the 3rd 
pers. (i-) mentioned under er. See ifyn. 

Gfcf)C, f., ' ash, ash-tree,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. asch, OHG. asc, m. ; correspond- 
ing to Du. esch, AS. ozsc, E. ash, OIc. adr, 
' ash.' The remoter cognates, Slav, jasika, 
Lith. iisis, with the same meaning ; Gr. 
iifal, ' a kind of beech,' and Lat. aesculus, 
' winter oak,' are not allied. 

{Sfct, m., ' ass,' from the equiv. MidHG. 
esel, OHG. esil, m. ; corresponds to OSax. 
esil, Du. ezel, AS. $sol, eoso\ Goth, asiltts 
(whence OSlov. osilii), 'ass.' It is self- 
evident that these cognates are related to 
Lat. asinus. Yet it is remarkable that the 
Komance languages have not an I, but an 
n in the suffix ; Span, asno, OFr. asne 
(whence OIc. asne), ModFr. dne, Ital. asino 
(the Lat. diminutive asellus does not come 
under consideration, since it is not found 
in any Romance language ; comp. further 
Slffd). For the change of n to I in deriva- 
tives, see <£>tmmet, Jtummcl, Crcjcf. The ab- 
normal AS. assa (equiv. to E. ass) may be 
traced back to Olr. assan, borrowed, with 
the usual change of sound, from the Lat. 
Consequently all the cognates come from 
Italy ; no primit. word for ' ass ' can be 
found in any language of the Aryan group. 
— The term ^ellfrcfct is a late imitation of 
Ital. asello; the equiv. 9l|Ttl appears, how- 
ever, to be unconnected with it. 

{Sfpe, f., ' a*pen-tree,' from the equiv. 

MidHG. aspe, OHG. aspa (hence I 
aSpe). Comp. the exactly equiv. AS. a 
asp, OIc. qsp ; scarcely allied to (Jute ; 1 
probably connected with Lat arbor, ' tree,' 
if the latter represents an orig. *arf>os. 

{Sffe, f. (the word seem3 to be unknown 
to the UpG. dialects), ' forge,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. esse, OHG. essa, f., 'chim- 
ney, hearth of a worker in metals.' Like 
OSwed. avja, they indicate a Goth. *asj6, 
which is also assumed by the borrowed 
term, Finn. ahjo. Whether (S\\( is allied 
to OIc. esja, 'clay,' and hence means lit. 
' what is made of clay,' remains doubtful. 
Its assumed connection with OHG. eit, 
' funeral pile,' Gr. aWos, ' glow,' Suns, root 
idh, ' to burn,' is untenable. 

effen, vb., 'to eat, dine, feed on,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. etfen, OH(i. <;;*«; 
common to Teut., and orig. an O Aryan str. 
vb. ; comp. Goth, itan, OIc. eta, AS. etan, E. 
to eat, Du. eten, OSax. etan; see frcjfeti. The 
verbal root et, 'to eat,' common to Teut., 
to which OHG. and MidHG. ds, ModHG. 
?la3 (comp. Lat. Ssus for *ed-to-, the partic 
of edere), also belong, is based upon an A 1 y an 
root id; comp. the Sans, root ad, Gr. !5' 
otiai, Lat. Mo, Lith. edmi, tmi, OSlov. jam I 
(from *edmt), ' I eat' — {Sffert, n., 'food, 
meal, dinner,' even in MidHG. e^en, OHG. 
e^aii, n., as an equiv. eubst. ; it is scarcely 
an infinitive used as a subst, but rather 
an independent subst. form like Gr. idavov, 
' food,' Sans, ddana, n., ' provender.' 

(Sffig, m. (with the normal unaecent (1 g 
for ch), ' vinegar,' from the equiv. MidHG. 
(jj'ch (that the i is Ions; is proved by 
iis change into the diphthong ei in late 
MidHG. ezseich), OHG. e%$h Qih), m. A re- 
markable loan-word, corresponding to Kid 
J.G. etik, OSwed. wtikia, Swed. attika; also 
OLG. ecid, AS. e.ced, which with Goth. 
akeit(s), ' vinegar,' are based upon Lat. 
acetum. For the HG., LG., and Swed. 
words we must assume a form *atecum, 
produced by metathesis of the consonants — 
OHG. ftjih from atVc for ateko, which, how- 
ever, is not attested by any Romance form ; 
for such transpositions comp. Romance 
alendre from Lat anlielare, MidHG. bicver 
from vieber (see further citations under 
etojeta, Sieber, @ri>, JJabeljau, ftjscln, ^itc\t). 
There is a remarkable form in Swiss dia- 
lects, achiss, echiss, which is based upon 
an untransposed form corresponding to 
Goth. akeit(t). The Lat-Rom. acitum (Ital. 
aeeto; but Fr. vinaigre and E. vinegar from 


( 77 ) 


Lat. vinum acre) has also made its way 
into other countries — OSlov. acitu (from 
Goth, akeitsl), Oh: acat. — The UpG. vb. 
efieln, ' to taste of vinegar,' may perhaps be 
based upon some such form as OFr. aisil 
(MidE. aisil). 

dftrtd), m., 'floor, plaster-floor, pave- 
ment,' from the equiv. MidHG. estrlch y 
esterlch, OHG. estirlh, astrth(hh), m. ; comp. 
MidLG. astralc, esterck, Du. estrik (these two 
forms are not recorded). In Middle Ger- 
many the word, which was unknown to 
Luther, is not found. Perhaps it is really 
native to the valleys of the Rhine and 
Danube, being introduced by Roman colo- 
nists. Comp. early MidLat. astricus, astra- 
cus, 'paving,' Milan, astregh, Sicil. astracu, 
Ital. tastrico ; OFr. astre, Fr. dtre, ' hearth,' 
lit. ' pavement.' 

ei lid), pron., ' some, sundry,' from Mid 
HG. etelic/i, OHG. etalth, also earlier Mod. 
HG. <$idj, from MidHG. eteslich, OHG. 
ettedtch, etteshw'elich, 'anyone' (plur. 'many 
a one '). The same first component is seen 
in cttva, from the equiv. MidHG. etwd (ete- 
sivd), OHG. etteswdr, ' anywhere ' ; etttaS, 
from MidHG. and OHG. etewa$ (neu. of 
MidHG. and OHG. eteuSr, eteswer, 'any 
one '). The origin of this pronominal ete, 
ites, ettes, eddes, 'any,' is quite obscure. 
Some have compared it with Goth, aij?)?au, 
' perhaps, nearly ' (see cber), and frisJnvazuh, 
' every.' 

Cttd), pron., ' you, to you,' from MidHG. 
inch, iuwich, OHG. iuvrih, accus., the dat. 
of which, however, is iu in MidHG. and 

OHG. ; comp. AS. eow (and e&wic), accus., 
eow, dat. (£. you), Goth, izuris, accus., dat. 
Is Lat. vos, vester, akin ? All other refer- 
ences are dubious. — euer, poss. pron. of 
the preceding, ' your,' from MidHG. iuwer, 
OHG. iuwar. Comp. AS. e6wer y E. your, 
Goth, izwar, ' your.' 

<§\\le, f., ' owl,' from the equiv. MidHG. 
iule, iuwel, OHG. dioila, f. Comp. Du. uil, 
AS. Hie (from *Awle), E. owl, OIc. ugla, 
from pre-Teut. *uwwaU, or rather *uwwil6, 
L owl.' 

guff, Swiss, 'sheepfold.' See <£d}af. 

|uW, m. and n., 'udder, dug,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. iuten, titer, OHG. Htar, 
titiro, m. ; a word common to Teut. and 
orig. a primit. Aryan word, which has the 
same sense everywhere. Comp. Du. uijer, 
AS. dder, E. udder; also with gradation 
eudar in MidLG. jeder, OFriB. iuder, OIc. 
j&gr. The resulting Teut. Mr-, eudr-, from 
Aryan ildhr-, corresponds to the equiv. 
Sans. Hdhar, Gr. oS0a/>,(with gradation), Lat. 
liber j Slav. vyme. (from *vyd-nien-), 'udder,' 
is differently derived. 

eunct, adj., ' eternal, perpetual,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. Sunc(g), OHG. twig; 
corresponding to OSax. Swig, Du. eeuioig, 
'eternal'; derived from an OTeut. root 
meaning ' eternity.' Comp. Goth, aiws, 
' time, eternity,' OHG. ewa, ' eternity,' 
which are primit. cognate with Lat. aevum, 
'eternity, lifetime,' and Gr. alihv. Comp. jje. 

extern, vb., ' to vex, tea-e,' a MidG. and 
LG. word, probably connected with (BUI ; 
allied alsato Hess, ickern with the same sense. 


gfabel, f., ' fable,' even in MidHG. fabel, 
Jabele, f., from Fr. fable, Lat. fabula. 

JJcul), n., 'compartment, shelf, panel, 
special branch,' from MidHG. vach, OHG. 
fah(hh), n., ' part, division of space, of a 
partition, wall, &c.,' also ' contrivance, an 
enclosed space in water for catching fish, 
fish-weir, hurdles for fishing' ; with the 
latter meanings some have connected Gr. 
irdyri, ' noose, snare, fishing hurdles,' to 
which there is no objection phonetically. 
Yet we must proceed in the case of the 
HG. word as well as of AS. fac, ' space, 
time,' from a general and primary sense, 
such as ' division, a portion of space or 
time.' Allied to HG. fftgen. — ;fad), adj , 

suffix, '-fold,' from MidHG. (very rare) 
vach, in manecvach, zwivac/i, OHG. not 
found ; mannigfad?, lit. ' with many divi- 
sions '; moreover, MidHG. vach, denotes 
also 'fold,' and ?fad) as a suffix may be an 
imitation of the earlier suffix -fait in manec- 
valt, 'manifold.' 

fddjeln, vb., ' to fan,' simply ModHG. 
from gather. 

gFfidjer, earlier also ffad^et, m., 'fan,' 
ModHG. only ; the derivation is uncertain ; 
perhaps a diminutive of MidHG. vach, 
' veil.' Yet the suspicion that the word 
was borrowed is not unfounded, since Mid 
HG. foclie, focher, 'fan,' point to Lat. foca- 
rius, focidare (from focus). The change of 


( 78 ) 


o to may be due to LG. (comp. Slfcttitfaubt, 
Vlbtbar), as in anfadjen, from Lat. focare. 

iJadtel, f., ' torch,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. vackele, rackel, OHG. facchala, f. ; 
comp. AS. facele, f, ' torch,' with the abnor- 
mal variant J>mcele, f. It is usually regarded 
as a loan-word from Lat. facvla, (dimin. 
of fax). The sounds, however, point with 
greater probability to a genuinely Teut. 
word, which was perhaps connected with 
Lat. facula; Du. fakkel, f., has ck, like the 
HG. word, in contrast to AS. c; the vowels 
too of the AS. stem and derivative syllable 
tell in favour of a genuinely native word ; 
likewise OHG. r&rea gafaclita, 'reed shaken 
to and fro by the wind.' 

^faocn, m., 'thread, file, shred,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. vaden, vadem, OHG. 
fadam, Jadum, m. ; Goth. *fa}yms is want- 
ing. Comp. OSax. fathmos, ' both arms 
stretched out,' AS. foejrm, '. both arms dis- 
tended, embrace, protection, bosom,' E. 
fathom (a measure), OIc. fafimr, ' both 
arms, bosom.' Consequently the primary 
sense is ' encompassing with both arms,' 
which could be adopted as a measure (see 
JUafter) ; hence the use of 'fathom' as a 
measure in Eng., Scand., LG., Du., and 
also in ModHG. (adopted from LG. and 
Du.). The ModHG. meaning 'thread' is 
a recent development ; its lit sense is ' as 
much yarn as can be measured with the 
arms stretched out.' The primary sense, 
' encompassing,' results from Goth, fajja, 
f., MidHG. vade, f., ' hedge, enclosure.' The 
base of the cognates is a Teut. root, /<?/>, 
faf>, pre-Teut. pet, pot, which accords with 
the Gr. itct in ireT&vvviu, ' to spread out,' 
irtrdkos, ' outspread, broad, flat' ; Lat. patere, 
' to stand open,' is even more remote. 

fttf)tg, ' capable, competent, able,' from 

fal)I, adj., ' dun, fawn-coloured, pale,' 
from MidHG. val (gen. wes), adj., ' pallid, 
discoloured, faded, yellow, fair,' OHG. falo 
(nom. falawer) ; comp. OSax. jalu, AS. 
fealo (gen. fealwes), E. fallow, OIc. fglr, 
' pallid, pale ' ; comp. falb. Allied priinit. 
to Lat. palleo, ' to be pal lid,' pallidus, ' pallid,' 
Gr. xo\t6$ (suffix to as in Sefioj, Goth, taihs- 
wt-) 'grey,' OSlov. plavu, 'whitish,' Lith. 
pdlvas, 'tawny,' Sans, palita-s, ' grey.' By 
this interpretation of the cognates the ch of 
UpG. falch, ' cow or horse of fawn colour,' 
yefalchet, ' fallow,' remains unexplained ; 
these suggest a connection with Salff. 
The cognates, Ital. falbo, Fr. fauve (comp. 

also braun, blent, blau), are derived from 

fctrjnocn, vb., 'to inform against,' from 
MidHG. vanden, OHG. fdnton, 'to visit' ; 
comp. OSax. fandian, AS. fandian, 'to 
test, beseech, demand ' ; probably from a 
root fenj> in ftnteu (comp. Du. vanden, 'to 
visit a woman in childbed'). 

3?af)nc, f. (mas. in UpG.), * banner, flag, 
standard, squadron,' from MidHG. vane, 
van, m. 'flag, banner' ; in this sense OHG. 
has the compound gundjano, m., since fano 
most frequently means 'cloth ' (comp. ouga- 
fano, ' veil,' halsfano, ' neckcloth ') ; allied 
to Goth, fana, 'cloth, stuff, rag,' AS. fana 
and gUj>fana, m., 'standard, banner,' E. 
fane, vane, Du. vaan, 'flag.' The Teut. 
fa><an, pre-Teut. pano-n-, has in the wider 
sphere of the Aryan languages many cog- 
nates which also point to the general and 
older meaning, 'stuff, cloth' ; Lat. pannva, 
'small piece of cloth, rag,' OSlov. o-pona, 
'curtain,' ponjava, f, 'sail.' Akin also 
perhaps to Gr. t^os, n., 'garment,' xrjviov, 
'spool, spindle.' An Aryan verbal root> 
pen, appears in OSlov. plug, (peti), ' to span, 
hang.' The OTeut. gunpfano, ' standard,' 
was adopted with the meaning 'flag' by 
Romance (comp. Fr. gonfalon, Ital. gonfa- 
lone), while the simple form in Romance 
retained at different times the earlier and 
general meaning (comp. OFr. and ModFr. 
finmi, 'rag, towel, fanon (of a priest).' — 
3?af)nbridj, g?dl>nrtd), 'cornet, ensign,' 
like ©dnfetid), first formed in ModHG. 
from the shorter MidHG. word ; cornp. 
MidHG. venre (the ModHG. d is excres- 
cent, as in fdjaufccrn, mincer), OHG. faneri, 
in., ' standard-bearer.' 

3»df)re, f., from the equiv. MidHG. vere, 
ver, f., n., ' ferry ' ; comp. Du. veer (E. ferry 
is borrowed from OIc. ferja, t, 'ferry'). 
Also akin to OHG. farm, MidHG. varm, 
'skiff, ferry,' and OHG. ferid, n., 'navi- 
gium'; like Sercjf, connected with far)rcn. 
See lUaam. 

faf)rcrt, vb., 'to drive, convey, sail.' 
from MidHG. varn, OHG. faran, ' to move 
from one place to another, go, come ' ; cor- 
responds to Goth, (rare) faran, 'to wander, 
march,' OSax. and AS. faran, ; to proceed, 
march,' E. to fare, OIc. fara, 'to move' 
(of any kind of motion). The root jar in 
Goth, farjan (OHG. ferian, MidHG. vern) 
means 'to go by ship,' and is therefore 
connected with the nouns mentioned under 
gdlj«. The primary meaning of the Teut. 


( 79 ) 


root far, • continued motion of every kind,' 
is supported also by fuljren. As derivatives 
of the Aryan root per, for, coinp. Gr. irbpos, 
* way, passage,' irbpdp.os, ' straits ' (see %uxt), 
vopd/, ' ferryman,' iropetia), ' to bring, con- 
vey, cross,' iropeOeffdai, ' to <;o, travel, march' 
(hence there is a leaning in Gr. also to the 
meaning 'to go by ship' in the case of the 
root wop) ; OSlov. perq. plrati, ' to fly ' ; 
Sans, root par, * to lead across ' ; Lat. peritus, 
'experienced.' — gfa^renbc <&abe, 'mov- 
ables,' from the equiv. MidHG. vanide 
habe, varndez guot, OHG. faranti scaz. 

3rrtf)rf , f., ' jourrfey, ride, drive, voyage, 
course,' from MidHG. vart, OHG. fart; 
comp. OSax. fard, 'journey, voyage,' AS. 
fijrd.ferd, f., 'journey, voyage, expedition, 
troops on the march,' Olc. feift, f., 'jour- 
ney ; Goth. *farf>s or *fards is wanting, but 
the term us-fa>}>6 (us skipa, 'shipwreck') 
occurs once. From por-ti-s, a derivative of 
the root por appearing in fafyreu ; comp. also 

§fdf)rte, f., 'track, trail, scent,' prop, 
the plur. of MidHG. vart, OHG. fart, 
'• track, way, journey, voyage.' See §al)rt. 

fait), adj., identical with fflM. 

gtalbet, f., 'flounce,' simply ModHG., 
from Fr. and Ital. falbula, whence also E. 

^tat&e, m., 'falcon, hawk,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. valke, OHG. falcho, m. (in 
UpG. still written galdj). In the other 
Teut. languages the word does not appear 
till late in the Middle Ages (Olc. falke, 
E. falcon, Du. vallc), yet Falco already ex- 
isted in Lombardic proper names (comp. 
also AS. Wester-falcna). Among the Anglo- 
Saxons the falcon was called wealhheafoc, 
Welsh hawk ' ; Olc. valr, ' falcon,' is prop, 
'the Keltic (bird)' ; comp. Sfiktnufj, nxlfd). 
Hence it is possible that OHG. Jalcho origi- 
nated in the tribal name Volcae, 'Kelts'; 
*volcon- may have become falkon-, and the 
Romance cognates (Ital. falcone, Fr. fau- 
con) borrowed from it. But it is also 
possible that the word is connected with 
the cognates of fat)t (UpGer. falch, * a 
fawn-coloured cow') ; hence jyalfe, 'a fawn- 
coloured (bird)'?. If, on the other hand, 
the word originated in the Lat. -Rom. cog- 
nates (Lat. falco is recorded in the 4th 
cent.), we must base it on the Lat. falx, 
'sickle' ; falco, lit. 'sickle-bearer' (on ac- 
count of its hooked claws?). 

fallen, vb., 'to fall, abate, diminish,' 
from the equi v. MidHG. vain, ORQ.fallan; 

the common Teut. word for ' to fall' (singu- 
larly, however, it is unknown to Goth.) ; 
comp. Olc. falla, AS. feallan, E. to fall, 
OSax. fallan. The Teut. root fal-l, pre- 
Teut. phal-n, appears in Gr. and Sans. a3 
sphal with an s prefixed ; comp. Gr. <r<p6Xku, 
'to fell, overthrow,' <r<pd\\onat, 'to fall, be 
deceived.' Lat. fallo is based directly upon 
the root phal, ' to deceive ' ; Sans, root sphal, 
' to stagger ' ; also Lith. pulu pulti, ' to fall,' 
and akin to Sans, phala, 'ripe, falling fruit' ?. 
— 3ritU, m«, 'fall, ruin, event, case (in gram., 
&c.),' OHG. and MidHG val. (gen. valla), 
in. ; comp. AS.fyll, m., ' fall, death, ruin.' — 
$aUe, f., from MidHG. voile, OHG. falla, 
f., 'snare, decipula'; AS.fealle,f., 'laqueus, 
decipula' (wanting in E.), Du. val, ' snare, 

fctlfdj, adj., ' false, wrong,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. valsch, adj. ; OHG. *falsc 
is not recorded. On account of late AS. 
fals, E. false, Scand. fals, which are clearly 
derived from Lat., the word is doubtlessly 
connected in some way with Lat. falsus. 
But. since the latter retained its s un- 
changed (comp. Ital. falso, Fr. faux, from 
OFr. false), we cannot imagine that the 
word was borrowed directly from Lat.- 
Romance (Olc. falskr is a German loan- 
word of the 15th cent.). Probably Mid 
HG. valsch, a comparatively recent forma- 
tion (comp. fifin, toad)), from OHG. gifalsctin, 
gifelscen, vb., 'to falsify,' which is derived 
from a Lat. *falsicdre, Romance */ "discard 
'to falsify.' The assumption that MidHG. 
valsch (akin to vdlant, 'demon'?) is primit. 
allied to Lat. fallere, Gr. o-<pd\\effOai, is 
scarcely valid. 

if alt, jfctltig, adj. suffix, '-fold,' from 
MidHG. -valt, OHG. fait; comp. Goth. 
-falfrs, AS. -feald, E. -fold, Olc -faldr; a 
common Teut. suffix in the formation of 
multiplicatives; itcorresponds to Gr.*Xd<7«or 
in St-rXdoios, &c. (also SItoKtos, 'twofold'), 
for pltios, with which sfalt seems to be 
primit. cognate. See fatten, and Qinfalt 
under fin. 

fatten, vb.. 'to fold, plait, knit (the 
brow),' from the equiv. MidHG. vallen, 
OHG. faltan, faldan ; corresponds to Goth, 
falpan, Olc. falda, AS.fealdan, E. to fold; 
the Teut. root is fal/>, ' to fold,' pre-Teut, 
pit, with which comp. OSlov. pletq, plesti, 
' to twist,' Gr. SiirMaws, ' twofold (see 
under sfalt), Sans. pu(a, 'fold,' for pita.— 
>attc, f., 'fold, plait, crease, hem,' irom 
MidHG. voile, OHG. fall, m., 'fold,' is 


( So ) 


derived theFr. cognate fauteuil, which lia3 
lately been adopted again by ModHG. \. 
conip. MidLat. fuldistolium, faldistorium, 
Ital. fitldistorio. 

>altcr, m., simply ModHG., 'butter- 
fly'; the MidHG. term is vivalter (cor- 
rupted also into zwivalter), • butterlly,' from 
which the ModHG. word has been cor- 
rupted by connecting it with fatten. But 
MidHG. vivalter is based upon an OTeut. 
term for * butterfly,' which may have been 
*feifaldr6 in Goth. ; conip. OHG. flfaltra, 
OSax. ftfoldara, AS. flfealde, OIc. fifrilde, 
1 butterfly ' ; akin to Du. vijfwouter, ' a sort 
of butterfly.' The origin of this term is 
not yet established,, although it is probably 
a reduplicated form like fceben and jittem. 

fallen, vb., ' to fold, groove, rabbet,' 
from MidHG. velzen, valzen, OHG. falzen, 
'to fold'; galj, m^ from MidHG. valz, 
m., 'fold, joint' ; akin to OHG. anafalz, 
' anvil,' AS. anfilt, E. anvil, Du. anbeeld, 
'anvil' (see Slmbofj). Tlie cognates are 
undoubtedly connected with fatten ; Mid 
HG. valz may have been *falti in Goth., 
which would probably represent falt-ti, 
pltni- (conip. fdniifcen from fdjneibett). — gofj^ 
6ee 93a($. 

fangcn, fallen, vb., ' to catch, seize, fish 
(an anchor), soften (hides),' from MidHG. 
vdhen, vdn, OHG fdhan, ' to catch, inter- 
cept, seize' ; the common Teut. vb. — Goth. 
fdhan, OIc. fd, AS. f$n (for */6han from 
*fohan; wanting in K)— has the same 
meaning. Boot fanh (whence fah, fdh) r 
and by a grammatical change fang (this 
form is' really found only in the partic. 
and pret., but it has made its way in Mod 
HG. into the pre?, also), pre-Teut. panic. 
With the Teut. cognates some have com- 
pared the unnasalised root pak, in Lat. 
pax, pacem (lit. ' strengthening ' 1) ; akin to 
the nasalised pango (partic. pactum), with 
g for c 1, Sans, paca, ' cord ' ; the root pak 
appears without a nasal in Teut. f6g; see 
HG. fiigen. — ^ang, m., 'catch, capture, 
fang, clutches, haul,' from MidHG. vanc,m., 
OHG. fang ; conip. AS. feng, ' clutch, em- 
brace,'/an<7, ' capture,' E./an<7 (tooth, claw). 

gfttttf , m., ' coxcomb,' a LG. form (comp. 
Du. vent, ' a would-be wit, fool '), for Mid 
HG. vanz, m., 'rogue' (still existing in 
alfaiiz, lit. 'vagabond'; comp. ModHG. 
gtile. £anj, the first part of which is ob- 

scure, perhaps connected with AS.fyrleH, 
' foreign ' 1). See Sllfaitjeret. 

^tarbe, f., ' colour, complexion, suit (of 
cards),' from MidHG. varwe, OllQ.farawa, 
' colour' ; a fem. subst from the MidHG. 
adj. var, inflected form varwer, ' coloured,' 
from OHG. faro (nom. farawSr) ; comp. 
Du. verw. The word originated probably 
in Middle Europe, but found its way to 
the North ; Dan. farve, Swed. fUrrj. Is 
Goth. *farwa-, adj. (whence Lith. par was, 
' colour '), or *fazica to be postulated ? 

farrt, m., n_ ' i'ern,' from the equiv. Mid 
and OHG. ram, varm; corresponds 
to Du. varenkruid, AS. fearn, E. fern. The 
interchange of n and m in OHG. and Mid 
HG. is due to the assimilation of the suffix 
na- to the initial labial ; comp. OHG./mn 
with OInd. phina, and OHG. bodam with 
Sans, budhna. gam is wanting in OIc. ; yet 
comp. Swed. dial, fdnne (Ic. *ferne). The 
type is doubtlessly Aryan parna-, which 
is identical with Sans, parna, n., 'wing, 
feather, foliage, leaf ; hence gam is lit. 
' feather-like leaf (Gr. irrepls, ' fern,' and 
irrepbv, 'feather'). Probably allied also to 
Lith. papartis, Russ. paporotl (OSlov. *pa- 
pratl), 'fern.' 

3?arre, m., 'bullock, bull,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. varre, var, m., OlIG. farro, 
far, m. ; corresponding to Du. varre, var, 
'bull,' AS.. /earr, m^. OIc. farre, m., 'bulL' 
Since there is a corresponding fem. form, 
gdrff, the rr must have originated in rzfrs), 
(comp. bmr, irre). — ^arfe, f. (unknown to 
UpG), 'heifer,' from MidHG. (MidG. and 
LG.) verse, f . ; comp. Du. vaars, 'heifer' 
(likewise vaarkoe, 'heifer'); in Goth, pro- 
bably *farsi,geu.fai-sj6s; E. heifer, from the 
equiv. AS. hedlfore, hedfre, f., seems to con- 
tain garre, garfe, in the final syllable. The 
stem farZy fars, does not recur exactly in 
the cognate languages, yet Gr. ir6pis, rdprn, 
'calf, heifer,' agree with it in sound ; like- 
wise Sans. prSatt, ' white-spotted cow ' (fem. 
of priat, 'speckled, spotted')?. 

5?arfc, see under tfarre. 

far3e»t, vb., 'to fart,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. varzcn (also vurzen, verzen), allied 
to OHG. fer&xn, 'to fart' ; corresponds to 
AS. feortan, E. to faii ; OIc. (with trans- 
position of the r)j freta. Teut. root fert, 
from the Aryan perd, with the same mean- 
ing ; comp. Sans, root pard, Gr. Tctpfetv, 
Lith. perdzu, persti, ltuss. perdltt. 

Safari, m., 'pheasant,' from the equiv. 
MiclHG. and OHG. fasdn, fasunt, m. ; the 


( 81 ) 


Litter is derived from Lat. Gr. fasianus 
(<pa<ria.vbs, ' a bird from the Phasis in Col- 
chis'), ' pheasant,' whence also Ital./a</iawo,. 
Fr. faisan. 

^fafcfytng, m., ' carnival,' from MidHG. 
vaschanc, m., ' Slirovetide' ;. how it is con- 
nected with gafhtad)t (Shrove-Tuesday) has 
not yet been explained. 

fafeltt, vb. r 'to talk irrationally/ only 
in ModHG., a derivative of OHG. fas6n, 
'to track, seek here and there' ; but the 
latter word is probably not from the root 
fas in gafci\ 

^fafer, f. r 'fibre, filament/ from late 
MidHG. vaser, f., ' fringe,' most frequently 
vase, m., f., 'fibre, fringe, border,' OHG./oso, 
m. .fasa, f. ; AS. fees, n., MidE./asiJ,' fringe.' 

3-acnacf;f , see gafiuadjt. 

faff ett, vb., 'to hold, grasp, compre- 
hend,' (refl.) 'to make up one's mind,' from 
MidHG. va^en, OHG. fatfdn, ' to handle,, 
seize, load, pack, arm oneself, dress, go' ; 
it seems to be a combination of two or more 
really different roots. Comp. OIc. fqt, neu. 
plur., 'garments' (Goth. *fata, ' garments,' 
may be deduced from Span., hato, Port. 
fato, 'stock of clothes, wardrobe'); the 
West Teut.. fat (see gag), has not this mean- 
ing, but MidHG. (OHG.) vawen, Ho dress 
oneself,' points that way. In the sense 
' to seize,' the word may be connected with 
gafj, lit. ' engulphing,' from which the 
meaning 'to load' would be evolved. la 
the sense of ' to go' (sich va^en, MidHG.) 
it must probably be connected with guf?, 
or more closely with AB.fcet r ' step.' See 
gefceit, gifce. 

fctfl, adv., 'almost, nearly,' from MidHG 
vaste, vast^adv. (from ve.ste, ' firm'),. ' firmly, 
strongly, powerfully, very, very quickly,' 
OHG. vasto, adv., i'rom festi; similar un- 
nRitated advs. from mutated adjs. are fdjott 
from fdjon, fpat from fpat. ModHG. has 
also turned fejt into an adv., the older adv. 
faji having been specialised in meaning ; 
even in MidHG. vyste is an adv. 

faflctt, vb., 'to fast,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. vasten, OHG. fasten; comp. Goth. 
fastan, OIc. fasta, AS. fastan, E. to fast,. 
J>i. vasten; a common Teut. verb, invari- 
ably used in the sense of ' to fast,' which, 
therefore, was probably a religious concep- 
tion even of the heathen Teutons. The 
corresponding abstract is Goth, fastubni, 
AS. fasten, OSax. fastunnia r OHG. fasta, 
fusto, m., MidHG. vaste, f., vasten, n., ' fast,' 
whence Slav, postfil, ' fast,' was borrowed* at 

an early period. The cognates are pro- 
bably connected with fefi in the sense of 
'to contain oneself, exercise restraint in 
eating and drinking,' or ' to obey a reli- 
gious precept'; comp. Goth, fastan, 'to 
adhere to> hold, observe.' — %>aftnad)t, f., 
c Shrove Tuesday,' from MidHG. vasenaht, 
' eve of the first day of Lent.' According 
to the OTeut. computation of time (comp. 
Slbcnb) the evening and night were counted 
as part of the following day (thus in AS. 
frtgedfen, c Thursday evening,' frigeniht, 
' Thursday night '). The meaning given 
above did not belong to the word origi- 
nally. The first part of the compound is 
an old verb fafctn, ' to play the fool ' ; the 
form Qfafhtacfyt may have been introduced 
by the priests. 

^fct£, n., l vessel, cask, vat,' from Mid 
HG. va$, OHG. /a3(5^), n., ' cask, vessel, 
chest' ; corresponds to MidLG. and Du. vat, 
A S. fat, ' vessel, receptacle, chest ' (E. vat), 
OIc. fat, ^cask.' The prim, signification 
of those cognates (pre-Teut. podo-) may 
have been 'receptacle,' and since gejfel is 
an allied word, we have to postulate the 
meaning ' to hold together ' for the Teut. 
root/a^. Lith. pudas, ' pot, vessel,' would 
be in Goth. *f6ta- instead of *fata-. Mod 
HG. ©cfag is not an immediate derivative 
of gag, because it assumes a Goth. *gafeti, 
n. See faffett, gefcen, gifce. 

fctul, adj., 'rotten, worthless,. lazy r ' from 
the equiv. MidHG. and MidLG. vul, OHG. 
ful ; comp. Du. vuil, AS. fill, E. foul, OIc. 
fHll,Goth.fuls, 'decayed' ; la- is derivative ; 
fH- as the Teut. root is deduced from OIc. 
fuenn, 'putrefied,' which as a partic. points 
to an obsolete verb (Goth. *fauan, formed 
like bauan\ of which OIc. feyja, ' to allow 
to putrefy,' is the factitive (Goth. *faujan). 
From fU several Teut. dialects have formed 
nouns with the meaning ' cunnus ' (OIc. 
fup) ; see £unb$fcti. The root f4, from 
Aryan pil, i» equally represented in the 
allied languages ; Gr. rtiov, ' matter,' and 
the equiv. Lat. pits, n.; Sans, and Zend root 
p4 (p&y), ' to stink, putrefy,' Lith. jntvii, 
pitii. 'to putrefy' (akin to Lith. ptild, 
'matter,' with a derivative I as in faul) ; 
also Gr. irvQu, ' to cause to rot,' Lat. pHteo, 
' to stink,' puter, ' putrid, rotten.' The 
primary meaning of the root pit is ' to 
emit a smell of putrefaction.' — fmtfenjcn, 
vb. 'to be lazy,' from late MidHG. v&letzen, 
' to be rotten,' an intensive derivative of 
faitl ; comp. Mifecn, fcufj*n. 



( 82 ) 


>aufl , f., ' fist,' from the equiv. MidHG. 
ana Mi>iLG. v&st. OH.Q.f&st, tj corresponds 
to AS. fyst, E. fist, Du. vuist. This term, 
common to West Teut., is unknown to OIc. ; 
in Goth, it may liave been */Asti- or *fHhsti-, 
f. The possible loss of a h before st is sup- 
ported by the connection with Gr. irtff, 
' with the fist,' Trty/iaxot, ' boxer,' irvyfir), 
1 fist, boxing,' Lat. puynus, ' fist,' pugil, 
'boxer,' perhaps also pugio, 'dagger' (lit. 
' fist weapon'), and further pugna, pugnare, 
&c. The comparison of gauft with OSlov. 
pestl, f., ' fist,' is less trustworthy ; this is 
possible only if the assumed Goth. *fHhsti 
is further derived from funhsti-, pre-Teut. 
pnksti- ; in that case, however, the Gr. and 
Lat. terms cited would have no connection 
with the word. 

$axe, plur., ' fooleries, tricks,' ModHG. 
only ; of obscure origin. 

fed)t<m, vb., ' to fight, fence,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. vetten, OHG. fehtan; a 
term common to West Tent, for 'to fight, 
contend,' unknown to Scand. and Goth. ; 
comp. Du. and MidHG. vechten, OFriB.fiuch- 
ta, AS. feohtan, E. to fight. Whether the 
verb has always belonged to the e class 
is questionable ; it may have passed from 
the pret. plur. and partic. of the u class 
into the e class ; in that case, we should 
have to assume Goth. *fiuhtan, *fduht, 
*fatihtum, *faUldans, instead of *falhtan, 
*faht, *fauhtam, *fauhtans. This conceiv- 
able assumption facilitates the connection 
with Lat. pugna, pugnare ; yet the latter 
are probably only derivatives of pugnus, 
1 fist ' ; perhaps the inferred Goth. *fiuhtan, 
' to fight,' is similarly related to 5au|l. 

5?c6er, f., 'feather, pen, plume, spring, 
flaw (in jewels),' from the equiv. MidHG. 
veder, v'idere, OHG. fedara, f . ; the term 
common to Teut. for ' feather ' ; comp. 
OSax. fethara, AS. feper, f., ' feather, wing,' 
E. feather, OIc. fjgfrr, f., Goth. *fifrra, 
f., akin to the collective noun ©efhber 
(see gitttd)). Goth. *fifrra, from pre-Teut. 
p&rd, i\, has in the allied Aryan languages 
some correspondences which prove the exist- 
ence of an Aryan root pet, 'to fly' ; comp. 
the Sans, root pat, 'to fly,' pdtatra, n., 
' wing,' patard, adj., ' flying,' gatdpatra, 
'having a hundred wings or feathers,' Gr. 
irtrofiai, ' to fly,' irrepdv (for *irerep6v), 'wing,' 
vtIXov (for *t€tL\ov), 'feather'; it is less 
certain whether Lat. penna, ' feather ' (for 
*petsna1), is allied. See gittid).— gfcbcr- 
lefen, n., lit. ' picking off the feather from 

a person's dress' as a mark of servile flat- 
tery ; found even in MidHG.— gtcfccr- 
fptcl, 11., 'lure,' from MidHG. vederspil, 
n., 'a bird trained for hawking, falcon, 
sparrow-hawk, hawk.' 

j3fCC, ^Fei, f., 'fairy,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. fei, feie, f. ; borrowed from an 
OFr. dialect (Hurgund.), feie, ModFr. fe'e 
(Ital. and Romance, fata, lit. 'goddess of 
destiny,' from Lat./atwm), whence also E. 
fay and fairy. 

fegefeuer, n., 'purgatory,' from Mid 
vegeviur, n., ' purgatory,' from Mid 
HG. vegen, ' to purify ' ; formed on the 
model of MidLat. purgatorium. 

fegert, vb., 'to sweep, scour, winnow 
(corn), purge,' from MidHG. vegen, (OHG. 
*feg6n), 'to purity, adorn, sweep, scour,' 
Du. vegen. Goth. *fig6n is connected with 
Goth, fugrs, 'suitable,' AS. fdbger, E. fair, 
OHG. and OSax. fagar; from the root feh. 
fah,fag,f tig in fftgm; OIc. fcegja, 'to cleanse,' 
probably belongs to the same root (the 
Goth, form being fSgjan) ; Aryan root, pgk, 

%ie1)be, f., 'feud,' from MidHG. vehede, 
vide, OHG. fShida, 'hate, enmity, quarrel, 
feud ' ; corresponds to AS. fcehf>, f., ' en- 
mity, revenge, feud ' ; Goth *faihif>a, 
' enmity,' is probably an abstract noun 
from the Goth. adj. *faihs, 'hostile,' which 
appears in AS. as fdh, fdg, ' exiled, out- 
lawed, proscribed ' (AS. gefda, m., ' enemy,' 
Fj. foe ; comp. OHG. gifili, MidHG. gevec/i, 
' hostile, malignant '). A pre-Teut. root, 
piq, ' to injure, cheat' (comp. also Goth. 
faih, ' imposition, deception,' bifaihdn, ' to 
deceive, overreach'), is indicated by the 
Lith. ; comp. Lith. piktas, ' angry,' pykti, 
' to get angry,' peikti, ' to curse,' palkas, 
' stupid ' (akin to Pruss. po-paikd, ' he 
cheats'). Respecting the interchange of 
meaning between ' to injure' and 'to de- 
ceive,' see trugen. Hence E./oe is lit. ' one 
who injures,' OHG. fihida, lit 'hurt, in- 

fef)Ien, vb., ' to miss, want, err,' from 
MidHG. vSlen, vcelen, 'to fail, mistake, 
cheat, be wanting, miss ' ; burrowed in the 
MidHG. period (about 1200 a.d.) from Fr. 
failtir, ' to fail, miss, deceive,' which again, 
like Ital. fallire, is derived from Lat. fallere. 
The word was also adopted by E. in the 
13th cent. ; comp. E. fad, likewise Du. 
feilen, ' to fail, miss, deceive,' Scand. (since 
the 14th cant), fe da. 

§e1)xne, f., ' criminal tribunal ' (in West- 


( 83 ) 


phalia formerly), from MidHG. veime, f., 
'condemnation, punishment, secret tri- 
bunal.' Goth. *faima, f., would, on the 
analogy of riceapez, Goth, fidvdr, favour the 
connection with the root n in Gr. rlvu, 'to 
atone for,' derived from ki, ' to punish, 
avenge'; Gr. irolvij, as a derivative of the 
same root, may have been formed with a 
different suffix from that which appears in 
gebme. In spite of the late formation of 
the word, its origin is difficult to discover 
and uncertain. Its connection with Du. 
veem, ' guild, association,' is also disputed. 
Others again refer it to OSax. a-fehian, ' to 
condemn ' (see feige). It is quite impossible 
to connect it with an older LG. form, 
iiyefyme, ' oak-mast,' which, with Bav. dehme, 
deehd, ' oak-mast,' belongs to a different 

^feier, f., 'holiday, festival, celebration,' 
from MidHG. vtre, I, OHG. jtra, ftrra, f., 
'festival, holiday'; borrowed from Mid 
Lat. firia (formed from Lat. feriae), with 
the lat S strengthened, as Jlretbf, ©peife, 
€>etbe, *V?ein ; the cause of the rr in OHG. 
ftrra is the i oifiria. §fetcrf ctg, m., ' holi- 
day, festival,' from MidHG. vtr-, vlretac, 
OHG. flratag. — feiern, 'to celebrate,' 
from MidHG. viren, OHG. ftrrdn, ftrdii, 
' to celebrate, keep a festival,' formed from 
Lat. feriari. The borrowed word is found 
in the Teut. languages of Middle Europe 
(Du. vierdag, OFris. jtra), but is wanting 
in E. and Scand. The Romance languages 
preserve hat. feriae in the sense of 'fair' ; 
comp. Ital. fiera, Fr. foire (hence E. fair). 
Comp. SWeJTe and gejh — ModHG. gferiett 
(since the 16th cent.), 'vacation, holidays,' 
has been derived anew from Lat. feriae. 

fetfte, adj., 'cowardly, dastardly,' from 
MidHG. veige, OHG. feigi, adj., 'doomed 
to death, accursed, unhappy,' then also 
'timid, cowardly' (in the ModHG. sense 
fcige is wanting in the UpG. dialects) ; 
comp. OSax./e(/i, 'doomed to death,' Hess. 
fig, Du. veeg, veege, ' on the point of death,' 
AS. fcege, Scotch fey, Olc.feigr, 'doomed 
to death, on the point of death.' In the 
sense of 'fated to die,' the adj. is primit. 
Teut. (Goth. *faiiis). It has also been 
compared with Sans, pakvds, ' ripe,' so that, 
the Tent, cognates would represent pSkj, 
piki (with an inserted vowel) ; comp. fed. 
Far more improbable is the assumption 
that it is connected with Goth, faihs, OHG. 
f$h, AS. fdh, 'variegated,' as if it were 
thought that the person doomed to death 

by the fates was distinguished by some 
coloured mark. Some compare it with 
the cognates discussed under %tl)ie, some 
with Lith. patios, 'stupid, silly,' others, 
again, with an OSax. fehian, 'to condemn.' 
See gefjme. 

gfetge, f., ' fig,' from the equiv. MidHG. 
vtge, OHG. ftga, L, ' fig ' ; comp. OSax. 
ftga, Du. vijg ; derived, like other South 
Europ. names of trees and fruits, from Rom. 
Lat. (ftcus, f.), or more strictly from North 
Ital. and Provenc. figa, whence also Fr. 
figue. The AS. fictredw is connected directly 
with the Lat., the later E. form fig-tree being 
based upon Fr. figue. Comp. $&#<&, 
*TJjIauine, SSirne, varieties of fruit, which 
were borrowed in the OHG. period, or 
even earlier, from the Lat. Goth, smakka, 
' fig,' corresponding to OSlov. smoku, was 
obtained from a different source. See 

%eiQtvax&e, f., from the equiv. MidHG. 
(rare) vtcwarzen, n., vicwerze, f., 'venereal 
ulcer,' for which is found, mostly in the 
same sense, MidHG. vtc, m., from Lat. 
ftcus, whence also the equiv. AS. ftce; 
comp. Ital. fico, 'fig, venereal ulcer.' 

feil, adj., ' for sale, venal,' from Mid 
HG. veile, veil, OHG. feili, with the curious 
variant fall, adj., ' purchaseable ' ; akin to 
the equiv. OIc. fair, with an abnormal 
vowel. Teut. faili- has according to 
OHG. fait, OIc. fair, an inserted vowel in 
the accented syllable (comp. feige) ; hence 
it corresponds to Aryan pSli-, and is con- 
nected with Gr. vwXtofiai, ' to sell,' and 
more remotely with the OInd. root pan 
for pain-, 'to purchase, buy, exchange.' — 
fetlfd)en, with sch alter I for 8, 'to higgle, 
bargain,' from MidHG. veilschen, OHG. 
*feilistm, 'to bargain for something.' 

3-oilo, f., 'file,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. vile, OHG. ftla, fthala (not flhala), tj 
corresponds to AS. fe6l (dial, variant *ftl), 
f., E. file, Du. vijl, ' tile.' The OIc. term is 
pe% f., 'file,' with an abnormal initial sound; 
Goth *feiliala or *J>eihala must be assumed. 
The form with initial / from Aryan p 
points to the widely diffused root pik, ' to 
scratch,' akin to Lat. pingo.pictor, OSlov. 
plsati, ' to write.' Yet OIc. J>el, from 
*f>tlU, points to Teut Jrinh, equiv. to pre- 
Teut. Uk, tenk, in ModHG. £>a$« ; for the 
interchange of/ and f> comp. biiftft (fitijlfr), 
garfcl, gehme (also OHG. ftn, ftma com- 
pared with LG. dime, ' heap of corn.' 

3?eim, m., ' foam,' from the equiv. Mid 


( 84 ) 


HG. veim, OHG. feim, m. ; comp. the cor- 
responding AS. fdm, E. foam, which are 
pri'mit allied to the equiv. Sans, phena, 
OSlov. pena. ModHG. aKyfeimt, from an 
earlier abfeimen, ' to skim ' (comp. raffintcrt, 
from Fr. rafiiner, ' to refine '). 

feitt, adj., ' fine, elegant, cunning,' from 
MidHG. vln, fin, adj., 'fine, beautiful'; 
OHG. *fin may be inferred from the adv. 
finllhlw, which is first recorded in a gloss 
o"f the 10th cent ; comp. Du. fi/jn, E. fine. 
Borrowed from a word common to Romance,, 
I till, fino (Fr. fin), with the prim, meaning 
'perfect, genuine, pure,' which is a late 
adj. form from Lat. finite. 

gfetnt>, m., 'enemy, foe, fiend,' from 
MidHG. vtnt, vlent, viant, OHG. ftant, 
m., 'enemy' ; the common Teut. noun for 
'enemy' ; comp. OSax. fiund, AS. feOnd, 
E. fiend, OIc. fjdnde, Goth, fijands. In 
contrast to Lat. hostis, discussed under 
©afl, the Teut designates his enemy ac- 
cording to the disposition of the latter ; 
Seinb (pres, part, of the Sans, root pi, piy, 
'to scorn, hate') is lit. 'the hater' ; comp. 
OHG. flen y AS. feOgan, Goth, fijan, 'to 
hate,' akin to Goth, faian, 'to blame.' 
gefybe is perhaps allied to it ; for the trans- 
formation of the pres. part, into a subst. 
comp. also grcunb, SBeujanb, and £eitanb. 

feift, adj., ' fat in good condition,' from 
MidHG. vei$t, vei^et, OH.G. fei^it, adj., 'fat, 
greasy ' ; properly a partic. without gi-, ge- 
of a Goth, verb *faitjan, ' to fatten,' OHG. 
feiy^en, which is from the nominal stem 
faita-, 'fat,' OIc. feitr, MidHG. veiy With 
the assumed Goth. *faitij>s are connected 
AS. fasted, fddt, and E. fat (comp. fdt). 
Goth. *faita-, from pre-Teut. paido-, has 
no unquestionable cognates in the allied 
languages ; it can scarcely be connected 
with OSlov. piteti, 'to nourish, feed,' on 
account of the faulty shifting of the dental 
(Slav, t corresponding to Goth, t is impos- 
sible) ; it is more probably related to the 
root iB, ' to swell, flow forth ' ; comp. 
*?5a|, ' a spring,' irtSwo, ' to gush forth.' 

3ielber r m., 'white willow,' from Mid 
HG. velwer. older velware, SB., from velice, 
£, '■willow, OHG. felawa,felwa, f., ' willow 
tree.' Probably Osset farwe, 'alder,' is 
primit allied to it' 

3?eK>, n.,. 'field, space, square (chess- 
board), panel,' from MidHG. v'elt (gen. 
-des\ OHG. feld, n., 'field, soil, surface, 
plain'; a word common to West Teut. point- 
ing to Goth. *fil}>, n.; OSax. and AS. feld 

(lp in both dialects are regularly changed 
into Id), E. field, Du. veld. It is still ques- 
tionable whether OIc. fjall, ' mountain,' is 
identical with it, since the former is more 
probably connected with ModHG. get*. 
On the other hand, the following are cer- 
tainly allied: — OIc. fold, f., 'pasture,' 
AS. folde, {., OSax. folda, ' earth, country, 
ground' (pointing to Goth *fuldS). Finn. 
pelto is derived from Teut. felpos, which, 
with OIc. folda, is based upon the Aryan 
loot pith (Sans, prth), ' to be broad, flat ' ; 
comp. Sans, prthivi, ' earth,' as well glaben. 

3felftC, f., ' felly (of a wheel),' from Mid 
HG. v'e%ge, OHG. filga, f., ' rim of a wheel, 
tyre,' OHG. also ' harrow, roller for break- 
ing clods'; comp. Du. radvelge, 'felloe,' 
AS.felg, E. felly (rim, fellow). Is OHG. 
felga, ' roller, harrow,' to be connected with 
AS. *fealge (MidE. falge, 'fallow land'), 
E. fallow, and its e to bo regarded there- 
fore as formed by mutation? MidHG. 
valgen, ' to plough up, dig,' makes such a 
supposition very probable. It is possible 
that the two classes in the sense of ' fel- 
loe ' and ' harrow ' are not allied to each 
other. Between OHG. felga and AS. felga, 
* felloe,' there is no connecting link. 

gfcll, n., ' hide, skin, fur,' from MidHG. 
vel(ll), OHG. felUl), ' human skin, hide ' ; 
comp. Goth, fill, n., in prdts-fill, 'leprosy,' 
faurafilli, 'foreskin'; OIc. fjall, 'skin, 
hide,' in compounds, AS. fell, n., ' skin, 
hide,' E. fell y Du. vel. Common to Teut. 
orig., but universal in the wider sense of 
4 skin,' both of men and animals. Teut 
fella- from pre-Teut. pello- or pelno- ; comp. 
Lat. pellis, Gr. u-eXXa, ' hide, leather,' direX- 
Xos, n., ' (skinless) unhealed wound,' epwri- 
weXas, ' erysipelas, St Anthony's fire,' eVf- 
ir\oos, ' caul of the entrails,' the latter for 
eirlvXoFos, akin to Ljth. pleve, ' caul, skin ' ; 
also akin to AS. filmen, ' membrane, fore- 
skin,' '; likewise Gr. wA/ta,'soleof the 
foot or shoe,' and perhaps WirXos, ' garment,' 
as a reduplicated form (W-tX-os, root reX). 

^cUcifcn. n., from the equiv. MidHG. 
veils, m., ' valise, knapsack ' ; the ModHG. 
form is a corruption of the MidHG. word 
which is based upon the equiv. Fr. valise. 

^tclfcr*, m., 'rock,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. velse, vels, m., OHG. felis, m., felisa, f. 
(from which Fr. falaise, ' ciiff,' is borrowed); 
akin to OSax. felis, m., probably also to 
OIc. fjall, ' mountain ' ; the latter would 
be *filza- in Goth., the former *falisa-; 
in Du. and E. the word is wanting. Olr. 


( 85 ) 


ail (from *paMk), 'rock,' OSlov. planina, 
'mountain,' Sans, parvata, 'rock, moun- 
tain,' may be primit. allied. Connected also 
with OInd. p&r, ' fastness, citadel,' to which 
Or. tt6\l-s has been referred ? or with Sans. 
pdsdna (for *palsdna), 'stone' ?. 

3fCttd)Cl, m. (Snab. and Alem. ftenfel), 
from the equiv. MidHG. venchel, venichel, 
OHG. fenahhal, fenihhal, m., 'fennel'; 
comp. AS.finul, E. fennel; formed from 
Lat. (foznicidum,feniculum,feniclum), fenu- 
clum; from the same source the Romance 
cognates Fr. fenouil, lta\. fmocchio, 'fennel,' 
are derived. 

^tCttfier, n., ' window,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. venster, OHG. venstar, n. ; coinp. 
Du. venster, n. Based, with a curious 
change of gender, on Lat. fenestra, from 
which, however, the fenstar of the Mid 
Europ. Teutons could only be produced by 
shifting the accent back according to the 
Teut. custom (comp. 9lbt) and by syncopating 
the second e. This indicates that the word 
was borrowed very early, in the beginning 
of the OHG. period. Yet the idea was 
wel 1 known to the older periods, as is tes- 
tified by the terms naturally applied to the 
existing object — Goth. augadaurS, 'eye- 
gate,' AS. Sgfii/rel, 'eye-hole,' Olc. vindauga 
(whence MidE. winddge, E. window). By 
the introduction of the Southern term 
(comp. also Olr. senister, W. ffenester) the 
idea was probably reconstructed. This 
word was borrowed at the same period as 
other words — 3iegel, SKaucv — relating to the 
building of houses. 

gfcrgc, m., 'ferryman,' from MidHG. 
verge, verje, vere, OHG. ferjo, fero (nom. 
sing, ferjo, gen. and dat./grw, accus./gr/tt?i), 
m., ' mariner, ferryman.' The j is changed 
into g after r as in ©emerge, Satrcergf. Goth. 
*farja, m., 'mariner,' is wanting. Most 
closely allied to O^fyte ; also akin to Goth. 
farjan, 'to navigate,' see root far under 

f~evicn, see gtier. 
erftcl, n., 'sucking-pig,' from MidHG. 
verier, verchel, verhtlin, OHG. farhel$(ii) ; 
diniin. of MidHG. varch, n., 'pig, sucknu,'- 

Eig,' OHG. farah, farh, n. ; AS. fearh, in., 
I. farrow j Du. varlcen, n., 'pig'; Goth. 
*farha- is wanting. In any case it is a 
pre-Teut. word, since the allied Aryan lan- 
guages have words corresponding to it both 
in sound and meaning ; *farhaz from pre- 
Teut. porfcos, corresponds to Lat. porous 
(Gr. t6/)kos), Lith. pdrszas, OSlov. prasf, n., 

Olr. ore. Like (Sber and <2>d)roein, this 
word too, unknown to Indian, is essentially 
West Aryan, while Mai) is a common Aryan 

fern, adv., ' far, distantly, remotely,' 
from MidHG. verrene, verren, verne, OHG. 
verrana, v'errandn, adv., 'from afar'; the 
adv. in answer to the question ' where 1 ' is 
verre in MidHG. and v'erro in OHG. The 
adject, form in MidHG. is verre, in OHG. 
ver, which are probably derived from the 
old adv. The remaining Teut. branches 
have no old orig. adj.; as an adv., how- 
ever, we meet with Goth, fairra, which is 
also a prep., 'distant, away from,' Olc. 
f jarre, AS. feor, E. far, OSax. f'err. Be- 
sides these words relating to distance in 
space, OTeut. has also allied terms for dis- 
tance in time ; Goth, fairneis, ' old, in the 
preceding year,' OSax. firn, 'preceding, 
passed away (of years),' OHG. firni, Mid 
HG. virne, ' old ' (see under girnewcin) ; 
akin also to Olc. forn, 'old,' MidHG. 
vorn, ' earlier, formerly,' with a differently 
graded vowel. To the Teut. stem /er-,/or- 
from pre-Teut. per, pr, are allied Gr. irtpa, 
' further,' iripav, ' on the other side,' Armen. 
heri, ' distant,' Sans, pdra-s, ' more, remote,' 
paramds, 'remotest, highest,' paras, adv., 
'far off, in the distance.' The cognates 
of Aryan per- have too great and involved 
a ramification to be fully explained hem 
See fun. 

^fcrfe, f., 'heel, track, footsteps,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. v'ersen, OHG. firsana, 
f. ; corresponds to Goth, fairzna (for *fairs- 
na), ft, AS. fyrsn, f. (pointing to Goth. 
*fairsni-) ; E. obsolete, the term ' heel ' (AS. 
Mia) being used, in Scand. hchll ; Du. ver- 
zen, OSax. fersna. Common, like Sufl, and 
numerous other terms relating to the body 
(Jjjerj, 91iere, £)t)r, 91afe, &c), to Teut. and 
the allied languages, and hence derived 
from the OAryan vocabulary; corny, fers- 
n6-, -ni-, from pre-Teut. pCrs-nd, -nt-, with 
Sans. pdrSni-s, f. (like AS. fi/rsn in the 
formation of its stem), Zend pdSna, in., Gr. 
irripva, {., 'heel, ham,' Lat. perna, 'leg (of 
mutton, &c), ham,' pernix, ' quick, speedy ' 
(for *pcrsna, *persnix). 

fcrttg, adj., 'ready, complete, dexte- 
rous,' from MidHG. vertec, vertic (from vart, 
'journey'), adj., 'able to walk, walking, 
in motion, ready, fit,' OHG. farttg; Du. 
vaardig, ' ready.' The adj., like btrtit and 
ruftig, probably meant orig. 'equipped for 
a military expedition.' 


( 86 ) 


JrcfTcl (1.), '•» 'fetter, chain, shackle,' 
from MidHG. vfi$d, OHG./^i'J, m., ' band 
for fastening and holding the sword,' then 
also 'band, fetter' ; AS.fetel, ' sword-belt,' 
OIc. fetell y m., ' band, bandage, sword-belt ' ; 
akin to root fat (see %a$, faffen), ' to hold ' ?. 
The ModHG. has retained its general sense 
by taking the place of another OTeut. word 
for 'fetter'; MidHG. ve^er, f., 'fetter, 
shackle for the foot,' OHG. fe$$era, OSax. 
feter, AS. feter, E. fetters (plnr.), Olcfjgturr. 
These words, which are usually connected 
with Lat. vedica, Gr. *£8ti, ' letter,' Lat. 
compes, and hence with the cognates of 
ModHG. Sitfj, can scarcely be allied to the 
terms indicating a Goth. *fatils, ' sword- 

feftel (2.), f., ' pastern.' See gu&. 
eft, n., ' festival, fete, feast,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. fed, n., from Lat. fedum, 
whence Ital. festa, Fr. fSte (E. feast) ; $tm 
is the earlier loan-wont Gothic has simply 
a native dulfrs, ' feast.' See JDult. 

feff, adj., ' firm, solid, strong,' from Mid 
HG. vest, vede, OHG. f(di, adj., ' firm, 
strong, steadfast' ; see the corresponding 
adv. fail, which is not mutated ; neither 
was the adj. originally formed by mutation, 
since, according to OSax. fast, AS. feed, 
", OIc. fastr, adj., 'firm,' we have to 
assume a Goth. *fastu-, which is probably 
an old to- partic. like laid, traut, jart, alt, 
&c, from the root fas-, 'to fasten ; *fas- 
ta-, lit. 'fastened,' then ' firm.' Goth, still 
retains only the verb fastan, ' to keep firm, 
hold fast' See faflett. 

fefifd), in., 'fetish,' adopted by Mod 
at the beginning of the 17th cent. 
The earlier parallel form gettfio is more 
closely connected with the Port, base 
feitico, ' enchantment,' but the modern 
form with Fr. fetiche. 

felt, adj., ' fat, plump,' only in ModHG., 
introduced by Luther from MidG. and LG. 
instead of the genuine UpG. feijl ; LG. 
fdt, comp. Du. vet from an earlier fitt, AS. 
fdett, 'fat,' which, with OHG. feix$it, are 
derived from Goth. *faiti/>s ; see fit ft. As 
to the origin of the ModHG. idiom, fein 
Sfett fyaben, jentantem fein gctt geben, ' to get 
one's due, give any one his due,' opinions 
are divided ; although the reference to 
einbrocfen, {fttianbcm etttjaS einbrocfen (to play 
one a trick), &c, supports the assumption of 
a purely Ger. origin, some etymologists re- 
gard it as partly translated and partly bor- 
rowed from the Fr. donner d quelqu'un son 

fait, avoir son fait, others even as an ironi- 
cal reference to the Fr. f aire f He a quelqu'un. 
' to make a person heanily welcome.' 

$et&exx, in., from the equiv. MidHG. 
vetzf, m., 'rag, tatters'; probably from 
MidHG. va^en, ' to dress,' OIc. fgt, 
•clothe-.' From a Teut, (Goth.) faVi, 
' clothes,' Span, hato, and Port, fato, ' ward- 
robe,' are derived. Comp. faften, S^P- In 
the dialectal compounds 2llltag3;, (Sonntaaes 
frfcen, 5 f $en denotes ' clothes.' 

feitd)t, adj., ' moist, damp, humid.' from 
the equiv. Mi'dHG. viulite, ORG. filhtiJiUit, 
(Goth. *f&htu- is wanting). The adj. is 
WestTeut. ; comp. LG. fucht, AS. f&ld, E. 
obsolete, Du. vochtig, 'damp.' An allied 
root (pllk), qUk, quak, is assumed for OSlov. 
kysnati, ' to grow sour,' kvasiti, ' to acidify,' 
which are scarcely connected with tins 

^fetter, n., ' fire, ardour, passion,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. vinr, OHG. and OLG. 
fiur, older fair, n. ; comp. Du. vuur, AS. 
f$r (from *fUir), n.,; a word common 
to West Teut. for ' fire' ; in Goth, fon (gen. 
funins), OIc, fune, ' fire,' but it is doubtful 
whether they are cognate with HG. Setter ; 
comp. OIc. (only in poetry) furr, in., and 
fj/re, n., ' fire.' The r in all the words is a 
suffix, and/# (from pre-Teut. pit) the root ; 
comp. Gr. vvp and Mo\. vd'Cp, n. (rrvpads, 
'torch'). In Sans, a verbal root pit, 'to 
flame, beam brightly,' is found, whence 
pAvakd, ' fire.' 

§fibcl, f., ' primer,' first occurs in early 
MidHG. (15th cent.), probably a LG. word 
orig. formed from 93ibet ; the earlier vari- 
ant wibel (wivelV) points to ModGr. pro- 
nunciation. Perhaps gibel represents 93iwl 
(comp. (Sfitg, 5Meber). 

J3?td)fc, f., 'pine, fir,' from MidHG. 
vishte, f., OHG. fiohta, fluhta, f., ' fir.' No 
cognate term is found in any of the other 
Teut. dialects, yet §ictote is proved from the 
non-Teut languages to be primitive ; comp. 
Gr. vevKr,, ' fir,' Lith. puszls, 'fir.' The HG. 
form is fuller by a dental affix than the 
Gr. and Lith. words. 

fieber, n., • fever,' from the equiv. Mid 
vieber, OHG. fiebar, n. ; from Lat.- 
Romance febris, with a change of gender 
as in AS.ftfor, n., equiv. to E. fever ; OHG. 
and MidHG. ie for «, as in 93rtef, Stead, 
Spiegel, $riejhr; so too ModHG. 93teber=, 
MidHG. biever, from vieber, with an inter- 
change of consonants, as in ©fftg and 


( 87 ; 


gtiebel, f., from the equiv. MidHG. 
tridd, videle, f., OHG. fidula (as early as 
Otfried), f., 'fiddle, violin'; com p. Du. 
vedel, AS. fifiele, E. fiddle, OIc. fifrla. OHG. 
fidvla is based, according to AS. fij>ele, 
'fiddle,' fifrelere, ' fiddler,' fifcelestre, ' fidi- 
cina,' upon an older West Tent. *fij?ula. 
The latter form with Jy might be deduced 
from Lat. *fitula or fidula (for fidicula ?), 
yet these primary forms are not recorded. 
There is undeniableconnection between the 
Teut class and the Romance cognates — Ital. 
viola, Fr. viole, * violin,' the origin of which, 
it is true, is much disputed. Stiil £arfe 
found its way from Teut. into Romance. 

ftHett, vb., 'to flay,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. villen, OHG. fillen; allied to %tll. 

^ft(3, m., ' felt, blanket; miser; repri- 
mand,' from the equiv. MidHG. vilz, OHG. 
filz, m. ; comp. Du. vilt, AS. and E. felt, 
Swed. and Dan. jilt, ' felt ' (Goth. *filtis, 
pre-Teut. *peldos, n.). Lat. pilus, pileus, 
Gr. iriXoj, are scarcely allied ; it is more 
probably connected with OSlov. plusti, 
( felt.' From the Teut. word are derived 
the similarly sounding Romance words, 
Ital. feltro, Fr.feutre, Mid Lat. filtrum, 'felt.' 
Other words also relating to weaving were 
introduced into Romance from Teut. See 
£afpe, Oiocfen. 

finoctt, vb., 'to find, discover; deem, 
consider,' from the equiv. MidHG. vinden, 
OHG. findan ; comp. Goth, finfcan, OIc. 
finna, AS. findan, E. to find, OSax. flthan, 
findan, ' to find.' Teut. fenf>, as a str. 
verbal root from pre-Teut. root pent ; akin 
to OHG. fendo, m., 'pedestrian, AS. fSJja, 
'foot-soldier,' OHG. funden, ' to hasten' ?. 
Some etymologists adduce Lat. invenire 
and OSlov. na iti, 'to find,' to show by 
analogy that from a verb of 'going' the 
meaning ' find ' can be evolved. With the 
Teut. root fen J? the equiv. Olr. root e%- 
(from pent-) is most closely connected. 

3ftnger, m., ' finger,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. vinger, OHG. fingar, m.; a common 
Teut. term ; comp. Goth, figgrs, OIc. fingr, 
AS. and E. finger. It is uncertain whether 
the word is derived from fctngeit, root fanh, 
and it is questionable whether it comes 
from the root finh, pre-Teut. pink, ' to 
prick, paint,' Lat. jingo (see ffetU) ; it is 
most probably primit. allied tofunf (Aryan 
penqe). The terms J&anb, Singer, 3«&e are 
specifically Teut., and cannot be etymolo- 
gically explained with certainty. Besides 
there existed even in OTeut. a definite 

term for each linger. First of all the thumb 
obtained its name, which is a rudimentary 
and hence very old form ; for the remain- 
ing names see under 25aumett. 

gftttfe, m., ' finch,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. vinlce, OHG. fincho, m. ; corresponds 
to Du. vink. AS. fine, E. finch, Swed. fink, 
Dan. finke, 'finch' ; Goth. *finki-, *finkjan-, 
are wanting. There is a striking similarity 
of sound in the Rom. words for ' finch ' — 
Ital. pincione, Fr. pinson, to which the E. 
dialectal forms pink, pinch, ' finch,' belong. 
Yet there is no suspicion that the Teut. 
word was borrowed ; the Teut. class is 
probably primit. allied to the Rom. word. 

finne (1.), f., 'fin,' first occurs in Mod 
, from hG.finne, Du. vin, ' fin ' ; first re- 
corded in the Teut. group in AS. (Jinn, m., 
E. fin), hence it cannot have been bor- 
rowed from Lat. pinna, ' fin of the dolphin, 
feather.' No Teut. word can be proved 
to have been borrowed from Lat. before 
the period of the OTeut. substitution of 
consonants, i.e., before the beginning of 
our era (see Ǥanf). Hence AS. Jinn must 
be assumed as primit. cognate with Lat. 
pinna. Is it, like penna, based upon pesna 
(OLat)? If it were based upon *pis-nd, 
' fin,' it might perhaps be regarded as cog- 
nate with piscis, Goth, fiska- (Jis-ka), 'fish.' 
^finite (2.), f., ' tumour, scrofula,' from 
MidHG. vinne, pfinne, ' pimple, foul rancid 
smell'; comp. Du. vin, 'pimple.' The 
relation of the initial sounds is not clear ; 
MidHG. pfinne points to Goth, p, Du. vin 
to / initially ; perhaps the double form is 
due to confusion with ginne (1.) ; p may be 
the correct initial sound. 

fittffcr, adj., 'dark, gloomy, morose, 
sullen,' from the equiv. MidHG. vinster, 
OHG. finstar; OSax. *finistar, as an adj., 
is not found, but it may be inferred from 
a subst. with the same sound, meaning 
'darkness'; the stem is essentially Ger., 
but a series of phonetic difficulties (see 
bujler) hamper the discovery of the type. 
In OHG. there exists besides ftttjtn: an 
OHG. dinstar, MidHG. dinster, whose 
initial d must have been substituted for 
an earlier (OSax., Goth.) ]> ; to these OSax. 
thimm, 'aark,' corresponds. The inter- 
change of }> and/, judging from the parallel 
forms under fttilt and fta&tl, cannot be 
denied. In that case the root would be 
J>em (see ^ammtrung). But OSax. thiustri, 
AS. pp8tre, ' gloomy,' have no connectiou 
with it. 





^fintc, f., lit. 'feint,' also 'trick, til.,' 
first occurs in ModHG., from Ital. finta, 
* cunning ' (Fr. feinte). 

gtirlcfon,^, m., 'nonsense, drollery,' 
from MidHG. virlefanz, m., ' a sort of 
dance,' whence the meaning in ModHG. 
' foppish, silly manner.' Some have tried 
to connect it with Norw. fillefant, ' scoun- 
dv*t\,'fantefolk, ' gipsies,' which would make 
it akin to %ant. On account of the late 
appearance of the word it is impossible to 
decide, however, whether AS. fyrlen, ' far, 
distant,' is the basis of the first part of the 
compound, or rather MidHG. faciei, 'a 
dance ' (Fr. virelai, * virelay '). See ftant. 

ftrn, adj., ' old, of last year,' from Mid 
HG. virne, adj., 'old,' also 'experienced,' 
OHG. firni, 'old'; corresponds to Goth. 
falrneis, 'old,' AS. fyrn, 'old,' OSax. fern, 
' past ' (of years). The reference to the 
year gone by exists in the Goth, and OSax. 
words, but does not appear to be found in 
OHG. and MidHG., although the stem is 
known to modern UpG. dialects ; comp. 
Alem. fernig, ' of last year.' * In the pre- 
ceding year' is MidHG. vert, verne ; MidG. 
and UpG. preserve even now an OTeut. 
adv. fert, fered, ' in the preceding year ' ; 
comp. OIc. fjgrjy, adv., 'in the preceding 
year,' from Goth. *fairu}>, pre-Teut peruti 
(perouti), Gr. vipvri, irtpvat, ' in the preced- 
ing year,' Olr. onn-urid, ' from the preced- 
ing year onwards,' Lith. pernai, ' in the 
preceding year,' Sans, pa-rut. Hence the 
idea of 'the preceding year' is primit in- 
herent in the stem per, Teut. fer; the 
general sense of time gone by appears iu 
the Teut adj. fern and its cognates. 

gftrrt, ^irrte, m., ' snow of the preced- 
ing year or years, glacier,' prop, an adjecti- 
val subst. in the sense of 'old snow, first 
recorded in the last century ; see the pre- 
ceding word. — gfancroetn, 'last year's 
wine ' ; see ftrn. 

§firnis, m., 'varnish,' from MidHG. 
firnts, 'varnish, rouge'; from Fr. vernis 
(whence also E. varnish), Ital. vernice. 
Finally derived from Lat vitrum, vitrtnus. 

5?irff , m., f., from the equiv. MidHG. 
virst, OHG. first, m., ' ridge of a roof, sum- 
mit' ; comp. LG. and Du. (with gradation), 
vorst, ' ridge of a roof,' AS. first, fyrst, f. ; 
Goth. *falrsti- or fairshti- is wanting. Al- 
lied to Sans, prithd-m, n., ' back, summit, 
mountain-peak,' which is nearest in sound 
to Du. vorst. From Teut, OFr. frette, 
Prov. /rest, ' gable,' are derived. 

§?ifd), m. 'fish,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. visch, OHG. fisk, m. ; a common Teut 
term ; comp. Goth, fiski, OIc fiskr, AS. 
fisc, E. fish, Du. visch, OSax. fisc Teut 
fiska-z, from pre-Teut pisko-s, corresponds 
to Lat. piscis and Olr. iasc (with the normal 
loss of p from prehistoric peiskos). The 
word belongs to the three most western 
groups of the Aryan division, which have 
also the word SKfct in common ; in East 
Aryan matsya. Further, there are no 
names of fishes common to Teut and Lat- 
Kelt Perhaps the term was a migratory 
word of early civilisation, the source of 
which cannot be discovered. 

gftff, m., 'fart,' from the equiv. MidHG. 
vist, m. ; akin to the equiv. Du. veest, AS.fist. 
A common Aryan root pezd appears in Lat 
pido for pezdo, as well as in Gr. /35^w, from 
*/9<r5^w, Lith. bez>M (beztUti). Hence Teut 
fisti- is to be explained by Aryan pezd-i-. 
From the verbal noun fist a verbal root f is, 
* pedere,' was inferred iu very early times. 
Comp. Olc. flsa. 

^ftftel, f-> 'fistula, reed, falsetto,' from 
MidHG. fistel, f., 'a deep abscess in ducts 
or passages,' even in OHG. fistul, formed 
from the equiv. Lat. fistula ; the term was 
first applied to the voice in ModHG. 

J3ttfftdj, m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
vittich, v&tach, m., n., v'ettache, f., m., ' wing, 
pinion,' OHG. fettah, older felhdhah, m. ; 
in meaning a collective of fybtx ; comp. 
OSax. fetherac, OHG. federah, MidHG. 
fedrach, 'wing'; the formation of OHG. 
fethdhah is not clear ; was the Goth, form 
*fipj>akst The dentals are obscure, yet 
the word is undoubtedly related to §ebcr. 

^tifjc, f., 'knot of yarn, skein, wrinkle,' 
from MidHG. vitze, OHG. fizza, f., 'a num- 
ber of reeled threads tied together, skein, 
yarn ' ; akin to OIc. fgt, ' clothes,' MidHG. 
vaften, ' to dress,' root fat, fet? 'to spin ' ? 
' to weave ' ?. Yet it is more closely con- 
nected with OSax. fittea, AS. fitt, ' chap- 
ters, divisions in poems.' 

fix, adj., 'quick, smart,' first occurs in 
ModHG. ; Lat fixus and its Romance deri- 
vatives are not used in this sense ; whether 
borrowed from it or not is doubtful. 

flad). adj., 'flat, shallow, superficial,' 
from MidHG. vlach, OHG. flah(hh\ adj., 
'flat, smooth'; comp. Du. vlak, 'even.' 
Akin to the graded forms AS. fiSc, E. fiook, 
fluke ('flounder'), North E.flook-footed\ 'flat- 
footed.' This suggests Lat plaga, 'dis- 
trict,' or more probably, on account of its 


( 89 ) 


meaning, OSlov. plosku, ' flat' ; Lat. pldnus 
scarcely represents *plagnus (see Slur) ; re- 
lated to Gr. 7rXd| (stem tXo*c), 'surface,' 
Gr jtXcucoOs, Lat. placenta, 'cake.' But E. 
flat, Olc.flatr, OUG.Jla^ ' flat, level,' have 
nothing to do with flad). A MidG. and LG. 
parallel form of flad) is mentioned under 

3?lad)0, m., * flax,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. vlahs, OHG. fla/is, m. ; comp. Du. 
vlas, AS. fleux, n., E. flax; a common 
West Teut. term, unknown to Scand. and 
Goth. Usually referred to the rootfleh (or 
fleht) in flecfyten ; s (Goth. *flahsa-) is pro- 
bably a suffix. 

flacftem, vb., 'to flare, flicker,' from 
MidHG. vlackern, 'to flicker,' OHG. (once) 
flagardn (for flaggardnl), 'to fly, flutter 
about ' ; akin to AS. flacor, ' flying, flutter- 
ing,' MidE. fiakeren, 'to fly, flutter about,' 
MidDu. flackeren, Scand. fioJcra, vb., 'to 
flutter,' as well as the equiv. flokta. Comp. 
the cognate stems AS. flicorian, E. to 
flicker, Du. flikkem, ' to glimmer, gleam ' ; 
this class, on account of the numerous 
words it comprised at an early period, 
cannot be derived from Lat. flacjrare, nor 
even be connected with fliegen, to which 
OHG. flogardn, flokrdn, 'to flutter,' and 
flogezen, MidHG. vlokzen, 'to flutter, gleam,' 
may be referred. 

,3-laocit, m., ' flat cake, cow dung,' from 
MnlHG. vlade, m n 'broad, thin cake,' 
OHG. flado, ' offering-cake ' ; corresponds 
to Du. vlade via, i\, 'pancake,' MidE. flafre 
(Goth. *flafia). Pre-Teut. platan- or pla- 
thaiir- would have to be assumed, perhaps 
with the primit. sense, ' surface, flat thing' ; 
comp. Gr. irXartfj, ' broad ' ; Gr. nXadavov 
(0 for Aryan th), ' cake-mould ' ; Sana 
prth&s, ' broad ' (akin to Sans, prthivt, 
'earth,' under %elt), prdthas, n., 'breadth,' 
Lith. platus, ' broad.' Allied to the graded 
forms pl6th, Lat. PlOtus, Plautus, lit. ' flat- 
footed,' semipWtia, ' slipper,' MidHG. 
vluoder, ' flounder,' lit. ' flat fish.' Remoter 
cognates of the whole class are OIc. flatr, 
OHG. flai, 'level, flat.' From glaben, 
which is probably West Teut only, are 
derived the early MidLat. flado, Ital. 
fladone, ' honeycomb,' Fr. flan, ' flat cake, 
custard ' (whence E. flavm, ' a kind of cus- 
tard'). Comp. for its meaning MidHG. 
breitinc, m., ' a sort of biscuit,' akin to 

gtlagftC, f., ' flag, ensign, standard,' bor- 
rowed, like most words with gg (see Dcgae, 

Sagger), from LG. and Du. in the ModHG. 
period ; comp. Du. vlag, E. flag, Dan. 
flag, Swed. flagg. A modern Teut word 
not recorded in the earlier periods. In 
which of the Teut. maritime tribes this 
and other nautical terms were first used we 
know not, for the earlier history eludes us. 
Since, however, AS. preserves the earliest 
forms of a number of nautical terms which 
are afterwards found in all the cognate 
languages (see 93orb, S3oot, §elm (2), Sprict, 
&c), the silence of the AS. records — no 
term *flacge is found — may be accepted 
as a proof that Stoflfle is not native to Eng- 

^iambevQ, m., 'broad-sword,' simply 
ModHG. from Fr. flamberge, the origin of 
which is often referred to Ger., though no 
suitable type can be found. 

gffctmme, f., ' flame, blaze, flash,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. flamme, vlamme, f. ; 
comp. OLG. flamma, Du. vlam, formed 
from Lat. flamma. 

fiarxke, f., • flank, side,' simply Mod 
, from Fr. flanc, which, with its Rom. 
cognate (Ital. fianco), is derived from OHG. 
hlanca, ' side ' (see lenfen). For Fr. fl, from 
Teut. hi, see flau. 

gflafdje, f., 'bottle, flask,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. vlasche, OHG. flasca, f. 
(MidHG. also vlcsche with mutation) ; 
comp. Du. flesch, AS. flasce, f., E. flask, 
Olc. (found early) flaska, f., Goth. *flask6, 
whence Finn, lasku. The word is recorded 
in Teut at an early period, but on account 
of its correspondence with the Rom. words 
for' bottle,' it may have been borrowed ; 
comp. MidLat. fiasco (occurs very early), 
Ital. fiasco, ModFr. flacon. Some etymo- 
logists derive MidLat. fiasco from Lat. vas- 
culum. An exhaustive history of theje 
cognates has not yet been attempted. 

flatfertt, vb., ' to flutter, dangle,' in Mid 
HG. vladern from MidHG. vledern (see 
Slebermaitf) ; MidDu. flatteren, E. to flatter, 
akin to flutter, also MidE. fliieren, E. to 
flitter; AS. flottrian, MidE. floteren, 'to 
undulate,' are, however, certainly allied to 
the root flut, ' to flow.' 

flau, adj., ' feeble, stagnant, insipid, 
dull,' simply ModHG. ; borrowed in the 
last century from LG. flau, Du. flauw, 
* languid, faint, indifferent,' which, with E. 
flew, ' soft, tender,' are derived from Rom. 
Considering the late appearance of the 
cognates, and the area to which they arc. 
confined, it is certain that they originated 


( 90 ) 


in Fr. flou, OFr. fiau,floi; the latter is of 
Teut. origin (see lau), so that ModHG. 
flau is finally derived from a pre-Teut. 
hliwa-. Comp. fftanfe. 

JUuim. m. (Up.G. <)>flaum also), 'down,' 
from MidHG. phldme, f., OHG. pfldma, 
'down,' from Lat. plAma, whence also AS. 
pltimfefrere. As the shifting of the initial 
sound proves, however, the word must have 
been borrowed in the earlier OHG. period ; 
comp. the Olr. word (also derived from 
the Lat.) clUrn, 'feather' (OW. plumauc, 
' pillow '). Scund. and E. have for gfoum 
an apparently genuine Teut. word (see 
1)aune. It is certainly recorded by Pliny 
that Teut. tribes in the olden time sent 
flocks of geese to Rome ; but perhaps it 
was only * down ' (see also §lotfe), which 
was valuable to the Southerners, and so 
the Lat. pluma may have been introduced 
into Teut. at an early period. The initial 
/ of the ModHG. form for pf may be due 
to the connection with fttiin. 

3-lcutc, m., orig. ' a tuft of wool,' then 
'a woollen coat, pilot cloth,' from MidHG. 
vius, 'fleece, sheepskin,' a variant of Mid 
HG. vlies. See glie*. 

3flaufe, L, 'trick, pretence,' simply Mod 
HG.; MidHG. *vluse does not occur ; it is 
probably connected with OHG. giflds, n., 
' whispering,' gifldsida, f., ' illusion,' J^sdri, 

§F(ed)fe, f., 'sinew, tendon,' only Mod 
HG., from Lat. flezus. 

<3-lccl) t c, t, ' plait, braid (of hair), wattle, 
lichen,' from late MidHG. vlehte, f., 'plait, 
lock of hair,' allied to the following word. 

flcdjf Ctt, vb., ' to plait, braid, wreathe,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. vlehten, OHG. 
vlehtan; a corresponding Goth. *flalhtan, 
akin to flahta, f., ' lock of hair,' is wanting ; 
Oic. fle'tta iorflehtan. Teut. root fleht, from 
pre-Teut. plekt ; the t, as also in Lat. plecto 
compared with plicare, was orig. only a for- 
mative element of the present tense, for 
according to Gr. irX^/cw, it\ok^, *-X6kos, the 
Aryan root must have been plek; comp. 
Sans, pracna, ' braid, basket' Salten (root 
JalJ}) and jiecfjten (root fleh) are entirely un- 

>lecft, ^f ledum, m.,n., with many senses 
which are historically the same, ' spot, 
stain, patch,' from MidHG. vlec, vlecke, m., 
' piece of stuff, patch, rag, piece of land, 
place, spot, differently coloured spot, stain, 
blemish,' OHG. flee, fleccho; Du. vlek, f., 
* spot of dirt,' vlek, n., * village ' ; Goth. 

*flikka- or *flikkan- (or rather */»/-) is 
wanting ; comp. OIc. flekkr (gen. plur. 
flekkja), m., ' a fleck, spot, stain, as well as 
flik, f., ' rag, piece of stuff.' Its connection 
wiih Scand. flikke, AS. fliece, E. flitch, is 
dubious. See flicfen. 

gflcbctrmaits, f., 'bat,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. vledermus, OHG. fledarmds, f. ; 
corresponds to Du. vledermuis; E. flitter- 
mouse does not occur in AS., and may be 
due to the influence of MidEurop. Teu- 
tonic. That the animal was thought to be 
a mouse is shown by AS. hreape-, hreremHu; 
the E. term bat, MidE. backe, Dan. "ften- 
bakke (often, ' evening '), is unique. gieber- 
maui, lit. 'fluttering mouse,' from OHG. 
fledardn, MidHG. vl&dern, ' to flutter.' 

gFte6ertt>ifd), m., first occurs in early 
ModHG. with a reference to fledern, ' to 
flutter.' In MidHG. once vedei-wisch, Do. 
vederwisch ; prop, 'a goosewing for dust- 
ing,' or rather tflebertoifd), ' whisk for fan- 
ning away.' 

gFlegel, m. (Suab. $fleget), 'flail, churl/ 
from MidHG. vlegel, OU.Ot.flegit, m., ' flail ' ; 
comp. Du. vlegel, E. flail; probably from 
MidLat. flagellum, 'quofrumentum teritur ' 
(whence also Fr.jUau, ' flail '). On account 
of its meaning it cannot be connected with 
the Teut. root flah, 'to flay' (OIc. fid, 'to 
flay '). Yet it may be primit. allied to 
Lith. plakH, plakti, ' to strike,' Lat. plango, 
Gr. irXfawni, ' to strike.' 

fle^Ctt, vb., 'to implore, supplicate,' 
from MidHG. vWhen, OHG. flihan, flilidn, 
' to implore,' OHG. also ' to fondle, flatter ' ; 
initial^ for earlier ]>l, as in fltefyen (Goth. 
frliuhan) ; comp. Goth, gafcl&ihan (ai a 
genuine diphthong), ' to fondle, embrace, 
console, exhort in a friendly way,' akin 
to Goth, gafildiht*, f., 'comfort, warning.' 
Also allied to OIc. fldr, * false, cunning,' 
AS. fldh. ' wily, cunning,' both pointing to 
Goth. *J)laiha,: The primary meaning of 
the root flaih was perhaps ' importunate, 
insinuating speech.' 

^fletfd), 11., ' flesh, meat, pulp (of fruit),' 
from the equiv. MidHG. vleisch, OHG. 
fleisk, n. ; it has the same meaning in West 
Teut. and Scand. Si range to say, a Goth. 
*flaisk, *flaiskis, n. (or J>1~ comp. fltefyen), 
is not recorded, the term used being leik 
or mims, n. Comp. Du. vleesch, AS. flcesc, 
n., E. flesh ; OIc. flesk is used only of 
' pork,' and more especially of ' ham ' and 
' bacon,' while kjot was the common Scand. 
word for ' meat.' It may well be imagined 


( 91 ) 


that the Scand. specialised meaning of the 
word was the oldest, and that the meaning 
common to West Teut. was established 
only by generalisation ; comp. OIc. flikke, 
AS.flicce, E. flitch (dial, flick), as well as 
AS. (Kent.) flcec for flcesc, 'meat.' Bus?. 
polti, Lith. pdltis, • flitch,' cannot, on ac- 
count of their vowel-sounds, be cognates. 
The k of the OTeut. word is probably a 
suffix ; comp. Du. vleezig, ' plump ' ?. — cm- 
gef(eifd)f, 'incarnate,' simply ModHG. 
lormedlike the Lat. incarnatus, 'embodied.' 

Srlctfj, m., ' industry, application, dili- 
gence,' from MidHG. vltj, OHG. fliT,, m., 
' diligence, zeal, care,' OHG. also ' contest,' 
from OHG. flitfan, MidHG. vlt$en, ' to be 
zealous, applv oneself,' ModHG. feefleijjen, 
partic. bit, gefliffen. Comp. Du. vlijt, ' dili- 
gence,' AS. flitan, ' to emulate, quarrel, 
contend,' E. to flite. On the evolution of 
meaning see J?rieg. ' To emulate ' seems to 
have been the lit. meaning of the merely 
West Teut. vootfltt (Goth, jfl- or >M— see 
fliefyen). No further references have been 

flemtett, vb., ' to weep ruefully, grin,' 
from MidHG. *vlennen; akin to OHG. 
JlannSn, ' to make a wry face,' from pre- 
Teut. *flaznan ?. Root flas, from pre-Teut. 
ploa, in Lat. pl&rare, ' to weep ' ?. 

fief fdjen, vb., ' to beat fiat, grin,' from 
MidHG. vletsen, ' to show one's teeth ' ; re- 
moter history obscure. 

fftcnen, vb., from the equiv. MidHG. 
vlicken, ' to put on a patch, mend ' ; akin 
to glecf. 

^liebet, m., 'elder,' simply ModHG. 
from. LG. ; comp. Du. vlier, 'elder.' Ear- 
lier forms are not recorded ; the word did 
not originate in either Scand., E., or HG. 

^fliege, f., 'fly, fluke (of an anchor),' 
from the equiv. MidHG. fliege, OHG. flioga, 
f. ; comp. Du. vlieg, AS. fledge, equiv. to 
E. fly, which is based upon AS. fl^ge, OHG. 
flivga, MidHG. fliuge, ' fly ' ; hence a mu- 
tated form (Goth. *fliugj6), besides an un- 
mutated Goth. *fliug6 ; in OIc. with a 
different gradation fluga, f., 'fly, moth' ; 
akin to fliegm (Goth. *fliugan). For an 
older terra for ' fly' see under WMt. 

fltegen, vb., from the equiv. MidHG. 
vliegen, OHG. fliogan, ' to fly ' ; comp. Du. 
vliegen, AS. fledgan (3rd sing. flphj>), E. to 
fly, OIc. fljuga- the common Teut. term 
for 'to fly ' ; Goth. *fliugan may be in- 
ferred from the factitive flavgjan, ' to keep 
on flying.' gltegen is in no wise connected 

with fliefyen, as is proved by the initial sound 
of the root in Qoth. fcliuhan, ' to flee, : com- 
pared with usflaugjan ; see Sftiege, SSogel. 
Teut. root fliug, from pre-Teut. pleugh, 

?lugh ; akin to Lat. plUma for plkhma i. 
'or an older root extending beyond Teut. 
see under Sfefcer. 

flicrjcn, vb., ' to flee,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. vliehen, OHG. fliohan; corre- 
sponds to OSax. fliohan, AS. fleim (from 
fledhari), E. to fle<-, OIc. flpja; the/ before 
/ is a common substitution for an older ini- 
tial f>, as in flefyen (Goth, plaihan), flad) (from 
Goth, fclaqus) ; comp. Goth, pliu/ian, 'to 
ffee.' This older form was retained only in 
Goth. ; Scand. has/ (flyja), like the West 
Teut. verbs. Hence the Teut. root is f>luh, 
and by a grammatical change plug, pre- 
Teut. root tluk, tlevJc. Sliegen is primit. 
allied, since it is based upon the root plugh. 
In the earliest OIc. and in West Teut. the 
forms of both the verbs must undoubtedly 
have been confused ; thus OIc. flugu and 
AS. flvgon in the earliest period may mean 
' they fled ' and ' they flew.' See g'ludjt. 

^flicg, j$Ke|!3, n., 'fleece,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. vlies, n. ; comp. Du. vlies, 
AS. fle6s, n., E. fleece ; also a mutated form 
AS. flys, flyss, MidHG. vlius, earlier Mod 
HG. fleuss, fliiss. A second parallel form 
is represented by ModHG. %Uu&. In East 
Teut. the cognates are wanting ; whether 
Goth. *fl- or *filiusis, n. (comp. flteljm), is 
to be assumed we cannot say, since satis- 
factory references to non-Teut. forms have 
not yet been produced. To explain 9$lu§ 
from Lat. vellus is futile, since the latter is 
more probably primit allied to ffiollf, and 
10 regard SBltejj as borrowed from vellus is 
impossible ; fledjten, glad^, &c., are also 
totally unconnected with the word. 

fltcfjcn, vb., ' to flow, stream,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. vliegen, OHG. fliohan, str. 
vb. ; corresponds to OSax. fliotan, Du. 
vlieten, AS. fleOtan, E. to fled, OIc. flj6ta, 
Goth. *fliutan, ' to flow.' The Teut. root 
fliut, flut, from pre-Teut pleud-plvd, cor- 
responds to Lett. pludSt, ' to float,' plMi, 
' inundation,' Lith. plfisti, ' to take to swim- 
ming,' pltidis, ' floating wood.' Several 
Teut. terms for 'ships' point to the latter 
sense, which, of course, is earlier than the 
ModHG. 'flowing,' though in OHG. Mid 
HG. and ModHG., jlif jjen signifies ' to be 
driven by flowing water, to swim.' See 
glofj, ftlotte (glut, Goth. flMui, is not a 
cognate). Instead of the root pliid, other 


( 92 ) 


Aryan languages have an allied shorter 
root plu; comp. Gr. t\4u, 'to navigate, 
swim,' Sans, plu, pru, ' to swim,' Lat. pluere, 
' to rain' (flicfjm in a restricted sense). 

^liete, f., ' fleam, lancet,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. vliete, vlieten, OHG. flietuma ; fur- 
ther derived from Gr. and MidLat. phlc- 
botomum, ' lancet, an instrument for open- 
ing veins,' whence also the equiv. cognates 
AS. fliftme, Fr. flamme, E. fleam, Du. vlijm. 

ftimmern, vb., 'to glimmer, sparkle, 
scintillate,' like the older ModHG. flimmen, 
a ModHG. derivative, by gradation, of 

fli nit, adj., 'brisk, nimble, lively,' simply 
ModHG. from LG. and Du. flink, ' brisk, 
agile, nimble'; akin to earlier ModHG. 
flinfen, * to glitter, shine ' ; comp. Gr. dpy6s, 
'gleaming, quick.' 

^flinle, f., * flintlock, gun, musket,' first 
used in the 17 th cent. ; comp. Dan. flint, 
'musket' ; probably akia to Swed. flinta, 
Dan. flint, 'stone,' prop, 'flint-stone.' Du. 
and E. preserve older terms — Du. vuurroer, 
ModHG. geue vroljr, E. firelock. Flint, ' stone,' 
AS. and E. flint, whence Fr.flin, ' thunder- 
stone,' is probably related to Gr. irXMos, 
' brick.' 

flitter, m., 'spangle, tinsel,' simply 
ModHG. ; orig. ' a small thin tin coin ' ; 
akin to MidHG. gevlitter, ' secret laughter, 
tittering,' vlittern, vb., ' to whisper, titter,' 
OHG. flitarezzen, ' to coax in a flattering 
manner ' ; MidE. fliteren, ' to flutter,' E. 
flittermouse. The root idea is 'unsteady 
motion,' upon which ModHG. glitter is 
based. With the meaning of OHG. flit- 
arezzen, ' to flatter, fondle,' as well as Mod 
HG. flitern, ' to whisper, titter,' is connected 
glitterwocfye, f., which first occurs in early 
ModHG. The following foreign terms are 
interesting : — Scand. hjun6ttsmdnaf>r, lit. 
'a month of the nuptial night'; Dan. 
hvedebrodsdage, lit. ' wheat-bread days ' ; E. 
honeymoon, derived from the Scand. word ?, 
or rather formed from the Romance phrases, 
such as Fr. lune de miel, Ital. luna di 

^flif jbOftCtt, m., ' crossbow,' first occurs 
in early ModHG. from LG. ; comp. Du. 
flitsboog, 'crossbow,' fromDu.^tte, 'javelin ' ; 
hence Fr. fle'che, ' arrow,' and its Romance 
cognates are probably derived. 

gflodte, f., ' flake, flock (of wool), flue,' 
from MidHG. vlocke, m., ' flake, snow- 
flake,' OHG. floccho ; comp. Du. vloh, Dan. 
flokke, Swed. flokka, E. (not in AS.) jiock, 

but OIc. fl6ke, ' flock (of hair, wool, &c.).' 
The supposition that the word was borrown 1 
from Lat. floccus is hardly worth consider- 
ing, since the HG. word is recorded even 
in the OHG. period, and gives no support 
to such a derivation (yet comp. glaum). 
Besides many possible roots exist within 
the Teut. group, either in fliegen (Teut. 
root flugh, from pre-Teut. plugh) or in AS. 
flacor, ' flying' (see flacfcvn) ; on account of 
OIc. fl6ke, the latter is to be preferred. E. 
flock, ' herd,' is beside the mark ; like OIc. 
flokkr, ' herd, flock,' and AS. flocc, it almost 
certainly belongs to fufgen, and probably 
signified orig. ' a swarm of flying creatures ' 
(Jtctte, 'covey,' on the other hand, meant 
prop. ' any kind of herd '). 

^tol), m.. ' flea,' from MidHG. vUch, vld, 
m., f., OHG. fldh, m. ; a common Teut. 
term ; comp. Du. floo, AS. fledh, E. flea, 
OIc. fl6. It probably means 'fugitive,' 
and is akin to fuetyen ; hence a Goth. *f>lduhs, 
not *flduhs, is to be assumed. But even if 
*flduhs is the Goth, form, it cannot be con- 
nected with either Gr. if/vWa or Lat. pulex, 
since neither vowels nor consonants are in 
accord, gUegen too is unrelated, since the 
final sound of its stem is g only, and 
not h. 

gflor, m., ' gauze, crape, bloom,' ModHG. 
only ; formed from Dn.floersy akin to Mid 
HG. floier, ' headdress with dangling rib- 
bons' (comp. <2djleier) ?, fldrsen, 'adorn- 
ment, finery'?. 

^florin, m., ' florin,' from late MidHG. 
fl&rtn, m., ' a gold coin first made in Flo- 
rence, and stamped with a lily, the armorial 
bearings of the town' (appeared about the 
middle of the 14th cent.) ; ~M\dLat. flurinus, 
from flos, ' flower ' ; Ital. fiore. 

^flosfecl, f., 'flourish, showy phrase,' 
simply late ModHG., from Lat. floscellus. 

gfloffc, f., from the equiv. MidHG. 
vlotfe, OHG. jto^a, f., ' float ; glogfeber, 
* finj' even in MidHG. vlo^vedere, in OSax. 
simply fethara, 'float,' like Gr. irWpu£, 
' feather, float,' Lat. pinna, ' feather, float.' 
See Sftnne. gtofie, akin to fiicften, ' to float.' 
r>rtof}, n -> 'float, raft, buoy, stream, fish- 
ing-net,' from MidHG. VI63, OHG. ^3, m., 
n., ' raft,' also in MidHG. and OHG. in the 
senses ' current, flood, river ' ; Du. vlot, 
' raft ' ; comp. AS. fleOt, n., ' ship,' E. fleet, 
AS. flota, ' ship ' (also ' mariner, sailor '), 
E. float, subst. and verb ; note too AS.flflte, 
' cream, flos lactis,' with which E. to fleet 
('to skim') is connected, liQ.flot, 'cream' ; 


( 93 ) 


comp. Lith. pluditi, ' to float,' under flie^cn 

^tl8fc, f., from the equiv. MidHG. floite, 
vloite, f., ' flute ' ; corresponds to Du. fiuit, 
from OFr. flatite, ModFr. flute (whence 
also E. flute, Du. fluit) ; comp. Ital. flauto, 
'flute.' In the idiom flotengeljen, 'to come 
to nothing,' a LG. fleuten, 'to flow' (OLG. 
fliotari), appears ; it meant orig. (in the 
18th cent.) ' to go through, run away.' 

fl of f , adj., ' afloat ; merry, luxurious,' 
first occurs in ModHG. from LG. ; comp. 
Du. vlot, 'floating, swimming' ; it is con- 
nected with fliefj en, fttojj, but has, like Sflctte, 
Sax. the dental medially, hence it must 
be assumed that the word was borrowed 
from LG. 

$lotie, f., 'fleet, navy,' ModHG. only, 
from Fr. flotte, which, with its Rom. cog- 
nates, was borrowed from Scand. ./tote, n., 
' fleet ' ; comp. Du. vloot, but E. fleet; all 
allied to fliejjen, Teut. root flut. 

flofjen, flStjcrt, vb., ' to float (timber), 
pkim (milk),' from MidHG. vlce^en, vlo&tzen, 
'to cause to flow, wash down (soil),' facti- 
tive of fliejjen. The MidHG. forms with 3 
and tz correspond to those of fieifcen, retjjen 
(MidHG. heiyn-heitzen, reiyn-reitzen), and 
are based upon a Goth, inflexion fiautja, 
flauteis, since tj leads, through the medium 
of it, to HG. tz, but t without j to 3. 

gflofj, n., older 3?Iet3e, n., 'vein of 
ore,' from MidHG. vletze, n., 'threshing- 
floor, vestibule, stratum,' OHG. flezzi; 
comp. AS. flett, ' floor of the hall,' OIc. flat, 
'room, hall' ; akin to the OIc. adj. flatr, 
OHG. fla^, ' flat, wide, level,.' mentioned 
under gluten and fladj. 

flud)ett, vb., from the equiv. MidHG. 
vluochen, OHG. fluohhtin, 'to curse, impre- 
cate,' with an existent str. partic. OHG. 
farfluohhan, ' depraved, wicked ' ; comp. 
OSax. farflCken, ' accursed ' ; Goth, fltikan 
(not *flekan), str. vb., 'to lament,' Du. 
vloeken, ' to curse, execrate.' In E. and 
Scand. the Teut. root fldk does not occur. 
Goth, fldkan, ' to lament, bewail,' shows 
the earlier meaning of the cognates ; the 
root fldk; from pre-Teut. pldg, may be con- 
nected with Lat. plangere, 'to strike, mourn,' 
Gr. root, ir\a7 in 7rXi)ff<rw ^ew\dyrj), ' to 
strike.' The Lat. verb facilitates the 
transition of the meaning ' to strike,' ' to 
lament,' then 'to imprecate, curse.' — 
3Uiul). from the equiv. MidHG. vluoch, 
m., OHG. fluoh, m., 'curse, imprecation' ; 
Du. vloek. 

3tlud)f, f., 'flight, escape, refuge ; row, 
floor,' from the equiv. MidHG. vluht, OHG. 
and OSax. fluht, f., a verbal abstract from 
fltetjen ; Du. vlugt, AS. flyht, E. flight ; 
Goth. *J>lauhti-, 'flight,' i3 wanting, for 
which plauhi- occurs. In OIc. flOtte, m., 
'flight,' pointing to Goth. J>lauhta. The 
verbal abstract of fliegen might in Scand. 
and West Teut. coincide with this word ; 
in fact, AS. flyht, E. flighty and Du. vlugt 
signify both 'fleeing' and 'flying.' See 
fliegen with respect to this confusion. 

flitter, n., ' mill trough,' from MidHG. 
vldder, n., ' flowing, flooding, mill trough,' 
OHG. flddar, 'flood of tears.' In Goth. 
*flaupr, n., is probably to be assumed, 
based upon a root flau, flu; comp. OHG. 
flouwen, flewen, MidHG. vlouweu, vlSun, 
' to wasli, rinse.' The prop, sense of the 
word is exactly that of fliefjen ; comp. OIc. 
flau-mv, 'current, flood'; for pre-Teut. 
plu. see under flte^en. 

gflug, m., ' act of flying, flight, flock,' 
from MidHG. vluc (pi. vliige), OHG. fluy, 
nu; corresponding to AS.fli/ge, OIc. flugv, 
m., ' flight ' 1 verbal abstract of fliegen. 
For another form see under gtucfyt. Goth. 
*flugi- and *flauhti- are wanting. — ftujjs, 
adv., ' hastily, quickly,' a gen. of Slug, 
MidHG. fluges, ' quickly.' 

gtliigel, m., 'wing, leaf (of a folding 
door), aisle, grand piano,.' from the equiv. 
MidHG. vliigel, m.. ; comp. Du. vleugel, 
'wing'; a late derivative of fliegen. Strange 
to say, a common Teut. word is wanting. 
For an O Aryan root, 'to fly,' see %ebtx 
(also garn). 

filicide, adj., * fledged,' a LG. form for 
the strictly HG. fliicfe, MidHG. vliicke, 
OHG. flucch\ ' able to fly.' Akin to Mid 
Du. vlugghe, with LG. permutation, E. 
fledged; prop, a verbal adj. from fliegen, 
with the meaning ' capable of flying.' 

flitgs, see glug. 

^flunber, m., 'flounder,' a LG. word 
derived from Scand. ; comp. ODnrt. flundra, 
OS wed. flundrae, E. flounder. Aki n also to 
OIc. flytSra, MidHG. vluoJer, 'flounder'?. 

flurtRCtTt, vb., to glimmer,' from the 
older ModHG. flinfen, 'to shine' ; see flinf. 
In the orig. sense 'to brag,' which is pro- 
bably LG., it is still the same word ; 'to 
cause to si 1 nu' ! forms the link between the 

>lm\ f., m.. 'field, meadow, floor, en- 
trance-hall' ; the division in meaning in 
ModHG. Slur, m., 'vestibule,' glur, f., 


( 94 ) 


'corn-field,' was unknown to the older 
language ; MidHG. vluor, m., f., • corn- 
field, floor, ground.' The meanings 'en- 
trance to a house, vestibule, paved floor,' 
belong to MidHG. and LG. ; comp. Du. 
vloer, 'vestibule, barn-floor,' AS.flor, in., 
i'., ' vestibule, barn-floor,' also ' storey,' E. 
floor; Scand. flur, 'floor' of a cow-house 
(Goth, flSrus is wanting). The resulting 
prim, meaning, 'floor,' has been extended 
only in HG. to ' corn-field.' Teut. fl&ru-s, 
from pre-Teut. |jZ<5r us, pldrus, is most closely 
related to Olr. Idr for *pldr, ' floor, paved 
floor.' OPruss. plonis, ' barn -floor,' has a 
different suffix ; it is allied to Lith. pl&nas, 
' flat ' ; hence perhaps it may be connected 
with Lat. pldnus. 

fluff em, vb., 'to whisper,' earlier Mod 
HG. flijlern, from OHG. flistran, ' to caress,' 
to which the old (also Swiss) forms fliSmett, 
flifpern, ' to whisper,' are allied ; comp. also 
Du. fluisteren. 

i3ttu6, in., 'river, stream, flow,' from 
MidHG. vlw$, OH.Q.flu$, m., 'river, stream, 
cast, bronze cast, rheumatism ' ; in these 
senses simply a ModHG. derivative of 
fliefjen, pointing to Goth *fluti-. E. flyte 
signifies a peculiar kind of ' vessel, pon- 
toon.' For the genuinely Teut. word for 
' river, flowing water,' see under Slit ; comp. 
also ©trcm. 

flit f fig, adj., 'fluid, liquid,' from Mid 
HG. vliifiec, 'liquid, flowing,' OHG. flu^ig; 
like 5titp, a specificsdly HG. form. 

3?luf , f., ' flood, inundation, billow,'from 
the equiv. MidHG. vluot, m, f., OHG. 
fluot, m. ; a word common to Teut. ; comp. 
Goth, flddus, f., OIc. fldp, AS. flM, m., n., 
E. flood, OSax. fldd, Du. vloi-d. Goth. 
flCdus, from pre-Teut. pl6tit-s, is based upon 
a Teut. rootfld (from pre-Teut. pl6) ; comp. 
AS.fl&wan, equiv. to E. to flow, Olc.flda, 
'to flow.' Akin to the Gr. root wA« in 
irX(i-w, ' to float, sail,' *-\orr6s, ' floating, 
sailing, navigable.' Perhaps this Aryan 
root pl6 is related to the Aryan root plu 
mentioned under fliejj en and gluber ; yet 
there is no direct connection between glut 
and flie§en and Gr. irXtW 

3?odte, f., 'sail on the foremast,' simply 
ModHG, borrowed from LG. ; comp. Du. 
fok, ' foremast,' Dan. fok, Swed. fock, ' fore- 

§foI)Icn, n., 'foal,' from MidHG. vol, 
vote, OHG. folo, m., 'colt, foal'; comp. 
Goth, fula, m., ' foal (of an ass),' Olc fob. 
4 foal ' (of a horse, rarely of an ass), AS. 

fola, m., E. foal ; a term common to Teut. 
for the young of a horse or an ass, de- 
rived from pre-Teut. pelOn-. Related by 
gradation to Gr. twXos, • colt,' as a general 
term 'young animal,' and Lat. pullus, ' the 
young.' especially of fowls. See gulkn. 

^F3f)tt, m., a Swiss word, ' humid and 
tempestuous south wind ' ; the correspond- 
ing term in MidHG. is wanting, though 
OHG. fdnua, f. (J6nno, m.), 'rainy wind, 
whirlwind,' is recorded ; from La.t.favonius 
(the intermediate form is faunio-), whence 
also Ital. favonio, Rhseto-Rom./auitogw. 

;3?5l)re, f„ 'fir,' from MidHG. vorhe. OHG. 
forha, f., 'pine-tree'; corresponding to 
AS. furh, f„ E.flr (MidE. firre, formed from 
Dan. fyr), OIc. fura, f., ' fir' ; Uoth. *faur- 
hus, f., is wanting. If the initial/ is to 
be regarded as in titer related to Lat. qnat- 
tuor, gel)re may be connected with Lat. 
quercus, ' oak ' ; for the change of meaning 
(jid)e and !£amie might be compared. In 
earlier ModHG. fttxd), ' oak,' is also recorded 
once, and is akin to OHG. vereh-eih, Lomb. 
fereha, ' sesculus.' Thus the connection be- 
tween gcfyre and quercus (pre-Teut. qrku-) is 
certain. In any case, geuer is not a cognate. 
gid)te, 93irfe, 93ud)e, gofyre are the few names 
of trees whose existence can be traced be- 
yond Teut. Comp. also Jliefer. 

folgen, vb., ' to follow, succeed, result, 
obey,' from the equiv. MidHG. volgen, OHG. 
folgin; comp. Du. volgen, AS. fylgan, fol- 
gian, E. to follow, OIc. ft/lgja; the verb 
common to West Teut. and Scand. for 
' follow,' which has supplanted the common 
Aryan verbal root seq (see fet>en), Lat. sequi. 
The origin of the cognates is uncertain. 
There are indications that the verbal stem 
is a compound ; the first component may 
be voff ; comn. AS.ful- e6de, ' he followed,' 
AS. nnd OLG. fulgangan, OHG. fola gdn, 
' to follow.' Consequently gefyen (OHG. gin 
gdn) is the second part of the word. The 
composite nature of the word is supported 
by the fact that there are no old and widely 
diffused derivatives of the verb. It is true 
that the connection between the sense ' to 
follow ' and the prefix »cll has not yet been 
explained. — ^tolgc, f., 'sequel, result,'from 
MidHG. volge,f., 'retinue, succession, forced 
service, pursuit,' <fcc. OHG. selbfolga, ' fac- 

foil ern, vb., ' to put to the rack, tor- 
ture,' from late MidHG. vultern, ' to put on 
the rack.' Akin to golfer, ' rack,' early 
ModHG. only, of obscure origin. It is 


( 95 ) 


most frequently considered to be partly- 
translated and partly borrowed from Mid 
Lat. pulletrus, poledrus, prop. ' colt,' which 
signifies ' rack ' in Span, and Port, (potro), 
"like Lat. equuleus from equus, because 
it bore some resemblance to a horse." Mid 
Lat. poledrum is derived again from Gr. 
irwXoy, ' foal.' * The wooden horse and the 
wooden ass — frames with a sharp-edged 
back, upon which the delinquents were 
compelled to ride — were favourite instru- 
ments of torture." 

foppetl, vb., 'to quiz, rally, banter,' 
early ModHG. only, from slang. 

forbertt, vb., from the equiv. MidHG. 
vordern, OHG. fordardn, 'to demand, re- 
quest, challenge, summon' ; corresponding 
to Du. vorderen; a specifically Ger. form, 
orig. unknown to the other dialects, yet 
the word found its way from Ger. into Dan. 
ami Swed. It is a derivative of sorter. 

foroem, vb., from the equiv. MidHG. 
viirdern, vurdern, OHG. fur diren (also /or- 
darOn), ' to promote, take an active part in, 
help' ; like fortern, from sorter. 

cftorctte, &, ' trout,' with a foreign ac- 
cent, lor the genuine dialectal (Franc.) 
fOrelle, still existing ; dim in. of an older 
ftorene (whence *8 : f«nle, jjorefle) ; comp. 
M.i<\HG. f6relle,f6rle, forhen,forhe,t, 'trout,' 
OHG. forhana, f., ' trout ' ; comp. also OLG. 
forna, furnie, AS. fdrne. Probably not 
from jyofyre, OHG. foraha, ' the fish living 
near firs, in the brooks of fir forests.' It 
is more probably connected with the Ar- 
yan adjs. in the cognate languages, mean- 
ing 'spotted, speckled.' Tent, forhana, 
from pre-Teut prknd ; comp. Sans, pfcni. 
'speckled,' and Gr. irepKvbs, 'livid, dusky 
(irtpKti, ' perch '). 

3forke, f., see Sutfe. 

^Forttt, f., ' form, fashion, pattern, mould,' 
from ModHG. (post-classical), firnne, form, 
f., ' form, shape,' from Lat. and lium.forma. 

forme I, f., 'formula, form,' late Mod 
, from Lat. formula. 
forfcfjert, vb., 'to search, investigate,' 
from MidHG. vorsken, OHG. forsk&n (rarely 
Franc, forsvdn, with assimilation), ' to 
demand, ask ' ; a form peculiar to HG., 
unknown to the remaining dialects, and 
pointing to Goth. *faursk6u, *faurhsk6n. 
The sk is a derivative like Lat. sc (comp. 
trefdjen, numfdjen, ttufcbeii). Goth. *fafirskdn 
would be the normal form for faHrhskdn, 
like Goth, wa&rstw, 'labour,' for uaurhstw. 
The Teut. root fork is identical with the 

root of fragen, from the pre-Teut. root prk 
(see frageti). An se derivative is also seen 
in Lat. poscere (for porscere), 'to demand,' 
as well as in the Sans, root prch, 'to ask.' 

forfl, m., ' forest, wood,' from Mid 
vorst, OHG. forst, m., ' wood ' ; also 
the MidHG. variants vdrest, fdrest, fdrest, 
fdreist (but probably not fdrest), n., ' wood, 
forest' ; these MidHG. forms are certainly 
of Romance origin, — MidLat. and Romance 
foresta, whence Fr. forit. It is question- 
able whether the OHG. forst, MidHG. 
vorst, m., are also derived from Romance. 
Opinions are divided on this point ; some 
etymologists connect the Rom. word with 
Lat. foris, ' outside ' ; others more probabl v 
refer OHG. forst to OHG. foraha, 'fir'"; 
henceforst would be lit. ' fir wood.' OHG. 
forst might also be connected with Goth. 
falrguni, ' mountain.' Goth. *fatirst for 
faurhst, ' mountain forest,' would have to 
be construed like the assumed Goth. *faur- 
sk&n for *fadrlisk6n, mentioned under for- 

forf , adv., ' forwards, continuously, 
away,' from MidHG. vort, adv., ' forwards, 
further, continuously.' OHG. *ford is want- 
ing ; it would correspond to OSax. forth, 
AS. for}>, E. forth; Goth. *faur]>, and its 
compar. faurpis, adv., ' formerly ' ?. 5ort» 
OTeut. forp, from an earlier frpo, prto, is 
allied to sor. See fiirter, fortern, fortevit, 
and sorter. 

3trctd)f, f., 'freight, load, cargo,' Mod 
HG. only, from LG. fracht; comp. Du. 
vracld, E. fraught, freight ; it signified orig. 
' reward, charge for conveyance,' and after- 
wards 'the load itself.' Comp. OHG. 
freht (probably implying Goth. *frd-aihts), 
'earnings, reward,' gifrihtdn, 'to merit'; 
the restricted meaning of the modern 
dialects is seen first in MidDu. and MidE., 
and also passed into Romance — Fr. fret. 
Comp. eigen. 

jjracft, in., c dress coat,' ModHG. only ; 
comp.Fr. frac, 'dress coat' ; its etymology 
and native source obscure, hardly to be 
sought for in Fr. froc, 'monk's habit.' 
Comp E. frock. 

ftClQClX, vb., 'to ask, inquire, interro- 
gate,' from the equiv. MidHG. vrdgen, 
OHG. frdgSn (with the rare variant frd- 
lifoi) ; corresponding to OSax. frd g6n, Du. 
vragen; confined to the Teuts. of Mid- 
Europe (Goth. *frt s han, *frigan), with 
the meaning 'to ask.' from a Teut. root 
: frih, from which the Goth. pret. frah 


( 96 ) 


(frehum) and the partic. fraVians are 
formed. The corresponding pres. has a 
derivative n(comp. fd^einen), Goth. fralhna» r 
AS. frignan, frtnan, beside which appears 
a form with the present in to-, AS.fricgan 
(Goth. *frigjan\ For another verbal deri- 
vative of the same root see under forfd)en, 
which,, like OHG. jerg&n, 'to beg,' has its 
v transposed. The following Teut. words 
also belong to the rootfrch, AS.freht, 'ora- 
cle,' frihtrian, 'to predict,' fricca, 'herald.' 
The Teut. root frek is derived, according 
to the law of the substitution of consonants, 
from an Aryan root prBk, prk, which may- 
have orig. combined the meanings ' to ask, 
beg ' (rogare, interrogare). Comp. the pri m . 
allied forms — Sans, root prch (for prg-sk), 
' to ask, long for ; to desire, beg for some- 
thing,' pracnd, 'inquiry,' Zend root pares, 
petes, 'to ask, demand,' Lat prSc- (nom. 
plur. preces, 'entreaties'), precdri, 'to beg,' 
procax y 'insolent,' prdcus, ' wooer, suitor,' 
OSlov. prositi, 'to demand, beg.' 

frank, adj., 'free, independent,' first 
occurs in ModHG., from Fr. franc (Ital., 
Span., and Port. franco\ which was again 
derived from the Teut. tribal name Qranfen, 
OHG. Franchwiy and may have been ap- 
plied generally to any freeman. The term 
Sranfen is prop, a derivative of a lost OHG. 
*francho, 'javelin,' preserved in AS. franca 
and OIc. frakke ; the Saxons (Sadjjen) are 
similarly named after a weapon — OHG. 
tSahsun, from sahs, ' sword ' (see 3Weffer). 

^trcmfe, f., 'fringe,' from MidHG. 
frame, f., ' fringe, ornament, fillet' ; hence 
franzen, vb., 'to fringe.' From Romance ; 
comp. Fr. frange, Ital. frangia. "This 
orig. Fr. word corresponds exactly to the 
well-known OHG./ram«a,in the same way 
as vendange to viademia; §ranfett are pen- 
dant ' darts ' or lace, just as the flap of a 
coat is a broad spear -head (see ©cfycjj, 
©etyreit) ; the etymology is both gramma- 
tically and logically unobjectionable." 
Though framea has certainly not been pre- 
served within the entire Teut. group in 
the sense of 'javelin,' or in any other sense, 
yet the Latinised framea long remained 
current in early MidLat. The derivation 
of the Romance words from Lat. fimbria, 
'fringe,' is not free from phonetic diffi- 

>raf?, m., 'devouring, gluttony, food, 

J>asture,' from MidHG. vrdi,, m., 'food, 
eeding ' ; akin to frefjen ; OHG. frd$, Mid 
HG. vrd^, m., also ' gormandiser.' 

^rrttfjC, f., 'grimace, distortions, carica- 
ture,' f., ModHG. only, whence Du. fratse», 
i. plur., ' grimaces, distortions,' is borrowed. 
The absence of the word in OHG. and 
MidHG. favours the supposition that it 
was borrowed, and we are compelled to 
accept that view, since it is impossible to 
trace the word to a satisfactory Teut. 
source ; the proposed derivation from AS. 
fratwe, f. plur., ' work of art, ornaments 
(carvings?),' is phonetically impossible. 
The word might be finally derived from 
Ital. frasche y plur., Fr. frasques, 'tricks, 

§trctu, f , 'mistress, lady, wife, woman,' 
from MidHG. vrouwe, OHG. frouica, f., 
'mistress, gentlewoman, lady, wife, wo- 
man ' ; orig. perhaps only a HG. fem. form 
(' wife of the master, mistress of the house '), 
of OHG. fr6, ' master,' which became obso- 
lete in Ger., just as in Romance dominus 
disappeared in many dialects while domina 
(in the forms donna, dame) was retained 
in the entire group ; comp. <Sd)n>teget. See 
Qxofynbtenjt. Frouwa, in the form of frua, 
found its way into OLG., and thence as 
frtt into Scand. ; the word remained un- 
known to E. The fem. form was OTeut. 
(Goth. *frauj6, f.), and was used in Scand. 
— changed according to phonetic laws into 
Freyja — as the name of a goddess. In the 
MidHG. period frouwe was popularly con- 
nected by a graceful fancy with freuen, 
frouwen ; comp. Freidank's saw, " Durch 
vroude vrouwen sind genant, Ir vroude 
ervrouwet elliu lant, Wie wol er vroude 
kante, Der sie erste vrouwen nante" — 
" Woman is named from the joy she gives, 
Her favours fill the world with bliss. What 
a deep sense of joy had he, Who first named 
it woman." See 3ungfet and the following 

^frdulcttt, n., 'young lady, damsel, 
miss,' from MidHG. vrduwelln r n., dimin. 
of MidHG. vrouwe, 'woman,' orig. 'noble 
maiden, young lady of noble birth, mistress, 
sweetheart,' also ' girl of mean rank, servant- 
girl.'— 3fraucit3tmmcr, n., ' woman,' from 
late MidHG. vrouwenzimmer r n., 'women's 
apartment' ; the connecting link in mean- 
ing is collective, ' the body of women re 
siding in its own apartments, the female 
inhabitants of the gynseceum,' also ' retinue 
of a lady of high rank,' just as £of (court) 
is used collectively of ' the people at court.' 
" The application of a collective term to an 
individual" is analogous to the use of 


( 97 ) 


83iuja)e and jlamerab ; the modern sense 
dates from the beginning of the 17th cent. 

fredj, adj., 'bold, insolent, shameless,' 
from MidHG. vrech, adj., ' courageous, bold, 
daring,' OHG.//e7i(/i/i), 'covetous, greedy ' ; 
corresponding to Goth. *friks only in fai/iu- 
f riles, ' covetous, avaricious ' (with respect 
to Jalhu, 'money,' see 93tel)), OIc. frekr, 
* greedy,' AS. free, ' daring.' ' Greedy ' was 
probably the primary meaning of the adj. 
stem freka- common to Teut. ; when spe- 
cially applied to war it meant 'eager for 
combat, daring' ; AS. freca acquired the 
meaning 'warlike hero,' earlier ~E. freak, 
' hero, man.' For early Teut. words simi- 
larly restricted in meaning when applied 
to a warrior's life, see icxeit, fetticj, rujtig. 
There arc derivatives of the OTeut. freka-, 
Gnth.frih, in the Romance languages — 
OFr. frique, ModProv. fricaud, ' cheerful, 
1 i vely.' Teut. freka-, from pre-Teut. priigo-, 
scarcely belongs to fatten. 

fret, adj., ' free, exempt, frank, volun- 
tary,' from the equiv. MidHG. vri, OHG. 
fri ; a common Teut stem frija-, ' free ' 
(unknown only to Scand.), which is as- 
sumed by Goth, freis (ace. sing., mas. /n- 
jana), AS. fri, freo (from frija-), E. free, 
OhG.frt. From these are formed the ab- 
stracts — Goth. freihals, 'freedom,' lit. 'hav- 
ing one's neck free,' AS.fre6ls, ' freedom ' 
(also ' peace, quiet ' ; comp. freolsdceg, 'holi- 
day '). Scand. frjdls for the nonexistent 
*frir, ' free,' is identical with these words, 
being used as an adj. signifying 'with a free 
neck' ; akin to OHG. and MidHG. frthals, 
' freeman.' A ring around the neck was 
an OTeut. mark of a slave. Although/rya- 
prevails throughout the Teut. group in its 
modern sense 'free,' to which W. ridd, 
' free ' (from prija-), also corresponds, yet 
there is some evidence that the meanings 
'dear, loved,' once belonged to the adj. in 
earliest Teut. ; comp. the corresponding 
abstr. Goth, frijaj>iva, ' love,' AS. frc6d (for 
*frij6dus), ' love, favour,' Aii.frigu, 'love' 
(;\.\M)fre6dryhten,fre6bearn) ; allied to Goth. 
fijtin, ' to love ' mentioned under Steunb 
and ftiiebe. All these derivatives point to 
a Teut. root fri, ' to cherish, spare, treat 
forbearingly ' (MidHG. vrl-ten, Goth, freid- 
jan, 'to spare'); frci in an active sense 
should perhaps be compared with fyi'lc, 
which also denoted the relation of the 
higher to the meaner person, ftxti is lit. 
'loving, loved, spared.' This sense is placed 
beyond doubt by the earlier history of the 

Word — Goth, frija-, from pre-Teut. priy6- ; 
comp. Sans, priyd-s, ' dear, favourite,' from 
the root prt, ' to rejoice, make well-dis- 
posed.' In OAryan the fern, of the adj. 
pi-iya means 'spouse,' also 'daughter' ; to 
this OSax. fri, and AS. fred, 'wife,' corre- 
spond. With the Sans, root prt, OSlov. 
prijaja{prijati), ' to assist,' prijatelji, 'friend,' 
are also connected. See §mtac}, freien, 
gfveunb, griebe, griebtjof. 

freien, vb., 'to woo,' from MidHG. 
vrien, ' to woo, marry ' ; unknown to UpG., 
prop, a LG. word, made current chiefly by 
Luther. Comp. Du. vrijen, ' to sue for ' 
(MidHG. vrien, ' to set free, rescue,' must 
in the main be regarded as a different 
word). In the sense of ' to woo, marry,' 
the verb must be directly connected with 
the OTeut. root fri, 'to love'; comp. 
GSux.frt, 'wife, beloved.' For the diffu- 
sion of the Teut root fri (from Aryan pri), 
see fret, Qfmtog, and also tfmtnb. 

fretltd), adv., from the equiv. MidHG. 
vriliche, adv., ' certainly, by all means,' 
prop. adv. from vrilich, ' free, boundless.' 

§?reUct<J, m., ' Friday,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. vrttac, OHG. friatag, m., 'dies 
Veneris'; corresponding to l)u. vrijdag, 
AS. frtgdkeg, frigedceg, E. Friday, ' dies 
Veneris,' OIc. Frjddagr (for which Fodu- 
dagr, ' fast day,' is used in Modlc.) ; lit. 
' Freia's day' (primit. Teut. Frijjj), equiv. 
to Lat. dies- Veneris. Freia corresponds to 
Venus. OIc. Frigg, like OHG. Frla, is 
lit. 'lover, goddess of love' ; akin to Sans. 
priya, f., ' spouse, beloved ' (OSax. frt, AS. 
fred, ' wife '). See fm. 

^fretfe, f., ' wooing, courtship,' from 
MidHG. vridt, vridte, f., 'making an oiler 
of marriage'; abstract noun from freien; 
also in the same sense MidHG. vrte; an 
essentially MidG. word. 

frctttb, adj., 'strange, foreign, unfamiliar, 
peculiar,' from MidHG. vremede, vremde, 
' foreign, distant, strange, singular, rare,' 
OHG. framadi,fre.midi, ' foreign, singular' ; 
a common Teut. adj. for 'foreign,' unknown 
only to Scand. ; comp. Goth, framafrs, 
' foreign, estranged, excluded from,' AS. 
frempe, f rem le, ' foreign, alien, estranged' 
(IS. obsolete), OSax. frcmithi, Du. vreemd. 
A derivative of the stem appearing in the 
Goth. prep, fram, 'far from,' AS. and E. 
from, OHG. /raw, adv., 'away, forward.' 

freffen, vb., 'to eat greedily, devour,cor- 
rod. ■,' from MidHG. vr'etfeii, 
'to cat up, consume, feed,' of men and ani- 



( 9S ) 


mals ; derived from au earlier *frae^an, 
by syncope of the unaccented a; comp. 
Qotli. fra'itan, ' to consume' (E. to fret, ' to 
cut away'), with the similarly shortened 
pret. sing, frit, plur. frttun, lor *frait, 
*fraitun. The Goth, verbal prefix occurs 
in other cases in OHG. as fir, far, MidHG. 
and ModHG. ver, and from eften combined 
with this wanew verb, vere^en, is formed 
in MidHG. with the same meaning as 
fr&syn, which is etymologically equiv. to 
it. For the verbal prefix see grecel, MtXt. 

gtreffcrjett, n., 'litile ferret,' dimin. of 
an earlier ModHG. gretr, n., ' ferret,' first 
occurs in ModHG. from Romance ; comp. 
Ital. furetto, Fr. fv.ret (E. ferret), MidLat. 
furetum, furetus, ' ferret,' which is based 
upon early MidLat. faro, ' polecat,' equiv. 
to Lat. fur, * thief.' 

%<teube, f., 'joy, pleasure, delight,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. vroude, vreude, OHG. 
frewida, f. ; akin to fmten, MidHG. vrouwen, 
OHG. frouwen ; see frof). For the suffix 
see ©futeiitbe, 93e^tcrbe, Sifvbe, SBefcfyrcerbf. 

^trcunb, m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
vriunt(d), OHG. friunt, m., 'friend, rela- 
tive' ; comp. OSax. friunt, 'friend, relative,' 
Dn. vriend, AS. frednd, E. friend, Goth. 
frij&nds. Goth. frijCnds, and hence also 
the other words, are panics, from an OTeut. 
and Goth, xb.frijdn, ' to love,' AS. fredgan, 
1 to love ' (see frei) ; therefore the word, sig- 
nifying lit. ' lover,' is used in many dialects 
(even yet in LG., Hess., Franc, Alsat., 
Suab., and Bav.) for ' relative.' As to the 
formation, see £eilanb, Seinb. 

^tVCtJCl, m., 'wanton olfence, outrage, 
sacrilege,' from MidHG. vrevel, f., m., 
1 boldness, presumption, arrogance, inso- 
lence, violence,' OHG. fravilt, f., 'boldness, 
daring, insolence ' ; abstr. subst. from the 
OHG. adj. fravili, frevili, MidHG. vrevele, 
'bold, proud, daring, insolent,' ModHG. 
fretjeX, adj. ; comp. AS. frcefele, ' daring,' 
Du. icrevel, ' outrage.' Connected with the 
HG. adj. are two or three difficult forms 
which furnish a hint for discovering the 
etymology. OHG. fraballicho, adv. with b, 
and frabart, f., 'audacia,' with b and r. 
Parallel to MidHG. vrevel there exists a 
form vor-evel, ver-evel, corresponding to 
MidHG. ver-e^en, compared with vr-e^yn. 
We have probably to assume a Goth. *fra- 
ubls, or rather *fra afls (comp. freffen), and 
with this Olc. afl, r., 'power, strength,' 
and OHG. avaldn, 'to torment oneself, 
work,' are closely connected. In OHG. fra 

was preserved as a fully accented prefix in 
adjs., as in frd-bald, 'daring, 1 from bald, 
' bold.' See %x&fyt (a compound containing 
Goth, fra).— fvcventlid), adv., ' sacrile- 
giously,' first occurs in ModHG., formed 
like etgeittltd), toefontlid}, &c, from the Mid 
HG. adj. vrevtle, but with a change of the 
suffix / into n. 

^trtebe, m., 'peace, tranquillity, quiet,' 
from MidHG. wide, m., 'peace, armistice, 
quiet, protection,' OHQ.frtdu, in., ' peace ' ; 
corresponding to OSax. fritku, in., AS. 
freojx), frijju, f., Olc. fripr, in., ' peace' ; 
the common Teut. word for ' peace.' Found 
in Goth, only in Frifrareiks, equiv. to 
Stiebrid) (lit 'prince of peace'); akin to 
Goth. gafri}>6n, ' to reconcile.' The Teut. 
form frifru- contains the suffix />« like 
Goth. dau-Jm-s, ' death ' ; pritu-s, from an 
Aryan root pri, Teut. fri, lit. ' to love, 
spare' ; JJctebe, orig. ' state of love, forbear- 
ance ' (see frei). It is worth noticing that 
Teut. first coined a word for 'peace,' for 
which no common term can be found in 
the Aryan languages, and the same may 
be said of ' Jtrieg.' See Jpaber. 

^frteb^of, m., 'churchyard'; the orig. 
sense is not exactly ' peaceful enclosure,' 
but rather 'an enclosed place'; akin to 
MidHG. vride, ' enclosure, a place hedged 
in'; MidHG. vrlthof, OHG. frtt/wf, 'en- 
closed space around a church,' must have 
given rise to greitfyof. In their origin Sriebe 
and MidHG. vrit-hof are of course allied ; 
yet vrtt-hqf must be connected chiefly with 
Goth, frei-djan, ' to spare,' OHG. frUen, 
'to cherish, love, protect'; akin also to 

frierert, vb., 'to freeze, feel cold, be 
chilled,' from the equiv. MidHG. vriesen 
(partic, gevrorn), OHG. friosan (partic. 
yifroran) ; the change of s into r has ob- 
tained in all parts of the verb, yet s has 
been preserved in S^icfctn and Qroft. Comp. 
Du. vriezen, AS. fredsan, E. to freeze, Olc. 
Jrj6.<a; Goth. *friusan is wanting, but may 
be inferred with certainty from frius, n., 
' frost, cold.' The change of s into r is 
also shown by AS. fre&rig, adj., 'freezing, 
frosty, stiff,' Olc. frer, neu. plur., 'frost, 
cold.' The Teut. root is freus, fruz, from 
the pre-Teut. root preus, prtis. It appears 
to lie at the base of Lat. prurio for *pntsio, 
'to itch,' if the connecting link in meaning 
is to be found in the 'piercing, itching, 
burning nature of frost.' Olnd. has a root 
jrruS, ' to inject a substance,' which is more 


( 99 ) 


remote in meaning ; akin to Lat. prulua, 
'rime' (for *prusvtua) ; Sans. pruivd, 'drop, 
frozen drop, rime.' Under no circumstances 
can the word be connected with Lat. frigere. 

fries, m., also gfrtefe, f.,' frieze (cloth 
part of a column),' ModHG. only, for- 
merly also in the sense of 'coarse woollen 
stuff'; from Fr. /rise, f., whence E. frieze; 
the Fr. word, like its Romance cognates, is 
itself derived from Teut. ; comp. AS. /rise, 
1 curled,' E. to friz, frizzle, OF lis. frisle, 'hair 
of the head.' 

gtriefeln, partic. plur., ' miliary fever,' 
ModHG. only, from frtcren, which repre- 
sents an earlier friefen. 

frifc^, adj., 'fresh, cool, raw (of a wound),' 
from MidHG. vrisch, OHQ.frisc, adj., 'new, 
young, cheerful, active, pert : ; correspond- 
ing to AS.fersc, E. fresh, OIc. ferskr, ' fresh.' 
The further origin is obscure ; on account 
of its meaning Lat. priscus (akin to prior, 
priits) cannot be allied ; perhaps OHG. 
frisc is derived from fru(j, OHG./rwo. The 
11 G. word found its way at an early period 
into Romance (comp. Ital. fresco, Fr.frais), 
and into E. (frisk). 

3trifd)lmg, m., 'young wild-boar,' from 
MidHG. vrischinc, vrischlinc, m. ; a deri- 
vative of frifefj with the suffixes -ing, -ling. 
The OHG. frisking (fruscing), 'beast of 
offering,' was adopted by OFr. as fresange, 
'young pig.' 

" frificrcn, vb., 'to curl, dress the hair,' 
ModHG. only, from Fr. friser, which is 
again derived from the cognates mentioned 
at the end of the article giie3. 

§frift, f., 'period, appointed time, re- 
spite,' from MidHG. vrist, f., OHG. frist, 
f. (neu.), 'limited period, postponement, 
space of time' ; OSax. frist, AS. first, m., 
OIc. frert, n. plur., 'postponement.' Pro- 
bably not derived from the root fri (see 
frei), 'to love.' It might more reasonably 
be connected with the Goth, verbal par- 
ticle fri in fz-isaJtis, if the meaning of the 
latter were clear. See also {Jltjh 

frol), adj., ' glad, joyous, happy,' from 
MidHG. vrd (gen. vrdwes, vrouwes), OHG. 
frd (inflected form f rawer), 'glad'; cor- 
responding to OSax frao (gen. *frawes, 
fralus), MidDu. vro, 'glad'; a correspond- 
ing word in E. is wanting. OIc. frdr, 
' quick, nimble,' closely agrees in sound ; 
with respect to the meaning, comp. the 
analogous ^latt and E. glad. Thus the sen- 
suous meaning 'nimble' might be taken 
as the starting-point. If the Scand. word 

be disregarded, 'gracious, friendly,' might 
be assumed as the primary meaning, in 
order to connect the word with the expres- 
sions for ' master, lord,' mentioned under 

frof)Iodien, vb., ' to exult, triumph, 
shout for joy,' from MidHG. vrdlocken 
(rare), 'jubilaie'; according to MidHG. 
vr6-sanc, 'song of joy, hallelujah,' pro- 
bably a corruption of an earlier form, 
frdleichen ; OHG. and MidHG. *cr6-leich 
would be also lit. ' song of joy.' E. to frolic 
is derived from Du. vrolijl; 'joyous.' 

frof)tt, adj., ' lordly, holy,' now only 
preserved as the first component in archaic 
compounds; from MidHG. vron, adj., 're- 
lating to the master or lord, sacred.' In 
OHG. there appears instead of an adj. 
*fr6n a petrified form frdno, ' magnificent, 
divine, sacred,' which is prop, a gen. plur. 
of fr6, ' lord ' (used only in the vocative). 
In MidHG. vr6n appears in numerous com- 
pounds for the temporal lord, as well as for 
the Ktipios, 'the lord,' /car' ifaxfyy 'Christ' ; 
comp. MidHG. vr&nltchnam, m., ' Christ's 
body, the host,' ModHG. ftrofyiileidjnam ; 
MidHG. vr&nkriuze, OHG. daz frdno chrtizi, 
' the cross of Christ ' ; MidHG. vr&nalter, 
'high altar,' &c. ; also vr6nJiof, 'mansion,' 
vr&nwalt, 'a wood belonging to the lord,' 
vr6nreht, 'public right.' ModHG. retained 
fttofutbienjl, from MidHG. vrdndienst ; see 
frofjnen. As toOHG./r<5,'0 lord,' stress must 
belaid on its correspondence to AS. fred, 
' lord,' as well as OSax. frao. Goth, has 
a form with j, frauja, m. (AS. frSgea), 
'lord,' which is seen in HG. in the fern, 
forms ORG.frouwa, MidHG. vrouwe, Goth. 
*frauj6. With these some connect in 
Scand. the names of the deities Freyr and 
Freyja. Whether the stem fraun-, for 
frawun- and fraujan-, in the sense of 
' gracious, friendly,' is allied to the adj. 
frof), ' glad,' remains to be proved. Comp. 

^trof)nc, f., 'compulsory Bervice, vil- 
leinage,' from MidHG. vr&ne, f., 'villein 
socage.' See fro bit. 

fxSfyncn, frofyncn, vb., 'to serve,' from 
MidHG. vrdntn (yroenen) 'to serve, perform 
villein socage.' See fro^n, ffrefjiif. 

fromm, adj., ' worthy, pious, harmless,' 
from MidHG. vrum (inflected form vrumer\ 
adj., 'able, excellent, good, gallant, con- 
ducive.' The MidHG. adj. is prop, a subst, 
(comp. ©(fcabf); MidHG./rum,/ru«J«,OHG. 
fruma, f, ' use, advantage' (frwnmen, 'to 


( ioo ) 


promote, accomplish'). Akin to the AS. 
forms with a gradation, fram, adj., ' brave, 
conducive,' fremman, ' to promote, accom- 
plish'; comp. OIc. framr. * preferable,' 
and fremja, ' to execute.' Also allied more 
remotely to the OTeut terms for 'primus.' 
See gurjh fieri, furfcct, &c. 

gtrofd), m., 'frog,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. vrosch, OHG. frosk, m.; corresponding 
to Du. vorsch, AS.forsc (E. dial, froslc), OIc. 
froslcr, ' frog ' ; Goth. *frusqa- is by chance 
not recorded. Before the deriv. &fe a gut- 
tural has dropped out, as is eeen in the 
cognate terms. AS.frogga, E. frog, would 
be in Goth. *frugga (*frvgwaX) ; also akin 
to AS. frocca, earlier E. dial. /rocfe, as well 
as OIc. fraukr, 'frog' (so too MidE. fr&te, 
froute, ' toad '). Goth. *frusqa-, for *fruh- 
sqa-, would therefore be connected with a 
it root ending in a guttural ; perhaps the 
pre-Ttut. root prukl. Hence the attempts 
to connect the word with frifd) or fricrett, to 
which the meaning is also opposed, must 
be rejected. 

gtroft, m., 'frost, cold, chill,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. vrost, OB.G. frost, m. ; conip. 
Du. vorst, AS.forst, E. frost, OIc. frost, n., 
' frost, cold ' ; a common Tent, abstract of 
fricren, Goth. *friusan. Goth. *frustu-, in., 
n., ' frost,' is wanting. 

5»rud)f , f., ' fruit, crop, product,' from 
MidHG. vruht, OHG. fruht, f., 'fruit'; 
corresponding to OSax. fruht, Du. vrucht, 
OFris. frucht. Based on Lat. fructvs, which 
perhaps at the same period as ^Pfkuije and 
a number of botanical terms, found its way 
into German. 

frill), adj., adv., ' early, prematurely),' 
from MidHG. vriieje, adj., 'early,' vruo, 
adv., 'early' (hence sometimes the Mod 
HG. fruh unmodified) ; OHG. frurji, adj., 
fnio, adv., 'early'; comp. Du. vroeg, adj. 
and adv., ' early.' Goth. *fr6 (or rather 
*frau6 for *f 1-661), adv., is wanting. Pre- 
Teut prd- appears also in Gr. vpuft, ' early, 
early in the morning,' irputa, f., 'morning,' 
irpdj'uK, 'early' ; akin to Sans, prdtar, adv., 
' early in the morning.' Allied more re- 
motely to tor, Sinfl, »crterf, &c. (also frif<$ ?). 
It is curious that the OAryan adv., in the 
sense of ' early in the morning,' is restricted 
to Ger. In Scand., E., and Goth, it is 
wanting ; the words used being Goth, air, 
OIc. dr, AS. cer, 'early in the morning' 
(see elje). Moreover, its special meaning 
was universally diffused at an early period. 
See ftruljlittg. 

gtra&Urtg, m., 'spring,' a deriv. of fiuh, 
early ModHG. only — from the 15th cent.; 
8cnj is the old West Tent. term. 

3?ud)S, m., 'fox, light bay horse, cun- 
ning person, freshman (univ.),' from the 
equiv. MidHG. vuhs, OHG. fuhs, m. ; cor- 
responding to Du. vos, AS. and E. fox; 
Goth. *fadhs-, in. (weak subst), is not 
found. The * is a inasc. sullix, as in Sud)$ ; 
it is wanting, therefore, in the older fern, 
form, OHG. foha, MidHG. vo/ie, f., 'vixen ' 
(also 'fox,' equiv. to Goth. faW\6, f., ' fox,' 
OIc foa, 'fox'). OIc. fox, n., is used only 
in the figurative sense of 'deceit.' The 
ModHG. lent, form gticfoftit corresponds to 
AS. fyxen, E. vixen. Goth. fatih6, f., from 
pre-Teut. pdkd, makes it appear possible 
10 connect the word phonetically with Mod 
HG. ffipgrf, Goth, fugls, pre-Teut. pvJtlds, 
in case Sans, pucc/ia, ' tail, train,' is of a 
cognate stem ; gucfytf and SSoflff, meaning 
' tailed creatures,' is quite possible. At all 
events, there is no connection with Lat. 
L. vulpes. 

Sudflel, f., earlier ModHG. ffcrttrf, 
'broadsword, a blow struck with it,' first 
occurs in ModHG. ; akin to fcd)tcn. 

gtuber, n., from the equiv. MidHG. 
vuodtr, OHG. fuodar, n , ' me isure (vary- 
ing from 36 to 72 bushels, of wine about 
1200 bottles), waggon-load' ; comp. OSax. 
f&thar, Du. voer, AS.f6per, 'measure, wag- 
gon-load,' E. folh'T, fodder, a term in 
mining. Hence the common West Teut 
term f6J>r, n., 'waggon-load,' from the 
Teut root fa/> in gubett. From HG, Fr. 
fuudre is derived. 

§?ug, m., ' adapted ness, due authority, 
right,' from MidHG. vuoc{g\ m., 'pro- 
priety,' as well as the equiv. vuoge, f., Mod 
HG. gucje, akin to fua,cn. 

^rUCje, f., 'fugue,' first occurs in early 
ModHG., from lta).fuga. 

ffigett, vk, 'to fit together, connect ' ; 
(refl.) ' to accommodate oneself,' from Mid 
HG. viiegeit, OHG. fuogen, ' to shape or 
unite suitably ' ; comp. Du. voegen, AS. 
grf#gan y E. to fay ('to suit, unite') ; Goth. 
*f6gja» t 'to make suitable,' is a factitive of 
the Teut root fag, in Goth, fajrs, 'suit- 
able, fitted,' whose nearer cognates are to 
be found under fe^tn ; E. tofadge ('to suit, 
join'X may also be mentioned here. 

furjlett, vb., 'to feel, be sensible of, be 
sensitive to,' a MidG. and LG. word incor- 
porated in literary Ger. since Luther's 
time (in Suab. and Alem. fpuren and uuricii, 


( ioi ) 


and in Bav. eitipftnben are used) ; from the 
equiv. MidHG. viielen, OHG. fuolen (OHG. 
also 'to touch'); comp. OSax. gifdlian, 
Da. voelen, AS. filan, E. to feel ; a common 
West Teut. word for 'to feel' (Goth. *fol- 
jan). Akin to OIc. falma, 'to grope.' 
With the Teut. root j "61, fal, an old term for 
' hand ' is connected ; OSax. folm, AS.folm, 
OHO. folma, ' hand ' (nrimit. allied to Sans 
pdni, Gr. iraXdfiv, Lat. palma, Olr. lam for 

^fltfcre, f., 'journey, conveyance, wag- 
gon, cart-load,' from MidHG. viwre, f., 
journey, way, street, escort, food for a 
'journey, fodder,' OHG. fuora ; comp. AS. 
for, f., 'journey,' also 'vehicle'; akin to 
fasten. See also ftUjrcu. 

fttforen, vb., 'to carry, conduct, deal in, 
manage,' from 1M idHG. viieren, OHG. fuoren, 
'to put in motion, guide, lead'; a facti- 
tive of fasten (OHG./aron), like ModHG. 
Uiten, a factitive of OHG. lldan, 'to go, 
drive'; comp. O^ax. forian, Du. voeren, 
'to lead,' OIc. fosra, 'to bring.' Goth. 
*forjan is wanting ; AS. feran means ' to 
go, march.' Hence the sense 'to lead' is 
essetitially Ger. 

fitttctt, vb., 'to fill,' from MidHG. 
viillen, OHG. fullen, ' to make full' ; a de- 
rivative of ttol(. Comp. Goth, fulljan, OIc. 
fylla, AS. fyllan, E. to fill, Du. vullen, OSax. 
fullian, 'to till'; also »o((. — ^ullc, f., 
'abundance, plenty,' from MidHG. viille, 
OHG. fulll, 'fulness'; comp. Goth, ufar- 
fullei, f'., 'superabundance.' 

^fullcit, n., from the equiv. MidHG. 
viiltn, ORQ.fulin, n., besides MidHG. ville, 
OHQr.fuli,n., 'foal' ; for the affix -^denot- 
ing the young of animals, see under (Scfyhxin. 
Based upon goljten (Goth fula) ; hence 
*ful-ein, n. has to be assumed in Goth. ; 
comp. MidLG. vblen, Du. veulen, OIc. fyl. 
Another derivative of ful- is OHG. fuliltha, 
MidHG. viilhe, f., 'filly,' pointing to Goth. 

gtuHfcl, n., 'stuffing,' from the equiv. 
late MiuHG. viilsel, n. ; a derivative of \jiMl 
with modification ; for the suffix -sel, from 
OHG. isal, Goth, isl, see Olatfel. 

gtltnb, m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
vunt, m., ' finding, discovery, find' ; allied 
to fxufcen ; comp. Du. vond, 'discovery, in- 
vention,' OIc. fundr, fyndr. 

fi'Utf, card, num., 'five,' from MidHG. 
viivf, OHG. fuvf, also earlier fivf; cor- 
responding to Goth, fimf, OIc. fimrri, AS. 
fif, E. five, Du vijf, OSax. flf. Goth. 

fimf, from pre-Teur. pempe, penqe (for the 

Serniutation of Aryan q to Teut. / see 
ttjrt, »ter, 9Bolf) ; comp. Sans, pdhcan, 
Gr. vivre (ir^tiire, ir^/xirros), Lat. quinque (for 
*pinque), Lith. penkl, Olr. c6ic, "W. pimp ; 
a common Teut term, like all numbers 
from 2 to 10 ; the oldest form is pdnqe, 
penke. The attempts to discover the root 
with some such meaning as 'hand,' and to 
connect the word with Singer, have pro- 
duced no result. The Aryan numerals are 
presented to us as compact forms, the ori- 
gin of which is obscure. The ord. ffmfte is, 
like all ordinals, a derivative of an old 
form ; Goth, fimfta, OHG. fimfto, funfto, 
MidHG. viinfte; Du. vijjde, AS. fffta, E. 
fifth. Comp. Lat. quintus for *pinctus, 
Gr. irtniTTCK, Sans, pahcathas, Lith. penktas. 

gtUttfee, m, from the equiv. MidHG. 
(not a classical form) vuntce, m., OHG. 
funcho, m., 'spark'; comp. Du. vonk, 
' spark,' MidLG. and MidE. funke, ' small 
fire, spark,' E. funk, ' round wood, steam, 
stink.' Classical MidHG. has vanlce, m. 
It is uncertain whether Goth. f6n (gen. 
funins), 'fire,' i3 allied; it is more pro- 
bable that Sans, pdjas, 'splendour, gleam 
of light,' is priinit. cognate. 

fur, prep., 'for, in behalf of,' from Mid 
HG. vilr, OHG. furi, 'before, for' ; comp. 
OSax. furi, 'before ' ; a Ger. prep, simply, 
allied to those discussed under Dor. — fftr- 
ba|J2, adv., 'forward, further,' from Mid 
HG. viirba^. adv., from fur and fcajj. 

3?ltrcl)e, f., from the equiv. MidHG. 
vurch (plur. vilr/ie), OHG. fundi, f., 'fur- 
row'; comp. Du. voor, AS. fxirh, f., E. 
furrow (akin to AS. and E. furlong, 'the 
length of a farrow') ; OIc. for, f., 'drain, 
watercourse.' Goth. *fattrhus, f., is want- 
ing. It is based upon pre-Teut prk- ; comp. 
Lat. porca, 'ridge between two furrows,' 
and porexdetum, 'field divided into beds' ; 
akin also to Armen. herk, ' freshly ploughed 
fallow land,' VV. rhych (OGall. *ricd, Olr. 
rech), m., f., ' furrow,' from the base prkd. 

§tUrd)f, f., 'fear, terror, fright,' from 
MidHG. vorhte, vorht, f., 'fear, anxiety, 
apprehension,' OHG. and OSax. firrhta, 
forahta ; abstr. of furd)ten. In AS. a modi- 
fied abstr. is found ; comp. AS. fyrhto 
(Goth faurhtei), hence E. fright, whence 
to frighten, to fright ; E. fear (see @ffaljr), 
is not a cognate. — fur<f)fcn, ' to fear, 
dread,' from MidHG. viirhten (pret. vorhte), 
OHG. furihten, forahtan (pret. forahta), ' to 
be afraid'; comp. OSax. forahtjan, AS. 


( IC2 ) 


forhtian; Du. ami Sound, are wanting; 
Goth, faurhtjan, ' to fear, be afraid,' with the 
partic./a6r/rts, ' timid,' used as an adj. The 
dental of the vb., which was probably strong 
orig., is a suffix of the present stem, hence 
Tent, furh-tjan; the corresponding abstr. 
ORG.furh-ta is formed like Scfyanbe. To 
the Teut root fork (Aryan prk ?, qerk ?), Lat. 
querquerus, 'shivering,' and Gr. icapKalpu, 
• to tremble,' have been allied. 

ffiroer, adv., • further,' from MidHG. 
vurder, OHG. furdir, adv., 'further in 
front, further on, away ' ; apparently an 
oblique form of the compar.neut., like Goth. 
faurfns, ' formerly,' from fort, Goth. *faur]>; 
AS.fwJ>or,i\dv., 'forward, further, more dis- 
tantly '(Goth. *faiirj>6s), E. further. See fort. 

gturfcc, f., 'pitchfork,' from MidHG. 
furke, OHG. furcha, f., 'fork' ; comp. Du. 
vork, AS. and E. fork; from Lat. furca, 
introduced early in the OHG. period along 
with Southern horticulture. 

§?urff, m., 'sovereign, chief, prince,' 
from MidHG. viirste, m., 'the highest, most 
distinguished, ruler, prince,' OHG. furisto, 
OSax. furisto, Du. vorst, 1 prince' ; like^err. 
simply a Ger. form. Just as Jpettis orig. a 
compar. of l)er- r, so is §urjt prop, a super- 
lat. meaning * tirst' ; comp. OHG. furist,, E. first, Olc. fyr>tr; Goth. *fau- 
ristn is wanting ; the corresponding compar. 
is OHG. furiro, ' the former, preferable,' 
Olc. fyrre, ' former.' The usual OSax. and 
AS. word for ' first' is formo, forma, with 
the suffix ma (Goth, fruma) ; from Aryan 
pr like Gr. xpSfUK, Sans, p&rva-s, OSlov. 
pruvU, Lith. plrmas, ' first' It is evident 
that also for, fur, fort, &c, are derivatives 
of this Aryan root pr. 

gfwf, f. (UpG. masc. also), 'ford,' from 
the equiw MidHG. and OHG. vurt, m. ; 
comp. OSax. *ford in Hertford (lit. 'lord's 
ford '), §erefcrb ; MidDu. vord, AS. ford, m.,; comp. AS. Oxenaford (lit. 'oxen's 
ford'), 'Oxford' (also <S$»einfurt, (Srfurt). 
Goth. *fa&rdus, ' ford,' is wanting. It be- 
longs to the Teut. too: far, 'to go, march,' 
and hence signifies lit. ' a frequented, pass- 
able spot'; comp. Gr. x6/>os, 'ford,' which 
has a cognate root, and /36<nro/xw with Ox- 
ford; also Zend peretu, ' bridge' (Euphrates, 
lit. ' having many bridges ' ?) ; so too Lat. 
p<>rtus, * port ' ; Olc. fJQro'r, in., ' bay.' Lat. 
-ritum (for *pritum) in Augustoritum, from 
Kelt, is also allied to this word. 

fit fd)Ctt, vb., ' to perform hastily, cheat,' 
ModHG. only, of obscure origin. 

3?ufcl, m., ' bad brandy,' probably from 
chemical technology (L&t. fustli*,* liquid ' ?). 

5tU|?, m., 'foot, base, pedestal, footing,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. vuot,, OHG. /U03, 
m., ' foot' ; a common Teut. and more re- 
motely a common Arvan term for ' foot 1 ; 
comp. Goth, fvtus, Olc. f6tr, AS. fit, E. 
foot, Du. voet, OSax. f6t. The Teut. f6t 
(weak subst), from Aryan p6d-, which in- 
terchanged with Arvan pod- and pSd in 
declension. Comp. Gr. -woS- in x65a, nom. 
sing, rots (jEoI. tc6s) ; Lat. pid-em, nom. 
sing. pes; nciSCkov, ' sandal,' xef6s (for rtdjdt), 
' on foot' ; gradation in Lat tripudium ; 
OInd. nom. sing, pdd (locat. padi), 'foot,' 
padd, neu., ' tread, footstep.' The e grada- 
tion is preserved in Teut. by Olc. ft, n., 
' step,' but as a measure ' foot' (Lith. peda, 
'mark of the foot'); akin to Olc. feta, 
' to find the way,' OHG. fetfan, ' to go.' 
Respecting Olc. fjgturr see geflVl ; Olc. fit, 
{., ' the skin of birds between the claws.'\E. fetlak, E. fetlock ; thus too MidHG. 
vi^eloch, 'hough,' earlier ModHG. Siplodj ; 
thev are derivatives (not compounds) of 
*fet-, 'foot.'— gtufjflapfe, f., 'footstep, 
trace,' from flaffett ; often divided wrongly 
into gufidapfe, which would originate in a 
verb tapfett for jlajjfen. 

puffer, n., from the eqtiiv. MidHG. 
vuoter, OHG. fuotar, n., ' nourishment, food, 
fodder, lining, case' ; comp. Du. voeder, n., 
'fodder, lining'; AS. fddor, n.. E. fodder; 
Olc. /dor, n., 'fodder'; Goth. fSdr, n., 
'scabbard.' Two really different words 
seem to have converged phonetically in this 
term. Goth. *f6dr, 'nourishment,' seems 
to be connected with AS. fCda, ' nourish- 
ment,' E. food, Goth, fddjan, AS. fidan, 
E. to feed, and consequently with a Teut. 
root fod, fad (comp. OHG. fatunga, 'nour- 
ishment, food'), from Aryan pat. which 
also appears in Gr. irarlonai, ' to eat ' ; like- 
wise akin to AS. fdstor, ' maintenance,' E. 
to foster, foster-brother, &c. The second, 
Sutter, ' case,' Goth. f6dr, ' sheath,' has 
been thought to be allied to Sans, pdtra-m, 
n., ' vessel, receptacle.' The Teut. cognates 
in both senses found their way into Rom. ; 
comp. Prov. and OFr. fuerre (ModFr. 
feurre), ' sheath,' formed from Goth. fSdr, 
OHG. fiiotar, ' sheath,' ModFr. feurre, 
' straw for feeding cattle,' ModFr. fourreau, 
' case, sheath,' &c. 

fuileral, n., ' case, lining, sheath,' Mod 
only, from MidLat fotrale, a derivative 
of OHG/dfar, MidHG. ruofer; comp. gutter. 


( 103 ) 


filttexix, vb., equiv. to Mi<lHG. viietern, 
vuotem, ' to feed, nourish,' OHG. fuotiren 

(Goih. *f6drjan) ; a derivative of gutter, 
' nourishment.' 


Qabe, L'jp&f From the equiv. MidHG. 
gdbe, f. ; OHG. *gdba and Goth. *giba are 
wanting ; instead OHG. geba (MidHG. gebe 
with the dial, variant gippe), f., occurs, 
OSax. geba, AS. gifu, OIc. gjgf, Goth, giba, 
f., * gift.' The forms corresponding to the 
assumed Goth. *giba are seen in Du. gaaf 
and OSwed. gdfa. 

Q&be, adj., ' acceptable, in vogue, stylish,' 
from MidHG. gcebe (OHG. *gdbi), adj., 
'acceptable, dear, good'; Goth. *g6bi- is 
related to giban (see geben), just as nSms is 
to niman (see gdnge, attgenebm) ; comp. OIc. 
gdefr, 'salutary,' Du. gaaf, 'suitable. 

(Sabcl, f., 'fork, s haft 8 (of a vehicle),' 
from the equiv. MidHG. gabele, gabel, OHG. 
gabala, gabal, f, ; corresponding to Du. 
gaffel (hence Modlc. gaffall, 'fork'), AS. 
rarely, geaful, m., ' fork ' (for which, even in 
1 he AS. period, fore, E. fork occurs), ©abet 
seems to be related by gradation to@iebet,and 
inthat case the oldest shape of the fork must 
have been a sort of acute angle like a gable. 
Yet the supposition that the word was bor- 
rowed is not to be rejected, especially since 
'the form of an acute angle' can hardly 
be the prim, meaning of ©iebel. Note the 
correspondence with Kelt, words ; Olr. 
gabul, 'fork,' gab/da, 'shears,' W. gebe', 
' tongs,' Lat. gabalus ' (gable-shaped) gal- 
lows ' ; to these also OInd. gdbhasti, 'fork, 
shaft,' may be allied, in which case it would 
follow that the West Teut. ©abet is perhaps 
primit. allied to the Kelt, class. 

flacftcrn, gatftfen, vb., 'to cackle, chat- 
ter,' simply AlodHG. ; imitative forms like 
MidHG. gdgen, * to cackle like a goose.' 
akin to Du gagelen, ' to gabble,' and even in 
OHG. gaclctz&n, ' to mutter,' gagizdn, gackaz- 
zen, 'to bawl,' MidHG. gagzen, 'to cluck 
like a hen laying.' Comp. Scand. gagga, 
' to howl like a fox,' gagl, ' wild goose, E. 
to gar/gle. 

$ttOcn, Oooocm. m. and n., ' room, cot- 
tage, storey,' from MidHG. and MidLG. ga- 
den, gadevi, n., ' house containing one room 
only ' then generally 'apartment, chamber,' 
OHG. gadum, gadam, n. ; orig. a merely 
UpG. word, which found its way, however, 

even into LG. Akiu to Goth. *gatm (from 
go- and tmo-, the latter related to Gr. 56/xos, 
fj.£<r6-S/ii], and HG. 3itttmet) ?. Less pro- 
bably allied to AS. geat, E. gate (comp. Du. 
gat, ' opening,' under ©affe). At all events, 
the connection with Gr. x tT «"> ' garment,' 
is impossible. 

gaffen, vb., ' to gape at,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. (MidG.) gaffen, OHG. *gaffSn (de- 
duced from OHG. gefjiJa, f., ' contempla- 
tion'); Goth. *gapan is wanting. The 
ordinary MidHG. and OHG. words for the 
modern gaffen are kapfen and chapfSn (Goth. 
*kappan, vb., is wanting). Hence, accord- 
ing to the sounds, the two words are radi- 
cally different ; in the ModHG. period, 
MidHG. kapfen has given way to gaffen. 
The latter signifies lit. ' to look on with 
open mouth'; comp. Du. gapen and the 
equiv. E. to gape, OIc. gapa, ' to open the 
mouth wide,' gap, ' chaos.' The Teut. root 
17a/), 'to gape,' is allied to Sans, root jabh, 
' to snap ' ?. 

fldfjc, see jar). 

fld^ncn, vb., ' to yawn, gape,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. ginen (genen, geinen), OHG. 
giuSn (gein6n) ; ModHG. ae for 8. Goth. 
*gi- nai-. from the root gi, 'to gape' ; comp. 
AS. ginian, g&nian, ' to gape.' OIc. and 
AS. possess a str. vb. formed from the root 
gi, and n orig. a suffix of the present stem — 
OIc. gina, AS. tdgtnan, 'to bark'; comp. also 
OIc. gin, n., 'jaw of animals.' OHG. gUn, 
' to gape,' is formed without the suffix n; so 
too with a derivative w, OHG. giwSn, geiodn, 
MidHG. gi'cen, gSicen, ' to open the mouth 
wide.' The Teut. root gi, from pre-Teut. gki, 
is widely diffused, especially in West Teut. 
Comp. Lat. hiare (for Lat. h, representing 
Teut. g, see ©erjle and ©aft), OSlov. zijati, 
' to ^ape, bark,' Lith. zidti, ' to open the 
mouth wide ' ; Olr. gin, ' mouth ' (OIc 
gin) ; Lat. hiscn ; Gr. x"&> ' hole,' for x«f <* ?• 

($ctlftcmt, m., 'galnngal.' from the equiv. 
MidHG. galgan,galgdn, galgant, m. ; comp. 
MidE. galingal', E. mlangal ; a medicinal 
herb of the Middle Ages, known under the 
same name to Rom. (comp. I tab galanga, 
Ft. galanga — MidLat. galanga; also Mid 


( 104 ) 


Gr. TaXAyya). The origin of the term hns 
probably been rightly ascribed to the East ; 
some etymologists compare it with Arab 

$afgen, m., 'gallows, gibbet, cross- 
beam,' from MidHG. galge, OHG, galgo, 
m., • gallows (also applied to the cross of. 
Christ), frame over a well from which the 
bucket is hung to draw water.' It corre- 
sponds to OSax. galgo, Du. galg, AS. gealgrt, 
E. gallows (the plur. used as a sing., yet 
comp. gallow-tree), OIc. galge, ' gallows,' 
Goth, galga, in. (applied to the cross of 
Christ, as also in all the other OTeut. dia- 
lects) ; a common Teut. word, Tent, gal- 
gan-, pre-Te ut. g 1 algha- ; comp. Lith. zalga, 
f., 'pole.' Note the double sense of the 
MidHG. and OHG. word. Probably some 
such idea as a 'long pliable rod' is the 
starting-point of the various meanings of 
the cognates. 

(§aUapfcf , m., ' gall, gall-nut,' first oc- 
curs in early ModHG., from Lat. galla, 
whence also, probably, the equiv. AS. galloc ; 
cump. E. oak-gall (galloak). See ©al(e (2.). 

(Settle (1.), f., ' gall, bile,' from the equi v. 
MidHG. galle, OHG. galla, f. ; common to 
Teut. in the same sense (only in Goth, is 
the WBak neu. *gaH6 not recorded) ; comp. 
OSax. galla, Du. gal, AS. gealla, OIc. gall,r\. 
Like a great number of terms relating to the 
body (see gup, £crj, 9here, Stafe, CI;r), @a(!e 
too has numerous correspondences in the 
cognate languages, which points to the an- 
tiquity of the Aryan term (Goth. *gallin- or 
*galzin-, from pre-Teut. glial-) ; comp. Gr. 
X0X77, x<5Xos, Lat. fel, fellis, n., ' gall.' Many 
etymologists connect the word with gelb 
(OHG. gelo), as if gall was named from its 
colour; OSlov. zlucl, 'gall' (from *gllkl), 
is, certainly allied to Russ. ielknutl, ' to turn 

@<xUe (2.), f., 'barbel,' from MidHG. 
galle, f., 'swelling above the knee on the 
hind-leg of a horse' ; comp. E. gall (swell- 
ing, sore spot, gall-nut) ; it is questionable 
whether @a(U9lpffl is allied to the word. 
Also in Romance, Ital. galla and Span. 
ag din, signify ' swelling, tumour, gall-nut.' 
Hence the Lat.-Rom. galla, 'gall-nut,' was 
perhaps the source of the Teut. terms. Yet 
it is possible that the foreign word has 
been confused with a Teut. word similar 
in sound, especially since Swed. dialects 
also have a term grasgaller, 'swelling on 
the hoof of a horse.' 

^ttUcrfc, f., 'jelly,' from MidHG. gal- 

hert, galhart, galreide, f., 'jelly of animal 
and vegetable matter.' MidLat. gdlatina, 
'jelly,' as well as Fr. geUe (from Lat gelare), 
cannot, for phonetic reasons, serve as the 
source of the MidHG. word ; the origin is 
still obscure. 

(Satinet, m., 'calamine,' first occurs in 
early ModHG., with the older variant 
Jtalitui; once in MidHG. lalemtne; from 
MidLat. and Rom. ; comp. MidLat. lapis 
calaminaris, Fr. calamine; earlier Lat. cad- 
mia, Gr. Ka.bii.da., 'calamine.' 

(Salopp, m., 'gallop,' borrowed from 
Fr. galop, even in the MidHG. period, as 
is proved by MidHG. galopiiren, of which 
the variant walopieren occurs (comp. Mid 
HG. icalap, 'galop,' E. wallop). The Rom. 
words on which they are based are derived 
by some etymologists from a Teut. source, 
though it cannot be assigned to any satis- 
factory root; some assume a Goth-Teut. 
*walh-hlaup, which is supposed to denote 
a Kelt, method of trotting. 

0amcmber, m., ' germander,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. gamandri; from MidLat. 
chamandreus, gamandraea, which is based 
upon Gr. x«Ma*fywy, \afialopvov, ' germander.' 

(Scmerbe, m., 'joint-heir, co-proprietor,' 
from MidHG. ganerbe (from ge-an-erbe), m., 
' next co-heir, especially a co-heir with the 
right of obtaining the property of his fellow- 
inheritors at theirdeath,'OHG. ganarbo, 'co- 
heir' (Goth. *gadna-arbja, m.). The prefix 
ga, representing Lat. con-, ' together with,' 
was current in OTeut. See ©cnojj, ©cfiue. 

(Sang, m., ' going, movement, gait, pas- 
sage,' from the equiv. MidHG. ganc(g), 
OHG. gang, m., 'gait, walking'; corre- 
sponding to OSax. gang, Da. gang, AS. 
gong, m., 'walking, gait (comp. E. ganj t 
gangway, and gangweek), OIc. gangr } m., 
' gait, walking,' Goth, gaggs, ' lane.' Also 
in older Teut. a str. vb. gangan, 'to go,' of 
which only the pret. gtitg and the partic. 
gegangftt are still current in ModHG. In 
East Teut., in which gdjen is wanting, 
ganga (OIc.) and gaggan (Goth.) have a 
wider range ; yet comp. OS wed. and ODan. 
ga, ' to go.' In West Teut. part of geften has 
l>een lost ; in E., differing in this respect 
from G., the older gangan has become en- 
tirely obsolete. Teut. root gang, pre-Teut. 
ghangh. The only correspondences in other 
Aryan languages are Sans, jdnghd, f., ' leg, 
foot,' Lith. zengiti (zingti), 'to 6tep,' akin 
to Lith. prazanga, 'trespa-s.' 

gauge, adj., ' current, in vogue, cus- 


( 105 ) 


tomary,' from MidHG. genge, OHG. gengi, 
'ordinary, scattered,' orig. 'capable of going, 
or ratlier of circulating ' ; a verbal adj. from 
the root gang (see the preceding word), 
formed like ga&c, cutaniefym, fli'uige. 

$ans, f., ' goose,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. gans, OHG. gam, f. ; a common Tent, 
term for 'goose,' unrecorded in Goth, only, 
in which *gans, f. (plur. *gans) may have 
been the form {comi>. Span, ganso, adopted 
from it). To this correspond AS. g6s (6 
from an before s), plur. gls (owing to the 
i mutation), f., E. goose, plur. geese; OIc. 
gas, f., from pre-Teut ghans-\ Du. gans; 
one of the few names of birds to be ascribed 
to a primit. Aryan origin, since it recurs in 
most of the languages of the Aryan group ; 
Sans, hansd-s, m., hansi, f., 'goose,' Mod 
Pers. ydz, Lith. zqsls (OSlov. gqsX is bor- 
rowed from Tent.), Gr. xv v , Lat. anser (for 
*hanser), Olr. ge'is, 'swan' (from ghansi). 
The s of Aryan ghans- seems to be a suffix 
(comp. i$ud)$, SKenat) ; at least Teut. words 
of cognate stem point to ghan- as the more 
primitive form ; comp. OHG. gana^o, Mid 
HG. ganze, genz, m., 'gander,' Du. gent, 
'gander,' AS. ganot, E. gannet ('swan'); 
AS. gandra, E. gander. Pliny informs us 
that large flocks of geese were kept in 
Germania, and that the birds or their 
feathers were sent even to Home ; one 
species was said to be called gantae by the 
Teutons ; a similar term is known in Rom. 
(Prov. ganta, OFr. gante, 'wild goose'), 
which borrowed it from Teut. To the 
Teut. ganta, from pre-Teut. ganda, the 
Olr. gad, 'goose' (Lith. gdndras, 'stork'), 
is primit. allied. 

^cinfcrid), m., 'gander, wild tansy,' 
ModHG. simply, formed like (Sutcrid), from 
an earlier ©anfet (still found in many of 
the UpG. dialects ; in Alsat. gunSter, MiclG. 
gdnsert), MidHG. ganger, also gan$e, ganze, 
m., 'gander.' Coni[>. LG. gante, Scand. gasst 
for gdsse, 'gander'; see ©antf. The plant 
©cnfcrid; is a corruption of an earlier @rcn- 
faid) ; comp. Fr. bee d'oie, Ital. pid doca. 
The MidHG. and OHG. term is grensinc 
(even (tensing also in OHG.). 

piant, f., 'auction, bankruptcy,' an UpG. 
word (unknown to the Suab. dial.), from 
MidHG. gant, L 'sale to the highest bid- 
ders, auction.' Not from Fr. gant, 'glare.' 
It is not true that "affixing a glove (in a way) lias given rise to the terms 
©ant and SBcrgantimg, denoting a distress 
on real property." The term is more pro- 

bably derived from Prov. Vencant, McdFr. 
Vencan, ' auction ' (Ital. incanto, from Lai. 
in quantum), whence E. cant, ' auction.' 

{Jttnj, adj., ' whole, complete, entire,' from 
MidHG. and OHG. ganz, adj., 'uninjured, 
complete, whole, healthy,' prop, a HG. 
word simply, which was adopted, however, 
by the Teut. dialects of MidEurope (Dan. 
ganske, Du. gansch, OFris. gans; n would 
not have been retained before s in a native 
Dan. or Fris. word. The early history of 
OHG. ganz is obscure ; if its primary mean- 
ing is ' encircling,' it is perhaps connected 
with Gr. x^Sd^w, ' to comprise ' ; comp. 
Gr. xcu^j, 'spacious'?, 

$cir, adj. (and adv.), ' finished, ready, 
done' (of cooked food), from MidHG. gar 
(inflect, garwer), adj.,<jrare, adv., OHG. yaro 
(infl. garawer), adj., garo, gurawo, adv., 
' made ready,' armed, prepared, complete, 
entiie' ; corresponding to OSax. garo, AS. 
gearo (adv., gearwe also), E. yare, OIc. ggrr 
(adv. ggrwa), 'ready, prepared, made'; 
Goth. *garwa- is wanting. The adj. was 
really used as a panic, the suffix xco in 
Ind., combines with the root pac, 'to cook,' 
forming the partic. pakvd-s, 'cooked, done' 
(of food). Besides AS. gearo, ' ready,' a 
remarkable form, earo, is found with the 
same meaning, and in OSax. aru as well 
as gara ; these forms point to Goth. *garwa 
ami *arwa, ' prepared, made ready.' Heme 
some have identified the two classes regard- 
ing the g of *garwa- as the remnant of the 
verbal particle Goth, ga (HG. ge). 

Qathe (1.), f-, 'sheaf,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. garbe, OHG. garba, f. ; correspond- 
ing to OSax. garba, Du. garf, 'sheaf' ; lit. 
'handful, manipulum.' Hence from the 
Sans. root grbh, 'to lay hold of, seize,' grdbhd, 
' handful,' Lett, grabas, fem. plur., 'a bundle 
hastily collected,' Liih. grtpti, 'to seize,' 
and gr6pti } ' to snatch.' In the HG. dialects 
gravpen, grapfen, garden, &c, are also allied 
to the Aryan root ghrbh ; so too Du. grab- 
belen,T£i. to grabble. The cognates found their 
way into Romance (Fr. gerbe, f., 'sheaf'). 

&avbe (2.), (the same is ©djafgartv, 
' milfoil')) f., 'millefolium,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. garwe, OHG. ganca, garau-a, f., 
'millefolium'; corresponding to AS. gearewe, 
f., E. yairow, Du. gerw, ' millefolium. ' 
Whether it is related to gar (Teut. cartm-) 
is uncertain. 

fliircri, vb., ' to ferment, effervesce, 
bubble,' a combination as to its form of a 
str. vb. MidHG. gerin, jesen) OHG., 


( 106 ) 


'to ferment, foam,' and the corresponding 
factitive MidHG. *jern (unrecorded, but 
OHG.jftan occur*), ' to cause to ferment ' ; 
ORG. jesan is a str. vb., ami j(rjan a wk. 
vb. (conip. oin&ftm, str. vb., and ginerian, 
wk. vb.). Noun derivatives of the Teut. 
rooties retain their « (l>efore t) even as late 
as ModHG. ; see ©ifcfor, under which the 
cognate nouns from the other OTeut dia- 
lects are brought together. Tiie root jes, 
yes, occurs also in Ind. and Gr. ; comp. Gr. 
£e<r-r6s, < boiled,' tfo-fia, hence also #w for 
*#<™ (perf. (frff-ixai), ' to boi 1, bubble ' (f for 
earlier j, y as in £vy6v, see 3od}), Sans, root 
yas, 'to seethe, bod.' Considering this 
agreement of forms with initial j and y, 
ModHG. oaten with g is remarkable ; so 
too OIc. ger}>, ' yeast ' (but E. yeast). 

($ctrn, n., 'yarn, thread, net, snare,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. and OHG. gam ; 
corresponding to AS. gearn, E. yarn, OIc. 
gam, n., Du. garen; the common Teut. 
term lor 'yarn' (Goth. *garn, n.) ; the 
meaning 'net' was attached to @urn, even 
in the OHG. and MidHG. period, but it 
never obtained in E. and Scand. We 
might assume a root gar with some such 
meaning as ' to turn,' but it is not authenti- 
cated. Earlier Teut. has a series of terms 
corresponding in sound with ©ant and 
meaning ' entrails ' ; comp. OIc. ggrn (plur. 
garner), f., ' gut, intestines, entrails,' OHG. 
mittigarni, mittilagarni, n., 'fat found in 
the middle of the entrails, arvina,' AS. 
micgem {eg for dg ; comp. AS. orceard, E. 
orchard, for ortgeard), 'arvina.' These words 
have been connected with Lith. zarnd, {., 
' gut,' and Sans, hird, f., ' gut,' thougli the 
latter may be allied to Lat. htra, f., ' gut,' 
and hilla for hirla; likewise Lat. ham- in 
haru-spex, ' one who examines the entrails, 
soothsayer,' and liarioliis, 'soothsayer,' con- 
tain the Aryan root ghar. Perhaps — and 
nothing further can be said — all the words 
discussed above are based on a Teut. root 
ghar, ' to turn.' 

garftig, adj., ' Glthy, foul, obscene,' an 
extended form of the late MidHG. garst, 
adj., 'rancid, tasting "high"' ; comp. Du. 
garstig, 'insipid, rank, rotten'; akin to 
OIc. gerstr, 'morose' (in appearance). Allied 
to lidX.fastvHum, 'disgust, aversion ' 1. The 
latter probably represented *farstidium, like 
tostus for *torstus, from torreo ; Lat. /initi- 
ally corresponds to Teut g. See under ©afle 
(Lsit. fel). Hut it might perhaps be also con- 
nected with Lat. horridus for *ghorsidus. 

$artett, m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
garte, OHG. garto, m., 'garden'; corre- 
sponding to OSax. gardo, OFris. garda, in., 
' garden ' ; Goth, garda, m., ' stable.' Akin 
to the strong nouns — Goth, garth, m., 
'court, house, family'; OIc. garftr, m., 
' enclosure, hedge, house, farm,' OHG. gart, 
m., 'circle, choral dance,' AS. geard (E. 
yard), 'enclosure, garden' (E. gardn was 
borrowed in MidE. from OFr. gardio, 
jardin, which is of Ger. origin). ' Enclos- 
ing,' and 'the enclosed space' are the fun- 
damental ideas of the whole class, which 
might thus be connected with giivten, Teut. 
root gerd, if the correspondences in the 
cognate languages did not prove that 
' ©arten' is a pre-Teut., perhaps a common 
West Aryan form, which cannot belong to 
a specifically Teut. root. But HG. ©artcit 
is most closely connected with Lat. hortu*, 
' garden,' Gr. x^f ** 'enclosure, yard, farm- 
yard, pasture, hay, grass,' Olr. g«rt, 'corn- 
field,' also Lat. co-hors, -tis, f., ' courtyard 
for cattle and fowls' ; if the Teut. word is 
allied to these, the d of the Goth, and Sax. 
words is derived from Aryan t, i.e. Goth. 
garda is based on Aryan ghortd- (not gh&rto- 
from xfy»"°-)- On the other hand, ©arteu 
may be connected with Slav, and Lith. 
words, which, however, assume that Goth, 
and Sax. d originated in Aryan dh; OSlov. 
gradu, m., 'enclosure, citadel, town ' (as an 
enclosed place ; Lith. gdrdas, ' fold '). It 
is possible that In the Teut. class two 
words, different in sound but allied in 
meaning, have been combined ; but the 
Slav, words were more probably borrowed 
from Teut. Comp. 3<mn. 

$cts, n., 'gas,' a word coined by the 
Du. chemist, Von Helmont, of Brussels 
(died 1644 a.d.); comp. Du. gas. 

(Sciffe, f., 'lane, road, row,' from Mid 
HG. ga$$e, OHG. ga^a, f., prop, (as even 
yet in UpG.) 'street ; corresponding to 
Goth, gatved, f., ' lane, street,' OIc. gata 
(accus. ggtu), ' way, street, path.' From 
the Scand. word E. gate, ' way,' is derived. 
Properly speaking, the word is unknown to 
the LG. languages. Whether ©affe is allied 
to AS. geat, E. (Scotch), gate, gait (tee 
©after), OSax. and Du. gat, n., • hole, 
cavern,' OIc. gat, n., 'hole,' and is derived 
from a prim, meaning, ' inlet, opening ' — 
©ajje, lit. 'furnished witli an entrance, a 
gate,' on account of the suffix -wdn ? — can- 
not be definitely decided ; in any case, it is 
impossible to connect ©afje with a,efjeit, since 


( 107 ) 


the latier is baied upon a root i (Lat. ire, 
Gr. Uvai), 

Qaft, ra., ' guest, visitor ; wight; sailor,' 
from MidHG. and OHG. gast (plur. geste, 
gesti), m., ' stranger, guest ' ; common, in 
the same sense, to Teut, ; comp. Goth, gasts 
(plur. gasteis), m. (comp. gastigdds, 'hos- 
pitable'), OIc. gestr, 'guest (uninvited),' 
AS. gyst, giest, m., E. guest, Du. and OSax. 
gast. Teut. gastiz, m., ' stranger, unbidden 
or chance guest from some foreign part,' 
from pre-Teut. glwstis, which left deri- 
vatives in Lat and Slav. ; Lat. hostis, 
1 enemy,' prop. ' foreigner, stranger,' OSlov. 
gosti, in., 'guest'; with Lat. hostis, 'for- 
eigner,' hospes (prop. *hosti-potis, 'host'?), 
might also be connected. It is more than 
questionable whether West Aryan ghosti-s, 
'stranger,' is prop, 'eater, devourer,' and 
belongs to the Sans, root ghas, 'to eat.' It 
is worthy of notice in bow many ways 
Teutons and Romans have transformed 
the idea underlying the old inherited word 
for 'stranger' ; the Roman regards him as 
an enemy, among the Teutons he enjoys 
the greatest privileges — a fine confirmation 
of Tacitus' account in the Germania. This 
evolution of meaning would be still more 
remarkable if the view were correct that 
Lat. hostis, 'stranger,' is related to Lat. 
hostia, 'victim' (stranger = 'one to be 
sacrificed'?); this collocation is alluring, 
but very uncertain. 

flttfcn, jcifen, vb., 'to weed,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. jeten, geten, OHG. jetan, 
g'etan ; akin to OHG. jetto, m., 'weed, 
darnel.' Perhaps Gr. frWwj ' I seek,' is 
allied, if the Aryan root is ySt. 

gat lid), adj., 'suitable, convenient,' an 
essentially MidG. and LG. word ; derived 
from a parallel Goth, form *yada-, to which 
OHG. gi-gdt, adj., 'suitable, agreeing with,' 
also points ; comp. ©attf, gut ; so too OSlov. 

f'odu, ' favourable time,' Lith. gadas, 'stipu- 
ation,' and Du. gadelijk, 'reconcilable.' 

Ooaifc, m., 'spouse, consort, husband,' 
from MidHG. gate (also gegate), m., ' equal 
associate, one's equals, husband'; comp. 
Du. gade, 'husband.' The last meaning 
is rare in the MidHG. period, and first 
prevailed over the others in the last cen- 
tury ; it is a specialisation of the idea 
'belonging to one another' ; comp. OSax. 
gigado, 'one's equals,' AS. gegada, 'com- 
panion ' ; also Goth, gadiliggs, ' relative,' 
AS. gadelivg, 'member of the same tribe,' 
OHG. gatuling, ' cousin,' OSax. gadulwg, 

'countryman, member of the same tribe.' 
ModHG. gatten (fid) gatten), vb., is from Mid 
HG. gaten, 'to come together, agree' ; Mid 
HG. (essentially MidG.) gater, 'together,' 
Du. te gader, AS. gead<rr and tdgoedere. E. 
together j AS. gculriau.. E. to gathr (Du. 
vergaderen, ' to assemble ') ; OHG. g$ti-ld*, 
MidHG. gete-l6s, adj., ' wanton, dissolute,' 
lit. 'free from the restraining bond.' The 
ideas of 'belonging to one another' and 
of ' suiti g ' are teen in all the cognates of 

(gaffer, n., ' railing, lattice, rudder,' 
from MidHG. gater, m., n., 'railing, lat- 
tice ' (as a gate or fence), OHG. gataro, m., 
'railing.' If the latter represents Teut. 
ga-doro, the word would be a compound 
of ga (see ge) and %tyx (Goth, datir). On 
the other hand, it is possibly allied to AS. 
geat, E. gate. 

$cm, m., from the equiv. MidHG. gou, 
gou, n., OHG. gewi, gcruwi, n., 'district.' 
According to Goth, gawi (gaujis), n., 
'scenery, country,' we might have ex- 
pected OHG. gewi (gouwes), MidHG. gou 
(gouwes), since j after au becomes 10 without 
producing modification feomp. Stju). Even 
now ©du, neu., is found in Bav., Suab., and 
Swiss, but in the sense of 'country* op- 
posed to town. The word is unknown to 
Scand., and also to Sax. and E., in which 
®au, as the second part of a compound 
name applied to a district, is met with 
only in the very earliest period ; comp. e.g. 
AS. celge, ' district of eel--,' OLG. PathergS, 
' Pader district' (around Paderborn). The 
ModHG. word first ob:ained currency again 
in the last century a3 a result of the study 
of OGer. (see J&i'rt). No tenable root has 
yet been found. 

$cmcf), m., ' simpleton, gawk, crow, 
owl, cuckoo' (as stupid birds;, from Mid 
HG. gouch, in., • dolt, fool, simpleton,' 
prop, 'cuckoo,' OHG. gouh, 'cuckoo' ; cor- 
responding to AS. gedc, OIc. gaukr (whence 
Scotch gowk), 'cuckoo.' Is k a suffix as 
in AS. hafoc, 'hawk,' and Goth, ahais, 
' pigeon ' ? OHG. gouh, Goth. *uauks, 
cannot, however, be allied to Lat. cuculus. 
Sans, kdiila-s, 'cuckoo,' since Teut. g ini- 
tially cannot represent Lit. and Sans. k. 
Further ©and) is the OTeut. word for the 
later term Jtudurf. 

O&auoicb, m., formed from the equiv. 
LG. gaudeefy Du. ganuu-dicf, prop. ' sharp, 
cunning thief (from gaauw, 'quick, cun- 
ning,' see jdljf), then generally ' sharper.' 


( 108 ) 


$cmk(cr, in., 'buffoon, juggler, impos- 
tor ' from MidHG. goukelozre, OHG. gou- 
laldri, gouggaldri (k from gg, see £afe), 
'mauician, conjuror'; from MidHG. goukeln, 
OHG. goukol&n, gouggol6n, 'to deal in 
magic, play the fool.' Apparently allied 
to OHG. gougardn, MidHG. gmigern, ' to 
roam about,' also to MidHG. g n geln, 'to 
act without restraint, flutter about,' gogel, 
adj., 'unrestrained, exuberant,' gregc, in., 
* fool, dupe'; Du. goochelaar, 'buffoon.' 
The cognates point to a Teut. root cjfu^r, gcug, 
gang, 'to move here and there in a curious 
Jashion like a clown or conjuror'?. Con- 
sidering the numerous correspondence?, 
it cannot be maintained that ©auHcr was 
derived from Lat. joculari, or from Gr. 
Kavdov, 'small dish or bowl'; both these 
explanations are opposed by the phonetic 
relations of the words ; in the case of the 
Gr. term there is the further difficulty that 
we do not know how it was borrowed, and 
also the fact that no verb ' to j uggle ' occurs 
in Gr. 

pi) cut I, m., 'steed, nag,' from MidHG. 
gill, m., 'boar, male animal (generally)'; 
only at a late period and rarely 'nag,' 
which meaning becomes prominent in the 
15th cent.; for a 'sorry jade' runzit is 
used in MidHG. ; Du. guil, f., 'a mare 
that does not yet bear.' The word is not 
known to the other dialects ; its origin is 

$CUUtt(m, in., 'palate, taste,' from Mid 
HG. goume, guome, OHG. goumo (giumo 1), 
guomo, m., 'palate, throat, jaw'; corre- 
sponding to AS. g6ma, m., 'palate,' E. 
gums (probably from AS. *gumma, since, 
moreover, there are numerous forms in 
earlier ModHG. which point to an OHG. 
*gummo, 'palate') ; OIc. gumr, m., 'palate' ; 
Goth. *gaum6, *gomd, n., are wanting. Al- 
lied to Lith. gomyris, 'palate.' The relation 
of the vowels of the stem (OHG. and Mid 
HG. on and uo, AS. and Scand. 6) is ob- 
scure ; see 93itbe. Some etymologists con- 
nect the word with a Teut. root gau (Gr. 
X*v (in xaw' 05 , 'gasping, loose,' xdos, 
'chasm,' for x^^os). 

p^ttitncr, earlier 3auttcr, m., 'sharper, 
knave,' does not occur ti.l the beginning 
of the last century ; in the 15th and 16th 
cents, the professional swindlers at cards 
were called 3cncr, from the slang jcitctt, 'to 
play,' the ultimate source of which is said 
to be Hebr. jdnd, ' to cheat.' 

Q6-, a proclitic prefix, from MidHG. ge-, 

OHG. gi, go- (an accented prefix ga- in 
noun compounds is very rare in OHG. and 
MidHG.); the prim, idea is 'collectivity, 
completeness'; comp. Goth, ga-, AS. ge- 
(in E. i only in handiwork, handicraft, 
AS. hondgetceorc, hondgecraeft ; comp. also 
E. enough, from AS. gen6h, under gftutg). 
The prefix is probably allied to Lat. con-j 
cum; comp. gel)eit, glaubeii, gfeicb, ©lieb, &c. 

ftobarett, vb., from the equiv. MidHG. 
gebern, OHG. gibera», vb., 'to give birth 
to' ; corresponding to Goth, gubalran (also 
bairan), ' to give birth to, produce,' AS. 
geberan, beran, str. vb., ' to give birth to,' 
E. to bear j- in Scand. the compounds with 
ga- are wanting, the simple vb. bera, ' to 
give birth to' being used. See SBafyre; 
where proofs are given of the antiquity of 
tin; verbal stem ber, pre-Teut. blier, within 
the Aryan group ; in Ind. the root bhr, 
bhar, may mean 'to bear offspring' as well 
as ' to bear ' generally ; comp. Lat. fertilis, 
from Lat. fero; in Oir. the substantives 
combairt and brith, corresponding to ©chut, 
' birth,' manifest the same specialisation. 
See ©cburt. 

(Scbarbe, (Seberbe, f., 'bearing, ges- 
ture,' from MidHG. gcbozrde, f., ' conduct, 
appearance, manner,' OHG. gibdrida, f., 
from MidHG. gebdren, OHG. gibdrSn, -6n; 
corresponding to AS. gebceran, ' to conduct 
oneself,' gebcere, gebcern, 'conduct'; from 
the root ber in 33af)re, gebdren. 

gcbc?tt, vb., 'to give, present, render, 
yield,' from the equiv. MidHG. geben, OHG. 
g'iban; common to Teut. in the same sense ; 
comp. Goth, giban, AS. gifan, E. to give, 
Du. gevev, Olc. gefa. Comp. @abe, ©ii't. 
Akin to Olr. gubim, ' I take,' Lith. gabe'nti, 
' to bring, convey to,' gobinti, ' to cause to 

Qebet, n., 'prayer,' from the equiv. Mil 
HG. gebet, OHG. gibet, n. (AS. and OSax. 
gebed, n., ' prayer') ; allied to beten, bitten. 

pjjcbicf , n., ' dominion, jurisdiction, ter- 
ritory, sphere,' from MidHG. gebiet, n., 
'territory, jurisdiction, order'; allied to 
gebictftt, bictett. 

pjicbirgc, n., from the equiv. MidHG. 
gebirge, OHG. gibirgi, n., 'range (of moun- 
tains),' a specifically HG. collective form 
allied to 93crg. 

pj>ebref!en, n., 'defect, infirmity, grief,' 
an inf. used as a noun ; from MidHG. 
ge-bresten. See berflen. 

^ebltbr, 03ebltr, f„ 'duty, propriety, 
dues, fees,' allied to gcbiibten, MidHG. 


( 109 ) 


gchiirn, OHG. giburien, wk. vb., ' to occur, 
happen, fall to one's lot, devolve on by- 
law, be due'; corresponding to OSax. 
giburian, AS. gebyrian, OIc. byrja, ' to be 
suitable, becoming, fit' ; Goth. *gabaHrjart, 
wk. vb., may be inferred from gubaurjaba, 
adv., 'willingly' (lit. 'in a fitting man- 
ner ' ?), and gabaurjdfius, m., ' pleasure.' The 
whole class is probably connected with the 
root ber 'to carry' ; comp. LG. fcfifjren, ' to 
raise aloft,' see empcr ; hence OHG. buri 
dih, ' go (thou),' lit. 'raise thyself,' giburita, 
'pervenit' ; burien, biiren, also 'to come to 
pass.' See Qiafjce, 336rbe. 

Qebuvt, f., from the equiv. MidllG. 
geburt, OHG. giburt, f., ' birth.' Comp. 
Goth, gabaurfis, f., 'birth,' also 'lineage, 
native town,' OSax. giburd, f., AS. gebyrd, 
f., 'birth, rank, dignity,' E. birth, OIc. 
burpr, m., 'birth, embryo'; in form it 
points to Aryan and Sans, bhrti-s, and both 
in form and meaning it corresponds to Olr. 
brith, 'birth'; Sans, bhrti-s, f., 'bearing, 
nursing, maintenance.' With the simple 
Tent, beran, ' to give birth to,' is connected 
nn OTeut. neut. subst. barna-, ' child ' (lit. 
' that which is born '), formed from the old 
910-partic. Comp. OIc. barn, AS. beam> 
OSax., OHG, and MHG. bam, ' child, son.' 

(Mod;, m., 'fool, fop, buffoon,' orig. MidG. 
(and LG.), in which gee, gecke > m., ' silly 
fellow, fool, droll fellow,' occurs even in 
the MidHG. period ; not allied to MidHG. 
giege, ' fool,' mentioned under gaufclit. 
Comp. Du. gek, m., Dan. gjcek> ' fool,' Ic. 
gihkr, ' crafty, coarse person.' 

$ebctd)tm5, n., ' memory, recollection, 
memorial,' allied to gebenfen, bctifen.— ($e- 
bttnfte, m., ' thought, idea,' from MidHG. 
gedanc(k), OHG. gedank, m., OSax. githanko, 
Hi., 'thought,' AS. geponc; allied to benfen. 

Qcbcif)ert, vb., ' to thrive, prosper,' from 
the equiv. MidllG. gedilien, OHG. gilihan, 
str. vb. ; Goth. gaj>eihan, AS. gej>e6n (con- 
tracted from gepthan), ' to thrive ' ; the old 
AS. form points to the fact that the verbal 
stem was orig. nasalised ; n before h is 
everywhere suppressed in Teut., thus Jylhan 
for pinhan. The corresponding factitive 
*pavgjan remained in OSax., where then- 
gian means 'to complete'; on the sup- 
pression of the nasal the e gradation passed 
into the t gradation in Goth, and HG. 
The simple form peihan, ' to thrive,' is still 
known in Goth. On account of its mean- 
ing, gebeifjen (root penh, pre-Teut. tenk, tek, 
in Lith. tenkti, t&kli, ' I have enough,' as 

well as in Ir. tocad, W. tynged, 'fortune,.' 
from the prim, form tongeto-) cannot be 
be connected with the root rex in rinvov (see* 
iDegen). — QebieQen, adj., 'solid, pure, con- 
cise, pithy,' from MidHG. gedigen, adj., 
* adult, firm, hard, clear, pure,' OHG. gidi- 
gan, adj., ' aged, advanced in years, earnest, 
pure, chaste ' ; prop, a partic of gidilian (g 
by a grammatical change is the necessary 
form of h in the partic.) ; AS. preserves 
the older participial form of the e-grada- 
tion, gepungen, 'complete,' so too OSax. 

$ebulb, f., ' patience, forbearance,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. gtdult, OHG. gedult,i. ; 
allied to butben. 

gebuttfen, adj., 'bloated, puffed up,' 
partic. of a lost str. vb. which is retained 
in ModHG. dialects (Hess, dinsen, ' to 
draw'); comp. MidHG. dinsen, 'to draw, 
tear, extend,' OHG. dinsan; also Goth. 
*]pinsan r atpinsan, ' to draw.' The Teut. 
root pens, pre-Teut. tens, corresponds to the 
Sans, root tans t ' to draw,' Lith. testi, ' to 
draw, stretch.' The root tens seems an 
extension of the root ten appearing in 

$efaijr, f., 'danger, risk, jeopard v,' 
ModHG. only, for MidHG. vdre, OHG 
fdra, f., 'ambush, deceit, hazard, danger' ; 
AS.fcer, f., 'ambush, unforeseen danger, 
f right,' Kfear, OSax. fdr, ' ambush ' ; Goth. 
*fera, 'ambush,' follows from ferja, m., 
' way layer.' Scand. /dr, n., has a somewhat 
different meaning, ' misfortune, distemper.' 
Allied to the root/er, Aryan pit, which in 
Lat. periculum, Gr. wetpa, 'trial, cunning, 
deception,' furnishes cognate meanings. 

^efciijrfe, in., 'companion, partner, 
mate,' from MidHG. geverle, OHG. giferlo 
(*gafartjo), 'escort,' lit. 'fellow-traveller' ; 
allied to gafyvt. 

flef alien, vb., 'lo suit, please,' from 
MidHG. gevalleii, OHG. gifallai), sir. vb., 
'to happen, fall to one's lot, please,' in Mid 
I1G always with the complement ' ivoljl ' 
(well) or ' uUl ' (ill) ; probably an expres- 
sion derived from the OTeut. warlike cus- 
tom of dividing booty (comp. 4?unb) by 
means of dice ; t« gtfadt mtr toofyl, ' I am 
well pleased with it,' lit. ba<5 SeS faflt ant 
fur wiicf), ' that was a lucky throw for me ' 
(a similar history is also connected with 
ModHG. fd)enfeit, which furnishes evidence 
respecting the Teut. drinking customs). 
Note too that in ModHG. terms relating 
to card-playing have been similarly used. 


( no ) 


Comp. Sau (lit. 'ace (of cards),' then gene- 
rally 'good fortune') and <&uttt>. 

Qef&tlQtlis, n., 'prison,' from MidHG. 
gevencni8$e, f., n., ' imprisonment ' ; allied 
to fan^en. 

(<>cfaf;, n., 'vessel, receptacle,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. gevce^e, n. (OHG. givd^i, 
n., 'transport'). Goth. *gafSti } n., is want- 
ing ; it would probably be connected with 
Gotli./#;an f 'to adorn' (AS. fated, partic, 
' adorned ! ), and also more remotely with 


Qofiebev, n., 'feathers, plumage, fowls,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. gevidere, OHG. 
gefidari, n. ; collective of Seoer. 

^tcfiibe, n., ' fields, d1 ain,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. gevilde, OHG. gefildi, n. ; collec- 
tive of 5elD. 

geflifTen, partic. of a lost vh. fleifjeit, 
'assiduous, busy.' See ftleijj. 

QCQen, prep., 'against, opposite to, in 
presence of, in comparison with,' from Mid 
HG. gegen, OHG. gegin, gagan, 'against' 
(in OHG. and MidHG. almost always with 
a dat.) ; allied to the MidHG. adv. gegene, 
OHG. gegini, gagani, ' towards ' ; corre- 
sponding to AS. gedn, ongedn, 'against,' E. 
again ; OSax. gegin and OIc. gagnf against,' 
appear only in compounds ; in Gotli. a cor- 
responding word is wanting. Of obscure 
origin. — Cficcjeito, 'region, neighbourhood,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. (post-classical) 
gegendte, gegende, f., whicli, with the variant 
gegene, f., are imitations of Fr. contre'e (Ital. 
contrada), 'country,' allied to Lat. contra. 
~ 0>CQCtltVCirl, 'presence, present time,' 
from MidHG. gegenwart, OHG. geginwarti, 
f., abstract of OHG. gaganwart, ' present,' 
whence MidHG. gegennertec, ModHG. gegeti- 
lvartifl, ' present.' See the twlj. suffix ;U>drtS. 

Qefyaben, vb. in ftd) gefyaben, ' to fare, be 
(iu health), behave,' from MidHG. sick 
yehaben, OHG. sik giliabe'n, 'to hold, be (in 
health)' ; allied to Ijabcn. 

$el)ege, n., 'hedge, enclosure, precinct,' 
from MidHG. gehege, n., 'enclosure'; allied 
to £a^, begeii. 

Qefyeitn, adj., ' private, secret, hidden, 
mysterious,' from the equiv. late MidHG. 
geheim, which, with fteimttcfy, means lit. 
'belonging to the house.' 

Qefyen, vb., 'to go, walk, go on well, 
succeed,' from the equiv. MidHG. and 
OHG. gin, gdn (some of the inflected forms 
supplied by the stem gang; see ©ana.) ; 
omp. AS. gdn (stem gd-, from gat), E. to 
<j<>, OSwed. and ODan. ga, ' to go.' The 

assumed root ghat-, meaning 'to go,' can- 
not be positively authenticated beyond 
the Tent, group (yet comp. Lett, gdju, * I 
went'?). The remarkable facts that this 
Tent, gai, ' to go,' has no primit. noun deri- 
vatives in Teut., tliat it has supplanted the 
root i, which is widely diffused in Aryan, 
but almost obsolete in Teut. (retained, how- 
ever, in the Goth, aorist iddja, AS. e6de\ 
and that like the latter it is conjugated like 
verbsinmi — all these lead to thesupposition 
that the assumed Goth. *gaim, *gais, *gaif> 
are contracted from the verbal particle ga 
(see fle;) and the old inherited tmi, tsi, tti 
(comp. Gr. ttfu, Sans, emi, iii, Sti), ' to go.' 
From this explanation it follows that gebm 
is fundamentally identical with Lat. ire, 
Gr. livai, Sans, root i, Lith. eiti. OSlov. iti, 
'to go' (see eileii). For a similar blending 
of a verbal particle and an old vb. comp. 
felgen, freffen. 

{jej)euer, adj., 'secure against anything 
uncanny,' from MidHG. gehiure, 'gentle, 
graceful, free from anything uncanny'; 
comp. OHG. and OSax. unhiuri, 'dreadful, 
terrible,' AS. htire (IteOre), 'friendly, mild,' 
OIc. hyrr, 'mild.' Indubitable cognates 
in the non-Teut. languages are wanting ; 
perhaps Sans, cahrd, ' strong' (of deities) is 
allied, so that OHG. -hiuri would repre- 
sent hegicro- (Aryan keqr6-). 

Qefyven, m. (dial.), 'lap,' from MidHG. 
gbre, yero, m., 'wedge-shaped piece of stuff 
or land, lap'; corresponding to AS. gdra, 
' piece of stuff,' E. gore, OIc. geire, in the 
same sense ; a deriv. of ®er. For the evo- 
lution of meaning comp. Qfranfe, @^"p. — 
From tiie OG. word the Rom. cognates, 
Fr. giron and Ital. gherone, ' lap, train (of 
a dress),' are derived. 

(Seter, m., 'vulture, carrion kite,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. and OHG. gir, m., akin 
to LG. gier. On account of the early ap- 
pearance of the G. word we cannot assume 
that it was borrowed from the Rom. cog- 
nates, Ital. girfalco, Fr. gerfaut (whence 
MidHG. gir-valke is derived), or from Lat.- 
Gr. gyrare, 'to wheel round.' The connec- 
tion between OHG. g'tr with OHG. glri, 
MidHG. gtre (geter still occurs in ModHG. 
dials.), 'greedy, covetous/ and the Teut. 
root gir, 'to covet,' presents no difficulty, 
©eier is lit. ' the greedy bird.' See gem, ©ter. 

(Seifer, m., 'slaver, drivel, wrath,' from 
the equiv. late MidHG. geiftr, m. (15th 
cent), whence also gei/ern, ModHG. geiffru. 
Origin obscure. 


( n' ) 


(Scttfe, f., ' fiddle, violin,' from the 
equiv. early MidHG. gtge, f. ; correspond- 
ing to MidDu. ghighe, Olc. gigja; in OHG. 
fidula, E. fiddle; see %i<M. The Teut. 
word, like £arfe, found its way into Rom.; 
comp. Ital. giga, Fr. gigue (whence further 
E. jig). There is no suspicion that Mid 
HG. gtge was borrowed ; it is, however, 
scarcely allied primit. (pre-Teut. ghtkd) to 
OSlov. Sica, 'thread' (akin to Lith. gijd, 

gcif , adj., ' rank, wanton, obscene, lewd,' 
from MidHG. and OHG. geil, 'of savage 
strength, wanton, exuberant, merry, joy- 
ous'; for the change of meaning on the 
transition from MidHG. to ModHG. comp. 
<2d)impf. The primary meaning. ' unre- 
strained, joyous,' follows from Goth. gaiU 
jan, 'to rejoice'; comp. OSax. gtt, Du. 
geil, AS. gdl. To the Teut. cognates Lith. 
gailtts, ' passionate, furious, sharp, painful, 
sympathetic,' and gailUi-8, 'to injure'; 
OSlov. zilu (from gailo), 'violent,' adv. 
zdo, 'very.' In the compound ©tebergeil 
appears the MidHG. noun geil, geile, ' tes- 

$eifef (l.)> , "- and f., 'hostage,' from 
MidHG. gisel, OHG. gisal, m., n., ' prisoner 
of war, person held in security'; corre- 
sponding to AS. gisel, Olc. gtsl, m. To 
connect it with ©eifcl (2.), f., as if ' hostage ' 
were lit. 'one who is scourged,' is im- 
possible. It is, probably, most closely 
allied to the equiv. Olr. giall (for *glsal). 

{Seifel (2.), f., ' scourge, whip,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. geisel, OHG. geisala, geisla, 
f.j akin to Olc. geisl, geisle, m., 'pole used by 
persons walking in snow-shoes.' The stem 
gais- is connected with the OTeut. term 
gniza-, ' spear ' (see ©cr). Hence ' pole, 
stall,' must be accepted as the print mean- 
ing ; the second component is Goth, walus, 
'staff,' so that OHG. geis-ala stands for 
*geis-wala, just as OHG. vnu-zala for AS. 
wyrt-walu (see under SBurjd). 

$Ctff, in., 'spirit, genius, spectre,' from 
MidHG. and OHG. geist, m., ' spirit (in 
contrast to body), supernatural being'; 
corresponding to OSax. gist, Du. geist, AS. 
gdst (gaid), E. ghost; common to Teut. in 
the same sense, but in Goth, ahma (see 
adjten). The prim, meaning of the word 
("agitation'?) is not quite certain; yet 
Olc. geisa, 'to rage' (of fire, passion), and 
Goth, us-gaisjan, ' to enrage,' seem to be 
allied. Respecting the dental suffix of 
the Teut. ©fifl (pre-Teut. ghaisdos), note 

the Sans, root htd (from hizd\ ' to get 
angry,' hidas, n., ' anger,' to which E. aghast 
also corresponds. 

$ei£, f., ' goat, roe,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. and OHG. geiy, f, ; corresponding to 
Goth, gaits, Olc. gext, AS. gdt, E. goat, Du. 
geit; also a diniin. Goth, gaitein, AS. gcete», 
OHG. geizztn, n., 'kid' (see <2d?n>etn). 
Primit. allied lo Lat. haedus from older 
ghaido-s (see Mify and 3i«l*). In common 
with Slav., OTeut. has a different word 
for Sifflf ; comp. MidDu. ho^kijn, AS. hecen, 
'kid,' akin to OSlov. koza, 'goat.' 

(%Ct}. in., 'avarice,' allied to gei$en, Mid 
HG. gitsen (gtzen)^ beside which MidHG. 
gtten, ' to be greedy, covetous, or avari- 
cious' occurs; comp. AS. gitsian, 'to be 
covetous.' The term lor@etjin MidHG. and 
OHG. was git, 'greediness, covetousness, 
avarice,' for geijtg, MidHG. gttec, OHG. 
gitag, 'gieedy, covetous, avaricious'; re- 
specting the derivation of ©eh from aetjen, 
see &roer, l;ance(n. Akin to Goth, gaiav, 
n., ' want.' With the Teut root ga>d, gid 
(Aryan ghaidh), are connected Lith. geidziH 
(geisti), ' to desire,' OSlov. zidy, zldati, ' to 

$ekr5fe, n., 'giblets ; frill, ruffle,' from 
MidHG. gekraue, n., 'the small intestine,' 
also the variant krozse, OHG. *chr6si; akin 
to Du. hroes, hroost, ' giblets of ducks and 
geese.' All the cognates are probably con- 
nected with fraud. 

pelage, n., ' feast, banguet, drinking 
bout,' first occurs in early ModHG., allied 
to leant. Scarcely derived from the ancient 
©ctacjc (banquets) ; but ju?t as Goth, gabaur 
is lit. 'that which is laid together,' and 
then 'picnic, feasting' (from bairan, 'to 
carry,' see Skfyre), so @elao,e is lit. ' that 
which is laid together,' and then 'feast- 
ing ' ; comp. gedjett. 

$clchtocr, n., 'railing, banister, from 
the equiv. late MidHG. gelender (15th 
cent.), allied to MidHG. lander, 'stake, 
fence,' which may be regarded as a nasalised 
variant of gatte (Teut lap-)- 

Ofjclafi, m. and n., 'relics, heritage,' 
from Midi 1(1. gela";e, n., 'settlement, mode 
of settlement,' allied to grl&yn, 'to settle.' 

ftclb, adj., 'yellow,' from th- equiv. 
MidHG. g'e% OHG. gelo (gen. gelwes) ; cor- 
responding to OSax. gelo, Du. geef, AS. 
qeolo, E. yellow (Olc gulr). The common 
West Teut gelwu-, from pre-Teut. phelwo-, 
is primit. allied to Lat. hetvus, 'greyish yel- 
low ' ; the Aryan root ghel ap|>ears also m 


( 112 ) 


Gr. xX«-/>6», xXa-/*5*, ' green, yellow,' x^V, 
'green object*,' OSlov. zelenU, * yellow, 
green,' Litli iulias, ' green ' (zelti, 'to grow 
green '), San*, hari, ' yellowish.' Akin also 
to ©alle and &ol\>. 

Ci)db, n., ' money, coin, cash,' from Mid 
HG. and OHG. gelt (t; the d first occurs 
in ModHG.), n., in., * recompense,, compen- 
sation, revenue, income, paying, payment, 
money,' Du. geld, ' money.' 'Means for [lay- 
ing, coin,' is the latest sense of the words 
quoted (com p. Goth, gild, * tax, interest') ; 
it is wanting in the corresponding words 
of the other dialects ; in Goth, the term is 
faihu (see SSid)', and skatts (see @d)afc), AS. 
feoh, E. money. On the other hand, AS. 
gild signifies 'recompense, compensation, 
sacrifice.' See gflten. 

QcleQCVl, adj., ' situated, opportune, sea- 
sonable,' and adv. ; from MidHG. gelegev, 
adj., ' neighbouring, at hand, suitable/ 
OHG. gilegan, 'nearest, related ' ; parti c. of 
giligan, MidHG. geligen.— Qeieqcnfyeit, 
f., ' opportunity, occasion,' from MidHG. 
gelegenheit, ' situation of an affair, condition 
or nature of things.'— gclcgcnUid), adj., 
' occasional, incidental ' (and adv.). from 
MidHG. gidegerdich, with an inserted L 

(Setcnfr, »., 'joint, articulation, wrist, 
link,' from MidHG. gelenke, n., .' waist, 
bend, bow,' akin to Mod 11 G. geletif, gftenfig, 
adj. formed from MidHG. gelenke, 'pliant, 
skilful' (see lenfen). While the MidHG. 
gelenke, as a collective of Mid HG. lanke, sig- 
nifies the 'pliable narrow part of the body 
between the hips and breast,' and hence, 
as it were, the joint of the entire body, 
the word in ModHG. is applied to each 
limb ; akin to OHG. lancha, ldancha, ' hip, 
loins' (whence also the Romance cognates 
— Ital. fianco, from which ModHG. glanfe 
u borrowed), likewise OIc. hlekkr, ' link of 
a chain.' 

$elid)fer, n., 'likeness, cast, stamp,' 
lit. 'class of people of like manners' ; in 
this sense glditer and its derivatives occur 
even in late MidHG. (MidG.) ; derived 
fn>m MidHG. gelich, gUud) (see the latter). 
Yet the UpG. form glifier points perhaps 
to a blending with another word, Gotli. 
*gahliftrja, ' thief s accomplice' (akin to 
Goth, hlifan, 'to steal,' primit. allied to 
Gr. jc\<*xt«). For HG./*, equiv. to LG. ht, 
see fadjt, rudjfcir, ©rnidjt. 

flcltrtflcn, vb., 'to prove successful, 
from MidHG. gelingen, OHG. gilingan, str. 
vb., ' to be successful, prosper'; MidHG. 

also lingen, ' to prosper, advance, get on.' 
Allied to AS. lungre, ' quickly,' from pre- 
Teut. Iug/<r6-, to wliich the equiv. Gr. 
i\a<t>p6s also points ; the Aryan root lengh 
(high) appears also in Sans, lafigh, ramh, 
1 to spring, get on.' See leid^t. 
Qellcn, vb., 'to yell,' from MidHG. 

fu'ten, OHG. gellan, str. vb., ' to sound 
mid, cry'; corresponding to Du. gilUn, 
AS. gillan, OIc. gjalla, ' to resound ' ; allied 
to the Teut. root gel, gal, ' to resound.' 
Comp. 91ad)ttgal(. 

gelobcrt, vb., 'to promise, vow,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. geloben, OHG. gilobOn 
(akin to feben) ; lit. ' to assent, applaud.' 

gelt (1.), particle. See gelten. 

gdf (2.), adj., 'giving no milk, barren,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. and OHG. gait ; 
corresponding to OIc. geldr, OSw ed. g'aldir, 
which have the same sense. They are con- 
nected perhaps with OHG. galza, MidHG. 
galze, OIc. ggltr, ' gelded pig' (E. dial., gilt, 
ilt). The stem on which it is based, gold, 
gait (from pre-Teut. ghalt, ghaltn-), per- 
haps meant orig. 'to castrate'; comp. E. 
to geld, OIc. gdda, 'to geld'; akin to Goth. 
giljxi, ' sickle ' ?. 

(Sclfe, f., ' pail, bucket, vessel,' from 
MidHG gelt;, OHG. gellita, f., 'vessel for 
liquids' ; adopted in the OHG. period from 
MidLat. galeta, with which are also con- 
nected the Romance cognates — Fr. jale, 
' pail,' Ital. galea, galeotta, Fr. galiasse, galion, 
applied to different kinds of ships. The 
ultimate source of the cognates is obscure. 

gelfctt, vb., 'to be worth, pass current, 
prove effectual,' from MidHG. gSlten, OHG. 
geltan, &tr. vb., 'to repay, pay, cost, be 
worth, requite, compensate' ; comp. Goth. 
us-,fru-gildan, 'to requite' (akin to Goth. 
gild and gilslr, n., ' tax '), OIc. gjald<t 
(OSwed., also gialla, from Teut. gellan), 
' to pay,' AS. gxldan, E. to yield, Du. geldeit, 
' to be worth, cost/ OSax. geldan. The com- 
mon Teut. stem gelp, the /> of which is 
proved by OSwed. from pre-Teut. ghel-t, 
points to the fact that OSlov. iUJq, 'I pay, 
atone for,' was borrowed. The prim, mean- 
ing of the Teut. cognates is ' to make good, 
pay over something' ; itseems to be specially 
applied to religions sacrifices ; comp. AS. 
gild. OSax. geld, 'sacrifice' (akin to Gr. 
t<?X0ot, 'duty'?). See ©clb, @itt>f.— The 
particle gelt, which first occurs in early 
ModHG., is properly the subj. pres. of the 

vb. Qfttftt. 

?, f., ' gelded sow,' from the equiv. 


( "3 ) 


MidHG. gelze (galzs), OHG. gelza (galza). 
See gelt. 

Qe\n<xti), n., ' chamber, apartment ; 
comfort, rest,' from MidHG. g/mach, m., n., 
'rest, comfort, ease, nursing, place where 
one is nursed, room,' OHG. gimahQih), 
'ease, advantage'; the ModHG. meaning 
is not found until the classical period of 
MidHG. ; the ModHG. adj. gemad), 'com- 
fortable,' preserves the earlier meaning, 
MidHG. gemach, OHG. gimah(hli), 'com- 
fortable, suitable'; prop., 'suitable to one 
another' (comp. OIc. makr, 'suitable' ; see 
utad)eit). Akin to gemadjltd), MidHG. geme- 
chllch, OHG. gimahliliho, adv. 

$cmttd)t, l)., ' genitals ; handiwork,' 
from MidHG. geinaht (plur., gemote), OHG. 
gimaht, £,, ' testicles ' ; akin to ModHG. 
£Jcad)t (comp. Uu. gemacht). 

$emaf)I, m. and n., ' consort, spouse,' 
from MidHG. gemahele, m., 'betrothed, 
husband,' and gemahele, f. (very rarely n., 
which is first found in Luther specially), 
' betrothed, wife ' (the fem. form ©emaftlin is 
wanting in MidHG.) ; OHG. gimahalo, m., 
4 betrothed, husband,' gima/iala (gimdla), 
' betrothed, wife.' Simply a G. form from 
a common Tent, subst. mafila- (whence 
viahla-), 'public assembly, negotiation'; 
comp. Goth, mapl, 'assembly, market' 
(akin to mapljan, ' to make a speech'), OIc, 
mdl, 'speech' {m&la, 'to make a speech), 
AS. meftel, 'assembly' (maftolian, mcelan, 
' to make a speech'), OHG. mahal, 'assem- 
bly, contract, marriage contract.' Hence 
the subst. upon which the word is based 
has assumed in G. only, the special refer- 
ence to the act of betrothal in the public 
assembly before the community. 

gemafj, adv., 'conformably, proportion- 
ally, suitably,' from MidHG. gemcey, OHG. 
tjimay^i, adj., 'adapted' ; akin to mefjcn. 

gcmcht, adj., ' common, public ; mean^ 
vulgar,' from MidHG. gemeine, OHG. 
gimeini, ' belonging to one another, in 
common, universal,. belonging to the gnat 
body ' ; an adj. common to Teut. ; comp. 
Gotn. gamains, 'in common, joint, general, 
unholy,' AS. gcm<ene r 'E. mcan } Du. gemeen. 
The common Teut. ga-maini-s is primit. 
allied to the equiv. Lat. com-mUnis (lor 
com-moini-s) ; comp. Lat. Anus with Goth. 
dins, Aryan oino-s. Since ' in common' is 
the primary meaning of the class, 3J?(incib 
(which see) cannot be very closely allied to 
its OTeut. cognates. 

®emfc, f., ' chamois,' from the equiv. 

MidHG. gemey,gami, OHG. *gamu^(gam^), 
m. ; although a corresponding word is want- 
ing in the other Teut languages, there is 
no sufficient reason for regarding OHG. 
*gami^a t {,, as borrowed (formed like 
OHG. fnm$, see .§irfd) ; AS. ganot, ' water- 
fowl'; MidHG. krebe$, see JtrefcS). The 
Romance cognates (Ital. camozza, Fr. cha- 
mois) which are equiv. in sound tell 
rather in favour of their own foreign origin 
I than that of the G. word (in Lat. the term 
was rupicapra). Perhaps Span, and Port. 
gamo, 'stag,' is based upon a Goth. *gama, 
allied to ©omfe (E. game has probably no 
connection with the word ?). 

d>emuU, see ntalmcn ; (^emufc, see 
2J?us ; gcmut and Qemixt, see fUiut. 

gen, prep., ' against, towards,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. gen, a variant of gein, gegen. 
See gcgeit. 

genttlt, ' accurate, precise, strict, parsi- 
monious,' from late MidHG. (MidG.)nowtce, 
' careful, exact,' akin to noutce, genouice, 
adv., 'scarcely'; comp. Du. iiaauw, 'nar- 
row, exact, punctual.' Probably these cog- 
nates, in their Goth, form *ga-nSws, are 
to be connected with Goth, nfthws, HG. 
nalje. Others refer them to a root nau, 
' to narrow,' in 91ot and its cognates. 

gcjtc^m, see cutgeneljm. 

gcncfett, vb., ' to get well, recover,' from 
MidHG. genesen, OHG. ginesan, str. vb., 
'to be left alive, be healed, escape alive,' 
also ' to be delivered of a child ' ; corre- 
sponding to Goth, ganisav, 'to recover 
health, be rescued, saved,' AS. genesan, 
OSax. ginesan, ' to be rescued, be left alive' ; 
also Du. geuezen, ' to heal, cure.' The 
Teut. root lies, with which nafyrcn and its 
cognates are connected as factitives, corre- 
sponds to the Sans, root nas, ' to approach' 
in an affectionate manner, join,' and espe- 
cially to Gr. viofiai (root c«r-), 'to come 
back,' and vda-ros, ' return home.' From 
Teut. are derived OSlov. gonlzati (gone- 
ziiqti), 'to be redeemed,' and gonoziti, 'to 
redeem,' allied to gonozitelji, 'Saviour.' 
See nafjven. 

®cmdt, n., 'back of the neck, nape,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. genie, genicke, n. ; 
akin to 91adfcn, AS. hnecca. 

gcntcHJClt, vb., 'to enjoy, partake of,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. genieyn, OHG. 
ginio^an, str. vb., with the variants Mid 
HG. vieyn, OHG. nio^an; corresponding 
to Goth, niutav, 'to take part in soiin- 
thing,' ganiutan, 'to catch' {nuta, 'captor, 



( "4 ) 


fisher'). OIc. nj6ta, 'to enjoy, derive joy 
Iroin, have tlie use of,' AS. iie6ta», 'to 
take, use, enjoy/ Du. genieten, OSax. 
niota», ' to enjoy.' Tiie primary meaning 
of the Teut. root jim£, found in str. verbs, 
was 'to get something for one's own use,' 
then 'to use or enjoy something, have the 
use of.' See Shtfc, 9hejjmi&. Akin to the 
primit. allied Liih. naudii, 'use, produce,' 
pa-nustu, -ii'Adau, -nusti, 'to long, yearn 
for.'- (Scnoffe, m., 'comrade, companion, 
mate,' lrom the equiv. MidHG. gen6$, OHG. 
gin6$, in.; corresponding to OSax. genCt, 
AS. genedt, T>\x. genoot ; lit. 'one who par- 
takes of something with ano;her,' comp. 
©efede and ©efinbe. — $<moffame, L from 
the equiv. MidHG. gendysame, f., 'fellow- 
ship,' OHG. ginSysaml, abstract ot OHG. 
gino^sam, MidHG. gendysam, ' ot equal 
birth or worth.' 

gcmtg, adj., 'enough, sufficient,' from 
the corresponding MidHG. genuoc(g), OHG. 
glvuog ; a common Teut. adj. with the Mod 
HG. meaning ; com p. Goth. ga»6hs, AS. 
gendh, E. enough, Du. genoeg, OSax. gindg ; 
a deriv. of an OTeut. pret.-pres. Goth. 
ganah, OHG. ginah, 'it suffices'; comp. 
Goth, ganauha, ' sufficiency,' OHG. ginuht, 
MidHG. genuht, ' sufficiency.' On MidHG. 
gmulitsam, OHG. ginuhUam, 'abundant, 
sufficient,' is based ModHG. aenugjam. To 
the Teut. root nOh (Aryan nak) preserved 
in these words some refer the Sans, root 
nag, ' to attain,' and Lat. nancisci. 

fjber, m., ' spear,' formed from the equiv. 
MidHG. and OHG. gSr, in.; corresponding 
to OSax. gir, AS. gar, Olc. geirr. The r 
in the latter wold must be based upon 
an 8, otherwise the Scand. form would be 
*gdrr. Goth. *gaiza may be inferred too 
lrom old proper names, such as Hario- 
gaisus. The terms ydiaos, yaiaov, are also 
mentioned by Poly bi us, Diodorus, &c, as 
applied to the spear by the North Europ. 
barbarians. The word is genuinely Teut. 
(yet comp. also Olr. gai, from *gaiso, 
'spear'), and has the approximate mean- 
ing, as the allied ©etfel shows, of 'shaft, 
rod (as a missile),' for which reason Gr. 
xa«bs, 'shepherd's staff,' and Sans. hiSus, n., 
'missile,' are perhaps cognate. The root 
is Sans, hi, 'to urge on,' with which AS. 
gdd and E. goad (from Aryan *ghai-ta) are 
also connected. The OTeut. term was fh>t 
used again in ModHG. as a borrowed word, 
though it continued to exist in the proper 
names ©etbftt (OHG. Gir-braJit, lit. • glit- 

tering witli speare '), ©trlwrD (OHG. Ucr- 
hart, 'spear-bold'), ©trtrub (OHG. GertrAt). 
Comp. ©ffjrm and ©eifrt. 

fjerao (1.), adv., 'even' (of nnmlwrs), 
from the equiv. MidHG. gerat, OHG. girad, 
'even' ; prop, 'equal in reckoning' ; akin to 
Goth. rapjd, ' number,' garafijau, 'to count.' 

fteraoe (2.), adj., 'going in one direc- 
tion, straight, upright,' from MidHG. gerat, 
'alert, quick, skilful, recently grown up, 
straight and therefore long' ; the primary 
meaning is ' nimble, rapid' j comp. OHG. 
rado (and rato, hrato), 'quick,' AS. rafte 
(also hrozde), ' quick,' Goth. raf>s, ' easy.' 
Perhaps primit. allied to SRab, Lat. rota. 

$erai, n., ' tools, furniture, utensils, 
from MidHG. ger ate, OHG. girdti, n., 
' equipment,' lit. ' consultation, precau- 
tion' ; collective of (Rat. 

geraum, gcrftumig, see Slattm. 

Qpcraufd), n., 'entrails of slaughtered 
animals,' from the equiv. late MidHG. in- 
geriusche; origin obscure. 

Qetben, vb., 'to tan, curry, polish,' from 
MidHG. gerwen (garweri), wk. vb., 'to make 
ready, prepare, equip, dress, tan' ; a deriv. 
ot gar (see gar) ; OHG. gariwen (garau-en), 
from *gur\ojan, ' to make ready,' lederga- 
rawo, ' tanner.' 

gered)f, adj., 'righteous, just, fit,' from 
MidHG. gereht, 'straight, right, dexterous, 
skilful, fit, upright, innocent, just,' OHG. 
gireht (greht), 'rectus, directus' (not yet 
'Justus') ; corresponding to garaihts, ' up- 
right ' ; in AS. rihtvcis (OHG. rehtwis), 
'Justus.' E. righteous. See rcd)t. 

$erfalfte, Qietfalke, m., 'gerfalcon,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. gir-, gerfalke ; 
from Rom. See ©tier. 

$erid)f, n., 'judgment, tribunal, court, 
jurisdiction,' in its double sense even in 
MidHG. gerihte, n., 'tribunal, sentence, 
jurisdiction,' and 'prepared food'; OHG. 
girihti, n., only in the first sense ; akin to 

goring, adj., 'petty, trifline,' prop. Mu- 
si gnificant, easy,' from MidHG. geringe, 
' light and quick, nimble,' ringe, ' easy, 
light, convenient, insignificant, slight, 
small,' OHG. ringi, giringi, ' light' ; a spe- 
cifically G. adj., wanting in the other Teut. 
dialects ; origin obscure. The development 
of meaning from ' light ' to 'slight ' through 
the medium of ' easy ' is similar to that of 

gcrn, adv., 'yladly, willingly, fain,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. genie, OHG. gerno, adv., 


( "5 ) 


from the MidHG. and OHG. adj. gem ; to 
the latter correspond Goth, gairns in faihu- 
gairns, ' avaricious ' (comp. Goth, gairnjan, 
" to desire, long for, demand'), OIc. gjarn, 
' eager,' AS. georn,' zealous,' Du. gaarne, 
OSax. gem. Akin to OHG. and MidHG. 
g'ir (without the partic. suffix n), 'desiring, 
demanding,' as well as to bcgeljren, ©ter. The 
Teut. root ger (from Aryan gher, ' to de- 
mand violently,' was contused with a deri- 
vative form in r from a root g% (ght), allied 
in meaning ; see ©ier, ©etet. Whether the 
Suns, root har-y, * to be fond of,' or Gr. 
xalpw, or Oscan heriest, ' he will be will- 
ing,' is connected with the Aryan root gher 
is uncertain. 

$er(le, f., ' barley,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. gerste, OHG. gersta, f. ; akin to Du. 
gerst ; a specifically G. word, unknown to 
ihe other dialects ; OSax. and AS. grist, E. 
grist, are not connected with it, but with 
OTeut. grindan, 'to grind' (equiv. to Lat. 
frendere, ' to gnash ' ?). In the remaining 
Teut. dialects the terms for ©crfle are Goth. 
baris, OIc. bygg (and barr), AS. bere, E. 
barley. OHG. gersta, from -pve-Teut. gherzdd-, 
corresponds only to ihe equiv. Lat. hordeum 
(from *horsdeum, prim, form *ghrzde'yo-) ; 
Gr. Kpld-fi, ' barley,' is scarcely a cognate. 
From an Aryan root ghrs, ' to stiffen ' (Lat. 
horrere for *horsere, Sans. hrS, ' to bristle 
up'), some have inferred ©cvfle to mean 
orig. ' the prickly plant ' (on account of the 
prickly ears). 

$erf e, f., from the equiv. MidHG. gerte, 
OHG. gartia, f., ' rod, twig, staff' ; a deri- 
vative of OHG. and MidHG. gart, 'rod, 
staff, stick.' To the latter correspond Goth. 
gazds (comp. Jgiort, equiv. to Goth, huzds), 
'stick,' and OIc. gaddr (E. goad and its 
eqniv. AS. gdJ are not allied ; see @er). 
Probably Teut. gazda- (OHG. gerta would 
be *gazdj6) is primit. allied to Lat. hasta 
(from Aryan ghazdhd), ' spear.' 

(Serud), m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
geruch, m., ' scent, odour, fame ' ; akin to 

$crud)f, n., 'rumour, report, reputa- 
tion,' from MidHG. geriicfte (geruofte), n., 
' calling, cry' ; clit instead of ft (see rufen) 
is due to LG. influence, as in fad>t aud bc- 

QCrU^Clt, vb., ' to deign, condescend, be 
pleased,' corrupted by connection with (Hube 
from the earlier ModHG. geruod;en, MidHG. 
geruochen, OHG. geruochan, ' to care for, 
take into consideration ' (MidHG. also ' to 

approve, grant '). Corresponding to ASax. 
rSkian, AS. rScan (and rgccan, whence E. 
to reck), OIc. rdekja, ' to take care of.' The 
Teut root, rak, rdk, appears also in OHG. 
rahha, ' account, speech ; ' so too in redjnen. 
In the non-Teut. languages no root rdg in 
a cognate sense has vet been found. 

QeriXft, n., 'scaffold,' from MidHG. 
gvruste, n., 'contrivance, preparation, erec- 
tion, frame, scaffold,' OHG. girusti; akin 
to rtijlen, rusten, hrustjan. 

Qefaxnt, adj., 'joint, collective,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. gesament, gesamnet, OHG. 
gisamandt ; partic. of OHG. saman&n. See 

0>cfd)ttff, n., 'business, affair, occupa- 
tion,' from MidHG. geschej'te, gescheffede, n., 
' creature, work, figure, occupation, busi- 
ness, affair' ; abstract of fd)ajffn. 

?efd)el)ett, vb., 'to happen, occur, be- 
/ from the equiv. MidHG. gesch'ehen, 
OHG. giscehany a specifically G. word 
(MidDu. geschien, Du. geschieden), as well 
as the corresponding factitive fcfyicfeu. It 
is uncertain whether the word is connected 
with Goth. skSicjan, ' to go,' find the Teut. 
root skeh (xk&hw, skew), from skek, or OSlov. 
skoku, 'leap,' and Olr. *scuchim, 4 1 go or 
pass away.' See ©efdndjte and fducfen.' 

{jefdjett, 'sensible, judicious, discreet,' 
corrupted into gefdjeut, from MidHG. ge- 
schtde, adj., 'sensible, sly' ; akin to schtden, 
a variant of scheiden. See fdjeiben. 

$efcf)id)fe, f., 'occurrence, narration, 
tale, history,' from MidHG. gezchild, OHG. 
gisciht, f., ' event, occurrence, cause of an 
event, dispensation' (MidHG. also 'affair, 
manner, stratum ' ; see (Sdndjt) ; abstract 
of gefcfyeben. Similarly Mod HG. $cfd)icu, 
' fate, destiny, dexterity,' is based upon 
MidHG. gesc/ticke, n., 'event, order, forma- 
tion, figure,' as the abstract of ModHG. 
fdjicfen. — ciefcrricUt. 'apt, skilful, adroit,' 
prop, a partic, MidHG. gschicht, 'ar- 
ranged, prepared, ready, suitable,' from 
MidHG. schtcken, ' to arrange, set in order.' 

$efd)UT, n., 'gear, trappings, imple- 
ments, ware,' from MidHG. geschirre, OHG. 
giscirri, n., 'dishes, vessel, instrument, 
utensils.' The more general meaning, ' in- 
strument of every kind,' is also seen, espe- 
cially in anfdntrm (ModHG. simply), ' to 
harness a horse. Tne origin of the stem, 
which does not appear elsewhere in Teut., 
is obscure. 

ftcfd)lacr)f, adj., 'of good quality, soft, 
tender, shapely,' from MidHG. geslaht, 


( "6 ) 


OIIG. gidaht, 'well brought up, nol.le, 
well behaved'; lUtgcfct)Iad)l, 'uncoutli, 
unwieldy, boorish,' even in Mid HO. un- 
geslaht, OHG. ungislaJit, 'ignoble, base.' 
Allied to ModHG. $efd)Icd)f, n., 'species, 
race, extraction, family,' from MidHG. ge- 
sle/ite, n., 'race, tribe, family, quality,' OHG. 
gislahti ; comp. OHG. slu)ita, f., ' race, 
family,' MidHG. slalite, 'manner, relation ' ; 
akin "also to %d)l<x$ (e.g. Sftenfcf/enfcfcbig, 
' race of men '), not found in OHG. and 
MidHG. It is difficult to determine the 
relation of these cognates to fd)fagm ; even 
in OHG. slalian itself means ' to take after, 
resemble' (e.g. ndk dSn fordMn slalian^ to 
resemble one's ancestors'), for which in 
late MidHG. ndch-slahen occur?, ModHG. Probably the str. vb. in OTeut. 
once had the meaning 'to beget,' which 
cannot now be authenticated ; of this vb. 
OIIG. gislaht y ' of good quality,' would be 
an old partic. in to (see fait, traut, taut), 
with a development of meaning similar to 
that of Jtcntg. Comp. Fr. gentil, equiv. to 
Lat. gen'.ilis. 

$cf"d)mcibe, n., 'ornaments, trinkets, 
jewels,' from MidHG. gesmtde, n., 'metal, 
metal utensils or weapons, ornaments,' 
OHG. gismtdi, n., ' metal,' and the variant 
smida, f. ; from the root sml, widely diffused 
in Teut, ' to work in metal,' with which 
OHG. srneidar, 'artificer in metals,' and 
the cognates discussed under Sd)mtcb, are 
connected. So too gefcf)meiotg, 'pliant, 
flexible, tractable, smooth,' from MidHG. 
gesmtdec, ' easy to work, plastic' 

^cfdjmetfj, n., 'fly-blows, eggs (of in- 
sects), vermin,' from MidHG. gesmei^e, n., 
'excrement'; akin to f<r)ittct{jen. — (Sefq)0|J3, 
n., ' shot, missile, dart,' even MidHG. ge- 
sc/105, OHG. gisco?,, n., akin to fdnefien. So 
too ^iefd)uf3, 'artillery^ ordnance,' even 
in MidHG. geschutze y n., 'arms, weapons 
for shooting,' occurs as acollective of ©cfdjcfj. 

gefd)tt)Cige, conj. with a subj. to be 
supplied, 'much les.«, to say nothing of, 
I am silent about it,' &c. — gefd)tDeigen, 
' to pass by in silence, omit mentioning,' a 
factitive of fcr/jwigen, from MidHG. geswei- 
gen, OHG. gisweigen, ' to reduce to silence.' 
See fdJftjetgen. 

gefd)ttmt&, adj. and adv.> 'swift(ly), 
rapid(ly), quick(lv),' from geswinde, adj. 
and adv., 'quick(ly), vehement(ly) ' ; in 
earlier ModHG. jdjunntf, MidHG. swinde 
(stoint), ' powerful, strong, quick.' In OHG. 
the adj. is wanting (yet the proper names 

Amalswind and Adalswind are recorded). 
The prim, meaning is 'strong'; the de- 
velopment of meaning to 'quick ' is similar 
to that of balb ; Goth, swings, 'strong 
powerful, healthy,' OIc. svinnr, 'intelli- 
gent,' AS. svriiS, ' strong, violent,' show vari- 
ous aspects of the primary meaning. The 
origin of the cognates is obscure ; its rela- 
tion to gefttnb is dubious. 

$cf"di)ttri|Tcr, plur. (prop. neut. sing.), 
from the equiv. MidHG. geswister (gsicis- 
t>rde), neut. plur., 'brothers and sisters,' 
OHG. gisicistar, plur. ; akin to @d>n>eftcr. 

QeftyWUlft, f., 'swelling, tumour,' from 
theequiv. MidHG. geswulst, akin to fd)toe(lfn. 
— $efd)«nir, n., irom the equiv. MidHG. 
geswer, n., ' abscess,' akin to fdjirdren. 

Qefclle, m., 'comrade, apprentice, jour- 
neyman,' from MidHG. geselle, OHG. gi^llo, 
lit. 'fellow-occupant or lodger,' then gene- 
rally 'companion, friend' (in late MidHG. 
'journeyman ' also) ; akin to <Saat. Hence 
the derivatives, MidHG. gesellec, ' associate, 
combined,' ModHG. gefedig ; MidHG. gesel- 
lecheit, 'relation as a comrade'; MidHG. 
gcsellen, 'to unite, combine,' ModHG. ©efcU 
leu, ' to associate.' For the meaning of ge* 
in ©efeUe, comp. ©efinbf. 

$efefj}, n., ' law, decree, statute,' from 
the equiv. MidHG-. ges$tze, of which the 
variant ge*elzede occurs in the same sense, 
OHG. gisezzida, f. ; akin to fefcen, whence 
also <2>vi{3Uiig. — 0eficf)f, n., 'si^hr, counte- 
nance,' from MidHG. gesiht, OHG. glsiht, 
f., 'seeing, view, dream, sense of sight,' 
akin to fetjett.— (&c(tms, see <£tm«. 

(Scfinbc, n., 'domestics, servants,' from 
MidHG. gesinde, OHG. gisindi, n., 'suite, 
followers in war'; collective of MidHG. 
gesint(d), OHG. gisind, 'follower,' lit 'one 
who joins in a sind,' from OHG. sind, m., 
'journey,expedition'; corresponding to AS. 
s2(5, 'journey,' whence gcsi^S. 'companion, 
fellow-traveller,' Goth, sinfrs, 'journey ' (ga- 
sinpa, 'fellow-traveller'). To the OTeur. 
swj?a- (from pre-Teut. Unto-) corresponds 
Olr. sd, ' way.' See fettcfii and flatten. — 
ModHG. 0>cftttbcf, 'rabble, mob, vaga- 
bonds,' dimin. of ©cjtnfcf, also used in a 
contemptuous sense, so even in late Mid 
HG. gesindrfcehe, gesindelach (with acollec- 
tive suffix). — $efpcm, m., 'companion,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. gespan; lit. per- 
haps 'one who is yoked along with an- 
other.' Comp. Goth, gajuhd, ' comrade,' 
lit. ' yoke-fellow.' 

£jcfpertff, n., 'spectre, ghost,' from Mid 


( "7 ) 


IIG. gespenste, n. (gesp^nst, gespanst, f.), 
'enticement, allurement, infernal illusion, 
ghost,' OHG. gispanst, f., ' enticement ' ; 
the latter meaning is the original one, since 
©efpettjl (see also a&, hnbetfpenflig), accord- 
ing to its form, is a verbal abstract of an 
OTeut. spanan, ' to entice.' Comp. OSax. 
and OHG. spanan, ' to eniico, charm,' Mid 
HG. apaiten (comp. Gr. <nrdw). 

#eff, see ©ifdjr. 

£>cjrirtb(?, n., from the equiv. MidHG. 
gestat(d), n., ' bank, shore.' Comp. Stabett. 

Qeftalt , adj., ' having form or shape,' in 
ttjol)(gejhlr, uugejlalt ; comp. MidHG. iinge- 
stalt, OHG. ungidalt, 'disfigured, ugly,' 
MidHG. wolgestalt (wol ges'ellet) ; a partic. 
of MidHG. stolen, which may also mean 
' to shape, make, accomplish, set in order.' 
To this is allied Qeftall, f., 'external 
appearance, shape, tigure, mien,' MidHG. 
gedalt, f., 'shape, appearance, nature,' 
OHG. *gistalt. Considering the compara- 
tively late appearance of the word (not 
until the end of the 13th cent.), ©eftutt 
may have been derived from the old com- 
pound, OHG. uvgistalt, MidHG. ungestalt, 
adj., ' disfigured.' 

gcffaffctt, vb., 'to allow, admit, grant,' 
from M'idllG. gcstaten, wk. vb., 'to grant, 
permit,' OHG. gistatdn; probably connected 
most closely with OHG. stata, f., ' favour- 
able opportunity' (for details see Statt). — 
gcffc^eit, vb., 'to acknowledge, confess,' 
from MidHG. gestin, gcstdn, OHG, -gisldn, 
s-tr. vb., 'to stand still, assist, own, con- 
fess' ; derivatives, ModilG. gcjldnbtg, ©cjl- 
diibniei. See ftcfjcti. 

gcficrn, adv., 'yesterday,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. gestern (gester), OHG. 
g'estaron (gestre), adv. ; also, with a diver- 
gent meaning, OHG. Sgestem, 'the day after 
to-morrow ' (and ' the day before yester- 
day') ; corresponding to Goth, gistradagis, 
' to-morrow,' OIc. igcer, ' to-morrow, yes- 
terday.' It is evident that the primary 
word was used in the double sense of * to- 
morrow' and 'yesterday' (lit. 'on the 
second day from this'); comp. also AS. 
geostra, gistrandceg, E. yesterday, Du. gis- 
teren, ' yesterday.' The form and the idea 
are Aryan ; comp. Sans, hyds, ' yesterday,' 
Gr. x^*. Lat. heri (for hjesi ?) ; ghyes is the 
primit. form, whence with the suffix tro-, 
ghislro-, ghyestro- (Goth, gistra). For Jjcutf, 
' to-day,' and mcrgcn, ' to-morrow' (Lat. eras, 
Sans, fvds), an equally diffused form is 

(Scffhrn, see Stent.— $effober, see 
flebent. — $cfirciud), see ©fraud).— $c- 
ffrtipp, see ftntpptg. — $eff i'tppe, see 
€taub.— $effiif, see ©tide. 

gcfUttb, adj., 'sound, healthy, whole- 
some,' from the equiv. MidHG. gesunt(d), 
OHG. gisunt(t) ; also MidHG. gesunt, 
OHG. gisunt, m., ' health ' ; comp. AS. 
gesund and sund, E. sound, Du. gezond, 
OFris. sund. To East Teut. the word is 
unknown. Its connection with Lat. sd- 
nus, 'healthy,' is as feasible phonetically 
as its connection with gefcfyiinub, or witii 
the Teut. root sinp, ' to go,' in ©ejinbe. 

Qetveibe, n., 'grain, corn,' from Mid 
HO. getregede, n., 'everything that is car- 
ried, clothing, luggage ; what the soil bears 
(flowers, grass), corn,' even in late OHG. 
(11th cent.), gitregidi, n., 'revenue, posses- 
sion.' The ModHG. sense is first found in 
14th cent. 

gefreu, see tmt.— gefroff , see tvejlett. 

Qexxxllev, m„ • godfather, sponsor, gos- 
sip,' from MidHG. gevatere, OHG. gifataro, 
'spiritual co-father, godfather' ; an imita- 
tion of eccles. Lat. compater. From this was 
also formed OHG. gifatara, MidHG. gevatere, 
f., ' godmother.' Comp. also SSettcr and $atf. 

Qetvafyr, adj., 'aware,' from MidHG. 
gewar, OHG. and OSax. giwar, 'heedful, 
attentive, mindful'; hence gmviljr tocrbnt 
is lit. 'to grow careful, mindful'; thus 
even in MidHG. gewar werden, OHG. giwar 
uerdan, OSax. giwar werdan; comp. Du. 
gewaar, E. aware. Allied to MidHG. 
gewar, f., ' oversight, headship,' gewarsamc, 
' over.-ight, certainty,' ModHG. ^CWttl)r- 
fam, m., 'surety, custody.' — gcuntbrcn. 
vb., ' to be aware of, perceive, discover,' 
from late MidHG. geicarn, ' to become 
aware'; derived from the adj. See taafyr- 
ncl)mett, wafjren. 

QCWiifyvcn, vb., ' to be surety for, guar- 
antee, attest,' from MidHG. gewern, OHG. 
giweren, 'to grant, confess, perform, pay, 
give security, also the equiv. MidHG. went, 
OHG. wOren; corresponding to OFris. wera, 
* to give security.' From the OHG. partic. 
werinta, ' guarantor,' were adopted the Ro- 
mance cognates, Ital. guarenlo and Fr. 
garant, 'bondsman' (allied to Fr. garantir, 
Ital. auareniire, 'to give security, whence 
ModilG. ©arantif, E. warrant). The con- 
necting link between the OTeut. wk. verbal 
stem loerai-, ' to confess,' and non-Teut. 
words has not yet been found ; perhaps 
Iv.feraim, ' I give,' is allied. 


( n8 ) 


$cn>alf, f., 'power, authority, force,' 
from tlie equiv. MidHG. gewalt, m., f., 
OHG. giwalt, m., f. ; allied to toaltctt. 

$Ctt>cmo, n., 'garment, dress, garb,' 
from MidHG. gewant(d), n., 'clothing, 
armour, dress stuff, material ' (with the 
last meaning. ModHG. ©nronbtyaud is con- 
nected) ; OHG. only in the late recorded 
compound, badagiwant(t), ' vest is mutatoria.' 
The older word for ' ©eroaub ' was MidHG. 
gewate, OHG. giwdti, also OHG. and Mid 
HG. wdt. OHG. giirant, appears as ' turn- 
ing, winding,' and upon this sense ('en- 
veloping ') the meaning 'clothing' is based ; 
com p. Lat. toga, from tegere, ' to cover.' See 
irinceit.— geroctnof , ' skilled, proficient, 
adroit,' partic. of Wrntett. 

QCtt>ciritfl, adj., 'expectant, attentive,' 
from MidHG. geicertec, ' careful, obliging' ; 
allied to MidHG. gcwarten, 'to hold one- 
self ready, watch with observant eyes in 
order to be ready, for a service, or to admit 
visitors,' &c. See hwrteit. 

§ettKl)r, n., 'weapon of defence, gun, 
musket,' from MidHG. gewqr, f. n., 'guard, 
defence, bulwark, weapon ' ; even in OHG. 
giwer, n., ' weapon, goad,' weri, ' rampart, 
means of defence.' Allied to lrrftren. 

Qemetf), n., ' horns, antlers,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. gewige (hirzgewtge), n. ; in 
OHG. the corresponding word is wanting ; 
comp. Du. gewicht, n., ' stag's antlers,' 
whence a G. variant ©ettndst. The cognates 
have most frequently been connected with 
the OTeut. root u-fg. 'to fight' (see 2Betgant>) ; 
©eireir) would then be regarded as the wea- 
pon of the stag. 

Qetoetbe, n., ' mode of acquisition, 
trade, craft,' from MidHG. gewerbe, n., 
'activity, business' ; allied to teerben. 

(Sett>td)f, n., 'antlers,' see ©ettetf). — 
(&ett>id)f , n., ' weight,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. gewiht, gewihte, n. ; OHG. *giiciht; 
verbal abstract of tonegen ; corresponding 
to AS. gewiht, E. weight, Du. gewigt, OIc 

gewiegf, adj., ModHG. only, prop, a 
partic. of tviegen, ' to rock,' hence in t\xo<\i 
gcn?iegt, 'rocked into something,' i.e. 'trained 
up, grown proficient in something.' 

gcwtnncn, vb., ' to win, acquire, pre- 
vail on, conquer,' from MidHG. gewinnen, 
OHG. giwinnan, ' to attain by work, effort, 
victory, earn something, conquer, get,' be- 
sides which are found MidHG. vrinnen, 
OHG. winnan, ' to toil hard, contend ' ; 
corresponding to Goth, winnan (gawinnan), 

' to sutler, feel pain, torment oneself '(allied 
to vmnns and winn6, f.. 'suffering,' OHG. 
winna, 'strife,' MidHG. winne, 'pain'), 
OIc. vinna, 'to work, perform, win,' AS. 
winnan, ' to contend, exert oneself,' E. to 
win, Du. gewinnen. The primary meaning 
of the Teut. root winn is 'to toil hard' 
(especially used of toiling in fight). Whe- 
ther OHG. wini, AS. wine, 'friend,' and 
ModHG. SBernte also belong to the same 
root is doubtful; yet the priniit. allied Sans, 
root van signifies ' to procure for oneself, 
obtain, assist in obtaining, conquer,' and 
'to he fond of, favourable to.' 

$ettriffett,n., 'conscience,' from MidHG. 
ge>ciy$en, f. n., ' knowledge, information, 
privity, inner consciousness, conscience,' 
even in OHG. giwi^ant, f., 'conscience' 
(Du. geweten) ; probably an imitation of 
Lat. conscientia (G. ge equiv. to Lat. con, as 
in ©matter), comp. also barmfyeqig ; in Goth. 
midwissei. OHG. giwi^ant is most closely 
connected with lr-ifim, OHG. in fin. wi^an. 

QetVlfc, adj. and adv., 'sure(ly), cer- 
tainly), confident(ly),' from the equiv. 
MidHG. gewis'ss), adj., gewisse, adv.,OH(i. 
gewis(ss), adj., gewisso, adv., ' certain, sure, 
reliable' ; corresponding to Du. wis, gewis ; 
Goth only in unwisa- (misspelt for *un- 
wissa), ' uncertain.' The OTeut. wissa- 
(gawissa-) is an old partic. of the Goth. 
pret.-pres. witan, OHG. wiy$an (see lr-iffett), 
from witta-, widto- (allied to the Aryan 
root vid). With regard to the pregnant 
meaning, ' what is certainly known,' for 
' what is known,' comp. taut, lit. ' what is 

Qetvitter, n., ' thunder-storm,' from 
MidHG. gewitere, OHG. giwitiri, 'bad 
weather'; collective of SBettcr; correspond- 
ing to OSax. giwidiri, Goth. *gairidri, n. 
The ModHG. meaning is wanting in OHG. 
and MidHG. OHG. giwitiri may also 
mean 'hail.' 

QCtVOQetl, adj., 'favourably inclined,' 
from MidHG. gewegen, 'important, in- 
clined'; prop, a partic of MidHG. gewe- 
gen, ' to be weighty, adequate, help.' See 

flCJt>of)nen, vb., ' to accustom, inure, 
habituate,' from the equiv. MidHG. gewe- 
nen, OHG. giwennan (pret. giwenita) ; cor- 
responding to Du. gewennen, AS. gewennan, 
OIc venja, Goth, wanjan, ' to accustom ' ; 
derived from an old adj. or rather partic. 
wana-, ' accustomed ' (Olc vanr) ; for this 
word a parallel form was chiefly used, the 


( "9 ) 


latest derivative of which is gctDOf)ltf, 
' accustomed,' OHG. giwon, MidHG. gewou, 
whence, with a dental suffix (see 2)<oub and 
£abtd)t), ModHG. gewctjat (yet without t, 
©WcfynJjeit ajid gewoijnttd)) ; allied to OHG. 
giwona, MidHG. gewone (gewan), ' custom.' 
For details see luetynen. 

&id)t , f. and n., • gout, mouth of a fur- 
nace,' from the equiv. MidHG. giht, n. f. 
(chiefly in the collective form gegihte, n.), 
'gout, convulsions, spasms.' OHG. *giliido 
may be inferred from AS. gihfia, m., 'para- 
lysis' ; this dental suffix is frequent in old 
names of diseases. The root gih is not 
found elsewhere, and its prim, meaning is 
obscure. ©efyen cannot in any case be 
allied, since it presumes a root gai (from 
ga and a root % ) ; nor could we from this 
comparison infer the prim, meaning of 

fltckfcit, vb., from the equiv. MidHG. 
piksen (geksen), 'to sigh,' OHG. giccha^yn; 
from an onomatopoetic root gik, with a fre- 
quentative suffix sen (OHG. atfen, azzen, 
Goth, atjan). 

(bicbel, m., ' gable, summit,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. gibel, OHG. gibil, m. ; cor- 
responding to Du. gevel, OIc. gajl, ' gable,' 
Goth, gibla, m., 'spire.' The OHG. word 
signifies ' front side' (e.g., of the ark of the 
covenant), as well as ' nap ' (of velvet, &c), 
so that ' extreme end ' is probably the 
prim, meaning. It may be assumed, how- 
ever, that the word was used in a figura- 
tive sense, MidHG. gebel, OHG. gebal, m., 
'skull, head,' OHG. gibilla, f., 'skull'; 
priniit. allied toGr. Ke<f>a\ilj, 'head' (Aryan 
glwbhald, the type of this word and of 
©tebel) ; hence ©iebel is lit. 'head.' 

@>icbel, 0>teben, m., • crucian ' ; like 
the equiv. Fr. gibel, of obscure origin. 

$icnmufd)et, f , 'a species of tellina,' 
allied to MidHG. ginen (gianen), ' to gape, 
open the mouth wide,' OHG. ginSn; the 
latter is derived from an OTeut. root gi 
(Aryan ghi ), ' to bark, gape, open the 
mouth wide.' See gdfonen. 

$icr, L 'eagerness, inordinate desire,' 
from ~M.idTIG. (fir (ger)J., 'longing, craving, 
greediness.' OHG. girt, f. ; abstract of an 
adj., OHG. ger and giri, MidHG. ger, gir, 
'craving, loniring,' wliich is connected with 
the root ger (Aryan gher), discussed under 
gern. Another abstract form allied to this 
is ModHG. ©itrbe (sSegkrbe), from MidHG. 
girde, OHG. girida, f. (Du. begeerte). For 
the older adj. MidHG. gir, ger, only gierig 

is now used, from MidHG. girec, OHG. 
girtg, ' desirous.' 

Qiefcen, vb., from the equiv. MidHG. 
gieyn, OHG. gio$an, 'to pour, cast metal, 
form, pour out, spill, stream' ; correspond- 
ing to Goth, giutan, 'to pour ' (OIc. gj6ta, ' to 
throw young, blink with the eyes'\ AS. ge6- 
tan, Du. gieten ; a strong verbal root common 
10 Teut., from pre-Teut. ghml, whence also 
the Lat. root fud in f undo, ' I pour.' This 
root is probably connected with the equiv. 
root ghu (Gr. x v ; i" X^ w » X^A"*, Sans, root 
hu, 'to sacrifice'). See also ©ejje. 

$ift in amtgtft, 93rautgift, f., from the 
equiv. MidHG. and OHG. gift, {., ' gift, 
present' ; a verbal noun from gcben (Goth. 
gift*. E. gift). — ©tft, n., meaning ' poison,' 
is the same word (for the evolution of 
meaning comp. Fr. poison, from Lat. potio, 
potionem, 'drink'); even in MidHG. ami 
OHG. gift, f. (always neut. in this sense in 
ModHG.), Du. gift; in Goth. lubja, 'poison' 
(OHG. luppi, MidHG. liippe, 'poison'). 
The common Aryan term for 'poison' 
(Sans. viSii-, Lat. virus, Gr. toi) has not been 
preserved in Teut. See »em>efen. 

QAlbe, f., ' yellow colour or substance,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. gilwe, OHG. giliwt 
(gelawt), f. ; an abstract of gelb (Goth. *gil- 
wei, «ikin to*gilwa-). — To this gilbert, 'to 
colour yellow,' is allied. 

$tl6c, f., ' guild, corporation,' ModHG. 
only, from the equiv. Du. gild; corre- 
sponding to OIc. gilde, ' guild ' (from the 
middle of the 11th cent.), MidE. gilde, E. 
guild. The prim, meaning of the word, 
which first appears in Scand., is ' sacrifice, 
sacrificial feast, festive gathering, club'; 
allied to griten (in the sense of ' to sacrifice,' 
in OSax. geldan, and in AS. gildav). 

$impef , m., ' bullfinch,' from the equiv. 
late MidHG. giimpel; in ModHG. figura- 
tively 'simpleton.' MidHG. giimpel is 
connected with gumpel, ' leaping, jest,' and 
further with gumpen, 'to hop ; hence 
MidHG. gumpelmann (plur. gumpellivUe), 
and qumpelkn'eht, ' tumbler, buffoon, fool.' 

®inft, $mfter, m., ' broom (plant),' 
first occurs in ModHG., from Lat. genista^ 
whence also the Romance cognate, Fr. 
genH; the genuine Teut. term is preserved 
in E. broom, Du. brem. See Skombftrf. 

$ipfd, m., 'summit, top, climax,' from 
the equiv. late MidHG. gipfel, m., the 
prim, word cannot be discovered ; ©ipftl 
is scarcely an intensive form of ©tcbtl ; 
MidHG. gupf, gupfe, 'point, summit,' is 


( 120 ) 


still less closely allied, and is rather a 
variant of Jtitppf. 

$tps3, Hi., 'gypsum, faster of Paris,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. and late OIIG. 
g pa, which again is derived from MidLat- 
(Jr. gypsum ("yityos, MidGr. and ModGr. v 
being pronounced likei, see JtirdjeX wheuce 
also Fr. gypse, Du. gips. 

fltrrcn, vb., ' to coo,' allied to MidHG. 
g'erren, gurren, garren, which are used for 
various kinds of sounds. 

®tfcf)f, older (jjdfcf)f, m., J yeast, foam,' 
formed from the equiv. MidHG. jest, gist, 
in., corresponding to E. yest, yeast, Du. 
g st, 'yeast.' Allied to gifcr/en (MidHG. 
gischen), older gafdjeu (MidHG. geschen, a 
variant of jesen). See garen, a factitive of 
MidHG. jesen. 

fitter, n., ' trellice, lattice, railing,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. g>ter, n., a variant of 
giter, ©atter j even in late MidHG. ge- 

$fan,3, m., • lustre, splendour,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. glanz (wanting in OHG.), 
witli which is connected the OHG. and 
MidHG. adj. glanz, 'bright, shining' ; Mod 
HG. glaitjen, from tlie equiv. OHG. and 
MidHG. gl$nzen; to the same class belong 
MidHG. glander, ' splendour, shining,' and 
glanst, ' splendour,' further glinster, 'splen- 
dour,' and the very rare str. vb. glinzeu. 
A stem glint- is wanting in the rest of the 
Tent, dialects unless the cognates of glatt 
(Goth. *glada-) are allied. 

01cts, n., 'glass, tumbler,' from the 
equiv. OHG. and MidHG. glas, n. ; a com- 
mon Teut. word unknown to the other 
Aryan groups ; comp. OSax. gles, Du. glas, 
AS. glees, E. glass ; allied to OIc. gler, n., 
'glass,' with the change of s to r, which 
proves the word to be primit. Teut (*g!aza- 
and *glasa- in Goth.). Hence it is not very 
probable that the Teut. word was borrowed, 
although glass itself was imported by the 
Phoenicians. The OTeut. term for amber 
(Lat. gttsum) is likewise primit. allied ; 
comp. AS. gleere, ' resin of trees.' See the 
following word. 

rtlaft, ni., ' splendour,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. glast. It is uncertain whether it 
belongs, like the cognates discussed under 
the preceding word, to a Teut root glas, 
'to shine.' 

glatt, adj., ' smooth, polished, slippery, 
bald,' from Midi! G. and OHG. glat, 'smooth, 
shining ' ; corresponding to OSax. gladmSd, 
'gladsome,' Du. glad, ' smooth,' AS. gletd, 

' shining, joyous,' R glad, OIc. glatSr, 'joy- 
ous, shining.' Goth. *glada- for pre-Teut. 
ghladho- is primit. allied to OSlov. gladuku, 
' smooth,' Lat. glab^r (for *g>ladhro-), 
' smooth;' hence not 'shining' but 'smooth* 
is the prim, meaning of the Teut. cognates. 
The connection with Lith. glodHs, ' fitting 
smoothly ' (from the root glud, ' to cling 
to ' ?), is uncertain. Comp. also the fol- 
lowing word, as well as glanjen and gletten. 

Qlatic, f., from the equiv. MidHG. 
glatz, ' bald pate, bald spot, surface of the 
head ' ; Goth. *glatta- for pre-Teut. ghladh- 
no, allied to glatt (pre-Teut ghladho-); hence 
©lattc is lit. ' smooth spot' 

Qlctube, m., ' belief, credit, creed,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. geloube (by syncope 
gloube), OB.G. giloubo, m. ; an abstract com- 
mon to West Teut ; corresponding to 
OSax. giltibo, Du. geloof, AS. geledfa (E. be- 
lief). With this glauben is connected ear- 
lier (in Luther) gleuben, from the equiv. 
MidHG. gelouben (glouben), OHG. gilou- 
ben, gilouppen; comp. OSax. gd6bian, Du. 
gdooven, AS. geli/fan, E. to believe, Goth. 
galaubjan, ' to believe.' The prim, meaning 
is ' to approve.' To the same root lub belong 
erlattben, licb, tcben, and Urlaub. 

ctteicf), adj., 'like, similar, equal, direct,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. geltch, OHG. gi- 
lth(hh) ; common to Teut. in the same 
sense ; comp. Goth, galeik*, OIc. glikr, AS. 
gdic, E. like, Du. gehjk, OSax. gilik. This 
specifically Teut. adj. is compounded of 
the particle ge*, Goth, ga-, and a subst. 
Ilka-, ' body,' whose cognates are discussed 
under 2eic|e ; the compound meant lit. 
' having a symmetrical body.' The word 
Ilk, ModHG. did), as the second component, 
is always used in the same sense ; e.g., tt>ei- 
Ht.f>, lit 'having a woman's body' (it is 
preserved also in the prons. rueld)er, fcldjer, 
lit ' having what kind of body? having a 
body of that kind ' ; yet see these words). 
— (pletd)ett, in expressions like meiiiciJ 
gleidjen, is also based upon the adj. gleicfo, 
which is here declined in the weak form ; 
comp. MidHG. mtn geltche, OHG. mtn gi- 
Uhho, 'my equals.' — f^lctcrjms, n., 'simi- 
litude, allegory, varable,' from MidHG. 
gelichnisse, f. n., OHG. gilthnissa, f., ' copy, 
model, parable.'— gleicf) fam, adv., 'as it 
were, as though,' a combination of gletd) 
and fam for gletd) tvie, 'just as if; comp. 
MidHG. sam, same, adv., 'thus, just as, 
even as' (OHG. sama, from a pronora. stem 
sama-, ' the very same ' ; comp. E. same, 


( 121 ) 


Gr. 6/*6s, Sans, sama-, ' the same, equal '). 
— See ©Ictjjnev. 

0ldfe, «., for $eleife (like gtaufcen, 
gUid), &a, from ged), 'track (of a wheel), 
rut,' allied to AlidHG. geleis (rare), f., 
'trodden way,' usually MidHG. lis, leise, 
f., ' trace, track,' OHG. *leisa in waganleisa, 
f.. ' track of a waggon' ; formed from the 
OTeut. root lais, ' to go,' discussed under 
Icrjlcn ; Lat. lira, de-ltrare, OSlov. lecha, 
'ridge' (from Haisd), Lith. lys'e, 'garden 
bed,' are also allied. Comp. ModHG. 
gutd)e and Lat. porca, ' ridge.' 

(ftlctfj, m., ' fool's parsley,' first occurs 
in ModHG. ; allied to the following word. 

gtet^Ctt, vb., 'to shine, glitter,' from 
MidHG. gl'qen, OHG. gltyan, str. vb., ' to 
sbine, light, glitter' ; corresponding to 
OSax. glitan, to which Goih. glitmunjnn, 
OIc. glita, glitra (E. to glitter), ' to shine.' 
The OTeut. root glit (pre-Teut. ghlid) ap- 
pears also in glifcmt. 

(Mei^ttCr, m., 'hypocrite,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. gelichesencere, allied to older 
ModHG. gtetfjen, ' to dissemble.' The latter 
is from MidHG. glihsen, gelichesen, OHG. 
giUhhisdn, ' to dissemble' ; lit. ' to be equal 
to any one ' (from flleicfy), equiv. to the Mid 
HG. parallel form gelichtensm. Comp. 
further Lat. simulare, allied to similis. 

Qleiteil, vb., ' to glide, slide, slip,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. gliten, OHG. glitan, 
str. vb. ; corresponding to OSax. gltdan, 
Du. glijden, glijen, AS. gltdan, E. to glide. 
Although the roots of gleiten (Aryan ghli-dh, 
ghli-t) and gtatt (Aryan ghladh) are as in- 
dubitably allied as those of ©hut} and 
gleifien, it is impossible to determine the 
relation between them more definitely. 

^tctfc^cr, m., 'glacier,' first occurs in 
early ModHG., adopted from a Swiss word, 
which was again obtained from Fr. glacier. 
Comp. Sim?, 8ol)it, Sanntu. 

(Slieo, n., from the equiv. MidHG. 
gclit(d), n. and m., OHG. gilid, n.. ' limb, 
joint' (in MidHG. 'member' also) ; like- 
wise in the same sense, mostly without ge*, 
MidHG., lil(d), OHG. lid, n., m. ; corre- 
sponding to OSax. lith, Du. lid (and gelid), 
AS. lit), Goth. lijms, ' limb.' The common 
Teut. stem lifiu is ordinarily referred to an 
OTeut. root l'}j, ' to go ' (see Icibcn, tcitcn), 
which is scarcely possible, because @ltet> 
cannot orig. have been confined to the feet. 
Besides li- must be the root and -/>u- (for 
Aryan -lit-) the suffix, on account of the 
equiv. words formed with the suffix m, 

OIc. li-mr, ' limh,' Urn, ' twig,' AS. Urn, E. 
limb. Also allied perhaps to Lith. lemu, 
'stature, growth' (as well as Ulas, 'tall, 
slender'?). Comp. 33tlb.— $ltebmctljen, 
plur., 'limbs,' from MidHG. lidemdj, gelide- 
mcey, * limb' ; corresponding to OFris. lith- 
m&ta, Du. lidmaat, ledemaat. The mean- 
ing of the second part of the compound is 
not clear (MidHG. gelidemd$e, f., signifies 
' length of body '). Comp. OSwed. lijxi-, 
m6t, Tc. lifiamfit, 'limbs.' 

glimmen, vb., ' to shine dimly, glim- 
mer,' from MidHG. glimmen, str. vb., ' to 
glow, glimmer,' allied to MidHG. glamme, 
f., ' glow,' glim, * spark ' (OHG. *glimman) ; 
corresponding toDu. glimmen; also OHG. 
gleimo, Mid HG. gleime, ' gl ow worm '(wh ence 
the proper name ©feint), MidHG. gltmen, 
' to light, shine,' OSax. gltmo, ' gleam.' To 
the ModHG. and MidHG. glimmcrn cor- 
respond AS. *glimorian, E. to glimmer, to 
which E. gleam (AS. glcem) is allied. The 
OTeut. root glimm, gll-m, contained in these 
cognates, is perhaps lengthened from a root 
gll (comp. Scand. gljd, ' to shine '), with 
which Gr. xk ta pfe> 'warm,' x^ ta ^ w » 'to 
warm,' as well as Ir. gle" (from the prim, 
form gleivo-), ' shining, clear,' may be con- 

(Sltmpf, m., 'moderation, lenity,' from 
MidHG. glimpf, gelimpf, m., 'consistent, 
courteous demeanour generally,' OHG. 
gilimpf, ' fitness ' ; to these are allied OHG. 
gilimpflth, MidHG. gelimpflich, ' consis- 
tent,' whence the ModHG. adv. gltrnpflid) ; 
akin to OHG. gilimpfan, MidHG. gelimpfen, 
' to be suitable ' (in MidHG. also ' to make 
suitable') ; comp. AS. gelimpan, ' to occur.' 
The West Teut. root limp in an appropriate 
sense has not been found in the non-Teut 

gtifaem, vb., 'to glitter, glisten,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. glitzern, frequentative 
of MidHG. glitzen, ' to shine ' ; comp. OHG. 
glizzindn ; allied to gtcifjen, OHG. gliy$an. 
AS. *glitorian, E. to glitter, OIc. ghtra, ' to 
shine,' are similarly formed. 

$locnc, f., 'hell, (public) clock,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. glocke, OHG. gloclca 
(never chlocclia), f. ; corresponding to Du. 
Jclok, AS. clugge, chicce, E. clock; OIc klukka, 
f., ' bell ' ; not orig. a G. word, since 
OHG. chlocch6n, 'to knock,' cannot well 
he allied. The Mid Lat. clocca recorded In 
the 8th cent., from which Fr. cloche (in 
Ital. campana) is derived, is probably due, 
like the Teut. cognates, to Kelt origin; 


( 122 ) 


coinp. W. cloch, f., Olr. cloc, in., 'bell, 
clock' (primit. Kelt klulcko). It is im- 
probable that the Teut word is the source 
of the Rom. and the Kelt, terms, because 
Teut. itself has usually borrowed the words 
relating to the Church and its institutions. 
The OKelt. and Rom. cognates in the form 
of lclukka found their way into Teut. ; the 
HG. forms (Swiss klokke, not xl°kxe) may 
have been first adopted about 800 a,d., 
from LG. (AS.). 

gloffett, vb., 'to glimmer,' from Mid 
. glosten (a variant of glosen), ' to glow, 
shine' ; allied to E. gloss, Scand. gl<>ssi; 
derived from the root glas appearing in 
®la» I 

gtof^en, vb., 'to stare,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. glotzen; OHG. *glozz6n, Goth. 
*glutt&n are wanting ; comp. E. to gloat, 
OIc. glotta, 'to sneer'; perhaps primit. 
allied to OSlov. gledati, ' to look, see.' 

(Sducfc, "., ' luck, good fortune, success, 
happine-*,' from MidHG. geliicke (by syn- 
cope gliicke), n., 'luck, accident'; OHG. 
*gilucchi is wanting ; a specifically G. 
word which in the 14th cent, passed in 
the form lukka into Scand. (Swed. lycka, 
Dan. lykke), and as luck into E. (from Du. 
gelulc, ' fortune '). On account of its mean- 
ing its connection with lecfett is dubious. 

(Mtuf.c. f., 'clucking-hen,' with the 
variant JUucfe (LG. Jtlufft-), from the equiv. 
MidHG. klucke. Comp. MidHG. glucken, 
klucken, 'to cluck' ; allied to Du. klokken, 
E. to cluck (AS. cloccian) ; apparently an 
onomatopoetic class which is found with 
corresponding sounds in Rom.; comp. Ital. 
chiocciare, Fr. glousser (Lat. glocire), 'to 
cluck,' Ital. chioccia, Span, clueca, 'cluck- 

®Iufe, ®uffe, f. (UpG. word), 'pin,' 
from the equiv. late MidHG. glufe, guffe, 
{.; origin obscure. 

ctluf)cn, vb., 'to glow,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. gliien, gliiejen, OHG. gluoen, wk. 
vb. ; corresponding to AS. gldwan, E. to 
glow, Du. gloeijen, OIc. gl6a, 'to glow.' 
From the Teut. root gl6, gU, are also de- 
rived ModHG. ©tut, MidHG. and OHG. 
gluot, f., to which Du. gloed, AS. glid (Goth. 
*gl6-di-), E. dial, gleed correspond, like- 
wise AS. gl&ma, gldmung, 'twilight,' E. 
gloom, OIc. gldmr, ' moon.' With the 
Teut. root gl6, gli (from pre-Teut. ghla), 
Lith. zlejd, ' twilight,' is also connected. 

$nctoe, f., ' grace, favour, mercy, par- 
don,' from MidHG. gndde, gendJe, f., ' bliss, 

rest, condescension, support, favour, mercy,' 
OHG. gindda, f., ' condescension, sym- 
pathy, compassion, mercy' ; corresponding 
to OSax. gindtha, ndtha, 'favour, help,' Du. 
genade, OIc. ndft, f. (in the plur.), 'rest.' The 
meanings ' favour, help,' &c, are attested by 
the Goth. vb. nifran, 'to support.' To the 
Teut. root nej> (from Aryan n£th) some 
assign the prim, meaning 'to incline, de- 
cline,' in order to elucidate 'rest' (in 
Scand. ; comp. MidHG. diu sunne gienc 
ze gndden, 'jut Sftufoc,' i.e. 'the sun set'). 
Comp. the cognates, Sans, root ndth, 'to 
beg,' ndthd, ' help, refuge.' 

(SltCtttt, m., ' father' (dial.). See Jtndit. 

$olo, n., 'gold,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. golt(d), OHG. gold, n. ; a common 
Teut. word ; comp. OSax. gold, Du. goud, 
AS. and E. gold, OIc. goll, gull (lor golfc-), 
Goth. gulp, n., 'gold,' from pre-Teut. ghlto-, 
to which OSlov. zlato, Russ. zoloto (from 
zolto) are primit. allied ; the word (Silbtr is 
also common to Teut. and Slav. The 
primary sense of the root gliel, of which @c(t 
is a panic, derivative, ifl 'to be yellow'; 
akin to Sans, hiranya, ' gold,' from hdri, 
'gold yellow' ; hence probably ModHG. 
gclb and gluten, with tneir cognates, are 
also primit. allied. In any case, Gr. xpfofc 
has no connection with the Teut. word. 

(Solf, m., ' gulf,' from the equiv. late 
MidHG. golfe; the latter, like E. gulf, is 
derived from Fr. gotje, which, with its Rom. 
cognate (Ital. g'dfu), is based upon Gr. 
k6\4>o$ (late KiXiros). 

g5nrtCtt, vb., 'to grant, not to begrudge, 
wish well to,' from MidHG. gunnen, OHG. 
giunnan, 'to grant willingly, bestow, al- 
low'; OHG. and OSax. mostly unnan, in 
the same sense (in OHG. and MidHG. 
pret.-pres.) ; comp Du. gunnen, AS. unnan, 
OIc. unna. The root is on; whether this 
is allied to Lat. amare, 'to love,' or to Gr. 
6t>u>r)/u, ' I use,' or to the cognates of afynben, 
is uncertain on account of its meaning ; 
most probably Gr. xpoc-^s, ' inclined,' and 
dwijj'ifr, ' disaffected,' are allied primitively. 
Comp. ©unft. 

(SofTe, f., 'sink,' first occurs in Mod 
HG.; akin to gtefim ; it corresponds to LG. 
gote, Du. goot. 

($otc, f., 'godmother,' from MidHG. 
gote, gotte, {., 'godmother,' OHG. gota ; 
i>esides these MidHG. gote, gotte, m., * god- 
father,' occur. Probably OHG. *goto and 
gota are pet terms (comp. 33afe) for the com- 
pounds gotfater, gotmuoter, gotsunu, gottoh' 


( 123 ) 


tar; comp. the equiv. AS. godfwhr, godsunu, 
goddohter, which are equal to E. godfather, 
godson, and goddaughter; also Swed. gubbe, 
' old man,' gumma, ' old woman ' (dial. ' god- 
mot her'), are pet names for gufifafter, gmft- 
mdfier. As may be seen under ©emitter and 
$Hatf, the godfather is pater spiritualis, the 
child baptized jUius or fUia spiritualis ; 
comp. S3ctter also. 

(5>of i , m., 4 God,' from the equiv. MidHG. 
and OHG, got, m., a term common to Teut., 
unknown to the rest of the Aryan group ; 
comp. OSax., Du., AS. and E. god, OIc. 
gv%, go^, Goth. gup, ' God.' The form 
of the Goth, and Scand. words is neuter 
(comp. 9lca,ott), but the gender is mascu- 
line. OIc. gotS, n., is mostly used in the 
plur. Goth, guda- and gupa-, n., ' God,' 
are based upon Aryan qhu-to-m, in which 
-to- is the partic. suffix discussed under 
fait, laut, and traut. The Aryan root ghu- 
is Sans. hit, 'to invoke the gods' (partic. 
hUtd-). ©ott in the oriir. neuter form is 
the 'invoked being'; in the Vedas the 
epithet puruliiita, 'oft-invoked,' is usually 
applied to Indra. The word ©ott being 
specifically Teut., there is no term common 
to this group and one of the allied languages 
(vet comp. OIc. five, ' deity,' with Sans. 
diva, Lat. deus ?). ©otttit, the fern, of ©ott, 
is from the equiv. MidHG. gotinne, gotinne, 
gutinne, OHG. gutin (Goth. *gudini, AS. 
gyden, Du. godin\ 

Oijof 10, in., ' idols, false god,' from Mid 
HG. gbtze, in., ' statue for ecclesiastical 
purposes'; lit. 'cast (ima^e),' (allied to 
cuejjen, MidHG. gie^enl). Perhaps, how- 
ever, ©ofce is a short form of ©otterbilb, just 
as @e|j is pet name for ©ottfrieb ; comp. 
(gpajj and Sperling. 

QtCib, n., from the equiv. MidHG. 
grap(b), OHG. grab, n., 'grave'; like 
Qraben, m., ' ditch, trench, sewer,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. grabe, OHG. grabo, ni. ; 
allied to ModHG. graven, 'to dig, en- 
grave,' from the equiv. MidHG. graben, 
OHG. graban, str. vb. ; a common Teut. 
str. vb., corresponding to Goth, graban, 
AS. grafan, E. to grave, Du. graven (grof, 
'grave') ; from a common Teut. root grab 
(pre-Teut. ghrabh), which is priniit. allied 
to OSlov. grrba, ' I dig, row ' and grobu, 
* grave ' ; Gr. yp&<pw, * I scratch, write,' has 
probably no connection with the word. 
Comp. ©riffel, ©rube, ©tuft, grubcln. 

$rctb, m., 'degree, step, stage, rank,' 
from MidHG. grdt (t and d), * grade, degree,' 

even in late OHG. grdd ; from Lat. gradu*, 
whence also Fr. gr4 (Olr. grdd). 

(Sraf, m., ' count, earl,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. grave (with the variant grave, 
chiefly in the plur.), OHG. grdvo, grdvio 
(upon the 6\<\j form is based the ModHG. 
proper name ©rdf, a parallel form of ©raf). 
OHG. grdvio assumes a Goth. *grefja ('com- 
mander'), which is the term for the agent 
from the verbal noun gagrefts, 'command, 
order,' preserved in G'th. The AS. term 
gerefa (AS. scirgerefa, E. sheriff), which is 
similar in meaning, is yet radically diffe- 
rent, since it points to a Goth. *ga-rofja; 
its orig. sense is probably 'head of a troop,' 
allied to *r6f, OHG. ruova, OIc. HSf (stafrof), 
' number.' OIc. (MidE.), greife, ' count,' is 
derived from MidLG. greve (from OLG. 
*grdfio). All explanations of ©raf which 
do not originate in a Teut. root grif, 'to 
command,' conflict with the laws relating 
to the change of sound and mean in?. Note 
the signification of ©raf in Du. pluimgraaf, 
' one who minds the fowls,' ©aljgraf, ' mana- 
ger of a saltwork,' ©eicfcgraf, &c. 

gram, adj., ' adverse, hostile, vexed, 
angry,' from MidHG. and OHG. gram, 
'angry, peevish, irritated, enraged'; cor- 
responding to the equiv. OSax. gram, Du. 
gram, AS. gram, OIc. gramr. To Goth. 
*grama- (from pre-Teut. ghromo-), Gr. x/><5- 
/ua5os, 'gnashing' (and x/*/*^ w , Lat. fremo, 
' I gnash'?), seem allied. From the Teut. 
adj. is derived the Romance cognate, Ital. 
gram r >, 'gloomy.' — $ram, m., as a subst. 
even in MidHG. gram. From the same 
root grtmm is derived. See the latter word. 

$rcm, m., 'grain,' first occurs in Mod 
HG. from Lat. grannm, ' grain.' From the 
same source ModHG. ©ran is also derived 
through the medium of Fr. grain. 

Kmutal, in., (Srcmele, f., 'shrimp,' from 
the Du., in which the modern form is gar- 
naal, formerly granaal, graneel, in the same 

$rcmo, in., 'gravel,' first occurs in Mod 
HG. from LG. ; just as 2)?ulm (which see) 
is allied to mafyleit, so ©ranb is probably 
connected with an OTeut. root meaning 
' to grind ' ; comp. AS. grindan, E. to grind 

ifrom pre-Teut. root ghreadh, whence also 
jat. frendo, ' to gnash '). 

$rannc, f., 'bristle (of swine), awn,' 
from MidHG. gran, grane, f., ' point of 
hair, moustache, fish-bone' (in the latter 
sense ©ranitf is also used dial.), OHG. 
grana, 'moustache' ; corresponding to AS. 


( "24 ) 


grpnu, OIc. grgn, ' moustache.' To the 
Goth, grana, recorded by Isidore, are due 
Span. gre&a, 'tousled hair,' and OFr. grenon, 
1 moustache and whiskers.' The Teut. cog- 
nates are primit. allied to Olr. grend, Gael. 
greann, 'moustache' and 'shaggy hair.' 
See ©rat. 

$rcm£>, m., ' ship's beak,' from MidHG. 
grans, m., ' bird's beak, ship's beak,' OHG. 
grans, granso, ' ship's beak ' ; a correspond- 
ing word is wanting in the other Teut 
languages. Origin obscure. 

grapfett, vb,, 'to grasp, snatch,' simply 
ModHG. ; probably allied primit. to Mod 
HG. ©arbe,and E. to grab, to grasp, Ssms.grbh, 
' to seize,' Lith. gropti, ' to snatch, grasp.' 

$rao, n., ' grass,' ffom the equiv. Mid 
HG. and OHG. gras, n. ; corresponding to 
OSax. and Du. gras, AS. gross (goyrs), E. 
grass, Goth, gras, n., 'herb'; common to 
Teut. but unknown to the other Aryan lan- 
guages. Allied to MidHG. gruose (Goth. 
*grosa), 'young shoot, green of plants'; 
probably the s in these words is a suflix, 
so that the Teut. root is grd- ; comp. Gr. 
xfy>ros, ' grass.' An Aryan root ghra- is 
also attested by Lat. grdmen, as well as by 
ModHG. grim and its cognates. 

grftfjlitf), adj., 'horrible, hideous, ghas- 
tly,' formed from early ModHG. orajj ; the 
latter is derived from MidHG. gra$, ' furi- 
ous, angry,' of which OHG. preserves only 
the adv. gra^o, ' violently, very ' ; Goth. 
*grata-, as well as correspondences in the 
remaining dialects, is wanting. Goth. 
gretan, ' to weep ' (MidHG. grdyri), is 
scarcely allied. 

(Srcif, m., and (Srafe, f., 'point, ridge, 
fish-bone,' from MidHG. grdt, m., 'fish- 
bone, awn, back-bone, mountain ridge'; 
in ModHG. the word has assumed two 
forms, according to the meanings. Since 
©ranne, ' awn,' has also the dial, sense ' fish- 
bone,' both words may perhaps be traced 
back to a common root gra-, ' to be pointed, 

flrcttt, adj., 'grey,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. grd (gen. grdwes), OHG. grdo (;^en. 
grdwes); corresponding to Du. graauw, AS. 
grceg, E. grey, gra//, OIc. grdr, ' grey.' Its 
origin and further relations cannot be 
traced ; Aryan ghriw ?. 

{Srchtel, m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
griul, griuicel, m., 'terror, horror, abomina- 
tion' (Du. gruicel) ; allied to ModHG. 
grauett, MidHG. grtiwen, 'to horrify, ter- 
rify,' OHG. ingnXin, 'to shudder.' Akin 

also to ModHG. graufam, from MidHG. 
giUwesam, 'exciting terror'; ModHG. 
graulid), from MidHG. griuwdich. The 
root grd, 'to frighten,' is wanting in the 
rest of the OTeut. dialects. See ©rauS. 

$rctupe, f., 'peeled grain or barley.' 
first occurs in early ModHG. ; in the 15th 
cent the compound U-griLpe, 'hailstone,' 
is recorded. Allied to Swed. grcepe, grjupe, 
' shot,' as well as Russ. Icrupa, OSlov. krupa, 
'crumb,' Serv. krupa, 'hail, sleet.' Pro- 
bably the cognates are native to Slavonic. 

$Vcuts, m., ' horror, dread,' from Mid 
HG. gr&s, m., 'dread, terror'; allied to 
ModHG. graufett, MidHG. gr&sen, griusen, 
OHG. grdwisdn, grdsdn, ' to be terrified ' ; 
formed from the suffix-isdn and the root grtl. 
See ©rduet, where graufam is also discuss d. 

$rau|jj, m., 'gravel,' from MidHG. 
gr&T,. See ©ricfj. 

(5retf, m., 'griffin,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. grtf, grife, OlIG. grtf, grifo, m. 
Whether the word was adopted from Greek 
through an Eastern source before the 8th 
cent, (hence the change of p into /) is 
questionable ; in anycase, Gr. ~tpvf, 'griffin' 
(stem ypvw ; v in the Byzantine and modern 
pronunciation equal to t; comp. £eict), 
must bo regarded as the final source of 
©reif ; see also Sva^e. Chiefly through the 
legends concerning Duke Ernst the griffin 
became popular in Germany, though not 
among the other Teutons. In Romance 
too the bird is similarly named — Ital. '.riffo, 
griffone, Fr. griffon (E. griffin). Hence 
OHG. grifo and its Romance correspond- 
ences are probably to be traced back to 
a MidLat griphus, derived from the Greek 
word ; comp. also Olr. grif. Since, more- 
over, the belief in fabulous birds that carry 
off men is genuinely Teut., a Teut. form 
*gripo, 'snatcher' (allied to gteifcu), may 
have been combined with ypvir-. 

gretfeit, vb., ' to grasp, seize,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. grifen, OHG. grifan, str. 
vb. ; corresponding to OSax. grtpa)>, Du. 
gn'jpen, AS. gripan, E. to gripe, Goth, grei- 
pan, 'to seize, lay hold of; a common 
Teut. vb, whence Fr. grij^per, 'to clutch,' 
and griffe, ' claw.' In the non-Tent lan- 
guages there exists an allied Aryan root 
ghrlb, in Lith. greibiu, greibti, ' to seize,' 
and Lett, griba, ' \v\U,' gribSt, 'to wish.' 

gretncrt, vb., ' to whine, grin,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. grtnen, OHG. grlnan, 
str. vb., ' to distort the mouth with laugh- 
ing or crying, grumble, snarl,' allied to 


( i2 5 ) 


MiiiHG. grinnen, 'to gnash,' E. to grin, to 
groan, (AS. grdnian), also gtinfm ; from 
the OG. cognates Ital. digrignare, ' to grin,' 
is derived. The root grf, pre-Teut. ghrl, 
is not found elsewhere (Sans, hrt, 'to be 
ashamed ' ?). 

grcis, a<lj., 'grizzled, hoary, aged,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. gris, OHG. grts (grisil) ; 
comp. OSax. grts, 'hoary'; allied to ©teiS 
from MidHG. grtse, 'old man.' From this 
OG. word, unknown to the other Teut. 
dialects and obscure in its origin, are tie- 
rived the Romance cognates, Ital. griso, 
grigio, Fr. gris, 'grey' (Ital. grigio, from 
Goih. *greisja-1. Comp. MidLat griseus, 
* grey '). 

grelf, adj., 'shrill, glaring, dazzling,' 
from MidHG. gr'el(ll), ' rough, angry,' allied 
to MidHG. prellen, 'to cry aloud, angrily ' ; 
wanting in OHG. ; comp. AS. griellan, 'to 
gna>h, sound harshly. The root and 
further cognates are unknown ; akin to 
©rifle I 

Qvempelnxavlxt, m., 'frippery, rag- 
fair,' allied to MidHG. grempeler, 'slop- 
seller, retailer,' grempen, ' to keep a retail 
shop, deal in second-hand goods ' ; the 
latter is akin to Ital. comprare (with r 
transposed crompare), ' to buy,' compra, 
' purchase.' 

(SrettfiltG, m., the plant Potentilla an- 
serina (silver- weed, goose-grass, or wild 
tansy), from the equiv. MidHG. and OHG. 
grensinc ; akin to MidHG. grans, ' beak.' 
See ©rang. 

^rertJC, f., 'boundary, frontier, limit,' 
from the equiv. late MidHG. grgniz, grpiize, 
f. (appeared in the 13th cent, in the dis- 
trict belonging to the Teutonic Order), 
which is again derived from Pol. and Puiss. 
granica, Bub. hranice. The native word 
for ©rcn^e is SWarf. 

$reucl, see ©rditft. 

^>rtebc(Bav. ©mifrc), f., from the equiv. 
MidHG. griebe (Bav. griube, Swiss grube), 
OHG. griobo, griubo, m., ' greaves ' (in 
OHG. also, 'frying-pan']) ; corresponding 
to AS. greOfa, E. greaves, Swed. grcfwur; 
g in this word scarcely represents the pre- 
fix go,-, qu, so that the word might be con- 
nected with the root of OHG. girouben, 
'to fry.' 

$rtebs, r\, 'core of fruit,' from the 
equiv.MidHG. grobi^,gnibi^(ii\so 'larynx'), 
to which the dial, variants MidHG. griitz 
(giirbsi), Mod HG. ©return, are akin. 11 G. 
*groba$ and *grubi$ ate wanting ; in form 

they are connected with OHG. oba$, 'fruit,' 
with MidHG. ebi$, ebitz, * core of fruit,' and 
with ModHG. 53it$ett, as well as Swiss bbki. 

$rtC5ftram, m., 'ill-humour, spleen,' 
from MidHG. grisgram, m., 'gnashing of 
teeth' ; allied to Mid H.Q.grisgramen, -gram- 
mn, ' to gnash with the teeth, snarl,' OHG. 
giisgramCn, gristgrimmSn, 'to gnash,' AS. 
gristbltung y 'gnashing of teeth.' The first 
syllable represents grist-, but that does not 
make the early history of the word clearer. 

$rte|jj, m. and n., 'gravel, groats,' from 
MidHG. grie$ 'grA^), m. and n., 'grain of 
sand,. sand, gravel' ; the ModHG. sense has 
not yet been found in MidHG. (yet late 
MidHG. grieymel, ^coarse ground flour'), 
OHG. grioT,, m. and n., ' sand, gravel' ; cor- 
responding to OSax. griot, AS. gre6t, 'sand,' 
OIc. grj6t, 'stones.' On the OG. mean- 
ing of these cognates are based Ital. greto, 
' stony bed of a river,' and Fr. grhs, ' sand- 
stone,' grele, 'hail.' The ModHG. signifi- 
cation is connected with, the closely allied 
cognates of ©rufce. 

(Srtffel, m., 'slate pencil, graving tool, 
stylus,' from the equiv. MidHG. griffel, 
OHG. griffil, m.; related to greifen as falter 
to Ijattett ?. Yet it is more probably based 
on a Teut. root grep, ' to dig' ; comp. Swed, 
urgrozpa, 'to excavate,' OSwed. aud OIc. 
grOp, 'pit,' LG. ©ruppe, 'gutter.' 

grille, f., ' cricket, whim, crotchet,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. grille, OHG. 
grillo, m. ; corresponding to Ital. grillo 
(from Gr. yptiWos, 'grasshopper'). 

grtntm, adj., 'fierce, wrathful, furious,' 
from MidHG. grim, grimme, OHG. grim, 
grimm ! , 'unfriendly, frightful, savage' (to 
which MoilHG. grimmig, MidHG. grimmec 
and OHG. grimmig are allied). Corre- 
sponding to OSax. and AS. grim(mm\ E. 
grim, Du. grimmig, OIc. grimmr, Goth. 
*grimma-; allied to ModHG. grant, root 
grem (by gradation gram). — $rtmut, m., 
' fury, rage, wrath, from MidHG. grim 
(mm), m. ; comp. Du. grim. 

$rtmmcn, n., ' ache, "ripe,' in a3aucr>* 
gvimmctt, from the equiv. MidHG. grimme, 
m.; to this the simply ModHG. ©riutmtarnt, 
'colon,' is akin. 

$rht&, m., 'scab, scurf, itch,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. grint(d\ OHG. grint, ni.; 
allied, like ©rant), to OTeuL grindanl or 
to ©runb ?. 

rtnttfert, vb., 'to grin, show the teeth,' 
with a deriv. s from MidHG. grinnen, 'to 
gnash.' See grtincn. 


( 126 ) 


grippe, f., 'influenza,' ModHG. only, 
from the equiv. Fr. grippe. 

grob, adj., 'coarse, uncouth, rude,' from 
MidHG. grop(b), gerop, OHG. gerob, grob, 
'thick, awkward, indelicate'; comp. Du. 
and MidLG. grof, 'coarse.' The explana- 
tion of the word is not certain, since it is 
wanting in the other Teut. languages ; it is 
undecided whether the term is compounded 
with ge-, Goth, ga-; if Goth. *ga-hruba- 
were the primit. form, the connection with 
AS. hreOf, OHG. riob, 'scabiosus,' would 
still remain doubtful. 

grolfen, vb., ' to bear ill-will or a 
grudge; roll (of thunder,)' allied to Mid 
HG. griillen, 'to scorn, ridicule' ; comp. 
AS. gryilan, ' to gnash,' MidE. grillen, ' to 
vex ' ?. 

$roppe, m. and f., 'miller's thumb,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. groppe; akin to 
MidLat. carabusl. 

$ros, ^rog, n., simply ModHG., from 
the equiv. Fr. grosse, 'twelve dozen, gross.' 

(Srofcfjert, m., 'groschen (l£d.),' from 
the equiv. MidHG. gros, grosse, 111. ; like 
Fr. gros, ' groschen,' f rom MidLat. grossus ; 
related to the common Rom. adj., Ital. 
grosso, 'thick' (comp. Fr. gros), just as Mid 
LG. qrote (whence E. groat), ' groschen,' to 
ModHG. grog. 

grog, adj., 'great, large, huge, grand,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. and OHG. gr6$ ; 
a specifically "West Teut. adj. (in Goth. 
mikils, MidHG. michel, Gr. ney&Xv) ; comp. 
OSax. gr6t, Du. groot, E. great, AS. great. 
The assumed Goth. *grauta- (pre-Teut. 
ghraudo-) has no correspondences in the 
non-Teut. languages. On account of the 
Teut. au especially, Lat. grandis cannot be 

Erhnit. allied ; it is rather connected with 
at. rMus, raudus, n., 'lump of bronze, 
stones broken into small pieces,' and rudis, 
' raw ' (Aryan root ghrild). 

(j&rotfe, see ©ruft. ^ 

Qvotftetl, see ©vteo3. 

$rube, f., 'pit, cavity, quarry, mine, 
ditch,' from the equiv. MidHG. graobe, 
OHG. gruoba, f. ; comp. Goth. grCba, f., 
'pit, cavern' (E. groove) ; allied to graben. 
Whether $ruff , f., ' cave, hollow, sepul- 
chre,' is connected with it is question- 
able ; MidHG. gruft, OHG. grufi, might 
well correspond in form to gtabeit, as the 
vowels of griifceln prove. But the absence 
of the word in the other OTeut. dialects 
probably shows that it was borrowed from 
the Rom. cognates, Ital. grotta, Fr. grotte, 

'grotto' (whence also ©rottt, in ModHG. 
only), which are based on early MidLat. 
grupta (Gr. Kpinrr-n).— grfibcln, vb., ' to 
grub, rack one's brains, brood,' from Mid 
HG. griibelen, OHG. grubil&n, ' to excavate 
by boring, investigate closely'; it is cer- 
tainly connected with the root grab, 'to 
dig' (comp. E. to grub). 

grummet, n., 'aftermath,' from Mid 
HG. gruenmdt, graonmdt, n., 'grass mown 
when it is green, i.e. unripe, aftermath'; 
the derivation from the root grd (see grun), 
' to grow,' is less probable (©rummet, lit. 
' grass mown during its growth '). Comp. 

grun, adj., 'green, fresh, vigorous, un- 
ripe,' from MidHG. griiene, OHG. gruoni, 
' green, fresh ' ; corresponding to OSax. 
gr&ni, Du. groen, AS. grine, E. green, OIc. 
grdnn, Goth. *grd-ni-, 'green' ; allied to a 
Teut. root grS, ' to grow, become green.' 
Comp. MidHG. gruejen, OHG. gruoan, ' to 
grow green' ; AS. grduan, E. to grow, Du. 
groeijen, ' to grow, thrive.' Akin to ©raa 
and its Aryan cognates. 

$rtmO, m., ' ground, earth, basis, rudi- 
ment, reason,' from the equiv. MidHG. 
grunt(d), OHG. grunt, m. ; corresponding 
to Du. grond, AS. grand, E. ground, Olc. 
grand, ' meadow land,' grunnr (from grun- 
pus), ' bottom of the sea ; ' Goth, grundu- 
waddjus, ' foundation wall.' Goth, grundu, 
from pre-Teut. ghrentu- (with t on account 
of OIc. grunnr), cannot have originated in 
the Teut. root grind (pre-Teut. ghrendu) 
mentioned under ©taitb. No cognates are 
found in the non-Teut. languages. 

QjMittfpcm, 111., 'verdigris,' from the 
equiv. late MidHG. gruenspdn, m., formed 
like the ordinary MidHG. spdngriien, n., 
' verdigris,' from MidLat. virvde Hispanuvu 

grimjett, vb., 'to grunt,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. and OHG. grunzen (OHG. *grun- 
nazzen) ; corresponding to E. to grunt (Mia 
E. grunten) ; intensive form ot MidHG. 
grinnen, AS. grunnian, 'to gnash.' The 
stem upon which it is based is probably 
imitative, as the similarly sounding Lat. 
grunnire, Gr. ypvfcw, lead us to suppose. 

grufcltt, vb., 'to inspire terror,' Mod 
HG. simply, intensive of graufen. 

$rufj, m., 'greeting, salute,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. and OHG. gruo$, m. ; cor- 
responding to Du. groet. To this is allied 
griipen, from MidHG. gruejen (griietzen), 
OHG. gruotfen (gruozzen), wk. vb., ' to ad- 
dress, accost ' (also with hostile intent ' to 


( 127 ) 


attack ') ; corresponding to AS. gre'.an, E. 
to greet, Du. groeten, OSax. grdtian, 'to 
address,' 01c. grata. The laiter is pro- 
bably the primary meaning of the cog- 
nates, which are merely West Teut. Ori- 
gin obscure. 

Qvixt&e, f., 'groats, grit, brain,' from 
MidHG. griitze, ' water-gruel ' ; a variant 
of the equiv. MidHG. griuy (griutze 1) ; 
OHG. gruzzi (whence Ital. gruzzo, 'pile of 
collected things ') ; comp. AS. gr$t and 
grytt, E. grit and groat (from AS. *gmta ?), 
OIc. grautr, Du. grut, gurt, ' groats.' From 
OG. the Romance cognates, Fr. gimau, 
' groats,' are derived. Besides ©tie§, Mid 
HG. gr&3, ' giain,' is also allied to ©n'tfce ; 
hence 'grain' may be the prim, meaning 
of the Teut. root grUt, with which the 
primit. cognates Lith. grUdas, ' grain, ker- 
nel,' and OSlov. gruda, ' clod,' are also con- 

gucftett, vb., from the equiv. MidHG. 
gucken, giicken, 'to peep'; the word is 
wanting in OHG. and in OTeut. generally. 
Origin obscure. 

^Itl&Ctt, m., 'florin,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. gulden, guldtn, m., 'the golden 
coin,' Irom MidHG. guldln, ' golden.' The 
absence of mutation from u to ii is in ac- 
cordance with the practice of earlier UpG. 
(Suab. ©albeit). 

ftft.ll C, f., ' payment, interest,' from Mid 
HG. giilte, f., ' debt, payment, interest, rent.' 
Akin to gcttcii. 

Qunbclxebe, f., 'ground-ivy,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. guvderebe; the deviation 
in meaning in OHG. gundreba, ' maple,' is 
remarkable. Allied to OHG. gund (gunt), 
' pus, poison,' AS. gund, Goth, gunds, ' pus'?. 
In that case the word would signify ' poison- 
vine ' (see 9tebe). Ground-ivy was used as 
a medicinal herb. 

$fittfef, m., ' bugle(-plant),' simply 
ModHG., transformed from Lat. consolida, 
'• a name applied by the earlier herb-ya- 
therers to all wound-healing plants." 

$unfl, f., 'favour, partiality, permis- 
sion,' from MidHG. and MidLG. gunst, m. 
and f., ' benevolence, permission,' for *ge- 
unst, allied to OHG. gi-unnan (see goniien) ; 
in OHG. uvst, f. (MidHG. also gund ; comp. 
OIc, gfund, ' disfavour '), Goth, ajists, ' fav- 

our, mercy,' AS. ist, OHG. anst, 'favour, 

$ttrgel, f., ' gullet,,' from Mid 
HG. gurgel, OHG. gurgula, f. ; a remark- 
ably early loan-word (comp. JEcrpcr) from 
Lat. gurgulio, which supplanted a genuine 
Teut. word primit. allied to it — OHG. quer- 
chala, querc/ia, ' gullet,' allied to OIc. kverlc, 
' gullet.' 

^Utrfec, f., 'cucumber,' first occurs in 
early ModHG. ; corresponding to Du. 
agurkje, E. gherkin, Dan. agurke ; borrowed 
irom Pol. ogurek, Bohem. okurlca ; the latter 
has been derived from late Gr. dyyodpiov, 
' water-melon,' and further from Pers. an- 
khara. In UpG. (also in the Wetter and 
Hess, dials.) Jtufuutcr is used instead of ©urfe. 

gfirrcn, vb., 'to coo,' from MidHG. 
gurren, ' to bray ' ; allied to MidHG. gerren. 
See girren. 

$urf, m., 'girth, girdle,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. gurt (in compounds iiber-, umbe-, 
under-gurt) ; allied to giirten from the equiv. 
MidHG. giirten (gurten), OHG. gurlen (gurt- 
jan) ; comp. OSax. gurdian, Du. garden, 
AS. gt/rdan, E. to gird ; in Goth, gairdan, 
str. vb. ' to gird.' With the root gerd con- 
tained in these words are connected OIc 
garfir, ' fence round the farm,' OSlov. gradu. 
' wall, town ' (see ©avtctt, and respecting 
the evolution of meaning see 3^un). — 
Qllttel, m., ' girdle,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. gicrtel, m. and f., OHG. gitrtil, m., 
gurtila, f. Comp. E. girdle, from AS. gyrdel. 

$ufl, m., 'shower, torrent, spout, cast,' 
from MidHG. and OHG. £1*3(35), <cast > 
shower.' Allied to giejjeu. 

Qltf, adj., ' good, virtuous, skilful,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. and OHG. guot ; a com- 
mon Teut. term unknown to the non-Teut. 
languages ; comp. Goth, gdds, OIc. <7<55r, 
AS. g6d, E. good, Du. goed. Its connection 
with Gr. &ya06s is phonetically uncertain. 
Only in Teut. are found reliable cognates 
which may elucidate the primary meaning 
of gut (yet comp. OSlov. godu, ' suitable 
time ' ?). The cognates of ©atte, with which 
E. together, to gather, Goth, gadiliggs, ' rela- 
tive,' also seem to be connected, prove that 
the prim, meaning of gut is 'belonging to 
one another, suitable.' For the compari- 
son of the adj. see fof, beffcr. 


( 128 ) 



(j&ctar (1.), m., 'flax/ from the equiv. 
MidHG. har, OHG. haro (gen. MidHG. 
and OHG. harwes), m. ; Goth. *harwa- 
(gen. *harwis) is also implied by OIc. hgrr 
(dat. hgrve), 111., 'flax.' As to its connec- 
tion with £aar (2.) see the latter. Perhaps 
the word is most closely related to E. hards 
(' refuse of flax, tow '). See $cbe. 

fSbCUXV (2.), n., 'hair,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. and OHG. hdr, 11. ; comp. the 
corresponding OIc. hdr, n., AS. hter, n., E. 
hair, Du. haar; a common Teut. word (in 
Goth., however, tagl and skuft). The fol- 
lowing Teut. words are also primit. allied — 
OIc. haddr and AS. heord, 'hair' (Goth. 
*hazda), as well as Ir. cass, ' curled hair.' 
In tlie non-Teut. languages comp. OSlov. 
kosmu, m., kosa (Lith. kasa), f., 'hair,' and 
probably also OSlov. Sesati, ' to comb,' Lat. 
carere, ' to card wooL' The more definite 
relations in sound existing between these 
words are difficult to determine (comp. also 
Gr. ic6fi.-n, Lat. coma ?). On the other hand, 
there is no phonetic difficulty in connect- 
ing the Teut. *hera-, 'hair,' with harwa-, 
deduced under $0(K (1'.) ; the mere possi- 
bility is, however, all that can be main- 
tained. Comp. also Sccfe and hauS. — An 
old derivative of ^aar, AS. hdbre, OHG. 
hdrd, hdrrd, f., 'hair shirt,. coarse garment,' 
found its way into Romance (Fr. haire)> 

£)<xbc, f., 'possession ; handle,' from 
MidHG. habe, OHG. haba, f., 'goods, pos- 
session'; Du. have, 'possession'; allied 
to the following word. 

1)Clbexx, vb., ' to have, possess,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. haben, OHG. /•abin; corre- 
sponding to OSax. hebbian, Du. hcbben, AS. 
habban, E. to have, OIc. hafa, Goth, haban; 
a common Teut. vb. with the stem habai-. 
Its identity with Lat. habere can scarcely 
be doubted. It is true that Lat. h initially 
requires, according to the laws of substitu- 
tion, a Teut. g, and Teut. h a Lat. e (comp. 
©aft, ©crfte, ©eift, and $al$, £aut, and (jebeit). 
Probably Lat. habi- and Teut. habai- are 
based upon an Aryan prim, form khabhej ; 
the correspondence between Teut. h and 
Lat. A is only possible on the assumption 
of an Aryan kh. On this supposition 
ftdben and foeben in their etymology are 
primit. allied, just as Lat. habere and capere. 

Ssabev (UpG.), m., 'oats,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. haber, habere, m., OHG. 

haharo r m. The form £afer first occurs in 
ModHG. ; like 0foa,gen, it is derived from 
LG. ; OLG. liaboro, luxvoro (now luiwer), 
Du. haver. Also allied to OSwed. ha/re, 
hagre, and further to Finn. Icakra, borrowed 
from Teut. In E. the word is wanting, 
but is found a few times in MidE., which, 
like Northern E. (haver), borrowed it from 
Scand. Tiie E. term is oats, from AS. dtn 
(yet Scotch haver occurs eveu in the MidE. 
period). In investigating the origin of the 
G. cognates^ the g in OSwed. hagre (Finn. 
kakra) must be taken into account. Tiie 
usual derivation from OIc. hafr, AS. hafer, 
m., ' he-goat ' (Lat. caper, Gr. K&irpos, comp. 
.&abn:a,eijj), is therefore impossible, espe- 
cially since this word belongs to the dialects 
in whicli £affr is wanting ; §afer too must 
have been the favourite food of the goat 
ere it could be thus named. Perhaps Gr. 
Kdxpvsy ' parched barley' (Aryan base kha- 
ghru-), or Lat. avena, ' oats ' (Aryan base 
khaghwes), are primit. allied. 

Jjctbergetfj, f., ' common snipe,' not 
found in the earlier periods ; Jpabcr* in this 
compound is the only remnant of the old 
name for a goat (AS. hafer, OIc. hafr; Gr. 
Kdirpos, Lat. caper) in G. ; the bird is so 
called because at the pairing season it 
utters high in the air a sound like the dis- 
tant bleating of a goat. See 93ccf and 

^abicfjf, m. (with a dental suffix as in 
■§iifte and 2)<cnb, &c), 'hawk,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. h/bich, habech (also hebec/i, 
modified), m., OHG, habuh, m. ; a common 
Teut. term by chance not recorded in Goth. ; 
comp. OSax. *haboc (in the proper names 
Ha?iuchorst, Hab"ocasbr6c), Du. havik, AS. 
he 'for,, E_ hauky OIc. haukr (for *hgtiuh). 
The Goth, form w^ould be *halal;s, with a 
suffix uks-, as in. ahaks, 'pigeon' (comp. 
also .ftranid), £ercfye) ; comp. the con- 
sonantal suffix in Gr. dprvy-, 'quail.' 
Against the derivation from the stem Imb, 
laf, in Ijeben, orig., ' to take firm hold of, 
lay hold of/ there is nothing to object from 
the Teut. point of view ; Italic capus-, 
'hawk,' is certainly derived from the root 
kap (capio). The Kelt, cognates, W. he- 
haw, Olr. sebocc, 'falcon,' are undoubt- 
edly borrowed from Teut. Comp. also 

$><xti), m., ' fellow,' from MidHG. hache, 


( 129 ) 


in., 'fellow, churl'; allied to MidHG. 
hgchel, f., ' artful woman, match-maker.' 
The derivation is not clear, since cognate 
terms in OTetit. are wanting. 

c^clc^fc, see £ed)ff. 

<5»adte, f., ' heel,' prop, a MidG. and LG. 
word (in UpG. Sfevfe) ; comp. Du. Itak; not 
recorded in MidHG., but it occurs once in 
the transition period from OHG. to Mid 
HG. (hachun, 'heels'); usually derived 
from fyacfett. On account of its meaning, 
it is more probably related toDu. hie?, AS. 
Uh, 'heel,' hila, f. (for *J,6hila), E. heel, 
and tlie equiv. Scand. hail, m. 

Ijctcucn, vb., from the equiv. MidHG. 
hacken, ' to hack, hew ' ; OHG. *hacch6n is 
by chance not recorded ; cojnp. AS. haccian 
(hceccean), E. to hack, OFris. tohalcia, 'to 
hack to pieces.' Not found in Goth. ; may 
we assume *hawon, a derivative from the 
stem haw in I;aucu ? The medial guttural 
may have been simply an insertion before 
w, as in quccf and feci — ^acfe, f. (thus even 
in MidHG.), §acferlhtg(ModHG. only), and 
£ad}fct are derivatives. 

g&abet (1.), m., '■contention, strife, 
brawl,' from MidHG. hader, m., 'quarrel, 
strife'; unrecorded in OHG. For this 
word OTeut. has most frequently a deriv. 
in u- (iv-), signifying 'battle,' which ap- 
pears in West Tent, only as the first part 
of compounds ; AS. hea}>o- y OHG. hadu- 
(Goth. *ha]m-). In Scand. Hg^S is the 
name of a Valkyre, and Hg'Sr that of a 
mythological king and the brother of Bal- 
der ; the names are probably based upon 
Ha}>u-z, an OTeut. war- god. With these 
K6ti/s, the name of a Thracian goddess,, 
lias been compared. The following, how- 
ever,, are certainly allied : — OSlov. kolora, 
f., ' battle,' Ir. cath, m., ' battle ' (with which 
Kelt. GtUu-riges, proper noun,, lit. 'war- 
kings,.' is connected), Ind. cdtru-s y 'enemy '; 
fterhaps too Gr. k6tos, kot£u ; a deriv. in r, 
ike J&aber,. is preserved in OSlov. kotora, 
'battle'; see also Jpajj. In G. the old 
form hajju became obsolete at an early 
period,, being supplanted by Jtantvf and 
Jtrifij, but it was retained in OHG. a* 
the first component in some compound 
proper names, such as Hadubrant ; Mod 
HG. ^etw'uT, is OHG. Haduuig, 'battle 
strife.' Similarly appears OHG. hilta, f., 
'battle,' in MidHG. only in proper names, 
such as Jpitbcbrcmbt, $8 ran I) it t, &c. It would 
be very interesting to find out why the 
OTeut. words gave place to the later forms. 

<&aber (2.), m., 'rag, tatter, clout,' from 
MidHG. hader, m., 'patch, torn piece of 
stuff,' OHG. hadara, f., ' patch, rag ' ; also 
with a suffix I, MidHG. hadel, from which 
Fr. haillon is borrowed. The word does 
not seem to have been diffused in the 
Teut. group. It is not allied to §abft (1.) ; 
the two words are based on different stems. 
£aber, 'patch' (from Teut. hafard, Aryan 
kdtrd), is either connected with the nasal- 
ised stem kant- in Lat. cento, Gr. Ktmpwv, 
'garment made of rags,' Sans. kanthd, f., 
' patchwork garment,' or with Sans, cithird, 
'loose, unbound.' 

gsafen (1.), m., 'pot,' from MidHG. 
haven, m., OHG. havan, m., 'pot' ; a spe- 
cifically UpG. word unknown to the other 
dialects. It belongs to the root haf (prc- 
Teut. kap), lit. 'to comprehend, hold,' 
which appears in HG. fyeben, and not to 
tjafcen, root hab (pre-Teut. khabh). 

<&afett (2.),, m., 'port, haven, harbour,' 
a LG. word, unknown to UpG. ; it was 
first borrowed in ModHG. ; in MidHG. 
hap, n., habe, habene, f., formed from the 
same root. l)u. haven, f., late AS. hafene, 
f., E. haven, and OIc. hofn, f., 'harbour,' 
correspond in sound to MidHG. habene, f. 
LG. haven, Dan. ham, Swed. hamn, are 
masc. — Phonetically the derivation from 
the root hab (Jcliabh), ' to have,' or from haf, 
hab (kap), ' to seize, hold, contain,' is quite 
possible ; in both cases the prim, sense 
would be 'receptacle'; comp. ^vifeit (1.). 
This is the usual explanation ; for another 
etymology see under Jg»aff. Perhaps, how- 
ever, OIc. hgfn is primit. allied to the equiv. 
01 r. ckan (from *copno1). 

jftafer, see .§ab>r. 

$SCiff, n., ' inland sea, gulf,' a LG. word, 
orig. 'i-ea' (generally), which is also the 
meaning of AS. /ite/(plur. heafu), n., Scand. 
laf, n., MidLG. haf; the UpG. words, 
MidHG. hap,. /tabes, n.,. and habe, f., which 
correspond in sound, also signify 'sea,' as 
well as 'port' (see J&afen). As we need 
not assume an orig. difference between the 
words for 'harbour' and 'sea,' and since 
in any case the meaning 'harbour' is de- 
rived from the signification 'sea'. — the 
converse would be hardly possible — the 
usual assumption mentioned under Ǥaffit 
(2.), that $afm is lit. 'receptacle,' is quite 

Iirohlematical. Hence -^afeit may probably 
ie explained by some such word as 'marina,' 
in the sense of 'statio marina.' The con- 
nection of AS. /id/, 'sea, 1 as 'heaving,' in 


( 130 ) 


the sense of Lat. ultum ('high sea'), will] 
bfbni (root haf, pre-Teut. kap), is not im- 
possible, though scarcely probable. 

ilutft (1.), i"-, * hold, clasp, brace, rivet,' 
from MidHG. and OHG. haft, in., 'bond, 
fetter,' OHG. also n., AS. haft, in., OIc. 
haft, n., 'fetter.' Connected will) the root 
haf in fyeben, lit. ' 10 seize.' 

SMtft (2.), f., 'keeping, custody, prison,' 
from MidHG. and OHG. haft (i stem) and 
hafta, f., OSax. hafta, f., 'imprisonment.' 
To this are allied OHG. and OSax. haft, 
AS. haft, adj., 'captured,' OIc. haptr, m., 
'prisoner,' hapta, f., 'captured woman.' 
The root haf (comp. Ijeben) has preserved 
in these forms its old signification ; comp. 
Lat. capitis, capthus. See the following 

hoff , adj. suffix, as in fd)iwr$f)aft, UMjaft, 
&c. ; prop, an independent adj., 'combined 
with,' which was used as a suffix even in 
MidTTG. and OHG. ; in Goth, audahafts, 
'overwhelmed with happiness, supremely 
happy.' This suffix is usually identified 
with the adj. hafta-, Lat. captus, discussed 
under Jpaft (2.). It might also be derived 
from the root hab, 'to have,' Lat. habere; the 
meaning supports the latter supposition. 

S.sao, . m., ' hedge, fence, enclosure,' from 
MidHG. hoc, hages, m., n., 'thorn bushes, 
copse, fence, enclosed wood, park,' OHG. 
hag, m., once as 'urbs' (comp. HG. §aa,eii, 
and names of places ending in 4)ao,) ; Du. 
haag, f., 'enclosure, hedge,' AS. haga, m., 
K. haw, 'enclosure, small garden'; OIc. 
hage, m., 'pasture.' Only in Goth, is a 
cognate word wanting ; comp. J^ain, #erc, 
£aa,ftt, and §.rfe. The derivation is un- 
certain ; it is at all events not connected 
with batten, root haw; the meaning of 
ModHG. behaa,en is unsuitable. 

<$»aflC&om. ' hawthorn,' an OTeut. term, 
MidHG. hageciorn, AS. hoegfcorn, haga)>orn, 
E. hawthorn, OIc. hagfrom, m. Comp. 

<SsaQel, m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
hagel, OHG. hugal, m., * hail' ; comp. Du. 
hagel, m., AS. hagol, hagel, m., E. hail; 
OIc. hagl, n. ; the common Teut. word for 
' hail,' by chance unrecorded in Goth. only. 
A single pebble was called a ' stone.' OIc. 
haqlsteinn, AS. h&gehtdn, E. hailstone, Mid 
HG. ami earlier ModHG. Jpaatllietn. Comp. 
ModHG. fiefeln, ' to hail,' Jhefeljhin, ' hail- 
stone.' Perhaps $Mtl itself signified orig. 
nothing but a 'pebble' ; at least there are 
no phonetic difficulties against the deriva- 

lion from pre-Tent. kagdo-, * Hint-stone ' 
(comp. Gr. KdxA>rf, 'small stone, pebble'). 
Aartcn. m., 'grave,' from Mid 1 1 G. hagen, 
OHG. hagan, m., ' thorn-bush, fence of 
thorns' ; even in MidHG. a contracted vari- 
ant hain, £ain, occurs. See the latter and 

ba^cn, behagen, vb., from the equiv. 
MidHG. hagen, behagen, ' to please, grati ly ,' 
OHG. *bihag&n : comp. OSax. bihag&n, AS. 
onhagian, ' to please, suit.' The stem hag, 
'to Buit,' is widely diffused in OTeut., and 
its str. partic. is preserved in OHG. and 
MidHG. (gihagan and bel>ag<>n, 'suitable'). 
Allied to Scand. hagr, adj., ' skilful,' hagr, 
m., 'state, situation, advantage,' hagr, 'suit- 
able.' The root hag, from pre-Teut. kale, 
corresponds to the Sans, root cak, ' to be 
capable, able, conducive,' whence cakrd, 
'strong, helpful.' 

f)dfter, adj. fin UpG. rafui), 'haggard, 
lean,' from MidHG. hager, adj.; comp. E. 
haggard (MidE. hugger), which is usually 
connected with E. hag. 

iaageff of}, m., 'old bachelor,' from Mid 
HG. hagestolz, m., a strange corruption of 
the earlier hagestalt, OHG. hagu4alt, m., 
prop. ' possessor of an enclosure' (allied to 
Goth, staldan, ' to possess ') ; a West Teut. 
legal term, which originated before the 
Anglo-Saxons crossed to England (comp. 
also OIc. havkstaldr). It was used in con- 
trast to the owner of the manor-house, 
which was inherited by the ellest son, in 
accordance with the OTeut. custom of 
primogeniture, and signified the owner of 
a small enclosed plot of ground, such as 
fell to the other sons, who could not set 
up a house of their own. and were often 
entirely dependent on their eldest brother. 
Even in OHG. glosses, hagwtaH as an adj. 
is used for Lat. caelebs (hagustalt Up, ' single 
life'), and even for rri'rcenarius, 'hired 
labourer' ; MidHG. hat/estalt, m., 'single 
man' ; OSax. hagustald. m., ' farm-servant, 
servant, young man ' ; AS. hagsteahl, hago- 
steald, m., 'youth, warrior.' The same 
phases in the development of meaning may 
be seen in the Rom.-Lat. baccalaureus, Fr. 
bachelier, E. bachelor. 

_Vu'il)cr. 111., 'jay, jackdaw,' from Mid 
HG. he/ier, 111. and f., OHG. heiiara, f . ; in 
AS., by a grammatical change, higora, m., 
OIc. Ziereand hegre, in , 'jay,' MidLG. heger. 
It is rightly compared with Gr. xWa (from 
*kLkjo), 'jay,' or Sans, cakund, ' a large bird * 
(Lat. ciconia, ' stork '). 


( 131 ) 


S&al) it, 111., ' cock,' from MidHG. han, 
OHG. hano, m. ; comp. AS. hana (as well 
as cocc, E. cock), 01c. heme, Goth. Jiawa, m. ; 
a common Teut. word for 'cock,' with the 
stem hanan-, hanin-, which is common to 
the OTeut. dialects. A corresponding fern. 
£emw is merely West Teut. ; OHG. henna, 
MidHG. and ModHG. henne, f., AS. henn. 
On.the other hand, .§iu)tl seems to be really 
of common gender ;itmayatleastbe applied 
in OHG. to ' cock ' also ; comp. Otfried's ir 
tha$ huan singe, ' hefore the cock crows,' 
lit. ' sings.' In this passage we have a con- 
firmation of the fact that the crowing of 
the cock was regarded as its song. The 
term J&abn by general acceptation signifies 
' singer.' With this word, according to the 
laws of substitution, the stem of Lat. canere, 
'to sing' (comp. Lith. gaidys, 'cock,' lit. 
' singer,' allied to gedoti, ' to sing '). A 
f em., 'songstress,' of -£>ubu is hardly con- 
ceivable ; thus it follows that -§emte is 
merely a recent West Teut. form. The 
common gender <§u()ti, however, can hardly 
be connected with the root kan, ' to sing,' 
since it is, at least, a primit. form. The 
method of its formation, as the name of 
the agent, has no analogies. 

<$abttret, m., 'cuckold,' ModHG. only; 
of obscure origin ; in earlier G. it signifies 
'capon.' Its figurative sense, 'cuckold,' 
derived from 'capon,' agrees with the ex- 
pression <§crner trcujett, lit. 'to wear horn.*.' 
Formerly the spur was frequently cut off 
and placed as a horn in the comb ; the 
hoodwinked husband is thus compared 
to a capon. On account of the earlier 
variant -^afynreb,, we may regard £u(ntrei as 
a compound of (Rel). 

(iatti, m., simply ModHG., from the 
equiv. Du. haai, f., 'shark,' Swed. haj, Ic. 

Jiuuit, m., 'grove,' made current by 
Klopstock as a poetical term. The form of 
the word, as is shown under $agen (1), may 
be traced back to MidHG., in which, how- 
ever, £ain is but a rare variant of 4>0fl fU 5 
it signified orig. ' thorn-bush, thorn, fence, 
abatis, enclosed place.' Thus the word 
does not imply the idea of sacredness which 
Klopstock blended with it. 

->".ui lu\ Smi hen, 111., ' hook, clasp,' from 
MidHG. hdke, hdken, m., OHG. hdko, hdcko, 
m., 'hook.' The IKJ. k can neither be 
Goth, k nor Goth. 0; the former would be 
changed into ch, the latter would remain 
unchanged. The variants OHG. hdgo,hdgg<>, 

MidHG. Iidyg-', point to Goth. *hegya, 11., 
' hook ' (comp. 0taupe, ©dnippe). Curiously, 
however, the corresponding words of the 
cognate dialects have k and are graded : 
AS. hdc, m., ' hook,' E. hook, MidDu. hoek, 
' hook ' ; comp. also Du. haak, AS. hdea, 
OIc. hake, m., ' hook.' The relations of the 
gutturals (especially of the gg) are still 
obscure ; comp. also Jtlitppf, Sc^uppe, .ftau$, 
©djnau^f. A typical form is wanting. It 
it is impossible to connect the word fiangen, 
Goth, hdhan (for hanhan) ; it is more pro- 
bably related to «£tfdjel and Rector. 

halb, adj., ' half,' from MidHG. halp, 
OHG. halb (gen. halbes). adj. ; comp OSax. 
and LG. half, Du. half, AS. lualf, E. half, 
OIc. hdlfr, Goth, halbs, adj. ; the common 
Teut. adj. for HG. Ijalb ; there are no un- 
doubted cognates in the non-Teut. lan- 
guages (Teut. halba-, from pre-Teut. kal- 
blio-). The fern, of the adj. is used in 
OTeut. as a subst. in the sense of ' side, 
direction' ; Goth, halba, OIc. htlfa, OHG. 
halb f, MidHG. halbe, OSax. hatha; hence 
it might seem as if the adj. had orig. some 
such meaning as 'lateral, that which lies 
on one side.' But in any case the adj. in 
the sense of ' half was purely a numeral in 
primit. Tent. ; the ModHG. method of reck- 
oning anbertbalb (If), bvittefyitb (2f ), viertcTjalb 
(3f), is common to Teut. ; comp. OIc. halfr 
annarr (If), halfr Jrrifie (2f ), halfr fjorfre 
(3f) ; AS. 6/>er healf, prtdae healf, feorfie 
healf; even in MidE. this enumeration 
exists (it is wanting in E.) ; in HG. it has 
been retained from the earliest period. 

halb. halbcn, prep., 'on account of,' 
from MidHG. halp, halbe, halben, ' on 
account of, by reason of. from, concerning' ; 
prop, a case of the MidHG. subst. halbe, f., 
'side,' mentioned under fyalb (adj.), hence 
construed wiih the gen. ; MidHG. min- 
halp, dtn-halp, der her r en halbe, seliens hal- 
ben, ' on my, thy account, on the gentle- 
men's account, for the sake of seeing.' 
Similarly the ModHG. foalber, 'on account 
of,' recorded in the 15th cent., is a petri- 
fied form of the inflected adj. ; so too fyalbrn, 
dat. plur., halbe, h<dp t from OHG. hdb, 
probably an instr. sing, (since Notker fyulb 
has been used as a prep.). This usage is 
also found ill the other Pent, languages ; 
comp, OIc. af-halfu, MidE. on-, bi-halfe; t>izai halbai, ' in tins respect.' 

<55>al6c, f., 'precipice, declivitv, slope,' 
from MidHG. haUe, OHG. halda, f.,' moun- 
tain declivity.' OIc. Iwllr, 'hill, slope,' 


( '32 ) 


corresponds both to the HG. word nnd to 
Goth, hallus, AS. heall, which are transla- 
tions of 'petra' ; see $ctm. Those may he 
further related to HG. £aft>e, which, how- 
ever, is more closely connected with Goth. 
*halj>s, 'inclined' ; comp. AS. heald, 01c. 
hallr, OHG. hald, adj., ■ overhanging, in- 
clined'; yet the dental in these words 
may be a suffix. If Goth, hallus, * rock,' were 
allied, OIc. hvdll, h6ll (Goth. *hicSlus), m., 
'hill,' might he compared, as well as AS. 
hyll, E. hill. For an Aryan root kel, 'to 
rise,' comp. Lat. celsus, collis, and Lith. 
Jcalnas, 'hill.' 

<£aiffe, f., 'half,' ModHQ. simply, ab- 
stract of fialb. Introduced by Luther into 
the literary language from MidG. and LG. 
(a strictly HG. word would end in b in- 
stead of/; comp. OSax. half, under fyilb) ; 
the Teut. type is probably halbijxi ?. In 
UpG. Jpalbteil (16th cent} is used. 

$>alflcv, f., from the equiv. MidHG. 
hal/ter, OHG. hulftra, f., 1 halter'; comp. 
Du. halster, AS. hozlftre, E. halter; a West 
Teut. word most closely allied with OHG. 
halp, MidHG. halp, plur. helbe, 'handle, 
helve,' AS. hylf, m., equiv. to E. helve; in 
earlier ModHG. also Jpctb, 'hilt, helve.' 
From the same root are formed with a 
suffix m, OHG. halmo (for *halbmo), in 
OHG. jioh-halmo, MidHG. giech-halme, 
' rope fastened to the yoke to guide the 
oxen,' MidHG. halme, 'handle, helve, 
lever of a bell,' halm-aches, 'axe' (comp. 
also ^eflcfcarte), likewise MidE, halme, 
1 handle ' ; so too the modified forms OHG. 
joh-helmo, MidHG. giech-helme ; AS.helma, 
'handle' (equiv. also to E, helm), and 
Du. helmstock, ' tiller,' are not connected 
with this word ; see £etm (2). 'Handle' 
is the orig. sense of the whole group, and 
even of £a(fter. Perhaps Lith. keltuve'y 
'swiple of a flail,' is allied. 

c&aH, m., ' sound ' ; see 1jef(. 

^salic, f., 'hall, large room, entrance 
hall, porch,' unknown to MidHG. The 
word, which was introduced by Luther 
into the literary language, was originally 
entirely unknown to the UpG. dials, (in 
earlier UpG. SBcrfcfcepf was used) ; it may 
have originated among the Franc, and Sax. 
tribes of Germany. It is a thorough OTent. 
term ; OIc. hgll, f., AS. heall, f., E. hall, 
OSax. halla, MidLG. halle, f., ' hall, a large 
loom covered with a roof and open or 
closed at the side,' sometimes ' temple, 
house of God.' Not allied to Goth, hallus, 

AS. heall, ' rock,' AS. and E. hill. From 
the OG. is derived Fr. halle. Against the 
derivation from the root hel, ' to conceal ' 
(comp. bel)ten), there is no weighty objec- 
tion, Qalit, ' the concealed or covered place.' 
Yet comp. also Sans, cdld, 'house.' — 
e&ctHc, f., 'saltern,' is the ordinary G. 
Jpallc, not, as was formerly supposed, a Kelt. 
term (W. hakn, 'salt'); $a((orm, a late 
Lat. derivative of £a(!f, 'saltern.' Comp. 
OHG. lialhtis, 'salt-house,' MidHG. hal- 
grdve, m., 'director and judge in matters 
connected with salt-mines.' 

fallen, vb., ' to sound, resound' ; comp. 

<&cilm, m. and n., 'stalk, stem, straw,' 
from MidHG. halm, m., and halme, m., 
OHG. and OSax. halm, m. ; comp. AS. 
healm, E. halm; the meaning in West 
Teut. is 'grass or corn-stalk' ; Scand. halmr, 
' straw.' In sense and sound correspond- 
ing to Lat, calamus, Gr. KdXeuuos, ' reed, 
reed-pen, halm ' (Ind. kalamas, ' reed-pen '), 
OSlov. slama, f., 'halm.' Perhaps the Lat. 
word is derived from Gr. ; it is also con- 
ceivable tliat §afm, like £anf, was obtained 
from a South Euss. tribe by the Aryans 
who had migrated westwards. Yet it is 
more probable that £alm and Gr. #cdXa/w, 
like Lat. culmus, 'stalk,' are connected 
with Lat. culmen, 'peak, summit,' and 
further with excello. 

^ctls, m., ' neck,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. and OHG. half, m. ; corresponding to 
OSax. and Du. hals, AS. heals (E. to halse, 
'embrace,' but now antiquated ; the modern 
word is neck), OIc. hah, m., ' neck,' Goth. 
hals (gen. halsis), m. ; all point to a com- 
mon Teut. mas., halsa-. Primit allied to 
La,t. collum for *col sum, n., 'neck' (O Lat, 
nho collus, m.) ; comp. also Gr. k\oi6s, 'col- 
lar ' (from *k\o<ti6s) ?. Whet her Lat excello, 
excepts, are also primit. allied (£al£, lit 'pro- 
minent part of the body ') remains uncer- 
tain. From Teut is derived Fr. haubert, 
OFr, halberc, ' hauberk,' from hals-berg(a). 
— I)Olfcn, vb., from the equiv. MidHG. 
halsen, OHG. halsdn, ' to embrace, fall on 
one's neck' ; comp. Du. omhelzen, AS. heal- 
sian, 'to implore,' MidE. halsien, Scand. 
hdlsa, 'to embrace.' 

I)tllf , acfcv., ' moreover, forsooth, me- 
thinks,' prop, a compar. meaning 'rather,' 
MidHG. and OHG. halt, adv., OSax. 'hold, 
' rather' ; orig. a compar. adv. of the posit, 
adv. halto, ' very.' The compar. ending, 
according to the law of apocope, lias dis- 


( 133 ) 


appeared, as in Ktfj for the earlier batiz; 
01 iff. haldiz formed, like Goth, haldis, OIc. 
heldr, * rather.' In no case is it related to 
the OHG. adj. hold, ' inclined,' mentioned 
under ^atbe ; with the exception of tlie 
OHG. halto, adv., no other word in the 
posit, can he found. 

fyaitcit, vh., ' to hold, support, detain, 
ohserve, perforin, consider,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. halten, OHG. haltan; coinp.OSax. 
haldan, ' to preserve, receive, detain as a 
prisoner, tend (cattle), adhere to, maintain,' 
Du. houden (see fjaubent), AS. healdan, str. 
vb., ' to watch over, lead, possess, rule,' E. 
to hold; Goth. Jialdan, redupl. vb., 'to 
graze cattle'; a redupl. vb. common to 
Teut. According to the OHG. variant 
halthan, haltan points to the normal Goth, 
form *half>an, which is also supported by 
OSwed. halla. The orig. sense of OTeut. 
haldan is perhaps ' to keep together by 
careful watching,' hence ' to tend a herd, 
govern a tribe, rule.' In the non-Teut. 
languages an Aryan root kalt of cognate 
meaning is not found. If the dental be- 
longed orig. to the pres. stem merely, the 
word might also be derived from the root 
hoi, and hence connected with Gr. fiov-tcbkos. 
No relation between haldan and .§erbe U 
possible. — ModHG. <§a(t, m., is wanting 
both in MidHG. and OHG. 

$bametl, m., 'tunnel-net,' from Mid 
II G. and MidLG. hame ; akin probably to 
the equiv. OSwed. haver, ModSwed. hdf, 
m., OHG. hamo, m., 'tunnel-net.' The 
latter word is considered identical with 
OHG. *hamo (in Wihamo, 'body,' OSax. 
gitiShamo,fe15ar/iamo; com p. fieidjiuvm, Jpentb, 
and fydmifcf)), orig. 'covering, dress.' From 
the meaning ' £ucf),' in the restricted sense 
in which it is used by fishermen and hunts- 
men (i.e. 'toils'), the signification 'net' 
might of course be developed ; but that is 
not certain. OHG. hamo, MidHG. ham, 
hame, in., 'fishing-rod, fishing-hook,' and 
the modem dial, ^antcit, are not allied to 
the words mentioned above ; they seem to 
be cognate with Lot, hdmus, ' fishing-hook, 
hook ' ; the h might be explained as ill 

l)d mi fd), adj., ' malicious,' from late 
MidHG. hemisch, adj., 'close, malicious, 
cunning, perfidious,' orig. perhaps ' veiled, 
obscure'; allied to OHG. *hamo, 'cover- 
ing, dress,' mentioned under Jpamcn, §cmb, 
and Vnd'iuni. 

e&ammcl, in., from the equiv. MidHG. 

and MidLG. hamel, OHG. hamal, m., 
' wether ' (MidHG. also ' steep, rugged 
height; cliff, pole'); prop, an adj. used 
as a 8iibst., OHG. hamal, ' mutilated,' which 
elucidates the MidHG. meanings ; OHG. 
hamaUn, MidHG. hameln (and hamen), 
' to mutilate,' AS. hamelian, E. to humble 
(' mutilate, lame ') ; OHG. hamalscorro, 
m., 'boulder,' OHG. hamal-, hamalung-stat, 
f., ' place of execution,' MidHG. hamelstat, 
n. and m., 'indented coast,' hamelstat, 
f., ' rugged ground.' Allied to OHG. ham 
(inflected hammer), adj., ' mutilated, crip- 
pled' (comp. f)«ntnen), j ust as Fr. moutun to 
Lat. mutilus. 

jammer, m., ' hammer, clapper,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. hamer (plur. hpner\ 
OHG. hamar (plur. hamard), m. ; comp. 
OSax. hamur, AS. hamor, m., E. hammer, 
and its equiv. OIc. hamarr, in. (also 'cliff, 
rock ') ; the common Teut. word for ' ham- 
mer,' by chance unrecorded in Goth. only. 
For the elucidation of its earlier history the 
subsidiary meanings in Scand. are import- 
ant ; the cognate term Icamy in OSlov. sig- 
nifies 'stone.' Hence it has been assumed 
that -Spammer is lit. 'stone weapon.' Whether 
Sans, agman, ' rock, stone weapon, hammer, 
anvil,' &c, and Gr. &Kfiuv, 'anvil' (Lith. 
alcntu, 'stone'), are also allied is uncertain. 

$firronttng, tf»emmlutg,ni.,' eunuch,' 
ModHG. simply, a deriv. of Jjjamntfl. 

(iaampfel, f., from the equiv. MidHG. 
hant-vol, ' a handful.' 

g&amfter, m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
hamster, m., 'German marmot'; OHG. 
hamastro, m., signifies only ' curculio, wee- 
vil,' so too OSax. hamstra, f., for *hamastra. 
The existing meaning is probably the 
earlier. In form the word stands quite 
alone ; its occurrence in" G. only, perhaps 
supports the view that it was borrowed. 
A corresponding word has not yet been 
found in a neighbouring language. 

„VHino, f., 'hand,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. and OHG. hunt, f.; comp. OSax. and 
Du. hand, AS. hand, f., E. hand, OIc. 
hgnd, Goth, handu's, f. ; a common Teut. 
word for "hand,' unknown to the other 
divisions of the Aryan group, most of the 
languages having special terms of their 
own. It is usually derived from Goth. 
hin/Mn, t toca.tcb,'fiaJiu»^ans,m., 'prisoner' 
(comp. the cognate E. to hunt, AS. huntian), 
in the sense of 'the grasping, seizing part,' 
and to this there is no objection, as far 
as the sound and meaning are concerned. 


( i34 ) 


Yet the fact remains that the old names of 
parts of the body have no corresponding 
sir. verbal stems ; comp. £erj, £5t)r, Sluge, 
ginger, £>atimen. With regard to the form, 
it is to be observed that the word, accord- 
ing to Goth, hr nidus, was orig. a u- stem, 
but is declined even in OHG. like nouns 
in t, though traces of the u declension 
remain throughout OHG. and MidHG. ; 
comp. abljanbeit. — _ftant>, 'kind, sort,' is 
developed from the medial sense 'side'; 
comp. MidHG. ze beiden handen, 'on both 
sides,' aller hande, ' of every kind,' vier 
hande, ' of four soils.' 

bcmbctn, vb., 'to manage, act, deal, 
bargain,' from MidHG. handeln, OHG. 
hantaldn, 'to grasp with the hands, touch, 
feel, prepare, perform' (hence O.Lorraine 
handeleir, ' to sweep ') ; a derivative of §attb ; 
£anbcl, m., has arisen from the vb. Jjaitbeln 
merely, just as Stager from argent (see arg), 
©eij from gei$en, Dpfer from cpfent — since 
it does not appear until late MidHG. 
(handel. m., 'transaction, procedure, event, 
negotiation, wares'). AS. handlian, E. to 
handle, AS. hnidele, equiv. to E. handle; 
Scand. hgndla, ' to treat.' 

<&cm&tt>erfc, n., 'handicraft, trade, 
guild,' from MidHG. hantwerc, n., 'manual 
labour,' but in the MidHG. period confused 
with aniwerc, n., ' tool, machine,' whence 
the meaning ' any vocation requiring the 
use of tools' was developed. 

<5!janf, m., ' hemp,' from MidHG. hanf, 
hanef, ni., OHG. hanaf, hanof, m. ; a com- 
mon Teut. word for ' hemp ' (Goth. *hanaps 
is by chance not recorded) ; comp. AS. 
li(Bnep, E. hemp, OIc. hampr. The usual 
assumption that the word was borrowed 
from the South Europ. Gr. K&wafiis (Lat. 
cannabis) is untenable. The Teutons were 
not influenced by Southern civilisation 
until the last century or so before our era ; 
no word borrowed from Gr.-Lat. has been 
fully subject to the OTeut. substitution of 
consonants (see 5iiine (1), *pfab, and the 
earliest loan-words under ^aifer). But the 
substitution of consonants in Goth. *hanavs 
compared with Gr. K6.wa.pts proves that the 
word was naturalised among the Teutons 
even before 100 B.C. "The Greeks first 
became acquainted with hemp in the time 
of Herodotus ; it was cultivated by the 
Scythians, and was probably obtained from 
Bactria and Sogdiana, the regions of the 
Caspian and the Aral, where it is said to 
grow luxuriantly even at the present time." 

Thus we can all the more readily njed 
the assumption of South Europ. influence ; 
comp. getneit. Why should not the Teu- 
tons in their migration from Asia to Europe 
have become acquainted with the culture 
of hemp when passing through the south 
of Russia, where the plant grows wild, and 
indeed among the very people who directly 
or indirectly supplied the Greeks with the 
word xdwa/Sis? (comp. also @rbfe). Kdwa/3is 
itself is a borrowed term, and Goth. *hanaps 
corresponds in sound quite as well with 
OSlov. hmoplja, Lith. kandjes, ' hemp ' 
The word is found even among the Persians 
(kanab). It does not seem to be genuinely 

,i»anfl, m., 'declivity, propensity, bias,' 
from MidHG. hanc (-ges), m., 'declivity, 
hanging.' See Ijangett. 

ftanctctt, vb., ' to hang, be suspended,' 
from MidHG. hdhen (hienc, gehangen), 
OHG. hdlian (hiang, gihavgan), str. vb. ; 
comp. fangen, from OHG. fdhan ; before h 
an n is suppressed (comp. OHG. d&i<ta from 
deuchan, bacfote from beitfen ; bradue. OHG. 
brdhta, from brittgen). Corresponding to 
Du. hangen, AS. hon {heng, hangen), E. to 
hang, Goth, hdfvm for *fomhnn, str. vb., 
' to hang.' In ModHG., E., and Du., the 
old str. vb. has been confused with the 
corresponding wk. vb., so that the trans, 
and intrans. meanings have been combined ; 
comp. Du. hangen, E. to hang, ' to suspend 
and to be suspended' ; in MidHG. hdhen, 
is trans, and intrans., while hang n (OHG. 
hangSn, AS. hangian) is intrans. onlv, 'to 
be suspended' ; to this is allied OHG. and 
MidHG. hpigen, ' to hang down (one's head), 
give a horse its head, permit, grant,' comp. 
Ijettfen. The ModHG. vb. is due to a blend- 
ing in sound of MidHG. hdhen (hangen) 
and hangen, yet in meaning it represents 
only MidHG. hdhen, OHG. hdhan. Terms 
undoubtedly allied to the common Teut. 
root hanh (hdh) are wanting in the other 
Aryan languages ; Goth, hdhan, ' to leave 
in doubt,' has been compared with Lat. 
cunctari, ' to delay.' 

iacmfe, f., 'Hanse,'from MidHG. hans, 
hanse, f., ' mercantile association with cer- 
tain defined powers as knights, merchant's 
guild' ; orig. an UpG. word (prob. signify- 
ing any corporation, association ? OHG. 
and Goth, hansa, f., AS. h6s. ' troop '), yet 
it soon became current in all G. dialects, 
and has been preserved in its application 
to the towns of the great North G. Han- 


( i35 ) 


seatic League, while the orig. sense ' troop ' 
became obsolete even in MidHG. The 
nominal vb. Ijatifeht is simply ModHG. 'to 
admit any one into a corporation' (not into 
the -§anfe only). 

tyartfeftt, vb., ModHG. only, different 
from the earlier homonymous word men- 
tioned under £anfe ; lit. ' to make a S$an$, 
i.e. a fool, of anybody ' (comp. the abusive 
terms ^>anebumm, ^anSnarr, £att$ttmrfl). 

I)cmiierert, vb., from the equiv. late 
MidHG. liantieren, 'to trade, sell' ; not a 
derivative of J^attb, meaning ' to handle,' 
because in that case we should expect nd 
for nt in MidHG. and ModHG., but from 
Fr. hanter, ' to haunt, frequent,' which 
found its way from MidDu. into the Mod 
Teut. dialects. It is curious to observe in 
how many ways obscure words have been 
corrupted in G. Comp. the earlier spell- 
ing (janbHuften. 

rjapern, vb., 'to stick, hitch,' formed 
from Du. (MidDu.) haperen, ' to miss, stut- 
ter'; yet also Suab. haperen (as well as 
Swiss hdptn, 'to crawl'?). The corre- 
sponding terms, origin, and history of the 
diffusion of the cognates are obscure. 

<$arfe, f., ' harp,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. harfe, harpfe, OHG. harfa, hurpha, f. ; 
comp. AS. hearpe, f., EL harp; a common 
Teut. word (Venantius Fortunatus calls 
harpa a barbaric, i.e. Teut. instrument), 
denoting a string instrument peculiar to 
the Teutons. Its use was confined in 
earlier times to the OTeut. chiefs, just as 
the violin or fiddle was to the common 

<$cirmg, feting, m., ' herring,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. hdhrinc (-ges), m., OHG. 
hdring, m. ; comp. Du. haring, AS. hiering, 
m., E. herring ; a specifically West Teut. 
word (in OIc. slid), whose d (de) is also 
attested by Fris. dials, and by the Mod 
HG. pronunciation with cb. The OHG., 
MidHG., and MidDu. variant hying points 
to a connection with OHG. he.ri, 'army,' 
and thus regards the fish as 'one that 
comes in shoals,' as ^ecrlittfl, 'small army.' 
Whether the older form lidring (Anglo- 
Fris. hdering) is related to these cognates is 
uncertain. The Teut. word found its way 
into Rom. (Fr. hareng). 

^arhe, f., 'rake,' a LG. word, in UpG. 
Oiftfyen ; comp. Du. hark, AS. *hearge, E. 
harrow, OIc. herfe, n., 'harrow,' Dan. harv, 
Swed. hcerf. Considering the almost certain 
iden ti ty ol the words, their phonetic relations 

present some difficulties. The root might 
perhaps be Sans, kharj, 'to scratch,' yet 
AS. hyrwe (*hearge), E. liarrow, OIc. herfe, 
' rake,' are difficult to reconcile with it. 

Ssatlekin, m., 'harlequin,' first natu- 
ralised towards the end of the 17th cent, 
from Ital. arlecchino (applied to the masked 
clown in Ital. comedy), and Fr. harlequin, 

«$arm, m., ' harm, distress, sorrow,' 
very rarely occurs in MidHG. and earlier 
ModHG., probably formed from E. harm 
and revived in the last cent, through the 
influence of E. literature (comp. £a[(f,.§eim); 
MidHG. (entirely disused) harm, in., 'in- 
jury, pain' ; OHG. haram, OSax. harm, m., 
' affront, cutting words, mortification ' ; AS. 
hearm m., ' insult, harm ' ; E. harm ; OIc. 
harm,m., 'grief, care.' From pre-Teut. *kar- 
ma, Sans. *parma?, formal. This is also indi- 
cated by OSlov. sramii (from *sormii), m., 
' shame, disgrace.' An OG. (OHG. and 
OSax.) compound, OHG. haramscara, 
OSax. harmscara, f., ' outrageous, excru- 
ciating punishment,' was retained as late 
as MidHG., in which harn-, harm-schar, 
'torment, distress, punishment.' remained 
current, when -§atm alone had already dis- 
appeared. Comp. fjcrb. 

(Jiiam, m., ' urine,' earlier dial, variant 
£arm (Luther), from MidHG. ham (Bav. 
and East Rhen.), harm, m. and n., OHG. 
haran, m., 'urine' (respecting the variant 
with m see gam) ; a specifically UpG. 
word, probably identical orig. with AS. 
scearn, OIc. sham, n., 'mud'; sk and h 
(the latter for k without s) would have 
interchanged in OTeut. Allied to Gr. ffKwp ; 
comp. tjotfen, broffctit, linfe, ©tier. The 
derivation of £aru from a root har, 'to 
pour out,' remains dubious. 

jlutrni fd), in., 'harness, armour,' from 
MidHG. /wrna8c/i,vaiiants/t(intas,Ji«r/iescA, 
111., ' harness' ; borrowed at the end of the 
12th cent, from OFr. ftamais, 'armour, 
gear,' which has come to be a common 
Rom. term (Ital. amese), but may be traced 
probably to a Kelt, source (W. haiar- 
naez, 'iron utensils') ; the connecting link 
might be MidE. haraez, 'armour* (E. har- 

barren, vb., 'to wait, linger in expec- 
tation, delay,' from MidHG. harren, 'to 
wait, sojourn ' ; a MidG. word, entirely un- 
known to OHG. as well as the other Teut. 
dialects, but undoubtedly a genuine Teut. 
term ; of obscure origin (allied, like Gr. 


( 136 ) 


naprfpt'if, to Ijart ? ; comi>. Lat. durare, akin 
to durus). 

^orfcf), «4j., ' hartl > rough,' ModllG. 
Bimply ; E. harsh ('bitter, severe') ; un- 
known to AS., OHG., and OIc. Clearly 
a derivative of l;art ; conip. rafd>, allied to 
flvutc, Goth. *rasqa- to rajxi-, 'quick' (OHG. 
rado), OIc horsier, 'quick,' to AS. /trade, 
OIc. bciskr, 'bitter,' to Goth, bait-ra- ; 
hence Goth, har Jus, 'hard,' perhaps pre- 
supposes */<arsh, *h'irsqs. Yet it might 
also be connected with Ic. hortl, 'hardness 
of the frozen ground ' ; ModHG. J&arid;, 
4 snow-crust,' dial. But fjart (' hard ') alone 
suffices to elucidate this latter sense, as is 
shown by OHG. hertemdn6t, MidHG. herte- 
mdnot, ' hard month,' applied to December 
and January. See the following word. 

t)C»rt, adj., 'hard, stilF, severe, stern, 
difficult, hard by,' from MidHG. herte, 
hart, adj. (hatie, adv. ; comp. fajt, adv., 
allied to feft, fdjen to fc&en, &c), ' hard, firm, 
difficult, painful,' OHG. hyti, hard, hart, 
adj. (harto, adv.), ' hard ' ; com p. AS. heard, 
' hard, strong, brave,' E. hard (hardy is 
probably derived directly from Rom. — 
Fr. hardi, which, however, is a derivative 
of G. ljail), Goth, hardus, adj., 'hardy, 
severe.' A common Teut. adj. from pre- 
Teut. karttis; comp. Gr. Kparvs, 'strong, 
powerful, potentate,' Kaprep6s, tcparepos, 
'strong, staunch, mighty, violent,' adv., 
Kdpra, 'very strongly' (OHG. harto, adv., 
' very, extremely ') ; allied perhaps to Sans. 
krdtu s, m., 'force, strength' (root har, 'to 
do, make'), or however to Lith. tortus, 
'bitter' (root krt, 'to cut, split'). Others 
compare Sans. cdrdha-s, 'bold, strong,' to 
the Teut. adj. 

Jftctrf, (iaarb, f. and m., 'forest,' from 
MidHG. hart, m., f., and 11., OHG. hart, 
' forest ' ; comp. also (Sprffart from spehtes 
hart (allied to <2ped)t) ; #arj for MidHG. 
Hart; £aarfct in the Palatinate. 

,fb<xr$, n., 'resin,' from MidHG. harz, 
n. and m., 'resin, bitumen,' with the 
variants hars, harse ; OHG. Iiarz, and with 
a suffix harzoh, 'resin'; Du. hars, f., with 
an abnormal s, but LG. hart; unknown to 
E. and Scand. as well as Goth. ; of obscure 
origin, scarcely allied to Gr. Kdp8ap.ov, 
' cress.' For other OTeut. words with the 
same meaning see under SBerujUin and 9htt 
(also $hccr\ 

f)<xfd)Ctx, vb., ' to snatch,' a MidG. word 
made current by Luther, unknown to the 
modern UpG. dialects as well as to OHG., 

MidHG., and all other languages. Pro- 
bably connected with fyafr, \)tbtn, root haf 
(Lat. capio) ; Goth. *luifslc6ry, ' to seize,' 
mtist have become *hask6a in G., just as 
Goth, haifst*, f., 'quarrel, fight,' has become 
the OHG. adj. heisti, 'violent'; comp. 
OHG. forsc6n, ' to demand,' for *forhsl;6u, 
Goth, wa&rslw, ' work,' for *vfaHr/i8tw. 
Comp. fyarfd), -§ujl, £auiie. 

/.>afc, m., 'hare,' from MidHG. hose, 
OHG. haw, in. ; a common Teut. term for 
'hare'; comp. Du. haas, AS. hara (with 
change of s into r), E. hare, OIc. here, m. ; 
Goth. *hasa (OHG. haso) or *haza (AS. 
hara\ is by chance not recorded. To tlie 
pre-Teut. iasa(n), Ind, cagd (instead of 
*casd, just as fvde-uras for *svdcuras, comp. 
Sdjtvafya), ' hare,' corresponds ; the word 
also occurs in a remarkable manner only 
once again in OPruss. (as sasins for szasi- 
nas). The primit word kasa-, 'hare,' may 
be connected with AS. hasu, ' grey.' From 
Teut. is derived Fr. hose, f., 'doe-hare.' 
— The term £afcttfd)artf, 'hare-lip,' is not 
recorded in G. until the 14th cent., but it 
already exists in AS. as harsceard (in E. 
hare-lip) ; comp. further the OIc. nick- 
name SkartSe, also OFiis. has-skerde, ' hare- 

iittfel, f., 'hazel,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. hasel, OHG. hasala, f., hasal, in. ; 
comp. AS. hasel, E. hazel, OIc. hasl (hence 
hgslur, plur., 'boundary posts') ; the com- 
mon Teut word for 'hazel,' from pre- 
Teut kosolo- ; hence in Lat, with the nor- 
mal change of s into r, coruhis, ' hazel ' ; 
comp. further Olr. coll, ' hazel,' for *cosl. 

^ttfpe, £safpc, f., ' hasp, clamp, hinge,' 
from MidHG. haspe, hespe, f., 'hinge of a 
door ; windle' (with the variant hispe, f., 
' clasp '), OHG. haspa, ' a reel of yarn ' ; 
comp Olc. hespa, f., ' hank, skein of wool ; 
bolt of a door' ; E. hasp, MidE. haspe, 
' bolt, woollen yarn,' so too AS. hcesp, haps, 
heps, f. The double sense 'door bolt, door 
hook, and hasp,' seems OTeut. ; as a tech- 
nical term in weaving, this word, like 
{Rccfcn, found its way into Rom. (Ital. aspo, 
OFr. hasple) ; see also jtunfcl. Whether 
the two meanings have been developed 
from one, or whether two distinct words 
have been combined, is uncertain, since we 
have no etymological data. 

e <3ttfpcl, m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
haspd, in., OHG. haspil, in., ' reel, windle ' ; 
a derivative of £afr«. 

ibaff , t,'haste, hurry,' ModHG. simply ; 


( i37 ) 


aMidG.andLG.word ; comp. MidDu. 7iaa.s(, 
f., MidE. haste, E. haste; borrowed from 
OFr. haste, hate (comp. Ital. astivamente), 
which again correspond to the OTeut. cog- 
nates of ModHG. Ijefttgj comp. OHG. 
heisti, AS. hwste^ 'violent' (Goth, haifsts, 
' dispute '). 

^>afj, m., from the equiv. MidHG. and 
OHG. ha%, (gen. ha$$es), m., * hatred ' ; in 
OHG. the older neut. gender occurs once 
(comp. Goth, hatis, n., Scand. hatr, n.) ; 
AS. kete (E. hate) and OSax. h$li are also 
masc. ; the common Teut. term for ' liate,' 
pointing to pre-Teut. kodos, kodesos (Lut. 
*codus, *coderis), n. ModHG. J^aber, and 
Gr. k6tos, may also be allied, since an 
Aryan root kdt, kod, is possible. The orig. 
sense of <£>a|3 is indicated by .§a|j and t^e^cit, 
as well as the wk. vb. Ijaffen, from MidHG. 
ha^en, OHG. ha^en, ha^6n, which in 
OHG. also means ' to pursue ' (OSax. hatdn, 
1 to waylay '). <§ajl too seems allied ; hence 
the prim, meaning of ^a§ is probably 'hos- 
tile, hastypursuit.' — l)d fj lid). ' ugly, loath- 
some,' from MidHG. hay, h^elich, ' malig- 
nant, hateful, ugly.' 

rjaf fdjcln, vb., 'to fondle, pamper,' re- 
cently coined in ModHG. ?. 

<$»atfcf)ier, m., 'imperial horseguard,' 
first occurs in early ModHG., borrowed 
from Ital. arciere (Fr. archer), 'archer.' 

£bClt$, 'baiting, chase'; comp. Ijejjen. 

<&CUtbe, f., ' hood, cap (woman's), crest, 
tuft,' from MidHG. Mbe, OHG. hitha, f., 
' covering for the head worn by men (Mid 
HG., especially by soldiers, ' peaked hel- 
met, steel-cap') and women'; comp. AS. 
hdfe, in a special sense 'mitre'; Scand. 
h&fa, f., 'cap, hood.' The cognates are 
connected by gradation with <§uitpt (Aryan 
root kUp). 

^CUtbtf^C, f., 'howitzer,' first occurs in 
early ModHG., introduced during the Hus- 
site Wars from Bohemia (houfnice, 'stone 
8linger'), hence the earliest recorded form, 

f)CUtd)Ctt, vb., ' to breathe, respire, ex- 
hale,' from MidHG. (rare) hUchen, 'to 
breathe,' an UpG. word ; perhaps recently 
coined in imitation of the sound. Cognate 
terms are wanting. 

<$&cutbcrcr, m., ModHG. only, from the 
equiv. Du. stulhoudei; lit. ©tallljalter, 'job- 
master' (in MidG. ©cfdjirrfyatttr, also $eji- 
fyiltev) ; Du. louden is ModHG. fjalten. 

f)aucn, vb., ' to hew, chop, carve,' from 
MidHG. Iwuwen, OHG. houwan (MidHG. 

houwen, OHG. houw&n), 'to hew'; comp. 
OSax. lmuwan, AS. hedwan, E. to hew, Olc. 
hgggva; Goth. *haggwan, a redupl. vb., is 
wanting ; Teut. hauw, haw, from pre-Teut. 
kow; not allied to k6ittu, but to OSlov. 
kovq,, kovati, ' to forge,' Lith. kduju (kduti), 
' to strike, forge,' kovd, ' combat.' Comp. 
J&acfe, §eu, #ieb. — ^bcrne, f., ' hoe, mattock, 
pickaxe,' from MidHG. houwe, OHG. iiouwa, 
f., ' hatchet.' 

ifoaufe, m., ' heap, pile, mass,' from Mid 
HG. hiLfe, houfe, m., k&f, hovf, m., ' heap, 
troop,' OHG. Mf), houf, m., ' heap, troop ' ; 
comp. OSax. hSp, Du. hoop, AS. hedp, m., 
E. heap ; Scand. h6pr, ' troop,' is borrowed 
from LG. ; Goth. *haups, *lidpa are want- 
ing ; these words, which belong to the same 
root, are evidently related by gradation 
(comp. OHG. Mba, ' hood,' allied to OHG. 
h oubit, ' h ead '). Probably related to OS I o v. 
kupu (Goth. *haupa-), m., 'heap,' Lith. 
ka&pas, 'heap,' kuprd, 'hump' (Lett, kupt, 
* to form into a ball '), although the corre- 
spondence of Slav, p to LG. and E. p is 
not normal ; Slav, p is mostly /or 1 in 
LG. and Goth. Since Goth, p indicates 
pre-Teut. b, the word, may be connected 
also with Lat. incubo, ' the treasure demon 
who lies on the hoard, nightmare.' Others 
compare it to Lith. kugis, ' heap.' 

f)dufut, adj., copious, abundant,' Mod 
HG. only, lit. ' by heaps.' 

^Ivcutpf, n., 'head, chief, leader,' from 
MidHG. houbet, houpt (also houbet), n., 
OHG. houbit, n. ; the OTeut. word for 
' head,' supplanted in the 16th cent, by 
JtoVf i» all the G. dials. (Jfefyl-, J?rautl)autJf, 
almost the only existing forms, are dia- 
lectal), while E. and Scand. have retained 
the earlier form — AS. hedfud, E. head (for 
*heafd), n., Olc. haufuf>, later hgfu}>, n., 
Swed. hufvud, Dan. hoveJ, 'head,' Goth. 
haubi]>, ii. Since all the Teut. dialects 
point to an old diphthong au in the stem, 
of which d in OHG. h-dba, 'hood,' is the 
graded form (comp. J&aubc), the Aryan base 
must be koupot, and Lat cdput, for which 
*cauput might have been expected, was 
probably transformed by the influence of a 
word corresponding to AS. hnfola, 'head,' 
Sans, kapdla, 'skull,' an assumption also 
supported by Lat. capUlus, ' hair (of the 
head).' The MidHG. houbet (Luther $fupt), 
formed by mutation from OHG. houbit, is 
still preserved in ju Ȥaupttn, in which 
primit phrase the plur. curiously repre- 
sents the sing. 


( 138 


_V>cuto, i)., ' house, household,' from Mid 
HG. and OHG. hu*, n., which lias the same 
sound in all OTeut. dials. ; ModDu. huts, 
E. house (to which husband, hussy, and hust- 
ings, are allied). Goth. *hus is found only 
once in gudhus, ' temple,' lit. ' God's house ' 
(for which Goth, razn is used ; comp. (Raft), 
but may be also inferred from the bor- 
rowed term, OSlov. chyzu, ' house.' In 
the other Teut. dialects it is the prevalent 
term, corresponding to G. £au$. Probably 
cognate with £utte, and like this term allied 
to a Teut. root hud, ' to hide ' (AS. hydan, 
E. to hide) ; h&sa- for hussa-, htifrta-, lit. 
' that which hides'?. See further under 
^»utte. Others connect Goth, hits with Goth. 
huz-ds, ' refuge,' and Lat. custos. In this 
case too the prim, sense assigned would 
hold good. 

tjcutf?. fyauhexx. adv., ' out of doors, 
abroad,' from MidHG. hu$e for hie dy, 
' here outside,' like MidHG. hinne for hie 

<&aufle, m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
huste, m., 'shock of corn, haycock,' cannot 
be traced farther back ; evidently for hufste, 
akin to htife, ' heap.' Comp. Lith. Lupstas, 
' tump.' 

->">rtitf , f., ' hide, skin, cuticle,' from Mid 
HG.,andOHG.Ma.,'hide' ; ModDu. huid, 
AS. hyd, f., E. hide, Scand. MS, f . ; the 
OTeut. word for ' hide ' (Goth. */iups, gen., 
*hHdais, is by chance not recorded), from 
pre-Teut. kuti-s, f. ; it is Lat. cutis (for the 
gradation of H to u, see taut and <2>ol)n) ; 
comp. Gr. kutos, n., ' skin, covering ' ; the 
root has a prefix s in Gr. vkutos, n., ' skin, 
leather,' Lat. scH-tum. 'shield,' ffxO-Xw, 
'skin, arms. stripped off a slain enemy.' 
Hence the dental in OHG. hut, Lat cutis, 
would be a suffix merely ; for s-ku as a 
root meaning 'to cover, hide,' see under 
<Sd)eutte, ©djetter. The E. vb. to hide, from 
AS. hQdun, may belong to the same root 
with an abstract dental suffix *hd<<i-, 'cover- 
ing,' hUd jan, ' to envelop.' Yet traces exist, 
as may be seen under S$vS\t, of a root hud 
from fcudh, ' to veil,' in the non-Teut. lan- 

J»»cbammc, f., ' midwife,' from MidHG. 
hebamme ; the latter form, from heve-amme, 
has been modified in sense by connection 
with foebett, its last component representing 
an earlier anne equiv. in meaning, OHG. 
usually hevi-anna, f. ; anna, (., 'woman' is 
cognate with Lat. dnus, 'old woman ' (see 
9ltjn), and hence probably stands for anua, 

anva (comp. $ianit, Jtinn). Yet OHG. hetn- 
anna may be really nothing more than the 
pres. panic, of tybtn, prim, lorn hafja»(d)j6, 
'she who lifts,' of which the later forms 
are modifications. In MidE. midw'if, E. 
midwife, ModDu. vroedvrouw, from vroed, 
1 wise, prudent' (comp. Span. coma>Jre t Fr. 
sage-femme) ; no word common to Teut. can 
be found. There were probably no regular 
mil I wives in the Teut. period. 

<&ebel, m., 'lever, yeast,' first occurs in 
early ModHG. in the sense of 'lever'; 
comp. MidHG. hebel, hevd, OHG. hevilo, 
m., ' yeast ' (as a mean3 of causing a thing 
to rise) ; v,f, as the older form, was sup- 
planted by connecting the word with bfbcn. 

fycbetl, vl>., 'to raise, lift, levy, solve 
(doubts), settle (disputes), remove,' from 
MidHG. heben, /teven, ' to rise, raise, lift,' 
OHG. heffan, hemn (prop, heffu, l-evis, hevit, 
fieffamSs, inf. heffan), from habjan, which 
occurs in Goth, in the sense of ( to raise, 
lift up ' ; root, haf, hab ; b properly be- 
longed in-"the str. vb. to the pret. plur. 
and partic, but may have found its way 
into other stems. AS. Iiebban (sing, hebbe, 
hefst, hef}>, &c), E. to heave ; ModDu. heffen ; 
Olc. hefja. Respecting^' as a formative ele- 
ment of the pres. stem in str. vbs., see under 
fd)ajfcn, (adjett, &c. ; it corresponds to Lat. t 
in vbs. of the 3rd conjug., such as facio. 
Hence Lat. capio corresponds exactly to 
Goth, hafjan ; Aryan root kap. There are 
numerous examples in Teut. of the sense 
' to seize,' which belongs to the Lat. vb. ; 
see under ^uft. Since Lat. capio is not 
allied to habeo, and Lat habeo is cognate 
with Teut. twben {capio, rootkap, liabeo, 'to 
have,' root kliabh), habftt is entirely uncon- 
nected with heben. Yet in certain cases it 
cannot be doubted that the words related 
to fylbeu have influenced the meaning of 
those connected with tjcbm ; some words 
may be indifferently assigned to the one 
or the other ; comp. e.g. £abe with .£>anb- 
fyabe. With the root kap, Lat capio, some 
also connect Gr. kutv, 'handle.' 

iaccfjcf, f., 'flax comb,' from MidHG. 
hechel, also hachel, f. : comp. Du. hekel ; 
MidE. hechele, E. haichel and hackle ; want- 
ing in Olc. ; Swed. hdckla, Dan. hegle 
(Goth. *hakila, *hakula, is assumed). Pro- 
bably allied to OHG. and MidHG. hecchen, 
hecken (hakjan), ' to pierce' (espec. ot snakes), 
and further to the cognates of ^afen (E. 
hook). Goth, hahils, ' cloak,' OHG. hahhu L 
MidllG. hachel, m., Olc. hgkull, m., AS. 


( i39 ) 


hacele, 'cloak,' are not allied ; they belong 
rather to a conjectural Goih. *hdka, f., 
1 goat ' (AS. hicen, ' kid,' from Goth. *hd- 
kein, n. ; see under ©eif$), and hence pro- 
bably mean ' hairv garment.' See also 

$bed)fe, $S&<f)fe, f., from the equiv. 
MidHG. hehse, OHG. hahsa, f., 'hock' 
(especially of liorses) ; the presitmable form 
in' Goth, is *hahsi (gen. *hahsj6s), f. Cor- 
responding in sound to Olnd. kakSyd, f., 
' girth (of a saddle),' a derivative oikak&a-st, 
m., 'passage for the girths, armpit' ; Lat. 
coxa, ' hip,' whence the adv. coxim, ' squat- 
ting,' from which a meaning similar to that 
of the HG. word may be deduced. The sig- 
nification of the primit. Aryan word fluc- 
tuated between ' armpit, hip, and hock.' 
In the Teut. group the following are 
also allied to Goih. *hahsi, f. — OHG. hah- 
sindn, MidHG. hehsenen, 'subnervare, to 
hamstring,' AS. hdxene, MidE. houghsene, 
Frie. hdxene, ' hock.' 

ii*cd)t , m., ' pike,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. hc^chet, hecht, OHG. hehhit,hahhit, m. ; 
comp. OSax. hacud, AS. hacod, hozced, m., 
' pike ' ; a West Teut. word connected with 
OHG. and MidHG. hecknn, ' to pierce,' men- 
tioned under -§ed)c(. On account of its 
pointed teeth the pike is called the 'piercer.' 
Comp. E. pike, Fr. brochet, 'pike,' from 
broche, ' spit,' Scand. gedda, ' pike,' allied 
to gaddr, ' prickle.' 

<#edte (1.), f., 'hedge,' from MidHG. 
heclce, f., OHG. hgeka, hegga, f., 'hedge,' the 
latter from hagjd-, whence also AS. hecg, 
f., MidE. heqge, E. hedge; AS. also hege, 
in., 'hedge' (comp. E. haybote, 'an allow- 
ance of wood for repairing fences'). Of 
the same origin as the cognates mentioned 
under Jpag. 

-VK'cho (2.). f., ' the act of breeding,' Mod 
HG. simply, probably neither identical 
nor even cognate with #frfe (1), 'hedge,' 
because E. hedge, '§crfe (1),' and hatch, 
'J&ecfe (2).' are totally distinct ; the former 
is MidE. hegge (AS. h$cg, f. ?), the latter 
MidE. hacclie (AS. *hazcce ?) ; E. hatch, 
' brood, incubation.' MidHG. has a wk. 
vb., hecken, ' to propagate ' (of birds), MidE. 
hacchen, E. to hatch; OHG. heijidruom, 
MidHG. hegedruose, f., 'testicle,' may be 
cognate (g in AS. hagan, 'gignalia,' ill 
comparison with the earlier kk in MidE. 
hacche, is conceivable), and hence too Mid 
HG. hagen, m., ' bull kept for breeding,' 
earlier ModHG. <§>arffcfy, 'boar kept for 

breeding.' The cognates seem to indicate 
a Teut. root hag, hakk, ' to propagate.' 

$bebe, f., 'tow,' ModHG. simply, from 
LG. heede, formed from £?rfce by suppress- 
ing the r (see SWiefe) ; comp. MidDu. herde, 
'flax fibre,' AS. heorde, f., 'refuse of flax, 
tow,'E.Aarc/s(plur.). Are AS. heard and OIc. 
haddr, 'hair,' allied? For Sfrttt (probably 
Goth. *hazdd, *hazdjo) U\ G. has Stapfr 

^Sebexid), m., 'hed tie-mustard, ground 
ivy,' from late MidHG. hedertch, m., a 
corruption of Lat. (glecoma) hederacea. 

£&eer, n., from the equiv. MidHG. liere, 
OHG. heri, hari, n., 'army' ; comp. Goth. 
harjis, m., AS. he,re, m., OIc. herr, m. ; a 
common Teut. word for 'army,' still cur- 
rent in Swed. and Dan. har, Du. hter- in 
compounds. AS. here was supplanted in 
the MidE. period by the Rom. army ; yet 
AS. here-gcatwe, 'military equipment or 
trappings,' has been retained down to 
ModE. as heriot ; similarly the AS. word 
for har-bour (comp. Jperfeerge). The term 
chario-, 'army,' met with in Teut. proper 
names of the Roman period, corresponds 
to Olr. cuire, ' troop,' OPruss. karjis, 
'army,' of which Lith. kdras, 'war,' is the 
base (<§eer, lit. 'that which belongs to 
war ') ; to this OPers. kdra, ' army,' is 
allied ?. In MidHG. and earlier ModHG. 
there is another deriv. of the root kar, 
viz. harst, MidHG. also harsch, 'body of 
troops.' The verbal form from the as- 
sumed word for 'war' was perhaps Goth. 
*harj6n, ' to wage war upon ' ; comp. OIc. 
herja, ' to go on a predatory expedition,' 
AS. herigan. E. to hurry, to harrow, OHG. 
heridn, MidHG. hern, 'to ravage, plunder.' 
Comp. further .gtcrbcrge and faring. 

$befe, f., 'yeast, lees, dregs,' from Mid 
HG. h$v, hepfe, m. and f., OHG. hevn, 
hepfo, m. (from heppo, hufjo, ' yeast ') ; as 
a substance producing fermentation it is 
derived from the root haf, lit. 'raising'; 
hence also OHG. hevilo, MidHG. hevel, 
'yeast,' as well as AS. haf, Du. hef, heffe, 
f., ' yeast ' (see ^cbfl). Similarly Fr. levaiv, 
levilire, are related to lever. Yet OHG. 
hepfo can scarcely be referred to the Aryan 
root kar>, ' to raise.' 

<#cft, ' handle, hilt, stitched book, num- 
ber (of a periodical),' from MidHG. hefle, 
OHG. hefti, 'haft, handle of a knife, hilt of 
asword' ; connected with the root Aor/('to 
lift') or hab ('to have').— feeflott, vb., *to 
stitch,' from MidHG. and OHG. heften, 'to 


( 140 ) 


bcflttf, adj., ' vehement, violent, im- 
petuous,' from MiilHG. heftec, a<lj., 're- 
maining firm, ])ersistent,' then 'earnest, 
important, strong.' It seems to be based 
upon a blending of two words orig. quite 
distinct, for ModHG. Ijeftig, 'vehemens,' 
is late OHG. heiftig, MidHG. heifU, adv. 
heifteclic/ien, with which Goth, haifsls, OFr. 
haste, as well as ModHG. §ajt, are con- 

bcgett, vb., ' to enclose, cherish, foster,' 
from MidHG. liegen, 'to cherish, keep,' lit. 
' to surround with a fence,' OHG. hegen, 
'to fence in' ; allied to £<uj. 

Sac^I. m., from the equiv. MidHG. hale, 
~M.idQ.Mle, 'concealment'; also MidHG. 
hade, adj., 'concealed' ; derivatives of Mid 
HG. heln. See tytytn. 

l>cl)lert, vb, from the equiv. MidHG. 
heln, OHG. helan, ' to keep secret, conceal,' 
AS. helan, E. to heal, 'to cover, conceal,' 
Du. helen, ' to conceal.' Root hel, from 
pre-Teut. kSl (Sans. *gal\ in the sense of 
'concealing cover' ; see further under <£>a(le, 
£eljf, -£>cu>, £i"d(e, §ulfe, as well as fydjl, 
J&eijtf, and §clm. The Aryan root is at- 
tested by Lat. cilare (e as in Goth. *hSlei, 
which is indicated hy MidHG. hade, f., 
mentioned under §cf;l), occulo, Gr. root kcl\ 
in KakiirTU), 'I cover,' /taXt^, 'hut,' Olr. 
celim, ' I hide.' 

ftcljl", adj., 'exalted, sublime, sacred,' 
from MidHG. Mr, adj., 'distinguished, 
exalted, proud, glad,' also 'sacred,' OHG. 
and OLG. Mr, ' distinguished, exalted, 
splendid.' The corresponding compar. 
is used in G. in the sense of ' dominus ' ; 
comp. ^»crr, lit, 'the more distinguished, 
venerable ' (orig. current in the Teut. lan- 
guages of Mid. Europe only). The orig. 
sense of the adj. is probably 'venerable,' 
for the E. and Scand. adj. has the mean- 
ing 'grey, hoary, old man'; OIc. hdrr, 
AS. Mir, E. hoar (and the lengthened form 
Mary), 'grey.' Goth. *Miira- (neu. sing. 
inas. *hairs) is wanting. The common 
assumption of a Teut. root hai, ' to glitter, 
shine,' from which an adj. hai-ra- can be 
derived with the double sense given above, 
is supported by OIc. MiS, 'clearness of the 
sky' (see under Ijeitcr), as well as by Goth. 
Aai's(dat.plur.Aaizam),n.,' torch.' With the 
root hai (from pre-Teut. koi), Sans, ki-td-s, 
m., 'light, lustre, torch,' is connected. 

,&cioc (1.), f., 'heath, uncultivated land, 
heather,' from MidHG. Mide, OHG. Mida, 
f., 'heath, uutilled, wild, overgrown land, 

heather'; comp. Goth. haipi, f., 'field,' 
AS. hdjy, m. and n., 'heath, desert,' also 
' heather,' E. heath, OIc. MitSr, f. The 
prim, sense of the common Teut. word is 
'treeless, uutilled plain'; the meaning 
' heather' evolved from this is West Teut. 
(AS. Du. and G), so too Du. Mi, Mide. 
Goth, haifri, ' field, plain,' from pre-Teut. 
kditt, occurs also in OInd. kSetra-m, ' field, 
cornfield, region, country,' for sketram. See 
the next word. 

^SClbe (2.), m., ' heathen, pagan,' from 
MidHG. heiden, m., ' heathen ' (espec. 
' Saracen'), OHG. heidan, m. ; comp. Du. 
Miden, AS. Mef>en, E. Mathen, OIc. hetiSenn, 
' heathen.' Ultilas is acquainted only with 
the corresponding fem. liaifinS, ' heathen 
woman,' while the masc. plur. equiv. to Lat. 
gentes, Gr. lOvi), appears as JriudOs. The 
connection of the word with human pro- 
gress is difficult to decide ; on account of 
the diffusion of the word in all the Teut. 
dialects, we are evidently not concerned 
here with a word originating in the OHG. 
Biblical texts and translations. The usual 
assumption that Lat. paganus, ' heathen,' 
was the model on which the Teut. word was 
built needs to be restricted, since it is im- 
probable that all the OTeut. dialects inde- 
pendently of one another should have given 
an inaccurate rendering of paganus, espe- 
cially since the Slav, languages have bor- 
rowed the word directly (OSlov., Russ. 
poganu). Lat. paganus, 'heathen' (Ital. 
pauano, Fr. pa'ien), appears in the second 
half of the 4th cent, after Christianity was 
established as the religion of the Empire 
by Constantine and his sons, and the old 
worship was forced from the towns into 
the country districts. The late occurrence 
of the Lat, word explains the fact that in 
Goth, first of all a solitary instance of the 
new term ' heathen ' is found in the form 
haifnid, f., 'a heathen woman.' But tho 
appearance of the word in Goth, is more 
easily accounted for than in any other dia- 
lect from the Goth, forms haipi, f., ' field,' 
hai/riuislcs, ' wild ' (milij? h., ( \\ ild honey '). 
Hence in Goth, a form *hai]?ins would be 
connected more closely with Lat. paganus, 
while in the other dialects the correspond- 
ing word cannot probably be explained from 
the Lat. form. Perhaps here, as in the case 
of Jtirdje and ^Bfajff, the influence of the 
Goths and of their Christianity upon the 
other Teutons is discernible, Comp. the 
history of the word tauffit. 


( 141 ) 


$beibelheeve, f., 'bilberry, whortle- 
berry,' from MidHG. heidelber, heitber, n. 
and f., OHG. heidb$ri, n., ' bilberry, whortle- 
berry ' ; corresponds to AS. h&S-berie, with 
the same meaning. Allied to -§eifce, f. 

l)eifeel, adj., ' hooked, captions, nice,' 
ModHG. only, but widely current in tlie 
dials. ; Swiss, heikxel, Bav.and, 
East Fris. hekel, 'fastidious with regard to 
food.' Geographically heifet and QUI seem 
to supplement eacli other, and hence may 
be regarded as identical. 

<§bcil, n., 'health, welfare, salvation,' 
from MidHG. and OHG. heil, n., 'health, 
happiness, salvation ' ; comp. AS. hail, n. 
(for hdli, from liailiz), ' health, happiness, 
favourable omen ' ; Olc. heill, n. (f.) (from 
hailiz), ' favourable omen, happiness.' Not 
the neut of the following adj., but properly 
an older as stem, pre-Teut. kdilos (declined 
like Gr. ytvos, L it. genus, n.). Comp. also 
the next word. 

fccil, adj., 'hale, healthy, sound,' from 
MidHG. and OHG. heil, adj., 'healthy, 
whole, saved ' ; comp. OSax. hil, AS. hdl, 
E. whole, Olc. heill, ' healthy, healed,' Goth. 
hails, ' healthy, sound.' In OTeut. the 
iioin. of this adj. was used as a saluta-* 
tion (Goth, hails! x ai P e ! AS. wes hdl/). 
Teut. haila-z, from pre-Teut. kailos {-lo- is 
a suffix), corresponds exactly to OSlov. 
dlu, 'complete, whole,' which, like Pruss.. 
kaildstikun, ' health ' (from *kaildda$, 
' healthy '), is based upon Aryan kailo-; the 
Olr. cognate c4l, ' angary,' corresponds to 
AS. hdbl, Olc. heill,' ' n., 'favourable omen,' 
as well as to OHG. hdlis6n and AS. had- 
sian, ' to augur.' Sans, kalya-s, ' healthy,' 
kalydna-s, ' beautiful,' and Gr. /ca\<5s, /cdXXos, 
are probably not related to the soot kai 
with the suffix lo-. 

I)cttctt, vb., 'to heal, cure,' from MidHG. 
and OHG. hcileii, 'to heal,' as well as Mid 
HG. heilen, OHG. heiliv, 'to get well';, 
comp. AS. hcelan, E. to heal (to which 
health is allied, AS. hcdlp, OHG. heilida, f., 
' health ').— ^cifcmo, from the equiv. 
MidHG. and OHG. heilant, m., ' Saviour' ; 
prop, a partic. of tjcitcu (a being retained in 
the partic. derivative as in SBcifliutb) ; the 
term is HG. and LG. ; comp. OSax. hili- 
an<l, AS. htelcnd. In England, where it 
became obsolete as early as the 13th cent ., 
the word, even in the older period, was 
never so 'deeply rooted as in Germany. In 
Goth, nasjands, AS. nergend. 

bciltg, adj., 'holy, sacred, inviolable,' 

from the equiv. MidHG. heilec, OHG. heilag, 
adj. ; comp. OSax. hilag, AS. hdleg, E. hoi//, 
Olc. heilagr, adj. ; all have the common 
meaning, 'sanctus.' In Goth, only is the 
adj. unknown (yet hailag occurs in a Goth. 
Runic inscription) ; the earlier old heathen 
form weihs (see iveificit) was used instead. 
The development of meaning in f)etli$ from 
the subst. £etl is not quite clear. Is the 
word Jpcit used in a religious sense ? Comp. 
Olc. heill, ' favourable omen,' OHG. heiti- 
sdn, ' to augur,' Olr. eel, ' augury ' ?. 

jftcint, n., 'home,' from MidHG. and 
OHG. heim, n», 'house, home, dwelling- 
place,' comp. OSax. him, ' dwelling-place,' 
AS. hdm. 'home, dwelling-place, house,' 
E. home, Olc. heimr, m., ' dwelling, world,' 
Goth, haims, f.,. ' village.' In the 17th 
cent, and in the first half of the 18th, 
the ModHG.. word vanished from the lite- 
rary language (the adv. Ijeim only being 
still used), but was restored through the 
influence of English literature (see J^adf, 
©If). The meaning of the Goth, subst. is 
found in the remaining dialects only in 
names of places formed with sfyeim as the 
second component. In Goth, a more general 
meaning, 'dwelling,' is seen in the adj. 
anahai/ms, 'present,' af haims, 'absent '(see 
<§etntat). The assumption that ' village ' is 
the earlier meaning of -§etm is also sup- 
ported by Lith. kimas, kaimas, ' (peasant's) 
farm ' ; Sons.. Mimas, ' secure residence,' 
allied to the root kii, ' to dwell securely, 
while away' (Mitts,, f., 'dwelling, earth'), 
OSlov. po-6iti, ' requiescere,' po-kojt, ' rest ' ; 
perhaps also Gr. Atcfyt'7 (f° r KVV-v), ' village ' ?. 
— Ijctm, adv., from MidHG. and OHG. 
heim, acc..sing.,'home(wards),'and MidHG. 
and OHG. heime, dat. sing., 'at home'; 
in the other dialects, except Goth., the 
respective substs. in the cases mentioned 
are likewise used adverbially in the same 
sense. For further references comp. SKkile. 

..ftctmctf, f., from the equiv. MidHG. 
hcimdt, heimuot, heimuote, f. and n., OHG. 
heimuoti, heimdli, u., 'native place' ; a de- 
rivative of Jpeun. Goth. *haim6di is want- 
ing (haimdpli, 'native land or fields,' is 
used instead, OHG. heimuodili). Respect- 
ing -6'U as a suffix, see 9lrnutt, (Shittc. 

^eimcrjett, n., 'cricket,' dimin. of -§cintf, 
m. and f., from M id 1 1 G. hcime, OHG. heimo, 
m., 'cricket' ; AS. hdma, 'cricket' ; a de- 
rivative of £cim, hence lit 'inmate' (a 
pet term ?). 

f)cimlid), adj., ' private, secret, comfor- 


( 142 ) 


table, snug, from MidHG. heim(e)lich, adj., 
' secret, coiifidential,coiicealed,' also ' home- 
made, domestic* ; allied to Jpoint. 

.Mciiut. f., from the equiv. MidHG. 
and OHG. hlrdt, in. and f., 'marriage,' lit 
'care of a house'; Goth. *heiws, 'house,' 
in heiwa-frauja, m., 'master of the house.' 
The earlier ModHG. form ^curat is due to 
Mid HG. *hU-rdt for htw-. AS. htrid, MrH, 
'family,' MidE. hired, and AS. hiwrceden, 
MidE. htreden in the same sense. The first 
component, Goth, heiwa-, is widely diffused 
iit OTeut OIc. hj&, hj&n, n. plur., 'man 
and wife, married couple, domestics,' OIc. 
hyslce, n., 'family,' Mbyte, hyhyle, 11., 'place 
of residence.' A*\ htwan, plur., ' servants,' 
E. hind (E. hive, which is often connected 
with the cognates in question, is not allied, 
since it is due to AS. hyf, 'beehive'). 
Scand. hyske, 11., corresponds to the West 
Teut. terms, OHG. htwislei, n., 'family, 
housekeeping, domestics,' also OHG. htuu, 

{)lur., 'man and wife, servants,' htwo, 'hus- 
jand,' htwa, ' wife.' Goth, heiwa-, ' house, 
housekeeping,' has consequently numerous 
cognates within the Teut. group. Its rela- 
tion to the non-Teut. words is dubious ; Lat. 
civis, 'citizen,' Lith. szeima, szeimyna, 'do- 
mestics,' OSlov. semlja, simija, 'domestics,' 
are usually connected with it. Others 
refer it to the root appearing in £eim. See 

f)Ctfd)crt, vb., ' to ask for, demand, re- 
quire,' from MidHG. heischen, prop, eischert, 
OHG. eisk&n, 'to ask'; the addition of 
initial h in the MidHG. and ModHG. verbs 
is correctly ascribed to the influence of 
toftjjeti. Coinp. OSax. Sscdn, Du. eischen, 
AS. dscian, E. to ask; Goth. *aisk6n is 
wanting. It corresponds to Lith. jeskOti, 
OSlov. iskati, ' to seek,' also probably to 
Armen. aic, ' investigation,' and Sans, icch 
(icchati), 'to seek' (see an()etfd)ig). 

rjetfer, adj., 'hoarse,' from MidHG. 
heiser, ' rough, hoarse.' with the variant Mid 
HG. heis, heise, OHG. heisi, heis, ' hoarse' ; 
Goth. *haisa- is also indicated by AS. hds ; 
in MidE. besides h§se, an abnormal hgrse 
occurs, whence E. hoarse; so too MidDu. 
heersch, a variant of heesch (the latter also 
ModDu.) ; the r of the MidHG. and Mod 
HG. derivative Ijfifft is the widely diffused 
adj. suffix in bitter, lauter, bagev, nta^er, (fee. 
The Scand. hdss, for the expected *heiss 
(Goth. *ltais), also presents a difficulty. 
Some have attempted to connect the stem 
with that in IjuyAtn, which is impossible ; 

Ii6s, hw6s, in tyujlen, cannot, on account of 
the vowels, correspond to Goth. *haisa. 
Others, with greater reason, connect it with 
E. to whistle, AS. hiristlian, and with Mod 
HG. ttifpelii, 'to whisper' (the Teut. root 
hais, hwts, appears with a derivative k in 
AS. hwtskrian, OIc. hviskra, ' to whisper,' 
Du. heesch, 'hoarse'). 

<5»et(Icr, m., ' beech tree,' a Franc, and 
Hess, word, which also appears in LG., but 
is entirely unknown to TjpG. and MidG. ; 
even in the MidHG. period heister occurs ; 
comp. Du. heester (whence Fr. hitre). Note 
the local term £eifterbacfy. 

f)Ci|jj, adj., ' hot, ardent, vehement,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. and OHG. hei$; comp. 
Du. he t, AS. hdt, E. hot, OIc. heitr; a 
common Teut adj. for ' hot,' pointing to 
Goth. *haita- ; from the root hit, to which 
^i|e is akin. This root, may be extended 
from hi, with which OHG. an 1 MidHG. 
hei, ge ! -ei, ' heat' is connected. See beijett. 

^ci^en, vb., 'to bid, command, be called, 
signify,' from MidHG. hti^en, OHG. heiy 
$an, ' to name, be named, be called, com- 
mand, promise' ; the passive sense, ' to be 
named, nominari,' did not orig. belong to 
the active, but only to the Goth, and AS. 
passive form. AS. hdtan, 'to name, pro- 
mise,' hdtte, ' I am called ' and ' I was 
called'; OIc. heita, 'to name, be named, 
promise, vow ' ; Goth, haitan, a redupl. vb., 
1 to name, appoint, call, invite, command,' in 
the pass, 'to be named.' A common Teut. 
vb. with the prim, sense 'to call any one 
by name, to name.' No words undouhtedly 
allied to the Teut. root halt, from pre-Teut. 
kaid, exist in the non-Teut languages. 
See attbeifdui}. 

rjcif, fern, suffix of abstract terms in 
the West Teut. dialects ; prop, an indepen- 
dent word — MidHG. heit, f., 'method, 
nature,' OHG. heit, m. and f., ' person, 
sex, rank, estate,' AS. hdd, 'estate, race, 
method, quality'; Goth, haidus, in., 
' method ' ; see further under tytitn. As 
an independent word it became obsolete 
in E. in the MidE. period, and was pre- 
served only as a suffix, as in ModHG. ; AS. 
-lutd, E. -h<>od (boi/hood, falsehood, maiden- 
hood), and also E. -head (maidf7ihead). 

fjetter, adj., 'clear, serene, bright, cheer- 
ful,' from MidHG. heiter, OHG. heitar, 
adj., 'serene, bright, glittering'; comp. 
OSax. hidar, AS. hddor, 'serene' ; a West 
Teut. adj., but in Scand. heijj-r, 'serene,' 
without the derivative r (all used orig. of 


( i43 ) 


the clear, cloudless sky only) ; comp. OIc. 
heij>, ' clear sky.' Corap. Tent, haidra-, 
haida-, from pre-Teut. kaitrd-, hiito-, with 
Sans. MUs, m., ' brightness, light, rays, 
flame, lamp' (identical in form with Goth. 
haidus, m., 'manner, mode,' connected 
with jfyeit), from the root cit {kit), 'to shine 
forth, appear, see' ; to this is allied a Sans, 
adj. citrd-s, 'glittering, radiating, bright, 
glorious,' containing a derivative r, but 
with a differently graded vowel in the stem. 
A figurative sense is specially attached to 
OIc. heifrr (gen. heij>ar and heipj-s), m., 
'honour,' as well as to Ajtit. 

l)Ci\cn, vb., ' to beat,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. and OHG. heizen, a variant of 
hei^en (comp. betjen, vetjen) ; a nominal verb 
from heii>, stem haita-, Goth. *liaitjan; 
comp. AS. hdetav, ' to make hot, heat ' 
(from hdt), E. to heat. See fteijj. 

rftclo, m., from the ecjuiv. MidHG. helt 
(gen. heldes), m., late OHG. helid, 'hero'; 
corresponding to OSax. helith, AS. Juele]>- 
(nom. sing., hcele), 'man, hero,' OIc. hpltir, 
hgldr (from *haluj>r), and hair, ' man,' 
Teut. hale}}-, from kalet-, kale't-, may most 
probably be connected with Ir. calath, 
Bret, calet, ' hard.' 

I)elfen, vb., ' to help, assist, avail, 
remedy,' from the equiv. MidHG. helfen, 
OHG. helfan ; a common Teut. vb. used 
in the same sense in all the dialects ; 
comp. Goth, hilpav, OIc. hjalpa, AS. 
h'eipan, E. to help, Du. helpen, OSax. 
h'eipan. Teut. root help from pre-Teut. 
kelb- ; a root of another Aryan dialect 
apparently allied in meaning curiously 
ends in p {kelp) ; comp. Lith. szdlpti, 'to 
help,' paszalpd, 'help' (in Sans, the root 
falp does not occur). Sans, kip, ' to ac- 
commodate oneself to, suit,' is even less 
closely connected. 

l)CU, adj., ' clear, bright, evident,' from 
MidHG. hel (gen. h'elles), adj., ' loud, sono- 
rous,' OHG. hel in galiel, unhel, missahell j 
in MidHG. the meaning 'sonorous' was 
still current, but that of 'glittering' is 
found neither in OHG. nor MidHG. Comp. 
OHG. hellan, MidHG. hellen, ' to resound ; 
MidHG. hal (gen. halles), m., ' sound, 
resonance,' whence ModHG. hallen; fur- 
ther Scand. hjat, n., ' chattering,' hjala, 
' to chatter ' ?. Comp. fyolett. 

/acllbctnR, -Moll bonk, f., 'bench near 
the stove,' allied to earlier ModHG. $clit, 
Jjjollf, f.j'the narrow space between the stove 
und the wall ' ; the word is first recorded 

towards the end of the 15th cent., but was 
in existence at an earlier period. Comp. 
AS. heal, MidE. hal, 'angle, corner' (coinp. 
Olr. cuil, 'corner'). The ModHG. form 
is due to a confusion with JpcKe, which, 
like the ModHG. QtlU 'ttjinfel,' is connected 
with the root hel, ' to veil, conceal.' 

,S»eUebarte, f., from the equiv. MidHG. 
helmbarte, {., ' halberd ' ; for the second 
part of the compound see 93artc (1). The 
first component has been ascribed to two 
sources — to the very rare MidHG. helm, 
halm, ' helve, handle,' which would pro- 
bably suit, as far as the sense is concerned, 
h elmbarte, ' an axe fitted with a handle'?. 
But since helmbarte, in such a derivation, 
should have halm- as the component, the 
phonetic relation of the words is in favour 
of the derivation from helm, in., hence 
helmbarte, 'an axe for cleaving the helmet/ 
From G. the Rom. words (Fr. hallebarde) 
are derived. 

feller, m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
heller, holler, m., ' a copper coin worth about 
i\d-' ; according totheordinary supposition, 
" it was so called from the imperial town 
of Scfoivabifdj^all, where it was fi ret coined." 
The OHG. term halliny, 'obolus,' which 
apparently contradicts this, is perhaps 
rightly regarded as identical with MidHG. 
helblinc, in., ' a fourth of a farthing.' 

f>eUia,en, betjelltftcn, vb., ' to impor- 
tunate,' from MidHG. helligen, ' to weary 
by pursuit, tease, torment' ; a nominal 
verb from MidHG. hellic, adj., ' wearied, 
exhausted,' ModHG. Ijclltg, ' wearied.' The 
origin of the adj. is obscure. 

$belm, (1.), m., ' helmet,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. and OHG. helm, m. ; the same in 
OSax., OFris., and AS. (AS. helm, 'helmet, 
protector,' E. helm), OIc. hjalmr, Goth. 
hilms, ' helmet' ; a common Teut str. noun, 
helma-, ' helmet,' from pre-Teut. kelmo-. 
Comp. OInd. fdrman-, n., ' protection ' 
(comp. the AS. meaning), with which the 
root kel in ModHG. l)ol)len, lu'iden, is con- 
nected. Lith. s&ilmas, 'helmet,' and OSlov. 
Slemu, ' helmet,' were borrowed at an early 
period from Teut. ; so too the Rom. class — 
Ital. tlmo (Fr. heaume), 'helmet.' 

^ACltn (2.), m., 'tiller,' ModHG. simply, 
from LG., whence a number of nautical 
li-rins found their way into HG. (see Sect, 
Matyx, aSarfe, &fattr, <Spiict) ; comp. Du. 
hc'mstock, ' tiller.' E. helm, AS. helma, 'rud- 
der,' Scand. hjdlm, f., ' tiller.' In this case, 
M in most of the other nautical expressions, 


( i44 ) 


it cannot be decided in which division of 
tlie Saxon and Scand. group the technical 
term originated ; as in other instances — 
see 53oor, Serb — AS. contains the earliest 
record of the word. The MidHG. helm (see 
•§fll«bartf), 'helve, handle,' which occurs 
only once, and its variant halme y do not 
seem to be actually allied to. the present 
term ; they are connected witk ^alfter^ 

.ilvemo, n., 'shirt,' from MidHG. and 
MidLG. hemde, he.mede y OHG. h$midi, n., 
'shirt,' prop, 'long under-garment' ; allied 
to OFris. hemethe, AS. Agnize (Goth. *ham- 
eijril); a dimin. term, formed like OHG. 
jungtdi, 'young of animals.' The sense 
' short garment,. bodice,' originates in Teut 
hama-y 'garment,' the same as OIc. hamr, 
in., ' covering, skin,, external form.' See 
further under SJeidjnam, also £amen, fyanttfd). 
The Goth, form *hamei)>ja- previous to its 
permutation was kamttjo^, and with this 
the late Lat. term camisia, 'tunica inte- 
rior, under-garment,. shirt,' recorded at the 
beginning of the 5th cent, and chiefly in 
relation to soldiers,, must be connected in 
some way j it differs little from the as- 
sumed form in pre-Teut. ; OIc. ha7ns y m. 
(from hamisa~), 'slough of a snake,' has a de- 
rivative s. Probably Sans, camulya, ' shirt,' 
is prim, allied. Since there is no doubt that 
the HG. word is classical Teut., the vulgar 
camisia must be traced back to a Teut ori- 
gin, which is also attested by W. hefis, ' che- 
mise,' and' Olr. caimmse, 'nomen Testis. 
The relation of the initial HG. h to Rom. c 
would correspond to that of Fr. Cliivert to 
its OHG. original Hiltibert y i.e. a Franc, ch 
forms the connecting link. In Lat. camisia 
we obtain for HG. J&emb other related terms 
in Rom. (Fr. chemise y Ital. camicia). 

^Ctnmctt, vb., from the equiv. MidHG. 
hemmen (MidG.), hamen, 'to stop, hinder, 
check'; OHG. *hamen and *hemmen are 
wanting. The early existence of the word,, 
which is not found in Bav., is proved by 
OIc. hemja, 'to check,' and Sans, gamay, 
'to annihilate,' which is perhaps cognate 
with the latter. It is based upon a Teut. 
mot ham, meaning 'to mutilate*; comp.. 
OHG. ham (inflected form hammSr), 'lame, 
paralytic' (Goth. *ham-ma-, from *ham-na-, 
orig. a partic.), and further also OHG. 
hamal, 'mutilated' (see $ammei).. Scand. 
suggests the possibility of a different ety- 
mology — hemja, 'to curb any one,, lame, 
check,' from hgm, f., 'hind-leg of a horse,' 
liemill, ' rope for tethering cattle by the 

thighs when they are grazing,' hafa fomil a, 
' to restrain any one.' In Suab. and Bav. 
Ijemtnett means only ' to tether horses when 
grazing.' Comp. also Lith. kdmanos, plur., 

$ertflff, m., 'stallion,' from MidHG. 
hengest, OHG hevgist, m., ' gelding, horse 
(generally),.' comp. Du. hengst, m., 'stal- 
lion,.' AS. hengest, m., ' male horse (gene- 
rally),' obsolete at the beginning of the 
MidE. period; OIc. hestr (from *hin- 
histr), m., 'stallion,, horse (generally).' 
The earlier meaning of the HG. word was 
equus castvatus, and by the adoption of the 
general term $fcrt>, ' horse,' the word ob- 
tained in ModHG.. (from the 15th cent.) 
ae ' ungelded, male horse.' In Goth, pro- 
bably *hangists. The attempt to explain 
the word etymologically has not yet been 
successful; comp. Lith. szankus, 'nimble' 
(of horses) 1, or Lith. kinky ti, 'to put (horses) 

<&CttKeI,.m., 'handle, shank,' ModHG. 
simply, allied to fjettfeit. 

rjenfeett, vb., 'to hang,, suspend,' from 
MidHG. and OHG. henken, prop, a variant 
of OHG. and MidHG. hen gen (k is Goth. 
gj).. To these two words, varying in sound, 
different meanings were attached; comp. 
MidHG. henken, ' to hang up,' hengen, ' to 
hang down (one's head),' espec. 'to give a 
horse the reins.' Yet MidHG. hengen is 
also used in the sense of hpiktn, ' to execute 
by hanging.' 

«&cnfecr, m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
(rare) henker, hunger, m. y 'hangman,' allied 
to. ficttfen. 

^cmte,. f., 'hen,' from MidHG. and 
MidLG. henne, ©HG. Vienna, f..; comp. AS. 
he.nn, E. hen (AS. hana was even in the 
AS. period supplanted by its equiv. cock) ; 
a West Teut. fern, of the common Teut 
hano, 'cock,' to which are- allied the graded 
forms, OIc. hcena, OSwed. and ModSwed. 
hnna, 'hen* (OHG. also he.nin, hpiinna, 
'hen '). See #af)tt,. £ul)n. 

&cppe, see J&ippe. 

l)er, adv., 'hither, this way.' from Mid 
HG.. for {hire), OHG. hera, adv., 'hither/ 
formed like OHG. icara, 'whither' ; allied 
to Goth, hiri, adv. imperat, ' come here.' 
Connected with a pronom. stem hi-. See 
Ijcute, liter, lu'iuicit. 

J)crb, adj., from the equiv. MidHG. 
here, inflected herwer (also hare, inflected 
harwer), 'bitter, harsh'; Goth, and OHG. 
*ltar-ica- is wanting. Allied to OSax. 


( 145 ) 


har-m, AS. hear-m, adj., 'painful, mortify- 
ing, bitter'?. See ^arm. 

Jierberge, f. (with £as in ^erjog, allied 
to Ǥeer), 'shelter, quarters, inn,' from Mid 
HG. herberge, f. ; lit. 'a sheltering place for 
the army' (rare in MidHG.), most fre- 
quently ' lodging-house for strangers,' also 
'dwelling' generally. OHG. heri-b'erga, 
'camp, castra,' then al-o ' hospitium, taber- 
naculum.' MidE. hmberge, ' hospitium,' 
E. harbour ; Scand. herberge, n., 'inn, lodg- 
ing, room, chamber.' The compound^ in 
its later form, seems to have been adopted 
from G. by the other Teut. languages, and 
also by Rom. ; Fr. auberge, Ital. albergo ; 
OFr. preserves the older meaning 'camp.' 
Com p. Jpevr, bergen. 

(^Crbff, m., 'autumn, harvest,' from the 
equiv: MidHG. herbest, OHG. h^rbist, in. ; 
coinp. MidLG. hervest, Du. herfst, AS. hcer- 
fest,m., andthe equiv. ~E.harvest; a common 
West Teut. word, archaic in form (whether 
OIc. haust, n., 'autumn,' Swed. and Dan. 
host, are identical with $txb\t is still very 
dubious). Hence the statement of Tacitus 
(Germ. 26) — '(Gi j rmani) autumni parinde 
nomen ac bona ignorantur,' can scarcely 
be accepted.. It is true that ^ctfyt in UpG. 
is almost entirely restricted to. 'the fruit 
season,' espec. ' the vintage ' (the season it- 
selfisprop. called ©^atja l>r, Suab. ©patting). 
This coincides with the fact that J&evbjl is 
connected with an obsolete Teut. root harb, 
from Aryan, karp (Lat. carpere, icap-irus, 
'fruit'), 'to gather fruit,' which perhaps 
appears also in Lith. kerpu (kirpti), ' to 
shear.' In Goth, the term is asans (' season 
for work, for tillage' ; comp: (Sntte). 

<$ibcvb, m., 'hearth, fireplace, crater,' 
from MidHG. liert (-ties), m., 'ground, 
earth, fireplace,, hearth,' OHG. herd, m., 
h'erda, f., 'ground, hearth.' This double 
sense is wanting in the other West Teut. 
languages, Du. heerd, haard, m., 'hearth,' 
OSax. herth, AS. heor}>, E. hearth. The 
meaning of herjja- (Goth. *hairf>s), 'hearth,' 
is West Teut., while 'ground' is simply 
HG. ; it is not improbable that two orig. 
different words have been combined (comp. 
OIc. hjarl, ' ground, land ' ?). #frt>, ' hearth,' 
with Goth, ha&ri, n., 'charcoal' (plur. 
haurja, 'fire'), OIc. hyrr, in., 'fire,' may 
be connected with a Teut. root her, ' to 
burn' (comp. Lat. crS-mare). 

<$crbc, f., ' herd, flock, drove,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. herte, h'ert, OHG. herta, f. ; 
the common Teut. word for 'herd'; Du. 

herde (obsolete, see §ivte ; kudde, f., is used 
instead, see Jfcttc), AS. heord, f., E. herd, 
OIc. hjgrfi, f., Goth, hairda, f., 'herd.' The 
Teut type herdd (the d of the ModHG. 
form, compared with OHG. t, i8 due to LG. 
influence), from pre- Teut. kerdhd ; comp. 
Olml. c&rdhas, n., gdrdha-s, m., 'troop ; 
also OSlov. ereda, f., ' herd ' ?. See §trte. 

Bering, see Jadrhtg. 

^setting, <$&tttrttng, m., 'sour grapes' 
(ModHG. only), for the earlier, *.§cnv>Uttg, 
allied to tjcrine, ' bitter.' 

^evmelitx, m. and n. (accented like a 
foreign word), from the equiv. MidHG. 
hermelin, n., 'ermine,' dimin. of MidHG. 
harme, OHG. harmo, m., 'ermine' ; a G. 
word merely, wanting in the other OTeut. 
languages, but in spite of the phonetic 
correspondence with Lith. szermu, 'ermine' 
(Lith. sz for Sans, c, Aryan k, whence Teut. 
h), there is no doubt about its being genu- 
inely Teut From G. are derived the Rom. 
words similar in sound (ModFr. hermine, 
Ital. ermellino) rather than from the Mid 
Lat. mus armenius (for which the earlier 
mus ponticus is found). 

Sbevolb, m., ' herald,' late MidHG. only 
(14th cent.), h^ralt, hyolt (also erhalt), m., 
'herald'; undoubtedly an' OG. military 
term,which,like a large number of others of 
the same class (comp. jailer, Jtampf), became 
obsolete at an early period, $erc(b itself 
is derived from an OFr. term recorded to- 
wards the end of the 13th cent.,, 
ModFr. hfraut (comp. Ital. araldo, MidLat. 
heraldus), which is based, however, upon 
an OG. *he.riwalto, *hariwaldo, ' an army 
official,' appearing in OSax. as a proper 
name, Hariold (OIc. Harald). OHG. harin, 
' to praise,' does not occur in the compound. 

<$»CIT, m.. ' master, lord, gentleman, 
sir,' from MidHG. h'erre {hire), m., OHG. 
liSrro (hiro), m. ; comp. OSax. hirro, Du. 
heer, OFris. hira, 'lord'; prop, a com- 
parative of f}cf>r (OHG. hir), in Goth. 
*hairiza. In the OHG. period this origin 
was still recognised, as is seen by OHG. 
Mrero, ' lord ' (see fjertfdjeii). Since the 
orig. meaning of the adj. t)el)t was ' vene- 
rable,' ^>crr seems to have originated in the 
relation of the dependants to their master 
(comp. AS. hlafora, ' bread guardian,' under 
Siaib), and was used chiefly as a term of 
address (see 3ungtr). Comp. in Rom. the 
words used in the same sense from Lat. 
senior, viz., Ital. sianore, Fr. seigneur. Jpert 
is orig. native to Germany, but in the form 


( »46 > 


htarra it found iis way at a very early 
period (about the 9th cent) from the Ger- 
man lowlands to England, and later to 
Scandinavia (ModSwed. heire, ' master '). 
In ModHG. only a fern. Jgimut has been 
formed from $etr (as in Itai. signora from 
eignore). The older language used ftrau, 
£err having supplanted the earlier fr6 (see 
under frobn). 

fjcrrltd), adj. (with shortened i before a 
double consonant, as in the two following 
words, probably due to its association witli 
^ert),' lordly, splendid, magnificent,' from 
MidHG. and OHG. hirlich, adj., 'distin- 
guished, excellent, magnificent.' Allied to 

(j&errfd)af1, f., 'lordship, dominion, 
master and mistress, employers (as used by 
servants^,' from MidHG. hirschift, f., OHG. 
hhscaft, hirscaf, f., lit. 'lordship,' then 
'hitfh rank, manor, magistracy.' Allied 
to J&err, but probably not to fyefir. 

I)errfd)en, vb., from MidHG. hersen, 
hbsen, OHG. hSris6n, ' to rule, reign,' but 
also hirrisdn even in OHG., from its asso- 
ciation witli Mrro, ' lord ' (for ModHG. sch 
after r from an older s, comp. £irfd), ,Rirfd)e). 
The origin of the meaning ' to rule ' cannot 
be explained from the posit, be&r, OHG. 
hSr, ' august, exalted, venerable, glad,' but 
from the originally compar. Idrro, ' lord.' 
Thus OHG. h$ri.-$n, ' to be lord and master, 
dominari,' is related to hiiro, heriro, ' lord,' 
as Goth, *hairiza (compar.) is to *hairis6n, 

<>»er3, n., ' heart,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. herze, OHG. herza, n. ; comp. OSax. 
herta, OIc. hjarta, Goth. hairtd, AS. heorte, 
and the equiv. E. heart; the common Teut. 
word for ' heart,' which may be traced back 
even to West Aryan. The Teut. type hert- 
6>i-, from Aryan kerd (krd). corresponds to 
Lat. cor, cor-dis, n., Gr. KapUa and *%> for 
*Kijp$, n., lath, szirdis, f., OSlov. srudice, n., 
Olr. cride. The corresponding East Aryan 
word for ' heart' (Sans, hfd, hrdai/a, Zend. 
zaredaya), is usually dissociated on account 
of the initial sound (we should have ex- 
pected Sans. *crd) from the West Aryan 

->3cr}0g, m., 'duke,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. heyzoge, OHG. he,rizogo (-zoho), m. ; 
comp. OSax. heritogo, AS. heretoga, m., OIc. 
hertoge, m. ; a common Teut. term for ' the 
leader of an army,' in which zoho, zogo, 
allied to ziohan (as togo to tiuhan), has 
the old meauing ' leader.' Comp. jier/tit. 

hcl^cn, vb., 'to infuriate, provoke, chase, 
huut,' from MidHG. and OHG. hetzen, ' to 
chase, hunt, incite' ; by permutation from 
*hatjan; comp. £afj. The subst $<$t, f., 
is merely a ModHG. formation from the vb. 

$CU, n., ' hay,' from MidHG. hbu, hou, 
houwe, n., ' hay, grass,' OHG. hewi, houwi 
(prop. noin. he,ici, gen. houvoes, dat houwe), 
n., 'hay.' Comp. Goth, havri (gen. Uaujis), 
i)., ' hay, grass ' (with regard to the change 
of Goth, j into OHG. wand the consequent 
absence of mutation, see ftxau, 9lu, ©au, &c; 
in earlier ModHG. the unm mated form 
£au is still retained); OSax. houici, AS. 
Mg, liig (with g for Goth, j as usual), n., 
MidE. hei, E. hay, OIc. hey, n., * hay ' ; 
common Teut. hauja- (in the Goth. stem). 
Apparently from the root hau (see r/aum\ 
with the suffix -ja-, £m, meaning ' that 
which is to be cut' There is less proba- 
bility of its being connected with Gr. roa. 
(Ion. iroii)), 'grass,' from iroFirj, «foff?7(Teur. 
h equal to Gr. x for kF, both from Aryan /:, 
as in txiroi, equal to Lat equus, Gr. trwdcu, 
equal to Lat. sequx). 

rjeucf)cln, vb., ' to feign, dissemble,' 
ModHG. only, prop, a MidG. word (the cor- 
responding UpG. word is gleifjntn), allied 
to an early ModHG. ftaufyu, 'to duck, 
stoop,' from MidHG. hdchen, ' to crouch ' ; 
comp. the further cognates under borfen. 
The variation of meaning 'to stoop, dis- 
semble,' is exhibited in an OTeut root 
lut, AS. Mtan, 'to bend, bow.' to which lot, 
' deceit,' and Goth, liuta, ' hypocrite,' are 

fjcuer, adv., from the equiv. MidHG. 
hiure, OHG. hiurn, adv., 'in this year'; 
derived from hiujdru (see 3tfv r )> the chief 
accent being placed on the pron. Respect- 
ing hiu see beute, in which the component 
parts are equally obscure. 

rjculcrt, vb., ' to howl, yell, scream,' 
from MidHG. hiuUu, hiuwcln, ' to howl, 
cry,' OHG. hiuvrilon, hiirilon, ' to shout for 
joy.' Also allied to OHG. hAwila, hiuwila, 
MidHG. hiuwel, f., ' owl ' (as ' the howling 
bird '), and hence more remotely to OHG. 
h&wo, 111., ' owl.' 

,$eufd)rcdte, f., from the equiv. Mid 
II G. houschrecke, m., OHG. h$uri-skrekko, 
m., 'grasshopper,' lit 'hay -jumper' (see 
©djrecfen). A distinctly G. term ; comp. 
Du. sprinkhaan, AS. gcers-hoppa, equiv. to 
E. grasshopper, AS. also gcers-stapa, ' grass- 
stalker.' In Goth, occurs an obscure term 
fcramstei, f. ( whence OSlov. chrastu, ' beetle '] 


( »47 ) 


beute. adv., ' to-day,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. hiute, OHG. hiutu; comp. OSax. 
hiudu, hiudiga (wheuce AS. heodceg), OFris. 
hiudeya, 'to-day'; a West Teut. adv. for 
Goth. *hid daya, ' on this day,' with the 
accent on the pron., which resulted in the 
combination of the two words. In the 
same way *hiutayu became hiutgu, hiuttu, 
and was finally shortened into hiutu (comp. 
the similar origin of fteucr). Further, 
Lat. ho-die and Gr. <r-rmepov are similarly 
compounded. Likewise for fyeute 9tad)t, 
' to-night/ OHG. and MidHG. had a par- 
allel adv. ; comp. OHG. hl-naht (MidHG. 
htnet), ' to-night ' (in Bav. and Suab. heint 
is used for ' to-day '). The pronom. stem 
hi- contained in it appears in Goth, in a 
few cases, and indeed as a temporal pron., 
' this ' ; comp. himma daga, ' to-day,' and 
hina dag, ' until to-day,' &c. In the Sax. 
dials, this pronom. stem, which corresponds 
to Lat. ci- in ci-s, ci-tra, appears as a 3rd 
pers. pron. ; comp. E. he, AS. hi, E. him, 
AS. liim (Goth, himma), &c, OSax. and 
LG. hi, ' he.' See further fjer, fyicr. 

iSibexe, f., ' witch, ha, r , sorceress,' from 
MidHG. hecse, f., OHG. Iiagzissa, hagazussa, 
hagzus (also lidzus, hdzissa), f., a gloss for 
furia, striga, eumenis, erinnys ; comp. Mid 
Du. haghetisse, ModDu. helcs, AS. /icegtesse, 
f., E. (with the rejection of the apparent 
termination) hag. The word, which is 
doubtlessly a compound, has not yet been 
satisfactorily explained ; OHG. hag, AS. 
hceg, ' hedge, wood,' as the first component, 
seems indubitable. The second part has 
not been elucidated ; some suppose that 
the prim, meaning of l&txt is ' forest woman 
or demon ' i. Comp. OHG. holzmuoja, Mid 
HG. holzmunje, f., 'forest woman, witch' 
(also ' wood-owl '). 

jfttcb, m., ' cut, stroke, blow ; sarcasm,' 
first recorded in the 17th cent., being re- 
cently formed from baueit, pret. fyiefr, bteben ; 
comp. Jpanbcl from banbctn and -§e|je from 
fyefceit. — <$ief, see Jjjtftbcnt. 

f)ter, also f)ie, adv., from the equiv. 
MidHG. hier, hie, OHG. hiar, 'here'; 
comp. Goth., Ola, AS., and OSax. Mr, 
equiv. to E. here. Allied to hi- (see 

^ifffjont, also Jbftff&Ont (a corrup- 
tion due to the fact that the horn was car- 
ried attached to a belt around the waist — 
' J&ufte '), ' hunting-horn,' ModHG. simply ; 
the earliest ModHG. form is $i<fbont ; 
(fttef, also ,&iff, ' the blast from a hunter's 

horn.' Allied to Goth, hiufan, AS. he6fan, 
OHG. hiufan, 'to wail, howl'?. 

<$Ufe, f., from the equiv. MidHG. hilfe, 
helfe, f., OHG. hilfa, hel/a, f., 'help, aid' 
(Goth. *hiipi and */iilpa, f.). Comp. Ijelfcit. 

^tmbcere, f., 'raspberry,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. hinttyr, n., OHG. hint-beri, 
n. ; lit. ' hind-, doe-berry.' With regard 
to ModHG. §iinbeere, with a distinct second 
component (in MidHG., however, hemper, 
from hintbere, according to strict phonetic 
laws), see ModHG. 2Btmver, from wintbrd. 
In AS. hindberie, f., means 'strawberry' 
and ' raspberry ' ; comp. E. dial, hindberries, 
' raspberries' (note too AS. hindhdilefre, 
' ambrosia,' MidHG. hirz-icurz, AS. heort- 
clcefre, ' camedus,' prop. ' hemp agrimony '). 
In earlier ModHG. there existed a term 
§inbddufte, from MidHG. hintlouf, 'a plant 
growing on the hind's track,' i.e., alon<{ 
forest paths, which was applied to the 
common chicory. 

<£mnmet, m., 'heaven, sky, canopy, 
clime,' from the equiv. MidHG. himel, 
OHG. himil (OBav. humil', in. ; comp. 
OSax. himil, Fris. himul, Du. hemel, Swed. 
and Dan. himmel; the derivative I is the 
result of differentiation from an earlier 
derivative n, formed like Goth, himins, OIc. 
himenn, with which the Sax. forms with/ 
for m are connected ; AS. heofon, m., E. 
heaven, OSax. heban, m., ModLG. heven. 
These forms are based upon a common 
Teut. hemono- (humeno-) ; on account of its 
derivative suffix, note too Gr. ovpav6s. The 
ModHG. sense, 'sky' is current in all the 
Teut. dials. ; the word is probably connected 
with the OTeut. stem ham, ' to cover, veil,' 
mentioned under bdtnifd), Jpemt), and Seicb- 
nant. OHG. himil hits also the meaning 
' ceiling,' especially in the OHG. deriva- 
tive himilizzi, ModHG. himelze, a fact 
which supports the last assumption ; comp. 
AS. huslieofon, Du. hemel, MidLG. hemelte, 
' roof.' The etymology of Jpimmcl (Goth. 
himini), based upon OSlov. kamy, Lith. 
akmu, 'stone,' as well as upon Sans. acmd. 
' stone, (the stone-roofed) vault of heaven,' 
and Gr. ndfuvos, ' oven,' are not satisfactory, 
since the word probably denoted the 'cover- 
ing of the eaith ' originally. 

i)in, adv., 'hence, that way,' from Mid 
HG. hin, nine, OHG. hina, adv., ' off, 
away ' ; AS. hina (hin- in compounds, e.g., 
hinstp", 'departure, death'), adv. 'away,' 
allied to the pronom. stem hi- discussed 
under ttctite. 


( 148 ) 


^ftiuoc, with an affixed fein. termination, 
also £inbut, f., 'hind, doe,' from MidHG. 
and MidLG. hinde, OHG. hinta, f., 'hind' ; 
comp. AS. hind, f., E. hind, OIc. hind, 
'hind' ; the common Tent, fern, of £itfdj ; 
Goth. *hindi (gen. *hindj6s), f., is wanting. 
Itisgenerallyconnectedwith Gotli. hinban, 
'to catch' (to which E. to hunt is allied). 
Others relate it to Gr. Ktn-ds, f., 'young 
deer, pricket ' ; in that case the dental is a 
suffix, as in hun-d (allied to Gr. kw- ; see 
J&unb), and n before a dental may originate 
in m (comp. @imb, @d>anbe,. and fnmbcrt). 

I)tttbern, vb., 'to impede, obstruct, pre- 
vent,' from MidHG hindern, OHG. hintiren 
and hintardn, 'to repulse, hinder' ; comp. 
AS. hinder ian, E. to. hinder, OIc. hindra ; 
an old derivative from the prepos. fyiuter ; 
see the latter and fcrberit. 

^ittbin^ see §inbe. 

$tltRC»t, vb., 'to limp,, walk lame,, fit 
badly,' from the equiv. MidHG. hinken, 
OHG. hinchan; a word peculiar to HG., 
if Scand. hokra, 4 to crawl,' is not connected 
with it (AS. hellehinca y ' devil,' is found). 
Root hink, from Aryan kheng (kh as in ftaben, 
from the root khibh, in Lat. habere; comp. 
further Sldjjel), based on tbe Sans, root 
khanj, ' to limp' ; allied also to the equiv. 
Gr. oTcdfw for s-khi'igjd, with s prefixed 

Airmen, von Ijimten, adv., from the 
equiv. MidHG. hinnen, OHG. hinnan, 
hinndn, hinnana, adv., ' away from here, 
from hence' ; used in ModHG. only with 
the explanatory prepos. AS. heonan, 
heonon, adv., ' from here,' E. henc* (with a 
suffix s, whence ce). Formed from the pro- 
nom. stem hi, like baimen, 5?ou bamien, from 
the pron. ba-. See fiinten, Winter. 

l)infert, adv., from the equiv. MidHG. 
hinden, OHG. hintana, adv., ' behind ' ; 
Goth, hindana, adv. and prep., ' behind, 
on the other side' ; comp. OSax. bihindan, 
' behind, along behind,' AS. hindan, adv., 
'behind,' AS.. behindan y E» behind; allied 
to Ijinnen and fnntcr. 

f)trtfcr, prep.,, from the equiv. MidHG. 
hinter, hinder, OHG. hintar, y prep.,. ' be- 
hind ' ; while OHG. nt is changed regularly 
into nd in MidHG., it is frequently retained 
when -er (i.e. x vocal r) follows as an in- 
dependent syllable ; comp. ©inter, from 
OHG. uintar, ntimtcr, from muntar. In 
lunbem the d has been inserted in the 
normal way, just as in MidHG., and ear- 
lier ModHG. Innbcr is found as well as 
Ijilitet. Goth, hindar, prep., AS. hinder, 

pro]), an ace. neu. of an old compar. in 
-repo-v, Sans, tara-m (of which AS. and 
Goth, have preserved a superb in -tama-s, 
Goih.*hinduma, whence hindumists, 'outer- 
most,' AS. hindema, ' the last '). Comp. 
OInd. pratardm (compar. of j>r<i), adv., 
' further, onwards,' avalarum (allied to 
prep, acd), adv., 'further away,' vitardm 
(allied to prep, vi), comp. nnber. The com- 
par. ftinter is used as an adj. in OHG. hin- 
taro, ModHG. hinter, ' hinder, posterior.' 

jfaippc (1.), f., 'sickle,' a MidG. form 
introduced by Luther into the ModHG. 
literary language instead of Jpeppe, from 
MidHG. heppe, hepe (lidppe), f., ' pruning- 
hook ' ; OHG. heppa {hdppa), f., whence 
Fr. happe, ' axle-iree bed, cramp ' (from 
the type happia, Fr. hache, 'hatchet,' is 
derived^. Numerous South- Western dials. 
(Suab. also) use hdp (h6p), from MidHG. 
hdpe, OHG. hdppa (from Goth. *he*b-). 
Allied to Gr. kwttti, 'hilt, hand e'?, kottIs, 
'knife, dagger'?. 

<#ippe (2.), f., ^ippldn, n., ' goat,' only 
in ModHG. ; the more usual dial, heppe 
(Bav., Thur., and Hess.) makes it probable 
that the word is a pet or child's term for 
OG. *haber, 'he-goat'; on this point see 
^aber^eip and £itte. 

<&irtt, n., from the equiv. MidHG. hirne, 
OHG. hirni, n., ' brain.' We should have 
expected Goth. *liairni, n., for which hwair- 
neins, ' skull,' occurs once in the gen. sin^'. 
OIc. hjarne, m., ' brain ' ; also correspond- 
ing in sound to the Goih. word heern, f., 
' the two white boat-shaped bones in the 
brain of fishes^ ooliths ' (LG. has a peculiar 
word for ©efiirn — E. brain, AS. bravjen, Du. 
brein, MidDu. bregenj see SBracjcn). The 
words with initial h and those with hw 
must be kept distinct. Du. hersen, f_ 
' brain ' (E, dial, harns), to which is allied 
MidHG. hersenicr, 'covering for the head 
worn under the helmet,' proves the origin 
of OHG. hirni from *hirzni. *Jiirsni (OIc. 
hjarne from *hjarsne; comp. JpontiiTe). This 
OTeut. herzn-, hersn-., is most nearly related 
to Sans. ctrSn-, ' head ' (nom. cirSa), and the 
closely corresponding OIc. hjarse, ' crown 
(of the head).' It is also cognate with Gr. 
Kpavlov, ' skul i,' whence results the further 
connection with Gr. Kdpa, Kaprjvov, 'head,' 
Lat. cerebrum (from *ceresrum), ' brain/ 
Sans, ciras, 'head'; a common Aryan 
stem,, ker, kers, ' head,' to which £cru is 
also allied. Moreover, Gr. Kipvov, ' a large 
earthen dish,' might, according to the analo- 


( M9 ) 


gies mentioned under .Repf, be closely re- 
lated to Jpivn, 'skull.' 

<5atrfd), m. (in Hess, and Alem. occurs 
a variant <£>ir(j, whence the Alem. proper 
name ^irjd), 'stair, hart,' from MidHG. 
/11Y3, kirz, m., OHG. MruT,, kb% hirz; the 
sch in .§irfci) is from an older §irp (comp. 
£trfe, l)errfcf/ctt, Slrfd), birfcfjen). Correspond- 
ing to Du. kert, n., AS. heorot, heort, m., 
E. /icwtf, Scand. hjgrtr ; Teut. *herut-, from 
*lierwut, */<erwo-t, with a dental suffix, 
allied to Lat. c«?tm-s (< occurs as a suffix 
in names of animals in Teut. ; comp. 
©emfe, Sixths, and JpocniJTe) ; the latter is 
usually connected with Gr. icepa.6s, ' horned ' 
(allied to K^pas ; comp. <§ovn). Hence the 
stag in Lat. and Teut. may have been 
named from its antlers (the OTeut. lan- 
guages naturally have a distinct word for 
the hornless female ; see £tnt>e). A more 
prevalent term is Aryan eln-, in Gr. £\acpos, 
Armen. eln, Lith. elnis, OSlov. jeleni (also 
W. elain, 'hind'). 

(iairfc, f. (older ModHG. and even yet 
MidG., Suab. SQ\x]d)e), ' millet,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. hirse, Mrs, OHG. hirsi, 
hirso, m. ; orig. a HG. word merely, which, 
however, in modern times has spread to 
the north (E. and Dan. hirse, Swed. hirs). 
Allied to Lat. cirrus, ' a tuft (of hair, &c.) ' ?. 

^irfc, m. (a strictly HG. form com- 
pared with the orig. LG. <£>etbf), ' herds- 
man, shepherd, pastor,' from MidHG. hirte, 
OHG. hirti; comp. OLG. hirdi, AS. kyrde 
(and heorde, connected with heord, ' herd '), 
'herdsman,' still found in E. shepherd 
(scedphyrde in AS.), OIc. hirfier, Goth. 
hairdeis, m., 'herdsman'; derived by the 
addition of ja- from Teut. herdd-, ' herd.' 
Hence J&irte is orig. 'he that belongs to 
the herd.' Another derivative is exhibited 
by Du. and MidLG. herder, m., MidHG. 
hertcvre, ' herdsman,' lit. ' herder,' whence 
Berber as a proper name. With this word 
Lith. kerdzus, skhdzus, ' herdsman,' is also 
connected ?. 

J)ifTctt, vb., 'to hoist,' ModHG. only, 
derived as a naut. term from the equiv. 
LG. hissen; comp. Du. /lijschen, E. to hoist, 
Swed. hissa. Among which of the mari- 
time Teutons this technical term, the ety- 
mology of which is still obscure, originated 
is not known ; see J&clm (2) ; it also found 
its way into Rom. (Fr. hisser). 

AW*, f., LG. 'goat' (Bav. #ettf, .fcrtttl, 
and without mutation Swiss and Suab. 
fcattct), a pet term for MidHG. hatele, 

'goat'; comp. the equiv. OIc. haftna as 
well as ^tVpe. 

(iaifje, f., ' heat, ardour, passion,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. hitze, OHG. hizza, f. 
(lor *hitja, the Goth, form) ; comp. Du. 
hitte, hette, OIc. kite, m., ' heat' ; all formed 
by the weakest stage of gradation from the 
stem of the adj. Ijetjj (Teut. root tit, liait, 
' hot'). OHG. kizza was adopted by Rom. 
(comp. Ital. izza, 'anger, indignation'). 

<$ibobcl (dial. -&cfd), m., 'plane,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. (rare) hobel, kovel, m. ; 
comp. MidLG. kovel, Swed. Mjfve'. Modlc. 
kefill, m., ' plane,' proves nothing for the 
wrongly assumed connection with beta. 
Its relation to OHG. kovar, AS. kofer, 
' hump, boss,' is also dubious. 

t)0<$), adj., 'high, lofty, proud, dear,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. k6ck, OHG. k6k, 
adj. ; a common Teut. adj. with the mean- 
ing 'high' ; comp. Goth, kauks, OIc. Mr 
(for kauhr), AS. hedk, E. kigk, Du. koog, 
OSax. k6k; Tent, kauka-, from the un- 
permitted pre-Teut. kduko- (the weakest 
vowel stage of the stem is exhibited by the 
cognate <§ugel). OTeut. possessed a mas. 
and neu. subst. formed from the adj. in 
the sense of 'hill' (type kauko-s) ; comp. 
OIc. kaugr (from which E. kow in proper 
names was borrowed), MidHG. 1wuc(-<jes), 
to which such proper names as ©ottiierafKuiflf 
are akin. Goth, kiukma, in., ' heap, crowd,' 
seems also allied. In the non-Teut. lan- 
guages it is rightly compared with Lith. 
kaukard, 'hill, height,' kaukas, 'boil' (Mid 
HG. hiibel, m., 'hill,' is connected with 
Lith. kupstas, ' tump,' as well as to OHG. 
kofar, AS. kofer, ' hump '). 

$bod)$eit, f., 'wedding,' from MidHG. 
kdchztt (also kdckgezit), f. and n., ' a great 
ecclesiastical or lay feast,' then also ' wed- 
ding feast.' 

Jjodte (1.), 'shock (of corn), cock (of 
hay),' first occurs in ModHG., perhaps 
from LG. ; yet UpG. (Suab. and Tyrol.) 
kock, 111., *cock.' Perhaps allied to fyedj 
and <§uufe (root kuk) ; Lith. kligis, ' cock,' 
points, however, to a different root. In 
west Teut. a cognate term with a prefix < 
appears — MidHG. sckoeke, schocke, ' cock,' E. 
skock, and the equiv. MidE. schokke. With 
regard to the prefix 8 comp. <2ticr, £refjcl, 
and (inft. 

^O&e (2.), m., 'huckster,' MidHG. 
kucke, m. ; MidG. h»ke, with a long vowel 
(hence HG. §cfcr, J&cfrrti, &c), Du. hok, 
' booth ' ?. Comp. MidDu. heukster, MidE. 


( 150 ) 


huckrtere, E. huckster; probably akin to 
fyocf en, ' to squat.' 

I)odicn, vb., ' to crouch, 6quat,' first re- 
corded in ModHG. ; it is, however, an 
archaic word, as is shown by the prevalence 
of the root hfik, hnkk ; comp. MidHG. 
huchen, 'to duck, crouch,' OIc. htika (with 
a str. partic. hokenn), 'to crouch,' Du. 
huiken. OIc. hokra, ' to crawl,' is probably 
not connected with this word, but with 

<&ochCY, m., 'hump,' from MidHG. 
hocker, hogger, hoger, in., 'hump, hump- 
hack'; a subst. peculiar to HG., formed 
from an adj. hngga-, 'hump-backed,' and 
based on OHG. hovar, MidHG. hover, 
' humphack,' AS. hoftr (comp. Lith. kupra, 
f., 'humpback, hump') ; hogga- represents 
hubga, Sans, kubja (for kubjhal), 'hump- 
backed ' ; comp. Gr. Kv<p6s, ' bent, bowed, 
stooping,' for Kv<fxf>6-s, kubghdsl. 

,&obe, f., 'testicle,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. hode, OHG. hodo, m. ; comp. MidDu. 
hode, and in OFris. hotha, 'testicle.' Of 
obscure origin ; perhaps allied to Lat. 
cGleus, 'scrotum,' if it stands for *cotleus ?. 

<$of, in., 'yard, courtyard, manor, court,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. and OHG. hof 
(hoves), in. ; comp. OSax. and Du. hof, m., 
AS. hof, n. (obsolete at the end of the AS. 
period); in West Teut. 'courtyard, farm, 
garden (thus in Du. and OHG.), (prince's) 
palace,' AS. also 'circle, district, glohe.' 
OIc. hof, n. (the same gender as in AS.), 
' temple with a roof,' later also (under 
G. influence) ' palace, courtyard.' Goth. 
*hufa-, m. and n., is curiously wanting. 
Since the cognates are based upon pre- 
Teut. Mpo, they cannot be allied to Gr. 
ktjttos, 'garden,' Lat. campus. 

Jftoffarf , f., ' haughtiness, arrogance,' 
from MidHG. Mchvart, f., 'living in high 
style, magnanimity, splendour, magnifi- 
cence, haughtiness' ; from hdch and vart; 
MidHG. varn, 'to live,' as in 5Dol)[faf)rt. 

I)Offen, vl>., from equiv. MidHG. (espec 
MidG.), hoffen, 'to hope,' which is not yet 
used, however, by the classicists of the 
MidHG. period (they employ the term 
gedivgen, wk. vb., with which gedinye, 
' hope,' is connected ; OHG. t/idingen and 
gidin/jo) ; it is also unknown to OHG. In 
OLG., on the other hand, a corresponding 
td-hopa, ' hope,' is found. The vb. appears 
earliest in E. ; AS. tShopa, ' hope,' AS. 
hopian, equiv. to E. to hope. At a later 
period Du. hopen and MidLG. hopen occur. 

Not until the latter half of the 13th cent, 
does MidHG. hoffen become more preva- 
lent, after its solitary occurrence since 
1150 a.d. It is usually considered as a 
LG. loan-word. For the early history of 
the word the corresponding abstract AS. 
hyht, 'hope,' is significant, since it shows 
that Teut hopdi represents *huq&n (Aryan 
root kxtg). Its connection with Lat. cupio 
is scarcely possible. 

l)Ofteren, vb., 'to court, flatter,' from 
MidHG. hovieren, ' to make a display, 
serve, pay court to, be courteous, sere- 
nade' ; from G. £cf, with a Rom. suffix. 

^>oftfd), adj., ' courtly, flattering, fawn- 
ing,' from MidHG. hovtsch, adj., 'courtly, 
accomplished ' ; allied to £of. 

^of)C, f., 'height, summit, elevation,' 
from MidHG. hake, OHG. Mht, f. ; comp. 
Goth, hauhei, f., ' height.' 

f)of)l. adj., 'hollow, concave,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. and OHG. hoi, adj. ; comp. 
Du. hoi, 'hollow,' AS. hoi, OIc. hob, adj., 
' hollow ' ; E. hole is an adj. used as a subst.. 
so too AS., OHG., and MidHG. hoi, 'cave.' 
The relation of these cognates, which point 
to Goth. *hula-, 'hollow,' to the equiv. AS. 
holh, E. hollow, has not been explained. 
The word is usually connected with the 
root hel (in fje^ten), 'to conceal by cover- 
ing'; Goth, hulundi, f., lit. the hiding- 
place, 'cave.' 

$>of)lc, f., 'cavity, cave, burrow,' from 
MidHG. hide, OHG. holt, f., 'excavation, 
cave ' ; allied to Ijcfyl. 

^aorjn, m., 'scorn, scoffing,' from Mid 
HG. (very rare), h&n, m., OHG. (very 
rare), h&iia, f., 'scorn, mockery, igno- 
miny ' ; a fern, subst. formed from an old 
adj., OHG. *h&n, represented by h6ni, 'de- 
spised, ignominious, hase,' Goth, haunt, 
' hase,' AS. hedn (obsolete in the begin- 
ning of the MidE. period), 'base, miser- 
able, ignominious.' With this is connected 
the vb. fycfnun, from MidHG. hcenen, OHG. 
h&nen, wk. vb., 'to abuse'; comp. Goth. 
haunjan, ' to degrade,' to which hauneins, 
' humility,' is allied ; AS. hi/nan, * to de- 
grade, humble' (from the OHG. vb. Fr. 
honnir, ' to cover with disgrace,' and honte, 
'disgrace,' are derived). It corresponds 
in the non-Teut. language to Lett, kauns, 
'shame, ignominy, disgrace,' Lith. kuveti-s, 
' to be ashamed ' ; hence Goth, hauns. 
' humble, base,' can hardly have originated 
in the sensuous meaning ' base.' 

iodfecr, see £rrff. 


' 151 ) 


/aohuspoftus, m , ' hocus-pocus,' Mo<l 
HG. only. It became current in England, 
where a book on conjuring, with the title 
'Hocus Pocus junior,' appeared in 1634 
A.D. The early history of this apparently 
fantastic and jocose expression is still 
obscure ; its connection with the phrase 
used in the celebration of mass, ' hoc enim 
est corpus meuin,' cannot be established. 

ftoto, adj., 'favourable, gracious, charm- 
ing, lovely,' from MidHG. holt (gen. holdes), 
OHG. hold, adj., ' gracious, condescend- 
ing, favourable, faithful'; Goth, hnlfrs, 
'gracious,' OIc. hollr, 'gracious, faithful, 
healthy,' AS. and OSax. hold. The com- 
mon Tent. adj. originally denoted the rela- 
tion of the feudal lord and his retainers 
('condescending, gracious,' on the one side. 
' faithful, devoted,' on the other) ; comp. 
MidHG. holde, m., ' vassal.' The idea ex- 
pressed by \)o[\> was also current in the 
religious sphere — Goth, unhulpdns, f., lit. 
' fiends, devils,' OHG. holdo, ' genius,' Mid 
HG. die guoten holden, ' penates.' §cU> is 
usually connected with an OTeur. root hal, 
•to bow,' to which OHG. hald, 'inclined,' 
is allied ; see Jpalbe. It has also been re- 
iVrred to Ijaktm on the supposition that the 
dental is derivative ; f)db, adj., ' guarded, 
nursed'?. From the phonetic point of 
view there is no important objection to 
either of these derivations. 

Ssolbev, UpG., the same as ^climber. 

bolcn, vb., ' to fetch,' from MidHG. holn 
(variant haln), vb., OHG. holdn (ha!6n), ' to 
call, invite, lead or fetch (hither).' Comp. 
OSax. haldn, OFris. halia, Du. halen, 'to 
fetch ' ; AS. giholian and *gehalian, E. to 
hale. The Tent, root hal, hoi, corresponds 
to Lat. caldre, * to convoke,' Gr. KaXttv. 
Comp. further §af(, I;c((, which probably 
belong also to the same root. 

«$olffer, Jmlffcr (rarely .§alfttr), I., 
1 holster,' in which sense it is ModHG. 
only ; MidHG. hulfter, ' quiver,' a deriva- 
tive oihulft, ' sheath, covering, case ' (OHG. 
huluft). These cognates are often wrongly 
connected with Goth, hulistr, n., ' sheath, 
covering,' which is said to be supported by 
the MidHG. variant huls, 'sheath, cover- 
ing,' Du. holster and its equiv. E. holster. 
By such an assumption the /of the OHG., 
MidHG., and ModHG. form still remains 
obscure. It is more probably allied to 
forms with/, such as Goth. hwilftrj6s, 1 coffin.' 
It is possible, of course, that there has 
been a confusion with the words from the 

stem hul (Goth, hulistr, 'sheath, cover- 

c <»olh, m., ' large, heavy ship,' from Mid 
HG. holche, OHG. holcho, ' transport ship ' ; 
comp. LG. hoik, Du. hulk, ' transport ship,' 
E. hulk. This word, like other nautical 
terms (see J&elm), appears earliest in K, in 
which hide, 'liburna,' is found in the 9th 
cent. MidLat. holcas is scarcely derived 
from oX/cds ?. It is true that some etymolo- 
gists also ascribe other Teut. naval terms 
to a Gr. origin. Comp. 9?arfe. 

(iadlle, f., 'hell,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. heVe, OHG. hella, f., from hallja ; 
comp. Goth, halja, AS. and E. hell, OSax. 
hell a ; a common Teut. term applied by 
Christianity to 'hades, infernum'; the 
Scand. hel shows that the earlier word upon 
which it is based was also used in prehis- 
toric times for a heathen 'infernum.' Comp. 
also Olc. Hel, the goddess of the dead. It 
was possible for Christianity to adopt the 
old heathen word in all the Teut. languages; 
in this case it is quite unnecessary to as- 
sume the diffusion of a Goth, or other term 
(comp. §eicf). It is usually connected with 
the root hel, hal, ' to cover for concealment,' 
hence <§6fle, ' the hiding-place.' See fyeljlen, 

,$oIm, m., ' holm,' first occurs in Mod 
HG. ; a LG. word ; comp. OSax., AS., and 
E. holm (AS. 'sea, lake,' OSax. 'hill '), OIc. 
holmr, 'small island in a bay or river.' 
Apart from the divergent sense in AS., the 
words (whence Russ. cholmH, ' hill,' from 
Slav. *cliulmn, is borrowed) are related to 
the cognates of E. hill (allied to Lat. collis, 
eulmen). See -£>afbf. 

holpem, vb., 'to jolt,' ModHG. only 
(Alein. hiilpen), for which in late MidHG. 
holpeln once occurs. Of imitative origin. 

J&olltnoer, m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
holunder, holder, OH(J. Iwlantar, holuntar, 
m., 'elder' ; for OHG. -tar as a suffix see 
iffiacr/fyclbev, SWafifyclbcr. Its relation to the 
eqoiy. AS. ellen, E. elder, is dubious. It 
is most closely allied to the equiv. Russ. 

c&olj, n., ' wood, timber,' from MidHG. 
and OHG. holz, n., 'forest, thicket, timber.' 
In the remaining dialects the meaning 
' forest' preponderates. Comp. OIc. holt, n., 
' forest, thicket,' so too AS. and MidE. holt, 
n. (wanting in E.), but Du. hout, 'thicket, 
wood (as material).' Teut. type Itultos, from 
pre-Teut. kld»s; comp. OSlov. (with a dif- 
ferent stage of gradation) klada, f., ' beam, 


( 152 ) 


wood,' Gr. k\&5os, 111., * twig,' Olr. caill, 
cuill, ' forest ' (with 11 from Id). 

jCvonirt, m., ' honey,' from MidHG. Zionec 
(gen. -</es, variant huw'c), OHG. honag, ho- 
nung, 11. ; comp. OSax. howg, Du. honiy, 
AS. huneg, n., E. honey, Olc. hunatig, n. ; 
a common Tent, word, wanting only in 
Goth., in which an older term, milip (Gr. 
/ue\tT-, Lat. »«e£, under 2)Jcl)ltau), is used. 
The origin is not certain ; it has been re- 
ferred toGr. k6hs, 'dust' ; <§onia., 'granular' ?. 

<$opfctt, m., ' hops,' from MidHG. hopfe, 
late OHG. hopfo, m. ; conip. MidLG. and 
Du. hoppe, MidE. hoppe, ~E, hop; MidLat. 
hupa (for huppa ?). The origin of the cog- 
nates is obscure ; the term may be borrowed, 
but there is no proof of this. The assumed 
relation to OHG. hiufo, OS;ix. hiopo, AS. 
heOpe, ' brier,' is not satisfactory, since the 
latter cannot be assigned to a general sense, 
'climbing plant.' Nor is it probable that 
^cpfen is connected with fyupfen. Scaml. 
has humall, 111., Sw. and Dan. hamle, formed 
from MidLat. humlo, hurnulus (whence Fr. 
houblonl). — §cpfen — l;cvfett, see I;i"ipfen. 

ljorcf)e»t, vb., 'to hearken, listen to, 
obey,' properly MidG. (in UpG. lofeti, fyercu), 
MidHG. hdrchen, late OHG. hOrechen, from 
*h6rahJi6n; comp. AS. *liedrcian, E. to 
hark, OFris. Ithkia; a common West Teut. 
derivative of rjcrnt. Goth. *hauzaq6n 1 
(whence in AS. htfrcnian, E. to hearken). 
Comu. E. to talk, connected with to tell, to 
lurk with to lower (see lenient), to walk, related 
to hwfien. 

,i»orbe (1.), f., 'horde,' ModHG. only 
(from the middle of the 16th cent.) ; comp. 
Fr. and E. horde, Ital. orda ; "a word ori- 
ginating in Asia." From Tartar horda, 
' camp,' Per.*, ordu, ' army, camp.' 

,5aoroe (2.), f., 'frames of wickerwork 
and the space enclosed by them,' from Mid 
HG. horde (MidG.), 'enclosure, district;' 
comp. Du. horde, 'wickerwork, hurdle.' 
Allied to Jpfivbc. 

l)orcn, vb., ' to hear, give ear to, listen,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. hozrev, OIK J. 
horen; common Teut. hauzjan, 'to hear' ; 
comp. Goth, hantsjan, Olc. hei/ra, AS. h$ran, 
hiran, E. to hear, Du. hooren, OLG. horian 
(comp. also the derivative I;erd)eit) ; Teut. 
root hauz, from pre-Teut kous, to which is 
allied Gr. d/c<ww (for *a-Kovaju ? ; Hesychius, 
/co£ dicoijci). The latter is probably con- 
nected with the Aryan stem of Df)t (cus), 
just as Lat audire stands for *aus-dire 
(comp. auscultare) ; in that case the Teut. 

guttural h, Gr. &k, would be the remnant 
of a prefix. A more widely diffused stem 
for ()i ; veu is OTeut. Idus and klu, from pre- 
Teut. klus and Ida, which, however, is 
nearly obsolete in Teut. ; comp. lattt, lau- 
fcfyeit, tauflevn. Der. gefyorfam, from MidHG. 
and OHG. gehdrsam (AS. gehflrsuni), * obed- 

<$ortt, n., ' horn, peak,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. and OHG. horn, n. ; comp. Goth. 
hatirn, Olc. horn, AS. and E. horn, OFris. 
horn, Du. ho)tn ; a common Teut. word 
for ' horn,' cognate with Lat. comu, and 
Ir., W., and Corn, corn (icdpvov ttju a&Xwiyya 
TaXarat, Hesychius) ; allied to Gr. Kip-as, 
'horn,' with a different suffix (comp. also 
Teut. <£>ivfd), lit. 'horned animal'), as well 
as the equiv. Sans, crn-ga. See further 
respecting the Aryan root leer under Sfrixw. 
Comp, ^»a()itrei. 

^ormfTc, f., 'hornet,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. hdrnii. h6rnU$ (early ModHG., 
also £crnaufj), OHG. h6riw$, h6rnii$, m. ; 
comp, AS. hyrnet, E. hoi-net; probably not 
a derivative of §0111. The Slav, and Lat. 
words for ' hornet' point rather to a Goth. 
*haurznuts, based upon a root horz, Aryan 
krs (Ind. *crs) ; Lat, crdbro, ' hornet,' for 
*crdsro, OSlov. srMeni, Lith. szirszone, 
'hornet.' They point to an old Aryan 
root krs, ' hornet' ; with this comp. OSlov. 
sruia, Lith. szirszu, 'wasp.' A trace of 
this medial s is retained in Du. horzel, 
' hornet '(Goth. *haursuls), to which horze- 
len, * to hum,' is allied. 

Jaontunjt, rn., 'February,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. and OHG. hornunc(g) ; the 
termination -ung is patronymic ; February 
is regarded as the offspring of January, 
which in earlier ModHG. (dial.) is desig- 
nated by atopcv J&cvii, ' great horn,' in con- 
trast with February, ftciner £orn, 'little 
horn.' Comp. AS. and Olc. hoinung, 

^orfl, 111., 'shrubbery, eyrie,' from Mid 
HG. hurst, (MidG.) horst, OHG. hurst, horsl, 
f., 'shrubbery, copse, thicket' ; MidE. hurst, 
' hill, copse,' E. hurst ; of obscure origin. 

$>ovt, m. (like §af(e, feeim, and ©cm, 
revived in the last cent, after being long 
forgotten, by the study of MidHG.), from 
the equiv. MidHG. hort, m., OHG. hort, n., 
1 hoard ' ; OSax. hord (horth), n., ' treasure,' 
also 'hidden, innermost room,' AS. hmdk, 
n. and m., 'treasure, store,' E. hoard; 
Goth, huzd, ' treasure,' Olc. hodd, n., hoddr, 
m., 'treasure.' Teut. hozda-, from pre- 


( i$$ ) 


Teut. kuzdhd- for kudhto-, partic. ' that 
which is hidden' (comp. Gr. KevOw, see also 
^utte, ^aud), Gr. icuados, any ' hollow,' espec. 
* pudenda nmliebria.' 

<$ofe, f., ' hose, stocking, breeches,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. hose, OHG. hosa, f. ; 
comp. AS. hosu, E. hose, and the equiv. 
OIc. hosa; Goth. *hicsd is by chance not 
recorded. ' Hose ' was originally (in OHG, 
MidHG, AS., and OIc.) applied to aeover- 
ing for the legs reaching from the thigh, 
or even from the knee only, and often also 
to stockings and gaiters. Considering the 
numerous correspondences in Kelt, and 
Rom. the Teut term is certainly original ; 
the Teut. words found their way into Kelt. 
(Corn, hos, * ocrea '), and Rom. (OFr. hose). 
The connection of §ofe with OSlov. koSulja, 
f., ' shfrt,' is dubious. 

.SbVlb, m., ' heaving, lift, impetus,' Mod 
HG. only, allied to Ijefcett. 

gdube, see £iife. 

$>i\bel, in., 'hillock,' from MidHG. 
hiibel,m. (comp. Du. heuvel), 'hill'; per- 
haps cognate with Lith. kupstas, 'lump,' or 
the same as MidHG. and UpG. biihel (see 
under bieaen). 

Ijubfcf), adj., ' pretty, handsome,' from 
MidHG. hubcsch,hiibsch, adj., prop, 'courtly,' 
then also ' beautiful.' OHG. *hubisc is 
connected by a grammatical change with 

<5»uf, m., from the equiv. MidHG. and 
OHG. /two/ (gen. huoves), m., ' hoof ; comp. 
OSax. hf>f, in., AS. hof, E. hoof, Du. hoef, 
OIc. hofr. Goth. *hofs, m., 'hoof,' is by 
chance not recorded. Teut. Mfa-, from 
pre-Teut. *k6po-, to which is allied OSlov. 
/copy to, n., 'hoof (akin to kopati, 'to dig'); 
others derive hdfa- from pre-Teut. kdpho- 
and compare it with OInd. caphd, Zend 
mfa, ' hoof.' Compared with both these 
explanations, the derivation of £uf from 
fyebett must be rejected. 

/aufe (LG. form), £snbc (UpG. form), 
f., from the equiv. MidHG. huobe, OHG. 
huoba, f., 'hide of land' (about 30 acres),, 
so still in OSax. h6ba, f. (in E. an inde- 
pendent word is found from the earliest 
period — AS. htfd, E. hide). Cognate with 
Gr. Krjiros, 'garden'; the common type is 

^ttffe, f., from the equiv. MidHG. huf 
(plur. hiiffe), OHG. huf (plur. huf), f., 
'hip'; comp. Goth, hups (nom. plur. 
Mpeis), m., AS. hype (hop-), m. and i., E. 
hip, and the equiv. Du. heap, f. ; Teut. 

hupi-, from pre-Teut. kubi; allied to Gr. 
Kvfios, m., ' hollow near the hips ' ?. Others 
comp. Lith. kitmpis, 'spring or hand of 
pork' (allied to Lith humpas, 'crooked'). : 

Jififffjortt, see £tftf)cnt. 

&ix$el, m., 'hill, knoll,' ModHG.rmly, 
introduced by Luther from MidG. into 
thewriiten language; in MidHG. (UpG.), 
biihel, hiibel, were used, which, however, 
must be separated etymologicallv from 
£fuje(; see £ubd. ^lujel (Goth. *hugils), 
with dimin. suffix, is related by gradation 
to OHG. hottg, MidHG. houc(-(jes), 'hill,' 
which are explained under Jjocf). 

<$»uf) it, n., 'fowl,' from MidHG. and 
OHG. huon (plur. -ir, MidHG. hiiener), 
n. ; comp. OSax. h&n, Du. hoen; unknown 
to E. ; OIc. plur. only, heens (AS. hens-1), 
n., ' fowls.' ^mfnt compared with the re- 
lated words £alni and -§emte is prop, of 
common gender, and may in OHG. be used 
instead of §af)it. The Goth, term may 
have been *hdn or *hdnis. Comp. $a1)n. 

<$ttlb, f., 'grace, favour, kindness,' 
from MidHG. hidde, f., OHG. huldi, OSax. 
hvldt, f. ; abstract of ijolb. 

^ftffe, see §ilfc. 

gsiliic, f., 'envelop, covering, sheath,' 
from MidHG. hiille, OHG. hulla (Goth. 
*huljd), f,, ' cloak, kerchief, covering ' ; 
allied to the root hel, ' to cover for conceal- 
ment,' in I)e v teit. — ModHG. in £idle unb 
gtd(e meant orig. 'in food and clothing' ; 
hence -§uf(e unb %\\[[t was used to denote 
all the necessaries of life, finally the idea of 
superfluity was combined with the phrase. 

jftulfe, f., 'shell, husk,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. hiilse, hiilsche, OHG. hulsa, for 
*hulisa (Goth. *hulisi or *huluzi). f., 'shell' ; 
from the root hel, hul (see fyefyfen, ^u(le), 
like Goth, jukuzi, f., 'yoke,' or aqizi, t., 
'axe' (see 9Irt), in AS. without the suffix 
8, hulu, ' pod, husk.' 

ilutlfl, m., 'holly,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. huh (comp. 9lrt, from MidHG. ackes\ 
OHG. huh. hulis, m. ; from G., Fr. houx is 
derived. Comp. E. holly, AS. holeg)^ E. 
hulver, Kelt, kehn, ' holly.' 

jiutiiimol, f., ' humble-bee, drone,' from 
the equiv. MidflG. hummel, humbel, OHG. 
humbal, m. ; comn. Du. hommel, ' drone,' 
MidE. humbel-bee, E. humble-bee (AS. *hum- 
bolbe6). The origin of the aognntai ia ob- 
scure ; the derivation from MidHG. hum- 
men, ' to hum,' is not satisfactory, since the 
soft labial in OHG. humbal must be archaic 
and original. 


( i54 ) 


Aummcr, m., ' lobster,' ModHQ. only, 
from tlie equiv. LG. (Dan. and Swed.) 
hummer; the final source is OIc. human; 
in., 'lobster' ; comp. Gr. Kdfiapos, tcdfifiapos, 
' a kind of crab,' although the occurrence 
of the same names of fishes in several Aryan 
.languages is usually very rare. In E. a 
different word is used— AS. loppestre, f., E. 

^umpe, f, ^umpen, m.,'drinking-cup, 
bumper, bowl,' ModHG. only (from the 17th 
cent.) ; it seems, however, to be primitive, 
6ince correspondences are found in the 
Aryan languages, Sans, kumbha, m , ' pot, 
urn,' Zend x u ^° a (the initial h of the Mod 
HG. word probably originated like the h 
in tyaben, root khabh ; yet comp. also Gr. 
/«5/i/3oj, m., ' vessel, enp '). However re- 
markable it may seem that a primit. word 
like $umprn should have been unrecorded 
in the entire Tent, group until the 17th 
cent., yet similar examples of such a phe- 
nomenon mayl e adduced ; comp. Sdnvire, 
' stake,' in ModHG. dial, only, which, like 
AS. swer, ' pillar,' corresponds to San?. 
svdru-s, ' sacrificial stake.' In this case, 
however, the supposition that the word 
has been borrowed is more probable, be- 
cause Teut. has for the most part adopted 
foreign terms for drinking vessels (comp. 
Jtrug, Jtraufe, .fintfe, Jteld)) ; the assump- 
tion, on account of Zend -xymba, that the 
woid was borrowed at an early period from 
a Pers. dial, is alluring (as in the case of 

ifumpeln, Jjumpen, vb., • to hobble' ; 
ModHG. only, from LG. ?. Perhaps allied 
to Innfen. 

<&ttn6, m., ' dog, hound,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. hunt(d), OHG. hunt{t), m. ; a 
common Teut word hunda-, 'dog' ; comp. 
Goth, hunds, OTc. hundr, AS. hund, E. 
hound (for the chase only, in other cases 
dog, AS. doeffe), Du. hond, LG. hund. If 
the second syllable in hun-da- is a deriva- 
tive (comp. £inbe), the Teut. word corre- 
sponds to Aryan hin-, 'dog' ; comp. Gr. 
kuuv (gen. kw-6i), Sans, cva (<>en. pun-as), 
Lat cants. lath, szu (stem szun-), Olr. eft. 
Thus the Aryans in their primit home were 
already acquainted with the dog as distinct 
from the wolf. In Teut. it might also ap- 
pear as if the word were connected with 
an old str. vb. hinjjan, ' to catch ' (in Goth.) ; 
in popular etymology $unb might l>e re- 
garded as the 'captor, hunter, taker of 
prey.' The phrase auf ben £unb fentnun. 

' to full into poverty, go to the dogs,' seems 
to be based upon the OTeut. expression in 
dice-playing (see grfallfn, <2au, and also 
2)auS) ; probably £unb, like Lat. cants and 
Gr. kvwv, denoted an unlucky throw ; in 
Sans, the professional gambler is called 
' dog-slayer ' (cvaghnin). The probable 
antiquity of dice-playing is attested by 
Tacitus' account of the Teutons and by 
the songs of the Vedaa. 

<&Uttoerf , n., ' hundred,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. and late OHG. fotndert, n. ; comp. 
OSax. hunderod, AS. and E. hundred, and 
the equiv. OI<". hundra'S, n. ; Goth. *hunda- 
rap (gen. -dis) is wanting ; the word is 
evidently a compound, the second part of 
which is connected with Goth, rafijan, ' to 
count' (comp. 9hbe). The first component 
was used alone for ' hundred' ; comp. Goth. 
twa hunda, 200, firija hunda, 300, &c. ; OHG. 
zwei hunt, driu hunt, &c, AS. t-A hund, Jjreo 
hund, 200, 300. This simple term is an 
Aryan form, Teut. hunda-, from pre-Teut. 
kmtd- ; comp. Lat. centum, Gr. enarbv. Sans. 
patdm, Ztmdsata, Lith. szimtas (m is changed 
in Teut. into n before d ; see €?anb) ; OSlov. 
suto is probably derived from Iran. sata. 
But while the word, judging from the cor- 
respondences in these language?, denoted 
our decimal ' hundred' in primit. Aryan, we 
find that it is used in OTeut. for 120, the 
so-called duodecimal hundred. In OIc. 
hundrap in the pre-Christian period de- 
noted only 120. a distinction being made 
at a later period between tdlfroztt hundrajj, 
120, and tiroztt hundraj), 100 ; even at the 
present time hundrap denotes the duode- 
cimal hundred in Iceland. In Goth, we 
have only indirect evidence of the com- 
bination of the decimal and duodecimal 
numeration, tai/umti-hund, ' ten times ten,' 
but twa hun'la, 200 (OIc. tiu-tiger, ' ten 
tens, 100'). So too in OHG. and AS.; 
comp. OHG. zehanzo, '100,' prop, 'ten 
tens,' and also einliunt, AS. te&ntig, but tA 
hund. In other cases also the co-existence 
of the duodecimal and decimal system may 
be seen in OTeut. In G. the word for 120 
became obsolete at an early period, but its 
existence may be inferred from the fact 
that the old word hun/l in OHG. and Mid 
HG. was used only for several hundreds, 
while hundred was expressed almost en- 
tirely by zehanzo and zehenzig. 

(fttmosfoff, m., first occurs in early M<>d 
HG., lit. " ' cunnus cam's.' Borrowed from 
the shamelessness of the ' proud ' bitch." 


( i55 ) 


iiu'uie (a LG. form, in earlier ModHG. 
^ettne), in., from the equiv. MidHG. hiune, 
111., 'giant,' in which sense it is found in 
the 13th cent. This word, phonetically 
identical with MidHG. Hiune, OHG. HAn, 
' Hun, Hungarian,' existed in Germany in 
OTeut. names of persons even before the 
appearance of the Huns. Some etymolo- 
gists assume, with little probability, that 
the primit. Tent. was the name of 
the aborigines of Germany. Undoubtedly 
the North G. £iine points rather to a Tent, 
tribe (Sigfrid in the Eddas is called enn 
hunslce). Numerous compound names of 
places with §un (^aun) are found in North 
Germany (Jpauna, -£>unfclb). Note the names 
of persons such as ^jumbclbt (OHG. HAn- 

Jauttger, m., 'hunger, famine,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. hunger, OHG. hungar, m. ; 
comp. OSax. hungar, AS. hungor, in., E. 
hunger, OIc. hungr, m. ; Goth. *huggrus 
is wanting (it is indicated by huggrjan, 
'to hunger'), but the term hdhrus (for 
hunhrus, hunhrus), m., occurs ; common 
Teut. hunhru-, hungru-, 'hunger,' from 
pre-Teut. hnkru- 1. The Gr. gloss, icty/cel 
iretvy, points to an Aryan root, kenk, konk ; 
comp. also Lith. kankd, ' torment,' with 
OIc. ha, vb., ' to torment, pain ' (from Teut. 

hunt ,}cn, vb., ' to abuse,' ModHG. only, 
probably ' to call one a dog ' (note the for- 
mation of evfcen, ftefcen, bitten) ; then pro- 
bably also ' to treat anyone like a dog. 

ljftpfctt, vb., from the eqniv. MidHG. 
hiipfen, hupfen, 'to hop'; OHG. *hupfen 
is by chance not recorded ; so too AS. *hyp- 
pan, whence MidE. hyp-pen. E. to hip. Akin 
also to ModHG. and MidHG. />opfen, AS. 
hoppian, E. to hop, OIc. hoppa ; Goth. *hvp- 
p&n, *huppjan, are wanting. UpG. dialects 
have besides hoppen, from OHG. *hopp6n 
(OTeut. *hvbbdn). AS. hoppettau, ' to hop,' 
MidHG. *hopfzen, ModHG. Ijepfeii, are dif- 
ferently formed. 

^tttroe, f., 'hurdle,' from MidHG. hurt, 
plur. hiirte and hiirde, f., 'hurdle, wicker- 
work,' OHG. hurt, plur. hitrdi, f. ; comp. 
Goth. hairds, f., ' door,' OIc. hufS, f., 'door ' 
(this sense is also found in MidHG.), like- 
wise ' wickerwork, hurdle, lid '; AS. *hyrd, 
MidE. hyrde, AS. hyrdel, E. hurdle. The 
meaning 'door' is only a development of 
the general sense ' wickerwork ' ; pre- 
Teut. krti: Comp. Eat. crdtes, Gr. Kvprla. 
'wickerwork,' Kvprt), Kvprot, 'creel, cage,' 

Kdprd\os, ' basket' ; allied to the Sans, root 
kH, 'to spin,' cH, ' to connect, combine.' 

<$ure, f., ' whore,' from MidHG. huore, 
OHG. huora, huorra (from */i6rjd, Goih. 1), 
f. ; comp. AS. and MidE. hdre, E. whore, 
with an excrescent w), Du. hoer, OIc. hdra, 
f., 'whore' ; in Goth, hdrs, m., is 'whore- 
monger ' (but kalki, f., ' whore '). To these 
are allied OHG. huor, n., ' adultery, forni- 
cation.' OIc. hdr, AS. hdr, n. ; probably 
also MidHG. herge, f., ' whore ' (Goth. 
*harj6) 1. The Teut. root hdr- is related to 
Lat. carus, ' dear,' Olr. cara, ' friend,' and 
caraim, ' I love.' Its connection with £arn 
is less probable, although Gr. fioixfo, 'adul- 
terer.' is formed from 6mx*iv, 'mingere.' 
In Slav.-Lith., too, words with cognate 
sounds are found in the sense of ' whore.' 
OSlov. kurSva, f. (Lith. kurva, f.), is per- 
haps derived from the Teut. word. 

%\XVta, interj., ' hurrah 1 ' from MidHG. 
hurrd, interj. (allied to MidHG. hurren, 
' to move quickly ';. 

Ijurfig, adj., 'quick, prompt, speedv,' 
from MidHG. hurtec, hurtecltch, 'quick.' 
prop, 'dashing violently against'; Mid 
HG. hurt, m. and f., 'coming into violent 
collision, impact,' is said to be borrowed 
from Fr. heurt (Ital. urto), 'thrust,' which 
again is derived from Kelt, hwrdh, ' thrust.' 
Yet fyurttg may be regarded as a genuine 
Teut. word, allied to OHG. rado, AS.hrad, 
'quick,' with which OIc. horsier, 'quick,' is 
also connected. 

«$ufar, m., ' hussar,' ModHG. only 
(from the 16th tent.); final source Hun- 
garian huszdr. 

hufd), interj., 'hush! quick!' from 
MidHG. husch (but used only as an interj. 
to express a feeling of cold) ; hence Mod 
HG. l)iifcfocn. 

iftltftcn, m., 'cough,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. huoste, OHG. huosto, m., from an 
earlier *hic6sto with the loss of the w (Up. 
Alsat. and Swiss wueke with the w retained 
and the h before it suppressed) ; comp. 
Du. hoest, AS. hwdsta, m., E. (dial.) whoost, 
Scand. huste (for *hv6ste), m., ' cough.' The 
verbal stem hwds was retained in the AS. 
str. vb. (pret. hiceis), beside which a wk. 
vb. hwSsan, E. wheeze, occurs. Teut. root 
hw(ts (Goth. *hwdsta), from pre-Teut. kwdn, 
kd<, corresponds to the Sans, root kds, ' to 
cough,' Lith. kdsiu (kdseii), ' to cough,' 
OSlov. kaitli, m., 'cough.' 

Ssxxl (1.), m., 'hat,' from MidHG. and 
OIIG. huot (gen. hnotes), m., ' hat, cap, 


( 156 ) 


helmet'; comp. D11. hoed, AS. hud, E. 
hood. It is most closely allied to AS. 
hcBtt, E. hat, and the equiv. 01c. hgttr ; in 
Goth, both *h6f>s and *hattus are wanting. 
It is probably connected more remotely with 
Litli. kudas, 'tuft (of hair, &c), crest of a 
cock,' and perhaps also with the Teut. 
root had, h6d, in the two following words. 

gbXXl (2.), f., 'heed, care, guard,' from 
MidHG. huot, huote, f., OHG. huola, f., 
'oversight and foresight as a preventive 
against harm, care, guard ' ; Du. hoede, 
'foresight, protection.' To this is allied 

f)utcn, vb., ' to heed, take care,' from 
MidllG. hiieten, OHG. huoten, 'to watch, 
take care ' ; Goth, hfoljan is wanting. AS. 
hedan, E. io heed (also as a subst.), Du. 

hoeden, OSax. h/klian. Teut. root h6d, from 
the Aryan hudh (kddhl) or kut ; perhaps 
allied to Lat. cassis (for *cat-i<), 'helmet,' 
also to MidHG. huot, ' helmet,' E. hat. See 

gbiltte, f., ' cottage, hut, foundrv, tent,' 
from MidHG. hiUte, OHG. hutta, f„ ' hut, 
tent' ; a specifically HG. word which found 
its way into Du., E., and Rom.; comp. Du. 
hut,E.hut, Yr.hutte, 'hut.' In Goth. perhaps 
*hufija, and related to AS. hfidan, E. to 
hide (from *hHdjan), Teut. root hud, from 
Aryan kuth, allied to Gr. KevOwl. Comp. 

^ttfjel, f., 'dried pear cutting's,' from 
MidHG. h-utzel, hiitzel, f., 'dried pear'j 
probably an intensive form of £uut 1. 


td), pron,, ' I-,' from the equiv. MidHG. 
ich, OHG. ih; corresponding to OSax. ik, 
Du. ik, AS. ic, E. 7, Goth. ik. For the 
common Teut. t'/;, from pre-Teut egom, 
comp. Lat. ego, Ger-. <tyw, Sans, aham, OSlov. 
azu, Lith. az. The oblique cases of this 

1>rimit. nom. were formed in all the Aiyan 
anguages from a stem me- ; comp. meiii. 
The orig. meaning of id), primit. type egom 
(equal to Sans, aham), cannot be fathomed. 
gflel, m., ' hedgehog,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. igel, OHG. igil, m. ; correspond- 
ing to Du. egel, AS. igl (tl), in E., however, 
hedgehog, to which OIc. igull is equiv. Gr. 
iylvm, OSlov. jeSt, Lith. ezy.% 'hedgehog,' 
are undoubtedly cognate. A West-Aryan 
*eghi-nos, ' hedgehog,' must be attained ; 
comp. Goth, katils, from Lat. cattnus, Goth. 
asilus, from Lat. tm'nws (so too @ff{, -§imnte(, 
J?ummcl, Jftjicl). Very different from this 
word is the second component of the com- 
pound 93lutigei, prop. SBlutegel ; in MidHG. 
simply egel, egele, OHG. egala, f., 'leech.' 
That this OHG. egala is connected etymolo- 
gically with OHG. igil, 'hedgehog,' is im- 
probable on account of the meaning only. 
tljr, poss. pron., 'her. their' (general 
from the 14th cent.), MidHG. tr is rare as 
a poss. pron. ; it is prop, the gen. plur. of 
er, OHG. iro (Goth. ize~). Further details 
belong to grammar. 

Sifts, m., ' polecat,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. iltls, Sites, OHG. illitiso, in. (the long 
t is assumed by the ModHG. and Bav. form 
dllefceiS) ; a specifically G. term based upon 

an old compound which has not as yet been 

Stttbtfj, m., 'lunch,' from MidHG. and 
OHG. imblj,, inblj,, m. and n.. ' food, meal,' 
allied to MidHG. enbt^en, OHG. mbl^an, 
' to partake of food or drink, eat,' allied to 

§tmmc, f., 'bee,' from MidHG. imhe 
(later imme), m., OHG. imbi, 'swarm of 
bees' (hence a collective term ; the mean- 
ing ' bee ' first occurs in late MidHG.). In 
OHG. records imbi bianS denotes ' swarm of 
bees ' ; comp. AS. geogoft, ' a youthful band/ 
with E. youth (see 5iJurfd)e, graucn;iiiuucv, 
<Etute). Yet it is questionable whether 
imbi has ever signified ' swarm, herd' (gene- 
rally). Its direct connection with SMette 
(root bt) is certainly dubious ; it is more 
probably related to Gr. i/irh, 'mosquito, 

intmcr, from the equiv. MidHG. imer, 
immer, earlier iemer, OflG. iomir, ' always ' 
(only of the present and future) ; OHG. io- 
mir is a compound of io (comp. jf) and mh" 
(see meljr) ; comp. AS. (efre (E. ever), from 
*ce-mre (equiv. to OHG. io-mir). 

tmpfen, vb., ' to ingraft, vaccinate,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. (rare) imp/en, OHG. 
(rare) impfdn, for which the usual forms 
are MidHG. imp(f)eten, OHG. impfit&n, 
mostly impit&n, ' to inoculate, ingraft ' ; 
j'et comp. also AS. impian, E. to imp. 
3mVfen, just like p ftcpf t fl and peljtn, seems, 
on account of OHG. imp/tin and AS. im- 
1 MM, to have been borrowed about the 


( iS7 ) 


7th or 8th. cent, from Lat. ; yet only OHQ. 
impitdn can be explained as directly bor- 
rowed from a Lat. horticultural term ; 
comp. Lat.-Rom. putare, 'to prune' (comp. 
Ital. potare, Span, podar), to which Franc. 
possen, Du. and LG. poten, ' to ingraft,' are 
related. The correspondence of OHG. im- 
pitdn, with Fr. enter, 'to ingraft' (from 
*empter), is remarkable ; comp. Du., Mid 
Du., and MidLG. entcn, ' to inoculate ' 
(from empteri). With the Mid Lat. base im- 
putare (for Lat. amputare 1), OHG. impf&n 
and AS. impian may be connected by the 
intermediate link impo(d)are, unless it is 
based rather like Fr. (Lorr.) ope", ' to inocu- 
late,' upon a Lat. Hmpuare. The usual 
derivation of all the Tent, and Rom. words 
from Gr. inQvTevw, inQtiu, 'to ingraft,' is 
perhaps conceivable. Moreover, the medi- 
cal term impfeu has been current only since 
the 18th cent. 

in, prep., 'in, into, at,' from the equiv.. 
MidHG. and OHG. in, a common Tent, 
prep, witli the same form ; comp. Goth., 
AS., E., Du., and OSax. in, ' in.' Its priniit. 
kinship with Lat. in, Gr. iv, hi, Lith. i, and 
Lett, e is certain. To this are allied intent, 
tnfccfj, and inbeffen. 

gfnfel, gttfltl, f., from the equiv. Mid 
HG. infel, infele, f., ' mitre of a bishop or 
abbot' ; formed from Lat. infula.. 

gfnjJttJCr, m., 'ginger,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. ingewer, also giugebere, m.^derived, 
like Du. gember, E. ginger, Fr. gingembre, 
Ital. zenzuvero, zenzero, 'ginger,*' from the 
equiv. late Gr. iiyylflepis, which comes from 
the East ; comp. Arab, zendjebil, fromPrak. 
singabSra (Sans, frhgavira). 

tnnc, adv., « within,' from MidHG. ami 
OHG. inne, OHG. inna, ' inwardly ' ; comp. 
Goth, inna; allied to in.— So too inncn, 
'within,' MidHG. innen, OHG. inndn, 
innana; Goth, innana, 'within.' — inner, 
'within,' from MidHG. innere, adj. and 
adv., 'internal,' OHG. innar, adj. 

inntg, adj., 'intimate,' from MidHG. 
innecUj), adj., 'internal, intimate'; a re- 
cent formation from MidHG. inne ; comp. 
even in OHG. inniglih, ' internal.' 

gfnttmtfl, f., ' association,' from late 
MidHG. innunge, f., 'connection (with a 
corporate body), association, guild' ; allied 
to OHG. inndn, ' to receive (into an alli- 
ance), combine ' ; connected with inne. 

SnfcfjliH, see llnfdjlitt. 

junfel, f., ' island,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. instl, insele, f. ; formed from Lat. and 

Rom. insula [~Er. tie, Ital. isola) ; even in 
OHG. a divergent form of the word, isila, 
was borrowed. The OTeut. words for 
' island ' are 9lne and SfBert. 

gnftegcl, n., ' seal,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. insigel, insigele, OHG. vnsigili, n. ; 
corresponding to AS. insegele, OIc. innsigle, 
with the same sense. See Steffi for the 
curious history of the cognates. 

inffembtg,. adj., ' instant, urgent,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. *inste.ndec ; OHG. in- 
stendigo is recorded once. Allied to jleljen 
(gejtanben) ; perhaps an imitation of Lat. 
insistere, Ho pursue zealously'?. 

tmnenbig, see wmben. 

§fn^tcftf , f., ' accusation,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. and OHG. inziht, f. ; an abstract 
of jtdjen ; comp. also be^tefctigen. 

irben, adj., ' earthen,' from MidHG. and 
OHG. irdtn, adj., 'made of clay' (also 
'earthly') \. an adj. of material allied to 
OHG. erda, 'earth.' Also trbifcfc, with a 
different application, from the equiv. Mid 
HG. irdesch, OHO. irdisc (prop, 'peculiar 
or belonging to the earth ' ; with regard to 
the suffix comp. beutfd) and 3J}f nfd)). See S'rfce. 

irgcnb, adv., 'ever, soever, whatever,' 
with an affix d (see 2Monb, £afeid)t, and £)bft), 
from the equiv. MidHG. (MidG.) iergen, 
late OHG. iergen,. for which in earlier OHG. 
io wergin occurs ; OHG: wergin (for *hwer- 
gin, *hwar-gin),. corresponds to OSax. hirer- 
gin, AS. hwergen, in which hwar signifies 
' where,' and -gin, the indef. particle, ' any,' 
corresponding to Goth, -hun (Lat. -cu»que, 
Sans.. -cawa) ; Goth. *hwar-gi», *hwar-hun, 
'anywhere.' Respecting OlIG. io, comp. 
je. 9Mr$enb, the negative form, occurs even 
in MidHG. as niergen (a compound of ni, 

irre, adj., ' in error, astray, insane, con- 
fused,' from the equiv. MidHG. irre, OHG. 
irri, adj. (OHG. also ' provoked ') ; corre- 
sponding to AS. yrre, ' provoked, angry.' 
Allied to Goth, airzeis, 'astray, misled' 
(HG. rr equal to Goth. rz). Anger was 
regarded as an aberration of mind (comp. 
also Lat. delirare, allied to lira, ' furrow,' 

Erop. ' rut'). The root ers appears also in 
at. errare, 'to go astray' (for *ersare), 
error, 'mistake' (for *ersor) ; allied also to 
Sans, irasy, 'to behave violently, be angry : ?. 
— irren, ' to be in error, go astray, mislead, 
dereive,' from the equiv. MidHG. irren, 
OHG. irrin (Goth. *airsi6n).— Sfrre, f., 
' mistaken course,' from MidHG. irre, f. 
(comp. Goth, airsei, ' mistaken course, lead- 


( 158 


iug astray'). §nrfal, n., 'erring erro- 
neous opinion, niaze,' from MidHG. irresal, 
n. and in. (Goth. *airzisl ; OHG. -isal is a 
suffix ; see OJatfet). 

3 fop, m., 'hyssop,' from the equiv. early 

MidHG. it6pe {tsdpe, ispe) ; derived like 
Ital. is6po from Lat. hysCpum, late Gr. 
Ot<twtoj, which is of Oriental origin. 

3t,)tvl, Jew.-G. from Hebr. Juchdck, 
1 Isaac' 



ja, adv., 'yes,' from the equiv. MidHG. 
and OHG. jd (for jd) ; corresponding to 
Goth. ja, ' yes,' also jai, ' truly, forsooth,' 
OSax. ja, AS. ged, also grese (for gS-swd, 
• yes, thus '), whence E yea and yes. Allied 
also to Gr. % ' forsooth,' and OHG. j'ehan, 
' to acknowledge, confess' (see SSeicfyte). 
Lith. ja is derived from G. 

jttd), Qad^, 'precipitate, hasty,' allied 
to jdfye. 

§fad}f, f., ' yacht, sloop,' ModHG. only, 
formed from the equiv. Du. jagt (comp. E. 
yacht), which is usually connected with 
jagen, and even to jdfye. 

gacfec, f., 'jacket,' first occurs in early 
ModHG. (15th cent.), formed from the 
equiv. Fr. jaque, whence also E. jacket; 
the derivation of Ft. jaque (Ital. gimv) from 
Teut. is quite uncertain. 

^fctftb, f., ' chase, hunt, hunting-party,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. jaget, n. (and 
f.), OHG. *jagot, n. ; a verbal abstract of 
iagert, ' to hunt, chase' (from the equiv. 
MidHG. jagen, OHG. jagdn, wk. vb.), 
which does not occur in Goth., OIc, AS., 
or OSax. The connection of this specifi- 
cally G. word with Gr. 8u!>ku is dubious, 
and so too its kinship with Gr. dfrxfa 
' unceasing,' and Sans, yahft, ' restless.' — 
§fcifler, ' huntsman, sportsman,' is the 
equiv. MidHG. jeger, jegere, OHG. *jageri 

jell), fltif)C, adj., 'steep, precipitous, 
hastv,' from MidHG. gcehe (also gdeh), 
OHG. gdhi, adj., ' quick, suddenly, im- 
petuous ' ; a specifically G. word (with a 
dial, initial J* lor g as in jappen ; comp. also 
jdljnen with gdfynen). From this Fr. gai, 
'gay,'isborrowed. Its connection, with gtfyett, 
gegangen (see ©aug), is impossible, ©aubieb 
is, on the other hand, allied to it. 

§fctf)U, m., ' swath,' first found in early 
ModHG., yet undoubtedly a genuine G. 
word, existing throughout South Germany 
(MidHG. *jdri), and also appearing in S wed. 
dials, as dn. In Swiss dials. 3<it)n means 
' passage (formed by a swath).' Hence 

the word is a derivative of the Aryan root 
yS, or rather f, ' to go,' with which Goth. 
iddja, 'went' (Sans, yd, 'to go'), is con- 
nected. See gefjeu and eitert. 

3al)r, n., 'year,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. and OHG. jdr, n. ; a common Teut. 
term ; comp. Goth.jer, OIc. dr, AS. gedr, 
E. year, Du. jaar, OSax. jdr (gir), n., ' year.' 
The orig. meaning of the word, which also 
appears in fjmer, seems to be ' spring,' as 
is indicated by the Slav, cognate jaru, 
'spring'; comp. also Gr. &pa, 'season, 
spring, year,' and (fyos, 'year,' so too Zend 
ydre, 'year'; in Ind. a similar term is 
wanting (comp. Scmmet and SBinttr). F.>r 
the change of meaning see the history of 
the word SBintrr. 

jammer, m., 'sorrow, grief, wailing,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. jdmer, OHG. 
jdmar, m. and n. ; prop, a neut. adj. used 
as a subst., OHG. jdmar, ' mournful ' (hence 
3amntfv, 'that which is mournful'); in 
OSax. and AS. the adj. only exists, comp. 
OSax. jdmar, AS. geomor, ' painful, mourn- 
ful.' The origin of this word, which is 
unknown to East Teut. (Golh. *jimrs), is 

Sttnner, 111., 'January,' from the equiv. 
early MidHG. jenner, in. ; from the Lat. 
januarius, Horn, jenuario (OHG. *jenneri, 
m., is wanting, perhaps only by chance). 

jappert, vb., ' to gape, pant,' ModHG. 
only, prop. LG. ; comp. Du. gapen, ' to 
gape,' under aa ffeit. 

jttfen. see gdten. 

gtaudje, f., ' filthy liquid,' first occurs in 
early ModHG., introduced into HG. from 
a MidG. and LG. variant, jfiche. It is based 
on a Slav, word for ' broth, soup,' which 
deteriorated in sense when borrowed ; e.g. 
Pol. jvcha, ' broth ' (cognate with Lat j£s, 
Sans. yuSan, ' broth '). 

3aud)ort. gudjerf p m ., from the equiv. 
MidHG. jAchert, late OHG. julihart (ul), 
n., 'acre'; the Bav. and Alem. word for 
the Franc, and MidG. 2Wcrgen. The usual 
derivation from La.t. jugerum, ' acre of laud ' 


( i59 ) 


(prop. § acre), does not offer a satisfactory 
explanation of the OHG. word, for the 
equiv. MidHG. jiuch, n. and f., ' acre of 
land,' can only he cognate with liat.j&gerum, 
and not a mutilated form of the Lat. origi- 
nal. Hence MidHG.yiuc/ijlike Lrt.jdgerum, 
is douhtlessly connected with ModHG. 3ccfy 
and Lat. jugum; consequently 3ucf)crt is 
lit. 'as much land as can he ploughed by 
a yoke of oxen in a day' ; the suffix of 
OHG. juhhart suggests that of MidHG. 
egei-te, ' fallow land.' See 3cd). 

iaud)3ett, vb., ' to shout for joy, exult,' 
from MidHG. juchezen, ' to cry out, shout 
for joy,' OHG. *jtihhazzen; probably a de- 
rivative of the MidHG. mterjs.jllch,j4 (ex- 
pressions of joy) ; comp. adjjeti, allied to ad). 

\e, adv., older ie (which in the 17th cent, 
was supplanted by je, recorded at a still 
earlier period), 'always, ever,' from Mid 
HG. ie, ' at all times, always (of the past 
and present), the (with compars., distri- 
butives, &c), at any (one) time,' OHG. 
io, eo, 'always, at any (one) time.' The 
earliest OHG. form eo is based on *eo, aiw 
(comp. See, <Sd)nee, ami roie) ; comp. Goth. 
aiw, 'at any time,' OSax. $/>, AS. a, 'al- 
ways' (E. aye, from OIc. ei, 'always'). 
Goth, aiw is an oblique case of the subst. 
aiws, ' time, eternity,' and because in Goth, 
only the combination of aiw with the nega- 
tive ni occurs, it is probable that ni aiw 
(see me), ' never' (' not for all eternity'), is 
the oldest, and that the positive meaning, 
OHG. eo, 'always,' was obtained & pos- 
teriori; yet comp. Gr. aid, 'always,' allied 
to alibv, and see eroig and the following words. 

lebet, pron., ' each, every,' from late Mid 
HG. ieder, earlier ieweder, OHG. iowedar 
(eo-hwedar), 'either,' from l»eber (OHG. wedar, 
' which of two') and je ; corresponding to 
OSax. iaftweViar, AS. dhwaifier ; comp. also 
OHG. eogiwedar, MidHG. iegeweder, AS. 
liiyhwafier, E. either. — ModHG. jeblDCbcr, 
' each, every,' is of a different etymological 
origin, being derived from MidHG. ietw'eder, 
ie-aew'eder, ' either' (from ie and MidHG. 
deweder, 'any one of two'; see entuxber). 
— j oil lid). ' each, every,' from MidHG. 
iegelich, OHG. eo-gilih, 'each'; allied to 
OHG. gilth, 'each' (see gleid)). ModHG. 
jeber, prop, 'either,' has in ModHG. sup- 
planted the MidHG. iegelich. — jemom\ 
' anybody, somebody,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. ieman, OHG. eoman (prop, 'any 
person '). 

jencr, pron., 'you, yonder, that, the 

former,' from the equiv. MidHG. jener, 
OHG. fyier, allied to the differently voca- 
lised Goth, jains, OIc. enn, inn, AS. geon, 
E. you (with which yonder is connected). 
In late MidHG. der jener, 'that,' is also 
used, whence ModHG. berjentge. — jenfeif s, 
' on the other side, beyond,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. jenstt, lit. 'on that side' (MidHG. 
also jene site). 

i^tjf j adv. (older ie|, like ie for jo), ' now, 
at the present time,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. ietze, iezuo (hence the archaic ModHG. 
jejjo), beside which MidHG. iezunt. Mod 
HG. jffcuub, with a new suffix, occurs. 
How the adv. ie-zuo, recorded in earlier 
MidHG., can mean 'now' is not clear; 
comp. MidHG. iesd, ' at once,' from ie (see 
je) and sd, 'at once.' 

§totf), n., 'yoke, ridge of mountains,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. joch. OHG. j<>h(hh), 
n., 'yoke, ridge of mountains, acre' ; cor- 
responding to Goth, juk, n., ' yoke of oxen,' 
OIc. ok. AS.geoc, ~E.yolce, Uu.juk; a common 
Aryan word formed from the Aryan root 
yug, ' to fasten ' ; comp. Sans, yugi'i, ' yoke, 
team' (allied to the root yuj, 'to put to'), 
Gr. ?vy6i>, from tetiywfu, Lat. jugum, from 
jungere, Lith. jilngus, OSlov. igo (from 
*jugo) ; comp. 3aucbeit. The str. root verb 
(Teat, root juk) has become obsolete in the 
whole Tent. root. 

goppe, f., 'boddice,' from MidHG. joppe 
(jope, juppe), f., 'jacket'; borrowed, like 
Sacfe, from Rom. ; comp. Fr. jupe, jupon, 
' skirt.' Ital. giuppa, giubba, 'jacket, jerkin.' 

jttbcln, vb., 'to rejoice loudly, exult.' 
allied to MidHG. jubilieren. This word 
(formed like MidLat. jubilare, comp. Ital. 
giubilare) is still wanting in MidHG. and 
OHG. 3ube(, 'shout of joy, exultation,' too, 
first occurs in ModHG. 

gfud)crf, see Saud^evt.— juchjen, see 

jucUen. vb., 'to rub, scratch, itch,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. jucken (jikken\ OHG. 
jucchen, wk. vb. ; corresponding to AS. 
gi/ccan, E. to itch (Goth. *jukijan). The 
stem j uk, jukk, occurs also in OKQ.jucchido, 
AS. gyefia, ' itch ' (MidLG. joken, Du. jeuken, 
'to itch'). 

Z*u It-;., see 3ur. 

ijugcito, 1., 'period of youth, young 
people,' from the equiv. MidHG. jttgent(d), 
OHG. j»gu7id, f. ; corresponding to OSax. 
jugtCS, Du. jeugd, AS. geogoiS, f., 'youth, 
young troop,' E. youth (see SBurfcbe, ^ratten* 
jimmer, ami 3mme) ; the common Teut. 


( 160 ) 


abstract of jung (in Goth, junda, ' youth ') ; 

(with a nasal) ; comp. MidHG. junc(g), 
OHG. and OSax. jung, Du. jong, AS. 
geong, E. young, Goth. juggs(jungs), ' young.' 
This common Teut. junga- is based, by 
contraction from juwunga-, upon a pre- 
Teut. yuwenko-, 'young,' with which Lat. 
juvencus, ' youth,' ami Sans, yuvagds, 
' young,' are identical. The earlier Aryan 
form yuwin {yewen 1) appears in Lat. juvenis, 
' young, youth,' and juven-ta, * youth ' 
(cquiv. to Goth, junda, f.), as well as in. 
Sans, j&van, 'young, youth' {y6$d, f M 
'maid'), and OSlov.. jmiii, Li th. jdunas, 
'young/ ; they are all based upon an Ar) r an 
root yu, 'to be young' (coinp. Sans, ydviS- 
tha, ' the youngest'), gangling, ' youth, 
young man,' is a Teut. derivative of jittio, ; 
comp. OHG. jungaling, MidHG. jungelinc, 
~Du.jongeling, AS. gcongling, E. (antiquated) 

youngling, OIc. yn/jlingr (in Goth, juggn- 
lau}>s), 'youth.' — gftngor, in., Mi.-, 
prop, the compar. of jititc*. used as a subst.; 
comp. MidHG. jiinger, OHG. juvgiro, 
ciple, pupil, apprentice ' ; the word (as the 
antithesis to ^crr, OHG. hSrro) is probably 
derived from the OTeut. feudal system. — 
ModHG. gunflfcr, f., 'young girl, vir-in, 
maid, maiden,' is developed from MidHG. 
juncwrouwe, ' noble maiden, young lady ' 
(thus, even in MidHG., ver appears for the 
unaccented proclitic Srcut). To this is allied 
^flttt&er,. m., 'young nobleman, squire' 
(prop, 'son of a duke or count'), from 
MidHG. junchSrre, ' young lord, noble 
youth'; corresponding to Du. jonker, 
jonklieer, whence E. younker is borrowed. 

jiingff, 'recently,' from MidHG. ze 
jungestj comp. in juitgjte £ag, 'doomsday,' 
for fcer tffcte Sag, ' the last day.' 

Qux, in., 'jest,' ModHG. only ; probably 
from Lat.- Rom. jocus (comp. ItaL giuoco\ 
whence also E. joke y Du. jqk. 


&(ibel> n. and f., from the equiv. Mid 
HG. kabely. f. and n., 'cable' ; the latter 
borrowed, through the medium of Du. and 
LG., from Fr. odble, m., 'rope, cable' (Mid 
Lat. capulum) ; E. cabls and Scand. kabill, 
from the same source. 

fabliau, Jtabcljcm,. m., 'cod-fish,' 
first occurs in early ModHG., recorded in 
LG. from the 15th cent, and adopted by 
the literary language ; from Du. kabel- 
jaauw; Swed. kabeljo, Dan. kabeljau, E„ 
cabliau ; also,, with a curious transposition 
of consonants (see ($"jiig, f ifeetit,. Jtifce), Du. 
bah'jauw, which is based upon Basque 
baccallaOa. The Basques were the first 
cod-fishers (espec. on the coast of New- 
foundland, the chief fishing-place). See 

<&abufe, f., ' small hut,, partition, 
caboose/ ModHG. only,, from MidLG. kab- 
hAse ; comp. E. caboose, which was probably 
introduced as a naval term into Du.. kabuyn, 
and into Fr., canibuse. The stem of the E. 
word is probably the same as in E. cabin, 
and hence is Kelt. ; E. cabin and the cog- 
nate Fr. cabane, cabinet, are based upon 
W. kaban. The cognates also suggest 
ModHG. JWfter, ' small' chamber,' and OHG. 

chafterl, 'beehive,' the origin of which is 

dtadjd, f., 'earthen vessel, stove-tile,' 
from MidHG. kachel, kachele, f., 'earthen 
vessel, earthenware, stove-tile, lid of a pot,' 
OHG. chahhala. In E. the word became 
obsolete at an early period. In Du., faichcl, 
borrowed from HG., is still current (in 
MidDu. kakile). 

uocncrt, vb.,. 'to cack, go to stool,' 
early ModHG. only. Probably coined by 
schoolboys and students by affixing a G. ter- 
mination to Lat.-Gr.. caccare (kclkkcLv • allied 
to «n/c<5j 1. Comp. MidHG. qudt, ' evil, bad, 
dirt'); the OTeut. words are fdfjetjjm and 
dial, bvtjjen. In Slav, too there are terms 
similar in sound, Bohcm^. kakati, Pol. 
kakdc. The prim it., kinship of the G. word, 
however, with Gr.,. Lat.,. and Slav, is incon- 
ceivable, because the initial k in the latter 
would appear as h in Teut. 

^ctfcr, m., 'beetle, chafer.' from the 
eqniv. MidHG\. kever, kefere, OHG. chevar, 
ohivaro, m.; comp. AS. Zeafor, E. chafer, 
Du. kever, m. The Goth, term was pro- 
bably *kifra, or following AS. ceafor, *kafrus 
also (comp. LG. kavel). The name, which 
has the same import in all the dialects at 


( 161 ) 


their different periods, signifies 'gnawing 
animal' (comp. MidHG. kifen, Jciffen, 'to 
gnaw, chew,' MidHG. kiffel, under Jtiefet), 
or 'husk animal,' from OHG. cheva, 'husk,' 
MidHG. kaf, E. chaff (AS. kaf). 

gaffer, 'uneducated person/prop, astu- 
dent's term, from Arab, kdfir, 'unbeliever.' 

-"•Uificr, ni. and n., 'cage, gaol,' from 
MidHG. keyje, m., f. r and n^ 'cage (for 
wild animals and birds),' also ' prison ' ; 
the,; of the MidHG. word became*/ (comp. 
gcra,e and @d)erge). OHG. ch,evia, f., is de- 
rived from Low Lat. cdvia, Lat. cavea, '■bird- 
cage' (respecting HG. / for Lat. v, comp. 
ifferb, SScrd, and SBerbift), whence also Mod 
HG. .ftaue. Allied to the Rom. words, 
Ital. gabbia, gaggia, Fr. cage (hence E. cage), 
and Ital. gabbiuolo, Fr. gedle (E. jail, gaol), 
' prison.' Further, Skuct first obtained the 
meaning 'cage' in MidHG. 

gaffer, n., comp. J?a6ufe ; the meaning 
' Hi tie chamber' is ModHG. only ; in OHG. 
chafteri, 'beehive,' Suab. kdft, 'student's 
room ' ?. Allied to AS. ceaforHn, ' hall ' ?. 

haf)f, adj., from- the equiv. MidHG. 
leal (gen. kalwer), ' bald,' OHG. chalo (gen. 
chalwSr, chalawir) ; comp. Du. kaal, AS. 
calu, E. callow. Probably borrowed from 
Lat. calvus (Sans, khalvdta, ' bald-headed '), 
whence Fr. chauve, since Lat. crispus and 
capillare have also been introduced into 
Teut. ; comp. AS. cyrsp, E. crisp, OHG. and 
MidilG. krisp, 'curly,' and Goth, kapilldn, 
' to crop one's hair.' Probably the Teutons 
and the Romanswere equallystruck by each 
other's method of wearing the hair. Other 
etymologists are inclined to. connect Teut. 
kalwa- with OSlov. golu, 'bare, naked.' 

.Sbcifym, iStorjlt, m.. 'mould on fer- 
mented liquids,' from the equiv. MidHG. 
kdm (kd») ; comp. Ic. kdm, n., ' thin coat- 
ing of dust, dirt,' E. coom, 'soot, coal dust' 
(with i mutation, E. keam, keans); Goth. 
*l:ema-, *kemi-. The root ka- is inferred 
from MidHG. ka-del, in., 'soot, dirt.' Der. 
fafymtg, adj., 'mouldy' (of wine). 

£&.aiftl, m., 'boat, skiff, wherry,' Mod 
HG. only (strictly unknown to UpG. and 
Rlien., as in the case of 93cot ; in UpG. 
9?acf}eu) ; from LG. kane, Du. kaam ; comp. 
OIc. ktiena, f., ' a kind of boat.' OIc. kane 
signifies ' wooden vessel,' whence the 
meaning 'boat' might be evolved accord- 
ing to the analogies adduced under ©duff ; 
com]). Dan. kane, with a somewhat different 
sense ' sleigh.' LG. kane looks like a meta- 
thesis of AS. naca (comp. fityclu and 3if$ f )- 

From the Teut. cognates, OFr. cane, 'ship, 
is derived, but hardly so ModFr. canot, 
which is of American origin. 

^tatfer, m., 'emperor,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. keiser, OHG. keisar; correspond- 
ing to AS. cdsere r Goth, kaisar. The ai of 
the ModHG- orthography originated in the 
Bav. and Aust. chancery of Maximilian I., 
in which the MidHG. ei necessarily became 
ai (according to the lexicographer Helvig, 
a.d. 1620, Meissen Sax. Jleifet was Bohem.- 
Bav. Jfatyfer). The ae of Lat. Caesar, upon 
which the word is based, cannot be made 
responsible for the ModHG. ai. More- 
over, the relation of Lat. ai to Goth.- 
Teut. ai is not explained. The, Romans, it 
is true, used ae for ai in Teut. words, comp. 
Lat. gaesum, under ©er ; yet the use of 
Teut. & to represent ae in Lat. Vraecus 
(Goth. Kreks, OHG. Chriah, 'Greek') is 
opposed to this. At the same period as 
the adoption of the names ®ried)e and 9?i?mer 
(Goth. Rdmdiieis), i.e., the beginning of 
our era, the Teutons must have borrowed 
the Lat. term, connecting it chiefly with 
Caius Julius Ca;sar (similarly the Slavs 
use the name Jfarl bcr ©rcfie of Charlemagne, 
in the sense of 'king'; OSlav. kraljl, 
Russ. korolt, whence Lith. kardlius, ' king ') ; 
yet not until the Roman emperors adopted 
the title Caesar could this word, which pro- 
bably existed previously in Teut, assume 
the meaning ' emperor,' while the Romance 
nations adhered to the Lat. title imperator ; 
comp. Fr. empereur. OSlov. cesarl (in Russ. 
contracted Car) is derived through a G. 
medium (which also elucidates MidE. anil 
OIc. keiser) from Cwsar. Thus Jftufcr is 
the earliest Lat. word borrowed by Teut. 
(see §anf). For a Kelt loan-word meaning 
'king' see under Off id). 

i"tajitfc, f., ' cabin,' early ModHG., from 
LG. kajiitey Du. kajuit, Fr. cajute. The 
origin of the group is obsoure^but is hardly 
to be assigned to Teut 

(^alan&cr, m., ' weevil,' from the equiv. 
LG. and Du. kalander (comp. Fr. calandre). 

Stalb, n., 'calf,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. kalp (b), OHG. chalb (plur. chalbir), 
n. ; comp. AS. cealf, E. calf, Du. kalf, OIc. 
kalfr, m. ; Goth, has only a fem. kalbd 
(OHG. chalba, MidHG. kalbe), 'heifer over 
a year old that has not calved.' MidHG. 
kilbere, f., OHG. chilburra, f., 'ewe lamb,' 
is in a different stage of gradation ; comp. 
AS. cilforlamb, 'ewe lamb,' and ModHG. 
dial, tfilbcr (Swiss), ' young ram,' (E. dial 


( 162 ) 


ehilver). In the non-Tent, languages there 
is a series of words with the phonetic base 
glbh-, denoting 'the young of animals.' 
Comp. Sans, gdrbha, ' covey,' also ' child, 
offspring' ; in the sense of 'mother's lap' 
the Ind. word suggests Qr. 5e\<pfc, ' womb,' 
and its derivative ade\<p6s, 'brother'; comp. 
also d4\<f>a£, ' pig, porker.' To the a of the 
Teut. word in Gr. 8o\<p$s ' tj ^rpa, 'the 
womb,' corresponds. 

^talfcauneit, f. plnr., 'intestine.*,' from 
MidHG. and MidLG. kald&ne; a MidHG. 
and LG. word (in Ui>G. Jtittteln). It is 
based upon a Rom. and MidLut. cald&men, 
a derivative of Lat. calidus (caldtis) 'warm,' 
meaning chiefly ' the still reeking entrails 
of newly slaughtered animals'; comp. 
South-West Fr. chaurtin, Bologn. caldfrm, 
' entrails.' From East Rom. (aid G. 1) the 
word found its way also into Slav. ; comp. 
Czech kaldoun, ' entrails,' Croat, kalduni, 

^tafenber, m., ' calendar,' from MidHG. 
kalender (with the variant kalendencere), m. ; 
the latter comes from Lat. calendarium, but 
is accented like calendae. 

fealfafertt, vb., ' to caulk a ship,' from 
Du. kalefaterenj the latter is derived from 
Fr. calfater. 

jftctlfc, 111., 'lime,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. kale, kalkes, OHG. chalch, m. The 
ModHG. variant Jtatd) (occurring in UpG. 
nnd MidG.) is based upon OHG. chalk for 
chalah (hit). Allied to AS. Scale; but E. 
chalk has assumed a divergent sense, just 
as MidHG. kale means both * lime ' and 
' white-wash.' The cognates are derived 
from the Lat. ace. calcem (nom. calx), and 
were borrowed at a very early period, as 
is indicated by the initial &, or rather c of 
the HG. and E. words, for somewhat later 
loan-words such as .Rteuj (from crucem) have 
z for Lat. c; c remains as k in old loan- 
words such as .Raifer, Goth, lukarna, from 
Lat. lucerna, JW(cr, from ceHarium. The 
Teutons became acquainted through the 
Itals. both with the name and thing about 
the same period as with SWauer and B'\t$tl 

.<Utlm, m., 'calm,' of LG. origin ; LG. 
ialm, E. calm ; based on the Fr. ealme. 

<&almatxk, /tafmemg, m, from E. 
calamanco, Fr. calmande, {., all with the 
same meaning, ' fine woollen stuff.' Mid Lat. 
calamancus may be derived from the East. 

ModHG., of obscure origin ; the second part 

of the compound is exactly the same as ill 
Surfmdiifer, which see. 

fcctlf, adj., 'cold,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. and OHG. kalt (gen. IcalUs) : corre- 
sponding to AS. ceald, cold, E. cold, OIc 
kaldr, Goth, kalds; an old partic. forma- 
tion corresponding to the Lat. vbs. in -ivx, 
Sans, tas (Goth, d from Aryan t), as in air, 
laut, tott, tiaut, javt, &c. kal- as the root 
appears in a stronger stage of gradation 
in ModHG. futyl, and in a weaker stage in 
OIc. htlde, 'cold.' In OIc. and AS. the 
str. vh. of which ModHG. fait and OIc. 
keldr are patties, is retained ; Scand. hda, 
'to freeze,' AS. calan, 'to freeze'; allied 
to Swiss x a k, ' to cool,' and hence ' curdle.' 
Note ModE. chill from AS. Syle (from 6eli, 
kali). The root is identical with that of 
Lat. gelv, ' frost,' geldre, ' to congeal,' gelt- 
dus, 'cold.' 

Jiamcl, n., 'camel,' from Lat. camilm; 
in MidHG. kemmel, kernel, which point to 
the Byzantine and ModGr. pronunciation 
of Gr. KdfMJXos, and hence to K&fii\os (the 
e of kernel is produced by t- mutation from 
a). The ModHG. word is a more recent 
scholarly term, borrowed anew from Lat. 
(comp. Fr. chameau, Ital. camello), while 
the MidHG. word was brought back from 
the Crusades, and hence is due to imme- 
diate contact with the East. Moreover, at 
San Rossore, near Pisa, a breed of camels 
has existed from the Crusades down to 
modern times, some of which aTe exhibited 
in Europe as curiosities. In the OTeut. 
period there was, curiously enough, a pecu- 
liar word for 'camel' current in most of 
the dialects, which corresponded to Gr. 
i\e<i>a.vT-, Goth, ulbandus, AS. olfend, OHG. 
olbenta, MidHG. olbent; allied to OSlov. 
velibadu, ' camel.' The history of this word 
is quite obscure. 

dtamerab, m., ' comrade, companion,' 
ModHG. only, from Fr. camarade (Ital. 
cameraia, 'society,' lit. 'comrades living 
together in a room,' then too ' companion ',*, 
whence also E. comrade. OTeut. had a 
number of terms for ModHG. ^amerafc ; 
comp. ©ffellf, ©ejtnce, OHG. gidofto, ' com- 
panion ' (comp. £edjt and 35eft), simply 
forms illustrative of the OTeut. heroic age, 
which were partly disused in the MidHG. 
period in favour of the foreign terms •Ram- 
part and JJamcrab. 

guxmilie, f., 'camomile,' from MidHG. 
kamille, f., which is again derived from Mid 
Lat. and Ital. camamilla (Gr. x^a'" 1 ?* 01 '). 


( 163 ) 


The term became current in the Middle 
Ages through medical science, which was 
learnt from the Greeks (comp. 3lrjt, 93ud}fe, 

^omitt, m., 'chimney, fireplace, fire- 
side,' from MidHG. kdmtn, kgmtn; the Mod 
HG. accentuation, which differs from the 
MidHG., is due to the word being based 
anew on Lat camtnus, while the latter is due 
to- a German version of the foreign word. 
E. chimney is Fr. chemin4e, 'chimney, fire- 

Slace,' which is phonetically cognate with 
EidLat. caminata, prop, 'room with a stove 
or fireplace,' and hence with MidHG. kemi- 
ndte (yvvaiKe'iov) ; allied also to Czech, Pol., 
and Russ. komnata, 'room.' 

(^atttifol, 11., ' waistcoat, jacket,' simply 
ModHG. formed like the Fr. camisole, 
'under-vest' (allied to MidLat. camisia, 
' shirt ' ; see §emt>). 

„<ictmm, m., 'comb,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. kam (mm), kamp (b) ; it signifies 
' comb ' in the widest sense ; OHG. chamb; 
comp. AS. comb, E. comb (also AS. hunig- 
comb, E. honeycomb ?), Goth. *kambs. The 
term is undoubtedly OTeut ; our ancestors 
attached great importance to dressing their 
hair. Tiie lit. meaning of the word is 
'instrument with teeth,' for in the allied 
Aryan languages the meaning ' tooth ' ob- 
tains in the cognate words. OHG. chamb 
is based upon pre-Teut. gombho- ; comp. 
Gr. yofupios, ' molar tooth,' ya/up-qXal, 
<pal, 'jaws, beak'; OInd. jambha, m., 'tusk' 
(plural 'bit'), jambhya, m., 'incisor,' 
Slov. zabu, ' tooth ' Gr. y6fi<pos, ' plug, bolt,' 
points to a wider development of meaning. 
— U&mmext, vb., ' to comb, card (wool),' 
is a verbal noun ; ModHG. kemmen, OHG. 
chemben, chgmpen ; AS. cpiiban. In UpG. 
the term jhdfylen is current, <2trdf)l too being 
the word for ' comb.' 

jammer, f., ' chamber, office,' from 
MidHG. kamer, kamere, f., with the general 
meaning ' sleeping apartment, treasury, 
storeroom, money-chest, royal dwelling, 
justice chamber,' &c. ; OHG. chamara, f., 
' apartment, palace.' E. chamber, from Fr. 
chambre; but the HG. word is based upon 
a Rom. word (Span, and Port.) camara, 
' room ' (Ital. camera), which ag iin is de- 
rived from, ' any enclosed space with 
a vaulted roof,' a term restricted to the more 
civilised classes in the Middle Ages and 
current in the Rom. and Tent, groups ; 
comp. further OFr. camra, Slav. Icomora. 
The numerous meanings in MidHG. are 

also indicated by the ModHG. derivatives 
and compound terms hammerer, JJdmmeret, 
and .Rammetfierr. 

(ftcumnertudj, n., ' cambric,' manufac- 
tured first at Cambray (Du. Kamerijk) ; 
corresponding to Du. kamerijksdock. 

£k(Xttip, m., a LG. word, comp. Du. 
(MidDu.) kamp ; from Lat. campus ?. Jtamp, 
however, has a special sense, ' enclosed 
piei-e of ground, field.' 

<|tttmpe, m., ' combatant, wrestler,' first 
introduced into literary ModHG. by the 
study of the Teut. languages, yet the special 
history of the word is not known. The 
form indicates a LG. origin ; comp. OLG. 
kempio, ' combatant, warrior.' Perhaps it 
was orig. a legal term of the Saxon Code. 
See Jtamp". 

Jtatttpf, m., 'combat,' from MidHG. 
kampf, m. and n., ' combat, duel, tilting ' ; 
OHG. champf, m., AS. camp, comp; OIc. 
kapp, n. Tiie OIc. word is interesting, 
because it signifies lit. 'zeal, emulation,' 
which is the orig. meaning of Jtampf (Mod 
HG. Jtvicg has gone through a similar de- 
velopment of meaning). Hence there is 
no probability in the assumption that OTeut 
*kampa- is derived from Eat. campus, thus 
connecting it with Campus Martius. This 
older assumption receives no support from 

{thonetic laws, for kamp does not look un- 
ike a Teut. word, while the meaning of 
the Scand. word makes it impossible. We 
should consider, too, whether the old Teu- 
tons, with their numerous terms relating 
to war, had any need of borrowing such a 
word. Some connect OTeut. kampo- with 
Sans, jang, ' to fight.' HG. Jldntpfer, and 
Jldmpfe, Jtdmpe, prop. ' combatant,' is Mid 
HG. kempfe, OHG. chemphio, cliempho, 
' wrestler, duellist ' ; AS. cempa, and OIc. 
kappe signify 'warrior, hero'; this term, 
denoting the agent, passed into Rom. (comp. 
Fr. champion, whence also E. champion). 

tSfcampfer, m., ' camphor,' from MidHG. 
kampf er, gaffer, m., from MidLat camphora, 
cafura (Fr. camphre ; Ital. canfora and 
cafura, ModGr. Ka<fx>vpd) ; the latter term 
is derived finally from Ind. karpAra, kap&r, 
or from Hebr. kopher, ' pitch, resin.' 

/utnef , m., ' cinnamon bark,' accented 
on the termination, from MidHG. kanil, 
' stick or cane of cinnamon ' ; the word was 
borrowed in the MidHG. period from Fr. 
canelle, canndle, 'cinnamon bark,' which 
is a diminut of Fr. canne (Lat canna\ 
' cane,' Ital. canella, ' tube.' 


( 164 ) 


<$tamncf><m, n., 'rabbit,' dimin. of an 
earlier ModHG. J?attin ; it is based upon 
Lat. (funiculus, winch passed into HG. in 
various forms ; MidHG. kiinicltn (accented 
on the first syllable), evidently germanised, 
also kiinolt, kiinlln, kulle. The ModHG. 
form is based upon a MidLat. variant, 
caniculus; the form with a is properly 
restricted to North and Middle Germany, 
while ii (JJiindjel) is current in the South. 
Comp. MidE. coning, E. coney, from Fr. 
conmn (Ital. coniglio). 

^anhcr (1.), m., ' spider ' (MidG), from 
the equiv. MidHG. Jcanher (rare), m. The 
derivation of the word from Lat. cancer, 
' crab,' is, for no other reason than the 
meaning, impossible. It seems to be based 
upon an OTeut. vb. ' to weave, spin.' This 
is indicated by the OIc. kgngulvdfa, kgngur- 
v&fa, 'spider'; AS. gongelwcefre, 'spider,' 
must also be based upon a similar word ; 
its apparent meaning, *-the insect that 
weaves as it goes along,' is probably due 
to a popular corruption of the obscure first 
component. We should thus get a prim. 
Teut. stem hang, 'to spin,' which in its 
graded form appears in ModHG. jtunfel. 
This stem has been preserved in the non- 
Tent, languages only in a Finn, loan-word ; 
comp. Finn. Icangas, ' web ' (Goth. *kaggs). 

farther (2.), m., ' canker,' from OHG. 
chanchar, cancur ; comp. AS. cancer, E. 
canker. Probably OHG. chanchur is a real 
Teut. word from an unperniutated gon- 
gro- ; comp. Gr. y&yypos, ' an excrescence on 
trees,' ydyypaiva, ' gangrene.' Perhaps a 
genuinely Teut. term has been blended with 
a foreign word (Lat. cancer, Fr. chancre). 

^cmrte, f., 'can, tankard, jug,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. kanne, OHG. channa, f. \_ 
comp. AS. canne % E. can; OIc. kanaa, 
Goth. *kann6. The OTeut. word cannot 
have been borrowed from Lat. cantharus 
(Gr. K&vdapos) ; an assumed corruption of 
kantarum, m. ace. to a fern. kann6 y is impro- 
bable. The derivation of Jtauiie, from Lat. 
c anna, ' cane,' is opposed by the meaning 
of the word. Since ModHG. Maljn is based 
upon a Teut. root ka-, the hitter can hardly 
be adduced in explanation of Jtamte, al- 
though the meaning of both might be 
deduced from a prim, sense ' hollowed 
wood.' If we assume, as is quite possible, 
a Goth. *kaznd, 'can,' another etymology 
presents itself, Goth, kas, OIc. ker, and 
OHG. char, 'vessel,' would be cognate, 
and -n6- t a suffix of the same root. If we 

compare, however, with Jtanne the Suab. 
and Alem. variant Jtante, which is based 
upon OHG. chanta, we obtain kan- as the 
root. The G. word passed into Fr. (Mod. 
Fr. canette, ' small can,' equiv. to MidLat. 
cannetta, dimin. of MidLat. canna). 

-ft ante, f., 'sharp edge, border, margin, 
fine lace,' ModHG. only, from LG. kante, 
'edge, corner'; the latter, like E. cant, 
' corner, edge,' which is also unknown to 
the earlier periods of the language, is de- 
rived from Fr. cant, 'corner,' which, with 
Ital. canto, is said to be based finally on 
Gr. k6.p6os, 'felloe of a wheel.' 

(^Lcmffcf)U, m., 'leather whip,' from 
Bohem. kanSuch, Pol. kaiiczuk. The word 
is of Turk, origin (Turk, kamle, 'whip'). 
Comp. ,ftatfcatfd)e. 

Jtanjel, f., ' pulpit,' from MidHG. kan- 
zel, OHG. cancella, chanzella, f., lit. 'the 
place set apart for the priests,' then ' pul- 
pit'; from the equiv. MidLat. cancellus, 
cancelli, 'grating,' cancelli altaris, 'the 
grating enclosing the altar, the part sepa- 
rated from the nave of the church by a 
grating'; in MidLat. generally 'any part 
surrounded by a parapet, especially an 
oriental flat roof.' " Qui vero Epistolas 
missas recitare volebant populo in regione 
Palsestinse antiquitus, ascendebant super 
tectum et de cancellis recitabant et inde 
inolevit usus ut qui litteras principibus 
missas habent exponere Cancellarii usitato 
nomine dicantur" (du Cange). Hence 
Jtanjler. From the same source, MidLat. 
cancellus, is derived E. chancel, taken from 
OFr., the meaning of which forms the 
starting-point for the development of the 
signification of the HG. word. 

jStapaun, m., 'capon,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. kappUn ; borrowed after the era 
of the substitution of consonants from 
Rom. cappdnem (Lat. capo, equiv. to Gr. 
kAttwv) ; comp. Ital. cappone, Fr. chapon 
(whence also Serv. kopun). Even in the 
AS. period captin, ' gallinaceus,' is found 
derived from the same source (E. capon) ; 
comp. Du.. kapoen. From the Lat. nom. 
cappo is derived MidHG. kappe, and even 
OHG. chappo.. For another term see under 

(j&apcllc (1.), f., ' chapel, orchestra,' an 
early loan-word, which always remained, 
however, under the influence of MidLat. 
capella, on which it is based, for while 
numerous other words borrowed from Lat. 
have their accent changed according to the 


( 165 ) 


Teut. metliod, the Lat accent is retained 
in OHG. chapella, MidHG. kapelle, and the 
ModHG. form. It is true that in MidHG. 
kdppelle (ModAlem. kdppelle), with the G. 
accent also occurs, and hence the UpG. 
.Ra^cf, Jtiwel, frequent names of villages. 
MidLat capella has a peculiar history ; as 
a dimin. of capa (comp. J?aN>e) it signified 
*a cape' ; the chapel itself, in which the 
cloak of St. Martin and other relics were 
preserved, first obtained the name of 
capella; then from about the 7th cent, 
the use of the word became general. — 
/taplan, m., ' chaplain,' from MidHG. 
kappelldn. It is based on MidLat. capel- 
Idnus, which orig. denoted the priest who 
had to guard the cloak of St. Martin. — 
MidLat. capella also signifies the body of 
priests under a bishop, hence the other 
meanings of ModHG. ^apeftf. 

Stapelle (2.), f., 'cupel,' ModHG. only ; 
it is based upon a combination of MidLat. 
capella, Fr. chapelle, 'lid of an alembic,' 
and MidLat. cupella, Fr. coupelle, 'cupel, 
crucible ' (dimin. of Lat. cupa). 

Jtctper, m., 'pirate,' from the equiv. 
Du. kaper. 

Jiapifel, n., 'chapter,' from MidHG. 
kapitel, ' solemn assembly, convention,' 
OHG. capital, capitul, ' inscription.' Mid 
h&t. capitulum has also both these meanings. 

kctpotres, adj., 'broken, destroyed,' Mod 
HG. only ; according to the general ac- 
ceptation it is not allied to ModHG. fapur, 
but is rather derived from Hebr. kapp&rdh, 
' reconciliation, atonement.' 

<S%appe, f., 'hood, cowl' ; the meaning of 
MidHG. kappe, f., upon which it is based, 
does not correspond very often with that 
of ModHG., its usual signification bein;.; 
'a garment shaped like a cloak and fitted 
with a cowl as a covering for the head ' ; 
hence Xarnfappe, which has first been made 
current in ModHG. in this century through 
the revival by scholars of the MidHG. torn- 
kappe (prop. ' the cloak that makes the 
wearer invisible'). OHG. chappa ; AS. 
cceppe, ' cloak,' E. cap. The double sense of 
the MidHG. word appears in the MidLat. 
and Rom. cappa, ' cloak, cap,' on which it is 
based (on the prim, form capa is based E. 
cope, from MidE. cope, as well as OIc. kdpa, 
4 cloak '). With regard to the meaning 
coinp. Mod Fr. ch ape (cape), 'cope, scabbard, 
sheath, case,' and the derivatives chapeau, 
'hat,' and chaperon, 'cowl.' The MidLat. 
word was adopted by the more civilised 

classes of Europe, passing into Slav, as well 
as into Rom. and Teut The word was not 
borrowed, or rather not naturalised before 
the 8th cent., for an earlier borrowed term 
would have been *chapfa in OHG. and 
*kapfe in MidHG.— Comp. Jfcujette. 

happen, vb., 'to chop, lop,' ModHG. 
simply, from Du. kappen, 'to split' ; comp. 
Dan. kappe and E. chap. In UpAlsat. 
kcliapfe is found with the HG. form ; allied 
also to the dial, graded forms kipfen, kippen; 
hence the Teut. root kep, kapp. 

Nappes, pappus, m., 'headed cab- 
bage,' from the equiv. MidHG. kappa$, 
kappds, kabe$, m. OHG. chabu^, cliapu^, 
directly connected with Lat. caput, which 
strangely enough does not appear in Mid 
Lat. in the sense of ' cabbage-head ' ; Ital. 
capuccio (hence Fr. cabus and E. cabbage) 
presumes, however, a MidLat. derivative 
of caput in the sense of ' cabbage-head, 
headed cabbage.' The naturalisation of 
the Ital. word in HG. may have been com- 
pleted in the 7th cent, or so ; by that time 
a number of Lat. names of plants, as well 
as the art of cookery and gardening intro- 
duced from the South, was already firmly 
established in Germany. 

^tappaauut, m., ' cavezon,' ModHG. 
only, corrupted from Ital. caxezzone, whence 
also Fr. cavecon, ' cavezon.' 

feapuf , adj., lit. ' lost at play,' ModHG. 
simply, from Fr. capot; faire capot, ' to 
cause to lose,' itre capot, &c. The Fr. ex- 
pression was introduced into G. with a 
number of other terms orig. used at play 
(comp. XrcfF). 

<$apU3e, f., 'cowl,' ModHG. only, from 
Ital. capuccio, whence also Fr. capuce; Mid 
Lat capucium; deriv. Jtapitjinet (MidLat 
capucin us). 

Sxcircii, n., 'carat,' not derived from 
MidHG. gdrdt, f. and n., ' carat,' which in 
ModHG. must have been (5hirat. The Mod 
HG. has been more probably borrowed 
anew from Fr. carat or Ital. cardto; the Mid 
HG. word has adopted theG. accent, while 
the ModHG. term preserves the accent of 
the Rom. word upon which it is based. 

.XtarcutfdK, f., 'crucian,' ModHG. only; 
older variants. kara$, karAtsch; from Fr. 
carassin, ' crucian ' ?. Comp. also E. crucian, 
and its equiv. Ital. coracino, Lith. kardsas, 
Serv. karai, Czech karas, which forms are 
nearer to HG. than to Fr. ; the final source 
is Gr. Kopcucivoi (MidLat. coractnus). 

S\arbcilfd)C, f., ' hunting-whip,' bor- 


( 1 66 ) 


rowed from Slav, like JTaMfau and s J}<itfdje 
in ModHG. ; Pol. karbacz, Boh. karabdS 
(from Turk. kerbaZ). 

&arbe, ^Starve, f., 'caraway,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. karice and karne, f. ; allied 
to Fr. and Ital. carvi, ' caraway.' The usual 
assumption that ths word as well as E. 
caraway is based on Lat. careum (Gr. Kdpov), 
'caraway,' is notquite satisfactory, hence the 
influence of Arab, al-karavia is assumed. 

JKitrd), m., 'dray,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. karrech, karrich, OHG. cliarrUk (hh), 
in. Probably current even in the 8th cent, 
on the Up. and Mid. Rhine, as may be in- 
ferred from the initial h, ch (comp. *Bfcrb). 
It is based upon the late Lat. carruca, 
' honoratorum vehiculum opertum, four- 
wheeled travelling car' (a derivative of 
carrus; comp. barren) ; Fr.charrue, 1 plough,' 
is likewise based upon Lat. carr&ca, which 
also signifies 'plough' in MidLat. 

giarbe, f., 'fuller's thistle,' from Mid 
HG. karte, f., OHG. charta, f., ' teasel, the 
instrument made from the thistle and 
used by cloth-weavers for carding wool.' 
The final source is Mid Lat. cardus, carduus, 
'thistle' (Fr. chardon, Ital. cardo), the d 
of the ModHG. word compared with the t 
of OHG. and MidHG. is due to the word, 
which was naturalised about the 7th cent., 
being based anew on the Lat. form. — 
<^tar6effd)e, <S%arb&lf<$)e, f., 'carder's 
comb' ; a derivative of .Rarbe. 

(^larfrcifag, m., 'Good Friday,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. karvrftac, mostly kar- 
tac, m. ; J?avtt»ed)f, ' Passion Week,' is also 
current even in MidHG. The first part of 
the compound is OHG. chara, f., 'lamenta- 
tion, mourning ' (charasang, ' elegy '). This 
OTeut. word for JHage, 'lament,' as distin- 
guished from the other synonyms, signifies 
properly the silent, inward mourning, not 
the loud wailing, for in Goth, the cognate 
kara, f., means ' care,' AS. cearu, f., ' care, 
suffering, grief,' E. care. A corresponding 
vb. signifying * to sigh ' is preserved in 
OHG. queran (Goth. *qairan). Other de- 
ri vatives of the Teut root kar, qer, are want- 
ing. See also farg. 

Jtarfunfcel, in., ' carbuncle,' from Mid 
HG. karbunkel, m., with the variant kar- 
funkel, probably based on MidHG. vunke, 
ModHG. guttfe ; b is the original sound, for 
the word is based upon L it. carbunculus 
(comp. E. carbuncle, ModFr. escarboucU). 

&arg, adj., 'sparing, niggardly,' from 
MidHG. karc (g), ' prudent, cunning, sly, 

stingy' ; in OHG. charag, 'sad' ; a deriva- 
tive of the OTeut. kara, ' care,' discussed 
under Jfarfreitag. From the primary mean- 
ing ' anxious,' the three significations 'sad,' 
' frugal,' and 'cunning' might be derived ; 
comp. AS. (earig, ' sad,' and E. chart/, allied 
to E. care. The syncope of the vowel in 
MidHG. karc compared with OHG. charag 
is normal after r. 

^torpfen, m., ' carp,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. karp/e, OHG. charplto, m.; comp. 
E. carp; allied to OIc. kar/e. It cannot be 
decided whether jtarpfen is a real Teut. 
word ; probably MidLat. carpo, Fr. carpe, 
and Ital. carpione are derived from Teut. 
In Kelt, too there are cognate terms for 
' carp,' W. carp ; comp. also Ru*s. karpu, 
koropu, Serv. krap, Litli. kdrpa, 'carp.' 

gtoxxxe, f., barren, m., from the equiv. 
MidHG. karre, m. and f., OHG. cltarra, f., 
cliarro, m , ' cart' ; the HG. words and abo 
the E. car (OIc. kerra) are based on Mid 
Lat. carrus, m., carra, f., and their Rum. 
derivatives (ModFr. char, 'car'). Lat. carrus, 
' four-wheeled transport waggon,' is again 
of Kelt, origin (Gael, carr, Bret, karr) ; 
comp. Jtatcfc, *Pferb. — ^ariole, ^arrtole, 
f., ^ariol, n., 'jaunting car,' simply Mod 
HG. from Fr. carriole. — gn&VTnex, ni., 
' carter.' 

Attrff , m., ' hoe,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. karst, m., OHG. and OSax. carst ; the 
word is not foitnd in other groups. The 
etymology is dubious ; allied to fef>rc u 
(karjan), ' to sweep ' ?. 

(^tartauitc, tartaric, f., ' short, heavy 
cannon,' from Ital. quartana, MidLat. quar- 
tdna; this term, as well as its earlier Mod 
HG. version ffiiertefebiidjfe, signifies a gun 
"which fired 25 lbs., in comparison with the 
heaviest piece of artillery firing 100 lbs." 

-ftctrf C, f., ' card, chart, map,' from late 
MidHG. karte, f.; formed from Fr. carte. 

(Aarfrjaufc, jfcarfaufe, f., 'Carthusian 
monastery,' from late MidHG. kart&se, f., 
which is again derived from CartHsia, Char- 
treuse (near Grenoble, where the Carthusian 
order was founded in 1084 A.D.). — <^crrf- 
f)&\lfer, 'Carthusian friar,' from MidHG. 
kartuser, karthiuser. 

<i*arioffel, f., ' potato,' derived by a 
process of differentiation from the earlier 
ModHG. form Sartuffcl. Potatoes were in- 
troduced into Germany about the middle 
of the 18th cent, from Italv, as is proved 
by the Ital. name (comp. Ital. tartufo, tartu- 
folo; 6ee$vuffd). Another name, (Srtar-fd, 


( 167 ) 


seems to indicate that the plant was brought 
i'rom the Netherlands and France, Du. 
aard-appel, Fr. pomme de tare. The dial, 
©rutnbire is due to a similar conception, its 
orig. form being ©ruticbtrne. £ujfrln is a 
shortened form of jfartojfel, resulting from 
the position of the accent (conip. jfr"irbii? 
from cucurbita). The rarer dial. $atafm 
(Franc), which corresponds to E. potato, 
is based upon Ital. and. Span, patata, the 
final source of which is an American word. 
Potatoes were introduced in the 17th cent, 
from America into Spain and Italy, and 
were transplanted from these countries to 
the north. 

<5iiafe, m., 'cheese,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. knese, OHG. chdsi, m.; Lat. cdseus 
(whence also Olr. caise), before the 5th cent, 
at the latest was adopted in the vernacular 
form cdsius (variant cdseus ?) by the Teu- 
tons ; comp. Du. kaas, AS. cfise, E. cheese. 
It corresponds in Rom. to Ital. cacio, Span. 
queso ; yet cdseus was supplanted in the 
dials, at an early date by Lat. *formaticus, 
♦(cheese) mould'; comp. Fr. fromage (Ital. 
formaggio). OIc. has a peculiar word for 
1 cheese,' ostr, in Goth, perhaps *justs (comp. 
Finn, juusto, ' cheese') ; the assumed Goth. 
*just8 is connected etymologically with Lat. 
jus, ' broth,' OSlov. jucha, ' soup,' OInd. 
yuSdn, ' soup ' (comp Sattdje), the root of 
which is yu, ' to mix,' in Lith. jduju, jduti, 
'to mix (dough).' From this collocation 
of terms it is probable that *justs is the 
OTeut. word for 'cheese,' and that the 
Teutons did not learn how to make cheese 
from the Southerners, but only an improved 
method of doing so when they adopted the 
term Jtafe from them. It is true that ac- 
cording to Pliny, Hist. Nat. xi. 41, the 
barbarians generally were not acquainted 
with the method ; yet comp. also 33uhcr. 

Aoflttnie, f., 'chestnut* ; comp. OHG. 
chestiniia, MidHG. tystene, tysten, kastdnie. 
The latter is evidently a return to the orig. 
form, Lat. castanea, which had already been 
transformed tokestenne (comp. UpG. J?estc). 
Moreover, OHG. chestinna and AS. Sisten 
(£istenbedm, MidHG. kedenboum, E. chest- 
nut) point to a Lat. *castinia, *castinja. 
Comp. Fr. chdtaigne, Ital. castagna, ' chest- 
nut.' The Lat. word is derived from the 
equiv. Gr. Kaaravia, -ma, -mov, -vov ; the 
chestnut was named from the town of KdV- 
rava, in Pontus. 

Krtflcicrt, vb., 'to chastise,' from Mid 
HG. kastbjen (g for j), tystigen, OHG. ch$s- 

tl<j6n, 'to, punish' ; the alteration 
of the accent and the vowels corresponds 
to that in ^aflanie (which see) compared 
with the dial, jfejie. Lat. castigate (whence 
also Fr. c/idtier, and further E. chastise) wa3 
adopted on the introduction of Christianity 
(comp. Jfreuj, fruiter, and prebiflen) from 
ecclesiastical Lat. ; OHG. c/i$stlg6n, like 
many words borrowed in the OHG. period 
(see prebtvjen), was accented after the G. 

^taffen, m., 'chest,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. kaste, OHG. chasto, tn. ; this word, which 
is at all events really Teut., is wanting in 
the rest of the OTeut. dials. Goth. *kasta, 
' receptacle,' may be connected with kasa-, 
' vessel,' so that the dental would be a de- 
rivative ; yet kas signifies specially ' an 
earthen vessel, pot' (comp. kasja, ' potter'). 
This Goth, kas, moreover, became char in 
OHG. by the normal change of s into r ; in 
the ModHG. literary speech it is now want- 
ing, but it appears in MidHG. binen-kar, 
upon which ModHG. 5Menenfotb is based. 

£kalev, m., ' tom-cat,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. kater, katere, m., OHG. chataro, 
m.; the r of j?ater appears to be a masc. 
suffix ; comp. SWavber and SWarb, Xaubet and 
£aube; (Sntemd) and (Snte?, ©anfer and 
©ana 1, &c. Comp. JTafce. 

Jtaff ittt, m., ' cotton, calico,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. kottAn, m., which is again 
derived from Du. kattoen, Fr. coton, equiv. 
to E. cotton. 

,Suxt]e, f., ' cat,' from the equiv. MidHG. 
katze, OHG. chazza, f. ; a common Europ. 
word in the Mid. Ages and in modern times ; 
of obscure origin. Comp. also AS. catt, in., 
E. cat; OIc. lcqttr, m. These assume Goth. 
*katta, *kattus. Early Mid Lat. cattus and 
its Rom. derivatives (Ital. gatto, Fr. chat), 
It. and Gael, cat, m., and Slav. kotu\ 'tom- 
cat,' Lith. katl, 'cat,' kdtinas, ' tom-cat ' 
(allied to Serv. kotiti, 'to litter,' &c, kot, 
'brood, litter'), suggest the possibility 
that the Teut. term was borrowed from a 
neighbouring race after the period of the 
Teut. substitution of consonants, at latest 
a century before or alter the migration of 
the tribes. It is a remarkable fact, how- 
ever, that G. retains a prim, and inde- 
pendent masc. form of the word in Jtatcr 
(Goth. *kaduza1), which also occe.s in Du. 
and LG. kater (comp. E. caterwaul). 

ftauoerroelfd), adj., 'jargon,' first oc- 
curs in early ModHG. allied to an unex- 
plained vb. faubem, ' to talk unintelligibly,' 


( 168 ) 


hence ' strange, unintelligible foreign 
tongue.' It seems to have been a Swiss 
word orig. and allied to Suab. and S\vis3 
kauder, chUder, ' tow ' ; or should it be 
fymwlfd) 1 

ficiuc, f., ' coop, cage, pen,' from Mid 
HG. kouice (koice), f., ' miner's hut or shed 
over a sbaft' (OHG. *kouwa, Goth. *kavj6, 
are wanting) ; from Lat. cavea (interme- 
diate form cauja ?), ' cavity,' See aho 

Uaitcn, vb., • to chew,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. ktiwen, kiuwen, OHG. chiuxvan; 
ModHG. au and MidHG. A in this word 
compared with au in uneicifatteii is properly 
MidG. merely. It corresponds to AS. 
ceCwan, E. to chew, and the equiv. Du. 
kaauicen. The verb, which is based on 
a Teut. root hew, ku, pre -Tent, gew, is want- 
ing in Goth. ; comp. OSIov. $tva, zuja, 
ztvati, ' to chew.' The Aryan root is gja, 
glw, ' to chew ' ; see Jtieme. Gr. yevo/ for 
yeiLHTOficu is totally unconnected with HG. 
fatten, being allied to fcjlen. 

Rcutcrn, vb., ' to crouch ' ; its relation 
to MidHG. hUren (Du. hurkeri), ' to squat,' 
is obscure ; in E. and in Scand. an initial 
k also appears, MidE. couren, E. to cower ; 
Dan. k&re, Swed. k&ra, in the ModHG. 
sense ; OIc. k&ra, ' to be inactive.' Comp. 

RCtufett, vb., 'to buy,' from MidHG. 
koufen, OHG. choufSn. The meaning in 
OHG. and MidHG. is somewhat more 
general, • to trade, negotiate,' specially also 
. to buy, sell, or to barter.' Comp. Goth. 
kaupdn, ' to trade,' AS. 6ypan (Goth. *kaup- 
jan), ' to buy, sell.' The word has nume- 
rous interesting meanings ; its primary 
sense is ' to barter,' and was used by the 
parties on either side, and hence on the 
development of the system of paying in 
specie it signified both 'to buy' and 'to 
sell'; comp. also AS. cedp, 'trade, busi- 
ness, cattle' (cattle was, in fact, the chief 
medium of payment in exchange ; comp. 
©elb and 53tefy). It is most closely allied to 
Lat. caupo, 'retail dealer, innkeeper,' and 
in connection with this fact it is certainly 
remarkable that a nomen agentis correspond- 
ing to Lat. caupo is far less widely diffused 
than the Teut. vb. kauptiii (only in OHG. 
does choufo mean 'shopkeeper'). The Teut. 
vb. in the form of kupiti, ' to buy ' (allied 
to kupii, ' trade,' kuplcl, ' merchant,' Lith. 
kH/Kzus, ' merchant'), passed into prim. 
Slav, and Finn, (kauppata, ' to trade '). 

The cognates are wanting in Rom. (comp. 
tfaifer).— The ModHG. Jfauf is OHG. chouf, 
m., 'trade, business'; AS. cedp, 'trade'; 
in E. the cognates cheap and chapman have 
been retained. 

c <*auLbarfd), 'round posterior,' £anU 
feopf, 'bull-head,' Jtau^quctppc, 'raff' ; 
in these compounds .Raid signifies 'a ball 
of small circumference' ; MidHG. k&lc, a 
variant of kugele (comp. fteil from fteigel) ; 
■older ModHG. Jtaule; comp. MtuU. 

Raum, adv., ' scarcely,' from MidHG. 
kiime, as adj. (?), ' thin, weak, infirm,' as 
adv. (OHG. chtimo), ' with difficulty, hardly, 
scarcely, not' ; to this is allied OHG. ch&mig, 
' powerless, toilsome.' ' Feeble' is the prim, 
meaning of the adj. and adv., as is shown 
by Lower Hess, kiime, MidLG. kiime, Swiss 
chum, and MidE. klme, * feeble.' The 
corresponding AS. c§me signifies ' tender, 
fine, beautiful' (comp. flein). Teut. lUmi-, 
'feeble,' is not found in the other lan- 

/tcutj, m., 'screech-owl,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. ktitze, Mtz, m. (rarely occurs) ; in 
OHG. as well as in the other OTcut. dials, 
the word is wanting, therefore it is difficult 
to determine its Goth. form. We might 
assume Goth. *kutts or *kMna; the first 
partly suggests Gr. /30fo ' owl' (for g&dja ? 
/3 as in paiva, • to go,' (ivoaos, ' fine flax, 
equiv. to ModHG. Jfaute). Moreover, in 
ModHG. pet names for birds are formed 
ending in tz, ©raJS Stiegli^, Jttebifc ; hence 
Jlaii;$e may have to be divided, and thus 
Gr. ptas, ' owl,' would be most closely con- 
nected with Teut. kau, k&. 

RttU3Ctt, vb.,' to cower'; ModHG. only; 
like faucni, it is connected with the root k&; 
zen is a suffix from OHG. zen, azen (55*'', 
a 53 e ' l )> Goth, atjan ; *k&uatjan would be 
the Goth. form. Comp. faucni. 

<$kebfe, f., 'concubine,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. kebse, kebese, OHG. chehisa, chehis ; 
in Goth, perhaps *kabisi. Comp. AS. 6efes, 
cyfes. Unfortunately the word is etymo- 
logically quite obscure. The meaning is 
an important one in the history of man- 
ners ami customs ; the AS. word signifies 
'concubine' and 'servant,' and the corre- 
sponding masc. kefser in OIc. 'slave'; it 
is evident that female captives were made 
slaves and concubines (comp. AS. wealh, 
' Kelt, slave,' wylen, ' female slave, servant,' 
under 2Bel|"dj). The idea of ' concubine,' 
in spite of Tacitus' highly-coloured pictuie 
of the OTeut family life, is not foreign to 


( 169 ) 


OTeut. antiquity ^ but the important fact 
is, and this is confirmed by his general 
statements, that concubines were chosen 
from the prisoners, or rather the slaves ; 
in antiquity the slaves were regarded as 
chattels ; comp. Lat. mancipium, Qr. dvdpd- 
xo5ot> ; OIc. man, ' slave,' is neu., and some- 
times signifies ' female slave, concubine.' 
. fcecfe, adj., 'pert, impudent,' from Mid 
HG. kec, a variant of quec (inflected keeker, 
quecker), 'living, fresh'; OHG. chec (in- 
flected checcher), quec, quecchSr, 'living.' 
Corresponding to AS. cwicu (cucu), ' living,' 
E. quick. The prim, meaning of the adj. 
is 'living,' and the ModHG. lebfjaft, 'lively,' 
illustrates the development of the signifi- 
cation. For further comparison we have 
to proceed from the corresponding Goth, 
adj. qiwa, 'living' (the second c, k of the 
HG. and E. words, is an insertion before 
the Goth. to). Goth, qiwa-, derived from 
gwiwo-, giwo-, corresponds exactly to Lat. 
vicus for gwlvus, Sans, jivds, ' living,' allied 
to Lat. vtvere (victus) ; Sans, jivdtus, 'life,' 
jtvathas, ' life ' ; furthur, in Gr. with an 
initial |3 (comp. fiaivu, ' to go '), /3toy, /3foros, 
/3i6w ; allied to OSlov. zivu, Lith. gyvas, 
Olr. beo, 'living.' All these forms indi- 
cate an Aryan root giw, 'to live.' Tlvis 
ro >t seems to be graded in Teut. only, in 
OIc. kveykva, kvdkja (Goth. *qaiivjan), 
'to light a fire,' prop, 'to give life to.' 
In ModHG. mpticfm and Guerfitlfret are 
connected with the same root, and in fact 
with the Aryan, adj. <jIk6s, 'living' ; the 
loss of the u after q, which has differen- 
tiated fecf from qucrf, is seen also in fommen, 
Jtober, and jfot. 

Reflet (1.), m., ' cone, nine-pin, sight (of 
a gun),' from MidHG. and MidLG. kegel, 
m., 'nine-pin,' also 'stick, cudgel,' OHG. 
chegil, 'stake, ping,' allied to MidDu. 
ke'jghe, Du. keg, ' wedge,' ModHG. and Bav. 
kag, 'stump.' OHG. chegil, 'plug,' may 
have been Goth. *kagils (from pre-Tent. 
gagho-), and might be cognate with Gr. 
y6fi<f>o-s (<f> for gli), 'plug, wooden nail, 
wedge,' with the root syllable nasalised. 
It cannot be decided whether Lith. zaginy*, 
'stake, post' (zdgaras, 'dry branch'), is 
allied to iluyi, or rather to jtufe, 'cheek of 
a sledge.' 

JtCflcl (2.), m., 'bastard' (retained in 
ModHG. only in the phrase Jtinb unt Mtc\d, 
' kith and kin '), from MidHG. kegel, kekel, 
'illegitimate child.' Of obscure origin. 

/tefjlc, f., ' throat ; channel, fluting,' 

from the equiv. MidHG. and MidLG. We, 
f., OHG. chela ; corresponding to Du. keel, 
AS. feole (obsolete in E.) and Seolor. In 
Goth, perhaps *kild (gen. *kil&ns). Since 
Teut. k is derived from pre-Teut. g, we 
may compare Sans, gala and Lat. gula, 
'throat.' See £erj. 

ftef)r<m (1.), vb., ' to turn,' from MidHG. 
keren, OHG. chSrren, 'to turn, direct'; a 
difficult word to explain both etymolo- 
gical ly and phonetically ; in AS. Jterran, 
tprran (pret. cyrde), ' to turn.' 

ftc^rcn (2.), vb., 'to sweep,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. kern, keren, kerjen, OHG. 
cherian, cheren ; the Goth, form is probably 
*karjan, not *kazjan; also OHG. uoarchara, 
' offscouring, impurity,' connected with Ic. 
kar, n., ' dirt (on new-born lambs and 
calves).' Probably primit. allied to Lith. 
zeriu, zerti, ' to scrape.' 

Skeih, <St<xib, m., ' vulgar person,' prop. 
' carrion ' ; simply ModHG., and only in 
Suab. and Alem. 

fceifen, vb., 'to scold,' with the LG. 
form for the strictly HG. feifcett, MidHG. 
kiben, ' to upbraid, quarrel,' with the equiv. 
frequentative kibeln, kivelu; MidHG. Mp, 
kibes, m., ' wrangling manner, defiance, re- 
fractoriness.' MidLG. ktven, Du. kijven, ' to 
upbraid,' Scand. kifa, 'to quarrel,' hif, 
' quarrel.' 

<51teU, m., 'wedge, keystone,' from Mid 
HG. Ml, ' wedge, plug,' with the curious 
variant kidel (ModHG. dial. Jfeibel), OHG. 
chll, ' plug ' ; both the MidHG. forms 
assume Goth. *keipls 1. Scand. keiler (Goth. 
*kaileis), m., 'wedge,' is abnormal; the 
root is Jet, kai. OIc. kill, 'canal' (comp. 
the proper name Jtiel), is probably not 
connected on account of the meaning ; 
since OHG. and MidHG. ktl signifies 
' plug,' the word is more probably allied 
to AS. c&g, E. key. 

gteilcv, jfitculcr, m., 'wild boar,' Mod 
HG. only, probably not allied to Jfeitlt ; 
borrowed from Lith. kuilys, 'boar'?. 

(J'tetm, m., 'germ, bud, shoot,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. Mm, ktme, m., OHG. chtm, 
chtmo, m. (Goth. *keima, m.). The Teut. 
root is kt, which is widely diffused in the 
Teut. group. Goth, has only the partic. 
of a vb. derived from this root, us-kijans, 
'sprouted,' for which, however, an earlier 
variant, keins, 'germinated,' is assumed by 
the vb. us-keinan (-ndda). With the same 
root kt are connected the dental derive. 
AS. dj>, OSax. MIS, OHG. chtdi (fruvu 


( 170 ) 


ikhh), MklHG. ktde, ModHG. dial. Jtufce, 
• shoot.' OSax. and OHG. ktnan, ' to ger- 
minate,' has a pres. affix n of tlie root kt; 
the identical AS. dnan, 'to spring up, 
burst, burst to pieces, germinate,' and tlie 
corresponding AS. subst. Unit, MidE. 
chine, 'rift, crack,' prove that the meaning 
'to germinate' originated in the actual 
perception of budding. 

Item, num. adj., ' no, none,' from Mid 
HG. kein, bhortened from dechein, OHG. 
dihhein, also OHG. dohh-ein, nihhein, noh- 
hein, all of which are compounded with 
ein. The meaning of OHG. and MidHG. 
deck is obscure. 

/told), m., ' chalice, cup,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. kelch, OHG. chelih, kelih (hh), m. ; 
corresponding to OSax. kelik; from Lat. 
calicem (caliz), borrowed at a time when 
the word was pronounced kalikem (comp. 
Jtefler) ; the suggestion that Stdty was first 
adopted from Ecclesiast. Lat. on the in- 
troduction of Christianity, is refuted by 
the changes made in Lat. ci-ucem, 'Jvreuj' 
(' cross '), which was certainly not borrowed 
before this time ; the G. z for Lat. c before 
e points to a far later period than tlie deri- 
vation of JWdj from calicem. There is 
greater probability in the assumption that 
the term was imported with the southern 
culture of the vine ; comp. J?d(er, SGfin, 
and 33cd)er. In E. and Scand. the Lat. a 
is retained ; AS. caliS, ccelic', and Scand. 
kalkr ; comp. Olr. calich. In almost every 
language the word is restricted to eccle- 
siastical uses ; comp. Fr. calice. — "gSIuf en- 
field), ' calyx,' ModHG. is due to a con- 
fusion by scientists of &t{&) (Lat. calix), 
with Gr. /cd\i>£, ' calyx.' 

/telle, f., 'ladle, scoop, trowel,' from 
MidHG. and MidLG. kelle, f., 'ladle, 
trowel,' OHG. chella, f., 'trowel'; Goth. 
*kaljd, f., is wanting. Although there are 
a few points of contact between HG. JW(c 
and AS. cylle, cille, f., ' leather bottle or 
bag, vessel,' tlie AS. word is based upon 
Lat. culleus, 'leather bag,' or, as is more 
probable, a genuine Tent, word has been 
confused with a borrowed term in AS. 

^teller, m., 'cellar,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. keller, m., OHG. chelldri, m. ; 
corresponding to OSax. kellere, m. ; Scand. 
kjallare, m. ; a Teut. loan-word which pro- 
bably passed from the South through Up. 
Germany to the North ; in England only 
the word did not obtain in the older 
period ; E. cellar originated in the OFr. 

celier. The word was borrowed from late 
Lat. cellarium (with a change of gender 
and accent) in the pre-OHG. period, since 
the terms borrowed from Lat. in OHG. 
change Lat. c before open vowels into 2 
(tz) ; comp. jfrrcm. Jfeller may have been 
introduced into Germany from the South 
at the same time as Sltld) (which 6ee), per- 
haps with the culture of the vine ; yet the 
word signifies generally ' subterranean 
storeroom.' — ^tellner, m., 'waiter,' from 
MidHG. kelnare, m., ' butler,' from Mid 
Lat. cellenariux, with the equiv. variant 
kellatre, m., from Lat. cellarius, m., 'steward, 
butler.' — Jtellnerin, 'barmaid,' MidHG. 
kelncBrinne, kellcerinne, f., 'maid, servant, 

<$ieUev, f. and m., 'wine or oil press,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. kelter, kalter, m. 
and f. OHG. calcattira, calctHra (also calc- 
HrhUs, MidHG. kalterhUs) ; borrowed, on 
the introduction of the southern culture 
of the vine (see SBcin, 33cd)er, Md), and 
Jtcfler), from Lat. calcatura, ' wine-press ' 
(calcatorium), derived from calcare, ' to 
tread.' Hence JMter orig. means ' tread* 
ing press.' For the genuine UpG. for 
filter see under Srctte and Xcvfti (in Du. 
pers, AS. presse, from Lat. pressa). Jlcltcr 
is MidG., and is found from the Moselle 
to the Saale. Corresponding to OLorraine 
c/taucheur, from Lat. calcatorium. 

Jtemenaf e, f., from the equiv. MidHG. 
kemendte, f., 'room with a fireplace,' espec. 
' bedroom,' also ' sitting-room, women's 
apartment.' During the OHG. period Mid 
Lat. camindta, ' room with a stove or fire- 
place,' was introduced into G., as is proved 
by the preservation of the Lat. sharp den- 
tal in OHG. chemindta, f. From MidLat. 
caminata, which is recorded as early as 
the 6th cent., are derived Ital. camminata, 
' large room,' and Fr. chemine'e, whence the 
equiv. E. chimney, also Czech, Pol. and 
Russ. komnata, ' room ' ; comp. Jtamin. 

kertnen, vb., ' to know, be acquainted 
with,' from the equiv. MidHG. kennen, 
OHG. ch$nnen. The simple form was very 
little used in MidHG. and OHG.. the usual 
words being the compounds OHG. irchpi- 
nen, MidHG. erkennen, and OHG. bic/ien- 
nen, MidHG. bekennen, with the meanings 
of ModHG. femtett. The corresponding 
Goth, kannjan (uskanvjan), as well as 
AS. c$n»a», gecennan, signifies ' to make 
known.' This double sense, which is com- 
bined in OIc. kenna, is explained by the 


( 171 ) 


fact that OTeut. kannjan is a factitive of 
the OTeut. pret.-pres. kann, inf. kunnan, 
1 to know' ; erfentten is a derivative ' to in- 
form oneself.' Comp. further references 
under fonnen. 

$Levbe, f., ' notch,' from MidHG. kerbe, 
f., k'erp, m., ' incision, notch.' Comp. OIc. 
kjarf, kerfe, n., ' bundle,' AS. cyrf, ' incision.' 

fecrbcn, vb., 'to notch,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. kerben (with a str. parti c. gekurben 
in Lower Rhen.) ; an orig. str. vb. with 
the graded forms kerf an, hirf knrbum, kor- 
ban (comp. AS. Seoifan, E. to carve, Du. 
k-rven) ; the final / of the stem kerf is 
attested by the MidHG. kerve, a variant of 
kerbe ; Gotli. *Jcairfan is wanting. The root 
kerf is found also in Gr. ypd<f>u, ' to write,' 
prop. ' to cut in, scratch ' (comp. HG. 
retjjett with E. to write), which with Teut. 
for/" points to a Sans, root *grph. 

gaevbel, m., 'chervil,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. kervele, kervel, f. and 111.. OHG. 
kervola, kervela, f., ' a culinary and medi- 
cinal herb' ; comp. AS. Serfille, E. chervil. 
It was probably naturalised in Germany 
before the OHG. period, and is derived 
from Lat. ccerifolium (xai/o^t>XXoi'), whence 
also Fr. cerfeuil, Ital. cerfoglio, which were 
borrowed at a period when the initial c 
before open vowels was still pronounced 
k ; comp. JWIer, Verier, j?atfer, .ftreu*, $ed), 
&c. In the period before the HG. per- 
mutation of consonants, the Ital. art of 
cookery and horticulture, and with the 
latter many southern vegetables and herbs, 
were introduced into Germany ; comp. 
JtaWeS, ?Pfeffer, KittK, tfofyf, and teller. 

Sievfiet, m., • gaol,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. karkcere, kerkcere, kerker, m., OHG. 
karkdri, m., ' prison ' ; from Lat. carcerem, 
probably more strictly from karkerim (comp. 
OHG. krdzi, from Lat. crucem under Jtreu^), 
so that the final i of the OHG. word would 
represent the -em of the ace. (comp. Jfclcr/, 
?infe). Even in Goth, karkara, f., ' prison,' 
is found, corresponding to AS. cearcern, 
Olr. carcar. In the HG. word the second 
k shows that Jtcrfer was borrowed before 
the OHG. period, since borrowed terms in 
OHG. such as chi-uzi, from crucem, pro- 
nounce the c as tz before open vowels ; 
comp. Jfaifer, Jhldj, JWlcr, Jferbcl, and $ecfe. 

giietl, m., 'fellow.' a MidG. and LG. 
form for MidHG. karl, 111., ' man, husband, 
lover,' OHG. karal; OIc. karl, m., 'man 
(opposed to woman), old man, one of the 
common folk, serf, servant,' hence E. carl, 

' fellow, man.' Besides these terms, which 
indicate Goth. *karla-, there appears a form 
kerla- (Goth. *kairla-) allied to them by 
gradation, and assumed by AS. Seorl, 'serf 
(hence <?eorlian, l to take a husband, marry '), 
MidE. cheorl, E. churl, as well as by Du. 
kerel, Fris. tzerl, LG. kM, kerel (wanting 
in OSax.). As a proper name the HG. Jtarl 
was retained without being supplanted by 
the MidG. and LG. form ; on the adoption 
of Jfatl by Slav, see under .ftatfer. Both 
words denoted a full-grown man (generi- 
cally, ' husband, lover,' and also ' male of 
animals ' in OHG. and AS. ; legally, ' man 
of the lower orders') ; in AS. ceorl, * man,' 
retained the entire signification, since it is 
used even of kings, and in the derivative 
ceorlian, ' to marry,' it preserves its gene- 
ric meaning and its legal aspect in being 
applied to the common freemen and the 
serf. References in non-Teut. cannot be 
adduced with any certainty ; the compari- 
son of kerl, karl, with Sans, jdra (J for g), 
' paramour, lover,' is possible as far as the 
stem is concerned ; the I of the Teut. word 
is at all events a suffix. With regard to the 
gradation Jterl, ^av(, comp. Jtafer, ©iebel, 
liefer, gaut, &c. 

Jflterrt, m., 'kernel, stone (of fruit), pith,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. kern, kerne, m. 
OHG. kerno, m. ; corresponding to OIc. 
kjarne, m., 'kernel.' A corresponding Goth. 
*kairu6, n., is wanting (for which we have 
kaurnd, n. ?). AS. cyrnel, and the equiv. 
E. kernel are connected phonetically more 
nearly with J?crn, since a derivative of Jtent 
in E. would have an initial ch. OTeut. 
kerna- and korna- are allied by gradation 
to each other just as S3rett and 93ort>, Sttxi 
and Jtavt. 

kemett, vb., ' to chum,' allied to E. 
churn, AS. *6irne, *6yrne, Du. karn, OIc 
kirna, f., ' churn,' with which AS. (//rnan, 
E. to churn, and the equiv. Du. karnen are 
also connected. Akin to ModHG. (Up. 
Palat.)&era, 'cream,' MidDu. kerne, Scand. 
(Ic.) kjarne, • cream,' which perhaps are 
identical with Jtent. Probably Teut. kirn- 
jdn, 'churn,' and kirnjan, 'to churn,' are 
prim, derivatives of *ker»o-, ' cream.' 

<&CV$e, f.,' taper, wax-light, candle,' from 
MidHG. kerze, 'candle, taper,' espec. ' wax 
candle,' OHG. clierza, charza, f., charz, m., 
' taper, wick, tow.' We have to proceed 
from the latter in tracing the development 
of meaning in Jtcrje (comp. OIc. kerte, n., 
' wax-light * ; ' tow, wick made of tow, wick 


( 172 ) 


with acovcringof wax, taper,' form theseries. 
Hence there is no need to suppose that 
ftergc lias been borrowed from Lat. cerdta, 
allied to cera, 'wax,' an assumption equally 
at variance with the phonological relations 
of the words. It is true that neither 
*karta-, * tow,' nor its derivative *kartj6, 
1 taper,' has any etymological support in 
the non-Teut languages. The OHG. 
doublet karza, kerza, may, however, be ex- 
plained by the assumption of a Goth. 
*kartjd, f., the mutation appearing only at 
a late period before r and conson?. in 

Reflet, m., ' kettle, cauldron, boiler,' 
from the equiv. Mid II G. ke^yl, OHG. 
che^il, in. ; corresponding to Goth, katils, 
OL\ ketell, AS. Sytel, m., E. kettle, and the 
equiv. Du. ketel. This OTeut. word is 
usually derived from Lat. catinus, 'dish' 
(Sans, kathina, 'dish'), or its dimin. catillus. 
Lat catinus is indicated by OHG. tytfin, 
c/*f33$, MidHG. che^i (Alem.) ' kettle,' 
AS. cete, ' cooking-pot.' It is shown under 
3od that Goth, katils can be derived from 
Lat. catinus. Sdjuffel and %i\tf) may have 
been borrowed at the same period as J?cffft. 
From Lat. catinus are also derived the 
Rom. terms, Port, cadinho and Tyrol, cadin, 
' wooden dish.' From Teut., OSlov. kotliu, 
'kettle' is derived. 

(£tctfe (1.), f., 'covey,' with the earlier 
variants kitte, kiitte, at present dial. ; used in 
ModHG. only of partridges, &c. Jlette is a 
corruption of the unintelligible kiitte, Mid 
HG. kiitte, OHG. cliulti, n., ' herd, troop' ; 
coinp. MidLG. kiidde, Du. kudde, f., 'herd.' 
AVe might connect the word with Lith. 
qfitas, in., gavjd, f., ' herd,' and hence further 
with the Ind. root j& (for gu^, ' to drive, 
urge on,' Lith. gUiti, ' to drive.' Therefore 
the dental of the OHG. word, as in the 
equiv. Lith. giitas, belongs to the suffix. 
The Aryan root is gu, ' to drive cattle.' 

^elte (2.), f., 'chain, fetter,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. keten, tytene (.ftette is found 
since the 15th cent.), f., OHG. chetina, 
chetinna, f., 'chain'; borrowed from Lat. 
catSna, yet hardly from the latter itself, 
since the word was probably naturalised 
in G. before the HG. permutation of con- 
sonants (comp. Jterfer), but rather from a 
vernacular cadena (thus Prov. and Span., 
hence Fr. chaine, from which MidE. chaine, 
E. chain is derived), which by a change of 
accent and by the HG. permutation and 
mutation resulted in chettna ; Du. keten and 

MidDu. ketene still point, however, 1 
t of the Lat. word. For the transition of 
S to t , comp. feiern and spent. ^ The accent 
is changed, as in OHG. ubbat, from Lat 

^eljer, in., 'heretic,' from MidHG. 
ketzer, m., ' heretic,' also ' reprobate, Sodo- 
mite ' (not recorded in OHG.). The tz 
presents no difficulties in deriving the word 
from Gr. Kndapk (icaOapol, a Manichean sect 
spread throughout the West in the 11th 
and 12th cents., and persecuted by the 
Church), if it be assumed that Du. ketter, 
'heretic,' is a phonetic vetsion of the 
II G. word. It is true that HG. tz from 
Gr. (Lat. th) cannot be demonstrated ; 
the hard fricative th (/>, 6) may, however, 
be regarded phonetically as tz, since, e.g., 
King Chilperic's sign for the was none other 
than z; the /> in OIc. words sounded also 
to the Germans of the 9th cent, like 2; 
}>6r seemed to them zor. So too in Italy 
the icadapol were called Gazari. 

Iieudjcit, vb., ' to gasp,' from MidHG. 
kitchen, 'to breathe' ; MidHG. klchcn, 'to 
breathe with difficulty, gasp,' has also been 
absorbed in the ModHG. vb. Correspond- 
ing to Du. kugchen, ' to cough,' from Mid 
Du. kuchen, AS. cohhettan, MidE. coughen, 
E. to cough. — MidHG. ktchen is based on a 
Teut. root kik, which appears in LG., Du., 
and E., in a nasalised form ; LG. (Holstein) 
kinghosten, Du. kinkhoest, m., E. chincough 
(for chinkcough), ' whooping-cough ' ; allied 
to Sued, kikhosta, Dan. kighoste, AS. Sin- 

^Cltlc, f., 'club, pestle; thigh; rude 
fellow,' from MidHG. kiule, f., 'club, stick, 
pole ' ; cognate with ModHG. Jfaule, from 
MidHG. kule, a variant of kugele, kitgel. 
See the further references under Jtuijel. 

^eulcr, m. See .Seder. 

lieu fd), adj., 'chaste, pure,' from Mid 
HG. kiusche, kiusch, adj., ' moderate, quiet, 
modest, bashful' ; OHG. chAski, adj., 'con- 
tinent, moderate.' AS. cAse is borrowed 
from the OSax. of the Heliand, OSax. 
*kilsci, of which only the corresponding adv. 
cAsco is recorded ; Du. Jcuisch, ' cleanly, 
chaste.' The prim, meaning of the OTeut. 
adj., which appears in all these form?, is 
presumably 'pure'; comp. Du. kuischen, 
' to dean, purify' ; OHG. unchtiski, 'dirt' 
(also Hess, unfeufefter 2Befl, ' road in bad con- 
dition '). — jAeit fd)Iamm, ' chaste tree,' 
simply ModHG., formed from MidLat 
agnus castus, known in Gr. by the term 


( i73 ) 


&yv<x; this being associated with. ayvbs, 
' pure,' gave rise to the Lat. agnus castus; 
agnus, Gr. Ayvos, being confused with agnus, 
1 lamb,' led to HG. Jleufcfylamm, one of the 
strangest products of sciolism (not of popu- 
lar etymology). The tree is also called 
.fteufdjbcutm, Du. kuischboom. 

dibits, m., ' lapwing,' with numerous 
dial, forms varying at different periods ; 
they are all due to a corruption of a term 
the etymology of which was not under- 
stood ; in MidHG. also there are several 
forms ; gibitze, gibitz, gibi^ occur in the 
written language. The similarity in sound 
of the equiv. Russ. 6ibezu and of MidLG. 
ktvit, Du. kievit, E. peewit, suggests the as- 
sumption that jfiblfc is of onomatopoetic 
origin. The suffix resembles that in ©ttfltijj. 

<Slid)ev, f., 'chick-pea,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. kicher, OHG. chihhurra, chihhira, 
f. ; based on Lat. cicer (plur. cicera), n., 
'chick-pea,' cicera, f., 'chickling vetch'; 
MidLat. cicoria, cichorea, which would he 
most closely allied phonetically to OHG. 
chihhurra, signifies ' chicory (Gr. kIx&p<-oi>). 
MidE. chiche, E. chiches, chickpeas, plur., 
with the suffix r wanting as in Er. chiche, 
Ital. cece. The term was borrowed before 
the OHG. period (Du. sisererwt is more 

fttd)ero, vb., ' to titter,' ModHG. only ; 
allied to OH(J. chih/iazzen, ' to laugh,' a 
variant of OHG. chalthazzm (MidHG. 
kac/izen) ; comp. also MidHG. ka/i, m., 
'loud laughter,' and MidHG. kachen, 'to 
laugh loudly'; the ch is not based, as in 
other instances, on Teut. k, but follow- 
ing AS. cealthet an, 'to laugh,' on OTeut. 
hh. The cognates are onomatopoetic, the 
root of which cannot be discovered. In 
Gr. similar terms were coined, icaxdfy, 
Kayx&fa, KayxaMu, Kayx\&fa, ' to laugh 
loudly,' /caxXdfw, 'to splash and bubble.' On 
account of the non-permutation of the con- 
sonants the terms cannot have been orig. 
allied. The Gr. words may, however,, be 
cognate with Sans, kakh, 'to laugh.' 

<Stiebif3, see JtUufc. 

e^liefer (1.), m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
kiver (in., n. 1), kivel, kivele, 'jaw, jawbone,' 
besides which there is a form from the 
stem of fauen, MidHG. kiuwel, m., and usu- 
ally kiuwe, kewe, f., 'jaw, jawbone.' Yet 
ModHG. kiver, kivel, have, notwithstand- 
ing their rare occurrence, a remoter history 
in the past ; with Goth. *kfru- is connected 
OIc. kjgptr, kjtiplr (Goth. *kiftus), ' mouth 

(of beasts), jawbone,' and also with the a 
stage of gradation, AS. ceafl, OSax. k>fl, 
m., 'jaw of animals' (with regard to the 
gradation comp. Jtifer, ©iebet, and Jterl). 
The Teut. stem is therefore kef, kaf, or 
rather keb, kab (before Zand r later permu- 
tations of b to j? sometimes occur), from 
pre-Teur. gephorgebh; comp. Zend, zafare, 
zafra, n., ' mouth,, jaws ' (the corresponding 
term in Sans. *japhra, *jabhra, is want- 
ing) ; the nasalised root jambh, by grada- 
tion j >bh, 'to snap at,' leads to Gr. yafupai, 
yafi<pi)\al, 'jaws,' yet these are probably 
connected more closely with the cognates 
discussed under J?amm. See Jfctfer. 

($tefer (2.),. f., 'pine,' early ModHG. 
only ; it cannot be traced further back ; 
in UpG. fteijxe simply. Hence Jfiefer pro- 
bably originated in .Rienfcljre (respecting 
the obscuration of old compounds comp. 
SBtmfcer, ©djitltj, and ©d)uflet). The inter- 
mediate form kimfer is recorded as North 
Boh. Comp. also MidHG. kienboum, m., 
'pine,' and *kienforhe, f., ' pine-tree ' (at- 
tested by the derivative kievforhin, adj., 
' of pine '). Comp. Jttm and Sofne. 

{^ttefte, f., ' foot-warmer,' simply Mod 
HG. from the equiv. LG. kike, in Dan. ild- 
kikkert, ' foot-warmer.' Of obscure origin. 

Sxxci (1.), m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
kil, m. and n., 'quill'; not recorded in 
OHG.; dial, tfeil (MidG), pointing to Mid 
HG. Ml ; LG. quiele, kiel, is connected with 
MidE. quille, E. quill. Goth. *qilus or 
*qeilus, and further cognate terms are 

Siiei (2.), m., ' keel,' from MidHG. kiel, 
OHG. chiol, m., 'a rather large ship'; 
comp. AS. ce6l, m., 'ship,' Du. kiel, E. keel, 
OIc. kj6ll, m., 'ship.' Scand. kjglr, m., 
' ship's keel,' is not allied to these ; from this 
the E. word as well as the ModHG. mean- 
ing is probably derived (probably through 
LG. and Dan. influence"). The OTeut. 
*kiuls (the assumed Goth, form), 'ship,' 
may be connected with Gr. tovXos (700X0$), 
'merchant vessel' (orig. 'pail,' also 'ar- 
ticles in the form of a pail, e.g. beehive ') ; 
au would be Goth, iu, as in HG. Sticr, 
Goth, stiurs, compared with Gr. ravpos. 
The fact that a naut. term was orig. com- 
mon to both the Teutons and the Greeks is 
no more remarkable than the occurrence 
of the term 2Raft among the Teutons and 
the Romans ; beside*, the terms relating to 
shipbuilding stretch still further back, as 
is proved by the correspondence of Lat. 


( i74 ) 


ndois, Gr. ww, Iud. ndus ; comp. 91ad}en. 
With the Gr. word, Sans, gdld, g6lam, 
' cone-shaped j)itcher ' (Sans. 6 for au), has 
also been compared ; lience a similar signi- 
fication might be assigned to the orig. 
Teut. word. Conip. Jfafyii. 

gkictne, f., 'gill (of a fish),' ModHG. 
simply, from the equiv. LG. ktm; allied 
to OH.G. chiela, chila, as well as AS. cian, 
ce6n, with the same meaning. Since the 
forms corresponding exactly in sound with 
Jtteme are wanting in the earlier periods, 
its origin is uncertain ; some have con- 
nected it with fauen, root kiw (Aryan giw). 

Siicix, m., 'resinous wood,' from Mid 
HG. kun, 11. and m., OHG. chien, 'resin- 
ous wood, pine chips, pine torch ' ; conip. 
AS. *ken, tin, in., ' torch pine.' Goth. *k£ns 
or *kizns (comp. SWiete From Goth, mizdd) 
is wanting ; further references cannot be 
found. Comp. also differ. 

^icpc, f., ' wicker basket,' ModHG. only, 
from LG. ; comp. Du. kiepekorf, m., ' wicker 
basket, basket for the back,' MidDu. also 
(Upe, AS. ctfpa, E. dial, kipe, 'basket'; 
Goth. *Mpj6 or *kiup6 is wanting. Whe- 
ther these terms are borrowed, or rather 
developed, from MidLat. cApa, 'tun,' and 
also ' measure of corn ' (comp. Jtufe;, can- 
not be decided. 

£tics, m., 'gravel,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. kis, 111. : &ie fel, ' pebble,' from MidHG. 
kisel, 111., ' flint-stone, hailstone, large hail- 
stone ' ; OHG. chi$il,A$>. Seosel, MidE. chisel, 
' pebble.' Goth. *kisuls, m., is wanting ; 
this would be a derivative of *kisa-, on 
which MidHG. kis and ModHG. JfieS is 
probably based. Du. kei and kiezel poii.ts 
to ki as the stem. 

fciefett, vb., 'to select,' from MidHG. 
kiesen, OHG. cliiosan, ' to test, try, taste 
for the purpose of testing, test by tasting, 
select alter strict examination.' Goth, kiu- 
san, AS. ce6san, E. to choose. Teut. root 
kus (with the change of s into r, kur in the 
partic. etfcren, see also Rive, ' choice '), from 
pre-Teut. gus, in Lat. gus-tu*, gus-tare, Gr. 
7ei5w for ycuau, lnd. root juS, ' to s-eleet, be 
fond of.' Teut. kausjun passed as kusiti 
into Slav. 

^iC3C,f., 'small basket,' ModHG. simply, 
in MidHG. k&tze, f., ' basket, basket for the 
back.' Origin obscure. 

(^tlf, .ttilfgcmg, in Alem. 'nocturnal 
meeting'; wanting in MidHG. Conip. 
OHG. chunltiwerch, n., ' evening work ' ; 
OIc. kveld, n., 'evening' (in Iceland and 

Norway the usual word for evening, wiiile 
aptann is used poetically and in stately 
prose). AS. cwyldhrefre, f., ' bat,' lit. ' even- 
ing swiftness,' cwyldxe.ten, ' evening.' Hence 
qeldos, n., is the oldest word for 'evening.' 
The loss of the w after k is normal ; comp. 
fcrf, £et, and j?cber. 

Aino, n., ' child,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. kint (gen. kindes), n., OHG. chind, n., 
' child ' ; corresponding to OSax. kind, n., 
'child' ; wanting in Goth., Scand., and E., 
butaGoth.*£i?i/>a-may be assumed, whence 
OSlov. Sedo, 'child,' is borrowed. In OIc. 
a form kwidr, m., ' son,' allied by grada- 
tion occurs, and with this an adj. suffix 
kunds, 'descended from,' may be mostclosely 
connected, Goth. Iriminakunds, 'heavenly,' 
qinakunds, ' female,' AS. ftorrancund, ' hav- 
ing a distant origin.' This suffix is an old 
partic. in to (comp. alt, fait, laut, trant, ©ott), 
from a root kun, ken, kan, which has nume- 
rous derivatives both in the Teut. and uon- 
Teut. languages. The root signifies ' to 
give birth to, beget' ; comp. Jtottio, and also 
Goth, kuni, OHG. chunni, MidHG. kiinne, 
n., ' race ' (Goth, gins, ' woman,' E. queen, 
are, however, unconnected). So too AS. 
cennan, ' to give birth to, beget.' Teut. 
ken, Aryan gen, has representatives in Gr. 
yivos, n., yL-yvoftai, 7W1), in Lat. genus, gigno, 
gens, in OSlov. Sena, 'wife' (Pruss. gena, 
'wife'), in Lith. gentis, 'relative,' and in 
the Sans, root jan, ' to generate,' jdnas, n., 
' race,' jantis, n., * birth, creature, race,' 
j'tnt, f., ' woman,' janttc, m., ' child, being, 
tribe,' jdtd, ' son ' (the latter is most nearly 
connected with Teut. Jtittt). 

j^titttt, n., 'chin,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. kin, kinne, OHG. chinni, n. (also 
'jaw '). The older meaning, ' cheek ' (Goth. 
kinnus, f., ' cheek'), has been preserved in 
jftmibein, ' cheek-bone,' in OHG. chinnizun, 
MidHG. kinnezan, ' molar tooth,' OHG. 
kinnibaccho, 'jawbone'; comp. AS. 6in, 
E. chin, AS. tinbdn, E. chin-bone, ModDu. 
kin, f., 'chin' ; OIc. kinn, 'cheek.' Comp. 
Gr. yiws, f., 'chin, jaw, jawbone,' also 
' edge of an axe, axe,' yiveiov, n., ' chin, 
jaw,' yfvdas, f., 'chin, beard'; Lat. gena, 
'cheek,' dentes genuini, 'molar teeth'; 
Ir. gin, 'mouth'; San?, hdnu-s, f., 'jaw,' 
hanavya, 'jawbone.' Hence the meaning 
varies considerably between cheek, jaw, 
chin ; the prim, sense of the root gen in this 
term cannot be ascertained. On account of 
the Gr. meaning 'axe 'some deduce the word 
from a root gen, ' to cut to pieces.' 


( 175 ) 


Jtipfet, dial., also ©ipfel, ni. and n., 
from the equiv. MidHG. kipfe, m., 'roll 
of fine white bread pointed at both ends ' 
(Oipfel is a corrupt form) ; perhaps allied 
to OHG. chip/a, f., MidHG. kipfe, » drag of 
a wheel.' 

$lippe, f., ' brink, edge,' from MidG. and 
LG. ; the proper HG. form is Jlipfe, mean- 
ing 'point' in Luther; earlier references 
are wanting. The nominal vb. kippen 
means ' to cut off the point' ; in the sense 
of ' to strike,' allied to OIc. kippa, ' to 
strike,' AS. cippian, with which ModHG. 
fappen is also connected. 

jurcfte, f., 'church,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. kirche (Swiss chilche), OHG. 
chirlhha (Swiss chllihha), f. ; corresponding 
to Du. kerk, AS. 6iri6e, Syri6e, E. church. 
As is shown by the OHG. hh of chirlhha, 
the word must have existed before the 
OHG. period ; names of places with JEircfye 
are found in Germany even before the be- 
ginning of the 8th cent. ; yet the word is 
unknown to Goth, (the terms used were 
gudJiUs, ' the house of God,' gards or razn 
bid6, ' house of prayer ' ; also aikklesjd, 
' coetns christianonim '). The other Teur. 
tribes must, however, have adopted the 
term from Gr. through the medium of 
Goth. (comp. *J> fa ff e, also -£>eibe, Xattfr, and 
£eufel). It is triue that Gr. Kvpiaicri (with 
ii/xipa understood) during the first ten cen- 
turies signified 'Sunday' exclusively, and 
only from the 11th cent, onwards did it 
obtain the meaning ' house of the Lord.' 
But since the word is foreign, we may as- 
sume that the gender of Kvpianbv, 'church' 
(or its plur. Kvpiatcd), recorded from the 
4th cent., was changed (OHG. chirlhha, f.). 
Since the Gr. word was never current in 
the Romish Church (the Latlloni. as well 
as the Kelt, term being ecclesia), we have 
in Mxtye a term of the Greek Church, though 
in other cases the words adopted with Chris- 
tianity are essentially Lat. (from Goth. 
*kyreika, Russ. cerkovi, and OSlov. cruky are 
also probably derived). The introduction of 
.ftirdje through a Goth, me Hum was possible 
as late as the 9th cent, at least, for, accord- 
ing to Wal. Strabo, divine service was cele- 
brated on the Lower Danube in the Goth, 
language even at that period. — /urcljfpicl, 
n., ' parish,' from MidHG. kirchspil, also 
kirspel; the second part of the compound 
is instinctively connected with 2J?eitfdjnt- 
1>iel, yet its origin has not been definitely 
ascertained ; some have referred it to Goth. 

spill, n., 'speech' (comp. 93eifpie(), and have 
defined Jlircfyfpifl as 'the district within 
which the decision of a church is para- 
mount.' This assumption is not quite satis- 
factory, because no connecting link be- 
tween Jtirdjemvort, 'decision of the church,' 
and Jtird)fpiel, ' parish,' can be discovered. 
Following the explanation of ^farre, we 
should rather assume some such meaning 
as 'district, enclosure, forbearance,' which 
is supported by AS. spelian, ' to spare, pro- 
tect' ; comp. AS. sp^la, 'representative' i. 
— <$ird)n>e£f), f., ' dedication of a church,' 
from MidHG. kirchuthe, f., which thus 
early signifies also 'annual fair,' and even 
'fete ' generally, OHG. chirihwthi, f., prop. 
' dedication of a church ' (comp. Alem. 
Jiitbe, chilli). 

^irmes, f., 'village fete,' from Mid 
HG. kirmesse, f., 'dedication festival,' for 
the unrecorded kirchiriesse, just as MidHG. 
kirspil is a variant of kirchspel, n., ' parish,' 
and kirwthe a variant of kirchxclhe, 'dedica- 
tion of a church.' jtiimed (Du. kerkmis, 
kermis), lit. 'mass to celebrate the dedica- 
tion of a church' (in Alem. chilbe, from 
Icilchicihe, Bav. kirta, from kirchtac). Comp. 

feirre, a<lj., 'tractable,' from MidHG. 
kiirre, MidG. kurre, kirre, adj., 'tame, 
mild' ; derived, by suppressing the w, from 
earlier OHG. *churri, *quirrij comp. Goth. 
qairrus, 'meek,' OIc kvirr, kyrr, adj., 'still, 
quiet.' Perhaps based on the Tent, root 
ger appearing in ModHG. ^cber ; yet 
Lith. gurti, 'to grow weak, relax,' gurus, 
' crumbling,' may also be allied. 

Jthrfche, f.,from the equiv. MidHG.Hrse, 
k'erse (Alem. chriesi), f., 'cherry' (for the 
change of s into sc/i comp. Slrfdj and J&irfd}). 
OHG. china (*chirissa), f., ia certainly 
not derived from Lat. cerasvm, but, like 
the connate Rom. words, from certsia (prop, 
n. plur. of the adj. ceraseus ?. Comp. Gr. 
Ktpdatov, 'cherry, ' Ktpaala, Ktpaaia, 'cherry- 
tree '), only with a Teut. accent ; the Alem. 
form Jtviefe (from the prim, form krisia, 
which perhaps appears also in Istrian kriss 
and Serv. krijcSa), like .Ritfcfyf, is based too 
on the common primit. form with the Rom. 
accent ; Mid Lat. *cer$sea (Ital. ciriegia, Fr. 
cerise) ; emnp. also OSlov. creStnj a (primit. 
Slav. *6trs-, from *kers- ?). The adoption 
of the word by HG. occurred before the 
7th cent., as is shown by the preservation 
of the initial c as k in HG. I 1 or a discus- 
sion of the period at which the word was 


( 176 ) 


borrowed, .and of the Render of the Southern 
terms for fruit, see ^flauntf. 

^iffcit, <£tft|Tcn, n., 'cushion,' from 
Mid HG. kiissen, kiisstn, OHG. chimin, n. y 
'cushion'; comp.. Du. kussen, 'cushion.' 
The G. word is derived (com p. tyiiiljl and 
glaum) from the equiv. MidLat. cussinus 
(Fr. coussin), which comes from Lat. *culci- 
tinum, allied to culcita, 'mattress, cushion' ; 
E. cushion and Ital. cuscino are modern 
Fr. loan-words. The t of ModHG. Jtififn 
conies from MidG. and UpG. dialects 
(com p. $i(j and 3Mm3). 

<#t(Ie, f., 'box,.' from MidHG kiste y 
OHG. chista, f., 'box,, chest'; comp. Du. 
lcist, AS. Zest, (iste, E. chest, OIc. kista, 
'box.' In Goth, a cognate term is want- 
ing. The assumption that the Teut. lan- 
guages borrowed Lat. cista (Gr. kI<tt7j) at a 
very early period, at any rate long before 
the change of the initial c of cista into tz, 
presents no greater difficulty than in the 
case of Slrd)e ; comp. Jtorb, Jtoffer, and ©acf. 
Hence between j?ajlett and $tfle there is no 
etymological connection ; the first has no 
cognate term in Lat. 

JfMff, m., from the equiv. MidHG. kiite, 
kiit, m., 'cement, putty, OHG. chuti, quiti, 
'glue, birdlime,' which makes it probable 
that the Goth, form was *qidus; comp. also 
AS. cmidu, ' resin of trees.' Prim, allied to 
Lat. bitumen, Sans, jatu, 'resin of trees *; 
common type gdU. Allied also to OIc. 
kvafta, Swed. kdda, ' resin,' MidE. code, 

<&iticl, m., 'smock-frock,' from Mid 
HG. kitel, kittel, m., 'smock-frock, shirt,, 
chemise.' AS. cyrtel, E. kirtle, OIc. kyrtell, 
on account of the medial r and the abnor- 
mal dental correspondence, cannot be com- 
pared (they are allied to fuvj). Its connec- 
tion with x' r w" is impossible. The origin 
of the HG. word has not been explained. 
The strong suspicion that it has been bor- 
rowed cannot be proved. 

<$iitfte (1.), f., from the equiv. MidHG 
kitze, kiz, n., OHG. chizzi, kizzin, 11., 'kid' ; 
from Teut. *kittin, n., with the original 
dimin. suffix -ina, which appears in j?iid)cteitt 
and ©dnpeiit. Goth. *kidi (kidjis), n.,. may 
be deduced from OIc. kift, n., 'she-goat,' 
•whence E. kid is borrowed (an E. word 
cognate with Scand. must have had an 
initial ch). Further, the assumed Goth. 
*kidi and *kittein, with medial dentals, 
are related to each other, just as the forms 
assumed under 3if3?, tigd and, with 

medial gutturals. The close correspond- 
ence between Jtifce and Qidt proves that 
they are related ; both are pet names for 
©eifjj.'goat' (comp. Swiss gitzi for OHG. 

<#it3e (2.), <#tci3C, f., 'kitten, kid, 
fawn,' not found in MidHG. and OHG, 
but probably existing in the vernacular, 
as is indicated by the specifically HG. tz 
compared with LG. tt Qcitte) ; comp. MidE. 
chitte, 'kitten,' from an unrecorded AS. 
*citten (E. kitten) ; MidE. kitlung, E. kitling, 
are probably borrowed from Scand. ket- 
lingr, 'kitten.' The cognates are related 
by gradation to Jtafce 

hit \c tit, vb., 'to tickle,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. kitzeln, kiitzeln, OHO. chizzilun, 
chuzzildn; comp. MidLG. ketelen, OIc. kit- 
la; AS. cytelian (E. to kittle) is based on 
the prim, form *kutil6n. E. to tickle, MidE 
tikelen, is based on a transposition of con- 
sonants in the root kit (so too Alem. zicklen, 
' to provoke'),; comp. ©fjuj, ftitbex, Jtafrcljatt, 
and 3tfije. The Teut. root kit, kut, 'to 
tickle,' seems to have been coined anew in 
Teut. on an onomatopoetic basis ; hence 
the OHG. variants chizziWn, chuzzildn. In 
cognate languages similar correspondences 
are formed anew; comp. Lett, kutet, 'to 
tickle.' The subst. Jti|ef, m., 'tickling,' 
first occurs in ModHG, and is formed 
from the vb-. ; comp. Jjjaiifcet 

hlttbajlcnt, vb., ' to run noisily,' Mod 
HG. only ; orig. a LG. term ; in conse- 
quence of the entire absence of the word 
in the earlier periods of the languages its 
origin is dubious ; it is most probably 
akin to OHG. klaphdn, MidHG. klaffen, 
' to clatter' ; AS. clappian, E. to clap, 

<5stfabbc, f., 'rough draft, day-book,' Mod 
HG. only, from LG. kladde, ' impurity, 
dirt,' then 'rough draft'; further details 
for the elucidation of the LG. word (comp. 
ffatetift) are wanting. 

Jtlaff, m., 'crash, yelp, bark,' from 
MidHG. klaf (gen. klafes) and klapf, m., 
' report, crack,' OHG. Maph, m., anaklaph, 
' shock ' ; MidHG. klaffen r klapfen, ' to ring, 
resound,' Hf klaffen, ' to break asunder, 
o->en, gape,' OHG. chlaphdn; Goth. *klap- 
pdn is wanting ; AS. clappian, E. to clap. 
' Resounding' is the prim, meaning of the 
stem klapp, while 'cracking, bursting, gap- 
ing' is the derivative sense; comp. Jtlapp 
and HepfhL 

pilaff er, n., m., and f.,. ' fathom,' from 
MidHG. kldfter, f., m., and n., OHG. 


( 177 ) 


chldftra, f., ' length of the outstretched 
aims, fathom ' ; for a similar development 
of meaning comp. d((e, ^aixxx, also Spanne 
and gufj. Goth. *kUJtra or *MeJtri, f., is 
wanting, so too the corresponding forms 
in the cognate languages. Its connec- 
tion with AS. clyppan, E. to clip, '"to 
embrace,' Swiss yj.v.pfel, 'armful of hay' 
(Teut. root klep), makes it probable that 
the word is related to Lith. gllbtiy • to 
encircle with the arms,' glebys, 'armful,' 
globti, ' to embrace ' (root gleb). The Mid 
HG. variant Idfter (Idhttr), f. and n.,. 
' fathom,' is obscure. 

Jtfoge, f., from the equiv. MidHG. 
klage, OHG. chlaga, f., ' complaint,' prop. 
'a wail as an expression of pain' ; want- 
ing in all the early periods of the OTeut. 
languages except OHG. ; adopted as a 
legal term in Modlc. in the form of klbgun. 
ModHG and MidHG. klagen, from OHG 
chlagOn. The pre-Teut. root is probably 
glak or glagh; yet cognates are wanting. 

^ttamnt, m., 'spasm in the throat,! 
from MidHG. Mam (gen. Mammes), m., 
' cramp, oppression, fetter ' ; correspond- 
ing to AS. clom (o before m, or rather mm, 
for a), m., f., and n., 'firm grip, talon,, 
claw, fetter ';. also OflG. chlamma, Mid 
HG. klamme, f. ModHG. ftlemnten, 'to 
squeeze,' from MidHG. Memmen (OHG. bi- 
cittymmen), ' to seize with the claws, squeeze 
in, press together' ; comp. AS. becleinman,. 
Olc. klemma— ModHG.. £tlcmme, f., 
'defile,' from MidHG, Memme, klemde, f., 
'narrowness,, cramping,' OHG. not yet 

Jtlcttttmer, f., 'cramp, clamp, brace,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. klammer, klamer, 
llamere,f.,OU&.*Mamara, f., is wanting; 
Scand. klgmhr (gen. klambrar), f., ' vice/ 
and MidHG. klamere point to a Goth. 
*klamra or *klamara, f.,, which is con- 
nected with the Teut.. root klam, 'to puss 
together,' appearing in JKaitmt. The equiv. 
MidHG. klampfer, f., and the ModHG. 
dial, forms .Klampev (Bav.) and Jltantvffv 
(Carinthian) are abnormal ; comp. also E. 
clamp and the equiv. Du. Mamp, m. ; the 
labial following the m presents some diffi- 
culties. Comp. the next word. 

<$tlcttttpc, f., ' clamp,' not yet found in 
MidHG. ; from LG. ; comp. Du. klamp, 
' cramp, cleats.' The strictly HG. form is 
.filamvfe (Bav., Austr.), 'cramp'; coin p. 
])u. klamp, E. clamp, and the equiv. Scand. 

jStfanjJ, m., 'sound, clang,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. klanc (gen. Manges), m., 
with the variant Mane (gen. klankes), OHG. 
chlang ; comp. Du. Mank, m., ' clang, 
souud,' as well as E. clank and clang ; AS. 
*clong, *clonc, are wanting, so too Goth. 
*klaggs and *klagks; comp. also MidHG. 
klunc (Munges), m., 'sound,' and Mine 
(Minges),. m., ' tone, clangour.' The form 
Mank with a final k is to be regarded per- 
haps like faljen compared with fatten, 3icfe 
with Sie^c, and Jtifce with Olc. kfiS (comp. 
also franf), i.e., k represents kk for Aryan 
kn; glank (or rather glangh) is perhaps 
the Aryan root of the Teut. cognates, un- 
less we are tempted to regard JUano. (comp. 
f lingett) as a new onomatopoe tic word (comp. 
Gr. K\ayy^, Lat. clangor). 

Sllapp, m., 'clap, slap, blow,' ModHG. 
only, adopted from LG., like its cognates 
(JtUiN-K, flaxen, -fi(avv$). Only FfaWtni, 
vb. t 'to clatter,' is current in MidHG. 
without any presumption of its being bor- 
rowed ;. perhaps it is onomatopoetic. Mod 
HG. $lap\>, ' blow,' is phonetically MidHG. 
Map/, klaf, m., 'report, crack'; comp. 

fefar, adj., ' clear, bright ; evident,' 
from MidHG. Mar, 'bright, pure, beauti- 
ful ' ; adopted in MidHG. from Lat. cldrus; 
E. clear, MidE. cltr, is borrowed from Fr. 

felcrierifl, adj., 'slovenly,' a LG. -word ; 
prop, 'dirty and wet' (of the weather), 
then used especially in a figurative sense ; 
comp. LG. Mater, 'dirt, dung,' allied to 

h(atfd), 'clap,' onomat. interj., Mod 
HG. simply ; allied to onomat. cognates 
for ' to resound ' ; comp. Du. kletsen, ' to 
crack a whip,' E. to clash. 

ttlcutbcn, vb., ' to pick or dig out, cull, 
from MidHG. kUben, OHG. chMbtn, « to 
pluck to pieces, cleave'; Goth *khlb&n is 
wanting. The Teut. root kl-fib anciently 
formed another vb. ; see Hicbfii, under which 
further references are given. 

{ftfttUC, f., 'claw, talon, fang,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. kldwe, kid, OHG. chldwa, 
cM6a, f. (comp. 99r<uif, from OHG. brdira). 
The variants in MidHG. and OHG. render 
it difficult to determine the Goth, form ; 
AS. eld, clea, cle6 (plur. cldiee), clawu (<U) 
are also difficult to explain phonetically ; 
Goth. *Mitca, f., is probable, although Olc. 
M6 allows us to infer a graded form, 
*M6wa, f. The common Teut. stem means 



( 178 ) 


'claw,' but it is not found in the non- 
Teut. languages. The root is klu, pre- 
Teut. glu (comp. JJnducl) ; 01c. kid, 'to 
scratch, shave,' based 011 a Teut. klah, 
is scarcely connected with these cog- 

Slllaufe, f., 'cell,' from MidHG. Muse, 
kids, f., 'hermitage, cell,' also ' monastery,' 
OHG. chlusa. M'u\ha.t.clausa,clusa, clausum, 
closum, with the meanings 'locu3 seu a<jer 
sepibus vel muris septus ant clausus,' also 
' monastery ' ; hence the HG. word is based 
on clusa, which is a later panicipial form, 
due to clUstis, the panic, of the compounds 
of claudere, in place of the earlier clausus 
(comp. Ital. chiusa). On the other hand, 
MidHG. kl6*e, kids, f., 'hermitage, monas- 
tery,' with the derivative kl6sencere y 'her- 
mit' (comp. MidLat. clausarius, 'monk,' 
but clilsinaria, f., ' virgo deo sacra reclusa '), 
is ba ed on MidLat. clausa, *cl6sa (comp. 
closum). The MidHG. meanings of kldse, 
kldse, ' rocky cleft, defile, ravine,' are con- 
nected with MidLat. cldsa, 'angustus mon- 
tium aditus.' Comp. also Jtlofler, AS. elds, 
f., ' cell.' 

Stlciufei, f., 'clause,' in use since the 
15th cent., from Lat. clausula. 

kleben, vb., 'to cleave (to),' from Mid 
HG. Meben, OHG. chlebSn, vb., ' to cleave, 
adhere, hold on' (fore from Tent, and Aryan 
i comp. Ouecf jilber, teben, wrwefen, &c.) ; cor- 
responding to OSax. clibtin, AS. cleofian, 
E. to cleave ; Goth. *klibon is wanting ; 
Seand. klifa has only the figurative sense 
'to cling to,' i.e., 'to repeat.' A common 
Teut. vb. meaning 'to cleave (to),' formed 
from the weakest vowel stage of the Teut. 
root klib (see flciben). 

^lecft, <#ledts, m., 'blot,' ModHG. 
simply ; only the vb. ftecfen (flecffeu) may 
be traced farther back, MidHG. klecken, 
'to blot, stain, sputter,' also 'to strike 
sonorously ' ; the corresponding Mac (ekes), 
m., signifies 'rent, slit, crack.' 

Slice, m., 'clover,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. kle (gen. k'ewes), m., OHG. chle, chlSo 
(gen. chliwes). m. and n. ; based on klaiw- 
(see <See, @d)nee). The remaining LG. 
dials, have an extended form, in some 
cases only partially corresponding, AS. 
clwfre, cldfre, f., E. clovtr, Dn. klaver, LG. 
klever and klaver, ' clover.' Perhaps these 
are based on some obscure compound. Ex- 
cept in the West Teut. languages, too, there 
are no terms cognate with HG. Mitt ; in 
Scand., Ic. smdri (smcerur), Norw. and 

Swed. (dial) svuere are used ; Dan. Mover 
is borrowed. 

$Iei, m., 'clay,' ModHG. only, from 
LG. klei, 'slime, loam, moist earth,' allied 
to Du. klei, f., 'marsh soil, clay, loam'; 
comp. E. clay, from AS. clceg. An assumed 
Goth. *Haddja, f., may be connected with 
the root klai, by gradation kli, meaning ' to 
cleave (to),' which lias a wider ramification 
in OTeut. ; AS. c/dra(l'rom Maim), 'loam, 
clay,' E. (dial.) cloam, 'pottery,' OHG. 
chleimen, Scand. kleima, kllna, ' to besmear ' ; 
comp. .ftietjkr anil flein. It corresponds in 
the non-Teut. languages to Gr. y\oi, by gra- 
dation y\i ; comp. yXotor, 'oil lees, clammy 
stuff," as well as yXtVi; and yXto, 'glue'; 
Lat. glus, gluten, with # tor older oi ; 
OSlov. glina, 'clay,' gllnu, 'slime' (Lett. 
gltwe, ' slime ' ?). Further MidHG. klenen, 
' to cleave (to), spread over,' is connected 
with the Gr. and Slav, noun with the 
suffix na, 

Uleibcn, vb., ' to stick, glue,' from Mid 
HG. and OHG. Meiben, 'to fix firmly, 
fasten,' prop. ' to cause to adhere or hold 
on' ; a causative of the vb. Mtben, obso- 
lete in ModHG. and rarelv found even in 
MidHG, OHG. chliban, OSax. bikllhan, 
'to cleave, adhere.' OIc. klifa, 'to climb,' 
proves the connection of ModHG. flimmcn 
(which see) with the root kllb, Mlf, 'to 
cleave (to),' from pre-Teut. glip (Teut./ in 
Swiss \lefe, 'box on the ear.' 

Stleib, »- 'dress,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. kleit (gen. kleides), n. ; wanting in 
OHG. till the middle of the 12th cent. ; 
hence the word is supposed to be borrowed 
from Du. Meed. Unknown orig. to OSax. 
also, as well as to Goth, and several AS. re- 
cords (AS. cla}>, n., 'cloth, dress,' E. cloth ; 
OIc. klfefri, 11., 'stuff, cloth, dress'). The 
history of the word, which is more widely 
diffused in the modern Teut. languages, is 
obscure on account of the want of early 
references and the divergence of the earliest 
recorded forms, AS cldjj, n., and OIc. Mc&SL, 
11. (the latter too has an abnormal d instead 
of ei for the Teut. oi). If the dental of 
AS. cldj> be regarded as derivative (Goth. 
*klai-J>a), we may infer from the AS. and 
OIc. meaning 'stuff, cloth' (AS. cildcldj?, 
prop, 'child's clothes,' with the special 
sense ' swaddling cloth '), a root klai sig- 
nifying perhaps 'to weave.' 

Slide, f., ' bran,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. kite, usually plur. Mien, with the 
earlier variant kliwen, OHG. chlta, chliica, 


( 179 ) 


plur. chliuHn, f.; wanting in Gotli., E., and 
Scand. ; comp. further MidLG. clige, Mod. 
Du. wanting ; Swed. kli, ' bran.' 

fUeilX, adj., ' little,' from MidHG. klein, 
kleine, a<lj., 'clean, pretty, fine, prudent, 
slender, lean, little, insignificant' ; OHG. 
chleini, J pretty, shining, neat, careful, slight' 
(Alem. dials, point to an OHG. variant 
*chlini). AS. dame, adj., ' clean, neat,' E. 
clean, proves that 'pretty, clean,' is the 

Srim. idea of the various senses of the Mid 
[G. word (comp. <Sct)mad)). Scand. klenn 
was borrowed at a Lite period from E., 
LG., or Fris. Goth. *klai-ni- is wanting ; 
the nasal belongs, as in several other 
adjs. (see rein and fdjott), to the suffix. 
It is uncertain whether the root is to be 
connected with Gr. y\ot.-6i, 'greasy, sticky 
oil,' and its cognates, discussed under Sttti 
(the meanings 'to shine, cleave (to) ' inter- 
change, e.g., in the root Anr, Gr. Xlira, XT* apiw, 
\iiros, \tirap6s). Gr. 7X77POS, n., ' wonders, 
ornaments,' and 7X77V17, 'pupil (of* the eye),' 
are, however, both on account of their 
forms and meanings, still less allied. — 
Jtlctrtob, n., 'jewel,' from MidHG. kleindt, 
n., with the variants kleincete, kleinoede, n., 
lit. 'fine, pretty thing,' then 'costliness, 
ornament,' not recorded in OHG.; 6b is a 
suffix (see §e imat, Sltmut, and (Sinobe). Hence 
the derivative has retained another feature 
of the earlier varied senses. 

£ileiftev, m. and f., ' paste,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. Jcltster, m., with the equiv. 
variant klenster based on the vb. klenen; 
OHG. chltstar and Goth. *kleistra- are 
granting ; stra is a suffix, as in Safler ; the 
stem kli is the root kit, by gradation klai, 
' to cleave (to) ' (discussed under ^let and 
ffetn), which forms a vb. only in OHG., 
but it passes at the same time into the e- 
class, chlenan, ' to cleave (to), smear,' for 
kli-na-n, with na as a suffix of the pres., as 
in Lat. and Gr. {sper-ne-re, line-re, S&kvciv, 
&c.) ; comp. MidHG. klenen, vb., Ic. kllna, 
' to smear,' klinuigr, ' bread and butter,' klis- 
tra, ' to paste.' 

felempetw, vb., 'to tinkle,' ModHG. 
simply, allied to MidHG. klamben, klamp- 
fern, ' to clamp ' ; Jtfcmpner, ' tinker,' 
also ModHG. simply, allied to the equiv. 
MidHG. klampfer. 

Ill en hen, vb., ' to force the seeds from 
cones by heat,' from MidHG. klengen, Men- 
ken, ' to cause to ring ' ; factit. of fliugen, 
which see ; comp. fyenfen, allied to tuition. 

<#lepper, m., ' nag,' early ModHG., orig. 

not in a contemptuous sense ; a LG. form ; 
it is connected with LG. kleppen, ' to strike 
rapidly ' (espec. also ' to ring with a sharp 
sound '), MidHG. klepfen. Perhaps the terra 
JHepper is derived from the bells on the 
harness of the horse. 

5&fctf c, f., ' bur,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. klette, f., with the variant klete; OHG. 
chletto, m., chletta, f. (also OHG. chleta). 
AS. clipe, cldte, f., E. dotbur, 'large bur' ; 
further from the root kllb, ' to cleave (to), 
adhere' (comp. fleben), the equiv. OHG. 
chliba, AS. clife, MidE. dive, as well as 
MidDu. klijve, MidLG. klive; finally also 
ModDu. klis, f., ' bur.' OHG. chletta is the 
most closely connected with AS. dipe. It 
has been compared with Lat. glis (ss) as a 
cognate. From the G. word, OFr. gleton, 
gletteron, and ModFr. glouferon are derived. 
Comp. also the next word. 

Met t em, vb., ' to climb,' early ModHG 
only, probably allied to Jtiftte, and derived 
like the latter from a root meaning ' to 
cleave (to) ' ; comp. fleben and ftimmen. 
Akin to Du. klauteren, LG. kldtern, klattern, 
South Franc, kldteren, 'to mount, climb' 
(with an abnormal vowel and dental) ; 
root Met ?. 

kliehen, vb., ' to split,' from MidHG. 
klieben, OHG. chlioban, vb., ' to split, cleave' ; 
corresponding to OSax. dioban, AS. dedfan, 
E. to deave. From the correspondence of 
the other Teut. dials, we may assume Goth. 
*kldban, *kliuban, ' to split.' Under f lauben 
a vb. from the same root klub, by grada- 
tion kleub, ' to work with a sharp instru- 
ment,' has been discussed, to which is allied 
Gr. 7X^0 (y\v<f>w, ' to hollow out, carve,' 7X1/- 
(pavos, ' chisel,' yXvTrrvs, ' carver'), perhaps also 
Lat. gl&bo, ' to peel.' With the Aryan root 
gl4bh, by gradation gleubh, JUcben, Jfllift, 
and jttuppe are also connected. 

hlimmcu, vb., 'to climb," from a Mid 
HG. klimmen, klimben, OHG. ddimbnn, str. 
vb., 'to climb, mount'; corresponding to 
AS. dimban, E. to dimb. The nasal was 
orig. a part of the pres. stem ; it did not 
belong to the root, as is proved by OIc. 
klifa, vb., ' to climb.' As to the identity 
of klimban with OTeut. kliban, ' to cleave 
(to), hold firm,' comp. ffeibcn ; hence Uim- 
men is prop. ' to adhere.' 

lilimportt, vb.,' to clink,' ModHG. only, 
a new onomatopoetic term. 

JUinge (1.), f., from the equiv. Mid 
HG. Hinge, f., ' sword -blade ' ; the word, 
which is not recorded in OHG, is pro- 


( 180 ) 


bablyaderivativeof flingfn(from the ringing 
Bound made by the sword on the helmet). 

<&titlQC (2.), f., 'ravine,' from MidHG. 
klinge, t, ' mountain stream,' OHG. chlinga, 
chlingo, m., 'torrent'; like .Rlinge (1), a 
derivative of flingen. 

feltttflcln, vh., « to ring,' from MidHG. 
Miwjden, OHG. cJiliiigildn, vb., ' to sound, 
roar, splash,' diinin. and frequent, of ftingen. 

felingen, vb., • to sound, from MidHG. 
klingen, OHG. clilingan, str. vb., ' to sound, 
resound ' ; corresponding to Ic. klingja, ' to 
ring.' E. to clink has adopted the same 
final stem sound (k for g\ which the subst. 
clank, connected with it by gradation (comp. 
Jt(ang and F(enfen), has always had. The 
stem, like the derivative Jtfoitg (comp. also 
JUinge, Jtlinfe, and ffenfrn),. is common to 
Teut., but on account of the non-permuta- 
tion it cannot be cognate with Gr. kXayy-^, 
hut. clangor. Both roots are independent 
onomatopoetic forms in each separate lan- 

Sulirihe, f., ' latch,' from MidHG. klinke, 
f., ' bolt of a door' ; allied to flingen. 

^tlittfe, S^lin^e, f., 'cleft,' from Mid 
HG. klinse, klimse, and with a different 
stage of gradation klunse, klumse, klumze, f., 
' slit' ; OHG. *chlumu^a, chUmuya, is want- 
ing. Origin obscure. 

-Hlippc, f., ' cliff,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. (Lower Rhen.) klippe, f., borrowed 
from MidDu. klippe; comp. Du. klip; 
allied to a Teut. root klib, as is shown by 
OIc. k 7 eif, n., ' cliffs' ; comp. also AS. clif, 
Ti., E. cliff, OIc. klif y n., OSax. klif, OHG. 
klebyTi., all pointing to a Goth. *klif, klibis, 
ii., ' rock, hill.' They have been connected 
with Ic. klifa, vb., ' to climb ' (see under 
f(fibfii), but on account of the prim, mean- 
ing 'to cleave (to),f this is scarcely satis- 

fllippern,. vb., 'to click,' ModHG. only, 
a uecent onomatopoetic term. 

ftlirren, vb., 'to clash,' ModHG. only, 
a recent onomatopoetic term. 

^lobcn, m., ' log of wood,, block, 
pulley,' from MidHG. klobe, m., 'log of 
wood with a slit to act as a vice, fetter, stick 
with a slit for catching birds, bolt, slit,' 
&c. ; OHG. chlobo, m., 'stick For catching 
birds' ; allied to flifbtn, MidHG. klieben, 
vb.,'to split, cleave' (comp. 93egen, allied 
to bif gen). OLG. klodo, m., ' fetter * ; OIc. 
klofe, m., 'crevice in a rock, door joint' ; 
Du. kloofy f., • slit, rift, cleft.' Comp. J?neb- 

felopfon, vb., 'to knock,' from MidHG. 
k'opfen, OHG. chlopf&n, wk. vb., ' to knock, 
rap ' ; Goth. *klu}tpon is not warranted by 
corresponding forms in the other OTeut. 
dials. ; comp. also Du. Idoppen. Further, 
OHG. chlocchSn, MidHG. klocken, * to 
knock,' which are not indubitably allied 
to Hopfni. With the latter the cognates 
discussed under MUft are connected by gra- 
dation, and these point to a Goth. *ktap- 
ptin, ' to strike.' 

Jtloflcr, m., 'monastery,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. and OHG. klSster, n., bor- 
rowed on the introduction of Christianity 
from MidLat. and Rom. claustrum (Ital. 
chioslro, Fr. cloltre), ' monastery ' ; comp. 

Si f of], m., ' clod, dumpling,' from Mid 
HG. M63, m. and n., ' lump, bulb, clew, 
bullet, pommel of a sword, wedge,' OHG. 
cldd$, m., 'ball, round -mass, bowl (at 
play)'; corresponding to MidLG. klitte, 
Du. Moot, m., 'bullet, ball.' AS. *cledt, 
E. cleat, ' wedge ' (Ic, Mot, ' pommel of a 
sword,' has an abnormal 6 ior au, which 
indicates that the word has been borrowed, 
unless it is cognate with Lar. glMius). 
Goth. *klauta- is wanting ; the Teut. root 
klut appears also in the following word. 

^tIot3, m. and n., ' block, log, stump,' 
from MidHG. kloz (gen. klotzes), m. and n., 
' lump, bullet,' hence equiv. to MidHG. 
kl6$; AS. *clotf, E. clot ; we may therefore 
assume Goth. *klutta-, the relation of which 
to klauta-, mentioned under .Rlefj, is evident. 
In the non-Teut, languages the Teut root 
klut ('bale '?), adduced under Jtlcjj, has 
not been definitely authenticated ; a root 
glud appears in Lith. gludus, ' clinging to,' 
glausti, ' to cling to.' 

S%l\\&e, $htcfce, f., 'clucking hen,' 
from MidHG. klucke. f., ' brood hen,' allied 
to MidHG. and ModHG. klucken (glucken). 
Comp. AS. cloccian, E. to cluck, Du. klokken. 
The Teut. cognate, klukk, is of onomato- 
poetic origin ; comp. the phonetic cog- 
nates, Lat. glCcire, Gr. yXwfriv, ' to cluck.' 

<#Iufl, f., 'chasm,' from MidHG. kluft, 
{., ' cleft, chasm, cave, vault, tongs,' OHG. 
clduff, f., 'tongs, shears,' prop, 'splitting' 
(as a verbal abstract of the OTeut. kliuban, 
' to split,' discussed under fliebni). The 
tongs, as an instrument with a slit, is 
called dial. Jttnft ; comp. ^Iitppe. The Mid 
HG. meaning ' vault ' (crypta) e eems to be 
due to a confusion of .Shift with the foreign 
word crypta (see ©ntjr). Goth. *klufti-, f. ; 


( 1S1 ) 


AS. *clyft, E. cleft, cliftj Du. kluft, I, 
'cleft, notch, chasm.' 

hi uct, a<lj., ' knowing, prudent, shrewd,' 
from MidHG. kluoc (gr), ' fine, pretty, ten- 
der, superb, brave, polite, prudent, sly ' ; 
in OHG. not recorded, whether by chance 
or no i3 not known. It is thought to 
have been borrowed from LG., although 
the word in the non-HG. languages has a 
final k, LG. kluk, Du. Mock, 'prudent, 
brave, great, corpulent' (not found in E. ; 
Scand. klokr, 'prudent, cunning,' is sup- 
posed to be a G. loan-word). No clue to 
an etymological explanation of the adj. 
can be discovered. 

.Sklumpe, <$ittumpc«, m., 'clump, 
lump,' ModHG. only ; from the equiv. LG. 
klamp, Du. klomp, m. ; comp. E. clump. 
Scand. klumba, f., 'club,' with a different 
labial, also a variant klubba ; klubbu-futr, 
whence the equiv. E. ' club-foot.' Further 
references havenotbeendiscovered. Comp. 

c^tftittgel, n., 'clew,' from MidHG. 
*kliingel, kliingdin, OHG. chlungilin, n., 
' clew,' dimin. of OHG. chlunga, f., ' clew ' ; 
if ng be a suffix, as in jimcj, the word may 
be allied to Jttiduef, OHG. chliuwa (root 
klu, Aryan glu), in which case it would be 
brought into connection with other terms ; 
it is, however, more probably allied to E. 
to cling, from AS. clingan, ' to cling to, 
hold fast, adhere.' 

^tluttfcer, f., 'clot, tassel,' ModHG. 
only ; allied to MidHG. klungcler, ' tassel,' 
glunke, f., ' dangling curl,' glunkern, * to 
swing, dangle.' 

<$lttppe, f., 'pincers,' from MidHG. 
kluppe, f., ' tongs, barnacles, splinter,' 
OHG. kluppa, f., ' tongs.' JUuWe, like Mod 
HG. Jtluft (dial.) 'tongs,' is also derived 
from OTeut. kliuban, ' to split, cleave ' ; 
unfortunately correspondences in other 
dialects are wanting (Goth. *klubj6 ?). 
Comp. Hiebcit, flaubeti, and J'ilufr. 

<S&\\abo, m., 'boy, lad, youth,' from 
MidHG., late OHG. chnabo, m., ' boy ' ; 
also ' youth, fellow, servant,' with the 
originally equiv. variants, ModHG. £na$pr, 
MidHG. knappe, OHG. clmappo (OHG. 
chnabo and chnappo are related like SlAbt 
and 3?aW>e). AS. cnapa, OSax. knapo, and 
Olc. knape, 'attendant, squire,' present 
some difficulties compared with AS. cnafa, 
E. knave. Equally obscure is the relation 
of the entire class to the root ken, Aryan 
gen (Lat. renus, gi-gn-o, Gr. ylvos, yi-yv-ofiai, 

Sec), with which some etymologists would 
like to connect it ; if it were allied, OHG. 
chn'eht (kn-eht) also might perhaps be com- 

(mctcucn, vb., ' to crack,' from MidHG. 
knacken, gnacken, ' to split, crack,' wanting 
in OHG. ; E. knack, MidE. cnak, 'crack,' 
Ic knakkr; ModHG. Mnatf, 'crack,' Mid 
HG. not yet found. To the same root Olc. 
knoka, AS. cnocian, E. to knock, formed by 
gradation, seem to belong. The words 
are based on an imitative root which is 
peculiar to Teut. 

Anall, m., ' sharp report, explosion,' 
ModHG. only ; allied to MidHG. er-knel- 
len, ' to resound.' Comp. AS. cnyll, cnell, 
m., ' signal given by a bell,' E. knell. 

<Sinaxx, Jtttan, m., ' father,' from Mid 
HG. genanne, gnanne, from genamne, prop., 
' of the same name ' (for MidHG. ge- comp. 
gletcfy and ©efel(e), ' namesake.' Used even 
in MidHG. by sons addressing their father 
or grand father. 

nnapp, adj., 'scanty,' ModHG. only; 
wanting in MidHG. and OHG. ; probably 
from LG., for gehnapp. Comp. Olc. hneppr, 
' narrow.' 

<$bnappc, m., 'squire, attendant,' from 
MidHG. knappe, m., ' youth, bachelor, ser- 
vant, squire,' OHG. chnappo, m. ; in the 
rest of the OTeut. languages there are no 
cognates pointing to Goth. *knabba; two 
variants of the assumed *knabba are men- 
tioned under Jlnabf, where the further ety- 
mological question is discussed. Comp. 
also (Hafee with {Ra^e, Goth, laigan, 'to 
lick,' with AS. liccian. 

hnappen. vb., ' to make scarce, hobble, 
nibble,' ModHG. only, from Du. knappen, 
' to eat, lay hold of quickly.' — <£tnappfacfc, 
' knapsack,' from Du. knap-zack, ' saddle- 
bag,' whence probably also E. knapsack. 

bwarven, vb., ' to creak,' from MidHG. 
knarren, gnarren, ' to creak, snarl '; a re- 
cent onomatopoetic term like frtirrcn and 
f ti in veil. 

cfmaff ct, m., ' best tobacco,' borrowed 
at the beginning of the 18th cent, from 
Du, knaster, kanaster, m., 'canister tobacco,' 
which conies from Span, canastro, ' basket' 
(comp, Lat and Gr, canistriwh, Kdvaarpov). 

-V.iuiuei, nw and n., 'clewV from Mid 
HG. kniuieel, knudtii, kniul, n., 'small 
clew or ball' ; the n by differentiation 
represents I on account of the final I 
(see JtncMau^); MidHG. kliuioel, kliuweltn, 
diinins. of MidHG. klimce, n., 'clow, ball's 


( 182 ) 


OHG. chliuwelm, dimin. of chliuwa, chliwa, 
1., ' ball, clew ' ; AS. cle6we, cltfwe, n., MidE. 
cleewe, E. clew; also AS. cle6wen, cljjwen, 
]i., like MidG. kltiiotn, Du. kluwen, 'skein.' 
OHG. also kliwi, kliuui, n., MidHG. kliuwe, 
n., 'clew.' A richly developed nominal 
stem peculiar to West Teut. ; the Gotli. 
form is probably *klitri (kliujis), n. or 
*kliuj6, n. ; the root Jcffi, by gradation 
kl£u, appears also perhaps in .ftlaue (Goth. 
*kl$wa), which in that case was so called 
from its contracting ; comp. Lat. gluere, ' to 
contract,' gldmct, ' husk,' also Sans, gldus, 
' bale,' hence Aryan root glu. Lat. gldbus 
and gldmus are not connected with this 

e^nauf, m., ' button, pommel,' from 
MidHG. knouf, m , ' pommel (of a sword), 
pinnacle,' also a dimin. knoufel, knoufel, 
m., OHG. *chnouf not recorded ; Goth. 
*knaups is also indicated by Du. knoop, m., 
'button, knob.' A Goth, graded form 
*knupps may likewise be inferred from the 
cognates discussed under Jtnepf, which see. 

^mcutfer, m., ' niggard,' ModHG. only, 
probably from MidHG. knui>, ' impudent, 
daring, haughty (towards the poor).' 

^tnebel, 111., ' branch, peg, moustache, 
knuckle,' from MidHG. knebcl, m., OHG. 
knebil, 'crossbeam, girder, crossbar, cord, 
fetter, knuckle ' ; Du. knevel, m., ' packing- 
stick 3 ; Scand. knefiil, m., 'stake, stick'; 
Goth. *knabils is wanting. Considering 
the relation of Goth. *nabala, m., ' navel,' 
to Gr. 6/i<pa\6s, we may assume for Goth. 
*knabils, a root gombh (jgonbh) in the non- 
Teut. languages (comp. ybfupos, ' plug, nail, 
wedge ' ; this word, however, is usually 
connected with the cognates of ModHG. 
^antm). — It is still doubtful whether Mnthd 
in jjnebelbart ' (twisted) moustache,' first 
recorded in ModHG. and borrowed from 
LG. and Du., is of a different origin, i.e. 
connected with AS. cenep, OFris. kenep, 
OIc. kanpr (Goth. *kanipa-), ' moustache,' 
MidDu. cane/been, ' cheek-bone.' 

edited)!, m., 'servant,' from MidHG. 
kn'eht, OHG. chneht, m., ' boy, youth, fel- 
low, man, squire,' often also ' hero' ; comp. 
AS. cniht, m., ' boy, youth, man capable of 
bearing arms, hero,' E. knight ; probably a 
West Teut. word, unknowu to Goth, and 
Scand. (Dan. knegt and Swed. knekt are 
borrowed). The same variety of meanings 
in West Teut. words is found in Jtnabe and 
.KiKHtye (comp. also AS. mago, ' son, boy, 
man, champion,' see too Jterl). However 

probable its close connection with Jtnabe 
and JfnaWe may be, yet it is not possible 
to define it strictly. Jtnedjt is more pro- 
bably allied to the root ken, from Aryan gen 
(Lat. genus, ytvos, Lat. gi-gn-o, yiyvo/iai), than 
.knabe, because a suffix -eht exists in Teut. 

kttctfen, vb., • to nip,' ModHG. only, a 
phonetic rendering of LG. knipen, adopted 
l>y the written language. Comp. fncipen. 

(ifitnctpe, f., 'pincers, gripes,' ModHG. 
only, of obscure origin ; its cognate rela- 
tion to fneipeit can only be assumed, since 
an older connecting link between it and 
Jitteipe, ' tavern,' is wanting ; orig. Jfctfipe 
was a low tavern. Is it related to Du. 
knijp,f., 'narrowness, embarrassment'? or 
rather Du. kniji, m., ' bird-snare, brothel' ? 

fcttCipen, vb., ' to pinch,' early ModHG., 
orig. LG. knipen (see also fmifen) ; Du. 
knijpen, ' to nip, twitch ' ; probably not 
allied to AS. hntpan, hnipian, ' to bow,' but 
to a root hntp, 'to nip,' not recorded in 
OTeut., from which also MidE. nipen, E. 
to nip, are derived ; kn initially may be 
explained from *gahnipan. Thepre-Teut. 
root knib appears in Lith. knibti, ' to pick, 
pluck,' knibti, ' to nip.' If the E. word is 
unconnected with Du. knijpen on account 
of the initial sound, we might assume 
a root knib, gntb (Lith. gnybti, ' to nip,' 
gnybis, 'nip'), though this too is not re- 
corded in OTeut. 

fcttefett, vb., ' to knead,' from the eqniv. 
MidHG. kneten, OHG. chnetan ; comp. Mid 
LG. and Du. kneden, 'to knead,' AS. cn'edan, 
MidE. cneden, E. to knead; a Goth. *knidan, 
or rather *knudan (comp. tvetcn), ' to knead,' 
may be assumed ; Scand. has only a wk. 
knotSa, pointing to Goth. *knudan. Since 
HG. t, LG., E., and Goth, d may have ori- 
ginated in t owing to earlier positions of 
the accents (comp. SSater, AS. feeder, with 
Lat. pater, Gr. war^p), gnet may be regarded 
as the pre-Teut. root. Comp. OSlov. gneta, 
gnesti, ' to crush, knead.' 

imiefcen, vb., ' to crack,' ModHG. only ; 
from LG. knikken, ' to burst, split, crack ' ; 
E. (dial.) to knick, ' to crack.' 

Jtttio, n., 'knee,' from MidHG. knie, 
kniu (gen. knies, knieices), OHG. chniu. 
chneo (gen. chnewes, chniices), n., 'knee'; 
comp. Du. knie, f., AS. c»e6 (gen. cneowes), 
n., MidE. cnee, E. knee; Goth, kniu (gen. 
kniwis), n., ' knee ' ; a common 0. and Mod 
Teut word with the prim, meaning ' knee,' 
which also belongs to the allied Aryan 
words ; genu-, gonu-, gnu- are the Aryan 


( 183 ) 


6tems of the word ; comp. Lat. genu, Gr. 
yovv (comp. yw-irereiv, yv6%, lyvia), Sans. 
idnu, n., ' knee ' (abhijnu, ' down to the 
knee,' jnu-badh, 'kneeling'). This Aryan 
6tem gnu had when declined the variant 
gnew-, which appears extended in Teut. by 
the a of the a-declension, Goth, kniwa-. 
The shorter Teut. form knu-, Aryan gnu-, 
has been retained in Goth. *knu-ssus (in- 
ferred from knussjan, 'to kneel'), 'kneel- 
ing' (the suffix -ssus is current in Goth.), 
and probably also in OIc. Jcnue, m ., ' knuckle ' 
(presupposing Goth. *knuwa, m.) ; there 
are also some abnormal £-deri vatives, MidE. 
cnilien, E. to kneel, Du. hidden, and Swiss 
chnii'e, ' to kneel.' 

<#mff, m., 'pinch,' ModHG. only, allied 
to fneifm ; Dn. kneep, f., ' pinch, pinching.' 

j&mrps, m., ' pigmy,' ModHG. only, a 
MidG. word, by syncope from *kniirbes, 
knirbes (comp. LG. knirfix, Lower Rhen. 
knirwes). MidE. narvel, nirvel (AS. *cnyr- 
fel ?), * pigmy,' are formed with a different 
dimin. termination. Allied to Suab. knorp, 
' pigmy ' ; and to Du. knorf, ' knot ' 1. 

Imnrrett, vb., ' to creak,' from MidHG. 
knirren, ' to jar.' A recent imitative word. 

fcmrfd)ett, vb., 'to gnash,' MidHG. 
*knirsen, may be inferred from knirsunge, 
f., ' gnashing,' and zerkniirsen, ' to crusli, 
squash ' ; for sch from s after r comp. J&irfd) 
and 5lvfd) ; comp. ModDu. knarsen,knersen, 
* to gnash, crash,' knarsetanden, ' to gnash 
with the teeth.' 

fcttifient, vb., 'to crackle,' from Mid 
HG. *lcnisten, on which the noun knistunge, 
f., 'gnashing,' is based ; an onomatopoetic 

Sinit t ef»ers, m., ' doggerel,' ModHG. 
only ; Jtutttcl for tfnuttel, ' cudgel.' E. staff, 
in the sense of ' stick,' and also ' verse, 
strophe, stanza,' may be adduced as an ap- 
proximate parallel. The Dutchman Junius 
says of the refrain in Du. popular songs, 
' In vulgaribus rhythmis versum iden- 
tidem repetitum scipionem aut baculum 
appellant' ; the Romans had versus rhopa- 
ItcL the Scandinavians the stef. 

Rttitfern, vb., 'to rumple,' ModHG. 
only ; an imitative word. 

Kttobcltt, vb., 'to fillip,' ModHG. only, 
allied to a widely diffused dial, form knobel 
(UpG.), knowel (MidG. aud LG.), 'joint,' 
espec. of the fingers. 

Jtttoblcmd), m., ' garlic,' from MidHG. 
knobelouch, m., with the orig. variant klobe- 
louch, m., OHG. chlobolouh, chlo/olouh, chlo- 

volouh, m. ; with regard to b for /, comp. 
Sdtocfff ; the kn of the MidHG. and Mod 
HG. words may be explained as in Jfnduel 
by a process of differentiation, i.e. the I of 
the next syllable produced the change of 
the first I into n; comp. ModDu. knoftook 
and MidLG. klofldk: In the ordinary ex- 
planation of ' cleft leek ' no regard is paid 
to the fact that the first part of the com- 
pound, which is identical with ModHG. 
•Rlebeit, appears elsewhere in the Teut. 
group, AS. clufe, E. clove (of garlic), AS. 
clufl>ung, ' crowfoot,' clufwyrt, ' buttercup.' 

,^inod)eI, m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
knbchel, hiuchel, m., 'knuckle' ; dimin. of 
JlnedHtt, MidHG. knoche ; AS. cnucel, Mid 
E. knokil. E. knuckle, and the equiv. Du. 

<|mod)Ctt, m., 'bone,' from MidHG. 
knoche, m., 'bone, knot of a branch, fruit cap- 
sule.' The ModHG. word, almost unknown 
to Luther, rarely occurs in MidHG., and 
is entirely wanting in OHG. (33cin is the 
genuine UpG. and HG. word for J?iiod)en, 
which again is orig. native to the MidG. 
and LG. dialects.) ,Rnod)en is, however, 
proved by the corresponding dimin. Jtnocr/ol 
to be a good OTeut. word ; Goth. *knuqa, 
m., may be assumed. It is still uncertain 
whether it is connected with E. to knock, 
AS. cnucian, OIc. knoka, MidHG. knochen, 
' to cuff,' or is related to OIc. knue, 'knuckle,' 
which would favour its further kinship wii h 
jfme. From *knuqa, UpG. Jlnocfe, ' snag, 
knot,' MidHG. knock, 'nape,' may be de- 
rived ; their ck correctly represents the 
old q. Allied words with final g in the 
stem are, however, obscure, MidHG. kno- 
gerlin, ' little knot,' and MidHG. kniigel, 
' knuckle.' 

cfmocuc, f., 'bundle, bunch,' ModHG. 
only, from LG. knocke; proved to be a 
genuine OTeut. word by AS. *cnyiSe, Mid 
I*]. knucche, ' bundle' (e.g. 'bundle of hay'), 
E. knitch, ' faggot ' ; Goth . *knuka, or rather 
*knukja, m., are wanting. 

/mood, in., 'dumpling,' from MidHG. 
kniklel, 111., 'seed-bud, dumpling'; dimin. 
of MidHG. knod , 'knot,' discussed under 

^UYoKctt, m., 'clod, bulb,' from Mid 
HG. knolle, m., 'clod, lump'; OHG. 
*chnollo, m., is wanting. With the Mid 
HG meaning are connected AS. cnoll, m. f 
E. knoll; Du. knol, 'turnip.' 

^tnopf, m., ' button, knob, pommel,' 
from MidHG. and OHG. knopf, ni., ' pro- 


( »8 4 ) 


tuberance on plants, bud, pommel of a 
sword, knot, loop ' ; comp. AS. *cnopp, m n 
E. knop, 'button, bud' ; Du. knop, ' bad, 
button, knot on plants.' Goth. *knuppa- 
ia wanting; under ^nauf its graded form 
Gotli. *knaupa- was assumed, which would 
represent *knauppa-, for the stem loses its 
final 6. as is shown in MidHG. kniibel, m., 
1 knuckle,' as well as AS. *cnobba, MidE. 
ktwbbe, E. knob; comp. also ModDu. knob- 
bd, in., 'knot, bull), weal,' and HG. .Snubb.'. 
Besides the words hitherto adduced, from 
which we may infer an old u root (comp. 
especially ^iniuf), there are some abnormal 
forms, OIc. hvippr, * button, pommel,' AS. 
cn(Bp, MidE. knap. Comp. Jtitofpe, Jtnubfre, 
fmiVfcn, and Jluuppef. 

(iitttorpel, m., 'gristle,' from MidHG. 
knorpel; knorbel-, btin knospel, ' cartilage.' 
It cannot be certainly decided whether 
the word is based on a Goth, knuzba- or 
*kna&rba- ; the former is the more probable 
for grammatical reasons ; ModDu. knob- 
h I, ModLG. kmispcrknaken, * cartilaginous 

^tnorre, m., ' knotty excrescence,' from 
MidHG. knorre, m., with the equiv. variant 
knure, m., 'knot, protuberance' (on trees, 
the body, &c.) ; knUre also signifies ' rock, 
cliff, summit ' ; in the sense of ' cuff, push,' 
it is connected with MidHG. kniisen (from 
*knusjari), 'to push, strike.' For the other 
meanings too we must probably proceed 
from a Goth, word with s (z), as the dial. 
forms indicate, Suab. j?uatu% ' knob on a 
loaf,' Swiss knus, ' knot, excrescence.' E. 
knar, 'knot in wood,' MidE. knarre, with 
the variant knorre, 'knot, excrescence.' — 
OHG. has only the adj. chniurig, 'knotty, 
stout, firm,' derived from *kndr. — Comp. 
Jtncfpe and Jtnujt. 

c&ttorf 3, m., ' snag,' from MidHG. and 
OHG. knorz, 'excrescence, knot'; Dan. 
knoit, Swed. knort. Allied to the preced- 
ing word ?. 

(^Itofpe, f., ' bud,' from MidHG. knospe, 
m., ' protuberance ' ; the modern meaning 
is one of the varied senses in earlier Mod 
HG. ; 'protuberance' is the prim, signifi- 
cation, hence it is natural to connect jfttofpe 
etymologically with J?ttopf ; the latter is to 
be represented in Goth, by *knuppa-, the 
former by *knvspan- for *kn vfspan- ; in that 
case -span would be a suffix ; *knuzpan- 
may, however, stand for *knusspan-, and 
be connected with the root knus appearing 
in Jtttcrre. 

/mofcit, m., 'knot,' from MidHG. 
kaote, knode, m., ' natural knot (on the 
body and plants), artificial knot in a 
thread, noose'; OHG. chnodo, chnoto. m. 
(the OHG. and MidHG. doublets with t 
and d appear in .Rncte and .Kitcfcel even as 
late as ModHG.). Allied to AS. cnotta, in., 
E. knot, with differently related dentals ; 
comp. OIc. H-knt/tter, ' dirty tricks,' and Mil 
HG. knotze, f., ' protuberance ' ; E. to knit, 
AS. cnyttan, LG. (Voss) kniitte, f., 'knit- 
ting-needles,' &c. OIc. kniilr, m., 'knot,' 
kndta, £,, 'dice'; they are related to AS. 
knotta, like Goth. *knaupa- to *k»up}Ki~ 
(comp. Jtnauf and ^ncpf), and just as a 
form with a in the stem (AS. cnmpp) is 
connected with these words, so is OIc. 
kngttr (Goth. *knattus), m,, ' ball,' related 
to the cognates of Jlitcten. No indubitably 
allied term can be adduced from the other 
Aryan languages. Comp. also .Jfriuftel. 

(J&nSfertdj, in., 'knot-grass'; found onlv 
in ModHG. 

e finubbc, ^tnuppe, m., 'knot in wood,' 
ModHG. only, from LG. knubbe, the cog- 
nates of which see under ^ttcpf. We may 
also mention MidHG, kniibel, to which 
Jtmirpc is related, as fhiuben to Jtlmte. 

fenuflfcn, vb., * to cuff,' wanting in the 
earlier periods ; of obscure origin. 

Kllfipfett, vb., from the equiv. Mid IK I 
Jcnvpfen, OHG. knupfen, ' to unite, tie, 
fasten together' (Goth. *knuppjan is want- 
ing) ; a nominal vb. from Jhtepf, which see ; 
MidHG. knopf,* knot,' 

<&nuppol, m., * wooden bar, stick, 
cudgel,' from LG. ; in MidHG. hiiipfel, 
m., 'cudgel,' was used. It is connected 
with MidHG. knopf, ' knot on plants.' 
See Jlncrf. 

<&nu(l, ^naitff, m., 'crusty piece of 
bread,' prop. ' protuberance,' especially 
' corner of a loaf,' from LG. ; t is a suffix ; 
for kntis- in the sense of 'knot,' see under 

e&mtfc, f., 'knout,' ModHG. only ; bor- 
rowed from Russ. knut ; comp. *J>ettfcfye. 

cftnfitfcl, m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
kniitel, kniittel, OHG. chnutil, m., 'cudgel,' 
prop, 'stick or string with knots'; allied 
to Jhtoten. 

<iiobolf, m., 'cobalt,' ModHG. only; 
of uncertain origin, probably equiv. to 

JK>ttWi m., 'hovel,' from MidHG. kob", 
m., 'stable, pigsty, cage'; the Mod IK J. 
variant .fiefott is derived. &< the / indicates, 


( 185 ) 


from LG. The word had orig. a more gene- 
ral sense, and was not restricted merely to a 
shed for animals and pigs. Even in Mod 
HG. the earlier meaning 'hut' is found ; 
comp. MidHG. kobel, 'narrow house' ; Ic. 
Jcofi, m., 'hut, penthouse, partition.' In 
AS. the corresponding cofa is specially 
used as a choice poetic term for 'apart- 
ment, bed-chamher ' ; hence E. cove and 
pigeon-cove. Goth. *lcuba, on which these 
words are based, is wanting. The word 
is genuinely Teut., as is proved by OHG. 
chubisi (Goth. *kubisi), * hut,' which, from 
its form, is a derivative of a far earlkr 
period ; comp. also MidHG. kober, 'basket, 
pocket,' AS. cofl, ' basket.' See Jlcbrib and 

- c i0bolo, m., ' goblin,' from MidHG. 
kObolt, with the variant kobolt, m., 'fan- 
tastic familiar spirit, goblin.' As the 
genuinely Teut. household deities, the 
jfobofbe may be regarded as equiv. to the 
AS. cofgodit, cofgodas, 'penates, lares' (un- 
fortunately AS. *cofuld or *cqf weald, ' house- 
hold deity,' lit. ' protector of the bed- 
chamber,' is not recorded) ; in Goth, 
probably *kubaicalda-. The first compo- 
nent is OIc. kofe, AS. cofa, ''apartment, 
chamber' (see Jtoben). The MidHG. and 
ModHG. variants DWelb and JDpelt may 
have been *6twalt, Goth. *audawald, ' Lord 
of wealth'; the old at, 'wealth,' has been 
retained only in proper names like Dttcfav, 
Dtfricb (G'buarb, E. Edward). For the end- 
ing ;ctb see under Jperofb and walteit. 

,J£iod), m., 'cook,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. koch, OHG. chohQih) ; comp. Du. and 
OSax. kok, 'cook'; adopted before the 
HG. permutation of consonants, at latest 
in the 6th cent, (contemporaneously with 
Jtfnfye), when the art of cookery and horti- 
culture were introduced from Italy j the 
word is based on Lat. coquus, or more 
accurately on the form koko- (comp. Ital. 
cv.oco). The word passed into E. in a 
different form — AS. c6c, E. cook, where 
the 6, compared with HG. and Lat. 6, is 
due to a change of quantity in an open 
syllable (comp. <Sd)itlc and .tfucfycn) ; on 
the other hand, the 6 of the HG. word is 
probably derived from the vb. fodf)cn. The 
earlier Teut. word for fedbcn is fieben ; an 
OTeut. word for 'cook' is wanting. — 
Iiocrjeit, ' to cook,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. kochen, OHG. chofthSn, from Lat. 
cnquere (more accurately *coqudre ?). The 
HG. word could not remain a str. vb., 

because the vowel of the stem differed 
from the analogy of verbs of that class. 
In Rom. note Fr. cuire, Ital. cuocere. Comp. 
also Jfrtdjen. 

Jt8d)er-, m., 'quiver,' from MidHG. 
kocher, OHG. chohhar, m.. 'quiver,' yet also 
generally 'receptacle' with the variants, 
MidHG. kochmre, OHG. chohhdri, MidHG. 
koger, keger, with an abnormal g apparently 
in harmony with the obscure OIc. kggurr 
('quiver' ?), preserved only in kggursweinn, 
kggurbam ; OIc. kggurr, ' quilted counter- 
pane, coverlet,' is an entirely different 
word, and is connected with a remarkable 
G. form ^cd)ct, ' cover.' AS. cocur, MidE. 
coker, ' quiver ' ; also in MidE. and E. 
quiver, from OFr. cuivre, which is again 
derived from the Teut. word (Teut. kokro-, 
whence MidLat. cucurum, 'quiver'). 

tSbobcv, m., 'bait.' The word, on ac- 
count of its very varied forms and senses, 
is difficult to explain etymologically, per- 
haps several words, originally different, 
have been combined with it ; MidHG. 
boder, koder, keder, korder^ kbrder, kerder, 
querder, m., 'lure, bait, patch of cloth or 
leather,' OHG. querdar also means ' wick 
of a lamp' ; in ModHG. it signifies, in the 
various dialects and at different periods, 
'double chin, slime, rag, leather strap, 
bait.' With j?i?ber, 'double chin,' we may 
perhaps compare E. cud, AS. cudu, cweodu, 
(Goth, qijjus, ' belly ' ?). With the mean- 
ing ' bait,' Goth, qairrus and HG. fine may 
be most closely connected, because querdar, 
as the oldest HG. form, points to a Goth. 
*qairj>ra- ; witli this the Gr. compound 
di\eap (5«X- for Sep- may be d ue to a process 
of differentiation, since a G. form kerdel 
occurs; and 8, according to iEol. /3X%>, is 
perhaps an old guttural, root ger) may be 
certainly associated, and its variant 5Ae- 
rpov, which more nearly corresponds with 
the G. word ; the latter form is usually 
approved, since it combines the meanings 
of 'bait' and 'torch' (corresponding to 
OHG. querdar, ' wick ') ; in either case E. 
cud is abnormal. For the other meanings 
of the G. word no satisfactory etymologies 
can be found. 

goffer, m., ' trunk,' Mc dHG. only, from 
Fr. cojfre. 

S\obl, m.. ' cabbage,' from the equiv. 
Mi dHG. and OHG. k6l, in., with the vari- 
ants OHG. chtili, MidHG. iaile, koel, m. 
(comp. Aleui. «/.#/, led), ns well as OHG. 
chdlo, chdlo, m., MidHG. k6le, kSle, HI, and 


( 1 86 ) 


OHG. (Mia, f. Adopted with the South 
Europ. culinary art and horticulture from 
Lat. caulis, ni., 'cabbage' ; E. cole; MidE. 
caul, coul, AS. cdicl, as well as OIc. kdl, n., 
point to Lat. caulis, whence also Ital. cavolo, 
Fr. chou, ' cabbage,' and W. cawl. The ' ap- 
parently vernacular' Lat. cSlis would have 
left no trace in the history of language if 
the MidHG. forms kdle, kdl, with a short 
accented syllable, were not derived from it. 
Most of the G. varieties of fruits and vege- 
tables may have been introduced into Ger- 
many with the art of cookery in the 6th 
or 7th cent. ; comp. (Sppid), fod)en, $feffer, 
STOinje, $gflaimtf, and Jiirjty. 

/tofjlc. f., 'coal, charcoal,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. kole, f., mostly kole, kol, m., and 
kol, n., OHG. cholo, m., chol, n. ; comp. AS. 
col, n., E. coal (E. colemouse, see under 
Jtoblmeife), OIc. h>l, n. plur., 'coals.' Akin 
to the derivs. OIc. kylna, f., ' kiln,' AS. 
cylne, E. kiln, as well as Swed. kylla, * to 

«$oI)tmetfe, f., ' coalmouse,' from Mid 
HG. kdlemeise, f., allied to JJoljle, not to 
^o^t ; lit. 'titmouse with a black head' ; 
AS. cdlmdse, E. colemouse (a corruption of 
coalmouse, just as the Germans instinc- 
tively connect Jtofolmeife with Jtoljl). 

{^toljlrabi, m., ' turnip-cabbage,' from 
Ital. cavoli rape (plur.); comp. Fr. chou- 
rave, Germanised Jtcfylrubf. For further 
references see 9h"ibe. 

^olbett, m., ' club,' from MidHG. kolbe, 
'mace, club, cudgel,' OHG. cholbo, m. ; 
lc. k6lfr, m., 'javelin, arrow, bulb,' with 
the derivative kylfi, n., kylfa, f., 'club, 
cudgel.' Goth. *kulba-n-, 'stick with a 
thick knob at the end.' From its meaning 
the word seems to be related to the cog- 
nates with the nasal form klumb, discussed 
under Jlliimpm ; in that case the Aryan 
root may be gl-bh, and the word compared 
with Lat. globus, 'round mass' (also ' clique,' 
comp. E. club). 

.ftoth, m., ' deep pool,' LG. ; Du. k >>lk, 
m., 'eddy, abyss, hole.' Comp. Sans, gdr- 
gara, m. ; yet according to Lat. gurges, 
' eddy, whirlpool, abyss,' Tent, r and not 
I ought to correspond to Ind. r. 

^toller (1.), n. and m., ' lady's ruff,' from 
MidHG. koller, kollier, gollier, goller, n., 
' neckcloth,' derived from Fr. collier (Lat. 

poller (2.), m., 'staggers,' from Mid 
HG. kolre, m., ' staggers, frenzy, silent ra?e,' 
OHG. cholera, m. ; derived, like a number 

of medical tenns,mediately from Gr. x<>X^>a, 
Lat. cholera; the ch has also in Rom. the 
value of a &; comp. Ital. collera, Fr. coUn>. 

golfer, m., 'coverlet,' from MidHG. 
kolter, kulter, m., f., and n., ' quilted coun- 
terpane,' from OFr. coultre (comp. Ital. 
coltra) ; for fnrther references see jtiffnt. 

ROmmett, vb., from the equiv. MidHG. 
komen, OHG. chueman, ' to come,' a com- 
mon Tent. vb. The proper form of the ini- 
tial k is qu, as is proved by ModHG. bequtm, 
and hence OHG. queman is the base ; the 
w of an initial hw is frequently suppressed 
in HG. (comp. fecf and firr) before e and o 
(not before a). Goth, qiman, AS. cuman, 
E. to come, OSax. cuman, OIc. koma. The 
prim. Tent. vb. qemav, ' to come,' thus de- 
duced has a remoter history ; it is identical 
with the Ind. and Zend root gam, * to come,' 
and allied to Lit vSnio for *gvemio, Gr. §alvu> 
for *pavjw (for *gvemiS) ; comp. beqitem and 
.ftunji. The assumed Aryan root is gem. 
The evolution of a v after the g is normal ; 
comp. Goth. qi7)6 with Gr. 7wi) and Ind. 
gna (*gdnd), ' woman' ; Goth, qina-, Lat 
vivus (Gr. /3/oj, subst), Ind. jivd (see ferf ; 
comp. the similar evolution of a kv akin 
to Tent hw from Aryan k under iver and 

<$tomf XXV, m., ' commander of an order 
of knighthood,' from MidHG. hommentiur, 
komedAr, m., from OFr. commendeor (Lat 
commendator), ' commander, holder of an 
estate belonging to a priestly order.' 

^Sttig, in., 'king,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. kiinic, kiinc (g), OHG. chunig, chuning; 
corresponding to OSax. curling, AS. cyning 
(cyng,) E. king, Du. koning, OIC. konungr; 
a common Teut term, wanting only in 
Goth. The high antiquity of the term is 
attested by its being borrowed at an early 
period by Finn, and Esth. as kuningas, 
' king,' by OSlov. as kunegii,kunezi, ' prince,' 
Lith. as kuningas, 'lord, pastor' (Lett. 
kungs, ' lord '). The word may be most 
probably explained by connecting it with 
Goth, kuni (gen. kunjis), OHG. chunni, 
MidHG. kiinue, AS. cynn, ' family.' Re- 
garding -ing as a patronymic (AS. Wdden- 
ing, 'son of Woden'), the meaning would 
be 'a man of family,' i.e, of a distinguished 
family, 'exnobilitate ortus' (Tacitus, Germ. 
vii.). This simple and satisfactory explana- 
tion is opposed by the fact that in OTeut 
kuni- alone means ' king,' which has been 
preserved especially in compounds such as 
AS. cyne-helm, ' king's helmet,' i.e. ' crown,' 


( 187 ) 


cynestdl, 'king's seat,' i.e. 'throne,' cynerice, 
equiv. to OHG chunirthhi, ' kingdom,' &c. ; 
the simple form is perhaps found only in 
OIc. poetry as ko»r (z-stein), ' man of noble 
birth, relative of the king.' In tracing the 
evolution in meaning, this fact can no more 
be rejected tlian the former ; in this case 
too JJotttg. would contain the essential idea 
of distinguished birth, but perhaps more 
accurately ' the son of a nniu of distin- 
guished birth ' ; com p. Fr. and E. prince, 
signifying both $rin$ (male member of the 
royal family) and Surft (a sovereign ruler, 
and also a title next above Count). The 
etymological connection between E. king 
and queen must be discarded, since the 
latter signified ' woman' generally ; yet it 
is of some value in illustrating the develop- 
ment of meaning in the word JEotitg ; AS. 
cwin is espec. ' the noble lady.' 

ftomtCtt, pret. pres,, ' to be able,' from 
MidHG. kunnen, OHG, chunnan, pret. pres. 
(sing, kan, plur. kunnum, pret. konsta), 
prop. ' to be capable intellectually, know, 
be acquainted with, understand,' then also 
' to be able, be in a position (to).' AS. 
cunnan (sing, can), pret. pres., 'to be ac- 
quainted with, know, be able,' E. can; 
Goth, kunnan (sing, kann, plur. kunnum), 

?ret. pres., ' to be acquainted with, know.' 
n the earlier periods the verbal stem fcitrten 
had exclusively an intellectual sense in con- 
trast to that of mogett, wrmogett. Besides 
the stem kann- preserved in the vb. kunnan 
(romp, also Goth, kunnan, ' to recognise,' 
AS. cunnian, ' to explore, attempt,' see also 
.Sunft, funb, and fenncn), there exists in the 
OTeut. languages a verbal stem which may 
be represented in Goth, as *kni. *kn6 ; AS. 
endwan, ' to recognise, know,' E. to know ; 
OHG. irchndan, bichndan, ' to recognise ' ; 
OHG. urch ndt, f., ' perce] >t ion ' (Goth. *kn$J>s, 
f., is wanting) ; the OHG. nominal vb. 
irchnuodilen, ' to become perceptible,' points 
to a Goth. *kn6J>la-, ' knowledge.' The 
three Teut. stems kann, knS, kn6 occur in 
the non-Teut. languages, Gr. and Lat. gn6 
.in ytyvdxTKu (l-yvw-v), 'to recognise,' yvGxris, 
'knowledge,' Lat. gno-sco, n6-tus, n6-tio ; 
OSlov. znaja, znati, 'to recognise'; Olr. 
gndth, 'acquainted.' Ind. forms a pres. 
from a root *jan, the pret. from a root jnd, 
idnami, jajndu (com p. part, jndtd), ' to 
know'; the Teut. root kann from gen-n 
appears in Lith. zinau, ' to know, recog- 
nise, perceive,' pa-zintis, ' knowledge,' Zend 
d-zainti, f., 'information,'OIr. ad-gSin, perf., 

'cognovit.' This wide ramification of the 
closely allied Aryan root^ere, gnS, ' to recog- 
nise, know,' is generally recognised, but its 
connection with the root gen, ' to beget, bring 
forth,' and the variants gnd-,gn6-, discussed 
under Jltrtb, Jtorttg, and ftmicn, is problema- 
tical. Both seem to be united in AS. cen- 
nan, ' to bring forth,' and ' to generate,' Gr. 
yvurds, ' related by blood,' and ' discernible, 
known.' The distinction, however, be- 
tween the physical and intellectual senses 
of the word must have been made previous 
to the division of languages, since it exists 
in all the Aryan groups. Comp. h'jfut. 

<$opf, m., 'head,' from MidHG. kopf, 
m., ♦drinking vessel, cup, pint measure, 
skull, head' ; OHG. choph, chuph, m., 'gob- 
let ' ; AS. cuppa, E. cup ; Scand. koppr, m., 
' crockery in the form of cups.' This class 
is one of the most difficult to explain. 
£aupt, E. head, is certainly the real Teut. 
and earlier term for Jtopf, and only in Mod 
HG. has the latter finally supplanted the 
former. The numerous senses of the cog- 
nates further involves us in doubt, although 
analogies may be adduced in favour of the 
evolution of the notion 'head' from an 
earlier meaning ' cup ' ; comp. OIc. k,lla», 
f., ' pot,' kollr, m., ' head ' ; ModHG. Jpirxis 
female; Ital. coppa, 'cup,' and Prov. cobs, 
'skull'; Fr. tite, from Lat. testa; Goth. 
hwalrni, ' skull,' allied to AS. hwer, ' kettle/ 
Du. hersen-pan, 'skull,' MidE. heme-, brain- 
panne, 'skull,' allied to ^famtf, 'pan' ; Du. 
hersen-becken, 'skull/allied toSJecfott, 'basin.' 
Thus in fact the ordinary assumption might 
be allowed to stand, according 10 which the 
entire class is based on MidLat. cuppa (Ital. 
coppa), ' cup,' Lat. ctipa, ' cask.' There are, 
however, cognate terms in Teut which 
induce us to proceed, not from Lat. cApa, 
' cask,' but from a prim. Teut. word mean- 
ing ' point, summit,' AS. and MidE. copp t 
'summit, point,' MidE. also 'head,' E. cop 
(for the evolution in meaning comp. ©tebcl, 
allied to Gr. Ke<pa\-fj, dial. 2)ad>, 'roof,' for 
Jtcpf) ; OSax. coppod, 'cristatus' of serpents, 
is also worthy of note. The Teut. origin 
of the word Jlopf in its ModHG. sense is 
also supported l>y the fact that OHG. chup- 
pha, MidHG. kupfe, f., ' head-dress,' evi- 
dently connected with Jtopf, is necessary to 
explain some Rom. cognates — Ital. cuffia, 
Fr. coiffe, and MidLat. cofca, are derivi-d 
from OHG. chuppha. Besides, Lat. cupa, 
cuppa, as a fem. is not well adapted in form 
to explain the Teut. masc, especially since 


( 188 ) 


koppa- (Goth. *kuppa- is certainly wanting) 
bad already too wide a ramification in the 
OTeut languages. But in any case, it is 
conceivable that the assumed genuine Teur. 
word was confused at an early period with 
a MidLat. and Bom. term, and thus in- 
corporated a number of foreign meanings. 
Comp. Jtuppe. 

^oppc, see JtiiWe. 

/toppct, f. and n., 'leash,' from MidHG. 
koppel, kopel, kuppel, f. (m. and n.), ' tie, 
connection,' especially 'leash,' then collect. 
* pack of hounds,' also ' band ' generally ; 
from Lat. copula, MidLat. also cupla (the 
latter also * couple of hounds in a leasn '), 
whence also Fr. couple, E. couple, Du. koppel, 
'couple, multitude, troop.' 

<$oraIle, f., 'coral,' from MidHG. koralle, 
m., formed from MidLat. corallus, Lat. 

Sxovb, m., 'basket,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. korp (b\ OHG. chorp, korb (gen. korbes\ 
m. ; comp. Du. korf, m,, ' dosser.' The usual 
derivation from Lat. corbis is opposed by 
phonetic considerations, and also by the fact 
that nouns equiv. in meaning but with 
differently graded forms also occur $ accord- 
ing to ModHG. 33rett and its gradation 
S3 orb (which see), MidHG. kr'ebe, m., * bas- 
ket,' and hence further ModHG. Jtrippe 
may also be connected with £orb (comp. 
too Modlc. karfa, f., and korf, f., ' basket' (). 
It is not impossible that, in addition to an 
inherited OTeut word, the Lat. term was 
borrowed at a later period ; OHG. churib, 
plur. churbt, points perhaps to Lat. corbis 
(E. corb) ; further ModHG. 9fcff (1) seems 
to l>e an old cognate of Lat. corbis. 

&orbe, Jtdr&el, f., 'cord, tow-line,' 
ModHG. only, from Fr. corde, cordelle; 
comp. Du. koord, f., and the equiv. E. cord, 
from the same Bom. source, ultimately de- 
rived from Lat. and Gr. chorda. 

<$itortanocr, m., 'coriander,' ModHG. 
only, from Lat. coriandriim ; in MidHG. 
koliander, kullander, kollinder, from Mid 
Lat. coliandrum. Comp. Du. koriand<r 
and E. coriander. 

(istorinffjc, f., ' currant,' early ModHG. 
only, from Fr. corinthe. 

Aorh, m., 'cork,' early ModHG. only, 
through the medium of Du. (kork, kurk, n., 
' corkwood, cork, stopper ') and LG. com- 
merce, from Span, corcho, ' corkwood, stop- 
per,' whence also E. cork at an early period. 
The ultimate source is Lat. cortex, ' bark.' 

<£torn, n., 'grain, com,' from MidHG. 

korn, OHG. clwrn (gen. chorncs), n., 'corn ' 
(in MidHG. also 'grape-stone, corn-field, 
corn-stalk'). Goth, kaurn, n., with the. 
variant kaurnd, n. ; OIc. korn, AS. and B. 
corn, Du. koren; common Teut stem korna-, 
meaning 'single grain,' then also 'stone' 
and ' fruit.' For the meaning 'stone ' comp. 
OHG. berikorn, MidHG. nln-, trdben-korn, 
'stone of a berry'; OHG. korn- and ker- 
nayful (AS. cornceppel), ' malum punicum, 
calville,' are interchangeable ; for the 
derivative AS. cyrnel, E. kernel, see under 
j?ern. Thus it is probable that there exists 
a close connection between ^ern and ^or», 
their phonetic relation being similar to 
that between 33rett and 93etb ; for further 
examples of gradation in nouns, see under 
&cxb. Another graded form of J?ern, from 
pn-Teut grn6-m, is furnished by Lat. 
grdnum, 'grain, core' ; see .£>urbf, equiv. to 
Lat. crates; »o(l, equiv. to Lat. plinus, Olr. 
Idn. Grn6 is exactly the same as OSlov. 
zriino, n., 'grain.' 

(ftorncllc, f., 'cornel-cherry,' even in 
OHG. cornul, cornul-baum, from MidLat. 
cornolium (Fr. cornouille, Ital. corniolo) ; a 
derivative of Lat. cornus, f., 'cornel-cherry' ; 
comp. AS. corntred, E. cornelian-tree. 

(^idrpcr, m., ' body, substance, carcass,' 
in the MidHG. period (13th cent.) korper, 
Jcorpel, Jcorper, m.; borrowed from Lat. cor- 
pus, or more accurately from the stem 
corpor-, a prim, cognate of which exists in 
OTeut. from the same source (Aryan krp), 
OHG. href, AS. hrif, ' womb.' &i$ (see 
Seicfntam) is the OTeut. word for ModHG. 
2eib and Jtcrper. " The sacrament of the 
Ciiurch and the elevation of the Host, ami 
perhaps medical art, led to the naturalisa- 
tion of the Lat. word." 

fcofd)er, feaufcfjcr, adj., 'pure,' Med 
HG. only, from Jew. Chald. kdscher, 'pure, 
according to prescription.' 

fcofcrt, vb., ' to chat, caress,' from Mid 
HG. kdsen, OHG. ch6s6n, ' to converse, 
talk.' The meaning of the vb. is opposed 
to any connection with OHG. cMsa, ' law- 
suit,' and Lat. causa, causari, for it nowhere 
shows an indication of a legal origin ; Mod 
Fr. causer, ' to chat,' is also derived from 
G., since in Lat. causa, Fr. chose origi- 
nated. As a native word fcfra (Goth. 
*kaus6n) is of uncertain origin ; it is cer- 
tainly connected, however, with AS. cedst, 
MidE. cheeste, ' argument, dispute,' Du. keu- 
zelen, ' to caress.' 

^Offttf, see Jcct (1). 


( ife ) 


.Sioft (1.), f., 'cost,' from MidHG. Jcoste 
hist, f. and w., ' value, price, expense/ even 
in OHG. kosta, f. ; borrowed in the OHG. 
period from MidLat. costus, m., costa, £ 
(comp. Ital. costo, m., Fr. coM, m., Span. 
costa, f. ; ultimate source Lat. constare, ' to 
come to, cost'). From Rom. are derived 
MidE. costen, E. to cost, whence Scand. 
kosta, ' to cost.' 

$toft (2.), f. (in the 16th cent, also m.), 
'board,' from MidHG. koste, kost, f., 'living, 
food, victuals ' ; comp. Scand. kostr, in., 
' victuals, provisions.' In Scand. as in the 
G. word, the meanings of (1) and (2) over- 
lap ; at all events (2) is a later develop- 
ment of (1). We must certainly assume 
that the Scand. loan-word kostr, ' expense,, 
victuals,' was confused with an OTeut. 
word which would be most closely con- 
nected with Goth, kustus, m., ' trial, proof,' 
and gakusts, ' test' ; OIc. kostr, m., 'choice, 
condition, circumstances.' With regard to 
these nouns see f if fen. 

fcoflen (1.), vb., ' to cost,' from MidHG. 
koste», 'to come to, cost'; from MidLat. 
and Rom. costare (Lat. constare) ; Fr. cotiierj 
see Jtoft (1) and (2) ; E. to cost. 

hoftctt (2.), vb., 'to taste,' from Mid 
HG. 'to scrutinise, test by tasting' ; OHG. 
and OSax. costdn, AS. costian (wanting in 
E.) ; a common Teut. vb. meaning 'to put 
to the test, scrutinise, try.' Jtoften, like the 
Teut. words mentioned under Jtejt (2\ is 
connected with fiefett, and is identical in 
form with Lat. gustdrc, 'to taste.' Teut. 
kus, pre-Teut. gun, is the root. Comp. 

uofifptcltg, adj., 'expensive,' first used 
towards the end of the 18th cent. ; it con- 
tains, however, an old word which has 
elsewhere disappeared, and even in this 
compound has been corrupted ; MidHG. 
spildec, 'extravagant'; OHG. spilden, 'to 
squander, dissipate' (from OHG. gaspilden, 
Fr. gaspiller is derived). Hence *kost- 
spildig is probably 'squandering money' ; 
spildig, which was etymologically obscure, 
Avas corrupted into sfv»iciicj. 

<£tot (1.), Jtofe, f., 'cot'; prop, a LG. 
word; LG. kote, kot, Du. kot, 'hut'; cor- 
responding to AS. cot, n., and cote, f., ' hut ' ; 
from the former E. cot is derived (E. cot- 
tage is the same word with a Rom. suffix ; 
comp. MidLat. cotagium, OFr. cotage), from 
the latter came cote in dove-cote and sheep- 
cote; comp. Scand. kot, n., 'small farm.' 
Goth. *knt, n., or *kut6, f., is wanting. Tiie 

widely ramified class is genuinely Teut., 
and passed into Slov. (OSlov. kotki, ' cella ') 
and Kelt (Gael. cot). Rom. words have 
also been derived from it — ModFr. cotte, 
cotillon, Ital. cotta, all of which denote 
some article of dress, though this sense 
does not belong to the Teut word (E. coat, 
at all events, is probably derived from 
Rom.). The Teut. word means only 'apart- 
ment, hut, room of a house ' ; gudo- is per- 
haps- the pre-historic form.: — ^totfaffe, 
also by assimilation Jie3fafi>,. Jtoffat, JJotfe, 
' person settled in a small farm ' ; also 
spelt .Setter.. 

$ot (2.), m., 'dirt,, mire,, dung,' from 
the equiv. MidHG k6t, qudt, kdt, n., OHG. 
quut ; Goth. *qida-, 'dirt,' is wanting. 
Prop, neut adj. ; MidC qudt, ModDu. 
kwaad, 'wicked, ugly,, rotten' (MidE. cwid, 
'bud'). Unflat and llnrat are in the same 
way veiled terms for stercus. In its pre- 
Teut.. form guilho, Jtot might be related by 
gradation to Ind. g-Atha, Zend gtitha, 'dirt, 
excrementa,' so that the Teut. subst. may 
have been formed from the adj. even in pre- 
historic times ;. the Sans, and Zend word 
seems, however^ to be connected with the 
Ind. root gu, 'caccare' (OSlov. govlno, n., 

dtofe, <i*6fe, f., 'pastern joint,' Mod 
II G. only, from LG. kote; comp. ModDu. 
koot, Fris.. kate,. f., 'knuckle-bone.' No 
other cognates are found. 

Jtofer, m., 'cur,' prop, 'farmer's dog,' 
allied to LG. kote, 'small farm.' See &et 

$toi <}<?, f., 'coarse cloth,' from MidHG. 
kolze, in., 'coarse, shaggy woollen stuff, 
cover or garment made of it,' OHG. clwzzo, 
m., chozza, f. ; comp. OSax. cot (tt), ' wool- 
len cloak, coat'; a specifically G. word, 
wanting in Goth., Scand., and E. The 
Rom. words mentioned under Jtot (1) — 
Fr. cotte, 'petticoat,' Ital. cotta — seem to 
have been borrowed from G., since in 
OHG. other words belong to the same 
class, OHG. wnibtchuzzi, 'upper garment,' 
nmlil-hvzzeii, vb., 'amieire.' On the as- 
sumption that Jiofce is a genuine Teut. 
word, some have connected it with Gr. 
pevdot (from the root gud), ' woman's dress.' 
MidE. cote, E. coat are certainly of Rom. 
origin, OFr. cote, MidLat cotta. Comp. 

<$St8f,V?, f-> ' basket,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. katze; of obscure origin; comp. 


( 190 ) 


hof^Cit, vb., ' to vomit,' first occurs in 
early ModHG. ; of uncertain derivation. 

JkxCibbc, f., 'crab,' borrowed, like most 
words with medial bb, from LG. ; cotup. 
MidLG. krabbe, Du. krab, AS. crabba, E. crab, 
Scand. krabbi; the strictly HG., i.e. permu- 
tated, form JtrupV?, appears in the 16th cent., 
yet the word was native only to the maritime 
Teutons, J?reb$ is from a cognate stein, 
butGr. /cdpa/3os, Lat. carabus, 'sea-crab,' are 
neither prim, allied, nor are they the forms 
from which the Teut. words were borrowed. 
Fr.crabe, 'crabfish,'is most closely connected 
with the Teut. and with the Lat. word. 

hmbbeln, vb., ' to crawl,' with LG. per- 
mutation, in contrast to MidHG. krap- 
peln, of which the variant krabelen occurs, 
whence also earlier ModHG. frabcttt. The 
form with a double labial may be due to 
its being popularly connected with Jtvabfce 
(Jtrappe), for in Scand. also a simple form 
is found without this double labial, Scand. 
krafla, ' to scratch with the nails,' and 
krafsa, ' to shuffle with the feet.' E. grabble, 
grapple, grab are connected with LG. and 
Du. grabbeln. 

kvcid)e%\, vb., ' to crack, crash, break,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. krachen, OHG. 
chrahhdn; comp. Du. kraken, ' to crack (nuts, 
&c), burst, crack, crackle,' AS. cracian, E. 
to crack; Goth. *lcrak6n is wanting. AS. 
cearcian, ' to crack ' (Goth. *kark6n), is 
worthy of note ; comp. respecting the ap- 
parent transposition of the r, 93rett and 
Sorb, fragen and fovfd)eu. Teut. root krk 
from grg ; comp. Sans, grg, garj, ' to rustie, 
crackle.' — jHrctd), m., from the equiv. Mid 
HG. krach, OHG. chrah, ' crack, crash.' 

Iu'ttcf)}cn, vb., ' to croak,' ModHG. 
only, a deriv. of fradjett ; in MidHG. kroch- 
zen, OHG. chrocchezan, ' to croak,' which 
is related by gradation to the stem of 
fradjen. From AS. cracian, cracettun was 
formed, like ModHG. ftad^en, from frad)en. 

itrachc, f., ' sorry nag,' ModHG. only, 
of obscure origin. Perhaps akin to Du. 
kraak, Fr. cai-aque, 'clumsily built mer- 
chant ship'?. 

^rctft, f., 'strength,' from MidHG. 
kraft, OHG. chraft, f., 'strength, power, 
force of an army, multitude, abundance' ; 
comp. OSax. craft, m. and f., Du. kracht ; 
AS. craft, m., with the HG. meanings, 
also ' mental capacity, art, science,' hence 
E. craft (the corresponding crafty shows 
prominently the last specialisation of 
meaning within the mental sphere) ; OIc. 

kraptr, m., ' strength.' Modlc. krafr, 
'strong,' exhibits the stem without the 
dental suffix ; yet Olc. krefja, ' to beg, de- 
mand, challenge,' as well as AS. erafian, 
E. to crave, seems, on. account of its mean- 
ing, not to be connected with the subst. 
No certain cognates are found in the non- 
Tent, languages. 

hraff, prep., 'in virtue of,' prop. dat. 
sing, of the preceding word, originally 
combined with the preps. au$ or in. Mid 
HG. kraft, with the gen. of a noun, is often 
simply a pleonasm for the noun itself — 
hdher wunne kraft for h&hiu wunne, ' gre;\t 
bliss' ; #3 zonies kraft, 'in anger.' 

^ragen, iu., 'collar,' from MidHG. 
krage, in., 'neck' (of men and animals), also 
'nape,' then further, 'article worn round 
the neck, collar ' ; wanting in OHG., OSax., 
AS., and OIc. MidE. crawe, E. craw, 
'crop' (of birds), point to AS. *craga; 
E. variant crag, 'neck, nape,' dial, also 
'crop'; Modlc. kragi, m., 'collar,' is of 
G. origin. Goth, kraga, m., ' neck, throat,' 
is wanting. Further references are un- 
certain ; Gr. /3/>67x<«, ' windpipe,' may be 
allied, since its initial p may represent g 
(grogho-, grongho-) ; comp. also ppoxOos, 
'gullet, throat.' MidHG. krage is also 
u>ed personally as an abusive term, ' fool ' ; 
hence ModHG. ©et jfragen, ' niggard.' 

fSfrr&fye, f., ' crow,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. knee (rare), f. (usually krd and krdwe, 
f.), OHG. chrdia, chrdwa, and chrd, f. ; 
comp. Du. kraai, OSax. krdia,t, AS. crdwe, 
f., E. crow ; a West Teut. word allied to 
ftatjen, which was orig. a str. vb. The 
Scand. term krdka, f., 'crow,' cannot be 
immediately connected with the cognates 
adduced ; it is only very remotely allied. 

l\tiit)cn, vb., ' to crow,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. krtien, krtejen (pret. krdte), OHG. 
chrden, vb. ; corresponding to AS. crdwan 
(pret. cre6w), E. to crow, and the equiv. 
Du. kraaijen; a specifically West Teut 
vb., in Goth, hrdkjan. That it was not 
orig. used of the cock alone is attested by 
the etymology of Jtrdljf, and also by the 
compounds, OHG. hanachrdt, OSax. hano- 
crdd, AS. hancrid, 'cock-crow, crowing.' 
The Teut. stem, kri-, krSw may be con- 
nected with OSlov. graja, grajati, ' to croak,' 
and Lith. gr6ju, gr6ti, ' to croak.' 

(^iral)tt, in., 'crane' (machine), Mod 
HG. only, formed from LG. and Du. ; 
prop, identical with Jhunidj, of which it is 
a shorter form ; see Anmid}. Gr. yipavos 


( 191 ) 


also means ' crane ' ; comp. too Lat. aries, 
HG. SSocf, as well as Lat. grus, as terms for 

^VCtkeel, m., ' uproar,' ModHG. only ; 
comp. I)u. krakeel; of obscure origin. 

&X<xlie, f., 'claw, talon, clutch,' Mod 
HG. only ; wanting in the earlier periods. 
Allied to Gr. ypda>, ' to gnaw,' Sans, root 
gras, 'to devour'?. MidHG. krellen, 'to 
scratch' (Goth. *krazljan ?), is more closely 

($*ram, m., ' retail trade,' from MidHG. 
krdm, m., prop. ' stretched cloth, marquee,' 
espec. 'covering of a stall,' then the 'stall' 
itself (also called krdme, f.), ' trade wares' ; 
corresponding to Du. kraam, f., ' retail 
shop, wares,' then, strangely enough, 
' child-bed,' which must have originated 
in the meaning 'stretched cloth,' as the 
coveringfor the bed. A specifically G. word 
introduced into the North by commerce 
(Ic. kram, n., 'wares,' Lith. kromas). ' Tent- 
cloth ' may have been the prim, meaning of 
Goth. *krema-. 

^vammcisvoQel, m., ' fieldfare,' fiom 
MidHG. kramat{s)vogel, Jcrambitvogel, krane- 
witvogel, m., 'fieldfare,' prop, 'juniper 
bird.' The juniper in MidHG. is krane- 
wite, kranwit (kramwit, kramat), OHG. 
chranawitu (prop. ' crane-wood '), from 
krana-, ' crane,' mentioned under Jhafui 
and Jttanid), and OHG. witu, 'wood' (note 
the similarity in the E. word) ; comp. E. 
craneberri/, cranberry, from crane. 

gkvampe, f., ' staple, cramp,' from LG., 
since we should have expected ;>/ in HG. : 
comp. Du. kram for kramp, ' hook, clamp,' 
E. cramp, also cramp-irons ; OHG. chrampf, 
' hook.' From the Tent, cognates, which 
are based on the adj. *krampa-, discussed 
under Jlrampf, Fr. crampon, 'cramp,' is de- 
rived ; see the next word. 

gbt&mpc, f., ' brim of a hat,' ModHG. 
only, from LG. krempe, allied to the OHG. 
adj. chrampf. ' curved ' (OIc. krappr, ' close, 
narrow ') ; OHG. chrampf, quoted under 
^rampc, combines the meanings 'hook' 
and ' border, brim.' 

S\\ d mpci, f., ' carding-comb,' borrowed 
from LG., but it occurs even in the Mid 
HG. period ; dimin. of jjrampe, 'hook.' 

<$lrampf, m., ' cramp, spasm, convul- 
sion,' from the equiv. MidHG. and OHG. 
kramp f (OHG. also chrampf 0) ; comp. 
OSax. cramp, Du. kramp, f., E. cramp ; the 
common West Teut. term for 'cramp' ; orig. 
an adjectival subst. from OHG. chrampf, 

'curved,' OIc. krappr (normal for *krampr), 
'narrow, pressed close.' The Teut. stem 
krampa- has numerous cognates in G. ; be- 
sides the LG. loan-words hampe, krampe, 
krampel, we may mention OHG. chrampf, 
' hook, border,' chrimpfan, MidHG. krimp- 
fen, ' to contract in a crooked or spasmodic 
fashion,' MidHG. krimpf, adj., 'crooked' 
masc. subst. 'cramp' ; ModHG. frit mm is 
also allied, as is indicated by its OHG. and 
MidHG. variant krumpf, ' bent, twisted.' 
Comp. ftumm, and OHG. chrimpfan, Mid 
HG. krimpfen, 'to be convulsed,' ModDu. 
krimpen, ' to draw in, shrivel,' MidE. 
crimpil, ' wrinkle,' crumbe, 'hook,' crumpe, 
' crump,-' E. to crimpie, 'to contract,' &c. ; 
OIc. krappr, ' narrow,' and its nominal vb. 
kreppa, ' to compress.' Comp. .Rruppcl and 

Slranid), m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
kranech (krenich), m., OHG. chranu'; 
chranih (hh), m., ' crane ' (bird) ; also with- 
out the guttural suffix, MidHG. krane, 
which agrees with the MidG., LG., and E. 
forms (Du. kraan, f., 'crane' — bird, and 
then machine ; AS. cran and cornuc, E. 
crane in both senses). In the Scand. lan- 
guages, OIc. trane, m., f crane,' seems to be 
connected with thess Ti.e suffix ch in 
ModHG. is Goth, k in ahaks, 'pigeon,' 
AS. hafoc, '£abid);t' (hawk). The corre- 
sponding words for 'crane' in the other 
West Aryan languages (prim, form ger-w) 
are the most closely allied — Gr. ytpavor, 
Kelt, and W. garan; also OSlov. zeravl, 
Lith. gerwe, f., Lat. grus (gen. gru-is), cor- 
responds to OHG. chreia, ' crane.' The 
derivation of Gr. yipavos, from yepao-Kco, 
root ger, ' to grow old,' as if the crane were 
remarkable for its gi-eat age, is open to 
objection. Further, the crane is one of the 
few names of birds (see 2)rojfcl) in which 
several Aryan stems coincide. Comp. also 
.Uvalm and Jtrammetgiie^cf. 

Itrcmlt, adj., 'sick, ill,' from MidHG. 
kranc (k), adj., ' narrow, slender, slight, 
powerless, weak, null' (in OHG. not yet 
found). The earliest references are in the 
first half of the 12th cent., therefore franf 
is most frequently regarded as a LG. loan- 
word ; but the late appearance of the word 
cannot be accepted as a proof of its having 
been borrowed, since this is not supported 
by its form, which may be derived from 
an OTeut source ; comp. OHG. chrancho- 
l/in, ' to grow weak, stumble ' ; AS. crane, 
'feeble, infirm,' also occurs rarely. For 




the further history of the word we must 
at all events proceed from the latter mean- 
ing (ftfd) is the OTeut. adj. for 'sick'); 
Scand. krankr, 'sick,' is borrowed from G. 
(*krakkr musthavebeen the native form) ; a 
genuine Scand. krangr, ' feeble,' also occurs. 
The common West Teut. adj. kranJca- is 
connected with AS. cringan, lit. ' to writhe 
like one mortally wounded, fall in fight, 
fall with a crash ' (thus closely allied in 
meaning to AS. crane, 'infirm, tottering').. 
With the same root kring, krink, are con- 
nected ModHG. .Kring, 'circular pad for 
the head,' E. crank, to crankle, crinkle. — 
hrunhett, t to make ill,' from MidHG. 
krenken, ' to torment, grieve,' prop. Ho 
lessen, humiliate.' 

/;ran], m., t wreath,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. and late OHG. kranz,m. ; a speci- 
fically HG. word,, which in this form has 
passed within historic times into other 
Teut languages (Ic. krans, Du. krans).. 
Perhaps allied to Sans, granth, c to tie (a 
knot), bind,' granthis, m., ' knot,' or even 
with Lith. grandis, m., 'bracelet, tyre of a 
wheel' (Lett, gr.iidi, 'wood for framing,' 
from the base *gr.andai). 

dtrftppel, j^rcipfel, dimin.. of jlra^fen. 

^trapfen (l.), Jtrappe, m., from the 
equiv. MidHG. krdpfe (MidG. krdpe), m.,. 
' a kind of pastry, fritter' ; OHG. chrdpfo, 
m., orig. identical with the following word ^ 
so called from the hooked form of the 

jArctpfett- (2.), m., ' cramp,, hook, dung- 
fork,' from MidHG. krdpfe, krdpe, m., 
1 liook, cramp,' OHG. chrdpfo, ' hook,' also 
'claw, talon'; the Goth, t'onn Vcreppa is 
wanting, nor is the word found in the 
other Teut. languages ; before the HG. 
permutation of consonants it passed in 
the form grappo, grapo into Rom. (Ital. 
grappa, 'cramp, talon,' Yr.grappin, 'grnp- 
nel'). Comp. further E. craple, 'claw, 
talon.' It is doubtful whether OHG. 
chrdcho (Goth, krekka), m., ' hooked in- 
strument,' and Scand. kraki, m., 'stake,' 
are allied. The stem of jhafefeu appears 
in a nasal form in OHG. chrampf, ' curved,' 
and OHG. chrampfa, chrampho, m., ^iron 
hook' (comp. Fr. crampon, 'cramp, bor- 
rowed from OHG.). Consequently Jhapfen 
is connected with Jfruntpf. 

Strata (1.), f., 'dosser,' from MidHG. 
krezze, also kratte, m., 'basket'; OHG 
chrezzo and chratto, m., ' basket' Perhaps 
the word is allied, on account of the Mid- 

HG. variant krenze, with Am*). On the 
other hand, OHG. chratto and MidHU. 
kratte suggest AS. cradol, E. cradle, and 
also Du. brat, AS. crat, E. cart (orig. 'cart- 
basket'?), E. crate. With Gr. K&praWot, 
'basket,' these cognates cannot be con- 

^nif3C (2.), f., 'itch,' from MidlKi. 
kretz, kratz r allied to fra^ctt. 

Uraf ,v?n, vb., from the equiv. MidHG. 
kratzen, kretznn, OHG. chmzzon, ' to scratch ' 
(allied to Scand. krota, ' to dig in,' Goth. 
gakrut&n, ' to grind ') ; previous to the 
HG. permutation of consonants *krat- 
ton, whence Ital. grattare, Fr. gratter, ' to 
scratch.' Comp. frtjjflu. 

kraiten, vb., c to tickle,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. krouwen, OHG. chrouwdn, math 
wen; (Jroth..*krauj6n, or rather *kraggic6n, 
and otlier correspondences are wanting. 
With this vb. is connected OHG. chrouwil, 
MidHG. krduwel, m., Hhree-pronged fork, 
talon, claw,' to which Swiss and ModHG. 
Jtrauel, 'fork with hooked prongs' ; comp. 
Du. kraauwel, m, 'pitchfork, fork, claw, 
finger-nail,' allied to kraauwen, ' to scratch.' 
Connected with jfrume. 

hraus, adj., 'frizzled,' from MidHG. 
bits, 'curled, frizzled'; unknown to all 
the OTeut. languages ; retained in Mid 
Du. kruis, ModDu. hoes, 'dishevelled, en- 
tangled,, frizzled, stubborn'; MidE. crus, 
'•frizzled, angrj\' The genuine Teut. ori- 
gin and great antiquity of frattS are certi- 
fied by the equiv. parallel cognates, Mid 
HG. krol (ll),, 1 curly, lock of hair,' Du. krul, 
' lock,' krullig, ' frizzled^curly,' MidE. ' crul, 
'curly.' Comp. Jfcoffc, 

fSkraufe, f., 'pitcher with a lid,' from 
MidHG. krAse, f., 'pitcher, earthenware 
drinking vessel'; OHG. *chrAsa, f. ; Mid 
Du. kruise,. AS. *crdse, MidE. cr&se, E. 
cruse; Scand. kr&s, 'pitcher with a lid.' 
It is not immediately connected with HG. 
jjtitg. That the word is of foreign origin 
seems certain, yet the ultimate source can- 
not be Gr. Kpwaafc, 'pitcher.' See the fol- 
lowing word. 

^traufcl, m., 'top,' with the more 
frequent variant jfoiffl, a corrupt form 
which arose from connecting Jhuufd with 
the circular (freitffiknng) movement of a 
top ; MidHG. *kriusel, .MidG. kr&sel, m., 
'top,' a dimin. of Jhaitfe, hence lit. 'small 
pitcher.' Comp. the UpG. term Sxpf for 
' top.' 

^trauf , n., 'herb, vegetable, weed,' from 


( i93 ) 


MidHG. krat, n., 'small foliated plant, 
herb, vegetable,' espec. 'cabbage,' OHG. 
hrftt, OSax. crUd; Du. kruid, n.,. 'herb, 
spice, gunpowder' (the last meaning is also 
found in MidHG. from the 14th cent.) ; 
MidE. crAdewain (Du. Icruidwageri), 'am- 
munition waggon,' seems to have been bor- 
rowed. Goth. *kr4/} (gen. *krAdis), a., might 
be taken for krdi-da-, with the suffix dos- 
from t6 (Aryan gr&-t6-). Gr. ypfrrv, ' lum- 
ber, trash,' does not agree in meaning. 
Perhaps the word should be connected 
rather with the Gr. root /3/>i/- for gru; 
comp. fSpvw, 'to swell,' ttifipvov, ^embryo,,' 
fipijov, ' moss.' From G. is derived Fr. 
choucroute, m., 'pickled cabbage.' 

^trcbs, m., 'crayfish,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. krebeyy. krebe$, OHG. chrebi^, 
chreba^o, m. ; comp. Du. kreeft, m., ' cray- 
fish ' ; allied to LG. JTrabbe. The G. word 
passed at an early period into Rom. 
(comp. Fr. e'crevisse, 'crayfish,,' and crevette, 
'shrimp'). It is not connected with Gr. 
Kd/)a/3os, but rather with OHG. chrdpfo, 
'hook' ; JtreftS, lit. 'hooked or claw fish' ?. 
See .f ratfm (2). 

givoibe, f., ' chalk,' from the equiv. Mid. 
HG. kride, late OHG. krida, f. ; ultimate 
source Lat. creta, f., ' Cretan earth.' The 
change from Lat. $ to HG. t cannot be ex- 
plained by the ModGr. pronunciation of 
Crete (comp. MidHG. Kride, Scand. Krlt, 
'Crete'), since there are other instances 
in which Lat. 4 appears in HG. loan-words,, 
as t ; comp. $cter, and espec. <Seibf.. Be- 
sides, the word crita, ' Cretan earth,' is 
unknown to Gr. The more precise his- 
tory of the adoption of HG. krida is ob- 
scure (the corresponding words in Rom. 
are Ital. creta and Fr. craie). 

egrets, m., 'circle, orbit, sphere/ from 
MidHG. krei$, m., * circumference, circuit, 
division of a country district ' ; OHG„ 
chrei$, pointing to Goth. *kraits, and D. 
krijt to. Goth. *kreits. Comp. MidHG. 
kriyn (MidG.), 'to make a circle.' The 
won! cannot be traced beyond G. ; it is not 
allied to jfrunj and Jlring. Comp. frifceln. 

ftretfdjcn, vb., 'to shriek,' from Mid 
HG. kr ischen, l to screech, shriek'; OHG. 
*c/iriskan and Goth. *kreiskan are wanting. 
MidHG. krtyn, 'to shriek' (Goth* kreitan), 
points to the fact that a dental (Goth, t) 
has been lost before the suffix sk of fveifcr/ctt, 
just as a guttural has been dropped in 
ferfdjcn, OHG. forslctin. Comp. Du. kmjschcn, 
' to shriek, yell.' Comp. frcifett. 

<Skve\fel, see Jtrdufel. 

fereifcn, fcrd&en, vb., 'to be in labour,' 
from MidHG. kri%en, 'to screech, shriek, 
groan ' ; comp. Du. krijten, ' to shriek, 
shout.' For further cognates see freifdjcn ; 
akin also to MidHG. krtsten, earlier Mod 
HG. freijlen, 'to groan.' 

Slteppel, see drawer. 

^treffe (1.), f., 'cress,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. kresse, OHG. chresso, m., chressa, 
f. ; corresponding to Du. hers, kors, f., AS. 
cwrse,. f., E. cress. This word, which is 
probably peculiar to West Teut., found 
its way to the North — Dan. karse, Swed. 
krasse, Lett, kresse ; it was also adopted by 
the Rom. languages — Fr. cresson, Ital. cres- 
cione. The assumption that the Rom. 
words contain the orig. form is opposed 
by the early appearance of the term in the 
old "West Teut. languages. It is true that 
no plausible explanation of OHG. chresso 
(Goth. *krasja 1) has been put forward ; 
OHG. chresan, MidHG. kr'esen, krisen, 'to 
crawl,' seems unrelated. 

£\,ve flfe (2.), f., 'gudgeon,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. kresse, OHG. chresso, m. Different 
from .fireffe (1). The fish is thus named 
only in G., and hence the term is not 
diiFused in West Teut. like the preceding 

$ivetfd)vm, &vetfd)atn, m., from the 
equiv. MidHG. kretschem, kretscheme, ni., 
L village tavern,' a Slav, loan-word ; Bohem. 
krtma, Wend, korcma, Pol. karczma, 'tavern.' 

£kvetx&, n., 'cross,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. kriuz, kriuze, n., OHG. chrdzi, n.; from 
Lat. cruci- (dat. cruci, ace. crucem), with 
change of vowel quantity in the stem as in 
9lbt,Drben, and ^ed>). The change of medial 
c in the Lat word to HG. tz, though in 
another group of (older) loan-words Lat. c, 
even before open vowels, appears as k inHG. 
and Tent, is due to the fact that words like 
Jteftcr and Jtaifer were introduced into Ger- 
many at a far earlier period than J?rcuj, 
which was adopted with Christianity in the 
8th and 9th cents. The Goths used Teut 
©atgett (Goth, galga), the English of the 
earliest period, rood(comp. 9hitc). The loan- 
word is now found in all the Mod. Teut. 
languages — Ic. kross, Swed. and Dan. kors, 
Du. kruis, E. cross. 

$iveit$ev, m., 'kreutzer' (about $d.), 
from MidHG. kriuzer, kriuzcere, m., a 
small coin, orig. marked with a cross (Mid 
HG. kriuze), ' kreutzer.' 



( i94 > 


hribbeln, vb., 'to crawl, tickle,' Mod 
HG. only, MidHG. kribeln (MidG.), 'to 
tickle'; a recent formation; comp. Mod 
Du. kribeln, 'to itch, prick,' hibbelen, 'to 
grumble, wrangle.' 

^mbshrabs, <$mbbelnrabbel. in., 
ModHG., an onomatopoetic term for ' utter 
confusion'; comp. ModDu. kribbelen, 'to 
scrawl ' 1. 

<£tricd)C, f., 'early sloe,' from the equiv. 
MidHG., f., ' early sloe-tree,' OHG. chrieh- 
boum ; comp. Du. kriek, f., ' wild cherry.' 
Phonetically it might be derived from 
OHG. Chriah, MidHG. Kriech, ' a Greek,' 
if *grceca could be found in Mid Lat. de- 
noting the tree and the fruit. The word 
must have been introduced from Italy, on 
account of the Lat. term (comp. Jttrfdje), 
for it is inconceivable that the Germans, of 
their own accord, and without foreign prece- 
dent, should have termed the fruit ' Greek ' 
because it was imported, as we assume for 
the moment, from Greece. At all events, 
the name has not yet been explained (comp. 
further the Fr. loan-word creque). 

lmccb,en, vb., ' to crawl,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. kriechen, OHG. chriohhan, str. 
vb. ; corresponding to OSax. kriupan, Du. 
h-uipen, AS. creopan, E. to creep, OIc. 
krjdpa. The relation of the HG. form 
with ch from k to the remaining Teut. 
languages with p has well-authenticated 
analogies ; see Jlufe (1), tocrfeu, and <2trunf. 
The guttural appears again in MidE. 
crdchen, E. to crouch. .Rraufeit, ' to crawl,' 
is the MidHG. (MidG.) krufen. 

<5imed)ettte, see ^rteffiire. 

^tricg, m., ' war,' from MidHG. kriec(g), 
m., 'exertion, endeavour to obtain some- 
thing,' then also 'opposition, resistance, 
argument, discord, combat.' The pre- 
dominant meaning in ModHG. is the 
latest and ' counteT-effort ' the earliest; 
comp. MidHG. einkriege, adj., 'self- willed.' 
For a similar evolution of meaning comp. 
OHG. fli$, 'exertion, zeal, quarrel'; see 
gleijj. The word is almost entirely un- 
known to OHG. ; it occurs once as chrig, 
' pertinacia,' with which w'darkrigi, 'con- 
troversia, 1 ' widarkriegelin, 'obstinatus' (with 
obscure i, ia, ie), are connected. This 
word, obscure in origin, is shared only by 
Du. (Jcrijg) with G. ; in all the other Teut. 
languages it is wanting, Dan. and Swed. 
krig being borrowed from G. Comp. the 
following word. 

Rriegen, vb., 'to get,' from MidHG. brie- 

gen (in MidG. krtgen is str., so too the cor- 
responding vb. in LG. and Du.), ' to exert 
oneself, strive, aim at, oppose, struggle,' 
then also ' to defend, maintain an opinion,' 
MidG. also ' to obtain, receive' ; the latter 
meaning is LG. and Du. (krijgen, ' to ob- 
tain, receive '). With regard to the nume- 
rous meanings comp. OHG. winnan, 'to 
exert oneself, struggle,' giwinnan, ' to win.' 
Hence the various senses of the vb. are the 
outcome <»f a prim, meaning ' to make an 
effort against, just as in the case of the 
noun -ftrieg, on which it is based. 

^trieftente, f., ' teal,' a LG. form for 
HG. Stdt&i'Mwit ; wanting in MidHG. and 
OHG. ; it is based on Lat. anas crecca, 
hence also Swed. krdcka. Fr. sarcelle, 
' teal,' like Ital. cerceta, is traced to Lat. 
anas querquedula ; thus it has no etymolo- 
gical connection with ^riecb^nte ; the same 
may be said of E. crake, corncrake. 

Jtrittg, m., ' circular pad for the head,' 
from MidHG. krinc{g), m., 'circle, ring, 
district,' with the MidG. variant krancig) ; 
LG. has a variant brink with final k, since 
in the whole of the corresponding class k 
and g at the end of the stem interchange 
(comp. franf). Scand. bring, kringum, adv., 
1 round about,' kringja, ' to encircle,' kring- 
I6ttr, adj., ' round.' — E. crank, MidE. cranke; 
E. to crankle, 'to run in a winding course,' 
crinkle, ' wrinkle, bend.' ModHG. Ottit^ 
and its cognates differ etymological ly from 
JUutcj. In the allied Aryan languages 
some connect Lith. greziu, grezti, * to twist, 
turn,' with the Aryan root grengh, authen- 
ticated by Jirtitg. Gr. /fy^xos, ' noose, cord,' 
is scarcely akin. 

<#ringel, <$treitflel, m., 'cracknel,' 
dimin. of jftiitij, or rather ^rang ; used even 
in MidHG. as a term in pastry. 

grippe, f., ' crib,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. brippe, OHG. chrippa, f., for chrippja 
(Goth. *kribjd ; for HG. pp. from Goth, bj, 
comp. further Sttippe, Suppf, and uppui); cor- 
responding to OSax. kribbia, k ibba, AS. 
cribb, E. crib. In HG. occurs a variant 
with pf, which is phonetically obscure, 
OHG. chripfa, MidHG. and ModHG. 
kripfe; there are also dial, forms with u 
in the stem, Swiss kriipfli, LG. kriibbe, 
AS. crybb, Scand. brubba, ' crib.' This 
word, in Goth. uzSta, ' the thing from which 
one feeds,' is connected with MidHG. 
krebe, 'basket' ; hence ' resembling a basket, 
woven,' was perhaps the prim, meaning of 
grippe. The West Teut. word passed into 


( 195 ) 


Rom. — Ital. greppia, Prov. crupia (the 
latter connected with the Teut. forms in u 
mentioned above), ModFr. cr&che, (whence 
E. cratch, 'a grated crib,' MidE. crache). 

kvitteln, vb., ' to find fault, carp,' Mod 
HG. simply from a popular term, grittelti, 
' to wrangle ' (wanting in MidHG. and 
OHG.), with an allusion to ^ritif, &c. 

ferttijcln, vb., 'to scribble,' diniin. of 
MidHG. kritzen, ' to scrawl,' OHG. chrizz6n, 
' to scratch or cut into.' It is probably 
connected with ftafcen, OHG. chrazzSn, as 
well as with OTc. krota, ' to engrave, stamp.' 
If this is not approved, it may be allied 
to Stve\& (root krlt); kritjSn (whence chrizzdn) 
would then mean ' to draw lines.' 

frolic, f.. 'curl' (Rhen.), from the 
equiv. MidHG. krolle, hrol{-les), m. ; comp. 
Du. krvJ, f., ' curl.' MidHG. krol, adj., 
Du. krullig, MidE. crul, adj., 'curly' ; Du. 
krullen, MidE. crullen, 'to frizzle.' For 
the connection between MidHG. krolle, f. 
(Goth. *krikl6), and ModHG. fwu$, Mid 
HG. krds, see under ftau3. 

^ronc, f'., ' crown,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. krdne, krdnj in OHG. cordna (with 
the foreign accent preserved), from Lat. 
cdrdna (the unaccented disappeared in 
MidHG.) ; comp. MidE. corAne, croune, E. 
crown; in MidDu. the double form crdne, 
krUne, existed, Du. kroan, kruin. Scand. 
kriina, f. In AS. the term cyne-helm, lit. 
' king's helmet,' was substituted for Lat. 
corona of the Biblical texts (just as scep- 
trum was rendered by cynegerd, lit. 'king's 
staff') ; in OSax. and' OHG. h6b~idband, 
houbitbant, ' crown.' These words show 
that the Teutons had their own distinctive 
terms for the royal insignia. With the 
Lat. name they also borrowed a new idea 
— ferdncn, ' to crown,' from MidHG. krcenen 
and a denominative from Jtrotte ; thus it is 
not Lat. coronare, to which OHG. chrdntin 
more accurately corresponds. 

gkvopf, in., from the equiv. MidHG. and 
OfiG. kropf, m., 'goitre, crop, craw' ; cor- 
responding to Du. krop, m., ' crop, bosom, 
bow of a ship,' E. crop (of birds, top, har- 
vest), AS. cropp, which has the special 
meanings ' crop, summit, top (of trees), ear 
(of corn), cluster of grapes' ; OIc. kroppr, 
* trunk, body ' (also ' hump '), is still more 
remarkable. To these numerous senses, a 
primary meaning, 'a round mass in the 
shape of a ball, a projecting spherical body,' 
has been assigned ; with this the Rom. 
loan-words such as Fr, groupe, ' group, 

cluster, knot,' coincide. Goth. *kruppa- 
might be related to Gr. ypvir6s, ' curved,' 
if ' crop, excrescence,' represented the prim, 
meaning of the group. 

d^tropijeug, n., 'rogues,' a LG. word, 
formed from LG. krSp (comp. fried)en), 
' crawling creature, small cattle,' but this 
is not quite certain. Others connect it 
with the preceding word .Rropf, which also 
signifies in Suab. and Bav. ' small, crippled 
creature, little man.' 

<5itr8fe, f., from the equiv. MidHG. 
krote, krbte, krete, f. (even now dial. Jtrote, 
Jlvette), OHG. chrota, chreta, f., ' toad.' The 
forms with e and o are related by grada- 
tion ; comp. S3rett and 33orb. The word is 
peculiar to G. ; in OIc. padda, Du. padde, 
AS. tddie, E. toad. Etymologically all 
three are equally obscure. 

£%ri\(ke, f., 'crutch,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. kriicke, krucke, OHG. chruccha (for 
*krukj6), f. ; comp. Du. kruk, AS. cryiS, f., 
E. crutch. Certainly a genuine Tent, word 
(' staff with a curved handle ') ; it is most 
closely connected with Scand. krdkr, ' hook, 
curve' ; it may al>o be related to frtetfycii. 
In the MidHG. period it was confused with 
a Rom. term based upon Lat. crvcea, and 
meaning ' crosier.' On the other hand, the 
Teut. word was submerged in many of the 
Rom. languages in the old inherited term ; 
Ital. croccia, ' crutch,' crocco, ' hook,' Fr.- 
crosse, ' crook,' croc, ' hook ' ; MidLat. croca, 
' baculus episcopalis,' crocea, * baculus pas- 
toralis,' and ' baculus incurvus,' croceus, 
croccia, crucia, crucca, ' crutch.' Jtriitfe can 
scarcely be explained from MidLat. crucea, 
'cross-bar' (of a window), because this 
must have become chruzza (ce changed to 
tz) ; comp. Jtreuj. 

jitntg (1.), m., 'jug, pitcher,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. kruoc (g), OHG. chrxiog, 
m. ; corresponding to AS. crSg, cr6h, ' pit- 
cher,' also ' bottle.' Besides these terms, 
based upon a common form krSga-, there 
are several words allied in sound and mean- 
ing ; comp. OSax. kr&ka, Du. kruik, f., 
AS. cr&ce, MidE. cronke; MidHG. kr&che, 
f., ModHG. (dial.) .Rraucfyf. AS. crocea (and 
crohh), MidE. crokke, 'pitcher,' Ic. kriikka, 
' pot. Since it is not improbable that all 
these terms were borrowed, we may per- 
haps connect them further with Jtrauff. 
Their source, however, cannot be assigned, 
since the corresponding words in the allied 
languages may also have been borrowed, 
and are insufficient phonetically to account 


( 196 ) 


fur the numerous Teut. terms. Some ety- 
mologists derive then* from Kelt, words 
such as W. cricc, ' pail,' from which Fr. 
cruche, ' pitcher,' may be derived, if it is 
not of G. origin. The Goth, term for 'pit- 
cher' is afirkeis (borrowed from Lat. urceus). 
Comp. Jtrng (2). 

/trurt (2.), m., 'alehouse,' comp. Du. 
kroeg ; it passed into HG. and Du. from 
LG., where it is recorded since the 13th 
cent. The quondam assumption that the 
word is identical with Jltug (1), "because 
formerly an actual or a carved pitcher was 
hung in front of a tavern," is demolished 
by the fact that Jtrug, ' urceus,' is entirely 
unknown to LG. (and Du.) ; the OSax. 
term krAka was used. On the other hand, 
.f rug, ' alehouse,' was orig. wanting in HG., 
in which ^vug, ' pitcher,' was current at 
the earliest period. 

<£tru6e, see Jfrug (1). 

(^rittttC, f., 'crumb,' a LG. loan-word, 
wanting in MidHG. ; comp. LG. hUrne, 
Du. kruim, AS. cr&me, E, crumb, crura. 
The root kru appears also in haiun, OHG. 
chromatin, 'to scratch, operate with the 
nails.' Allied to Gr. ypvfUa, 'rubbish' 
(Aiyan root gr#) ?. 

ftrttmm, adj., 'crooked,' from MidHG. 
krump(b), OHG. chrumb, 'crooked, curved, 
twisted, perverted ' (comp. frauS) ; rare 
variants OHG. and MidHG. krumpf, OHG. 
chrampf, as well as MidHG. krimpf, in 
the same sense. Comp. OSax. crumb, AS. 
crumb; E. crump, 'crooked,' is abnormal 
(with this E. to crumple, MidE. crumpeln, 
and also E. crimple, ' wrinkle, fold,' are 
connected). Under Jtrantfcf it is shown how 
the graded and permutated forms are widely 
ramified ; the Teut. root signified ' spas- 
modically contracted, curved.' Besides the 
cognates of West Teut. krumba-, from pre- 
Teut. grUmpd-, quoted under J?ram£f, comp. 
the uunasalised Gr. ypvvds, ' curved, bent ' ?. 
Olr. cromm, W. criem, seem to have been 
borrowed from AS. 

«£truppe, f., 'crupper,' ModHG. only, 
borrowed from Fr. croupe y whence E. croup. 
The Fr. word has been derived from Scand. 
kryppa, f., 'hump, excrescence' (allied to 
kr.oppr, ' hump '). See the following word. 

/{ritppcf, m., ' cripple,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. kriippel, kriipel, m. ; it passed in 
the MidHG. period from LG. into HG. ; 
Du. kreupel, E. cripple, MidE. and AS. 
cryppel, Scand. kryppell, kryplingr. The p 
of these forms is HG. pf (Alsat Jtvfipfrf), 

hence we must assume that HG. Jlruvvrf 
was borrowed from LG. and MidG. Allied 
in the UpG. dials, to Swiss chriift, chrupfe, 
Suab. kropf, kruft, kriiftle, Bav. krapf, kropf, 
' deformed person,' and the cognate Bav. 
kriipfen, ' to become crooked,' akin to OIc. 
kroppr, kryppa, ' hump,' and the cognates 
discussed under Jtropf. Besides Gr. ypw&s, 
' curved,' we may also refer to OSlov. grtibu, 
' back,' ModSlov. grbanec, ' wrinkle,' Serv. 
grba, ' hump ' (grbati se, ' to stoop '). 

<£tru(le, f., ' crust,' from the rare Mid 
HG. kruste, OHG. crusta, f., 'crust'; a 
learned term which has been first natural- 
ised in ModHG. Derived from Lat. crusta, 
whence also Du. kortt, E. crust, as well as 
Rom. words like Fr. croute. 

^reff alt, m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
kristdl, kristdlle, m. OHG. krystdlla, f., 
' crystal.' The retention of the Lat. accent 
(crystdllus, m. and f.) preserved the foreign 
aspect of this merely learned term, which 
was borrowed at a very early period. 

<£tftbel, m., 'tub, bucket,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. kiibel, OHG. *chubil, m. ; comp. 
OHG. miluh-chubill, -chubilln, n., 'milk- 
pail ' ; allied to AS. ct)f (from kubi-), Mid 
E. ktve, ' cask.' The stem is genuinely 
Teut. ; it is doubtful whether it is con- 
nected with the cognates (' narrow 6pace ') 
discussed under Jtobcn. Its Rom. origin 
at all events must be rejected. — ModLat 
cupella, cupellus, 'mensura frumentaria' 
and ' vas potorium,' do not coincide in 
meaning ; Du. kuip, ' vat, cask,' is alone 
connected with Lat. cupa, ' cask.' Some 
Rom. words, such as Prov. cubel, ' tub,' are 
derived from the Teut. cognates, from which 
Slav, and Lett, words are borrowed ; Lith. 
kubilas, ' tub,' OSlov. kubttu, ' vessel,' as a 
corn measure. Comp. Jtofccn, J?c}>f, and ^ufe. 

<^ud)e, f., 'kitchen,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. kiiche, kitchen, kuchtn (UpG. with- 
out mutation kuche, kuchi), OHG. chuhhlna, 
f. ; corresponding to AS. cycene, f., E. kit- 
chen, Du. keuken. An old West Teut word, 
probably not derived immediately from late 
Lat. coqutna, ' kitchen,' but rather from a 
common Rom. and MidLat cucina (kuktna ; 
comp. Ital. cucina, Fr. cuisine). The HG. 
ch (OHG. Mi) for c, k, in consequence of the 
HG. permutation points to the adoption of 
the term about the 6th cent, at which 
period the South Europ. arts of cookery 
and horticulture were introduced into Ger- 
many ; comp. Stei), Stutyn, Stoiji, Stummtl, 
and ^Pfejfcr. 


( i97 ) 


$t\id)en, m., 'cake,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. kuoche, OHG. chuohho, m. ; comp. 
MiclLG. kdke, Du. koek. Besides these 
forms with old 6 in the stem (comp. AS. 
c&cil, MidE. kkhel, 'little cake,' E. dial. 
keech) there occurs in the Scand. and E. 
languages an apparently graded form with 
a — E. cake, and the equiv. Scand. kaka, f. 
This gradation seems to point to a Teut. 
origin of the cognates, yet their relation 
to the Rom. class (Catal. cocou, Rheto-Rom. 
coccct, Picard. couque, 'cake'), connected 
with Lat. coquus, coquere (AS. cdc, OIIG. 
chohhSn), is not clear. Moreover, on the 
assumption that the word was horrowed, 
6 in OHG. chuohho would correspond ex- 
actly to the 6 in AS. c6c, ' cook.' 

Jtfid)enfd)elte, f., 'pasque flower,' 
ModHG. only, interpreted from one of the 
variants Ruty, JtuljfdjefU as .ftiifidjenfcfjelle ; 
its relation to the equiv. Fr. coquelourde is 
obscure ; the ModHG. form is certainly a 

<§ii\d)lein, n., 'chicken,' ModHG. only ; 
a MidG. and LG. word introduced by 
Luther into HG. (in UpG. dial, huenli, 
West MidG. hiinkel, Suab. luggele). To 
the MidG. and LG. kiichen, kiUcen, corre- 
spond AS. 60en (plur. fycnu\ MidE. 
chU-en, E. chick, chicken, Scand. kjtiklingr, 
Du. kieken, keuken. The Goth, dimin. 
termination -ina- (*kiukein) frequently 
occurs in the names of animals, Goth. 
gait-ein, AS. tichn (Goth. Hilckeiri), AS. 
hSSen (Goth. *Ji6kein), n. 'kid' ; see jjiiflen, 
©eifj, @djtt>etn, 3trftein, and SWabcbett. The 
substan. on which the word is based is 
AS. cocc, E. cock, Scand. kokkr (to which 
Goth. *kiukein,n., is related by gradation). 
There is no reason for thinking that the 
Teut. word was borrowed from Rom. — 
Fr. coq, like AS. cocc (UpG. gockel, giicket), 
is a recent onomatopoetic term also, for 
W. and Com. cog, 'cuckoo,' points also to 
the base cued (so too Olr. etiach, ' cuckoo,' 
from coucd). Comp. Jtucfucf. 

huchem, see gurfen. 

/t u dutch, m., ' cuckoo,' from the equiv. 
late MidHG. kuckuk (rare), m. ; the usual 
term in MidHG. is gouch, which was in- 
troduced in the 15th cent, from Du. (koe- 
koek, early MidDu. cuccuc). An onomato- 
poetic term widely diffused, but it is not 
necessary to assume that it was borrowed 
in most of the languages, E. cuckoo, Fr. 
cnucou, Lat. cuculus, W. and Corn, cog, 
Olr. ciiach. See also JcucMctn. 

^tltfe (1.), f., 'runner of a sledge' ; Mid 
HG. *kuofe and *kuoche are wanting with 
this meaning, so too OHG. *chuofa; OHG. 
chuohha is found, however, in slito-cttdha, 
' runner of a sledge ' (see examples of the 
interchange of k-ch and p-f under friec^en) ; 
comp. MidLG. kdke, ' runner of a sledge.' 
Perhaps Lith. zdgr'e, f., ' forked piece of 
wood on a plough,' is allied, and also its 
cognates zaginys, m., 'stake, post,' zdgaras, 
m., ' dry twig.' From these the evolution 
of meaning in Jcufe may be inferred. 

<^ltfc (2.), f., ' coop, vat,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. kuofe, OHG. chuofa, f. The prim, 
form of the word previous to the HG. per- 
mutation of consonants is represented by 
OSax. cSpa, f., and the equiv. E. coop. 
From Mid Lat. c6pa, a variant of cApa, 
'cask,' whence Du. kuip, 'coop'; comp. 
also Jliifcef. The word must have been 
borrowed before the 7th cent., since it has 
undergone permutation in HG. ; perhaps 
it was introduced with the culture of the 

Jtftfcr, m., from the equiv. MidHG. 
kiiefer, m., ' cooper ' ; comp. Du. kuiper, E. 

Jtltgel, f., 'ball, bullet, globe,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. kugel, kugele, f. : comp. 
MidLG. and Du. kogel. The word is not 
recorded in the other languages. It is 
allied to ModHG. fiauh, from Ml, kugl, 
and also to ModHG. Jlettte, with which E. 
cudgel and AS. cudgel is closely connected ; 
Settle is a 'pole with a ball-shaped end.' 
Jtinjd and Jteijet cannot possibly be related 
by gradation. 

Jtul), f., ' cow,' from the equiv. MidHG. 
and OUG. kuo, f. ; comp. MidLG. kd, Du. 
koe, E. coxo, AS. cA, OIc. kyr, f. (Goth. *kt>s) ; 
Teut. type kd-, f., ' cow.' This worth like 
the names of other domestic animals, is 
found in the non-Teut. languages, and in 
the form of gdvo (g6) it is common to the 
Aryan group ; comp. Ind. gdus (ace. gdm), 
f., Gr. /3otfs (stem pot), Lat. bos (stem bov-). 
These terms are both mas. and fern., hence 
Sans, gdus, m., 'bull, cattle,' f., 'cow' ; Gr. 
/3oi/s, 4 cattle, ox, cow ' ; Lat. bos, ' ox, cow ' ; 
Lett, g&ws, 'cow.' This term, like other 
primit. Aryan words (comp. $fert>, <Sd)af, 
Jj?unb, £)d)ff, &c), proves that the Aryans, 
before the division into the later tribes, 
were already acquainted with domestic 

hill) I, adj., 'cool,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. kiiel, ktiele, adj., also a regularly non- 


f 198 ) 


mutated form kuol- in compounds such as 
kuolhUs, n., 'cooling-house,' and in the 
adv. kuole (comp. fdjon, fpdt, fafl) ; OHG. 
chuoli, adj., 'cool' (*chuolo, adv.). It cor- 
responds to MidLG. k6l, Du. koel, AS. c6l, 
E. cool. In the form of kSli- (orig. kdlu-) 
the adj. is common to West Teut.; the adj. 
fait is the old partic form from the stem 
of fuljl, from which in Scand. (kala) and 
AS. (calan) str. vhs. are formed ; the further 
cognates E. chill, AS. tele, Syle, ' cold,' are 
based on a Goth. *kali- (n. sing. *kals). 
Comp. fait. 

fri'ibn, adj., 'bold, daring,' from Mid 
HG. kiien, kiiene, OHG. chuoni, ' bold, eager 
for combat, strong'; comp. the non-mutated 
variant in the MidHG. and OHG. deriva- 
tive kuonheit, 'boldness,' and in the OHG. 
adv. chuono. It corresponds to MidLG. 
koene, Du. koen, AS. cine, 'bold,' E. keen 
(the adj. is obsolete in Suab. and Bav.) ; 
Scand. kcenn, 'wise, experienced.' The 
latter must at one time have been the pre- 
valent sense in West Teut. also, as is proved 
by the ModHG. proper name Jfontab ; OHG. 
and MidHG. Kuonrdt (without mutation, 
like OHG. and MidHG. kuonheit), AS. 
CenrSd (Goth. *K6niriJ}s), may have meant 
' giving wise advice.' Teut. k&n-i- (lit. ' one 
that can understand, sensible') is orig. a 
verbal adj. from the vb. fennen, fonnen, 
hence the West Teut sense ' bold,' com- 
pared with the OIc. meaning, must be 
regarded as derivative. All intellectual 
and moral conceptions of the OTeut. period 
are related more or less to war and con* 
flict (comp. Balb, fdjnefl, and Jtrieo,). 

eftitfcen, LG., see jtiidjlein. 

pummel, m., 'cummin, caraway seeds,' 
from the equiv. MidHG. kiimel, OHG. 
chumil, m., with the variants MidHG. 
kiimin, OHG. chumtn; comp. AS. cymen, 
Du. komijn, MidLG. kdmen; from Lat. 
and Rom. cumtnum. The change of n 
into I is the same as in 3gct (in UpG. still 
kiimi, kumich). With regard to the period 
of the adoption of Lat. words relating to 
horticulture and the art of cookerv, comp. 
Jlafe, JMdje, 2Hinjf, ^Jfcffcr, &c. 

Rummer, m., 'grief, sorrow, distress,' 
from MidHG. kumber, m., ' rubbish, refuse 
(thus still dial.), encumbering, oppression, 
distress, grief ; ModHG. mm, from Mid 
HG. mb, as in 3immer, Saturn, and Jtamm. 
The word is wanting in all the OTeut. 
dials. ; coin p. ModDu. kommer, m., 'grief, 
affliction; hare's dung'; MidE. cornbren, 

' to encumber, molest,' E. to cumber. The 
cognates are very similar in sound to a 
Rom. class — Fr. de'combres, ' rubbish,' Port. 
com->ro, cornbro, ' mound of earth, hillock,' 
Ital. ingombro, 'hindrance,' Fr. encombrer, 
'to obstruct (with rubbish), block up' ; 
MidLat. combrus, 'mound of earth, barrier 
of felled trees, obstructing pile.' The Teut. 
cognates seem to have passed into Rom. ; 
for, besides the more recent form with r, 
we find in AS. and Scand. a variant with 
I, OIc. kumhl, ' tumulus, barrow.' 

/utmmct. n., ' horse-collar,' from the 
equiv. MidHG. komat, n. ; borrowed in the 
MidHG. period from Slav. (comp. OSlov. 
chomatu, PoL chomat) ; hence not diffused 
beyond the HG. group. The Slav, cog- 
nates of OSlov. chomptu are derived from 
OTeut. ; comp. MidE. and ModE. hame, 
Du. haam, Westphal. ham, Rhine Pro v. 
hamen, hammen, 'horse-collar.' 

Altmpttn, m., 'companion, mate,' from 
MidHG. kumpdn, kompdn, m., ' comrade, 
associate ' ; the latter is derived from OFr. 
Prov. compaing, 'companion, partner.' 
MidLat. companio, lit. ' one who shares 
the same food,' is based on OTeut. expres- 
sions such as Goth, gahlaiba, OHG. gileibo, 
m., ' associate, comrade,' and the equiv. 
OHG. gimafto, from ma?,, n., ' food ' ; see 

^mmpefl, <Slomp6fl, m., 'preserves, 
heap of rubbish or dung,' from MidHG. 
kumpost, also kumpCst, in., ' preserves,' 
espec. ' pickled cabbage,' from Rom. (Ital. 

Jtumpf, m., ' basin, bowl,' from Mid 
HG. kumpf, m., ' vessel ' ; comp. LG. kump. 
A MidLat. cumpus as the source of the G. 
word does not exist ; MidLat. cumba, cum- 
bus, have too no such meaning as .Rumpf, 
hence they cannot be adduced to explain 
the dial. ModHG. Jtiimme, ' deep bowl.' 
Jtuntnte and Jfrimpf are more probably 
genuine Teut words, and allied to AS. 
cumb and the equiv. E. coomb. 

,&find)cl, see JtaninAen. 

futtto, adj., 'known, manifest,' from 
MidHG. kunt(d), OHG. chund, adj., • be- 
come acquainted, noted, known.' It cor- 
responds to Goth, kunfrs, ' noted,' OSax. 
cuth, AS. cHf>, ' noted,' E. couth (now only 
in the compound uncouth). A common 
Teut. adj. in the form kun}>a-, from the 
non-permutated gn-to-, which is prop, a 
partic. in to- from the verbal stem of the 
root <7<5«, grid, discussed under fonntn, femun, 


( i99 ) 


and HSfL For other parties, formed into 
adjs. see under laut. 

t^tunff , f., ' arrival,' from MidHG. and 
OHG. Jcuvft, kumft, f., 'coming, arrival'; 
comp. Goth, gaqumps, f., 'meeting, assem- 
bly,' the corresponding verbal abstract to 
Goth, qiman, HG. femmen, with the suffix 
pi-, from -ti- (comp. <£d)u(t>, 3)urft, and 
@tft). The insertion of an / in the com- 
bination mp (mfp becoming mft; comp. 
further SBernunft, 3unft, €ftantft) corresponds 
to the addition of an s to np (nsp becoming 
nrt), mentioned under J?unjt. — feunfftft, 
adj., 'to come, future,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. kiimftec, OHG. kumftig. 

^Uttfeef, f., 'distaff/ from the equiv. 
MidHG. kunkel, f., OHG. chunchala, f. ; 
a Suab., Alem., and Rhen. word, for which 
Otocfen occurs in other dials. (Bav. and also 
MidG.). It is wanting in the remaining 
OTeut. dials., and its diffusion supports 
the assumption that it has been borrowed 
from Rom., especially since the earlier 
OHG. form chonachla closely resembles 
the equiv. Rom. words in sound ; Mid La t. 
conucla (for colucula ?, diinin. of colus, 'dis- 
taff'?), equiv. to Ital. conocchia, Fr. que- 
nouille, 'distaff,' whence also the equiv. 
Olr. cuicel. Others refer the word to the 
cognates discussed under Jtaufer, with the 
prim, meaning ' to spin.' 

/tun ft , t., ' skill, art, address,' from 
MidHG. and OHG. kunst, f., 'knowledge, 
wisdom, skill, art'; comp. OSax. cunsti, 
plur., ' knowledge, wisdom,' Du. kunst ; 
wanting in E. and Goth. A verbal abstract 
from fennett, like Jlmtft from fomtnen ; s is a 
euphonicinsertion before the dental ; comp. 
SBrunjl from fermnen, ©unit from gomten. 

feuntcrbunf , adj., ' higgledy-piggledy, 
ModHG. only ; in MidHG., however, kun- 
tervSch, adj., which means 'variegated, 
strange as a Jtunter,' i.e. 'monster'?. But 
while MidHG. kunter, ' monster,' and 
OHG. chuntar, ' herd, drove of cattle ' 
(cognate with OSlov. ienq, Lith. gentL, ' I 
drive cattle ' ?), are UpG, f unterbtmt is prop. 
LG. Both MidHG. kuntervich and Mod 
HG. fnntfrfeunt are imitations of MidHG. 
kunterfeit, lit. ' contrafactus, not genuine ' ; 
from this in MidHG. (MidG.) a word 
kunter, ' what is false, deceptive,' was de- 

<$kupfev, n., ' copper ' from the equiv. 
MidHG. kupfer, OHG. chupfar, n. ; an old 
loan-word from which *kuppor must have 
been the earliest form ; the word was bor- 

rowed before the 7th cent. ; comp. Du. 
and MidLG. koper, AS. copor, E. copper, 
Scand. kopar. These are probably based 
on MidLat. cuper (gen. -eris). Late Lat. 
cuprum, or rather ces cyprium, or simply 
cyprium (whence Fr. cuivre), is an Italian 
(not a Greek) term ; the Teuts. probably 
owe to the Italians their earliest know- 
ledge of copper. The island of Cyprus 
was called Jltpper by the Germans of the 
Middle Ages, following the Byzant. and 
ModGr. pronunciation of Kfapos ; hence 
MidHG. kippor or kipperwin, 'Cyprian 

<^tuppe, f., ' peak, summit,' adopted by 
the written language in the last century 
from MidHG. ; in HG. the form would 
have pf. Mcvpt and Jhippe, as well as Jtaupe 
(' crest of birds,' also termed .Rcppf, comp. 
OSax. coppod, ' cristatus ' of snakes, under 
Mfyf), are allied words, with the prim, 
meaning 'point, extreme end,' which be- 
longed orig. to the strictly HG. permutated 
form Jtopf. The further history of all these 
terms is obscure ; under jfopf it is assumed 
that they are of genuine Teut. origin, 
though the possibility of their being 
blended with MidLat. and Rom. cupa, 
* beaker,' is granted. In MidHG. kuppe, 
f., OHG. chuppa, f., means ' covering for 
the head ' (espec. under the helmet) ; see 

(^tuppel, f., ' cupola, dome,' ModHG. 
only, from Ital. cupola (Fr. coupole). 

feuppeln, vb., ' to couple, fence (a field),' 
from MidHG. kuppeln, koppeln, 'to leash, 
bind, fetter, unite' ; MidHG. kuppelspil, 
' coupling,' kuppelcere, ' match-maker, pro- 
curer,' and kuppelcerinne, the fem. form ; a 
deriv. of jteppel, Lat. copulare. 

<#wr, §f>nr, f., 'election,' in ^urffirft 
connected with erf crcn, erf iefen ; MidHG. kur, 
kiire, f. (MidG. kur, kure, without modifica- 
tion), 'consideration, selection,' espec. 'elec- 
tion of a king' (MidHG. kiir-, kurm'irst<', 
MidG. korvilrste, * Elector ') ; OHG. churi, 
f., is preserved in HG. ffiiflfiir in the regu- 
larly mutated form. AS. eyre, m., ' choice ' ; 
Scand. k</>r, keyr, n., ' choice.' See fitftn. 

Jturbe, ^Itrbcl, f., 'crank, winch,' 
from MidHG. kurbe, OHG. churba,f., 'wind- 
lass over a well' ; generally traced to Fr. 
courbe, and further to Lat. *curva, ' bent 
piece of wood,' from curvus. 

dtftrbis, m., 'gourd, pumpkin,' from 
the equiv. MidHG. kurbe$, kiirbi^, OHG. 
churbi$, m. (rarely f.) ; borrowed previous 


( 200 ) 


to the HG. permutation (of t to 33) from 
Lat. cucfirbita, whence also AS. cyrfet. 
Whether the reduplicated form of the Lat. 
word was influenced by Teut. itself cannot 
be determined. From Lat. cucurbita are also 
derived Ital. cucuzza, Fr. gourde, whence E. 
gourd, Du. kauwoerde. 

Uiircn, vb., ' to choose, select,' ModHG. 
only, derived from an older kur, f., ' choice,' 
e<iuiv. to J?iir. 

$urfd)rier, m.,' furrier,' from the equiv. 
MidHQ. kursenwre, 111. (sch from s, as in 
Slrfd), btrfdjett, and Jpirfc^), a derivative of 
MidHG. kiirsen, f., ' fur coat,' OHG. chur- 
sinna, chrusina, AS. cr&sne, ' fur coat ' ; 
MidLat. crusna, crusina, crusinna. Cog- 
nate terms also occur in Slav. (OSlov. 
kruzno, Russ. korzno), in which, however, 
the word did not originate any more than 
it did in G., yet it may have been intro- 
duced into G. through a Slav, medium, 
perhaps from some Northern language. The 
prim, kinship of OHG. chursina with Gr. 
/Sypffo, ' hide, skin,' is scarcely conceivable. 

lau'v adj.. 'short,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. and OHG. kurz; a very curious loan- 
word from Lat. curtus. What may have 
led to its adoption i3 even more obscure 
than in the case of fid)er (from Lat. securus). 
The assumption of its being borrowed is 
supported only by the form hurt (without 
the change of t to z), which appears also in 
strictly UpG. records ; comp. OHG. porta, 
pforta, and pforza, from Lat. porla. The 
form curt ia OSax. and OFris. ; comp. also 
Du. kort and Ic. Icortr. The Lat. loan-word 
passed by degrees into all the Teut. dialects 
except E., which preserved an OTeut. word 
for ' short ' with which the Lat. word, from 
its close resemblance in sound, has been 
confused — AS. sceort, E. short (comp. OHG. 
skurz, ' short ') ; these cannot, on account of 
their want of permutation, be primit. allied 
to Lat. curtus. For the cognates of E. short 
see @d)urje. 

eFtltjj), m., 'kiss,' from the equiv. Mid 
HG. and OHG. kus (gen. kusses) ; corre- 
sponding to Du. kus, OSax. cus, cos (gen. 
-sses), AS. coss, OIc. koss, m. ; a common 
Teut. word for ' kiss,' wanting only in Goth. 
(*knmis, comp. Goth, kukjan, East Fris. 
kiikken, ' to kiss '). A pre-Teut. root gut, 
gud, ' to kiss,' does not occur. Indubitable 
cognates are not found in the non-Teut. 

languages unless Ir. bus, ' lif>,' and Gael. 
bus, 'mouth with thick lips,' are allied. — 
ftuffen, vb., 'to kiss,' from MidHQ. and 
MidLG. kiissen, OHG. chussen ; AS. r 
E. to kiss, OIc. ki/ssa. 

^i'tlTctt, see it ii7m. 

(^tufie, f., ModHG. only, from the equiv. 
Du. kuste, kust, 'coast,' which, like E. coast, 
MidE. coste, is of Rom. origin, OFr. code, 
c6te, MidLat. costa, ' coast.' 

^lifter, ui., ' sacristan,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. and OHG. kustor, kuster, m. 
Adopted on the introduction of Chris- 
tianity. While Jlreuj, from OHG. chr&zi, 
is based upon the Lat. stem cruci-, ace. 
sins, crucem (and not the nomin. crux), 
Jtiifter, on the other hand, is not derived 
from Lat. custodem (stem custodi-), or even 
from the nom. sing, custos, since in the 
OHG. period the change of s into r no 
longer occurs. We have rather to proceed 
from an actually recorded MidLat. custor, 
custorem, a rare variant of the more preva- 
lent form custod-, which appears also in 
Fr. coutre, OFr. enstre, * sacristan.' Mid 
Lat. custos (scil. ecclesiae), ' warden, guar- 
dian of the church jewels, holy vessels, &c, 
presbyter s. clericus cui ecclesiae et templi 
cura incumbit.' With the same sense Mid 
Lat. costurarius, whence OSax. costardri, as 
well as ModHG. dial ©itflercr. 

c^iuf fcf)C, f., 'coach,' first occurs in early 
ModHG. from Hungar. koszi, 'a carriage 
from Koszi' (near Raab) ; a characteristic 
modern term common to the Europ. lan- 
guages ; comp. Fr. and Span, cache (E. 
coach), Ital. cuccio, Du. koets. 

^uffc, f., 'cowl,' from MidHG. hltU, 
f., 'monk's habit'; comp. MidLat. cotta, 
cottus, ' tunica clericis propria,' which, how- 
ever, with the corresponding Rom. wonls 
(Fr. cotte, ' petticoat,' Ital. cotta), may be 
traced back to Teut. kotta-, appearing in 
OHG chozzo, MidHG. kotze, ' coarse woollen 
stuff, cover.' Comp. Jtojjc. 

<5iutffcln, f., 'chitterlings, tripe,' from 
MidHG. kutel, L, ' gut, tripe ' ; as a genuine 
UpG. word it is probahly not cognate with 
LG. kiit, ' entrails,' but connected rather 
with Goth. qif>us, ' belly.' 

SlUX, m., ' share in a mine,' earlier Mod 
HG. and dial, jhtcfud ; first occurs in early 
ModHG., perhaps introduced from the Slav. 
frontier mountains. 


( 201 ) 



<$.ab, n,, rennet,' from MidHG. lap(b), 
n., 'rennet,' also 'acid fluid,' OHG. lab, 
'broth'; it is not improbable, since the 
latter is the prim, meaning, that the word 
is further cognate with OTeut. terms for 
' medicine.' Goth, lubja, f., ' poison,' AS. 
lyb, ' poison,' OIc. lyf, ' medicine,' OHG. 
luppi, n., 'deadly juice.' Note specially 
MidHG. kmeluppe, f., OHG. chdsiluppa, 
AS. c^s-h/b, equiv. to MidHG. ktese-lap. 
The way in which Sab is related by grada- 
tion to lubja corresponds perhaps to that of 
HG. 91aje to AS. nosu, E/nose. The prim, 
meaning of the stem seems to be * strong, 
sharp perfume; plant juice'; OIc. lyf, 
'medicine,' and Goth, lubja, 'poison,' are 
differentiations of the same orig. sense. 

efiabberfcart, m., 'codfish,' ModHG. 
only, from LG. ; to this are allied, with 
remarkable divergences, Du. labberdaan, 
earlier abberdaan and slabberdaan, and E. 
haberdine, with the same sense. The word 
is based not on the name of the Scotch 
town Aberdeen, but on tractus Laburdanus, 
a part of the Basque cotintry (Bayonne used 
to be called Laburdum, Fr. Labourd). It 
must have been introduced into the Nether- 
lands through a Fr. medium ; the form ab- 
berdaen is due to the error of regarding the 
initial I as the article. Comp. also JtaHtau. 

Ittben, vb., ' to refresh,' from MidHG. 
laben, OHG. labtin (comp. AS. gelafian), 
' to wash, quicken, refresh.' If we take 
into consideration Tacitus' account of the 
fondness of the Teutons for bathing, we 
can readily conceive how the meaning ' to 
refresh' was evolved from 'to wash' ; the 
reverse course is also possible, as is shown 
perhaps by ModHG. ftd) erfrifdjen, fid) fhtvfcit, 
in the sense of ' to drink.' The former is 
the more probable, on account of MidHG. 
lap (6), 'bilge water'; there is, however, 
no connection with Lat. lavare, Gr. \o6eiv. 
— <£ttbe, f., 'refreshment,' from the equiv. 
MidHG. labe, OHG. laba, f. 

.iodic, f., from the equiv. MidHG. 
lache, OHG. lahha, f., 'puddle, pool, water 
in an excavation.