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M.A. CANTAli. 





The Eight of Ilvirvdvction is reserved 


This work, the result of the labours of many 
years, is designed to supply a full and com- 
l)lete pronouncing, etymological, and explan- 
atory Dictionary of the English Language, 
containing an unusual number of scientific, 
technical, and other terms, in a handy form 
for general reference, and at such a price as 
will put it within the reach of persons of the 
most moderate means. Many new and im- 
portant features will be found in the work. 

The Dictionary Words.— These are printed 
in a bold, black type, and in si-iigle letters, 
that being the form in which words are usually 
presented to the reader. Capital letters begin 
such words only as proper names, and others 
which are always so printed. This distinc- 
tion will be of considerable use to the learner. 
English phrases, familiar colloquialisms, and 
slang and other terms useful for reference by 
the general reader, have been freely inserted 
and defined. The addition of participial ter- 
minations will be found a useful feature. 

The Grouping of Words.— The Dictionary 
words are grouped under a leading word, from 
which they may be presumed naturally to fall 
or be formed, or simply follow in alphabetical 
order. Only, however, are they so grouped 
when they are derived from the same leading 
root, and when their alphabetical order may 
not be materially disturbed. When words 
occur in a group out of their alphabetical 
order, they will also be found in their place 
with a simple reference to the heading under 
Avhich they are grouped. Care has been taken , 
not to group to such an extent as to create difh- ' 

culty in consulting the work, but the alphabet- 
ical order of words in respect of their terminal 
letters is in no case attended to in the group- 
ing. The plan of grouping will be found to 
have important advantages. The words the 
most nearly related are immediately presented 
to the eye in a bold, black type, and not scat- 
tered over several pages, merely because their 
terminal letters are different. 

The Pronunciation.— The Dictionary words, 
for pronunciation, are respelt i)honetically 
with italic letters, and divided into syllables 
by dots instead of hyphens, and accented. 
The pronunciation has been carefully revised, 
in conformity with the best modern usage, by 
the Rev. P. H. Phelp, M.A. Cantab., to whom 
the Author has also to acknowledge his great 
obligations for very valuable assistance he has 
afforded in other departments of the work. Tlio 
scheme of phonotypes or sound-symbols is fully 
detailed in a Table at the beginning of the 
work, and again briefly repeated, for the con- 
venience of reference, at the bottom of each 
two consecutive pages. The leading word of 
each group is uniformly respelt and marked 
in full ; but the succeeding ones, especially 
when the seat of the accent is the same, 
have, generally, only the terminal parts re- 
spelt, the full respelling of the leading word 
being sufficient to indicate the first part. 

The Etymology of Words.— For the roots, 
or the su]iposed roots, enclosed within brack- 
ets, the works of the best and most recent 
authorities have been carefully consulted. In 
the words given as derived from the non-clas- 



sical languages — that is, not from the Latin 
and Greek — Wedgwood, Latham, and Max 
MUller have been generally followed. When 
a Latin or Greek noun is given as a mot-word, 
the genitive case is frequently added in order 
to exhibit the literal elements more promi- 
nently to the learner. For the same reason, 
in Latin verbs, the supine in nm is often pre- 
ferred to the infinitive in re. It must not be 
supposed that all the root-^cords given within 
the brackets indicate really the ultimate sources 
of the English words. In a very large class of 
Knglish words they really are so, as in scien- 
tific terms, and words directly derived from the 
Latin or Greek, or in the case of that large class 
which are merely imitative of natural sounds 
or natural appearances. The root-words are 
meant to show— (1) the probable origin of the 
English words; (2) their primary meanings; 
or, (3) their equivalents in other languages. 
The root-ioords may be considered as a core for 
a group of related English words. Apart from 
this their chief use in an educational point of 
view, their meanings will be found highly use- 
ful in enabling the general reader to ascer- 
lain, in most cases, without difficulty, the i)ri- 
mary significations ofthe English words. When 
no meaning is attached to a root-ivord, it is to 
be considered as an analogue— that is, it has 
the same sense as the leading Dictionary 
word. In regard to a numerous class of Eng- 
lish words usually considered as derived from 
the literary Latin, or from the Latin through 
the French, Italian, or Spanish, the best au- 
thorities now teach precisely the opposite. 
Such words are really derived from some one 
of that large class of related European lan- 
guages called the Romance, including the 
French, Italian, and Spanish; or from a source 
common not only to them, but also to English 
and literary Latin. Literary or classical 
Latin had its origin in the unwritten lan- 
guages and dialects of Italy. When the 
former ceased to be a living tongue, the 
latter still survived. In the same way, the 
jiresent substratum of literary English has 
not si^rung from the Anglo-Saxon of Wcs- 
sex only, but from it and the languages and 
dialects, however derived, spoken in every 
l)art of Great Britain. While these facts 
must be distinctly borne in mind by the 
student, it is convenient to retain the fiction 
of derivation from or through the literary 
Latin in regard to the classes of words re- 
ferred to. In this view, the exact equiva- 
lents of words in Italian, French, or 
Spanish, will be found highly useful and sig- 

It will be observed in numerous instances 
that successive entries occur of words spelt 
precisely in the same way, and that they are 
so entered because they are derived from dif- 
ferent roots, and have, of course, different sig- 
nifications. This fact of itself will afford a 
striking example of the advantage of having 
related words grouped under their common 
root-toords, instead of the usual plan of Eng- 
lish Dictionaries of having the most contra- 
dictory senses placed under the same word 
which itself, in two, three, or more of these 
senses, has quite a different origin, though 
si)elt in the same way. 

The Meanings. ~ Tlie meanings of the 
words are those usually given, but they have 
been simplified as much as possible: In the 
way of definition there will be found, however, 
a vast quantity of entirely new matter. The 
separate entries made, in works of the same 
kind, to indicate distinctions in the significa- 
tions of verbs, when used transitively and in- 
transitively, have been abandoned, as confus- 
ing to tlie learner, and as practically useless ; 
at the same time, however, the distinctions 
tliemselves have generally been retained. No 
attempt has been made to render the defini- 
tions exhaustive ; yet in these the work is 
very full. Very frequently words in a group 
ending in nes, ble, and bly, especially the 
last, are not followed by definitions. When 
so found, the meanings are easily formed : 
Thus, distinctness, state of being distinct ; 
distinctly, in a distinct manner ; bleakness, 
state of being bleak; bleakly, in a bleak 
manner ; improvable, that may be improved ; 
improvably, in an improvable manner ; im- 
provableness, state of being improvable : 
Thus, ble, meaning "that may be;" bly, 
manner ; and uess, state of being. 

The Appendices.— They are— a note in re- 
gard to prefixes being placed first— (1) A full 
list of postfixes in alphabetical order, having 
their origin indicated, and followed by exam- 
l)]cs of their use ; (2) A list of common abbre- 
viations, with their meanings, and their full 
uncoutracted forms, when not English, within 
brackets ; (3,i A very full list of Latin, French, 
and other phrases, the name of the language, 
and their signification in English. 

Concluding Remarks. — Such is a brief 
outline of the nature and contents of the 
jircsent work. In a work necessitating s" 
great an amount of research, and the elabora- 
tion of so great a mass of matter from such 


a variety of sources during the unremitting 
labour of many years, there cannot but occur 
matter and arrangement that may call for 
adverse criticism, or at least call forth differ- 
ence of opinion. Where, too, there is such a 
variety of type, symbols, and marks employed, 
and so many elaborate details, errors may oc- 
cur. It is believed, however, that these will 
be found but few iii number, and of little im- 
portance. Besides the Rev. Mr Phelp, already 
referred to, highly-qualified gentlemen were 
engaged on the revision of the proof-sheets as 
they were passing through the press. The 
Author begs to acknowledge his obligations to 
those gentlemen for their important services. 
Dr Page. Professor of Geology in the Durham 
University of Physical Science, Newcastle, 
and author of well-known works on Geology 
and Physical Geography, specially attended 

to the correctness of the numerous scientific 
terms introduced into the work. 

To give a list of authorities used in compil- 
ing the present work would serve no good 
end. Suffice it to say that numerous works 
have been diligently consulted and compared, 
including the best and most recent authoii- 
1 ties. While the Author's field of review has 
been a very extensive one, and while he has of 
necessity trodden a path common to autliors 
j of works of the same kind, it is hoped that no 
I undue use of materials from other works has 
i been made. The most laborious care has 
been employed, and considerable expense in- 
j curred, in securing accuracy. The Author 
' trusts that this work will secure public appro- 
bation, and fulfil, in the opinion of those best 
I able to judge, the objects for which it is chiefly 
i designed. 

Edinburgh, October 1871. 


In this Edition a considerable number of 
important corrections have been introduced 
into the body of the work. A Supplement 
and a List of Proper Names have also been 
added. The Supplement contains about 450 
additional words— chiefly such new scientific 
and other words as are now becoming current 
in our popular literature. Several emendations 
referring to the body of the work, and new ex- 
planatory matter, have also been inserted in 
the Supplement. The List of Proper Names 
coiLsists of (1) Scripture proper names taken 
afresh from the authorised version, (2) all the 
proper names found in the Apocrypha, (3) 
common classical names, and (4) common 
historical and other names — all respelt for 
pronunciation according to the method em- 
ployed in the Dictionary. In placing the ac- 
cent, the authority of Smart and Dr Smith 
has been followed— chiefly the latter. In re- 

spelling the proper names, and employing the 
sound-symbols used in the Dictionary, a dis- 
tinctness and precision have been given to the 
pronunciation of them never before attempted. 
Dr Page and the Rev. Mr Phelp have care- 
fully read over the Supplement. Mr Phelp, 
and two other gentlemen well known in the 
literary world, kindly took the trouble care- 
fully to go over the List of Proper Names, and 
adapt their pronunciation to English usage. 
It will be observed, however, that though the 
pronunciation according to English idiom and 
usage has been preferred, the strictly classical 
has been sufficiently often indicated. It is 
hoped that, with these improvements and ad- 
ditions, this work will not only maintain the 
high position which it has already attained, 
but find increasing favour with the general 

EoiNBURGH, September 1874. 


The sale of three large impressions of the i 
' Ktyinological and Pronouncing Dictionary 
of the English Language,' in the course of 
;ibout four years, is sure evidence that the 
public have appreciated the present work; 
and that neither the Author nor the Pub- 
lishers were mistaken in their opinion that 
tliere was a jilace and a use for such a book 
in our current literature. The Dictionary has 
now found its way to every part of the world 
where the English language is spoken or 
taught; and is extensively used in Univer-. 
sities. Colleges, and in the Higher Class 
Schools. And not only this, but in every sense 
it has proved a highly popular work, admir- 
ably adapted for reference in the Household, 
the Counting-room, and the Club. Its -use- 
fulness has been the more appreciated, in 
that the work contains not only a very ex- 
tensive selection of scientific and commercial 
terms, but also the class of words found every 
day in the newspapers and other periodicals. 
A very important feature is, that the defi- 
nitions of the words are given, not in mere 
synonyms as in most other works of the 
class, but in simple and extended meanings. 
Numerous notes and remarks have been in- 
troduced for explanation and illustration, 
giving thus a cyclopedia character to tlie 
work ; while it is of a handy portable size 
for daily reference, and of a very moderate 
price, if the mass of its contents be taken 
into account. 

In the Fifth Edition, a considerable num- 
ber of corrections have been made in the body 
of the Dictionarj'; and the former Supple- 
ment has been replaced by another contain- 
ing about four times more words and matter 
— the supplementary words now luimbering 

in all over 1500. During the past few years, 
many new scientific and other terms have 
taken their place in our current literature, 
and obsolete words have been revived. These 
have been carefully noted and introduced into 
the present Supplement. Useful Law, Slang, 
and Provincial names have also been inserted. 
Such words as agnostic, amortissement, urles, 
atavism, avizandum, hlock-system, iogey-engine, 
camerUngo, chauvinism, clerical error, clientele, 
coccyx, contango, coxswain, creche, and curia, 
taken at random from the first jiages, will suf- 
ficiently indicate the importance of the exten- 
sive new Supplement added to the Fifth Edi- 
tion. Finality in a Dictionary is impossible. 
Language is constantly undergoing changes ; 
and a Dictionary, to maintain its value, must 
faithfully record such mutations. It is accord- 
ingly the duty of a Lexicographer to note 
these changes, and where they are likely to 
be useful, and retain their place in the lan- 
guage even for a time, to introduce them, for 
the information of others, into his work. 
Such has been carefully, and it is hoped 
successfully, done in the present Edition, 
and at no little expenditure of labour and 
money. The Author has full confidence that 
the general public, and the heads of schools 
and colleges, -will continue to show their ap- 
preciation of the present work, especially in 
its improved form ; and that its already ex- 
tensive circulation will be greatly increased. 
He has again to acknowledge the deep obliga- 
tions under which lie lies to many literary 
and other gentlemen who so ungrudgingly 
gave him their advice and assistance in the 
preparation of the Supplement. These ser- 
vices it would be invidious to particularise. 

J. S. 

Eliiniuuoh, 31s< Jamiary 1879. 





















Note.—( ■ ) is the mark dividing words respelt plionetically into syllables ; ( '), the accent indicating on 
which syllable or syllables the accent or stress of the voice is to be placed. The marks ( ") and ( ") 
above the vowels are to be understood as having relation to the character of the sound alone, not to 
the prolongation, or the reverse, of the sound— that is determined in ordinary cases by the accent- 
uation of the word. The mark { ~ ) above the symbols atb, ow, ob, and dy, designates these as diph- 
thongal sounds. 

Sound-symbols Renre-^enHnn the fJovridt at Words respelt with 

employed in eTemvmedintheWord^ Sound-symbols and Marks 

Respelling. exempiijiea in me words. j^ Fronunciation. 

d mate, fate, fail, aye, there mat./at./al, a, thar. 

6 mat, fat mdf, fat. 

a far, calm, father .far, Mm,fdm.'ir. 

aw fall, laud, law .fowl, lawd, law. 

6 mete, meat, feet, free met, met, fet,fre. 

5 met, bed mSt, bid. 

e her, stir, heard, cur her, stir, herd, ker. 

i pine, ply, height pin, pll. hit. 

i pin, nymph, ability .pin, nlmf, d-hWl-tt. 

6 note, toll, soul not, tol, sol. 

6 not, plot not, plot. 

d move, smooth m6v, smdth. 

ow noun, bough, cow ndwn, bow, kow. 

oy boy, boil boy, bdyl. 

<5o woman, foot wobm'&n, foot. 

a pure, due, few pur, du,fu. 

« bud, come, tough bud, kiiin, tuf. 

ch chair, match char, mdch. 

g game, gone, gun gdm, gon, gun. 

} judge, gem, gin juj, jem, fin. 

k king, cat, cot, cut king, kdt, kot, kut. 

* sit, scene, cell, city, cypress sit, sen, sSl, slt'f, si'prSs. 

sh. shun, ambition shiin, dm-blsh'un. 

th thing, breath thing, breth. 

*'^ there, breathe thdr, breth. 

* zeal, maze, muse zei, m&z, muz. 

2^ azure, vision d'zhobr, vlzh'an. 


a. or adj. ...adjective 

ad adverb 

agri agriculture 

alg algebra 

anat anatomy 

anc ancient 

arch architecture 

archreol archaeology 

arith arithmetic 

astrol astrology 

astron astronomy 

bot botany 

cliem chemistry 

chron chronologj' 

com common 

com commerce 

comp comparative 

conch conchology 

couj conjunction 

contr contraction 

dim diminutive 

dyn dynamics 

E east 

E. I East Indies 

eccles ecclesiastical affairs 

Eng. hist. . .English history 

engin engineering 

eutom entomology- 

etym etj-mologj 

Fahr Fahrenheit 

far farriery 

fem femmine 

fort fortification 

gen gender ; genitive 

Alb Albanian 

Amer American or America 

Ar Arabic 

AS Anglo-Saxon 

Bav Bavarian 

Beng Bengalee 

Bohem Bohemian 

Bret Breton 

Celt Celtic 

Chald Chaldee 

Chin Chinese 

Dan Danish 

but Dutch 

Eng English 

Esthon Esthonian 

1'" French 

Fin Finnish 

Flem Flemish 

Fri.s Frisian 

Gael Gaelic 

Geno Genoese 

(!er German 

Goth Gothic 

Gr Groek 

Gris Grisous 

geog geography 

geol geology 

geom geometry 

gram grammar 

her heraldiy 

hist history 

hort horticulture 

imp imperfect participle 

impera imperative 

infin infinitive 

instr instrument 

int interjection 

interrog. ...interrogative pronoun 

lit literature 

masc masculine 

math mathematics 

mech mechanics 

med medicine 

meta metaphysics 

mil military affairs 

min mineralogj' 

mod modern 

myth mythology 

N north 

n noun 

nat. hist.. . .natural historj' 

jjg^y f navigation or naval af- 

<■ fairs 

neut neuter 

nom nominative 

obj objective 

opt optics 

omith ornithology 

paint painting 

Heb Hebrew 

Hind Hindustani 

Hung Hungarian 

loel Icelandic 

Ind India or Indies 

Ir Irish 

It Italian 

L Latin 

Lang Languedoc 

Lap Lapland 

Lim. Limousin 

Lith Lithuanian 

Mai Malayan 

Manx language of Isle of Man 

rLiitin of the middle 
mid. L. . . •^ j^ggg ^j. jj^jg Latin 

Milan Milanese 

Norm Norman 

Norm. F. . . .Norman French 

N. Fris North Frisian 

old Eng. ...old English 

old F old French 

old Fris.... old Frisian 

old H. Ger. .old High German 

Purs Persian 

palaeon paleontology 

path pathology 

pers person 

pert pertaining 

phil philosophy 

Phren phrenology 

Phys physiology or physical 

plu plural 

poss possessive 

PP perfect participle 

pref. prefix 

prep preposition 

pres present 

pron pronoun 

prov pro\Tncial 

pt past tense 

rel relative pronoun 

rhet rhetoric 

E. N royal nav-y 

R.Cath. Ch. Roman Catholic Church 

S south 

Scrip Scripture 

sculp sculpture 

sing singular 

superl superlative 

surg surgery 

surv surveying 

theol theology 

trig trigonometry 

U. S United States 

v verb 

W west 

W.I West Indies 

200I zoology 

Piedm Piedraontese 

Pol Polish 

Port Portuguese 

Prov Provencal 

prov. Eng. .provincial English 

Rom Roman 

Russ Russian 

Sam Samaritan 

Sans Sanscrit 

Scand Scandinavian 

Scot Scotland or Scotch 

Serv Servian 

Sic Sicilian 

Slav Slavonic 

Sp Spanish 

Sw Swedish 

Swab S wabian 

Syr Syriac 

Teut Teutonic 

Turk Turkish 

Venet Venetian 

W Welsh 

Wal ^^'alachlan 

Wall Walloon 

Wcstph Wcstphalian 





A, a, the first letter of the alphabet in most lan- 
guages ; an adjective of number, signifying one ; the 
indefinite article— used before adjectives or nouns 
that begin with a consonant or with the sound of a 
consonant; an Anglo-Saxon prefix signifying at, to, 
in, or on; a Greek prefix, also its form an, signifying 
V'ithout, not; a Latin prefix, with its forms ab and 
abs, signifying/ro??i or away. 

A 1, a 07ie, a mark to denote a ship of the first class 
as to newness and being seawortliy. 

Aaronic, a. d-ron'lk; also Aaxonical, a. a-ron'l-kai, 
of or pert, to Aaron or his priesthood. 

ab, ab, a Latin prefix; also a and abs, signifying 
from or away. 

A.B., first letters of Artium Baccalaureus—dr'shl- 
iim, of arts; hak'-kCi-law'-ri-us, bachelor — meaning 
Bachelor of Arts, an academic title. 

aback, ad. a-hakf (AS. on-baec), on the back ; back- 
wards, as used by sailors ; by surprise ; unexpectedly. 
abacus, n. ab'-A-kus (L., from Gr. abakos, a board for 
calculations), a counting frame ; in a?-c/j., the crown- 
ing table of a column. 

Abaddon, n. u-bdd'don (Heb. abad, to be lost or 
destroyed), the destroying angel of the bottomless 

abaft, ad., prep, d-baff (AS. ceftan, after, behind), 
a seaman's term ; at or towards the stem or hinder 
part of a ship ; behind. 

abandon, v. d-bun'-dun (F. abandonner, to desert), 
to give up; to des-^^rt; to forsake entirely: aban'doning, 
imp.: aban'doned, pp. : adj., wholly forsaken; given 
up; extremely profligate or corrupt: aban'donment, 
n. a giving up wholly; a total desertion: aban'doner, 
n. the pei-son who gives up. 

abase, v. d-bas' (F. abaisxer, to lower— from L. ad; 
basis, the foot or base), to bring low ; to degrade ; to 
cast do\vn : aba'sing, imp.: abased, pp. d-bdst': 
abase'ment, n. tlie act of humbling or bringing low. 

abash, v. d-bush' (old F. esbahir, to set agape, to 
confound), to confuse with guilt; to make ashamed: 
abash'ing, imp. : abashed, pp. d-bdsht', confounded ; 
put to silence : abash'ment, n. confusion from shame. 
abate, v. d-baf (F. abattre, to beat down: It. abbat- 
ere, to overthrow), to lessen ; to lower in price ; to grow 
less ; to subside : aba'ting, imp. : abated, pp. : abat- 
able, a. d-ba'td-bl, that can be lessened or abated: 
abate'ment, n. a reduction; a lessening; the sum 
abated : aba'ter, n. the person or thing that abates. 

abatis, n. db'd-tls or db-d-te', also spelt ab'attis 
(F. abattre, to beat down), piles of trees or their larger 
branches, with sharpened points outward, laid down 
for the protection of troops. 

abattoir, u. ab-dt-wdi-' (F.), a public slaughter- 


abb, n. db (AS.), the yarn of a weaver's warp. 

abba, n. db'-bd (Chaldee), a father; a name given 
in the East to church digioitaries- hence baba, papa, 
pope : abbacy, n. db'bd-sl, the dignity or rights and 
privileges of an abbot: abbatial, a. d-bd'sM-dl ; also 
abbatical, d-bat'l-kdl, of an abbey: ablie, n. db'-bi, a 
father ; a title of courtesy or honour given to persons 
in many Catholic countries who have given themselves 
to the study of divinity: abbess, n. db'-bSs, aladyplaced 
over a nunnery. Among persons living secluded from 
the world in religious houses, the males are called 
monks, and the females 7iu7is. The residence of a 
monk is called a monastei-y, and that of a nun a nnn- 
nery. abbey, n. db'bi, plu. abbeys, db'-biz, a monas- 
tery ; a residence of persons secluded from the world, 
either male or female; abbot, n. db'biit, the superior 
or chief person over an abbey or monastery : abljot- 
ship, n. the office of an abbot. 

Abbeville flints, db'vel, rude flint implements, in 
the form of spear-heads, &c., found in great abund- 
ance in the post-tertiary sands and gravels of the river 
Somme, near Abbeville, in France. 

abbreviate, v. db-bre'vl-dt (L. ab: brevis, short), 
to shorten ; to reduce to a smaller size ; to abridge : 
abbreviating, imp. : abbre'via'ted, pp. : abbrevia- 
tion, n. db-bre'-vl-d'-shnn, the act of shortening ; a part 
of a word used for the whole : abbre'via'tor, n. one 
who: abbreviatory, a. -tor'-l, shortening: abbrevia- 
ture, n. ■vid-tur', an abbreviation. 

abdicate, v. db'di-kat (L. ab; dico, I proclaim or 
make known), to give up a right ; to renounce an office 
of power: ab'dica'ting, imp. : ab'dica'ted, pp. : abdi- 
cation, n. db-dl-kd'^hiin, the act of giving up ; a sur- 
rendering: abdicant, n. -kdnt, also ab'dica'tor, -kd- 
for, one who : abdicative, a. ab'-dl-kd'tlv, causing or 
imphnng abdication. 

abdomen, n. db-do'men (L., from nhrlo, I conceal), 
the lower part of the belly: abdominal, a. db-dOni'-l- 
ndl, belonging to the lower belly: abdominous, a. 
db-ddm'1-m'ts, having a large belly: abdominales, 
n. plu. ab-dom'l-nd'-lez, in zool., the soft-finned fishes 
which have their ventral fins placed on the abdomen, 
behind the pectorals. 

abduce, v. dbdus'; also abduct, v. dbduk-f (L. 
ab: duco, I lead), to lead or draw from ; to separate: 
abdu'cing, imp. : abduced, pp. db-diist' : abduc'- 
ting, imp.: abduc'ted, pp.: abduc'tor, n. one who ; in 
anat., a muscle that draws a limb or a part outwards : 
abduction, n. db-diik'shvn, in med., a drawing away 
from ; a carrjing away by fraud or open violence : ab- 
ducent, a. ab-du'-s6nt, separating; drawing back. 

abed, ad. d-hed' (AS.), on or in bed. 

abele, n. d-be'-U (Pol. biulo, white), the white poplar- 

mate, mat,fCir, laXv; mete, mSt, Mr; pine, pin; note, not, m6ve; coio, boy, foot; 
pure, bud: chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 



aberration, n. ab'er-ra'shiin (L. ah; erro, I wander), 
a wandering Irom the right way, as from truth ; moral 
perversity; mental weakness; an apparent motion of 
the fixed stars: aberrauit, a. ab-errant, ditferiiitr 
widely ; aber'ring, a. wandering: aberrance, n. dbei- 
rdns; also aberrancy, n. ab er'ran-nl, a wanderinf; 
from the right way. 

abet, V. ab6f (AS.: old F. abetter, to incite; aboutn, 
to set dogs on), to aid ; to incite ; to encourage, chiefly 
in a bad sense: abet'ting, imp.: abet'ted, pp.: abet'tor, 
n. one who abets or encourages, usually in a bad sense : 
abetment, u. 

abeyance, n. d-b(l'(Jns (F. abnyer, to gape at, to 
pant after), state of being held back for a time ; state 
of expectancy ; temporary suppression. 

abhor, v. abh6)-' (L. ab ; horreo, I shake or look ter- 
rible), to hate very much ; to despise ; to detest : ab- 
hor'ring, imp. : abhorred, pp. ah-h6rd': abhorrence, 
II. ab-hor'-rins, very great hatred: abhor rer, ii. tin: 
person who abhors : abhorrent, a. (Vi-hor'rrnt, liiiting; 
detesting; odious; repugnant to: abhor'rently, ad. 

Abib, n. a'Mb (Heb. ah, swelling, protuberant), the 
first month of the Jewish year; also called Nisan. 

abide, v. a-lld' (AS. abiclan: Goth, beidan, to ex- 
pect), to remain; to continue; to rest; to be firm: 
abi'ding, imp. : abode, d-bod', pp. : abider, n. &■ 
bl'der. one who: abi'dingly, ad. -ll. 

abietites, n. plu. a-bl'e-tl'tez, or -tits (L. abies, the 
fir-tree), a genus of fossil fir cones, whicli are often 
found in great perfection in the Wealden and lower 
green-sand: abietic, a. ab-l-et'lk, pert, to the fir-tree. 

ability, n. a-bU'-l-ti (L. habilitas, fitness or apti- 
tude—from habeo, I have: F. habiller, to dress), 
power to do. whether with the body or mind — opposed 
to capacity, power to receive ; aptitude ; skill ; legal 
right to do — in this sense the opposite is disability : 
abilities, plu. u-bVM-tlz, mental endowments. 

abject, a. ab'jekt (L. abjectus, do\NTicast— from ab; 
jactus, thrown or (;ast), cast down; worthless; mean; 
without hope: ab'jectly, arl. -li: abjection, n. ah- 
jik'shun; also abject'ness, n.; and abject 'edness, a 
mean or low state ; meanness of spirit. 

abjure, v. ab-jdr' (h. ab; juro, I swear), to deny or 
renounce upon oath ; to renounce with solemnity : 
abjured, pp. abjdrd': abju'ring," imp.: abjura- 
tion, n. ab'jiib-ra'ehfin, renouncing ni)on oath: ab- 
ju'ror, n. one wlio denies upon oath : abju'rator'y, a. 
-I, containing abjuration. 

ablactation, n. db'ldk-ta'shun (L. ab; Incto, I 
suckle), the weaning of a child from the breast; a 
method of, now called inarching. 

ablative, n. db'M-tlv (L. ab; latus, carried), name of 
a case in Latin nouns, in which the actions of carrying 
away or taking from are signified: ablation, db-ld- 
shiin, a taking away. 

able, a. d'bl (see under ability), having sufficient 
power to do; qualified; skilful; fitted for: ably, ad. 
a'bll: ableness, n. a'-bl-nis: a1)le-bodied, -id, hav- 
ing a sound strong body; able to work. 

ablution, n. db-ld'-shiiniX'- ab: luo, I wash), a wash- 
ing, cleansing, or purification l>y water: abluent, a. 
db'l6-6nt, cleansing by liquids: n. an attenuant or 

abnegate, v. db'-nS-gdt (L. ab; nego, I deny), to 
deny; to renounce: ab'nega'ting, imp. : ab'nega'ted, 
])p. : ab'negation, n. -shiin, a denial; self-denial: ab'- 
nega'tor, n. one who denies. 

abnormal, a. db-norhndl ; also abnor'mous, n. 
■vii'is (L. ab: norma, a rule), irregular; anji-hing out 
of the usual or natural couree ; without rule or order : 
abnormity, n. dft-ndr^mr-^J, irregularity; deformity. 

aboard, ad. d-bO)-d' (AS. a, on ; Icel. bord, the side 
of a ship), on or in a sliip or Ijoat. 

abode, n. rt-ftod' (see abide), a habitation; stay or 
continuance ; pp. of abide. 

abolish, v. dbdl'Uh (L. ahnJesco, I decay or wear 
away— from ab; alesco, I grow up: F. (ihnUr), to jnit 
an end to, to make void ; to annul ; to destroy: abol- 
ishing, imp.: abol'ished, pp. -Isht: abol'isher, n. 
the person that puts an end to: abolishable, n. 
(J •^'/^;^v/i f).?;?, that maybe put an end to (irdi'strcviMl : 
abolishment, n. db6l'Uh-7nint ; also abolition, n. 
db'riH'^hun. tlie act of putting an end to or desliny- 
ing; emancipation: ab olitl'onist, n. a person wlio 
favours fhi- i)utting an end to an>-thing, as slavery: 
abolitionism, n. db'-OllMi'-Hn-lzm, the tenets of the 
abomaaus, a. d-bOmd'zns (L. ab; omasum, tripe). 

the fourth stomach of ruminating animals ; the part 
of the paunch nearest the intestines. 

abominate, v. dbom'hndt (L. abominor, I wish 
away, I detest — from ab ; omen, a portent), to hate ex- 
cessively; to abhor; to detest: abom'ina'ting, imp. : 
abom'ina'ted, pji. : abominable, a. abom'-lnd-bl, 
very hateful ; detestable : abominably, ad. -ll : abom'- 
inableness, n. state of being very hateful : abomina- 
tion, n. d-bOm'-i-na'-slmn, an object of extreme haired 
or detestation ; evil doctrines or practices. 

aboriginal, a. db'-O-rij'-l-ndl (L. ab; origo, gen. ori- 
ginis, a beginning or origin), first ; primitive : n. an 
original inhabitant of a country: aborigines, n. db- 
0-rlj'l-nez, the first or primitive inhabitants of a 
country; the original stock, flora or fauna, of a geo- 
graphical area. 

abortion, n. d-bor'slmn (L. alortio, a miscarriage— 
from orior, I arise), anyttiing that does not come to 
maturity; an untimely birtli; failure; a coming to 
nought: abor'tive, a. -tic, not come to maturity: 
abortively, ad. -/{.• abor'tiveness, n. 

abound, v. a-bdivnd' (L. abundo, I overflow— from 
ab; unda, a wave), to have or possess in great quan- 
tity : abounding, imp. : abound'ed, pp. : abundance, 
n. d-bun'dans, great store; overflowing quantity: 
abun'dant, a. plentiful ; fully sufficient : abun'dantly, 
ad. -U. 

about, prep, d-bcnvf (AS. abutan — frdm ymb, 
around; utari, outward), encircling; near to; con- 
cerning: ad. nearly; here and there. 

above, ad. a-biiv' (AS. abiifan— from a, on, be, by; 
w/a, high: Dut. boven), overhead; in a higher i)Osi- 
tion: prep, higher in place, rank, power, or excel- 
lence; in excess: above-board, openly: above all, in 
preference to all other things : above cited or above 
mentioned, taken notice of in the preceding part of 
a bonk : above-ground, alive ; not buried. 

abracadabra, n. db'-rd-kd-ddb'-rd, an Assyrian 
deity; a word used in incantations, or as a charm. 

abrade, v. d-brud' (L. ab: rado, I scrape), to 
rub or scrape off; to waste by Iriction: abra'ding, 
imp.: abra'ded, pp.: abrasion, n. db-rd'zhnn, the 
operation of wearing away by rubbing or friction ; a 
suiioi-fii'ial injuiy from friction. 

Abrahamic, a. a'brd-hdm'lk, of Abraham or his age. 

abranchiata, n. plu. d-brdiuf-kid'td (Gr. a, with- 
out ; branchia, the gills of a fish), applied to animals 
which have no apparent external organs of respira- 
tion, as the leech, earthworm, &c.: abran'chiate, a. 

abreast, ad. d-bn'sf(Aii. a, and brea<it), side by side ; 
keeping equally forward. 

abreption, n. dbrip's7iun (L. ab ; raptum, to 
snatch), a carrjing away. 

abridge, v. d-brif (F. abreger: L. ab. brcvio, I 
shorten), to shorten by using fewer words; fonuvke 
an^'tliing shorter or less; to epitomise: abridg'ing, 
imp. : abridged, pp. d-bnjd': abridg'er, n. one who 
abridges or makes less: abridgment, n. d-brlj-mtnf, 
the thing made less in size or extent ; an epitome. 

abroad, ad. d-brawd' (AS. on. and broad), at large; 
in the open air; beyond the limits of a place, as a 
house; in a foreign country; widely. 

abrogate, v. db'rdgdt (L. ab; rogo, I ask), to do 
awavwith; to repeal ; to abolish; toniake void: ab'- 
roga'ting, imp. : ab'roga'ted, pp. : abrogation, n. 
' abrood, ad. d-br6d' (AS.), In brood. 

abrupt, a. db-riipi'{L. ab; 7-H;*rK,-, broken), broken; 
steep; unconnected; sudden: abruptly, ad. -ll: 
abruption, n. db-7'iip'.''hrt7i, a sudden and violent 
breaking off : abrupt 'ness, n. steepness ; suddenness; 
unceremonious haste or vehemence. 

abscess, n. db'si^fi (L. ab; cessus, gone: F. abscez), 
a gathering of humours into one mass in some i)art of 
tlie body. 

abscind, v. db-slnd' (L ab; scindo, I cut), to cut off; 
to sever: abscinding, imp.: abscind'ed, pp.: ab- 
sciss, n. db'sh!: or abscissa, n. (i?i-.s'i^-'6vi— plu. ab- 
sis'ses, or absissae, -sU'c—a, part, of the diameter, or 
a segment of a conic sei-tion : abscission, n. db-sizh' 
ii/K a cutting ofl". 

abscond, v. db-skond' (L. aba; condo, I hide), to run 
away ; to conceal one's self; to withdraw one's self in 
a private" nciimer: abscond'ing, imp.: abscond'ed, 
pp. : absconder, n. one who runs away for conceal- 

absent, v. db-aPnt' (L. abs; ena, con.fnti.o. being), to 
keep awav ; to withdraw or retire from : absent'ing, 
imp. : absent'ed, pi).: absent'er, n. one who takes him- 

vidte, mdi./dr, Idtv; mite, init, her; pine, pin; note, nut, mCve; 



solf away: absentee, n. db'sen-te', one who goes away 
from his country, his office, or his estate : ab'sentee'- 
ism, n. -Izm, the practice of residing or stopping away 
Irom one's office or estate: absence, n. db'sd-iw^, the 
being away, or at a distance; want; inattention to 
things present: ab'sent, a. not present; at a dis- 

absinthian, a. Cih-shi'-thl-dn (L. absinthium, woiTn- 
wood), of or like wonnwood ; absin'thiat'ed, a. -thl- 
at'ed, impregnated with wormwood: absinthe, n. 
ab'sinth {¥.), a well-known French liqueur; wine im- 
pregnated with the qualities of absinthium or worm- 
wood: absin'tMc, a. -thlk, pert, to absinthium, or to 
an acid obtained from it: absin'thin, n. the bitter 
principle found in absinthium. 

absolute, a. ab'so-ldt (L. ab; solutus, loosened or 
set free), without control ; independent of any per- 
son or thing; despotic: absolutely, ad. ab'-so-ldt'li: 
absolution, n. db'sd-lo-ahun, a sentence of acquittal ; 
a declaration of innocence: absolutism, n. ab'so- 
lot'lzm, state or principle of despotism: ab'solut'- 
ist, n. one who: absolutory, a. ab-sol'u-tor-l, that 

absolve, v. db-zdlv', (L. ab; solvo, I loose, I set 
free), to set free; to release from some burden or 
penalty; to acquit: absolv'ing, imp.: absolved, pp. 
ab-z6lvd': absolv'er, u. one who: absolvatory, a. 

absonant, a. ab'sO-ndnt (L. ab; somis, sound), dis- 
cordant ; deviating from the true sound, tone, or har- 
mony; absurd. 

absorb, v. absorb' (I,, ab ; sorbeo, I drink up or suck 
in), to drink in, as a sponge ; wholly to engage ; to en- 
gross: absor'bing, imp.: absorbed, pp. db-sorbd'; ab- 
sorTjent, n. that which sucks up or imbibes, or a vessel 
which imbibes or takes up: absorbable, a. cib-sdrb'd- 
U, what may be sucked up : absorptive, a. db-sdrp' 
tlv (L. absorptum, to suck up), having the power to 
suck up: absorption, n. ub-sorp'shiin, the act of 
tlrinking in or sucking up: absorbability, n. db- 
sOrb'-d-bil'l-tl, state or quality of l)Hing absorbable. 

abstain, v. db-stan' (L. abs; tewo. 1 hold), to keep 
or refrain from ; to forbear : abstain'ing, imp. : ab- 
stained, pp. db-stdnd': abstain'er, n. one who keeps 
from ; abstinence, n. db'-stln-6iis, the practice of keep- 
ing from, of one's own free will : ab'stinent, a. refrain- 
ing from, especially in the use of food or drink; tem- 
perate: ab'stinently, ad. -li. 

abstemious, a. ab-ste'-ml-us (L. abstemius, tem- 
perate or sober), sparing in the use of food or strong 
drinks ; temperate : abstem'ious'ly, ad. -ll : abstem'- 
ious'ness, n. being sparing in the use of food or strong 

abstergent, a. db-ster'jent (L. abstergeo, I wipe dry 
—from abs; tergeo, I rub off), having a cleansing pro- 
perty— thus fuller's earth is an abstergent: abster- 
sive, a. db-ster'slv, cleansing. 

abstract, a. db'strdkt (L. abs; tradus, drawn), dis- 
tinct or separate from something else ; existing in the 
mind only ; difficult; abstruse : n. a summary or epi- 
tome; an abridgment: v. db-strdkt', to separate; to 
draw from; to epitomise; to purloin: abstrac'ting, 
imp.: abstrac'ted, pp. separated; absent in mind: 
abstrac'tedly, ad. : abstractedness, n. state of being 
separated from a real e.vistence : abstrac'ter, n. one 
who; abstraction, n. db-strak'-shUn, the act of the 
mind when considering some part or property of a 
body by itself, as hardness; absence of mind; deep 
thought; purloining: ab'stractness, n. being in a 
separate state; not being connected with any object: 
abstrac'tive, a. -tlv, having the power to abstract: 
abstrac'tively, a. -tiv4l: abstractly, ad. db-strdkt-ll. 

abstringe, v. db-strinf (L. ab ; stringo, I bind or 
tie tight), to unbind: abstrin'ging, imp. : abstringed, 
pp. db-strinjd': abstricted, a. db-strik'-tSd, nnhonivl. 
abstruse, a. db-strds' (L. abstrusus, hidden), con- 
cealed ; difficult to be understood ; obscure : ab- 
strusely, ad. -ll: abstruseness, n. db-strOs'nes, dark- 
ness in meaning ; obscurity. 

absurd, a. db-serd' (L. ab ; surdiis, that will not 
hear), not fit to be heard ; what is plainly opposite to 
the truth; contemptibly foolish: absurdly, ad. -li: 
absur'dity, n. -dt-tl, what is absurd: absurd'ness, n. 
abundance, abundant, and abundantly, (see 

abuse, v. u-biiz' (F. abuser: L. ab; usus, used), to 
treat wrongly or ill; to misuse anything; to violate; 
to revile; to impose on: n. d-bUs', ill use of any- 
thing; rude reproach; misapplication: abuse 'fol, a. 

using abuse: abu'sing, imp.: abused', pp. a-buzd': 
abu'ser, n. one wiio: abusive, a. a-bii'-siv, carrying 
on bad language or ill treatment; reviling; contain- 
ing abuse: abu'aively, ad. -It: abu'siveness, n. 

abut, V. dbilt' (F. aboutir, to meet at the end ; butt, 
to strike with the head, as a goat), to border upon ; to 
touch : abut'ting, imp. : abut'ted, pp. : abutment, ii. 
a-biit'-m6nt, what supports the end of a bridge; that 
which borders upon. 

abyss, n. a-bW (Gr. abussos, without a bottom ; a, 
witlxout; bussos, a bottom), a very deep pliwe; that 
wlii<;h is bottomless ; a deep mass of waters. 

Abyssinian, a. ab'-l-sin'-l-an, of or pert, to Abys- 

ac, dk, a Latin prefix, a form of ad, meaning to ; 
the forms of ad, meaning to, are, a, ac, af, ag, at, an, 
ap, ar, as, at, and is so varied for the sake of euphony, 
according to the conmiencing letter of the part of the 
word of which it forms the prefix. 

acacia, n. d-kd'shi-d (L. a thorn), the Egyptian 
thorn; gum-arabic. 

academy, n. d-kdd'S-ml (L. and Gr. academia, name 
of an ancient school where Plato tauglit), a pxiblic or 
private school ; a society of learned men : academic, 
or academical, a. dk'd-deni'ik, or dk-d-dHm'-l-kdl, pert, 
to a college or university; ac'ademlcally, ad. -ll: 
academician, n. d-kdd'-e-mish'dn; also acade'mian, 
n. a member of a university or learned society ; also 
acad'emist, n. 

Acadia, n. d-kd'dld (F. Acadie), the original and 
now the poetic name of Nova Scotia. 

acalephae, n. plu. uk'd-le'/e (Gr. akalephe, a net- 
tle), a name applied to the soft gelatinous radiata 
known as medusae, sea-nettles, jelly-fish, &c. 

acanthodes, n. plu. d-kdn'thodez (Gr. akantha, a 
spine), a genera of fossil ganoid fishes having thom- 
like fin-spines— the type of the family acanthodidse, 
d kdn-th6d'l-d& : acanthaceous, a. d-kdn-thu'shus; 
also, acanaceous, a. d-kd-nd'slius, armed with prick- 
les: acanthus, n. d-kdn'-thiis, the herb bear's-breech ; 
in arch., an ornament resembling the foliage or leaves 
of the acanthus: acanthine, a. d-kdn'-thln, pert, to or 
like the acanthus : acanthopterygian, a. dk-dn-tfiop- 
ter-lj'i-dn (Gr. akantha, a spine ; pterugion, a winglet 
or fin), a term applied to fishes having the back or 
dorsal fin composed of spiny rays, as the perch, gur- 
nard, &c. 

acanthoteuthis, n. d-kdn'thj-tn'-thls (Gr. akantha, 
a thorn ; teitthis, a cuttle-fish), a genus of fossil cuttle- 

acaridae, n. plu. d-kdr'l-de; or acarea, d-kd'-rld 
(L. acarus: Gr. akari, a mite), a term applied to such 
insects as the mite, the tick, the water-mite, &c. 

acatalectic, a. d-kdt'd-lSk'tlk (Gr. ukatalektos, not 
defective at the end), not halting short; without de- 
fect: n. in poetry, a verse having the complete num- 
ber of syllables. 

acaulous, a. d-kaw'hXs; also acauline, d-knw'lln 
(Gr. a, without; ka^dos, a stalk), in hot., applied to a 
plant without a stalk ; stemless. 

accede, v. dk-sed' (L. ad; cedo, I yield), to agree 
to the proposal or request of another; to comply ; ac- 
ce'ding, imp. : acce'ded, pp. 

accelerate, v. dk-sel'er-at (L. ad : celero, I hasten ; or 
celcr, swift), to quicken ; to hasten ; to cause to move 
faster: accel'era'ting, imp.: accel'era'ted, pp.: ac- 
celeration, n. ((A-Aei^trtt^s/nTw, the act of increasing 
speed or motion: accelerative, a. dk-sSl'-ira'tlv ; 
also, acceleratory, a. dk-sel'er-d-tOr'l, quickening; 

accendible, a. dk-sSn'-dl-bl (L. accendo, I set fire 
to), capable of being inflamed or kindled : accendi- 
bility, n. dk'sen-di-bU'i-ti. 

accent, n. dk'sent (L. ad; canto, I sing with energy), 
the stress or force of voice put upon a syllable or word ; 
the mark indicating the same ; manner of speaking : 
accent, v. dk-s&nf; or accentuate, v. dk-sen'til-dt, 
to pronounce a word or sylk(l>le with a particular 
stress or force of voice: accenting, imp. : accent'ed, 
pp.: accen'tuat'ing, imp. : accen'tuat'ed, pp. : accen- 
tuation, n. dk-sin'-tu-d'shxin, the placing accents 
on syllables ; the act of pronouncing words and syl- 
lables properly: accen'tor, n. in music, one who leads : 
accentual, a. &ksen'tu-dl, relating to accent. 

accept, V. dk-s6pt' (L. acceptum, to receive — from 
ad: captus, taken), to take what is offered; to agree 
or consent to ; to acknowledge or promise to pay : ac- 
cept'ing, imp. : accept'ed, pp. : accepter or accept'- 
or, n., one who accepts: accept 'able, a. dksipi'dbl. 

coiv, b<jy,S(j(jt; pare, bud; chair, game, jog, sJiun, thing, thire, zeal. 


pliMsins or gratifying to a receiver; asrreeable in 
person or by sci-vices ; welcome : acceptably, ad. dk- 
srpt'-a-bU: accep'tableness, n. : acceptability, n. 
-bil'l-tl: acceptance, n. dk-se2)t'(lns, tlu-^ receiving? 
■with approval; a written promise to pay money: 
accept'or, n. the person who iLcives a written promise 
to pay money: acceptation, n. uk's6p-td':shun,rfiix\>- 
tion, the meaning or sense in which a word or expres- 
sion is generally undei'stood. 

accea's, n. ak-sis' or dk'ges (L. access^is, a coming 
to), admission to ; approach, or means of approacli : 
accessible, a. ak-ses'Sl-bl, easy of approach; affable: 
accessibly, ad. -l-bU: acces'sibil'ity, n. -bU'l4l: ac- 
cession, n. ak-scsh'ihi (L. ad; ce.ssio, a yielding or 
giving up), an increase; an addition; an arriving at; 
tliat which is adtied : accessional, a. dk-sdsh'iln-cll, 
additional : accessorial, a. itk'-sCs-so'rl-al, relating to 
an accessary: accessary, a. ak'ses-sar'l; also spelt 
-sory, -sor'-l, aiding in doing something, or privy to 
it: additional: n. anything additional; one who aids 
or gives countenance to a crime: ac'cessar'ily, ad. 
-l-li: ac'cessar'iness, ii 

acclaccatura, n. ak'-shS-ak'-a-td'-nl (It. acciaccata), 
in »Hi«iC, a grace-note. 

accident, n. dk'-sl-dint (L. accidens, gen. accidentis, 
slipping, happening to), something talcing place im- 
expectedly ; an event not foreseen ; a quality not es- 
sential: accidental, a. dk'-sl-dent'-al, liappenin^ by 
chance ; casual : n. anything non-essential : ac'cident- 
ally, ad. -U: ac'cidentalness, n. : accidence, n. ak'- 
sl-dens, a book containing the definitions and rules of 
grammar as they fall from or succeed each other. 

acipenseridae, n. plu. as-lp-en-sir'4-de (L. acij^en- 
ser, the sturgeon), the sturgeon family— a limited group 
of ganoid fishes ; the existing species are chielly of 
large size. 

accipitres, n. plu. dk-slp'-l-trez (L. accipiter, a 
hawli— from accipio, I seize), in orm^/i., a term applied 
to tlie rapacious birds, as eagles, falcons, hawlcs, &c.: 
accipitrine, a. dk-slp'-l-trin, hawk-like ; rapacious. 

acclaim, V. dk-klam' (L. ad; clamo, I cry out), to 
apiilaud: n. a sliout of joy: acclaiming, imp.: ac- 
claimed, pp. -kiamd': acclamation, n. dk'kld-md- 
shun, applause expressed by the voice, or by a noise 
■with tlie hands or feet: acclamatory, a. dk-kldm'a- 
tor'-l, expressing joy or applause. 

acclimate, v. dk-kll'mat ; also acclimatise, v. 
akkll'md-flzf (L. cui; and climate, which see: F. 
accliviater), to accustom the body to live in a foreign 
country in a state of health; to inure a plant or 
animal to a climate not natural to it: accli'mating, 
imp.: acclimated, pp. dk-kll'nid-ted : acclimation, 
n. uk'kll-miVshiiii: acclimature, n. dk-kli'nuhtitr': 
acclimatising, imp. dk-kll'-vid-tu'-lnii •■ acclima- 
tised, pp. dk-kll'nuUlzd' : acclimatisation, n. dk. 

acclivity, n. dk-klU'l-ti (L. aa ; clivus, a slope), a 
slope; rising ground; the face of a hill in going up: 
declivity, the face of a hill in coming down : acclivous, 
a. dk-kh'-vus, rising as a hill. 

accolade, n. dk'-6-ldd' (L. ad; collum, the neck), a 
word formerly used to designate the ceremony of con- 
ferring knightliood by a gentle blow of a sword on the 
neck or shoulder. 

accommodate, v. dkkdm'md-dilt (L. ad; co??, to- 
gether; modus, amea.sun', a limit), tn make suitable 
for; to adapt to; to supply ; to hrlp; to hud : accom'- 
moda'ting, imp.: accommodated, pp.: accommoda- 
tion, n. dk-kOm'mO-da'slii'i.n, snitaMe convenience; 
what is furnished to supjily a want: accom'moda- 
tlve, a. -dd'-tlv. furnishiii'^ aci-omiiindation; obliging: 
accom'modate'ness, n.: accom'moda'tor, n. one wlio. 
accompany, v. dk-kwa'-pd-ni (F. uccompagner— 
from cumpaijnie, company), to attend or escort ; to go 
with as a companion ; to be an associate : accom'pany- 
ing, imp.: accompanied, pp. rt/v/inHi:;;a;(((^- accom- 
vnxder, n. dk-kiim'2>&-')it-''r: accompaniment, n. ak- 
kiiin'pdnlmSnt, somtithing tluit nr is added 
by way of ornament or improvenicnt: accompanist, 
n. dk-kiim'-pd7i-lst, in music, tlic person who accom- 

accomplice, n. ak-k6m'-plls (L. ad; con; plirn, I 
fold: F. complire), a cojnpanion in doing something 
•wrong; a cnnfederate, usually in an ill sense. 
accomplish, v. dk-k6i/i';,ll<>i (I,, ad.- nnnplcn, I fill 

completely), to eniiil'l'te; tuliiiisll entirely; to bring 

to pass: accomplishing, iiM]>.: accomplished, pp. 

-plUht: adj. rich in aequired (jualities and manners; 

elegant; refiued: nccompUshment, n. the finishing 

mdte, miXt,/Cir, law; mite, vi6l, 


entirely; attainment; fulfilment; completion; polite 
manners or education; accom'plisher, n. one ■who: 
accomplishable, a,, ak-kom'plish-d-bl: accomplish- 
ments, n. plu. polite acquirements. 
accompt', old spellinij of account, which see. 
accord, v. dk-kawrd'^ (h. ad; cor, gen. cordis, the 
heart), to make to agree or correspond; to grant or 
give ; to be suitable : n. agreement; consent; harmony : 
accord'ing, imp. : adj. agreeing; granting; suitable: 
according to, prep, phrase: accorded, pp.: accord'er, 
n. one wiio : accordance, n. dk-kOrd-ans, agreement 
with a pers(ju: accord'ant, a. agreealile to; eorres- 
pondingto: accordantly, ad. -U; accordingly, ad. -rt.- 
accordion, n. dk-kOr'di-on, a keyed wind instrument. 
accost, V. dk-kosf (F. accoster, to join side to side, 
to come up to), to speak first to ; to address or saints : 
accosting, imp.: accost'ed, pp.: accostable, a. dk- 
kOst'd-bl, easy of access. 

accoucheur, n. dk'kOb-sMr' {F. — from L. ad: F. 
couche, a bed), a surgeon who attends women in child- 
birth : accouchement, n. ak-koosh'-mong, lying in 
child-birth : accoucheuse, n. dk'-kdb-sliez', a midwife, 
account, n. dk-kownt' (h. ud; con, together; ijafo, 
I think— this word used to be written accompit), a sum 
stated on a slate or paper ; a narrative or statement ; 
regard ; explanation a statement of prices, expenses, 
&c.: V. to judge; to esteem; to value; to give rea- 
sons; to explain; to be liable: account'ing, imp.: 
account'ed, pp.: accountable, a. dA:A.-ij7('«^rt-W, liable 
to answer for one's conduct: account'abil'ity, n. -rt- 
bll'l-tl, being liable to answer for one's conduct : ac- 
count'ably, ad. -bll: account'ableness, n.: account- 
ant, n. one skilled in accounts ; a clerk : account'ant- 
ship, n. the office of an accomitaut: accountancy, u. 

accoutre, v. dk-kd'-ter {F. accoutrer, to dress or 
equip), to dress or equip for military sei-vice: accou- 
tring, imp. ak-kO'trXng : accoutred, pp. dk-kO'-tird: 
accoutrements, n. plu. ak-k6't&r-ments, militaiy 
dress or equipments. 

accredit, v. dk-krSd'lf (L. ad; credo, I believe or 
trust in), to give trust to ; to procure honour or credit 
for: accrediting, imp.: accredited, pp. dkkred'-ltid: 
adj. authorised to appear as one possessing the confi- 
dence of another, or as a public character. 

accretion, n. dk-kre'shun {L. ad; crcsco, I grow, or 
cretuin, to grow), increase by external addition of new- 
matter: accretive, a. dk-kre'tlv, giowngby external 
additions : accrescence, n. dk-kres'-ens. 

accrue, v. dk-krff (L. ad; cresco, I grow), to arise 
from ; to proceed ; to come to ; to be added as increase 
or profit: accru'ing, imp.: accrued, pp. ak-krOd': 
accru'ment, n. 

accumbent, a. dk-kiivi'bSnf {L. accvmbo, I lay my- 
self dowTi upon— from ad; cubo, I lie dov,-n), leaning 
upon ; reclining at meals : accumlsency, n. -si. 

accumulate, v. dk-ku'-muddt (L. ad.; nnnulus, 
a heap), to heap or pile up ; to collect or gather to- 
gether; to increase greatly: adj. heaped; collected: 
accu'mula'ting, imp.: accu'mula'ted, pp.: accu'mula'- 
tion, n. •la'-shun, the act of heaping up or collecting 
together; the things accumulated: accu'mula'tive, 
a. taken as a whole or in the mass : accu'mulatively, 
ad. -Id'tlvdl: accu'mula'tor, n. one whogathci-s or 

accuracy, n. ak'k-n-ra-sX (L. ad; rura, care), cor- 
rectness; exai'tness: accuxateness, n. (J/,;:/;(i-rt2.''7!^>«. 
freedom froni error or mistake : accurate, a. ak'kii- 
rat, very exact ; free ftom error or mistake : ac'cnra- 
te'ly, ad. -II. 

accurse, v. dk-k^rs' (L. ad: AS. rorsian, to execrate 
by the sign of the cross), to devote to destruction ; to 
call down evil or misery upon : accursed, pp. rtfc- 
kt-rsf : adj. dk-ker's6d, doomed ; wicked ; execrable. 

accuse, v. dk-kiizf (L. aa-uso. I bhune— from ad; 
rniisd, a cause), to charge with a crime or fault; to 
blame: accu'sing, imp. : accused, i>p. akkuzd': ac- 
cusation, n. ak-kihtasliini. bein- declared guilty of 
aeriiiie or fault; the cliaru'e brouu'ht a-ainst any one: 
accu'ser, n. one who blames or ehar;,'es some one 
witli a fault or crime: accusable, a. dhl. charge- 
abb^ with a crime : accusatory, a. d!.-ki'/'zd-tur-t, 
tliat blames; tending to ae.use : accusative, a. dk- 
ki'i'za-liv. the name for the i-ase in Latin which is 
called in Knglish the objective; censuring: accu'- 
sative'ly. ad. -tii'll. 

accustom, v. dkkiis'tilm (L. ad: F. coutuvie, cus- 
tom, habit), to make familiar with by habit or use; 
to inure to: accustoming, imp.; accna'tomed, pp. 

fur; pine, pin; nOtc, nUt, mOve; 


'tiimd: adj. frequent ; usual: accus'tomar'y, a. -dr'l, 
usual ; customary : accuB'tomar'ily, ad. -l-H. 

ace, n. as{L. as, a unit or pound: F. as: It. asso, 
a single point of cards or dice), a unit ; a trifle ; a mark 
on a card. 

aceous, a'shus (L.), a postfix signifjing resemblance 
to, or partaking of the qualities of a substance — as car- 
bonaceoMs, partaking oi the qualities or appearance of 

aceldama, n. a-sel'-dd-ina or -kcl- (Ch. akel, a field; 
dama, blood), a field of blood. 

acephala, n. d-sc/'d-hl (Gr. a. without; kephale, 
the head), applied to those molluscs that have no dis- 
tinct head— as the oyster, the scallop, &c. : aceph- 
alous, a. a-sef'-d-lu3, headless. 

acerb, a. il-serb' (L. acerbics, unripe, sour), sour ; 
bitter: acerbity, n. d-serb'l-il; also acerbitude, n. 
a-serb-l-tud, sourness with bitterness; sharpness of 
temper and manners. 

aceric, a. d-ser'-lk (L. acer, a maple-tree), of the 

maple-tree— as aceric acid, an acid found in its juice. 

acerose, a. ds'er-oz; also acerous, as'-cr-us (L. acus, 

■ a needle, or chaff; acer, sharp), in bot., linear and 

sharp-pointed, applied to the leaves of the fir tribe ; 


acerval, a. d-ser'vdl (L. acervus, a heap), In heaps : 
AceTnr&te,v.d-ser'-vdt, to heap up: acer'vating, imp.; 
acervation, n. ds'-er-vd'shun, act of heaping up. 

acescent, a. d-ses'ent (L. acesco, I become sour), 
slightly sour; tending to acidity: acescence, n. 
a-ses'-ens ; or acescency, d-ses'ensi. 

acetabulifera, n. ds'e-tdb'u-lif-er-d (L. acetabu- 
lum, a sucker, a vinegar-cruet ; fero, I bear or carrj'), 
those cuttle-fishes whose arms or tentacles are fur- 
nished with rows of little cups or suckers : ac'etab'- 
lUum, n. -n-lum, in zool., applied to such organs as 
the cuplike sucking-discs on the arms of the cuttle- 
fish; in anut., the socket of the hip-joint: plu. ac- 

acetarious, a. &s'-e-td'rl-us (L. acetuin, vinegar), 
applied to plants used as salads: acetar'y, n. ds'-6- 
tdr'l, the acid pulp of certain fruits : acetate, n. ds- 
v-tat; also acetite, n. ds'-e-tlt, a salt of acetic acid: 
ac'eta'ted, a. combined with vinegar : acetic, a. 
d-sSt'lk, of vinegar; soui-: acet'ic acid, the pure acid 
of vinegar. 

acetify, v. ds&t'l-fi (L. acetwn; facio, I make), to 
convert or change into acetic acid or vinegar : acet'- 
ify'ing, imp.: acet'ified, pp. -fid: acet'ifi'er, -Ji'-tr, 
that which : acetiflcation, n. d-s6t'l-fl-kd'shun : ac- 
etone, n. ds'e-ton, pjTo-acetic spirit: acetose, as'-e- 
toz; also acetous, a. d-se'tils, sour; sharp: acetos- 
ity, n. ds'e-tos'Ul. 

ache, n. uk (Gr. acTios, grief, pain either in body or 
mind : Ger. ach, alas, applied to grief), a continued 
pain in a moderate degree ; also ach'ing, n. : v. to be 
in continued bodily pain; to suffer grief: ach'ing, 
imp. : ached, pp. dkd. 

achieve, v. d-chev' (F. achever, to perfect, to 
complete— from d, to, chef, head: L. ad; caput, the 
head), to finish or complete successfully ; to carry on 
progiessively to an end : achieving, imn. : achieved, 
pp. d-chevd' .- achieve ment, n. an escutcheon ; some- 
thing done by continued e.xertion : achiever, n. one 
who : achiev'able, a. d-chev'd-bl : achiev'ance, n 
■dns, performance. 

achmite, n. dk'mlt (Gr. akme, a sharp point or 
edge), one of the hornblende family, found in long 
greenish-black crystals, terminating in sharp points. 

achroite, n. dk'-ro-lt (Gr. a, without; chroa, col- 
our), applied to the coloui-less varieties of tourma- 

achor, n. a'kor (Gr. achor, a soreness of the head), a 
species of scald-head with soft and scaly eruptions. 

achromatic, a. dk'ro-mat'lk (Gr. a, wthout; chro- 
ma, colour), free from colour ; object-glasses not pro- 
ducing colours, when rays of light pass through them, 
jvre termed achromatic lenses: achromatism, n. rt- 
krom'd-tizm; also achrom'atic'ity, n. -tis'-l-tl, state of 
being achromatic. 

acicular, a. d-slk'-il-ldr (L. aciis, a needle ; acicula, 
a little needle), fonned like a needle, applied to min- 
eral crystals which occur in slender needle-like prisms 
fr prickles: acic'ularly, ad. -Idr'-ll : aciculite, n. 
Cislk'-u-Ut, needle-ore ; an ore of bismuth found Im- 
bedded in quartz in long, thin, steel-grey crj'stals: 
aciform, a. ds'-l-fawrm (L. acits; forma, shape), needle- 

acid, n. ds'ld (L. acidus, sharp to the taste— from 


acus, a needle), something which causes sourness to 
the taste : adj. sour ; sharji ; biting to the taste : acid- 
ity, n. d-sid'l-tl; also acidness, n. ds'-ld-nes, the 
quality of being sour: acidiferous, a. ds'ld-lf'er-us 
{L. acidus, sour ; fero, I bear), containing acid : acid- 
ify, V. d-sld'-l-fi (L. acidus ; facio, I make), to make 
a body sour ; to change into an acid : acidifying 
imp. : acidified, pp. -fid -. acidification, n. d-sld-l- 
fl-kd'shun, the act or process of chano-in" into an 
acid : acidifi'er, n. d-sld'l-fl'er, that which changes 
into an acid: acidifiable, a. d-sld'if-i'-d-bl,tha.t may 
be converted into an acid : acidimeter, n. ds'-ldlm- 
e-ter (L. acidus: Gr. mefron, a measure), an instru- 
ment used in testing the strength of acids. 

acidulate, v. d-sld'u-ldt (L. acidulus, a little sour), 
to make slightly sour; to make moderately acid- 
acid ula'ting, imp. : acid'ula'ted, pp. : acid'uiotis, a 
slightly sour: acidulae, n. plu. a-sld'u-le, mineral 
springs rich in carbonic acid. 

acidaspis, n. ds'ldds'pls {Gr. akis, a, spear-point; 
asjiis, a buckler), certain fossil crustaceans, so called 
from the central lobe of the head-plate projecting over 
the body in the form of a pointed stomacher. 

acinaceous, a. ds'l-nd'shils (L. aciims, a stone or 
seed in a berry), full of kernels : acenose, a. ds'e-nOz, 
applied to mineral textures and surfaces which have 
a granulated appearance like the raspberry. 

acinaciform, a. ds'in-ds'-l-fawrm (L. acinaces, a 
straight sword or sabre), in bot., shaped like a Turkish 
sword or scimitar. 

acknowledge, v. dk-nol'Sj (L. ad, to; and know- 
ledge), to own ; to confess ; to admit to be true ; to 
assent to : acknowledging, imp. : acknowledged, 
pp. dk-noVcJd : acknowledgment, n. dk-nol'-ej-ment, 
tlie owning to be true ; confession ; the expression 
of thanks for a benefit received ; a receipt : acknowl'- 
edger, n. one who. 

acme, n. dk'-we (Gr. akme, the point), the highest 
point ; the top ; matuiity or perfection ; the height or 
crisis of a disease. 

acne, n. dk'-ne (Gr. contr. from ak-mai, pimples on 
the face), a small hard pimple, cliiefly affecting the 

acolyte, n. dk'o-lU (Gr. akoloutheo, I follow as a 
servant), in the Bom. Cath. Ch., one whose duty it is 
to prepare the elements for the offices, to light the 
church, (fee, and to attend on the officiating priest. 

aconite, n. dk'O-nlt (L. aconitum: Gr. akoniton), 
the herb wolf's-bane, or monk's-hood; a deadly poison 
extracted from it: aconitine, n. d-kon'l-tln, the alka- 
loid of aconite. 

acorn, n. d'kaYcrn (AS. cecern: Icel. akam: Dut. 
aker), the fruit of the oak-tree, formerly used as 
human food. 

acorus, n. dk'OrHs (L., from Gr. akoron), the sweet 
flag, or sweet rush. 

acotyledon, n. d'kd-fUe'-dd7i {Gr. a, without; kotit- 
ledon, a seed-lobe), in bot., a plant whose embrj'os or 
germs have no seed-lobes: acotyledonons, a. u'ko- 
iU-e'do-nils, having no seed-lobes. 

acoustics, n. plu. d-ko^w'stiks (Gr. akoustos, that 
may be heard), the science that treats of the cause, 
nature, and phenomena of sounds ; remedies for deaf- 
ness: acou'stic, a. -stlk; also acou'stical, a. -sti-kdl, 
relating to hearing or sound. 

acquaint, v. dk-kicdnf (old F. accointer, to make 
known), to inform ; to give notice of; to make familiar 
with: acquaint'ing, imp.: acquainted, pp. : acquain- 
tance, n. dk-kivdnt'dns, acquaint'anceship, n. state 
of being acquainted ; knowledge of, either intimate or 
but a little. 

acquiesce, v. dk-kivt-gs' {L. ad; qiiiesco, I am quiet), 
to agree in; to rest satisfied with ; to a,ssent quietly: 
acquies'cing, imp. : acquiesced, pp. dk-kwi-gst' : 
ac'quies'cence, n. -cs'ens, agreement in ; satisfaction 
with; also ac'quies'cency, u. -en-sL- ac'quies'cent, a. 
-ent, easy; submitting. 

a.cquiie,v. dk-krvlr' {L. ad; quccro, I seek), to gain 
possession of something as one's own, as money or 
knowledge; to earn or attain: acqui'rlng, imp.: ac- 
quired, pp. dkkvnrd': adj. gained; not natural: ac- 
quire'ment, n. something gained by study— as gram- 
mar, arithmetic, &c.: acqui'rable, a. -d-bl. 

acquisition, n. dk'kirl-zish'iin (L. ad; quccsitits. 
souglit), something gained, as property; attainment in 
knowledge; a good name: acquisitive, a. dk-kivlz'i- 
tlv. desiring possession: acquisitively, ad. -tiv'H' 
acquisitiveness, n. dk-kwls-l-tiv-nes, in phrtn., the 
desire of the mind to gain or possess. 

cow, boy, foot; pare, biid; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 


acquit, v. ak-kwlf (F. acquitter, to set free, to clear 
—from L. ad: quietum, to keep quiet), to clear Iroia 
blame or guilt; to discharge: acquit'ting, imp.: ac- 
quitted, pp. : acqult'tal, n. a setting free ; the being 
fiiiind not guilty: acqult'tance, n. -tans, a release 
from a debt ; the writing or receipt to show this. 

acre, n. d'ki-r (AS. acer: Ger. acker, a field of culti- 
vated land), a portion of land containing 4810 square 
yards: acreage, n. d'kcr-aj, the number of acres in 
a piece of land : acred, a. d'-kerd, possessing acres or 

acrid, a. dk'rld (L. acer, gen. acris, sharp), hot and 
hitter; of asharp or l)iting taste; pungent; corrosive: 
ac'rldness, u., or acridity, n. akrhV-i-ti, sharpness; 
bitterness: acrimonious, a. ak'-ii-mo-ni-ds (L. ncri- 
inonia, sourness), sliarp; srvcrc; sarcastic — apjilit'd 
to manner of speaking': acrimoniousness, n. : ac'ri- 
mo'nlously, ad. -a ; acrimony, n. dk-ri-mOn-l, sliarp- 
ness or bitterness in speaking: acritude, n. dk'-rl- 
tud, bitterness. 

acrita, n. dk'rX-td (Gr. akritos, indistinct), a divi- 
sion of the animal kingdom, comprising the lowest 
classes of radiata, characterised by an indistinct or 
molecular condition of the nervous system. 

acroamatic, a. dk'rodmdt'lk; also ac'roamat'ical, 
a. -l-kdl (Gr. akroania, a hearing), pert, to the more 
obscure or deeper parts of learning ; abstruse. 

acrobat, n. dk'ro-bdt {Gr. akros, liigh; baino, I go). 
a rope-dancer ; a vaulter ; a tumbler. 

acrocepbalic, a. dk-rd-sH-fdl'-lk (Gr. akros, high; 
kcphale, the head), high-headed, or pyramidal-headed 
— applied to the high-skulled tribes of the human 

acrodont, n. dk'ro-dont (Gr. akros, high; odous, 
gen. odontos, a tooth), a term applied to certain fossil 
saurians from the manner in which their teeth were 
li.>ced: acrodus, ii. ak'-ro-dus, certain fossil, 
characterised by their enamel being covered with fine 
grooves, known by the name of fossil leeclies. 

acrogen, n. dk'rO-jen (Gr. akros, high; gennao, I 
proiluie), in bot., applied to plants which increase by 
growth at the summit or growing point : acrogenous, 
a. o-kr6j'-6-nds, increasing by growth at the summit 
or growing points— as the tree ferns. 

acrognathus, n. dk'rdg-na'thus (Gr. akros, high, 
pointed ; gnathos, the jaw-bone), a genus of fossil fishes 
from the lower chalk, characterised by their deep jaws. 

acronyc, a. d-kron'ik; also acron'ycal, -l-kal (Gr. 
akros, Iiigh, extreme; nux, gen. nuktos, night), in «s- 
tron., a term applied to the stars when they either 
aiipear above or sink below the horizon at the time 
oi sunset: acron'ycal'ly, ad. -11. 

acropolis, u. d-krop'O-lls (Gr. akros, high; polis, a 
city), the highest part or citadel of a city. 

acrosaurus, n. dk'-ro-saw'-rus (Gr. akros, high; 
sauros, a lizard), an extraordinary fossil reptile found 
ill South Africa. 

acrospire, n. ak'rO-sjnr (Gr. akros ; speira, a spiral 
line), the shoot or sprout at the end of a germinating 
seed: ac'rospired, a. -spird. 

across, prep., ad. d-krOs' (AS. a, at, on : Icel. kross, a 
cross), from side to side ; laid over something so as to 
cross it. 

acrostic, n. d-krds'-tlk (Gr. akros, high, extreme; 
stichos, a row or line), a short poem of which the first 
letters of the lines or verses form a word — generally 
a proper name: adj. pert, to: acros'tically, ad. -^r.. 

act, n. dkt (L. actus, done), a deed; a doing; power 
exerted ; an exploit ; a decree or law : v. to do ; to exert 
power; to perform: acting, imp.: act'ed, pp.: action, 
11. (Ifc^A'/iMn, thestateofartin^orinnviii^:; loiviM-xi-rtcd 
by one body on another; a<|ir(l; aliattli-: actionable, 
a. dk'-shun-d-bl, something in word or deed tliat may 
be carried to a court of law: ac'tionab'ly, ad. -II: ac- 
tlonary, n. dk'shnn-dr'l : ac'tionlst, n. one who: ac 
tive, a. rtfc!<fv, nimble; lively; not dull: ac'tively, ad. 
■II: activity, u. dkllv'ltl, nimbloncss; the habit of 
diligence : actor, n. ilk'-lcr, he that acts or perfonns— 
fern, ac'tress: actual, a. dk'-lu-dl. real; what truly 
exists: actually, ad. -II: actuality, n. dk'tndl'Ui, 
reality: actuary, ii. dk'ta-ar'l, a notarj'; the man- 
aging director of an insuiaiiiie f>ttice : actuallse, v. 
ak'til-d-Hz'. to rcilisi!; to make aitual : actualis'ing, 
imp. : actualised, pp. ak'tiializd': actuate, v. (</.: 
tudf, tit move; to iiicitt! to action: ac'tuating, imp.: 
actuated, pp. : actuation, n. dk'tihdsliiln. 

acteogaurus, n. ak'tti-O-sarv'-rHs (Gr. acte, the sea- 
shor.;; .v'(i/;-o,s. a lizard), a fossil lizard-like animal of 
tUtt chalk period having very small extremities. 


actinia, n. dc-tln'l-a (Gr. akfin, a ray), the sea-ane- 
mone, so called from the ray-like arrangement of its 
tentaides, which surround the mouth like the petals of 
a flower: plu. actiniae, dk-lln'l-e. 

actinocrinus, n. ak'tln-dk'rl-nus ; also actinocri- 
nite, dk'-tin-Ok'-rl-nlt (Gr. aktin; krinon, a lily), a ge- 
nus of encrinites characterised by the thorn-like side- 
arms which project from the main colurmi. 

actinolite, n. dk-tlu'Ollt (Gr. aktin, a ray; lithos, 
a stone) ; also actinote, u. dk'tin-Ot, a mineral com- 
posed of radiating or thorn-like crj-stals of a dark or 
greenish hue. 

actinometer, n. dk'tln-djn'S-fer (Gr. aktin; vietron, 
a measure), an instrument for measuring at any in- 
stant the direct heating power of the solar rays. 

aculeate, a. d-ku'le-dt (L. acus, a needle), in bot.. 
sharp-pointed; thorny; prickly: in zool., having a 
sting or prickles. 

acumen, n. d-ku'min (L. acuo, I sharpen), sharji- 
ness; quickness; penetration; sagacity: acuminated, 
a. a-ku'nil-nd'-t6d, sharpened to a point: also acu- 
minate and acu'minous, a. -niis: acumination, n. 

acupresstire, n. d-ku-presh'i'ir (L. aciis, a needle; 
pressum, to press), in svrg.,the employment of needles 
instead of ligatures for tying arteries, &c. 

acupuncture, n. d-kU-imngk'-tiir (L. acus, a nee- 

die; punctus, a pricking), in surg., the prtcking 
diseased part with a needle : acupunc'tura'tion, n. 

acute, a. d-kUf (L. acutus, sharp - pointed), sliarp; 
penetrating ; opposed to dull or stupid : acutely, ad. 
-H: acute'ness, n. 

ad, dd (L.), Latin prefix meaning to; it assumes, for 
the sake of euphony, the various forms of a, ac, of, ag, 
al, an, ap, ar, as, at, according to the commencing 
letter of the primitive or root. 

adactyl, n. d-ddk'til (Gr. a, without; daktulns, a 
finger), in zool., a foot or locomotive extremity without 

adage, n. dd'dj (L. adagium, a proverb), a pro- 
verb ; an old saying. 

adagio, n. d-dd'-ji-6 (It.), slow time: ad. slowly. 

Adam, n. dd'-dm, the first man: Adamic,a. d-ddm' 
Ik, pert, to : Ad'am's apple, n., the prominent part of 
the throat: Adamites, n. plu. nd'-d-mlts, an ancient 
religious sect: Adamitic, a. ad'amlt'lk, pert, to the 
time of Adam: pre-Adamite, a. pre-dd'-d-mlt, before 
the time of Adam. 

adamant, n. dd'd-mdnt (L. adamas, a hard stone— 
from a, not ; damao, I subdue), what cannot be broken, 
tamed, or subdued ; a stone or metal of impenetrable 
hardness: adamantine, a. Od'd-mdn'tin, hard-heart- 
ed; not to be broken or subdued: also ad'aman'tean, 
a. -te-dn. 

adapis, n. dd'dpls (Gr. a, without; dapis, a can^et). 
a fossil animal somewhat resembling a hedgehog, but 
three times its size. 

adapt, V. d-dd2)f {L. ad; apto, I fit), to fit; to make 
to suit: adapt'ing, imp. : adapted, pp. : adaptable, 
a. d-ddpt'd-bl, that may be suited: adaptability, n. 

(?-dfii><:tl-&E/:i-«, the being fitted or suited for: adap- 
tation, n. ad'-dp-td'shun. the act of making suitable ; 
fitness: adapt'edness, n. 

add, V. dd (L. ud: do, I give), to put together; to 
join; to unite: adding, iini>.: a.died, p]i. dd'-did : ad- 
dible, a. dd'dl-bl; also additive, a. dd'dltiv. tliat may 
be added: ad'dibillty, n. : addition, n. dd-dlsh'ini, 
an increase; uniting two or more laimlji'rs into one 
sum; something put to: additional, a. ad-dhh'un-dl, 
soinctliiiigmore: additionally, aii. -Ii. 

addendum, ii. dd-dcu'iiriin, plu. adden'da, -dd (L.), 
ail appendix; soiiii.'tliiiiL,' addfd. 

adder, n. dd'-d'r (.\S. (rttr: low Ger. add''r : W. 
ncidr: Goth, imdrs), a iioisonoiis serpent; a viper: 
adder-fly or adder-bolt, ii. dragon-fly. 

addict, V. dd-iUkt' (L. ad: dirtu.s, said, named), to 
give one's self lip to, as to a custom or habit— usually ill 
an ill sense : addicting, imp.: addict'ed, pp.: addict'- 
edness: addiction, u. dd-dikshCin. 

addition, Ac., see under add. 

addle, v. dd'dl (AS. <idl, disease: prov. Sw. ader, 
urine), to make corrupt: addle or addled, a. ad'dld. 
rotten— applied to eggs; barren: addling, imp.: ad- 
dled jip. : addle-beaded, a. of weak intellect; also 
ad dle-pat'ed, a. vd'tdd. 

address, v. <hl-<lriis'(V. adresser, to direct : L. direct- 
ng, made straight), to speak to ; to write a direction 
on a letti'r; to i>av court to, as a lover: address'ing, 
imp.: addressed,' pp. dd-dresf: address', u. a spcak- 

mdle, mdt.fCir, luTv; mete, mit, Mr; pine, pu .- note, n6t, mOve; 

ADDu : 

ill" to; direction on a letter; skill; manner or mode 
of^behaviour : plu. addresses, ad-drHs'-ez, courtsliip 
paid to a woman : addres'ser, n. one who. 

adduce, v. dddus' (L. ad; duco, I lead or lirinp), 
tootfer; to bring lorward ; to cite; to name: addu'- 
cing, imp.: adduced, pp. dd-dust': addu'cer, n. one 
who : addu'cible, a. -si-bl : adduction, n. dd-duk'shua .- 
adducent, a. dd-du-sent, bringin>,' forward or toge- 
ther: adductive, a. ad-dilk'tlv (L. ad; ductus, led), 
that adduces: adduc'tively, ad. -tiv-ll: adductor, u. 
in anat., a muscle that contracts parts. 

adenology, n. dd'e-nol'o-ji (Gr. adeii, a gland ; logos, 
discourse), m anat., the doctrine of the glands ; their 
nature and their uses : adenose, a. dd^e-woz; alsoade- 
nous, dd-6-nus, gland-lilce: adenography, n. ad'-in- 
Og'-rdfl (Gr. aden; grapho, I write), a treatise on the 

adept, n. d-dSpt' (L. adeptus, got, obtained), one 
fully skilled in anything: adj. skilful. 

adequate, a. ad'e-kwdt (L. ad; cequatus, made equal 
or like), fully suflicient for ; equal to : adequately, 
ad.-«: adequacy, n. ad^e-feu'd^sl, the being equal to; 
sufficiency for a particular end : adequate ness, ri. 

adfected, a. ad-jekt-cd (L. ad; /actus, done), in 
alg., consisting of different powers of the unknown 
quantity ; also affect'ed. 

adhere, v. dd-her' (L ad; Imreo, I stick), to stick 
to; to cleave to; to hold to an opinion: adhering, 
imp.: adhered, pp. dd-herd': adherence, n. ad-he- 
Tins, steady or fixed attachment to; adhe'rency, n. 
-rin-si, the act of sticking or adhering to : adhesion, n. 
ad-he'zhun, applied to matter— tha act of sticking to ; 
a union of parts of any body by means of cement, glue, 
growth, &c. ; steady attachment: adhesive, a. dd-ha- 
siv, gluey; sticlcy: adhe'sively, ad. -ll: adhesive- 
ness, n. : adhe'rent or adhe rer, n. one who adheres 
to; a follower: adhe'rently, ad. -II. 

adhibit, V. ad-hlb'-lt\h. udhibitum, to add to,— from 
ad; habeo, I have or hold), to put to ; to use or apply : 
adhibiting, imp.: adhibited, pp.: adhibition, u. 
ad'-hi-blsh'-un, application; use. 

adiantites, n. plu. dd'l-dn'-tlts or -tl'tez (Gr. adi- 
antos, unmoistened), a genus of fossU ferns found in 
the coal-measures, so called from their resemblance to 
the existing adiantam or maiden-hair. 

adieu, n., ad., interj. d-dii' (F. a, to; Dieu, God), 
a farewell ; an e.\pression of regard or kind wishes. 

adipocere,n. ad'l-po-ser' (L. adeps, fat; cera, wax), 
a light, waxy, or fatty substance, of a whitish-grey 
colour, into which animal flesh is changed when buried 
in moist earth ; often found in burial-grounds— hence 
called "grave-wax"— in peat-bog, &c.: adipocerous, 
a. ad'-l-pos'er-iis, pert, to; adipocerite, n. dd'l-pos' 
er-lt, the fatty or waxy matter found in certain peat- 
mosses : adipocere mineral, a fatty waxy substance 
found in certain coal-formations. 

adipose, a. dd'-l-pos; also ad ipous, a. dd'-l-piis (L. 
adiposus, fattv— from adeps, fat), full of fat ; fatty. 

adit, n. dd'-it (L. aditus, an approach or entrance), 
an under-ground gallery or tunnel into a mine for 
carrying off water or for extracting the ore. 

adjacent, a. dd-jd'sent (L. ad;jaceo, I lie), lying 
near ; bordering upon : adja'cently, ad. -II ; adjacen- 
cy, n. dd-jd'sen-sl. 

adject, V. dd-jekf (h. ad; jactus, cast), to add or put 
to: adject'ing, imp.: adjected, pp. dd-.y'^fcf'gi/ .- adjec- 
tion, n. ad-jek'shiin: adjectitious, a. dd'-jek-ttsh'us, 
added to or on: adjective, n. dd'Jck-tlv.&wiMd put 
to a noun to modify its meaning: adj. qualifying; 
depending on another: adjectival, dd'Jek-ti'-vdl, a. 
pert, to: ad'jectively, eid.-tiv'll. 

adjoin, v. dd-jdyn' (L. ad;pmgo, I join), to lie next 
to ; to lie close to : adjoin'ing, imp. : adjoined, pp. 

adjourn, v. dd-jem' (L. ad: F. jour, a day), to put 
off from one day to another; to delay: adjoum'ing, 
imp.: adjourned, pp. dd-jurnd' : adjoum'ment, n. 
putting off to another day ; the time or interval during 
which the business is suspended. 

adjudge, v. dd-jiif (L. ad; judico, I judge: F. ad- 
juijer), to determine; to decide; to award sentence: 
adjudg'ing, imp.: adjudged, pp. dd-jujd' : adjudg- 
ment, n. 

adjudicate, v. dd-j6'dl-kdt (L. adjudico, I give 
sentence in behalf of— from judico, I judge), to pro- 
nounce judgment upon ; to try or determine as a 
court : adjudicating, imp. : adju'dica'ted, pp. : ad- 
judication, n. ad-j6'dt-kd'-shil7i, the pronouncing 
judgment upon ; the decision or award of a court. 


adjunct, n. dd'jiinkt (L. ad; junctus, joined) some- 
thing added to another, generally to modify or quali- 
fy: adj. assisting: adjunctly, ad. -U: adjunction, 
ad-junk'-shun: adjunctive, a. -tlv, joining; tending 
to join : n. that which is joined : adjunc'tively, ad. -ll. 
adjure, v. dd-j6r' (L. udjuro, I swear solemnly— from 
ad; juro, I swear), to charge solemnly; to bind on 
oath: adju'ring, imp.: adjured, pp. dd-j6rd' : ad- 
juration, n. ad'joo-rd'-shun, the act of solemidy 
charging on oath ; a solenm charge on oath : adju'rer, 
n. one who. 

adjust, V. dd-jUstf (L. ad; Justus, just or proper), to 
fit to ; to make to correspond ; to put in order ; to 
settle: adjust'ing, imp.: adjust'ed, pp.: adjustment, 
n. ad-jfisvment, the act of settling; a settlement: ad- 
just ive, a. -U. 

adjutant, n. dd'-jdb-tdnt (L. ad; jutum, to help), in a 
regiment, one who assists the major, and next in ranlc 
to him : adjutancy, u. dd'jdb-tdn'sf, the office of the 
adjutant: adjutor, n. dd,;(57(5r, any one who assists: 
adjutrix, n. dd-j6'trlks, a woman-helper : ad'juvant, 
a. helping: n. an assistant; in nied., a remedy. 

admeasurement, n. dd-mizh'-oor-ment (L. ud; and 
metior, I measm-e), adjustment of proportions ; art or 
practice of measuring according to rule. 

administer, v. dd-imn'-ls-ter (L. ad : ministro, I serve 
or assist), to direct the application of laws, as a king or 
judge ; to manage ; to add to ; to bring aid or supplies 
to: administering, imp. dd-tnin'ls-trlng : adminis- 
tered, pp. dd-mln'-ls-terd: administration, n. ad'- 
min-ls-trd'-shiin, the act of carrying into effect ; direc- 
tion ; the government of a country : administrable, 
a. ad-mln'-ls-trd-bl : administerial, a. -ste'-rl-dl, mini- 
sterial: ad'ministe'rially, ad. -ll: administrative, a. 
dd'-min-is-stra'tlv, able to carry into effect : ad'mlni- 
stra'tor, n. the man who carries into etfect ; one wlio 
directs: administratrix, n. dd'-mtn-ls-strd'friks, the 
woman who carries into effect or directs : ad'mini- 
stra'torship, n. 

admiral, n. dd'-ml-rdl (F. amiral .- Arab, emir or 
amir, a noble or chief in command), the commander 
of a fleet or navy; a flag officer: admiralty, n. dd- 
mi-rdl'tl, the supreme court in naval affairs; tho 
building in which the court sits. 

admire, v. dd-mlr' (L. ad; miror, I wonder), to look 
upon with pleasure; to regard with wonder or sur- 
prise ; to love or esteem greatly : admi'ring, imp. : 
admired, pp. dd-mlrd': admirable, a. dd'ml-rd-bl, 
worthy of esteem or praise ; that may excite wonder 
or esteem: admirably, ad. dd'ml-rd-bll: admiringly, 
dd-ml'ring-li, in a manner to e.xcite wonder; with 
esteem; with admiration: ad'mirableness, n. : ad- 
mirability, n. dd'mi-rd-bli-i-tl: admiration, n. dd- 
ml-rd'shun, wonder mingled with pleasure or slight 
surprise : admirer, n. dd-ml'rer, one who admires. 

admit, v. ddmif (L. ad; mitto, I send), to pennit 
to enter; to receive as true; to allow: admit'ting, 
imp.: admit'ted, pp. : admit'table, a. -bl; admit'ter. 
n. one who; admittance, n. ad-mit'tdns, permission 
to enter: admission, n. dd-mish'-un (L. missus, sent), 
entrance; power or permission to enter: admissible, 
a. ad-mls'-si-bl, that may be allowed or admitted: 
admis'Sibly, ad. -bll: ad'missibility, n. -bll'-l-tl, the 
qualitv of being admissible. 

admix, v. dd-7viks' {L. ad; mixtum, to mingle), to 
mingle with something else : admix'ing, imp. : ad- 
mixed, pp. -mlkst: admixture, n. ad-miks'tur, a 
substance formed by mingling one substance with 
another; also admixtion, n. ad-mikst'-shan. 

admonish, v. dd-mon'-lsh (L. ad; moneo, I warn; 
monitus, warned), to warn; to reprove gently; to ad- 
vise : admonishing, imp. : admonished, pp. dd-mOn'- 
isht: admonlsher, n. ; or admonltor, one whoadmon- 
islies: admonition, n. ddhnonish'-tui, gentle reproof; 
caution: admonitive, a. ud-mon'-ltlc ; admonitory, 
dd-mon'-X-tor'-l. that conveys caution or warning : ad- 
monltively, ad. -tiv'-li. 

adnascent, a. dd-nd^'-ent (L. ad; nascens, grovsing), 
growing to or upon; also adnate, a. ad-ndf (L. ad; 
natus, born), grown to. 
ado, n. a-do' (AS. a, and do), fuss ; bustle ; difficulty. 
adolescence, n. dd'o-l6s-Sns ; adolescency, dd'o- 
Us'en-sl (L. adolesco, I increase or grow), in a growin;^ 
state ; youth up to manhood : adolescent, a. dd'-6-Ut>'- 
ent, growing; pertaining to youth. 

Adonic, a. d-don'lk (from Ado'nis— in anc. myth., a 
youth, the favourite of Venus, the goddess of love), 
pert, to a certain kind of verse : n. a poetical versa 
consisting of a dactyl and a spondee or trochee. 

cole, boy, foot: piu-e, biid; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 



adopt, V. d-dopt' (L. ad; opfo, I wish, I choose), to 
take or receive as one's own what is not naturally so— 
as a person, a thing, an opinion ; to choose : adopting, 
imp.: adopt'ed, pp.: adoption, n. u-ddp'shun, the 
taking as one's own which is not so naturally: 
adop'tive, a. -tlv, that adopts: adopt' er, n. one who: 
adopt'edly, ad. -11. 

adore, v. ddOr' (L. ad; oro, I pray to, entreat), to 
pay divine honour to ; to worship solemnly ; to regard 
with esteem; to love highly : ado'ring, im'p. : adored, 
pp. (t-dOrd': ador'er, n. one wlio: adorable, a. rt- 
dO'rcl-bl, worthy of worship; that ought to be loved 
or respected: ado'rably, ad. -hll: ado'rableness, n. : 
adoringly, ad. ad<y-rUig-h: adoration, n. dd'Ora' 
shtln, the worship of God ; the act of praying. 

adorn, V. a-dalvrn' (L. ad; orno, I deck or beautify), 
to deck; to make beautiful: adornment, n. a-dawrn'- 
mint, an adorning; ornament: adorning, imp. : ad- 
orned, pp. (hdawrnd': adorn ingly, ad. -11. 

adosculation, n. dd-ds'-kft-ld'^hrtn (L. nd; oscnlum, 
a kiss, or a little mouth), the impregnation of plants ; 
a propagation of plants by inserting one part of a plant 
into another. 

adown, prep, d-dmvn' (AS. adilne), downward ; from 
a higher to a lower situation. 

adrift, a. or ad. d-drlft (AS. adrifan, to drive 
away, to expel), floating about at random ; driven. 

adroit, a. d-drnyt'{F. a; droit, to the right), clever 
in the use of the hands; ready-witted; de.\terous: 
adroitly, ad. -ll ,- in a ready, skilful manner : adroit'> 
ness, n. readiness; dexterity. 

adiy,a. d-dri'{AS. a; dr/*;, dry), thirsty : ad. athirst. 

adstriction, n. dd-strlk'shrm{h. ad; strictus, drsivni 
together), a binding fast ; constipation. 

adularia, n. dd'uld'rl-d (Gr. adularos, sweetly 
fair— from {h)adiis, sweet; laros, pleasant), a trans- 
parent variety of potash felspar. 

adnlation, n. dd'-u-ld'shUn (L. adulatio, fawning 
like a dog), mean flattery; praise in excess : adulator, 
n. dd'uld'tor, one who : adulatory, a. dd'u-ia-tor'-l, 
containing excessive praise. 

adult, n. ddidt (L. adaltus, grown), a person gro\vn 
to maturity; from fifteen years of age upwards: adj. 
mature ; grown up: adulfness, n. 

adulterate, v. d-dill'ler-dt (L. adidtero, I corrupt), 
to corrupt ; to make impure by a base mixture : adul'- 
tera ting, imp. : adul terated, pp. : adulteration, n. 
d-dru'ter-d'shiin, tiie being corrujited or debased an 
article not pure and genuine: adul'tera'tor, n. one 
■who ; also adulterant, n. : adul'terate'ly, ad. -ll .- 
adul terate'ness, n.: adulterer, n. d-dill'ter-er, a man 
guilty of adultery; an idolater: adulteress, n. wo- 
man guilty of adultery: adulterous, a. d-dill'-ter-iis, 
guilty of adultery; unclean: adul terous'ly, ad. -ll: 
adultery, n. d-dul'-ter-l, violation of the marriage- 
bed; idolatry: adulterine, a. d-dul'-ter-ln, resulting 
from adultery ; spurious : n. a child born from adulter- 
ous intercourse. 

adumbrate, v. dd-um'hrdt (L. ad; umbra, a sha- 
dow), to give a faint shadow or sketch; to describe: 
adumTjrating, imp. : adum'brated,pp. : adumbrant, 
a. giving a faint shadow: adumbration, n. dd'um- 
hrd'shuii, the act of making a shadow or faint resem- 

aduncoas, a. d-dilng'-kus (L. aduncus, hooked), in 
iot., crooked ; bent in the form of a hook. 

'advance, v. dd-vdns' (F. avancer, to advance), to 
move or bring forward; to raise to a higher rank; to 
propose ; to pay beforehand ; to be promoted : n. a 
moving or bringing forward; promotion; a rise in 
v;ilue or price ; a giving beforehand ; a proposal : 
advan'oing, imp.: advanced, pp. dd-vdnst' : ad- 
van'cer, n. -ser, one who: advancement, n. the act 
t'f moving forward ; a step in rank or promotion : ad- 
vancive, a. dd-vdti'slv, tending to advance: ad- 
vanced'-guard, n. the detachment of troops which 
precedes the main body of an army or division. 

advantage, n. dd-vdn'tdj (F. avantage, profit— from 
F. avant: It. ava7iti, before), superiority in any state. 
condition, or circumstance; gain; interest: "advan- 
taged, pp. d(Zwl?i;<a/(Z, benefited; forwarded: advan- 
tageous, a. dd'-vdn-td'jus, fa.vourAhle ; full of benetit: 
advantageously, ad. -ll: ad vantageousness, ji. 

advent, n. ddvcnt (L. ad, and vtntinn, to cdine), 
acoming; tlieioiningnf Christ to the earth: adventit- 
ious, a. <Jd-i-f'iitls/i'>is,rounu<: to aeeiileiitallv; ii^t 
forming' an ess.-otiMl jart : adventual, a. (i<l-iT,i-tii- 
<U, relatiii- td ili.- season of advent: adventitiously, 
2d. -ll; ad ventiti ousnesB, n. 

adventure, n. dd-ven'fnr (L. ad; ventum, to come), 
a Ixild undertaking; a chance enteri'rise ; a striking 
event : v. to risk on chance ; to attempt or dare : ad- 
venturing, imp.: adventured, pp. -turd: adven- 
turer, n. dd-vcn'tu-rer, one who risks everj'thing on 
chance: adventurous, a. rtd-tv'ji^hi-rtw, bold; hazard- 
ous; dangerous: adventuresome, n. dd-ven'tiir-siim, 
bold; daring; full of risk: adventurously, ad. -li: 
adventurous ness, n. 

adverb, n. dd'verb (L. ad; verbum, a word), iu 
gram., a word used to modify the meaning of a verb, 
an adjective, an adverb,, or a sentence: ad- 
verbial, ad. dd-virb'-l-dl : adverbially, ad. -ll. 

adverse, a. dd'-vers (L. adversum, opi>osite to — from 
ad ; versus, turned), opposed to ; unfortunate ; calami- 
tous : ad'versely, ad. -ll: ad'verseness, n.: adversity, 
n. ddver'sl-tl, ill fortune ; continued calamity : ad- 
versary, n. dd'vcr-sdr'l, an enemy ; one opposed to : 
adversative, a. dd-ver'sd-tlv, that which m.arks a 
dilTerence or opposition. 

advert, v. dd-vert' (L. ad. ; veiio, I turn), to refer 
to ; to turn the attention to : adver'tent, a. attentive ; 
heedful: adverting, imp.: advert'ed, pp.: advert- 
ently, ad. -ll: advertence, n. dd-vir'-tdns; also ad- 
ver'tency, n. -ten-'^i. 

advertise, v. dd'ver-tis' (F. advertir, for avertir, to 
inform: L. ad; verto, I turn), to give notice; to infonn: 
advertising, imp. : ad'vertised^, pp. -titd': advertise- 
ment, n. dd-ver'-tiz-miint, a public notice in a newspap- 
er : advertiser, n. dd'-ver-ti'zer, one who ; a newspaper. 

advice, n. dd-vl^ (L. ad; visa, I go to see: old F. 
advis : It. visa), a speaking to as to conduct ; counsel ; 
intelligence : advise, v. dd-vlz', to speak to as to 
conduct ; to give counsel to ; to inform ; to consult : 
advi'sing, imp. : advised, pp. dd-vlzd': adj. cautious; 
prudent; counselled : advi'sedly, ad. -ll, thougiitfully ; 
with careful deliberation: advi'sedness, n. : advi'ser, n. 
one who counsels : advisory, a. dd-vl'z6r- 1, containing 
advice : advisable, a. dd-vl'-zd-U, that may properly 
be done ; prudent ; open to advice : advi'sable'ness, 
n. : advi'sably, ad. -bll. 

advocate, n. dd'vO-kdt (L. advordtus, one who 
pleads— from ad ; voco, I call), one who pleads the cause 
of another in a court of law ; one who defends : v. to 
plead the cause of another : ad'voca'ting, imp. : ad'- 
voca'ted, pp. : advocacy, n. dd'-vo-kd'sl, the act of 
pleading for or defending another in a court of law : 
ad'vocate'ship, n. the oflice of an advocate : advoca- 
tion, n. dd'-vd-kd'shiln, a pleading for: advowson, n. 
dd-vdiv'sim (L. advocatio, a protector or defender), 
right of perpetual presentation to a benefice: ad- 
vower or advowee, n. dd-volv'e. one who. 

adynamic, a. dd'-t-ndm'-ik (Gr. a, without; dtina- 
mis, power), without strength. 

adytum, n. d-dl'tmn (L. ; Gr. aduton), the most 
sacred place in ancient heathen temples. 

adze or adz, n. ddz (AS. adesa), an edge tool for re- 
ducing the surface of wood ; a kind of axe. 

se, e: many words fomierly beginning wth m are 
now spelt with e. Wien the word in a- is not found, 
turn to e. 

sechmodus, n. ek'mO-diis (Gr. aichme, the point of 
a spear ; odous, a tooth), a genus of fossil ganoid fishes 
having small sharp-pointed teeth. 

sedile, n. e'dll (L., from a:des, a house), an anc. Ro- 
man magistrate, who the care of public buildings. 

aegis, n. e'jls (Gr. aigi^, goat-skin, or a shield cover- 
ed with it ; L.|, a shield ; the shield of Minerva. 

.ffineid, n. e-nS-ld, the great epic poem by the anc. 
Roman, Virgil, of which yEneas, i-ne'd.'^, is the hero. 

.Solian, a. e-6'll-dn{L. ^ohis, the god of the winds), 
pert, to .(Eolus or the wind; belonging to the wind: 
JEohc, a. eol'ik, of ^olia. 

aeon, n. c'on (Gr. aioti, an age), a lengthened 
period ; in the ancient Eastern philosophy ocon.f were 
supposed emanations from the one self-originated 
Being, among which were zoe, life; logos, word; 
iiionogenfs, only-begotten; plcroma, fulness. 

aepiomls, n. e'-pl-or'-nXs (Gr. aijnis, immense; amis, 
a bird), an extinct bird of Madagascar of gigantic 
dimensions, at least double the size of the ostrich. 

aerate, v. dUr-dt (Gr. or L. aer, air— see eyrie), to 
combine with air ; to mix with carbonic acid : aerat'- 
ing, imp. : aerated, pp. d'ird'ted, mixed with car- 
bonic acid: aeration, n. d'^d'shiln,, the opemtion 
or iiroi-ess of mixing with carbonic acid: aerial, a. 
di'riiil. lielongingtothe air; high; lofty. 

aerie, n. C'ri (L. no-, air), the nest of an eagle or hawk. 

aerify, v. drlfl (L. aer, air; /acio, 1 make), to 

mate, mdt,/dr, la7v; mSte, miit, Iter; pine, pin; nOte, nOt, viCve; 


turn into air; to combine with air: aer'ify'ing, imp : 
k^ed x>V. ^r'-i-/ld : aerification, n. ar-i-fi-ka- 
fftOn the changing solid or liquid bodies intoair or 
gas ; the act of combining with air 


nature or form of air ; not solid. 
aeroUte, n. dr'o-llt (Gr. aer, air ; 

lithos, a stone), 

playing, when broken, a semi-metallic, ash-grey col- 
our • also aerolith, n. dr'0-M?ft. ,. . 
aero ogy,n. ar-dl'.o.jHGr.aer, air; logos, discourse), 
the science that treats of the air, its nature and uses : 
aeromancy, n. ar'-6-man'-sl (Gr. aer; manteia, divi- 
mtion), divination by means of the '^ir and wim Is 
aerologist, n. ar-ol'-o-jlst, one who studies the natuie 
and effects of the air or atmosphere : aerological, a. 

"SSr; ^^l^^-ter (Gr. aer, air ;m.^ron, a 
measure), an instrument for ascertaining the weight 
of the atmosphere or of gases. . 

aeronaut, n. &r'-6-rmwt (Gr. «€»% air; nautes, a sail- 
or-from naiis, a ship), one who sails or floats in the 


netSS"n'plu"arC../«s (Gr. a^r^pUvion,^ 
plant), plants which live exclusively m the Mi-hy- 
drophiites, those living mider water. 

aerostatic, a. dr'-d-stdt'ik (Gr. aer; sfatos, a stand- 
in^ still), suspending in air: aer'ostat ics, n. plu. -ihs; 
alio aerostation, n ar'-o-sta'-shun; and aeronautics, 
aerial navigation. . .„ 

aeruginous, a. e-rdj-l-nils (L. mrxigo, gm mruginis 
rust of copper-from cEris,' copper), pert, to the nist of 

^lSn,"n."^iS (L. csculus, the horse-chest- 
nut), an alkaline principle discovered m the horse- 
chestnut; also spelt e.scwime. 

aesthetics, n. plu. ez-thef-lks (Gr. aisthesis the 
act of perceiving), the science which treats of the 
beautiful in nature, in the fine arts, and i" Ijterature ; 
the philosophy of taste: sesthetic, a. cz-thet-ik ;!i\^o 
aesthet'ical, a. -i-kal, pert, to the perception of the 

^^ffitMops, n. e'thl-ops (Gr. aitho, I burn ; ops, the 
eye or countenance), applied to certain chenucal com- 
pounds from their black appearance. 
aestivation, n.— see estivation. „„,-^+„ 

aetites, n. plu. e-tl'tez (Gr. aetos, an eagle), a variety 
of nodular ironstone ; eagle-stone. ^-^f .,„^<. d-fdr' (AS.),, or from a great distance. 
affable, a. d/'fd-U (L. affabilis, accessible, court- 
eous) frank in speech; easy of access; of easy man- 
ners in conversation: affably, ad. -hll: affability, 
n. df'fa-hU'l-tl, the being easy of access to others ; 
kind manner in conversation. 

affair, n. df-fdr' (F. affaire, business— from L. ad; 
facere, to make), a matter of any kind ; busmess ; plu. 
transactions in general. ^ . ^ , „ 

affect, V. df-fekV (L. affectum, to influence— from 
ad ■ factum, to do), to act upon or influence in any way ; 
to make a show of; to move or touch— as the passions : 
affect'ing, imp.: affected, pp. df-fekt-ed: &aj. as- 
sumed; not natural: afiect'edly, ad. -?X; affec ter or 
alfec'tor, n., one who : affectation, n. df'/ek-ta-sJmn, 
the assiuning or pretending to what is not real or na- 
tural- affect edness, n., the quality of being affected: 
affect'ingly, ad. -ll: affection, n. df-fSk'shun, love 
for; attachment to; kindly feeUng towards: affec- 
tionate, a. dffik'shun-dt, warmly attached to; fond; 
having great love: affectionate ness, n. : affection- 
ately, ad. -II: affectively, ad. df-fik'tiv-li. 
affettuoso, ad. (i/-/^<:tot/-o:2o (It.), Ill WM6-., tenderly. 
affiance, v. af-Jl-dns (L. ad; fido, I trust; fides, 
faith), to promise in marriage; to betroth or pledge 
fivith: affi'ancing, imp : affianced, pp. df-fi-unst: 
affi'ancer, n. -ser. ^ , , ii, 

affidavit, n. df-fidd'vlt (old law L., he made oath, 
—from ad; fides, faith), a declaration upon oath ; gen- 
erally, a declaration as to the truth of a written state- 
ment made on oath before a justice of the peace, which 
is afterwards signed by him. . 

affiliate, v. CiJ-fU'-l-dt (L. ad; filius, a son;^?ia, a 
daushter), to adopt; to receive as a son or daughter; 
to unite as one ; to receive as an assoriate or member ; 
to assign a child to a father: affil'ia'ting, imp. : 
affil'ia'ted, pp. : affil'ia'tion, n. -shun, the act of unit- 
"■" or adopting. , . 

dffln'Ul (L. affmis, bordenng on or 


related to-from ad; finis, an end), relation; agree- 
ment; relationship by marriage; m chem., the com- 
bining power of bodies. 

atann, v. df-firm' (L. ad; firmo, I make firm), to 
assert with confidence ; to maintain confidently as true; 
to declare solemnly: affirming, imp. : affirmed, pp. 
df-fermd': affirm'able, a. -d-hl, that may be stated or 
altirmed as true: affirm'ably, ad. -hU-. afi5rm ant, n.; 
also affirm'er.n. one who: affirmation, ii. (V./er-7?ia- 
shun, the act of asserting as true; a fi,,lciui. declara- 
tion: affirm'ative, a. -d-tiv, that declares or asserts: 
n. a word that says?/es: negative, the opposite ot aj- 
rtrwoiive, a word that says ?io. „ v,i.. 

affix, n. df-Jiks (L. ad;fixus, fastened), a syllable 
or letter put to the end of a word : affix, v. uf-Jiks , to 

join to; to unite; to flxor fastf -* * " " " "" '- 

join: al 

u. df-flks'tur, that whicl .. tu- > 

afflatus, n. dffid'-tus (L. ad; flatus, a breathing), 
a breath; a breathing into by divine power; mspira- 
tion: affla'tion.n. -s/iHTi, a breathing upon. 

afflict, v. df-fllkf (L. ad;fiictus, a striking), to dis- 
tress in some way; to give pain to, either m body or 
mind- aflicfing, imp.: afflicted, pp. df-flikt-cd: fl- 
n. one who: affliction, n. df-filk'-shun, dis- 

at the end ; to sub- 

in: a'ffix'ing, imp.: affixed, pp. df-flkst': affixture, 
rt/-.rtir.s:<Mr. that which is affixed. _ .... 

flic ter, 11. <jn'- T.iivy. ^^ ; - - .,.., .a>s^'t.„A^■„ 

tress either of body or mind ; gnet ; pain : afflic tedly, 
ad. -U: afflict'ingly, ad. -li: afflictive, a. affilk-tlv, 
giving pain ; painful : afflic'tively, ad. -tlv-li. 
" afflSence, n c}/yfo6.en^ (L. ad; fluo, I flow), wealth; 
abundance of worldly riches ; also affluency, n. dffioo- 
en'sl; affluent, a. wealfhy; rich m woridly goods :n. 
applied to any stream that flows directly into another, 
^ux, n. dffiuks (L. ad: fiuxum, to flow), a flowing 
to ; that which flows to ; alsoaffluxion, n. df fink-shun. 

afford. V. df-ford' (F. afforer, to f t ^ price on a 
thing-from L. ad; forum, a market), to yield or 
produce; to be able to bear expenses; to giant: 
afford'ing, imp.: afforded, pp. i> i. * ^ ?« 

afforest, V. af-fior-e.-^t (L. ud: and /oresf). to turn in- 
to forest : afforesta'tion, n. -s/iiXn. 

affray, n. df-frd' (F. effrayer, to scare, to dismay), a 
brawl or petty fight; a disturbance; fonnerly used as 

^Tffright, V. af-fr-it' (AS. affrightan) to temfy by 
sudden fear: n. sudden dread; great fear: afiright- 
ing, imp. : affright'ed, PP- „ , , ^ „,7 

affront, v. df-frunf (F. affronter— from. L. ad; 
frons gen. frontis, the front, the forehead), to give 
cause of offence to; to insult slightly: n anything 
done to offend; an outrage; open insult: a»ont 
ing, imp. : affront ed, pp. : affront'ingly, ad. ■ll:_ af- 
frontive, a. df-frun'-tiv, tending to alTront; abusive. 
affron'tively, ad. -tlv-ll. ,. . ^ 

affuse, v. dffuz' (L. ad; fusus, Poured) to 
sprinkle as with a liquid ; to pour upon : affu sing, 
imp.: afiused, pp. dffutd': affusion, n. af-ju- 
zhun. the act of pouring upon. . 

afield, ad. d-feld' (AS. a :ind field), to or m the field. 

afloat, ad. dfiof (AS. a andfioat), on the water. 

afoot, ad. d-foot' (AS. a »i\d foot), on foot. 

afore ad. d-for^ (AS. a and fore), prior or superior 
to ; sooner : aforeTiand, ad. in time gone by ; ^"ell P™" 
^nded: afore'mentioned, mentioned before: afore- 
named, named before: aforesaid, spoken of before, 
afore'time, in time past. 

afraid, a. d./ra/(AS. pp. of affray, which see), 
filled with fear; terrified. „„„=„ . 

afresh, ad. dfrish' (AS. a, fersc, pure, sweet), again , 

"""IfirlcanTS^^J/frt-Mn.- also Afric, a. df-rlk, pert, to 

Africa: n. a native of Africa. 

aft, a. or ad. dft (AS., from after, which see), a term 
used by seamen to mean the stern of a ship, or to 
point to what lies in the direction of the ftern; behind 
^ after, a. df-ter (Goth, afar, behmd: AS. ay' or cc/- 
ter, aftenvards, again: Icel. aftan. behind) later in 
time-as, it is an a/^er thought : prep behind; later- 
as he went home after dinner: conj. when-as you 
will come to me after he ha.s seen you : af ter-act , an 
act following: after-ages, succeedmg times; posteri- 
tv- after all, when all has been said, weighed, or 
done- after-crop, a second crop in the same year: 
after-damp, the choke damp or carbonic acid occur- 
ring in coal-mines after an explosion of firo-damp: 
af t^r-euard, in a ship, the seamen stationed on the 
noon to attend to the after-sails : after-hours, hours 
following business : after-life, the later or future life : 
aftermath, df'tir-mdfh (after; and math, a corrup- 
tion of mow), a second crop of grass in the same 

affnity, . , . 

cow;, boy, foot; pure, lud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal 


season: aftermost, hindmost; nearest the stern of a 
ship: afternoon, arter-ndn', the part of the day 
after 12 o'ckxjk: af terpains, n. plu. -panz, those fol- 
lowing child-birth: after-piece, a piece perlormed 
aft-er a play: after-sails, the sails on the mizen-niast 
and stays : af ter-state, the future life : after-thought, 
reflections after an act ; later thouglits. 

afterward or afterwards, ad. af-ter-ivdrdz (AS. 
after; and weard, direction), later iil time. 

Aga, n. a'ga, in Turkey, a military commander or 
chief officer. 

again, ad. d-gin' (kSi. ongean or agen, opposite: Sw. 
gm: Bret, gin, opposite, again), once more; a second 
time: against, prep. d-(/t'/k.r, in opposition to. 

agalmatolite, n. ag'ai-mdf-O-lU (Gr. agabna, an 
im;ige; lithos, a stone), a variety of clay-slate altered 
by heat, usually brought from China carved into gro- 
tesque figures and chimney ornaments. 

agamoos, a. dg'amils {Gt. a, without; gamos, mar- 
riage), in bot., applied to plants without visible organs 
of fructification. 

agape, ad. a-gdp' (AS. a, and gape), gaping as with 

agaric, n. dg-Ar'lk (Gr. agarikon, a certain fungus). 
a genus of fungi : adj. pert, to fungi : agaric miner- 
al, a soft variety of carbonate of lime, found in clefts 
of rocks, resembling a fungus in texture and colour. 

agate, n. dg'at (from the river Achates in Sicily, or 
the Phenician word nakadt, spotted), a variegated var- 
iety of chalcedony quartz, the colours being arranged 
iu clouds, spots, or bands ; a tool used by gold-wire 
drawers and gDders: agatine, a. dg'd-tln, of agate: 
agatised, a. dg'-d-tlzd, marked like an agate; con- 
verted into agate. 

agave, n. dg'dv (Gr. agauos, admirable), the Ameri- 
can aloe, from the juice of which the alcoholic liquor 
pulque is prepared. 

age, n. <Xj (F. age: L. atas, an age), a period of 
time; the whole life of man, or any particular part of 
it ; a particular period of time : aged, a. a'jed, old ; 
advanced in years : n. old persons— as the aged : a'ged- 
ly, ad. -ll. 

agency, n. d'jSn-sl (L. agens, acting, doing), the ex- 
erting of power; action; the business or office of an 
agent: agent, n. d'jent, the person or thing that ex- 
erts power ; one intrusted with the business of another. 

agenda, n. d-jen'dd (L. things to be done), transac- 
tions ; things done and recorded. 

agglomerate, v. dgglom'-er-at (L. ad; glomero, I 
wind round), to gather into a mass; to grow into a 
mass : n. in geol. , a term employed to designate accum- 
ulations of angular fragments of rocks thrown up by 
volcanic eruptions : agglomerating, imp.: agglom'er- 
a'ted, pp. : agglomeration, n. dg-glom-er-a'-shiin, the 
state of being gathered into a mass or ball. 

agglutinate, v. aggl6t'ln-dt (L. ad: glutina, I 
glue), to unite or cause to adhere: agglutinating, 
imp.: agglut'ina'ted, pp.: agglufinant, a. uniting 
parts, as with glue: n. that which causes adhesion: 
agglutination, n. dggl6t:i-7ia'shun: agglutinative, 
a. dg-glot'liid'tlv, tending to or causing union. 

aggrandise, v. dg'-grdn-dls^ (L. ad; graivlis, great), 
to exalt; to raise to wealth, honour, or power: ag'- 
grandi sing, imp. : aggrandised, pp. dg'grdn-dlul' : 
aggrandiser, n. dg'-grdn-dl'-zer, one who exalts: ag- 
grandisement, n. dg'grdn-diz'riient,t\iQ making great- 
er in power, wealth, or honour: aggrandisable, a. 

aggravate, v. dg'-grdvdt (L. ad; gravis, hea^^), to 
make anything worse or less endurable : ag'grava'- 
tlng, imp. : ag'grava'ted, pp. ; aggravation, n. dg- 
grd-va'shun, a making worse; what excites anger. 

aggregate, v. dg'gre-gat (L. nggrego, I gather toge- 
ther as a flock — froni grex, a flocic), to collect into one 
sum, niiiss, or body; to accimiulate: adj. formed by 
a collection of many particulai-s : n. the sum total ; tlie 
result of many particulars : aggregating, imp.: ag"- 
grega'ted, pp.: aggregately, ad. -ll: aggregation, 
n. d/i'-grigd'shiin, the act of heaping togelher: ag'- 
gregat'or, n. one who : aggregative, a. -iv, collective : 
ag'gregat Ively. ad. ll. 

aggress, v. dggrSs' (L. ad; gressus, walked or gone), 
to l»e;,'in .1 nuarrel or controversy; to commence an 
attack: aggressing, imp.: aggressed, pp. dg-grfsf: 
aggression, n. dggrgsh'-iun. the first act leading to a 
quarrel or dispute : aggres s or, n. one who first attacks 
or begins a quarrel: aggressive, a. O^grex'iv. tending 
to or relating to the first attack : aggres'slveness, n. 



aggrieve, V. dggrev' {L. ad ; gravis, hea\'y: F. grever, 
to wrong), to afflict; to pain or injure any one; to in- 
jure in one's right: aggrieving, imp.: aggrieved, 
pp. dggrevd': aggrlevance, u. aggrtv'-dns, injury; 
wrong; oppression. 

aghast, a. or ad. dgOsf (AS. a, at, or on : It. guasto: 
F. gaster or gCiter. to lay waste : Scot, gousty, waste, 
dreary), struck with horror: stupefied with sudden 

agile, a. dj'U (F. from L. agilis, quick), nimble; 
not slow; active: agilely, ad. dj'U-ll: agility, u. 
d-jU'-l-ti, nimbleness ; the power of moving quickly. 

agio, n. d'-jl-O (It. aggio), the difference iu accepted 
value of bank-notes and that of current money or coin ; 
agiotage, n. a'jl-O-idj', the methods employed by 
speculators in the public funds to lower or raise their 
price by spreading false inunours, &c. 

agist, V. dji^t' (L. ad; jaceo, I lie down : old F. giste. 
a place to lie down in), to take in the cattle of others 
to graze: agis'tor or agistator, n. dj'-ls-ia'tor, one 
who : agist'ment, n. 

agitate, v. dfi-tat (L. agito, I shake: F. a^iter; 
It. agitare), to put into motion ; to stir Aiolently ; to 
disturb: ag'ita'tlng, imp.: ag'lta'ted, pp.: agitable, 
a. dj'l-tdU: agitation, n. dj'i-ta'shan, the putting 
into violent motion ; excitement of the mind : agita- 
tor, n. dj'-l-td'tor, one who rouses or stirs up ; a stirrer 
or mixer: agitative, a. dj'i-ta'tlv, having power or 
tendency to agitate. 

aglet, n. dg'-let: also aiglet, n. dg'-m (F. aiguille, 
a needle), the tag of a point ; any small object hang- 
ing loosely— as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of 
grass, or the catkins of a hazel. 

agnail, n. dg'nal (AS. a; ncegel, a naU), a sore 
under the naU ; a whitlow. 

agnate, n. dg'nat {L. ad; natus, born), patemallv 
related ; related in the male line : n. any descendant 
by the father's side: agnation, n. dg-nd'shun: ag- 
natic, a. dg-ndt'lk, pert. to. 

agnition, n. dg-nlsh'iin (L. agnitio, a knowing— 
from ad; notum, to know), acknowledgment. 

agnomen, n. dg-nO'm4n (L. ad; notnen, a name), a 
name added in praise or dispraise. 

Agnus-Dei, dg'nus-de'i (L. the Lamb of God), the fig- 
ure of the Saviour under the form of a lamb, bearing 
a staff head with a Greek cross, and having the head 
surrounded by a nimbus ; certain oval medallions. 

ago, ad. d-go' (old E. ygo or ygon, gone awav, passed 
by—!/ being the augment of the pp.), time gone Iiy; 
past: agoing, ad. dgo'ing.m or into action: agone, 
ad., d-gon', past and gone. 

agog, ad. d-gdg' (Icel. d; gcegiiim, on the watch or 
look-out), excited with expectation; ready to start 
or jog in pursuit of an object of desire. 

agonise, v. dg'-o-nlz' (Gr. agonia, a contest, an- 
guish of mind), to suffer extreme pain or anguish; to 
distress exceedingly: ag'oni'sing, imp. : adj. suffering 
extreme pain : ag onlsed', pp. : ag'oni'slngly, a4. -if: 
agony, n. dg'6-nt, extreme pain or anguish either of 
body or mind; agonist, n. dg'-o-nUt; also agonistes, 
n. dg'-o-nls'tez, one who contends for the prize in pub- 
lic games: agonistic, a. dg'Onis'-tlk ; also ag'onisti- 
cal, a. tl-k<U, pert, to contests of strength: ag'onis- 
tlcal'ly, ad. -li. 

agrarian, a. d-grd'rl-dn (L. agrarius, pertaining 
to a field- from ager, a field), relating to land in gen- 
eral: agrarianism, n. the equal division of land or 
property : agra'rianist, n. one who. 

agree, v. dgre (F. agre'er. to receive with favour: 
L. gratus, pleasing: It. grado), to l>e of one mind; to 
live in peace; to l)e like; to settle: agreeing, imp.: 
agreed', pp.: agreeable, a. d-qre-a'id. jUeasing; 
suitable to: agreeably, a4. -bli: agree ableness, n. 
-hl-nHs. the quality that makes a thing gratefid to 
the t;iste. or pleasing to the mind; resemblance: 
agreement, n. a bargain ; a renewal of friendship. 

agriculture, n. dg-rlkiiVtur (L. ager, a field ; 
cultura, till;ige), tilling or working the ground to 
make it fruitful; husbandry: agrlcul'tural, a. -tn- 
rdl. pertaining to the till.age of the ground: agrlcul'- 
turist, n. one engaged in fanning: ag'ricul'tural'ly, 
ad. -H. 

agrimony, n. ag'rl-mdn'l (L. agrimonia\, a medi- 
cinal plant. 

aground, ad. d-grdiinid' (AS. a, and ground), on the 
ground: among spanien, stranded ; run ashore. 

ague, V. a'-gH (L. aaitus, sharp: F. aigti, sharp. 
keen), to cause to shiver: n. intermittent fever, attend- 
ed with cold fits and shivering: agoing, imp. d^^ii- 

mate, mat, far, law; mete, met, hCr; pine, pin; note, nOt, viCve; 

AGUI ■ 11 

ing: agued, pp. agud: aguish, a. somewhat cold 

^'%^i!n"d-gwXl'-ia (F. aiguille, a needle), an obe- 
lisk or the spire of a church-tower. 

ah int. d, an exclamatory word denotmg surprise, 
pity .'dislike, &c. : aha, int. a-}uV. expresshi? triumph, 
surprise, or contempt : ahoy, int. d-hoy , attend ye— a 

""'ahead^ad. clhSd' (AS. a. and head), in advance; 
further forward than another. 

ahiui, ad. d-hi-W (AS. a. and liidl). the condition of 
a vessel with her sails furled and hehu lashed a-lee. 

aid n dd (F. aider, to help— from L. adjutare, to 
iissist), help ; relief; assistance : v. to help ; to support ; 
to relieve: aiding, imp.: aid'ed, pp.: aider, n. one 
who: aidless, Zdd'-les: aidant, a. dd'dnt, helping: 
aidance,n. wd^d^is, help; assistance. ., , . „^^ 

aid -de -camp, n. ad'-di-kong, plu. aids' - de - camp 
(F. aid^, an assistant; du camp, of the camp), tn an 
army, an officer whose duty it is to receive and convey 
the orders of a general. ^ ,,,,„. tt„\ 

aigret, n. d'gret; also egret, n. e'grit (F. aigrette), 
the little white heron; in hot., the feathery do%vn of 
the thistle. 

aigre, n. d'-ger — see eagre. 

aigtiiUe, n. d-giveV (F. needle), applied to the sharp 
serrated peaks of lofty mountains ; an instr. for pierc- 
ing holes for the lodgment of powder when blasting: 
aigulet, n. d'giUet, or aiglet, ug'ldt, a point or tag on 

"a.E^'v. dl (AS. eglian, to pain; egle. troublesome: 
Goth. agio, affliction), to be sick; to trouble; to be in 
pain: ailing, imp.: adj. unwell; fiUl of sickness: 
ailed, pp. aid: ailment, n. sickness; trouble; sUght 

aim v a?)i(oldF.csr«er, to estimate— from L.(Bstimo, 
I value), to throw at an object ; to direct a weapon to ; 
to endeavour; to purpose or design: n. the object or 
point intended to be struck; purpose; intention: 
aiming, imp. : aimed, pp. dmd: aim'er, n. one who : 
aimless, a. dm'les. . , ^, 

air n ur(F.,fromGr. or L.aer. air), the atmosphere; 
a "-as'- a light breeze ; a tmie or melody ; look or mien ; 
affected manner: V. to diy; to expose to the air: alx - 
ing, imp.: aired, pp. drd: airy, a. dr-l, high m air; 
light like air; trifling; vain: airily, ad. ar-iji: au-- 
ing n. a ride or walk in the open air: airless, a. 
wantino- fresh air: airiness, n. dr'l-ii6s, the state of 
being opened freely to the air; lightness of manner; 
gaiety air-tight, so close and compact as to prevent 
the passage of air : air-bed, a large air-tight bag ftlled 
■with air for the repose of aiUng persons : air-ceUs, 
cavities in vegetable and animal structures filled with 
air • air-gim, a musket or gun in which compressed air, 
instead of powder, is made the propelling agent : air- 
hole an opening to admit air: air-pipe, a pipe for 
the escape or supply of air: air-plants, plants rooted 
on others, and suspended, as it were, in the air: a^- 
pump a macliine for exhausting or pumping out the 
air from vessels : air-shaft, a passage made into mines 
for the admission of air: air-vessels or air-sacs, spiral 
ducts in plants containing air, analogous to lungs in 

aisie, n. ll (L. ala, a wing; F. aisle or aile, a wing). 
wine of a house ; the side passages of a church— the 
middle passage is called the nave: aisled, a. lid, hav- 
ing aisles. . . , ,, „ 

ait, at (a contr. of eyot, from eye, an island), a small 
flat island in a river. , , ^ „ . 

Aix-beds, dks, the flanks or sides of a deep valley in 
which the town of Aix. in France, is situated, com- 
posed of a thick fresh-water tertiary formation, being 
a perfect storehouse of fossil fishes, plants, and insects. 

ajar, ad. d-jdr' (AS. ceorran, to turn: Swiss, achar, 
ajar), a little opened. , , . , 

ake, n. dk, another spelling of ache, which see. 

akimbo, a. d-klm'-bo (AS. a, at : It. sghembo, crooked, 
athwart: Gr. skumbos, crooked), arched; crooked; 

akin, a. d-Kln' (AS. a; and cyn, family), related to 
by blood; having the same properties. 

al (L.), a prefix, being another form of ad, signify- 
ing to; in At. al signifies the. 

alabandine.n. dl'd-ban'din{L. nlabandicus). a stone 
mentioned by Pliny, and so called from Alabanda, 
where it was cut and polished. It is a sulphuret of 
manganese, and usually occurs in massive granular 

rystals of an iron-black colour and semi-metallic lus- 


alabaster, n. ai'd-bds'tir (Gr. alabasfro7i). a kind 
of soft semi-transparent marble : adj. pert. to. 

alack, int. a-^ct/c' (corrupted from alas), an exclama- 
tion expressive of sorrow: alack-a-day, an exclama- 
tion to express regret or sorrow. 

alacrity, n. d-ldk'-ri-tl (L. alacritax, hvelmcss, 
ardour: F. alacrite), cheerfulness; gaiety; a smart 
willingness or readiness. 

a-la-mode, ad. d'ld-mOd' (F. after the fashion), ac- 
cording to the fashion. . , . , ^ ,,. ,„ 
alarm, v. d-larm' (F. alarmer, to fnghten : It. all 
arme, to arms— from L. ad; arma, anus), to give a 
si"-n to warn of approaching danger ; to surprise; to 
arouse to danger: n. an outcry to announce danger ; 
sudden surprise; terror: alarm'ing, imp : alarmed, 
pp. d-lurmd': alarm'ingly, ad. -li: alarmist, n. 
addnn'-lst, one prone to terrify with danger: alarum, 
n d-ld7<iim, a piece of mechanism in a clock by which 
a loud ringing noise is produced at any fixed time for 
the purpose of rousing one out of sleep. 

alary, a. dl'dr-l (L. ala, a wing) wing-like: alate, 
a. dl'dt, winged; furnished with appendages like 

^"aiaa", int. d-lds' (L. lassus, wearied: Fr. las, vreaiy), 
an exclamation of sonwv or pity. ^ , , -^ 

alb n alb (L. albus, white), a vestment of white 
linen worn by the Roman CathoUc clergy- ^. , 

albatross, n. dl'bd-tros, a large South-Sea bird. 

albeit, conj. dl'-be-U (AS. all, be, and i(), although; 
notwithstanding. , , .. 

Albert co'al Sr albertite, dl'-ber-tlt, a bitummous 
mineral found in Albert county, in the province of 
New Brunswick, North America. 

albescent, a. dloe.s'-ent (L. alhesco, I grow white), 
growing white; moderately white; in bot., having a 
pale tinge or hoary appearance. 

Albigenses, n. plu. dl'-bijSn'-sez, a sect or partj 
who separated from the Church of Rome m the twelfth called from Albigeois in Languedoc , France, 
where they first arose.— not to be confounded with the 
Waldenses, who were a different sect, and arose at a 
different time. ., , 

albino, n. dl-bl'no (L. alUis. white), a person, or 
any animal, with white hair and red eyes; a white 
negro: albinism, n. dl'-bln-izm, state of being an 

^ AlWon, n. dl'bi-6n (L. albus, white), an anc. name 
of England, frequently used in poetry— so called from 
the appearance of the white chalk cliffs on its coast 
to persons coming from the Continent. 

albite, n dV-blt, a variety of felspar of a greyish- 
white or milky-white colour. 

album, n. dl'bnm (L. albus, white), a scrap-book; a 
memorial book: album graecum, n. dl'-bum gre-kum, 
the whitish hardened excrements of dogs, wolves, &c. 

albumen, n. dl-bii'men (L. from albus, white), the 
white of an egg; white matter: albuminoua, a. dl- 
bil'mi-nus, having the nature of albumen 

alburnum, n. dl-biir'-num (L., from cdhus, white), 
the soft white part of a tree next to the bark ; the sap- 
wood: albugineous, a. dl'hn-jln'l-ils, like the white 
of an egg: albugo, n. dlbd'go (L. a white spot), the 
wliite of the eye. _ ,„ ,.!/,.» „ 

alcahest, n. dl'-kd-hesf ; also altahest' (Ar.), a 
pretended universal solvent. 

Alcaic, a. dhkn'ik. relating to Alcsens or to the 
verse invented by him : n. a Greek metre ...^ 

alcaid, n. dl-kdd' (Sp. alcalde), the chief magistrate 
of a town or city in Spain: sometimes spelt alcalde. 
dl-krll'-(U (Sp.) 

alcedo, n. dl-s&'-do (L.). the kmg-fisher. 

alchemy, n. dl'kd-mi (Ar. al kimia, the secret art; 

probably "Ar. al, and Gr. chuma, a melting or fu- 
sion), the professed art of changing the other metals 
into gold; the art that professed to find a universal 
remedy and other impossible things: alchemic, a. 
dlkim'lk; also alchemical, a. dlk^m-l-kdl. relating 
to alchemv: alchemist, n. dVke-misr, on^y/YM prac- 
tises alchemy: al'chemis'tical, a.: al chemls tically. 
ad. -ll. The above are also spelt with y for e, as al- 

^ Scohol. n. dl'kohfjl (Ar. al kohol. the impalpable 
powder of antimony with which the Orientals stain 
their eyelids; a pure extract), spirits of wine; dis- 
tilled spirits highly rectified; the intoxicating prin- 
ciple in all spirituous or fermented liquors: alco- 
holic, a. <w:fc(5./ioi:iA-, pert, to alcohol: alcoholate, n. 
d/:fe5•7i6^:a^ a salt containing alcohol: alcoholise. v. 
dl'ko-tio-llz', to convert into alcohol : al'coholis'ins. 

tre, found in Saxony and South America. 

coiv, boy, foot: pure. Md; chair, game, jog. shun, thing, there, zeal. 




imp.: al'coholised', pp.: alcoholisation, n. -JidVhza' 
shun: alcoholmeter, n. ar-k0-h6l'm(i-ttr (Ar. «/• kohol: 
Gr. metron, a measure), an instrument for ascertain- 
ing the strength of spirits. 

Alcoran, n. ai'kO-ran' (Ax.),the book containing the 
Mohammedan law, precepts, and doctrines— now more 
commonly spelt koran. 

alcove, n. dl-kov' (Sp. alcota, a part of a room railed 
ftflf to hold a bed of state), a recess in a room for a bed 
or sideboard ; a shadv recess in a garden. 

alcyonite, n. dl-sl'd-nit (L. Alcyone, a daughter of 
./Eolus, who, from h>ve to her shipwrecked husband, 
threw herself into the sea, and was changed into the 
bird king-fisher : Gr. hulkuoiie), a general term applied 
to the spongiform fossils so common in the chalk- 

alder, n. Cil-dAr (AS. air: Ger. elUr: Sw. al: L. 
alnus), a tree resembling the hazel: al'dem, a. made 
of alder. 

alderman, n. &, plu. al'dermen (AS. eald, 
old; ealder, an elder, a chief), a senior or superior; a 
civic dignitary next in rank to the mayor: al'der- 
man'ic, a. -f7i,"in the manner of an alderman : al'der- 
manly, a. -II. 

ale, n. al (AS. eale: Icel. 61: Lith. alus— from. Gael. 
ol, to drink), beer; a drink made from malt: ale- 
berry, n. dl'b&r-rl, a beverage made by boiling ale 
with spice, sugar, and sops of bread: ale-cost, an 
herb : ale-hoof, ground i\T : alegar, n. dl'e-gdr (ale, 
and F. aigre, sour), sour ale. 

a-Iee, ad. d-le' (AS. fileo, shelter), a term used to 
denote the position of a ship's helm when put in a 
direction opposite to that from which the wind blows. 

alembic, n. dlem'blk (Ar. al, the; anbiq, a chemi- 
cal vessel in the shape of a gourd: Sp. alamMqiie), a 
gourd-like vessel with a lid, for chemical purposes. 

alength, ad. d-length' (a and length), stretched to 
the full extent. 

alert, a. d-lert' (V. alerte, diligent: It. a Verta, on 
one's guard), watchful; on one's guard; sprightly; 
nimble: alertness, n. watchfulness; nimbleness. 

alethiology, n. a-lc'-thi-ol'-d-jl (Gr. alethes, true; lo- 
gos, word, doctrine), doctrine or principle of truth. 

alethopteris, n. dl'e-thop'tSr-ls (Gr. akthos, trnly; 
pteris, fern), a genus of fossil ferns abounding in the 
lower coal-formations. 

Alexandrine, a. dl'-Sgz-an'drln (city of Alexandria, 
N. Africa), noting a verse of twelve syllables : Al'exan'- 
drian, a. -drl-dn, pert. to. 

alezipharmic, a. d-leks'-l-fdr'mlk (Gr. alexo, I keep 
off; pharmakon, poison), having the effect of expel- 
ling poison or infection by sweat: n. the medicine 
that expels poison: alexiteric, a. d-leks'l-ter'lk (Gr. 
alexo ; deleterion, poison), resisting poison: n. the 
medicine which does so. 

algae, n. dl'je (L. alqa, sea-weed), sea or aquatic 
plants: algous, a. dl'gus, pert, to sea-weed: algoid, 
a. ai'-grtyd (L. alga: Gr. eidos, a form), like sea-weed. 

algebra, n. dl'-jihrd (Ar. al, gabr, the putting to- 
gether of broken things : Sp. and It. algebra), arith- 
metic by signs— commonly the letters of the alphabet 
— the first letters, a, b, c, d, &c., represent known 
quantities, and the last letters, w, x, y, z, unknown 
quantities : algebraic, a. dl-jd-brd'ik ; also alge- 
bra'ical, -Ikdl, jiertiining to algebra,: al'gebra'ical- 
ly, ad. -II: algebra'ist, n. one who is skilled in 

Algerine, a. dl'jd-rln, of or belonging to Algiers: 
n. an inhabitant. 

algor, n. dl'gdr (L. from alrjen. I feel cold), the sense 
of coldness experienced at the onset of fever : algid, 
a. dl'jld, chilled with cold ; become cold. 

alguazil, n. dl'gdzeV (Sp.), an inferior officer of 
justice in Spain. 

alias, con.j. d'H-d.'!, (L. alius, another), otherwise : n. 
a second writ of execution when the first has failed. 

alibi, n. dl'-l-b% (L.), a law term, being elsewhere; 
being with another person in another place. 

alien, n. dl'-yin (L. alienus, of another rountr%'), 
a foreigner; a stranger; one born in or belonging to 
another country: adj. foreign; strange: alienage, 
11. dl-iidn-dj, state of being an alien: alienate, v. 
dl'i/f;n-df, to transfer nnvthinL' to aiiolhcr: to mis- 
apply; to withdraw love or affection fmm: aliena'- 
tmg, imp. : al'iena'ted, pp. : alienable, a. ul'i/fn- 
d-hl, that may be tr.msferred or withdrawn: alien- 
ability, n. dl'yfnihbil' the r)Ping able to be 
transferred : alienation, n. dl'uin-d'shun, the trans- 
fer of anything to another: alienator, n. dl'yvn-d'tOr, 

one who transfers anything: alienee, n. dl'-yin-C, 
one to whom a thing is transferred. 

aliferous, a. dllf-er-us (L. ala. a wing; Jero, I 
carry), having wings: aliform, dVl-fawrni (L. ala; 
jonna, shape), wing-shaped. 

alight, v. d-lir (X^. alihtan, to light on anything, 
especially on the giound), to get or come down; to 
settle on, as birds : alight'ing, imp. : alight'ed, pp. 

alignement, n. d-lln'-mint (F. a row, a level — from 
F. ligiie, a line : L. linea, a line), in viil., the position 
of a body of men in a straight line ; a supposed line to 
preserve a fleet, or part of one, in its just direction. 

alike, a. ad. d-llk' (AS. — see like), the same in 
appearance; not different; in the same manner or 

aliment, v. dl'-l-mint (L. alimentum, food), to 
maintain : n. food ; nourishment ; support : aliment- 
ing, imp. : al'iment'ed, pp. : alimen'tal, a. supply- 
ing food that can nourish : al'imen'tally, ad. -U : ali- 
mentary, a. dl'l-men'-tdrl, having the property of 
nourishing : al'imen'tariness, n. : al'imenta'tlon, n. 
-td'shiin. the power of affording nourishment; the 
state of being nourished: alimony, n. dl'l-mon-l, the 
sum allowed for the support of a wife who is separated 
from her husband: al'imen'tiveness, n. in phren., 
the organ which gives a desire for food and drink. 

aliped, n. al't-ped (L. ala, awing; pes, gen. pedis, 
a foot), an animal, such as the bat, whose, feet, con- 
nected by a membrane, serve as wings. 

aliquant, a. dl'l-kwdnt (L. aliquantum, a little), 
that does not divide exactly. 

aliquot, a. dl'i-ku'dt (L. some— from alius, another; 
quot, how many), that measures or divides exactly; 
an aliquot piart of a number is a part contained in it 
exactly— thus 3 is an aliquot part of 6, y, 12. 

alive, a. d-llv' (AS. a: Goth, liban, to live), endued 
with life; not dead; sprightly; active; easily im- 

alizarine, n. d-llz'd-rln (alizari, anc. name for the 
plaiit madder), a colouring principle in madder. 

alkahest, n. dl'kd-fiest—see alcahest. 

alkali, n. dl'kdll, plu. alkalies, dl'kdUz (Ar. al- 
qali, the salt of ashes), a substance, such as soda or 
potash, which neutralises the action of an acid, and 
changes vegetable blues into green, yellows into 
brown: alkaline, a. dl'-kdlln, having the properties 
of an alkali ; the alkaline earths are li7ne, magnesia, 
baryta, and strontia: alTtalinlty, n. -l-tl: alkalisa- 
tion, n. dl'kdl-l-zd';''hmi, the making a body to have 
the properties of an alkali: alkalisable, a. dl'-kd-llz- 
d-bl: alkalescent, a. dl'kd-les'-&nt, tending to be, 
or slightly alkaline: alkalescence, n. dl'-kd-Us'-ins ; 
also alliales'cency, n. -si: alkalify, v. dl-kdVl/l. to 
convert into an alkali ; to become alkaline: alkal'ify- 
ing, imp. : alkalifled, pp. dl-kdl'lfid : al-kaliA'able, 
a. -fi'-d-bl: alkaligenous, a. dl'-kd-Uj'-6-nus [alkali; 
Gr. gennao, I generate), producing alkali : alkalime- 
ter, n. d.l-kdl-lm'e-ter (alkali ; Gr. 7)i«<?-ou, a measure), 
an instrument u.sed in testing the strength of alkalies : 
alkalim'etrv, n. -tH, the art of finding the strength of 
alkalies: alkaloid, n. dl'kd-loyd {alkali: Gr. eidos, 
form, resemblance), a substance having alkaline pro- 
perties in a slight degree ; the alkaline principle of a 

alkanet, n. dl'kd-net' (Ar. alkanah, a reed), a plant 
whose root yields a red dye. 

alkermes, n. al-kir'-mez (Ar. al; kermes, reddish 
grains of certain oaks), a confection; a compound 

Alkoran, n. (see alcoran), the spelling with k should 
be preferred : al'koran'lc, a. pert, to : al'koran'ist, n. 
one who. 

all, a. awl (AS. eall: Goth, alls: Icel. o7/r— from d 
or ei. aye, ever), the whole; evtsrj'one: n. the whole 
number; the entire thing: ad. wholly: when used in 
union with other words, all generally denotes irho'hi, 
completely, or perfectly: all along, continually,- regii- 
larly: all' that, cdlle<tion of similar things or occur- 
rences; et ca^tcra: all in all, everything: all-fools'- 
day, the first of Ai>ril: all-fours, a game at cards; 
moving on the legs and arms: all-gracious, perfectly 
gracious: all-hail, a pliris(> of salutation expressive 
of .1, wish for health: all-heal, name of a jilant: all- 
just, perfectly just: all-merciful, of perft>et mercy; 
all-hallow, n. all -saints" -day. 1st November: all- 
hallow-tide, n. the time near to 1st November: all- 
saints' -dav, 1st day of November, also named all- 
liallow: all • souls' - day, "Jd of Novemlver: all-spice, 
n. Jamaica pepper or pimento, the fruit of a tree. 

mdte, mdt,/dr, laTv; viCte, mdt, ?idr; pine, pin; nOtc, not, viCve; 




Allah, n. dl'ld (Ar.), the Arabic name for God. 

allantoic, a. ai'dn-to'lk (Gr. alias, a sausage ; eidos, 
form), name of an acid found in the liquor of the Lil- 
ian fois— a. membrane enveloping the foetus. 

aUay, v. dl-ia' (old E. allegge; AS. alecfjan, to lay- 
down: old F. alleger; It. alle.ugiare ,- L. alleviare, to 
lighten, to mitigate), to set at rest; to make quiet; 
to make less in pain or grief: allay'ing, Imp. : allay- 
ed, pp. a-ldd' : allayment, n. dl-lu'ment, state of 
rest after disturbance : allay'er, u. one who or that 

allege, V. ai-lSf{F. alleguer, to produce reasons: L. 
ad, to ; lego, 1 send, I intrust to), to plead as an excuse ; 
to affirm; to declare: alleg'ing, imp.: alleged, pp. 
al-lijd': allegeable, a. d-lej'd-U, capable of being 
alleged: alleg'er, n. one who: allegation, n. dl'-le- 
gd'shun, something offered as a plea or an excuse; 
an affirmation ; an assertion. 

allegiance, n. dl-Wjdns (L. ad, to; mid. L. litgan- 
Ha, the duty of a subject to his lord— from Utus, a 
man owing services to his lord— see liege), the tie or 
duty that binds any one to obedience to the govern- 
ment and laws imder which he lives ; an oath, called 
the oath of allegiaiice. 

allegory, n. dl'l6-g6r'-l (Gr. alios, another, differ- 
ent; agoreuo, I harangue), figurative speech; lan- 
guage that has another meaning than the literal one ; 
the Jews compared to a vine in the 80th Psalm is an 
allegory; allegorise, v. dl'le-go-rlz', to form into an 
allegory; to use figurative speech: al'legori'sing, 
imp. : al'legorised', -rizd', pp. : allegoric, a. dl'-le-gor- 
ik; also al'legor'ical, a. -i-kdl, figurative ; in the man- 
ner of an allegory : allegor'ically, ad. -ll : al'legor'- 
icalness, n. : al'legorist', n. one who. 

allegro, ad. dl-le'gro (It. : F. leger, light, nimble), 
in music, a term denoting merrily ; cheerfidly : n. a 
brisk movement: allegretto, ad. dl'le-gret'tO, a move- 
ment not so quick as allegro. 

alleluiah, n. dl'le-lo'yd—see halleluiah. 

alleviate, v. dl-le'vl-at (L. alleviare, to mitigate 
—from ad; levis, light— see allay), to make light ; to 
make easier ; to lessen, as pain, sorrow : alle'via'ting, 
imp. : alle'via'ted, pp. : alle'via'tion, n. -shiin, the 
a<;t of lessening or making more endurable : alle'vi- 
ative, a. -d'tlv, that lessens or palliates. 

alley, n. dl'll (F. allee, a passage— from aller, to 
go), a narrow walk or passage ; a close. 

alliaceous, a. dl'lt-d'shOs (L. alliuvi, garlic,), pert, 
to the garlic or onion tribe, as alliaceous odour. 

alliance, n. dl-ll'-dns (F. : L. ad; ligo, I bind), imion 
formed by marriage; a treaty or union between 
nations; a union for any purpose : allied, <i/-Hd', pp. 
of ally, which see ; connected by marriage, interest, 
or friendship : allies', see ally. 

alligation, n. dl'li-gd'shun (L. alUgatio, a binding 
or tying to), a rule in arithmetic for finding the value 
or price of any mixture. 

alligator, n. dl'll-ga'-tor (Sp. lagarto, a lizard: L. 
lacerta: Port, allagarto), an animal of the reptile 
kind ; the American crocodile. 

alliteration, n. dl-llt'er-d'shun (L. ad; litera, a let- 
ter), in -Doetr-y, commencing two or more words in the 
same line or verse with the same letter: allit'erat'ive, 
a. -dt'lv, pert. to. 

allochroite, n. dl-ldk'ro-lt (Gr. alios, different; 
chroa, colour), a fine-grained, massive variety of iron- 
ganiet, exhibiting a variety of colours when melted 
with phosphate of soda before the blow-pipe. 

allocate, v. dl'lo-kdt (L. ad; locus, a place), to give 
each one his share or part ; to set apart for any pur- 
pose ; to distribute : al'loca'ting, imp. : alloca'ted, 
pp. : allocation, n. dl'-lo-kd'sfmn, the act of setting 
apart for; the assigning a place for. 

allocution, n. dl'-lO-ku'shun (L. ad: locutus, spok- 
en), a formal address, written or spoken. 

allodium, n. dl-lO'-dl-um (Dan. odel, a patrimonial 
estate: Icel. odal, goods abandoned), land not held 
from a superior; unconditional free tenure : allodial, 
a. dl-lo'dl-al, free of rent ; independent. 

allopathy, n. dhldp'-d-thl (Gr. alios, another; jta- 
thos. disease), that mode of medical practice which 
consists in the use of drugs to produce in the body a 
condition opposite to the disease to be cured. It is 
opposed to homoeopathy (hdm-6-6p'-d4M), which at- 
tempts to cure disease by medicine which, in a state 
of health, would have produced a similar disease. 
allopathic, a. di^W-pcKTi-tfe, pertaining to allopathy: 
allopathlcally, ad. -ll: allop'athist, n. one who 
practises allopathy. 

allophane, n. dl'-lOfdn (Gr. alios, different; phaino. 
I appear), a mineral, generally of a pale-blue colour- 
occurs lining small cavities, and in veins. 

aUot, v. al-l6f (L. ad: Icel. hlutr. lot: F. aUotir— 
see lot), to assign to; to divide and parcel out; to 
apportion: allot'ter, n. one who: allotting, imp.: 
allotted, pp.: allotment, n. that which has been 
parcelled out ; a share ; tlie part assigned. 

allotropy, n. dl-l6t'ro-pl (Gr. alios, another ; trojte, 
a conversion or change), a term employed to denote 
the fact that the same body may exist in more than 
one usual condition, and with different physical char- 
acteristics: allotropic, a. dl'ld-trop'lk, pert. to. 

allow, V. dl-low' {h. ad; laudare, to praise, in one 
sense; Zocare, to place or to let, in another: ¥.allouer, 
to assign), to admit ; to grant ; to permit ; to own ; to 
deduct: allowing, imp.: allowed, pp. dl-loivd' : 
allowable, a. dl-lmo'd-U,XhaX maybe permitted; not 
improper or unlawful: allow'ably, ad. -bit: allow- 
ableness, n. dl-lmv'd-bl-nes, la^vfulness; fitness: al- 
lowance, n. dl-lmv'dns, the act of allowing; permis- 
sion ; a settled rate ; a salary. 

alloy, V. ai-ldy' (F. loi or aloi; It. lega; L. ad, lex, 
the law or rule: Sp. ley, the proportion of silver 
found in ore), to mix any metal with another, gone- 
rally with one less valuable ; to reduce or lessen by 
mixture: n. a baser metal mixed with a finer; a 
mixture of two or more metals ; a mixture of a metal 
with mercury is called an amalgam ; evil mixed with 
good: alloying, imp.: alloyed, pp. al-loyd' : alloy- 
age, n. dlloy'-dj, the act of mixing metals ; a mixture 
of different metals. 

allspice, n. au-l'spls {all and spice), pimento, so call- 
ed from its mixed aromatic flavour. 

allude, V. dl-lod' (L. ad; ludo, I play), to refer to 
something not particularly mentioned; to hint at: 
allu'ding, imp.: allu'ded, pp.: allusion, n. dl-l6'zMm, 
a reference to something not mentioned particu- 
larly; a hint: allusive, a. dl-l6'slv, having reference 
to something but vaguely noticed before: allu'sively, 
ad. -li. 

allure, v. dl-lSi-' (L. ad; F. leiirre, a bait: Ger. 
hulern, to entice), to tempt by the offer of something 
good; to entice, in a good or bad sense: alluring, 
imp.: allured, pp. dl-lord: allurement, n. dl-l6r- 
ment, some real or supposed good that attracts; 
temptation ; enticement to pleasure : allu'rer, n. one 
who : allu'ringly, ad. -ll. 

alluvium, n. dl-l6'vl-um, plu. allu'via (; lavo 
or luo, I wash), earth and other matter deposited any- 
where by the ordinary operations of water; also 
allu'vion: alluvial, a. ahlo'-vl-ai, deposited or laid 
down by means of water. 

ally, V. dl-W (F. allier, to mix: L. ad; ligo, I bind), 
to unite, as families by marriage ; to bind together 
in friendship, as states with states : n. one that is al- 
lied ; a confederate ; plu. allies, dl-lizi', countries or 
persons united by treaty or agreement ; confederates : 
allying, imp. : allied, pp. dl-lid': alliance, n. al-li- 
d7is, union ; confederacy ; association. 

alma -mater, al'ma-md'ter (L. fostering mother), 
a name applied to any university by those who have 
studied in it. 

almanac, n. dl'md-7ic'ik (a supposed corrupted form 
of AS. all-moon-heed or allmonaght, a rude tracing or 
representation of the course of the moon), a small 
book containing the days of the month, with remark- 
able events, the tides, &c. ; a calendar. 

almandine, n. dl'mdn-din' (Allabanda, a city of 
Caria), a lapidary's term for the violet or violet-red 
varieties of spinel, ruby, &c. 

Almighty, a. awl-mlt'-i (AS. : cdl and mighty), pos- 
sessing all power; omnipotent: n. the omnipotent 
God : almight ily, ad. -li: almight'iness, n. 

almond, n. d'mimd (F. amande: Sp. almendra: 
Gr. amnqdalon : L. amygdala), the kernel of the nut 
of the almond-tree : plu. two glands situated on each 
side of the mouth near the base of the tongue : al- 
mond-oil, an oil obtained from almonds. 

almoner, n. dl'mon-er (Ger. almosen, alms: F. nw- 
monier, the officer for dispensing alms : Gr. eleemos- 
une, pity, alms), a person appointed by a king or 
queen, or a monastery, to dispense their alms or 
charity to the poor: almonry, n. dl'mon-rl, the 
residence of the almoner ; the house where alms are 

almost, ad. aii'l'mOstiAS.-.allSiMmost), nearly; for 
the greatest part. 

alms, n. dmz (AS. cclmesse, alms), anj-tbing given 

coV.', boy, foot; pHre, Md; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




to the poor in charity to relieve their wants : alms- 
hoiues, houses for the reception and relief of the 
poor: alms'-deed, an act of charity. 

almug, n. M'mug (Heb. alniug), a tree mentioned in 
Scripture, probably sandal-wood. 

aloe, n. dl'O (Gr. and L. aloe, a bitter herb), name of 
a bitter plant used in medicine: aloes, di-Oz, the juice 
of the aloe: aloetic, a. M'-o-ei'-ik; also al'oet'ical, a. 
• Ikai, of or containing aloes. 

aloft, ad. a-loftf (Icel. d lopt, on high: Ger. luft, 
the air), in the air; among f^eanien, up among the 
rigging: alow, ad. d-lo', in a low place ; not aloft. 

alone, ad. dldn' (all and one), by itself; singly: 
adj. single ; without company. 

along, prep, dldng'; also alongst, prep, d-longst' 
(.-VS. andlang: Ger. entlang: It. Itaujo), bytlie length; 
lengthwise; forward: ad. in company with: along- 
side, by the side of, as a shvp. 

aloof, ad. d-lof (loo/, the windward side of a 
ship ; aloof, on loof— viz., out of danger : Dut. loef, an 

oar-pin), keeping away from ; at a distance from. 
_ .x.a, fox), 


alopecy, n. dl'd-pe'sl; also, alopecia, -shi-d (Gr. 
alopex, a fox), tlie fox-evil or scurf; any kind of bald- 

aloud, ad. d-lmvd' (AS. a, on : Ger. laid, sound), 
with a high tone of voice ; with mucli noise. 

alpaca, n. dl-pak'-a, or paco, pak'-o, a ruminating 
animal of the mountainous districts of S. Amer., al- 
lied to the camel, but of smaller size, and having long 
woolly hair ; a fabric or cloth made from its hair. 

Alpha, n. dl'/d (Gr.), the first letter of the Greek 
alphabet ; tlie first or beginning: alphabet, n. dV-fd- 
bit (Gr. alpha, a ; beta, b), the letters of any language 
arranged in a fi.xed order: alphabetic, a. dl'/d-bet'ik ; 
also al phabet'ical, a. -f kdl, arranged in the order of 
the alphabet : alphabetically, ad. -li. 

Alpine, a. dl'inn (L. alpes, the Alps: Gael, alp, a 
heiglit, a mountain), from or like the Alps ; very ele- 
vated; belonging to elevated regions, as alpine flora: 
al'penstock (Ger.), staff used for ascending the Alps. 

alquifoa, n. dl'kl-/6, an ore of lead called potter's- 

already, ad. awl-rSd'l (all and ready), now ; at this 
time ; at some time 

also, ad. aXol'sO (AS. ealles siva, all so) likewise ; in 
like manner. 

Alstonite, n. dl'ston-U, a mineral of a snow-white 
or greyish-yellow colour, so called from occurring in 
the lead-mines of Alstone Moor, Cumberland. 

alt or alto, n. dlt, dl'to (It.— from L. altiis, high), 
the highest note that can be sung with the natural 
voice by men: alto-rilievo, n. dl'to-rl-le'vO (L. altus; 
and It.), raised figures on a flat surface, so as to show 
one side of them : bas'so-rilie vo is where the figures 
are not so much raised from the flat (It. basso, low) ; 
also called bass-relief. 

altar, n. awl'tdr (L. altare, an altar for sacrifice— 
from Icel. eldr, fire, and am. a Inearth ; or AS. em, a 
]ilace), a small square or round building of turf, wood, 
or stone, varying in liri^-lit, on whirh animals were 
burnt— these were cMni sacriliri's ; tin* communion- 
table: altarage, n. (urV-tar-aj, ijrofits arising to 
priests from obhitions: altar-piece, a painting or 
decoration placed over an altar: altar-cloth, in a 
clmrch, the doth laid ovr an aitar. 

alter, v. aXol'ter (L. alter, anoilicr: V. nlterer , to 
alter), to change; to vai-y; to make diflerent in some 
way: altering, imp.: ailtered, jip. iuri'-i>'ril: alter- 
able, a. aXvl'ter-d-bl, capable of iMin- .iMujred ; that 
may be varied : al terably, nd. -hli. • alterahleness, 
n. (iXvl'tird-blnis ; also alterability, n. a7rl't(':r- 
d-bWl-fl, the being able to be changed: alteration, 
)i.iTc?;^:r-(i:s;u<n, a varying in some way; a change: 
alterative, a. a~vl'ter-d'Uo, having the power to 
.liange or alter : n. a medicine that gradually changes 
th'- eoiistitution or habit of body. 

altercate, v. dl'ter-kdf (L. allerrn, I contend), to 
contend in words; to wrangle: al'terca'ting, imp.: 
al'terca'ted, pp. -. altercation, n. dl'tcr-k<Vshun, a 
contention in words; a wrangling. 

alternate, v. alt-r'-mlt, (L. ulternn, I do .invthing by 
turns), to do by turns; t.. liapjieii by turns ; io'e 
in succession : adj. that .suic<'(m1s or follows bv linns: 
alternating, imp.: alternated, pp.: alternately, 
ad. -/I; alter'nant, a. in find., m alternating layers: 
alternation, n. dl't'rua'-slnoi. tin- art of doing by 
tHHis ; the a<-t of taking one and leaving one in sue- 
cession : alternative, a. dl-trr'na-t)r, otbring a choice 
of two things: n. of two things, an offer to take the 

one and leave the other; often used, of more than 
two: alternatively, ad. -11: alter-native ness, n. : 
alternate generation, a mode of reproduction among 
the lowest animal types, in which the young do not 
reseiiilile the jiarent, but the grand-parent. 

althaea or althea, n. dl-the'd (Gr. althaia: L. althcca, 
the marsh-mallow— from Gr. aVheo, I cure), a genus of 
plants, some of which possess medicinal qualities. 

although, conj. awltho' {all and though), notwith- 

altimeter, n. dltlm'e-ter (L. altus, high : Gr. metron, 
a measure), an instrument for taking heights : altim'- 
etry, n. -e-trl, art of measuring heights. 

altitude, n. dl'-tltud (L. alttts, high: It. alto), 
height, as of a mountain ; extension upwards ; liighest 
point : altitude of a celestial body, the angular dis- 
tani'e of the body from the horizon. 

alto, a. dl'-to (It. — from L. altiw, high), in music, 
high; also in sciti:^.— basso, low, its opposite: al'to- 
rilie'vo, n. (It.), see under alt. 

altogeth'er, ad. awl'-tob-geth'er (all and together), 
wholly; entirely. 

aluin,n. dl'um (L. alumen: Gr. (h)als, salt), a white 
saline substance used in medicine and dyeing: al- 
umed, a. dl'umd, imbued or mixed with altun: alu- 
mina, n. d-l6'ini-nd; also alumine, n. -mln, the clay, 
loam, or other substance from which alum is obtained ; 
jmre alumina consists of oxygen and the new metal 
now called aluminum: alujininiform, a. d-l6-7nln'l- 
fawrm (L. alumen; forma, shape), formed like alumi- 
na: aluminiferous, a. d-ld'mln-ifer-iis (L. alumen; 
fero, I produce), contauiing alum : alu'minous, a. of 
or relating to alum: aliuninite, n. d-l6'ml-nlt, a 
mineral of a silver or yellowish wliite colour : alumi- 
num, n. d-l6' ml-num ; also aluminium, n. d-l6-nnn' 
l-iim, the metallic base of alumina— as a metal, now 
prepared to a considerable extent: al'um-stone, a 
mineral of a white, greyish, or reddish colour, from 
which much of the best alum is procured. 

alumnus, n. d-lum'-nus (L. alumnus, a pupil— from 
alrre, to nourish), a pupil or scholar of a school or 

alunite, n. al'obn-lt (F. alun, alum), alumstone; a 
mineral containing alum, found in min\ite shining 
crystals of a white, greyish, or reddish colour : alun- 
ogene, n. d-l<ron'o-je>i IF. alun; Gr. gennao, I produce), 
an ore of alumina, known as hair-salt or feather-alutn 
—is a frequent eflBorescence on the walls of quarries 
or mines. 

alveary, n. dl'vedr'l (L. alvearium, a beehive— from 
alvus, tlie belly), in anat, the hollow of the external 
ear: alveolar, a. dl-ve'-o-ldr; also alve'olary, a. -i«r:i, 
containing sockets: alveolate, a. -Idt, divided into 
cells or pits : alveole, n. dl've-Ol, the socket of a tooth : 
alveolus, n. dl-re'd-liis (L. a small hollow or cavity), in 
7iaf. Jii'it., a little trough or hollow channel : alveo- 
lites, n. ])lii. <ilve'0-lits, a genus of corals composed 
of lonceutriially-aiTanged tables of short tubes, angu- 
lar without, and rounded within : alvine, a. di-vln, of 
or from the bowels. 

always, ad. awl'-wdz; also, alway ad. a7vl'u-(t (AS. 
ealle ivwga, the whole way), continually; for ever. 

A.M., initial letters of ante nieridiem(L. before mid- 
day) — opposed to P.M., for po.'.t meridiem (L. .attt-r 
mid-day); initial letters of Mogister Artium (L. Mas- 
ter of Arts), an academic degree higher than B..V. 

am,v. d»7i (Mojso-Gothic tjH; Icel. cm: AS. eom: Gr. 
rimi), 1st sing. pres. tense of the verb be; I AM, one of 
God's titles. 

amadou, n. dm'd-dO (F.), Ger. tinder; a sulistjince 
resembling doeskin leather, prepared from a dry lea- 
thery fungus found on old ash and other trees. 

amain, ad. d-))idn' (AS. a; and Goth, inagan, to be 
alile), with energy or force. 

amalgam, n. tlmdl'-gdm (Gr. ama. together; gameo, 
I marry: or ama ; maiagma, that which softens— from 
mulasso, I soften), a mixture of mer<'ury with another 
metal; an alloy of whi'h mercury forms a constituent 
part: amalgarnate, v. (hinai'gd-nuit. to coniiMmnd or 
mix mercury with another metal; to blend; to incor- 
l>orat«': amalgamating, inii>. : amalgamated, pp.: 
amalgamation, n. d-indind-md'.-lnhi, a mixing to- 
gether dilTcrent bodies; a union of two or more bodies 
inti> one, «>■ of railirai/ i(miji(niii\<. 

amanuensis, n. dmdi>'uiii'-sis (L. — from ab, and 
matins, the li;in(l), one who writes down the words of 
another; a writer to iiict;ition. 

amaranth, n. dm'Ordnth ; also am'aran'thua (I,. 
amuruntus: Gr. amarantos, unfading), a (lower in- 

mate, mat, fur, laXr; mite, mit, h&r; pine, pin; nOte, nOt, tnCve; 




<'lined to a purple colour; in poetry, a flower which 
never fades: amaranthine, a. -thin, pert. to. 

amaryllis, n. am'-d-ril'lls (name of a country pirl 
in Virgil), a family of plants esteemed for their beauty; 
the lily-asphodel. 

ama88, v. d-niOs' (F. amas.'^er, to heap up : L. mnssa, 
a mass), to gather into a heap ; to collect many things 
together: amassing, imp.: amassed, pp. a-mast : 
amassment, n. 

amasthenic, a. am'-as-thUn'-lk (Gr. ania, together; 
t'Oienos, force), uniting the chemical rays of light into 
one focus, as a certain kind of lens. 

amateur, n. dm'a-ter' (F. ; L. amator, a lover), one 
who loves and cultivates any art or science, but does 
not follow the one preferred as a profession. 

amativeness, n. lan'a-tlvhi^s (L. amo, I love ; a»nrt- 
fus, loved), a propensity to love; in phren., the name 
of an organ of the brain, the supposed seat of the 
sexual passion : amatory, a. (imUl-tdr'l, relating to 
love; causing love:,toria.l, a. dm'dto'rial : am- 
ato'rially, ad. -dl-H. 

amaurosis, n. dm'aw-ro'sls (Gr. from amauros, 
obscure), decay or loss of sight without visible defect 
in the eye. 

amaze, v. d-maz' (It. smagare : Sp. desmayer, to 
discourage : Norm. F. s'esmaier, to be sad), to strike 
with astonishment or fear: ama'zing, imp.: adj. 
very wonderful ; exciting fear, surprise, or wonder : 
amazed, pp. d-mazd' -. amaze'ment, n. astonishment; 
sudden fear: ama'zingly, ad. -li: amazedness, n. 

Amazon, .n. dm'd-zon (Gr. a, without ; mazos, a 
breast), a race of female warriors ; a river in S. 
-America: amazonian, a. dm'a-z6'-nl-dn, pert, to; of 
bold, masculine manners: am'azon-stone, a bluish- 
green ornamental variety of felspar from the river 

amb or ambi, amh or am'hl (L. or Gr.), a prefix 
signifying both, about. 

ambages, n. dni-ba'jez (L.— from ambi, around ; ago, 
I go), a circuit of words ; a circumlocution. 

ambassador, n. dm-hds'sd-dor (F. ambassodeur : 
mid. L.ambascia: It. anibasciata: old H.Ger. am bahf, 
a minister: Goth, andbahts, a servant), a person sent 
by a sovereign to represent him in a foreign countiy : 
ambas'sadress, n. -dres, a woman who: ambassa- 
dorial, a. -d-do'rl-dl, pert. to. 

amber, n. dm'ber (F. ambre: It. ambra: Sp. ambar: 
Arab, anbar or anbarum), a fossil gum or gum-resin, 
with a tinge of yellow, and serai-transparent, found 
chiefly on the shores of the Baltic Sea : adj. made of 
amber: amber-seed, musk-seed: am'ber-pine, the 
tree producing amber. 

ambergris, n. dm'ber-gres' (F. ambre; and r/ri'?, 
grey— grey amber), an ash-coloured waxy substance 
lound floating on the seas frequented by sperm whales, 
supposed to be an internal secretion from these ani- 
mals—used as a fragrant drug. 

ambidexter, n. dm'bi-deks'-ter (L. ambo, both; dex- 
ter, the right hand), one who uses both hands alike; 
a double dealer : amlsidex'trous, a. -tru.f, able to use 
either hand ; double dealing ; deceitful : am'bidex'- 
trous'ly, ad. -trm'll. 

ambient, a. dm'bi-Snt (L. ambiens, going about), 
surrounding on all sides. 

ambiguity, n. am-bliju'-htl (L. ambiguus, doubt- 
ful—from ambi, around, and ago, I go : F. ambigu .- It. 
(imbiguo), uncertainty as to meaning ; doubtfulness • 
state of doubt: ambiguous, a. dm-blg'-u-vs, doubtful; 
haviftg more meanings than one : ambig'uous'Iy, ad. 
-ifE: ambig'uous'ness, n. -us'nes. 

ambilogy, n. dm-bil'o-jl (L. ambo, both: Gr. lonos, 
discourse), ambiguous discourse: ambiloquy, n. -o-X-wi, 
(L. ambo; loqtii, to speak), ambiguity of expression. 

ambition, n. um-bish'fm (L. ambitio, seeking eagerly 
for a favour— from ambi, around, and ire, to go ; F.), 
the desire of power, fame, excellence, or superiority: 
ambit'ionless, a. : ambitious, a. dm-blsh'us, aspiring; 
• iesirous of fame or superiority ; eager to attain some- 
rhmg : ambitiously, ad. -li. 

amble, v. am'-bl (F. ambler: L. ambtdo. I walk), to 
move at an easy pace, as a horse: n. the pace of a 
horse between a walk and a trot ; a canter : amTjling, 
"tip-: a<U- going at an easy pace, faster than walking : 
ambled, pp. dm'bld: ambler, n. he or that which. 

amblygonite, n. dm-blig'o-nlt (Gr. amblugonios, 
having an obtuse angle— from amblus, blimt; gonia, 
nn angle), a mineral of a greenish-white or sea-green 

amblypterus, n. dm-bllp'ter-us (Gr. amblus, blunt; 
pferon, a fln), a genus of fossil fi.shes, distingui.shed 
by their very large and wide fins, composed of numer- 
ous rays. 

ambreine, n. dm'brdln (see amber), the active prin- 
ciple of ambergris: ambreic, a. -tk, pert. to. 

ambrosia, n. dm-bro'zhl-d (Gr.— from a, not ; brotos, 
mortal), said by the ancients to have been the food of 
the gods ; whatever is pleasant to the taste or smell : 
ambrosial, a. -zhi-dl, pert, to the food of the gods; 
pleiusing to the taste or smell : ambro'sial'ly, ad. -U : 
Ambro sian, a. -zhl-dn, of St Ambrose ; ambrosial. 

ambry, n. dm'brl; also aumry, n. awm'-rl (F. ar- 
moire: Sp. armario: Ger. aimer, a chest or cupboard), 
a place where alms are deposited for distribution to 
the poor, a cupboard or pantry. 

ambs-ace or ames-ace, n. amz'ds (F. ambezntz : 
L. ambo, both, and ace), a double ace ; two aces turned 
up at the same time. 

ambulacra, n. dm'bu-la'krd (L. ambulacrum, a 
walking-pla<;e), the perforated series of plates in the 
crusts of the sea-urchins through which the walking 
feet are protruded : am'bula'cral, a. -krdr, pert. to. 

ambulant, a. dm'bil-ldnt (L. ai7ibulans, walking), 
walking; moving from place to place: ambtilance, 
n. am'bu-ldns, the movable hospital of an army: 
amljula'tion, n. a walking about ; the act of moving 
about: ambulatory, a. am'-biUa'ter-l, that has the 
power of walking : n. a place for walking. 

ambuscade, n. dm'-biis-kdd' (¥. embuscade: It. im- 
boscare, to hide in a wood), a lying in concealment to 
attack an enemy by surprise ; the place where troops 
lie in wait: v. to lie in wait: am'busca'ding, imp.: 
ambush, n. dm'boosh (F. embuche, a snare: It. im, in, 
and bosco, a wood or thicket), a Ijing in wait ; soldiers 
concealed in order to attack an enemy by surprise : 
V. to he in wait for ; to surprise : amTjushing, imp. : 
am'bushed, pp. -boosht. 

ameliorate, v. d-mel'ijo-rdt (L. ad; melior, better: 
F. arneliorcr, to improve), to make better; to im- 
prove: ameliorating, imp. : ameliorated, pp. : 
ameliorator, n. one who : amelioration, n. d-mel- 
yo-rd'-shun, a making better; improvement. 

amen, v. a'men' or d'men' (Heb., Gr.), so let it be : 
n. stability; firmness; tinith. 

amenable, a. d-mehm-bl (F. amener, to bring or 
lead into), liable to answer, liable to be called to a>'- 
count: ame'nably, ad. -bit: amenability, n. -i-tl, 
liability to answer. 

amend, v. d-mend' (F. amender: L. a, from, and 
menda, an error), to correct ; to make or grow better ; 
to improve: amending, imp. : amended, pp.: amend- 
able, a. d-viend'd-bl : amend'ator'y, a. -I, corrective: 
amend'ment, n. a change for tlie better; improve- 
ment : amends, n. a-m^ndz', satisfaction ; a recom- 

amende, n. dmongd' (F. a fine or penalty), repara- 
tion : amende-honorable, a-mongd'-on'o-ra'-bl, a full 
apology for insult or injurj'. 

amenity, n. d-men'l-tl (L. amcenitas, delightfnl- 
ness : F. amenite), pleasantness ; that which delights 
the eye. 

amentia, n. a-men'shl-d (L.— from Gr. a, witl)out ; 
and L. mens, gen. mentis, the mind), imbecility of 
mind; idiotism. 

amentum, n. d-men'tiim; also ament, n. dm'Snt 
(L. a leathern thong), a catkin or imperfect flower 
hanging somewhat like a rope or cat's tail: amenta- 
ceous, dm'en-td'shus, producing catkins. 

amerce, v. d-mcrs' (F. a. at; merci, mercy— contr. 
from L. misericordia, mercy), to cause to pay a sum 
of money by way of punishment : amer'cing, imp. : 
amerced, pp. d-merst' : amercement, n. d-viers'mcnf, 
money paid bywayof punishment or fine at the mercy 
of the court: amercer, n. -ser, one who: amerceable, 
a. d-77iers'd-bl. 

American, a. d-mcr'K-kdn, of or from America : 
Americanism, -izm, an American peculiarity of 

amethyst, n. dm'f-thlst (Gr. amefhustos, without 
intoxication), a prec'ious stone of various colours— 
generally of a purple or violet-blue colour, like wine 
mixed with water: amethystine, a. dm'c-thts'Hn, 
having the violet-blue tinge peculiar to the amethyst ; 
pert, to : amethystoline, am'ethls'16-lln, a name 
applied to the volatile fluid found in the minute 
cavities of the amethyst. 

amiable, a. a'ml-a-bl, (L. amabilis, lovelv: F. 
aimable), worthy or deserving of love or affection ; 

cdic, boy.foot; pilre, hud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




pleasing: amiability, n. a'ml-a-bll'l-tl, sweetness of 
disposition: amiable ness, n. loveliness; agieeable- 
ness : amiably, ad. -bll. 

amianth, u. Anil-anth; also amianthus, n. dm- 
ian'-thus (Gr. a, without; miaino, I soil or pollute), 
that variety of asbestos wliich is found In delicate and 
regular silky fibns: am ian'thiform, (tir. a, miaino; 
L. forma, a shape): am ian'thoid, -thoyd (Gr. a, 
miaino ; eidos, form), having the fonn or likeness of 

amicable, a. flm'l-k(t-hl (L. amicu'i, a friend), 
friendly; peaceable; disjiosed to friendly intercourse : 
amicably, ad. -fj^ J; amicableness, n. tlm'l-kd-bl-nes. 

amice, n. dmUs (L. amictus, an outer garment), 
an oblong piece of linen, resembling an embroidered 
collar, tied about tlie neck of a Kom. Cath. priest. 

amid or amidst, prep, d-mld' or d-mldst' (AS. a, 
on : Icel. 7nidr, the middle), among ; in the middle. 

amide, n. am'id; or am'mide, n. -mid (Gr. ammi, 
a plant; amnion, starcli), a peculiar chemical sub- 
stance entering into a large number of compounds : 
amidine, n. dm'ldin, a substance resulting from the 
action of hot water on starch: amidogen, n. d-mld'O- 
j6n, a peculiar chemical substance: ammonide, n. 
dm'6n-id, an amide. 

amiss, a. d-mls' (AS. on; misse, in error: Dut. 
wit-JsyH, to fail), wrong; faulty; out of order: ad. in a 
faulty manner. 

amity, n. dm'l-ti (L. amo, I love: F. amitie), friend- 
ship ; harmony. 

ammonia, n. dm-mo'ni-d {Amnion, Egyptian god 
Jupiter ; also, place where first found), a transparent 
pungent gas ; a substance used in medicine and the 
arts, from which hartshorn is made; the volatile al- 
kali: ammoniac, a. dm-viohil-dk, pert, to: n. a gum 
brought from Persia, and used in medicine as an ex- 
pectorant: ammoniacal, a. dm'mo-nl'-d-kdl, pert, to 
ammonia; pungent: ammonium, a. -nl-um, the sup- 
posed metallic base of ammonia: sal ammoniac, in 
chem., the salt usually called muriate of ammonia. 

ammonite, n. dm'mon-lt, a varied family of fossil 
chambered shells, coiled in a plane spiral, so called 
from a resemblance to the horns of the statue of the 
ancient Egyptian god Jupiter- Ammon : ammonitidse, 
n. plu. dni'-mon-Wl-de, the family of fossil sheUs of 
which the ammonite is the type. 

ammunition, n. dm'mu-nlsh'un (L. ad; munio, I 
fortify) military stores— as powder, ball, shells, &c. 

amnesty, n. dm'nSs-tl (Gr. and L. amnestia, forget- 
fulness of the past), a general pardon of past offences 
by a government; an act of oblivion. 

amnion, n. dm'nlon; also am'nios (Gr., from amnos, 
a lamb — so called from its softness to the touch), 
in annt., the inner membrane covering the f(Btus ; in 
hot., the covering of the embryo of the seed: am- 
niotic, a. dm'nl-6t'-lk, pert. to. 

among, d-milng'; also amongst, d-miingst', prep. 
(AS. amamj or onmang), mingled or conjoined with. 

amorous, a. dm'-6-rils (L. amor, love: F. mnonreux), 
fond; loving; inclined to love: am'orously, ad. -II: 
am'orous'ness, n. fondness; being inclined to love. 

amorphous, a. d-ni6r'/fis (Gr. a, without; morphe, 
form), having no regular structure or definite fomi : 
amorphozoa, d-mor'fO-zo'-d, (Gr. a, without ; mor- 
phe, form ; zoon, an animal), the lowest class of 
the animal kingdom, such as sponges, that have no 
regular symmetrical structure. 

amortise, v. d-rnor'tU (Norm. F. amortizer: Sp. 
amortizar, to render inalienable — from L. ad, at ; mors, 
'^n\. viortix, death), to transfix lands to mortmain: 
amortised, pp. -tlzd: amortisation, n. -tlz-d'-shiin. 

amount, v. d-nvnont' (L. nd: F. monfer, to ascend — 
from L. vions, a mountain), to risi^ up to in the whole; 
to reach or e.Kt(!nd to : n. sum total : the whole ; the 
result: amounting, imp.: amounted, pp. 

amour, n. d ludr' (F., from L. amor, love), a love 
affair or intrigue. 

ampelite, n. dm'pHl-lt (Gr. ampelox, a vine), a name 
applied to alum-slate; an earth used by the ancients 
to kill insicts oil vines. 

amphl, oin'fi (Or.), a prefix, signifying on both 
sides, about, two; used to imply doulit; sometimes 
cliangi-d into ambl. 

amphibia, n. amfib'-l-d; also, amphibians, -i-.^nz 
(Or. aiuj/hi: hios, life), animals that can live ether iu 
water or on land— as the seal, walrus, fro^r, Ae. : am- 
phib'lan or amphibial, a. port, to: amphibious, i. 
drnflb'-iua, ■.Mr to live on land or in water: amphib- 
iooily, ud. -U: amphibiousness, n. dm/tbU-iis'-jiex. 

amphibichnites, n. plu. dm'fl-blk'nlts (Gr. amphi- 
bid, animals that can live on land or under water; 
ichnon, a footstep), in (;eoi., a generic term applied 
to those footprints of extinct reptiles that seem to 
have been impressed by their feet as they passed over 
the soft yielding beach to and from the water. 

amphibole, n. dm-fib'-O-le; also amphibolite, dm- 
flb'o-lU (Gr. amijhibolos, ambiguous or equivocal), a 
name applied by F. geoL, to hornblende and horn- 
blende rock, from the difficulty of distinguishing them 
from augite. 

amphibrach, n. dm'-fl-brdkf (Gr. amphi, on both 
sides ; brachus, short), in poetry, a foot of three syl- 
lables—a short, a long, and a short, w - « ; in Eng. 
poet., used as the last foot of a line. 

amphid, a. dm'/ld (Gr. amphi, both ; eidoa, a form), 
consisting of acid and a base. 

amphicyon, n. dm-Jlk'l-6n (Gr. amphi, implying 
doubt ; kuon, a dog), a fossil carnivorous quadruped. 

amphigens, n. dw-Zf-jenz (Gr. amphi; genos, birth), 
plants that increase in size by their growth on all 
sides, like the lichens. 

amphisarca, n. dm'fl-sdr'-kd (Gr. amphi, on both 
sides; sar^-, gen. sarkos, flesh), in bot., a particular 
kind of fruit with a hard exterior, and pulp roimd the 
seeds, as in the Baobab. 

amphlsbaena, n. dm'fis-be'nd (Gr. amphisbaina — 
from amphi; baino, I go), a kind of serpent, supposed, 
from the tliickness of the tail, to have two heads, and 
to be able in consequence to move forwards with either. 

amphiscii, n. plu. dm-flsh'-l-l, (Gr. amphi, on both 
sides; skia, a shadow); also amphiscians, dm-Jlsh- 
i-dnz, persons living between the tropics, whose sha- 
dows fall both ways— that is, northward one half of 
the year, and southward during the other. 

amphitheatre, n. dm'fithe'-d-ter (Gr. amphi, on 
both sides ; theatron, a place for seeing, a theatre), a 
large circular building, where plays and games were 
publicly exhibited, with seats gradually rising one 
behind the other; ground rising on more than one 
side from a level : am'phitheat'ncal, a. -thc-dt'-rl-kdl, 
pertaining to an amphitheatre. 

amphitropal, a. dm-flt'ro-pdl (Gr. amphi, around ; 
tropeo, I turn), in bot., applied to an embryo so much 
curved that both ends are brought close together and 
turned towards the hilimi. 

amphora, n. dm'fo-rd (L.— from Gr. am]}hi, on both 
sides ; phorein, to bear), an anc. two-handed earthen 
vessel for holding wine, oil, &c. 

ample, a. dm'pl (L. ainplus, large), large; wide; 
extended; spacious: am'ply, ad. -pll: ampleness, n. 
dm'2)l-n6s, largeness ; sutttciency iu space : ampliat- 
ive, a. dm'pltat'lv, adding to that which is already 
known or received; synthetic: amplify, v. dm'pUjl 
(L. amplus; facio, I make), to increase; to enlarge; 
to describe in many words : am'pliiying, imp. ; am- 
plified, pp. -/id .- amplification, n. dm'pU-fl-ka'shnu, 
the act of enlarging; enlargement; a description iu 
many words : am'pUfl'er, n. one who : amplitude, n. 
dm'pll-tud, largeness or extent of anything ; abun- 

amplezlcaul, a. dm-jMks'l-kawl (L. amplecfor, I 
embrace; caidis, the stem), in &o<., embracing the 
stem over a large part of its circumference, as the base 
of a leaf. 

ampulla, n. dmpfd'ld (L.), among the ancients a 
flask or bottle swelling out in the middle; in bot., a. 
hollow leaf: ampuUaceous, a. dm'poo-la'shiU, in but., 
swollen out in the middle like a bottle. 

amputate, v. dm'jm-tdt (L. amputatits, cut off, 
— from am, round about; jnito, I prune), to cut off au 
arm or a leg; to prune: am'puta'ting, imi'.: am'pu- 
ta'ted, pp. : am'puta'tion, n. -xhnn, the act of cutting 
off a leg, or a jiart of a body ; the act of pruning. 

amuck, ad. a-nmkf (Malay, amok), wildly; madly; 
without discrimination, after the manner of a Malay. 

amulet, n. dm'u-Ut (L. amule.tum, a charm: Ar. 
hamnlat, anything worn, as a sword-belt — from 
hnmala, to carry), something worn, generally around 
the neck, in the" belief that it will ward off disease or 
evil: am'ulet'ic, a. -ik, pert. to. 

amurcous, a. dinur'ki'is (L. «m«rfa — from Gr. 
nmarge. tlie refuse of expressed olives), full of lees or 
scum: am'urcos'ity, n. -kns-htl. 

amuse, v. dnun' (F. a)in(.fr, to detain, to divert, 
—from Gr. a, witbo\it; iinno, I munnur or mutter 
to express displeasure), to till thi' mind with thoughts 
which engage without distracting it; to entertain 
agreeably : amu'sing, imp. : adj. pleasing : also 

mat':, tndt,/^\r, law; mete, mSt, her; pine, 2>'i'i: uOte, not, mOve; 

AMYG 17 

amu'sive, a. entertaining: amused, pp. d-miizd' : 
ajiu'ser, n. one who: amusement, n. that wliich 
diverts ; that which entertains pleasantly : amu'sing- 
ly, ad. -li : amu'sively, ad. -ivll. 

amygdaloid, n. d-mig'dd-ldyd (Gr. amugdalo7i, an 
almond; eidos, appearance), applied to certain igneous 
roclcs containing small almond-shaped cavities filled 
with agate, jasper, and other minerals, having the 
appearance of almonds in a cake : amyg'dalold'al, a. 
pert, to: amygdalate, a. d-viig'-dal-at, made of al- 
monds: n. milJc of almonds: amygdalic, a. dm'-lg- 
dal'-ik, pert, to: amyg'dallne, i\.-dd-lin, a crystalline 
substance obtained Irom almonds: adj. pert, to; also 
amyg'dalin'ic, a. -Un'ik. 

amyline, n. am'i-lln (L. amylum : Gr. amnion, 
starch), the insoluble part of starch : amylic, a. a-niW- 
ik, of or from starch : amylaceous, a. dm'-i-ld'shus, of 
starch; starchy. 

an, d7i (AS. an: Dut. en), noting a single individ- 
ual, but less emphatic than one; the indefinite article, 
put before nouns or adjs. in the sing, beginning with 
a vowel or the sound of a vowel— as, an egg, an hon- 
ourable man. 

ana, dn'd; also sometimes contr. an (Gr. ana), a 
prefix, signifying up, through, among, back, again; 
in composition, similar to ; according to : as a postfix, 
signifying a collection of memorable sayings or loose 
thoughts— as Johnsouiana.- in med., prescriptions de- 
noting a repetition, or, of each. 

anabaptist, n. dnkl-hctp'-tlst (Gr. ana; haptizo,lA\'p 
under water), one who rejects infant baptism: an'- 
abap'tists, a religious sect : an'abaptis'tic, a. -tik: an'- 
abap'tism, n. -tizm, the doctrine of the anabaptists. 

anacamptics, n. plu. dn'd-kdni'tlks (Gr. ana, back ; 
kampto, I bend), the doctrine of reflected light or 
sound : an'acamp'tic, a. pert. to. 

anacardium, n. dn'-d-kdr'-dl-um (Gr. ana, similar to ; 
kardia, the heart), the name of a genus of ornamental 
trees, one of which yields the cashew or marking nut. 

anacatbartic, a. dn'd-kd-thdr'tlk (Gr. ana, upward ; 
katharsis, purging), exciting discharges from the 
mouth and nose : n. a medicine which does so ; oppo- 
site of catbartic. 

anacharis, n. dn-dk'd-ris, a troublesome plant, re- 
markable for the rapidity with which it has recently 
naturalised itself in the canals and rivers of England. 

anachronism, n. dn-dk'rO-nlzm' (Gr. ana, back; 
chronos, time), an error in point of time; a mistake 
in telling when an event happened : anacb'ronis'tic, 
a. -tlk, erroneous in date. 

anaclastics, n. plu. dn'd-kMs'tiks (Gr. ana, back ; 
klasis, a breaking), that part of optics which treats of 
tlie refraction of light— now called dioptrics: an'aclas'- 
tic, a. -tlk, pert. to. 

anaconda, n. dn'd-kon'dd, the largest of serpents ; 
a species of boa belonging exclusively to the Amer. 

anacreontic, a. dn-dk'rS-6n'tik, after the manner of 
the Greek poet Anacreon; joyous. 

anadem, n. dn'd-d6m (L. anadema^-from Gr. ana, 
up ; deiri, to bind), a garland or fillet. 

anadiplosis, n. dn-d-di-plo'sls (Gr. ana, again ; di- 
pious, double), in poet, and rhei., a repetition of the 
last word or words in a line or clause in the beginning 
of the next. 

anadromous, a. dn-dd'ro-mus (Gr. a7ia, up ; dromos, 
a running, a race), in zool., applied to those fish, as the 
salmon and sturgeon, which periodicaUy visit fresh- 
■water lakes and rivers. 

anagls^ph, n. dn'd-glif (Gr. ana, up ; glupho, I en- 
grave), an engraved or sculptured ornament in relief: 
an aglypb'ic, a. -ik, pert, to : an'aglyp'tic, a. -tik, pert, 
to the arts of chasing, engraving, sculpture, &c. 

anagogical, a. dn-d-goj'i-kdl (Gr. a7ia, up; agoge, 
a leading), religiously exalting ; spiritual : aa'agog"!- 
cal'ly, ad. -K. 

anagram, n. dn-d-grdm (Gr. ana, back; gramma, a 
letter), a new word formed from the letters of another 
word; a transposition of letters : an'agrammat'ic, -ik; 
also -ical, a. -i-kdl, pert, to: -ical'ly, ad. -II: an'a- 
gram'matise, v. -tiz, to make anagrams : -tia'ing, 
imp. : -tised', pp. -tizd': -tist, n. one who. 

anagraph, n. dn'd-grdf (Gr. ana, up; grapho, I 
write), a commentary. 

anal, a. d'nal (L. a7ius, the excretory orifice), pert, 
to, or situated near, the anus. 

analcime, n. dn'dl-slm (Gr. a, without; alkimos, 
strong), a zeolitic mineral found abundantly in trap- 
peau rocks, so called from its feebly electric properties. 

caiv, ioy,/obt; pure, twd; chair. 


analects, n. plu. dn'd-lSkts (L. analecta, a slave who 
gatliered up the crumbs left at meal-time: Gr. ana, 
up ; legein, to gather), collected fragments of authors ; 
analectic, a. dn'-d-Uk'tlk, selecting; collected. 

analemma, n. dn'-d-Um'-md (L.— from Gr. ana, up ; 
lambano, 1 take), in geom., a projection of a sphere ou 
the plane of the meridian. 

analepsis, n. dn'-d-Up'-sis (Gr. a recovery), in med., 
recovery; convalescence: an'alep'tic, a. tlk, restora- 
tive : n. a medicine which gives strength. 

analogy, n. d-ndl'6-jl (Gr. ana, similar to; logos, 
ratio, proportion), resemblance between one thing and 
another in some points ; similarity or likeness between 
things in their properties or qualities : analogous, a. 
d-7idl'-0-<ms, bearing some resemblance or proportion 
to: analogical, a. dn'-ddCj'i-kdl, used byway of ;tna- 
logy: analogically, ad. -li: an'alog'icalness,n.: anal- 
ogise, v. d-7idl'-6-jiz, to explain by analogy: anal o- 
gising, imp.: anal'oglsed, pp.: anarogi8t,one wlio: 
anal'ogism, n. -jlzm, investigation by analogy : ana- 
logue, n. dn'd-log, an object that has a resemblance 
to, or correspondence with, another object—*'? 
regards similarity of function, homologue, identity of 
parts : anal'ogously, ad. -ll. 

analysis, n. d-ndl'-i-sls (Gr. a7ia, again; lusis, a 
loosing), the separation of a compound into its ele- 
ments ; the tracing of things to their source ; the 
opposite of synthesis: anal'yaes, plu. -isez; analyse, 
V. dn'd-llz, to separate a compound into its elements ; 
to trace a tiling to its first principles or motives: 
analysing, imp.: analysed, pp. -Hzd: analyst, n. 
d7i'd-list, one who analyses : an'alys'er, n. one who : 
an'alys'able, a. -bl : analytic, a. an'd-lU'lk; also 
analytical, a. -t-kdl, pert, to analysis ; that separates 
a compound into its elements : an'alyt'ically, ad. 
■Ikdl-i : analytics, n. plu. dJi'd-lit'-lks, the science of 

anamnestic, a. dn'd7n-nSs'tlk (Gr. ana, again ; 
mnesis, remembrance), that aids the memory. 

anamorphosis, n. dn'-d-mor'fo-sis (Gr. cwia, again; 
morphe, a form or shape), inpgrspec, an image or pic- 
ture on a plane or curved surface, which appears dis- 
torted or deformed from one point of view, and in just 
proportion from another. 

anancbytes, n. dn'dn-kl'tez, (Gr. ana; chute, a 
mound), a subdivision of fossil sea-urchins, distin- 
guished by their elevated helmet-like or mound-like 
form— known as "shepherds' cro^Mis" or "fairy 

anapest, n. dn'd-pSst (Gr. ana; paio, I beat), a font 
in poetry, consisting of three syllables— the first two 
short, the third long or accented— thus, u u - : an'a- 
pes'tic, a. -tlk, pertaming to an anapest; also ce for e. 

anarcby, n. dn'dr-kl (Gr. a, without ; arche, gov- 
ernment), want of government; a state of lawless 
confusion in a countiy: anarchist, n. an'dr-Mst, one 
who attempts to introduce disorder or confusion into 
a country: anarchic, a. dn-dr'klk; also anarchical, 
a. -kl-kdl, lawless ; confused. 

anasarca, n. d7i'd-sd7<kd (Gr. oma, throughout ; 
sarks, flesh), general dropsy throughout the surface of 
the body: anasarcous, a. dn'-d-sdr'-kHs, dropsical. 

anastatic, a. dn'd-stdt'lk (Gr. ana, up ; states, that 
stands), a term applied to a method of printing from 
zinc plates. 

anastomose, v. dn-ds'td-mOz' (Gr. ana, through ; 
stoma, a mouth), to unite the mouth of one vessel to 
another, as one vein to another: to inosculate: anaa- 
tomo'sing, imp.: anas'tomosed, pp. -77wzrl: anas'- 
tomo'sis, n. -sis, in bot., union of vessels ; union of the 
final ramifications of the veins of a leaf; anas'tomot'- 
ic, a. pert, to : n. a medicine having the power to open 
the mouths of vessels. 

anatase, n. dn'd-tdz (Gr. anatasis, a stretching 
forth), a name for pyramidal titanium ore, of a dark 
indigo blue, hyacinth-red, or yellowish-brown colour. 

anathema, n. d-nath'6-7nd (Gr. and L. an>-tliing de- 
voted, especially to evil— from a7ia, up ; tithemi, I put 
or place), a curse ; a separation for destruction : an- 
athematise, V. d-7idth'6-md-tlz', to pronounce a curse 
against ; to excommunicate : anatbemati'sing, imp. : 
anathematised', pp. -tizd': anath'emati'ser, n. one 
wlio : anath'ematisa'tion, n. -tl-zd'shiin. 

anatomy, n. d-7idt'0-mi (Gr. ana, up ; tome, a cut- 
ting), the art of separating the different parts of a plant 
or of an animal ; the art of dissection : in dramatic la7i- 
guage, a thin, meagre person ; a skeleton : anatomise, 
V. a-ndt'-Omiz', to separate the parts of an animal 
body: anatomising, imp.: anatomised', pp. -jiujU': 

ga7ne,jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




anat'omlst, n. one wlio is skilled in dissecting bodies : 
cjiatomical, a. (In'-d-tom'l-kM, pert, to anat. : an atom - 
ically, sui.-ll: anatomisation, n. a-7iat'd-»U-za'-shini. 
anatropal, a. a-ndt'ro-pal ; also anatropous, a. cin- 
(U'rOpwi (Gr. ana, up or over; trcpo, I turn), in bot., 
an inverted ovule, the hilum and micropyle being neeir 
each other, and the chalaza at the opposite end. 

ancestor, n. an's6s-ter (L. antecessor, he that goes 
before— from a7i<P, before ; cessurn, to go: F. ancestre), 
a forefather ; a progenitor ; a woman is called an an'- 
cestress : ancescral, a. dn-ses'trdl, relating to or de- 
scending from ancestors : ancestry, n. dn's6s-til, 
birth ; descent ; a series of ancestors. 

anchor, n. uiufkOr (L. anchora: Gr. anykura), an 
iron grappling iustnmient which, when dropped on the 
sea-bottom by means of a cable or chain, keeps a ship 
from drifting; any firm support: V. to stop at; to 
fix or rest on : an'chorins:, imp. : anchored, pp. dng' 
kord: an'chorage, n. ang-kor-aj. a place where a ship 
can anchor: anchorable, a. -abl, fit for anchorage: to 
drop or cast anchor, to sink an anchor into the sea to 
keep the sliip from drifting : to weigh anchor, to raise 
the anchor from the sea-bottom : anchor comes home, 
when it drags by the -vaolence of the wind, by a heavy 
sea, or by the force of a current : at anchor, or to ride 
at anchor, when the ship is kept from drifting by the 
anchor having a proper hold on the sea-bottom. 

anchoret, n. dng'kd-ret; also an'chorite, n. -rlt (Gr. 
anachoretes, one who retires— from ana, up, back ; 
ehoreo, I retire), a hermit; a religious recluse: an- 
choretic, a. ang'ko-ret'lk ; also an'choret'ical, a. 
■Ikai, pert, to a hermit or his mode of life. 

anchovy, n. dncho'-vl (Sp. and Port, anchova: 
Sicil. and Geno. anciova), a small fish caught in vast 
numbers in the Mediterranean, used as a sauce. 

anchylosis, n. dng'-kl-l6'-sls (Gr., from angkuloun, 
to crook or stiffen), the immovable state of a joint: 
anchylosed, a. dng'ktldzd', fixed: anchylotic, a. 
I'aig'kllot'lk, pert. to. 

ancient, a. dn-sMnt (F. ancien, old: L. antiquus, 
old : It. anziano), old ; what is long past ; belonging 
to former times : n. (corruption of ensign), the flag or 
streamer of a ship : ancients, n. plu. those who lived 
in old times: an'ciently, ad. -U: an'cientness, n. : 
ancientry, n. dn'shent-ri, ancient lineage. 

ancile, n. dn-sl'le (L.), in anc. Rome, the sacred 
shield of Mars, said to have fallen from heaven. 

ancillary, a. dn'-sll-ldr'l (L. ancilla, a maid-servant), 
subservient; subordinate, as a handmaid. 

ancipital, a. dn-slp'l-tdl (L. anceps, gen. ancipitis, 
doubtful— from am, on both sides; caput, the head), 
doubtful; double-fonned ; double-faced; in bo<., two- 

ancyloceras, n. dn'sl-los'er-ds (Gr. ankulos, crooked 
or curved ; keras, a horn), a genus of fossil chambered 
shells curved like a horn. 

and, couj. dnd (Icel. enn: old Sw. cen: Dan. end), a 
joining word. 

andalnsite, n. dn'dd-l6'-slt (Andalusia, in Sp., where 
first found), one of the garnet family, of varied colours 
—grey to green, violet, blue, «tc.— found in crystals in 

andante, a. dn-ddn'td (It.), in music, moderately 
slow; expressive. 

Andean, a. dn-dc'dn, of or pert, to the Andes, dn- 
diz, a great chain of mountains running through S. 
Americii: andesite, n. dn'dd-slt, a mineral found in 
the Andes containing the felspar called andesine, dn- 
dS-sln, of a white, grey, greenish, or yellowish colour. 
andiron, n. dnd'lrn (mid. L. andeiui: Flem. wen- 
dijser— from tvenden, to turn), in ancient kitchens, the 
iron bar which supported the logs used as fuel, or the 
spit— now applied to movable fire-irons. 

androecium, n. dn-dr6'-sl-Hm (Gr. andra, a man ; oi- 
kus, a house), in bot., the male organs of the flowers. 
androgjrnus, n. dn-droj'lnus (Gr. nnrr. a man; 
f7«n«, a woman), an hermaphrodite: androg'ynal, also 
androg'ynous, a. -nils, of both sexes ; having ni:ib> and 
female florets on the same footstalk: androg'ynal'ly, 
ad. -II. 

android, n. dn'drmjd (lir. aner, a man ; ridos. fdrm), 
an automaton in human fonn : androides, plu. dn-droY- 

anecdote, n. dn'ik-dOt (Gr. anekdnton. not giving 
out— from a, without; cA-. out; d/iton, f^ven). origin- 
ally, secret histurj'— nojc, a short story; a matter in- 
teresting in a man's life (ir coiuluct : anecdotal, a. dn- 
ikdO'-tal; also an'ecdot'ical, a. -i-kdl, jicrt t". 
anemone, n. duein'-O-nii, also spelt anem'ony (Gr., 

from ancmos wind), the wind-flower: anern'onine, a. 
-nln, a substance obtained from the anemone: anem- 
oscope, n. (Gr. anenios, wind ; skopeo, I view), an in- 
strument to show the course of the wind : anemom- 
eter, n. dn'6-m6m'6-ter (Gr. awvws; metron, a, mea.- 
siire), an instrument for determining the course, the 
force, and velocity of winds: an'emom'etry, n. -trl: 
sea-anem'one, see actinia. 

anent, prep, d-nenf (AS. ongean, opposite: Sw. on 
gent, on opposite), regarding ; concerning ; respecting. 
aneroid, n. dn'er-oyd (Gr. a, without ; 7ieros, wet, 
moist; eidos, form), the air barometer, consisting of a 
small metallic box nearly exhausted of air, and easily 
acted upon by the external pressure of the atmosphere. 
aneurism, n. dn'-u-rlzm (Gr. ana, throughout ; 
eurus, broad), the disease of an artery when it ex- 
pands and sometimes bursts, permittmg the blofid 
to spread about in the surromiding tissues: an'enris - 
mal, a. pert. to. 
anew, ad. a-nu' (on new), again ; newly. 
anfractuose, a. dn.-frdk'iuoz (L. anfractus, a 
turning or bending round), wa\'y or sinuous, as the 
anthers of gourds and cucumbers ; full of turnings or 

angel, n. dn'jel (Gr. anggelos, a messenger: L. 
angelus), a heavenly being: angelic, a. dn-jel'-ik; also 
angelical, a. -l-kdl, partaking of the nature of angels : 
angelically, ad. -II: angelicity, n. dn'jel-is'l-tl: an- 
gelica, n. dn-jel'lkd, the name of a plant: an'ge- 
lol'ogy, n. -lol'-dji (Gr. anggelos, a messenger; logos, 
discom-se), the doctrine of angelic beings. 

anger, n. dng'ger (L. angor, sorrow: Icel. angr, 
pain), rage ; displeasure : v. to provoke ; to enrage : 
an'gering, imp.: angered, pp. dng'gad: angry, a. 
dng'gri, displeased; provoked; raging: angerly, aJ. 
dng'ger-ll; also angrily, dng'gri-ll. 

angina, n. dn-Jl'-nd (L. ango, I choke or strangle), 
an inflammation or tumour in the throat, impeding 
respiration: angina- pectoris, -pek'-to-ris (L. ango; 
pectoris, of the breast), a dreadful disease, in wliich a 
most excruciating pain in the breast is felt, with a 
sense of strangulation. 

angiography, n. dn'-jl-og'-rd-fl (Gr. angcion, a ves- 
sel ; graphe, a description), a description of the vessels 
in the human body. 

angiosperms, n. plu. dn'ji-O-spirmz (Gr. angcion. a 
vessel ; spernia, seed), plants which have their seeds 
encased or enclosed in a seed-vessel : an'giosper'mons, 
a. -sper'-mus, having seeds contained in a seed-vessel. 
angle, n. dng'gl {L. angidus, a corner: Gr. angku- 
los, bent : AS. angel, a fish-hook), any comer, small or 
large ; the point or comer where two lines meet ; a 
hook to fish with : v. to fish for anjlihing : an'gling, 
imp. : angled, pp. dng'gld: an'gler, n. one who fishes : 
angular, a. dng'gn-ldr, sharp; pointed; having an- 
gles or corners: an'gularly, ad. -li: angularity, n. 
dng'-gu-ldr'-i-tl, the quality of having corners or an- 
gles : angle-iron, n. a rolled bar of iron of an angular 
shape for fomiing the edges of bridges, safes, &c., or 
the corners of boilers, &c. 

Angles, n. plu. dng'glz (L. angli), a German tribe 
on the Elbe, of the race" of the Suevi, who afterwards 
passed over with the Saxons into Britain and gave 
their name to that country: Angle-land, dng'gl-ldnd, 
England : Anglo, tJng^firW, prefixed to a proper name — 
as Saxon, Norman, &c., denotes partly English : Anglo- 
Saxon, -sdks'dn, partly English and partly Saxon, or 
derived through both. 

Anglican, a. dng'gll-kdn (AS. Angles, the English: 
L. angli), English ; pertaining to England : n. a mem- 
ber of the Church of England : anglice, n. ad. dng'gll- 
se, in the English language or manner : anglicism, n. 
dng'gll-slzm, a way of speaking or writing peculiar to 
the English langiiage ; an English idiom : anglicise, v. 
dng'gll-slz, to render any fomi of expression in an- 
other language into the English idiom : an glici'sing, 
imp. : anglicised, pp. dng'gll-sUd'. 

anguilliform, a. dn-ou-\i'\-fau-nn (L. anguilla, an 
eel ; forma, shape), fonned like an eel or serpent : 
anguineal, a. dngwin'-ldl, of or like a snake. 

anguish, n. dwj'gwish (L. ayignis. a snake, referring 
to tlu' writhiTig or twisting of the animal body when 
in pain : F. migoi.fse: Gr. atigos. a fuiii'ral urn), intense 
pain (if body 'or mind; excessive ^'riof: v. to infliit 
anguisli : an gulshing, imp. : anguished, pp. -gwlsht. 
angular— sec under angle. 

anhelation, n. (l«:/i(';(t:.s7ii(?i (L. nnhflo, I breathe 
will) diiliculty— from Gr. ana, up: L. halo, I breathe), 
state of being out of breath ; a panting. 

mate, mat, far, laTv; niCte, mit, Mr; pine, pin; nOte, nOt, niOve; 




anbydrons, a. dnla'drus {Gr. an, without; Jiudor, 
water), not having any water ; dry ; applied to miner- 
iils and gases not having Avater as an ingredient: 
anhydrite, n. dn-hl'drlt, a transparent sulphate of 
lime found in a crystalline form without the usual 
ingredient of water. 

anil, n. dn'-ll (F. ; Arab, annil), the indigo plant. 

anile, a. dn'U (L. aiiilis — from amis, an old wo- 
Dian), pert, to an old woman ; aged ; imbecile : anil- 
ity, n. dn-tl'l-tl, dotage. 

animadvert, V. dn'l-mad-vert' (L. animus, the mind, 
or anima, the soul or principle of life ; ad, to ; verto, I 
turn), to turn the mind to ; to consider ; to remark 
upon : animadverting, imp. : an'imadvert'ed, pp. : 
an imadvert'er, n. on(s who: animadversion, n. 
■ ver'shun, severe reproof; censure. 

animal, n. dn'lmdl (L. animal, a living creature), 
a bodypossessedoflife, sensation, and power of motion; 
adj. pertaining to a living creature; gross; opposite 
of spiritual: animalise, v. dn'-l-mdl-lzf, to give ani- 
mal life to : an'imali'sing, imp. : an'imalised', pp. 
■lizd' : animalisation, n. dn'l-mal'-l-zd'shun, the act 
of endowing with life : animalism', n. -izm', sensual 
indulgence; mere life without intellectual activity: 
an'imal'ity, n. -l-ti, state of animal existence. 

animalcule, n. d7i'l-mdl'kul (L. animalculum), a 
creature very small or very minute, generally invis- 
ible to the naked eye: plu. an'imal'cula, also an'i- 
marcnles, -krdz: an imal'cular, a. ; also an'imal'cu- 
line, a. -U71, pert. to. 

animate, v. dn'-i-mdt (L. anima, the animal life), to 
give life to ; to enliven ; to invigorate ; to inspirit : 
adj. alive: an'ima'ting, imp.: animated, ^p. : adj. 
lively ; vigorous : an'ima'tor, n. one who : animation, 
n. dn'l-md'-shun, the state of being animated ; pos- 
sessing life or spirit : an'ima'tingly, ad. -li : anima- 
tive, a. dn'l-md'tlv, capable of giving life. 

anime, n. dn'lm-S (Sp.), a white resinous drug 
brought from America. 

animosity, n. dn'l-mos'l-tl (F.: L. animus, mind; 
OS us, hating— from odi, I hate), violent hatred ; a high 
degree of enmity: animus, n. dn'l-mus, the feeling 
that prompts; purpose; temper. 

anion, n. dn'l-iin (Gr. ana, up ; ienai, to go), an elec- 
tro-negative body. 

anise, n. dn'ls (L. anisum : Gr. anizon), an annual 
plant whose seeds have an aromatic smell, and pleas- 
ant warm taste: anise-seed or aniseed, dn'-i-sed, 
the seed of the plant : anisette, dn'l-zet', aniseed cor- 

anisostemonous, a. dn'l-sds-tem'd-nus (Gr. anisos, 
unequal ; steman, L. stamen, a thread, a fibre), in hot., 
stamens not equal in number to the iloral envelopes, 
nor a multiple of them. 

anker, n. dng'-Mr, a Dutch liquid measure. 

ankle, n. dng'-kl (AS. ancleow: Ger. enkel, an ankle : 
Gr, angkule, a loop, the bending of the leg), the joint 
that connects the foot with the leg : anklet, n. dng- 
km, an ornament for the ankle : aukled, a. dng'kld, 
having or pert, to ankles. 

anna, n. dnhid, in the East Indies, a coin, value 

annals, n. dn'ndlz (L. annus, a year), a brief narra- 
tive of events divided into periods, each period con- 
sisting of one year: an'nalist, n. a writer of annals: 
annats, n. plu. dn'ndts, a year's income of a spiritual 
living; in Eng., applied to the augmentation of poor 
livings; in Scot, a half-year's stipend paid to the 
heirs of a deceased clergyman. 

anneal, v. dn-neV (AS. an, on : It. niello, a kind of 
black enamel on gold or silver : F. neller, to enamel), 
to temper ; to heat glass or metal, and then to cool 
slowly, in order to render less brittle: annealing, 
imp.: annealed, pp. dn-neld' : anneal'ing furnace, a 
furnace for annealing. 

annelida, n. dn-nil'l-dd; also an'nelids (L. aivnel- 
lus. a little ring : Gr. eidos, fonn), those creatures that 
have their bodies formed of a gi-eat number of small 
rings, as the earth-worm. 

annex, v. dn-niks' (L. ad, to; nexus, tied), to unite; to 
join to the end ; to affix : annexing, imp. : annexed, 
pp. dn-nekst': annexible, a. dn-neks'l-U, that may 
be annexed : annexation, n. dn'-niksd'shun, the act 
of uniting or joining to ; addition of something : an- 
nexe, n. dn-neks', a wing to a building, or an out- 
building communicating with the main one. 

annihilate, v. dn-nl'-hhldt (L. ad: nihil, nothing), 
to reduce to nothing ; to destroy a body utterly, or the 
peculiar properties of a body : anni'hila'ting, imp. : 

anniliila ted, pp. : anni hila'tor, n, that which : an- 
niliila tion, n. -Id-la'-shun, the act of reducing to no- 
thing ; a total destruction. 

anniversary, n. d7i'-nl-ver'sdr-l (L. annus, a year ; 
versus, turned), the day on which an event is annually 
celebrated ; the yearly return of any event: adj. at a 
stated time ; returning with the year. 

annotate, v. dn'no-tat (L. annoto, I set doAvn in 
writing— from ad, to or at ; nota, a mark), to make 
written remarks on a book : an'nota'ting, imp. : an'- 
nota'ted, pp.: an'nota'tion, n. -ta'shnn, a written 
remark on some passage of a book ; a note ; generally 
used in the plu. an'nota'tions : annotatory, a. dn- 
nO'td-tor'l, containing annotations: annotator, n. 
dn'no-ta'tOr, one who writes notes on a book. 

annotto, n. dn-not'o; also amot'to, which see. 

annotmce, v. dn-mtions' (F. annoncer: It. annun- 
ziare, to declare— from L. ad, to ; nuncio, I tell), to tell 
to; to declare; to publish: announ'cing, imp : an- 
nounced, pp. -noivnsf : announcement, n. dn- 
nolvns'mSnt, a declaration ; the act of giving notice ; 
publication: announcer, n. dn-nmvn'ser, one who. 

annoy, v. dn-noy' (It. annoiare, F. ennuyer, to an- 
noy or vex— from L. ad; noceo, I hurt or injure: Sp. 
enoyo, anger, offence), to vex ; to tease or molest ; to 
harass: annoyance, n. dr!.-7ioi/'(i;is,- something that 
teases ; a matter that harasses or molests : annoy' er, 
n. one who : annojr^ing, imp. : annoyed', pp. -noyd'. 

annual, a. dn'-mldl (L. annus, a year: F. annuel: 
It. annuale], yearly; that returns every year: n. a 
flower or plant that grows and dies within a year ; a 
book published every year: an'nual'ly, ad. -II: an- 
nuity, n. dn-ni'M-tl, a fixed sum of money paid every 
year: annuitant, n. dn-nu'-i-tdnt, one who receives 
a sum of money every year for maintenance. 

annul, V. dnmd' (h. ad, to; nullus, none, no: F. 
annuler), to make of no effect ; to make void ; to abo- 
lish: annulling, imp.: annulled', pp. dn-nuld' : an- 
nul'ment, n. the act of making void. 

annular, a. dn'-nuddr ; also annulary, a. dn'nu- 
Idr'-l (L. (tnnidus, a ring), having the foim of a ring: 
an'nular'ly, ad. -11: an'nula'ted, a. furnished with 
rings : an'nulose', a. -lozf, composed of many rings : 
an'nulet, n. a little ring : annularia, n. dn'ml-ld'rl-d, 
a genus of fossil herbaceous plants, having whorls on 
the same plane with their stems, supposed to have 
been aquatic: annulosa, n. dn'nu-lo'-sd, a term applied 
to the articulata, in allusion to their ringed bodies. 

annunciate, v. dn-nun'sMdt (L. ad, to; nuncio, I 
teU), to declare; to bring tidings: annim'cia'ting, 
imp.: annun'cia'ted, pp.: annunciator, n. one who: 
annun'cia'tion, n. -shl-d'-shiin, the act of announcing. 

anode, n. dn'od (Gr. ana, up ; (h)odos, a way), the 
positive pole; the way by which electricity enters 
substances through which it can pass. 

anodon, n. dn'O-don; also an'odon'ta (Gr. an, with- 
out ; odoxis, gen. odontos, a tooth), the river-mussel. 

anodyne, n. dn'O-dln (Gr. ayi, without; oditne, 
pain), any medicine that relieves pain: adj. soothing. 

anoint, v. d-noynt' (Norm. F. enoindre, to anoint — 
from L. in, in, and imgo, I anoint), to rub or smear 
with oil; to consecrate : anoint'er, n. one who : anoint- 
ed, pp.: n. the Messiah: adj. consecrated: anointing, 
imp.: n. the act of smearing with oil: adj. rubbing 
with oil: anointment, n. the act of anointing. 

anomaly, n. d-nom'-d-ll (Gr. anomalos, rough, un- 
even—from an, not ; (h)omalos, like to, or similar), 
irregularity; a departure from the common rule: 
anomalous, a. -liis, irregular; anomalous ly, ad. -U: 
anomalistic, a. d-ndm'd-lis'tfk, irregular; departing 
from common or established rules : also, anom'alls'- 
tical, a. -ti-kdl. 

a.nomopteri8, n. dn'o-mdp'ter-ls (Gr. anowos, with- 
out rule ; pteris, fern), fossil ferns, ditTering from all 
recent ones, having the leaves very large and deeply 

anomoura or anomura, n. dn'O-md'rd (Gr. n«o- 
mos, irregular, without nile ; oura, a tail), a family of 
crustaceans characterised by their irregular taUs, as 
the hermit-crab ; an'omou'ral, a. pert. to. 

anon, ad. d-ndn'(\S. on an, in one), soon; quickly. 

anonymous, a. d-non'l-mus (L. anonymus, without 
a name— from Gr. a, without; onoma, a name: F. 
anonymc), having no name; without the name of the 
author or writer: anon'3rmous'ly, ad. -U. 

anoplotheriimi, n. dn'-oplO-thi'-H-um (Gr. a, with- 
o>it; (h)oj)lon, a weapon; therion, a wild beast), a 
genus of fossil quadrupeds destitute of any organs of 
defence, as tusks, claws, or horns. 

c&«), lo~j,/vot; pure, hiid; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 


uiorthite, n. d-nor'thit (Gr. a, without; 07-thos, 
uprif'ht). one of the felspar family whose cleavages 
aro \?ithout right angles. 

another, a. a-Hutfi'er{one and other), not the same; 
one more. 

anoora, n. a-n6'rd (Gr. a, without; oura, a tail), a 
class of reptiles without tails, as the frog, toad, &c. : 
anourous, a. -rns, destitute of a tail. 

anserine, a. dn'-ser-ln (L. aiistr, a goose), of the 
goose tribe ; uneven. 

answer, v. aii'str (AS. andsivariaii—tTom and, 
ag:iinst, and sicerian: Goth, svaran, to swear Icel. 
nvara. to answer), to reply; to be accountable for; 
to suit: n. sonietliing saiil in reply to a question: 
answering, imp.: answered, pp. dn-serd: an'swerer, 
n. one who: answerable, a. an'-ser-a-bl, what may be 
replied to; accountable; suitable: an'swerably, ad. 
-Hi: an'swerableness, n.: answerless, a. that cannot 
be answered. 

ant, diit; or anti, dn-il {Gr.), a prefix meaning 
against, opposite. 

ant, n. dnt (AS. cemef), a smnll insect ; an emmet— 
of which it is a contracted form : ant'-hill, a nest of 
ants : ant-eater, a quadruped, having a long snout or 
muzzle and long tongue, which feeds upon ants. 

antacid, n. d7it-dsHd (Gr. anti, against: L. acidus, 
acid), any substance, as potash, soda, imignesia, lime, 
Ac, which coiuiteracts acidity or neutralises it. 

antagonist, n. dn-tdg'-o-nist (Gr. anti, against ; agon- 
istes, a combatant), one who contends with another; 
an opponent ; an enemy: antag'oniam.n. -7ilz)n, active 
opposition : antagonise, v. dn-tdg'o-nlz', to act in 
opposition; to strive against: antag'onis'ing, imp.: 
antagonised, pp. -nlzd: antagonistic, a. dn-tdg'o- 
nls'tfk, striving against : antag onis'tical'ly, ad. -nis' 
Ukdl'i: antag onis'tic forces, two powers in nature, 
the one comiteracting the other, as fire and water. 

antalgic, a. dnt-dV-jlk (Gr. anti, against; algos, 
pain), applied to that which can assuage pain. 

antarctic, a. dnt-drk'tlk (Gr. a7iti, opposite ; arJdos, 

the constellation of the Bear), opposite to the northern 

or arctic pole ; a circle about 23^ deg. from the S. pole. 

ante, dii'td (L.), a prefix meaning before, either in 

time or place. 

antecede, v. dn'tS-sSd' (L. ante, before ; cedo, I go), 
to go before in time: an'tece'ding, imp.: an'tece'ded, 
pp. : an'tece'dent, n. -se'-d6nt, that which goes before 
in time or place : adj. going before in time or place : 
antecedently, ad. -U. an'tece'dence, n. -dens; or 
an tece'dency, n. -si .• an'teces'sor, n. (L. ante ; cessus, 
gone), one who lived or possessed before another. 

ante-chamber, n. dn't6-cham'ber ; also ante-room, 
n. (L. ante, before, and chamber), aroom to be passed 
through to a principal room. 

antecians, n. plu. dn-te'sM-dnz ; also antoeci, n. 
plu. d7i-te'sl (Gr. anti, against ; oikeo, I dwell), those 
who live in the same latitude and longitude, but on 
different sides of the equator. 

antedate, v. dn'te-dat (L. ante: datum, to give), to 
date before the true time : an'teda'ting, imp. : an'- 
teda'ted, pp. 

antediluvian, a. d7i'tSdl-l6'vl-dn ; also antedilu- 
vial, a. -vl-al (L. ante; diluvium, a deluge), existing 
or happening before the flood of Noah: n. one who 
lived before the flood. 

antelope, n. dn'te-lOp (Gr. antholops— from aiitlms, 
beauty ; ops, the eye), a beautiful creature, partly like 
a deer and partly like a goat. 

antelucan, a. dn't6-l6'ka7i{L. ante ; lux, gen. lucis, 
liglit). before daylight. 

antemeridian, a. dn'te-mdrld'-ldn, (L. ante; meri- 
dins, mid-day), before noon or twelve o'clock: post- 
meridian, after twelve o'clock. 

antemundane, a. dn'ti-mun'dan (L. ante; mundus, 
X\\>- world), before the creation of the world. 

antennae, n. plu. da-tS7i'7ie (L. antenna, a sail-yard), 
th>- feelers or horns of insects, Crustacea, &c.: anten'- 
nal, a. pert. to. 

antenuptial, a. dn'td-tnlp'shai (L. ante; nuptia:, 
marriage), tieing before nuptials or marriage. 

antepa3chal,a. dn'tS-pds'kal (L. U7ile and paschal), 
pert, to the time befure Kaster. 

antepast n. dn'te-2>dst (L. ante; pastiis, fed), a fore- 

antepenult, n. an'tlipinxUt' (L. ai\fe, before; peiie, 
almost; uUhiiiis, last), in a 7cord, the last syllable 

but two: antepenultimate, a. ■2Jin-ul'tl-mdt, pert 
to tlie last syllable but two. 
anterior, a. an-tC'rl-er (L.), before In time or place 

mate, mat,fdr, laTv; mite, mCt, Mr; pXne.iAn; nOte, nOt, jnCve: 


previous; in front: anteriorly, ad. -Zl. anteriority, 
n. -l-tl, priority. 

anthelion, n. dnt-he'llOn (Gr. a7}ti, over against; 
(li)etios, the sun), a bright spot opposite to the sun: 
anthelia, plu. 

anthelmintic, a. d7i'thSlmln'tlk (Gr. a7iti, against; 
elmins, a tape-worm), destructive to intestinal worms : 
n. the medicine. 

anthem, n. d7i'thSm (Gr. anti, opposite ; {h)umnos, a 
hymn: AS. a7ite/en: F. a7itienne), a sacred song, or 
a portion of Scripture set to music. 

anther, n. dn'ther (Gr. a7itherus, flowery, blooming), 
in bot, the head part of the stamen of a flower, con- 
taining the pollen or fertilising dust: antheral, a. 
pert, to: antheriferoos, a. dn-tlwr-i/'-er-iis (Gr. a»j- 
tlieros : L. J'eru, I bear), bearing anthers or flowers. 

anthesis, u. dn-the-als (Gr. a7itlie3is, bloom— from 
anthos, a flower), in bot., the opening or bursting of 
the flower. 

anthocarpous, a. a7i'th6-kdr'piis (Gr. a7Uhos, a 
flower ; kaipos, fruit), fonned, as a certain class of 
fruits, from a number of blossoms united into one body, 
anthodium, n. dn-tho'di-wn (Gr. anthos, a flower ; 
duo, I put on), the capitulum or head of flowers of 
composite plants. 

antholites, n. plu. dn'tho-llts; or antholithes, n. 
plu. dn'thO-ll'thcz (Gr. a7ithos, a flower; lithos, a 
stone), a general term for the fossil impressions of 
flowers, such as occur in the shales of the coal-measures, 
anthology, n. dn-thdl'-o-ji (Gr. anthos; logos, dis- 
course), a discourse on flowei-s ; a collection or selec- 
tion of flowers of literature : an'tholog'ical, a. pert. to. 
anthophore, n. dn'-tho-for (Gr. anthos, a flower; 
phero, I carry), in bot., a stalk supporting the inner 
floral envelopes and separating them from the calyx, 
anthophylite, u. dn'tho-/U-7t (Gr. anthos; phul- 
lon, a leaf), a variety of hornblende of a grey or clove- 
brown colour, so named from the resemblance of its 
coloiu- to that of the anthophyllwn or clove. 

anthracite, n. d7i'thrd-slt' (Gr. a7ithrakis, a burn- 
ing coal), a hard shining coal that bums without 
smoke or flame: anthraconite, n. d7i-thrdJc'6-n'it, a 
term applied to those varieties of marble wliich have 
a coal-black lustre when polished: an'thracit'ic, a. 
-slt'lk, pert. to. 

anthracosanms, n. dn'thrd-ko-saw'rus {Gr. anthrax, 
coal ; sauros, a lizard), a large fossil saurian occuiTing 
in the coal-measures of Britain. 

anthracotherium, n. -ko-the'ri-iim (Gr. anthrax; 
therion, a wild beast), a fossil thick-skinned animal of 
the hippopotamus kind, found among the lignites or 
wood-coals of Liguria. 

anthrakerpeton, n. -ker'pi-ton (Gr. anthrax; eipe- 
ton, a reptile), a genus of fossil reptiles of a primi- 
tive air-breathing type. 

anthropography, n. dn'-thi-O-jwg'-rd-fl (Gr. anthro- 
jMn, a man ; graphe, a writing), tliat branch of physi- 
cal geography which treats of the distribution of the 
human species: anthropoid, a. dn'thrO-pmid' (Gr. 
— ; eidos, a form), applied to those species of the mon- 
kev which most nearly approach the human form: 
anthropolite, n. d7ithr6p-6lit (Gr. — ; litho.t. a 
stone), a petrifaction of the human body : anthro- 
pology, n. dn'thro-pol'd-jl (Gr. — ; logos, discoui-se), 
the natural historj' of the human species : an'thropo- 
log'ical, a. -loj'l-kdl, pert, to: anthropopathy, n. 
dn'-thro-iwp'd-thi (Gr. — ; pathos, aflfection or feeling), 
human aft'ections or passions as pert, to the Supreme 
Being : an'thropopath'ical, a. 

anthropomorphite, n. dn'thrdpO-inor'/U (Gr. an- 
thropos, man; 7norphe, form, sliape), one wlio attri- 
butes a human form to the Deity: -mor'phism, n. 
the doctrine : -mor'phous, a. pert, to that which re- 
semliles a human form. 

anthropophagi, n. plu. dn'thr6-p6f-d-jl (Gr. a7itfiro- 
j)os, a man ; p}i:igi'>n. to cat), cannibals ; men that eat 
human flesli : an'thropoph'agou?, a. -]>o/-d-g>is, feed- 
ing on luiman flisli : anthropophagy, u. -pof-djl, 
bin- jiraiticr of .-atin- liiiiiiaii llcsli. 

anti, un'tKV^T.). a prrfix, witli its fonn ant, signifies 
against or opposite; in ])la( e of. 

antibilious, a. dn'ti-bil'-i-ns. (Gr. atiti, against, and 
bili'ius), good for tlie cure ol' bilious comnlainta.- 

antic, a. dn'-tik (L. antv/inui, old), odd; fanciful: 
n. odd appearance; a buffoon: antlcly, ad. -H. 

antichrist, n. d7i'tlkr}st (Gr. a/iti, against, and 
Cliri^f), a false Christ; an antagonist of Ciirist: anti- 
Christian, a. -krlst'hdn, opi>osing the Christian reli- 
gion, or opposite to it. 




anticipate, v. dn-ils'l-pat (L. ante, before; capio, 
I take), to be beforehand ; to take first possession ; 
to take before the proper time; to foretaste: an-- 
tic'ipa'ting, imp. : antic ipa'ted, pp. : anticipation, 
11. -p&'shun, the act of anticipating; prevention: an- 
tic ipa'tor, n. one who: antic'ipa'tive,a. -pd'My; also 
antic ipa'tory, a. -pu't6r-l, takmg beforehand. 

anticlinal, a. an-tl-kll'-nill (Gr. anti, against ; klino, 
I bend), in t/eoZ., applied to strata which dip in opposite 
directions m a roof -like form ; opposite of synclinal. 

anticous, a. dn'-tl-kus (L. anticus, in front), in bot., 
placed in front of a flower, as the lip of oruliids. 

antidote, u. cln'tl-dot (Gr. antidotos, a remedy— 
from anti, against ; didonai to give), a medicine to 
counteract tlie bad effects of poison; a remedy for 
any evil: antidotal, a. an'tl-do-tdl ; also an'tidot'ical, 
a -i-Ml, expelling the effects of poison : an'tido'tally, 
ad. -tal-l: an'tidot'ical'ly, ad. -U. 

antimony, n. dn'-tl-mo7i-l (L. antimonirim: F. an- 
timoine), a metallic substance, much used as an al- 
loy: antimonial, a. an'-ti-mo'nl-al, pert, to antimony, 
or containing it: n. the medicine: an'timo'niate, 
n. -ni-dt, a salt of antimonic acid: an'timo'niat'ed, 
a. dt'ed, made of antimony or mixed with it : an ti- 
mon'ic, a. -ik; also an'timo'nious, a. -ni-us, of anti- 
mony ; applied to the acids of antimony : antimonite, 
n. d7i'ti-m6nW, a salt of antimonious acid. 

antinomian, n. dn'-ti-no'-mi-dn (Gr. anti, against ; 
nomas, law), one who denies that the moral law is 
binding on Christians, and affirms that faith alone is 
necessary to salvation: adj. relating to: an'tino'mian- 
ism', n. -izm', the tenets of: antinomy, n. dn-tln'-6in-l, 
the opposition of one law or rule to another law or 

antipathy, n. dn-tlp'd-tM (Gr. anti, against ; pathos, 
feeling), a feeling of hatred ; natural aversion. 

antiphlogistic, a. dn'tl-flo-jls'tlk (Gr. anti; jMogizo, 
I consume or bum up), applied to medical treatment 
intended to subdue inflammation : n. a medicine that 
checks intiammation. 

antiphony, also antiphone, n. dn-tlf-o-nH (Gr. 
anti, opposite ; phone, sound), the alternate singing 
of two choirs: antiphonal, a. dn-tlf-O-ndl, pert, to: 
n. a book of antiphons or anthems: antiphon, n. 
dn'-tl-fon, the chant of alternate singing in choirs. 

antiphrasis, n. dn-tlf'ra-sis (Gr. anti, opposite ; 
phrasis, a form of speech), the use of words in a sense 
opposite to their proper meaning ; irony : an'tiphras'- 
tical, a. -tl-kdl: an'tiphras'tically, ad. -kdl't. 

antipodes, n. plu. an-tlp'-O-dez (Gr. anti, opposite ; 
podes, feet), those who live on the opposite side of the 
globe, and whose feet are directly opposite to those 
of the speaker: antipode, n. dn'4l-p6d, one who 
lives on the opposite side of the globe : antipodal, a. 
having the feet directly opposite. 

antiquarian, n. dn-tl-kvja'rl-dn, or antiquary, n. 
dn'ti-kwd-rl (L. antiquarius, studious of antiquity— 
from antiquus, old), a person who studies the history 
of ancient things: adj. pert, to antiquity: an'ti- 
qua'rianism, n. : antiquate, v. d7i'tl-kivdt, to put out 
of use; to make old: antiqua'ting.imp.: an'tiqua'ted, 
pp.: adj. grown old; old-fashioned: an'tiqua'tedly, 
ad. -li: an'tiqua'tedness, n. : antique, a. an-tok' (F. 
atitique), old ; ancient : n. a remnant of antiquity ; a 
relic: antiquely, ad. -li: antiqueneas, n. dn-tek-n6s, 
ancientness ; the appearance of being old : antiq\iity, 
n. dn-tlk'wl-tl, former ages; times long since past; 
antiquities, plu. dti-tlk'ivi-tlz, relics of olden times. 

anti - Sabbatarian, n. dn'tl-sdb'bd-td'ri-an (Gr. 
anti, and Sabbathl, one opposed to the observance 
of the Sabbath: adj. pert. to. 

antiscians, n. plu. dn-tlsh'l-anz ; also antis'cii, 
dn4ish'l-l {L. antiscii — fromGr. anti; skia, a shadow), 
the inhabitants of the earth living on opposite sides 
of the equator, whose shadows at noon fall in contraiy 

antiscorbntic, a. dn'tlskdr-bu'tlk{Gr. anti, against, 
and scorbutic), good against the scurvy. 

antiscripturai, a. dn'tl-skrip'-tu-rdl (Gr. anti and 
scriptural), not in accordance with the Scriptures, or 
in opposition to them. 

antiseptic, n. dn'-tl-s&p'tXk, (Gr. anti, against ; sep- 
tos, putrid), a substance that prevents putrefaction : 
adj. opposing putrefaction. 

anti-slavery, n. d7i' -tl-sla'-ver-l (Gr. anti, against, 
and slavery), hostility to slavery. 

antispasmodic, a. dn'-tl-spds-mod'lk (Gr. anti, 
against ; spasmos, a convulsion or spasm), applied to 
medicines that have power to allay spasmodic pains. 

antistrophe, n. dntls'trO-fl (Gr. nyifi; strophe, a 
turning), the stanza of a chorus or ode succeeding the 

antithesis, n. dn-tUh'-S-sXs, (Gr. a^iti, against; thesis, 
a placing), opposition or contrast in words or senti- 
ments: antithetic, a. dn'ti-thet'ik ; or an'tithet'ical, 
a. -l-kdl, being in contrast ; containing opposition of 
words or sentiments : an'tithet'lcal'ly, ad. -ll. 

antitropal, a. dn-tlt'-rO-pdl ; also antit'ropoufl, 
a. -piis (Gr. anti, against ; trei>o, 1 turn), in bot., at 
the extremity most remote from the hilum, as the 
embryo — or inverted with respect to the seed, as the 

antit3rpe, n. dn'ti-tip (Gr. anti, against ; tupos, a 
pattern), the reality, of which the resemblance or 
pattern is called the type— thus, the paschal lamb is 
called the type, and Christ the antitype: antitypical, 
a. d7i'tl-tlp'-l-kal, that which explains the type: an'ti- 
tsrp'ically, ad. 41. 

antler, n. dnt'ler (F. andouiller), a branch of a stag's 
horn : antlered, a. dnt'-lerd, furnished with antlers. 

antre, n. dn-ter (L. antrum, a cave), in poetry, a 
cavern ; a den. 

antoeci, dw<e'sl— see antecians. 

antrorse, a. an4rors' (L. ante, before ; versum, to 
turn), in bot., having an upward direction towards the 
summit of some part. 

anus, n. d'-nHs (L.), the lower orifice of the bowels. 

anvil, n. dn'vll (AS. anfilt : low Ger. anibolt : 
Dut. aenbeld, a block to hammer on), an iron block 
with a smooth face and a horn, on which smiths shape 
their work. 

anxiety, n. dng-zl'Sti (L. anxius— from anxi, I have 
vexed), distress of mind about something future ; great 
uneasiness : anxious, a. dngk'shiis, distressed in mind ; 
perplexed : anxiously, ad. 41 : anx'iousness, n. 

any, a. eji'jif (AS. aenig: Ger. einig : Dut. eenig), 
every; whoever; oneorsome: anywise, &A.en'7ilwlz, 
in any degree : an'3rwhere, ad. •mca7; in any place : 
anyhow, ad. 67i'nl-hdiv, at any rate ; in any event : 
anybody, n. in'ni-bod'i, one out of many selected 

Aonian, a. d-Ohil-dn (from Aonia, in Greece), 
pert, to the Muses or to Aonia. 

aorist, n. d'O-rlst (Gr. aoristos, unlimited), name of 
an indefinite past tense in the grammar of the Greek 
language: aoristic, a. a'6-rts-tik, pert. to. 

aorta, n. d-67''4d (Gr. aorte, the great artery), in the 
human body, the great or trunk artery: aortal, a. 
a-6r'4al; also aortic, a. d-6r'4ik, pert. to. 

apace, ad. d-pds' (AS. a, on: F. pas: L. pass7is, a 
step), with some degree of speed ; in haste ; quickly ; 

apagoge, n. dp'd-gO'Je (Gr. apo, from; ago, I lead), 
in logic, a kind of argument or proposition not very 
evident; in 7nath., the step leading from one proposi- 
tion to another, when the first, after demonstration, is 
employed in proving the second or others : apagogi- 
cal, a. dp'd-goj'-l-kdl, proving indirectly. 

apart, ad. d-pdrtf (F. d part, aside, separate: L. 
p)ars, gen. partis, a part), separately ; at a distance : 
apart'ment, n. a room in a house : plu. apartments, 
a set of rooms. 

apathy, n. dp'dthl (Gr. a, without; pathos, any 
emotion of the mind), want of feeling; freedom from 
passion: ap'athist, n. one who: apathetic, a. dp'd- 
thit'lk; also ap'athet'ical, a. -l-kdl, wanting in feel- 
ing ; insensible : ap'athet'ical'ly, ad. -II. 

apatite, n. dp'd4lt (Gr. apate, deception), phos- 
phate of lime of every variety of colour, occurring 
both massive and crystallised, and very apt to be mis- 
taken for another mineral. 

ape, n. dp (AS. ajM: Icel. api: Dan. abe), a kind 
of monkey ; a vain imitator ; a mimic : v. foolishly to 
try to imitate: a'ping, imp. : aped, pp. dpt: a'per, 
n. one who: apisn, a. d'ptsh, like an ape; foolish; 
imitating the manners of superiors : a'pishly, ad. -li : 
a'pishness, n. foppery. 

apeak, ad. d-p^k', {a and peak), on the peak or 
point ; in a posture to pierce. 

Apennine, n. dp'e-nfn, a range of moimtains run- 
ning through Italy : adj. pert, to the Apennines. 

aperient, n. d-pir'-l-6nt (L. aperie7\s, opening), a 
medicine that opens the bowels: a laxative: adj. 
opening; gently purgative: aperitive, a. dpir'-itlv, 

aperture, n. dp'er47lr (L. apertum, to open), an 
opening ; a cleft or gap. 

apetalous, a. u-pet'-d4ixs (Gr. a, without; peialcn. 

colv, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, (here, zeal. 




a flowor-loaf), having no petals or flower - leaves : 
apet alousnesB, n. 

apex, n. a'2>L'I;s (L.)— phi. apexes, a'p6ks-es, or api- 
ces, aj)'l-sei— the top point or siuiiinit of anything: 
apical, a. ilp'l-kai, relating to tlie top ; apiculus, n. 
a-jilk'ii-ltls, in bot., a short but sharp point in whiih 
a leaf or other organ terminates, but not very stilf : 
aplculate, a. a-plk'u-lat, suddenly terminated by a 
distinct point. 

apharesis or apheresis, n. a-fc'-rS-sls (Gr. apo, from ; 
{h)'iireo, I take or sfize), the taking away a letter or 
syllable from the beginning of a word. 

apbanite, n. dfdn-lf (Gr. uplumes, obscure, not 
apparent— from a, not; phaino, I bring to light), a 
compact sort of trap-rock, consisting of hornblende, 
quartz, and felspar so intimately combined that they 
cannot be individually distinguished: aphanistic, a. 
vf-aii-t<'lll-, i)ert. to; indistinct. 

aphelion, n. d-fe'll-On, phi. aphelia, Ci-fe'-ll-d, (Gr. 
apii, from ; {h)elios, the sun), the position of a planet 
in the heavens when farthest from the sun — when 
nearest to the sun, the position is called its peri- 

aphis, n. rt'/ls, plu. aphides, df-ldez (L.), the 
vine-fretter or plant-louse. 

aphlogistic, a. df-l6-jU'-tlk (Gr. a, without; phlo- 
gizo, I ))urn up), flameless. 

aphony, n. df-o-nl; also aphonia, d-fd'ni-A (Gr. 
a, without; phone, voice), a loss of voice; dumbness. 

aphorism, n. af-o-rlzm (Gr. aphorismos, a detini- 
tion; apo, from; o>-i'20, I mark bounds or limits), a 
short sentence expressing some important truth ; 
a maxim: aphoristic, a. df-o-ris'fik ; also aph- 
oris'tical, a. -tlkal, expressing some truth in a 
short sentence: aph'oris'tical'ly, ad. -11: aph'orist, 
11. one who. 

aphrite, n. df'rlt (Gr. aijhros, froth or foam), a 
scaly variety of calcareous spar, having a shining 
pearly lustre and a greasy feel. 

aphrodisiac, a. df'-ro-dlz'i-dk (Gr. aphrodisios, pert, 
to Venus), that which excites to sexual intercourse. 

aphthae, n. d/'the (Gr. ap>hthai, ulcers in the mouth), 
small white ulcers on thte tongue, gums, palate, &c. : 
aphthous, a. df-thils, pertaining to thrush or ulcer- 
ous atfV'.tions of the mouth. 

aphthong, n. df'-thong (Gr. a, without ; phthong- 
gos, a sound), a silent letter or letters. 

aphyllous, a. df-fll'-lCis or df, (Gr. a, without; iihul- 
lon, a leaf), in bot., destitute of leaves. 

apiary, n. d'-pl-dr'-i (L. apis, a bee), a stand or shed 
for bees ; place where bees are kept : a'piar'ist, u. one 
who rears bees. 

ap'ical, apices, apic'ulate, &c.— see apex. 

apiece, ad. a-p(is'(Xii. a and piece), to each, as a sep- 
arate share. 

apiocrinite, n. dj/'iok'-rin-lt (Gr. apian, a pear; 
krinon, a lily), a sub-genus of fossil radiata, like the 
star-fish or sea-urchin, distinguished by their pear- 
shaped receptacle. 

a'pish, &c.— see ape. 

aplanatic, a. dp'-pldn-dt'-lik (Gr. a, without ; planno, 
I wander), ajiplied to a telescope which entirely cor- 
rects the aberration of the rays of light. 

aplomb, n. dp'jMm (F. aplomb, perpendicular line), 
settling down into its fit place as naturally as if liy 
simple gravitation. 

apnoea, n. dp-ni'd (Gr. a, without; pnro, I breathe), 
loss of breath ; suffocation. 

apo, dp'6, a Greek prefix signifying away, from. 

apocalypse, n. a-2>6k'-d-llps (F. : L. apocalypsis : Gr. 
opokalupsis, an uncovering; ajm, from; kalupfo, I 
cdver or conceal), a revelation; a vision; the last 
book of the New Testament: apocaljrptlc, a. d-jiok- 
d-llp'tlk; also apoc'aljrp'tical, a. -tikal, i)ertainiiig 
to revelation: apoc'alyp'tical'ly, ail. -ki\V-Vi. 

apocarpous, a. (i;;;<i/,Y(r7(»,si(;r. upo; karpos, fruit), 
applied to fruits wlicn thciir carpels are either quite 
separate or only partially iinitcd. 

apocope, n. d-pok'O-pf: ((Jr. api>. from; koj^fo, I cut). 
omission of the last hotter or syllable ot a wonl : 
apocopated, a. shortened by cutting off the last 
Ictt'T or syllable. 

Apocrypha, n. n-p6k'rl-fd (Gr. apn, from ; kntpto, I 
hidf;), soiii.' disputed books, rci-cived a.s parts of 
iuspircil Scripture, l)y Catholics and others, but 
generally rejiftnl t,y Protestants: apocryphal, a. 
d-pOk'ri/ill. doubtful; uncertain: apoc ryphal'ly, ad. 
-II: apoc ryphal'ness, n. 
apodal, a. aj/-Oi(<Il ((ir. a, without ; 2>oiis, gen. podos, 

a foot), destitute of feet or ventral fins^applied to 
such fishes as the eel, sword-fish, wolf-fish, &c. 

apodixis, n. ap'O-diks'ls (L. : Gr. apodeixis, a set- 
ting forth— from apo; deiknumi, I show), full demon- 
stration : apodictic, a. dp'-o-dik'-tik ; also, ap'odic'- 
tical, a. -tl-kdl, evident beyond contradiction ; clearly 
proving: ap'odic'tical'ly, ad. -II. 

apodosis, n. d-2)6d'-6-sis (L.: Gr. a2J0, from; didomi, 
I give), in gram., the consequent clause in a condi- 
tional sentence, expressing the result— the clause 
expressing the condition being called the 2irotasis. 

apogee, n. a2>'<''Jc (Gr. apo, from; ge, the earth), 
the point in the moon's orbit, or that of a planet, most 
remote from the earth : apogean, a. A2^'-0-je'-dn, pert. 

ApoUyon, n. d-2ml'idn (Gr. aj)onuo, 1 destroy), a 
name used in the Kevelation of St John to designate 
the destroying angel of the bottomless pit. 

apology, 11. dqjol'-O-jl (L. and Gr. apologia; a2W, 
from ; logos, speech), an excuse ; a defence : apol- 
ogetic, a. a-pol'O-jat'-ik ; also apol'oget'ical, a. -;'<>/•!■ 
kdl, excusing ; defending by words : aporogefical'ly, 
ad. -II : apologetics, n. plu. d-2)0l'-6-j6t'-lks, that 
branch of theology which defends the Scriptures, and 
sets forth the evidence of their Divine authority: 
apologist, n. u^M'o-jist ; also apol'ogi'ser, n. 
-jl'-zer, one who makes an apolog>', or. writes iu 
defence of another : apologise, v. d-2)6l'6-jlz', to 
make an excuse for; to speak in defence of: apol- 
ogising, imp.: apologised', pp. -jizd': apologue, n. 
d2J'6-l6g, a story; a moral fable. 

apophysis, n. d-2)6f-t-sls (Gr. apo, from; phuo, I 
grow), in anat., a process or protuberance on the 
surface of a bone, generally at the ends : in bot., any 
irregular swelling on the surface ; a tubercle at the 
base of the seed-vessel of certain mosses. 

apophthegm or apothegm, n. a^>:6-«/u'»i— see ap- 

apoplexy, n. d2V-6-2Mk-sl (Gr. apoplexia, stupor; 
a2)0, from ; 2}lesso, I strike), a disease or an affection 
of the brain that causes stupor; a fit in wliich all 
sensation and power of movement are suspended: 
apoplectic, a. d2y-0-plek'-tik, or ap'oplec tical, -tl-kdl, 
pert, to the disease of apoplexy. 

apostasy, n.; also apostacy, n. dqws'-td-sl (L. and 
Gr. apostasia, a standing off from ; a^x), from ; stasis, 
a placing, a standing), a departure from a former 
profession or beUef : apostate, n. d-pos'-tat, one who 
forsakes his former principles or party: adj. false; 
traitorous : ap'ostat'ical, a. -tdt'i-kdl -. apostatise, \. 
dpos'td-tiTf , to forsake a former profession or belief : 
apos'tati'sing, imp. : apostatised', pp. -tizd'. 

a posteriori, a. d'-pos-tc'-rl-Or'-l (L. jwsterior, after). 
arguments drawn from consequences or facts— see 
a priori. 

apostle, n. d-2)ds'sl (Gr. apo, away; sfello, I send), 
a person sent to jierform important business ; one of 
the immediate followers of Christ : apos'tleship, ii. 
the office or dignity of an apostle : apostolic, a. d2y-6s- 
tol'lk; also ap'ostol'ical, a. -i-kdl, relating to the 
apostles or to the oflice of an apostle : ap'ostorically, 
ad. -II: ap'ostol'ical'ness, n. : apostolate, n. d-p6s'tu- 
lat, a mission; the dignity or office of an apostle: 
apostolic fathers, the early Christian writers, gene- 
rally of the first century : apostolic see, a title apphed 
to the government of the pope of Rome in reference 
to his claim of being the successor of St Peter. 

apostrophe, n. d-p6s'-tr6-/e (Gr. apo, away ; strepho, 
I turn), a figure of speech ; a digressive address ; a 
mark ( ' ) put in a word to show the omission of a 
letter or lettei-s, or merely a.s the sign of the posses- 
sive case in nouns : apostroph'ic, a. dp'o-.'ftrof-ik, 
jiert. to an apostrophe: ap'ostroph'ically, ad. -/! : 
apostrophise, v. d-iios'lrd-jlz', to make a short de- 
tached aildn'ss to, in speaking: to omit a letter or 
letters in a wont : apos trophi'sing, imp. : apos'tro- 
phised', pp. -J'izd'. 

apothecary, n. d-j^dth'd-kdr-l (L. a2Wtheca, a store- 
house: Gr. (ipotheke; a2M, from: theke, a box or 
chest), one who prepares and sells drugs as medi- 
cines : apothecium, n. di^'^-thf'i^hfilm, in bot., a clus- 
ter or case of spore-cells in lichens, frequently cup- 

apothegm, u. dtt'u-thl'm (Gr. o;)o, from; }ihfhcgmn. 
a word), a senteiitious saying; a iiithy instructive 
remark: apothegmatic, a. dp'O-lhcg-mdt'lk ; also 
ap othegmat'ical, a. -i-kiU, alter the manner of an 
apoth.'gm : ap otheg'matist, n. one who utters short 
maxims, or a maker of them. 

7n(Xte, mat, far, Ui^; mCte, mit, Mr; pXncpla; nOt<:, n6t, v.iOv. 




apotheosis, n. ap'dthe'6-s'ls (L. ami Gr. ; apo. from ; 
thMS, God), in ancient times, the cereiaony of placin;,' 
some illustrious man among their gods. 

apotome, n. a-pot'o-mc (Ur. apo, from ; tenino, I cut 
or lop), in math., the difference between two incom- 
mensurable quantities. 

appal or appall, v. ap-paTvl' (F. palir, to grow 
pale: L. ad, BX; palleo, I become pale), to lose the vital 
powers through sudden terror; to fill with dismay: 
appal ling, imp. : appalled, pp. -pawld' : appal'- 
ment, n. : appal'lingly, ad. -U. 

appanage, n. ap'-jidn-dj (L. ad, to; imnis, food : I'. 
apanage), lauds set aside for the maintenance of 
younger sons of a prince. 

apparatus, n. dp'-pd-ra'-tus (L. ad, to or for ; para- 
tum, to prepare), a set of instruments or tools to be 
used for a particular purpose. 

apparel, n. dp-pdr'-el (F. appareil, outfit : Sp. 
aparejar, to fit, to suit : L. ad, lor ; 2}uro, I prepare), 
clothing ; dress : v. to dress ; to clothe ; to adorn : 
appareUing, imp. ap-pdr'el-lng : apparelled, pp. 
Oppdr'-eld. „ 

appeal, v. dp-pel' (L. appello, I accuse : F. apipeler, 
to call), to apply for justice; to refer a disputed 
matter to another, as to a higher judge or court, or 
to a superior: n. the removing of a cause from a 
lower to a higher court ; a reference to another ; an 
address to the judgment or feelings of an audience ; 
an application for justice : appealing, imp. : appeal- 
ed, pp. ap-peld' : appealable, a. dp-i)el'-d-hl, that 
may or can be appealed : appellant, n. dp-pcl'-ldnt, 
the person who appeals : appealer, n. one who : ap- 
pellate, a. dp-i)el'-lat ; also appel'lator'y, a. -tdr-l, 
relating to appeals : appellation, u. up-pel-lashun, a 
name ; the word by which a thing is known : appel'- 
lative, a. -tlv, pert, to a common name : n. a common 
name as distinguished from a proper name : appel'- 
lative'ly, ad. -Hv'U: appellee, n. dp'pel-le', the de- 
fendant in an appeal ; one tried for a crime at the 
instance of another: appellor, n. dp-pel'lor, one who 

appear, v. dp-per' (L. ad, to ; pareo, I am seen, I 
appear : F. apparoir), to be visible ; to come in sight : 
appealing, imp. : appeared, pp. dp-perd' : appear- 
ance, n. ap-per'-dns, a coming in sight ; the thing 
seen ; the look of a person or thing ; pretence ; show : 
appear'er, n. the person that appears : apparent, a. 
ap-pd'rent, that may be easily seen ; obvious ; plain ; 
ill science, not real— as aj>parent motion : appa'rent- 
ly, ad. -U: apparition, n. dp'pd-rlsh'un, a ghost; 
a spectre ; a visible spirit : apparitor, n. a2}-pdr'4- 
tor, the attending officer of an ecclesiastical court ; 
a summoner. 

appease, v. dp-pOz' (L. ad ,- jxix, gen. pads, peace : F. 
apaiser, to appease), to quiet ; to pacify : appeas'ing, 
imp. : appeased, pp. dp-pezd' : appea'ser, n. one 
who: appease'ment, n. : appeasable, a. dp-2)e'zd-bl, 
that may be appeased: appea'sable'ness, n. : ap- 
pea'sive, a. -Iv, quieting : appea'sively, ad. -U. 

append, v. ap-pend' (L. ad, to; pendeo, I hang), to 
attach or hang to ; to add to : append'ing, imp. : 
append'ed, pp. : appendage, n. dp-pen'ddj ; also ap- 
pen'dant, n. something added to : appen'dant, a. be- 
longing to; attached: appendicle, n. dp-pen'-dl-kl, a 
small appendage : appendix, n. dp-p&n'-dlks (L.) — plu. 
appendixes, -dlks-ez, or appendices, -di-sez— some- 
thing appended or added, as at the end of a book ; a 

appertain, V. dp'pertdn' (L. ad, to; 2)er, through; 
teneu, 1 hold : F. upimrtenir), to belong to ; to relate 
to: ap'pertain'ing, imp.: ap'pertained', pp. -tand' : 
appertain'ment, n. : appertenance, n. dp-per'te- 
ndns, that which relates to another thing: apper'- 
tinent, a. belonging : n. that which belongs. 

appetent, a. dp'pe-tent (L. ad, to ; peto, I seek, I de- 
sire), desiring; very desirous: ap'petence, n. -tins, 
or ap'peten'cy, n. -tin'sl, desire; appetite; the pro- 
pensity in living creatures to select and feed upon 
such substances as are suited for their nourishment : 
appetible, a. ap'2)e-ti-U, ple;ising; engaging; desir- 
able : appetibility, n. dp'p6-tl-ur-Ul : appetite, n. 
iip'pe-tit, the natural desire or craving tor food or 
drink ; a strong desire for anything that affords plea- 
sure: a.'ppetitive, a.. dp'pS-ii'tlv, desiring gratification. 
applaud, V. dp-plawd' (L. ad, for ; plaudo, I make a 
noise by clapping the hands : F. a2iplaudir), to praise 
Jyy clapping the hands or by some loud noise; to 
express approbation of; to commend: applaud'ing, 
imp. : applauded, pp. : applaud'er, n. one who : ap- 

CoTc, boll, /Jut ; pf'-rc, hud; chair. 

plause, n. a2>j)la'icz' (L. ad; plausum, to clap the 
hands), the act of praising ; approbation by shouts 
or clapping of hands, or in some other noisy way : 
applausive, a. dp-plaXo'-zlv, that contains applause. 

apple, n. dp'-2d (AS. aepl: W. a2)al: Icel. epli: Dan. 
dhlr), a well-known fruit : apple of the eye, tne pupil : 
apple of discord, a subject of contention and envy : 
apples of Sodom, fruit fair to the eye, but dissolv- 
ing into dust and ashes when plucked. 

applicate, n. dp'2)li-kdt (L. ad, to; jAico, I fold), ia 
geoni.., a straight line drawn across a curve so as to 
be bisected by the diameter ; the ordinate. 

apply, V. dp-pll' (L. ad, to ; j^Hco, I fold), to lay on ; to 
put one thing to another; to use or employ for a par- 
ticular purpose ; to fix the mind with attention ; to 
make application ; to suit : apply'ing, imp. : appUed, 
pp. dp-plld': appli'er, n. one who: appliable, a. dp- 
2ill'-d-bl, thaX may be applied: appli'ably, ad. -!;«.• ap- 
pliance, n. dp-pll'-dns, the act of applying; the thiii^' 
applied: applicable, a. dp'-pU-kd-U, fit to be applied; 
suitable: ap'pUcabil'ity, n. -kd-UV-l-tl: ap'plicable- 
ness, n. : ap'plicably, ad. -bll: applicant, n. ci;/;;^- 
kdnt, one who applies; a petitioner: applicancy, n. 
dp'-2M-kdn-si, the state of being applicable: ap'phca- 
tion, n. -kd'-shvLn, the act of applying; close study; 
great attention to, as to business; entreaty; employ- 
ment of means: ap'plicative,a. -A;d-My: applicatory, 
a. -ka'-tor-l: n. that which applies. 

appoggiatura, n. d2>p6j-d-t6-rd (It.), in music, a 

appoint, V. dp-pm/nf (F. ap2)ointer, to give wages : 
L. ud, to ; 2nmctuvi, a point), to fix upon ; to settle ; to 
ordain ; to furnish : appoint'ing, imp. : appoint'ed, pp. : 
appoin'ter, n. one who : appoin'table, a. -td-hl, that 
may be appointed : appoint ment, n. state of being ap- 
pointed ; being named for an office ; a situation or of- 
fice ; established order : plu. the accoutrements of an 
officer: appointee, n. dp-poyn'-te, one appointed. 

apportion, v. dp-p6r-shiin (L. ad, to ; portio, a part), 
to give a share to ; to divide ; to assign : appor'tioning, 
imp.: appor'tioned, pp. -shund: appor'tionment, n. 
a dividing into shares or portions: appor'tioner, n. 
one who. 

apposite, a. 6p'-2^6-z'lt (L. ad; positus, placed or put), 
fit; suitable; well adapted to; in bot., when similar 
parts are similarly placed: ap'positely, ad. -zit'-li: 
ap posite'ness, n. fitness ; suitableness : apposition, 
n. ap'-p6-zlsh-un, the act of adding to; in gram., two 
nouns following each other in the same case, the latter 
explanatorj- of the former, or modifying it in some way. 
appraise, v. dp-prdz! (F. apprecier, to value— from 
L. ad, to ; pretium, aprice). to fix the value of an article 
for the purpose of sale : apprais'ing, imp. : appraised, 
pp. -prdzd': apprais'er, n. one who: appraisement, 
n. dp-prdz'-ment, a valuation put on an article. 

appreciate, v. appre'-shi-at (L. ad ; j^retium, a price : 
F. a2)2)recier), to set a proper value on ; to esteem right- 
ly: appre'cia'ting, imp. : appre'cia'ted, pp.: appreci- 
able, a. dp-pre'shl-d-bl, that may be properly valued ; 
capable of being estimated: appre'ciably, ad. -bJi.- ap- 
preciation, n. up-pre'shl-d'-shun, the setting a value 
on ; a just estimate of. 

apprehend, v. dp'-pri-hUnd' (L. ad, to ; prehendo, I 
take or seize), to take hold of; to seize ; to understand ; 
to think on with fear : ap'prehen'ding, imp. : ap'pre- 
hen'ded, pp. : ap'prehen'der, n. one who: ap'prehen^- 
sible, a. -si-bl, that may be apprehended: ap'prehen'- 
sion, n. -hin'-shun, the act of taking or seizing ; the 
being able to imderstand; suspicion; fear: ap'pre- 
hen'sive, a. -sXv, fearful; in expectation of ey\\: ap'- 
prehen'sively, ad. -siv-l .- ap'prehen'siveness, n. 

apprentice, n. dp-prin'-lls (F. a2)i^rentis, abeginner— 
from apprendre, to Icam : L. ad, to ; prehendo, I take), 
a young person learning a trade or profession : v. to 
put under a master to learn a trade or profession : ap- 
pren'ticing, imp.: apprenticed, pp. -tint: appren'- 
ticeship, n. the sen'ice or condition of an apprentice, 
apprise, v. dp-2)rlz' (F. a;);jn's, learned, instructed), 
to inform; to give notice of: appri'sing, imp.: ap- 
prised, pp. -2>rtzd'. 
approach, v. up-prOch' (F. approcher, to draw near 

from L. ad, to; props, near), to draw near; to come 

up to: n. a coming or drawng near; apath or avenue; 
plu. approach'es, -Cz, siege-works ; means of access : 
approach'ing, imp. : approached, pp. dp-}>rocM: ap- 
proach'er, one who : approach 'able, a. -d-bl, that may 
be reached ; accessible: approach'ment, n. : approach'- 
less, a. that cannot be come near to or approached. 
approbation, n. &c.— see approve. 

game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




appropriate, v. dp-prO'prh(l(> (L. ad, to ; proprius, 
private, one's o-vvn). to set apart for a particular use ; 
to claim or use as by right ; to apply to one's own use : 
adj. limited or set apart to a particular person or use; 
fit; suiUble: appropriating, imp.: appro pria'ted, 
pp.: appro'priate ness, n. peculiar fitness; suitable- 
ness ; appro priate'ly, ad. 41 .- appro pria'tion, n. 
-ihi'in, the act of setting apart for a particular use or 
purpose : appro'pria'tor, n. one who : appro priable, a. 
-d-bl: appro pria'tlve, a. -prl-d'tlv, that appropriates. 
approve, v. apprOv' (L. ad, to; probo, I prove or 
test ; probtis, good : F. approuver), to be pleased with ; 
to like ; to commend : appro'vlng, imp. : approved', 
I'p. : appro'vingly, ad. 41: appro 'ver, n. an accuser: 
approvement, n. : approbation, n. dp-pro-ba'shun. 
the act of approving; commendation; expression of 
approval or satisfaction with: approbative, a. d}/- 
probd'tlv ; also approbatory, a. dp'pro-bd'tor-l, 
containing or implying appr(jbation: ap'proba'tively, 
ad. -U; ap'proba tiveness, n. in phren., the love of 
approbation : approvable, a. dp-pr6'vd-bl, that merits 
approval : appro'vableness, n. : approval, n. up- 
irrd'vdl, approbation. 

approximate, v. dp-prdks'l-7iiat (L. ad, to; proxi- 
mug, next), to come near; to approach; to cause to 
approach : adj. nearest to or next : approx'ima'ting, 
imp.: approxima'ted, pp.: approximation, n. -shiln, 
a near approach; an advancing near: approx'imate'- 
ly, ad. 41: approx'ima'tive, a. 4lv, that approaches 

appulse, n. dp-pills' (L. ad, at; pulsum, to push, to 
strike), the act of striking against; in astron., near 
approach of two heavenly bodies to one another: also 
appul'sion, n. -shun: appul'sive, a. stiiking against: 
appul'siveiy, ad. -slv-ll. 

appurtenance, n. dp-piir'-tS-ndns (L. ad, to; per- 
tiiKo, I pertain or belong: F. a^ypartenance), that 
which belongs to something else ; an adjunct; an ap- 
pendage: appur'tenant, a. joined to, or belonging to. 
apricot, u. d'-prl-k6t (F. abricot: L. pra^cociOr— from 
prcE, before ; coquo, I ripen), a fruit of the plum kind. 
April, n. d'prU (L. aprilis—iTOTo. aperio, I open: 
F. avTil: Sp. abril: It. aprile), the fourth month of 
the year. 

a priori, a. d'-prl-or'-l (L. a, from; prior, former), 
the correlative of a posteriori, the one implying the 
cause, the other the effect. Tlie argument a priori is 
a mode of reasoning by which we proceed from the 
antecedent cause to the consequent effect, or from an- 
ticipation rather than from experience: mathemati- 
cal proofs are examples of a priori reasoning. The 
argimient a posteriori is the opposite, and reasons 
from the effect to the cause, from the individual 
to the law, or generally from experience, and not from 

apron, n. d'-prdn (old F. naperon, a large cloth— 
from nappe, table-cloth), a made-up piece of cloth or 
leather worn in front : a covering, as of lead or zinc : 
aproned, a. d'-prond, wearing an apron. 

apTQ-poa, ad. dp'ro-pO' {F.),totha pm-pose; season- 

apgia, n. dp'sls, or apse, dps, plu. apsides, dp'-sl- 
dez (Gr. {h)apsis, a junction, an arch), the two points 
in the orbits of planets in which they are at the great- 
est and at the least distance from the sun or the earth : 
apse, in a church, the rounded end of a basilica at the 
back of the altar ; the arched roof of a room. 

apt, a,, dpt {L. aptus : F. apte, f\t), ready; quick; fit; 
suitable: aptly, ad. 41: apVness, n. readiness or 
quickness in learning; fitness: aptitude, n. djy-ti-tiid, 
a disposition for; readiness; docility. 

apteral, a. dp'-ter-dl (Gr. a, without ; pteron, a wing), 
without wings: apteryz, n. dp'-ter-lks, a rare bird, 
peculiar to New Zealand, having only short rudiments 
of wings, and without a tail, a little larger a 
§uinea-ibwl: apterous, a. (l/>:^^.«s, wingless ; bi'i„ng- 
ing to the class of Insects called the aptera, ap'ltr-a, 
or wingless insects. 

aptote, n. dp-tot (Gr. a, without; ptotos, that can, 
or 18 wont to fall), .an indeclinable noun. 

apus, n. d'-pus (Gr. a, without; pous, a foot), a bird 
80 called because it did not use its feet ; a martinet ; 
in astron.. a constelLation near the S. pole. 

apyrexy, n. d'-pir'ek'-sl (Gr. a; puresso, I have a 
fever— from pur, fire), the intermission of a fever: 
apyrous, a. d'pl-rus, fire-proof; incombustible; that 
sustains a strong heat witliout alteration: apyretic. 
a. d'pir-H'ik, without fever. 
apyrenuB, n. d'pire-nus (Gr. a, without; pnren. 

a seed), in hot., fruit which produces no seeds, as cul- 
tivated varieties of the orange, pine-apple, &c. 

aqua, n. d'kwd (L. aqua, water), a word now much 
used as pait of a compound: a'qna vitae, -vl'-te (L. 
vita, life), water of life; brandy or other spirit: 
a'quafortis, -for'-tls {L. J'ortis, strong), strong water; 
a powerful acid, now named nitric acid : aqua marina, 
-md-re'-nd (L. mare, the sea), sea-water; applied to the 
beryl from its colour: a'qua regla, r(?yi-fZ (L. r&r, gen. 
regis, a king), royal water; a mixture of nitric and 
muriatic acids ; a dissolvent of gold, the king of the 
metals; now called nitro-muriatic ackl: aquatic, a. 
a-kwdt'-tk, li-vang in the water, or much on it, as some 
fowls: aquarium, n. d-kv:d'-H-um, a glass case con- 
taining water. Ac. , for plants and creatures that live in 
water: aquarius, n. d-ktvd'-rl-us (L. a water-carrier), a 
sign of the zodiac : aqua tinta, d'kwd tln'-td (L. aciun: 
It. tinta, a tint or dye— from L. tingo, I stain), a variety 
of engraving,imitating drawings madewith Indian ink. 
aqueduct, n. uk'-we-dukt (L. aqua, water; diKtus, 
led), a course or channel made for conveying water 
either under or above ground: aqueous, a. d'-kwe-us, 
watery; pert, to or arising from water: a'queous'- 
ness, n. 

aquiline, a. dk'-ivl-lin or 4in (L. aquila, an eagle), 
hooked or curved like the beak of an eagle. 

Arab, n. dr'-db, also Arabian, n. d-rd'-lihdn, a na- 
tive of Arabia: Arabic, a. dr'-d-bik, also Arabian, a. 
d-rd'-bldn, pertaining to Arabia or to the language of 
its people : Ai-'abic, n. the language : Arabiat, n. dr' 
d-blst, one versed in Arabic: Arabesque, a. dr'-dbSsk 
(F.), in the manner of the Arabian architecture: n. 
an ornament inarch., consisting of imaginary foliage, 
stalks, plants, &c. ; the Arabic language: Ar'abism, 
n. -blzm, an Arabic idiom : Araby, n. dr'-d-hl, poetic 
for Arabia: Ar'abs, n. plu., the wandering tribes of 
Arabia and Northern Africa; now applied to the des- 
titute cliildren wandering in the streets of towns. 

arable, a. dr'-d-bl (L. arabilis— from aro, 1 plough: 
Gr. aroo: ¥.), land that can be ploughed or cultivated. 
arachnoid, a. d-rdk'-ndyd (Gr. arachne, a spider; 
eidos, form), in anat., a semi-transparent fine mem- 
brane spread over the brain and pia-mater, like a 
spider's web; in bat., composed of soft do'vvny fibres. 

Aralo- Caspian, a. d-rd'-lO-kds'-pl-dn or d'-rdl-o-, a 
term applied to the extensive basin or depressetl area 
occupied by the Aral and Caspian seas and surround- 
ing districts of country; in gcol., applied to the lime- 
stone and associated sandy beds of brackish -water 
origin which have been traced over much more than 
the area indicated. 

Aramaic, a. dr'-d-md'-Vk (from Aram, a son of Shem), 
a name applied to the Syro-Chaldean language : Ar'- 
ame'an or Aramsean, dr'-d-me'-dn, pert, to the Syri- 
ans and Chaldeans or their language. 

araneous, a. d-rd'-ne-us (L. aranea, a spider or cob- 
web), resembling a cobweb. 

araucarites, n. plu. d-raw'-kdr-lts, a term employed 
to designate the fossil wood whose structure is iden- 
tical with that of the living a'rauca'rise, -kd'-rl-e— 
trees, natives of the southern hemisphere. 

arbalist, n. dr'bd-llst (L. arcu-s, a bow; baiista, an 
engine for throwing stones or darts), a cross-bow: ar- 
balister, n. dr'-bd-lls'-t^, a cross-bow-man. 

arbiter, n. dr'bl-ter (L. an umpire or judge : Fin. 
ar2M, a lot or symbol), one appointed to settle a 
ter in dispute between two or more persons: arbit- 
rament, n. dr-bU'-rd-mint, decision; determination: 
arbitrable, a. ar'-bl-trd-bl, determinable: arbitral, 
a. dr'-bl-trdl, of arbitration : arbitrary, a. dr'-bltrdr'-l, 
despotic ; tyrannical ; guided by will onlv : arT)itrar'- 
ily, ad. -l-ll: arTjitrar'iness, n. : arbitrate, v. dr'bl- 
trdf, to hearand decide in a disputed matter; to deter- 
mine: ar'bitra'ting, imp. : arT)itra'ted, pp. : arbitra- 
tion, n. dr'bl-trd'-shiin, the hearing and deiiding of a 
disputed matter by one or more persons : arbitrator, 
n. dr'bl-trd'-tdr. a person cliosen to decide a dispute: 
arbitress, n. dr-bi-trfs, or arbltratrix, n. dr-bl-trd' 
trlks, a woman who decides. 

arbour or arbor, n. dr-h.y (L. arbor, a tree: old 
E. herbere {hir'-beer), a garden), a seat shaded with 
trees; a bower; an axis or spindle (spelt or^/i^/) : arbo- 
rator, a. dr'bO-rd'-fOr, one. who grows trees: arbored, 
a. dr'-btrd, furnished with an arbour: arborous, a. 
dr'bd-nls, or arboreous, a. ('ir-h,y->-i'.us, resembling or 
belonging to u tn.-: arborescent, a. dr'-bd-res'-int (L. 
arhoresco, I grow to a tnr), resembling a tree; be- 
coming woody: ar bores cence, n. -Cns, also arbori- 
sation, n. -l-id'-shan, the resemblance of a tree in 

mate, mdt,Sdr, laTv; mete, met, tier; pine, pin; note, nOt, mCve; 




minerals ; groups of crystals in the form of a tree : 
arboret, n. a small tree; a shubbery: arboretum, n. 
dr'bd-re'tum (L.), a place for cultivating rare trees and 
shrubs: arboriculture, n. dr'-bor-l-kul'tur (L. arbor, 
a tree; cultus, cultivated), the art of planting and 
managing trees and shrubs: ar'boricul'tural, a. pert, 
to: ar'boricul'turist, n. -kul'-tu-rlst, one who: ar'- 
borviiie, -vln (L. vinea, a vine), a sort of bind-weed : 
ar'borist, n. one who studies trees. 

arbuBcle, n. dr'-bi'is-sl (L. arbuscula, a small tree), a 
dwarf tree ; a small shrub with the appearance of a 
tree, as many heaths: arbuscular, a. ar-bus'ku-lur, 

arbute, n. &r'but (L. arbuttis), the strawberry tree: 
arbutean, a. dr-bii'tl-an, pert. to. 

arc, n. ark (L. arcus, a bow), a part of a circle or 
curved line: arcade, n. dr-kad' (F., from L. arcus), 
a series of arches ; a roadway under a continued series 
of arches ; a covered street : arcad'ed, a. furnished 
with an arcade. , , „ 

area, n. dr'kd (L. a chest or box), the ark shell ; 
a £:enus of equivalve shells found in almost every part 
of'the world, thick and strongly-ribbed. 

Arcadian, a. dr-kd'dl-dn, pert, to Arcadia, in the 
Peloponnesus ; much used in poetry, rui-al or pastoral. 

arcanum, n. dr-kd'num, plu. arca'na (L. arcaims, 
secret, concealed), things secret, as if locked ftp ; ar- 
canite, n. dr'-kd-nlt, a mineral, a colourless or white 
sulphate of potash, occurring mostly in crusts in lavas. 

arch, n. arch (L. arcus, a bow), the circular part of 
any building ; the hollow or concave part of a bridge 
or gateway : v. to cover with an arch ; to form an 
arch: arching, imp.: arched, pp. drcht: court of 
arches, n. drch'-iz, a very anc. court belonging to 
the Archbishop of Canterbury for deciding ecclesias- 
tical matters, so called from the Church of St Mary 
le Bote, or " de arcubus:" arch' way, a way or passage 
imder an arch. 

arch, a. drch, (Ger. arg, crafty : Dut. erg, wicked : 
Dan. arrig, ill-natured: Icel. argr, lazy, cowardly: 
AS. earg, bad), waggish; mirthful: arch'ly, ad. -II, 
shrewdly; roguishly: archness, n. sly humour; wag- 

arch, a. drch or drk (Gr. archos, chief: Ger. erz, 
eminence, good or bad), chief of the first class : arch- 
angel, n. ark-dn'jel, an angel of the highest order: 
archbishop, n. drch'bish'op, a metropolitan having 
jurisdiction over the bishops of his province : archi- 
episcopal, a. dr'k'U-pls'kd-pdl, pert, to: archi-epis- 
copacy,n. dr'-kl-6-pls-k6-pd-sl : archbish'opric, n. -j^Jfc, 
the office: archdeacon, n.(5rc7i-de'A,-ci7i, one who assists 
the bishop in the government of his diocese : archdea- 
conship, u. , or archdeaconry, n. drch-de'kon-rl .- archi- 
diaconal, a. dr'-kl-dl-dk'o-mil, pert, to an archdeacon: 
arch-en'emy, n. the evil one; the devil: archduke, n. 
drch-duk', a title of some foreign princes: arch- 
duchess, n. diich-Ss, his wife, sister, or daughter. 

archaeocidaris, n. dr'ke-0-sid'dr4s (Gr. archaios, 
ancient : L. cidaris, a turban), the sea-egg ; a genus of 
fossU sea-urchins characterised by their small hexag- 
onal plates and long spines. 

archaeology, n. dr'ke-dl'6-jl, also archalology, n. 
dr'-kd-oVd-jl (Gr. archaios, ancient; logos, discoiu^e), 
the science that treats of ancient things or antiqui- 
ties ; knowledge about ancient art, particularly of the 
middle ages : ar'chseorogist, n. one skilled in ancient 
things and learning: archasological, dr'ke-6-l6j'l- 
kal, a. pert, to : ar'chaeolog'ically, ad. -II : archaism, 
n. dr'kd-lzm, an ancient expression, or one not now 
used: archaic, a. dr-kd'lk, also archa'ical, a. -i-kdl, 
ancient ; peculiar to remote antiquity ; obsolete. 

archsoniscus, n. dr'ke-6-nls'kus (Gr. archaios; L. 
oniscus, a wood-louse), a genus of fossil isopods or 
equal-foot crustaceans. 

archaeopteryx, n. dr'ki-dp'ter-iks (Gr. archaios; 
pterux, a wing), a unique specimen of fossil bird re- 
mains—now in the British Museum. 

archangel, n. drk-dn'-jel (Gr. archos, chief: L. 
atigehts, a messenger), an angel of the highest order: 
archangelic, a. -jel'lk, pert. to. Note.— Most of the 
other words beginning with arch are to be looked for 
under the simple words ; arch always meaning chief, 
of the first class— as archbishop, the chief bishop. 

archegosaurus, n. dr'ke-go-saw'rus (Gr. archegos, 
founder, or arche, beginning ; saurus, a lizard), a fos- 
sil reptile of the carboniferous era. 

archer, n. drch'er (L. arcus, a bow), one who uses 
or is skilled in the use of the boW : archery, n. drch' 
ir-l, the art of using the bow. 

archetype, n. dr'kUlp [Gr. arche, 'begiririme; tupos, 
form), the original or iiiddel from which copies are 
made ; a pattern : archetjrpal, a. dr'kl-tl'pdl, original, 
archil, n. drch'-il (F. vrcheil: Sp. orchilla—irom 
Sp. roca, a rock), a ricli purple colour obtained from 
a lichen foimd growing on the rocks of the Canary 
and other islands. 

Archimedean, a. dr'kl-me-dS'dn, pert, to Archi- 
medes, a great mathematician of ancient times : Ar- 
chimedean screw, a machine for raising water; now 
applied to propel vessels through water— see screw. 

Archipelago, n. dr'kl-pel'd-go (Gr. archos, chief; 
pelagos, sea : It. arcipelago), the .^gean Sea ; any sea 
closely interspersed with islands— now frequently ap- 
plied simply to a cluster of islands : archipelagic, a. 
dr-klpei-dj'ik, pert, to an archipelago. 

architect, n. dr'ki-tekt' (Gr. archos, chief; tckfon, a 
workman), one who designs and plans buildings; a 
former or maker: architective, a. dr'kl-t&k'ilv, used 
in, or proper for, building : ar'chitecton'ic, a. -tik-tOn' 
ik, that has the power or skill to build : ar'chitecton- 
ics, n. -ffcs, the science of architecture: architectural, 
a. dr'-kl-tik'-ta-rdl, pert, to the art of designing 
buildings : architecture, n. dr'kl-tek'tur, the art 
of planning and constructing houses or ships; the 
appearance of them when built or framed. 

architrave, n. dr'-kl-trdv (Gr. archos, chief: It. 
frave, a beam of timber— from L. trabs), in arch., that 
part of the entablature which rests immediately upon 
the capital. 

archives, n. plu. dr'klvz {¥., from Gr. archeion, 
the public hall, or archaios, ancient), a collection of 
records or documents ; the place where such are kept : 
archival, a. dr-kl'vdl, of or containing archives : ar- 
chivist, n. dr-ki'vlst, a keeper of records. 

archon, n. dr'kon (Gr. a prince), a chief magistrate 
among the ancient Athenians. 

arctic, a. drk'tik (Gr. arktos, a bear, a cluster of 
stars in the north heavens called the Bear), per- 
taining to the north; northern: arctic regions, the 
lands siu-rounding the north pole: arctic circle, an 
imaginary line passing round the north pole at a 
distance of 23i° from it : arctic current, an ocean- 
current which originates in the N. polar regions, and 
flows southwards to the equator : arctic sea, the sea 
lying around the N. pole. 

Arctums, n. drk-tu'rus (Gr. arktos, a bear; oura, 
a tail), a fixed star of the first magnitude, near the 
tail of the Great Bear. 

arcuation, n. dr'ku-d'shiin (L. arciis, a bow), the 
act of bending ; crookedness: arcuate, a. dr'ku-dt, 
bent in the form of a bow. 

ardency, n. dr'den-sl (L. ardens, burning), warmth 
of passion; zeal; eagerness: ar'dent, a. eager; zeal- 
ous: ar'dently, ad. -ll: ardour, n. dr'der, warmth; 
fervency ; affection : ardent spirits, distilled spirits. 
arduous, a. dr'diVfis (L. arduus, steep, inacces- 
sible), of difficult attainment; attended with great 
labour: arduously, ad. -us'll: arduousness, n. ur- 
eld- ils'nes. 

are, v. dr (Sw. vara: Dan. vaere, to be, to exist), 
part of the verb be. 
are, n. dr, a French measure of 119-60 sq. yards. 
area, n. d'rl-d (L.), any enclosed or open space; 
an open space iu front of or around a sunk flat of a 
areca, n. d-re'kd, the betel-nut, from the areca palm, 
arefaction, n. dr'-e-fdk'shtin (L. areo, 1 am dry; 
facio, I make), the state of growing dry ; the act of 
dr>'ing : arify, v. dr'l-fl, to dry. 

arena, n. d-re'nd (L. arena, sand), an open space 
for a public exhibition: arenaceous, a. dr'6-nd'-shiis, 
composed of grains or particles of sand ; having the 
properties of sand. 

arenicolites, n. plu. dr'-i^-nlk-d-llts (L. arena, sand; 
colo, I inhabit : Gr. lithos, a stone), a term used to de- 
signate those circular holes or markings which appear 
on the upper surface of many sandstones, having ap- 
parently been worm-burrows. 

arenilitic, a. d-ren'l-lWlk (L. arena: Gr. lifhos, a 
stone), of or like sandstone: arenose, a. dr'e-iwz, or 
arenous, a. dr'c-nds, sandy. 

areola, n. dre'-6-ld (L. : F. areole), the coloured 
circle round the nipple or a pustule: areolar, a. 
a-re'6-ldr, of or like an areola: areolate, a. drc'6-ldt, 
marked by areolations: are'ola'tion, n. -shi'tn, any 
small space distinctly bounded by something diflerent 
in colour, texture, &c. 
areometer, n. dr'-e-om'S-ter {Gr. araios.THTC, thin: 

coiu, boy, foot; pare, Md; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




metron, a measure), an instrument for measuring tlie 
specific i^ravity ol' liquids: ar'eometry, u. -trl: ar- 
eomet'rical, a. -rl-kal, pert. to. 

Areopagus, n. ar'-e-oji'dgus (L. : Gr. Ares, Mars; 
pagos, a hill), in ancient times a famous court of jus- 
tii'e at Athens, so called from its being held on Mars' 
hill: areopagite, n. ar'-e-Op'-d-jU, a member of the 

Argand, a. dr'gand, applied to a lamp- wick or form 
of burner invented l)y M. Argand. 

argean, a. dr-je'dn (from Argo, the ship which 
carried Jason and his companions to Colchis in quest 
of the golden fleece), pert, to tlie Argo or the ark. 

argent, n. ur'jent (L. arijentum, silver; argenteus, 
of the lustre of silver), the white colour in coats of 
arms: adj. silvery; britrlit: argentine, a. dr'j&n-tln', 
like silver: n. a min«-ral: argental, a. ur-jen'tal, 
also argentic, a. dr-jCn'tllc, of or like silver: ar- 
gentan, n. dr'jfii-tan', German silver: argentation, 
n. dr'jin-ta'sliaii, an overlaying with silver: argen- 
tiferous, a. dr'J6n-ti/'er-us (L. argentum; fero, I 
produce), containing silver: argentite, n. dr'jen-tlf 
sulphuret of silver, the most important and richest 
ore of silver, of a blackish lead-grey colour. 

argil, n. dr'jU (L. argilla, white clay: F. argile), 
pure clay; potters clay: argillaceous, a. dr'-jll-la- 
shiis, consisting of clay or argil; clayey: ar'gillif'er- 
OU3, a. -Uf'-er-us (L. argilla, clay; fero, I jaroduce), 
producing clay, or abounding in clay: argillite, u. 
dr'jU-ltf, a term applied to clay-slate. 

Argive, n. dr'-glv (Argos, in Greece), a Greek. 

argonaut, n. dr'-gO-nawt' {Argo, and Gr. 7iaus, a 
ship— see argean), one who sailed in the ship Argo: 
argosy, n. dr'-go-sl, a merchant ship riclily laden; a 
large merchant .ship. 

argue, v. dr'-gtl (L. arguo, I show, I declare : F. ar- 
guer: It. arguire), to debate or discuss ; to reason; to 
dispute : ar'guing, imp. : argued, pp. dr'gfid: ar'guer, 
n. one who argues: argument, u. dr'gu-mSnt, a rea- 
son alleged or otfered; a discussion: argumentable, 
a. dr'gu-mdn'id-bl, that may be argued: ar'gumen- 
ta'tion, n. -fd'shun, reasoning; the act of reasoning : 
ar'gumen'tative, a. -til-tlv, consisting of argument: 
ar'gumen'tatively, ad. -flv-ll: ar'gumen'tativeness, 
n. : argiunentum ad hominem, n. dr'gil-niSn'tiim <xd 
h6m'l-ne/H (L. anjuo, 1 show; ad, to; hominem, the 
man), unexpected consequences pressed against a man 
with arguments diuwu from his own principles or 

Argus, n. dr'gus, a fabled being with one hundred 
eyes ; a very watchful person. 

argute, a. dr-gut' (L. argutus, sharp, piercing), 
acute; shrewd; subtile: argute 'ness, n. 

aria, n. dr'-l-A (It.: F. air, breath: L. aer, air), an 
air or tune : arietta, n. dr'l-St'td, a little air or tune. 

Arian, n. d'rl-dn, one adhering to the doctrines of 
Arius, who taught that Jesus was inferior to God, and 
that the Holy Spirit is not God: adj. pei-t. to Arius: 
Arianism, n. d'rl-tVi-Um, the doctrines of the 

aricina, n. dr'l-se'nd, (Arica, in Peru), an alkaloid 
found In Arica bark. 

arid, a. dr'ld (L. aridtts, dry: F. aridc),dty; devoid 
of moisture : aridity, n. drid'l-tl, also aridjiess, n. 
dryness; want of moisture. 

Aries, n. dr'i-ez (L. a ram), a constellation of fixed 
stars, and one of the signs of the zodiac ; an anc. bat- 

aright, ad. d-rW (AS. ariM), in a proper form; 

aril, n. d-rif. also arillus, n. d-rU'lus (F. arille: Sp. 
art7to— from L. aridus, dry), the exterior coat or cover- 
ing of a seed fixed to it at the base only : arilled, a. 
a rUd', also arilate, a. dr'4-ldt, having an aril : aril- 
ode, n. dr'U-dd (Gr. eidos, resemblance), a similar in- 
vestment as in the mace of the nutmeg. 

arise, v. a-rlz' (AS. arisan: Goth, reimri: Icel. 
risa, to arise: Ger. reisen. to start), to get up; to 
ascend: ari'sing, imp.: arose, pt. tl/Oz': arisen, pi». 

Aristarch, n. dr'ls-tdrk (from Aristarchus of Alex- 
andria), a severe critic. 

ariatate, a. <}-rU'-Mt (L. nrii^ta, a beard of corn), 
furnished with beards, like barley and many grasses ; 

aristocracy, n. dr'lstdk-rd-sX (Gr. aristos, best; 
kratos, rule, strength), government by nobles ; the no- 
bility or cliief persons of a country: aristocrat, n. 
dr'ls-tO-krCLt' , one who favours an aristocracy; one of 

the nobles; familiarly, a haughty person: aristo- 
cratic, a. dr-ls'-tokrat'-lk, also aris'tocrat'ical, a. 
•l-kal, belonging to the aristocracy; familiarly, 
haughty: aris'tocrat'ical'ly, ad. -li: aris'tocrat'ical- 
ness, n. : aristocratism, n. ar-ls'-td-krdt'-lzm, the 
principles or habits of aristocrats. 

Aristophanic, a. dr-li'to-fdn'ik (from Aristophanes, 
a celebrated comic poet of ancient Greece), shrewd ; 

Aristotelian, a. dr-ls'to-tei'-Ulri, also Aris'totel'ic, 
a. d-rls't6-tel-ik (from Aristotle, a celebrated philo- 
sopher of ancient Greece, instructor of Alexander the 
Great), pert, to Aristotle or his philosophy. 

arithmetic, n. d-rith'me-ilk (Gr. arithmeo, I com- 
pute, I number), the science of numbers ; the art of 
counting or computing: arithmetical, a. dr'lth- 
m6t'-l-kal, pertaining to arithmetic : ar'ithmetlcal'ly, 
ad. -kdl'-l: arithmetician, n. d-rith'-metUh'dn, one 
skilled in arithmetic: arithmancy, n. dr'-Uhmdn'-sl 
(Gr. arithmeo; manteia, divination), divination by 
numbers: arithmometer, n. (Gr. arithmeo; metron, 
a measure), an abacus. 

ark, n. drk (AS. eark: L. Sp. and It. area, a chest), 
among the a7ic. Jews, an oblong chest or case in which 
were deposited the two tables of the law, and over 
which was the mercy -seat; a chest; a vessel; the 
large sliip that was a place of safety to Noah and his 
family .at the Flood; a shelter: arkite, n. dr'kit, one 
of the persons saved in the ark: adj. pert, to the ark 
of Noah. 

arkose, u. dr'kOz, a mineral compound formed of 
the same materials as granite, from the disintegration 
of which it has evidently been derived. 

arm, v. drm (F. armer: Sp. armar — from L. artna, 
weapons of war), to furnish with arms ; to take up 
aiTns: arm'ing, imp.: armed, -pp. drmd: adj. morally 
fortified; in her., coloured: arms, n. plu. drmz. wea- 
pons of war; signs annorial: army, n. dr'-inl. a body 
of men armed for war; a host : pass of arms, a kind 
of combat with swords : stand of arms, a complete 
set of arms for one soldier : coats of arms, in her., any 
signs of arms or devices, painted or engraved, used 
as symbols of quality or distinction : arma, n. plu. 
dr'-md, in bat., such appendages of plants as prickles 
and thorns: armistice, n. dr'-mis-t%s (L. arma; isisto, 
I stand still), a stopping from M-ar for a short time ; 
a truce : armour, n. dr-mer, dress for war ; weapons 
of war: armourer, or armorer, n. dr'mdrer, one 
who makes weapons of war: armorial, a. dr-mO'rl-dl, 
belonging to arms; pertaining to coats of arms; her- 
aldic: ar'morist, n. one skilled in heraldrj': armory, 
n. dr'mo-rl, a place where weapons of war are kept, 
or where they are made : ar'mour-bearer, one who 
carries the arms of another: ar'mour-plat'ed, a. 
-pldt-ed, covered with defensive plates of metal, as 
ships of war: ar'my-llst, n. list of otflccrs of the 

arm, n. drm (AS. earm: L. armus, the shoulder- 
joint, the arm: Icel. arwir), a limb of a body; a 
branch of a tree ; inlet of the sea : armful, n. drm-f^ol, 
as much as the arms can embrace: armhole, drrx'-hol, 
the cavity under the shoulder ; the hole in a garment 
for the arm : arm'-like, a. -Ilk, of the form or appear- 
ance of an ann : armless, a. without arms : arm'let, 
a little ai-m ; a bracelet : arm-chair, a chair with arms 
to support the elbows: arm-pit, n. the cavity under 
the shoulder: fore-arm, the part oftlic ann lying be- 
tween the elbow and the -w list : arm of the sea, a jiart 
which runs far into the land: arm's-length, n. the 
lengtli of the arm: adj. at a distance. 

Armada, n. dr-)na-ila (Sp. tlic navy), a licet of war- 
ships: the hostile Spauisli fleet of war-ships which 
atti'm))ted tlie invasion of England in the reign of 
Elizalirth. A.l). 1588. 

armadillo, n. dr'md-d'il'ld (Sp., from L. arma, 
arms, from its scaly v-overing), a small S. Amer. quad- 
ruiiiil, covi rcii on tlie ba<k witli liaid lioiiv plates, and 
able to roll itself up within them like a ludgehog. 

armament, n. dr'nia-Dit'iit (L. (irtun, weapons of 
war), a laiui or naval fcnee lifted oni for war: arma- 
ture, n. dr'mii-ti'ir, aiiuour w liieh defends; a piece of 
iron usccl to connect t lie poles of mairnets ; in bot., thii 

Armenian, a. <ir-iii,'ii>-ii'ii. imh to tlie country of 
Armenia; an iiiliabitaiit : armenium, u. (j/')/;('-«!-?u», 

Arineiiian stone, a supposed blue carbonate of copper 
combined with lime, 
armiger, n. dr'-ml-jir {L. arma, anus; gcro, I carry). 

viate, mat,fdr, laTv; viCte, mit, hir; pine, p\n; note, nOt, mCve; 




In har., esquire; one with a right to armorial bear- 
ings : armlgeroua, a. ar-imj-er-ns, bearing arms. 

armilla, ft. ar-mtl'ld (L. armilla, an ornament for the 
arm, a hoop), in mech., an iron ring, hoop, or brace; 
in atuit., the circular ligament of the hand: annil- 
lary, a. dr'mU-klr'l, consisting of rings or circles; 
applied to an artificial sphere composed of a number of 
circles or movable rings : ax'mil, n. a kind of sun-dial. 
Arminian, n. dr-min'l-mi (from Amiinius), one who 
holds the doctrines of Amiinius: adj. pertaining to 
the doctrines of Arminius: Annin'lanism,n.-i-«?i-t3?)i, 
the peculiar doctrines of Arminius. 

armipotence, n. dr-mfp'-6-tens (L. arma, weapons 
of war; potens, powerful), power in anus: armip'o- 
tent, a. powerful in arms. 

Annoric, a. dr-mor'tk, also Armor'ican, a. -l-kdn, 
relating to Armorica or Brittany, in France. 

amatto or amotto, n. ai-7uit'td or dr-not'to, a 
vegetable substance of an orange-red colour, used in 

arnica, n. dr'nl-kd (Gr. arnion, a little lamb— from 
ars, a lamb,— from the resemblance of the leaf to the 
soft coat of a lamb), leopard's bane— the expressed 
juice of the root is used in medicine. 

amott or amut, n. drhmt (AS. eorthnot), contr. for 
earth-nut— commonly found in hilly grass-pastures, its 
presence in the earth being indicated by a tuft of white 
flowers on a slender stem. 

aroma, n. drd'ma (Gr. : F. arome), the fragrant 
principle in plants; an agreeable odour or smell: 
aromatic, a. di-'o-mdt'lk, also ar'omat ical, a. -l-kdl, 
spicy; fragrant: ar'omat'ically, ad. -II: aromatics, 
n. plu. dr'o-7nat'iks, spices or perfumes: aromatise, v. 
d-rohnd-tlz', to render fragrant ; to perfume : aro'ma- 
ti'sing, imp.: aro'matised', pp. -tizd' : aromatisation, 
n. d-ro'md-a-za'shun, the act of rendering aromatic: 
aromatiser, n. d-ro'md-tl'zer, one who. 
arose, v. d-roz—see arise. 

around, prep, d-rdivnd' (a and round), about; on 
all sides : ad. in a circle ; on everj' side. 

arouse, v. d-rawid (a and rouse, a secondary form 
of raise), to stir up ; to excite ; to stir from rest to 
acti\ity : arous'ing, imp. : aroused, pp. a-rolvzd'. 

arpeggio, n. dr-pied'-j6 (It.), in music, notes of a 
chord sti-uck in quick succession, so as to imitate the 
soimd of a harp ; a harp accompaniment. 

arquebuse, n. dr'-ke-boo!^ (¥.: It. archibuso: Dut. 
hcEck-busse, a gun fired from a rest), an old-fashioned 
hand-gun: arquebusier, n. dr'ke-bob-zer', a soldier 
armed with an arquebuse: arquebusade, n. dr'kS- 
bdb-zdd', originally a shot-wound from an arquel^use, 
now applied to a distilled water used for the cure of 
wounds or bruises. 

arquerite, n. dr'ke-rlf, a native silver amalgam, 
occurring in crystals and arborescent crusts in the 
mines of Arqueros, near Coquimbo, in Chili. 

arrack, n. dr'rdk, (At. araq, sweat, juice), spiritu- 
ous liquor distilled in the East Indies, from rice, 
cocoa-nut, &c. 

Arragonite, n. dr-rdg'6-mt, one of the calc-spar 
family— from Arragon, in Spain. 

arraign, v. ar-rdn' (old F. arraigner—fvovD. L. ad 
rationes stare, to plead), to set as a prisoner at the 
bar of a court of justice; to cliarge with faults; to 
accuse publicly : arraigning, imp. : arraigned, pp. 
dr-rand': arraign'er, n. one who: arraignment, n. 
dr-rdn'm6nt, the act of setting a prisoner before a 

arrange, v. dr-rdnf (F. arranger, to set in order), 
to put into proper order; to adjust; to dispose: ar- 
rang'ing, imp.: arranged, pp. dr-rdnjd': aiTan'ger, 
n. one who: arrangement, n. dr-rdnj'-mSnt, putting 
into proper order ; settlement ; a classification. 

arrant, a. dr'rdnt (L. errans, wandering : Ger. arg, 
bad: AS. earg, evil: see arch, sly), notorious; habit 
and repute ; impudent ; infamous : ar'rantly, ad. -ll. 
arras, n. dr'-rds (name of a towTi in France where 
first made), tapestry ; hangings for rooms woven with 

array, v. drrd' (old F. arroyer, to set in order : It. 
arredare, to get ready: Icel. reida, to lay out), to pre- 
pare or dispose ; to put in order ; to dress ; to envelop : 
n. men drawn up for battle; dress: arrasr'ing, imp.: 
arrayed, pp. dr-rdd': arrajr'er, n. one who. 

arrears, n. dr-rerz^ (F. arriere, away, behind : L. 
ad, to ; retro, backward), a sum of money past due ; 
what remains unpaid. 

arrest, v. dr-rdsf (L. ad; resto, I stop: F. arrester: 
It. arrestare), to stop ; to hinder ; to restrain ; to seize 

by authority: n. hindrance; restraint; seizure by 
authority: arresting, imp.: arrested, pp. dr-rest-M : 
aiTest'er, n., also arrest'or, n. one wlio: arrest'ment. 
n. an order by a judge to hinder or detain: ar'resta'- 
tion, n. -td'shun. 

arris, n. drHs (old F. areste), in joinenj and masott- 
ry, the line or edge of meeting of two surfaces. 

arrive, v. dr-riv' (F. arriver, to reach: It. arrivare: 
L. ad; ripam, to come on shore), to come to ; to reach 
a place ; to gain by effort : arri'ving, ini)). : arrived, 
pp. dr-rlvd' : arri'val, n. reaching a place from a dis- 
tance ; the act of coming to. 

arrogate, v. dr'rOgat (L. ad; rogo, I ask), to as- 
sume more than isproper ; to prefer a claim in a spirit 
of pride ; to claim undue power : ar'roga'ting, imp. : 
ar'roga'ted, pp. : ar'rogance, n. -gdns, also ar'rogan- 
cy, n. -gdn'-sl, or arrogation, n. dr'-ro-gd'shUn, the 
act or quality of taking too much upon one's self; con- 
ceitedness ; presumption : ar'rogant, a. -gdnt, assum- 
ing too much importance ; presuming and overbear- 
ing: ar'rogant'ly, ad. -li: arrogative, a. dr'roga'tlv. 
claiming unduly. 

arrondissement, n. dr-rong'-dez-mong' (F.), in 
France, a district or division of territory for the ex- 
ercise of a particular jurisdiction. 

arrow, n. dr'-ro (AS. areiue: W. aro, a weapon: 
Icel. or, an arrow : Sw. hurra, to hurl), a pointed and 
barbed weapon of war shot from a bow, not now used 
as such in Europe ; a long rod pointed sharply, and 
barbed: arrowy, a. dr'-ro-l, of or like an arrow: ar- 
row-headed, a. ar'ro-Zied^cri, a name applied to wedge- 
like alphabetic figures, very ancient ; also called cunei- 
form: ar'row-root', n. a farina or flour, prepared 
from the root of a family of West Indian plants, so 
called from the Indians having employed the bruised 
root in the cui-e of wounds made by poisoned arrows. 

arsenal, n. dr'-se-ndl (old F. arsenac: It. arsenate : L. 
arx navalis, a naval citadel : Arab, darsanah, a place 
of work), a place where weapons of war, and warlike 
equipments, are manufactured and stored up ; a ma- 
gazine for military stores of all kinds. 

arsenic, n. dr's6-nik (L. arsenicum : Gr. arsenikon), 
a metal ; a poisonous mineral substance, in the form 
of a white or steel-grey powder ; also called arsen'- 
iousac'id, -i-iis: adj. pert, to : arsenic, a. dr-s6n'-ik, or 
arsenical, a. ur-sen'l-kdl, containing arsenic : arseni- 
cate, V. dr-sen'-i-kdt, to combine with arsenic: ar- 
sen'ica'ting, imp. : arsen'ica'ted, pp. : arseniate, n. 
dr-sen'-l-dt, a salt of arsenic acid : arsenite, n. 
dr'se-nW, a salt of arsenious acid. 

arsis, n. dr'-sts (Gr. arsis, the rise of the voice in a 
syllable— from airo, I raise), in poetry, the accented 
syllable of a foot, or that on which the stress of the 
voice is put, the other part of the foot being called 

arson, n. ur'son (L. arsum, to bum), the crime of 
wilfully setting on fire a dwelling-house or other 

art, v. art (see are), the 2d sing, of the pres. tense 
of am. 

art, n. art (L. ars, gen. arfis, an art), anj-thing done 
by human skill— the opposite of nature; knowledge 
applied to the uses of everyday life— the opposite of 
science ; a trade ; skill ; cunning : art and part, a share 
in contrivance and execution : artful, a. drt'-fool, 
cuiming ; crafty: art'fully, ad.-ii; artless, :\. unskilful ; 
natural ; simple : artlessly, ad. -II : art lessness, n. : 
art'fulness, n. skill; cunning: artifice, n. dr'-tl-fts 
(L. ars;facio, I make), a trick; an ingenious contriv- 
ance, in a good or bad sense: artificer, n. dr-tlf'l- 
ser, a workman; a contriver: artificial, dr'ti-flsh'al, 
made by art ; not produced by nature : ar'tiflci'ally, 
ad. -ll: ar'tifici'alness, n.: artificiality, n. dr'tf- 
ftsh'l-dl'i-tl, appearance or result of art: art' union, 
-Un'-yiin, a subscription lottery of paintings, engrav- 
ings, &c. : artisan, n. dr'ti-zdn, a workman ; a me- 
chanic: fine arts, fin'drts, those productions of 
human skill and genius more immediately address- 
ed to the sentiments of taste, or to the imagination 
—such as painting, sculpture, engra^^ng, music, &c. 

artemisia, n. dr't^-mlz'l-d (Artemis, one of the 
names of Diana, who presided over women in child- 
bed), motlier-herb, a genus of plants including the 
mugwort, wonnwood, &c. 

artery, n. dr'ter-l (L. and Gr. arteries— tTom Gr. 
aer, air ; fereo, I presei-ve, because believed by the an- 
cients to circulate air), one of the vessels that convey 
the blood from the heart to all parts of the body : ar- 
terial, a. dr-tc'-rl-dl, of or contained in arteries: ar- 

coiu, boy, foot; piXre, bUd; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




terialise, v. dr-te'rl-dlllz', to render the Wood from 
the veins similar to that contained in the arteries: 
arte'riali'sing, imp.: arte'rialised', pp. -lizd' : arte- 
rialisation, n. drte'rl-ai'lza'ahtln, the process of 
mailing into arterial blood: arteriotomy, n. drte'ri- 
Ot'-Omi (Gr. tome, a cutting; and artery), opening an 
artery to let blood. 

artesian, a. dr-te'zhl-dn. applied to a borincr or 
perforation made in the earth, in order to obtain a 
constant flow of water— so called fmrn Artois, in France 
(the anc. Artesium), where first used. 

arthritic, a. dr-thrlt'lk, also arthritlcal, a. rtr- 
IhrWhkdl (Gr. arfhron, a joint), pert, to the joints or 
to the gout: arthritis, n. dr-tJiri'tla, inflammation 
of the joints; the gout: arthrodia, n. dr-thrO'dld 
(Gr. arthroo, I fasten by joints), a joint in which the 
head of one bone is received into the socket of an- 
other ; a ball-and-socket joint. 

artichoke, n. dr'tl-chok (F. artichaut: It. artici- 
occo), a well-known garden vegetable. 
artful, artifice, &c.— see art. 
article, n. ur'-ti-kl (L. arficulus, a joint: F. article: 
It. articolo), a clause or item; a particular thing; a 
contribution in a periodical; in gram., a word put be- 
fore a noun to point it out and limit its application : 
V. to bind bv conditions; to stipulate: articled, pp. 
dr'tl-kld: articulate, v. dr-tlk-u-lat, to pronounce 
words distinctly : adj. distinct; jointed: articulate- 
ly, ad. -II: artic'ulate'ness, n.: articulation, n. dr-tlk- 
u-la'shun, distinct pronunciation; a joint: artic'ula' 
ting,imp.: artic'ula'tedjpp.: articular,a. dr-tlk- il-lar, 
belonging to the joints: artic'ular'ly, ad. -Zl: articles 
of war, the mUitary code of laws for the government 
of soldiers and the punishment of their crimes : artic- 
ulata, n. dr-tVc'-tl-ld'-td, one of the great divisions of the 
animal kingdom, designating those creatures -which 
are encircled by jointed rings, as worms, lobsters, &c. 
artillery, n. dr-tU'-ler-l (F. artillerie, ordnance— from 
mid. L. artificium, implement vnth. which anything 
is done), weapons of war ; cannon ; great guns, .tc. : 
artillery-man, the man who assists to manage a can- 
non : artillerist, n. one skilled in gunnery. 
ar'tisan, n.— see art. 

artist, n. dr'-tlst (L. ars, gen. art is, an art), one who 
exercises any art or craft, particularly that of a painter, 
a sculptor, an architect, a photographer, or suchlike : 
artiste, n. dr-test' (F. an artist— from L.), a profes- 
sional singer, dancer, athlete, or suchlike : artistic, a. 
drtls'tik, also artis'tical, a. -kAl, of an artist ; accord- 
ing to a high degree of art: artis'tical'ly, ad. -II. 

artocarpus, n. dr'-to-kdr'-pus (Gr. artos, bread ; kar- 
j)os, fruit), the bread-fruit tree of the S. Sea Islands. 

arum, n. a'-riim (L. : Gr. aron, supposed to be anc. 
Egj-ptian word), the wake-robin found in many British 
woods— a plant esteemed for its medicinal qualities. 

Arundelian, a. dr'-un-deV-l-dn (from the Earl of 
Arundel), a name applied to certain ancient marbles, 
arundinaceous, a. d-run'-dl-nd'-shus (L. arundo, a 
reed), resembling or having the structure of reeds : 
arundineous, a. ar'-un-dln'l-us, abounding wth reeds. 
aruspice, n. d-nls'-pls (L. aruspex or haruspex, a 
soothsayer), in anc. Rome, a diviner by the inspection 
of the entrails of beasts: aruspicy, n. d-rHs'-pl-sl, the 
art of foretelling events by the inspection of the en- 
trails of beasts slain in sacrifice. 

as, conj. prep, or ad. dz (contr. of AS. eallswa, all 
so : Ger. ate), signifying agreement in manner in gen- 
eral ; likeness of manner ; for example ; equally. 

as, n. ds (L.), the anc. Roman pound, consisting of 
twelve parts or ounces. 

asafoetida, n. a^'-d-fit'-l-dd (L. ai^a, a gum ; /aj^iriits, 
fetid : Ar., healing), a gum-resin, having a highly 
olfensive odour, obtained from an Indian tree— much 
used in medicine. 

asarabacca, n. (is'-dr-a-Mk'-kd (L. asarum. Mild 
spikenard ; bacca, a berry), a plant whose leaves have 
a bitter acrid taste, and veiy nauseous- used in medi- 
cated snuffs: asarine, n. ds'-dr-la, a substance ob- 
tained friim asnruiii. 

asbestos, n. ds-b<>s'-td<t. also asbes'tuB (Gr. a.-^hrsto", 
unquenchable), a fibrous mineral of the hombleiiile 
family, having the fibres elastic and flexible, some- 
what resembling flax, and which cannot be consumed 
by fire; the difTereiit varieties receive the names of 
rock-wood, rurk-riTk, mountain-leather, fossil-paper 
or flax. &e,: asbestine, a. ds-h6s'-tln, of or like asbes- 
tos: asbes'tiform, a. tl-fiC^vrmiiir. asbestos: h.fornui, 
sh.ipe), of the form of asbestos, 
ascarides, u. plu. ds-kdr'-i-dCz, sing, as'carix (Gr.), 

the small intestinal threadworms: ascarina, n. as' 
fcd-rl^/ia, a plant whose anther resembles an intestinal 

ascend, v. ds-siad' (L. ad; scando, I mount up; 
sca)isum, to mount up: It. ascendere), to mount; to 
go up ; to rise : ascend'ing, imp. : ascended, pp. : as- 
cen'dant, a. superior; surpassing; in astron., above 
the horizon: n. commanding influence; superiority: 
ascendency, n. ds-s6n'd&n-sl, power; controlling influ- 
ence: ascensive, a. ds-s^'-slv, rising or tending to 
rise: ascension, n. ds-sin'shiln, the act of going up: 
right ascension, in astron., the arc of the equinoctial 
intercepted between the first point of Aries and the 
circle of declination passing through the place of the 
heavenly body : ascent, n. ds-si7it', act of rising; ris- 
ing of a hill: ascendable, a. ds-siiid'-d-bl, that may 
be ascended : ascen'sion-day, n. the day on which our 
Lord's ascension is commemorated. 

ascertain, v. ds'srr-tdn' (L. ad, to; certus, sure), to 
make sure by examination ; to establish : as'certain'- 
ing, imp. : ascertained', pp. -tdnd' : ascertainable, 
a. ds'ser-tdn'-d-bl, that may be made sure of by search 
or examination: ascertainment, n. ds'sertdn'-mint: 
as'certain'er, n. one who. 

ascetic, n. ds-s6t'-lk (Gr. asketos, exercised), one un- 
duly rigid or austere ; one who retires from the world : 
adj. retired from the world; austere; also ascet'ical, 
a. -l-kal: asceticism, n. ds-sSt'-l-slzm, the practice of 

ascii, n. plu. dsh'-l-l, or aaciana, n. plu. dsh'-l-dm 
(L. ascii— from Gr. a, without ; skia, a shadow), ap- 
plied to the inhabitants of the torrid zone who are sha- 
dowless at noon. They are also called amphis'cii, be- 
cause when not shadowless their shadows will at noon 
fall northwards one part of the year and southwards 
at another. The inhabitants of the N. temperate zone 
at noon have their shadows always falling northwards, 
and those of the S. temperate zone always south, and 
are called antis'ciL In the frigid zones, when the suu 
is above the horizon, the shadows of the inhabitants 
are directed to every point of the compass in succes- 
sion, and they are called peris'cil. 

ascidia, n. plu. ds-sld'-l-d, or aacid'ians, n. plu. -lam 
(Gr. a.^kidion, a little bag), an order of shell-less mol- 
luscs having the appearance of small leathern pouches 
or paps, found as a pap-like gelatinous substance on 
rocks, old shells, &c. : ascidium, n. ds-sld'-i-tim,iri bot., 
a form of leaf in which the stalk is hollowed out and 
closed by the blade as by a lid ; a pitcher-leaf. 

ascites, n. plu. ds-sl'-tez (Gr. askos, a cavity or 

bladder), dropsy of the belly: ascitic, a. ds-sU'ik. 

also ascit'ical, a. -l-kdl, dropsical : aaclt'ical'ly, ad. -li. 

ascititious, a. ds'-sl-tlsh'-us (L. ascisco, 1 receive, I 

adopt), additional ; supplemental. 

asclepiad, n. as-kle'pl-dd, a choriarabic verse first 
used by Asclepias. 

ascribe, V. ds-krlb' {L. ad, to; .<!cribo, I write), to im- 
pute to ; to assign to as a cause ; to attribute : ascri'- 
bable, a. -bd-bl, that may be attributed to : ascri'bing, 
imp.: ascribed, pp. ds-krlbd' : ascription, n. ds- 
krlp'-shiin, the act of attributing to. 

ascus, n. ds'-kils (Gr. askos, a cavity or bladder), in 
bot., a membranous tubular cell, of which several are 
sunk in the substance of lichens and fungi containing 
their sponiles. 

ash, h. ash (AS. msc: Icel. askr). a well-known tree; 
adj. made of or pertaining to the aah : ashen, a. dsh'-fn, 
made of ash ; often used for ashes, as in potash : aah- 
coloured, a. coloured between brown and grey, like 

ashamed, pp. or a. d-shdmd' (.\S asramian, to be 
.ashamed), confused from a sense of guilt or unworthi- 
ness ; covered with shame. 

ashes, n. plu. dsh'-Sz (AS. asca; Icel. aska; Goth. 
azfjo; Ger. asche, dust, refuse), the dust or matter that 
rem.ains from a bunu body ; the remains of any body 
reduced to dust : ashy, a. dsh'-l. nale ; like ashes : ash'- 
ery, n. d^h-'r-l. an ash-pit : ash y-pale, pale as ashes : 
Ash-Wednesday, the first day of Lent. 

ashler or ashlar, dsh'-Ur (It. asciarc. to cut or hew 
smiiothlv with an axe), rough-hewn stones used for 
f;iciiig walls ; free or conunon stone as it comes from 
the ijiiarrv : ashlerlng. n. in carpen. .thi^ fixing of short 
upright (luarterinirs lietween tlie raft'>r3 and the floor. 
ashore, ad. dshOi^ (AS. a, on, .and shore), on shore; 
on the land. „ ,. 

Aahtoreth. n. dsh'-to-nVh (Phen. the wife of Baal), 
a goddess of the ancient Sidonians and Philistines, 
identified with Venus of the Romans. 

mate, mat, far, l.Cu,'; mete, mCl, Mr; pine, pin; nOte, n6t, mOve; 




a'zla-an. also Asiatic, a. a'zhl-at'lk. of 
or pert, to Asia: Asiaticism, n. a'zhl-at'-l-slzin, imi- 
tation of Oriental maiiuers. 

aside, ad. d-sld' (AS. a, on, and side), to one side; 
apart from tlie rest; at a little distance from tlie 
straight line. 

asinine, ds'l-nlii—see under ass. 

ask, V. ask (AS. acsiaii: Icel. aeskia: Ger. heischen, 
to inquire, to demand), to beg ; to solicit ; to seek from ; 
to question; to inquire: ask'ing, imp.: asked, pp. 
askt: as'ker, n. one who. 

askance, ad. ds-kc'ms' (It. schiancio, athwart, across ; 
scansare, to turn aside: Dut. schuin, aslant), side- 
ways ; looking towards one corner of the eye : askant, 
ad. ds-kiliit', obliquely ; on one side. 

askew, ad. asku' (Gr. skaios: L. sccevus, on the 
left hand : Ger. schicf, oblique), awry ; obliquely ; aside. 

aslant, ad. d-sldnf (AS. a, on, and slant), on one side. 

asleep, ad. d-slep' (AS. a, on, and sleep), in a state 
of sleep ; at rest. 

aslope, ad. a-slOp' (AS. a, on, and slope), in a slop- 
ing manner. 

Asmonean, a. ds'mo-ne'dn, also written Asmo- 
nxan, pert, to the Asmoneans, a family that reigaed 
over the Jews l'J6 j'ears. 

asomatons, a. a-som'd-tus (Gr. a, without; soma, 
gen. somatos, a body), without a material body. 

asp, n. dsp, also aspic, n. ds'plk (L. aspis, a veno- 
mous serpent), a small serpent whose bite is fatal. 

asparagus, n. Os-pdr'-d-giis (L., from Gr. aspara- 
gos), a well-known plant, the young shoots of wliich 
are used at table: asparaginous, a. ds'-pdr-dj'-l-nus, 
eaten like asparagus : asparagine, n. ds-pdr'a-jin, a 
crystalline substance obtained from asparagus: as- 
par'agus stone, a translucent mineral of a greenish- 
yellow colour, sometimes passing into a wine colour : 
aspar'tic acid, an acid obtained from asparagine. 

aspect, n. ds'pSkt (L. ad; specto, I look), look; ap- 
pearance ; position or situation ; view. 

aspen, n. ds'pen, also asp (AS. a;spe: Icel. aspi), a 
tree of the poplar kind whose leaves quiver or shake 
at tlie slightest breath of air: adj. pert, to an aspen. 

asperate, v. ds'per-at (L. asper, rough), to make 
rough or uneven : as'pera'ting, imp. : as'pera'ted, pp.: 
asperation, n. ds'-per-a'-shun: asperifolious, a. «s-' 
per-l-fo'4t-us (L. asper; folium, a leaf), having leaves 
rough to the touch : asperity, n. us-per-i-H, roughness 
of surface ; the quality that grates on the ear ; sour- 
ness; harshness. 

aspergill, n. ds'per-jll, or aspergillus, n. ds'per- 
jU'lUs (L. aspergo, I scatter or throw), in the H. 
Cath. Ch., a short staff surmounted by a brush for 
sprinkling holy water: as'pergil'lifor'mis, a. -jll'-li- 
fdr'mls (L. aspergo; forma, shape), in but, applied to 
little tufts of hair which assume the form of a brush. 

aspermous, a. d-sper'miis (Gr. a, without ; sperma, 
seed), in hot., without seed. 

asperse, v. ds-spers' (L. aspersus, besprinkled), to 
cover all over with evil reports ; to slander : aspers'- 
ing, imp.: aspersed, pp. ds-j^erst', slandered: as- 
per'ser, n. one who: aspersion, n. ds-per'-shiin, a 
sprinkling, as with dust or water ; the act of spreading 
foul or slanderous reports : aspersory, a. ds-per'sor-l, 

asphalt or asphaltmn, n. ds-fdlf or OsfaVtUm'.iL.: 
Gr. asphaltos, bitumen), a blackish substance found 
in various parts of the world ; melted and mixed with 
gravel, it is used for making floors and pavements : 
asphaltic, a. dsfdl'-tik, pert, to asphalt. 

asphodel, n. ds'fOd&KGT. asphodelos, a plant sacred 
to Proserpine), the day-lily, called also the king's spear 

asphyxy, n. dsfik'sl, also asphyxia, n. dsflk'sl-d 
(Gr. a, without; sphiucis, the pulse), the temporary 
ceasing of the motion of the heart and arteries as in 
drowning or suffocation ; swooning: asphyxiated, a. 
dsflk'sl-a'-tSd, suffocated as by hanging or dro\vning 
or by an accumulation of carbonic acid in the blood 

aspidiaria, n. ds'-pld-l-a-rl-d (Gr. aspis, gen. aspi- 
dos, a shield), a genus of fossil stems found in the 
coal-measures, so called from the shape of the leaf- 
scaurs : aspidium, n. ds-ptd'i-um, a genus of ferns 

aspidorhynchus, n. ds'pl-dd-rin-kOs (Gr. aspis; 
rhunchos, a beak), a genus of fossU fishes charac- 
tensed by the tapering or beak-like prolongation 
of their upper jaws, armed with numerous sharp- 
pointe^ conical teeth. 

aspldura, n. ds'pl-d6'ra (Gr. aspis. a shield ; owra, 
a tail), a genus of fossil star-fishes having a buckler ar- 
rangeuieut of the ossicles that protect the arms. 

aspire, v. ds-plr {L.aspiro, I breathe or blow toward-i 
—from ad, and spiro, I breathe : F. aspirer), to desire 
with eagerness ; to pant after; to aim at something 
that can be obtained with diiticulty: aspi'ring, imp. : 
adj. ambitious: aspired, pp. dspird' -. aspi'rer, 
n. one who: aspi'ringly, ad. -li: aspirant, n. ds-pi- 
rdnt, one who seeks with eagerness: aspirate, v 
ds}pl-rdt, to pronounce with a lull breath : n. a letter 
with a mark to show it must be pronounced with a 
full breath: adj. pronounced with a breathing- as'- 
pira'ting, imp.: aspirated, pp. ds'pl-rd'tid : as- 
piration, n. ds'pl-ra-shun, the act of pronouncing a 
letter with a full breath ; an ardent wish or desire to 
attain : aspiratory, a. ds-pl'ra-tor't, pert, to breathing. 

asportation, n. ds'por-td'shiin (L. ab, from; purto, 
I carry), act of carrying or conveying away. 

asquint, ad. d-skwlnt' (Dut. schuinte, a slope, obli- 
quity), towards one side ; obliquely. 

ass, n. as (L. asi7ius, an ass: Ger. esel: Pol. osiol), a 
well-known beast of burden, dull and slow, but patient 
and hardy; a dull, stupid person: asinine, a. ds-i- 
nln, pertaining to an ass; like an ass. 

assagay or assagai, n. ds'-dga (Sp. azagava, a spear 
or half -pike), a dart or javelin used by the Caffres, &c. 

assail, v. ds-sdl' (F. assaillir, to assault— from L. 
ad, to ; salio, I leap), to leap or fall upon by violence ; 
to attack with aviewto overcome or injure, as in words 
or writing : assailing, imp. : assailed, pp. ds-sdld' .- 
assailable, a. ds-sdl'd-bl, that may be attacked : assail- 
ant, n. ds-sal'dnt, one who assails or attacks: adj. 
assaulting ; attacking. 

assassin, n. ds-sds'-sln (Ar. hashishin. herb-eaters, 
viz., of the resin or extract of hemp), one who kills or 
attempts to kill by sm-prise or by secret attack ; one 
of a famous Eastern sect of professional murderere. 
called Assassins, stimulated thereto by the use of ex- 
tract of hemp: assassinate, v. as-sds'sl-nat, to kill, 
or to attempt to kill, by surprise; to murder by a secret 
attack: assas'sina'ting, imp. : assas'sina'ted, pp. 
-a'4(id: assassination, n. ds-sds'si-na'shUn, the act of 
murdering by secret violence or by surprise : assas'- 
sinator, n. -si-nd'4dr, a murderer by surprise. 

assault, n. ds-sawlt' (L. saltus, a leaping— see assail), 
a violent attack, with the intention of injuiing ; a hos- 
tile attack : v. to fall upon with violence, as in words 
or writing: assaulting, imp.: assaulted, pp. dSs-sarcZ);; 
ed: assaul'ter, n. one who: assaultable, a. ds-sawlt- 

assay, v. ds-sd' (F. essayer, to try : low L. exagivm : 
Gr. exagion, a weighing), to try or prove, as metals ; 
to attempt ; to endeavour : n. examination ; trial, as 
of the purity of silver or gold : assay'ing, imp. : as- 
sayed, pp. ds-sdd' : assay'er, n. one who. 

assemble, v. ds-sem'bl (F. assembler, to gather: 
AS. samod, together: L. ad; siynul, together), to 
gather a number of persons or tilings together; to 
meet together : assem'bling, imp. : assembled, pp. 
ds-scm'bld: assem'bler, n. one who: assemblage, n. 
ds-sem'-bldj, a mass of persons ; a collection of par- 
ticulars: assembly, n. ds-sCm'-bli, a number of per- 
sons met in the same place for a common object ; a 
congregation; a convocation: Gen'eral Assem'bly, 
the highest ecclesiastical court in Scotland. 

assent, v. ds-sent' (L. assentior, I assent— from ad, 
to ; sentio, I think), to admit as true ; to jield ; to 
agree : n. act of admitting or agreeing to ; consent : 
assent'ing, imp. : assent'ed, pp. : assent'ingly, ad. -li. 

assert, v. ds-sert' (L. assertum, to bind or fasten 
to one's self), to affirm positively ; to maintain : as- 
sert'ing, imp. : asserted, pp. : assertion, n. ds-sir'- 
shun, the act of asserting ; an afflrniation : assertive, 
a. as-ser'flv, that affirms positively : asser'tively, ad. 
•II: assert'or, one who. 

assess, v. ds-ses' (L. assessuvi, to sit down— from 
ad, to ; sessum, to sit or remain, to set), to set or fix 
a tax to be paid ; to value : asses'sing, imp. : assessed, 
pp. ds-sest': asses'sable, a. -d-bl, that mayor ought to 
be assessed: assei'sably, ad. -bit: assess'ment, n. thi 
.amount of a tax laid on a property : asses'sor, n on*? 
who: assessorial, a. ds'sesso'rl-dl, also assession- 
ary, a. ds-sesh'on-dr'l, pertaining to an assessor. 

•ssets, n. plu. ds'-sSts (L. ad, for; satis, enough: F. 
assez, enough : Ger. satt, satisfied), funds or property 
available for pajTiient of debts, &c. 

asseverate, v. ds-sev'-er-dt (L. assevero, I state 
earnestly), to declare positively ; to afl;irm solemnlv • 
assev'era'tlng, imp. : assev'era'ted, pp. : assevera- 
tion, n. ds-sev'-ir-d'shiin, a positive declaration; a 

solemn affirmation or assertion 
CQiv, boy, f Sot; pUre, biid; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




assident, a. ds'-sl-dSnt (L. assidens, sitting liy or 
near— from ad, to ; sedeo, 1 sit), associating with or sit- 
ting by others — applied to symptoms or signs of a 
disease. . 

assiduous, a. (Is-sld'ii-us (L. a.'^sidutis, sitting close- 
ly), very attentive; careful; dilipent: assid'uoxis ly, 
ad. -II: assiduousness, n. : assiduity, n. iW-!,ldtV 
i-tl, close application; great diligence. 

assign, v. as-sln' (L. ud, to ; signo, I mark out : F. 
assigner), to point out ; to allot to ; to transfer : n. a 
person to wliom property is transferred : assigning, 
imp.: assigned, pp. ds-slnd' : assigner, ii. ds-^ln'-ir: 
assignor, n. Os'sl-nor', one wliu : assignable, a. 
a^^-sin'-a-bl, that may be transferred; that can be 
allotted or specified: assignation, n. ds-aiy-naiihaii, 
a making over to; an appointment to meet, as of 
lovers: assignee, n. d^'sl-ne', a pei-son appointed to 
dosomethin;,'; one to whom an a.ssignment is ma<le : 
assignment, n. ds-alti'meiU the thing assigned; the 
transiVrence of some right or interest. 

assignats, ii. Os'-sln-yds (F.), paper money issued 
by t!ie French Government during the first Revolution. 
assimilate, v. di-sDu'l-klt (L. ad, to; similis, like), 
to make like ; to bring to a likeness ; to change into 
its own substance : assim'ila'ting, imp. : assim'ila - 
ted, pp. : assimilable, a. -Id-bl .- assimilative, a. ds- 
slm'l-ia'tlv, also assim'ilator'y, a. -tOr'l, that can 
make into a like or similar substance : assimilation, 
11. ds-slm'-l-ia'sliiin, the process by which plants and 
animals convert food into the various tissues of their 
own proper substance. 

assist, V. ds-xUt' (F. assister, to assist— from L. ad, 
to ; sisto, I am made to stand), to help ; to relieve ; to 
aid ; to succour : assist'ing, imp. : assist'ed, pp. : as- 
sistance, n. d^-sls'tdiis, help ; succour ; aid : assis'tant, 
a. helping ; lending aid : n. one who helps or lends aid. 
assize, n. Os-slz, plu. assizes, d^-si'-zez (L. ad, to ; 
sessum, to sit: old F. assise, a set rate), plu., a court of 
justice in England held twice a-year in every county ; 
si7ig., a statute regulating the measure and price ot 
commodities : assize', v. to fix measures or rates ; to 
settle : assi'zing, imp. : assized, pp. ds-slzd' : as- 
Bi'zsr, n. one who. 

associate, v. ds-so'shl-at (L. ad, to ; socio, I join ; 
socius, a companion : F. associer), to join in company 
as a friend or companion : n. a companion ; a part- 
ner: asso'cia'ting, imp.: asso 'cia'ted, pp.: associa- 
tion, n. d-s-sO'sJild'shil/i. the union of pei-sons in a 
company for mutual benefit; a society; connection, 
applied to ideas: associa'tive, a. -tlv: asso'cia'tor, 
n. one wlio : asso'ciable, a. -d-bl, companionable: 
as'so'ciableness, n. : asso'ciabil'ity, n. -bU'-l-tl: 
asso'ciate'ship, n. : asso'cia'tional, a. -s?Ll-d'shu>i,-dl, 
pert. to. 

assoilzie, v. ds-soyl'-e {old F. ahsoiller— from. L. ub, 
from; solco, I loose), in Scots law, to free one accused 
from a charge ; to find a criminal not guilty ; to set at 
liberty : assoil'zieing, imp. -Ing .- assoil'zied, pp. -ed. 

assonant, a. ds'-sonant (L. cul, to ; sonans, sound- 
ing), resembling in sound: assonance, n. Os'-so-ndns. 

assort, V. ds-sort' (L. ad, to; sors, gen. sortis, a 
lot), to arrange into sorts or classes ; to agree or suit : 
assorting, imp. : assorted, pp. : assor'ter, n. one 
who : assort'ment, n. the act of separating into lots 
or arranging into classes ; a number of things of the 
same kind. 

assuage, v. <ls'-.s»'fl/'(L. ad, to ; sxiavis, sweet: old F. 
assoaager, to soften), to soften ; to mitigate ; to allay ; 
to abate or subsiile: assua'ging, imp. : assuaged, 
pp. dd-siyixyd'; assuage 'ment, n. mitigation: assua- 
sive, a. fts-swd-zlu, soothing; mitigating: assua'ger, 
11. one who. 

assuetude, n. d.t'wS-tM (L. assiiftiido, custom- 
from ad; sttesco, I become used), custom; habit. 

tLSSume, V. ds-siiin' {h. assumo, I take to niysrlf— 
from ad, to ; stimo, I take ; sumpfm. taken), to take 
upon one's self; to appropriate; to pretend to pos- 
sess ; to take for granted or without proof : assu'- 
ming, imp. : adj. haughty, arrogant : assumed, pp. : 
assu'mingly, ad. dl .- assu'mcr, n. : assumption, n. 
ds-snm'shun. tlie act of assuming; suiipositinn ; tlu' 
taking up into ln'Mven, applied to tlie Virgin Mary: 
assumptive, a. tliat maybe a-ssumed: aEsumptively, 
ad. -ticti: assumpsit, n. rtss«mp'.st<, in law, a volun- 
tary promise to prrlorrn for, or to pay to aiiotlicr. 

assure, v. <i .s/ui/' {, to; securus, sure, certain: 
F. assurer), to make certain ; to ^cive confuieiice by ;i 
to insure : assuring, imji. : assured', pf 


promise; to insure: assuring, imp. 
a-shOrd' : assuredly, ad. dslw'rfdn 

mate, mdt.fdr, hue; mite, lait, hCr; p\/ie,plii; ?iOtc, tiOt, ruCve; 

n. : assu'rer, n. : assurance, n. dshd'rdris, a ded.ara- 
lion to dispel doubt; the utmost certainty; impu- 
dence ; convii;tion ; a contract to make good a loss by 
death or by fire, now restricted to life contingencies. 

As83rrian, a. aslr'ldu, of or pert, to AssjTia: n. an 
inhabitant of. 

astacolite, n. dstdk'-Odlt (Gr. astakos, the crayfish 
or lobster ; lithiis, a stone), a term applied to the fossil 
remains of crustaceans, like tlie crayfish or lobster. 

astatic, a. a^-tdt'ik (Gr. a, witliout ; statos, that 
stands or remains), being without polarity, as a 
magnetic needle. 

aster, n. ds'tcr (Gr. aster, a star), an extensive genus 
of plants whose flowers have a star-like arrangement, 
asteracanthus, n. Os'terdMn'-thiis (Gr. aster, a 
star ; akantha, a tliom or spine), a genus of fossil fin- 
spines of fishes, often of large size, having their sur- 
faces richly oniameuted with star-like tubercles. 

asteria, n. as-te'-n-d, also asterite, n. as'-tir-\t 
(Gr. aster, a star), a variety of corundum or star sap- 
pliire, which, when cut in a certain way, sliows a 
bright opalescent star of six rays: aateriated, a. 
ds-te'rl-d'-t&d, radiated; star-like: asteridae, n. plu. 
as-tir'-l-dc, the star-fish family, of which the common 
five-rayed star-fish is taken as the type. 

asterisk, n. ds'ter-isk (Gr. asteriskos, a little star), 
a small star (*) used to refer to a note, or to mark tlie 
omission of words ; a constellation or star cluster. 

astern, ad. d-stcrn' (AS. a, on, and stern), at the 
stern ; the hinder part of a ship ; behind. 

asteroid, n. ds'ter-dyd (Gr. aster a star; eidos, like- 
ness), one of the minor planets : asteroida, n. ds'tir- 
dy'-dd, an order of polypes having a star-like or rayed 
arrangement of their tentacles when fully expanded : 
as'teroi'dal, a. pert, to the small planets. 

asterolepis, n. ds'-ter-ode'qjls or -Ol- (Gr. asitr; 
lepis, a scale), a gigantic ganoid fossil fish of the old 
red sandstone. 

asterophyllites, n. plu. ds'-ter-6-fU'Hts (Gr. aster, 
a star ; phidlon, a leaf), fossil plants found abundantly 
in the coal-measures, having star-like whorls of linear 

asthenic, a. ds-tMn'-Vc (Gr. a, witliout; stheno^, 
strength), weak ; debilitated : as'thenol'ogy, n. nOl'O' 
jl (Gr. a; sthenos; logos, discoui-se), a discourse on 
diseases connected with debility. 

asthma, n. dsthnd (Gr.— from a, without; cio, I 
breathe), a disease of the organs of breathing attended 
with cough and difficulty of breathing : asthmatic, a. 
dst-mdt'-ik, also asthmat'ical, a. -i-kdl, troubled with 
difficulty of breathing. 
astir, ad. d-ster' {a, on, and stir), on the move; active, 
astomatous, a. d-stdm'd-tiis (Gr. o, without; stoma, 
gen. sto)natos, a mouth), mouthless ; also spelt asto- 
mous, d.i'tO-miis. 

astonied, v. ds-tdn'ld, for astonished, a word fre- 
quently occurring in Scripture. 

astonish, v. ds-ton'-ish {old F. estonner, to amaze: L. 
ad, to; tono, I thunder: AS. stuniaii, to make stupid 
with noise), to fill with sudden fear and wonder; to 
amaze ; to confound with surprise : astonishing, imp.: 
astonished, pp. -islit: astonishingly, ad. -U: aston'- 
isbment, n. 

astound, v. ds-tdtmd' (see above), to strike dumb 
with amazement: astound'ing, imp. : astoimd'ed, pji. 
astraddle, ad. d-strdd-dl (AS.— see straddle), with 
the legs on opposite sides of a thing. 

astrsea, n. dstre'd (Gr. aster, a stir), the goddess 
of justice ; one of the minor planets: astrsids, ds- 
iri'-l-de, the family of star corals, so called from the 
arrangement and number of their cell rays. 

astragal, n. ds'trdgdl (Gr. astragalos. the upper 
joint of the neck, tlie ankle-joint), the ring -like 
moulding round the top and bottom of the column 
of a pillar ; the beaded zinc bars used by zinc-workers 
in making diamond and ornamental window-frames, 
astral, a. dstrdl (Gr. aster, a stai), belonging to the 
.stars; starry. 

astray, ad. dstrd' (AS. a, on, and stray), out of 
the right way or im.pcr place. 

astriction, ii. a-striK's)n'ii> (L. ad, to; strictum, to 
bind), tlie a-tof binding close or contracting: astric- 
tive, a. dstrlk-tlv, binding; also astrictory, a. 

astride, ad. dstrUV {a and stride), with the Ifgs 

astrlnge, v. dxtrlnj' (L. ad. to ; striugo, I bind, 
to bind together; to contnict by pressing together; 
astrin ging, imp.: astringed, pp. -s^j l»y'ti'.»astrin- 

ASTR 31 

gent, Ti. ds-trln'j&it, that which contracts or draws 
together muscular fibre; the principle in bark that 
tans hides for leather: adj. binding: astrin'gency 
n. -jeii-si: astrin gently, ad. -ll. ' 

astrography, n. ds-trdg'ra-jfl (Gr. aster or astron, 
a star ; yrupho, I describe), a description of the stars. 
astrolabe, n. as'tro-ldb (Gr. astron, a star; labein, 
to take), an instrument formerly used to take alti- 
tudes of the sun and stars, now superseded by Had- 
ley's quadrant. 

astrology, n. Os-trol'o-jl (Gr. astron, a star; logos, 
discourse), a science that pretends to foretell events by 
observing the stars : astrol'oger, n. the person wlio 
pretends to foretell events by the stars : astrological 
a. As'tro-ldflkdl, pert, to : as'trolog'ical'ly, ad. 
-l-kal'-l: astrologlse, V. Os-trol'-o-jlz, to practise astro- 
logy : astrol'ogl sing, imp. : astrol'ogised', pp. -jizd'. 
astronomy, n. ds-tron'-oml (Gr. astron; nomas, a 
law), the science that treats of the motions, magni- 
tudes, and everything connected with the heavenly 
bodies: astronomer, n. ds-trOn'omer, one given to 
the study of the heavenly bodies: astronomic, a. 
ds'trO-nom'ik, also as'tronom'ical, a. -nom'i-kai, 
pert, to: as'tronom'ical ly, ad. -ll: astronomise, v! 
us-tr6n'o-mlz, to as.sume the habits and study of an 
a.stronomer: astron 'omi'sing, imp. : astron'omised'. 
pp. -mlzd'. 

astro-theology, n. Os'-trO-the-dVojl (Gr. astron, and 
theology), natural theology founded on the observa- 
tion of the celestial bodies. 

astute, a. ds-tut' (L. astxitiis, crafty: It. astvio), 
sagacious ; sharp ; discerning ; crafty : astute 'ness. n • 
astute'ly, ad. -li. 

asunder, atl. a-sun'der (AS. a, on. andsM?icfer), apart ; 
separately ; in a divided state. 

asylum, n. a-si'liim (L.— from Gr. a, not; sulao, I 
rob: It. asilo: F. asile), a place of refuge; a sanctu- 
ary ; a place out of which he that has fled to it may 
not be taken. •' 

asymmetrical, a. as'lm-mit'rl-lcai (Gr. a, without; 
suinmetria, synunetry), not agreeing; inharmonious. 
asymtote, n. ds'lm-tot (Gr. asumptotos, not fall- 
ing together— from a, not ; sun, together ; ptotos, apt 
to tall), a line which, though approaching nearer and 
nearer to a curve, can never reach it : adj. approach- 
ing but never meeting. 

asyndeton, n. a-sm-dg-tdn (Gr. a, not; sundetos, 
bound together), a figure in rhet. which keeps the 
parts of speech together without the use of coniunc- 
tions. •• 


f t^I? ' ^- *''i/iMC'-^^'' ''^-anting drink; thirsty. 
,fhi^l**',.^,.^l'',^'' I^^."- atWetes, ath'-le-tez; or 
athletae, dfk-le-t6 (Gr. athletes, a wrestler), a wrest- 
itrin°Jlf who contends in public games in trials of 
strength: athletic, a. dth-lct'-ik, v^rt. to trials of 
strength; strong; robust; vigorous: athlet'ical'lv 
ad. -kdl'.i: a.thletiam,n. dth'lS^izm' *"'""«'' *<^ 'V' 

athwart, prep. a-thwaTvrt' {AH. a, on, and thwart), 

f^^°ffn'/''f".',f"*", *° '''^^'^ **• .'^'"""g *•«""'«'. across 
the line of the ship s course ; in a manner to cross or 

atilt, a.<l.a-tllt' {a and tilt), in the position of a man 
blwnd'' ^ ' "' ^^'^ posture of a barrel raiiscd 

Atlantic, a. dt-ldn'-tlk, of the Atlantic Ocean. 
atUs, n. dt'-khi (Gr. name of a giant who, the ancient 
Greeks pretended, bore up the earth upon his shoul- 
ders), a collection of maps bound together; the top 
joint ot the neck-bones, or that which supports the 
head: atlantes, n. plu. dt-ldn'-tez, in arch., the whole 
or half hgures of men employed instead of columns or 
pillars: Atlantean, a. dt-ldn-tekln, also Atlantian 
at-lan-shl-dn, pert, to Atlas, or to the isle of Atlantis • 
strong; gigantic. ' 

atmology, n. dt-mol'ojl (Gr. atyiios, vapour; logos. 
discourse), the science of vapour: at'molog'ical a 
-lOj-X-kdl, pert, to the science of vapour: atmol'oirist' 
n. -o-jlst, one who. ' 

atmometer, n. at-mom'S-ter (Gr. atnws, vapour: 
metron, a measure), an instrument for measuring the 
amount of evaporation from any moist surface in a 
given time. 

atmosphere, n. at'mOs-fcr (Gr. atmos, vapour; 
sphaira, a sphere), the whole mass of air, clouds, and 
vapour surrounding the earth : atmospheric, dt'mOs- 
Jer-lk, also atmospherical, a. -i-kdl, pert, to the 
air: atmospherically, ad. -li: at'mospher'ic pres- 
sure, the weight of the atmosphere on a-suriace, being 
about 14 lb. to the square inch. ^ 

atoU, n. dt'-Ol, (a Malayan word), a coral island. 
consisting of a ring or circular belt, with a lagoon or 
lake in the centre. 

atom, n. dt'-om (Gr. a, not ; ternrw, I cut), a particle 
of matter that cannot be made smaller ; anything ex- 
tremely small : atomed, a. dt'omd, small as atoms • 
atomic, a. d-tdm'lk, also atom'ical, a. -l-kdl. relat- 
ing to atoms ; consisting of atoms : atom'ical'ly, ad 
-li: atomist, n. dt'o-mist, one who holds to the doc- 
trine of atoms: atomise, v. df'-6-mlz', to reduce to 
atoms : at'omi'sing. imp. : atomised, pp. dt'-omlzd': 
atomless. a.: atomism, n. at'd-mizm, the doctrine 
of atoms: atomic the'ory. in chem., the supposed 
resolution of bodies into ultimate particles or atoms 
and the relative proportions in which they combine 
m compound substances. 

atone, v. a-ton' (from at one, denoting to be or to 
cause to be at one), to agree ; to make amends ; to 
give satisfaction for an offence or a crime ; to expiate 
by sacrifice ; to reconcile : ato'ning, imp. : adj. mak- 
ing amends or satisfaction: atoned, pp. a-tmd' : 
atonement, n. d-ton'ment, reconciliation after en- 
mity ; satisfaction ; expiation : ato'ner. n. one who. 
atonic, a. d-tmi'-lk (Gr. a, not ; tonos, tone), wanting 
tone; debilitated: atony, n. dt'6-ni, loss of vital 
atop, ad. d-top' (AS. a, on, and top), at or on the top. 
atrabihary, a. dt'rd-bil'l-dr-l. also atrabiliar, a. 
dt-rd-bil-i-dr (L. ater, black; bills, bile), melancholic ; 
hypochondriac, also atrabilious, a. at'rdbU'-ius. 

atrocious, a. d-trd'sliiis {L. atrox.gen. at rods), cruel, 
very wicked ; extremely cruel ; criminal in the high- 
est degree: atrociously, ad. -U: atro ciousness, n. : 
atrocity, n. d-trosHti, enormous wickedness; cru- 
elty in the highest degree. 

atrophy, n. dt'-ro-fi (Gr. a. without ; trophe, nour- 
ishment), a wasting away without manifest cause ; a 

atropia, n. d-trd'pl-d, also atropine, n. dt'rOpln, 
or atropina, n. d-tro'ptnd (Atropos, in a7ic. mvth 
one of the Fates, whose duty it was to cut short the 
thread of life), a very poisonous alkaloid extra.-ted 
from the root of the deadly nightshade— the Atropa 
Belladonna. * 

atrypa, n. dfr1-pd (Gr. a, not ; trupa, a hole) a 
genus of fossil shells, rounded, ornamented with scalv 
lines of growth, and hAving the foramen generally 
concealed or very small. ^ 

attach, v. dttdch' (F. attacher, to tie, to bind • It 
attaccare, to attach), to take by legal authority; to 
ciTw, bwj./Jbt; pure, Md; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 

at, prep, dt (AS. aet: Icel. at: Dan. ad: Sans, adhi 
upon : L. ad, to), near to ; with ; towards. 

ata^amite, n. d-tdk'dm-it, a native ore of copper, 
called also copper-sand, found in the desert of Ataca- 
jiia between Chili and Peru. 

ataxic, a. d-tdk'sik (Gr. a, without ; tasso, I put in 
order), wanting order; irregular: ataxia, n. d-tdk- 
Kid, irregularity. 

ate, V. 6t, pt. of eat, which see. 

atelier, n. dt-le-a (F.) the workroom of a painter 
or sculptor— caUed also a studio. 

a tempo, ad. d-tem-p6 (It. in time), in music, used 
to indicate that the interrupted time is to be restored 

ater, *-fer (L. ater, black), pm-e black; as a prefix, 
spelt atro. 

Athanasian, a. dth'd-nd'zhi-dn, pert, to Athanasius 
a bishop ot Alexandria in the fourth century, or to 
the creed called by his name. 

&t)Mism n. d-theizm (Gr. a, without; theos, God), 
- '?,. ^l^behet m the existence of a God : atheist, n 
u-the-ist, one who does not believe in the existence of 
a God : atheistic, a. d'the-is'tlk, pert, to ; also a'the- 
is tical, a. -is'tl-kdl: a'theis'tical'Iy, ad. -kdl'l: a'the- 

atheling, n dth'-6Mng (AS. athel, noble; ing, son 
of), one ot noble or royal de.'jcent. 

atheneum or athenaeum, n. dth'S-ne'iim (Gr 
Athenaion, the temple of Minerva at Athens), a pub- 
lic reading or lecture room: Athenian, a. d-the'nldn. 
of .\thens : n. one who. 

athericera, n. dth'-er-ls'-dr-d (Gr. ather, a spike of 
corn, the point of a sword or arrow; kerns, a horn) 
a family or section of dipterous insects, having only 
two or three joints to the antenna; : ath'eric'erous. a 
-is-er-us, pert to. ' ' 

atheroma, n. dth'er6hnd (Gr. or L. atheroma, a 
tumour filled wth matter), a species of wen ; a curdv 
tumour: atheromatous, a. dth'erom-d-tus, having 
ai^atttr resembling milk-curds. 





arrest ; to fix ; to win or g-.iin over : attach'ing, imp. : 
attached, pp. atiachf : attachable, a. -aid: at- 
tach 'ment, n. seizing of goods by legal authority; 
•w-ami alTection ; fidelity ; strong regard to ; attache, 
n. at'-M-sha' (F.), one attached to an ambassador as 
one of his suite or attendants. 

attack, V. Mtak^{P. attaquer: Sp. atacar. to attack 
—see attach), to fall upon with force or violence ; 
to assault ; to assail in words : n. a falling upon witli 
violence; satire; unfriendly criticism: attacking, 
imp.: attacked, pp. at-takt'. 

attain, v. attan' (L. ad; tango. I touch: F. attein- 
dre, to reach), to come to or reacli by exertion ; to 
arrive at; to gain; to achiev.-: attain'ing, imp.: 
attained, pp. at-tand : attainable, a. at-tdn'd-bl: 
attain'abil'ity, n. -bil'l-ti; attain'ableness, n. -bl- 
nis: attain 'ment, n. the act of arriving at or reaching 
by effort ; proficiency in any branch of knowledge. 

attaint, v. nt-tdnf{L. ad, to ; tingo, I stain, or tango, 
I touch ; old F. attaindre, to accuse, to stain), to corrupt; 
to taint; to disgrace; to find guilty of treason or 
felony ; to render infamous : n. a stain ; reproach ; 
hurt: attainting, iinji.: attaint'ed, pp.: attainture, 
n. dttdn'tCir: attainder, n. at-tdn'-thlr, that which 
renders impure : the loss of civil rights and whole 
estate for the crime of treason or other capital offence 
by a judicial sentence, is called an act of attainder. 

attar, n. at'tdr, or otto of roses, otho (Hind, utr, 
essence : Arab, ilr, perfume), a precious oil made in 
Eastern countries from roses ; a valuable perfume. 

attemper, v. dt-tem'-per (L. ad, to ; tempera, I mix in 
due proportion), to soften or moderate ; to modify ; to 
mingle: attem'pering, imp.: attem'pered, pp. -jyerd. 

attempt, v. dt-temt' (L. ad, to ; tento, I try: F. atte7i- 
ter, to attempt: old F. tempter, to trj'), to try; to 
make an effort to accomplish; to endeavour: n. an 
attack; an endeavour to gain a point: attemp'ting, 
imp. : attemp'ted, pp. : attemp'ter, n. one who ; 
attempfable, a. -dbl. 

attend, v. dt-tdnd' (L. ad, to; tendo, I stretch out: 
F. uttendre, to expect), to wait on ; to accompany ; to 
be present; to listen to to fix the attention upon: 
attending, imp. : attend'ed, pp. : atten'dant, n. a 
follower; a servant: adj. accompanying; being pre- 
sent: attendance, n. at-t&n'-dans, act of serving or 
waiting on; duty: attention, n. dt-tin'shiln, the act 
of attending ; paying lieed to ; steady application of the 
mind ; act of courtesy : attentive, a. dt-ten'tlv, paying 
due regard to ; mindful : atteat', contr. for attentive : 
atten'tively, ad. -tlv-ll: atten'tiveness, n. the qua- 
lily of being attentive. 

attenuate, v. dt-ten'u-at (L. ad, to; tenuo, I make 
thin : F. attenuer), to make thin ; to reduce in thick- 
ness or density: atten'uating, imp.: atten'uated, pp.: 
attenuation, n. dt-ten'u-d'shnn, the act of making 
thin, fine, or slender: attenuant, a. dt-tdn'-a-ant, 
making thin : n. a medicine which attenuates. 

attest, v. dt-tist' (L. ad, to; testor, I bear witness : 
F. attester), to certify; to bear witness to ; to affirm so- 
lemnly in words or writing : attest'ing, imp.: attest'- 
ed, pp.: attestor or attes'ter, n. one who: attesta- 
tion, n. at'tes-ta'shun, the act of bearing witness to ; 
putting a name to a writing in order to show it to be 

Attic, a. at'tlk (L. atticus: Gr. attikos, pert, to 
Attica or Athens), pert, to Attica, a town in Greece ; 
elegant; classical: n. in arch., a plain or decorated 
parapet-wall on the upper part of the facade of a build- 
ing; an Athenian: atticism, n. dt'tl-slzm, the purest 
style of the Greek language: atticise, v. at'ti-siz, to 
make use of atticisms: attici'sing, imp.: atticis'ed, 
pp. dt'-ll-slzd'. 

attic, n. dt'tlk (Sans, a.'tofra— pronounced atfak— 
tlie room on the top of the house: F. aftique), the flat 
or floor on the upper part of a house ; a garret. 

attire, v. dttlr' (old F. atour, female head-dress ; 
afirer, to adorn), to dress; to adorn with garments; 
to army: n. clothes; apparel: atti'rlng, in)p. : at- 
tired, pp. dttlrd': atti'rer, n. one who. 

attitude, n. dt'tltud (F. attitude, posture: It. 
attitwUm, disposition to act), position of persons or 
tilings; nostun;: attitudinal, a. at'tt-tu'dx-mxl. \«-n. 
to: attitudinise, v. at'-H-tiVdl-it\z. to assunie .it'- 
fcted airs or postures: at'titu'dini'sing, inn..: atti- 
tudinised, pp. -nlzd. 

attle, n. aftl, a term used in Cornwall for rubbish 
thrown out of a mine, containing little or no ore. 

attoUent, a. dt-tOl'-Unt (L. ad, to; tollenti, liftin" 
or raising), raising or lifting up. 


dfter'nt, plu. attor'neys (Norm. 
attourne : low L. attornutits, put in the place of any 

one), one who acts for another, as in a court of law ; 
a lawyer: attor'neyship, n. the office of an attorney : 
attor'ney-general, in Eng., the head law-officer of 
the crown. 

attract, v. dt-trdkt' {L. ad, to; tractus, drawn), to 
draw to bysonie kind of influence; to allure: attrac- 
ting, imp.: attracted, pp. dt.trdk'tCd: attrac'tor, n. 
one who: attractable, a. at-trdk'td-bl, that may be 
attracted: attractabil'ity, n. -bll'Ul : attractile, a. 
dt-trdk'td, that can attract: attraction, n. dttrdk- 
shu7i, the act of drawing to; the power that bodies 
have of coming together and uniting, — attractiorus 
take place between hodies—affiyiities between the par- 
ticles of a body: attractive, a. dttrdk'tlv. drawing 
to; alluring: attrac'tively, ad. -tlv-li : attractive- 
ness, n.: attrac'tingly, ad. -U. attraction of gravita- 
tion, that power which acts at all distances through- 
out the universe : capillary attraction, that power 
which causes liquids to rise in small tubes or porous 
substances : chemical attraction or aflnity, the power 
by which the ultimate particles of bodies of unlike 
kinds unite themselves together to form a new body 
possessing new and specific properties. 

attrahent, a. df-trd-Mnt (L. ad, to; traho, I draw), 
drawing or attracting. 

attribute, v. at-trlb'-ut (L. ad, to ; tributum, to grant, 
to bestow. F. attribuer), to give as due; 'to ascribe 
to: attrib'uting, imp.: attributed, -pp. d^Mb^u-tgcZ; 
attribute, n. dt'-tribut, a quality considered as be- 
longing to, or inherent in, any person or thing: at- 
tributive, a. dt-trlb'-H-tiv, pert, to an attribute: at- 
tributable, a. ut-trib'utdbl, that may be ascribed to : 
at tribu'tion, n. -biVshiin, conunendation. 

attrition, n. dt-trish'-un (F.— from L. ad, to; tritus, 
rubbed), the act of wearing by rubbing ; state of being 
worn by friction; the least measure of sorrow, or 
lowest degi-ee of repentance— as opposed to contrition, 
the highest degree or real repentance. 

attune, v. dt-tun' (L. ad, and tune), to put in 
tune; to make musical; to arrange fitly: attu'ning, 
imp.: attuned, pp. dt-tund'. 

auburn, a. a7v'biir7i (old F. or Sp. aJbran, a wild 
duck in its first year, having generally a peculiar 
brown), of a tan or dark colour ; of a rich chestnut 

auction, n. awk'slmn (L. audio, increase), a public 
sale of any description of property to the highest 
bidder: auCtionar'y, a. -dr'4, pert, to: auctioneer, 
n. cCivk'shun-er' , one empowered to sell property by 
auction : auc'tioneer'ing, n. 

audacious, a. aw-dd'shils (L. audax, gen. audacis, 
bold: F. audacieux: It. audace), very bold and dar- 
ing ; impudent ; forward : auda'ciously, ad. -li -. au- 
dacity, n. uw-dds'4-tl, boldness; impudence: auda- 
ciousness, n. 

audible, a. aTc'dl-bl {L. audio, I hear: Jt. audible, 
audible), that may be heard ; loud enough to be per- 
ceived by the ear : au'dibly, ad. -bli: audlbleness, n. 
aw'-dl-bl-nes : au'dibil'ity, n. -bll'l-tl, the being loud 
enough to be heard: audience, n. aTv'dl-ens, admit- 
tance to a hearing ; an interview ; an assembly of hear- 
ers: audit, n. aw'dlt (L. audit, he hears), an exam- 
ination of accounts by a person or persons appointed 
for the purpose, in order to ascertain whether they be 
correct : v. to examine and settle aa to the correctness 
of accounts: au'dlting, imp.: audited, pp. au-'-dU-ed: 
au'ditor, n. a hearer; one who examines accounts: 
au'ditorship, n. the office of an auditor: auditory, 
n. uw'-dhtdr'l, an .assembly of hearers: adj. able to 
hear ; pert, to the sense of hearing. 

auf, n.— see oaf, a silly fellow. 

Augean stable, n. awje'dri sta'bl, in Grecian 
myth., a stable belonging to Augeus, king of Ellis, iu 
which he kept a great number of oxen ; having never 
been cleaned, it was regarded as almost an impossibil- 
ity to clean it, till it was assigned to Hercules as one 
of his labours : hence what is impracticable or what 
would be very difficult to clean. 

auger, n. a'Tc'-ivr (.VS. 7ia/-gar: Fin. ?(a;)a, a navel. 
the middle of a tliini;), an iron tool for boring holes. 

aught, n.. or ought, mrt (AS. d-wiht: Goth, waihts. 
a thing), anythiiii:; a tittle or jot. 

auglte, n. nir-ju (Gr. auge, brilliancy), a mineral 
of tlirhornlilciicb- family of a greenish-black, pitch, or 
velvit. or .soiii.'tiiii.s of a leek-green colour: angitic, 
a. aJr-Jlf-ll:. pert. to. 

augment, v. aTcg-mdnt' (L. augeo, I increase ; aug^ 

jndle, mat, far, la'w: mete, mSt, her; pine, pin; note, nOt, mOve; 

AUGU 33 


menfum, an increase : F. augmenfer), to increase ; to 
jn;ike or become large in size or extent : augment, n. 
(uvg'-mSnt, an increase ; a prefix ; augment'ing, imp.: 
auginent'ed.pp.: augmentable, a. mrg-ineiit'-a-bl, that 
may be increased : aug'menta'tion, n. -ta'shiin, an 
increase ; the act of enhirginj; : augmentative, a. -tlv, 
having the power to augment: n. in gram., opposite 
of diminutive : augmen'ter, n. one who. 

augur, n. aw'gur (L.— from avis, a bird), among the 
anc. Romans, one who professed to liell future 
events by natural tokens, as the singing and flying of 
birds, and the flashing of liglitning; v. to profess to 
foretell events ; to guess ; to be a sign : au'guring, 
imp.: augured, pp. aw'gurd: au'gurship, ii. : au- 
gural, a. aw'gii-rdi, pert, to: augurous, a. cuv' 
iinrus, foreboding; predicting: augurate, v. an-' 
(jihrat, to predict: au'gura'ting, imp.: au'gura'ted, 
pp. : augury, n. aw'-gii-n, the art of foretelling 
events ; an omen or prediction. 

august, a. aw-gnst (L. augustus, sacred, majestic : 
It. angusto : F. augusfe), grand ; inspiring awe ; ma- 
jestic : august'ness, n. dignity of appearance ; grand- 
eur in mien : august'ly, ad. -ii. 

August, n. aw'-gust, tlie eighth month in the year, 

named from Caesar Augustus : Augustan, a. av'-gil'i- 

tan, pert, to Augustus or his age ; literary or refined. 

Augustins, n. plu. aw-giis'tinz, monks who follow 

the doctrines and rules of St Augustin. 

auk, n. awk (Dan. alke), the name of various sea- 

aularian, n. awM'rl-an (L. aula, a hall), at Oxford, 
tlie member of a hall, as distinguished from a colle- 

aulic, a. aYv'-llk (L. aulicns: Gr. aM?i7cos — from 
Gr. aide, a royal palace), of or pert, to a royal court. 

aunt, n. ant (contr. from L. amita, an aunt), the 
sister of one's father or mother. 

aura, n. aw'rd (L. andGr. ai«ra— from Gr. ao, I blow 
or breathe), a veiy gentle breeze ; a brea tli ; a subtle 
invisible vapour supposed to proceed from a body. 
aural— see under auricle. 

aurate, n. aW-rut (L. aurum, gold), a salt of auric 
acid: aura'ted, a. of or like gold: auric, a. aiv'rtk, 
ot or from gold. 

aurelia, n. aw-re'li-a (L. aurum, gold; aureolus, 
golden), the chrysalis of an insect : aure'lian, a. -i-a», 
pert, to the aurelia : n. an amateur collection of in- 
sects: aureola, n. aw-re'6-la, a circle of rays round 
the head of a portrait, to indicate something more 
than human— popularly called a glory. 

auricle, n. aw'-rl-kl (L. auricula, the ear-flap: F. 
auricule), the outside ear; a venous chamljer situated 
at the base of the heart, resembling the external ear ; 
auricled, a. aw'rt-kld, having ears, or things like ears : 
auricular, a. aw-rik'-u-ldr, pert, to the ear; secret: 
aunc'ular'ly, ad. -ll.- auricular confession, confession 
of sins made to a priest with a view to absolution : au- 
ric ulate, a. -laf, also auric ula'ted. a. shaped like 
the ear: auriform, a. aw'rl-fawrm{L. auris, an ear; 
forma, a shape), in the shape of an ear: au'rist, n. 
one who studies diseases of the ear : auricula, u. oTc- 
rlk'u-ia, a species of prinu-ose called bears ear, a na- 
tive of Swiss Alps. 

auriferous, a. aw-rif-er-us (L. aurum, gold; /ero, I 
produce), that yields or produces gold. 

aurora, n. aw-rO'-ra (L. the goddess of the morning), 
the rismg light of the morning; the plant cro^vfoot : 
auro'ral, a. belonging to the northern lights : auro'- 
ra borealis, n. bor'-e-d'lls, shooting lights of varied 
colours seen in the northern parts of the heavens, gen- 
erally called the northern lights : -australis, n. -aws- 
tra'Us, the southern lights. 

auscultation, n. aws'kvlta'.'^hnn (L. auscultatio, a 
listenmg with attention— from Gr. ous: L. auris, an 
ear; and cultns, used or exercised : F.), the method of 
discovenng the extent and seat of any disease con- 
nected with the respiratorj' organs, by applying the 
ear to the part alone, or with the help of an instru- 
ment called a stethoscope: auscultatory, a. aws-kiil'- 
ta-tor-l: aus'culta'tor, n. one who. 

auspices, n. plu. aw'^siJls-iz (L. auspiciiim, augury 
from birds— from avis, a bird ; sptcio, I inspect), 
omens; influence; patronage and care; protection: 
aaspicioos, a. aw-splsh'us, prosperous; lucky; for- 
tunate ; favourable : auspici'ously, ad. -Ii: auspicious- 
ness, n. aTv-spish-ns-nes, a state of favourable promise. 
austere, a. aws-ter' (L. austerus, rough: Gr, aus- 
teros: It. auftero: F. austere), severe; harsh; stem • 
sour: austere'ly, ad. -H: austere'ness, n. : austerity, 

coa; bf^ii,/oot; pure, bud; chaii 

n. axvs-tSr'i-tt, strictness in manners or life ; severity ; 
rigour: plu. austerities, -l-Hz. 

austral, a. aws'-trai (L. australis, southern— from 
auster, the soutli : It. australe : V. austral), pert, to 
the south: Australasian, a. aws'-tral-a'-zhl-aii (L. 
auster, and Asict), pert, to Australasia- Australian 
a. aws-tra'-lldn, pert, to Australia. 

Austrian, a. aa-s'trl-an, of or from Austria. 

authentic, a. aw-tMn'-tik, also authentical a 
-tl-kdl (F. autheutiqtie: Gr. authcntes. the real author 
of any act— from auton entos, that sets liiinself about 
his own business), not false ; being what it professes 
to be ; not a fiction ; genuine : authen'tical ly ad 
-tl-kdl-l: authenticate, v. aw-then'-tl-kdt, to estab- 
lish hy proof ; to prove to be genuine or true: authen'- 
tica'ting, imp. : authen'tica'ted, pp. : authen'tica'- 
tion, n. -kd'shitn, the act of proving by autliority • 
au'tnentic'ity, n. -tls't-tl, correctness as to facts ; the 
not being false ; reality ; truth. Note.— A. genuine book 
is one written by the person whose name it bears ; an 
authentic book is one which relates matters of fact as 
they really happened. 

author, n. aw'ther (L. aucior, an author— from au- 
j/eo, I increase : F.auteur), one who creates or produces; 
a first mover; a writer of a book: authoress, n. fein 
aw't/wr-es, a woman who: authority, n. aw-thor'i-tl 
legal power; rule; influence; credit: author'ities, n! 
phi. -tiz, persons in power; standard books quoted: 
authoritative, a. aw-th&r'-l-tu'-ttv, having an air of 
authority; positive; peremptory: author Ita'tively, 
ad. -ll: author'ita'tiveness, n.: authorise, v. aXv'-tho- 
riz', to empower; to make legal; to justify: au'tho- 
ri'sing, imp.: au'thorised', pp. -rtzd'.- au'thorisa'tion, 
n. -zd'-sh I'm, the act of empowering or giving authority 
to : au'thorless, a. : au'thorship, n. 

autobiography, n. a7o't0-bi-6g'rd-fi (Gr. autos, 
himself; bios, life; grapho, 1 write), a life written h\ 
tlie individual himself: au'tobi'ograph'ical, a. -i-kdl 
pert, to: au'tobi'ograph'ical'ly, ad. -ll: -biog'rapher 
n. one who. 

autocracy, n. aw-tok'-ra-st (Gr. autos, self; kratos, 
power), government residing in a single person; 
supremacy: autocrat, n. aw'-to-krdt, a sovereign 
exercising absolute power; a title assumed by the 
emperors of Russia: autoc'ratrix, n. fern. -trUcs, a 
woman who: au'tocrat'ic, a. -ik, pert, to: also au'to- 
crat'ical, a.: au'tocrat'ically, ad. -krat'-hkal-l : au- 
tocratical ness, n. 

autogeneal, a. aw'to-je'ni-dl, also autog'enous, a. 
aic-toj'-e-nus (Gr- autos, self; gennao, I produce or 
generate), self-begotten or self-generating. 

a,utograph, n. aw'to-grdf {Gr. autos, self; graphe, 
writing), a person's own handwriting; au'tograpn'ic, 
a. -ik, also au'tograph'ical, a. -Ikdl, pert, to: au- 
tograph ically, ad. -ll: autography, n. dTrtog'-rd-f'l, a 
process in lithographic printing by which a writing or 
drawing is transferred from paper to stone ; original 
of a treatise. 

automalite, n. aw-tom'a-llt (Gr. automolos, a de- 
serter—alluding to oxide of zinc being present in a 
mineral not resembling an ore ; lithos, a stone), a 
mineral— a variety of corundum of a dark-green or 
black colour. 

automath, n. aw'to-mdth (Gr. autos, self; niaii^ 
thaiio, I learn), one who is self-taught. 

automaton, n. aiv-tOm'd-tOn (L. and Gr. automa- 
ton,— ivom Gr. autos, self, and ?««« aofe*-, being eager- 
ly desirous), a self-moving figure or machine; plu. 
autom'ata or autom'atons : automatic, a. a«-7o- 
mdt'-ik, also au'tomat'ical, a. -i-kai, having power 
of motion in itself; acting from concealed machinery ; 
self -regulating : automical'ly, ad. -ll. 

autonomasy, n. aw'tO-nOvi'd-sl (Gr. autos, self; 
onoma, a name), in rhet., a common name used in the 
same sense as a proper name — as, he has gone to the 
city, instead of London. 

autonomy, n. aw-tdn'-d-v\i (Gr. autos, self; nomas. 
a law : F. autovomie, freedom), the power or riglif, 
of self-government; retention of national laws and 
constitution: autonomous, a. aw-ton'-O-mus, under 

autopsy, n. aw-top'sl, also antopsla, n. aw-tOp'si-A 
(Gr. autos, self; opsis, sight), seeing a thing one's self; 
ocular observation : autoptical, a. otbfopVi-Adi see- 
ing with one's own eyes : autop'tically, ad. -U. ' 

autumn, n. aTi''tiiiu{h. autumnus, the autumn— from 
aurtus, increased, abundant), the third season of ths 
year, popularly beginning with August, but really 
about 21st Sept. : autumnal, a. of or pert, to autumn. 
game jog, sMm, thing, there, zeal. 




Anvergne, n. overn', a district in rentral France 
noted for its extinct volcanoes and other objects of 
{Treat interest to geologists. 

auxesis, a. au-gze'sl<s (Gr. auxesis. Increase), in 
r?ut., a figure by which anj-thing is magnified too 

auxiliary, a. awg-zU'ld-rl (L. auxilium, help— 
from auxit, it has increased), helpinf;; assisting: n. a 
lielper; an assistant; applied to the verbs shall, will, 
may, can, must, &c. : plu. auxiliaries, -rU, foreign 
troops: auxil'iar, a. helping. 

avail, V. aval' (L. ad. to; valeo, I am strong: F. 
vnlnir, to be worth), to turn to advantage; to be of 
nso; to profit: n. profit; advantage: avail'ing, imp.: 
availed', pp.: available, a. d-vdl'a-bl, profitable; 
tliat can be turned to advantage : avail'ably, ad. -bll: 
availability, n. -hil'l-ti, also avail'ableness, n. 
■bl-nis, the power of furthering an object in view. 

avalanche, n. av'dMnsh' (F. avulange—irom a val, 
downwards : L.—ad, to, and vallis, a valley), a vast 
body of snow sliding down a mountain ; a sudden or 
violent impulse of any mass of human beings. 

avanturine, n., also aventurine, n. d-vcln'trlrln 
(F. par aventare. by accident), a variety of quartz 
deriving its peculiar play of colours from imbedded 
spangles, or by minute fissures of mica ; an artificial 
mineral far exceeding the natural in brilliancy ; a 
bright brown colour. 

avant-courier, n. d-vdiifj'kdr't-a (F. avant, before), 
a runner; a person sent beforehand to give notice of 
the approach of another : avant-guard, n. -gdrd, the 
van ; the first body of an army. 

avarice, n. dv'd-ris (L. avaritia, an eager desire— 
from avarus, greedy: It. avarizia: F. avarice), an 
unbounded desire of getting and possessing wealth ; 
greediness; covetousness : avaricious, a. dv'd-rlsh' 
vs. greedy of gain; covetous: av'aric'iousness, n. 
■iis-7i6s, greediness of gain: av'aric'iously, ad. -ll. 

avast, int., ad. d-vAsf (It. basta, enough, cease: Dut. 
Jioud vast, hold fast), a 7iauticai term; hold; stop; 

avatar, n. dv'd-fdr' (Sans, avatdra, descent), the 
descent of a Hindoo deity in a visible form or in- 

avaunt, int. d-vaYvnf (F. ava7it, before), begone; 
go forward. 

ave, n. d'vS (L. ave, hail— from aveo, I am happy or 
safe): ave Maria, d'vc-mdri'a, hail Mary— the first 
words of an address to the Virgin Mary. 

avenaceous, a. dv'S-7id's}iu,s (L. ave7ia, oats), of or 
like oats: avenage, n. dv'6-naj, a stipulated quan- 
tity of oats paid as rent. 

avenge, v. d-v6nj' (old F. avengier: newF. venger, 
to revenge — from L. vindicare, to avenge), to take 
satisfaction for an injury by justly punishing in some 
way the person that injures ; to revenge, is to punish 
for a real or supposed injury in a malicious or spite- 
ful manner: aven'ging, imp.: avenged, pp. &-vd7ijd' : 
aven'ger, n. one who : avenge'ment, n. 

aventurine— see avanturine. 

avenue, n. uv'-6-nu (F. avenw—^rom. L. ad, to, and 
venio, I come), a passage ; a road to ; an entrance 
into ; a shady walk under trees. 

aver, v. d-ver' (F. averer. to maintain as true— 
from L. ad, to, and verus, true), to declare positively ; 
to assert : aver'ring, imp. : averred, pp. d-verd' : 
aver'ment, n. a positive declaration or assertion. 

average, n. dv'er-dj (Ger. ha/erei, sea-damage — 
from Scand. ha/ or hav, the open sea,— applied to the 
money paid by those who have received their goods 
in safety to indemnify the others whose goods had 
been thrown overboard in a storm : It. avaria, calcu- 
lation and distribution of the loss arising from goods 
thrown overboard), a mean proportion; the mean of 
any collection of sums, numbers, or quantities, found 
by dividing the totals by the number of the sums or 
quantities : adj. being in a condition common to many, 
— Qs a man of average height, an average crop: v. to 
make equal to others": to reduce to a level; to propor- 
tion : averaging, imp.: averaged, pp. dv'-^rdjd'. 

averse, a. titers' (L. a, from ; vertn, I turn ; venous, 
turned), di.sindined to; unfavourable to; unwilling: 
aversely, ad. -».- averse'ness, n.: aversion, n. a-vi:r' 
sAiln, dislike to; h.atred; repugnance of mind: avert', 
V. dv^-rt', to turn aside or away from; to take ofi": 
averting, irnp.: avert'ed, i)p.: avert'er, n. one who. 
aviary, n. d'vldr'l (L. avis, a bird), a bird-cage; 
a place where birds are kept. 
avlcula, n. dvlk'uld (L. a little bird), a free un- 

equal-valved fossil shell fixing itself by a byssus, the 
living types of which are the pearl oysters. 

aviculopecten, n. d-vlk'-uld-pek'-tlin (L. avic.ula ; 
pecten, a comb), an extensive genus of fossil bivalves. 

avidity, n. d-vld'-iti (L. aviditas, vehement desire 
— from avidus, greedy: It. aviditate: F. avidite), 
eagerness ; greediness ; intense desire. 

avocation, n. dv'Okd'shUn (L. avocatio, a calling 
off from any occupation— from a, from; voco, I call), 
a calling from ; occupation ; business. 

avoid, V. d-voyd' (L. a, from ; vito, I shun ; vacuus, 
empty : F. vuide, empty), to keep at a distance from ; 
to shun ; to evacuate ; to become vacant : avoidable, 
a. d-voyd'-d-bl, that can be kept from or shimned: 
avoidance, n. -dns, the act of: avoiding, imp.: 
avoided, pp.: avoid'er, n. one who. 

avoirdupois, n. or a. dv-er'dupdyz' (F. avoir, to 
have ; du, of the ; poids, weight), goods that sell by 
weight ; the weight of 16 oz. to the pound employed 
in the selling of all kinds of goods sold by weight, ex- 
cept silver and gold. 

avouch, V. d-vdivch' (F. avouer, to avow— applied 
to the admission by a tenant of a certain person as his 
feudal superior; called in L. advocare), to affirm; 
to assert; to affirm in favour of: avouch'ing, imp.: 
avouched, pp. d-vowcht: avouch'er, n. one who. 

avow, v. a-vdlv' (see above), to declare openly with 
a view to justify; to own or confess: avow'lng, imp.: 
avowed, pp. d-vdivd' : avow'er, n. one who: avow- 
able, a. d-vmc'-d-bl, that may be openly acknowledged : 
avow'al, n. an open confession or declaration : avow'- 
edly, ad. -ll. 

avulsed, a. d-vfdsf (L. a, from ; wlsv-s, plucked or 
pulled), plucked or pulled off: avulsion, n. d-vul'shtin 
(F. avulsi07i), a pulling or tearing asunder one thing 
from another. 

await, V. du-at' (F. gmfter, to watch ; a and n-ait— 
which see), to look for; to be ready for: awaiting, 
imp. : await'ed, pp. 

awake, v. d-u-dk (AS. awariav— sec wake), to rouse 
from sleep ; to infuse new life into : adj. not sleep- 
ing: awa'king, imp.: awaked, pp. d-wdkt: awoke', 
pt. d-ivok' : awaken, v. dii:dk'7i, same meaning as 
aumke: awakening, imp. d-wdk'-nlng: n. a revival 
of religion: awakened, pp. d-xcdk'-ind: awa'kener, 
n. one who. 

award, v. d-7rawrd' (prov. F. esivarder, to inspect 
goods: It. guardare : F. regarder, to look at), to 
assign to by sentence: n. a sentence; the decision of 
arbitrators: award'ing, imp. : award'ed,pp.: award- 
er, n. one who. 

aware, a. d-todr' (AS. gewaere: old H. Ger. gawar), 
informed of ; foreseeing; vigilant. 

away, ad. d-u'd' (AS. a^reg: prov. Ger. eiveg), at a 
distance ; absent : int. begone. 

awe, n. aw (AS. ege: Dan. ave, correction, fear: Icel. 
a:gir, terrible), fear mingled with revereme; solemn 
dread : v. to influence by fear ; to strike with rever- 
ence : aw'ing, imp.: awed, pp. avd: aweless, a.: awe'- 
struck, impressed or struck with awe : awful, a. aXv' 
/(Jfii, terrible; dreadful: awfully, ail. -U • aw'falnesB,n. 

aweary, a. d-irer'l (AS. o and ireary), weary ; tired. 

awhile, ad. d-hnlV (a and xuhilc), for a short time. 

awkward, a. awk'tverd (AS. awoh, awrj-: Icel. af- 
gafa, aside-way: Swed. o/trig, inside out : F. gauche, 
left hand), clumsy; bungling; unable to use hands or 
tools easily: awk'wardly, ad. -ll: awkwardness, n. 

awl, n. au'l (AS. al: Ger. aide: Icel. air), a shoe- 
maker's tool for boring holes : awl'-shaped. 

awme or aume, n. awm (Ger. aum), a German mea- 
sure of capacity for liquids, especially for the Ithenish 
wines, .ontaiiinig 41 English wine-gallons. 

awn, n. aim (led. ogn : Sw. agn : Gr. achne. cliafT), the 
beard of corn or grass: awnless, a. : awn'y, a. a~vn'-l, 
pi'rt. tii; awned, a. innuK furnished with awns. 

awning, ii. (urn'-Uut (Low Git. havenung — from 
haven, a place for slic'ltcr from wind or niin). a cover 
spread above the deck of a vessel, or any open place, 
to afford a shade. 

awry, a. or ad. drV (AS. a, and rrrilhr, to twist— 
whii-h see), asquint ; unevenly; uneven: crooked. 

axe, n. dks (AS. orr: Icel. oxi; Dan. okve: Gr. 
axiiir, an axe), a well-knowni iron instrument: axe'- 
head, n. : axe -shaped, a.: axe'-stone, a mineral; a 
sub-species of jade, of a deep sea-gri'en or leek colour, 
used bv tlie >.c\v Zcalaniicrs and certain South S<»a 
isl.anders in making liatdiets, fit-.: axlnite, n. dk- 
sltiit, a mineral, one of llie g:irnet family— so called 
from the axe-like fomi of its crystals. 

mate, mdt,/dr, laXv; mete, wit, Mr: pine, ptii: nCte, nut, mCve; 


axial, a.— see axis. 

axil, n. dk'sU (L. ajciUa, the nrm-pit: Dut. o.rel: 
Scot, ozttr), the arm-pit ; in hot., the Tipper angle 
formed by the attachment of a leaf or branch to its 
support : axillar, a. dk'-slklr, or ax'illar'y, a. pert. to 
the arm-pit ; arising from the axil in plants. 

axiom, n. ak'-sl-um (Gr. axiotna, an established 
principle : F. axiorne), a self-evident truth ; an estab- 
lished principle in an art or science : axiomatic, a. 
iXk'-si-o-mdt-lk, also ax'iomat'ical, a. -Ikai: ax'io- 
mat'ical ly, ad. -kahl. 

axis, n. ak'sls (L. axis: Gr. axon, a pole or axle- 
tree : Sans, aksha, a wheel), the line, real or supposed, 
lound which anything revolves : axial, a. of or relat- 
ing to an axis : axle, n. ak'-sl, called also axle-tree, the 
wooden or iron bar round the ends of which wheels 
can turn; in hot., the central portion of the young 
plant whence the plumule and radicle are given off; 
the central organ-bearing buds : axled, a. ak'-sld, fur- 
nished with axils. 

axotomous, a. dk-s6t'6-mus (Gr. axon, an axis; 
temno, I cut) applied to minerals that can be cleaved 
in one particular direction. 

axunge, n. dk'-siinj , also axtmgea, dk-sun'-jld 
(L. axis, an axle-tree ; unguo, I smear), the hardest 
and firmest part of the fat of animals ; hog's lard. 

ay, ad. d'l, or as pron. I (AS. gea: Ger. ja, yea, yes), 
yea; yes; certainly; indeed; more than that: int. 
noting a complaint: ayes, n. plu. d'lz, used in the 
House of Commons when counting the votes— those 
voting in favoui- of a motion are called the ayes, those 
voting against it are called the noes, nOz: ay, ay, 
yes, j'es. 



aye, ad. a (AS. am: L. avuin, an age: Gr. aiei, al- 
ways), always; over; to (jteniity. 

Aymestry limestone, amis-trl-, according to 
Murchison, the middle member of the Ludlow group 
of Silurian strator-from Aymestry, Hereford, where 
it IS well exposed. 

Ayrstone, n. ar'stOn, a soft variety of whetstone 
found on the Water of Ayr— called also snake-stone, 
Iroin its mottled appearance. 

azimuth, n. dz'l-miith (Ar. assamt, a way or path). 
In astron., the angular distance of a celestial object 
irom the north or south point of the horizon (accord- 
ing as it is the north or south pole which is elevated) 
when the object is referred to the horizon by a verti- 
cal circle: azimuthal, a. dz'hmuth'dl, pert, to: azi- 
muth compass, an instrument adapted for observing 
bearings, consisting of a magnetic bar or needle mov- 
ing freely in a horizontal plane on a vertical pivot. 

azoic, a. d-zo'-lk (Gr. a, without ; zoe, life), wthout 
life ; wholly destitute of life : azote, n. dz'-6t, nitrogen 
gas, the breathing of which causes death: azotic, 
a. d-z6t'-lk, pert, to: azotised, a. dz'O-tlzd, containing 
nitrogen or azote. 

azure, n. d'-zhoor (F. azur: It. azurro blue— from 
Pers. lazzi)-), the blue colour of the sky: adj. of a 
sky-blue colour : azured, a. a'zhoiyrd, being of an 
azure colour : azure-stone, so named from its colour ; 
a familiar name for the lapis lazuli : azurite, n. dz'-u- 
rlt, blue carbonate of copper; a prismatic azure spar. 

azygous, a. dz'-i-gus (Gr. a, without ; zugon, a yoke), 
in anat, without a fellow or corresponding part. 

azymous, a. dz'l-miis (Gr. a, without ; zmne, leaven), 
uufermented or unleavened— applied to sea-biscuit. 

B.A.,bachelorof arts— see A.B. : B.C., initial letters 
of "Before Christ": B.D., bachelor of divinity: B.L., 
bachelor of laws : B, name of a musical sound. 

Baal, n. bd'dl (Ar. tJie idol: Heb. lord), a, high object 
of worship among the anc. Chaldeans and Syrians, 
supposed to represent the sun : Ba'alim, plu. -im. 

babble, v. Mb'bl (F. hahiller, to prattle : Dut. hal- 
tel, babbling ; babbelen, to chatter), to talk idly ; to 
utter words imperfectly as children ; to tell secrets : 
n. senseless talk : bab'bler, n. an idle talker : bab'bling, 
imp. : n. foolish talk: babbled, pp. bdb'bld. 

babe, n. bdb, also baby, n. ba'bl (W. baban: F. 
poupee: It. bambino, a babe : V>vit.poppe, a bunch of 
flax, a doll), a young child of either sex: babish, a. 
ha'blsh, childish; also To&tyish., a., bd'bl-lsh : ba'bish- 
ly, ad. -II; also, babyishly, ad. bd'bl-ish'll: ba'bish- 
ness, n. : ba'byhood, n. : babjdsm, n. ba'bl-tzm. 

babel, n. ba-bSl (Heb.), confusion like that of the 
Tower of Babel, where the confusion of languages 
took place : ba'bel-quartz, a variety of rock-crj'stal. 

babingtonite, n. bdb'-lng-ton-it' (after Dr Babing- 
ton), a mineral of the hornblende family, occurring in 
small black attached crystals. 

baboon, n. bd-b6n' (Dut. baviaan: old E. baber- 
lipped, from its large lips: F. babouin, a monkey— 
from babines, the large lips of a beast), a monkey of 
the largest kind. 

Babylonian, a. bdb'l-U'nl-dn, Bab'yio'nish, a., or 
Babylonic, a. bab'Uon'lk, of or relating to Babylon; 
mixed or confused. 

baccate, a. bak'kdt (L. bncca, a berry), resembling 
berries: baccated, a. bdk'kdted, having many ber- 
ries: bacciferous, a. bdk-sif'er-Os (L. bacca; fero, I 
produce), producing berries : baccivorous, a. bdk-slv' 
or-iis (L. bacca; voro, I devour), berry-eating. 

bacchanal, n. bdk'-kd-ndl, also bacchanalian, n. 
bnk'-kd-nd'-tt-an (L. and Gr. Baccliiis, the heathen god 
placed over drinking and feasting), one who indulges 
to excess in intoxicating drinks ; one engaged in noisv 
.and drunken revels : adj. riotous; pertaining to revea- 
ling and drinking: bac'chanals, n. plu. -ndlz, also 
bac'chanalia, n. plu. -nd'll-d, drunken feasts; feasts 
in honour of Bacchus : bacchic, a. bdk'kik, jovial ; 
drunken: bacchantes, n. plu. bdkkdn'tSz, the per- 
.sons who took part in the festivals of Bacchus. 

bachelor, n. bdch'-g-ler (old F. bachelier, a lad: 
W. bachgen, a boy: low L. bacccdaureus), an unmar- 
ried man of any age; one who has taken the first de- 
gree in arts in a college or university; a knight: 
bach'elorsbip, n. : bachelorism, n. 

Pol. opak, the wrong way : 

back, n. bdk (Icel. hak: .^ ^ .. 

Fin. paha, bad), the upper part in animals, and 
hmderpart in man; the rear; the part out of sight; a 
miner's term for joints ; that part of a mineral lode 
nearest the surface: adj. that is situated behind; pre- 
vious : V. to mount ; to support ; to put or move back : 
ad. to the place from whence one came ; to a former 
state or condition; behind; not advancing again- 
back'ing, imp. : backed, bdkt, pp. : backer, n. bdk'er. 
one who supports another in a contest : backs and 
cutters, applied to a jointed structure— the backs nin- 
ning in lines less or more parallel to the strike of the 
strata, the cutters crossing these, generally at right 
angles: backs, n. plu., among leather -dealers, the 
leather selected from the thickest and stoutest ox- 
hides : backing of the wind, when the wind appears 
to shift against the sun's course, being a sign of more 
wind or bad weather. 

back, n. bak, also bac, n. bdk (Bret, bac, a boat : Dut. 
back, a trough : Dan. bakke, a tray), a brewer's vat or 
large open tub for containing beer; a ferry-boat: 
backet, n. bdk'et (from back, in the sense of a wide 
open vessel ; F. baquet, a tub or pail), in a kitchen, a 
wooden or iron vessel for carrying coal or ash. 

backbite, v. bdk'blt (see back), to slander ; to speak 
ill of a person behind his back : back'biting, imp. : n. 
the act of slandering the absent : back'bitten, pp. 
bak'blt-ten: backbiter, n. -bl-ter, one who. 

backbone, n. bdk'bon (see back), the bone of the 
back ; the vertebral column ; the watershed of a dis- 

backdoor, n. Mk'dor (see back), a back or private 
pa,ssage ; an indirect way. 

backgammon, n. hdk-gdm'-mdn (Dan. bakke, a tray; 
gammen, a game), a game played with a box and dice, 
background, n. bdk'grdtvnd (see back), ground in 
the rear or behind ; parts dimly seen ; in a picture, the 
part behind and subordinate to the principal figures : 
backroom, n. bdk'r&in, a room in the back part of the 
house: backside, n. bdk'sul, the hinder part; the 
rear : backpiece, n. bdk'pes, piece of armour which 
covers the back : backsettler, n. bdk-set'ler, one set- 
tled in the outlying districts of a new country : back'- 
handed, a. (hack and hand), with the hand turned 
backward ; indirect : back'ing-up, in cricket and other 
games, the act of stopping the ball and driving it back. 
backshish or backsheesh, n. bdk'-shfsh (Pers. 
bakhshish, to give), in the East, a present or gratuity 
of money. 
backslide, v. bak:slld (see back), to faU off; to turn 

coTy, boy, foot; pure, bM; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




away from gradually : backsliding, imp. : backslider, 
n. bak-sll'iUr, one who falls from religion and the 
practice of virtue. 

backstairs, n. plu. bak'stdrz (see back), the stairs 
in the back part of a house ; a private or indirect way : 
back'stair, a. indirect ; private ; undue : backsword, 
n. bak'sord. a sword having a back and one sharp 
eilge : backstaS, n. bdk-staf, an instrument for taking 

backward, a. bftk'werd (hark and 7rard), un^^^lling; 
slow ; dull : ad. , also backwards, back ; in time past ; 
towards the back: backwaxdly, ad. -ll: back'wai-d- 
ness, n. 

backwoods, n. plu. bak'-wcrodz [back and irnods), 
the unsettleii parts of a new countr>' : backwoodsman, 
n. bak'woodi-inun, one who inhabits tlie lar-olf woods 
in America. 

bacon, n. ba'kn (old Dut. backe, apig; old F. baco?}), 
swine's flesh salted and dried. 

Baconian, a. bako'nian, of or pert, to Bacon or 
his philosophy. 

bactris, n. bdk'trls (Gr. bakfron, a cane, from the 
smaller stems being formed into walking-sticks), a 
tine species of palms ; one of the species producing a 
fruit of the size of a cherry. 

baculite, n. bak'u-llt (L. bacidum, a staff), a fossil 
shell of the chalk epoch, straight, many chambered, 
and conical— prevails in the clialk of Normandy. 

baculometry, u. bak'u-l6m'-e-trl (L. bacidum, a 
staff: Gr. metron, a measure), the art of measuring 
accessible or Inaccessible distances or lines by the help 
of staves or rods. 

bad, a. bdd (Ger. bose: Dut. boos: Pers. bud, bad), 
ill; evil; hurtful; opposite of good: badly, ad. -ll, 
iidt wen : bad'ness, n. 
bade, v. bad, past of bid, which see. 
badge, n. baj (Ger. batz, a dab, a coarse patdi ; 
hafzi>n, to patch), a mark or sign of distinction: 
badge'less, a. 

badger, n. bdj'er (F. bladier, a corn-dealer— in al- 
lusion to some of the habits of the animal), an animal 
tli;it burrows in the ground: v. to pester; to tease: 
badgering, imp. : badgered, pp. bdj'C-rd. 

badigeon, n. bdd'-hzhun (F.), a preparation of saw- 
dust, slaked lime, powdered stone, and alum, for col- 
oviring the walls of houses; a mixture of plaster and 
tVf^estone ust'd l)y sculptors in repairing defects in 
their work ; a kiiid of cement used by joiners, &c. 

badinage, n. bdd'l-ndzh' (F. a joke), banter; play- 
ful talk. 

badias, a. bdd'l-us (L.), in bot., chestnut-coloured; 

baffle, V. bdf',fl (Norm. F., bfffler, to deceive or 
mock: F. bafauer, to ridicule or disgrace: Sp. hefar: 
It. beffarf, to jeer), to escane detection; to elude; to 
confound; to defeat: baffling, imp. bdf -fling: baf- 
fled, pp. bdffld: baffler, n. one who. 

bag, n. bug, (Gael. &a?fir, a leather bag or wallet: Ger. 
hrxlfi, the skin of an animal), a sack ; a poucli ; a purse : 
V. to put into a sack; to puff up or out: bagging, 
imp.: n. bdif-glng, the cloth or coarse materials for 
making bags; the act of putting into bags: bagged, 
pp. bdgd: bag'man, n. a person employed to solicit 
orders for a manufacturer. 

bagasse, n. hd-gds' (F.), the sugar-cane after it has 
bet^ii pn-sspd, us.mI for fuel in the sugar manufactories 
—in thn Aiitilli-s called bagauz, n. bd-gawz'. 

bagatelle, n. bdg'-a-trV (V., also F. bngue, a trifle— 
from L. hiitra, a berry), a trifle ; a thing of no import- 
ance ; name of a game. 

baggage, n. bdg'gOj (F. bagage, luggage— from old 
F. hii()ues, goods: AS. beag. a ring of silver or gold as 
a tv)"- (if value : I('<'1. hnvqr), all the articles necessary 
for an anuv; liigL,';iu'i>; things rcipiired for a journey. 
bagging," n. '»fr/:.7r'"/— see bag. 
bagnio, n. han'-yi) (It. bnijno, a bath- from L. h(d- 
tn 'iin), a ttatli ; a prison; a i)ad house. 

bagpipes, ii. hdn'/nps (bag unApipe), a musical wind- 
instruni'-iit : bag'piper, n. one who plays the bagpipes, 
baguette, n. fia-iiff (F. a rod or wand), in arch., a 
Hniall round moulding less than an astragal. 

baikallte, n. ha'-k(M-it, a dingy, green crystalline 
v.irietvofth'- mineral augite fotmd at the mouth of 
one ofthe rivc-rs that fall into T.nke Bnikal, Siberia. 

baikerite, n. hri'lc ,-11. a clioi(d;ite-bn)wn-col(>ur('d 
mineral wax, found near I-'ike Itaikiil, Siberia. 

bail, V. bdl («U\ v. hail/iT, to deliver: F. Iiail, a 
elving over, a granting: It. b(dia, power — from L. 
bajulus, a bearer, generally with authority), to set 

free ; to liberate on the security of another ; to lave 
out or free from water : n. surety for another : bailing, 
imp. : bailed, pp. bald: bailable, a. bal'-abl, that may 
be bailed : bail'bond, n. a written security given for 
the appearance of a prisoner to take his trial: bail'- 
ment, n. delivery of goods in trust: bailee, n. bale, 
he to whom goods are delivered in trust or on bail. 

bailey, n. tal'-l (law L. ballium), an area of gi-omid 
within the walls of a fortress— applied to a jn-ison, as 
Old Bailey: bailie, n., or balllie, bai'l (F. buillir, an 
ambassador), Scotch name for an alderman or magis- 
trate of a burgh. 

bailiff, n. bdTlf(Y. baiUi—sQe bail), an officer of jus- 
tice; an agent or steward over land; bailiwick, n. 
hal'l-wlk (F. and AS. uut), the limits of a bailiffs 
authority or jurisdiction. 

Baily's Beads, in astron., an appearance as of a 
string of beads round the sun in an eclipse. 

Bairam, n. bl'rdm, a festival among the Turks, 
celeijrated for three days immediately after the fcist 
of Ramazan. 

bait, n. bat (AS. batan, to bait a hook : Icel. belt .- Sw. 
bete, pasture, grazing : Sw. beta, food), any substance- 
put on a hook to entice fish to swallow it;, anything 
to allure or entice ; refreshment taken on a journey ; 
V. to allure by food; to give Ibod or drink to a beast 
on a journey; to refresh with food on a journey: 
baiting, imp.: baited, pp. bdt'ed. 

bait, V. bat (AS. befan. to kindle a fii-e by blowing 
it up : old F. abetter, to incite), to provoke and harass 
with the help of others ; to attack with violence, as 
with dogs: bait'ing, imp. : baited, pp. 

baize, n. bdz (F. baye: Dut. baey: probably Baiae, 
where first made), a coarse woollen .stutf. 

bake, v. bak, (Icel. baka, to warm: Ger. bahen,t'n 
foment : Dut. backern, to wai-m one's self), to harden 
by fire or the heat of the sun ; to dress food in an oven 
or by fire: ba'king, imp. : n. the quantity baked at one 
time: baked, pp. bakt, or baken, pp. ba'-kim: baiter, 
n. one employment is to bake : ba'kery, n. ha '■ 
kir-l, the place where bread is baked; also bake- 

balsenidse, n. plu. bdle'nl-de (Gr. phalaina, or L. 
balcena, a whale), the whale family ; the fossil remains 
of great whales: balxnodon, n. ba-lc-nOdov (L. baUe- 
11a, a whale: odous, gen. odontos, a tooth), sub-fossil 
teeth of whales, not exactly referable to any known 

balance, n. bdl'-ans (F. : It. bilancia: Sp. balanza 
— fromL. bis, double ; lanx, gen. lands, adish), apalrof 
scales ; part of a watch ; equality of weights, power, or 
force ; the difference between the debtor and creditor 
side of an account ; overplus ; a sign of the zodiac ; the 
sum due on an account : v. to make equal ; to settle : 
to regulate and adjust: to have equal weiglit, power, 
or influence; to hesitate : bal'ancing, imp. : balanced, 
pp. bat'-anst: bal'ancer, n. one who. 

balanite, n. bdt'a-nlt (L. balanus, an acorn: (ts-. 
bahinos), a name applied to fossil shells of the b:vv- 
na<le family, whose shells generally consist of six 
principal valves arranged in conical form: balanoid, 
a. hava-ndyd (Gr. balanos, an acorn ; eidos, a formj. 
applied to a family of barnacles having shells ar- 
ranged conicallv like an acorn. 

balass, n. bdl'ds (Sp. balax: F. balais), a lapidary's 
term for the Axirieties of the si)inel ruby of a tine rose- 
red colour inclining to orange. 

balaustine, n. bd-laws'tUi (Gr. balmistion, a pomo- 
granate flower), the wild pomegranate tree: balans- 
ta, n. bd-laws'td, fruit formed like the pomegranate ; 
an indehiscent inferior fruit, with many cells and 
seeds, the seeds being coated with iml)). 

balcony, n. hai'kOvf (F hi'lmn: Ii. fialmt,,-: Pers, 
hiiht khdiirh, an uiiper chainher), a rniled-in raised 
sj«iee or platform in front of a lunise, usually b.^fore thrt 
windows: balconied, a. bai-l.o-nid. liavlni: iialconies. 

bald, a. boTrld (Kin. ]>'djits, naked, bare: Dati. 
hrildet. unfledged: (!r. halins. sp.M kled with white 
hair; Sji. prbulo, hairless), wanting h:iir; destitute of 
natural covering; naki'd; inele;,'ant ; in Imt., with.out 
beard or awn; having a white ninrk on the face: 
baldly, ad. -ll: baldness, n.: bald-faced, having a 
whfte mark on the face, as a stag: bald-coot, a black- 
binl with a conspicuous excrescence of white skin 

above its be;,k. 

baldachin, n. hai'-dd-kfn (It. baldncrhino: Sp. balda- 
(liiiiiii, a canopy), in arch., a structure within a build- 
ing in the form of a canopy supported by columns, 
placed over portals, thrones, altars, beds, <S.c. 

mate, ma'./dr, InTc; mtite, mit.hir; pine, pin; note, ?iy/, mOve; 


37 BAND 

balderdash, n. baicl'-cUr-ddsh (W. Mldardch, to bab- 
ble or prate: Dut. balderen, to bawl: Dan. buldre, to 
make a loud noise), words jimibled together without 
sense, taste, or judgment. . , ^ „ i, ,*> 

h3diiicKn.bawl^drlk{Ice\. belli: L. ftaWews. a belt), 
a girdle or richly ornamented belt ; a shoulder-belt. 

bale. n. bdl{F. bcdle: Swed. bal: It. ba«a, a pack of 
goods : Dut. bcud, a bag), a bundle or package ot goods. 

bale. V. bal, (Swed. balja: Dan. balle: Dut. baidien, 
to empty out water with a pail), to free from water 

by laving it out, as in a boat : ba'ling, imp. : n, 
of freeing from water, as a boat : baled, pp. bdla. 

balefiil, a. baV-fool (AS. bealo, torment: Icel bol, 
-alamity), mischievous ; destructive ; sorrowful : bale - 
fully, ad. -n.- bale'fulness.n. ^ , „. 

Baiearic, a. bai'-e-dr'-lk (L. baleares: from Gr. ballem, 
to throw— the inhabitants being good slingers), of or 
relating to Majorca and Minorca, islands in the Medi- 
terranean Sea. , , . 

balister or ballister, n. bdl'ts-tei-see baluster. 

balistes, n. ba-lis'4ez (Gr. ballo or baleso, I strike, 
as with a dart), an extensive genus of lishes ; the tile- 
nsh, so called from its rough, jagged, and dart-like hn- 

^^balk, V. bdXck (Icel. fta^^r, a division between stalls: 
Sw. balka, to partition off; balk, a hewn beam), 
to disappoint; to frustrate; to refuse: n. a ndge ot 
iiiiploughed land; a beam; sudden disappointment: 
balk'ing, imp.: balked, pp. bawfet .• the baJis a 
place situated among the rafters, as a hay -loft : balK - 
er, 11. one who signals to the fishermen the coui-se of 
the herring-shoals. 

baU, n. bawl{Y. balle: It. palla: Sp. bala: lu.pila), 
a round body; a globe; a ballet; a child's toy: v. to 
form into a ball : balling, imp. : baUed, pp. bawld: 
ball-cock, a hollow metal globe attached to the end of 
a lever to regulate the supply of water in a cistern, by 
floating- on the surface of the water: ball and socket, 
an instnunent or joint of brass with a perpetual screw, 
movable in any direction, very useful in scientiiic in- 
struments, &c.: ball-cartridge, a cartridge having, a 
bullet besides powder. . 

ball, n. bawl (It. ballare, to shake or jog: old F. 
baler, to move or stir: mid. L. ballare, to move back- 
wards and foi-wards: Gr. ballo, I leap or bound), an 
entertainment of dancing. 

ballad, n. bdl'iad (F. ballade, a song: It. ballata, 
a song sung in dancing), a simple popular song : bal- 
ladry, n. bal'-iad-rl, the subject or style of ballads: 
ballad-singer, one who sings ballads on the streets. 

ballast, n. bdl'last (AS. bat, a boat ; hlaest, load : 
Dan bag-lest, the back load or worthless load), any 
heavy substance placed at the bottom of a ship or 
boat to steady it ; the load of sand, stones, &c., which 
a ship carries when there is no cargo; the gravel, 
broken stones, &c., placed on the permanent way of a 
railway, immediately under the sleepers and rails, m 
order to steady them : v. to steady ; to load with bal- 
last: bal'lasting, imp.: ballasted, pp. ,. , , 
ballet, n. bdl'la (F. : It. ballo, a dance), a kind of 
dance ; a scena acted in dancing in a theatre, and 
associated with music. ^ ^ „ ■, ^.-u > 
ballista, n. bdl-lls'-M (L.— from Gr. hallo, I throw), 
a militai-y engine used by the ancients for throwing 

balloon, n. bdl-lon' (F. ballon, a football: It. bal- 
lone- sen ball), any round hollow body; a spherical 
body filled with light gas, so as to rise and float in the 
air- baUoon'ing, n. the art of ascending in balloons: 
baroon ist.n. one who : air'-balloon, one raised into the 
fttiiiosphere by being filled with a gas lighter than air : 
fire-baUoon, one filled and raised by rarefied or heated 
air by placing fire under its mouth. 

ballon, n. bdl'lon (F.— see ball), a round globe on the 
to]) of a pillar; a round short-necked vessel used as 
rei«iver in distillation. , ,, ^ 

ballot, n. bdl'lot (F. ballotte, a little ball— from 
7>nlle, a ball), a little ball used in voting; a ticket or 
written vote : v. to choose or vote by ballot : bai lot- 
ing, imp. : balloted, pp. bdl'lot-ed. 

balm, n. bum (F. bawme- from Gr. balsamon : L. 
balsamum, balsam), a fragrant plant; a valuable 
ointment that soothes and heals ; that which soothes, 
mitigates, or heals: v. to anoint with balm; to 
.soothe: balm'ing, imp.: balmed, pp. bdmd: balmy, 
a bam'l, like balm; mild; soothing: balm'ily, ad. 
l-n- balm'iness, n. : balsam, n. bawl'sdm, a soothing 
ointment of an oily nature; a semi-fluid resin: 
bCd-sdm'-lk, or balsamical, a. -l-kdl. 

like balsam; soft; unctuous; mitigating: balsam - 
ical'ly, ad. -11: bal'samiferous, a. -if-ir-us (L. — ; 
fero, I produce): balm of Gilead, or balsam of 
"Mecca, common nanus for tht; resinous juice ol' tli<; 
balsam-tree of Syria, reckoned vi-ry precious : balsam 
of sulphur, an ointment incparcd fmm sulphur and 
oil of turpentine : balsam of Saturn, an ointment'prc- 
pared from sugar of lead and oil of tuiiiiintine, &c. : 
balsam'icB, n. plu. -Iks, in med., applied to several 
preparations for external use. 

Baltic, a. bawl'-tlk (old Sw. bctlt, as two of its en- 
trances are still called: L. baltenn, a belt), from the 
Baltic or its shores, or relating to them. 

baluster, n. bdl'ui-ter (F. balustre : It. balaustro : 
Sp. barauste — irom bara or vai-a, a rod), a little 
pillar ; a small column or pilaster ; (-orruptly spelt 
banni!<te.r wlien placed as a guard to a staircase: 
balustered, a. bdl'us-terd, furnished with balusters : 
balustrade, n. bdl'iis-trdd {¥.), a row ol little pillars 
united by a coping, serving as a fence for staircases, 

bamboo, n. bdm-b6' (Malay, bambu), a strong 
Indian rei'd, with hoUow-johited stems. 

bamboozle, v. bdm-bC'-zl (Dut. bum, to hum, and 
baesen, to rave or talk idly), to deceive ; to confound ; 
to mislead: bamboozling, imp.: bamboozled, pp. 

bJin, n. bdn (L. bannire, to call to the ban or stand- 
ard : Sp. or It. bundo. a decree, banns of marriage : Sw. 
bunn, excommunication), a public notice ; a cui-se ; a 
censure; an interdict; in Slavonia, the viceroy or 
lord-lieutenant: v. to curse; to interdict; to pro- 
claim: ban'ning, imp.: banned, pp. band: bans or 
banns, a proclamation in church necessary to con- 
stitute a legal marriage. , 4. , 
banana, n. bdna'nd (Sp.), an herbaceous plant and 
its fruit, differing from the plantain in having its 
stalks marked with dark purple stripes and spots, 
and the fruit shorter and rounder. 

banco, n. bdng'ko (It. a bench, a bank), a word used 
in commerce to denote the difference in value between 
bank-money and cuiTent money on the Continent ; a 
bench: sittings in banco, so called when all the 
judges of a court are present. , ^ ^^ ,, ,• 

band, n. bdnd (from the verb to bind: Goth, bandt: 
F.bande: It. banda, a strip, a band: Ger. &ar?^, bor- 
der, margin), that wth which anything is bound ; a 
narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding 
or swathing ; a stripe or streak of different colour or 
material ; a cord ; aflllet ; atie : in arch., alow mould- 
ing : V. to i oin or tie together : band'ing, imp. : band ed, 
pp. : bandage, n. bdn'daj, a fillet ; a swath ; a long 
narrow strip of cloth used in binding up a wound or 
an infirmity : v. to tie up with a strip of cloth ; to dress 
with a bandage: bandaging, imp.: bandaged, pp. 
bdn'dwjd: bandbox, n. bdnd'boks, a slight paper box: 
bandlet, n. bdnd'let, also ban'delet (F. bandelet^., a 
little band), in arch., a flat moulding or fillet: ban- 
doleers, n. plu. bdn'do-lerz' (F., sniall 
wooden cases covered with leather, each containing 
powder sutticient for a charge; the shoulder-belts 
worn by anc. musketeers : ban'dog, a kind of large 
dog ; a mastiff. 

band, n. bdnd (It. banda: F. bande, aband or com- 
pany: It. bandare, to side: Sp. banda, a side or 
party: F. bander, to join in league with), aconipaiiy 
of men united for any common objei;t or design ; a 
body of soldiers ; a body of musicians : v. to unite to- 
gether in confederacy ; to associate : band ing, inip. : 
band'ed, pp. : band'er, one who : tram-bands, (ran - 
bundz, regiments composed of citizens of London, who 
used to be drilled after the manner of the militia. 

bandit, n. bdn'dlt; banditti, n. plu. bdn-dlt-e, also 
bandits (It. bandito, one proclaimed or denounced— 
from It. and mid. L. bandire, to proclaim, to de- 

nounce), an outlaw ; a robber ; a highwayman. 

bandore, n. bdn'dor (Sp. bandurria — iTom. Gr. 
pandoura, a musical instrument with three strings), 
a stringed musical instrument like a lute 

ban&ol, n. bdn'-drol, also written ban'nerol (F. 
banderole, a little flag or streamer), in the army, the 
little flag attached to a trumpet. ^^ ^ „ , 

bandyt v. bdn'-dl (F. bander, to drive the ball from 
side to side at tennis— from Sp. banda, a side), to beat 
to and fro, as a ball in play ; to exchange ; to retort ; 
to o-ive by turns; to contend: n. a bent club for 
striking a ball at j)lay : ban' dying, imp. : bandied, 
pp. bdii'-dld: ban'dier, n. one who: bandy-legs, (!■. 
bunder, to bend), crooked legs. 

C. a, 

coTc, WoJCTvt; imre, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 


.i}^''.PJ"^!^ ^^^l ^°"*"'. murderer: Icel. bana, to 
slay: old H Ger. bana. death-blow), a poLson of a 
deadly quality ; any fatal cause of mischief: baneful 
t'A'zliL-fi'^b P'^isonous; pernicious: banefully, ad " 

■wort, n. bdaii'trt. 


bane'fulness, u 


bang, V bdno {Sw. bang. stir, tumult: Goth. 
ba>ija, a blow; imitative of the sound of a blow), to 
treat or handle roughly; to shut with a loud noise, as 
a door: n. a heavy blow; the thump or sound of a 

Sei.'pp" M^^^'""" ^^^^ ^'""^ -■ ^^S'^' ""P- ■■ 

anttfefn InSnYJJra™'' "°™ °^ '''' ^™^ 
>,.^t?^®' °^^.?"5^ also spelt bang (Sans, bhannga, 
nemp: h. and bp. ba/iywe). the prepared leaf of Indian 
hemp, used as a stimulant in the East. 

Baniaii, a ban'yan (from the Bannians in India, 
who abstain from animal food), among sea 7nen, applied 
to those days on which they receive no butcher's 
Sste ^ ii^dian fig-tree; a Hindoo of the trading 
banlah, v. ban'lsh (F. bannir, to banish : mid. L 
mnmre, to proclaim, to denounce— see ban and ban- 
ttlt). to condemn to exile ; to compel to leave a countrv ■ 
to send as a prisoner to another country: ban'ishinff. 
imp. : banished, pp. ban'-Wit: banishment, n. the 
state of being sent out of a country ad a criminal ; a 
orhing away. ' 

banister, n. bdn'-ls-ter, corrupted from baluster, 
which see. ' 

bank, n. bangk (F. banc: Ger. bank, a bench, a bank • 
It. baYo, a bench, a merchant's place of business), a 
mound or ridge of earth ; any steep ascent ; a heap of 
anything ; a place where a collection of money is kept • 
the margin of a river or the sea: v. to raise up a 
mound of earth or a dyke to enclose; to deposit 
money in a bank: banking, imp.: adj. pert, to a 
bank : banked, m. bangkt: bank'er, n. one who deals 
m money: bank mg, n. the business or employment 
of a hank : adj. of or relating to the business of Ijank- 
Ing: bank able, a. -dbl, receivable at a bank: bank'- 
note an engi-aved form or bill, properly signed and 
attested issu.'d by a bank, and bearing a promise to 
?n,n°'hflnwi'-l't"f°''* ^- ^"7^^' * ^^^tain Specified 
bank ^^'°^'^*°'=^' ^^^es in the trading capital of a 

T.i!*^^^P*'- ^- **"^^''''«2" (It. banco, a merchant's 
place of business: L. ruptus. broken: It. bancarotta), 
any one who becomes unable to pay his just debts 
adj. declared to be in debt beyond the power of pay^ 
?r!^'ff' ^- t" disable one from paying the claims of his 
hat^^^'i^t^ bank'ruptmg, imp.: bankrupted, pp.: 
h^?^?t^^'^ H'^'Jk'rupt'sl, the state of being a 
bankrupt ; failure in trade. 

banjaer, n. bdn'nAr (F. banniere: It. bandiera- 
from bamla. a strip of cloth: Goth, bandva, a^sZfl. 
square flag; a flag or ensign: bannered, a. 6dn&; 
li^^l? i**'^"Ti ban'nerTess. a. withodt a baimer 
5!^+*^**,' "•• ^'i'^'r'-^. a little banner: knight ban'- 
neret, a knight of a higher order privileged to raise 

nl^'^it^""' ']' *\' '^'^^'^ = ban'nerol, n.^a litt?e flag! 
fl,P F^lT'r"- Pl"v^«« ^^'i'l^. a religious sect among 
the East Indians who believe in the transmigration ol' 
souls, and consequently abstain from the i^e of the 
flesh of annuals. 

bannock, n. bdn:ndk (Scot.), a cake made of oat- 
meal or peasemeal. 

banns, n. bdJiz (see ban), public notice of an in- 
tended marriage given in a church. 

nrt^l'^**iV°J>**'!:^»""'^<^-f'"°"^ ^^mue. a bench 
or table : It. banchetto, diminutive of banco, a bench 
or table), a feast ; a rich entertainment ; anjthing de- 
lightful : V. to feast ; to treat with a fe; : ban'queter 
n one who : banqueting, imp. : banqueted pp 

banquette, n. bdng-kiC (F.-from banc, a bank), in 
fort a raised way or font-bank, from three to four 
Jeet wide, rminmg along the inside of a parapet. 

bantam n. han'htm. a small l)reed of fowls with 

'i^V^i^:^::^^''''^ ^'^'^^"^ '^'^''-■- ^^- 

banter, v. han-tir (unknown, but probably ori"-in- 
at.-d ;« a slang word: F. hadiner, to Joke), to j7jlc,. 
w-ith Ml words and in good-humour; to rally: n wit 
a^j.^g^« '■'^P«^;s;j of another: ban'tering, imp.: ban'- 

bantling, n. bant-llng (from the bands in which the 


baobab, n. bd'obdb', caUed also A'danso'nia a 
large tree, a native of Africa. 

baptism, n. bdp'.tizm (L. and Gr. baptisma — from 
ti,; r^";^ "^'P '," '^'^^^^)' the initiatory sacrament of 
^nrini'i7^*'''"TK^^°": ^^^ '^'PP*"^ ^uiong water, or 
spnnkhng with w-ater: baptismal, a. bOp-m-mai. 
pert, to baptism: baptis'maUy, ad. -U: bap'tist, n 
°r'!hn H* ""^^'^'"MS sect which opposes infant baptism j 
ntJ^^^'t^^f^'- baptise, V. hap-ti^. to adndnister 
WH'.Lnf ^''^''^'"i. bapti'ser, n. one who baptises : 

?P^ ',^^^'^^//':f ?/• '^''^* "'=^>' '^« baptised: baptis- 
teiT,, n bdp-tis-tfr-l.ei place for baptising: baptutic. 
a. bciptis-ttk. ^hp baptis'tical, a. -ti-ldl, pert to 
baptism: baptis'tical'ly, ad. -H . p «i.. w 

bar, n. 6dr(F barre: It. barra, a bolt.: Celt. bar. 
the top, a branch : AS. beorgan, to shut in, to shelter). 
«mnii A.*^ }^ P'*"*^® or rod of any solid substance of 
small diameter ; an enclosed place at an inn or a court ; 
a division in music, or the line that makes the divi> 
sion ; a sandbank at the entrance to a river; the body 
of lawyers that plead; any hindrance; a stop: v to 
wvfJ t^.^'^^ten: to hinder; to shut out; to restrain: 
A^J ^^^•v'^fv ^^"■®*' PP- ^'"''^ ■ ''arry, a. bdr'-rl. in 
Afr.. apphed to an escutcheon having bars or equal 
dnnsions across from side to side: bar'Iess a • bar'- 
wise, a. -luiz: bar'shot, n. doubled shot joined bv abar 
Pnt^„ "■ 'If troying masts and rigging in a naval 
engagement : bar'-iron, a long thick rod of malleable 
iron prepared from pig-iron for the use of blacksmiths : 
bar maid a woman who attends at the bar of a tavern 
hr/r.l}f''l'"^^\ °- ,^rt'-'r«-^ad' (SP. barricada: Gael. 
barrack, branches, brushwood: F. barrer, to stop the 
way) an obstruction hastily tiirown up; an impedi- 
ment; a defence: v. to fasten; to fortify; to secure: 
barncadmg, imp.: bar'rlca'ded, pp. : bar'rica der 
S;,°^*^''r°=?^T*^'"' "• ^^^r'rl-er (F. barriere), a boun- 
dary; a Imiit; defence; line of separation : barrister, 
n. bar-ris-ter, one who pleads in defence of any person 
near the bar in a court of law ; an advocate. 

barb, n. barb (F. barfte-from L. bnrba. a beard), a 
^o^1'n '".*^''*'^ ''■/"'^^ resembles it; a horse from Bar- 
bary (Dut. »aard. a horse) ; the sharp shoulders of an 
arrow-head or of a hook to prevent its being easily 
dra^vn back again; the trappings of a horse- v *o 
funiish with barbs: bar'ber, n. (F. barbier), one who 

beardld;\'^Vd.'^'''^^' ^P" = ''^^«*^' ^P" ^-^'^. 
Barbadoes, a, bdr-ba'doz. of or from Barbadoes. 
one of the West India islands : Barbadoes tar a mi- 
neral tar of commerce found in several of the West 
India islands. 

barbarian, n. bar-bd:rtan (Gr. barbaros: L. bar- 
barus, rude— a word imitative of the confused sound 
ot voices conveying no meaning, by repeating the 
syllables &ar, bar: F. barboter, to mumblerto mutter; 
baragomn gibberish, jargon), a rude savage man | 
an uncivilised man; a foreigner: adj. belou^in" to 
a savage; uncivilised: barbaric, a. bdr-bar-il; peit 
to semicmlised or uncivilised nations: barbarism n 
bdr-bdr-l^. an impropriety of speech ; an uncivilised 
state; rudeness of manners: barbarity n bdrbdr'U 
U. extrenie rudeness; cruelty, like a savage; inhu- 
mamtv: barbarise, v. bur'-bd-rlz. U mak^ barbar- 
ous: bar ban sing, imp.: barbarised', pp. -rtzd'- 
barbarous, a. ^^fiKw-rfc, uncivilised; sav.-ige; ignor- 
ant; cruel: barbarously, ad. -a. ba^^a^o^s-ness u 
barbate, a bnr'-bdt. or barbated, a. bdr'-bd'tsii 
(hbarbatus. hsixmg a beard), in bot.. bearded: bar- 
bule, n. bar-bill, a very minute barb or beard. 

barbecue, n. bdr'bl-ku (F. barbe-a-guew trorw 
snout to tail), in the West Indies, a term used tor dn°s. 
ing a hog whole by splitting it to the backbone and 
laying it upon a gridiron ahov a fiiv, wliidi also sur- 
rounds it: V. to roast or dn-ss n ho- wlioie, or any 
other animal, in some way: bar'becu ing, im'n • bar- 
becued, pp. bdr'bl-kad. *' ^" ^^ 
barbel, n. bdr-bCl (Dut. barbeel—trom L. barba a 
bi-ard), a c.'rtain river-fish having on its upper jaw 
lour bcanl-like appendages or wattles. 

barberry, n. Inh-bir-rl (Sp. berberis), a wild bush, 
or Its fruit — see berbery. 

barbet, n. har-bct (F.-from harbe, a beard), a species 
or dog having long coarse hair; a bird of wann di- 
nijaes almost covered with bristles and verj- stupid : 
a kind of wonii that feeds on the aiihides 

barbette, n. bdrbet (F.: It. barbttta, a tuft of hnir 
on tlie p;isterii-joiiit of a horse), an earthen teiTa<-e in- 
side a parapet, raised to such a height as to admit of 
mate, mat. far. hCio; mete, mit, lUr; pine. pXn; note. nOt. mCve; 

hild w;w wrapncd). a young cliild; au infant 
banyan— see banian. 


^'^J^loZ^'f^tZml^rtXcan: F. and It 
baXacaml Spbarbacana), a watch-tower; au out- 
^^^TX^^^^^'l-^^^orca, a 

covering tiie front, back, and flanks: bp. barda) thin 
broad slices of bacon with which capons, pullets. &u. 

"'■^^"e'TVaflArb^c.- gI'^W: Icel, ber, bare: 
KH^bagr clear) naked; without covering; plain; 
siiuDle poor : V to make naked ; to strip or uncover : 

'"bare&e. T^i ra^fwr,. a curious infusorial deposit 
occurrin- n certain thermal waters tirst diboovcred 
?n the hot sDrines of Bareges, in the Pyrenees. 
%arga^, n bir^pk (old F. fx^W^^ner to haggle: 
It barattk. strife-from the ^yllablesbar bar-see 
barbarian), an agreement; a cl^eapened commodity . 
V to make a contract or a^jepn^ent ; to sell on s^ecu 
vition- bareaining. mp. bdr'-gen-lng : bargamea, pp. 
^^■iginTh^A. n. bar^gen-c'. he who accepts a 

^^blrge. n. IdrJ (Dut. barsie: old F. barge a boat: 

the ashes of sea-weed growing on the coast ot boot 
'^'^M^^ii^n (Gr. ^-- heavy), the metal- 

nS^V"^.^t;f£^.e^.~ rbU: icel. ba... the 
th?oat): the pecAliar noise or^^y^^'^'^.^.'^f^^^^', 
make the noise of a dog: barking, imp., oariiea , 

^'^bkrrnkr^^eT^^t^r. (F. bar.ue. lowL. .area) 
a small ship ; a ship that carries three masts, without 
'" KeVs^^ilf n. bdr'.kerz, a -achine moved by «.e 
centrifugal force of water, invented by Dr Barker 

bread andVs, a plant), a well-known grain much used 
fnrmakincr malt -barley-corn. n. a grain ot barley , the 
S part' o an incl hi length-said to be the origin 


theSsof oTwl^e. or beer), yeast ; jeaven t orbread ; 
the scum or slimy substance from beer, barmy, a. 
'%'S nf^n(Mt"lrn-iron. bcre, barley ; ern, a 
plac^'Dut. bmn. a heap: Dan. baarm, a load), a 


iXnfs of ships, and on Uanks or stones under water ; 
51 sort of goose: bar'nacles. n.plu. -fcte (prov. FJer- 
nianes, spectacles-from borm, blind), irons put on 
the noses of horses to make them stand quiet 
barolite, n. bar'-o-llt (Gr. barus. heavy; Mhos, a 


stone), a carbonate of baryta-also caUed Witheritc. 
'■^Smeen*: M.rdm=6..V (Gr ^-os, weight ; me- 
<ro,t. a measure), an instrument that "'^'J^^tes changes 
n the weather, and used to ascertain the heights ot 
moantrns from the pressure of the atmosphere : bar- 
ometric a bar'o-mit'rlk, also bar omet rical. a. oar- 
nigm'fcdi barometrically, ad. -kdl-l: barometry, 

Kt b ytl.e coinpreilon and expaiis.ou of » .mall 

hundred- baronial, a. bd-rO'-nl-dl. pert to a barojiy . 
barret nbrtrioAc^. the title next.belowa baron 
esumfshed in England as an order in the rei^n^of 
Tnmps T • baronetage, n. bdr-o-net-aj, ine ainmiy 
of a baronet; blroLts as a body: baronetcy, n. 
har^o-net-sl the title and dignity ol a baronet. 

baroselenite, n. bdr'-o-sden-ltjav barus, heavy; 
selem the moon), a name applied to barytes, in allu- 
s&i?s Wgh specific gravity, and t^^^^ 
nf some of its crystals to those of seiemte. ^ ,. . 

ba^iuche. n. M-rfis/i' (Ger. barutsche : L. birotus 
-from bff twice; rota, a wheel), a foui--wheeled car- 
riage with a falling top. ,1 ,>,:„ 
barque, n. bdrA^see bark, a small ship. 
harraci n bar'rdk (Sp. barraca. a cabin or hut . 
GaeT 6armc/i. brushwood F. baraqve), a house for 
soldiers commonly used in the plu., being originally 
a collection of huts clad or covered with boughs: 
bar'rack-master, the officer who supermtends sol- 

'^baiS'onS: bdr'.rd-kdn (from barrack), in Africa, a 
fort "castle ; an enclosure where slaves are quartered. 

hflTT-aB II 5dr:ras (F.). a substance consisting of 
resKd o i that exudes from the wounds in fir-trees. 

bMTator n. bdr'-rd-tor (old F. bareter, to deceive: 
IceSK a contest-see Baxter), an encouragero 
iiwduits- fraud in a shipmaster: barratry, n. bdi- 
X<rT a'fraud in a shipmaster against the owners 
o? underwriters, as emb'ezzling the goods or running 
away with the ship : barratrous, a. bdrra-ti '^. §uUty 
of the crime of barratry : bar'ratrous ly, ad. Ml 

VniTAl n hdr'-rel (F. baril: It. barile: bp. oarru), a 
iricr in the middle: V. to pack or put into a oarrei. 
bal'r^lling.Tmp^ barrellea, bdr'-reld: barrel-bulk in 
SiS a meLure of capacity for freight equal to 

^ba'i^en,^a?Mrrrgn (old F. ^rehaigZorbaraigne 


^^•Sci"dft;nStn!:'bSBt*e^r. n.-see un- 

car^ It.' 6ara. a Utter: Ger. bahre. a barrow), a 

^'wrowT" b<tr:rO (AS. beorg or beorh, a hiU or 
moundra hUlock or mound raised oyer the graves of 
warriors or nobles, especially those killed m battle 

barter V bdr'ter (old F. bareter, to deceive: Sp. 
j,^^^^„t totruckor exchange: It. barattare, to truck 
orbarteV-see''barS to traffic by exchanging one 
kind ?f goods for another; to exchange; to trade :n. 
traffic by exchanging: bar'tering. mip. : bartered, 
tm ftr5r:<erci- bar'terer, n. one Who. , - x*. 

^MzaS, n bar'tl-z'dn'i^ <=<'""P^'T A n""^* It" 
ing which see: F. breteschc, a portal of defence: It. 
Mrtelcal kind of rampart), a small overhangmg 
turret which projects from the angles of towers, or 
the parapet and other parts of the building. 

barwood, n. bdrhuo-od, a red dyewood brought from 

^ bSta, n. bd-ri'ta, also barytes, n. bd-ri'-tez (Gr 
hartw^heavy). a mineral, one of the simple earths, of 
^ro^'sueciftc gravity, widely diffused and common- 
fy o^cuS in beds or veins of metaUic ores; the ua- 

CQtc, boy. foot: pure, bud; chair, game. jog. shun, thing, there, zeal. 




tive sulphate of baryta is generally known as cawk or 
heairy spar- barjrtic, a. bclrit'-lk, of or containing ba- 
ryta: baryto-calcite, n. bd-rl'tokdl'sU (Gr. barus, 
heavy : L. aiLc, gen. calcis, lime), a mineral of a white, 
yellowish, or greenish colour, occurring massive aud 

barytone, a. bdr'-l-t6n (Gr. bams, heavy; tonos, a 
tone), pert, to a grave deep sound: n. a male voice 
between tenor and bass. 
basal, a. bd'sal—sm: base. 

basalt, n. bd-saTvit' (Gr. and L. basaltes; Ethiopic, 
basal, iron), a dark greyish - black stone of volcanic 
origin, often O'.-curring in tlie form of columns 
I'T prisms, three, five, or more sided, regular and 
jointed: basaltic, a. ba-saTt'^nA", pert, to or conUining 
Uasalt : basaltine, a. bd-saXvl'tln, crystallised horn 
blende: basaltiform, n. bd-anwl'tl-fawrrn {basalt; 
L. forma, shape), resembling basalt in its coluimiar 

basanite, n. bdz'dn-lt (Gr. basanizo, I test; basanos, 
a touchstone), a mineral— called also Lydian stone 
or Lyditc, from the provinceofLydia, where first found; 
a compound variety of flinty slate of a velvet-hlaik 
coloiu-, used for testing the purity of gold aud .silvi*r 
—seldom used in this way no w ; applied to a rock having 
a base of basalt and more or less crystals of augite. 

base, a. bds{P. bos, mean, low: It. ba^so; L. bassus: 
Gr. 6a</i!M, deep), mean; worthless; of low station; 
deep; gnive: basely, ad. -ll: base'ness, n. vileuess; 
worthlessness: base-born, a. born out of wedlock; 
vile: base-hearted, a., also base-souled, a. vile in 
heart or spirit. 

base, n. bds (L. and Gr. basis, the foundation), the 
bottom; the foundation; the foot; the support; the 
principal ingredient in a compound body ; the low or 
grave i)arts in music: v. to found or establish on a 
base : basing, imp. : based, pp. basd .- basic, a. 
ha'zUc, acting as a base; possessing the base in ex- 
cess: basal, a. bd'sal, forming the base: baseless, 
a. bas'lds, without foundation: basilar, a. bds'l-ldr, 
iu bot, attached to the base of an organ: base'- 
ment, n. the ground floor ; the part below the level of 
the street; the part on which the base is placed: 
basis, n. bd'sls (L.), the pedestal of a column; that on 
which anything is raised: plu. bases, ba'sez: base'- 
court, the outer or lower yard of a castle, appropriated 
to stiibles, offices, &c. : base-line, in perspec, the com- 
mon section of a picture and the geometrical plane ; 
in surv., a line, sometimes exceeding 100 miles in 
length, measured with the greatest possible exact- 
ness, with the view of determining the relative posi- 
tions of objects and places; longer base lines are 
measured by triangulation : base of operations, the 
line ofcountry or fortresses from which military opei-a- 
tions can be advanced by troops, and munitions of 
war supplied, and to which retreat can be made in 
case of necessity. 

bashaw, n. bd-shaXo' (Ar. basha: Pers. pasha), a 
Turkish governor ; an imperious person. 

bashful, a. bdsh'-fuol (see abash), very modest ; shy ; 
easUy confused: bashfully, ad. -II: bash fulness, u. 
modesty in excess. 

basifjr, v. bd'-sl/y (see base), to convert into a base ; 
ba'sifying, imp.: basifled, pp. bd'si-fid: basifier, 
II. ba'sl-fl'&r, he or that which. 

basil, n. bdz'd (8p. bi^el, bevel-edge of a thing— 
from base), the slope of the edge of a tool : v. to grind 
or form tlie edge of a tool to an angle : bas'iling, imp. : 
basiled, pp. bdz'-Ud. 

basil, n. bdz'll (F. basilic: It. basH'co, the basil— 
from Gr. basilikos, royal), literally the royal hi-rli — 
a highly aromatic plant; a pot-herb: basil-weed, 
wild basil. 

basilica, n. bdztl'l-kd (Gr. basilikns, kingly), a royal 
or public hall where justi(^e wa-s administered; the 
middle vein of the arm; a ma^rnifii-ent church : basil- 
icon, n. ba-zil'lkOii, a yellow ointment: basilic, a. 
bti-zH'lk, also basilical, a. bd-zU'l-kdl, pert, to a 
jiublif; or regal edifice; pert, to the middle vein of 
the arm. 

basilisk, n. bdz'l-llsk (L. 6fl.<!j7i.«ciAS— from Gr. basi- 
leus, a king), the cockatrice ; a fabulous seri)ent liav- 
ing a white spot on its head resembling a royal 

basin, n. ba't^n (F. bitsfin: Ger. brcken: It. barino), 
a circular liollow v.-ssd for coiit.iining water, &c. ; a 
pond; a bay; a dock; the district of country drained 
by a river: ba'sin-shaped, a.: basined, a. ba'-snd, 
enclosed in a basin; in yeol., any dipping or disposi- 

tion of strata towards a common centre or axis ; the 
depressions and recept^icles of seas or lakes. 

ba'sis— see base. 

bask, V. bask (Icel. baka, to warm : Dut. bakern, to 
bask, .-i-s in the sun), to lie at ea~se enjoying the heat 
of the sun or of a fire ; to be prosperous under benign 
influence: basking, imp.: basked, pp. la^kt. 

basket, n. bds'-ket (W. ftusf/etf— from basg, a netting, 
a plaiting, as of twigs or splinters: L. bascaiulu), an 
article of doinc.-.tic use, nuide of osier-twigs or any 
pliable sulistaiice: v. to put into baskets: bas'keting. 
imp. : basketed, pp. : basket-hilt, the hilt of a sword 
made to (lrf<ii.l the whole hand from being wounded : 
basket-hil'ted, a. haWng a basket-hilt. 

Basquish, a. bdi'k-ish, of or pert, to Biscay or its 

bass, n. bds (It. basso, low, deep), the lowest part in 
a harmonised musical composition: a<y. low; deep; 
grave : basist, n. bds'ist, in music, a singer of bass : 
bass-clef, bds'-klif, the character placed at the begin- 
ning of the stavij containing the bass part of a musi- 
cal composition: bass -singer, one who sings the deep- 
est or lowest part in music. 

bass, n. bds (Dut. bast, bark or peel : Dan, baste, to 
bind), a mat made of bast; a door-mat. 

bass, n. bds (AS. boers, a perch), a name given to 
several species of the perch. 

bass-relief, n. bds'rc-lef (It. basso, }ow,"rilevare, 
to raise up again), sculptured figines which do not 
stand far out from the surface ; when they stand fur- 
ther out they are said to be in alto-relievo : It. basso- 
relievo, bds'-so-re-le'vd : F. bas-relief, bd'relef. 

basset, n. bds'set (see basil), a miner's term for the 
outcrop or surface-edge of any inclined stratum : v. 
to incline in a direction towards the surface of the 
earth, as a stratum or seam of coal : bas'seting, imp. : 
basseted, pp. : spelt also with tt. 

basset, n. bds'set (F. bassette), a game at cards in- 
vented at Venice. 

bassetto, n. bds-sgt'io (It.), a small bass viol. 

bassinette, n. bds'sl-net' (F.) a wicker basket, with 
a covering or hood over one end, in which young 
children are placed as in a cradle. 

bassoon, n. bds-s67i' {F. basson: It. bassone— from 
basso, low or deep), in music, a bass wind-instrument, 
consisting of a very long tube and a reed for the ad- 
mission of the wind : bassoonist, n. a player on. 

bassorine, n. fefe-Aorin (first discovered in bas'sora- 
gnm), a substance obtained by treating gum-resin suc- 
cessively with ether, alcohol, and water. 

bast, n. bdst (Dut. bast, bark, peel: Sw. basta, to 
bind), proper spelling of bass, a mat; inner bark of 
the lime-tree, from which matting is made ; a thick 
mat : basta, impera. bds'td (It.), in music, enough ; stop 
—used by the leader of the band. 

bastard, n. bds'-tdrd (old F. bastard; Gael, baas, for- 
nication : old E. baste, foniication— from old F. bast, a 
pack-saddle), a child born out of wedlock ; anything 
spurious: adj. spurious; not genuine; false; applied 
to metallic ores containing a very small percentage of 
metal, or to an impure minei-al — as bastard-iron- 
stone, bastard-limestone : bas'tardism, n. -dlzm, the 
state of a bastard: bastardise, v. bds'tdr-dJz', to 
prove to be a bastard; to reduce to the condition 
of a bastard: bastardising, imp.: bas'tardised', 
pp. -dizd': bastardly, a. or ad. -ll: bastardy, n. 
bds'tdr-dl, state of being illegitimate. 

baste, V. bdst (F. buston or baton, a stick: Icel. 
bepsta. to beat: Sw. bosta. to thump: Dan. bask, 
a slap), to beat with a stick ; to moisten meat with 
fat whilst roasting, to hinder it from burning: ba'- 
sting, imp. : basted, pp. bd'st,\i .- ba'ster, n. one who. 

baste, V. bdst (It. basta, a long stitch: Sp. b(r.<f,ar, 
to sew slightly: F. b«<jr, to siitch), to sew witli long 
stitches to keep the pieces of a garment iu sliapi wliile 
it is beuig permanently sewn : basting, imp.: basted » 

Bastile, n. bds-tSl' (F. bastille), a famous castle or 
state prison in Paris, destroyed by the populace in 

bastinade, v. bds^lludd', or bastinado, bds'tl- 
nd'dO (Sp. bastiiuada, a blow with a sti< k: F. baston- 
nnile. — from baton, a stii'k), to givi> a sound beating to 
witli a stick: n. a punisbiuint in use among many 
I'^istern nations ))y which the otTendcr is beaten on 
thi' soles of the leet : has tina ding, imp.: bastin- 
a ded, p]). 

bastion, n. bdst'yon (Sp. and F. : It. bastiour—froux 
F. batir, for baitir, to build), a mass of earth built ;is 

mdte, mdt,/iir, luTv; mete, met, hCr; pine, pin; note, ndt, mdve; 


41 BAZA 

a wall and faced with sods or bricks, standing out 
lioiii a fortitied work to protect its wiills : bastioned, 
a. bast'yond, furnished with bastions. 

bat, n. bat (It. battere: F. baitre, to beat: Hung. 
lot, a stick : Gael, bat, a staff), a heavy stick ; a piece 
of wood broader at one end than at the other; the 
management of a bat at play; cotton in sheets for 
ciuilting; a piece of brick: v. to play with a bat at 
cricket: bat'ting, imp. : batted, pp. bdt'tdd: bats- 
man, n. biltshndu, iu cricket, the man who holds the 

bat, n. bnt {bak, as the common name of an animal : 
Scot, bak, baki or bakie-bird: Sw. nattbaka, the night- 
back : L. blatta, a night-moth), name of a small animal 
like a mouse, but with wings without feathers, which 
only comes abroad at night : bat'tish, a. like a bat : 
bat'fowling, a method of catching birds at night. 

batardeau, n. bat'dr-do' (F.), iu mil.,a, strong wall 
of masonry built across a ditch to sustain the pressure 
of the water, containing a sluice-gate, armed at the 
top with iron pikes, and rendered impassable by a 
tower with a conical top, raised in the middle. 

Batavian, a. bd-ta'vi-an, Dutch. 

batch, n. bdch(AS. bacan: Dut. baksel, an ovenful— 
from bakken, to bake), a quantity of bread baked at 
o!ie time ; an assortment of things of the same kind. 

bate, V. bat (F. abattre, to break down : Sp. batir, 
to lose courage, to lessen), to lessen anything; to 
retrench ; to take away : ba'ting, imp. : ba'ted, pp. 

bath, n. bath (AS. baeth: Icel. bada: Ger. badeti, to 
bathe : Icel. baka, to heat), a place to bathe in ; that 
in which the body or a part of it is bathed ; in chem., 
hot water, hot sand, &c., used as a source of heat 
or for modifying it ; a Heb. measure : bathe, v. bdiA, 
to wash the body or a part of it with water, &c. ; to 
lie in a bath : bathing, ba'thlng, imp. : bathed, pp. 
liilihd: bather, n. one who: dry-bath, one made of 
liot sand, ashes, &c.: air-bath exposure of the body to 
the refreshing influence of the air; also one among 
)wt air, as in a Turkish bath : plunge-bath, a bath in 
which the whole body is immersed: douche -bath, 
dCsh'-, in which a stream of water is made to fall 
tiom above on the body : shower-bath, in which the 
water is poured upon the body in the form of a shower : 
•medicated -baths, med'-i-kd'ted-batlis, in which the 
water is impregnated with medical preparations: 
tath-metal, a mixed metal called prince's metal : 
tath-stone, n. bdth'ston, oolitic freestone extensively 
(quarried for building purposes near Bath, very soft, 
tut becoming hard on exposure to the atmosphere: 
bath-brick, n. -brik, a well-known kind of stone used 
for cleaning and polishing metal utensils. 

Bath, n. bath, a high order of British knighthood. 

bathos, n. bd'thos, (Gr. buthus, deep ; bathos, depth), 
a ludicrous descent from the elevated to the mean in 
speaking or writing ; the profound, ironically, in con- 
tradistinction to the sublime. 

bathymetrical, a. bdth'l-met'-rt-kai (Or. bathus, 
«leep; rnetron, a measure), applied to the distribution 
of plants and animals along the sea -bottom which 
tJiey inhabit. 

batlet, n. bdt'-m (see bat), a flat piece of wood for 
beating linen in the washing. 

batman, n. bmo'-nidn (Ger. bauer, a peasant, a 
countrj-man: old E. bawn, a fortified enclosure for 
Ciittle), a person appointed to every company of a 
regiment to take charge of the cooking utensils, &c., 
usually an officer's servant: bat-horse, baw-, the pack 
<B- baggage horse allowed to a batman. 

baton, n. bd'tong, more rarely batoon, n. bd-t6n', 
(F. baton, for boston, a stick), in her., a mark of ille- 
gitimate descent ; a staff; a club ; a marshal's staff of 
office ; a short staff as a badge of office. 

batrachia, n. bd-trd'-kl-d (Gr. batrachos, a frog), 
an order of reptiles comprising the frog, toad, sala- 
mander, and siren: batra'chian, a. of or relating to 
the frog tribe : n. one of the frog tribe : batrachoid, 
a. bdt'rd-koyd, tormed like a frog: batracholites, bd- 
trdk'-O-lltz (Gr. — ; lithos, a stone), fossil remains of 
animals of the frog kind. 

batta, n. ba^'M (Hind.), an allowance to the officers 
serving in the East Indies in addition to their pay. 

battaUon, n. bdt-tdl'-yon (F. bataillon — from bat- 
tre, to beat : It. battaglia— from battere, to beat : L. 
hattuei-e, to strike or beat), a body of soldiers of from 
500 to 800 men— less than a regiment ; battalion and 
regiment are often synonymous: battalia, n. bdf- 
Inl'iid, the order of battle; the main body in array: 
battalioned, a. bdt-tal'-yOnd, formed into battalions.' 

colu, boy, f Jot; pure, bud; chair, 

batten, v. bdt'n (GoVn. gabatnan, to thrive: Icel., 
bat-nn, to get better), to fatten ; to grow or become 
fat; to live in ease and luxury: battening, imp.; 
battened, pp. bdt'nd. 

batten, n. bdt'-n (F. baton, a staff or stick— from 
bat, which see), a small piece of wood used by carpen- 
ters and plumbers: v. to fasten or form with battens: 
bat'tening, imp. : n. narrow Hat rods of wood fixed to 
the wall on which the laths for the plaster-work are 
nailed : battened, pp. bdt'nd. 

batter, v. bdt'-tCr (F. battre, to beat— from L. bat- 
tuere, to beat or strike), to beat with repeated Ijlows ; 
to beat with great force or violence; to wear out with 
service: n. a mixture of various ingredients Ijcatcn 
together: bat'tering, imp.: battered, pp. bat-tlrd: 
bat'terer, n. one who : bat'tering-ram, n. an anciint 
militaiy engine for beating down walls, consisting of 
a long beam having a head like a ram's, and swung. 

battery, n. bdt'ter-i (F. bcUter ie — fiom battre, to 
beat), in mil., a parapet or wall breast high, thro\\ n 
up to protect the gunners and others, or as a position 
for guns ; any number of guns and mortars ranged in 
order for firing ; an apparatus for generating the elec- 
tric fluid: masked'-baftery, a battery screened from 
the sight of the enemy by any contrivance. 

battle, n. bdt'tl (F. bataille: It. battaglia— from 
battere, to beat), a fight between enemies ; an encoun- 
ter between armies : v. to contend in fight : battle- 
array, n. bdt'tl-dr-rd', order of battle: battle-axe, 
n. -dks, a weapon of war not now in use : battle-field, 
the place where a battle between armies has bcrii 
foiight: bat'tling, imp.: battled, pp. bdt'-tld: bat- 
tlement, n. bdt'4l-ment,a,-<Nal\ pierced with openings, 
or made notch-like, for military purposes or for orna- 
ment : baftlemen'ted, as having battlements. 

battledore, n. bdt'-tl-dOr (Sp. batador, a washing- 
beetle), a toy used in play, with a handle and flat 
part, for striking a shuttlecock upwards. 

bp.ttue, n. bdt'too (F.— from L. battuere, to beat), a 
beating up of game to gather it into a limited area ; 
the game beaten up. 

bauble, n. baw'bl—see bawble. 

baulk, n. bauk (see balk), a piece of foreign timber 
of from 8 to 16 inches square : bawk, n. bawk, a cross- 
beam in the roof of a house uniting and supporting the 

bawbee, n. baXc'be', (F. bas-billon, base bullion 
or coin), the name in Scotland and north of England 
for a halfpenny. 

bawble, n. baw'bl, also spelt bau'ble (F. babiole, a 
toy : Hung. 6Mb, a bunch ; buba, a doll), a sliowy trifle ; 
a worthless piece of finery. 

bawd, n. bated (W. baiu, dirt, filth : old F. bavdc), 
one who promotes debauchery: bawdy, a. baw'dl, 
filthy; unchaste. 

bawl, V. bawl (AS. baw or boiv, the cry of a dog: L. 
baubai-i, to bark as a dog : Icel. baula, to low as an 
ox), to cry out with a loud full sound : bawling, imp.: 
bawled, pp. bawld: bawl'er, n. one who. 

bay, a. ba(L. badius, brown: Sp. bayo: It. bajo: F. 
bai), brown or reddish ; inclining to a chestnut colour : 
bayard, n. bd'-ard (F. bai, a chestnut-brown: Dut. 
paard, ahorse), a bay horse : adj. blind; stupid. 

bay, n. bd (Sp. buhia— from prov. Sp. badar, to 
open, to gape : It baja : F. baie), an arm of the sea 
bending into the land; state of being hemmed in: 
bay-wiiidow, a window that projects outwards, 
forming a kind of bay within: bay'-salt, a sort of 
coarse salt, formed by the natural evaporation of sea- 

bay, n. bd (It. abbaiare: F. abbayer: L. baubari, to 
bow-wow as a dog), the bark of a dog when his prey is 
brought to a stand: at bay, at a stand, and turned to 
keep the enemy in check; a stag is at bay -when he 
turns and faces his pursuers : v. to bark as a dog at his 
game; to keep an enemy from closing in: baying, 
imp. : bayed, pp. bdd. 

bay, n. bd (F. baie, a berry— from L. baca, a berry: 
Sp. baya, the cod of peas, a husk), the laurel-tree, 
which bears red berries: bays, n. plu. buz, an honor- 
ary garland or crown of victory, originally made of 
laurel branches with its berries. 

bayonet, n. bd'-6n-&t (from Bayonne, in France. 
where first made; F. baionette) a steel dagger at the 
end of a gun or musket : v. to stab or kill with a bay- 
onet: bay'onet'ing, imp.: bay'onet'ed, pp. Parti- 
ciples more properly spelt with tt. 

bazaar, n. bd-zdr', (Pers. bazar, a market), a cover- 
I ed place where goods are exposed to sale ; a largo 
game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




room for the sale of goods ; a sale of miscellaneous 
goods for a charitable object. 

B.C., first letters of " Before Christ " : B.C.L., bache- 
lor ot civil laws: B.D., bachelor of divinity: B.A., 
baclielor of arts. 

bdellium, n. dfl'-ll-um (L.— from Gr. bdellion). a 
fruiimiy substance of an agi-eeable odour brought from 
tlin East. 

be, V. be (AS. beon: Gael, beo, alive: Gr. bios, life: 
S:uis. bhu, to be), infin. of the verb am, denoting to 
exist, to become, to remain; used in hypothetical and 
secondary propositions— as " // / be." "1/ thou be:" 
bemg, imp. be-lnij: been, pp. 

be (AS.) a prefl.x, signifying to make. Wlien be is 
prefl.xed to a noun, the nomi becomes a re/-6— tlius, 
calm and friend are nouns, but becalm and befriend 
are verbs: be prefi.xed to a verb signities about, ocer, 
/ "•— thus, speak and think become bespeak and be- 
think: be in a preposition, an adverb, or a conjunc- 
tion, lias the force of by or in — thus, because, conj. 
si^-nifies, by the cause of: behind, prep, in the rear of. 
beach, n. beck (.A.S. becc, a broolc: Icel. bakki, 
a bank), the shore ; the space on the margin of a sea 
over which the tide alternately Hows and ebbs ; the 
margin of the sea or of a large river: v. to run a 
ship on shore : beach'ing, imp. : beached, pp. becht, 
run on shore— as a boat or ship: beacby, a. bech'l, 
having beaches. 

beacon, n. be'-kn (AS. bcacen, a sign, a nod : Icel. 
oakna, to signify by nodding), a lighthouse or signal 
to direct navigation ; something that gives notice of 
danger : v. to afford li^ht or direction, as a beacon : 
beaconed, a. 6e'A'd)wi; bea'coning, imp.: beaconage,'kdn-dj, money paid for the support of a beacon. 

bead, n. bSd (.A.S. bead; gebed, a prayer, as formerly 
helping the memory in reciting prayers), a small ball 
pierced for hanging on a string; a round moulding, 
also called bead ing : bead-tree, a tree the pips and 
nuts of whose fruit are pierced and strung as beads : 
bead'proof, liquors, as alcohol, that carry bubbles 
•when shaken: bead'roll, in M. Ca'h. Ch. a list of 
those to be mentioned at prayers: beads'man, n. or 
-wo 'man, one employed to pray for others : a recipient 
of certain charities. 

beadle, n. bc-dl (AS. bydel—irom bidan, to wait : 
F. bedeau: It. biddlo), a messenger; a chun-h or 
parish officer : beadleship, n. the office of a beadle. 

beagle, n. be-gl (Gael. beoAj: \V. bac, Uttle), a small 
nunting-dog, tracking by scent. 

beak, n. bek (F. bec: It. hecco: Gael, beic), the 
bill or mb of a bird ; any pointed thing : beaked, a. 
hekt, having a beak; pointed: beaker, n. (Ger. 
berher, a goblet), a large beaked cup or glass ; a flagon. 
beam, n. beni (AS. beam, a tree: Ger. baum- 
Icel. badmr), any large and long piece of timber or 
iron ; the principal piece of timber in a building ; 
the rod from which the scales are suspended ; the horu 
of a stag; ray of light : v. to throw out rays, as the 
sun ; to dart ; to glitter or shine : beaming, imp. : adj. 
darting of light in rays: n. dawn; first indication- 
beamed, pp. bdmd .- beam 'less, a. giving out no rays 
of light: beamy, a. bem'-l, radiant; antlered as 
a stag: beam-bird, tlie spotted fly-catcher: beam- 
ends, a ship is said to be on her beam-ends when 
she inclines very nmch to one side : beams, n. plu. 
strong thick pieces of timber stretching across a 
Bhip from side to side to support the decks. 

bean, n. ben (Gur. bohne: Icel. baun: \V. ffaen: 
L. fuba), a longish round or flattish-round vegetable 
contained in a pod: bean-tre foil, bean-tres'sel 
bean-ca'per, plants : bean-fly, a fix- of a pale purple 
colour found on bean-flowers : bean-goose, a migratory 
bird visiting England. 

bear, v. bar (AS. beran; Goth, bairan, to carrv: 
L. /era: Gr. 2>hero, I bear: Sans, bhri), to carry; to 
support ; to suffer ; to produce ; to bring forth : bore, 
pt. bOr, or bare, bar: born, pp. born, brought forth : 
borne, pp. bOrn, carrii-d : bearer, n. har';'r. one 
that caiTies or brings forth; a messenger: bear'- 
Ing, imp. carrying; iirnducing: n. behaviour; ges- 
ture ; the situation of oin; object witti respect to 
another; tfie /((/((/-.s-, called charges, on an •scut- 
cheon: bearable, a. lifirUxhl. that can be endured: 
bearably, ad. -hU : bear with, to endure: bear up, 
not U> faint or fail: bear off, to restrain; among 
seanw.n, to remove to a distaiiee: bear down, to 
overthrow or crusli bv fore.: bear out, to main- 
tiiin and support to the end : bear through, to 
conduct or manage : bear a hand, among seamen, to 

make haste; to be quick: bear away, in navi., to 
change the course of a ship and make her run before 
the wind. 

bear, n. bar (.A.S. bera: Ger. bcir: Icel. bioni: L. 
/era, a wild beast), a wild animal covered with rou^h 
stiaggy hair; name of two consteUations— the " Ursa 
Major ' and the " Ursa Minor" ; a name applied to a 
speculative jobber on the stock exchange ; any brutal 
or Ill-behaved person: bearish, a. bar'ish, rude; vio- 
lent m conduct : bear-baiting, the sport or divei-siou 
of causing dogs to fight witli a bear, fonnerly common 
in this country: bear's-grease, the fat or tallow of a 
bear, e.xtensively used as a pomatum : bear-garden a 
place whejc bears are kept for sport : bear-berry, 
bear-bmd, bear's-breech, bear's-ear, bear's-foot, 
bear's-wort, popular names of plants:, bear-fly, an 
insect. ' 

beard, n. berd (Ger. bart : Russ. boroda: W. 
barj:h. barba, a beard: Icel. bard, a lip or border), 
hair that grows on the lips and chin of a man ; tlie 
awn of corn; the gills of oysters and other shell-fisli : 
V. to set at defiance; to oppose openly: bearding, 
imp. berd'-lng: bearded, pp. berd'id : beardless, a. 
without a beard ; young : beard'Iessness, u : beard - 
grass, a plant. 

beast, n. best (Gael, biast: Dut. beest: L. bestia, a 
beast : Gael, beo, living), any four-footed animal ; a 
person rude, coarse, and filthy: beast'ly, a. -il, like a 
beast: beast'liness, n. -Ihn&s, great coarseness: best- 
ial, a. best-y-dl, pert, to a beast, or having the qualities 
of one : beast-like, a. resembling a beast : bestiality, 
u. best'y-al'-l-ii, the quality of beasts : best'ial'ly, ad. -ll. 
beat, V. bet (AS. beatau: It. battere: F. battre, to 
beat or strike), to knock ; to strike ; to strike often ; 
to crush or mi.x by blows ; to overcome in a fight, in 
battle, or in strife ; to throb like the pulse : a. a stroke ; 
a throb ; the rise or faU of the hand or foot to mark the 
time m music : beating, imp. : beaten, pp. beth} : 
beat er, n. one who ; a cmshing instniment : to beat 
about, to search diligently for : to beat down, to lower 
the price : to beat off, to drive back : to beat time, 
to regulate time by the measured motion of tlie hand 
or foot : to beat out, to extend by hammering : to beat 
the gen'eral, to give notice to soldiers to march : to 
beat the tat'too', to give notice to soldiers to retire to 
quarters : to beat to arms, to summon soldiers to get 
ready their arms and prepare for battle : to beat a 
parley, to give a signal to an enemy for a conference : 
to beat up, to attack suddenly, as an enemy's quar- 
ters : to beat up for, to go diligently about in order 
to procure: police 'man's beat, district to be walked 
over and watched by a policeman : beat'er up, one 
who searches for and starts game for a sportsman. 

beatify, v. be-at-lfi (L. beatus, happy; facio, I 
make), to make happy ; to bless with complete enjov- 
ment in heaven : beat'ify'ing, imp. : beat'ifled, pp. 
■fid : beatific, a. be'atif-ik, also beatifical, a. 
■l-kal, that has the power to make haopy: be'atif'- 
ically, ad. -ll: beat'ifica'tion, -A-(i:s/»Mn. in the Church 
of Rome, the pronouncing of a deceased Derson to be 
blessed: beatitude, n. beat'-ltud, happiness of the 
higliest kind ; the blessedness pronounced by oar Lord 
on the virtues. 

beatricea, n. be'-d-trV$e-n, a remarkable fossil oc- 
curring in the middle Silurians of Canada. 

beau, n. bo (F. beau, good, lair : L. htlltut, gay, hand- 
some), a gay man that attends nuuli to dress; in 
Jam iliar language, a man who i)a vs attention to a lady ; 
a lover : plu. beaux, bOz : beauish, a, bO'Uh, like a 
beau; foppish: beau-esprit, n. bo'es-prS' (F.), a man 
of wit : beau-ideal, n. bo'ldc'al (F. beau ; ideal, ima- 
ginary), an imaginary standard of absolute perfec- 
tion; a model of excellence in the mind or fancy: 
beau-monde, n. bO-mOngd' (F. beau; monde, the 
world), polite people ; the fashionable world. 

beauty, n. bu'-tl (F. beaute, beauty: It. bello: L. 
beUu.f, pretty, handsome), the appearance and proper- 
ties in any poi-son or thing that plea-se and delight 
the eye ; those qualities in a thing that delight the 
mind or any of the senses ; a lovelv and pleasing per- 
.son: beauteous, a. hrt^nr/.s. pleasing; lovelv: beau'- 
teously. ad. -U: beau'teousness, n. : beautiful, a. 
ha-H-fni,l, lovely; fair; elejiant : beautifully ad -ll- 
beautify, v. biVtl-fl. to make beautiful; to adorn: 
beautifying, imp.: beautified, pp. bu'tl/id: beau'- 
tlfier, n. one who adonis. 

beaver, n. he'-vt^r (AS. beor'-r: Ger. bibrr: F. hievre 
— fnjiii I. jibrr), an amphibious animal valued lor 
its fur; a hat or cap made of the fur. 

vid!e, mat, far, law; mCte. mSf, Mr; pine, pin; note, nOt, move; 




hP^ve^ n he'ver (old F. iavidre-trom baver, to 
slmiOtiie movable part of a helmet ^vhich covered 
the flee, and was raised or let dowu to enable the 

"Ser.t°wSSn. a vegetable alkaU found in 
the bebeerena, beh-e-rl'7ia, or greeuheart tiee ot 
^Sc^r^e-^M/e:.. (It.-from .^-cco^ 
tiPik- tiro a fi"). a fig-peckor, a bird ot pabsaj,o it^ 

became, V. 6g-Mm'— see become. tv,ja -.n,,ap 

because, conj. bi-kaw:^ (be and cause), for this cause 
that ; ou this account that. T,„^„„ tr. r,n(\\ 

beck, n. bek (AS. beac.en, a sign : Icel. bakna, to nod . 
a nod of the head meant to invite attention ; an K n g^ 
lish weight of 1(5 lb. or a measure of 2 f \1^^- ; ^L^^^^^C^ 
a sign with the head; to call by a uod. oeciiuis, 

"^ife Jk!*mS(rs; So: Ger. back: Icel. beckr). a little 

neckyt."n.Ti^=^<. among seamen, a pie- of r^^^^^ 
placed to confine another rope or a spar ; a small cirUe 
or hoop of rope used as a handle. „„;„„+« 

beck^on, V. befc^Ti (from becfc), to ^f ce f sign to 
another by noddmg or by a motion ot the hand or 
finger : beckoning, imp. b6k-ning : becKoneo, pp. 

''tecioud, V. be-kloiod' (be and cloud), to obscure; to 
dim: becloud'ing, imp. : beclouded, pp. 

become, V. be-kum' (AS. becuman, to atta n to to 
befall: Ger. be^rommm. to get ; ''f «^»^V to^Kace- 
pass from one state to another; to beht , to sit giace_ 
fully: becom'ing, imp. : a<y. appropriate, gracetui 
became', pt.: becom'mgly. ad -Zi..- becommgness, . 
hfid Ti b&d (Icel bedr: Ger. bett: Goth, botft), 
somethi'ngt'Xch to sleep ; a couch ; the bottom 
or channel of a river; a plot of ground in a gai 
fi,-n- a laver- in geol., a stratum ot conside able 
?1 ickness^ V to fe ; to s eep ; to sow : bed'dmg, imp : 
bed'dedrpp.': bed'ding, n. niaterials o a bed: bed^ 
chamber, n. -c/iajn^Kr. a room in which there i. a 
bed: bed'rid, a. also bedridden, a. (Ab. 6ed-naa, 
one who rides on his bed) wholly confined to bed by 
offo or sickness- bedclothes, n. plu. the blankets, 
^eets &c of a bed: bed'fellow, n. one who lies 
i The' stme bed : bed'post, n. one of the four stand- 
ards that support a bed: ?«* stf ad, n -siea, M e 
wnnden or iron framework of a bed : Dearicis., n. ucu 
mTthec^a^eTr holding the materials of a bed: bed- 
hang'ings, curtains for a bed : bed -plate, the lounoa 
tion plate of a marine or a direct action e igme: bed- 
t\\^ n hfd'rlt privilege of the marriage-bed. . 
"bedabble, v'&b^w (be and d^^-^^). tVXS 
with; to cover with: bedabbling, imp.: bedabbled, 

^^bedLlxb, V. bi-dawb' (be and d«?tV*«ndTrtT'be° 
sprinkle; to soil with anything thcjc and dirty. De 


sight by a too strong light ; to make dim by lusti e or 

gutter :^edaz'zling, imp, : t«daz^ f ' PP^^l^e ^sed 

hpdp n bed among miners, a kind ot pickaxe useu 

fo? separating the o?es from the rocks in which they 

a higher beadle or officer of a court or univers ty . be- 
delrv n bS'-del-rl. the extent of a beadle's ofhce. 
bedeck, V. bl-dfifc' (be and rtecfc), to adorn ; to grace: 


a k!Kf white tlforn or thistle), a spongy excn^s- 

cence found on rose-bushes, caused by the puuctme ol 

^ Sw! v!'6^.dH' (be and dew), to wet. as with dew ; 
to moisten gently: bedew'ing, imp.: bedewed, pp. 
7u'.rliid' ■ bedew" er, n. one who. 

^'bedehoSse, n. bed^holcs (AS. bead,^ rjir±e. 
charity house where the poor prayed for then bcne- 

nS:'"K;.' (be and dnn), to darken; to pb- 
Ri-ure- bedlm'mlng, imp. : bedimmed. pp. ba-dl7»d . 
''&en?T bel'z'-n F. badiironcr. to rougli-cast 
In plaster . to load with ornament; to dress with un- 
becoming richness : bediz'ening.imp.: bedizened, pp. 

^^blS; n. bSd'klm (contr. from the hospital of St 

Mary of Bethlehem in London, used as a house for tic 
hisane). a madhouse ; a lunatic asylum ; a J^'!^'^ 
there is a great deal of noise and uproar: ^dlamite, 
n -U, one confined in a madhouse. _ ,.„. _ :„ tha 
Bedouin, n. b6d'-o-o-ln (At. bedaivt living m the 
desert-from b«*/v \d.««''rt). <J'\.A'ab of o e of tho 

unsettled tribes of Arabia and >":'th" ./VT to soil the 
bedraggle, v. bd-drag'-gl [hr and dnwjl''). .^o f '1 the 
bedrag'gling, imp. : bedrag gled, pp. -pri'i. 

bee n bl(AB: 6eo: tier, biene: Gael. bmc^). ail 
insect that makes honey and wax; an industr.oua 
and careful person: beehive, b6'-hlv, a case or box m 
which domestic bees build their honeyconibs and store 
tlieir honey: bee-flower, a plant whose flowers repre- 
sent Sufar figures of bees and flie.s: bee-garden^ au 
enclosure where bees are reared :bee-lme, the most 
direct line from one Place to another : bee-master one 

hies: bee-eat'er, a bird that feeds on bees. 

beech n becA (Ger. buche: Icel. beyke: h. fagus), 
n vfr-^e forest-tree having a smooth bark, producing 
niKr nuts : beech-mast, the nuts of the beech-tree : 
beech-oil, an oU obtained from beech-nuts : beechen. 
a. bcch'en, made of beech. , 

the sideboard or Dunev: ucci-v»v/"»», .-"- 

cdiv, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair 

form of chalcedony deposited on lossils, as sponges, 

'^'beKrteild. n. beld (AS. bpld), a place of shelter ; 

alowthatcliedhouse; protection. 
Beelzebub, n. be-el'-ze-bub (Gr.-from Heb. baal, lord, 

zebub, a fly), in Scrip, the prince of devils 
beek, bmoT bin (AS. heo7iK PP- ""^ V ;?.r/" beer 
Tnopr n bfr (AS. beor: Ger. bter: t.biertf, peer, 

drink-' L " biberV; to drink), an intoxicating liquor 

is extensively manulactured in Fiance . beet rave, a 

"t et^^tf^ (AS. bitel, the biter), a .; nanie 
of Insects havingahoniywing-cover: beetle-headed 
dull • stuDid • beetle-stone, a name given to nodules 
SontoZ &c%hich.w-hen split up bea^^^^^^ 
resemblance to the body and Imbsot a beetle 

beetle, n. bet'-l (AS. bytel, a mallet-from bat, which 
see) a heavy wooden hammer or mallet. ,.„ ,,„__ 


^^S:v.S^&.^.wn,ught).to suit; to 

^'^efooi y'b?m''(A^be- p'^AidU^io lead astray ; 
to defude bef{omg.'imp. : befooled, pp. befUd'. 

riToTiii "^i^s^r^^ ^'(^'^ 

onwards :"coT^fKr onward in time: beforehand, 
Z MMand, sooner in time; previously ; at first: 
beforVtime. ad. -tim, formerly; of old time. 

befriend V. be-frind' (be and friend) to assist; to 
f ivm^f^o aid in a difficulty: befriend'ing, imp. : be- 

'tef V '^^^'-ifr/nSfts when alms were uniformly 
given in kind the bag was a universal charactenstio 
of the beggar), to ask earnestly; to beseech; to en- 
treat; to solicit charity; to take for granted; to as- 
sume- beg'ging, imp.: begged, pp. bigd: beggar, u. 
game, jog, shun, thing, tfhere, zeal. 


heg'geriSw. begaera, to ask: Gael, baigean, alittle bag) 
one much reduced in circumstan.'cs ; one who assumes 
what he does not prove; one who is poor and asks 
(.liarity: v. to reduce to pov<'itv: beggaring, imp • 
beggared, pp. hfg'gcrd: beggarly, a. -^; poor! 
ad. meanly: beg'garllness, n. -/t/ics poverty; mean- 
iiess: beggary, n. big-ger-i, a state of great poverty: 
Deg gannan, n. a man who is a beggar. 

beget, V. bi-git' (AS. begettun, to obtain), to gene- 
vatf; to produce; to cause to exist: beget'ting, imp. : 
begot, pt.: begotten, pp. b6-g6t'n: begetter, n. one 

begin, v. bS-gln' (.AS. beginnan), to commence ; to 
enter upon something new; to take tlie first step: 
beginning, imp.: n. first cause; origin; first state; 
the rudiments: began, pt. he-<i<ln' .- begun, pp. be- 
gun : begin'ner, n. one who takes the first step; an 
author of a thing; one without e.xperience. 

begird, v. h6-grnl' {AH. begi/rdan), to aurrnnnd : to; to encircle: begird'ing, imp.: begirded 
or begirt', pp. 

begone, int. bB-gon' (impera. of be, and pp. of go; 
Dut. begaan, touched with emotion), depart; go away 
emphatically : woe-begone, wd'-be-i/6u', oppressed 
with woe. 

begonia, n. begO'-nl-d (after M. Bogon, a French 
botanist), an interesting genus of plants common in 
our gardens, 
begot, v., begot'ten, v. (see beget), procreated, 
begrime, v. hO<irlm' (AS. be: Sw. gruin, dregs, 
mud), to soil <l,ei)ly all over with dirt: begri'ming, 
imp.: begrimed, pp. be-grlmd'. 

begrudge, v. bi-gruj' (AS. be : F. gruger, to grieve : 
C,r. griub<ein, to mutter), to grudge; to envy the pos- 
session of: begrud'ging, imp. : begrudged', pp. 

beguUe, v. bi-gW (XH. be: old F. (luille, deceit), to 
deceive; to cheat; to amuse: begui'ling, imp • be- 
guiled, pp. -gihV: begui'lingly, ad. -U: begui'ler, n. 
one who : beguile'ment, n. act of deceiving. 

beguins, n. plu. heg'wlm (F. beguin, a linen cap: 

low L. beghma), a sect of religious women in Germany 

who devote themselves to works of piety and charity. 

begum, n. be'gilm, or begaum, -gatum; in the E. 

Indies, a princess or lady of high rank. 

begun, v.— see begin. 

behalf, n. bd-haf (AS. beJiefe. profit : Goth, halbs, 
half), support; favour; side or cause; defence. 

behave, v. he-fulv' (AS. behabben, to restrain— from 
nabban, to have: Ger. gehaben, to behave), to govern • 
to conduct; to act: beha'ving, imp.: behaved, pp' 
-havd': behaviour, n. be-hav'yer, conduct, good or 
bad; manners. 

behead, v. be-Md' {be and head), to cut off the head • 
behead'ing, imp. : n. the act of cutting off the head— 
a punishment for great crimes formerly commou in 
this country: behead'ed, pp. 

behemoth, n. be'he-mdth (Heb.), the animal de- 
scribed by Job, and supposed to be the hippopotamus 
or river-horse. 

behen, n. be'-hen (Ar.), the name of a plant whose 
root is medicinal. 

behest, n. bd-hest' (AS. behms, a vow: Icel. Jicita, 
to be named), command; order; precept 

behind, prep, be-hind' {AS. brhinfUtu: Fin. hanfa, 
the tail), at the back of; after: ad. remaining-; at a 
distance; out of view: behindhand, a. backward- 
tardy: ad. in arrears. 

behold, v. bi-hold' (AS. be; he.nldan, to observe) to 
look steadily upon ; to view; to see with attention: 
behold ing, imp. : beheld', pt. and pp. : beholden a 
hf'-h-WlM'ii, indebted; obliged: behold'er.n. one who- 
behold', int. see ! lo ! 

behove, v. be-h6v' (AS. hchnfian, to be fit; bfl}efe 
advantage: L. habeo: Dut. h"hhr„. to have), to be fit- 
to be necessary for ; used diicnv in the 3d pers. sin"- -' 
beho'ving, imp. be-ho- ,)„,,: behoved, pp. be-h6c7l'': 
behoof, n. bS-?i6/', need ; profit ; advantage. 

being, V. bg'-lng (see be), imp. of be: n. existence; 
a state of existence: a person existing; any livlii" 
creature. ' " 

belabour, v. hP-W-bih- (AS. be: L. labor, toil px- 
frtion), to },cat soundly; to thump: bela'bouring, 
imp. : bela'boured, pp. -b')rd. 

belate.v. /><j74r (AS. be: L. Jafu.-^, carried), to make 
a person too late: bela'ting, imp.: belated, j.p ■ 
adj. too late; liei,i-!it,d =" ' . ii • 

belay, v. bfi-la' (Dut. h.hmni. to lav around), to 
block up; among s,,,,,,,,,, to fasten, as a rop<-: be- 
laying, imp.: belayed, pp. bChld': belay'lng-pins, 

tndte, mat./dr, lalv; vittc, met, h 

44 BELL 

the wooden pins on which the ropes are belayed or 
wound. ■' 

belch, V. belsh{AS.becdcan: Dut. 6o/Arw, to bellow), 
to throw up anything violently, a-s from the stomach 
or from a mountain : n. the act of throwing up or out : 
eructation : belch'ing, imp. : belched, pp. beisht. 

Inn!} ™'-"-«*^^'''''"' <^'- '"^"^'' handsome; dame. 
lady), anciently, a good lady — now, an old noisy 
woman ; a hag. ' 

beleaguer, v. bS-le'-ger (Dut. belegercn, to besiege : 
A!s. Oe: Ger. lager, a camp), to besiege; to snnouiid a 
place with an army so as to prevent any one es. ap- 
be^ll^^^d^^' ^®^®*'^^""&' "nP-: beleaguered, pp. 
belemnite, n. bei'-em-nlt (Gr. belem7ion, a dart), a 
fossil abundant m chalk and limestone, apparently 
the internal bone or shell of extinet naked cephalo- 
pods allied to the existing squid and cuttlefish— com- 
monly called arrow-head or finger-stone, alsothunder- 
b.ilt or thunder-stone: belemnoteuthis, n. be-lem'. 
no-tu-thls JGi: bdemnon, a dart; teiitliis. the squid 
or cuttlefish), a fossil of the belemnite family of 
cephalopods, sometimes so well preserved that tlie 
receptacle and ink bag have been found in their nat- 
ural positions. 

belfry, n. bcl'-fri (F. beffroi, a watch-tower: low L. 
beljredum), the part of a steeple or building where a 
bell is hung. , " 

Bel^n, a. be/'Ji-an, also Belgic, a. bk'-jik, of or 
irom Belgium, bel'-ji-um, a country of Europe lying 
north of Fiance : n. an inhabitant of. 

Belgravian, a bel-gra'vuin {Z%\gta,vi&, a fashion- 
able ciuarter ol London), pert, to Belgravia, or fashion- 
able lite. 

Belial, n. be'liai (Heb. unprofitableness), wicked- 
ness; an evil spirit: adj. worthless. 

beUbel, v. bedi'bl (AS. be: F. lihelle, a bill, a 
lampoon), to traduce; to libel; to slander. 

belie, v. bedl' (AS. belecgan: Ger. belugen, to de- 
ceive by lies), to show to be false; to feign; to pre- 
tend: belying, imp. bidi-lng: beUed, pp. bedid'. 

belief, n. b6lef' (AS. geleafa, belief: Goth, gal- 
auhjan, to believe: Ger. glauben, to believe), trust in 
a thing as true ; credit ; persuasion : believe, v. be- 
leo', to trust in as true; to credit; to he persuaded of: 
believ'ing, imp.: believed, pp. bedevd': believer, 
n. one who ; a Christian: believ'able, a. -d-bl, able ti» 
be believed : bellev'ingly, ad. -11. 

bell, n. bell (AS. bellan: Icel. belia, to sound loudlv), 
ahollow body producing musical sounds when struck ; 
anything expanding mouth outwards like a beU, as 
the cups of flowers: v. togi-ow in the form of bells; 
to make a loud noise: bel'ling, imp.: belled, pp. 
beid: beU-founder, n. one engaged in the, making 
of bells : bell'-hang'er, n. one whose trade is to fit 
up bells in houses: bell-shaped, in bot., applied to 
a corolla when it bellies or swells out like a bell as 
the Canterbury bells: beU'-met'al, n. a mixed metal 
for making bells, consisting of a mixture of copper 
and tin : bell-ring'er, n. one who rings a bell : bell- 
man, a town -crier: bell, book, and candle, a phrase 
for execration, derived from the ceremonies of exeom- 
munication in the R. Caih. Ch. .- to bear the beU, 
to be the first or leader, as the foremost horse in a 
team, or a wether in a flock of sheep which wore a 
bell; to take the prize: to shake the bells (from tlie 
bells of a hawk), to alTrigiit : bell - flower, bluebell 
names of flowers .shaped like a bell: diving- beU, a 
bell-shaped machine, or usually square, socoiistructe.l 
that a person can descend in it among water— used by 
workmen in laying foundations of piers on river or 
sea bottoms, and in descending to wrecks. *c. : bells, 
on board a ship, the half-hours of the watch, marked 
by striking a bell at the end of ea.h : bell-crank, a 
bent lever, used for ch;uiging a vertical into a Ixni- 
zontal motion: bell-metal-ore, a Cornish miner's 
term for suliihurct of tin, an ore consisting of tin 
and copper pyrites, and having a brilliant bell-metal 

belladonna, n. bfl'-ldddn'ml (It. fair ladv, from its 
having been used as a cosmetic by ladies— from It. 
b'JIa. IpiMutifnl ; don ua. l:i<ly K an exi rart of the deadly 
nightshade— a vahial)le medi.'ine in very small doses, 
liiit a d.-adly poison if exc.'eded; systematic name, 
atropa belladonna (Gr. atropn.<!, one of the threu 
l-iites wiio>.,. ,|,,ty it was fo cut the thread of life— in 

allusion to lts,le;i,Ilveire,'ts). 

belle, u.M (K. beauty), a young lady mu'-h admired.' 
beUes-lettrea, ii. plu. UHdft'dr (F.}, polite Iltoitttme 
ir; 2>int;pin; nOte, not, mOve; 




in all its branches, particularly poetrj-, the rules of 
eloquence hfl.V'r'-o-fon {from Bellerophon, _a 

. Bellerophon "• t«, 't L'^^fn extensive genus of K.ssU 

"BeUerophon n ^e.«;.«-yo«v--^^— ^^^^ 
I;';S:i"Self.^jSlgTf single chamber, like 
'''bimJToleTbll'H-W^' (L. Mlicosus. very ^varlike. 

fire, or for supplying «ie pvpes ot an or«an ^^ ^^^ 

part of a thing Avhithsweubuui, protuber- 

,.!;Sr^^lnatio%^;''a'rnf ofeination in which 

coucernT Ger. f'«?'^/«'.^o arrive at^Li,e,<»^^^^^^ 
reach or extend to) to be tlie property ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^. 

ii;:JlV tSs^^^hi^h%''^rnno ^1%. fs .Uties or 
"BKb^^'n. ba:oo.c/<e'. a native of Beloochistan : 

L^SgNi^HL^^ ^tS^d^Ullently t^^ 


fishfroml2tol8feetinlengtli ^^ 

hill ; a plant. tribunal) a raised structure 


to crooic ; to incline ; to turn over or round n a tui n , 
bfbent ; beadlet, n. in her., a little bend. 

beneath, prep. hSnOtk' (AS be, »"* weof^an be^ 
neath). under; lower iu position or rank: ad. m a 

''''S^:^:^^^'^-'^^^- also spolt Benediot^(one^of 

ini Beatr ce) a late. umviUing. or uncxi t.-d convert 

St BenecUcrof k^ir^ia. who flourished in the lust half 

l)ene, well ;/«c(0, I make or do), a chui en m in„ 
preferment! beneficed, a. *>«"•«■/ f_.pos^ssedot a 

''beSht V. 6e.«r {be and «'^7'i0. .to overtake 
Jf Sness : benighting imp. : benight cdp^ 

ai^l^ie'diSosl;^oA; g-^ions: ben^'n^n^ ^b. 

;:S?o^^=«^^^^SJ%'^^^'''-^'- ^e- 

°^f ento?n't-«=i5«n (old F. Unoison. benediction). 
^^a^iS m'^S^-rn, common nan^ofthegmu 

stS'c^ ?^'Saf"^3^i|- towards 

^T"*'''^ Mr,f(aer bin<^e reed or bent grass), the 

:l^¥^lS^^S>"-^'tr^l it toge^er. 
""i^„^!Sw%'^^"-!^1'vS. heucr.vnv: Ger.heneh. 

,, n?„1ne n ben^ -in. a compound obtained from oil 
of vXr'nmonds in brilliai.t prismatic co^ 

$rS'V")£ thesubs^i«e^fro\u whi-h anything « 

■:;:::^:z:.^:^^^^ c.«.-, ... mn, .... ... 




made), an assumed compound forming the radical of 
oil of bitter almonds, benzoic acid, &c. 

benzoin, n. b6n-z6'ln or Mn-zoyn' (said to be from 
At. benzoab), called also by a vulgar corruption 
benjamin; a fragrant resin obtained from a large tree 
of Sumatra: benzoic, a. b6n-z6'-ik, applied to an acid 
obtained from the gum benzoin, commonly called bew- 

bequeath, v. bSktceth' (AS. becicocthan— from he, 
and cwcct/uin, to say), to give or leave by ■vvill ; to 
hand down to posterity : bequeathing, imp. : be- 
queathed, pp. bH-kweihd' : bequest, n. be-kwent', 
sometliing left by will ; a legacy. 

berberine, n. bir'-ber-ln (L. berberis, the berberry— 
from Ar. berberi, wild), an alkaline substance in the 
fonn of needle-like crystals of a beautiful bright yel- 
low, obtained from the root of tlie berljerry shrub. 

here, n. ber (AS. bere), a variety of barley; bigg or 

bereave, v. bdrev' (AS. bereafian, to deprive of), to 
take from; to deprive of; to render destitute: be- 
reav'ing, imp. : bereft, bH-rift, or bereaved, pp. 
be-rcvd' : bereav'er, n. one who: bereavement, ii. 
b':rai'mi>it, a heavy loss, particularly of friends, by 

berengellite, n. bSr-Sng'-gSl-lt (from St Eerengela, 
in Peru, S. Amer., where found abundantly ; Gr. lithos, 
a stone), one of the mineral resins, of a dark-brown 
colour witli a green tinge, having a disagreeable odour 
and bitter taste. 

berg, n. berg (Sw. berg, a mountain), a hill, gene- 
rally of ice ; a contr. of iceberg, wliicb see : berg-mahl 
or -mehl, berg-mdl' (Sw. mountain -meal), a recent 
infusorial earth of a whitish colour and mealy grain, 
also chUpA fossil farina, of common occurrence in bog 
and ancient lake deposits. 

bergamot, n. ber'gd-mdt (F. and Sp. hergamofe), a 
kind of pear or citron highly esteemed; a perfume 
obtained from its rind ; tapestry of a coarse kind, first 
in;ide at Bergamo, in Italy. 

bergmaster, n. berg'mds-ter (AS., Ger., or Sw. herg, 
a mountain or mine; and nutster), the chief officer 
or judge among the Derbyshire miners: bergmote, 
n. berg'mOt (AS. berg; gemote, an assembly), a court 
or assembly for deciding all causes and disputes among 
the Derbyshire miners. 

Berlin, n. ber-lln' or ber'lln, a kind of carriage first 
made in Berlin ; fine worsted for fancy-work. 

berm, n. berm (F. berme: Ger. berine) in fort., a 
path or STpOAie of ground from 3 to 5 feet in width 
left between the exterior slope of the parapet and the 

bemacle, n. bh-'nd-kl—s^fi barnacle. 

berry, n. ber'rl, plu. berries, ber'rlz (AS. berie: 
Icel. ber: Ger. beere: L. bacca), any small juicy fruit: 
berried, a. bdr'rld, funiished with berries. 

berth, n. berth (Icel. bj/rdi : Dan. byrde, a burden ; 
a supposed corruption of breadth), the position of a 
sliip at anchor; a space or room in a ship; a place to 
sleep m : to give a wide berth, to leave considerable 
room for. 

beryl, n. bir'll {L.beriillus: Pers. bidur, acrystal).a 
precious stone of a deep rich gi-een colour : berylline, 
a. b6r'U-ln, like the beryl ; a lapidary's term for the 
less brilliant and colourless varieties of the emerald. 

beryx, n. bdr'lks, a fossil fish belonging to the perch 
family, known to the quarrymen by the name of John 

berzeline, n. bSr'zel-fn (after P.erzelius, a Swedish 
chemist), a mineral ; selenite of copper, occurring in 
thin dendritic crusts of a silver-wlute colour and me- 
tallic lustre: berzelite, n. bSr'zel-lt, a name applied 
to s(!veral minerals. 

beseech, v. bS-sSch' {oM Ens:, beseke : AS. he, and 
arain. to seek), to ask for earnestly; to I'litri'nt; To 
implore: beseech'ing, imp.: besought', pp. and jit. 
besaXct': beseech'er, n. one who: beseechingly, ad. -/;. 

beseem, v. bi-sim' (old Sw. surma: Ger. i/rzie- 
vien: Dut. betmmen, to be fitting, to bi'conic), to lie- 
come; to befit; to be decent for: beseem'ing, imp.: 
beseemed, jip. hf-semd': beseem'ingly, ad. -U. 

beset, V. ^r-scf (AS. hrsrttini), to siirrciunil; to en- 
rlosc; til press on all sides; to perplex: beset'tlng, 
imp.: adj. lialiitnallv attendint;: beset', pt. pii. 

beside, iirep. he-s'rd' {he an.l side; \>y the side), nl 
the side, of a person or 11lin^'; over and above: be- 
sides, jireii. h,}-.^Ulz', over and above: ad. or conj. 
more than that; moreover: beside himself, out of his 


besiege, v. bH-sej' (AS. be: F. siege, to besiege), to 
surround any place with soldiers, as a city or town, in 
order to take possession of it by force; to beset: be- 
sieging, imp.: adj. employed in a siege; surrounding 
with armed forces: besieged, pp. bi-scjd': besieger, 
n. one who. 

besmear, v. bS-smSr' {be and smear), to cover all 
over; to soil -with dirt : besmear'ing, imp.: besmear- 
ed, pp. bi-smerd'. 

besom n. be'ziim (AS. besem—trom besmas, rods: 
Ger. besen), a large brush of birch or hair for sweeping ; 
a broom : v. to sweep : besoming, imp.: besomea, pp. 

besot, bS-sot' (AS. be: Ger. sait, full: F. sot, dull, 
gross), to stupefy; to make dull or senseless: besot'- 
ting, imp.: besotted, pp.: besot'tedly, ad. -ll: besot- 
tedness, n. stupidity; infatuation : besot'tingly, ad. -ll. 

besought— see beseech. 

bespangle, v. be-spang'gl (AS. be: Gael, spang, any- 
thing sparkling : Dut. spang, a spangle), to adorn with 
spangles; to cover ^vith glittering ol.'jects: bespan'- 
gling, imp.: bespangled, pp. bH-spang-gld. 

bespatter, v. bi-spdt'ter (Dut. besjjaiten. to splash), 
to sprinkle with water or mud. bespat'tering, imp.: 
bespat'tered, pp. -terd. 

bespeak, v. bS-spek' {be and S2)eak), to speak for 
beforehand ; to engage for a future time ; to forebode ; 
to show: bespeak'er, n. one wlio; bespeaking, imp.: 
bespoke, pt. bi-spok': bespoken, pp. b6-sp0-k6n. 

bespread, v. bi-si)red' {.MA. be: Dut. itpreeden: Dan. 
sprede, to spread or scatter), to spread over; to cover 
over: bespread'ing, imp.: bespread', pp. 

besprinkle, v. be-spring'-kl (AS. be: Dut. sprenkekn, 
to sprinkle), to scatter over: besprin'kling, imp.: be- 
spnn kled, pp. -kid. 

best, a. best (AS. besfa: Dut. best: Icel. bestr), superl. 
of good; good in the highest degree: ad. in the high- 
est degree ; beyond all others : n. the utmost ; the 
highest endeavour, as to do one's best : the best, the 
highest perfection: do the best, use the utmost 
power : make the best, improve or do to the utmost. 

bestial, a. best'yal (L. besfia, a, like a ; 
beastly; brutal; filthy: bestiality, n. be.^t-i/al'-l-ti, 
the quality of a beast ; an unnatural crime : best'iaJly, 
ad. -ll. 

bestir, v. bS-ster' (AS. be and stir], to rouse into 
vigorous action: bestir'ring, imp.: bestirred, pp. 

bestow, v. bS-sfo' (AS. be, and stou; a place), to 
give; to confer; to apply; to impart: bestow'ing, 
imp.: bestowed, pp. bi-stod': bestowal, n. the act 
of bestowing: bestow'ment, n. the act of giving or 
conferring : bestow'er, n. one who. 

bestrew, v. be-strd' {be and strciv), to scatter or 
sprinkle over— see strew. 

bestride, v. hc-strld' {he and .<:fride). to stand with 
the legs open; to extend the lej^s across: bestri'ding, 
imp. : bestrid, be-strid', or bestrod, bc-strod', pt. : be- 
stridden, pp. he-str'td'n. 

bestud, V. bS-stiid'{he and stud), to adorn vrith studs 
or shining points: bestnd'ding, imp.: bestud', pp. 

bet, n. bat (AS. bad: Goth. radi. a pledge), a wager: 
that which is pledged on a contest : v. to lay a wager : 
bet'ting, imp. : bet'ted, pp. : betting, a. in the habit 
of making bets : n. the prtiposing or laying of a wager : 
bet'tor, n. one who bets. 

beta, n. be'ta (Gr.), second letter of the Greek alpha- 
bet ; systematic name for an order of plants (Celt, bett, 
red, in allusion to the red colour of the roots) of which 
the beet-root is the tj-pe. 

betake, v. be-tak' (.A.S. betcrean), to take one's self 
to; to liave recourse to; to apjily: betak'ing, imp.: 
betook, pt. he-tiTuk' : betaken, pp. hi-ta'-kn. 

betel, n. hct'-l (F. betel: Sp. hetle : Siius. patra], a 
so;t of pepper-plant, the fruit of the .■Vreea Catechu; 
a I'onipounil whose jirineipal ingredients are the fruit 
of the Areea Catechu, the leaf of the betel pepper, a 
little chunam, and lime— in universal use for chew- 
ing in all central and tropical Asia, affording the 
same sort of enjoyment as chewing tobacco in other 

bethink, v. U.-thhik' {be and think), to bring or call 
to mind by reflection: bethinking, imp,: bethought, 
jip. hi-:th<nct'. 

betide, v. bftld' (AS. be: tidnyi, to happen), to hap- 
pen ; t me to; to come to pxss; to befall: betided, 

pp. he-ir'-dfd. 

betimes, ad. bffjmz', orbetime' (AS. te and time), 
before It is too late; seasonably. 

mate, mdt.fdr, l.iTu ; mite, mit, hir ; plne,p\n; nOte, n6t, mOve; 




betoken, v. hS-tO'kn {he and token), to show hy 
marks or signs ; to point out something future by a 
thing known ; to indicate ; to foreshow : betokening, 
iinp. be-tok'nlng, showing by a sign : betokened, pp. 

betony, n. Mt'6-nl, or betonlca, he-ton'-l-kd (orig- 
inally vetonica, said to be from the Vettones, a people 
of Spain, who discovered it), a genus of plants, of vari- 
ous species, esteemed for their medicinal properties. 

betook, v.— see betake. 

betray, v. Mtrd' (Ger. 6p;r!V<7en., to deceive : AS. 6e, 
and old F. trahir, L. tradere, to give up or surrender), 
to give into the hands of an enemy by treachery ; to 
be unfaithful to a friend ; to violate trust or confidence ; 
to mislead ; to entrap : betraying, imp. : betrayed, 
pp. be-trdd': betrayal, n. act of betraying; breach 
of trust : betrayer, n. one who betrays. 

betroth, v. he-trdth' {be and troth or truth), to 
pledge or promise in order to marriage ; to contract 
with the view to marriage : betroth'ing, imp. : be- 
trothed, pp. bitrotht' : betrothal, n. be-trOth'dl, and 
betroth'ment, n. a contract or agreement with a view 
to marriage. 

better, a bit'fer, comp. of good (AS. hetera: Dut. 
baet, better, more), good in a higher degree ; more ad- 
vanced : ad. with greater excellence ; more correctly : 
V. to improve ; to raise higher in the good qualities 
of: betters, n. plu. bet'-terz, superiors in social rank: 
bet'tering, imp. : bettered, pp. bet'terd. 

between, prep, bi-twen' (AS. betweoh, in the mid- 
dle of two— from be, by, and tiveoh, two), in the middle ; 
from one to another; noting difference or distinction 
of one from another: between' decks, among seamen, 
the space contained between two decks: betwixt, 
prep. bS-ttvixt', between; in the midst of two. 

bevel, n. bev'ei (F. beveau, a square rule), an instru- 
ment for drawing angles, consisting of two legs moving 
on a pivot; any slope or inclination: adj. angular; 
crooked: v. to slant to any angle less than a right- 
angle: bevelling, imp. b&v-ei-Ung .- adj. curving or 
bending from a straight line— said of timber: n. in 
shipbuilding, the winding of a timber, &c., agreeably 
to directions given from the mould loft : bevelled, pp. 
hev'ild: beVelment, n. a name iised for certain edges 
or faces formed in mineral bodies : bev'el-gear, -ger, in 
mech., a species of wheelwork where the axis or shaft 
of the leader or driver forms an angle with the axis or 
shaft of the follower or wheel driven : bevel-wheel, a 
wheel having teeth to work at an angle either greater 
or less than half a right angle. 

beverage, n. b&v'-er-aj (It. bevere.,to drink: I^ hi- 
here, to drink: F beuvrage, a beverage), a liquor for 
drinking ; an agreeable drink. 

bevy, n. b6v'-l (It. heva, a bevy : F. bevee, a flock or 
brood), a flock of birds; a company; a number of 
young women. 

bewail, v. be-rvCd' (AS. bc: Icel. vcila, to lament), 
to lament ; to express grief or son-ow for : bewail ing, 
imp.: bewailed, pp. be-wald'.- bewail'ingly, ad. -U: 
bewailable, a. bS-wal'd-bl, that may be sorrowed 
for : bewail'ing and bewail'ment, n. lamentation ; the 
act of mourning for : bewail'er, n. one w)io. 

beware, v. be-ivdr' (AS. bewarian: Dan. hevare), 
to take care of; to regard vith caution ; to avoid. 

bewilder, v. bS-tcU'der (Ger. verwildern, to grow 
wild or unruly), to perplex ; to puzzle ; to lead astray : 
bewU'dering, imp.: bewil'dered, pp. -derd: bewil- 
deredly, ad. 'b&-wil'-derdli : bewil'derment, n. con- 

bewitch, v. IS-wich' (AS. he; wicce, a vitch), to 
gain power over by chamis or incantations ; to please 
in the highest degree ; to fascinate— used generally in 
a bad sense : bewitch 'ing, imp. : adj. having power 
to charm or fascinate: bewitched, pp. b6-ivlchf: 
bewitch'er, n. one who: bewitch'ery, n. -er-i, ir- 
resistible power possessed by any person or thing 
over a creature ; fascination : bewitch'ingly, ad. -ll .- 
bewitchment, n. irresistless power over ; fascination. 

bewray, v. bd-ra' (AS. be; wegan, to accuse, to 
discover), to point out ; to show ; to discover ; to be- 
tray : bewray'ing, imp. : bewrayed, pp. be-rdd'. 

bey, n. ba (Turk, beg, a prince or chief), governor of 
a Turkish province ; a prince. 

beyond, ad., prep. b&-y6nd' (AS. hegeond—irora 
geond, thither, yonder), at a distance; at the further 
side ; out of reach ; above : to go beyond, to sui-pass. 

beyrichia, n. ba-rlk'-l-d (after M. Beyrich), a genus 
of minute fossil crustaceans, bivalved, and found at- 
tached to other crustaceans as parasite's. 

bezel, n. hiz'-Sl (Sp. hisel, the ba.sil edge of a plate of 
looking-glass : F. biseau, aslant), the ledge wliich sur- 
rounds and retains a jewel or other object in the cavity 
in which it is set. 

bezoar-stones, bez'Or-stOnz (Pers. pa, against; za- 
har, poison), stony concretions fomid in the intestines 
of certain land-anhnals, and fonnerly used as medi- 
cines or antidotes for poisons ; in geol., stony concre- 
tions usually composed of several crusts one within 
the other, and closely cohering: bezoardic, a. be'zO- 
dr'dlk, of or like bezoar. 

bi, bi or bl, also bis, bis (L. twice), a common prefix, 
meaning two, twice, double, in two. Notc—Whrn 
compounds beginning with bi are not found, mark the 
meaning of bi, and turn to the principal word. 

bia, n. bl'd, a Siamese name for the small shells 
called cowries throughout the East Indies. 

biangrilar, a. bl-dng'gu-ldr (L. bis; angulus, a cor- 
ner), having two angles or corners. 

bias, n. bl'Os (F. biais, a slope : It. sbiescio, slant, 
on one side), a disposition or leaning of the mind; 
inclination; prepossession: v. to incline to; to preju- 
dice in favour of: bi'assing, imp.: biassed, pp. bl'dst, 
inclined in favour of. 

bib, V. 616 (L. bibo, I drink : Dut. biberen, to drink to 
excess: F. biberon, a tippler), to sip: bib'bing, imp. : 
bibbed, pp. bibd: bibber, n. bib'ber, one wiio sips or 

Dib, n. 616, a species of codfish, growing to a foot in 
length, of a pale-olive colour, sides tinged with gold, 
belly white: bibbs, n. plu. bibz, in shipbuilding, 
pieces of timber bolted to certain parts of a mast to 

upport the trestle-trees. 

6f 6 (F. bavon, a bib ; haver, to slaver— from 
have, spittle: Fris. 6a66c, the mouth), a piece of cloth 
put on the breasts of children for cleanliness when 
feeding them. 

bibacious, a. bX-ha'-shus (L. hibo, I drink— see bib), 
given to drinking: bibacity, n. bl-hds'Ul, love for 
drinking: bibulous, a. 6J6;»-itXs, drinking in; spongy: 
bibio, n. htb'-l-O, the wine-fly. 

bibasic, a. bl-bd'slk (L. bis, two; basis, a base), hav- 
ing two bases— applied to acids which combine with 
two equivalents of a base. 

Bible, n. hl'bl (Gr. biblion, a book), the book; the 
Holy Scriptures : Biblical, a. 6{6;;)-Art/, relating to the 
Bible: Bib'lical'ly, ad. -li: Biblicist, n. blb'll-sisf, 
also Bib'list, n. one skilled in the knowledge of the 

bibliography, n. hW-ll-dg'ra-fl, (Gr. hiblion, a 
book; grapho, I write), knowledge and history of 
books: bibliographer, n. blb'Hog-rd-fir one who is 
skilled in the knowledge of books: bib'liograph'ic, 
a. -grdf'-ik, also bib'liograph'ical, a. -l-kdl, pert, to 
the history of books : bibUolatry, n. Mb'll-6l'-d-trt, 
book- worship, especially applied to an extreme rever- 
ence for the Bible : bibliomancy, n. bJb'll-6-7nan's1, 
(Gr. biblion, a book; manteia, prophecy), divination 
byther.iT)le: bibliology, n. bib'll-6l'6-jl (Gr. biblion, 
a book ; logos, discoiu-se), a treatise on books ; Biblical 
literature or theology: bib'liolog'ical, a. ■loj'l-kdl, 
pert, to: bibliomania, n. blb'li-o-md'nl-d (Gr. 6i6- 
lion, a book ; maiiia, madness), a rage for the posses- 
sion of rare and curious books : bib'lioma'mac, n. 
■ni-dk, one who has a rage for books : bibliopoust, 
n. hlb'll-op'o-llst, and bibliopole, n. -pol' (Gr. biblion, 
a book; poleo, I sell), a bookseller: bibliotheca, n. 
bib'-ll-6-the'ka (Gr. biblion, a book ; theka. a case or 
box), a repository for books ; a library : bib'lioth'ecal, 
a. -6th'S-kdl, pert. to. 

bicapsidar, a. bl-kap'su-ldr (L. bis, twice, and cap- 
sular), in hot., having two geed-capsules to each flower. 

bicarbonate, n. bl-kdr'bo-ndt (L. bis, twice; and 
carbonate), a salt having two equivalents of carbonic 
acid to one equivalent of a base : bisulphate, n. blsiil- 
fat, constituted as preceding— and many other similar 
formations in bi. 

bice, n. his (old F. bis; hes, in composition, being 
often employed to signify perversion or inferiority), a 
pale-blue or green colour. 

biceps, n. hl'-s&ps (L. bis, twice ; caput, the head), 
double-headed; in anat., applied to certain muscles 
that divide into two portions; bicipital, a. blsip'l- 
tai, and bicipitous, a. bl-sip'-l-tus, having two heads ; 
also bicephalous, a. bl-sff'-d-lns{L. bis, twice : Gr. keph- 
ale, the head), double-headed. 

bicker, n. blk'er (Scot.: Dut. hickeler, a stone- 
picker— from picker), in Scot., a fight between two 
parties ot boj's by throwing stones and using sticks ; 

cdiv, boll, foot ; pure, hiid; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




a bowl or dish made of wood : v. to quarrel ; to fijrht 
without a set battle ; to contend iu words : bickering, 
Imp. : bickered, pp. bXk'-erd. 

biconjugate, a. In-kon'job-gat (L. his, twice; con, 
tiiLT-'tUri- ; jii/Kjii. I join), in bot., in pairs— applied to a 
It-at ill wliicirtlie common petiole divides into two 
bramlies, eacli of which bears two h^iillcts. 

bicom, a. bl-kOrn. nr bicornous, a. hhhor'yins (L. 
hi.-t, twice; coniii, a lnuii), twn-lionicd ; in liot., ap- 
plied to any parts of planta that liavu the likeness of 
two hums. 

. bicuspid, a. bl-Jcf(s'-2)'ld (L. bis, twice; cuspis, the 
point of a spear), in a7iat., applied to teeth that have 
two fangs or points, as the first two molars on eaeli 
side; in hot., leaves that end in two points; two- 
fanged ; two-pronged. 

bid, V. bill (A.S. beudan; Ger. bieten, to offer: Dut. 
birdf-n). to tell to do ; to request ; to offer a price ; to 
wi>h: bade, pt. bad: bidden or bid, pp. bid'n: bid- 
ding, iiiiji. bid'dlng: n. an invitation; an order: 
bid der, u. <inc who offers a price : bid, u. bid, an 
offer at an a\iction. 

bide, V. bid (AS. bidan, to wait, to remain), to 
suffer; to endure; to live; to remain in a place; to 
continue in a state: biding, imp. bl'ding, dwelling; 

bidental, a. M-dSn'tdl (L. bis, twice ; dens, a tooth- 
gen, dentin), having two teetli: bidentate, a. bi-den- 
tat, iu bot., applied to leaves that have their marginal 
incisions or teeth edged by smaller teeth. 

bidet, n. bld'-Ht (F. bidet: It. bidetto). a small 
hoi-se ; an article of bedroom furniture. 

biennial, a. bl-en'ni-ai (L. bis, twice ; annus, a year), 
continuing or lasting throughout two years— applied 
to plants that do not bear flowers and seed till the 
second year, and then die : n. a plant that stands two 
years : bien'nial'ly, ad. -ll. 

bier, n. bcr (.\S. baer: F. biere: Ger. hdra), a frame 
of wood, or a carriage, on which the dead are borne to 
the Lfrave. 

biestings, n. plu. best'-Jn/yz (see beestings), tlie milk given by a cow after calving. 

bifacial, a. blja'shl-al {L. bis, twice. ; fades, the 
fnee). liavin- two like faces. 

biferous, a. hif-er-ii-> (L. bis, twice ;/ero, I carry), 
bearing fruit twn-e a-year. 

biffin, n. Itif'j'ln (supposed corruption of beefin, from 
its resemblance to raw beef), an apple so called, dried 
in an oven and flattened for keeping. 

bifid, a. bi'fid (L. bis, twice ; ,fidi. I cleft or split), 
cleft in two ; opening with a cleft, but not deeply di- 
vided: alsobifidate, a. btf-l-dat. 

bifold, a. bl'fold (L. bis smA/oM), double; of two 
kinds : bi'form, a. -fawrni (L. forma, shape), having 
two forms. 

bifurcated, a. bl-fir'kafi'd, or bifur'cous, a. -kfis 
(L. bi^, twice; f area, a fork), forked; separated into 
two heads or branches: bi'furca'tion, n. -kd'-shiin. a 
dividing into two, as the division of the trunk of ves- 
sels, or .if tlie stem of a plant. 

big, a. h((/ (original spelling ?)?<.7: Icel. bolr/a, a swell- 
ing : Dan. hia;, belly), large ; great in size or bulk ; full 
of pride; distended; ready to burst: big'ly, ad. -li: 
big'nesE, n. 
big, V. big, or bigg (Dan. bug), winter barley. 
bigamv, n. blg'a-ml (L. bis, twice; Gr. gamen. I 
marry), the crime of marrying a second wife or hus- 
band while a first is still alive : big'amist, n. -mist, one 
who has two wives or husbands at one time. 

biggin, n. bh/gfn (F. beguine, an order of nuns who 
do not take vows), a cap of a certain shape worn by the 
brt;uins ; a child's lap ; a small wooden vessel. 

bight, n. bit (Icel. bugt, a bend or curve : AS. biigav : 
(!er. biegen, to bend), a sudden bend inwards of the 
sea into'the land ; a small bay ; the double part or coil 
of a rope. 

bigot, n. blg'ot (It. biaotto, a bigot: bizzoro, a hypo- 
crite—from bigio, grey — applied to cerlain secular 
aspirants to superior holiness of life in tliirteenth cen- 
tuiy), one who is obstiniitely and blindly att.'ichcd to 
a particv.lnr religious belief, to a party, or to an opin- 
ion; abliiHl zc.ildt: big'oted, a. unreasonably attached 
to : blg'otedly, iid.: bigotry, n. big'6t-rl, blind zeal in 
favour of soiiieihiii^'. 

bijou, n. hrzliu (1'.— plu. hijo^i.r). a Jewel, a trinket : 
bijouterie, u. hf-zlidl'rl. jewelltTy; the making or 
d.-.iling ill trinkets or jewellery. 

bijugate, ii. bVjiTo-gat (I,, his. twice ; juffwn, a yoke), 
Jn bo'., having two p:iirs of leaflets on a pinnate leaf. 

bilabiate, a. bt-ia'bl-at (L. bis, twic-e ; labium, a lip), 
in bot., having the mouth of any tubular organ divided 
into two principal portions, termed lips. 

bilateral, a. bl-ldt'er-ai (L. bis, twice; latus, a side), 
in bot., airanged on or towards opposite sides: bilat- 
eral symmetry, that construction in veitebrate ani- 
mals where the organs of the body are arranged mora 
or less distinctly in pairs. 

bilberry, n. bll'ber-rl (AS. bleo, blue : Dan. blaa-baer. 
lilue berry), name of a small wild fruit of a dark-blue 
colour, called in Scotland blaeberry ; whortle-berry. 

bilboes, n. plu. bil'bOz [Bilboa; h. boice, a shackle: 
Dut. boeye), among mariners, a sort of stocks or wood- 
en shackles for the feet, used for offendei-s. 

bile, n. bil (L. bilis, bile: F. bile), a thick, yellow, 
bitter liquor separated in the liver, and collected in 
the gall-bladder; gall ; ill humour: bilious, a. bU'yv..s. 
having excess of bile: biliousness, n. : bil'iary, a. 
■yer-i, of or relating to bile: bile-duct, n. a vessel or 
canal to convey bile. 

bile, n. bli (AS. byl, a blotch), more frequently boil 
—a soft tumour upon the flesli. 

bilge, n. bllj (Gael, bulg, a belly: Icel. bidki. a 
luunp: Dan. bulk, a lump— a different spelling of 
bulge), the swelled out or bellied part of a cask ; the 
breadth of a ship's bottom on which she rests when 
aground: also called bilage, bd'oj: v. to have ;i 
fracture in a ship's bottom: to spring a leak: bilge- 
water, n. water lying on a ship's bottom or bilge: 
bilged, pp. blljd : bil'ging, imp. : bilge-pump, the 
pump employed to diuw off the bilge-water. 

bilingsgate, n. bll'-ingz-gat (the great fish-market 
in London), rough or foiil language, such as is spoken 
at Bilingsgate. 

bilingiial, a. bi-lrng'giral (L. bis. twice; lingua, a 
tongue), in two languages : bilin'guous, a. -g^vui, 
speaking two languages. 

biliteral, a. bUlt'-ir-al (L. bis, twice •,litera, a letter), 
of t>\'0 letters. 

bilk, V. bilk (Sw. bnlka. to partition off— another 
spelling of balk), to defraud ; to cheat ; to leave in the 
lurch : bilk'ing, imp. : bilked, np. bilkt. 

bill, n. bll (AS. 6(7; Ger. bcii, an axe: Dut. bille, a 
stone-mason's pick), an instrument for hewing ; :in 
anc. military weapon ; a hooked instrument for cutting 
hedges, pinning, &c. ; the beak of a fowl or bird : billed, 
a. blld, furnished with a bill. 

biU, n. bll (mid. L. bidla, a seal: Dut. biljet, a note), 
an account for goods; a printed advertisement; in 
law, a declaration in writing of some fault or wrong ; 
a written promise to pay money in a certain time; a 
form or draft of a proposed law before parliament ; a 
written list of particulars in law, in commerce, or in 
other social usages : bill of exchange, a wTitten order 
on a person in a distant place requesting him to pay 
money to another — the person who draws the hill is 
called the drau-er, the person requested to pay the 
money tlie dratvce. the person to whom the money is 
payable is called the payee .- bill of fare, in a hotel, a 
list of articles ready for food : bill of entry, in rom., a 
written account of goods entered at tlie cMi.stom-house : 
bill of lading, a written aecnunt of gootls shipped by 
a person on lioard an ontw:n-d-boiuid vessel, and signed 
by the master or cuptain : bill of health, a certificate 
of the health of a sliijis crew: bill of mortality, an 
official return of deatlis in any pl.ace: bill of rights, a 
summary or list of the rights and privileges claimed 
by a people: bill of sale, a written inventory or list 
given by the seller of personal property to the pur- 
chaser: bill of exceptions, a written statement of 
errors in law tendered to the presiding judge before 
a verdict is given : bill in chancery, a written state- 
nieutputinor filed in the Court of Chancery: true 
bill, an attested written st.atement by a grand juiy of 
sutlii lent evidence against a prisoner to warrant a 
trial- bill chamber, iii Scot., p. jiarticular department 
oftlie Court of Session for dealing witli certain witten 
(loeuineTits: bill of suspension, iu S'-ot.. a written 
ajiplication or ajipeal from a lower to a lii:.'her court. 
to iiievcnt execution of a s.'iiteiice in a criminal trial; 
bill of divorce, in the .hiri.<li hiir, a certain form of 
writing given by a husband to a wife by which liis 
marriage with hVr was dissolved: bill-sticker, one 
who posts placards, Ac. 

bill, v. bll (from bill, a beakl. to caress as doves 
joining bills; to be fond: billing, imp.: billed, pp. 

billet, n. bimt (F. bilM. ticket, diminutive of bill), 
a small letter; a ticket direiting soldiers where to 

indte, m(lt,fCir, laTv; mete,mSt, Mr; phie.pUi; 7ilite, n6t, mOve; 



l(>cl?e : V. to quarter soldiers : billeting, imp. : billeted, 

^billet, n. Ml'-iet (F. billot, a stick or log of wood cut 
for firewood), a small log of wood for firewood. 

billet-doux, n. bU'hi-dd' (F. billet, a letter; doux, 
sweet), a short love-letter. _ _ „ 

billiards, n. plu. Wl'yardz (F. Ullard— from. F. bille; 
L. pilum, a ball), a game played on a long table cov- 
ered with cloth, with ivory balls and a cue or mace: 
billiard, a. pert. to. „. ^ 

billion, n. bll'-yun {L. bis, twice, and tmlhon), a 
million of millions. 

billow, n. Ml'-lo (Dan. bolge; Sw. bolja; Dut. 
holghe, a wave of the sea), a veiy large wave or surge 
of the sea : v. to swell or rise into large waves ; to 
surge : bil lowing, imp. : billowed, pp. -lod : billowy, 
a. -lo-i, full of billows ; swelling into gi-eat waves. 

bilobate, a. bido'-bat (L. bis, twice; Gr. lobos, the 
ear-lap or lower part of the ear), having two lobes. 

bilocular, a. bl-ldk-H-ldr (L. bis, twice; loculus, a 
little place), in bot., containing two cavities or cells. 

bimanous, a. bi-ma'nus (L. bis, twice ; manus, 
the hand), having two hands ; two-handed : bimana, 
n. -ma'-na, the order of mammalia of which man is 
the sole representative— the apes and monkeys being 
quadrumanous, or four-handed. 

bimensal, a. bi-min'sM (L. bis; mensis, a month), 
occuiTing once in two months. 

bin, n. bin (AS. bin, a manger, a hutch; Sw. bi7ige, 
a heap), a wooden box or chest used for holding com 
or flour, &c.; a compartment in a wine-ceUar. 

bin (L. bini, two by two), a prefix meaning double; 
by twos ; of two ; another fonn of bis, twice. 

binary, a. bt'ner-l (L. bini, two by two: F. binaire), 
consisting of two, or two parts: dual; in astron., ap- 
plied to double stars; in ckem., applied to compoimds 
consisting of two elements: n. constitution of two: 
binate, a. bi'nat, gi-owing in pairs ; double. 

bind, v. bmd (AS. or Goth, bindan, to bind or tie : 
Icel. binda, to bind or knot— see bunch), to tie toge- 
ther ; to fasten ; to confine or restrain ; to oblige by a 
promise, an oath, or an agreement ; to form or sew on 
a border ; to render costive or hard : bind'ing, imp. : 
n. the cover of a book, &c.: adj. obligatory: bound, 
pt. and pp. bmvnd: bind'er, n. a person or thing that 
binds: bindery, n. bind'er-l, a binder's workshop. 

bind, n. bind, or bine, bm (Ger. bund, a bunch, a 
truss), a miner's term for tough, argUlaceous, or clayey 

bind, n.'bhid (Icel. binda, to bind: Lith. pinnu, 
to wreathe, to plait : L. vinea, a vine), the windinr; or 
climbing stem of a climbing plant,- thus, hop-bine, 
the shoots of hops: woodbine, the honeysuckle: 
bindwood or binwood, in Scot., the I^t: bindweed, a 
>vild plant ^^^th twining stems ; a convolvulus. 

bing, n. blng (Sw. binge, a heap: Icel. bunga, to 
swell— same as" bin), a heap ; a miner's term for a heap 
of ore or other mineral of a certain size. 

binnacle or binacle, n. bln'a-kl (formerly written 
bittacle,n. blt'd-kl: F. habitacle), a turret-shaped box 
placed on board a ship near the helm in which the 
compass is kept. 

binocle, n. bln'6-kl (L. binus, double; ocnlus, an 
eye), a telescope fitted with two tubes for both eyes : 
binocular, a. bl-nok'u-ldr, having two eyes ; employ- 
ing both eyes at once — as binocular vision. 

binomial, n. bl-no'ml-dl (L. bis, t^vice; nomen, a 
name), in alg., a quantity consisting of two terms con- 
nected by the sign plus (-f), or minus (- ): adj. pert, 
to : binominous, a. bi-nom'i-nns ; binomial system, 
in zool., the system according to which every animal 
receives two names, the one indicating the gemis to 
which it belongs, the other being its own specific 
name — as canis familiaris, the domestic dog. 

binous, a. bi'-nOs (L. bini, two by two), double ; in a 
pnir, as leaves. 

binoxalate, n. bln-dks'dl-at (L. bis, twice ; Gr. oxa- 
lis, a kind of sorrel— from Gr. oxus, acid), a combina- 
tion of oxalic acid with a base in which the former is 
in excess: binozlde, n. -oks'ld (L. bis, twice, and 
oxygen), the second degree of oxidation of a metal 
orother substance. 

biography, n. bi-dg'rd-fl (Gr. bios, life; grapho, I 
write), tlie written history of the life and character 
of a particular person : bi'ograph'ic, a. -o-grCtf-lk, also 
bi'ograph'ical, a. -Kkai, pert, to the written life of 
any one: bi'ograph'ically, ad. -i-fefii^i: biographer, 
11. bi-''ig'rd-fSr, a writer of lives. 
biology, n. bl-dl'O-jHGr. bios, life ; logos, a discourse). 


the science which investigates the phenomena of life, 
whether vegetable or animal : biologic, a. bl'O-lOj'-lk. 
also bi'olog^ical, a. -6 lOj'lkdl, relating to the science 
of life : biol'ogist, n. -ol'-O-jUt, one who treats of the 
phenomena of life. 

biparous, a. bip'dr-vs (L. bis, twice ; pario, I bring 
forth), having two at a birth: bip'artite, a. -tit(h. biit, 
twice ; partitus, divided), divided into two parts, as a 
leaf; having two corresponding parts: bip'artition, 
n. -tlsh'-un, the act of dividing or making into two 
corresponding parts : bip'artile, a. -til, that may bo 
divided into two parts. 

biped, n. bl'-pidil.. bis, twice ; pes, afoot— gen. pedis), 
an animal having two feet : bipedal, a. hii>-e-dal or 
bl-pe'ddl, having two feet. 

bipennate, a. M-j)^n'»i(J^andbipen'nated, a. (L. bis, 
twice ; penna, a feather), having two wings or wing- 
like organs. 

bipetalous, a. blpet'd-liis (L. bis, twice ; Gi. petalon, 
a leaf), having two flower-leaves or petals. 

biplicate, a. blp'll-kat (L. bis, twice ; plico, I fold), 
in bot., doubly folded in a transverse manner, as in 
the section of some cotyledons or seed-lobes. 

bipinnate, a. bl-pin'-ndt (L. bis, twice; pinna or 
penna, a feather), in bot., having the leaflets on the 
secondary petioles of a doubly compound leaf ar- 
ranged in a pinnate manner. 

biquadrate,n. bi-/cM(5d'm<(L. bis, twice; qtiadrafus, 
squared), the fourth power of a number, or the square 
of the square : bi'quadrat'ic, n. or a. -idt'ik, relating 
to the fourth power. 

birch, n. berch (AS. birce : Sw. bjork), name of a 
tree ; a bundle of twigs used as a rod of correction : 
birch or birch'en, a. -en, made of birch. 

bird, n. berd (AS. brid, the young of birds: Ger. 
bmt, a brood of young), a feathered animal ; a chick- 
en ; a young fowl: v. to catch birds: bird-bolt, a 
small arrow: bird's-eye, seen at a glance ; seen from 
a great height, as by a bird ; a plant ; a variety of cut 
tobacco : bird-cage, an enclosure of wire or wicker 
work for the confinement of birds : bird-catcher, one 
whose employment it is to snare birds : bird-like, 
resembling a bird: bird-lime,any glutinous or sticky 
substance spread upon twigs for catching birds : bird- 
limed, spread to ensnare : bird-willed, flighty; incap- 
able of sustained attention: bird's-eye limestone, a 
member of the lower Silurian of N. Amer., so named 
from the dark circular markings studding many por- 
tions of its mass : bird-tongues, a familiar term for 
fossil shark's teeth : bird's-eye maple, curled maple, 
a species of wood used in cabinet-work. 

birostrate, a. bl-ros^/rat (L. bis, twice; rostrum, a 
beak), having two beaks. 

birr, v. ber (Scot.), to make a whirring rattling 
noise: bir'ring, imp. : birred, pp. berd: birl, birling, 
birled, berld, are used in the same sense. 

birth, n. berth (AS. beorth; Sw. bord, a birth— 
from AS. beran, to bring forth), the act of coming into 
life; being bom; descent; family; condition in which 
one is bom ; origin ; beginning ; the thing produced : 
birthplace, n. place where born : birthright, a right 
or privilege which any one is entitled to by birth: 
birthday, n. the day on which a person is born ; the 
anniversary of it. 

biscuit, n. bts'klt (F. biscuit— from L. bis, t\vice, and 
F. cuit, done or baked— from L. coctus, cooked or 
dressed), bread baked hard for keeping; articles of 
pottery before they are glazed and ornamented. 

bisect, V. bl-sSktf (L. bis, twice ; sectus, cut), to cut 
or di\'ide into two equal parts : bisec'ting, imp. : bi- 
aec'ted, pp. : bisec'tion, n. -sek'shun, the act of cutting 
into two equal parts : biseg'ment, n. the exact half of 
a line. 

biserial, a. bl-se'rl-dl (L. bis, twice; serifs, an order 
or row), arranged in a double series or two coui-ses. 

biserrate, a. bl-s6r'-rat (L. bis, twice; seiTU, a saw), 
being doubly marked or notched like the teeth of a 
saw, as in certain leaves. 

bisexual, a. bl-seks'-u-dl (L. bis, tmce ; sexus, male 
or female), of both sexes ; hei-maphrodite. 

bishop, n. blsh'op (AS. bisreop: I., episcopns ; Gr. 
episco])os, an overseer), a clergyman of high rank who 
has the oversight of the clergy within a district called 
a diocese : bish'opric, n. -rlk, a diocese ; the office and 
jurisdiction of a bishop. 

bisk, n. bisk (F. bisqtie, rich soup), soup made by 
boiling together several sorts of flesh. 

bismuth, n. bfz'muth (Ger. wisrnnith — from visz, 
white, and muth, lively: F. bismuth), a hard brit- 

cdU\ boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




tie reddish -white metal, used in making' pewtor, 
printers' types, &c., non-malleable, but easily fusible : 
bismuthine, a. -In, sulphuret of bismuth of a greyish- 
tin colour: bismuthlte, n. -it, orbis'mutite, -7>iu-ttt, 
a yellowish-grey ore of bismuth, or of a white or dull 
mountain-green : bis'muthal, a. -ell, and bis'muthic, 
a. -ik, of or from bismuth : bismuth-blende, -blend, a 
mixture of silicate of iron and bismuth with phos- 
phate of alumina. 

bison, n. bl'zon (L. or Gr.), a kijid of wild ox, with 
short black rounded horns, and a large fleshy hunch 
on the shoulders. 

bissextile, n. bls-s6ks'tU (L. Mssextilis— from bis, 
and sextits, sixth), every fourth year— so called by 
the anc. Romans, because in that year the sixth day 
of the calends of March (Feb. 24) was reckoned twice ; 
leap year: adj. pert, to leap year. 

bistort, n. bistort (L. bis, twice ; tortus, twisted), a 
plant so called from the twisted or contorted appear- 
ance of its root ; snakeweed. 

bistoury, n. bls'tddr-l{F. bistouri, an incision-knife 
—from Pistoria, now Pistoja, in Tuscany, once cele- 
brated for their manufacture), a small knife or scalpel 
for surgical purposes. 

bistre, n. bis'ter (F. prepared soot), a brown paint 
made from wood-soot. 

bisulcous, a. bl-siU'kus (L. bis, twice ; sulcus, a fur- 
row), cloven-footed, as swine or oxen. 

bisulphate, n. blsHl'/at (L. bis, twice; sulphur, 
sulphur), a sulphate containing two equivalents of 
sulphuric acid to one of the base. 

bit, n. bit (AS. bitol: Icel. bitill), the iron mouth- 
piece of a bridle; a small piece of anything; a tool : 
V. to put the bit in a horse's mouth; to restrain: 
bitting, imp. : bit'ted.pp. 

bitch, n. blch (AS. bicce: Icel. biJckia, alittle dog, a 
bitch : Ger. bet:x, a bitch), the female of the dog -kind ; 
opprobrious term. 

bite, V. bit (Goth, beitan: Icel. bita), to tear; to 
pierce; to break or crush with the teeth; to pinch 
with cold ; to reproach by stinging words ; to pain or 
wound: n. the seizure of anything by the teeth; 
wound made by the teeth; a morsel; a mouthful: 
biting, imp. hVtlng: adj. severe; sharp; sarcastic: 
bit, pt. bit: bitten, pp. blt'n: adj. in bot., applied 
to a leaf, root, or corolla terminating? abruptly, as if 
bitten off short: biter, n. bl'ter: bi'tingly, ad. -U. 

bitemate, a. bl-ter'ndt (L. bis, twice; terni, three 
by three), in bot., applied to compound leaves which 
form three leaflets on each secondary petiole or leaf- 

bittacle, n. bXt'td'kl—see binnacle. 

bitter, a. blt'ter (Icel. beitr ; Goth, baitrs; Ger. 
bitter, biting, stinging), sharp ; biting to the taste ; 
severe ; reproachful ; painful to the feelings or mind ; 
distressing: n. a plant: bit'temess, n. sharpness: 
bit'terly, ad. -li: bitters, n. plu. blt'terz, a liquor, 
generally spirits, in which bitter herbs or roots have 
been steeped : bit'terish.a. slightly bitter: bit'terish- 
ness, n. : bitter-spar. n. the largely crystalline and 
easily-cleavable kinds of dolomite or magnesian lime- 
stone : bitter-sweet, woody nightshade : bitterwort, 
the plant gentian: bittern, n. 6«:<er«, the bitter liquor 
remaining after the salt in the salt-works is concreted, 
used in the preparation of Epsom salts. 

bittern, n. blt'tern (It. bittore), a bird of the heron 
tribe, of retiring habits, frequenting marshes. 

bitts, n. plu. bitf! (Icel. hiti, a beam in a house or 
ship: F. bites: Sp. bitas), two strong pieces of timber 
in the fore part of a ship on which the cables are fast- 
ened when she lies at anchor: v. to bitt, to put round 
the bitts. 

bitumen, n. bl-tii'mSn (L. bitiimen— from Gr. pitus, 
the pine or pitch tree), mineral pitch or tar ; one of the 
family of mineral resins or hydro-carbons, highly in- 
flammable, and burning with much smoke and flame 
— in its purest and most fluid state it is called naphtha 
— of the consistence of oil, petroleum — as slaggy 
mineral pitch, maltha— a.s elastic mineral pitch or 
c.aoutchouc, e.laterite — as a blai;k, hard, brittle, and 
flossy mineral, asphalt: bltu'minate, v. -ml-nat, to 
iinpre<:nate with bitumen: bitu'mina'ting,imii.: bitu'- 
mina ted, pp.: bitu'miniferous, a. -^fCr-ns (L. fao, 
I i)rf«i]iir('), produ'ung bitunicn: bltu'minlse. v. 
■ mi-nlz, to prei>are or o.-it witli bitumen : bltu'minl- 
Bing, imp. : bitu'minised, pp. -ni~d .- bituminisa tion, 
n. -nlziX'shun. the natural proc rss nf Ijiiiil,' c(inverti(i 
into bituminous matt'T: bituminous, a. -iia-niis, full 
of or containing bitumen. 

bivalve, n. bl-vdlv (L. bis, twice; valvm, folding 
doors), a shell consisting of two parts which shut 
and open, as the mussel or oyster ; m bot., a seed case 
or vessel of like kind: adj., also bival vular, -vuiar, 
and bivarvous, -vus, having two shells, as the oyster 
or mussel. 

bivouac, n. bW-oo-dk (F. : Ger. bei-wache, an addi- 
tional watch: Sp. vivac, to\>Ti-guard), the encamp- 
ment of an army for the night in the open air : v. to 
take rest or refreshment in the open air, as an army 
on march, or travellers on a journey : biv'ouack ing, 
imp.: biv'ouacked, pp. -akt. 

bizarre, a. bl-z&r' [F.) odd; fantastical: bizar'ro, 
-zur'-ro (It.), in miLsic, strange and fantastical, as ap- 
plied to the style of movement. 

blab, v. biab(I>a.n. blabbre, to babble : Ger. plappern, 
to speak confusedly or thoughtlessly: Gael, blabaran, 
a stammerer: Dut. labben, to tell tales), to t.attle; to 
tell tales ; to tell secrets in a thoughtless manner : n. 
a tell-tale; one who reveals things which ought not 
to be told: blab'ber, n. -ber, a tell-tale: blabljlng, 
imp. : blabbed, pp. -bldbd. 

black, a. hiak (Ger. bleich, and Dut. bleek, pale, 
or bleak, which seems to be the original meaning of 
black: Icel. blackr, bluish-grey or pale), the opposite 
of white ; dark ; cloudy ; dismal ; sullen ; very wicked : 
a. name of the darkest of colours ; a negro : v. to 
make black ; to dirty or soil : blacking, imp. : n. a 
substance used in polishing boots and sTioes ; that 
which makes black : blacked, pp. bUlkt : black'ish, a. a 
little black : blackly, ad. -ll : black'ness, n. : black-act, 
a law which makes it felony to appear armed with the 
face blackened : black-amber, n. the name given by 
Prussian amber-diggers to jet : black-art, magic or 
conjuration : black-ball, v. in a society, to reject a pro- 
posed member by putting Mark balls'in the voting or 
ballot box : -balling, imp. : -balled, pp. : black-band, 
a Scotch miner's term for the ironstones of tlie coal- 
measures which contain coaly matter sufficient for 
calcining the ore without the addition of coal : black- 
berry, the fruit of the bramble : blackbird, a species of 
siuging-bird : black-board, a board painted black, used 
in schools for teaching purposes : black-book, an old 
book said to have been composed in 1175, containing 
a description of the Court of Exchequer, its officers, 
privileges, &c. ; a book compiled under the authority 
of Henry VIII. in regard to monasteries; a book 
treating on necromancy : blackcap, a bird, so called 
from its black crown; an apple roasted till black: 
black- cattle, a general term for bulls, oxen, and 
cows : black-chalk, a soft black or bluish-black clay 
or shale found in subordinate layers in several forma- 
tions, also called Italian chalk, German chalk, &c. : 
black-cock, the heath-cock or black grouse: black* 
friar, one of an order of monks, also called Domini- 
cans: black-flux, n. a mixture of carbonate of pot- 
ash and charcoal, used in chemical operations: 
black-hole, a place of confinement for soldiers : black- 
jack, a miner's term for sulphuret of zinc or blende : 
black-lead, a familiar name for graphite, from its 
resemblance to the metal lead, called also plumbago, 
used in making lead pencils: black-legs, a dis- 
ease among calves and slieep: black-leg, a common 
gambler; a cheat: black-letter, n. the old English 
alphabetic character: black-mail, a tax in money or 
kind paid in olden times to robbers for protection ; 
any tax unjustly or unfairly exacted: black-pndding, 
a pudding made of blood thickened with meal : black- 
sheep, n. an outcast; a person ill-behaved and of low 
habits : black-strakes, a range of planks immediately 
above the wales in a ship's side covered with tar and 
lamp-black : black-thorn, a tree very branchy, armed 
with strong sharp spines, and bearing small round 
black fruit like plums or cherries — also called the 
sloe: black-vomit, one of the fatal s>'mptoms of yellow 
fever: black-wad, an earthy ore of manganese, usu- 
ally called wad, wliich see: blackamoor, n. biak'd- 
ynOr, a negro; a black maji : black-browed, a. applied 
to a person with black eyebrows ; gloomy ; threaten- 
ing ; dismal. 

blacken, v. bldk'71 (from black), to make black; to 
soil; to defame: blackening, inij). bldk-nliuj: black- 
ened, pp. -did: black ener, n. one wlio. 

blackguard, n. lilih/(jd)-(l (a name originally given 
in derision to the lowest chuss of menials or hangors- 
on about a court or great household), a mean low fel- 
low; one who uses foul language; any dirty useless 
man or boy; a scoundrel: v. to defame; to employ 
foul or abusive language in speaking of any one: 

mate, mat./dr, laTv; viite, m6t, her; plTie.pUi; note, nOt, mCve; 



black'gnarding, imp. : blackguarded, pp. : Wack'- 
guardism, n. Um, the conduct or language of a black- 

^blatk-rod, n. lldk'rod, a^high ofRcer of the queen's 
household, and of the order of the garter, so called 
from the black staff which he carries as a badge of 

articles froni iron. . , .i, , 

bladder, n. Uad'd&r (AS. lladre : Icel. Undra, a 
bubble, a blister: Ger. Natter, a pustule), a thm sack 
or has in animals for containing particular fluids, such 
as the urine and the mil : blad'dered, a. -acrd, sweUed 
like a bladder: blad'dery, a. -der-l like a bladder. 

blade, n. Uad (Icel. blad, leaf of a tree, blade of a 
sword • Ger. Uatt ; Dut. Uad, a leaf, a plate), the long 
leaf or spire of grass, or of a like plant; the cutting 
part of a knife ; the broad part of an oar; the part ot 
a tool that is broad or thin; a brisk, gay, bold fellow: 
V. to furnish with a blade: bla'ding, imp. : bla ded, 
DP • adj. applied to crystals composed of long and 
narrow plates, like the blade of a knife ; laminated : 
blade -bone, the upper flat bone of the shoulder: 
blades, n. plu. blildz, the principal rafters or breaks 

blaiii,'n. Ndn (AS. Uegen; Dut. or Dan. Negne; 
Icel. blina, a boil or pimple), a sore ; a blister. 

blame, v. Nam (F. Ndmer, to blame: Norm. F. 
Nasiner ; L. Nasphemare, to revile, to defame : Gr. 
Nasphemein, to speak impiously: It biasimare, to 
blame), to find fault with; to censure: n. censure; 
crime ; expression of disapprobation ; reproach : bla - 
ming, imp. : blamed, pp. Ndmd : blamewor'thy, a. : 
blamewor'tMiiess, n. : blameful, a. -fool: blame - 
fully a-A.-fooM: blame'fulness, n. : bla'mer, n. one 
who- blamable, a. bia'-ma-U, deserving of censure; 
faulty; culpable: bla'mably, ad. -Ul: bla'mableness, 
n -bl-n&s- blameless, a. bZdr/i^.'ds, without fault; inno- 
cent ; free from blame ; guiltless : blamelessly, ad. 
U: blamelessness, n. 

blanch, v. Ndnsh (F. Nanchir, to whiten— from 
tilanc, white : Dan. blank, shining, polished), to make 
white ; to take out the colour : blanch'ing, imp. : adj 
whitening: n. the operation of brightening pieces of 
silver or of making white like silver other metals ; 
the operation of whitening vegetables by covering 
them from the light: blanched, pp. Ndnsht: blanch - 
er, n. one who. 

blancmange, n. N5ng-mdngzh', or blancman ger, ii. 
-zhd (F. white food or jelly), a confected white jellj'. 

bland, a. Ndiid (L. blandus, gentle: Dan. lind, soft). 
mild; soft; gentle: blandly, ad. -It: bland'ness, n.: 
blandation, n. Ndn-dd'sMn, gross flattery: blandilo- 
Quence, n. bldn-dtl'O-kwdns (L. loquor, I speak), fair, 
mild, flattering speech : blandish, v. bldn'dtsh, to ca- 
ress; to soothe; to soften: blan'disher, n. one who: 
blan'disMng, imp. : blan' dished, pp. -dlsht : blan'- 
dishment, n., and blandishing, n. soft words tending 
to win the heart ; caresses. ,.,... 

blank, a. bldngk{F. 6?a«c, white: Dan. blank, shining: 
Ger. blinken, to shine), denoting an unwritten ticket, 
or one not obtaining a prize ; empty ; void ; confused ; 
confounded ; in verse, without rhyme : n. a void ; any 
empty space; paper unwritten on or without marks; 
a ticket without value: v. to make void or empty; to 
confuse ; to efface or rub off: blank'ing, imp. : blanked, 
pp. Ndngkt: blankly, ad. -II: blank'ness, n.: point- 
blank, the shot of a gun levelled horizontally, the 
shot proceeding in a straight line without curving: 
blank verse, verse without, or void of rhyme. 

blanket n. bldngk'et{F. Nanchet—fromblanc,-white), 
a woollen cover for a bed: V. to toss in or cover with 
a blanket: blank'eting, imp.: n. cloth for blankets: 
blank'eted, pp. , ,,, ^ ,,. ^ 

blare, n. bldr (Dut. Uaeren, to bubble, to blister: 
Gael, blore, a loud noise), a roar; a bellowing noise: 
V. to bellow; to roar: bla'ring, imp.: blared, pp. 

blarney, n. bldr'-nl (from a legend connected wth 
Blarney Castle, Ireland), smooth deceitful talk ; flat- 
tering words meant neither to be honest nor true. 

blaspheme, v. blds-fcm' (see blame), to speak of God 
with irreverence ; to speak in Impious terms of any of 
God's names and attributes ; to curse or swear : blas- 
phe'ming, imp. : blasphemed', pp. -femd': blasphe'mer, 
ji one wlio : blas'phemous, a. -fc-mus, impious ; con- 
taining blasphemy: blas'phemously, ad. -us'll: blaa'- 
phemy, n. -i, irreverence in speaking of God ; profane 


blast, n. Ndst (AS. blmsen, to blow; llcest, a blast), 
a violent rush of wind ; the sound of a wind-instru- 
ment; any destru(;tive influence: an explosion of 
gunpowder ; the air introduced into a furnace : V. to 
cause to wither; to blight; to affect with a sudden 
calamity ; to destroy ; to confound ; to split rocks by 
gunpowder: blast'ing, imp.: n. the act of separating 
stones or rocks from their beds by blowing them up 
with gunpowder : blaat'ed, pp.: blast-pipe, the waste- 
steam pipe in locomotive engines, of prime importance 
in causing a greater draught in the fire-tubes and 
through the fire-grate: blast-furnace, a furnace for 
smelting iron ore, «&c., whose heat is vastly increased 
by air, generally heated, being forced into it by ma- 
chinery—the air so introduced is called the blast. 

blastema, n. Nds-te'md (Gr. blastano, I germinate), 
in surg., a subtransparent glairy matter, containing a 
multitude of minute corpuscles forming the basis of 
part of an animal, as the blastema of bone ; in bot., 
the whole of the embryo after the cotyledons have been 
abstracted : blaste'mal, a.-mrti, pert, to ; rudimentary. 
blastoderm, n. Nds'46-derm (Gr. Nastos, a bud; 
derma, a skin), the germinal disc or spot which forms 
on the egg in the early stage of incubation. 

blatant, a. bld'tdnt (Dut. Naet, a boaster: GaeL 
blore, a loud noise : L. blatero, I talk idly or prate), 
bellowing as a beast : blatter, v. bldt'ter, to make a 
senseless noise ; to prate. 

blaze, n. Ndz (AS. blase or blcese, a torch or lamp: 
Icel. blossi, a flame : Dan. Ntis, a torch), the strong 
flame of any burning body; the full light of day. 

blaze, n. Ndz (Dut. blesse, a white streak on the 
forehead: Ger. blasse: Dan. Mis), the white mark on 
the face of an animal ; a white mark on a tree when a 
part of the bark is stript off. , , , , 

blaze, V. Ndz (AS. bla:san; Dut. Naesen, to blow), 
to blow abroad ; to spread news ; to publish : bla'zing, 
imp. : blazed, pp. bldzd: bla'zingly, ad. -II. 

blazon, v. bld-zn (AS. Na:se, a flame, splendour: F. 
blason, a coat of arms), to portray armorial bearings 
in their proper colours; to deck; to embellish; to 
adorn ; to make known far and wide : n. show ; pomp- 
ous display: bla'zoning, imp.: blazoned, pp. Nd-znd: 
bla'zonment, n.: bla'zoner, n. one wlio: blazonry, n. 
bld'zn-rl, that branch of heraldry which descnbes or 
explains coats of arms in proper terms ; the art of 
delineating the figures and devices of a coat of arms 
in their proper coloui'S or metals. 

bleach, v. NSch (AS. 5/cEca?i— from Ncbc, pale : Dut. 
blaken—see black), to make white ; to take out colour ; 
to grow white in any way : bleach'ing, imp. : n. the art 
of making anything white, especiaUy cloth : bleached, 
pp. Necht: bleach'er, n. one who : bleach'ery, n. -er-l, 
a place for bleaching: bleaehing-powder, a salt of 
lime— the chloride. , ^ ^ 

bleak, a. blek (AS. Nwc, black: Ger. bleich; Dut. 
Neek, pale), cold ; open ; exposed ; cheerless ; solitary : 
bleak'ish, a. cheerless and open in a certain degree : 
bleak'y, a. -l: bleakly, ad. -H: bleakness, n. 

blear, a. bier (Dan. Stare, a blister : low Ger. Narren, 
to cry or weep— hence, blair-ogc, a red watery eye), 
sore, watery, and tender in the eye : v. to make sore and 
tender: blear'ing, imp. : bleared, pp. b?erd .• blear ed- 
ness, n. state of one whose eyes are blear : blear-eyed, 
having sore eyes: blear'ness, n. soreness of the eyes. 
bleat, n. blet (an imitative word: Ger. bloken, to 
bleat as a sheep), the cry of a sheep: v. to cry as a. 
sheep: bleat'ing, imp.: bleat'ed, pp.: blatant, a. 
making a noise like a calf or sheep. 

bleed, v. Ned (AS. bledan—s,ee blood), to lose blood 
by any means ; to draw blood ; to run sap from a tree : 
bleeding, imp.: n. a flow of blood; operation of let- 
ting blood; hcemorrhage: adj. flowing with blood or 
juice : bled, pp. Ned: bleed'er, n. one who. 

blemish, n. biem'-lsh (old F. Nesmir, to soil or spot, 
to make livid with blows— from blesme, pale, wan: 
Icel. blami, the livid colour of a bniise), any defect ; 
any mark or scar that lessens the beauty and propor- 
tion ; deformity ; imperfection in character : v. to im- 
pair or injure; to tarnish: blemishing, imp.: blem'- 
ished, pp. -fcVif : blemlshable, a. -d&2; blemlshless, 
a.: blemisher, n. onewho. 

blench, v. bUnsh (same as blink, and probably 
flinch), to shrink ; to start back ; to give way. 

blend, v. bUnd (AS. blendan : Dut. blanssen, to dab- 
ble in water: Icel. blanda, to mix), to mingle together 
so as not to be able to separate ; to confound : blend'- 
ing, imp.; n. in painti7ig, so laying on different tints 
as to render it impossible to tell where one colour 

cow, boy, foot; piire, liid; chair, gam£,jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 


bsgina and another ends : blend 'ed, pp. : blend er, one 

blende, n. blSnd (Ger. llenden, to dazzle), a term 
applied to several minerals having a peculiar lustre 
or glimmer, variously coloured, as liornblende, zino- 
blende, &c., now generally restricted to the sulphide 
of zinc ; the blackjack or mock ore of English minei-s : 
blendous, a. h'in'dm, relating to blende. 

blennorrhoea, n. bUn'dr-re'a (Gr. Henna, mucus; 
rheo, I flow), an excessive flow or secretion from mu- 
cous glands in any situation. 

blenny, n. hUn'nl (Gr. Menna, mucus, slime), name 
of a ftsh of several species, so called from the mucous 
matter covering the body. 

bless, v. Uis (AS. hletsian, to bless— from Uithe, 
merry, joyful : Bohem. blaze, Imppily), to make happy ; 
to prosper ; to praise ; to give thanks to ; to glorify or 
praise for benefits received : bles'sing, imp. : n. a wish 
of happiness to another ; gift; benefit or advantage; 
divine favour : blessed or blest, pp. bUst -. blessed, 
a. blis'sSd, happy and prosperous ; enjoying spiritual 
happiness: blessedly, ad. -ll: blessedness, n.: bles- 
ser, 11. one who. 

blew, V. bl&see blow. 

blight, n. bllt (AS. bkec, pale: low Ger. blekken, to 
shine : old H. Ger. Uich-fiur, blight-fire or lightning— 
from the idea of being blasted with lightning), a disease 
common to plants, by which they are withered either 
wholly or partially ; anjiihing nipping or blasting : v. 
to retard growth or prevent fertility; to blast; to 
fnpstrate : bllgbt'ing, imp. : bligbt'ed, pp. : blight'- 
ingly, ad. -ll. 

blind, a. blind (AS. blind: Goth, blinds : Icel. blindr 
— connected with blink), deprived of sight ; wanting 
discernment; heedless; inconsiderate; morally de- 
praved : V. to deprive of sight ; to darken ; to deceive : 
n. something that darkens or obscures ; a cover or 
screen : blind ing, imp.: blinded, pp.: blindly, ad. ll: 
blind'ness, n. want of sight ; intellectual darkness : 
blind'fold, a. having the eyes covered: v. to hinder 
from seeing : blindfold'ing, imp. : blindfolded, pp. : 
blindman's-buff (Ger. blinzel-maus), a play or game, in 
whi(;h one having his eyes covered tries to catch any 
other of the players : blindman's-ball, a common fun- 
gus : blind coal, a miner's term for those coals which, 
deficient in bitumen, burn away without flame: 
blinds, bllndz, in mil., a. temporary defence in pres- 
.■nce of an enemy made of branches interwoven: 
blind side, a familiar term for a weakness or foible : 
blind-worm, a small reptile covered with scales, and 
having a forked tongue, but harmless— called also 

blink, n. bllngk (AS. blican, to dazzle: Ger. blicken, 
to shine, or blinken, to twinkle), a wink ; a glance; a 
look ; a moment : v. to wink ; to twinkle with the eye; 
to see dimly or obscurely ; to evade : blink'ing, imp. : 
blinked, pp. bllngkt: blinkers, n. plu. blingk'erz, 
coverings for the eyes of a horse to keep it from seeing 
on either side : to blink the question, to shut one's 
eyes to it; to make one's self wilfully blind to it: 
blink y, a. lia>)lrt to wink by overstraining the eyes : 
snow or ice blink, the peculiar reflection from snow 
or ice in arctic regions. 

bliss, n. blXs (AS. blis, joy— see bless), happiness in 
a very high degree ; felicity ; toys of heaven : bliss'ful, 
a. -fool, full of bliss: bliss'fully, ad. -ll: bliss fulness, 
V..: bliss'less, a. 

blister, n. blU'ter (AS. blmsan, to blow: L. pustula, 
a bubble, a pimple: Dut. bluiisfer), a thin white 
swelling on the skin, generally filled with waten' 
fluid; the scales on iron or steel : v. to raise blisters"; 
to rise in blisters: blis'tering, imp. : blis'tered, pp. 
-t'-nh blis'tery, a. -ter-r. full of blisters. 

blite, n. blU (Gr. bliton: L. blitum), a kind of 
amaranth; a genus of plants called strawliorry blite, 
from the appearance of the fruit which succeeds the 

bUthe. a. bllfh (AS. blithe, mcrn-, joyful: Goth. 
hleit?is,mUd: Dut. W;;/f?«, cheerful), gay: iiniry : joy- 
ous ; spriglitly : also in same sensi' blithe'ful, a. 
-Iw/, and bUthe'some, a. sum, mirtliful: blithely, 
:u\. -'J. blithe'ness, u. : blithe'someness, n. : blithe - 
■omely, ad. ■si'iin-lt. 

bloat, V. hlot (Icel. himifr, soft: Dan. blod ; Sw. 
1j:of, snit). to swi'll ; to puff uji ; to make vain; to grow 
turgid: bloating, iniji. : bloated, i)i): bloat'ed- 
ness, 11.: bloater, n. sukiII lisii partiaUy dried, 
generally m'lh-d to l,;,ir-,urrd hi-rrings. 

block, n. Ohk (K. btor, u log or mass: Gael, bloc. 



round : Dut. blok : Ger. block), a heavy piece of timber 
or stone ; any mass of matter ; the lump of wood on 
which persons were beheaded ; any hindrance or ob- 
struction ; the piece of wood in which the wheels of a 
pulley run ; a row of houses : v. to shut up ; to stop ; to 
obstruct : block'ing, imp. : blocked, pp. blOkt : block- 
head, n. blOk'-hed, a stupid fellow; a dolt: blockish, 
a. dull; stupid: block'ishly, ad. -li: block'ishness, 
n. : blocklike, a. : block-tin, n. pure tin in stamped 
bars or blocks: adj. noting a vessel made of double 
or triple plates of tinned iron : blockliouse, u. a kind 
of fort chiefly constructed of hewn timber. 

blockade, n. blokkad' (It, bloccare, to block up : Sp. 
bloquear, to blockade— from block), the surrounding 
or shutting up any place with a sufficient number of 
soldiers or ships, in order to prevent any intercoui-se 
with its inhabitants : v. to shut up a town or a fortress 
with an army or with ships, to compel it to surrender: 
blocka'ding, imp. : blocka'ded, pp. : to raise a block- 
ade, to force or drive away the troops or ships from 
their positions. 

blonde, n. blond (F. blond, light yellow, flaxen: 
Pol. bladij, pale), a fair woman, opposed to brunette; 
a kind of sUk lace: blond, a. fair; having a fair com- 

blood, n. bMd (AS. blod: Dut. bloed: Ger. blut). the 
fluid which circulates through the veins and arteries 
of animals, essential to life; kindred; honourable 
birth or extraction : v. to stain -with blood ; to give a 
taste of blood, or to provoke the desire for it; to heat 
or exasperate : blood'ing, imp. : blood'ed, pp. : blood'- 
stained, a. stained with blood; guDty of murder: 
bloodthirsty, a. cruel: blood'shot, a. red; inflamed: 
bloodshed, n. waste of life: blood'shedder, n. one 
who: blood'shedding, n. act of shedding blood: 
blood'sucker, n. any animal that sucks blood, as a 
leech; a ci-uel man: blood-bought, a. purchased by 
shedding blood : blood-guUtiness, n. crime of shedding 
blood : blood-horse, one of a full or high breed : blood- 
vessel, a vein or artery: bloodstone, a variety of 
chalcedony of a dark green colour, sprinkled with deep 
red spots— also called ?teliotrope: bloodhot, of the 
same heat as blood: blood-hound, a hound for track- 
ing human beings by scent ; a hunter after human 
blood : blood-money, money obtained as the reward 
for supporting a capital charge: bloody-flux, the 
disease called dysento-y, in which the discharges 
from the bowels have a mixture of blood: blood- 
spavin, a distemper in horses, consisting of a soft 
swelling growing through the hoof, and usuallv full 
of blood : bloody-sweat, a sweat accompanied' witli 
a discharge of blood ; a disease called the sweating 
sickness : flesh and blood, human nature ; mortal 
man: cold blood, free from excitement or passion: 
cold-blooded, a. cool and calculating, used in a bad 
sense ; not having warm blood : hot blood, in a state 
of excitement and blind fury : hot-blooded, a. verj- 
impulsive; fiery: prince of the blood, one of royal 
descent : bloodless, a. -lis, wthcut blood ; lifeless ; 
inactive: bloodlessly, ad. -It: bloody, a. -I, stained 
with blood; cruel; murderous: blood'ily, ad. -i-llz 
blood iness, n. : bloodletter, one who lets blood : 
bloodletting, n. act of one who lets blood. 

bloom, n. blOm (Icel. blomi; Dut. bloeme : Ger. 
blume, a flower— see blow), blossom; the flower of 
any plant ; the beginning of youth or inanhood ; life ; 
vigour; beauty; bright or blue colour on fruit, as 
on the peach or grape ; a clouded appearance which 
varnish sometimes assumes upon the surface of a pic- 
ture ; a whitish waxy secretion produced on tlie sur- 
face of some leaves and fruits : v. to yield blossoms ; 
to flower; to be in a state of vigour; to have the 
freshness and beauty of early life: bloom'ing, imp.: 
adj., healthful; fresh-coloured : bloomed, \\\\ hldmu : 
bloom'ingly, ad. -It: bloom ingness, n. : bloomy, 
a. -l full of bloom. 

bloom, n. bl6in (AS. bloma, a mass, a lump), tlie 
rough mass of iron from the puddling Ciirnace after 
undergoing the first lianniiering: bloom ery or -ary, 
n. -(r-l, the furnace in wliiili cist is converted into 
malleable iron : bloom ing. n. the process of convert- 
ing cast into malleable iron. 

blossom, n. hlus'situi (AS. blosm ; Dan. bhtsse, to 
blaze: Dut. liloscn,, a blos.som), the flower of any 
plant, esiiecially when it jtreeedes fruit: v. to put 
forth lilossoius liel'orc th.' fruit bruins to irrow : blos'- 
soming, iinii. : n. the (lowering ot'iilants: blos'somed, 
I)p. ■siinid: bios somy,a. -siun-i, full of blc'isoms : bios'- 
somless, a. 

viate, mat,/Ar, Me; victe, mit, her; 2^^ne,pXn; note, nUt, mOva 



blot, V. Hot (Dan. plet, a stain : Fris. Nat, bare : Scot. 
Uad, a lump of anything soft), to spot or stain witli 
ink or any other colouring matter; to destroy; to 
efface ; to defame : n. a spot or stain ; a blemish : 
blot'ting, inip.: blot'ted, pp.: blot'ter, n. one who, 
or that which : blotting-paper, a soft unsized paper, 
used for drying freslily-wiitten paper by imbibing a 
portion of the ink: blot'ty, a. blot'tl, full of blots. 

blotch, n. block (Ger. plotz, a blow or the sound of 
it— see blot), a scab or eruption on the skin : v. to 
blacken or spot : blotch'ing, imp. : blotched, pp. 
Uocht: adj. irregularly disposed in broad patches: 
blotch'y, a. -l, full of blotches. 

blote, V. U6t (Sw. biota, to soak, to steep— see 
bloat), to dry by smoke as ftsh : blo'ting, imp. : 
blo'ted, pp. : blo'ter, n. a smoked or dried herring, 
now usually spelt bloater. 

blouse, n. blolvs {¥.), a loose overcoat made of a 
light material ; a smock-frock. 

blow, n. bio (Gr. plege, a stroke : L. plaga, a blow : 
Goth, bliggivan; Dut. blowen, to strike), a stroke; 
first act of hostility ; a sudden calamity. 

blow, V. bio (AS. blaivan, to blow or breathe : Ger. 
blahen, to puff up), to move as air ; to pant or puff ; 
to throw or drive a current of air into or upon ; to 
warm by the breath ; to deposit eggs as flies : blow'- 
ing, imp. : blew, pt. U6 : blown, pp. blon .- blow'er, 
n. one who: blowy, a. blo'l, windy: blow-pipe, u. 
-pip, a tube through which a current of air is driven 
on a flame to obtain an increased heat: blow-off- 
pipe, in a steam-eiigine, the pipe fixed to the bottom 
of a boiler for discharging the sediment : blow'ers, 
n. plu. -erz, in coal-mining, the puffs or jets of car- 
buretted hydrogen given off by fissm-es in the coal : 
blow-ball, the downy head of the dandelion: blow- 
fly, the carrion-fly : to blow over, to pass away : to 
blowup, to drive up into the air by gunpowder ; to 
raise or swell with the breatli : to blow out, to extin- 
guish by the wind or by the breath: blowing-house, 
the blast-furnace in which tin-ore is fused : blown 
upon, made stale or disreputable— applied to persons. 

blow, V. bio (AS. blowian, to bloom: Ger. bluhen, 
to bloom or blossom), to come into flower ; to show 
flower : blowing, imp. : blown, pp. blon. 

blowze, n. bldivz (AS. blysa, a torch : Dut. blose, the 
redness of the cheeks), a girl whose face looks red by 
nmning much in the open air; a ruddy fat-faced wo- 
man : blowzy, a. hldiv'zi, fat and ruddy. 

blubber, n. blub'ber (an imitative word, noting the 
noise made by a mixture of air and water spluttering, 
as the luater blubbers up, in the sense of froth), the 
coating of fat of a whale or seal ; the sea-nettle, jelly- 
fish, or medusa : v. to shed tears and slaver ; to weep 
in a noisy manner : blub'bering, imp. : adj. slavering 
and childish weeping : blub'bered, pp. -bird : blub'- 
berer, n. one who. 

bludgeon, n. bhldj'im (Goth, blyggivan, to strike : 
Gr. plego, I strike : a probable corruption of blood, as 
being able to cause bloodshed), a short heavj' stick. 

blue, n. bio (AS. bleo: old H. Ger. blaiv. F. ble^i,: 
mid. L. blaviis), one of the primary colours ; azure : 
adj. resembling blue ; dejected : v. to make blue : 
bluing, imp.: blued, pp. blod: blue'ness, n. : blu- 
ish, a. tinged with blue: blu'ishly, ad. -II: blu'ish- 
ness, n : blue-pUl, n. a pill containing mercury : blue- 
stocking, n. (a literary club chiefly of ladies, so called 
from the leading member, a gentleman, always ap- 
pearing in blue stockings), a woman devoted to litera- 
ture: blue-stone, n. also called blue-vitriol, sulphate 
of copper, used as a caustic ; blue-shone, an Australian 
miner's tenn for the basaltic lava through which tliey 
liave sometimes to dig in search of gold : blue- John, 
a miner's term for fluor or Derbyshire spar : blue-bon- 
net (also in Scot, a cap woven of thick blue worsted 
yarn), blue-bell, blue-bottle (also a large fly), names of 
plants : blue-book, a book containing a government 
official return or report, so called from its blue cover .- 
blue-breast, a bird : blue-cap, a small bird ; a fish : 
blue-devils, or the blues, bldz, colloquial name for 
certain appearances presented to the diseased brain 
after a drinking debauch ; lowness of spirits : blue- 
light, a signal-rocket ; blue-peter, a small flag used 
as a signal for sailing : pnissian-blue, a colour or dye. 
blun, n. bliif (Dut. blaf, plain, level, not sloping but 
rising straight up), a high steep bank generally fac- 
ing the sea or a river; an abrupt manner: adj. 
abruptly rising as a shore; big; vainglorious; swag- 

fering ; blustering : bluffly, ad. -11 : bluff'ness, n. : 
luf'fy, a. J'l, having bold projecting points of land : 

bluff-headed, not pointed ; obtuse— applied to a ship 
that has her stem too straight up : blnff-bowed, ap- 
plied to a vessel having broad and flat bows. 

blunder, n. blilu'der (Dan. pludder, earth and 
water mixed together— hence confusion, trouble), a 
gross mistake ; a stupid error : v. to mistake giossly; 
to err stupidly ; to act without reflection : blun'der- 
ing, imp.: adj. stupid; floundering: blun'dered, jjp. 
-derd: Dlun'derer, n. one who: blunder-bead, n. 
■hcd, a stupid fellow : blun'derlngly, ad. -U. 

blun'derbuss, n. -bus (Dut. ilonder-bus—from bus 
a firearm : Ger. donner-buchse, thunder-gun), a short, 
wide-mouthed, very noisy hand-gun. 

blunt, a. bliint (Sw. blott, naked, bare: Swiss 
bluntsch, the sound of a round heavy body falling into 
the water plump : Ger. plump, rough, heavy, dull), 
not sharp ; having a thick ecfge ; plain ; uncer<>nion- 
ious ; wanting in manners : v. to take away tlie sliarp- 
ness of an edge ; to weaken any appetite or passion ; 
to impair any power or affection of the mind : blunt'- 
ing, imp. : blunted, pp. : bluntly, ad. -li .- blunt- 
ness, n. 

blur, n. blur (Bav. plerren, a blotch on the skin : 
Dut. blaar, a blister), a spot ; a stain : v. to sully or 
stain ; to blemish : blur'ring, imp.: blurred, pp. blard. 
blurt, V. blert (Scot, blirt, a burst— as a blirt of 
greeting, i.e., a burst of weeping: Dut. blader, a 
bladder), to throw at random ; to utter words hastily 
and unadvisedly : blurt'ing, imp. : blurt'ed, pp. 

blush, n. bli'L-h {AS. blysa; Icel. blys, a torch: Dan. 
blusse, to blaze : Dut. blosem, a blossom), a glow of red 
on the cheeks or face excited by a sense of modesty, 
shame, or indignation : v. to redden on the cheeks 
or face ; to carry a blooming colour : blush'ing, imj).: 
adj. showing a blush : blushed, pp. bliisht : blushingly, 
ad. -II: blush'ful, a. -fo'ol: blush'fully, ad. -U: blush'- 
less, a. 

bluster, n. UHs'ter (from blast: Bav. Hasten, to 
snuff, to be out of temper), noise ; tiunxilt ; inegu- 
lar noise from idle boasting and vainglorious talk; 
swagger ; fitful gusts of wind : v. to be loud and noisy 
in talking ; to puff ; to bully ; to swagger : blustering, 
imp. noisy; boastful; windy: blus'tered, pp. ■tira: 
blusterer, n. one who : blus'teringly, ad. -ll. 

boa, n. bo'a (It. boa or bora, any filthy mud, a 
venomous serpent that lives in mud : L. boa, from bos 
a cow, because supposed to suck cows), a general 
name for the largest kind of serpents ; a fur cravat 
for the neck : boa-constrictor, n. -k6n-strlk'46r, the 
great boa, a native of Africa, India, &c. 

boar, n. bor (AS. bar: Dut. beer), the male swine; 
fem., sow : boarish, a. like a boar. 

board, n. bord (AS. bord; Dut. herd; Ger. brett,2u 
board or plank), a slab, or flat piece of wood sawn 
from a log ; a table ; food or diet ; a council, or meet- 
ing of managers convened for business ; the deck of a 
ship : boards, bordz, planks ; the covers of a book ; the 
line over which a ship nms between tack and tack : 
board, v. to cover with flat pieces of wood ; to enter a 
ship by force ; to furnish with food and lodging for a 
price: board'ing, imp.: boarded, pp. a.: pasteboard, 
layers of paper pasted togetlier to make a board : 
board'er, n. one furnished witli food at a price; one 
who boards a ship in action : board'able, a. -d-bl, that 
may be boarded: to fall over-board, to fall over a 
ship's side : the weather-board, the side of aship which 
is to windward : boarding-house, a house in which per- 
sons are provided with lodging and food for a price : 
board-wages, money given to servants when they pro- 
vide food for themselves : boarding-pike, a sword-like 
weapon used by sailors in boarding an enemy's ship : 
to make short boards, to tack frequently : starboard, 
right-hand side : boarding-school, a school where the 
pupils are lodged, educated, and provided with food 
for a price. 

boast, V. bOst (Ger. piausten, to swell the cheeks: 
Fris. jwesten, to blow), to speak in high praise of self; 
to speak in exulting language of another ; to brag ; to 
vaunt: n. a brag; self-praise or commendation ; occa- 
sion of exultation; exaggerated or ostentatious ex- 
pression; boast ing, imp. : adj. ostentatious in words; 
glorying; vaunting: n. tlie act of boasting: boast'ed, 
pp.: boast'ingly, ad. -U: boast'er, n. one w1k> : 
boaat'ful, a. -fuol, given to boasting: boast'foUy, 
ad. -II: boast fulness, n. : boasting, n. the paring of 
stones by stone-cutters with the broad chisel; among 
carvers, the rough cutting round the ornaments, to 
reduce the whole to their proper contour or outlines. 
boat,n. b6t(Aii. but: Dut. boot: lce\.batr:F. battaa). 

colv, Wii.fwt; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, seed. 




a small open vessel : v. to sail in a boat : boat' ing, 
imp.: XL sailing or rowing in a boat: boated, pp.: 
boat-hook, n. a long pole hooked with iron to pull or 
push a boat: boat-ahaped, a. in appearance like a 
boat : boatfly, an insect, so called from swimming 
in water on its back: boatswain, u. bo'sn (AS. bat- 
stcan), a ship's officer who has charge of the boats, 
sails, &c., and calls the crew to duty. 

bob, n. b6b ( Gael, babag, a tassel), any small thing 
playing loosely at the end of a string ; a knot of wonns 
on a string used in fishing for eels ; a blow : v. to play 
loosely against an>-thing ; to mock ; to dangle ; to fish 
with a bob : bob^ing, imp. : bobbed, pp. bobd : 
bobbin, n. bob'bln (F. bobine, a pin for silk), a round 
pin with a head on which silk or tliread is wound ; a 
little knob hanging by a piece of thread : bobbinet, n. 
b6b'bl-n6i^ , a kind of lace wrought in machines : bob- 
stay, n. bob'sta, a rope used to confine the bowsprit 
to the stem: bobtail, n. bob'fdl, a tail cut short; 
the rabble, in contempt — as rag-fag and hob-tail: 
bob'tailed, a. having the tail cut short : bob wig, n. 
a short wig. 

bode, V. bod {AS. bodian, to deliver a message; hod, 
a message), to foretell; to foreshadow; to portend; 
to be ominous: boding, imp.: bo'ded, pp.: bo'ding 
or bode ment, n. an omen ; a portent ; a foreshadow- 
ing: bodeful, a. ominous. 

bodice, n, bdd'-ls (formerly bodies — irom. fitting 
closely to the body), stays ; a quUted waistcoat worn 
by females. 

bodkin, n. bdd'kin (Bohem. hod, a prick or stitch ; 
bodak, a prickle or point : probably body and kin, a 
little body), an instrument for boring holes in cloth, 
or for tying up and dressing the hair ; a large blunt 
needle for diawing thread or tape through hemmed 

body, H. bod^i (AS. bodig; Gael, bodhag, a body: 
Ger. bottich, a cask), the frame of an animal ; a mass 
of living or dead matter ; an individual or single per- 
son, as no body: a substance, as opposed to spirit; a 
collection of individuals ; quality of a material: v. to 
produce in some form: bod led, a. -td; bod'ily, ad. -is-ri: 
adj. containing a body; having a material foi-m: 
bod'ileas, a. : body politic, a state in its national or 
political capacity ; body-guard, a select body of troops 
who attend on a sovereign for his protection. 

bog, n. bdg {It. bogach, a bog or marsh : Gael, hog, 
soft), a deep soft marsh ; a tract of land, consisting of 
decayed vegetable matter, rendered soft by water: 
bog-earth, a soil consisting mainly of decomposed 
vegetable matter : bog-butter, a name given to fntty 
masses occasionally found in peat-mosses : bog-iron- 
ore, a stratum or deposit of iron ore found in the 
bottoms of many bogs and peat-mosses : bog-wood, 
the tnmks and larger branches of trees dug up from 
peat-bogs : bogtrotter, one who lives among bogs— 
formerly applied to the Scotch border troopers or 
robbers, now sometimes applied to a certain class of 
Irishmen : bog-rush, a bird the size of a ^vren, inhabit- 
ing the boprs of Swudcm : bog-spavin, a tumour in the 
inside of the hough of a horse : boggy, a. bog'gl, full 
of bogs. 

boggle, V. bdci'gl (imitative of a stammer or stutter, 
and represented by the syllables gag or gag, bag or 
bog: Bret, gagouln ; Port, gaguejar, to stutter: F. 
bagouler, to gabble), to doubt ; to hesitate ; to waver ; 
to make difficulties over a matter : boggling, imp. : 
boggled, pp. bdg'gld : boggier, n. one who : bog'glish, 
a. doubtful. 

bogle or boggle, n. hO'gl (from ho or hno. the cry 
made by a person with his face covered by liis hands 
to frighten children: W. biv : It. bau), a bugbear; 
something that terrifies. 

bogy, n. b6'gf (W. bwg, something to frighten : 
Slav, bog, a god), a nursery name for an evil spirit; 
some goblin in particular : bug applies to goblins in 

bohea, n. bO-hS' (from Bouy or Booy, a mountain in 
China), a common black tea. 

boiar, n. boy'er, moreusually spelt boyar. a Russian 
nobleman; a person of rank; a soldier: boiarln, n. 
bm/'irin, a gentleman. 

boil, V. bvyl (Icel. bulla, to bubble up; holn, a 
bubble: F. bouillir, to boil: Dut. hoi, swnlling: Ger. 
beule, a tumour, a boil: L. bulla, a bubble), to swell ; 
to hoave ; to bubble as water by heat ; to bo agitated 
or move<l violently by any cause ; to dress or cook in 
wattir : n. a tumour upon thu llesh ; a sore inflamed 
swelling : boU ing, Imp. : n. the act of bubbling by 

heat ; dressing by hot water: boiled, pp. bdyld: boil'- 
ingly, ad. -II: boiler, n. a vessel in which any liquid 
is boiled ; that part of a steam-engine in which the 
steam is generated : boilery, n. -er-l, the boiler-house 
in salt-works : boiling-point, n. the degree of heat at 
which water or any other liquid bubbles up : to boil 
over, to run over the vessel with heat, as a liquid. 

boisterous, a. hoys'ter-vis (W. bwyst, wild: low Ger. 
buster, wild or fearful), roaring ; stormy ; tumultuous ; 
noisy ; violent : bois'terouBly, ad.-Zi; boifi'terouaness, 

bolary- see bole. 

bold, a. hold (Ger. bald, quick: Dan. bold, intrepid: 
Icel. bulldr, strong), daring; courageous; fearless; 
confident ; rude ; steep : boldly, ad. -11: bold'ness, n. 

bole, n. bOl (W. bol, the belly: Icel. bolr. the trunk 
of a man's body, or of a tree), the body or trunk of a 

bole, n. b6l (Gr. holos, a clod or lump of earth), in 
geol., a term applied to friable clayey earths, usually 
highly coloured by peroxide of iron ; hydrous silicates 
of alumina and iron peroxide ; when the boles become 
soapy in feel, they are known by the name mountain 
soaj^ : bolary, a. bu'iar-i, pert, to bole or clay. 

bolero, n. bO-lCir'o (Sp.), a Spanish dance. 

boletus, n. bO-le'tHs (L.), a species of fungus: bo- 
letic, n. bo-let'ik, of or from. 

boll, n. hOl (Dut. bolle, a head: W. bul. -the husk 
that encloses the seed of fla.x), a measure of four 
bushels; in hot., the pod or capsule of a plant: V. to 
form into a pericarp or seed-vessel : boiling, imp. : 
boiled, pp. b6ld: boilings, n. plu. bOl'ltngz, pollard 
trees topped and stript. 

bollards, n. plu. bdl'ldrdz (Icel. bolr, the trunk of a 
tree), large posts set in the gromid, at each side of the 
docks, to lash and secure hawsers for docking sliips. 

Bolognese-stone, bol'o-nez—Bolo'gniaji, bolo'-nl-dv, 
of or from Bologna— a ponderous spar, native sul- 
phate of barytes, found in rounded masses near bo- 

bolster, n. bol'stcr (AS. holster: Dut. buU, a hump: 
Sp. bulto, a swelling), a long pillow or cushion for lay- 
ing the head on in bed ; a pad for support ; a quilt ; a 
tool for punching holes and making bolts : v. to sup- 
port; to hold up: bolstering, imp.: bol'stered, pp. 
•sterd: bol'sterer, n. one who. 

bolt, n. holt (Ger. bolzen, a cross-bow bolt : Swss. 
holz, an upright beam on another: F. houlon, a big- 
headed peg of wood : Dut. bult, a nob or hump), an 
arrow; a dart; a small round bar of wood or metal; 
a stream of lightning ; a meteoric stone : v. to fasten 
with a bolt ; to make secui-e ; to utter or throw out 
precipitately: bolt'sprit, same as bowsprit, wliich 
see: bolt-upright, perpendicular; perfectly upright. 

bolt, V. holt (Dut. buydel, a small bag: Ger. beuteln, 
to Ijolt meal— from beutel, a bag: F. bluter, to bolt 
meal), to separate the bran from the flour by shaking 
the mass back^vards and forwards in a cloth of loose 
texture: bolting, imp. : bolt'ed, pp. : bolt'er, n. one 
who: bolt-head, a matrass or receiver; a sifting ap- 
paratus: bolting-hutch, n. -hutch, the bin or tub for 
the bolted meal : bolting-tub, a tub to sift meal in. 

bolus, n. ho'liis (L. bolus, a mass : Gr. bulos, a Imnp), 
a soft mass of medicine to be swallowed at once like 
a pill, but larger. 

bomb, n. hum (L. honibus, a hunmiing or buzz : F. 
hombe: It. i!;o»i&a— from an imitation of the noise of 
the explosion), a hollow jron ball filled with gun- 
powder and fitted with a fuse, and fired from a mor- 
tar; a stroke on a bell: bombard, v. bOm-bdrd' (F. 
bombarde— from bombe), to throw bomb-shells, &c., 
into a town or fortified place in order to destroy it: 
bombarding, imp. : bombarded, pp.: bombard'ment, 
n. : bomljardier', n. -bdr-dCr', n. tlie soldier who at- 
tends the firingof bombs : bomb-ketch or bomb-vessel, 
a strong ship from whidi bombs can be thrown into a 
town or fortress fiom sea : bomb-proof, a. a biulding 
suffioientlv strong to resist the explosive force and 
weight of falling liombs. 

bombasine or bombasin, n. bnm'bd-zcn' (F. bom- 
hnsin, a cotton stulf: L. 6ohi?>3/ci71!/s, silken: Gr. bom- 
hur, th"^ silk-worm), a twilled cloth of silk, or silk 
anil cotton. 

bombast, n. bitm'bdst (It. hambagia, cotton: Gr. 
hui)ihu.r, raw silk: Ger. baumhn^t—iroin baum, tree, 
and bust, bark), a soft loose stuff used to swell outgai-- 
nients ; an inflated swelling style in speaking or 
writing: bombas'tic, a. -bas'tik, high-sounding; big 
and puffing without much meaning: bombastically, 

mate, mat./dr, la^; mite, mil, her; 2>ine,pin; note, n6t, mdve; 




ad -kai'l: bombic, a. "bdm'Mk, relating to the silk- 
worm : bombyc'enoiis, a. -hls'-l-nus, silken ; of or like 
the silk-worm. .,, . 

bona-fide, a. M'nd-fl'-de (L. with good faith), with- 
out fraud or deception ; real. 

bonasus, n. bd-7uls'-us (L. boTUtsus), an animal of 
the ox kind, having a mane like a horse, found in 
Central Europe ; the bison or aurochs. 

bonbon, u. bong'-bon^ (F.), a sweetmeat; a sugar- 

bond, n. bond (AS. bindan, to bind: Ger. band, a 
string : old Dut. bond, a tie), anything that binds, as a 
rope, a chain, &c. ; union ; an obligation ; a vow or 
promise ; a written agreement ; a government store 
for goods on which the duty remains unpaid : v. to 
place in government storehouses ; to secure ; to give 
bond for : bonding, imp. : bonded, pp. : adj. applied 
to goods left in bond-stores : bonds, plu. bondz, chains ; 
imprisonment; in carp., all the timbers disposed in 
the wall of a house : bond-stores, -storz, n. plu., places 
where goods are stored on which the duty has not been 
paid: bond, a. in a state of servitude or slavery; 
bound— as bondman, bondmaid, bond-servant, bond- 
aervice, bond-slave: bondage, n. bdn'duj, slavery; 
imprisonment : bondsman, u. bOiulz'-mdn, a slave ; 
a surety. 

bone, n. 66n (AS. ban; Ger. bein, the bone of the 
leg: Dut. been; W. bon, a stem or base, the legs being 
the stems or supports of the body), the firm hard sub- 
stance that composes the framework or skeleton of ver- 
tebrate animals ; any part of the skeleton : adj. made 
of bone : v. to stiffen with whalebone ; to take out 
bones: bon'ing,imp.,sometimesspeltboneing: boned, 
"bond, pp.: boneless, a. -Us, without bones : bon'y, a. -I, 
full of bones ; stout ; strong ; consisting of bone ; hard 
and brittle : bone-black, n. charred bones : bone-brown 
or ivory-brown, bone and ivory roasted till they be- 
come of a brown colour throughout: bone-dust, 
ground bones: bone -earth, the earthy or mineral 
part of bones, consisting chiefly of phosphate of lime : 
Done-ache, pain in the bones: bone-bed, thin strata 
or layers found in several places in the earth's crust, 
so called from their containing innumerable frag- 
ments of fossil bones, scales, teeth, coprolites, &c. : 
bone-breccia, an admixture of fragments of limestone 
and bones cemented together into a hard rock by a 
reddish calcareous concretion : bone-lace, flaxen lace : 
bone - spavin, a hard swelling on the inside of the 
hock of a horse's leg: body and bones, altogether ; 
wholly: bone-setter, one who is skilled in the setting 
of broken bones : bone -setting, n. the restoration of 
a broken bone to its proper place. 

bonfire, n. bon'-flr (Dan. baun, a beacon, and^re), a 
large fire made in the open air as a sign of rejoicing, 
or lor display. 

bonito, n. b6-nX'-t6 (Sp.), a species of tunny-fish, cele- 
brated on accoimt of its pursuit of the flying-fish. 

bon-mot, n. bdng'mO (F. bon, good ; mot, a word), a 
jest ; a witty saying or reply. 

bonnet, n. bon'-nSt (F. bonnet: Gael, boineid, a head- 
dress : Ir. boinead, a cap— from beann, the top ; eide, 
dress), a covering for the head worn by women ; in 
Scot., a rovmd worsted cap, of a dark -blue colour, 
formerly much worn by men : bon'neted, a. wearing a 
bonnet ; in navi., an additional piece of canvass made 
to lace on to the foot of a sail in order to make more 
way in calm weather: bonnette, bon'nSt (F.), in fort., 
a small work with two faces, having only a parapet 
with two rows of palisades : bon'net-a-pre'tre,-<l-p/-d:(r 
(F., priest's cap), a field-work, having at the head 
three salient and two re-entering angles, so called 
from its resemblance to a bishop's mitre: bonnets, 
the cast-iron plates which cover the openings in the 
valve-chambers of a pump. 

bonny, a. bon'nl (F. bon or bonne, good— from L. 
hontis, good), handsome ; beautiful ; meriy : n. a dis- 
tinct bed of ore which has no communication with a 

bon-ton, n. bong'-tong (F.), the height of fashion. 

bonus, n. bo'-nus (L. good), a premium for a loan ; a 
consideration for some service done; an extra divi- 
dend to shareholders ; a division of the profits of an 
assurance office to its policy-holders. 

bonze, n. oonz, plu. bonzes, bon'-zis, a name given by 
Europeans to the heathen priests of Japan, China, Ac. 

booby, n. b6'-bl (Sp. bobo, foolish: It. babbeo, a sim- 
pleton : F. badaud, a dolt), a dunce; a stupid fellow; 
a pupil at the foot of a form or class ; a water-biid of 
the pelican tribe. 

Boodhism, n. b6d'izm, also spelt Budd 
bud'-izm, the religion of some Eastern nations who 
worship Boodh, bOd, or Buddha, bud'-dd: BoodTuat or 
Bud'dhiat, n. a worshipper of Buddha : adj. pert. to. 
book, n. book (AS. boc -. Goth, boka, writing ; bokos, 
the Scriptures : Kuss. bukva, the alphabet : Ger. buch), 
printed sheets of paper stitched and bound together ; 
a volume or part of a volimie ; a division : v. to enter 
or write in a book: book'ing, imp. registering in a 
book: adj. applied to the office at a railway station 
where the tickets are sold to travellers : booked, pp. 
bObkt, entered in a book as a passenger by rail, coach, or 
steamer: bookless, a. without a book : book'binder, n. 
one whose trade it is to cover the sewed leaves of a 
book with boards and leather : bookbinding, the art 
or process of covering books with boardn, or with 
boards and leather: book-debt, n. money due to a 
tradesman or dealer for work done, or for goods: 
book-keeper, n. an accountant : book-keeping, n. the 
method of entering sales of goods, and all kinds ot 
transactions in business, in books in a regular manner r 
book-learning, n. that obtained from books only: 
bookcase, n. a case for holding books: bookseller, n. 
one who deals in books : bookstand or bookstall, n. a 
stand in an open place, or on the street, on which are 
placed books for sale: bookworm, n. an insect de- 
structive to books; one too much given to books: 
book-learned, a. well read in books: without book, 
by memory: bookish, a. -is/i, given to reading; ac- 
quainted only with books : booklshly, ad. -11 : book - 
ishness, n.: bookland, n. (AS. bocland), charter land, 
held by deed under certain rents and services. 

boom, n. b6m (Dut. boom, a tree or pole : Ger. baum, 
a beam), a long pole or spar used in a ship to stretch 
out any particular sail at the bottom ; a chain, a rope, 
spars, or some other obstacle placed across a river or 
harbour to prevent the entry or approach of hostile 
ships: booms, b6mz, in 7iav., space in a ship's waist 
set apart for the boats and spare spars. 

boom, v. b6m (Dut. bommen, to sound like an empty 
barrel when beaten upon), to sound loud and dull 
like a gun; to roll and roar; to rush quickly, as a 
ship through the water : n. a hollow roar, as shot rush- 
ing through the air: boom'ing, imp.: boomed, pp. 

boomerang, n. bdm'erdng, a curved wooden war- 
club throwTi by the natives of Australia with wonder- 
ful precision. 

boon, n. b6n (AS. ben, petition, prayer: Icel. beidne, 
a petition), request ; answer to a prayer or petition ; a 
favour granted ; a free gift. 
boon, n. bdn, the woody heart of dried flax. 
boon, a. b6n (L. bonus; F. bon, good), gay; merry, 
as boon companion. 

boor, n. b6r (AS. gehure, a peasant : Dut. boer : Ger. 
bauer), a countryman ; a rustic ; a clovni ; an ill-man- 
nered, coarse, and ignorant man: boorish, a. rustic; 
awkward and rude in manners: boorishly, ad. -11: 
boor'ishness, n. coarseness of manners. 

boose or bouse, v. b6z (see bouse), to drink much 
with others: boosy, a. 602-1, fuddled; merry: boos'- 
ing, imp.: boosed, pp. b6zd. 

boot, v. b6t (AS. botan, to pay the price of: Dut. 
boete, fine, forfeit), to profit ; to do good ; to enrich : n. 
profit ; gain ; advantage : to boot, ad. into the bargain : 
booty, n. -l, plunder; pillage: bootless, a. without 
advantage; not contributing to further the end in 
view: bootlessly, ad. II: bootlessness, n. 

boot, n. b6t (F. botte, a boot: Dut. bote— same as 
Irish brogue: Sp. bota; It. botta, a hollow skin), a 
covering for the foot and ankle, and sometimes part 
of the leg; a box for luggage in the fore part of a 
coach : V. to put on boots ; to make ready for rid- 
ing: booting, imp.: booted, pp.: bootjack, n. au 
article for taking off boots: boot-tree, n. a boot- 
last; a block on which boots are stretched: bootee, 
u. b6t-e', a short or half boot: boots, n. plu. buts, 
an under -servant in a hotel or inn, whose duty it 
is to clean the boots of travellers ; a familiar tenn 
for the youngest officer at a regimental mess : boot- 
topping, scrapiiisr off the adhering matter from a ship's 
bottom, and then daubing it with tallow: boot and 
saddle, the trumpet call which precedes the march of 

bootes, n. bd-O'tfz (Gr. or L. boiites, a ploughman), 
the constellation following the Great Bear. 

booth, n. b6th (Gael, both or bothan, a cottage or 
hut: Icel. bud, a hut: Dut. boed), a house or shed 
built of light materials, as wood or boughs of trees ; a 

cow, boy./ubt; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




stall at a fair: boothyor bothy, n. loth'l, in many 
parts of Scotland, a hut built of whatever materials 
Is nearest at hand— wood, turf, or stone— for the ac- 
commodation of unmarried farm-ser\'ants. 

booty, n. h6'4l (Sw. 6i/<e— from hyta, to exchange or 
divide: F. hutin; It. bottino, plunder: Ger. beute, 
booty), spoil gained from the enemy; plunder: pillage. 
bo-peep, n. bO'-i)cp (sec bogle), children in play look- 
ing from a place of concealment and drawing back 

borachio, n. bO-rak'kl-0 (Sp. horracha, a bottle, 
usually of a pig's skin, with the hair inside, dressed 
with resin and pitch, to keep wine or liquor sweet), a 
bottle or cask ; a drunkard. 

boracic, a, bO-rOs'lk (see borax), of or from borax : 
boracic acid, a compound of boron and oxygen : bor- 
acite.n. bor'-d-sU, an anhydrous compound ot" magnesia 
and boracic acid: borate, n. bo'rdt, a salt of boracic 

borage, n. bO'rdj (new L. borcujo, a conniption of 
corago— from. L. cor, the heart, and ago, I bring), a 
])lant used in the belief tliat it strengthened or ex- 
hilarated the heart. 

borax, n. bo'rdks (Ar. baurnc, a species of nitre : 
¥. borax: Sp. borrax), a salt in appearance like crys- 
tals of alum, found in Japan, Italv, and Peru, used 
m soldering metals— a compound of boracic acid and 

borborygmus, n. bor'borlg'mus (Gr. borborudzo, I 
produce a rumbling in the bowels), the gurgling noise 
produced by the movement of wind in the intestines. 
borcer, n. bor'xer (from &o?-e), an instrument for bor- 
ing holes in large rocks in order to blow them up. 

bord, n. bord, a miner's term for the face of coal 
parallel to the natural fissures. 

Borda's circle, bdr'ddz-sir'-kl, a repeating reflecting 
circle, invented by J. C. Borda, an eminent French sur- 
veyor, who died 1799. 

border, n. bdXvrkVr (F. bordure, border, welt : AS. 
and Icel. bord), the outer edge or part of anything ; the 
surrounding line or limits of a large or small tract 
of land: V. to be near to; to reach to; to adjoin; to 
adorn with a border ; to ornament ; to limit : bor'der- 
uig, imp.: bordered, pp. -derd: bor'derer, n. one who 
dwells at or near the boundary of a country. 

bore, v. bor (Ger. boliren; Icel. bora; 1,. for are, to 
bore: Fin. purra, to bite), tomakeaholeinahardbody 
wth some tool ; to perforate ; to pierce ; to annoy liy 
repeated applications : n. the hole made by piercing or 
boring with a tool ; the cavity or hollow in anvthing, 
as m a gun-barrel; a person or thing that annoys: 
boring, imp.: n. the operation of piercing holes; a 
perforation: bored, pp. bord: bo'rer, n. one who, or 
that which : boredom, n. bor'dum, realm or domain 
of bores. 

bore, n.bor (a word imitative of the sound produced : 
F. barre: Icel. bara; Norm, baara, a wave or swell: 
variously expressed in Eng. by aigre, eagre, or hygre), 
the advancing front of the tidal wave as it ascends 
certain rivers or estuaries, especially at a spring tide. 
boreal, a. bo'-re-ni (L. boreas, the north wind : Russ. 
borei), northern ; pert, to the north, or to the north 

borecole, n. bOr'koi. or curled colewort, a hardy 
species of kale. 
boree, n. bO'rS, an Irish dance. 
bom, pp. bnTorn—Hea bear, to bring forth: bom 
Again, having received spiritual life. 
borne, pp. bOrn—see bear, to cany. 
boron, n. bo'rdn (from the root bor in borax), in 
chem., one of the elementary substances, the base of 
boracic acid: boruret, n. bor'Sbr-et' , a combination of 
b'injn with a simple body. 

borough, n. bur'-6 <AS. burg, a citv : Icel. horg ,• It. 
torgo; F. bourg, a town— from Goth, hairqiui; AS. 
beo-rgan, to protect), a corporate town ; a town wliich 
sends a burgess to Parliament: borough- English, a 
^ustomarj' descent of lands to the youngest son : bor- 
oughmonger, one who traffics in the patronage of 
]i:irli:iiiH-iit,,iry borouglis. 

borrow, v. bOr'rO (AS. bnrg or borh, a surety, a loan 
-from AS. brargnn, to protect), to solicit fromanotlicr 
on loan; to rec(!ive on credit for a time; to imitate; 
tocopy: borrowing, imp.: borrowed, pp. -rod: bor- 
rower, n. -er, one who. 

bort, II. h<n-t, or boort, n. fiwr/, a kind of impure 
diamond imported from Brazil, used for polishing 
.other Kt ones. 

boscage, n. lOs'kdJiolilF. boscage; It. tosco, a wood). 

underwood ; a thicket; a landscape in which thickets 
are painted: bosket or bosquet, n. bds'kSt, a grove: 
a bower : bos'ky, a. -kf, wooded ; shady. 

bosh, n. bosh (Turk, bosh, empty, vain : Scot, box, 
hollow, empty). siUy nonsense. 

bosom, n.6o-62:Mm (AS. bosum, bosom: Ger. bvsen). 
the breast of a human being and the parts adja«;ent; 
the clothes about the breast ; the seat of the passions ; 
embriice; letreat; asylum: adj. intimate; dear; con- 
fidential: v. to conceal; to cherish; to preserve with 
care: bosoming, imp.: bos'omed, pp -umd 

Bosporus n. bo^'-pOrm, also spelt Bosphoraa (L. 
— Ironi (^T buspuros, the heilei's lord : from Gr. bous, 
heifer and 2Joros, a ford), a narrow sea; a strait: 
Bospo nan, a. -rl-dn, pert. to. 

boss n. bOs{F. bosse, a bunch: Dut. busse, knob of 
a buckler: Ger. bausch, a projection: Scot, boss, hol- 
low), something raised from the surface ; a protuber- 
ance ; a stud or knob ; in geol.a. rounded mass of rock 
that has resisted denudation, or a sudden protrusion 
of trap or other igneous rock ; a short trough for hold- 
ingmortar when tiling a roof : bossed, a. bost, studded • 
mbot., having a rounded surface with a projecting 
point m the centre: bossy, a. bfe^sl, raised : bos'ses, 
n. plu. -ez, projecting ornaments used in arch, in vari- 
ous situations. 

botany, u. bot'dnl (Gr. bofane, herbage— from los- 
kem,to feed, to graze), that branch of natujal history 
which treats of plants, their structure, functions, pro- 
perties, and habits, by which they are distinguished 
from each other: botanic, a. bO-tdn'ik, also botan'- 
ical, a. -l-kdl, relating to plants in general : botan'- 
ically, ad. -It: botanist, n. bof-d-nut. one skilled in 
the nature and structure of plants : bot'anise , v. -tilt 
to seek for plants for the purpose of study: botani'- 
sing, imp. a. : bot'anised, pp. -nlzd. 

botch, n. bock (It. bozza, a swelling : Dut. botse, a 
lump or boil: Gael, hoc, a blow, a pimple), a red 
swelling on the skin, particularly the face ; a blotch ; 
work ill done : v. to mend or patch clumsily : botch '- 
ing, imp. : botched, pp. bocht : botchy, a. bOch'l. marked 
with botches : botch'er, n. one who : botch'ery u 
-er-t, clumsy addition ; patchwork, 
bot-fly— see bots. 

both, adj. conj. both (AS. butu or batwa: Icel. 
badir: Sans, ubhau: Ger. beide), the one and the 
other ; the two ; as well. 

bother, n. boih'-er (Gael, bofh, perturbation), fuss; 
bustle; confusion: v. to annoy; to tease: to perplex- 
both'ermg, imp. : bothered, pp. -erd ; both'era'tion. 
n. -a-shun. 

bothrodendron, n. bdth'rO-din'drdn (Gr. bothros, a 
pit or cavity; dcndron, a tree), in geol., a genus of 
coal-measure stems with dotted sui-faces. and with 
opposite rows of deep oval concavities, 
bothy— see booth. 

bo-tree, n. bo'-tre, in India, the sacred tree of the 
Buddhists, planted close to every temple. 

botryoidal, a. bdt'rldii'ddl (Gr. botnis, a bunch of 
grapes ; eidos, shape), resembling a cluster of grapes, 
bots, n. or botts, bdts (Gael, boiteag, a maggot; 
bonds, maggots in barley), a disease of horses caused 
by small worms hatched in their intestines from the 
larvaj of tlie bot-fly: bott, n. bot, a belly-wonn, espe- 
cially in horses. 

bottel, n. bot'l (F. botel, diminutive of botte, a 
bunch or bundle: Gael, boiteal), a bundle of hay. 

bottle, n. liot'l (F. bouteille, a bottle, a bubble— from 
botte, a buncli : It. bottiglia), a vessel with a narrow 
neck for liohiing Iiq\iids: v. to shut up into a bottle- 
bot'tling, iinj). -tliun: bot'tled.pp. -tJd : bottle-headj 
a sort of wliah": bottle-nosed, witli a i.osc nill and 
swollen at tlic ciKi; bottle-holder, one who adminis- 
ters rcfreshiiicnt to a c<imbat;int; a backer; a second 
—usually in a prize-fight. 

bottom, n. bdt'-tdm. (.\S. botm; Dut. bndem- Ger 
bndtn: Icel. botn. tlic lowest part), the lowest part of 
anytliing; th.- foundation or base; that on which 
anything rests; ilie .leep.'st part, of a subject; the 
lowest part of a (bvlivit y ; tlie end ; natural strength ; 
a shiji; V. to lounil or Imild uiioii ; t^ rest upon as a 
support: bottoming, imp.: bottomed, pp. -tdmd- 
bot'tomless.a. witliouta bottom; MTv.licp: at bot- 
tom, in rc:ility: on one's own bottom, imlepcndent 
or indepeiuieiitly : .bot tomry, n. -,i, moiiov borrowed 
on the security of the bottom of a sliip— that is, of the 
ship itself: bottoms, n. plu. the deepest workin" 
parts of a mine. " 

bottom, n. bot'tOin 

(W. botum, a button— from 
mute, mat, Jar, laXv; viCte, mil, hir; pine, pin; note, nCt, mOve; 




lot, a round body), a ball of thread wound up; a 

bouch, V. boosh (F. bouclie, mouth, entrance), to drill 
a new vent in a gun which has been spiked : n. the 
piece sloped out of the upper part of a shield of the 
Jifteenth and sixteenth centuries, to allow the lance 
free motion.: bouch'ing, imp : bouched, pp. hoosht. 

boudoir, n. buod'ivor {¥.), a private apartment; a 
lady's dressing-room. 

bough, n. bdto (AS. 603'— from hugan, to bend), a 
branch or arm of a tree. 

bought, bawt, pt. of buy, which see. 

bougie, n. lO'-zhe (F.), a long slender instrument, 
made of elastic gum, wax, or metal, for removing ob- 
structions in the bladder ; a wax-taper. 

bouilli, n. Ml-ye, (F.— from bouillir, to boil), meat 
boiled or stewed with vegetables : bouillon, n. l)6l'- 
yOng, soup ; broth ; a disease in horses, consisting of a 
fleshy excrescence on the heel. 

boulders, n. plu. bol'derz (Dut. bolle, a globe or 
sphere: F. boule, a ball or sphere of wood, metal, 
&c. : Icel. bolr, the round trunk of a tree : L. bulla, 
any small round body), in geol., the rounded or 
water- worn blocks of stone found imbedded in the 
clays and gravels of the drift formation ; the rounded 
stones fomid on the surface of the earth, or on the sea- 
shore: boulder-clay, in geol, the clays of the glacial 
or drift epoch, distinguished by the numerous boul- 
ders and pebbles found among them. 

boult, v.— see bolt. 

bounce, n. bmvns (Dut. bonzen, to knock— from 
hons, a blow), the rebound of a heavy blow or thiunp ; 
a sudden fall ; a loud sound ; an untruthful boast : v. to 
leap, rush, or spring out suddenly ; to boast boldly ; 
to lie; to bully: bouncing, imp.: adj. large; heavy; 
stout and active: bounced, pp. bow7ist: boun'cer, n. 
-xir, a bully ; a bold boaster ; a liar : boun'cingly, ad. 

bound, bmvnd, pt. and pp. of bind, which see ; 
confined or restrained— as ivind-bound, ice-bound; 
obliged by moral ties. 

bound, a. b&wnd (Icel. buinn, prepared, ready— from 
bua, to prepare, to set oiit), destined ; going, or ready 
to go to. 

bound, n. bo^vnd (F. borne, a limit : mid. L. bodina, 
a limit or march), a limit; a boundary: v. to limit; 
to restrain or confine : bound ing, imp. : bound'ed, 
pp. : boundless, a. without limits : boundlessly, ad. 
-li: boundlessness, n. : boundary, n. bown'-der-l, the 
boiuids, or what marks the bounds ; a limit. 

bound, v. bdwnd (F. bondir, to spring or leap), to 
spring or leap ; to move forward by leaps or jumps : 
n. a leap ; a spring ; a rebound : bound ing, imp. : 
bound'ed, pp. 

bounden, a. bdivn'den (from bind), morally impera- 
tive; obligatory. 

bounty, n. bdion'tt (F. bonte, goodness: L. bonitas 
—from bonus, good: It. banitate), liberality in giving; 
kind favours ; anything given over and above what 
is due ; a premiiim : boun'teous, a. hmon'ti-us, liberal 
and generous ; very kind in bestowing favours : boun'- 
teously, ad. -ll: boun'teousness, n. : bountiful, a. 
bdiun-tl-fool, liberal in bestowing gifts and favours: 
bountifully, ad. -ll: boun'tifulness, n. 

bouquet, n. bo'-kd (F.), a bunch of flowers; a nose- 

bourdon, n. bdr'dong (F. : It. bordone, a staff, a 
prop), the tall walking-staff used by pilgrims in the 
middle ages. 

bourgeois, n. bur-joys' {¥.), a kind of printing-type 
in size between longprimer and brevier: b6rzh-wd', 
in France, the middle order of inhabitants in towns, 
as distinguished from the nobility and gentry. 

bourgeon, v. boor'jon, (F. bourgeon, the young bud 
or sprout of a vine : Norm. F. bourgeonner, to bud), to 
K]prout; to put forth buds; to shoot into branches: 
bourgeoning, imp. : bour'geoned, pp. -jwid. 

bourn, n. born (F. borne, a limit), bounds; limits; 

boumonite, n. bobr'nO-nit (after Count Bournon), a 
mineral of a steel-grey colour— known also as endel- 

bourrans, n. bmr'dnz (Russ. borei, the N. wind), the 
name given to the fierce snow-storms that blow from 
the north-east over the steppes of Russia. 

bouse, V. b6z (Dut. buy^en, to drink largely— from 
buyse, a large two-handed flagon), to drink iiitoxicuits 
deeply ; to guzzle : bous'ing, imp. : boused, pp. : 
bous'y, a. -l— see boose. 

CoTt', bdy,/(jvf; pure, bud; chair, 

bourse, n. 6<5rs (F.), place where merchants meet; 
the exchange in towns, particularly in Paris. 

bout, n. bolvt (Dan. bugt, a bend, a turn), as much 
as can be done at one turn ; an attempt ; a drinking- 
niatch ; a debauch. 

bovine, a. bo'vln (L. bos, an ox — gen. bovis), pert, to 
animals of tlie ox kind: bovifonn, bOv'l-fawmi (L. 
forma, shape), resembling the ox. 

bow, V. bdio (AS. beogan; Icel. buga; Goth, biugan, 
to bend), to bend; to bend the body in token of re- 
spect; to crush; to depress; to stoop: n. an act of 
respect by bending the body, or by inclining the head : 
bow'ing, imp. : bowed, pp. bmvd. 

bow, n. bo (Ger. bogen, a curve: Dan. bug, belly, 
bow of a ship : W. bog. a swell, a rising up), an instru- 
ment for shooting arrows with ; a name given to vari- 
ous instruments; the curved doubling of a ribbon or 
string in a slip-knot : adj. anything curved or arcln-d, 
as a bow-windoiv: bow or bows, bdlv or boivz, tlie 
rounding fore part of a ship : bow-compass, bo- a 
beam of wood or brass, with three long screws, that 
bend a lath of wood or steel to any arch : bow-shot, 
n. bo- the space over which an arrow may pass when 
shot from a bow ; a place not far distant : bow- 
sprit, n. bo'sprit, or boltsprit {bow, and Dut. sjmet, 
properly a piece of cleft wood , the yard of a sail), a pole 
or spar that projects outwards from the stem or head 
of a ship : bow-window, n. bo- a bay-window, which 
see : bowstring, n. string of a bow ; a string or cord 
used by the Turks in putting criminals to death by 
strangling them : bow-gra<:e, n. bolv'grds, a frame of 
old rope or junk placed round the bows and sides of a 
vessel to prevent injury from ice : bowline, n. bcw'-lin, 
also spelt bowling or bolin, in nav., a rope fastened 
near the middle or pei-pendicular side of a square sail 
leading towards the bow, to enable the ship to keep near 
the wind : bow'net, n. bdio- an engine made of wicker- 
work for catching lobsters, cra^vfish, &c. : bowleg- 
ged, a. bo- having crooked legs: bowman, n. bdio' 
man, the man who rows the foremost oar in a boat: 
bo'mdn, an archer: bow-saw, bo-saw, a. flexible saw 
for cutting curves. 

bowels, n. plu. bdiv'-ilz (It. budello; old F. boel; 
mid L. botellus, a gut, one of the intestines: Bret. 
bouda, to hum, to murmur), entrails ; intestines ; ten- 
derness; pity; compassion — among5M»g'co7is, used often 
in the singular, bowel: bow'el, v. to take out the en- 
trails: bow'elling, imp.: bow'elled, pp. -eld, hav- 
ing bowels or a belly; bow'elless, a. without tender- 
ness or pity. 

bower, n. bmcr (Icel. bur, a separate apartment: 
AS. bur, a chamber: W. bwr, an inclosure), in a gar- 
den, a place covered with trees bent and entwined ; a 
sliady retreat ; a cottage covered with creeping plants : 
bowery, a. bow-rl, shady ; containing bowers : bow- 
er-anchor (Dut. boeganker—trom boeg, a bow), the 
second anchor in size in a ship: bow'ered, a. -eid, 
supplied with bowers. 

bowie-knife, n. bo'-l-nlf, a long knife or short sword 
used in North America by hunters and others. 

bowl, n. bol (F. houle, a wooden ball, a drink- 
ing vessel: Icel. bolla, a bubble; bolli, a tea-cup), a 
circular hollow vessel ; a basin ; a fountain ; a wooden 
ball or large marble, used for play on a level plat of 
ground or in the room of a house : v. to roll as a 
bowl; to play at bowls : bowling, imp.: bowled, pp. 
bold: bowler, n. one who: bowling-green n. or 
bowling-alley, n. a place for playing at bowls. 

bows, n. plu. bdivz (from bow, anything bent or 
rounded ; Ger. bogen, a curve), the two sides of the 
fore part of a ship : bowse, v. bdivz, among seamen, to 
pull or haul hard: bows'ing, imp.: bowsed, pp. 
bdtvzd: bowse away, to pull altogether. 

box, n. boks (AS. box; Gr. puxis; Ger. buchse, a 
box : Gr. puxos; L. buxus, a box-tree), a case or hol- 
low vessel of any size and shape, and made of any 
material ; a seat separated from others ; a shrub hav- 
ing a fine close-grained wood : v. to enclose : boxen, 
a. bdk'-sn, made of boxwood : boxing the compass, re- 
peating the points of the compass in any order: in 
the wrong box, mistaken: box of a coach (Gtr. bock, 
a buck or he goat, then a trestle or support upon 
which anything rests), the driver's seat on a carriage. 

box, v. boks (Dan. bosk, a sounding blow ; baske, to 
slap), to fight with the fists or with clenched hands ; 
to strike : n. a blow with the fists or clenched hands : 
boxing, imp.: n. the act of fighting with the fists: 
boxed, pp. bokst: box'er, n. one who. 

boy, n. bdii (Ger. bribe; Swiss, bxd); L. pupus; It. 

game, jog, shun, thing, ihere, zeal. 




putto, a boy: It. puppa, a child's baby), a male child ; 
a young lad ; a familiar name for a man ; applied 
to a man in contempt to indicate some defect : boy- 
hood, n. -hood: boyish, a. -Ish, like a boy: boyishly, 
ad. -11: boyishness, n. manners or appearance of a 
boy : boy's play, amusement of a boy, as opposed to 
the earnest business of a man. 

boyar, n. bdy'er, a Russian nobleman. 

boyau, bo'y'd, plu. boyaux (F.), in fort., a ditch 
covered ^rtth a parapet, serving as a communication 
between two trenches. 

brace, u. brOs, (containing the idea of straining, com- 
pressing, or confining: F. bnis, the ann, strength : It. 
braca, a rope resisting astrain: see brake), that which 
holds anything tight or supports anything ; a couple 
or pair ; a crooked mark in printing ; trowsers' sup- 
porter : V. to bind ; to support ; to strengthen : bra- 
cing, imp. : adj. giving strength or tone : braced, pp. 

bracelet, n. hrds'lSt (F. brasselet, a bracelet: Sp. 
briicil, armour for the arm— from F. bras, the arm), 
an ornamental band for the wrist. 

brachial, a. brd'-kl-al (L. brachium, the ann: Gr. 
hrachion: It. braccio), of or pert, to the arm: bra'- 
chiate, a. -kl-df, in bot., having opposite pairs of 
branches placed at right angles to each other : brach- 
loUtes, n. plu. brak'hd-llts (Gt. lithos, a stone), a fossil 
zoophyte presenting a puckered or folded fungiform 
appearance, and furnished with lateral processes: 
brach'iop'oda, n. plu. -op'd-da, also brach'iopods, 
-jmds (Gr. pons, a foot— gen. podos), an order of mol- 
lusca with one shell on the back and another in front, 
and having two long spiral ciliated arms developed 
from the sides of the mouth. 

brachy, a. brak'UGr. brachus, short), a word fre- 
quently made use of in scientific compounds as a 
prefix, and signifying short: brachypterous, a. 
brdklp'ter-us (Gr. pteron, a wing) : brachycephalic, 
a. brdk'l-sS-fdl'lk (Gr. kephale, the head), short- 
headed — applied to the form of the head in animals : 
brachyphyllvun, n. brdk'-l-fU'lum (Gr. phullon, a 
leaf), a coniferous-looking fossil plant occurring in 
terminal twigs and branches, and having short, ovate, 
ribless, and scale-like leaves : brachyurus, a. brdk'- 
l-6'rus (Gr. oura, a tail), short-tailed : brachygraphy, 
n. brd-klg'rdfi (Gr. grapho, I write), art or practice of 
Avriting in a short compass : brachyg'rapher, n. one 
who : brachylogy, n. brd-kU'6-ji (Gr" logos, a word or 
term), conciseness of expression. 

bracken, n. or a. brdk'-&n (W. bruk, heath: Icel. 
brok, sedge — see brake), ferns. 

bracket, n. brdk'dt (F. brague, a mortise for holding 
things together: Piedm. braga, an iron for binding 
anything together— see brace), a piece of wood or 
metal placed for supporting anything, generally 
against a wall ; crooked lines used in printing— thus, 
[ ]— to mark off or isolate a part of the text of a 
book: V. to place within brackets: brack'eting, 
bracketed, pp. 

brackish, a. brdk'lsh (It. braco, a puddle: old F. 
brae, mud: Dut. brack, refuse, damaged), not quite 
fresh ; salt in a small degree : brack'ishness, n. 

bracts, n. plu. brdkts (L. bractea, a thin leaf of 
metal), in bot., the leaves, more or less modified in 
fonn, which are seated on the peduncles : bracteate, 
a. brdk'ti-dt, having bracts : brac'teole, n. -thol, or 
bracktlet, n. brOkt'-lit, a small bract seated on the 

brad, n. brdd (Dan. braad, a goad ; bred, an edge : 
Sw. bradd, an edge), a nail vnth little or no liead. 

brag, n. brdg (F. braguer, to flaunt: Icel. braka; 
Dan. brag, a crack, a crash : Gael, bragh, a burst or 
explosion), aboast ; proud expressions ; thing boasted : 
V. to boast ; to speak highly of one's self in regard to 
anything: bragging, imp.: bragged, pp. brdgd : 
brag'ger, n. one who : braggart, a. hrdg'gdrt, boastful : 
n. a vain boasting person: brag'gartism, n. -tUm, 
boastfulness : braggadocio, n. brdg-gd-dO'shl-0 (It.), a 
puffing boasting feliow ; a swaggerer. 

bragget, n. brdg'git (\V. brag, mnlt— from hrngio, 
to sprout), sweet-wort; a liquor made from ale- wort 
and mead. 

Brahma, n. hr&'vid (Indian Brahman), the Creator, 
the chief pcirson of the Hindoo Trinity: Brahmanic, 
a. //r.5)/i(lrt:u-, ri'hvting to the P.rahmans: Brahmin, 
ri. hr/i'-tiHu, an Indian of the highest or priestly ('aste: 
Brahm'lnlsm, n. -Izm, the religion of the Brahmins: 
Brahmin'ical, a. -Ikdl, relating to the ofllco or char- 
acter of a Brahmin. 

braid, n. hrdd (AS. bredan, to weave : Icel. bregda, 
to weave nets), flat cord; truuming; a band of hair 
formed by plaiting three or more folds together : v. to 
weave or plait : braid'ing, imp. : braid'ed, pp. : adj. 
edged wth plaits or knots. 

brails, n. plu. brdlz (F. braies, breeches, drawers: 
F. brailler— from desbrailler, to tie up), in a s/jy), 
small ropes used to truss up sails. 

brain, n. bran (AS. braegen: Dut. breghe), a soft 
whitish mass inclosed in the skull of man or animals, 
in which the spinal marrow and all the nerves termi- 
nate ; the understanding ; imagination : v. to kill by 
dashing out the brains : braining, imp. : brained, pp. 
brand: brain-pan, the skull containing the brains: 
brain-sick, a disease in the understanding; giddy; 
addle-headed: brainless, a. without underetanding : 
brainish, a. hot-headeu : no brains, no understanding ; 

braird, n. brdrd (AS. brord, ^ prick or point, the 
first blade or spire of grass or corn), in agri., the first 
appearance of a crop after the seed has been so«-n. 

brait, n. brat (prov. F. braed, to rub or gi'ind down), 
a rough diamond. 

brake, n. brak (Gael, brae; L. brachium, the arm, as 
the tjT3e of exertion and strength : Icel. braka, to sub- 
due : It. braca, a horse's twitch : AS. bracan, to pound 
or knead: Dan. brage, to break flax), a skeleton car- 
riage for training horses ; a large heavy -harrow for 
breaking clods ; a kneading-trough ; an instrument for 
checking the motion of a wheel— also spelt break; 
an inclosure for cattle ; a bit for horses ; a wooden 
frame for confining the feet of vicious horses in shoe- 
ing: brake-man, n. one who manages a brake of a car- 
riage: brake-van, n. mrailiuay trains, a carriage fur- 
nished with powerful brakes. 

brake, n. brak (Dut. broeck, a fen or marsh: Ger. 
briKh, a wood in a marshy place : old F. broil, copse- 
wood, cover for game), broken ground covered with 
a tangled growth of bushes: brak'y, a. -i, rough; 
thorny; prickly. 

brake, n. brak, or bracken, n. Irdk'Sn (connected 
with last as the natural growth of waste places : \Y. 
bruk, heath: Icel. brok, sedge: Dan. bregne, bracken 
or fern), fern. 

bramble, n. brdni'bl (AS. bremel or brembel; Dut. 
braeme, bramble : Swiss, brom. a bud : It. broviboli, 
cabbage-sprouts), a creeping shrub, very rough and 
prickly, producing a black beny like- the raspberry : 
bram'bled, a. -bid: bram'bly, a. -bll, full of brambles. 

bran, n. brdn (Bret, brenn; W. bran; It. bre.nna; 
F. bran— irom. F. bren, excrement, ordui-e), the husks 
or shells from ground w^heat ; the husks of any grain : 
branny, a. -nl. 

bran-new (a corruption of brand-new), bright as a 
firebrand, or fresh like a trade-mark. 

branch, n. brdnsh (Bret, brank; It. branco; F. branche, 
the branch of a tree : It. branca, the fang or claw of a 
beast), the shoot of a tree or plant ; an arm ; any part 
of a body or system ; a descendant from a common 
parent : v. to divide into parts ; to spread out : 
branch'ing, imp. : branched, pp. brdnsht : branch- 
less, a. : branch'y, a. -I, full of branches : branch iness, 
u. : branch'let, n. a little branch: root and branch, 
wholly; totally. 

branchiae, n. plu. brdvg'kid (Gr. brangcliia, the 
gills of a fish), the gills or breathing organs of animals 
living entirely ui water : bran'chial, a. -kidl, relating 
to the gills of fishes: bran'chiopods, n. plu. -kl-0- 
podz (Gr.pousA foot—gen. podos), crust.iceau nnimals 
having gills attached to tlic IVct : bran chiop'odous, a. 
-dp'o-dHs, gill-footed : bran'chios tegal, a. -kiiK-^-ti^-gdl. 
also brang'chios'tegous, a. -^ ;//(v ((;r. st((io. 1 cover), 
gill covering — applied to certain boues or bent mys 
which support the membrane covering and protecting 
the gills of fishes. 

brand, n. brdnd (Icel. brandr ; Ger. brand, a fire- 
brand: It. bra7idoni\ a large piece of anj-thing: F. 
brandon, a stake), a burning piece of wood : a sword; 
a mark made by pressing a hot iron mould, as on a 
barrel; a trade-mark; a mark of infamy; a stiema: 
V. to burn or mark anytliinu ^^ ith ;ni iron mould red- 
hot ; to fix a mark dI' inlaniv on any cuie; to stigma- 
tise: branding, inii>. : branded, pii. : brand'-iron or 
branding-iron, n. an iron mould to tirand with ; brand- 
new— see bran: brandling, n. !>rinid'-liiig, a red wonn 
\ised bv anglers ; a fish : branlin, u. brdn'-lln, a fish of 
tlie saiiMon kind. 

brandish, v. brOn'tDsh (F. brandir, to m.ake a thing 
shake by the force it is cast with : Manx, braiis, dash : 

mate, mdt./dr, luTv; mite, mit.hir; plne.pXn; nOte, 7iCt, move; 




old F. bransler. to shake) to move "P and dmra ; to 
shake as a spear or stick; to wave or flourish: bran - 
dl^to^ imp.: brandished, pp. bra7i-disht: bran - 

"^tk^y.Ttan'-dl (formerly \ : G^. 
■branntwein, burnt -wine: Uut. hrandwm), sp nt 
Sled from wine; any strong s;pirit from other sub- 
stances : bran'died, a. -did. strengthened with brandy. 
brangle, n. brdng'gl (F. branler, to shake: It. 
6mn*afa French brawl), a squabble; a wrangle; con- 
fusion: V. to wrangle: bran'gling, imp.: brangled, 

^^brf^. n. brdngk (L. brance., a Gallic name for a 
certain bread-corn), buclovheat. 
branny, a. &>-d»i'nl— see bran. _ 

braah. n. brdsh (from brush: Sp. broza, chips: 
Gael brots, splinters : F. brosse, bushy ground), a 
nam;, iTmany parts of England applied to a mass of 
broken and angular fragments derived fr^^ the sub- 
jacent rocks; broken fragments ; refuse ; Roughs of 
irees ; a rush or eruption :water-braah-see water 

brasier, n. brd'zl-er (F. braise, embers-see brazu 
wood), pan for holding burning coals ; one who ^v orks 
in brass-better spelt brazier: brasil, n. bra-zll,^ 

^Es!n. bras (AS. braes, from beingused in solder- 
in- Icel. bras, solder: It. bro;ue, burning coals; 
b°onzo, brass), a compound of copper aiid zmc of a 
yellow colour; impudence: bras'8es,n. plu. -se? slabs 
or plates of brass on tombstones or monuments having 
engraved or raised figures on them, much used in the 
middle ages : bras'sing, a. coatmg with brass : bras sy , 
T-si made of brass ; like brass : bras'siness, a: -sl-nis : 
brass-band, an instrumental band. ,. ,,, », ^* o 

b^t, n. brat (AS. brat, a cloak, a clout: W. brat, a, 
rag: Gael. bm<, a mantle), a name given in reproach 

^''brattke, n. brdt'-tls (Ger. brett; Dut. berd. a plank 
or board: Scot, brettys. a fortification: ". berfesca, a 
kind of rampart), a fence or wall of boards ma coal- 
mine, or ro\md dangerous machinery; also spelt 

^'Ste!'n'^6mK.n:« (m honour of M. Braun of 
Gotha). an abundant ore of manganese. 

bravado, n. brd-va'-do (Sp. bravado-see brave), a 
boa^t or brag ; a menacing display meant to fnghteii. 

brave, a. brdv (F. brave, brave, gay : It. bravaie;J. 
braver, to swagger, to affront: Sp. bravo bullymg- 
see brag), boldl daring ; courageous; gaUant : brave - 
ly, ad ! • bravery, n. bra'ver-i, courage; heroism; 
fearlessness of danger : brave, n. a man daring bej^ond 
discretion ; an Indian warrior : v. to defy ; to challenge , 
to encounter with courage: bra'ving, imp.: braved, 

'^^brS'^'int. brd'-v6 (It.. Sp.) weU done: n. an as- 
sassin ; a murderer for hire. 

bravura, n. brd-v6'-ra (Sp. courage, brag), a song 
difficult to sing: adj. difficult; biiUiant. 

brawl, n. brSwl {V.braiUer. to cry often : Dan. bralle, 
to talk liiuch and high: Gael, braodhlach, noise, dis- 
cord) a noisy quarrel ; uproar : v. to quarrel noisily ; 
to mkke an uproar: brawl'ing,imp.: adj. noisy; quar- 
relsome: brawl'ingly. ad. -ll: brawled, pp. brawld: 

^^li^&^'. n. brar7n (*It. brano. a piece of flesh violently 
pulled away from the whole: old H. Ger. brato; Fris. 
braede a lump of flesh: old F. braion, muscular parts 
of the body), the flesh of a boar prepared in a particu- 
lar manner ; the muscular part of the body ; the arm : 
brawn'v. a. -I, or brawned, a. branmd, muscular ; 
hard; bulky: brawn'er. n. a boar killed and dressed 
for the table: bravm'iness.n. , „^ 

braxy, n. brdk'sl. a disease among sheep— also called 
dysentery or gaU-scour; the mutton of animals so 

^ bray. n. brd (F. braire. to cry like an ass : Gr. bradio, 
to crash, to roar: Icel. brak. crash, noise : Dan. brage 
to crash), the cry of an ass ; any similar loud 
hai-sh sound : v. to make a loud harsh noise like an 
ass: braying, imp.: brayed, pp. brad: brayer, n. 

°°bray,°v. brd (Sp. bregar, to work up paste or dough : 
F broyer; Bret, broea. to bray in a mortar: W.breuan. 
a'mill), to rub or grind down in a mortar; to pound; 
to grind small: bray'ing, imp. : brayed, pp. brad. 

braze, v. brdz (F. braser, to solder: AS. brms, 
brass, from being used in solder : Icel. bras, solder— 
<»pe brass), to solder with brass: brazing, imp.: 
brazed, pp. brazd: brazen, a. brd'zen, made of brass ; 

impudent ; shameless : bra'zenly, ad. -K • bra zenness, 
n • bra'zeA-faced, a. remarkably impudent : brazen- 
L:en- brazier, n., also brasier, bra^zltr. a worker 
in brass ; a pan for holding burning coals. 

brazU-wood, n. brd-zel'-, (Port, braza, glowing em- 
bers : old E. brasil, of abright red : Sw, bra^a, to blaze), 
a heavy wood of a red coloiir, used in dying red, i.n- 
Dorted from Brazil: brazilian, a. bra-zll-l-an. of or 
from Brazil- brazUetto, u. hrd-zihUf-tO, an inferior 
Wild of brazil-wood: brazU-nut. fruit of a palm of 
Brazil. JVo^e.- The modern name of part of b. Anaer.. 
Brazil, is derived from furnishing the brazil-wood 

breMli,n. brech (AS. brice; F. bredie, a bre.ach or 
opening in a wall), a gap or opening; the act of break- 
ing, or state of being broken ; the breaking of a law or 
the non-fulfilment of an agreement; a neglect of dutj. 
v. to make an opening or gap in anything: breach- 
ing, imp.: breached, pp. ^'r'^^^t :\iTBt^c:h.-\6ii,z.. 

bread^ n. bred (Icel. brand; Ger. brot; AQ.breod 
bread). Ibod in general ; loaves ; cakes or biscuits pre- 
pared from flour of any kind of grain; sustenance: 
bread less, a. without bread: bread-frmt. the frmt of 
a tree whose pulp resembles bread when baked : 
bread-stuff, com, meal, or flour for bread. ,,^^ . 
breadth, n. brMth (Dan. bred, an edge or border : 
^^ Md, edge-see broad), a "o^n formed froni the 
adj. broad : extent of surface m the shortest diieetion , 
width : breadth'less, a. having no breadth. 

break, n. brdk (Goth, brikan; Ger. brechen ; L. /ran- 
aore to break : AS. brecan. to break, to overcome), an 
openiJi-; a rent; a tear; a pause or interruption; a 
sfop: v. to separate or divide by force ; to rend ; o 
crush ; to weaken or impair ; to tame or tram ; to in- 

terrupt; to lessen tiie lorce ui , '-""'"^"'•'i"' ""•;-" ■' 
to exDlain or open a matter to any one ; to decline in 
lealtCTreSg, imp. : broke, pt.brofc:b^^^^^^^^ 
bro'kn ■ break' er, n. brdk'er, one who, or that which, 
a wave broken 'into foam by.dashing on a rocky 
shore; something placed in a river for breaking the 
force of floating ice, or for breaking it up . breaK 
aee n -a?- a breaking; an allowance for articles 
df strayed 'in%he carrilge : ^^akmg ^-^ ^^^^f: 
in. taming or training horses: breaking, n. bank- 
mptcy • b?eak-neck, a. -nek, steep ; dangerous :break- 
■^&n-waw'ter, 'a moimd or wall built in the sea 
or at the mouth of a harbour, to break the force of 
the waves and protect the flipping : to break ground 
in mU.. to commence a siege by opening tienches. 
to break down, to fail or causae to fail: a break- 
down, a failure; an accident: to break the heart 
to injure much or to destroy with grief : to breaJt 
up, to dissolve ; to put a sudden end to : a break-up, 
a failure ; a dissolution : to break upon the wheel, to 
punish a criminal capitally by stretchmg bis body 
upon a wheel and breaking his bones: to break 
forth, to burst out; to exclaim: to break from, to go 
away with some vehemence: to breaJt in, to enter 
unexpectedly: to break into, to enter by force: to 
Seal loose, to free from restraint ; to escape into 
freedom : to break off, to desist suddeiJy ; to abandon 
to break out, to discover itself m sudden effects , to 
arise or spring up : to break through, to force a pas- 
sage- to break upon, to discover itself suddenly: 
break of day, da^\^ ; the Ught preceding the appear- 
ance of the sun above the horizon. ,, fi^„f ^o^i 
breakfast, n. brek-fdst (break and /««/)• first nieal 
in the day, or the food so taken : v. to take the fin,t 
meal: break'fasting. n. the act of taking breakfast 

bream, n. brem (F. breme: Dut. braessem). abroad- 
shaped fresh-water fish of the carp family = v. among 
seamen, to bum off the sea-weed, ooze &c from a 
ship's bottom : breaming, imp. : breamed VV-orcma 
breast, n. brest (AS. breost : Goth, brnsts :l)at 
borsf. the breast), the fore part of the human body be- 
tween the neck and the belly ; in quadrupeds, the part 
between the fore feet ; the heart ; the conscience e 
affections- in minhig. the face of coal-workmgs ; the 
Sen partTtion that divides a shaft from bottom to 
top into two compartments: v. to meet in front: 
breast'ing, imp. : breasted, rp. : breast-deep or 
brIast-Mgh, up to the breast: Weast-hooks, among 
seamen, pieces'^ of compass or knee timber placed 
withinside a ship to keep the bows together: breart- 
kiees timbers pla.'ed in the forward part of a vessel 
across the stem to unite the bows on ea^h side : breast- 
plate, n. armour for the breast : breast-rail, the upper 
rail of the balcony on the quarter-deck : breast-work, 
in fort a mass of earth hastily thrown up for defence 
1 as higii as the breast ; in nav., a set of framing termi- 

cow, bo-y,fm; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




nating the quarter-deck and poop at the foremost and 
after end of the forecastle ; a parapet not hif,'h enough 
to require a banquette : breast-bone, the bone at the 
breast; the sternum: breast-pin, an ornamental pin 
used to fasten a necktie or any similar covering over 
the breast. 

breath, n. brSth (AS. brcEth, an odour, scent), air 
drawn into the lungs of animals and driven out from 
the same— in man and the more highly organised ani- 
mals thrOTigh the mouth and nostrils ; respiration ; a 
single drawing in and driving out of air; a gentle 
breeze of air; life; pause; time to breathe; an in- 
stant : breathe, v. breth, to draw in and give out air ; 
to live; to rest; to speak softly to; to express, as 
words: breathing, imp.: n. respiration; utterance; 
an anient desire or longing after; secret prayer; 
accent: adj. living; vital: breathed, pp. brcthd: 
breather, n. one who; breathful, a. hrWi'-fuul: 
breathless, a. out of breath; breathlessly, ad. -li: 
breathlessness, n. state of being out of breath : 
breathing -place, n. breth'-lng-, a pause; breathing- 
time, n. pause ; relaxation. 

breccia, n. brdk'shl-a (It. a crumb or fragment) 
in <j'ul., any rock composed of an agglutination 
of anjiular fragments— a conglomerate being compos- 
ed of rounded water-worn pebbles: brec'ciated, a. 
composed of angular fragments cemented together ; 
os'seous-breccia, n. a rock composed of fragments of 
bone cemented together. 

bred, pp. of breed, which see. 

breech, n. brlcji, more usually in the plu. breeches, 
brich'-ez (AS. brac: L. bracce; Icel. brok; It. brache; 
old F. brogues, trousers), a close-fitting garment worn 
by men, lads, and boys, covering the lower part of 
the body: breech, v. brlch, to put into breeches; 
to whip on the breech: breech'ing, imp. : n. the part 
of a harness which passes round the hinder part of a 
horse : plu. the ropes with which cannon are lashed 
or fastened to the ship's side : breeched, pp. brlcht : 
breech, n. brech, the hinder part of anytMng, especi- 
ally of a gun ; the part where the body separates into 
two legs: breech-loading, a. in mil., receiving the 
charge at the breech instead of the muzzle : breech- 
loader, n. a firearm that receives its load at the 

breed, v. bred (AS. bredan, to nourish, to cherish: 
Dut. broeden, to hatch as eggs: Ger. briiten, to bring 
eggs or spawn into active life : W. brrvd, hot, warm), 
to generate ; to hatch ; to produce young ; to occa- 
sion ; to educate ; to train ; to instruct ; to raise from 
the best kinds: n. a race of men or other animals 
from the same stock; a kind; a caste; offspring; a 
variety; a hatch; a brood: breeding, imp.: n. edu- 
cation; manners: bred, pp. bred: breeder, n. one 

breeze, n. brez (F. brise, a cool wnd : It. brezza, chill- 
ness or shivering; imitative of arustling noise), a soft- 
blowing wind ; a gentle gale : v. to blow gently : 
breezy, bre'zl, subject to frequent breezes : breeze'- 
less, a. 

breeze, n. brez (AS. briosa; Ger. bretnse, a gad-fly— 
from Ger. brumtnen; Fris. 6ri»ini€, to hum), a gad-fly ; 
a stinging-fly— also spelt brize, breese. 

breeze, n. brez (F. bris or debris, rubbish : Ger. 
brosaitte, a crumb: Gael, bris, to break), dust; rub- 
bish—also spelt briss, brist. 

breithaaptite, n. brl'th6p-tU (after Professor 
Breithaupt), antimonial nickel of a light copper-red 
with a violet-blue tarnisli. 

brent-goose, n. brdut'ous (Ger. hnlber cntc. a half- 
duck), a migratory sea-bird ; the smallest species of 

brethren, n. plu. brith'-rin (plu. of brother, which 
see), members of the same society or profession. 

breve, n. brev (It breve— from. L. brevis, short), a 
figure that marks the longest sound in music. 

brevet, n. brcv'et (F. brevet, a commission— from L. 
brevis, shoFt), the commission which confers on an 
officer the next highest rank to the one he lioliis, but 
does not entitle him to the increased pay : adj. taking' 
rank by brevet : brev'etcy, u. -st, the rank or condition 
of a brevet. 

breviary, n. hre'vl-^r-l (F. briviaire, a breviary: L. 
breviariuiii, an aliridgmentor abstract— from L. brevis, 
short: It. breciorio), an abridgment; the book con- 
taining the daily service of the Koman Catholic and 
Greek Churches. 

brevity, n. brcv'l-tl (F. brih-ete: L. brevitas, short- 
ness—from brevis, short), shortness; conciseness; con- 

tained in few words : brevier, n. brd-vCr', small print- 

brew, v. br6 (old F. braux; Gael, braich; W. brag, 
sprouted com, malt: Icel. brugga, to brew— from AS. 
brug, malt: Ger. braiien; Dut. brouwen, to brew), to 
make beer, ale, &c., by boiling and mixing the mate- 
rials and fermenting them; to contrive; to plot: 
brewing, imp.: n. the act of making beer from malt. 
&c. ; the quantity made at one time : brewed, pp. brCd : 
brewer, n. one who: brewery, n. brO'er-l, the house 
containing the apparatus where brewing is carried on ; 
also brew-house. 

brewsterite, n. br6s'Ur-lt (after Sir David Brew- 
ster), a mineral occurring in short prismatic crj-stals 
of a greyish-white or yellowish colour, and vitreous 
lustre: brews toline, n. -to-lin, a transparent colnur- 
less fluid occurring in the minute cavities of rock- 
crystals, &c., said to be liquid carbonic acid. 

bribe, n. brib (F. bribe, a lump of bread: W. briwn, 
to break; briw, broken: It. birbanti, a cheat), a price 
or reward given to induce any one to do a criminal or 
immoral action ; a gift for the purpose of obtaining an 
undue compliance — unless in familiar language, never 
used in a good sense : v. to give or promise a reward 
with the view of perverting the judgment or conduct 
of another ; to hire for a bad purpose : briljing, imp. : 
bribed, pp. brlbd: bri'ber, n. one who: bribery, n. 
hrl'b&r-l, the practice of giving or taking bribes: 
bribeless, a. : bri'bable, a. -bd-bl, capable of being 

brick, n. br^k (F. brique, a brick : AS. brire, a frag- 
ment: It. briccia, a coUop or slice), a shaped mass of 
clay burned hard in a kiln, and used for building pur- 
poses ; a small loaf of bread : v. to lay or pave with 
bricks ; to imitate brickwork on plastered walls : 
brick'y, a. -I, full of or formed of bricks : brickbat, 
n. a piece of a brick : brick-kiln, n. a furnace in which 
bricks are hardened by fire: bricklayer, n. -hl'ir. the 
man who builds with bricks: brick-clay, the clay 
used in the manufacture of bricks, tiles, &c. ; in g(ol., 
used in contradistinction to bouMer-claii, and denot- 
ing the finely-laminated clays which overlie the t)iie 
boulder-clay: brick'nog'ging, n. -nog'-glng, brickwork 
built up between timber framing : brickmaker, n. one 
who makes bricks : brickmaking, n. 

bride, n. 6?ld (AS. bryd ; Ger. brant, a bride: Gofh. 
brutJis, daughter-in-law : \V. priod, married), awonian 
about to be married, or newly nian-ied : bridal, a. 
brl'cUll (AS. bryd-eale, bride-ale, the marriage-feast, 
then the marriage itself), pert., to a wedding: n. a 
wedding or maiTiage: bride or bride's man: bride 
or bride's maid, a female attendant on a bride: bride 
or bride's cake, a wedding-cake: bridegroom, n. 
(AS. bryd-ff^nna—tTom bryd, and gunia, a mani, the 
man about to be married, or newly married. 

bridewell, n. brld'-w6l (from St Bride's Well in Lon- 
don, near which a palace was built, afterwards turned 
into an hospital), a house of correction ; a place where 
criminals are confined. 

bridge, n. brij (AS. bricge : Ger. hriieke), a roadway 
over arches spanning a riVer, a valley, &c. ; the part 
of a stringed instrument over which the strings are 
stretched: v. to stretch a roadway across, as over a 
river; bridging, imp.: bridged, pp. brijd: bridge- 
less, a. 

bridle, n.brl^rf? (AS. hnA.L- Icel. biiill: Dxn.bidiel), 
the bit and reins by which a rider is able to guide and 
restrain a horse ; any restraint or check ; a ciirb : v. to 
put on a bridle; to restrain; to jrovem ; to curb; to 
check: bridling, imn. brld'-Ung: bridled, pp. brl'dld: 
bridler, n. brUlUr: oridle-way, n. a horse-track. 

brief, a. bref (V. bref—Xrom L. brevis, short: Ger. 
brief, an ejiistle or letter), short; concise: n. an 
abridL'-ed writ ins; an epitome; short written instruc- 
tions to eouusei in conducting a case before a court 
of law . briefless, a. : briefly, ad. -11 -. briefness, n. 

brier or briar, n. brl'-Cr (AS. brcer: F. bniyere, a 
iK'.iili). a jirickly i) or shrub, as the siceet brier: 
briery, a. -!, lull of briers; thorny. 

brig, n. brhi (contr. of briga7itine—s(}e brigantine), 
a sliiji witli two masts, square rigged. 

brigade, n. brhgod' (F. brigade— from It. br-igata, a 
troopi, a body of soldiers, whether of infantry or cav- 
alry, consisting of sevenil regiments, but of no fixed 
nuinlier: v. to form into bri;iades: briga'ding, imp. : 
briga'ded, jip. : brigadier, n. br}-i'-it-<ii''r'. or briga- 
dier-generail, n. the otlieer wlio conunands a brigade. 

brigand, n. brUfilnd (old F. brigand, skirmishers— 
from It. briga, strife: mid L. brigant, a light-anncd 

mate, mat,/Cir, laXv; mCte, mit,lUr; pine, pin; nOte, not, mOve-i 




foot-soldier), one of a band of robbers; a freebooter: 
brig'andage, n. -dn-daj, tlieft ; robbery. 

brigantine, n. brig'-dn-tin (It. briganfe, a pirate ; 
hrigandare, to play the pirate at sea), a light swUt 
vessel formerly used by pirates. 

bright, a. brlt (AS. beorht ; Icel. biartr, bright: 
Goth, bairhts, clear, manifest), shining; clear; illus- 
trious; evident; clever: bright'ly, ad. 41 : bright- 
ness, n. : brighten, v. brlt'n, to make clear or shin- 
ing; to increase tlie lustre of; to cheer; to clear up: 
bright'ening, imp. brit'ning : brightened, pp. brlt'nd. 
brill, n. brll, a fish of the turbot kind. 
brilliant, a. brU'-ydnt (F. brUler, to shine: L. beryl- 
las, a bright shining precious stone : It. brUlare, to 
quaver with the voice), sparkling with lustre; glit- 
tering ; splendid : n. a diamond cut in such a way as 
to refract the light and make it more glittering: 
brilliantly, ad. -il: brill iantness, n. : brilliancy, 
11. -si, great brightness. 

brills, n. plu. brilz (Ger. brille, spectacles), the hair 
on the eyelids of a horse. 

brim, n. brim (Ger. brame; Lith. bremas, border: 
Icel. barmr, the edge: AS. brymme), the edge, rim, or 
border of any vessel : v. to fill or be filled up to the 
edge or rim: brim'ming, imp.: adj. full to the top: 
brimmed, pp.: brim'less, a. : brimful, a. -fool: brim'- 
mer, n. a glass full to the rim. 

brimstone, n. brlm'ston (AS. bryne, a burning, and 
stone), a hard brittle substance of a yellow colour ; 
sulphur; reduced to powder by sublimation, it is 
K^WeA flowers of brimstone: brim'stony, a. -i, con- 
taining brimstone. 

brinded, brln'-dld, and brindled, a. brln'dld (Icel. 
brondottr, cross-barred in colour: It. brano, a bit: 
F. bi'in, a morsel), streaked; spotted; coloured in 

brine, n. brin. (AS. bryne, saltness: Dut. brijn, 
pickle : Icel. bi-im, the surge on the sea-shore), water 
mixed with a large quantity of salt; water of the 
ocean: v. to steep among salt and water: bri'ning, 
imp. : brined, pp. brlnd: briny, a. bri'ni, pert, to the 
sea or to brine: bri'nish, a. -nlsh, salt: bri'nishness, 

bring, v. bring (AS. bringan : Dut. brengen), to 
fetch ; to bear ; to convey ; to produce ; to cause to 
c-ome : bringing, imp. : brought, pt. pp. brrnvt : 
bring'er, n. one who : to bring back, to recall : to 
bring about, to effect or accomplish: to bring forth, 
to produce as frait : to bring forward, to produce 
to view : to bring out, to expose : to bring in, to im- 
port; to introduce: to bring on, to cause to begin: 
to bring np, to nurse ; to educate ; to cause to come 
up : to brmg to, to check or arrest tlie progress of a 
ship while sailing : to brin^ to light, to make clear ; 
to discover: to bring to mind, to recall to memory: 
to bring off, to clear ; to procure to be acquitted : to 
bring over, to convert; to draw to a new party: to 
bring to pass, to effect. 

brink, n. bringk (Dan. and Sw. brink, declivity: 
Icel. bringr, hillock: W. bryn, a hill), the edge or 
margin of a steep place. 

brisk, a. brisk (F. brusque, lively, quick: It. br^isco, 
eager: W. brys, haste), active; nimble; full of life 
and spirit; lively; sparkling: brisk'ly, ad. -?i : brisk'- 
ness, n. : to brisk up, to enliven; to appear with life 
and spirit: brisking up, imp. : brisked up, pp. &r?s/r#. 
brisket, n. bris'k^t (F. brichet, the breast of an ani- 
mai: Icel. briosk; Sw. brusk, gristle: Bohem. brissko, 
a little belly), that part of the breast of an animal that 
lies next the ribs. 

bristle, n. bris'sl (AS. byrst; Sw. borst; Dut. bor- 
sfel; Scot, birse, a thick elastic hair: Swiss, borzen, 
to stand out), the stiff hair on the backs of swine, par- 
ticularly wild boars ; any stiff hair: v. to stand erect 
as bristles ; to strut about with head erect in anger 
or defiance: brist'ling, imp. -liiig: bristled, pp. -sld: 
bristly, a. -ll, thick set with bristles ; rough. 

bristol-board, n. brls'-tohbord (from the to\N'n of 
Bristol), a kind of fine pasteboard having a smooth 
surface: bristol-stone, n. a quartz crystal of great 

Britannic, a. bri-Mn'nik (L. Britannia, Britain), 
pert, to Great Britain ; British : britan'nia metal, n. 
-nl-d, a metallic alloy of block-tin, antimony, bismuth, 
and copper: British, a. n. brlt'ish {AS. Brittisc), pert, 
to Britain or its people: Brit'on, n. -on, a native of 

brittle, a. brit'-tl (AS. brytan; Icel. briota; Dan. 
bryde, to break), easily broken; not tough: brit'tle- 

ness, n. -nSs, the quality of being easily broken into 
fragments ; want of tenacity. 

britzska, n. bris'-kd (lluss. britshka), a long open 
carriage that can be closed at pleasure. 

broach, n. brOch (W. prorio, to thrust: Gael, brog, 
to goad: F. brocher, to spit), a spit; aspire: v. to 
pierce as with a spit ; to tap, as a cask, in order to draw 
off the liquor; to let out; to utter; to make public: 
broach ing, imp. : broached, pp. brOcht: broach'er, n. 
a spit; one who opens or utters : to broach to, among 
seamen, to incline a vessel suddenly to windward so as 
to expose it to the danger of oversetting. 

broad, a. brawd (AS. briid: Goth, braids: Icel. 
breidr: Ger. breit), wide; not narrow; extensive; 
open; coarse; not delicate; bold: broadly, ad. -H: 
breadth, n. bredth : broad'ness, n. : broad'cast, n. 
the act of throwing the seed from the hand in sowing: 
adj. thrown from the hand upon tlie earth as in sow- 
ing ; not planted in rows : ad. by scattering or throw- 
ing as from the hand: broadcloth, n. fine woollen 
cloth double the usual width : broad-seal, the great 
seal of England: broad gauge, in railivays, the width 
of G or 7 feet between the rails, as distinguished from 
the narrow gauge of 4 ft. 8^ in. : broadside, n. the 
side of a ship above the water-line; in a war-ship, 
all the guns on one side discharged at once : broad- 
sword, n. a sword with a broad blade ; the claymore 
of the Highlanders: broaden, v. brawd'n, to make or 
grow broad: broadening, imp. -nlng: broadened, 
pp. -dnd. 

Brobdingnagian, a. brob'dlng-na'ji-dn, a gigantic 
person, like an inhabitant of Brobdingnag in ' Gulli- 
ver's Travels.' 

brocade, n. brO-kad' (It. broccata, a sort of cloth 
wrought with gold or silver : F. brocher, to stitch or 
embroider), silk stuff, woven with variegated gold 
and silver threads, and raised flowers: broca'ded, a. 
woven with figures, &c. 

brocard, n. brok'drd (after Burkhard, bishop of 
Worms), an elementary principle or maxim; a pro- 
verbial rule in law, ethics, or metaphysics. 

brocatello, n. brok'-d-tcl'lo (It. : Sp. brocatel), a spe- 
cies of brecciated marble, the component fragments of 
which are of various colours ; a coarse-figured fabric. 

broccoli, n. brdk'ko-ll (It.), a variety of cauliflower. 

brochure, n. bro-shor' (F.— from brocher, to stitch), 
a pamphlet ; a small book of only a few leaves. 

brock, n. brok (AS. broc), a badger. 

brocket, n. brok'et (F. brorar^— from hroche, a sharp 
snag), a two-year old red-deer, having a single sharp 
snag to his antler. 

brogan, brO'gdn, or brogue, brog n. (Gael, brog, a 
shoe), a coarse light kind of shoe ; a heavy shoe hav- 
ing the sole studded with nails ; a dialect or manner 
of pronunciation, as Irish brogue. 

broil, n. brdyl (F. brouiller, to jumble or mix: It. 
broglio ; Gael, broighlich, noise, confusion), a tumult ; 
a jumbled noisy quarrel ; discord. 

broil, V. brdyl (contracted from F. brasiller, to roast 
on the braise or glowing coals : Scot, brissle, to parch 
or broil : It. brustola/re, to scorch), to agitate by expo- 
sure over the fire ; to dress meat over a fire on a grid- 
iron ; to be subjected to the action of great heat ; to 
be in a great heat: broil'ing, imp.: broiled, pp. 
brdyld : broil'er, n. one who. 

broke, v. brOk, pt.: broken, pp. brO'-kin (from break, 
which see) : bro'ken, a. rent asunder ; rugged ; un- 
even; infirm: bro'kenly, ad. -II: bro'kenness, n. 
-ken-nes, state of being broken: broken-hearted, de- 
pressed or crushed by grief or despair : broken-wind- 
ed, a. having short breath or disordered respiration. 

broker, n. brO'ker (Lith. brokas, a fault, matter of 
blame: Russ. brakovat, to pick and choose: Dut. 
brack, damaged), one employed by merchants to buy 
and sell for them ; one who deals in second-hand 
goods: exchange-broker, n. one who deals in home 
and foreign money: stock-broker, n. one who buy.<! 
and sells shares for others : pawn-broker, n. one 
who lends money on goods left with him : insurance- 
broker, n. one who se(^ures, at a certain rate per cent, 
that the value of a ship and cargo sliall be paid, if lost 
at sea : brokerage, n. -aj, the fee, wages, or commis- 
sion paid to a broker for buying or selling for another: 
bro'king, imp. doing business as a broker: adj. 
pert. to. 

bromine, n. brO'mXn (L. broviium — from Gr. bromos, 
a bad smell), one of the elements related to chlorine 
and iodine in its chemical qualities: bromal, n. bro'- 
mal, an oily colourless fluid, obtained by the action of 

cdiv, boy, foot; pure, bM; chair, game, Jog, shun, thing, ifnre, zeal. 




bromine on alcohol: bro'mic, a. -inXk, an acid com- i 
pounded of bromine and oxygen : bro'mate, n. -mat, a 
compound of bromic acid with a base : bromide, n. 
-mid, a compound of bromine with a mc'tallic base: 
bro'mite, n. -mit, or bromic aQver, an ore of silver 
occurring in olive-green grains: bromuret, n. brOm.' 
urit, a basic compound of bromine and another ele- 
ment. ^ 

bronchia, n. hrdng'H-^, bron'chiffl. n. rlii. -ki-e (Gr. 
ironycltos, tlie windpipe), the tubes that branch off 
from the windpipe to the lungs : bronchial, a. -kl-dl, 
pert, to the bronchise ; also bron'chic, a. -klk: bronchi'- 
tis, n. -kl'lls {itis, denoting inflammation), inflam- 
mation of the air-tubes or bronchiae that lead to the 
lungs ; bron'chocele, n. -ko-sel (Gr. -kele, a tumour), 
a tumour on the fore part of the neck— also called 
goitre: bronchot'omy, n. -kOt'o-ml (Gr. tome, a cut- 
ting), an incision into the windpipe or larynx between 
the rings— also called tnuheotomy or laryngotomy : 
bron'chus, n. -kils, one of the subdivisions of the 
trachea or windpipe ; plu. bron'chi, -kl : bron- 
choph ony, n. -ko/onl (Gr. phone, voice), the muffled 
and indistiiut speech of any one labouring under a 
bronchial atte<;tion. 

broates, n. bron'tez (Gr. brontes, a giant, one of the 
Cyclops), in geoL, a genus of Devonian trilobites, 
characterised by a broad, radiating, fan-like tail. 

bronze, n. brom (It. bronzo; Sp. bronce, pan-metal: 
Icel. braza, to braze or solder), a metallic substance 
made of copper and tin ; a colour to imitate bronze ; 
any ancient figure or medal made of bronze is called a 
bronze: v. to imitate bronze by a colouring matter: 
bron'zing, imp. n. the art or act of giving to articles 
the appearance of bronze: bronzed, pp. a. bronzd 
(It. bronze, embers), coloured like bronze; tanned; 
sunburnt: bron'zy, a. -zl, like bronze: bron'zite, n. 
-zU, a variety of diallage or schiller-spar, so called 
from its metallic lustre and pinchbeck colour : bronze 
powder, a metallic powder used to give to tm and 
iron goods, &c., a bronze-like appearance. 

brooch, n. bi-Och (Sp. broca, a tack or button; 
troche, a clasp), an ornament for the breast; a jewel : 
V. to adorn with jewels. 

brood, V. br6d (AS. brod, a brood: Dut. broeden, to 
sit on eggs : W. brwd, hot), to sit over, as a bird over 
her eggs; to spread over as with wings ; to dwell on 
a subject in anxious thought; to cherish: n. off- 
spring; progeny; the number of birds hatched at a 
time: brooding, imp.: brooded, pp.: brood-mare, 
a mare kept for breeding. 

brook, n. brubk (AS. broca, a brook: W. bruchen, 
the bubbling or springing up of water: Gael, bruich, 
to simmer: Gr. brucho, I roar), a small stream of 
water less than a river; a streamlet: brooklet, n. 
■let, a small brook: brook'y, a. -I, abounding in 

brook, V. brook (AS brucan, to use, to enjoy : Goth. 
brukjan; Ger. brmichen, to use), to bear; to endure: 
brooking, imp. : brooked, pp. brookt. 

broom, n. brOm (AS. brom: Dut. brem), a vnld 
shrub producing yellow flowers and pods ; a besom 
or brush with a long handle, made originally of tlie 
broom bush: broom'y, a. -{, full of broom: broom- 
stick, n. -silk, the staff or handle of a broom. 

brose, n. brOz (a softened form of broth: low Ger. 
broi, boiling water: old Eng. browys, pottage), a 
Scotch dish, made by pouring a boiling liquid over 
dry oatmeal or peasemeal, and then stirring it up. 

broth, n. brdth (It. brodu; F. brouet, broth: Dut. 
broeye; Ger. briihe, boiling water: Gael, brurrh, to 
boil), a dish consisting of flesh, barley, and vegetables, 
with'the water in which they are boiled. 

brothel, n. brdth'61 (Sp. borda, a hut or cottage: F. 
borde, a little cottage), a house of ill fame. 

brother, n. brutft-ir {iia,ns. bhratr: Gael, brathnir: 
W. briiwd- L. /rater), son of the same parents; one 
that rcst'inliles another in appearance or manners; 
a relation or kinsman ; broth ers, plu. : brethren, ]>\u. 
hrith-rrn, iiiciiibcrs ofllic s;uae socirty or prorfssioii : 
brotherless, a. : broth erllke, .a. : brotherhood, n. 
an association; a fiiitcrnitv : broth'erly, a. -?!, kiml; 
afl'ectionate; pert, to: broth erliness, n. : brother- 
german or germain, n. ■ji'r'inan (I,, iin-nnnnis. come 
of the same stock), a full brother: brother-uterine, n. 
-ii'tfjrln 11.. ti/i nis. thr. woijib), a liroMicr by the same 
mother oTilv: brother-in-law, n., brothers-in-law, pin. 
a sister's huslini'l ; i\u: brother of a husband or wife. 

brougham, u. hrO'-am (,ift(frLord Brougham), a light 
four-wheeled close carriage. 

brought, V. brawt, pt. pp. of bring, which see. 
brow, n. broio (k^. braew ; Russ. brov, brow: Dut. 
brauice, an eyelid, margin : Icel. bra, eyelid), the ridgo 
over the eye ; the forehead ; the edge or brink of a 
steep place, as of a river or hill : eyebrow, n. I'brdiv, 
the hair over the eye: to knit the brows, to frown; 
to scowl : browbeat, v. brolv'bet, to daunt or depress 
by haughty and stern looks ; to bully into submission 
by arrogant and impudent language : brow'beating, 
imp. n. : browbeaten, pp. -bel'n. 

brown, a. brulcn (Ger. braun ; Icel. and F. brun ; It. 
bruno, perhaps the colour of things burnt^-from Goth. 
brinnan, to burn), of a dark or dusky colour, inclining 
to redness: v. to make duskv or dark: browning, 
imp. : browned, pp. brownd : brown'ish, a. somewhat 
brown : brown'ne88,n.: brown-co8d,n. lignite: brown - 
study, n. gloomy or dull thoughtfulness or reverie : 
browning, n. liquid burnt sugar used for colouring 
gravy, &c.; the act or operation of giving a brown 
colour to. 

browse, v. broioz (F. browsfer, to nibble off the sprigs 
and buds; broust, a sprig: Sp. broza, brushwood), to 
eat the tender leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, 
as cattle or sheep : n. the tender branches of trees or 
shrubs : browsing, imp. : browsed, pp. browzd. 

brucine, n. br6s'-ln (after Bruce, the traveller), ar 
vegetable alkaloid extracted from an African plant. 

brucite, n. br6s'-lt (after Dr Bruce of JS'ew York), a 
mineral, a native hydrate of magnesia. 

bruin, n. bro'in (Dan. bruin; Icel. brun, brown), a 
name for a bear. 

bruise, n. br6z (F. briser, to break: old F. bruiser; 
Gael, brisd, to break), an injury on tiie flesh by its being 
crushed with a heavy or blunt substance ; a contusion : 
V. to crush or hurt by pressure ; to pound or reduce to 
coarse powder, as minerals or grain : bruis'ing, imp. : 
bruised, pp. brOzd: bruiser, n. brOz'er, he who, or that 
which ; a prize-fighter. 

biTxit, n. br(')'lt fF. : It. bruito, a muttering), a report ; 
fame : v. to report ; to noise abroad : bruiting, imp. : 
bruited, pp. noised or rumoured abroad. 

brumal, a. brS'mal (F.— from L. bruma, winter), of 
or relating to winter. 

brunette, n. brob-nCf (F.— from brun, b^o^vn, dusky), 
a woman with a dark or brownish consplexion ; oppo- 
site of bl07ide. 

brunt, n. brUnt (Serv. bronza, a cattle-bell, which 
the leading beast of the herd bore on its neck : Gris. 
brunza, the first train of baggage-animals), the first 
shock of an onset ; the greatest fury of the battle ; the 
force of a blow. 

brush, n. brush (Ger. and Sw. borste, a bristle, a 
brash: F. brosse, a bush, a head-brush: It. brusca, 
heath for brushes : Icel. briiskr, a tnft of grass), an 
article made of hair, bristle, &c., set in wood, for clean- 
ing, as dust from clothes, or for painting ; a skirmish ; a 
slight encounter; the tail of a fox : v. to rub or swe<>p 
as with a brush ; to touch or strike lightly : brush'ing, 
imp.: brushed, pp. briisht: brush'er, n. one who: 
brush'wood, n. a lot of sniall trees or bushes growing 
closely together ; a coppice or thicket : brush'y, a. -f, 
rough ; shaggy : bnish'iness, n. shagginess : biiish- 
wheels, wheels without teeth, which move others by 

brusque, a. brobsk (F. : It. bno'co, harsh), rude ; 
rough or blunt in manners : brusque ness. n. a blunt 
rough manner : brusquerie, n. bruosk'ri, bluntness. 

brute, n. br6t (L. bruttut ; It. bruto, stupid, irrational : 
F. brut, raw, rough), a beast; any animal except man ; 
a savage unfeeling man or woman: adj. irrational; 
rough; uncivilised: bni'tal, a. -tal, pert, to a brute; 
cruel; unfeeling: brutally, ad. -11: brutality, n. 
-tai'l-il, inhumanity; savageness: bru'talise, v. -liz, 
to make brutal or iiilmman; to Viecome like a beast: 
bru'talising, imp.: bru talised, pp. -Hzd: bru'tify, v. 
■ti-/l, to reduce to the state of a bnite : brutif/ing, 
imp. : bru'tified, pp. -/id : adj. reduced to the condi- 
tion of a bnite: brutish, a. -thh. like a brute or 
beast; feroiious: bru tishly, ad. -ll: bru'tishnesB, n. 

bryony, n. lir\'o->il, also bryonia, n. briO'nlil (I.. 
hryania : Gr. hruon—Uitu\ Iinia, I abound, from its 
abundance : F. bryonr), plants of different genera — the 
roots are powerfully acrid : bryonine, n. brVdnin.a 
yellowish -brown bitter substance obtained from the 

bryozoa, n. brV-O-z/'i'd (Gr. bnton, moss ; zoon, an ani- 
mall, the minute mollusea which live united in masse."} 
in a branched and moss-like manner: bryozo'on, a. 
pert. to. 

vkUc, mUt./dr, laTu; mite, met, Mr; pine, 2^ln; nOtc, nOt, mCvei 




bubalus, n. M'bd-liis (L. a buffalo), in geol., the 
remains of the musk-buffalo. 

babble, n. btlb'bl (an imitative word;Dut. bobhel: 
It. bubbola, a bubble : Bohem. bublati, to murmur : 
Scot, bub, a blast of wind), a round film or skin of water 
full of air; anything empty; a false show; something 
not real : v. to rise up in air-bells, as on the top of a 
liquid ; to run with a gentle gurgling noise ; to cheat : 
bubbling, imp. bub'bllng: adj. nmning with agurgling 
sound: bubTjled, pp. -biti; bubTjly, a. -bll, consisting 
of bubbles : bublsler, n. one who cheats. 

bubo, n. bu'-bo, plu. buboes, bu'boz {Gr. bonbon, the 
groin: F. bubon), a swelling of the lymphatic glands, 
especially those of the groin and annpit : bubonocele, 
n. bubOn'osel (Gr. kele, a tumour), a rupture in wliich 
the intestines break down into the groin. 

buccal, a. biUc'kdl (L. bucca, the cheek), belonging 
to the cheek. 

buccaneers, n. plu. buk'-a-nerz' (from the Carib lan- 
g\ia§e,—barbacoa, a kind of grate on which the flesh of 
their prisoners was cooked ; boiccan, the place of such 
a feast : F. boucaner, to cook and smoke flesh at the 
same time), persons who, in the W. I. and S. Amer., 
hunted wild animals for their skins, and rudely pre- 
served much of the flesh by drying it after the Indian 
fashion, called bucaning ; pirates or sea-robbers, who 
in former times principally attacked the Spanish 
settlements in Amer. : buccaneering, n. -ner'lng, 
the practice or profession of a buccaneer. 

bucentaur, n. bu-sin'tawr (Gr. bous, an ox ; kentau- 
ros, a centaur), in wii/fA., amonster, half-man, half-ox: 
(It. bncentoro), the state-barge of Venice used in the 
ceremony of espousing the Adriatic. 

buccinator, n. buk'-sln-a'-tor (L. buccina, a kind of 
tnunpet), a muscle forming a large part of the cheek 
— so called from being used in blowing wind-instru- 
ments : buc'cinal, a. -al, trumpet-like. 

buck, n. buk (AS. bucca; W. bwch; F. &0!<c— pro- 
bably from the tendency of the animal to but or strike 
with the forehead: Gael, boc, a knock or a blow), male 
of the deer, the goat, the rabbit, &c.; a fop ; a dashing 
young fellow : buck'ish, a. foppish : buckskin, n. a kind 
of leather. 

buck, n. buk (Gael, bog, moist, to steep or soak : Bret. 
bouk, soft: Dan. bog-aske, the ashes of beach-wood), 
lye or suds in which clothes are bleached or washed : 
V. to wash or steep clothes in lye : buck'ing, imp. : n. 
in mining, crushing ore : bucked, pp. bfikt. 

bucket, n. biik'kit (F. baquet, a pail : Russ. buk, a 
washing-vessel), a domestic vessel of various shapes 
for containing water, rubbish, or ashes ; a pail used by 
sailors : buck'etful, a. 

buckle, n. bUk'kl (F. boiicle, a curl or buckle: Pol. 
pukiel, a lock of hair : Ger. bucket, a boss or stud), an 
article consisting of a rim and tongue, used for fasten- 
ing together parts of dress ; a curl: v. to fasten with 
a buckle ; to engage in a matter with zeal : buck'ling, 
imp.: buckled, pp. bnk'kld. 

buckler, n. buk'-Ur (F. bouclier, a shield with a cen- 
tral boss— from boucle, protuberance), a kind of shield. 

buckra, n. bxik'-rd (in Calabar, a demon, a powerful 
being), among the blacks, a white man : adj. white. 

buckram, n. bfik'r&m (F. bougran: It. bucheravie, 
—from buca, a hole), coarse linen cloth stiffened with 
glue: adj. stiff; precise. 

buckwheat, n. biik'hicet (Dan. bog-hvete— from Ger. 
biiche; Dan. bog, beech-mast), a kind of grain having 
three-cornered seeds resembling beech-nuts: buck- 
thorn, a genus of plants. 

bucolic, n. bu-kol'-lk (L. bucolicus; Gr. bvkolikos— 
from Gr. boukolos, a cowherd), a pastoral poem : adj. 
relating to country affairs. 

bud, n. biid (Bohem. bodka, a point ; bodek, a thorn), 
the shoot or sprout on a plant containing the future 
leaf or flower ; a flower not blown or expanded : v. to 
put forth shoots ; to sprout ; to grow as buds : bud'- 
ding, imp. : bud'ded, pp. : bud let, n. a bud growing 
from another bud. 

Buddha, n. bUd'-dd, Buddhism, n. bUd'dlzm, &c.— see 

huddle, n. bud'dl, among miners, a wooden frame 
used for washing ore: v. to wash ore: bud'dling, 
imp. bUd'-Ung: huddled, pp. bild'dled. 

budge, V. biij (F. bouger, to move : Bret, boulg, 
movement: Icel. built, frequent motion), to move off; 
to stir : bud'ging, imp. ; budged, pp. biljd : bud ger, 
n. one who. 

budge, n. bfij (Russ. pu.':h\ fur-skins ; pushit', to line 
with fur), dressed skin or fur of lambs, formerly used 

coiv, b6y,/ijbt; pure, bUd; chair, 

us an edging or ornament, especially of scholastic 
habits: adj. solemn, like a doctor in his fur; stem: 
budge-barrel, n. a small barrel with one head, the 
other having a loose leathern cover, used in carrjring 
powder in a siege. 

budget, n. bilj'St (F. bougette, a leather bag : It. bol- 
getta, a leathern buckets— from bulga, a skin), a bag 
with its contents ; a stock or store ; the annual finan- 
cial scheme of the British nation. 

buff, n. buf (L. bubalus; Russ. buival; F. buffle, 
the wild ox or buffalo: It. buffalo), a sort of soft 
leather prepared from the skin of the bufl'alo ; a col- 
our near to yellow; yellow substance on blood in 
inflammations: adj. of the colour of buff-leather, or 
made of it : buffs, a regiment of soldiers, so called from 
their buff-coloured facmgs : buf 'fy, a. -fl, pert, to the 
colour on the surface of blood ; resembling buff : buf'- 
falo, n. -fd-lO, a kind of \vild ox : buffle-headed, a. biiffl- 
Ad'i'cd, having a large head like a buffalo; dull; stupid. 

buffer, n. biif-jer (low Ger. buffen, to strike: It. 
buffetto, a cuff), apparatus at the ends of railway 
carriages, which, when driven in, spring out again, 
and so prevent injury to the carriages coming into 
contact; any cushion-like article to take away the 
force of a blow : buffer-head, n. in railway carriages, 
the part of the buffer apparatus which receives the 
concussion: buffet, n. biif'/et, a blow with the fist; 
a box ; a slap : v. to strike with the fist or hand ; to 
box or beat; to contend against: buffeting, imp.: 
buffeted, pp. : buf feter, n. one who. 

buffet, n. buf'-fit, (F. buffet, primarily, the tap of a 
tavern, then a sideboard), a cupboard or set of shelves 
for crockery ; a sideboard. 

buffoon, n. buj-fon' (F. bonffon, a jester— from It. 
buffare, to puff, to blow hard), a man who amuses 
others by tricks, antic gestures, and jokes : v. to make 
ridiculous : buifoon'ing, imp. : buffoon'ery, n. -er-l. 
the tricks of a bufloon; low jests; drolleries: buf- 
foon'ish, a. : buffoon'ism, n. -izm: buffo, n. bob/'/O, 
the comic actor in an opera. 

bufonites, n. plu. bH'-jo-nlts (L. bufo, a toad), toad- 
stones ; serpents' eyes ; fossil palatal teeth of extinct 
shark-like fishes. 

bug, n. biig (\V. bwrai, what produces dread or dis- 
gust; Alb. boube; Russ. buka, a bugbear), a name ap- 
plied to various insects ; an offensive insect common 
in dirty dwelling-houses: buggy, a. -gl, full of bugs: 
bug'giness, n. 

bugbear, n. bug'bCir {bug, with bear, as an object of 
dread), anything that scares or frightens, real or ima- 

finary: v. to alarm or scare by any means: bug'- 
earing, imp. : bug beared, pp. 

buggy, n. biig'-gi, a light one-horse vehicle open at 
top ; a gig. 

bugle, n. bii'gl (F. buffle; It. buffalo, a wild ox), a 
hunting-horn, formerly spelt buj/alo-horn ; a musi- 
cal instrument ; a genus of plants; a long slender glass 
bead, generally black. 

bugloss, n. bu'glos (L. buglossa— from Gr. bous, an 
ox, and glossa, a tongue), the plant ox-tongue ; aplant 
used in dyeing and colouring. 

buhl, n. bUl (after Boule, a French can'er in wood), 
unburnished gold, mother-of-pearl, &c., used for in- 
laying in dark wood, &c.: buhl- work, inlaying wood, 
&c., with metal or mother-of-pearl. 

buhrstoneorburrstone, n. ber'stOn (old Eng. btir, a 
whetstone for scj^hes), a rough silicious stone used in 
making millstones for grinding com. 

build, V. blld (Ger. bilden to form, to fashion : old 
Sw. bylja, to raise a habitation), to construct ; to make 
or raise anj'thing— as a wall, a house, or a ship ; to 
shape into a particular form ; to raise on a foundation ; 
to increase ; to depend on as a foimdation : bulld'ing, 
imp.: n. an edifice; a fixed structure — as a house, a 
church: built, pt. pp. bllt, or builded, pp. bU'ded: 
builder, n. bil'dir, one who erects buildings. 

bukshisha— see backshish. 

bulb, n. bidb (L. bulbus, a globular root, an onion : 
Gr. bolbos), a root consisting of scales or layers, as the 
onion— or solid, as the crocus : bulbed, a. billbd, round- 
headed : bulbiferous, a. biil-blf-er-us (L. fero, I bear), 
producing bullis: bulbous, a. bwib^its, globular; con- 
taining bulbs: bulbil or bulblet,n. biil'bll, biilb'iet, in 
bot., separable buds in the axil of leaves, a.s in some 
lilies: bulbous-based, in bot., applied to hairs which 
are tumid at the base. 

bulbul, n. bmil'-bul (Pers.), the Persian nightingale. 

bulge, n. 6?HJ(Gaol. bolg, a swell or blister; hxdg, a 
ship's bilge or convexity : Icel. bolga, a tumour), the 

game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




broadest part of a cask ; a protuberance ; a swelling 
out : V. to swell out ; to bilge as a ship : burglng, imp. : 
bulged, pp. bUljd. 

bulimia, n. bil-llm'-l-d, or bulimy, n. bu'll-ml (Gr. 
hoH. a particle which augments the meaning of words, 
and ii7nos, himger), excessive appetite for food. 

bulk, n. bulk (Dan. bialke, a beam ; another form of 
balk, which see), size ; magnitude ; the main mass or 
body ; the whole cargo of a ship in the hold : to break 
bulk, to begin to unload a ship ; to break open a pack- 
ago of goods : in bulk, in the mass ; cargo loose in the 
hold of a ship and not enclosed in boxes or packages : 
bulkliead, n. -lied, a partition across the hold of a ship : 
bulky, a. -kl, large; of great size: bulluness, n. -nis, 
greatness in bulk or size. 

bull, n. bobl (\V. bicla: Icel. boUi: Ger. biille), the 
male of the cow kind: in Srri/>., a fierce and power- 
ful enemy: bul'lish, -Ish, bull-headed, bull-like, a. 
pert, to a bull; dogged and self-willed: bull-baiting, 
n. the rendering bulls furious by setting dogs to 
attack them: bull-dog, n. a large- headed, .strong- 
jawed, variety of dog : bull-fight, n. an amusement 
among the Spanish jand Portuguese, consisting of an 
exhibition of men fighting with wild bulls : bull-fly, 
n. a gadfly: bullock, h. bwl'dk (AS. buUuca), a cast- 
rated bull or ox fed for slaughter : bull-calf, a male 
calf ; a young stupid fellow. 

bull, n. bobl (It. bolla, a seal: L. Mdla, a boss or 
ornament), a name at first applied to the seal attached 
to an edict of the Pope, but now applied to the edict 
itself; a blunder; in the Stock Exchange, those who 
try to raise tlie price of stocks are called bulls, and 
those who try to lower their price, bears: bull's-eye, 
n. boblz-l, among seamen, a piece of wood shaped like 
a ring ; a dark distant cloud, ruddy in the centre, fore- 
telling a storm ; the centre mark on a target for shoot- 
ing at ; a small round window or opening. 

bullate, a. bul'lat (L. bulla, a bubble), in bot., gar- 
nished with studs like bubbles or blisters. 

bullet, n. bubl'lSt{F. boulet— from L. bulla, abubble), 
a round or oblong ball of metal, used for loading pis- 
tols, guns, or rifles. 

bulletin, n. bool'lS-fen (F. a packet : It. bidleffhio— 
from bulla, an edict of the Pope), an official report or 
notice ; a public announcement. 

bull-finch, n. bool'-flnsh (coiTuption of bud-fmch, 
as causing destruction among buds), a song-bird. 

bullion, n. bSbl'yun (F. billon, base coin: Sp. vel- 
Ion, an alloy of silver and copper : mod. Gr. bonllono, 
I seal or stamp: formerly the mint where the pre- 
cious metals were alloyed and made into money), 
gold or silver of the standard fineness, in any form 
not money — generally in small bars called ingots; 
gold and silver in the mass ; foreign or uncm-rent 

bully, n. bcTol'-ll (Dut., to bluster: Ger. 
poltern, to make a noise : Sw. buller, noise), a quarrel- 
some cowardly fellow; one who blusters and threatens : 
V. to insult with noise ; to overawe by threats : bully- 
ing, imp. -Wing: bullied, pp. -lid: bul'lirag, v. -rdg, 
to insult in a bullying manner. 

bulrush, n. bobl-riish (bull, meaning large, and 
rjj.sA), a large strong kind of rush. 

bulge, n. bula (Port, bolsa, a purse), in India, a bag 
or purse in which to carry or measure valuables— as 

bulwark, n. bfibVwerk (Dut. holwerck, a fortified 
wall : F. boulevart, the r.amparts of a town, a broad 
street at Paris (boulevard) surrounding what was once 
tliecity: It. baluarte), a, rampsurt; a fortification ; any 
means of defence or protection, originally made of the 
boles or trunks of trees ; the railboards of a ship : v. 
to fortify with a rampart ; to protect. 

bum, V. huyn (Dut. bommen, to beat a drum: L. 
hiimbus; Gr. hnmbos, a humming, buzzing noisi;), to 
ni;iko a wliirriiig noise: bumble-lsee, n. bnm'bl — or 
humble-bee, hum'-bl—a, large bee, so called from the 
noise it makes— contracted into bwnbec 

bumastos, n. bob-mas'tds (Gr., an immense bunch of 
grapes), in f7eoi., a gentis of Silurian trilobitcs— so called 
from tlieir oblong-oval or grape-like form, and known 
to rollcctors ;us the Barr trilohite. 

bumbailiff, n. bnm-bdl'l/ifrom the notion of a bum- 
ming orduiining noise), colloquially, an under-baililf ; 
one (rnijiloved to dim or arrest for debt. 

bumboat, n. huin'hot (Dut. bum-boot, a very wide 
fishlng-boat: Fris. bom. ground, afloor: Dut. boom, a 
beam), a 1)oat employed in conveying provisions, &c., 
to outlying vessels. 

bump, n. biimp (W. pwmpio, to thump, to bang ; 
pu'vip, a round : F. pompette, a pimple on the 
skin), a swelling ; a thump : v. to make a noise ; t;) 
strike against ; to thump : bump ing, imp. : bumped, 
pp. bumpt: bumper, n. bum'-p&r, a cup or glass swelled 
or filled to the brim. 

bumpkin, n. bum'kln (Ger. bnmn; Dut. boom, a 
Vieam, a log), an awkward country fellow; a rustic: 
bumpTdnly, ad. -ll. 

bun or bunn, n. biin (F. bigne, a knob rising after a 
knock ; bignef, a little round loaf: It. bwjno, a boil or 
blain : Gael, bonnach ; Scot, bannock, a little cake), a 
sweet cake. 

bunch, n. bilnsh (Icel. banga, to beat ; bunki, a heap : 
Dan. bundt; Sw. bunt, a bunch), a lump or knot ; a 
cluster ; a protuberance ; a number of things grow- 
ing together or tied together ; a miner's term for an 
irregular lump of ore : v. to swell out in roundness ; 
to form or tie in a lot or bunch: bunch'ing, imp.: 
bunched, pp. biinsht: bunchy, a. hunsh'l, growing iii 
bunches ; having tufts : bimcn'ineas, n. 

bundle, n. biin'dl (AS. byndel; Dut. bondel, some- 
thing bound up: Dan. btiJidt; Sw. bunt, a bundle), a 
number of things put together and tied : v. to tie up 
together : bundlbig, imp. : bundled, pp. bun'-dld : 
bundle-pillar, a column or pier with others of small 
dimensions attached to it. 

bimg, n. biXng (old Ger. bunge, a drum : Dut. and F. 
bonde, a bung : W. bumg, a bung-hole), a 'large round 
cork or wooilen stopper for the hole in a cask : v, to 
stop up the opening in a cask with a bung : bung'ing, 
imp.: bunged, pp. bfmgd: bung-hole, n. the hole in a 
cask by which it is fiUed or emptied. 

bungalow, n. bung'gd-lo (native name, bangla), in 
India, a country-house of one floor or flat only. 

bungle, n. biing'-gl (Icel. bbngun, a rudepertormance : 
Dan. banke; Icel. banga, to strike, as nailing on a 
patch), anything ill done; a botch; an affair mis- 
managed: V. to do anything clumsily; to mismanage 
an affair; to botch: bun'gling, imp.: adj. awlovardly 
done: bungled, pp. bung'gld: bun'glingly, ad. -ll: 
bun'gler, n. -gl&r, one who. 

bunion, n. bun'-yun (from bun, which see), a horny 
excrescence on a toe. 

bunker, n. bung'-kcr (Sw. bunke, a wooden vessel: 
Icel. bunki, a heap), a large wooden box for containing 
coals ; a bin : bunk, n. bungk, a large wooden case 
serving for a seat during the day, and for a bed at 

bimkum, n. bung'kihn (from Buncombe, Ivorth Ca- 
rolina, U.S.), speech-making for mere show. 

bunt, n. bunt (Dan. bundt; Sw. bunt, a bunch, a 
bundle), the belly or protuberance or bagging part of 
a sail: bunt-lines, n. pin. ropes on the bottoms ot 
sails to draw them upwards: bunting, n. biin'tUig, a 
thin woollen cloth used for flags, and variously col- 

bunting, n. bfiii'flng {Ger. 5M7?f. varieg.ated),anam3 
for different kinds of birds, as yellow bunting, corn- 
bunting, snoio-bunting : bunter, n. -ter, in geol., the 
upper new red sandstone. 

buoy, n. bay (Dut. boei; F. boit/e; Sp. boya; Fris. 
boye, a lump or cluster), an empty cask, or a small 
sti-ucture of wood, made for floating on the water, to 
point out shallows or rocks, Ac. : life-buoys, articles 
kept in ships to be thrown into the water when any 
person falls overboard to keep him afloat ; a float : v. 
to keep afloat; to bear up; to support; to sustain ; to 
place buoys; to float: buoy'ing, imp.: buoyed, pp. 
/joT/rf: buoyancy, n. ?)oT/;rt?i-sf, the quality of floating 
on water or in air ; lightness : buoy'ant, a. floating ; 
light; that cannot sink; buoy'antly, ad. -ll: buoy'- 

buprestis, n. bU-pr?.<tt'is (Gr. botqvr-^ti'', an insect 
that causes inflammation in oxen— from Iwus, an ox. 
and pretho, I set on fire), a genus of coleopterous in- 
sects remarkable for their brilliant metallic tints. 

bur or burr, n. her (F. bourir. flocks or locks of 
wool: It borrn. any kind fif stufliii-,': Gael, borr, to 
swell), a rough pricklv covering of the seeds of soni • 
plants; the secd■ve.■^sl•l of the burdock; the rough 
edge left by a tool in cutting mi>tal ; the guttural pro- 
nunciation of the letter r: buiT Stone, certain silicious 
rocks u.sed as millstones. 

burbot, n. bir'boi (F. bnrholf—trom barbe, beard), 
a fish like an eel, but thicker and shorter— called also 

burden, n. 6<'r'dH— sometimes written bur'then (AS. 
byrthen: Ger. biirde—tiom beran, to bear), somethiiui 

vHlte, 7n((t,/dr, laTv; vxlte, viHf, h<^; pTJie, 2^^"; nOte, nUt, mOve; 



rarricil; a load; something sricvoiw or opprcsisivc; 
the prevailing sontinu'iit in a song; tlie clionis; a 
ship's capacity for carrying: v. to lay on a load; to 
oppress: bur'deniiig, imp. -d»-uuj: bur'dened, pp. 
-dnd : bur'dener, n. one who : bur densome, a. -iln-.fvjn, 
grievous to be borne ; fatiguing ; oppressive : bur'den- 
somely, ad. 41: bur'densomeness, n. 

burdock, n. ber'-dok, or bur-weed, n. (see bur), a wild 
plant with a rough prickly head, having heart-shaped 
leaves and purple blossoms. , . ^ , 

bureau, n. bu-rO'(F. a writing-table: It. mcio, aarlc: 
Pol. bury, dark-grey : old F. bure, reddish-brown— the 
kind of cloth which covered the table), a table or chest 
of drawers with conveniences for writing and keeping 
papers ; an otlice of an ambassador, state secretary, 
&c., for business: bureauc'racy,n.-r-oA;:rdS-sl(F. bureau, 
and Gr. krateo, I govern), the system by which the 
public service of a country is carried on in departments, 
each one under the control of a head ; government 
by or under the influence of officials : bu'reaucrat'ic, 
a. -ro-krdt'lk, relating to or having the form of a 
bureaucracy ; also bu'reaucrat'ical : bu'reaucrat'- 
ica^y, ad. 41: bureauc'ratist, u. -rOk'-ra4ist, an advo- 
cate for or supporter of. ^ ^ , 
burette, n. bob-ret' (F. a ciniet, a vase), a graduated 
glass tube with stop -cock for delivering measured 
quantities of liquids. 

burg, burgh, n. berg— in Scot., ber'-ii; also borough. 
hur'-O, which see (AS. burg)— i\ie same words ditter- 
ently spelt; at first a fortified town, now a city or 
town that sends, or unites in sending, a member to 
Parliament; a town with certain privileges: royal 
burgh, a town holding a charter from the crown : 
burgh of barony, one erected by a feudal lord or su- 

burgage, n. ber'adj (old F. burgeois : mid. L. burgen- 
sis), a tenure by which property is held in cities and 
towns : burgess, n. -jes, a citizen or freeman of a town : 
burgess-ship, n: burgher, n. bdrg'cr, the freeman or 
inhabitant of a burgh ; one of a religious sect in Scot- 
land: burgh'ership, n. : burgeois, n. hor'-zhwd (F.), a 
burgess : burgeois, n. bSbr-joys', AsmA\\ printing-type ; 
also spelt bourgeois: burg-mote, n. burg-mot. In AS. 
times, a borough court. 

burglar, n. berg'-ler (Norm. F. bourglaire— from low 
L. burgi4atro, the robber of a dwelling), one who 
breaks into a house at night to steal ; a housebreaker : 
burgla'rious, a. 4a'ri-us, pert, to a theft by house- 
breaking: burgla'riously, ad. -K; burglary, n. ler-l, 
the breaking into a house by night to steal. 

burgomaster, n. ber'-go-mus-ter, or burgh'master 
{burg and master), one employed in the government- 
of a city ; chief magistrate in one of the large towns 
in Holland, &c. 

burgout, n. ber'-gobt (W. burym, yeast ; gatul, gruel), 
thick gruel used by seamen. 

Burgundy, n. ber'-g&n-dA, a fine French wine from 
Burgundy : burgundy pitch, a resin collected from the 
spruce fir. 
burial, n. ber'-i-al—%ee under bury, 
burin, n. bu'rin (F. burin; It. borino, a sharp chisel 
for cutting stone with— probably from Fin. purra, to 
bite), an engraver's tool made of steel : bu rinist, n. 
an engraver. 

burk, V. berk (name of an Irishman notorious for the 
crime), to murder by sulTocation ; to smother : burk'- 
ing, imp. : burked, pp. biirkt. 

burl, V. berl (Dut. borrel, a bubble: Sp. borla, a 
tuft), to pick knots and loose threads from cloth when 
fulling it : burl'er, n. one who : burling, imp. : burled, 
pp. burld: burl'ing-iron, n. an instrument like large 
tweezers used in burling cloth. 

burlesque, n. ber-Usk' (F.: It. burlare, to make a 
jest of: Gael, burt, mockery), the turning any matter 
into ridicule; the representation of a subject in mock 
gravity with the view of exciting laughter: adj. tend- 
ing to raise laughter ; droll ; comic : v. to turn a sub- 
ject into ridicule ; to treat a trifling matter with mock 
gravity to excite laughter : burlesqu'ing, imp. : bur- 
lesqued, pp. 4eskf: burlesqu'er, n. 4Ssk'-cr, one who : 
burlet'ta, n. 4et'-ta (It.), a comic opera; a musical 

burly, a. bSr'-U (Ir. borram, to grow big and prosper- 
ous: Gael, borr, a swelling), big and fresh-looking; 
stout and iolly; big and blustering : burliness, a. 
4i-nds, the 'being big and blustering : hurly-burly, n. 
confusion; uproar. 

bum, n. bern (Goth. 6rrn?ifrn; Dut. brcvnen; AS. 
by man, to burn), an injury to the flesh by the action 


of firo : V. to injure by fire ; to reduce to ashes by tho 
action of fire; to harden by fire; to scorcli, as tlio 
clothes ; to be on fire ; to shine ; to rage with violence 
or passion ; to feel excess of heat iu the body : bum'- 
ing, imp.: adj. very hot; scorching; powerful: n. the 
act of reducing to ashi>s; a tire; the vehemence or 
raging of passion: burned orbumt, ]it. and iij). bernd, 
bernt: burn'er, n. the sm.-ill jnoviiblc |i;ut of a lamp 
or gas lustre, &c., next tlir llaiiif : burning-glass, n. a 
convex lens of glass for collecting the rays of the sun 
so as to produce heat : burning-mirror, n. a concave 
surface, usually of polished metal, for the same purpose. 
burn, n. bern (Goth, brunna; Icel. brunnr ; Ger. 
born, a well, a spring: Gael, burn, water), a brook; a 
small running stream. 

burnish, v. ber'-nlsh (F. brunir, to polish : Sw. brynn, 
to sharpen ; brynstcn, a whetstone), to polish by fric- 
tion ; to make smooth and bright by rubbing ; to be- 
come bright by friction : n. lustre ; brightness : bur'- 
nishing, imp. : bur'nished, pp. -nlsht, polished: bur'- 
nisher, n. the person or tool that burnishes. 

bumoose, n. ber'-nos or -n6z (Ar. burnus, a kind of 
high-crov.'ned cap: Sp. albornoz, a Moorish cloak), an 
upper garment with a hood worn by the Moors and 
burnt, pt. and pp. of bum, which see. 
burnt-ear, n. bernt'-er, a disease in corn in which 
the whole ear appears black. 

burnt-offering, n. bernt-of-fer-lng, something burnt 
on an altar, as an offering for sin, called also buriit- 

burr, n. her, the lobe of the ear; a roughness in 
sounding the letter r — (see bur). 

burrock, n. der'rofc (AS. burg, hill, and ock, diminu- 
tive termination), a small dam in a river for catching 

burrow, n. ber'ro (AS. beorgan, to protect, to shel- 
ter : Dut berghen, to hide, to cover), an underground 
hole or excavation, where small animals such as the 
rabbit live: v. to make holes underground and live 
in them ; to live in a concealed place : bur rowing, 
imp. : bur rowed, pp. -rod. 

burse, n. bers (F. boxirse, a purse, an exchange : low 
L. bursa), a public building where merchants and 
money-dealers meet on business; an exchange: bur- 
sar.n. fier'ser, the treasurer of a college ormonastery ; 
a student in a Scotch university to whom a sum of 
money is paid out of a fund set aside for that purpose ; 
an exhibitioner : bur'sarship, n. the position or office 
of a bursar: bur'sary.n. -i, the treasury of a college or 
monasterj' ; the sum allowed to a bursar ; an exhibi- 

burst, n. berst (Ger. bersten ; AS. berstan ; S w. brista ; 
F. briser, to break), a sudden breakage ; an explosion ; 
a violent outbreak : v. to break open forcibly or with 
sudden violence; to break away from; to come upon 
unexpectedly ; to break forth, or into, with violence ; 
to rend by force : bursting, imp. : bur&t, pp. : burst'er, 
n. one who. 

burthen, n. ber'-thn: bur'thensome, a. : bur'then- 
someness, n. — see burden. 

burton, n. ber'-tn, in a ship, a small tackle of two 
single blocks, said to be named from the inventor. 

bury, v. ber'-i (AS. birgan; Dut. berghen, to hide, to 
stow away : Ger. bergen, to conceal), to put or place 
anything in the earth ; to lay a dead body in the 
grave ; to inter ; to hide or conceal ; to overwhelm : 
burled, pp. -Id: bur'jring, imp. n. -l-lng, the act of 
placing the dead in the earth : burying-place, burial- 
place, n. a graveyard; a cemetery: burial, n. -l-Ol 
(AS. byripels, a sepvilchre), the act of laying a dead 
body in the earth, in a tomb, in a vault, or among 

water, as at sea. 

bush, n. b(rosh (Icel. buskr, a tuft of hair ; buski, a 
bimch of twigs : F. bousche, a tuft, a wisp : Dut. 
bos, a bunch), a shrub or small tree ; a collection of 
shrubs of various kinds; a tract of uncultivated 
country covered with trees and shrubs of natural 
growth; a fox's tail: bush-beater, n. bct'-er, one 
who beats amongst the cover to rouse game : bush- 
flghting, n. -fit'-lng, irregular warfare in a woody 
country : bush'et, n. -et, a copse; a wood : bush'man, 
n. one who lives in the back settlements of a new 
counti-y ; bushy, a. bfwsh'-l, full of bushes ; thick like 
the branches of a bush: bush'iness, n.: bushranger, 
a robber, especially an escaped criminal, roaming 
about the woods and outlying parts of a new country, 
bush, n. b(Tosh (Dut. basse; Ger. biichse; Dan. bosse, 
a box), a round open piece of metal put into sheaves of 

cmv, boy, foot; pure, bid; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




blocks to prevent them wearing ; a oirdet of metal rut 
into anything to lessen friction : v. to line any liole 
or orilice with metal : bushing, imp. : bushed, pp. 
h'Tosht, lined with metal : bushel, n. -il. a, measure 
for dry goods, containing 8 gall, or 4 pks. ; a large 
business, busied— see busy. 

busk, n. l)w<k (Icel. bukr, the trunk of an animal: 
Sp. biwhe, stomach, bre;ist: F. busriu; a log), a thin 
flat piece of steel, whalebone, or wood, worn by females 
in their stays. 

busk, V. bilsk {Icel. bun, to prepare, to dress ; at 
biKist, to bend one's steps), to dress; to attire one's 
self; to deck: busk'ing, imp. : busked, \<\). hilskt. 

buskin, n. bits'kln (Sp. bolz.qiiui. buskins: Dut. 
broseken; F. broilequia, buskin), a Icind ol half bout 
worn by the ancient actors in tragedy : bus'kined, a. 
bus, n. biis, a contraction of omnibus. 
buss, n. bili (Ger. base: Dut. buyse: Sp. bucha), a. 
boat for ftshing. 

buss, n. biLi (Gael, bus, a month: Sp. buz, a kiss: 
L. bLisiitiii: It. bM-io, a kiss: F. baiser, to kiss), a 
salute with the lips ; a rude or playful kiss : v. to kiss 
ill a rude and playful manner: bus'sing, imp. : bussed, 
pp. bilst. 

bust, n. bi'ist (F. buste, the body of a man from the 
face to the middle : It. busto, a trunk witliout a lu-ad : 
Icel. butr, the trunk of a tree), th(! ti^'ure of a person 
siiowing the head, shoulders, and l)reast. 

bustard, n. btia'terd (F. outanl, a great sluggish 
fowl: L. avis tarda, the sluggish bird), a kind of wild 

bustle, n. bils'sl(lc.(i[. biistla, to make a splash in the 
water, to bustle), hurry and noise ; great stir ; rapid 
motion witli noise ; a pad formerly used to expand 
petticoats: v. to be very active; to stir quickly witli 
noise: bust'ling, imp. -lUvj: bustled, pp. bus'-sld: 
bust ler, n. -ler, one who. 

busy, a. blz'l (AS. bisec/, occupation : Dvit. besig, 
busy : F. beso'jiie, work), very closely engaged ; con- 
stantly and actively employed ; meddling ; trouble- 
some : V. to employ constantly ; to keep employed ; 
to make busy : busying, imp. -l-lni : busied, pp. -id: 
busily, ad. -I/l; business, n. blz-aes, employment; 
occupation; anj'thing that demands attention; af- 
fairs ; matter under consideration ; something to be 
iloue : business-like, a. as it ought to be done ; 
thorough: busy-body, n. -bdd'l, a meddling person : 
busy -minded, a. having an active mind. 

but, conj. bilt (AS. butan; Dut. buitan, without), 
something more to supply ; unless : ad. only : prep, 
except: int. expressing surprise or dissent: but and 
ban (AS. baton, without; binnun, within), without tlie 
house and within; applied to the outer and inner 
rooms of a house of two apartments. 

but-end, n. bUt'dnd, the blunt or larger end— see 

butcher, n. bwlch'-er (F. bourher—irom. boc, a goat: 
It. beccaro— from becco, a goat), one who slaughters 
animals for food ; one wlm cuts iiji and sells meat or 
tlesh; a cruel man; one wIid di-liglits in blood: v. to 
kill or slaughter animxls for food ; tu murder with un- 
usual cruelty: butchering, imp. : butch'ered, pp. 
■>'rd: butch'ery, u. -ir-l. t,'ri',it slaugliter; murder with 
great barliarity: butcherly, ad. -U: butch'erliness, 
n. : butcher-meat, n. the flesh of animals slaughtered 
for tlie table: butcher's-broom, n. tlie plant knee- 
holly, the branches of which are used by butchers for 

butler, n. but'-Ur (F. boideiUier—irnm bonidlle, a 
bottle ; ratlier from butt, a barrel : Sp. boteria, the 
.store of barrels), a servant in wealthy families wlio 
has the charge of the plate, liquors, &c. : but'lerage, 
n. -Uyr-aj, a duty on wine : but'lershlp, n. the otiice of 
butment— see abutment. 

butt, v. hut (I)uf,. bntlcn, to thrust: It. botto, a 
blow), to strike with tlie, iKMd like a goat or a ram: 
n. a pusli or thrust ^nveu liy an animal witli its liead : 
but'tlng, imp.: but'ted, )>p. : to come full butt 
against, to come nimn suii<leiily, so as to make a 
aoundiii!^ blow; butt-end of a thing (Icel. bufr. Wm' 
trunk: F. bunt, end: W. jiu't, a stuiui): (ier. tiutt. a 
short, thick tliln-), tlie striking end ; the tliiek end, 
ii8 of a ])laiik In a sliij) : butt, n. a mound of turf in a 
field to support a target fur sluioting at ; tlie prick in 
the middle of a target (F. 6)*/) : to make a butt of a 
person, to make Lim a mark for the Jests of the com- 

jiany ; to touch at the end (F. buter) : bntts, n. strips 
at the edges of a ploughed field : but-lands, waste 
ground: butt and butt, joming end to end without 

butt, n. biit (F. botte; mod. Or. boutis. a cask: 
Sp. bota, a wine-skin), a large barrel ; a butt of wine 
contains 126 gallons ; a butt of beer, 108 gallons. 

butte, n. biit (F. a small rising ground), in tho 
western parts of North America, detached hills and 
ridges wli-ich rise abruptly, intermediate in height 
between hills and mountains. 

butter, n. biit'ter (liav. butte.rn, to shake backwards 
and forwards: L. butijruiii; Gr. bouturon, butter), an 
oily or fatty substance got from milk or cream by 
churning or shaking it: v. to cover or spread with 
butter, as bread : but'tering, imp. : but tered, pp. 
■terd: buttermilk, n. the milk left after the butter 
has been separated: but'tery, a. -tirl, like butter: 
buttercups, liright yellow ^\ild flowers in the form 
of a cup : butterfly (Dut. boterschijte—irom the resem- 
blance of the excrement of certain .species to butter), 
a common insect with large wings, so called from tlie 
colour of a yellow species : butterman, a vendor of 
butter : butter-tree, a tree whose seeds yield a sub- 
stance closely resembling butter. 

butteris, n. but'-ter-ls (F. boutoir—irora bouter, to 
thrust), a steel tool for paring the hoofs of horses. 

buttery, n. but'-tCr-l (Sp. boteria, the store of wine 
in a ship kept in botas or leather bags), a store for 
drinkables ; the room where provisions are laid up. 

buttocks, n. plu. bilt'toks (Dut. bout, the leg or 
thigh of an animal ; boutje, a little gigot^from butt, 
the thick end), the rump, or protuberant part of the 
body beliind ; the convexity of the hinder part of a 

button, n. biit'tn (F. bouton, a bud, a button: W. 
both, a boss ; botimi, a button), a small round article 
used for fastening parts of the dress together : v. to 
fasten with a button : buttoning, imp. but'-ning: but- 
toned, pp. biU'tnd : button-hole, the slit in which the 
button is caught. 

buttress, n. but'trSs (F. bouter, to thrust ; bouiant, 
a buttress or shore-post), a prop or support for a wall ; 
any prop or support ; constructed of open masonry, it 
is called a flying buttress : v. to support ; to prop : 
but'tressing, imp. : but'tressed, pp. -trtist. 

butjTTaceous, a. bu'tl-rd'shus (L. butyrum, butter), 
having the properties of or containing butter: bu- 
tyric, a. -tlr'-lk, pert, to or derived from butter— ap- 
plied to an acid found in butter. 

buxeous, a. buks'6-us (L. buxus, the box-tree), pert. 
to tlie box-tree. 

buxom, a. buks'iim (AS. bocsam, obedient: Fris. 
bon/^um, flexible, obedient), gay; lively; brisk and 
healthy— applied toawoman: bux'omly, ad. -11: bui'- 
omness, n. 

buy, v. bl (AS. bycgan; Goth, biiajan, to buy, to 
purchase), to obtain a right to anyihing by giving 
money or value for it ; to purchase ; to bribe or cor- 
rupt : buy^ing, imp. : bought, pt. pp. batvt, purchased: 
buyer, n. bl'er, one who buys. 

buzz, v. buz (an imitative word: It. huzzicare. to 
whisper, to buzz), to make a noise like bees ; to whis- 
per ; to make a hissing or murmuring noise ; to spresul 
secretly : n. a hum ; a noise like bees and insects ; a 
hissing or murmuring noise caused by the whispering 
of great numbers: buzzing, imp. : buzzed, pp. buzd: 
buz'zingly, ad. -11: buzzer, n. one who. 

buzzard, n. bnz'-zrrd (F. bv^ard: It. bozzago), a 
species of hawk; a Mnekhead or dunce: adj. sense- 
less ; stupid : buzzardet, n. buz'zirdit, a species of 
hawk much like the buzzard. 

by, prep, bl (AS. ()/ : fier. bei: Dut. bij: Sans, abhi), 
near;; at hand, &c. : ad. near: by, sometimes 
bye, as a prefi.\, means conee;iled ; ■piiet; out of the 
direct wav; private, it.-. : by-corner, n. a private 
place: by-lane, n. a priv:ito lane: by-law, n. a law 
inadi' bv a town or society to n'gulate its all'airs: by- 
name, "n. nickiianie: by-past, a. jiast ; gone by: 
by-path, n. or by-road, n. a ipuet or juivate road: 
by'stander, n one who stands near; a sjiectator: by- 
street, n. a street off tlie main stiv( t : by-stroke, a 
slv or secret stroke : by-walk, n. or by-way, a private 
walk: by-word, n. a c'onimon saying; a i>roverb: 
by-gone, n. a jiiist iiiciilcnt or event : let by-gones be 
by-gones, let the past be loigotten: to stand by, to 
stand aside: to stand by one, to stand at liis side ; to 
assist: to pass by, to pass at the side of: by-and-by 
or by-and-bye, ;id. soon ; shortly : by-the-by, ad. by 

mate, mat, far, Mv; mete, mit, her; pine, j^ln; nOle, 7idt, mGve; 




the waj'; introductory to some things not in the 
dlr'3(.'t course of conversation. 

byre, n. 6lr (old F. boaverie, a st.oll for oxen: F. 
loeuf; L. bos, an ox), in Scot., a house for cows. 

byssus, n. hls'-sus (L.— from Gr. hussos, fine flax), in 
conch., the fine silky filaments by which the mussel 
and other bivalves attach themselves to the rocks 
and sea-bottom; in bot., the silky tufts of mould or 
fungus -growth springing from damp and decaying 

substances: bya'solite, n. -d-nt (Gr. buasos; liihos, a 
stone), a term applied to fine fibrous varieties of ami- 
anthus, tremolite, &c.: bys sine, a. -sin, of or like silk : 
byssa'ceous, a. -sd'shiis, in bot., composed of deli- 
cate filaments resembling cotton or wool : bys'soid, a. 
■smjd (Gr. eidos, form), in bot., very slender, like a 

Byzantine, a. blz-dn'tln, relating to Byzantium : 
byzantine, n. blz'a7i-tin, a large gold coin. 

c, contr. for L. centum, a hundred. 
. caaba, n. ka'd-ba (Ar. ka'hah, a square building), 
a black sacred stone in the temple at Mecca, said to 
have been given by an angel to Abraham ; the temple 

cab, n. kdb (Heb. gahab, to hollow), in Eastern coun- 
tries, a measure for dry goods. 

cab, n. kdb (contraction for cahriolet), a one-horse 
coach: cab'man, n.: cab'stand, n. 

cabal, n. kdbdl' (F. cabale, a club, a party: Heb. 
gabbdldh, tradition, mysterious doctrine), a few men 
united secretly for some party purpose ; a junto : v. 
to design secretly; to intrigue: cabal'ling, imp.: ca- 
balled, pp. -bdld': cabal'ler, n. one who. Note.— In 
its modern sense of "political intrigue or plotting," 
cabal was first used in 1671, when, by " a whimsical 
coincidence," it was found to be formed by the initial 
letters of the names of the members of the Cabinet- 
Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley, and Lauder- 
dale. „ ,. 

cabala, n. kdb'd-ld, or caTjal, sometimes ca'balism, 
n. (see above), a secret science orknowledge which the 
Jewish rabbins alleged they possessed, and by which 
they professed to be able to explain all Scripture diffi- 
culties : cab'alist, n. -list, one skilled in the secrets 
of the cabala : cab'alis'tic, a. -tik, or cab'alis'tical, 
a. -tl-kdl, having a secret meaning: cabalis'tical'ly, 
ad. -li. 

caballine, a. kdb'dl-lln (L. caballus, an inferior riding 
or pack hoi-se: Gr. kaballes: It. cavallo: F. cheval), 
pert, to a horse : n. a coarse variety of aloes used as 
a medicine for horses. 

cabaret, n. kab'd-rd {¥.), a house where liquors are 
retailed; a tavern. 

cabbage, n. kdb'bdj {F. caboche; It. capo; old Sp. 
cnbo, a head), a v/ell-known vegetable ; v. (F. cabas ; 
Dut. kabas; Sp. cabacho, a frail or rush basket), to 
retain part of an article ; to pilfer : n. any part of a 
thing retained unjustly: cab'baging, imp. : cablaaged, 
pp. -bujd : cabTjage-tree, n. a species of palm-tree, 
bearing a substance which is eaten like cabbage. 

cabbllng, n. kCib'-Ung, the breaking up of puddled 
iron into small pieces, which are reheated and then 
wrought into bar-iron. 

cabin, n. kdb'-ln (F. cnbane; It. capanna, a shed or 
hovel : W. caban, a booth or hut), a small room or en- 
closure ; a shed ; a small apartment in a ship : v. to 
live or confine in a cabin: cab'ining, imp.: cabined, 
pp. -tnd : cabin-boy, n. a boy who waits on the passen- 
gers and officers of a ship : cab'inet, n. -net, a small 
private room or closet ; the secret council of a sover- 
eign ; the executive government of a country, so called 
because originally held in a small room or cabinet ; 
a piece of furniture containing boxes and drawers : 
adj. pert, to : cabinet-council, n. a confidential meet- 
ing of a sovereign's advisers : cabinet-maker, a man 
who makes articles of household furniture. 

cable, n. kd'bl (F. cable; Sp. cabre— from old F. 
cliaable; mid. L. cabuhis, an engine of war: Icel. 
kadal, a rope: Ar. habl, a rope), a rope or clinin of 
various degrees of thickness, used in ships : a cabie's- 
length, 720 feet : cabled, a. kd'bld, fastened witli a 
.strong rope-: caTjlet, -blet, a small cal)le: cable- 
mouldings, in arch., wi-eathed mouldings resembling 
the twisted strands of a rope. 

caboched, a. kd-boshf (F. caboche, head: L. capvt, 
head), in her., having the head of a beast with a full- 
faced view, and nothing of the neck seen. 

cabocle, n. kdh'6-kl, in Brazil, a compact brick-red 
mineral, ^resembling jasper. 

caboose, n. kd-b6s' {Dut. kabuis; Dan. kabys; Sw. 
kabysa, a cook's room in a ship), the kitchen or cook- 
ing-place of a ship, called a galley in a ship of war. 

cabriolet, n. kdb'rlo-ia' (F.— from cabriole, a goat- 

leap, a caper), a one-horse coach with a hood and a 
cover for the legs. 

cacao, n. kd-kd'6 (Mexican, cacauail), the chocolate 
tree : cocoa, n. ko'-ko, a substance prepared from ibe 
cacao nibs or nuts. 

cachalong, n. kdsh'd-long (found on the banks of 
the river Cach, in Bucharia, whence the name), a milk 
or blue white variety of opal. 

cachalot, n. kdsh'd-lot (F. : Dut. kazilot : Sw. kaselot), 
the sperm or spermaceti whale. 

cache, n. kdsh (F. a lurking-hole), a secret store or 
deposit of supplies, as of food. 

cachectic, a. kd-kik'tlk, also cachec'tical, a. -fhkai 
(Gr. kakos, bad ; {h)exis, habit), pert, to a viti.ited or 
deranged state of the body called cachexia, -kek'sl-d; 
also cachex'y, n. -si. 

cachinnation, n. kdk'ln-na'shun (L. cachinnare, to 
laugh aloud), loud or immoderate laughter : cachin- 
natory, a. kd-kin'nd-tor'i, laughing immoderately. 

cacique, n. Ad-sefc' (Sp.), a petty king, particularly of 
anc. Mexico. 

cack, n. kdk (Dan. kakke ; Dut. kakken ; Ger. kacken ; 
L. cacure, to go to stool), to go to stool ; to ease the 
body by stool : cack'ing, imp. : cacked, pp. kdkt. 

cackle, v. kdk'-kl (an imitative word: Sw. kakla; F. 
caqueter, to chatter: Dut. kaeckeleii; Turk, kakulla, to 
cackle), to make a noise like a hen or other domestic 
fowl ; to make a silly noise : n. the noise of a fowl, as 
a hen ; idle talk : cackling, imp.: n. the noise of a hen 
or goose : cackled, pp. kCik'kl : cackler, n. -Mr, one 

caccethes, n. kdk'd-e'thez (Gr. kakos, bad ; ethos, 
custom, habit), bad custom or habit, generally applied 
to scribblers: cacography, n. kdkog'rd-fi {Gr. grupho, 
I write), bad spelling: cacology, n. kakol'o-jl (Gr. 
logos, a word), bad grammar or speaking: cacoph- 
ony, n. kd-ko/'o-nl (Gr. phone, a voice), disagreeabltj 
or harsh sound of words ; discord : cacoph'onous, a. 
-6-m'is, and cac'ophon'ic, a. -6-/6n'lk, harsh-sounding. 

cactus, n. kdk'-tiis (L. a prickly plant), a tribe of 
tropical plants with fleshy prickly stems and leaves ; 
a genus of flowering plants ; the Indian fig tribe. 

cad, n. kdd (a contr. of cadger, which see), an om- 
nibus-guard ; an errand-boy ; a person employed 
under another in job-work. 

cadaverous, a. kdddv'er-iis (L. cadaver, a dead 
body), pale; wan; ghastly: cadav'erously, ad. -li: 
cadav'erousness, n. 

caddis, n. kdd'dls, or caddis-worm (corruption of 
cod-bait: Ger. koder, bait), a grub found in a case 
of broken shells, gravel, &c., a favourite bait with 

caddis, n. kdd'dls (Scot, caddis, lint for dressing a 
wound: Gael, corfo^, cotton : F. cariis, asortof serge), 
a kind of worsted lace or ribbon. 

caddy, n. kad'dl (Chin, catty, the weight of the 
small packets in which tea is made up), a small box 
for tea. 

cade, n. kdd (L. cadus, a bottle), a barrel ; a cask. 

cadence, n. kd'cUns (L. cadens, a falling : It. ca- 
denza: F. cadence), a fall; a decline; the modulation 
of the tones of the voice in reading; tone; sound; the 
manner of ending a piece of music : v. to regulate 
by musical measure : ca'denced, pp. -ddnst : cadenza, 
n. kd-den'zd (It.), modulation of the voice in singing. 

cadet, n. kd-dif (F. cadet, the younger son of a 
family: Sp. cabdillo, lord, master: Icel. cad, a new- 
born offspring), a young man in a military school ; a 
youth appointed to the army, but not yet holding a 
commission ; a younger son : cadetship, n. 

cadger, n. kdj'er (cadge, the round frame of wood on 
which the hawks were carried: W. c6d, a bag or 
pouch), one who brings butter, eggs, and poultry to 
the market ; a huxter. 

colv, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 



cadi, n. ka'dl, a Turkish magistrate or judge. 

cadmean, a. kdcl-me'dn, relating to Cadmus, who 
is said to have introduced into Greece the sixteen 
simple letters of the alphabet, heuce called Cadmean 

<fadmitun, n. kdd'ml-i'aii (L. cadmin, an ore of zinc), 
a bluish-white metal discovered in 1818 ; an old term 
for zinc ore : cadmium yellow, a ijigmeut of an in- 
tense yellow colour. 

caducean, a. kdd'u-se'dn (L. caduceum; Gr. keru- 
ki'inii. a herald's staff: It. caduceo : F. caducce), be- 
luiiuiiiL; ti) Jkreury's or wand. 

caducous, a. ka-diVkus (L. caducas, falling— from 
rado. I fall), falling early, as a leaf ; having a tendency 
to fall off. 

caecum, n. se'kilm (L. ccccus, blind), in anat, the 
blind gut, applied to a part of the intestinal canal : 
CiBcal, a. se'kill, pert, to ; having a closed end. 

ceespitose, a. sSs'jJl-tOz, also ces- (L. cccspes, turf), 
in bot., applied to plants which are densely crowded 
in turf-like patches. 

caesura, n. sH-zu'-rd, also ces- (L. from cwsum, to 
cut), in verse, the resting of the voice on a syllable ; in 
Latin verse, the caesura divides the verse or line into 
two imrts : csesu'ral, a. -ral, pert. to. 

cafe, u. kaf-ja (F.— see coffee), a coffee-house: caf- 
fe'ic, a. -fe'lk, of or pert, to coffee : caffeine, n. -In, 
a bitter stimulating principle found in coffee. 

Caffre, n. kdf-fr (Ar. kOJir, infldel), one of a power- 
ful race or tribe in South Africa. 

caftan, n. kd/'-idn (Turk, qwifkin: Russ. kaftan: 
F. cufetan), a Persian or Turkish vest. 

cage, n. kaj (L. cavea, a hollow place, a coop : Sp. 
gnvia: It. gabbia: F. cage), a box for birds, generally 
made of wire-work ; an enclosure for wild beasts ; 
I inter work of timber ; the vessel for bringing up coals, 
Ae. from pits : v. to shut up or confine : caging, imp. : 
caged, pp. kCiJd. 

caiman or cayman, n. kd'mCm (name given by 
natives of Guiana), the American crocodile. 

cainozoic, a. kd'no-zo'lk (Gr. kainos, recent ; zoe, 
life), in geol., applied to the upper stratified systems 
holding recent forms of life. 

caique, n. ka-ek' (F. and Sp. : Turk, qaiq, a boat), 
a small Spanish ship of war ; a light skiff used on 
the Bosphoms. 

cairn, n. kdrn (Gael, and W. cam, a heap), a heap of 
stones of a conical form and crowned by a flat stone, 
found in various parts of the country, generally over 
an anc. place of sepulture. 

cairngorm, u. karii'gawrm, a brownish -yellow or 
amljer-c'oloured variety of rock-crystal found in the 
Civirngorm mountains. 

caisson, n. kds'-son or kas-soon' (F.), a wooden box 
filled with military stores; an ammunition-waggon; 
a wooden frame used in laying foundations in water. 

caitiff, a. ka'tif (F. chdtif, poor, wretched : It. cat- 
tivo, a wretch), base; vile; wicked and mean: n. a 
mean, despicaljle person. 

cajeput, n. kdj'e-put (Malay), an oil from the East 

cajole, V. ka-jOl' (F. cajnler, to flatter), to deceive 
by flattery ; to coax : cajoling, imj). : cajoled', pp. 
-jOld': cajo ler, n. one who : cajolery, u. -lir-l, flat- 

cake, n. kak (Sw. kaka, a cake or loaf: Dan. kage : 
Dnt. koeck: Ger. kuchcti), a mass of dough baked of 
various shapes; thin flat pieces of oatmeal dough 
baked; a flattish mass of anything adhering or stick- 
ing together : v. to form into a flattish mass ; to 
harden into a lump : ca'king, imp. : caked, pp. kdkt -. 
ciking-coal, the kinds of coal which cake or run 
tofretherin the fire. 

calabash, n. kdl'd-hdsh' (Sp. cnlebaza : F. cnlchasse— 
fiuiii Ar. i/(iriih, a kind of gourd ; aihns, dry), a vessel 
or eup iiruh; of tlie shell of a gourd; a large fruit 
shaped like a pear. 

calamary, n. kai'd-md'rt, (mod. Gr. kalrtmnri, ink- 
stand: L. calamus, a reed-pen), the cuttle-fish. 

calamine, n. kdl'd-inln (L. calamus, a reed — because 
when smelting it adheres to the furnace in the form 
of reeiis), <oiiiiii()ii name for the carbonate of zinc: 
• cal'amite, n. ■mU. a soft asparagus-green variety of 
tremolitc: cal'amites, n. plu., in gral., fossil stems 
occurring in tlie cDal-measureH— so called from tlieir 
resemblance to gigantic, reikis : calamus, n. l:<V-<i-ini'(s, 
a rush ; a reed, aiK'iiaitlv \w,] ms a ]<fn to write witli, 
or made into a musical iiistrmnent ; in bof., a hollow 
inarticulate stem; calamlferous, a. -mlpcr-iis (L. 

rndlc, mdt,fdr, law; vi6te, m6t. 

calamus, a reed; fero, I bear), in bot., producing 
reeds; reedy. 

calamity, n. kd-ldm'l-tl (F. calamitd; L. calamitas, 
adversity), a great misfortune or cause of misery: 
calam itous, a. -tiis, producing distress and misery ; 
full of misery: calamitously, ad. -li: calamltoua- 
ness, n. 

calash, r. kd-ldsh' (F. caliche: It. calessa: Sp. 
cafe^a— from Serv. and Pol. kolo, a circhi or whtiel), a 
light carriage with low wheels ; a hooded carriage ; a 
lady's hood. 

calathiform, a. kd-ldth'l-fawrm (Gr. kalathis, a 
basket; L. forma, shape), in bot., hemispherical or 
concave, like a bowl or cup. 

calcaneum, n. kal-kd'ne-um (L. the heel), in anat., 
the great bone of the heel: calca'neal, a...-ne-dl, pert, 

calcar, n. kdl'kdr (L. a spur), in bot., a projecting 
hollow or solid process from the base of an organ ; 
the furnace in which the first calcination of sand and 
potashes for making glass is effected : cal'carate, a. 
-dt, having a spur, or like one. 

calcareous, a. kdl-kd'rl-us (L. calcarivs, pert, to lime 
—from calx, lime : F. calcaire : It. calcario], havingthe 
qualities of lime ; contaming lime : calca'reous'ness, 
n.: calcareous tufa, a loose and friable variety of car- 
bonate of lime : cal'carif'erous, a. -kd-rlf-er-us (L. 
fero, I bear), lime-yielding. 

calcedony, n. kdl-s6d'o-nl (from Chalcedon in Bithy- 
nia), a mineral of the quartz family, closely allied to 
the opal and agate— also written chalcedony : calced'- 
onyx, n. -7ilks, varieties of agates of an opaque white 
colour, alternating with translucent greyish. 

calceola, n. kdl-se'd-ld (L. calceolus, a small shoe), 
in geol., a fossil brachiopod, having its under or 
central valve flatly conical, or compressed like the 
point of a shoe, and fitted with a lid-like upper 
valve: calceolaria, n. kdl'sl-6-ld'rl-d, slipper-wort; 
a plant producing clusters of beautiful yellow or 
purple flowers. 

calcine, v. kdl'sln (It. calcina, lime— from L. calx, 
lime— gen. calcis : F. calciner, to calcine), to reduce 
to powder by means of heat ; to reduce a substance 
by heat to a calx state: cal'cining, imp.: cal'cined, 
pp. -slnd: calcin'able, a. -d-bl: cal'cina'tion, n. -si- 
nd'shun, the act of reducing to powder by heat ; the 
process of reducing any ore or mineral to a calx by 
heat: calciferous, a. -slf-er-us (L. fero, I produce), 
containing lime: cal'ciform, a. -sl-fcucrm {L. forma, 
a shape), in the form of calx or lime : cal'cite, n. -sit, 
crystallised varieties of carbonate of lime : cal'ciom, 
n. -sl-iim, the metallic base of calx or lime. 

calcography, n. kdl-kog'rd-fl (L. calx, lime— gen. 
calcis : Gr. grapho, I write), the art of engraving in 
the style of a chalk-drawing. 

calc- sinter, n. kdlk'-sln't&r (h. calx, lime— gen. cal- 
cis: Ger. sintern, to drop), a stalagmitical or stalag- 
titlcal deposit from calcareous waters : calc-spar or 
calcareous-spar, crystallised carbonate of lime or cal- 
cite : calc-tuff, -tiif or calcareous-tufa, -id'fd, a porous 
carbonate of lime, generally deposited from springs. 

calculate, v. kdl'-ku-ldt\L. calculus, a pebble: F. 
ccdculer, to calculate), to perform any operation in 
arithmetic or mathematics in order to find a result ; 
to compute ; to estimate an)i;hing : cal'cula'ting, 
imp.: cal'cula'ted, i)p. : cal'cula'tor, n. one who; 
cal'culable, a. -Id-bl .- cal'cula'tion, n. -la'shiln, com- 
putation ; t)ie result of an operation in arithmetic ; 
an estimate arrived at in the mind by comparing vari- 
ous facts: cal'cula'tive, a. -ilv, tending to calculate. 

calculus, n. kdl'ldi-lds (L. a pebble), in surg., the 
stone in the bladder ; a part of the mathematics : cal'- 
cular'y, a. -Ur'-i, relating to the disease of the stone: 
n. the mass (if little stmiy knots in scniu^ fruits : cal'- 
culous, a. -Wis, stony ; gritty ; also cal culose, a. -I6z. 

caldron, n. k(t7'i-,!roii (b. ciihlnriiiii). a vessel for 
Bupplving bot wnti'r to a bath: F. rhaudron: Sp. 
caldvrni,), a large kettle or boiler : caldcra, kaldc'rd, 
a Spanisli term tor tlie dee]) caldron-like cavities 
wliieli occur on the s\niiinits of extinct volcanoes. 

Caledonian, a. kaV-^-dO-iildn (Caledonia, name of 
Scotl.and), Scotch: n. a Scotelimaii : caledonite, n. 
kd-WiViivU, tlu^ euiireons suliiliat(>-carbonate of lead, 
found at the Leadhills in Scotland. 

calefacient, a. kdl'-hfd'sh\:'nt (L. calfo, I am 
w.iriii ; fiu-io, I make), wanning; giving heat: n. a 
substance which excites heat at the jiart where ap- 
]ilied: cal'efac'tion, n. -fak'-shiln, the operation of 
making warm ; state of being warm : cal'efy, v. -fl, 

Mr; pine, pin; note, not, mOvc; 




to become hot; to be heated: cal'efying, imp.: cal'- 
cfied, pp. -fid. 

calendax, n. Icdl'en-cUriL. calendarium, an account- 
book : It. calendario, — from L. calenda, the first day 
of the Konian month — from caln, I proclaim), an 
almanac ; a register of the days, weeks, and months 
in the year, &c. : v. to register : calendaring, imp. : 
cal'endared, pp. -dCrd: calends, n. plu. kdi-indz.fivat 
day of each month among the Komans : calen'drical, 
a. -dri-kal, pert. to. 

calender, n. kCil'-in-der(Y. calandre: L. cylindrus; 
Gr. kxdiiulros, a cylinder), a press, consisting of heated 
rollers, between which cloths are passed to finish 
them off : v. to press between heated rollers : cal'en- 
dering, imp.: cal'endered, pp. -dCrd: calendrer, n. 
■drer, one who calenders cloths. 

calendula, n. kdUn'-da-ia (L. calendce, the first day 
of the Roman month), a genus of plants including the 
common marigold; a substance obtained from the 
marigold, used in medicine. 

calenture, n. kCd'iin-tur (Sp. calentar, to heat), a 
violent fever, chiefly affecting sailors in hot climates. 

calescence, n. kd-les'sens {L. caleo, I am warm), a 
growing warm. 

calf, n. kdf; calves, plu. kdvz (AS. cealf: Ger. 
kcdb : Dan. kalv), the young of the cow kind ; a stupid 
or cowardly person : calve, v. kuv, to bring forth a 
calf, as a cow: calv'ing, imp.: calved, pp. kdvd: calf'- 
ish, a. -Ish, stupid : calf -skin, the skin of a calf dressed 
or made into leather. 

calf of the leg (Gael, calpa: Icel. kalfi— the primary 
meaning being a lump), the thick fleshy part of the 
leg behind. 

calibre or caliber, n. kdl'l-ber (Sp. calibre, bore, 
diameter, quality— from Ar. kalib, form, mould : F. 
calibre: It. calibro), the diameter of a body ; the bore 
of a gun ; capacity of the mind ; the extent of mental 
or intellectual qualities possessed by any one : cal'- 
ibered, pp. a. -i-berd, measured with compasses called 

calico, n. kdl'l-Tco (horn Calicut in E. Indies : F. cali- 
cot), unprinted cotton cloth: calico-printing, n. the 
art of dyeing cotton cloth, or covering cotton cloth 
with figures of various colours : calico-printer, n. one 

calid, a. kai'id (L. calidus, warm), hot ; burning ; 
ardent: calidity, n. kdlUl'l-H. 

caligraphy or calligraphy, n. kd-Ug'-ra-fl (Gr. kalos, 
beautiful, fair; grapho, I write), elegant or beautiful 
writing : calig'raphist, n. one who writes beautifully : 
caligraphic, a. kai'-l-grCif-ik, pert. to. 

calipash, n. kdl'-i-pdsh (F . carapace; Sp. galapago, 
fresh-water tortoise), the part of a turtle beron.ging to 
the upper shell : cal'ipee, n. -i-pe, the part belonging 
to the under shell. 

calipers, n. plu. kdl'-l-perz, also spelt callipers (from 
calibre), a kind of compasses for measuring the di- 
ameters of round bodies. 

caliph, n. kd'-lU (Ar. khalif, a successor : Sp. calif a), , 
the title assumed by the successors of Mahomet ; cal- 
iphate, n. -l-fat, the ottice or government of the caliph. 

calisthenics, n. plu. kdl'is-then'lks (Gir. kalos, beau- 
tiful; sthenos, strength), the art of promoting the 
health of the body by exercise : cal'isthen'ic, a. pert. to. 

calk, V. kdwk (L. calcare, to press or stuff : F. cauque, 
a piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound : Gael. 
calc, to ram, to drive), to close the seams between a 
ship's planking with oakum to prevent them admit- 
ting water ; to point or rough the shoe of a horse to 
prevent its slipping on ice: calking, imp.: calked, 
pp. kawkt: calk'ef, n. one who: calkins, n. plu. 
kawk'lns, the prominent parts of a horse's shoes shar- 
pened to prevent its slipping on the ice. 

call, V. kawl (L. ccUo, I call : Icel. kalla : Dan. kalde), 
to name ; to invite to come ; to summon ; to warn ; to 
exhort ; to visit : n. a summons or invitation ; a com- 
mand; a short visit: calling, imp.: n. business; em- 
ployment: called, pp. kav-ld: caller, n. one who: to 
call down, to invite or bring down : to call back, to 
bring again ; to revoke : to call for, to claim or re- 
quire : to call to mind, to remember : to call out, to 
speak aloud; to summon to service; to call in, to 
withdraw from circulation ; to collect: to call forth, 
to bring out : to call off, to bring away ; to divert : 
to call up, to bring before ; to bring to recollection : 
to call over, to read aloud the several items or par- 
ticulars of anything : to call on, to pay a visit to ; to 
pray to or worship : to call at, to visit a place. 

callipers, n. plu.— see calipers. 

callous, a. kdl'lus (L. callus, hard thick skin : Fin, 
kallo, the scalp or skull), hard ; hardened in mind ; 
unfeeling: callously, ad. -li: callousness, n.: callos- 
ity, n. -Ibs'-l-ti, a horny hardness on the skin : callose, 
a. -loz, in bot., having hard spots or callosities. 

callow, a. kai'do (L. calvus, bare: AS. calo; Dut. 
kael, bald), naked; destitute of feathers, as a bird. 

calm, a. kdm (F. calme; It. Sp. calnia, absence of 
wind, quiet), still; quiet; tranquil; undisturbed: n. 
stillness ; quiet ; repose ; freedom from agitation or 
motion: v. to still; to quiet; to free from agitition; 
to pacify; to tranquillise : calming, imp.: calmed, 
pp. kdmd: calm'er, n. one who: calmly, ad. -U: 
calmness, n. 

calomel, n. kdl'd-mil (Gr. kalos, beautiful ; melas, 
black), a preparation of merciuy much used in medi- 
cine ; an ore of mercury. 

caloric, n. kd-lor'lk (L. calor, heat: F. caloriqiie: 
It. calore), the cause or matter which produces heat: 
cal'oriflc, a. -y'-lk {L. /acio, I make), causing heat: 
calorlfica'tion, n. -l-kd'shun: calorifere, n. kdlor' 
l-j'er (F. — from L. calor, heat; /erre, to bring), an 
app;iratus for conveying and distributing heat, par- 
ticidarly in conservatories : cal'orim'eter, n. -irn'e-ter 
(L. calor, heat; Gr. metron, a measure), an apparatus 
for measuring the heat contained in bodies. 

calotte, n. kd-lof {¥.), a cap worn on the top of the 
head as an ecclesiastical ornament in France. 

calotype, n. kdl'o-tlp (Gr. kalos, beautiful ; iupos, a 
type or stamp), photographic process. 

caloyer, n. kd-loij'er (mod. Gr. kalogeros, a monk— 
from Gr. kalos, good; geron, an old man), a Greek 

caltrop or calthrop, n. kdl'trop (AS. collrcEiipe, a 
species of thistle), an iron instrument with four spikes, 
placed in ditches or breaches as an obstacle to the 
advance of troops ; a plant whose fruit is armed wth 

calumba, n. ku-hlm'bd (kalumb, the name given to 
it in Mozambique), the root of a plant used as a tonic : 
cal'umbine, -bin, the bitter extract of calumba root. 

calumet, n. kal'oo-met (F.— from L. calamus, a reed), 
a pipe smoked by the American Indians when they 
make peace or a treaty— hence a symbol of peace. 

calumniate, v. kd-liim'nl-dt (L. culumnia, a mali- 
cious slander: F. calomnie), to accuse falsely and 
maliciously ; to slander ; to spread evil reports of any 
one maliciously : calum'nia'ting, imp. : calum'nia'ted, 
pp. : calum'nia'tor, n. one who : calum'nia'tion, n. 
-d^s/iMTi .- calumnious, a. -nVus, slanderous ; injurious 
to character : calum'niously, ad. -11 -. calumniatory, 
a. -tor'-l, slanderous: calumny, n. kdl'-um-nl, slander; 
false accusation ; the making and spreading of reports 
injurious to character. 

Calvary, n. kdl'vd-rl (L. calvaria, the skull of a 
man or beast : F. calvaire. Calvary), the place where 
Christ was crucified ; a small chapel in a Rom. Cath. 
country wherein are represented the scenes of Christ's 
passion and crucifixion. 

calve, V. kdv—see calf. 

Calvinism, n. kcil'vln-lzm, the doctrines of Calvin, 
the Swiss Protestant reformer: Cal'vinist, n. one who 
holds these : Cal'vinis'tic, a. -Is'ttk, also Cal'vinis'- 
tical, a. -H-kdl. 

calx, n. kdlks, plu. calxes, kdlk'sds, or calces, kdl- 
sez (L. calx, limestone), lime or chalk; the ashes or 
residuum left after burning a metal or mineral. 

calymene, n. kdl'l-me-ne (Gr. kalemenai, to call by 
name), in geol., a genus of trilobites having deeply- 
trilobed shields, called also " Dudley locusts." 

calyptra, n. kd-lip'tra (Gr. kaluptra, a covering for 
the head ofawnman), in bot., little hoods covering the 
inflorescence of mosses : calyp'trate, a. -trdt, having a 

calyx, n. kd'llks, plu. calyxes, kd-llk-sSs, or calyces, 
kdl'l-ses (L.— from Gr. kalux, the cup of a flower), in 
bot., the envelope or outer covering of a flower: cal- 
ycine, a. kdl'i-sin, or calycinal, a. kd-lis'l-ndl, of or 
relating to a calyx; of the nature or appearance of a, 
calyx : calycle, n. kdl'-l-kl, also calyculus, n. kd-llk' 
u-lus, a row of leaflets at the base of the calyx on the 
outside: calycled, a. kdl'l-kld. also calyculate, a. 
kd-lik'-u-lat, having the appearance as if possessing a 
double calyx. 

cam, n. kdm (W. cam, crooked, bent), in mech., a, 
projecting part of a wheel or other moving piece, in- 
tended to produce an alternate or variable motion. 

camaieu, n. kd-md'yu (F.) a stone engraved in relief; 
a painting in a single colour. 

c<?io, boy, f (Tot; pure, lud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zecU. 




camber, n. Mm'ber (F. cainbrer, to bow, to crook : 
Sp. combar, to bend : Gr. k(iinj)to, I bend), a beam of 
wood slightly arched upon the upper surface : cam'- 
bering, a. bending— applied to the deck of a ship 
higher in the middle than at the ends : camliered, 
a. -bfrd, arched. 

cambist, n. kam'blst (F. cambiste; It. and Sp. cam- 
bista, a money-changer), a banker or moneychanger ; 
one skilled in the science of exchange : cam'bistry, n. 
-frl, the science of exchanges, weights, &c.: cam'bial, 
a. -b%(il, pert. to. 

cambium, n. kdryi'-bl-'Sm (new L.), in bot., the mucil- 
aginous fluid wliich lies between the young wood and 
the bark of a tree. 

Cambrian, a. kdm'brl-An (Cambria, anc. name of 
Wales), in geol., a term used to designate the lowest 
fossiliferous rocks as developed in Wales, and tlieir 
equivalents in other countries ; pert, to Wales : u. a 
native or inhabitant of Wales. 

cambric, n. hdm'brlk (from Cambray, in Flanders), 
a kind of fine white linen : adj. pert, to or made of. 

came, v. kam, pt. of come, which see. 

camel, n. cdm'Sl (L. camelus : Gr. kainelos : Ar. 
gamal), a large quadruped used in the East for the 
transport of goods, and for riding on. 

camellia, n. kd-mel'-ia (after Camellus, a Moravian 
Jesuit, and traveller in Asia), agenus of plants admired 
lor their beautiful flowers and elegant leaves. 

camelopard, n. kdm-6l'0-2>erd (L. camelus, a camel, 
a:id pardalis, the female panther), a wild animal Arith 
a long slender neck and spotted skin ; a giraffe. 

cameo, n. kdin'eo {It. cammeo: F. ca??i«ie!t— said to 
be from Pers. camahen, loadstone, as having been first 
employed for signets), a stone on which figures are 
engraved in relief; shells are now commonly used as 
a substitute for gems. 

camera, n. kdm'-6r-d (L. camera; Gr. kamara, an 
arched roof, a chamber: It. camera), a chamber or 
compartment for exhibiting, by means of reflection, 
any external thing: camera-lucida, -l6'-sl-dd (L. a 
light chamber), an instrument for so reflecting distant 
landscapes on paper, &c., as to allow them to be 
sketched: camera-obscura, -ob-sku'-rd (L. dark cham- 
ber), a darkened cliamber or box, in which, by means 
of lenses, external objects, in their natural colours, are 
exhibited on any white flat surface wthin it : cam'- 
erated, a. -a'-tid, divided into chambers, as certain 
shells ; arched. 

Cameronian, n. kdm'6r6'nl-dn, a follower of Rich- 
ard Cameron, in Scotland, who refused to accept the 
indulgence granted by Charles II. to the Presbyterian 

camiflade, n. kdm'-l-sdd (Y.—irom. F. chemise; Sp. 
camisa, a shirt), an attack made by soldiers in the 
dark— so called from their putting their shirts over 
their dress to distinguish each other hv. 

camlet, n. kdm'let (F. camelot), a cloth first made of 
camel's or goat's hair, now of wool or goat's hair, with 
silk : camleted, a. wav>' like camlet ; veined. 

cammock, n. kdni'mOk (AS. cammoc), the plant rest- 
harrow— so called from the length and toughness of 
Its roots, by wliich the harrow is arrested. 

camomile, n. kdm'O-mll (Gr. chanuti -melon, earth- 
apple, so called from the smell of its flower), a plant 
whose flowers have a fragrant smell and a bitter aro- 
matic taste, much used in medicine— spelt also cham- 

camp, n. kdmp (L. campus, a plain : It. campo), the 
ground occupied by an army at rest : v. to rest an 
army in the open country (see encamp) : camping, 
imp.: camped, pp. kdmpt : camp-follower, n. one who 
follows an army without serving. 

campaign, n. kdinqnln' (F. campnnne ; It. rnm- 
pagna, the plain open field), an extensive tract of 
country not hilly ; the time an army is engaged either 
In marching, fighting, or in camp: v. ti> serve in a 
cam|)aign : campaigning, imp. : campaigned', pp. 
-pdnd : campaign'er, n. one who. 

campanology, n. kilm'pdn6l'-6-jl (low L. campnna, a 
bell; (;r. /»/'<-, a discourse), the art of ringing bells, 
or a tr-Mtise on tlie art. 

campanula, n. kdm-pdn'H.-ld (low L. campanula, a 
little bell) a genus of plants bearing bell-shai>ed 
flowers ; the bell-llower : campan ulate, a. -u-ldt, in 
bot., b.-ll-sliaiicl. as the harebell. 

campestral, a. kdin/^e.i'-trdl (L. campestris, pert, to 
a b'Vi'l field), nlatiiig to fields or growing in them. 

camphine, n. or camphene, kam'/ln (a contr. of 
camphogen), rectified oil of turpentine. 

camphor, n. M»!'/or (F. ramphre: Ar. kafuv. Mai. 
kaj)hur: Sp. ca7)/or), a whitish substance of an aro- 
matic bitter taste and fragrant sntell, much used in 
medicine : cam'phorate, v. -dt, to saturate or tincture 
with camphor: adj. pert, to camphor: cam'phora'- 
ting.imp. : cam'phora'ted, pp. : adj. impregnated with 
camphor: camphor-tree, n. the tree producing cam- 
phor: camphogen, n. kdm'fojen or -fin (new L. cam- 
phora, tainphor, and Gr. gi7i€in, to bring forth), the 
jiroduct of the distillation of camphor with drj' phos- 
phoric aiid: cam phoraceous, a. -a'shiis, of or like 
camphor : camphoric, a. -for'lk, of or from camphor. 

campulitropous, a. kam'-iJU-W'r6-piis{GT. kamjmlos, 
curved; tre]/o, I turn), in bot., ha\'ing the o^Tile and 
its integuments so bent that the apex is brought near 
the hilum, the hiliun and chalaze being together— ahso 
cam pulit ropal. 

camwood, n. cdm'ivobd, a red dyewood, principallv 
obtained from the -vicinity of Sierra Leone, where it is 
called kambi, whence the name. 

can, n. kdn (Icel. kanna, a large drinking-vessel : 
AV. cannu, to contain: AS. can7ie), a cup or other 
vessel made of metal : can'akin, a little can. 

can, V. kdn (AS. cunnan: Icel. kwina) can denotes 
power when joined to another verb, as, I can eat — 
that is, I have the power to eat : could, pt. kood. 

Canadian, a. kd-nu'dian, of or from Canada: n. a 
native or inhabitant of. 

canaille, n. ka-nW (F. ), the lowest people ; the rabble. 

canal, n. kd-ndl' (L. canalis, a pipe for water— from 
canna, a pipe or reed: It. canale), a water-course 
na^^gable for boats or ships; an artificial river; in 
anat., a duct or tube in the body for the passage of 
fluids: canaliculate, a. kdn'd-Uk'-uldt, in bot., chan- 
nelled ; having a longitudinal groove or furrow. 

canary, n. kdna'rl, a wine from the Canary Islands ; 
a fine song-bird of yellowish plumage. 

cancel, v. kdn'sei (L. cancellare, to make like lattice- 
work : F. canceller, to erase), to deface writing by cross- 
ing it ; to annul ; to destroy : can'celling, imp. : can'- 
celled, pp. -seld: can'cella'ted, a. -lu'ted (L. cancflli, a 
grating of bars, lattice-work), marked with cross lines; 
cancellate, a. -sei'ldt, in bot., lattice-like ; consisting 
of a network of veins : can'cella'tion, n. -Id'shiin. 

cancer, n. kdn'ser{L. cancer, a crab, an eating sore : 
AS. caacre: It. cancro: F. chancre), a spreading sore 
on the body or in some internal part, very painful and 
verj- fatal ; a crab ; one of the signs of the zodiac : can'- 
cerate, v. -at, to grow into a earner: can'cera'ting, 
imp.: can'cera'ted, pp.: can'cera'tion, n. -ra'shun: 
cancerous, a. -ser-iXs, like a cancer: can'cerously, ad. 
-li: can'cerousness, n.: cancriform, a. kdng'krhfawrm 
(L. forma, shape), cancerous ; having the fonn of a 
cancer or crab : can'crine, a. -krin, having the quali- 
ties of a crab : can'croid, a. -krcnid (Gr. eidos, form), 
pert, to a crab ; like cancer : tropic of cancer, that 
parallel in the northern hemisphere whose latitude 
is equal to the sun's greatest declination, about 23" 28'. 

candelabnim, n. kdn'-de-ld'-hrnm ; can'delabra, plu. 
-bra (L.— from candela.a candle: It. candelabi'O: F. 
candelabre), a large ornamental candlestick with 

candid, a. kdnkUd (L. cavdidus, white; It. can- 
dido : F. candide), open; sincere; frank; fair; frep 
from malice: candidly, ad. -ll: candour, n. -(//?•, 
openness ; sincerity ; frankness ; freedom from any 
intention to deceive: candidness, n. : can'didate, n. 
-dl-ddt (persons in Kome seeking ofticos having woni 
white gownis), a person who seeks for a vacant otbce; 
one who ofi"ers himself as afitpei-sontoflll an appoint- 
ment : can'didature, n. -ddtur, the jiosition of a c^m- 
didate for an oflice; a canvass: czmdidateship, n. 
state of being a candidate. 

candied, kdn'did—^ti' candy. 

candle, n. kd/i'dl (AS. diiidfl ; L. candcta, a candle 
—from candiO. I shine), a round body made of tallow 
or any fatty matter, with a wick in the centre, used 
to give light ; a light or lumiiiar)': ruEh-candles, the 
pith of rushes dipped in tallow : candlestick, n. the 
stand or stick for a candle: Candlemas, -dl-md.-;. a 
quarterly term, 2d Feb. ; a feast in the Ch. of Eng. 
and in the R. Cath. Ch. in honour of the purification 
of the Virgin Mar>— on which occasion, in the R. 
Cath. Ch., many candles are iised, and those intend- 
ed for use in the churches for the whole year are 

candock, n. kdn'ddk (probably from can and dock), 
a j)lant that grows in rivers. 

candour, n. kdnkUr (L. candor, a dazzling white- 

viate, mat, far, law; mete, mil, Mr; pXne, pin; nOte, n6t, m6ve; 




noss: It. candore), fairness; frankness; openness; 

candy, n. Mn'dl (Turk, cand, sugar), crystallisorl 
sugar; sugar compounded with anything else: v. to 
boil or dress in stigar; to cover or incnist with sugar; 
to form sugar into crj'stals: can'dying, imp.: n. the 
act of forming into crystals, as sugar : candied, pp. 

cane, n. kan (L. canna, a reed or cane: It. cannrt: 
F. canne), a long, strong reed; a walking-stick: v. to 
beat or flog with a cane: ca'ning, imp.: n. a flogging 
•with a cane: caned, pp. kand: cany, a. ku'nl, pert. 
to ; abounding in canes. 

canescent, a. ka-n6s'-&nt (L. cunescetis, becoming 
white), in hot., hoary; approaching to white. 

canine, a. kd-nln' (L. cmiis, a dog : It. cane), of or 
pert, to a dog ; having the qualities of a dog : canine 
madness, the madness of a dog; hydrophobia: canine 
teeth, two sharp-pointed teeth in each Jaw, one on 
each side— often simply temied canines, ku-nlns'. 

canister, n. kdn'ts-ter (L. canistnim, a basket woven 
from reeds : It. canestro), a box or case for tea, coffee, 
&c.; in mil., a tin canister having a wooden bottom, 
packed with balls, and shot from a cannon— called also 

canker, n. Mmg'ker (L. cancer; F. chancre, an eating 
sore— see cancer), a disease in trees whicli causes the 
bark to rot and fall off; a con-oding ulcer: v. to eat; 
to corrode ; to consume, as a cancer does the body ; to 
grow corrupt; to waste away by degrees: can'kering, 
imp.: can'kered, pp. -kerd: can'kerish, a,: canker- 
like, a. : canker-bit, a. bitten by an animal with 
ulcerous teeth: canker-fly, n. a fly that lives on fruit : 
canker-worm, n. a worm very destructive to plants 
and the leaves and fruit of trees : can'kerous, a. -lis, 
corroding like a canker. 

cannel-coal, n. kCm'-nel-kol (a coiTuption of candle- 
coal, from its giving out much flame: Norm, kynnel, a 
torch), a hard, black, inflammable coal, known to the 
Scotch miners as parro^-coa^ — chiefly used for the 
manufacture of gas. 

caimibal, n. kcln'ni-bcil (from the Caribs or Cari- 
hales, the original inhabitants of W. India Islands), a 
savage that eats human flesh ; an anthropophagite : 
can'nibally, ad. -li: can'nibalism, n. -Izm. 

cannon, n. kdn'-non (F. canon, a gun : It. cannoiie, 
a cannon— from canna, a reed, a tube), a great gun : 
cannon-ball, n. ball for shooting from a cannon : can'- 
nonade, n. -ad (F.— from canon), the act of throwing 
balls from cannons : v. to attack with camions ; to 
batter with balls or shot: can'nona'ding, imp.: can'- 
nona'ded, pp. : can'noneer or can'nonier, n. -er', tlie 
man who manages cannon. 

cannot, v. and ad. kan'not {can and not), to be un- 

canny, a. kdn'ni (Scot.: Icel. kenna, to perceive liy 
sense), gentle; cautious and obliging; harmless; safe: 
not canny, dangerous ; not safe. 

canoe, n. ka-n6' (of Indian origin: Sp. canoa; Ger. 
kahn, a boat), a boat made by hollowing and shaping 
the trunk of a tree ; a boat made of skin, or the bark 
of trees. 

canon, n. kdn'on (Gr. kanon, a measuring or mark- 
ing pole, a ruler : L. canon, a rule ; canonicus, regu- 
lar), in Church affairs, a rule or law in discipline or 
doctrine; a rule in general; a catalogue of saints; 
the Holy Scriptures, called thesacrcdmwon; arepeat- 
ing piece of music ; every last step in an equa- 
tion ; a dignitarj' of the church : bone in the lore 
leg of a horse : in print., a large size of type : canon 
law, the laws that regulate church government: 
can'oness, n. a woman who enjoys an income attached 
to a church, but who has no duty to perform ; canonic, 
ka-non'-ik, also canon'ical, a. -i-kdl, according to the 
rules or laws of the church: canonical Scriptures, 
the books of Scripture admitted to be of divine origin ; 
also canonical epistles : canon'ically, ad. -li : canon'- 
icals, n. plu. -ikdls, the full dress of a clergyman while 
ofliciating in chiu-ch : csfnon'icate, n. the office of a 
canon : can'onist, n. a man versed in ecclesiastical 
law: can'onis'tic, a. pert, to; can'onic'ity, n. -ls'4-tl, 
agreement with the canon of Scripture, or comprehen- 
sion within it : canonise, v. kdn'on-lz', in the M. Cath. 
C/t.,todeclareaman or woman asaint.and to inscribe 
liis or her name in the catalogue, called a canon : can'- 
oni'sing, imp.: can'onised, pp. -izd: can'onisa'tion, 
n. -za'.^linv. the act of declaring any person a saint: 
can'onship, n. the benefice filled by a canon; also 
can'onry, u. -ri. 

canon, n. kdn'ydn (Sp.), in Western America, a deep 
gorge or ravine between high and steep banks. 

canopy, n. kdn'-o-jA (Gr. konopeion, a bed with 
gauze curtains to keep off flies— from konops, a gnat : 
L. cunopcum: F. canapi), a covering over a throne or 
a bed; a covering over the head; in arch., an orna- 
mental projection over a door, a window, &c. : v. to 
cover with a canopy : can'opying, imp. -pl-lng • can'o- 
pied, pp. -pid. 

canorous, a. kd-n6'rus (L. canorvs, melodious— from 
cano, I sing), musical; tuneful: cano'rously, ad. -li: 
cano'rousness, n. 

cant, V. kdnt (Gael, cainnf, speech, language; can, 
to sing, to name : L. canto, I sing), to speak in a whin- 
ing tone of voice : n. whining affected speech ; hypo- 
critical jargon ; slang: canting, imp.: adj. spi'uking 
in a whining tone of voice: n. the talk of a would- 
be religious person : cant'ed, pp. : cant'ingly, ad. -li. 

cant, V. kdnt (Ger. kanten, to put a thing upon its 
edge, to tilt: Dan. ka7it; Sp. canto, edge, angle), to 
pitch forward ; to place upon the edge, as a cask ; to 
jerk; to throw; among carpen., to cut off an angle 
from a square piece of timber : n. an inclination from 
a horizontal line ; a thrust ; a push : cant'ing, imp. ; 
adj. turning up on edge ; giving a sudden thrust. 

can't, kdnt, contracted for cannot. 

Cantab, kdn'tdb, or Cantabridgian, n. -tabrlj'l-dn, 
a member or scholar of Cambridge university. 

Cantabrian, a. kdn-ta'-brl-an, pert, to Cantabria, 
on the Bay of Biscay, in Spain. 

cantankerous, a. kdn-tdng'ker-iis, in familiar lan- 
guage, cross-grained ; ill-conditioned in temper : can- 
tan'kerousness, n. crossness ; ill-humour ; petulance. 

cantata, n. cdn-ta'td (It.— from L. canto, I sing), a 
poem set to music. 

canteen, n. kdn-ten' (It. cantina, a wine-cellar), a tin 
vessel for caiTj'ing a liquid ; the store and tavern at- 
tached to a barracks. ' 

canter, n. kdn'ter (a contr. of Canterbury gallop), a 
moderate gallop : v. to run, as a horse in an easy gal- 
lop : can'tering, imp. : can'tered, pp. -terd. 

canterbury, n. kiln'ter-ber'-l (from a city in England), 
a stand or receptacle for music, &c. : canterbury- 
bells, a species of campanula. 

cantharis, n. kdn'thdr-is; canthar'ides, n. pin. 
-idez (Gr. kantharis, a kind of beetle), the Spanish fly, 
used in making blistering plasters : canthar'idine, n. 
-i-din, the blistering principle in Spanish flies. 

canthus, n. kCm'thUs (L. canthus; Gr. kanthos, the 
iron ring aroimd a wheel), the angle or comer of tiie 

canticle, n. kdn'tl-kl (L. canto, I sing), a song : plu. 
the Song of Solomon, or Song of Songs. 

canto, n kcin'td (It. canto, a song: L. cantus, sing- 
ing), a part or division of a poem ; in music, the leading 
part; a song: cantillate, v. kdn'tU-lat, to chant; to 
recite musically : can'tilla'ting, imp. : can'tilla'ted, 
pp.: can'tilla'tion, n. -la'shUn, chanting; reading or 
reciting with musical cadence. 

canton, n. kdn'-tOn (F. : It. cantone—iTora canto, a 
corner), a division of a country: v. to divide into dis- 
tri('ts or cantons; to allot quarters to troops: can- 
toning, imp. : can'toned, pp. -toyid: can'tonal. a. peit. 
to or divided into cantons : cantonment, n. the part 
of a town or village assigned to a body of troops ; 
separate quarters for soldiers. Note.—Th'i verb can- 
ton and the words derived from it are now more 
usually, and always among militarj' men, pronounced 
with the accent on the second syllable, fhus— canton' , 
cunto'ning, canton'ment, &c. 

canvas, n. knn'-vds (F. canevas, canvas: L. cannabis; 
It. cannevo. hemp), a coarse cloth made of flax or 
hemp, used for tents, sails, painting on, &c. ; in a 
ship, the sails are called the canvas: adj. made of 
canvas: can'vass, v. (a metaphorical meaning taken 
from sifting a substance through canvas), to discuss ; 
to examine into ; to solicit votes or interest ; to make 
interest in favour of: n. a close inspection into; dis- 
cussion; debate; a seeking; a solicitation: can'vas- 
sing, imp. : can'vassed, jip. -idst : can'vasser, n. one 

cany, a. kd'-nl (see cane), full of canes ; consisting 
of canes. 

canzonet, n. kdn'z6n-et' (It. camona, a song: L. 
cnverc, to sing), a little or short song in one, two, or 
three parts. 

caoutchouc, n. kofi'-chobk (a native Indian word), 
indiarubher ; the dried juice of various tropic;-! 
plants, used in the manufacture of waterproof cloths, 

coTy, boy, /out; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, s?iU7i, thing, there, zeal. 


overshoes, flexible tubes, &c. : caout'chine, n. -chin, 
or caoufchoucine, n. -chOb-sln, a volatile liijuid dis- 
tilled from india-rubber. 

cap, n. kdp (AS. cacppe, a cap : Sp. capa ; It. capj)a ; 
F. chaiye, a cover : Gr. skepo, I cover), a cover for the 
head ; a cover in Keneral ; the top or highest part ; a 
mark of some office or dignity : v. to cover the top 
end or orifice ; to uncover as a mark of reverence or 
civility ; to render complete ; to invest with official dis- 
tinction ; to admit to professional honours by the act 
of capping : cap'ping, imp. : capped, pji. cdfjl : cap-a- 
pie, ad. -(!•;;«' (F.), from head to font; all over, as 
armed cap-a-pie: cap-of -maintenance, a cap carried 
before the kinsis of Kiitrlaud at their coronation: to 
set one's cap at, to t;ike measures to gain the attec- 
tions of a man : cap ful, a small quantity, used by 
sailors when .sjn-ikin.^,' of the wind. 

capable, a. ka-pn-bl (F. capable— irom. L. capio, I 
take), able to contain or receive ; having the requisite 
mental, moral, or physical ability ; "qualified for : 
ca'pableness, n. -hl-nis, the quality of being capable : 
ca'pabil'ity, n. -hiVl-tl. the quiUityof being able or 
qualified for: capacious, a. A'iy((i'67uls, roomy; large; 
That will liold <pr taki- in iiiui:h; extensive; capa- 
ciously, ad. -U: capaciousness, n. : capacitate, v. 
ka-pas'-l-tat, to qualify ; to enable : capac'ita'ting, 
imp.: capac'ita'ted, pp.: capacita'tion, n. -ta'shun : 
capacity, n. -tl, the power of containing; extent of 
room or space ; the power of receiving instruction ; 
ability ; profession or occupation. 

caparison, n. ka-pdr'i-sun (Sp. caparazon, carcass 
of a fowl, cover of a saddle), an ornamental cover laid 
over the saddle of a horse : v. to cover with an orna- 
mental cloth, as a horse; to deck; to dress out 
superbly : caparisoning, imp. : capar'isoned, pp. 

cape, n. to?p (L. caput, the head : It. capo .- F. caj)), 
any portion or point of land stretching into the sea ; a 
headland ; a cover hanging from tliS neck over the 
back and shoulders ; a short loose cloak. 

caper, v. ku'per (L. caper, a goat : It. capro, a buck : 
F. capriole, a caper in dancing), to leap, skip, or 
jumi); to prance; to spring: n. a leap; a skip, as in 
dancing ; a leap in sport, as a goat or lamb : ca'per- 
ing, imp.: adj. leaping; skipping: ca'pered, pp. -pcrd: 
ca'perer, n. one who : to cut capers, to dance in a 
frolicsome manner ; to play pranks. 

capers, n. ka'pers (F. capre: L. capparis: Ar. ah 
gabr), the buds of the caper-plant preserved in vinegar. 

capias, n. kd'pl-ds (L. take or seize hold of), a writ 
of arrest before, or execution after, judgment. 

capillaire, n. kdji-l-ldr' (¥.), a syrup prepared with 
an infusion of the maiden-hair feni. 

capillary, a. kd2)'U-ler-l (L. capillus, hair: F. capil- 
laire, capillary), resembling hair; tubes or canals, 
extremely fine and minute, through which moisture 
ascends spontaneously, are called capillary tubes: 
capillary attraction, the power that porous bodies 
have of drawing up or sucking in moisture : cap'il- 
laries, n. plu. -iz, in atiat., the extremely fine extre- 
mities of the arteries, &c. : cap'illar'ity, n. -Idr'lfi, 
the state or condition of: cap illa'ceous, a. -la'shii^' 
very slender, like hair: capillament, n. ka-xnV-ld-mSnt, 
a fine fibre or filament : capil'ILform, a. -U-fatvrm 
(L. forma, shape), hair-shaped. 

capital, a. kdp'ltal (L. rapilalis, that by which life 
is endangered, pre-eminent— from caput, the head- 
It. capitate; F. cajntal), chief; principal; fii-st in im- 
portance ; punishable by loss of life ; great ; large of 
size: n. the ornamental part of a column, pilLir, or 
pilaster placed at the top immediately over tlie shaft, 
but under the entablature ; a chief city or town ; a 
large letter or type; a stock-in-trade, consisting of 
money or goods : capitally, ad. -ll .- capitalist, n. '-1st, 
one possessed of large means and ingau'^d in Imsincss- 
capitalise, v. -iz, to convert into ciiiital. ;is monev or 
htock: capltali'sing, imp.: capitalised, \i]< -h -d ■ 
cap Italisa'tion, n. -i-za-shrm. act bv wliich anvtliimr 
isc'oiivcrtcil into capital: caplta'tion, n. -ta'sliiin. so 
muih )Mr hr.Ml or individual ; a poll-tax: capitate, 
.a. hij/ilaf, in b,>t.,]iki' a piii-h.'ad ; liavin-a rounded 
RuniiMit, MS some iiairs : Capltan-Pacha, n. -tihi- 
;»r!..v/er,tli,-, liieiadniiral of the Turkish tleet: capita- 
tion-tax, n. a t:ix imposeil on each )icrsonal]ove a cer- 
tain age: capitation-grant, n. a sum of nioiiev iiaid 
annually for e.nh, 1,11,1 attending an elementary school 
l>y the Conmiiiie,' of Council on Kducation, on the ful- 
Idnient o| c-i-tain <onilitions. 

capitol, n. kap'-i-tvl (L. capitoUum—irom cajmt, the 
vHlte, mdt./dr, laid; mite, m6t. 



head), the temple of Jupiter; a fort or castle in Rome 
where the senate of anc. Kome met ; the building 
occupied by the parliament or Congress of the U.S. 
of Auier. : capitolian, kap'i-tO'-U-dn, or capitoline, a. 
cdjjit'-o-lUi. pert, to the Capitol of Kome. 

capitular, n. ku-pit'ti-ler, or capit'ulary, -f (L. cajntre- 
luin, a little head, the head or chapter of a pillar— from 
cajjut, the head), the laws of an ecclesiaistical council 
or chapter; the member of a chapter: adj. relating 
to the chapter of a catheilral: capit'ulariy, ad. -ll: 
capit'ulate, v. -lat, to surrender, as an armv or garri- 
son t() an enemy, on ceitaiii conditions : capit'ula'tion, 
n. -Id'ahthi, tlie act of thus surrendering to an enemy ; 
the written conditions or treaty : capit'niating, iniji. : 
capit'ula'ted, pp. : capit'ula'tor, n. one \\ iio ; capit'- 
ulum, n. -Mill, in but., a llower-head composed of a 
number of florets arranged without stems on the smn- 
mit of a single peduncle. 

capivi, n. kd-2)e'vi—see copaiba. 

capnomancy, n. kdp'-nO-mdii-sl (Gr. kapnos, smoke ; 
manteia, divination), divination by the motion or 
appearance of smoke. 

capnomor, n. kap'nO-mdr (Gr. kapnos, smoke; 
moira, a part), a colourless oil obtained from the oil 
of tar. 

capoch or caponch, n. kd-pdch' (Sp. capucho— from 
capa. a cover), a monk's hood ; the hood of a cloak. 

capon, n. kd'pon (Sp. cajjar, to ca,strate; mocL 
Gr. apokupto, I cut olf), a cock-chicken fed for tlie 
table; a castrated cock: ca'ponise, v. -n\t, to cas- 
trate, as a fowl : ca'poni'sing, imp. : ca'ponised, pp. 

caponiere, n. kdp'o-ner' (F. caponnitre: Sp. capo- 
nera}, in rail., a lodgment for soldiers in the dry ditch 
or the glacis ; a kind of way covered by a parapet, and 
palisaded ; a cut in the glacis leading from the cov- 
ered way to the works at the foot of the glacis. 

capot, n. kd-p6f (F. capot, a great-coat : Ger. caput, 
ruined), a wnning of all the tricks of cards at the game 
of piquet: v. to win at piquet. 

capouch, n. kd-pdch'— %&& capoch. 

capping verses, kdp'ing (Icel. kapp, contention). 
in foiiiiliar language, contending in the citation of 
verses : to cap, to beat one. 

capric, a. kdp'riL{L. riij„:r, a he-goat), obtained from 
butter, or tlie butter ami fat of the goat; applied to 
an acid, as capric acid : cap 'rate, n. -rat, a salt of 
capric acid. 

caprice, n. kd-pres' (F. caprice, whim : It. cappric- 
ao— from L. capra, a goat), a sudden change of o).un- 
ion or humour; a whim; a particular fancy : caprici- 
ous, a. -prlsh'-us, given to change; whimsical; fickle; 
apt to change opinions or intentions suddenly: ca- 
priciously, ad. -ll : caprici'ousness, n. 

Capricorn, n. kdp'-rl-kaurn{L. easier, a goat; cormi, 
a bona), one of the twelve signs of the zodiac : tropic 
of Capricorn, the parallel in the S. hemisphere, whose 
latitude is equal to the sim's gi-eatest declination, 
about 230 28'. 

caprid, a. kdp'rld (L. caper, a he-goat), relating to 
the goat tribe : cap'rine, a. -rin, pert, to a goat. 

caprification, n. kdp'rlfi-kd'i'hfm (L. caprificare, 
to ripen figs by the stmging of the gall insect— from 
caper, a he-goat ; .ficus, a fig), a process of accelerating 
the ripening of fruit by puncturing, particularly of 
the cultivated fig, practised in the Levant. 

capriolate, a. kap'riOldt (L. capreolus, tendril of 
a vino, a wild goat), in bat., ha\ang tendrils. 

capriole, n. kdp'rl-Ol (see caper), a leap ^^•hich a 
horse makes without advancing; a leap or caper, as 
in dancing: v. to b'ap without advancing: caprio- 
ling, iiniv. : cap'rioled, pp. -old. 

capsicum, n. kfip'-si-kihn (new L. m;).« !>!/?» —from 
rnjisa, a bo.x. a chest), red or Cayenne iieiijier, from 
CayiMini' in French (;ui;)na : capsicine, n. -.-In, the 
activ,' jirineii'le in tlie eaj.sules ol Cavenn.' ju'iiper. 

capsize, v. koji-sn' (]iiol,;il,ly ,-,,y,, top, head ; and 
.vr/?/ ). to ujiset; to overturn: capsizing, imp.: cap- 
sized', iii>. -sud'. 

capstan, n. kdp'stdn (F. rabestan: old Sp. cabra, 
an einrine for throwing stones: It. ciijira. an engine 
to raise, ir(ln;nii'e), in a ship, a movable upright block 
of liiulier round whiih a rojjc or chain is made to coil 
when raising an :inclior or otlur lieavv wi'ight. 

capsule, n. ktl/'-siU (L. raj.siiln. a little chest: F. 
ca/isidr). in ^o^,tlles,•e,l.v.■ss.•lo^a plant; in<n((j/..a 
ineinbninous bag inclosiuL' :in organ ; in r/i<'m..i\ eliina 
.saucer, for roasting : cap sular, -/'/•. also cap'snlar'y, 
a. -l&r'-l, hollow ; full of cells : capsulate, kOji'sAldt, 

Mr; pine, pin; nCte, nOt, mOve ; 




also cap'sulated, a. -la'tSd, inclosed in a capsule, or 

jui iu a box. 
captain, n. Mp'-tan (F. capitaine : It. capitaiio— from 

L. caput, the head), an oflicer who commands a com- 
pany of foot, a troop of horse-soldiers, or a ship ; a 

leader or chief: captain-general, the conunander- 

in-chief of an army: captaincy, n. -si, the rank or 

commission of a captain : cap'tainship, n. 

captious, a. kdiy-sliua (h. captiosus, captious, de- 
ceptive—from capere, to take : F. cuptieua), disposed 

to find fault; apt to cavil or raise objections; insidi- 
ous : captiously, ad. -ll: cap'tiousnesa, n. 
captivate, v. kap'-ti-vat (L. captivus, taken prisoner 

—from capere, to take : F. captiver, to enslave), to take 

prisoner ; to charm or subdue by beauty ; to gain by 

excellence in manners or conduct ; to enslave by love : 

captivating, imp. : cap'tiva'ted, pp. : captivation, 

n. -vd'-shun: captive, n. kap'Hv, a prisoner taken in 

war ; one who is charmed by beauty or enslaved by 

love : adj. made prisoner in war : captivity, n. -hti, 

bondage ; the state of being in the power of an enemy ; 

state of being under subjection or control : capture, n. 

-tilr, the act of tokiug or seizing by an enemy, as a ship ; 

the tiling taken ; a prize ; seizure, as of a criminal : 

v. to take or lay hold of by force ; to seize by strata- 
gem : cap'turing, imp. : captured, pp. -turd : cap tor, 

n. one who seizes or captures, as a ship. 
capuchin, n. kclp'oo-shen (F. cajrucin^-from ra2mce, 

a cowl : It. cappuccio—SQfi cap), a monk of St Francis ; 

a cloak and hood for females. 
car, n. k&r (L. carrus ; It. carro ; F. char, a car, a 

cart : Dut. karren, to creak : F. charricr, to carry), a 

small light carriage drawn by one horse; a railway 

carriage ; a chariot. 
carabine, n. kdr'-d-Mn, or carbine, kdr'Mn (F. cara- 

hiii: It. calahrino), a short gun carried by a cavalry 

soldier: carabineer' or carTiineer', n. -bin-er', one 

who carries a carabine. 

caracole, n. kdr'-a-kol (Sp. caracal, a winding stair- 
case : Gael, car, a twist : AS. cerrun, to turn), the 

half-turn which a horseman makes to the right or 

left ; in arch., a winding staircase. 
caramel, n. kdr'a-mel {¥.), burnt sugar; a black 

porous substance obtained by heating sugar to about 

carapace, n. kdr'dpds (F.— from Gr. karabos, a crus- 

taceous animal like the crab or lobster), the crusta- 

ceous and horny coverings of certain classes of ani- 
mals, as the tortoise, the crab, &c. 
carat, n. kdr'-dt (F. : Gr. keration, seed of pulse : 

Ar. kirat, a small weight ; kuara, name of a plant 

whose beans in Africa are used as weights for gold), a 

weight of 4 grains used in weighing gold and pre- 
cious stones ; the weight that expresses the purity of 

gold, 24 carats being the standard of purity. 
caravan, n. kdr'-d-vdn (Pers. kerivan: Ar. qaira- 

u-a)i: F. cararaji*), a large close carriage ; in the East, 

a company of merchants joui-neying together for 

mutual safety : caravansary, -ser-i, or car'avan'sera, 

n. -ser-d {caravan, and Pers. sarai, a large place), a 

station for unloaduig the camels and beasts of burden 

for the night. 

caravel, n. kdr'd-vSl (F. : It. caravela, akind of ship : 
Gael, carbh, a sliip), a small French herring-vessel; 
a light vessel formerly used by Spaniards and Por- 

caraway, n. kdr'd-wa (F. and It. carvi— from Caria 
in Asia Minor : carum carui, the plant), a plant, the 
seeds of which are used as the kernel in confections, 
and for giving a flavour to cakes. 

carbazotic, a. kdr'bd-zot'lk (carbon and azote), ap- 
plied to an acid which consists of carbon, nitrogen, 
and oxygen, 
carbine— see carabine. 

carbo-vegetabilis, n. kcir'bO-vcj'd-fdb'll-ls (L. carho, 
coal ; and new L. vegetabilis, vegetable), a name for 

carbon, n. k&r'bon (It. carbone ; F. charhon ; L. cnrhn, 
a coal), pure charcoal, existing pure only in the dia- 
mond : carbon'ic, -Ik, or carT)ona'ceous,a. -bo-na'shn>\ 
containing charcoal ; coaly: carlaonate, n. -?»}/, a com- 
j.ound formed by the union of carbonic acid with a 
tiase, &c.: carbona'ted, a. combined or saturated with 
carbon : carboniferous, a. -nif-er-ils (L. fero, I carry), 
I^roducing carbon or coal : car'bonise', v. -niz', to 
change into carbon: carlaoni'sing, imp.: carTjonised', 
pp. -nlzcV: car1)onlsa'tion, n. ■zu'slnln, the act or 
process of carbonising: carbonic acid, an acid com- 
posed of one part of carbon and two of oxygen : car- 
cow, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 

bolic acid, kdr-b6Vlk, a colourless oily liquid obtained 
fniiu c(ial-tar: carbolene, n. kdr'bo-len, a, non-volntilc 
hydro-carbon, may be used for increasing the illumi- 
iiaiing power of coal-gas. 

carboy, n. kdr'-bojj (mod. Gr. caraboyia, copperas or 
gieen vitriol ; Turk, karaboya, black dye : Sic. carabba, 
a bottle with a big belly and narrow neck), a large 
globular bottle generally covered with basket-work. 

carbuncle, n. kdr'-bung-kl (L. carbunculus, a little 
coal— from carbo, coal), a red fiery round blotch on the 
skin ; an inflammatory boil ; a precious stone of a 
deep-red colour: car bunded, a. -kid, set with car- 
buncles ; spotted with red fiery sores : carbun'cular, 
a. -ku-ldr, perl, to or resembling a carbuncle; red; 

carburet, n. kdr'bu-rSt (F. carbwre— from L. carbo, 
a coal), carbon in combination with some other sub- 
stance, the result not being an acid: v. to combine 
some other substance with carbon: carburet ting, 
imp. : car bui'et'ted, a, combined with carbon : car - 
buret ter, n. that which : car'buration, -rd'shuu, the 
act of: carburetted hydrogen gas, a compound of 
carbon and hydrogen, as common coal-gas. 

carcanet, n. kdr'-ku-net (F. curcun),a, chain or col- 
lar of jewels. 

carcass, n. kdr'kds{F. carquasse,a,dea& body: mod. 
Gr. karkasi, a quiver, a carcass : It. carcunso, the hard 
core of fruits), the dead body of an animal ; applied 
to the living body in contempt; the framework or 
principal parts of a thing unfinished, as a house: car'- 
casse, n. -kds, an iron case filled with combustibles 
to be thrown into a besieged town from a mortar. 

carcerule, n. kdr'ser-ul (L. career, a jail), in bot., a 
dry, indehiscent, many-celled fruit, with few seeds in 
each cell, the cells cohering round a common style 
placed in the axis. 

carcharodon, n. kdr-kdr'o-don (Gr. karcharodon, 
having rough or jagged teeth— from karcharos, sharp- 
pointed, and odontes, teeth), m geol., ngenus of sharks 
whose fossil teeth, &c., are often of gieat size. 

carcharopsis, n. kdr'-kdr-op'-sis (Gr. karcharos, 
sharp-pointed; opsis, appearance), in geol., a genus 
of carboniferous shark-like fishes. 

carcinoma, n. kdr'-sl-no'-md (Gr. karkinos, a crab, 
cancer), cancer in general; ulcerative stage of can- 
cer: car'cinom'atous, a. -nom'-d-tus, pert, to cancer in 

card, n. kdrd (F. carte: L. c/iarfa, paper : It. carta), 
a piece of pasteboard usually written or printed on 
for social or business purposes; oblong pieces of 
pasteboard on which figures are printed, used in 
games : card-table, n. : card-maker, n., one who. 

card, n. kdrd (It. cardo,.a thistle : Gael, card, to card 
wool: Ger. scharren, to scrape: L. carduus, a 
thistle, a teasel— from carere, to comb wool), an in- 
str. for combing out wool or flax: v. to comb out 
wool, flax, or hemp ; to sep:irate the finer from tlie 
coarser fibres : carding, inip. : carded, pp. : card- 
er, n. one who. 

cardamom, n. knr'dd-m6m(F. cardamome: L. car- 
damomum), an Indian spice plant, whose seeds are 
used in nud. 

cardiac, kdr'-dl-dk, also cardi'acal, a. -dl'd-kdl (Gr. 
kardia, the heart or the upper orifice of the stomach), 
pert, to the heait ; invigorating the heart by stimu- 
lants: car'diac, n. a medicine that excites action in 
the heart, and animates the spirits : car'dial'gia, n. 
-dt-dl'gia (Gr. algos, pain), pain in the stomach ; heart- 
burn : carditis, n. kdr-dl'-tls, inflanunatiou of the 

cardinal, a. kar'di-ndl (L. cardinalis, pert, to a 
hinge— from cardo, a hinge : It. cardinale ; F. car- 
dinal, principal), that on which other things turn : 
chief ; principal ; fundamental : n. a dignitary of the 
R. Cath. Ch. next in rank to the Pojie : cardinalate, 
krir'dl-nd-laf. also car'dinalship, n. tlie office or rank 
of a cardinal : cardinal points of the compass, the 
four principal points— north, south, east, and west. 

cardium, n. kur'dlum (Gr. kardia. the heart), the 
coi kle, so named in allusion to its heart-like form, 
care, n. kdr (AS. cearian, to take heed : Goth, kara, 
care: L. cams, dear), thoughtful attention; uneasi- 
ness of mind ; concern ; regard ; charge : v. to be 
anxious or uneasy in mind; to heed or regard: ca'ring, 
imp.: cared, pp. Adrri; careful, a. Avtr^/ooZ, full of con- 
cern ; attentive to; watchful; cautious: careless, a. 
without concern or thought ; regardless ; inattentive : 
carefully, ad. -ll: carefulness, n. : carelessly, ad. 
■U : care lessness, n. : careworn, a. crushed with 




care ; fatigued with anxiety : to take care, also have 
a care, be careful ; take heed. 

careen, v. k^-ren' (F. carener, to refit : L. carina, the 
bottom of a ship : It. carena, bottom of a ship : Dut. 
kreiigen, to sail on one side), to lay a ship on one side 
in order to repair the other ; a ship to incline to one 
side while sailing: careen'ing, imp.: n. the act of 
heaving down aship on one side: careened', pp. -rend' : 
careenage, n. karen'aj, place for careening a ship ; 
expense of careening. 

career, n. kd-rer' (F. carriere ; It. carriera, a race, 
a highway: L. currus, a two-wheeled cart), course of 
action ; progress in life ; procedure ; a race or run- 
ning; speed in motion: v. to run or move rapidly: 
careering, imp. : careered', pp. -rerd'. 

careful, a.— see care. 

caress, v. ka-i-is' (F. rare.sse; It. carezza, an endear- 
ment : \V. caru, to love), to treat with fond affection ; 
to embrace with affection and love, as a parent a 
child; to fondle: n. an act of endearment ; an expres- 
sion of affection : cares'sing, imp. : caressed', pp. 
-r6st' : caressingly, ad. -U. 

caret, n. ka'rit (L. card, it wants or is wanting), a 
mark thus (a) to show in written compositions that 
something has been omitted in a line. 

cargo, n. kar'go (Sp. cargo, the load of a ship : It. 
caricare; Sp. cargar; F. charger, to load), the whole 
goods conveyed in a sliip : supercargo, n. (L. super, 
over), the person who has the charge of the cargo on 
board a ship. 

caricature, n. kdr'l-kd-tilr' (It. caricatura, an over- 
loailed representation of anything — from carricare, to 
load), a fip^ui'e or description of a person or thing in 
which defects are greatly exaggei-ated in order to 
make ridiculous : v. to sketch or describe in order to 
turn into ridicule ; to represent as very ugly : car'ica- 
turing, imp.: car'icatured', pp. -turd' : caricatu'rist, 
n. -ta'-rlst, one who. 

caries, n. ka'rl-eziL. caries, rottenness: It. and F. 
ear/e), the mortification of a bone in tlie living body; 
decay or rottenness of a bone: ca'rious, a. -us, de- 
cayed or rotten: ca'rios'ity, n. -6s'-i-tl, rottenness of 
a bone. 

carinate, a. kdr't-nat, or car'ina'ted, a. -na'fed (L. 
carina, a keel), in bot., keel-shaped, as the two lower 
petals of a papilionaceous flower: car'inal, a. -l-nni, 
applied to aistivation when tlie carina embraces the 
other parts of the flower. 

cariole, n. kdr'l-ol (F.), a small open carriage ; a 
covered cart. 

carl or carle, n. kdrl (AS. ceorl; Icel. karl, a man), 
a rude, rough man. 

carlings, n. plu. k&r'llngz (F. carlingue), in a ship, 
short pieces of timber ranging fore and aft from one 
deck-beam to another, used to sustain and fortify the 
smaller beams of the ship. 

Carlovingian, a. kar'-lovln'jl-Cin (¥.), pert, to or de- 
scended from Charlemagne. 

cxrman, n.— see car. 

Carmelite, n. kdr'm4-llt, a monk of the order of 
our Lady of Mount Carmel. 

carminative, n. kdr-mln'd-tlv (It. carminare, to card 
wool, to make gross humours fine and thin by medi- 
cines), a medicine used to expel wind or to cure flatu- 
lence: adj. expelling wind from; warming. 

carmine, n. kdr'-mln (F. carmin: It. carminio), a 
powder of a beautiful red or crimson colour bordering 
on purple; the colouring matter of cochineal: car- 
min'ic, a. -mln'ik, pert. to. 

carnage, n. kdr'ndj (F. carnage,— from L. caro, flesh 
—gen. carnis), great destruction of life by violence— 
literally, heaps of flesh, as in slaughter-houses ; liavoc ; 
massacre : car'nal, a. -ndl, fleshly; sensual ; opposed to 
spiritual, as carnal plea<uri' ; uiircgi'mnMte : carnal- 
ist, n. one who: car'nally, u<l. -Ii.- carnal-minded, a. 
worldly-minded: carnal-mindedness, n, : car'nalism, 
n.-Hzm, also camal'ity, n. -n'ti'i-n. grossness of mind 
or desire : carna'tion, n. ■na'shiin, flesli colour ; a 
plant so called from the colour of its flower : carna'- 
tioned, a. -shilnd, coloured like the carnation : carne'- 
lian, n. ■nfMidn (F. cornalin-^), a siliclous stone of 
a deep flesh or whitish-red colour. 

carneous, a. kdr'nd-ils (L. caro flesh— gen. cariu's), 
like flesh ; flrtshy : car'nlval, n. -vdl (L. cnro, flesh ; 
vale, farewell : low L. carnis le.vamen, the solace of ttie 
flesh), the season of rejoicing before Lent in Catholic 

camivora, n. plu. kdrnlv'6-ra (L. caro, flesh; vnro, 
I oat greedily), flesh-eating animals : carniv'orac'ity, 

viaie, mat, far, law; mete, met, 

n. -rrts'l-«, greediness for flesh: camiv'orous, a. -5-r!7s, 
feeding on flesh : camos'ity, n. -nds'-l-tl. asmall fleshy 
excrescence: camose', a. -71 Cz', in 6o<., fleshy— applied 
to albumen having a fleshy consistence. 

carol, n. kdr'-ol (properly a round dance : F. carole, 
■A dance: W. coroli, to dance: L. corolla, a garland, a 
chaplet), a song of joy and exultation ; a song in 
general: v. to praise or celebrate in song; to sing in 
joy; to warble: carolling, imp.: carolled, pp. -old: 
car'olet'ic, a. -o-Ut'-lk, also -litic, in arch., adorned 
with festoons or foliage. 

carotid, a. kd-rot'-ld (Gr. karos, deep sleep ; Gr. plu. 
karotides), the carotids are the two great arteries of 
the neck that convey the blood to the head and brain. 

carouse, v. kd-rolvz' (Ger. gar ans, all out : Sp. car- 
auz or caraos, act of drinking a full bumper to one's 
health), to drink hard; to revel: n. a drinking-match ; 
a revel : carou'sing, imp. : caroused', pp. -ro'rzd' : 
carou'ser, n. one who: carou'singly, ad. -II: carou'- 
sal, n. -zdl, a feast or banquet. 

carp, n. kdrp (Ger. karpfen: Dut. karper: Y.carpe), 
a fresh-water fish. 

carp, V. kdrp (L. carpere, to seize: Bohem. krapati, 
to chatter : Port, carpire, to cry or weep), to snatch or 
catch at; to find fault, geneially without sufficient 
reason; to cavil; to censure: carping, imp. : carped, 
pp. kurjH: carp'ingly, ad. -ll: carp'er, n. one who. 

carpal, a. kdr'-jidl (new L. carpus, the MTist), be- 
longing to the MTist. 

carpel, n. kdr'pel (Gr. karpos, fruit), in hot., one of 
the parts which com))ose the innermost of the four 
sets of floral whorls, into which the complete flower is 
separable: carpel'lary, a. -pcl'ler-l, pert, to a carpel: 
carpol'ogy, n. jmI'o-ji (Gr. logos, discourse), the study 
of fruits; a treatise on fiiiit: carpologist, n. one 
who : car'pophore, n. -2>6-for (Gr. phero, I carry), in 
hot., a stalk bearing the pistil, ana raising it above 
the whorl of the stamens, as in the caper. 

carpenter, n. kdr'pen-ter (L. carpentariiis, pert, 
to a chariot, a wheehvright: F. charpentier, a car- 
penter: Gael, carbh, a plank), a man who works 
in timber ; a buUder or framer in wood, as in houses 
and ships; a joiner; awTight: car'pentry, n. -^rf, the 
art of framing and joining timber in the construc- 
tion of buUdings. 

carpet, n. kdr'pet {midL. carpeta, plucked wool, any 
quilted fabric— from L. carpere, to pluck: F. charpie, 
lint : It. carpetfa, a kind of petticoat), the woven or 
felted stuff made of wool, used to cover rooms, stairs, 
&c. : V. to cover with a carpet : car'peting, imp. : n. 
carpets in general; stuff for mnking carpets: car'- 
peted, pp. : to be on the carpet, or to be on the 
tapis (F. tapis, a larint). means that a matter is under 
consideration: carpet-knight, a soldier who has 
never known the liardsliips of actual service: car- 
pet-bag, a travelling-bag made of the same materials 
as carpets. 

carpolites, n. plu. kdr'pO-llts, also car'polithes, 
-lltJiz (Gr. karjoos, fruit; lithos. a stone), in geol., a 
general temi for fossil fruits. 

Carrara marble, kdrdr'-d, a pure white marble from 
Massa Carrara in Italy. 

carriage, n. kCtr'lj(o\d. Eng. earache ; It. carroccio; F, 
carrosse, a conveyance with springs — from I,, carrus, 
a cart), the act of carrying or convejing ; the thing 
tliat carries; any vehicle with springs; a coach; be- 
haviour or conduct ; the charge or cost of conveyance 
of goods. 

carrier, n. kdr'-rX-^r—see carry. 

carrion, n. kdr-rion (It. carogna ; F. charogne— 
fromL. caro, flesh), flesh unfit for human food:' adj. 
relating to: carrion-crow, the species of crow com- 
mon in England which feeds on Ciirrion, insects, &c. 

carronade, n. kdr'rdndd (from Carron in Scot., 
wliere first made), a short cannon formerly used in the 

carrot, n. kCtr'rdt (F. cnrotte : It. cm-ota), a long 
esculent root of a reddish colour: carroty, a. kair- 
roll, like a carrot in colour. 

carry, v. kdr'rl (F. charrier, to convey in a car: 
Wal. carare, to convey in a cart : L. C(irriu<:, a oar), to 
bear; to convey; to effect or accomplish; to lead or 
draw; to produce; to transact or conduct; in 9m7., to 
ol)tain possession of a milit^iry positiiui by force: car' 
rying, imp. : car'ried, pi>. -rli?.- carrier, n. -ri''r, one 
who: to carry away, in imrn! l,iiii}ii,i,j,\ to l)reak a 
spar; to pai-t a rope: to carryoff, tokill ; tobeavaway : 
to carry on, to jiromote ; to lielp forward: to carry 
out, fully to accomplish; to put into execution: to 

h&r; pine, pUt; nOte, ?i6t, vi6ve; 




cany through, to succeed by perseverance: carrier- 
pigeoxi, a variuty of the pigeon employed for carrying 

car.^e, n. Mrs (W. cms, a bog), in Scotland, low, 
fertile, alluvial land near a river, or the valley through 
•which a river flows. 

cart, n. kdrt (AS. krat; It. carretto; F. charrette— 
from L. carrus, a two-wheeled cart), a carriage for the 
<;onveyance of goods, &c. : v. to carry away in a cart : 
cart'ing, imp. : cart'ed, pp. : car'ter, n. one who 
drives a cart: cartage, n. kdr'taj, conveyance in a 
cart ; cost of goods so conveyed : cart-horse, ii. a 
strong horse fordrawingacart: cart-load, much 
as can be carried in a cart : cart-wright, n. one who 
constructs carts. 

carte, n. kdrt (F.), a card ; a bill of fare at a hotel. 

carte -blanche, n. k&rt-Udngsh (F. carte, paper; 
hlcmche, white), a paper signed but not filled up; 
iniconditional power to do some business for another : 
carte-de-visite, n. kdrt'dS-ve-zet' (F.— literally, a 
card of visit), a small photograjjliic likeness gummed 
on a card — so called from its original use as a visiting 
card : plu. cartes-de-visite. 

cartel, n. kdr'tel (It. cartella, pasteboard), a written 
agreement between states at war for an exchange of 
prisoners: cartel-ship, n. a ship employed in convey- 
ing exchanged prisoners, or the messenger to obtain 
an exchange. 

Cartesian, a. kdr-te'-zhl-dn, pert, to the doctrines of 
the French philosopher Descartes : n. a person who 
believes in the philosophy of Descartes. 

Carthaginian, a. kdr'-thd-jin'-l-dn, pert, to anc. Car- 
thage : n. a native of. 

carthamus, n. kdr'-thd-mus (L.— from Gr. kathairo, I 
purge, I purify), the wild or bastard saffron ; safflower : 
car'thamine, n. -mln, a colouring matter obtained 
from the safflower. 

Carthusian, n. kdr-fhd'zJncin, one of an order of 
monks, named from Chartreux in France: adj. pert, 

cartilage, n. kdr'fil-uj (F.— from L. cartilago, gris- 
tle), gristle; a whitish elastic substance, softer than 
bone, and harder than ligament: car'tilag'inous, a. 
-tl-laj-l-nus, having gristle instead of bones. 

cartoon, n. kdr-t6n' (It. cartone, pasteboard — from 
carta, paper: h. chart a), a sketch made on paper, &c., 
as a design to be executed in tapestry, in mosaics, or 
on glass ; a design on paper to be transferred from 
the paper on to the fresh plaster of a wall, and painted 
in fresco. 

cartouch, n. kdr-t6sh' (F. cartouche: It. cartoccio, a 
paper case), a cartridge-box; a small wooden case 
filled with rifle-balls or small cannon-balls for being 
discharged from a gun; in arch., an ornament re- 
presenting a scroll of paper. 

cartridge, n. kdr'trlj (a corruption of cartouche.- 
L. charta, paper), a small bag or case made of paper, 
pasteboard, wool, &c., for containing powder and balls, 
used for loading rifles or cannon— containing powder 
alone they are called blank-cartridges— with ball, they 
are called ball-cartridges: cartridge-box, n. the small 
leather case in which the soldier holds his cartridges : 
cartridge-paper, n. a thick sort of paper. 

cartulary, n. kdr'-tu-ler'%(V. cartulaire : low L. car- 
tularium), a register book; one who keeps records, 

caruncle, n. kdr'ilng-kl (L. car^mcula., a little piece 
of flesh— from caro, flesh), a small fleshy excrescence, 
diseased or natural, as the comb of a cock; in bot., 
a fleshy or thickened appendage of the seed : carun'- 
cular, a. -ku-ler, pert, to or liaving the form of a 
caruncle : carun'cula'ted, a. having a fleshy excres- 

carve, v. kdrv (AS. ceorfan; Dut. kervan, to cut or 
carve : Ger. kerben, to notch), to cut into pieces, as 
meat; to cut into forms or shapes; to en£;rave or 
sculpture : carv'ing, imp.: n. the act of cutting ; the 
art of cutting figures in wood,"&c. ; sculpture: carved, 
pp. kdrvd: carver, n. one who: carving-knife, n. 
a knife for cutting and slicing meat at table : to carve 
out, to cut or take out from some large thing ; to 
lay out by design. 

carvel, n. kdr'-vHl (another form of caravel), a small 
ship ; Jelly-fish. 

caryatides, n. plu. kdr't-dt't-clSz, in arcli., female 

figures used to support entablatures— so called from 

the women of Carya in Arcadia: car'yat'ic, a. -ik, 

l)evt. to. 

caryocaris, n. kdr'-l-ok'd-rXs (Gr. karuon, a nut, and 

karis, a shrimp), in (/eol., a small crustacean, liaving 
a long, pod-shaped, bivalved canipace. 

caryophyllia, n. kdr'l-o-fll'lld (Gr. kariiophullon, a 
clove), literally "clove-shaped;" in geol., a s(H:ti(iii of 
lamellated flower-like corals: car'yophylla'ceous, ;i. 
-Id'shus, in bot., having corollas of live petals with 
long claws, as in the pink : caryoph'ylline, n. -d/'ll-lln, 
a crystalline substance extracted from cloves. 

caryopsis, n. kdr'l-dp'sXs (Gr. karuon, a nut, a ker- 
nel ; 02:)si8, sight, form), in bot., a dry, one-seeded, in- 
dehiscent fruit, incorporated with a thin pericarp, 
forming a single grain— as in wheat, barley, <Sc. 

casava, n. kd-sd'vd (Sp. cazabe), bread made from 
the starch obtained from the root of the tapioca jilant. 

cascade, n. kds-kdd' (It. caacata; F. cascade, a fall 
of water— from It. cascure, to fall), a waterfall ; water 
flowing over steep rocks. 

cascalho, n. kds-kdl'yO (Port, cascalho, gravel), a 
name given in Brazil to the gravelly deposit in which 
diamonds and gold are found. 

cascarilla, n. kds'kd-rU'ld (Sp. cascara, bark of 
trees), the bark of a tree of Jamaica ; a powerful tonic. 

case, n. kds (F. caisse, a box : It. cassa, a chest : Sp. 
casco, a cask: Dut. kast; Ger. kiste, a chest: L. cassus, 
hollow), a covering ; a box ; a sheath ; a frame ; a cer- 
tain quantity : v. to cover in ; to put in a case or box : 
ca'sing, imp. : n. a covering: cased, pp. kdst: case'- 
harden, v. -hdrd'n, to harden the outer part— as iron, 
by converting it into steel : case-hardening, imp. : 
case-hard'ened, pp.: case-knife, n. -?(?/, a long kitchen- 
knife: caseworm, n. caddis-worm; a wonii or grul) 
which makes itself a case: case-shot, n. shot in a 
case : case'man, n. a compositor. 

case,n. kds (L. ca5?ts, afall : F. cas, a case, a matter), 
that which falls, comes, or happens ; an event ; con- 
dition or state in which any person or thing may 
chance to be ; a question for discussion ; a cause in a 
court ; the inflection of nouns : in case, if it sliould so 
hajipen : in good case, in good condition or health of 

caseine, n. kd'se-in (F. — from L. caseus, cheese: 
It. cascio), the cheesy jiortion of the curd of milk : 
ca'seous, a. -us, like cheese ; having the qualities of 
cheese : ca'seic, a. -ik, of Or from cheese. 

casemate, n. kds'mdt (F.: Sp. casa-matcv— from casa, 
a house, and matar, to slay), a vault of mason-woik 
in the flank of a bastion serving as a battery : case'- 
mated, a. having casemates. 

casement, n. kds'ment (It. casamenfo, a large house), 
a window made to turn and open on hinges ; a hollow 
moulding : case'mented, a. having casements. 

caseous, a.— see caseine. 

casern, n. ka'zern (F. caserne— from. L. casa, a hut), 
small sleeping-places for soldiers near the ramparts. 

cash, n. kdsh (F. caisse ; It. cassa, a merchant's cash 
or counter), money on hand, or at command, as in a 
chest or in the bank; ready money; a Chinese copper 
coin : V. to turn into money ; to exchange for money : 
cash-account, n. in Scot., an account of advances 
made by a banker to a merchant or trader who has 
given security for the repajTnent of them : cash-credit, 
the privilege of drawing money out of a bank on 
security being given : cash-book, n. the book in which 
money paid out and received is written down : cash'- 
ing, imp.: cashed, pp. kdsht: cashier, n. kd-sher', a 
clerk who has charge of the money and the cash-book. 

cashew, n. kd-shd' (F. acajou — from the native 
name), a tree of W. I. and S. Amer. and its fruit, wliich 
yields an acrid juice, there growing at the apex of the 
iruit a flattened kidney -shaped nut yielding a caustic 

cashier, v. kd-sher' (Dut. kasseren; F. casser, to 
break- from L. casstcs, empty), to dismiss from an 
office of trust for bad conduct ; to reject or discard : 
cashier 'ing, imp.: cashiered', pp. -s/i^rd', dismissed ; 

cashmere, n. kdsh'-mera, rich and costly shawl, so 
called from the place in India where first made : adj. 
of or pert. to. 

casino, n. kd-sC'-no (It.— from casa, a house), a small 
country-house ; a saloon for dancing, .tc. 

cask, n. kdsk (Sp. casco, a ves.sel for holding liquid.s ; 
F. casque, a case), a round, close, wooden vessel for 
holding liquors, formed of staves and hoops. 

casket, n. kdsk'et (dim. of cask: F. cassette, a case 
for jewels), a small chest or box for holding jewels, 
trinkets, &c. 

casque, n. kdsk (F.— from Sp. casco, a helmet, a cask), 
a helmet or head-piece for a soldier. 

caiv, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game jog, shun, thing, titere, zeal. 




n. kds-sa'shiin (F— from casser, to make 
void), the act of repealing or annulling: court of 
cassation, n. the highest court of appeal in France. 

cassava— see casava. 

cassia, n. cdsh'-l-a (L. and Gr.) a name for many 
spCLies of aromatic plants ; a spice ; a medicine. 

cassideous, a. ka-sUl'lus (L. Cdssis, a helmet), in bot., 
having one large helmet-shaped petal, as the aconite. 

Cassiopeia, n. kds'l-o-pe'ya (after the mytlucal wife 
of Cepheus), a constellation on the opposite side of 
the pole to the Great Bear, and at about the same 
distance from it. 

cassiterite, n. kAs-slt'-er-lt (Gr. kassiteros, tin), the 
oxide of tin, being the ordinary tin ore. 

cassock, n. kd^'sdk (F. aisaque ; It. casacca, a man's 
long gown: Gael, casag, a long coat), a long, close- 
fitting vestment worn by clergymen under their pulpit- 
gowns : cas socked, a. -sokt, clothed with a cassock. 

cassowary, n. kas'-ao-iva'rl (Hind, kassuwuris), a 
large bird which runs with great rapidity, a native of 
the E. I. 

cast, V. kAst (Icel. kasta; Sp. cascar, to crack, to 
hurst: K. casser, to break: It. aiscare, to fall), to 
throw or fling ; to sow seed ; to reject ; to reckon ; to 
contrive or plan; to mould or shape, to ponder or 
weigh, as in the mind : n. a throw; the distance passed 
by a thing thrown ; a glance or a turn of the eye ; 
chance or hazard ; a form or shape ; a tinge ; manner ; 
whatever is run into a mould: casting, imp. : cast, 
pt. and pp. : to cast aside, to dismiss or reject : to 
cast away, to reject ; to lavish : to cast down, to de- 
ject or depress : to cast forth, to throw out; to ex- 
hale : to cast off, to discard, or to put away : to cast 
out, to reject ; to throw or turn out : to cast up, to 
compute ; to reckon ; to eject or vomit : to cast on, to 
put or place on, as loops of worsted on wires : to cast 
one's self on, to resign or yield to the disposal of, 
without reserve : to cast in the teeth, to upbraid ; 
to blame for : to cast in one's lot with any one, to 
take the chance ; to sliare tlie fortune : last-cast, all 
ventured on one effort : cast-iron, n. iron melted from 
the ore, and run into moulds — called also pig-ii'on or 
cast-metal: cast-steel— see steel: casting-vote, a 
vote that decides, when the votes are equally divided. 

Castalian, a. kds-ta'tt-dn (L. castalius), pert, to 
Castalia, a spring on Mount Parnassus sacred to the 

castanets, n. plu. kds'fd-nSfs (Sp. castana, a ches- 
nnt), small concave shells of ivory or hardwood, 
shaped like spoons, rattled with the Angers in danc- 

castaway, n. kAst'd-ica {cast and aiuay), a pei-son 
lost or abandoned : adj. useless; of no value. 

caste, n kust (Port, casta, breed, race), a name ap- 
plied to each of the four classes into which the Hindoos 
are divided; a class or circle of persons in any com- 
munity who chiefly hold intercourse within their own 

casteUated, a. kOs'-tSlM'ted (It. castello ; L. castel- 
hint., a fortified place— from L. ai^tra, a camp), having 
turrets and battlements like a castle : castle, n. 
kils'-sl, a building fortified; a fortress: forecastle, a 
short de.k in tii'' fore part of a ship, at one time a 
castle: castle-in-the-air, an empty scheme ; the form- 
ing of hopL's on no solid foundation; visionary e.x- 
pectations: cas'tled, a. -sW: cas'tlery, n. -eVt, govern- 
ment of a castle : castle-building, the forming in the 
mind of wild or visionary schemes. 

caster, n. kOs'tcr (see cast), one who casts ; a small 
spice bottle or cruet: casters, n. plu. small wheels 
attached to tlie legs of sofas, tables, &c.— sometimes 
written castors. 

castigate, v. kds'fl-gat (L. castigatum, to correct, to 
chastise: It. c«s(;?V;«re), to correct or chastise ; to criti- 
cise severely in writing ; to punish with stripes : cas'- 
tiga'ting, imp. : cas'tiga'ted, pp. : cas'tiga'tion, n. 
■fiil'shnn, correction by stripes; a whipping: cas'ti- 
ga'tor, n. one wiio : cas'tiga'tory, a. -ter-l, corrective : 
n. iiii- tliiii- iisi'il in correction. 

castile-soap, ii. laU-tH' (frnni Castile in Spain), a very 
pun- variety of so.-i)): Castil'ian, a. -tll'l-dn, of or from 
Castili': n. a Jiative. 

castle, II. his'-sl—^cp castellated. 

castor, II. kris'tdr (L.), a beaver; .also a drug taken 
from it : cas'torine, n. -Ui, a substance extracted from 

castors, n. kf7s't('>rs (see caster), small wheels on 
the l.-s of tables, sofas, &c. 

Castor and Pollux, kOs-idr, pdl'liiks (mj-thical 

names), an electrical phenomenon, seen as a flame 
on the mast-head at sea, sometimes double, and then 
called C. and P. ; names of stars. 

castoroides, n. kds'tOr-o'y'dez (Gr. castor, beaver; 
eidus, like), in geoL, a large fossil rodent aUied to the 

castor-oil, n. kds'-tor-dyl (said to be a corruption of 
castus-oil. the sacred oil), the oil of the Palma Christi 
(palm of Christ), a plant of the W. I., used in medicine, 
castrametation, n. kds'-trdmcta'-shun (L. castra, a 
camp ; laeto, I measure), the art or practice of en- 

castrate, v. kds'tr&t (L. and It. casirare, to deprive 
of generative power), to emasculate ; to geld : casTrat- 
ing, imp. : cas'trated, pp. : castra'tion, n. ■tru'-sUun, 
the act of emasculating. 

castrel, n. kus'tra (F. crecerelle), a kind of hawk 
resembling the sparrow-hawk ; same as kestreL 

casual, a. kdz'u-ai (F. casuel — from L. cas%is, a 
fall), happening without design ; coming to pass with- 
out being expected or foreseen; accidental: cas'ually, 
ad. -II: casualty, n. -al-tl, an injury or hurt to the 
body by accident ; death or other misfortune by acci- 
dent : cas'uistry, n. -u-ls-trl, the science or system of 
rules that undertakes to decide in matters of con- 
science as to what is lawful or unlawful ; the art of 
quibbling ; the art of drawing fine distinctions : cas'- 
nist, n. -1st, one who resolves doubts of conscience in 
matters of duty: cas'uis'tic, a.-istik: cas'uis'tical, 
a. -tlkai, pert, to casuistry : cas'uis'tlcally, ad. -ll. 

cat, n. kdt (Ger. katze-. Gael, cat: Icel. koUr), a 
well-known domestic animal : cat-gut, n. strings for 
musical instruments made of the entrails of animals : 
cat's-paw, a term of contempt, applied to a person who 
is made the tool of another ; a dupe ; a pntf of wind : 
cat'kin, a kind of flower, long and slender, resembling 
a cat's tail, as in the hazel, the birch, &c. : cat-like, 
a. stealthily, like a cat : cafs-eye, a variety of chalt;e- 
donic quartz : cat-block, in a ship, tackle used to raise 
the anchor : cat-call, a small sqiiealing instr. : cat's- 
foot, cat-mint, &c., plants : cat'ling, the down or moss 
growing about walnut-trees ; in surg.,a. kind of knife, 
cata, kdt'a (Gr.), prefix, signifying down; against; 
opposition or contrariety ; completeness ; intensity. 

catacauBtics, n. plu. kat'd-kaws'tlks (Gr. kata, 
against; katistikos, burning), in opt, the cun-es 
formed by the reflection of the rays of light : cat'- 
acaus'tic, n. a particular curve formed by reflection : 
adj. pert. to. 

catachresis, n. k&t'd-kre'sis (L. and Gr. misuse), in 
rhet., an abuse of a trope or of words ; the use of a 
word in a sense different from its own : cat'achres'tic, 
a. -krds'tlk, or ca'tachres'ticaJ, a. -tl-kdl, forced ; far- 
fetched : cat'achres'tically, ad. -ll. 

cataclysm, n. kdt'-akllzm (Gr. kataklusmos, inunda- 
tion—from kata, down, amd kluzein, to wash), any ^'io- 
lent inundation that sweeps over a counti-j': cat'- 
aclys'mal, a. -kllz'mdl, pert, to an immdation or to its 
destructive effects. 

catacomb, n. kdt'd-kOm (Gr. kata, under, down; 
kumbos, a hollow or recess), burial-places in caves or 
hollow recesses under ground ; divisions or niches in 
a cellar for storing liquors ; certain old quarries near 
Rome, in Egypt, Paris, &c., used as burial-{ilaces. 

catacoustics, n. plu. kdt'a-kmos'tlks (Gr. kata, 
against, and acoustics), the doctrine of reflected 
sounds or echoes. 

catalectic, a. kat'd-lik'-tlk (Gr. kafalektikns, incom- 
plete), ending suddenly, as a verse wanting a syllable. 
catalepsy, n. kCit'-d-lcp'sl (Gr. kata, down ; lepsis, a 
taking or seizing), a disease in which motion and sen- 
sation are suddenly suspended ; a trance: cat'alep'tic, 
a. -tlk, pert. to. 

catalogue, n. kdt'dldg (Gr. kata, do^vn; logos, a 
word), a list of names in regular order: v. to make a 
list of: cat alogiiing, imp. : catalogued, pp. -logd. 

catalysis, n. kdtal'-l-sis (Gr. kuttdu^sis—iroxn kata, 
down ; luo, I loosen), in chevi., a term used to designate 
certain phenomena, in which changes in the composi- 
tion of substances are effected bv the action tif one 
body on another by contjut: catalytic, a, kdt'dllt'tk, 
relalii];: to catalysis. 

catamaran, n. /.dt'-dmihrdn' {rathnmaran, floating 
trees— nat ivc name), a kind of raft used by the natives 
of the K. I. 

catamenia, n. kdt'd-mf'nhd (Gr. katameiiios, month- 
ly—from kata, down; men, month), the monthly 
courses of females : cat' ame'nial, ,a. -mt'n lOl. pert. to. 
catamount, n. kdt'd-rno'mtt, also -mountain (cut. 

mate mat.fCir, laXv; mite, mit, Mr; pine, pin; nOte, nOt, mCve; 




and mount or mountain), the wild mountain-cat ; the 

N. Amer. tiger. t,m'^ nfif'-n-hls {Gt. kata, under; 

?}"P'fpeT:i) in bot^ having the petals held to- 

^ cataphract n. .^^'^"^f.uniour; a horseman in 
^c2?n1ieraVrLfcK^aS:a. -/ra..... cov- 

p^'aS^-oAld) a poultic^^ ?^gXtL-from Gr. .-a^a. 
l*;^»%"ariXt -^^^Ue. used anciently 

from Gr. ^■«/«-,f„74^7er „ver steep'^rocks; a disease 
?^fhfeye ^ wMchThe V^ion beetles impaired or 
destroyed. ca/arr/iMS-from Gr. kata, 

catarrh, n AW (^-/f^"^; j^gad causing a run- 
down ; rhto, I now), a com m ^^ ^^ 
niiigatthenose &c catarrnai a^^ to^a^irap/^. an 

seize suddenly ; to ^ay "" „" „(jiji or a disease by 
take or receive by exposuie as a cou^ o ^^^^^ 

infection; to ensnare ; to overtake n. >^^^ ^^^^^^^. 
seizes or holds; the act^f^efn which those singing 
tage taken; a song "i Parxs, m various in- 

catch up the strain OM after the other^ ^^^^ 

tervals : catching. ^^IJ: •^^^"^'catch'er, n. one who: 
tious: caught, PV- Pf; .(^f '„ \vortliless a book pub- 
catch-penny. ii-«,?'"fi^"'^'\°vithout value: catch- 

""catchpoll, n. kack^pol (catch anip^l the head: 
^ 'f ^4'>;>ffl'S^ o%'c"S, n. Me'^:i^P (of E. I. 
orl^nra'^sa'i-cS:^;.^^!^^^^^^^^ ,,e act of 

catechise, v. '^•n*-^-^^^^,^^- cU^^^^ elements 

stuiming by imid sound ms^^^^^^^^ 
of a science— from A,ata,uo« II ^ receivmg 

struct or examine by asl«"" ."^f ^^'asking questions : 
answers ; to interrogate ;t^tr> ^^y aswn i j^,_ 

cat'eclii'sing imp : cat^h^ed,^ TO^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

ftfc. or catechistical, a. n/t«t. cat'echu'- 

cat'echet ical. a = cat echet i^^y^^a^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ 


prepared for baptism ^^^^.^.t obtained 

catechu, n. kat-ejhoo a ai^ u ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^j. 

Srd"th^"arts-1at'echu'ic?a. -Ik, of or from 

tion-froiu kata, afamst , a^om p ^^ ^^^^ 

sembly), in^^^^^'t^f^Srwhfch anything whatever 
among a certain number oiwm^uj cat'egor ical, 
is referable; a class ; an order of M .^^^^^^ ^^^._ 

also cat'egor'emat^caJ a -t-Aai mat ica .y 

_lsocat'egoremat icaJ.a -i-w«.^ ^ ^„ con. 
catenate, y. '^^ :«;^"? *!'• ^Tin" cat'ena'ting. imp. : 
nect. as a series of ^'^^^l^,^^^^[,^^na'shun, regular 
cat'ena'ted, PPv- c^r,fvrnf a chain: cat'enar'y, a. 
connection, as the 1\»¥„°* f *;nam. _^^.; 

suspension. ifit'-en-1p'6r-a, or catenipores, 

""'cater, v. A(j:(^r (Norm. F. aca<er. to buy: mod. F 

curcroiKi. 7.rt?:er-7rU:Kr(oldEng. mte, food; F. 

m" reSwe.'-S s^b of an tort a.,d vc.T ™t«- 

''dS; S^^S^iKorm. F. acuter. to buy), dainties ; 

cakes ; nice food, 
catgut, n.-see cat j,^^^ (go called from St 

Catharme-wheeU n. to '^^^^^^^^^ the manner of 

Catharine of -A^lexoiiai a, m an ornamental 

her intended .martyrdom), marcA^^^^^^^^^ 

window of a "rcu ar fom havm racu „, ^.^^^^^ 

cathartic, a- ^f^ "!f '^^"..u Ung medicine: also ca- 
l^AllT:c^tiJyt^:^^r.tin. the purgative pnn- 

-from Gr. A-«'«. down and Aec a a se u^oi^ |^ 
principal church ma dioc^ese, ^ontaimn t^ principal 
^S of a d^c^e's^ ^^dra^. n. -d,., the seat or 
chair of a professor ; a piUpit. fj^^fgr, a thing let 

the bladder to draw oil the ^^aur. (7,)odos, a 

w^yrtftu?kcSt -^ti^' e^^^^^^^^^^^^^ -^ "^ ^ 

^"c'^^hoUc, a. ^^tJ^So^r^e^^t'Sf!^ 
from ;.a?a. down ; ( otos t^e^^^^l^^,.. winded or big- 
universal ; general, liberal .not adherents 
oted: n. a name commoniy appaeuio ^^^^^^^^_ 
of the Church of Kome : cathohcism^ ^^ 
universality ; i^^erality of sentiiuent^, ^^^^ 
the Church of Rome: cathohcity, n. Aam o ^^^ ^^ 
universal medicine . going), an 

at the cathode. 

catkin, catling-see cat. ^jj^g^. 

tr^feSa r^edc^il'^^^tf^f cla'ston^ found west 

lflSro^;SliiK'a''t1ntertaWused to tlog 


pal wealth in an early stage of society^ ^^j^^j^ 

;r/5?'rsraSJv?»w°»ion '« p-^- 

cattle-pen, n. pen for cattle ^^^^^ ^^ j^, 


political purposes .P^ cji^us 50";^, a meeting prelim- 
^hkt^^TS^'^^^ tail), pert, to the 

orm. F. acater. to uu:y . i"""- -• j 

co'w. Wy,/o^t; pure, Md; chair, game, jog. shun, tMng, mere. 


in bot., applied to seeds that have a tail-like ap- 
pendage: cau'dicle, n. -dl-kl, in hot., the tail-like 
proie.s.s supporting the massos of pollen in orchids: 
cau'dex, u. -dUkg (L. the trunk), in but., the main trunk 
or axis of a plant. 

caudle, n. kaTv'dl{L.calidu>', hot.wann— oraprobaMe 
corruption of cordial), a wann drink ( oiitainin-,' wine 
or other liquors given to women at i hilclliiitli : v. to 
prepare caudle; to treat tenderly: caudling, imp.: 
caudled, pp. knTo'dld: caudle-cup, thc3 drink given to 
•women at childbirth; the glass of wine, <S:c., drunk in 
honour of the child born. 

cauf, n. kaTv/ (Celt, kaff; L. caviif:, hollow: L. 
cophinus, a basket), a chest for liolding live fish ; the 
box or cage for raising coal from the mine. 

caught, V. pt. or pp. kawt—seo catch. 

caul, n. katul (AS. cawL- F. cute, a kind of little cap), 
a netted membrane covering tlie lower intestines ; 
the membrane covering the head of a child when bom ; 
a net for enclosing the hair. 

cauldron, n. kawl'drdii — see caldron. 

caulescent, a. kawdis'-int (L. cuulia, a stalk), in hot., 
liaving a true stem : caulicle, n. -U-kl, a short stem : 
cau'licule, n. -ll-kill, in hot., a, short stem; inarch., one 
of the curled tops In a Corinthian capital; plu. in bot., 
small stems rising immediately from the neck of the 
root: cau'liform, a. -H-fiiwrm (L. forma, shape), same 
as caulescent : cau'line, a. -lln, growing on a caulis 
or stem. 

cauliflower, n. kaTvl'l;fUjior (L. caulis, a stem, and 
.Hoiuer), a kind of cabbage with a thick, soft, white 

caulk, n. koTok (see calk), in a ship, the operation of 
driving oakum into tlie seams between the planks of 
a ship: caulking-iron, an iron chisel for driving in 
the oakum. 

cause, n. kcCToz (L. causa, a cause: It. causa; F. 
cause), anything that produces an effect ; the person or 
thing that brings about or does something ; a reason ; a 
motive or inducement that urges or impels ; a suit at 
law; a pai-ty or side : v. to effect or produce ; to occa- 
sioji : cau'sing, imp.: caused, pp. kaivzd: causal, a. 
k'lToz'Al, relating to or expressing cause: causality, 
n. kawzill'-lti, agency of a cause ; quality of causing: 
causally, ad. hurz-M-ll: causable, a. kawz'Ci-bl : 
causation, n. knw-zd'skiln, the act or power of caus- 
ing or proihuMng: cau'sative, a. -tlv, that effects as a 
cause : causeless, a. liaving no cause : causelessly, 
ad. -li: cause lessness, n. : cau'ser, n. one who. 

causeway, n. kawz'-wa (F. chaurisee, a raised way: 
mid. L. calceta, a road), a raised roadway paved; a 
raised road over wet or marshy ground: causey, n. 
k'lw'zl, a contr. for causeway: cau'seyed, a. -sad, or 
cause'wayed, a. -wdd, paved with blocks of stone. 

caustic, :i. kaws'tlk, or cau'stical, a. -tl-kcd (Gr. 
k'ltistikos. having the power to burn), burning; cor- 
rotling ; that has power to destroy a living texture : 
cius'tic, n. a substance that acts like fire wlien ap- 
plied to a living body ; nitrate of silver : caustic'ity, 
n. -tls'l-tl, the quality of being caustic. 

cautery, n. kaw'ter-l (Or. kauterion, a hot iron for 
marking— from fcaio, I burn: L. cauterium), a burning 
or searing of living flesh with a hot iron, or by f austic 
medicine, so as to remove a diseased part : cau'terise, 
V. -ter-lz, to burn or sear living flesli: cau'teri'sing, 
imp. : cau'terised, pp. -izd: cau'terisa'tion, n. -hza'- 
■slu'di, the act of burning or searing with a hot iron ; 
also cau'terism, n. -izm. 

caution, n. kiTv'shun (L. raufio, a taking heed : It. 
raazione: F. caution), great care in the midst of dangers; 
forethought ; a prudent course of conduct ; secm-ity 
for; an advice; a warning: v. to warn; to exhort: 
cau'tionlng,imp.: can'tioned, i>p.-shiind: cau'tionary, 
a. -crl, containing warning ; given as a pledge: cau- 
tioner, n. in Scot., one boimd for another : cau'tionry, 
n. -rl, in Scot., suretiship ; the obligation of sureti- 
sliip : cau'tious, a. ■shu<', very careful in conduct ; 
wary; watihful; discreet: cau'tiously, ad. -11: cau'- 
tiousness. n. 

cavalcade, n. kilv'dl-kad (F.— see cavalry), a proces- 
sion ofiiiTsons on horseback. 

cavalry, n. kiiv'-M-rl (It. cavalln ; F. rheval; L. cnh- 
allHs; Cr. kahnllcs; old Eng. caple, a horse), horse-sol- 
dii'rs : cav'aller', n. -aiir' (It. cavaliere: F. chevalier), 
a horsem.m ; an armed horseman; a knight; a gay 
soldier; in viil.. an elevation of earth situated with- 
in a work overlooking the surroimding parts: adj. 
Rpriglitly; gay; l)rave; generous; haughty: cav'a- 
liers', n. plu. -ICrz', in Eng. hist., the partisans of 

mate, mdt,jar, luXv; mete, mif, 



Charles I. : cavalier'ly, ad. -li, arrogantly ; disdain- 
fully : caValier'ness, n. 

cavatina, n. kav'd-td'-nd (It.), in music, an air of one 
movement, frequently preceded by a recitative. 

cavazion, n. kd-va'-zhun (It. cavazione, excavation), 
in arch., an excavation for the foundation of a build- 
ing or for cellarage. 

cave, n. kdv (L. cavus, hollow: Fin. koppa, any- 
thing hollowed or vaulted), a hollow place under 
earth or rocks, as at the side of a hill ; a den ; a cavern : 
V. to hollow or scoop out ; to dwell in a cave ; (followed 
by in), to fall in, as earth in digging a pit: caving, 
imp.: caved, pp. kdvd: cavity, n. Mo^l-^, ahollowin 
anything : cave-earth, the reddish calcareous earth 
accumulated in anc. caverns. 

caveat, n. kd'vl-at (L. let him beware), in a court of 
laio, an intimation to stop proceedings; a caution; a 
warning : ca'vea'tor, n. one who. 

cavern, n. kdv'irn (L. cavus, hoUow), a large hollow 
place below the earth or rocks ; a cavern is larger than 
a cave: cav'emed, a. -trnd, or cav'emous, a. -trn-us, 
full of caverns : cavem'ulou8, a. kd-vern'u-lii;s, full of 
little caves or hollows. 

cavetto, n. kdvet'to (It.— from cavo, hollow), in arch., 
a hollow mouldin;^ used principally in cornices. 

caviare, n. kdv-l-dr (F. caviar: mod. Gr. kabiari), 
a prepared article of food consisting of the salted 
roes of several kinds of large fish, chiefly of the 

cavil, V. kdv'U (L. cavillar, I taunt— from caws, 
hollow : old F. caviller, to wrangle), to raise frivolous 
objections; to find fault unreasonably ; to wrangle; to 
carp at : n. a false or frivolous objection : cavilling, 
imp. : cav'illed, pp. -lid: caviller, n. one who : cav'- 
illingly, ad. -11: cav'illous, a. -ll-iis, captious : cav'il- 
lously, ad. -ir. 

cavity, n.— see cave. 

caw, V. kaw (from tlie sound), to cry like a crow 
or rook : caw'ing, imp. : cawed, pp. kaTvd. 

cawk, n. kawk, (prov. Eng. cauk), a familiar term 
for heavy spar or native sulphate of barj-tes : cawk'y. 
a. -I. like cawk or pert, to it. 

cayenne, n. ka-ydn' or kdbi', a very strong pun- 
gent pepper of a red colour that comes from Cay- 
enne: adj. pert. to. 

cayman, n. kd'-mdn (a negro name), the Amer. 
alligator ; also spelt caiman. 

cazique, n. kd-zek' (native or Amer. name), a W. 
I. or Amer. chief; also spelt casiqne. 

cease, v. ses (F. cesser, to cease: L. cessinyi, to go 
from, to yield : It. cessare to dismiss), to leave off; to 
stop doing ; to fail ; to be at an end : ceas'lng, imp. : 
ceased, pp. sest: ceaseless, a. without a stop or pause; 
incessant; endless: ceaselessly, ad. -11: cessation, 
n. scs-sa'shun, a stop ; a pause ; a leaving off. 

cedar, n. se'-der(l,. cedrus: Gr. kedros), a large ever- 
green tree : ce'dared, a. -dird: cedar-like, a: ce'drine, 
a. -drln, pert, to the cedar. 

cede, V. sed (L. cedere, to go, to give up : F. caler : It. 
cedere), to give up; to yield; to relinquish or sm-- 
render to : ce'ding, imp. : ce'ded, pp. : cession, n. 
sesh'iin (L. cessiim, to give up), the act of yielding up 
or granting: cessible, a. sSs'l-bl, liable to give way: 
ces'sibil'ity, n. -bU'-l-tl. quality of giving way. 

cedilla, n. se-dll'-ld (Sp. cedilla: F.cedille), a mark 
put under the letter c (thus,*?) to show that it must be 
sounded like an s. 

ceil, v. sel (It. cielo; F. del, heaven, sky; then ap- 
plied to a canopy, the inner roof of a room ; after- 
wards confounded with seal, in the sense of io close), 
to cover the inner roof of a building with an3'thing, 
as with plaster or wood : celling, imp. : n. the roof 
of a room : ceiled, pp. seld. 

celandine, n. sei'dndm (Gr. chelidonion; L. cheli- 
donia—Unin Gr. chclidon. the swallow), a genus of 
plants of the ranunculus family ; a plant called swal- 

celebrate, v. si^l'S-bnlt {L. celebi-atiis, celebrated: It. 
ciMn-atn), to praise or extol ; to render famous ; to 
keep holy ; to honour by marks of joy or by ceremon- 
ies : cel'ebra'ting, iniii. : celebra ted, pi>. : adj. fam- 
ous; rt'iiowncd: celebra'tor, n. one ^^ll(): cel'ebrant, 
n. one who performs a ;i(t in a church pub- 
licly; the officiating Kcinan Caflidlic priest: cel'e- 
bra'tion, n. ■hid'shini. the performance of solemn 
rites ; the liistinguishing by marks of joy or respect ; 
praise; renown: celebrity, n. seieb'rl-tl, fame; 
renown ; disfiiictiim or notoriety. 

celerity, n. scier'ltl (L. celeritas, swiftness— ftom 

Mr; pine, pfn; nOte, nOt, m6ve: 




celrr, s-wift: F. celerite: It. celcrita, quicknesi?), speed 
in anything, as actions, words, tlioughts, or of bodies 
on or near the eartli -—velocity is more frequently 
applied to objects remote or inappreciable, as the 
planets, sound, light. &c. ;— swiftness. 
celery, n. scl'-er-l (F. celeri), a kitchen vegetable. 
celestial, a. sS-lest'-yal (L. ccelum, heaven ; aekstis, 
heavenly: It. celeste: F. celeste), heavenly; of or 
pert, to heaven : n. an inhabitant of heaven : celes - 
tially, ad. -U: celes'tialise.v. -ydl-lz, to make tit lor 
heaven: celest'iali'sing.imp.: celest'ialised', pp. -llzd': 
celestine, n. si-les'-tin, a mineral, sulphate of stron- 
tian, so named in allusion to its sky-blue colour. 

Celestins, n. plu. s6l'6s-tlnz, a religious order in the 
R. Cath. Ch. who eat no flesh unless when sick, and 
last often— named after Pope Celestin. 
celiac, a.— see coeliac. . , . , v 

celibacy, n. sel'i-ba-sl(L.ccclebs, unmarried, single), 
a single life ; an unmarried condition : celibate, n. 
sel'l-bat, the state of being unmarried ; one who. 

ceU, n. sei (L. cella, a hiding-place: F. cellier: It. 
cella), a small confined room ; an apartment in a pri- 
son ; a small cavity ; a private room in a nunnery or 
monastery : cella, n. s6l'-ia, the body or principal part 
of a temple : cellar, n. -ler, a room or place under a 
house used for storing coals. Arc. : cellarage, n. -aj, 
the capacity of a cellar ; charge for cellar-room : eel - 
laret, n. -St, an ornamental case for bottles : cellar- 
ist, n. : cellarman, n. one who has charge of the cel- 
lar : cellular, a. sel'il-ldr, consisting of small cavi- 
ties or hollows : cellula'ted, a. -la'ted, formed with 
cells : cellule, n. s6l'ul, a little cell : cellular tissue, 
in bot., an aggregation of minute membranous vesi- 
cles filled with fluid: cellif'erous, a. -U/'er-iis (L. 
fero, I carry, I bear), producing cells : cellulif erous, 
a. -u-lir-er-us (L. cellula, a little cell, and /ero, I bear), 
producing little cells : cellulose, n. -Zoz, a compound 
of carbon, hydrogen, and o.xygen, forming the tunda- 
niental material or cell-structure of plants : adj. con- 
Celt, n. skt (L. celtee ; Gr. Jceltai, the Celts : W. eel- 
Had, an inhabitant of the wood or covert— from L. 
celo, I conceal), one who speaks the Celtic language ; 
one of the great parent stock of Southern and West- 
ern Europe; a stone or bronze cutting instrument 
found in ancient barrows or tumuli : Celtic, a. sel'tlk, 
pert, to a Celt ; the language of the Celts : Cel'ticism, 
n. -ti-sizm, a custom of the Celts, or an idiom of their 
language : also pronounced keit and kil'tik. 

cement, n. sH-mint' (L. cccvie7itum, quarried stone : 
F. cement, cement), the substance that unites two 
bodies together, or the parts of a broken thing ; bond of 
union ; mortar : v. to unite by a glutinous substance ; 
to unite firmly and closely; to cohere: cement'ing, 
imp.: cement'ed, pp.: cemen'ter, n. one who: cemen- 
tation, n. sem'en-ta'slmn, the act of cementing ; the 
process by which iron is converted into steel : ce- 
mentatory, se-mUn'ta-tor'-l, also cementitious, a. 
sem'en-tlsh'-us, having the quality of cementing. 

cemetery, n. s6m'e-ter -liGr. koimeterion, a sleeping- 
place : L. ccemeterium), a place for the burial of the 

cenobite, n. se'nO-blt (Gr. koinos, common; bios, 
life), one of a religious order who lives in a convent or 
monastery with others, and not alone, like an o?icftoref 
or hermit: cenobitic, sen'6-bU'lk, and cen'obitlcal, 
a. -l-kdl, living in community as a monk. 

cenotaph., n. sen'o-taf (Gr. kenos, empty ; taphos, a 
tomb: F. cenotaphe), a monument in honour of one 
who is buried elsewhere. 

cense, v. sens (F. encenser, to perfume: contr. from 
incense), to perfume with burning odoriferous siib- 
stances : cen'ser, n. -ser, a vase or pan in which in- 
cense is burned : cen'sing, imp. : censed, pp. s&nst. 

censor, n. sen'sor (L. censor, a Roman magistrate), 
an officer in anc. Rome who imposed taxes and 
jiunished immorality ; in some countries, a person who 
inspects all MSS. before they are permitted to be 
printed or published ; one given to fault-finding : 
censo'rious, -so'rlMS, also censo'rial, a. -ri-dl, given to 
hlame or to condemn ; severe in making remarks on 
the conduct or writings of others : censo'riously, ad. 
-II: censo'riousness, n. disposition to find fault: cen'- 
sorship, n. the office or dignity of a censor. 

censure, n. sen'shoor (L. cevsura, severe judgment : 
It. censura : F. censure), the act of blaming or finding 
fault ; reproof : v. to find fault with ; to blame ; to 
condemn as wrong : cen suring, imp. ; cen'sured, pp. 
■shobrU: cen'surer, n. one who : cen'surable, a. -d-bl, 

worthy of blame : cen'surably, ad. -bll : cen'surable- 
ness, n. 

census, n. sSn'sus (L. census, a registering and ra- 
ting of citizens: It. se7iso: F. seris), an authoritative 
enumeration of the inhabitants of a state or country: 
cen'sual, a. -shoo-dl, of or relating to a census. 

cent, a. s6nt (L. centiim, a hundred, of which cent 
is an abbreviation: It. cento: F. cent), a hundred: 
per cent, a certain rate for each hundred of any 
thing; in the U.S. of Amer., a copper coin, in value 
the hundredth part of a dollar, being a little more 
than a halfpenny sterling : per-centage, n. -taj. so much 
for each hundred : centenary, n. s6n-t6n-tr-l. the num- 
ber of a hundred : cen'tena'rian, n. a person a hun- 
dred years old : centen'nial, a. -tin'-nl-dl (L. annus, 
a year), pert, to a hundred years: centesimal, a. 
■tes'-l-mdl (L. centesimus), the hundredth: centesl- 
mally, ad. -/;: .- cen'tipede or cen'tiped, n. ti-pCd (L. 
ijes, a foot— gen. pedis), an insect with many feet, re- 
puted 100: cent per cent, aiW for each £100, as profit 
or interest. , ^ 

centaur, n. sSn'taTvr (L. ceniaurus ; Gr. kentauros, 
aherdsman who fought on horseback— from Gr. kenteo, 
I spur ; tanros, a bull), a fabulous being said to have 
been half man and half horse ; in astron.,a. constella- 
tion, part of a bright group in the southern hemisphere. 
centering, n. sen'ter-lng (see centre), the temporaiy 
frame on which an arch is built. 

centigrade, n. sen'tl-grad (L. centum, a hundred ; 
gracilis, a step), a thermometer divided, between the 
freezing and boiling points of water, into 100 parts or 
degrees. . , ,, 

centime, n. sen-tern' (F.— fromL. centum, a hundred), 
the hundredth part of a franc. 

centimetre, n. s6n-tim'e-ter. or sin'-ti-ma-tr (F.— 
from L. centum, a hundred ; Gr. ?7ie<»-o?i, a measure), a 
French measure of length, equal to -394 in., or about 
2-5ths in. English. 

centre, n. sSn'-ter (Gr. kentron, anything with a 
sharp point : L. centrum, the middle point), the mid- 
dle point or place : v. to place on the middle point ; 
to collect to one point ; to settle exclusively on one ob- 
ject ; to rest on : cen'tring, -trlng, or cen'tering, -fer- 
ing, imp. : cen'tred or cen'tered, pp. -ierd .- cen'tral, 
a. -trdl, placed at or near the middle : cen trally, ad. -II : 
cen'trafise, v. -Iz, to draw or bring to a centre : cen'- 
trali'sing, imp. : cen'tralised, pp. -llzd : cen'tralisa'- 
tion, n. -za'-shun : cen'tralism, n. -Izm, the combination 
of several parts into one whole : centrallty, n. -i-ti, 
state of being central : centre-bit, n. -ter-blt, an instru- 
ment withaprojectingconicalpoint, nearly in the mid- 
dle, for boring circular holes : centre of gravity, that 
point of a hody which, being supported, the whole 
body will remain at rest, even though acted upon by 
gravity : centre of motion, the point in a body which 
remains at rest, while all the other parts move round 
it : cen'trical, -tri-kdl. and centric, a. -trlk, placed in 
or near the centre or middle : cen'trically, ad. -ll ; 
cen'tricalness, n. 

centrifugal, a. sen-tr1f'-u-gdl (L. centrum, the centre, 
and/«r/iO, I flee), tending to fly or go off from the cen- 
tre ; in bot., applied to that kind of inflorescence in 
plants in which the central flower opens first: cen- 
tripetal, a. -irip'etdl (L. peto, I seek, I move to a 
place), tending to the centre ; having a desire to move 
to the centre ; in 6o«., applied to that kind of inflores- 
cence in plants in which the flowers expand from be- 
low upwards : centrifugal force, the force by which 
bodies, when set in motion round a centre, have a 
tendency to fly off at a tangent from the circle round 
which they move : centripetal force, the force which 
drives or impels a body towards some point as a centre ; 
the force or gravity by which bodies tend to a point 
or centre. , , ^ 

centuple, n. s6n'tu-pl (L. centum, a hundred, and 
pUco, Hold: F. ceniiqile), a hundred fold: v. to mul- 
tiply a hundred fold : centup'Ucate, v. -tu-pUkat, to 
make a hundred-fold: centu'pUca'ting,imp.: centup'- 
lica'ted, pp. . , , 

centurion, n. sin-tn'-rX-on (L. centurio—ivom. centum, 
a hundred), among the anc. Romans, the captain of 
100 men : century, n. sgn'tu-rf, a period of a hundred 
years : centu'rial, a. -rldl, pert, to a century. 

cephalaspis, n. si/'d Ids'pls (Gr. kephale, the head ; 
aspis, a shield), in geoL, a fossil fish, so called from 
having the bones of the head united into a single 
shield-like case. 

cephalic, a. se-fdl'lk (Gr. kephale, the head), pert, to 
the head : n. a medicine for headache : cephalalgia. 

colo, bo~y,fubt; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




n. sSfd-Ml'jld, orceph'alal'gy, n. -jl (Gr. algos. pain), 
pain in the bead ; headache : ceph'alal glc, a. -jlk, 

pert. to. 

cephalopods. n. plu. s?fdl-Opddz (Gr. kephale, the 
head ; pons, the foot— geu. podos), the highest chiss of 
mollusca— so called from the principal organs of loco- 
motion being arranged round the head, as in the cuttle- 

ceramic, a. se-rdm'lk (Gr. keramos, potter's clay, 
earthenware), pert, to pottery-, or the art. 

ceramidium, n. s6r'a-mld'l-um (Gr. keramidoo, I 
cover with tiles ; keramion. a jar), in bot., an ovate con- 
ceptacle having a terminal opening, and with a tuft 
of spores arising from the base, as in algaj. 

cerate, n. se'-rat (L. cera, wax: It. ccro: F. cire), a 
thi'.'k ointment containing wax : cera'ted, a. covered 
with wax : cere, v. ser, to cover with wax : n. the naked 
skin covering the base of the bill in some birds : ce'- 
ring, imp. spreading over with melted wax : cared, pp. 
sSrd: cere-cloth, n. -kloth, a cloth covered with melted 
wax, orwith some gummy matter: cere'ment, n. -ment, 
acloth dipped in melted wax in which dead bodies are 
■wrapped : cerasine, n. sSr'd-nUi, a variety of gum : 
cereoos, a. sc'-rl- us, and cera cious, a. -ra'shiis, of or 
like wax ; wax'-n : ceru'men, n. -rd'men, the wax of 
the ear : ceru menous, a. -ns, relating to or containing 
cerumen : ceruse, n. -rus (L. cermsa, white lead— from 
cera, wax), a kind of paint like v>-ax ; white lead : 
ce'rine, n. -rla, the part of bees' wax soluble in boiling 

ceratiocaris, n. se-rdsh'l-ok'd-rls (Gr. keration, a 
pod; knris, a shrimp), in gioL, a fossil crustacean 
having a pod- like carapace and a shrimp-like body. 

ceratites, n. plu. s6r'-d-iUs (Gr. keras, a hom), in 
geol.,a genus of ammonitidae peimliar to the triassic 
strata: ceratodu3,n. se-rdt'odtls {Gr. odojts, a tooth). 
fossU fish-teeth ociiurring between the trias and lias 
formations : ceratose, a. ser'd-toz, homy ; having 
the texture and consistence of horn : ceratium, n. 
sc-rd'shl-um, in bot., a long one-celled pericarp with 
two valves, containing many seeds. 

cereal, a. se'rl-dl (L. cerealis, pert, to Ceres or grain 
— from Ceres, goddess of agriculture : It. and F. 
ctre.'i'e), pert, to all kinds of gi-ain used for food : n. 
one of the grain kind : cerea'lia, n. plu. -rl-d'H-a, or 
cereals, se'ri-dlz, the different grains used for food. 

csrebellam. n. sir'Sbel'liim {L. : It. cerebello: F.cer- 
Vi'lle), the hinder or lower part of the brain : cer'ebel'- 
lar, a. -Kr, ;icrt. to the cerebellum : cer'ebral, a. -brdl, 
jiert. to the bniin : cer'ebrum, n. -brfun (L.), the brain 
uroper ; tlie front or larger brain : cerebic, a. se-reb- 
Ik, of or from the brain: cerebriform, a. -rl-fdwrm (L. 
cerebrum, nnd forma, shape), shaped like the brain: 
cerebritia, n. ser'd-brl'tls, inflammation of the brain: 
cer'ebroid, a. -brdyd (L. cerebrum, the brain ; Gr. eidos, 
shape), like or analogous to brain : cerebro-spinal, a. 
-brO-spl'ndl (L. spina, the spine), belonging to the 
brain and spinal cord. 

ceremony, n. sHr'-i-mon-l (L. cocremnnia, pomp or 
state in religious rites : F. cdremonie), outward forms 
or rites in religion ; formal rules or regulations ; cer- 
tain kinds of social intercourse ; state etiquette : 
cer'emo'nial, a. -mo'nl-dl. according to established 
ionns or rites, as of the Jewish religion ; ritual : n. 
outward form ; a system of rites or rules established 
by authority : ceremonially, ad. •It: cer'emo'nioiis, a. 
-■lis, full of I'l-ri'iiioiiy ; formal; exact and precise: 
cer'emo'niously, ad.' -'f .- cer'emo niousness, n. the 
practice of too much coremony or fonnalitv. 

cerithinm, n. se-rlth-l-um (Gr. keration, a small 
horn), in zool., a gasteropod, with an elongated, many- 
whorlcd, turreted shell. 

cerium, n. se'rl-ihn (from the planet Cores), one of 
V.ii' nri'T metals found in the mimral cerite, .■'dr'if. 

cernuous, a. ■"Jr'nu-u-i{L. ccnum--. liendin.: or stoop- 
in.' v.ith tlie head to the ground), in bet., pendulous; 

cerography, n. sHrog'-rd-fl (L. cern, wax; Gr. 
graj'hr, a writing), the flirt of engraving on a waxed 
copper plate. 

ceroon, n. sfi.rAn' (Sp. .vro??- from sera, a large 
basket), a liale or pnckase in skins or hides. 

ceroplastic, n. xt':rri-j,l(i^'-tlk{L.cera, wax; Or. pins. 
S'-in. to form), the art of modelling in wax: adj. 
mo leiied in wax. 

cerosine, n. .vrr'-Osln (L. rem, wax), a waxy sub- 
stan<-e found on the surface of the sugar-cane. 

certain, a. .'«':r'tdn (F. — from I,, ci'rtus, sure: It. 
certo), not doubtful ; sure ; that cannot be denied ; un- 

failing; fixed or regular: certainly, ad. -U: cer'- 
tainty, n. -tf, a real state ; exemption from doubt or 
failure : cer'tes, ad. -tdz, assuredly ; in truth. 

certify, v. sir'-H-j'l (L. certus, sure, and/wto, I make : 
F. certijier), to testify to in writing ; to declare or in- 
form positively : cer'tifying, imp. : certified, pp. -fid: 
adj. testified to in writing ; assured : cer tifler, n. one 
who; certificate, n. -tif-i-kat, a declaraiion iu writing 
to testify something; a testimonial ol rliarartei-; 
give a status or position to by a written declaration, 
as to a parishioner by a clergyman, or to a teacher by 
the Committee of Privy Council on Education: cer- 
tif ica'ting, imp. : certif ica'ted, pp. : adj. declared in 
writing to have a certain status : certif ica'tion, n. 
■kd'shun, the act of certifying: certitude, n. -il-tud. 
certiiinty ; freedom from doubt. 

certiorari, n. ser'shiOrd'rJ (low L. ceriiorare, to 
certify— from L. certior, more certain), a writ issncd 
from a superior court to an inferior one, to remove a 
cause depending in it. 

cendean, a. se-ro'll-dn (L. cccruleuo, dark blue), 
blue ; sky -coloured : cerulific, a. ter'6-llf-ik, producing 
a blue or sky colour : cer'uline, n. -lin, a preparation ot 

ceruse, n. an ore of lead— see under cerate. 

cerussite, n. se-riis-sit (L. cent^sa. white lead: F. 
ceruse), a common ore of lead found in beds or veins 
with galena. 

cervical, a. ser'-vi-kdl, (L. cervix, the neck — gen. 
cervicis : It. cervice), pert, to the neck. 

cervine, a. ser'vln (L. cervus, a deer), pert, to a stag 
or deer : cer vinous, a. -vl-nus, dark, tawny, or deep 
yellow with much grey. 

cervix, n. sir'vlks (L. the neck), the back part of 
the neck ; any part of an organ reseml)ling a neck. 

cesarian, a. se-zd'ri-dn, in surg., the operation of 
taking a child from the womb by cutting— said to be 
that by which Cwsar was bom. 

cespitose, a. ses'-pl-toz (L. cespes, a turf), turfy; in 
bot., having a turf-like root. 

cess, n. s6s (from assess: L. coisus, the rating of 
Roman citizens according to their property), a pennan- 
ent land-tax in Scotland : v. to rate : ces'sing, imp. : 
cessed, pp. sest. 

cessation, n. ses-sd'shun (L. cessatio, an idling : F. 
ce^.'^rtfion-see cease), a ceasing; a stopping; a rest; a 

cession, n. S(>x'.<:hxm (L. cessio. a gi^^ng iip- from 
cessum, to yield, to give way : F. cession), the act of 
giving way; a surrender of property, rights, or territory 
to. another : ces'sionar'y, a. -er-i, having surrendered 
effects; yielding. 

cesspool, n. scs'pool (AS. srsse, a settle, a seat, and 
pool), a receptacle for liquid filth; a collection of 
offensive stagnant water. 

cestoid, a. ses'tcnid(GT.kesfos,a,gird\c; eidos.fovm), 
like a girdle— applied to intestinal worms with long 
flat bodies, as the tape-worm. 

cestracionts, n. plu. s6s-trd'sMonfs (Gr. f.rstra. a 
kind of fish, a pike), the oldest sub-family of sharks, 
mostly fossil. 

cestus, n. s,'s'tiis (L.— from Gr. kesfn:!, a girdle em- 
broidered), the Venus or marriage girdle ; among the 
ancients, a kind of boxing-glove loaded with some 

cestira, n. sf-zfi'rd (see cssura), in prosody, the 
division of a foot or measure between two words for 
the sake of securing an accent on a certain syllable. 

cetaceous, a. se-td'shus (Gr. kefos ; L. cetus, a whale : 
It. crtn). p,rt. to tlie whale kind: ceta'cea, n. -shJ-d, 
also cetaceans, n. -shl-dnz, animals of the whale kind . 
cetine, n. m -V;?). the solid crystalline of sperma- 
ceti : cetiosaurua, n. se'sht-OsaTc'rfis (Or. sanros, a 
lizard), in we?., a genus of marine saurians : cetology, 
n. ."ctdl' (Gr. logos, discourse), the natural history 
of cetaceous animals, 

cetotolites, ii. i>lu. sC-tfif'-6lUs (Gr. kefos, a whale; 
of a. the ears ; litlios, a stone), the fossil ear-bones of 

chabasite, n. kdb'd-zV (Gr. chabos, narrow, cnm- 
pressi'd), a crj-stal of a wliite colour, one of the zeolite 

chad, n. shdd. a kind of fi*;h— see shad. 

chafe, V. r/i*?/ (F. >'chr.u{r,r. to heat, to warm: L. 
rnh/nrrre. to nial^e liot), to warm with nibbing; to 
lieat; toperfiniv: n. ))i'at liy friction : cha'fing. imp. : 
chafed, pp. rlioft : cha'fer, n. or chafing-dish, a por- 
tal)le gnite for coals: chafery, n. -fCr-U a forge in 

mdlc, mat,fCir, latu; mete, mUt.Tiir; plne,2>ln; nOie, n6t, mOvc; 



„>„ffl rr W«lf(Bav.fcnMcften. to breathe, to puff: It. 


H^ cock-chafer. fern<hafer ,,, ^^^ 

gnaWig of care and f f : Sb'^K 

measure of length of 6b feet or 1^""^/^^^^ chain ; to 

netted by a short cbj^m : cham-wons., n^ j; ^^ 

carrying smaU buckets , j^.. l. cathedra; Gr. 

two-wheeled carriage dra^^'n by one liorse 

STo"^ chSS^V nT^ "SS- (Chalcedony. 
Ld onyx), a variety of chalcedony ^^ 

Gr toa^r). a cup or bowl ; a communion-cup . chal 
iced. a. -Ut, having a cell or cup. . 

chalk, n. cTinTffc (F. c/iau/A--from L. '^I^'^?'-^ 
soft^careous stone of a ^l^te colour :v to rub or 
mark ^vith chalk: chalk'ing. imp. : chalked .^.p. 
XaXckt: chalk mess. "■ ^ ^ha ^'y. a^ -J. Jil>e ':^^^^^ 
to chalk out. to lay out ; to plan ; tO aescrioe . reu 
ch^. a natural clay containmg carbonal^e of mm 
brown-chalk, a familiar name for umber biacK 
chXa v^ety of drawing-slate: French-chalk, a 
varif'tv of steatite or soapstone. ^v,„iip„crA_ 

ehaUenge. n. chal'-lenj (F. rhalanger. to challeiige- 
tromUcalumniare. to institute an action at la^%). a 

colv, hoy. foot; pure, lud; chair 

call or summons to fight in single co^^^^^^^ the Mter 

of a trumpet inviting an enemy t^ a parley ^ 

chamber n.cAam.her{F.c» ^^^^_ ^^ 

camera; tf. ^a«iam. ^ vaim political or 

apartment in a house a^J^*'^^^o7rr.merc6.- a hol- 
commercial body, as a cAamoer 07 ^^ contains the 

the practice of a barrister %\no o"«= 

^°^v «f»^ T, rlirim'-fer fF. fJc/iancrer, to slope or 

imp.: cliam'fered,pp.-/trrt. camo^no), a 

,^^iT^^St^\ fsoT'leather originally 
made from its skin- ^ „,^j (Qr. cTiflwai, on 

thf gTouSVd.^r«? an apple), a plant so called 

''^T.™rv'c/« (ow'f!- champayer. to feed, to 

champ. ^. ^m *«Q^'^cife,^ /.-minjnt, a jaw), 

Ke ^h ^edl^^n^of^tl. t^th^^s^to W 

"'champagne, n. sha^.van'(YX- kind of sparkling 

;l;n"hip. n. Btate on^dngf c^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^. ^^ 
chance, n. c''<Jn^ (F- "^ \«'f„«' '^' oreseen event; acci- 

chan'cing. imP^ : ^^"f^^f^l^S^lui c^tnude mesUe- 
chance-medley, n. eft u^^^^^ ^^ 1,^,^ a,,i- 

fromc;ia«f7, hot ana we>»^ beforehand; in lanwm- 
fnTenliShomTcidrKlf-defence. or on a sudden 
•l^'l^^Li r. r^,7»;v«(old F. cTiance?.- L.ranrd/^,la^■ 
tice^s^v"^^i.hth.^chancelwas enclosed), that part 


game. jog. shun, thing, there, zeal. 




versity ; a la\vyer attaiiicd to an ecclesiastical court : 
chancellorship, n.: chan'cery, n. -serrl, the high 
emit of equity in Kiiglaud and Ireland presided 
ovi r by the Lord Chancellor; in Scut., a court for 
registration of charters, patents of dignity, A:c. 

chancre, n. shdny'-kir (F. ), a venereal ulcer : chan- 
crous, a. shang'krus, ulcerous. 

chandelier, n. slidn-iicler' (F. a dealer in randlos), 
a lKai;;iiig branched lamp : chandler, n. chaiid'-Ur 
(Gcr. handler, a dealer in small-wares), a malcer of 
candles, or dealer in them; a dealer or shopkeeper: 
chandlery, n. -I, goods sold by a chandler. 

change, n. chdnj (F. changer ; It. cambiare, to ex- 
change : Icel. kaupa, to deal), an alteration or varia- 
tion on anything ; a passing from one state or form 
to anotlier ; vicissitude ; variety ; small money : 
change, contracted for exchange, a place where per- 
sons meet for the transaction of business : v. to al- 
t<'r; to make dillerent; to sliift; to put one thing in 
the place of another ; to give one kind of money for 
another; to imdergo variati<jn: chan'ging, imp.: 
changed, pp. chdnjd: chan'ger, n. one who: change'- 
able, a. -d-bl, fickle ; prone to chaii-i' : change'abil'ity, 
n. ■bU'-l-tl: change'ableness.n.: change'ably, ad. -Wl: 
changeful, a. -fObl, full of change; inconstant: 
changeless, a. constant; not allowing of alteration: 
change'ling, n. a cliild left in place of another ; a fool ; 
a waverer ; any one apt to change. 

channel, n. chdn'nel (L. canalis, a pipe for water— 
from canna, a reed: It. canale: F. canal), a water- 
course; the hollow or bed of running water; the 
deepest part of a river, harbour, orstrait ; that through 
whiih anything passes, as news ; a passage of water 
wilier than a strait; a gutter; a furrow: v. to groove ; 
to cut or form into a channel: chan'neling, imp.: 
Chan neled. pp. -wld. 

chant, n. chdnt (F. chanter; L. cantare, to sing), a 
song ; words recited to musical tones in church ser- 
vice : V. to sing ; to intone the words of a hymn or 
))salm, as in church service ; to make melody with the 
voice : chant'ing, imp. : chanted, pp. : chant'er, n. 
masc. one who : chant'ress, n. fem. one who : chant'- 
icleer', n. -l-cler' (chant, and clear: L. canticularius, a 
singer or chanter), a cock, from the loudness and 
clearness of his tones : chantry, n. chdnt'rl, a chapel 
endowed for the saying or singing of masses for the 
souls of donors or founders. 

chaos, n. kd'os (L. and Gr. chaos, a ya^vning gulf, 
immense void), the confused mass in which this earth 
is supposed to have existed prior to its being made a 
tit habitation for man ; any mixed and confused mass ; 
confusion ; disorder : chaotic, a. -of.'lk, confused ; 
tin own together into a vast heap without any order 
or arrangement, 

chap, n. chdp (Scot, chap, to strike: Dut. kappen, 
to cut, to prune : W. cobio, to strike), a gap or chink ; 
a crack in the hands or feet; the jaw. applied to ani- 
mals (rhdi)); a stroke; a blow: v. to split; to crack, 
as the hands or feet ; to open in long slits : chap ping, 
iinii. : chapped, pp. chdpt : chappy, a. -pi, full of 

chap, n. chdp (old E. chuff, fat, full-bodied: AS. 
ceriplas, the chaps, the jaws), a fanuliar term for a 
man or boy. 

chape, n. chdp (F. chape; It. chiappa; Sp. chapa, 
a small plate of metal), a metal plate at the end 
of a scabbard ; a catch by which a thing is held in 
its ijlace. 

chapeau, n. shdppO' (F.), a hat; a cap or head-dress. 

chapel, n. chdp'6l{P. chapelle : mid. L. capella, ahood, 
the canopy or covering of an altar where mass was 
celebrated— afterwards extended to the recess in a 
church in which an altar dedicated to a saint was 
placed), a subordinate place of imblic worship ; a 
church; a dissenttjr's meeting-house: chap'elry, n. 
-rl. the bounds assigned to a chapel. 

chaperon, n. shdp'-tr-Ovg (F. : It. capprrnne, a clonk 
worn Ity peasants), a liooii or caji ; an elih'rly feinali^ 
alti-mlant ou a yoimg lady in pul)li<' ; ;iiiy atfendMUt 
and guide: V. to attend as a guide or piotei Kir : 
chaperoning, imp. -on-iiig: chaperoned, pp. Oiid: 
chap'eronage, n. -nn-dj, patronage or protection af- 
fiirdeil Ipv :i cliiiperon. 

chapfallen, a. chOji-faMnichap, thejaw, a,nd fallet)), 
having tlie lower jaw depressed ; dejected ; dispirited ; 

chapiter, n. rhdp'ltir {old F. chapifel; It. capitclln 
— from L. caput, the head), the upper part or capital 
of a pillar. 

chaplain, n. chdp'ldn (F. chapelain; It. cappellano, 
a chaplain : low L. capella, a hood), a clergj'nian at- 
tached to a ship in the navy, to a regiment in the 
army, to a fanuly, &c. : chaplaincy, -A, and chap'- 
lainship, n. the office, station, or business of a chap- 

chaplet, n. chdji'let (F. chapelet— from L. caput, the 
head), a garland or wreath encircling the head; a 
string of beads, called a paternoster or rosary, u.sed 
by Roman Catholics to keep count of their prayers 5 a 
little niouliling carved into beads, &c. 

chapman, n. chdp'-mdn (AS. ceap-man, a merchant 
—see cheap), an itinerant dealer; a travelling mer- 

chapped, chappy— see chap. 

chapter, v. chujj'fer (F. chupitre; It. capUolo, head 
or division nf a iiuok — from L. caput, thje head), the 
division of a book; an assembly of the dean, canons, 
and prebendaries, or of the dean and canons residen- 
tiary alone, attached to a cathedral. 

chaptrel, n. chdp'-tril (L. cupid, the head), the upper 
part of a pillar that supports an arch. 

char, n. cluir (Gael, cear, red, blood-coloured), an 
esteemed lake-fish. 

char, V. char (old Eng. chark or chirk, applied to the 
creaking or grating noise which charcoal makes when 
struck together — from AS. cearcian, to creak : F. 
charree, ashes), to burn to a black cinder ; to blacken 
wood by exposm-e to fire ; to reduce wood* to coal or 
carbon by bui-ning it slowly under cover : char'ring, 
imp. : charred, pp. chard : charcoal, n. -kol, wood 
burnt into carbon, or made black all through like 
c(/al: animal charcoal, lamp-black derived from oils 
and fat: wood charcoal, from twigs and faggots: 
mineral charcoal or coke, from ordinary pit-coal. 

char or chare, n. cJtar (AS. eyre, a tm-n : Dut. keeren, 
to turn : Gael, cur, a twist), work done by the day ; a 
single job : v. to work at the house of another by the 
day; to do jobs: cha'ring, imp.: chared, pp. chdrd: 
char- woman, n. a woman that works by the day ; an 
occasional servant. 

character, n. kar'dk-ter (Gr. charakter: L. character: 
F. caractere), a mark cut on any thing ; a mark or fig- 
ure to represent a sound, as a letter or a note in music ; 
a picture to convey an idea ; manner of writing, speak- 
ing, or acting; peculiar qualities in a person; an 
account or representation of the qualities of a person 
or thing; moral excellence ; reputation : v. to inscribe ; 
to engrave: charactering, imp.: char'actered, pp. 
-ta-d: char'acterise, v. -iz, to describe t)y peculiar 
qualities; to distinguish: char'aeteri'sing, imp.: 
char'acterised, pp. -izd: char'acteris tic, n. -li-'tlk, that 
which distinguishes a person or thing from another : 
adj. applied to the principal letter of a word, retained 
in all its derivatives and compounds, or nearly all : 
adj. and char'acteris'tical, a. -ti-kdl, that marks the 
peculiar an<l distinctive qualities of a person or' thing : 
char'acteris'tically, ad. -II: char' acterless, a. without 
any character ; destitute of any distinguishing peculi- 

charade, n. shdrM' (F.: Norm, charer: Lang, rhara, 
to converse), a riddle ; a witty Jilaying on the syllables 
of a word, and tlieii on the word itself. 

charcoal, 11.— sie char. 

chard, n. chdrd (Y.carile; It. carda: L. cardtnts,tlvi 
wild and esculent thistle), the leaves or centre stalks of 
artichokes, beet, &c., blanclied in their growth. 

charge, n. chdrj (It. caricare; F. charger, to load, to 
place in a car), that which is laid or imposed on ; the 
quantity of powder and shot or balls necessary to 
load a gun or cannon ; an onset or attack, as on au 
enemy m bnttle ; any pei-son, thing, or business in- 
trusted or delivereil over to another; a trust; exhor- 
tatiiin or instructions by a judge to a jury, or by a 
liislid]) t(i his clcigv; a solemn direction or command; 
:icensatioii "f iiiiimtation ; the transactions that con- 
stit\it(! a debt; cost; expense; rent or t;ix on pro- 
perty; the (luantity of elei-tricity sent into a coated 
jar: V. to rush on; to attack; to lo;i.l, as a gun; to 
lav on, as a tax; to intrust to; to set down to, a-s a 
debt ; to blame ; to censure ; to aecnse; to command, 
exhort, or eiijuin ; ti> give directions to, as a judge to 
a jury, or a bi>li.ii> to liis clergy ; to till with the elec- 
trical fluid: charging, ini]!. : charged, pp. chdrjd: 
char'ger, n. the luisou who charges; ;i war-horse; a 
large dish : chargeable, a. rhnrj'a-hl. tb:it may be laid 
ujM.n or charged to; li:il,le to be charue.l: charge'- 
ably, ad. -hll: charge'ableness, 11. : charge less. a. 

charge d'affaires, n. shdrzhd'-ddfjdr' (F. chaige or 

mdte, mat, Jut, latv; mite, mit, hir; pine, pin; nOte, nOt, mCve; 




care of matters), one who transacts diplomatic busi- 
ness at foreign courts, in the absence of an ambas- 

chaiily, ad.: chariness, n.— see chary. 

chariot, n. char'l-ot (F. chariot— from char, a car : L. 
carrus; It. carro, a two-wlieelcd cart), a liglit kind of 
coach with a front seat only; a war-coach; a <ar: 
char'ioteer, n. -O-tcr, the diiver of a war-chariot in 
ancient times. 

chaxity, n. chdr'-Ul (F. charite; It. cariYa— from L. 
curitas, high regard, high price or value), kindness ; 
love ; that disposition of heart which inclines men to 
think well of others, and do them good ; liberality to 
the poor ; candour; an institution for the poor: chari- 
table, a. -ta-U, benevolent in disposition; kind in 
words and actions ; liberal in relieving the necessities 
of the distressed according to ability : charitably, ad. 
-bll: charitableness, n. -td-U-nis. 

charlatan, n. sh&r'-la-tan (F. and Sp.— from Sp. 
charlar, to chatter: It. carlatano, a quack doctor), a 
quack ; a prating pretender ; a mountebank : char'- 
latan'ical, a. -l-kal, making undue pretensions to 
skill ; quackish : char'latan'ry, n. -rl, quackery ; de- 
ceit: charlatanism, n. -Izni. 

Charles's-wain, n. churlz'ez-wCin (AS. carles-ivaen, 
the churl's or farmer's wain), a familiar name, from 
the shape of their arrangement, of the cluster of seven 
.stars in the constellation Ursa Major, or the Great 

charlock, n. chdr'lok (AS. cerlice), a wild plant of 
the mustard family— also called ketlock. 

charm, n. ch&rm (F. charme ; It. carme, a charm, a 
spell— from L. carmen, a song), words, figures, or 
things supposed to possess some hidden or mysterious 
power; anything supposed to possess a magic power 
or spell ; that which can subdue or delight : v. to sub- 
due or control ; to exercise iiTesistible power over ; to 
please or delight greatly ; to yield exquisite pleasure 
to the mind or senses ; to fortify against evil : char- 
ming, imp.: adj. pleasing in the highest degree: 
charmed, pp. chCirmd, gi-eatly delighted : charmer, 
11. : charmless, a. : charms, n. plu. what pleases irre- 
sistibly; that which delights and attracts, as beauty, 
music, conversation : char mingly, ad. -Zi .- char'ming- 
ness, n. 

chamel, a. char'nel (F. charnier, a churchyard— 
from L. euro, flesh — gen. carnis), containing flesh or 
carcasses : charnel-house, n. a place in some burial- 
gi-ounds where the bones of the dead are stored up ; 
a burial-ground where too many dead are interred. 

Charon, n. kcl'rdn, in fabulous history, the son of 
Erebus (darkness) and Nox (night), who was em- 
ployed to feriy the souls of the dead over the waters 
of Acheron and Styx. 

chart, n. chdrt (L. charta, paper: Gr. chartes: It. 
carta : F. carte), a map of any part of a sea or river for 
the use of navigators ; the representation of a ship's 
course ; a map : chartless, a. without a chart : 
charta'ceous, a. -ta'shus, in bot., resembling paper; 
thin ; flexible : charter, n. chdr'ter, any written pa- 
per or document conferring privileges or confirming 
rights ; privilege ; exemption : v. to hire or let a ship 
under a written agreement : char'tering, imp. : char'- 
tered, pp. -tird .- charter-party, n. the written agree- 
ment regarding the hire of a vessel and its freight, of 
which two copies are written : Magna-Charta, mag' 
nu-kdr'ta (L. great charter), the great charter of Eng- 
lish liberties obtained from King John, a.d. 1215: 
Chartist, n. chdr'tist, one of a body of political agita- 
tors who demand certain radical changes in the govern- 
ment: Char'tism, n. -tlzm, the political opinions and 
principles of the Chartists: chartographer, n. char- 
toi/'rd-/er (L. charta, paper, and Gr. grapho, I deli- 
neate, I write), a constructor of charts or sea-maps : 
char'tographlc, a. -to-grdf-lk, relating to charts. 

charwoman, n. : char'work— see char. 

chary, a. char'-l (AS. cearig, careful : Dut. karigh, 
sparing, niggard : Ger. karg, niggardly), careful ; 
cautious ; frugal : char'ily, ad. -H: char'iness, n. cau- 
tion; nicety. 

chase, n. cAfls— sometimes spelt chace (F. chasser; 
Sp. cazar, to hunt), eager or vehement pursuit ; himt- 
ing; an earnest seeking after, as pleasure, fame, &c. ; 
the thing sought for or hunted ; open ground or re- 
treat for the larger game: v. to pursue eagerly; to 
drive away ; to follow eagerly after, as pleasure, profit, 
&c. : chasing, imp.: chased, pp. chast: chaser, n. one 
who : chase'able, a. -abl, that may be chased : chase- 
gun, a gun placed at the bow or stem of a vessel. 

chase, v. c7tds(F. c/iasw, a shrine for a relic: contr. 
of etirhase), to work or emboss plate as silversmiths 
do : cha 8ing,unp. : n.the art of embossing or represent- 
ing figures on metals : chased, pp. chdat. 

chase, n. chds (F. c/iasie— from L. capsa, a box, a 
case), an iron frame in which to confine types. 

chasm, n. kdzm (Gr. and L. cltu^rna, a gaping or 
wide opening), a deep gap or opening in the earth, or 
between rocks; a void space: chasmed, a. kdzind, 
having gaps or deep openings : chas'my, a. -ml, full of 

chasseurs, n. shds-sers' (F. a huntsman— from chas- 
ser, to hunt), horse or foot soldiers trained for rapid 

chaste, a. chdst (F. chaste— irora L. castus, pure: 
Pol. czysty, clean, pure : It. casto), pure ; undeliled ; 
in language, Iree from barbarous or affected words 
and phrases ; refim-d in expressions ; in works of art, 
pure in taste or design ; net vulgar in style : chastely, 
ad. -li: chasteness, u. : chastity, n. chds'tl-tl, purity 
of body and of speech. 

chasten, v. chus'n (F. ch&tier, to correct- from L. 
castigare, to correct), to correct; to punish for the 
purpose of reclaiming an oifender; to afflict in any 
way; to purify: chastening, imp. chds'ning: chast- 
ened, pp. chds'nd: chas'tener, n. -ner: chastise, v. 
chds-tizf, to punish or correct with the rod ; to inflict 
a pain as punishment for an offence ; to correct or 
purify in any way : chasti'sing, imp. : chastised', pp. 
-tlzd': chasti'ser, n. one who: chasti'sable, a. -sdbl: 
chastisement, n. chds'tlz-ment, correction; punish- 

chat, n. chcit (It. gazzolare, to chat or chatter: Ma- 
lay, kata, to speak : an imitative word), familiar talk ; 
idle conversation : v. to converse in a familiar easy 
way; to talk idly: chat'ting, imp.: chat'ted, pp.: 
chat'ty, a. -tl, talkative : chatter, v. chdt'ter, to utter 
sounds rapidly, as a monkey ; to talk idly or careless- 
ly; to rattle the teeth, as in shivering: n. the rapid 
sounds, as of a monkey: chattering, imp. n.: chat'ter- 
ed, pp. -terd: chatterer, n. one who: chat'terbox, n. 
one that talks idly and incessantly. 

chateau, n. shd-to' (F.), a castle; a country seat; 
plu. chateaux', -toz'.- chatelet, n. shdt'e-ld, a little 
castle ; the common jail and session-house in Paris. 

chattels, n. chdt'tls (F. chatel ; old F. chaptel, apiece 
of movable property— from mid. L. captale, the prin- 
cipal, as distinguished from interest), goods in gene- 
ral, with the exception of land— anciently applied to 
cattle, as being the principal wealth of the country. 

chauffer, n. chof-fir (F. chavffer, to heat), a small 
furnace ; a round box of sheet-iron for containing a 
fire, open at the top, with a grating near the bottom. 

cheap, a. chep (AS. ceap, cattle, price : Goth, kau- 
pon, to deal : Icel. kaupa, to buy : Dut. koopen ; Ger. 
kaufen, to buy), low in price for the quality ; not dear 
as prices go; common or little in value: cheap 'ly, 
ad. -ll : cheap'ness, n. : cheapen, v. chep'n, to lessen 
in value: cheap'ening, imp. -nlng: cheap'ened, pp. 
-end: cheap'ener, n. -ner. 

cheat, V. chet (see escheat— the escheators or cheat- 
ers were oflicers appointed to look after the king's 
escheats, giving many opportunities of oppression — 
hence cheater came to signify a fraudulent person), 
to deceive and defraud ; to impose on ; to trick : n. a 
fraud committed by deception ; a trick of dishonesty ; 
an imposition or imposture; one who cheats: cheat'- 
ing.imp.: cheat'ed, pp.: cheat'er, n. one who: cheat'- 
ingly, ad. -II. 

check, n. cMk (F. echec, a repulse, a rebuke— a meta- 
phor taken from the game of chess, when a player is 
stopped by receiving check to his king), stop ; restraint ; 
continued restraint; curb; that which stops or con- 
trols ; a term in chess ; a pass, ticket, or token ; cloth 
woven in squares of different colours : v. to stop ; to 
restrain ; to moderate ; to chide or reprove ; to con- 
trol ; to compare and examine papers or accounts to 
ascertain their accuracy— (to check an account, in the 
sense of ascertaining its correctness, is derived from 
the Court of Ex chequer, where accounts were compared 
and corrected by means of counters upon a checked 
cloth): check'ing, imp. : checked, pp. f/i«W; check'er, 
•ir, n. one who, or that which : check'ered, a. -erd, as 
checkered cloth, cloth consisting of squares or stripes 
of different colours : check'less, a. uncontrollable ; vio- 
lent : checker or chequer, v. -er (from the squares of 
a chessboard), to variegate by cross lines ; to form 
into squares like a chessboard by lines or stripes ; to 
diversify; to vary or mix with different qualities. 

cCtv, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, Gicre, zeal. 




scenes, or erents: checkering, imp. : check'ered, pp. i 
-ird : adj. crossed with jrooil and Ixid fortune in tlie 
career of life: checkmate, u. ■mat (I'ers. ^hali-nuit, 
kiuijdead), a movement tluit tiui-<li<'S a .^Miiie uf elu'ss : 
V. to hinder from moving and so to tinisli ; to liefcat ; 
tooverthrow: checkmating, imj). : checkmated, jiji. : 
check'ers, n. plu. device of alternate white and black 
squares used as a tavern sign: check'erwork, work 
having a pattern of squares varied alternatelj' in col- 
ours or materials: check-roll, a list of sei-vants in a 
household: check'string, a cord bj' which the ocou- 
]iant of a carriage may arrest the attention of the 

Cheddar, n. chMd'r, a kind of cheese manufactured 
at Cheddar, in England. 

cheek, n. chek (AS. ceac, the cheek, the jaw: Dut. 
Icaecke. the jaw), the side of the face below either eye : 
cheek-by-jowl (AS. gewjl, a jaw. a jowl), nearness; 
closeness; side hy side: cheek-bone, n. bone of the 
cheek: cheeks, n. plu. two ui>ri^ht, equal, and similar 
parts of any piece of timber-work ; the two solid parts 
upon the sides of a mortise; the projection on each 
side of a mast. 

cheep, V. chCp (an imitative word), to make a shrill 
noise like a young cliicken: cheeping, imp.: cheeped, 
pji. chept. 

cheer, v. cher (prov. Sp. cara; old F. cliiere; It. cera, 
the coiuitenance : F. chere, the face, favour, entertain- 
ment), to receive with shouts of joy; to applaud; to 
comfort; to gladden; to infuse life into; to encour- 
age ; to become gladsome : n. a joyfid shout ; applause ; 
mirth; provisions for a feast: cheering, imp.: adj. 
animatmg; encouraging: cheered, pp. c/ierd; cheer'- 
ingly, ad. -II: cheerily, ad. -Ill, with spirit: cheerful, 
a. cher'-fool, lively ; in good spirits ; full of life : cheer'- 
fully, ad. -II: cheer'fulness, n. liveliness; gaiety: 
cheerless, a. cher'lds, without cheer ; cold ; gloomy ; 
dispiriting : cheerlessly, ad. -U : cheer'lessness, n. : 
cheer'er, n. one who : cheer'y, a. -I. gay ; sprightly : 
Cheer up, to become cheerful ; to enliven. 

cheese, n. chcz (AS. cese, curdled milk : L. caseus, 
cheese: Fin. kasa, a heap), the curd of milk pressed 
into a mass of various shapes and sizes, and suffered 
to dry : cheesy, a. che'zl, having the taste or form of 
cheese: cheesecake, n. a sweet cake: cheese-press, 
n. and cheese-vat, n. the one for pressing and the 
other for holding the curd to be formed into a cheese : 
cheesemonger, u. -inumf-ger, one who deals in or sells 

cheetah, n. chS'td, the hunting leopard of India. 

chef-d'oeuvre, n. sMf-do'vr or shu- (F.), a master- 
piece ; a very fine work of art. 

chegoe, n. chUg'O (of Peruvian origin: Sp. cJiico, 
small), in tropical countries, a small insect that enters 
the skin of the feet in man ; also written chigger, 
chlij'ger : chigoe, chlg'O : jigger, jlg'ger : cMgre, 
chig'ir: chegre, chSg'ir. 

cheiracanthus, n. kl'r&-Mn'thus (Gr. cheir, the 
hand; akantha, a thorn), a small fossil fish armed 
with defensive spines : chei'role'pis, n. -ro-le'pls (Gr. 
Ie2)is, a scale), a fossil fish having lozenge -shaped 
scales, and a great development of its pectoral and 
ventral fins: cheiroptera, n. plu. kl-rop'ter-d (Gr. 
2iteron, a wing), the systematic name for bats and the 
bat-kind: cheirop'ter, n. one of the cheirojitera : 
cheirdp'terous, a. -us, pert, to : cheiru'rus, n. -rd'rns 
(Gr. oura, a tail), in geol, a genus of Lower Silurian 
trilobites, so termed from their tail presenting four or 
five finger-like spines. 

chelae, n. plu. ke'le (Gr. chele, a claw), applied par- 
ticularly to the bifid claws or pin<^ers of the crustace- 
ans, &c.: cheliTerous, a. -llf'-ir-ns (L. Jerre, to bear), 
having claws as a cral>: cheliform, a. kH'l-fawna 
{h. forma, a shape), having the form of a claw: che- 
late, a. ke'iat, having chela; or two-cleft claws. 

chelonian, a. ke-lo-nl-dn (Gr. chelone, the tortoise), 
pert, to the chelonia or tortoise and turtle tribe. 

chemical, a.— see chemistry. 

chemise, n. she-mez' (F.: Sp. camisa, a chemise), an 
under garment worn by females; a shift; a wall lining 
any earthwork in order to support it: chemisette, 
sli(ini'lz<>t', an under waistcoat for a female. 

chemistry, n. kim'-ls-trl (Ar. kimia, the occult art : 
Gr. rhu)TUjs, ]niw,: It. chimica: F. c/u«uV'), the science 
tliat ascertains the nature and constitinut parts of 
any body, investigates the laws tliat regulate tlin 
action of bodies on eacli other. Jiini ilctcrminesin wliat 
proportion their eleminits unite: chemical, a. -hkal., 
pert, to chemistry : chem'lcally, ad. -ll : chem'ist, n. 

mdtc, mdt./ur, IdXv; mCte, mlt, 

one skilled in chemistry: chemicals, n. plu. -kdlo, 
substances used for producing chemical effects: or- 
ganic chemistry, that which treats of the substances 
wliich form the structure of animals or vegetables, and 
tlieir products: inorganic chemistry, that which 
treats of the substances which form mineral bodies: 
practical or applied chemistry, that which treats of 
the products ol ( lieiuistry useful in the arts, and for 
economical purjio-es: pure chemistry, that which 
treats of the elemental constitution of substances, and 
of the laws of combination. 

cheque, n. chek (see check), an order for money on 
a banker, to be paid on demaiul. 

cherish, v. chSr'lsh (F. cherir, to love dearly, to 
cherish), to treat with tenderness and affection; to 
foster ; to protect and aid ; to harbour in the mind, as 
feelings of ill-will: cherishing, imp.: n. support; en- 
couragement : cherished, pp. -isht: adj. comforted; 
fostered : cherlsher, n. one who : cher'ishingly, ad. -II. 

cheroot, n. sl(e-rOt', a kind of cigar. 

cheropotamus, n. k6r'-6-i)6t'-u-rims (Gr. rhoirns, a 
hog, and potamos, a river), a fossil animal very closely 
related to the hog family. 

cherry, n. cher'-rl (L. cerasiis: F. cerise: Ger. k~irsche). 
a well-known fi-uit, consisting of a pulp surrounding 
a pip or kernel: adj. ruddy: cherry-pit, n. a child'3 
play : cherry-brandy, brandy in which cherries have 
been steeped : cherry-stone, the hard kernel of the 

Chersonese, n. ker'sonez (Gr. chersos, land; and 
nesos, an isle), a tract of land, of any extent, nearly 
suiTounded by water ; a peninsula. 

chert, n. cliert (W. cellt, flintstone; a probable cor- 
ruption of quartz), an impure flinty rock resembling 
some varieties of flint and honistone ; a limestone so 
silicious as to be worthless for the limekiln, is said to 
be chert y: cher'ty, a. -tt, flinty. 

cherub, n. cher'-ub, plu. cher'ubs or cher'ubim (Heb. 
kerub — from kurab, to gi-asp), any figure of a creature ; 
a heavenly being : cher'ubic, adj. •du-bik, also cheru'- 
bical, a. -kcd, angelic : cher'ubim, n. plu. -oo-bim (Heb. 
plu. of cherub), angels ; heavenly beings. 

cherup, v. cher'-up (for chirp), to twitter ; to make a 
noise as a bird : n. a short, sharp noise : cher'uppins, 
imp.: cher'upped, pp. -upt. 

chesible, n. chcz'-i-bl, or chasuble, chdz'Sb-bl, c 
Roman priest's garment. 

chess, n. ches (F. ecJiec; It. scacco; Sp. acaque: Ger. 
schach— from the cry of check: Pers. schach, a king), 
a game played on a board divided into sixty-four 
squares : chess-board, the board used in the game of 
chess : chess-player, one skilled in the game of chess. 

chessil-bank, chcs'-sl-bdnk (Ger. kiesel, a pebble), the 
shifting pebble -beach extending from Portland to 
Abbotsbm-y, on the southern coast of England. 

chest, n. chest (AS. cist: Ger. kasten: L. cista), a 
large box ; the breast or thorax ; a certain quantity of 
goods, as tea : v. to lay in a chest ; to hoard : chesting, 
imp.: chest'ed, pp. : adj. having a chest ; placed in a 
cliest: chest of drawers, a case of movable boxes, 
called drawers. 

chestnut, n. chSs'mlt (F. chastag7ie: Dut. kasfavie: 
Ger. keste7i), the seed or nut of a large forest-tree: 
adj. of a bright-brown colour; also chesnut. 

chetah, n. che'ta—see cheetah. 

cheval-de-frise, n. she-vdVdi-frez': chevaux-de- 
frise', n. plu. sM-vO'- (F. clieval, a horse ; /rise, any- 
thing curled), a long piece of timber pierced l>y wood- 
en spikes four or six feet long, point eil with iron, 
which cross each other, used to fill a breach or to hin- 
der the advance of cavalrj-. 

chevalier, n. .ohUv'aier (F.— from cheval, a horse), a 
horseman ; a knight; a gixllant young man. 

chevron, n. cliiv'ron (F.: Sp. cahrio, a rafter), a fig- 
ure of t\\o rafters meeting at the top ; a term in her- 
aldry ; a variety of fret ornament, called also zigzag; 
tlie badge on the coat-sleeve of a non-commissioned 
otlicer: chev roned, a. -rOnd, having a chevron. 

chew, V. i!>('> (AS. ceou-an, to chew— from ceac, the 
Jaw : Dut. kiiuii\ ii. to chew— from kaiiur, the jaw), to 
crusli with tlie teeth; to masticate: chewing, imp.: 
chewed, pji. chad: chew the cud, to eat the food over 
again, as a cow; tolliink; to ni.ditate. 

Chian, a. kl'iUi, pert, to Chios, an island in the 
.(?i;-ean .Sea. 

chiaro-oscuro, n. k(}-dr'6-6sk\yr0 (It. chiaro, clear ; 
osriiro, d;Mk), a drawiufr in black and white; the art 
of advantageously distributing the lights and shadows 
in a picture. 

hir; pine.plJi; nOte, nOt, niCve; 



cWasma, n. kl-Os-ma (Gr. c/tiasw.s a marking with 
the letter X, a cut crosswise), in anat., the central body 
of nervous matter formed by the junction and the 
iTossin" of the fibres of the optic nerves. 

cWastolite. n. ki-as'-to-lU (Gr. chiastos, marked with 
the Greek letter X, or cleft, and lithos, a stone), a mine- 
ral .^called from the resemblance of the lines on the 
summits of the crystals to the Greek letter X- 

chibouque, n. chl-book' (Turk., with F. spelling), a 

er, to wrangle or pettifog it-frora c/ugM*, origina ly 
a ac' or rag^ a lump of bread), mean or unfair art flees 
to obscure the truth; trick; sophistry; wranglin": 
V to use shifts or artifices : chica mng, imp.: chicaned, 
pp. -kdncV: chica'ner, n. one who. 

chick, n. chlk, or chfcfe'en, n. -en (imitative of the 
cry: Dut. kieken; AS. cicen, a chicken: nnug-tjuk 
a hen) the young of the domestic cock and hen , a 
childT'a word ot° endearment : chicken-hearted, a 
timid; cowardly; fearful : chicken-.poxn a miW 
eruptive disease among children: chick-weed a coiu- 
monwild plant with white blossoms: chick lmg,n. 
a small chick: chick-pea, a variety, of pea or vetd. 

chicory, n. chlk'or-l (F. chicoree; It- "corut. L 
cichorium, chicory or endive), a plant with a root li^e 
the carrot the root of which c eaned, dried roasted, 
and gi-omid, is extensively used to mix with coffee. 

chTde, v. chid (AS. cidan, to scold: Swiss kidtn to 
resound as a bell), to reprove by words ; to scold at 
to rebuke; to quarrel: chi'dmg, imp.: chid pt. dud, 
or chode, pt. chod: chidden or chid, pp. c/ad-n; chi- 
dingly, ad. -li: chider, n. cht'der one who. 

chief, a. chef (F. chef, the head or highest point : 
Tt. capo-from L. caput, the head: Ger kopf; Jiut 
cop, a cap, a head), highest ; principal ; the most enii- 
nent or distinguished ; the most important ; first . n. 
a commander or leader; the head man of a clan, or 
tribe, or family: chiefly, ad. -?l especiaUy; mainly, 
principally; in the first place : chief less, a. without a 
leader: chieftain, n. -^dn, a leader; ">.« head f ^ '^l'"^ 
or family: chieftaincy, -si, and chieftainship, n. 
the government over a clan : chief-justice, the prin- 

^^PcMioS'n.'°W^>-V (F. chiffonier, a rag- 

picker-from chiffon, a rag), a rag-picker; a kind ot 

cupboard for holding scraps. 
chigoe, n. chig'6—see chegoe. , . . , . a „ 
chilblain, n. chll'blan {chill and llain), an mflam- 

matorv sore on the skin produced by cold. 
child, n. child, plu. children, chll-drcn (AS. 

Dlu cT/dm rbut. and Ger. kind, a child), a son or 
daughter; an infant or very young person; oneweaJc 
in knowledge or experience of the world: plu. on - 
spring ; descendants ; the inhabitants of a country : 
child'hood, n. the time in which persons are children : 
child'ish, a. like a child; trifling ; ignorant ; silly: 
child'ishiv, ad. -II .- childishness, n. the qualities ot a 
child in regard to conduct ; simplicity : weakne^ss of 
mind: childless, a. without children: childlessness, 
n • chUdlike, a.: child'-bearing, the act of protlucing 
or bringing forth children: child^bed the state of a 
woman bringing forth a child : child-birth the at of 
bringing forth a child; travail: child's-play, tnllmg 
contest ; light work. , , , , 

childe, n. child (from child), formeriy a noble youth : 
childermas-day, n. chll'-der-mCis, a feast of the Church 
held on 28th December, in remembrance ot the chil- 
dren slain at Bethlehem by Herod -called usually 

'^''chmad' l^\u'l.M (Gr. chilias, a thousand). 1000 

^^hiil, a. chll (AS. cvle, cool : Sp. chillar, to crackle : 
low Ger. fciZien. to smart), moderately cold ; tending to 
cause shivering ; not warm ; cool : n. a cold ; a sniv- 
ering with cold ; the sensation of cold ; a depressing 
influence or sensation: v. to cause a shivering; to 
check the circulation of the blood; to make cold; to 
blast with' cold ; to deject : chilling, imp. : adj. cau.s- 
liUed, pp. child : chU'lingly, ad. -I i -. 


of Commons accepts when he wishes to vacate his 

'"^chime, n. chlm (imitative of aloud, clear sound: 
Fin kihiia, acute, sonorous), the musical harmony 
produced by striking a set of bells with hammers ; a 
set of bells tuned to the musical scale, and struck by 
hammers acted on by clockwork : v. to sound in 
harmony or accord ; to agree with ; to cause to sound 
in harmony : chi'ming, imp. : chimed, pp. chlmd. 

chimera, n. MmirA (L. chiiruEra, a monstrous 
beast: Gr. chimaira), a vain or idle fancy; a creatuie 
of the imagination only: chimerical, a. -miir-l-UU. 
merely imaginary; vainly or wildly conceived ; that 
can have no existence except in thought: chimer- 

^*^chminey,' n. chlm'-nl, plu. chimneys, -nlz (F. chemi- 
nee ■ It. cumminata, a haU : low L. caminata, an 
apari;ment with a fireplace), a funnel or passa-e up- 
wards in a wall for the escape of smoke or heated air : 
chimney-flue or vent, the passage Irom the fireplace 
upwardi for the escape of the smoke or heated air : 
chimney-sweep, one who cleans chimneys: chimney- 
piece, an ornamental frame of wood or stone round a 

^^chimpanzee, n. cMm'-pCmze, one of the higher apes 

° chin.^n. chin (AS. cinne; Dut. kinne, the jaw the 
cheek: Gr. genus, the jaw. the chin), the part of the 
face below the under lip: chin'cough, n. -Ao/ (Dut. 
kinkhoest— irom kincken, to wheeze), hooping-cough. 
china, n. chl'-nd, a fine kind of earthenware ori- 
ginally from China: adj. of or from China: chma- 
ihop, a shop for the sale of china-ware, &c. : abuJ 
in a china shop, strength and violence unresisted: 
Chinese, a. chinez', of China : n. the language or inha- 
bitants : china-aster, n. -as't&r (Gr. aster, a star^ one 
of a genus of plants having compound flowers;: chma- 
clayfthe finer varieties of pottery-clay, called ^ao^i.i; 
china-stone, the decomposed gramtes yielding the 
china-clay or kaolin of commerce. ^„,i„„* 

chinchUla, n. chln-chlild, a small S. Amer. rodent 
animal, whose soft fur is used for muffs, &c 

chine, n. chin (F. echi7ie, the back-bone: W. cefn,a. 
ridge), the back-bone of an animal ; a piece ot the 
bac^k-bone. with adjacent pariis, cut from an amn»al 
for cooking ; part; of the water-way of a ship : v. to cut 
into chine pieces: chi'ning. imp.: cmned, p. c/umZ 

chink, n.chlngk (AS. cincm, to gape : Dut. khnckcn, 
to clink or sound sharp), a small rent, cleft, or open- 
ing lengthwise; a crack or gap, as m a wall: v. to 
crick ; to make a small sharp sound witii a piece of 
money or metal: chink'ing, imp.: chinked, pp. 
diingkt: chink'y, a. -kl. full of chinks or long small 

in"- to shiver: chilled, pp. 

chilly, a. -11, rather cold: chU'Uness, n. -ii-n5s, sensa- 
tion of shivering; cold: chill'ness, n., coldness. 

chillies, n. plu. chll'lU (Sp. chili), the pods of the 
Cayenne or Guiana pepper. , - ,j x ? „ 

Chiltem Hundreds, n. plu. chll'tern hun-drmz, a 
hilly district in Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire, 
En>^land, belonging to the Crown, to which a nominal 
otlice is attached, called the "Stewardship of the 
Chiltem Hundreds," which a member ct the House 

cmi, hoy, foot; pure, Md; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 

^^chinse, v. chins, to push oakum or tow into the 
chinks or seams between a ship's planking : chin sing, 
imp • chinsed, pp. chlnst. , , . , ^^ j 

chints or chiitz, n. chlnts (Hind, chhmt spotted 
cotton cloth : Dut. chitz), cotton cloth printed m more 

*^^Cn.'ct;(lwiss, kide, a twig: W. cedys, fagots 
of small wood: Ger. kippen, to ^\iv or v^re),^ ^^]^^^}l 
niece of a body cut or broken off; a fragment : v. to 
Snto small pieces ; to cut or break «/? small pieces ; 
to hew : chip'ping, imp.: n. a piece cut or broken off. 

"^^■rU^grd (L.-from Gr. cheir, the hand ; 
agra, a catching), gout in the hand. . 

chirography, n. ki-rog'-rd-f I Gr. c/inr. t^e hand ; 
graphe% w-riting), the art of \vTiting : chi rograph ic 
i -rd-grdfik, pert, to : chirog'rapher, n. -m/tr, aJso 
ciiiroAaphist. -fist, one who : chirol ogy, n. -roho-jl 
fGnSr^discoiise) art of talking ^^uth he bands : 
chirol'ogist, n. -jlst, one who: chi'romancy, u. -ro- 
mdn'-si hr.manteia. divination), the art of foretelling 
events or the dispositions of persons by mspec^^ing the 
lines of the hands: chi'roman'tic, a. - l^% Pert to : 
chi'roman'cer, n. -s&r, one who ; also chi roman tlst, 
n -tld : cM'roplast, n. -ro-plOst (Gr plassem, to ^''.ipH, 
in music, an instnunent to teach fingering : chuop o- 
dist.n. -rop'-Odist (Gr. cheir, the hand, andpoe «. the 
foot; or Gr. keiro, I clip or pare), a com or wait doctor. 
chirp, n. cherp (an imiUtive word: Sp. chtrriar, to 
chirn -Norm, charer, to chatter), a particular sound 
uttered by birds or insects : v. to make a noise, as the 
cry of small birds: chirp'ing imp. : chirped pp. 
chtrvt ■ chirp'er, n. one who : chirp ingly, ad. -a. 

chisel, n. cMz'-Cl, (F. ciseler, to emboss, to engrave : 
Sp cincel; Port. SiZt;^, a chisel: oldF.Cisd: It. cistiM, 



a cutting instrument or tool of iron or steel, used by- 
masons, joiners, and sculptors : v. to cut ; to pare ; to 
carve or engravD with a chisel: chis'eling, imp.: 
chls'eled, pp. -cUl -. chis'eler, u. one who : derivatives 
also spelt with U. a.s diiMiling, chiselkd, &c.. 

Chisleu, n. kls'lO (Hob. chitilfiu), the ninth month of 
the Jewish year, beginning with the new moon of our 

chit, n. chit (Swiss kide, a twig: prov. Eng. chits, the 
first sprouts of anything : It. citto, a little dirty boy), 
a shoot or sprout ; a lively child : chit'ty, a. -tt, child- 
ish ; like a babe : chit-chat, n. -chat, prattle : familiar 

chitine, n. kl'tln (Or. chiton, a coat of mail), the 
hardening substance of the covering of insects : chi'tin- 
0U3, a. -lis. consisting of or having the nature of chi- 
tine : chiton, n. -tdii., a mollusc with a many-jointed 
sliell covering its back— also found fossil : chi'tonel'lus, 
n. -ei'lils (dim. of chiton), a sub-generic form of chiton, 
distuiguislied by tlie form of the plates. 

chitterlings, n. plu. chlt'ter -lings (prov. Eng. chit- 
ter, to twittir, tlien to shiver), the small entrails of 
swine, from tlieir wrinkled appearance. 

chivalry, n. shlv'-ai-rl, or chlv'- (F. chevalerie—iTom. 
cheval, a liorse), tlie system of knightliood ; valour ; 
the body or order of knights : chiv'alric, a. -rlk, par- 
taking of the character of chivalry or knighthood: 
chlv alrous, a. -rUs, waiiike ; bold ; gallant : chiv'al- 
rously, ad. -11. 

chives, n. jdu. chlvz (F. cive, small onions without 
bulbs ; cheveler, to put forth a small root), small onions 
growing in tufts ; in hot., slender threads or filaments 
in flowers. 

chlamys, n. kldm'U (L. chlamys, a coat, an upper 
garment: Gr. chlanius) in hot., a covering, applied to 
the floral envelope: chlamyd'eous, a. -id'-l-us, pert. to. 

chloral, n. klo'riU (see chlorine), a liquid formed 
from chlorine and alcoliol. 

chlorine, n. klo'-rln (Gr. chloros, grass - green), a 
greenish - yellow gas possessing great power as a 
bleacher: chloric, a. klor'lk, of or from chlorine: 
chloride, n. klor'ld, a compound of chlorine with a 
metal or other elementaiy substance: chlorid'ic, a. 
-Ik, pert, to chloride : chlorite, n. klo'rlt, a soft friable 
mineral, allied in character to talc and mica, and so 
called from its greenish colour: chlorit'ic, a. -rlt'lk. 
pert, to : chloritic sand, any sand coloured green by 
chlorite, generally applied to the greensand of the 
chalk formation: chloridate, v. klor^l-dat, to treat or 
prepare with a chloride, as a plate for the purposes of 
photography : chloride of lime, a combination of lime 
and cldorine, used in bleaching and as a disinfectant : 
chlorate, n. -at, a salt of chloric acid with a base: 
chlorous, a. kio'rila, noting an acid which contains 
equal i)ai'ts of chlorine and oxygen. 

chloroform, n. kldr'o-fawrm (Gr. chloros, grass- 
green, and formyle ; L. formica, an ant), a volatile 
liquid remarkable for its property of producing insen- 
sibility to pain when inhaled by the lungs. 

chlorometer, n. klo-rdm'6-t^r (Gr. chloros, grass- 
green, and metron, a measure), an instrument for 
testing the strength of chloride of lime : chlorom'etrv, 
n. -e-trl. 

chlorophseite, n. kl6'r6fe'lt{GT. chloros, grass-green. 
And pfiaios, brown, in allusion to the change of colour 
))roaucod by exposure), a soft earthy mineral of an 
olive-green colour, changing to blackish - bro\ni : 
chlo'rophane, n. -fan (Gr. phaino, I shine), a variety 
of fluor-si>ar, exhibiting a bright -green phospho- 
rescent light when heated : chlo'rophyll, n. -fU (Gr. 
phullon, a leaf), the colouring matter in jilants, espe- 
cially in their leaves. 

chlorosis, n. klO-rO'sls (Gr. chloros, gi-oon), a disease 
of young females ; green sickness ; in liot., etiolation : 
chlorot'ic, a. -rdt'lk, pert, to or all'eiti'd with chlorosis : 
chlo'ros, -r6s, in hot., green: in comi>osition, chloro. 

choanites, n. plu. ko'a-nlts (Gr. chnane, a funnel), 
in, a genus of spongiform zoophytes occurring in 
the chalk foniiation. 

chock-full, a. chok'-fml or chuk- (Swab, schoch, a 
hf-ap ; iv^rluipiit-voll, crammed full), full up to the 
brim ; full to overflowing. 

chocolate, n. rhok'Oiat (F. chocolnt: Sp. chocolate: 
Mexirmi, rani, ill, cacao), a powder or })aste prepared 
from tlie k.Tiuls of the cacao-nut, used in making the 
beverage so i"i1I,mI. 

choice, n. rho'i/s (F. r/ioi>— from choisir, to choose), 
tlK- (I'-t'Tiiiinatioii of the mind in preferring one thing 
tuauollier; option; tliu tiling chosen; election: adj. 

mate, mat./Ar, hitu; mete, viit, 

select ; precious ; .very good, or best ; selecting with 
much care: choice'less, a.: choicely, ad. -II: choice - 
ness, n. -nes. 

choir, n. kwlr (F. c/icEMr— from L. chorus : Gr. choros, 
a dance in a ring, a company of singei-s), a band of 
singers in a church ; the place in the church where they 
sing : chorus, n. ko'rus, a number of singers singing 
together ; the part of a song repeated at the end of 
every verse : choral, a. -rdl, pert, to what can be sung 
by a choir: cho 'rally, ad. -11: cho'rist and chorister, 
n. kdr'ts-ter, one wlio sings in a choir. 

choke, V. chok (Icel. kok, the thioat ; koka, to swal- 
low : W. ceg, the throat ; cegu, to swallow), to stop tlie 
passage of the breath by filling the windpipe with 
some body, or by compressing or squeezing the throat ; 
to smother or suffocate; to obstruct or block up; to 
liinder: cho'klng, imp. : adj. suffocating: choked, pp. 
chokt: cho'ker, n. one who: choke-damp, n. the car- 
bonic acid gas of mines: choky, a. -kl, tending to 
choke: choke'-full, a.— see chock-full, which is the 
proper spelling. 

choler, n. k6l'-ir (Gr. and L. cTio/eJ-a— from Gr. kole, 
bile, and rheo, I flow), the bile, the flow of which was 
supposed to cause anger, or the redness of face in 
anger; anger; wrath ; irascibility : chol'era, n. -d, bil- 
ious vomiting and purging— the milder form of the 
"■ is called cholera-morbus : the malignant fonn 

is called Asiatic cholera : chol'era'ic, a. -a'ik, pert, to 
the disease cholera : chol'eric, a. -Ik, easily irritated ; 
irascible ; excited by anger. 

cholesterine, n. ko-lds'ter-ln (Gr. chole, bile, and 
stear, tallow or fat), a substance having the properties 
of fat, found principally in bile. 

chondrine, n. kon'-drin (Gr. chondros, cartilage or 
gristle, a grain), a substance resembling gelatine, pro- 
duced by the action of hot water on gristle : chondro- 
dite, n. kon'-dro-dlt, one of the gems, occurring in 
grains of various shades of yellow and red: chon- 
drol'ogy, n. -drol'o-jl (Gr. logos, discoui-se), a treatise 
on cartilage. 

chondrites, n. plu. kon'drlts (L. chondrus, a kind of 
sea-weed), fossil marine plants resembling the Irish 
moss of our own shores. 

choose, V. ch6z (AS. ceosan : Goth, kiitsan : Dut. 
kiesc7i), to select ; to take by preference ; to have the 
power to take ; to adopt ; to follow : chose, pt. chOz : 
choosing, imp. ch6z'-lng: choos'er, n. one who : chosen, 
pp. choz'-n. 

chop, n. chop (Scot, cliap, to strike; choppe, a 
blow; to chap hands, to strike hands: Icel. kaiip; 
Scot, ccnip, to buy and sell, to exchange), a piece cut 
or struck off; a piece of meat: v. to cut off or sepa- 
rate by the blow, or repeated blows, of a sharp instru- 
ment ; to cut into small pieces ; to mince ; to barter 
or exchange: chop'ping, imp.: chopped, pp. chopt: 
chop'per, n. an instrument for chopping ; one who : 
chop-house, n. a dining-house : chop, n. in China, a 
permit or stamp ; quality of goods ; quantity : chop- 
stick, n. a Chinese instrument for feeding. 

chop, n. cliop, chops, plu. (AS. ceaplas, the chaps or 
jaws: Wallon. chiffe, the cheek; chofe, smack on the 
chops: Gael, goh, the beak, the mouth— see chap). 
the sides of the mouth of a river or of a channel ; the 
chap or jaw: v. to vary or turn; to shift suddenly, as 
the wind chops or chops about: chop'ping, imp.: 
chopped, pp. chojit: chop-fallen, a. cast down in 
spirits ; dejected : chops, n. plu. the jaws. 

chopin, n. chop'ln (K. chnpinc; Oer. schopj^en. a 
liquid measure), in Scot., a liquid measuie containing 
a quart. 

choral, Ac— see choir. 

chord, n. knTrrd (L. chorda : Gr. chords, an intestine 
of which strings are made), the string of a musical 
instrument ; notes in liannony ; a strai^'lit line joining 
tlie two ends of the arc ol" a cin'li- : v. to string a mu- 
sical instr. : chord inc, imii.: chord'ed, pp. strung. 

chore, n. kOr. for char, wliich see. 

chorea, n. kn-yr'a (Gr. rhcyia. a dance), in med., St 
Vitus's (laii(i> : a disease attended with constant 
twitcliings of the voliuitarv muscles. 

chorepiscopal, a. ko'ri^ (Gr. choros, place. 
country, and r/iiskapos, bishop), relating to a local or 
sulliajrau bishop. 

choriambus, n. kn'rl-ani'hits {Or. ;i-orfio,'i, a trochee, 
and i(ntilii>s. an iambus), a poetic foot consisting of 
four syllables— the first and fourth long, the sei;ond 
and thiid short; a trochee and au iambus united: 
choriam bic, a. -hlk, pert. to. 

chorion, n. k-O'rlOn (Gr. chorion, skin) the extcirior 

/lA-; pVie, pin; note, JiOt, mdve; 

CHOR 87 

membrane investin- the fo-tns in tlip ^vomb; in So/.. 
:i Hiiid pulp composing the nucleus of the ovule in its 
earliest stage : cho'roid, n. -mid (Gr. eidos, form), 
a, membrane resembling the chorion— applied to a 
coat of the eye. , ^ , • , ^ 

chorisis, n. kor'-l-sls (Gr. chorizo, I separate), in hot., 
separation ot a lamina from one part of an organ so 
as to form a scale or a doubling of the organ. 

chorography, n. ko-rog'rd-fi (Gr. choros, a place or 
couiitrj', and graiihe, a writing), the description ol 

a region or country. 
chorus, n. — see choir, 
chosen ami chose— see choose, 
chough, n. (7(»i/(A.S. ceo: Dut. kamve: F. choucas), 
a kind of jackdaw or crow. 

chow-chow, n. clKrw-cluTw, a Chinese sweetmeat; 
a kind of mixed pickles. .,, , . -^ 

chowder, n. c/iow^der, fresh fish boiled with biscuit, 
pork, onions, &c.: V. to make a chowder of. 

chrism, n. krlzm (Gr. chrisma, ointment : F. chris^ne. 
consecrated oil), consecrated oil; unction: chrismal, 
kHz'-mdl, pert, to chrism : chris'matory, n. -»!<?•?« ■(, 
a vessel for chrism : chrisom, n. Ici-iz-um, a child that 
dies \rithin a month after birth : chrisma'tion, ii. 
-ma'shwi, the act of applying the chrism or conse- 
crated oil. ^ .14. 
Christ, n. kTlst (Gr. christos, used as ointment, 
anointed), the Anointed; the Messiah: christen, v. 
krls'n, to baptise and name in the name of the Father, 
Son, and Holy Spirit : christ'ening, imp. -nlng: n. the 
act of baptising and naming ; initiation into the Chris- 
tian religion : christ'ened, pp. -nd : Christendom, n. 
kris'n-ddm, the countries inhabited by those profess- 
ing to believe in the Christian religion : Christian, n. 
kHst'-yan, a true disciple of Christ ; a professed be- 
Uever in Christ : adj. pert, to Christ, his doctrines, 
or his church: Christianity, n. A-rts-rt-rm-i-tt, the re- 
ligion of Christians, its doctrines and precepts : christ- 
ianise, V. krlst-vdn-lz', to convert to Christianity: 
christ'iani'sing, imp.: christ'ianised', pp.-Tzd'.- chnst - 
ianisa'tion, n. -l-za'shun, the act of converting to 
Christ • christ'less, without the true knowledge of 
Christ : christology, n. kris-tol-o-gl {Christ, and logos, 
a discourse), a discourse or treatise on Christ : Christ- 
mas, n. ki-is'mds (Christ, and mass), the festival of 
Christ's nativity on the 25th December: Christmas 
season, from 2oth December to 6th Januarj': chnst- 
mas-box, a box in which little presents of money, 
&c., are collected at Christmas ; the present itself. 

chromatic, a. kro-vidt'lk (Gr. chroma, colour), relat- 
ing to colours : chromatic scale, n. (from the interme- 
diate notes being printed in colours), the scale in music 
that proceeds by semitones: chro'mat'ically, ad. 
-kal'l ■ chromat'ics, n. plu. -Iks, the science of colours : 
chromatography, n. kro'ma-tog'ra-fl (Gr. chronm, 
colour ; grcqjhe, writing), a treatise on colours ; the 
.art of printing in colours— also called chromo-litho- 
graphy: chrome, n. Jcrom, also chromium, n. kro- 
mi-um, one of the metals, so named from its property 
of imparting colour to others in a remarkable degree : 
chromic, arkrom'ik, of or from chrome: chromate, 
n. krd'mat, a compound of chromic acid with a base : 
Chrome-ochre, n. -o'kr, oxide of chrome of a fine yel- 
lomsh green : chromatrope, n. kr6'md-tr62) {Gr. trope, 
turn, rotation), an optical apparatus for exlubiting 
a stream of colours : chromogen, n. krdm-6-jen, also 
chrom'ide, n. -id (Gr. gennao, I produce), in hot., the 
colouring matter of plants : chrom'atom'eter, n. 
-d-tOm'e-fer (Gt. metron, measure), scale for measur- 
ing colour : chromite, n. kro'mlt, or chromate of iron, 
a mineral consisting of protoxide of iron and oxide of 
chromium, used in the preparation of various pig- 
ments. . , ■,■,,-, ,r, 

chronic, a. kron'lk, also chron'ical, a. 4kdl (Gr. 
chronikos ; F. chronique— from Gr. chronos, time, duiw 
tiou), continuing a long time, as a disease : chron icle, 
11. -kl, a history that narrates the facts in the order in 
■which they occurred as to time ; a history : v. to record 
events in the order of time; to record or register: 
chronicling, imp. -kllng: chronicled, pp. -kid. re- 
«:orded or registered : Chronicles, n. plu. two books of 
the Old Testainent: historical narratives of events: 
chronicler, n. -kUr, one who ; an historian. 

chronogram, n. kron'-o-grdm (Gr. chronos, time, and 
m-amwn. a writing), an inscription which inclu<lcs in 
it the date of an event : chron'ogrammatlc, a. -mat'-lk, 
also chronogrammatlcal, a. -i-kal: chron'ogram- 
matlcally, ad. -II ; chron'ogram'matist, a. -mu-tlst, 
a writer 


chronology, n. kro-ndl'o-jl (Gr. chronos, time or 
duration, and logos, discourse), the science that treats 
o; the dates of past events ; the method of measuring 
or computing time : chronological, a. krOn'O-lOf-l-kdl, 
also chron'ologlc, a. -Ik, containing an account of 
past events in the order of time : chron'ologlcally, 
ad. -ll: chronologist, n. krO-nol'd-jist, also chronol - 
oger, n. one who endeavours to discover the true dates 
of past events, and to arrange them in order. 

chronometer, n. kr6-n6m'-&-ter (Gr. chronos, time, and 
metron, a measure), any instrument or machine that 
measures time, as a clock or a dial ; a large watch con- 
structed with great nicety for use at sea : chronomet- 
ric, k~)-on'6-m6t'rlk, also chron'omet'rical, a. -rlkd!, 
pert, to: chronometry, n. krd-ndrn'e-trl, the art of 
measuring time, or of constructing chronometers. 

chrysalis, n. krls'-d-lls, also chrys'alid, n. (L.— from 
Gr. clirusallis, the gold-coloured sheaths of butterflies 
—from chrusos, gold), the second stage in the state of 
such insects as the butteifly, the moth, &c.: chrya'- 
aUd, a. -lid, pert, to a chrysalis. , . ,„ , 

chrysanthemum, n. krl-sdn'thS-vium (Gr. chrusos. 
gold; anthemon, a flower), a genus of composite 
plants of many species. , , ^ j, 

chrysoberyl, n. kris'-o-lSr-ll (Gr. chrusos, gold ; and 
Gr. beruUos; L. heryllus, berj'l). a gem of a yellowish 
or asparagus green colour ; a species of corundum. 

chrysocolla, n. kris'o-kol'ld (Gr. chrusos, gold, and 
kolla, glue), a mineral of a fine emerald-green colour : 
chrysolite, n. kris'o-llt (Gr. lithos, a stone), a fine 
green-coloured transparent ciystal: chrysoprase, n. 
kHs'o-pruz (Gr. 2)rason, a leek), a fine apple-green to 
leek-gieen variety of chalcedony. 

chub, n. chUb (F. chevane: mid. L. capita), & plump 
river-fish. , ,, , ^^ .a- 

chubby, a. chiib'bliAS. ceap^as, the chaps : It. cniffo, 
the snout of an animal: Dan. kia-ft, chaps), short 
and thick : chub-faced, a. -fast, having a plump round 
face : chub'biness, n. -bl-nes. 

chuck, V. chuk (F. claquer, to clack, to chatter: 
Wallon. caker, to strike in the hand, to chatter : Turk. 
chakil, a pebble), to make the noise of a hen when 
calling her chickens ; to give a slight blow under the 
chin so as to make the jaws snap ; to throw or pitch 
a short distance : n. the noise or caU of a hen as imi- 
tative of the noise of pebbles knocking together; a 
slight blow, as under the chin ; the part of a tuming- 
lathe for holding the material to be operated upon : 
chucking, imp.: chucked, pp. chUkt: Eng. chack- 
stone, Scot, chuckie-stane, a pebble. 

chuckle, V. chnk'kl (Icel. kok or quok, the throat- 
see chuck), to laugh inwardly in triumph : n, a broken 
half-suppressed laugh: chuckling, imp.: adj. a sup- 
pressed choking approaching to a laugh, expressive 
of inward satisfaction : chuckled, pp. -kid : chuckle- 
headed, a. stupid ; thickheaded ; noisy and empty. 

chum, n. chUrn (a probable contraction of comrade 
or chamber-fellow), one who lodges in the same room : 
an intimate companion. . , 

chump, n. chUmp (an imitative word expressive of 
the thick end of anything, as chunk and hump), a 
thick heavy piece of wood ; a lump. 

chunam, n. chO-ndm', in India, lime or anything 
made of it. . » ,, , 

church, n. cherch (Gr. kiiriakon, the Lord s house— 
from kurios, the Lord: AS. cyrice : Scot, kirk), an 
edifice or a building consecrated or set apart for the 
worship of God; the collective body of Christians 
throughout the world ; a certain number of Christians 
holding the same dogmas : v. to perform the office of 
returning thanks in church for women after child- 
birth • church'ing, imp. : n. attending church to offjr 
thanks, as a woman after childbirth : churched, pp. 
chercht ■ churchwarden, n. -wcir'-dn, in Eng., one who 
has the charge of a church and its concerns, and who 
represents the parish : churchyard, n. a burial-ground 
beside a church: churchman, n. an Episcopalian; 
a cler"Tman or member of an established church : 
church-music, n. music adapted for use in a church : 
church-service, religious service in a church : church- 
goer a rcnilar attender at church : church militant, 
the church as warring against every form of evil : 
church-rate, a tax levied on parishes m England for 
repairing churches, and for other matters connected 
with them. , ^^ i t ? 

churl, n. cherl (AS. ceorl, a countrj-man : Dut. kaerle, 
a man, a rustic : Ger. kerl, a fellow), a countryman ; a 
suiiv man • churlish, a. clUr'llsh. rude ; surly ; sullen ; 
rough in temper ; selfish ; said of things, unyielding ; 

cm>, bcrii.fCbt; pare, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thinn, ihere, zeal. 




cross -jrrained; hard or firm: chur'lishly, ad. -11: 
chur'lislmess, n. rudeness of manners or temper. 

chum, n. chern (Icel. kjarni; Ger. kern, the ker- 
nel, tlie choice part of a thing— whence Icel. kirna; 
Fris. kernjen, to churn), a vessel in which milk or 
cream is agitated in order to separate the butter : v. 
to shake or agitate cream in order to make butter : 
dmm'ing, imp.: n. the operation of making butter by 
agitating milk or cream, or the quantity made at one 
time : churned, pp. chernd. 

chyle, n. kll (Or. chttlog, juice or humour), in ani- 
iruils, a white or milky fluid separated from the sub- 
stances digested in the stomach, and conveyed into 
the circulation of the blood bv the vessels: 
chylifaction, n. kl-nfak'>;hrin (L. farlus. made), the 
process of making chyle from food: chylifactive, a. 
-tlv, forming or changing into chyle ; having the power 
to make chyle : chyliferous, a. -khlif-t'-r-us (L. fero, I 
airry), carrying chyle: chylif ic, a. -lif'-lk (L. fario, I 
make), making chyle, usually applied to a part of the 
digestive apparatus of insects : chylopoietic, a. kl'-l6- 
pO-et'ik (Gr. poieo, I make), making chyle— applied to 
the stomach and intestines. 

chyme,n.frlOT(Gr.c7iw7770.'!,.1uice\diffested food before 
being changed into chyle: c'hymiflcation, n. ki-nuf-l- 
kO'shiln (L. f<vlo, I make), the process of forming 
chyme: chy'mify, v. -fi, to change into chvme: chy'- 
mif3dng, imp.: chymlfled, pp. -fid: chjrmous, a. 
kl'-iiius, pert, to chyme: chymist, n. klm'-lst — SQe 

cicala, n. slka'ld (It.), an insect having a long stout 
body and wings. 

cicatrix, n. slk'dfrlks : cicatrice, n. -trls (L. cica- 
trix, a scar: F. cicatrice), the scar or seam that re- 
mains after a wound has skinned over and healed: 
cicatrise, v. -trlz, to heal a wound ; to induce a skin 
to grow over it ; to skin over : cic'atri'sing, imp. : 
clc'atrised, pp. -trlzd: cic'atrisa'tion, n. -triza'-shun, 
theprocess of healing ; the being skinned over : cic'- 
atri sive, a. ■trl'-zlx\ tending to promote the healing 
of a wound: cicatric'ula, n. -trlk'-u-ld, in bot., the 
scar left after the falling of a leaf; the hilum or base 
of the seed; in anat., the point in the ovum (egg) in 
which life first shows itself. 

cicerone, n. sls'e-ro'ni or chl'cMrohie ; plu. ciceroni 
(It. —from Cicero, the great ancient orator), one who 
explains curiosities and antiquities ; a guide : Cicer- 
onian, a. sls'er-o'nl-an, like Cicero in stvle ; eloquent : 
cicero'nianism, n. -izm, imitation of Cicero. 

cichoraceous, a. slk'-o-i-a'shus (L. cichorium, chic- 
ory i of or pert, to chicory or succory. 

cidarites, n. plu. sld'dr-Us (Gr. kiclaris, a turban), 
in geoL, a genus of the family of sea-urchins furnished 
with long curiously-ornamented spines. 

cider, n. sl'-der (F. cidre: L. sicera), the juice of 
apples fermented: ci'derkin, n. -kin, a poor liquor 
made from the refuse of apples after the juice has 
been pressed out for cider. 

ci-devant, ad. s6'-d6-v6ng' (F.), formerly ; heretofore ; 

cigar, n. sl-g&r' (Sp. cigarro, originallv a particular 
kind of tobacco : F. cigare), a small roll <>f tobacco-leaf 
for smoking : cigarette, n. slg'd-r6t', alittle cigar rolled 
in thin paper. 

cilia, n. plu. sU'-i-d (L. cilium, an evelid with the 
hairs growing on it : It. ciglio .- F. cil). the hair of the 
eyelids ; hairs on the margin of any body ; thin hair- 
like projections from an animal "membrane which 
have a quick vibratory motion— in the smaller ani- 
mals and insects only seen by the microscope : cil'lary, 
a. -l-er-t, belonging to the eyelids or cilia: cil'ia'ted, 
a. -l-a'ted, in bot., furnished or surrounded wth paral- 
lel filaments or bristles resembling the hairs of the 
eyelids : cll'iobrach'iate, a. -l-d-brak'l-af{L. hracJiiinn. 
an arm), having the arms provided with cilia: cil'io- 
grade, a. -grad (L. oradiis, a step), swimming bv tbe 
action of cilia : ciliary motion, that rapid vibratile 
motion characteristic of cilia in a st.ate of action. 

Cimbric, a. slm'hrlk, pert, to the Cimbri, an ancient 
tribe of northern Germany. 

cimeter or cjnnetar, n. slm'i'-ffr (F. cimeterrr: Sp. 
rim.larni), a short curved sword used bv the Persians 
and Turks— also spelt scimetar, scymetar. 

Cimmerian, a. si„i-mi'rl-an (L. r(;»?/)cnMw, a for- 
mer u-.iuw of the Crimea, fabled bv the ancients to 
have been continually shrouded in darkness), ex- 
tremely dark ; very obscure ; benighted. 

cimollte, n. slm-6-Ht, a |>ure white or greyish-white 
variety of clay from the island of Ciniola (now Argen- 

tiera), in the Grecian Archipelago, used as a fuller's 
earth : cimolian, a. sl-mO'-lldn, pert to. 

cinchona, n. sln-kO'nO, (after Countess of Cinchon, 
wife of a viceroy of Peru), the bark of a tree of many 
species growing in Peru, &c. , also called Peruvian bark ; 
the tree itself: cinchon'ic, a. -kOn'lk, pert, to: cin- 
chonine, n. sln'ko-nin, also cincho'nia, -kohti-d, au 
alkaloid obtained from cinchona bark : cin'chonism, 
n. -k6n-lzm, in med., a disturbed condition of the body 
caused by overdoses of cinchona or quinine. 

cincture, n. sltujk'-tur (L. cinctura, a girdle : It. cin- 
tura: F. ccinfure), a belt; a girdle; something worn 
round the body ; a car\'ed ring at the bottom and toji 
of a pillar : cinctured, a. -turd, encircled with a belt 
or ring. 

cinder, n. .thi'diriAS. sinder, dross, scum.: F. cendre ; 
It cenere; L. cineres, ashes: Ger. sinter; ic.til.sindur, 
dross of iron), any body or piece of matter thoroughly 
burnt, but not reduced to ashes— thus the refuse of a 
fire consists of ashes and cinders : cin'dery, a. -J, re- 
sembling cinders : cinder-bed, in geol., a stratum of 
the Upper Purbeck series, almost wholly composed of 

cinench3rma, n. si-nin'-kl-md (Gr. kitt^o, I move; 
engchuma, an infusion), in bot., laticiferOus tissue 
formed by anastomosing vessels. 

cinerary, a. sln'-er-er-lCL. cineres, ashes— see cinder), 
relating to ashes, applied to sepulchral urns contain- 
ing the remains of bodies reduced to cinders and 
ashes : cinereous, a. si-7ic'rl-us, also cineritions, a. 
sin'-er-tskhls, resembling ashes in colour ; grev: cine'- 
reous'ly, ad. -II. 

Cingalese, a. slng'-gd-lez, of or pert, to Ceylon. 

cinnabar, n. sin'nd-bdr (L. cinnabar is: Gr. kinna- 
6an', red lead or vermilion), the native red sulphide 
of mercmy ; the artificial cimiabar of commerce Ls 
called vermilion : cin'nabarine, a. -in, of or containing 

cinnamon, n. sln'nd-mon (dr. and. Heb. kinnamon), 
the inner bark of a tree that grows in Ceylon , Sumatra, 
Borneo, &c.: cinnam'ic, a. -7uim'lk, of or from cinna- 
mon: cinnamon-stone, a variety of lime-garnet of a 
clear cinnamon-brown tint. 

cinque, n. slnnk (F. five), a five: a word used in 
games : cinque-foil (L. folium, a leaf), a plant belong- 
ing to the genus Potentilla; in arch., an ornament; 
Cinque-Ports, n. plu., the five harboui-s or ports on 
the southern shore of England opposite France— viz., 
Hastings, Romney, Hythe, Dover, and Sandwich; 
afterwards increased by the addition of Winchelsea, 
Rye, and Seaford. 

cipher, n. si' fir (F. chiffre; It. c?//-a— from Ar. cifr, 
a dot), in arith., the round or nothing; any per- 
son or thing of little value; initials of a name "inter- 
twined; a secret manner of writing: v. to use figures : 
to practise arithmetic ; to write in concealed or secret 
characters: ciphering, imp.: n. the art. or act of com- 
puting by numbers : ci'phered, pp. -ferd. 

Circassian, a. ser-kdsh-l-dn, of or from Circassia, in 
Eur< ijie : n. a native of. 

Circean, a. ser-se'dn (L. circcciis), pert., to Circe, the 
fabled daughter of Sol and Pei-se, said ti' have first 
charmed her victims and afterwards changed them 
into beasts ; fascinating but noxious. 

circinate, a. ser'sl-ndt (L. circino, I turn round), in 
hot., rolled inwards from the summit towards the liase 
like a crosier, as the young fronds of ferns : cir'cinal, 
a. -sl-ndl, resembling a circle. 

circle, n. sir'kl (L. circithis; Icel. k-ringla, a circle: 
Gr. k-rikos, a ring : It. circolo ; F. CA>rcle), "a figtire con- 
tained by a single curved line called its circumfer- 
ence, every part of which is equally distant from a 
point within it called the centre; a ring; any rouna 
body ; the compass or circuit of anj-thing or place ; 
a sphere or station iu society; a number of persons, 
as a circle of friends ; a series ending where it begins : 
V. to move round; to encompass; to surround or en- 
close; to keep tog'Tlior: cir'cling, iiii]). : circled, pp. 
■kid: circlet, n. ,-v,;/.7,7, a little circle: great circles, 
ill ii.Hron.. tlioseeirdes wliose pl.iiies jiass through the 
eeiitre of tile si.)iere niul liiviiie it into two C(iu;Up;irts: 
lesser circles, tliose circles whose planes do not pass 
t]ivnni:li tlie centr.' of tlie snliere. and which divide it 
into une()ual )iarts: hour-circles, great circles of tho 
celestial sphere: polar circles, the arctic and antarc- 
tic circles. 

clrcu, prefix— see clrcum. 

circuit, n. s<r'kif (F. rimiif: L. cirnim, round, and 
itiim, to go), the act of moving or passing round ; the 

mate, ma(,fdr, laTv; mite, met, Mr; plne,2An; ndte, ndt, mCvct 



space enclosed by a circle ; a rinsr ; the jnnrney of the 
judges in holding courts in different parts of a coun- 
try: V. to move in a circle ; to go round : circu'itous, 
a. -kn'-l-tiis, going round in a circle; not straight or 
direct : circu'itously, ad. -II: to make a circuit, to go 
round : circular, a. -ku-ler, pert, to a circle or in the 
form of a circle ; round ; ending in itself ; addressed 
to a number or circle of persons: n. a written or 
printed letter or note sent to a number or circle of 
persons: cir'cularly, ad. -II: cir'culate, v. -lat, to 
spread or move in a circle ; to spread ; to pass from 
one place or person to another; to be ditfused : n. a 
recurring or repeating decimal or part of a decimal : 
cir cula'ting, imp. moving or passing round; repeat- 
ing; dittusing: cir'cula'ted, pp.: cir'cula'tor, n. one 
wiio: cir'cula'tion, n. -la-shun, the act of moving 
round ; a series repeated in the same order ; the act 
of going and returning ; currency of money. 

circum, ser'-kum, also circu, ser'ku (L. circum), a 
Latin prefix signifying around, round about, &c. 

circumambient, a. ser'kum-dvi'-bl-diit (L. circum, 
roundabout, and umbio, Igo round), surrounding; en- 
closing, or being on all sides, as the air about tlie earth : 
cir'cmnam'biency, n. -en-sl, the act of surrounding : 
cir'cumam'bulate, v. -am'-bu-lat (L. ambulo, I walk), 
to walk round about; -am'bula'ting, imp.: -am'bula'- 
tion, u. -la'sh an : cir'cumcise, v. -its (L. coesum, to cut), 
to cut off the foreskin, as a religious rite among the 
Jews and other Eastern nations ; to purify the heart : 
cir'cumci'sing, imp.: circumcised', pp. -slzcV: cir'- 
cumci'ser, n. one wlio : cir'cumcisi'on, n. -sleh'un, the 
act or ceremony of cutting off the foreskin among 
the Jews, &c. : circumference, n. -fer-ens (L. fero, I 
cari-y), the line that bounds a circle ; the measure of 
a circular body or a sphere round and round— the 
measure round about of any other body is called its 
perimeter: circum'feren'tial, a. -fer-en'sliM, pert, to 
the circumference : circum'feren'tor, n. -fcr-en'ter, an 
instrument used by surveyors for measuring angles: 
cir'cumflex', n. -fleks' {L.flexus, bent), a mark or char- 
acter over a vowel or syllable, combining the rising 
and falling (acute and grave) accent ; in annt., ap- 
plied to certain vessels and nerves from their course : 
V. to mark or pronounce with the circumflex : -flex'- 
ing, imp. : -flexed, pp. -Jt6kst : circum'fluent, a. -flob- 
ent (L. fliio, I flow), flowing round, as water : cir- 
cum'fluence, n. -floo-6ns, a flowing round on all sides : 
circum'fluous, a. -flob -us, flowing round: cir'cumfuse', 
V. -filz' {L.fusus, poured), to spread round, as a fluid ; 
to surround: cir'cumfu'sing, imp. : cir'cumfused', pp. 
-fuzd': cir'cumfu'sion, n. -fu'-zhun: cir'cumfu'sile, a. 
-fu'-zil {L.fusilis, fluid, liquid), capable of being poured 
or spread aroimd : cir'cumja'cent, a. -Ja'sent (h.Jarens, 
lying), Ijing round; bordering on every side : circum'- 
locu'tion, n. -lo-ku'-shun (L. locutus, spoken), the use 
of many words to express an idea, when the use of one 
word or few words, expressing the same idea, is wished 
to be avoided ; a periphrasis : cir'cumloc'utory, a. 
•lok'ii-ter-l, pert. to. 

circumnavigate, v. ser'kum-ndv'l-gM (L. circum, 
round, and navigo, I sail — from navis, a ship), to sail 
round, as the world ; to pass round by water : cir'- 
cumnav'iga'ting, imp. : cir'cumnav'iga'ted, pp. : cir'- 
cumnav'igable, a. -gcl-bl, that may be sailed round : 
cir'cumnav'iga'tion, n. -ga'-shun, the act of sailing 
round the globe : cir'cunmav'iga'tor, n. one who has 
sailed round the globe: cir'cumpo'lar, a. -po'-ldr 
(L. polus, the pole), round the pole— applied to the 
stars near the north pole : cir'cumscis'sile, a. -sis'sil 
(L. scissum, to cut), in bof., cut round in a circular 
nianner, as seed-vessels opening by a lid. 

circumscribe, v. ser'kum-skrlb' (L. circum, round 
about, and scribo, I write), to draw a line round; to 
bound ; to limit; to confine or restrict: cir'cumscri'- 
bing, imp. : cir'cumscribed', pp. -skrlbd', limited ; 
confined: cir'cumscri'bable, a. -bCi-bl: cir'ctimscrip'- 
tion, n. -skrip'shun (L. scrij^tus, written), limitation , 
in bot., the periphery or margin of a leaf: cir'cum- 
scrip'tive, a. '-tlv, limiting; defining external fonn: 
cir'cumspect, a. -spekt (L. spectum, to look, to regard), 
cautious ; prudent ; weighing well the probable con- 
sequences of an action : cir'cumspect'ly, ad. -li : cir'- 
cumspec'tion, n. -spek'shun, great caution ; attention : 
cir'cumspec'tive, a. -tlv, vigilant ; cautious : cir'cum- 
spec'tively, ad. -li : cir'ciimspect'ness, n. caution ; 

circumstance, n. ser'-kum- stdns (L. cirrum, round 
about, and titans, standing), that which affects a fnc-t 
or case in some way ; event ; incident : plu. condition 

cow, bdij.ffjvt; pure, bud; chair, 

or state of affairs ; matters attending an action that 
modify it for better or worse : v. to place in a particu- 
lar position or condition : circumstanced, pp. -stdnst, 
placed in a particular positicm as r.'.'urds another 
state: cir'cumstan'tial, a. ■stttn-.-ii,//. relating to but 
not essential ; incidental ; casual; jiaiticiilar; minute; 
in Imv, proving indirectly: circumstantially, ad. 
-shai-ll, not essentially; exactly; in cvciy cirruni- 
stance or particular : cir'cumstan'tial'ity, n. -shi-fd'- 
i-tl: cir'cumstan'tials, n. iilu. -sludz, iinidcntals : 
cir'cumstan'tiate, v. -tihl-af, to dcscriln^ exactly; to 
verify in every particular: circumstantiating, imp.: 
cir'cumstan'tia'ted, pp. 

circumvallation, n. ser'kum-vdl-la'-shun (L. cir- 
cum, round about, and vallum, an earthen wall or 
parapet set with palisades), a fortification made round 
a place by a besieging army, consisting of a wall, 
ditch, &c.: cir'cumvent', v. -v6nt' (L. ventum, to come), 
to gain advantage over another by deceit ; to outwit ; 
to cheat ; to impose on : cir'cumvent'ing, imp. : cir- 
cumvent'ed, pp. : cir'cumven'tion, n. -ven'shun, tVie 
act of gaining an advantage by fraud ; deception : cir'- 
cumven'tive, a. -iiv, deluding ; deceiving by artifice : 
cir'cumvolve', v. -volv' (L. volvo, I roll), to roll round ; 
to revolve : cir'cumvolv'ing, im]).: cir'cumvolved', pp. 
-v6lvd': circum'volution, n. -vo-lo'-shun, state of being 
rolled round ; act of. 

circus, n. str'-kils (L. circus, a circular line : Gr. 
kirkos ; It. circo ; F. cirque), a circular enclosure for 
feats of horsemanship, &c., wth seats for spectators 
rising all round in tiers, and sloping backwards. 

cirrhose, a. sir'7-oz (L. cirrus, a curl), in bot., hav- 
ing or giving oft' tendrils ; also cir'rous, a. -nJs ; cir'- 
rhus, n. -rus, a tendril or modified leaf in the form of 
a twining process— also spelt cirrus : cir'ri, n. plu. -rl, 
the curled filaments acting as feet to barnacles ; in 
bo^, tendrils: cirrif'erous,a. -rlf-er-usCL.fero, Ibear), 
producing tendrils: cirrigerous, a. sir-rlj'-er-iis (L. 
gero, Ibear), having curled locks : cir'rigrade, a. -grud 
(L. gradus, a step), moving by means of cirri. 

cirrhosis, n. slr-ro'-sis (Gr. kirrhos, tawny), in 
med., a term applied to a diseased state of the liver. 

cirriped or cirripede, n. slr'-rl-pSd; plu. cir'ripeds 
or cir'ripedes (L. cirrus, a curl, and pedes, feet), an 
animal of the class cir'riped'ia, -ped-i-d, as the bar- 
nacles, having curled jointed feet— also spelt cir'ro- 
pod, n. -ropod: cirrous, a. slr'-rus (L. cirrus, a curl), 
terminating in a curl or tendril: cirrus, n. slr'-rtit^ : 
cirro, sir'-ro, in composition, the " curl-cloud," one of 
the primary modifications of cloud: cir'ro-cum'ulus, 
n. -kum'-u-lus (L. cumulus, a mass piled up high), one 
of the intermediate modifications of cloud ; also cir'ro- 
stra'tus, n. -stra'-tus (L. stratum, the thing spread 
out, a bed). 

cisalpine, a. sis-dl'phi (L. cis, on this side, and Alpes, 
the Alps), on this side the Alps in regard to Rome ; the 
south side of the Alps. 

cissoid, n. sls'-sdiid (Gr. kisses, ivy, and eidos, form), 
a mathematical curve invented by Diodes. 

cist, n., also spelt cyst, sist (L. cista, a basket of 
wicker work: Gr. kiste: F. ciste: It. cesta), a chest or 
box; in archccoL, an anc. tomb of the Celtic period 
sisting of two rows of stone, and covered with rude 
stone slabs : cis'ted, a. inclosed in a cist. 

Cistercian, n. sls-ter'-slil-an, one of an order of 
monks established originally at Citeaux in France, 
whence the name. 

cistern, n. sls'tern (L. cisferna, a reservoir for water : 
Bohem. ciste; L. casivs, clean), an oblong or square 
box for storing water for domestic use ; a hollow place 
or pond for containing water ; a reservoir. 

citadel, n. slt'd-del (F. citadeUe: It. cittadella, a 
little town), a fortress or castle in or near a city ; a 
place for arms. 

cite, V. sit (L. cito, I put into quick motion, I call), 
to summon; to call upon to appear in a court of jus- 
tice; to quote; to repeat the words of another in 
proof; to confirm or illustrate from some authority : 
ci'ting, imp. : ci'ted, pp. : citation, n. sl-ta'shun, a 
summons into court; a quotation: citable, a. -td-bl, 
capable of being citcil: citator'y, a. -fd-ter'l, having 
power of citation : citer, n. -/'/•. one who. 

citric, a. sU'-rlk (L. rifrus. a lemon, or the tree), be- 
longing to lemons or limes : citric acid, an acid ex- 
tracted from the juice of these: cit'rine, a. -rln, like 
a citron ; lemon-coloured : citron, n. -ron, the fruit of 
the citron-tree : citrate, n. s'lf'rilt, a salt of citric acid. 

city, n. slf'-l (F. cite: L. civitas: It. citta), a corj'o- 
rate and cathedral town : adj. pert, to a city : cit'izen, 

game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




n. -zen, the native of a city ; one who enjoys the rigrhts 
and privileges pert, to a city : citizenship, n. t!ie state 
of being vested with the rights and privileges of a 

civet, n. stv'St {F. civette: It. zibetto: Pers. znhad), 
a substance taken from a gland or bag under the 
tail of the civet-cat — used as a perfume. 

civic, a. slv'-tk (L. civis, a citizen), pert, to a city or 
citizen : civ'il, a. -11, relating to the ordinary affaii-s 
and government of the people of any country, as civil 
rights and privileges, &c.; political as opposed to cri- 
minal ; intestine as opposed to foreign ; lay as dis- 
tinguished from ecclesiastical ; ordinaiy life as distin- 
guished from military ; courteous ; gentle and oblig- 
ing; affable; kind; polite: civ'iUy, ad. -li: civility, 
n. sl-vil'l-tl, politeness ; courtesy ; obliging behaviour 
in the treatment of others: civil'ian, n. -Idn, one en- 
gaged in the ordinary pureuits of life : adj. opposed to 
militarn or clerical: civilisation, n. siv'i-llza'shwi 
(also with 2 fors), state of being refined in manners: 
state of being free from tlie grossness of savage life : 
civ'Uise, v. -llz, to reclaim from barbarism ; to make 
less gross in manners: civ'ili'sing, imp.: civilised, 
pp. -lizd: civili'aer, n. one who or that which: civil 
action, any action at law not criminal : civU death, 
tlie l)eing banished or outlawed : civil law, the ecclesi- 
astical or Roman law : civil list, the whole of tlie 
sovereign's revenue in his own distinct capacity ; tlie 
expenditure of the royal houseliold: civil war, a 
■war between parties of the inhabitants of the same 

clack, V. kMk (F. claquer, to flap or clap : Icel. llak, 
a certain noise of the domestic fowl : Dut. klacken, to 
strike, to smack), to make a sharp noise suddenly ; to 
talk incessantly: n. a sharp continued noise; the 
valve of a pump-piston ; one of the valves in a loco- 
motive or other steam-engine : clack'er, n. one Mho: 
clacking, imp. : clacked, pp. klukt. 

clad, V. A;Md— see clothe. 

claim, V. klam (L. clamo, I cry out: F. clamer, to 
call: Dan. klemte, to toll: Gael, glam, to bawl), to 
seek or demand as a right ; to demand as due ; to as- 
sert ; to have a right or title to : n. a demand as of 
right ; a right or title to anj'thing ; the thing claimed : 
claim'ing, imp.: claimed, pp. klamd: claimant, n. 
-''int, one who demands anything as his right: claim- 
able, a. -dbl. 

clairvoyance, n. klar-voy'dns (F. clair, clear; L. 
clarus, and F. voir, to see; L. videre), an alleged 
power of seeing or being cognisant of anjiihing not 
present to the eyes or other of tlie senses : clairvoy'- 
ant, one who claims the power of seeing or knowing 
what is not present to the eyes or other of the senses. 

clam, n. kli'an (from clamp), tlie pecten. a shell-fish 
whose furrowed valves clamp or fit closely together. 

clam, V. kldm, (Swed. klamp, a block : Icel. klamhr, 
a lump: Dut. klompe, a clod), to clog or obstruct with 
glutinous matter ; to be moist : clam'ming, imp. : 
clammed, pp. kldmd: clam'my, a. -ml, thick; adlie- 
sive; soft and sticky: clamminess, n. state of being 
sticky; tenacity. 

clamber, v. klam'h^r ( klamniprn, to hold fast 
with the hands or claws: Dan. klamre, to clamp, to 
grasp), to climb amongst olistructions or with difii- 
culty: claml)ering, imj).: clam'bered, pp. -hf^d. 

clamour, n. kldm'&r (L. clamor, a loud noise — from 
clamo, I cry out: F. clnmeur ; Sw. klammer; Gael. 
clamras, uproar, brawl), a great noise or outcry : v. 
to complain noisily ; to talk loudly; to make impor- 
tunate demands : clamouring, imii.: clamoured, pp. 
-f'nl: clam'ourer, n. one wlio : clam'orous, a. ■6-rii.<i, 
noisy in words; boisterous: clam'orously, ad. -II: 
clam'orousness, n. ttie st;itc of being loud or noisy. 

clamp, n. kldmp (Dut. klampcn, to hook things to- 
gether: AS. clam, a bandage, a clasp: Ger. klamm, 
pinching, strait), anj-thing that fastens or binds; a 
piece of iron or other metal used to fasten a corner: 
V. to fiustcn or bind with cliimps ; to join pieces of 
board together with the grain crossing each other: 
clamp'ing, imp. : clamped, pp. klampt. 

clan, n. kldti (Gael, clnnn, children: L. clirnfr.t. 
dependrints). a family; a tribe ; a number of jiersons 
descended from one common stock under a rhiif: 
clan'ship, n. : clan'nisb, a. -nf.sTt, united by feelings 
and prejudici's jMiiiliar to el.iiis; disiiosrd to adlKrre 
closely: clan'nishly, :i(l. -11: clan nishness, u.: clans- 
man, II. oni' bcloii^'iiig to till' same rian. 

clandestine, a. kl'in-dis'Hn {L. clumlestinus. secret 
— from clam, privately: It. clandestino; F. Claudes- 

tin), secret ; hidden ; private — applied to wrong 
actions: clandestinely, ad. -li: clandes'tineness, n. 

clang, n. kUUig (L. clango, I sound: Ger. klang; 
Dut. klunk, sound: Gael, gliong, the ring of metal), 
the sharp ringing sound of metallic bodies striking 
together: v. to make a sharp ringing sound by 
striking metallic bodies together : clang'ing, imp. : 
clanged, pp. klangd : clan'gour, n. -gC-r, a sharp, ring- 
ing, or rattling sound. 

clank, n. klank (Dut. klank. sound, rumour— see 
clang), the rattling ringing sound of arnmur or of 
metallic bodies: v. to rattle and sound, as piisoners 
clank their chauis: clanking, imp.: clanked, pp. 

clap, n. kiap (an imitative word : Dan. klappre, to 
chatter, as the teeth with cold: Dut. klappen, to 
rattle), a noise made by the meeting of bodies ; a loud 
noise or a bui-st of sound, as of thunder ; a stroke with 
the open hand : v. to strike quickly together so as to 
produce a sound ; to strike gently with the palm 
of the hand; to applaud by striking the palms of 
the hands together; to drive together; to thrust 
hastily: clapping, imp.: clapped, pp. klCq^t: clap'- 
per, n. one wlio, or the thing which ; the tongue or 
striker of a bell : claptrap, n. any trick or device to 
gain apjilause: adj. not genuine: to clap on, to add 
or put on quiikly. 

Clare-obscure, n. klar-6b-skur' , also vT;tten claro- 
obscnro, n. kla'ro-6b-sk6'ro (L. clarus, clear, and ob- 
scurus, obscure), light and shade in painting; a 
design of two colours. 

claret, n. kiar'et {¥. clairet, a red wine, somewhat 
clear— from L. clarus, clear), French wine of a dark- 
red colour. 

clarify, v. klCtr'l-fl (L. clarus, clear, and facio, I 
make: F. clarifier), to make clear; to render pure and 
bright: clarifying, imp.: clar'ified, pp. -fid: clari- 
fier, n. one who ; that which makes clear : clar'ifica'- 
tion, n. -i-fl-ka'shun, the act of purifying or refining. 

clarion, n. AWr^i-onlSp. dari'?i,atrumpet: ¥. clair; 
It. rhiorn, clear), a trumpet with a narrow tube: 
clar ionet, n. -o-nGt, a wind musical instrument — also 
clar'inet, n. 

clary, n. kla'ri (probably corrupted from claret, 
referring to the red tinge of the tops), the plant mea- 
dow and wild sage. 

clash, n. kldsh (an imitative word : Dut. kletse, an 
echoing stroke : Ger. klatschen, imitative of the soinid 
produced by striking with the hand against a parti- 
tion or wall : F. glas, noise, knell : Gr. klazo, I clash, as 
arms), a noise made by striking one thing against 
another ; collision ; an opposition of interests ; contra- 
diction : V. to strike one thing against another ; to 
meet in opposition ; to interfere in interests : clash'- 
ing, imji. : adj. interfering; opposite: n. a striking 
against in bodies; opposition: clashed, pp. kklsht: 
dashingly, ad. -II. 

clasp, n. kldsp (old Eng. elapse, imitative of the 
sound of a metal fastening: Dut. gaspe, a cliisp or 
buckle), a hook for fasteniiig; a catch; an embrace 
by throwing the arms around: v. to .shut or fasten 
with a hoolc ; to catch and hold bj' twining ; to hold 
closely in the hand; to embrace closely: clasp'ing, 
imp. : clasped, pp. klaspt : clasp-knife, n. a knife 
with a folding blade: clasp'er,n. he who or that which. 

class, n. kids (L. classis; F. classe, a chiss: Icel. 
klasi ; Sw. and Dan. klase, a bunch), a rank of per- 
sons ; a number of persons in society supposed to have 

the same position in regard to means, rank, &c. 

number of students in a college, or pupils i 

engaged in the same course of study ; a distribution 

i in a school. 

into groups of creatures or things having something 
in common ; a kind or sort : v. to arrange ; to put 
into sets or ranks; to distribute into groups; clas- 
sing, imp. : classed, pp. kldst : classic, klds'-^k, or 
clas'sical, a. -si-kdl, pert, to authoi-s of the highest 
rank ; chaste ; pure ; refined : clas'sic, n. a writer of the 
first rank: a standard book: classically, nci. -/!; clas'- 
sical'ity, n. -kariti: clas'sicalness, ii.: class-fellow, 
n. one at school or college attending the same class: 
classicism, n. ■si-s'iz)ii. a v"'''t''iitioiis affe<'tation of 
till- classical cliar.acter: clas sics, n. plu. -s!A-,«, thebest 
aiic. (Jrei'k and Koinan autliois ; (;i(>ek and L,atin lit- 
erature; aiithoritifs or models of tlic first class : clas- 
sify, V. -si/i (L. clasMs, aclass, and/dCiO, I make: F. 
rlassifii-r), to arrange into groups or divisions ; to 
make into classes according to something common: 
clas'sifsring, imp. arranging in sorts or ranks : clas- 
ti&ei, pp. -fid : clas sifler, n. one who : clas'siflca'tion, 

mate, mOt./Ar, laTv; mCfe, viit, Mr; pine, pin ; nOte, n6t, m6ve; 




Ti. ■sf-fl-M'sMn, the act of arranging into classes or 
ranks : clas'sifi'able, a. -fl'-d-bl, tliat may be classilitid : 
clas'siflca'tory, a. ■kA'4tr4, 1'oriuuig the basis of clas- 

clathrate, a. kl&th'rat (L. clathri; Gr. klethra, a 
trellis or lattice), in hot., latticed like a grating: 
clathraria, n. -rd'rl-d, a genus of fossil stems, so 
called from the lattice-like arrangement of the leaf- 
scars which ornament their surface. 

clatter, ri. kl&t'ter (an imitative word : Dut. klaieren, 
to rattle), a rapid rattling noise made by hard bodies 
when brought shai-ply into contact ; a noise tumultu- 
ous and confused; rapid noisy talk; v. to make a 
rattling noise by striking hard bo<lies together ; to 
talk fast and idly; to clamour: clat'tering, imp.: 
clat'tered, pp. -terd: clat'terer, n. one who: clat'ter- 
ingly, ad. -II. 

clause, n. klcifvz (F. clause, a clause : L. clausum, 
to shut), a part shut off ; a part or member of a sen- 
tence ; an article in an agreement ; a stipulation in 
a document : clau'sular, a. -zu-lCir, consisting of or 
having clauses. 

clavate, a. kla'vM (L. clava, a club : Sans. cMa, a 
lance or club), in hot., club-shaped ; becoming gradu- 
ally thicker towards the top : cla'vated, a. knobbed ; 
set with knobs. 

clave, v.— see cleave, 

clavicle, n. kiav'l-kl (L. clavis, a key), the collar- 
bone : clavicular, a. kia-vik'-u-ldr, pert, to the collar- 
bone : claviary, n. kla'vl-er'l, in music, an inde.x of 
keys: cla'vier, n. -er, the key-board of an organ or 
piano : clavichord, n. kla'-vi-kawrd (L. chorda, a 
chord), a musical instrument like a small pianoforte. 

claw, n. klmv (Dut. klauwe, a ball or claw : old Eng. 
diver, a claw : L. clavus ; F. cloii, a nail), a sharp 
hooked nail in the foot of a cat, bird, or other ani- 
mal; the whole foot of a bird; in bat., the narrow 
base of some petals corresponding to the petiole of 
leaves : v. to tear or scratch with the nails : claw'ing, 
imp. : clawed, pp. klawd : claw'less, a. 

clay, n. kla (AS. clceg, sticky earth: Dan. klcccj, 
clunrmy, sticky: Dan. klag, mud), a tenacious, tough, 
and plastic kind of earth ; earth in general ; frailty ; 
liability to decay: v. to cover with clay; to purify 
and whiten with clay, as sugar : clay'ing, imp. : 
clayed, pp. klad: clay'ey, a. 4, abounding in clay: 
clay'ish, a. 4sh, containing clay : clay'-marl, n. -vidrl, 
a whitish chalky clay: clay'-slate, n. roofing slate: 
clay'-stone, n. an earthy felspathic rock, generally of 
a buff or reddish-brown colour. 

cla3rmore, n. kla'mor (Gael, claidheamh, a sword, 
and mor, great), the Highland broadsword. 

cleading, n. klc'-dlng (^coi., clothing), a covering for 
the cylinder of a steam-engine or for a locomotive to 
prevent the radiation of heat. 

clean, a. kUn (AS. cloene, pure : Icel. glan, shine, 
polish: Gael, and W. glan, clean, pure), free from dirt 
or any offensive matter ; not foul ; free from moral 
impurity ; pure ; neat ; dexterous or adroit : ad. 
perfectly; wholly; fully: v. to free from dirt or any 
foulness : cleaning, imp. : cleaned, pp. klend -. cleanly, 
a. klen'll, free from dirt or foul matter ; neat ; pure : 
clean'ly, ad. klcn'll: clean'ness, n. -n6s: clean'er, n. 
one who : cleanliness, n. klin'll-nes, purity ; neatness 
of dress : cleanse, v. kl6nz, to purify ; to make clean ; 
to remove dirt or any foul matter ; to purify from 
guilt: clean'sing, imp. : cleansed, pp. klenzd, made 
clean ; purified : clean'ser, n. one who : cleansable, a. 
klen'zd-bl, that may be cleaned. 

clear, a. klcr (L. clurus ; Icel. klar, clear, pure : F. 
Clair), open; free from obstruction; serene; un- 
clouded ; apparent ; evident or manifest ; distinct ; 
plain ; easy to understand ; innocent ; guiltless ; 
free: ad. clean; quite; wholly: v. to remove any ob- 
struction ; to separate any foreign or foul matter ; to 
acquit ; to vindicate; to leap over; to make gain or 
profit ; to become free from clouds ; to become fair ; 
to become disengaged : clearing, imp. : cleared, pp. 
klei-d : clear'er, n. one who or that which : clearly, 
ad. -U : clear'ness, n. : clear-sighted, a. -slt-ed, dis- 
cerning ; acute : clear-sightedness, n. : clear'ance, n. 
-dns, permission by the custom-house for a vessel to 
sail : clear'ing, n. justification or defence ; a tract of 
land prepared for cultivation ; among bankers, the 
exchange of notes and drafts ; among railway com- 
2)anies, the exchange of tickets and equitable division 
of the money received for them: clearing-house, n. 
the house where the clearing among bankers and 
railway companies is effected : clear-starch, v. to stif- 

fen with starch, and then clear by clapping \vith the 
open hands : clear-starching, imp. : clear-starched, 
pp.: clear-starcher, n. one wIki; clear-headed, a. 
having a clear unclouded intrllrct: to clear a ship, 
to procure the requisite pajicrs at tin- rusiom-house, 
and obtain permission to sail : to clear for action, in 
a ship 0/ war, to remove all encuniliranos f'iDm the 
deck previous to an engagement : to clear the land, 
among seamen, to gain the open sea: clear-story — 
see clerestory, which is the better spcilling. 

cleat, n. klet (Dut. kluit, a lump : AS. cleot, a plate, 
a clout), apiece of wood fastened on tlie yard-ann of 
a ship to keep the ropes from slipping ; a piece of wood 
to fasten anything to ; a piece of iron worn on shoes 
to render them more diurable. 

cleave, v. klev (Ger. kleben ; Dut. kleeven, to stick to, 
to fasten), to adhere to; to stick to; to be united in 
interest or affection : cleav'ing, imp.: cleaved, klcvd, 
or clave, klav, pt. did cleave : cleaved, pp. 

cleave, v. klev (Ger. klieben, to cleave— from Ger. 
kloben, a mass or bundle : Dut. kMie, a cleft), to split ; 
to part or divide by force ; to crack ; to part ; to open : 
cleav'ing, imp. : clove, klov, or cleft, kie/t, pt. did 
cleave: cloven, klov'n, cleft, kleff, or cleaved, pp. 
klevd, divided by force : cleaver, n. klc'ver, a butcher's 
chopper: cleavable, a. -d-bl, that may be split or 
parted: cleav'age, n. -tJj, that structure in many stra- 
tified rocks, sucli as clay-slate, which renders them 
capable of being split indefinitely into thin plates. 

clef, n. kief (F. clef, a key— from L. clavis, a key), in 
a piece of music, a figure placed at the beginning of 
each stave to tell its pitch, or the degree of elevation 
in which it is to be sung. 

cleft, n. kleft (from cleave, M'hich see), a crack ; a 
gap ; a crevice. 

cleg, n. Meg, the gleg or horse-fly. 

clematis, n. kl8mki-tls (Gr. klematis, a little vine- 
branch, a small twig), a genus of plants, chiefly 
climbers— also called virgin's bower. 

clement, a. klem'-6nt (L. Clemens, mild, merciful : It. 
clemente: F. clement), mild; gentle in disposition; 
kind; mercifiil; tender: clem'ency, n. -6n-sl, mild- 
ness in temper and disposition ; gentleness ; mercy ; 
disposition to forgive or to spare : clem'ently, ad. -U. 

clench, v. klensh, for clinch, which see: clench- 
bolts, in a ship, those clenched at the ends where they 
come through : clench-nails, those which will drive 
without splitting the board : to clench an argument, 
to place it in a firm and unassailable position. 

clepsydra, n. klSj/sl-drd (L.— from Gr. klepto, I 
steal, and (h)udor, water), an anc. Instrument in 
which time was measured by the gradual dropping of 
water ; a water-clock. 

clerestory, n. kler'S-stdr-i (F. cUristere; by others, 
F. clair, clear, bright, and Eng. storp, a flat), an upper 
story or row of windows in a church rising clear 
above the adjoining parts of the buildings : cler'esto'- 
rial, a. -sto'-rhal, pert. to. 

clergy, n. klcr'-ji (F. clcrgi; L. clericus; Sp. clerigo; 
It. clerico, one of the clergy— from Gr. kleros, a lot), 
the body of men set apart to conduct the service of 
God in a Christian Church ; ministers of the Estab- 
lished Church of a country : cler'gyman, n. a minis- 
ter of a Christian Church: clerical, a. klir'-l-kdl, 
pert, to the clergy or the Church— also cleric, a. -ik : 
n. a man in holy orders; a clergyman: benefit of 
clergy, an anc. privilege by which clergymen, and 
subsequently all who could read, were in certain cases 
exempted from criminal prosecutions : cler'gyable. a. 
-a-bl, applied to felonies within the benefit of clerg}^ 

clerk, n. klclrk (L. clericus, a clerk : AS. cleric, a 
clerk, a priest), one engaged to write in an office or 
keep business books ; a clergj'man ; a reader of re- 
sponses in the church-service : clerk'ship, n. the office 
of a clerk. 

clever, a. kUv'er (pro v. Dan. kleirr, clever: Scot. 
gleq, quick of perception: Gael, glac, to seize, to 
( at'ih), skilful; ingenious; smart; not dull; ready; 
cleverly, ad. -H: clev'erness, n. 

clew, n. kl6 (W. dob, a hump: L. glomus, a ball of 
twine : Dut. klouvv, a ball of yarn), a ball of thread ; 
anything that guides or direets in an intricate case 
(usually spelt clue) ; one of tlir i-orners of a sail: v. to 
truss up the sails of a ship to tlie yard : clew'ing, imp. : 
clewed, pp. kl6d: clew-lines, lines to truss up sails to 
the yards. 

click, n. klik(T>vX. klicken, to rattle; klick, a slap: 
F. climicr, to clap), a sharp sound louder than a tick 
and thinner than a clack ; a small piece of iron falling 

c6iv, boy, foot; pUre, bUd; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 



client ,7 ■;;-■? /a^' ',"'P- = clicked, pp. A/tA-<. 
t-en ,yf', ;^') v'V '•■'"''«• one whohful a patron- 

am; c:i eni;hip:'„:^''° '"^^^"y*^ ^ l^^^^^; ^ depend. 
rf^r"?/,/fV o^''-^ '''''^■'- ^''^I'f-from rliufa. to cleave- 

a. -ri^ steep, broken, and rugged ^'»-. i-ui t-y, 

cliff, m ??i?/,«)c— see clef. 
o}^'»r« *'"-^'; ,'':!^""' •■'^ cleft-which see. 

l^l^fnuJnT' ^% •^''''""'«- ^l^'Pes. tracts of 
ia 1.1. b. ciimat) thv condition of a place or country 
V^^yf^T'-^ to tlJ-i weather that pre^*^uI. ■ Tr". 'i, ,i ^ 
/fai? np^rt'^" "^'^^ climat'ic. also climafical n\ ' r ' 
tnm\?!^- J° or depending on a .liniat,-: clime, i 
to wl"'^'''"?'^-'^".'?' '^'■•'S^ion; a country: cU'ia: 
i-.'r ' " '"'» tr<'''»t'S of the different climates of the 
matoioi iP,!*" "'*1^'''F^°'',"''*^' *"'• peculiarities: cU- 
matological a. -loj-l-kai. pert, to: cli'matise, v -tiz 

cU'iatrsed;\.S.^j"r '^''''*'= cli'mati'sing, imp.! 

r .w'^-^f 'i"; ^■'^•'"^^^(Gr- fc^''«aJ^. a staircase, a ladder : 
Gi. A;i«wWer,astep).step by step; ascent; a n"ure 
01 spee.;h in which the sentences rise as it\Vere sLn 
by step upwards in intensity: climacteric nS 
(Uc-terjlk or kll-mak-ter.ik, one of the critical stens or 
periods in human life in which some "reat chan-e % 

ad^al^o cli^"L^^'i^^^•^*•^« mim'ar/coiistfeon 
aaj aibo clim acter'ical, -ter-l-kai, pert, to or con- 

3i ',mn".\V.'r"r\^ ^^""^ climacferic, the age°of 
di'llne. .".Vd old ai"'i.eS '°"'"^"*^°" ^^ supposed to 

9^-axh,y.klh,i"{UuCkiemmen, to hold ticrht to 
climb: Dan. kluwje, to cling, to crowd) to mount iin 
wards with the hands and f?et, as u^a steen hill nre" 
cipice, or tree ; to ascend with abou" of f s a pl infh v 

piu^fnorRfbirSs °"' ^^'^ = ^ ""^"^^ P'^^^ = 
■Kn^nu^^'^'"'- ^'^■'^^n'.dri.nm (Gr. klin^, a bed, 
ana am,, a man— gen. androa), in hot that mrt nf 

i-n L/ . "?■ "• -''^i-''"! Gr. anthos, a flower) 

consistency?'^ °''^"''''' ''^"''' ^ not'of a fllshy 

T),^^^f^' T ^'""-'^ '°"*- ^^w»fe«, to Clink or rivet- 
fix m^v bv%o1Z*' *° ^''^'P ''"'^^ ^^'> hand;To 

wL»ds'joS';"af s?^c^;iic^^rf^p -/^^^^^^^ 


S.?4"- °' ""*'' " "''"°'' """* '""'"• ''»" «" 

>.™l'*?' "■ ^'''■*' (I--— from Gr. kUio—ttam Ueio I cplp 
tot«,, m am. «,y,h.. the mu.e who l^lSSii,'',^. 

f ,'m»^in '^":'«"'e:.cUjioid. a. kWnoml (Or Tv o, 

loim), m rtrto^. applied to certain processes of hnri!; 

Tlllii V'iy.P^i'^rr^^r^'^^'^^toVcmch '' °^ ''°"' 


clinometer n! /;;,': ,:w,v;;'r I^/;::"''?' •• r 
aiid ,n,tron, a measure,, an ini^;!;^^;:;:]^ l^-;;!!-; 

md^e, ma^ /dr, Mv; mete, met, 

r^.pu^uae"•pSf;'•• P""'"".' associated for some dis- 

loacaf t'^ • Sf ?:,"?^ uriAa'^Vu't?:teAn?na J 
cloak n k/rj^ivk^^,^,'''?^^ °' connected with. 

c^-^^i^i^'S^^:^ ^^^■'^i^ckenu the 

cioddv^T"^' ^^ ^'i^f; a stupid f'llowlT dolt ■• 
c oddy, a. -di, consisting of clods: clodhoppor n a 

c^Tfo?\hf{'Jr'^ Tk ^" ^}^o^nrlce of two lb. per 
chaser of good" °^ *^' '•-■'^'" '° '^' ^^'^^^^^^l^ P^'" 
r/r^i°^tn ^- ^^°^ ^■9,^^- P^°^' any round biass - Scot 
nSt- anvIbiJV^ho?',^'^';, * hindrance; an impedil 
^« tn hiw^r "p^ ^'^^J hinders motion: v. to load so 
?^\, • tn I'''" S"" ™.^L^« '"-^"on ; to burden ; to embai^ 
mo L'.^i. ''?'?'''■ 'i.iffi'^ult; to adhere in a cluster or 

s4Tasho%tK.SAtol>"' ^ clo|T^v^od"en 

,^in,^P^7 ""^ L c;aM5<m?«, an inclosiire), an inclosed 
&' coS^t™v*?/.°%""'^'-^"'^= '^ Piazkrof anfn- 
i,,?)^, ,. ?■ • ^-.^o confine in a monasten' • to shut 
npin retirement : cloi'stering, imp. : cloistered nn 

ninH ?'•*■ ^'^S"^^ <^'"- ^'o""*. a Violent confused 
pact, solid or dense; concise; brief; ven'near- privitP- 

^i^Jj^A^^ '■^•'•''"'y: close-flated, a. niSly- close? 
^ani?d. a. among seamen, close to the wi'nd- dose 
2^n"«^" ^''''* ''""*«^'*: "«"'! to hand: close-- 
pac?ne"ss";1e;-?i^7^'°*'^^= ^vant of ventilation ; com- 


closet, n. kl6z'-et (dim. of r/, nn inclosure) a 
Wrtnu-n. for con.ulf.llo,,, dos«4Vtop I "lii'- 

anS'.o"va a ^Sr»,i?ass o'jiiiSK 

Atr; i^l»te,2>t«; nOte, n6t, mOve: 



into a lump or lumps — cZori is applied to earth: v. 
to turn into masses or lumps ; to coagulate or thick- 
en, as milk or bloort : clot'ting, imp. : clot'ted, pp. : 
clot'ty, a. -tl, full of clots. 

cloth, u. kloth (AS. clath, cloth: Ger. kleid; Icel. 
Jclocdi, a garment : \V. clyd, warm), any woven stuff ; 
any fabric woven from wool ; the covering of a table : 
cloths, plu. Moths, meaning different kinds : clothe, 
V. Moth, to cover with articles of dress ; to put on 
raiment ; to invest ; to sui-round ; to spread over or 
to cover: clothing, imp.: n. garments in general; 
dress: clothed or clad, pp. MoUul, Mad: clothes, n. 
plu. Mothz, garments or dress for tht^ body: bed- 
clothes, coverings of a bed : clothes-basket, n. : clothes- 
brush, n.: cloth'ier, u. -l-w-, a seller (if cloths ; a seller 
or maker of clothes; an outfitter: thecloth, a f;uniliar 
name for the clergy in general, or the clerical profes- 

cloud, n. Mmvd (old Dut. dote, a cloud— allied to 
clod, being vapours drawn into clods or separate mas- 
ses), a niEiss of visible vapour floating in the atmo- 
sphere ; a great multitude, in the sense of a diffused 
and indistinct mass : v. to obscure or darken ; to over- 
spread with clouds ; to make of a gloomy or sullen 
aspect ; to sully ; to tarnish ; to become obscure ; to 
grow cloudy: clouding, imp. : clouded, pp.: cloudy, 
a. -I, overcast; obscui-e; gloomy; dispiriting; semi- 
opaque: cloudily, ad. -it ; cloudiness, n.: cloudless, 
a. without a cloud: cloudlessly, ad. -ll: cloud-ben-y, 
11. the mountain bramble, abounding in the High- 
lands of Scotland : cloud-capt, a. extremely lofty; very 
high : cloud'-wrapt, a. -rapt, misty ; obscure : in the 
clouds, beyond the range of the eye— applied to flights 
of fancy, or to confused and obscure representations ; 
absent ; not attending to what is going on arovmd. 

clout, n. clolvt (AS. clut, a patch— primary sense, a 
blow: Dut. Motsen, to strike), a patch; a piece of 
cloth or leather to repair a hole or break ; a piece of 
cloth for cleaning or kitchen use ; a flat-headed nail : 
V. to patch ; to mend or repair by putting or sewing 
on a patch: clout'ing, imp.: clout ed, pp.: a clout on 
xhe head, a blow or stroke on the head. 
clove, V. Mov—see cleave. 

clove, n. Mov (Dut. kruyd-naegel, the nail-spice: L. 
clavus, a nail), a kind of spice, consisting of the dried 
unexpanded flowers of a tree of the myrtle tribe: 
clove gillyflower, a beautiful flower having a peculiar 
scent — also called clove-pink, carnation-pink. 

clove, n. klov (low Ger. kloven, to cleave: Dut. 
7dove, a fissure), a division of a root of garlic; in hot., 
cloves, applied to yoimg bulbs, as in the onion; a 
weight, part of the tvey, being about 8 lb. 

cloven, V. klOv'n (pp. of cleave, which see), parted ; 
divided into two parts : cloven-footed, a. having the 
foot or hoof divided into two parts, as the ox. 

clover, n. klo'ver (AS. claefer; Dut. klaver— from 
low Ger. kloven, to cleave), a conmion field-herb called 
trefoil, used for the fodder of cattle : to live in clover, 
to live in abundance : clo'vered, a. -vcrd, abounding 
in clover. 

clown, n. klmvn (Dut. kloefe, a limip, a block : Ger. 
klotz, a log; klotzig, blockish, rustic), a peasant; a 
rustic ; one who has the rough manners of one from 
the countrj' ; an ill-bred man ; one who plays the fool 
in a theatre or circus: clownish, a. like a rustic; 
coarse and ill-bred: clown'ishly, ad. -ll: clownlsh- 
ness, n. rudeness of behaviour ; awkwardness. 

cloy, V. kloy (from Eng. clog, a thick mass: F. en- 
cloyer, to choke or stop iip), to fill to loathing ; to sur- 
feit: cloying, imp.: cloyed, pp. klcTyd, filled; glutted: 
cloyless, a. 

club, n. kinb (W. cloh, a knob: Russ. kluh', a ball: 
Sw. klahh, a log: Ger. kolbe, a club), a stick with 
one end heavier than the other; a thick heavy stick 
or cudgel for beating or defence; a principal war 
weapon in ancient times, and now in barbarous coim- 
tries; a number of persons associated for some com- 
mon purpose ; the name of one of the suits of cards : 
V. to unite for some common end; to pay a share of a 
common reckoning ; to beat with a club ; to turn up 
and place together the club-ends of a number of rifles : 
clubbing, imp.: clubbed, pp. kliibd: clubbist, 
who belongs to a club or association: club-house, n. 
a place of resort for the members of a club : club-law, 
n. bi-ute force: club-foot, n. a deformed foot: club- 
footed, a. having crooked or misshapen feet: club- 
moss, n. a moss-like plant ; the Lycopodium. 

cluck, n. W«A;(an imitative word : Dut. klocken; F. 
glousser; Sp. cloquear), the call of a hen to her chick- 

ens, or the noise she makes when hatching: v. to call 
or cry as a hen does to her chickens: cluck 'ing, imp.: 
clucked, pp. klUkt. 

clue, n. kio (see clew), a key to ; a guide. 

clump, n. kli'nnp (related to club: Icel. klumbr, a 
lump: Dut. klompe; Ger. klumjien, a clod, a mass), a 
short, thick, or shapeless piece of matter ; a cluster ot 
tref'S or shrubs. 

clumsy, a. kliim'zl (low Ger. klomen; old Eng. cloin- 
Sid, stittened with cold : Icel. Mu7nsu, suffering from 
cramp), awkward and inefficient, like one benumbed 
with cold ; miskilful ; slow ; heavy ; HI made : clum'- 
sily, ad. -ll: clumsiness, n. 

clung, V. kiting— aee cling. 

clunch, n. klUnsh (from cling), any tough coarse 
clay ; soft chalk ; the clayey beds of chalk-marl. 

Cluniac, n. klO'nl-clk, one of a reformed order of 
monks of the Benedictines, so called from Clugni or 
Cluny in France. 

cluster, n. klUs'ter (Dut. klissen, to stick together ; 
Mister, a cluster), a bunch ; a number of things of the 
same kind growing or gi-ouped together, as a cluster 
of raisins, cluster of bees : v. to unite in a bunch or 
bmiches ; to collect into a flock, crowd, or close body : 
clustering, imp. : clus'tered, pp. -Krd : clus'teringly, 
ad. -li: clus'tery, a. -ter-l, gi-owingin clusters. 

clutch, n. MUchiBcot. cleik, to snatch: Swiss, W«j5e, 
claws), a firm grasp or griping with the hands l)y 
tightening the fingers ; a seizure ; a gi-asp : v. to seize 
firmly with the hand ; to gripe ; to grasp : clutch'ing, 
imp. : clutched, pp. klUcht : clutches, n. plu. claws ; 
hands, in the sense of rapacity and cruelty : in the 
clutches, in the power of, in a bad sense. 

clutter, n. kl Ht'-ter {anotheT foi-m of clatter), a noise; 
a bustle: v. to make a confused noise: clut'tering, 
imp. : clut'tered, pp. -tcrd. 

clymenia, n. Mi-me'ni-d (L. clymene, a sea-nymph), 
in c/eol, a genus of nautiloid shells. 

clypeate, a. kllp'e-at (L. clypeus, a shield), in hot., 
having the shape of a shield; also clypelform, a. 
■l-fa7vrm (L. forma, shape). 

clyster, n. klls'ter (F. clystere ; Gr. kluster— from Gr. 
kluzo, 1 wash or rinse), an injection into the bowels. 

CO, ko (L. cum ; Gr. sun, with, together : It. con), 
a fomi of the prefix con, and means, with ; together ; 
together with ; co is used before a vowel and h, as 
coalesce, cohabit, and is often separated from the 
word by a hyiihen, as co-operate, co-partner; in 
math. , CO is an abbreviation of complement, as co-lati- 
tude, co-sine, co-tangent. iV'ofe.— 'I'he prefix con as- 
sumes the various forms of co, cog, col, com, cor, 
according to the first letter of the second element of 
the compound ; but, 1, con becomes cow before b and 
p, as cowibustion, co??ipel ; 2, con is retained before J 
and V, except in co??ifort, as conflict, co?ivene ; 3, con 
is retained before t, d, q, g, and s, as co»itent, co»idole, 
cojiquest, congeal, cojisent. 

coach, n. koch (F. coucher; Dut. koetsen, to lie, to 
put to bed ; Dut. koetse, a couch, a coach), a carriage ; 
a four-wheeled vehicle: v. to travel in a coach: 
coaching, imp. : coached, pp. kocht : coach-box, n. the 
sea t on which the driver sits : coach'ful, n. -fool, enough 
to fill a coach : coachman, n. the di-iver of a coach. 

coadjutor, n. ko'ud-jO'-ter (L. con, together ; nd, to ; 
jutufi. assisted), one who helps another ; an assistant : 
co'adju'torship, n. joint assistance : co'adju'trix, n. 
fem. -ju'-triks, a female assistant. 

coadunate, a. ko-Ctd'U-nat (L. con, together, and aclu- 
nare, to unite), in hot., united at the base ; cohering. 

coagulate, v. ko-dg'n-ldt (L. and It. coagulare, to 
curdle: F. coaguler), io cnwW-; t(i ron^'oal; to change 
a fluid into a fixed mass; to tlii' k' u or turn into 
clots : coag'ula'ting, imp. : coagulated, pp. : coag- 
ula'tor, n. : coagulant, n. that wliich: coag'ula'tion, 
n. -la'shnn, the act of changing from a fluid to a fixed 
state: coagulable, a. -lu-IA, that may be thickened: 
coagulability, n. -hll'-i-tl. the capacity of being thick- 
ened or coagulated : coag'ula tive, a. -la'tlv, having 
power to coagulate: coagulum, n. -ICtm (L.), clot of 
blood ; the curd of milk ; a thickened or fixed mass of 
a liquid. 

coal, n. kol (Icel. kol ; Ger. Aro/jfe— original meaning, 
fire: Sw. kylln, to kindle), mineralised vegetable 
matter; a liard black mineral used as fuel: v. to 
take in coal for the sujiply of a steam or sailing vessel : 
coaling, imp. : n. taking in of coals, as into a steam- 
ship: coaled, pp. k6ld: coal'y, a. -i, like coal; con- 
taining conl: coal-black, a. black like coal: coal- 
field, n. a natural deposit or bed of coal in the earth: 

colv, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




coal-fish, n. a sea-fish having the upper part of the 
}ieaa and back black : coalsey, n. kOl'-zl, fry of tlie 
coal-fish : coal-heaver, n. -hev'ei; onewho carries coals, 
as into a house, cellar, or ship; a coal-porter: coal- 
mine or coal-pit, n. the place out of which coal is 
dug : coal-whipper, n. one of a sang who unloads a 
ship's cargo when it consists of cual: collier, n. kOi'- 
yir, one who digs out the coals in a inal-ndne ; a ship 
employed in carrying coals: colliery, n. 4, a place 
where coal is dug, and the niachiiK-ry employed in 
raising it to the surface: coal-measures, n. plu. 
■nidzh'obrs, in geol., the lavers or strata of stone, &c., 
between which the deposits of coul are found : to 
blow the coals, to kindle strife: to carry coals to 
Newcastle, to do something very unnecessary; to one's laliour: to haul over the coals, to call to 
account ; to censure. 

coalesce, v. ko'dlis' (L. coalescere, to grow together 
— ftorn con, and alescere, to grow up: It. coalizzare: 
F. coaliser), to unite ; to grow together ; to adhere in 
masses; to assimilate or unite as one, as nations by 
intermarriages : coalesc ing, imp. : coalesced', pp. 
■U:st' : coalesc'ent, a. -lc<'inf, growing or uniting to- 
gether: coalescence, n. -C)is, the act of growing 
together; union: coaliti'on, n. -llsh'un, a union of 
persons, parties, or statics for a common object ; a con- 
federacy or league : coalitionist, n. -1st, one who. 

coamings, n. plu. kom'-lngz, among seamen, raised 
work round the hatches of a ship to prevent water 
getting down into the hold. 

coarse, a. kOrs (a supposed corrupted form of 
"course," as in the phrase "of course," meaning ac- 
cording to the regular order of events), not refined ; 
rude ; rough ; gross ; impure ; indelicate : coarse'ly, 
ad. -11 : coarse'ness, n. 

•oast, n. kOst (L. costa, a rib, a side : It. costa ; F. 
coste, a rib, a coast), the limit or border of a country ; 
the sea-shore or land near it : v. to sail near the land 
or in sight of it ; to sail from port to port in the same 
country: coasting, imp. : coasted, pp. : the coast is 
clear, the danger is over; no impediment exists ; no 
enemies or opponents are in sight or at hand : coast'er, 
n. a vessel employed in home'-ti-ade only : coast'wise, 
ad. by or along the coast : coasting-trade, n. the trade 
carried on in ships from port to port of the same 
country : coast-guard, body of police for watching the 
sea from the coast : sea-coast, margin of land next 
the sea. 

coat, n. kot (F. cotte; It. cotta, a coat or frock), a 
man's garment worn above the waistcoat ; an upper 
garment ; an external covering ; a layer of any sub- 
stance: V. to cover or spread over, as paint on a 
wall ; to smear ; to put on a coat : coat'ing, imp. : 
n. a covering; any substance spread over another: 
coat'ed, pp. : adj. in bot., having concentric coats or 
layers: coatee, n. ko-te', a half coat; a very short 
coat : coat of arms, n. the emblazonment of armo- 
rial bearings on an escutcheon : coat of mail, n. a 
piece of ai-mour in the form of a shirt. 

coax, V. koks (old Eng. cokeff, a simpleton, a gull : 
F. cocasse, one who says or does laughable or ridiculous 
things), to wheedle or gull one into doin;; something ; 
to persuade liy fondling or flattery: coax'ing, imp.: 
coaxed, pp. kokst : coax'er, n. one who : coax'ingly, 
ad. -il. 

cob, n. kob (W. cobio, to thump ; cob. a knock), the 
top or head; anything in round lumps; a strong 
pony; a foreign coin; clay mixed with straw: v. to 
liunish: cob'bing, imp.: cobbed, pp. kobd: cob'by, 
a. -bl, stout ; brisk. 

cobalt, n. ko' batull {Ger. kobold, the goblin or demon 
of Ger. mines), a brittle metal of a reddish-grey or 
greyish-white colour, much used in the state of oxide 
to give a lilue colour to glass, and to produce enamels 
upon metals and earthenware, &e.: cobal'tic, a. -tik, 
pert, to cobalt: coTialtine, n. -tin, arsenical ore of 

cobble, V. k6b'-bl (frequentative of cob, to knock; 
Dan. kobler, to cobble), to mend by putting on a 
patch; to repair coarsely: cobbling, imp. -hniKj: 
cob'bled, pp. -bid, badly made or mended : cobbler, 
11. -bltr, one who; a mender of boots and shoes. 

cobble, n. kOb'bl (Dut. kabbelen, to beat, as water 
against a bank or on the shore), a round water-worn 
stone; a boulder; a small fishing-boat — also spelt 

cobra-de capello, n. kO'-bnt-df-kd-pSl'lO (Port, ser- 
pent of llie liotiil), till' hooded snake, highly venomous, 
inhabiting the East Indies. 

cobweb, n. kob'ivSb (Flem. kop, a spider: Fris. kop, 
a bubble), the network spread by a spider to catch its 
prey; any snare: adj. slender and feeble : cob'webbed, 
a. -wcbd, in bot., covered with loose hairs. 

coca, n. ko'-kd (Sp.), the dried leaf of a plant, having 
highly narcotic qualities, used by the Peruvians. 

cocagne or cocaigne, n. ko-kan' (F. a land of milk 
and houf y), an imaginary land of idleness, plenty, and 
plea,sur>' ; a name applied to London and its suburbs. 

cocciferous, a. kok-slf-er-us (Gr. kokkos, a berry, 
and L../. /o, I i„-ar), trees or plants that produce ber- 
ries aiv socalled. 

Cocculus Indicus, n. kdkhUils-ln'dl-kiis (L. Indian 
berry), the fruit of alarge tree, possessing narcotic and 
poisonous qualities : Coc'culus Palma'tus, -pal-md'ti'i.-<, 
the plant from which the Columba root is obtained : 
coccus or coc'cum, n. -kns (L. a berry used for dyeing), 
in bot., applied to the closed cells of plurilocular peri- 
ciirps which separate from each other when ripe : coc- 
cid'ium, n. -sid'l-ihn, in bot., a rounded conceptacle in 
algae without spores, or containing a tuft of spores : 
coccolite, n. kok'olU (Gr. lithos, a stone), in viin., a 
variety of augite : coccos'teus, n. -kos'te-iis (Gr. osteon, 
a bone), in geol., a fish of the old red sandstone, 
so termed from the berrj--like tubercles studding its 

cochineal, n. koch'l-nel (Sp. coc/tnu'^to, a wood-louse), 
a scarlet and crimson dye-stuff consisting of a mass 
of very small insects, natives of the warm countries 
of Central and S. America. 

cochlear, a. kok'-U-tr (L. a spoon), in bot., a kind of 
S'stivation in which a helmet-shaped part covers all 
the others in the bud : cochlear'iform, a. -ar'i-fauynn 
(L. forma, a shape), shaped like a spoon. 

cochleary, a. hok-le-er-l (L. cochlea, the shell of a 
snail, a screw : Gr. kochlos, a sheU-fish with a spiral 
shell), having the form of a screw ; spiral : cochleate, 
a. -at, also coch'lea'ted, a. spiral ; screw-like. 

cochliodus, n. kdk'll-6-dus (Gr. kochlia.'!, a cockle, 
and odous, a tooth), fossQ shell teeth found among 
mountain limestone, having a cockle-shell-like aspect. 

cock, n. kok (an imitation of the cry : F. cog ; Boheni. 
kokot, a cock), the male of birds, particularly of the 
domestic fowl— f em. hen; a vane in shape of a cock: 
cock'erel, n. -er-el, a young cock: cock-crowing, n. 
the early da-svn; also cock-crow, n.: cock-pit, area 
where cocks fight : cock-and-a-bull, a tedious absurd 
story: mere babble or boasting: every cock on his 
own dunghill, every one fights liest at home, or with 
his friends to back him : cock-fight, n. a battle be- 
tween game-cocks : cock-fighting, n. the act or prac- 
tice of pitting cocks against each other. 

cock, V. kok (It. coccare, to snap, to click— a -word 
imitative of a quick sudden motion in rising or start- 
ing up), to stick abruptly up ; to cause suddenly to 
project or stick up ; to set up with an air of pertness, 
as the head or hat ; to set or draw back the part of a 
gun which snaps or clicks ; to strut : n. the part of a 
gun which snaps or clicks; in a balance, the needle 
which vilaates to and fro between the cheeks; ;i 
twined or crooked spout to let out water at will: 
cocking, imp.: cocked, pp. kokt: adj. turned up at 
the sides: cockade', n. -kad' (F. cogttarde, a cap worn 
partly on the one side), a knot of ribbons stuck jauntUy 
on the hat: cockad'ed, .a. provided with a cockade: 
cock'atoo, n. -(i-^'), a parrot with a tuft of feathers 
on its head: cock'er, n. -er, a dog employed to raiso 
wild birds: cock-sure, confidently certain. 

cock, n. kok (Fin. kokko, a coniform heap, a hut: 
Dan. ki'k. a heap, a pile), a small heap of hay or reapeil 
corn: cock-loft, a room over tlu> garret; the room 
next tlie roof: cock-pit, in :i ^liip of tear, a room 
approiiriated to tlie use of tin' wounded during an 
action : cocked, a. kOkt, thrown into heaps. 

cock, n. kiik (It. cocca : Dan. kog; Icel. ktiggi, a 
small boat : Fin. ki/kka, tlie ]irow of a vessel, being 
the jiart tliat sticks tip), applied to a small boat : cock'- 
Bwain, -siran, a petty olticer who has the command 
or care of a boat^faniiliarly spelt coxen, kdk'sn. 

cockatrice, n. kOk'd-trls (Sp. cocatriz, a crocodile, 
of which it is a mere corruption), a fabulous animal ; 
a cock with a dragon's tail, s>ipi)osed to be hatched by 
a cock from a viper's egg, or from one of its own. 

cockchafer, n. kdk'rha-n'r {cork, and AS. ecu/or, a, 
beetl,'), the May-bu- or doir-beetle. 

cocker, v, kok-,-r{\)\\i. AWwYf;;, to pamper— see cock- 
ney), to paniiier; to fondleaiMl s)M)il, asa.hild: cock'- 
ering, imii.: n. fondling indulgence: cock'ered, pp. 

Pintle, mat, far, laiv; mete, mit, Itir; pine, pin; nOtc, not, mCve; 




cocket, n. kok'St (F. cachet, a seal: contr. of L. i 
Vhriise, quo quietus), an olticial seal; a written oertifl- 
oate, sealed, given by the custom-house officers to mer- 
chants to show that their merchandise has been pro- 
perly entered. 

cockle, n. kok'kl (F. coq^iiole; Pol. kakol; Gaol, cogal ; 
AS. coccel), a weed that grows among corn ; the corn- 

cockle, n. kok'kl (L. cochlea; Gr. kochlos, a snail, a 
shell-fish : F. coquille), a shell-tish ribbed or grooved on 
both sides: v. to contract into I'olds or wrinkles: 
cockled, pp. -kid. 

cockney, n. kokhil (F. cocagne, a plentiful coimtry : 
F. coqueliner, to cocker, to pamper), an anc. nickname 
for a citizen of London— now applied by way of con- 

cockroach, kok'roch (from cock), a common kind of 
beetle infesting houses and ships. 

cockscomb, n. koks'kom (from cock), the red fleshy 
substance on the head of acock; a plant: cox'comb, 
n. kOks; a fop ; a vain silly fellow. 

cocoa, 11. ko'ko (Port, coco, an ugly mask to frighten 
children, so called from the monkey-like face at the 
base of the nut), the common way of now spelling 
cacao; the nut of the cacao roasted and ground; the 
beverage made of it ; the very large nut of the cocos 

cocoon, n. ko-kon' (F. coco??— from L. concha, a shell), 
tlu> nmiid silky case in whirli the silk-worm and many 
ntln ]■ \:\r\:\- I'livcldji tlinnsclves: cocoou'ery, n. -ir-i, 
a building where silk-«(iniis are fed while preparing 
to eiiveh)p tbcinselves in cases or cocoons. 

coction, n. k<)k'shim(L. coctio, a digestion), the act 
of boiling: coc'tile, a. -til, made by baking or heat. 

cod, n. kod (Flem. kodde, a club — from its large club- 
shaped head), a weU-known flsh chiefly inhabiting the 
northern seas, and especially the sandbanks around 
Newfoundland : codling, n. a young cod : cod-liver oil, 
11. an oil obtained from the livers of the cod-fish. 

cod, n. kod (Icel. koddi, a cushion: Sw. kudde, a 
sack : W. cod, a bag), any husk or case containing the 
seeds of a plant ; a pod : codded, a. inclosed in a 
cod, as in beans and peas. 

coddle, V. kod'dl (F. cac?cZ, a starveling: "L.catidus; 
Prov. cadel, a whelp), to pamper or treat delicately; 
to parboil ; to soften by means of hot water : codling, 
n. kOd'-Ung, or cod'lin, n. -lln, an apple fit for boiling 
or baking. 

code, n. kod (L. codex, the body of a tree, a book : 
F. code: It. codice), laws collected and arranged, par- 
tit'.ularly if done by authority: codex, ko'-deks (L), 
any written document, generally an ancient one ; 
an anc. manuscript: codicil, n. kod'-l-sU, an addition 
or supplement made to a will : cod'icillary, a 
-ir-i, of the nature of a codicil : cod'ify, v. -l-fl (L. 
facio, I make), to reduce to a code or system : cod'ify'- 
ing, imp.: cod'ified, pp. -fid: codifi'er, n. -ir. or 
codist, n. ko'dlst, one who forms or reduces laws to a 
system or code: codification, n. kdd'i-fi-kd'shun, the 
act of reducing laws to a system. 

codeine, n. ko-de'in (Gr. kodeia, a poppy head), one 
of the active medicinal principles of opium. 

codger, n. koj'jer (Ger. kotzen, to spit; kotzer, a 
spitting or coughing man or woman), familiarly, a 
term of abuse for an elderly person ; a miser. 

codille, n. ko-dW (Sp. codillo), a term at ombre, sig- 
nifying that the stake is won. 
codling, n.— see cod and coddle, 
coefacient, n. kO'effls/i'-6nt (L. con, together; ex, 
out of; facio, I do or make), that which unites witli 
something else to produce the same eff'ect; in alg., 
the figure or known number or quantity put before 
the letter or letters that denote an unknown number 
or quantity, or partly known and partly unknown : 
adj. co-operating; acting to the same end: co'ef- 
flci'ency, n. -flsh'en-si: co'effici'ently,ad. -Snt-ll. 

Coehorn, n. ko'hawni (after the inventer Baron 
Coehorn), in mil., a small kind of mortar. 

coelacanthi, n. phi. se'lCt-kCin'thl (Gr. koilos, hol- 
low, and akaniha, a spine), an extensive group of 
fossil sauroid fishes. 

coeliac or celiac, a. se'll-ak (Gr. koilia, the belly), 
pert, to the intestinal canal; coeliac passion, n. a 
flux or diarrhoea of undigested food. 

coelorhynchus, n. sc'-lo-r'tn'-kiis (Gr. koilos, hollow, 

and rhungchos, a beak), a genus of fossil sword-fishes. 

coequal, a. ko-6'kwai (L. con, together, and equus, 

equal), of the same rank, dignity, or power: n. one 

who is equal to another : coe'qually, ad. -ll. 

coerce, v. kO-ers' (L. con, together, and arreo, I drive), 
to restrain by force; to compel: coer'cing, imp.: co- 
erced', pp. -irsl': coer'cer, n. -ser, one who : coer'cion, 
n. -er'shun, coniiiulsimi : coer'cible, a. -sl-bl, that may 
or ought to be re[iressi(l : coer'cive, a. -siv, liaving 
power to restrain : coer'cively, ad. -ll. 

coeternal, a. kO'-e-ttr'-nM (L. co?t, together, and 
ceternus, perpetual, everlasting), equally eternal with 
another: coe'val, a. -e'-vM (L. oevwin, an age), of tlie 
same age ; contemporaneous ; beginning to exist at 
the same time: co'exist', v. -egz-tst' (L. existo, I 
exist), to exist at the same time with another: co'- 
exist'ent, a. -int, having existence at the same time 
with another: n. that which coexists with another: 
co'exist'ence, n. -6ns : co'exten'sive, a. -ikstcn'slv 
(L. ex, and tensum, to stretch), having tlie same ex- 

coffee, n. kof'fl (Ar. kawah; F. and Sp. cafe, 
coU'ee), a plant, a native of Caffa in Arabia, now ex- 
tensively cultivated in the AV. Indies and elsewhere; 
the seeds roasted and ground, an infusion of whicli is 
drunk as a beverage: coffee-pot, n. a pot in which 
ground coft'ee is infused. 

coffer, n. kof'fer (F. coffre ; It. cofano. a chest : 
AS. cof, a receptacle— see coffin), a chest or trunk ; 
a chest for containing money ; a sijuare depres- 
sion between the modillions of a cornice, after- 
wards filled up with some ornament ; a hollow lodg- 
ment or trench across a dry moat : v. to treasure up : 
coffering, imp.: coffered, pp. -ferd: coffer-dam, n. 
a wooden inclosure formed in the bed of a river, con- 
sisting of an outer and inner case, with clay packed in 
between them to exclude the water, used in laying 
foundations for the building of piei-s, &c. 

coffin, n. kof'-ftn (It. cofano, a chest: Gr. koiMnos; 
L. cophinus, a basket : F. cofin), the chest or box in 
which a dead human body is inclosed previous to 
burial; th e conical paper-bag used i)y grocers ; the hol- 
low part of a horse's hoof ; the wooden frame surround- 
ing the imposing-stone of printers: v. to Inclose in a 
coffin: coffining, imp.: coffined, pp. -find: coffin- 
less, a. without a coffin. 

cog, kog, prefix— see co. 

cog, n. kog (Ir. Gael, gogach, nodding, reeling : Sw. 
kugge, a prominence in an indented wheel : It. cocca, a 
notch), the tooth on the rim of a wheel ; a piece of 
deceit ; a trick : v. to furnish with cogs ; to obtain by 
flattering or wheedling; to wheedle ; to cheat: cog'- 
ging, imp.: cogged, pp. kogd: cog-wheel, n. a wheel 
with teeth on the rim: to cog dice, to load them so 
that they shall fall in a particular direction. 

cog, n. kog (W. cicch, a kind of boat), a wooden 
vessel of a circular form for containing milk, broth, 
&c. ; a little boat. 

cogent, a. ko'jSnt (L. cogens, driving together— from 
con, together, and ago, I drive), urgent; pressing on 
the mind; not easily resisted; convincing: co'gently, 
ad. -ll : co'gency, n. -jen-sl, force or pressure on the 
mind; urgency. 

cogitate, v. kof-l-fat (L. cogitation, to think, to muse 
—from con, and agifo, I put in motion : It. caqitare'^, 
to think; to meditate: cog'ita'ting, imp.: cbg'ita'- 
ted, pp.: cog'itable, a. -tCi-hl, capable of being con- 
ceived, as a thought: cog'ita'tion, n. -ta-shnn, a(.'t 
of thinking: cogitative, a. -tlv, given to musing or 

cognac, n. kOn'ydk (after a town in France, where 
made), the best kind of French brandy— sometimes 
spelt cog'niac. 

cognate, a. Mg'nat (L. cognatus, connected by 
birth— from con, together, and ncUus, born: It. cog- 
nato: F. cognat), related or allied by blood; proceed- 
ing from the same stock or family; having relation 
to; allied : n. a male relation through the mother: 
cogna'tion, n. -na'simn, descent from the same origin ; 

cognition, n. kdg-nish'un (L. cognitio, knowledge— 
from con, together, and Jiosco, I know: It. cognizione: 
F. cognition), knowledge from experience or inspec- 
tion : cognisable, a. kog'nl-zdbl, or /fci?i'-, thatmay be 
heard, tried, and determined, as by a judge ; that falls 
or may fall under notice or observation : cognisably, 
ad. -hll: cognisance, n. kog'-ni-zAns, or kon'-, judicial 
notice or knowledge ; jurisdiction or right to try ; 
perception ; observation ; knowledge by recollection : 
cognisant, a. kog'-nlzdnt, or kon'-, having knowledge 
of : cognisee, n. kOg'nl-ze, or kon'-, in law, one to whom 
a fine of land is acknowledged : cognisor, n. kog'-nlzOr, 
or kon'-, one who acknowledges the right of the cog- 

coiv, loll, foot; pare, hUd; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




nisee in a fine ; the defendant. A''o<e.— The preceding 
words are sometimes spelt with 2. 

cognomen, n. kog-nO'-men (L. cognomen, a surname 
— t'loui con. together, and novven, a name), a surname : 
cognom inal, a. -nom'-l-ndl, pert, to the surname. 

cognosce, v. kCg-nos'Cij. cognoscere, to examine, to in- 
vestigate— from con, together, and nn.^reri', to know: 
It. cognoscere), in Scotch law, to iiuiuiif into ;i mutter ; 
to investigate into the facts of a case- : cognoscing, 
imp.: cognosced', pp. -nost': cognoscible, a. -l-hl, 
capable of beiiiL' known or madi; the object of know- 
ledge: cognosc'ibil'ity, n. -bU'-l-tl, quality of being 

cognoscenti, n. plu. kog'jrd.^-^Sn'fl or kO'nosh-nMn'-n 
(It.), persons possessing a knowledge of the essential 
beauties of works of art. 

cognovit, n. kog-no'-vlt (L. he has acknowledged), in 
law, an acknowledgment of the plaintiff's claim by 
the defendant, autiiorising thereby judgment and 
execution ai;ainst liimself. 

cohabit, v. kohah'it (L. con, together, and haMto, 
I dwell), to live together as husl)and and wife, usually 
aiiiilie.ito a w.ui ;iiiil woman without marriage: co- 
habiting, imp.: n. the act 01 dwelling together: 
cohabited, pp. : cohabitation, n. -ta'shun. 

coheir, n. kOar' (L. com, together, and hares, an 
hein. one who inherits along with another. 

cohere, v. ko-her' (L. cohcerere, to be connected— 
from con, together, and hccreo, I stick or cleave ; 
hiesum, to stick), to stick together; to be well lon- 
iiected; to dejiend on; to agree or suit: cohering, 
imp.: cohered', pp. -herd': coherent, a. -he-rent, 
sticking together; related in some form or order; 
consistent; having a due agreement of parts : cohe'- 
rently, ad. -ll: coherence, n. -reus, or coherency, 
n. -rUn-sl, union of parts of the same body ; the 
uniting of two bodies by attraction ; consistency : 
cohesion, n. -hc'-zhiln (F. cohesion), the act of sticking 
together; that power of attraction which unites the 
particles of matter and preserves the forms of l)odies : 
cohesive, a. -zlv, that has the power of sticking: 
cohesively, ad. -II: cohe'siveness, n. the quality of 
being '.Mliesive or sticking together. 

cohort, n. ko'-hort (L. cohors, a place inclosed, a com- 
pany of soldiers— gen. cohortis: It. corte: F. cour), 
among the anc. Rom., a body of soldiers varj-ing 
from 420 to 60U ; a body of soldiers. 

coif, n. koy_f (F. coiffe, a hood or cap: It. cuffia: 
mod. Gr. skouphia ; Ar. kufiyah, a head-kerchief), a caul 
or cap ; a cap to cover a baldness ; the distinguishing 
badge of a serjeant-at-law: v. to cover or dress with 
a coif: coifing, imp.: coifed, pp. koyft: coiffure, n. 
koiifoor, a head-dress. 

coil, n. koyl (It. cogliere; Sp. coger; L. coUigere, to 
gather), a rope gathered into a circular heap : v. to 
gather or wind into a circular heap, as a rope or ser- 
pent : coil ing, imp. : coiled, pp. koT/ld. 

coin, n. ko'tin (L. cuneus, a wedge, the steel die with 
which money is stamped, probably from the stamp- 
ing having once been effected by a wedge : Sp. cuna, 
a wedge; ciuio, a die for coining: F. coin, a wedge, 
a die), a piece of gold, silver, or copper stamped ; 
money : v. to make money of metal ; to make, as to 
coin a word; to forge or fabricate: coin'ing, imp. : 
n. the act of making money out of a metal : coined, pp. 
kiynd: adj. stamped as coin: coin'er, n. one who ; a 
maker of base money : coin'age, n. -aj, the money 
coined ; the metallic currency ; new production ; in- 

coincide, v. kO'in-sld' (L. co, and incidere, to fall 
into— from in, in or on, and ciuId, I fiiU : F. mivrid, r], 
to fall or meet in the same point; to concur orairree: 
coinciding, imp.: co'incided, pp.: coincider, n. 
one who: coincident, a. -sl-dent, falling on or meet- 
ing at the same point; concurrent; iigreeable to: 
coincidence, n. -si-dins, the falling on or meeting of 
two or more lines, surfaces, or bodies at tlie same 
point; concurrence; a;rreement; a happening at the 
same time: coin'cidently, ad. -li. 

coir, n. kw.i,ir ( l.nnil, cuyer, a rope of any kind), 
cocoa-nut fibre lor ropes or matting. 

coit, /,•/;,//— see quoit. 

coition, n. ku-i</i'Ha (L. coitio, a coming or meet- 
ing to;;etber— ;.'eii. c((i7(()»i,s'— from con, and itnm, to 
go), a ^'oing or ( iiiiiiiig lo-ether; sexual intercou)-se. 

coke, n. kok (old Km,', culke, tlie core of an api)le, tlie 
remnant of a tiling wlien the virtue is taken out of it: 
(luel. rnnch, eiuntN ), coal charred or halt burnt in kilns 
or ovens— sec cnarcoal: v. to c)iar or half burn: co'- 

king, imp.: coked, pp. kokt: coke-oven, n. a building 
of brick or clay in which coals are charred or made 
into coke. 

col, kol, one of the forms of the prefix con, which 

colander, n. kul'-dn-dcr (L. colans, stmining or filter- 
ing), a vessel of tin or earthenware with a perforated 
bottom ; a sieve : also spelt cullender. 

colchicum, n. koi-chl-kian (L.), a plant called mea- 
dow-saffron, whose seeds and uiuleiground stem are 
used in medicine: corchicine, n. -.-^in, also col'chica, 
-kd, a peculiar principle obtained from colchicum. 

colcothar, n. kol'-ko-thir (new L.), the brown-red 
peroxide of iron, produced liy calcining sulphate of 
iron, used for polishing glass, &c. 

cold, a. kold (Goth, kalds, cold: Icel. kala. to blow- 
cold : Ger. kali, cool), not warati or liot ; frigid ; indif- 
ferent ; without zeal ; without affection ; wantuig in 
animation : n. the sensation or feeling produced by 
the want or loss of heat ; a disease contracted from 
improper exposure of the person to atmospheric 
changes; a shivering or chilliness: colded, pp. a. 
kold'-ed, affected with cold : coldish, a. -Uh, some- 
Avhat cold: coldly, ad. -U, with indifference; not 
warmly: coldness, n. : cold-shoulder, n. neglect: 
cold-blooded, a. without feeling or concern; in zool., 
applied to all animals below the class of birds: cold- 
hearted, a. wanting feeling or passion. 

cole, n. kol(X^. caivl; Dan. kaul, cole— fromL. caulis, 
the stem of a plant), the cabbage kind in general : 
cole-wort, -wu7-t (AS. wyrt, root, plant), young cab- 

eoleoptera, n. kol'-c-dp'-ter-d (Gr. koleos. a sheath, 
axidpteron, a wing), a class of insects havhig an out- 
side horny covering or sheath, as among the beetles : 
col'eop'teral, a. pert, to: also coleopterous, a. -ns: 
col'eorhi'za, n. -orl'-za (Gr. rhiza, a root), ilie sheath 
which covers the yotmg rootlets of monocotyledonous 

colic, n. kdUlk (L. colirus; Gr. kolikos, pert, to the 
colic— from Gr. kolon, the largest of the intestines), a 
severe pain in the stomach or bowels : adj. atfecting 
the bowels : colicky, a. kol'-i-kl, pert. to. 

Colisetun, n. kol'-i-se'-iim, also Col'osse'tun, koV-os- 
(L. colosseiis, of a gigantic size), the amphitheatre of 
the Emperor Vespasian at Rome ; a large building for 

collaborator, n. kdl-Mb'-d-ra'-ter (F. coUahorateur 
—from L. con, together, and lahornre, to labour), 
one who assists in labour, usually literaiy or scien- 
tific; frequently used in the F. form, collab'orateur', 

collapse, n. kdl-ldps' (L. collapsvs, fallen in ruins— 
from con, together, and lapsus, fallen), a falling in or 
together; extreme depression of the bodily energies : 
V. to fall inwards or together; to close l>y falling to- 
gether: collapsing, imp.: collapsed', pi>. -lopst'. 

collar, n. kol'-ler (L. colhun, the neck: It. coUo)^ 
something worn round the neck ; that part of the 
harness which goes round the neck of a horse or other 
animal used as a beast of burden; in arch., a ring: 
V. to catch hold of one by anything round the neck ; 
to roll up flesh meat and bind it with cord : col laring, 
imp.: collared, pp. -krd: adj. seized liy the collar; 
rolled together, as beef or pork: collar-bone, n. bone 
on each side of the neck ; the clavicle. 

collate, V. kol-ldf (L. collatus, brought or carried 
tofjether— from con, and iof us, carried), to bring or lay 
toni-tlier tor the purpose of comparison; to bring to- 
gether anil co]Mi>are MSS. or books ; to liestow a bene- 
fice on a cleri;viii;in ; to <r;ither and jilaie in order; to 
place in a lieiii-fice, said of a bishop: collating, imp. : 
collated, v\>.-. collator, n. one wiio: colla'table, a. 
-ta-U: collation, n. -Ki-.^hnn. the comiiariiig of MSS. 
or books witli otliei-.s of the same kind for correction 
of errors, Ac; presentation to a lieiietice by a bishop ; 
a repast between full meals : colla tive, a. -hl'-tlv, pert, 
to an advow son ; alile to confer or bestow : collat'eral, 
a. -U'lt'-'r-al, side by side, or on the side; running 
jiarallel ; hajijieiiing or coming together in connection 
witli an event, as cnUulcral circiinistanrcs : in addi- 
tion to, (>ro\-er and aliove: not direct or immediate; 
desceiiih'd fi-om a coirinion aiio-stor or sti>ck — iipposed 
to li)i>(il : coUat erally, ad. -/) .- collat'eralness, n. 

colleague, 11. l.olUa {].. mlhiKi. a pirtner in ottice; 
Ii-el. Iiiii, soci(-ty: It.' col/,;jii : F. roW (/»<■). a partner or 
assoc-i.i'ti- in the sniiie oilice or emiilo.vment— never 
nseil o: jianners in trade or manufactures: v. kOl-leg', 
to join or unite with in the same ollicc or for the same 

mdtc, mdt,far, luTv; mCtc, mit, hCr; plne,j)\n; note, nOt, mOve; 




purpose : colleagu'ing, imp. : coUeagued', pp. -legd': 

*'°cV>U*ct!n"A-6"i«fc« (L. collecta, a contribution ; col- 
Tectum, to gatlier together— from con, together, and 
lertum, to gather, to select), a short prayer adapted 
for a particular occasion: v. kol-iekt', to gather sepa- 
rate persons or things into one body or place ; to as- 
semble or bring together ; to gain by observation or 
research ; to infer as a consequence ; to recover Irom 
surprise: coUec ting, imp. : collec'ted.pp.: adj. cool; 
self-possessed : coUec'tible, a. -IS/c'tl-bl, that may be 
gathered : coUec'tion, n. -shiln, the act of gathering ; 
an assemblage or crowd; a contribution; a sum 
gathered for a charitable purpose ; a book ot extracts ; 
a selection of works in painting or sculpture not large 
enough to form a gallery ; a selection of prints with- 
out regard to number: coUec'tedly, ad. -II: collec- 
tedness, n. a composed state of mind ; recovery Irom 
surprise: coUective, a. -tiv, gathered into a mass, 
sum, or body; aggregate; expressing a number or 
multitude united as one: coUec'tively, ad. -'i- col- 
lec'tiveness, n. : coUec'tor, n. -Uk'ter, one who collects 
or gathers : coUec'torship, n. the office ; also coUec - 
torate. n. -at: to coUect one's self, to recover Iroin 
sui-prise or embarrassment. .^ j , 

college, n. kol'lej (L. collegium, persons united by 
the same calling— from con, together, and lego, I 
choose: It. collegia: F. college), an assemblage or so- 
ciety of men possessing certain powers and rights, and 
engaged in some common employment or pursuit ; a 
number of persons engaged in literai-y studies ; the 
building where they meet or reside ; a university : 
colle'gian, n. -le'ji-dn, a member of, or student m, a 
college: coUe'giate, a. -at, containing a college; in- 
stituted after the manner of a college: collegiate 
church, a church built and endowed for a corporate 
body, having dean, canons, prebends, &c., like a cath- 
edral, but not a bishop's see ; in Scotland, a church 
with two ministers of equal rank. , „ , , 

coUenchyma, n. kol-len'kl-ma (Gr. kolla, glue, and 
engclmma, a tissue), in hot., the substance lying be- 
tween and uniting cells. , ^ „ 

coUet, u. kOl'let (F. collet, a collar— from L. collum, 
the neck), the part of a ring in which a precious stone 
is set ; the neck or part of a plant that lies between 
the root and stem. , ^ „ , . 

colletic. a. kol-lct'lk (Gr. kolletikos; L. colleticus, 
sticking— from Gr. kolla, glue), having the property 

** coiude,' V. kol-niV (L. coUidere, to dash together— 
from con, together, and Icedere, to strike forcibly: It. 
collidere), to strike or dash against ea^th other : col- 
li'ding, imp. : collided, pp. : colUsion, n. koUlzh-un, 
which see. , . , 

collier, n. kol'yer (from coal, which see). 
colligate, v. kol'll-gat (L. roUigatus, boimd together 
—from C071, together, and ligo, I bind), to bind or tie 
together : colTiga'ting, imp. : colligated, pp. : col U- 
ga'tion, n. -ga'shun, act of binding together ; that pro- 
cess in inductive philosophy by which a certain num- 
ber of facts are brought together for generalisation. 

coUimation.n. kol'll-ma-shunCL. collinearctoiirect 
in a straight line— from con, together, and Unm, a line : 
F collimation), the line of sight in the direction of any 
object; in the telescope, the line of sight passing 
thiough the centre of the object-glass and the centre 
of the cross-wires placed in the focus: collimator, 
n. an instrument for detennining the zenith-point. 

collision, n. kol-llzh'un (L. collimm, to dash to- 
gether—see coUide), the act of striking together of two 
hard bodies ; opposition ; interference. 

collocate, v. kol'lo-kdt (L. collocatum, to put or set 
in a place— from con, together, and loco, I set or place : 
It. collocare: F. colloquer), to set or place; to station: 
col locating, imp. : collocated, pp. : collocation, n. 
■ka'-iihun, the act of placing. 

collodion, n. kol-lo'dlon (Gr. kolla. glue, and eidos, 
resemblance), a solution of gun-cotton in ether : col'- 
loid, n. -loiid, in chem., an inorganic compound hav- 
ing a gelatinous appearance: adj. resembling glue 
or jelly. 

collop, n. kol'-ldp (Dut. klop ; It. colpo, a blow : a 
lump representing the sound of a blow on a flat sur- 
face: Siot. blad, a lump), a .small slice of meat: 
mince-coUops, n. plu. meat cut into very small 

colloquial, a. kol-lO'ku'l-ai (L. colloajihtm, a conver- 
sation, a discourse— from con, together, and loquor, I 
F. colloque), pert, to ordinary 

speak: It. colloquio 

coiv, toy, f (Hit; pure, Md; chair, game, jog, shun, tbing,.Giere 

conversation: coUo'quial'ly, ad. -U: colloquialism, 
n. -to/i, aformol expression in common ase: col lo- 
quist, n. kvi-l6-kivlst, a speaker in a dialogue : col lo- 
quy n -kivl, conversation between two or more ; a 
coulerence ; dialogue: collo'quialise', v. -dliz', to ren- 
der colloquial. . _^ ^ 

coUude, V. kdl-l6d' (L. colludere, to play or sport to- 
gether—from con, together, and ludere, to play, to 
mock: It. colludere: F. colluder). to play into each 
other's hands ; to conspire in a fraud ; to act in con- 
cert : collu'ding, imp. : coUu'ded, pp. : coUu'der, n. 
one who: collu'sion, n. -lO'zhun (L. cvllusum, to sport 
or play together), a secret agreement between two or 
more persons for some evil purpose, as to defraud any 
one: collu'sive, a. -zlv, deceitful; fraudulent: coUu- 
Eively, ad. -ll, in a manner to defraud secretly : collu- 
siveness, n. : coUu'sory, a. -zer-l, carrying on fraud 
by secret agreement. , . , ^. 

collum, n. kOl'liim (L. the neck), in hot., the part 
where the stem and root join, and termed the neck 

colocynth, n. kdl'dslnth (Gr. kolokunthis, the wild 
or purging gourd), the bitter apple of the druggists ; 
the fruit of a plant common in many districts ot Asia 
and Europe : colocyn'thine, n. -thin, the active medi- 
cinal principle of colocynth. „ , , , x, • 

cololites, n. plu. kol-o-llts (Gr. kolon, one of the in- 
testines, and lithos, a stone), in geoL, a name given to 
certain intestinal-Uke masses and impressions. 

colon, n. ko'lon (L. colon ; Gr. kolon, the largest or 
the intestines, a member: It. and F. colon), the 
largest of the intestines ; in writing or printing, the 
mark (:) chiefly used to separate the perfect clauses of a 
sentence, and which indicates a longer pause than a 
semi-colon (;), but a shorter one than a period (.). 

colonel, n. Mr-nil (F. colonel: It. colonnello: for- 
merly coronel— from L. corona, a crown), the chief 
officer of a regiment: lieutenant-colonel, the second 
officer in a regiment : col'onelcy, n. -st, or col onel- 
ship n. -sMp, the rank or commission of a colonel. 

colonnade, n. kdl'o-nacV (F.— from F. colonne ; h. 
columna, a column: It. colonnata), a series or range of 
columns placed at certain intervals. 

colony, n. kdl'o-nl (L. colonia, an abode or dwelling : 
It colonia: F. colonie), a body of persons sent out 
from their native country to a distant district, or a 
new country, in order to settle and cultivate it ; the 
country thus settled or planted: colonial, a. ko-lO- 
ni-al pert, to a colony: colonist, n. kdl'6-nlst, an in- 
habitant of a colony: col'onise, v. -nlz, to settle or 
plant a colony in ; to remove and settle in a countiy : 
col'oni'sing, imp. : col'onised', pp. -nlzd': col'onisa'- 
tion, n. -m-zd'shan, the act of planting with inhabi- 

' colophon, n. kol'd-fon (Gr. kolophon, summit, finish- 
inc'-stroke), the device which formerly marked the 
conclusion of a book, and which contained the place 
and year of its publication. 

colophony, n. kol'd-fon-l (first brought from Colo- 
phon in Ionia: Gr. kolophonia), a dark-coloured resin 
obtained from turpentine. 

Colosseum, n. kdl'os-se'-um, same as coliseum, which 

colossus, n. koWs'sus (L. colossiis; Gr. kolossos, a 
gigantic statue at Rhodes at the entrance of the port : 
It. colosso: F. coZosse), a statue of gigantic size: colos'- 
sal, a. very large ; gigantic : colossean, a. c6l'6s-se-dn, 
gigantic. „ , ,. 

colour, n. M^er (L. color, colour: F. couleur: It. 
colore), the hue or appearance that a body presents to 
the eye ; dye or tinge ; anything used to give or im- 
part colour to a body; a paint; appearance to the 
mind; false show : plu. a flag, standard, or ensign: v. 
to alter or change the outward appearance of any body 
or substance; to tinge; to dye: to give a specious 
appearance to ; to make plausible ; to blush : col cur- 
ing, imp. : n. the art of dyeing ; a specious appearance ; 
the manner of applying colours: coloured, pp. -frd: 
adj shewing colour; of African descent : coloureror 
colourist, n. one who: col'ourable, a. -dhl, specious; 
plausible: col'ourably, ad. -hll: corourless, a. desti- 
tute of colour; transparent: water-colours, colours 
mixed with gum-water or a size, and not with oil: 
colourman, one who prepares and sells colours : col- 
our-blindness, a disease or defect in the eyes through 
which individuals are unable to distinguish colours. 

colportage, n. kOl'-pOr-tdj, also -tazh (F.— from L. 
collum, the neck, and portare. to carry), the trade of 
a hawker ; the system of distribution by colporteurs : 


col'portctir'.n. -<<■)•'(?.). ahawkcror pedlar; inFrance, 
a hawker of liooks and pamphlets ; one who travels 
about to distribute and sell religious books. 

colt, n. kolt (Sw. kult, a young boar, a stout boy), a 
young horse, usually limited to the male ; a young 
foolish fellow: colt'ish, a. -Ish, frisky: colt'ishly, ad. 
-II : colt's-foot, a medicinal herb. 

colter or coulter, n. kOl'ter or kffoV-ier (L. ciMer, a 
knife, the cutting part: akin to Sans. A-n7. to split : 
It. coltro: old F. coulire), the iron part in front of a 
plough with an edge that cuts the earth or sod. 

colabrine, a. kdl'u-brUt (L. coluber, a serpent or 
adder: It. colnb)-o), relating to serpents; cunning. 

Columbian, a. kO-Wm'bi-an (from Columbus, the 
discoverer of Anier.), pert, to the U.S. or to Ameri(ua: 
columljite, n. -bU, a mineral of a greyish or brownish- 
lilack colour occurring in single crystals and in small 
crystalline masses, first discovered in Amer. : colum'- 
bic, a. -6a-, pert, to or produced from the metal co- 
iTXinTjium, -bl-uin: colum'bate, n. -bat, a salt of co- 
lumbic acid. 

columbine, a. kol'um-bln (L. columba, a dove), pert. 
to a pigeon or dove ; dove colour : n. name of a plant ; 
the heroine in a pantomime, mistress of harlequin : 
corumbar'y> i- -ber'-l, a pigeon-house. 

column, n. kdl'uin (L. columna, a rovmd pillar: It. 
colonna : F. colonm), a pillar or shaft used to adorn or 
support a building; any body pressing downwards 
perpendicularly on its base and of the same diameter 
a.s the biise, as a column of water, air, or mercurj' ; a 
body of troops drawn up in deep files ; a division of the 
page of a book ; a perpendicular line of figures ; in 
hot., the solid body formed by the union of the styles 
and filaments in some plants : col'imiella, n. -el'ld, in 
bot., the central axis round Avhich the carpels of some 
fruits are arranged ; tlie central column in the spor- 
angia of mosses : columnar, a. ko-lum'ner, formed in 
columns :n. the centralpUlar round whicha spiral shell 
is wound ; in anat., the central part of the cochlea of 
the ear: corunmed, a. -umd, adorned or provided 
with columns. 

colures, n. plu. k6-l6rs' (Gr. kolouros, dock-tailed— 
from koloiiein, to cut, and oura, the tail), in a^fron., 
the two circles whic-h pass through the four cardinal 
pomts of the ecliptic— the equinoctial and solstitial 

colza, n. kdVza (F. colza, wild cabbage— from cole, 
which see), a variety of cabbage or rape whose seeds 
yield an oil, called colza-oil. 
com-, koni; prefix, another form of con, which see. 
coma, n. kO'-mO, (Gr. kom-a, a deep sleep), lethargy ; 
a dozing; a kind of stupor or propensity to sleep in 
certain diseases: comatose, a. kom'd-fdz', also com'- 
atous, a. -tus, excessively drowsy; dozing ^vithout 
natural sleep ; lethargic. 

coma, n. ko'md (Gr. korne, a head of hair), the stem 
of a plant terminating in a tuft or bush ; the haiiy 
appearance tliat surrounds a comet : co'mate, a. -mat, 
hairy ; of a bushy appearance. 

comb, n. kom (Icel. kambr; Ger. kamm), an instru- 
ment -vvith teeth for arranging or cleansing the hair, 
also for preparing and cleaning wool or flax : the crest 
of a cock; the top or crest of a wave: v. to adjust, 
arrange, or clean with a comb : comb'ing, imp. : 
combed, pp. komd : comb'er, n. one who dresses wool ; 
among seamen, the crest of a wave, breaking with a 
wliite fo;im : comb less, a. wanting a comb or a crest: 
combmaker, n. one who makes combs. 

comb, n. k6m (AS. comb; W. cinn, a hollow, a val- 
ley), the collective mass of cells in which bees store 
their honey: comb, combe, or coomb, an upland 
valley, generally narrow and without a stream of 

combat, n. kum'hat (F. combnttre, to fiirht— from L. 
ron, together, and F. battre, to beat), a fight ; a contest 
by force; a battle, conflict, or strife: v. to fight; to 
stniggle or contend with, for, or against; to net in 
opposition; to oppose or resist: com'bating, iuij). : 
com 'bated, pp.: com'batant, n. -tant.axw person wlio 
fisrhts ; a duellist ; a controvei-sialist : com'bative a 
■nv, disposed to fight or contend : com'bativeness, n. 
disposition or inclination to fight. 

combine, v. k6m-bln' (F. combiner— irom L. cmi. to- 
gether, and bini, two by two, double), to unite or join 
togethcrtwo or more things; to liiikcbis.'ly td-.iji, r; 
tjjca\ise to unite or bring into union; t.i ui'iilr. m-icc, 
or coalesce; to league together: combining, iini).': 
combined . pp. -JiimV: combiner, n. one wlio: combi- 
nable, a. -na-bl, that may or can be united : com'bina'- 


tion.n. -"bX-n&'shfm. close imion or connection ; an Inti- 
mate union of two or more persons or things to effect 
some purpose; a union of particulars: chemical com- 
bination, the tendency of certain substances to unite 
and form a new substance. 

combustible, a. kombus'tlU (L. combustum, to 
wholly consume — from con, together, and usttim; 
Sans, iish, to burn : F. combustible), that will take 
fire and bum ; having the property of catching fire : 
n. a substance that will take fire and lium : com- 
bus'tibil'ity, n. -bU'-l-tl, the quality of taking fire and 
burning; capacity of being burnt; combustion, n. 
-bmt'yUn, a burning; the action of fire on bodies cap- 
able of being burnt ; the chemical combination of two 
or more bodies generally producing heat, and some- 
times both heat and light. 

come, v. kum (AS. cuynan; Ger. kom'men, to come: 
Dut. komen, to come, to fall, to please), to draw near ; 
to move towards ; to arrive or reach ; to happen or 
fall out ; to advance and arrive at some state or con- 
dition ; to sprout ; to spring : com'ing, imp. : came, 
Vt.kdin, did come: come, pp.: com'er, n. one who: 
comely, a. -ll, suitable; fitting; gracefid; decent: 
adv. liaudsomely; gracefully: come'liness, n. fitness; 
suitableness ; beauty which excites resppit : to come 
about, to fall out ; to happen ; to change : to come 
and go, to flicker ; to change: to come at, to reach; 
to gain : to come in, to yield ; to become-the fa«hiou ; 
to obtain ; to accrue, as from an estate or from trade : 
to come -near, to approach: to come of, to proceed, 
as from ancestors, or as an effect from a cause : to 
come off, to escape ; to get free ; to take place, as a 
race : to come on, to approach ; to make progress : to 
come out, t'^ be made public ; to be introduced into 
general society ; to publish : to come over, to run 
over, as a liquid ; familiarly, to get the better of any 
one : to come round, to recover ; to revive : to come 
short, to be insufficient: to come to one's self, to re- 
cover, as one's senses : to come to pass, to happen : 
to come up to, to amount to ; to rise : to come upon, 
to invade; to attack: all comers, all peisons indif- 

comedy, n. kom'edl (L. comcedia; Gr. komoidia, a 
village song— from Gr. komos, a merry-making, and 
ode, a poem : F. comedie), a representation by actore 
in a theatre of the light and trivial everyday occur- 
rences of life : come'dian, n. -e'dl-dn, an actor or player 
in comedy ; a Amter of comedy. 

comely, a.— see come. 

comestible, a. kom-es'tl-U (F. comestible— irom L. 
comestum, to eat, to consume), eatable: n. an article 
of solid food : comestibles, n. plu. eatables. 

comet, n. kom'et (L. cometes; Gr. konutes — tTom 
Gr. kome, hair: F. comete: It. co7netc.), a hairy star; a 
celestial body accompanied with a train or tail of 
light : com'etary, a. -er-i, relating to a comet : comet- 
a'rium, n. -a'-riiim, an instrument for explaining the 
revolTitions of a comet: comet-like, a.: com'etog'ra- 
phy, n. -etdg'rd-fl (Gr. m-apho, I describe), a treatise 
about comets : com'etol'ogy, n. -if-ol'-ojl (Gr. logos, 
a discourse), a discourse about comets. 

comfit, n. k-iim'-fU (F. coi\flt— from L. confidum, to 
prepare), a sweetmeat, generally restricted to a cara- 
way, coriander-seed, or almond, and suchlike, coated 
with sugar. 

comfort, n. kiim'fert (F. conforter, to comfort, to 
strengthen— from L. con, together, and/ortis, strong), 
ease or rest either to body or mind : support ; consola- 
tion; moderate enjojinent with :" v. to console ; 
to strengthen; to encourage: comforting, imp,: 
com'forted, pp.: com forter, n. -/'c tlie ]( rson who, 
orthing which ; the Holy Spirit : comfortable, a. -dbl, 
being in a state of ease or moderate enjoyment; giv- 
ing comfort ; placing above want: comfortably, a<;l. 
■bll: com'fortable'ness, n. -a-hl-nif. the state of en- 
joying comfort: com'fortless , a. -/e,--, without any- 
tliing to support or solace under misfortune or dis- 
tress : comfortlessly, ad. -ll -. com fortlessness, n. 

comic.a. kOm-ik. also comical, a. -lArt/(F. comiquc 
— fioin I,. ooiii('fi, pert, to ci.medv— see comedy). 
rcl.itiii- to comedy; raising mirth; droll; diverting: 
comically, ad. -U .- com icalness, n. : comicality, 
n. -kdi'i-t), that wliich is comical or ludicrous. 

coming, a. kum'-hnj (see come), future; expected: 
n. arriv:il ; approach; act of sprouting. 

coraitia, n. jilu. kom-u-^h'hd (L.), a.ssemblies of the 
Kome: comit'ial. in ajic. home : comit'ial, a. -dl, relating to the 
popular assemblies of Kome. 
comity, n. kdm'i-il (F. comi'^d— from L. comiias, 
mate, mat, fur, IdXv; mete, met, her; pine, pin; note, n6t, mOve; 



kindness, affability), courtesy; civility: in interna- 
tional law, acts of courtesy bevweeu nations and 

comma, n. kdm'md (Gr. kommn, a part cut off— from 
kopto, I cut), in written or printed compositions, tiie 
point (,) which is used to separate or point off phrases 
and imperfect clauses, and generally the simpler parts 
of a sentence, and which marks the shortest pause in 

command, n. kom-mand', or -m&nd' (L. con, and 
mando, I order), right, power, or authority over ; an 
order or message with authority ; a naval or military 
force under the authority of a particular officer : v. to 
bid, order, or charge with authority; to govern or 
direct ; to have power over ; to have within the obser- 
vation of the eye: commanding, imp.: adj. fitted to 
impress or influence ; authoritative ; overlooking : 
command'ingly, ad. -II: commanded, pp. : comman- 
dant, u. kom-mdn-dant' {¥.), one in command of a fort 
or a body of troops: comman'dable, a. -dd-bl: com- 
man'datory, a. -dd-ttr'-l, having the force of a com- 
mand : comman'der, n. -der, one who ; the captain of 
a ship of war under a certain size, or an oflicer who 
ranks next above a lieutenant : command'ment, n. a 
law ; a precept ; one of the precepts of the Decalogue : 
comman'dery, n. -der-t, the body of kniglits of any 
military order ; the estates and revenue of such order: 
commander-in-chief, in Great Britain, the military 
oflicer who has the command and direction of the land 
forces ; a generalissimo. 

commeasurable, a. kom-mczh'obr-d-U (L. con, and 
metier, I measure), having a common measm'e. 

commemorate, v. kdm-m6m'6rat (L. and It. com- 
memorare, to keep in mind— from L. con, together, 
and memor, mindful), to call to remembrance by a 
special act ; to do honour to the memory of an indi- 
vidual or some act of his ; to celebrate with honour 
some past event: commem'ora'ting, imp. : commem'o- 
ra'ted, pp.: commem'ora'tion, n. -ra'shim, the act of 
calling to remembrance by some special act or solem- 
nity ; the act of honouring the memoiy of a person or 
an event : commemorative, a. -tlv, also commem'o- 
rator'y, a. -rd-tir'-l: serving or tending to presei-ve 
the remembrance of: commem'orable, a. -U, worthy 
to be remembered. 

commence, v. kom-niens' (F. commencer ; It. comin- 
ciare, to begin), to begin ; to originate or enter upon ; 
to begin to be ; to perform the fli'st act or part : com- 
mencing, imp.: commenced', pp. -menst': conunence'- 
ment, n. -ment, begiiming, rise, or origin ; first exist- 
ence; the great annual day at Cambridge on which 
degrees are conferred and prize essays read, &c. ; the 
similar day at Oxford is called "The Commemora- 

commend, v. kdm-niSnd' (L. commendare, to commit 
to one's favour— from coti, and mandare, to commit, 
to consign : It. commendare : F. commender), to praise ; 
to represent as worthy or suitable ; to speak in favour 
of; to intrust or give in charge: commend'ing, imp.: 
commend'ed, pp.: commend'er,n. onewho: commen'- 
dable, a. -dd-bl, worthy of praise or approbation; 
laudable : commen'dably. ad. -Ml : commen'dable- 
ness, n. -bl-7ies : com'menda'tion, n. -da'-shun, appro- 
bation or praise ; declaration of regard ; eulogy : com- 
men'dator'y, a. -ter'-l, serving to commend ; contain- 
ing praise. 

commendam, n. kom-men'ddmCL.—tTova. commendo, 
I commit or intrust to), a vacant church living in- 
trusted to the charge of a qualified person till it can be 
supplied with an incumbent ; the holding of a vacant 
benefice, or the intrusting of its revenues to another 
for a time : com'menda'tor, n. -dd'ter, one who holds 
a benefice for a time : commen'dator'y, a. -dd-ter'l, 
Iiolding in commendam. 

commensurate, a. kom-mSn'su-rdt (L. con, and 
mensura, a measure), equal ; proportional ; having 
equal measure or e.xtent : commensurate 'ly, ad. -li: 
commen'surate'ness.n.: commen'surable, a. -su-rd-U, 
liaving a comtnon measure or extent ; reducible to a 
conamon measure : commen'surably, ad. -hll : com- 
men'surabil'ity, n. -rd-bll'l-tl, the capacity of being 
compared with another in measure, or of having a 
common measure : commen'siira'tion, n. -sii-rd'shiin, 
proportion in measure. 

comment, n. kom'mint (L. commentare, to form in 
the mind, to ponder— from L. mens, the mind ; akin to 
Sans, root, man, to think), a note or remark intended 
to illustrate a writing, or explain a diffiwilt passage 
in an author; that which explains or illustrates: v. 

kdm-mSnt' or kdm'-, to write notes to explain and 
illustrate the meaning of an author ; to expound or 
explain : commenting, imp. : comment'ed, pp. : com- 
mentary, n. kOm'-m&n-ter'-l, an explanation or illus- 
tration of a difficult or obscure passage in an author ; 
a book of comments or notes; a familiar historical 
narrative : commentate, v. kom 'nK'n-tat, to write com- 
ments or notes ujioii: com'menta'ting, imp.: com'- 
menta'ted, pp. : com'menta'tor, n. -td'tOr, one who 
writes notes to explain an author; an expositor or 
annotator : commen'tato'rial, a. -td-to'rl-dl, having 
or exhibiting the character of a commentator. 

commerce, n. komhners (L. commercium, trade, 
traffic — from con, and merx, goods, wares : It. com- 
mercio: F. commerce), trade; traffic; an interchange 
of productions and manufactures between nations or 
individuals; intercourse: commercial, a. k6m-mer'- 
shdl, pert, to commerce or trade : commer'cially, ad. 

commination, n. kom'rnl-nd'shiin {L. comminatio 
a threatening — from con, and minor, I threaten : F. 
commination), denunciation of punishment or ven- 
geance ; an office in the Church of England contain- 
ing a recital of God's threatenings, used only on Ash- 
Wednesday: commin'atory, a. -mln'-d-tir-l, threaten- 

commingle, v. com-mlng'gl (L. con, and mingle), to 
mix together into one mass. 

comminute, v. kom'-ml-nut (L. comminutnm, to 
separate into small parts— from con, and mimw, I 
lessen), to make small or fine ; to lessen in extent or 
duration ; to pulverise by pounding, &c.— not applied 
to liquids : com'minu'ting, imp. : com'minu'ted, pp. 
made small ; reduced in amount or extent : com'minu'- 
tion, n. -shim, the act of reducing or lessening. 

commiserate, v. kom-mlz'er-dt (L. commiseraius, 
commiserated, pitied— from con, and miseror, I pity: 
It. commiserare, to pity), to pity; to have compassion 
on ; to sympathise with in distress ; to be sorry for : 
commis'era'ting, imp.: commis'era'ted, pp.: commis'- 
era'tor, n. one who pities : commis'era'tion, n. -d'-sh tin, 
pity ; compassion ; sorrow for the distress of others : 
commis'era'tive, a. -d'tlv, piteous; compassionate: 
commis'era'tively, ad. -li. 

commissary, n. k6m'mis-ser'i{F. commissaire— from 
L. con, and misstis, sent), one to whom is committed 
some duty or office; a delegate; an officer who has 
the charge of providing provisions, clothing, tents, 
transports, &c., for an army : com'missar yship, n. the 
office of: com'missa'riat, n. -sd'ri-dt, in an army, the 
department or office of a commissary : com'missa'rial, 
a. pert, to a commissary : commissary-general, n. a 
chief officer of the commissariat department. 

commission, n. kom-mtsh'un (L. commissum, that 
which is intrusted — from con, and missum, to 
send: It. commissione; F. commission, a message, 
a conmiission), the act of doing or committing any- 
thing ; the state of acting by authority for another ; 
the fee allowed and paid to an agent for the sale of 
property or goods ; one or more persons appointed to 
perform certain duties ; a written warrant or autho- 
rity for exercising certain powers ; an order ; autho- 
rity given : v. to empower ; to give authority to ; to 
depute : commissi'oning, imp. : commissioned, pp. 
-find: commissi'oner, n. -un-er, one who holds autho- 
rity for the doing of something: commission mer- 
chant, n. one who transacts business in buying and 
selling the goods of others, receiving for his re- 
muneration a certain rate per cent: to put a ship 
into commission, in the navy, to prepare a ship and 
put it into active service : to put the great seal into 
commission, to place it in the hands of certain per- 
sons till the appointment of a new lord chancellor. 
iVote.— Any important secular office is placed in com- 
mission by intrusting certain persons with the dis- 
charge of its duties till a new appointment be made. 

commissure, n. kom-mish'our (L. commissura, a 
knot, a joint— from co7i, and missvs, sent: F. commis- 
sure: It. commessura), a joint or seam; the place 
where two bodies or their parts meet and unite; 
the point of union between two parts: commissural, 
a. kdm-mlsh'dihrdl, pert to. 

commit, v. kom-mlt' (L. committere, to bring together 
in a contest, to trust — from con, .and mittere, to send: 
It. commettere ; F. '■oJHmd^re, to commit), to intrust; to 
put into the hands or power of another ; to send for 
confinement ; to deposit, as in the memory ; to do or 
effect; to perpetrate ; to engage or pledge; to refer, 
as to a committee: committing, Imp.: committed. 

coiv, l)d]/, foot ; pure, Wd ; chair, game, jog, shtm, thing, there, zeal. 




1)1).: commit'ter, n. one who: commit'tal, n., also 
commit' ment, n. a sending to prison ; an order lor 
couliuement in prison ; the act of referring to or in- 
trusting to ; a doing or perpetration ; the act of pledg- 
ing or engaging: committee, kOui-mU'te, a number 
of persons chosen to consid(^r ami manage any mat- 
ter: committeeship, n. : committee, n. kdm'mlt-te', 
the person to whom tin' (ustculy nf an idiot, or a luna- 
tic, or his estate, is cuiiimittc-d by the Lord Chancellor, 
who is called the cominiltur. 

commix, V. L<)iii-)iiiks (U commixtutn, to mingle to- 
gcthor— liMiii '■"It. and inixtum, to mix), to mingle or 
blend: commixture, n. -tur, state of being mingled ; 
union in one mass; incorporation. 

commode, n. kOm-mOd' (F, — see commodious), a 
small sidol)oard with drawers and shelves; a liead- 
dress formerly worn by women ; a convenient article 
of bedroom furniture. 

commodious, a. kum-mO'dl-iis (L. commodus, com- 
plete, suitaljle— from con. and modtis, a measure, a 
manner : It. roniodo : F. commode), convenient ; 
suitabb^ usi'ful : oommodiously, ad. -li: commo- 
diousness, n.; suitableness for its pur- 
pose: commodity, n. kom-mOd'-i-tl, anything that is 
useful; any object of commerce; ans^thing that can 
be bought "or sold, animals excepted; goods; wares; 

commodore, n. kom'mS-ddr' (Port, commendador ; 
F. commandeur, a governor or commander), the 
commander of a squadron or detachment of ships ; the 
senior cajitain of two or more ships of war cruising in 
company ; the leading ship in a fleet of merchantmen. 
common, a. kom'nion (L. communis, that which is 
common— from co?i, and munis, performing service 
or duty: It. commune: F. commun), belonging equally 
to more than one ; serving for the use of all ; usual or 
ordinary; without rank; not distinguished by supe- 
rior excellence; in gram., applied to nouns that are 
both masc. and fem. : n. a tract of ground belonging 
to no one in particular or open to the use of all : 
com'monly,ad.-n, usually: commonness, n. : in com- 
mon, in jiiint possession or use : common-law, imwrit- 
ti'u law bimling by usage: common-sense, exercise of 
tlie jud4.ii>-nt in relation to common or everyday 
mattiTs, uiiaidfd by any art or system of rules: out 
of the coaamon, unusual ; not common : common- 
council, the i,MV('rning body of a city or corporate 
to^vn: common-looking, a. having a plain ordinary 
appearance : commonplace, ordinary ; neither new 
nor striking: common place-book, a book in which 
things wished to be remembered are recorded and ar- 
ranged under general heads for ready reference: 
common measure, in aritk., a number which will 
divide each of two or more numbers exactly: com- 
mon prayer, the liturgy of the Church of Eng- 
land: Common Pleas, -plez, one of the high courts 
of law held in Westminster Hall: com'monable, a. 
-d-bl, held in common: com'monage, n. -uj, the 
right of pasturing on a common ; the right of iLsing 
anything in common with others: commonalty, 
n. -dl-tl, the common people; all classes and condi- 
tions of people below the rank of nobility: com'- 
moner, n. -er, one under the rank of nobility ; a luem- 
l)er of the House of Commons; a student of the 
second rank in the University of Oxford : com'mons, 
Ji. plu. -mdm, in Great Britain, tlie lower House of 
Parliament whose members are elected liy the i)eoplc ; 
food provided at a common table : short-commons, 
insufficient fare ; stinted diet: Doctors' Commons, in 
London, a college for the i)rofessiirs of the civil Jaw 
having a great registry of wills : com'monty, ii. -,/ii'i>i- 
ti. In Scots law, land belonging to twn or more iier 
sons, generally heath or moorhuxl : common-weal, n. 
-wil (L. com,munis and tveal), the public good : com- 
monwealth, n. -lueith, the country In which a. free and 
popular government exists; the whole body of the 
I)eople in acountry ; in Eng. Hist., the form of govern- 
ment established under Oliver Cromwell. 

commotion, n. kOm-mO'.'ihuniL. commotum, to put in 
violent motion— from con, and mntum, to move : It. 
commovere), agitation; disturbance; tumult of people; 
confused excitement; disorder of mln<l. 

commune, n. kdm'mun (F.— see common). In Fnmrr, 
the name for a district of country: communal, a. 
kCmini't'nitl ])ert. to a commune. 

commune, v. k('iin-iiii'tn'(]j. ciuiimunicare, to impart, 
to share to;,'i.thc:r : It. (■inniiniiiicare; F. rjjmmiiin- 
quersri- common), to talk with particularly; to con- 
verge with familiarly and intimately ; to confer ; to 

have intercourse with one's self in meditation : com- 
mu'ning. Imp. : communed, pp. -mund': communion, 
n. -mUn'-yun (L. communio, mutual participation), 
familiar intercourse between two or more persons ; 
intimate intercourse or union ; concord ; a body of 
Christians who have the same tenets of belief and 
forms of worship ; the celebration of the Lord's Sup- 
per, or the partaking of It: commu'nicant, n. -nl- 
kCtnt, one who partakes of the sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper : communicate, v. kdm-muhil-kat, to impart ; 
to give to another ; to reveal ; to give, as informa- 
tion, &c.; to partake of the Lord's Supper; to have 
a passage or entrance from one place to another; 
to have intercourse by words, &c. : commu'nica'ting, 
imp. : commu'nica'ted, pp. : communicator, n. one 
who : commu'nica'tion, n. -kd'shiin, the act of impart- 
ing or making known ; intercourse by words, lettei-s, 
or messages; correspondence; means of passing,' from 
one place to another: commu'nica'tive, a. ■ka'-tn\ dis- 
posed to impart or reveal ; unreserved: communica- 
tiveness,n. : commu'nica'tory, a. -ka't-ri, imparting 
knowledge : communicable, a. -kd-hl. <'a)ial)le of being 
imparted Irojn din' to another: commu nicably, ad. 
■hll: commu nicablenesB, n. : commu nicabil'ity, u. 


communism, n. kom'mu-nlzm (F. commun, com- 
mon—see common), a state of things in which no 
separate rights of property exist, all, property and 
substance being held in common ; socialism : eom- 
mu'nist, n. one who advocates tliat all things should 
be common property: com'munis'tic, a. -nis-tlk, peit. 
to communism. 

community, n. kom-mu'nl-tl (L. communis, com- 
mon, ordinaiy— see common), a body of persons hav- 
ing common rights and privileges, or common inte- 
rests—generally limited in its application to the in- 
habitants of a city, town, or district, or to a society or 
profession ; the whole body of the people. 

commute, v. koni-mut (L. commutare, to alter 
wholly— from co?i, together, and OTM<o, I change: It. 
comjnutare), to put one thing In the place of another ; 
to mitigate ; to change a penalty or punishment to ono 
less severe : commu'ting, imp. : commu'ted, pp. : 
com'muta'tion, n. -ta'-shiin, the giving of one thing for 
another ; the substitution of a less penalty or punish- 
ment for a greater: commu'table, a. -mu'td-bl, that 
may be exchanged: commu'tabU'ity, n. -bll'i-tl, the 
capability of being exchanged one for another : com- 
mu'tative, a. -id-tlv, relating to exchange : commu'- 
tatively, ad. -ll. 

comose, a. ko'mdz{L. coma, hair), in bot., furnished 
with hairs, as the seeds of the willow ; hairy. 

compact, a. kom-pdkf (L. compactus, pressed— from 
con, and pactus, driven in, agreed upon : It. compatto : 
F. compacte), firm; close; solid; dense; not diffuse: 
V. to press closely together ; to join firmly ; to make, 
close: compacting, imp.: compacted, pp.: compac- 
ter, n. one who: compaction, n. -pdk'shiin, the act of 
making an agreement: compac'ture, n. -ii'ir. a close 
union of parts: compactly, ad. -ll : compactness, is. 
close union of parts; fu-mness; densitv: compac'tedly, 
ad. -ll: compac'tedness, n. : compact, n. kOnt' 
agreement ; a mutual contract ; any agreement or 

company, n. kiim'jul-nl (F. compagnie, company: 
It. compagno, a 'comr.ide- from L. con, and panii!. 
bread), a large or small number of persons met to- 
gether; a party of persons a.s.sembled for social Inter- 
course ; fellowship ; a number of i)ei-sons united for 
the jiurposes of trade. Ac. ; a firm ; the crew of a ship, 
ineluding otlier-rs ; a division of soldiers in a foot regi- 
ment uiidera caiitain: to bear company, togowlth; to 
atteml: to keep company with, to associate with; togo 
with as an intimate friend frequently or habitually: 
companion, n. koni-jKhi-ii'.hi, one who goes with an- 
other habitually as a friend ; an associate ; a comrade : 
compan'ionless, a. without a companion: compan- 
ionship, n. lellow.ship; company: companionable, a. 
■<t-h!, social>le ; agreeable; liaving the capacity of 
lieing agreeable in company: compan'ionably, ad. 

compare, V. kdm-par'{L. fo»i;)a?-are, to couple things 
together for Judgment.— tVom con, and par, equal, 
like: It. cojnpdrare : F. comparer), to set or bring 
things together in order to ascertain wherein they 
agree and wherein lli,'V diller— the objects to he coin- 
to refer to as similar for the luirpose of ilhistnitioii ; 
to inflect an ailjective: comparing, imp.; compared, 

mate, mat, far, laXo; mite, mSf, Mr; p\ne,pln: nOtc, not, mOvc; 




pp. -pArd': compa'rer, n. one who: comparable, a. 

kovi'i>ar-a-hl, that may be compared : comparably, 
ad. -a-bll: comparative, a. fcdm-2>(!r'd!-Mv, not positive 
or absolute; estimated by comparison; having the 
power of comparing; in gram., an adjective inflected, 
expressing more or less: comparatively, ad. -U ; com- 
parison, n. -l-son, the act of comparing ; a considera- 
tion of tlie relations betvi^een persons or things in 
order to discover wherein they agree and wherein 
they differ; the inflection of an adjective to express 
more or less : comparates, n. kOm'pcl-rats, in logic, 
the two things or objects capable of being compared. 

compartment, n. kdm-pdrt'-mSnt {¥. compartiment 
—from L. con, together, and wars, a part or division), 
a division or separate part of a general design ; one of 
t)ie divisions of a carriage, room, &c. 

compass, n. kwn'pOs (F. compos, a compass, around 
—from L. con, and passzis, a step), grasp ; reach ; space ; 
extent ; the limit or boundary of anything — applied 
to anything that can be measured or limited ; a cir- 
cuit ; a circumference ; the magnetic needle or mari- 
ner's compass ; a guide ; a direction : com'passes, n. 
plu. -iz, an instrument with two legs for describing 
circles, &c. : v. to stretch round ; to inclose ; to encircle 
or surround ; to go or walk round ; to grasp or em- 
brace ; to accomplish ; to plot ; to contrive : com'- 
passing, imp.: compassed, pp. -^dSs<; com'passless,a. 
without a guide : mariner's compass, so called because 
it goes through the whole circle of possible variations 
of direction between the points N. S. E. and W. : to 
compass an object, to go about it or to contrive it : to 
fetch a compass, to depart from the right line ; to ad- 
vance indirectly. 

compassion, n. kom-pOsk'un (It. compassione ; F. 
compassion, compassion— from L. con, and 2}assus, 
suffered), sorrow excited by the distress or misfor- 
tunes of another; pity; sympathy; fellow-feeling: 
compas'sionate, a. -shun-at, inclined or disposed to 
compassion; merciful; pitiful ; having a tender heart : 
V. to pity; to commiserate: compas'siona'ting, imp.: 
compas'siona'ted, pp. : compas'sionless, a. : com- 
pas'sionat'ely, ad. -II. 

compatible, a. kdm-pdi'l-'bl (F. compatible; It. com- 
jKitibiie, suitable, compatible— from L. con, and pa- 
tior, I suffer), that may exist with ; suitable ; fit ; con- 
sistent with : compat'ibil'ity, n. -bU'-l-tl, consistency ; 
suitableness ; agreement : compatibly, ad. -%-Ul. 

compatriot, n. kom-pa'-trl-ot (It. compatriota, com- 
patriot—from L. con, and patria, one's native coun- 
try), a fellow-patriot: adj. of the same country; of 
like interests and feelings. 

compear, v. kom-per' (F. comparoir, to appear in 
law— from L. con, and pareo, I appear), in Scots law, 
to appear in a court by order, either in person or by 
counsel : compear'ing, imp. : compeared', pp. -perd' .- 
compear'ance, n. -this. 

compeer, n. kom-per' (Norm. F. compere— irom con, 
and pur, equal), an equal ; a companion or colleague. 

compel, V. kom-pel' (L. compellere, to drive or force 
together— from con, undpello, I drive: It. compellere), 
to force ; to oblige ; to constiTiin : cojnpelling, imp. : 
compelled', pp. kom-peld': compeller, n. one who: 
compel'lable, a. -ICi-bl, that may be forced: compel la- 
bly, ad. -la-bU. 

compendium, n. kom-pen'dl-um, also compend, n. 
kom'pend (L. compendium, a shortening: It. com- 
pendio: F. compendium), an abridgment; a sum- 
mary ; a book containing the substance of a larger 
work : compen'dious, a. -di-iis, short ; concise ; 
abridged: compen'dioxisly, ad. -II: compendious- 
ness, n. 

compensate, v. kdm-pen'sclt (L. compensatum, to 
counterbalance— from con, and penso, I weigh out 
<'arefully: It. compensare: F. compenser), to give 
eijual value to ; to recompense ; to make amends for : 
compen'sating, imp. : compen'sated, pp. : compen- 
sation, n. kdm'pen-sa'shun, amends; recompense; 
what is given to supply a loss or make good a defici- 
ency; satisfaction: compen'sative, a. -sd-tiv, also 
compen'sator'y, a. -sd-ter'-l, making amends. 

compete, v. kom-pet' (L. competere, to strive after— 
from con, and })efo, I seek: It. competere: F. com- 
peter), to seek or strive for the same thing or position 
as another ; to strive to be equal : compe'ting, imp. : 
competed, pp.: competitor, n. -2)6t'l-tdr, one who 
competes: competition, n. kom'pe-tlsh'un, rivalry; 
strife for superiority ; emulation : competitive, a. 
kom-pet'-l-tlv, in the way of competition; emulous: 
competltor'y, a. -tir'-l, acting in competition : com- 

petent, a. kdm'-pS-tent (L. competent, fit, suitable), fit; 
suitable ; adequate ; able or qualified : in law, having 
power or right: com'petence, -tens, also com'peten'cy. 
n. -ten'st, fitness; suitalileiiess ; sufficiency; legal 
right or power : com'petently, ad. -H. 

compile, v. kOm-pW (F. cuinpiler—trom L. compil' 
are, to plunder, to rol)— from con, and pilo, I pillage: 
It. compilare), to write or compose ; to select and put 
together for publication ; to collect and rearrange : 
compiling, imp. : compiled', pp. -2)1^1' : compi'ier, n. 
one who : compilation, n. k6m:-2A-la'-shun, a book com- 
piled; a selection froui an author, or from diflerejit 

complacent, a. kdm-pld'sSnt (L. complacere, to be 
pleasing to several at the same time— from con, and 
placeo, I please: It. com2>iacere : F. complaire), civil; 
agreeable ; having a desire or disposition to please : 
complacence, n. -s6ns, also complacency, n. -sUn-si, 
pleasure ; satisfaction ; cause of pleasure : compla- 
cential, a. kom'pia-sin'shai, marked by complacence : 
com'placen'tially, ad. -ll, in an accommodating man- 
ner: compla'cently, ad. -pia'-sent-ll, softly; in a com- 
placent manner. 

complain, v. kom-plan' (F. complaindre—tTom L. 
con, and plangere, to beat one's breast in agony, to 
lament aloud), to utter expressions of grief, censure, 
resentment, uneasiness, or pain; to murmur ; to find 
fault; to present an accusation against: complain'- 
ing, imp. : n. expression or act of complaint : com- 
plained', pp. -pldnd': complain'er, n. one who : com- 
plain'ant, n. m k»i>, a prosecutor or plaintiff : com- 
plaint', n. -2)ldnt', expression of grief, regret, «fec. ; mur- 
muring; fault-finding; a bodily ailment; a charge 
against any one or a thing, &c. : complain'ingly , ad. -H. 

complaisant, a. kom'pia-zdnt' (F. complaisant, 
affable, coiulieous- from L. con, and placeo, I please, 
I delight), pleasing in manners ; courteous ; civil ; 
polite: com'plaisantly, ad. -It: com'plaisance', ii. 
■zdns', desire of pleasing ; civility. 

complement, n. kom-ple-ment (L. complementum, 
that which fills up or completes— from con, and 
pleo, I fill : It. comp)lemento : F. complement), a filling 
up or completing ; that which is wanted to complete 
or fill up some quantity or thing ; something added 
by way of ornament: com'plemen'tal, a. -men'tdl, 
also com'plemen'tary, a. -men'ter-l, supplying a de- 
ficiency : com'plement'ing, n. 

complete, a. kom-plef (L. com2^letum, to fill up— 
from con, and pleo, I fill : It. completo; F. complet, 
complete, entire), without a flaw; perfect; not defec- 
tive ; finished ; concluded : v. to finish ; to perfect ; 
to accomplish : comple'ting, imp. : comple'ted, pp. : 
comple'tion, n. -ple'-shun, act of completing ; fulfil- 
ment: completely, ad. -ll: completeness, n. com- 
pletory, a. Kom-ple'-ter-i, fulfilling : n. the evening ; 
the compline of the Rom. Cath. Church. 

complex, a. kom'pUks (L. complexus, entwined, en- 
circled—from con, and plexus, plaited, interwoven), 
intricate ; composed of two or more parts or things ; 
not simple ; difficult : com'plexly, ad. -ll: complexity, 
u. kdm'pl6ks'i-tl, state of being intricate. 

complexion, n. kom-plek'shan (L. comptlexio, a com- 
bination, a connection : F. complexion, temper, dis- 
position), the hue or colour of the skin, particularly of 
the face ; colour of the whole skin ; natural tempera- 
ment or disposition of the body: complex ional, a. 
pert, to : complex'ionally, ad. -Cd-li : complex'ioned, 
a. -shiind, having a certain hue of skin or natui'al tem- 

compliable, compliant, &c.— see comply. 

complicate, v. kom'pll-kat (L. conqMcatvm, to fold 
together- from con, and plico, I fold : It. cum2ilicare: 
F. co?»;;h'5M€r), to fold and twist together ; to involve; 
to entangle ; to make intricate ; to confuse : com'pli- 
ca'ting, imp. : com'plica'ted, pp. -ka'tSd: com'plica'- 
tion,n. -ka'-shun: com'plicate, a. intricate ; confused: 
com'plicately, ad. -ll: com'plicacy, n. -ka-sl, state of 
being intricate: com'plica'tive, a. -ka,'tlv, tending to 
involve: complicity, n. k6m-plls'l-tl, state of being 
an accomplice or sharer in guilt. 

compliment, n. k6m'-pll-m6nt (L. com2)lere, to fill up : 
It. complire, to accomplish : F. compUmc7it), an ex- 
pression of civility, respect, or regard— used in this 
sense generally in the plu., as, my compliments to a 
friend ; a present or favour bestowed : v. to flatter ; 
to praise; to congratulate; to address with expres- 
sions of approbation, esteem, or respect : com'pli- 
inen'ting, imp. : complimented, pp. : com'plimen'- 
ter, n. one who : com'plimen'tal, also com'plimen- 

coiv, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




tary, a. -mSn'teM, containing or expressing civility, 
Tcspect, or praise : com'plimen'tally, ad. -tdt-H. 

compline or complin, n. kom'plin (L. complere, to 
fill up or complete), the last division of the breviary 
of the K. Cath. Ch. ; the last prayer at night, so called 
because it fills up or closes the services of the day. 

comply, V. kOm-pll' (F. cumjAier, to bend to: It. 
complire, to accomplish, to complete— from L. con, 
and pleo, I fiU), to yield to ; to fulfil or complete ; to 
accord with ; to be obsequious to : comply'ing, imp. : 
adj. obsequious ; yielding : complied , pp. -jdid': 
compiler, n. one who: compli'able, a. -d-U: compli'- 
ance, n. -dns, act of yielding; submission: compli'- 
ably, ad. -bll: comph'ant, a. -ant, bending; yield- 
ing ; disposed to yield : compliantly, ad. -11, in a 
yielding manner. 

component, n. kompO'-ncnt (L. componens, placing 
or laying together— from con, and pono, I place), a 
constituent part ; an elementary part of a compound : 
adj. constituent; helping to form a compound. 

comport, V. kom-port' (F. comporter, to bear, to 
beliave— from L. con, and porta, I bear or cany), to 
agree with ; to suit ; to behave or conduct : comport'- 
ing, imp. : comported, pp. : comport'able, a. -a-U. 

compose, v. kom-pOz' (F. composer, to compose— 
from L. con, and positus, placed or set: It. comimsto, 
composed), to form one entire body or thing by join- 
ing together several individuals, things, or parts; to 
MTiteas an author; to calm; to quiet; to place or dis- 
pose in proper form ; to set up types ; to fonn a piece 
of music : composing, imp. : composed, pp. kom- 
2}0zd: adj. calm; sedate; tranquil; formed; contrib- 
uted: compo'sedly, ad. -ll, sedately; calmly: com- 
po'sedness, n. : compo'ser, n. -po'-zer, one who : com- 
position, n. kom'pO-ztzh'-un, the act of composing; 
the thing composed ; any mass or body formed by 
combining together two or more substances; com- 
bining ideas or thoughts, arranging them in order, 
and committing them to writing ; a book written by 
an author; any union, combination, or disposition of 
parts ; the payment of a part only of a debt in lieu of 
the lull debt ; the sum so paid ; synthesis as opposed 
to analysis: composing-stick, n. a small instrument 
in which types are set : composite, a. kdm'poz-tt, made 
up of parts; compound; in bot., having the struc- 
ture of the composite: composite order, in arch., the 
last of the five orders of columns, so called from its 
capital being made up of parts borrowed from the 
others: composite number, a number that can be 
measured or divided by other numbers greater than 
a unit or one : compositive, a. kom-poz'i-tiv, able or 
tending to compound : compositor, n. -te); among 
2>rinters, one who sets types, and puts them into pages 
and forms. 

compositae, n. plu. kdm-pdz'4-te (L. compositus, put 
together, compounded), in 60^., the largest natural 
order of plants, having their flowers arranged in dense 
heads, as in the daisy, the dandelion, the asters, &c. 

compost, n. kdm'pCst (L. con, and positus. put or 
placed : It. composto, a mixture), a mixture or com- 
position of various substances for fertilising land ; a 
kind of plaster or cement. 

composure, n. kOm-pd'-zhiTor (see compose), a set- 
tled state of the mind; calnmess; tranquillity; se- 

compound, n. kdm'pmvnd (L. componere, to set or 
place together— from con, and pono, I set or put : 
probably L. con, and pondus, a weight, a mass), a 
body formed by the union or mixture of two or more 
substances or parts : adj. composed of two or more 
substances; composedof several parts: compound, v. 
kdm-pownd', to mix or unite two or more substances 
into one body or mass ; to unite or combine ; to adjust ; 
to discharge, as a debt by comi)osition; to come to 
terms :compound'ing, imp.: compounded, pp. : com- 
yound'er, n. one who discharge* a debt by certain 
fixed payments, or by several payments: compound'- 
able, a. -d-hl. 

comprehend, v. kdm'prS-hUnd' (L. compre?iendere, 
to lay or catch liold of— from con, and prehendo, I 
seize or gi~asp : It. comprend4-re : F. comprendre), to 
coniprise or include; to contain in tlie mmd; to con- 
ceive; to undi^rstand: comprehending, imp.: com'- 
prehend'ed, pp. : comprehension, n. -Mn'shUn, 
capacity of the mind to undfi.stand ; power of the 
iinderst.;nidiii- to nc.-iv.' idias: com prehen'slble, a. 
•hinslht. Jiit.^lliL'ihl,.; tli:it may he r..iiii)rchrn(ii'.l : 
■bll: com prehen'sibleness. 

•sl-Ol-nia : com'p 

much; large; full; com'prehen'sively, ad. -slv-li: 
comprehensiveness, n. 

compress, n. kom'pres (L. compressus, pressed to- 
gether— from co?i, and ;>rew«5, pressed, kept under: It. 
compresso), folds of soft linen cloth used to cover the 
dressings of wounds, &c., or to keep them in their 
proper place and defend them from the air: v. kom- 
pris', to crush or force into a smaller bulk ; to press 
togethei ; to bring within narrow limits ; to squeeze : 
compres'sing, imp. : compressed', pp. -prist': adj. in 
bot., flattened laterally or lengthwise: compressi'on, 
n. ■2)resh'-un, the act of forcing into a narrower 
compass: compres'sible, a. -prds'-vl-bl, that may lie 
squeezed into smaller bulk: compres'sibil'ity, n. 
-bU'l-tl, the quality of yielding to pressure : compres'- 
sive, a. -slv, having the power to compress : compres- 
sor, n. -ser, that which serves to compress : compres'- 
sure, n. -presh'obr, the act or force of bodies pressing 

comprise, v. kom-prlz' (F. compris, included— from 
L. comirrehendere, to comprise, to include), to include 
within itself ; to comprehend ; to contain or embrace: 
comprising, imp.: comprised', pp. -pirlzd': compri'saJ, 
n. -prl'-zdl, the act of comprising. 

compromise, n. kom'-pro-mlzf (F. compromis, agree- 
ment, treaty— from L. con, and promissus, a promise), 
an agi-eement between persons having a dispute, to 
settle their diff'erences by mutual concessions; an 
arrangement of differences in a dispute : v. to arrange 
and settle differences by mutual agreement ; to agree ; 
to pledge or engage ; to put to hazard by some pre- 
vious act not to be recalled, as to compromise the 
honoiu- of a nation : com'promi'sing, imp. : com'pro- 
mised', pp. -mlzd' : com'promi'ser, n. -2<>, n. one who. 
comptrol, v. kon-trol' (same as control, which see): 
comptroller, n. kon-trOl'lir, a regulator; a superin- 
tendent ; a supervisor. 

compulsion, n. kom-pul'shvin (L. cotnpulsus, driven 
together— from con, and p^Usus, driven— see compel), 
the act of driving or urging by some kind of force ; 
constraint of will or action ; the state of being com- 
pelled: compul'sive, a. -slv, able to compel; having 
power to compel or constrain by force : compulsively, 
ad. -II: compul'siveness, n.: compul'sory, a. -s&r-i, 
not of choice ; not voluntary : having the power to 
compel: compul'sorily, ad. -ll. 

compunction, n. kdm-pHngk'shim (L. compunctio, a 
pricking— from con, and punctus, pricked or stung : 
It. compunzione : F. componction), grief, anguish, or 
remorse from a consciousness of guilt ; the sting of 
conscience ; repentance : compunc tionless, a. : com- 
punc'tive, a. -tlv, causing remorse : compunc'tious, a. 
-shus, repentant ; full of remorse. 

compurgation, n. kdin'-pHr-ga'shiin (L. compurgo, I 
purify completely— from con, a.napurgo, Iniake clean). 
the practice of confirming any man's veracity by the 
testimony of another : com'purga'tor, n. one who. 

compute, v. kom-pHf (L. computare, to sum up, to 
reckon— from con, and pxitare, to think or reckon : It. 
computare: F. compter), to number; to count or 
reckon ; to throw together several sums or particulars 
in order to ascertain their collective value: to esti- 
mate; to calculate: computing, imp.: computed, 
pp. : compu'ter, n. one who : compu table, a. -ta-hl. thai- 
can be numbered or reckoned : computation, n. -ta- 
shun, the act of computing or numbering ; the pro- 
cess by which the sum, quantity, or result of any num- 
ber of particulars may be ascertained. 

comrade, n. kom'rdd (F. camerade, a companion : 
Sp. camerada), a mate ; an intimate companion : an 
associate in occupation. 

con, k6n (L. cum, with), a prefix, moaning together, 
with ; con assumes the various forms of co, cog. col, 
com, cor, according to the commencing letter of tho 
other part of the word of which it forms the prefix- 
see CO. 

con, Wn (a shortened form of the L. contra, against), 
the negative side of a question ; against ; used in 
the phrase pro and con, /or and against. 

con, v. kOn (AS. cminan ; Goth, kumian, to know: 
Sw. kiinmt, to bo nblo), to fix in t)w mind by frequent 
reiictitioH : conning, iiiiii.: conned, jip, kdnd. 

concatenate, v. kii,i4,<il;'iiat (L. cc/;, together, and 
cat,,iatu.<. rliaincd, fettercl ; f«C. ;i<j, achain), to link 
to-rtli,r ; t(i mute in a series or chain, as links of a 
iliain, or iilias in the miml depending on each other: 
concatenating, imp.: concat'ena'ted, pp.: concate- 
nation, n. -iia-shi})!, a series or successive order of 

prehen'sive, a. -kCn'slv, embracing I things connected with or depending on each other 
mate mat,/ar, laXu; mite, mSf, Mr; pine, pin; nOle, tiCt, mOve; 




concave, a. ^^:^Z^Srti.^^X^^ 

or part in any body «°2,^^^°.^^Svex. a. concave 
Goncave on both S'\"^f;^ • ^°^?be other: con'cavoua, a. 

keep out of s'-^^ *° ^n^^Lamg imp.: concealed', 
guise; to dissemble: «=onceaimg, in p ^.^^^^^^ .^ 
pp. -*e«'i'v.concealer n. one A\no i. g^t_ ^^ 

ilbl. that' may be hid or l^ep^ dose cou ^^ ^^..^j^_ 
a keeping close, ov secret ; the act of^ia^^.^^^ 
arawingtromsight;apUceot 11^^^^^^^ ^^ to 

concede, v. f'<^'^-'fJJ;-J%fy^A:lt. concedere: 
yield-from con, ?Vf ^„%tmit Is true, just, or pro- 
i\ conceder). to yf Id ; to ,^f i^^.: conce'ded, pp. 
per ; to suiTender conce dmgj^ imp animagi- 

conceit, n. kon-scf ("• ^y^ t"" '^ce»<Mm, to perceive, 
nation, anything conceived :Lconc^ . 

to become pregnant), an op u° {,' gi^^;^ . animagina- 
au affected expression or to cedallu^^^^^^ ^ ^ 

tion of one's own i"'P°^^Ji'-^- ad -H: conceited- 
full of self-esteem: conceit edg^^^ 
ness. n. vanity; the state OToeiug ^^ ^.^^^ 

an op nionot self -.conceive. V. ^^. ^ ^ehend; 

the mind; to imagine .to unaerbta ^^^. ^^jj^_ 

to think; to receive i?ito the womo . i- . ^^ 

ceiVing. imp.: co?.<il^^^,<^ ^?P/.,ta,r the act of con- 

ably, ad. -bH; co^^^iv ableness, n. . 

to a common point or ce tre ,. ^lo m . 

or specific gravity o/ JJ.^^ody • concen u_^^^^^^^,^^^^ ^^^ 

come to apoint; tobrinf toacem ^^ concen'- 

inip.: concentred, PP-^'^/ « avfng a common centre 
l^^c^Jdtso; dr^'ufr/liyers'witlun each other: con- 
centricity, \:*1'^J;ISt conceptum, the thing con- 

tion written for one Pnndpal his^um-^ -^/^; 
S:?^S! a Sus?;.^^st?:;'^^ed irom the har- 

ceived-see conce", -.j-^^ --,- y .scpi/a-, cap- 

mental representation concep live i^^^^,. 

able of conceivmg ; acuve n con,eivm„^ ^^ 
tualism, n. -J.^-^jf'i'' J'! o„iy universals : concep'- 
l^^krrStonlwho Stains that conceptions I 

conceptacle. n. ^o«-s?i^;'f f, 'i^ -^ Sh anj-thing is 

to concem-from L con, and cernere, w ■ • 
rate), that which relates or belongs to one ,o ^^^__ 
interest, or affair ; anxiety caxelid re ara . ^ ^^^^^^ 


iSncem'mg, Pfep- in regard to. about /em ^^. ^^^ 
concert, v. ^'^n-^^':^ Jlt-^^°^^Zm' to join together, 


Entertainment :^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

KeSSlatedrconle^^^^^^^^^ '^°"^P'^"- 

CO?., &oy, foot ; pure, twd; c7la^r, 

in^°T^ntiVg--from -^^^ 

co?jcessta/ie: F. coTif^^^^^^^^^^ ^ acknowledgnient 

co;ica: F. congwe);* she 1 . concmier i y ^./^^^^^ 

a bivalve : co'^<=^^,^?''"ive class of bivalve shell-fish. 
1 cMfers.n. p u.aiiexteimv^cla^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

including the ojster, ine iuu= • ^j j^g or having 
scallop : conchif erOi"!;„?fcj;'afoISellT conchit'ic, 
shells: coiiclute.n.fco«S-/««.afossii^sne .^^ 

a. -klt'-lk, composed of shells^ conia^ gidos. form). 

abundance: co'^^^V^^o ,hat niid^f fractS-e of rocks 
shell-like-applied to that p^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^, 

and minerals which exbibiis con ung'kwjd, a 

faces resemb ing sheus con^^^^^^^ conchom'eter 
mathematical curve 01 asneunKe instrument 

„. -fco/H:g-<er(Gr.7ne<ro7i. a measure) ^^^^ ^^^_ 

for measuring the angle of the^pire^ .^^ ^j^^^^^. 

cho-spiral.akind of bpir^ curve as ^.^^^^^^^^j_ ^^^ 

^SS^oS^^tl^i^^— ^^■- 

^'f^iictrge^."*-;?^S/ (F.). a housekeeper; keeper 
of a prison or a palace. conciliatum, to join 

conciliate, ^.vi^''":^™ya^^ f. conciHer). to win 
together, to mute: It. tOTicUiarer ^^^oncile or 

or gain, as the f ectic^ns or goodj ^^^.^ or parties for- 
bringto a state of menasnpv ^^,.^,^^^ . 

merly at ennuty or vaiiance . ^^^^^j^^. (.Qncil- 

concil'ia'ted, pp.: concuia wr ^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

Sm; 0^ a^SA:'^"on^cU'iato^r-y. a.°-...U. tendon, 

hered to the rites of the law. room, a cham- 

purpose; any close assembly. ^^ ^ 

coMtiideri:: F. coHClure), to mier ,. w uc._ ^^ „„in5.,n: 

concoct, V. kon-kokt (h. c^^,™fl"'"',o't.ook: F. con- 
con, and /or|«»«. to prepare by /^^ t^^^^to" purify ; 
coction), to digest, as food in tne ^^ , 

to refine; to f orni and matuie m u ^oncoc'ted, 

or devise, as a scheme :concoc ^^^'{\ ^vhich food 
pp.: concoc'tion, n. -to^-./ «n, the u a^t, ^j^^ 

S?idergoesin the stomach ;matm anon J)y^^^^ 

process of P'^^fJ^ia^.'^the power of digesting, 
concoc'tive. a.-nf.hayin incp co/icowitans. 

concomitant, a. ^ori-^^^J \ «;^ foUowing. attend- 
attending-froni con, and cointJans .^f^^^ ^.^^1^. 

^ng: F. conco7nt«an«: It. concom«a»)^j. ^^^.^^ ^^^^^_ 
^ actompanjang: n an attenaam^^^ ^^^^^^,^^^^ 

panics; a Perso" "[/.^concomltanci. n. -i-mns. also 
I foncS^cyf •n:"-mrt. the being conjomed with 
another tjnng- ,, -^^ ,^ concordia, agreement- 
concord, n.Aonfir-'^««'^^^ It concordia: F. con- 
from coji. and cor. tneneai I. agrce- 

corde). agreement; hamoiiy.^^^^^^ . sentence; har- 
ment or proper relation ot^ or^^^^^ concor'dance 
S!Torfd'v«ran^ndefor dictionary of the words and 
gam.jog. shun, thing, there, zeal. 




phrases, and sometimes of passages, of the Scripture-^, 
with the book, chap., and verse in which they occur: 
concor dant, a. agreeing ; corresponding : concor- 
dantly, ad. -11: concor'dancy, n. -dansl: concordat, 
u. kOnkdr'dat, a treaty or compact between a sove- 
reign and the pope; a convention. 

concourse, n. kong'kOrs (L. co7icursits, a meeting 
tiigether — from con, and cursum, to run: It. 
F. concours), a running together ; confluence ; an 
assembly of men or things. 

concrescence, n. kon-kris'Sns (L. concrescere, to grow 
strong— from con, and crescere, to grow), gro^vth or 
increase; the act of growing by the spontaneous 
union of separate particles: concres cible, a. -l-bl, 
capable of congealing. 

concrete, a. kdng'kret (L. concretus. grown together, 
hardened— from con, and crdum, to grow: It. con- 
creto: F. cnncret), united in growth ; formed by mass- 
ing several things together; having a real existence; 
not abstnu-t, but applied to a subject— as white, ab- 
stract, w/i i <f sugar, concrete: n. a compound; anymass 
formed of lime, sand, pebbles, «fcc. : v. konkref, to 
unite or form into one mass ; to congeal or grow hard : 
concre'ting, imp. : concre'ted, pp. : concretely, ad. 
-ll: concrete ness, n. : concre'tion, n. -kre'shCin, the 
act of growing together ; a mass formed by the tmion 
of various parts adhering to each other : concre'tive, 
a. -krc'-tlv, causing or tending to concrete: concre'- 
tional, a. -kre'shundl, also concre'tionary, a. -shiiii- 
erf, pert, to; made up of concretions: concretionary 
deposits, in geol., chemically formed deposits, gener- 
ally arising from calcareous and silicious springs: 
concrete nvimber, a number applied to a particular 
object— as three men, six months. 

concubine, n. kong'ku-bln (L. concitbina, a concu- 
bine— from coll, and cubo, I lie do\\-n : It. concubina : F. 
concubine), a woman who lives with a man without 
being married; an inferior wife: concubinage, n. 
-bl-7i<3j, living together without marriage : concuTiinal, 
a. -bl-nal, pert. to. 

concupiscence, n. kdn-kii'pls-sins (L. concupiscens, 
longing much for— from con, and cupio, I desire : It. 
concupiscenza ; F. concupiscence, lust), desire for un- 
lawftil pleasure : concu piscent, a. lustful. 

concur, v. kOnker' (L. concurrere, to run together— 
from con, and curro, I run : It. concorrere : F. concourir), 
to meet in the same point; to agree or unite in action 
or opinion ; to combine ; to coincide : conctir'ring, imp.: 
concurred', pp. -kurd'.- concurrent, a. -kHr'-rent, act- 
ing in conjunction; conjoined; united; associated: 
n. that which concurs ; contributory cause : concur- 
rently, ad. ll: concurrence, n. -ens, agreement or 
union in action or opinion ; consent. 

concussion, n. kOu-kiish'iin (L. concrissio, a shaking 
— from co«, and quassum, to shake: It. concussione), 
the shock caused by two bodies coming into sudden 
and violent contact ; state of being shaken ; agitation: 
concus'sive, a. -kHs'slv, having the power or quality of 
shaking : concussed', pp. a. -kust', shaken or driven. 

condemn, v. kon-dhn' (L. condeninare, to condemn, 
to blame — from con, and damnare, to bring damage 
or loss upon: It. condennare: F. condamner), to pro- 
nounce guilty; to censure; to blame; to sentence to 
punishment ; to declare to be unfit for use or ser\'ice : 
condemning, imp. -dim'lng: condemned', pp. -d6md': 
condem'nable, a. -ndhl, that may be condemned; 
blamable: con'demna'tion, n. -na'.-hnn, the art of 
condemning; the act of declaring one guilty; the 
cause or reason for condenniing: condemnatory, a. 
■rul-ter-l, tending to, or containing something worthy 
of censure. 

condense, v. kdnd^ns' (L. cond^nsare, to condense 
—from con, and detistis, close, thick : It. condennare : 
F. condenser), to make more close, thick, or compact ; 
to make close by pressure; to compress or reduce into 
a smaller compass ; to grow or become thick : adj. 
thick ; close : condensing, imp. : condensed', pp. 
■dinsif : condensely, ad. ll: condensity, n. ■s\-tl: 
condenser, n. -.-r, he or that which ; a vessel for con- 
densing vaijoiir: condensable, a, -sd-bl. capable of 
being condensed : condensation, n. kdn'-din-sO,'-shun, 
the act of making more dense or compact. 

condescend, v. Uoa'df-sivd' (L. con, and descendere, 
to descend: It. citmbsfrndere ; F. condescendre, to 
condesei-iid). to dn some act of courtesy or kindiii'ss 
to an inferior. -us if an eijual; to stoop oV desiemi ; lo 
submit ; to yielii : con descending, imp.: con descend - 
ed, pp. : con'descen slon, n. -sin'shun, a voluntary re- 
linfjuishuicnt of rank ; courtesy: con'descend ingly. 

ad. -ll: con'descen dence, n. -dins, in Scot. Ian; a 
distinct written statement of the facts in dispute, to 
be laid before the court ; a written pleading. 

condign, a. kCndln' (L. condignas, wholly deserT- 
ing: F. condigne, appropriate), deserved; merited — 
ajiplied to punishment: condignly, ad. -ll: condign'- 
ness, n. : condignity, n. -dig'nl-ii, merit; desert. 

condiment, n. kon'-dl-mint (L. cojulimentum, sea- 
soning: It. condimento: V. condiment), seasoning for 
food ; sauce ; pickle. 

condition, n. kondlsh'-Un (L. conditio, external 
position, situation: F. condition), a particular mode 
or state of being; adispositionof body or mind ; order, 
rank, or quality ; terms of agreement ; something laid 
down as essential: conditional, a. -unrtl, containing 
or depending on certain terms ; not absolute : con- 
diti'onally, ad. -ll: conditi'onal'ity, r.. -ul'itf, the 
quality of being conditional or limited : conditi oned, 
a. -UTid, ha\'ing certain qualities— preceded by such 
words as good, well, bad; in meta., having conditions 
or relations. 

condole, v. kOn-doV (L. con, and dolere, to grieve), 
to grieve with another in distress or misfortime ; to 
sympathise: condoling, imp.: condoled', pp. -dold': 
condo'lator'y, a. Id-tt-r'-l. expressing condolence : con- 
doler, n. one who: condole'ment, n. : condolence, 
n. -tins, grief or pain of mind excited and expressed 
by the distress or misfortunes of another. 

condor, n. kOn'dOr (Sp. condor), a large bird of prey— 
the vtilture of S. Amer. 

conduce, v. kondils' (L. conducere, to bring or lead 
together — from con, and d«ce)-e, to lead : It. conducere: 
F. conduire), to lead or tend to ; to contribute : condu'- 
cing, imp.: conduced', pp. -dnsd': condu'cible.a. -sihl, 
leading or tending to: condu'cibly, ad. -bll: condu'- 
cibleness, n.: conducive, a. kondil'slv, that may con- 
tribute; having a tendency to promote: conda'cive- 
ness, n. the quality of tending to promote. 

conduct, n. kdn'dukt (L. conductum, to lead together 
-from con, and ductum, to lead : F. conduiie, beha- 
viour), personal behaviour; mode of life; manage- 
ment ; guidance ; escort : v. kondukf, to bring along 
or guide ; to behave, a^ one's self ; to direct ; to 
point out the way ; to manage ; to lead or command ; 
to transmit : conduc'ting, imp. : conduc'ted, pp. 
conduc'tor, n. masc, conductress, fem. one who: 
conduc'tion, n. -shiin, transmission through a con- 
ductor : conduc'tor, n. a body that receives and com- 
mtinicates to another body electricity or heat; a 
L"ghtning-rod ; conduc'tibil'ity, n. -tl-bil'-ltl, capacity 
of receiving and transmitting : conduc'tive, a. -tlv, 
leading; transmitting: conduc'tory, a. -ftr-l, used in 

conduit, n. kim'dlt or kon', (F. condnit—hora L. 
con, and ductum. to lead or conduct), a canal or pipe 
for the conveyance of water ; a chaimel ; a surface- 

conduplicate, a. kdndtVpllkat (L. con, and du- 
plico, I double), doubled; folded upon itself. 

condyle, n. kon'dU (Gr. kondulos, a knuckle, a 
knob), a roimded projection at the end of a bone ; a 
knuckle : condyloid, a. -dlloijd (Gr. eidos, form), re- 
semblinga condyle— generally applied to the projection 
by which the lower jaw is articulated with the head : 
condylope, n. kOn'dllOp, also condylopod, n. kondU' 
0-p6d (Gr. 2}oiis, a foot— gen. podos). aniculated ani- 
m:rls with jointed legs, as a crab, a spider, a fly, &c. 

cone, n. JcOn (L. conus, a figure like a sugar-loaf: Gr. 
konos: It. C0710: F. cone), a figure broad and round at 
the bottom, gradually lessening in circumference, like 
a sugar-loaf; the fruit of the fir, pine, &c. : conic, iU 
kOn'lk, also conical, a. kdn'ikiU, having the fonn of a 
cone; cone-shaped: con'ically, ad. -ll: conies, n. plu. 
kOn'lks, that i)art of geometry which treats of the pro- 
perties of conical figures and the curves which arise 
from their sections : conic sections, thecur>-es fonned 
by the intersections of a plane and a cone— viz., the 
parabola, tlie hvperbola, and the ellipse: coniferous, 
a. kOnif-^rxLs {h.fero, I carry), in hot., bearing cones : 
conifer, n. kOn'l/ir; plu. coniferse, ko-ntf-ir-c. trees 
or shrubs bearing cones, imluding the puie, fir, and 
juniper : coniform, a. kon'-l/aTcrm (L. forma, a 
shape), shaped like a cone : conoid, n. ko-ndyd (Gr. 
eidos, a form), that which resembles a cone ; in math., 
a solid formed bv the revolution of a conic section 
aliout its axis: adj., also conoi'dal, a. -jiol/^d^J/, pert. 
to a conoid; nearly conical: conoidlc, a.' -rflA", also 
conoidical, a. -</lA(>;, pert, to or like a conoid. 

coney, n. AO'»l— see cony. 

mate, maUfdr, laa;; mite, mtt, Mr; pine, pin; note, not, mOvi; 




„rvS with msar-, « Jj™,^'"," ■ c"Sec"d. pp : 

gether-from co», and /erre, to carry^ consult 

^on/enre : F. conferer) to.f ^^ o'^^^'f ^^ contribute : 
together; to converse ; to brm„ to or 
coifer'ring imp. : conferred p^ ^^ ^„y 

confer'rer, n. one who. confer'vae, -ve (L. con- 

o^^•n; to acknowledge as a crime or la , ^^^ ^^^ 
co»fe.:^B. top. : "Sfoi" » -/LS wtw»5 

for safe keeping: confiding. i^^^a«« ^^dence, 

posed to put confi^,*^", f rpiianc^- security ; holdness ; 
n. kdn'.fi-Mns^trust .^j^l^^f^^^j.^^'fuirbelief; trust- 

Slfvfho?cU'2Se!*a.'r!d.Kat mayhelimited: 

confine, a. fc<5«;/tn. bordering on ? ^^etit : con'^^^^^^ 

l,e eBtablished or made mo^e hr^^^^^^ ^^^^^^.^^^ 

fcon:/er.r«a-s^Mn, the act «t nxinf-n^nciifg testiinony ; 

a rebel or traitor: co^^ '=?;*f''|''X'cable. a. -ka-bl : 
eaV^'SS SiSSrV ».»»»/.»; con. 

cwu. ioy.f^ot; pure, Wd: chair 

to be on ftrc-lr«'^/°"';Y,„.5;n^of anygi-eatmass, 

gether-from con, andyJums. "owing ^ it ,' j 
I. co«/we»/). iX oiler fndsp^eaTnT^cdnWnce: 
runnmgmtoeach other ana sp^ together of two or 

S^TS^rfl^^XaVStSLr; a c4wd; a 

multitude collected. formare, to form, to 

conform, v. kon-fawrmjh. ^onjorma • ^^^^g_. 

one above another m P'^^^'if/.g*;'^„,^:sftan, the act of 

to blend-from con. and /"^^f^^ig ^ fferent things so 
fondre: It. con/onctere) to iranglem ^r blend ; 

that they cannot ^« «^>f '"^'"i, , ^r stupofv; to cast 
to confuse or pe/plex ! to aston^^^^^o^ndlig, imp. : 
down; to terrify; *" '^Xd^er n one who: con- 
^^^^^kTd, TfaZuar'lan,uaoe. hatefully; 

Irrie^'a'broShood;' a society or body of men- 
generaliy a religious one ^^^ ^^^^ ^„,. 

I^fo ^l?e?^eVe,^ce^o?: ^^o^^f 'ring, imp^^ conf^ont'ed, 
pp : confront'er, n. one who. 
game, jog, shun, thing, ihere, zeal. 




confuse, v. kdn-fazf (L. con/usus, disordered— from 
con, and/usus, poured out, diffused: It. con/uso: F. 
con/us), to mix or disorder things so that they cannot 
be distinguished ; to render indistinct ; to perplex ; to 
throw into disorder ; to a^'itate by surprise or shame : 
confu'sing, imp.: coafused', pp. kOn-fuzd' : confu- 
sedly, ad. -ftV-z6d-ll : confusedness, n.: confusion, n. 
-/tl'zkun, disorder ; iudistiiictuess ; astonisliiuent ; 
distraction of mind. 

confute, V. kon-fut' (L. confutarc, to cool down, to 
repress— from con, and futum, a vessel to sprinkle 
water: It. con/utare: F. confuter), to prove to be 
wrong or false ; to convict of error by argument or 
proof: confuting, imp. : confuted, pp. : confu'ter, n. 
one who: confutable, a. -ta-bl: con'futa tion, n. 
-fa-td'shan. Uio ai tof disproving: coafu'tant, u. one 
who coalutt's or undertakes to confute. 

conge, n. ko/uf-zha (F. leave), leave ; farewell ; part- 
ing ceremony; bow: v. to take leave by a bow or 
other mark of civility or respect : coa'geed, pp. -zhad : 
conge d'elire, -de-ler (F. cong', leave ; elire, to choose), 
the sovereign's permission to a deau and chapter to 
choose a bishop. 

congeal, v. konjei' (L. congelare, to congeal— from 
con, and gelu, frost: It. congelare: F. congeler), to 
.change from a fluid to a solid state, as by cold or loss 
of heat ; to fix or stagnate ; to produce a sensation of 
cold or shivering by some external cause : congeal'- 
ing, imp. : congealed', pp.-^eW: congeal'able, a. -d-bl, 
that can be thickened or made solid: con'gela'tion, 
n. -je-la'shun, the act of converting a rtuid into a solid, 
as by cold. 

congener, n. kon-je'ner (L. congener, of the same 
species or kind— from con, and genus, a kind: It. con- 
genere: F. congenere), one of the same origin or kind: 
congen'erous, a. -Jen'-er-us: con'gener'ic, a,, -je-mr'-lk, 
of the same kind or nature. 

congenial, a. kon-je'nl-dl (L. con, and genialis, jovi- 
al, genial ; genius, fondness for good living), adapted ; 
suitable; kindred; similar; belonging to the nature: 
congenially, ad. -II: conge'nial'ity, n. -i-ti, suitable- 
ness ; state of being congenial. 

congenital, a. konjSn-t-tai (L. congenitus, born to- 
gether—from coji, and genitas, brought forth, pro- 
duced: It. congcnito), of the same birth; born with 
another ; existing from biith, as a disease or some de- 

conger, a. fcort5r;gfsr(L. conger : It. congro : Y.congre), 
a kind of sea-eel. 

congeries, n. plu. kdn-je'rl-ez' (L. a heap, a pile— 
from con, and gero, I bear or bring), a collection of 
small particles or bodies forming one mass. 

congest, V. kon-jest (L. congesius, pressed together— 
from con, and gestum, to carry: It. congestione ; F. 
congestion, congestion), to gather into a mass: con- 
gesting, imp. : congest ed, pp. : adj. containing an 
unnatural accumulation of blood: congestion, n. -yun, 
a collection of blood or matter in any part of an 
animal body hardened into a mass or tumour : conges'- 
tive, a. -tlv, tending to congestion. 

conglobate, a. kCn'-glo-hat (L. conglobafum, to gather 
into a ball— from con, a.nd globus, a ball: It. conglo- 
hare), formed or gathered into a hall; in anat., glob- 
ular: V. to form into a ball or hard round substance: 
conglobated, pp. : con'globa'tion, n. -ba'shun. 

conglomerate, a. kon-glom'er-dt (L. conglomeratum, 
to roll together— from coK, and grtortierare, to wind into 
a ball: It. conglomerare: F. conglomArer), gathered 
together, as a ball of thread ; gathered into a mass : 
n. a sort of coarse rough rock composed of various 
substances, as pebbles of quartz, flints, &e. — also 
called pudding-stone: v. to coUei.t into a round mass: 
conglom'era'ting, imp. : conglomerated, )ip. : con- 
glom era'tlon, n. -d'-shnn, collection of various par- 
ticles of bodies into a mass. 

conglutinate, v. kCn-gln'-tl-ndt (L. conglutinatuvi, 
to unite firmly together — from con, and gluten, glue: 
It. conglutinare: F. coiiglutiner), to glue tog(?ther; to 
heal a wound by uniting the parts by a ti-uacioiis 
substance ; to unite : conglu'tina'ting, imii. : con- 
glu'tina'ted, pp.: conglu'tlna'tion, n. ■nd'-shiin: con- 
glutina'tive, a. -na'tlv, having the power of uniting 
by means of a gluey substance: conglu'tina'tor, n. 
that whi<;h. 

Congo, n. kdng'gd, also congou (Chinese), a fine va- 
riety of black tea from China. 

congratulate, v. kon-grdt'u-ldt (L. congratulatus, 
■wisheil joy warmly— from con, and gratulor, I wish 
Joy: It. coiigrutulare : F. con^atufer), to profess one's 

mate, mdt./dr, luXv; mete, met, 

joy to another on account of some event deemed 
happy or fortunate; to wish joy to another: congrat- 
ulating, imp.: congratulated, pp.: congrat'ula'- 
tion, u. -Id-shun, the act of expressing joy or good 
wishes to another— commonly used in plural: con- 
grat'ula'tor, n. one who: congrat'ulator'y, a. -Id-ter'-l, 
expressing joy for the good fortune of another. 

congregate, v. k6ng'-gr6gdt (L. congregatum, to col- 
lect into a flock— from con, and grex, a flock, a herd), to 
collect separate persons or things into one place ; to 
bring into a crowd ; to assemble ; to meet : con'gre- 
ga'ting, imp. : congregated, pp. : congregation, n. 
-gd-shun, an assembly of persons; a number of per- 
sons met for divine worship: con'grega'tional, a. 
-shun-dl, pert, to an assembly of persons : con'grega'- 
tionaUsm, n. -Izm, the system of church government 
in which each church or congregation claims com- 
plete control of its own affairs: con'grega'tionalist, 
n. -dl-lst, one who holds to the complete independ- 
ence of each church. 

congress, n. kong'-gris (L. congressus, a friendly 
meeting together— from con, and gressm, a step, a 
course: It. congresso F. congres), a meeting; an 
assembly of persons for the settlement of affairs 
between different states or countries ; tlie legislature 
of the United States of America: congressional, a. 
-gresh'-undl, pert, to a congress : congres'sive, a. 
-grUs'-slv, coming together. 

congruent, a. kon'-groo-cnt (L. congruhitia, agree- 
ment, harmony : It. congruenza), suitable ; agreeing ; 
harmonious: con'gruence, n. -grdb-ens, agreement: 
con'gruous, a. -grub- us, accordant; suitable; consist- 
ent: con'gruously, ad. -ll: congruity, n. kon-grd'i-ti, 
the relation of agreement between things: fitness: 

conia, n. ko-nl'd, also coneine, n. ko'ne-ln' (L. 
conium, hemlock), the poisonous alkaloid of the plant 
con ic, con'ics, coniferous, &c.— see under cone. 
conirosters, n. plu. kon'i-ros'-ters (L. conus. a cone, 
and rostrum, a beak), a family of birds having strong 
bills more or less conical: con'iros'tral, a. -rOs'-trdl. 
having a thick conical beak, as a crow. 

conjecture, n. kon-jek'tur (L. conjectura, an infer- 
ence, a conclusion— from con, and j actum, to throw: 
It. conjectura: F. conjecture), a guess; a supposition ; 
an opinion formed on very slight evidence : v. to form 
an opinion by guess or on veiy slight evidence; to 
surmise: conjec'turing, imp.: conjectured, pp. -turd: 
conjec'turer, n. -til-rir, one who : conjec'tural, a. -rdl, 
depending ou a guess or on slight evidence : conjee • 
turally, ad. -tt: conjec'turable, a. -tu-rd-bl. 

conjoin, v. kon-jdyn' (F. conjoindre, to conjoin— 
from L. con, and jango, I join or fasten), to unite ; to 
connect or associate: conjoin 'ing, imp. : conjoined', 
pp. -joynd': conjoint', a. -joynf, united ; connected : 
conjointly, ad. -ll: conjoint'ness, n. 

conjugal, a. kon'-joo-gdl (L. conjugalis, relating to 
marriage— from con, and jugum, a yoke or bond : It. 
conjugate: F. conjugal}, pert, to marriage; matrimo- 
nial ; connubial : con'jugally, ad. -ll. 

conjugate, v. kon'-joo-gat (L. conjugatum, to unite — 
from C071, and jugum, a yoke ; It. conjugarc), to unite ; 
to exhibit a verb in all its principal parts ; to inflect a 
verb : n. a word agi-eeing in derivation with another 
word : adj. in bot., a pinnate leaf composed of a single 
pair of leaflets: conjugating, imp.: con'juga'ted, pp : 
con'juga'tion, n. -ga'^hun. in iinan.. the exhibition of 
the principal parts of a verb; in phys., the simplest 
form of reproduction, in wliiih the union of two in- 
dividuals takes place : conjugate diameter, a diame^ 
ter parallel to a tangent at the vertex of the primi- 
tive diameter. 

conjunct, a. kon-jiinkf (L. conjunctum, to loin 
together, to unite— from con, and juncfum, to join, 
to couple), conjoined; united: conjunctly, ad. -ll: 
conjunc'tion, n. -pingk'-shnn, union; connection; iii 
astron., the meeting of two or more planets in the 
sanu' part of the heavens, or in the direct line of the 
eyt>, as the moon with the sun at new moon ; in gram., 
a joining or connecting word: conjunc'tive, a. -tlv, 
serving to unite: conjunctively, ad. -Zf; conjunc'- 
tiveness, n. : conjuncture, n. -tur, a Joining to- 
gether; a conilunaiion or union, as of causes; an oc- 
casion ; a crisis. 

conjure, v. k6nj6r' (L. conjurare, to combine to- 
gether under an oath— from con, atuXjurare, to swear: 
F. co7Uurrr), to call on or sununon by a sacred name ; 
to implore solemidy: conjuring, imp. : conjured', pp. 
Jiir; pine, pin; note, n6t, m6ve: 




•pdrd': conjure'ment, n.: conjura'tion, n. -jSb-ra'shun, 
the act of using certain words or ceremonies iu order 
to gain the assistance of a superior power ; the act of 
summoning in a sacred name: conjurer, n. kdn-jO'-rir, 
one who summons in a sacred name : conju'ror, n. -jO- 
ror, one bound by oath with others: conjure, v. kun'- 
jer, to act in some manner by supernatural influence ; 
to practise ma^ic arts : con'juring, imp. : con'jured, 
pp. -jerd: con'jurer, n. -er, one wlio pretends to the 
secret art of performing things supernatural; a jug- 
gler ; a man of sagacity. 

connascence, n. k67i-nds'sSns (L. con, and nascens, 
being born, springing up; natus, born), a common 
birth or origin; act of growing together: connate, 
a. kon'nat, born with another ; in bot., applied to two 
leaves united by their bases: connat'ural, a. -ndt'd- 
rod, connected by nature or birth ; inherent : connat'- 
urally, ad. -li. 

connect, v. kon-nekt' (L. connectere, to bind or 
fasten together — from con, and nccto, I tie, I bind), 
to tie or link together; to knit or fasten together ; 
to join or unite; to combine or associate; to have 
a close relation: connecting, imp.: connected, 
pp. : connec'tedly, ad. -li: connec'tive, a. -tic, able to 
connect: n. that which joins: connection or con- 
nexion, n. -nek-shun, state of being joined or fasten- 
ed together ; union by an intervening substance ; rela- 
tion by blood or marriage ; a religious sect : n. plu. 
acquaintances ; business friends. Note. — By most 
writers the spelling connection (L. con, necto, I tie) 
and connexion (L. con, nemis, tied) are used indiffer- 
ently. As derived from the English verb connect and 
the Latin necio, the spelling connection should be pre- 
ferred to that of connexion. If, however, both forms 
are preserved, their application ought to be restricted, 
and they ought not to be made identical in significa- 
tion. As suggested by Dr Latham, the form (1) con- 
nection shoiild be used when a link or bond of union 
is meant; and (2) connexion when t}ie object which is 
linked is signified — thus (1) connection, n. kon-nek' 
shiin, state of being fastened togetlier; act of fastening 
together; junction by an intervening substance or 
medium; just relation to something precedent or 
subsequent ; coherence : (2) connexion, n. kon-nek- 
shun, a relation bymarriage or blood ; a religious sert 
or conununion ; circle of pei-sons with whom any one 
is in contact. 

connive, v. kon-nW (L. connivere, to wink or shut 
the eyes : F. conniver), to close the eyes upon the faults 
or wrong-doings of another; to pretend ignorance of 
the faults of another ; to overlook a wrong act :. con- 
niving, imp.: connived', pp. -nlvd': conniver, n. one 
who : conni'vance, n. -rii-cdns, pretended ignorance of, 
or blindness to, the faults of others. 

connoisseur, n. kon'-nls-ser' (F.), a good judge in the 
fine arts ; a knowing or skilful critic, espe(.-ially ap- 
plied to painting and sculpture, &c. : con noisseur'- 
fihip, n. the office of. 

connote, v. kon-not' (L. con, and noto, I mark), to 
imply ; to include ; to betoken : conno'ting, imp. : 
conno'ted, pp. : connotation, n. kon'-no-ta'-shUn, the 
act of designating with something ; implication ; in- 
ference: conno'tative, a. -no'-ta-tlv, attributive. 

connubial, a. kon-nu'-bl-dl (L. connubialis, pert to 
wedlock — from co7i, and nubo, I marry), pert, to mar- 
riage; nuptial. 

conoid and conoidal— see cone. 

conquer, v. komj'-ker (L. conquirere, to seek after 
earnestly— from con, and quccrere, to seek: It. con- 
quidere; F. conquertr, to conquer), to overcome by 
physical force, as an enemy in battle ; to vanquish ; 
to defeat ; to subdue by argument or by moral influ- 
ence ; to gain by perseverance or effort : con'quering, 
imp.: con quered, pp. -kerd: con'queror, n. one who 
has obtained a victory: con'querable, a. -a-hl, that 
may be overcome: con'quest, n. -kicist (old F. con- 
giu;ste, conquest: L. C07iquisitu$, sought out, selected), 
the act of overcoming by physical or moral force ; suc- 
cess in am>s ; the thing conquered. 

consanguineous, a. k6n'sd7i(j-(jivln'-i-us (L. coTisan- 
ffuineus, related by blood— from con, and sanguis, 
blood: It. consanffuineo : F. consanguin), related by 
birth or blood; descended from the same parent or 
ancestor: con'sanguin'ity, n. -l-tl, relationship by 
blood ; descent from the same ancestor. 

conscience, n. kon'-shins (L. conscientia, a knowing 
along with others— from con, and sciens, knowing: 
It. conscienza: F. conscience), self-knowledge or judg- 
ment of right and wrong; the power or faculty by 

which we Judge of the rectitude or wickedness of our 
own actions ; justice ; real sentiment ; truth ; candour ; 
scruple : con scienceless, a.: con scien'tious, a. -shl-6n- 
shi'is, n-gulated by cuusiicnr.- ; smiinilous or exact, 
as in word or deed : con scien'tiously, ad. -ll: con'- 
scien'tiousness, n. a scrupulous regard to the decis- 
ions of conscience: conscious, a. -shils (L. conscius, 
privy to), possessing the power of knowing one's own 
thoughts and actions ; having knowledge of anything 
without extraneous information; aware; sensible: 
consciously, ad. -ll: consciousness, n. the know- 
ledge of what passes in one's own mind : con'scion- 
able, a. -shun-d-bl, according to conscience ; reason- 
able; just: con'scionably, ad. -dbll: conscionab'le- 
ness, n. -dh'-l-ncs. 

conscription, n. kOn-skrlp'-shiin (L. conscripfio, a 
writing — from con, and scriptus, engraved or written : 
F. conscripti07i), a forced enrolment of all males 
above a certain age for naval or military service, 
adopted in France and other Continental countries : 
conscript, n. kun'-skript, one drawn by lot from the 
enrolled list : adj. enrolled : conscript-fathers, sena- 
tors of anc. Rome. 

consecrate, v. kd7i-s6-krat (L. coTisea-atum, to dedi- 
cate or devote to a deity— from con, and sacer, sacred : 
It. consecrare : F. consacrer), to make or declare sa- 
cred ; to set apart or dedicate to the service and wor- 
ship of God ; to render venerable or make respected : 
con'secra'ting, imp.: consecrated, pp.: con'secra- 
tor, n. one who : con'secra'tion, n. -kra'-shiin, a sepa- 
ration from a common to a sacred use ; the act of 
dedicating to the service of God : con'secra'tory, a. 
-ter-l, making sacred: con'secra'tedness, n. 

consecution, n. kon'-se-ku'-shfm (L. co7iseciiiio, a con- 
sequence — from con, and secutus, followed), a train 
of consequences from premises ; succession ; series 
of tilings that follow each other: consec'utive, a. 
-sSk'-U-tlv, following one another in regular order ; 
succeeding: consecutively, ad. -ll: consec'utiveness, 
n. -ncA". 

consent, n. kon-s&nt' (L. co7isentire, to agree— from 
con, and seiitire, to think, to feel : It conse7itire : F. 
consentir), a yielding of the mind or will to the pro- 
posals or conditions of another ; a conceding what 
may be withheld ; concurrence ; agreement : v. to 
yield ; to agree in mind and will ; to pennit : con- 
sent ing, imji. : consent'ed, pp.: consent'er, n. one 
who: consentaneity, n. -td-ne'-l-tl, mutual agi-ee- 
nient: consentaneous, A.kon'-sen-td'-nl-us, agreeable; 
consistent with: con'senta'neously, ad. -ll: consen- 
ta'neousness, n. : consentient, a. k6n-sen'-shi-e7it, 
agreeing in mind : consent'ingly, ad. -l7ig-H. 

consequent, a. kon'-se-kivent (L. co7iseque7iHa, a con- 
sequence—from C071, and seq7ie7is, following : It. co?i- 
sequente; F. conseque7it, consequent), following as a 
natural effect : n. that which follows a cause ; an 
effect: con'sequence, n. -kivens, that which naturally 
foUows an effect ; an event or effect resulting from 
some preceding act or cause ; result or issue ; import- 
ance; influence; moment: con'sequently, ad. -ll: 
con'sequen tial, a. -kicen'-shal, following as the ef- 
fect ; important ; conceited ; pompous : con'sequen'- 
tially, ad. -ll: in consequence, by means of; as the 
eftect of. 

conserve, n. kon'-scrv (L. C07iservare, to keep thor- 
oughly—from con, and servare, to keep, to preserve : 
It. conservare: F. cmiservei-), fruit crushed and pre- 
served among sugar ; jam ; any fruit or vegetable pre- 
served by sugar : v. ko7i-serv' to keep in sound or safe 
state ; to defend from injury,; to preserve fruits, &c.. 
by means of sugar: conserv'ing, imp.: conserved', 
pp. -sei-vd': conser'ver, n. one who: conservable, a. 
-vd-bl, that maybe preserved from injury : conserva- 
tion, n.M«:ser-fa'5/i?(n, the keeping of a thing in a safe 
or entire state: conservant, a. presei-ving; having 
the power of preserving from decay : conser'vancy, 
n. -vdn-sl: conser'vative, a. -vd-tlv. able to preserve 
from loss, decay, or injuiy: n. that which preser\'es; 
in politics, one opposed to unwarranted or hasty 
changes in the state: conservatively, ad. -ll: con- 
ser'vativeness, n.: conservatism, n. -tlzm, the prin- 
ciples and opinions of conservatives: con'serva'tor, 
n. -va'-tor, an individual who has the charge of pre- 
serving anything, as the public peace, a museum, &c.: 
conser vatory, n. -vd-tifr-i, a place where anything is 
kept as nearly as possible in its natural state, as plants 
in a greenhouse, Xc. ; a greenhouse : adj. having the 
quality of preserving from loss or decay : conserva- 
toire, n. k67i-ser'idtwdr{F.), a public school of music. 

cow, boy, foot; pure, Md; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




consider, v. kdn-sld'er (L. considerare, to look at 
carefully: P. considerer: It. considerare), to fix the 
Riind on ; to think on with care ; to ponder ; to medi- 
tate on; to reflect; to deliberate : consid'ering, imp.; 
considered, pp. -crd: considerable, a. -ir-abl, that 
may be considered ; important ; valuable ; moderately 
larjre: consld'erably, ad. ■a-bll: consid'erableness. n. 
ab-l-nis: considerate, a. kOn-.-id-tr-at. tliMii-httuI; 
careful; prudent; liaving regard to: considerately, 
ad. -ll: considerate' consideration, n. -d' 
shftn, mature thousht ; reflection ; regard ; claim to 
notice ; that which induces to an agreement, as in a 
conti-act or bargain : consid'ering, a. deliberative ; 
reflective : prep. Uiking into accoimt ; making allow- 
ance for— as in the sentence, "It is not po.ssible to act 
otherwise, considering the weakness of our nature": 
consideringly, ad. -ll. 

consign, v. kOn-sin' (L. consignare, to put one's seal 
to— from con, and signutn. a seal or stamp : It. con- 
fignare; F. consigner, to consign), to send, transfer, 
or deliver; to commit or intrust to ; to intrust goods 
to another for sale: consigning, imp.: consigned', 
■pp. -s}nd' : consign'er, n. one wlio : consign'ment, n. 
the act of sending or committing for safe keeping or 
management ; goods sent for sale : consignee, n. icon'- 
fine', the person to whom goods are intrusted or 
sent for sale; a fa. tor: consignor or -er, n. Ac>?i-sl'«er, 
he who consigns goods to others for sale, &c. 

consist, V. kOii-slsf (L. consistere, to make to stand 
—from con, and sistere, to cause to stand : It. con- 
.fistere : F. consinter), to be composed of ; to be made 
up of; to stand or be in : consist'ing, imp.: consist'ed, 
I'P. : consis'tent, a. unifonn; not contradictory or 
opposed ; agreeing : consistently, ad. -H : consis'- 
tence, n. -sfs'-tin^, also consis'tency, n. -feri-sl. degree 
of density or flrmness of a body; agreement or har- 
mony in all parts ; conduct in harmony with profes- 
^^!on: to consist with, to agree; to be in accordance 

consistory, n. kon-sls'fer-l (see consist), a spiritual 

• ourt ; the court held by a bishop in his diocese for 
tlie trial of ecclesiastical causes ; the college of Cardi- 
nals at Rome ; a councU or assembly of ministers and 

• Iders: con'sisto'rial, a. -to'ri-dl, pert, to: con'sisto'- 
nan, a. -io'-rl-dn, relating to an order of Presbjterian 

console, n. kOti'-sol (F. console— from L. con, and 
soUdus, solid), an ornamental bracket carved in wood 
ur stone for supporting a cornice ; an ornament, as on 
the key-stone of an arch ; a small fancy side-table. 

console, v. kOn-sOV (L. consolari, to comfort greatly 
—from con, and solari, to comfort : It. consolare -. F. 
consoler), to comfort ; to cheer the mind in distress or 
depression; to soothe: consoling, imp.: adj. adapted 
to console or comfort : consoled', pp. -sold': conso'Ier 
n. -Ur, one who: conso'lable, a. -Id-M, that mav be 
comforted : con'sola'tion, n. -la'shun, the act of com- 
forting, cheering, or soothing the mind ; refreshment 
of mind or spirits : consol'atory, a. -sOl'a-ter-l, tend- 
ing to soothe or impart comfort. 

consolidate, v. kon-sol'l-ddt (L. consolidatum, to 
make very solid— from con, and solidris, solid: It. 
consohdare: F. consolider), to form into a compact 
mass ; to make dense and firm ; to unite or combine 
into one ; to bring together separate parts, as of a 
broken bone; to grow firm and hard: consol'ida'ting 
imp. : consolida ted, pp. : consollda'tion, n. -da ■-.<!, ihi 
the act of making firm or solid; the act of uiiiiiu'' 
two or more parts or things into one : consol idant^, 
11. -ddnt, a medicine that unites the parts of wounded 
flesh and heals: adj. having the quality of uniting 
wounds or forming new flesh : consol'ida'tive, a. -da- 
fie, hnving the quality of healing or reiid(?ring corn- 
consols, n. plu. kdn-sdlz' or kUn'- (contr. from con- 
foUOutr), most of the large sums of money borrowed 
by the nation at various times on different terms con- 
solidated or brought together into one scheme, bear- 
ing the same rate of interest, 3 per cent, for which 
nn act was passed in 1751— the whole public debts of 
tlie nation are called stocka. 

consonant, a. kOn'sO-ndnt (L. consonans, a con- 
wonant— from con, and sono, I sound : It. consonante: 
t. coiv^onnanf), agreeing; according; consistent; 
suitable: n. a l-ttcr wlii.h canimt be sounded without 
avow.i: con Bonantly, , id. ./)■ consonance i\.-iuhis 
and consonan'cy, n. -,„)„.w, Mrmnl nr ,-,Lrr.'-„„.„t in 
houii,is; :i-r.Mi„. -lit ;, -.insist. iiry: consonants, n. 
plu. the letters of the ali.habet which cannot be I 

sounded, or but imperfectly, without the aid of the 
letters a, e, i, o, u, sometimes w, y, called vowels: 
con sonons, a. -mis, agreeing in sound : con'sonan'tal, 
a. -nan'tai, pert, to a consonant. 

consort, n. kon'sorf. (L. consors, having an equal 
share with another— from con, and *ws, lot, condi- 
tion : It. consorte ; F. consorts, partners), a companion 
or partner ; a wife or husband— applied to those in 
e.xalted station ; union ; one ship keeping company 
with another : v. iMi-sorf, to associate ; to keep com- 
pany with: consorting, imp.: consorted, vv ■ con'- 
sortship, n. 

conspicuous, a. kon-siAk'-ii-ns (L. conspicuus, that is 
or comes in view, visible— from con, and specie, I see : 
It. conspicm), easy to be seen by the eve; obvious to 
the mind ; prominent ; eminent : distinguished : con- 
spicuously, ad. -u-Os-li: conspic'uousness, n. oi)en- 
ness to view ; extensively known and distinguished. 

conspire, v. kOn-splr" (L. conspirare. to blow to- 
gether—from co?i, and spirare, to breathe, to blow: 
It. conspirare: F. conspirer), to band together to 
commit crime ; to plot ; to hatch treason ; to combine 
for an unlavrful purpose ; to concur to one end : con- 
spi'rlng, imp.: conspired', pp. -spnrd'.- conspir'acy, n. 
-splr'a-si, a plot ; two or more persons engaged to- 
gether for an unlawful or evil purpose: consp&'ator, 
n. -ter, one who engages in a conspiracy: conspi- 
ringly, ad. -spl'rlng-ll. 

constable, n. kUn'sta-U (L. comes stdbuli, the atten- 
dant or count of the stable— hence master of the horse, 
whose duty it was to preserve public order : It. conr 
testdbile, a constable), once a high oflTicer of the Crown, 
now a peace-oflftcer ; a policeman: con'stableship, n.: 
constablery, n. kon'-sta-hlir'-l, the body or jurisdiction 
of constables : con'stablewlck, n. ■ii-lk. the district to 
which a constable is limited: constabulary, a. -stdb, 
u-ler-i, pert, to or consisting of constables: n. the 
body of constables in a district: high constables, a 
standing body of citizens invested with special powers 
for preserving order: special constables, a body of 
citizens appointed to act on special emergencies. 

constant, a. kon'stant (L. constans, standing firm— 
from cmi, and sta/is, standing: It. costante: F. con- 
stant), firm ; fixed ; imchanged ; steadfast ; unchange- 
able, as in mind, purpose, affection, or principle ; de- 
termmed; invariably the same: n. that which re- 
mains unchanged : con'stantly, ad. -ll -. con'stancy 
n. -stdn-sl, fixedness ; unshaken determination ; lust- 
ing aff'ection. 

constellation, n. kon'st el-la'- shiin (L. constellntio, a 
group of stars— from con, and stella, a star : F. constel- 
lation), a cluster or group of stars called by a particu- 
lar name ; an assemblage of beauties or excellencies, 
consternation, n. kon'-ster-na'shiin (L. coiisternatio, 
dismay, alarm — from con, and sternere, to throw 
dovn\, to prostrate: It. costernazione : F. consterna- 
tion), amazement that produces confusion and terror; 
a state of horror that unfits for action ; excessive 
wonder or siu-prise. 

constipate, v. kOn'-stl-pat (L. constipatum, to press 
closely together— from con, and stipare, to stuff or 
cram: It. costiparc: F. constipev), to cram into a nar- 
row compass; to thicken; to crowd the intestinal 
canal; to make costive: con 'stlpa 'ting, imp.: consti- 
pa'ted, pp.: con'stipa'tion, n. -pa'-sfiCn, the act of 
crowding or pressing anything into a smaller compass: 

constituent, a. kon-stlt'-ii-ent (L. constitv.ens, putting 
or placmg together— from con, and statuens. setting 
up: It. constituente: F. consfittia)it), necessary or 
essential; elemental: n. an essential or component 
part: that which constitutes or composes; a voter 
for a member of Parliament: constituency, n. -tn-sl 
the whole body of electors within ccrt;un limits as a 
tovm or county: constitute, v. kdn'stitut. to set up 
or establish; to make; to appoint ; to cmjiower: con - 
stitu'tlng, imp.: con'stitu'ted, pp.: con stitu'ter, n. 
on.' who: con'stitu'tion, n. ■tit'-,<fiiin, the iiati'irii 
Inune of any human being or any animal ; the 
inperof the mind, passions, or affections; 
r character or stni< ture of an>'thing, as of 
:alpli.shed form of govcniment in acountn-: 
a particular law or regnhition : con'stitu'tional, a. -dl, 
iiili.n'iit in tlie natural frame of the bodv or mind; 
l.'-Ml ; r.'latiiiLr t.) the constitution of a I'oiiiitrv: n. in 
'""'.'''"'' '"";'""?/'■. a l.risk w:ilk taken for prcscr\ ing 
iM.ilily health: constitutionally, ad. -ll - con'stitu - 
tionalist, n. -<lM,^^ a fri 

i-uliar t. 
■ pcculi 
■; thee; 

an existing constilu- 
tion or government; the framer or friend of a new 
tnute, mdt,/i]r, Mv; mite, mit, fUr; pUi€,2}ln; nOte, nOl, mOve; 




constitution ; also con'stitu'tioiiist, n.: con stitu tive, 
a. -tmic, that constitutes or forms ; havnig power to 
enact : con'stitu'tively, ad. -U. 

constrain, v. kon-strim' (L. constringere, to draw or 
bind together— from con, and stringere, to bind, to 
strain : It. costringere ; F. contraindre, to constrain), to 
force or compel ; to press or urge with a_ force sutn- 
cient to produce a desired effect : constrain ing, imp. : 
constrained', pp. -strand: constrain edly, ad. -Cd-ll : 
constrain able, a. -dU, that may be forced or re- 
pressed : constraint', n. -strant', any force or power, 
physical or moral, that compels to do or keeps from 
doing; urgency. 

constrict, v. kun-strlkf (L. constridus. drawn or 
bound together— see constrain), to draw together ; to 
bind: to draw into a narrow compass : constnc oing, 
imp.: constric'ted, pp. : adj. tightened or contracted: 
cofistric'tor, n. that which contracts or draws to- 
getlier: a large species of serpent, as the hoa constric- 
tor: constric'tion, n. -strlk-shvn, a contracting or 
drawing together. ^ . , ^ 

constringe, v. kon-strlnf (see constrain), to con- 
tract ; to force into a narrow compass : constring mg, 
imp.: constringed', pp. -sfrlnjd': constringent, a. 
■strln'jent, having the property of contracting or 
drawing together. ,. ^, , ., ,. 

construct, v. kon-strukt' (L. construction the building 
of anything— from con, and structum, to pile up, to 
build: It. costruzione. : F. construction), to form or 
build ; to compose and put in order ; to make ; to in- 
vent: construc'ting, imp.: construc'ted, pp.:^ con- 
struc'tor, n. one who: construe tion, n. -struH-siiun, 
the thing formed or built ; the proper arrangement 
and connection of words in a sentence ; the sense, 
meaning, or interpretation, as of the words of another, 
&c. ; the manner of di-awing figures or diagrams in 
mathematics: construc'tional, a. -«i, pert, to: con- 
struc'tive, a. -tlv, not exactly expressed but inferred: 
constructively, ad.-K: construc'tiveness,n. mphren., 
the faculty of the mind that produces a desire to con- 
struct or form. ^ . I 4.^ 
construe, v. kon'sfrO (L. consfruere, to construct, to 
make: F. and It. cows<rMtre—see construct), inadea( 
or foreign language, to arrange words in their natural 
order and to translate them ; to interpret ; to explain ; 
con'struing, imp. : con'strued, pp. -strod. 

constuprate, v. kon'stiVprat (L. constupratum, to 
violate— from con, and stmnv, I ravish), to violate 
the person of; to ravish: con'stupration, n. -prd- 

* consubstantial, a. kon'sub-st&n'-shai (L. consuhstan- 
tialis—irom con, and substantia, substance or matter), 
having the same substance, essence, or nature: con- 
substan'tially, ad. -ll: con'substan'tiate, v. -shi-ut, to 
unite in one common substance or nature: consub- 
stan'tia'ting, imp. : con'substan'tia'ted, pp. : con - 
substan'tia'tion, n. -sM-a'shun, according to the tol- 
lowers of Luther, a substantial though mysterious 
union of the body and blood of our Lord with the 
bread and wine of the sacrament after consecration ; 
con'substan'tial'ity, n. -shl-al'l-ti, tlie existence of 
more than one in the same substance: consubstan- 
tialist, n. -fe<, one who. , , ^ , ., 

consuetude, n. kon'swe-fud (L. consuefudo, habit, 
use— from con, and suetum, to be accustomed, to be 
wont), custom; usage: con'suetudinary, a. -tml-h 
ner-l, customaiy; derived from use and wont; from 

time immemorial. 

consul, n. kon'sul (L. consul— irom. consulo, I con- 
sider, I deliberate : It. console ; F. consul, a consul), in 
anc. Rome, a person elected to exercise sovereign 
power in the state— there being two of them chosen 
annually ; a person chosen to represent a sovereign in 
a foreign state, and to look after the interests of his 
country in that state : consular, a. -su-iar,_ pert, to 
the power or dignity of a consul: consulsnip. n. the 
oflice: con'sulate, n. -su-lat, the office jurisdiction 
or residence of a consul : con'sulage, n. -liij, a duty laid 
on imports and exports by the consul of a port. 

from con. and svmnr, to take : It. consumarc: F. con- 
sumer), to destroy by separating the parts ; to eat or 
devour; to squander or waste; to spend idly, as time ; 
to become wasted; to bring to utli^r rum: consu- 
ming, imp.: consumed', pp. -sunuV: consumer, n. out; 
who : consu'mable, a. -su'md-bl, that may Ijc distroyed. 
wasted, or dissipated, as by lire : consumption, ii. 
kdn-sum'shiln (L. con, and sumptum, to take), the act 
of consuming ; a wasting away of the body by disease, 

maturely: It. consultare: F. consulter), to seek the 
opinion of another; to ask advice of; to seek for in- 
formation in, as in books ; to have regard to, in acting 
or judging: consulting, imp. : consult ed, pp. : con- 
sul'ter, n. one who : con'sulta'tion, n. -ta-shun, a 
meeting of two or more persons for deliberation on 
some matter: consul'tative, a. -td-tiv, having the 
privilege of consulting. 
consume, v. kOn-siim' (L. cojisumere, to consume— 

colv, Wy.fwt; pure, Md; chair, game. Jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 

generally understood of the lungs ; the use of the pro- 
ducts of industry: consumpt, n. kOn'suvit (contr. ot 
consumption), the use of any product of industry, as 
the consumpt of grain, of tea, &c : consump tive. a. 
-sum'-tiu, wasting; e.xliausting; affected witli disease 
of the lungs: consump'tively, ad. -II: consump tive- 
ness, n. 

consummate, a. kon-siim'mat (L. consummnre, U 
accompUsh, to finish- from con, and summa, the sum- 
mit, completion: F. consommer), complete; perfect; 
finished: •v.kon'sUm-mat or kon-sum'-, to complete; 
to finish ; to effect a purpose : con'summa'ting, imp.: 
consummated, pp.: consum'mately, ad. -ll: con - 
summa'tion, n. -nul'shun, completion; end of the 
present system of things; end of life. 

contact, n. kon'tdkt (L. contactus, touch, contact— 
from con, and tactus, touched: It. contatto: V. con- 
tact), the touching or close union of bodies ; touch. 

contagion, n. kon-ta'-jUn (L. cojifagrto, contact, 
touch— from con, and tangere, to touch: It. con<a- 
nione: F. contagion), the communication of a disease 
by contact or touch ; the subtile or virulent matter 
proceeding from the bodies of diseased persons im- 
parting the same diseases to others— the latter strictly 
applies to infection, and the former to contagion ; that 
which propagates evil or mischief : conta gious, a. 
■jus producing disease by contact or near approach ; 
containing that which may be propagated, as mis- 
chief or some affection of the mind: contagiously, 
ad. -ll : conta'giousness, n. : conta'gionist, n. one 
who believes in the contagious character ot certain 

contain, v. kon-tdn' (L. continere, to hold or keep 
together— from con, and tenere, to hold), to be able to 
hold ; to have capacity ; to comprehend ; to hold 
within limits; to include; to embrace; to inclose: 
contain'ing, imp.: contained', pp. -tand: contain- 
able, a. -d-hl, that may be contained. 

contaminate, v. kon-tam'l-nat (L. contammatum, 
to defile: It. contaminare: F. contami'iier), to pollute 
or defile; to render impure; to sully; to taint: adj. 
corrupt by base mixture : contam'ina'ting, imp. : 
contam'ina'ted, pp. : contam'ina'tion, n. -na-shun. 
pollution; defilement: contam'ina'tive, a. -na-tlv. 
tending to make impure. , . . ,, 

contankerous, a. kon-fang'ktr-us (originally a. 
slang word), querulous ; very contentious ; perverse ; 
more frequently spelt cajitoOT/ceroMS. 

contemn, v. kon-t&m' (L. contemnere, to value littls 
—from con, and temnere, to despise: It. contenncre). 
to look upon as mean and despicable ; to treat with 
scorn ; to despise ; to reject with disdain : contemn - 
ing, imp.: contemned', pp. -temd': contemner, n. 
-tcm'cr, one who. , ,^ . , j 

contemplate, v. kdn-tSm'piat (L. contemplatus, 
viewed attentively— from con, and templum, a. place 
for observation on every side: It. contcmplare; K 
contempler, to contemplate), to view with continued 
attention; to study; to meditate on or ponder over; 
to intend or design ; to muse : contem platmg, imp.: 
contem'plated, pp. : contem'plator, n. one who: 
contem'platist, n. one who : contempla tion, n. -pia- 
shiin, study; meditation; the act of considering any- 
tliing attentively : contemplative, a. -pld-tlv, given 
to study and reflection; thoughtful: contempla- 
tively, ad. -ll: contem'plativeness, n. 

contemporaneous, a. kon-tem'po-rd-nX-us, also co- 
tem'pora'neous, a. ko- (L. coniemporaneus, a contein- 
poraiT— from con, and tempus, time), living or bein.T 
at the same time : contem'pora neously, ad. -ll: con- 
tem'pora'neousness, n., also contemporaneity, n. 
-m-rd-ne'Ul, state of being contemporaneous : con- 
tem'porary, a. -pO-rcr'%, also cotem'porary, a. beins 
or existin" at the same time : n. one wlio lives at 
the same time with another. Note.— In the spelling 
of these words, usage is now in favoui- of con rather 

^contempt, n. kon-temf (L. cnntemptus, despised— 
from con. and temnere, to despise), the act of despis- 
in"- ; the act of viewing or treating as utterly mean. 




vile, and worthless ; disobedience or disrespect to a 
court, or 10 ii constituted authoritv; disgrace; shame- 
contemp tible, a. ■tim'-ti-bl, worthy of scorn ordisdain ; 
mean; vih-; (lrs]iuaMe: contemptibly, ad. -ti-bll : 
contemp tibleness, n. -?,/./„,,• contemp'tnous, a 
-^f,/i-«.*(^-,shou-iiitc or expn.s.sin;:n.iitcnii,t ordisdain; 
hau-hty; in.sok'nt : contemptuously, ad. -U: con- 
temp tuousness, n. 

contend, v. kontind' (L. confcmhre. to strain vio- 
lently— from ry?i, and t-iuhrr, to str<-ti-li- It ronfi'n-, to strive; to stni-irlc in opiH.siiion ■ to' (lisiiute 
earnestly; to debate; tostriv to olitaiii ; to quarrul- 
contend'ing, imj). : contended, jip. : contender, n.' 
one who: conten'tion, n. -Un'shfm (L. con, and ten- 
Ji'jn, to stretch, to strive), strife; violent struggle or 
effort to obtain something; quarrel; strife in words: 
contentious, a. -shus, quarrelsome; given to angry 
debate; litigious: conten'tiously, ad. -li: conten'- 
tiousness, n. 

content, a. kdn-fint' (L. contentm, contented, satis- 
ned— from cun, and tentus, held, kept within limits • 
It. contento: F. content), held or contained witliin 
limits ; quiet ; having a mind easy or satisfied : n. rest 
or quietness of mind; satisfaction and ease of mind- 
acquiescence; measure or capacity: v. to make quiet ' 
to satisfy the mind; to plf-ase; to gratifv: content'- 
ing, imp.: content'ed, pp.: content 'edly, ad. -II- 
content edness, n. : content'ment, n. -ment, quiet - 
satisfaction of mind: content'less, a. dissatisfied- 
content' and non-content', words used by the Lords 
m their House of P.irliament to express— the former 
approval, and the latter disapproval,— the former beino' 
equivalent to ay or yes, and the latter to no ■ con° 
tents, n. plu. kdn-tents' or k67i', tliat whicli is held or 
contained within a limit ; ttie heads of a book - an 
contention, contentious. &c.— see under contend 
conterminous, :i. or coterminous, a. kon- or ko-tir- 
mi-nus (L. coiittrnuim^, bordering upon— from con, 
and terminus, a limit or border), borderinc upon - 
touching at the boundary; contiguous: conter'minal' 
a. bordering upon. 

contest, V. k6n-t6st' (L. contestari, to call to witness 
—from con, and testis, a witness : It. contestare ■ F 
rontester, to contest), to dispute ; to struggle or stpve 
earnestly; to litigate; to oppose; to emulate: n. 
kon-tSst, struggle; conflict; dispute: contest'ing 
imp : contest'ed, pp. : adj. disputed : contes table, 
a. -tes-td-bl, that may be called in question or dis- 
puted : con testation, n. -ta'shun, joint testimony: 
contes tingly, ad. -li. ■' 

context, n. kdn'-tckst (L. contextus, connection— from 
con, and textus, woven : It. confesto : F. ronterte) the 
parts in a discourse or book immediately preceding 
or following the sentence quoted; in Scrm the 
verses coming before or after a verse or text by 
which Its sense may be determined or affected: con- 
texture, n tSks'tur, the composition of the parts of 
anything; the character of the component parts of a 
body ; constitution : contex'tural, a. -tilral, pert, to 
the contexture : contex'tured, a. -tiird, woven 

contiguity, n. kOn'tl-gu'-l-tl (L. contiguus, very 
near— from con, and tango, I touch : It. contiquo ■ F 
cnntigu), actual contact of bodies ; nearness of situa- 
tion or place: contiguouB,a.-rt7:?t.?<s, touching; close 
together; neighbouring; adjoining; contiguouslv 
ad. -n ; contig'uousness, n. -ils-nSg. ' 

continent, a. kun'tl-ne^it {L. continent, that restrains 
his passions— from con, and teneiis, holding: It. co?i- 
tuunte: F. continent), restrained; moderate; tem- 
perate; chaste: con'tinently, ad. -li: continence n 
-ncns, also oon'tinency, n. -ndn-sl. restraint imposed 
ui)on desires and passions—applied to men, as chas- 
tity to women. 

continent, n. k6n'tl-nSnt (L. continens, the main- 
land—from con. and ten-ens, holding: It. contincnte- 
F. continent, the mainland), a large extent of land 
containing many countries ; the mainland : the coun- 
tries of the mainland of Europe, especiallv as dis- 
tinguished from the British Islands : con'tinen'tal a 
■tai. pert, to a continent; pert, to the countries of the 

^'^t^^;^jContin'gently, ad. -;e«f.Zr, accidentally ; without 

continual, continuance, <S:c.— see continue 
continue, v. kon-tln-u (L. contijiuare, to join one 
thing to another in uninterrupted succession— from 
con, and tenere, to hold: It. continiiare: F. con- 
tinmr). to abide or remain in a state or place- to 
endure ; to extend from one thing to another ; to pro- 
tract ; to persf>vere in : contin'uing, imp. : contin'ued. 
pp. -ml: contm'uer, n. -«-,-, one who: continua'tor; 
n. -a-tor, one who continues or keeps up a series or 
succession : contin'uable, a. -u-a-hl, capable of bein" 
continued : contin'uedly, ad. -udll, without cea.sin"-1 
continuous, a. -il-us, uninterrapted ; joined witliout 
inti'rvening space : contin'uously, ad. -H .- con'tinuitv. 
n.-«M.I.H, uninterrupted connection; close union of 
parts : contm'ual, a. -u-ai, witliout interruption or 
cessation; unceasing; perpetual; constant: contin'- 
ually, ad. -II-. contm'uance, n. -dns, duration; per- 
severance ; residence ; uninterrupted succession: con- 
tinuation, n. -ua'shun, uninterrupted succession; 
carrying oil to a further point, as a line or a story : 
contin'uative, a. ■fod'-tiv, that continues: n. that 
winch continues or endures. 

contort, v. kon-tdrf (L. contortus, intricate, obscure 
— irom co)i, and tortus, twisted: It. conlorto),tn twist 
togetlier ; to pull awny ; to wi-ithe : contort'ing, imp. : 
contort ed pp. : adj. twisted together; twisted b.ock 
upon Itself; arranged so as to overlap each other: 
contortion, n. -tor'-shun, a twist or twisting; a 
wresting ; a wry motion ; a wresting or twisting of 
a part of the body out of its natural place, as the 
muscles of the face or a limb. 

contour, n. kon-tdr' (F. contour; It. contorno cir- 
cuit, outline— from L. con, and F. four; It. torno ■ L 
term's; Gr foraos, a lathe), the outline ; the Une that 

mainland of Europe. 

contingent, a. kOn-ttn'-jSnt (L. contingens, touching 
on all SKlrs-lrom am, and tavqere, to touch : It. C077- 
t^n'rrr to hapiH.,,. to fall o„t). .],.,,(.iiding on some- 
thing. -Is,.; nnr,.,t;mi ; inridrntal ; n. a quota; 
a smtahli' slian-; pi-iijiort ion ; a fortuitous event: 
contmgence, n. -j,'ns. .Uso contingency, 11. -j&n-sl. 
Ml accidental possibility; casu- 

an unforeseen event ; 

bounds or defines a figiu-e or surface. 

contra, a. or ad. kon'trd (L.), on the other hand: 
on the contrarj' ; opposite ; a common prefix, -with 
Its form counter, signifying against ; in opposition. 

contraband, a. k6?i'-tra-band' (It. contrabbando. 
Illegal tratnc- from L. contra, against, and mid L 
bannum, a proclamation), contraiy to proclamation - 
prohibited: n. prohibited goods; illegal traffic : con'- 
traban dist, n. one who tralfics in prohibited goods ; 
a smuggler; also con'trabandis'ta (Sp.). 

contract, n. kon'-trdkt (L. contractus, an agreement 
—from con, and tractus, drawn or dragged : It. con- 
tratto: F. contrat), an agreement; a mutual promise: 
a bargain ; the writing which contains the terms and 
conditions of the agreement between two or more 
persons; an act of betrothment : v. kontrdkf, to 
draw closer together; to draw into a less compass 
or bulk; to abridge; to wrinkle, as the brow; to 
betroth; to acquire, as a habit; to incur, as a debt; 
to bring on, as a disease ; to bargain ; to slirink or 
become^ shorter: contrac'ting, imp. -trdk'tuig : con- 
trac ted, pp. : contrac'tor, n. -ttr, one who agrees 
to do a certain service or work at a stipulated price 
or rate: contraction, n. -shiin. the act of drawing 
together or shortening; the thing .shortened or re- 
duced: contrac'tedly, ad. -tcd-li: contrac'tedness 
n. : contrac'tible, a. -tl-bl, capable of contraction- 
contrac'tibil'ity, n. -blV-i-t}, tlie quality of being able 
to be contracted: contrac'tibleness, n. -bt-nCs- con- 
trac'tUe, a. -til, having the power of shortening : 
tending to contract: con'tractility, n. -m-j.» the in- 
herent quality or force by which some bodies shrink 
or contract. 

contra-dance, n. kon'lra-ddns (L. contra, and 
dance), a dance in which the partners are arranged in 
opposite lines : F. coiiirc-danse, corrupted into coim- 

contradict, v. kdn'trddlkf (L. confradictio, a 
sjicaking against, a reply— from contra, and dictum, 
to speak: It. contradizioite : F. contradiction), to 
opi.oso by words; to assert th(^ contrarv of what has 

! " S'*"' : t" gaiiis.ay; to impugn: con'tradic'ting, 

imp.: contradicted, i)i>. : con tradic'ter, n. -tir. 
on.- wh.i: contradiction, n. ■,lik-sh,tn, a contrary 
stati-m.-nt; an assertion oi.poseil to what has been 
sai.l ; in<-onsisj,ney with its.-lf ; opi>osition in any 
way: con tra.dic'tive, a. -dtk-tfr, containing con- 
tnidi.tion: ndveis.' : con tradictively, ad. -/( .- con'- 
tradic tious, a. .dlk'-shr,,: inrlin.-i to contradict; 
lill.M with c..ntra.]i.-tions; ineonsist.'iit : con'tra- 
dic tiousness, n. : contradictory, a. -trr-}, affirming 
the contrary ; containing a denial of what Jias been 
a-sserted ; inconsistent : n. in logic, a proposition op- 

mate, mat, far, law; mete, mdt, Mr; plncjAn; note, nOt, tnOve; 





posed to another in all its terms : con'tradic'tonly, 
ad. -li. 

contra-distinctive, a. kon'tra-dls-tlnk'tlv (L. con- 
tra, opposite, and distinr.Hve), distinguishea or marked 
by opposite qualities : con'tra-distinc'tion, n. -tink- 
shiln, distinction by opposite qualities. 

centra-distinguish, v. kon'tnl-dls-tlng'gwishiL. con- 
tra, opposite, and distinguish), to explain not only 
by ditterent but by opposite qualities: con'tra- 
distin'guishing, imp.: con'tra-distin'guished, pp. 

centra-indicate, v. kdn'trd-ln'dl-kdt (L. contra, op- 

isite, and indicate), in med., to point out some pecu- 
.iar method of cure contrary to the usual treatment : 
con'tra-in'dicant, n. -ktlnt, symptom in a disorder 
forbidding the usual treatment : con'tra-in'dica'tion, 
n. -ka-slmn, a symptom which forbids the usual treat- 

contralto, n. kon-trdlHd (It.— from L. contra, and 
altuH, high), in harmonised music, the counter-tenor 
or alto ; one of the middle parts. 

centra-position, n. kon-trd-pO-zlsh-Un (L. contra, 
opposite, and position), a placing over against ; in 
loijic, conversion in particular propositions. 

contrapuntal, a. kon'-trd-pun'-tal (It. contrappunto, 
counterpoint in music— see counterpoint), pert, to 
counterpoint: con'trapun'tist, n. one skilled in 

contrariety, contrarily, &c.— see contrary. 

contrary, a. kon'-trd-rl (L. contrarius, lying Or being 
over against— from contra, against : It. contrario : F. 
contraire), adverse; opposite; contradictory; repug- 
nant ; in an opposite direction : n. a thing of opposite 
qualities : con'traries, n. plu. -rlz, opposites ; propo- 
sitions that destroy each other : contrary to, opposite 
to : on the contrary, in opposition ; on the other side : 
to the contrary, to an opposite purpose or intent : 
con'trari'ety, n. -ri'-l-tl,%ome inherent quality or prin- 
ciple which creates opposition; repugnance; incon- 
sistency: con'trarily, ad. -<r(t-ri-ii;: con'trariness, n.: 
con'trariwise, conj. ad. -rl-wiz, on the other hand; 

contrast, n. kon'irdst (F. C07itraste, opposition : It. 
contrastare, to oppose — from L. contra, against, 
stare, to stand), opposition or difference of qualities 
made manifest by direct comparison; opposition of 
outline or colour to increase effect: v. kon-trdst', 
to oppose different things, qualities, or conditions to 
each other that, by comparison, the superior excellence 
of one of them may be seen ; to set things in opposi- 
tion, or side by side, in order that the superiority of 
one of them may be exhibited in a more striking point 
of view : contrasting, imp. : contrast'ed, pp. 

contrate-wheei, n. kdn'-trdt-lnvel (L. contra, against, 
opposite, and tvheel), in a watch, a wheel, the teeth 
and hoop of which lie contrary to the other wheels, 
or parallel to the axis. 

contravallation, n. kon'trd-vdl-ld'shun (L. conlra, 
opposite, and vallum, a wall, a rampart), in fort., a 
trench guarded by a parapet, formed to secure the 

besiegers from the sallies of the 

contravene, v. kon'trd-ven' (L. contra, opposite, and 
venio, I come: It. contravvenire : F. contrevenir), to 
obstruct in operation; to oppose ; to defeat ; to do any- 
thing in opposition to the pi-ovisions of a law : con'- 
trave'ning, imp.: con'travened', pp. -v6nd' : con'tra- 
ve'ner,n. one who : con'traven'tion, n. -ven'-shun, ob- 
struction ; a defeating of the operation or effect, as 
of a law or treaty. 

contraversion, n. kon'trd-vir'-sMn (L. contra, op- 
posite, and versiis, turned), a turning to the opposite 

contretemps, n. kong'tr-tong (F.— from L. contra, 
against, and tempus, time), an unexpected accident 
which throws everything into confusion. 

contribute, v. kon-trib'ut (L. contributum, to con- 
tribute—from con, and tribuere, to grant or give: 
It. contribuire: F. contribuer), to give or grant in 
common with others, as to a common stock; to 
pay a share ; to give a part or share ; to impart 
aid or influence to a common purpose: centrib'- 
uting, imp. : contrib'uted, pp. : contrib'utable, a. 
-td-bl: contrib'utar'y, n. -tnr'-l, paying tribute to 
the same sovereign : centrib'utor, n. one who : con'- 
tribu'tion, n. -trl-bu'shun, anything given to a com- 
mon stock ; the payment of each man's share of some 
common expense ; the act of imparting or lending aid 
or influence for a common purpose : contrib'utive, a. 
-trWvrtlv, having the power or quality of partly pro- 

moting any purpose : contrib'utor'y, a. -tdr'X, promot- 
ing the same end ; bringing aid to the same stock or 

contrite, a. k6n'trlt (L. contritus, bruised, much 
used — from con, and tritus, rubbed : It. contrito ; F. 
coiitrit, contrite), deeply affected with grief and sorrow 
for liaving offended God; penitent; humble: con- 
tritely, ad-ll: contrition, n. -trish'Hn, deep sorrow; 
penitence ; grief of heart for sin. 

contrive, v. kon-trlv' (F. controuver, to devise— 
from L. con, and F. trouver, to find; It. trovare, to in- 
vent or seek out), to plan out ; to frame or devise ; 
to scheme: contri'ving, imp. : contrived', pp. -ti-ivd'.- 
contri'ver, n. one who: contri'vable, a. -vdhl, capa- 
ble of being planned or devised: contri'vance, n. 
-trl'vdns, the act of planning or devising ; the thing 
planned or devised ; a scheme. 

control, V. k6n-tr6l' (F. contrerolle, the copy.of a roll 
of accounts— from centre, against, and role, a roll), to 
check by a contra-account ; to restrain; to govern; 
to subject to authority: n. check; restraint; power; 
command ; that which restrains, as Board of Control : 
controlling, imp.: controlled', pp. -trold': control- 
ler, n.— spelt also comptroller, one who : controllable, 
a. -Id-bl, that may be checked or restrained: con- 
trol'lership, n. the ofilce of a controller. 

controvert, v. kon'-tro-vert (It. controvertere, to 
controvert— from L. contra, and vertere, to turn), to dis- 
pute ; to contend against in words or writing ; to 
deny and attempt to confute or disprove : con'tro- 
vert'ing, imp. : con'trovert'ed, pp. : con'trovertible, 
a. -ti-bl, disputable: con'trover'tibly, a.d. -tlbli: con' - 
trover'tist, n. one who: con'troversy, n. -ver-sl (L. 
coM/ra, and versus, turned),debate or dispute, generally 
carried on in writing ; an agitation of contrary opin- 
ions; quarrel; strife: con'trover'sial, a. -ver'shdl, re- 
lating to disputes: con'trover'sially, ad. -li: con'- 
trover'sialist, n. -isf, a disputant ; one who. 

contumacious, a. kon'-tu-md'-shus (L. contumacia, 
haughtiness, pride— from L. con, and tumere, to swell, 
to be puffed up : It. contumacia; F. contumace), stub- 
born ; perverse ; imyielding ; disobedient to lawful 
authority: cen'tuma'ciously, ad. -li: con'tuma'cious- 
ness, n. -shits-nes: con'tumacy, n. -md-si, stubborn- 
ness ; contempt of lawful authority ; disobedience. 

contumelious, a. kon'til-me'll-iis (L. contumelia, a 
bitter taunt, an affront— from con, and tumere, to 
swell : It. contumelia), insolent ; haughtily reproach- 
ful ; rude and sarcastic in speech : con'tumeTlously, 
n.A.-li: con'tume'lieusness,n. : con'tumel'y, n. -meZ'i, 
insolence; excessive rudeness in order to affront; con- 
temptuous language. 

contuse, v. kon-tH^ (L. contusum, a bruise — from con, 
and tusus, beaten: It. rontuso; F. contus, bruised), to 
bruise ; to beat; to bruise or injure any fleshy part of 
the body without breaking the skin : contu'sing, imp. : 
contused', pp. -tfizd': contu'sion, n. -til'zhun, an injury 
on any part of the body from a blow without breaking 
the skin ; a bruise. 

conularia, n. kon'n-ld'ri-d (L. conulus, a little cone), 
a genus of fossil pteropod shells having a tapering 
conical outline. 

conundrum, n. ko-nun'-drum (AS. amnan, to know ; 
cunned, crafty), a sort of riddle in which some fanci- 
ful or odd resemblance is proposed for discover}' be- 
tween things totally unlike. 

convalesce, v. kon'vd-les' (L. convalescere, to grow 
quite strong— from con, and valesco, I grow or get 
strong), to be gradually growing better after sickness ; 
to recover health by degrees: con'vales'cing, imp.: 
con'valesced', pp. -lest': con'valescent, a. -les'sent, re- 
covering health and strength after sickness : n. one 
who : con'vales'cence. n. -lSs's6us, renewal of health 
after sickness or debility. 

convection, n. kon-vck'shiin (L. conveclitm, to con- 
vey), the process of conveying or transmitting; the 
communication of heat through fluid bodies: con- 
vec'tive, a. -tiv, caused or accomplished by convec- 
tion : convec'tively, ad. -li. 

convene, v. kon-ven' (L. convenire, to come or meet 
together— from con. and venire, to come : It. convenire : 
F. convenir), to call ; to meet ; to come together for a 
public purpose; to cause to assemble; to call together: 
conve'nlng, imp.: convened', pp. -rend': convener, n. 
tlie chairman of a committee ; one empowered to call 
others together. 

convenient, a. kdn-vc'ni-Snt (L. conveniens, agree- 

ing, suitable: It. convenienie—see convene), suitable; 
fit ; adapted to use or wants ; commodious : conve'- 

cdiu, hoy, foot; pHre, had; chair, game, Jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




niently, ad. -U: conve'nlence, n. -nl-SHs, also con- 
ve'niency, u. •7il-en-sl, suitableness ; conimodiousness ; 
what is suited to wants or necessity. 

convent, n. kOn'vcnt (L. conventus, a meeting, an 
assembly — from con, .and ventum, to come : It. am- 
vento: F. convent), a house for persons devoting their 
lives to religious v>urposes ; a body of monks or nuns 
— the house for the former is called a monastery, and 
for the latter a nunnery: conven'tual, a. -vin-tu-ul, 
belonging to a convent : n. a monk ; a nun. 
. conven'ticle, n. kOn-vf'ii'tl-li (L. mnventiculum, an 
assembly, a place of assciulMy: It. conventic