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Full text of "Etymological researches; wherein numerous languages apparently discordant have their affinity traced, and their resemblance so manifested as to lead to the conclusion that all languages are radically one .."



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Ex Libris 
C. K. OGDEN 




J 



/Z/e^a )i c/e>- cd^cu^'- a/, c^. ,y4 . 







THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



i/ 



ETYMOLOGICAL RESEARCHES 






WHEREIN 



NUMEROUS LANGUAGES APPARENTLY DISCORDANT 

HAVE THEIR 

AFFINITY TRACED, 

AND THEIR RESEMBLANCE SO MANIFESTED AS TO LEAD TO THE CONCLUSION 

THAT 

ALL LANGUAGES ARE RADICALLY ONE. 

THOSE CHIEFLY CONSIDERED AND COMPARED 

ARE 

ENGLISH, WELCH, GALIC, MANX, GOTHIC, DANISH, SWEDISH, M^SO-GOTHIC, PERSIAN, SLAVONIAN, 

LATIN, GREEK, HEBREW, CHALDEE, ARABIC, LAPONIC, ETHIOPIC, COPTIC, TURKISH, 

PERSIAN, SANSCRIT, AND THE LANGUAGES OF INDIA. 



BY JOSEPH TOWNSEND, M.A., 

RECTOR OF PErrSEY, jriLTS; LATE OF CLARE HALL, CAMBRIDGE. 

AUTHOR OF "A JOURNEY THROUGH SPAIN," 2 VOLS.; AND "GEOLOGICAL AND MINERALOGICAL RESEARCHES, DURING A PERIOD OF WORE 
THAN FIFTY YEARS IN ENGLAND, SCOTLAND. IRELAND, S\V1TZERLAND, HOLLAND. FRANCE, FLANDERS AND SPAIN." 



bath: 

PRINTED BY GYE AND SON, MARKET PLACE; 

AND SOLD BY SAMUEL BAGSTER, No. 15, PATERNOSTER RO\V, LONDON. 



MDCCCXXIV. 



3clf 



THE 



WORKS or THE REV. JOSEPH TOWNSEND. M. A., 

ARE 

I. TRAVELS THROUGH SPAIN, 2 Volumes, Quarto. Price £ 2 : 2 : boards. 

II. GEOLOGICAL AND MINERALOGICAL RESEARCHES, during a jieriod of more than fifty years in England, Scotland, 
Ireland, Switzerland, Holland, France, Flanders, and Spain. One Volume, Quarto. Price £ 1:1:0, boards. 

III. ETYMOLOGICAL RESEARCHES; wherein numerous Languages apparently discordant, have their affinity traced, and 
their resemblance so manifested, as to lead to the conclusion that all Languages are radically one. Those chiefly considered and com- 
pared are, English, Welch, Galic, Manx, Gothic, Persian, Slavonian, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Chaldee, Arabic, Laponic, Ethiopic, Coptic, 
Turkish, Persian, Sanscrit, and the Languages of India. One Volume, Quarto, £1:1:0, boards. 

*,• The two preceding Articles were published in 1613, under the title " The Character of Moses established for Veracity as an Historir.u, recording 
Events subsequeut to the Deluge." 

IV. SERMONS, on the Being of God, &c. One Volume, Octavo. 8s. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Language i 

Abbreviations • 25 

Transpositions 29 

Orthography • • 30 

Investigation of Radicals 39 

First Inhabitans of Britain 59 

English Language 70 

English and Greek SI 

Welch Language 153, 24S 

Galic ditto 172 

Manx ditto 252 

Gothic Languages- ■ • 238 

Runic Characters 247 

Bardic ditto 248 

Pelasgian ditto 248 

Danish Language •• 247, 353 

Swedish ditto 26 1 

Danish and Greek 266 

Swedish and Greek 279 

Maeso Gothic Language 26i 

Persian ditto. >-» 301 



fAQS., 

Sanscrit Language ♦ 308 

Russian ditto 331 

Slavonian ditto 351 

Latin ditto 363 

Greek ditto 372 

Greek and Hebrew, their Affinity 395 

Laponic and Hebrew 401 

Hebrew Language 407 

Chaldee ditto 411 

Arabic ditto ■' 415 

Syriac ditto 417 

Ethiopic ditto 420 

Coptic ditto 422 

Turkish ditto 423 

Tower of Babel and Confusion of Tongues 424 

Dispersion of Mankind 428 

The Call of Abraham 431 

Pastoral State 433 

Population >> 435 

The Deliverance of Israel from Egypt • • • • 435 



THE 



CHARACTER OF MOSES, &c. 



ON LANGUAGES. 

JtJ-OSES informs us, that after the deluge and before the dispersion 
of mankind, the whole earth was of one language. This fact it will 
not be difficult, independently of revelation, to render probable. 

That men united in community should have one language, is perfectly 
agreeable to common observation. It might be sufficient therefore to 
demonstrate, that all mankind are descended from the same progeni- 
tors, and at a given period constituted one family. This, 1 trust, has 
been accomplished in a former volume, and, if so, from this it will 
follow, that they had one language. I shall here, however, take a 
different course, and by examining to a considerable extent the appa- 
rently discordant languages, which have prevailed in the world, shall 
trace their resemblance, and, should I be able to demonstrate, or even to 
make it probable, that all the languages, with which we are acquainted, 

VOL. II. B 



and consequently, by a well founded analogy, that all languages have 
an affinity and are radically one; the arguments adduced to prove, that 
the human race descended from the same progenitors, and at a distant 
period constituted one family, will be abundantly confirmed. 

In proceeding to this arduous undertaking the most skilful etymolo- 
gist must tremble; when he calls to mind the number of languages, 
which have been, or now continue to be spoken in the four quarters of 
the globe, and considers how little resemblance they retain to each 
other in meaning, orthography, and ^ound. 

Yet if we remark the influence of climate on the organs of speech, on 
the productions of the earth, both in the animal and regetable kingdoms, 
on the nature and number of our wants, with the means of supplying 
them; if we consider our occupations and pursuits, which differ, not 
only in the savage, but in the civilized stages of society, according 
as men subsist either by the fruits of the earth spontaneously produced, 
by hunting, by fishing, by flocks and herbs, by the plough, by arts and 
manufactures, or by all these united and combined with commerce ; if 
we make allowance for the effects of government and political economy 
on the thoughts and discussions of mankind, according as they either 
live without property and laws, or establish property and submit to 
laws; if we reflect on the difference in the vocabulary of those, who 
have religion compared with such nations as have none; if we pay 
attention to the variety of terms required to express ideas connected with 
these various conditions of mankind, and the accidents, which influence 
the choice of terms; we shall readily conceive, that a language, originally 
one, may have split into a multitude of forms, which preserve little re- 



semblance to each other, or even to the parent language, from which 
they all proceed. 

When a nation passes from civilized to savage life; the vocabulary gra- 
dually becomes contracted. But, when it emerges from this state; a 
necessity instantly arises of inventing a multiplicity of new expressions, 
suited to it's increasing wants, to it's progress in the arts and sciences, to 
it's customs, occupations and pursuits, to its religion, government and 
laws. 

But should a colony go forth, and, being separated either by alpine 
mountains, by wide and rapid rivers, or by the ocean, lose all connexion, 
all intercourse and communication with the parent state; and should this 
colony have been composed of fishermen, of hunters, of noniade hordes, 
or of the illiterate vulgar, who have few ideas beyond objects of the first 
necessity, and consequently few expressions; the change of language 
might be rapid, and, when, at a distant period, this little colony should 
have risen up into a nation ; it might be difficult to trace the affinity be- 
tween their language and that of the country, from which they originally 
came. 

Colonies again proceeding in like manner from this colony, might 
scarcely retain a vestige of resemblance in their expressions, either to 
their remote progenitors, or even to each other. 

Mr. Planta, in his interesting history of the Helvetic confederacy 
(vol. I. p. 13) shews clearly, what the want of communication effects in 
changing languages. For, speaking of Switzerland, he says, " In a 
country, like this, where every valley is the whole world to its inhabi- 
tants, the nearest neighbours are frequently such strangers to each other 

B 2 



4 

as to differ widely in many of their customs, and sensibly so in their 
dialects. Among the mountains of the Grisons, the Romance is spoken, 
but there are as many dialects of this as there are vallies and villages." 

The same has been noticed by all travellers in similar situations, 
throughout the globe, and wc universally observe, that the language 
of little and detached communities is less permanent, than that of a 
great nation, because among them capricious changes are quickly com- 
municated and readily adopted eiiher in pronunciation or in the intro- 
duction of new terms. Professor Pallas tells us, that Caucasus exhibits 
more than twenty-two dialects of eight or nine distinct and several lan- 
guages, and that Kamtschatka, whose population, when first discovered 
by the Russians, seemed to he but just commenced, contained nine 
dialects of three discordant lanouawes, more distinct and better charac- 
terized, with much less affinity, either among themselves, or when com- 
pared to the languages of Europe, than these have to the ancient Celtic. 

The same observation nearly is made by Charlevoix, respecting the 
Indians of New France, among whom he traces three mother tongues, 
and observes, that the dialects of each are as numerous as their 
villages. 

From what has been said, it will appear, that should three fami- 
lies, diverging from one point, spread themselves with their flocks over 
new settlements, in opposite directions, to such a distance as to have 
no subsequent communication either with the parent stock, or with 
each other; the language of their descendants would, in a few genera- 
tions, differ nmch from that of their progenitors. And in similar cir- 
cumstances, such divergencies from given points being frequently re- 



peated during a succession of some thousand years; should we attempt 
to investigate the affinity of these ancient languages; we should, from 
every point of divergency, have new analogies to trace, the discordancies 
would multiply, and before we could arrive at the first language, scarce 
a vestige of resemblance might remain. 

When detached communities, or wandering hordes are surrounded 
by other hordes, with whom they are incessantly engaged in war, and 
are cither subduing or subdued ; it cannot be expected that they should, 
for any length of time, preserve their language pure. In such circum- 
stances they must inevitably blend a multitude of languages together. 

In new colonies, such as I have above described, poverty of language 
leads to change ; because one single expression is obliged to represent 
many distinct ideas, which, in numerous instances, have but a remote 
analogy. A vivid imagination seizes the most faint resemblance, and 
compels the same term to serve for various purposes. A word thus used, 
if happily applied, gives dignity to language, rivets the attention, fixes 
itself in the memory, and, if universally approved, passes current as 
a classical expression. Poverty of language gave birth to metaphois, 
but their beauty recommends them to our use. Like our garments, 
they niay have originated either in regard to decency, or in weakness 
and in want: but they are now resorted to for ornament, and give grace 
to our discourse. These are the hieroglyphics of all nations, the elements 
of Symbolic writing, even among nations who have adopted the use of 
alphabetic characters. 

Thus in various languages heart is used for benevolent affections, a 
rocTc for security, a sword for war, a staff for support, light ^or pros- 



perity, darkness for adversity, a shadow for protection, a horn for strength, 
glory, courage, and sleep for death. 

All nature supplies the orator with metaphors. Thus the public 
speaker, the poet, and the clown, all equally contribute to change a 
language. 

With a view to grace, or to supply the deficiency of suitable expres- 
sions, other tropes are admitted in discourse. Thus a part is substituted 
for the whole, as in German Jlinte, in English fusil and firelock, are 
used for musket. The genus frequently becomes the species, and specific 
distinctions being overlooked, the term appropriate to one species is 
applied to others. Thus in Danish riste means to broil, and stege to 
roast. In Welch Ffordd means a road in general, whilst road is confined 
specially to the passage of a river. In England these expressions are 
reversed. Derw in W^elsh, like the corresponding term in Greek, means 
oak, but drewo and drebo in the Slavonian dialects mean tree in general, 
like pre7i in Welsh, which is allied to 't^p^vo; a term exclusively confined 
to oak. Our word tail claims affinity to Tskog extremity: but tal in 
Welch is now confined to the forehead, although formerly it was ex- 
tended indifferently to head and tail. 

From inattention to distinctions the male expression becomes female, 
and the female is taken for the male, as in the word hen derived from 
hane, which in Gothic signifies the male bird, as hcina does the female. 
In Finland kana is confined to the female, and kucku to the male, answer- 
ing to coq in French, and to cock in English. Connected with kucku 
we have kuklein of German, kuckling of the Swedes, and chicken in 



English, all indifferently applied to the male and female offspring of 
the hen: but in either Canarese or Sanserit and in Spanish chico is a 
little one. 

In like manner the distinctions of age, sex, and condition, marked 
in our words cow, bull, ox, steer, heifer, arc confounded in bos of the 
Greek and Latin. In Galic agh comprehends every one of these, with 
doe and hind, whilst bois and bo are restricted to the cow. In Welch, 
ych, like our word ox, and the Russian bole, is confined wholly to the 
castrated bull. Gaw in Sanscrit and Persian, means both cow and bull. 

The terms Sheep, Ewe, Ram, Wether, with numerous others, are sub- 
ject to the same caprice. 

Such confusion arises from the transmission of terms without specific 
and precise ideas. 

Ignorance of the language, either in new settlers, or in occasional 
visitors, is a very frequent cause of error. In no instance has this been 
rendered more evident than in the names of rivers. We meet with at 
least five Avons in Ireland, and more than six in England. We have 
four rivers which bear the name of Team, Tama, Tame and Tamar, be- 
sides the Tavy and Taw of Devonshire, the Tafy, Tivy, and Towy in 
Wales, theTay, Teviod, and Tweed, in Scotland, and theTove in North- 
amptonshire; yet neither Avon, Tame, Taw, Tay, Tove nor Tafy were 
originally proper names; but meant river in general, the former being 
essentially the same word with the Galic Amhuin, pronounced Aven, or 
the Latin Amnis: and the latter with TOTaif^oj, as we shall prove in the 
progress of our work. The rivers Wey, Wye, and Medway are the Galic 
Obha, pronounced Owa, nearly resembling the French word Ean. 



8 

The rivers Asc, Esk, Isc, Usk, Isis, Oise and Ouse, with Ax, Ex and 
Ux, which give their names to their several market towns, were merely, 
like Obha, water, a stream, a river. So Rhine, the name of one river, 
is no other than Rine, the Saxon appellation for stream, Gunga, is both 
a generic and a specific term, meaning both river and the Ganges. In 
like manner the Frith of Forth is literally the Sea of Sea, because neither 
Frith nor Forth were originally proper names, but the latter was the same 
word with mp^i^-eov, and the former with Fretum. Loch Linnhe, Loch 
Lomond, and Lacus Lemanus, as used by Caesar in his Commentaries, 
are repetitions, because Lemanus, or, in Tartarian, Liman, like Llynn 
in Welch and Galic, and Xif^wi in Greek, means a lake, or an extensive 
sheet of water. It is possible that Lynn in Norfolk may have derived 
its name from hence. Lincoln anciently looked down upon a lake, 
the termination Coin is Colonia. In Pinkerton's Geography, we meet 
with Lake Loch Nor, that is Lake Lake Lake, for neither of these 
words is a proper name, but Loch in Celtic, and Nor, both in Tartarian 
and in Hebrew, mean lake in general. 

By accommodation and general consent, the instrument and cause 
are frequently substituted for the effect, or thing, produced. Or a 
quality may be used to represent the animal or thing, in which that 
quality is eminently found, as Avhen Homer uses the term 'tttuB. for a 
hare, an animal distinguished for timidity, and for its endeavour to con- 
ceal itself. The time is put for whatever is connected with it. Thus 
middag in Sweden means dinner, and joiirnee in France, may be indif- 
ferently day, day's work, journey, battle, pay. 

In like manner the containing may stand for the contained, as cup 



9 

for drink, the pitcher in Spain for the heel, iiiuUon, bacon, &c. stewed 
in it; and in every country, the tal)lc for the food which is placed 
upon it. Camp means a phiin, or an army \\iUi its tents and equipage; 
but in German it is used for a battle. The matter, of which a thing 
is made, is taken for the thing itself, as, for instance haunt which in 
German means a tree, is a beanKJn English. Cuirasse, that is coreacea 
leather becomes a coat of mail. 

The sign may supply the place of the thing signified, as uiien either 
throne or sceptre is used for regal power. 

A word, once diverted from its original signification, finds no rest, but 
passes on in slow succession, and is made to represent, from time to time, 
some new idea, as caprice may dictate, or necessity require. A learned 
Abbe, who, flying from the tyranny of Robespierre, found refuge in 
this island, was so obliging as to shew me a Chinese word, which in its 
primary signification means to suck. This he traced through its various 
ramifications, in a connected series till he found it terminate in near a 
thousand difl^erent and distinct ideas. 

Frequently the metaphorical acceptation of a word remains, when the 
original meaning has been long since forgotten. 'J'hus it is in capricious, 
which refers to the wild and sportive gambols of the kid, as sincere does 
to honey, when it is free from wax: yet these expressions never suggest 
an image to the mind, either of a goat, of honey, or of wax. In like 
manner, pugno gives us the notion of a battle, whatever be the imple- 
ment of war; but excites in us no image of the first, although pugno is 
derived from pugnus. The same observation will apply to affront, insult, 
backbite, counsel, conspire, &c. Sec. 

VOL. II. c 



10 

When new terms, whether invented or imported, have been received 
into a language, it frequently happens, that the correspondent ex- 
pressions are laid aside, or acquire new significations. This we observe 
in rival, knave, villain, rascal, churl, for these formerly conveyed the 
several notions of neighbour, boy and man-servant, villager, lean beast 
and rustic, precisely as the terms queen and quean, one of which is a 
title of the highest dignity, Ihe other of reproach, are no other than 
quena, which at first meant simply woman, then a wife, and in Sanscrit 
a daughter. So among the Romans, hostis, an enemy originally, signi- 
fied a stranger; and fronj these independent meanings may be derived 
our word host, used for one who receives strangers, and for a multitude 
of armed men. 

Thus ail in Hebrew is a ram, in Arabic a stag: caper a goat in Latin, 
a boar in Greek. Bos in Galic means the hand, and bas the palm of 
the hand. Bys, bez and bes, the correspondent words in Welch, Cornish 
and Armoric, mean a finger; but besoa, in the language of Biscay, is 
the arm. These have a striking resemblance to pes or '^ovg, which con- 
veys the notion of a foot, but occasionally of the whole leg, and which 
may have originated in bus (d13) to trample under foot. Should it be 
granted, that the Celtic tribes derived their bos, bys, bez, and bes from 
either TTouV or Din; such licentious use of terms could not be considered 
as more extraordinary than, that pare should signify the hand in Sanscrit 
and in Welch, the foot in Russian and in Persian, the hoof in Armoric, 
and indifferently either hand or foot in English, whilst in Greek it means 
only the action of the hand or of the paw in grasping. 

Putain French, and puta Spanish, mean a prostitute, but in Sanscrit 
a wife. 



a 

Buwch is in yVelch an ox, in Russian a hull, in French and German a 
he-goat; but /3wvi is a she-goat. Ungula in Latin is the nail, but in 
Sanscrit the finger. Wife in Enghsh is a married woman, in German a 
woman, though unmarried. 

Bi'ithil in Welch is a trout, but in Cornish a mackerel. Cescr in Welch 
is hail; in Armoric casaire is a shower; Lis in Welch a palace, in Galic 
a house. Mam, Welch, is mother, in Galic a nurse. Dafad, Welch, 
a sheep; damh, pronounced daf, is in Galic, ox. Gobhar in Galic is 
a goat, in Irish a horse. Dant, a tooth in Welch, is in Galic a morsel. 
Cjnnog, Welch, a pail, is a churn in Galic. Llug in Welch, and Xuxvj 
in Greek, mean light, but look in English, is either the action of the 
eye directed towards an object, or the appearance of any thing wlien 
viewed. 

A remarkable change of meaning has taken place in our words right, 
just and true, of which the latter now contains the notion of verit}^ as 
the two former do of equity, although originally right signified merely 
that, which was directed, just that, which was commanded, and truth 
had no reference but to fidelity, and to that confidence, which tried 
fidelity inspires. 

True, truth, troth and truce, or in old English trew, troweth, treoth 
and trewse, are certainly allied to trow; yet trow was not originally 
equivalent to cogito, concipio, imagino, but to confido, not to uKvi^eiz, 
but to ^appft). In this acceptation it agrees with treowan, treowa and 
treothe Saxon, vertrouwen, Belgic, treu and trauen German, trua Ice- 
landic, tro Swedish, tree Danish, trauan and trauaida Gothic, and with 
true, as used by Shakespeare, all which imply fidelity, confidence and 
trust. c 2 



12 

In these languages, the expression for thought, imagination, belief 
and verity have not even the most remote resemblance, not tlie most 
distant affinity to our words true, trow, troth, truth and truer, to the 
Saxon treowian, or to any of its derivatives. 

Verity is related to the German wahr and Latin verus, the Frencli vrai, 
and to the Spanish vero. To convey this notion we have in tiie Slavonic 
line istinna, stability; as, in Hebrew, Chaldee and Syriac, Ameth (J^D^^) 
implies that, which is durable, whilst in Russian vieriu and viera mean 
fido, and fides, vieryu, credo, and derznost is used for confidence. The 
Greek expression fl:A;i&f/a: means that which is not concealed. 

It were now therefore absurd for any one to say, that a curve becomes 
a right line, Avhen directed to be made; that, justice has no specific 
meaning of its own independently of a command, or that iniquity in 
judges may be perfectly consistent with rectitude. 

This change in the meaning of words is palpable in the well 
known adage summum jus summa injuria, which, though rightly 
understood, is agreeable to verity, yet, etymologically taken, is a 
contradiction in terms. A skilful rhetorician, fond of parodox and 
conscious of superior talents, to amuse himself and others in some 
idle hour, may play with terms; but even at the festive board, when 
surrounded by his friends, he will not maintain, that trow and truth 
have not changed their meaning, or that in the modern acceptation 
of the term, truth universally prevails, that all villagers are villians, 
that every servant is a knave, that rustics are churls, that every 
woman is a quean, and that verity has no existence beyond the wild 
conceits and opinions of mankind: (see Home Tooke's, Ep. pt:) this 






propensity in nations to change their vocabuhiry is ucil described by 
Horace. 

As, when llie forest, willi (he bending year, 

First shods (he leaves, which earliest appear; 

So an old nice of words maturely dies, 

And some, new-born, in youth and vigour r>se: 

Many shall rise, that now forgotten lie, 

Others, in present credit, soon shall die; 

If custom will, whose arbitrary s\v:iy. 

Words and the forms of language must obey. 

But rhongh in one hingu:tge, or dialect a word may become ob- 
solete and perish, or have its meaning changed, yet in the kindred 
languages, it may be retained as classical in its original acceptation. 
Numerous instances of this might be adduced from the several 
dialects of Celtic, from the Welch, Cornish, Armoric, Irish, and 
Galic, compared with the Gothic languages. Many of these have 
been noticed by Lluyd, and not a few of them will occur to us 
in the progress of our investigation. Some nations may have lost 
the primitive expression, whilst its compounds exist. Thus for in- 
stance, the Galic teine and the Welch tan, mean fire, but these words 
were laid aside in Latin and in French, in which, however we find 
txiinguo and eteindre. In old English we have tine and tind to 
kindle, which have given birth to tinder. 



14 



OF COMPOUND WORDS. 

The natural progress of languages, after names had been invented for 
the various objects of sense and articles of first necessity, seems to 
have been, by some modifications of these names, to express such quali- 
ties or actions, as were most readily suggested to the mind on the 
contemplation of those objects. Certain it is, however, that in the 
introduction of appropriate terms, whether for things, for persons, for 
places, for actions, or for qualities, all nations have avoided the 
multiplied use of arbitrary sounds, and, availing themselves of such 
as were uncommonly understood, have been satisfied with indicating 
by them, as nearly as possible, the properties by which the object in 
question is characterized and to be distinguished from all others. 

This propensity gave rise to compound expressions, which, when 
well chosen, become perfectly descriptive of the thing intended to be 
known. As for instance, when the Irish for a flint say dragart, or 
when the Germans call it by the name of feuerstein, they indicate that 
species of stone, which gives fire by collision v/ith steel. For a fin 
the latter use flossfeder, floating feather, and for a telescope fcrin'o/ire, 
that is the reed or tube by means of which tliey discern distant bodies. 
Some of the German compounds seem to be ill connected, as for in- 
stance, when they call a roe hirshkuhe, and a fawn Urachkalh, the former 
meaning literally the cow, and the latter the calf or the hart. Other 
compounds excite a smile in foreigners, as for instance, hand-shoe when 
used for gloves, and finger-hat which means a thimble. 



15 

Such is the difficulty of inventing expressions for new objects, that 
the element in which any thing is produced, the country from which 
it comes, or even the mode of conveyance often serves to mark the 
specific difference, and then the most remote analogy, the least dis- 
cernible resemblance is taken for the generic term. In Galic CMmm, 
a little dog, in English becomes a rabbit. Meerkatze, that is a sea 
cat, is in Danish and Dutch a monkey. Blodigel, that is blood eel, 
in Denmark a leech. The rein deer is distinctly renn thier, the running 
animal. When the Koroeki first saw an ox, they caUed \i t-uski olehn, 
that is Ki'.ssian rein doer. Tlie people of Otaheitc called horses mio-hty 
hogs. A lion when first beheld at Rome, was a Numidian bear. In 
Galic a wolf is iiiadradiialla, wild dog, and a bear is mathghabhuin a 
wild calf. In Wclcli a badger is daearfochyn, an earth pig. The Celtic 
tribes, whether Galic, Welch, or Cornish, describe the otter as a water 
dog. In Sanscrit this animal is uch-a closely allied to vBup of the Greek. 
The Persians call a mole, deaf mouse. When the Romans saw the 
elephants of Pyrrhus, they considered these animals as Lucanian oxen. 
Elephus itself may have been derived from aleph an ox in Hebrew. 

Similar expedients for the invention of new terms have been uni- 
versally resorted to. Thus we have sea horse, sea cow, sea hog, sea 
calf, which last is in Welch, morlo in armoric lue m6r. 

Even the most distant resemblance will suffice for both the gene- 
ric and specific term, as in our word pineapple, which is neither 
an apple, nor fruit of the pine tree. 

The Greek language is remarkably fond of compounds. Thus for 
instance we see Kciirvpov for embers, in which the fire may seem to 



16 

be extinguished, but is yet alive, and needs only to be moved for 
the admission of fresh air, an action well expressed by txvce^i>i'7:vp7iv. 
Of their compounds, some are to be admired for elegance; some are 
remarkably comprehensive, and others excel in the force and energy 
of their expression. Sach are Xvx.xvy'eg the dawn, y-cckXiyvvcu-t, alxindant 
in beauteous women, SopvE,evog a brother in arms. Some compounds 
are so much contracted, as to conceal to a certain degree their 
component parts. Thus it is with Sxwi; compounded of Sx and y.vxic, 
which united, mean precisely I gnaw, in Galic cnaoighim, that is 
I t.ear in pieces Avith my teeth; for y.yxu implies sinij)iy lo divide, 
whether by cutting, rending, or t(aring, without reference to llie 
teeth. This additional notion of the instrument, by which the divi- 
sion is effected, seems therefore to have been conveyed by Sx, and 
if so, this particle may have been contracted from the orienial dant, 
which is in Galic a morsel, but in Hindostani, Sanscrit, and Welch, 
a tooth, as dendan is in Persian, agreeing thus with dens dentis of 
the Latin, or oBovg oJovtoj of the Greek. 

In every country the expedient resorted to in giving names to persons 
and to places, has been to combine expressions and form new compounds, 
descriptive of a person, or the place in question. 

Among the fJebrews it ai)pears, that wlien tiie new-born infant 
was to be distinguished by a name, they had rccouise, not to arbi- 
trary sounds, but to such woi"ds, as being commonly in use, de- 
scribed the circumstances attendant on the l)irti). "I'hus it was in the 
names of Cain, Abel, Seth, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Isianael, 
&c. all explained in sacred writ. So in the German names, Alaric 



17 

is universal king; Ariovistus, much honoured ; Aliobrogos, the moun- 
taineers; jVfarsi, the marslilandcrs. A similar practice prevails among 
savage tribes, as may be particularly noticed in America. 

The names of places have been taken from either local circum- 
stances, or some remarkable event to be thus recorded, as at Beer- 
sheba, Bethel, Gilead, Eshcol, Bochim, all particularly mentioned 
and explained in Scripture. In every country, local names, lead to 
the knowledge of the ancient languages, because they are descrip- 
tive of the situation, whether mountainous or level; in a valley or 
a glen; wet or dry; woodland or pasture, open or inclosed; cultivated 
or wild ; whether it has a rock, a castle, a well, a river, a bridge, a ford, 
a mill, a church, a lake, &c. 

In Germany there is not a village, but what is indebted for its name 
to something general and special in its situation. The general terms are 
bach a stream, brvick abridge, busch a thicket: dorp a village; fels a 
rock; berg an eminence ; burg a castle; feld a field; hausen, from haus 
a house; hofF a court; holttz or holz a forest; kirch a church; mulen, 
from muhle a mill ; munster a convent ; stein a stone ; thai a valley ; 
vbrde a ford ; wald a forest. In Wales every gentleman's seat carries an 
accurate description in its name. 

The natural progress of language, after having invented names for 
things, one would imagine, should be to fix upon terms descriptive of 
qualities or indicating action. Hence the origin of verbs and adjectives 
may besought for in the correspondent substantives; but by observation 
it is found, that in all languages the verbs, however formed, with their 
inflexions, give birth to innumerable nouns, as may be particularly 

VOL, II. ]» 



18 

noticed in the Saxon, Greek, and Hebrew. All the other parts of speech 
flow from these, claiming kindred to the nouns and verbs, of which they 
are abbreviations. This has been demonstrated by Lennep, in his Greek 
Etymology, and, as far as relates to English, by the most able critic of 
our age ; and Noldius in his Concordance has transmitted to posterity, a 
work written by Christian Koerber, which proves the same thing respect- 
ing the Hebrew particles. 

But though all nations start from the same point, and acknowledge the 
same principles; they yet take different routs, and in the evolution of 
ages find themselves exceedingly remote in their expressions both from 
their common ancestors and from each other. Hence the vast variety 
observed in their adverbs, prepositions and conjunctions. But as these 
are all derived from nouns and verbs ; so from them proceed formative 
particles, whether prefixed or suffixed to other nouns and verbs. 

Here then we have an abundant source for diversity of speech, where 
the languages are acknowledged to be radically one. This will be dis- 
tinctly seen, if we pay attention even to a few of the prepositive parti- 
cles introduced into the principal languages of Europe. 

In Greek, wc have 

1st. Tiie intensitive a apparently derived from ocyxv as in af&Xog, 
uy'kccog, aTtag, izoXXteg. 

2nd. Tiic privative a derived from aVtu as in aopxTog ajipcrog, (xXv\^six 
alSvfg, atSwg, uKyi'iog, cckccog, ccvxvSpog, avopxTog, avO(T[i.og, 

3r(l. The associating a derived from ^ju-a, as in ccKoXou^og and eiZe\(p'og. 

It must be here remarked, that whem ^f* occurs before a labial; 
it may be used for either avx. or xvev as in Kit.ittht.ov and af*/3/30T0?. 



19 

Tims in oiiu language the same prefix, derived indeed from differ- 
ent particles, varies the form of words, and diverts them from their 
primitive meaning, yet ever with a strict attention to the roots, from 
which they are derived. In Greek we have eighteen prepositions, 
each of which may be combined with every verb, either single or in 
pairs, nay even in trii)le ranks, as may be observed in Homer. From 
one verb, for example iic»KXco, we count more than fifty verbs of dis- 
tinct meanings, and from Xeya, in it's several acceptations, we have 
nearly eight hundred compounds. 

The English needlessly doubles the preposition in concomitant de- 
rived from con and eo. 

Among the eighteen Greek prepositions I must request, that the 
reader will pay particular attention to £^i, 0^1:0, m and H, because 
these in one shape, or other, run through all the languages, both of 
Europe and of northern Asia. 

The Latin, intimately connected with the Greek, has nearly the 
same particles with it, as the Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, and 
English, conform to Latin. The import however of these particles 
is not strictly the same in all these languages, and therefore in Italy, 
a Frenchman must not be surprised to find, that digiunare means 
to fast. 

In Slavonic, the particles prefixed, are bez, voz, vz, vos, vni; za, z, 
s, k, ko, na, ni, &c. which I may possibly explain, when I shall proceed 
to treat of the Slavonian lansjuage. 

The Germans have two kinds of compound verbs. The first are 
those that have particles inseparable from them, such as, after be, 

D 2 



emp, ent, er, ge, hinter, miss, um, ur, ver, verab, verun, voll, wider, 
and zer, of these the two most frequently used are be, and ge. 

The second are those that have particles separable from them, such 
as, ab, anf, aus, bey, dar, durch, ein, fort, fur, heim, hin, &c. which 
instead of being prefixed, may be carried forward, and stand alone 
at the end of a long sentence. 

In Angle Saxon, the prepositions used in composition are numerous. 
Among those we find, a, ab, be, emb, fore, ge, g; na, ne, n, on over, 
uppe, with, &c. 

The prepositive particles in Belgic, Danish, Swedish, Icelandic, and 
Maeso-Gothic resemble these, as these resemble the correspondent 
particles in Greek. 

In Welch we have a, ad, am, an ar, as; cyd, cym, cyn ; dad, de, di, 
dir, dy, dys; ed, er, es; g, go, gor; y, ys, most of which correspond 
with the preceding. 

They are somewhat different in Galic; but evidently claim kindred 
with the Greek. These are a, ag, ad, aith, am, an, ar; coimh; ea, eac, 
eag, ean, ein, en; g, re, s, tar. 

It may be readily conceived, that such a multiplicity and variety of 
particles must create confusion, equal to ihat of Babel, when, in the 
kindred dialects, the same root remains either single, but disguised, or 
disguised and connected with different prepositions, according to the 
genius of the several languages, in which the radical term has been pre- 
served. Thus for instance, preserve in English and conserve in French, 
answer to servo in Latin; but serve in English has a different import. 
-Mendum in Latin is a defect; but to mend, in English, meaws to re- 



21 

move defects, ^xispog becomes obscure and rXayiog oblique. Wild in 
English is gwyllt in Welch. Lenncr Armoric, and darllenwr Welch are 
radically one, and mean a reader. Gogledd in Welch is the north ; 
but in Galic we find simply Cledd, that is the left hand and therefore the 
north to him, who turns his face towards the east. Llugeid the eyes in 
Welch, is daulagad in Armoric. Cymnial in Welch is a joint, but in 
Greek the root appears in fj^ekog. In French blesser answers to the 
German verletzen, and both are found in loedere, lossus, tAv'ttw crX^ia-o-w. 
Conspoid in Galic and dispute in English are radically one, for both 
originate in puto. 

Thus in different countries, according to caprice or accident, innu- 
merable terms become variously combined, and retain only their 
equivalency in import, with scarcely a vestige of similitude in form. 

Among the difficulties which stand in the way of etymology, one, 
and that not the least, arises from the propensity of all nations to 
indicate positive qualities by negation. From this practice, the more 
direct and p/oper terms expressive of qualities, have been neglected, 
and not unfrequently have been wholly lost. Of the languages with 
which I am acquainted, the Galic is most remarkable for this pro- 
pensity, having no fewer than nine particles used in composition for 
negation. We ourselves are fond of this practice, and the Germans 
are so partial to it, that for many notions they have none but nega- 
tive expressions. In Greek, two negatives strengthen the negation; 
but with us and with the Germans, two negatives make an affir- 
mative. In English, we have mortal and immortal, but JMilton 
has doubled his negatives, and has left us unimmortaU 



^2 

From these practices, languages which are radically one, must of 
necessity appear in a vast variety of forms. But their dissimilarity 
is again exceedingly increased by diversity of terminations. These are 
too numerous to be here particularly noticed. Suffice it then to say, 
that, numerous as they are in every language, they were originally 
either verbs, nouns, or pronouns, not, as at present, absorbed in the 
compound, but distinct and separate from the root. As this will be 
rendered evident in the progress of my work, I shall content myself 
with giving two instances froin the Greek. 

In the auxiliary verb afj^i, am, the last syllable designates the person 
precisely as in Hebrew. So likewise is it in all the verbs, which termi- 
nate in fitt as for example /3vif*i, I go, for the simple root is jix or in 
the Hebrew boa and (j-t is the pronoun. 

That my conclusion is well founded will appear, when I shall pro- 
ceed to trace the correspondent verb through all the languages of 
Europe and of Asia, in all of which, without exception, the root is 
decidedly the same. In the termination of their verbs, all lan- 
guages, except Hebrew and its kindred dialects, arc apt to perplex 
the novice by the creation of new themes derived from the several 
tenses, the infinitives, or the participles of other verbs, which may 
however, be still retained in the same, dr in son)e other tongue. Thus 
in Greek we find Xe'yw Xe<yeiv, to collect, to number, to speak, allied 
to which we have lego, legere, to collect, to gather, to road, as in 
Icjiitis flores of Virgil. From legere the English, Dutch and Germans 
have, by abbreviation, formed lere, lore, Iceren and lehren, to learn, 
and these, by a reduplication of the infinitive termination, produce 



23 

lernen German, and leornian Saxon, of the same import. Our verb to 
burn is evidently rcvpoetv. But other Gothic languages, as if this were 
not the infinitive, have doubled the termination to form bernan and 
brennen Saxon and German. So likewise in churn, from yvpoe^v the 
infinitive is distinctly marked, and yet the Saxon doubles the termina- 
tion and makes cernan. 

Sometimes the past participle becomes a new theme, as in gird from 
yvpoaiv, and then the Gothic infinitives will be in Saxon gyrdan, in 
German giirten. Or this participle, formed from the infinitive, may 
assume its proper termination and become a new verb, as in branden 
of the Dutch, and blindan of the Saxon, for in the latter we trace 
blinnan, blinned, blind, (closed,) in the former bran, branned, brand, 
burnt. In like manner binden of the German, bindan of the Saxon, 
benden of the Persian, and bandna of the Sanscrits and Hindostani, 
may be traced to the Latin vieo a verb connected with hex a 
withy. 

Many of our verbs seem to be formed from the participle present of 
other verbs, as for instance, gang from go, and bring from bear. 
These repeat the infinitive termination in gangan and bringan of the 
Gothic dialects. By the same process we may derive fengan Saxon, or 
fangen German from fahan Gothic, which is allied to -rafji/ as tongs to 
Taw. In like manner Staae of the Danish, connected with k(r'r\^\j.i and 
e(TTcevxi of the Greek, and with istaden of the Persian, seem to have 
produced staend, stand, from which we must derive standan Saxon and 
Gothic. Even hangian of the Saxon appears thus to have originated 
in hahan of the Gothic, to raise, to elevate, to lift on high. 



24 

These practices are common. In Greek we have numerous instances of 
infinitives converted into new themes, which consequently double their 
usual termination. Thus (p^'w, (pafiv, gave birth to Cp^mD, <^xLveiv and Tepa-w, 
Tiptreiv produced reptrizivai, lepaxiveiv. In like manner we have gopeu, gopevwu ; 
^lyu, biyyaivw; cpa, opiuu ; (panSpocc, (pcciSpwa ; oXu^eco, oXia'bxwm ; ^xp^eca 
^pa(T\juo}AXi ; xpa.(a, ^paii/w; yipxScca, npxBxiua ; %a;Xaw, %a;Xaiva>, x, t, A. Indeed 
there is scarcely any part of theGreekverb which hasnotgiven birth to some 
new theme. It arises from this practice, that from xecXdui we have %«Xa^&', 
from ^xppsu, ^txptreca, from o(ptiK(>i, o(^eiXv,aa. o(pXi(7Aa), KpXicry.xvu, o<p\bi, h(pXxua. 

Attention to these remarks will enable the young student readily to 
detect the radical parts of words, however complicated they may be, 
and to remove the incumbrances by which they are concealed from the 
unpractised eye. To such attention Mr. Tookc was indebted for the 
reputation, he acquired, as the most distinguished critic of the age. 
I may yet venture to add, that a knowledge of these practices will pro- 
vide us with a key to most of the European and Asiatic languages. In 
all of them we meet with nouns derived from verbs and verbs from nouns. 
And sometimes a noun, derived from a verb, gives birth to a new verb, 
which produces another noun, from which a new verb is formed, as, in 
the Greek, will be evident to any one, who consults Scapula's Lexicon. 
In all such changes the termination varies, as will be distinctly' seen, 
when I shall proceed to the examination of particular languages more 
especially of the English and the Greek. 

All nations, for the sake of euphony, insert some letter, not essen- 
tially necessary, in the middle of such words as would otiierwise sound 



25 

harsh, or difficult of pronunciation. This practice is so general, that it 
is needless here to produce particular examples. Such however will occur 
to us in the progress of our work. 

From what has been said, it will appear, that languages, which seem 
to be discordant, may have elementary parts, which, however disguised 
by composition, are the same in all. If then I shall be able to demon- 
strate, that such elementary parts exist and are essentially the same in 
all the languages, with which we are acquainted, will it not be clear, 
that all these languages are derived from one parent stock. This pre- 
cisely is the task J have imposed on myself, and I trust it will be per- 
formed to the satisfaction of my readers. 

OF ABBREVIATIONS. 

That which contributes more than all that has been stated, to mul- 
tiply languages and to conceal their origin, is the practice universally 
observed of contracting two or more syllables into one. This no where 
appears more conspicuously than among the Chinese, who express each 
word by one simple sound, as we contract, but on a less extensive 
scale, ayoc^cfi-xi into gaze, (iXxa(pi^i^eiv into blame, tXtv^fj-ofuvv^ to alms, 
'upeiTfivrepog to priest, nvpiov otnog to kirk and church, sigillum to seal, 
flagellum to flail, judice to judge, calamus to halm, and nutrice to 
nurse. 

Sir W. Jones informs us, that the people of Tibet speak a dialect, 
which, like its parent the Sanscrit, was formerly polysyllabic, but at 
present consists like the Chinese, of monosyllables, to form which, with 

VOL. n. E. 



26 

gome regard to grammatical derivation, it has been necessary to sup- 
press, in common discourse, many letters, which we see in their books; 
and thus we trace in their writings many Sanscrit words, which in their 
spoken dialect are quite undistinguishable. This practice is strikingly 
evident in Irish. 

A writer, of great learning and more than common sagacity, has 
judiciously observed, that abbreviations are the wheels of language, 
the wings of Mercury, for as the first intention is to communicate 
our thoughts, so the second is and ever will be to do it with despatch. 

But it has so happened, that in abbreviating, few nations have adopted 
the same process. 

It is acknowledged, that the French, Italian, Spanish and Portu- 
guese are branches of the romance language, and derived from the Latin, 
and that the other European languages borrow both from it and from 
the Greek. Let us then beoin our investigation with a few derivatives 
from Greek and Latin, which appear in most of them, after which we 
may take the abbreviated terms, promiscuously, as they occur to our 
recollection. 

From noXcc^xTw and colaphus the Italian has derived colpo, the Spanish 
golpe, and the English clap. From the same source the French has 
taken coup, and the English cuff. From constare we find conter and 
cost, from audire, ouir and hear. From wE. wnTog or nox noctis, the 
Italian has derived notte, the Spanish noche, the French nuit, the Welch 
nos, the English night. Masculus has yielded to both France and 
England male. TccXxhto; has given birth to lacte, latte, leite and leche 
of the Latin, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish, to Llaeth of the Welch, 
to laith, laclid and blochd of the Galic, and to lait of the French. \^ ,. 



S7 , 

From tcmpus, temporis we trace tempo Italian, tiempo Spatiisli, temps 
French, and time English. In like manner tectum becomes toit and 
pondus poids in French. 

It frequently happens, that a word in its progress of abbreviation 
drops, from time to time, one or more of its elements, either in the 
beginning, middle or end, as caprice directs, till scarcely a vestige or no 
part of the primitive remains. This we have frequently occasion to 
observe in Hebrew, and this it is, which most perplexes the young student, 
because its verbs, consisting of three radical letters, are extremely dis- 
posed to drop the first and third, as in tet (nn) give thou, the imperative 
of Nathan (]nj} he gave. Indeed we may venture to affirm with Pro- 
fessor Robinson, that such abbreviated terms constitute almost one- 
half the language. (Robertson's Gram. p. 197-) Thus in the French 
word ne, which is natus in its most abbreviated form, N is all that 
remains of the original term yfivo(*aJ, from which the Latin is derived, 
as appears by the ancient mode of writing gnascor for nascor. In 
appris and compris no radical remains. 

In concomitant, I is the only radical part of the word derived from eo, 
ivi itum. Our English cur, unconnected with other languages, exhibits no 
description of the dog intended by this word. But in Welch we find 
corgi of the same import, compounded of corr a dwarf, and ci a dog, 
which by abbreviation has produced cur. In like manner the com- 
pound expressions begehren to ask, and entwehnen, to change a custom 
in German, become in English beg and wean. The latter is the more 
remarkable because wohnen, from which we derive wont, means to 
inhabit, and wean now signifies to break a habit. Adjuvare became 

E 2 



28 

first aider, and then aid, retaining only the preposition without a vestige 
of juvo which is the root. 

Catena, connected with cadwyn of the Welch, gave kette to German, 
kedia to Swedish, kiaede to Danish, keten to Dutch, cadea to Portu- 
guese, chaine to French, and chain to English. 

From Collum the French seem to have derived cou, and the Germans 
hals. The Swedes have halsa, and we have hill both allied to collis. 

In our language we have acquired both rod and raft from pa^Sog. 
From no'KTO} the Danes may have taken kappe, which is in the French 
couper, in the Hindostani catna, in the Persian khudan, but in the 

English cut. 

The Swedes have both badda and basa, from TaTairo-a!, which with us are 
contracted into beat and baste; corresponding to battre French, bete 
Russian, bet Slavonian, peetna Hindostani, and baeddu Welch. In 
like manner leifa of the Swedes, and levne of the Danes, derived from 
XeiTfjv, are contracted into leave. Their kianna and niosa, yivoiay.ai, be- 
come with us ken and know, their mykest and masta from [j.^icttov and 
iA-iyuTov have yielded meist to the German and most to us. 

In Anglo-Saxon, nabban is noti habere, nah is non habit, and nis 
non est. 

In Welch we find Cael lo have, but unless caffael, of which it is an 
abbreviation, had still subsisted in the language, we never could have 
discerned a radical affinity between habeo, and cael, nor could we so 
readily have traced them, as we trace capio to the Hebrew caph the 
hand. 



29 

For crusta, the Welch has both cris and crust agreeing with both 
crust of the English and croute of the French. 

Geber {l2i) of the Hebrew seems to have given birth to gwr of 
the Welch, ger of the Persian, fear of the Galic and vir of Latin. 

In Sanscrit we have nrp, a king which as I shall hereafter demon- 
strate may be uvSpiav TaTvip, father of his people, in its most abbre- 
viated form. In this language pt, is the radical of power both regal 
and paternal, which were originally one. 

OF TRANSPOSITIONS. 

Transpositions help to disguise a language and to conceal its affi- 
nities. Yet all nations, either for the sake of euphony, or from caprice, 
have had recourse to this expedient. The Hebrews, in the conjugation 
of their verbs, removed their prepositive T, and placed it after the first 
radical, whenever this happened to be a sibilant; nay, they even 
changed their n into D as in hitstadek (pIDVn) for hithtsadek (pivnn) 
he justified hirtiself. 

It has been conjectured, and with some degree of probability, that 
the Helvetii of Caesar were Haefeldan, that is mountaineers. Certain it 
is, that our ancestors gave into this practice, for with them, to ask sup- 
plied the place of acsan, as used by the Anglo-Saxons; and by both 
asce and acse, the askis of Chaucer, they intended ashes. In our old 
English we have ficsas and fiscas for fish, ricsa and risca for rush. In 
Scotland they use garse for grass and thretty for thirty. Borstel, Belgic, 
is bristle, and brennen, German, is to burn. 



so 

The same propensity is manifest in the Celtic dialects. Anail, the 
Galic expression for breath, is alan in Armoric, whence haleine in 
French: — Balan in Armoric, balai in French, is banal in Welch, a broom. 
Grange in Welch, is cancar in Cornish, and cancer in Latin. 

In Greek we have axp'Tog and naprep'os for ^pxTog, and npxTsp'og, ypaSiv\ for 
xxpSU, npiMg for ntpnog; SpL(pog for 5i<ppQg, jixpSiqog for (ipxSiqog, and ^tppz\^og 
for 7rpi«f*.oj or the reverse. 

The Romans converted [^op<p\^ into forma, a-KlTTTOf^at into specio and 
specto, xpivw into cerno, andxplito? into circus. 

From granarium we derive garner, purpose, from propositus, and garnet 
from oranatus. In like manner, perhaps, the Celtic ros has become our 
horse, and stagnum etang or tank. 

The Spaniards say guardaldo for guardadlo, hazelo for hazedlo, salildo 
for salidlo, daldo for dadlo, &c. 



OF ORTHOGRAPHY. 

Mispronunciation and inattention to orthography tend exceedingly to 
increase the perplexity of the Tyro in languages, when he is endeavouring 
to trace their descent and to point out their connexion. 

In these respects we have only to recollect the practice of the Romans, 
as appears in the best of their historians. What contusion have they 
not made, out of the precincts of Italy, in the names of places, of per- 
sons" and of things! Or wo may cast our eyes over the vocabularies 
transmitted to us by voyagers and travellers of different nations. 



31 

But, without wandering far from home, I shall subjoin a few words 
from Lye's Saxon Dictionary, by which it will appear, that our Saxon 
ancestors, although good soldiers, were certainly bad scholars, and never 
paid attention to orthography. With them to fetch was spelt indiffer- 
ently feccan, feccean, fetian, foetian, fetigean, fetigian. 

Hail might in their opinion with equal propriety be written liaegL 
hagal, hagel, hagol and hagul. 

Light was leht, leoht, liht, lioht. 

Day was dag, daig, deg, doeg, dah, dsei, dogor. 

High was hea, heah, hih, heh, heag, heg, hig, hear. 

Much or great was micel, micyl, mickle, mucel, muccle, micl, micla, 
micle, miccla. 

No was indifferently na, ne, ni, no. 

New was neow, nio, niow, niw, niwa, niwe, nyw. 

The orthography of the Franco-Teutones was so irregular, that in the 
same author, words appear in seven or eight different forms, as for in- 
stance, buach, buoch, buah, buoh, puach, puoch, puah, puoh. 

Such was the ignorance, which prevailed in Europe, that several char- 
ters remain, to which kings and persons of the greatest eminence affixed 
the sign of ihe cross with their own hand, for this assigned reason, be- 
cause they were ignorant of letters. In the ninth century, the supreme 
judge of the empire could not subscribe his name. And even in the 
fourteenth century, Du Gueselin constable of France, one of the 
greatest men of his age, could neither write nor read. Nay, many dig- 
nified ecclesiastics could not subscribe the canons of those councils, in 
which they sat as members. 



52 

As there were few, who could write ; so was the number few of those, 
who could procure any thing to read. For before the invention of 
printing, A. D. 1449, manuscripts were extremely scarce, and even 
monasteries of considerable note had but one missal. (Robertson's 
Charles V. note 10.) But to point out the difficulties which must ever 
occur to those, who undertake to make us acquainted with foreign 
languages, I will here subjoin a specimen from the vocabulary of a Ger- 
man, who taught English. 

Ahdsch, age; tihm, aim; anker, anger; badsch, badge; badhs, bath; 
bof, bough; dscli'dns, chance; JscAoA, chew; ehdsch, each; dsehuck, jug; 
dschordsch, George; tchdsch, teach; dschths, cheese. 

In what manner his German pupils were by this vocabulary to learn 
English, an Englishman may be at a loss to comprehend. 

What can be more discordant than the sound and the orthography in 
the subsequent expressions. High, nigh, sigh; light, fight, night; 
dough, though, trough, bough, plough, and slough, when it means a 
quagmire; laugh, cough, rough, tough, and slough when applied to 

ulcers ! 

Sir William .Tones, in his Asiatic researches, has given us an example 
of vicious orthography, such as, in his opinion, all foreigners are 

liable to. 

Law more awe day recgyewrs awe nool otruh parellyuh, Sec. 

To the English ear tlie sound is in some degree preserved ; but who 
would imagine, that in this sentence we have the first line of a beauti- 
ful French Ode. 

La raort a des rigucurs a nulle autre pareilles. 



S3 

This demonstrates the propriety of adhering strictly to orthography, 
as the French have done more than other nations, in deriving from the 
Latin. For they have preserved the radical letters, even such as have 
no influence on the sound. Thus, for example, we find asne from 
asinus. Thus also tant from tantus, and temps from tempus, both 
sounded like the last syllable in their word etang, and altogether inex- 
pressible by any letters of the alphabet to an English ear. 

Yet the most strict attention to orthography will never preserve the 
sound of vowels. These arc incessantly changing, nor can this be pre- 
vented whilst the same letter in every language represents a variety of 
sounds. Thus in English we give four different sounds to a, in have, 
had, halm, hall. E may be mute, or it may retain two sounds in be and 
bell. I differs in time, tin, bird; O in bone, bog, move and dove, U 
in mute, full, burst and busy. 

Inability to pronounce certain consonants, is a common source of false 
orthography. 

'J'lie Ephraeniites for shiboloth, at the hazard of their lives, said 
siboleth , nor could they pronounce it otherwise. The Greeks themselves 
at the fords of Jordan, must inevitably have shared the fate of the 
Ephraeujites, for they likewise would have said siboleth. 'I'he Sep- 
luagint translators were exceedingly perplexed by this narration, because 
the Greek language wants the aspirated sibilant. In the place, there- 
fore, of shiboleth, which means an ear of corn, they substituted qcex^s 
of the same import: but this leaves the narrative imperfect. They add 
that an Ephraemite could not shape his lips to pronounce q^xv?, which 
was not the case. Yet, from the nature of their alphabet, they could 

VOL. II. F 



34 

not convey to the Greeks a true notion of the difficulty, under which 
they labored. 

Frenchmen and Germans are equally embarrassed with our th, and 
should they attempt to say this or that thing, their efforts would be 
vain. Indeed most foreigners find it difficult to catch the pronunciation 
in these few words, nor can they readily distinguish the difference in the 
articulation of th in thin and thine. 

The Delaware Indians have neither F, V, nor R. The Chinese are 
strangers to B, D, R, X and Z, and therefore substitute M for B, T for 
D, and L for R. 

The Mexican alphabet has neither B. D. F. G. R. nor S. In Green- 
land no word begins with either B. D. F. G. L. R. or Z. 

In the Sandwich and Society Islands the inhabitants having neither 
C. G. K. Q. X. S. nor V. could not be taught to say Captain Cook, but 
called him Taptain Toot. 

The inability to pronounce certain consonants naturally leads men to 
substitute others in the place of those, which they have never learnt to 
articulate. But, even where no such inability has existed, the practice 
of substitution has universally prevailed. 

In our Greek grammar we read mutantur inter se ■3^/3$ ; nyx ; '^^^- To 
the fust series should have been added (* as must be evident to every 
one, who is conversant with the inflexion of the verbs. 

This practice, established in Greek, Hebrew, Arabic and Chaldee, 
was not peculiar to these languages, for all nations in kindred letters, 
that is in letters of the same organ, whether labials, dentals, palatines 
or gutturals, have been apt, either from inattention, or from affectation. 



S5 

to substitute one for another, as in the interchange of B. V. F, V. W, M. 
of D. T. Th. ; equally so of C. Ch. G. Gh, H. and not uniVequcntly 
of D. and J. of all which numerous examples will be produced. 

It is curious to observe the aptitude with which the aspirate of the 
Greek either sinks througli the Spanish J. and X. into the deep and harsh 
sounding guttural of the Welch and Germans, rises up through the 
Eno;lish Y. J, and G. into the hard C. and K. glides along the roof in 
Ch. is converted into the sibilant, becomes a labial, or is altogether 
lost. Again the progress may be inverted, or the passage from one to 
the other may be made per saltum, and thus G. Gh. K. C. Ch. J. and 
II. may each supply the other's place, as will be demonstrated, by mul- 
tiplied examples in the progress of my work. 

The same liberty is claimed by the liquids L. R. ; M. N. ; respec- 
tively, as in our subsequent investigations we shall frequently have 
occasion to display. 

Between S. and T. which, in all the languages of Europe, slide into 
each other's place, there is a natural connexion. They readily unite, 
and when they part, it seems to be a matter of indifference, which of 
them shall be retained. Every one, who is conversant with Greek, 
must frequently have made the same remark. Lucian, in one of his 
dialogues, introduces a judicial process instituted at the suit of the 
letter S. against her wicked neighbour T. 

S. complains that T. not satisfied with incroaching on the privileges 
of D. Th. and Z. letters of the same family, had even usurped a place 
in numerous words, which of right belonged to her. She particularly 
laments her fate, that she should be expelled from Thessaly and should 

F 2 



36 

be called by the ignominious appellation of a Thettalian, that she should 
be excluded from the sea (SaiXao-tra:) and that, robbed and plundered 
by an atrocious villain, she should not be permitted to retain one peg. 
(^rx(T(TxXov.) Nay she expressed her fears, that in process of time even 
TVKx would assume the place of o-ux«. 

What has been hitherto advanced, frequently supported by some 
approximation to organic affinity, seems to account for many other 
changes observable in all languages, more especially for the conversion 
of D. into G. C. and K. or J, G. C. and K. into D. and this not 
only in some of the Greek dialects, but in English, Danish, Swedish, 
German, Galic, French, and in all the dialects, both Gothic and 
Slavonian, diffused over the northern regions both of Europe and of 
Asia. 

But how shall we account for what must appear a most unnatural 
practice, that of converting B. and P. into C. K. and G. or the reverse, 
since these families have no organic affinity ? Certain it is, that the 
lonians, Baeotians, iEolians, and the inhabitants of Attica, did this, 
for Herodotus commonly used kuj^^ for 'Ttug ; the Bfeotians ^xvy,y.£g for 
yvvxineg; the iEolians y.o"ov for Trofo!/ ; the Athenians •y'k£<Pxpx for ftKe(pxpx 
and /3Xvi%wi/ for 7Xvi%aiv and all the Greeks r:vx\uog for wx\uo;, from which 
we have 'jvxvov a^ bean. 

From the same propensity the Romans said fel for pco^vi, gall, appello 
for onaKXiD I arrive at. The Ethiopians say Kctrus and Kaulus for Petrus" 
and Paul us. In Welch B. answers to C. and K. of the Teutonic 
dialects and to such an extent did the Galic tribes adopt the practice 
of converting P. into C. that the old vocabularies omit the letter P. 



37 

/ 

and in its place substitute C. or K. The Welch has P. in many words, 
which in Galic begin with C. but no radical word in Welch begins 
with the correspondent letter F. unless in composition, when it is used, 
for M. B. It is possible, that this practice may have arisen from the 
resemblance in form between these discordant letters in some of the 
more ancient alphabets. 

In various parts of Europe, more especially in Germany, we observe 
G. and gc, as prepositive particles, answering to ga, of the Gothic, as 
that, in numerous instances, does to ey. of the Greek. In the same lan- 
guages be and bi correspond in composition to f-Tri of the Greek. These 
prcepositions are considered by Hicks as commutable. Certain it is 
that the Galic has blochd for yxXx •yxKocn'Tog milk. T!:e Germans say 
gedcncken and glaubcn, we say bethink, believe. Thus also we have 
blithe and glad delivered down to us by our Sa.\on ancestors, both 
derived from Icetiis one with J^. the other with G. prefixed. In Greek, 
among other examples, we find both jiKxnav and 'ykxnccv whence the 
Romans may have derived pulegium. 

When two or more consonants meet in the middle of a compound 
word, the weaker is apt to be absorbed and lost in the stronger, or at 
least is converted into one, which has organic affinity with it, as colligo, 
commuto, aufj^Ttx^etx, tstvij.[j.xi, for conligo, conmuto, &c. But in Welch 
compounds D and G are dropt, as in aneiryd for an, and deiryd annilys 
for andilys, anny for an and genni. 

The changes above described are governed by general rules: but every 
nation assumes some licences peculiar to itself. Of all the languages 
with which I am acquainted, none is so licentious as the Spanish. This 



38 

will be particularly noticed, when 1 shall proceed to treat of the off- 
spring of the Latin. The changes we observe in the Spanish consonants, 
although conformable to certain laws, now well understood and univer- 
sally received, seem to have originated wholly in caprice. To a limited 
extent the same licentiousness prevails in the Italian, and I have no 
doubt, that an accurate acquaintance with the derivation and affinities 
of other languages would enable us to trace the same licentiousness and 
arbitrary changes in most of them or, perhaps in all. 

GENERAL CONCLUSION. 

The operation of any one of these numerous causes of mutation would 
be sufficient in the revolution of ages to disguise a language and to ren- 
der its origin obscure. But when all these concur to puzzle and perplex, 
and when there is no standard of purity, to which every word may be 
referred, no traditionary poems; no written records; no acknowledged 
classics; no sacred books; no lexicons to ascertain and fix the meaning 
of expressions ; the language will be more rapid in its changes, and the 
difficulties to be encountered by the etymologist will be abundantly in- 
creased. 

These considerations have a tendency to produce despair of being ever 
able to demonstrate, or even to make it probable, that all languages are 
radically one. How shall wc trace the genealogy of words compounded 
and contracted, distorted and disfigured as they are, and which have 
lost their original import, and that, perhaps, not merely by some little 
variation, but by a total reverse of meaning and intention ? "Who, 



39 

amidst this confusion, can distinguish order ? Or what linguist will be 
able to collect from such discordant dialects, the elements of a primaeval 
language? When its members have been torn asunder and dispersed by 
Typhon ; what Isis, wandering through the earth, will recognize and 
again unite them ? 

The task is painful; but patience and perseverance, with a little 
sagacity, an extensive knowledge of languages, and strict attention to 
analogy, may accomplish that, which, at first sight, appears im- 
practicable. 

OF THE INVESTIGATION OF RADICALS. 

I. 

To investigate a root, we must begin with decomposition: we must 
get rid of all the prepositive particles and idiomatic terminations, with 
such epenthetical syllables or letters, as may have been introduced into 
the radical expression. In a word, we must reduce the term in question 
to its most simple and elementary form. 

For this purpose, it is necessary, that we should know whether it be 
native or foreign, and have a perfect acquaintance with the language, to 
which it belongs. In these words, for instance, decomposition and j9?-e- 
positive, the slightest acquaintance with Latin will be sufficient to point 
out their derivation, to get rid of all incumbrances, and to leave pono 
as the root. These, therefore, are of Italian growth, and with them 
must be ranked imposition, apposition, supposition, transposition, and 
all other compounds which claim the same descent. 



40 

In the word termination, the Celtic scholar will distinguish two roots, 
combined and agreeing with terfyn, a boundary, of the' Welch, derived 
from tir maen, a landstone. 

Should we fix on the word transuhstantiation ; we may readily get rid 
of the two prepositions and of the termination. This operation leads us 
to stans, stantis, sto, steti, statuui. Here then we find the root in sto, 
I stand, which divested of o, its pronoun, leaves st, found equally in 
stay, in iq^^^, and in numerous verbs of the same import, dispersed 
amono; the nations over the whole surface of the olobe. In the Welch 
annysgymmod, discord, we find three prepositions, which being rejected 
leave bod, here converted into mod an habitation. In discord the root 
is cor the heart. 

In our word mistake, we have one single prefix to remove; but in mis- 
apprehend we have three, mis, ad, and pre, which Ijeing rt jccted, leave 
lieiul, allied to hand, to have, and, under various forms, to corres- 
pondent terms, in all the languages of Europe and of Asia. In the verb 
splendeo, L is the only radical which remains of XevAog, AaV^f'", ^«'^- ' 

The learned Rudbeck, in his Atlantica, has left us canons, by which 
we may determine the countries, to which words belong. According to 
him, that is the genuine language of a naticjn, which is commonly 
spoken by the vulgar, and a word may be considered as the genuine 
offspring of that language, if, in its primary sense, it is of extensive use, 
and if its kindred derivatives have remote and accidental significations, 
which naturally flow from the first notion. 

Again, a word may be considered as native to a country, if monu- 
ments and authentic records, referring to remote ^uitiquity, prove it to 



41 

have been always familiarly used and understood by the inhabitants; but 
not so, if, being imported, it has been regarded as foreign and before 
unknown. Thus, for instance, Venus, a word unknown in Rome before 
the expulsion .of the Tarquins, is neither of Greek, Latin, nor of Egyp- 
tian origin, but, in the Scandinavian Gothic, wena means to love; 
wenskap, friendship; wenlig, familiar; wan, graceful ; wen, a wife, and 
wenadis the goddess Venus. 

The same may be said of Minerva, whose etymon must be sought for 
in the Celtic, in which her characttristic attribute is expressed by Erva, 
Arms, precisely as Mavors and Mais, in Sanscrit, mean great warrior. 

Tliis agrees with his most important canon, " That word must be con- 
sidered as the genuine offspring of the language, in which it expresses 
the nature and properties of the thing in question." Thus, for instance, 
caterm is cad a battle, and tarf a troop, and the word bisJiop is in Welch 
esgob, in Galic easbog, eascob and eascop; in TEthiopic, yskuph; in 
Arabic, uskuf and askub; in Spanish, obispo; in Italian, vescovo; in 
French evesque; in Saxon, bisceop; in Belgic, bischop ; in German, 
bischoff; in Danish, biscop and bisp; in Polish, biskup; in Slavonian, 
epkop; in Hungarian, prospok ;• in Latin, episcopus, in Greek, fx/a-KOTro^, 
which last expression, derived from fxi and o-KfTTTOfxan, denotes the watch- 
ful guardian of the church. Here then we have the origin of all the 
preceding appellations. Thus judge must be the legitimate offspring of 
judice, qui jus dicif, and is not therefore to be sought for in any other 
language but in Latin. JVing is, in Sanscrit, a bird, and is so named 
because it moves in air. 

Liquorice is, in German, lackritz ; Italian, ligurizia and regolizia ; 

VOL. II. G 



42 

French, reglise; in Spanish regahza; PoHsh, lackricya; Hungarian, 
liguiriczia, and in Latin, glycyrrhiza. All these appear as arbitrary 
names, the impositions of caprice, to be transmitted from one generation 
to another. But, when we arrive at the Greek, in which yXvvivpi^x means 
sweet root, we know, that the plant in question has been indebted to 
Greece alone for this appellation. The same may be said of alms, in 
Welch elysen ; Italian, limosina; Spanish, limosna; Portuguese, esmola; 
French, aumone; Saxon, aelmes; German, allmosen ; Swedish, almosor ; 
Gothic, armajon ; Polish, talmuzna; Hungarian, alumisna; in the lan- 
guage of Chaucer, almose and almesse ; in Latin, eleemosyna; for the 
moment we arrive at eKeyi[i.O(Tuv^, we discern the root of all these ex- 
pressions in the Greek aXsog, mercy, pity, compassion. 

The origin of bastard and batard appears in basdardd, bas and tarddu, 
i. e. base issue, of the Welch. 

When we examine blasphemare in Latin, biasimare in Italian, blas- 
femar, Spanish, brasfemar Portugueze, blasmier and blamer, French, 
and blame, English, we must be convinced, that all these are connected. 
But no where can we find a definition of the act, till we arrive at 
/3Xa:a-(pvi|xfjv, to blast the fame, in which all these originate, and which in 
/BXaTTfjv TVi'j (^■^[j.viv gives us distinctly the notion we are seeking. 

Indeed the word fame itself, although immediately derived from fama, 
or from cpvu^vi, as this may be from cpvif*.;, claims affinity to phi (HD-) in 
Hebrew, and to plium (D12)) in Chaldee, the mouth. 

For auspice, whether the word appear in French, English, Italian, 
or Spanish, we need not look beyond the Latin, in which it originated, 
and in which it denotes the inspection of birds for the purpose of divi- 
nation. 



43 

Decern may be traced, though variously disguised, through all the 
languages of Europe and of Asia, and may be thought to terminate in 
Senx. But even here it claims no natural connexion with the preceding 
numbers, nor from the Greek can we assign a reason for this term. In 
its kindred language, theGalic, we have da cuig, that is twice five, which 
it readily contracts into deich, the natural parent of BiKo:, and of a nu- 
merous offspring. 

In like manner our word marvel, in French merveille, and in Spanish 
maravilla may claim affinity to meur-bheil, the finger of God, which 
in Galic is the term for miracle. Our word asp seems to have origi- 
nated in xa-Ttccipnv to tremble. 

Chess in English appears as an arbitrary name. Tracing this word 
through various countries and languages, we find shah a king, and 
schach, skak, echecs, scacchi, and shah mat, check mate, that is the 
king is dead. Shetrenjor shatranj, chatrang, and katuranga, mean 
the four angas, or divisions of an army, infantry, cavalry, chariots and 
elephants, and explain the name first given to the game of chess by its 
original inventors, (v. Asiatic Researches.) 

Neither ffiloges in Welch, nor pellex in Latin can be regarded as 
descriptive of a concubine. But when we meet with the parent of 
these words in philegesh. (^ilr>) of the Hebrew, we instantly gain a 
clear and distinct notion of the thing intended, and see the attention 
of a husband divided between two females, who have discordant claims 
to his affection. 

In German we find the word felleisen, for which Adelung gives no 
satisfactory account, because this vehicle has no connexion with eisen, 

g2 



44 

that is with iron. Wallet, our conrespondent term, stands unconnected 
in the Enghsh and contains in itself no description of the thing, any more 
than felleisen of the German, Valigia of the Itahan. or valise of the 
French. But in the old French fellouse we see all these expressions 
terminate in pellis. 

Our word nasty conveys the notion of filth; but contains within 
itself no reason for this application. In Russian we have the origin of 
this expression clearly pointed out. For in this language we find nechistui 
of the same import, compounded of ne not and chistui pure. 

Indeed we may venture to establish it, as a general rule, that com- 
pound words are definitions and originate in that language, in wiiich 
they may claim this character. 

It must ever be remembered, that migrating hordes carry their lan- 
guage with them; but that when a warlike chief, with his chosen bands, 
subdues a feeble nation and settles in the country, the victors most 
frequently adopt the language of the vanquished. 

Rudbeck has one canon, to which I cannot readily assent. He states, 
that a language, which has numerous monosyllabic expressions is a 
parent language. The English has more than three thousand seven 
hundred monosyllabic expressions, and the Chinese has none but such; 
yet neither of these are, for that reason, to be considered as parent 
languages. Certain it is, that all languages by abbreviations have a 
tendency to become monosyllabic and therefore a language, which 
abounds in monosyllables, is ancient, and these commonly are the 
most anli(iuated parts of every language. New compounds are in- 
cessantly created. These are abbreviated and in process of time become 



45 

monosyllabic. In deriving, therefore, a word in one language from its 
correspondent expression in some other language, we must ever bear in 
mind, that, unless in tlie formation of new compounds, the least ab- 
breviated is coininoiily thti parent and the most abbreviated its off- 
spring. 

This observation perfectly agrees with another canon of this celebrated 
Linguist. Nations do not commonly change a word, which is expediti- 
ously pronounced into another, which is either longer or more difficult 
of pronunciation, but the reverse. Would it be possible for any one to 
persuade us, that colaphus was derived from cuff, or blaspheme from 
blame? There are, however, exceptions to this rule. For many of the 
Creek dialects introduce not only vowels, but almost every consonant 
of the alphabet into the middle of their words. 

In Latin we observe the introduction of D. for the sake of euphony, 
in numerous verbs such as redeo, redigo, redimo, redarguo, &c. Anions 
the derivatives from Greek, if such they may be strictly called, many 
assume N. as for instance x^^^, scindo; Xsix<^, lingo; Sizjug, densus; 
pxyclj, frango; tKX7ov, centum, &c. The Romans likewise occasionally 
inserted N. in words, in which it did not commonly appear, as in 
conjunx for conjux. Indeed jungo is evidently derived from jugum, 
as in Greek ^ivr/ou produces ^euyvevco. This introduction of N. in Greek, 
verbs and Greek derivatives has been already noticed as arisino- from 
the conversion of infinitives into new themes. 

Our Gothic ancestors frequently inserted N before the last syllable 
to form both tjie passive and substantives derived from it, as fauratanja 
portents from teihan to predict, whose passive is teihnan. The Eno-lish' 



46 

and French adopt the same practice in words, which have no claim to 
the acquisition, as in render and rendre from reddere, and lantern 
from laterna. Both nations take a superfluous D. in tendre and tender 
from tener. Tliis j)ractice is extremely prevalent before G. as in lodge 
from loser and edse from effsje, which in Greek is o-kI;. In our word 
allege, the D. has not yet established itself, although it is distinctly 
sounded. Both allege and lodge ma}"^ be traced up to Xeyeiv. 

In Galic compounds, D. is introduced, as in Latin, for the sake 
of euphony. Thusboacovv, and og young, become bodoga a heifer. 

Such practice has been common: but this does not leave the ety- 
mologist at liberty to suppose consonants, whenever his imagination 
may suggest the necessity for their introduction. This would be a 
dangerous privilege, a ridiculous expedient; because conjectures are of 
little value, where demonstration is required. But if the arbitrary 
introduction of vowels, consonants and syllables in the middle of a 
word, would lead to endless conjectures, so undoubtedly would trans- 
positions, unless supported by analogy. This practice, therefore, when 
we can appeal to strict analogy, and have demonstrated the affinity 
of any given language, may serve for illustration, may point out the 
derivation and account for the change in particular words ; but will 
never tend to prove, that any two languages are radically one. 

II. 

In the investigation of a root we are perfectly at liberty to consider 
letters of the same organ as commutable, labials with labials, and 



47 

gutturals with gutturals ; dentals with dentals, and palatines with pala- 
tines; because all nations have assumed this privilege. 

But in the more unnatural changes, much discretion is required, and 
an appeal to the particular practice of the nation, province, or tribe, in 
which the word under examination may happen to appear. 



III. 



To obtain the genuine root, kindred languages must be compared 
together, and the genius of each must be accurately known; because 
witliout such knowledge and such comparison, one link or more may be 
wanting to our chain, and we may be left with vague conjecture, instead 
of conclusive evidence. 

We know that French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese are kindred 
languages derived from Latin. Yet who, unless intimately acquainted 
with the genius of these languages, would think of deriving the French, 
or from ad horam ; aune from ulna ; aube from albus ; chaud from 
calidus, coup from colaphus, pons from pulsus, outre from alter and 
from ultra, paume from palma, sauf from salvus, sauvage from sylva, 
taupe from talpa, fleau from flagellum, aumone from eleemosuna, faux 
from falsus, doux from dulcis, mieux from melius, peaux from pelles, 
vaux from valles, brebis from vervex, combler from cumulare, boulanger 
from polentarius, couver from cubare, devoir from debere, ouvrir from 
aperire, seve from sapa, jai from ego habeo, il a from ille habet. 

In Italian the same degree of knowledge is required to connect fo 
with facio, here with bibere, noja with noxa. In this language we have 



48 1 

c/uaro, clarus; cJiiave, clavis; c///oM, clavus; chiudere, daudere ; fore, 
flos; Jiime, flumen; ghiado, gladius; ghiaccio, glacies; ghianda, glans; 
ghieva, gleba; pietio, plenus ; piega, plica; pianta, planta ; pieve, plebs; 
schiavo, slavus ; sc/»mso, exclusus; schiamazzarv, exclamare ; sc/«M7wcr, spuma; 
sc/«e»fl, spina; se^/'e, septem ; s«e<<a, sagitta; trave, trabs; /c^/o, tectum; 
vegghia, vigillia ; vi, ibi. 

Tn Spa7nsh the mutations have been still more violent; for, not satisfied 
with considering letters of the same organ as commutable, the Spaniards 
substitute for each other such letters as have not the least pretence to 
oro-anic affinity. This appears by the subsequent examples. Auseiicia, 
absentia; bnho, bubo; haba, faba; haccr, facere; haia, fagus; harina, 
farina; heder, faetere; hender, findcre; hierro, ferrum; hiel, fel; honda, 
funda; horma, forma; huir, fugere; hurto, furtum: hilo, filum; liigo, 
ficus; hinojo, f^niculum; hijo, filius; hoUcjo, foUiculus; ojo, oculus; 
hoja, folium; /io??go, fungus; //orco, f urea ; homo, fornax; oreja, auricula; 
viejo, vetulus; mucho, multus; 7>iuger, niulier; mojar, moliire; j/iazo, 
malleus; mejor, melior; lenteja, lenticulus. 'I'his change of L into J, 
which is in Spain a guttural, is violent in the extreme. 

But, however familiar with this language, who would think of con- 
necting hembra and femina, unless he should recollect that hombre is ra- 
dically one with homo, as hombro is with humerus, liambre with fames, 
legumbre, with legumen, licbre with lepus, and nombre with nomen. 

The Portuguese is evidently a corruption of the Spanish; 3-61 this 
dialect has preserved some features of resemblance, which to the dis- 
cerning eye, mark its descent from Latin. This will ap|)ear by the 
subsequent examples. Abri aperire, agiisa acjuila, bcijo basio, bexiga 



49 

vesica, bom bonus, boi/ bos, ceo coelum, chave clavis, c/iovc pluit, cor 
color, dedo digitus, dereito directus, dhse dixit, doutor doctor, an in, 
erva herba, /"ezVo factus, ^'z feci, /o/hc fames, /Wo frigid us, hojc hodie, 
hum unus, may mater, meya media, minha mea, vwlher mulier, muyio 
multus, ntvoa nebula, olio octo, ohrigado obligatus, ouvir audire, pay 
pater, peixe piscis, per'igo periculum, por ponere, rcza recitare, rota 
rupta, saude salus, scde sitis, telha tegula, trigo triticum, vcr viderc, 
vir venire, vou vado, unha ungula. 

When in French we meet with appris, how can we trace this expression 
to its source without the assistance of the Latin, to which wc are directed 
by its infinitive, apprendre. And when from apprehendo we have go 
rid of the prepositions ud and pre, and have retained hendo witii thv'. 
notion of handling; where can we discover this acceptation in a simple 
verb, unless it be in jc^cv^izvw of the Greek? 

Without the intermediate links, would not the most cautious etymo- 
logist be thought rash in the extreme, who should pretend to detect a 
connexion between prudence and e^Secc? But no sooner do we recollect 
the subsequent expressions, prudentia, providentia, ^^potiSca and eiBtco than 
Ave become satisfied, that the most strict affinity may subsist between 
the first of these expressions and the last. And thus also we discover 
identity of notion between our word prudence and vorsichtigkeit, that is 
foresight, of our German ancestors. 

Who, without the aid of French, German, Anglo-Saxon, and Belgic, 
could think of connecting high with altus, of which it does not contain 
a single element, either real or potential? But when we meet with 
hault in the old French, and haut in the modern ; hoheit and hohe in 

VOL, II. H 



50 

German; hooh in Belgic; hauh in Gothic; heah and hieli in Saxon; we 
are disposed to think that all these may have originated in altus. To 
account for the h, we should observe, that the modern inhabitants of 
Gaul have been in the habit of introducing this letter in the beginning 
of words derived from Latin, as for instance, huile, huit, huitre, hors 
and hormis, charbon, charite. 

Who again, without the intermediate languages, would imagine, that 
liead is essentially the same word with caput? But when we observe haupt 
in German; haubith in Gothic; hufwud in Swedish and heafod in 
Saxon, — from which we confessedly derive our head; we immediately 
distinguish the connexion of all these with caput, because we knoAv, 
that the change between C and H is not unfrequent in the language of 
our northern ancestors. Thus, in the Gothic we have hairto, cor; haurn, 
cornu; in the Swedish, hud, cutis; hus, casa; halm, calamus; hoi, 
coliis; haela, celare; hop, copia; in the German, hanff, canabis, in 
Spanish, helar, gelare; hermano, germanus; hieso, gypsum, and by the 
same process, haupt may connect itself with caput. 

What affinity can the novice in languages discover between jioimeiv 
and to feed, which have not one element, unless potentially, in common. 
But when he sees /Soa-xcu, pasco, pascere, paitre French, batan Saxon, 
beta and fixla Swedish, weiden German, all kindred languages, and all 
denoting the same action ; even the novice may discern a regular pro-^ 
gress from ^os-yu till it terminates in feed. In connecting food to /Soto^, 
he has no need of a connecting medium. The correspondent expres- 
sions in the Celtic dialects seem to originate, not in ^oanu, but m 



51 

^tog and liioTog. These are biadh and buadh in Calir, buis in Cornish, 
bwyd in Welch, and boat in the Arnioric. 

In the derivation of ?nuch from iJ-eyxln, one link is snflicient, and 
that we find in the Old English mickle, mochel, muchcl, as used by 
Spencer in his Fairy Queen. 

Fi7'e is certainly allied to Tup, but this would be in some measure 
doubtful, had we not furs, in the ancient Irish of the same import, 
and fursannadh in the modern to kindle. In German we have feuer, 
in Belgic vuer, in Saxon and Swedish fyr, in Latin uro and eomburo, 
in Welch pori, in Slavonian pogoraiu. These convey the same notion 
with our word to burn, a word derived immediately from ^upoeiv. This 
in Galic is bran, in Belgic branden, whence comes our brand AVith 
these agree brinnan of the Gothic, brenna Swedish, and brenne Ice- 
landic. In the Slavonian branch, from pogoraiu we have goriu Russian, 
and Horim Bohemian. These kindred dialects thus compared together 
throw light upon each other, and direct us to -iy:3 the genuine root 
from which they all proceed. Without the assistance of Latin, Italian, 
and French it would be impossible to connect savage with 'uXv^, 
But every scholar knows, that sylva is allied to'uAti, selvage to sylva, 
sauvage to selvage, and savage to sauvage. 

From 'v'Kuhvti we stand in need of no assistance to arrive at wild. 
Wild then and savage are both derived from 'u'Xvi. 

The novice in languages would consider the attempt to connect •^^{^ 
the Hebrew word for light, with marble, as wild in the extreme. But 
when we observe marmol in Spanish, marbre in French, and marmor in 
Latin, we readily conceive that marble is allied to these. From marmor 

H 2 



52 

the progress is easy, through [it-api^atpa) and f^aipw to 11K0» l^i^n and 
111* of the same import, and every one knows that to receive a 
pohsh and to shine are the essential properties of marble. 

To connect dusk with shade even the novice may recollect, that 
shade is anidSiov in its most abbreviated form, that dusk is derived 
from Sxa-Kiog, which is compounded of Sx valde and a-mSeig umbrosus 
and that both (thixSiov and a-moeig are the offspring of o-xj«. 

It was the want of a diffusive knowledge of languages, which be- 
trayed Bullet into the gross error of deriving Norihampton from nor 
the mouth of a river, tarn a river, and ton a habitation. AVith equal 
ignorance he derived Uxbridge, from uc a river, and brig, division, 
(v. Pinkerton.) 

I might here multiply examples of extravagant derivations suggested 
by rash or unlearned men, and of difficulties solved in etymology by 
comparing kindred languages together : but sufficient has been already 
said to caution the Tyro against precipitancy, and much more will of 
necessity appear in the progress of this work, when the several languages 
of Europe and of Asia shall pass in review before us. 

IV. 

In tracing the origin of words and the affinity of languages, we must 
be careful to examine correspondent terms. 

Every language has multiplied expressions for the same notion. Vo- 
cabularies, therefore, such as are given us by voyagers and travellers, 
even those collected at the expense of the imperial Catharine, and by 



53 

the indefatigable industry of Pallas, are of little value to the etymologist. 
They only perplex, discourage and mislead him. It is said, that the 
Arabs have five hundred expressions for a lion. By periphrasis they 
may have five thousand. Yet, without circumlocution, they have three, 
asad, lebu and leis. In Hebrew likewise we find three, ari, labi and 
laish (iwh, i^'^n'?. "*"1i<) The two last in each of these corresponding series 
may be compared, and evince analogy. But should the traveller com- 
pare only the two remaining terms; no resemblance would appear be- 
tween them. 

Such is the luxuriancy of language; such, in every nation, the minute 
distinctions, which, marking a difference to the natives, yet escape the 
observation and discernment of a stranger, thar even a dictionary with- 
out a competent knowledge of the language, will frequently mislead. 
We have, for instance, two difterent processes for preserving fruits, the 
one by vinegar, the other by sugar, or a man may be preserved by the 
protecting arm of a superior power. A young Russian, who was not 
acquainted with these distinctions, in taking leave of a lady, from whom 
he had received civilities, having searched his dictionary for suitable 
expressions, turned to her with a look of ineffable gratitude, and said 
" May God Almighty pickle you/' Had his compliment been paid in 
French, he would have avoided this mistake. 

No language is more abundant in periphrasis than Sanscrit, as will 
appear, when I shall display its rich variety of elegant expressions* 

The Irish have more than fifty expressions for a hill; and the Welch 
have eight. These are cefn, garth, rhyn, bre and brynn, galit, moel, 



54 

and truin. From the Irish I select seven, ard, ardan, rinn, bri, maol, 
meall, droman. 

Now garth, ard and ardan may possibly have a correspondent term in 
Latin, and may be connected with arduus; rhyn, brynn and rinn may 
be either the parent or the offspring of /jjv, the nose; cefn, a ridge of 
mountains, which is the exact description of the Cevennes in France, 
seems to be the only term, which claims direct affinity to the Hebrew; 
for giben is deviated, as in harim gabnunnim, high hills, of Psal. 
Ixviii. 16. or gebin of the Chaldee, with which the Syriac perfectly 
agrees. Of eight expressions therefore, for hill, in Welch, one only can 
admit of a comparison with Hebrew, one with Greek, one with Latin, 
and seven with Irish. Some languages are redundant in expressions; 
others are exceedingly deficient. In the latter, one word has numerous 
acceptations, and these, perhaps, discordant, or, if not altogether dis- 
cordant, nor wholly unconnected either in kind or genera, yet perfectly 
distinct, as species or varieties. Thus damh means in Galic ox, cow, 
bull, ^gh means ox, cow, bull, battle, fear, a doe. Bla conveys the 
seiveral notions, well, safe, healthy, piety, a village, a green field, the 
sea, yellow, renown, praise, a shout, a cry. 

In this diversity of acceptations we must compare only such as cor- 
respond. Thus for instance, agh. when it signifies a castrated bull, may 
be compared with ycA in Welch; ox in English; ux, Icelandic; auhs, 
Gothic; oz, Belgic; and the affinity will be readily discenied: but it 
must not be compared with cow, bull, battle, fear, or doe, in English, 
nor with the correspondent terms in Belgic, Gothic, or Icelandic. In 



S5 

Welch, however, some small similitude to agh, a cow, may be distin- 
guished in buwch, which means the same. 

What is here remarked will equally apply to similar expressions 
in our own language, such as arch, asp, bait, bale, bark, baste, bay, 
bear, bill, &c. in their numerous and discordant acceptations, for even 
in the most copious languages the same word, if derived from diiFerent 
sources, is made to convey a variety of independent meanings. 



V. 



In tracing the etymology of words, we must remember, that as 
verbs are derived from nouns, so innumerable nouns originate in verbs, 
and that the most ancient parts of every language are the words ex- 
pressive of visible objects, parts of the body, material elements, 
natural relations, affections of the mind, things of the first necessity, 
and such as are common to the whole race of man. 

We must, likewise, in every language understand, from what parts 
of the verb its nouns are commonly derived. In English, as Mr. 
Tooke has demonstrated, our substantives are formed frequently by 
the third person singular of the indicative, some ?evf from the par- 
ticiple present, and many from the participle past. Besides these we 
have numerous verbs whose indicative mood present tense is the in- 
finitive of other verbs. In Greek although the most ancient nouns are 
derived from the present, the future, and the perfect tenses, which 
are the most ancient parts of verbs ; yet innumerable substantives are 
participles. 



56 

VI. 

In the investigations of etymology it may be established as a fun- 
damental principle, that the genuine root can have but one original 
meaning, one primary notion, and that every other sense must be se- 
condary, metaphorical, allusive. 

If then the several acceptations are discordant and cannot be tro- 
pically derived from one primary idea; we may be certain, that each 
independent notion has its proper radix, which must be sought for, 
and may be fc^nd in some other, and that probably a kindred lan- 
guage. Thus, for instance, in our word mean, we have 1° low in 
worth, 2o intermediate, 3° to wish for, intend, 4° to hint, covertly, to 
signify. All these acceptations, distinguished by Dr. Johnson, are 
independent of each other, and seem to originate the first in (*£tov ; 
the second in [t.e<Tov; the third in \^tvoi\^xw, and the fourth in ij.>ivv^. 
In the first acceptation it has affinity with main and man of the 
Welch; mion and min Galic ; minuo Latin; moin French; and maene 
of the Saxon. In the second it is allied to mcadhon and maoin Galic; 
medium Latin; mian Persian; and both moj-en and mesne French. 
In the third to meinen of the German; to maani Arabic; and to 
miann of the Galic. In the fourth it connects itself with minich 
Galic; mentior Latin; and minneach of Iceland. 

Dr. Johnson has attempted to mark, in words of extensive use, the 
progress of their meaning, and to shew, by what gradations of inter- 
mediate sense, they have passed from their primitive to their remote 
and accidental signification, in order that every foregoing explanation 



57 

miflit tend to that which follows, and that the series might be regu- 
larly concatenated from the first notion to the last. In the execution 
of this purpose he had occasion to observe, that kindred senses being 
interwoven, the perplexity could not be disentangled, nor any reason 
be assigned, why one should be ranged before the other, for, says he, 
when the radical idea branches out into parallel ramifications; how 
can a consecutive series be formed of senses in their own nature col- 
lateral. This remark is judicious, and his purpose laudable; but he 
loo often failed in his attempts. Tt is here supposed, that every word 
in English has one primary import, from which all others are derived. 
But in no language is this the case, because all nations have bor- 
rowed expressions from their neighbours, and by the process of ab- 
breviation, have in numerous instances reduced these, however dissimilar 
in structure, however independent, or even discordant in their orio-inal 
import, to one and the same word. This will be abundantly exempli- 
fied in the progress, of my work. 

By multiplied and reiterated investigations, we may be able to connect 
languages together, which appear at first sight not to have the least 
affinity, and, for this purpose we may venture to assume the subsequent 
as axioms: 

1. Nations, which agree in the terms expressive of those objects, 
which are of tlie first necessity to mere animal existence, and of those 
actions, which are most common in savage life, however distant they 
may now be, were originally one. 

2. When, with this agreement, their languages differ exceedingly in 
substance, and essentially in structure, though they were once united, 

VOL. II. I . 



58 

they have for ages formed distinct nations, without poUtical connexion, 
or social intercourse. 

3. But should they agree in technical terms; the separation must 
have taken place, after their common ancestors had made a progress in 
the arts and sciences. 

The application of these axioms will immediately connect all the 
languages of Europe, and ultimately those also of Asia, and of Africa, 
and of America, in which the same elementary words are found, although 
variously corrupted and disguised by adventitious ornaments and dress. 
For, on examination, it will appear, that the original language has ex- 
isted, and does still substantially exist, diffused throughout the various 
languages, which ever have been, or now continue to be spoken in any 
quarter of the globe. 



OF THE 



FIRST INHAIBBTANTS OF BRITAIN", 



xV-LL historians are agreed, that Britain was peopled from the con- 
tinent ; and the condition, in which the Romans found the inhabitants, 
makes it evident, that hunting and pastoral adventurers, landing at dif- 
ferent times upon her shores, had penetrated far into the country, to sup- 
ply themselves with game, and to find provision for their flocks. 

Cffisar, in his Commentaries, informs us, that the interior of the island 
was occupied by those, who were considered as natives of the soil. 
These may have been descendants of the colonists, who, as the Saxon 
Chronicle informs us, came from Armenia, and settled in the south. 
Tiiis information is said to be confirmed by Indian and by Irish history, 
from which it is collected, that Indo-Scythian adventurers came first to 
Spain, and thence to the south of Britain. 

We learn again from Caesar, that the maritime parts of our island were 
peopled by Belgae, who originally came to it for plunder. He tells us, 
that the Cantii, perhaps so called from kante, a sea coast, were the most 
civilized, and had tillage, precisely as the Gauls, whilst, in the interior 

I 2 



60 

of the countr}^ the chief dependence of the Aborigines for food and 
raiment was on their flocks and herds; but that many painted their 
bodies and went naked. Possibly, like the Gentoo casts of India, they 
painted the forehead. It is now well known that they lived in huts or 
mud-wall cottages, not resembling those occupied by the poorest of our 
people, but round hovels, frequently sunk in the earth, covered with 
poles united in a focal poinf, and then thatched with straw, reeds and 
rushes. An assemblage of such miserable dwellinss constituted their 
only towns, placed commonly in the midst of forests, or on the sides 
and summits of their mountains. Here they sought shelter for them- 
selves and for their cattle. Such are the huts composing many villages 
in the neighbourhood of Mcttore, Nattan and Tourancourchi in the 
East Indies. 

Mungo Park informs us, that the African nations, and particularly 
the Mundingoes, content themselves with such small and incommo- 
dious hovels. He says " A circular mudwall, about four feet high, 
upon which is placed a conical roof, composed of bamboo cane, and 
thatched with grass, forms alike the palace of the king and the hovel 
of the slave." (Travels in Africa, p. 22.) The situations of many such 
British towns and villages have been discovered by Mr. Cunnington, 
of Heytcsbury. He had two men constantly employed in searching 
for them, and the result of his pursuit has been the fullest evidence, 
that our British ancestors were strangers to the use of iron. They 
had none but stone axes and hammers, and their arrow heads were 
formed of flint like those of the American Indians. Their pottery 
was fashioned by hand, not turned upon a wheel, and was baked 



61 

on the hearth in their cuhnary fires, not in a furnace. He informed 
me that he had opened more than one hundred and twenty tumuli, 
in which he never could discover one implement of either iron, brass, 
or any other metal. 

My esteemed and much-lamented friend, Mr. Edward King, in one 
of his inestimable volumes, has traced the resemblance between these 
rude inhabitants of Britain in all their structures, whether domestic 
or designed for sacred rites, and the nomade hordes scattered over 
the face of Europe, Asia, Africa and America. On this subject he 
judiciously remarks, " It deserves to be well noticed, what a striking 
conformity is to be found in the manners of all those called abori- 
ginal people, in every part of the earth as to some usages, which 
therefore shew their original connexion with the few patriarchal fami- 
lies, who first peopled the globe. (Munimenta Antiq. vol. i. p. 154.) 

In our island we observe four races of men, differing in personal 
appearance and in language. These are the Highlanders and Lowlan- 
ders of North Ihitaiii, the Welch, and the mass of inhabitants on this 
side the Tweed. Tacitus was aware of these distinctions, for, in his 
Life of Agricola, he remarks, that the yellow hair and large limbs of 
the Caledonians prove them to have been Germans. From the hair, 
the form, and the complexion of the Welch, he imagined, that they 
came from Spain. And by similar observations he rendered it pro- 
bable, that the coast opposite to Gaul received inhabitants from thence. 
Respecting these he adds, what I shall demonstrate, that their languages 
agreed. 

The most ancient of the Greek Historians in his Melpomene, dis- 



62 

covers to our view, a rolling tide proceeding from the east. Wave 
follows wave : they break upon the western shores of the Caspian : 
they spread themselves over countries, where they find least resistance, 
and even the Caucasian mountains form but a feeble barrier, to arrest 
their progress. He represents the nomade Scythians of Asia, retiring 
■with their flocks from this invading force, and deserting the inheritance 
of their fathers, anxious only to avoid the arrows of the Massageetae, 
a ferocious nation, who came from the eastern borders of the Caspian, 
driven out by the more ferocious Arimaspi. 

In their retreat they fall back on the Cimmerians, a less warlike 
nation, who had for ages fed their flocks on the banks of the Danube, 
and in the fertile plains adjacent to the sea. 

l"he venerable historian of Samos, in Cimmeria, now Crimea, was re- 
minded by every thing of its pristine possessors. 

About 450 years before the Christian era, at the period in which he 
composed his interesting work, the Celtic hordes occupied vast tracts 
of country, and were scattered over the regions in which the Danube 
flows. 

Beyond them, in the utmost extremities of Europe, towards the 
setting sun, the Cynetae, {Kvv^rxi) either fed their flocks, or, more pro- 
bably, were to be numbered among the hunting tribes. 

The Chinese historians assist us to trace the progress of the Eastern 
swarms towards the west, during a period subsequent to that, which is 
mentioned by Herodotus. For, about l6'2 years before the Christian 
era, the Huns, or Western Tartars, wandering over their mountains 
north of China, drove before them the Yue-Chi, Ye-tan, Jeta or Getes, 



63 

a people who inhabited on the Irtish, near the Altai Mountains. 
Some of these found refuge among the frozen mountains of Tibet; but 
the main body, proceeding to the west, expelled in succession weaker 
hordes, till they appeared to the north of Indostan, where they became 
known to the Greeks by the name of Indo-Scythians. (De Guignes 
Hist, des Huns, torn. ii. p. 41.) 

The Celts, called also Galatians, according to Polybius, occupied for 
a time the whole of Gaul, from Narbonne to the ocean, with a part of 
Italy adjoining to the Alps. But Ceesar, in his Commentaries, represents 
the same tumultuous waves as still continuing to roll on towards the 
setting sun, and warlike tribes, either expelling or themselves expelled, 
all pressing forwards in succession towards Gaul, a country rich in 
pasturage, productive of corn, and well suited for the introduction of 
the vine. During the consulate of Messala and Piso, the Belgae and 
Helvetii were engaged in opposing the inroads of their neighbours, who 
inhabited bej^ond the Rhine. But the principal nobility among the 
latter were themselves inclined to leave their mountains, and to seize 
upon the more fertile plains, abundantly watered by the Rhone. The 
object of their ambition was to subjugate the whole of Gaul. For this 
purpose, they, two years successively, sowed all their lands, they made 
peace with their nearest and most formidable neighbours, they purchased 
horses and cars to the utmost extent of their ability, and chose a leader 
equally distinguished for his wealth and for his high descent. This was 
Orgetorix; but he died before the time appointed for their departure. 
Not discouraged by their loss, they proceeded to burn all their habi- 
tations, including twelve towns, with four hundred villages, and nu- 



64 

merous scattered houses, and they destroyed the corn, which thej 
were unable to transport, after they had commanded every one to 
provide himself with flour for three months supply. All this being 
accomplished they turned their backs upon their native laud to the 
number of two hundred and sixty-three thousand armed meii, assisted 
by their allies, who amounted to one hundred and five thousand. Such 
Avas the population of one little state, and such the nature of their 
j)reparaLions for quitting their possessions, in search of new settlements 
to be acquired by arms. 

The issue was fatal to themselves, for Cffisar being informed of their 
intentions, hastened to Geneva, collected forces, opposed their progress, 
harrasscd them incessantly, defeated them in battle, and, when they 
had lost two hundred and fifty eight thousand men, compelled them 
to return and to rebuild the towns they had destroyed. 

Having obeyed his commands, they held a general council, at the 
breaking up of which they represented to hirn, that Ariovistus, king of 
the Germans, had seized a third p-art of the rich country belonging to 
the Sequani, and had commanded them to, evacuate another third in 
favor of his allies. They assured him, that all the Gauls, unless pro- 
tected by the Romans, would be compelled to do, what the Ilelvetii 
had in vain attempted, to ([uit their country, and seek new settlements 
far distant from the Germans. 

Gffisar apprehensive lest, if he suflcred the Germans thus frequently 
to pass the Rhine, they niight get possession of Gaul, as the Cimbri 
and Teutoncs had done, and from thence invade Italy, he without loss 
of time, led his victorious legions against Ariovistus and put his whole 
army to the rout. 



65 

We have seen the Cimmerians expelled from their ancient settle- 
ments by the nomade Scythians: we have traced their footsteps driving 
the Gauls before them, and we hear of them at last as taking refuge 
on the Cottian Alps, in Britany, in Cornwall, and in Wales. When 
one swarm from this hive passed the Alps, and ventured to attack 
the Romans on the Athesis, now the Adige ; when, on the banks of the 
Po, they offered terms to Marius; it was with this single stipulation on 
their part, that the Romans should assign to them and to their allies, 
the Teutones, lands in Italy. Thus two nations unite to invade a third, 
not to avenge an insult, not for plunder, but to obtain more extensive 
pastures for their flocks, and a more fertile country for the labors of 
the plough. 

Authors have tormented themselves and perplexed their readers, by 
endeavouring to fix the abode, in given periods, of all the nomade 
nations. They miglit as well attempt to fix the locality of waves, 
and to form a chronological chart of the foamins; billows in the ocean. 
The weaker hordes have constantly given way to the more powerful, and 
these have for a time occupied more fertile lands than those, which they 
quitted, and from which, perhaps, they were themselves expelled. 

Thus, retreatino- nations, under various denominations, whether Scy- 
thians, Sacffi, Massageta?, Getae or Goti, continuing to direct their steps 
towards the setting sun, spread themselves successively over Germany 
and Gaul, every where compelling the Cimmerians to fly before them. 
Some of these took refuge in the mountains of Armorica, whilst otherj 
passed over into Britain, from which they drove the Galic tribes, and 
obliged them to seek a resting place in Ireland. Here the fugitives were 

VOL. II. K 



66 

again disturbed by the Menapii and the Cauci, who are supposed to 
have been the Scythians of Diodorus Sicukis. These rovers took pos- 
session of the south, and compelled the greatest part of Ireland to bend 
in subjection to their yoke. They built numerous castles, assumed the 
royalty, and gave birth to the Scytise or Scotish race of sovereigns, who 
exercised dominion in that island. 

From this time the Scoti were considered as the reguli and nobiles, 
whilst the great mass of the inhabitants were called Hibernigenae, or 
natives of the country. In this state of the community, the foreigners, 
being comparativel}' few in number, soon lost their language in the Galic 
of their subjects. 

But although the many submitted patiently to these new lords; 
yet numerous bands, principally in the north of Ireland preferring 
liberty to every comfort, which could be expected in their native 
land, crossed over to the north of Britain, and took possession of the 
Highlands, where they are distinguished, not only by identity of lan- 
guage with their progenitors, but by their diminutive stature, their 
brown complexion, dark eyes and black curled hair. Whereas the 
Lowlanders are tall and large, with red hair, blue eyes and fair com- 
plexion, strangers to the Galic language, and accustomed only to 
the Gothic. 

From the ninth to the sixteenth century, these Highlanders are said 
to have been subject, not to the Scotish crown, but to Norwegian 
Lords. 

TheCimbri, who had driven out the Gauls from Britain, were in their 
turn molested by numerous swarms from the northern hive. For the 



67 

Picts of Scandinavia, the Scythians of Jornandes and of Bedc, who 
had driven the Cimmerians from the Baltic, now pursued tliem, and, 
invading those parts of the island which were most accessible to then), 
took possession of the country as far south as to the Forth and Clyde, 
which became for ages the boundary between the Cimbric tribes and 
them. 

Our venerable historian, Bede, who wrote about A. D. 731, speakui^ 
of these Cimmerians, whom he calls Britons, informs us, that, as they 
were spread over the south, the Picts were for a time obliged to be con- 
tented with the north. 

Indeed, Tacitus, Eumenius, Ammianus Marcellinus, Gildas, Nennius, 
the Saxon Chronicle, Giraldus Cambrensis, and Geofroy of Monmouth, 
concur with him, and prove, what Buchanan, Lluyd, Verstegan, Usher, 
Stillingfleet, Sibbald, and Sberingham agree in, that the Picts came 
from Scandinavia; and their testimony is confirmed both by the lan- 
guage of the country, which is distinctly Gothic, not Cumraig, nor 
Galic, and by the persons and manners of the inhabitants, which are 
perfectly German. * 

The Picts are distinguished by Bede into northern and southern, 
separated b}^ the Grampian Hills. The former are by him called 
Dicaledojice, that is, in modern language, Caledonians and Vecturiones, 
a word supposed to be equivalent to mariners, because in the Tslandic, 
vik is a haven, vig a ship, and vikingur a pirate. These Scandinavian 
adventurers, at their first arrival, passing by the Orkneys occupied the 
Hebud Islands, now the Hebrides, of whose wretched inhabitants 

K 2 



68 

Solinus, about the year 240, says, " They know nothing of grain, but 
subsist altogether on milk and fish." 

Not satisfied with such an acquisition, the Picts directed their course 
for Britain, made good their landing, and, having established them- 
selves in the north, they soon extended their dominion to the south. 
About A. D. 430, they drove the Cimmerians to the western shores 
of the island, and took possession of Cumberland and Northumberland, 
with all the country between the H umber and the Forth. From hence 
as opportunity offered, they made excursions, pushed forward their 
conquests, ravaged the country and conducted their victorious bands 
even into Kent. Their dominion, however, was not of long dura- 
tion, for A. D. 460, the Saxons drove them back to their former 
territories beyond the H umber. Here they remained as lords till 
A. D. 547, and as occupiers of the soil till A. D. 685. 

The arrival of Hengist with his Jutes, that is Goths, Avas A. D. 447. 
Soon after his establishment in Britain, he assumed the diadem, in 
Kent, where he fixed the seat of his dominion. By his invitation 
other Saxons came, A. D. 447, and took possession of the districts, 
which from them were denominated Sussex, Essex, and Middlesex, that 
is to say. South Saxons, East Saxons, and Middle Saxons. Arthur 
who had effectually restrained their progress, died A. D. 542. After 
his death the Angli arrived and gave their name to South Britain. 
These came principally from Anglen, a small territory of Sleswick in 
Holstein, of which Lunden was the capital. They were conducted 
by Ida, a descendant of Woden, in sixty ships, and landed at Flam- 
borough in Yorkshire. This was the prince who founded the kingdom 



CD 

of the Anglo-Saxons, in Nortliumberland, from whence he expelled the 
Picts. 

A. D. 584. The Saxon Heptarchy was established. 

From all that has been said, we may collect, that the Irish and the 
Highlanders of North Britain are to be distinguished from the Welch and 
Cornish: that the Lowlanders of North Britain are of Gothic extract, 
and that the English are principally a Belgic race, with a considerable 
admixture of Angles, Jutes, and Saxons. Accordingly we collect from 
Bede, that in his day four languages prevailed in Britain, the Irish, 
the British or Cumraig, the Pikish or Scandinavian, and the English 
or Anglo-Saxon. 

All these are distantly related, and in the ascending line ultimately 
terminate in one. The learned and most judicious Sheringham, in his 
treatise De Origine Gentis Anglorum, has delivered his opinion, that 
the hives of the north, who came from the borders of the Baltic, were 
originally descended from the Chaldean or Assyrian stock, whose lan- 
guage is a dialect of the Hebrew. 

After all the researches I have been able to make in a lono- 
life, devoted to these subjects, my opinion nearly coincides with his, 
and in the progress of my work, I shall trace successively the affinity 
between the English, Elemish, Dutch, Danish, Swedish, Icelandic, 
Gothic of Ulphilas, Persian, Sanscrit, Greek, Chaldee, Arabic and 
Hebrew. 



70 



OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 

The English has no pretension to originality. It is evidently a com- 
pound language, Avhich has freely adopted words from every nation, at 
any time connected with our island, in the way of con(|uest, or of com- 
merce, and with singular address. 

Dissociata locis concordi pace ligavit. 

It has been much indebted to the Romans for its harmony. They 
have supplied the ornaments of grace and beauty: but its nervous 
strength and energy are principal!}' derived from the Goths. 

The basis of our language is certainly of Gothic origin; 3'et nu- 
merous expressions still remain to remind us of the Cimbri and of the 
Gauls, the first inhabitants of Britain. With these many derivatives 
are seen of Greek, and some of Hebrew, whose correspondent terms 
are wanting in the kindred languages of Europe. 

In this enumeration, I do not comprehend our modern acquisitions, 
such as serve to shew our progress and improvements in the various 
sciences of law, of chemistry, of medicine, of mineralogy, and of war. 
These are adopted, with little variation, from the writings of the Nor- 
mans, Arabs, Greeks, Germans, French. 

Our prepositions are nearly the same as are used in Greek, in Latin, 
and in all the languages of Europe. These, in monosyllabic expressions^ 
have yielded obedience, like the radical part with which they are con- 
nected, to those laws of abbreviation and mutation, which I have already 
noticed as prevalent in all the languages, with which wc are acquainted. 



n 

Hence it is, that, without particular attention, they escape observation, 
or at least are regarded either as a radical part of the word, in which 
they appear, or as accidental and arbitrary accretions, for which no 
account is to be required. The most common prefixes allied to Greek, 
are B. P. F, which claim affinity to eTti, and C. G. S, which are of 
the same family with tn and e^, to which, in the former part of this 
work, I directed the particular attention of my readers. 

Compounded with B. P. and F, that is with s'ji, we find the subse- 
quent expressions. Bleach, Ksvuog. Blaze, Xevaaw. Blithelaetus. Flock, 
yoxog. Friend, ipxstv. Prate and (ppx^(^, derived from pe(a. Compounded 
with C and G, that is with en, we have. Clink, Click, Xiyfu. Crag, pxx'^ct^ 
Creep, repo. Glass, gloss, Afuja-w. Glimpse, Kd[j.-4^xi. Grave, and ypadf^u, 
px(p1g. Glad, Isetus. 

E^ is a compound of K and S, Of these letters, the former is liable 
to be dropt in composition, and then eE. becomes ys in Welch, or simply 
s, in other languages allied to it. In this way, as I conceive, we may 
connect the subsequent expressions. Scratch, x^P^^^'^co. Screen, xptvco. 
Smear, f^up/^o. Scar, f%«p« and xs^pu. Spear, veipxa}. Scald, calidus. 
Slime, limus. 

Spleen, StXi^v and splen, seem to have assumed both f^ and e^ti, be- 
cause we have the same notion conveyed by lien. 

I have taken these examples from among such, as occurred to my 
recollection. A minute investigation might have increased their 
number. 

Our terminations appear to have been formed, not by arbitrary sounds 
and syllables subjoined, as accident or caprice directed, but by words 



72 

of determinate import, which in process of time have submitted to 
those laws of abbreviation, whose influence and authority have been 
universally acknowledged and obeyed. 

Thus, when the person acting is denoted by the syllable er added to a 
substantive or verb, as in lawyer, soldier, gardener, baker, this particle 
is probably no other than wcr of tiie Anglo-Saxon, wair of the Maso- 
Gothic, hai' of the Francs, air of the Armenians, aior of the Scythians, 
ur and guv of the Icelandic, ger of the Persian, and fear or fir of the 
Galic, which, according to the genius of this language, may either 
precede the principal word, or be subjoined to it, precisely as in English 
we say indifferently manly, or like a man. Indeed many of our words 
retain man without disguise, as coachman, ploughman, herdsman, 
husbandman. 

But instead of er we frequently meet with or, as in our words de- 
rived from Greek and Latin, debtor, cultivator. Here the «/• may be 
gwr of the Welch abbreviated, as in ardalwr a prince, cawr a giant, 
brawdwr a judge. 

The Galic fear and fir are unquestionably the same with vir; and 
gwr, like ger in Persian and gur of the Icelandic, is related to them 
both. In fact all these arc probably geher ("13^) in disguise, with 
this difference, that the latter retain the guttural, which the other 
hinguages reject. 

These terminations were evidently personal at first and denoted the 
liuman agent ; but by degrees their use was extended to express 
agency in general, as in banner, streamer, fodder, and in Welsh cadwr, 
a shield derived from cadw to save. 



The participle present, in English, is now formed by ivg, l)ut its 
ancient termination was end, as bindend bicrnend, now binding and 
burnino'. In Anglo-Saxon this was ende, as lufingendi loving. In 
Gothic it was U7ids, andei, and, according to the gender, as sokjands, 
sokjandei, sokjand, seeking, in correspondence with the Latin whose 
participle of the first conjugation in the oblique cases, terminates in 
antis, anti, ante. The change of d and g for each other, but more 
especially ofd for g has been already noticed. 

Our Saxon ancestors had, beside the termination end for nouns 
substantive derived from participles in ende, four others, ange, inge, 
onge, unge, which seem to have been originally connected with the 
perfect tense of some (Ireek verbs, such, for instance, as have con- 
verted their infinitives into new themes, in the manner particularly 
noticed under the article of compound words. 

The practice of converting participles into substantives accounts for 
numerous expressions in our language, which claim this descent. Mr. 
Tooke has very judiciously handled this part of his subject, has dis- 
played his usual sagacity, and has thereby thrown more light upon 
the English Language than all the writers, who ever went before 
him. 

Wachterus, a learned German, had made similar observations, as far 
as relates to the past participle, giving birth to numerous substantives. 
He says, " D. est litera participialis & nota originis ex participio. 
Solent enim Prisci ex participiis formare substantiva & terminationem 
participialem derivatis relinquere, tanquam custodem originig.. - Haec 

VOL. II. L 3 



74 

una litera nos quasi manu ducit ad permulta vocabulorum secreta intelli- 
genda. Sic etiam de T & Te. 

It is here worthy of remark, that, as participles, whether past or pre- 
sent, are apt to be assumed for substantives; so these substantives are 
apt to become new themes for verbs. Thus it has happened to rift and 
sift, which arc rived and sieved, and to lift, which is clearly elevatus. 
Thus also swaying gives birth to swing, wrying to wring, and going to 
gang, all new verbs, whose participles consequently become swinging, 
wringing, ganging. 

The termination th in substantives points them out as derivatives 
from verbs. Thus girth is that which girdeth. Filth that which de- 
fileth, and warmth that which warmeth. (v. Home Tooke.) 

Among our terminations we should more particularly notice N, be- 
cause it marks the infinitive in Saxon, German, Gothic, Persian, Greek, 
and enables us to detect the radical part of numerous verbs, which have 
converted their infinitives into new themes, as may be exemplified in 
learn and churn, of which the latter is evidently fyvposiv. Of this letter, 
I may say, what Wachterns has said of D, in the passage I have quoted 
from his interesting work on German. Plaec ima litera nos quasi manu 
ducit ad permulta vocabulorum secreta intelligenda. 

I have, in my general observations on compound words, already 
noticed the perplexity occasioned by the creation of new themes from 
the infinitives of ancient verbs, and I have here called the attention of 
the reader to this practice in the Anglo-Saxon and the English, because 
it throws much light on the origin of numerous expressions in our lan- 
guage, whose radical part might otherwise be hid from us. 



75 

Jsh suffixed to nouns denotes character, as in childish, selfish, whitish, 
and the like. This we may have derived either from the Hindoo and 
Persian asa, or from the Greek tVxw, which marks resemblance, as do 
our ly and lyke, derived from aXimog. 

Abstract substantives are conceived to have been formed from con- 
crete adjectives by adding the termination ness, as in whiteness, hardness, 
and our most distinguished linguist. Hicks, was of opinion, that the 
Anglo-Saxon nesse originated in the feminine termination of the Gothic 
ns, which is equivalent to nes, as in galaubeins, faith; garaihteins, 
justice. This may be, and probably is so: but I must own f have some 
doubt upon the subject. The ei/js of the Gothic seems to have an 
affinity with e7is of the Romans, and as, in the Anglo-Saxon, the abstract 
substantive may with common abbreviation be formed from the injinitive, 
which terminates in N, by the addition of esse, which like ens, denotes 
being in general, or the very essence of a thing; it is possible that esse, 
J1T2/"' of Hebrew, was the genuine termination of abstract substantives 
among the Anglo-Saxons. It certainly takes the place of itas xmn''X 
of Chaldee, as in thrinesse for trinitas, both meaning the triune essence. 

The terminations less and full, as in doubtless and doubtful, speak 
for themselves, and sufficiently testify, that, independently of their 
connexion, they have a determinate import of their own. These appear 
to be no other than e/aVo-wv and /SuXXo?, of which the latter may be 
nearly related to ■yto'kvg and crXeoj. 

Bom indicates dominion, as in kingdom, dukedom, earldom: but 
by accommodation it signifies condition, as in whoredom, wisdom. 

Kick derived from rego, implies government. Head and hood as termi- 

L 2 



76 

nations, are the Anglo-Saxon had, which means order, quality, and sex. 

Ship, as in worship, answering to weorthscype of the Anglo-Saxon, 
means dignity and office. 

Shire in English appears only in the names of counties ; but in 
Saxon the correspondent termination is in frequent use, as in tunscyre 
a stewardship ; geferscyre, partnership. It may be the Greek KupjoTv;., 
prefecture, office, occupation, as sire and sir mean y.vpu. Or possibly 
our shire may be allied to nupco. 

We have other terminations transmitted to us by our Saxon ances- 
tors, of whose original import I can give no account. • 

As for ale, ete, ite, ote, utc, ation, etion, ition, otion, ution, ent, 
ment, &c. these belong to expressions derived from Latin, either im- 
mediately, or through the medium of the French, and, although now 
abbreviated, were themselves, like the preceding, originally words of 
distinct and specific meaning. 

In English the noun is no longer subject to inflexions but the 
oblique cases are denoted, as in Hebrew, by prepositions. These are 
of, to, with, from, by. Our ancestors, however, had inflexions, and 
varied their declensions like the Greeks and Romans. Our possessive 
pronouns mine, my, thine, thy, his, her, our, your, are taken from the 
genitive cases of the Saxon personals, and are not subject to inflex- 
ion, but are declined, like our nouns, by prepositions. 

When we shall proceed to examine the Anglo-Saxon; it will appear, 
that we conform in a great measure to the grammatical rules established 
by our ancestors in the conjugation of their verbs, although in the 
infinitive mood wo commonly omit the final N. This, however, is 



77 

retained in burn, turn, earn, yearn, learn, harden, fasten, slaeken, 
cheapen, with numerous others of tlic same form, and serves to de- 
monstrate the affinity between our language and the Greek. 

In deriving from Latin our modern English makes fewer changes, 
than either the French, Italian, or Spanish. This will appear, when I 
shall review those languages. In the mean time a few exam[)les may 
suffice to shew, with what scrupulous attention we conform to the 
original, as for example, abbreviate, abhor, abject, abrupt, abstract, 
abound, accept, active, acrimony, acute, adapt, adhere, admire, admit, 
administer, adversity, &c. These, it is evident, are not of remote an- 
tiquit3\ They appear almost perfect and entire, and therefore want 
that venerable aspect, which strikes the eye in the most contracted 
forms. Yet even these sufficiently evince a disposition to drop their 
superabundant plumage in their flight. 

The English, in its derivatives, avails itself of an universal privilege, and 
not only disregards all distinction in the vowels, but, like other languages, 
it considers those consonants, which have organic affinity, as equivalent, 
and therefore to be substituted without scruple in each others place. 

Thus it has happened to the labials B, F. P. V. W, as in probare, 
prove; habere, have; pila, ball; verres, boar; forare, bore; vannus, 
fan; pinna, fin; pullus, foal; salvus, safe; spuma, foam; vadare, wade; 
vinum, wine; vermis, worm; vespa, wasp; vallum, wall; via, wa3\ 

The same may be observed of the dentals, T. D. Th, as will appear 
by the subsequent examples, ad, at; ede, eat; nutus, nod; habitum, 
haved, had; territus. dread; tritus, tread; tectam, deck; fretum, frith; 
auctor, author; tu, thou; Tpl^og, third. 



78 

The gutturals C, G, K, Ch, and Q, to which must be added the 
aspirate and sibilant H and S, are subject to the same laAv, as may be 
seen in crates, grate; coquus, cook; gehdus, cold; catena, chain; 
heedus, kid; caseus, cheese; cista, chest; cornu, horn; caput, head; 
gallina, hen; colhs, hill; clausus, sluice; vulgus, folk. 

Our Ch is said to have been introduced by the Normans, and I am 
inclined to acquiesce in this opinion, because, subsequent to the Norman 
Conquest, Ceaster became Chester, boc was converted into beech, biro 
into birch, and wic, as a termination, into wich. However, the Normans 
themselves most probably derived this double consonant from their Scan- 
dinavian ancestors, and from Norway transported it to Normandy. Cer- 
tain it is that the Swedes pronounce K before a vowel as Ch, and the 
Italians do the same by C before E and f, which the Germans sound as 
ts, approaching to our Ch. 

The conversion of C, K, and Q into II, is Teutonic, and pervades 

all its dialects. 

Like the Italian, Spanish, French and German, our language takes 
the ablative case of Latin nouns, but confines this practice in a great 
measure to such as increase in the genitive, as for instance, fierce, de- 
rived, not immediately from ferox, but from feroce. Thus in the sub- 
sequent ablative, voce produces voice, pace peace, margine margin, 
fraude fraud, flore flower, hospite host, gigante giant, quiete quiet. 
Yet here it may be observed, that probably in more ancient times the 
nominative cases of Latin nouns were conformable to the ablatives. 
Could this be demonstrated; it would remove the date of all such de- 
livatives to very distant periods, or prove perhaps, that they did not ori- 



79 

ginatc in Latin, but in some more ancient language, wliicli was tlic 
common parent of the Greek, of the Latin, apd of all the various tlia- 
lects now prevalent in Europe. Yet possibly all the latter may be 
the offspring of the Romance. 

I have stated, that languages have a tendency to become monosyl- 
labic. This observation, as far as relates to English, may be readily 
confirmed by calling to mind a few of our derivatives from Latin. In 
addition, therefore, to those we have already noticed, I may refer to 
the subsequent examples, which might have been abundantly increased; 
adjumentum, aid; armus, arm; cantharus, can; caulis, cole; corona, 
crown; crimine, crime; debitum, debt; decanus, dean; dubitatio, doubt 
expeditio, speed; exterritus, start, extraneus, strange; flagellum, flail 
fragilis, frail ; labium, lip; movere, move; placere, please; proeda, prey 
positus, put; radice, root; rancidus, rank; rivulus, rill; rotundus, round 
spiculi, spikes; stringere, string; tegula, tile; tentorium, tent; tinnitus, 
din ; trahere, draw. 

These for the present may suffice. Others will occur to us in our ex- 
amination of the several languages of Europe. 

A considerable proportion of the English language is radically Greek, 
and this independently of the vast addition made to il of late by the 
rage for Greek expressions. When I say, that a portion of our language 
is radically Greek, I do not mean to assert, that our ancestors, after 
their departure, from the continent, borrowed terms for common use 
from Greece. Nay, I am persuaded, whatever may have been the 
iutercourse between Greece and Britain, that the words in question 
were not imported by men of science, by merchants, nor yet by 



80 

transient adventurers in arms, but by the Gauls, the ^Cimbri, the 
Belgae, and the Saxons, when they came in swarms to settle in this 
Island. Nor yet is it my intention to insinuate, that these nations 
in their native seats were indebted for expressions to the peninsula of 
Greece; and much less that the Greeks borrowed these resembling terms 
from them. No; such occasional loans would not account for the most 
evident affinity, and for the strictly radical identity discernible in these 
languages, and in all the languages both of Europe and of Southern 
Asia, which is the fact I shall endeavour to elucidate in the progress of 
my work. 

Of many hundred words, either nearly related to, or remotely derived 
from Greek, I here select a few. 

Ache, ail, all, alms, am, as, asp, aye, babe, bake, balm, bathe, bear, 
beat, better, best, blab, blade, blow, bloom, blot, boat, bouse, box, 
boy, bran, bread, break, brew, bribe, brook, broth, browze, bruise, 
burn, burst, call, catch, chair, chaff, chase, cheer, chick, chide, chief, 
chink, chop, clack, clash, clay, clean, clew, cliff, climb, clink, clothe, 
clown, cloy, club, coal, coat, cock, coil, comb, come, coop, cope, 
copse, cord, core, cot, court, crab, crack, crag, creek, crib, crick, 
croak, crow, cruise, crust, cup, cut, dare, dark, dart, deaf, deal, deep, 
deer, desk, deuce, dew, dig, dike, dine, dip, dish, dive, dock, dog, 
dole, doom, dome, door, dowr, down, downs, drag, draw, drain, drawl, 
lK:c. Sec. 

I have placed these words together without the intervention of the 
Greek, that the eye may run quickly over them, and judge of their 



81 



venerable aspect. 'I'liey are not such expressions as arc conunonlj im- 
ported, but words of daily use, which are essential to the language, and 
appear in their most abbreviated forms. Now let us view their affinity 
with Greek: 

Ache a%o?, ail xiXsmg, all oKog, alms £X£vif*ojuvvi, am etfi^i, as &•>-, asp 
meaning the aspin tree iaircupo:, aye ail. 

Babe ^m^x^a, bake fienMc, balm (ixXaci\t.ov, bathe /3u^/?a), bear (Jepw, 
beat and pat 'KctTuucrDi, better ^eXTepog, best fieXTicog, blab (iXccxTu, blade 
^Kxqxvu, blow /SXuw, bloom /3f/SXufA£voj, blot jSXaTTTw, boat y-i^icrog, bouse 
Two-w, box in its three several acceptations ^ru^, tu^oj, 'nv^ig, boy ^auf, 
bran t<tu/)o;/, bread fip^flog, break fTi and piiyvuf**, ,£'7rt£ppv)%«, brew ^pvTog, 
bribe jipajieiov, brook [ipox^^, broth and bruice /3/jyTov, bruise /Bpi^^tf, /Spta-w, 
brouze /Spwo-Kw, burn -Trupociv, burst fTrt and pww. 

Call xaXfiv, catch >taTf%eif, catch, a vessel, *Ka;Toj, chair nx^eSpa, 
chaff x8(p5f, chase ^^a^'civ, cheer xaiput chick muKog, chide kvSx^w,, chief 
x£(p«Xvi, chink in Anglo-Saxon cinan %«iv£<v, chop koxtw, clash and clack 

xXa^w, KfKXviyfl:, fKXayov; clay yXia:, clean nxXov, clew xuXfw, cliff x.Xt';7uj; 
climb, nXnt^ut, clink nXayyv], clothe j<Xw&ftv, clown %Xowvif, cloy %Xiw, 
club uXocjix, coal KVjXfOf, coat nuBiov, cock y.oy.y.vl,oi, coil KUKXiO, comb 
xoM, come epxoiJ'Xi, coop x*7rvi, copc, KCTro,;, coppice noTtTcc, \^w cord 
%op5vi, core axpSix, cot xojtvi, court xopTog, crab nxpxfio;, crag, pii:%t«, 
creek xpufv and Kp£>t£;v, crib Kpa;/3/3a:TOr, crick npexvi, croak KpwyfiOj-, crow 
y.opciiSv^, cruise upwa-crOi, crust xpi>Oy, cup, xVTrekXov, cut xOttto;. 

Dare Sxppsiv, dark ai^fpxvif, dart 3op«Tioi/, deaf Tv<pXor, suidas deal 
BiaXsiv, deep Swlu, deer Bop^Xf, desk, disk, dish ^ia^xo?, deuce ^i^a'f, dew 
Bsvu, dig 5ix£XX«, dike T£i%i3r, dine Beivveiv, dip, dive ^uttw, dock 5o>c£<5v, 



VOL. II. M 



82 

(log 5a;>cOf, dole BuKeiv, doom ^^i^x, dome -^^f^v^, door ^vpc, dowr Supov, 
down 5uvw, downs hotvoi, drag, draw SpxyS, dr<\\n Ivipxivw, drawl TpauXj^tiv, 
droos 'Tpv^, drive Tpifioi, dusk ^afl-mor, dwell ^lauXi^fiv. 

I am much inclined to think, that most if not all our verbs which 
terminate in K, and more especially in nk, with many verbs in ng, 
originate in Greek preterites. Of such derivations I shall here adduce 
a few. 

Clack, click, clang, clock, cluck are apparently allied to ^ceXea, 
jtXa^w and JtXw^w, whose preterites are xixXvix*, xexXay^a, jcfxXwxa. Plunge 
is probably derived from vXwca, whose regular preterite should have 
been vsTrXvyna, but instead of this we find ■trenXvKce, as if it were de- 
rived from tXuw, which is svlXhu in its abbreviated form. Stick is 
evidently derived from ^t?^ ^*^s f<r'%a. Take is rerccax. Drink, drank, 
drunk, if allied to dry, drought and drain may be the offspring of 
Ivipdivco, e^ypxyxx of the same import. The connecting links may be 
found in drig and driggan Saxon, droog and droogen Belgic, trocken 
and trocknen, dorren and duerr German, which mean dry, drinean, 
Saxon, drinken Belgic, trincken and trunck German, dreck and drick 
Icelandic, drikk Danish, dricka Sweedish, driggkan Maeso-Gothic, to 
drink, for both in the Gothic dialects and in Greek the double g and 
gk are pronounced as ng and nk. 

No one, unless aware of the mutations, to which words are subject, 
would suspect that bring could be derived from (p^pu, sting from qiK^^ 
or that cling is related either to KoXXaa; or to lyXta. fang to -rrxca, gang 
to x/w and to tw, spring wrong and wring to yvpou pang, that is paining, 

to TrOVOr to ttOjvvi, or tO TfvSof. 

Drag, already noticed, is the second future of hp»(j<ju. 



83 

Numerous verbs are either derived from Greek infinitives, or at least 
conform to them, as may be observed in burn and churn, whicii are dis- 
tinctly 'Ttvpoeiv and yvpotiv. 

Some of our verbs, which terminate in ow, are derived from the first 
person singular of the present tense, as for instance, blow and flow from 
/SXuw, or from the second aorist of the subjunctive, as know from yvS. 

Of the verbs, which terminate in M, some at least may claim kindred 
to inflexions of Greek verbs in f**, i^xi, i^v^v, f*£voj, either as immediately 
derived from them, or conformed to their example. Such may have 
been bloom, cram, warm, swarm, storm, &c. although we are not able 
to trace their descent. 

In the progress of my work I shall have occasion to suggest, that our 
Gothic ancestors, as it should seem, derived, not only simple, but likewise 
compound verbs from Greek. In the mean time should the reader recol- 
lect, that Be or B, answering to f??* of the Greek, is a common preposition 
in English, he will readily conceive that £ppii%« and eppeuHa may have be- 
come break, /?po%ii and brook. In like manner fTexa:, the regular pre- 
terite of fTTfctj, £ira;, by assuming the usual prefix S, which answers to e^, 
may have become our verb to speak. 

This short sentence, I am would alone be sufficient to demonstrate, 
that our language is not original; but a derivative either from Greek, 
or from the parent of Greek, because in this expression the pronoun 
occurs twice, for beyond a question, it is included in e^^i., from which 
am is taken. I'his, however, shall be demonstrated in the progress of 
my work, and in its proper place. 

We find in the English language numerous words, whose etymology 

M 2 



84 

has perished, and whose affinities it is impossible to trace. They appear 
insulated, both literally and nietaphoricallj^ speaking, and seem to have 
neither ancestor, nor kindred upon earth. In vain we search for them 
in the Galic, AVelch, Teutonic, Slavonic, Latin, Greek or Sanscrit. 

Other expressions have perhaps one solitary' relation on the Continent, 
and some few retain a slight resemblance to words of like import in 
Hebrew, Arabic, Syriac or Chaldee, such at least as may lead us to 
suspect, that, once in general use, they have survived in England, after 
having been for ages lost in all the rest of Europe. 

Among these J am inclined to reckon hash, because hush in Hebrew 
means to blush, and had, when it means ill health, because it is allied to 
ahad of the four oriental dialects, which means to perish. Cream is com- 
monly derived from cremor, with which it has no connexion, whilst it 
evidently agrees with chserem (C3"lp) a skin. Dauh in one of its ac- 
ceptations may be contracted from dealbare; but, when it conveys the 
notion of defilement, it seems rather to be derived from dab of the 
Hebrew, as in dabyonim stercus columbinum. 2 Kings, c. vi. v. 25. 

Daw may be related to n ST of Leviticus xi. v. 14, and Deut. xiv. 

v. 13. 

Harm seems allied to harem (a in) injury, defect, loss. 

To be in a hohble is a common expression for embarrassment. This 
word in Hebrew (^1T\) means a snare. Job xviii. v. 10. Eccl. xii. v. 6; 
a crowd, 1 Sam. 10, v. 5; excessive grief and perplexity. Tormina quae 
hominem quasi fune arclissime constringunt. Jesa, xiii. v. 8. 

Idle accords with hiddel ("^Tn) and ill with hille. {ThT\.) 

Lad seems to be jaled (^'?^) Hebrew and Syriac of the same import. 



85 

Mite and jnote may be megat {^i!p.) very small. 

Nick and knock agree Avith naka (HDJ) he struck. 

Odd may come from jahd (in''.) one. 

Rage may spring from ragaz (iJl.) of the Hebrew, Chaldee and 
Syriac, which means to be exceedingly moved in mind or body. 

Rein, in French resnes, may proceed from resen (lD"l) of the Hebrew, 
Chaldee and Arabic of the same import. 

Rogue may be allied to rag (;;■).) evil. 

To rush may come from ragash (Wi!l) he was moved with violence. 

Sad agrees with saved (l>i1D.) he moved slowly. Suad and suid in 
Arabic mean melancholy. 

Till and tillage may be deduced from telem (CD*?]!.) a furrow. 

Tire is distinctly (mtO) tirah fatigue. 

Track appears to be the same word with derak ("^"11.) of the Hebrew 
and Chaldee, or tariq of the Arabic, a foot path, a way, a journey. In 
this same acceptation the Polish has adopted droga. 

Walk perfectly agrees with halek {"^bil.) 

Wish may have been derived from biqesh (^*p.?) he sought with 
earnestness. 

To these might be added many similar to them. But I forbear, be- 
cause the affinity of such words to Hebrew, not being demonstrated by 
a comparative view of many kindred languages, must remain as a 
doubtful conjecture, which can give little satisfaction to the mind. It 
is not sufficient, that there should be some coincidence in sound and 
sense, for this may be merely accidental, but, where the local distance 
is great, and the examples of similitude between any given languages 



86 

are few; we should have a regular clviin, and the more closely the links 
unite together, the more firm is our confidence, that our induction is 
agreeable to truth. 

Thus, for example, in our words high and head, deduced above in 
regular gradation, the one from alius, the other from caput, the links are 
so numerous and well connected as to leave little room for doubt. In 
our word she, the Slavonic ese and the Irish isi point out the origin dis- 
tinctly and lead us to isha ('"'t^^j of the Hebrew. 

But should any one deduce each from ish of the Hebrew, merely be- 
cause these words agree perfectly in sense, and nearly so in sound; 
he would, in my apprehensions, be too precipitate in his conjecture, 
because the proper links are wanting to the chain. 

I have pointed out the affinity between Greek and English. Let 
us now compare the latter with the modern languages of Europe. 

It has been stated by Ca;sar that the Belgae, landing in the South 
of Britain, took possession of the country adjacent to the sea, and 
we know that kindred hordes from Scandanavia, and the north of 
Europe, whether Angles, Jutes, or Saxons, followed in succeeding 
generations, and established their language in our island. A resem- 
blance, therefore, should be found between the English and the 
Belfjic. 

But ill the space of two thousand years since the Belgae, and of 
twelve hundred since the Saxons established themselves in Britain, 
considerable changes nmst have taken place on both sides of the 
water, and a sensible difference should now be found betweeen the 
modern Belgic and the English. This precisely is what we discover 
in these languages, a resemblance and a difference. 



87 

In Belgic the article continues to be declined and to be dislingnislicd 
by its gender, as in the Anglo-Saxon. The nouns have retained only 
one declension, and the principal variations in the oblique cases are 
made by the article 

In the conjugation of their verbs, the inhabitants of Belgium, like 
the English adhere to the practice of the Saxons, in having only two 
tenses inflected in their termination, the others being formed by 
auxiliary verbs, as ik leer, I learn ; ik leerde, I learned ; ik heb geleerd, 
I have learned; ik had geleerd, I had learned; ik zal lecrcn, I shall 
learn ; ik zou, zoud or zgude, leeren I should learn ; leer, loarn thou ; leeren, 
to learn. In this verb, as in many others, both languages agree to 
form their infinitive like the Greek by N: but although in most of 
its verbs the English has dropped the final N, the Belgic pertinaci- 
ously retains it. 

Thus much for the resemblance, in respect to their inflexions still 
subsisting between the Dutch, or Belgic, and the English. Now let 
us examine a few words taken at random from these languages, that 
we may be more competent to judge of their affinity. 

Bake, bakken; ball, bal; band, band; bank, bank; bar, baar ; bare, 
bar; bath, fead; hathe, baaden ; hean, boon ; a bear, bcev; bear, (pario) 
baaren; beard, baard; beast, beest; bed, bedde; bee, bi/e ; beer, 
bier; belief, geloof; believe, gelooven ; bench, bank; better, beter ; best, 
de beste ; bid, gebieden; bier, baar; bill, byl; bind, hinden; birth, 
geboorte; bit, gebit; bladder, blaas; bite, bytcn ; blab, uitlabben; blain, 
hloedvin; blanch, bleeken ; bleach, bleeken; bleat, bleeien; bleak, bleek ; 
bleat, blaet.en; bleed, bloeden; blind, blind; blith, blyd; blue, blaauw ; 



88 

block, bloh ; bloom, bloessem ; blow, hlaazen ; blush, bloozen ; boat, boot ; 
board, berdt; bone, been; book, boek; boom, boom; boor, boer; born, 
gebooren; both, beijde; bound, gebonden ; ho\f , boog ; a box, bits; box, 
boxboom ; brave, braaf; brain, hrein; brand, brand; breach, break; 
bread, brood; break, breeken; breast, borst ; breed, broeden; brew, 
broiiuen; bride, hruid; bridge, brug; brine, breyn; bring, brengen; 
broad, breed; brood, hroedsel; brood, \\ braeden ; brown, bruin; buch, 
bock; bulb, bol; bull, bul; burn, branden; bush, bosch; by, by. 

Cake, A-oeA:; calf, kalf; cdi\m,kalm; can, A:a« ; cap, kap; cape, Araop 
chaff, Arq/'; chain, keten; chance, kans; chap, gacupen; chaste, kuisch 
cheap, goedkoop; cheer, cier; cheese, kaas; chew, kaauwcn ; chick, kuiken 
chill, killen; chin, kin; chop, kappen, choose, kiezen, clad, gekleed 
clap, klappen; claw, klaauwen; clay, Hei; clear, klaar; cleft, kloofde; 
clew, kluven; clinch, omklinken ; clink, klank; clown, kloen; cluck, 
klokken; cloth, kleedt; a cock, een Aaan; cold, kout; coal, Aoo^; coast, 
Atms^; comb, kam; come, komen; cool, A;oe/; coop, kuipen; cork, 
ArwrAr, &c. &c. &c. 

Day, dag; dead, dood; death, de dood; deaf, doof; dean, deken; 
dear, dierbaar; do, rfoe/t; deep, rfie/j; to die, sterven; a dish, schotd, 
dry, droog; duck, didken; &c. 

Earth, aarde; fat, ue^; fen, wen; fish, mcA; five, t)j//; flarae, v/aw; 
flax, vlas; flea, t;/oo; to flie, vliegen; a fly, t^/ieg; floor, vloer; forth, 
wor^, four, vier; fraud, bedrog; free, wj/; fresh, verscl^; frost, wrs/; 
full, vol. Sec. 

(jaiii, winste; gape, gapen; guess, gissen; give, geven; glad, fe/yrfe 
and vrobjk; gold, ^ozif; good, ^^oe</; goose, gons; great, groo^; gripe, 
gri/pai, guttur, goo/, &c. 



89 

The Dutch or Belgic has vader, moeder, suster, brooder, &c. &c. 

These examples are sufficient to shew the affinity between the two 
languages, and the nature of the changes, which have taken place in 
them, since their separation; but the more minutely any one compares 
them together, the more clearly will he see, that they are radically one. 

Considering this affinity, and a similar affinity between the Dutch or 
Belgic, and the German, two kindred dialects of the Teutonic, which 
was the ancient language of those fierce invaders, who are represented 
by Caesar as uniting their forces with the Cimbri, to break in upon the 
Roman empire; we may naturally expect to find some similitude between 
the English and the German, yet as they branched off during a remote 
period from the common stock, it is not to be expected, that the like- 
ness will be perfect. For as in persons, who are distantly related, a fa- 
mily resemblance strikes the eye, yet in each individual some distinguish- 
ing feature Avill appear; so precisely is it with these languages. 

To trace the analogy, we must call to mind, what has been delivered 
respecting the substitution of one letter for another in those of the same 
organ, as happens to B. P. F. V. W. M. which in the practice of all 
nations have been esteemed equivalent. We have seen that this privi- 
lege extends to T. D. Th. and equally so to C. G. K. Ch. J. Q. In like 
manner, H. S. T. and Z, though they have no organic affinity, yet 
readily lake each other's place. 

Ge, as an affix forms nouns, and verbs, and the participle past. This 
may be contracted into G. 

With this clue, let us attempt to trace the affinity between the German 
and the English, confining our researches chiefly to monosyllabic ex- 

VOL. II. N 



90 

pressions, as having the highest claim to antiquity, and leaving a com- 
parative view of the inflexions, till the German language shall pass more 
immediately in review before us. 

Bake, backen; ball, ball; band, band; bank, banck; bare, bar; as in 
barfuss, barefooted: bath, bad; bay, bai/e; beam, baum a tree; bean, 
bohne; bear, (ursa) bar; bear (pario) geb'dhren; beard, hart; bed, 
bette ; bee, biene; beer, bier; belief, glaube; believe, glauben; bench, 
banck; better, besser; best, beste; bid, gebieten; bill, beil; bind, binden; 
birch, bircke; birth, geburth; bit, bissen; bite, beissen; bladder, blase; 
bleach, bhichen; h\eat, blecken ; h\eed, blui en ; blind, WintZ; block, block; 
blood, blut; bloom, blume; blow, (flare) blasen; blue, blau ; boat, boot; 
board, brett ; bond, binde; bone, beiti; book, bitch; boor, bauer ; bore, 
bohren; born, gebohren; both, beyde ; bound, gebunden ; bow, (flectere 
curvare) beiigen; bow, (arcus) bogen; box (pyxis) buchse, box (buxus) 
buchs-baum; brand, brand; breach, bruch; bread, brot ; breast, brust ; 
breed, bruten; brew, brauen ; bride, braut ; bridegroom; brautigam.; 
bridge, briickc; brief, brief : hnng, bringen: hro'dd, breit : brood, bruten : 
broth, briihe: brother, bruder; father, vater; mother, mutter; sister, 
sclmester; brown, braiin; buck, bock; build, bilden: burn, brennen: 
burst, bcrsten: by, bey: chaff", kaf: calf, kalb: kettle, kessel : scratch, 
kraizen : cow, ktdi. 

Dam, Da)nm ; dance, tanz ; daughter, tochter ; deaf, taub ; death, 
iod ; deep, tief; dip, t a iijf en , d\sh, tisch ; dove, taube ; duch, taucken ; 
dveam, irautn; diive, treiben; drip, triefen; drill, trillen; drink, //7/JcA"e»; 
(Irf)p, Iropf; (h'oss, truscn; drunk, tnmck; dry, ti'ocken: dumb, stumm; 
dung, dtingtn: dale, ilial: dare, durj'en: deal, theilen : dear, tlieuer: deed, 



91 

that: deer, thier: dew, thau: do, thun: done, getliim: dun, our pro- 
vincial term for clay in mines, tlioii: door, thnrc and tliov. . 

Folk, volck: fowl, vogel: full, I'o//: foot, /"//«: bead, haupt, hate, /ms.v. 

Let, lasseii: love, Uehen: lot, foo.ss: midday, mittag: night, nacht: 
nettle, nessel: nut, 7i?<ss: ox, oc/ia': rain, regen: saw and say, sagen: 
saddle, sattel: scuttle, schussel: seven, sicben: shade, schatte : shave, 
xchaben : shear, scheeren: sheath, scheid: shed, scheiden: sheep, schaaf: 
shine, scheinen: shoe, schuh: shove, shieben: sieve, sicb: sleep, schlaf: 
sloe, schleen : soap, seife: sore, schxsar: speak, sprachen: stand, stehen: 
suck, saiigen : swallow, schwalbe. 

Tale, zahl: tame, zahmen: teat, dutte: ten, zcJm: than, dcnn: thank, 
dancken: that, dass: thatch, dach: then, dann: i\\eve'\w, darinnen, dren, 
and dahin : thereupon, draben and daran : thereover, druber : there- 
under, drunter : thereby, dabey : therefore, dafur: thief, c?ie6: thievery, 
dieberey. thick, dick: thickness, dicke: thin, dun: thine, dein: thing, 
dmg: think, dencken: thirst, durst: thirsty, durstig: this, dieser: this 
«ide, disseit : thistle, distel; thither, dorther : thorn, dorn: thou, du: 
thought, ge dancke: tongue, zunge; threaten, drohen and drauen: three, 
drey: thresh, dreschen: through, durch : throng, drangeji : thrash, drossel : 
thumb, daumen: thunder, donner: turn, drehen. 

Two, zwey; twelve, zw'dlf; twenty, zwanzig; twig, zweig; twinge, 
zwirigen to swink, to strain, to constrain; twixt, zwischen, and twilight 
zwischen light, that is betwixt the two lights. 

Verily, warlick; weapon, wafen; weigh, wdgen; waWow, zpalzen; 
what, was; water, wasser; way, weg; world, welt; whiten, weissen ; 
widow, wittwe; week, woche. 

N 2 



92 

In this selection, under the letter b, I take, as in the Belgic, every 
analogous expression, confining myself, however, principally to our 
monos3']lables, because these shew their remote connexion. In the 
other parts I call the attention to such only, as either in German or 
English, have changed one or more of their consonants. Had I not thus 
limited my choice, my vocabulary must have exceedingly increased, and 
in the monosyllabic alone, Avould have exceeded twelve hundred. In the 
age of Chaucer, the dissimilarity to our modern language is equally strik- 
ing, as will appear by some few of his words, whose orthography has 
been changed the most: Askis, ashes: bath, both: bole, bull: bone, boon: 
boon, bone: bothum, bud: cale, cold: ceisse, seize: cesse, cease: chese, 
choose: chiver, shiver: dawe, day: ecke, each: egg, edge: eighe, eye: 
fee7', five: fore, far: fra, from: freten, to eat: heed, head: heere, hare: 
heire, hair: hegge, a hedge: ich, I: Horn, lost: iyeve, given: kele, to cool: 
kist, cdst: kitt, cut: knave, a servant boy: Icgge, to allege, to lay: fer, 
leer, empty : Icre, to learn. 

In short, whether we examine the Dutch, the German, or the ancient 
language of Charlemaigne, and even of the more remcfte ages, to which 
the Gothic of Ulphilas has been referred, and compare these with the 
English, either in the days of Chaucer, or in more modern times; we 
shall be equally convinced that, however they may differ in their acci- 
dental forms, their elementary parts are perfectly the same. 

I might here institute the same comparison between the English and 
Swedish, Danish, Icelandic, Russian, Polish, and other Slavonian dia- 
lects, spoken in the vast extent of country stretching eastward, between 
the Baltic and the Northern Pacific Ocean, to which I might add the 



9^ 

Persian and the Sanscrit; but the affinity between these languages will 
be more properly displayed, when I proceed to treat of them particularly 
in the progress of my work. 

I shall now examine what advantage may accrue to us from an ex- 
tensive acquaintance with kindred languages; if we are solicitous to gain 
a critical knowledge of our own. 

Dr. Johnson commonly referred to the Anglo-Saxon, and where this 
failed him, which seldom iiappened, he sought his derivations from the 
French, the Dutch, the Latin, or the Welch. But, not being an adept 
in languages, he could proceed no further. 

A reference to the Anglo-Saxon is a reference merely from our modern 
diction to the ancient, and marks the change, where a change has taken 
place, but is of little value to the etymologist, unless it should assist 
him in detecting the affinity with other languages, and in tracing words 
to the fountain, whence they originally came. The most perfect ac- 
quaintance with the languages, to which he refers, if our researches are 
confined to them, will never lead us to a critical knowledge of the 
English. To attain this, it is needful, that we should possess all the lan- 
guages of Europe, ancient as well as modern, and be able to distinguish 
their connexion, both with each other, and with the oriental languages, 
to which, as to a common centre, they ultimately tend. 

For want of this information, in vain did Dr. Johnson, attempt to 
mark the progress of meaning, and to shew by what gradation of inter- 
mediate senses, words have passed from their primitive to their remote 
and accidental signification. This will appear by selecting a few ex- 
pressions out of many, which might be produced, were I disposed to 



94 

multipJy examples. With these I shall intersperse some of our particles, 
as best adapted to show the origin and affinities of the English language.. 
In this selection I confine myself to monosyllables. 

An means, according to Johnson, one, or any, but it is likewise used 
ibr if in the Lowland dialect of Scotland. In Shakespear it frequently 
occurs. " An I may hide my face, let me play Thisby too." In more 
vulgar language it signifies as if, " I will roar you a?i 'twere any night- 
ino-ale." [n the first acceptation it claims affinity to £v, and runs 
throuc^h all the languages of Europe. In the second it is tav of the 
Greek, an of the Latin, den of the Swedish, wann of the German, cen 
and in (]n. ] k) of Chaldee, and perfectly agreeing with ini (Di<) of 
the Hebrew, which may be the genuine parent of our word if. 

And; in Belgic endc ; in German und; Teutonic unte; in French 
et; Italian e; Spanish y and e; in Polish iets; Hungarian es; Slavonic 
da audi; in Latin etiam, atque ; in Greek ii^f ; in Sanscrit ato. 

Our word is certainly connected with, and may probably be derived 
from amid-; Saxon, to add. But both and and annd may possibly be 
allied to hi, and to od {Ip) of the Hebrew: and the N may be in- 
serted as in render from reddere. 

As, appears to be the same word with w?, of the Greek, ez of the 
Armenian; and asa of the Persian; and may possibly be related to 
Caasher (it^'i^D) of the Hebrew. 

At. Tliis word does not extend beyond the bounds of the Roman 
Empire, and therefore directs our attention towards ad and apud, that 
is ad pedes. In Hebrew we have atzel (7^^) imad 0?V.) and (n^) 
but without immediate links Ave cannot connect these to add. 



95 

Aye, has three meanings. 

1. Intimating assent and consent, hke yea, it agrees with our 
French, gea Saxon, and ja German. This may be accordingly either 
aio, as in plautus, vel ai vel nega ; or it may be, as suggested by 
Mr. Tooke, ayez and not improbably avi. 

2. Conveying the notion of infinite duration it is allied to «£?. 

3. Asa lamentation; ay me, or wo is me, may be oV"*, Hei mihi. 
(in) bo. Heb. 

Baste means, 

1. To beat with a stick. 2. To pour dripping on meat whilst roasting. 

3. To fasten needle-work with long stitches. 

These are independent of each other. The first is by Dr. 
Johnson derived, and very properly, from bastonner, and baston a staff, 
which may originate either in (ixqz^o) or in TajTatra-c'. 

The second looks towards baisteach, in Irish, a shower, and may be 
connected with -rao-o-fiv to sprinkle. 

The third is the Persian bastan, to bind, to connect, to join, to 
fasten. Hence bastagi a ligature. From this verb, bestch which is 
the participle of benden seems to be derived. 

Bat, means, 1. a stick with which we strike a ball. 2. A bird. 3. A 
sumpter horse. The first agrees with balaeidh, Galic, and batte, French, 
a staff or club. Connected with this we have to beat, 'TrxTxira-siv. The 
second may be allied to the first, because they smite with their wings. 
The third, imported from France, is connected with bat and bast, a 
pack-saddle, derived from (ixqxi^ci; see baste. 

Boi/, referring, 1. either to colour, or, the tree, may be (pcciog. 



96 

2. To an opening in the land it is /^ioj. 

3. To the barking of a dog, it is distinctly (ixvl^a. 

Bear-, 1. Carry, as a burthen, 2. produce young, 3. a wild beast. 

In the first acceptation it is allied to ferre and (pepetv; in the second to 
pario; in the third, it is probably ferus, that is the genus for the species. 

Bill, 1. a beak. In this acceptation, it may be derived from vello; 
but the presumption is, that we have here the instrument for the action 
performed by it; because in Galic, bil and beul signify mouth, whether 
of beasts or birds. 

2. A hatchet, or in common speech, bill hook, in Welch, bilwg, in 
Greek ■xtXcxus, may be the offspring of the Galic beul. 3. A tradesman'?! 
account, and the proposal for a law presented to parliament, is certainly 
libellous. 

Box, has various significations, all according with the Greek; 
1. A tree, buxus in Latin, bouis in French, bosso Italian, buxo Por- 
tuguese, buysa in Galic, bocysbren in "Welch, boxtreow Saxon, bux-boom 
in Dutch, buchsbaum German, bukspan Polish, buszpan Hungarian. 

2. A case or chest, '^vlog. Pyxis in Latin, boccys in Welch and bocsa 
in Galic, boete in French, bus in Dutch, is 'rtvE.ig. 

3. A blow on the head with the hand, and to fight with the fist. 
]n these acceptations it is derived from tu$, and to box is distinctly 
^vKTsve^. or Uvbi^axs^^u^, as used by Ilesiod. From the same root 
probably we derive our words fst and Jight. 

Bjj perfectly agrees with t-x] in all the rich variety of meanings, 
attributed to it by Dr. Johnson, as any one may instantly perceive 
if he will compare them. Indeed b>/ is hi m one of its abbreviated 
forms. 



97 

No nation invents new particles for itself. They pass by inheritance 
from fathers to their sons, and thongh liable to be disfigured and 
abused, their descent may be traced if we compare kindred languages 
together. They are well denominated by Horn Tooke tTftx TCTepoBvrcc, 
winged words, and as such in a distant flight they are apt to drop 
some feathers by the way, but the substance still remains. 

Ey, has the same affinity to the prepositions 3 and T\2 of the oriental 
nations, as it has to eV, for these likewise are radically one. 

I. Does b^ denote the agent, instrument, or cause; so do 2.1''2 and 
fxi. Man shall not live by bread alone, but %, &c. ow tz xpTu iJ.ovca.!^\^TeTzi 
mv^pwKOg aWWi.. x. t. X. Mat. iv. 4. 

Sotirj Tkf (TV{ ryviasi is by thy knowledge, 1 Cor. viii. 11. Thus we have, 
the just shall live by (n) his faith, Hab. ii. 4. and with or by them (ona) 
he taught the men of Succoth, Judges viii. 16. So ntt'D TiQ is very 
properly translated " As he spake by Moses," Ex. ix. 35. 

II. Is 63/ equivalent to at or in, noting place? So are eV* and a. 
Thus Inil E,evvis eivxt is to be in a strange country. D^Dtt'a ia heaven, 
^'ni^a in the earth. 

III. By means according to, and after, noting conformity; so do t^i 
and 3. eV* ouoi^xTi ts Trcnpoi. Lu. i. 59. after the name of his father. 

C3^D\-! -)aDD3 after the number of the days, Nu. xiv. 34. 

IV. By, means, not later than, noting time. In Greek we have 
jTTt t" eu eVi t" (*fTOiK£,ria,', and thus we translate tV: (^vjvaj Tptig, by the 
space of three months; and in Hebrew we havelp^l^,^ day break, 
and DVa D1^ day by day. 

YOL. II. Q 



98 

V. By means neov, beside, at hand, in presence, answering to Int 
and 3 as in e^-t TroT^fio; and sTt t'/)v ^ccKxa-axv, Rev. xv. 2. ")3D injl Ezek. 
X. 15, by the river of Chebar. 

VI. By himself, denoting absence of all others, corresponds exactly 
with £(p' exvjov. 

VII. By, as the solemn form of swearing, is found distinctly in the 
Hebrew D^n'?X3 Gen. xxi. 23. mn^a Gen. xxiv. 3. and ^3 Gen. 
xxii. 16. by myself have I sworn. 

In the kindred languages, bi Saxon, Swedish and Gothic, by Belgic, 
bey German, ba Persian, and po Slavonian, are used in all the various 
acceptations, either attributed by Dr. Johnson to our word, or to be 
found in i-n-l of the Greek. 

It is acknowledged, that the Gothic, if not the parent, is at least of 
the same lineage, and closely allied to the English. In that language we 
find the subsequent, in addition to the acceptations of bi already noticed. 

I. Bi for, answering to tVi and 2, as used in fVi fj.i<T^afor hire, svccycc^w 
for good. ^DD3 2 Sam. xxiv. 24, for silver, \^^ Deut. xix. 21. /or 
tooth, and b m 3 Gen. xxix. 18. for Rachael. 

II. Bi on, over, tVi twv nrvoiu y.ot.%\^ivoi, sitting on horses, and Vjnon 
Gen. xxxvii. 34, on his loins. 

JTI. Bi after, noting time, as in eni TBTOig after these things. 

IV. Bi against t^ v^t-xg ■irxpcca-KVix^eTai prepared against you, and 
"^31 mn''3 Nu. xxi. 7- against the Lord and against thee. 

From what has been adduced, is it not probable that our word by, 
and bi of the Gothic dialects, originate in tV*, and have a close affinity 
with 2 the most abbreviated form of this preposition in the liebrcw. 



No one can hold the talents of Mr. Tooke in higher estimation than 
myself: yet I can never be persuaded, ihat our Saxon ancestors were 
under a necessity of inventing particles, or wantonly rejected those which 
came to them by tradition from their fathers. They might var}' these, 
like all oth(;r nations, but they neither abandoned the old particles, nor, 
without tlie least occasion for such an effort, invented new ones. 

Cheer, as meaning gaiety and courage, is allied both to xalpai and to 



y.iccp. 



Cleave means, 1. to adhere, 2. to divide. These are discordant accep- 
tations, and must therefore be derived from different fountains. 

1. To adhere, in Belgic kleven, in Saxon cleofan, in Welch glynu, in 
Swedish klibba, in Danish klebc, in German kleben, in Slavonic klein, 
when compared with clay and glue in the same languages, all look 
towards yXix. 

2. To divide, to split; in Belgic klieven, in Saxon cleofan, in Swedish 
klyfwa, in Danish klove, in Russian kulupatee and ras-kaluivaiu, in Sla- 
vonic kliniu; all these, with zakliwiani, in Polish a wedge, claim affinity 
to nXxu, 

Cry. Dr. Johnson, in his Dictionary, has enumerated ten several 
meanings, all supposed to have been derived from the French crier to call 
out, to scream and to proclaim. 

1. In this acceptation, cry well agrees with gridare Italian, grede Old 
English, cfi6 Welch, schreyen German, skrige Danish, skria Swedish, 
krziez and krziik Polish, y-piien of Hesych, and may claim affinity to 
nftt(^o}. upccvyvf and y-yipv^. 

O 2 



100 

2. Cry, to shed tears is certainly allied to, and may be derived from 

Sxyipveiv. 

In the Gothic we have tagrida, he shed tears and gr^itan to weep, 
which perfectly agree with grata Swedish, graata Icelandic, greet in 
Scotland, kriiten Dutch, greinen German, kiria or girieh Persian. 

Deep, dip and dive, run through all the northern languages of Europe, 
and seem, as stated above, to originate in Sitttw. But deep, when ap- 
plied to tones, is Bov^rog. 

Down, means 1. soft feathers, 2. descent, 3. elevated land. 

1. For this word in the first of these acceptations we are indebted to 
the Danes, Swedes, and Icelanders, among whom it is written dun and 
duun. 

2. Down (deorsum) has for its indirect affinities, dwfn Welch, dona 
Armoric, and duffen Saxon, all meaning deep. Of precisely the same 
import, we have adunes and dune Saxon, deene Russian, ndene Epi- 
rotic, dnu and dno Slavonic, Polish, Bohemian and Dalmatian. All 
these claim the most strict affinity with ivvia. 

3. Down, for elevated land, is dun and dune Saxon, duyne Belgic, 
dunes French and Armoric. These may originate in Aavog CEol. for Bavog. 

Bar signifies, 1. to plough, 2. the organ of hearing, 3. a spike of 
corn. These several meanings have no relation to each other* 

1. Ear, when it indicates the act of ploughing, is radically the 
same with harrow. It agrees with arar Spanish, aeren Dutch, aeria 
Swedish, er Icelandic, oriu Slavonic, orze Polish, ar^idh Galic, and 
aredig Welch, aro Latin, apou' Greek, (tynn) harash Hebrew, and harath 



101 

Arabic. In English we say "give the land one earth," that is plough 
it once. 

2. Ear, as the organ of hearing, agrees with oreja Spanish, ohr Ger- 
man, eare Saxon, oor Dutch, ora Swedish, ore 13anish, eyra fcelandic, 
auris Latin, auso Gothic, ousen, oucho, uscze, and assi Slavonic, Boh. 
and Pol. ghus, or gosh Persian, ovxg Greek, and in its ^olic dia- 
lect uap. 

3. Ear of corn is a^yp. 

Fair. 1. annual market, foire French, feria Latin. These originate 
in lepcci v^ii,£pai. 

2. Clear complexion, may be connected with (pKxpog Greek, and hair 
(TiKiI) Hebrew, shining. 

S. Beautiful, foeger Saxon, fager Swedish, in the Icelandic fallagur, 
in Latin pulcher. 

4. Honest. In this acceptation it accords with fior of the Galic, 
which is of the same import with verus. 

Fast. 1. as denoting abstinence from food, improbable as it ap- 
pears, may be awaqoi because similar abbreviations are not uncommon. 

2. As firm and strong, it agrees with pasati Slavonic, and bastan 
Persian, to gird, fasten, connect besteh bound, and peiwesteh con- 
nected, but should (tT2) phazaz really mean, as explained by Bux- 
torf, to consolidate, to strengjthen; we should be warranted in fixing 
on this as the genuine root. 

3. As denoting speed it agrees with ffest of the Welch, and festino 
of the Latin. In this sense it may originate in nEB.euia or in pes, 
pedis, as these do in aroua- voSog, which latter may probably give birth 



to amuS-^ and (TzrevBeiv, expedire to speed. I am inclined to think it 
may be related to pliazaz, which means in Arabic nimble, and in 
Hebrew, as appears by 2 Sam. ch. 6. v. 16, dancing with agility and 
strength. 

Fat. 1. a vessel, agrees with fat Saxon and Swedish, vat Dutch, fass 
German, fade Danish, fata Icelandic, vatain Slavonic, fasa Polish, pa- 
tina Latin, ■^a^Tav^^. 

G. Well-fed, agrees perfectly with fett German, vet Belgic, foet Saxon, 
and is of kin to <pxTv^, And to phatam of the Arabic and Chaldee. 

FcU. 1. as a verb active, to knock down, or to cut down, and as the 
preterite of fall, agrees with adfeilo Welch, feallan Saxon, vallen Belgic, 
valenie Slavonic, fall Icelandic, field English, feld Saxon and German, 
felt Danish, fiall Swedish, poille and pule Slavonic, polye Dalmatian, 
polie Polish, pole Bohemian and Russian, feuld Hungarian: All these 
agree exactly with Phalah (n'?^) he cut down. 

2. The skin. In this sense it is pellis and (peXKog. , , ■ 

3. As cruel, it is of uncertain origin, but may possibly be allied to 
D""7 2? (nephilim^ Genesis vi. 4. 

Fine. 1. as a conclusion, is finis. 
.2. As a mulct, is Troivvj. 

3. As opposed to coarse, agrees with fion, mion, and min, Galic; main 
Welch, mean Armoric, menu French, minutus Latin, and fj^eiuv. 

4. As splendidly beautiful, is (paeivog. ,j,j 
Flake. 1. floccus, flocke, German, flog Danish. 

2. As a wattle or large hurdle, it agrees with, plaque French, vlack 



103 

Dutch, flake and bleck, Swedish, blick Danish, bliacka Russian, blaclia 
Polish, plech Bohemian, irKx^.yiog and TrXemoo, plecto, pHco. 

For has a strict affinity with or, air, and gur, Galic, er Welch, pour 
and parceque, French, por Spanish, per Italian, for Saxon, voer Dutch, 
fiir German, perze Polish, car French, erse Hungarian, barai and bahar, 
or behri, Persian ; and these are allied to pro, vwep, woipx, and yajp ; as 
faura in the Gothic is likewise, when it governs an ablative case. Indeed 
pro, proe, per, irctpx, vnrep, zrpo, and yxp, are evidently connected with, 
and may have (mn;;3) bagabur for their progenitor. This preposition in 
Hebrew indicates the cause. It marks in whose favor and for whose sake 
a thing is done, or for what price a commodity is sold. 

In like manner we find v'nep vi\j.uv x-n-i^xve, he died for us, ^ap hx a-^^puTrou, 
for one man, ^po vxiSuv nxi yuvxmuv [j.xxzcr^xi, i.e. pro aris and focis. Thus 
in Hebrew i^OV ^'7^'^ '^\^1]3'2. (2 Sam. xii. 21.) Thou didst fast for the 
child. 

Because they sell the poor man for {'^\^2V'2) a pair of shoes, Amos 
ii. 6. Thus likewise we read Minas viginti pro ambobus dcdi. Terence. 
This preposition is of extensive use, and, according to Dr. Johnson, 
admits of foi'ty distinctions. Variously applied it indicates resemblance 
and character, as Seneca says pro ignoto me aspernaris; and we sa}', 
you- take me ybr a Stranger. It marks exchange, reference, respect, re- 
gard, intention, tendency, expectation, direction, condition, duration. 
In composition it implies opposition, or negation, as in the words forbid, 
forget, forsake. In this intention it agrees with its kindred languages 
prohibeo, profanus, vxpaSo^og Trxpx(pvjiv Trxpxnovu. 



104 

Connected with for in the sanie intention is our ancient preposition 
fore, as used by Shakespear in the word forefended, that is forbidden. 

Fore, as a preposition signifying priority in time, place, or quahty, 
has nearly the same affinities with for. Thus we have in Galic for, in 
Saxon foran and fore, in Dutch veur and voor, in German vor and feur, 
in Teutonic, vore, in Danish for, and in the CJothic faur and faura, which 
last, when it agrees with ■rrxf.x near, or wpo before, governs either the ac- 
cusative or ablative; but, when it means in the presence of, it requires 
the g^enitive. 

Tro, which corresponds to for^ and 'pro., which means before, have 
such an affinity, that they readily usurp each other's place. Thus Cicero 
writes, " Proe lacrymis non possum reliqua scribere," or, as we should 
say, " For tears I can write no more," and again pro cede sedens, sitting 
before the house. 

In Greek, -rrpo may answer to either pro or prce, as vpo o(J)^«Xf*«v ^^« 
upxi and tTcaivsiv 'Ttpo Smxioa-vvvjg aimizv. That is before, in place, time, ex- 
cellence, or estimation. Nay, such is the agreement between these pre- 
positions, that even rsapa, which answers commonly to per, as in 'jfxp oXoy 
t" ^lov, per totam vitam, for the whole course of his life, and in like 
manner to propter, as rtapa tj, propter quod, may correspond to pro, as 
'jccp cvSev Ciyna^xi, pro nihilo ducere, or, as we should say, to tell for 
nothing. 

Considering the affinity between the Gothic and the Greek, I am in- 
clined to think, that fairina, which Mr. Tooke assumes as the parent of 
our word for, is itself a compound of Ttcepx and ivet as the French and 
Spanish combine pro and (juia or pro quo in their pourquoi and por 



105 

que, for this cause. Particles arc indeed liable to the same mutations 
as other parts of speech, but they pass by tradition from parents to 
their children, and in all nations seem to have been retained with more 
pertinacity than either nouns or verbs. 

Trom, in Old English fra and fraj, answers to fra and fram Saxon, fram 
and faura Gothic, fra Danish and Icelandic, fran and ifian Swedish, 
and to Trarpa, w lien it governs the genitive, as in Thucidides aa:pi (ixj-iXeuic, 
from the king. 

In the Gothic of Ulphilas, this affinity is clearly marked, for we read 
thluiliand faura imma, they will flee from him. 

The Goths had likewise of, a preposition of the same import, evidently 
related to the Greek u'xo, of which the Swedes retain both af and pa. 

Ylapa. in this acceptation, may be allied to farain of the Hebrew, 
■which, like its associates yrtrar/, yflra.9, 2lx\6. farats, contains the notion of 
separation, and consequently of distance. 

Fy! This interjection, in French fi, is not expressive of lamentation, 
but of detestation and abhorrence. It is not therefore (p'tv, as stated by 
Minsheu, Johnson, Skinner, and Boyer; but probably may be an ab- 
breviation of fiend. In Saxon we have find, in Danish fiend, in German 
feind, Teutonic fiant and viant, Gothic fiand, an enemy. Again, in 
Saxon we have figan to hate; in Gothic faith, hateth. Hence we may 
possi' ly have derived defiance. 

Hide means, 1. the skin of animals. In this acceptation it agrees with 
hyd Saxon, huid, haude and houde Dutch, haut German, hud Danish 
and Swedish, cutis and a-wjor. 

VOL. II. p 



106 

2. To conceal is liydan Saxon, huten German, viev^en/ Greek, and cahad 
Hebrew. 

3. A measure of land. In Galic we find jod, which means both a cast, 
as of a dart, and a certain measure of land. Should the latter be de- 
rived from the former, our search after the origin of this word may ter- 
minate in (ni"') jadah of the Hebrew, he cast. 

Host is 1. hospes, 2. hostis, 3. hostia; see Guest. 

If, in Saxon gif, in German ob, in Gothic jabai and gabai. In 
Gothic we have likewise ibai. This word seems, as suggested by Skin- 
ner and by Mr. Tooke, to be derived from gifan, Saxon. In the Old 
English we find yeve, yave, yeoven, yeftes, give, gave, given and gifts, 
in Hebrew jahab (nn ">) he gave. 

That if is equivalent to give, and etymologically connected with it, is 
rendered probable not only by the affinity between an, if, and anan, to 
give, in Saxon, but by the same correspondence between amam of the 
Arabic, to place, propose, or state, and im of the Hebrew a position, 
preposition, and the conditional conjunction if. {v. Koerberi Lex apud 
Noldium.) 

Yet after all that has Been said, considering the close affinity between 
our northern languages and Greek, I cannot help suspecting that if may 
have sprung from eivep or iWw?, as the Gothic ei, if, is indubitably h, 
which seems to have the same connexion with ei^, be it, as si has with 
sit. Should this be granted, it will follow, that if originates in jehi, be 
it, of the Hebrew. 

In the Icelandic, which is one of the most venerable languages of 



107 

Europe, ef indicates doubt. Tlieir word tnncf and our old expression 
an if, seem to unite the two conditional conjunctions la-v and tn^ep of 
the Greek. 

J«, 1. When used to designate time and place, is common to the Latin, 
Italian, Belgic, German, Swedish, Gothic, and is evidently the same 
with en French and Spanish, and fv Greek. 

The Galic has ann, the Welch yn, the Swedish o/?, the Arminian een, 
and the Gothic and., answering to fvTor. 

The Lowland Scotch say hen, and the Hungarians ban, hen and bcnne^ 
which may be considered as compounds. 

2. When used as a negative, it is evidently iv of the Greek, as appears 
by civccf^vtix impurity, avxiSaia impudence, xuxiTioi innocent, avenXeiitTws 
unceasing, perfectly corresponding to ain of Hebrew and of the oriental 
nations. 

Just. Home Tooke has taken much pains to confound the meaning 
of this and of many other words : but the well-intentioned philologist 
should be ever mindful to preserve them from confusion, by accurately 
marking, not merely the original meaning, but the changes, which, in 
process of time, have taken place in the use of terms. Under this 
impression we must observe that just, when it means 

1. Regular and lawful, is certainly derived from jubeo and justura : 
but by accommodation its meaning has been extended to equitable, 
upright, virtuous, exact in retribution. Injury, the negative term, has 
been frequently confounded with damage by those, who do not consider, 
that there may be damnum sine injuria. 

p2 



108 

■ 2. Nearly, is juxta, jouste, old French, jusque, modern. 
Lap has three distinct notions. 1. To lick up, or feed by quick 
reciprocations of the tongue. In this sense it agrees with lappian 
Saxon, lappen and slabben Dutch, liippem German, lappia Swedish, 
la'per French, and all these may terminate in XaTrTttv. 

2. To lap over. 'I'his agrees with flap. In Saxon we find laeppe, 
in German lappe, in Swedish lapp, in Icelandic laf. In Greek Xo^Ij; 
a scale and Xai^og a tattered garment. The lap of the ear, which is 
in Danish ore lap, and in German ohr lapplein, appears to be Xo/3o; 
in the Greek. 

Lopin of the French has been referred to Xo^oi, but as it means a 
fragment of flesh, or bread, seized in haste and privately conveyed 
away, it rather seems to be alHed to kXott'', precisely as hhftus of the 
Gothic is y-XivTVi;. Connected with this we have lift, as used by 
Dryden for robbing or plundering, and shoplifter, the common appel- 
lation for one who pilfers, whilst he pretends to purchase. 

3. The mother's lap, in Swedish lapp, may refer to noXTrog. 

Left from the verb leave, in Swedish leifa and lefwa, is XfiTrw, but 
the left-hand is lajvus and terminates in Xccior. 

Let. 1. To permit, accords with luidhasam Galic, laisser French, 
Jcclnn Saxon, and Icxiten Dutch, Iciden and lassen German- lata Swedish, 
lade Danish, Ictan Gothic, lasciare Italian, laxarc Latin. 

\Vc have also lehct in meglehet Hungarian, I am able. 

2. 'i'o hinder, to impede, agrees with lluddia and llestair Welch, 
belctten and Ictten Dutch, and may be connected with late, as lluddia 
is with ludded in AVclch. 



109 

Lie, conveys three notions, for which similar expressions are exten- 
sively diffused in Europe. 

1. An aqueous solution of any salt: in Latin lix, licis vvnich an- 
ciently meant water, whence we have lixare and elixare to seeth. 
In French lessive, Italian liscia, Spanish lexia, lixivium, AVelch lleisw, 
Saxon leah, Dutch loog, German lauge, Danish lud, Polioh, Hunga- 
rian, and Slavonian lug, Bohemian lauh, and Dalmatian luugh. In 
Greek we have Xovw, with its derivatives allied to the preceding, 

2. To utter a falsehood. This agrees with leogan Saxon, leugen 
Dutch, liegen German, liigen Galic, liuga Swedish, lygan Icelandic, 
]gu and lugati Slavonian, legati Dalmatian and Bohemian. These have 
no correspondent term in Greek, unless it be Xoyot fables. In Sanscrit, 
luj means concealment. 

3. To be decumbent, is began Saxon, liggen Dutch, liegen German, 
laidhim Galic, ligger Danish, ligg Icelandic, liggia Swedish, ligan 
Gothic, leju Slavonian, lech Russian, lieze Polish, lig Old English. 
These must all be referred to the same family with ke<yo[j.ai, as must also 
lectus Latin, Hetty Welch, loje Slavonian, loze Polish, lit French, letto 
Italian, lecho Spanish, lodge English, and Xtynpov Greek, a bed. 

Light, 1. When used in opposition to darkness, it is allied to lecht 
Saxon, to ligt and licht Dutch, leuchte German, licht and lius Danish 
and Swedish, lioos Icelandic, liuhath Gothic, lois Arminian, kitch and 
lutchina Slavonian, Hug and llycheden Welch, lochran, lasam, lasrach, 
leos, luisne, glus and glinn Galic, luz Spanish and Portuguese, lux lucis 
Latin, XevKvi, with Xu%voj Greek, and perhaps lehat of the Chaldee. 



no 

2. In opposition to heavy, it agrees with leoht Saxon, ligt and licht, 
Dutch, ieicht German, liettur Icelandic, lagak and laliki Shivonian, 
lagahar Duhnatian, lehko Bolieniian, legoke Russian, leger French, levis 
and levitas Latin, which may possibly be alhed to XeTtTo?. 

3. To descend on, or from, as for example, We will light on him as 
the dew: Naamau lighted down from his chariot: Her hap was to light 
on a part of Loa^: field. 

In this acceptation, light has no connexion with the preceding nouns, 
but, like its kindred, alihtan Saxon, and af-lichten Dutch, it claims 
affinity to letayu and Jeteti of the Slavonian, answering to the Latin 
volere, advolare, avolare, and volatus, from which we may derive our 
vault. To alight, when applied to a bird, certainly means to descend 
from his flight. 

Thus we find in Russia and Bohemia letati, in Slavonia leteti, in Dal- 
matia letiti, in Poland litac and litatam, which in Lusatia becomes latazi, 
all meanins: to flee. Indeed letati, flee, fly, flight, volo, volueris and 
volatus may be all related, and ultimately derived from phalat, which in 
Hebrew, Chaldee, and Arabic means to fly from, to escape. In these 
several dialects of one language, we see distinctly the Hebrew phalit, 
one who has escaped, and phelita, flight. 

Like implies, 

1. Similitude, in which sense it stands in connexion with gelie Saxon, 
gelyk and ghelych Dutch, gleich German, sliker Icelandic, salik, slik 
and tolckin Swedish, lig Danish, galeiks and samaleika Gothic, samhluich 
Galic, opleko Russian, oblicze Polish, oblizhe Slavonian, similis Latin, 
semblablc French, somigliante Italian, semejanlc Spanish, scmelhante 



Ill 

Portuguese, and alike English, allied to which we have aXiyuor and Ti^/.tnor, 
which last gave birth to talis. ^ 

2. Choice and approbation. In this sense it agrees precisely with 
gelican Saxon, liika Swedish, leika Gothic, and yXtxof^^n, which may be 
allied to the Hebrew laquah, take, choose. 

Mace, may be either raacis, or massa. 

Meal, signifies, 

1. The edible part of grain. It then agrees with mealewe Saxon, 
mael Dutch, mehl German, meel Danish, melo Teutonic, miol Icelandic, 
micleny Polish and Bohemian, mlanie Slavonian and Dalmatian. 

If we regard the instrument and operation, we shall not hesitate in 
referring these expressions to malu Welch, molare and (xuX-^ a mill ; but 
should we look for a description of the thing itself, we might find it in 
the Galic, in which min-gheal conveys the notion of something fine, 
smooth, soft and white. 

2. Portion, part, repast. It is then moele Saxon, and has close affinity 
irith mael Dutch and mahl German; but mcele Icelandic is to metCj 
and when meal and mael, as in piece meal, signify a minute portion, they 
agree with malo Russian, maly Polish, Lusatian and Bohemian, maal Dal- 
matian, and malin Slavonian, and give birth to small. As a repast, our 
word may originate in macal of the Hebrew. 

3. To mix. In this notion, meal, it must be acknowledged, corres- 
ponds with the Hebrew mahal, as in Isaiah i. 22. thy wine is mixt with 
water. But since we find mezelar Spanish, mesler and meler French, 
misceo and miscellus Latin, with (^ta-yoi^ answering to mesek Hebrew and 
Chaldee, all of one family, we must consider meal as strictly connected 



112 

with them. Spencer, in his Fairy Queen, uses not only mell for minolc, 
Init nieiit ior niingleci, whichvnay be related to f^iyi/jf^i, as mix and mixt 
are to ,u/^a,' and (j^jxts;. 

Mean, in its various acceptations has been already noticed. 

]\Iere, conveys three distinct and independent notions ditFerino- ac- 
cording to their derivation. 

1. Pure, unmixed, is indubitably from merus and m^re Latin. 

2. A boundary. This agrees with ma^ra Saxon, nicer Dutch, mar 
Swedish, mera Russian and Slavonian, mira Dalmatian and Bohemian, 
niiara Polish, mara Lusatian, and marz Persian. These connect 
themselves with i^npco, I part, divide, distribute. 

3. A lake. This word is extensively diffused as meaning the sea. 
Thus we find mor AYelch, moir Galic, morfheirge and muir Irish, mere 
Saxon, meer Cierman, mar Swedish, marei Gothic, more Slavonian, 
Bohemian, Croatian and Lusatian, moral Russian, morze Polish, meri 
Finland, all connected with mare Latin, and perhaps with f^upw fluo. 
Certain it is that the Romans did not confine the term mare to the 
sea, for Virgil applied it to a river. The French word means a pool. 
In this family we have marsh, morass and mire. 

Moor. 1. An extensive waste infested with humidity. This word 
seems to originate in mare. In Welch it is morfa, in Saxon merse, 
in Belgic maerasch, in Icelandic moor^ in Gothic marisaiv, in Danish 
moratz, in French niarais and marecage, in English morass and marsh. 
Vi e have in Saxon, mor a mountanous heath and barren, or uncultivated 
tract of land, and moor humidity. 



113 

2. To moor a ship, corresponding to amarrcr in Frencli, may be 
derived from mare. 

3. Moor as a native of Mauritania speaks for itself. 
Nail, has three acceptations independent on each other. 

1. The horny substance at the ends of the fingers and toes. In Saxon 
nagl; Belgic naeghel, Swedish and German nagel, Danish negel, Russian 
nogti, Slavonian nogot, answering to ongle French, onghia Itahan, una 
Spanish, unlui Portuguese, evvin AVeleh, unguis and ungula Latin. AH 
these expressions, so various in their forms, are strictly connected with 
if not derived from, owE.. 

2. A spike of metal by which things are fastened together, [n Danish 
negel, Icelandic nayle, Swedish nagel, Finlandic naula. These may 
originate in nagal, he closed, of the Hebrew. In the same connection 
we find ^iXog, clavus; hoel Welch, clavo Spanish, clou French, chiova 
Italian. 

3. A measure of two inches and a half. 

Nai/, and no, in Old English nae and na, agree with na and ni in 
Welch and Galic, na, ne, ni, no, Saxon, nei Swedish, Danish and Ice- 
landic, ne and ni Slavonian and Russian, nei Polish and Bohemian, ne 
ni, nih and nui Gothic, na, nah, and ni Persian, no and ny Iberian, naand 
nu Hindu, no and nah Sanscrit, w^ Greek, ne, ni, and non Latin, na 
Chinese. 

Connected with the negatives above recited, we have, none, neither, 
naught, not, and in Old English nogt, which correspond with nach, nada 
and nadh Galic, nad, neb, and nid Welch, niet Dutch, naht Saxon, nicht 
German, nivaiht, nithan, negte Danish, nem Hungarian, niet and 

VOL. II. Q 



114 

nechto Russian, neen Dutch, nein German, nubeen Hindu, nanka and 
nafu Sanscrit. 

Hcie it is evident that N forms the negation, as it docs in our pre- 
positions in and un, and is in fact the radical part of all these particles. 
This therefore naturally turns our attention towards ain of the Galic, in of 
the Romans, an of the Vt'elch, un of the Gothic, as used for the purpose 
of negation. Consequently, if my observations are well founded, all our 
negatives are radically the same with ^v, a-^a, avtv, and with ain of the 
Hebrew, which last, according to Kbrber, is derived from its verb aven, 
he was deficient, whether in justice, comfort, wealth, or strength. 

If, with Horn Tooke, we could suppose the Danish nodig to imply 
negation ; to derive no from nodig, Avould be surely deriving the simple 
from its own compound, and the parent from its offspring. 

But nodig, like the German nothig, does not imply negation; it means 
distressed, constrained. Nod, its primitive, constantly conveys the 
notion of need, force, necessity, dilTiculty, distress and danger. 

The negative terms in Danish, as we have seen, are nei and negte. 



-» 



The greatest admirers of Mr. Tooke must here confess, that he discovered 
ignorance and self-conceit, when he so hastily derived our no ivom the 
Danish compound nodig. 

Tlie inhabitants of the north had no occasion to " wait for a word 
expressive of dissent till the establishment of the Romans in Italy or of 
the Jews in Palestine." No: they received their language from their 
ancestors, and being all the children of one family, tliey preserved 
those words, which were least likely to give way, and to be changed, 
among which rse, may fairly reckon our most simple negative, though 



115 

not its compounds, sitcli as none, nren, ncin, nauglit, ncclito, nouirht, 
nogt, not, nad, nid, nict, nalit, niclit, nivaiht, and neither, which, wich 
the negative particle, have combined one, aught. Sec. 

Of. Answering to, of Saxon; af Swedish and Dutch; aba and /if 
' Goth, is closely allied to «^o, but varying the accent we have <2t5 
which is a7ro&£v afar off. 

Off, therefore, is evidently aVo, denoting like it, not merely separation, 
but distance. 

Pain. 1. As a sensation of uneasiness, with pangs English, and 
pianta Galic, is in the singular, pun Dutch, pian Galic, pin Saxon, 
trapiene Polish, pein German, peine French. These may be allied to 
jrev^og and T^i^og as (iev^o; is to jicn^og. 

2. runishment is poen Welch, pena Italian, Spanish and Portuguese, 
peine French, pin Saxon, pina Swedish, bwntetes Hungarian, posna, 
punitio Latin, and 'noiv^ Greek. 

3. Labor, industry. Peine French, is allied to 'J^ovog and possibly to 
TLsveqvjg, Avhicli is usually derived from 'jrtvoiJ.cn. 

Fale, when it means, 1. wan, is evidently allied to pallidus Latin ; 
pale French, bled Slavonian, bliadi Polish, iiaXwoo nc-xU and ttsXiSv^ 
Greek, which mean lividity. 

2. A narrow piece of wood used for inclosures; in this sense it agrees 
with pal Saxon, pael Dutch, pawl Welch, palitza Slavonian, pal Polish, 
pel of the old French connected with palus and Uxcr^xXog, whence em- 
paler, to empale, may be derived. 

Fail for miik, balja Swedish, is JJtXKci and LlfXAlj. 

Pat. 1. When it means j(it, may be ^tttw. 

Q 2 



116 

2. To heat geiitl}', is allied to batardh Calic, baeddu Welch, beatan 
Saxon, badda Swedish, bitchuiu Slavonian, bete Russian, Dalmatian, 
and Bohemian, biti and bat Polish, apatot and botalom Hungarian, 

Paj/. 1. To discharge a debt. In this acceptation we have payer 
French, pagare Italian, pagar Spanish and Portuguese, paha and pay 
Persian and SacTravi^. 

2. To beat, pwyo Welch, biiu Slavonian, bye Polish, are distinctly 

Pile has numerous acceptations. 

1. A sharp pointed beam or pole is pael and piile Dutch, pilotis and 
pieu French, pal Polish, pfahl German, pila and palus Latin. With 
these agree pale and pole. 

2. The head of an arrow, is pilum Latin. 

5. Hair, poil French, pilus Latin. 

4. Heap, piile Dutch, pile French. These are allied to pila, Tirxog 
and iiO^osiv, of the same import. 

o. The funeral pile seems to be connected with palenie Russian, 
Polish, Slavonian and Hungarian, polati Bohemian, baal Icelandic, boel 
Saxon, from which the French have poile, a stove. 

6. One side of a coin. 

7- Hemorrhoids, not improbably derived from TrvXaiog. 

Pill, may be 1. peler, 2. piller, 3. pillule French. 

Race, 1. contest in running agrees with rasa Swedish. 

2. Race, or a raze, is allied to gwraidd Welch, racine French, rayz 
Spanish, raet Dutch, roed Danish, rot Swedish, root Icelandic, radix 
and radicc Latin, and pii^ce Greek. 



117 

3. Breed, kind or family, like race Frencli, agrees with the pre- 
ceding. 

Rase, or raze is raser French, and agrees perfectly with ^xicj, pa'juw and 
«pi%(7(rw. Razor, rasoir French, and rasor with rado Latin, have the same 
connection as the preceding. 

Rack, 1. any instrument, by which the operation of stretching is per- 
formed, agrees with astrcccan Saxon, astrecken Dutch, auss-strecken 
German, strecker and vostrecker Danish. In this acceptation, rack 
seems to be connected with extractus Latin. 

2. Distaff is, in Hungarian rokkaszar. In Polish we find rocac and 
wracac to twist. 

JlocA; means, L distaff, agreeing with- rack. 

2. An extensive mass of stone. In this sense it agrees with pco^, as crag 
and craig Welch and Galic do with ?«:%/«:. In Hebrew we find ragam 
(DJI.) he stoned. 

3. To shake, move in the cradle, rocqder French, rucken German, 
which may be allied to avopyd^u, Hesych: and probably is so to ragaz (rj"l) 
of the Hebrew. Indeed opycx^sLv, opyi^eiv and cpytx^eiv, seem originally to 
have contained the notion of rapid movement. 

Route means, 

1. Road, roid Galic, roin Irish, route French, braut Icelandic. These 
sefem allied to rota, rheda and ride, and these again to the Chaldee and 
Syrian rida to travel, and ridvan or ridan, a chariot, which in Sanscrit 
is rath. 

2. Rabble, tumultuous multitude, a company, a troop. In this ac- 
ceptation it may agree with ruith and ruta Galic, rhawd Welch, rot 



lis 

Dutch, rotte German, roode Danish, rota Slavonian and Hungarian, 
po^og. 

3. Defeat, confusion, and flight of an army. In this sense we meet 
with route and deroute French, and rotta Italian, which are probably 
ruptio; as in Latin we may derive clades, slaughter, defeat, from y.Kxjig 
a rupture. 

Sap means, 

1. The vital juice of plants. This, with subli Galic, seve French, 
sifipe Saxon, sap Dutch, safft German, sapa Latin, are unquestionably 
on-'og. In Welch we have not this word; but we find ?jorfJ sap, which is 
allied to votij. 

2. To mine or undermine, in French sapper, and in Italian zappare, is 
probably allied to a-KXT^^ai. 

Scale, 1. the dish of a balance; sceale Saxon, schael Dutch, sik-tal 
Hungarian, scutella a little dish. In Hebrew, Chaldee, and Arabic, 
we have shacal to weigh. 

2. The squamous skin of a fish. Ecaille French, scaglia Italian, skal- 
ler Danish, hal Hungarian. These seem to be allied to shale, shell and 
scutella. 

3, A ladder. Echelle French, scala Italian and Latin. 

The military term to scale, and a scale in harmonics, depend on scala. 
Seam, 1. a juncture of cloth, of planks, or of flesh, appears to be 
sumentum. 

2. A measure, eight bushels, may be jxyi^-x. 

3. Suet, tallow, grease, is sebum. 



119 

Set may signify, 1. to place simply, and may be derived from sedes 
Uog or the Hebrew shulh, and agrees with suid-heog, Galic, settan 
Saxon, sctzcn German, sietta Swedish, set Icelandic, satjau Gothic, sidati 
Slavonian, Dahnatian and Russian. 

2. To plant. This may agree with satus and shathnl Chaldee, Syrian 
and Hebrew of the same import. In this sense we have suidhuicam 
Galic, setau Saxon, sattia Swedish, satidedum Gothic, saditi Slavonian, 
sadzic Polish, szaditi Dalmatian. 

3. A number of things suited to each other. In Persian we have 
saziden, to be suitable This will perfectly accord with the Hebrew, seder, 
order, series; and the Chaldee sadar, to set iu order. 

Shaft, 1. A missive weapon ; sceaft Saxon, schaft German; these are 
probably o-KV]7rTpov. In Dutch it signifies a pole. 

2. A deep pit; seems to be derived from (tuxtttcii. 

3. Any thing strait is scapus. 

Shed, 1. to effuse, or scatter, scheiden German, skaidan Gothic, 
skudda and skiuta Swedish, is probably o-ksSxcc. 

2. A slight covering, may be connected with shade, and be derived 
from (TuiaSiov. In Wilts, for a shed, we find skilling, and in Sweden skiul, 
perhaps from a-mx. 

Since, 1. from the time that, seems to be contracted from sithence. 
In Saxon we have sith-than, in Swedish sedah, in German seit dem, in 
Greek ttTo:, after that. In Saxon, sithian means to come, to go, sithe 
time, and sith a progress. 

Thence is allied to iV&ff. 

2. Because, may be contracted from seen as. 



120 

Stick, 1. a walking staff, sficca Saxon, stecco Italian, which agree 
with stia;a Swedish, and qtix^iv. 

2. To adhere. Stican Saxon, stecken German, agree with q^y.oi. 

3. To pierce. Steken Dutch, stechen German, stician Swedish 
Siitychac Polish, agree with stacan Galic a thorn, and qi^a. c^i^a. 

Tear. 1. The water which passion forces from the eyes is daigr 
Welch, deor Galic, tear Saxon, traan Dutch, :z'ahre German, tar Swedish, 
taare Danish, tagr Gothic, lachryma Latin, dachryma okl Latin, lagrima 
Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, larme French, 5iKpy,u,a:, Bxupvo; and Bxyi;)\j. 
The change of D into L, is not uncommon in the Sanscrit. 

2. To lacerate agrees with torri Welch, toeran Saxon, zerzerren Ger- 
man, gatairan Gothic, torgayu, terzayu and deru Slavonian, torgati 
Russian, tergati Bohemian, targam Polish, torom Hungarian, daridan 
Persian Teipu iaraf Hebrew. 

In this acceptation tear and its participle torn, seem allied to thorn, 
draen Welch, draigean Galic, thorn Saxon, doren and doom Dutch, 
dorn German, torn Danish and Sweden, thaurnjus Gothic, terne Russian, 
ternie and tern Slavonian and Bohemian, cziernie Polish. In Hebrew 
we have darban and in the plural darhonoth, thorns. 

That. 1. when it means not this but the other, looks to ^xTepx as in 

tTTi^xTspx in diversum, in alteram partem. This agrees with det of Sweden. 

2. Denoting fact, assertion, maxim, conclusion, purpose, it agrees 

with ata Galic, thatte and that Saxon, dat Dutch, dass German, 

thataci Gothic, at Swedish, uti Latin and hi. 

Tliata in Gothic corresponds to ToauTo, thto and txvtx. 



121 

Till IS 1. the money box. In this sense it looks towards Ttko;, tolle, 
tribute, expense, and TeKe^v to spend. In Saxon we have til, abundant, 
rich. 

2. A termination. In this use we find til and tillo Saxon, til Danish, 
and tils Swedish, all which refer to TtKor the end or conclusion of a 
progress. 

3. To cultivate. In Welch we observe diwyllio, in Saxon ilian, tin 
Dutch or Belgic tuylen. Connected with these may be reckoned cVAcr 
toil. Telemin Hebrew being distinctly tillage; all these expressions may 
be radically one with it. 

Tire means 1. to dress, furnish. Attourer, and vetir French, zieren 
German, and tire English, may originate in vestire. 

2. To vex, harass, weary. In this sense we have tirian Saxon and 
toirseach Galic, which seem to originate in Ttipco, and agree with terah of 
the Chaldee. 

TVare maybe 1. merchandise, answering to waar in Dutch. 2. To 
watch, answering to fairam of the Galic. In this sense ware may take 
warn and ward for its infinitive and participle. 

Wind is 1. a blast of air. This agrees with gwynt of the Welch and 
ventus of Latin. 

2. To turn. In Spanish we have guindar, in Italian guindolare, in 
Saxon windan, in Dutch and in German winden, in Gothic vindan, and 
in Danish vende. 

JVith, 1. answering to i*£t^. This word is extensively diffused, and ap- 
pears to have been variously corrupted. We find with and mid Saxon, 
mit Old English and German, mith Gothic, med, met, and ved Danish 

VOL. II. R - 



122 

and Swedish, met Armenian, ith Iberian, niitha (pronounced mit-ha) 
Sanscrit. AH these may be radically connected, because M. V. and W. 
as we have seen, readily assume each others place. 

It has been suggested by Horn Tooke, that with, in this sense of the 
word, is derived from withe. This may have been its origin, and indeed 
could we suppose, that our Saxon ancestors either sprang spontaneously 
from the earth, and consequently had to invent a language for them- 
selves, or that they forgot the prepositions received by tradition from their 
fathers, it would be natural to conclude, that withe, a willow twig used 
for uniting things together, might become first a symbol of connection, 
and then a conjunctive preposition. But as our Gothic ancestors, w^ho 
used withan, to join, were in possession of mith, probably derived either 
from mitha of Sancrit, or from [t.e'i: and [t-eTx-, there seems to have been 
no necessity for their having recourse to a metaphorical expression. In- 
deed it does not appear, that they had with as a preposition, for in the 
Gothic Gospels we find only mith. 

2. Answering to ccvti, contra, against. It is curious, that the same 
word should thus have inconsistent meanings, as appear in these sen- 
tences, stand with him, and withstand him. But it seems to me, that 
witJi in the latter acceptation is an abbreviation of the Anglo-Saxon 
witherian, to contend, whence are derived, witherling an adversary, 
withersacan to contradict, and witherstandan to resist. 

Supposing then with to be allied to f^fTar, the compound ^i^sju^Hv may 
Jsave given birth to witherian and to with, as denoting opposition. In 
German, wider means against, and widerstehen to withst^md. 

We observe a remarkable affinity between our ay^YA and by; and the 



123 

Saxons, in their compound prepositions, used indiifcrently cither witii or 
be, as withforan and beforan, withinnan and hcinnan, withutan and 
beutan, &c. This affinity may possibly have originated in the Hebrew 
idiom, in which (m) hejad not only denotes the instrument, but like- 
wise concomitance. By (hejad) tliy servants hast thou reproached the 
Lord, (Isaiah xxxvii. 24.) Hazael took a present with him (bejado) 
forty camels burthen, (2 Kings viii. 9.) Even [^eix may be this Hebrew 
preposition in disguise, as ^dv and cum originate in (d;;) "im of the 
Hebrew. 

Within, answering to intra of the Latin may possibly be (nrT^a) 
hejtha of the Hebrews. Intra itself may be ev'^v^ix as wdomu Polish 
is allied to domi, or as hazaban Hungarian, ban the hoose Scotch 
in the house English, and en casa Spanish, are to in casd of the 
Romans. 

Yard, 1. inclosed ground adjoining to a house, answers to garadh 
Galic, gardd Welch, geard Saxon. The examination of this word will 
be resumed. 

2. A measure of three feet, agrees with gerd Saxon, gerte German. 

Yet, 1. over and above answers to etto Welch, jets and itez Polish 
gessto Bohemian, es Hungarian, etj Greek, gO(/e Hebrew ("liy) 

2. At this time is gata {TyT\V) Hebrew. 

3. Nevertheless Tna. 

By attention to the various, independent, and frequently discordant 
import of words, as derived from various and independent sources 
we acquire clear and distinct ideas, we avoid ambiguity, and wc 

R 2 



124 

learn to express our meaning with precision. In this beauty and utility 

unite. 

My principal aim, however, in the selection [ have made of sy- 
nonymes, is to convince my readers, that all the languages, with which 
we are acquainted, however dissimilar in form, are radically one. 

Is it possible for any one to cast his eye, however transiently, over 
the vocabulary here presented to his view, and not to discern this 
interesting truth. The words I have chosen are, indeed, variously com- 
pounded and abbreviated; they are distorted and disguised by vicious 
orthography and capricious changes; yet, when stripped of their ad- 
ventitious ornaments ; when they are made to approach their primitive 
and uncorrupted condition ; when nothing but that, which is essential 
to each word, remains; their strict resemblance or perfect identity is 
distinctly seen. 

AVhat I have here produced, might be considered sufficient for my 
purpose, but as the truth which I have undertaken to support, appears 
to me in its consequences to be of infinite importance to the happiness 
of mankind; I shall produce numerous other instances in its confir- 
mation. 

I have assumed it as an axiom, that nations, who agree in terms 
expressive of the most common actions and relations of savage life 
and of those objects, Avhich occur in every climate to supply the wants 
of mere animal existence, however dissimilar they may now he, were 
originally one. 

Let us then examine by this axiom, what agreement we can dis- 
cover between the English and other nations, with whose language 



125 

we have an adequate acquaintance. For this purpose the expressions 
I shall fix upon are chiefly monosyllabic, as being our most ancient 
words. Am, are, ass, bake, be, bear, beat, bind, boat, booth, box, 
break, brother, buss, call, can, cap, cart, cat, choose, cock, cook, cot, 
cow, crib, crow, cup, dad, day, daughter, door, eat, egg, eight, else, 
eye, father, fight, fire, five, fiaot, four, gird, give, gout, goose, guest, 
have, he, head, heart, hem, hen, house, hut, I, is, king, kiss, lick, me, 
might, mine, milk, mill, mix, mother, murder, name, night, nine, nose, 
one, ox, raven, rob, rook, sea, seat, seven, she, six, sow, take, ten, 
this, thou, three, through, time, tine, tree, two, water, Avithe, wool, 
write, yard, yea, yet, yoke, young. 

Am, is distinctly fif^^i in its most abbreviated fiarm, and is compounded, 
as I shall demonstrate, of the verb f, together with its pronoun (xt. 
As such it agrees with sum and sim Latin, com Saxon, em Icelandic, 
im Gothic and Turkish, jestem Polish, em Armenian and Persian, iam 
Eepirotic. This verb may originate in the Hebrew (r\'''n) Our ErigHsh 
verb is extremely irregular, and this irregularity points out the various 
sources, from which it has derived its discordant moods, tenses and 
persons. 

The pronoun p-t is still preserved in the Marhatta ml and is found 
in the Welch mi and my, as in ?««' a viim I was, and ?«_?/ a I will go. 
Me runs all over Europe and Asia; but in the Slavonian dialects it 
is mya, and in the Hindostani it is main. All the most ancient verbs 
in Greek have this pronoun in the first person singular of the present 
tense, not only in the active, but also in the passive and the middle 



126 

voices, as I shall have occasion to observe in the progress of my 
tvork. It likewise appears in the subjunctives of Latin verbs. 

Are, may be traced in eram and ero, in ccr Swedish, and serf Cornish, 
I am. But I shall not now enlarge, as the subject will be resumed 
when I shall treat of the substantive verb m Greek. 

Ass, asne French, asno Spanish and Portuguese, asino Italian, asal 
Galic, asen Welch, azen Armoric, astoa Cantabrian, assa Saxon, ezel 
and esel Dutch and German, asne Icelandic, asen Danish, aszna Swedish, 
asilus Gothic, osel Ptussian and Slavonian, osiel Polish, oszal Dalmatian, 
wefel Bohemian and Lusatian, essek Turkish, ez Armenian, asinus Latin, 
Qvo;. All these are related, and their common parent may be athon of 
Hebrew, of the same import. 

Bake. I have not been able to trace this word in any of the Celtic 
dialects. It seems to have been confined to the Gothic and Slavonic 
tribes. In our Saxon we have baecan and bacian ; in German backen, 
answering to bager Danish, baka Swedish, pekete Russian, pecy Bohe- 
mian, peku and pezhi Slavonian, and pickel Polish. Pochten, in Persian, 
means to boil; in Sanscrit pakarai and papakto mean, like TreTTTw, to 
cook in general. In Polish we find pick, an oven. From one of these 
we may derive our pye. 

The Latin coqiio has the same relation to -Tf^lw as quinque has to the 
JEoYic 'Ki[t.'Ki for TfvTf, which in the Doric dialect is xfvxe. 

In Greek we find /Sf/Swxa;, pavi, and the Plirygians had /3fKKoc for bread. 

The Welch have pohi. 

In Arabic we have the nearest approach to our word in tabakha, an- 
swering to n^ca tahah, a cook. 



127 

Be is in Saxon beon, in Danish boe, in Russian buivau, in Sanscrit 
bhu, in Galicand Hebrew bith. In Latin we have fui, fuero, fuissc and 
fore, of the same import. 

So much for the present. When I shall treat of the Creek substantive 
verb, I shall enlarge on our own verb. 

Bear and Burthen. These words agree with fero, porto, (pfpw and 
(popTiov; Avith beirim and bearadh Galic, porthi Welch, porter and fardeau 
French, beran, bearan and byrthen Saxon, brengen Dutch, her and bjrth 
Icelandic, boerer Danish, fora and boera Swedish, bairan Gothic, bera 
and pora Slavonian, bierac Polish, berel and barnal Armenian, burdan 
Persian and bhri Sanscrit. In Hebrew we find heriah (n''")^) a lever. 

Bear, to bring forth, seems to originate in pario and para (ma) of the 
same meaning. 

Bear, as a particular animal, has been traced to ferus, '^y,p and ^vjp; but 
in Hesychius we find ^apov, and in Hebrew hagar ("li/n) which are not 
improbably related to ferus. 

Beat, beotan Saxon, bCittre French, badda Sweden, biti Russian, 
baeddu Welch, and pita Sanscrit, agree with TIxtccjitcc. 

Bind, as a verb is unknown to the Celtic dialects, althouQ;h in AVelch 
we have bancaro a band. To bind, is bindan Saxon and Gothic, 
binden Dutch and German, bind Icelandic and Danish, binda Swedish, 
benden Persian, bandha Sanscrit, and bun Chinese. 

The nearest approach to this in Hebrew is abnef, a belt: but bind may 
be a participle, and if so, it may be related to vieo, vietum, hex and 
withy. 

Boat, is bad and bata Galic, bate Welch, bateau French, baleira 



128 

Portuguese, bat Saxon, boot Dutch and German, baatur Icelandic, 
bat Swedish, bote Russian, peta and pota Sanscrit. It may be aUied 
to yu(icc7og. 

Booth, is bothag Galic, bwih Welch, bod Armoric, boede Saxon and 
Dutch, beit Teutonic, boot and buth Icelandic, bod Danish and Swedish, 
obit Bohemian, buda Polish and Lusatian, beit Turkish, abad Persian, 
beti Epirotic. In Hebrew we have bcth, in Arabic beit, in Chaldee 
and Syriac, both. From the Persian abad we seem to have derived 
abide. 

Box, has been already noticed in its various acceptations. 

Break, ipp^X^ fiegi, fractum ; is bracaim Galic, brcg Welch, breche 
French, breccia Italian, brecken Dutch, breccan Saxon, brecken Ger- 
man, breke Danish, broeka Swedish, brikan Gothic, breg Slavonian, 
obroke Russian, fcn-aq Hebrew, Chaldean, Syriac, and Arabic. With 
these agree farad, farat, faram, farats, faras, of Hebrew, Chaldean, 
Syriac and Arabic of like import. 

Bring the participle of bear is brengen Dutch. 

Brother is barathair Galic, brawd, plural of brodyn, Welch, breur 
Armoric, frater Latin, frere French, brother Saxon, breeder Dutch, 
bruder German, brodur Icelandic, broder Danish and Swedish, brothar 
Gothic, brate Slavonian and Russian, brat Polish and Dalmatian, bratr 
Bohemian, bradt Lusatian, boradar Persian, bhai and bhala Hindostani, 
and bhratara Sanscrit. 

Bull and Buffalo, will be noticed under ox. 

Burn has been already noticed. 

Buss. For buss sec kiss. 



120 

Call is galw Welch, scallen German, kalla Swedish, kialtok Hunga- 
rian, cal Sanscrit, kala Syrian, k^auv Greek and kol (^1p) Hebrew. 

Can a drinking vessel y.xv'^xpog, cantharus is cuincog Galic, canne 
Saxon, kan Dutch, kanne German, kanna Icelandic, kandc Danish, 
tchuan Slavonian, kanna Hungarian. 

Cap yefpxXs Greek, caput Latin, copchaile Galic, cappan Welch, 
caeppe Saxon, kappe Dutch and German, kappa Swedish, kape B.->he- 
mian, kaponya Hungarian, the skull. 

Cart, carpentuni Latin, certwyn Welch, croet Saxon, karra Swedish, 
kareta Slavonian, kar Armenian, szeker Hungarian. 

Cat, cas Galic, cath Welch, chat French, gatto Italian, gato Spanish 
and Portugese, kat katte Dutch, katz German, katt] Swedish, kisa 
Icelandic, kot Slavonian, kotte Russian, kotzka Bohemian, kotka 
Polish, katto Lusatian, keti Turkish, katussa Walachian, catti Finland, 
kata Iberian, gato Lapland, kotschasch Tartaric. 

CocJcy noaxKov is coileach and caolach Galic, ceiliog Welch, kilioof 
Armoric, coq French, kock Danish, kokos Polish, kokos Hungarian, 
cuc61a Singaleze, cubku Finlandic, gallus Latin. 
Cook see bake. 

Cot KotTvt cotta in Galic is a cottage, and coittair a cottager. We 
have cwtt Welch, cote Saxon, kot and hut Dutch, hutte German, kot 
Icelandic, kota and koite Swedish, kota Finland, kaata Lapland, keda 
Persian, kodda Epirolic, kuta Sanscrit, and cotta Malay in the same 
acceptation. 

Cow, geo Galic, according to Vallancey. The modern Galic ha? 
changed this to bo, answering to buwch and bu of the Welch. In other 

VOL. II. s 



130 

languages we have cu Saxon, koe Dutch, kuhe German, koe Danish, 
ko Swedish, coiwas Finland, kusa Lapland, korowa and koua Russian, 
krava Slavonian, Bohemian, and lllyrian, krowa Polish, keuve Armenian, 
gau Persian, gai Hindostan and Sanscrit. 

In Latin we find mugeo, in Greek i^vaxoi, in Hebrew, Chaldee and 
Syriac gagha (up}) the lowing of a cow. 

Crib, in Swedish krubba, Germain, krippe is y.poc^^aTcg. 

Crow, in Saxon crawe, Dutch kraai and kraye, German krahe, Danish 
krage, Swedish kraka agree with corneille and corbeau French, corneja 
Spanish, cornacchia Italian, corvus and cornix Latin, y.op«i and xc/;a)vv| 
Greek. The Russian has voron and vorona a raven, a rook. In Polish 
we have kruk a raven, and Avrona a rook. In Slavonian we find 
krakain, korkaiu and grakaiu to crow, in Latin crocito, in Greek x^wC'" 
but nfiZ,a and upavyz^u mean to cry out. In Hebrew we have Sip, 
Compare with these raven and rook. 

Cup, cupan Galic, cwppan and cib Welch, cuppe Saxon, kop Dutch, 
kopp Danish, Swedish and Icelandic, kuppa, Slavonian, Hungarian 
and Dalmatian, kubek Polish, kofHick Bohemian, koup Armenian, kop 
Tartarian, cupa and capis Latin, with xl/tvj, nvneXXov, xv/S/3«, m-^x 
Greek, and (i'"'3J) gebiag Hebrew are all related. 

Dad agrees with tad Welch and Armoric, taz Cornish, taata Findland, 
did Slavonian, dede Russian, ded Bohemian, dada Turkish, which in 
the Hindostani means grandfather. In Epirotic wc have lati, «t7« 
Greek, tfttx Thessalian, and issa Finland. 

J)m/. Dia and do Galic, dydd Welch, Cornish and Armoric, daeg 
Saxon, dag and dagh Dutch, tag Germain, tak Teutonic, dagur Ice= 



131 

landic, dag Danish and Swedish, dags Cothic, den Slavonian, Russian 
and Bohemian, dzien PoMsh, daan Dalmatian, le Armenian, deghes 
Iberian, devus Hindostan and Sansciit, dies L;itin, with ^zog and 
Axlg are of one family. 

Daughter is a word unknown at present to the Celtic. In Saxon 
and Teutonic we have dohter, in Dutch dogter and dochtcr, in Ger- 
man tochter, in Icelandic dooter, in Danish daater, in Swedish doter, 
in Gothic dauhtar, in Slavonian dtscher and dotch, in Bohemian dey, 
in Russian dotch and doke, in Persian dochtar and docht, in Sanscrit 
dahitar, in Armenian dauster, in Finlandic tytter, in Greek ^vyccrvip, 
in Syriac dachtira. 

Dine is evidently SeiTrvsiu connected with which we find daps Latin 
diner French. 

Door, thorruke Old EngUsh, is dorous and fodhoras Galic, drws and 
dor Welch, dor Armenian, dora and thure Saxon, deure Dutch, thur 
German, dyr Icelandic, door and dor Danish and Swedish, daur Gothic, 
deuro Slavonian and Russian, duira Lusatian, duri Carinth., dwer Bo- 
hemian, drzwi Polish, dore Armenian, dar Persian and Turkish, dera 
Epirotic, toori Javan, dwar Sanscrit and Hindostan, derwarje Bengal 
derived from derwaza Persian, ^upa Greek, thara (i<")r>) Syrian, tharagh 
(i^ir^) Chaldean and ("lya') shagar Hebrew. 

Each has been already noticed. In Sanscrit eka means one, in Persian 
her yec is every one. In Hebrew ish means a man, and each person or 
thing. Ish el regehu (injt/") 1'^ S^"'!!^) everyone to his neighbour. 

Egg, ugh Galic, occo Italian, oeg Saxon, egg Icelandic, Danish 
and Swedish, aieka Russian, iaica Polish, iaiza Slavonian, chai Persian, 

s 2 



132 

wegtze and iaie Bohemian, aiza Carinth, yaye Dalmatian, tai Polish, wy 
Welch, ooov Greek, ovum Latin. 

Eight, is ochd Galic, wyth Welch, eiz Armoric, huit French, ocho 
Spanish, otto Italian, oito Portuguese, eahta Saxon, agt Dutch, acht 
German, aatta Icelandic, atta Swedish, otte Danish, ahtau Gothic, ot 
Armenian, osm Polish and Slavonian, wossim Russian, hesht Persian, 
ashta Sanscrit, ath Bengal and oxTft), octo. 

Else, elles Saxon, aljes Swedish, alias Latin, akXccg. 

Ewe, othisg Galic, dafad Welch, davas Cornish, eowe Saxon, ouwe 
and oye Dutch, ouzhia Slavonian, ouxa Russian, oucza Dalmatian, owca 
Polish, owcza Bohemian, wouza Lusatian, iuh and ih Hungarian, awa.. 
Sanscrit, ovis Latin, 'oig Greek. 

E^c, plural eyne, golwg Welch, oeil French, occhio Italian, ojo 
Spanish, olho Portuguese, eag Saxon, ooghe Dutch, aug German, ougon 
Teutonic, auga Icelandic, oje Danish, oga Swedish,, augo Gothic, oko 
Slavonian, Dalmatian, Bohemian, Polish, Illyrian, ocha Russian, ocho 
Croatian, woko Lusatian, oeghene pi. Tartaric, nayana Sanscrit. In 
Hebrew we have a/« (]">;;) in Latin oculus, in Greek I'aac^ the eye and 
y.vXx the cavities of the eyes. 

Father, athair Galic, padre Italian and Spanish,, pay Portuguese, pare 
French, pater Latin, fselher Saxon, vader Dutch, vatter German, fater>, 
Teutonic, fader Icelandic, Danish and Swedish, fadrein Gothic, padar 
Persian, pit4 Bengal, pitr and pita Sanscrit. UzTyip. 

Fire has already been examined. 

Five, cuig and coig Galic, pump Welch, pemp Armoric and Cornish, 
'cinquc Italian, cinq French, cinco. Spanish and Portugue&e, fif Saxon, 



133 

viif Dutch, fiinfF German, finf Teutonic, fim Icelandic, fern Swedish 
and Danish, fimf Gothic, fiynf, precop pyat Slavonian, pat Russian, 
piecz PoUsh, pesch Dalmatian, bisch Tartaric, p^nch Bengal and Hin- 
dostan, penj Persian, pengkan Sanscrit. TLevre, in yEolic IlffxTrf, in 
Doric KevKs; whence the Romans took their quinque. 

This practice of changing H into K, or P into C and K, I have already 
noticed to have been common among the Athenians, Cohans, Baeotians, 
lonians, the Galic tribes, as will immediately appear, and our Teutonic 
ancestors. 

Foot, cas and cos Galic, fot and vot Saxon, poot and voet Dutch, fuss 
German, footur Icelandic, fbde and foed Danish, fot Swedish, fotus 
Gothic, bos Slavonian, wut and uetn Armenian, pa Persian, padati and 
pud Sanscrit, pMn Hindostan, piede Italian, pied French, pie Spanish, 
pe Portuguese, pes pedis Latin, JJovg, 'j:oBog. In Hebrew we observe bus 
to trample under foot. 

The Welch has pedol, a horse-shoe. 

From foot, the Persian has piadah a footman, and we derive fetters, 
in Russian powtei, in Bohemian pauty, in Polish peta, in Persian paw, 
and in Latin compedes; in Italian ceppi, in French ceps. 

Four, cheathra, ceathair and ceithair Galic, pedwar Welch, padzhar 
Cornish, pewar Armoric, quatre French, quattro Italian, quatro Spanish 
and Portuguese, feower Saxon, vier Dutch and German, fioore Icelandic, 
five Danish, fyra Swedish, fidwer Gothic, chetwerti Slavonian, chetuire 
Russian, czterni Polish, chuerk Armenian, pahar and chah^r Persian, 
tchethro Zend, fydor Precop. ch^ir Hindostan and Bengal, chatur San= 
scrit, quatuor Latin, HfTopa. iEoUan» 



134 

Gird, girdle, girt, garter, garden, agree with gyrdan Saxon, gorden 
Dutch, guerten German, giord Icelandic, gyrter Danish, garda and 
gierda Swedish, gairda Gothic, sagraditi Slavonian, ogorodsate Russian, 
ograditi Dalmatian and Hungarian, ogradzac Polish, and zaraditi Bohe- 
mian. In Persian we have a rich variety of derivatives from girdiden, to 
go round and to turn, answering to yvpoeiv. Gort in Galic means the ivy. 

Give, in Old English yeve, yave, yeoven; gifan Saxon, geeven Dutch, 
geben German, gabun Teutonic, gef Icelandic, gisve Danish, gifwa 
Swedish, gihan Gothic, ja/iab (m^) Chaldce and Syrian, vahab Arabic. 

Goat and Kid, gitten and gidi Welch, gaite, gaet and gat Saxon, 
gheyten, gheyte and gheete Dutch, geiss German, geit Icelandic, geed 
Danish, giet and get Swedish, gaitein Gothic, koza Slavonian, Russian, 
Polish, Dalmatian, and Bohemian, ketzke Hungarian, getfi Tartaric, 
haedus Latin. In Hebrew we haxe gedi {-^1}) a kid, geedz (t;f) a she- 
goat, and gathudim (Clin;/] he-goats. In these all the preceding terms 
may have originated. 

In Galic this line of connexion is cut oft', and we have gobhar a goat, 
though formerly it meant a iiorse. In Welch gafr, in French chevre, in 
Spanish cabra, in Italian and Latin capra, look to nccTiqog, but this means 
a boar. 

Goose, gos Saxon, goose and goes Dutch, gas Laplandic, gaas Ice- 
landic and Danish, gas Swedish, guse Russian, guss Slavonian, Iberian 
and Bohemian, geoz Polish, hus Bohemian and Polish, kas Turkish and 
Tartaric, gsocis Kamptschatkan, gaz Armenian, all agree. 

Gander agrees with ganradh and gandal Galic, ganso Spanish, ganza 
Italian, bans Hindostan, gandra Saxon, gans Dutch, and X^v of the 
Greek. 



135 

Guest, gwestai and gwestwr Welch, gest Saxon, gast Dutch, German 
and Gothic, giestur Icelandic, giest Danish, gast Swedish, gust and gost 
Slavonian, gost Russian, gospodarz and gosc Polish, host Bohemian, 
goozt Dalmatian, gazda Hungarian. Hospes, hospitis means both the 
entertainer and the entertained. This gives birth to host, which is in 
Galic osdair, in Armoric ostis, and in French hote. 

Have, caffael Welch, avoir French, happer Old French, habban and 
hafan Saxon, hebben Dutch, haben German, haae Danish, hafa Ice- 
landic, hafwa Swedish and Finlandic, ap Sanscrit, xjisiv. The Persian 
yaften means to find. These agree with gaba and caph of the Hebrew. 

He, E Galic and Armoric, e and efe Welch, hy Dutch, sa Gothic, 
Swedish and Finlandic, ei Slavonian, o, ez and az Hungarian, u Persian, 
agree with yeh Hindostan, this man, i' Greek, hu Hebrew, Chaldean, 
Syrian and Arabic. 

Head, ceap, cudh and cuth Galic, iad Welch, heafod, heofod and 
hoefde Saxon, hoofd Dutch, haupt and kopf German, kop Dutch, 
haubit Old German, liofFud leelandic, hoffuit Danish, huvud Swedish, 
hauhith Gothic, caponya Hungarian, kop-pa-lah Chinese. These agree 
with caput and Ke(pxXvi, but gabah in Hebrew means high, elevated, and 
gibeah baldhead. 

Mr. Tooke, following Leibnits, derives head from heave. T am ready 
to alfew, that these words may be related, and it is remarkable, that in 
Hebrew gab means eminence, and gaphim in the plural has the same 
acceptation. The verb in Hebrew is gebah, he excelled in height. 

Heart, criodh and croidh Galic, coeur French, cuore Italian, corafon 
Spanish, cora9ao Poituguese, heort Saxon, hert Dutch and Teutonic, 



136 

hertz German, hiarta Icelandic, hierte Danish, hierta Swedish, hairto 
Gothic, serdts Slavonian, serxe Russian, serce Polish, serdce Bohemian, 
szarcze Dalmatian, sirt Armenian, szivu and szw Hungarian, bihotza 
Cant, hard Sanscrit. 

Cor cordis, Ke^i^p, y^exTog. KxpSix. 

Hemp, canab Galic and Armoric, hennep and kennep Dutch, hanfF 
German, hampa Swedish, konople Slavonian and Russian, komope 
Bohemian, konop, Polish, can nab Persian, azvuzjiig. 

Hen, henne Saxon, hinne, hoen and hen Dutch, huhn German, 
haena Icelandic, henne Danish, hanna Swedish, hana Gothic, kana 
Finlandic. 

House, hus Saxon, huis Dutch, hauss German, huus Danish and 
Swedish, hus Icelandic, Gothic, and Prccop. hisha Slavonian, kushya 
Dalmatian, haz and az Polish, kuzha Croat, keushen Carinth. houze 
Armenian, haz Hungarian, hu Chinese, casa Latin. In Hebrew casa 
means he covered. 

Hut hutte Saxon and German, hute French, hytte Danish, huta 
Polish, huti Bohemian. In the Gothic we find liethjo cubiculum. Kuta 
Sanscrit. In some ©f the oriental dialects Jmt (tDin) means a thread 
to sew together, to inclose, whence comes hait a wall. But as hut 
and cot are evidently the same word, they may be equally allied to Ko*t*i. 

J, mi Galic, Welch, and Marhatta. I its oblique case Welch; me 
Armoric, men Persian, main Hindostani, je French, io Italian, yo 
Spanish, eu Portuguese, ie Saxon, ich Old English and German, ick 
Dutch, eg Icelandic, ieg Danish, lag and ga Swedish, ik Gothic, iaze, 
ia and ena Russian, ia Polish, Bohemian, and Lusatian, es Armenian, 



157 

en Hungarian, ben Tartaiian, ego Iw'ya;. In Ilcbrew we fiave anoki, 
ani and I. 

Is, is Galic, sy ^Velch, est French, es Spanisii and Portuguese, is 
Saxon and Dutch, ist German and Gothic, est Slavonian, Russian and 
Persian, iest Polish, e Armenia, as, ast Sanscrit. 

Es, est Latin, eqi. Greek. Is or jesh Hebrew. See Am. 

King. In Galic we have ceann, the head, pronounced kemi ceannas, 
the office of chieftain, and cinbeirt a ruler. In Welch cda and cu- 
uiad signify a lord. 

Among the Gothic tribes our word is more distinct. Cyning, cynig 
and cyng Saxon, koning Dutch, konig German, kuning Teutonic, 
konning and konge Danish, Kongur Icelandic, cunningus Lapland 
and FinKand, cakunge Greeeland, konung Swedish. In German kuhn 
means brave valiant. The Slavonian tribes have knyaz a prince a 
general; the Huns had their cheuni, the Turks and Tartars have their 
chans. In Persia we find khan, but it is not Persian; in Malay kyan, 
in China kan, chong, cham and king, in Tonquin can, in Japan cunix. 
From these expressions, remove the termination, and that which remains 
will be equivalent to colun (1^^) of the oriental nations, a royal priest. 

Kiss, cus and cusanu Welch, cyssan Saxon, kussen Dutch, kuessen 
German, koss Icelandic, kyse Danish, kyssa Swedish, kukjan Gothic, 
as if derived from nenvnu; kushniti Slavonian, kush Dalmatian, koshiti 
Lusatian, kusati Croatian. In Greek we have nOw nvaw and nvtcrKu, and 
in Homer we find Kuo-a-f. In the Slavonian we have kus the mouth, 
kusain to bite, kusok a morsel, with kuss a kiss, answering to os and 
osculum of the Romans, and lobzayu, allied to lip and labium. 

VOL. II. T 



138 

Kuss may be etymologicaliy allied to buss, by the change of B and K, 
of which we have seen numerous examples, and it is probable, that they 
are so related, because they have precisely the same meaning, the former 
in Slavonian, the latter in Galic. In Welch bus means the lip and cus 

a kiss. 

These words have an extensive range and a close connexion. In Latin 
we find basium, in Italian basciare, in French baiser, in Spanish besar, 
in Portuguese beijar, answering to pogam Galic, boesen and bousen 
Dutch, poca and pocalowanie Polish, bos, boseh and bosiden Persian, 
pussune Epirotic. In Galic we have puisin, a lip, which is in Epirotic 
bushe. In French, bouche, the mouth, answers to bocca Italian and 
boca Spanish and Portuguese. Bucca in Latin, is the cheek. 

Lick, ligham and imligham Galic, llyfu and llyu Welch, lecher French, 
leccare Italian, lamer Spanish, lamber Portuguese, lambo and lingo 
Latin, liccian Saxon, lacken Dutch, lecken German, Sleikia Icelandic, 
lickcr and slicker Danish, slika and sleka Swedish, laigvan Gothic, lizati, 
lisati liju and lokaiu Slavonian, lizati Dalmatian and Bohemian, lizak,lize 
and lokac Polish, lakiel Armenian, lih and lihmi Sanscrit. In Greek wc 
have >.ft%w, XaTCTu, and Xx'ttx^w, in Hebrew lahac and lakak (pp7, pn7, "^n?.) 

Mam, see Mother. 

Me, mi Welch, me Galic, Armoric, French, Italian, Spanish, Portu- 
guese and Latin, mier Saxon, my Dutch, mich German, mig Swedish, 
inik Gothic, mya Slavonian, menya Russian, me Iberian, me and nai 
Sanscrit, ff^f and [j-s. 

Might, mocht (Jalic, gallu Welch, mcaht, maegeth Saxon, magt 
Danish, Swedish, mogu Slavonian, pomogaiu Russian, mahata Sanscrit, 
i^ty:tXvj, i^-fyas, i^tyi^og, magnus (nbiJl^) megala Hebrew, eminence. 



1:>9 

Mine, my mo (jalic, mau Wclcli, maliini Armoric, mien mon French, 
min Saxon, miin Dutch, inein German, myn Icelandic, inin Swedish, 
meins Gothic, moy or inoi Slavonian, Dalmatian, Pohsh and Lusatian, 
mene and mena Russian. In Persian, men means I, and em mine, an- 
swering to mam Sanscrit, i>ov Greek. See I. 

Milk, laith, bhochd and meilg Gahc, llaeth and bhth Welch, leath 
Cornish, leas and laeth Armoric, lait French, latte Italian, leche Spanish, 
leite Portuguese, lac laclis Latin, meoluc, meoloc, and meolc Saxon, 
melck Dutch, milch German, mioolk Icelandic, melk Danish, miolk 
Swedish, melkc Laplandic, maito Finlandic, mleko and mliko Slavonian, 
Lusatian, Dalmatian, Croatian, Polish and Carinth., moloka Russian, 
lapte Walachian. In Greek we have yxKcc, yxKan'rog, aj^tAyw and [j^tXnx 
as used by Galen. 

Mill, muilionu and meilam Galic, melin and malu Welch, belin 
Armoric and Cornish, moulin French, mohno Italian and Spanish, milha 
and moynho Portuguese, mola Latin, mylen Saxon, molen Dutch, muhle 
German, mil Icelandic, mollen Danish, mala Swedish, malan Gothic, 
melnitsa and mliin and melnitsa Slavonian, mielnitsa, melneka and 
melne Russian, mlin Polish and Bohemian, malom Hungarian, maliden 
Persian, mylly Finlandic, ^uXvi. 

Mix and mingle, measgam and cumasgam Galic, mysgy Welch, mesler 
French, mescolare and mischiare Italian, mesclar and mesturar Spanish, 
misturar Portuguese, miscere Latin, gemengan Saxon, mingelen Dutch, 
mischen and mengen German, mauk Icelandic, maenger Danish, meno-a 
Swedish, meshayu Slavonian, mieszam Polish, miser Sanscrit, ixtyvuf* 
and i^i7yu, (^072 and jr.D) mezeg and mesek. 

T 2 



o 



140 

Mother, mathair Galic, mam Welch, mere French, madre Spanish 
and Italian, may Portuguese, mother, meder and medder Saxon, moeder 
Dutch, mutter German, mooder Icelandic, moder Danish and Swedish, 
ama Finlandic, aema Laplandic, materi and mati Slavonian, Dal- 
matian, Bohemian, Kroat., and lllyrian, matt and mate Russian, mash 
and matka Polish, maike Walacian, mame Epirotic, mair Armenian, 
madar Persian, ma Malay, madua Sandwich Islands and New Zealand, 
me Tonquin, memme Kamptschatka, ana and eme Tartarian, me and 
mu China and Siam, ma Java, matar Sanscrit, man with the nasal ter- 
mination Hindostan, mama Chili, iman Samoid, maar Gilan, mata 
Tamul., h^7^p, H-aVf*« and iJ.aiJ.xix, aem Hebrew, hnmcc Syrian and ijnma 
Chaldean. 

Murder, mort and mudhlaim Galic, murdwrn Welch. Murn in Welch 
is a secret murder, and miorun Irish, means a private grudge. These 
agree with meurtre French, muro Portuguese, matar Spanish, morth 
Saxon, moord Dutch, mord German, mord Icelandic, morder Danish, 
morda Swedish, maurth Gothic, smert Slavonian, Polish, Bohemian, 
mordcrx Polish, mardasbane Armenian, murden to die and medar a 
corpse Persian, martum and marty Sanscrit, mors mortis, [j.opoc, iJ.opeu. 

Name. Ainm Galic, ennim Manx, henw, enw and enwi Welch, hano 
Cornish and Armenian, noni French, nombre Spanish, nome Italian 
and Portuguese, nomen Latin, naam Dutch, nama Saxon, name German, 
natii Icelandic, naff'n Danish, namn Svvedisli, name Gothic, imya Sla- 
vonian, Russian and Lusatian, imie Polish, gmcne and imeno Bohemian^ 
iime Daliuiitian, neve Hungarian, nimmi and cmene Epirotic, nam 
i'crsian, nanian Sanscrit, nam Laplandic, nimes Finlandic, n4ma Malays 



141 

namam Tamulic, nim Chinese, ovof^a:. Naam and naum in Hebrew, is lie 

said. 

Night. Oiche Galic but ann nochd, this night. Nos Welch, nos 
Armoiic and Cornish, nuiet and nuit French, notte Italian, noche 
Spanish, noyte Portuguese, niht Saxon, nacht, nagt Dutch, German, 
and Teutonic, noot Icelandic, nat Danish, natt Swedish, nahts Gothic, 
nostch or noshtsh Slavonian, noche Russian, noc Polish and IJohcmian, 
nooch Dalmatian, notz Lusatian, noaptc Walacian, nisa Sanscrit, nox 
noctis Ni)^, vvKTog. 

Nine, Naonar and naoi Galic, naw Welch, Armoric, and Cornish, 
neuf French, nueve, Spanish, nove Italian and Portuguese, novem Latin, 
nigen, nigan and nigon Saxon, negen Dutch, neun German, nyu Ice- 
landic, ni Danish, nio Swedish, niun Gothic, nine Precop. inn Arme- 
nian, noh, nine and nohom ninth Persian, navan Sanscrit e-^i^tx. 

N.OS? and Nostrils, nez French, naso Italian, nariz Spanish and Por- 
tuguese, nasus and nares Latin, nosa Saxon, neus, neuze and neis 
Dutch, nase German, nos Icelandic, noes Swedish, nos Slavonian, Russian, 
Polish and Bohemian, noose Dalmatian, nasa Sanscrit. 

Oath. Ath Saxon, eid German, eed Dutch and Danisli, oede Ice- 
landic, aith Gothic, eed and eeduth Hebrew testimony ("T^i/i"') he testified. 

One. Aon Galic, im Welch, uynyn Cornish, unan Armoric, un French, 
uno Italian and Spanish, hum i'ortuguese, unus Latin, an aene Saxon, 
een Dutch, ein German, eyn Icelandic, en Danish, han Swedish, ains 
Gothic, edin Slavonian, iedna, odin and on Russian, iedan Dalmatian, 
geden Bohemian, jeden Polish, van Chinese, "iv luhg hena Chaldean. 

Should the Slavonian line be here considered as the parent of the 



142 

rest; the first progenitor may be sought for in ahad and jehad of the 
Chaldee, Hebrew and Arabic, which in the Syriac becomes hada. 

0.2, bull, bullock and buffalo. Agh, scgh and bo Calic, ych Welch, eg 
Armoric, bocuf French, buey Spanish, bue Italian, bos bovis Latin, 
oxa Saxon, oz Dutch, ochse German, uxc Icelandic, oxe Danish and 
Swedish, auhs Gothic, buik Russian and Slavonian, wol Polish, ochse 
rmheniian, okoz Turkish, eker, okor, ok and eukner Hungarian, ugir 
Tartaric, bo Tonquin, usa Sanscrit. 

In Greek we have Bovc, in Latin bos. But Bovg means a cow, and 
bos extends to the whole species, whether cow, bull, ox or heifer. So 
does the Galic ash. In Welch, ych is confined to ox, and buwch to 
cow ; but bu is either ox or cow, and bwla is a bull. In Galic bo is 
cither a bull, ox, cow, or fawn. So bubulus in Latin means that which 
is derived from an ox, bull, or cow, and bubulcus like BanoKog is 
Armentarius. So bakar in Hebrew, Chaldee and Syriac denotes a herd 
of cattle, whether cows, bulls or oxen. In Arabic bakar is generic 
and bakarat means a heifer. 

Buffalo and Bugle, is in Latin bubulus in Greek (iov^xko(7 and ^oxj^xXig, 
in Welch bual, buibol in Slavonian, in Polish bawol, in Hungarian 
bial. In all these the generic part of the term is evident, and classes 
this animal with cows, oxen, bulls, but the specific difference is no 
where so distinctly seen as in Galic, in which bo allaidh is a wild bull 
or buffalo, for allaidh is Avild, Avhich leads us to ci'k<Jog and saltus. 

From these terms, as I apprehend, may be derived the Slavonian 
vol, the Celtic bwla and our bull. 



143 

Tn what manner boallaidh is related to the Arabic phahal, 1 cannot 
pretend to say. See cow and yoke. 

Faw is lapadh Galic, paw Welch, poot Dutch, fa Icelandic and 
Swedish, fahan Gothic, p^ Persian, pdun Hindostan. May we consider 
all these as related to 7r«w. In Danish patte means to seize. 

Pot, is pot French, puta aud bhad Sanscrit. 

Raven, bran Galic, cig-fran, i. e. a flesh crow, AVelch, corbeaii French, 
corbo Italian, cuervo Spanish, corvo Portugese, corvus Latin, hra;m 
and hraefen Old English, hraefn and remn Saxon, rave Dutch, rabe 
German, hrafn Icelandic, raffn Danish, ranm Swedish, kavran and 
vrdn Slavonian, voron Russian, kruk Polish, hawran, Bohemian, gravran 
Dalmatian, chafran Croatian. In Hebrew, Chaldee and Arabic we have 
gorab, which is distinctly corvus. In Welch rhaib is a ravening. Voro 
Latin and voron of Russia may be allied, as may be rapio and rabe. 
See rook and crow. 

Rook. Rocus and bran Galic, yd-fran i. e. corn crow AVelch, rocco 
Italian, krook Old Flnglish, hroc Saxon, rocck and koore-kraye, that is 
corn, crow Dutch, corneille French cornix. In Greek we have apcoy^j^og 
a croaking, in Latin crocito, which is in Polish krakam, in Flungarian 
korrogok, whence we derive both crow and rook. See raven and crow. 

To rook, that is to deceive and cheat, seems rather to be allied to 
roka* Hungarian a fox, than to the bird, because, although voracious, 
the rook has never yet been charged Avith fraud. 

Boh. Robam Galic, derober French, robar Spanish, rubare Italian, 
beryppan, ryppan and reafianl Saxon, rooven Dutch, rauben and raflcn 
German, rifa Icelandic, roffver Danish, riifwa and gripa Swedish, bi=- 



144 

raubodan Gothic, obriipati Slavonian, grabite Russian, rabowac Polish, 
lobiii Dalmatian, rubnowati Lusatian, ragadom Hungarian, rubuden 
Persian. 

In Latin we have in rapio in Greek ap-^dco. 

In Hebrew, Clialdee, Sjriac and Arabic, harab, conveys the notion 
of war, plunder and deceit. Yet rob, rapine, ravish, rover, ruffian, 
and bereave, may, like raven, originate in gorab of the Hebrew. 

6Va, sail and sailin Galic, swi Armoric, sae Saxon, zee Dutch, see 
German, sioor Icelandic, sio Swedish, saihva Gothic, soo Finlandic, zea 
Iberian, sue and xoi Armenian, sou Tonquin, and xu Japan. Su 
Chinese and Tartaric, means water, river; saihva Gothic is confined to 
lake. A sail is segl Saxon, seyl Dutch. Are these allied to sea? or 
have they any connexion with velum? 

Seat, saide and suidhe Galic, eisteddle and gorsedd Welch, seotole 
and setl Saxon, sate, sedele and sele Dutch, sidel German, sette Teu- 
tonic, saete Icelandic, sede Danish, sate and saessa Swedish, sedalishtshe 
Slavonian, siedzenie Polish, sezek Hungarian, sedes, sedile; tho; Greek, 
seth or sheth (n t^) Hebrew, v. sit. 

Sit^ suidham and seisim Galic, gorseddu Welch, sittan, sitzan Saxon, 
sltten Dutch, sitzen German, sessa Icelandic, sidder Danish, sitia 
Swedish, sitan Gothic, sedlayu, sideti and sieju Slavonian, sedete Rus- 
sian, sicdze Polish, sediti Bohemian, szyditi Dalmatian, nishesten Per- 
sian, asitum and sidivasa Sanscrit. Sedeo. f?0M-ai. {pnm. T\r\^ and T\W-) 
Satha Hebrew and Chaldee, he placed. (VnJi') Setal Chaldee, means to 
set, to plant. From sit we may derive saddle. Sadhall Galic, sadell 
Welch, selle French, silla Spanish, sella Italian, Portuguese and Latin, 



145 

sadl Saxoti, sadel Dutch, sattel German, sadul Icelandic, sadel Danish 
and Swedish, sedlo Slavonian and Bohemian, siedio Russian, siodlo 

Polish. 

Seven, seachd and morsheisar Galic, saith Welch, Armoric and Cornish, 
sept French, sette Italian, siete Spanish, sete Portuguese, septem Latin, 
seofon Saxon, zevcn Dutch, sieben German, sio Icelandic, siuf Danish, 
siu Swedish, sibun Gothic, siwSamoide, sedm Slavonian and Bohemian, 
sem and situ Russian, siedm Polish, szedam Dalmatian, schedim Lusa- 
tian, yedi Turkish, het Hungarian, heft Persian, sAth Sanscrit, septem, 
Ittt*, aehag Hebrew and Chaldee, seha Arabic. 

She, isa, ise Galic, hi Welch and Armoric, ea Latin, seo, heo and 
hio Saxon, sii Dutch, sie German, si Gothic, ese Russian, sa Sanscrit^ 
In Latin we have is he, in Hebrew ish he, isha she. 

Six, seisir, se and sia Galic, chw6ch Welch, huech Armoric, six 
French, sei Italian, seis Spanish, seys Portuguese, syx Saxon, zes, sesse 
and ses Dutch, sechs German, sex and siax Icelandic, sex Danish and 
Swedish, saihs Gothic, seis Precop., shest Slavonian and Russian, szescz 
Polish, ssest Bohemian, hat Hungarian, shesh Persian, zuest Armenian, 
sau Tartarian, si Chinese, choe Bengal, shesh Sanscrit, sex Latin, £$ 
Greek, ses or shesh and seth Hebrew and Chaldee, sittet and sitt Arabic. 

Son, zoon and sine Dutch, sone Saxon, suna German, sohn Icelandic, 
sonus Danish and SAvedish, son Gothic, sunus Slavonian, Bohemian, 
Polish, syn Russian, sun Dalmatian, viov Greek. 

Sow, hog, swine, muc Galic, hwch Welch, houch Armoric, sugu and 
swin Saxon, soegh, seugh, hogh, souwe and swiin Dutch, saw and schwein 
German, saa and suin Icelandic, suin Danish, sugga and swin Swedish, 

VOL. II. u 



146 

sveina Gothic, siea Finlandic, zopa and swiniya Slavonian, sweneina and 
swenee Russian, swin Lusatian, swinia Polish, Dalmatian and Carniolan, 
swine Bohemian, khog Persian, uc Chinese, sus Latin. 

In Greek we hnve'vg, (rug aveiog, avinog and (xvivog. 

Stand, i.e. siaend, sta Galic, slaan Dutch, standan Saxon, staae 
Danish, stoiu Russian, istaden Persian, stan and statum Sanscrit. Sto, 
sta, stans, stantis, stante, statum. Hqi^^i sqxuzi. 

Take, togam Galic, tacken Dutch, tek Icelandic, tager Danish, taga 
Swedish, takniti Slavonian, taknuti Dalmatian, teknauti Bohemian, 
tykac Polish, t«w, Ta^co, tetcchoc, tTayov, yiTXO{/.xi. 

Ten, deich and da cuig, that is twice five, Galic, deg Welch, Armoric 
and Cornish, dix French, dieci Italian, diez Spanish, decern Latin, tyn, 
tin, tien Saxon, tien, thien Dutch, zehen German, tyu Icelandic, ti 
Danish, tiijo Swedish, taihun Gothic, thyne Precop., desiati and deset 
Slavonian, Dalmatian and Bohemian, disset Russian, dzesziec Polish, 
tiz Hungarian, tasn Armenian, deh or dah Persian, des Hindostan, desen 
Sanscrit, Atyia. 

This, so Galic, this Saxon, deze Dutch, diese German, sa Gothic, 
Swedish and Finlandic, these Icelandic, tesai Russian, taya and sie Sla- 
vonian, thavis and thaithan Iberian, delta and denna Swedish, ten Polish, 
is Latin, ze Hebrew. 

This, in Gothic, is the genitive singular, and thize the genitive plural 
of sa and thata, which answer to this and that of the English, or to h 
and TO of the Greek. 

Thou, tu and thu Galic, ti tydi Welch, te Armoric, ta Cornish, tu 
French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and Latin, thu Saxon, du Dutch 



147 

and German, tliii Icelandic and Gothic, du Danish and Swedish, fzo 
Precop., ty Slavonian, Dahiialian and Polish, tci and tui Ilussian, sen 
Turc, and Iberian, ty Hungarian, tu Persian, tzo Tartaric, de Bengal, 
twa Sanscrit, St), Dorice Tu, in Hebrew ata, in Arabic entn. 

Three, tri Galic, Welch, Armoric and Cornish, trois French, tres 
Spanish, Portuguese and Latin, thrie and threo Saxon, drie and trey 
Dutch, drey German, thrys Icelandic, tre Swedish, thrins Gothic, tri 
Slavonian and Russian, trzy Bohemian, trzi Polish, tria Tartaric, try 
Sanscrit. T^as. 

Thrice, iris and tres vices Latin, trois fois French, tris Sanscrit. 

Through is ire, trid and dar Galic, trwy and drwy Welch, thurk, thruh 
and thor Saxon, door Dutch, durch German and thairh Gothic. In the 
Gothic we have thairs, and in French trou, foramen. 

All these, beyond a question, for their symbol have a door, and ori- 
ginate in this notion, as beautifully illustrated by Mr. Tooke. We find 
thorruke. Old English, tharagh Chaldee, thara Syriac, and ^vpx Greek a 
door. Hence it appears that our Old Enghsh thorruke and through are 
from the Chaldee, and not from the Greek. 

Time, am Galic, temps French, tiempo Spanish, tempo Itahan, and 
Portuguese, tempus Latin, tima Saxon, time Danish, tima Swedish, 
dem Persian, a breathing, a moment. Zemen Hebrew, Chaldee and 
Syriac, zeman Arabic. 

Tine, tind, and tinder, teinne Galic, tan Welch, Armoric and Cornish 
fire. Tendan and tynan Saxon, zunden German and Teutonic, tende 
Danish, t'anda Swedish, tandjan Gothic, tendra Icelandic, to kindle. 
In Persian we have taw and taf, heat and tawiden to heat, to shine. 

V 2 



148 

Indh Sanscrit kindling. Szen Hungarian, tanat Epirotic, ten Japan, 
tien Chinese, fire. Tun Persian, a furnace in Hebrew is tanor (lljn) 
tan, tartarian is a spark, and tinh to shine. 

In Latin we have extinguo, in French eteindre and etinceler, in 
Galic tentean, the hearth, tin teach, lightning, tintighe and teintidh 
fiery; tinm understanding, and tinteannas great haste, in Welch tanbaid 
and tanrhe fiery, tanwdd fuel, tawnr one who provides il, and tywynnu 
to shine, in Chinese toung the East, in Finish tunne to know. 

Tooth, dend Galic, dant Welch and Armorc, danz Cornish, dent 
French, diente Spanish, dente Italian and Portuguese, dens, dentis 
Latin, toth Saxon, tand and tandt Dutch, zahn German, tenn Icelandic, 
tand Swedish, tunthu Gothic, atamn Armemian, dendan Persian, dant 
Hindostani and Sanscrit. In Persian dendiden is to gnaw, olovg oBovrog 
and Tiv^co Greek. 

Shen Hebrew, Chaldee and Syriac. Sinn Arabic. 

Tine English and tinne Icelandic mean the teeth, of forks, and of 
liarrows. 

Tree, dair and dairbhre in Galic mean the oak, so does derw in 
Welch and Armoric. We have treo, treow and tryw Saxon, dre Teu- 
tonic, triu and trie Icelandic, tree Danish, tra Swedish, triu Gothic, 
drewo Slavonian, Russian and Lusatian, drzwo Polish, strom Bohemian, 
dreuno Lusatian, dzarr Armenian, druu Epirotic, deracht Persian, dru 
and tra Sanscrit. 

Two, da and do Galic, dau and dwy Welch, deux French, due Italiaa, 
dos Spanish, dons Portuguese, duo Latin, tu, tua, twa, twe and twy 
Saxon, twee twii Dutch, zwey and zwo German, tueir Icelandic, twa 



149 

Swedish, tu and toe Danisli, tuai Gothic, dwa Slavonian, Russian, Dal- 
matian, PoHsh and Lusatian, du Persian d6 Hindostani, dua Malay, 
dwau Sancrit, Sva Greek, sheni Hebrew, thani Arabic means second. 

fVa7', In Galic we have greis, greit and griasda a warrior, grim war 
and griom challaire, a herald, or the man who declares Avar. In Welch 
we find arfwr and arwr, a warrior, a hero, in French guerre, in Italian and 
Spanish guerra. These agree with waer Saxon, weere Dutch, werre 
German, baratta Icelandic, orlog Swedish, boriu Slavonian, voina Russian, 
Slavonian, Polish and Lusatian, bhaarat Hindostani and Sanscrit, in 
which beero means a hero, heros Latin, vjpwj Greek, to which may be 
related «p^g, fV'? and megarca (nm;;^) of the Hebrew, in which lan- 
guage garac ("?|-|y) means to set the army in array. Should we be 
disposed to connect war like virtus courage with vir; we must then 
look to gwr of the Welch, and geher of the Hebrew. If with arms, 
we shall find its allies in karah Persian, arm Galic, arf Welch, ar, arf, 
or, yr, urf and hiorf Swedish, arms, arrow and sword, which last is 
sweord Saxon, sweerd Dutch, schwerdt German, hior Icelandc, sverd 
Danish, sward, hiorf and orf Swedish, hairus Gothic, kard Hungarian, 
saur Armenian, and aop Greek, These agree with zur ("11^) Hebrew, 
which means war, a rock, a fortress, an enem)', and the edge of the 
sword. 

Warm, garam and goram Galic, gwr^s and gwresogi Welch, wearmian 
Saxon, waermen Dutch, warmen German, varm Icelandic and Gothic, 
warma Swedish, wram Polish, germ Persian, gurum Hindostani, 
goria Cuntabrian, pogoraiu Slavonian, pori Welch, itvpoeiv Greek 
and hagar Hebrew to hum. All these are related. But here the 



150 

Galic may be the parent of the Gothic, because that language as- 
sumes M to form the first person singular of the present tense. 

Water, dobhar and dur, baister and baiter Galic, dwr Welch, dowr 
Cornish, eau French, waster Saxon, v/aeter putch, wasser German, uazzar 
Teutonic, ytturia Cantabrian udr Icelandic, vatn Swedish, van Danish, 
vatin Gothic, voda Slavonian and Dalmatian, woda Russian, Bohemian, 
Polish and Illyrian, wessi and uie Epirotic and Esthonian wiis and viz 
Hungarian and Croatian, dschur and dsour Armenian, sii Turc. udac 
and var Sanscrit, wesi Finlandic, tiatse Lapland, ao Tonquin, doo 
Japan, yoe Birman, avye and awa Otaheite, u5wp and It^ Greek, 

In Hebrew, Chaldean and Arabic we have matar (■ID;^) rain and 
oed ("T^) vapor. 

Will, ail and toil Galic, gwyll Welch, vouloir French, velle and volo 
Latin, willa Saxon, will Dutch and German, vuill Teutonic, wilia 
vilja Gothic, voliu Slavonian, woleia Russian, wule Bohemian, wole 
Polish, volya Dalmatian. All these agree Avith aXSof^ai, ^eXw, (*eXXa;, 
^aXkoo, (iovKoy-cci, and 7"'5:^in Hoil. 

Withe and Withy, withig Saxon, wede Dutch, weide German, widia 
Swedish, vidde, Icelandic, weez Dalmatian, wiazek and wiazko Polish, 
wist Armenian, Irtsi and £tv)j Greek. To swathe is wathan withan Gothic, 
vcsatia Slavonian, vezati Dalmatian, vazati Bohemian, wiazac Polish, 
wisatzi Lusatian, vieo Latin. Gwydd is in Welch a weaver, a loom 
and gwyddi a quickset hedge. It must be remembered that in Welch 
dd is pronounced th. 

Wool, olann Galic, gwlan Welch, Armoric and Cornish, laine French, 
lana Italian Spanish and Latin, wuUe Saxon, wolle Dutch and 



151 

German, ull Icelandic and Swedish, willa Finlandic, uld Danish, 
ullo Lapland, volna Slavonian, wlna Bohemian, welna Polish, vulna 
Dalmatian, wil Epirotic. In Latin we have vellus, villus pilus, in 
Greek hvKog, [^xWog, and [^.vi'kov^ in Welch gwallog hairy. 

Write, sgriobam Galic, ysgrifennu Welch, scrivaff Armoric, ecrire 
French, escribir Spanish, escrever Portuguese, scrivere Italian, scribere 
Latin, writan Saxon, schreiben, schriiven Dutch, kreiden Cierman, scri- 
bere cum creta. Kit Icelandic, skrifwa Swedish, ypaCpw Greek. 

Allied to these we have grave, scrape, scratch, scrub, and rub. Sgrio- 
bam Galic, crafu Welch, grater French, grattare Italian, kratsen Dutch, 
kratzen German, kratzer Danish, kratta Swedish, drapie, skrobie and 
^iskrobuie Polish, vakarodhatnam Hungarian, %«pa3-(rw, xtxpccrlco, Greek, 
rado Latin, (a^in and nln) charas, charat, Hebrew, to engrave, to 
write, and cheret (o")n) a pen. From charat may have been derived 
tharta. 

Yard, orchard and garden, all agree, and are nearly allied to gird. 

In Galic we have garadh and gort, the latter of which terms means a 
field, a garden, in Welch gardd, in French and Spanish jardin, in Por- 
tuguese jardim. Corresponding with these we have ortgeard Saxon, 
gaerde Dutch, garten German, karto and gardon Teutonic, gaard Danish, 
gard and ortegard Swedish, aurtijards Gothic, vert, varta and vertgorod 
Slavonian, ogorode Russian, ogrod Polish, zahrade Bohemian, kert 
Hungarian, hortus Latin, XopToj, according to Hesychius, is an inclosure. 
In Swedish garda means a hedge to inclose. 

Yea, eadh Galic, ie Welch and Armoric, oui French, ia Saxon, Dutch 



152 

and German, iai Gothic, ia Swedish, vgy Hungarian, ayi Sanscrit je/ii 
(iiT^) Heb. 

Yoke, cuing Galic, iau Welch, joug French, giogo Italian, yugo 
Spanish, iugo Portuguese, jugum Latin, joe and geok Saxon, jock Dutch, 
joch German, ok Icelandic and Swedish, aag Danish, juka Gothic, juco 
Finlandic, igo Slavonian and Russian, gho Bohemian, iga Hungarian, 
jugh or yugh Persian, yug Sanscrit, ^vyov Greek, whence comes ^evyvucu, 
jungo, joindre French, giungere Italian, juntar Spanish, aiuntar Portu- 
guese, and join. See ox. 

Young and youth, oganach Galic, jeuangc and jufange Welch, jouvance 
and jeune French, giovane Italian, joven Spanish, juvenis Latin, yeong, 
jong and geong Saxon, jong and jonck Dutch, jung German, ungur 
Icelandic, ung Swedish, junost, junota and junosha Slavonian, junoshei 
Russian, juroan or jawan, pronounced joowone, Persian, yauvana and 
yuvan Sanscrit, pronounced joowaun Hindostan, jo7iek Hebrew, and 
ja7nk Chaldee, mean a suckling. 

In addition to these examples, I must call to the recollection of the 
reader the several words I have, in the preceding sheets traced through 
Europe and Asia to their proper radical expressions. 

And I must here repeat, that the strict affinity prevailing in these 
few words would be sufficient to prove, that the nations, by which 
they are now, or have been used, originated in one. But this will 
be made still more evident, when I shall proceed to the examination 
of their several languages, beginning with the AVelch. 



ON THE 



WELCH LANGUAGE. 



L HE Welch have never pretended to be indigenous, either as natives 
of the soil, or as the immediate offspring of some local divinity; but, 
on the contrary, have been ever ready to acknowledge themselves colo- 
nists, who wandered with their flocks in search of quiet habitations. 

They call themselves Cymru, and boast of CJomer as their progenitor. 
This descent they claim on the credit of the name they bear. But their 
critics say, that, agreeably to the genius of their language, Cymry cannot 
be derived from Gomer. If then it should be granted, that Cymru is 
not derivable from Gomer; we must seek elsewhere for the origin of this 
appellation, and may expect to find it in some term expressive either of 
their mode of life, their warlike implements, their dress, their manners, 
or the nature of the country in which they fixed their habitations. But 
here a previous question will occur, from what language must we derive 
this appellation? Must we apply to their neighbours or to themselves .■* 

VOL. II. X 



154 

In Herodotus we find mention made of Kif^fiulpioj, of the Bo^mpog 
Kt(*[j.f/)iog, and of a country called Ki[*fiepi'vi, now the Crimea. But the 
reason for this name is not assigned. 

The Romans speak of the Bosphorus Cimmerius, which unites the 
Palus Mreotis to the Euxine, and Pliny mentions both Cimmerium, a 
city of Pontus, in more ancient times called Cerberion and Cimmeris, a 
city of Troas. Two several people likewise have been noticed by the 
name of Cimmerii, the one near the Bosphorus, the other in a vale of 
Italy between Baiae and Cumoe. 

Besides these people, we read in Juvenal of Terribiles Cimbri, who 
dwelt in Jutland, and I can readily believe, with Sheringham, that their 
name may have been derived from their ferocity in war, because in 
German kampfFer means a warrior, kampfFen to fight and kampfF a 
battle. Supposing this derivation to be well founded, the name ia 
question may have been both assumed by themselves and attributed, to 
them by those, whose territory they were accustomed to invade. 

When this appellation ceased, it was succeeded by that of German, a 
word of precisely the same import. 

Should we be disposed to consider the Cimbri and Cimmerii as one 
and the same people, and seek the origin of their name from any lan- 
guage connected with the Persian, we might conceive them to have been 
distinguished as a shepherd nation, because kumra in Persian, both 
ancient and modern, means a shccpfold. Or should we be inclined to 
look towards the Galic; in that lansuaije we should find cumar a vallev, 
and cumaraic a people living in vales shut in by lofty mountains. Thus 
the 0' Briens of Cumarach, in the county of Waterl'ord, were called 



155 

Cumaraic, as inhabiting the valleys between Dungarvan and the Shure. 
From the same circumstance, the ancient Britons of Cumberland may 
have obtained their name of Cumbri. 

In Welch, cwmm means a narrow valley between high mountains; but, 
according to Cleland, who appears to have been a good Welch scholar, 
apn is one of the most ancient Celtic words for mountain, and we know 
that cime in French has the same acceptation. We find the word in 
Arabic, Hebrew, Chaldee and Syriac, every where conveying the notion 
of altitude. It is therefore possible that by the appellation of Cymru 
may have been meant mountaineers. 

There remain yet other sources, from which the Cimmerii may have 
derived their name. For in Welch Cymmer, pi. Cymmerau, means the 
confluence of two seas or rivers, a circumstance common to the Thracian 
Bosphorus, to the northern Chersonesus, and to the Straits of Sicily, of 
all which the inhabitants were styled Cimmerii. 

Of the Greek term BotrTropog, we have no certain explanation. But 
could we in the Celtic find either a word similar to bis in sound and 
meaning, or examples of the conversion of D into B, as in the ^olic 
dialect of Greek, I should be inclined, with Cleland, to consider Bos- 
phorus as a corruption of Bismor, that is, two seas, and therefore equi- 
valent to Cymmerau, in which case Boa-Topog KiiJ.i^.epiog would exhibit such 
a repetition as we found in lacus lemanus of the Romans and loch linny 
of Scotland, or such as we may observe in llychlyn of the Welch, and in 
numerous other instances already noticed. 

After all, should we conceive, that Cassar intended b}' indigence, to 
translate the Welch term brodorion, of the same import, this, with the 

X 2 



156 

preposition cyn, will readily exhibit cymro and cymru, and consequently 
may have given birth to Cimbri and Cimmerii. 

The Welch language is very valuable, and more particularly so, on 
account of its ancient manuscripts, of which Mr. Owen has examined 
thirteen thousand, all poetical. Some of these were written in the ninth 
and others in the eleventh century. This gentleman has augmented the 
vocabulary from fifteen thousand to about one hundred thousand words, 
and in his inestimable dictionary, he has brought forward twelve thousand 
quotations to illustrate their meaning. 

It has been remarked, that there is no difference between the language 
of the laws of Howel in the tenth century, or of Geoffrey of Monmouth 
in the twelfth, and that now spoken. Such permanence of language may 
be attributed in part to the multiplicity of writers in unremitted suc- 
cession, but the principal cause of immutability must be sought for in 
the nature of their poetry. 

Other nations, in their poetical productions have been satisfied with 
metre and the jingle of rhymes. But in addition to these, the Welch 
require alhteration at certain intervals in their verses, and a perfect cor-, 
respondence in this respect between verse and verse. This they have 
carried to such an extent as must cramp the genius of their poets, but 
at the same time and in the same degree preserve the orthography and 
purity of their language. 

In the sixth century the bards were numerous, and Llywarc Hen, who 
was a bardic warrior attendant upon Arthur, is said to have been living 
in the middle of ihe seventh century. It is well known, that the bards 
held their annual assemblies, and that in the beginning of the fifteenth 



157 

century they met to collect tlie bardic traditions. In the year 1570, 
W. Herbert Earl of Pembroke presided in their assembly, as did Sir 
Edward Lewis in 1580. Even so late as 1681, a complete revisal of all 
former collections took place at Bewpyr, in a gorsedd, or national bardic 
assembly, of which Sir Richard Basset was the president. 

The Welch alphabet is said to have had originally sixteen letters, a, b, 
c, d, e, f, g, i, 1, mj n, o, p, r, s, t. But to me they seem to have 
been no more than fifteen, because the character for f is merely a modi- 
fication of that for p, and is precisel)' the iEolic digamma, both in form 
and power, whereas in Greek this digamma is in form a modification of 
the gamma, but in power is the aspirated p. 

These sixteen letters are considered as radicals. The remaining twenty- 
four letters of the alphabet are derivatives from them, and preserve the 
fundamental characteristics of their originals, modified by additional 
signs to denote the various mutations of sound, with respect either to 
length, or to aspiration, from the primary. This alphabet shews mucli 
thought, deep reflexion and a perfect knowledge of organic affinity in 
letters. 

The radical characters have a striking resemblance to the Etruscan or 
Pelasgia, to the Ionic, as taken from the most ancient coins of Sicily, 
Baeotia and Attica, and to the Phenician. They are analogous to the 
Runic, from which they seem to have been derived: but the modern 
Runic admits of curves in some of its characters, which in the more 
ancient were inadmissible. In the Welch alphabet all the strokes are 
straight lines, without one curve, a form best suited to the pristine mode 
of writing, which was by cutting letters on either triangular, or square 



158 

sticks, as may be seen in Fry's Pantographia; consequently a single stick 
contained either three or four lines, answering to our stave, a word still 
retained in our churches. These were called coelbren y beirdd, that is 
lots of the bards. ■ 

Tn German a letter of the alphabet is called buch stab, that is beech 
staf, a book is buch, and a beech tree is buche. 

In the Russian language buk is a beech, and bukva is a letter. 
In AVelch gwydd is trees, and egwyddor tlie alphabet. In Irish feadh 
is wood, and fead to relate. In Greek the original notion of 7pa<|)w 
was I grave, a notion which has been preserved in all the languages 
of Europe. 

All the ancient alphabets appear to have a radical affinity. It 
has been suggested, that the Welch characters are anterior to the Greek. 
They are certainly more simple, and require nothing more than a 
stick, and such a chisel as we discover near the old British towns, 
where no implement of iron appears. It is remarkable that in German 
kieselstein means a flint, and a common flint would be fully suffici- 
ent for the purpose of engraving or chisseling the Welch letters on 
a beechen staf. 

With regard to their pronunciation, we may remark that 11 is sounded 
like I in limb, w like oo in foot. Y may be i, o, u, in third, honey, 
mud. C and g are pronounced hard, r is aspirated. The double 
letters dd, ff and 11 are modern inventions to indicate that d, f and 1 are 
to be aspirated. Yet 11, in derivatives from Greek supplies the place 
©f ^X, xX, ttX and <px, as in Uifo /SXuoj, lladd nXxaig, lliaws •xXvi&og, tXeoj, 
■jXeTog, llippau enXei'Xbj, llydan TtXxTVvic, llosgi (pXc^t'^o;, &c, &C. 



159 

The Welch has a practice peculiar to itself in its nine mutable initial 
letters, called literae umbratiles, because they change and vanish like a 
shadow. These are b, c, d, g, 11, m, p, r, t, which change according 
to words immediately preceding them. 

li B gives place to fandm. For instance bara is bread; ei fara 
his bread; fy mara my bread. 

2. M becomes f, mam mother; ei fam his mother. 

3. P becomes B. Mh, and ph as pen a head; ei ben his head; 
fy mhen my head; ei phen her head. 

4. C becomes ch, g, and ngh, as car a relation; ei char her relation; 
ei gar his relation; fynghar my relation. 

5. G either becomes iig or is dropt. Thus gwas a servant ; fy ngwas 
my servant ; ei w^s his servant. 

6. T becomes th, d, and nh, as tM father; ei thdd her father; 
ei d4d his father; fynhad my father, 

7. D is changed to dd and n, as duw God; ei dduw his God; fy 
nuw my God. 

8. LI becomes 1, as Haw a hand; ei law his hand. 

9. Rh is converted into r, as rhv/yd a net; ei rwyd his net. 
These changes are founded on the general principles, that letters 

of the same organ are commutable. The peculiarity of the Welch 
language is, that they are not governed by caprice, but by fixed and 
determinate laws. In many of its mutations the Welch discovers a 
remarkable resemblance to the tEoHc dialect, in which we find jivpiJ-xt. 
and jleXKu for f*.upfxv)^ and i^-eXXw, o-ifzaicc and aa^cus-a: for of*fx«T« and 
[A«&ou(r«, . /3«/;(*tT05 for ^cepjinog, [t.a^u for 'kutcc, and Tfp£(i.iv&05 for Ttps^iv'^oj. . 



160 

Tlius in Welch we observe hjfaeth, hyfed and hyfedr for hymaetb, 
hymedi and hymedr. 

It is here not unworthy of remark, that in Athens Diana was in- 
differently called Bendidia and Mendidia, which appellation they seem 
to have derived from the Tliracians, with whom bendi was the sun, 
and no less worthy of our notice is it, that the Iroquois, who are sup- 
posed by Father Lafitau, to have descended from the same stock, 
call the sun ovendi and that with them ov is equivalent to B to M 
and to every other labial of the Thracians. 

Nor was the practice in question confined to these nations, as may 
appear by the subsequent derivatives |*op(fv) forma, fj-xXXog vellus, [j-opo; 
fors, (iu;(*viKa: formica, 'zpojioG-iug promuscis. Marmor marbre. Manbeg of 
India is ^x[s.^-oxvi, pambu in Tibet is mambu, and with us raomba is 
converted into Bombay, 

In numerous instances it is difficult to determine, which expres- 
sion is original and which derivative, but in some words there can be 
no doubt, for surely the original name given to the capital of Italy 
was not Rhufain but Roma, and the brother of Romulus was not 
Rhwyf but Remus. 

The Welch nouns, like those of the Hebrew, having but one ter- 
mination for the singular and one for the plural, distinguish their cases 
either by prepositions, or by construction, at the same time varying their 
initial letters, if mutable, agreeably to rule. 

The pronouns are mi, ti, efe, hi, ni,chwi, hwynt: I, thou, he, she, we, 
they. Of these pronouns the most worthy of our notice is Jncynt, which 
by abbreviation, and, as a termination to the third person plural of verbs, 
becomes ijnt, anl, cut, oat, answering to the Latin, init^ ant, cut. 



I6i 

The substantive and auxiliary verb runs thus: wyf, wyt, j\v, ym, 
ych, ynt, I am, thou art, he is, we, ye, they are. Bum, buost, bu, buoiu, 
buoch, buont, I, thou, he, we, ye, they have been, byddaf, byddi, 
bydd, byddwn, buddwch, byddant. I, thou, he, we, ye, they shall be. 

Formerly bi was used for it shall be. Bydd be thou. Bod to be. 
Yn bod, being. 

Oeddem we were, ydys, he, or it is. Oes there is. 

Regular Verb. 

Dysgu wyf, I learn. Dysgu wyt, thou learnest, &c. 

Dysgais, I have learned. Dysgaist, thou, and Dysgodd, he, »Scc. 
Dysgasom, we, &c. Dysgasoch, ye, &c. Dysgasant, they, &c. 

Dysgaf, I will learn. Dysgi, thou, &c. Dysg, he will learn. 

Dysga, learn thou. Dysged, let him learn. Dysgu, to learn. 

The Welch is certainly a very ancient language, but it is idle to 
imagine, that all its terms, simple, as well as compound, were invented 
by the primitive inhabitants of Wales. Should then any one, however 
distinguished for a knowledge of his native tongue, derive henoeth, this 
night, from hen old, or should he for heddy w, this day, refer us to hedion 
chaff, io hedi/dd a ]aTk, or to hediad a thing that flieth; or should he 
again derive hediad from %, apt, bold, with its terminating particle edd, 
we must be permitted to smile at his simplicity, because in henoeth we 
are reminded of hacnocte and in heddi/w we look to hodie, answering to 
heute of the Germans, idag of the Swedes, oggi of Italy, hoy of Spain, 
and huy of France. 

TOL. H. I Y' 



162 



OF THE AFFINITY BETWEEN 



WELCH, SWEDISH, DANISH AND ICELANDIC. 



IT is impossible for any one acquainted, even in the least degree, with 
these languages, not to discern that they claim the same descent. The 
numerous expressions common to them all are not such, as are usually 
transported from one nation to another, either by conquest, or by com- 
merce, and their resemblance is so perfect, that their radical identity 
cannot be doubted. It is not my intention to have it conceived, that the 
composition and grammatical construction is the same in all these lan- 
guages, because in this respect they diflfer exceedingly, as all kindred 
languages are apt to do after a lapse of one or two thousand years. 

The affinity between the Welch and the languages, with which we shall 
now compare it, will be evident by the subsequent examples. 



English. 

Babe 

Balk 

Ball 

Band 

Bean 

Bear 

Beast 

Beat 

Bench 



H'elch. 

Maban 

Bale 

B^l 

Bancaw 

Flaen 

Perthi 

Bwystfil 

Baeddu 



Maingc 



StDedish, Danish, Icelan. 

Babe, S. 
Bielka, S. D. 
Ball, S. 
Band, I. D. S. 
Baun, I. 
Bcr, I. 
Bccst, D. 
I)acl(la, S. 
Bank,S. D. 



English. 

Board 

Boat 

Booth 

Bow 

Boy 

Bread 

Break 

Bride 



Bright 



ITtlch. 


Swedish, Danish, Icelaa, 


Bwrdd 


Bord, D. S. 


Bad 


Baatur, I. 


Bwth 


Boot, I. 


Bow 


Boga, I. S. 


Bachgen 


Poiike, S. 


Bara 


Brand, I. 


Br6g 


Brcek, D. 


Priodfab 


Brud, I. S. D. 


Berth 


Biatur, I. 



163 



English, 


mich. 


Swedish, Danish, Icctaii- 


EngUsh. 


mith. 


Sieedi.ih, Danifli, Uetan 


Brisk 


Brys 


Frisk, D. S. 


Clock 


ClAcJi 


Klokke, D. 


Brother 


Brotljr 


Brodur, I. 


Cod 


Cwd 


Kodde, I. 


Brow 


Bron 


Briin, I. 


Cook 


Cegin 


Kok, D. 


Buck 


Bwch 


Buk, D. 


Cole 


Cawl 


Kai,S. Kaa!,D. 


Call 


Galo 


Kali, I. 


Cost 


Cost 


Koste, D. 


Can 


Dichon 


Kunne, D. 


Crab 


Grange 


Krabbe, D. 


Cap 


Cap 


Kappe, D. 


Crane 


Garan 


Krane, D. 


Cat 


Cath 


KatD.KattaS. 


Crave 


Crefu 


Kref, I. 


Chain 


Cadwyn 


Kedia, S. 


Creep 


Croppian 


Kriupa, I. 


Cheese 


Caws 


Kes, S. 


Crop 


Croppa 


Krafwa, S. 


Chest 


Cist 


Kista, I. S. 


Craw 


Croppa 


Kroe, D. 


Chin 


Gen 


Kinn, S. 


Crook 


Crwcca 


Krok, S. 


Clear ( 


Olaer 


Klaar, I. D. S. 


Cry 


Deigrynnu 


Graata, I. 


Cleave ( 


jlynu 


Klebe, D. " 


Cup ( 


Jroppan 


Kopp, I. D. S. 



The few words I have here brought forwards are all monosyllabic in 
the English. These [ have compared with some of the purest dialects of 
the Gothic line. Had I chosen to extend my list to the other letters of 
the alphabet, had I embraced the compounds and polysyllabic terms 
and had I compared these with the Gothic of Ulphilas, or with the 
Dutch and German branches of the Gothic, my vocabulary had been 
abundantly increased. Leibnitz has selected six hundred words from 
the dictionary of Doctor Davies, compared with the German, to de- 

Y 2 



164 

monstrate, what Liv\^ before him had asserted, that the ancient language 
of the Gauls and Britons was half German. 

That the Celtic and Gothic languages were originally one, might still 
more clearly be evinced by the names of persons, and of places, of 
mountains, of rivers, and of cities. 

This part of my subject has been so copiously treated of by others, 
that I shall content myself with referring my reader to their works. 

OF THE AFFINITY BETWEEN WELCH AND GREEK. 

WHAT I have advanced with respect to the radical affinity and the 
original identity of the Welch and Gothic languages, may be with equal 
truth applied to the Welch and Greek. 

The Welch, like the Greek, has an aspirate, where other languages 
either dropt it, or in its place assumed the sibilant. That the Welch has 
retained the aspirate will appear by the subsequent examples. Halen 
salt, aXo$; hawyn a bridle, viv/ov; haul the sun and heulo to bask in the 
sun. ^Xtoj; heb, he spake, ^^>\; heddychu to make peace, and heddvvch 
quiet, viuvxia; hel to hunt, to drive, IXxoi; helyg, salix, jA/kvi; hen old, 
hog; henw name, oyo\j.a; h^n sleep, vTivog; heppian to slumber, 'vnvtrv, 
hercuyd to reach, Ipeyu; hobel a dart, o/SeX^s; hoel a nail, viAoj; holl all, 
eAoc; liwyd, a duck, vxlog; hwch a hog, vg; hy strong, apt easy, tv, as 
in hybwyll prudent, tv^ovKog; hyglod famous tv and y.\iog: hygno, easy 
to be gnawed; tv and xvaw; hygryn apt to shake e'u and x^aS^xivw; hygar, 
amiable, tv and %«'fis; hylosg combustible tv and (pAo^/'^w; hylaw 



165 

dexterous, iv and Xxi^lixva ; hylyn tenacious, ^v and yXfa; hydyn tracta- 
ble, f'u and THvu; hyddal easy to be taken, eu and BtXco; hyddal muni- 
ficent, en Sdvog. 

Like Greek, the Welch language aspirates the initial R, as in rhanne 
to part, pviyvufitt, rhwyg a rent, pnyvi, rhygnu to cut, score, p^ywii-t. 

The articles, prepositions and affixes are in numerous instances similar 
in Greek and Welch. 

A is an augmentative answering to uyav. 

Ad, denotes iteration or continuity, as does fT*. 

Am, round about, a[j.(pi. 

An denotes privation, like ocv and xvev. 

Er is intensive, answering to epi. 

Es and ys, answering to e^ and ex, as in esgus, estj'n, &c. 

The numerals are nearly the same in both languages. 

The formation of the singular number in Welch nouns, by affixing en 
or yn, marks the affinity to Greek, Thus ser means stars, but seren 
with the numeral subjoined is one star; ais ribs, asen a rib, with its ter- 
mination answering to ev. We say an ass, that is one ass. 

Some of the plural terminations shew the same affinity, as for instance, 
brynn a hill, bryniau hills, tad a father, tadau fathers, cMst the ear, 
clustau ears, men a wain, meni wains. The agreement will appear more 
perfect, if we recollect that u is pronounced i. in Welch. 

The verbs agree with the Greek in some of their inflexions, but they 
have a greater resemblance to the Latin, which is the MoVic dialect of 
Greek. In fact, Latin and Greek are radically one, and agree to a 
remarkable extent in their inflexions.. 



166 

As to tlie affinity observable between Welch and Latin, it might be 
imagined, that such terms were borrowed from the Romans after the 
reduction of our island to their yoke. New words however are easily 
detected, and differ much from those, which bear the stamp of earlier 
times. It has been well observed, that many words are found to be 
allied, which in Latin were obsolete before the days of Csesar, such as 
miriones, gluvia, ruma, meddix, dalivus, clueo, &c. used by Ennius, 
Plautus, and the more ancient writers. The words here noticed are in 
Welch muriones, glwth, rumen, meddu, delff, clyw. All the ancient 
names of Romans, such as Clodius, Celius, Cinna, Drusus, Marcus, Sylla, 
Silanus, are significant in Welch, but not in Latin. 

What has been already said upon this subject, may be considered a^ 
sufficient to demonstrate an affinity between Welch and Greek: but to 
see their radical identity we must examine the corresponding terms of 
these kindred languages. For this purpose I have subjoined in the 
Appendix a copious vocabulary, to which I must refer the reader. 



OF THE AFFINITY BETWEEN WELCH AND HEBREW. 

I have said, that the radical letters in AVelch are sixteen. Such is 
staled to have been the number originally used in Greece, and it is 
agreed that the oldest Hebrew letters were not more numerous* Indeed 
sixteen were all that these languages required, before the introduction 
of refinements. 

A very striking resemblance between the Welch and Hebrew appears 



167 

in their verbs, because the third person singular is the root in both, 
with this difference, however, that in Welch it is the third person of 
the future, and in Hebrew the same person of the preterite. Thus we 
have in Welch c4r, he will love, and in Hebrew jacaj- (ip"*) he highly 
valued. Both languages are strangers to the present tense. Indeed 
such was the simplicity of ancient times, that in Homer and Hesiod the 
same part of the verb served for the present and the future. In con- 
formity to this practice we find tioi in Greek and amem in Latin, used 
for both these tenses. In Hebrew the verb has a present, future, impe- 
rative, infinitive and participles. The Welch verb has the same, but to 
the perfect it has added an imperfect and a pluperfect. 

The pronouns in Hebrew have a remarkable agreement with corres- 
ponding pronouns in Welch. 

In Hebrew the first person singular is ani and in composition I. In 
Welch it is mi and I in the oblique case, as in. this sentence, Christ 
km prynodd I. Christ redeemed me. 

The second person is in Hebrew ata, in Welch ti. 

The third is in Hebrew hu and hi, in Welch hi. 

The first person plural is in Hebrew nu, in Welch ni. 

In Welch, as in the preterites of the Hebrew, the pronoun is sufiixed 
to the verb. This appears most evident in the passive voice. 

The substantive verb in Welch has some affinity to the same verb 
in Hebrew, for oes, there is, and ys, now used foi- truly, agree ex- 
actly with {^'}.). This agreement will be rendered evident, when I 
shall proceed to the examination of the connecting link, the substan- 
tive verb in Greek. 



168 

In some Welch nouns I is used for the termination of the plurals, 
and in others we find au, which is pronounced I. Thus llestr, a vessel, 
has llestri in the plural, enw, a name, has enwau, and genhedlaeth has 
genhedlaethau. But, again, other plurals terminate in oedd, as llys a 
palace, liysoedd. In Hebrew the plural terminates in im, but in con- 
struction the m is dropt. The Chaldee in this respect perfectly ac- 
cords with the Hebrew. In both the famine plurals terminate in oth, 
which is the sound of oedd. 

But a more striking feature of resemblance is, that, like the Hebrew 
the Welch has no oblique cases, and that the deficiency is supplied by 
prepositions, excepting when words are placed in reglmine, as for instance 
yspryd Duw, the spirit of God, llys y brenin palace of the king. So 
in Hebrew D\i'7i* n.M and in Chaldee V'^'p^: mi the spirit of the gods. 
The preposition used for the dative case in Welch is I, as in i'rdinas, to 
the city, and in Hebrew, 'j, L, as in (l*?'?^]r>) ten Imelek, give to the 
kino', (^^.'^^'^) amar li, he said tome. In the genetive we have v^ skel 
as in ^k'^ sheli my, that which is to me, a preposition compounded of 
h and ^. 

The Welch is one branch of the Celtic, of which we have valuable 
renmants preserved by historians, and such as mark affinity between this 
ancient language and Hebrew, an affinity which may be traced in the 
na^mes ot the gods, of men and of sacred officers, and in the terms 
of war. 

The supreme divinity was called Hazizus, and was considered as the 
god of war. In this name we have distinctly f^^I^ of Psalm xxiv. 8, Who 
is this King of Glory? The Lord strong and mighty, the Lord mighUf 
in battlo 



169 

Brennus appears to have derived his name from Brenhin a king, an- 
swering to D3")D of the Syriac. 

Paterae were the priests of Apollo, and interpreters of his oracles. 
These may have been so called from "in 2, as we find the word used in 
Genesis, ch. xl. v. 8. 

Caenjfi. These were nine priestesses, presiding over the oracle of a 
Galic divinity. In Flebrew this appellation is found in cohena a pmestess. 

Tlie bards, prydyddion, whose office was to sing the praises of de- 
parted warriors, may have derived their name from the phoretim of Amos 
vi. 5. who chanted to the sound of the viol, and invented to themselves 
instruments of music. 

Alauda was a legion, and in Syriac >^ri2'7i<, answering to 2^^ in 
Hebrew of the same import, means a thousand men. 

Gacsum, yctKiog, a dart appears to be connected with galas of the 
Chaldee, an army, and gissaa. dart. It is said of Joab (2 Sam. xviii. 14.) 
that he took three darts in his hand. These in Hebrew are called shebetim, 
but the Targum renders the word TPP^?- In the same connexion we 
find gasntce, hired soldiers, called by Plutarch 'ye(rtrxrxi, and by Polybius 
'ycet^xrat, in perfect agreement with the Syriac and Arabic. 

Thyreos, long shields, we may safely connect with tharis of the Arabic 
and Chaldee. 

Carnon, a trumpet, is IT of Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic. 

Benna, a wain, is probably allied to ophe7i of the Hebrew. 

Carrus, a car, is distinctly caron (!"'"' P) of the Chaldee. 

Essedura, a war chariot, a waggon. We find the same word in the 
Chaldee paraphrase on Gen. xlv. 19 27. 

roL. II. z 



170 

Gaunacum means a thick shag. Such a shag in Hebrew is called 
macabar, 2 Kings viii. 15, but in Chaldce it is i*231J. 

Sagum is a shag; but whether allied to pj^ Hebrew, and i^'p'^ Chaldee 
sackcloth, or to 11^ Ji' Hebrew and'^i'C' Chaldee, hairy, it is difficult to 
say. 

Braccae, brogues, may be derived from barac of the Hebrew, Chaldee, 
Syriac and Arabic. 

Maniacum, a golden bracelet, is distinctly J* 3''JDn of the Chaldee. 

Baraccacae, skins of goats, may be allied to the Syriac HI 3 a he-goat. 

Tarian, a shield, appears distinctly in the Chaldee. 

Marc, a horse, may be remec of Hebrew, Chaldee and Arabic. 

Supposing Sorbiodunum to have been the Celtic name of Old Sarum, 
we may remark that sharab in Hebrew, Chaldee and Syriac means dry, 
answering to the local circumstance of its wanting water. Thus William 
of Malmsbury says of it, " Castellum erat et aquae penuria. laborans 
adeo ut mirabili commercio aqua ibi vendatur." Camden says, " Est ibi 
defectus aquae." Our English antiquarians therefore with propriety ex- 
plains the name Dryhill. 

I might extend my observations on these subjects, but I choose rather 
to refer the curious in antiquities to Boxhorn, who, in his Originum 
Gallicarum, has displayed a fund of literature most worthy of the age, 
in which he lived. 

The affinity between Welch and Hebrew will be rendered apparent to 
the reader, if he will refer to the comparative vocabulary, which he will 
find in the Appendix. It consists of such expressions as have occurred 
to myself in the course of my investigations. 



171 

Having thus demonstrated the affinity between the Welch and other 
languages of Europe and of Asia, it would be superfluous to examine its 
more immediate rehitives the Cornish, the Armoric, the Waldensic, the 
Wendish, or any other dialect still subsisting in Galacia, where St. Jerom 
(A.D. 360) recognised the language of Treves. Suffice it then to say, that 
scattered and dispersed as are these dialects, they are acknowledged 
to be one language, which, wherever it appears, carries with it indelible 
tokens of its oriental origin. 

I may, therefore, with confidence adopt the words of the learned 
Dr. Davis. 

Ausim affirmare linguan Britanicam [tum vocibus, tum phrasibus & 
orationis contextu, tum literarum pronunciatione, manifestam cum ori- 
entalibus habere congruentiam & affinitatem. 



z2 



OF THE IRISH AND SCOTS DIALECTS 



THE GAjLIC LAMGUAGE. 



X HE Irish have never had the presumption to imagine that their 
primogenitors were natives of the soil ; but have been always ready to 
acknowledge, that they came from foreign countries, and the only dis- 
pute has been, whether they crossed the sea from the adjacent parts of 
Britain, or came directly from some more distant region. Their most 
approved historians are agreed, that Ireland received its first inhabitanis 
from Britain. 

But General Vallancey was of opinion that the original inhabitants of 
Ireland came from Iran, that is from the tract of country, which extends 
between the Indus and the Persian Gulpli. From thence, according to 
his statement, they proceeded to the West, and sailing from Tyre, they 
successively colonized Egypt, Crete, Malta, Sicily and Spain. From 
Gallicia he brings them to the Western Isles, and to Gaul. His obser- 



173 

vations, with the facts he has brought forwards, are highly interesting, 
and he has clearly demonstrated a conformity in language, customs, man- 
ners, mythology, sacred festivals and religious rites between the Pagan 
Irish and the oriental nations, from whom he supposes them to be 
descended. 

It is worthy of observation, that Bowles, an Irishman of strong un- 
derstanding and of extensive information, who for many years resided 
in Spain, was struck with the marks of resemblance between the customs 
of the Biscayners and of his countrymen, and delivered it as his opinion, 
that they were one people. As he had no bias on his mind, no favorite 
system to support, and no prejudice to warp his judgment, his opinion 
must have considerable weight with us. 

This colony of Indo-Scythians is reported by the ancient poets to 
have arrived, under the conduct of Milesius, five hundred years before 
the birth of Christ. Certain it is, that he gave a race of kings to the 
Irish, then known by the name of Gadelians, Scuits and Scots, 

After a lapse of ages, another tribe, called Hermini, flying from TuJius 
Caesar, left Lusitania, and took refuge in Ireland, where they became a 
powerful clan, distinguished by the name of Eremon. 

All these inhabitants were, in the opinion of Vallancev, flic genuine 
offspring of Magog, not of Gomer. 

It is not needful, that I should here discuss tiie question as to the 
colony which first arrived in Ireland. If tiie Belgoe. were in possession of 
the country before the arrival of the Milesians, they must iiave been ksv 
in number, because the ancient language is not Belgic, but Phcenician. 
Yet in process of time this was corrupted by invading tribes from Wales- 



174 

and Belgium, but chiefly by the Danes and Norwegians, who subdued 
and governed Ireland for ages. 

We learn from Richard of Cirencester, that about three hundred and 
fifty years before Christ, the Britons, that is the Welch, who were driven 
out of their country by Belgic Invaders, took refuge in Ireland. Here 
they established themselves, and maintained possession of the southern 
coast for about five hundred years, till the Menapii and the Cauci, two 
Belgic tribes, broke in upon them, and subdued the greatest part of 
Ireland. This circumstance accounts for the appellation of Dun Bolg, 
given to many of the most ancient fortresses, and suggests a reason for 
the term bolg being applied to signify nobility. 

Subsequent to this invasion, as it is stated, the Picts took posses- 
sion of the north: but it was not before A. D. 795, that these Scandi- 
navians came. After them, about A. D. 853, the Ostmanni, under 
the conduct of three chieftains, established themselves in Dublin, 
Waterford and Limeric. These, according to Archbishop Usher, were 
Livonians, and some of them came probably from Semigallia, because, 
prior to their arrival, no people were distinguished by the name of Gaill, 
and subsequent to this period even the Saxon invaders have always 
been denominated Gaill, as well as Saso7iic, by authors. Even to the 
present day the English are called Clanna Gall by the common people, 
and the Lowland Scots are named Galldachd na Halbuin. 

The facility, with which all these invading hordes got possession of 
settlements in Ireland proves, that the country was thinly inhabited. 
We have no authentic documents, no written records, before the intro- 
duction of Christianity, (A. D. 432.) and have nothing to guide us but 



175 

the sono-s of their most ancient bards, transmitted by tradition froni 
parents to their children. Even the poems Ossian, composed probably 
in the fourth century, describe a nation of hunters, without the most 
distant allusion to agriculture, arts, manufactures, and commerce, or even 
to pastoral life. All the images are taken from uncultivated nature, 
and all the incidents relate to hunting, war, and love. 

When the Irish, under the conduct of a Milesian leader, crossed 
over into Scotland, (A. D. 150) they either introduced their language, or 
found it already there, as the language of the Highlands ; and to this 
day they preserve it pure. This has not been difficult for them to do, 
because they have never been driven from their mountains by new 
colonies, and from their first establishment have had their poems, as 
classical productions, to which they might constantly refer. With these 
they are familiar, and Ossian, in the present day, is understood by the 
Highlander, as perfectly as any modern poet. 

That the language thus preserved by them on the mountains of North 
Britain, was not the primitive language of the country, from which 
they came, is evident, because it perfectly agrees with the 'modern Irish, 
and because, in the tenth century, Cormac, Archbishop of Cashel, la- 
mented the inattention of his countrymen to their ancient language. 
From that time, in consequence of his remonstrances, schools were 
established, manuscripts were collected, and glossaries were formed to 
preserve from total oblivion, the venerable language of their proge- 
nitors. 

Some of these valuable relicts are in existence, and by them General 



176 

Vallancey was enabled to discover, what the language was before it was 
corrupted by numerous invaders. 

The difference between the ancient and the modern lansuage is so 
o-reat, that none but the most learned and laborius students are able 
to understand the former, which to the present day, is called Bearla 
na Pheine, that is the Phoenician Dialect. With this I claim no ac- 
quaintance, and therefore depend on the authority of General Vallancey, 
whose extensive knowledge, accurate investigation, and strict fidelity, 
deserve the highest commendation. 

The elementary letters of the (Jalic language are sixteen. Tliis de- 
monstrates, that they were imported during the infancy of science, and 
before this number was increased by the Phoenicians, by ihe Greeks, 
by the Romans, and by all the nations on the Continent. Their alphabet 
had five vowels, a, e, i, o, u, supported by eleven consonants. These 
were b, f, ni, c, g, d, t, s, 1, n, r. 

It will immediately occur to the recollection of the student, that 
the Galic letters, nearly coincide with those introduced by Cadmus, 
into Greece, and it will not escape his notice, that P is here omitted, 
whilst F, as the digamma-of the Cohans, takes its place. The letter P 
in Galic is called peith-bhog, but probably it was beith-bhog, that is, 
soft B. This was never used until after the introduction of Christianity. 
In the old parchments, P and B are indifferently used, as in prutach for 
brutach, a rustic, and peist for beist. When the Irish, after their con-, 
version to Christianity, wrote the Latin Gospel in their own characters, 
of which Dr. Parsons saw many copies, they were obliged to adopt 
foreign letters for words which l)y their letters they were not able to 



177 

express; but it is remarkable, that in all the luanuscripls ©f their own 
language not one additional letter can be found. 

According to Bayer, the original Hebrew had the same sixteen letters 
with the Galic, and, like the ancient Ethiopic, had no W And it is re- 
markable, that the Phoenician alphabets, as given by the Abbe Har- 
thelemy, by the Rev. S. Henly, and by Pocock, all omit the P. But it 
is still more remarkable, that both the Ionic and Etiuscan or Pela;sgic 
alphabets, essentially agree with the Phoenician and Samaritan, as ap- 
pears by the Pantographia of Fry. Even in the modern Irish, all the 
radical words begin with one of these elementary letters, subject how- 
ever, to such mutations as will be particularly noticed. 

With regard to the form of their written characters, it has been sup- 
posed, that they were the same with the Greek. Casar certainly says 
of the Druids, " Graecis utuntur Uteris," and this probably was in some 
measure true. But the subject will be resumed, when I shall proceed 
to the Danish language and its alphabetic characters. It may then per- 
haps appear that the Greek character was derived either from the Runic 
or the Welch. 

General Vallancey was of opinion that the ancient Irish used the 
Chaldaic or Phoenician letters. He proves indeed, that they occasionally 
introduced a few of them : but this seems to demonstrate that they were 
merely resorted to from idle fancy, or on some particular occasion. We 
must however agree with him, that the Samaritan, Phoenician, and Irish 
characters, have a striking resemblance in A, B, G, D, E, L, O, and R, 
as may be distinctly seen in his grammar of the Irish language. 

The Oghams, or sacred and mysterious alphabetic characters of the 

VOL. II. A a 



178 

Irish, are numerous. These discover too much of art to have been the 
iovention of savages, and too little of simplicity to have been adopted 
for ordinary communication by a polished nation. They answer their 
name being much better suited to secrecy, than to despatch, and are 
peculiarly adapted for inscriptions on monuments of stone. Each cha- 
racter has a perpendicular line, with one or more scratches extending 
from it to the right and left, like those discovered in Egypt by Mr. 
Hammer, who was the secretary and confidential friend of Sir Sydney 
Smith, and those described by Du Halde, as used by the Manchoou 
Tartars, (v. Archaeolog. vol. 7, p. 276.) They seem to have been taken 
from the Quipoz, a method of communication, and means of recording 
events, familiar to the Peruvians, and originally used by the Chinese, 
who, even to the present day, write from top to bottom. 

In the Ogham, as given by Vallancey, the lateral scratches to the 
right and left, are never more than five on each side, answering to the 
fingers, and the perpendicular may be supposed to represent the body. 
Certain it is that the first numeration was derived from this source, (v. 
Vallancey's Prospectus and Fry's Pantographia.) Modern Irish is 
printed in Saxon characters. 

The present names of letters are derived from trees. These are ailm 
and olof the fir, beith the birch, gort the ivy, duir the oak, eadha the 
aspin, huath the white thorn, idho the yew, (Sec. 

In the Galic and the Hebrew names, six coincide. 1 Aleph and 
ailm or olof, heth and beith, heth and huath, jod and idho or jodha, 
nun and nion or nuin, rc.sA and ruis. Such coincidence can scarcely 
be supposed to have been merely accidental. It is true, that supposing 



179 

trees to have been originally symbols of ideas, they might readily be- 
come symbols of sounds, and then terminate in being letters. But 
this does not appear to have been the progress with the Irish. They 
seem to have approached as near as possible to the Hebrew or Chaldcc, 
confining themselves however to the names of trees, with which they 
were familiar, although by so doing they departed from the oriental 
name, as happens remarkably in the instances of lamed and kaph, for 
which they have substituted luis, a quicken tree, and coll the hazel. 
The ancient grammarians called the alphabet faodh, thijt is the voice, 
or vocal sounds. But the moderns have corrupted this word into 
feadh, a wood; and from this notion, perhaps, it may have arisen, that 
they have denominated most of their letters from trees, as the Chal- 
deans named their five vowels from the patriarchs, prophets, and dis- 
tinguished persons of antiquity. The power of the Galic letters, when 
they appear either single, or in combination, requires particular at- 
tention. To express the sound of e the Irish take ao, and for ee of 
the English they use aoi. A, O, and U, in ancient manuscripts were 
used indifferently. 

Their consonants are distinguished into immutable and mutable. The 
former are 1, n, r. The latter are b, c, d, f, g, m, s, t. These in 
regimine take an aspirate, and then either change their pronunciation, or 
become quiescent and altogether mute. 

The aspirate was formerly expressed by a dot over the letter to be as- 
pirated; but in Bishop Bedel's Irish Bible and New Testament, H con- 
stantly supplies its place, and from his time has been universally adopted. 

Bh and Mh sound like V or W. Thus bhean a woman is pronounced 

A a 2 



180 

wean and ven, agreeing thus with Venus, venustas, Sec. Cabh or 
D-ab]]ar becomes gawer, a goat, and amhuin becomes Avon, a river. 

Fli is perfect!}' quiescent, as in fhuil, which is pronounced nil. 

Dh and Gh are either quiescent, or sound Hke y in 3'ou, and thus 

dhean becomes i/an; ghabh is sounded yabh, gheall is yeal, and (Una is 

pronounced ?/«/?, as I shall hereafter more particularly notice. See p. 182. 

In terminations, dh and gh are either quiescent, or become 00, as 

dheanadh is yanoo, and laogh is loo. Adh and agh sound like i. 

The English reader may be surprised at this custom; but en recol- 
lection he will observe, that g, when followed by an aspirate, is fre- 
quently quiescent in his native language. This appears in high, nigk, 
sigh, thigh, blight, flight, light, plight, sight, tight, bough, plough, 
slough as referring to mire, but not as the soft substance which separates 
from a foul ulcer. 

Sh drops the consonant, but retains the aspirate, and thus scan, 
seabhoc, silog, siol, salen, seith, when aspirated, become hean, heavok, 
hilog, hi), halen, and heith, and thus saladh to defile produces do haluidh, 
thou hast defiled. 

Th is an hiatus, like as in Persian, and thus pothar, a son, becomes 
pour; but thoge, he took up, is pronounced hoge. An Irish mountaineer 
is altogether as unable to sound the th, as either a Frenchman or a 
Persian. Hence bheith and baith, an ox, are pronounced bo. Righe 
and reith, an arm, give the sound of ri. 

Bli, mh, ch, gh and th have frequently the same sound; but, what is 
more remarkable is, that hy, y, i, ibh, nay even eamha, eogha and 
eochadh, are pronounced like o, so that coghan becomes owen, and 
eamhania becomes onia. 



181 

D after N doubles it, and therefore find is read finn. 

G and C are both hard. These are commutable, as are B and F, T 
and D, M. and N. Hence nemethae is pronounced momie. Ch, dh and 
gh at the end of words readily change for each other. 

The English language is still more capricious, for gh is pronounced as 
f, in laugh, enough, &c. but slough becomes either slow or sluf, accord- 
ing to its various acceptation. 

This operation of the aspirate naturally accounts for the licentious 
changes, we observe in words, and the substitution of one consonant for 
another, with which it has no organic affinity. Thus when B, P, F, V, 
and M, are converted into C or G, attended by an aspirate; the sound 
in Galic is not in the least affected by this change: as for example, sub- 
ham and sugham, I suck, fobhar and foghar, a voice, graidh and gragh, 
a flock, gradh and graighim, agreeable, gorghaigh and gorthugah, hurt, 
magh and madh, a mead, a plain, mogh and modh, the manner, 
aoidheach, aoidhidhe, oidhe and oighidh, a guest. Here it is evident, 
that sugham became suam, which any one is at liberty to write subham 
without the least alteration in the sound. 

In the modern pronunciation, indeed, the sound is not afiected by 
these changes, because the consonant is dropt, and the slightest aspirate 
supplies its place. But in detivatives the most important alterations are 
produced, and such as in many instances must effectually conceal their 
origin. 

A sufficient acquaintance with this licentious practice will enable us 
to trace the affinity of words, which apparently have no connexion. For 
instance, between Ojmo^' and CEdes we c^n see no resemblance, nor shall 



i82 

we be able to discover their descent from one common ancestor, unless 
we view them both as related to the Galic. 

Here in the family of OiMg we find oighthiarna and oighre an heir, and 
oi<Thidh a guest. On the other hand aoidheach, aoidhidhe, oidhre and 
oidhe, a guest, with aoidheachd and oidheacht, lodging, are alhed to 
aedes. But from what I have stated it is clear, that in pronunciation 
not the least difference exists between oighidh and aoidhidhe, which evi- 
dently refer the former to oLnog and the latter to aedes. 

I have already noticed the change of D into G, as common in the 
Doric, in which dialect we observe Svo(pog for yvo(pog, y-pviyvov for xvjpx^Svov, 
S« for yx and S>|fJ.^T\^p for yvi^uviTvip. 

Availing themselves of the same privilege, the Irish say indifferently 
deal or gual, a coal, and dioscan or gioscan, gnashing of teeth. For as 
they have no single letter to express the power of Y, answering to jod of 
the Hebrew and jlim of the Arabic; they supply the place either by dh 
or by gh. This observation I wish to impress upon the mind of my at- 
tentive readers. See p. 180. 

Between D and the hard G there is certainly no organic affinity, be- 
cause the one is a guttural the other a dental. But G soft and D make 
a near approach to each other, as appears by CJeorge and giant, when 
compared with gate, get, gird and give. It is for this reason, that d has 
been permitted to usurp a place before G in words to which it does not 
belong, as in allege, which is universally pronounced alledge. Thus the 
Anglo Saxon ecge, in Icelandic, Danish and Swedish egg, answering to 
acies and aKvj, has become edge, and from gelogian of our Saxon ances- 
tors, which is in French loger, we have arrived at lodge. 



183 

It is not my intention to write a grammar of the Galic Language: 
but I think it expedient here to notice some of the laws by which 
its inflexions vary. 

Nouns. 

In the Gahc we have two declensions; and each of these may be 
distinguished into indefinite, and definite. The first declension inde- 
finite, for the genitive, either takes an i, or changes a vowel v. g. 

Fuaran a fountain, fuarain of a fountain, dia a day, dea of a day. 
In the same case ciali knowledge makes ceil; meall a hill makes mill; 
alt, a high place, makes uilt; ord, an order, becomes uird, ball, be- 
comes buill, and col, a hazel tree, is cuil. But nouns in ta, de and 
ca have the genitive like the nominative. 

The dative takes do and the aspirate, as mathair a mother, do 
mhathair to a mother. These were the only cases ancientJy made 
use of. 

The vocative has the aspirate with the vowel of the genitive, as 
fhuarain, o fountain. Shleabh o mountain. 

The ablative takes le as le fuaran, with a fountain. These two 
cases have been adopted by the moderns. 

The first declension definite takes the article an, an sliabh the moun- 
tain, and, in the genitive case, conforms to the vocative of the inde- 
finite, an shleabh of the mountain. But before nouns beginning with 
b, f, m, this article is by attraction converted into am. Should the 
noun begin with a vowel it only takes the euphonic t, v, g, ord a 
hammer antord the hammer. 



184 

In rcgimine all the mutable consonants take an aspirate, and for 
the sake of euphon}' n is introduced between two words, when the latter 
begins with a vowel, as jar the west, a niar from the west, athair 
father, arnathair our father. Thus we find go nor, agm go nargid 
for go or agus goargid with gold and with silver. 

Galic Fronouns. 

Mi, tu, e, sinn, sibh, iad, I, thou, he, we, ye, they, si, she.— Mo 
mine, do thine, ar our, bhur your; sa his, her, their. 

Mi is thus declined. Nom. mi, gen. mo, dat. dhamh, ac. me, abl. 
learn. — Orm on me.— Ort on thee. — Liom with me, leat with thee.— 
Agam unto me, agad unto thee. 

Galic Verbs. 

Is mi I am, is tu thou art, ise he is, is siiin we are, is sibh ye are, isiad 
they are. Bhami i was, biihidhmi and beidh me I shall be ; bith thu and 
bi be thou, bithadhe and biodh se let him be; bhith, Galic of Scotland, but 
in Irish do bheith to be. 

The Galic has likewise sam, som, taim and tame, I am. The Irish 
has fuilim I am. Bim I am, means properly I live, bitu thou art, &c. 
The infinitives must have H after the first letter, if it be a consonant, and 
dh before the first letter, if it be a vowel, v. g. Chruinuchadh to as- 
semble, dhabachadh to ripen; but the compound dh is quiescent. 

Cruinn is round, and crunnan a group. Hence cruinucham I assem- 
ble, tha mi air cruinuchadh I have assembled. Cruinuchidh mi I will 



185 

assemble, crulnic assemble thou, cruinic mi I may or can assemble, bha 
mi cruinichtc I was assembled, chruinichar mi I shall be assembled. 

The proper root is considered to be, as in Hebrew, the third person 
singular of the preterite: but perhaps it should be the imperative in its 
most simple form, without its pronoun, as in bi of the Irish, be thou. 

Like other languages, the Galic has its irregular, or more properly its 
defective verbs; for, when a part of any verb becomes obsolete, a cor- 
responding part of some other verb supplies its place. Thus we find 
deanam 1 do, rinn mi I have done, ni mi I shall do, dean do thou, tha 
mi deant I am finished, nitar mi I shall be done, made or finished. 

Deiram I say, thuairt mi, I have said, their ar, shall be said. In the 
imperative we have only abeir say thou. This verb is extremely interest- 
ing, because it helps to display the strict affinity between the Irish, the 
Hebrew, the Greek, and its jEolic dialect the Latin. 

The present tense may be either berim, deirim, or abraim. 

Berim is precisely fero in two of its acceptations, I say, and I bring 
forth. For in the first of these acceptations both berim and fero connect 
themselves with epeca andli^^. In the second they look towards HIS 
and <pepw. 

Deirim I say, and deir tu, thou sayest, &c, with the preterite dubhras 
and dubhairt me, I said, may be derived from the Hebrew dahar, he 
said, although O'Brian, in his Dictionary, and Vallancej^ in his Gram- 
mar, derive deirim, by abbreviation, from ad bheirim, and the preterite 
adubhairt me, I did say, from ad bhearam, T say. 

Abraim I say, and abair speak thou, may be allied to the Hebrew 
amar. But these are considered as abbreviated from ad bhraim, ur cor- 

YOL. II. B b 



186 

rupted from ad bheirim. In the ancient MS. ad is prefixed to the perfect 
of the indicative and to the present of the potential mood. 

The future is deara me, I shall say; but the supine is labhartha, 
spoken; the participle agradh, saying, both derived from other verbs, and 
not from either deirim or abraim. 

Toir mi I give, bha mi toirt, I was giving, thug mi, I gave, thoir give, 
thoirt to give, air a thoirt given. In the future we have only bheir mi I 
shall give, derived from beiram I give. 

But although now defective, these verbs still exist entire in ancient 
manuscripts. 

Numerals. 

One aon, two da, three tri, four ceithair, five coig and cuig, six she 
and seisear, seven seachd and secht, eight ochd and ocht, nine naoi, 
ten deich and deug, eleven aon deug, twenty fichad and fichid. 



^articles. 

These must be divided into such as are prefixed and such as are sufl^xed. 

The prefixed particles may be subdivided into such as imply negation 
and such as merely modify the meaning. 

The negative particles are, 

1. A, am, im, aim, amh and aimh. Thus we have amadan not 
learned, a fool, from adhm knowledge; imad many, from ad one; 
anihlabhair dumb, from labhairt speech; aimhgheur blunt, from geur 
sharp. 



187 

2. Ain, an and ana ; aineolas ignorance, from colas knowledge, aincidh 
a doubt, from cidh ceeing, certain; aniochd cruelty, from iochd cle- 
mency; anachintach uncertain, doubtful, from cinteacht confidence. 

3. Bai and be; baitibh and betibh intestate; baighal friendly; gal is 
war, battle, 

4. De, dea, di, dio, do, and d; dpagallam I recal, gallam I call; 
dithinge dumb, ting and teangu a tongue; dibeoilh dumb, beul the 
mouth ; dineart imbecility, neart, strength; diomoladh dispraise, moladh 
praise; dobais immortal, bas death; domharb immortal, marbh death; 
doeas hope, cas fear; doilleir dark, leir sight; daidhbhir poor, saidhbhir 
rich; dligam I unbind, I separate; dluimh a cloud, hiding light. 

5. Ead, eas, eag, eac, each and ei; eaban dirt, ban white; eacon 
mad, con sense; eaccosmuil unlike, cosmuil like; eadtrom light, trom 
heavy; easonoir dishonour, easordugh disorder; eagceart unjust, ceart 
just; eidimhin uncertain, diuihin certain. 

6. In, ing and iong; indearbh uncertain, dearbh certain; inlcighais 
incurable, leigheas a remedy; ingglan and jongglan unclean, glan clean; 
iongabhras doubtless, without a question; abra speech. 

7. La; laban dirt, ban Avhite. 

8. Ma, mio, mi and mith; madath unlawful, dathalaw; miochreidas 
discredit, miochairdeas unfriendly; miogheur blunt, geur sharp; micheill 
mad, ceill reason; mithfir weak, firsi force; mithfir ignorant, firin verity. 

9. Neam, neim and neimh, pronounced neo; neamhglic foolish, glic 
wise; neimhtheith cool, teas heat; neimseadh contempt, seadham I 
esteem ; neotheach cold, teas heat. 

"We may here remark that in Galic, positive qualities are most fre- 

Bb 2 



188 

quently expressed by the help of negative particles, as when we say not 
bad for good, and not good for bad. 
The modifying particles are 

1. Adh and agh lawful, adhslath lawful sovereign, slat rod, sceptre. 

2. Aith and ath, reiterative; aithlionadh recruiting, aithris to re- 
hearse; athalhad re-union, athchagnaHh to chew the cud; athghlanani I 
refine, I cleanse. 

3. An and ain very and fit for, anteas, very hot; anmhor very great,, 
ambhochd very poor; anfhoth very watchful, anglonn very strong; ang- 
radh doating, anmhaoin great wealth; aindear a young woman, com- 
pounded of an and fear, fit for a husband ; aineach skilful in horsemanship,, 
ain fit each a horse. 

4. Ard, high, ar over, upon; ardshagart high priest; ardorus a lintel. 

5. As, more, fada long, as faide longer. 

6. Coim, comh, com, cum, con, cun, co, cu, denote association, equa- 
lity; coimhbeiram I contribute; coinbhliocht a conflict; comasgtomix; 
comart to kill ; conspoidam I dispute, cosmhuil and samhuil like; cumhais 
a seam, a selvage, cumaiscam I mix. 

7. Deagh dagh good ; deagbghuth euphony; deaghuair opportunity, 
uairhour; deaghthoil good-will, toil will, daghmhuintir good people, 
muinter men. 

8. Droch evil, droicham I wrong; drochmhuinte insolent. 

9. Fo few, little, rare; fodhuine a little man, a servant; fodhorus,. a 
wicket; fola a little M'hile, that is a short day, from la, a day. 

10. Foir, for, fur, before, beyond, extreme; fordhorus a porch, foir- 
ncart violence; foiriongantach prodigious; iongantach wonderful, fur- 
choimheadani I am provident, I heed, I care; ead, jealousy, zeal. 



189 

11. Gle perfection (See il, of which it may be a compound); gleghlan, 
immaculate; glegheal exceeding white; geal white; gleal, id. a'Jain, 
white. 

12.. II and I perfection, great, well, plenty; ildealbhach well-featured; 
ilghnitheach of all sorts; ile a great number of people. 

13. Im about, round; imcheimnigham I walk round; imlioc bordering 
on a lake. 

14. In, V. ion. 

15. lol variety ; iolphasadh poligamy ; iolam I change, iolar variety, 
iolarda various. 

16. lom association, amplitude; iomlan complete; iomorach a border; 
iomchomhneart powerful, neart strength. 

17. Ion and in fit, proper; iondeanta feasible, fit to be done; ionduile 
desirable ; ionchoimhead conversable ; head is care, heed ; ionchon- 
spoidlieac proper for disputation; inbheirt a perfect birth; infhir mar- 
riageable; indioluighe solvent, diolam I pay. 

18. Lan full ; lanchrodha courageous, full of heart; lantoileach satis- 
faction, toil the will, 

19 Mor many, great; morshluagh a great multitude; morliiach valuable: 
luach value, hire, price. 

20. Nios move ; niosgile more white. 

21. Oirgoo;! ; oirbheart good actions; oirbhidineach venerable, 

2*2. Friom chief, best, jsmne; priomhadhbhar chief cause; primhchial 
excellent understanding. 

23. Ro and lloi very, most; roghear very sharp, robheag very small; 
rofhonn a keen desire, fonn desire; roigLeul very while, most white; 
roilbhe mountains, iibhe Alps. (See U.) 



190 

24. Roinilie riom and reamh before ; roimheolas and reamhaithne fore- 
knowledge; eolas and aitbne knowledge ; roinihraidhte aforesaid. 

25. So, soi, good, apt, able, easy ; sobholadh fragrance, boluigh scented; 
sobhrisde fragil, briseadh a breach ; sochla renown, cluais to hear ; sos- 
beolta navigable, seoladh sailing; soicead a socket, i.e. fitting the head; 
soichreidsin credible. 

26. Sior constant, sioruisg constant rain, uisg water. 

27. Tar, tair, answering to trans, through ; tarbheiram I transfer; tair- 
bhealach a ferry, bealach a highway. 

28. Uim about, v. im. uinisheolam I circumnavigate. 
29- Ur and uirvery, uriosal very humble, ios low. 

In addition to these particles of determinate meaning, we must notice 
certain letters frequently prefixed to words, which in the Galic, as in other 
languages, are either redundant or euphonic, or merely assist in the for- 
mation of nouns. 

These are — 

B. Annach clean, banag white; ail and beal the mouth; aran and bar 
bread ; arn and barn a judge; ris a king; breas a prince. 

C. Leac and clach a stone. 

D. Ligheac and dhgeac lawful; aonfuil and daonfhuil akin. 

r. Athach and fathach a giant; uinneog and fuinneog a window ; 
uirneis and fuirneis a furnace; ed and fedoil cattle; eantog and feantog a 
nettle. 

G. Aire and gearr a fishing weir; lear, claer and gleair clear ; leos 
and glus light ; rug and grug a wrinkle ; rugach and grugach wrinkled. 

M. Ac kindred, mac a son; ed to handle; mad the hand ; oide as- 
sembly ; moide a convention. 



191 

N. Eile and nail another ; athair and nathcr a father ; ail and nail a 
sting ; nallod for allod old. 

S. Eisean and soisean he ; coti and scoti, toirm and stoirm, aois and 
saigeas age; gib, gibbog and sguab a sheaf; greath and sgread a cry. 

T. All and talla a hall ; saile and tsaile the sea : hence cinn the head 
and tsaile become Cinn-tsaile in Irish, Kinsale in English. 

B, F, M, C, G, and S seem to be used with the same licence in Galic 
as in other European languages. Thus we find fion and mion small ; boid 
and moid a vow; bladh and nioladh praise; clab and shop a lip, and 
bili the lips ; breig and grug a lie ; bearr and gairid short ; bearg, fearg, 
and gearg wrath. 

The particles suffixed are numerous. I shall take notice of such as 
most frequently occur, and their use will appear by the subsequent 
examples. 

1. A. Fol cover, fola a garment ; feab good, feabha honesty. 

2. Ac, ach, achd, achadh and each; deabham I contend, deabhac 
contentious; fior true, fireunam T verify, firineach faithful; firineachd 
truth, breag a lie, breagach false; aon one, aonachd unity; foraidheach 
fierce, foraidheachd fierceness; fineag a mite, fineagachadh growing full 
of mites; toirbhrim I yield, I give, toirrtheach fertile. 

3. Adas; dorc dark, dorcadas darkness; 

4. Ad, adh, aidh, eadh, idh and uideh ; claonani I incline, claonad 
inclination; saor free, saoraidh a saviour; snamhaim I swim, snamhuide 
a swimmer; lomar a fleece, lomradh a shorn sheep. 

5. Aighe; fiadh food, game, fiadhaighe a huntsman. 

6. Ail and al, abbreviated from amhail and samhail, similis; glan 
clean, glanal abstergent; claidheamh a sword, claidhamhal swordJike. 



192 

7. Ain; anfas dread, anfhocain danger. 

8. Air, oir and coir, from fear, a man; fool flesh, feoladoir a butcher; 
carb a chariot, carbadoir a charioteer; sealgaire a hunter, clairseoir a 
harper. 

9. Amhail and amhuil, hke. Fear, a man; fearamhail manly; dearg 
red, deargamhail reddish; sioda silk, siodamhuil like silk. 

10. Amhuil excessive, compounded of am for iom and uile all; 
geann love, geanamhuil most lovely; sgeil skill, sgeilamhuil skilful; uisg 
water, uisgamhuil full of water. 

11. An, in, ain small, diminutive; beann a mountain, beannan a little 
hill; fear a man, firin a little man; bad a boat, baidin a little boat; gort 
a garden, field, standing corn, goirtain a little corn field. 

12. Ar, art; glan clear, clannan shining; Iom bare, lomar a fleece, 
lomart a shearing. 

13. As; carid a friend, caridas friendship; math good, mathas goodness. 

14. Mhor, mhar, mhuire, excessive; anios up, anmhor very great; fial 
liberal, fialmhar bountiful; fionmhor abundant in wine; gaoth wind, 
gaothmhor windy. 

15 Nach and neac, see ach and ac; dighe gratitude, digheneac grateful. 

16. Oo-, diminutive; realt a star, realtog a little star; fideog a small 
pipe, a little worm; garadhog a little garden; guile the stomach, golog 
a budget; leine a shirt, lentog a little shirt; bo a cow, bodog a heifer. 

17. Sa; saor free, saorsa freedom; earadh fear; ancarbam I distrust, 
anearbsa distrust; feacham I see; feabhsa science. 

15. Sc; soil, light; soilse resplendent. 

19. Sal and sail ; toic money, toicsail a treasury. 



193 

20. Ta; fioram I verify, fireanta true; lionam I fill, lionta full; 
aitheantam I know, neanihaitheanta unknown ; cineal kindred, cinealta 
kind. 

OF THE HARMONY OF THE GALIC LANGUAGE. 

EVEN a slight acquaintance with the Galic is sufficient to discover, 
that it is rich and most harmonious in its structure. 

For a ship it has forty terms, and as many for a house. Fire, water, 
cow, cup, hand, foot, life, death, great, good and evil, with all the 
common actions and objects, such as occur to nomade nations, have each 
from ten to twenty words, by which a clear and distinct notion is con- 
veyed. Miss Brooke, a young lady of distinguished talents, very judi- 
ciously remarks, " It is astonishing of what various and comprehensive 
powers this neglected language is possessed. In its compounds it is 
abundant, like the German and the Greek, and one single word some- 
times requires two whole lines to convey its meaning." 

Her testimony coincides with the declared opinion of Archbishop 
Usher, who says, " Est quidem lingua Hibernica et elegans cum primis 
et opulenta;" and he laments that it should be so much neglected. 

The harmony of the Galic arises partly from the liberty it has assumed, 
like other languages, of changing each for the other such consonants 
as have organic affinity; but principally by its absolute controul over the 
vowels. Thus a speaker is at liberty to use indifferently aodach, eadach 
and eudach, cloth; eile and oile, other; ard and airde, high; Deal, bil 
and beul, the mouth; alaim, ailam and oilara, I nurse; bear, bior and 

VOL. ir. c c 



194 

bir a spit; breag, breig and breug, a lie; craig, crcag, creig and creug, 
a rock; dear, deor, and deur, a tear; elc and olc, evil; raod, read, rod 
and rud, a thing. In all their words A, O and U are commutable, as 
are the short vowels E and I. 

This choice of words, and these arbitrary changes in the vowels, evi- 
dently prove, that the Galic tribes paid great attention to harmony of 
diction. 

The facility with which the Galic language forms its compounds, to con- 
vey clear and distinct notions of the things intended, will appear from 
the subsequent examples, taken indifferently from either O'Brian, Lhuyd, 
Vallancey, Bullet, or Shaw. 

Ailm an elm, is aill maide high, timber, achbeg almost, is ach except 
and beg, a little; adhailg desire, is adf fit, ail pleasure, and geastal 
want; ailec a stallion, ail a stone, each a horse; aitigham I dwell, aite a 
place and tigh a house; ardhamh an ox broke in to the plough, is ar 
plough, damh ox; ardriogh imperial majesty, is ard high, riogh king; 
arteine a flint, is art a stone and teine fire. 

Bcacarna a prostitute, bean woman, carna flesh; bealdruidam I am 
dumb, beal mouth, druidam I shut; bealtaine a compact, i. e. the fire of 
Baal; beandia a goddess, bean female, dia God; bocar and buacher 
cow dung, bo a cow, gairgin dung; bronnsgaole a flux, bronn the belly 
and sgaolte looseness; bunaithigham I establish, bun bottom, aite place, 
and tigh house; busiall a muzzle, bus mouth, iall a thong. 

Cuiliosal, 1. vile, 2. wicked; cuileog, 1. a fly, 2. a gnat, and iosal 
likeness; culgair recal, cul the back, gairam I call; culithe backbiting, 
cul the back and itham I cat. 



195 

Daonflmil a relative, aon one, full blood; didil great love, i,e. the love 
of God; dineart almighty, i.c, the power of God; diuluni I suck, did 
the teat, and ullani I procure; dobharchu the otter, i.e. water dog, dob- 
har, pronounced dour, and cu. 

Earbog a roe, may refer to eardh timidity, or to carbull a tail and og 
small. Ealadh a swan is e, a bird, and aladh wild; eondraoitham I 
divine by the flight of birds, is eon or eun a bird and draoitheachad 
magic; draoi is a Druid. Eunadair a fowler, is eun a bird, adbath 
slaughter and air man; eunchriodhach timid, i. e. having the heart of a 
bird. 

Fongort a vineyard, fion wine, gort garden; fodhuine a dwarf, i.e.fo 
little and duinc man; fola a liltle while, i.e. a short day; fursanam I 
kindle, fur fire and sanam I release. 

Gruagbhreige a wig, grug hair and bhreige false. 

Ifurin hell, i. e. cold region, literally an island in a cold climate; 
ioboirt sacrifice, i. e. the cake offering, derived from iob a raw cake and 
thoirt offering, whence tort became the expression for cake; ithir corn 
field, ith corn, tir land; ithfen, a car for corn, without wheels, ith and 
benn; ithros corn rose. 

Lamhanart a towel, lamh hand, anart linen; luan a greyhound, lua a 
foot, an swift. 

Odhall deaf, o, the ear, and dall dull ; ogbho heifer, og young, bo cow; 
ogmhois June, i. c. the virgin's month. 

Raidhearc eye sight, raighe a ray of light, and dearc the eye; reul a 
star, i. e. ruith iul director of the rout. 

Smuigeadach handkerchief, smug snot; soadh a bed, from socras ease, 

c G 2 



t96 

rest, and adh fit; sroiniall-srein a muzzle, from sron the nose, iall a thong 
and srein a rein. Trosgadh a fast from trosg a cod fish. 

In the instances above produced we observe the compound expressions 
melted into single words; but whenever new objects presented themselves 
and new terms were to be invented, the Galic tribes avoided arbitrary 
sounds, and, resorting to such as were commonly received, they gave a 
concise description of the thing intended. 

Thus, aite comhnuidh is a mansion, caithir rioghal a throne, crann 
araidh a plough, fion abhal grapes, fear an tigh osda a host, fear 
deasachad leathair a tanner, gealadoir eadaich a fuller, grianchloch a 
dial, i.e. a sun clock, maide milis liquorice, i.e. sweet wood, miol mof 
a whale, i.e. sea animal, mathghabhuin a bear, i.e. a wild calf, fear- 
nuadhposda a bridegroom. 



ABBREVIATIONS IN GALIC. 

AVE have remarked, that abbreviations are the wheels of language, the 
wings of Mercury. And I may here observe, that of all the languages, 
with which I am conversant, I know of none that indulges to such a de- 
gree in abbreviations as the Galic. Of this I have already given numerous 
examples, and I may here observe, that its tendency to become monosyl- 
labic has been incessant. Hence the same abbreviated word represents a 
multitude of notions. These discordant terms must evidently have origi- 
nated in polysyllabic expressions of the same discordant import. This 
will appear from the subsequent examples. 



197 

A has 13 difFerept significations, distinguished by grammarians. 

Agh means fear, ox, cow, bull, conflict, good. 

Ai — Region, inheritance, sheep, cow, herd, swan, cause, learned. 

Ail — Stone, sting, arms, rebuke, month, time, will, whilst, request, 
blot, noble, modest, beautiful. 

^i//— Place, steep, bank, turn, journey, course, praise, bridle. 

Aire — Judge, noble, servant, attention, weir. 

Ais — Hill, strong hold, covert, dependance, loan, cart, back, shingles, 
bashful. 

Al — Stone, rock, food, fear, horse, brood. 

All — Bridle, hall, rock, cliff, generation, foreign, another. 

Alt — High, nursing, exaltation, leap, joint, part, time, soon, brook, 
vale, action, state, order. 

Am — ^Time, moist, soft, tender. In composition, as we have seen, it 
forms negation. 

Atnh — Even, also, raw, naughty, fool, ocean. 

An — Interrogative, evil, in, still, quiet, vessel, true, false, pleasant, 
noble, pure, swift, water, one. In composition, like am, it forms ne- 
gation. 

Ana — Truly, fair weather, silver cup continuance, riches. 

Aoi — Guest, stranger, island, hill, trade, possession, compact, swan, 
knowledge, instruction, honour, respect. 

Ar — Our, plough, slaughter, guidance, bond. 

Arc — Arc, chest, dwarf, body, pig, adder, bee, wasp, lizard, cork 
tree, tribute. 

Bta — Be it enacted, village, piety, the sea, green field, cry, shout, 
fruit of the womb, praise, fame, yellow, safe, healthy. 



198 

Car — Care, friend, crooked, deceitful, terrible, brittle, part, fish, 
movement, trick, stone. 

Coir — True, false, just, right, guilt, business, solitary, 

Gtis — A far as, until, desire, anger, death, a deed, weight, force, 
strength, sharp, value. 

I — Island, low, shallow, an art, science, she. 

Mai — King, prince, soldier, poet, rent, tax, wealth, slow. 

Mam — Mother, hand, fist, gap, vile, base, hill, mountain, strength, 
power. 

Meas — Measure, mess, mast, fruit, rod, weapon, edge, point, shears, 
salmon, opinion, respect, advice, foster child, tax, a grave. 

Ogh — ^The ear, whole, full, pure, sincere, virgin, young woman, circle. 

Oil — To nurse, to drink, a rock, infamy, reproach. 

Ong — Clean, trespass, healing, sorrow, groan, fire, hearth. 

Ti — God, He, Him, house, unto, until, design. 

Tin — Tender, to melt, soft, fat, gross, thick, a beginning. 

To — ^Tongue, silent, mute, dumb. ' 

Tur — Tower, journey, research, request, dry, bare, alone, weariness, 
heaviness, to tally. 

Ur — Fire, earth, mould, the grave, heath, valley, moist, place, brink, 
border, beginning, new, fresh, very, hence, evil, slaughter, hurt, mis- 
chief, generous, noble, gentle. 

The nature of such compounds, subject to abbreviation, will appear 
both from those already noticed and from the subsequent examples. 

Comhairlc a council, composed of the preposition comh and bearla 
speech; comharba joint-tenant, derived from comh and forba land; 
cosmhuil like, is comh and samhuil like; comdhuigham I build, is comh 



W9 

and fhod a clod'; daidlibliin poor, is do not and saidlibhir rich; fiicann 

male, fir man, and ghein genus. 

Tlius, by abbreviation, dobliar water, becomes dob a river, and dur 

water; and thus tochdaim I am silent, is contracted into tosd, toc/td, and 

to, silence. 

But the genius of this language, and the nature of its abbreviations, 

will be more distinctly seen, when we shall proceed to trace its affinities; 
prior to which we must briefly notice some of its radical expressions. 
These are comparatively few ; for the most considerable portion of the 
Galic, as now spoken, seems to have been received from foreigners, who 
during various periods established settlements in Ireland. These newly- 
adopted words appear detached, without connexions, and wholly destitute 
of both root and branches in their insulated state; not so the aenuine 
language, the language of primitive expressions, such as occur in the 
most ancient manuscripts. I shall produce a few of these, arranged in the 
manner practised by Scapula in the Greek. 

Aodhand Adudfire; adhna, heat, adnadh to kindle, aodhar fiery deso- 
lation, adhan a cauldron, adhanta warm, adhbhadh a house, aoidhidhe a 
guest, aoidheachdam I lodge, I entertain, aodhnair an owner, aoi pos- 
session, guest, stranger, maide wood, adhmad timber. 

Aon, can, ein, and en one; aona the first, aonar alone, aonarachd sin- 
gularity, aonaran a solitary person, aonda particular, aonachd unity, 
aonracan a widower, aonta celibacy, aontingham I consent, aontigheas 
cohabitation. 

Aram I plough; ar ploughing, husbandry, ardhamh an ox trained to the 
plough, arach a ploughshare. Aran and bar bread, aranailt a bread-basket, 



200 

ancha a pantry, aranoir a baker, arbhar grain, arbharach fertile, arbh- 
raisneach famine. 

Ard h'l^h; ar upon, arad a ladder, ardan eminence, pride, ardanach 
high, proud, ardaigham I extol, ardaghadli honour, ardarc a coat of 
arms, ardorus a lintel, ardinmhe eminence, ardchomas sovereignty, ard- 
chathair metropolis, ardshagart high priest, arigh chiefs, ardchnocfaire 
a great baron. 

Bior, a fountain; biorar water cresses, biorbhogha a rainbow, bior- 
bhuafan a water serpent, biordhac watery, biorgon a floodgate, biorphota 
an urn, bioror the brink of water, biorra a king's fisher, biorrach a boat, 
biorrac a marsh, biorros a water lily, literally a fountain rose, biorrsnaobh 
the old bed of a river, birfheadan a water pipe, birmhein moisture, bir 
water, tobar and sapar a well, birra abounding in wells, birrac standing 
water. 

Bolg, a bag, belly, bellows, pimple; bolgam I blow, swell, blister, 
sip, gulp; bolgach a boil, bolgan a budget, a quiver, bolla a bowl, blad- 
der, bollog a shell, a skull, boilg a bubble, husks, boill a knob, a boss, 
boilgain and bolg saighaid a quiver, beille a kettle, cauldron, boillsgeanam 
I bulge, boillsgeanaibh hills, builgain a bubble, pimple, builm a loaf, 
builinach a baker, builg bellows, bollsgaire a bawler, boaster, bollsair 
a herald. 

Breo, fire, flame; breochoire a warming pan, breochual a funeral pile, 
breochloch a flint, breogam I bake, brosna a faggot, brotlach a boiling 
pit, bruth red hot, bruithaim I boil, bruithne a refiner, bruithneach 
sultry, brun and bran a fire brand, bruin a cauldron, bri and bara anger. 



201 

Caram, I love, car love lliou; cara, carad and caraida a friend, cara- 
dam I befriend, caradacli befriended, caradas friendship, carac friendly, 
carantac kind, caraidd a defence, twain, caraidheachd a dispute, 
caraidhain I wrestle, carachdidli wrestling, carachdach athletic, accarachd 
gentleness. 

Craig, creag, creig, creug and cruad, a rock; creigach rocky, creagan 
a rocky place, rag stiff, rigid, cruidheata and crughaldch hard, difficult, 
cruadh hard, firm, steel, difficult; cruadail danger, courage, avarice; 
cruadhalach hard, stingy, poor; cruadheuing rigour, slavery; cruad- 
hmhuinalachd and ragmhuinalac stiff necked, obstinate; cruaidhchriodach 
hard hearted; cruadhagach strict, cruadheigc distress, cruaghadh a 
strengthening, cruaidheadh a hardening, cruaidhaicharn I harden, cruaid- 
hcheanglam I tye fast. 

Dubam, I dip, I duck; dubhshnamliani I dive; dubadh, dubhagh and 
dubhogh, a pond, a lake; dubhash a tub, dabhan a pitcher, a fish hook; 
dubhaigein and dubhogh the ocean, the deep, dobhar, domhar and dur 
water, dob and dothar a river, dobharshoidheac a bucket, dobharchu an 
otter, domhain, domhuin and doinihann deep, doimhnaicham I deepen. 

Ed, handle, take, receive, gain; edim I catch, eddreimim, I catch at, 
edean a receptacle, cdal treasure, edalach rich, eid and ed cattle, ed 
defence, protection, edire hostages, eide tribute, eadail prey, iod a cast 
or throw, iodhnach warlike; mad and mana the hand, madham a battle, 
madhmann a skirmish, madhmadh a sally, madhmam I vanquish, man- 
radh destruction, madhm a handful ; mam, a hand, fist, might, power. Sec. 

Fail', watch thou, sun rise, sun setting; faire behold, fairara I watch, 
I guard, forfairam I watch, forfhaireach a watchman, faireac watchful, 

VOL. II. u d 



202 

fairfoiiadh warninr, forfair, forf and foraire a watch, a guard, fairgseoir 
a spy, fairigham I watch, perceive, fairche a diocese, fairigh a parish, 
fairughadh perception, faireog and fairadh a watching hill, fairseong wide, 
open, spacious; farraidam I enquire, faruin an opening, farruineog a 
lattice, furachar watchful, fuairam I find. 

Fiodh a wood, a wilderness; fiadh a deer, food, a weed; fiiadha wild, 
savage, a fawn, a territorial lord; fiadhach venison, fiadhaighe a hunts- 
man, fiadhath a hunting spear, fiadhfhal a park, fiadh and fal inclosure. 

Gahh, take thou; gabham I take, gabhal a fork, gabhlach forked, 
gabhlan and gabhlog a pitchfork, forked timber, gabhalran and gabh- 
altan compasses, gobha and gabha a smith; gabhalfhir the groin, gabh- 
altach capable, gabhaltuidhe a farmer, gabhadan a storehouse, gabhann 
a prison, gabhail spoil, booty, conquest, taking prisoners, gabhal fold- 
ing sheep. 

Gearrom I cut, bite, gnaw, shorten; gearradh a cut, a rent, bearra a 
cut, shred, bearram I clip, shear, bearradan scissars, snuffers, bearrasgian 
a razor. Gearb the itch, gearbam I hurt, wound, grieve; bearrthoir and 
bearradair a barber, bearra short hair; beare, gearr and gor short; 
geirrsgiath a short sword, gearghlais a gloss, a short note, gearghath a 
short javelin. Gortuigham I cut, wound; gortughadh hurt; geur edged, 
sharp, geurad and geire, sharpness; geuraighara and gearuigham I 

sharpen grind. 

Geiram I whet, I grease; geir grease; gearchuise and geurchuise sub- 
tilty; geurainachd wit, gcarait wise, gcirintleachd sagacity, gort hunger, 
geur, gortach goirt and gearblasda sour; geuraigham, I make sour, gor- 
teog a crab-tree, gortreabhadh misery, gearg and bearg fierce, cruel. 



203 

cearb a cutting, carving, slaughtering, cearbhal a massacre, cearram I 
kill, ceartaigliam I cut, I prune, cearail a quarrel. 

Grian and grioth the sun; gris fire, griosach hot, grisgin a griskin, 
groideal ; a griddle, gradanta hot, greadam I burn, groadan parched corn, 
griosughani I kindle, griosaidh embers, griun a hedghog. 

Ith and ioth corn; ithir corn field; ithfen a car for corn, ithdhias, an 
ear of corn, itham and iosam I eat; iothlann a granary, iothros corn 
rose, cockle, itheadh and iosadh eating and to eat, ithiomraidhtcach 
backbiting; ioslann a pantry, a larder, iosdas entertainment, iosda a 
house, iosdan a cottage. 

Lamh the hand , lamhadh handling, lamhach handy; lamhcharam I 
handle, lamhrachan a handle, lamhagan groaping, lamhainn a glove, 
lamhainneoir a glover, lamhanart a towel, lamhiiaigh a surgeon, lamragan 
fingering, lamhcheardamhuil mechanic, lamhrod a foot-path, lamhdeanas 
restraint, lamchoille acubit ; glamham I seize, glammam I devour, glam- 
sair a glutton, glamhin a spendthrift ; sglamham I snatch, sglamhoide a 
glutton ; lapadh a paw. 

Lasarn I burn, I light, I kindle; las kindle thou, lasadh kindling, to 
kindle, to burn; lasach fiery, lasair flame, lasarach burning, laom a blaze, 
la, lae, laoi, and lo the day; lassag faggots, lasan anger; leas, leos, leus, 
and les the light ; leosam, I shine, T give light, leusach having light, Icos- 
ghath a ray of light, leoschnuinih a glow-worm; leis apparently; leirsin, 
seeing, lear, clear; leir sight, perception, wise, prudent; leirsmuine con- 
sideration ; leirg and leas a reason, motive, cause; leur seeing, leurgus 
sight ; loisgam I burn, losgadh burning, to burn ; loise and loisi a flame, 
loisceanta fiery ; loirgaim and loirgaram I look for; loinear a flash of light, 

D d 2 



204 

loinearda bright; loinneir a flashing, loinreach bright; loinnream I shine, 
a trleam; loinn joy, loinneach glad, luinne mirth; luchair brightness; 
hiiohe a proof, a cauldron ; luisne a flash.- a flauie, a blush ; luithe, luath, 
luathas, and luas swiftness; luatham I hasten, luathmhor swift, liiathmharc 
arace-horse, Inathmharcach a messenger, luatharana sea lark, luath ashes, 
luatlio-hairam I rejoice, lusca blind, bios manifest, open, blosaiu I 
make manifest, glus light, brightness; gluaise a gloss, cleanness, neat- 
ness; gluair, glear and glor, clear, pure; gloir glory. 

Laith milk ; luim, leim, lean, bleachd and bliochd milk, 
leachd, kine, bliochdmhaire full of milk, bliocht profit of a milch 
cow ; bleaghanam, bleagham and bledham, I milk; bladhach and blathach 
butter milk; blath white, clean; bleasghanach emulgent, blaitham I 
smooth, I polish, bleachdair a soother, bleid a coaxing, blanag fat, 
tallow, bladairam 1 flatter, blath praise, blathliag a pumice stone. 

Malcam, I bear, carry ; malcair a porter, malaid and mala a mail, 
a bag; malair a merchant, malairt barter, malcaireas sale, malcaire- 
achda belonging to the market, malairtach reciprocal, malratoir airgaid 
a banker, maltriallach slow travelling, mall slow. 

Nas a band; nasgam I bind, nase a chain, collar, ring; nasgadan 
oblio-ation, nascar fortification, nasgaire a surety, nasgidh a treasure. 

Ris, a king; breas a prince, breasam I reign, breaschathoir a throne, 
breaschathair a royal residence, breascholbh a sceptre, breaslann a 
palace, breasrod the king's highway, breasnion a royal mandate, brea- 
saontaidh royal assent, breathamh a judge, breitheamnas judgment, 
breitheantach judicious. 

Stam, I stand; sta stand thou, stadam I stay, stop, cease; staid a 



205 

state, condition, staidal stately, stadtlmch apt to stop, stailc a stop, 
staonaim I decline, I abstain; statamhuil stately, stadh the stays of a 
ship, stabul a stable. 

Teas, heat, the south; teasuidhe, tegh, teth, teith and to hot; teasgal 
a scorching wind, teagh a vapor, time heat, timeac hot, teinne fire, 
tinntigh fiery, tinani I melt, tinteach lightning, tintean the hearth, tioram 
1 dry, tiotan and tethin, the sun. 

Ur, fire; for, illumination; forsanam I shine, forreilam Ishine out, 
fordharc the light, forasna illustrated, foran anger, wrath ; foranta 
angry; foream and foirceadalam I teach ; goor light, goram I warm, 
gorn a fire brand. 

These few examples may suffice to mark the distinction, I have 
noticed between the primitive language and its more recent acquisitions. 
They are found in the most ancient manuscripts and records. In their 
primary sense they are of extensive use. Their derivatives have renjote 
and accidental significations, each of which naturally flows from the 
first notion, and the common bond or radix denotes some action o^: 
something. 

OF THE INVESTIGATION OF RADICALS IN GALIC. 

TO analyse a word we must get rid of all prepositive and terrain 
nating particles, that, having completed this operation, we may, in ail 
its combinations, perceive the root, either entire, or in its abbreviated 
form, or in some of its mutations. 



206 

In Latin, Greek and Hebrew, neither prefixes nor suffixes create 
embarrassment. They occasion no difficulty, because we are perfectly 
acquainted with them, and in the most complicated expressions can 
readily distinguish them. We are equally familiar with the inflexions 
of the verbs in their most diffusive branches, and however varied or 
contracted these may be, can trace them rapidly to the root from 
which they spring. 

Thus, for instance, should even the young Grecian meet with 
xrroSsSsiyiJ^evoc, or with 'TrpoxTroSsix^evTav, he would, without hesitation, dis- 
miss its appendages and fix on Seinwi*.!., BirS.Qv, or hifixi^ as the most 
simple form in Avhich this verb appears. Should he proceed to analyse 
such compounds as ccKOKxixqcujiq or avlcticoho'^vjjiTcti, he could not fail in 
his research, but would instantly put his finger on tftif*t and ^tSwfi./, or on 
i^ico and ^001, roots which have become obsolete in Greek, but are still 
found in the Latin sto, sta, do and da. 

Or should the young Hebraeist see teth, give thou, he would immedi- 
ately discover T, as the only radical remaining from nalhan, he gave. 

So in Latin, should either i, go thou, or transitures about to go occur, 
these would be instantly referred to eo, I go. 

But with the Galic few scholars can boast of such an accurate ac- 
quaintance, and without this knowledge the roots must be frequently 
concealed. 

The difficulties which prevent their detection, are increased by the 
accumulation of its prepositions. Li Greek it is not unusual to see two. 
Such combinations suit the' genius of that language. In Latin we some- 
times find the preposition wantonly doubled, as in concomitant; but in 



207 

Galic we often meet with three. Thus, for instance, ionchonspoidheac, 
proper for disputation, when divested of its three prepositions and of its 
idiomatic termination, retains only poid, precisely as disputation, thus 
analysed, leaves put, both allied to puto, I think. 

This sufficiently evinces the importance of an intimate acquaintance 
Avith all the particles, whether prefixed or suffixed to radicals in Galic. 
Without this knowledge, even two prepositions must perplex, whilst, to 
him who possesses it, the greatest difficulty of detecting radicals is gone. 
Should he, for instance, meet with iomchomhnart strong, or iomchomharc 
a present, he has only to remove the two prepositions ioni and comh, and 
he instantly beholds nart or neart, strength, and arc tribute, so called 
from arc the chest, in which the tribute was collected and preserved. 
By a similar process, athchomghear short, will be readily reduced to gear 
of the same import. 

Even when cleared of such appendages, what remains may be a com- 
pound; for two or more substantives may be imited, or a substantive 
may appear either in combination with its adjective, or attendant on a 
verb. Many sucli instances were produced, when I was treating of the 
harmony and luxuriancy of the Galic language. 

To detect the genuine root of words in Jrish, we must be aware of a 
practice which, although not peculiar to this language, is most prevalent 
in it, I mean epenthesis. For as two or more vowels occurring together 
in the same word cannot form more than one syllable, the bards, when- 
(Bver they wished to increase the number of their syllables, threw i nbe- 
tween two vowels an adventitious consonant, such as D or G, rendered 
quiescent by an aspirate. Having done so, if the vowel preceding this 



208 

consonant happened to be a, o, or u, and the subsequent to be either e 
or i; the former was changed into one of the latter^ or at least one of 
these was associated with it. 

This custom has been extremely injurious to tlie purity of the Irish 
language, and has contributed to disguise its radical expressions. It is 
thus, that gain, the plural of gall, became gaedhill, and that Galic was 
converted into gaedhilic. Thus also, as it seems, belain and bliain, that 
is, circle of the sun, became bliadhain, and even bliaghain, a year. 

A knowledge of, and attention to this licentious introduction of con- 
sonants and consequent changes in the vowels, are absolutely needful to 
the philologist. 

In these investigations we must remember not only, that, in Galic, 
letters, which have organic affinity, are commutable, like as in all other 
languages, but that B, P, F, V, M, D, and T, with C, and G, when 
aspirated and consequently quiescent, are equally so, that S may be- 
come T, and M may supply the place of N, or the reverse. We 
must likewise call to mind, the indifference with which the vowels are 
used for each other, more especially A, O, and U as long vowels, and 
E and I as short ones. 

To be expert in the investigation of Galic radicals, a competent 
knowledge of the language in general, and of its abbreviations in par- 
ticular, must be previously obtained. This will be evident to every 
one who considers what I have stated on this subject. In this opera- 
tion, difficulties frequently occur, such as no attention, no recollections, 
no minute investigations are able to surmount. 

In all languages we meet with compounds abbreviated and fresh 



209 

compounds formed by these abbreviated terms, which are liable to be 
again contracted, till scarce a vestige of the original root can be 
discovered. 

In such cases nothing remains, but to examine, what assistance can 
be derived from kindred languages. 

I. 

AFFINITY BETWEEN THE GALIC AND THE WELCH. 

THESE languages have been considered as unconnected, and, on a 
transient view, they must appear so. But to the more attentive and dis- 
cerning eye, it will be evident, that, however dissimilar at present, they 
were originally one. In their syntax and the inflexion of their verbs, they 
differ as much from each other, as the Anglo-Saxon, German and Gothic 
do from modern English. Yet on examination it will appear, that they 
are radically one language, variously modified, corrupted and disguised. 

To demonstrate their identity, I must refer to my vocabulary of the 
Galic and the Welch, which, being copious, 1 have placed in the Ap- 
pendix. But it will be necessary in its examination to remember, that 
letters of the same organ are commutable, and that in the most ancient 
manuscripts the gutturals C G and also the dentals T D were used in- 
differently for each other. 



VOL. It. EC 



210 



II. 



AFFINITY BET^yEEN THE ENGLISH, DANISH, SWEDIS'lf, 
ICELANDIC, GOTHIC AND GALIC. 



Engltsh. 

Ail 


Danish, Ifc. 

Eel, D. 


Galic. 

Easlan 


English. 

iBelt 

1 


Dani.tA, ^e. 

BeUe, D. 


Galic, 

Bait 


Ail- 


Aer, D. 


Aidheir 


'Birth 


Bord, S. 


Beirthe 


All 


01 Ahl, D. I. 


Uile 


Blast 


Bloest, D. 


Blagair 


Am 
An 


Em, I. Im, G. 
Ains, G. 


[smi 
Aon 


Blow 


Blaasa, I. 


^Blagair 
( Bolgam 


Art 


Idrott, S. 


Ceard 


Board 


Baurds, G. 


Bord 


As 


Och, S. 


Ag 


Boat 


Baatur, I. 


Bad 


Ask 


^Eska, S. 


Aiscam 


Bolt 


Bold, D. 


Boltadh 


Ass 


Asilns, G. 


A sal 


Booth 


Both, L 


Both 


Awe 


Ah, D. 


Uamhas 


Both 


Batho, G. 


Beit 


Babe 


Babe, S. 


Baban 


Bow 


Boga, S. 


Bogha 


Bake 


Baka, S. 


Bacalta 


Bowl 


Bolle, D. 


Bolla 


Bar 


Bar, D. 


Barra 


Box tree 


Buxbonitrae,D. 


Bugsa 


Bark 


Bark, D. 


Bare 


A box 


Byssa, S. 


Boigsin 


Bath 


Bad, D. S. I. 


Baidhte 


Boy 


Pog, D. 


Buachail 


Bawl 


Bola, S. 


Bolsgairam 


Brew 


Bruggare, I. 


Bruitham 


Beans 


Bonne, D. 


Ponair 


Bride 


Brud, D.S.I. 


Brideac 


Bear 


Bcera, S. 


Beirim 


15 row 


Brun, I. 


Bra 


Beast 


Becst, D. 


Beathacl 


Buck 


Brock S. 


Buic Boo 


Bee 


Bii, S. 


Beathog 


Bull 


Bol, D. 


^Bola, cow 
2 Bologjheifer 



211 



English. 


Danish, l(e. 


Galic. 


English, 


toaillsh, tfc. 


Galic. 


Burn 


Brinnan, G. 


Bran 


Coal 


Kol, J. 


Guail, fire 


Burst 


Briste, D. 


Bris 


Cole 


Kaal, D. 


Colis 


Buss 


Puss, S. 


CBus, the 
C mouth 


Cost 
Cot 


Kosta, S. 
Kot, I. 


Cosdas 
Colta 


Cake 


Kaka, S. 


Caca 


Cow 


Ko, D. S. 


Bo 


Cale 


Ka^l, I. 


Cal 


Crab, fish 


Krabbe, D. 


Cm ban 


Call 
Can, S. 


Kalla, S. 
Kande, D. 


A gal la 
Cuineog 


Creep 


^Kriupa, T. 
f Krybe, D. 


Crubam 


Cap 


Kappa, S. 


Copchaille 


Crook 


Krok, S. 


Cruca 


Cart 


Karra, S. 


Coirt 


Cup 


Koppa, D. S. 


Cuibh 


Carve 


Karfwa, S. 


Cearb 


Dale 


Dalur, I. 


Dal 


Cat 


Katt, S. 


Cat 


Day 


Dagur, I. 


Dia 


Cave 


Kofwa, S. 


Cuas 


Dear 


Dyr, D. S. I. 


Daor 


Chalk 


Kalk, D. S. I. 


Cailc 


Death 


Dauthur, G. 


Teidhm 


Cheese 


Kes, S. 


Caise 


Deem 


Daeme, I. 


Dimhnighm 


Chest 


Kiste, D. 


Cisde 


Desk 


Disk, S. 


Daisgin 


Chick 


Kuckling, S. 


^Coicht 
^Children 


Dike 
Dim 


Dige, D. 
Dimmur, I. 


Dig 
leimheal 


Chin 


Kinn, G. 


Smigein 


Dip 


Daupjan, G. 


Dnbani 


Clay 


Glina 


Cladatch 


Dirt 


Diyt, I. 


Doiit 


Clear 


Klaar, I. 


Gleair 


Do 


raukjan,. G. 


Deunam 


Cleave 


Klyfwa, S. < 


Cliobani ' 


Door 


Oyr.T. Daur,G. 


Dorus 


Clod 


Klod, D. 


Clod 


Dough 


Deyg, D. 


I'aos 


Clothe 


Kloeda, S. 


Cleitham 


Drag 


Draga, I. S. 


Oragam 


Club 


Kolt; S. 


Colbh 

E 


Dray 

e2 


Drog, S. • 


Drabh, Scc. 



212 

It has been judiciously observed by Pinkerton, that the Welch and 
Irisli arc languages so full of Gothic words in disguise, that it is impos- 
sible to say, if any particular word be originally Gothic or Celtic. In 
fact these nations had the same remote progenitors, whose language they 
preserved, though much disfigured and disguised. 

Wachterus, a learned German, assures us, that the more ancient and 
obsolete are the expressions in Galic, Welch and German, the more 
striking is their resemblance, and that he could demonstrate this by six 
hundred examples. (Quo antiquior est sermo noster et ab usu hodierno 
alienior, eo major est ejus cum Gallico et Britannico convenientia. 
Possem hoc sex centis exemplis demonstrare. Praefat ad Gloss. Germ.) 

III. 

AFFINITY BETWEEN THE GALIC AND THE RUSSIAN. 

IT cannot be imagined, that the Galic is either the parent, or the 
offsjiring, of the Russian; yet they are related. They are certainly 
descended from one common ancestor. Should we, however, attempt 
historically to trace the degree of affinity between them; we should be 
obliged to call for the records of remote antiquity. But unfortunately no 
such records are to be found, nor can they have existed, because wan- 
dering hordes, whatever transactions may have been for a time preserved 
in the memory of their progenitors, and delivered by tradition from 
paients to their children, have no written records. The only resource 
therefore is in their languages. These indeed have been liable to change; 



213 

yet by a careful investigation we may be able to trace an affinity where, 
at the first glance, it may not meet the eye. 

In this investigation, we must call to mind, what has been delivered 
respecting prepositions and terminations to be removed, before we can 
detect the radical part of any word; and we must consider the aptitude, 
which letters of the same organ have to assume each other's place, before 
we can determine the resemblance of such roots, when found. 

We have already noticed the substantive verb ismi in Galic, and have 
seen the radical Is preserved in all the persons of the present tense. No\r 
let us examine it in Russian. Here we have esm, esi, est; esmui, este, 
sut; I am, thou art, he is; we are, ye are, they are. 

The numerals, as far as four, discover affinity, but, excepting six and 
ten, the remaining numbers of the decad have not visibly the least re- 
semblance. 

In Russian they stand thus: one, odin; two, dua; three, tre; four, 
chetuire; five, pat; six, shest; seven, sem, which is in Slavonian sedm; 
eight, vosem; nine, debat; ten, desat. 

In Galic: one, aon; two, da; three, tri; four, ceathair; five, coig; 
six, seisir; seven, morsheisar; eight, ochd ; nine, naoi ; ten, deich. 
Each of these series exhibits the numeration of a rude people, who, be- 
fore their separation, had little occasion for and no knowledge of arith- 
metic. 

The Russian verb iem, iesh, iest; iedim, iedite, idat, I, thou, he, we, 
ye, they, eat, is allied to ithim in Galic, and their affinity is rendered siill 
more evident by the resemblance of both to the same verb in Greek and 
Latin. Apparently connected with this verb we observe the Slavonian 
jito, which, like ith, already noticed in the Galic, means wheat. 



214 

Both these hiiiguages are intimately connected with the Greek, as the 
Italian, French and Spanish are with the Latin. This proves their 
affinity; wliilst their want of resemblance to each other clearly shews 
that their progenitors must have separated at a very early date. 

[ have, in my observations on the English language and its affinities, 
noticed its intimate C(jnnexion with Galic, Russian and other Slavonian 
dialects, from which it follows that Galic and the Slavonian dialects are 
intimately connected. 

As we advance, it will be clear, that these languages, though at pre- 
sent exceedingly dissimilar, are radically one. 

IV. 

AFFINITY BETWEEN THE MUNGALIC OR KALMUC AND 

THE GALIC. 

STRAHLENBERG has enriched philology with a vocabulary of the 
Culmuco-Mungalian language, in a work, of which one edition appeared 
in I73O. I have read it with pleasure, and derived much information 
from it. 
■ From this vocabulary General Vallancey made a considerable selection, 
in order to point out the affinity between the Kahnuc and the Irish. 

This nomade natimi wanders over the elevated regions, which extend 
to the north of 'J'ibet, from ISIount Imaus, that is from the sources of 
the Indus and of the Ganges, to the Eastern Ocean. 

I shall here subjoui a few expressions, in which the resemblance has 
been best preserved, at the same time requesting the reader to recollect 



215 



the length of time, which has elapsed since the separation of these dis- 
tant nations, their ignorance and want of records, their wandering 
habits, and the rules I have suggested for the detection of the most 
recondite roots, founded on the changes to which all languages are 
subject. 



Kalmiic. 

Abdara, a bed — — 

Ara, a bolster — — 

Are and Ere, a man — 
Aeme or Eme, a woman — 

Ama, the mouth — — 

Ara, jaw teeth — — 

Allaga, the hand — — 

Assun, hair — — — 

Artzul, kerchief — — 

Arul, a spindle — — 

Alasko, a hammer — • — 

Alun, a halter • — — 
Acha, a brother^ 
Aice, a relative \ 
Aroeku, to sweep away 

Abo, hunting — — 

Aleraamodo, an apple tree 

Ascun, evening — — . 

Achtol, to cleanse - — . — 



Trish. 
Abdairt and Adairt, a bolster 
Arel, a bed 

Ar, air, ear, and fear 
Im, Em, Fern 
Amac, ravenous 
^Carr, the jaw 
f Carbal, the palate 
Glac 
Cassan 
Ciarsul 
Oirle 

Lasca, to strike 
All, a bridle 

Aice, of the same tribe 

Ruasaire, to drive away 

Abus, a wild beast 

Amhalmaide 

Schun 

Eacta 



2l6 



Kalmiic. 
Asoc, to ask — 

Ainae, I fear — 

Alun, a pannel of a saddle 
Anni, I know — 

Ala, I kill — 

Agutschi, good — 
Argul, to bore — 
^rigi, I seek — 
Ailshi, I go there — 
Aorkyl, I leave behind 
iEmnae, I cry out — 
Abirae, I vex — 

iElgi, I earn — • 

Ba, I commit a crime 
Baienae, I have been 
Baiehu, I live long 
Billran, I work in timber 
Bolun, horned cattle 
Bugu, a buck — 
Bula, burial — 

Bulack, morass — 
By, I — — 

Choy, ewe — 

Choraga, lamb — 



Iriah. 
Ascadh 
Ahinne . 

Ulan, a pack saddle 
Aithne 

Ala, a wound 
Aghas and Adhas 
Aragail, a needle 
larraigh 
Aillso 

Ar cul, behind 
Eirae 
Buairea 
Ailgeas, wages 
Bai 
Binn 

Baoth, long life 
Bile timber, Rinne made 
Bolan, a bullock 
Boc, a he goat 
Beala, death 
Balac 

Bim, I am 
Choi 
Caorog, &c. 



2i7 

The vocabulary is copious, and the agreement striking; but, for want 
of well constructed dictionaries in both these languages, in numerous 
instances, their radical identity cannot be demonstrated. 

In Bell's travels through the same country, we have certain expressions, 
the origin of which is apparent in the Galic. Thus for instance, kontai/sha, 
chief, agrees with ceann taoisi. Tush-da-chan and ayuka-clian, a prince, 
are tuis-do-cheann and aice-cheann. Lama, a priest, and delay-lama, 
priest of the chief tribe, agree with the Irish lamais a poet and dala a 
tribe. 

But that, which is most remarkable is, that isky, the Galic term for 
water, terminates the name of every place in the vicinity of the Kalmuc 
rivers. 

Did the Kalmucs and other wandering hordes in Tibet and Tartary 
possess ancient poems, transmitted by tradition from their remote proge- 
.nitors, like the Irish and the Welch, we might be able, not merely to 
conjecture, but to demonstrate the identity of all these venerable 
languages. 



V. 

AFFINITY BETWEEN THE GALIC AND THE SANSCRIT. 

SANSCRIT, although not the parent language of the East, is yet 
acknowledged to be the elder sister of a very extensive family. It stands 
allied in close affinity to the Persian, to the Mahrattan, and to all the 
langirages of Indostan. Henry Coiebrook, a distinguished scholar in this 

VOL. II. F f 



218 

branch of literature, views it as a most polished tongue, gradually refined, 
and fixt in classic writings of the best poets, who flourislied before the 
Christian era. It is cultivated by the learned Hindus all over India, as 
the lanoruase of science. In his opinion, it is evidently derived from a 
primeval tongue, which was gradually refined in various climates, and 
became Sanscrit in India, Pahhivi in Persia, and Greek on the shores of 
the Mediterranean. It excels in euphony, and avoids incompatible and 
discordant sounds in compound terms by a deviation from orthography. 

In these observations, the opinion of Mr. Colebrook perfectly coincides 
with that of Sir W. Jones, who informs us, that hundreds of the Parsi 
nouns are pure Sanscrit, that many imperatives are the roots of Sanscrit 
verbs, and that even the moods and tenses of the Persian verb substan- 
tive, which is the model of all the rest, are deducible from the Sanscrit 
by an easy and clear analogy. He delivers it as his opinion, that the 
Sanscrit is more perfect than Greek, more copions than Latin, and more 
exquisitely refined than either; yet bearing to each of them a stronger 
affinity, boih in the roots of verbs and in the fox:: , of grammar, than 
could possibly liave been produced by accident, so -trong indeed, that 
no philologer can examine them without believing tivcm to have sprung 
from some common source. 

When I shall proceed to treat of the Sanscrit, it wiM, I trust, be evi- 
dent, that Greek and Sanscrit are twin sisters; and wiien we shall have 
examined the aflfinity between Galic and Greek, it will be equally clear, 
that these stand nearly in the same relation, the consequence of which 
discoveries will be, that we shall acquiesce in the opinion of General 
'Vallancey, and, independently of any direct comparison, be perfectly 



?19 



satisfied, that Galic and Sanscrit are radically one. Yet, as some im- 
mediate comparison may be satisfactory to the reader, and serve to elu- 
cidate the affinity l)etween these far distant and most interestinjrlantruaffcs, 
I shall subjoin a few expressions, such as have occurred to me in the 
course of my investigations. 



English. 


Galie. 


Sanscrit. 


English. 


Add 


Agadh 


Aghi 


Day 


Am 


Asmi, Ismi 


Asmi 


Deal 


Bake 


Bacalta 


Paka 


Death 


Bath 


Baidhte 


Bad a 


Dim 


Be 


Bheith 


Bhavitum 


Door 




Bhami, I was 


Bhavami, I am 


Doubt 


Bear 


Be i rim 


Bhri 


Each 


Beast 


Beathach 


Pasu 


Eat 


Beat 


Bata a stick 


Pita Badh 


Ewe 


Bench 


Binse 


Pankaya 


Fire 


Bit 


Bida 


Bhid Bid Bhitta 


Float 


Boy 

Brow 


Bala 
Brai 


Ballachan 
Bhru 


Flood 


Brother 


Brathair 


Bhratara 


Fold 


Coal 


Gual 


Gala black 


Foot 


Cot 


Cotta 


Cuti 


Give 


Cow 


Ceo, milk 


Gavou 




Crook 


Cruca 


Vacragtee 


Grieve 


Cry 


Sgread 


Crad 


Hall 






F 


f 2 



Galic. 


Sanscrit, 


Dia 


Diva 


Dailim 


Dal 


Todhas 


Fadi 


Dei m he 


Timira 


Dorus 


Dwar 


Dubhatai 


Dwon 


Ceach 


Ecauca 


Ithim 


Attum 


Aoi 


Ava 


Aghna 


Agni 



cPlodanstand-i 
f ing water : 
Fal 
Fuidh 
Daighead 
Grame, O a 
Gearbam ) 
Talla 



Plutu 

Palayati 
Pa dee 
Datum 

Grima 

Sal a 



220 



English. 


Ualic. 


Sarucrit, 


English. 


Galic. 


Sanscrit 


Heart 


Criodh 


Hrid 


Much el, 


\Ieall 


Mahaa 


Hoi, warm 


Garam 


G harm a 


Nail 


Ail 


Nal 


Midst 


Meadhon 


Madhya 


Name 


Ainm 


Naman 


Might 


Mocht 


Mahata 


Nay 


Ni 


Na 


Mind 


Mien 


Manas 


Navv 


Naoi 


Nau 


Mix 


Measeaini 


Miserani 


Sew 


Nuadh 


Nava 


Mode 


Modh 


Moto 


Nigh 


Nach 


Nicata 


Moon 


Mios 


Masa 


Night 


Nochd 


Nakta 


More 


Moide 


Mahattara 


Nine 


Naoi 


Navan 


Mother 


Mathair 


Matra 


No 


Ni 


Naha 



These few examples will sufficiently prepare u^ to receive the testimony 
of Sir \V. Jones, that a well marked affinity exists between the Sanscrit 
and the Irish. I shall therefore close my observations on this branch of 
affinity, and* immediately proceed to the examination of the strict con- 
nexion, which may be traced between the Galic and the Greek. 



VI. 



AFFINITY BETWEEN THE GALIC AND THE GREEK. 



IN the preceding section we have seen the opinion of Mr. Colebrook, 
that the same language, which became Sanscrit in the east, gave birth to 
Greek on the shores of the Mediterranean, and we have traced an affinity 
between the former of these languages and Galic. But independently of 



221 

this mode of deduction, a well conducted compaiison between them will 
sufficiently evince their agreement. 

It has appeared that, like the ancient Greek, the Galic alphabet uas 
confined originally to sixteen letters. 

In both these languages B frequently supplies the place of P, as in 
Latin V and F are substituted for B Thus we find ^inpog for 'Jixf.og vita 
for /3ioTH, and frcnio for (ipsiJ^co. 

C answers to kap]>:i. But, as in the ancient Greek, gamma had the 
power of both G and C, so in Galic these letters are indifferently used. 

D and T, both in Galic and in Greek, seem to have been taken without 
distinction. Thus we find both carad and carat, oudl and ovre. In like 
manner the Latin has both hand and haut. 

We have had occasion to notice, that in Galic mh and bh are equi- 
valent, as in amhan and abhan, amnis, uamhan and uabhan, answering 
to (pofiov. A similar licence as to M, B and P, appears to liavc been 
assumed in Greece, for the iEolians, instead of i^eKKeiv wrote /SgAXeiv, for 
zx^ovaa they used it-x^ovjx, and for i^mavXog they said 'Trr/.-AvKog. 

A striking feature of the Galic is the conversion of P into C, as in 
cos for •^ouj, casga for 'T^dtr^x, and ca for vrou. In this practice it coiir'orms 
to the Ionic, Beeotian and /Eolian dialects of Greek, in which we find 
Kitig for Tra'j, Horov for 'p^ofoi/, kot£ for Tore and lixyy,y.eg for lyvvxTxag. 

Like the Greek, Galic abounds with aspirates. This breathing was 
formerly expressed by a point over the letter tq be aspirated. At present 
they adopt the H. Yet the aspirate of Greek wordsis either omitted in 
the Galic, or converted into a sibilant, as for instance evoiJ.cc ainm, «*;/>) 
ain, ov/. eac, «KXog eile, lif.zX'og samhai), aXg and aXog, salann and salar. 



222 

It is impossible for any one to cast' even the most transient glance over 
the auxiliary verb ismi, I am, without seeing the strict affinity between 
the Galic and the Greek; for certainly Ts must be the root in both, as 
appears by s^g, eq\ s^^^ev, eVe, f*Tt, a^joix-ai, eiej^xi Ejoi^evog, wliich indubi- 
tably connect themselves, not with e»f*t, but with ir[t,i, and p^j must be 
the jironoun, as I shall render evident, when I shall proceed to the ex- 
amination of the structure of the verbs in Greek. From what I have 
already said, it is apparent, that the substantive verb in Galic is more 
perfect, than it is in (ireek, in which i^-f^t is wanting. 

The numerals likewise shew that Galic and Greek are kindred languages. 
Even where the expressions seem to differ most, they are radically one, 
as will be evident, when we call to mind, what has recently been stated 
of the commutability of '^ and k. I may here be permitted to remark, 
that the Galic enables us to trace the origin of Asy.a, and to point out 
da cuig, as the parent of deich and Sanx. Counting appears to have 
been originally conducted by the fingers; and this custom gave limits to 
the first numerals, which were five. Hence ■Trff^Ta^w, derived from 'Kefi-ve 
of the tEoIIc for ae'/Tf, signifies I count. In this sense it is used by 
Homer, when he introduces Proteus numbering his sea calves. (Od. 
iv. 412.) 

The intimate connexion between Galic and Greek will clearly be seen 
by a comparative vocabulary. The few words I here subjoin, are such 
as occurred to me in the course of my reading. It must be confessed, 
that the importance of the subject calls for a more minute investigation; 
but what I here produce will be sufficient to satisfy the attentive mind, 
that Galic and Greek have a radical affinity. 



223 



I must premise, that my selection is made without distinction, equally 
from the Erse and from the Irish. The Calic in Scotland, in Ireland, and 
in the Isle of Man, is one language, and the dialects have a minute 
resemblance. 

In the Galic verbs, I here consider the first person singular of the 
indicative mood present tense as the theme. This I have done in con- 
formity to the practice of lexicographers. But, in fact, we have thus a 
compound, including the radical expression connected with the substan- 
tive verb, which, as I have stated, subjoins its pronoun. It must be 
remembered that C is pronounced as K. 



Galic. 

Abhra 

Ac 

Aedh 

Aer 

Agalla 

Agliaim 

Agh 

Agh 

Aibheis 

Ain 

Aingeal 

Ainm 

Airde 

Aireamk 



English. 

Eyelid 

Not 

Eye 

Skv 

Tell 

Aghast 

Good 

Battle 

Sea 

Praise 

Messegner 

Name 

Beight 

I number 



Greefi. 


Oalic. 


Englith. 


Greek. 


o<ppOg 


Airigh 


Prince 


xpx'^'^ 


OVU 


Airgim 


I drive away 


tipyci) 


eiSu 


Airghean 


Rein 


Hpyco. apKiiti 




Airgiod 


Silver 


xpyog 


xyyiXKu 


Ais 


Bashful 


Xi:TX^^'< 


xyxa 


Aisg 


Reproof 


xij-^vvu 


x'ya.'^og 


Aithcbim 


[ ask, beg 


xntu 


x'yav 


Aith 


Kiln 


Xi^Oi 


x^viTdOg 


All 


Other 


xXKog 




All 


All 


oXog 


xyysKog 


All 


Wild 


xXjog 


0VO\i.X 


Alga 


Noble 




aipia 


Ama 


Hame 


X[t.[KX 


Kpi%\t.iu 


Amhar 


Vessel 


x[t.<popevg 



224 



Gala. 


Engli.ih. 


Greek. 


A nam 


Soul, Life 


ccvE[i.og 


Anear 


Man 


5 \ 

auvip 


Anios 


Up 


ctva 


Anoidche 


By night 


svvvxog 


Aon, Ein, En 


One 


ev 


Aondeiig 


Eleven 


svSaKx 


Ar 


For 


IT a. pa. 


Ar 


Upon 


xipcii 


Ar 


Slaughter 


xp^S 


Ar 


Ploughing 


xpovpx 


Aram 


r plough 


ocpoco 


Aran 


Bread 


XpTOg 


Arg 


White 


ipyoi 


Arg 


Champion 


xpxav 


Art 


A bear 


XpHTO? 


Ascath 


Warrior 


XtTHViT^i; 


Ath 


Again 


art 


Athach 


Request 




Atliach 


Blast 


1 / 


Atharaif'ham 


I alter 


STepocsi 


Atliair 


Father 


TVOcli/ip. xt'tx 


Athais 


Reproach 


ZITLX 


Atlilath 


Young warrior 


x^kvj^Vig 


Auacli 


Xeck 


xvx^v 



Galie, 

Baichim 
Bach 
Bachal 
Baile 

Basal 



Fearg 
Gearg 



English, 

I strike 

Aviolentattack 

Staff 

City 

Judgement 

Pride 

Summit of hill 

Wrath 



! 



Ixaiirh ' 



R 



reim 



Step 

Living 

Life 

Food 

Milk 

I manifest 
Cow 
Buffalo 
Cow herd 
V drop 

A 1 m 
Noise 



Greek. 

'Tts'xaiy.x 

HEItxluX 
jixHTpOV 

jixcnXevf 



opyv) 

/3;0T0f 
yxKxnTOt 

\aV(T(T03 

^ov^xXct 

If r 

tTTi^pxivca 
(ipx%io)v 



225 



Galie. 


English. 


Greek. 


Galic. 


English. 


Greek. 


Breithir 


Word 


B'TTl SC p^'TOg 


Ceir 


Wax 


Wpog 


• 


CA box 


7ruB,1g 


Ceist 


Hoard 


y/iqv\ 


Bugsa 


f Box tree 


7CvE,og 


Cenel 


Children 


<y£Vi5>.ti 


Cacaim 




y-iX^y-u 


Ceo 


And 


yxi 


Cal 


Colcwort 


nxvXog 


Cial 


Jaw 


XeiKo; 


Cala 


Hard 


^aXcTOj 


Cidham 


I see 


eiSoi 


Calloid 


Outcry 


yixKeiv 


Cine 


Kin 


yivog 


Cam 


Crooked 


HX\i.'Ttloii 


Cior 


At hand 


%£IP 


Canaib 


Hemp 


•/.xvi/x^tg 


Cisde 


Treasure 


■/m;vi 


Caolain 
Capall 


Intestines 
Horse 


nx^xXKog 


Citag and^ 
Cota 3 


A coat 


%iTWt^ 


Cara 


Friend 


Xtxpig 


Cladach 


Clay 


yXix 


Caraim 


[ love 


Xxpi^Q\j.ai 


Claonard 


Steep 


nXivw 


Caran 


f Crown of 
( head 


KXpViVOV 


Clas 
Claoi 


Lock 
Lament 


kXxiu 


Carraig 


Rock 


pw$ 


Cliath 


Hurdle 


•/iXeico 


Cartam 


I cleanse 


yu^Xlpb) 


Clith 


A close 


nXeiot) 


Cathair 


Chair, city 


nx^sSpx 


Cluin 


Park 


xXbicj 


Ce 


The earth 


7H 


Cliobam 


I tear 


aXxca 


Ceach 


Each 


snaqog 


Cluas 


The ear -k 




Ceachtar 


Either 


exxrspog 


Clunim 


I hear K 


y.Xvcii 


Cead 


Hundred 


enxTOv 


Cluisim 


I hear ) 




Ceard 
Ceart 


Trade 
A rag 


KipSog 

neipo) 


Cloisdean 


The hcar-^ 
ing S 


yXvu 


VOL. II. 




G g 









226 



Oatie. 


English. 


Clos 


A repoit ■ 


Clotha 


Meard 


C'.othac 


Famous 


Clu and cloth 


lame 


Cluain 


Adulation 


Cluainire 


A flatterer 


Cluainireacht 


Flattery 


Cluig and Clog 


A beJl 


Clo2;aim 


I sound 


Clogarnach 


Tinkling 


Cloigin ^ 


A little j 
bell ; 


r 


Noble 


Cloth H 


Generous 


^ 


Brave 


All these are connected with 


Cluas, the Ear, and con- 


sequently with - - - 


Cluain 


^A green / 
c meadow S 


Cnaoidham & ") 
Cnaoighim 3 


I gnaw 


Cnaoi 

Cnagh 2 


Maggots . 

A Con- 
sumption 


Cncadh 


A wound 



Greek. 



•/iXv7og 



nKvcc 






nvacoi 



Gatie. 


English. 


Greek. 


Coirnheadaim 


I heed 




Coimheud 


A ward 
A keeper 


•yiViS0[i.«f 


Coimheudaighe 




Coinne 


Woman 


yuvvi 


Colaini 


I hinder 




Colac 


Prohibited 


H0),V6> 


Col 


Prohibition 




Coll 


Destruction 


oXXv(j.i 


Corcuir 


Purple 


TcopCpvpx 


Cos 


Foot 1 




Cois 


Near 




Coisidhe 


A footman ! 


■xovg 


Coisin 


A foot stalk j 




Ca 


Where 


TOU 


Casga 


Passover 


'7rflr(3-%* 


Cuig 


Five 


yteyKe 


Cruim 


Thunder 


lipu(j.ot, 


Cri 


Heart 


KSXp 


Croch 


Saffron 


HpOHOf 


Croich 


Skin 


Xpwi 


Croidh 


Heart 


HpxSlVi 


Cron 


Time 


Xpovo( 


Cruban 


Crab 


napcc^Oi 


Cu 
Cuib 


Dog ; 

Greyhound 3 


avccv 



23t 



Galic. 


EngUth. 


Greek. 


Galic. 


English, 


Greek. 


Cuala 


Hear 


XH'Sd) 


Cuib 


Cup 


nvTrsKKov 


Cimn 


Sea 


lay.exvot 


Cuacli 


Cuckow 


>iOKHV^ 


CAar 


Curve 


yvjjoco 


Cuinneog 


A can 


y.xvv\^ 


Cubam 


I stoop 


nv-nTW 


Cuirm 


Ale 


y.ovpy.1 



This vocabulary I exhibit merely as a specimen of what might be pro- 
duced, were the remaining letters of the alphabet to pass in review 
before us. 

By means of this venerable language we are able to explain some ex- 
pressions in Greek and in its NjoYic dialect, the Latin, whose origin and 
genuine import has been lost. A few of these I have already noticed, 
and to them I shall venture to subjoin the following: 

Aia^oXog is, in Galic, Di abheil, the terrible God. 

Aatfjowv is De amh, evil Deity. 

In the Roman history are many names which, when rightly understood, 
appear to be descriptive of either offices or habitations. 

Vercingetoriv exhibits Fear, Cean and Tor, that is, man, chief and 
sovereign, to which the Romans added Rex. 

It is said of Liscus, that he was Vergobretus of the ^'Edui, an officer 
chosen annually, with power of life and death. In this appellation we 
discover Breith and Fear, the designation of a judge. 

The Allobrogi were mountaineers, inhabitants of Savoy. In this name 
we have All, a rock, precipice or cliff, and Brog, a habitation. 

In short, every name used by Cassar in his Galic war, whose initial 
syllable is Vcr, whether it appertain to one person, or to many collec- 

G g2 



228 

lively, points to its origin, and gives us distinctly Fear, that is man 
or men. 

Should the first syllable be Can, it implies a cape or headland, answer- 
ing to Cean of the same import in Galic, precisely as it does in Cantire, 
a headland in Scotland, which stretches into the Irish Sea. In modern 
orthography Cean becomes Kin, as in Kinross, Kinsale, &c. 

Magus, when it terminates a name, is Magh, a plain, and implies a 
level country; but Dim conveys the notion of a fortress usually established 
on the summit of a hill. 

The very name of Celt^ given by historians to the Galic tribes, may be 
referred to Coillte and Geilt, woods and woodlanders. General Vallancey 
informs us, that the most ancient inhabitants of Ireland called themselves 
Royal Shepherds. They had flocks and herds, and therefore sought for 
shelter and protection, not in the elevated fortress, but in the extensive 
forests of uncultivated countries. 



VII. 

AFFINITY BETWEEN THE GALIC AND THE HEBRREW. 

THE affinity between the Galic and the Hebrew, with its dialects, 
the Childee, Syriac and Arabic, is, in some respects, more striking than 
between the Galic and the Greek. It appears to me, that the two latter 
stand related to each other as descendants from one conmion ancestor; 
but that the Galic is the elder branch. With the modern Irish I am 
sufficiently acquainted; but of the ancient dialect, the Bearla na feine, 



229 

I am perfectly ignorant, and can only therefore refer my readers to 

General Vallancey. 

from him we learn, that the ancient language, as it exists in manu- 
scripts, IS purely Chaldee, and that the verbs are conjugated in kal, pihil, 
hiphil, hophal and hithpael, as reguhvrly as in Chaldee and Hebrew. 
Like these lansruaires, it has two moods, the indicative and the impera- 
tive, and in the oldest manuscripts the same word is used for the pre- 
terite and the future. 

These certainly, are striking resemblances, and carry back the Irish 
language to the most remote antiquity. In one circumstance, the Galic, 
whilst it agrees with the Hebrew, difiers from the Gothic languages, for 
the verb subjoins its pronouns. 

L is a preposition, as in Hebrew, signilying with, to and for, and M 
is a very general servile letter, prefixed, as in Hebrew, Arabic and Chal- 
dee. In these languages L and R are apt to be changed for each other. 

The Rev. Mr. A. Stewart, in his Galic Grammar, delivers it, as his 
opinion, that the Galic bears a much closer affinity to the Asiatic s-tock, 
than any other living European language, and General Vallancey assures 
us that nine words in ten of the ancient Irish are pure Chaldaic and 
Arabic. 

I here select a few as examples of the rest. 

Aide, Aid and Acl, one. This agrees with Ahad of the Hebrew. Coimh 
is in. Hebrew giin (Di') with; and ach an idiomatic termination, which 
forms adjectives and participles. These combined compose coimheadach 
coupling, and from the same root with imi, answering in like manner to 
CJ/ and adhag, we have imiadhag, a coupling oc joining together. But 



230 

from ahad combined with ath, whicli answers to stj and to Tiy, we have 
ath-ahad re-uniou. 

lomad man}', may be "THi^ Di? because 0^ in given circumstances 
implies negation. 

Ailes, Olas and Solas, joy, are probably allied to '^^jV. f 7^ and 07-^ 
ioyful exultation. 

AUod, ancient, old, may be allied to hcled of the Hebrew ("^.70) time, 
a'l-e. Or it may be a compound of ^IV hidden, and "^V. which signifies 
endless duration. Hence our Saxon ancestors may have derived allodial. 
In Arabic ola, in Latin olim, in Irish ad and aoid, are all applied to time. 

Aos, fire, sun, God, is {^^) esh of the Hebrew and Chaldee. This 
seems to be the parent of Eeshoor and Eswara in the East Indies, of acher 
of Persia, of osiris in Egypt, of the Etruscan aesar, and of the Gahc 
aosar, of whom mention is made in ancient manuscripts. 

Ceannam, T buy or sell, cean the price, ceannach a purchasing, 
ceannaighe the place of exchange, and ceannaidhe a merchant, agree 
with 1.^5? of the same import, and explain the name of Canaanites, as 
given to the merchantile people of Phoenicia. 

Ed and id, the hand, edim I handle, catch, feel, possess, eidir a 
captive, eidirlen captivity, eidean ivy, a five-fingered leaf, iod a cast of 
a dart and a measure of land, and cdel the lifting up of the hands in 
prayer, all refer us to "^1 the hand, and Hl^ he cast a dart. 

Raigh, riog and rig, a king, seem to have been derived from n;;-i he 
tiourishcd, and nj^l a shepherd, and metaphorically a king. It is said 
of David, in the seventy-eighth Psalm, " So he fed them (DI'"T') with a 
faithful and true heart, and ruled them prudently with all his power." 



231 

The Almighty, speaking of Cyrus, says " He is my shepherd" ('Ji^'i''). 
This image is familiar to the sacred writers, and to the most venerable of 
the Grecian poets; and the word, by which their supreme ruler is 
designated in France, Spain, Portugal and [ndostan, must be referred 
to it. 

I may be here permitted to observe^ that king, koning, ktming, and 
konge, in the Gothic line, look toward cecum of the Galic, and not im- 
probably towards cohe?i of the Hebrew and Arabic, which means, not 
merely priest, but prince; and indeed prior to the Mosaic institution, 
we find the two characters united. In the Manx dialect ccann, the head, 
becomes kione, whose genetive singular is y-diing, and whose nominative 
plural is ny-king. Agreeably to this notion and derivation we may 
readily conceive the Irish m, a king, to be derived from (t^'^^l) rcsh, the 
head, the most excellent, the chief, and rishon, the first, that is, the 
first in dignity and power. 

All the dialects of Galic, although they have been subjected to the 
mutations, which time inevitably brings, still retain sufficient vestiges of 
their oriental descent, and exhibit a striking affinity to Hebrew. This 
will be evident to the student, if he consults the vocabulary, short as it 
is, which will appear in the Appendix. 



OF 



THE MANX JLAIN'GIJAGE, 



XHE Manx appears to be ibe connecting link between the Irish and 
the Welch. 

It is not my intention to compose a grammar of this language, a 
a work which has been already accomplished by Dr. Kelly, to whom 
we are indebted for most interesting information. Yet a transient view 
of its structure will throw much light on both the Irish and the Welch. 

The original alphabet had nearly the same distinction of letters, 
founded on organic affinity, as the Greek ; but in the Manx, as in the 
Welch, their mutations are governed by peculiar laws. The modern al- 
phabet has adopted ch, j, k, and q; but these are not properly Manx 
letters. Ch takes the place of t. J is substituted for dh of the Irish, 
k for c, and q for cw. A, o and u are used indifferently one for the 
other. R, when radical, is aspirated as in Greek. L, n, r, are con- 
sidered as immutable, b, p, ph , f, and m ; c, ch, cw, and g; d and 
j ; t and s are mutable and demand particular attention. 

In the beginning of a word b may become v or m. 



253 

Bea life; c vea his life ; nyn mea, our life. 

M may become v; moir a mother, dan voir to the mother. 

Pii and f may be dropt, or may become v. Phaal a fold for 
sheep; e aal his fold. Foays advanrage; nyn voays our advantage; 
e oays his advantage. 

C may become ch or g. Carrey friend; e charrey his friend; nyn- 
garrey our friend. 

Ch may become h or j. Chiarn Lord; e hiarn his Lord; nyn jiarn 
our Lord. 

C\v or (| may become g and wh. Quing a yoke, nyn guing our 
yoive, e whing his yoke. 

G may become gh; goo report, e ghoo his report. 

D Miay become gh; dooinney man, e ghooinney his man. 

J may become y ; jee God, e yee his God. 

T may become dh and h; taggloo discourse, nyn dhaggloo our dis- 
course, e haggloo his discourse. 

S may become h and t; sooill eye, e hooill his eye, y tooill the eye. 

In these mutations Manx conforms nearly to those of the Welch, and 
in some measure it resembles Sanscrit. 

The numerals are un, daa, three, kiare, queig, chea, stragsht, haght, 
nou, jeih. 

The Pronouns — mee, oo, eh; shin, shiu, ad; I, thou, he, we, he 
they. 

The Verb Substantive — ta mee, I am; va mee, I was; ta mee erve I 
have been; beem, I shall be; bee, be thou; dy ve, to be. 

VOL. II. H h 



334 

The Verb Active — cliluin mee, I heard; cluinym, I shall hear; clasht, 
hear; cluinit, heard; dy clilashtjn to hear. Dooyrt mee, I said; jir-yni, ' 
1 shall say, abl^yr, speak. Dinsh mee, I told; inshym, I shall tell; dy 
insh, to tell. Diu mee, I drank; iu-ym, I shall drink; dy iu, to drink. 
Faik, see thou; fakin, seeing; dy akin, to see. Hie mee, I went; gow, 
go; dy gholl, to go. Jean, do thou; dy yannoo, to do; jannoj, doing; 
jeant, done. 

The present tense, as in Welch, is formed by a noun substantive with 
the substantive verb. Ta fys aym, there is knowledge with me, I know; 
ta graih aym, there is love with me, I love. 

Manx has no passive voice. 

Adverbs — nish, now; jiu, today; noght, tonight; daghlaa, daily; 
cuin, when; quoi, who; my, if; lane, fully; mona, solely; foddee, per- 
haps; dy feer, in truth; cha, not; nj', not; nar, nor. 

Prepositions — co, with; myn, little; a and an, not; mee, not; neu, not. 

The Manx language is not more distantly related to Galic, than the 
Portuguese to Spanish. In orthography the difference is great ; but ia 
sound they approximate; as must be evident to every one, who considers, 
that in the Galic an aspirate usually renders the antecedent consonant 
quiescent. The more readily to discern this affinity, we must advert to 
the mutations, which I have above described, as, not merely admissible, 
but absolutely required in the Manx. I here subjoin a short vocabulary, 
such as I collected in reading a few chapters of St. John in Gcihc and 
in Manx. 



235 



Galici 


English, 


Manx, 


Galic, 


English. 


Manx, 


Agam 


I have 


Ta ajmie 


Math air 


Mother 


Moir 


Againne 


Our 


Ain 


Maith 


Good 


Mie 


Athair 


Father 


Ayr 


Mharbhadh 


Kil] 


Varroo 


Bean 


Woman 


Ven 


MhuiHonn 


Mill 


Wyllin 


Beatha 


Life 


Vea 


Naoi 


Nine 


Nou 


Bha 


Was 


Va 


Neamh 


Heaven 


Niau 


Biodh 


Be 


Bee 


Oidche 


Ni<rht 


Oie 


Brathair 


Brother 


Braar 


Posad h 


Wedding 


Poosey 


Dean 


Do 


Jean 


Jaibh 


Was 


Row 


Deich 


Ten 


Jeih 


Righ 


King 


Ree 


Dia 


God 


Jee 


Rireadh 


Truly 


Jarroo 


Dias 


Two 


Jeeg 


Sgriobh 


Wrote 


Scrieu 


Domhain 


Deep 


Dowin 


Suidhe 


Sit 


Hoie 


Dubhairt 


Said 


Dooyrt 


Shabh 


Hill 


Clicau, Slieau 


Eirich 


Rise 


Irree 


leas 


Heat 


Ciiias 


Firinn 


Truth 


Irriney 


Toirt 


Gives 


Coj^rt 


Fuair 


Find 


Hooar 


Fearapull 


Temple 


Chiamble 


Ghabh 


Take 


Ghow 


Thig 


Come 


Hig, Jig 


Gradh 


Love 


Graih 


Tharruing 


Draw 


Hayrn 


Gheibh 


Take 


Yiow 


Thir 


Land 


Cheer, Heer 


Ith 


Eat 


Ee 


Thuig 


Knew 


i'heig, Hoig 


Judhac 


Jew 


Hew 


Thug 


Gave 


Hug, Dug 


Labliair 


Spake 


Loayr 


Tigh 


Mouse 


Thie, Hie 


Lamh 


Hand 


Laue 


lu 
H h 2 


Thou 


Oo 



236 

In tliese examples, it is clear, that the Galic and the Manx differ in 
orthography, although thev agree perfectly in sound. 

In the Isle of Man they write as they pronounce ; but in Ireland and 
in the Highlands of North Britain, attention is paid to orthography, by 
which stai)ility is best preserved, and the affinity of kindred languages 
more readily discerned. Were either French or English written as pro- 
nounced, how soon would they be corrupted, how difficult would it be 
to understand them, and how impossible to discover their connexion and 
descent I This I demonstrated, when trealing'of orthography. 

But although the Galic in various instances discovers its origin and 
affinities much better than the Manx; 3'et the latter, in many words, 
evinces more clearly than the former, their connexion with kindred 
lansnases, both ancient and modern. 

From this transient view of the Manx, it is clear, that, like the Irish, 
it is related to the Greek, to its iEolic dialect the Latin, and to the 
Hebrew, Arabic and Chaldee. 

Among the few words which either occur in this vocabulary, or present 
themselves to my recollection, are some whose affinity to Greek is most 
evident. These are aal, auXvj ; agam, f%w ; an, «/f u ; baillym, jiovXo^x-i ; 
clieau, y.Xi'itvg; cluinym, kXuw ; cha, ovx^ ; hie race, afxe ; hooill, the eye, 
viXto,', the sun; mec, t^n ; mona, f^-ovog; myn, i^eicov ; noght, wkto^^ ; n^r, ue; 
ta Jijs aijm, Iriifj-i ; irree, a.i^uj. 

In its affinity to Hebrew, I shall notice two expressions, which require 
particular attention. First then, jcc and yee, which in Manx mean the 
Deity, are in the Irish written f/^a. because, like Greek and Hebrew, this 
language is a stranger to I, consonant, a character which, although in- 



237 

troduced into Latin, did not originally belong to it; for Priscian informs 
us, that the ancients used peiius for pejus, and eiius for ejus. The Irish 
therefore, not having the letter J, have no means of supplying its place, 
but by dh, yet they retain its power, and therefore o dhia is pronounced 

o yia. 

From this circumstance, and from the natural connexion between D 
and J, I am inclined to think that the parent of jee, yee, yia and dia, 
is to be sought for in the Flebrew Jah and Jehova, the self-existent, the 
eternal. The affinity between D and J is strongly marked by the practice 
of the Germans, who, to express the power of J, or of the palatine G, 
combine D with S, C, and II, or with S and J, and thus write dschellid 
for gelid, dsjelli for gelly, dsjost for just, and dsjuus for juice. The 
conversion therefore of I into J, and of J into D, or the reverse, as when 
diurnus becomes jxiurnee, must not excite our wonder. 

The second expression,^ to, which I invite particular attention, is baillym 
ox.saillym, of which in Irish we find the root in ail, the will. Of this the 
original seems to exist in 7"'^in he willed. Here it is remarkable, that 
in baillym the aspirate is converted into a labial, and that in saillym it is 
supplanted by a sibilant. When we shall proceed to treat of tlie Greek 
language, we shall have occasio) to notice some curious circumstances 
respecting the aspirate and its various substitutes in other kiMguages. 

In Irish we have toil the will, in which the T, may be derived from i^»^ 
leaving oil for the root, which makes a near approach to hod of the. 
Hipbiew, 



ON 



THE GOTHIC ILAWGUAGESo 



J.T is not my intention to perplex either my reader, or myself, in mazes 
more intricate than the labyrinth of Crete. This task I abandon to those 
bold adventurers, who are in possession of Ariadne's thread. 

In my researches, therefore, after the origin of the Danish nation, I 
shall not think it incumbent upon me to trace the steps of Odin, nor to 
ascertain the time of his departure from the East. Suffice it then to 
say, that traditional reports confirm the suspicions of the linguist, and 
tend to prove that the hordes, whose descendants now, as Norwegians, 
Danes and Swedes, command the entrance of the Baltic, came originally 
from the borders of the Euxine, directed in their course, and confined 
in their migrations, between two great rivers, the Volga and the Nicper 
or Borysthenes, till they met with the Riphsean mountains, which, ex- 
tending north and south for nearly fifteen hundred miles, marked their 
utmost limits to the cast. 



239 

Their most ancient records arc in the Edtia, first compiled and com- 
mitted to writing in Iceland, by Sigfuson, who was born about the year 
1057- These however, before the introduction of alphabetic characters, 
had been imposed as a task upon the memory, and transmitted by tra- 
dition, like the Poems of Valmeeki, of Homer, and of Ossian, from one 
generation to another. In them we may observe history and mytholog}^ 
truth and fiction, intimately blended. Yet from these records wc may 
venture to assume, that a distinguished leader, named Odin, Codcn, 
Woden, or Otho, came from Turkey, where his capital was called Asgard 
by the Goths, but Asburg by the Greeks. 

When, however, it is said that he came from Turkei/, it is evident, 
that by Turkey is pot intended either Turkestan, situated to the east of 
Imaus, and of the Aral Sea, orTurkomania, which extends through the 
mountainous district, whence flow the Nieper, theWolga, and the Don. 
Indeed, it is particularly stated, that he came from the Magotic Lake, 
and from the country watered by the Don, that is probably from 
Taurica. 

Here his Scythian Archers occupied vast forests, and gained their 
livelihood bv huntinor. From hence, as it is stated, he extended his con- 
tjuests to the north, drove back the first inhabitants, whether Finns, 
Laplanders, or other hordes unknown, and, after having established his 
sons in separate kingdoms, he himself took possession of Reidgotoland, 
now called Jutland and Gotland, where he erected his throne, and gave 
the name of Asgard, i. e. Fortress^ of the Gods, to the seat of his 
dominions. 



240 

It is particularly noticed, that he governed his realm b}? the assistance 
of a senate, composed of tAveive peers, whom he appointed as judges in 
the land; and from this institution, we may possibly have derived our 
juries. 

This account of Odin is confirmed by Snorro Sturleson, a distinguished 
poet and historian, born A. D. 1179, of an illustrious family, and himself 
the supreme judge in Iceland. From him we learn, that Suecia was 
considered as a new Sci/thia, an appellation, which did not escape the 
attention of Jornandes and of Bede. 

Odin could have found little resistance from the rude inhabitants, the 
hunters, swineherds, and nomade tribes of Scandinavia, whether Finns 
or Laplanders; for so thinly peopled was this country, that even in the 
eleventh century the sea coast alone was occupied, whilst the interior was 
one extensive forest, abandoned to wild beasts. Even the portion oc- 
cupied by wandering hordes remained uncultivated. This agrees with 
the description of Strabo and of Caesar. 

It appears, that Odin was not the original appellation of this dis- 
tinguished hero. His true name was Sigge. But either at his departure 
from the east, or after his extensive conquests, and the establishment of 
his throne in peace, he assumed the sacred name of that God, before 
whose altars, as high priest, he had been accustomed to offer sacrifice, 
and to whose protection, as Lord of hosts, he had attributed his vic- 
tories; for in the country, from which he came, it is probable, that the 
Deity was known, as m Palaslinc, under the appellation oi Adon, the 
Lord of the whole earth. 



241 

, In the religious system of these our Gothic ancestors, wo may catch 
aglympsc of pure theology, clouded by mythology, and the bhisphemous 
pretensions of a successful warrior. Indeed I am much inclined to think, 
that some knowledge of the true God remained, and that the total cor- 
ruption of religion did not take place till after the death of Odin. 
Human sacrifices had bled by his hand before the aUars of Jehovah, the 
Lord of Hosts: but it was not till after his decease, that superstition dif- 
fused its midniglit darkness over the northern hemisphere. It was then, 
that he was considered as the God of war, and that all the prisoners, 
taken in battle, were reserved for his altars. 

Under the notion of his divinity, one day in the week was consecrated 
to him, and called by his name. Such is the origin of our Wednesday, 
Wonsday of Iceland, Odm's day of Sweden, Wodensday of the Anglo 
Saxons. 

In like manner the fifth day of the week, being devoted to his wife 
Frigga, who became the Venus of the north, was called Freytao-. The' 
day preceding this, called Dies Jovis by the Romans, became Thorsdag, 
because Thor, the Taranis of Lucan, was the most valiant of the sons of 
Odin, These became the three superior deities of our Gothic ancestors, 
and to them were consecrated three annual festivals, of which the first, 
at the winter solstice, was called Juul. It is by no means improbable, 
that, as, like the Persians, these Asiatic tribes had their sacred fire, and 
were addicted to the worship of the sun, Juul is allied to y,Xiog. Certain 
it is, that the festival was sacred to Thor as the bright orb of day. This 
festival gave occasion to much riot, and was celebrated with nocturnal 
orgies. 

VOL. II. I i 



242 

From this institution undoubtedl}' arose the custom in, our northera 
counties of calling the great block of wocid, which burns on the hearth, 
all the twelve days of Christmas, the Yule log. 

Among the inferior gods, are to be nxkoned MarOy from whom we de^ 
rive night mare, and Neccus, called Nocca by the Danes, and known to- 
us by the appellation of Old Nick. His office appears to have been to 
drown men in the waters of the ocean. Another deity was called Flynt, 
Him they represented by a human skeleton, with a lighted torch, and 
sitting ona flint. 

It appears that every ninlli year, the king, attended by the senate, 
offered in the great temple nine captives to Odin. And it is recorded, 
that in a time of famine the first king of Vermiand was himself offered 
up as a burnt sacrifice to the same divinity. Having estahli-hed the 
worship of this sanguinary god, they conceived, that no victim could 
be too precious for his altars. Under this persuasion, Hacon, king of 
Norway, to secure his protection, and to obtain the victory over Harold, 
devoted his own son to Odin. 

The structure of his most ancient altars deserves particular attention. 
They consist of one large, flat, but unhewn stone, reposing on three 
others, and placed on the summit of a high tumulus, which is seldom 
solitary. In general the tumuli are three, disposed near together, and 
the central one is largest. The monumental tumuli stand single. In the 
rubbish under the large flat stone, flints are found, and the sacred area 
is surrounded by a square, inclosed by lesser stones. In one of the 
inclosures near the Royal Road in Zeeland, which leads to Bircke, th« 
columns are of a stupendous magnitude. 



243 

These altars, being all of unhewn stones, constructed in the open air, 
carry back the imagination to remote antiquity, and help to confirm tlie 
traditional reports respecting Odin and his family. 

It is probable, that the royal priesthood was continued in succession 
from the days of Odin, till the introduction of Christianity, an event 
which took place about the year 948. Attendant on the royalty, we find 
a race of bards, precisely as among the Celtic nations; but, in Scandi- 
navia, denominated skalds, that is probably men of skill in poetry, 
whose office it was to celebrate the heroic actions of their ancestors. 

The great temple of Odin was at Upsala, in the same inclosure with 
the palace, on a considerable eminence, surrounded by the extensiv-e 
plain of Waksala, which is on the margin of a lake, and well watered 
by abundant springs. Here was established the habitation of the sacred 
virgms, and the supreme tribunal of the realm. This temple is described 
by an ecclesiastic, who lived at the time of the introduction of Christi- 
anity into Sweden, and before the Pagan worship was abolished, as 
resplendent in every part with gold. 

Here the images of Odin, Thor and Frigga reclined on couches. But 
of these deities, Thor, as being most mighty, was most elevated, with 
seven stars in his left hand and a sceptre in his right. Frigga had her 
sword and bow. 

Succeeding writers confirm this account. Some time after Christianity 
had diffused its light over the daik regions of the north, the adherents 
of the ancient superstition made strong efforts to restore idolatry in 
Sweden. In consequence of this, the first Christian kings transferred the 
seat of empire from Upsala, and about the year 1024, Olof Skbt, th« 

I i 2 



244< 

koniing, that is the king, gave orders to destroy the Pagan temple, with 
its idols ; but as these injunctions were not implicitly obeyed, Ingenuuid, 
in 1085, spoiled the temple of its ornaments, buriit the idols, and cut 
down the groves. Succeeding monarchs tollowc i is extH,iple, and about 
the year lloO, a cathedral dedicated to St. Lawrence was built on the 
foundati n of the Pagan edifice. 

All our records are agreed in bringing Odin from the East; and Wil- 
liam of Malmsbury traces the descent of Hengist from this Asiatic hero. 
N.iy, such, according to our best accounts, is the correspondence, such 
the conformity of customs and manners, between the A^^ic'iic Scydiians 
and the Goths, that we scarcely stand in need of historic evidence. In 
both countries the women not only attended their husbands to the field, 
but assisted them in battle. For this purpose they were provided with 
horses and oftensive weapons by theii husbands on the wedding day. 

In both countries the female infants were deprived of their right breast, 
and in both, the warriors drank out of the skulls of their enemies. In 
both, their covenants were confirmed by blood. This we learn, as far 
as relates to the Scythians, from Lucian ; and SaxoGrammaticus informs 
us, that the same practice prevailed in Denmark. 

But the clearest evidence of the close affinity between the Gothic 
nations and the Scythians of Eastern Europe and of Asia, may be de- 
rived from the languages of Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Iceland, Eng- 
land, Germany, Greece, Persia and Indostan, which all essentially agree, 
as dialects of one common tongue. 

To Odin has been commonly attributed the introduction of the Runic 
characters, which he is said by the northern poets and historians to have 



245 

brought with him from Asia. That letters were imported at an early 
period, is probable, because, hke those of the (J reek, Galic and Welch, 
they were sixteen in number, as wore those of the Hebrew, at a period 
particularly noticed by Bayer. 'J'liese were A, B, D, F, H, I, K, L, M, 
N, O, R, S, T, U, Y. 

Here we must particularly notice thai P, V and W, C, G and Q, are 
wanting, as are the double consonants X and Z, but that in the Danish 
we find P as a modification of K. In the more ancient inscri|)tions of 
Iceland, Norwdv, and Denmark, as preserved by Ohms Wormius and by 
Peringskiold, Y does not appear; consequently the characters may be 
reckoned fifteen. In this enumeration T do not include E, because it is 
a modification of A; and I must here remark, that O is expressed by a 
reduplication of the A, so that originally t^e Goths appear to have been 
contented with three vowel characters, A, I and U. 

According to Pliny, the letters introduced by Cadmus into Europe 
were A, B, C, D, E, G, I, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T, V, which nearly 
coincide with those of Denmark. Whether, or not, the aborigines of 
Italy had P, in the alphabet, which they received from Evander the- 
Arcadian, lam not competent to say; but 1 suspect that either B has 
been a comparatively modern refinement upon P, or that P is a refinement 
upon B; to which it is confessedly allied. Mr. Baxter remarks, that the 
Brigantes, whom he regards as the most ancient inhabitants of Britain, 
had not P, till it was introduced by the Bilgae. The Noiwcgians, 
Danes, and Swedes, as I am inclined to think, were strangcis to ihe 
letter B, or had but one character for B and P. 



246 

Indeed fewer characters thar\ those, which occur in the most ancient 
inscriptions of Scandinavia, would have been sufficient for the purposes 
of speech. The original Pelasgic letters, which, in form, approach to 
the Runic, more particularly in I, F, and T, were twelve, A, E, I, U, L, 
R, M, N, S, T, P, K, and of these, P and T potentially contain B, F 
and D. As for U, it might perhaps, as in Hebrew, serve for 0. Even 
so late as 150 years before the reign of Augustus, the Romans had but 
one character for the power of K, C, and G, like the northern Goths, 
and therefore wrote not legiones, magistratos, eifugiunt; but leciones, 
macistratos, exficiont. This circumstance has been very properly noticed 
by Walton, in the Prolegomina to his Polyglot. 

There is a remarkable conformity between the Runic and the Welch 
characters, compared with those of the Mancheou Tartars, as described 
by Du Halde. Among these the Runic appear most simple, the Welch 
most refined. Both have a striking resemblance to the Greek, and both 
were evidently contrived for the use of people who possessed no imple- 
ments for writing beyond a square stick and the fragment of a flint, or 
some kind of cutting instrument. To make this visible, I here subjoin 
the Runic and the Bardic characters, as they appear in the Pantographia 
of Mr. Edmund Fry, with the radical Pelasgian alphabet of Father Gori, 
which Astle conceives to be the most correct. 



247 

RUNIC CHARACTERS, 
a b c d e f 2; h 

i B Y 4i> i Y Y % 

i k 1 m n o n q 

I r i^ Y K € B F 

r s t V X y z 

B M- 't h.¥ ^hh 

Such is the Runic alphabet, consisting of twenty-five characters, as 
given by Mr. Fry, and published in the year 1799. 

On this it is needful to make some observations. In the first place I 
must remark, that we have here a mixture of ancient and modern cha- 
racters. All the pristine characters, sixteen in number, are, as I 
have stated, composed of straight lines, but in Fry's alphabet we have 
curves, which are certainly modern. We have here likewise both B and 
P. One of these is superfluous, and of modern date. The ancient 
form, found in Norway, is a modification of K. G and K had originally 
one character, which is that of K in the modern alphabet. But here, 
fo« G, one stroke of K is curved, as are the two lateral strokes in M. 
Here also V and Z have the same character, which surely they never 
could have had. The same observation will apply to S and Y. Q is 
modern, as are X, Y and Z. Here also E differs from the more ancient 
form, as found in Norway and Denmark, which is a cross. The remain- 
ing characters, A, I, O, V, L, N, S, T and U, consisting of straight 
strokes, perfectly agree in both the ancient and the modern alphabets. 



248 

I have stated, that in Wales the Bardic alphabet was composed entirely 
of straight stiokes. To demonstrate this, I here produce it. 









BARDIC. 








a 


aa 


e 


ee 


i 


o 


oo 


u 


A 


A 


Nl 


^ 


1 


O 


O 


y 


u 


w 


W 


y 


b 


V 


m 


m 


Y 


V 


V 


Y 


1/ 


t^ 


> 


W 


V 


p 


ph 


mh 


f 


k 


ch 


ngh 


u 


h 


N 


^ 


f:^ 


< 


K 


< 


g 


ng 


t 


th 


nh 


d 


z 


n 



n 11 1 rh r s h hw 

This Welch alphabet seems to have been a refinement on the ancient 
Runic, and in a few of their characters they make a near approach. 
These are A, I, F, V and T. Others have a more remote resemblance. 

Most of the radical Pelasgian letters are composed of straight lines, 
and a few of these resemble either the Runic or the Bardic, particularly 
I, P, F, M, N, K, T. 

PELASGIAN CHARACTERS OF CORT. 
m I k k k i e a 

AA vj >l )1 :) I a fl 

f f f t s r p n 

8:iV + 2<11M 



849 

In tills alphabet we observe some characters with straight strokes and 
others with curves, the former evidently more ancient than the latter. It 
contains three characters for V, which in (he more ancient Pclasgian in- 
scriptions, found A.D. 1456, at Eugnbium, are used for F. At this we 
need not wonder, because F and V being letters of the same organ, are 
extremely apt to assume each other's place. We have three characters 
for K, and as this alphabet, like Hebrew and Chaldee proceeds from 
right to lelt, we may oi)serve a strd<ing resemblance in form between the 
Pelasgian and the Bardic K. I is precisely the same in both. M and 
F are in Oi e of these alpliabels. turned upside down. Both F and P 
are reversed. N and T in both alphabets resemble, but in the Pelasgian 
they appear distorted. 

It is remarkable, that the Danes and Germans call a letter by the 
name of bugstav and buch stab, or beech staff, and that this species of 
wood is most abundant in Denmark. Even book is derived from beech, 
and four verses in our Psalms are called a stave. A poet, who wrote 
about five hundred years bt-fore the introduction of Christianity in our 
northern regions, has left iiicse lines: 

" Barbara fraxineis pinguntur Runa tabellis, 
" Quodque papyrus agif, virgula plana valet." 

The Welch inscriptions seem to have been confined wholly to such 
rods; but in Scandia they were committed to the rock. Of these, the 
most ancient, as far as my observation goes, appears to have been A.D. 
270, and even later than this period, the characters consisted of straight 
lines. But in process of time, when B and D were introduced, these, 
with M an I R, began to exhibit curves. This change became natural, 

VOL. II. K k 



250 

whsi) they were to inscribe their characters in stone; not with a knife, 
but with a mallet and a chisel, or with a graving tool; and still more 
natural, when succeeding generations wrote on skins, or in the place of 
skins had substituted paper. 

The operation having been performed originally by incision, and in 
subsequent periods by engraving furrows on the rock, gave birth to a 
metaphorical expression, when Tully said, " Haec cum essem in senatu 
exaravi." Indeed the Gothic term rj'nner, from whence runes and Runic 
have been derived, means grooves, trenches, furrows. 

It is said, that Abraham and Abimelech made a covenant, but 
in the Hebrew the verb is carath, and in Chaldee gazar, both which 
convey the notion of engraving, whether in wood, in metal, or in stone. 
See also Job xix. 24. Jer. xvii. Ezek. xxxvii. l6. 

Of the Runic inscriptions, some are disposed from top to bottom, 
after the manner of the Chinese writing, and the quipoz of Peru; some 
from right to left, or the reverse and others, alternating like the Greek 
/Sou^po(p>j5ov, gave birth to the expression verse. 

In Sweden some monumental inscriptions surround a shield. Of such 
Peringskiold has preserved examples. One of these, discovered in the 
Royal Domain, called Konungsgiird, about one hundred yards from the 
Temple of old Upsal deserves particular attention. The monument was 
raised by Elof and Sigwed in remembrance of their father Wilfast, as 
appears by the epitaph engraved on the body of a serpent, which sur- 
rounds the scutcheon. For the crest we observe a wolf looking back- 
wards, and tlic patronymick name is IVolf. On this monument Pering- 
fikioid remarks as follows: " It is certain, that the ancestors of this 



251 

family liave been famous for military talents, during a period of more 
ihan two thousand years, and continued to produce distinguished 
generals till the fifteenth century, when the male branch became extinct." 
As they frequently commanded on foreign expeditions, he thought it 
probable, that Romulus and Remus were of this family. In America 
^^e find one tribe distinguished by the name of JVolf. A monument, 
similar to this in all respects, has been discovered in the parish of 
Danmark, near Upsal, erected by the two sons of Lafia for their father. 

The Skalds were, as I have stated, the constant attendants upon 
royalty, and seemed to have exercised the same functions as the re- 
corders both in China and Judea, and to have composed in verse their 
chronicles, their creed, their sacred hymns, and their moral essays. 

Such probably was their original institution. But, as all rude nations 
are subject to superstitious fears, the Skalds soon learnt to abuse the 
poetic art and Runic characters for the purposes of magic. Hence arose 
their incantations, by which they were to call the moon and stars from 
heaven, to stop the course of rapid rivers, to quench the devouring 
flame, to burst asunder the gates of death, and to call departed spirits 
from the deep. These magic arts were, by the Skalds, universally attri- 
buted to Odin, who was surnamed Runhofdi, that is chief of the Runic 
art. Such in fact was the intimate connexion between the Runic cha- 
racters and magic, that in the Cimbric Language run means magic; and 
run, Saxon, like runa, Gothic, means mystery. In Saxon runcrajftigen 
is enchantment, and runstaf is both a magic character and incantation. 

The Runic havnig been abused for the purposes of the most execrable 
superstition, Ulphilas, Bishop of Mcesia, about A. D. 380, endeavoured, 

K k2 



252 

as it is said, to introduce new characters. Such, however, was the force 
of prejudice, such tiie power of inveterate habits, such the universal pro- 
pensity to magic, that Christianity itself was unable to produce a re- 
formation, and the iS mic continued to prevail in all the Gothic coun- 
tries till they were prosciibed, first in Sweden by the Pope, A. D. 1050 
then in Spain by Alphonzo, A. D. 1086, and finally by the Council 
of Toledo, A. D. UK). Even the characters invented by Ulphilas, seem 
to have been considered as approaching too nearly to the Runic, and 
were forbidden in this council. 

In the Cimbrip Chersonesus, we find at present three people, who 
resemble each other in essential character and language, tlic >forwegians, 
Danes and Swedes. These appear to have been formerly one people 
dispersed and scattered over the North, but separated from each other 
by seas, by mountains, or by the accidental circumstance of various 
governments and distant scats of empire. 

The origin of the name Dane has not been ascertained. Amonof their 
sea port towns we observe Tonningen and Tunder. In Lower Saxony is 
Danneberg. At the mouth of the Vistula is Dantzick, anciently called 
Gedanum. We likewise see Tonsburs: and Sinus Codanus in the district 
of Jutland, wiiose inhabitants were called fyeTwog, by the Greeks. All 
these names resemble and seem to be connected. They direct our at- 
tention to one nation and lead us to conclude with Sheringham, that 
the apparently discordant names of Danes and Goths originate in one. 

As to the inhabitants themselves they are evidently Goths. 



OF 



THE ©AWISH JLAWGUAGE, 



OlAUS Wormius, a learned Dane, considered the English and the 
Danish as one language ; and, that they are so, will I apprehend, be 
evident to every one, who takes the trouble to compare them. He 
coincides in opinion with Lyscander, that Danish is a compound of 
Teutonic and of Hebrew corrupted, since the dynasty was changed, 
A. D. 1523, by the importation of Teutonic words. These, however, 
appear as aliens and intruders usurping the place of ancient words, 
which, though neglected, have been yet preserved. Certain it is that 
the Laponic is a dialect of Hebrew, as I shall hereafter take occasion 
to demonstrate. 

I 

The strict affinity between English and Danish will be evinced, as 
we proceed in the examination of the latter. It may be here observed 
that aa is pronounced as o. 



254 

The Pronouns. 
leg, I; du, thou; ban, he; bun, she; det, it; vi, we; I, you; de, 
they; os, us; dem, tbera; min, mine; din, thine; eders, yours; deres, 
theirs. 

The Auxiliary Verbs. 
leg er, I am; vi ere, we are; iegvar, 1 was; vaere, to be; vaerende, 
being; vaeret, been; ieg bar, I have; du har, thou hast; ban bar, he 
has; vi have, we have, I have, ye have; de have, they have; ieg havde, 
I bad; ieg havde bavt, I bad had. At have, to have; havende, having; 
bavt, bad. leg skall, I shall; ieg skulde, I should; at skulle, to be 
obliged. leg kan, lean; ieg kunde, I could; ieg skal kunne, I shall 
be able; at kunne, to be able; ieg vil, I will; ieg vilde, I would; at 
ville, to be willing. leg maa, I may; ieg maatte, I might, I must; 
at maatte, to be allowed, to be forced. 

The Irregular Verbs. 
leg taenker, I think, i. e. I am thinking. leg taler, I am talking, 
I am telling. leg aeder, I am eating; ieg aad, I ate, aedt, eaten. Baere, 
bar, baaren ; bear, bore, born. Briste, brast, brustet; burst. Drage, 
drog, dragen; draw, drew, drawn. Drive, drev, dreven; drive, drove, 
driven. Falde, faldt, falden; fall, fell, fallen. Finde, fandt, funden; 
find, found. Flye, flyede, flyedet; fly, flew, fled. Fryse, fros, frossen; 
freeze, froze, frozen, Give, gav, given; give, gave given. Glide, gleed, 
gleden; slide, slid, slidden. Gnave, gnov, gnaven ; gnaw, gnawed. 
Hugge, huggede, buggen ; hew, hewed, hew>i. Kiende, kiendte, kiendt; 
know, kne\\, known, or ken, ken'd. Klaede, klaedte, klaedt; clothe, 



255 

clad, clothed. Laane, laante, laant; lend, lent. Raekke, rakte, rakt; 
reach, reached. Soelgc, solgte, solgt; sell, sold. SidJe, sat, siddet; sit, 
sat, sitten. Skinne, skinncde, skinnet; shine, shone, shined. Synke, 
sank, sinnket; sink, sank, sunk. Traede, traadte, traadt ; tread, trod, 
trodden. Trive, trivedes, trivets ; thrive, throve, thriven. Det regner, 
it is raining. Det hagler, it is hailing. 

The Comparisons. 

Aaben, aabnere, aabnest ; open, opener, openest. Faa, faerre, faerrest ; 
kw, fewer, fewest. God, bedre, bedst; good, better, best. Hoe, 
hoiere, hoiest; high, higher, highest. Lang, laengere, laengst; long, 
longer, longest. Naer, naermere, naermest; near, nearer, nearest. Ung, 
ungere, ungst ; young, younger, youngest. 

The Numerals. 
Een, to, tre, fire, fem, sex, syv, otte, ni, ti. 

Phrases. 

Lukke doren i, shut the door. Lukke doren op, open the door. To 
shut may be also tillukke or tilslutte. To open may be aabne or oplukke. 
Hvem er det der banker ? Who knocks? Giver ham eders bog, give him 
your book. 

By these examples, it is evident that Danish and EnHish are kindred 
languages. Their near affinity will be rendered more distinctly visible, 
when we shall have removed the veil, which, in numerous instances, 
tends to conceal resemblance from the unpractised eye: that is, when 



236 

I shall have called lo tlie recollection of my readers those cor- 
ruptions, to which all languages are subject, and which have happened 
both to the Danish and our own by the practice, universally adopted, 
of considering letters of the same organ as commutable. These maj 
be divided into classes. 

In the first class of commutable consonants, b, p, f, v, u, w, m, we 
have the subsequent examples. 



Danish. 


English. 


Danish. 


English. 


Danish, 


Englis h. 


Aabne 


Open 


Halv 


Half 


Stav 


Staff 


Dyb 


Deep 


Kalv 


Calf 


Stiv 


Stiff 


Gab 


Gap 


Due 


Dove 


Fern 


Five 


Gabe 


Gape 


Lov 


Law 


Navn 


Name 


Gribe 


Gripe 


Frisk 


Brisk 


Stevn 


Stem 


Haabe 


Hope 


Faeste 


Beast 


Emmer 


Embers 


Hob 


Heap 


KlafF 


Clap 


Kammer 


Chamber 


klcbe 


Cleave 


Klippe 


Cliff 


V^aad 


Wet 


Ober 


Over 


TafTel 


Table 


Vgekke 


Wake 


Plot 


Blot 


Fiaele 


Veil 


Varm 


Warm 


Saebe 


Soap 


Liv 


Life 


Vrang 


Wrong 


Straebe 


Strive 


Rive 


Rub 


Vriste 


Wrest 


Dov, Doev 


Deaf 


Rove 


Rob 


Vraenge 


Wring 



In like manner English words in w, have in Danish v. Viid, wide; 
ville, will; viin, wine; uld, wool. 



257 



The second class of conimutablc 


consonants. 


c, ch, g, gh, h, k, i, y 


and w, has the subsequent examples. 






Danish, 


English. 


Danish. 


Entflish. 


Danish. 


English. 


Flage 


Flake 


Kaal 


Cole 


Skave 


Shave 


Hage 


Hook 


Krolle 


Curl 


Skede 


Sheath 


Hog 


Hawk 


Saek 


Sack 


Ski aire 


Shear 


Kage 


Cake 


\rag 


Wreck 


Skirerpe 


Sharpen 


Mage 


Make 


kig 


Rich 


Skield 


Schold 


Mog 


Muck 


Raskke 


Reach 


Skine 


Shine 


Rage 


Rake 


^"^.yg 


Sick 


Skib 


Ship 


Lige 


Like 


Sigt 


Sight 


Skiold 


Shield 


Stage 
Snog 


Stake 
Snake 


Skrige 


c Shriek 
^Screech 


■ikiorte 
Skoe 


Shirt 
Shoe 


Soge 


Seek 


Laege 


Leech 


ikoet 


Shod 


Svag 


Weak 


Magt 


Might 


Skorte 


Short 


Stryge 


Stfuke 


Trug 


Trough 


Skovl 


Shovel 


Tage 


Take 


Kule 


Hole 


Skud 


Shot, Shoot 


Tiixng 


Rank 


Kam in 


Chimney 


Skytte 


Shooter 


Kam 


Comb 


Kirke 


Church 


Vogte 


Watch 


Karde 


Card 


Klar 


Clear 


Sukkc 


Sigh 


Kaste 


Cast 


Klaske 


Clash 


Disk 


Dish 


Kat 


Cat 


Klokke 


Clock 


Fisk 


Fish 


Koe 


Cow 


Klukke 


Cluck 


Kort 


Short 


Kok 


Cook 


Skaeg 


Shag 


Mask 


Mash 


Kop 


Cup 


Skarp 


Sharp 


Rcidfisk 


Roach 



roL. II. 



l1 



2o8 



Danish. 


English. 


Danish. 


English. 


Danish. 


English, 


Rask 


[{ash 


Rug 


Rye 


Drage 


Draw 


Skal 


Shall, Shell 


Sige 


Say 


Drukne 


Drown 


Skam 


Shame 


Slaegte 


Slay 


Dusrsr 


Dew 


Skosse 


Chaise 


Stag 


Stays 


Egen 


Own 


Skaevc 


ChafF 


Frugt 


Fruit 


Foelge 


Follow 


Skaft 


Haft 


Lagt 


Laid 


Fugl 


Fowl 


Vaske 


NVash 


Nagle 


Nail 


Hugge 


Hew, How 


Gaarde 


Yard 


Regne 


Rain 


Svaelge 


Swallow 


Laegge 


Lay 


Snegl 


Snail 


Talg 


Tallow. 


Fcerge 


Ferry 


Tegl 


Tile 






Mange 


Many 


Vogn 


Wain 






The thirc 


i class of cora 


mutable consonants, d, t, 


th, has these examples 


Danish. 


English. 


Danish. 


English. 


Danish. 


English, 


De 


The 


Geed 


Goat 


Smuds 


Smut 


Disse 


These 


Had 


Hate 


Sod 


Soot 


Doed 


Death 


Hytte 


Heed 


Sod 


Sweet 


Du 


Ihou 


lord 


Farth 


Sprude 


Spurt 


Dig 


Thee 


Ivlaede 


Cloth 


Stad 


State 


D under 


Thunder 


Langde 


Length 


Svede 


Sweat 




CThrostle or 


.Vord 


North 


Tand 


Tooth 


Drossel 


cThrush 


Vrcd 


Wrath 


Taenke 


Think 


Feed 


Fat 


Vride 


Wreath 


I'anke 


Thought 


Flad 


Flat 


Mud 


Sleet 


Torn 


Thorn 


Iledc 


Heat, Heath: 


Sraed 


Smith 


Tong 


Thong 



'2dD 



Danish, 


Eiv.'Ush. 


Diinuh. 


F.ng^iah. 


Danish. 


EnglHh 


Toe 


Thaw 


Pre 


['hrce 


Tyk 


Thick 


Torst 


riiiist 


Trives 


Thrive 


lyiicl 


rhin 


Traad 


Threat 


TroiDine 


Drum 


Vy V 


i hief. 


Trcenge 


Tiirong 


iVoHc 


riirone 







From this comparative view, I trust it wii! be evident, that Danish 
and Lnglish were originally one. In fact they continued one, till William 
the Conqneror introduced Norman words. -Since that time, althouo-li 
rustic expressions remain unchanged; such as are found in cities and 
about a court, are derived from Normandy, Sheep, goat, cow, calf 
swine, ox, bull, remain; subject only to such changes as time universally 
produces. But the meat, which these animals aftord, takes the Norman 
appellation. Hence we no longer retain the expressions lammekiod, 
oxekiod, kalvekiod and swlnekiijd, but in their stead universally adopt 
the Norman names mutton, beef, veal, and pork. The affinity between 
the Danish and the Greek, will be particularly noticed, and it will then 
be evident, that whatever relation subsists between Enrrlisli and the 
oriental languages, is to be found equally in Danish. 

In the former part of this work we have traced the connexion between 
English and Greek, and we have now demonstrated the close affinity be- 
tween the Danish and the English. Hence the relation, which subsists 
between Danish and Greek, is manifest. It follows as a consequence. 

I shall, however, compare these languages together; I will brino' them 
into contact, and then it will immediately appear that they originate in one. 

When two languages pass in review before us, we readily imagine, that 
the one, which can by authentic documents be traced backward to tlie 
most remote antiquity, must be the most ancient of the two, and that 

l12 



260 

this, when they happen to accord, must be the parent of the other. It 
may, however, be frequently observed, that the venerated language is 
indebted for words to languages, which afford no other evidence of their 
antiquity except these words. Thus, for example, we are disposed to 
think, that Greek and Latin may be the parents, but cannot be the 
offspring, either of Danish, or of any other language, from which it is 
imniediaiely derived. 

The impropriety of this conclusion will, I trust, immediately be seen. 
In English we observe male, in old French masle, both evidently derived 
from masculus. But whence comes inas? This appears to have been 
derived, by the usual process of abbreviation, either from the Danish 
mnnds, a male, or from the Sanscrit manushya, human ; but certainly 
neither mands, nor manushya, was derived from mas. 

Between Danish and Greek words it may be sometimes difficult to say, 
which is the parent, which the offsoring. I am disposed to think, as in 
the conclusion it ma}' appear to others, that they are not related as parent 
and offspring, but that they are separate dialects of one language, and 
indebted for their existence to that, which was spoken either immediately, 
r,Y remotely by the common ancestors of both nations. 

fn Danish the substantive verb differs in its form from Greek. But 
then it must be observed in the first place, thai em, I am, is still pre- 
served in the Icelandic, a:id, in the next place, it must be remembered 
th-at ftui is a comj>ound, W'^m which, if wc remove the pronoun (xi, only 
i.i remains io be compar;\l with e in the modern Dcinish of cr, am, which 
seems likewise to be a compound. 

In order \n trace llie allinity between these languages, I shall examine 
■ /irst some few bimplc words and then compounds. 



oir 



THE SWEDISH LANGUAGE. 



X HE Swedish language is essentially the same with Danish and with 
English. All these are confessedly dialects of Gothic. That they are 
equally connected with the Greek, will be evident to every one, who 
takes the trouble to compare them ; and it will appear, that the resem- 
blance has been best preserved in the most obsolete expressions. 

To make this evident, I have selected numerous examples from Pering- 
skiold, who considers them as belonging to the most ancient Gothic or 
Scando-Scythian tongue, which prevailed in Europe, and extended itself 
into Asia. These will be found interspersed among the more modern 
terms, and will be readily distinguished by the adept in Swedish 
literature. 

In the examination of this vocabulary, the reader must recollect, what 
I have said on ihe investigation of radicals, and more parliculavly, what 
I have had frequently occasion to explain respecting the three principal 
classes of commutable consonants; because, by the application of this 
key to languages, he will gain access to their most recondite treasures, 
through the whole extent of Europe and of Asia. 



OF 



THE ICELAWBIC ILAMGUAGE, 



It is acknowledged, that the first inhabitants of Iceland were emigrants 
from Scandinavia, who, A. D. 874, fled from the tyranny of Harold, 
surnamed Harfagre. In this sequestered spot they cultivated science, 
and their language is the purest Scandinavian, uncorrupted by admixture 
with the German. 

Having already said so much on the Danish, I shall here content 
myself with the most transient view of the Icelandic. 

The Pro7iouns. 
Eg, thu, hann ; vier, thier, thaug; I, thou, he; Ave, ye, they. 
In the oblique cases we find myn, thyn, hanns; oss, vorra, ydur, and 
theirra, which give birth to the possessives. 

The Verbs. 
Eo- cr and Eg em, I am ; Eg var, I was ; ad vera, to be; verande, being. 
Eo- hef, I have; Eg haffde, I had; ad afa, to have. Eg skal, I shall; 



263 

Eg aa, I owe; Eg aaatte, I did owe; Eg man, I may; Eg meige, I 
might. Eg vil, I will; Eg inun, I must. Eg gef, 1 give; Eg gaf, 1 
gave; ad gefa, to give; gefande, giving; giefenn, given. Eg tem, I 
tame; Eg tamde, I have tamed; ad temia, to tame; temianda, tamino-. 
Eg finn, I find; Eg iann, I have found; finnande, finding. 

The Comparison of Adjectives. 

Dyr, dyrare, dyraste; dear, dearer, dearest. Laus, lausare, lausaste; 
loose, looser, loosest. Mikell, meire, meste; much, more, most. Litil, 
minne, minst ; little, less, least. Goode, betre, beste; good, better, 
best. Ill, verre, vest; bad, worse, worst. Laung, leingre, leingst; long, 
longer, longest. Fagur, fregre, fegurstur; fair, fairer, fairest. 

This confessedly is the purest of the northern dialects, and, agreeing 
essentially with the Danish and the Swedish, its affinities are the same 
with their's. 



OF 



THE MiESO-GOTHIC. 



JL HE fragment, whicli remains to us of the Gospels translated into 
Gothic by Ulphilas, who was bishop of Maesia, A. D. S60, is a valuable 
treasure; because it enables us to trace back our language towards its 
parent stem, and helps us to ascertain a fact, that English, Anglo-Saxon, 
German, Danish, Swedish, Icelandic, Ma3SO-Gothic and Greek, to which 
we must add the Persian and the Sanscrit, are nearly related, and ori- 
ginate in one branch of the primeval language. 

As a fragment, we cannot expect its vocabulary to be copious, yet the 
comparatively few words contained in it are evidently connected with the 
other languages of this branch, as will be clearly seen by the subsequent 

examples. 

The Pronotim. 

Ic, tliu, is; weis, izwis, eis; 1, thou, he, we, ye, they. 
In tlic oblique cases we observe, meina, theina, is; unsara, izwara, 
ize; answering to mine, thine, his; our, your, their. 



265 



The Verbs. 

Im, IS, ist; svum, syuth, sincl ; T am, thou art, Sec. Was, wast, was; 
wesiun, wesuth, wesun; I was, &c. Du wisan, to be; wisands, being. 
Wairtha, I become; warth T became. Ilaba, habais, habaith; haljam, 
habaith, baband ; 1 have, thou hast, &c. Skal, I shall, will and must; 
skulda, should. Magan, to be able; mahta, might. Sokja, sokjais, 
sokeith; sokjam, sokeith, sokjand, I seek, thou seekest, &c. Sokida. 
I sought; sokjei thu, seek thou; stikjands, seeking. Aigan, to have, 
aihida, had. Andbindan, to unbind; andband, unbound. Biiidan, to 
bid; band, bade or bad. Biskeinan, to shine; biskain, shone. Briggan, 
to bring; brahta, brought. Bugjan, to buy; bauhta, bought. Driggkari, 
to drink; dragk, drank. Duginnan, to begin; dugan, began. Gabri- 
kan, to break; gabrak, broke. Galisan, to lease; galas, leased. Gawi- 
than, to join; gawath, joined. Gaggon, to gang; iddja, went. Gasitan, 
to sit; gasat, sat. Giban, to give; gaf, gave. Greipan, to seize; graip, 
seized. Hafjan, to heave; hof, heaved. Hlahjan, to laugh; hloh, 
laughed. ISiman, to take, to nim; nam, took. Quiman, to come; 
quam, came. Quithan, to say; quath, quoth. Slahan, to slay; sloh, 
slew. Standan, to stand; stoth, stood. Steigan, to go; staig, went. 
Swaran, to swear; swor, swore. Thagkjnn, to {l>ink; thahla, thought. 
Thwahan, to wash; thwoh, washed. Ussingan, to read; ussang, read. 
Urreisan, to rise; urrais, arose. Waurkjan, to woik; waurhta, 
wrought. 

The Gothic, like the Greek, is apt to form its preterite by redupli- 

VOL. II. M m 



266 

cation, as in aukan, to eke, to increase; aiauk, he increased; fahan, to 
take, faifah, he took; tekan, to touch; taitok, he touched. 

Like the Greek, it has the double g in the place of ng, as in gaggan, 
to go, to gang. Tuggo, the tongue ; lagga, long ; briggan, to bring ; 
huggrjan, to hunger; drigghan, to drink; thaggkian, to think ; aggilus, 
angel ; Aggun, Augustus. 

Like Greek, it has the dual number in its verbs, and like Greek, it 
delights in compound expressions. It has some resemblance to the 
Hebrew in its hiphil conjugation, as in kunnan, to know; gakunjan, to 
make known. 

Its numerals are similar to those of its kindred languages in Europe 
and in Asia. 

A in, twa, thrins, fidwor, fimf, saihs, sibun, ahtau, niun, taihun. 



AFFINITY BETWEEN DANISH AND GREEK. 

I must here premise that aa is pronounced as o, that b, answering to 
iTTt, is apt to be prefixed to the root, that letters of the same organ ha\e 
been substituted for each other without scruple by the Danes, and that 
the part of the verb adduced is commonly the infinitive. 



26r 



Danish. 


Eihjlish, 


Greek. 


Danish. 


Enylifh. 


Greek. 


Aabe 


Open 


OTTV] 


Blusse 


lilazc 


Ktujjio 


A age 


Yoke 


Xvycv 


Bog 


Beech 


'py,ycg 


Mde 


Eat 


eSeiv 


Boe 


Live 


^lOiC 


Aal 


Eal 


tyxtXog 


Bonne 


Bean 


'TtVCC^/OV 


Ande 


Breathe 




Borg 


Castle 


7rup<yog 


Aare 


Oar 


tpeatrco 


Bore 


Bore 


xeipw 


CEg 


Egg 


xryfyog 


Bosse 


A box 


Tcv^ig 


Af 


con hy, ; 

C from S 


X'KO 


Braege 
Braekke 


Bark 
Break 


I'ipvxxof^cei. 
pviyv'jui 


Al 


All 


okog 


Broende 


Burn 


Ttvpoeiv 


Alen 


Ell 


(cXiVi^ 


Braemme 


Brim 


7[epiuiJ.[t.oi 


Albue 


Elbow 


dXevvifiiog 


Brist 


Burst 


pvi<r(Tcc 


Almisse 


Alms 


eXeyi[j,oiTwyj 


Bring 


Bring 


(pspsiw 


An 


<|Thepre-p 
c position S 


ocvx 


Brum me 
Bryst 


Roar 

Breast 




Arm 


Destitute 


e^v,[>,og 


Bue 


Bow 


3iOs 


Be, Bi, 


^The pre-'i 
C position ) 


evi 


Bux 

Daatter 


Box 

Dauofhter 


^vyccTvp 


Baere 


Carry 


(pspeiv 


Daekke 


Cover 


rf7£iv 


Bedre 


Better 


SeKrspog 


Dele 


Deal 


5i£X£iV 


Bedst 


Best 


SekTigog 


Die 


Suck 


m^'/l 


Blad 


Blade i 


iXxgxvcti, 


Dige 


Dike 


reixog 


Blege 


Bleach 


KevKog 


Dobbelt 


Double i 


hirXcvg 


Blomstre 


Bloom J 


3Xuw 


Dogge 


Dog 


ijc'/LOg 



268 



Danish. 

i3okke 

Doinme 

Dor 
Drage 
Drive 
Du 



D 



"gg 



Dyb 
Dyppe 
Dykke 
Dyr 

Ebbe 

Eg 

Eje 

Een 

Faa 

Faae 

Fad 

Falde 



1 



aiige 



Faic 
Fatte 



English. 

Dock 

( Deem 

I Doom 

Door 

Drag 

Drive 

Thou 

Dew 

Deep 

Dip 

Dive 

Beast 

Ebb 

Edge 

fiave 

One 

Few 

Obtain 

Pan 

Fell, Foul 

Covet 

Seize 

Go 

Catch 



I Greek. 

8eSpz<y[j.xt 

rpijicii 
\ 

TV 

VTiTOI 
SvTTTCC 

ev 

TTxvpog 

TTOCCO 

TTXTOCUVI 

rreXup. (pxvXog 
ekSofj-xi 

opevofj^xi 
n-xco 



Danish. 

Feed 

Fegte 

Feile 

Finte 

Filt 

Flaae 

Flase 

Flere 

Fleest 

Flette 

Flod 

Flyde 

Fod 

Fode 

Fore 

Foge 
Fole 
Fold 
Folk 
For 
Forest 
Fra 
[Fragte 



Engliih. 


Greek. 


Fat 


(pocTVoj. TreTTxlxi 


Fight 


TTUHTf-veiv 


Fail 


cr^xWstv 


Feint 


(fiivai 


Felt 


(paXXog 


Flay 


(pKoi^ui 


Flake 


TiKsy.M. TrXxAog: 


More 


■n-X^peg 


Most 


TrXeiqog 


Plait 


vXeaco.rie'jXaTxi 


Flood ; 

Flow 5 


(pXySuu 


Foot 


nohog 


Food 


(iOTO^ 


( Carry ; 
(Guide S 


(pepca 


Fix 


TTViyw 


Foal 


TTOiXog 


Fold 


(pvXo^ 


Folk 


oxXo'; 


For, Fore 


rrxpx. Trpo 


First 


TrpCOTiqOi 


Prom 


TtXpx 



Freight 



fiopTi^ca 



209 



Danhh, 


Engtixh. 


Greek. 


Danish. 


Frisk 


Brisk 


^(ppiyxu 


Hele 


Frygt 


Fright 


(ppi.77U 


ficle 


Fuld 
Fyre 


Full 
Fire 


ii:jXXo( 

TrVp 


Hen 


Gaae 


Go 


AUO. lot 


Henncp 


Galdc 


Gall 


%oXvi 


Herre 


Gall 
Gabe 


Crow 
Gape 


KocXeu 


Hie 


Gierde 


Hurdle 


ryvposiv 


Hielpe 


Giest 


Guest 


eqiscco 


Hierte 


Giog 


Cuckoo 


MKKvE, 


Hiul 


Glose 


Word 


yXci>(T(TX 


Hob 


God 


Good 


xyci^Oi; 


Hone 


Godhed 


Goodness 


aya&oTvif 


Hore 


Gnave 


Gnaw 


avxic 


Hov 


Graa 


Gray 


ypaix 


Hud 


Gravere 


Grave 


ypxCpeiv 


Huede 


Grotte 


Grot 


upvirTU 


Hul 


Hade 


Hate 


KOTOg 


Hull 


Ilaenge 


Hang 


xyxa 


Humll 


Hage 


Hook 


oymvos 


Hyle 


Hale 


Hale 


eXyoD 


Hyrde 


Halm 


Halm 


nxXx[j.^ 


Hyre 


Hagel 


Hail 


XxXxi^x 


Hytte 


V ii.. II. 




N 


n 



P.ngliiS. 

All 

Heal 

(The pre-<^ 

Cposition 5 

Hemp 

Lord 

^A den, / 

c A hauntS 

Help 

Heart 

Wheel 

Heap 

Hen 

Whore 

Hoof 

Hide 

Wheat 

Hole 

Cave 

Hops 

Howl 

Herd 

Hire 

Heed 



Gree^i 



oXog, 
xX^tu 

xvx 

■<xva(ii.( 

'iVpiOf 

o^kXXo) 

H£Xp 

nvXia 

xiTtog 
y\)w. 



nSpvi 



OTrXv\ 

THVTO( 

TITO! 

noiXo? 
xoiXot 

JJfxCTfXOf 

vXxcii 
xyappw 

ASpSOf 



270 



Daniah. 

Jkke 

lid 

ludcn 

Kalde 

Kalk 

Katiiin 

K a miner 

Kande 

Kappc 

Kiende 

Kiercst 

Kierne 

Kierne 

Kind 

Kicibe 

Kioii 

Kirke 

Kiste 

Klaede 

Klaff 

Klage 

Klantr 

Klinge 



English. 

Not 

Fire 

Within 

Call 

Cup 

Chimney 

Chamber 

Cann 

Cut 

Know 

^Best be-( 

C loved ' 

Kernel 

Churn 

Jaw 

Buy 

Kin 

Church 

Chest 

Clothe 

Cuff 

Complaint 

Clang 

Clink 



Greek. 

OVK 

tVTCf 

axXetv 

KUAi$ 

■ACCV^xpOf 

Z^p'ieqxTOi 

neap 

yvpoiiv 

ytvui 

yei/og 

y.iqv\ 

y.oxz(pOi; 
ly.Xx<y£ 
y.xot'y'yyi 
y-xxiyyv) 



Danish. 

A. line 
Klebe 

Klint 

i'llippe 

Klokke 

Klynke 

Knae 

Knaele 

Knage 

Knekke 

Knibe 

Knytte 

Komme 

Kone 

Koppe 

Kort 

Krabbe 

Kradse 

Kraft 

Krane 

Krebs 



Englinh. 

Glue 

^Cleave ) 

(Clue ^ 

\ '3 row of^ 

} a hill S 

Lop 

Bell 

Lament 

Knee 

Kneel 

Crash 

Snap 

Nip 

Knit 
Come 
Woman 
Wife 
Cup 
Short 
Crab 
Scratch 
Strength 
Crane 
Crab 



Green. 



yxix 



noxxaw 

xenXaxx 

yovv 

xxvoixyj 
y.xvux^ 

hVXttTU 

ipXO[i-cci 



nvirewov 
xeipoj 

xxpx^Of 

XXpXTTU 

yepcevOf 



271 



Danish. 



Kiigle 



Kule 

Kule 

Kukiik 

Kunne 

Kysse 

Labbe 

La be 

Laegge 

Laead 

Laekke 

Lagt 

Larape 

Lantse 

Lee 

Levne 

Lige 

Ligge 

Line 

Loft 

Lofte 



Log 



Engtish. 

> Globe 

^ Bowl 
lole 

Storm 

Cuckoo 

Know 

Kiss 

Paw 

Lap 
Lay 

Loin 

Leak 

Laid 

Lamp 

Lance 

Laugh 

Leave 

Alike 

Lie down 

Line 

Roof 

Lift 

^ On ion 

Leek 



! 



Greek. 

y.vxXor 

xotXcr 
aaXXx 

kovvsiv 

Xa(ivj Kxjiiiv 

XxTna 

Xeyca 

Xxycov 

Xxyapof 

Xsyo^i-xi 

XafATTW 

Xoyx,^ 

ysXecca 

Xei'Tteiv 

xXlAlO; 

Xtyoj 
Xiuov 

eiXi^(px 
Xa.%xvov 



Daniih. 

Logn 

Logte 

Lok 

Lose 

Lue 

Lukke 

Lye 

Lyd 

Lykke 

Lyse 

Maade 

Msegte 

Ma3no;e 

M 



age 

Med 

Meel 

Meen 

Meest 

Meget 

Alelk 
Meie 
Mene 



A lie 

Lantern 

Lock 

Loosen 

iiame 

Lock 

Listen 

T/Oud 

Luck 

Light 

Mete 

Might 

Mingle 

Make 

^The pre-^ 

' position 

Meal 

Oefect 

Most 

^Great 

cMnch 

Milk 



GreeA, 

Xcjoi 
Xvxvog 

TrXOY.Cg 
XiVUJbl 

y^exXetKx 

aXvw 

HXVTO^ 

Xxxog 

X£V(T(j-c<; 

,\^'^Xx:/xo\j.ai 

\i.ETX 



\hvX<^ 



f*£AKa: Galen 



Mow. 
Chink 



real 



UU.XOO 



lj.£vog 







2? 


1 






Danish. 


English. 


Greek. 


Danish, 


English. 


Gredt. 


xMikil 


Much 


[j-ifyxw^ 


Op 


Up 


uTtep 


Mild 


Mild 


cc\i.ct>.og 


Ophielpe 


Help 


K^ewu' 


Min 


My 




Ore 


F.ar 


ovzg 


Minde 


Mind 


i^evo; 


Otte 


I'vight 


OxTO) 


Moder 


Mother 


UV5TV1/) 


Oxe 


Ax 


.2:^iv^ 


Moe 


Maiden 


5fj.a;iV 




rUpon, -N 




IVIOJC 


Trouble 


u-oX^og 


Paa 


<at, in, > 


6Xt 


Mole 


Mill 


fjuUAV) 




'after ^ 




IMudder 


Mud 


uvSxca 


Pandt 


Pawn 


ttKU 


Muus 


Mouse 




Page 


Page 


vxig 


Mjre 


Ant 


l^vp^viE, 


Pande 


Pan 


n-XTXVVj 


Nat 


Night 


Vl/lCTOJ 


Pael 


Pale, Pole 


TTXJS-iXXOg 


Navn 


Name 


ovofj^a 


Pillc 


To pill 


^^iXOw 


Nei 


Nay 


VII 


Pine 


Pain 


Ttev^o? 


Net 


Neat 


Vi'JTO) 


Plads 


Place 


TXXTSIX 


Net 


Net 


vvi^ca 


Plage 


Plague 


eirxxyov 


Ni 


Nine 


twtx 


Planke 


Plank 


'Ttxxi, 


Nu 


Now 


vvv 


Pligtig 


Bound 


TTACxW 


Ny 


New- 


veog 


Priis 


Price 


'vpy^aig 


Ober 


Over 


UTTf/J 


Purre 


Irritate 


jwepx^tv 


Oge 


F.ke 


CCuE,(i3 


Puste 


Puff 


TTTUOV/ 


Oje 

Olie 


Eye 
Oil 


o^Kog 


Raa 
Raft 


Yard ^ 
Rafter i 


pxjiSog 


Om 


Round 


cnj.(pi 


Rage 


Shave 


xpxjau. B,u) 



♦)7.'' 



73 



Danish. 


EnglUh. 


Greek. 


Regne 


Rain 


paivui 


Raise 


Voyage 


tpea-iTca 


Rense 


Rinse 


fixiv<a, pxvig 


Ringe 


Circle 


yupotiv 


Rive 


Snatch 


ctpTaci) 


Rod 


Root 


fi^a 


Rove 


Ravish 


kp'Kon 


Ryg 


Ridge 


gxxig 


Saare 


Sore 


(p^opx 


Seede 


Seat 


eSog 


Saette 


Set 


e^to 


Sseve 


Sap 


OTcog 


Sak 


Sack 


tranaog 


Sal 


Hall 


auAV) 


Salt 


Salt 


xXg 


Salve 


Salve 


xXei<pii} 


Sex 


Six 


\l 


Sidde 


Sit 


i'^etv 


Skierm 


Shelter 


(7Ki« 


SkufFe 


Shovel 


aXflfTTTW 


Skye 


Cloud 


avuu. 


Skygge 


Shade 


e(7nixiix 


Skyde 


Shoot 


jneSxca 


Skyts 


Votection 


(7Ki«?ft) 



VOL. II. 





Danish. 


English. 


Greek. 




Skole 


jcliool 


-%oXv) 




Skam 


Shame 


^-^X^ii^ovsiv 




Skib 


Ship 


THx(pVI 




Soel 


Sun 


\^Xiog 




Soe 


Sow 


vg a-vg 




Sove 


To sleep 


UTvactf 




Sovn 


Sleep 


v'xvog 




Span 


Span 


(rs7i&afji,vj 




Spinde 


Spin 


(TTHl^eiV 




Spise 


Eat 


eo-Siw 




Stamme 


Stem 


«re(/.[*fl: 




Stade 


Station 


qxiTig 




Staae 


Stand 


qxu 




Stand 


State 


eqSi/xi 




Stem me 


Stop 


k^h^ 




Stemme 


Voice 


qo[>.x 




Stem pie 


Stamp 


q-£fji./3fiV 




Steen 


Stone 


qiov 




Sted 


Place 


qa^[j.og 




Stierne 


Star 


xq^p 




Stige 


Step up 


qoixia 




Stikke 


Stick, sting 


k^xf^ 




Stilk 


Stalk 


qtkexog 




Stiv 


Stiff 


qijiapog 


o 


o 







274 



Danisli. 


English. 


Greet. 


Danish, 


English. 


Gree*. 


Stivelse 


Starch 


qil^oifiog 


Tre 


Three 


TptTg 


Stof 


Stuff 


qv(p(a 


Troe 


Trust 


Sappty 


Stonne 


Groan 


qava^M 


Trone 


Throne 


^powog 


Strid 


^Strife } 
C Battle 3 


qpccTevikCt 


I ug jn ^ 
Hertug 3 


Duke 


Txyog 


Str<5e 


Strevr 


qp(i)W[s.i 


Tunge 


Tongue 


(p^oyyog 


Sye 


Sew 


^X(77Vb3 


Tusk 


Ink 


Sa(Tniog 


Synde 


Sin 


(TIVU 


Vaev 


Weave 


v(pi£iv 


Sjg 


Sick 


tnH^os 


Vasde 


Wet 


vsTog ^iou 


Taale 


Suffer 


TxKiia 


Ved 


With 


fjoETa 


Taare 


Tear 


i5axpu(*« 


Vikke 


Vetch 


/3ixia 


Tsekke 


Cover 


(^eiyo) 


Vide 


Know 


eiSetv 


Taemme 


Tame 


Bx\t.oi(a 


Vidie 


Withy 


Itex 


Tage 


Take 


iTayov 


Veed 


Wood 


■jXciSvfg 


Tand 


Tooth 


T£V&« 


Viin 


Wine 


oivog 


Tappe 


Tap ' 


TUTTO; 


Vild 


Wild 


vXuSvit 


Ti 


Ten 


5fxa 


Virke 


Work 


epyd^eiv 


Tiur 


Bull 


Tccvpog 


Vise 


Shew 


l(7-i/l\i.L 


To 


Two 


Sva 


Voxe 


Grow 


■>f z 
xvt,eiv 


Torre 


Dry 


ivipog 


Vrag 


Wreck 


pviyi** 


Traette 


Strife 


qpccTtvixx 




) 




Trffikke 


Drag, draw 


SaBpctx'^ 









275 

V/e have here taken a survey of more tliaii tbioc hundred and fi-w 
inonosylhvbic expressions, in which the affinity between the Danish an I 
the Greek is "vident. Now let us examine such compounds, as tend still 
further to illuscrate this affinity. Of these, most of the prMiiitivcs will 
be found in tlie preceding vocabulary, and the compounds themselves 
are reduced to classes, according to their prepuiritions. 

I. Primitives combined with aTro, af and op. 

Afocde eat off, qfbkle bite off, afbrmnde burn up, ofdcle divide, afdrage 
detract, afdrive drive off, afhage unhook, afflae flay, offdre evacuate, 
asgaae go off, afgnave gnaw off, qfkalde reclaim, afkappe chop oft', ajkiobe 
purchase, afklcede undress, afknappe nip off, afko'te shorten, afkradse 
scratch off, afloegge cast off, ajl'ose loosen, afmeie mow, afmcegtig weak, 
af nappe pluck oflF, afpille pille, afrage shave, af reuse rinse, ofrive tear off, 
afstaae desist, afstand stand off, afstige descend, afstikke en'fravc, 
aftrcekke draw off, opfare ascend, opfore bring up, opgaae rise, oplosc 
unbrace, oplijse enlighten, opstaae rise, opstige ascend, optage take up. 

II. Primitives combined with livx, an and hen. 

Anhrmide kindle, anfore guide, anhage hook, anklage arraign, antagc 
and hentage take, accept, henbcere transport, hen/are depart, henrive 
ravish. 

III. Primitives combined with £7r< be. 

Bedakkt cover, bek/age lament, belee laugh at, berove rob, beskierme 
^sheJter, beskygge sha^ . beskgtte hide, bestaae consist, bestride combat, 
hetr^t trust, bide gnaw, bistaae aid. 



276 

JV. Primitives coinbined with vTtep over. 

Overdrive exaggerate, overfdre transport, overgaae surpass, overklade 
clothe over, overmagt superiority. 

V. Primitives combined with utto, seemingly for 't-^'t, paa, pro- 
nounced po. 

Paadrive drive on, paakalde call on, paakhige accuse, paaklade dress, 
paakomme happen, paalcegge lay on, paaligge lie on, paam/ anew, 
panstaae insist on, paatage handle, paatrcekke put on, paavirke work on. 

VI. Primitives combined with «(>.(pi oiti. 

Omhmre bear round, omdeele distribute, omfang circuit, omfare travel 
round, omfatle embrace, omguae go round, omski/gge shade round, omringe 
surround. 

VII. Primitives combined with [^e^x med. 

Meddele share, medbare carry with, meddrive drive with, medfare go 
with, medfdre carry with, mcdmaade with moderation. 

VIII. Primitives combined with eviog ind. 

Tnddrive drive in, indfare go in, indfire introduce, indkalde call iri, 
indkomme enter, indlcegge lay in, indlukke lock in. 

TX. Primitives combined with 'Trapa fra and frem. 

Fradragc deduct, frnfare depart, frafdre carry away, frakalde recall, 
frastaae desist, frembcere produce, fremknlde call forth, fremfdre produce, 
J'remdrage draw out. 



277 

X. Primitives combined with irpo for and fore. 

Forehringt offer, forckele disperse, fordrive turn out, forekomme come 
before, fortmette propose, foretage undertake. 

XT. Primitives combined with tx k and s. 

Klap aXxTTx, knytfe vvt'^aiv, krybe ep^eiv, kule atKhu, glas glass, Xevirffu 
glippe fail, tyiKei^.-aiv, gabe gape, crnv^. 

XII. Primitives combined with eE. s. 

Skim'e neiptiv, skov a copse, mo^tw, skrige cry, y-pi'^tiv, skrive ypaipeiv, 
smdre anoint, \j.\ipi^si.v, snee snow, viCpnv, spior spear, 'Ttsipxu, stinke Txyyi^eiv, 
storm opi^vi, stro/n stream pevfj-x. 

XIII. Primitives combined with ou and ovSh u and uden. 
Vbrmidt unburnt; lifwio- discordant, wyi^i/^flr infallible, ukaldet uncalled, 

ukyndig ignorant, idig unlike, ulykke unlucky, utaalmodig intolerable, 
utcemmet untamed, ustadig unsteady, uslridig incontestible, udenmaade 
immeasurable, udenmoje not difficult. 

XIV. Primitives combined with either x'tco and ei, xvx and £t<, or eisi. 
and t^ af, s, an, be. 

Jfskcere cut off, afstorse dry, afskrive copy, afsiage take off, anbetrse 
trust, anskrive write down, beskare cut round. 

XV. Primitives combined with £«■*, or e^ and tTi, or ct* and i-^t, or si 
and £T», or vpo and £7ri. 

VOL. II. P p 



278 

Bespise feed, hesprmige sprinkle, bevidne witness, spmkke crack, for- 
hiqnae pass, forbifare pass, forbireise pass, furblive remain. 

XV r. Primitives combined with cv, ovxi. and tm, e^ aito, avx, Trpo 

and ai'-tpi, Sec. 

Ubkget unbleached, iibrakket unhvrok'en, ubestridet conceded, nfoveenlig 
i) reconcilable, cu, ^po, sv, aUy.iog; ugiaihaldelig irrevocable, ovxi xvx, 
y.xXeiv xXmiog; vgieiibringeHg irreducible, itgicnki^beUg irredeemable, 
M07>7/nf;«6/'?/Jc//^' impenetrable, ovxi, xvx, x\j.(pi, wnptiv, a'kiy.io<;; unfvidende 
secretly, tianseelig uncomely, uantagelig unacceptable, ubehoet unin- 
habited, vbeskreven undescribed, ubevidst unknown, itbestandig incon- 
stant, iihrcekket unbroke. 

The propensity to multiply prepositions evinces the resemblance of 
these languages, and the identity of boih primitives and prepositions 
demonstrates their affinity. 

The double G and double K, which occur in Danish, give this 
language a striking resemblance to the Greek, which is the more remark- 
able, because we cannot but observe, in given circumstances, the equi- 
valence between k, y, %, K and G convertible into N. Thus Xcf^xavu 
produces lykke luck, and (pSoyyoc tongue. Thus qpa'^^^ and (Tpayyfua 
inay have given birth to streng and strikke, both which in Danish signify 
a string; and the Danish stikke may be the immediate parent of both 
stick and sting. Thus also ktinge, to clink, click, and klynke, to cry, 
lament, bemoan, connect themselves with KXayyfw, xXay^w, KXayiyvj, 
clangor, and so does hange with ay^". 



279 



This conversion of N into gamma, or of gamma into N, is extremely 
interesting. It remains for some good philologist to aceountfor a [practice 
by which Gronovir.s was exceedingly perplexed, and on which no li dit 
has hitherto been thrown. 

I am disposed to suspect that N before G and C, or n, y, % became a 
nasal, as in the French word etang, and that for want of an appropriate 
character, by which it could be distinguished, it was expressed by 
gamma, and denominated agma, for this was the name, by the ancient 
grammarians, given to gamma, when it preceded either m, 7, or %, 
(v. Gronovii Dissertationes.) 

In this display of the affinity between our parental language and the 
Greek, the reader cannot fail to observe, that although the lineaments 
are changed by time, the family likeness between Greek, Danish, and 
English still remains. 



AFFINITY BETWEEN SWEDISH AND GREEK. 



Sicedish. 


English. 


Grtek. 


Swedish, 


English. 


Greek. 


A and Ai 


Always 


ie: 


iEIja 


But 


iX}J 


Ach 
Ade 


Ah! 
Disposition 


«i and a.7 


iEljes ; 
Aljes S 


Otherwise 


aXAffif 


Adel 


Nobility 


i^Kov 


iElta 


To desire 


iXSoiAXl 


iEga 


To have 


eXtiv 


iEmbar 


A vessel 


<xiJ.(popsCi 


^gff 


Edge 




Mn 


If 


1 \ 

iXV 


Aela 


A storm 


xiWx 


iEnda 


To end 


eCl/VTTM 



280 



Swedish 



English, 



Greek. 







Swedish, 


Engtith. 


Greek. 


Aga 


Astonish 


Z7H 


Aga 


A btroke 
To lead, -n 


XIV.IX 


Aga j 


drive } 


z<ya 


Agi 


A leader ^ 




Agoetr 


Good 


^zya^Of 


^gg 


Ach 


«%Cf 


Agn 


Stra\v,chafr'='%!^« 


Akta 


To think 


v,<)'io\t.at 


Ala 


To kindle 


aKex 


Ala \ 


To nourish 
To fatten 


yakBaw 


Alfbarg 


The Alps 


ccKTreig 


All 


All 


oKos 


Aln 


Ell 


aiKev^ 


And 


Against 


avTi 


Ande 


Spirit 


5/ V 


Ane 


King 


xvx H 


Ankar 


Anchor 


xyKvpa 


Ankel 


Ankle 


aynuXv) 


Ar 


Beginning 


ipx^i 


Ar 


Dawn 


vip ver 


Ar 


Oar 


(vipvif in 



281 



Swedish. 

Arg 

Art! & lard 

Arf 

Argi 

Aria 

Arm 

Arpe 

Art 

Ask 

Aska 

Askio; 

Asp 

Ast and i 

Venast S 

Awi 

Axel 

Backe 

Back 

Badda 

Baegga 

Bagge 

Baggo 

VOL. II. 



Enylish. 

Lazy, Idle 

Earth 

Field 

Ire 

^To plough 

rio drink 

Poor 

Filthy 

Disposition 

CA vessel,^ 

(Ship 

Ashes 

Worth 

A spin 

Vesta 



Woe 
Axis 
Hill 

A fountain 
To beat 
A sheep ) 
A ram J 
A boy 



Greek. 


Swedinh. 


Engtiih. 


Greek. 


xpyoe 


Balja 


A pail 


xtXXa 


if^Ot 


Ban 


A path 


(ixivcc 


e^a 


Bane 


Destruction 


(povog 


Opr/Vi 


Barbar 


Barbarian 


^xpjlxpog 


ap8V 


Barn 


Infant 


^xp Hesych 


(xpvcc 


Bars 


A barge 


(ixpig Hesych 


ep\^lf.og 


Baera 


To bear 


(ptpEllt 


pUTTOW 


Bassolyds 


King 


^xcnKav; 


apu. upeToti 


Bffist 


Best 


jieX'Tiqo; 




Ba^ttrc 


Better 


(itX^epog 


xjaog 


Ball 


Ball 


'7rx).Xx Hesych 


xc,co 


Beck 


Pitch 


xitIx 


xawccipoj 


Becken ? 
Begare 5 


A beaker 


jliyiOg fiiyiiSio:/ 




Beraetta 
Bessa 


To relate 
To fall 


pvidtg 

■KEdeiV 


1 \ 

OVXI. 


Betala 


To pay 


STiiraXeiv 


a^ccv 


Beta 


To bait 


/3iOT£U£;v 


liiyog 


Bi 


By, u pon 


6774 


7rytyv\ 


Biart 


Pure 


^ixpog 


t:xtx(TJCO 


Bleck 


^A plate- } 


n-XxE, 


/Sv'kvi Hesijch 


Bleck 


c lanien S 
Slothful 


iX^^ 


vctig 


bleck 


Pale 


XevyJog 


Q 


q 







282 



Saedith. 


English. 


Greek. 


Saedish. 


English. 


Bleka & I 
Breka 3 


To rain 


/3p£%a> 


Dike 
Disk 


A ditch 
A dish 


Blia 


To look at 


fTTi Xoiio 


Djup 


Deep 


Blia 


To flow om 


(3Xuw 


Djur 


Deer 


Blomma 


A flower 


/SXuo; 


Docka 


A dock 


Bloss 


Flame 


(pXoE 


Dofta 


To dip, dive 


BHnd 


Blind 


^Xcivog Hes. 


Dona 


To sound 


Bol 


A city 


TToXig 


Doppa 


To dip, dive 


Brinna 


To burn 


TrVpOStV 


Dor 


Door 


Braka 


^ To make ^ 
(. a noise 3 


(ipzxco 


Doter 
Drom 


Daughter 
Dream 


Bromma 


To roar 


|3^£fji.W 


Dron 


Drone 


Brod 


Food 


(ipcaTog HeSi 


Dros 


Tumult 


Brussa 


To boil 


^pxa-jci} 


Draga 


To draw 


Byssa 


A box 


nvbg 


Drifwa 


To drive 


Bytta 


Bottle 


jicti'Tiov Hes. 


Drog 


A dray 


Dacke 


Purse 


&V)KV) 


Dry pa 


To scourge 


Dagga 


To gnaw 


Szavw 


Dubbel 


Double 


Dagg 


Dew 




Dunt 


A stroke 


Dam 


A dam 


5£f*W 


Dura 


To dure 


Danat 


Death 


^ccvxTog 


Efter 


x-lfter 


Dickta 


To form 


TfU%W 


Eg and lag 


r 


Dika 
Dikcl 


Vo excavate 
A spade 


UrnfAXa 


Egg 
Elandig 


Egg 
Merciful 



Greek, 

T£l%OJ 

Si(rMg 

O0%£K}V 
(SuttTW 

Spa[j.x 
^pdvzE, Hes^, 

SiTrX^g 

Svigog 

XUTX§ 

tyca 

xyyog 

i\eeivog 



28$ 



Swedfab^ 

Elg 

Em 

En 

Eriur 

Erfida 

Fader 

Falla 

Fana 

Fara 

Fara 

Fara 

Fasta 

Fat 

Fa 

Fauai 

Fee 

Fa 

Far 

Feckta 

Fel 

Fela 
Fein 



EnglitU. 

Help 

I am 

One 

Strife 

Labour 

Father 

To cast 

Cloth 

To depart 

To plough 

To attempt 

To fast 

A horse load 

Pack saddle 

Few 

A flock 
To take 
A sheep 
To fight 

A fault. 

Error 
To veil 
Five 



Greek. 

xKnOi 

eu . 

Spig 

spyz^eiv 

'Tsai^p 

(iaXKeiv 

Tiyivog 

ntepoiv 

(pxpav Hes. 

■n-eipa^siv 

cnraqix 



■f^aqxt(>: 



TrXVpOl 



irXiO 



TTXiO 



(ixpx Hesych 



ItVUTiVeiV 






Sacdiith. 

Fetna 

Finna 

Fierta 

Firn 

Fisa 

Flake 

Fla 

Flasa 

Flaska 

Flasta 

Flat 

Flatur 

Flax 

Fleck 

Fleister 

Flicka 

Flik 

Flock 

Fnysa 

Fole 

Folk 

Fon 



English, 


Greek. 


Fat 


(paT!/vi 


To find 


Xir0^xivi<i 




wnphtiv 


Before 


■n-piv 


To inflate 


(pvaxu 


A flake 


vKxy.x 


To flay 


(pXoia 


To be hot 


^ (pXx^c,' 
\.7rx(pXx^C0 


A flask 


(pXairy.eioy Sincl 


Many 


TrXsLqoi. 


Flat 


ttX^TUj 


Flat 


TrXoCTVq 


Flame 


(pXot. 


A blot 


IXxyii; lies. 


More 


TrXsiqOq 


A girl 


irxXXxi, 


A prostitute - 


ivxXXxV.'A 


A fold 


TTXey.i: 


A flock 


\0%<ic 


To breathe 


n-vai!) 


A foal 


Ttaxoi 


Folk 


3%AC?. CoA-y&r 


Fire 





284 



Swedish. 


English. 


Greek. 


Swedish. 


English. 




Greek 


Fot 


Foot 


TT'S; TrO^Oe 


Gina 


To yawn 




XXIV03 


For 


Fore 


Trpo 


jGjuta 


To pour out 


'X,iv(jai 


Fraede 


Wisdom 


(PpixSvj 


Glad 


Glad 




ccyXaia 


Froekn 


Fragil 


^pviyv) jEoI. 


Glantz 


Splendor 




xiyXxvTx 


Frffisa 


To fret, furne 


(ppvujcro: 


Glas 


Shining 




xrf Kao? 


Fresta 


To try 


TZBr^xqvii 


Glata 


To destroy 




■/.Xx^u 


Fri 


Free 


jipiysg Hes. 


Gliis 


LauHiter 




y'^xcc; 


Fro 
Fro 


Early 
Joyful 


'Zpbll, 


Cilo 


^Attentive 
cLook 


i 


Kacc. Afef 


Frucht 


Frio lit 


(ppty.Tog 


Gnaga 


J'o gnaw 




%fi3:J&; 


Frysa 


To be cold 


(ppirs-uj 


Gnida 


To rub 




wvj'ba 


Ful 


(Foul, ^ 
U^olluted S 


(poXvvct) lies. 


Gorr 
Goa 


Gore 
To bark 




^xcop. ]%ccf 
yeyuu; Hes> 


Full 


Full 


^vX'AOi 


Gok 


Cuckow 




y.6y.y.vE, 


Fjra 


Four 


TTSTOpX MoJ. 


Gbl 


Mire 




fACf 


Geedas 


Joy 


yci.ho[i.cn 


Gradiff 


Voracious 




ypau) 


G a fuel 


Gable 


<f(p^X'/| 


Grafwa 


To grave 




ypxCpoi 


Gall 


1 barren 


yaXXOf 


Grobos 


A ditch 




ypatx Hes, 


Galla 


•;aii 


XoXv, 


Gras 


CI rass 




ypaqii 


Gamman 


Joy 


yccvwiJ^ai 


Gra 


Greyheaded 


yyi^xca'. y^xta 


Gaiitas 
Gat hod 


Sports 
Delight 


yxi'ii.-iJ.x 


Grena 


^To skrecr 
'Separate 


( 


y.^iva 


Gaelning 


Libidinous 


yx).Xtxc-) lies. 


Grift 


A cave 






Gast 


A spectre 


iyccqo? 


Gripa 


I'o gri{)C 




7fi'3-<^w 



285 



Saediih. 


Bngliiih. 


Greek. 


Swedith, 


Ungli. fit. 


Greek. 


Oris 


A pig j 


y^iixSv Hes. 


Hat 
Haller 


Hate 
Rather 




Grop < 


A pil, cave 
A gruff otj 
Mendip 


1 ry^x(p(0 
\ y^V7!T0} 


Heil 

Hei 

HJelm 


Whole 

Hay 

Helmet 


£10: 


Gum man 


Marriage 


yafj-eiv 


Hlena 


To lean 


KXiueiv 


G before E and I is Y. 


Hliftus 
Hof 


A thief 
Hoof 


nKt-zlvig 


Hafvva 


To have 


x^eiv Hes. 


Hoga 


To think 


Vi<yio[t.a.i 


Hatjel 


Hail 


y_u\ac^c6 


Hoi 


Hollow 


KOtXog 


Hala 


To let down 


%fl:Aav 


Hoik 


A hulk 


oXnaf 


Hall 


Hall 


auAVI 


Hon 


Reproach 


wetSog 


Hamali 


An assembly 


of*u<'a 


Hult 


A holt 


iIAv) vKciSwig 


Halm 


^A quill ^ 
cA reed * 


x:!:A«(x.vi 


Hand 
Hoppa 


A hound 
A mare 


I'TtTTOg 


Halt 


Lame 


KUAXCf %aA05 


Hwal 


Whale 


(paKccivu 


Hampa 


Hemp 


aavvcc^n 


Hycklare 


A flatterer 


aiyix)<0( 


Hand 


Hand 


XeivSavu 


Idia 


Prudence 


eiSeiv 


Hara 


Rock,monnt 


O^Oi 


Idrott 


Skill, art 


iSpix 




( Very ; ^ 
< Hard in [ 
' Wilts 3 
Hare 




11 


A storm 


hXkx 


Hard 


HX^TX 


In 


In 


ev 


Hare 


aufoy Suidas 


Inni j 


To inn, to 
rest at noon 


tvSiov 
ivSidca 


Harf 


PI arrow 


K^irui, 


Infoda 


Genero 


ei^(pvTevu 


VOL. II. 




R 


r 







S86 



Swedish. 


English. 


Ingifwa 


^To en- ? 
r gage for 3 


lord 


Earth 


Ister 


Fat 


lul 


Yule 


lufwer 


Udder 


Kakla 


Cackle 


Kam 


Comb 


Kammar 


Chamber 


Kaaip 


A plain 


Kappa 


To cut 


Kappsaeck 


A knapsack 


Kara 


To rejoice 


Karing 


Old woman 


Kas 


Far off 


Kaster 


Tin 


Katt 


A cat 


Kajlke 


A dray 


Kaenna 


To ken 


Kffipp 


A staff 


Kafta 


Coif 


Kate 


A cottage 


Kinda 


To kindle 



I (Shfeek: 

SflCC 

ceosp 

uiap ov(pxp 
;g(*vi 

x^fxTos ties. 

XS-lpui 

yapxia 

v/.xg 

y.X(7a-iTspog 

K«TV)? Suidas 

eXkw 

Kovmv Hes. 

KX'J'joilix Hes 

nctvSxpcg Jles 



Smdtsh. 


Enrjlish. 


Kinnen 


Chin 


Kista 


Chest 


Klang 


A clang 


Klappa 


I'oclap 


Klaga 


Weeping 


Kleede 


Cloth 


Klibba 


I'o cleave 


Klint 


Oescent 


Klippa 


Cliff 


Klister 


(jlue 


Kljfwa 


Vo cleave 


Knaka 


Fo resound 


Knee 


Knee 


KuEepp 


A sound 


Knaepp 


riie nape 


Knia 


To pluck 


Koia 


A habitation 


Kol 


Fire 


Kollops 


Kollops 


Kon 


Kin 


Konaand^ 
Kuna 3 


Quean 


Kordel 


Cord 


Kosa 


A cup 



Greek. 

i^Xxiyyvi 

■KOkxTilj} 

kKxiu 

y.Kw'^a 

yhix 

AXiTOg 

KXi.Tvg nXirrvg 

yxix 

nKxca 

kxvxxi^u 

yow 

AOvx(ii^a 

■■^XttH 

y.vt^ca 

Oixix 

y.vixeog 

oxojiog 
jsv9g 

yvvv\ 

XopS^ 
X00( 



287 



*Dn/^*«f. 


En^fiiJft 


GreeD. 


StoedUli. 


Engim. 


Gruk. 


Kost 


Gust 


ysuqc; 


Lagg 


Extremity 




Krabba 


Cral; 


•/.ctpx^o? 




I leave off 




Kraft 
Kram 


A den 
Money 




Lacjga 


^l cause to") 
r lie down ' 


Xsyco 


Kranck 


Sick 


xupxyyvi? Hex 


Lakrits 


[.ifjuorice 


y/.vzuf,i^x 


Kras 


I'ragments 


pv\(T(7ia 


[.alia 


To talk 


XxXta 


Krasir 


Eatables 


■y^pBlX; 


Lanj 


Lame 


XAXlJ^ft'o^ 


Kratta 


To scratch 


Xapx'Tlai 


Lamm 


Lamb 


x\i.v'bg 


Kroka 


To creek 


xpsnco 


Lauipa 


A torch 


Kx[j.7:xi 


Kropp 


Summit 


ytopv(pi^ 


Lants 


Lance 


Xciyxvi 


Kross 


Border 


y.poj(Tog 


La pp 


A lappet 


Kxt.(pix Hes, 


Krubba 


A crib 


ypx^jiuTOg 


La^])pia 


To lap 


KXTTTU 


Krug 


A cruise 


xpwcrcrof 


: ast 


A burthen 


XsLcov Sllid. 


Krut 


An herb 


%0pT0f 


Lack 


Lack, a leak 


X-x^lg 


Krupa 


To creep 


fp'XCO 


Laka 


I'o heal 


xyito\i.xi 


Kula 


A den 


yaiXeec 


Lana 


To lean 


Kkivaiv 


Kunna 


To ken 


KOi/i/fiv Hes. 


Le 


To laugh 


yex«w x^evx 


Kwinna 
Kuckling 


A woman 
Chicken 




Lefwa } 
Leifa 3 


To leave 


XeiTw 




c 


hvttxi. Hes. 


J^ast 


Turpitude 


Xxia-^Vj 


Kyffe 


Hovels J 


XI eE, vKvii nut 


Lefwer 


Liver 


ViTrXp 




( 


XopTH oixv^fxaig 


Lejon 


Lion 


\auv 


Kjssa 


''o kiss 


xV(TXlr 


Lemna 


To leave 


XlfxvXVU 


Lag 


Juavf 


Xoyog 


Lid 


Side 


*A170( 



288 



Swedish. 


Englith. 


Greek. 


Swedish. 


Bngluh, 


[Grteh. 


Lid 


The people 


(ion. 'kviiiog 


Magle ") 
Magt ) 


Might 


flj.eye^og 


Lin 


Linen 


"Kivov 


Maizn 


Greater 


^ti^WU 


Linna 


To cease 


eKivuOa 


Maists 


Greatest 


fx£y»<705 


Lipa 


To afflict 


Xwzect) 


Mala 


To grind 


f*uAV) 


Litcn 


Little 


ekixTlau 


Male 


Meal 


xi^-vMu 


Lillast 


Least 


£\ce>iiqo; 


Mamma 


Mother 


(*aVl**1 


Li us 


Light 


>^Vx^l 


Mat & Med 


With 


{j^BTX 


Leuclit ? 
Liecht 3 


Whiteness 


xevKOTi^i 


Mat 
Markir 


Meat 
A sword 


fj.xa-xoiJ.xi 
\j.xxxipx 


Litast 


To see 


Xsvixa-u 


Mar 


A meer 


ft.£ipu 


Locka 


To entice 


KxKiK'o lies. 


Mala 


To mete 


fi£T/)£tV 


Lofft 


Loft 


X6<pot 


Man a 


Moon 


MVV) 


Lbk 
Lcipa 


Grass 

^To bark ^ 

' a tree j 


Xettw 


Meen 

Men 


^ Necklace^ 
' a chain 3 
But truly 


(j.ev. \i.ViV 


Lbsa 


To loose 


Xutrai 


Men 


Diminution 


(j.ivu5« 


Loya 


I'o wash 


y^ovia 


Mena 


To tiiink 


\j.ivog 


Lunga 


To sob 


Kvyyccvia 


Mena 


To signity 


[j.ViVViil 


Lucka 


Luck 


^xxoi ^ctyx<xvc!) 


Mjall 


Soft 


[J.X?J}Q 


Ly 


Tepid 


Mxpo; 


Meth 


With 


\j.k7X 


Ljsna 


To see 


\evj(Tiiu 


Minst 


Little 


\j.i'jvo; 


Maan 


Bracelet 


^ctvvo'; 


Mig&Mey 


To me 


u.q\ 


Mage 


A maw 


qo[i.xxoi 


Miga 


To piss 


l[i.lX^M 



289 



Saedish, 

Mikel 

Mild 

Minne 
Mizdo 
Minga 
Miska 



Mjolk 

Mjolka 

Mod 

Moda 

Moder 

Moka 

Mblla 

Moo 

Mord 
Mork & ^ 
Maurk S 
Mosa 
Mun and) 
Mon S 

Multen 

\'0L. II. 



English, 

Great 

Mild 

Memory 
Reward 



To 



mix 



Milk 

To soothe 

Weary 

Vo care for 

.VlothtT 

Muck 



Vo grind 
CA maid i 
( servant . 
Death 

Dark 

Mucus 

A moment 

Putrid 



Greek. 

[u£i.xixog 
lj.vccoij.cii, 

^ ij.tXy.x Galen 

ij-ySog 

lJ.)^TVip 
[j.\J(T!jOi1 

c(\j.ctvpoia 

\J.V^X 

\j.ovxg 
(AeX5« Hes. 



Sweiith. 

Mus 

Mykest 
Mamn 
N^arr 
Naas 
N^eessla 
Nseste 
Naett 
Ned 
Nesa 
Nicka 
Nio & Nie 
Niosa & 
Nosa 
Nocka 
Nun & Nu 
Oiidel 
Of 
Ok 
OIja 
Op 
Ore 
Ort 
Orn 
s 



! 



English. 

A mouse 

Greatest 

Name 

A fool 

Island 

Nettle 

Nest 

Neat 

Nether 

Reproach 

To nod 

Nine 

To know 

A fleece 

Now 

Ever clear 

Very much 

A yoke 

Oil 

A whooping 

A rock 

Borders 

A bird 



Greek. 



ij.vg 



lj.eyiqOg 



ovoij-a 



v«pv) 



Hes. 



uyiijog 

VcOa-jix 
viTrJco 

VFAO^l 

viveunx 

ivvEx 

evo-^Tx 

VXMi 

vvv 

xEiSaXog 

l(pi Hesi/ck 

^vyov 

iXxiov 

OTTii Hesyck 

opvt 

OpOf 

opvii 



290 



Suiedish. 


English. 


Greek. 


Swedish. 


English. 


Greek. 


Os 


Odor 


h^ai 


Raiiila 


To ramble 


ptfj-jiuJ 


Ostra 


Oyster 


oqp£iOu 


Rapp 


To rap 




Ofwer 


Over 




Rapper 


Rapier 


pxij.(py] Hes. 


Oga 


Eye 


cixxof Hes. 


Kaska 


To destroy 


t / 

pajdci} 


Ora 


Eagle 


opvi? 


iiaedas 


Dread 


o/puheco 


Osa and ^ 


To draw ") 




Raede 


Speech 


pnng 


A fosa 3 
Ouden & ^ 
Ode - S 
Packa 


water j 
No one 
To pack 


a^uxtrw 3 
ouBev 


Raeka 


Roof 

(To be ; 
niealtl.y S 


^ff.t(pca.opo(pog 
Land 'pvi7:at 

'fjxl'of, 


Pat & Pfad 


Path 


TTx^og 


''rgna 


'I'o rain 


t / 
puivco 


Pate 


Rumor 


(ptXTli 


Uenna 


To run 


^esiv 


Pil 


A dart 


liiXog 


Rep 


A rope 


' ^ 1 


Pina 


Punishment 


TOiVVJ 


Rppa 


To reap 


<5p£T« 


Piatt 


Wide 


■TiXxrvf 


Reta 


1 o nrilate 


l/t'^la 


Plffitt 


A stroke 


-KX^nIcO 


Rock 


A rag 


p a.y.og 


Puse 


A purse 


livpjx 


Has 


A rose 


poSov 


Potta 


A cup 


-rrOT^piov 


Rot 


Root 


pi^x 


Pol 


A lake 


ttViAo? 


Rod 


Red 


epv^pO( 


Plata 


To speak 


(pp«'?a, 


Roina 


'I'o try 


epevvxii) 


Putten 
Pvackla 


The bottom 
To enict 


Iptvyeiv 


Rost 


Bold 


\p avuvfui 
CpQic:iy.o^[Ies. 


Rtida 


\n oration 




i\oste 


Roof, roost 


opo(poi 


Ragata 


A racket 


li^xryo^ 


Rufwa 


To brood 


£pC<pa> 



291 



SiBedish. 


English, 


Greek. 


Suiedifh, 


English , 


Chreek. 


Rugg 


The back 


pxx^i 


Sex 


Six 


e^ 


Rjkta 


yro take 
'care of 


iwpXHLXV 

cEustath 


Sikel 
Siuk 


Sickle 
Sick 


riyixog 


Rjnkia 


Wrinkles 


p iXl/Of 


Simla 


Flour 


Tefj.iSxKii 


Rysa 


To tremble 


(Ppia-Tiii 


Sind 


[Jurt 


nvo\/.xi 


Sam 


^As a ter-^ 
'mi nation ^ 


0[t.OlOQ 


Sinna 


(To un- -^ 
'derstand 3 


TVVUVXt, 


Sam 


As a prefix 




Sire 
Skackt 


Sir 
A well 


avpis 

T'^X-TtTlji 


San & Sin 
Saker 


Thy 
Secure 


ffOV 


Skaffa 


I^To shape^ 
c prepare S 


Ty.evx^iO. 


Saerk 
Sate 


{A silk ; 

'garment 3 
Seat 




Skaft 
Skaft 


A haft 
A spear 


' <7Ka:7r7oi/ Doric 


Saetta 


To sit 


i(^eii/ 


Skallig 


Dry 


cn<eX}.cti 


Saar 


The itch 


■^'CC^X 


Skare 


A scar 


hyj^x 


Saga 
Sail 


^To saw 
cTo cut 
A sieve 


jxyxqii 
ixXsvn 


Skarp 
Skappa 


Dry 

A hollow } 
vessel J 


tryx^O; ) 

and a-yJ^i^ 3 


Se 
Se 


To see 
To sit 


T£XO\j.XI, 


Skara 


o cut 


hies. 


Sed 


A custom 


e^og 


Skal 


A scale 


ryoiUg Hes. 


Sedan 


After 


V 

nix 


Skeel 


['ortuose 


nKo/uog 


Sela 


Bridle 


■^^iXKlOV 









292 



Sk befo 


re E and I 


is Sch. 


Swedish. 


English. 


Greek. 


Swedish. 


Englinh. 


Greek. 


Sno 


Snow 


vi.(pa 


Skeppa 


To cover 


rUfzo) 


Sniire 


A rope 


vevpou 


Skid 


Cleft wood 


r^r^a; 


Snoter 


A wicC man 


(j-vve Tog 


Skinn 


Skin 








/ o.vK%oc Hes. 


Skirta 


To run 


'yy.xipcio u-'/iLpjza 


Socka 


Socks 


Skbfvve 


A covering 


(T'/^e-TTca 


, 




Skcir 


Filth 


(rH.wp 


Some 


A seam 


(7CC'y{j.oc 


Skora 


To fracture 


o-yiipog 


So pa 


To sweep 


a-ojiica 


Skria 


To scream 


'Api^aiv 


Sompn 


Sleep 


UTTVO? 


Skrifwa 


To write 


ypx^eiv 


Sot 


Sweet 


VJ^Of 


Skudda / 
& Skeda S 


To scatter 


KsSact} 


Spada 
Span a 


A spade 
To drag 




Slicka 


To lick 


Kel%a 


Sparka 


To vibrate 


a-^xipw 


Slem 


Slime 


'kv\i.x 


Sparka 


To urge 


a-TStpx^ 


Slif 


Sleave 


\cu(poq 


Spisa 


To expand 


a-TSi^ai 


Sluta 


Shut 


nXeio) 


Split 


Split 


a-TSxXv(T(TO[^xi 


Smaelta 


To melt 


fji-fcASo! 


Spott 


To spit 


TTTUEtV 


Smaerta 


To smart 


[j-ipho: Ilea. 


Sta 


A town 


xi;v 


Sma 


Small 


lj.£lOCi3 


Stadig 


Firm 


qxSlOg 


Smeka 


To stroke 


<j\J~kM 


Staf 


A stump 


qVirOi 


Smila 


Vo smile 


[ui'ikiy^oi; 


Siafvva 


To gird 


qe<^M 


Sinorja 


I'o smear 


lj.VpHV 


Stall 


A stable 


qxKvi Hesi/ch 


S my oka j 


To cleanse 
to adorn 




Stalla 
Stiilla 


I'o state 
To adorn 


TiKcg 
qnKKu 



29S 



Svoidiih. 

Stampa 
Stiimma 



Stain 



ma 



Slanka 


To groan 


Stania 


To groan 


Stanna 


To stand 


Stapel 


A heap 


Starr 


Rigid 


Sta 


To stand 


Sticka 


To stick 


Stjelk 


A stalk 


Stiga 


To o;0 


Stinga 


To sting 


Stinn 


Robust 


Stock 


A beam 


Stodel 


A pillar 


Stol 


^An expe- 
c dition 


Stoppa 


^To stop, 
? stuff 


Storm 


Storm 


VOL. II. 





Greek. 



q£i(lcii 



■tfjLf*a: 



Iqxixsvog 



qtvca 
iqoi-^xi 

ceppog 

qacco Inusif. 

qeXtxoi 

qi^ca 

qvkog. qy^Xvi 
qoKog 

qsijicc 



Sutedish. 

Strong 

Stroa 

Strom 

Stubbe 

Stum 

Stympa 

Stufwa 

Stum 

Stupa 

Styf 

Styfr 

Stugg 

Styre 

Swalg 

Suaelja 

Sy 

Tak 

Tack a 
T'ticke 
Taga 
Tffinja 
Tffira 
Thius 
t 



EnglMt. 



^Strin 






Strong 



h 

Vo strew 
A torrent 
Stem, stump 
A residue 
To mutilate 
To amputate 
Dumb 
To scourge 
Stiff 

Finn, iigid 
Odious 
Barren 
The throat^ 
To swallow J 
To sew 
The roof 
To roof 
Hcpository 
To touch 
To extend 
To tear 
God 



Greek. 

qpa'Y'yevo! 

qoptci}. qpuwvca 
qi^o^^og 

jqvTTyi lies. 
qvzOf Apol. 

I 

xqo[j.cg 
qvKxX^iVj Hcs. 

S-EipX 

cr(pxpx'YOg 

&HXV1 
TTfJVftV 

^£og 



294 



Swedish. 


English , 


Oreeh. 


Swedish. 


English. 


Greek. 


Tekna 

Tiga 


To shew 
To be silent 




Twinga j 


To restraint 
To pinch 3 


<7(piyyu 


Tijo 


[ am silent 


(TLyXCO 


Tycka 


To think 


Soasiv 


Tisse 


A teat 


TiT^V] 


mi 


Wool 


LOvXog 


Tolciiin 
To'ras 


Such 
To dare 




Wada 


Togo 


(.'KXTU 


lag far 


I dare 


S^ppo; 


Wagel 


A staff 


^xhKq'^ 


Trampa 
Tra 


To trample 
^A tree, ") 
c the oak 3 




Wagn 
Ward a 


^ A waggon^ 
'a chariot 5 
To be made 


x<yxwx Hes. 
e'p^eiv 


Tridie 


The third 


TpiTH 


Wigra 


To restrain 


eipyca 


Trifwas 


Thrive 


TpfCpW 


Wilja 


To will 


^ovXoij.xi 


Throsha 


To thresh 


^pxvu 


Waxa 


To increase 


xv^eiv xa^tiv 


Tr^cka 


To vex 


Tf,V%ilV 


War 


Spring 


■>/ 
exq 


Truma 


A hole 


TpvTia, Tpvy-oi 


Wat 


Wet 


vSaq veTOi 


Tull 


Toll 


TtKeiv 


We 


Woe 


OVXl 


Tuchta 


To bring forth 


TiKTO) 


Wei 


A wile 


(pvjAfCt; 


Tulla 


To involve 


evruXiTlci} 


Weta 


To wit 


eiSaiv 


iunn 


Thin 


Tvvuof Hes. 


Wika 


Like 


i'lueiv 


1 urna 


To turn 


TOpVOCO 


Win 


Wine 


oii/og 


Tutir 


Daughter 


'^VJXTViP 


Winkel 


Crooked 


ayy.vKoi 


Twa & Toa 


Two 


Bvco. Suo 


NVira 


To whirl 


yv^^v 


Twina & ^ 
Tymi ^ 


To dwindle 


(p^tvw 


vVisa 
VVrak 


A song 
A fissure 


XOU. XSCO 



295 



Swedish, 

Yfer 
Yfrit 
Yppe 



EnglSth. 

Over 
Intensitive 

particle 
Open 



Greek, 






H(pi 



O'TTyi 



Swedish, 


Entjlinh. 




Greek. 


Yrka 


To work 




t^yxi^ea-^cci 


Yxa 


An ax 




xiivvi 


Yttersta 


Extreme 




GfCfa 


N.B. 670 


words. 



AFFINITY BETWEEN MiESO-GOTHIC AND GREEK. 



Gothic. 


English. 


Greek, 


Gothic, 


English, 


Greek. 


Abu and A\ 


from 


XTIO 


Bairan 


To bear 


Cpff£iV 


Aftnja 
Aflifnan 


Po devour 
I'o remain 




Bairgan 
Baurg 


To guard ") 
A fortress 3 


XUif/05 


Ahma 


Breath 


iZVJJj.^ 


Bairht 


Bright 


(i^t^mrxv Hes 


Ahtau 


!^.ight 


OXT« 


Bidian 


To ask 


Tfj&fiv 


Aigan 


To liave 


f%ftv 


Bi 


By, against 


Sir I 


Alja 


But 


aKXct 


Bistagun 


Ascended 


rfi%c<.' 


All & Alia i 


Vll 


okoi 


Bloma 


Bloom 


/3Auw 


Allis 


Vltogether 


oXwg 


Brinnan 


To burn 


TTuqosi:/ 


Aleva 


)il 


IXXLX 


Briggan 


To bring 


(pff£ii/ 


Allcina 
Ams 


Ulna 
Slioulder 


WfvoOf 


Daddna 
Daddjandei 


A teat ) 
A nurse J 


T1T&V1 


Augo 


Eye 


ctv>y^ Hes, 


Dags 


.\ day 


hxoi 


Auso 


Kar 


ovg 


Dailj >n 


To deal 


hliXt'Cv 


' Aukan 


To eke 


xv^eiv 


Daulitar 


A daughter 


^f^iXTVip 



296 



Gothic. 


English. 


Greek. 


Gothic. 


Engiish. 


Greek. 


Daurstan 
Ei 


To dare 
[f 


SI 


Gathrask 


^Threshing/ 
L floor 5 


i^avci) 


Etan 


To eat 


aBsiv 


Galisan 


To collect 


Keyeiv Ke^ 


Fad rein 


Fathers 


TlXT^ip 


Gains 


He 


ansivog 


Fagr 


Fair 


(piapo; 


C;ods 


Good 


xyx^oi; 


Fahan 


To take 


-TTaco 


Graban 


To di^ 


'ypx(pcij 


Fairra 


Far 


TlOppU 


Gras 


Grass 


ypxqiQ 


Fairzna 
Fa ran 


I'lie heel 
To go 


crCpvpov 
Tropevoij-zi 


Gredags 


Wlungry ? 
c Greedy S 


j^xa 


Fauai 
Faurhtan 


Few 

To fear 


(ppLTlco 


Gahailjan 
Hails 


To heal J 
Hail S 


ovXo; 


Fidvor 


Four 


'KBTOpCC. 


Ha us j an 


To hear 


OUf 


Fimf 


Five 


'Tl£[>.ira 


Hlahjan 


To laugh 


yeKsLu 


Fodan 


To feed 


/3oT£iv Hes. 


Hlaine 


A hill 


V.O\u!VVi 


Fon 


Fire 


(pai/cj 


Hliftus 


A thief 


xAgT^^f 


Fotus 


Foot 


-Tio^og 


HIiumans 


The ears 


jtAupti 


Frodein 
Fret an 


Prudence 
To eat 


Tipoeideiv 


Hnaivjan 


^To bow } 
( down S 


■navw 


Gadaursta 


Durst 


^xppia 


Hramjan 


To suspend 


upsiiXiiv 


Gadailjan 
Gadiupida 


l^o divide 
Dig deep 




Hrugga \ 


A shepherd's 
crook 


rKxpvKio-y 


Ganatida 


Watered 


VOTLX VOTig 


Hiiikida 


Crowing 


xpaL'7 v] 


Gahrainjan 


To rinse 


puiv(a 


Hrains 


Pure 


pxivu 


Gathiutiijan 


i'o bless 


v£Or 


Huaian 


To meditate 


V]<ycvij.xi 



297 



Golhic. 


EnglUh. 


Greek. 


Gothic. 


Englith. 


Gretk. 


Hundos 


Flounds 


avveg 


Menoth 


Month 


Mvoi 


Ik 


I 


eyoi 


Mikil 


Much, great 


Ij.eytx).'/! 


Im 


I am 




Maists 


Greater 


u.£y^qo{ 


In 


In 


SV 


Maistaim 


The great 


h^ytqoi 


Innatgaggan 


To enter 


evTOg msiv 


Minnista 


Least 


f^ivvog 


Inuh 


Without 


UViV 


Milith 


Money 


iJLtXiTOg 


Juka 


Yoke 


^vycv 


Mis 


To me 




Kald 


Cold 


xtfXXv) 


Mith & Mid 


With 


jueT^ 


Kaupoth 


To buy & sell 


nccvi^kevai 


Mizdo 


Meed 


l^ij^og 


Kausjan 


To taste 


ysvej^ai 


Nahts 


Night 


^u^. uvuTOt 


Kukjan 


Vo kiss 


nvo. asyivnx 


Namo 


Name 


h)/0(j.x 


Kunnao 


To know 


yivoijau) 


Ne, ni 


No 




Kuenais 


Of the wife 


yvvccmog 


Niujo 


N^ew 


veO( 


Laggan 


^To send, ^ 
c place 5 


ktytiv 


Niun 
Nu 


Nine 
Now 


evuaa 


Leigvan 


To lick 


Ktixeiv 


Quairn 


A quern 


yupoeiv 


Lifnan 


Vo leave 


Xainiiv 


Qiiein 


A woman 


yvvv\ 


Ligan 


Fo lie down 


\eyny 


Rakjan 


To stretch 


opeyeiv 


Lukarn 


A lantern 


\uy.>^ 


Rathizo 


Easily 


pxSiOi 


Malan 


To grind 


fxuAvi 


flazda 


A speech 


f)tCt). p\^7l>i 


Matjaith 


Eat ye 


thi.Ti. 


■^ai 


See / 




Mats 


Meat 


tSaiv 


Saihva 


I see S 


^iao\i.at 


Mfiins 


Meus 




Sakk 


A sack 


Txunog 


Mena 


Moon 


M- 11 VII 


Saihs 


Six 


li 


VOL. II. 




U 


u 







298 



Gothic. 

Safjan 
Sitan 

Skadau 

Skaidan 

Slahan 

Sokja 

Spureidans 

Staig 

Steigan 

Stibna 

Stika 

Stiur 
Stravan 
Tagr 
Taikn 

Talziand 



Bnglith. I 

To set 

To sit 
A shade, / 
Shadow 5 

To separate 

To smite 

To seek 

Basket 

He went * 

Togo ^ 

The voice 
A moment 
A point 

A steer 

To strew 

A tear 

A token 
A tutor ^ 
Preceptor 



Greek. 


Gothic. 


Englith. 


Grttk. 


iSog. iV 


i'anjan 


fo do 


7i\J%tiV 


c(OiJ.Xl 


Pan h an 


To towe 


Joa^fjv 




Tundu 


Tooth 


TfV&« 


jyiiaStov 


Tvai 


Two 


3uw 




Thairs 
Thairh 


A foreman"^ 
Through * 


3y/i« 


(xwvpig 


Thaursjan 
Thaursus 


To thirst ) 
Dry > 


&fpe« 




Thrins 


Three 


Tpitg 


qeiXa 


Tekan 


To touch 


Siytiv 


qo\^x 


Valjan 


VVfll 


(SsXof^art 


i 


Ubu & Uf 


Under 


u-xo 


rT'Vl** 


Ufar 


Over 


r V 
VTttp 


Tccvpog 


Vigan 


To fight 


7rWKT£U£»V 


qpuvvvu 


Uil 


The sun 


fjXiOf 


(5axpi;[*a 


Vitan 


To wit 


iiSti 


hainvv\j.i 


Vrakja 




pwXM? 




Wahsjan 


To increase 


XV^iLV 


ivTeXKeiv 









Thci double G, which marks affinity between Danish and Greek, is 
equally found in the Gospels of Ulphilas. Thus we have briggan, bring; 
driggkan, drink; gaggan, gang; kuggrian, hunger; lagga, long; thaggkian^ 
think; tuggo, tongue. 



299 

Had Lord Monboddo paid attention to the Gothic of Ulphilas; he 
would not have been misled by " his learned friend, who, in all the 
four gospels could not find one word derived from either Greek or Latin." 
{v. Monboddo, Vol. 4. p. l72 ) 

How much is it to be lamented, that a person of such superior talents, 
extensive knowledge, and commanding influence, should, without ex- 
amination, have reported this opinion of his friend ! His lordship had 
to prove, that Creek is perfectly an original tongue, not derived from a 
preceding language. In confirmation of this doctrine, he brought forward 
a declaration of his friend, respecting the Gothic of Ulphilas as not de- 
rived from Greek. 

By the vocabulary, here produced, it is rendered clear, that they are 
nearly related. But if neither is derived from the other; if they do not 
stand in the relation of parent and offspring; they must be descended from 
some common ancestor, and Greek cannot be, what his lordship affirms 
it to be, an original language invented by Sages, inhabitants in Greece. 

No good linguist will call in question, either the close affinity between 
Icelandic, Danish, Swedish, and Greek, or the radical identity of all 
these northern languages and the Gothic of Ulphilas. Consequently 
whatever affinity is proved to exist between the former and the Greek, 
must be allowed equally to exist between the latter and the Greek. 

In the progress of my work I shall demonstrate, that no Sages ever 
prevailed upon the inhabitants of Greece, or of any other country to dis- 
use the language, which from their youth they had been taught, and to 
learn a new language invented for them by philosophers. 

u u 2 



THE 



FEESIAW JLANGUAGE, 



i ERSIA, including Media, and Chorasan, situated in the intermediatt 
space between India, Arabia, and Tartary, has for its limits, the rivers 
Jihon, and Euphrates, the Caspian and the Persian Gulf or Indian Ocean. 

"What languages prevailed through this extent of country in the days 
of Chedorlaomer, or in succeeding generations prior to the Sassanian 
dynasty, which subsisted from the commencement of the third century 
to the middle of the seventh, does not appear. But it is agreed, that 
during this period the Persian had no fewer than seven dialects, of which 
four have become obsolete. Of these, numerous expressions have been 
preserved in the fragments of Sadi, a celebrated poet, who wrote in the 
thirteenth century. Three dialects survive, and with them the learned are 
acquainted. 

Of these the most ancient is the Pelavi, or, as the natives pronounce 
this word, P^hellavi. It has been preserved pure upon the mountains, 
and in the most revered of their religious books; and it is commonly 



301 

spoken at Ry, Ispahan and Dinoor. Hyde, in the 35th chapter of his in- 
estimable work, informs us, that in the fifth century, tiie Pelavi dialect 
was proscribed by Behrdm Ghfir, who in its place established the pure 
dialect of Media, as the language of his court; and this, by Sir W. Jones, 
has been considered as related to the Chaldee. In the progress of my 
work, it will be my endeavour to demonstrate, that his opinion is well 
founded. 

The Parsi, which was the idiom of Istakhar and of Farsistan, or Persia 
proper, is divided into the Zebani Deri, or language of the court, as 
refined by Behrdm Gh<lr, and the Zebani Farsi, or general language of 
the country. These, since the battle of Cadessia, A. D. 656, have been 
exceedingly corrupted by Arabic. 

The Deri is chiefly spoken by the people of Meroo, Shahijan, Buckhara, 
and Badakhsham, and according to Hyde, by the inhabitants of Elymais, 
Media, Parthia, and Chorasan. My valuable acquaintance. Dr. James 
Ross, has been so obliging as to indulge me with extracts from the intro- 
duction to the best, as well as the most ancient dictionary now subsisting 
of the pure Persian language, a work undertaken A. D. 1608, by 
Jemal-ud-deen Husain Anjoo, at the command of the great Mogul Em- 
peror Acbar, and the produce of more than thirty years close application. 
It was collected from forty-four dictionaries, then well known, and nine 
others, wliose authors were unknown, beside histories, commentaries, the 
book of the Zjend, Pazjend, and many other ancient works. This la- 
borious philologist, when he had finished his dictionary, dedicated it to 
the son of Acbar, in the year 1C3.9. This inestimable work, iJoctor Ross 
is now translating for the press. 



302 

The pure language has been well preserved by Ferdusi, the epic poet, 
who is called the Homer of Persia ; but Sadi, who wrote in the thirteenth 
century, admitted without scruple, numerous expressions from the Arabic. 



THE ALPHABET. 

THE present alphabet is adopted from the Arabic. It has been con- 
sidered as composed of thirty-two letters, all consonants; but eight of 
these are never found in words purely Persian. Of the twenty-four 
genuine letters, eight are modifications of others; consequently the 
original characters were sixteen. 

Of these, alif, wa, ya, are called long vowels; but to produce a sound, 
each requires a vowel point, and each, like our vowels, may have a de- 
terminate variety of sounds. Thus for instance, alif has given to it the 
sound of a in ale, of a in fall, of ee in eel, of i in begin, of i in idle, of 
in open, of oo in poor, of ow in cow, and of u in under. JVa, commonly 
sounded like o in stole, has eight distinct sounds. 

Ya, most frequently pronounced as i in sin, as ie in liege, ea in ease, 
ei in conceive, or ee in feed, has seven distinct sounds. All these however 
are not abandoned to caprice, but determined by fixed rules. The short 
vowels have an obscure sound of i, o, or u in bird, mother, sun; as foi^' 
instance, bd is pronounced bud. Of the short vowels, two appear above 
the consonant and one below it, the latter being a small stroke straight 
and inclined. Of the two others, one is similar to this, the other re- 
sembles wa. All the vowels may be considered as interchangeable. 



' 303 

Change of Cojisonants. 

THE Persian, like other languages, readily assumes one letter for 
another of the same organ. Thus it changes 

In the first Series. 
B into M: ghurb, ghurm, the west. — B into W: buzung, wozurg, great. 
P into F: parsi, farsi, Persians. 
FintoV: fam, voam, aspect. 

VintoF: yavah, yafah, jests. — V into B: novishtah, nobishtah, 
written. 

In the second series. 

K into KH: shamakchah, shamakhchah, pitch. — K into Gh: kuloolah, 
ghuloolah, clew, 

KH into H: khecher, hecher, voracious. — KH into GH: sateekh, 
sateegh, spear. 

GH intoG: legham, legatn, riddle. 

H into J : maah, maj, moon. — H into KH ; hyiz, khyiz, hermaphrodite. 

I into K : akhshii, akhsheek. 

In the Third Series. 

T into D: dustas, dusdas, a mill. 

D into T : guftund, guftunt, they said. — D into Z : audur, auzur, uncle. 

Z into J : poozesh, poojeesh, apology. — Z into GH: gereez, gereegh, 
height. 

J into Z : rejah, rezah, series. — J into Z H : kej, kezh, curved.— 
J into T: taraj, tarat, plunder. 



304 

Iti the Fourth Series. 
R into L: soor, sool, rampart. — L into R: zuloo, zuroo, leech. 
N. B. One character ancientlj? served for both these letters. 

Li the Fifth Series. 

S into SH: mayoos, mayoosh, hopeless. — S into CH: kheroos, 
kherooch, dunghill cock. — S into H: amas, amaah, tumour. 

SH into S: sharek, sarek, niglitingale. — CH into SH : kach, kash, 
would to God. 

In the Sixth Series. 
N into M : ban, bam, cieling. 

The Numerals. 
Yec, du, seh, chehar, penge, shesh, heft, hesht, nu, deh : yazdeh, 
duaz deh, &c. 

The Nouns. 

Nouns substantive are said to have but one variation of case. Thus 
puser, a child, in the dative and accusative has pusera. But they have 
a genetive case of peculiar structure, as puscri an, his son, 'J'he plural 
is formed by adding an or ha to the singular. Thus gurk, a wolf, makes 
gurkan, wolves; bal, awing; balha, wings. 

The noun adjective admits of no variation. 

Degrees of comparison are marked by ter and terin ; as khnh fair, 
khubter fairer, khubterin fairest. The English Man, after a comparative, 
is expressed by az. 



305 



The Pronouns. 

Mun, to, ; ma, shuma, ishan — I, thou, he ; wc, ye, they. 

Mora me, tiira thou, ora him, mara us. 

The pronoun adjuncts are six, sh, t, m ; nd, id, iin. These are sub- 
joined to nouns and verbs to indicate the person either acting, or in- 
terested. Sh added to the end of nouns means his, her, it's. Jameiash, 
liis robe ; dilhesii, his heart; muish, his hair. T subjoined indicates the 
second person singular, thou, thy, to thee. Jameiat, thy robe; dilet, 
thy heart; muii, thy hair. 

M indicates the first person, T, my, to me. Jameiam, my robe; dilem, 
ray heart ; niuim, my hair. 

When the pronoun precedes the verb, the agent is changed, and it 
implies the dative case, as for instance, zeram dad, gold to me he gave. 

In the plural number, nd indicates the third person, id the second 
person, and im the first. 

Here it is to be observed, that although M may have been abbreviated 
from mun or ma, and T from to, all the other adjuncts are fragments of 
more ancient pronouns, now obsolete. 

The Verbs. 

These are chiefly derived from nouns, which Jemal-ud-deen Husain 
Anjou considered as their roots. 

They have but one conjugation and three changes of tense. 

I have stated that the persons are indicated by adjunct pronouns, 
which form the terminations. In this all Persian philologists agree, and 

VOL. ir. XX 



306 

affirm that to prefix a pronoun is a superfluity. The substantive verb 
booden, to be, may serve as a model for the variations of the persons 
in all tenses. 

Booden, or boodun, to be. 

The present tense is wanting in this verb, and is therefore supplied by 
two other verbs, of which only the present tense remains. Tliese are 
um and hasteem, which run thus, — um, ee, ust; eem, eed, und, ; and 
hestum, hestee, hest ; hesteem, hesteed, hestund: lam, thou art, &c. 

The preterites are. — boodum, boodee, bood ; boodeem, boodeed, 
boodund ; I was, &c. — boodeh um, boodehee, boodeh ust, Sec. I have 
been. — Boodeh shudum, boodeh shudee, boodeh shud. Sec. I had 
been, &c. 

The future is — khahurabood, khaheebood. Sec. I shall be, &c. 

Then follow, booum, booee, booud; booeem, booeed, boound, I be, 
thou beest, he be, &c. — Bushum, bushee, bushud; bushecm, busheed, 
bushund, I be, &c. — Boodraee, ^c. I would be, &c. — Boodeh bushum, 
&c. I shall have been. Sec. — Boo, &;c. be thou, &c. — Bash, being; 
boodeh, been. 

Shudun and shoodun, to be, is thus conjugated: 

Mee shooum, mee shooee, niee shooud; mee shooeem, mee shooeed, 
mee shoound, I am, &c. — Shudum, shudee, shud, &c. 1 was. — Shudeh 
um, shudhee, shudeh ust, &c. I have been. — Shudeh boodum, &c. I 
had been, &c.— Khahum, shud, Sec. I shall be.— Shooum, I be, &c. 
— Shoo, be thou and being. — Khahum bude, to be willing. — Khahum, 
khahee, khahed; khahcem, khahced, khahund, I will, &c. 
The other tenses are formed like those of the regular verbs. 



307 

Daden ordadun, to give: 

Present tense: Meedehum, meedchee, mecdehud ; mccdahceni, mee- 
daliced, meedahund, I give, &c. 

Preterite: Dadum, dadhee, dad; dadeem, dadeed, dadiind. 

Imperfect: Meedaduni, meedadhee, meedad, Sec. I was giving, &c. 

Pluperfect: Dadeh boodum, I had given, &c. 

First future: Bedahum, Sec. I shall give. 

Second future: Khaumdad, khaueedad, I will give, &c. 

Subjunctive or Aorist: Dheum, &c. I may give. Sec. 

Potential: Dadmee, I might give, Sec. 

Compound future: Dedeh bashum, &c. I shall have given. 

Imperative: Deh, give thou; dahud, let him give. 

Infinitive: Dadun, to give; dadeh booden, to have given. 

The passive voice has the present, preterite, &c. formed by the aux- 
iliary verbs shuden, booden, and khustum. 

Among the prepositions we find abe7\ upon; and among the con- 
junctions u or V, and. 

Prom this transient view of the grammar, we may see clearly, that the 
same language, which in the peninsula of India produced Sanscrit, and 
became Greek, with its iEolic dialect, the Latin, on the European 
shores of the Mediterranean Sea, gave birth to Persian in the country 
intermediate between the Caspian and the Indian Ocean. 

All these languages agree in multiplying their compounds; by which 
practice they form a striking contrast to the Hebrew, Arabic, and Chal- 
dee. Yet, notwithstanding this discordance, they have a discernible 
affinity. 

X X 2 



ON THE 



ILAMGUAGES OF INBIAc 



X HE natural boundaries of Indostan seem to be Caucasus, theTibetian 
Mountains, the Indus, and the Ocean. 

But, when we examine the languages of India, other limits present 
themselves to view, and we are disposed to consider as one the whole 
extent, in which the various languages allied to Sanscrit and the Nagari 
character prevail. With these letters and languages we see combined 
certain religious practices and opinions, which serve to connect Indostan, 
Tibet, Cashmire, Napaul, Buian, Asam, Siam and Ava, presenting them 
to our view as collateral branches of one stem. 

The Sanscrit has been regarded as the parent of a numerous progeny; 
but it is acknowledged that both parent and progeny maj' be the com- 
mon offspring of some remote progenitor. 

'All, who have paid attention to this subject, agree with the Brahmins, 
that Sanscrit literature resend)les an extensive forest, abounding with a 
rich variety of beautiful and luxuriant ibiiagc, splendid blossoms and 



309 

delicious fruits, but surrounded by a strong and thorny fence, which 
prevents those, who are desirous of plucking its fruits and flowers, from 
entering. 

Yet such has been the ardour of our countrymen in pursuit of know- 
ledge, that no difficulties have been sufficient to restrain their efforts. 

Mr. Halhead was the first who ventured to break through this thorny 
fence, that lie might catch a glimpse of the inestimable treasure, which 
jealous superstition h:id concealed. In the year 17/6 he began to pene- 
trate the forest, and having tasted its delicious fruits, he invited others 
to partake with him. Tiiese were his words of invitation: " The grand 
source of Indian literature, the parent of almost every dialect from the 
Persian Gulf to the China Seas, is Sanscrit; a language of the most 
venerable antiquity, at present shut up in the libraries of Brahmins. 
This appears to have been current over most of the oriental world, and 
its traces may yet be discovered in almost every district of Asia. It 
agrees with Persian, iVrabic, Latin and Greek in the most common ex- 
pressions, more especially such as are monosyllabic. The coins of Asam, 
Napaul, Cashmeer, Butan, Tibet, and many other kingdoms, are stampt 
with Sanscrit letters. The same arrangement of the letters appears in 
the greatest part of the East from the Indus to Pegu, and the same 
affinity in the names of persons, places, titles and dignities, to the fur- 
thest limits of Asia, is Sanscrit." 

Such was the representation of this distinguished orientalist. 

Sir W. Jones, the most elegant scholar of his day, perfect master of 
Greek, and deeply imbued in oriental literature, no sooner arrived in 
the peninsula of India, than, availing himself of the influence derived 



310 

from his office, he obtained Bhratninical assistance, and turned his ener- 
getic mind to the sacred language of that country. 

In the year 1787, he allotted one hour a day to these pursuits, and was 
soon able to trace the features of resemblance between Sanscrit and 
the languages of Europe. He admired " its wonderful structure, more 
perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exqui- 
sitely refined than either, yet bearing to each of them a stronger affinity 
both in the roots of verbs and in the form of grammar, than could pos- 
sibly have been produced by accident." 

Henry Colebrooke, not inferior in mental powers and exertions to Sir 
Vi, . Jones, and every way qualified to estimate the comparative im- 
portance of oriental literature, considers the Sanscrit as a most polished 
tongue, fixed in classical writings of the best poets, most of whom 
flourished in the century before Christ. In his opinion it is evidently 
derived from a primeval tongue, which was gradually refined in various 
climates, and became Sanscrit in India, Pahlavi in Persia, and Greek on 
the shores of the Mediterranean. 

Such are the testimonies of these learned men as to the structure and 
excellence of Sanscrit. 

Had Mr. Halhead, in his enumeration, omitted the Arabic as a 
language " with which the Sanscrit agrees in the most common ex- 
pressions," his description would have been more conformable to truth. 

With Mr. Colebrook, T am persuaded, that Sanscrit is derived from a 
primeval tongue, and I discover affinity between it and Hebrew. Yet 
I am satisfied, that neither Hebrew, Arabic, Chaldee, Sanscrit, nor 
Persian, has any claim superior to the rest, or can be considered as their 



311 

parental language. They are co-relatives, and have originated in one 
common ancestor now no more. 

The Arabic lias been preserved in the Koran, the Persian in Ferdosi, 
the Sanscrit in Valmeeki, the Chaldee in Daniel, Ezra and Nehemia, 
the C J reek in Homer, and the Hebrew in the Pentateuch. Beyond these 
limits we have no documents, from which we can derive a knowledge of 
the language, which prevailed in Arabia, Persia, Indostan, Chaldaea, 
Greece, or Palestine. 

It is not my intention to write an extensive treatise on the Sanscrit 
language, and much less to teach its elements to those, who wish to 
learn them. Indeed, were I equal to this undertaking, the task would 
be loo laborious, because the Grammar alone, as published by Carey, 
occapies more than a thousand quarto pages, and even this may be con- 
sidered as an epitome, when compared with H. Colebrook's most labo- 
rious work. 

The alphabet is the most philosophical of any, with which I am 
acquainted. The letters are classed according to the organ of speech 
employed in their articulation, whether guttural, palatine, dental or 
labial, with their respective aspirates and nasals. Beside these, they 
have the sibilant with its aspirate, the semi-vowels, and a character for 
the separate breathing occasionally used. It must be here particularly 
noticed that the aspirate is distinctly articulated, and does not change 
the consonant to which it belongs, as with us in th and ph, converting 
the latter into f, and the former into a letter of a peculiar sound, per- 
fectly distinct from T and H. Nor does it make its attendant consonant 
quiescent, like the Galic, and like the English in high, nigh, &c. 



312 

Letters of the same organ are liable to change; but in Sanscrit these 
changes are governed by estabhsheii laws. 

The roots in Sanscrit are said to be 1 J 56, and these are neither nouns 
nor verbs; but may become either, according to tlic suffix. Tlicy are 
biliteral, as I suspect the Hebrew to have originally been, and are com- 
posed of consonants; but then each consonant includes within itself 
the short vowel, v,hich is required for its enunciatiiin, and which seems 
to be an equivalent for scheva of the Hebrew. The sotmd of this short 
vowel, as I apprehend, cannot be expressed by any one of our alpha- 
betic characters, because different writers, equally attentive to ortho- 
graphy, differ in their choice. 

Like Hebrew, Arabic, Chaldee, and Creek, it has the dual number 
both in its nouns and verbs. 

The nouns have seven cases, the nominative, accusative, instrumental, 
dative, ablative, possessive, and locative, all distmguished by appro- 
priate suffixes. 

The tenses of Sanscrit verbs are ten, and the several persons have each 
its pronoun suffixed, as in most otiier languages. 

Li perfect conformity to the Persian, Greek, Danish, and German, it 
delio'hts in compounds; for, not satisfied with arbitrary sounds and un- 
meaning names, they construct such as are descriptive, and mark the 
peculiar quality of the animal or thing intended, which is tlierefore suf- 
ficiently characterized, and strikingly represented to the mind. Thus, 
for instance, a frog is the leaper, an elephant the handy one, a bee the 
flower drinker, a bird is the frequenter of the sk), a serpent the mover 
on his breast; rice is tuft-growing, a cloud water giver, and the sun is 



313 

maker of day and lord of light. So acarin is a crime, that wliicli should 
not be done, from carttum to do. 

No language is better adapted for composition, because tjjc words 
coalesce with ease, and the compound readily submits to the laws of 
abbreviation^ 

The pronouns are — asmad and aham, T; mahyam and me, to nie; 
yushmad, bhavat, bhavan and twam, tliou; tubhyam and te, to thee; 
vayani, we; asmabhyam and nas, to us; yuyam, ye; yushmabhyam and 
vas, to you; me and mam, my; te and tava, thy; etasya, his; nasa and 
asmacama, our; usmacama, your; eshama and etcshania, their. 

The substantive verb runs thus, the initial A being pronounced as I in 
Sir, — asmi, asi, asti ; smah, stha, sanli, I am, &c. Dr. Wilkins writes 
this, usnii, usi, usli ; usma, usa, sunti, Asani, let me be; asama, let 
us be. Syam, syah, syat; syama, syata, syuh, may I be, kc. Bhavami, 
bhavasi, bhavati ; bhavamh, (olim, bhavamas,) bhavalha, bhavanti, I 
am, thou art, he is; we are, (Sec. 

In bhavamah, the final H is substituted by the Brahmins for S. 
Bhavani, let me be; bhavam, let us be; bhu, be thou. Abiiuvam, I 
have been; bhavdshyami, I shall be; bubhushati, may he be; varttitum, 
to be ; avarttishi, I have been ; varttita, he shall be, he will be. Vivrat- 
sati, may he be. 

I shall here exhil)it select parts of various verbs, in order to shew the 
genius of this language. 

Admi, atsi, atti; admas, attha, adanti, I, thou, he, we, ye, they eat; 
adani, let me eat; adama, let us eat; attasmi, I will eat; attasi, thou 
wilt eat; atta, he will eat; attum, to eat. 
VOL. II. Yy 



3U 

Dadatc, lie gives ; dadanto, tlicy give ; adat and adadishla, he gave ; 
data and diidila, Ik; will give ; dadatu, let him give ; dadiluni, to give; 
dadamana, giving; dadadana, having given; dadish_yainana, about to 
give. 

Pivati, li(^ drinks ; pivanti, tliey drink; apat, lie drank; pata, he will 
drink; paturn, l.o drink. y\snati, he eateth ; asot, he ate ; ashta, he will 
eat. Vasnii, vakslii, vashli, 1 wish, iSccr. vasani, let lue wish ; iidhi, wish 
thou; vasiitu, let him wish; avasisham, J have wished. Lasliali, he de- 
sires ; alashot, lie hath (U;sir(;d ; lashitiim, to desire. 

Vamati, Ik; vomits ; avamot, ho hath vomilt;d. Dayate, he nourishes ; 
adasta, ho hath nonrishcd ; data, he; will nourish; datum, to nourish. 
I'adyatc, Ik; nK)ves ; apadi, ho nu)V((i ; patla, he will move. Dasati, 
he biles; adagnkshoti, he; bit; danshta, he will bite; danshtum, to bite; 
(laiila a tooth. \'a(i, Ik; nH)ves ; ayasot, he hath moved. Amayati, he 
goes; amimat, Ik; w(;nt ; ami, I eause to go. Mali, he metes ; amasot, 
he hath mclcd ; mata, he will nKlc Lubhyati, he eovets ; alubhat, he 
hath eovcled ; lobhita, he will covet; lolihilum, to eovet. ])oyata, he 
decays; didoye and adasi, Ik; hath dreaycd ; data, he will deeay. 
.layale, Ik; [trodiices ; njani, he lialli produced ; janita, he; will produce; 
janitum, lo pr()thi(;e. Mriyatc, Ik; dies; amrala and mamara, he died; 
maiKa aiKl marisliyali, h<; will die. 

Kaionii, karosjii, karoli; I do, thou iloest, he does ; karavami, let me 
do; karolu, let him do; aearsliam or akarsham, I hav(wloiK; ; chakar, I 
did; karlla, he will <lo ; earltum, to do, to make, to create; karaymi, 
I eause to d) : payayati, Ik- causes to driidv. 

Chekroveluni, lotloolUn. Dedoyate, he gives often. Pepoyate, he 



drinks often. Janjanyatc, he produces often. vSosliupyatc, lie sleeps 
often. Vavasyate, he desires often. Papaclioti, he cooks often. Daii- 
danshti and dandasyate, he bites often. Varivrati, he turns often. 
Panopat, fall often, and panphul, produce often or niucli. 

Ilere the reader will please to notice, that the reiterative is produced 
by reduplication in its peculiar form. Similar reduplications may be 
observed in volitives. Thus \n is drink, and pipasati he wants drink. 
Chikorashti, he wants to make. Didarishti, he wants to tear. Bibha- 
rishti, he wishes to bear. Susupsati, he wants to sleep. From Pad we 
have Pitsate, he wants to step; and Labh produces Lipsali, he wishes 
to obtain. Ab, have, gives Ipsati, ho wishes to have; and other forms, 
expressing both cause and volition, being connected with a verb, indi- 
cate a desire to cause some one to act; as, for instance, to eat, to drink, 
to walk, to run, to take, to give. 

This language, with peculiar aptitude, converts nouns into verbs. 
Putroyati, he loves his son ; matroyati, he loves his mother, or she be- 
haves like a mother. Putrakamyati, he desires a son. Prasadoyati, he 
behaves as if he were in a palace. Kutoyali prasade raja, the king con- 
ducts himself in his palace as in a cottage. 

I might here call the attention of the Greek scholar to the close affinity 
between the preceding verbs, and verbs of the same import in Greek ; 
but this will be left to his own discernment for the present. I proceed 
to the comparative degrees, in which it will be difficult to say, whether 
the affinity is most striking in the Greek or in the Latin. 

Vidwasa, wise; vidwattara, wiser; vidwattania, wisest. \'idusho, 
wise; vidushitara, vidushitama. Vahoo, many; vahootara, vahootama. 

Ty 2 



316 

Vahoola, much; vahoolatara, vahoolatama. Alpa, few; alpatara, al- 
patania. Dadat, generous ; dadattara, dadattama. Yuvan, young ; 
juvatara, yuvatama. 

The numerals are — eka, one; dwau, two; tri, tliree ; chatur, four; 
panchan, five; shash, six; septam, seven; ashtan, eight; navan, nine; 
dashan, ten ; ekadasan, eleven ; visati, twenty. 

The numerical figures resemble those of Europe. 

We have already had occasion, by numerous examples, to observe the 
affinity between Sanscrit and all the languages of Europe and of Asia. 

But here it may be useful to take a more particular survey of its re- 
lation to English, Latin, Greek and Hebrew, in order to confirm my 
position, that all these languages are radically one. For this purpose, 
we must always bear in mind, what has been delivered respecting abbre- 
viation, the change between letters of the same organ, the presence or 
absence of prepositions, the conversion of the aspirate into either the 
guttural, sibilant, or labial, and the licentious change of D into L, 
which however has not been universally adopted. 

I begin Avith the English, confining myself principally to such terms 
as are most ancient, that is the monosyllabic, and those expression* 
which occur most frequently in common life. 

When these in Sanscrit have turn for their termination, they are not 
roots, but are here taken in the infinitive, as in daraitum, to tame; of 
which the root is dam. In numerous instances, I confine myself to the 
roots, in others I take either the noun substantive, or any part of the 
verb. 



317 



English. 


Sameril, 


English. 


Sanscrit, 


English. 


San'cril. 


Add 


Adi more 


Boat 


Pota 


Cock 


Cuckuta 


Am 


Asmi 


Bold 


Bal 


Coming 


Agaman 


And 
Anoint 


Anantarum 
Anjana 


Booty 


^ Bhata, a 
' soldier 


Coo 
Cot 


Ku 
Kuti 


Ape 


Kapi 


Bray 


Braha, speak 


Count 


Ginte 


Arrayed 


Parihita 


Brother 


Bhratara 


Cow 


Gau 


Arrow 
Axe 


Sara 
Cathaca 


Brow 
Buck 


Bhru 
Bukra 


Create 


^Carttum, 
'Crata,done 


Bake 


Pachtum 


Budge 


Baj 


Crib 


Cripana 


Band 


Bandh 


Bunter 


Banita 


Crime 


Acarm 


Bask 


QBhascara 


Burden 


Bhara 


Cud 


Cud, Eat 




'The sun 


Came 


Agama 


Cur 


Cuccara 


Bath 
Bawd 


Bad 

^Badhu, a 
c wife 


Carp, see) 
Crib ) 
Carve 


Cripana 
Charve, eat 


Cut 
Dale 


^Ch'hada 
'Cat'haca 
Dal, separate 


Be 


Bhu 


Caw 


Cavati 


Damp 


Tima 


Beg 


Pakja 


Cede 


Shad 


Dare 


Dhrish 


Bear 


Bhritum 


Central 


Antaral 


Dark 


Andhacara 


Beauty 
Beat 


Budracha 
Vyadh 


Champ ) 


Cham, Gham 
and Jam 


Daughter 
Day 


Duhitri 
Divas 


Beloved 


Bullubh 


Chant 


Gana 


Dawn 


^Dodhatum 


Better 


Bhadratara 


Chick 


Chica, small 


' to shine 


Bid 


Vidhi 


Churn 


Chur& Churn 


Dead 


rudi 


Bide 


Bad 


Coal 


Cala, black 


Deal 


Dal, separate 



S18 



Sanscrit. 

Gaurava 
ram a 




319 



EttgiisU. 


Sanaerit. 


English. 


Sanscrit. 


English. 


Sanscrit. 


Horse 


IJras 


Love 


Lubh 


More 


Mahatteran 


Hunt 


Huntuin 


Luck 


Lacshmee 


Mother 


Matri 


Hurt 
Hut 


Hartuni 
Cut 


Lust 
Mad 


Lashyati 
Unmatta 


Mouch, > 
to stealS 


Mush 


In 


Ni 


Male, evil 


Mala, dirty 


Mouse 


Mushica 


Is 


Asmi 


Man 


Manushya 


Murder 


Mrityu 


It 


Etad & Tad 


Me 


Mam 


Nail 


Nal 


Join 


Yung 


Mead 


Madhu, honey 


Naked 


Nagna 


Joke 


Jacsh 


Meal, mix 


Mil 


Name 


Namen 


Keep 
Kiss 


Gup 

Cus, embrace 


Mean, * 
Medium 3 


Madhya 


Neat 
New 


Nieta 
Nava 


Knack 
Knee 


Anuka 
Janu 


Mean, ) 
Mind ) 


Manas 


Nigh 
Night 


Nicata 
Nakta 


Knit, Knot 
Lazy 


Nah 
Alasya 


Mean, } 
diminutive J 


Manaca 


Nme 
No 


Nava 
No 


Less 


Lis 


Mete 


Mat urn 


Nor 


Nir 


Lick 


Lih 


Midst 


Madhya 


Nose 


Nasica 


Light, not^ 
heavy 5 


Laghu 


Might 
Mightier 


Mahata 
Mahatara 


0! 
Oar 


0! 
Arittra 


List, desire 


Leshita 


Mind 


Manas 


OfF 


Av 


T/Oplr "i 


Lagna, Alak 


Mine 


Muma 


Oh 


Haha 


.i—i\j\y^ J 


and Sloch 


Mixt 


Misrana 


One 


Jani 


Look 
Lop 


Lochitum 
Lup 


Month, } 
Moon ^ 


Masa 


Ooze 
Other 


Ghas 

I tar, A that 



320 



English. 


Sanscrit. I 

1 


English. 


Sanscrit, 


English. 


Sanscrit, 


Otter 


Udra 


Reign 


Ranjana 


Six 


Shash 


Over 


Upari 


Right 


Rit 


Sixth 


Shasta 


Owl 


Ulaca 


Rite 


Riti 


Sister 


Swasri 


Ox- 


Ucsha 


Root 


Rad 


Sit 


^Situm, to 


Pad 


Pad 


Rude 


Raud 


' lie down 


Pannier 


Avapani 


Ruminate 


llumantbayate 


Skill 


Cusala 


Pass 


Pis 


Sake 


Sakhi, friend 


Sod 


Sata 


Pat 


Pit 


Same 


Sama 


Son 


Santana 


Path 


Bat & Palha 


Scatter 


Kirtum 


Soon 


Sondra 


Paw 


Pani 


Scratch 


Grit 


Sound 


Swan a 


Piece 
Piss 


Psa, Eat 
Payas, water 


Seam, a ? 
border 3 


Siman 


Stall 
Stand, Stay 


Sthal 
Shtha 


Pluns^e 


Plu 


Serve 


Sri 


Star 


Tara 


Prayer 


Prarthana 


Serpent 


Sarpa 


Stun 


Stan, thunder 


Prime 


Para ma 


Seventh 


Saptama 


Sum 


Sama 


Proud 


Praudh 


Sew 


Shiv 


Sweat 


Shwid 


Quean, ^ 
Queen 3 


Cunya 


She 
Shear 


Esha and Sa 
Cshur 


Sweet 
Swoon 


Swadu 
Swap 


Quern 
Quoth 


Ghurna 
Cathayati 


Shroud 


^Sraddha, 
'Obsequies 


Tame 
Tear 


Damitum 
Dri, Daran 


Rage 
Rave 


Rajra 
Rav 


Sign 
Sink 


Sanjna 
Sanna 


Teat 


^Dayati, he 
^ sucks 


Read 


Rat 


Site 


Sthita 


Ten 


Dashan 


Red 


llitjati, Iludhira 


Sit 


Asitum 


Tepid 


Tapta 



321 



Engliili. 


Sanscrit* 


Euijliah. 


SitllHl-ll. 


E.ijU^h. 


SaaiCTil. 


That 


Tad 


Vast 


Valuisa 


What 


Yad 


Then 


Fan a 


Valet 


Bala, Boy 


Wheel 


Gola 


They 


re 


Valiant 


Balavan 


White 


Sweta 


Thin 


Tana 


Vanish 


Vinash 


Wliose 


Yasya 


Third 


rrita3'a 


Vest 


Vastra 


Widow 


Vidhava 


Thirst 


Frish 


Village 


Palli 


Wind 


Vayajana 


This 


Ades 


Voice 


Vac 




( Vihanga, 


Thou 


Twain 


Vomit 


Vamati 


Wing 


'Air-going 


Thy 


Tava 


Vomited 


Vamita 


Wise 


Vidwas 


Thrice 


Tisra 




/-Udhasa 


Wish 


Ish 


Tie 


Tah 


Udder 


^ Udara, 


Wit 


Viditum 


Time 


Smina 




^ the belly 


Witch 


V^idasha 


Toss 


Tas, Das 


Upper 


Upari 


Woman 


Vamini 


Tother 


Tatara 


Wain 


Vahan 


Wrath 


Crodh 


Tree 


Tara & Diu 


Warm 


Gharma 


Ye 


Yuyam 


Tripod 


Tripad 




rWaran, 


Yea 


Ji 


Trow, -s 
a boat > 


Tro 


Warn 


< Prevention 
' Varana 


Year and^ 
Yore 1 


Jara 


Trough ^ 
Truly 


Dhruvam 


Was 


CWabhuvas 
[wasa 


Yoke 


SYuja 
( Yugam 


Two 


Dwau 


We 


Vayam 


Young 


Yuvan 




rVayana 


Weave 


Ve 






Vane 


< Vayajana, 


Wed 


Vadhu, Wife 








^ the wind 


Well 


Vilakshan 






VOL. II. 




2 


' z 







322 



Such is the comparative vocabulary, I have been able to collect in the 
course of my reading. A more extensive acquaintance with Sanscrit 
literature will, I am persuaded, add greatly to my treasure. These few 
words, however, will sufficiently evince the connexion between our lan- 
guage and the Sanscrit. 

I shall now call the attention of my readers to the affinity between 
Sanscrit and Latin, and shall avail myself, in my observations on this 
subject, of the very interesting remarks made by the Edinburgh 
Reviewers, in their critique on Dr. Wilkins' Grammar, a work, which 
can never be too highly valued by the student, who is solicitous to gain 
a critical knowledge of this venerable language. 

But here also I must premise, not merely that letters of the same organ 
may supply each other's place, but that, in conformity to the practice of 
other nations, the labials B and P are commutable with the sibilant, and 
with the gutturals C, G, K, Q; as are M with N, and L with R. In- 
stances of such changes will immediately appear, because Latin con- 
forms to the iEolic dialect of Greek, in which we have y.ag for ^wg and 
y.ofov for Tifov. 

Latin. Sanscrit. Latin. Samcrit. Latin, Sanscrit. 



Ab 
Ac 

Ad 

Adeptus 

lEs 

Annona 

Anser 



Ava 

Cha 

Ad 

Ap 

Ayas 

Anna 

flansa 



Antrum 

Aqua 

Arena 

Bell urn 

Bibit 

Bove 

Cado 



Antara 

A pa 

Aranya 

Vala 

Pivati 

Gava 

Shada & Pit 



Caeremonia 

Caesaries 

Canis 

Cano 

Carmen 

Carus 

Coclum 



Carman 

Kesa 

Shvana 

Gano 

Carman 

Shra 

Capias 



S93 



Latin, 

Clam 

Coquo 

Coctum 

Concha 

Cor 

Creo 

Da 

Datum 

Das 

Dat 

Dedit 

Dator 

Donum 

Dens 

Decern 

Deus 

Dexter 

Dies 

Disco 

Dixit 

Doceo 

Domitum 

Duo 

Durus 



SaMtytt, 

Chukimp 

Pach 

Pachtum 

Sanclia 

Hridaja 

Cri 

Da 

Datum 

Dadasi 

Dadati 

Dadat 

Datri 

Danam 

Danta 

Dasama 

Deve 

Dekshan 

Divas 

Upadoshaca 

Disat 

Upadoshaca 

Damitum 

Dwau 

Dura 



Lnfini 

Eat 

Edo 

Ed ere 

Esse 

Eget 

Et 

Evanesco 

Feinina 

Ferre 

Flu ere 

Fluvius 

Folium 

Frater 

Genetrix 

Genitus 

Gentes 

Genu 

Genus 

Gigno 

Gravis 

Gustavi 

Hodie 

Humus 

Hyems 



Santtyrit, 


LaUn. 


SatucrHi 


Jjata 


Id 


Etid 


Ad 


Idem 


Idem 


Attum 


Ignis 


Agni 


A stum 


Immolo 


Mulya 


Ichchhati 


Inquit 


Cathayati 


Ath 


Intra 


Antara 


Vinash 


Is 


Esha 


Vamini 


Ita 


Ifi, Yalha 


Bhritum 


Itum 


Etum, Yatum 


Plotum 




^Yugum & 


Plav 


Jugum 


?Yaja 


Phali 


Jussit 


Japayamas 


Bhratara 


Jungo 


Yung 


Janoni 
Genita 


Juno, } 
Genetrix 3 


Janoni 


Janata 


Jusculum 


Yusha 


Janu 


Juvenis 


Yuvana 


Gana 


Labi 


Labi 


Jajanmi 


Labium 


Lapamya 


Gaurava 


Laedo 


Ladi 


Aghasam 


Lretari 


Hladitum 


Adya 


Levitas 


Laghava 


Bhumi 


Libido 


SLubdha, 


Hima 




' a greedy man 



z z 2 



324 



latin. 


Sanscrit. 


Latin. 


Samcrit. 


Latin, 


Saii»cr«. 


liOCUS 


^Loca, the 


Neco 


Nighna 


Pergo 


V^aja 




I world 


Nepos 


Naptara 


Pingere 


Pinjitura 


Lubet 


Lubhyati 


Neque 


Nacha 


Piacere 


Pritum 


Major 


Mahatara 


Neve 


Nava 


Piuo 


Plu 


Malus 


Mala 


Nidus 


Nidhi 


Polleo 


Bal 


Mare 


Nara 


Noceoe 


Nasayitum 


Post 


Poschat 


Mas 


Manusbya 


Novem 


Nava 


Potis 


Poti, Lord 


Mater 


Matri 


Novus 


Navya 


Potum 


Patum 


Mayors 


Mahavarsaya 


Nomen 


Namna 


Prandet 


Pranipsati 


Medium 


Madhya 


Nos 


Nah, Olira, Nas 


Praelium 


Pralaya 


Meio 


Mi ha 


Noctem 


Nactam 


Precor 


Prachh 


Me urn 


Mama 


Nox 


Nisa 


Primus 


Prathama 


Meminit 


Mamana 


Nubes 


Nabhas, air 


Prodigiuni 


Prabhavaja 


Menda 


Manda 


Nubo 


Niva 


Prope 


Prapta 


Mens 
Metiri 


Manas 
Ma turn 


Nurus 
Octo 


Snusara 
Ashta 


Pullulat ^ 
Pull us S 


PhuUati 


Micturiet 


Mekshyali 


Oculus 


Acs hi 


Quatuor 


Chatur 


Misceo 


Misra 


Odit 


Atvat 


Que 


Cha 


Modus 


Afata 


Os 


Asthi 


Qui, Quern 


Ki, Kim 


Mors 


Mrityu 


Ovis 


Ava 


Quid 


Yad 


Moritur 


Mrayati 


Pastum 


Psatum 


Quinque 


Pancha 


Mus 


Mushica 


Pater 


Pitri 


Quo 


Cwo 


Musca 


Maksha 


Patera 


Pattra 


Quot 


Cwoti 


Navis 


Nau 


Pes, pedis 


Pad a 


Rectus 


Rit 



325 



Latin, 


Santcril. 


Latin. 


Sanscrit. 


Latin. 


Santcrit. 


Rego 


Raj 


Sopire 


Swoptum 


Uncus 


Ancusli 


Res 


Rai 


Specie 


Pasya 


Unus 


Jana 


Rem 


Rayama 


Statio 


Sthan 


Ustus 


Ushatu 


Reverti 


Paravertatuin 


Statum 


Sthatum 


Uterus 


Udar 


Rex 


R;ija 


Suavis 


Suadu 


Uter 


Yatara 


Rhcda 


Ratha 


Supremus 


Su para ma 


Valeo 


Bal 


Ritus 


Riti 


Super 


Upari 


V'ates 


Vadi 


Rota 


Ratha 


Suum 


Swayarn 


Ve 


Va 


Ruber 


Rudhira 


Taceo 


Tushna 


Vegeto 


Voja 


Rugit 


Rau, Ravati 


Tactus 


Twac 


Veho 


Vaha 


Sanus 


Susthana 


Taeda 


Daha 


Venor 


Vana, Vanyah 


Saturn 


Syata 


Tepescere 


Taptum 


Ventus 


Vayajan 


Seipsum '^ 




Tenuis 


Tanu 


Verres 


Vara ha 


& Suus3 


Swa 


Terra 


Dhara 


Vertere 


Vartitum 


Septem 


CSapta and 
'Saptem 


Tibi 


^Tubhya 
cTubyama 


Vestire 
Victitare 


Vastum 
Bhaetum 


Serpens 
Servire 


Sarpa 
Sretum 


Tonitru "| 
Tono i 


Stanit 


Victus 
Videre 


Bhacsha 
Veditum 


Sex 


Shash 


Trans 


Tri 


Vidua 


Vidhava 


Siccus 


Sush 


Tres 


Tri 


Villa 


Palli 


Silex 


Sila 


Tredecem 


Triyadashan 


Vieo 


Yu 


Socer 


Swasur 


Tuum 


Twam 


Vir 


Vara 


Somniuni 


Svvapua 


Ungo 


Anja 


Vires 


Vir 


Sonus 


Swan a 


Ungula 


An gal ay a 


Viridis 


Harit 



326 



muiii 


Sanseril. 


Latin. 


Sanscrit. 


Vis 


Basa 


Nonest 


ISTasti 


Vita 


Vida 


Est niihi 


Asti mama 


Vivere 


Jevitum 


Quid mihitecum 


Kim maya tava 


Vos 


Vas 


Tibi id 


Tavid 


Vox 


Vak 


Node dieque 


Nactum divapi 


Vox ita 


Vaka yatha 


- 





If the affinity between Sanscrit and Latin is apparent, the close con- 
nexion between Sanscrit and Greek is more so. This must have been 
observed particularly in the substantive verb, in the numerals, and in 
the few instances of regular verbs I have already noticed. But the sub- 
sequent examples will more abundantly demonstrate their affinity. 



Greek. 

avxreSsiv 

ave[j.og 

etve'j 

XTTO 



Sanscrit. 

At'ha Esheta 

Aja 

(Limpami 

C & Lip 

Ama 

Anapadan 

Ana 

An 

Nar 

Yache 

Vi 



Creek. 


Sanscrit. 


Greek. 


Sanscrit. 


apt 


Ura 


Sei^eiv 


Dis 


a?v\g 


Ari 


SepXCfji-xi 


Drakshmi 


xcr^eveta, 


Asusthana 


Seva 


D'he 


xv^eiv 


Aksha 


Six 


D'hi 


T'evvxcn) 


Atma 
Jajanmi 


hxiTx 


(Dayitum 
( Dayate 


yi/jpau 


Jarami 


SiSxanoj 


Upadesaca 


ypxca 


Gras 


5j5a!fj.j 


Dadami 


lyvpoct! 


Ghurn 


i5i£Xfi'y 


Dal 


^aia 


Dahami 


'Eye /pa; 


Gorami 


Sxfj^xa 


Dam 


eSw 


Ad mi 



527 



Greek. 


Sanscrit. 


Greek. 


Sanscrit. 


Greek. 


Sanscrit, 


eiBu 


Vadi 


I^vif^i 


Tishtami 


kvxvog 


Loka 


tl,'i^i. sum 


Asmi 




Yomi 


MiZ^VlTVIS 


Mith 


eTfj-i. eo 


Enii 


Ka;<y%«^£iv 


Kakhc 


^j-xuTig 


Mantre 


SJ£J^Xl 


Astuni 


y.xi 


Cha 


[/.XpXlPCii 


Maranya 


ia-^iei 


Asnati 


nxXeca 


Kala 


\».i<yx [j.syxv 


Mahan 


enccqog 
enatepoi 


Ekaike 
Ekatara 


hxXv7:tci: ) 

HxXv^^t-X J 


Chulump 




Ma 
Manayasa 


t'k«(T<T!>lV 


Lisyate 


naKave^v 


Kil, Kal 


f^HTVip 


Matri 


iXctX^qog 


Lagishtha 


y.£(pxK)/\ 


Kapala 


jxicxyo) 


Misra 


{•Avpx 


Antara 


M[t.UV 


Hima 


li.ev£Xivw 


Manyamana 


iWiX 


Navana 


yiioj 


Chay 


\i.vxoy.ai. 


Mnanii 


iTraivw 


Panami 


nKxsiv 


Kale 


N«u\ 


Nava 


£pt 


Uru 


nXetg j) 


Kol 


veog 


NTavya 


epig 


Ari 


noKKx ) 




veu 


Nahye 


ta-^co siT^ei 


Asnati & Asot 


nfiXTog & ) 


Karttara, ) 


v£(pakyi 


Nabh 


e^epoi 


Itara 


nxpTOg J 


ruler ) 


''Oy.ou 


Om 


£%£iV 


Gini 


Kpl^CC 


Krad 


O^J-QIOCO 


Masyanii 


£01 


Emi 


KVIDV 


San 


OVOfJ.X 


Namna 


"Upcog 


Sura 


A«jX/3iXl/W ) 


Laniij La 


oqtov 


Asthi 


vidvxloi 


Asoca 


X«/3aJ ) 


Labh, gain 


o(ppvg 


Bhru 






k^l-^O^i.XI, 


Lipsati 


YIxixv 


Pan 


&xppa 


Suia,Susthira 


kxca 


Loch 


TociSsvu 


Upadesaka 


Svi^oi 


Tija 


Xeixw 


Lehmi 


'KUO\t.Xt 


Pami 


^vpx 


Dwara 


Aa)/3vi 


Lubi 


'KxpxdoTog 


Pradatna 



328 



Greek. 

vxpx'joBx 

vXTOtO'lTCO 

'K XT tea 

'Axeiv 

TTiipxqVif 
'xeTreipxnx 

TTiTTTO) 
TTcpl 

TrspSeiv 

ttOK'J 

trohog 
'jpxog 

TrpOlVilJ-l 



Samcrit. 

Prapti 
Pit, kill 
Pad, Pat'iie 
Pa 
Paclami 

Parakshita 

Pane,Patum 

Patanii 

Pri 

Paid 

Vahoola 

Pad a 

Prasam 

Prasana 

Prevami 



Greeli. 

TtpOTOi 

TTupyot 

TTcoXog 

Pi/)(yi/U(iJ 

pyiTOi 

^^Toop 

YixXevai 

TSl^X 

qepeoi 
Txxvi 

TiHTCCl^ 

TeXeicc 



Sanscrit. 

Prat'iiama 
Varga 




Sanscrit. 

Dhayati 

Tada 

Traimi 

Tripada 

Yushainana 

A pa 

Vami 



Sphaja 



Bibhaya 

Ghini, 
Ghuni 



jCarttum & 
Cn, make, do 



Carya, a thing to be done; Carma and Criya, an action; Carta, 
an agent. 

From Cri we have many derivatives. Sucara, easy; dashcara, difHcuIt; 
curbate, produce; crishacan, a labourer; nishcarmmaneh, idle, not 
active; apacrishta and acarma, wicked, that which ought not to be done; 
cro, get, purchase. 

C or K as a termination signifies a maker. 



339 

Crash, as a root, implies to make, seize, draw, cultivate; yll allied to 
%fi/j; as maybe crashtum, to make furrows, xxpxTrnv. %a:;a(TTa' seems 
to be allied to crintati, he cuts; acarttot, lie liatli cut; cnrtlita, lie 
will cut. 

Whilst tracing the affinity between Sanscrit and (J reck, it will be 
worthy our attention to compare their numerals and ordinals, &c. 

1, eka, "ig. 2, dwau, Svu. 3, frb/a, Tplx. 4, chat in; '^tTTzpes and 
teiTcc^si. 5, pencha, 'Trtv^e and TtVTrg. 6, shesh, tt 7, septa, tv-i. 
8, ashta, oktw. Q, iiava and navan, Iwicc. 10, des, Sena. 

Here I must observe, that, although we can trace no direct corres- 
pondence between eka and ev, yet there is a strict affinity between jena, 
one person, and ev, and no less between eka and eaxcot, each one. 

It is evident that ch in chatur and pencha takes tiie place of T in 
TfTTflifEf and TefTe, and equally evident, that in shesh the first sh supplies 
the place of the aspirate in l^. The second sh contains the sibilant part 
of ^. 

The ordinals are Prat'hama or Protoma, Dwitya, Tritya, Chetoorta, 
Penchema, Sheshta, Septlma, Ashtima, Novuma, Decima, Yekadesha, &c. 

Here I would call to the recollection of my reader the affinity and 
radical identity between Greek and Latin, and I would at the same time 
observe, that no one ever thought of deriving either tt/jotoj from primus, 
or primus from nrpQioc but both these may safely by abbreviation be 
derived from protama, the m being rejected by the Greek and the t 
by the Latin. So monami, I remind, I admonish, connects itself equally 
with f^vacoy.ui and moneo. 

In Greek we have t/jjtoj and tpk, in Sanscrit tritya and trisa. 

VOL. ir. 3 a 



330 

What I have here exhibited will be sufficient to exemplify the nature 
of that affinity which subsists between Sanscrit and Greek. 

I might now proceed to examine and to trace the affinity between 
Sanscrit and Hebrew, which are certainly related, although not as 
sisters, nor as parent and offspring; but for the present I forbear. I 
shall however shortly take occasion to demonstrate that Greek and 
Hebrew are radically one, as I have here adduced sufficient evidence to 
prove, that a similar identity subsists between Sanscrit and Greek. It 
will then, I trust, be clear to every one, that Sanscrit and Hehrezo have 
a radical affinity, and may claim descent from the same progenitor, 
existing at a given time, when the whole earth was of one language. 
This conclusion is perfectly agreeable to the axiom, that if two things 
are equal to a third they are equal to each other. The argument will 
then stand thus, Sanscrit and Greek are radically one, Greek and 
Hebrew are radically one, therefore Sanscrit and Hebrew are radically 
one, q. e, cL 



Ii ' -ji ! j-jtjj.j»mu-,jj. ' i ;t- ' .)—^ VW.i. l u^i — L- 



ON THE 



HFSSIAM LANGUAGE. 



"RIOR to the time when Peter, siirnamecl The Great, conceived the 
benevolent intention of civiHzing his savages, they were Httle noticed 
by more polished nations, and, for want of early records, they them-, 
selves know nothing certain of their origin. The whole nation was 
plunged in the grossest ignorance, like the wandering hordes of the 
present day, who inhabit independent Tartary. It is said of Svatoslaf, 
the son of Igor, who died in 973, that on his march he had no baggage, 
that his food was the flesh of horses and of other animals, warmed over 
the fire; that he carried with him no tent, and that his housings served 
him for a bed, and his saddle for a pillow. What a description this, of 
uncivilized wanderers ! 

Respecting the ancestors, therefore, of such unlettered hordes, we 
must be contented with conjectures. These can have no other foun- 
dation, than what is derived from the examination of their language, 

3 A 2 



332 

which must of necessity be exceedingly defective, because they have 
never paid that attention to orthography, which we observe in other 
nations, in the Welch, the Irish, the English, and the French. Con- 
sequently the etymology of their language cannot easily be traced. 

It is indeed stated by Mr. Coxe, that they are descended from the 
Slavonians of the Danube, and came from the country now called 
Hungary and Bulgaria, in the middle of the ninth century, at which 
time Rurik laid the foundation of his empire. We learn, however, from 
Levesque, that the term Slavon was unknown in Europe till the fourteenth 
century. He states, that, according to Aboulgasi Baiadour, a Tartar 
prince and historian, and to the authors quoted by d'Herbelot, in his 
Oriental Dictionary, the Slavi are the descendants of Seklab, as the 
Russians are of Rouss, who were both the offspring of Japhet. In his 
opinion, these Slavonian nations came from Tartary by way of the 
Caspian and the Euxine Seas, into Thrace, from whence they divided. 

Certain it is, that the Polish, Bohemian, Moravian, Croatian, Carin- 
thian, Carniolan, Bosnian, Servian, Albanian, Dalmatian, Hungarian, 
Bulgarian and Russian, are dialects of the Slavonian, and all these, in 
the opinion of Mr. Coxe, have a greater resemblance to the Greek than 
to each other. It is likewise from an attentive examination of the 
Russian Grammar, and of the incomparable Dictionary written by 
Cellarius, clear, that Latin, Greek, and Russian are allied. 



333 
RUSSIAN ALPHABET OF THE NINTH CENTURY. 



B 


B 


r 


4 


E 


}K 


3 Ti; I 


H 


K 


b 


• 

V 


g 


d 


e 


J 


z ts i 


i 


k 



AMHonpcmyox 

1 m noprstuph ch, kh 

HmmLLlb^K)£ed;3 

ch sch slich ui e in ya tli o e 

A is pronounced as in far; E as in fate when preceded hy a con- 
sonant; but in the beginning it is ie. I, as e in me; O, as in no; U, as 
in bull; J as s in pleasure or as j in jour. Of the two forms which have 
no vocal sound, the first hardens, the other softens the preceding con- 
sonant. 

G in the beginning of a word is often, and sometimes at the end, pro- 
nounced as an aspirate, and thus gospod becomes hospod. 

G forms the genitive in V. 

The nouns have seven cases; nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, 
vocative, instrumental, and prepositive; of which the five first conform 
to other languages. In the instrumental they agree with the ablative of 
Greek and Latin ; but the prepositive is peculiar to this language. It 
is marked by the preposition O, meaning of, from, concerning. 

They have four declensions for substantives and one for adjectives, in 
all which the vocative conforms to the nominative. 



334 

Fh'sf Declension of Suhstantive&. 
N. rukA, G. ruki, D. ruke, A. ruku, /. rukoiu, P. o ruke; the hand: — 
P/. N. A. rdki, G. ruk, i). rukdm, J. rukami, P. o rukakh. 

Second Declension. 
N. bardn, G. A. barana, D. baranu, T. baranom, P. o barane; a sheep: 
PL N.A. barani, G. baranov, D. baranam, I. baianami, P. o baranakh. 

Third Declension. 
N. A. siemya, G. D. siemeni, I. siemenem, P. o siemeni; seed: 
Fl. N.A. siemena, G. siemen, D. siemenam, I. siemenami, P. o siem- 
enakh. 

Fourth Declension. 
N. A. mat, G. D. materi, I. materiu, P. o materi; mother: 
PL N. materi, G. A. materei, D. materyam, I. materyami, P. o mater- 
yakh, mothers. 

Adjectives. 
Masc. N. chistoi; Fern, chistaya; Neut. chistoe; pure, clean, chaste. 

Degrees of Comparison. 
D6rog, doroje, predorog; dear, dearer, dearest. 

Nw7ierals. 
Odin, dwa, Iri, chetare, pyat, shest, sedm, sem, osm, devyat, desyat, 
1, 2, 3, &c. 

Ordinals. 
Pervoi, vtoroi, tretoi, chetvertai, pyatai, shestoi, sedmoi, vosmoi, 
devyatoi, desyatoi. 



335 

Pronouns. 
Ya, ty, on, ona, ono; my, vu, ony, oroiii; I, thou, he, she, it, we, 
ye, they. 

N. ya, G. A. menya, D. mne, I. mnoiu, V. o mne. 

Fl. N. my, G. A. nas, D. I. nam, P. o nas; I, of me, &c. 

N. ty, G. A. teba, D. tebe, &c. Thou, of thee, &c. 

PL N. vu, G. J, vas, D. vam, &c. 

N. on, G. J. jego, D, yemu, /. yim, P. o nem; he, of him, &c. 

PI. N. ony, G. y^. yikh, X). yim, 7. imi, P. o nikh. 

Possessives. 

N. moy, G. A. moyego, D. moyemu, I. uioyim, P. o moyem; my, 
of my, &c. 

N. nash, G. A. nashego, &c. our. Twoy, thy; svoy, his; vash, your; 
yikh, their. 

Substantive Verb, 

Esm, esi, est; esmui, este, sut; am, art, is, are. 

Buil, was; buili, were. 

Budu, budesh, budet; budem, budete, budut, shall be. 

Bud, be; buit, to be. To these the pronoun is to be prefixed. 

The verbs are exceedingly irregular. By some of these, here sub- 
milted to the inspection of the reader, he will clearly discern the genius 
and the affinities of this lansuage. 

Daiu, daesh, daet, daem, daete, daiut; I, thou, he, &c. give. 

Ya daval, tui daval, on daval, mui davali, I gave, «Scc. 

Dam, dash, dast; dadim, dadite, dadut; will give. 

Dai, give; davat, to give. 



336 



lem, iesh, iest; iedim, iedite, iedjat; I, &c. eat. 

Ya iel, tui iel, on iel; mui ieli, &c. I, &c. ate; iedal, I had eaten. 

Budu iest, will eat; iesh, eat; iest, to eat. 

Verchu, vertish, vertit; vertim, vertite, vertyat, I, &c. turn. 

Ya vertiel, &c. I turned; ya budu vertiet, &c. I will turn, &;c. 

Verti, turn; vertiet, to turn; menya vertiet, I am turned. 

Poiu, poesh, poet; poem, poete, point, 1, ^c. sing. 

Stoiu, stoish, stoit; stoim, stoite, stoyat; I, Sec. stand. 



Present. 


Preterite. 


Future. 


Imperative. 


Tntiyiilioe. 


Bleiu 


Bleyal 


Zableiu 


Blei 


Bleyat, bleat 


Bielieiu 


Bieliel 


Pobielieiu 


Bieliei 


Bieliet, pale 


Voruiu 


Voroval 


Svoruin 


Vorui 


Vorovat, rob 


Viedaiu 


Viedal 


Sviedaiu 


Viedai 


Viedat, know 


Glotaiu 


dotal 


Glonu 


Glotai 


Glotat, swallow 


Dergaiu 


Dernul 


Dernu 


Derni 


Dergat, draw 


Derzaiu 


Derzal 


Derznu 


Derzai 


Derzat, dare 


Deru 


Oral 


Fzderu 


Deri 


Drat, tear 


Dremliu 


Dremal 


Vzdremliii 


Dremli 


Dremat, dream 


Dumaiu 


Dumal 


Vzdumaiu 


Dumai 


Dumat, deem 


lgu 


Jeg 


Ojgu 


Igi 


Jech, burn 


Jeltieiu 


Jeltiel 


Pojeltieiu 


Jeltiei 


Jeltiet, yellow 


Jivu 


Jil 


Pojivu 


Jivi 


Jit, live 


Idu 


Shol 


Poidu 


Podi 


Itti, go 


Kolieiu 


Koliel 


Okolieiii 


Koli 


Kolof, cool 


Lgu 


Lgal 


Solgu 


Lgi 


Lgat, lie 



337 



Present. 


Prtterilt. 


Vulure. 


Imperalioe, 


/nftniHoa, 


Liju 


Lizal 


Liznu 


Liji 


Lizat, lick 


Maraiu 


Maral 


Zamaraiu 


Marai 


Marat, defile 


Materieiu 


Materiel 


Zamaterieiu 


Materiel 


Materet, mature 


Mogu 


Mog 


Vozmogu 


Mogl 


Motschi, able 


Mochu 


Morhil 


Moknu 


Mochl 


Mochit, wet 


Oriu 


Oral 


Vzoriu 


Orl 


Orat, plough 


Pluivu 


Pluil 


Budupluit 


Pluivi 


Pluit, float 


Poiu 


Piel 


Poiu 


Pol 


Plet, sing 


Susu 


Sosal 


Budu sosat 


Sosl 


Sosat, suck 


Sieiu 


Sieyal 


Posieiu 


Siei 


Sieyat, sow 


Temnieiu 


Tern ni el 


Poteninieiu 


Tenmiei 


Temniet, dim 


Tonieiu 


Toniel 


Otoniu 


Ton! 


Tonit, thin 


Khochu 


Khotiel 


Zakhochu 


Khotl 


Khotiet, choose 


Veliii 


Veliel 


Poveliu 


Veil 


VeHet, command 


Verchu 


Vertiel 


Vernu 


Vernl 


Vertiet, turn 


Viju 


Vidiel 


Uviju 


Vld 


Vidlet, see 


Goriu 


G oriel 


Sgoriu 


Gori 


Gorlet, burn 


Dwoiu 


Dwoil 


Ydwoiu 


Dwoi 


Dvvolt, double 


Krichu 


Krichal 


Zakrichu 


Krlchi 


Krlchat, screach 


Leju 


Lejal 


Poleju 


Lejl 


Lcjat, lie down 


Lochu 


Lokal 


Loknu 


Lochl 


Lokat, lap, lick 


Liubliu 


Liubil 


Poliubliu 


Liubl 


Liubit, love 


Moriu 


Moril 


Ymoriu 


Mori 


Morlt, kill 


Siju 


Sidiel 


Syadu 


Sjad 


Sid let, sit 


Troiu 


Troll 


Ytroiu 


Troi 


Troit, triple 


Mru 


Mer 


Budu meret 


Meri 


Meret, die 


VOL. II. 




3 F 







338 



The above selection is sufficient to mark affinity between the Russian 
and the English. But to render this more evident, I subjoin a vocabu- 
lary, in which the corresponding terms, however dissimilar in form, 
essentially agree. To be satisfied of this, we must remember, what has. 
been demonstrated, respecting abbreviation and the change of conso« 
nants, as practised by all nations. 



A VOCABULARY, ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN. 



English, 

Am 

Anchor 
Angle 
Apple 

Bake 

Balk 
Bawd 
Bath 
Be 

Beard 
Beech 
Beggar 

Billows 

Bind 
Blaze 



Russian. 

Esm 

Yakor 

Ugol 

Yabloko 

Peku, roast 

Pech, Furnace 

Palka 

Svod, Fornix 

Banya, Balneum 

Buivaiu 

Boroda, Brada 

Buk 

Ubogii 

^Volna Flouctus 

'irobiluiu affluo 

^Vuinimaiu 

cObvivaiu, Vyaju 

Bletschu 



English. 

Boar 

Book 

Bore 

Bow, V. 

Box 

Brook 

Brother 

Buck 

Cabbage 

Calash 

Can 

Cart 

Cat 

Chaste 

Chastity 

Cheek 

Chew 



Bussian. 

Borov, Verres 

Bukva, Litera 

Burav, Terebra. 

Perevoju 

Buk, Buxus 

Rieka, Flumen 

Brat 

Buik, Bos 

Kapusta 

Kolaska, Rheda 

Stakan, Poculum 

Kareta 

Kot 

Chistuii, clean, pure 

Chistota 

Tscheka 

Juiu 



339 



Eicgtislt. 


Russian. 


English. 


Russian. 


Choose 


Khochu 


Dear 


Dorogii, Carus 


Clay 


Glina 


Deem 


Dumaiu,Reor,Opinor 


Clock 


Kolokolchik 


Desk 


Doska, Tabula 


Coal 


L^gol 


Dew 


Dojd, Pluvia 


Coat 


Koja, Pel lis 


Dim 


Duim, Fumus 


Cock 


Kucha, Strues 


Dome 


Dom 


Cold 
Cool 


Kholod 
Kolieiu 


Door 


^Dwer, Foris 
cDoroga, Via 


Cork 


Korka, Cortex 


Dough 


Toje, naduvaiujtumeo 


Corn 


Zerno 


Dray 


Drovni, Traha 


Cow 


Korova 


Dream 


Dremliu, Dormito 


Creek 


Krik, Clamor 


Dross 


Drojdi 


Crib 


Krovat, Torus 


Dry 


Tru, Terges 


Crook 


Krug, Circulus 


Ear, V. 


Oriu, Aro 


Cry 


Krichu, Clamo 


Ewe 


Ovtsa 


Curve } 
Curl S 


Krivuii, Krivliu, Curvo 


Fan 
Field 


Vieyanie 
Pole, Ager 


Dad 


Died 


File 


Pila 


Dale 


Dolina, v. Hollow 


Fill 


NTapolniaiu 


Dance 


Tantsuiu, Salto 


Flame 


Plama 


Dare 


Derzaiu, Audeo 


Folk 


Polk, Caterva 


Daughter 
Day 


Dotch and Dtscher 
Den 


Foot 


CPod, Nadpodlie adpedes 
^Podlie & Po, Juxta 


Deal 


^Dielaiu, Ago 
cDielenie, Partior 


Full 
Furnace 


Polnuii, NapolnyaiUj Impleo 
Gorn 




3 


B 2 





340 



Bttgihh. 


Russian, 


English: 


Russian. 


Furrow 


Borozda 


Grim 


Ygriumuii, Torvus 


Gall 


Jelch, V. Yellow 


Grub, a. 


Grubuii, Rudis 


Garden 


Ogorod 


Grumble 


Gremliu, 1 ono 


Gargle 


Gorlo, Guttur 


Guild 


Gildiya, Tnbus 


Glass 


Glaz, Lumen 


Guest 


CJost, Hospes 


Glide 


Gladkii, Laevis 


Heart 


Serdtse 


Glisten 


^Losk, Nitor 
cBlistaiu, Niteo 


Herald 
Hill 


Ceroid 
Kholm, Collis 


Globe 


Golova 


Hollow 


Jolobovatuii 


Glue 


Klei, Kleiu 


Host 


Gost, Hospite 


Glut 


Glotaiu, Glutio 


Hurry 


Skoro, Promtu 


Go 


Khoju, Eo, descend 


I 


Ya 




Voskhoju, Scando 


Judge 


Suju, Judico 




Ukhoju, Fugio 


Ivy 


Iva, Salix 




Vskhoju, Inscendo 


Knee 


Kolieno, Genu 




Otkhoju, Exeo 


Knit 


Nit, Filum 




Perekhojujtranscendo 


Know 


Znaiu 


Goat 


Kozel 


Knoot 


Knut, Flagellum 


Gold 


Zolato,t;. Jelch,yellow 


Lad 


Molodoi 


Goose 


Gus 


Lady 


Molodaya 


Grapple 


Grabliu, Praedon 


Laud 


Slavliu 


Grave 
Graze 


(Pogrebaiu, Humo 
(Pogrebenie, Sepultura 
Gruizu, mordeo, rodo 


Lay 
Leaa 


Polagaiu, Pono 
^Kloniucya, Verge 
(v. Thin 



341 



English. 


Russian. 


English. 


Russian. 


Leek 


Luk, Cepa 


Loaf 


Khlieb, Panis 


Left 


Lievuii, Sinister 


Lodge 


Leju, Jaceo, Cubo 


Letter 


Bukva 




Polojenie, Situs 


Lewd 


Biudnitsa, Scortutn 


Love 


Liubovc, Liubliu 


Lick 


Liju, Lingo, Lambo 


Lucid 


Blistaiucya, Mico 


Lie 


(Leju, Cubo 


Lungs 


Legkoe 




CLoj & Lgu, Mentior 


Lump 


Lomaiu, Rumpo 


Linen 


Len 


Mallet 


Molot, Malleus 


Lion 


Lev 


Mama 


Mam, Mater 


Light 


Letaiu, Volo 




Mamka, Nutrix 




Priletaiu, Advolo 


Many 


Mnogii, Plerique 




Yletaiu } 

VAvolo 
Otietaiu 3 


Margin 


Bereg, in Wilts called 
Barge, Margo 




Sletaiu, Convolo 


Mash 


Miesaiu, Misceo 




Obletaiu, Circumvolo 


May 


Mogu, Possum, Quco 




Pereletaiu, Transvolo 


Mead 


Med, Mel 




Naletaiu, Involo 


Mean 


Mniu, Reor 


Light 


Legkii, Levis 


Meat 


Myaso, Caro 




Oblegchaiu, Allevo 


Meek 


Myakhkii, Mollis 


Lights 


Legkoe, Pulmo 


Midst 


Mejdu, Inter 


Like 


Voloku, Traho 




/-Motsch, Potentia 




Privlekaiu, Attraho 


Might 


< Pomogaiu, Adjuvo 


List 


^List, FoUum 
cSluishu, Audio 


Milk 


vMochnuii, Potens 
Moloko, Lac 



342 



Ennlish. 


Rua.tian. 


English. 


Russian. 


Mill, V. 


Mel ill 


Nest 


Gnezdo, Nidus 


Mill, s. 


Melintsa, Melnitsa 


Net 


Nebod, Rete 


Mire 


Muravei, Formica 




/ Novuii, Novus 
< Novina, Novitas 


Mix 


Meshaiu 


New 


Moist 


Moiu, Lavo 




^Obnovlyaiu, Renovo 




Muite, Lavatio 


Nigh 


Nad 


Molt 


Molchu, Sileo 


Night 


Notch, Nox 


Month 


Mesyats, Mensis 


No 


Ni 


Moor 
Morose 


More, Mare 
Moroz, Rigor 


None 'i 
Nought 3 


Nikto, Nemo 




rMertvuii 


Nose 


Nosada, Nos, Nasus 


Mortal 


<Smert, Mors 


Nostrils 


Nosdrya, Nares 




v-Umiraiu, Morior 


Oats 


Oves, Avena 


Mouse 


Muish, Mus 


One 


On, Ille 


jVIuck 


Mokr, Moknu, Madeo 




Edin and Odin, Unus 




Moknu, Humesco 


Ooze, Ozier 


Ozero, Stagnum 




Mokrui, Udus 


Out 


Ot, Extra 


.^lurder 


Ymertschvlyaiu 


Pale 


Bieliel, Pallidus 


Mute 


Niemui, Mutus 


Palace 


Palatka, Tabernacum 


My 


Moi, Meus 


Pay 


Biu, Ico 


Naked 


Nagii, Nudus 


Peace 


Pokoi, Pax 


Name 


Imya, Nomcn 


Pit 


Petschera, Caverna 


Nasty 


Nechistuii, Sordidus 


Pierce 


Proverchivaiu 


Need 


Nujda, Necessitas 


Pleat 


Pletu, Piccto 




Nadobno, Nccessuni 


Plough 


Plukh, Aratrum 



343 



English. 


Russian. 


English. 


Russian. 


Poet 


Poet, Cantat 


Rob 


Grabliu, Prffidor 


Pole 


Palka, Fustis 




Grabej, Spolium 


Pork 


Porosenok 




Borovstvo, Furtuni 


Pot 


Pile, Potus 


Roof 


Krovlva 


Port 


Vorota 


Rose 


Roza 




■ 


Roe 


Rojdaiu, Gigno 


Pray 


Prosliu 


Rumble 


Gremhu, Tone 


Probity 


Pravda, Veritas 


Salt 


Sol 




Spravedliwost, Id. 


Scrape 


Skrebu, Rado, Scabo 


Rage 


Vrjda, Ira 


Scrub 


Skoblio, ditto 


Rave 


Revu, Boo 


Screech 


Krichu, Clamo 


Raven 


^Voron, Corvus 
c Vorona, Cornix 




Ruichu, Rugio 
Skrejetschu Strideo 


Raze 


(Gruizu, Rodo 
vRazzoryaiu, Destruo 


Secret 
See 


Skruitno 
Siyaiu, Luceo 


Reach 


Ruka, Manus 


Seven 


Sedm, Septem 


Red 
Rein 


Ruijii, Rufus 
Remen, Lorum 


Sew 


^Shiu 

cSvyazuivaiu, Jungo 


Rib 


Rebro, Costa 


Shoe 


Skoba 


Rive 


Rvu, Ruivaiu, Rupi 


Shop 


Pokupaiu, Caupona 




Otruivaiu, Runipo 


Siege 


Osada 




Pereruvaiu, Perseco 


Sister 


Sestra 




Podruvaiu, Subseco 


Sit 


Siju, Sedeo 


Rope 


Berovka 


Seat 


Sidienie 



344 



English. 


Russian. 


English. 


Russian, 


Six 


Shest 


Step 


Stupaiu,Scando,Cedo 


Sleep 


Spliu, Dormio 




Otstupaiu, Abscedo 




Sliepota, Caecitas 




Pristupaiu, Accedo 




Usuiplyain, Consopio 




Ystupaiu, Concedo 


Snow 


Sneg 




Zastupaiu, Intercedo 


Sock 


Sokha, Aratrum 




Nastupat, Succedere 


Sodder 


Soshnika, Vomer 
Soedinyaiu, Jungo 


Stool 


(Stul, Sedes 
(Stol, Mensa 


Son 


Suin 


Stone 


Postoyannuii, Stabilis 


Sore 


Sor, Sordes 


Story 


Stroiu, Struo 


Sound 


Voniu, Sono 


Stubble 


'^tebel, Stipula 




Vieniu, Tinnio 


Style 


Stul, Sedes 


Sow 


Seiu, Sero 


Suck 


Sosu, Sugo 


Seed 


Seinya, Semen 


Succour 


Skoruii, Skoro, 


Speed 


Speshu 




Festinanter 


Spine 


Spina, Dorsum 


Su e 


Proshu, Peto 


Spur 


Shpor 


Sun 


Solntse, Sol 


Spy 


fspuituivaiu 


Swine 


Swinya 


Stand 


Stoiu 


Swoon 


Son, Somnus 


Station 


Stan 


Tall 


Dolgii, Longus 


Stall 


Stoilo, Stabula 


Teach 


Uchu 




Postavleinaya, Tentorium 


Tear 


Terzaiu, Lacero 


Stavil 


Stavlyaiu 




Deru, rumpo 


Steel 


Stal 




Razdiraiu, Scindo 



sm 



English. 

Teat 

Thin 

Thorn 

Thrush 

To 

Tree 

Trumpet 

Twins 

Verge 

Vow 

Vo^'age 

War 

"Ware 

Water 

Well 

Wheat 



Busixtin, 

ritka 

I'onkii, Tenuis 

Fernie 

Drosd 

Do 

Derevo 

Truba 

Dwoini 

Bereg 

Bojusya, Juro 

Otvoju 

Voina 

Tovar> Merx 

Voda 

V^olna, Fluctus 

Pshenitsa, Jits, Far 



Engliitk 

Wheel 

When 

Whole 

VVidow 

Will 



Wind 

Wolf 

Wool 

Wrath 

Vellow 

Yet 



Koleso; 

Kogda 

Tsieluii 

Vdova 

Jelaiu, Volo, Avea 

Volya, Voluntas 

Vulno, Licet 

Volnuii, Liber 

Povelievaiu, Mando 

Vieyanie, Flatus 

Vieiu, Flo 

Volk 

Volna 

Vrjda 

Jelcb, V. Bile, Gali 

Etsche 



A VOCABULARY, GREEK AND RUSSIAN. 



Greek, 


Russian. 


Greek. 


Russian, 


^Amvi 


Ukho, Auris 


TxXet, «KTOS 


Moloko, Lac 


^Apoia 

ApXJJCO 


Oriu, Arc 
Razzoryaiu 




Zenaiu 


Bojyio} 


Pasu, Pasco 


rxuCw ■) 


Glotaiu 


^ov\o[j.ai 


Jelaiu, Velle 


rXWTT* 3 


Poglotschaio 


VOL. II. 


< 


i c 


^ 



346 



Grak. 


AiMfiiin. 


Greek. 


AutMaii. 


T\ix 


f Klein, Glutino 
' Glina, Argilla 


KXa<yw 


Plachu "^ 
Oplakivaiu ^ ^"^° 






KXaw 


Kliu, Cuneus 


^leXeiv 


Razdielenie 


KXeiia 


Kleiu 


Aoxifji,a;^w 


Dokazuivaiu 


KXfK 


Kliuch, Clavis 




Daiu 
Odievaiu 




Khvaliu, Laudo 


' Ehu) 


Jedal, Comedi 


KXifw 


Sklonnuii 


'EiVea 


Viedaiii 


K.'kvoo-aiii 


Sluisliu 


Ev 


On 


'K.oiXog 


Jolobovatuii 


'Eoj 


Svoi, Suns 


'K.OvTbJ 


Kopaiu 


El'^lBlV 


Jest 


KpccjixTOg 


Krovat 


Epf^w 


Krovlya, Tectum 


Kp/xcj 


Kriig 


Et, 


Etsciie 


KpUTTTW 


Kroiu, Tego, Lateo 


©ixppw 


Derzaiu 




Skruivaiu, Occulto 


Qvpx 


Over 




Pokruivaiu ^Tego 


KaTpcf 


Vepre 




Nakruivaiu SOperio 


Kfa^ 


Serdtse 




Otkruituii, i\pertus 


Kv;tv| 


Kit 


KuAfO) 


Koleso, Rota 


K/o) 


Clioju, Eo, Ambulo, Hum 


Ax€e. KxIj-^xvcc 


Ylovljaiu, Lovlenie 




ifkhoju, Fugio 


Asujjai 


Blistaiu and Blesk 




r'rokhoju, Penetro 


Meye^og 


Pomogaiu 


1 


^rikhojii, Accedo, adeo 


Mio-iyw 


Vlieshaiu 


( 


)tklioju,abcedo,abeo 


Mu>.n 


VIelnitsa 



347 



Greek. 


Ruiiiati. 


Greek. 


ituSM'MI, 


NfOf 


Novuii, Novus 


OoXt;? 


Bolshe, Plus 


Tlaita. Bt« 


Biu, Caedo, Verbero 


ITsf. TTOiSof 


Pod, Infra 




Ubivaiu, Occido 




Podlie, Juxta 




Otbivaiu, Reverbero 


T/IO 


Pred, Prae 


Jliipw 


^Burav and Napare, 


TTLI^O? 


Buk 




f Terebra 
Otvoryaiu, Aperio 


Pio.'. eppevnx ^ 
'Pu'«$ S 


Rieka, Rivus 




Otversto, Aperte 


"E/Txcii. qu 


Stoiu 




Zapiraiu, Operio 




Perestaiu, Cesso, absisio 


neTO(*«i 


Ptitsa, Avis 




^Stoyanie and Stan, 




Pticlika, Avicula 




} Statio 


iii'vw. n/o! 


Piu, Bibo, Poto 




PredstoiiJ, Adsto 




Pite, Pot us, Potio 




Postoyanstvo, Con- 




Pet, Potor 




stantia 


Ili'VW 


Pitiii, Potulentus 




Otstoiu, Disto 


TiW 


Vuipivaiu, Epoto 




Ostaiusya, Resto 




Vuipit, Ebibere 


St£X£%OJ 


Stol, Mcnsa 


ITurTa) 


Padaiu 


STfV«C^ 


Stenu 


rioTj'^« 


Napoitsya, Imbibere 


ST^WWUfi!.* 


Stroiu, Construo 


IlAla; 


Plavaiu, Navigo, Fluito 


ToT£ 


Togda, Tunc 




Plavanie, Navigatio 


cDXo$ 


Losk 




Vuipluivaiu, Enavigo 


Oom 


Zvoniu, Sono 


nxfM 


Polnuii, Plenus 


^tfaTvip 


Brat 




Napolnyaiu, Impleo 


XoAvi 


Jelch 




3 


c 2 





348 



EXTRACT FROM A VOCABULARY, LATIN AND Rl SJ!IAN. 



Latin. 


Russian. 


Latin. 


Russian. 


Latin. 


Russian. 


Agnus 


Agnets 


Jugum 


[go 


Prope ■) 


Podlie 


A per 


Vepr 


Jus 


Sud 


Ad pedes ) 




Angulus 


Ugol 


Latro, V. 


Laiu 


Pulvis 


Puil 


Asellus 


Oslik 


Lingo 


Liju 


Rugio 


Ruikaiu 


Baculus 
Barba 


Palka 
Boroda 


Linum 
Malleus 


Len 

Molot 


Rapio ) 
Abripio 5 


Otruivaiu 


Brachium 


Ruka 


Mare 


More 


Ros 


Rosa 


Cast us 


Chistui 


Margo 


Bereg 


Rupi 


Rvu 


Cudo 


Kuiu 


Medium 


Mejdu 


Abrumpo 


Otruivaiu 


Culmen 


Kholnij Jiigum 


Mens 


Mnienie 


Ructo 


Ruigaiu 


Domus 


Dom 


Molo 


Meliu, 


Sal 


Sol 


Duo 

■ 


Dvajdui 


Morior 


Mru 


Scutum 


Pschit 


Flamma 


Planien 


Mors 


Smert 


Seco 


Seku 


Furor 


V^oruiu 


Mugio 


Muichu 


Sedeo 


Siju 


Fur 


Vor 


Nescio 


Meznaiu 


Sosedaiu 


SimuljSedeo 


Gluten 


Glina 


Ovis 


Ovtsa 


Sedile 


Sidiel 


Glutio 


filotaiu 


Plango 


Plachu 


Semen 


Semya 


Ignis 


Ogon 


Plecto 


Pletu 


Septem 


Sedm 


Inclioo 


Nachinaiu 


Porta 


Vorola 


Siccus 


Sukhii 


Induo 


NTadievaiu 


Post 


Poslie 


Siliqua 


Shelukha 


Itum 


rtti 


Precor 


Proshu 


Sol 


Solntse 


Judico 


"^iiju 


Pridie 


Pcred 


Somus 


Son 


Judex 


Sudya 


Probus 


Pravednui 


Sono 


Zvoniu 



349 



tatin. 


Uussian. 


Lafin. 


nussiun. 


Latin. 


/i usiiatt. 


Sordes 


Sor 


Valde 


Velikii 


V'ico 


Vyaju 


Stipula 


Stebel 


Veho 


V^czu 




Obvivaiu 


Succus 


Sok 


Ventus 


Vietr 


Vivo 


Jivu 


Suo;o 


Sos 


Ventilo 


Vieiu 


Vita 


Jivot 


Tenuis 


Tonkii 


Video 


Viju 


Voluntas 


Volya 


Tepor 
Tero 


Teplota 

^Tru 

cRastiraiu 


Verto ; 
Torqueo 3 


Verchu 


Volo 


Jelaiu 



We have here taken a very transient view of the Russian language; 
yet from this we may venture to affirm, not merely, that a considerable 
part of it has an affinity to English, German, Spanish, Galic, Sanscrit, 
Latin, Greek and Hebrew; but that these languages are radically one. 

It is clear, that the Russians have been fond of forming new com- 
pounds and of abbreviating old ones. It is equally clear, that thej 
have not only substituted for each other consonants, which have organic 
affinity, but have adopted many arbitrary changes peculiar to themselves, 
and, like other nations, have, by dint of their mutations and contrac- 
tions, made one word represent various notions, with which originally it 
had no connexion. 

In the analysis of Russian expressions we have more than common 
difficulties. Had we a succession of writers, from remote antiquity, as 
in Greek, to which we might refer, we should then be able to trace the 
successive changes, which have happened to this language. But whilst 
the Slavonian hordes wandered with their flocks over extensive plains, or 



350 

hid themselves in the dark recesses of their forests, they had not the use 
of letters. We must not therefore wonder, that in the Russian language 
there should be numerous expressions, which cannot be analysed. These 
are evidently compounds; but so contracted, that the root can no longer 
be discovered. 

In those words, which have been selected for my vocabularies, the 
novice in languages may be at a loss to trace affinity between Russian, 
Greek and Latin; but, to remove his difficulties, he must ever bear in 
mind, that abbreviations are the wheels of language, the wings of 
Mercury. These, therefore, to the adept, will not create embarrassment, 
and much less will the mutation of consonants, such as all nations 
have adopted. 

By other mutations the novice may be exceedingly perplexed, when 
change of vowels, change of consonants, and change of meaning, in 
any given word, unite to conceal the radical expression and the original 
notion from which he is to trace its deviation. Of these, numerous 
instances have occurred to us in the progress of our investigations. 



SJLAYONIAW, 



VV HAT has been said of the Russian, will apply to the Slavonian; 
but it must be observed, that the former is a dialect of the latter, which 
embraces Lusatian, Polish, Bohemian, Moravian, Croatian, Carinthian, 
Carniolan, Bosnian, Servian, Albanian, Dalmatian, Hungarian, Bul- 
garian, &c. 

Their letters resemble, but are not all precisely the same in figure. 
Both conform nearly to the Greek. 

This language, so extensively diffused, is exceedingly corrupt. It is 
evidently derived from some dialect of the Greek, chiefly from the 
iEolic, and has some connection with the Sanscrit. This will appear, 
when we examine the vocabulary, to which I immediately proceed. I 
might have given this in the Appendix, but I am of opinion, it will be 
more profitable to the student to place it here. It is not to be expected, 
that the affinity should be self-evident in every word ; but the practised 
eye will readily discern features of resemblance. 



352 

« 

It must be observed, thai A is pronounced as in far; E, in the begin« 

iiing of a word, like yea, and in the middle like A in fate; J like S in 

pleasure; I, like E in me; Y, as U in bull; shtch, as in parish-church i 

lU, as U in cure; UI, as Y, or rather as UI in liquid. 

But A, if followed by two consonants, becomes O, and the consonants 

are separated by O; thus glaka becomes goloka. 

SLAVONIAN VOCABULARY. 



Siattmian, 




Slavonian. 




Slavonian. 




Aggl 

Agnets 


Agnus, af^vOi, 


Bitcli, V. Bitie 
B,letchanie 


Flail 
Lightning 


Boroda, 


^Barba, a 
' beard 


Aer 




Bleyu 


/3Xv]%ft;(ji.i3ri 


Borov 


Boar 


j\lector 


aXey-TCiip 


Blcyaniya 


Balatus 


Boroniu 


A furrow 


Aris 


kp^,i 


Blistanie 


Splendour 


Botiu 


■niaivai 


Banya 
Bdiu 


Balneum 
Video, Vigilo 


Bloud 
Bled 


A blot 
Pallidus 


Botelyi 


^ Fat, butter 


Bditel 


Vigil 


Bledneyu 


Pallesco 


Bruda 


Beard 


Bdyenie 


Vio-ilia 


Blyadibyi 


Blatero 


Brat 


Frater 


Bercza 


A birch 


Bodou 


A bodkin 


P.rov 


Brow, fiCppuj 


Beru 


(pe.fic 


Bojva 


A vow 


Brod 


Ford 


Bilo 


Fl age 11 urn 


Boi 


War 


Bouk 


A beech 


Biba 


A batUe 


Bolma 


Full, %Xio./ 


Bouivol 


Bubalus 


Bitie 


A beating 


Boloto 


Bl()t,Lutni). 


Bouravok 


A borer 


Bitch 


A flail 


Bolschii 


Mil) or, Plu.- 


Bourav 


Bore 


Biyou 


Bix^w Ttxlca 


Borenic 


Worry 


Bouraviu 


I bore 



353 



Slavonian. \ 

.Buk 

Bjvayu • 
Byvanie 
Byvait 

Beg 

Bejdenie 

Bclia 

Bejdou 

Vaga 

Vajdenie 

Valenie 
Yalyaia 
Vas 
Vat 
Vdova 
Velii 
Vedro 
Velenie 
Veliu 
Vepr 
A'crtlo 
Vert ; 

Vertograd 5 
VOL. ir. 



A. beech 

Be 

Being 

Fit 

Fuga 

Bia 

Pale 

WeJcrh 



c Accusatio 

Fall 

V'oivo 

Vestruni 

Vat 

Vidua 

vhpLX 

A. com man d 

I will command 

A per 
Terebra 

[Tortus 



SliKOnian. 

Vcrch 

Vesna 

Vetchost 

Vetchii 

Vetschaiu 

Vctschou 

Vetscbanit 

Vetscher 

Vjigaiu 

Vzemaiii 

Vidiniyi 

Vid 



V^igdou 



Virscha 

Vitie 

Vino pi tie 

Viiu 

Vienie j 

Vkaus 

Vklonyaiu 

Viagaiu 

Vlas 

Vlekou 

Vmiecheiiie 



Vertex 

Vernus 

Vetustas 

Vetus 

V^eterasco 

Invetero 

fnveteratio 

Vespera 

y.xio) 

Assume 
Visibiles 

Video 
Verse 
Tie 



Slavonian, 

Vmeryaiu 
Voda 

Vodoupiiu ^ 
Vodopitie S 
Vojdu 
Vozdvoyaiu 
Vozdaiu 
Vozlagaiu 
Vozlojenie ^ 
Vozlejou 3 
Vozmezdie ") 



leo 

gustus, yev^u 

Impoiio, lay on 
Villus, pilus 

tXnciJ 

3d 



V^ozmezdyaiu 

Vozmnjno 

Vostanie 

Vostorgaiu 

Voina 

Vol 

Volokou 

Volenie 

Volopas 

Volna 






{ 



Water 

V'eho, duoo 
Reduplico 
Reddo 
Lay 

Lodge, lay 

Retribuo 3 
Might, may 

qxcri; 

Tear 

War 

Bull 

i'Xxo; 

Volitio 

Bubulcus 

Lana, "svool 

Veil us 

Wool, V. 



354 



'Slavonian, 

Volk, XvHog 

Voliu 
Vop 
Vopiiu 
Vor 

Vordiu 

Vosk 

Voskormlyaiu 

Vostanie 

Vostaiu 

Vostorgaiu 

Vpadaiu 

Yrana, vorona 

Vrata 

Vratar 

Vryvaiu 

Vreiu 

Vscliuveziiji 

Vtjkaiu 
Vehod 
Vtschera 
Vschivaiu 



Lupus, wolf 

Vulpes 
Volo, will 
Vociferatio 
/3oft;. vocifero 
Fur 
Furo 

Cera, wax 
Nutrio 

xvxquJic 
Tear 

'TTiTT/iJ 

Porta 

Porter 

Infodio, furrow 

Brew 

^Omnibus 

c Amicus 

Stick, Infigo 

Go 

Ilcri 

Insuo 



Slavonian. 

Vypivaiu 
Vedaiu 
Veiu 

Vetr, Vietr 
Vyajou 

Gai 

Gat 

Gladkii 

Glaber 

Glava 

Glagol 

Glagoliu 

Glas 

Glina 

Glotka 

Gnezdo 

Golouve ^ 

Golub S 

Golot 

Gora 

Gorve 

Gorka 

Gorschc 



Ebibo 

oihcc. eiSoi 
Ventiio 
Ventus 
Vincio, vico 
(Comix, a 
^ jay 

Strata via in 
paludibus 



K£(p«Xvi. globe 
Kcyog 

Vox, y\cc(r(rx 

yMx. Argilla 

Gutlur, y^OTTa; 



Columbus 

Glacies 

opog 

Curvus 



7l 

opog 



Worse 



Slavonian. 

Gorenie 

Goriu 

Gospod 

Gost 

Gradeg 

Grad 

G orod 

Grad 

Gramota 

Grau 

Gratsch 

Grakaiu 

Grov 

Grount 



Gryzou 

Greiu 

Goriu 

Gryaz 

Go us 

Davaiu 

Davatel 

Datcl 



zupoa, "li^S 

KUCJOc llOSt 

H OS pes 
(Host, guest 
A hedfje 

A city, -1^;; 

Grando 

<ypu\i-[j.x 
opioy. limes 
nopci'^, corvus 
y.pay.i^a. croak 
Grave 
(The base 
( ground 
Graze 

[ warm 

Mud, dirt 
Goose 
Si$ct}ii.i. do 

Dator 



355 



Slavonian: 

Davanie 

Davno 

Daleko 

Daliu 

Dan 

Darovatel 

Daroni 

Darouiu 

Dva 

Dvadesyat 

Dvajdy 

Dver 

Dvernick 

Dvoiu 

Dennji 

Den 

Dennitsa 

Derzaiu 

Derou 

Desyat 

Dnes 

Do 

Dodaiu 



Diu 
Far off 

Dally 
Tributum 

Gratis, donuiu 

Sctipsacv 
Svoj. two 

\^is;inii 

Duo, bis 

Door 

Janitor 

Divido, duo 

Diurnus 

Dies 

Lucifer 

Dare 

Tear 

Decern 

Hodie 

To, at, in 

Addo 



Slavonian. 




Slavonian. 




Dolina 


A dale 


Jena 


ywv) 


Doma 
Dom 


Domi 
Domus 


Jivou, Jvu 


((ipdu}. vivo, 

C chew 


Doska 


Desk 


Jivot 


Vita 


Dostoit 


Decet 


Jija 


Jusculum, juice 


Dotsch 


Daughter 


Za 


Six 


Drasrii 


Dear 


Zaviduiu 


[nvideo 


Dragost 


Caritas 


Zagryzaiu 


Graze 


Drevo 


Tree 


Zakalaiu 


Jugulo 


Drova 
Dremliu 


Ligna 
Dormito 


Zaklej'aiu 


f Agglutino 
^Glue 


Drojdie 


Dross 


Zakrivljaiu 


Incurvo 


Drosd 


Thrush 


Zakryvaiu 


yipUTTTu 


Dymno 


Fumosus,dim 


Zalagaiu 


Lay down 


Delenie 


Deal 


Zgaraiu 


Comburo 


Delia 


Deal 


Zerno 


Graiium,corn 


Ed in 


Unus 


Zima 


Hyems 


Ediniu 


Unio 


Zigaiu 


Hio 


Epkop 
Esm 


ETTiO-KOTrOf 

Sum, Ei[ji.{ 


Zlato 


rCold, sec 
cyellow 


Jovaiii 


Chew 


Znaemyi 


Notus 


Jgou 


HXiU 


Znak 


Sign urn 


Jelt 


Yellow 


Znanienaii5 2 


rv)[j^lKJVW 


Jeltsch 


Fel, bile, gall 1 


Znanie •: 


/VUO'lj 


3 


D 2 







556 



Slavonian. 




Slavonian. 




Slavonian. 




Znaiu 


Know 


Kareta 


Carpentum 


Legkost 


Levitas 


Igla 


Acus 


Karman 


Crumena 


Legtschou 


Levo 


Igo 


Jugum, yoke 


Kaya 


■rrOlx 


Lokaiu ) 


XSI%C-J 


Idu 


Eg 


Kii 


Quis, qui 


Ligu ) 


Lick 


Idi 


rto 


Kliniu 


•aXuu 


Luk 


Leek 


Iz 


^Exjincom- 


Kliutsch 


Clavis 


Litra 


AiTpiZ 


c position 


Klei 


y.oxxcc, tyXiz 


Liubliu 


I love 




( Excorio, 


1 
Koja 


Coat 


Liubliu 


Lascivio 


Izdiraiu 


Kw^ohipoi 


Kozel 


Caper, goat 


Loje 


Lectus, lodging; 


Izytie 


Evito 


Koleso 


Calash 


Malakiya 


[j.aXz'Aix 


Iskonpdio 


Redimo, caupo 


Kopiu 


fleap 


Marnier 


Marmor 


Izlagaiu 


Educo 


Korkaiu 


Crocito 


Mater 


Mater 


lito 


(UTog 


K,ost 


Ossis 


Mejdou 


Mediuni- 


Izpivaiu 


Ebibo 


Kot 


Cat us, cat 


Mladyi 


Lad 


Iztiraiu 


Extero 


Krakaiu 


Crocito 


Mleko 


Milk 


11 


Uligo 


Kratiu 


Curto 


Mne 


Mihi 


Im 


Him 


Krebat 


Crib 


Mnee 


Minus 


Iskanie 
Ispolnenie 


Scan 
Full, fill 


Krest 
Krokos 


Crux 
Crocus 


Mogoutuyi 


(Mighty 

Clxsye^og 


Istina 


x'kv.^eiz. iq/,ij.i 


Koub 


Cup 


Mogou 


May, can 


Istiayaiu 


Take out 


Koubscliin 


Lagena 


Mojno 


Possible 


Ischod 


i^ohog 


Koupouiu 


Caupo 


Moknou 


Muck, madco 


Kabak 


Caupona 


Legu 


Lie 


Mo k rot a 


Humiditas, muck 


Kapousta 


Cabbage 


Legkic 


Light 


Mokryi 


Hutnidus, muck 



35r 



S7flroJii"a«. 




Slavonian, 




Slavonian. f 




Monach 


i^fOj 


Napadaiu 


f I fall into 


Oralo i 


A.ratrum 


Monaschkii 


1*0 VOf 




(ttittIo; 


Oranie 


A ratio 


t 

More 


Mare 


Nasch 


Noster 


Oratch 


\rator 


Mor. 


j.xpxiVCil. plagae 


Ne 


Ne, non 


Organ 


Jrganura 


Moch 


Muscus 


Nebidnyi 


Obscure 


^)riu 


Aro 


Motschiusya 


Madeo 


Nemog 


Nequeo 


Osel 


Asellus 


Motscheu 
]\Irou 


^Esm valco, 
' I am mighty 
Morior 


Neznaiu 
Neposstoya- 

istbouiu 


Fgnoro 
^Instabilis 


Otels 

Otsko 

Paba 


Pater, aTTa 

Ocellus 

Pavo 


Moucha 


Musca 


Neprochodno 


Go 


Padaiu 


TTiTTW 


My 


We 


Nige 


Nee 


Pakidaiu 


Red do 


Mya 


Me 


Ni 


Non 


Pakipoiu 


Recanto 


Myaso 


Mess, meat 


Nibo 


Nove 


Pastbinnyi 


Pascuus 


Nadaiu 


Appono 


Nozdri 


Nares 


Pastyr 


Pastor 


Nagii 


I Nudus, 
( Naked 


Nos- 
Notsch 


Nasus- 
Nox 


Pachotnik 
Pekou 


Agricola 
Coquo 


Najou 


Nudo 


Oba 


Ambo 


Periu 


Prius 


Nadlagaiu 


Lay, appono 


Obitaiu 


Habito 


Pika 


Pike 


Nadstoiu 


[nslo 


Obtscha 


Ovis 


Platsclilibyi 


Plango 


Nakrybaiu 


■/.pvT^Tca 


Obes 


Oats 


Platschou 


Ploro 


Nalaganie 


Lay, impositio 


Ogn 


[o-nis 


Pletou 


Plico, pleat 


Nalagaiu 


Lay,impono 


Ognitschc 


Rogus 


Plabaiu 


Fluito 


Nalojnitsa 


r Lodging, 
(Concubine 


Oko 
On 


Oculus 
One, he 


Planta 
Plamen 


Plank 
Flamrna. 



358 



Slavonian, 




Slavonian. 




Slavonian. 




Pobar 


Coquus, ^eTrl 111 


Predbedatel 


A prophet 


Repa 


Rapum 


Poberyaiu 


Probo 


Predanie 


Proditio 


Sakos 


Saccus 


Pogrebaiu 


^ Grave, 
cl bury 


Predlog 
Predpomogaiu 


Prepositio 
Auxilio 


Sam 
Saraoliubie 


Same 

love, self love 


Pod 


Pede, under 


Presbyter 


Presbyter 


Sberdel 


Bore, terebra 


Podabaiu 


Trado 


Pribiraiu 


I collect 


Sbiniya 


Swine 


Podarok 


Donum 


Pridanie 


Additio 


Se 


Ecct; 


Podatel 


Dator 


Prisedaiu 


Assideo 


Sedm 


Septem 


Poddanyi 


Subject 


Probijvou 


Praevideo 


Serdtsc 


Cor 


Podpadaiu 


TTiTTTW 


Prodaiu 


V'endo 


Slouga 


Servus, sluggard 


Pokou 


Pax 


Protibo, lejou 


Coiitrajaceo, lay 


Slepyi 


Caecum, sleep 


Polagaiu 


Lay, pono 


Profibobozdaiu 


Reddo 


Slepiu 


Cascum facio 


Polk 


Folk, agmen 


Prcjtibo- 2 


Contranavigo 


Smert 


Mors 


Pole 


Field 


plabaiu S 


ttAuVW 


Sneg 


Nix 


Polnos 


■n-oXvg 


Prochojdenie 


Peregrinatio, go 


Sol 


Sal 


Pomogaiu 


Might, aJjiivo 


Ptitsa 


ttSTSIVOV 


Soliu 


Salio 


Posled 


Postea 


Pout 


oSog 


Solitsche 


Sol 


Posva2;aiu 


Spouse, uubo 


Pyat 


TrBUTS 


Son 


Sopor, somnus 


Potir 


^OTi^piOV 


Razstoiu 


Disto, «7V5|j^i 


Sosets 


mamma, suck 


Poia 


Cano, TOivjfiiz 


flasterzanie 


Ruptio, tear 


Sosedaiu 


Sedeo, simul 


X^rabda 


Probus 


Remeu 


Rein 


Sopletaiu 


Connecto, TrXf%a 


Prabo 


Probus 


Rosa 


Ros 


Sopostat 


Rebellis, sto 


Prabji 


Probus 


Rouka 


Reach, hand 


Spliu 


I sleep 


I'iMbosoudcls 


Justus, piobus 


Rytchou 


Rugio 


Spanie 


Sopor 



359 



Slavonian, 




Slavonian. 




Slavonian. 




SpogrebctJu 


^Gravc, 
Csimul sepelio 


Styajou 
Styajanie 


Possldeo 
Possessio 


Tcmno 

Tern ni 11 


Dim 
[ dim 


Spech 


rFestinatio 


Stynjatel 
Soudiya 


Possessor 
ludex 


Tcper 
Teplota 


Fcpid 
Tepor 


Speschou 


^Festino 

(g-^evSa 


Soujdou 
Souchoya 


Judico 
A rid a 


Tcpleiu 
Terzaiu 


Caleo, tepeo 
Tear 


Sosou 


Sugo, libera 


Soucho 


S'lcch 


Ternie 


Thorn 


Statiya 


Status 


Soutschou 


Sicco 


Tertie 


Tritura 


Stabliii 


Stabilis 


Sedalitsche 


Sedilc 


Tertyi 


Trims 


Steniu 


qBvct^a. qsuco 


Sejou 


Sedeo 


Titki 


Teat 


Stol 


Mensa, stool 


Seden 


Sessio 


Tigr 


Tigress 


Stenananie 


qevxyij.oi 


Sekou 


Seco 


I'kanie 


Textura 


Stomacli 


Stomachus 


Semya 


Semen 


Togda 


Tunc, TOTS 


Stamna 


qaij.vo; 


Seiu 


Semi no 


Togdaje 


Eodem tempore 


Stopa 


Pedale, spatium 


Seyanie 


Seminatio 


Tt)rgaiii 


Lacero, tear 


Stopanogi 


The sole of a foot 


Seyatel 


Sator 


Trapeza 


Tpzva^iz 


Stopanojnaya 


Vestidium 


Siudy 


Semino 


Trepetshou 


Trepid 


Stoiu 


Sto, maneo 


Taler 


Talerus 


Tretii 


Tertius 


Stoiuokrest 


^Quiesco, 
'Circumsto 


Talant 
Teboe 


Talentum 
Tuuni 


Tret 
Tretschou 


Tertia 
Strido 


Stoilo 


Stabulum 


Tboi, Tvoi 


Tuus 


Tri 


Tpix. Tpeit 


Stoianie 


Static 


Tebe 


Tui, Tibi 


Troe 


Tpif 


Stoyatschii 


Stabilis 


Tekou 


Curro 


Ty, Tui 


'7:v. <n> 


Stoud 


Pudor 


Teiiinost 


Dimness 


Tya 


Te 



360 



Slavonian, 




Slavonian, 




Slavoniatii 




Ouddoyaiu 
Ougl 


Duplico, Svu 
Angrulus 


Ouskoryaiu 
Oupadaiu 


Festino 


Chotenie 


CVolutio 
(.Choice 


Oug 


Ano-uis 


Oucho 


A uris 


Chod 


Iter 


Ouj 
Oulagaiu 


Anguis 
Struo, lay 


Ouje 
Chleb 


Loaf 


Chotschou 


(Aveo 

<- Choose 


Oupadaiu 
Oupibaiu 


Cado, TTiTrTw 
Ebibo,, TT/i/w 


Cham'ina 


(Domus 
cChiQiney 


Chojdou 
Schiiu 


Go 

Suo 


Oumiraiu 


Morior 


Choi Ml 


CoUis, culraus 


Younost 


Juventas 



In its grammar the Slavonian is exceedingly confused. 

It was not to be expected, that uncivilized hordes, wandering with 
their flocks among mountains, or over boundless plains, without 
historians, without poets, and without letters, should be good gram- 
marians. They had the use of speech; but, at a distance, they had no 
means to communicate their thoughts ; nor could they transmit these to 
^ucceedino; generations. 

Their pronouns are — ya, ti, on; mi, wi, oni; I, thou, Sec. 

The substantive verb runs thus — esm, ese, est; esra, est, soit; I am, 
iScc. -Boodu, I shall be; bood, be thou. Boodon, let him be; bit, to be. 

Tlie form of the verbs in some measure agrees with the Russian. 

Daju or daiu, I give; dal!, I gave; dam, 1 will give; day, give; dat. 



to give. 



Its radicals are comparatively few; but, like the Greek, it is fond of 
compounds. It has more than three hundred with the preposition pro, 
^.nd more than twelve hundred witli pre and pri, answering to prcc 



361 

Professor Michaells regards the Bohemian, PoHsh and Vanda?ia« 
diahxts of the Slavonian, as poor in the extreme, when compared with 
the Russian, which on philosophic subjects has borrowed freely from 
the Greek. 

As spoken in Lusatia, formerly a province of Bohemia, it is the 
poorest of all languages; being here confined to rustics. In Poland it is 
corrupted to the last degree; but it is still Slavonian. Yet in the midst 
of all its corruptions, we may discern a remarkable affinity bet\yeen it 
and Galic. 

To this I have already called the attention of the reader, but I must 
again remind him, that in the numerals, in the substantive verb, and in 
numerous verbs, both of universal and of daily use, there is a clear, 
distinct and well decided affinity. 

This affinity it is extremely difficult to trace in Polish, because it has 
duplicates of C, of W, of L, of N, and of Z, which are most abundant, 
and seem to be needlessly introduced. 

The first C has the sound of either ts or tsh, as in cukier, sugar, pro-, 
nounced tsookier, and pec, to drink, pronounced pitsh. 

The second C is articulated as tsie, as in yesc, to eat, sounded like 
yestsie. 

W in the beginning of a syllable is V, in the end it is F. 

Z has three distinct sounds. Thus noz is pronounced noosh, czar is 
char, koszula is koshoola, wieczor is vietchore, and wacpan is vatspan, 

I here subjoin a few examples of Polish, to exhibit tlje genius of 
this language. 

VOL. II. 3 £ 



362 

Able, mozney i acid, octet; add, przidawam ; all, csall : am, Jestem ; 
apple, Jab loji ; arm, ramie; ash,jesion; ass, osiel. 

Baker, piekar ; beat, hiti; both, ohadwa ; bread, cldkh ; breast, /jzem; 
brother, hrat; burn, goram; buy, kupiiie; by, podlie. 

Cabbage, kapusta; cat, kotka ; c\\o'\CQ, chezizsosct; choose, c/zce; clay, 
glhia; clean, czisti; coach and cart, kotczi; cook, kucharz ; cross, krziz ;: 
crow, kruk cind wrona ; cry, wolain ; cup, kiijlik and kubek ; craft, kunst. 

Day, dzicn; deal, dzielie ; death, smiercz ; dig, grzebe ; door, drzzn^j ;. 
double, dwoie ; drink, j^ye. 

Ear, 2<c^o ; eat, ?ew ; eating, iedzenie ; egg, jV/«e ; eye, oko. 

One, jeden; two, rfa'c; three, ^ra; four, czterzi; five, p?cc,~; sis» 
32:esc2:; seven, siedm; eight, 05??« ; nine, dziewiec; ten, dzesziec. 

Give, f/aie; given, dany ; giver, dawca; gift, f/ar. 



Ojr THB 



JLATIM LANGUAGE. 



E learn from the best historians, that Latlum and Gra3cia-magna 
were peopled from Elis and Arcadia, whose first inhabitants derived 
their origin from the Avestern coast of Asia Minor, being principally 
Cohans and lonians, who were Pelasgic colonists. Of this origin we 
shall have no doubt, when we shall have examined the languages of 
Greece and Rome; for Latin is little more than the ^olic dialect of 
Greek. 

Such was distinctly the opinion of Dionysius, of Halicarnassus, and 
of Quintilian. 

With the utmost propriety therefore, Lennep, after minute investi- 
gation, concluded " Lingua Latina, si excipiamus panca verba Sabina 
et externa vocabula, nihil aliud est quam iEolico-Graeca. (Vol. iii, p. 45.) 

From ancient inscriptions, collected by Fabretti, we learn, that the 
Roman alphabet had eighteen letters, A, B, C, D, F, F, H, I, K, L, 
M, N, 0, P, Q, R, S, T. The characters were Grecian, and therefore 

3 E 3 



564 

probably the first inhabitants brought with them the Pelasgic alphabet, 
to which in subsequent periods they made additions. The radical 
Pelasgic alphabet of Father Gori, which Astle conceives to be the most 
correct, contains only twelve characters. These are A, E, V, I, K, L, 
M, N, P, E, S, T; but, in addition to these, ancient inscriptions, which 
were found at Eugubiura, a city of Umbria, have H. The letter G 
was not in use till after the first Punic War, when it was introduced by 
Spurius Carvillus. Before that time, C supplied the place of k and 7. 
Thus, in the Columna rostrata of Duillius, we read, " Macestratos, 
Leciones, Cartacinenses, Pucnando," &c. 

In tracing the affinity between Latin and Greek, it will be seen, that, 
whilst some words, and these even radical, remain perfectly the same in 
both languages, others not only change their voyels, but admit of trans- 
position, addition, and subtraction, with considerable substitution of 
one consonant for another, not merely of the same, but of different 
Organs. Thus we observe, not only that the several classes of homo- 
geneous consonants, B, P, F, M and V — C, G, K and Q — D and T, 
glide respectively into each other's place, but that M and N, with L and 
II — H and S, readily submit to the same law, and are used one for 
the olher. 

These permutations are common to all languages; but the Roman 
people seem to have assumed the privilege of converting G into D and 
N, L into D and G, D into B, G, L, R and S, K into P and F, P into 
C, K, G and L, R into S, and T into F. Tiicy seem likewise to have 
inserted L, as in filius, from eviog or Fuiot ; fulica, from (paii^; halo, from 
Aft>; palatum, from Uocw; salus and salvus, from Xaoj; and trochlea. 



from Tpoxoi. In conformity to this practice, we liave converted fuga 

into flight, and IleSiov into field. 

One of the most striking features of resemblance between Latin and 

the iEolic dialect of Greek, is to be observed in the use of the digamma, 

as a substitute for the aspirate. 
The arbitrary, ^^anton and violent changes, ivhich have taken place in 

the original language of Latium, since the time of the first arrival of 

colonies from Greece, have rendered it extremely difficult to trace the 

affinity between the Latin and other languages distantly allied to it. 
Thus lingua and tongue discover no connexion ; but when we observe, 
that the ancient word was dingua, we immediately trace the features of 
resemblance between this word and tongue. 

The strict analogy between the Greek and Latin Grammars, as far as 
relates to the inflexions of nouns and verbs, cannot escape the attention 
of the learned. Of the nouns, Lennep forms two principal divisions; 
the first parisyllabic, the second imparisyllabic ; and these he subdivides 
into five declensions. 

I. Parisyllabic. 

1. Nouns of the first declension terminate in a, e, as, es, answering to 

2. Those of the second end in us, um, answering to og, ov. 

II. Imparisyllabic, 
1. These may terminate in a, e, o, c, 1, n, r, st, or x, in Latin; «, i, 
•j **» fi <r» «r ^> ia Greek, and are impurely declined, as Aexc^i^, hkpvof. 



S6i 

2. They may terminate in us, purely declined, as i^oTpvg, fioTfivo^^ manus, 
manuis, which the Romans contracted into manus. 

3. They may terminate in m? or £^. Av)[A(33-&£i/ii?-foj-£r. Dies, diei, in 
the dative. 

x\Ithough Lenncp has considered the declensions as being five, it may 
be observed, that originally they were no more than three; because the 
fourth and fifth were anciently included in the third, and were not con- 
tracted as in succeeding ages. 

The Greek Adjectives terminate in ce;, a, uv, o?, ii, ou, or eg, c(, ov, 
t'.g. '5?^?, '^rx^x, 'zxv, nxXoi;, y.xXvi, nxXov, xyio?, ccyix, xyLOv. 

The Latin terminations are us, a, um; bonus, bona, bonum. 

The Fronouns in the singular number have preserved similitude. Eyw, 
e-u, and anciently of, answering to ego, tu, is. In the accusative these 
become Ef/.£, o-£, I; me, te, eura. The possessives have a similar resem- 
blance, £/jto?, vwiTfpof, £0?, meus, noster, ejusi. 

In the Numerals we distinctly trace analogy. Ev, Zvx, Tfeig, T£<7a-«p£r 

and T£7T«p£r, 'ZaVTt, l^, e-!rrrre^ OKTOJ, evV£X, SsKa, VjliY.X, 5«5«J<,X, K. T. X. 

Unus, duo, tres, quatuor, quinque, sex, septem, octo, novem, decem, 
undecem, duodecem, &c. 

Betvyeen either Tfa-jix^ss or T^TTizgfj and quatuor, ther? obviously ajp- 
pears no connexion. But instead of Tecra-xpa and TBTTxpe;, we meet with 
-!ritrvp£i and TtiiTu-xpeg, and we know thjit in thq.4ioil;iiC dialeqt '^ is converted 
into ", as in xwj- for ni^g, and y-oiov for 'joiov. 

It might be difficult to conceive in what manner quinque could have 
been derived from ■rrevie, did we not know, thi^t th?; iEolic dj^lejCt, is liHe- 
tvise in the habit of converting t intoT, and, tha,t, by iliQs? fluitatioos,. 



iri)/r£ may have been cdnvevted into quinque. In i^ and tTrTa (he aspirater 
■gives place to the sibilant. 

The Prepositions and other particles display the same affinityj parti- 
cularly <5;'ro, ab ; ^'^ti, ante; £k and £s, ex; fv, in; vf., ne; t^o, prte; cw, 
Gum; uB-tp, super; uTo^sub; ti, si; eti, ct; x^i, ac; ouk, ncc; o'l, hei ; 
o&£v, unde ; -^ov, ubi. 

The Feris in their structure and inflexions mark a radical identity, and 
prove that Greek and Latin have a near relation to each other. Mr. 
Jones, in his valuable Grammar of the Greek tongue, judiciously re- 
marks, that verbs consist of a pronoun expressing the agent, together 
with a noun, which is expressive of the object; and in his opinion, the 
terminations w, ek ei, o^j^ev, ers, cvti, were originally personal pronounsj 
subject, however, to changes, like all other parts of speech. He derives 
the terminations w from fyw, and (^.i from ey-e; and in like manner ei, 
from £. 

Now as the pronouns in Latin are evidently allied to those of Greek, 
so are many terminations of its verbs. Of this we can have no doubt 
in the first and second persons singular, both of the indicative and thef 
subjunctive moods. In the first and third persons plural it is not so- 
evident, till we recollect in what manner the venerable Doric formed its 
first person plural. For as eyu becomes e^-e, so, by analogy of the third 
declension, £f*£ becomes ffx-fs, and in this dialect we find TvwTO[j.es and 
ETuv^afx-e.;, we beat, which in subsequent ages became TinrTOiJ.ei^, and 
£'7u^4/«f*£^'. Hence the Latin forms its first person plural, not in n, but 
in s,. 



368 

The third persons plural seem to be equally discordant in these Ian-, 
guages ; for we can trace no analogy between dant and AiSun, but t 
between dant, AiSovtxi, eSovro, and Soivto the analogy is clear. In like 
manner, amanto, ysvoivro and tioiv^o mark the affinity, as dialects of one 
language, between Greek and Latin. In Welch, hwynt means theg, 
and from it both these languages derive the nt. 

Both the Greek and Latin, in the formation of their moods and tenses, 
have recourse to the auxiliary verb £<(>-«, sum. In the last syllable of 
amen we have distinctly e/f^t, which, although less distinctly, appears in 
amabam. In amafi, f^t is converted into vi. In amavissem, we have 
amavi and essem. As we proceed, it will be rendered evident, that both 
in Greek and Latin the substantive verb is composed of fragments de- 
rived from verbs, which in Sanscrit exist perfect and intire. 

From what has been here stated, it is sufficiently clear, that Greek 
imd Latin are radically one. But should the student retain doubts upon 
this subject; these will be speedily removed by a reference to the voca- 
bulary, which he will find in the Appendix. 



369 
ON THE MOUC DIGAMMA. 

rr luis been imagined, that Homer as a poet availed himself of his 
privilege, and occasionally adopted tlio several dialects of Greece, but 
chiefly the .-Eolic and Ionic. 

This however cannot be |)roved. It is even probable, that the most 
ancient poet of Greece wrote in the language of his day, which in pro- 
cess of time gave birth to dialects, namely, the TEolic and Ionic. 

We know that Latin branched oif at a very early period, and is tEoHc. 
Hence the yEolic digamma is found in such words as are aspirated in 
Greek, and have not either the sibilant or a gutteral. Ancient manu- 
scripts explain this mystery. 

The Greek, like the Irish and the Welch is extremely fond of aspirates. 
These being at various periods differently formed, we sometimes find C, 
sometimes F or V. Pindar used V, as in ccvxto-m for aFatan, a.\ji\j%Qi for 
«Fia%o^. 'EXta; is by Herodotus called TsX^i. 

The lonians therefore had the digamma. The ^Eolians wrote FotxtaK 
for "oiVAxv and F^uto for auTo, 

In the Sigaean marbles, 500 j'ears, A. J. C, V is used in place of F. 
In the Heraclean Table, C is frecpient, as in Ct^, and Qilw, and 
Mazzocchi thinks it corresponds to V of the Latin. Salmasius informs 
us, tliat the /Eolians insert S between the vowels, and says Mohs, qui 
nuruiuam aspirabaut, partim l>^v\j.(px luvv dicchant partim Nu(>.(pa;7«v. 

Like them the Romans converted the aspirate into the sibilant, and 
therefore wrote sex for Vi and musa for muha. In Leuconia they said 

VOL. II. 3 r 



370 

TIxx Mwa for Trao-a: fAous-a, and for F they used B and P, as in Bp^^up for 
TviTwp, 'B:tSu for aSv, that is for y,5v. 

It is understood that the aspirates, the double letters, and the long 
vowels were invented in times subsequent to Cadmus. For the aspirated 
letters $ and % the ancients used -s- and k, as for instance, ccij-tco for «fj^(pw, 
SiOTTOfji.'Trof for 0fO7ro(j(,wO5, Siw for &£co, e'TtTiiccvTO for fK(pi5;vT0, £T£i;KHO(ii.£voj for 

The Museum of Nani, in Venice, has an inscription, which is attri- 
buted to the age before the Trojan war, and in which are seen ey.rr^^xvToi 
for fK(pavTW, fl:fji,£{ji,7rvif5 for x[i.e[t,(p£(, f7rfUKV]0(ji-fvof for freu^offc^i/or, and Tpoirviov 
for qpo<pov. 

The Sigean inscription, in a town built on the ruins of Troy, has 
Hfp(>.oxp«Toy for Tou Epij.0 npxTOV;, y.Soiixfj.veij,ot for eSurnz [i.vvi[kx, uauovot for 
'Ato-WTTOJ, and uaSeKCpot for aSeX(poi. 

From Athens we have HaSa evioi ■!tj'ks\t.oi for oiha av tco TroXsjxw. In 
these H is the aspirate, and it must be remembered that uTiZ answers 
precisely to heth of the Hebrew, and was originally the aspirate in Greek. 

In the Lamina Borgiana we find Fomixv for hnixv. Felia and Helia in 
Pliny are the same word. 

The ancient Greeks prefixed F to most words which begin with a vowel. 
For this the Romans substituted H, as for instance, hordeum for for- 
deum. For ItxXo( they wrote vitulus. The Eolians said fipi^Top for Pvnwp. 

S and N took place of the aspirate. In Festus we have Necritu for 
iEtrritudo. 

Priscianus called the digamma gravior aspiratio. It must always be 
remembered that their orthagraphy was unstable. Erunt was written 



371 

erihont, crafont, and eriront. In the most ancient Latin inscriptions we 
find lases for lares, triumpe for triuniphe. 

The letter in question is called digamma from its figure, not from its 
power. It is in fact a double gamma, but its power is that of F, and I 
have no doubt that it was originally an aspirate. 

It is remarkable, that the Greek aspirate should become a labial in 
Latin, and equally remarkable that in Spanish, derived from Latin, this 
labial should again become an aspirate, as in hoja folium, hijo filius, 
haba faba, hacer facere, haz facies, hablar fabulari, hado fatum, halcon 
falco, hcbilla fibula, herir ferire, bender findere, heno foenuin, hermoso 
formosus, hilo filum, hiel fel, hondo funda, hongo fungus, horca furca, 
horma fornm, &c. 

In ancient Latin we observe fuvo, fuvi, fuvimus and fluvo for fluo, 
whence we derive fluvius. 

These observations will assist us in accounting for the labial which is 
introduced into the middle of words derived from Greek. 



3 f2 



ON THE 



GREEK JLAMGFAGE. 



J-N our schools we learn first Latin, then Greek: and here, as far as 
relates to languages, our education ends. To the latter, attracted by 
its superior beauty, we turn our principal attention; we admire its com- 
position and consider it as a model of perfection. 

In this language are displayed such tokens of deliberate contrivance, 
that some learned men have been led to form a rash conclusion, and 
have imagined, that the whole, from its first elements, originated in 
Greece, and was the work of art, the production of consummate skill. 
That it has been highly polished and refined by art, is evident: but the 
substance remains the same as when imported by the pristine hordes, 
which, migrating from the East, and spreading themselves ti^wards the 
West, arrived in Asia-minor, and from thence crossed over into Greece. 

As long as hunters and nomade fiimilies either built hovels in the 
woods, or wandered in tents over extensive plains, seeking pasture for 
their flocks; this language must have continued rude. But when cities 



373 

arose; when civil polity became established; when agriculture, manu- 
factures and commerce iiourished ; whcij lice governments were intro- 
duced; when, for deliberation, the citii^ens met frequently in each 
republic; when the orator, in these assemblies acquired celebrity and 
power; when historians wrote; and when bards exerted all their skill to 
gain renown; when taste improved; and when the ear was progressively 
attuned to harmony of diction; then the rude elements assumed a grace- 
ful form, and the language of a polished people attained that degree 
of perfection, which we now admire. It is indeed worthy of the praise 
it has universally received. Yet we must be careful lest, dazzled by its 
lustre, we should too readily acquiesce in the claims, which have been 
urged in ils behalf. 

To correct our misapprehensions, we must not confine our attention 
to one languao-e; we must look around us, and examine others to the 
East and to the West, to the North and to the South, that we may dis- 
cern the common elements, of which they all consist. For this purpose 
I shall begin my investigation Avith the substantive verb. 

Substantive Verbs, being constantly and indispensibly needful to dis- 
course, must have been retained by the successive generations of man- 
kind in every climate, must have attended them to the most distant 
countries, and must have been transmitted to their children less changed 
in the progress of society, than other terms descriptive of those objects, 
which either occasionally occurred to them in their migrations, or which 
new wants obliged them to invent. Yet, upon a transient view, to the 
unpractised eye, these verbs appear to be peculiar to each nation, and 
to have no correspondence with terms of the same import in any Ian- 



374 

guage, which may have been received as tiic first language of the 
human race. 

If we consider our own substantive verb, in its several moods, tenses, 
numbers, and persons, we must be struci< with its irregularity. It has 
no bond of union, nothing in common between its discordant parts. 
Each portion is detached ; it stands alone, independent of every other, 
and cannot possibly be traced to one original expression. 

I am; he is; we are; they were; be thou; I was; I have been; I shall 
be; 1 should be; I will be; I would be. 

Of these expressions, which can be considered as the one from which 
all the rest proceed? Or by wliat rule can we trace the various branches 
to one common stem? By none ; for it is impossible, that such inco- 
herent members, collected at different times, and which have met by 
accident, can be considered as one body. The fact is, and this I shall 
immediately demonstrate, they are scattered fragments of different verbs, 
which have survived the general wreck, and have been transmitted to 
us from our remote progenitors. And I may add, we shall be soon con- 
vinced, that the substantive verb in Greek and I^atin also is composed 
of fragments. 

Am readil}' connects itself with eom, Saxon; im, Gothic; em, of 
Iceland; am, em, icn, om, um, of Persia, of Armenia, and of Turkey, 
with iiiJ-l of Greece, and even with sum of Latin, all of the same import. 
That sum and sim are allied to 'ti\j.1 is evident, because here the sibilant 
corresponds to the aspirate, as it does in 'a'kg sal, kX\o\j.ai salio, aXo-oj 
sallus, ti, sex, I; si, tTrTu septem, thog scdes, ofiog sors, v.y.iog sol, virsp super, 
\jg sus. 



375 

Supposing then that f>-t in tt(i.t sliouki 1)0 tlic pronoun, as will imme- 
diately appear, h will remain for the radical part of this expression. 

That (aj is the pronoun of the first person singular, can be demon- 
strated by kindred languages. 

The Galic of Scotland, the Irish, the AVelcli, the Armoric, liie Ilin- 
dostanee, and the venerable Sanscrit, use mi for this pronoun, and the 
Russian has me, in this acceptation, as we shall soon have occasion to 
observe, in the termination of its verbs. 

For this pronoun, the Romans and the Greeks, in the nominative case 
use ego ; but then in Latin we have mi, mei, mihi, nie and mens, cor- 
responding to fj^B, fj^of, f/,£, £pi.£ and eij.o;, which certainly are not derived 
from Eyw. We are not prepared to say, when mi in the nominative first 
gave place to ego. But, as in Greek and Latin, the vocative conforms 
to the nominative, and is derived from it; the probability is, that mi 
once existed in the nominative; for, what correspondence can we discern 
between the vocative mi and eeo.'' 

Among the Greeks the pronoun in question differed much. For, not 
to mention the TEolians, who had lyuv, as the Dorians had eydv^i and 
iiyuyryx; the Boeotians had, idvyx and Iwyx. The Coptic has anok, the 
Chinese say ngo, and the Hindostanee has hoong. In the subsequent 
expressions of the Sanscrit, isani and hevani, let me be; vashani, let me 
wish; dedani, let me give, we have distinctly anl for the pronoun. Be- 
tween all these and the Hebrew anoki, anki, ani and anu, which may 
have given birth to vu, there is such conformity as leads me to con- 
clude, that they are of the same family, and are radically one. 



576 

In the priiiitive Greek, the long vowels were unknown, and O was 
equivalent to A. The progress therefore from anki and tw;/7« to liiiyx and 
ijui is obvious, even hy the mere process of abbreviation. But it is 
worthy of remark, tliat in Welch, a kindred languague to the Greek, 
G is commutable with Ng, as in ()Was, a servant, U ngwas, my servant: 
and C is liable to become ngh, as in car, a relation, fy nghar, my 
relation. 

It is indeed possible, that ii^jx may be a compound, and mean I 
myself, because I is the abbreviated form of this pronoun in Hebrew, 
Arabic, and Chaldee. 

Mi seems to have originated in ani or eni. Tlic commutability of N 
and M is firmly established by the practice of all nations. It subsisted 
between the Hebrew and Chaldee, as may be observed in the masculine 
plurals of their nouns; between the Greek and Latin, as appears in the 
terminations nm and ov ; and it is not unfrequent in the Sanscrit. Tn 
this language M is considered, not as a labial, but as a nasal. The 
same word, which is written Sanscrit by some of our countrymen from 
India, is Samskrit with others, and with Carey it is Sungskrit: yet in 
pronunciation they all agree. 

This practice is not altogether foreign to the French, as appears in 
the articulation of these words, temps, tant, ctang, which agrees in all 
of them. 

In the Portuguese it is well established: for 1\I at the end of a word, 
when preceded by E, has a nasal sound, like that of N in the French 
words vin and p^in: but if preceded by A, 0, or 1, this nasal sound is 
so difficult of pronunciation, that no one can obtain it but by the 



377 

fiKsistaiu-c of ;i inasier. Jii liiis laiiguagp, N after any vo^vd is di-iinrtly 
a nasal: as a final letter it is converted into AJ, and is usually placed 
over the word, as in be for bene, thai is for bene of the Latin. In 
plurals the N is restored to nouns, as in homein, a man ; honicns, men. 

That N and AI in the Creek verl) are equivalent, seems evident, be- 
cause both these terminations are used for the pronoun of the first per- 
son singular, which appears in af^i-i I am, vi\ I was, £ivii/ may I be, (I^^ja 
I go, tji^v I went; like as in Sanscrit, ismi or asmi, 1 am; isani, let 
nie be. 

Ilcnce it is probable that both i^i and eyco originate in the Hebrew 
pronoun of the same import. Having seen that i^i in f^i is the pro- 
noun, surely no one can doubt of £t being the root, when he considers 
its inflections elva:i, eiv\v, uvj, fivi[*fi/, ^, vjv, m^e^, vi'if, n, i, X. 

In Swedish the same root has been preserved in one of its forms, ia fe, 
du e, han h; wi e, ni ^, di e; I am, thou art, he is, we are, ye are, 
they are. 

The Persian has im, ee, est; eem, eed, end; I am, thou art, he is; 
we are, ye are, they are. From these remove the pronouns, and the 
verbal part remaining will resolve itself into E, I. These look to haia 
[i^''!^) the substantive verb of the Hebrew, Arabic and Chaldee. In 
the Hindostanee we find hai in the singular, and haing in the plural; or, 
according to Gilchrist, hy and hyin. 

From what has been here advanced, does it not appear, that in eo-em 
of Iceland, and in our own I am, there is a redupHcation of the pro- 
noun? Such superfluities are common in all languages, more especially 

VOL. II. 3 G 



378 

when the original structure and import of words has been forgotten, or 
when new modes of phraseology have been introduced. 

Is, it) English, supplies the third person singular of the indicative 
mood present tense of the verb to be, and in no other person, mood or 
tense, does it appear. It stands alone, and cannot be derived from 
either am or be. 

The Galic and the Irish have ismi, I am; is tu, thou art; is e, he is: 
is sinn, we are; is sibh, ye are; is iad, they are. 

In the fVelch, oes and ys remain in the third person singular. 

The Russian and Slavonian have esm, esi, est; esmui, este, sute; 
I am, thou art, he is, &c. Esm is pronounced iesm. 

In Persian the modern verb looks like a corruption of the Latin; for 
it runs thus, hestem, hestee, hest; hesteem, hesteed, hestend. 

Sanscrit approaches nearer to the Galic, the Irish and the Russian ; for 
here we have asmi, ismi, or usmi, as variously written, I am; asi, thou 
art; asti, he is; sma, we are; stha, ye are; santi, they are. 

That i<r[*t once existed in the Greek, appears from hence, that it is 
found in all the kindred languages, and is not confined to India; but 
extends, as we have seen, to all the Slavonian nations, Ireland, ;)nd the 
Hiirhlands of North Britain. From this circumstance alone, we might 
be warranted in our conclusion; but in addition to this, we must observe, 
that most of the inflections of this veib contain U and eg. Indeed we 
may venture to assume for granted, that af^t never produced the subse- 
quent inflections, eql, e<ri*.'tv, tc(, la^'i, iqu, i<TO\^xi, heTai, e<rej^e, eo-fo-^at. 



379 

Now if from the supposed obsolete verb Io-im we remove the pronoun 
f*t, Ig will then remain for the radical part in Greek, ns it does in the 
other languages here particularly noticed, which are nearly related to 
the Greek. This perfectly coincides with is ov jcnh (^*!'.) in Hebrew. 

We have thus detected in ij^i and af/^i the two fragments which com- 
pose the suljstantive verb in Greek. 

Are in English forms the plural of the indicative mood present tense. 
In Danish the verb runs thus, jcg er, 1 am; du er, thou art; ban er, he 
is: vi ere, we are; i ere, ye are; de ere, they are; ieg var, I was; du 
var, thou wast; ban var, he was; vi vare, we were; I vare, ye were; 
de vare, they were; ieg shall vaere, I shall be; vaer, be thou; at vaere, 
to be; vaerende, being; vaeret, been. The Germans say ich war, I 
was, &c. 

In Latifi we find fragments of this verb; for, as such, we must regard 
eram, ero, fore, and the termination of its infinitives: but in Greek and 
Hebrew it is not distinctly to be found. 

The Turkish language is no stranger to this verb, for not only does var 
indicate existence, as in varede, there was; but ar and er form the in- 
flexions of verbs when the imperative terminates in a consonant. Thus 
at, cast thou, has atarem, I cast; at ar, he casts; and thus e^, make 
thou, has in the indicative ederim, I make. 

In Irish we seem to have a small fragment of this verb in romi, I have 
been; ro thu, thou hast been, &c. 

The Welch use er and ir in the imperative and future of their passive 
voice, as for instance, dysger di, be thou taught; dysgir ti, doctus eris tu. 

3 G 2 



380 

Were forms the plural in the praeter-imperfect of the indicative mood, 
and is used in the subjunctive, but in no other mood or tense. It con- 
nects itself not merely, as already stated, with waere of the Danish, but 
with werden of German and wertetum of Sanscrit, to be. These in 
Sanscrit are regularly conjugated, and appear in their several moods, 
tenses, numbers, and persons, like other verbs. 

I suspect, that we have here a compound, and not a primitive, and, 
when we shall have examined the subsequent portions of our verb, more 
particularly was, my suspicion may be confirmed. 

fVas supplies the first and third persons, and zipast the second person 
of the praeter-imperfect of our verb to be. 

The Irish has bhios and bhadhas, pronounced vas. In JFelch the plu- 
perfect of bod, to be, is buaswn, buasit, buasai; buascm, buasecli, 
buascnt, I had been, &c. 

The Germans say gewesen. In the Anglo-Saxon we have ic waes, and 
in the Gothic ik was. 

The Persian verb exhibits nearly the same form as the Welch in its im- 
perative and subjunctive moods; bash, be thou; bashad, let liim be; 
bashim, let us be; bashend, let them be. 

In Sanscrit the preterperfect is ahavishi; and vastiim means to dwell. 

Hence it is not improbable that was may be a compound, and that, 
as B, V and W are commutable, it may be composed of be and is. 
Should this be granted; we must next inquire in what manner was and 
were, is and are can be allied. 

We know that Latin is a very ancient dialect of Greek, and it has 
been proved, that f<(*j, tn and eqi correspond to sum, cs, est, as ea-eo-^ai 



381 

does to essel It is therefore not ini probable, that tjiic and £(70f*ai may 
have given birth to ero. Such was the conjecture of Professor Scheidius, 
and, in support of Ids opinion, we may remark, that S gives place to P 
in app^v fi-xpTvp, ^xlpeoj iWop, x>iMp, for apuBv, {j-apTVi, ^xpceoi, ^r.-noi, ao-xoc. 
This practice leads to a conjecture, that P in (p^eipw, yepaioa, Lf^eipca and 
tXexipu may have been a substitute for S, and that these new themes, 
derived from 'p^ao, <yepxioo, i\,.xu), eXeeu, may have originated in their 
futures, agreeably to a common practice in the Greek. 

.Should K'ffs be considered as compounded of be and is, and should 
etrw be acknowledged as the parent of ero, we shall then see how ero, 
erim and esse became component parts of the same verb, and shall be 
disposed to grant that zms and were have been properly connected with 
be and is. 

Be in English, used for the infinitive, imperative and subjunctive 
moods, may be traced through a vast extent of country and to remote 
antiquity. 

The Galic has bumi and bhami, I was; bithidhmi, pronounced vimi 
or bimi, I shall be; bith thu, be thou; bhith, to be. 

The Irish has bim and fuilim, I au); bi tu, thou art; bi se, he is, &c. 
bha me, I was; beidh me, pronounced bimi, I shall be; bi, be thou. 
The Manx has bee boethou and beem, I shall be. 

In ff'elcft there is some little variation; for bum, buost, bu; buom, 
buoch, buont, answering to fui, fuisti, fuit; fuimus, fuistis, fuerunt, are 
the perfect, and wyf the present, I am; ym, we are. Buddwn is the 
imperfect; buddaf, the future; buad, the imperative, and bod the in- 
finitive. Here it may be proper to remark that in Welch del is pro- 



382 

nounced th, and consequently that bidd pcrlectly agrees with the Galic 
and the Irish, and that the final F is regularly the substitute for M. 

The German avails itself of no part of this verb excepting ich bin, 
du bist, 1 am, thou art. 

The Russian has ya buill, I was; budi, be thou, and buiti, to be; but 
in this language the final i is mute, like the final e in French. 

The Persian has enriched itself beyoiul most other languages by what 
it has preserved from the fragments of this verb. We find it in the indi- 
cative, subjunctive, imperative, infinitive and participles. In the pre- 
terite it has budem, budee, bud; budeem, budeed, budtnd, I was, &c. 
bu, be thou; bad, let him be; budmi, I would be. 

But it is to the ancient storehouse of the Sanscrit we must resort for 
the regular conjugation of this verb. Here we discover it, not as a 
fragment, not as a defective verb, but in perfection, with a rich variety 
of inflections to express the time, the person, the mode, the purpose of 
the action, whether performed for the benefit of the agent, or of another, 
both in the active and in the passive voice. In this language we find 
bhu as the genuine root, from which are formed bhavami, bhavasi, 
bhavati; bhavamah, bhavatha, bhavanti; lam, thou art, he is; we are, 
ye are, they are. Bhavani, let me be; abhavam, I have been; bha- 
vashyami, I shall be; bhavitum, to be. Is it possible to view these 
examples, even transiently, and not discern the affinity between Sanscrit, 
Greek and Latin. 

In Latin, fui is not derived from either sum or esse; but fu is the root 
and I the pronoun. As to /weram, fuer'im and fucro, they are evidently 
con) pounds. Fuisse is fu and esse. 



383 

This verb may possibly, perhaps probably, have been derived from 
Hu and Ilavah ('"'"''"') of Chaldee and Hebrew, because in the oriental 
dialects, U, V and W are commutable, and the letter, which in one 
province of India has the power of U or V, in others may become dis- 
tinctly B. Examples of siicli chani^es, particularly of U into V, are not 
wanting in the Hebrew, in which we have oth and evatii, zoth and ziveth 
(nix and J^-V^, J">^* and ri]?). Anciently, both in Latin and in English, 
U was both a vowel and a consonant. So among the modern Creeks 
ttvTxp is pronounced aftar, and ^uTOf^aTov aftomaton. 

The conversion of V into B is not peculiar to the oriental dialects; it 
has extended to the West, and particularly prevails in Spain. 

V is equally commutable with F. Thus, for instance, vadden of Hol- 
land becomes fade, vallen full, varen fare, vasten fast, vat fat, veldt 
field, vuer fire. In German, volk is folk, voll is full and vader is father. 
The Welch and the Spanish convert F into V and V into F. In short, 
all languages consider B, F and V as equivalent. 

In support of my conjecture, that our verb and the correspondent 
verbs of other languages originate in Hin, I shall venture to observe, 
that in the mountains of Britany, where the ancient Celtic, in its 
Armoric dialect, subsists, otia, in the expression me a oiia, I was, still 
continues the regular imperfect of beza, to be. 

Shall has narrow limits in our language; but in German and in Danish 
it is more extensively used, and is regularly conjugated. The former of 
these, in the subjunctive, converts ich soil into ich soUte, the latter, ieg 
skal into ieg skulde, I should. In Danish we have at skulk, to be 
obliged, and skyldig, guilty, that is bound by the law and subject to its 



384 

penalties. Saillym, in Manx, means I am willing; shal or sal, in 
Sanscrit, indicates intention, and is the root of a verb, which is regu- 
larly conjugated. 

Will and would connect themselves with baillym, Manx, vil and vilde 
of Denmark, wollen and wollte of Germany, volo and velje of Italy, 
^ovXo\i.cci of Greece, ail of Irish, and may terminate in (Vn^^^) hoil of 
the Hebrew. 

It is therefore evident, tiiat in most languages the substantive verb is 
composed of fragments, some few in number, others more abundant. 

In the Galic appear six of these, ismi, ammi, thami, bheil mi, I am; 
bumi and romi, I was; all distinct and independent of each other, as if 
they had met by chance. 

The Turkish has three fragments, variously compounded ; em, I am; 
esam, if I be; ol, I shall be; and olayem, may I be. 

The Latin has preserved the remnants of four verbs, in sum, fui, ero, 
esse, of which, as I have proved, the Greek has retained two in tif*;' 
and i.(je(j^ci.i, answering to the Hebrew and Chaldee HTH and ^'H. 

Having ascertained the structure of the substantive verb in Greek, 
and proved that, like the Galic, Irish, Welch, Russian, Turkish, Persian, 
Sanscrit, Hebrew, Arabic and Chaldee, it suffixes the pronouns; we 
may now proceed in our examination of the Greek verb in general. 

It was the opinion of Lennep, that the form of the Greek verbs in 
ui is more ancient than that of verbs in w, and the arguments adduced 
by him must carry conviction to the mind of a grammarian. In favor 
of its antiquity he states, that the first persons of the passive and middle 
voices in Greek and the subjunctives in Latin are formed, not from 



385 

verbs in w, out from verbs in m-j. We must not forget, that tlie optatives 
confirm his observation, for these are, from tutto), t^tttciui, TfTiy$)oifxi, 
ru-^xifj-t, Tuv^oifAi and TUTToifjbj, in the singular, TvirToiiA-ev, 'iF.Tv(poiiJ.ev, 
ruNl^flfifAfv, Tv^oi[t.ev, '7U'7[o7iJ.£v in the plurals. 

Agreeably therefore to this analogy, T-wTrTOfAtv in the plural should have 
had TVTtToofj.i in the singular. Certain it is that many verbs have both 
terminations, and that f^t existed in verbs where it is no longer seen; for 
surely ^rr^t is derived, not from tivm, but from .iff/.j, and yvai^i from yi/^fit. 
Whether the termination be ^t or u. if. must be the prononn of the 
first person singular. It is therefore a matter of indifference to my ar- 
gument, respecting the structure of the Greek verb, which form is most 
ancient, that of f^-t or «. Yet, in confirmation of Lennep's opinion, we 
may appeal to the Sanscrit, which, if not the parent, is at least closely 
nllied to both Greek and Latin. In this language the roots are neither 
riouns nor verbs, but may be either according to the affix, and none of 
its verbs terminate in O; but the first person singular of the indicative 
mood present tense has usually 77ri, the perfect ain. Thus we have 
vushami, I wish; avusham, I wished. 

'J'hat the Sanscrit exhibits the genuine radicals of both Greek and 
Latin, may be in some degree rendered probable by one example taken 
from the third conjugation of the Sanscrit verbs. Of this the root is 
da, the verb datum, to give, and the indicative mood present tense runs 
thus; dadami, I give; dadasi, thou givest; dadati, he giveth; dadmas, 
we give; dattha, ye give; dadati, they give. In the potential mood 
we have dadyat, he may give; in the imperative, dadani, let me give; 
dehi, give thou; dadato, let him give; dadama, let us give; datta, give 
ye; dadato, let them give. 

VOL. II. 3 H 



386 

In the subsequent part of my work I shall enlarge upon this subject. 
Suffice it at present to observe, that men of letters consider Greek and 
Latin as dialects of one language. Some indeed conceive Latin to have 
been derived from Greek; but all agree, that they are intimately con- 
nected. Now, when in the latter we find TrpoTos and primus in the former; 
how can we connect these together ? It were easy to say that T is 
converted into M. But of such a change we have not one example. 
When however we observe pfatama in Sanscrit, and consider, that ab- 
breviations are the wheels of language, the wings of Mercury; we are 
prepared to trace both the words in question to pratcmm, of which the 
Greek retains the T, and the Latin has preserved the ]\L 

In addition to what I have said, I may be permitted to remark, that 
the Sanscrit ra is the root of both xpirao and rapio, iiina of \j.vxo[uxi. and 
moneo, and lip of limus and a:A£i(pw. From Up we obtain Ibnpami, I 
smear, and from mna we have monami, I mind, I remind, I admonish. 
Now as between Greek and Sanscrit the affinity is evinced b}' the termi- 
nation of its verbs, so, in like manner, between these languages and 
Latin, the relationship appears, not merely in the subjunctives, but in 
one indicative at least; for we have inquam, that is inquami, answering 
to the Doric tv<px[t.1 as hcpoLTi does to inquit. 

It is true, the majority of dialects in Greek have fw for the termi- 
nation of their verbs; but then both w and £w, in the opinion of 
Scheidius and Valckenar, may be considered as the abbreviated forms of 
its usual pronoun '£70). {v. Valckenaerii Observ. & Scheidii Animad- 
versiones, p. '159-) 

Nothing is more common in languages, than* for the guttural to vanish 
altogether, or to have its place supplied by the slightest aspiration. Or 



387 

we may invert this order, and then the aspirate will be supplanted by a 
guttural. In the southern dialects of India, they pronounce the H hard, 
like as in North Britain, and thus for maha they say maga, and for vahaii 
they say Dagan. (Asiatic Researches, VI. p. 493.) 

Maha in Sanscrit implies reverence. This radical, with the pronoun 
suffixed, forms the several persons of the verb, and thus niahati mean? 
he is majestic, and mahami I am mighty. In Slavonian, mogoutuyi is 
mighty; mogou, I may; mojno, possible. For this term our Saxon 
ancestors used meahf: the Greek has i^eje^og: we retain the guttural, but 
pronounce it as an aspirate, I miglit. 

Vah, the Sanscrit root of valian, contains the notion of passing, and 
seems to have given birth to veho, perhaps to vado. Certain it is, how- 
ever, that our wain and waggon are allied to vahan and vagan of In- 
dostan, with which are connected, fen of the Galic, benn and menu of 
Wales, benna of France, banasta of Spain, wagen, vagn and vogn of 
Gothic, and xyxwx of the Greek. 

It is worthy of our notice, that the rough breathing of Greece has, 
in different periods, been represented by, or at least has given birth to, 
H, B, V, F, P, U, W, G, C, and S, when used as prefixes, or intro- 
duced before a vowel in the middle of a word. These appear in ancient 
inscriptions, and have been particular!}' noticed by Heyne, in his edition 
of Homer, torn. 7, p. 708, and by Lanzi, in his Treatice di lingua 
Etrusca. In Homer we frequently observe an hiatus, where either the 
spiritus asper or the digamma was originally found. Such hiatus may 
have existed in eco for sym, or, should this suggestion be considered as ill 
founded, we may certainly refer the absence of the consonant to the 
usual process of abbreviation. 

3 h2 



388 

J. Should it be conceded, that Sanscrit is tbe parent of Greek; the form 
of verbs in (*< will be readily acknowledjred as more ancient, tlian tliat of 
verbs in co. But independently of this argument, the example of Homer, 
supported by the practice of the iEolians, should suffice, for he has 
more verbs in fiut than any author who succeeded him. lie is the most 
ancient bard, and iEoiic one of the most ancient dialects. 

It is allowed, that the iEolians made fewer changes in their language^ 
than the Athenians, and that the former retained the same verbs in fj-i, 
which the latter terminate in a. 

It cannot be doubted, that both in the East and in the West, the 
most usual termination conforms to Sanscrit. Thus the Pe/'s/a/i has por- 
sidem, I asked; porsem, I may ask; por.sidum, I Lave asked: buporsem, 
I shall ask. 

The Turks say, ver, give thou; -ccririm, i give; yy, eat thou; yerim, 
I eat. 

The Galic has feud mi, I am able; dean mi, I do. So, in the Welch, 
we have dysgu, to teach, and dysgu uyf, T teach or am teaching, which 
Is perfectly equivalent to ^iWxty ?t[/,j, because the [>. is regularly con- 
verted into F. 

Here the verbal roots appear, each with its proper suffix, which is 
either simply the pronoun, or the substantive verb with its proper 
pronoun. 

We have thus examined the first persons; but wiien we shall proceed 
to the second and third persons, both singular and plural, we shall find 
the pronoun subjoined to each. Let us then begin our investigation 
with the language, which, from remote antiquity, has been preserved in 
the most northern mountains of our island. 



3S9 

lu Galic \vc find the subsccjucnt expressions: fctui mi, I am aijlc; teiul 
■tliu, tliou art able; feud e, he is able; feud siun, \vc arc able; ieud stbh, 
ye arc able; feud iad, they are aide. The pers(jual prouaims arc mi, 
tu, e, sinn, sibh, iad. The imperfect prefixes D, which the English 
takes for its termination, and runs thus, dfheud mi, J. was able; dfhcud 
thu, thou wast able, Sec. 

The Irish conforms nearly to the Galic; but omits the aspirate, and 
has dfeud mc, I was able; dfeud thu, thou wast able; dfeud se, he was 
able; dfeud sinn, we were able; dfeud sibh, yiD were able; dfeud sead, 
they were able, answering to potcns of the Latin, and to poti, a lord, in 
Sanscrit. The pronouns are me, tu, se, sinn, sibh, siad. 

The pronouns in ff'clch arc mi, ti, e and ef; ni, chwi, hwynt, and 
they are thus a[)plied in the imperative, dj^sger fi, dysger di, dysger ef, 
dysger ni, dysger chwi, dysger hwynt; le me be taught, &c. To the 
latter I would call particular attention, as being the parent of sunt, and 
t)f the terminations ant, ent, int, unt. 

We find in Russian, iemi, ieshi, iesti, iedim, iedite, iedat; I, thou, he, 
we, ye, they eat. 

Dedan, to give, of the Tersian, is thus conjugated, dadani, dadi, dad; 
dadim, dadid, dadunt, I gave, &c. 

In the Hi?idostanee, this verb is more complex; for to the participle 
data it subjoins its own substantive verb, which has already passed in 
review before us. 

In Sanscrit we have seen both da and dad, of the same import, with 
the pronouns suffixed to form the persons. 

This verb in Latin exhibits do, das, dat, &c. dedi, dedermn, dederim, 



390 

dedero, dedm^, in which we readily discover the root combined, either 
simply with the pronoun, or with the substantive verb, which, as we 
have seen, subjoins the pronoun. 

The Greek displays this with clearness in Si§ojy.i, SiSwg, SiBmi, SiSofj.ev, 
anciently StSoi^eg, S^SoTa, SiSovji ; SiSoiy,v, SiSoiyg, SiSon^j 8iSoi\^iJ.iv, StSoivi'Ta, 
SiSoiya-av. In the imperfect, the most ancient form was not ov, but oa-xv 
and ejuv. In Persian the pronoun is acsaji, they. 

The learned Professor Schultens has judiciously remarked, that syl- 
lables cut off from ancient pronouns formed the persons of Greek verbs. 
This observation may be equally applied to all other languages. 

It will not be difficult to demonstrate, that many of the personal pro- 
nouns resorted to for terminations, are preserved in Hebrew, Arabic and 
Chaldee, and may have been derived from thence. 

The pronoun of the first person singular has been already noticed, and 
it has appeared, that the English, to which the Russian approaches very 
near, is identically the same with Hebrew; that Eyo; of the Greek, with 
ich German, iag Swedish, icg Danish, and eg Icelandic, may be the 
abbreviated form of artki, and finally, that mi may be derived from aid 
of the Hebrew. 

We have seen that the second person singular in Galic and Irish, is 
tu, in AVelch ti, in Russian tui, in Icelandic thu, in Swedish, Danish 
and German du, in Persian, Sanscrit and Latin tu, in Greek SJ, but in 
Doric Tu, and in Hebrew atha or ate (iTlN). 

The third person singular in Galic, Irish and Welch is e, in Icelandic, 
Danish and Swedish, han; in Russian one, in Turkish and Persian, o 
and au; in Hindostanec ooee; in Greek ovTog,_ kvn-^, tovto; in Hebrew //// 
or Jioe, ze and otho. 



39 1 

The first person plural is in Welch iii, in Russian mui, in Danish vi, 
in Swedish wi, in Sanscrit vaym, in Latin nos, answering to vwt, the 
dual in Greek. In Hebrew wc have aim and nu. In Greek the first 
person plural is V^*?. 

The remaining persons in the plural have not the least agreement with 
each other, even in those languages, which arc most evidently derived 
from one parental stock. 

Is it possible for us to take the view, we have already taken, of the 
substantive verb in Greek, and not to be convinced, that it did not ori- 
ginate in Greece? As we proceed, every doubt, if doubts are still en- 
tertained, will vanish, and this truth will appear, as in meridian lustre, 
that all languages originate in one. 

Had Lord Monboddo been a general linguist, he never could have 
assumed the first person singular of the indicative mood present tense in 
Greek verbs for his radical expression in preference to any other mood, 
tense, or person, nor would he have persuaded himself and others, that 
*' the Greek has all its words of its own growth;" and much less would 
he have imagined, that all Greek verbs originate in ««, eu, tw, ou, vcc, 
which now appear to be the pronoun of the first person singular suffixed 
to verbs, and not the radix. In fact that part of the verb must be con- 
sidered as the root, which is found equally in every number and person 
of each voice, mood and tense. 

This great man, like Lennep and Valckenaer, has formed a beautiful 
hypothesis; and could we suppose, that, when Cadmus scattered the 
dragon's teeth upon the new ploughed earth ; the Greeks arose in perfect 
manhood, profound in wisdom, and a nation of philosophers; we might 



392 

then conceive, that " from five vocal sounds they composed a perfect 
language, flowing with an easy descent and a most copious stream." 

Such a description would not, however, perfectly accord with ther 
savage state, in which this nation is stated to have wandered, like brute 
beasts in their native forests, till the Pelasgi taught them the use of 
speech, and till Cecrops arrived to polish the rude language, in which 
their first preceptor had instructed them. 

Were Lord JSIonboddo living, and disposed to reject this tale of 
Cadmus as a fiction, the creature of poetic fancy, he must conceive 
a given epoch, when some great philologist arose to invent and teach a 
perfectly philosophic language, and when the whole nation was per- 
suaded to reject that mode of speech, in which from infancy they had 
been instructed by their parents, and to adopt new elements from this 
wise reformer. It appears, however, that Lord Monboddo is incon- 
sistent with himself, because he distinctly delivers it as his opinion, that 
" the Greek is an original language, and not derivative," and yet he is 
persuaded, that *' it is derived from the Hebrew, or from some other 
Egyptian, or oriental language," and he acknowledges, that " the 
Pelasgic, the immediate parent of the Greek, was very near of kin to 
Hebrew." He even charges the Greeks with vanity, for having " made 
their language, as well as themselves, the growth of their own country." 
He seems to have been exceedingly perplexed in difiiculties, from 
which he was unable to extricate himself. But had he been acquainted 
with Sanscrit, he would have found a clue, by means of which he might 
have directed his steps with well-grounded confidence of a successful 
issue, and would have at last discovered, that the languages of Eiirojic 
and of Asia arc radicallv one. 



395 

From the knowledge we possess of Sanscrit and of Greek, the first 
apprehension of the mind is, that they stand in tlic relation of progenitor 
and offspring, and that Sanscrit is the language, from which Greek 
proceeds. Numerous expressions lead to this conclusion. But the 
more we advance in the knowledge of these languages, the more dis- 
posed are we to acquiesce in the opinion of Henry Colcbrook, that 
both are derived from a primeval tongue. Yet, even though Sanscrit 
should not ultimately be acknowledged as the parent of Greek; it 
must be considered as a kindred dialect of great antiquity, whose 
roots exhibit clearly the first elements of Greek. 

It is curious to observe, with what facility and to what an extent, 
the Greek has created new themes from verbs in common use. These 
were frequently derived from the preterperfect and the future tenses, but 
commonly from the infinitive mood. This must be obvious to the 
Greek scholar, and appears in the clearest light to every one, who is 
conversant with Scapula's Lexicon. 

All these themes were subject to abbreviation^ and most of them 
have been abbreviated in various languages. Of this, numerous ex- 
amples have been adduced; and I may here repeat a remark already 
made, that, when the same word conveys various and discordant 
meanings, it is an abbreviated term derived from various and discordant 
primitives. Thus the verb aw, according to its various accents, may 
convey the notion of eo, induo, sum, sim, sino, miserim, aurora, and 
suo, which last is evidently derived from fos suus ; cH^io is arefacio, but 
i'Co; is veneror; uyo^ is dux, but uyos- is scelus; c^mg is laus, hut zivos is 

VOL. II. 3 I 



394 

horribilis; av« is per, but aW Rex; ^^xoj- is opinio, but Soko? is trabs ; 
xaXoi/ is lignum, but xaXov is bonum; >i^^ is cor, but xv'o is mors. 

It is by the assistance of accents, and by these alone, that the 
Chinese are able to ascertain the various and discordant meaning of 
their monosyllabic expressions, and this use of accent is not altogether 
foreign to the English language. 

In demonstrating the affinity between Latin, Greek and Hebrew, I 
shall bring forward part of a numerous vocabulary from Avenarius; but 
I shall say nothing of the grammatical structure of these languages, 
because in no country has this been permanent. 

English is evidently the offspring of Saxon, Danish, German, and 
other Gothic and Slavonic languages, which are all radically one: yet 
in no two of these can we find the grammatical stmcture perfectly " 
alike. The same observation will apply to Latin, Erench, Italian, 
Spanish, and Portuguese. 

It is however worthy of our notice, that in one particular, Hebrew, 
Greek, and Latin are agreed, for anciently in all these languages, the 
present, the preterite, and the future, either adopted the same form, 
or were used indifferently for each other. 

In the more ancient Greek the future Avas the same in form as the 
present tense, but when a newer form was introduced, which termi- 
nates in <rw; the ancient became the second future, its penultima was 
short, and the last letter was circumflexed as in (paivw, (pxv2 ; Tf(*v&>, 
TEfxw; vc>w, vei^oS; and the preterites converted the terminating Omega 
into Alpha, as in 7«w, yeyax of Homer. 

It has been well observed by Valckaenar that Sigma, in what is 



395 

now called the first future, supplies the place of an aspirate as in 
xMVTOj instead of axouFw, for which Digamma of the iEolians, the Romans 
used its kindred letter B, saying amabo for amaso or amaFo. In his 
opinion, audiani and legam, are properly the present tense used for 
the future in Hebrew. 

AFFINITY BETWEEN LATIN, GREEK, AND HEBREW. 

MANY learned men have been satisfied, that there is affinity between 
Greek, with its kindred dialect the Latin, and Hebrew; but few, per- 
haps, have seen this in its full extent. 

To trace the features of resemblance requires a knowledge of those 
general laws, to which all languages are subject, and of the special laws 
by which every language in particular is governed in its mutations. It 
has been my endeavour to bring these laws to light. 

With regard to those to which Greek has confornied in its derivatives 
from Hebrew, I cannot do better than give them in the words of 
Avenarius, the greatest philologist of the age in which he lived, who 
published his work in the year 1589, and who has firmly established 
sixteen canons. 

With these, he that runs may read, and the most transient glance will 
be sufficient to convince him, that a family likeness is still to be dis- 
cerned between these languages. But should the student wish for further 
information, let him consult Ernesti de vestigiis linguae Hebraicae in 
lingua Graeca. 

The rules laid down by Avenarius are the subsequent: 



396 

I. Radicalium literarum imprimis habenda est ratio; quae si sint con- 
nexiles, connectuntur in aliis Unguis, ut: pt^ (ry.i^vow. ^p^ ano'Tteu, &c. 

II. Gutturalibus et quiescentibus literis aliae lingute non habent cor- 
respondentes; earn ob rem pro eis aut ponunt vocales, aut dipthongos, 
aut prorsus eas omittunt, ut: Din apxauia. D70i? Sufiuatvw. 

III. Si duae ex literis "'THi^ quiescentibus gutturalibus fuerint, ambae 
omittuntur aut mutantur in vocales. i'T' fiSfo; li^*^ aoca HID nxia mi pta 
njX vxw, n^l odoratus est in Germ, riechen. 

IV. Non raro literae ejusdem instrumenti symbolico transitu inter se 
commutantur, quemadmodum Grffici, in formandis temporibus, mutant, 
quando tenuem in mediam et aspiratam 21 ^ y.sp[^x grumus ossis 7QJ 
y.Oi[i.\^'kog 11^3 Tupow H/^ 'jxXxiObi 7i'3 (pAfw 1^12 ^xaiXivu. 

V. Saepe Graeci assumunt afformationes in praesenti, quas tamen in 
reliquis temporibus abjiciunt, cum non pertineant ad substantiam radicis. 
TID aiJ-xpTxvu. p112 fj^o^yvuw ^ti'J* ao(pi,'C,o:. sapiens. 

VI. Abjicitur prima radicalis 3, ut apud Ebrasos. 
Wll eyyt^co. CH] oif^^ew. 3p3 cavo. 

VII. Quae apud Ebraeos sunt duplicatahabentque secundam et tertiam 
radicalem easdem literas, in derivandis aliarum linguarum vocabulis 
abjiciunt alteram. 11i^ xpxoi*.xi. 77^ nvXtco, T*J ^fw, li^ (jvXxai, IIH epog. 

VIII. Ssepe radicibus desinentibus in '?r, 2, Grtcci Euphoniae causa 
addunt literam t. HS/D clava, xoAaTTTw. ^^T) tvvtu. HDX ovtku. ^2D 

IX. In Graecis tbematibus profertur ^ per rrl vel (7(7 mn ^xpxTla. Mn2 

vXJaU vel nXTlcO, nm TXTTCa. 

X. Metathesis aliquando admittitur. /^U:} xjiXyxivu. iJlj; tpuTxa). vliJ 



3i< Pater etTt'Tcix Dor. Sc Mo\. Abba Syr. 

^^II^i puber, maturus, vi/3«c<j. £(pii/3o?. indc yil^xrm. pubesco. 

13 S< periit, $?(5ow. perdo. 

n3»S voluit, aveo, inde, 3n»^, ni^\ DS*n 

">i3i^ O vse, ai/3(3i. /3(5arw. f^ow, 

^'VIJ? egenus, vri-yvif. 

n3t5 & nii< calefecit, splenduit, ^(pauw «Sc «ua'. 

D3X saginavit, (iojyM. pasco, obesus. 
p2^ pugnavit, "^2^, ?^^, P^^, ttO^. ctl"-/;*h. 'jrv^Tf^a-, 
"13^^ remigravit, cropeu^. 
Ti^i^ iibertus, ojipiiJLOi. vvtp. 
niJi* fasciculus, cex^oi. fascis, onus. 
DJ^^ stagnum, ly.y.cig. eni/^cciva. ay.[t.cc,Xoo. 't^^^ scirpus, iiiundavit, y-uit-xTi^a 
TJS< &, \^'^ pelvis, crater,' ayyog, 
JlJX agmen, ^V-if*** 
'^J^^ congregavit, ayelpc-j. agger, uyeX--^. grex. 

"I^? vapor, fliTfy-if. id. 
nns< & 3»S-r contabuit. 

17^ basis, fulcrum, iifi? sustentator, Swxqvii. Suvxqeix. aedes. 
1i^ illustris, aSpog. 
3nX amavit, ayccTrxco. D. i13i5 

vnii fixit tentorium, xvkvi. xvKiov. kvXxi.k. aula, aulaeum. 

VOL. II. 3 K 



398 

'7''TK stultus, viX(iivofd.cti. ^Xi^icc^a. 

yiK properavit, atjua. 

TTi^ lucebat, ^ip. apx. upxi^oy^xi. wpxi'o;, ovpxvo?. f/-fl;jp«. aurora, oriens, 
hora, sera, Sax. early Eng. 

^71^^ celeiiter recessit sic 7P, 7?3, 7l?3, 7?t, crxXxu. cxXivu. aeXXa., 

Jii^ auscultavit, sicj^^ our. wto?. wiz?. wizV/.o;. 
TtX cinxit, sic"IDKj iriD, aepi'^a. 7£pU. aeipx. ^eipcc. x^eipoi, 
Tnx unitus est, Ut.cv. iSix^co. 
'|TCDi^ Txivia. o^ovvi. o^oviov. 
1^^ ohturavii, see "1^33. thp^w. tuerL 

"•i^ insula, xix. ovxi. vae. 
7^!i^ cervus tXu(pog. 

nS^i< Ubi, ■TTOL/. 

PX non, xuev. ai.voiJ.xi. vs. vvi. ne. 
ns^i^ ubi, oTtov. 9rou. TTOi'. quo. 
5:/\S nti^K vir, emina, (V%uw. ((r%u?. vir, vis, vires, eig. ititx ut in 
Xxpieg. xxpLsaax. 
"^^ etiam, imo, ac, axi. 
b'D^ edit, xmXov. xiXog. xXox. r\72SD, \i.x%xipx. culter. 
IDi^ agricola, arator, x<ypog. ager, xypiog. 

nSi^ ilex, JAvi. 4X«ifl:. oliva, li*?^ ilex, quercus alnus, fixXxvog. /"'^^idem; 
CTl7i< Deus, £X£ii[ji.wv. eXeXev. 
7 wi^ nihiliim, oAXuf*;. 
^vH docuit, duxit, (xX(pdw, dX(p«^w. ht(p«i. 



399 

V^ si, an, non, m. ti. Di* mamma, mater, amo. 
^12)^ infirmavit, iit.x'ko;. uvxXoi. afx/SXuj. mollis. 

DD5<D^^ nCk?, (Aa:w. i/.xi.c£. afj-jxa:. ij^xij^Ij^t^ . fj.xij.ij.aix 

\^i^ sustentavit, fidelis, verax, o\j.vvw. x]j.v\io\j.xi. \j.iv. munio, 

^DK valde consolidatus, f^fi^wi/. 

HiX natavit, vxoi. j/xvai. vevca. ""^^ navis, 

T\l'A cremuit, xvlx. aviacc. avixipog. 

1D3i< ego, eya. tyw'jyx. Dor, tf^vyx. 13n2 vw. wf. nos, noi, Ital. ich, Ger. 

D3i5 opprimere, onus, 

^3i< spiravit naribus, HSiJ, ''S, 1i< nasus, facies, wx^/. 7rp53-a;7rov, «v£[*of. 

p3i< ingemuit, exclamavit, P^3, pn2, n:X id. oyKa'ot^at. eV^oj. Asinus. 

Ji'DK aegrotavit, Ji'ii voa-of. voj\\\j.x. vir, mortalis, ai^vip. av^paiiiog. 
r\n2ii Chald. nn^ Heb. Tu. Tu. au. ScVoeLTuve. 
"•DDi^ horreum, T^(x;£ji5:. Dtl''* op.-o(rf. si/m^Z posuit, sammen, Ger> 

f\Di^ collegit, traxit, ID"', HDD, o-Triw. aar-Tri?. 

")D« ligavit, "1^"^, "ID^ ^apa. 
IJIDX a^vjp. astrum. 

^^^ apte ligavit, ^ttw. o-uv^TrTw. apto, I adapt. 

(ID J? coxit panem in furna, OTtixoo. T.iitTa, Trf^a-a;. i'^4'W. 

Vsi? caliginosiis, fs^fAn. nebula, (pwXEo;. (pwXaj. velo, velamen, a veil. 

J2i^ rota, uTTv^^^fi. rheda, ^^^^ circumrotavit, af*(pi. 

i/Di< sibilus viperae, n;/a sibilavit, n;/2ii vipera, o(pf?. o(pi«5vif. $««. 

TS^ cinis, TSJ^ pulvis, Ti(ppx, Te(ppo(a. TeC^pi^a. (pvpeca, - 

T^i* thesauravit, Sv^o-aupoj. crcopavu. crop'og. acervo, 

3"!^ insidiatus est, fcpudi^oj. 21iJ ipi(po}. 



400 

31^* texuit, apa^i-H. aranea, upxx^iov. fpya^sjv. TCirkcn, Ger. 
m^i abstulit sicut Leo, kiptcj. '^"li* Leo. 
"^■)^ elongavit, opt>yo[i.cii. porrigo, arceo. 
yi^^ 'terra, ipx. a^oco. apovpa. epysi'^. 
11^ execratus est, «pa. apao\j.ai. y.ara^w^ai. 
"I»^ rivLis, i\mos, viii. 8. li^"" &11^*' id. 
'^1^ desponsavit, puTiov. pvcii^o\j.ai. do pignora sponsalia. 

^'^ ignis, tela, 'IK^p.iqog. "ccir^c^. k^oi. iaxa^a. e%a^i^. asSO, Vesta. 
Htt'J^ oblatio ignita comp. ex, ^1^ h'^'^. ^'^'^ sol comp. :i'i^ & 5i'. 
X^^ ao(pog. X^DtiNS* Chald. Dan. i. 20, ii. 27, iv. 4, HS^'S* pharetra. 
'7^^ quercus, quercetum, sjlva, uIto;. x7v)m'. asylum, v. Dionys. 

Hal. /. 3, cap. 15, Aa-vkov. i^ecoohv. Svoiv. B§viJ.av. 
N'i^X Chald. rrnj* Heb. ^scc. Wo^. ^ox^cj. H^6cj. itum. 
inx fortiter stetit, ]Tr\K oyo?. asinus. 
:K:in.S Chald. v.^'i^ iEtna, v. Bocharti Chan. I i. c. 28, et Yegilii 
iEn. iii. 571— -582. 

I have liere confined myself to the first letter of the alphabet: were it 
needful, we might have taken a more extensive survey, and by multi- 
plied examples have more clearly demonstrated the close affinity, which 
subsists between Greek and Hebrew. This however is sufficiently evinced 
by Avenarius, to whose inestimable labors I have been indebted for this 
vocabulary. Prom him I have adopted it, and might have easily col- 
lected more than one thousand roots in addition to those which have 
already appeared in the progress of my work. 



401 



AFFINITY BETWEEN LAPONIC AND HEBREW. 

THE country north of the Gulf of Bothnia and of the White Sea, 
including Finmark, is known by tlie naine of Laphmd. The Finns and 
Laplanders seem to have been driven in remote periods from countries 
situated between the Danube and the Volga, to this high, latitude, by 
more powerful hordes, who, seeking only pasture for their flocks, had no 
inducement to penetrate the frozen regions, in which snow remains nine 
months in the year, regions suited only to the rein deer, who on these 
mountains find a sufficiency of lichen, their usual food, beneath the 
snow. Some of these granitic peaks rise many thousand feet above the 
level of the sea. Sneehatten in particular is 8115 feet high. 

In these elevated regions the Laplanders wander with their herds, 
some of which contain 1500 or 2000 head of deer, and here, finding 
rest, they remained from generation to generation, without a wish to quit 
their dreary haunts. They had no intercourse with other nations, who 
could have no inducement to invade their mountains; no commercial 
transaction, excepting only by barter to some small extent, and no 
occasion to pass through a country, which was surrounded by the 
Frozen Ocean. 

Here they remained distinct and separate, like the natives of Arabia. 

Their language therefore is uncorrupted by foreign words, either im- 
ported by commerce or introduced by conquest. 

In consequence of this it has retained its original purity to a greater 
degree than the Arabic in Arabia, which probably is not so pure as the 
language spoken by Ishmael. 

VOL. II. 3 jL 



402 



The Hungarian dialect of this language has not had these advantages, 
and may therefore be considered as a most corrupted Finnish. 

In the Lapland language are numerous expressions which connect 
themselves with Greek and Latin. These languages, however, as we 
have seen, have near affinity to Hebrew. When I say Hebrew, I do not 
mean strictly one particular dialect of that Oriental tongue, which in- 
cludes Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, Arabic, and ^thiopic; but any one, or 
all these kindred lano;uaoes. 

Olaus Rudbeckius, a Swede, and the most eminent linguist of his age, 
assures us that out of 2000 or 3000 words, not more than 200 or 300 in 
the space of 3000 years, have been either changed or lost. The rest are 
either Hebrew, Chaldee, Sj/7-iac, or Arabic. 

He has not given us his Canons; but we may safely conclude that his 
must essentially agree with those of Avenarius. 

I shall here subjoin a few examples, which may be sufficient to shew the 
close affinity, which has subsisted between two kindred languages after a 
separation of some thousand years. 



Laponic, 

Achaedi 

Aedhame 

Aelo 

Aema 

Afo 

Al 

Alah 



Latin, 

Honoravit 

Terra, humus 

Non 

Mulier 

Adlnic 

Super 

Altus 



Hebrew. 

nin 

hi; 

nhi: 



Laponie. 


Latin. 


Ali 




Ascendit 


Aim 




Juvenis 


Almevoth 


inventus 


A lop 




Multitudo 


Asi 




Fecit 


Asie 




Opus 


Asso 




Fundanientum 



Hebrew. 



rbii 
Dbi; 



403 



Laponic. 


1.0(11!. 


Heirtw. 


Laponic. 


Latin. 


He' Tit. 


Atzah 


Fulgur 


«i;s 


Hathi & Adhi 


Dormivit 


n?n 


Atzi 


Arsit 


Jim 


Hialo 


Fortis, potens 


'7^n 


Allui 


Egit 


hbM! 


Hished 


Benignus 


Ton 


Autzi 


Robustus 


u;i:;M^nr} 


liniz 


Culter, liasta 


n^iT} 


Auzi 


Roboravit 


njyx B'^i't^ 


Eloki 


Percussit 


T]2ry 


Avohi 
Eke 


Desideravit 
Etsi 




Huolgi'&) 
NYuolgi ) 


Abiit 


i^r^ 


Epe 


Nihil, non 


Esai. ili. 24. 


Jarodi 


DeciJit 


Tl^ 


Eseli 


Elevavit, laudavit 


-T^D 


Jaur 


Lacus 


-IS^ 


Fauro 


Decora vit 


-)SD 


Jed 


Manus 


n> 


Galmai 


Abscond it 


ubi; 


Jen (ien) 


Non 


l^K 


Gaska 


Corrosus 


T]^\2;y 


[se 


Vir 


m^^ 


Gaski 


Rosit 


mm 


Joh vel hio 


Fuit 


n\"! 


GiecU 


Scivit, novit 


J/T 


Jukand ke 


Qui 


•«D 


Had 

Had as 


Dignus, ccstimatus 
Nov US 


Tin 
mm 


Juoks 


(Laqueus, ) 
Carcus, fraus) 


t^'P^ 


Hadsie vel 
Hadshe 


/Luna 


cnn 


fze 
Kah 


Ipse 
Sicut 


n3 


Haeg 


Sinus, abdomen 


p^n 


Kali 


Comedit 


'7DK 


( 


Noxa, cahi- 


) 


Kaliti 


Saturavit 


b^DKii 


Haeivi < 


mitas, ahyjx 


\ Isa. xlvii. 2. 


Kalli 
Kapi 


Per fee it 
Texit 


il2 
dial. 5^2n 


Ha rami 


Destruxit 


D-in 


Kalze 


Iratus est 


r^p 


Harezi 


Celer fuit 


3 ] 


Katzi 

o 


Fastidivit 


pp 



404 



Lapenic. 


Latin. 


1 Hebrew. 


Laponie. 


Laliit. 


Hebreu. 


Kay 


Mugivit, claraavit ^I/J 


Nisum 


Mulier, uxor 


■D^^2 


Kazi 


Evigilavit 


r? 


Nuogi 


Quievit 


m: 


Kez 


Finis 


Hi')? 


Nuor 


Juvenis 


-i;/3 


Kioetzi 


Vidit 


nm 


Nuoravoth 


Pueritia 


mi;;: 


Kied vel iec 


Man us 


T 


Outho 


Signum 


ms* 


Kiesi 


Operuit 


nD3 


Outhoi 


Miratus est 


ann 


Kietzi 


Sprevit 


Jrab. ^rn 


Pali 


Separavit 


iib^ 


Kieeze 


iEstas 


pp 


Paiiii 

1 


Vertit 


n:i5 


Kole 


Vox 


h^p 


Pakadi 


Punivit 


"TpD 


Kuoim 


Cum 


d;/ 


Pako 


Verbum 


Si/r. T^ 


Lahi 


Lassus, segnisfiii* 


.ni^b 


Palih 


Fodit 


nVs 


Lait 


Maledixit 


Ch. Syr. ^-h 


Palteooth 


Terror 


mi'VD 


Lauki 


[vit 


f^^ 


Palthi 


Tremuit 


r^= 


Lulue 


Nisi 


ab^b 


Paluk 


Tjaculus 


1^2 


Made 


Alultus 


IHD 


Pasclii 


Dividit, percussil 


■^DD nt^D 


Marad 


Rebel !is fuit 


llf2 


Pateri 


Fugit 


-ira 112 


Maravot 


Rebellis 


nn-iD 


Peisdi 


Perdidit 


102 


Marsfe 


Sponsa 


Cha. XDn.SZ2 


Pelki 


Lis, divisio 


}b-^ 


Mi and ma 


Quis 


HD 


Pethi 


Persuasit 


n;iD 


Min 


Cum, ex, in 


\D 


Pikde 


testis 


122 


Miide 


V^cstis 


ID 


Posgi 


rransgressus est 


V'^-i 


Muossi 


Fxploravit 


IL'^'D 


Pothi ' 


i^enit 


K3 


Na : 
Nasi 1 


!*func 

?ugit 


ii2 


Pudi 

( 


JExemit, ) 
Kedemit 3 


iTTD 



405 



iMpanic. 

Puodkc 
Puodki 
Puore 

Puozeli 

Purki 

Ragi 

Rahki 
Raki 

Rakie 

Rassi 

Raudi 

Raudni 

Razi 

Renni 
Rugui 

Ruoki 



Latin. 

Fissura 
^In rimas ) 
C fissus est J 
Purus, clarus 
fPcdibus, "\ 
\ contractus^ 
^2 Sam. ix. 13 J 

(In visit, ) 
CMaledixit ) 
^Cumulavit ^ 
Ccongregatiis ' 
Abiit, abfuit 
Dilexit 

Extensio 

Pluit, stillavit 

Fluxit 

Fluvius 
Fregit, 
Perforavit 

Clamavit 

Festinavit 

cPavit, 

yComedit 



Hebrew, 

pin 

12 

Heb. dial. At. Syr 

pm 

Chal.Si/r. JJ-| 

DD") 

nil 

Ch. Syr. ^i^lTl 

V)il 



T\V1 



Lapunic 
PillOSO 

Saedke 

Saek 

Safothi 

Sagi 

Sagih 

Salahi 

Sara 

Saru 
Sialki 

Siegi 

Sielki 

Sieki 

Sjokki 

Siuki and, 

fuki ' 

Siurho 

So 

Sobet 

Soiki 



Latin. 



em or. 



^^onitru 

Jus 

Saccus 

Quievit 

Crevit 

Auxit 

Spoliavit 

'Dux, 

(Princeps 

Bos, taurus 

Emisit 

/Depressus 

\ Immersus 

^Fuit 

Albuit 

Delevit 

Divisit 

Bibit 

Horde um 
Ille 
Virga 
Sedit 



Hebrew. 

Wi 
pT-f 

n2iu 

1^ 
l^m 

Arab, "^j^ti' 

ni)}^ 
22^ 



406 



Laponie, 

Stago 
Sudi 
Sudi 
Sudon 

Suopudi 

Tevi 

Tevoaikne 

Thivoi 



Latin. 

Jugum 
Ferbuit, coxit 
Peccavit 
Peccatum 
^Percussit f 
cPIanxit 5 
Impletus fuit 
VFl'jvius, ') 
CAbundans ) 
-^dificavit 



Hebrew. 
Ara. Syr. Ch. Jl^ 

"nr 
-nr 
inr 

TDD 

Arab. ^2^^ 



Laptnic, 

Thoumiz 

Thulue 

Thuoki 

Vala 

Uali 

Vazi 

Zaigi 

Zayethi 

Zoulii 

Ztorri 



Latin. 

Didymus 

Aquaeductus 

Pressit, fixit 

Sed, nisi 

Juravit 

Exivit 

Inclinavit 

Erravit 

Luxit 

Anxit 



HArew. 



HEBIREW. 



vJF Hebrew I shall say litlle. It is a language well understood, 
and much admired by all who understand it. It carries marks of 
the most venerable antiquity. The alphabet has been supposed to 
contain vowels independently of the points, like the modern languages 
of Europe. But I am disposed to agree with those who consider 
Aleph to be the most gentle breathing, as it is in Persian, Sanscrit, 
and Arabic, and with my ancient tutor Professor Robertson, of Edin- 
burgh, who always taught his pupils to regard aleph as very soft, he 
as not so soft, heth as hard, and ajin as a most rough breathing. 
Certain it is, that, according to the Septuagint, the attendant vowel- 
sound may be that of either a, aa, e, o, ou, or it may be g. 

The pronouns are, ':)3^^ I, nn.S thou, ^<in he, 12»^ we, DnK ye, HZ^rr 
they. From these the verbs have taken their terminations to indi- 
cate their persons — Thus, "Tpi3 he visited, has mpD thou visitedst, 
"ripD I visited, TTpii they visited, ompD ye visited, T3Tp2 we visited. 

But here I must observe, that although we cannot in Hebrew as- 
sume any part of ""S^X, excepting "• for the first person singular of 



408 

of the preterite, yet the Ethiopic, which is closely allied to Hebrew, 
has ''2"Ip2 I visited, which was probably, at a remote period, the 
genuine preterite in both languages. 

The tenses are three, past, present, and future ; its moods, the 
indicative, imperative, and infinitive. Here we have such simplicity, 
that the conjugation of its verbs is attained with facility; whilst m 
other languages they are perplexing to the last degree. Properly 
speaking, Hebrew has but one conjugation, to which all its verbs es- 
sentially conform. They have indeed eighteen modifications formed 
chiefly by the points, which create no embarrassment to the learner, 
whilst in the comprehensiveness of their expression they surpass all 
the languages of Europe. Eor instance in 1 Kings, ch. xx. v. 27, 
we find nj^ariC they were obliged to be reviewed. Here we have 
the consummate art and contrivance of a most polished nation. 

In Latin we observe some resemblance to this contrivance, as in 
facit factus est; factavit factatus est; facere fecit; facere factus est; 
factitavit. So in surgo, erigo; sto, sisto; fugio, fugo; doceo, disco; 
cado, coedo; jaceo, jacio; jacto, jactor. 

The Greek has ttotoj and ttoti^w although it wants ttotc:,', which is re- 
tained in Latin. It has (pujy.u and (pwr/^w, (pws- ^CpwToc (pxu and (pcclvu. 
The English has raise, rise; sit, set; fall, fell; quick, quicken, &c. 

In Hebrew we find some modes of expression, with which other 
languages arc not conversant. 

I. It expresses the genitive case of nouns by juxta-position, as 
for instance, "'Tl '^im ''D'', that is literally, days, years, my life, meaning 
the days of the years of my life. The Arabic and the Galic in this con- 
form to Hebrew. 



409 

11. It is fond of ellipsis, and fiequently omits the auxilinry verb. 
Thus in Joel, ^'7 «^3'7 nM!hnD\ HnN' '•yd; vy^, literally, His teeth 
lion and cheek teeth lion to him. 'I'hat is, his teelh are the teeth 
of a lion and the cheek teeth of a li(;n are his. J'loni the [)reva- 
lence of this figure, other words, which arc introduced in the begin- 
ning of a sentence, are freciuently to he understood, though not 
expressed in the latter part, as in Psalm 1. v. 7, Hear O my people 
and I will speak — Israel, and I will testify against thee: so Psalm 
ix. V. 18, would literally run thus, For the needy shall Jiot always 
be forgotten; the expectation of the poor shall perish for ever, which is 
properly translated shall 7iot perish for ever. And again in Psal. Ixxv. 5, 
Lift not up your horn on high — speak with a stiff neck, that is, speak 
7iot with a stiff neck. In Psal. xci. v. 5, 6, the negation is three times 
understood, though not expressed. 

III. In Hebrew we frequently find the future tense used for the 
present and for the preterite, but most often the preterite for the future. 
In the most ancient writers both of Greece and Rome, the present tense 
and the future had the same form. Thus in Homer we observe (*£vw, 
manebo, Sfw recurram, oT^vveco hortabor, f<fxi ibo. So, in Plautus, ibo 
domum atque ad parentes reduco Silenium. 

IV. When vau is prefixed to the future tense, this becomes a pre- 
terite. 'lDi<'>% '^h''^ p|J/p"'l and Naaman ffi'as wrath and a'e/jf away and 
said. 

So in Genesis, ch. xxii. v. 3, we have six futures, each preceded by 
vau, and consequently all are translated properly as preterites. 

VOL. II. S M 



410 

V. Vau prefixed converts perfect tenses into futures. In Isaiah, 
ch. viii. V. 15, no fewer than five verbs appear, each with vau prefixed, 
which are thus converted from preterites into futures. 

VI. The regular mode of expression for preterites is to place them 
before the nominative: otherwise placed, it is commonly the present 
tense. 

VII. The roots are commonly regarded as triliteral, but some 
learned men consider them as originally biliteral. In numerous instances 
the third letter seems to modify the sense. Thus for instance i^vD, 
^•72), n'jD, n'^D, '7'7D, p"?-!, all mean to f/it;iJe, and ^"^ D, DID, DnCJ, DID 
j;"lD, pD, p"lD, n"lD with ti'lSi convey the same radical notion. Of 
Of these expressions therefore /D and T^ appear to be the essential 
portion, and of these, 7 and "1 are commutable. 

In "1"IJ dissecuit, 21 J scabies, 11 J abrasit, scalpsit, ill J ruminavit, HJ 
abscidit, n"lJ sauciavit, DIJ fregit, I'U diminuit, the original root 
seems to have been U from which perhaps the Greeks derived their 
x£;/)w. Certain it is, that J and h are letters of the same organ, and 
it is worthy of our notice that 112, 1X2, and HTD, mean scidit, 
fodit, 212 secavit, yip scidit, divisit, i'12 rupit, laceravit. 



CHALDEE. 



XHE Chaldee, such as we find it, is comparatively modern, for we 
are not able to trace it back beyond the captivity of Israel in Babylon. 
In the writings of Daniel and of Ezra we possess it in its purity, as 
spoken at court in the capital of a mighty empire. Since that period, 
it has degenerated, and in the lapse of time, lost much of its elegance. 
This appears in the Targums of Jonathan and of Onkelos. 

i\fter the birth of Christ, we find the language of the Jews still 
more remote from that of their progenitors. Yet during a period of 
about J, 500 years, from the mission of Moses to the birth of the 
Messiah, the changes have not been such as to conceal the orifinal 
identity of Hebrew and Chaldee. It is impossible for any one with 
even a moderate knowledge of these languages not to see clearly, that 
they are very nearly related. Yet they differ in many particulars. 

The reader must not expect, that in a work like this I should enter 
minutely into each language, which passes in review before us. 

What I shall therefore say respecting the Chaldee will be merely 
to point out some of the changes which have taken place, between it 
and Hebrew, since the time of their separation. 

3 M 2 



412 

I. Beth in Hebrew may answer to mem and phe in Chaidee, as in 
J^3Dandi^ȣ3; 'jnn and "^nQ. 

II. The Hebrew nouns and verbs, which terminate in Ae, change this 
for aleph in Chaidee, as in HDa and ^^QI1; nJ2 and i<33; nb'^b and 

III. He in Hiphil is aleph in Chaidee, as in I^TTn and IHTS; p3'7n 
and pVi*; 

IV. The emphatic he prefixed to nouns in Hebrew, answers to aleph 
suffixed in Chaidee, asinHD^n and ^^^DD. 

V. The terminating mem of Hebrew becomes either aleph or 7nin in 
Chaidee; thusQ^Qti' becomes ^^Q^^' ; D^D, X^Q; D^:3, ]^J3; D^pT, ^pr. 
ThusC and 1^ most perfectly agree, ^* answering to"' and ] to D. 

The dual number, which in Hebrew terminates in mem, has men in 
Chaidee, as in ^'^^ and V^^. 

VI. Aleph of Hebrew may correspond to ajin of Chaklee, as in ^H? 
and i^i!^; i^f^^ andi'QJ. We find ^^ IT, m? and ;?")? to ventilate, to 
scatter seed. 

VII. Between Hebrew and Chaidee daleth and zojiii are commutable, 
as in ni'^D and nm^, 23T and ^^1 ; 12* and "l^T 

VIII. Likewise between teth and f^a^^e, as in "^V;/ and V^;'; V^?^ and 
CO;;^; '?'?•»' and '7'7£2. n'?^'^^'? of the Hebrew answers to i^bt^/^nb of 
the Chaidee. 

IX. Zajin and /z«f/e take each the other's place, as in HIH and NVH; 

-ti;V and i<1^;^». 

X. So do shin and teth, as Iti'p and IJ^p. 

XI. Shin in Hebrew very frequently becomes than in Chaidee, as in 

"liSi' and "liri, whence T«y^of; IVl^ and J'lJ^, Supa, 



413 

XII. Tzade and ajin correspond, as appears in f1*? and V'^'^ or 

n;;n « ; ] xy and ] «i^ ; n i; -i and n;;n. 

XIII. Ill the same word we find ajin answering to aleph and tzade to 
ajin. p and J^«. 

XIV^ Schin and samceh take one the otlier's place, as in "^l^^ Ileb. 
and 10D Chald. 

These' few examples may suffice to show the mutations which have 
taken place in one or both these languages. Dissimilar as they now 
appear, yet to the attentive and discerning eye it will be evident, that 
they are radically one. Considering the length of time which intervened 
between their separation, when Abraham (juitted Chaldaea, and the 
Babylonish captivity, we may well expect, that the signification of 
numerous words must have been greatly changed. This precisely is 
what the most superficial glance will be sufficient to discern. 

In Hebrew, he made, is Hi^J/, but to express this action in Chaldee, 
the word is "T^^, which in Hebrew means he served. A feast, in 
Hebrew, is mishte, in Chaldee lehem^ the latter referring to bread, the 
former to drink. The expression for wine is, in Hebrew V^ jaji?}, but in 
Chaldee hamar, "IDH so called, perhaps, from its red colour,^ perhaps 
from its being a fermented liquor. Our term Jirst is in Hebrew iitt'X"! 
the notion being taken from the head; but in Chaldee it is commonly 
^QTp, from Dip prior fait tempore, loco veldignitate, whence CTpis 
the East, both in Hebrew and Chaldee, and V^^^ in Hebrew is trans- 
lated ^ an p in Chaldee. 

That there should be a near affinity between Hebrew and Chaldee, is 
not to be wondered at, because Abraham was a native of Chaldaea. 



414 

Even between hi3 leaving his country, his kindred and his father's house, 
to the departure of Israel from Egypt, being more than four hundred 
years, considerable changes must have taken place in both these 
lano-uages. But between the time when Hebrew first appeared as a 
written language in the Pentateuch, and that in which Daniel, Ezra and 
Nehemiah wrote in Chaldee, was more than double that long period. 

In more recent times the Talmudic writers formed some of their 
infinitives in aleph, some in he and others in either jod or van. 

Now it is remarkable, that in Swedish the termination is a, in Danish 
«, and both in Slavonic and in Welch u, but this ii is pronounced as i. 
It is likewise worthy of our notice, that both the Hebrew and Chaldee 
make use of vowel points. 

The pronouns are i«JX, nx, «in; l]t«, ]^rMi, \Mn ego, tu, ille vel 
ipse, &c. "^ mens, 1 tuus, H ejus, •, noster, V^ vesler, PH eorum. 



A M A B I C» 



>SUCH is the affinity between Hebrew and Arabic, that without the 
assistance of the latter, we should not, in numerous instances, be able 
to ascertain the radical meaning of the former. Indeed no oriental 
scholar ever doubted respecting their original identity. 

We are informed that Ishmael, the son of Abraham by Hagar, being 
banished to the Wilderness of Paran, took to wife an Egyptian, and 
became the father of twelve princes. It does not appear, that he was 
the founder of all the Arab nations ; but it is acknowledged, that the 
principal hordes of the wandering Arabs descended in part from him, 
and in part from Joktan, the son of Eber. No wonder then, that 
Hebrew and Arabic should agree like dialects of one language. 

The Arabs from the beginning have been insulated; and, although 
their sword has been against every man, and every man's sword against 
them, they have never been subdued. As their country is divided into 
petty sovereignties, we must not wonder, that they should abound with 
dialects, and that in process of time these should differ to such a degree 
as Niebuhr assures us they now do. Troni him we learn, that even at 



416 

Mecca tlie Arabic of the Koran is taught in colleges, precisely as Latiu 
is at Rome. Yet though the difference between the ancient lancuase 
and the modern is so great, they agree as dialects, like Latin and 
Italian, which are radically one. Tliese dialects now indeed differ widely 
from each other; but in the days of Mahomet they must have approx- 
imated, and the Koran remains as the standard, by which we are to 
determine what was the language of his day. 

This language and Hebrew essentially agree, not merely in words, but 
in grammar, which is more than we can say of English and its legitimate 
parents, the Anglo-Saxon, German and Danish. In Arabic, the nouns 
are declined and the verbs are conjugated, precisely as in Hebrew. 
The grammatical construction is the same, and they make the same use 
of vowel points. 

The pronouns agree with those of the Hebrew, and are ''Ji^, fi3S, STU; 
Tin 3, Dr\K, on I, thou, he, Sec. but the Arabic characters are com- 
paratively modern. 

In their verbs they perfectly agree. These usually consist of three 
radical letters. They have but one conjugation. The various persons 
are distinguished by suffixing to each the last syllable of its pronoun. 
They have the same number of moods, the indicative, the imperative, 
and the infinitive. Their tenses are the pra5terite, the future, and the 
participles. 

They require only to be compared, in order to manifest their radical 
identity. 



S Y R I A C. 



X HE Syriac differs little from the Chaldee. They have both the same 
alphabet with Hebrew, and in all these languages, like as in Arabic, 
aleph is the most gentle breathing. This letter in the beginning of words 
either forms the first person singular of the future tense, as in 3r(DX 
scribam, or nouns substantive, as in i^3i\^ digitus. The Syriac, 
Chaldee and Arabic, all agree in substituting aleph for the servile he in 
the beginning of hi phil and of hithpael, as for instance, 7T3K for 7"'T2n 
and '^Tnnbi for "jf^nn of the Hebrew. Aleph is likewise substituted 
for the emphatic lie, and is placed, both by the Chaldee and Syriac, 
not at the beginning, but at the end of words. Thus "l^DH of Hebrew 
becomes iO/D of Chaldee, Syriac and Arabic. So likewise for the 
feminine gender n2 7Q regina in these kindred languages becomes i<37D. 

This conformity alone would be sufficient to demonstrate the close 
affinity, which subsists between Hebrew, Chaldee, Arabic and Syriac. 

The pronouns in Syriac are ^3i^, ^3J<, IH; pn, pr\:»^, p:«, ego, tu, 
ipse, &c. Vh^i^ iin. 

VOL. II. 3 N 



418 



Syriac forms its adjectives in aleph for the feminine, as 3D bonus, 
J^2£3 bona, ^i!^'2'\ quartus, H^H^^l quarta. 

I shall here subjoin a few words, which will still more clearly evince 
the affinity subsisting between Syriac, Chaldee, Hebrew and Arabic. 



3K pater, S. C. H. A. 

12ii periit, ditto 

hia doluit, S. C. H. 

P»* H. C. iJ1« Syr. 

1JJ«pactusest,S.C.H.A. 

r^^ habitatio, S. C. 

n::'K femina, H. 

i^rii^ C. 

^n:^ A. 

i^n:^ S. C. 

i^ni^ signum, S. n.S C. 

m.s H. 

I« tunc, H. n« C. A. 

p-r^TSyr. 

■JTX abiit, S. C. H. A. 

D^3t« aures, H. 

P3"r«S. C. A. 

"inK unus, H. 

x"Tn s. C. A. 

n« fratcr, H. C. 



x^^i A. 

pni^ cognatus, S. C. 

»S'nx consuit, C. 

fni< cepit, H. 
fnx C. potitus est 

1'ns* S. potens 
"tHK tardavit, H. A. 

Iinx poster!, C. 

nnnt* posteritas, H. 

nTli^ ultimus, A. 

i^TTin posteritas, S. 

i:0S* carduus, H. C. 

to:D« s. 

n3\S odium, H. 

N*3S* S. 

^''X quomodo, S.C.H. 

'7Dii comedit, S.C.H.A. 

1Di5 agricola, S. H. 

D'^")3S agricolae, IT. 



p:3i« S. C. 
mxD.s A. 

n"?*^ ululavit 

J«'7«, S. C. 

D^'^'7^« Deus, H. 

l^•^'?^^, C. S. 
nnha a. 

mnX7J< divinitas, A. 

n"in'7x s. 

;^'7N* costa, S. 

i^"?;^, C. 

<y'7V H. 
{V^ studuit, docuit,i 

r s. c. H. ^ 

^l'?^ du.x, H. 

SC»^ cubitus, C.S. 

(i^^ stabilis, verax, 

I H. C. S. I 

ID.^ dixit, H.C.A. 

-)7J5<ns* dictus fuit, S. 



^JKego, J«2N* C. S. A. 

n3t5 gemuit, H. 

mnii C. mnns* s. 

Ctl'iX doluit, [I.liomo,j 

C C. s. i 

dx:n* a. 

"IDK pulvinar, S. C. 
HDK sanavit, S. C. H. 



419 

"lDi< ligavit, S. C. H. A. 
(121K, rota, H. ]2«'7^ 
C circa, S. ) 

;;3VNdigitus,S.C. H.A. 
rHpK caprea, C. H.) 
( NT\^ S. ) 

1"!^^ longus fuit, S. C. H. 
ni^&^ni'obviavi^C.S. 



'^'i^ ignis, II. i^^'« C. 

am'i^ febris, S. 
"^^ii cffudit, S. C. If. 

r^nii ivit, H. i<nK s. C. 
■ins* locus, C. S. 



Tt must be here remarked that I have confined my vocabulary to the 
letter aleph, which alone is amply sufficient for the illustration of my 
subject. But I must likewise add, that numerous expressions are found 
in some of these languages, which have not been preserved in others. 
Did we possess a greater number of authors, we might be able more 
fully to demonstrate the perfect agreement, which subsists between 
them. Sufficient, however, has been here produced to prove, that 
Hebrew, Chaldee, Arabic and Syriae, are merely dialects of one 
language. 



5 N § 



ETHIOFIC. 



J- HE treasure, which the philologist possesses in the Hebrew and 
Chaldee Scriptures, is inestimable; yet great as it may be, he laments 
that it is not equal to his wants and to his wishes. In his lexicon 
he seeks in vain for the roots of numerous words, of whose specific 
meaning he is obliged to guess. Some few of these he finds in Syriac, 
and more in Arabic, but the greatest number are said to be con- 
tained in the Ethiopic. 

With this language I have no acquaintance, but I give full credit 
to Ludolf and to Bruce, wheu they assure us, that it has a close 
affinity to Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic, and that the roots of many 
Hebrew words are only to be found it. Sir William Jones delivered 
his opinion to the same effect, and considered all these languages as 
dialects of one primeval language. Hence he deduced, that each of 
these must throw light upon the rest. 

Ludolf m his Ethiopic history has illustrated this affinity by two 
examples. 



4;i 

In Hebrew we have tlD"TI^ (Adamah) the earth, Admah the name 
of a city in that beautiful valley, resembling Paradise, " the 
warden of the Lord," which Lot chose for his residence, when 
with his flocks and with his herds he separated himself from Abraham 
his venerable uncle; and Adam was the name given by the Almighty 
to our first parents, when created in his image. 

These names have commonly been referred to a root in Hebrew, 
which means red, but this epithet docs not seem so appropriate to 
a Being of superior excellence as beautiful, Avhich corresponds to 
the same root in Ethiopic. It is worthy of remark, that y.o(T[uog, the 
Greek expression answering to Adamah is derived from y.ou\t.i(a^ I adorn, 
and in Latin mundus, like munditia, means, not merely cleanliness, but 
ornament and elegance. 

The second example is T)^i)^ (Alja) which is translated rump, 
but in Ethiopia means the tail of a particular breed of sheep, pe- 
culiar to Africa and the East, which is loaded to such a degree 
with fat as to require a little cart for its support, whilst 3 3? 
(zenab) is the term applied to the tail of other sheep. 



COPTIC, 



A O Mr. W. Drummond of Edinburgh we are indebted for an account 
of Coptic and the ancient language of Egypt. 

The alphabet appears to be nearly similar to the Greek both in form 
and power. Mr. Drummond delivers it as his opinion, that Coptic is 
radically allied to Hebrew, Chaldee, Arabic and Ethiopic, and that it 
has been corrupted by the Persians, Greeks and Romans. This inge- 
nious writer refers us to Woide's Lexicon, a work which I have never yet 
had the happiness of seeing. 

Mr. Drummond has produced seventy examples of Ethiopic which 
have strict affinity with Hebrew, and express either articles of the first 
necessity or the most common actions of savage life; and he assures us, 
that the names of the Egyptian deities can be better explained in 
Hebrew than by the modern Coptic. 



T U M K I B H» 



I HAVE not paid the same attention to Turkish as I have done to 
other languages; but I have examined it sufficiently to see, that it is 
exceedingly corrupt ; and they who are best informed, assure us, that it 
contains ten Arabic or Persian words for one originally Scythian. Indeed 
it was not to be expected that wandering hordes, without an alphabet, 
or written records, should have preserved the language of their ancestors. 
The same want of written records has been noticed by Sir William Jones 
in all the Tartar nations. 

Of the Chinese I shall not speak at present; but should my life be 
spared, I shall hope to pubhsh such an History of China, as will point 
out the origin and peculiar nature of their language. In the mean time, 
the Rev. Mr. Carey, and the laborious missionaries who are connected 
with him, will, I doubt not, give us a satisfactory account of the written 
language of this wonderful people. 

By the view I have taken of the languages of Europe, Asia and 
Africa, I trust it is rendered probable, that in the period subsequent to 
the deluge, and prior to the dispersion of mankind, the whole earth was 
of one language. This precisely is the declaration of Moses, and in this 
assertion, his veracity as an historian sta'nds unimpeached. 



TOWER OF BABEL 

AND CONFUSION OF TONGUES. 



(Subsequent to the deluge, and prior to the dispersion of mankind, 
the first event recorded by Moses, which calls for particular attention, is 
the building of a Tower in the Plain of Shinar. 

As to the use for which this magnificent structure was designed, 
divines are not agreed, and in the record there is scarcely a word, which 
has not been a subject of discussion and discordance of opinion, both 
among the Christians and the Jews. 

The existence of this towei* is sufficiently established by ancient 
authors, by Eusebius, by Josephus, and by Herodotus. The latter 
gives the dimensions of the temple, and a particular description of it's 
towers. These were eight in number, diminishing in size, and rising one 
above the other. In the eighth, that is on the summit, was the temple 
sacred to ]3elus or Baal, as the sovereign of the universe. 

Diodorus says, that this temple having fallen to decay, he could give 
no (terrain information respecting it, but that it was of great all^tude. 

The account which we have in the book of Genesis has occasioned 
much perplexity to tiie most learned. 



425 

It is stated in the record, that the ark rested upon Mount Ararat, that 
the whole earth was of one language and of one speech, and that as they 
journied iTom the east, or, as it is in the margin, to the east, they found 
a plai?i, perhaps more properly a vallei/, (for i^p3 means dissecuitj, in 
which they built their Tower. 

On this expression Dip fl^, it may be observed, that if they went first 
from Ararat into Assyria, they might have arrived at Babylon from the 
east; but if they came from Canaan, they journied towards the east. 
The Arabic very frequently uses the preposition ^ and l^S for in, into. 
Here then is the first ambiguity. 

But DTpJ2 may with equal propriety be translated, from the beginning. 
This appears by Hab. ch. i. v. 12. Should it be so translated, we must 
understand it thus. This migration was the most ancient. Again, it 
has been suggested that 0"Tp may be a proper name. Certain it is that 
Kedemah is mentioned by Mcses as one of the sons of Ishmael; but it 
does not follow from hence that, in the passage before us, dp was the 
name either of a district or of a city. 

It has been conceived, but without sufficient evidence, that the 
languages now spoken, that is French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, 
Latin, Welch, Galic, English, Dutch, German, Danish, Norwegian, 
Swedish, Slavonian, Persian, Sanscrit, Greek, &c. &c. originated at one 
time, and were produced by God himself, for the purpose of dis- 
comfiting the impious projects of a degenerate race, and preventing the 
construction of a tower whose top might reach to Heaven. 

That the common opinion is erroneous, may be inferred from hence, 
that they began their edifice in a valley, and not upon the mountain top. 

VOL. II. 3 o 



426 

Had they chosen Ararat, and not the plain of Shinar, as the site of their 
nefarious building, such an opinion might have had some little semblance 
of truth; but we cannot readily believe, that any of the human race 
were so destitute of understanding as to imagine, that ihey could ascend 
to the throne of the Most High. When the giants of fable were said to 
have heaped Petion upon Ossa in their rebellion against the gods, such 
fictions were well suited to the inflamed imagination of the poet, but 
would be unworthy the pen of an historian. It is therefore difficult to 
conceive what notion we should affix to the term (D^'C::') shamaim, the 
heavens. For were nothing more intended than to construct an elevated 
beacon, which might be discovered at a distance from their habitations; 
they surely would not have built their tower in a valley. 

In our translation we read " let us build a tower whose top may reach 
to heaven." But in the original it is simply said, " whose top to the 
heavens," leaving us equally at liberty to say, " whose top may be 
sacred to the heavens." We know that idolatry commenced with the 
worship of the heavenly host, the" sun, the moon, the stars, and it is 
probable that the first altars of the idolaters were pyramids, like this 
tower, as described by Herodotus. 

As to the declared purpose of this structure " let us make to ourselves 
a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth," 
the learned are at a loss to understand it. 

Had it been written " let us make to ourselves a beacon, lest we be 
dispersed," we could have understood their purpose: but how making to 
themselves a name, could prevent their dispersion, we cannot%fipnceive. 
All that is clear is, that the Almighty " confounded their language, that 



427 

they might not understand one another's speech." But in whitt manner, 
to what extent, and for what duration this confusion lasted, we are not 
informed. 

Some divines, equally distinguished for learning and for piety, have 
conjectured, that the confusion produced at the tower of Babel, was' a 
confusion with respect to worship, creating such disputes as terminated 
in the dispersion of the builders. 

That the common opinion respecting the confusion of tongues, and 
the innumerable languages, now spoken upon the surface of the earth, 
as all originating in Babel, is erroneous, must be evident to every one, 
who is able to trace French, Spanish, Portuguese and Italian, however 
now discordant, back to Latin; the Celtic, German and Gothic 
languages to Greek, and all these back to Arabic, Chaldee and Hebrew. 

I have stated the difficulties, which occur to the learned, in their 
interpretations of the record, and their various opinions as to its meaning 
and extent; but in these I do not feel myself immediately interested. 
All I have undertaken to demonstrate is, that subsequent to the deluge 
the whole earth was of one language, and that a radical affinity may be 
traced in all the languages, with which we are acquainted. This, I 
trust, has been performed to the satisfaction of the learned; and, if so, 
they will readily agree, that the veracity of Moses in this instance is 
established, and rests upon a firm foundation. 



So2 



428 



DISPERSION OF MANKIND. 

MOSES having related the destruction of the antediluvian world, and 
the preservation of the human race in the person and family of Noah, 
next proceeds to trace their progeny in their dispersion and their distant 
settlements. From all that we have seen we may safely venture to con- 
clude, that their dispersion was the cause, and not the consequence of 
that diversity of languages, which have prevailed in the world. The 
misunderstanding, discord and confusion, with which the builders were 
visited at Babel, was the cause of their abandoning their impious enter- 
prize; but the most effectual cause of the dispersion of mankind over 
the surface of the earth has invariably been, and ever will be, want of 
food. Such was the cause of separation between Abraham and Lot, 
when " the land was not able to bear them, that they might dwell 
together. For Abraham said unto Lot, let there be no strife I pray thee, 
between me and thee, and between my herdsmen and thy herdsmen. 
Is not the whole land before thee? separate thyself, I pray thee from 
me." 

From the most remote antiquity, historians have recorded the migra- 
tion of nations in search of food for themselves and of pasture for their 
flocks; and it has been constantly observed, that in proportion to the 
difficulty of communication with the parent stock, their languages have 
varied. 

Moses informs us, that all the nations of the wOrld, however scattered 
and dispersed, are the progeny of the patriarch, and of his sons, who 



4:9 

survived the flood and peopled the renovated earth. He has given us 
the names of their descendants, names which have been preserved in 
profane histor}', and by the colonies, which they estabhshed both in 
Europe and in Asia. These have been traced distinctly by Bochart, who 
in fixing their primitive abode, confirms the veracity of Moses. 

From SiiEM our sacred Iiistorian derives Elam, the father of the 
Elamites, that is of the Persians, the same nation, which in its infancy 
had Chedorlaomer for its kins;. 

From the same patriarch, according to the Mosaic account, descended 
Ashur, the acknowledged father of the Assyrians, Eber, the Father of 
the Hebrews, and Aram of the Syrians, who, by Hesiod and Homer, are 
called apiit^i. 

From Ham he derived the Cushites, who settled in Arabia, and 
Nimrod, who, it is agreed, remained in Shinar, where he made Babel 
the seat of his dominion. Miu;raim, the second son of Ham, was the 
father of the Ethiopians, now called Abyssinians, and of the Egyptians, 
whose country is peculiarly styled the land of Ham. From Canaan, the 
fourth son of Ham, Moses distinctly traced elevea families, of which 
one was Sidon, the father of the Sidonians. 

Japhet is stated to have been the father of Gomer, Magog, Madai 
and Javan. Gomer settled north west of Media; Magog and his 
descendants occupied Russia, Moscow, and the extensive deserts, over 
which the Scythians wandered with their tents, with their flocks and 
with their herds. From Madai the Medes derive their origin. Javan, 
wko may^g^th equal propriety be called Jon, was the progenitor of the 
lonians, of Elisha, from whom we derive Elis, Hellas or ^olia, of 



430 

Tarshish or Tarsus, and of Kittim, the founder of th(! Macedonian 
empire. 

From a careful investisjation of tiie dispersed families, it is evident, 
that they originally confined themseiv-es within contracted limits; but 
that succeeding generations, in proportion to their increasing families 
and flocks, passed beyond those limits, invaded the territory of sur- 
rounding nations, and by new conquests extended the bounds of their 
dominion. This view of the progressive increase of empires, is sufficient 
to satisfy every candid mind, that Moses, as an historian, is throughout 
the whole of his narrative perfectly consistent^ with himself, and with the 
descriptions of the best profane historians. In the infancy of states, we 
see five kings occupying one little territory, each inhabiting his own 
metropolis; these are Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Bela, and Zeboiim. 
We see these petty sovereigns, for twelve years, subject to Chedorlaomer, 
the king of Elam; then rebelling against him. We see this king, with 
the assistance of his allies, making war upon the five kings, and putting 
them to flight. What was the number of the confederate and victorious 
army, we are not informed ; but we behold it smitten and pursued by 
three hundred and eighteen armed servants of the patriarch Abraham. 

About four hundred and thirty years after this event, we see one branch 
of Abraham's family leaving Egypt, to the number of more than six 
hundred thousand fighting men, and making conquests throughout the 
whole extent of Canaan. How perfectly consistent is the narrative of 
these events to the slate and condition of mankind ! 



431 



THE CALL OF ABRAHAM. 

WHEN the nations of tlie earth apostatizing from tlie Avorship of 
Jehovaii, became idolaters, worshipped the host of heaven, and offered 
sacrifice to devils; it pleased the Almighty, as we are informed by 
Moses, to separate for himself one famii}', which, by restoring and pre- 
serving pure religion, might stem the torrent of corruption, and become 
a blessing to all succeeding generations. With this merciful intention, 
God entered into special covenant with Abraham, commanded him to 
break off all intercourse with idolaters, and, for tliis purpose, to depart 
from his country, his kindred, ari*d his father's house. 

On his part, the Almighty most graciously promised, " I will make of 
thee a great nation, I will bless thee; I will make thy name great, and 
thou shalt be a blessing. I will bless them that bless thee, and curse 
him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all the families of the earth be 
blessed." 

Having made this covenant, it was ratified by a seal, and it became 
a law, that every male proceeding from the loins of Abraham should be 
circumcised. That this rite was typical, and representative is clear, 
because "^ the law had the shadow of good things to come, and not the- 
substance." It betokened an engagement on the part of Abraham, that 
he and his offspring should be distinguished from all other nations as 
servants of the living God; and a promise on the part of the Lord his 
God, " I will circumcise thine heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love 
the Lord thy God with all thine heart and with all thy soul; that thou 



432 

mayest live." Circumcision to the Jews was a sacramental seal, an out- 
ward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace, ordained by 
God himself, given to his people, as a means whereby they might receive 
the same, and a pledge to assure them thereof. If stiff-necked and 
rebellious, they would demonstrate, that they were uncircumcised in 
heart, because " he is not a Jew which is one outwardly, neither is that 
circumcision which is outward in the flesh; but he is a Jew, which is 
one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart." 

We Jinow that some other nations, not descended from Abrttham, 
practised circumcision; but this must have been by imitation, for it was 
never dictated by nature, and could have no other origin, but that 
which Moses has assigned to it, because we may safely venture to 
affirm, that there never was a time, when either the nation of the Jews, 
or the scattered tribes of Israel, could have been prevailed upon to adopt 
a perfectly novel practice, as derived by uninterrupted tradition from 
their ancestors, and whose institution is, described in the sacred Code and 
earliest records of their ancestors. 

Every thing we meet with in prophane historians tends to confirm the 
representation given by Moses of the darkness which covered the earth 
before the call of Abraham, and which subsequently prevailed in all 
the nations, which surrounded Judsea, whilst the Israelites had light in 
their tents. 

Compared with the offspring of Abraham, how low in the estimate of 
reason, do all the most admired nations of the earth appear! Look at 
the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, abandoned to cruel superstition, 
enslaved by the most execrable vices, and devoted to the most contempt- 



433 

ible idolatry; whilst pure religion, with the rational service of the true 
God, is maintained by one little nation, descended from the patriarch; 
for " truly in Jewrey is God known, his name is great in Israel." 

Here then we have a further confirmation of the veracity of our his- 
torian. 



PASTORAL STATE. 

THE pastoral state, patriarchal government, and primitive simplicity 
of manners, described by Moses, as existing subsequent to the deluge 
and the call of Abraham, perfectly agree with the beautiful pictures of 
the poets and descriptions of the best historians. 

The wealth of Abraham and of Lot consisted in their flocks and in 
their herds, which wandered freely, wherever pasture was to be found. 
The venerable patriarch performed at once the double office of priest 
and king; he offered sacrifice, and he led his servants forth to battle. 
We behold this monarch exercising hospitality towards strangers, who 
pass near to his habitation. He runs from his tent door to meet them, 
bows himself towards the earth, invites them to enter, runs to the herd, 
fetches a calf, and delivers it to a young man, who hastens to dress it, 
whilst Sarah makes cakes upon the hearth. 

What beautiful simplicity! How well does this accord with a narrative 
to be met with in Herodotus. He informs us, that a fisherman, having 
caught a fish of an extraordinary size, presented it to Polycrates, who 

VOL. II. 3 p 



434 

said to the fisherman, " Come thou and sup with me." This invitation 
was accepted, and the fisherman partook of the fish with his ro}'al host. 

By this narrative it appears, that in the primitive ages described by 
Moses, the subjects approached their sovereign as a father, and that he^ 
on his part, received them as his chihlren. 

Not so, when the Roman fisherman presented a turbot of eiif)rnious 
size to the Roman emperor; for he, far from receiving it as a free-will 
offering, regarded it as a tribute due to his supreme authority, and at 
midnight assembled the trembling senate, to consult what could be done 
to procure a vessel large enougii to contain this extraordinary fish. 
What a contrast of manners liave we here! How little does this resemble 
primitive simplicity! 

Such is the information to be derived from the descriptions of our best 
historians; and not inferior to their's, is that to be obtained in the works 
of our most venerable poets. 

Homer has recorded an example of primitive simplicity, in a princess 
going with her maidens to the river, to superintend the washing of her 
clothes; an operation performed in a manner precisely as now practised 
in the rivers of North Britain. 

In all respects, the Jewish historian conforms to truth, and gives a 
faithful description of men, of manners, and of events. 

It is related by him, that the Ishmaelite merchants, who carried on 
trade with Egypt, occasionally dealt in slaves. This account agrees with 
the practice of modern times, as we learn from Bruce, and from other 
travellers. 



43o 

rOPULATlON. 

ANOTHER event recorded by Moses, is flic vast increase of the 
Israelites in E^^ypt. In modern Europe no snch increase c.'in take place. 
To double their numbers, some nations have required centuries, I>ut, 
accordinfT to JVloses, the Israelites in the land of Egypt doubled their 
numbers every fifteen years. Without the assistance of political arith- 
metic, this increase would appear to be miraculous; but it is not stated 
to have been so. With this assistance, considering the extreme fertility 
of Egypt, and more especially of Goshen, it should not be deemed im- 
probable. For it is now well understood, that in a healthy climate, with 
a sufficiency of food, the tendency of the human race is to double its 
numbers in the same periods in which the children of Israel doubled 
theirs. Such has been the increase in the back settlements of North 
America. 

THE DELIVERANCE OF ISRAEL FROM EGYPT. 

THE most important event recorded by Moses remains yet to be 
particularly noticed, which is the deliverance of the Israelites from 
the galling yoke of Pharaoh, king of Egypt. 

Of this, irrefragable evidence appears in the institution of the 
Passover. 

During a time of famine, Jacob Avent down into Egypt with his 
family. Here, under the protection of Joseph, his posterity increased 
and multiplied: but after the death of Joseph there arose a king, 



436 

who was unmindful of the benefits, he had conferred upon the na- 
tion by his wisdom and fidelity. 

This monarch became jealous of the Israelites, and his fears pro- 
duced a destructive persecution. But when the appointed time was 
come for the deliverance of Israel, Moses was sent to shew signs in 
Egypt and wonders in the land of Ham. The greatest of these was 
the destruction in one night of all the first-born of the Egyptians, 
both of man and beast. 

To keep up a perpetual remembrance of this marvellous event, 
which immediately preceded the departure of Israel from Egypt and 
their passage through the Red Sea, the Passover was instituted, Of 
this event we want no other proof, than the institution itself, which 
took place at the time of that deliverance, together with the constant 
celebration of this solemn festival from its first institution to the 
present time, attended by the record which has been constantly preserved 
in all the countries through which the several tribes have either wandered, 
or been scattered by their enemies. For had not the festivalbeen insti- 
tuted at the recorded time, there never was a time when an impostor 
could on its introduction have persuaded the Jews in every part of the 
world, that they and their fathers had constantly observed this festival in 
commemoration of the deliverance of their ancestors from Egyptian 
bondage. 

The character of Moses, therefore, as an historian, stands firm and 
unimpeached. 

FINIS. 



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