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U Vm AdO, -i- ClA/U tr\.xA ( -*^ .U «A.v ,i<? 

60004661 SV 







Universal Etymological Dictionary. 




Universal Etymological Dictionary^ 





English, Gothic, Saxon, German, Danish, S(c. SCc. Greek, Latin, — French, 

Italian, Spanish, — Galic, Irish, Welsh, Bretagne, STr. 

The Dialects of the Sclavonic; 


Hebrew, Arabic, Persian, Satiscrit, Gipsey, Coptic, S(c. &V. 




Printed by Francis Hodson, for the Author; and sold by J. Deighton: 

Sold also by G. G. and J. Robinson, T. Payne, W. H. Lunn, London; and 

J. Cooke, Oxford. 


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-? RE FA C E. 

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IN tfatifi^ (lie origin and the pro^esst.of I^m^n uiyeqtiops^ we 
' exhitiit 'thef history Aof . Mind and ifee i achifeViem^nts of . Reaso^ 
Amieist'ttie leisure ^6ffcuitlTated;;life,':Man is delighted to turn his ^y(;^% 
upon himself — to contemplate the energies of his own nature — to ap? 
preciate the blessings which he .ehjoysn-ind tO: ex^n^ine the various 
causes, which* • have '-»€^enUfidjiiri; die .AoKingall the in- 

ventions, by which he has been advanced. , in tlie spjdp of being above 
the atniitials'kround hifiv, it has «rpr been acknowledged^ that; th^ faculty 
of "Speech IS the mo$t importantf and tiijrtinguished* It may we|l tl]cre^ 
fore be imagtnied,: tlvat in ever^r: period of liearnipg aind e;?fjairy^ i thie 
ardour of eu^iosky would 4)^ sii^gulariy excited to trace and tQi^sceitain thiQ 
myitferioiis' Winkings of that woindrous .process, by . which J^nguage$ have 
f>een formed and pnopagatedamQOg.the inhabitalntis of the EaFth«[. We behold 
the most extensive atid complicated artifice, which the powers of reasop 
were • ef€r ^ en^ployed'ifi devising, prompted, as it should ^eni« without 
Jd^ksoightv and'CompjieaKed without contrivance* Tl)^ exertjk>ns o^ a qqx^ 
trouling principle, conducting to. tlie.same end, ariQ, /or py^r yisibli^.; 
though the artist is unconscious of his design and ignoran)t of his. art. Jx 
is by these efforts of unmeditating dcill, that the system oCjLanguage) 1)^^ 
been generated, and preserved, uniform in all its parts, and defined in all 
lis projportions. To discover the ** strong connexions and the* nice depen- 
V dencies'" of the various links,, which compose this great chain of causes 
and etfects, has i>een the theme of perpetoal- research;. yet: if tne specula- 
tions of the present Vohinie should be fonnded^n truth, it -will be a*- 
knowledged, I trust, that in no enqu^ryi h^ye the. faciiltiei§ .pf M^n^jbeen 
more vainly or unprofitably employed. The pretensions of the writer 

* and 


and the 4>rinciples of his Theory will be unfolded in the succeeding 
pages, which are destined for the Introduction to his work; but from 
the examples alone, by which the system is illustrated, must the reader 
be finally enabled to degidp oh thfc nature Iff th^e principles, and tlie ei^tent 
of their operation.* 

I may be doomed perhaps to encounter the smile or the frown of 
faStidqoiis levity, when an the cQursq of tliese discussions, I shall gravely 
appeal 'to the 'authority of the Gip^ey ^ jjJUw^wa^'e, , which jye,: have ey^r 
been accustomed to regard as the idle jargon rof'b. forlorn' and abandoned 

" So* witherM and so wild in their attire, 

'* Thalf look not like the iinhabitaintso' the Earth^: ; ./ .i 

■■•'• • ■' " And-yet.1t«"on't." ■ t >'. ..<'■■.. [^ .".,.• /,i ,•:;.,;;; 
T^he Oipsey Language,' a& it is iio\V spokenv may.prbbably be considered 
ii the * most anciient forni of Speech, which i? al present j extant in the 
Vrdrldl. Tli'e causes, 'by which the/mutatLon ofiiotb^fc languages has; bpen 
effected; hlivc riot extended their in%ieiicf}(b> the fate jand; fo^t^nf^ i>f ih^ 
Wahd€riV!g;(5lpsle«; and wilh thcip onlijhi ds prcstrvied ^ a :f9!iithfuLfi^4?f>rd of 
PniTKfeval' Spoi^SlK ' It has-been imaguied, .tha(y Jth^iGip^ey ^J^gW^S? .i?, ? 
diiflect 6f the Sanscrit; and I regard it as the. idjiportant link, by Nvhich thi^ 
iSiftwcrit ie'cormifet^d-Wiriilhc' Coptic or.jthe^iyEgyptiiin. The, reader; will 
"fiVid ifi asucfce^ding i>ttge (4?e) a s^jecmiten* of .tile <3jpsey nUmeraU^vantJ 
Jhe win tliere discover a-eimilartty-tathKi Greek . Langyagfo .vvfeicb will ^t 
once justly excite his« wonder aqd ius curiosity*, WitJi, the -Egyptian origin 
•^i" the. Greek Lfeng^^iage, aridM-ith thi affinity of! (the jG reek tp 'tlie;;Latin, 

*.Thc.rtfadei;,urin £d4 explained^ Introduction, why I have chosen .to commence tfils work; 

wkh the Radical C£ : yet whatever reason i might have for this preference, he will instantlyi see, 
'ihat the Aipfi^ilAlotdirVctnii '^ertaintjr Wi/ f^ adi/pted in k wWkV^hltH 'profbsseitb imfoM a 
'idikB ftf \vD#dl ciiiriMtcd -with cw*)' other by^^he same ti^n of idda(B,. - .Tjbat .9J-dcr,,wc knpw-^. jj 
^ Jelled only for the pti^o$q o^.d^scx}y,^ing the sppc, is which the sisijfifatjon of the word is detailed. 

Thi« purpo&e VI Index will perform,; and I am of opinion, that even in the Vocabulary of the School 

Boy the Alphabetical ordtr ought ndt tiWiddptcii. * '* ^' • " -'* « .' "' . Vi ./ 

• ■ . . • ... 



wc are perfectly acquainted; and it will afford us a new source of 
meditation, when we learn that the Gipsies — tlie JEgyptians or the Copts, 
are in their own language called Romans or Romani. Thus it is, that 
tlie great revolutions of mankind may have been originally effected by this 
despised and rejected race. It will perhaps be discovered by some future 
enquirer, that from a hord of vagrant Gipsies once issued that band of 
sturdy Robbers — the companions of Romulus and of Remus; who laid 
the foundations of the Eternal City on the banks of the Tyber. The 
Eastern Scholars ha^e been strongly impressed with the marvellous re- 
semblance, which exists between the Latin and the Sanscrit; and I am 
myself enabled familiarly to illustrate the Laws of the Twelve Tables by 
the Dialect of the Gipsies. — In our own age a language has been lost : It 
shall be my province to record and preserve another. I have already 
advancod far in the prosecution of this design ; and the Grammar of the 
Gipsey Language I consider as a prelude to my enquiries into the mysteries 
of Sanscrit Literature^ which will aflford me a future theme of ample and 
important discussion. 

I now finally commit this work to the candour and curiosity of the 
Public. I have laboured with infinite solicitude, that it may be at last 
presented to their attention with all the advantages, which care and dili- 
gence could confer. I expect and I desire a free and full trial of my 
pretensions, at once just and severe. I look forward with anxious but with 
humble confidence to the decision of my fate; and I consider, that the 
rewards of Learning are to be sought in the triumphs of Truth. 


Cambridge, JwieSth, 1800. 

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THE writer, who assumes tlie province of unfolding a new train of 
ideas, will find various and important difficulties to encounter in 
tlie prosecution of his design. It has been perpetually observed, that 
our minds receive with suspicion and reluctance any new modes of 
investigating a subject, with whicli we were before familiar, and of which, 
as we might imagine, the genuine principles had been already discovered, 
discussed ^nd established. Even the simplicity of a doctrine may serve 
tO; increase the difficulties of the task; as we are unwilling to be per- 
suaded, that an idea so obvious and natural could have eluded the ordinary 
exertions of our own sagacity. The writer will likewise feel considerable 
embarrassment in adjusting the due form, which is most adapted to im- 
press the reader with the force of his Theory. To diffuse what is plain 
and simple would be to labour jn the cause of obscurity; yet the novelty 
of the subject may perhaps demand a more detailed and ample discussion, 
tliough the principle itself should be obvious and perspicuous. As the 
autlior will probably explain witli more effect, when Jic unfolds the 
genuine feelings of his own mind, I shall endeavour to lead the under- 
Standing of the reader through the same train of ideas, which originally 
conducted me to the adoption of my Theory. The' offensive Pronoun, 
which accompanies the . narrative^ may perhaps be pardoned, when the 
purpose, for which it is <i^iployed, shall be candidly considered. The 
detaU will be, simple — without dU^uise and without ornament. 

• ' t ' * ' ' -' •..•.4 

a I had 


I had ever lamented, as otliers likewise have perpetually 
done, thr imperfecfton ^ that art, which profescs to unfold the 
ori^^in of words; and I had long been convinced, that nothing could 
be effectually pertbrmed in the advancement of this subject, till a new 
arrangement was adopted totally di-^imilar to the former. In devising 
this nr.L arrangement, I instantly percci\"ed that the artifice to be em- 
ployed (whatever it might be) would not consi-t in discovering a nas 
principle, which in a subject like tliis has no meaning; but in applying 
to ncu: purposes and in a nezv manner, a principle derived from a knoun 
— ascertained and aehwuled^ed fact, which was visible on every occa- 
sion. Nay, it was on this ver\* circumstance alone — of applying a fact 
so well knoicn and actnouiedged, that my hopes of succeeding in a new- 
system were founded. The reasoning on tliis occasion was short and 
conclusive. From a fact tlius palpable — ^familiar and imiversaUy operating, 
1 inferred the uhiformit)' of a principle; and I bad learned finom the 
Academic studies of my boyish days,* (which arc ^11 deeply impressed 
upon my mind) thai to Uniformity belonged Lares; and that JLaws sup- 
plied a Theory and a System. 1 cannot be supposed to mean, that 

• • - • 

the Laws, which I might conceive to operate on this occasion, would 
1)0 similar to those, which are subject to the investigation of Mathematical 
Symbols; but it is easy to understand, that Laws of some kind t>r other 
would necessarily exist, which might affbrd a train of reasoning equally 
strong and convincing, as that, which is employed in the deductions of Ma- 
thematics. Among the Etymologists, no idea of submitting a race of wx>rd$ to 
a general law had ever been adopted : One word was apposed to be derircd 
from another single word ; nor was there any attempt to discowr an abstract 
or universal principle, to which these \'arious separate instances might be 
referred, and by which tliey might all be connected with each other. TTit 
present state of Et>Tnology I compared with the imperfect art of Arith- 
metic, which is conversant only with particular cases; and 1 imagined, 
that the new mode of generalizing the doctrine of Langiiage, (if any sucli' 



could be adopted) might h^ compart with ithe scmnoo q( Algebra, 
When I refltjct^d on. the recent djswvery pf this simple j^rtifice, by which 
such wonders itrc perfumed, I r^<;eiv^d ^rfsh cQijfi^i^pce^ that the art 
of Etymology might b<?3dvan<:cd by. the application of apripciple equally 
known — plain and familiar; and I wiis taught to consider the discovery 
or adoption of a t^ew system, which Iq thea^ days might be attached tQ 
the art of Etyiinologyj equilly probable and natural, as the invention of 
Algebra, whit^h withinntheee ^iw y-ear$ has bepn added to the art q( 
Arithmetic. Wilhopt enquiring i)ito tl>e Algebraic aitifices adopted by the 
apcieutSj or the icultivatiiw of. this science among thq Arab?, and th^ 
discoveries of Tartalea, Field, Diss Caf^es^ &c. we know that Newton in»- 
vented or ad\:ancedthe Binomial Theorem; and we may wdl imagine tli^ 
state of 4his Bcieiice before tlje ^option of sp important apd eXjtcnsive ^ 
operation. The doctrine of Flu:xiojQS is founded on another artifice at- 
tached to the Algebraical notation; and thus ^almost within thie limits of 
tiie present age harve ajisen:two Sciences, whijoh have bwugiit under oujr 
grasp .the isemotest objects in the system of the XJni-yerse. But th^ 
fiianpiicity of the first principles^ on which Algebra is founded^ aiForde4 
likewise the hope and the prospect, that the adoption of principle 
equally simple, applied to another subject, might produce coflsequcnces 
rqually woxxlerful and extensive. The da^um, pn which Algebra has beep 
established, is simply this, that EfUdls adiled to — suhti'a^tedfrom-^ivide4 
or rmuliiplied hy-^Equah, wre still egual \to each other. On this principle 
idone is the doctrine of Algebra founded: The rest is npthing but \hp 
-adoption of a new and concise language cijipressing this fact; and ip 
-all ihe A^arious changes and tipecations of :the Equation, with which its won- 
•ders are performed, this principle and this o?i/y is applied. The ordinary 
mathematician, who has iConfounded others and himself, by attaching tp 
«the calculations of Algebra the idea of son^iething mysterious or profound, 
will be astonished perhaps to tmderstand, tl^at in the highest exertion of 
Ids. ^KuhiesK^in the most, perpkxing moments »af;hi^ deepest .cogitaupp, 

:/: ' it 


it wa& hi5» duty only to remember and apply this simple principle, and 
that all his involutions— -evolutions — substitutions, Sec. ice. were employed 
for the sole purpose of profiting by tliis single maxim; and of bringing 
bis various operations within the sphere of its action. 

Having seen that in the forming of any system it ^^as necessary 
to adopt a known and acknowledged principle — universally prevailing, 
I began to consider, 1st. ^^hai great^-^gencral fact exisied ; and 2d. Whe- 
ther it could be applied to any purposes in the adoption of a new theory, 
I sought for information in those words, which were most familiarly em- 
ployed ; as it is manifest, that if any uniformity was observed in words so per- 
petually liable to change from frequent use, I had the strongest evidence 
for concluding, that such an uniformity was generally pre\^iling. Father 
in English I perceived to be Feeder in Saxon — Vater in German — Padre 
in Italian and Spanish — Fader in Islandic and Danish — Vader in Belgic 
—Pater in Latin and Pateer (jicUng) in Greek: In other cases of 
the Greek Pateer, wc have Pater and Patr (na7«f-«c — ^najf-«f) and if the 
changes of the word were to be represented, as it is sounded in different 
dialects of the kingdom, it might be written Fecihir — Fauthir, znd in 
various other ways. In Persian, Father is Pader, and in Sanscrit, Peetre, 
as I find it represented by Mr. ^V^lkins in his Notes to the Heetopades, 
(Page 307.) A more striking uniformity, we shall instantly acknowledge, 
cannot well be imagined than that which is exhibited in the preceding 
terms. We here perceive, though the word Father has assumed 
these various forms, that the difference arises only from the change of 
the vowels themselves or of their place; but that xh^ same consonants, or 
those which all Grammarians, at all times, have acknowledged to be cog- 
nate, have still been preserved. In our earliest stages of acquiring know- 
ledge, we learn that '* Inter se cognatae sunt, n, B, *— K, r, x— T, A, e," — 
P, B, F — K, G, CA — ^T, D, T/i ; and that these letters are called cognatie, 
because tliey are changed into each other in the variations of the same 
word. Without embarrassing tiie reader or myself in this place by 




defining the identity of a word, I shall appeal only to the ordhiary c/ / . . 
conceptions, which every one has admitted on this subject. All would CJ . - 
allow, that FathtVj F^dtr^ Fater^ Padre, Fader, Vader, Vater, Pater, 






Pateer, Pater, Pair, Feethir, Fauthir, Peetree, are the same words, or 
different forms of the^ame word. Now as vowels, not the same, or not in 
the same place, are here adopted; the sameness (if I may so express it) 

of the word does not consist in the vowels, or rather, the vowels have 

... ^ 

nothing to do in determining the sameness or identity of a word. We 

observe however, that the same idea is expressed by the same consonants, ^/^ . J ^ 

or by those, which Grammarians have considered as cognate or of the Ua.ftL^^ 

same kind. Now the words Pater and Father, &c, have various senses all 

related to each other,-r-signifying 1st. the affinity of nature; 2d. the 

author or producer of any thing; 3d. the founder of a sect, &c. Thus we 

perceive, that in denominating words to be the same, we mean those 

words, which are represented by consonants of the same kind, impregnated 

with the same train of ideas. 

Here then we obtain at once a species of uniformity, which leads 

us directly 16 the hopes of forming a regular system. EvenJthis instance 

alone would be sufficiently impressive to convince us, that some con- 

trouling principle predominated in Languages, by which they might 

readily be submitted to the Laws of a general Theory. Words, uttered 

by the passing breath, we have ever been accustomed to consider as the 

most fleeting — changeable — inconstant and capricious of all the objects, 

with which Man is conversant: Yet we perceive, that a word most liable 

to change and perversion, has remained invariably the same through 

a period of at least three thousand years; if we consider only the existence 

of this word from the time of Homer, without involving ourselves with 

the remote periods of the Sanscrit Language. This instance, I must again 

repeat, would be alone sufficient to convince us, that uniformity of some 

sort perpetually prevailed ; and the same fact we accordingly land in all 

the instances, which every Etymological writer will afford us, who h^s 

b collected 

.. .1 
- - • .*» 


collected the same words, as they appear in different languages. Thus 
Mother beeoraes in Greek Mceteer (Mtiluf) — in Latin Mater — in Saxon Mo- 
thory Medcr, Medder — in German Muater^ Muoter, Muder — in Spanish 
and Italian Madre — in Danisli Moder — in Dutch Moeter; as I find these 
words represented in Junius and Skinner. In the modern German thfe 
word is written Mutter — in the Persian it is Mader, as Mr. Richardson 
has expressed it — in Sanscrit it is Matree, as it is written by Mr. Wilkins; 
and in Greek it again appears under tlie forms of Mateer (M^Inf, Dorick) 
— Meeter^ Meetr^ (Miil^fof, Miiffo?.) Again, Brother becomes Frater in 
Latin; and I shall add the article in Junius, who produces tlie parallel 
' Words existing in various languages: ** Goth, Brothar. A. S. Brother, Bre- 
** ther, Brothor, Brothur, Al. Bnioder, Bruother, Bruder, Pruaderi 
*' Cym. Braxvd. Cim. Broder. Dan. Broder. B. Broeder. Sclav. Bratr.** 
In the Persian it is Burauder — in the Galic, Brathair — in the Irish, Bratair. 
Our word Brother becomes Brethren; and the Welsh Brawd, which 
Junius has produced, becomes Frodj/r in the plural, as we find it in the 
Welsh translation of * Dearly beloved Brethren.' Again, under I)aughter 
Junius represents tlic parallel terms in other languages after the following 
manner: "Goth. Daiihtar. A. S. Dohter, Dohtor, Dohtur. Al. Dohter, 
«* Tohier, Thohtcr. Cim. Dotter. D. Daatter. B. Dochter;'' and he then 
observes, ** Inter tot diversas scribendi rationes nulla est, quae non aliquod 
" pras se ferat vestigium G. ©u^oluf, Filia." We perceive that all these 
may not only be traced to the Greek Thugater, but we may observe that 
a greater uniformity and resemblance cannot well be conceived. The 
same cognate consonants are preserved; and wc may understand, from 
our word Daughter, how the changes have arrived. In Daughter we 
have a record of the G in Thugier or Thugater; lliough in sound, 
the- G has disappeared, and the word might have been represented by 
Dauhtcr, as in the Gothic Dauhtar, &c. Nothing can be more obvious 
than the cause of these different forms ; which arise, we perceive, from 
the guttural sound of the G becoming faint and obscure. In modern 




: German this word is written Tochter, and in Persian, a Daughter \s Dokht 
and Dokhier, as I find the words represented by Mr. Richardson. I slxaU 
,■> not load my page with an accumulation of unnecessary examples, as the 
reader must be perfectly convinced, that a similar fact will be found to 
exist in every instance, where the same word (as it, is universally called) 
passes through various languages, or appears in different dialects and stages 
of the same language. 

Surely the contemplation of these facts will impress on every mind 
a similar train of ideas; and the reader has already anticipated my reason- 
ing and my conclusion on this subject. He will be struck with the 
deepest astonishment, that facts like these, perpetually passing before the 
eyes of the Etymologist, should never have suggested the principles of a 
Theory and the laws of a System. Among objects liable to the influence 
of chance and change, it is not possible to conceive a species of uniformity 
so full and impressive, as that model of regularity which is here exhibited:. 
The varieties of mutation are bounded by limits of controul, almost in- 
compatible with the vicissitudes of change; and nothing but a fact so 
striking and unequivocal would have persuaded us to believe, that such 
constancy could have existed in a case, where disorder and irregularity 
might be imagined alone to predominate. These words,' after having* 
passed through millions of mouths. In remote ages and distant regions 
pf the world, under every variety of appearance and symbol, still con- 
tinue, we perceive, to be represented by the same coyisonants — not indeed 
by consonants bearing the same name^ for that perpetually varies with 
the form of tlic, symbol; but by those consonants, which Grammarians 
have always considered to be of the same kind^ and invested with the 
same power. 

Here then we recognise, manifestly and unequivocally, a principle, 
of uniformity, by which we are at once supplied with the most important 
maxim to direct our researches in discovering ^ the origin of words. In 



these enquiries^ the Conson^mts only are to be considered as the repre- 
sentatives of Words, and the Vowel Breathings are to be totally disregarded. 
It is necessary, before we advance forward in our discussion, that this 
maxim should be precisely understood. The principle, which I am 
labouring to establish, may be thus more minutely unfolded, — If the 
Etymologist is desirous of tracing out the same word, as it is called — 
Brother, Frater, &cc. through diflferent languages, or amidst various modes 
of writing and pronouncing that word in different periods or dialects of 
the same language— or if he is desirous of discovering, what words, con- 
veying similar ideas, are derived from each other — belong to each other 
or are successively propagated from each other; he must seek this affinity 
or relationship among words possessing the same cognate consonants; and 
to this test only it is his duty perpetually to appeal. He must totally dis- 
regftird all difference of appearance in the words, whose affinity he 
examines; as that difference arises from the adoption of different vowels 
indifferent places; or as that difference arises from consonants bearing 
a different form and called by a different name. He must regard only 
the existence of the same cognate consonants — of consonants invested with 
the same power — consonants of the same kind, which he has Seen — 
known and acknowledged in the most familiar instances to be perpetually 
changing into each other, in expressing the same or similar ideas. He 
should acquire the habit of viewing words in their abstract — simple state, 
as belonging only to these cognate Consonants, and freed from those 
incumbrances, by which their difference of appearance is produced, and 
under which disguise their mutual affinity to each other has been concealed 
from his View. I have thus endeavoured with all possible plainness and 
precision to unfold the nature of my hypothesis; and I trust, that in the 
explanation of a fundamental principle, the homely language of minute 
detail may be pardoned or authorised. 

On every fresh view of the question, we shall still more and more 



be lost in wonder, when we cast our eyes over the present state of Etymo- 
•logy, and consider that in the conjectures of those, who profess this art, 
all IS caprice and uncertainty, while in the art itself every thing, we 
perceive, is constancy and uniformity. It is assuredly marvellous, that 
no conclusion of this sort has been regularly established, as a general 
principle for the foundation of a Theory, when the fact itself is thus 
gross and palpable— operating on all occasions — and universally displayed 
in its fullest point of view by tlie Etymologist himself, in every detail of 
parallel or of the same words, as they appear in different languages. To 
a fact like this it was impossible to be blind : — Our Etymologists have seen 
and acknowledged it; and even some hardy Theorists have ventured to 
assert, from time to time, that Consonants only were the Radicals of words. 
Still however nothing was accomplished on this foundation : — No regular 
system was formed on such an idea, illustrated by facts and confirmed by a 
series of examples. Nay, on the contrary, the operations of the Etymo- 
logist appear to have been conducted, as if by a kind of instinctive 
impression he had even slirunk from tlie adoption of this principle, as 
from a notion abhorrent to his art. Without any clue to direct his foot- 
steps in the great labyrintli of Language, he has wholly surrendered up 
his reason to the guidance of Chance; and yet in the wildest wantferings 
of this * erring and extravagant spirit,* which has afforded so fertile a 
topic to the powers of ridicule, he seems, as it were, almost cautiously 
and purposely to have avoided the application of such an idea, as an 
insurmountable barrier to the progress of his enquiries. The Etymologist 
is perpetually employed in deriving words from each other, which are 
totally dissimilar in form and appearance, unguided by any constant or 
general principle, which he had before established ; but prompted only 
by the instant and accidental suggestion of whim and of caprice. Still 
however^ when the dissimilarity has arisen from a cause, which is alone 
connected with a principle of uniformity, lliere and there oydy (as it 
should seem) the wildness of conjecture has seldom ventured to interpose. 

c The 


The dissimilarity of words arising at once from different vowels, and from 
consonants bearing a different nameafnd form^ though t>f the same kind, has 
ever presented before the view of the Etymologist a deep and dark veit 
through which his eyes have been unable to penetrate. .Thus it. has hap- 
pened, tliat words rendered dissimilar by the effect of a certain process, from 
which alone they can be proved to be alike, have remained in our con- 
ceptions, toto ccelo removed and distant from each other. The boldest 
among the tribe of conjecturers have rarely ventured to imagine, that any 
affinity existed among words disguised by this pecuHar dissimilarity; and 
when even the difference arising from different Viwels only was the object 
of their meditation, they failed not to proceed with due caution in detailing 
the progress of these mutations, and to assure us with great solemnity 
that A became E in one nation and I in another. 

Having seen the propensity of the mind to fall into these mutations 
of the cognate Conscunants ; it is our business to determine with precision, 
what these cognate Consonants zv^, or to examine the fact respecting those 
consonants, which are changed into each other in the most familiar and 
ordinary instances. I shall appeal only to the evidence of the 'Greek 
verbs: and we shall dven there perceive the deficiency of our Gramma- 
rians m adjusting a fact so {)alpablc to the view. P, B, F, (n, b, *>) they 
tell us, are (TO^rrfe Consonants, or liable to be changed into each other, 
land L, M, N, Rare immutable^ because they liave no comesponding 
letters, into which they are changed in the inflexions of Nouns and Vdrbs. 
" Liquidas vel immutabiles a|tAf1«CdX«, A, M, N, P." " Quae non litcras Anti- 
•* stoichas vel cognatas, quibus ipsa^ mutentur in verbforum et nominum 
'* inflexiohibus, habent." These Grammarians might have learnt from 
the first example, which they produce of a Greek verb, that M should 
be added to P, B, F; and that these consonants are changed into each 
other, when they are employed in representing the same idea under 
various circumstances. Thus the action oi beating is expressed iiiGi-eek 
by Tup, Tuf, and Tum, or, if we disregard the vowel, by TP, TF, and 








TM, (Tv»3«>, <7uirovjTf?u^, Tilu/x/u;ai.) This is not peculiar to the word Tnpto; 
for the 'Grammarian^ liave themselves informed us, that it is the appro- 
priate nature and quality of a certain race of verbs, whicli have P, B, F, 
P; in one tense, to assume M in another. This, we know, is the law of 
what is called the first conjugation of Greek Verbs. *' Preeteritum Per- 
" fectum," say our instructors, '* formatur a praeterito Activo, mutando 
in conjugatione prima ^apurum in Mfioti, M geminato, ut riju^, TiIiY4f*<*»- 
*« impurum in Mai, ut rdtffct, nrifjuan." But the Greeks are not the only 
people, whose minds or organs disposed them to fall into these changes. 
Every Welshman will inform us, that in their language, at this very hour, 
the same mutations are familiar. Even in diflferent positions of the same 
word, P, B, MA, and PA are changed into each other. '* Words prima«- 
rily beginning with P" have four initials, says Richards, " P, B; MA, PA, 
as Pen gtvr, a man's head ; ei Ben, his head ; fy Mhen, my head ; ei Phen, 
" her head/V In these instances. Pen, Brn, Mh£N; Phen are different 
forms for the name of the 'Head. The ordinary Etymologists are aware 
of these changes. M, as they have told us, was used by the iEolians 
for P, as Mato for Pato, to «e^/i/i (MaJ«, n<st1«, ambulo.) They under- 
stand thatMoRPE (M«f^) and Forma — Murmeeks (Mv^fAai) and Formica, 
&c. &c. belong to each other; and Robert Ainsworth has observed the 
constant union of M with B, P, in a vein of metaphor worthy of an Ety- 
mologist. '* M/*< says he, " doth not refuse to usher in its sister labials, 
" B and P, as in Ambulo and Amplus.** I have appealed to these cpmmon 
instances, and quoted these humble authorities, for the purpose of impressing 
the fact on the mind of my reader, and to shew, that the connexion be- 
tween M, B, F, P is apparent on the most familiar occasions, and .acknow- 
ledged by our ordinary Philologists. The example of die Greek verb 
is not an insulated fact^ but itexpreses in the plainest terras the law of the 
organ, in uttering these labials, B, F, M, P; and the reader must be 
prepared to expect this species of mutation in every step of his progress. 



Having said all that Is necessary on this point, let us consider the 
other Consonants, — ^T, D, TA, (T, A, e,) and K, G, CA, (K, r, x,) which are 
allowed to be respectively cognate; though it ought to have been seen, that 
they are all cognate, or mutually changeable into each other in the variations 
of the same word. This likewise will be apparent in the familiar example 
of a Greek verb. In tasso and tatto (T«(r<r«, Totlrw,) TSand TT signify 
to arrange. In e-TAG-ow, /e*TAK-fl and takso, (irayo^, T£T«;t«, ragw) TG,'^K, 
TKS, have the same meaning. By writing Tasso, &c. I have complied with 
the ordinary idea, that the Greek letter » corresponds with the English a; 
yiet as I know, that the symbol A represents in our language various 
sounds, which might be expressed by other vowels likewise, and as I am 
perfectly Ignorant respecting the exact sound of the Greek « in any case, 
and consequently of its variety in different cases, I should have preferred 
tills abstract mode of representing Tao-o-w, &c. by TS, &c. for a very plain 
and obvious reason ; since even if no hypothesis was attached to this mode, 
it is manifest that we should have freed ourselves from all embarrassment of 
attempting to adjust the peculiar sound, which was annexed to the Gre- 
cian «• Frazo, (*e«|«) to Speak, becomes fkaso — e-FRAD-on — pe-FRAK-/z 
(^fa(u, f(M»i tffottovi irifgotxa ;) and thus we perceive that Z, S, D, K are 
likewise cognate to each other. The letter S among the Grammarians Is 
separated from the rest, and is supposed to be invested with a power 
peculiar to itself: 2 est suae potestatis litera. Yet we and thej/ well 
know, that S is perpetually changed into T in the most familiar inflex- 
ions of the same words — Nouns as well as Verbs, through the whole 
. ' r / compass of the Greek and Latin Languages, as Lapis^ Lapidis, Pes, Pedis, 

Pons, Podos, (n»f,naJb^,) &c. &c. In the German language a great race 
of words appear under the form of Z, which in our own are written with 
a T; as Zv, To — Zunder, Tinder — Zunge, Tongue, &c. &c. Thus 
we must acknowledge, that T, D, TA, Z, K, C, G, are cognate letters; 
and we shall accordingly find, tliat tliey are perpetually passing into each 
other. I must observe, as I did in a preceding case, that the changes in 


? > 

INTRODircrrOM, xiii 

Uiese Orcek verbs, ending m flS, TT> Z, (w-, ^, (^) are attached to t 
great race of Words, and conseijuently represent the uniformity of a pro*- 
petty or propensity anneled to the organ itself* The various offices, 
which these letters perforiti in modern languages, would of itself sufficient!]^ 
attest their affinity. Thus in our own laikguage, C is used for S and K, 
as in CxTt and Cap, (quasi Sity, Kap;)'^t\^ T assumes the sound of SH 
in NattDfif as among die French. This mixed ^ound of T-D-S-TA, in 
the organs i^f the hutnati voice, is bbscrrable in every language. The 
Symbol Z^ which in the pleasantry x)f the Poet, has been called an 
' unneeessary letter^^ is a very important record to attest the fact of this 
union. The Greek E, we know, wad used to express this confusion of 
sound ; and is therefore said to represent either DS or SD. In German, 
G is balled Tsay^ ind before borne vowels is sounded like TS. In the 
Italiah language the same tnixture of sound prevails, and the enunciation 
of it in some cases is so delicate, that in sounding the letter C as Teh, 
atxt speaker must leave his hearer doubtful, whether T or D be pronounced. 
*« C, devant les voyelles f, Ou r," says Veneront> •' comme ce, d, se pro- 
*' nonce comme dn prononceroil en Francois Tche^ TchL Exemplei 
*' CesMrep .Cassar; Cecith^ aveuglement; Citta^ ville; lisez, Tchesare, 
'* Tchetchitky Tckittk. Pour parler avec la delicatesse Italienne, il faut 
" feit^ sentir le T de Tchc^re, Tcketchita, &c. si doucement, que Ton 
^' he connoisse pas si I'on prononce un T ou un D/' In the Spanish 
language the C is sounded like Th before some vowels, and like K before 
ethers; and ** when H follows the letter C,*' says Del Pueyo, '* it is pro- 
'* nounced as in the English Muck^ Mucho/' We now observe, that 
in ^e enunciation of our word Mucky Gh has likewise die mixed 
sound of Ti:h or Tsh. Thus we understand how these sounds are per- 
petually blended with each other; and that the same symbols have been 
used to represetit their union or their separation ; as tlie sound <^f the com- 
pound was distinctly heard, or as that of either portion 4n the combtriatioh^ 
became £unt and obscure. In the Italian langua^ ^ke^e is^ a -^iimlar 

d union 







union of $ouodsi MThicfa is nec^^ssary to be recorded on this occasion. 6 
is sometimes pitonounced as it' a D preceded it. " G devant les voyelles e, 
ou I, commc Ge, Gi, se prononce comme s'il y.avoit un D devant le G. 
Exemple: Ge/o, gelee; Giro, tour; lAsez, Dgelo, Dgiro. Deux GG de- 
vant les memes voyelles e, f, le premier G se prononce comme un D, et 
Tautre comme G. Exemple: Oggetlo, oh]ei; O^^/, Aujourd'hui; lisez 
Odgeito, Odgi.'' It will now be readily perceived how Ilodie in Latin 
becomes Oggi in Italian ; and the reader vvHl find in the course of these dis- 
cussions, that for a similar reason we -have JEtas in Latin and ylge in English. 
This mixture of sound in Z, TS, DS, ST, SD, TCH, TG, DG, &c. 
is particularly observable in the Eastern languages; and hence has arisen 
the embarrassment, under which wc perceive our Eastern travellers per- 
petually to labour, when they endeavour to represent the sound of cer- 
tain words, belonging to those languages. The learned Author of the 
" Voyage of Nearchus*' has given us the various forms, under which 
different writers have exhibited the name of a river in the Pange-Ab. 
In representing one portion of the compound expressing this river we find 
" Djcn, Dja?i, Tsclian, Tschen, Chm, Chen, Chin, Jen^Gcn, Tchun, Chun, 
** Shan, San.'* (Voyage of Nearchus, page 82.) All this variety we 
shall now perfectly understand; and we shall cease to wonder, that in 
expressing different relations of the same idea, the Gxeeks should use 

T I S, T, 07 KS, CH, (Tacrcrw, t«t7«, Hayoy, ragw, ti1«x«,) FR | Z, D, S, K, 

(«^a^», tf^aioy, fgaru, irif^tLKa,) &CC. &c. &c. In the Russian language, the 
sound of two letters has been represented by TS and TCH ; and the 
enunciation of a third letter is of so complicated a nature, that in an attempt 
to express this sound to a French ear, I. find used Chtch; — " En faisant," 
says my Author, ^' tres pen sentir le T." From this accumulation of various 
sounds, as pronounced by some organs, it* will be readily comprehended 
bow they have been separated, and how imperceptibly they pass into 
each other. The English are of all nations least able to understand the 
nature of these mutations. In our organs, the sounds are commonly 




preserved distinct; and unless we had been familiar to their fullest com- 
bination, and to the variety arising from some portions of the compound 
predominating while others became faint and obscure; we are not so well 
quahfied to appreciate and to feel their connexion and mutual blending 
with each other. Some nations have been unable to express the mingled 
sound of S, as thickened with theH; and this minute defect in the organs 
of Speech proved in the ancient world, on a well known occasion, the 
last and most important of Human Evils. '* And the Gileadites took the 
passages of Jordan before the Ephraimites : and it was so, that when 
those Ephraimites, which were escaped, said. Let me go over; that 
" the men of Gilead said unto him. Art thou an Ephraimite I If he said, 
*VNay; then said they unto him, Say now Shibboleth, and he said Sibbo^ 
'* leth : for he could not frame to pronounce it right.* Then they took 
''him, and slew him at the passages of Jordan. And there fell at that 
" time of the Ephraimites forty and two thousand." (Judges, c. 12. 
v. 5. 6.) I must conclude by again repeating that K, C, G, Ch, T, D, Th, 
S, Z, &c. are cognate letters, and should be considered as constantly 
changing into each other, through the whole compass of Language, in the 
most familiar instances. 

From considering this mixture of similar sounds, which is some- 
times represented by a single letter, we may obtain a very important canon 
in the investigation of Languages. The two letters, between which no 
vowel breathing is inserted, in the beginning of words, may sometimes 
indeed represent the Radical, but they may often be regarded as denoting 
only a conjunction of the sounds, which are attached to the first letter. 
Thus the ST in st?> — sring — STick, &c. may perhaps be only two symbols 
employed to convey the union of certain sounds, which might be said to 
belong to the first letter of the Radical, and which on other occasions 
would appear in a separate state. Before the adoption of the Greek z, 
the AS, DS or TS, would have been applied for this purpose ; and the 
Root under one form might be represented by -TS-R ; and again, when 



the sounds are separated, by S-R ^nd T-R. tt will likewise smnetimes 
ha{^ti^ that a Towel breathing is inserted between the two letters, which 
denote only the mixture of sound. Thus TS-R may become ToS-R or 
TcS-R, he. and if we are induced from this circumstance to consider 
TS as the Root instead of TS-*R or T-R and S-R, our researches on such 
t question would be vain and fruitless. This observation is of great im- 
portance in the Theory of Languages; and we shall find in the course 
of these enquiries various examples, in which, as I b-ust, it has been 
iiiccessfully adopted. 

Having thus endeavoured briefly to explain the simple fact, which 
lebKtes to the various mutations of these cognate Consonants, I shall now 
dose my remarks on this subject; as we can only understand, from a con- 
sideration of tlie examples themselves, the peculiar mode^ in whidi these 
changes are produced and operate. If the reader perchance, in the spirit 
of captious objection, should be disposed to observe, that I have assumed 
to myself an ample sphere for die exercise of my Theory or my Invention ; 
and that with such a latitude of chai^, transformations of every kind 
may readily be effected; I have only to reply, that this variety of n[iuta- 
tion cannot justly be charged on him, who had no share in its production ; 
and diat the confumon arising from this latitude of change (if any such 
iiiould be found to exist) is net the &ult but the misfortune of the writer, 
who has vientured to pursue an intricate and embaitassed theme througli 
all its perplexities and all its deviations. I have described only a plain, 
flimple fact, which it was my duty faithfully to detail ; and according to 
this fact must all my researches be minutely regulated. If we have seen, 
that words belonging to each other assume these various forms, and a(^ar 
under these di^uising garbs; it is our business precisely to ascertain the 
number of these varieties, and the nature of these disguises. We may 
lament indeed d)at die forms should be so numerous, but we ^all rejoice 
diat they are still found so regular and so similar : — If we are perplexed ; 
by the diflScreikce of the garb, we shall be guided by the uniformity of the 

badge ; 


badger; and if these varying shapes should elude our search by the fre- 
quiency of chtngCp they will grow familiar to our knowledge by the con- 
stancy lof recurrence. The writer, who has presumed to develope the 
principles of a new Theory^ must expect to encounter the suspicions of 
the cautious and the cavils of the Captious; but he may be pardoned, I 
tnist, if in presenring the virtue of patience, he sometimes relaxes in the- 
decorum of gravity. 

Though the cognate C^nstm^nts^ by which these mutations are re-» 
gullied, should have been fully dificovered and precisely ascertained; still 
however there remains miK:fa to he atchicred^ before tliis uniformity could 
be applied to the purposes of a Theory, by whidi the subject of Universal 
Language can he fully unfolded. I was already employed in this train 
of ideas» on the importance pf the Consonants and the inutility of the 
Vowels in determining the Radicak of words, when I entered into 
a wilder field of knowledge, and began to study the Eastern Lan- 
guages. Here every thing coincided with my former reflexions; and I 
soon perceived, that a general principle might be successfully adopted, 
which would at once unite in the Closest bonds of affinity, what others had 
always understood to bear some relation or similarity to each other. I ob- 
served m these languages, that Consmumts only were applied, and that 
the Vowels were either partly or wholly disregarded. It is necessary that 
the »^tent of this observation should be duly defined and understood. In 
the alphabet of these Eastern Languages — Hebrew, Arabic, &c. certain 
vowels indeed exist ; but they are of little importance in discharging re- 
gukiiy and faxxiiliarly those offices^ which the vowels in our own language, 
and in others of a similar kind, perpetually perform. The reader will 
not understand, that the Hebrews and Arabs^ &c. have acquired any 
artifice, unknown to Europeans, by which they are enabled to speak 
theiir language without vowels: He will readily perceive, that this 
neglect of vowels must refer onty to the writiHg of language; and 
we shall find no great difiiculity in comprehending, that die symbols^ 

e employed 



employed to denote the vowel breathings are not absolutely necessary in 
the representation of a language. Perhaps the following example will 
best serve to illustrate the mode, in* which words . are written in the 
liastern languages, with that' mixture of consonants and vowels, which 
exist in their alphabet. *' Ur fther wbch art in ayn hlwd be th nm: th 
kngdm cm, th wl be dn in arth, as it is in avn : gv-s ths dy ur dly brd, 
and frgv-s ur trspss, as w-forgv thni tht trsps agnst-s, and ld-& nt int 
tmpttn bt dlvr-s frm avl : fr thn is th-kngdm and th-pwr and th-glry fr 
M avr and avr." This specimen will give the reader a very sufficiisnt 
notion of the mode, in which vowels are used and ^neglected in tlie Arabic 
and Hebrew languages. Though this is the ordinary manner, in which 
the Hebrews and Arabs write their language ; yet they likewise employ 
certain marks (which, as adopted in Hebrew, are called points,) above and 
below the words, to represent the* vowels which have been omitted, and 
which arc necessary in the Enunciation, Vowels, we know, are equally 
necessary with consonants in speaking 2l language; and if we would become 
intelligible, we must adopt the same vowels in e^cpressing the same idea : 
but in writing a language, I may Venture to affirm, they are in many cases 
totally useless. Those, who well understand a language, do not attach to 
a word, as Fathery &c, the sounds which ought to be adopted, by a nice 
consideration of the force belonging to the peculiar symbols, A and E, 
but by an immediate impression of the sense, which the whole symbol 
conveys to the mind. It is evident therefore, that if the symbol, as Fthr, 
be sufficient to excite in the understanding the exact idea, which was 
meant to be expressed ; any attempt to represent the breathing is super- 
fluous. Now we know, that in the Eastern languages the consonants are . 
of themselyes sufficient to excite this idea; and if the reader will make 
the experiment on some English sentences, with which he is not con- 
versant, written without vowels, he will discover, that even in his first 
attempts to understand their meaning he has but . few difficulties to 
encounter ; and he will be perfectly convinced, that with a small jportion 



of practice no embarrassment whatever would arise from that cause. It 
will instantly be seen, that the Lexicons, in explaining the various senses 
of a single word, as it 'might be called, represented without vowels, would 
often exhibit a variety of senses, which on the first view might appear but 
little similar or related to each other: Still however I observed, that the. 
Hebrew Lexicographers considered it as an important part of their task,, 
to discover the general idea, to which these various senses might be all 
referred ; and to detail with precision the links of the chain, by which 
their affinity was ascertained and preserved. I observed that the word, 
as the Hebrew Lexicographers might call it, in assuming these various 
senses, often adopted different points or vowels; that is, according to our 
mode of conceiving the subject, we should say, that different words ex-, 
isted with different meanings, and that the same consonants were to be 
found in alL We here perceive that the presence of the same consonants 
in these several words, which in Hebrew is thought of most import- 
ance in the question, would according to our conceptions be totally dis-. 
regarded; or, if at all noticed, would be considered only as the effect of: 
accident. In contemplating this circumstance, a new scene of investigation, 
was opened to my view. JL began to reflect, as Man was the same crea- 
ture in the East and in the West, that the English language must have 
arisen from die same principles of mind and organs, which operated, in 
the formation of the Hebrew; and that similar facts, as they are connected 
with these causes, must necessarily be found in both these languages. 
It was then easy to understand, that if the Hebrew Lexicographers had 
formed a true conception of their subject, that a dictionary 'might be 
written in English on the same plan, and that the same mode of investi-. 
gartion might likewise be adopted. I then applied for confirmatioa^of this, 
idea to an example in English: I examined the various senses belonging 
to the word or the radical CP, and I found that with different points or 
vowels it sigbified A Species of Dness^^Ht Vessel for drinking and a Covering, 



for the head, &c. ice. The forms, which it assumes in our language^ 
under these senses are Cofe (an ancient dress of priests) — Cup — Cap, &c. 
I soon perceived, that the same idea was conveyed under each of these 
forms; though the objects, which they expressed, discharged functions 
annexed to the original idea or quality, in a manner totally different and 
dissimilar to each other. I observed, that the Radical CP in its primary 
sense suggested the idea of holding — containing — enfolding, &c. This was 
a very important step in the progress of my enquiry. 

On again considering the mode, which the Hebrew Lexicographers 
had adopted, though I still acknowledged that it far exceeded all our 
conceptions of the subject» yet I soon perceived that their ideas were 
bounded within the most contracted limits, and that they had not even ad- 
vanced beyond the threshold of the subject. I found, that the words, which 
(hey considered to be impregnated with the same idea, were only those, 
which were represented by the same Consonants, that is, by consonants of the 
same nameznd the ssimeform; and they seemed to be unconscious, that 
among other words there existed any species of relationship — connexion 
or similarity whatever. In the Hebrew Lexicographers we discover no 
propensities to Etymology, as it relates to the language which they have 
undertaken to explain ; and in this point of view, they are even inferior 
to their fellow labourers in a similar employment. Without enquiring 
into the cause of these kindred significations being attached to the same 
consonants; we well know, that it did not arise from the figure of the 
symbol ; and therefore it is infinitely futile and unmeaning to confine the 
influence of this principle within a sphere of action, which has no reference 
to the operations of the cause. Thus if a general idea is affixed to the 
Radical CP, which runs throujB^ the various words in which CP is found ; 
we are well persuaded that die farms of C and P were not instrumental in 
pfoducing this effect ; and consequendy that the same train of ideas will be 
equally f»uiid among word$, which af« expressed by KP-^CAPy &;c. &c. 



We are now enabled to make a very important use of the Cognate 
Consonants^ whose mutations have been already ascertained. I must again 
repeat, what we shall instantly acknowledge, that a general idea per- 
vading a race of words with tlie same consonants, is not attached to the 
name but the fiature of the symbol — ^That it is not a necessary attendant 
on the form of the symbol, which is an arbitrary sign, perpetually 
changing; but it is an inseparable adjunct to the power and property of 
that symbol, whatever form it may assume, and by whatever name it may 
be called. Palpable as this fact may appear, that even its illustration 
borders upon ridicule; yet we know, that the Hebrew Lexicographers 
have had no glimpse of its existence; and they have continued to com^ 
pose Dictionaries, as if among the maxims of tlieir art it had been ex- 
pressly decided, that ideas were enamoured with one form of a symbol 
and were abhorrent from another. This then was my conclusion. If it 
is accordant to the genius of the Hebrew languagje, that similar ideas should 
be represented by the same consonants, or by . consonants bearing the 
same form and name; it must certainly be true, that tlie same cognate 
Consonants, through the whole.compass of the language, will be impreg- 
nated with a train of similar ideas. As those principles of the human 
mind, which are effective in the production of one language, will operate 
in that of another, I again was led to conclude, that in every form of 
Sj^eech the same fact will necessarily exist. I again referred to the English, 
Latin and Greek languages for the confirmation of this idea; and I found 
the most ample proofs for the establishment of my hypothesis, which the 
reader will see detailed in the succeeding discussions. 

I had now advanced far in my project of generalizing language. 
As it related to different forms of Speech separately considered, the design 
had been perfectly effected. I had discovered, that in each language 
the same ideas were represented by the same cognate Consonants : There 
remained but one step more, to conduct me at once to the completion* 
of my Theory. All, who had written on the subject of languages, have 

f uniformJv 


uniformly observed their similarity and affinity to each other. I perceived, 
that on this point they constantly agreed ; however they might diflfer as 
to the peculiar language, from which (as they imagined) the rest were 
originally derived. In any state of knowledge on this subject, we may 
be permitted to smile at the idea of an original language, when we all 
know that languages are perpetually changing. It afforded me however 
great satisfaction to observe, that this idea was considered as perfectly 
ascertained; and indeed, if we had only cast our eyes on the instances, 
which I have before produced. Feather — Mother, &c. &c. we mjght 
venture to have drawn from those facts alone a conclusion of a similar 
nature. Surely every one, who considers the parallel words in so many 
languages to Father and Mother — the most common and familiar of our 
terms, must expect perpetually to find the same coincidence on occasions 
equally common and familiar. Plain however and palpable as this con- 
clusion must appear to the most ordinary capacity; no such idea has 
ever been pursued, and no theory formed on such a foundation. If our 
name for Father is the same in Sanscrit and in Persian (Petree — Pader) 
—if the name for the Earth is the same in Arabic and Hebrew, (Erd — 
Aretz,) as every one has agreed; ought we not to expect (I must again 
repeat) that the same similarity would perpetually recur in the most 
familiar instances of ordinary life? I must once more observe, with ex- 
pressions of the deepest astonishment, that although the affinity of lan- 
guages has been for ever sounded in our ears, and though such facts 
have been always palpable to the view, still however the Etymologists 
appeared to imagine, that the coincidence terminated, if I may so express 
it, with the example which was produced; and they perceived not, 
that collateral similarities must necessarily be annexed to such a coin- 
cidence. We may well imagine, that the name of an object so important 
as the Earth, would supply the origin tq a great race of words expressing 
the various operations, which are attached to it; and in all these instances 
likewise, should we expect to find the same coincidence. We shall 




instantly perceive, how by this idea the supposed similarity of languages 
is extended; and our next enquiry will be naturally directed to discover 
the means, by which a coincidence so extensive can be ascertained and 
established. In the present state of our enquiry, no question can more 
readily be resolved. The artifices to be employed for the accomplishment 
of this purpose must be precisely the same as those, which were adopted 
to ascertain the fact itself. We agreed that the English Earth and the 
Hebrew and Arabic Aretz and Erd were the same, because they con- 
veyed the same idea, and because they contained the sayne cognate 
Consonants. In the words therefore derived from these names for the 
Earth, the same cognate Consonants must exist, and the ideas, which 
they convey, must be of the same kind, or such as we might naturally 
conceive would be derived from an object like the Earth. Thus then, 
according to the doctrine, which I have before established, respecting 
the cognate consonants and the rejection of the vowels, the name of the 
Earth might be represented in an abstract manner by "RTA, "RTZ, "RD, &c. 
and if we adopt a mark to express that a breathing commonly occurs before 
the first letter of the Radical, our representation will be compleat, and 
will be found to answer every purpose for which it was adopted. The 
sign, which I have used on this occasion, is our mark called a Caret, 
by which I mean that a vowel breathing is wanting, or must be supplied 
before the letter, to which it is affixed. I call the Radical "KTh the 
Element, by which the name of the Earth is represented, and under 
which the words derived from it will be found to appear. Among Gram- 
marians, Letters, before they are formed into words, are called Elements ; 
and I differ only from them in my use of this term by conceiving, that 
Letters in their abstract state, unformed into words, represent, record and 
propagate ideas. AS I have already shewn, that in each peculiar language 
the same Element conveys the same train of ideas; and ns the general 
affinity of languages lias been acknowledged and ascertained ; we have good 




• f . 


• » 

reason to conjecture or conclude that Through all Languages, which 
this affinity pervadcSf the saine Elemait conveys the same train of ideas. 

Here then, we perceive, our theory is at last compleated. It is 
perfect in all its parts, and furnished for all its purposes. The similarity 
of languages has been tlie theme of eternal discussion. A few scattered 
and scanty examples of their coincidence have been perpetually urged ; 
but the whole subject has been involved in the rnost impenetrable obscurity 
— embarrassment and confusion: — Here at last we have discovered the 
important clue, which will guide us safely and readily through all the 
windings in the great Labyrinth of Human Speech. Under the banners of 
this directing principle (if I may be again peniiitted the adoption of 
metaphor) the numerous tribes and families of words are at once arranged 
without difficulty or disorder — all marshalled in their due places — and all 
discharging their various and corresponding functions, with the most perfect 
uniformity, precision and regularity. Here at last wc have obtained what 
has ever been sought, but never been discovered — the Universal ox Original 
Language — not indeed existing in the fleeting forms of any peculiar 
system or artifice of Speech, but in those first and Original Ele?nents, 
v/hich universally pervade the whole machinery of Language — perform- 
ing in every part the same functions, and operating to the same purposes. 
I shall not stoop to define the various stages of progress, which others have 
advanced in the prosecution of this theme; nor shall I attempt to adjust 
the precise meaning, which is annexed to those various maxims, which 
others have adopted in their enquiries into thi? subject. I shall only simply 
observe, that the train of ideas, which I have now unfolded, has ?iot 
been thus exhibited; nor h^is any system been formed on its foundation, 
such as the reader will find established in the succeeding discussions. 

Thus then in all languages, among which this acknowledged similarity 
exists, the Element '"RT//, RTZ, "RD, &c. &c. in one of its significations 
denotes the Earthy and conveys the various ideas, which we may naturally 



imagine would be derived from this source. Wherever therefore in our 
own language, we find a word in which the Element "RTH, "RD, "RT, 
&c. appears, it will be a sufficient reason for us to enquire, whethctr such 
a word was not originally derived from the name of the Earth, I cannot 
be supposed to mean that this will alway3 be the case, and that we shall 
not often be disappointed in our search ; yet still I must repeat, that an 
object so important as the Earth will necessarily afford the origin to an 
abundant family of words in our own language, and diat the record of 
tliis origin will be faithfully preserved by tlxe existence of the same cognate 
Consonants, which, we shall instantly acknowledge, would remain as 
uniformly in the derivatives, as we find them to exist in the original name 
of the Earth itself.- The term Earth, (I must again enforce this idea 
on the mind of my reader)-^the term EARtu, after having passed through 
millions of mouths, in. the most remote ages and nations of the world, 
is still represented by the same cognate Consonants: — A similar permanencjr 
then will necessarily exist in its various derivatives ; and the words, which 
have arisen from this term Earth, will likewise continue to be represente4 
by the same cognate Consonants* It is impossible, I imagine, to deny 

or to doubt this fact. ^ . 

The various forms, under which the name for the Earth appears in 
different languages, are thus represented by our Etymologists,-^ Airtha y-- O 
(Gothic) — Eard, Eord, Eorth, Gearth (Saxon) — Erd, Erde (Geriqan) 
— ^JoRD (Danish)-r-ERD, Aerd, Aerde (Dutch.) Tacitus informs us, 
that HERTHz^m was tlie name among the Germans for the Goddess of the 
Earth. We perceive, that in Saxon the word is represented by g-EARTH, 

where in the G we find only ^ record of a harder breathiipig before ^hp 

• .* 

^RTH; ami we shillnow understand that pur familiar terra o-ARDew must 
Jt^ referred to this idea. Even the word, vvhic^,, I have adopted on tlw 
occasion-^H ARD, we shall instantly acknowledge, is, derived frpm ''^liif 
the :ERDJ&r-the. E^^iTjS,,,: ;It wm b^ at once granted, that ao origin , can 
be conceived iaore^^pr/jfejl^lcf^fiirvap; ideji. Qf^ ^ jiaturcr.^ ^^.ft^R^ in 
' ' ' g English 

' t 

"\^^- . #»«*.iH»ti-^' ■ 



English belongs to Erde — the Earth, bo Du&itf in Latin belongs to 
TE^ra, or, as it appears in W&lsii, Dabae. In Greek it assumes the 
form x}f SvE'Keos, (Sri^cKi fifmus, DVKtis;) whene the STreprescifts the 
mixed sound belonging to die first letter of the Radical, which I have 
described in a preceding page. We now shall understand the nature of 
that arrangement, which is visible through the whole compass of language, 
and how these irarious words, impressed with similar ideas,, dispose themselves 
with the most exact order and regularity around their several Radicals. 
TR iind '^RT, two Elemfents for the name of the Eaiik^ will suj^ly 
two. distinct races of words, impregnated widi the same idea. .The forms, 
tmder which the names fortfae Earth widi the Elen^ent DR or TR, appear 
in Ae dialects of the Celtic, are Daiar — Dor — Tir^^*^Duai, as I find 
them represented by Lhuyd sub voce T£rra« I ^ave used the word 
Hard in its familiar application to the Breathings of the. human voice^ 
<nd this will again suggest to us, that languages have been formed on the 
most simple principles ; and we diall learn how a small number of Radir 
cab, expressing the most important objects, as Earth, &c. will readily 
discharge all the purposes, .which tiie most complicated form of S^edu 
adapted to convey every idea, could be capable of performing. 

The parallel terms to GARnen in other languages, as collected by 
omr Et3rmologtsts, are the Crerman Gartot — the Fren^ jAR]iim-.-^e 
Italian GiARnmo — the^anish GiARnm— the Danish Gaari> — the Welsh 
Gardd, tec. Skinner derives it from Ward, wJMch in another form is 
Guard, ^' f{. d. Locus Custoditus et circumseptus, vel. a Norn. Yard. 
^' A. S. Geard. Dan. Gaard, Area.'' In the Codex Argenteus, as 
Jmiins observ es , AuktioA^Ds is'a Gard^m, and thk he tefers to our word 
OttAard; which Meric Casaubon derives from the Homeric terafl 
Onuttosp {0(x/^9 Pomarium.) All these words, the veader will instantly 
acknowledge, are derived {rom the name of «be 'ERU-^e Eartv, and 
mean m lOatx Eartha^ or i^&need round. Thi6,'#e shall understasid, 
siluBt be the mode in tatlier ^mes, by which «ta^loairei^ Seouvity wese 


. .^ 

. < « ♦ C' 


formed. When die mixed sound of TS prevaU?, it is the Hebrew Ar£TZ^ 
the Arabic Erz — when the sound of S is lost, it is the Arabic Erd (as it 
is sonMtimes represented)--^he German Erde — tlie Danish Jord, &:Cf 
As the sound of T thickens, it becomes the English Earth, &c. When 
the mixed sound of IS or Z is hardened into K, we have tlie Greek /5^ ^^' ^'^^ t 
OKKJStes, &c. (Pomarium) and Eslkj^s, fee. &c. (Epfu Spptum,) a simpler ''•'' /^ ' '*'' 
State of that word. As the breathing before '^RT is gentle, we have Erpe 
*— EARTif, &c. &c. and as it thickens, we have Yaro— Jqrde — Geaj^th 
*~GvARB — ^Ward, &c. &c. It will be seen that nothing is more com^ 
men than to join words signifying the same thi;ig; hence we hav? C^*.U^^^.*f o^ ^ 
Orch-Yard — Aukti-Gardf &c. &c. The sound of r is perpetujaUy lost, /, i. ^'r. ^ ■ 
«tid we accordingly find Avi^ri^^Ouj^os {Gr. O^d^j fossa,) &c. &c. h\ ^' V' 
Ae wotA Farther we scarcely distinguish whether the r be sounded or not . 
It will now be granted fbat Horyw is the YARD-r^tbe £A>T<-/ie<f eqclosuj:^ 
<^^he OARO^en; and^Mijtitjsiiotdfriji^, asFestus sSM^rily )fpagi|^, 4b 
0rienji6'. * ^'Hortvs apud antiqttos,'V$ay8 he, '^ onuits vHlff ^.i^e^jtvir, quod 
«* il>ii}ul araia capere possent^rirenttir.*^ HoftTUXj we see, jand V|f,LA ... Ci/i 

are the same — the EARTH-erf or GuARD-erf and Whhhed fi^kce. .Ho^TUf , ,, , ^ 

k derived from the £ii/fA diroWn up about the place; flnd Vi^la from >,■ / 

the Ftfi^fcm surrounding it. ViLi^A est locus A^all^u^* It is ple^^nt tp 
heir the ^nMst learned of the Romans talking of bis iQwn language. Varro 
A%nvf^ Villa i^^m v^. ** Villicus," says he> ^* ag;ri icok^di ^auj^ f cnx^ V 

^ -stitutus, atque appeliatus k villa, quod ab ^4 iin^eum ^nvefi^v^t^t ^uptu^ 
^^ et leitfAuntur, cum veneunt.^ j(&ee Vossius mb voce Fija.^ J^ ^L^ 
VL, is the common Element for an tndomrc; asidhen^e h^ tb^Qn derived 
the Greets Polix, &c. &c^ In Iftie word Orqh^ARP !re;i^9^e ^^pom^ 
pound of bol^ thefofms, under whidi the Element ^appo^r^j. , Ji^,^jGreek 
AofW^^fbe 'Latin Aoierandthe English Acne^ ihe r jjias ^^^en Jost- }>j^fore 
the ftadicaU ^rG or ""rK, and ^Rs been added 9&eif it. : In th$ enunciation 
of Farther^ the r in bpth cases appears or is obscured^ ^cco^dijig to the 
organs wi^idi pronounoe^ it» < itwili not Jbe idiffitfutt .tp o^fi^vfi^, .Uiat a^ 


\ » 

J }*^ *- 

• ;; 



the business of Agriculture is the most familiar and necessary, of our 

' ( employments, the terms for doing or perfdrming any business would be 

ct^ ' .; derived from the Earth, To this idea we must refejr our Englisli term 

WORK, in which the hardened form of the Element is visible. This 

word pervades the Teutonic Languages, as in the German Wekck, .&c. 

^ and even the Etymologists have seen that it belongs to the Greek KnQon. 

/' '^^ ". In Wright, (the v/o'suLman) Wyrht^, Saxon, we have another form of the 

( f>/i > V^ Element, In Greek, one of the terms for labour is RETS-e/w, (Pf^**i'» facere,) 

where we perceive tliat tlie vowel breathing has been lost before the first 

letter of the Radical, and has been inserted between the others-^R-TS. 

'-' ''^ '■'■ RBTS-em is to a-Retz, as in the Hebrew Aretz; but it appears again in 

■■,■ /i '-i> it the Greek language under its more famrliar form, , Enjyein, (Egfuy, faoere,) 

rv, // to do, we now perceive, is to Erd or Earth. I shall here close my ^l^r 

/ marks on this Element, and I have produced only these few examples^ as 

derived from so femfiliar an. object, for the purpose of briefly illustrating 
the general principles of the Theory. My next work- will probably be 
dedicated to an investigation of the Radicals^ which are employed; to 
represent the name of the £^//r. : • .'j : 

It will naturally be understood, that in adopting th^e Radic^lsj our 


vigilance must be ever active to apply them with caution, with. effepti and 
with skill. The Beings, by/whom they were used, were uniconsciouf 
of their power: They Were uttered without thought, and propagated 
without design ; and though we have already seen a' marvellous pertinacity 
in words (if I may so express it) to preserve their cognate Consonants; still 
however we may well imagine, that changes will ever be produced — that in 
th^ long series of their progress certain portions will . necessarily be lost, 
and'thatweshall have perpetual occasion for the exercise of our dexterity, 
in tracing the varieties of mutation, and in ascertaining the origin of these 
mutilated parts, by referring them to the integrity of the whole. Some* 
times they will be found apparent and palpable — again they will become 
faint and obscure ; ' and we must often summon to our assistance all the 


■ t 



Stores of our leamtng and all the exertions of our sagacity* We may 
well imagine, (as I before observed,) that so impoitant an object as the 
Earth would supply the origin of a great race of u ords, expressing the 
various ideas with whid) it is connected. But as we have sliewn, that the 
Element ^RT,&c.^ has through all languages, in which an acknowledged 
affinity exists, the same meaning; it follows, diat even in those forms 
of. speech, in which it does not supply the appropriate name for the 
Earth, terms derived from this source will perpetually be found. Thus 
we have seen the Greek Erd^, ("B^toi, faoip;) and though I shall not in 
this place determine whether the I-atin Jlrf be deriv^ from '^RT, by the 
loss of one portion of the Element; yet it will be granted that ARArrttm 
is quasi the EAKr hiim. Among the .Dialects of the Celtic, the Welsh 
use ARADr for a Pioughy and Arbdi^, Ard^i^i^, i^t to Plough; and in 
Comi^, ARDirr is ARATru^M, as we find in Lliuyd. (Vid. Archa^log. 
Britann. sub voce Arntrum.) The Grecian Etymologist, who should 
be ignorant or unconscious of our term tor r« and Terra — the Eartk, 
might conjecture for ever about the origin of Erdo, {jt^^i) and all his 
dexterity would serve only to perplex and confound his understanding. 
It will be seen in the progress of these enquiries, that the Element CP 
denotes the Hand; and that a rac0 of words in our own language is 
derived from this idea. We know however that this Element does not 
supply vfi English the appropriate and familiar term for that member; and 
unless we had discovered the fact by the assistance of some other, language, 
all our enquiries into that race of words would have been vain and fruidess* 
The Greet Tasso, {^Mfrt^o^ ordino,) belongs to a great family of words, 
which abound in every language, and wliich are particularly conspicuous 
in our own; yet in one form of speech: only — the Pcrsiiao, does the terra 
exist as the familiar aiKl appropriate name for the object, from which they 
are all derived, and in wliich i^^iz^ the infinite variety of their ^en^esis 
fbi^od to coincide. It w ill now be understood, that in the composition of 
a Dictionary, in wlvidi tiie author presumes to ^^cidc on .the derivation 

h • of 



of words, no project caii be more monstrous, than the attempt to confine 
this operation within tlae limits of the peculiar language, which is the 
object of enquiry. In our Greek Vocabularies, as the compilation of 
HederiCf See. &:c. the humble Philologist has soon arrived at the termina- 
tion of his labours, as they relate to the derivations which are more 
immediately connected with the genius of the language. He will readily 
discover the composition of some words from known particles, and the 
formation of others by established analogies; but beyond these limits all 
is obscurity and confusion. If tlie lively Greek, the speaker and the 
writer of the language, were perchance capricious — negligent or forgetful 
—if in expressing portions of a similar idea, he sometimes recorded his 
feelings under the symbol xe> KB, and again imder the form of x^» CB, 
our Philologists are at once lost and confounded in their enquiries. This 
shade of a shade of difference (if I may so express it) is to them the Wall 
of Semiramis; through which no powers of mind can penetrate — which no 
force of intellect can break down. The kindred words, which the same ideas 
have produced, become at once remote and distant from each other, as 
creatures of another world ; and all traces of their affinity are for ever 
obliterated. Even the change in the symbol of a breathing is able to 
derange the system of our Lexicographers; and the devices of tlieir art 
grow feeble and inefficient before such formidable difficulties. In the 
writings of the Greek the idea of privation has been represented by the 
symbol «: In his mouth it is a fleeting breathing; and if perchance the 
recorder of this varying sound should unfortunately be no Etymologist — 
if he should forget or be ignorant, that his word was a compound formed 
from this privative breathing, which was commonly represented by this 
privative. symbol a; if, I say, he should think nothing about all this 
or care nothing about all this, and unwittingly record the breathing by 
<f 0, »,u, «i,ci, 0*, (e, o, i, u, ai, ei, oi>) &c. &c. the word is again lost for 
ever to the Etymologist — It stands alone — It is derived from nothing- 
Ills ft privativa has disappeared, and all his resources are exhausted. 



Though our Lexicographer is unable to see the things which do 
exist, he is singularly sagacious in discovering those which do tio^ He 
not only tells us from what source a word is really derived, but he likewise 
informs us from what source it ought to be derived. This precious idea 
exceeds all the specimens of his craft. For every future in uo-w, (Eso) &c- 
he has a verb in iv, fEo,J from which in his conception it ought to be 
derived. His system is built on the hypothesis, that a Greek never ven« 
tured to open his mouth, when he had occasion to express a future action 
by the analogy Eso, till he had perfectly ascertained by the most diligent 
researches, that a verb in i«, (EoJ was already in existence, from which 
it ought to be derived. In what terms can I seriously reply to such an 
' infinite moi:k* as this? It is true indeed that the Greeks talk in» analogies, 
and it is equally certain that they cannot talk otherwise. It is true more*« 
over that a race of words is to be found in the Greek language, m which t^ 
(Eo) added to something signifies I do an action, and no-w, (Eso) added to 
the same> means I shall do the action (^ia-ca^ <tix-^»ia-a;«;) as in our language a. 
race of words exists, in which a term in its simpler state denotes tlie present, 
I love, and with the addition of d or edf signifies the. past, I loved; but 
do our children or do our men, when they are desirous of expressing a 
past action by the analogy of d or ed, stop to consider, whether a word 
is in existence, without the d or the ed, signifying the action in the 
present? They think nothing — they know nothing about the relation of 
the past or the future to the present. They feel only, that they have 
been accustomed to Eso and to Ed, (if I may so express myself,) when 
they are desirous of denoting what they are to do, or what they have done. 
And this is all which they think or know about the matter: — This is aU 
the analogy, which operates on the minds of those who form languages; 
and a more potent analogy, conducting to a more consummate regularity, 
cannot well be imagined. If the Being, who is accustomed to *Eso, when 
he wishes to denote some future action, is likewise acci^omed to ^E^; 
when he expresses some action present, there will necessarily* Qxifi^ ail 



diundant raqis of wclrdst in which he will be found to Elso and to Eo on 
the same oceasioa, or in xepresenting the same idea; and hence it 
1%, that a raoe of words would be generated » in which the future is 
Jbrmedy as tho Grammarians would tell us, from the {^resent, by changtng- 
£f into Esq. With this process of formation in his head, the simple 
Ovammwian is nt once lost and confounded. Having established this 
necessary dependance of the future on the present, which his own jargon 
only hag created ; he is not satisfied with the safe possession of a word iu 
EiOt till he lias discovered a verb in Ea, ffom which it (mgAt to be deri\icd/ 

la languages there ai)e no anomalies — there can be no anonulLes. Man: 
CMnot snempit to CQnvey an idea, unless the words are accommodated to 
some oMkp — form-^or analogy, which before existed. Tlie language of 
ourchihki^n, in endeavouring to express their meaning, is constructed on 
^ most scrupukms la^'S of the more general analegy; and if they 
are wpong, as we should call it, that is, if they cftqnd against the common 
usage of the language, it is in those cases, wliere a less general analogy 
hasopcfated in producit^ a ^race of wnrds, which are jnot yet so faimiliar 
to dieir knowledge. I <lo not say riiat insulated wards may not fac found 
i& «Tery }anguage, which we shall be unable to refer to any existing 
analogy; but these are the effects of change aod accident, about which 
die speaker is equally indifferent as he was about the existence of these 
analogies. I miHrt again repeat, that the Beings who have formed and 
who ulter language, care ngfthing and think nothing about die anonialies 
or analpgies with wtiich ft may abound : — ^11 however those Beings 
do not and cannot titter language without adopting words, which #ar^ 
iielatod to «ome analogy; and the anomalies, which anesaid to exist, will 
befemtidonly in the maxims of the Grammarian. Thus in Greek Oiraand 
UivifUL ai^e boCh accommodated to tlie mo^ ^imrliar analogies of that Ian* 
Ijoage. in tlie Oim, {Oisojthe speaker does, what he has been acciistomed 
ttl io in Ihe expressing something future; and in the Uytyu^, (Eenegha) he 
Ihib Ike sanie (forn^ wbioh be kis Jieen u^d to ^o(ft» when il)e expresses a 


introduction; jp^i]^ 

past action^— the preceding n (^^e^ and final ^fa;) and his terms are derive4 
from a race of words in which the sounds of Ois^yv JBnX: prevail, signify^ 
ing to bear — take, &c. In shorty they belong to what, in the language 
of my hypothesis, are called the ^^ements'^ and '^NK> which the reader will 
find discussed in the succeeding pages (265. ♦PS.) HEf hjowever o«r« an4 
Hwyx* (Oiso and Eentgka) are referred to the tame system, and called 
the Future and the Aortst of *i(*h then indeed, they are< truly . anomalies. 
But this, we perceive, is not an^' anomaly/ for : which the Greeks are 
answerable. They were totally unconscious oif this system,, and had 
formed these words according to the strict niiei of an d^sA^gy, whlc^ic 
was before impressed upon their minds. It is an anomaty, which existe 
only in the brain of the Grammarian, wha has entangled himself, andi 
others like himself, in the toils of hia own gibherisb. It. i& in learning this 
craft, that our poor boys are beatc» tomumn»ies by eticaged Pedagogues ^ 
and die precious days of youth are passing away, which cam never again 
be recalled or repaired. We may treat in the l^iguage of ri<ticiule the- 
inanity of the jargon; but emotions fardiflferent will be excited, whea we 
reflect on the enoraiity of the, abuse. 

I have now unfolded the general principles, on which my Theory 
is established ; and with respect to the various observations, which, might be 
made on the changes of letters,, and the modes by which they pass into* 
each other; I shall reserve the discussion of these points, till I atrlve at 
the examples, by which they are illustrated. The reader must be. con- 
tented to acquire the knowledge of this subject by a patient investigation, 
of the examptes themselves, from which he will gradually learn the stile 
— the manner — the genius (if I may so express it) of these mutations; 
and be himself enabled to apply the same principles widi effect and Success.. 
We have already seen, that different Radicals denoting the same object 
will each produce a series of vrords impregtiated with the same traiu o£ 
similar ideas. It will ^e instantly undccstoodv that the; first aittcm^t t<% 

i unfold 


unfold a subject of this nature will be encumbered witli difi^culties, which 
on a more ample view of the question would be converted into the 
fullest evidence for the illustration of the Theory. If, for example, I had 
undertaken to develope the Element '^RT, and had been desirous of con- 
vincing the reader, that certain ideas were attached to 'it, as denoting tlie 
Earthy because in other Elements, TR, &c. by which the name of the 
Earth is represented, the same ideas were to be found ; it is evident, that 
my illustrations must be necessarily imperfect, till the nature of those 
Elements had been fully discussed and unfolded. In such cases» which 
will perpetually occur, I must request from the patience and the justice 
of my reader, that he will suspend his judgment and repress his doubts, 
till more ample and expanded scenes are presented to his view. I have 
perhaps some claim on the confidence of the candid, when they consider 
the body of evidence, which I have adduced to illustrate the force of the 
Element CP ; nor have I ventured to explain the sense of any Radical, 
which I had not examined with equal diligence, and, I trust, with equal 

If it should be asked why I have chosen to commence my work 
with an illustration of the Element CB; I must answer, that my enquiries 
into the subject of languages were first excited by considering the force 
of this Element; and I have accordingly conducted the mind of the 
reader through the same train of ideas, in which I was myself originally 
occupied. On again reviewing, with the most attentive consideration, 
the various portions of my subject, which might have been chosen for the 
spot, where I could best plant my foot to impose the first motion on this 
world of words, I can discover no point, which would have proved more 
favourable to my purpose. The consideration of the name for the Earth 
is connected with a variety of important enquiries, which were but little 
adapted to the commencement of sucb a work. As I have before traced 
the pfO|;ress of my ideas through the various stages of this enquiry, I 




might now add the periods in which they occurred. This narrative is 
connected with a fact, which ought not to be concealed from the know- 
ledge of the reader, as it relates to my imperfect knowledge of the various 
languages, which I have ventured to unfold. In the spring of the year 
one thousand seven hundred and ninety-six I began to ^stiidy tlie Germaa 
and the Spanish languages; and in the winter of that year I applied my- 
self to the^ study of Arabic, Hebrew, and Persian. .In the spring of the 
succeeding year I had advanced far in my meditations on the Theory of 
Languages, and was already forming my conclusion, that in all languages 
the same Element qiust be impregnated with the same train of ideas. I 
had examined and ascertained the similar senses of the words in English, 
which were attached to the Element CP; and I applied myself for the 
confirmation of that idea to the evidence of the Hebrew. The first word,c 
to which I referred, was fortunately that, which I have produced from Mr. 
Parkhurst's Lexicon in the fourteenth page of the present volume; and 
it will be owned, that a more felicitous passage on such an occasion cpuld. 
not have been discovered. All my doubts on the subject at once vanislied :* 
I could no longer entertain any suspicions respecting the truth of my, 
hypothesis; and from that moment to the present, amids>t various and im- 
peding obstacles, I have laboured with unceasing solicitude in the ; pro<>>; 
secution of this enquiry. I thus detail with minuteness the little narrative; 
of private life, that the extent of my knowledge in the various r^ Ian*, 
guages, which I have attempted to elucidate, may be v^ell and duly 
understood. If the reader should tlien captiously scrutinize the precise • 
state of information, which I have acquired on these subjects; I might 
answer probably, with sufficient truth, that my knowledge in these various 
languages is sin^ilar to that portion of skill, with which perchance he himself 
may be furnished in the comprehension of the Greek. It is true, tliat 
I have not been able Within the short period of three years to interpret a 
passage in Hebrew — ^in Anibic or Persian, &ic. without the aasistancp. of a 
Lexicon or a. TransJatioB ; and I.hiuubly imagine^ that the gende,' reader,, 




after tbe study perhaps of thirty, would find many a passage, in Plato or 
Thucydides, Greek indeed to all the exertions of his skill, unless the kind 
translator were to impart his friendly assistance in the elucidation of the 
page. He vc\»y blush at his own ignorance, but he must lament that the 
praoious days of his youth were wasted in the fruitless labour of barren 
iilStitutions. I must be permitted to add, that in all the languages^ about 
^ich \ h{^¥e presumed familiarly to talk— ^J^e^^z^;, Arabic^ Persian^ 
Chat(fee, Striae, Irish, Welsh, Galic, &c. &c assisted by the guidance of 
a fi^ithful translation, I am able with sufficient readiness and facility to 
adjust a passage in all its parts according to its du^ meaning, and to 
stpatate the Radical from the various additions, with which it may be 
involved (torn the cofistructioa of the language. If any adept in tbe 
mysteries of Sanscrit Literature sliall produce before me a page of the 
Mohaa BhMr&t, tlve great Epic Poem of India, with a literal translation^ 


1 might v^^tupe, I think, to engage, that in my general arrangement of 
die words 1 should be found sufficiently faithful and correct. It wUI be 
naturally und^erstood, that errors would be frequently committed, and that 
oftentimes I shoukl be conipelled to confess my doubts or my ignorance : 
still however, I trust, it would be acknowledged, that my enquiries were 
directed by a sound and unilS^m principle, which failed only from the 
imperfect knowledge of the artist who adopted it* To this test I would 
Willingly submit the truth of my Theory; and a more infallible touchstone 
of its effect and extent cannot well be imagined. With the modem 
languages I may boast a more ^miliar acquaintance; yet in the few 
whieh^ I have endeavoured to speak — French, Italia?^, Gertnan, and 
Spanish, I have ever laboured in vain to acquire fluency and facility^ 
Yet even this circumstance was favourable to my enquiries: I endeavoured 
to supply that deficiency by number, which existed in the perfection of 
eaeh ; and when ¥ had learnt alt that I could acquire in one language, I 
proceediedto another. In advancing to this point I fimnd some speed andi 
piomptstttde; and tdus 1^ comparing many fimgnaget, I learnt tJie 



affinity of the whole. After this confession I perhaps ought not to obsenret 
what others indeed have perpetually noticed, that the £[icility of speaking 
languages is not only unconnected with the exertions of mind, but is 
even maited by the exercise of its powers. We know that our own 
language (which alone we perfecdy possess) is acquired at a period, 
when the faculties of reason are in their weakest ^te ; and we may hence 
learn, that as we recede from the mode, in which this perfection of Ian* 
guage is obtained, our progress in the art will be proportionably defective. 
I considered this narrative of my ignorance and my knowledge as alto* 
gether necessary for the purpose of detailing the resources of the writer, 
and of elucidating the genius of his Theory : — It may repress the pride of 
pompous learning, which has sounded the depths of Eastern and of Celtic 
Literature: It may encourage the exertions of humble industry, which 
pursues with ardour and with perseverance the traces of truth, wherever 
they may appear; and it will finally le^ to the confirmation of a maxim, 
without which nothing important can be performed — that every subject, 
which we are desirous of imfoiding by our researches, must be regaixied 
as totally unoccupied — as a question, which before had never been sub* 
mitted to the eyes of investigation, and which now for the first time was 
to be supplied from our exertions with its Laws and its Principles. 

Armed by this maxim, I might perhaps have negloeted to record the 
opinions of those, who have preceded me in the enquiries of Etymology; 
yet in the commencement of a work like this, I considered it at once 
just and becoming, to contrast tlie performances of the past with the pre- 
tensions of the present. Still- however I confined my attention to those, 
who were regarded as the most authentic and established of their race 
-~to Vossius and Martinius among the Latins, and to Skinner and Junius 
among thfe English. The opinions of the anciente, as of Varro, Fcstus, 
&c. I have commonly received as they are quoted in Vossius and Mar- 
tiniifi. I have recorded the words taken from the German language, 
precisely as they are represented by Skinner ami Junius; yet I must 

k * observe. 


observe, that the former approaches nearer tolhe present mode, in which 
that language is written ; and that the latter, under tlie title of AL or 
Alamanni, has considered tliis form of speech in its various stages, and 
produced the words, :M they have been exhibited in diiSferent periods of 
its progress. I have been dihgent to produce these more ancient forms, 
as the reader will learn, that the mutations arise only from the use of 
different vowels, or from different forms of the same cognate Consonants- 
With respect to. other enquirers, who are not yet raised to dae rank of 
authority^ I was unwilling to load my page with an unprofitable detail 
of their discordant opinions, when I discovered that they had enlarged 
the subject with no new axiom or principle; but that tliey differed only 
from their fellow labourers in the same craft, as Skinner might dissent from 
Junius, or Vossius from Martinius. To record indeed tlje conjectures of 
some, who have written compilations on this subject, would stain and 
degrade a page, which had not lost every appearance of reason and of 
decorum. I have even passed over in silence the observations of those, 
who have ranged through the whole compass of Mythological Learning; 
and who, guided by their unerring Radicals, have pursued the Heroes — 
the Gods and the Goddesses through all their varying forms and disguising 
garbs, and who are enabled to read the History of Reason in the Annals 
of Superstition. Jdn a future work, when I shall involve myself in the 
same labyrinth, it will be necessary forme to examine their opinions, and 
appreciate their system. With respect to the importance of their Radicals, 
the reader will bear in his own hands an infallible touchstone, by which 
they may be tried : He will discover, that however potent they may be 
in tracing the History of Gods, they are totally inadequate and inefHeient to 
discover the Language of Men. The learned author, who has enlightened 
the public by the Voyage of Nearckus, will, I trust, no longer ''tread on 
'* Oriental ground with hesitation ;" (Page 82.) as he may now learn, that 
wherever our footsteps range, we shall be still treading on English 
ground. Dr. Vincent will now discover, that the Chen-^6 is * the River,' 



or * Water in a Cranti^/ or Cana// This he will' own is no' inadequate 
definition of a River. The Avon, he observes, is certainly 'the :River;* 
but perhaps he is not aware that the Av is the Ab in the Chen-Av, and 
that the Avon is only Amnis under another form. The Voyage of NeavK 
ckus may be' regarded as a valuable accession to the stores of literature: It 
is a work dictated by the ardour of an investigating mind^ enriched by» 
learning and enlightened by candour. : ^ 

I havte already informed the reader, why the Element CB was 
adopted for the commencement of my work, and I trust he will duly, 
understand, that it is not my design to lay before him all the words evea 
in the English Language, which are annexed to this Radical. I have 
endeavoured to explain however all the important senses, which are anr. 
nexed to the Element; and, I trust, that he will find but little difficulty^ 
in referring to these ideas the greater portion of words, which -he mayl 
find in the Latin — tlie Greek and the English Languages. The part,* 
which I have undertaken, has, I trust, been performed. It was my design 
to prove, by a variety of examples, that a certain train of ideas pervaded 
the Element, though I could not be supposed to engage in the explanation^ 
of all the words, to which that Element is attached. Though I hav^^ 
proved by a sufficient numbei; of indisputable examples, that such a sense 
is annexed to the Element through a variety of languages;, it is not to be; 
imagined, that, in examining these several forms of speech, the reader, 
will discover proofsof its existence in all the words which that Radical may: 
supply. This task must be attempted by the adepts in each language, 
who can only be enjibled to decide on the derivation of peculiar words, 
by the most accurate and intimate acquaintance with the customs of the 
country — the genius of the people — their habits of life — -and the history 
of their language. It is from an application to these sources that I have 
discovered in the English — the Greek and the Latin the connexion of 
words, which on the first view appeared totally unconnected with each 
other, and derived from ideas altogether dissimilar and discordant. As my 
:>-']' •»!..' knowledge 


knowledge has advanced, or as I have been fortunate enough to discover 
the intermediate idea, the number of these connexions has been increased, 
and the links of the chain have become more defined-— more extended 
and compleat. 

I shall now close these various observations, which I con* 
eeived necessary for the previous information of my reader; and which 
I have endeavoured to detail in the most simple and familiar lan- 
guage, adapted to the free spirit of explanati(Mi, and removed from those 
bewildering forms of sotemn phraseology, in which these subjects have 
been commonly delivered. On the whole, I trust, it will be acknow* 
ledged, that the First Portion of the Etymolooicon Magnum will be 
found to perform all the purposes of its name, which tl>e dimensions of 
the work may be imagined to admit. More words could not well have 
been examined within the contracted limits of a single volume ; nor could 
there have been adopted a more free and frequent appeal to the principles 
of the Theory, on which the Doctrine is founded. The reader will, I 
trust, proceed with care — ^with patience and with candour in the prosecution 
of these enquiries. If we have reason to be satisfied with the plans and 
the devices of the artist — If bis principles are sound and his foundation* 
sttfe — we should look forward with an eye of favour and of confidence 
ti^the progress of the vvx>rk; and we may indulge perhaps the assurances^ 
0f hope, that the fabric will at last arise, — finished, if not perfect^ in all its 
part8^-*-d9Ef>0Ged by the proportions of art — and arranged in the symmetry 
of order. 



CB, CF, CP, CV. 




nr'O be hollow— to contain — comprehend-^nfbld — en^. 
A close — confine — ^retain — ^hoW. — ^te collect or l^ing 
together—to contract — ^to possess or take into po9sessi<Hi, 
&c. &c. &c. 

Hence f ^st. Names of garments — vessels — enclosures of 
any kind for the purposes of rest — safety'^abitation- 
venience^ &c. &c. i&c. 

&dly» To hold — contain — to collect or bring together — 
possess or take into possession in abundance — with design* 
POWER or effect; To catch at any thing frequently or eagerly 
'^to hold forcibly — seize vehemently. Hence words expressing 
plenty — riches — desire: Terms for instruments holding or held^ 
with their uses and properties: Names of animals distinguished 
by their eager or ravenous mode of taking their food or seizing 
on their prey. 

^dly. To have the power of holding or containingy 
&c.— i(? swell out — to be prominent — convex or concave^-' 
bowing, bending :-^To be raised high^^to be eminent^-^ihe 
top — the head. 9 TfiK 


Cave, Cavern, (Eng.) 
Cavea, Caverna, Cavo, (Lat.) 
Cave, Caverne. (Fr.) 
Cava, Caverna. (It) 
CUEVA. (Sp.) &c. &c. 
Cavus. (Lat.) 
mp CBB (Heb,) Cavum fecit. 

1)3 CP (Heb 

Curvitas, cavitas. 

vola manus. 

>)B3 CPP (Hcb.) Curvare, 
Kavv. (Celt.) Cavus. 

Kaff, Kaov,v (Celt.) 


Cavea, cavema. 

SKAB (Ar.) 

^.•i^KHF (Ar.) 

A Cave. 

THE words Cave^ Cavern, &€. Cucva, 
are referred by the Etymologists 
to the Latin Cavus; which is derived by 
Varro and Festus from Chaos : '* Cavum 
'* a Chao dictum ex ejus inanitate/' 
Vossius conjectures, that it may be de- 
duced from the Hebrew lip (CBB) 
'* cflywrn fecit;*' or from t)D (CP) curvitas, 
cavitas, and hence vola manus; which 
belongs to the verb f)Bl (CPP) curvare. 
We are informed likewise by VossLus 
that Covum was an ancient word for 
Coelum (koiXoit) or, as we now express 
it by a similar metaphor, tlie Vault of 
Heaven; or, with the same element, 
the Cope of Heaven. The Etymolo- 
gists are oot agreed respecting the pre- 
cise idea, which is annexed to this ex- 
pression ; and they have variously inter- 
preted the Cope ^ Heaven by the 
height^ the covering, and the cavity. 
Junius explains it by '* summum cce- 
'* lum;'* and Skinner observes, " Est 
** caelum reliqur mundi quasi Capi- 
«' tium — vel. q. d. sub cavo coeli." It 
will not be necessary, I trust, in the 
present case to decide on the doubts of 
our Etymologists, or to define the pecu- 
liar idea which is conveyed by this ex- 
pression ; as we may perceive that under 
every interpretation the word still re- 



/ ; 



• t - • 

CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 3 

tains the notion, which I have attributed to the original element. It may 
be observed in general, that the nature of this discussion will exempt both 
the writer arid the reader from the necessity of engaging in those barren 
enquiries, that labour to decide on the obscure shades of difference, by 
which similar notions are blended and confounded witli each other. In 
the present instance, the Cope of Heaven will impress the mind of 
the hearer, as it did that of the inventor, with a general idea; in which, 
from the nature of the subject, we cannot exclude either the notion of 
height, or of a cavity or a covering. This train of similar ideas is found 
combined in the object, and it is not separated in the conception. 

As the above observation is peculiarly applicable to the theory of tlie 
present investigation, it will be necessary for me to take advantage of the 
earliest occasion to explain and establish the principle on which it is 
founded. In the invention of Language, we shall readily perceive that the 
mind is at once active and passive ; as it is employed in producing the 
effects of contrivance without the consciousness of design. Languages are 
formed not by the labour of thought and enquiry, which scrupulously 
compares the sense of the elementary sound with the properties of the 
subject; but from that obscure and general impression, which neither 
doubts nor deliberates, but which at once appropriates the name to the 
object, from a confused and collectivie notion of the force and spirit of 
the element. . As the suggestion is prompt, and the feeling undefined, 
the mind stays not to select a contracted notion for an ample object, nor 
to confine within the limits of a partial sense the various properties of a 
general idea: It neither explains nor decides how much it attributes or de- 
nies : It does not communicate with itself for the purpose of adjusting or 
defining the boundaries of its own meaning: — Our conceptions enlarge 
or contract with the image, which is passing before our view; and as we are 
impressed with all which the subject embraces, so we exclude only because 
the case is limited. It is the duty therefore of him, who assumes the oflftce 
of unfolding language, to proceed on the same principles by which hu> 


* * ' I « 


guage wa^ originally formed : his style of interpretation should corKspond 
with the spirit of the invention ; and the maxims of his art slhould all be 
established on the ordinary operations of nature and of life. The ^explana-' 
tion of language should be employed in the detail of facts, not in dis- 
quisitions of theory and opinion: — It may be considered as a kind of 
mirror, which should faithfully reflect the image present to the mind^ 
whatever be the form or size of the dimensions. If the outlines of the ^ 

original are inaccurately defined, or the traits general and obscure, the 
reflected portrait must still preserve these features of resemblance ; and wc 
might justly condemn as at once false and ridiculous that species of repre* 
sentation, in which the image should be exhibited softened and contracted^ 
distinctly formed, and minutely defined. The interpretex therefore 
should be precise only when the nature of what is named imposes bounds 
on the meaning of the name ; nor should he venture to select a partial 
notion from a train of similar ideas, which all readily co-operate to form 
a general impression. In such a case, to define and separate is not the 
labour of art but of ignorance ; and the interpretation should be rejected 
as at once unfaithful and unskilful. In a word, accuracy of discrimi* 
nadon should consist only in that species of precision, which, by a clear 
and exact statement of the fact, scrupulously separates the true from the 
false, and minutely distinguishes that which is from that which is not. — It 
was necessary thus early in our discussion to mark this fetal deception, 
80 inveterate among the race of Etymologists, by which, under the idea 
of accuracy, they have so often imposed on themselves and their readers ; 
and by which their labours have been too frequently and j\istly represented 
as the idle efforts of false and futile enquiry. 

In the dialects of the Celtic, among the terms for Hollow we find 
Kaw; and the words answering to Cmea and Cavema are Kaff, Kaav, 
Kavam, (See Lhuyd sub vocibus cavus, cavea, and cavema.) In Arabic 
the appropriate names for a Cave are Kaab {y^^^y^Kehif (v.*i^/) ; and the 
iatter word is the title of a chapter in the Alcoran, wfaicfa relates the 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 


CovuM, coelum (KoiXok cavum.) 

The Cope of Heaven. 

Coping. (A term in Architecture.) 

Christian legend of the Seven Sleepers. It is called *' Al Kehif*' The Cave ; 
and the Sleepers themselves are denominated " Ashab al Kehif The Com- 
panions of the Cave. (See Richardson sub voce.) — ^To the expression of 
The Cope of Heaven we must here subjoin the various senses which are 
annexed to this sound; and we shall find that they are all mutually de-- 
rived from the notion belonging to the element. Coping is a term ii: 
architecture, and comprehends two of the senses annexed to the former 
expression. It means tlie top covering of a house, wall, &c. *' Vox 
Architectonica," says Skinner, ** ab A. S. Coppe, Apex, Culmen, Fastigium." 
He informs us likewise that the word occurs in the translation of the 

Bible, I. Kings, chap. vii. v. 9. It is 
used in the description of the palaces 
which Solomon built for himself and 
his wife, the daughter of Pharaoh. 
*' All these were of costly stones, ac- 
*' cording to the measures of hewed 
" stones, sawed with saws, witliin and 
Cupo. (Ital.) altus profundus. ** without, even from the foundation 

" unto the coping." Cupola is like- 
wise a term of architecture taken from 
this source, and is derived by Skinner 
from cupo, the Italian for altus, pro^ 
Agarment, There is another word in the lan- 
guage, which may here be referred to 
the " Cope of Heaven," and the 
mantle,&cc. *' Coping of a wall," &c. and the Idea 

which it conveys is that of a covering 
belonging to the person. Cope is an 
ancient term for a garment, and we 
find it peculiarly applied to the vest- 
c ment 


Cope. (Eng.) 
Cappe, Cop. (Sax.) 
Kappe. (Dutch) 
Cape, Cappe. (Fr.) 
Cappa. (It.) 
Kaaba. (Dan.) 
Kappa. (Islandic.) 




ment of a priest. The Etymologists have supplied us with a race of kindred 
words in other languages: Kappa, (Islandic) — Kaaba, (Danish) &c, &c. 
signifying a garment — cloke — mantle, &c. &c. The Cope of the Eccle- 
siastick is introduced by Rowley, in his admirable description of the 
proud and uncharitable Abbot. 

His Cope was all of Lyncolne clothe so fync. 
With a gold button fastened neere his chynne ; 
*' His autremete was edg'd with golden twynjfc. 
And his shoone pyke a loverd's mighte have binne. 
Full well it shewn he thoughtcn cost no sinne. 
The trammels of the palfrye pleasdc his sight, 
** For the horse-mil lanare his head with roses dighte." 

{The Balade of Chariiie, 50.) 
It were impossible for any powers of modern imagination to conjure 
up such a picture as the present : — It comes warm from the heart, and could 
only proceed from the mind of him, who had seen, and sometimes perhaps 
been forced to feel the pride and insolence which he describes. 

Notliing can better illustrate the pre- 

{To contend : To be joined sent state of our Etymology than the 
,, . ^ , derivations to be found in Skinner under 

together m contest. 

this word. — Cope, contendere, has been 
deduced from the German kopff, caput — xottJw, caedo — xo^rof, labor — the Latin 
competere — ^the Anglo-Saxon Cempa, miles, which Skinner thinks to be the 
most probable derivation. Under another article. Cope together, he gives 
the explanation of commit tere, and derives it from the French coupler, 
accoupler — the Italian coppiare, accopiare; and originally from the Latin 
ai!}(m^^; or finally from the former Cc/?<?, contendere. Junius explains 
Cope by mtitare, cemmutare, and he imagines it to be derived from the 
race of words belonging to *' Ceapman/* (Chapman) '* Mercator." " Ita 
dicunt Angli, to cope with one in fight, alias, to interchange blows.'' 
^Jun. sub. Cape.) The 8eparatk>» which Skinner makes of Cope in the 


CB, CF, CP, CV, Sec. 7 

sense of contendere, and that of catnmittere, is certainly a curious specimen 
of Etymological discernment. The reader surely will not doubt that Cope 
is derived from the idea contained in the element C P, " to hold — to get 
'* together/' as it is necessary to he joined or brought together for the pur- 
pose of contention. The original metaphor, whether it be that of inter^ 
changing ox joining, (both of which are derived from the same source) is still 
preserved in the adjuncts ^' to cope tvith or together.*' I have used, in my 
explanation of the ' element, the word enclose ; and this very expression, 'to 
close in with another,' is applied to the union of combat. The reader wiU 
not fail to recollect the phrases conserere, conferre manus, &c. &c. applied 
to the same subject by a similar metaphor. But the truth is, that Cope 
signified in our ancient language simply to come together, or be joined 
together, without any idea of combat or contention. So in Hamlet, 

Ha7n. — " Horatio, thou art e'en as just a man 

" As e'er my conversation cop'd withal." 

(Act 3. s. 2.) 
This in common language is expressed by one person joining in conversa- 
tion with another! Again, in the Rape o( Lucrece (Malone's ed. pag. 

" Mis-shapen Time, coPES-mate of ugly night." 
Cope is however some times used in a more peculiar sense. In Othello 

we have, 

** For I will make him tell the tale anew, 

'* Where, how, how oft, how long ago, and when 

" He hath and is again to cope your wife." 

f Othello, Act 4. IB. 1.) 
In Saxon, the familiar name for a lover is derived from this source. 
In Alfred's translation of St. Gregory's Pastoral Care, we find, '' Thu 
'' eart forlegen with manigne Copenere fornicata es cum multis amato- 
** ribus." (See Lye's Sax. Diet, sub voce.) 




Copula, &c. (Lat.) 
Couple, (Fr.) 

KuppELL, KoppEL. (Germ,) 
Coppola, Coppia, (Ital.) 
Couple. (Eng.) 

Tcompes, copula 

^13 CBL (Hcb.)] 

(^ ferrea llgare, 

CBL (Arab.) Fibula. 

'^M CPL (Heb.) duplicate. 

One of the words from which Skin- 
ner has brought Cope is copulare; and 
our Etymologists are agreed that Couple, 
Coppola^ &c. &c. are deduced from the 
Latin Copula. We may tlien ask, what 
is the origin of Copula ? Vossius de- 
rives it from nXoK^ or irXwLth which, by 
Metathesis, (says he) is copla ; or else 
from apio^ necto, quasi, coapida. In 
Martinius we find copula from compello. 
They have informed us, however, that 
CBL signifies, in Hebrew, to bind, and 
z fetter; in Arabic, a button; and that 
CPL in Hebrew means to double. Wc 
shall readily, I hope, admit, that co- 
pula, COPULARE, &c. to comprehend 
under one — to hold— join — tie toge- 
titer, are added to the race of 
words belonging to CP, and that they 

are fully possessed with the sense of the 
element. The \vords, with which tlie Etymologists have supplied us from 
Hebrew and Arabic, are to be added to the number. It may become an 
object of future discussion to investigate, why the L has found its place 
in words of this nature. 

We have already observed that the 
union of SC or SK in SCP or SKP 
sometimes belongs to the sense of the 
element, and that sometimes the S re- 
mains as a part of a compound, or is used to impose a negative meaning, 
after the manner of the Italians in tlie phrases Sferrare, to free from 


EscAPE,^quasi Es^cop'd, u7i'C0U^ 
Scape, j pled, or dis-united. 


CB, CF, C P, GV, &c, 9 


irons, &c. &c. In any case, Uie element, CP, oqght still to be faitlifui I 
to its original signification : Thus it is with the word Escape or Scape, 
which means to get free from hold or conjinement. It occurs in Romeo 
and Juliet, in conjunction with its original. 

When the Friar is recommending to Juliet the remedy of the en- 
trancing draught, in order to avoid the marriage with Paris, he says, 

" If, rather than to marry County Paris, 
'* Thou hast tlie strength of will to slay thyself ; 
*' Then is it likely thou wilt undertake 
" A thing like Death to chide away this shame, 
" That cop' St with Death itself to scape from it; 
" And if thou dar'st, I'll give thee remedy/' 

(Act 4. sc. 1.) 
Juliet is said to rope with Death, tliatshemaybe un-ccp'rf (if I may so 
express it) xxn-coupled or dis-united from it. — ^The origin of ex and capio Is 
barely recorded among the doubts of our Etymologists. 

Cup. (Eng.) This Element has supplied a very 

abundant race of words in every Ian- 

KuPH. (Germ.) guage to express the names of vessels for 

drinking — measures — buildings — hollows 

CuppE. (Anglo Sax.) or mclosures for the purpose of carrying 

'^preserving'-covering'^containing, &c. - 

CouPE.(Fr.) Cup, Cuph, &c. Cup el la 

are tlie various words collected by 

CoppA. (Ital.) Junius and Skinner for the name of 

a drinking vessel. (Sub. voce Cup.y 

CoPA. (Span.) Junius informs us that Martiaius de- 

rives KuTTfAAok from Ku^AXov, '' quia cavum 

CWPPAN. (Welch.) ^^.ad continendnm liquorcm infusum." 

J> Capis 




CVPELLON, (Gr. KwiXXa.)^ 
CUFELLON. (Gr. KufiXXc>.) 
CUPE. (Gr. Kwmi.) 


CUBBA, (Gn KvK«.) 

CuFos. (Gr. Kwf^.) 
Kop. (Dan. & Dutch.) 
Kopp. (Island.) 

Cafis, ^(Lat.) Poculum in sa- 


crificiis usitatum. 

CUPELLA. (Lat.) 

Capithe. (Gr. K«in8n-) Vasis genus. 









(Celt.) A cup. 

(Irish.) A cup. 

Capis is a very ancient word in the 
Latin language, and is derived by Varro 
** a capiendo, quod ansatse, ut prehendi 
*' possint, id est, capi.'' Vossius tells 
us that Kflwri8ii is enumerated by Julius 
Pollux among the names of measures, 
and appears to doubt whether capis be 
of Greek or of Latin origin. So little 
was he aware of the great race of words 
which belong to this signification. He 
imagines however, with Varro, that if 
Capis be derived from the Latin, the 
metaphor is taken from the handle, and 
not from the property of holdifig — con- 
taining. The Welch word Cwppan is 
referred by Davis to a Chaldaic origin ; 
and here the researches of our Etymo- 
logists appear to terminate. Among 
the Celtic names for * poculum' in 
Lhuyd, we find " Kuppan, Kupa, Ku- 
•' pan, Copan, Kuib'' Major Vallancey 
in his comparison of Latin and Irish 
words gives us as parallel to Cuppa the 
Irish " Cup, cop, from gob, the mouth.'* 
(Gram. p. 77. ed. 2d.) Gob, we per- 
ceive likewise, belongs to the Element, 
and means that which contains — taies 
in — holds, &c. This is to be referred to 
Savium — Cibus, &c. a race of words 
which will afford an ample subject of 
future investigation. In Arabic, Kd),. 


Kab. (Arab.) 

CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 

A cup, &c. 


KuB. y(Ar. & Pers.) 
y^Wi) A cup— 4 ewer. 

Kab^ki. (Ar.) A box. 




Fungus^s-^a milk-dish. 
A flaggon — ^a swelling. 

which I have before produced in the 

signification of a Cave, means likewise, 

^- 'f A cup, a wooden dish, holding as 

'* much as a man may drink at a 

. *' draught 2. xhe hidden meaning 

'* (of a speech.)'' The next article is iffl*€/, a littte box or casket; and in 

the two succeeding instances we have " Kaberi, hard, avaricious;*' (or, as 

he might have said, covetous) " bad." 
Kabel. *• ** Mushrooms, funguses. 
^ *' A milk-dish." And in the same 
opening of the Dictionary I find ujtlJ 
^l/f (Pers.) 1- ** A kind oi flaggon with 
f* handles. ^- A pimple, a sivclling — 
" stand, stop, halt.'' This word is fully 
possessed with the sense of tlie element. 
— It is to be observed that Kub signifies 
in tlie Arabic language ** A cup, or any other similar vessel without spout 
<' or handle;" and in Persian it means " A ewer or water-pot." (Rich- 
ardson sub voce.) That the same idea is annexed to the element CP in the 
Arabic and Persian languages, which we have delivered in our hypothesis, 
the senses that are attached to it in the half page now before me of Rich- 
ardson's Dictionary might convince the candid and intelligent reader. As 
one of the meanings belonging to the above word we find, " largeness of 
•' HEAD with a slender neck." Kubel signifies ^- *' A bubble on water or 

'' wine." -• " The herb pillitory." 
Kupele. ^' '* Gibbons:' 2. ** a lock, a 
bolt." KubL !•'' A drum," (says Rich- 
ardson) " formed of two kettles joined 
'* on their convex sides, and covered 
^' with a skin." ^ ''A vessel in which 
** butter is separated from the milk — ■- 

" Kupc, 

Kubel. JuA/^(Pers.) a bubble. 
KuBE. ^(Pers.) A drum — ^a cup- 
^j^ ( ping-glass. 



^* Kup6, 2L surgeon's cupping-glass/' Even m these few wt>rds / \ye may 
perceive the general idea, which possesses the element, and which includes 
the leading notions belonging to my explanation. — A cupping-glafs rnay 
appear on the first view a strange i^dmbination, as if it had been exprcsised 
zcupping-eup. The truth is, Xhzi cupping originally signified the perform* 
ance of a certain operation by means of .a cup; but asthfe brigiiv was after- 
wards forgotten, the idea only remained of the operation, and the word 
glass was then added to express the instrument. Let me add that in this 
page of Richardson I find Kubal m^ex^\2iXi z shoe-maker ; and tlie reader 
will perhsTps smile \Vhen he recollects- our English words cobble and cobler: 
the coiriciHence however : is too striking to pass unnoticed ; an4 as they 
belong to the present element, they will become the subject of a future 
enquiry. /iT^A?/ or ifj^A/' signifies, in Arabic, a wooden bowl, and a s/iull; 

: ' and ATAw/? means in Persian, "Earthen 
''jars (of all sizes, with or without 
".handles, for wine, oil, ointment, 
^' &c.)" In the opening of Rich- 
ar4son's Dictionary now before me^ 
pag. 763, tlie reader would again be 
convinced of the signification which 
is annexed to this element in the Per^ 
sian and Arabic languages. K/ieb 
means, in Persian, deceit^ in Arabic, 
the rising or " agitaiiorC' oi the sea — . 
" a wave — surge'' — " a low hillock of 
f* sand'' — " a deceiver." Khyba, in 
sea — a hillock of Arabic, signifies ^ rustic tent. Khu" 

Ifuat^ " a woman who just shews 
" her face to men,: and then witlj- 
^* draws or covers herself." Khubak, 
^' /' A stable, a circular fold for cattle.'* 

^' " Strangling," 

) (Arjjb,) 
Kyhf,3 a wooden bowl. 


An eartlien pot, 

Kheb, (Pers.) 

Deceit — the rising 
QV agitfition of the 

sand — a deceiver. 

Khyba. (Arab.) A tent, 

CB, CF. CP^iCV, kc. « 




for cattle — ^strapgUng. 

Khubr. (Ar.) A bag^bottle. 

; ( 

Kheeus. {At.) AliQTX seizing prey. 

A woman ca- ^ '* Strangling/' Khubr or iiC AeAr, '' a 

, I ^ #* large bag or bottle." Khebus, " (a 

vcring; her face. . ^ ■ \ ^ 

. ** \\on) seizing prty.*^ Khebe, in Per* 
(Ar.) A circular fold sian, 'significis-fitraogulation — abscQpc^* 

ing — '* tlie stitcliing or closing up of a 
^* vein." Khebi, in Arabic, means 
^' concealed, secret, mysterious" — and 
Khebiyct " a lurking place, hidden" 
—and ' Khebiden, in Persian, f^ to ^br* 
'(Per.)Strangulation-ab- ** scond, to retire." I have chosen 

this method of illustrating niy hypothe- 
sis, instead of jH'oducing, the varioua 
temis with this element in Arabic and 
Persian, which signify a vessel, cup,. 
&c. in order to convince tlie reader 
that my reasoning is not founded on a 
6peci« of fcoof, which might have 
arisen fiiom an accident^J.coppyrrencc^. 
but that the^dement CB really possesses 
in these languages the signification of holding-^'^ontaining-r'Covering — rising 
and swelli?tg — convex — concave, &c. &c. and^that from hence the names o£ 

cups, vessels. Sec: have been immediately derived.~But th^jppst curious 


and striking proof, that the name for a Cup has been deduced from 
the ideas which I have attributed to the Element, will be found in the 
Hebrew language; and the authority 'which I shall produce is expressed 
in terms so pointed and significant, fthkt it would have been impossible for 
me to invent a passage more pregnant -^ith materials to confirm and illustrate 
my hypothesis. Gebba, (as the -sound 'of itnisrepretented by Taylor) 
signifies both a aip nnd a /mY// but»as Packhilrstia^ems to have been 
tt}oro\^ghly impres^d with the tfue^ense 'belonging. to this H^b^ewpjf^^t^ 

KiiEB£. <^ sconding^the closing 

of a vein, 
Khebi. (Ar.) Concealed. 
Khebiyet. (Ar.) A lurking place. 
Khebiden. (Per.) To abscond. 



y:i3 Gebba. (Heb.) A cup. :i3 GB, I shall detail the explanation 

/Ti I. \ T- • . ^^'^^ fr^"^ his Lexicon — ^a populan and 

(Heb.) Eminent— pro- . . . .•,.../. 

m my opmion a judicious compilation. 

rnuGfi-^ iViinent-vaultecl-arched — I must be understood to spealc only 

/ . , , , , of the form and arrangement of his 

V -raised-bowed-bent, , •. i . . , 

work, as it relates to words : — I cannot 

Gibbous, &c. be supposed to approve of Theological 

discussions in a Lexicon, which is de- 
fined for an introduction to the knowledge of Hebrew. *' ma*' GB 
*• •* To be highi eminent, prominent, g^/^iw/^." — •• /'A vaulted or arched 
'• chamber, such as prostitutes dwell in. — So Fornix, a vault, (whence 
^* Eng. fvmicatian,) in the Latin writers is used for a brothel. — ^' ** Pro- 
^* minent heaps or ridges of earth." — ^ '* The higher or eminent part of 
^ an altar.'^— ^ '* The back of a man considered as raised, bowed or bent.'^ 
— ^ " The bosses'oT umbos of shields, which project in the middle of them.** 
— ^r. «< The prominent flesh over the eye-brows, or the eye-brows them- 
" selves/^ — ^' ^* The bmdmg felloes or rings of wheels." — 5* «< a species of 
^ locust or sctirabieus^ from their gibbous form." — ^^ " A cavity, pit-^ 
*' Gibbous, crooked or hump-backed — a cheeese. — In Syriac and Arabic the 
** verb signifies to coaguUrte, condense — a mountain of gibbosities, i. c. 
'^ abounding with hillocks or protuberancies — elands cultivated or ploughed 
^ 8& as to form ridges.''--^ consider this passage as singularly curious. , 

, Lye has observed under the word 
Cv9'-board. Cup in Junius, ** Hinc Cvv-board, 

*• corrupte CvB-baard, Abacus, locus 
Court Cvv4f0ard. ** proprie, in quo pocula reponuntur." 

In diese cases, when similar ideas meet, 

k is* tiot possible to bo determined m our choice. It may either signify 

^at Lye imagines it to do, or it may mean more generally ^' a containing, 

^ hcMkig^board." We may 6om hence understand the sense of an 

- expression 

J^. f iV^ ^^ ^djtf^ 

CB, CF, CP, CV/ &c. 


lxvf&» SCYPHUS. 

Skafis. (Gr.) Vas lign^um. 

expression in Shakspeare, of which our Ck)mmentators know not the 
derivation. A ^ Court Cup*board' occurs in Romeo and Juliet^ (Act 1. 
s. 5.) and in many of our ancient writers. Mr, Mslone has rightly ex^ 
plained it by ^^ z recess fitted up with shelves to C(^»/tfm plate, &c." In this 
description he has defined accurately every part of th^ compound, though 
he is not aware of his own precision. Court returns to its originai sense of 
an enclosure, such as it exists in the words cot, cadus, ice, Uc. and from 
which the sense of a royal precinct is itself derived. A Court Cup^board is 
a hold fitted up to contain. Such compounds with nearly the same meaning 
perpetually occur. 

Though Skinner and Junius have 
explained Cup by Scyphus, they have 
not seen that Cup and Scyphus are of 
the same origin. This the reader will 
readily acknowledge, when he con- 
siders the mode by which sounds are blended with each other. Athenasus 
imagines that rxvf^ is quasi Xictri&*, because the Scythians were adicted to 
drinking; or, according to others, <niuf0* (he observes) is ^vo m^ cnafJ^^ 
which is vas ligneum. Vossius conjectures that it is derived from the 

Hebrew ZPHT, which signifies the 
same, though in order to refer tlie word 
entirely to a Grecian origin, he adds, 
that ffxu^ as well as ^otfn may be de- 
rived from «Tt«T7«, and that both should 
be considered as navigiiim excava- 
TUM. This he imagines to be the 
origin of the fable, which represents 
Hercules as sailing in a cup. No one, 
I suppose, can doubt the truth of my 
hypothesis, which refers all these words 
'KAPETOs.(Gr.)Ka«4^«^Fossa9&)vea» to the element of CP. O^r Englisl^ 


nflBV ZPHT (Heb.) Scyphus. 

Skafe. (Or.) \ 

Scaphus, C3rmba. 

Skapto. (Or.) ZxaitIai. Fodio, cavo. 



letter C (as we have before observed) (;ontains the sounds of S and Ki 
as in city, cup, &c. and we shall not wonder that as tliey pass into, eadh 
Other, a race of words should be formed which poiscsses the combined 
pounds represented by their different symbol?. In our pronunciation howt 
ever of scyphus the sound of C (as K) is disregarded, and the sound of 
it as S only is retained; yet even with tliis minute variation, the similarity 
of sn/phiis and cup has beoh compleady hidden from tlie eyes of Skinner 
and Junius. Let me add that the substantive for ^«V7m is found in its 
simpler form i^owivF^, fossa, foveat \ ' ' 

' . . . ■ • • . • 

Ship, (Eng-) Scip, (A. S.) 

• To the word Scafe and its correspond- 
ing term Scafos, (ffmph p-h^^^, Scaplia) 
• we must add the names of vessels for 
SKip/(Goth.) SKIBi (Run.) suiting on the watery which are to be 

found in so many languages, ShipM^ Sdp^ 

ScHiPF. (Germ.) Skib. (Dan,) ' &c* SHff; and which Iwe beea coU 

• lected by our Etymologists, Skmner 

ScHiP. (Dut.) Skieph, (Sued.) and Junius. It was necessary thus 

early in our disc(ission to bring for^ 
ward these collections before the eyes 
of the reader, that from the view of 
ScAPHA. (Lat.) EsQVip. (Fn) • instances so general and familiar, he 

< ' might be fully possessed witli the idea 
SciFFo. (It.) Skiff, (Eng.) which I aralabouring t9 establish. If 

in objects so important and universal 

we find that the Element has thus prc-^ 

dominated in such a variety of lan« 

guages, we shall be prepared fully to understand that its influence would 

be widely extciVded to instances less obvious a^d fiiiniliir..: : : V » /. ;* 



&C. &0. 

CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 


Cap, (Eng.) Cceppe. (a. S.) 

Cap. (Cymr.) Cappe. (Fr.) 
Cappa. (It.) Cap A. (Span.) 

Cappa. (Lat.) Pileus. 

&CC. &c. 

As the names for vessels have been 
supplied from this source, so we shall 

Ka?P£. (Teut. Bel. & Dan.) find that the terms for dress, the coverings 

of die person, have been furnished with 
an abundant race of words, which are 
derived from the same Element. The 
covtjring for the head, Cap, &c. &c, 
will first claim our attention, and the 

Capane. (Gr.) K«ir«wi a helmet. knowledge of our English Etymolo- 

gists is confined only to a collection 
of tlie words which are marked with 
this peculiar signification. That this 
race of words may be immediately de- 
rived from caput f &c. cannot be denied; 
but as caput itself^ with its numerous 
derivatives, belongs to the same train 
of ideas, it is sufficient for us to mark 
their coincidence, without deciding on 
the order in which they were gene- 
rated. — ^Thc French critics acknow- 
ledge that Chapeau is comiected with 
capcllum and cappe; and chaplct has 
been explained by capitis rcdimiculum 
and un chapeau " dc Roses." (Skinner 
and Menage.) Let me add tliat x«7r«i^, 
which is applied by the Etymologists 
with some doubt to diis origin, pos- 
sesses likewise the sense of the Element, 

when it signifies prasepe and rheda.--^To cap, as a covering for the head, 

must be referred Coif, with its correspondent terms in other languages. 

By Menage and the Spanish E^tymologists these words are derived from the 

F Hebrew 

Chapeau. (Fr. 
Chaplet. (Eng») &c. 

Coif. (Eng.) 

CaiFFE. (Fr.) 

CuFFiA. (It.) CoFiA. (Span,) 



Hebrew and the Arabic. Neither Junius nor Skinner have referred Coiff 
&c« to Capf &c* and the former is of opinion that they liave some affinity 
to Ilivey which in many languages signifies the covering for the head. 


r(Gr.) Pallium, lectistra- 


A species of garment. 

We hare seen under the word Cope, that CP signifies the covering of 
dress in general, and we shall find that it means likewise tlie partial cover- 
ing of any ornament or appendage to garments belonging to the person : 
It is used moreover to express a covering to any object, whatever be its 
nature, though we shall restrict our present illustration to that which par- 
ticularly refers to dreu — ornaments of garnients — furniture^ &c. Cup as 

in Greek (xu^raj) signifies a cloak, and 
the covering of a bed, Cupasis is a s|>e- 
cies of garment, which is expressed by 
the Latin Supparum, where the reader 
will see the same Element SP. Sup^ 
parum or Supparus is a very ancient 
word in the Latin language. Varjco 
says (De Ling. Lat.) ** Capitium ab 
** eo, quod capit pectus, — altcrum 
** quod subtus a quo Subucula: al- 
'* terum, quod supra, a quo Supparus, 
" nisi quod id dicunt Osce." (Marti- 
nius sub. voce.) Festus says, *' Sup- 
parus dicebatur lineum puellaritm 
indumentum, quod et subucula ap- 
*' pellabatur, ut ait Pomponius in Ful- 
" Ionia, item omne velum, quod ex 
** lino est. Nunc autem vestem con- 
•* secratam suppanun vocamus : et nunc 

" supparos 

Kuirao-K (Tf^t^w/Aa, xoti j(%r^m ft Jive*} 



(^ A woman's garment. 

Shubar. (Gipsey.) A gown. 

(Gipsey.) The blanket 
CoppER.-<( or covering stretched 

over their tent. 
Copper. (Eng.) A vessel. 



CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 19 

** supparos dicimus vela linca in crucem expansa." — This word occura 
likewise in the Gipsey language, as the dress of a female — Siiubar 
a gown. Copper means too in that language the covering or blanket 
stretched over their tents; and afterwards, I believe, a blanket in general. 
Copper in English, we know, means an enclosure of another kind — 
z vessel to boil water f &c. he. By Hesychius, KuTrao-*? is interpreted a belt 
or zone, and a species of garment ; and in the opening of Alberti's Edition 
of this Lexicographer now before me, I find the Element to signify a ship 
— dwellings — Iwllow vessels — holes — protuberances — cupsy ice. Let me add 
that the words belonging to CP only occupy one half of the pages now 
before me ; and that I have likewise omitted many words which cannot be 
explained without a more ample view of my hypothesis. Kuwa*. Eii^n wwc 

Tsro 7^ raf rsov irptxdjy xxrxrfftCtii, >c) rec^ tuv eufoicov SotXocvaq, zx fAtra^opocg xvttoc^h^ A£y8<ru 
O ii Sioffxar^, irfOMinctv n^ct rti^ irtvxfii >^ m; Trirui^y Kwafov ir^oa-xyo^evet* KvvtXXa* 
Ilmnfutm Ru^fAAoK. EiJ^ vcrm^ix cuns* Kuini. T^uyXa. Kuir^K- Hofyfi* Qllce Cap it 

scilicet : Usurpatur etiam pro virgine honesta, quae capax est, vel quae capere 
pote<it. Hinc Venus Kuw-jk nominatur. Ab hoc fonte etiam oritur mulieris 
nomen in variis linguis. Kuttj©*. Mbt^^v (nm^iov* KuVI«. KxfAiflit, Mvro? xAiva. 
With respect to these words in Hesychius, the reader cannot doubt, I ima- 
gine, my explanation of Ku^f^j when he considers the sense of xxmri; and 
this will be confirmed by another article in the same place, where we find 
JLuwareu* Kivcuioi, fAaXaxot. There is no necessity to read with Alberti xxmuSarai, 
ki order to make it agree with what he has read (as he supposes) in some 
unpublished epigram, in which these xiv«uJo* are called Troglodytes (rfwyAoJuTou.) 
It is strange that Kircher has not seen in his account of the " Venus Apha- 
*' citis, Anaitis, Cabar," that the celebrated Venus of the Arabs, before the 
time of Mahomet, called Cabar, is nothing but the ATw/^m of the Greeks. 
If my derivation ofKwfK should be the true one, the Venus of the Arabs 
i& not derived from the idea of Cabar, ma gnus, as Cedrenus and others 





-The Arabic Venus, 

Gaupe. (Fr.) Mcretrix. 
Jap PER. (Fr.) Latrare, 
Gape — oap. (Eng,) 
Jape. (Eng.) Sensu obscaeno. 
Jaf. (Ar.) ^b^ a prostitute. 

imagine. (See Kircher's (Edipus 
iEgyptiacus, vol. 1. p. 347.) It is for 
this reason that Gaupe signified in old 
French Meretrix. " Je ne veux icy 
^* omettre, que les anciens Gaulois ap-- 
" peloient les paillardes gaupesy' says 
Trippault, who derives it from gausape^ 
a dress which they wore. Menage is 
ignorant of this sense, and informs us 
tliat in his time it signified " une ser- 
** vante ou une grosse femme mal pro- 
'* pre." It is for this reason (from the 
rictia) that japper in French signifies 
to bark : our word gape (from the cliap^ 
chop, or gap of the opened mouth) is of 
the same origin. But this belongs more 
properly to another portion of my en- 
quiry. It is from hence likewsc.that 
Jape is used in old English as the JjSitin futuo. In Arabic Jaf(\^\j^) signi- 
fies a prostitute, and in the Celtic I find Giovar, Khyfoden, or, as it might 
be, Kyf'fodcn; where in foden we see the French piitain. Menage has; 
not seen that/?w/ain belongs iofutwo. — My authority for this sense of Jape 
is taken from a passage, which contains the most pointed illustration of a 
very singular word in the Poems attributed to Rowley. This word it 
Bestoikerre; and it is explained by Chattcrton and Millcs Deceiver. 
In the Love-Dialogua by the Minstrplls, in the Tragedy of iEUa, the 
woman answers to tlie amorous address of the man, 

^^ No, Bestoikerre, I wylle go. (91.) 
Again, when Birtha is brought into the wood by Celmpnde, for the pur- 
pose of gratifying his adulterous passion, she cries out in the last extremity,. 

'' No, 



(Celt.) Meretrix. 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c- 21 

*' No, foul Bestoykerre, I wylle rende the ayre, 

Tylle dethe do staic mie dynne, or somme kynde roder heare. 
Holpe! Holpc! OhGoddel (1063, &c.) 
In Pakgrave^s French Grammar, Anno.* 1530, we find the following passage, 
^' I /flrpeawench, Je fous, — and je bistocque. — It is better to jape a 
^^ wench than to do worce. II vault mieulx foutre une fiUe que de faire 
'' pis; as for bestocquer it is a fayned worde, for it betokenetli properly 
*' to stabbe or to foi/ne.*' (Palsgrave's Gram, sub voce Jape,) By a fayned 
word our author means a term used in a metaphorical sense ; and the readef 
will now perceive that Bestoiker is quasi Be-sticker — a Sticker or 

Stabber. It is curious that Shakspeare 

has used the very terms adopted in the 

Bestocqtier. To stick or stab. i ,. r n i o. 1 1 j 

* explanation of Palsgrave, — Stabbe and 

Foyne, with tlie same metaphorical allusion. (Hostess speaking of FalstafF). 

'* Alas the day! take heed of him: he stabbed me in my own. house, 

•'/ and that most beastly, in good faith : a' cares not what mischief he doth, 

if his weapon be out: he will foin like any devil, he will spare neither 

man, woman, nor child.*' (2d. Pt. of H. ♦th. a. 2. s. 1.) {Doll Tear-Sheet 

to FalstafF.) ** Thou whore-son, little tidy Bartholomew boar-pig, when 

*' wilt thou leave fighting o* days and foinino o* nights, and begin to patch 

*' up thine old body for heaven." (A. 2. s. 4.) Mr. Bryant imagines (p. 108) 

that Bestoikerrc was mistaken by Chatterton for another word, and Mr. 

Tyrwhitt has produced an article in Kersey's Dictionary, ^' To Bestoike, to 

*^ betray," which he is ^ persuaded misled Chatterton.' (p. 168.) I shall 

not insult the understanding of my reader by urging that it is the fate of 

til is boy to discover words in their tvrong sense, and to apply them with 

their fullest force in the right. — It is not necessary, I trust, to add, that 

our discussions are not destined to amuse or enlighten those, whose fastidi^ 

ous or rather foul imaginations can lose all relish for the spirit of the 

criticism to distinguish only the dregs which are involved with it. 

G These 



These are words, about which our 
Garb. (Eng.) Etymologists are perfectly in the dark. 

Menage says, " Ce met gar bo est de 
Garbe. (Fr.) " difficile origine." Skinner derives 

GARB from the Anglo-Saxon Gearwe^ 
Garbo. (Ital.) gearwian, and the Dutch Gaefwen, 

gerwen. The reader will instantly per* 
Garment. (Eng.) ceive that it belongs to the Element 

CB (or GB), and he will readily ac- 
knowledge tEat thfe insertion of the R is no impediment to the truth of 
the hypothesis. In the pronouncing of father and farther we are oftentimes 
unable to distinguish the sound of R; and frequently we find by a pecu- 
liarity of accent that tliey change places witli each other. The original 
sense of garb is a dress — covering or ornamenting of the person; or as Lye 
rightly explains it, omatns, habitus : It afterwards means ** decor,-gratia, 
*^ gestusy* as it is interpreted by Skinner; or as Menage expresses it under 
garbe, ^' Pair, la mine d' une personne." Garb, as Skinner informs us 
under another article, means in the language of heraldry a sheaf or bundle 
of corn. This likewise contains the sense belonging to die Element, and 
points out the truth of the former explanation. Garment is quasi garb-^it, 

the enfolding G/irb. It is nothing but 

{(Vox Fcecialium.) *^^^ ordinary change of the B into the 

M. — Garment is not, as the Etymolo- 
Fasciculus segetum. gists suppox^ quasi gafyiiment. Gabar- 

dine with its corresponding words in 
------•-•.-- other languages, (which are to be found 

in our Etymok)gist2s) is to be referred to 
Gabardine. (Eng.) the word Garb: in these the R does 

not appear. It is defined by Skinner 
to be "^ tunica postoritia ccassior ex 


CB, CF, CP, C\% &c. 




Gabanio, &c. 
Gaban. (Fr.) 
Gavan. (Span.) 



'* Bourtonne. 
" Nevylle. 
" Bourtonne. 

panno coactili facta;'* and it is derived, 
according to hira, from the German 
word gabe, ^* donum et verbo, •^ to 
" give;'' from tiie cloaths called Li- 
very, annually given by masters to 
servants — ^The nature of this dress is 
not, I think, quite manifest. The Jew- 
ish Gaberdine of Shylock is in the re*- 
collection of the reader, and it appears 
in the poems attributed to Rowley, as 
Milles thinks, to be a coarse cloak 
worn by soldiers. It occurs, among 
other places, in the Tournament. 
I claim the passage. 
I contake thie waie. 

Then there's mie gauntlette onn my gaberdyneJ' 
These lines contain a very singular word; the peculiar meaning of which 
appears to have been well understood by Chatterton as an author; but if we 
judge of his silence, unknown to him as a commentator: — For such (as I 
understand) are the offices with which he is irrevocably invested by the 
decision of the Public. Passage is an appropriate term in the language of 

chivalry. ** Passage of a man of 

(f Rowley.) armes, pas.'' (Palsgrave's Fr. Gram- 

^ ' (A term in chivalry. mar, 1530. fol. 53.) So in Cotgrave's 

Dictionary we find " Pas^ also a strait 
** narrow passage, or strait path; and such a passage kept by one or more 
*' knights against aH commers, and thence also a Toumay'' (Sub voce 
pas.) From this source is derived our word Garbage^ to signify the bowels: 
Skinner deduces it from the former word garb fasciculus ** quia intestina 
•' in abdomine instar fascis convoluta et colligata videntur." It is com- 
pounded, I think, of garb or gab and bag — what is enclosed in tlie bag or 



belly. The Bag in the Teutonic languages signifies the belly (Bauchf 
Germ.) BG means in all languages a swelling — protuberance — hollow, &c. 
This is the origin of the word Giblets, anseris trunculh The application of 
trunciili is from the same metaphor — the res contenta from the res continens. 

Carpet is another word which be- 
Cakpet, (Eng.) longs to this Element, and it means 

simply 2i covering;. Our Etymologists 
Cakpetta. (ItaK) are again lost without a glimpse to guide 

their \sranderiiigs. Junius derives it 
&c. &c, from K«firio<«i, which in Hesychius is 

explained xajotif «r ptirgarc ; and Skinner 
imagines that ^* it is compounded of Cairo, the city in iEgypt, and the 
*^ Italian word Tapeto, quasi tapes Cairinus."' Such is the state of our 
researches in the subject of Etymology ! 

As the letter R has found its place after the breathing included in the 
Element, so we shall acknowledge that tlie same letter piay be likewise 
inserted 'befi^re it; As facts are finaHy to, operate, on ;our decision, we 
must again recur to the same simple method of determining our judgement, 
to which we have appealed in former instances,— From hence is derive4 

Cravatte, which Menage deduce^ 
Cravatte, (Fr,) A neckcloth. from the Croats, who are ordinarily 

called, as he says, Cravates. It was in 
Crabbat. (In Skinner.) the year 1636, according to him, that 

this ornanicnt was adopted in France, 
and borrowed from the Croats. (See likewise Skinner, sub Crabbat,) I have 
not leisure to ascertain the preciae time at which this ornament was used in 
France; but I well know that the Element CRV and CRVT is very 
universal to signify an enclosing of some species or other. The former is 
often used to express some violence or eagerness in the action, and sometimes 
it is applied simply to express the act of holding — co7itaining'-^nclosing pr 
covering. The reader will instantly rpcoUect Gripe (which has found it«, 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 




QllAV£. , G{100V£. 



Greaves. Gripos. (Gr.) A net. 


Gi^ipey9. (Gr.) A fisherman. 


G,Ri<y£i.££, (Fr.) Petite vokrie. 
Gravir— Griper, (Fr.) Rapere. 

. > 1 

Crabbatvs, (Gr.) Lectus. 
Grabbat^^- (Lat.) 

. ' 

Gra^at. (Fr.) 
■ Crupto. (Gr.) To cover, 
Crapat. (Bretagnp.) Ancr^r. 


(Ir.)' Etonne, jravi, 

V saisi 

de passion. 

Kraft, (Germ.) Power, might. 

w?ty into so many languages)-— ^rijp— 
grave — groove — crop — crib, &c. &c. 
The French words, griper, &c. are pro- 
perly referred by ^f enag^i &c. to yf *▼©•, 
Rete and ypMriu? PiBcator, &c. &C; and 
this will explain to the French Etymolo- 
gists a great rac^ of words, which J 
have not leisure to enumerate. Hence 
comes GriveUe petite volerie (and no* 
as Menage supposes from the bird called 

grive) — gravir, rapere, &c, &c. A% 

« * 

this race of words will be more properly 
the subject of future investigation, I 
shall not in this place enlarge the cata- 
logue. Belonging to CRVT, we shall 
instantly recollect xfaCCarO** &c. as the 
name of a bed — xf uir7«, tego, to cover, 
&c. &c. The derivation of KfoCCar®* 
from *^ Kpfjuair T«f f «(riK smpendendo gradu : 
" quod, qui eo scderent pedibus terram 
" contingere non possent," is a lively 
specimen of etymological dexterity. 
In the Bretagne language crapat sig- 
nifies to cast anchor (Bullet sub. voce) 
and craptha in Irish means seised with 
any violent passion or emotion. (Id. 
sub. voce, p. 375.) In Bullet we find 
in this same page '* Crap, prise, saisie, 


•' G. Voycz. Crab, crapaf, crapin, craf. 
•^ On voit par la qu'on dit indifferem- 
'* mcnt, crab, craf, crap.'' So united 

H 19 



Craft. (Eng,) 


is this Element with the idea of holding 
^--<onfini7ig, &c. &c. that in the Teu- 
tonic languages it supplies the familiar 
term for strength — -force — power ^ &c. 
Kraft is the German word for m,ight 
— strength — power — -faculty, &c. We 
shall find in tliat language a great race 
of words connected with this idea. In 
English, Graft signifies the sahie ap^ 
plied to the powers of the mind. We 
find likewise that* in the f^ranco-Theo- 
tisca, Chraft or Kraft is vis, potestas. 
(See Skinner siib Voce Craft.) In Ju* 
nius we are properly informed that 
Craft in Chaucer signifies strength ; and 
that crap raptio, and adff, harpago, 
CoRfiAtiN.'(Span.) A neckcldh. fibula, are used in the Welch language. 

In Lhuyd I find likewise Krap inter- 
preted ^Awte; and in the Gipsey- lan- 
guage Crfl/lf-nis signifies buttons. This 
is, in my opinion, ftLtremely curious. 
The Spanish word for a neckcloth is 
Corbatin ; in which wie «fc that the R is inserted -ifter the symbol of the 
breathing, by which CB is sounded. It is the word Craxmtte under another 
form. If we were disposed to lum Corbatin into Greek, it might be Cor^ 
batine OT Carbatin^. Now this very word uafCarm signifies a ^ covering fbr 
the feet — tl rustic species of ' shoe-^-furi Af ^ (says Hesychius) viroJti/A« «yfoixix©K 
Iq short this is the universal sense and spirit of the Element, 

Chraft. ^ 

v(Fraiico-Theotisc. ) 
Kraft. } 

CrApt. f Ghtfucer.) Sfrength. 

CkAFF.'(Wt!ch.) narpago, fibula. 
Krap. (Lhiiyd.) FiblHa. 
Graftnis. (Oipsey.) Buttons. 



A species of shoe. 


1 CB, <2r, CP, GVv 

CtaRiir (BrJ) JFrom ^is jaotijrce I derii^ Cawpis 

(Kfirnr) S0CCU3, jand its xrotiespondtiig 

XfLati) 3w»i;d Creptd A;in l^m.-^Thfiy sitiiply 

Crsfida. ^ •meanirouer^iyg^yv or^ iflma^soeKpi^ 

tA species of shoe. it, claspings^m the feet. They M€^Tiat 

: taken from^e noise (crepare) wiuijh in 
our langm^e is called the creaking of the shoe. This derivation the 
reader will not, I thinks doubt, iwhen Jhe jrecoUects .that .%i^k signifies 

CiEEBiDo — ^tiiB banh-^rr^rdcT or bound-- 

CxBVis. (Gr,) ary of a stream — that which ^cor^nes or 

-- keepsiu the waten Wq now see that 

f(Lat-) ^mk— ^harder O^^"^ and Crepida, m^ JJrcpidros, 
Crepido. \ &c. (Gr.) — Corbat-in (Stpan.}-^tfr6tff- 

\ of a water. j^^^^ ^Qj.^ ^i^ nothing but words with 

the same Element applied to coverings 
for diflferent -parts of the person. This Element is likewise used to express 
Aie\imclfkure of a wood or grove. So in the Poems attributed to Howley, 

" Gravots far ken'd around the Ermiet's cell." 

(Eclog. 1. 24.) 
Gr^v^ts. XJrpve. Coppice. *' Gravots/' says Chatterton, *' groves, 

'' sometimes used for a Coppice." The 
reader'wiil obsesve in the word Cop-piae, that CP is again employed for 
die mme puipose.---i-Th£ Element pursues us under all forms, and is strll' 
fitfthfulta it^yfiice. I am led likewise to conjecture that Crepo in Latin, 

signifying to utter a sound— ji?igle — 
Crepo. '. rattle, &c. are derived from some oma^ 

ments of the person, and probably of 

Grepundium. the feet, which were of this species ; 

and not that the ornaments themselves 
Cs^EPiTAiCULUM^ were derived from tlie noise. Crepun- 

. Jdia . indeed i^ignifies the baubles and 



rattles of children — but it likewise signifies the first coverings which children 
wear — sxvaddling cloaths, &c. and they appear to have beqn peculiarly 
a[pplicd to that species of cloathing, called in Greek y^ta^itriMrat and in Latin 
ynomimenta, which distinguished infants when they were exposed. liM 
curious that Chepitacula means in Lucretius, (as Vossius observes) 
'* Omanicnta, quas pueris in collo appendi solent." Martinius says, 
*' Crepundia, piicrilialudicra; a crcpando, crepitaculis enim pueri delec* 
" tantur. Hinc etiam fascia^ quibus inyolvuntur infantes a Plinio Cre-f 
** pundia dicuntur/* Martinius could not have expressed the idea, which 
I annex to the word, in a more pointed manner, nor could he have given 
a worse reason for his own. — ^The clasping or aifolding of an enfant in 
swaddling cloaths is surely not very aptly derived from the bauble or the 
rattle of a boy. 

Cuff has two senses — 3, blow, and 

{A blow, and part of the t^^* P^^^ ^^ ^^^ garment which is near 
J the hands. These senses, we perceive, 

dress near tlie hand. y^^y^ ^ connexion with each .others 

though the Etymologists know nothing 
of their coincidence. Junius denies Cuff as a part of the dress from 
^ Coife:* " Quodvis integumentum, maxime vcro capitis;" and I beseech 
the reader not to doubt the fidelity of my quotation, when I transcribe his 
reason. '* Atque inde forte Anglis Cuffes dicti sunt limbi linei c APUT^^mtfniV 
/* caru?n contegcntes ac munientes." Cwjf signifying a blow is derived by 
/Junius from xoxa^, and by Skinner from xo»7«. Lye observes that Kiep 
in Danish signifies /1/5/w, a club; and Kaupatyan in Gothic colapkos ingerere ; 
from whence he derives the English and the Danish words. It would be 
no improbable conjecture (after the many instances already produced re- 
specting this Element) to suppose that Cuff originally meant the handi— 
that which holds, &c. and thus the senses of Cuff would coincide with 
^ach other and with my hypothesisr. But as I do not deal with conjee* 
\ures but with facts, I must inform the reader that this Element is very 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. • 29 

universally applied in the Eastern languages to signify the hand. Kef, 

s^SJ^ in Persian means the Hand — 
Kep. (Pers.) The hand. the palmi &c, and the verb KufMtn 

(<i>^J^) ^^ Cuff, is^iKrthing but the * 
KtJFTEN. (Pers.) To cuff. English ^vord with the termination 

(ten) of the Persian infinitive. It sig- 
fHeb.^ nifies, says Richardson, " To break, 

CP \ ^*. bruise, knock, strike^ smite, beat. 

The palm of the hand. .. thrash, shake, trample under foot, 

'* tread upon;" and both in Arabic 

Carpos. (Gr.) Carpus. (Lat.) and Persian Zurb (Vj^) ^^^ 

{^^S) are respectively die appropriate 
CiB. (Celt.) The hand. terms for a Blow or cuff. In He- 

brew t]3 (CP) signifies the Palm of the 
Zurb— KuB, (Ar. & Pers.) A blow. hand. T*hls word means likewise, 

I. " To airve, bend, inflect. II. The 
" word is used for appeasing of anger or wrath. — In like manner the 
*' classical Latin writers say, flectere iras. III. The bend or holloxv of any 
" thing. *• The bend, curve, hollow, or palm of the hand. — •• The bend, 
hollow, or sole of the foot. — ^ A spoon. — ^ The bend of a sling, the 
bending piece of leadier wherein the stone is put. — s- The Iwllow, cup, 
** or acetabulum of the os coxendicis or hip bone. IV. A large bending 
branch of a tree. — V. The great vaulted boundaries of the Mundane 
system. — ^VI. Caves, caverns in the earth." These are the very words of 
Mr. Parkhurst (in the first edition of his Lexicon) which he has given us 
as the explanation of CP >)3. He adds, by way of derivatives from this 
Element, *• Cave, cavity, cavern, excavate, cup, cope, cap ;" and then, with 
a ^uafc? " coop, cove, alcove. The Latin cdpiop whence capacious^ capacity.'^ 
Mr. Parkhurst is an adventurous conjecturer in die business of derivation ; 
and such is the extent of his researches in the discovery of this Element. 
We shall find however that in the Hebrew language the force of it is 

I eminentiy 




eminently distinguished, and I have chosen this popular compilation on 
the present occasion, as I preferred it on a former one ; because the Author 
appeared to have justly and fully conceived the genuine meaning of the 
words in Hebrew belonging to this Element. In Greek and Latin^ K»p^, 
Carpus, relates to the hand. It is commonly explained to be jwnctura 
fnaniu cum brachio, or by some the wrist. Every one remembers that 
Venus is wounded by Diomed in this part; and the interpretation of the 
Scholiast refers us to the hollow of the hand, whatever might be the precise 

Ax^njf irrao-f J(fi(» [AiraXfAi^^ o^fi ^et?aiu. 



" JlpjlJL¥w uTif Jfvaf©»." (11. £• v. 335, &c.) 

'* Tum protensa manu magnanimi Tydei fiiius 
" Summam vulneravit manum insiliens acuto aere. 

" Extremam supra volant.'* 
Which the Scholiast explains thus — " Tirtf to fo^arov t» xoix» ttj? x^i^* ^^ 

*' ti TO fAlTft^U TH XlXflWt fotKTVXH Xftl TS fUyOt^B. TO O'OLpwSti XAI XOlAov T9); X^fO**" ^This 

part, which the Scholiast describes as the xoixov m^ x^i^» ^^ called afterwards 
the xofii^. 

'* YiMv^iia fAty vfiaroy 9^ttop wran ^nf tin KAPIIIl* 

(E. V. 4*58.) 

** Venerem quidem primum cominus vulneravit manu ad caj-pum.'* 
Here says the Scholiast, ** Em row ko^op mt xj^fQ*, ci¥a x^f«, ivx"?***' The part 
described by Homer to be wounded is, I imagine, that part of the hand 
in which the fiollow or die icor^ir^ begins. This spot he particularly points 
out in the first description ; — in the second he uses the general term for. the 
whole ; as the extremity of the jtagw^ must be likewise a part of it. — It 


CB, CF, CP, ev, &ۥ 31 

appears to liavc been afterwards misunderstood by the Greeks, as if M(ir&» 
was tlie appropriate term for the part wounded ; and hence it is described 
zsjunctura mantes cum brachio. — ^There is one passage however that decides 
tlie original signification of the word to be that of the palm or hollow of 
the hand. It occurs in the Argonautics of Orpheus, that precious and 
delightful morsel of antiquity. — ^When Orpheus touched his lyre, in the 
cave of Chiron ; — ^when he sung of ancient Chaos — of creative Love^^oi 
SatUTTir-'^i jMe-'-oi Bi'imo — oi Bacchus— oi the Giants — and of"Mau*s 
" feeble race ; — ^wfaen (the trees torn from their roots) the beasts and the; 
birds all thronged around the cave, listening to his strains — 

^* Av7af 0(69 KsirroufO' Ac^Zu^ xfi(* m KAPIUl 

(Argonaut, v. 438-9.) 
Obstupe^cit videns haec Centaurus> manum crebro manui complodens, 
terram fericns ungulis. 

'^ All this in wild amaze tlie Centaur saw : 

And with hi3 hoofs hard on the ground he beat ; 

And palm to palm enraptured oft he struck. 

In plaudits loud and long." 
CiB in the Celtic signifies likewise a hand (Shaw's Diet, sub voce) ; 
and wc shall have little doubt, I imagine, from these instances of the 
meaning which I have annexed to Cuff. I must add moreover that the 
name for this appendage of dress is derived in Spanish and in French from 
the same source. Punos are Cuffs and ruffles, from pugnus, the hand or 
fist; and Manches, wc all know, is derived from Manns. I cannot leave 
the present article without observing, that our vulgar word Lam, to striker 
beat, &c. is to be referred to the Greek Laml/zno through a similar 
medium. In the Irish Dialect of the Celtic, Lam is the hand. (Vallancey's 
Gram. p. 122, 1st. ed.) Patma — Palam6 — the Palm of the hand, is a 
compound of PL and Lam, and literally means the Ball (or the swelling 
hollow) of the Lam otHand. Lam often appears under the form of Lav, 




as fam&ano becomes hbe {xctCh cXaCf) ; and in the Welch LUiw, the consonant 
V slides into the vowel sound of U or O. 

We have before observed that a great race ftf words is to be refciTcd 
to this origin, which signify an enclosing for the purpose of rest — safety — 
habitation — covering, &c, &c. and here it must be remarked that I have 
been frequently obliged to anticipate my subject, and to use, in various 
explanations, a term derived from the Element CP, before I had found 
it expedient in the order of my arrangements to refer* that word to a similar 
origin. This word is Cover, and though it is employed to convey a 

peculiar and appropriate idea, yet it 
Cover, (Eiig.y Couvrir. (Fr.) comprehends a very large portion of 

the general sense which I have at-' 
CoPRiRE. (Ital.) CuBRiR. (Span.) tributed to tlie Element. — ^Cover, &c. 

(says Junius) " manifeste sunt ex coope- 
CoPERio — CooPERio. (Lat) *' rire" Cooperio is not derived from 

CO or con and opcrio; nor is aperio or 
---------- operio deduced from pario. — Aperio 

(say tlie Etymologists) is derived from 

CHABA.)(Heb.) To hide, cover, P"^''^^ and is properly used ^^ de partu, 

V *^ quo id quod in utero latebat, patcfit/ 

Kin } conceal. <« Similiter contrariura ejus operire — ' 

^' factum ex ob et parere" This is all 
which is known of these words. Coperio, or (as it is written from its ima-- 
ginary origin) cooper io belongs to cover, &c. Aperio and operio are both 
derived from over, or the Greek uper (wif) because sometimes that which 
is OVER us becomes thereby disclosed and apparent, &c. and in other casefs^ 
that which is over us becomes an instrument to enclose or cover us. This;* 
is the word which we find used to express the covering or the hiding of 


C B, C F, C P, CV, &c. SS 

Adam, when he wis first seized with the debasing emotions of fear and 
shame from the fatal knowledge of good and evil. '' And the Lord God 
^ called unto Adam, and said unto him. Where art thou ? And he said, 
•* I heard thy voice in the garden ; and I was afraid because I was naked, 
•^ and I hid mjrself/' (Gen, III. v. 9. 10.) — I covered myself. Chaba KIM 
*' To hide, to cover, to conceal," says Taylor. Mr. Parkhurst, who has 
conceived that the letter Cheth is only an aspiration like H, and not a direct 
CorKf derives, with a quasre. Hubbub from this word. — ^There is a very 
curious term belonging to this Hebrew root, which will afford us a subject of 

enquiry — ^unoccupied by the Commen* 
Cacabus.^ tators and the Critics. Cacabtis, itaK»i^^ 

S A pot to boil food. means in Latin and Greek a pot or vessel 

^*^^* y in which food is boiled ; and it appears 

to have been a word of very ancient 
Chabeh. nin (Heb.) The same. usage. (Vid. Athenaeum Lib. 4. Cap. 

20.) We find xaxaCn in Julius Pollux, 
Cacave. (Gipsey.) A kettle. (Lib. 6. 90.) and thus it ought to be 

written, according to the unpublislied 
Lexicon of Photius. Mteris however says that xaxxuSn was Attic, and 
juiwMiCO^ common. (See the Commentators on Hesychius.) The difficulty 
of this word is, that it stands alone, and that all the terms for vessels arc 
represented only by CB. The addition of Ca is explained by the 
Etymologists by deriving it from ««• uro, and xaCu, cibus. Others deduce it 
" a sono fervoris ; fervendo enim exprimit hunc sonum, ca, ca, ca.'' In the 
Hebrew language the very same species of vessel, as it should seem, is 
expressed by the simple root CB. nin (Chabeh) means in Hebrew, says 
Taylor, '* Sartagines, cacabi, an utensil in or on which meat offerings 
*' were cooked." The Gipsey word for a kettle is Cacave; which means, 
I believe, the kettle, and Cav6'v&, as I imagine, the true representative for, 
the name of tlie vessel. Nothing is so common through tlie whole compass 
of language, as to find words derived and formed from the omission or the 

K addition 


addition of the term representing tlic article. In taking down a spoken 
language from the mouth of another, especially if the speaker be himseM' 
ignorant of the nature and form of his own language, the greatest care 
and attention must be paid to this circumstance. Mr, Bryant and the 
Collector of Gipsey words in Grellman have been betrayed hito various 
mistakes arising from this source ; and particularly from confounding sen- 
tences with words. Ke or ka is, I believe, one of the Gipsey articles. If 
however it be not the article, it is the termination of a case, according to 
Grellman, (p. 153.) both in the Gipsey and in the Hindoo languages; (See 
likewise Halhed's Gram. p. 88.) and this will equally account for the con- 
fusion. There is a received notion among the writers of Prosody, tliat the 
j>enultima in Cacabus is short. It may possibly however be common, as in 
the Gipsey pronunciation it is long Cacavc; and let me add for the honour 
of Gipsey Prosody, that some of the MSS of Julius Pollux read xaxaeCn. 

As Tto and T^ff signify the opposite affections with the same Element, 
so Sub and Super bear the same relation to each other; and may be 

derived from die idea conveyed by CP, 

SuPER.^ the covering— ihQ covered ^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ possessed in our language 

V two prepositions of this nature, such as 

Sub. ) —the above— the under, ^^jght ^^ve been Cover and Cove. The 

idea of covering, as we before ob- 
served, necessarily includes in it, the surrounding and the surrounded — the 
above and the under. This every one knows to be the artifice of language 
in all its operations. The various accidents belonging to an idea are ex- 
pressed by the same Element, with certain variations to distinguish the one 
from the other. Coop-men^ — Coop-er/wm — CovER-m^ — CovER-erf, &c. 
&c. &e. In the French language Over and Under are with difficulty dis- 
tinguished (dessus — dessous) in the pronunciation of foreigners. In the 
Italian we have sopra^-^di sopra, &c. &c. It would be a curious Research to 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 35 

discover the origin of the terms to express above and below in various lan- 
guages; and tliough I imagine to myself that I have discovered tlie clue, 
it would at present lead me to an unwarrantable digression ; and I fear 
moreover that the reader is not yet sufficiently possessed with the spirit of 
tlie enquiry to engage in tlie disquisition. The terms in Arabic and Persian 
for Over and Under are precisely as they are in the Latin, of which we may 
justly wonder that the Etymologists have not been aware. Zuber or 


Zeber, (for it is represented in both 

Zubur—Zeber.-^ ways by Richardson) signifies in Persian 

(Pers.) Super. Super; and Sheer in Persian and Ara- 
yU ) bic means Sub. We may well imagine 

tliat terms of this common import 
Sheer, vvi^ (Pers. & Ar.) Sub. would supply these languages with a 

plentiful family of words bearing a kin- 
dred meaning; and we shall readily perceive that the names of Eastern 
dignity, of power and subordination, may be derived from this source : 
The names of Saib^ Shuba, &c. &c. so familiar to our ears, must be 
referred therefore to this origin. %ubt is the Arabic for a government, 

and Zaubit is a governour. Saheb — 
ZuBT. La^ (Ar.) A government. Sahib, (SAHB) means in the Arabic 

rr I I • / A \ A and Persian '* A lord, master, a sjeat 

Zaubit. LjU? (Ar.) A governor. xv^ioia v. , ^ovv. , ^ivat 

*' man, a governour, or chief;" and 
Saheb. ^(Ar. & Pers.) Soubah is another word of the same 

, 4 , import. — Sophi has been adopted in 

Xj^)A governour. , ,. , 

tlie English language from the East, to 

Soubah. au^ (Ar.) A ruler. express peculiarly '* the King of Per- 

, „ ^ ** sia;" and Soji means likewise what 

SoPHi. ^(Pers. & Ar.) ^ i • ^ i i . , 

' 0-0^^ does m Greek, " wise and intcl- 

he King of Persia. ** ligent." We have borrowed more- 

over another term from the Persian — 
Soplia (Sofi) to express one of the 






SoFos. lof^. (Or.) Wise. 

SopHA. (Eng.) 
SoPE. ajjad (Pcts,) 

familiar objects of houshold furniture* 
We perceive diat in all these cases die 
words are still faithful to the sense of 
die Element. Sophos or Soji is what 
might be expressed with the same Ele- 
ment and sense capax ; and Sopha is an 
enclosure for the purpose of rest, &c. 
— It will not be necessary for us to cor- 
rect with Hyde the error (which some 
have adopted) respecting the tide of 
Sophi and the name of Sephi: — ^We may observe however that the title of 
Sophi, (according to Gjannabius) was derived from a prince, who belonged 
to the religious order among the Persians called the Sophi — v-ofou (Hyde dc 
Rel. Pers. Praef.) From the opposite ideas annexed to the Element SB in 
Super and Sub — Zubur and Sheeb, is derived the name for the Morning and 

the Evening in the Eastern languages. 
Sebah in Arabic signifies the Morning;^ 
and we shall not doubt that it is derived 
from the idea contained in Super, when 
we see in the same page of Richard- 
son's Dictionary (in which this word 
occurs) that Sebaa signifies, *' *• Rising 
(a star.) •• Coming forth (a tooth, 
nail, &c.) 3- Watching the mo- 
tions, or rushing upon (an enemy)." 
In Persian S/ieb signifies the Night. 
To which we must refer the Greek 
Zofos, (^«f©*iCaligo) a word, that has^much disturbed and divided the Etymo- 
logists. Among the ancient writers ^^f®* is peculiarly applied to «^-terrancous 
darkness, — that darkness which belongs to the setting Sun and the gloom of 
the infernal regions. It occiub perpetually in Homer. In tlie Odyssey we 


Sbbah. ^Um9 (At.) Morning. 
SEBAA.^(Ar.) '* Risifig, (a star)" 
Uai9 3 Q^^h the Super or over. 
Sheb.\ (Pers.) 

Night, (quasi J die Sub. 


{Worshippers of the 




CB, CF, CP,. CV, &c. J 37 

have Hin y»( f«^o»x»** w« ^9poy (r. 335. Jam cnim lumen ivitsub occasum,) 

where we find a combination of similar 

f (Gr.) Quasi Sub-us. Sub- t^^™^ belonging to the same object. 

ZoFos.s The wo ^o^ is, as if wercf, sub sub-um. 

(terraneous place & gloom m^ often joined with tjc^ouc to express 

the gloom of Tartarus. * ' 

^* Aihii i* fXocx^v Z04K>N fif^nifft* 

** Plutoni autem obvenSre tcnebraer caligiiiosae.*^ 

(II. O. v; ISL) 
In Orpheus this ^i/^erraneous region is described with' an acc\miulatiofi of 
imagery, expressing the idea which I have attributed to the word. 

Etenim jam aliquando ad caliginem obscuram, extremas in latebrdsi 
simplicis in abyssum terras, solus ab hominibus pervenisti, atque invenisti- 

<* reditum." (Orphei Argonaut, v. 90, &c,) To the idea contained in 

Super we must refer the Persian word Sipehr (for thus Richardson repke*- 

sente j%f^) " The Sphere, the celestial globe— the world/* I beneech 

the reader to observe the interpretation 

Sipehr. (Pers.) The Sphere. oi Sipehr by Sphere. This word like- 

wise. Sphere— tSphaira (y»<»»g») ■ ■ » 

Spbira. (Gr.) Sph^ra, belongs to the same race, and 

means that which mc&»ef-<r4he Super ; 

Spira. (Lat.) Globus. ^nd hence we have Speira . (rm^) . 

Spira, that which is wound or folded 

Speur. (Galic.) The Sky. over (^r super,) ^/b^2(^,2tc. In Galic 

Sfbur is ''..The Sky*— firmameai/* 

This word occurs in Ossian's Dream of Malviha, wJien > she calls on the 


departed Spirits to open their gates of the clouds, and their Halis i^ the 
Skies-^" Tatlanan SrEVjip-* .-.i: ' . , 

I, '. • '* 'Se 




^^fSegnA ftriwm;m<> ruin a tha/nn, 

^V*OK 's iaitontoqh, guraislin Mhalmhin' thu, 

• ^. IFoQgluibh'^ Mi^A { fWi Sp&ur 
> - ^h Al^ni Qaair'^paiv eiuaidh-bheum ; 

^' ,Tfba>fietimna, MJbalml^pe go dian." 
" It was the voice of my love ! few are his visits to the dreams of Malvina. 
'* Open yom/ahyilfalbi ycrfiuhers ofjiriighty Tosca«; unfold the gates of 
** your ClWUdf . . : .Tlii steps of Malvina's departure are nigh/' (See Shaw's 
Andytis 'cf Ifac Galk tlingUage, poi}4f5^i&c.) U is. fi;om hence, I imaginej 
that the idbhitry sb celebrattid in the east,; upder th«;pame of Sabiaup re- 
ceived its origin. The' 5^/iWw> as every one knows, were the adorers of 
the stars; and therefiwpe die diligentobgervers of^^ and settings of 
these luminaries. '^^ They are oWi^ed'to^ray ^ea times a day: — ^the first, 
M biblf ah hour or less befiEm^ sim nrise^Vbrderilng it aoipthatrthey mayjust 
^^ 40 4lveL Sum* > risei^i finish' eight ladoritiona, ^each.icontaiiiing : tfar€^ jprostra** 
'^i^iiiwcf^Aie^secoiul 'puayaf they !.^d at. i»w^' iWh^altihejsun ..Iwginsita* 
'^^-^il^tine? i ini MJj^ing .[which .they rp*rforra':.fiv0i sudi adorations as >the. 
*^ fotmAr :I and.fthe samfe -Aey do ; Jtbevihird time, endingl j ust as tfee sun 
**J x«»;-^(Sale'sj/Konm. Preliminary Discourse, pag. 15.) I have not leisure 
to ^e^cainiM zxkSU appreciate the .Varioii&etymologies which, have been given 
of-^ri^'WWRii <riiatrace"4he fortunes of this sect from the days of Abraham 
t^Adi^^i^^ble»ited:e^:Cxinfi)\]iii^ '^ the obscure remHant'' . of .the: 

Mftgt « ^lte-^fti6erF.i.>(:Ci^^ p. 385.) Spencer prefers the 

o^itmo)) o£>Scaliger)/ who.'thinkeL.ihat jZabiim signifies Qrientak Or .Chair! 
Sttak\^ (Leg. Hefo. libJ i&/ :ci;:K)- though some derive it from the Arabic 
i^t^7^^i)9^Jwhich?^i^nifies the £fftf.wind, because (sayi Calmet] Mdiese" 
*^ jpWfli»i^^f^^<2h^ anid known by the name of OrimtalsS' Both 

th«^ derivkions accord' widihiyidea^ ElemeM Spr, r/V?2^:r as d)i6 

EasI A^.thea^rtbtl^f iriiiTi^J'. The names for the East ^^diWest mitet^faay^^ 
been perpetually connected with the idea of thing nH^settiAg-^^ietui'^ 

CB, C F, C P,! .CY,i ^. ! ' 39 

m>»riKn---'Min-gm'Umde(Germi»Morrttn^^4aiidJ.key icc—^vnt; occidens, 
&c. ice. &G.'' As Diabim stgmfieS the eefst tvind-, ftova the i(|ea contained 
in Super, »> we shall not wohdier that i%g^ttr0«.(Qr.< Ztfu^) Zephyrus, 
agnifies the wsi wind ^m Ihe notion eon^oyed t^^y^. T^is is the 

'ongiiicii^fwtfmi'zxidVc^perf the 6ven-» 
Zefuros. (Gr.) kig.r^The words are S^ra and >Seper 

^^, (as in Zefiiros)— {he Svb— 4tie un^^ 
Zefhyrus. (Lat.) The west windpi Mtev^itbe scttin^^: The breathiqg be- 

*» i^.foretheS'is theremiiant of sometl^ing, 
E-Spera. (Gr.} V t'l .iifAiic1i!M^>used perh^ 

' for the Article. That Ec»fe« refers ta 

VE-SPER, (Lat.) The evening.. : the 5^6— tibe setting 5un, and not so 

^ . •; / : 1 ' much torthb gentoU'ideaof the tortr 

part of the day- oij evenirrg, is plain from -the distinietiton of -4mman/tt5 

between'' E(nrf(« and 0\)4f. ^ ^^ Ed^iri^a:^ O^i ftaft^H' Em(a [Ai¥ ya( «<r7i> ATOMENOT 
^f TOT HAIOT* ' '0\^ff h, 6(»iMti ^ f^ ofliyw ;^ovov. Aift riile i^v^o^iitAtrip, O^^ rn? 

? «l|E*f(le^" (Ammon. sub voce.)! Let not the accidental coincidence of 
Z^r-^CB-^Fesper — £fpmi'with 5iiper, perplex the reader ip his decision;, 
ds if these words ought rather to have related to the morning than the 
«;enin^-^the tiWn^ than the 5€«iw^ ; as the sole point to be established is 
the existence of the two opposite ideas in the Element SB. This is sufficient 
for the formatiot) of a race of words belonging to ea(;b notion; and a 
slriiilarity of terminations expressing opposite ideas is not more to be re- 
garded than ian accidental coincidence in the form of active and of. 
passive vcribs, as audientis — audiendis, &c. &c. &c. The opposite terms 
of East and fFe^r are distinguished only, by the breathing before ""St. 
The^e is ' ariotihet dcrivatioti of Siibians, which refers to ^ word 
used in our Liturgy, where the Deity is addressed as " the Lord God of 
** Sabaotfr — ^the Lord offfosts. This word (Sabaoth) has been interpreted 
by the greatest Etymologist of the age — the day of the Sabath; and it is 
sdinefwhat curious- that thit^ anecdote of superlatiwiig^ranc^ siiQiild 9jSbrd 
. •?** - me 


me the only occasion in which I have thought it necessary to repeat, <)n a, 
point of Etymology, the name of Dr, Johnson — z, writer who has com-, 
posed the most voluminous and celebrated Dictionary of the English lan- 
guage. Alas ! such, gentle reader, is the fate of our language and our 
literature! *' Ad stellarum cultum se convertere,'* (says Hyde, Hist. 
Rel. Vet. Pers. c. 3.) " est Sabaa. Vera autem etymologia (^etenda est 
" ex lingua Hebraica ; nempe Arab. U^ Sabaa, sabaizavit est a Nlif Saba, 
" cxercitus, copia; nam cum colerent tQtum cseli exercitum (ut Scriptura 
monet) talis cultor rectc vocatur *Niy Sabdi, Sabaita, q. d. Copiarius, 
seu copiarum coelestium cultor." That the word Saba signifies a luHt'^ 
company— troop J &c. in Hebrew, ist:ertain; and it is to be added to the 
race of words related to the Element CB,. SB, &c. as every significatfdiF 
of this word abounds with the sense of the Element. Copiariiis, we 
sec, is a term belonging to the same family. In Parkhurst we find 

that n-lj: SBH, means to " elate, 

^ ,,- , . ''buff up, swell, tumify.^ — ^The 

Saba. ^.(Heb.) ,^ ,. «. 

f '* toad from his swelhng, or, according^ 

Wlif 3^^^*®> esercitus. ** to others, the tortoise, from tUe./vi^ 

" gid form of his shell — the caoering 
Sip AH. oLyw (Pers.) An army. ^* or tilt of a waggon or carriage fromt 

'* its protuberant form — to swell in* 
Sepoys.^ — ^Sabaoth. " number, assemble or go in multitudes 

*' or troops — to go in troops to war — an 
CiPAYEs. (Fr.) " army, an host.'" From this eastern 

sense of a troop of soldiers annexed to 
SiPAHi.VPcrs.) Military, belong- the Element SB, the name Sepoys is, 
r . derived — the body cnr troop of natives 

<^p ' ^ ' ^' in the service of the East India Com* 

pany. The reader surely but little 
imagined that the word Sabaoth, which he had so often repeated on one 
occasion, was the parallel term to Sepoy, with which he was so familiar on 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 


snothen Sipah in Persiaa signifies, says Richardson » *^ An army, sol^ 
^* diers." Among the French writers this word is variously represented. 
Jn Anquetil du Perron, now open before me, it is written Cipayes. Sipahi 
likewise signifies *< Military, belonging to an army/' It is the appropriate 
and familiar term relating to jthis subject. As the Supreme Being is called 
the Lord and the God of Sabaoth by the Jews, so we find in the Sibylline 
Oracles that the Deity has been distinguished by the mystic appellation of 
Salmoth^^^* Blessed are tliey to whom Sabaoth has imparted wisdom/' 

(Syb. Orac. p. 165. ed. Gall.) 


" n ■ 




eat greedily- 

receive—- contain. 

Cap«— Capajub, (Gr.) 

Capbloi. (Gr.) Cavpo. (Lat.) 
CBL (Heb.) Caper©, 
Capyan. (Goth,) Caperc, 

We have already seen the word 
Cover employed to express a familiar 
action" belonging to the elementary 
sense of CB; and we must now add 
another verb derived from the same 
Element, which is used in a tignifica> 
tion still more extensive, and which 
has been the immediate source of a 
great family of words both in the an- 
cient and inodem languages. Thia^ 
verb is the Latin Capio, to take hold'-' 
to <m^— to cdntahi — to posim or take 
into poumhn, &c. &c, Scaliger dci- 
rives it from tlio Syriac word «|5, which 
signifies vola manm seu mrvum in mu- 
nu, and which itself belongs to the 
verb 1)3 CP, curvarf. The various 
words denoting the JJand have already 
n fallen 



Kebez. (Ar.)Taking, seizing, &c. 

KuBZ sauhtun. 




To accept, &c. 

fallen under our discussion, and per^ 
haps the verb Capio may be imme^ 
diately derived from that peculiar senses 
and not from the general signification 
belonging to the Element. The Ety^ 
mologists have given us another derii- 
ration of Capio from Kowr/w, which 
signifies avide comedtrCj though it some- 
times possesses only the simple idea of cmitaimyig or receiviiig; as the 
Etymologicon Magnum explains it by x«f "»'* and Hesychius by a7roiix<^siai' 
Vossius refers to the same origin JUawaKn, Kaim, pr;esepe, and KocirnXog, Caupo, 
(which is quasi capo, capiens); and we perceive that they all contain the 
sense belonging to tlie Element. K««TiXof, Caupo, says V^ossius, '* quod 
•* hospitibus praebeat Cibum.'' It is curious that in the explanation of our 
Etymologists, they should themselves supply us with terms which are 
likewise to be referred to the same source. Prasepe is derived from Scpio, 
(CP— SP) to enclose — infold; and CibiiSf food. Is nothing but that, quod 
captum est. The names for food^ &c. or what is taken in at tlw^ mouth, 
will afford us an ample theme of future enquiry. A verb similar to Capi$ 
is to be found in a variety of languages. Cafyan is a Gothic word, and is 
interi>reted by Lye, " c^ere^ apprehendcre." Martinius observes that 
^^ CBL means in Hebrew Aix««^*** In the Arabic, Kebiz (vj^) signifies 
'* '• Taking, seizings capture, sequestration. — *• Possession;" and in the 
Persian thb Element, with the familiar verbs used in coAipound expressionsy 
^* Kubz sauktun d^ycLL* u^)'* and *< Kiibooleut kirdun (^ii, 

:^* c;vJ^)" supplies the ordinary phrases to express the idea of tfcrey^/Zw^- 
taking — obtaining, &c. as if it had been customary to say in Latin cap^ 
tionem or cizjTturam agere, facere, for c(//?ereoraca/>ere. i ^ • i 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 


Keep — Save. 

Cepan. (Ang. S.) Curare. 
KiBisis. (Gr.) Pera. 
Kepen. (Dut.) Tenere. 
Coop. (Eng.) 


(Pets. & Ar.) 

A coop or cage for birds. 

In the English language we have two words, which add the idea of 
care or diligence to tliat of holding or possessing. These words are Keep — 

Save, which we perceive are the same 
ter-gis under different forms* On the 
word Keep our Etymologists supply us 
with a set of terms belonging to tlie 
same Element, which may be found 
in Skinner ; (Cepan, K*f i«-«5 pera, Kepen, 
Coop,) and this is all the assistance 
which we can expect to receive from 
their knowledge or their labour. Ke- 
fes (j^Jo (Pers.) (j^aJu (Ar.) signifies in 
Persian and Arabic a coop or cage for 
birds. Under Coope, in Junius, we 
find a Dutch expression Kuypc der stad 
septa urbis, and coop or cowp vas, doli- 
ura. Hence is derived Cooper, doli- 
arius. Keep is sometimes used in tlie 
sense of restrain — cojifine; as in the 
phrases Keep in — to Keep a person to 
any business, &c. &c. The commen- 
tators on Shakspeare will supply us with 
i examples, in which Keep is used in the 

sense of *' care for;'* and there is another signification of this word, still 
preserved in the phraseology of our University, in which it recurs to a 
different sense of the Element, and has reference to '* an enclosure for the 
" purpose of rest, habitation, &c." Keep is with us tlie appropriate t? rm 
ioi d^ell ox inluibit ; , and we may observe that there is a perpetual con- 
n^pcion between the idea of holding — possessing — tiaving — (keeping) and 
tha^ of dwelling or inliubiting. Thus the Greek E^wi and tlie Latin Ilabeo. 
In the Philocteles (v. 22.) we§nd 

KuYPE der stad, Septa urbis. 
Goop-cowp. (Eng.) Vas, dolium. 
Cooper. (Eng.) Doliarius. 


• " Zt»f*«»/ tir EXEI 

Renuntia utrum illic an alibi habitet. Brunck properly observes ** E»t' 
^^ rx^* gl. ir«7o»x«' recte — Sic LatinisAfl^ere valet habitare, qu& significatione 
'* Plauto frequentatur, ut Bacchid. 1. 2. Sww /^//c habet?" (Who keeps 
there?) " et in Aulularias prologo." Habito is acknowledged by the 
Etymologists to be derived from Habeo ; and hence we see the propriety of 
the remark, which Servius makes on the *' Humiks habitarc casas** of 
Virgil. *' Melius/' says he, *** habito illam ron, quam habito in ill^ re." 
In our own language, likewise, there are two constructions belonging to 


the word Keep. We say '* He keeps Vw a room;'' or as applied to a sick 
person—" He keeps his room." This latter phraseology is universal. We 
may now perceive that oiKEXi belongs to EXft* Martinius has observed that 
OIKOS is derived from Exn; but as if doubtful of his own etymology, he 
adds, " Fel ab Gift fero, quia eo ferimus omnia," Lennep, with his 
usual dexterity, derives OIKOZ from the Prseteritum medium E^«w of Eix« 
Venio, eo, cedo, seccdo. The word Keep, in a well known passage of 
Measure for Measure, is used precisely in the «ame manner, and means to 
dwell or inhabit. It is thus that the Poet exhorts us to reason with Life. 

** A breath thou art, 
^^ Servile to all the skicy influences : 
'' That dost this habitation, where thou keep'st, 
'' Hourly aflaict." (Act 3. s. 1.) 
To those, who delight to trace the progress of our ideas through the mazes 
of imagination, I might venture to observe, that there is some latent cause 
of Association, by which this imagery has been raised in the mind of the 
Poet. Keep 2ind Life I find frequently in' union with each other, though' 
I cannot discover the princijile of their affinity. In familiar language 

• • • • 

Keep and Alive are united in a phrase (To Keep alive J with a distinct' amt 
appropriate meaning; and there is a very singular passage in the Terrtpfest/ 
where two examples are to be found illustrative of my ItypothesJs, - ^ • 

Art. «* My Master th^' his art ibresefo the Atoger . 

*' Tliat you, his friend, arein; and sends me forth, . 
*' For else his prtfject dies, to I&sbp. themlLiviNG." . ^ 

(Sings in Gonzalo's eari) :i • 
Thfc obscurity of this passage consists in the change of the persons.. In 
the latter part of the sentence. Ariel turns from a diroct address to the 
firiend • of his Master, Gonzalo, in the second person ; smd speaks to th^ 
audience or to himself of Gonzalo and Alonzo, both of whom-he preserveii 
in the third. The reader will be somewhat astonished to findj that the 
combination of Life and Keep again immediately .occurs in the song 
which Ariel sings in the ear of Gonzalo. 

*' Wfiile you here do snoring lie, 
J '^ Open-ey'd conspinccy 

' " His time doth take : 

^' If of Life you Keep a care, 
'' Shake ofFsIumbcr and beware, 
*' Awake, awake!" 

(Act 2. s. 1.) 
The same union is found in the translation of Tasso's Jerusalem by Fairfax, 
and is singularly parallel to the passage in Measure for Measure, and the 
Song of Ariel. 

. 'Mf when this Breath from man's frail body flies, 
'* The souLE takes keepe, or knows the thing done here/* 

Again the Tragedy of Goddwyn. 

^' Goe to, goe to, you doe ne understonde, ' * ^ 

'. *' Theie yeavie mee lyffe, and dyd mie bowkie* kepe,^ 
^' Theie dyd mee feeste, and did embovvre^ megroride, 
'* To treat hem ylle^ wulde lette mic^kyndness^lept."- i* ^ > 

(Rowley's Poems, Goddwyn, 132, &c.) " 

1 «. 

* " Pcnen, body," k" Tiih tmriif:* c <t!i;tig|^ ^tlttt,vifiJiaie« aUtiHUX 

N The 

The line following tbk wwtdsp which are Ib6 sul^ect o( our observation^ 
is not umtentDod* ^ Ejahoivve mc gr<>nde/' eays Milled, is << settled^ 
^* cultivated, and huilt oa jn)r Hmd ; from the A. $• words, Byariy to inha* 
^ bit, and Bmtr^ ■. a farmer/' •* Emboxvre me grondcj' means, tliey 
eiiterlained me grandly or magnificently in their fimers. ^ In Hall dt 
^ JScnter*^ e¥ery one recdkcts among tbe phraser of aticiient splendor^ and 
^ivity^ ' We may smtle perhaps at the doctrine, which is maintaiaed m 
<iHS digressionr; but we have little considered either ourselves or others, if 
we should doubt about its trudi. It is under this fascinating influence that 
we think, anci speak, and act. Nor should we consider this topic as totally 
foreign to the train of ideas which belongs to the present investigation. 
We have seen that the highest invention, of mah-^the formation of lan- 
guage, has been atchieved by the force of obscure aiid general impressions; 
of which he can scarcely be saidtohav^ felt the power; nor has he often 
reflected on the nature of the principle. 

(Eng.) Securcy or a repo- Under Save the Etymologists have 

Safe. -K . • • « produced as pandlel words Sawoer azuf 

tory to A^^ victuals, &c. ^ j .1. 1. c^i.- 

•* ^ Salvare; and though Skinner gives 

Servo. (Lat.) To save or keep. Servator as an interpretation o£Savwur, 

he does not see that ^tirw belongs to 
SERVU».^»VAi*T-fi£RVio. gEEVo. Thksurelycannotbcdoubted. 

...^. It is not necessary to add, tliat Safe is 

the same word as Save; yet we ma^ 
Caveo. (Lat) • Totakeiif^p'or care, ^b^^rve that Safe returns again to ano- 

^. J. ...... thcp sense of' the Elemeit, 'when it 

«;5ignifies an *^«enidosare'' of ;ytf/e/y to 
(Gr.) Fwsan. Too long keep meal; &a. &c. In forming my 

jop^f or ieot explanatams I can find no appropriate 

and significant terms but tliose, which 

aMW Spmift belMg ti» ibis Elcic^t. . 


;/ C«, CF, CP, CV, &c. 47 

Caveo is another #ord which refers to the notion of safety and 
security. Jovianus Pontanu$ has a glimpse of this idea, when he derives 
if from the Cteemtf*— dflfr;iim-*or the Cave — the antlent habitation of men. 
•♦ lis autem et a^tos eavebant et frigora," (Vossiiis sub voce.) In these 
C^tfes thfey were kept ^ pr^^cwed from the inclemencies/of the elements^^^ 
fheattae^ks 6f j^easts^ &c. &c. Servo is derived by Perottus (such is our 
Biymdogy i) from Sin i and by Martiniiitfrom Ee^M* From the idea annexed 
to SKKVxy-^Keep-'^aioer &ۥ is derived Servus-*-Servant-^Sbrvio. 
Vossiushas seen that Sirvus is deduced from iervdnda v0\ custodiendo ; and 
fiiat er^MTiiir in Greek belongs to the same idea, 6fe»» curo« Officers or persons 
employed by anodier^ widi a charge or truisf, have been called likewise in 
English KEBFEXSr through vafioos^ stations, from the Zdrcf-KEEPER — ^the 
Keeper of a Caeftki, UtmH^m^liMMWEZ^-^ C%mre-K£EPER, &c. &c. 

Perhaps^ the Greek ScpO {im^ f^itiehtiof-^apra^ (£««r0|^# putridu$) 
should be referred to this idea. The cotoection between things speited^ 
tnouldy-^tiirid, &C. and those which have been too long Kbpt/ tulthiUt 
being bought into me, must be universal. 

FaUtaff^. ^« fetby n^me Mouidy^ 

Miml. '• Yes, an please you* 

FaL ** Tis the more time thou wert tised. 

Shallow. "Ha! ha! haf Most excellent i'faith! TJiings that art 
•• rttoitldy lack use. Very singular good ! In faith well said, Sir John ; 
•* very well said. •• ^ ------ --...-^ 

FaL *^ Go to; peade. Mouldy^ yoi> shall go. Mduldy^ it is 

^ lime you were Spent J* 

(2d pt. of Hen. 4th, z,S. s. I.) 
Spent is quasi, Un-j>e9i/— taken out of the place of Keeping — ^the Pai — 
Fenus, &Ct &c. 



StVE. Sift. To the idea contained in the words 

Save — Keep — must be referred Sivs 
Cribrum, and Sift. ' Skinner knows nothing of 

the notion originally conveyed by these 
CBR (Heb.) Idem, words, and only gives vs the coiy 

responding. terms in otlier languagQSv 
H. Casaubon derives Sift from 4MAm$ cribare;; but Junius conjeOUrpStt^ 
Sib in German is derived ^^ a setis equinis^ > unde conficitur; nana roC* 
*^ Gr.Tcis est Cauda equina,*' We may observe^ that, as the use of this 
instrument is to Savb one thing by casting amy 9Xiother, it is reasonaJbil^ 
to suppose that its name would be derived from one of these ideas, Wf 
have seen the terms Crib — Gripe, &c. &c. and I hav6 little doubt but that 
Crjbrvm is to be referred to th<f8at:pe.f(WWCi$WN^ Qi 

X may so express it) takes hold o/r^'^ecwr^ip^ : or, with the same nf f taphor, 
catches — the part to be preserved. Our Etymologists know nothing «f 
this idea. They give us however the Hebrew word /i:i3 CBR, which ha* 
the same sense, This word means likewise in Hebrew '^ To be fro 
^^ qucnt, numerous, copious," as Parkhurst expresses it; and hence the 
Etymologists imagine that the Sive obtains its namQ from the numerous 
holes or threads of which it is composed, All this coincides with my 
hypothesis: We shall see a propensity in th<e Element CB, to form words 
signifying to hold or contain in aAwnrfance; and wp perceive that Parkhurit 
in his Explanation has used a term -with the ^amq Element and the san^ 
meaning — Copious, This Hebrew word signifies mpreover a Grate, not 
jis Parkhurst says from its numerous bars, but simply fron> its Grjpj^rj}*^ 
bftrs-^holders^^^ror carifiners. 

'. • • i \ 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. : 


Creber—tCrebro. (Lat.) 


Spissus. (Lat.). Spesso. (It.) 

SiEPE. (Lat.) 

SPA. (Heb.) Copia, afflucntia. 





it;;tvof' (quas-Vu^fx**^') SpisbUS. 


' *»20' CBR means likewise /re- 
tfuently — fl/ien ; and . Parkliurst has 
referred the Latm . CixB£R to this 
word. Tl>e reader w^l t perhaps be 
somewhat surprised when he recollects 
anotlier term. answering tdfCr^i a?, and 
belotaging to the same Element-r-^iEPE. 
All this will be easily, understood by 
enquiring into the sigi^cati<6i of such 
terms. ; . W6 shall find that^the notion 
of repeating 2in action /hiut be<mcom4 
nionly derived from tliat oi comprelimd'' 
ing aii under one — getting all together^ 
&c. or in other words, firom a.sense 
precisely op}x>site to what is straggling 
r^dispersed-^separated— distant ;; . sincb 
:. the idea of repeating an action (seeing 
o/iren-^meeting often^ &c. &c;) neces^ 
sarily implies tliat of compactness and 
proximity. Hence we understand, why 
particles of such a meaning may be 
naturally derived from this Element. 
FrequcnSf the root of frequently, \ lias a 
similar signification. '* Loca tVequcn- 
^* tia aedificiis-r-Silva frequens trabibus," 
^ are. phrases which every one remcOT- 
bers. This is exactly tlic sense^ which 
Ti* hjold^ or get together in abundance. .If 
SouvENT arid SouvENTE be derived, 'as, the Etymologists' ihink, ixoraSu^ 
binde, they have nothing to do with the present argument; yet the French 
Critics will recollect the word i/r/n/er, frequenter; and I am inchned to 
think that the meaning of the oompcmnd is that of holding all together. 

o Spesso 



tiil .il; 

^pido^^Affatim. . 
Oft— Often. 


I have attributed to the Element; 


SpessOv an Italian word for iSV^i is derived, we all know, from Sptssus, 
which l^lbi^ likewise to the Element SP, and means thickf dense. Dux^wf 
is likewise applied to the repetition of an action, and is deduced from this 
idea. Z^x^^* quasi cvw^^f (holding together) frequens, spissus, confertus. 
IIoAAtficK, another term for SiCpe, is derived, we know, from that of a throng 
-^Hro^»f, multuSi^ frequens ; and one of the German words for often, is that 
from which ouif word thick is derived — Dickmals. Iluxvwc, of the same 
mieaningt is from nwcvof, Densus. The Etymologists agree with me in the 
derivation of S«p^ from* what is abundant, (or thronged together) though 
they see. not the extent of the idea. Sape, says Vossius, is from the He- 
brew word SPA VBtrr copia^ affluentia; and S^epus or SiEPis is an obsolete 
word signifying copiosus, affluens. Jovianus Pontanus derives this wbrd 
from tlie ide^ of what is thronged or thici, but he has confined the origin 
to a single object. He supposes that Sepes, a hedge, first suggested the idea; 
t^tj'uod sapes spissa esset et densa, dixerunt sape pro derise.'' It is certain 
that the most simple and natural objects originally supplied the mind with 
ideas and terms; and we might remark a whimsical coincidence in our own 
language in confirmation of this opinion. Thick-SErr was, I believe, 
first applied to a Hedge of quick thick sett or planted: the idea of planting 
or setting Is now lost ; and in the expression a Thick-^e/f Coat, we mean 
only a Coat of a thick or compact stuff. This will appear more curious^ 
when we recollect that e«/t*« and e«/t*ik« mean in Greek sajpe — that O^nc* 
e«fAivof> is frequens, creber, and 0«/t*»®» is dumus, frutcx, fruticetum. This 
certainly is a singular coincidenee, and might have been justly adduced hf 
Pontanus and his followers. Martinius under the Latin Spisstis has derived 
the German Oft, to which our words Oft and Often belong, from the 
Latin Oppido, multum. I shall shew on a future occasion that Affatiin is 
only Oppido under another form, and that they are derived from a race 
of words coi^esponding in sense with the terms attached to the Elemeol: 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 


- r • /• 

Having considered the two verbs of considerable importance in the 
Latin and English languages. Cover and Capio, I shall now proceed to 
detail some of the principal terms which express *' enclosures for the pur-- 
** po$e of rest-^-^safety^^habitation^ &c." Cabin, with its various relatives, 

Cabane,&ic. (Fr.) niD CBH Tabema- 
culum, is a very ancient word, and to be 
found perhaps in some of it3 forms 
almost through the whole compass of 
language. The names which I hav^ 
annexed to it in the margin may be seen 
in Skinner and Junius. Salmasius, in 
his Plinian Exercitations, (as we are 
informed by Jimius) derives Cabana 
from tfec Greek K«7r«sim, and that from 
r KiSxiriAOM, which signiiies f «tw!, praesepe, 
m the sense belonging to a line of 
** Scurra vagus, nee qui certum pnesept 

'^ teneret/* 
And here, as it should seem, the learn- 
ing of our English and Latin Etj^- 
Capanna — CoFA, CoF£. (A. S.) mologists on this subject is closed and 

exhausted. To the Anglo Saxon words 
Cofa and Cofe, a? Skinner remarks, 
belongs Coop J which we have before 
produced ; and to which we must add 
Cub, a very familiar term for the pen 
or den of a beast, dog, &c. Wc have 
already produced 'the word Cave, as 
one of the most general terms for a 
place of rest — safety, &c. &c. FW)m 

Cabin. (Eng.) 
Cubans. (Fr.) 
Cabanna« (Span.) 
Capanna. (Ital.) 

Caban. (Welsh.) 

• • ■ 

Cavana-^abana. (Lat.) 
Kapane. (Gr.) 
Kaban. (Dutch.) 




The den aa^ the animal. 

* « * • 



Cab AN. (C^lt.) A tent, booths Cub, the enclosure, tlie young ani- 

mal is called that possesses it ; and the 
Kebban. (Ar.) A tent. iBooby that resembjles the animal; 

though it is applied peculiarly to the 
Sepenj. (Pers.) An liin. ofispring of the Fox. It is extremely 

curious, that the name for this animal 
KuBBET — Khyba. (At.) a tent; in various languages has been frequently 

derived from the hollow or cave whirii* 
he occupies. As this general propensity in the mind to form names from 
similar qualities or accidents always betokens some deep-t<)oteid notion' 
impressed by the nature of the. object, it is not unreasonable to suppose 
that the same coincidence will be found in the comparisons! or the illustra- 
tions of the Poet — the Sage— K)r tlie Prophet. It is perhaps to this latent 
feeling in tlie mind that tlie ima^sy of the following passage Was destined 
toapi^eal. " And Jesus ^ith unta him. The Foxes hzve holes, and tlie 
'^ birds of the air have ncste, but)the.Son of Man batli .not where to Jay: 
*' his head." (Matt. viii. v.. 20.) . In the Celtic, Caban signifies, 
says Shaw, '' A Capon, Tent ot.Bootk;** and in the vocabulary of Major 
Vallancey, it is the Irish word for a Cottage. In Persian I find Sepenj, 

( JU»^) " A place where one rests for a few days, an inn, a carivanaera.';* 

^^ • 

^Kebban ((j.UiJ) in Arabic signifies a tent; and to convince the reader that 
it is derived from tli6 notion belonging to the Element, I shall transcribe a* 
few of the articles in the opening of Richardson's Dictionary now before 
me. Under this very word we find *' ]Hmar Kebbaui a kindiof tfr«f:hi&idC,> 
*' with six feet, and a target back, bred in moist places." The next 
^x\Ac\e \^ Kebai '* a garrhent, vest, tunick."- We -find in the same page 
^* KebcC' (Persian and Arabic) f* a garment, a short tunick open before." 

^' Kuba (Lo) the Earth, ^roe^nrf, soil." 
Kuba. (Per. & Ar.) The earth. This we see is a very important ^rticle^ 

The name * whith the F^e^th bdre we 
CYBEi-E. may well imagine to operate with 


c% CT, cp, cv, &^c;' 


powerful effect on the formatioii of words — ih^i great r except acle; from 

wiiich all arises, and into whichevery thing is resolved. 

• ' ^^ Th6'wowib of Nature and perhaps her grave.'' 

From hence is the Greek and the. Latin Cyhde — the Bona mater — the 
Magna mater — ^^f^x%^ Ttov.^«iw*--thQ origin of the powers of Nature — the 
Mother of the Gods. But the mythology of this potent Deity would deserv^e 
and demand a long and separate discussion. Kybab in Arabic signifies 
*' Towers, vaults, cupolas" — Kybalct means " bringing a woman to bed.'* 
Under another word we have '* Kebbet, a builder of arched work. Kub- 
*' bet, a Cupola^ vault, doimc^ arch. A Tower, turret, a Tent, a Taber- 
** nacle." iCeAr in Arabic is ** a sepulchre, tomb, monument/' Kubat 
•* the cap, the eni^o^ of a flower;" and Kubbaat is ** a mitre, zcap.*' 
There are .marry other .words of tliesame species in this opening of Rich- 
ard9aaa']sDictiotor}%.\vdiich it will not be necessary^ I trust, to transcribe. 
JT/ryto (Uai.) /in : Arabic is *' a rustic Arabian l^7?< of wool or camels hair, 
*'. supported by two or by three poles;" which I have before produced^ 

* \ 

1 ! i f f 

»• , »j 


« *•. 

4 I « - • . . 

KH(AiJabAH.\ • I ' Among the Eastern names for a 

/^tcrn.names for a. :g£rf^ ^ve find KhaHbgah^Kha'Ubj, 


• bed. 

rW ** * 

, : //Pers.y A bed or 



' J i 

i > J 

Khabi^AK. (Pers^) Sleepy. . 
KhabniTsh. (Pe^s.) Sleej)itig. 

Khaub (o'JuU. tsr^l^ vip-) Wc 
find likewise (Richardson's Diet vol. i. 
p. 806.) Khabkane, " a bed or bed-cham- 
" hcx^'^Kabnaki *' sleepy"— iCAfl6ni£^A^ 
*' sleeping"— 7v/ztfA/rfeM, *' to sleep, to re- 
" cline, to fall or lie down" — and Kha^ 
battiden ** to cause or permit one to go 
*' to bed or sleep;" or, as we might put 
it in English, to cabanisc one. Khab 
is' the familiar and appropriate term 
p for 




lie down. 


jCPe.., TO cause 
V to sleep. 

Khab. (Pers.) Sleep. 
KfftT^TEN. (Pen.) To sleep. 


GvBO. ('Lat) 

€t;6 a. (Sabine.) Leetica Militara. 
Sopor. (Lat.) 
Sova. (Gipsey.) To sleep. 
Khab. (Hindoo.) Sleep. 

. •' i 

ir K !. i! :, •* /./ x » ." ;. 

Kobm. (Oip.')In'lccto CoUoco, ^iipw'. 
ir<w>to.(Gr.) ^djpor gravis. 

J^aum^-^Kunii. (At. )i Sleep. 

Khtmek — Kheiofmu ( Ar:) A tent. 

for Sleep in the Persian language ; and 
uJjcL Khufte7h the verb to sleeps 
(7&1.) Thb Element is'likewise used in 
the Eastern lianguagea to express some- 
thing relative, to the union or contract 
of viorriage. Kabin in Persian, says 
Richardson, is '* Matrimony, or rather 
*' the ratification of it before a judge.'* 
The Spanish word for marriage is bor- 
rowed from the same metaphor. To 
be married in Spanish is, .as we might 
express it, iohe^ Housed — £5^a casada 
— She is married. Thcce is another 
word with this .l^ement beldnging ta 
the same subject, which prdbabljr k 
connected with a different idea* A 
Marriageable WoJiian is called Kau- 

•• tflLA UTS. -This is exactly, as we might 
say in English, a capable woman — qua^ 
virum caperc potest. Kohil (<JuiS)iitf 

. Arabic and Persian mean^, *' possible, 
'^ capable^ sufficient, skilfid, qualified."^ 
These are the words which RicI)^]r(ls|oa 
has used in his explanation. Perhaps 
ttxor IS to be 'referred* to the Arabic 
JJts; and I have some siispicion that 
the Arabic and the Latin are connected 
with the idea aiiriexeS ^o out' Svortr 
Hbtcse (as in* th^t^rm^-^Husband a^ct 

Huswife Housebound — Housewife, J 

but of this I am not able to satisfy cither 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 


Jame, (Pers.) A bed. 

Cama. (Span.) Any place of rest. 

Chamber — Zimmer — Camera. 

CuMBo. (Lat.) 

Upnos, or Supnos. (Gr.) Sleep, 

SupiNus. (Lat.) 

SoMNUs. (Quas.) SopNus. (Lat.) 


SW^FAN. C{A. S.) 

SwjEFiAN. vDoxmire, sopiri. 

the reader or myself. They agree how- 
ever with tlie metaphor contained in 
the Spanish. To these names denoting 
places of rest, &c. we shall not hesitate 
to refer tlie Latin Cubo. Vossius doubts 
whether Cubo or Cumbo was first used ; 
but we learn thus much from our Ety- 
mologists, that Cuba in the Sabine lan- 
guage signifies a Soldier's Litter or 2^ 
Bed. This is curious; as Cuba^ we 
perceive, is nothing but the Cub. 

We have seen that the names for 
Bed^nd Sleep zve connected with each 
other in the Eastern languages ; nor 
shall we wonder at their union. I be- 
lieve with Martinius, that the Teutonic 
word Sleep is derived from the idea 
contained in tloje word Slip and terms of 
that species, such as the Element ap- 



(A. S.) Somniare, 

pears in Latin in the word Solvo. Mar- 
SwEFEN-SwEFN. (A. S.) Somnium. . tinius has collected under Sonmiis, the 

Dutch and Germap words of this nature. 
The German term for Sleepy k Schla- 
fcrig; both of which answer, I think, 
precisely to our words Slippy and Slip- 
pery. J have reason however to believe that the name for Sleep in various 
languages has been commonly derived from the place of . rest and safety^ 

Dormio I imagine to be derived froiu 
damns f and not from A^tfyK,. tlac skin, on. 
which they slept; and- the reader, I 
imagine, will not doubt th^t^^ciil^tu]^ 



(Gr.) Sleep, and the 
place of Sleep. 


^tos. < 


Soio. (Gipf^y.) Sleep, Sopor belongs to tlie Element CB, an4 

Cot — Cottage. is similar to the race of Avords Katib, 

Eudo. (Gt.) To sleep. &c. in the Eastern languages-H^i^ 

Ethos — Edos. (Gr.) Mansio, sedes. Cave — the Keep — the Safe — the 
JEdes — Hut. place of safety and repose. Our Etyr 

mologists know nothing of all this, but 
they derive Sopor (torn an Hebrew word which signifies^wiVc — desmerc, ^' quia 
*' eo terminantur actus sensuum nostrorum." Kono; is a word for sleep in 
Greek ; and it is known likewise to signify the place x)f sleep. Ko>To;-r^ 
Koirn— KojTwv, cubile, lectus — KoiTif, lectulus. Ko*t^ and K©«Tti have likewise the 
general sense of the Element, when they signify arcula, capsula, without 
any reference to an enclosure for sleep. CT signifies in Koit®*, &c. what 
it does in cot — cottage — ko^ — caduSf — coat, &c. &c. If I liave beeQ 
able rightly to distinguish ; the Gipsey words for sleep, as a noun and a 
verb, are derived from this sourde. Sovais the verb (sopio) anji Soto 
(jc©»T^) is the noun. Nistis sovava /ic rat is in the Gipsey language / did 
not sleep to iiight. I believe however that Soto is sometimes used as a verb% 
Ga te Soto — Qatetodros, meaii,. J^' Goto sleep — Go to bed. Ga is sounded 
nsjaw, with the G soft; and I have represented it byO, in order to shiiW' 
its identity with our word GO. ' This is a very ancient term, and appears 
in various languages. It is derived from the name of the Earth TH; and Jtenpe 
the Greek Kin — the Hindoo Jaaofi ; which Mr. Halhed interprets by our word 
Go. (Gram. p. 28.) Their name for Bed, we see, is Fodros. The BTi3 well 
known as an universal Element for an enclosure of rest, safety, &c. It 
means in Hebrew (nO) '* A house ; by way of eminence, the temple— ^^ 
•^ place of habitation — a city. A place or case, wherein any thing liediit 
" is contained, or is laid up. The Grave. The lodgment of any ani^ut}^ 
*' as the nest of a bird, the den of a beast." (Taylor sub voce.) Bullet has 
5een the force of this Element, (Meraoircs Ccltiques sub voce Bedd, vol. I*, 
p. 2.) and has made a collection of the words belonging to this idea. Mr, 
JJi^yant has likewise seen that Beth signifies a house or temple. (Vol. 1. p, 96.) 



*• Sleep, or (o (-Iccp, Sovam:t;" h an explanation in a collcTlioirof Gip'-oy 
words by Mr. Bry:int, (Annual Kegist. I78I-5.) and S'flrttfrii'tf is thetenn 
ftirS/ctjoinGiTlIman, (p. 5.) to which (it iscxircnicly curious!) lhcp;iralle| 
wotd in ihc Hindnstan language is .reprc^L-nted !)y K/ich. The reader 
t.piusl understand, who has not seen the idle compilatiQu of Grellman o» 
f jhc history of the Gipsies, that the collection of Gipscy words in this 
'fecrfoniiance was made by another person, and that it is accompanied by 
a catalogue of HiudoJ>t;in words wjtli the same meaning, and, whcro the 
mtthor is able to discover them, with the same ElcniciH. The Greek Kufio 
(niu) anotlier term for sleep, must be referred, I imagine, to the same idea, 
the covered spot, in which repose was taken. It anewcra to Hut in the 
Teutonic languages — the Latin JEda — and the Greek H©02. M'e know 
that ill Herodotus hQOe in perpetually used for * mansio, scdcs consucta.* 
" H9EA," saysSuidas, " ir«f ' Hf (Ww, eiTfl)r»i, « sir fl:wfffp»t'7w Apud Herodotum, 
*' loca in quibusaliqui vivcrc assucti sunt." Ilcsycluus explains " Hflim, t« 
*' (Tii-refit liiTit, K«i Ji*1fiC„;" and the Commcnialors on tljat I-cxicographer 
have not failed to quote the passage inCallimacIuis, where the KBdx KufMv 
(Del. ii97.)are the " VViff/(n»/puclIarum," From the i^c^k at i\\\% frequented 
haunted — accustomed spot arc derived EQOE, cvaroM in general, and HQOS, 
CUSTOM, as applied to the peculiar or /(cW/iw/ turn of mind, manners, &c. 
appropriate to each person or charaelcr. We ecc that habit — habitual — the 
habiti of life, &c. belong to the same idea — the nccuhtomed haunt or 
dwelling — tiic lIABITATIO^f. The Eiymologisie have referred Mns.h to 
ED08, ((^^. i-edcs) which we now perceive belongs to the same race of 
words, koimah— KOiMflMAi, &:e, are lerni?, we know, belonging in 
ttcep, and are assuredly derived from the Element CM, signifying the 
enclosure of rest, &c. The Etymologists have seen that K«|H»u, jacco, and 
%o/f*n, pague, are connected with these ^\ords; though I lament to sec a 
critic like Valckcmier join in the jargon, which ia fit only for Lennep and 
hifi followers. " Formnri debiierant hasc omnia a kekomai, prima proe- 
•* leriti perf. pass, verbi kw, quod nusquam invcniiur;" (Valck. apud 
Q I.ennep, 


Lenncp. Etym, vol. 1. p. 419.) as if the Greeks in the formation of tlieif 
language never ventured to open their mouths, till they had discovered a 
verb in «», f«, iw, ©«, vw, from which their words ought to be derived. Our 
critics are confirmed in this system by a singular and a pleasant circum- 
stance, that this )co«, &c, &c, is no longer in being, nor was ever known 
to have been so — *' quod nusquam invenitun" But the Greeks arc not the 
only nation who have profited by this important Triliteral: In the Arabic, 
Persian, Sanscrit — the several dialects of the Teutonic and the Celtic lan- 
guages, the race of x©« has exceedingly multiplied, and may be found 
under the various forms of CM, KM, JM, GM, SM, &c. &c. In Arabic 
Kaume or KuME (/^IS^ ^,^->) signifies Sleeps but Khameh — 
Kheiaum (i3l^j^ ^Uskjsignifies likewise a Tent — the covered spot, in which 
that Sleep is taken. In Persian Jamd (a^I^) is *' a bed, couch, sopha;*' and 
in Spanish, Cama is the appropriate and familiar term for a Bed. Carna 
means in general the place where animals of any sort lie down for the 
purpose of rest, " Cama — el sitio, donde se echan, y rcclinan los animales 
^' para su descanso — Lat. Cubilia — Latibulum, lustrum," (says the Dic- 
tionary of the Academy.) AVe shall not find it necessary to enquire with 
Vossius whether cujnbo or cuho were first used ; as we now perceive that 
they belong to the same Element imder difTereiit forms, which coincide 
in their meaning. I have had frequent occasions to observe, that in coin* 
cidcnces of this nature it is almost impossible to be decided in our arrange- 
ment. AVe must ever be awarc of the constant practice in the Celtic 
dialects to substitute the m for the b orp, even in diflFcrcnt cases of the same 
word; and under this idea wc shall perceive how the cumbo returns to 

cttbo (or cuhbojj and the Cama — Jamc — Kohno, coincide with Khab 

sopor, &c. The fact however remains tlie same, in whatever point of view 
we may be disposed to con^^ider it — that under both forms CB — CM a race 
of words is to be found bearing a similar meaning. This propensitv to 
substitute letteis ef the same organ for each otlicr will lead us to expect 
corresponding significations under each of these forms; though the Klements 


CB, CF, C P, CV, &c. 3i> 

CB and CM should be considered as distinct roots, impressed with peculiar 
meanings very dissimilar to each other. To K«/Aa< belongs K«/Aafj&, which 
has found its way into so many languages. Camera — Chamber — Zimmer, 
(Germ.) &c. The very name of the Sanscrit language (the reader will 
perhaps smile at the assertion!) is derived from this Element. Sam in San- 
scrit, like Samt in German, is the Cton of the Latin. •* It is a compound,*' 
(says Mr. Wilkins) ^* o( sa?i (the 7n o( sa?)i being, by rule, changed to w, 
'* before a dental s; as the yn of the Latin com before the same hotter in the 
" word construction) a preposition signifying completion, and skrecta (for 
*' kreeta) doyie, made,Jinisii€d.'' (Notes to die Jlcctopudes, p. iiO-L) 1 mu^t 
likewise suggest to die reader, that Kreeta is another word extremely 
familiar to his knowledge, as it is nothing but the ordinary terms cretas and 
creatus. The Greek Kfanw, contineo, possideo, iVc. &c. belongs to the 
same race ; and tliey all, if I mistake not, may be traced to the Celtic 
name for the Earthy GREAT. (See Shaw's Diet.) In short the term 
Sanscrit, which appears to be buried in the most impenetrable recesses, is 
nothing but the word Concrete^ formed of the same elementary terms, which 
bear separately the same meaning, and which involve a similar grammatical 
variation; while as compounds, they contain precisely the same sense, though 
they differ somewhat in the turji of application. That the reader may be 
informed respecting the sense belonging in the Eastern languages to this 
Element, I will transcribe an article or two in the page of Richardson 
now before me, in which Jamc occurs. Jam signifies in Persian " a cup, 
" a goblet, a bowl." Cham means in Persian '* a narrow, winding pa<s 
" of a mountain. Cham Cham, many fold, multiplied." Mad I wished 
to invent an article illustrative of the English \\'ords jam — chum, I could 
not have better succeeded in my purpose. Jamid in Arabic is •' concrete, 
" congealed, consistent;" but in the following Arabic word the secret 
of the Element is unfolded. " Jamia (x^lsi.) compleating, comprehending, 
*' collecting. All, whole, universal, collective." AVe shall not wonder 
that this Element supplies the name for the Ilcavcns — the Earth — and the 

UniirrH' — 


LJnhrrsc — rcnim Summa. It from hence means the Sim, which we may 

well imagine would enrich language with a copious race of words bearing 

a very dilVercnt meaning — hcat—:/irc — love — delight, &cc. This Elepicnt Is 

parlicularly conspicuous in the Hindoo language; where it means Ij>ve. The 

Kama-Deva is the title of the Hindoo 

j^ j^ , (The Hindoo Cupid, Cupid, or the God (Deva, Divtis) of 

V or God of Love. Love. The Gipsey name for lox^e is, 

^ . ((Gips.) I am lovincf, I believe, the same. When they inform 
i oma bcu. l^ ^ ^ o' * 

y or I love. you that it is Coma ben and Coma tot. 

Coma tot. (Gips.) I love you. they mean / am loving, ox I love; and 

Tschuma. (Hindoo) A kiss. the latter is I love you. In Mr, Bry- 

ant's collection Love is represented in 
one word Commoben; and in that inaccurate catalogue to be found iu 
Grellman a Kiss is called in Gipsey Tchumoben, though in the parallel 
Hindoo we have it, as I conjecture, Tschuma. The reader will instantly 
recur to the words with this Element, expressive of delight or merriment^ 
among the Greeks, &c. KHMOI, ra/^*©* — Game, &c. &c. He may perhaps 
forget the name of the Meretrix in the Miles Gloriosus of Plautus — Philo^ 
QoM-asiu7n; but he will rejoice to remember 

I am going a courting to Amaryllis. 
The Hindoo Cupid or Munmoden, the God of Love, has a great resemblance 
to the Cupid of the Greeks and Latins. "Munmoden, the God of Love, 
*' like Cupid, is represented as a child — ^lie is mounted on a parrot, and 
" armed with a sugar-cane bow and flowery arrow. This arrow is termed 
*' Cauma Baunum, or the arrow of Desire," (See the Dissertation pre- 
fixed to Mr. Kindersley^s Specimens of Hindoo Literature, p. 20.) 

The odier words for Sleep of most familiar use in Greek and Latin are 
TtvO* and Somnns. Our Etymologists have supplied us with a curious 
passage from Aulus Gellius on this subject, *' Quod Gra^ci vxi^ i nos Super 
** dicimus; quod illi vir7i®* [olim, nemi>e, wanv©*] nos Supinus; quod 




CB, CF, CP, CV, &c, 61 

^ u^C^, nos Subulcus; quod item illi vttu^, nos primo Sypmis^ deinde 
'* (perr Grcccse Latlnaequc O cogn^honQxw) Sopyius:' (L. 13. 9.) '* T^rvi^ 
says Lennep, *' from the obsolete Mm\^' Lat. Supinns/* *' Somnus, 
sflys Perottus, '* Gra^ca vox est, P litera in M miitata. Gra^ci enim vin^oy 
*' dicunt." Thus we see that Upnos — Si(pinus — Sortvms {or Sopm(s) by the 
confession of the Etymologists are the same words under different forms; 
and they must all be referred to the Element CB, which we are now endea- 
vouring to illustrate. In the Anglo Saxon, Swcefaii — Swtejian, signifies 
" Donnire, Sopiri;'' and Swefen — Swefn, is Soynnium;, which may 
serve to confirm the former idea, that Somnus is quasi Sopnus. We find 
likewise Swefian, Swef?iian, Sojnyiiare, Sopire. — ^Thus we at last percei\ c, 
tliat as the Persian Khab — the Latin Cubo, Sopor — the Gipscy Sova — the 
Hindoo Khab^ &c. &c. belong to the Cub or Cave ; so do Up?ios (or Supnos) 
— Supinus — Somnus — Swefn — Khabaniden, &c. &c. belong to the Cabin. 
It is thus that languages are formed and propagated : new changes per- 
petually arise in all the varieties of combination; but the flirce of the 
original Element still remains to mark and distinguish the composition. 

When the tenn for Sleep was once formed, from whatever source it 
might arise, we may well imagine that a race of words would be generated 
relating to its nature, ix)wer and effect. The obvious and most natural 
train of ideas, which might be suggested from this source, would be con- 
nected widi the notion of relaxing — resolving — softening. This latter 
word is the term which I attribute to the present Element. Soft has 
found its way under various forms into various languages. The Anglo- 
Saxon word is the same; and in the first instance produced in Lye's- 
Dictionary we have, Softe Swivp — He slept soft; where we see, that 
the two words, which I have supposed belonging to each other, are brought 
into contact, Swaf-^-Soft. Every school-boy knows, that Soft (Mollis) 

R is 



SoFT,(Eng.& A.S.)Saft. (Belg.) is the perpetual epithet of repose or 

sleq). The connexion between Sleep 
Sept. (Frk.) Samft. (Germ.) and Soft passes tlirough a variety of 

forms, and appears under diverse me- 
*----•---- taphors. They are found united by 

figure, allusion, or comparison with 
Sop. (Eng,) substances of a yielding, smooth, mace* 

rating nature, and with terms expressive 
of the continued and subduing action of these substances. The senses are 
slid to be *' steep' (Y* (soak'd) '* in sleep;'' and there are two curious passages 
in Virgil, where the ideas are so blended in the same word^ tliat it is 
impossible to separate the one from the other. The first is applied to the 
Lethaean branch of Sortvucs, which lays asleep the wakeful and the 
blameless Palinurus. This branch, says the Poet, had been soporiferomfy 
soak'd, if I may so express it, in the powerful waters of tlie Stygian lake. 

^' Ecce Deus ramum Lethaeo rore madentcm, 
" Vique' saporatu7n Stygi^f super utraque quassat 
*' Tempora, cunctantique natantia lumina solvit." 

{.En. Lib. 5. V. 854, &c.) 
The next is a very singular passage; as two offices appear to be performed 
by this word. It is a description of the Sop, (another word of the same 
meaning and Element) that was thrown to Cerberus; which was stepped in 
honey, and soporiferously tempered with medicated herbs. 

*' Cui vates, horrore videns jam coUa colubris, 
'* Mellc soporatam et medicatis friigibus ofiam 
*• Objicit: Ille fame rabidatria guttura pandens, 
-^ Corripit objectam, atque immania terga resolvit 
•' Fusus humi, totoque ingens extenditur antro." 

(iEn. 6. v. 419, &c.) 
Again we may observe, that, when this idea of macerating — sapping or 
softaiing was once affixed to the Element, a race of words would be 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 






Tallow, suet, grease. 

naturally formed, applied to these substances, which are either in them- 
selves of a soft nature, or which have the power of producing that effect. 
Hence we shall not wonder at the Latin word Sebum, Sevum or Sepum; 

which has been derived by Isidorus 
from Sus. ** Sebum a sue dictum, 
'* quasi suevum, quod plus pingue- 
'* dinis hoc animal habeat." Isid. 
Lib. 20. c. 1. Martinius observes on 
this derivation, " Sed Sus non habet 
** ^c^Mmproprie dictum. Ideomalim 
" a sapa^ succus : e succo olcoso con- 
*' crcscit, aut quod suave seu dulce 
'* est." Sap A is one of those words, 
of which it is difficult to determine 
the origin, as it may equally belong 
to two ideas contained in the Element. 
It may either be derived from the soft^ 
ness of juice and pulp, or from the 
hollow or cavit]/ which contains it. This 
latter idea is the origin of its parallel 
word in Latin Succus, and of the Greek 
XuA^; and the verb to Sap, to 7?iak€ 
hollow, may add some weight to that 
derivation. Sapa has been thought by 
some Etymologists to be so called ** quia 
** sapida est." We perceive that Suavis and Sapidiis belong to this Element ; 
and we shall explain in its proper place the origin from which they are 
taken. To the idea contained in Soft^ Sebum, &c. must be referred a word, 
which is the most familiar to our mouths, and which probably will be 
found as universal a term as any that exists in language. This word i$ 


Sapa. (Lat.) 
Sap of trees. (Eag. 
Saf. (Germ.) 
Safft. (Dan.) 
Sjepe. (Ang. Sax.) 
Safft. (Suec.) 
Seve. (Fr.) 



SiPAN. (A. S.) Macerare, 

Soap. (Eng.) Sapo. (Lat.) Soap; of which the parallel terms iiL 

the modem languages, and in the Latin 

Sape. (a. S.) SiEBE. (Dan.) and Greek, may be found in Skinner, 

&ۥ &c. Sapo in Latin is supposed 

S/EPE. (Belg.) Seiff. (Teut.) by Pliny to be a word of Gallic origin^ 

if the Etymologists have rightly under- 

Sapon. (Gr.) Savone. (Ital.) stood him. " Prodest et Sapo. Gal- 

*' lorum hoc inventum, rutilandis ca- 

Xabon, (Span.) Savon. (Fr.) *' pillis, ex sevo et cinerc: optimus 

'* fagino et caprino, duobus modis, 
---------- " spissus ac liquidus: utcrque apud 

*' Germanos majore in usu viris, quam 
'* foeminis.'* (Plin. Lib. 28. 12. " De 
'' remcdiiscontrastrumasagens." Mar- 

- - ,-.----• tin sub voce.) Skinner deduces the 

Latin Sapo from the Anglo-Saxon word 

Sabun (m^jLo (Ar.) Soap. Sipan, whicli signifies macerare. This 

precisely answers to the idea which I 

have given to this race of words. . Here 

the researches of our Etymologists, 

English and Latin, terminate. Sabun 

in Arabic is the name for Soap; and 

Siabun we find in Shaw's Dictionary 

as the Galic term for this substance. 

Sebon is the Welch for it; and Davies 

has given us the Chaldce word Spun 

as parallel ; and he has likewise, I find, 

noted its correspondent term in Arabic. 

In the collection of Gipscy and Hindoo words, which we find in Grellman, 

ffapiini and Savin are the words for Soap in those languages. Let me add, 


SiABUN. (Galic.)* 
Sebon. (Welsh) 
Spun. (Chaldee.) 
Sapuni. (Gipscy.) 
Savin. (Hindoo.) 

that m BwUet'c Meoiftires'^siir. I«, Umgue .CsUiqve* we havq Sebqn^ ikfi 
Qretagne nufae-iotx Satvn;. — *A Si?^ Buif.; fi£u> De liL ]it Latin ^e6ftm, 
*f iSSmmn ntaMen«Sf«M^;i'£spag^el:4»£^i<aua^ „" Sebum* 

« «4?e."; .Th<W!wrd«»i<>!Cpur. i^^ther*ft»*p^^ge(3*6vyo^ 3.) ai|d we. may 
lienc^ p^ns^if? kow viiiyfi;;^iy«uc>lrtenns.arf? 9pplie4^^d,howGQnnef)ted, 


StfBBR. (£ng.) i Syfbr. ,(jA, S»)^ / ^ From the idea of xalm and jwiW; 

♦ '» > ri; Qiuiexed to rt»0 Element in Sopor, is 

SoBBS. (Belg.} SdBRB^, (Fr.) derived Sobe;k> &c. &c« We shall 

;:;<} 1 i :- , M ri . . t find in our, Jltyftiolpgists that this term 

SoBtiiQi (Ital.!& Span^) has. passed thorough vsuious languages^ 

, I .i f r aiid according to . their usual mode o£ 

SoBBius. (Lat) Sqfron. (Gn) conceiving these subjects. Sober, &c. 

; has been ultimately referred to the Latin 
SvBR. (Ar,) Patient*; t: , Sq^riw?, of whi/ch the Critics can dis- 

cover no better origin than the deriva- 
tion of Donatus : ** Sohrius quasi ISebrius ab ebrietate separatus, secretus." 
We perceive however that the word in its simple state exists in Sober, 
Syfer, &c.:(SBR) and that the Latins have made it their own by affixing 
the termtnatioik I $aber4\i&^ Sobr-lm, On the Greek Sofr-on, ^n^cn^, it Is 
not easy to decide*: . If it be derived from ♦ftiv it has certainly nothing to 
do with the present argument. It is possible however that Sofr-on may be 
only what we npL^ht say in Engli^ the Sober-oi^E. The reader will per* 
haps smile, when he observes this specimen of Etymological conjecture ; 
and he may be disposed to [consider it as a fanciful . attempt to sup^rt by any 
means the prind|>leB of a darling hypbthesis. Nothing however is more 
certain than the existence of our: word onb in the formation of the Greek 

a ■ 

s language^ 


hmguage. The^ oK '(w)Ji|i th€>ri>#^^«r, Sfeb. is the *«ftt>g^o»r»iiid{c jK»r»iii 
— ^fhe being— the one 'bciihig^: It"b«l6ngs to 'tili^ XINvi-ifWiON--*0B%>u< 
EN, (Greek) V^m^js^a^xwum — Bvs, i^Nyfe, (Jjatih) iBi!k/'»* J^J (Owriittny 
&c. &c. Thii is tJie 'origin of the L«4n ^NS, and the' EftfgHsb ^^Kg; itt 4hc' 
participles active <mi-AK^md7iiE^i----4SwU 15*©ftl«Jfi5^ ^ 

*' LoyANDE," was the ancient form of the partidlj4fci ^i'-^ef TyiWhtttfi^ 
Chaucer, vol. 4. p. 37.) It appears under the same form of '^ND in the 
Gothic and the Anglo-Saxon. In a word, I believe that few languages arc 
to be found, in which '^N does not perform a demonstrative office (if I may 
so express it) of per^nh^thing-^plaee, &c. &l&. 'l^ut the coixsideration oF 
this Element, which ifiitolved in* it a very curious theme of enquiry, 
would lead me beyond the limift'^f the presen* disoussion.^ ; S^fron 
(Xw^y) however may b^^ k com^obftd, of which /ren, ^ny is a part; but 
the opinion 6f the Greeks themsdj^es that it was s^ > aipd - thb * h^etatphors 
which they fortfied on that hypothSesis, tend nothing to the proof of it. 
In the Eastern languages we /Shall find that vthe' familiar al&d appropiiate' 
term for jw?^fenr^,'«/jwne»i,'&-c. belong to this Element. Subr, or Sebr, 
(yMtf) in Arabic, naeans, ^' '^ Patience, foleration. ■• PaticintM^ifi'adl^sfeiteity)^'^ 


■ I 


Having endeavoured to prove thit many; ^of the tevm^ fbr Slccp^ ]iaV6 
been derived from the place used for that |Ai#poBe^ a!ftd>ta idkistc^te the race, 
of Wojpds thence formed' froin the idea of qtHetzv^repdsii^ I shallrnoiiri recub 
to t\k^ dentral point of my present enquiiy^to thosd* terisisi vi^bich cxpresa 
mc/osure^ for the purport of safet^*^abiiathn, Jccfihow^^ iind 

it necessary to examiiie a racce of words belbtiging^ to another $ense' of tlie 

We hfi^e giVey^i^ve thevark)os tiames IW>^ 
giats for the words which iefer t^' i 6SaAtn ; tMt m* Hesyc|»ius ^i|i^ef!|in^itti^ 
IKOvd ksei^ wilfe a Greek termination, signifying a tehU ^ Cv^mwmk ^KOniai^ 

C4i^*cr, cp, cv, &CJ 


CVBSFB. (Or.) itTBriNII, ntwufMr^' 


CVBAt. (Gr.) KTBA2;,. M^. 

• f 

CUBBA. (Gr.) KTBBA, wtfifKi^ 

- • 


(Gf.) KTBSePA, ttk 
CUBBTHRA. \rw fnXi«-o-fc>r— (Addc 

»y^ii»M saysHeinsius.) 

{(Gr.) KTBEAA, ^ 9pfyiMh 


(Gr.)KTBEAH, n /Kiimif TiH' 



ClBISIS. (kTBESI£» d KIBIUZ, vnf «* 


(Gr.) KTBHKH, n /lAtmif rw 

CUB£K£*< O^Mi^ xAtf ii Afp^^ini xm imi^ 

ftldt vo^a Afxaciyt 

CtTBESlA. (Gr.) KTBHZIAN, THjai^- 

CuBisis. (Or.) KTBlin, »MiJ«r' 


CtTBlTON. {Gr.) KTBtTDK, f ■yjM*!'' 


vMikCd^ (Hcsydiiufi sub voce). I shall 
hiere adopt the same method, which I 
used on former occasions, and produce 
a few articles with this Element in the 
opening of Hesychius now before me. 
In this short compass we shall perceive 
various words signifying a repository or 
keeping place of any sort — a Cup — Bcc- 
hives — Caves and Bed-chambers — Cybele 
and Venus — Shois — Wallets---^ swelling 
— 4he bend of the elbow-^z, garment and 
zdish. KuCoc (a Cube) appears on the 
first view infinitely remote from the 
idea^ which I have annex(id to the 
Element; but even this word, we find, 
among the Salaminians and the Pa- 
phians, has returned to its original mean- 
ing. The signification of a Cube shall 
be the subJQCt of a future enquiry. 
On the word Ku6i«-K, xnXu, Alberti ob- 
sctves " H. Steph. in Ind. exhibJel 
i ''KvCio-K, xo*Aii, loculamentum, pro 
*• quo sup. xuCio-ij. juCiCTK." This, wc 
perceive* is not necessary: KnXu is 
'•^ tumor in quacunquc parte corpo- 

" ris;" and hence tumor scroti. 1 

shall take tliis occasion of examihirtg 
a race of words, which; express. pro- 

9WELLINGS belonging to the Person. 
kvCf«-*o {xnXii,) reminds us of our English 




Kabet. (Ar.) A parlour, &c, 
Kabet, (At.) Virginity. 
Kabede. (Pers.) A theatre. 


bone, &c. 

«« play at those or similar games. ^ A geometrical cube. ^' The prqjectiTig 
^^ part in the joint of a cane or reed. ^*Any quantity of milk poured out 
** at once; a roacarfwA piece of butter. ^- Nobility, grandeur, glory- — Kabf 
^' a breast, the nipple.'' In die opening of Richardson's Dictionary now 
before me, there are but ten articles belonging to this Element; and I shaU 
subjoin some of the words, with certain of their significations. Kabet — 

" a die or play-bone — a parlour — any 
'* kind of square building — Kabet, xlr^ 
^* ginity." if ^Aerf/ is the Persian for ^* a 
** theatre, or any place for public 
'* spectacles." *^ KahereC is (in Ara- 
bic) " a \^,rge protuberant bone — the tip 
" of the elbow — a joint knob on a static 
(Ar.) A protuberant ** of corn — any thing drawn together 

'* or compact-— dry dung about the 
** tails of camels, &c/' '' KuuV' (Ar.) 
'* «• (A young girl) having swelling 
'* breasts. *• Filling (a vessel) so that 
•^ the contents make a convex swelHng." 
Kef in Persian is a word which I have 
Kef. (Per.) The hand— /ro/A,&c. already produced. It means " the 

*• hand — the palm — the sole of the 
" foot — foam, froth.'* In Arabic we 
findire;^to mean, "*• Prohibition, re* 
** straint, impediment. »• Abstinence, continence. *• Hemming a gar- 
** ment. ^ Shlttting (a purse), drawing close tlie strings. ^ Wrapping 
•' the feet in swathes. ^- Filling a vessel till it overflow^*'* (See Richard* 
son's Dictionary, vol. 1. p. 1469.) The Persian wofd Kef, signifying 
fpQ^, and the various terms with this* Element signifying any thing stvelling 
'-^rising— protuberant, &c. &c. will explain ta Major Vallancey the foU 
Ipwing remark, which he ^his made in his Essay on tlte Celtic language, 




(^Having swelling breasts. 

Keff. (Ar.) Restraint, &c. &c. 

CB, CF, CP, CV, ice. 







(Fr.) Pt^^^-^paste, 

(Irish.) Barm. 

(Grammar, Edit. 2. p. 55,) '' The 
^* French Gauffre, gofre, puff — paste, 
*' seems also to be derived from the 
*' Irish Gabh, Gav, Gavail, another 
" name for barm/' All languages, he 
will see, are full of these terms. The 
French word Gaufre is derived by Me- 
nage from y«e^, " une espece de ga- 
I shall not insist on the Greek o-^f^r, malleolus pedis, as belonging 
to this Element SP, since I cannot satisfy myself as to its peculiar derivation : 
I must observe however that its connexion with a^f«. Malleus, and the Latin 
expression " malleolus pedis,** may convince us of the propensity in the mind 
to deduce this part from the idea of a protuberant substance — a kiiobcd rising, 
(if I may so express it) &c. &c. From the same source I imagine Heel to 

be derived. It is of that race of words 
Jacob, (quas.) The Kiber. which belong to the idea contained in 

Hill, &c. any thing rising or protube- 
rant. Skinner seems to have some idea of this, when he derives it from 
•' HAOZj clavus, et secundario callosum illud tubercnilum, quod medici 
'* clavum dicunt, nos Angli a com fort, quia os hoc instar capitis clavi 
'* ferrei, vel potius clavi morbi protuberat." To the humble terra Kib£^,- 
signifying the heel, must be referred the name of the venerable patriarch 
Jacob — the Kiber. Let not the reader smile at the visionary attempts of 
the writer to adorn a favourite hypothesis ; for such unquestionably is the 
origin of the word, and such even is the opinion of the Commentators and 
Critics. Of Rebekah we read, ** And when her days to be delivered were 
^ fulfilled, behold there were twins in her womb. And the first came 
" out red, all over like an hairy garment; and they called his name Esau. 
** And after that came his brother out, and his hand took hold on Esau's 
*• heer or kibe — (a-kab) '* and his name was called Jacob/* (Gen. 25. 

V. 24. 



V. 2*. &c.) Ipy AKB, Ahab, signifies as a noun^ says Parkhurst, '^ The 
" extremity, sole, or heel of a man's foot — as a verb, to lay hold of the heel, 
*' q. d. to heel — Whence the nameof Ipr" (JAKB) *' Ja-cob, q. d. The 
*' heeler.^* This is universally acknowledged; and if Mr. Parkhurst had 
said " Ja-cob (or Ja-kib) q. d. the Kiber," he would have precisely ex- 
plained the origin of the word. Yet such is the state of our Etymology, 
and of our usual reasoning on the subject, that the Critics who have per- 
pctually acknowledged the name of Jacob to be derived from a-kab, tlie 

hcelf may perhaps smile, and even start at tlie folly or profeneness of ^he 

• • • ' 

writer, who should rfefer the name of a venerable Patriarch to the quaint 
and humble terms of the Kiber and the Kibe. 

The quotation from the page of Hesychius has led me into the illustra- 
tralion of the race of words belonging to Kibe^ &c. I will again revert to 
Cubene (KuC»iv»i) or tlie Cat in. Whenever w^e find a word used to denominate 
a place of rest, habitation, &c. we should ever expect to sec tlie same terjn 
referred to an article of dress — a covering for the person. Hence we have 

in Menage, '* Cab an, vieuxmot ia- 
Caban. (Fr.) Manteau. ** usite, ^ui signifie une sorte de man-: 

*' teau iivec de manches." lyienage 
then produces words widi a similar meaning and the same Element ; but he 
dreams nothing of their affinity with the word which he subjoins next in order 
to it, Caha^^e, tugurium — b. Cabin. The connexion bttween the dress and 
tlie habitation is perpetual — Hut, Hat — :Cot, Coat — House, Hose — Barrack^ 
Breeches — Fast, (holding — containing— 3/?^/ — 2i fastness) Vest, (vestio) &c, 
&c. That barrack, barricado, barriquer,Jcc. are connected with Breeches, 
cannot be doubted. The Hebrew scholar would be edified by the unfolding 
of this Element; and the pious Rabbi, to whom that name for a portion of, 


C B, C r. C P, C V. &c, : 79 

our dress should be familiar, would be astonished at the changes of lan- 
guage, when he finds this term applied to nn object, which is connected 
widi the most lioly and mystic secrets of his religion. 

CiBOTos. (Or.) Area, ciita. 


KiBiTKEN. (Calmuck.) A lent. 

To arrive at Cibotos, (KiG'^t®) 
Lennep has again recourse to his verbs 
in '«, «w, and ««• '* Quanquam derivari 
" potest a Kiw, quod vicinum vcrbi 
" K«w, Kuw, &c. atque ita dictum existi- 
*' mari a cavitatc, ut alia nomina vaso- 
" rum, nihil tamcii definio." We perceive that he has no shorter path to 
cavitas, (wliich is tlie property, as he acknowledges, oivexscls) than through 
»hc intermediate road of w, «w and uw TJie name, which the Calmucks 
liave for their Tents may be referred to this word. Tlicy are called Kibit- 
ken, which is compounded of Kibit (CBT) a covaing, and Ken, a house — 
dwelling, &c. (Sec Grcllman's History of the Gipsies, p. 188.) It is well 
known that in the Eastern languages RN, Kfian, &cc. &c. signifies an 
habitation. In the Vulgar Ttrngiic, or, as it is commonly called, the Slang 
Iji7iguagc, tlic Boozj^-Kcii i% the drinking-placc ov ale-house. This language 
lias been sometimes confounded with the Gipscy ; tliough they have nothing 
in cpmnj.on but a few terms occasionally adopted from that race, because 
Gipseys have sometimes consorted \\\\h other beggars. Capsa, which is 
one of the interpretations of KiCwT^, is acknovvledged by the Etymologists 
to be derived from Capiendo; and it is rcfcrretl likewise to Ky^^iAn, which sig- 
nifies a bee-liive—;-7i species of vessel — 
tlie /(o//tfif of the,.ear. &c. &c. I shall 
transcribe the few artielcs in the open- 
ing of Mesycliius, where KutJ-iXn occurs, 
with this Element; i^hich T\'C.§halJ find 
u "' to 

CupsELE. (Gr.) Alycare, area. 
ScEjp, (Gael.) A Bcc-IIivc. 



f . » - • f 


to signify what almost answers to the Co/?e of Heaven— the //<^//rf— something 
4eii/— on instrument of torture to fow/?/<e and compreM-^VL kind o( ganneM^^-^ 
to strangle — vessels — tlie hollow of the Ear, He. &c.- — kt*baaa, t» ufni vi^xn 

yvofwAif, •M'X^9f o/4i;^A«Jif xaTantft*'—— KTOEPON, u KT*HN, xi^aXrjk* Kftirrc* 
KT^OIT^ KOfMfvXw, w(rop* Ai« yn^ac finxnu^tcJjuiiFOy* KT4»nN Jk j ^vXcvCao-Aktrixov xoAct- 
rnfioyj w xmrrr i^m if m^ Oavftrca xaraxixfijiAfirtf;* — KT^N> oTrf^ fvio* o^kft)^;^i]k xaXsa'4»* 

KlT^AI. mwtiy^a9^\ KTYfiAAfj x«i xuif/fAi^ffi o tw tok <i}0'<v uvoo-i/virajLifi^''—- /JeCSt 
f vir^ secundurtl ]^nterium) K«i toi ^-trti^oi ayyua, xon ru Ktm (mnvn (forsan oxfvn) 
xai T« WT©* TO lyxuXov xfu thj x«pivtf (Atfof rr — ^KTTEAH, t^ ftXUrtv oc^hou /biiAi^0'»^.-*- 
KinP£Affi£2, fAiXiC^Qfal^di' — KTtEAti, o' ly roif «cr* fu^r^* — KPTEAON, xvCf^reir ui- 

Aicro-ok*— KtVKAOt, ofvK woi^^, df»o<®* x«^**^^*'"^The lattCT Word Kv4/«A©* i^ a birdy 
says Mesychlite, like a Swallow'. This is eertainly a strange coincidence: 
Cttp-selds, Cfljp-ictts, or, as it might have been in Latin, Capsutus or 
Ciipsula — ^the holder — the container — ^the taier*in, or Swallower. Thii 
animai (the Swdllotv} has in many languages obtained its nanie from the 

noise which it makes ; but in lli^ 
XiXiJU^ Hirundo, the Swallow. Teutonic languages and in the Greek 

and Latin it has certainly borrowed its 
name from the idea which is conteycd by the word swallmc (one eap^ieti^, 
&c. &c.) fiteii the author of the Elymologicon Magnum has stumbled bn 
this origin of XixiJiw* ; and perhaps we'shall not be able t6 prcrthict sb suttfess- 
ful an instance of his Etymological* discernment. XiXiAii^ (sirys he) of> in it 
might have been, i^t Stcnllow, is derived from the wrf/m^outofthe jaws, 
'• n«f«TOT« XEIAH oiAAlNEiK." This is again a strange coincidenee. The 
commentator on Ixrnnep, who has produced this passage from the Etymth 
logicon Magnum, confirhis the notion of the swelling or tavity, by observing^ 
*' Accedit quod XtxAn, notante Hesychio, dicatur etiam ro koiaon mc 

'* o*^«»« ▼*«' »»«'W* ^ 'w aiftfuiWTt TO uifuitv t» tfyxwifO** fo riark ra^ xft^imc* Ubt nOtio 

*♦ «»il<ffii hos jilbct' ad stirpdm* x'«* X'f"* X'^«' X'^*»* &c. recurrere E, S/* 


CB, CiF, CP, CV, 4JC. ; 75 

(Lennq>/ Etym. sub voce X«W«r.)j Every thing confirios this origin of the 
word. All the terms belonging to XBA have this idea, and shew us the 
propriety of calling a bird liki& Ij^e iitXiiw, KuvJ^ix^* Xcxucis t€stu4o and 
pectus, quia testudini ^imMe^i-fiX^^^i:^. is likewise testudo, an4 WO^over that 
military detice of a pent^home, r imsisiMing of joined shields or Boards like 
the back of a tortoise^ XtArt^lA^ov xeaxinia occurs in Deuteronomy 
xxxiv. ▼. 7. and should be inta^eipd labia — gena or max HUyi for ^b^s wt 
rendet the various interpretBtioiMb (pbaldee, &c. which belong to this word. 
(BocharU voL 1. p« 50^.) ,1 ap uidebted for the passage. in Bochart to the 
Critics ^n Hesychiud sub XfAuwov*^ This, we cannot doubt, refers to XnxO»; 
nor shall we hesitate to allow M^t tbe w4iole race of words with XA« KL, de- 
tires the general idi^a fr^pm KOl^oj^v* >V« might have supposed, that the 9<>^ 
mentator on Ij^nv^prrvEtiemrdiuiiSff^diiis (qui n^bahir) "would Have been 
eqxjisAly iomManUtd (jiubeO tOiderivi^.his XiXi^wk from the toKOIAON, as from 
a verb in Xm or Xi^i^* ,J}fi^fi,,iB ope, wry curious passage relating to this 
Element XA ib th& ffi^Cf:o^on^fif :B9p\»^^t, which is connected with a word 
iUu8trafive,of my.bypOthesi%,a^-which I since find has been occupied b)^ 
the resdarcJhe^ <<)f tb0 Critip^.oijj Heyschius sub voce XiXwwJO** ^ We'fead ii| 
the Book 6S Jiidithi that J^^^c^f, after 4he murder of Holof ernes, *' k;K>cke4 
^' at the door of the tcnt^ for he thought that he had slept wit|i Juditbv 
•• But b^CiJOSe iiP94 anfcwpreri,. .. he opened it, and wentf ii>to jthe bcd- 
*• cbambet, and fcHin4.1|Hiv.,Hpoft4ie» floor j^^ 

'* hdtahim:\ (Judith l^J v. 44, J 5/) What is rendered by the English 
translation :iipon thtjhoryv^ fi»c^in.tfoe <?rQefe^jEviti»f>(iiM^iJ!&*' Without 
enquiring into the opinions of tlfe Ck)n9^«tAatprsi;ff)^otiiigr.ihi£iiiW^ I 
shall imnsediately proceed to tJke/quota^ilocn.jfrpta^ .Bpch^rt^ iWhich; b^ngs 

tothe general subject o£ ro.ytd be ilssion^ -^\iN^fc€t|3fCm p^urilHi?i)i*Mi9€a^ 

. ix . f' jixibi jijtfdwf .est nnp Kubba. Vo)v 

KtJBB A^ nsp (Hcb.) • .1 *' .?; a«»dl in soriptura legitur, nee satis 

*i J/j • ' • ; . ::!' i^^lligittir > mm^^li^uxt^. il5\. •% ^, 
lUlBBA, &OBliA, iM.^iU.); . i^)f^\ Wx^ i^iW^v^^nJli^tiib^^^^^ 
> ' ' ** ingressus 


^/-KoBBA. gAJjf (Ar.) *' ingressus est Phineas naprj'^Kii* 

■ ' " KvbhOt ■ et utrumque ' tfansfoditi- 
Al-Z6iA.\ * *' Qiiod ivarii varie explicant; . Sed> 

V(Span.) " •■'*':•-';'" :AfabibusgAS ;K"MWa vel Kobba' ct 
Al-Co\h,) ;^ ., . \' .** ca.m.9XtxcM\o ijji}\ Al'Kdbba con- 

' '■ *f clave est camerati cperis, quo lectus 

r . . . r 

-4?-CdVfe^- (^J^g-) ' ' ^^ circumdatur. Hispanis alcoba. dici-r 

' ■' * ■ • ' '" tar 'Ct Alceva, quae vox apud nos 

- - --'.'•; -. - ^^ ^* qtioque est vicinae nBignification», 

" Radix L>o Kabba in secunda con- 

f (V-X Sjpo6sani in tha^ ^^^ 

Zapha. y' *^^ <*^ -^i . ''* -''* " 'caineratum opus struere. Itaqiie -ist 

' f V - M«niiin deducere^ *f miisicum instrumentum x^"< seU rex-: 

"^•/krfo; Arabice vocatur lijxJ'l alau^r 

- - - - ' -• - . • • - - . ^- linde Hispanis laud\e\ laut, et nobis. 
' '^'' - - ^ . . : . , €i m::itBL ijjijl W-Kabba, seu r(>n^ 

Zffwrf.V;^ *T^ .i i'^ ^' t/tf»*/- qpod^'descripsimus, Arabidfc^ 

Laut.) ' ' :- ^ . . »i ' <« alio riomine dicUiir (^4^ 

lAt.i^x.^ '" ' ** /ffwdi, id dst, mater t€studinis;'i{um 


Lute. (Eng.) - •'* est camerili' et" testudinei .operii^; 

^^^ , ((Ar.) ' b;.: -^ji Apuci Arabeft iij tdi ijJiJ\AikiUit 

' i A'musical iiistruntent. - ^ ^^^tktsp^sS thaiamus. Et illam eddcM 

^' duckrelAj bana et u^ et'£ja^/r^ 
^* dicitur. Holbfernis igilUF thalamus, cum Juditha,' ut putabat, 'con- 
** cubituii, in hujustnodi^i^iS^aMafuit, quas cumGra&ce;^fX«vA(appello|ur/ 
'^ jam cuivis patct." (Botehart^'Hieroz. vol. 1. p. 1092-3.) This mode c£ 
iftterpreCition is singularly ingenious^ and in^the^ conjectures. of the Bty- 
moiogists should be regarded as affording a species of evidence, which 
has die strongest claim to our attention, Bochart cannpt produce a direct 
and absolute proof that such is the meaning of his word, but he can shew 
us a propensity in the mine) to fal) itito such a meanfjig from a similair 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c, 77 

metaphor. The term Alcove may suggest to our reflection that marvellous 
pertinacity in words, if I may 50 express myself, to preserve the spirit 
of their original meaning, amidst all tlie clianges and chances which they 
suffer in passing from moutli to mouth, and from character to character, 
through ages and nations widely distant and dissimilar. The word Alcove, 
which in a remote period at Mecca or at Medina presented to the mind of 
the Arab that train of ideas so readily connected with the Bridal bed, is now 
familiar to the ears of a nation in the depths of the western ocean, and still 
passes over the mind with a similar impression of pleasing imagery. We 
still delight to hear of 

^ . ** Cliveden's proud Alcove, 

*' The bow'r of wanton Shrewsbury and Love/' 
Let us now return to the consideration of Hunindo and Swallow.-r^ 
^* Scaliger ad Varr,'* (says Martinius) " Hirundo, quod veteribus kelundo a 

" XtXiSwy X in h, ea est vera etymo- 
Hirundo. ** logia." We §hall not, I imagine, 

be disposed to allow this for the true 
etymology, nor to derive it, with Martinius, from eiapinh verna^ or 
E«fi MfTou, quia vere venit. It is of the same origin with arundo, and 
means sometliing hollotv — something taking in — comprehending, &c. &c. 
^NT or ''ND bears this idea. Hence hand — Eft^ — /ireA-ENDo, &c. &c. 

Swallow is deduced from the same 
fSwallow. source. It belongs to the race of 

words PL — FL — WL, signifying to 
comprehend — get together-r<ontfiin simply or in abundance— /wW — -p/eos 
(llAfo^]^ /^/enus, &c. &c. &c. &c. The S is added to perform aq oflSce, 
which it bears in many languages. It betokens violence of motion — eager- 
ness — dgifation — puffing up, &c. &c. Hence swell — swill — swallow. In 
the French word az^i/fr it appears without the 5; the av is nothing but the. 
rcHigh breathing before the "L. Avaler is hot derived, as the French 

X Etymologists 



GoBER. (Fr.) Avaler. 

Avaler. Hollow. Swallmv. Vallis. Etymologists imagine, from ad and 

vallis; though the reader will perceive 
- - .---.*-.. that vallis likewise belongs to the same 

idea. The parallel word in French 
for avuler is derived from the Element 
CB or GB. Gober is quasi capere; 
though Menage can only contemplate the word through the medium of 
Gobelet, KTlffiAAON, &c. {Gober, says he, vide Gobelet.) With this idea 
annexed to the word Swallow, the name of the bird has a singular 
coincidence with the words of the Etymologicon Magnum. XiKiion, % wa(x 
TO T« XEIAH AONEIN, n no^ rt r» xf^x^ $hfou¥m' We have here the action and 
the eagerness. Skinner derives Swallow from the Anglo Saxon stvegl, aer, 
caelum, quia sc. altum volat ; but Martinlus has rightly seen that the Ger- 
man Schwalbt and the Saxon Swale is derived from schwellen intumesccre. 
Of the word swallow, to eat, the Etymologists know nothing but the similar 
terms in other languages. 

Cheap. (Eng.) 
Chapman. (Eng.) 
Chbapen. C^ng.) 
CtAPAW. (A. S.) Emerc. 


r(A. s.) 

f Psetium, bona, merces. 

In the Teutonic languages the 
great race of words to express the af&irs 
of Traffic belongs to the Element CB, 
&c. and they are derived probably, 
from different portions of the general 
idea which that Element exhibite. The 
oecupation of the merchant is at once, 
eennected with the notion of collecting 
or bringing together— of possessnig or 
•• taking into possession m abnmhmce 
»* or with design;" yet I imagine that 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 


Kauffen. (Germ.) Emere. 
KooPEN. (Belg.) Emere, 
KioBE. (Dan.) Mercari. 
Kaupe. (Isl.) Emo. 
Kauba. (Runic) Emere. 
Kaupon, (Gothic) NegotiarL 
Kauffman. (Germ.) Mercator. 
KooPMAN. (Belg.) Mercator. 
KioBM AND. (Dan.) Mercator. 
KioBSTED. (Dan.) Emporium. 
KooPSTAD. (Belg.) Emporium. 
Koop. (Belg.) Emptio. 




(A. S.) Mercator. 

many of the words belonging to this 
r4ce are derived from " the place of 
*' safety — the enclosure of security and 
'^ convenience, in which the business 
*^ of commerce was transacted." The 
Etymologists have collected the various 
teYms relating to this idea. Cheap, Chap^ 
mafi, &c. &c. Achepter, Acheter, "which 
it was necessary to lay before the eyes 
of the reader, that he might be duly 
sensible of the extensive use and im- 
portant purposes, to which these terms 
have been applied. 

The word Cheap signified, as I 
imagine, in our ancient language, 
what we now emphatically call the 
* Market place,' and afterwards the 
market itself: Under other forms, it 
conveyed different ideas relating to the 
same subject. — * Good Cheap' is a very 
familiar phrase in old English, which 
answers precisely to an expression still 
in use among the French, and ia similar 
to another with the same Element, 
which is now, I believe, become totally 
obsolete. In l^akdpeare, Faktaff allud- 
ing to Bardolph^sfiery face, says*, **Thau 
** hast saved me a thousand morks^ in* 
*• links and torches, walking with tbeei 






r(A. s.) 


Forum, emporium. 

Chepstow. (Urbs Walliae.) 
Cypinoa. (a. S.) Nundinae. 
AcHEPter — Acheter. (Fr.) 


(Old Eng 

Market place. 







AcuAvter — Acheter. (Fr.) 

'* in the night betwixt tavern and ta* 

*^ vera; but the sack that thou hast 

'* drunk me, would have bought me 

'' lights as good cheap at the dearest 

" chandlers in Europe." (1st. Pt. of 

Henry v. A, 3. S. S.) *' Cheap is 

Market,'* (says Dr. Johnson) ** and 

good cheap therefore is a bon marchi.*'^ 

So in Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay, 

1599," (says Mr. Stcevens,) 

'* If this weather holds, we sliall 

^* have hay good cheap." 
Cheap (as Dr. Johnson has observed) 
is undoubtedly an old word for Mar- 
'* ket. From this word East-CHRAP, 
*' CuET'Siow, CHEAF'Side, &c. are de- 
*' rived." Though Chcapc7i in English 
commonly signifies to enquire the price 
for the purpose of buying; yet Ccapian 
in Saxon means " vendere, negotiari ; 
and Ceap is explained by Lye ** Pecus; 
\ : _ ' which was anciently the most universal 

object of traffic; and in general, *' Res quaevis, quae emi vendique potest 
** atque ab uno domino ad alium transire." That the French Acheter is to 
be referred to this race of words, through the medium of ' ^chapter,* will 
not, I think, be doifbjted. This word has much embarrassed the French 
Critics; though they acknowledge that * ^chapter* was the ancient mo^e 
of pronouncing and spelling the term. " Nous prononcions," says Me- 
nage sub voce, ^' anciennement ac/iapter, comme le temoigne le mot 
^ achapt; et il est toujours ainsi ecrit dans les vieux livres." There is a 


" De bon 

*' aCABlt. 

(Old Fr.) A market- 
able commodity — 
fit to be produced 
in the Cheap. 







a A. s.) 


Forum, emporium. 

Chepstow, (Urbs Walliae.) 
Cypinoa. (a. is.) Nundlnae. 
AcHEFter — Adheter. (Fr.) 


(Old Eng 


Market place. 







AcHAFter — Achelcr. (Fr.) 

" in the night betwixt tavern and ta* 

** vem; but the sack that thou hast 

" drunk me, would have bought me 

*' lights as good cheap at tiic dearest 

** chandlers in Europe." (Ist. Pt. of 

Henry v. A. 3. S. S.) " Cheap is 

Market^' (says Dr. Johnson) " and 

good cheap therefore is a bon marckc.'*^ 

So in Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay^ 

1599," (says Mr. Stecvens,) 

" If this weather holds, we sliall 

** have hay good cheap." 
Cheap (as Dr. Johnson has observed) 
is undoubtedly an old word for Mar- 
** kct. From this word East-CHBAF, 
*' CHEF'Stow, CttEAT-side, See. are de- 
*' rived." Though ChcapcJi in English 
commonly signifies to enquire the price 
for the purpose of buying ; yet Ccapian 
in Saxon means *' vendere, negotiari;" 
and Ceap is explained by Lye " Pecus;" 
which was anciently the most universal 
object of traffic; and in general, '* Res quaevis, quae emi vendique potest 
*' atque ab uno domino ad alium transire." That the French Acheter is to 
be referred to this race of words, through the medium of ' achaptev,* will 
not, I think, be doi^bjied. • This word has much embarrassed the French 
Critics; though they acknowledge that * ^chapter* was the ancient moc^ 
of pronouncing and spelling the term. " Nous prononcions," says Me- 
nage sub voce, ♦'anciennement acliapter, comme le temoigne le mot 
^ aehapt; et il est toujours ainsi ecrit dans les vieux livres." There is a 


*' De bon 

*' acABit. 

'(Old Fr.) A market- 

a > 

^ble commodity — 
fit to be ptoduced 
. in the Cheap. 


CBy CF, GP, CV, &ic. 



curious phrase with this Element, which is directly referred to the traffic of 
the market. *' Nous disons" (says Menage) ** a Paris cc fruit, ce mouton, ce 
*' drapne sont pas * De bon ar^^it,' pour dire, ne sont pas bien conditionnez : 
'* Ce qui veut dire proprement, ne sont pas de bon debit." We have 
in English precisely the same idea in the expression * a i^ood marketable 
* conimodity;' or, as it might have been, a good Cheapdble commodity — 
fit to be produced in tlie Market or Cheap. There is another word with 
this Element, which always means the place where tlie articles of traffic 
are preserved in safety or exposed to sale. . Shop,, with its ' correspond?- 

ing terms in other languages, Sceoppe, 
EschopCf Sec. to be seen in our Etymolo- 
gists, means ' an eiiclomre for the pur- 
' pose of preservation— security,' &c. 
Skinner is of opinion that the German 
* Schafferiy operari,* is the root :-r-** Certe 
*' longe probabilius," (says he) ** quam 
'* quod vult Fr. Jun. a Gr. Djuvc**" 
The Welch word for a Shop is Slop 
(sec Evans*s Diet.); and among other 
Celtic terms in Lhuyd for * officina" 
are Govail and GevaiU by which we 
are reminded of the Greek Kapelos 


and KapeleioHf (Kit^ux®* & KaimXHw) 
&c. The names expressing the ad- 
Go vail-Gev ail. (Celt.) Officina. juncts of traffic, buying — selling, &c. 

hive been deduced in many languages 
- - - - •-.--. from the /?Y/7ce or the fliisemWj^ in vvhich 

the business of traffic was conducted* 
Vendo — Venea — Venum, in Latin, about 
which so many conjectures have been 
formed by the ^Etymiol^gists^ should be 
Y attributed 

ScEOPPE. (A. S.) Gazophylacium. 
ScAFFT. (Germ.) Repositorium. , 
ScHAP. (Belg.) Theca. 

EscHOFc.'' (Fr.) 

SiOP; (Welch.) Shop. 

Vefido — Veneo, ( From the place of 
&c. V sale. 



Pm. (Eng.) Penetralia — Penus. 

Penes, &c. Venter — Pent, &c. 

Venta. (^n.) An inn.^ 

Tabema — Taaern-r-Tub. 

Tubus— Tube— Tafos. (Gr.) 

Trabs— Tabula, 8cc. 

TBLA. (ehald.) Coiyungens. 

Bautigue — Board — Booth — Boot 

Boat — Bed, &c. 

attributed to this source. They are de^ 
rived from the hold or store-house in 
which the wares were deposited. PN — 
PNT signifies in every language to hold 
— contain — enclose, &c. &cc. Pen, in 
English, &c. ' Pe;ietralia* — * Penvs/ 
the store of provisions deposited for an 
household — ^ Penes,* the adverb of posr- 
session — * Venter,* the hold of the belly, 
(which I believe in most languages 
b deduced from the same metaphor) 
Pent, &c. This Element expresses in 
a modern language that general place of 
rest — security, &cc. which has been dis- 
tinguished by the name of * Stranger , 

* receiving* (H£koJb;^aoi/) — ' the all receix)^ 

* ing* {liMioyHoy) — the place ' of taking 
< in,* or the Inn. VENxa is the ap- 
propriate term for a species of hm 
both in ancient and modern Spanish. 

Pimtx, (Gr.) Tabula. 

Tabema, with its corresponding 
• - . - terms in modern languages. Tavern, &c. 

I imagine to be a compound of two 
Elements implying the san>e thing: 
TB, an enclostire — receptacle, such as 
it exists in the words TwA-^7V*^ (tube) Titf&,^8ic. &€. and BN orPN^ 
as in the terms before. US/ Pen, Venta, &c. &c. Tabema is *' quasi trabma, 
^ a validioribus dicta trabibus,** as Donatus imagines; or as Festus, *' Ta* 
*^ bernae dictae, quod ex tabutis olim fiebant." Trabs and Tabula, though 
not die immodidte origin of Tabema, belong to the Element, and bear a 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 


similar meaning. Trabs, says Martinius, '^ Lignum transverse positum in 
^^ structurisi ut tegat superiora/* and Tabula answers exactly to our word 
Board in its various senses. It means wood shaped out for diverse pur- 
poses of holding-'-^mtaining — receiving — placing together — enclosing under 
one, &CC. &c. Board belongs to the great race of words Bed — Boat — 
Boot — Booth — Boutique, &cc. &c. As Trabs belongs to Tabcma, so does 
Board to Boutique. It is curious that Tabula is expressed in another lan- 
guage by the second Element in the composition of ' Tab-6erwa' (' Taierwa') 
PN. In Greek, Tabula is * PinsLx' {TbvaJ^). The same objects produce the 
same ideas, and Elements of a similar meaning are employed to communi- 
cate the impression. Martlnius has a glimpse of this sense belonging to 
Tabula; and he confirms my opinion by producing from the Chaldec a 
word of the same class. '* Tabula possit esse/' (says he) " Chald, N^ID, 
*^ id est, conjungenSf connectem, quia ad coassationes" (for boarding up J 
•• ejususus est.'* 

Chaffer. (Eng.) 

* Chop aiid Change* 

Swop, (Vulg. Eng.) Permvitare. 


I (Old Eng.) 


Chev^. (Old Eng.) To thrive, 

To tlie terms produced in the 

former article Cheap, &c. must be 

added Chaffer, " Permutare, nego- 

'• tiari," says Skinner; and the or* 

dinary phrase to Chop and Change, 

which the Etymologists refer to Cheapen 

— Kauffcii, &c. Hence it is that Chevi^ 

saunce means in Chaucer, *' Merchan- 

" dising, advantage or profit in tr%de. 

** Also, an agreement, or composi- 

*' tion ; paymept of money according 

'^ to agreement. It is used in an ill 

^* s^nse, CheOjting, an unlawful ^argain^ 



r(01d Eng.) *' It seems to be taken for an action or 

To redeem, effect. 

Che>'i.ce. ^_ ^ ^ " achievement." This word is thus 

properly explained in the Glossary to 
Mr. Urry's edition of Cliaucer; and in that of Mr. Tyrwhitt, it is im- 
perfectly described as *' an agreement for borrowing of money." Tlie 
Merchant in the prologue to the Canterbury Tales is introduced 

** With his bargeines and with his ChevisaJice.^' 
Activity in the important affairs of commerce naturally leads to the -idea 
oi actionm general; and from hence, I imagine, are derived the terms 
Atchieve and Achever; and not from Chef (Caput) as the French Critics 
have generally supposed. From this commercial origin of the word, w€ 
shall easily understand why Chevc signifies to " thrive, prosper," and C/rc- 
vice to " redeem and to effect," according to the explanation of the 
Glossarists. T-o * Chop and Change' we must add our vulgar word Stoop, 
which Kennet has properly referred to the Anglo-Saxon Ceapan, erat^TQ. 
Let me add that from this source are derived the most familiar names, 
which are in use among the English and Germans — Chapman and Kanff- 
man. In old language. Merchant, another word for Chapman, occurs in 
a peculiar sense, which has not escaped tlie notice of the Commentators 
on Shakspeare. In Romeo and Juliet, the Nurse says on the departure 
of Mercutio, *' I pray you. Sir, what saucy Merchant was this, that was 
*' so full of his ropery." (A. 2. S. 4.) On which Mr. Stcevens observes, 
'* The term Merchant, which was, and even now is, frequently applied to 
*' the lowest sort of dealers, seems anciently to have been used on these 
familiar occasions in contra-distinction to gentleman; signifying that 
the person shewed by his behaviour he was a low fellow. The term 
*' €hap, i. e. Chapman, a word of the same import with Merchant in its 
'* less respectable sense, is still in common use among the vulgar, as a 
•* general denomination for any person of whom they mean to speak 
" with freedom or disrespect." Mr. Steevens is not precise in his explana- 
tion of the term Merchant : It is not used for a low Fellow in opposition to 


Ointlemah, but it^is appUfed ib tho* 'gay wJityfeXL^AVt^; fwfabwire fUl 
* of their roper}'',' such'fts M^rciitio exhibit) himself, in Kk cbnrersatibii 
^thithd'Nurse; "fht^foircW^iWgf'^ivSsage from Palsgrave's French Gltammaft 

1530, will detcrmtfie the s?gfftficatiori of the- word. " Ihis Mttrckaunt 


** \Vas very haiite sttlhiS begyrinirt^, lAit he is^iwcd weli yiioiigh Aow;\^"€4 
M OALLANT estoyt trop-iif^r-au conimencement, mays il (?st assCT ^ub^aoUl 
*' iriayntehant/' (Fok'^ 16&.)' MercHmi,Ml^re senior qf. a, GallmiipjBeeitis 
td be used foVa Man of the^ Wbrldf * in opposition to the grave^cbaractek 

attachedttt'th^EdelfesiasticaiidotlVerjlrofessional situations, 

The t^rms relating to the affairs of Commerce/ Fofwn, MftrkA, hC. 
which belong to bthfer Elements, woidd afford us a very curious subject 
of investigatioh, though we shbiil<4'8oftiefi*ne$ find ourselves emb'arrasaed 
in deciding on their original feigttificitfobsi It is^ not ekisy to discover die 

^!n^iseideia annexed to JF^^rJo^t thou^ 
BR, FR, &c. &c. ^ i imagine that its primitive sense was 

Forum. (L.) A market place. ^thkt of \h<tspat^ or ground^ on mriiicli the 

Fori (stats or benches) J5^Vr— ' - busine^ 'Wais tfahsacted/^ It'wiH hot 
Bear^—Fero — ^t^tj, &c. &ci ^ howevef be fecund di<R<?ult to distinguish 

-Fdn/^. (Locus ubi uvacalcatur;) the various meanings hdonging to this 
Pert'. (Gii^.) Feet. ' temi, and' to ^ refer thosfe dgnifickGons 

Fare. (Eng.) li-e; to the * peeuliif race of wofdSt - wkh 

Pcran — Poros. (Gr.) Transirc, via. which they are each of theia^cnxn^ 
Fahre?i—Fu/ir€n.^{Ger.y To go, necte^.' ^'^'Fm/'szy the Critics, 
conduct, &c. &c. • ^* proprife^simt PCffmnaB.\^ ^ubsclUa na* 

JN:;r/. (Navium latera Concava.) ■ ** viiim et Uwatrofum;"- '. With this 
jM»n/m. (VesFiblutiiri.)' 'J^rti^ alie'i- ' i^^a as a ^M^ it belongs to our word 
torius. (Alveu^' ttikoirhttf'.) ■ Bto--^'^ BlBtt-u^B^AHf^FMo-iMUftt^ito: mpjtort 

Pohis, a JPurr9iMRihrHr7 t«>Bd^: >^.''' i^^t^^ilQo-jreta^fiipdtilfc 
'-^ z "pedibus. 


iFktii {a door) die Per. [Door — *^ pedibus, unde calcatorium dicitur/* 

Tknra. (Gr.) Through,'] says Isidorus. In the sense of treading or 

Fw»^Foricui striking with xhorfeet, and its consequent 

*•»*.*•------ action of walking ox going, it answers 

Forunts. {Lat,) A market town, to a great race of words to be found in 

Fmiu.{Qvps.) every language. Pere in Gipsey 

* Neve i^mw/ (Gips.) * Novum/ means Xht feet. Fare> in English, 
jPi>rwn-4=^Nexv-Markct. (says Junius) is ** i^, proiicisci;'* to 

• - .*- which he adds the corresponding terms 

Fi>%— PwCT* — Ver^ &c. &c. &c. in die Gothic, Anglo«Saxon> &c. &c. 

• . . ' die Greek * Peran* (n<f «>> transirc) and 
< jPttrttt* .fllifaff, via). , Every oile x^aiembers the familiar German words 

* FakrfaC ahd 1 Fuhrcn,\ to go aivl to conduct. Fori has another sig- 
rfficadon 0£ ^* Navium latera concava,'* Forum is '' Vestibulum sepul- 
♦^ «hci('' and the * Forum aleatpriu^i' of Suetonius has been explained by 
^{T^hiibmk^mVL^peum Ijusorium.';: . In these instances it means an enclosure^ 
and atMrerf to. buch terms m Bar — »*; -Barrier*-*— ' J?ari;Qw* — ' JSa/Tcl/ &a 
"die jrQute'WUl pierhapai be; amused when he learns, for the first time, that 

* 3P0Kirf ' * isigiiSfi^s a Furrow. Columella, thus counsels in poedc, though 
Maikbiaii strains, his friend^ Silvinus, at whose frequent solicitadon he 
at lakt induced torpeirform the task which Virgil had left for others to 


*' Tunc quoque. trita S9k> splendentia sarcula suniat, 
^^ Angu$t09que foros adverso limite ducens, 
V Rursus in obliquum disdnguat tramite parvo." . 

\»'u.i! -\. ) () ^K. ^i ii .vv-..; ' ^(Ub..JO; De OMl^^Jfiortcpuny.) . . • 
Jtoij^^Myrvthe QomminttatoiSi ^- in agrq siml parvi sulfi^j^ ot^Qngi.'^ Th« 


g«gfab'lt y >iti flg i8ts kqy V nQ«*|i«g ofitFori; but \ ^i^cFw^^ from the 
%^iL^ J^m^ium-lb ^OifiijtQfptCTfiG,':^ }" Quidcnim," (ssysjSkuiner) " aliud 
'^■mkiSiit»b^fm^yt»Tillkm»lt*,l»^ • To fyn^p 

CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. $9 

Fbnre — Furrow — Fmp all convey 4 similar idea, and belong to each 
other. Again, F(^nuii ntieana What we should now call a ' Market 
'Town;* and jPortV signiiiea^ Ddop— die place of going out or passage — 
the Paros (ikf^i) tlie Per. Let the reader mark that Foris is to Per, what 
Door is to • Thura' (Of/^) * /Arolugh/ Forka belongs to the adverb 
Foris, without doors. It is ciurious that in the Gipsey language Foras is 
** a Market Town;" and it is used in opposition to Gav, a Village. Forum 
precisely answers in its sense to Foras. In talking with a venerable Bra- 
miness of that order, and having occasion to translate the word New- 
Market into the Gipsey language, I was informed that Neve Foras would 
be the exact translation. Novum Forum, we know, is the Latm name for 
the same place. To this race of words belong Vir — Puer — and Fer, a 
3Ia7i — a Boy — and the Spring. Dissimilar as these ideas may appear to 
each other, there is one word from which they arc all derived, and in 
which their meanings arc all concentrated. I shall leave tlie discovery of 
this important word, as an exercise for the genius of our Etymologists, 

Witli respect to ' Mercor — Merx — 
MR — ^^K . Mercis,' and the Mark in Market, it is 

---------- not easy to ascertain, whether it be a 

Mercor — Merx — Market. compound of MR and '^C, or whether 

MKR.(neb.)To^€//Merchandise. it be derived from the root MC, In 

- •---•. either case, however, it is not difficult 

Fair — Faros. (Gr.) Forum — Ware, to discover the race of words, which 
(Eng.) Warn. (A. S.) Waere. (Dut.) should be referred to* the portion and 
&c. &c. , to the whole. If MR be a part of the 

- - - - - '-^ * • - - - compouirf, it belongs to * jFJirKm'-*- 
Price — Pretium-^Prales. (Gr. qm Fair (Nundinal) * Foros' (*flff^, Fo^ 
auctionatur.) p£/>ivwfo-P^o. (Gr. rum) — Ware (Merx); of which latter 
vendo) Priamai — ^JPriio. (Gr. emo) word the Etymologists know nothing 
Prasso — ^PraUo. (Gr> faciiKi) buti its parallel terms in the Teutonic 


".v. I 


Bdzaur. (Ar. the Market.) Bourse, langui^es. Warn {A.. S.) IVaerc (DutcH) 
(Ft.) &C. &c- 'The Latin Etymologists de* 

/^//rv^A. (Peris.) Selling. «: rive: -Aftrcor :from the Hebrew MKR 

^-. -------- {i2o) which si^ifies, says Parkhurst, 

Bargain — Bargtdgner. (Fr.) To *' To W//, ,or properly to rfe/Zc-e?- w/> h 
haggle — the same at> Merc/iander, *^ thingi to 2inot\cr for a price;*' and at; 
(Fr.) ami Mercken. (Germ.) /|inouii, * Ware, Tnerchandisc, a price; a 

Mart — Barter — jBtf rflr/. (Fr.Trom- ^seUingy-a sale, a Jhifig sold" Ihc 
pcriQ. Barat tare. (It.) - term PWa', which Mr. Parkhiirst ha^ 

Ay*f« (Forum) — ^Ayf^« — .^ger-"-^ used on this occasion,* must be added 
Ba?i/c — Banker, SCc. Banque — Ban- to tlie same race of w ords. This, wc 
CO — Tf opTi^iIflu, AIensarii^^T(awt^»f may well imagine, is far remo^-cd from 
Mcnsa. the conception of our Etymologists; 

who, however, in their various con- 
jectures have not failed to supply us with terms, which must likewise be 
referred to a similar origin. The Greek Prates, &c. (iTf al»if, qui auctionatur) 
Piprasco and Phrao (n»#f«rxw, irifa«,-vendo) are supposed to be the words, 
to which Pretium belouga; and we shall not fail to remember Priainai, 
Prio, (n^MiAcu, wfita, emo) to buy — the op|K)site transaction in the atfairs of 
commerce. In these terms we perceive the PR eidier in a com|x>und or 
simple state, answering to the same element in Foruyn-^Fair — Warc^.&ic. 
The readers of the » Odyssey may now understand that TIi^m in the sense 
of /rtfw^et) and vmdo, should be referred to different roots; and that .the 
Critics have unnecessarily endeavoured to connect these ideas in their 
cicpbnations by F^hrfeiie /ralmlec/l^;«, /r<rwj/wr/tf /Mm, &c. It has, howevor>^ 
often happened that the facts have coincided with each other; and^rhaps 
in many cases the Poet himself has been deceived, and iias acconitnodated 
hts^phraseology to so impressive a coincidence. The Greek Ptasso or Pratto 
(nf«ro^ n^Thrj ago) the appropriate term for action ^ot— business of vxy^ 

originally ^derived fropiribe business of commerce. The Arabib 


>•»••■ '^ " 

< • •• 





^^ 0«,*t3t, C^, .CV, &c. 1 M 

iBi|«itt;\" ( ^IJU) the * Market ,^.about'^wfcidi^we hear so much in Eastern 
riafratives, is a* -word of the sama family; and Bourse, the place where 
Merchants assemble, has undoubtedly' the same origin. Menage observes 
that the etymol bgyoif this word is of ^n historifcal nature, and very curious. 
(^< L'Etymplo'gie de oe mot cf;t -historique; et elle est tres cUiieuse/*) 
He then' produced the 'authocity of Guiccwrdini, for this historical and 
extraordinary etymology; ■ Bourscy or in Italian, Borsa, was so named^ 
(says tliis historian) because tlie Merchants used to assemble in a Piazza 
at Bruges, which was adjacent to a building erected by a family called 
Delia Borsa ; whose arms, tlircc Bourses — Bo7S€, or Purses^ were re- 
presented In stone over the portal. From this circumstance the Piazza 
received the name of Borsa. (" E in Bruggia una piazza moko commoda 
" a tutte Ic parti dclla terra; in testa della qual piazza e tma grande et 
antica casa, da quella nobil famiglia, detta Della Borsa, stata edificata^ 
con Ic sue arnii, di viva pictra sopra la porta: le quali armi sono tre 
^^ Borsc. Or da questa casa, famiglia, et armi, prese il nome (come 
** similmentc in simili cose avviene) quella piazza/' (Menage sub voce 
Bourse.) AVc have seen that Foras is the Gipscy name for a Market Toxvn^ 
in w hich we have the compound (FR-S) as 4t exists in ^ Pre/ium' and 
Bourse (PR-T, BR-S); and in Persian, as * Bazaur Kirdun* signifies to 
buy, so does ' Furus/tAdQii ((^<iA»ijji) mean to sell. The termination 
iden is the form of the Persian infinitive. Furnish, which signifies " A 
" seller, selling," joined to a word expressing the reciprocal pronoun Scjf^r 
supplies a very lively 2md original phrase. Boasters or Braggarts are called 
in Persian Self-Sellers. To the word Market we ntust refer the 
English Bargain, and the French Barguigner, terms which have mightily 
embarrassed the Etymologists. In English it simply means the contract of. 
commerce; but in French it denotes the attending circumstances, which.^ 
often belong to these contracts. Barguigner answers* precisply to ow word 
Haggle: it means (say the ordinary Lexicons) '* To be irresolute, to bogr 
** gle, to haggle, to hum and haw.** (Chambaud,) Menage, who doyhts 
not {^""Jtue douie point, ice") but that it is derived from bncmi^re, w)iijqb> 

A a is 


b the arigk of the Italian bairg€gnarep has in hit explanation brottght 
us to the spot ; to which I have referred the word. For ^^ Sans barguigmr^^ 
says'he, tlie French could say ^'Sani MarChander;" and he adds thM 
in German- tlfc- parallel term for Barguigner would be Merckbn. The 
Etymologists have seen' that J/flr^ belongs^ to Market; but tliey have not 
diflieoVered tha* Bar/er bejongs (o the samcidcai They have produced thd 
parallel Italian term barattare, which M. Ferrari derives from ptniafacerc; 
and Barter has-been deduced by Skinner from VeUcre. Barat is an old 
French v^ord, says Menage, srgnifying troniperie; and it is observable, that 
Barat has tlie same relation to Barter ^ which Barguigner has to Bargain. 
The 'French word however appears once to have been used in the simple 
aiid more honourable sense annexed to Bargahi. In Palsgrave's French 
Grammar is the following passage : " I Bargcn, I chcpe, I bye and selle. 
" Je Marchande — I fynde also je barguyne.'' (Fol. 157.) The Greek 
wwd answering to Market or the Market-place is Agora, (Ayoja, Forum ;) 
and it will be proved on a future occasion that Agora is the Agros (Ayfo^) 
Ager, the place in which the Market was held. It is well known that 
Banker-^TfaTt^iTfiu Memarius, belong to the Baiik^Banquc — Banco — 
Tf«tri^a, Merisa, the spot, on which the business was transacted. 

GABAREt. (Fr.) We have seen Cibotos (Greek) and 

/T/AiV-ken (Calmuck) belonging to CBT, 
and signifying an enc/owrf; nor shall we wonder at the addition of T to 
words-of this nature, when we recollect the observations on BT, expressing a^ 
place to contain — receive — ^lodge, &c. &c. CB and BT or CBT, is an 
mch^ure which contains or receives. Nothing is so common as to hai€ 
Elements joined together, which convey a similar idea. The French 
Etymologists^ will now perceive, that this is the origin of their word Caba^- 
RET. It is not ^eriwd from Ka^n, '^ qui signifie unlieuou Ton mange, ef 
^ qui a itk &it d£ xmImp, qui signifie mangei^a goulec« Kann,na7r», capafrtv 




CB. cr, cp, cv, &c. 


<< capare^ caparetum, Caba&et*/' (Menage sub voce.) This may con- 
vince lis that the French Etymologists are not more advanced in the origin 
of their own language than their neighbours. This word Cabaret is used 
to signify the nardtis sylvestris of the Latins; and Henry Stephens very 
wisely derives it from bacchar. He is right however as to the idea from 
which Cabaret is derived, namely, from the prorninait — sivelling — berry 
form. Bacchar itself (with bacca, &c.) belongs to the race of words 
explained above (BG) Bog — bag-^pock, &c. &c. anything hollow — risings 
&c. &c. It is extremely curious that Salniasius derives this word from 
C07nbretu77i, which, he tells us, in the ancient copies of Pliny is written 
cobretum. '* At cobretum,** says he, '* simillimum baccharU* Every 
thing, we see, concurs to establish my hypothesis. (Sec Menage sub voce.) 
The race of words, which belong to this idea, and relate to plants — -fruits, 
&c. will afford an interesting subject of future enquiry; such as capers — 
capparis, &c. which has found its way into so many languages, ciborium — 
cabbage — cape, ^c. &c. There is a word in Old English which answers 

to Cabaret in the former sense. In 
Junius we find CuAVVEK-hoiis *' idem 
'* quod Ale-hous.'* He derives it 
however from the Anglo-Saxon Cy- 
¥Enhuse, which is *' quasi dicas do- 
'* mxx&'doliorwn* " a cjif vas, doli- 
" um." He has supplied us, we per- 
ceive, by this derivation, with ano- 
ther word belonging to the Element, 
signifying to fiold or coTitain. Under 
the word Cabaret in Menage we find 
the attempt of Hesychius to derive 

" a roy eii^ov nuXccv'*' TllC KAIIHAOS is 

* 1. derived from CP and PL, which, we 


Cabaret. (Fr.) Nardus sylvestris. 


(Lat.) Bacchar i si- 

Capers — Ciborium — Cabbage 

Cjepe, &c. 


(Old Eng.) 


CYYEJi'huse. (Sax.) 

Cyf. (Sax.) Vas, dolium. 

02 etymologigok Uagntjm. 

have before obserreri, signifies td coikprehehd-' hold co?itain'^--^gct 

tagcther, &c. &c. . : , . 



CiviTAS, We shall not wonder that the ' 

name Ibr a toxvu, &c. &:c. Ci vitas is 
derived from an Element which signifies to hold or contauu^ The Latin 
Etymologists, who imagine civis to be the root, derive it from coivis. — 
Civis (unde Civitas)" says Vossius, " forte ex coiviSf ut cjusdem sit 
originis ac catiis; quod et ipsum ^ coeundo. Nam primo fuit coitus. 
** Hoc civis etymon secutus quoque Isidorus Lib. 11. c. 4-. Civcsy inquit, 
vocetti, quod in nnum coeuntes vivant, ut vita commrmis ct ornatiorfiat, et 
tutior. Possis tamen et e^pse de causd civis deduccrc a Ki^;, quod est, 
eo, vado: quod nempe in unum veniant caelum, ct sub legibus iisdem 
** vivant. Vel k cio^ seu cico, quia vocati in unum corpus. Ut nempe ' 
** I^tinis <1 ciendOf concio. Graecis ccwo t« xaxny, xXnToi ct fxxA?]o-ta*" Martmius 
has not advanced further in his knowledge of Civitas; and if we had 
produced no other example to exhibit the profound ignorance of Et\ntio- 
logists in the first rudiments of their art; this instance alone would have 
abundantly confirmed the fact. We perceive that the name of the place 
under some form or other must have preceded that of the inhabitants. In 
the Gipsey language the word exists in its simplest form, Gav, a village. 

In the collection of Gipsey words by 
Gav. (Gipsey) a village. Mr. Bryant, Gave is a village; and in 

Grellman, Gcb and Gibah are the Gip- 
. • . . • • - . -• sey and Hindostan words respectively 

for a Hole (or gap) and Gaue — Gauw, 
Geb. (Gip.) \ for a Village or Ilainlet; and as I pass 

/u- A \ I ^^^^ ^^^'^ ^^^' "^y ^y^ down the same page of Grell- 
\ ^ - ^^^ man, I find Gowr — Kibr (Gipsey and 

Hindostan) the Grave. 


?b; cf, cp; cv, *c. 


Grave. (Ehg.) 

As this Elemciu lias -upplicd a great race of words to express enclosures 
ot" rest and repose, so it has furnished in a variety of languages the common 
and appropriate term for that final resting place, to which v^e shall all 
descend, and in which all our projects and our labours terminate. " There 
" the wicked cease from troubling; and there the wi;ary beat rest. There 
"'the prisoners rest togclhcr: they hear nol the voice of the oppressor." 
"The small and great are there; and the servant i*. free from his master.'*" 

Grave — Gr-€F — Graf, &c. &c. 
appear in alt the Teutonic languages, 
and are accompanied with verbs, which 
signify to dig — hollorv — or excavate. 
''• ■•!''"' In the Saxon language this term is 

G»APi* — Graf — Grave. (Bclg.) attached to a \vord expressive of the 
repose, which is destined for its possess- 
ors. A Sepulchre in Saxon is called 
the Sleeping Pit. " Slapigrava Sepul- 
" chrura" (says Skinner) " pio sane ct 
" conciuno sensu, q. d. Fossa Dormi- 
" toria." nap CBR signifies in He- 
• brew (says Taylor) " Sepelire, to bury, 
" inlerr a dead body; a grave, a sepul- 
" chre." In Job we read, " T^ou 
" shalt come to thy grave" (Kab6r) 
" in a full age, like as a shock- of 
" corn cometh in in his season." (Chap. 5. v. 26.) This is a very difficult 
passage, though i think that Schullcns has rightly conceived the general 
spirit of the imagery. If our translation had been expressed in (lie follow- 
ing manner ; it would, in my opinion, have precisely conveyed the sense 
Bb of 

Graff. (Danish) 
Grave, &:c. 


Grof. (Isl.) 

Graban. (Goth.) Fodere. 


of the original. •' Thou shalt come in at thy full time to the grave, as 
*' the corn is gathered to the shock at his season." The fir^ difficulty is 
to leiider vbftl.our trtmslalioa bts expressed by '* Thou sli^lt come/' The 
wmd .toed lOn this ec^^sion, H)^ {Tabo) means indeed to come; but it is 
Iikewiie a term peculiarly applied in a rustic sense to ih^ produce qf the 
fitidp when it is in a ^(e ready to cofm or be brought home. This^ I thinkt 
I feave precisely expr€8»e4 by come in. *' Ac primo quidem," says Schul^ 
tew, ^^ obscrvo NO" (JBe) '^ intrure esse verbum rei rustic(t dicatum, nam 
*' m:an'* (TfhJ *^ est proventus agri, qui dicitur NO" (Bo J '' quum ex 
'/ Mgro comportatur in horreum. Multa sunt locn, quae ex hoc speciali 
i< usu plus lucis et gratiae e;xpectant: prapsertim in Provcrbiis. Hue 
f1 afiiisttiiit t}mim dipitur NUn" (Tabo) *' intrabis domum quasi Hiatus 
^^^mcampmrtatw.** Schulteus has here rightly explained the general id^t 
thov^ he has not preci3^1'y unfolded the peculiar turn of the imagery, 
which relates Mlely to. the sAoc^s of corn that are inade up in the field, 
Ttadsf to be hcought hQmej and consequently are in that state which belongs 
tb die COMCN& liNT oC the harvest. The word Caber conveys the idea^^ 
i^hiUaehh^ihe heap — ihe acervus^-^ih^ cumulus of the grave. ** Secundo/' 
says Schultens, *^ tenenda origo vocAbuli nip'* (Caber) *' quaj est tumulus^ 
^< accnmSf torn radix in dialecto SyriacA frequens pro acervare, tumulare, 
«* in cumulum congercrei" The force of the comparison, we see, lies 
between the heap of the grave, and the heap of corn collected in the shaci, 
•^^combined likewise witli an allusion to the bringing in of the harv^est. 
In the latter part of the comparison, where the same double allusion ought 
\o he proserved,- the word jni^ (AlBt) which our translators have expressed 
by Cometh in, impliies ^ndf ed the notion of something coming in or proceed-^ 
htg to ftny plmct-^itete, &c^ bujL it likewise /sigqifies to.fs^end — to. riff {as 
in zJkapf &JC.) ^^ Non aj^prrerc dix^iim'' (laays Schultens) y a ^yfe 
<^ hujus libri, ut tttrumque simul compk)cUwur, if^fprri ^t Mfrger^ im 
^ cwmdumJ' Hiare. agaio SchuUcoa would have b^e^ precise, if he ha4 


M : 



KBR. r'(Heb.) 

"I3p (. A grave, -to bury. 

Kebr. f (An) Asepulchre, tomb^ 



■ ■ • 

Book of Job, that precious volume of tfce remotest antiquity, (for sucH 

unquestionably it is) were more'diligehtly studied and better understood': 

Itis not tor be irtiagined tHit the intetaphors are on erery occasion minutely 

formed and' scruptilously defined ;"y6t we may safely affirm, that tlitt 

poesy abounds 'With the genuine imagery of the ancient time — wonderously 

rick and sf ran ge-^f armed of language and of metaphors all pregnant witH 

ideas — with ** thoughts that breathe and words that bum,'' • ' 

Let m nd^rcturti to the con^iderai-' 

tion of KA'bER — the grave or the tomb*^ 

Wc ha%t5 alrei^dyseen that in theSyriac 

dialect this root "signilics to get t her ox 

collect into a heap — acervare i?i cumulum 

congercrc. In the Arabic, ** Kebr/*'^yi 

Richardson, " A sepulchre, tomb,'md- 

^' nument;" as wc have before had 

occasion to observe. Among the i*i- 

terpretations of parallel terms to the 

Hebrew Kaber, in the * Polyglot of 

Castell, we find in the Syriac — Ttiniii^ 

lavit — congyrgavit-^^-^oacervavit — Sepul^ 

chrum — '^Vcspillo — sepe liens: In thcf 

jEthiopic KBR; ^' Arojuatilms cmdi^ 

epelire permisit — sepitUu^ — ve$jfilth, 

Defunctus—cddaver^^sepulturih — J 


^* Sepulchrum :*' In the Arabic; tV 
humavit — sepulchmlmr-^seputtut^ lifcus 
— ^rf ccsfniterium pertintffSi In thft^ex- 
planation of parallel Chaldee terms, we 
find it crouded with the various^ ideas 
belonging to the Element. We . have 


v(Chaldee) Sepulchrum. 


(Syriac) Tumulavit — se- 
pulchrum — sepeliens. 

KBR (iEthiopic) Sepulchrum, 

Sepio, &cJ 

GowR. (Gipsey) 

KiBR. (Hindoo) The Grave. 



u4k - 

li. .,..'. 



^ CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 97 

\ti * Hebrew— Fie^/)/Wd — glomus^i--€onglome7'atio-^coacervatio in nnunt-r^Mtmi^ 
iniUiebriSf &c. The Latin SEP-e/io and SEP-w/Mrum belong to the same 
Element; and relate to the idea contained in Sepio, to fence in ox to cover* 
V^orus imagines that sepultnis is so caliedt^ '*' eo jqiuod sineV/>wte/.Qt palpir 
*< tatione est, idest/ sine motu." >.Perottu9 lias ventured ^:o derive sepelio 
from sephf <^ quia locos, quo conditur oadavcr* lapide-v^lalitei? scpituriV 
Vossius derives it from ^wi^i <rirfAofi^ipj^«vw'*:'<wXw t?nyn^* 'The '^ existing 
in SepcUo and o^irnXfluov, (quasi, ^«iniXouoi^, which belong to a similar idea, is 
derived from the same source , as A«/c, ^o//oa/. Sec. It is extremely curious 
to ; trace the various parts, which sometimes appear m the fpmiation of i^ 
word ; and we havd had frequent occasions of observing thatth^ compo^tion 
T)ftcn consists of termsvAvhich, i separately taken,* convey a similar idea. 
As \SepeliQ is formed from SP and /T^,- so Scpulchrum is derived from SP, 
.'^L and CR. ^ OR means in every language that which encloses; as We have 
frequently remarked' from Bullet. ^Y^l^/Gur or Koor^ ( jjX) is tlie name 

: in Arabic and Persian for the Grave ; 
Giir^ ((-^- ^^^ Pcrs.) and I find in Richardson^ G^^awr^^ — Zu- 

Kdor. (The grave. ra — ^/wAr, the representations of Eastern 

Ghanr — Z?/;v/r (Eastern words.) : words fora Den or Cavf^ (Sqe ;Rich- 

-^^Juhr. (A cave. ^ ardson sub voce Den. ) Spelunca is 

Spcbnica^ - Splanhwn. (Gr.) derived from SP, ""L and "NC^ We 
Enteron.' (Gr.) Intestinum. have often noted the force of the latter 

Entrails. '{Gv.) Enkata. {Gr.) Element; and it appears with (tliis very 

jHVn*. (Pers.) A cave. • sense in the Latin ANTrwm^''NTv;i6 

^ we must be ever mindful of tl'ie mixed 

febund of T and S, "^NZ; which, when the enunciation of Z is». hardened, 
becomes "NC - or /"NK. IVe iiave it in this state • in. the Persian "language; 
where the Element tnay be seen iin its full foree. Henk (X^) is the 
Persian for a^ Ctftiff. • > In Gr^k^ SplAiSY^non, (<r7rxay;^m, viscus) the Bowels, 
is a compound of ^he, same kind; (SP, ^h and ^NC, ^NS ^NT,);and is 
derived from tbd cavitp iti which tliey. are contaiocd. : It is Ci»iQusitha>.tUe 
• cc latter 


• < 

v' >• * 




«J?6i/a. 1 (Celt,) 
TiMha. vThe grdve, 
J a tomb, &C; 

lattcf part <if the compound appeal's under the othcrform '"NT in ' Ektot^;*: 
(irrifoi.)' « \}i'resrmwh ;' and in the English ENTrr///;? we have the. same '^NT 
with thf* ^L, as in the former cbmrposition. In Enki///i («7)ca7a, intestina) 
it a^Aih rt*vef|s to the hardrned enmunation o( '^NK. — We have already 
»vi\ that in the Gipsey and Hindoo tlie grave is called Gozcr and Kibr. 
In tlie; Crftit and die Gf^ek languages; the appropriate terms for the'^i«;f, 
&c. arc derived from otfuT Elements, In the Celtic dialectsamong tlid 
names' for the gfm^e wc liavc Dearc, hed/i, btdhrod, tumba, tuma. Bedh 

is connected whh the great race of 
words to be tbund in every language^ 
which wc have before explained from 
the Hebrew root BT, a receptude for 
man J hemt, &c. There is a singular 
similitude between bedhrod 2ir\d bedrid, 
a person, aswcf imagine, confined for a length of tinie to his bed; or it 
may mean one, who is fit only for his grave — capillar is senex — ssncx 
capiiio vicinus — ready for his bier — TM^ioyt^tay — lo^ofaufii>v, &c. Turnba--^ 
^i;^^xu.Tt>juC<^^ means thfc c6vering with earth; and is connected with the 
H\c ldea$ hiteir — inhumar^, &c, &c. but this will supply an ample theme 
of fittdre enquify.. To bicjy means to deposit m a hole or cavity, quasi, to 
hotougk. This is well known; butwitli respect to the Greek Thapto {evmim^ 
• scpelio) and Tajos, T^f o^, 7V/mulus, no- 

thing is knowa but tlie name. Ttif0s 
is only Tumbos (Tu/*eo^) Tumba^TumA^ 
Twm-ulus, under another form by the 
familiar Celtic change of M into B. It 
is connected in one of. its lending ideas 
with a great race of woiidfi, wiiich sig- 
n'iCyK Hole vr Cavity. Henoie Tub {tt 
?essel in English, and the Ark of Noah in Hebrew)-*-*^anuic — Tap'^Dip — 
Dive — TwO^-^-TiiiroML imprimo, scil signuni, &c; &c.. This .is a curnms 


ThaptdiHGr:) • 
Tqfas4 ' ) To biifry— a grave. 
Tub^Tubi-^Tap— Dip— Dive— 
Deep — Tip-^Tipsy. 
TWp05.)(Glr,) Signum impfessum. 
Tupo. it— Signamw7//?;7/Ki:re. 

though natural coincidence — JigK««r'J?«»|J(©*'«Tla-^rflfre (or engrave) the grave. 
Dip occurs in a great variety of languages, as may be seen in the English 
Etymologists, though they 'have not referred it to the word Dive, wl>i^ 
i* :a ; partial sense.oftlie general jley»i. They have ^ett)W«ri the word 
4|MrW, aquas Sfidbtire, though ^iope^if i^ if doubtful of the idsf» ii^ds Aw 
an4 A<f««j quierQ^ In Italian io dm is tuffarc. To Dive and to Dip ^a^iin 
to. be inserted Into any hoUm excavation or receptacle. It is one of the 
employments of Ariel '' to dive into fl>fe fire." In the London' ^ihrascdlogy 
we have heard x>{ diving into a cellar or place of refreshptvent; a;cid tl>€ 
receptacle itself has been sometimes Renominated i\%^,&ijh» : As a frequenter 
of the Piazza might now talk of Dipi^ig into the Dip, or the KpUow Re- 
ceptacle to which you descend, so In a remote age a Poet of Alexandria v 
had made precisely the s^mc coi^bLiiatjion, though the receptacles indeed 
are. altogether dissimilar. « ; . '^ 

*' HfTVCf rcu it Xoi^ioy tKric^ cxufou 

^\ *ifft;kyjuaf EAT»3E Ntjf £«<| TAOOTI' (Lycophrxju. Ca£saad, V. 16i.) 
. '^ *' Dolls scelesti^, CadmlU quos filius 

*VPa«:ayit, hamto deindc supremo scypho, 
" Scpuldira subiit Xerei cognomlna." - • .- 

And what is still more curious, we even now apply the same Element to 
the same .^ihject. "He tipt into the grave;" and we perpetually lise 
similar connblnations of the same Element. *^ He dived into the dcep-r- 
^^ dipped Qt tipt iflto tlic 7w^/* JFrom this diving — dippijig — or tipping- 
motion, is derived the word Tipsif, to be intoxicated; and jpx)thing, we 
perqiive from this explanation, ca^i be more expressive. It is extremely 
CfWious, tha^ .^.tI^sq\e5wpressiop6i ^/pc — Tip, ice. there is an idea still 
qon^y^d ho u^\o{ jieKait or €>f j)3p§ing tntb'*a *holldxV* ^recepitacle below. 
This tarings us; to the -y^ry.^pot.froj^ which they w^r,^ orig^najly derived, 
ikQ'Tafsis^rrihe Tuniulus^Qi.the EARXU. 




•t x^ ' ' ' • ' i ' ■ • '■■■•<•..• •• - 

. « • , . • * * 





/ ; 

iTo ^rare or engrave. 

CoRBEfAM/''-''- . * ^ 


Grabha^, (Cqlt) Tp stop, hinder. 

Grapo. (dr.) \ 

• ' ti 'yT&^^Peot write. 

SCRIBO. (I^t.)) ; 



















(Fr.^) &q,. Surculus: 
Surculura inscrcrc. 

r \ 

Though in the Celtic languages 
we do not find the Element which bo- 
longs to Grflre, as tlie appropriate tenri 
for the hollaia to receive the dead; yet 
we find wxMrds bearing another sense, 
which ^ is attached to the term gr4Ve. 
QUABhani' — CEARBflfm— cbRB/?flfm mean 
to gravig or engrave. (Sec Shaw's ' Dic- 
tionary.) Grabimn has likewise ano- 
ther signification belonging to the 
Element-^*^ To stop — ^hinder;"- i. e. 
To GRIPE or hold. To these word* 
must be referred the Greek Grafo 
(Fffltfto) and tlie I^atin Scribo. That 
Grafo signifies " imculpo vel sculpo 
^* Irteras ut olim in corticibus arborum 
*' ali^ve materia fiebat," is acknow- 
ledged by all — Lejinep,' &lC. He de- 
rives, however, the word rgotfu tmtft 
^* Tfoui rado, et hoc, ut videtur> a sono 
*' qui fit radendo,'* The connection 
between r^a^ and Scribo-'is i\ot seen by 
Lennep. Vossius and Martinius ^ivd 
us a variety of derivations for scHbd; 
aiid though the former ventures to ob^ 
serve ** sed plane scribt^ est k r^ii^' y 
*' in sc converso ;** yet th6 latter fknitty 
remarks under scribo, '* est et tiffine 

CB. CF, CP, cv, &SC.: ; { 


Grafadh. (If,) Inoculatio. (Lye.) •' Tf«^«, quod simili/feexhpitoprie'" ^cs* 

** mi-irsy na y^oL^iw^ id cst, stilo figurar^ 

Grufam* (Ir.) Inoculare. (Lye.) ^' lileras, &&o,M.Sic i Homeras . iiisurpat! 

** id verbum — y^a^^A^ w irii^ouc* ttIuxIw" 

{(A. S.) ^^ Scribfi- Jiftnti iQ^Coltj^. t) IlS^iwnny,! 

T SLXgraphy — dho skrepha, skriv2i, sgriv- 
Insculpere. (Lye.) .. sim,graivjny\ ^ (See Lhuyd sub voce 

Scribo.) To these words belojng'QEAPT^ 
Scrape. (Eng.) Raderc. — graff; — ORfcFFER^' &c. / Surculus, 

or surculum in$qr^v^*^ M* Casaubon 

ScifRAPHEt^. (Teuton.) Jias indeed derived., it frpm .Eyyf««>f*i^: 

, insculpere; b|jt Mena^ge, : appqar^ toi 

&c. &c. &c, &c. &c, Sec. agree with Mons. de Gaseneuve, who; 

deduces ^re^r "^yec beaucDup d*Jip^ 

• --,-.---- <* parence (says Menage) de Keif^m, qui 

*' dans lesglosesancienncs est interprete 


Scrape. ,To be caught in a scrape. " surculus.*' Lye, however, observes, 
. ii, , *' Vide an Hib, gkat adh Inoatlatio^ 

• _\--^- -- - - - '^ et gKufam inoculare, magis ad rem 

. *' faciant. Quod si tibi haec quoquc 
Sqwp* Bog — wallet. . '* etymologia non probatur, derivare;. 

- V V *' potes ab A. S. orafan, insculpere, 

• - - - - - - - ; - •• ^' sensu pauUulum imrautalo." The 

Etymologists, whether they shew their 
Scrub. Grub. ignorance or their skill, alike conr-' 

u tribute to the confirmation of my hy- 

Grqvel. Grayj^l. . pothjBsis, by producing parallel terais 

witlii the 8a;iie Element. To Scribo 

ScRUPULUs.-) Pebbles or Little must be. referred Sc.RARE,,.witb iCs-kin- 

V dred words to be found in^Skinncry &:c. 

ScRUPus. ) Stones. in the expressioa to be:xaught'in a* 

D d ^ scrape,* 



ScROSS. A ditdk * scrape f' wc have another sigtiificadon 

of the Element. — It means to be caught 

ScuoFA. AMix^^a grubh^u in a situation which tends to hold* — can-- 

fine or embarrass. The word embarrass 

Si^ROFliLA. (Lato^tThe dUdrdetw ie itself derived from this metaphor — 

what effibraces or bars yoxt in. Scrip^ 

f^fCtelt.V '* To write in- ^^^ *^^^ sense of bag or ivallet is an cnclo- 
" sur€ of another sort. About all this the 

/ystribfti^'ukf siJ-Mpe^'" Etymologists of course arc perfectly 

ignorant; Scrvb belbngs to scrape in the sense of rado. To the term grave we 
mu9tradd ©iwft— grovbl — gravel. The latter word Gravel is derived' 
by Skinn^p {t€im' gkreola or *' gravando^ quiasabulo gravantur." If wc do 
not • doubt that'-Scri^ belongs to rf«f«, can we doubt that Scrupulus belongs 
t6x6^6jpl? They have precisely the same meaning; and, what is more 
ouriousj they agree in the same metaphor. We say to gravel a person, 
and the Latins **» ^crw/w/Z^^minjicere." This is extraordinary. Scrupulus 
is ackiiowledged to be derived from Stnipus " brcvis lapillus" (says Perot- 


tus-) *• qui^cilce pressus oiFendit." The latter (Scrtipiis) is deduced by the 
Etymologist from l^^^i — Shall we doubt that Gi^ave — Grub^^-GraxKl'^ 
(S;tKv/ are to be referred to Scrupus^-^Scrupulus, when we remember Scrobs 
a' ditch, and Scrofa, ^sow? These two latter words even the Etymolo- 
gists allow to relate to this source: The German Grube — Graben and Tfofw 
are referred by* Martinius to Scrabi; and he acknowledges with some 
reluctance, as itseem^^, ihzi Scrofa is derived from Scrobs. — *' Scrofa autem 
*• dici videturdL scrobc. Delectatur enim scrobibus faciendls et suflbdiendi 
'^ terril:'* Scrofa is a ScRur, or, under another form, a grub. This 
animal, from its grubbing nature^ and, if I may so exjMt)^ nV\'sclf, unmouht^ 
ing or* eflr/Ay propensities, is facetiously called in the classical diction of 
the vulgar^ tongue, a mud4ark. Scruples in the sense pf doubts is well 
known to bo derived. from these* vexatious scrupuli [ox gravel) so annoying 
to» the^ fi^ of-^a mcuy^^ traveller^ It> tlie Celtic Grafam wc find the'^ 


' interpretation 

GB> <5r, C P, CV, &c. 


Skapto, (Gr.) Todig. 



interpretation of Shaw singularly coinciding with the above remarks. 
" GrAfam/' says he, ^^ to writ^, in-scRi^3E, Grub, Scrape." — ^Scro-* 
FULA, the disorder, probably belongs to Scrofa. ^ *' Scrofula,'* says 
IVfartinius, ** prbprie parva sxrrofa. Sed eo nomine Latini intelligunt, 
" quod Graecis 'itcigx^, quae glandulartiiii induratatlim tumor/* The re- 
semblance between Xc(f«? vind Scrofula probably determines tfie derivation ; 
yet we must remember that scrofula is allied to another sense of the* 
Element, as it is found in the word sdkrf Sec. &c. These coincidences* 
perpetually take place ; and in some cases it is not easy to be determined- 
in our choice; nor is it necessary to attempt* it from the nature of my 
Hypothesis. ^Vc have seen on a foriner occasion 2:xaVJw> fodio, Ixitvit^*-^' 

rx«^H — K«ir/I0», fossa; and: Sap, the* 
English wtJrd to dig, to which must be* 
added the French Suppir, and tlie^ 
Italian Zapparc. In the Persian Ian- 
guage (jyoU^ Kaften, and (jOyjU 
Kaicideii or i^i^fJlAJ^ Kwaniden, sig-' 
nify to dtg^, ex emirate or hollow out; 
and the latter word likewise signifies 
what we have before observed as be- 
longing to the Element in Cribnimf* 
&c. — '' To sift.*' We perceive that' 
Katvidm is nothing but the sliding of 
the consonant V, as it appears in Kax>^ 
KoiNos or Geinos. (Gr.) Earthy, aniden, into the vowel sound j and thus ' 

it is that we have a race of words origi- - 
ginaliy derived from our Element CV* 
An enclosure. or KV, in which the' radical consonant 

has been lost in the pronunciation, 
though the traces of its origin are fre- 
quently preserved by the presence of 


Sap. (Eng.) Sapper.' 

(Fr.) Zappare. (It.) 


To diff 




Ravatstiden. (Pcrs.) 
Kooi, (Gr.) Cfli^erns. 

or hollow 


Oaw^-— Gow^ (Germ,) 

— Gew. 

Cau. (Celt.) GAIAPH.^Anenclo- 

(heb.) Caer. (Celt. 



U or W, the corresponding vowel. Mr. Bryant has remarked that according 
to Strabo, Kfioi signified caves— tliattlieApostle*s word Xo«k^ was probably de- 
rived from hence (*' The first man was of the Earth Earthy, O ^f«T^ «k9f«7r^ ix 
FHS XOIKOS") and that Ilcsychius informs us Xo»h^, mjXiv^, yuiv®** He tlien 
^dds, " From whence we may perceive tliat by Clio was originally meant 
*' a house or temple in the Earth. It was, as I have shewn, often expressed 
*' Gau and Go ; and made Iq signify any house. Some nations used it in a 
^' still more extended sense ; and by it denoted a town, or village, and 
M any habitation at large. It is found in this acceptation among tlie. 
** ancient Celtae and Germans, as we learn from Cluverius. Apud ipsos 
** Germanos ejusmodi pagorum vernaculmn vocabulum fuit Gatv^ ct 
*^ variantibus dialectis Qaw^ Gew, Gow, Goto, hinc, Brisgaw, Wormesgaw, 
'^ Zurichgow, Turgpw, Nordgaw, Andegaw, Rhingaw, Henncgow, 
** Westergow, Oostergow/' But the conclusion of Mr, Bryant from this 
string of fact?, with which Cluver has supplied him, is false and futile, like 
his other conjectures. '*. The ancient term rivf 7®*, Purgos, was properly 
'* Pur-'Go, and signified a light-house, or temple of fire, from the Chaldaic 
•' Pur." (Mythol. v. 1. p, 115, &c.) Pwr^^^^'widi the Element BG or" 
PG signifies in every language an r^iclosun — an hold, &c. It is of tljrc 
same origin with pagns in the quotation from Cluver. The Gaw — Goxv^ 
&c. is to be refprred to GB — CP, &c. which we have seen through sucK* 
\'arious forms signifying an pnclosurc for the purpose of rest—^safety,, &ip^^ 
This is the origin, as we have before observed, of OV-itas, or, as it appears 
in the Gipsey language in a. more simple state, 6V/r, a village; Even tha? 
universal word Caer — Ker, &c. &:c. for an enclosure or place of rest. Sac. 
is supposed by Mr, Rowlands to belong to this Element: '^ When these 
'* inferior owners of such allotted portions of land" (saiys that.leam^d C€lt)> 
'* so assigned to them by their heads ^nd chiefs, had enclosed a spot, of 
'* it for their own defence and coiprnodily of dwelling; that small enclosure, 
** whether of wood or stone, might be called Ctfer, from the Celtic prold) 

'^ - . - .. 


^ C B, C F, C P, C V, &c; 105 

" Butkh v/ord Cau ; and tliat perhaps, from the Hebrew Gaiaph, to fence 
^* and enclose/' ( Mona antiqua cataurata, p. 29.) Mr. Bryant himself 
ventures to refer Kooi to CV^; as he^adds in a note '* Hence the words 

" Cove, alcQvc, and, perhaps^- tocotwand to cope." This quotation, which 


I have before produced from Mr. Bryant, must ever awaken in the mind 
the same train of reflexions. It is, in my opinion, one of the most extra- 
ordinary facts which can be found through the whole compass of literary 
history. We shall discover in every language the term for a hollow ex- 
pressed by the simple breathing of C^ or K^; and perhaps those riders, who 
amuse themselves with conjectures respecting the origin of primaeval 
speech, may be disposed to imagine that the inarticulate and unmeaning 
sound jET^o; — Hau, or when hardened into a guttural Caw — Cift, might 
liave at first expressed that, which was most important to attain, — tlie hollow 
or den, which should shelter the naked savage from the inclemency of the 
elements and the attacks of wild beasts. The mouth cannot be closed in the 
enunciation of Cau without the expression of the consonant sound Cmw — 
Cav; and this might be the first progenitor of that great race of words Cave 
— Kaw — Kaff—Kaov — Cavus, &l<:. &ic. which are now the objects of our 
discussion. But these speculations belong to theory and not to yi?c/^, which 
alone I have undertaken to explain and establish. It is my province to 
trace the elements of speech, as it is propagated and preserved in the records 
of written language. ' ^ 

The consideration of the word Grave, in its sense of dig — excavate 
— indent or make an impression, with the appendages belonging to digging 
— GRAVEL — scRUPULi, &c. &c. has led me from the illustration of terms 
expressing enclosures of rest, &c. i shall now return to the discussion of 
Ais subject. 

CoFFi K. (Eng.) Coffin is used in the English language 

EC for 



CoFiNos. (Or.) 

i i 

CoPHiinrs. (Lat.) 

r 4 

CopfiN, (Fr-) &c, fcc, 
CofFRE.(Rr.) Coffee, (Eng.) 
C<>F.v (Sseion.) &c. &c. &c. 


CohfixTA. (Lat.) Navis oneraria. 


(Old Eng.) The cavity of 
a raised pye or custard. 

CoFFjNER. (Fr.) To curl. 

CuRvus. (Lat.) 
CuFOS. (<Sr.) Incur VU6. 
CuFTO. (Gr.) Pronus sum. 
Kampto. (Gr.) Quasi 
KAPTO.i(Gr.) Inflectp, . 



for that last repository of the deadv iit 
which they are conveyed to their 
giaves. In other languages it signifies 
a basket made of osiers, twigs, &c« &c. 
** CoPHiNUs," sayB Martinius* •^ KO* 
*IN0X, corbiSy Vte plexum e vimine : 
forte a x«wl«, quod ex resectis virgis 
" flcctatur, Juv. sat. 3. Delubra locan- 
" tur Judaeis, ({woxMva copkinus foenum- 
*• que supellcx." He then adds, 
** Dictus cophinm quasi covus, cavusJ* 
Here wc see, he has by accident 
stumbled on the genuine idea: the 
Etymolo^sts however have not the most 
distant glimpse that Cordis is to be 
referred to this source. Isidorus ob- 
serves, " Corbes dicta?, quia turpatis 
*^virgU contcxuntur." Curvus, we 
perceive, and Cur vo arc to be added 
to the words, wliich belong to our Eier 
ment. Even of Curvus the £tyniak>^ 
gists express a doubt; *< Forte a Gr«co 
'* KT*OE (KvfT<^ incurms, quod a 
** jcutIw, pronum esse, propendere," says 
Maftinius. In this place we . should 
insert Giebert—^Gibeo'vs, &c. &c.* 
" Gibbiis eminens tumor dorsi aut 
" pectoris, ex spinas flexu eriatus. 
" Hebraeis n^ (GB) " est altitudo, 
" emincntia, prominentia, cuj usque 
^' rei. super alias partes, gibhus^donsum 

'* curvum 


i^; ) i . • ^^^eptcmmefe etpj" (GBN) gibbus/' 
GiBBQUS. X^^^O •' ^''*'* •>-(MTlrtinias^uti> vo;ce I Oi*6er.^ The 

' ifri, ;^ ' Gmek Caw^tein flctetefb, ^ncurvare, 
GB. (Hcb.) <5iblMi8* ". .'' I iire^may noW^>wc€ivei8^iia^iCtf^^ 

or Coptdn, and ii^ ntotHing T}ut C«/if(; 
GBH. (Heb.) Emincre. .'1'^; • under anothe^i^ form. ' It'ls a word of 

' ' '' V#ryextenslAncmeaiMiig,dhd it is applied 

CBN. (Heb.) Gibbu8. • / W^ various kiivds ^' ^enrf/w^ls-^rfte^ 

is a curious coincidence between onfc of tile senses b<*loTig5ng to this word 
and a term in Shakspeare. / In As'Yoti Like It we firid, 

'* And tu7ie his merry note • ' ' .:: '^ 
" Unto the sweet bird's throat." 
*' The old copy has Turne, w^h f^ tertuinli/ right,'' quoth a positive 
Critic, in a work entitled A Specimen of a Commentary on Shakspeare. 
" Tx:>TuRNtf /u/*^ intliecCHHrtles'df York and.DiBirtham, fs th& iippropriate 
'^ and familiar phrase: rfor jjiodliiating die voice properly according to the 
*^ turns or air of the tune.'' T-lie Grefeks applied Kajt^frlit* precisely in the 
s^me sense. ;^* lU/Mnrlew*-'': says Hesyclrms, ** to t^Ttj X2AHxajuiraf^9r«u4i^-** " ^ 
' " In notes^ with many a tt/vW/;?^ bdtit 

^* Of linked sweetnesfeQong drawn out; 
^< Witli wanton heed' and giddy cunning,^ • • ^ ''*;^* * 
♦* The melting voice thro' 7/i^za running." 
To Carbis must bfe referred ^ Coripit^a ' wr/m oneraridf ^ (Xatis capiem.y 
The; deriraticMii !bf JFcstite is la pleasant specimen of Etymological dex- 
terity. *^\C€frbdta quod>iii AmIo leyus summorpro kigno C^rbf's solerieiVtP 
'^SAtepeJMli/'iti Tbc wordlCiP/iAxitoiOT dWi^Z/o I shall leave 'to-be decided by» 
the Critiwidi Plajitus; i(Ca»n;! Act>*. ' \.) iKi aH 'their 'scn.^es,' the« wofd^ 
still: DeniaiMk;irilhiii)tlic patetofsignifieatioit,^**(hici«» I have'^seribedi'to the' 
Btemc»f.vN Jln.nltiiCii^liib, 06*T3n nriis-a^ipUed' ^o^ft '^feiy :-d1ffe*fcm'*dbji?df^ 
I :•''• from 


from that of an enclosure jdestined to receive the dead. It was a word coftiw 
mon In Culinary language, and represented (as Dr. Johnson has precisely, 
though unknowingly, defined it) /^ The term of art for the fuvity X}{ H 
'' raised pye." The word occurs in Titus Andronicus, 

^^ And of the paste a coffin will I make/' (Scene the last) 
Again, in the Taming of the Shrew. . 
Petruchio. ** Why thou say'st true ; it is a paltry cap^ 

/* A Ctistard'CoFTiN^ ;a bauble, a silken pye." 
The French likewise use coFFiNER in a very different !signification, still 
however retaining the. meaning of the Element enclosing — encircling. Se 
CoFFiNER means to curl or turn up. ^' Terme do Fleuriste, qui se dit des 
^' oeillets, lorsque Jes Feuilles se frisent et se recoquillent," as the ordinary 
Lexicons will inform us. > ; • ' 

\. r 

CoviNus. (I^t.) Vchiculuni.' Coffin — Cophinus^ &:c. appear under 

I anotlier form-in the word CoviNUS.or 

r(Lat.) CoviNNUs, which, siys* Vossius, was 

Carpentum-< ** VehicuH genus, quo Britanni et Gal U 

vVehicuh genus. a {^ praeliis utercntur;" according to 

Pomponius Mela. ! Garpentum is the 
Carpenter. (Eng) name for another slj>ccics of vehicle; 

> which the reader will instantly acknow- 
Charpentier. (Fr.) ledge to be quasi CAPENTUM;;or from 

an idea of that soft. \ The second ipatt 
of the compound Ent '^NT, as we have bad occasion before to observe^ * 
conveys a similar idea, and means that which holds or conXzitis-^^hand*^^ ' 
hent — pre//e;irfo— Eir/wi &c. ice. There is however one great Etymologist* 
who appears to have no conception of this derivation; and who has ventured 
to deduce its origin from Cannenta, the mother of ]&vahder. Carpenham 


CB,.CF, CP^ CY, &:C. 




quasi Carmentum. The Etymologbt to whom we are iodcbt^d)for, tlus 
Jioely hwention, is Pubhus Ovioxm Naso. — (^" Ovidius Naso was Uie 
^ man! and why, indeed, Niiso, but for smelling! out tbffjodpriierou^ 
^' flowers of fancy, th^ jerks of inpenff on? Imitari is nothing.") 

Nam prius Ausonias tnfttrcss.Oirjirt**:^^^ 

Haec quoque ab Evandrj dicta pweotfl «cnr/;,i mi ,J ..i>*; * 
The otiier derivations arc currus and pompa — ^KAPilA4ifio:^ €el4r-r^(;^r]|^'s^ 
arbor, ex cujus Hgno fieret — a carpaida, irom the ic^eaiiiijc/zjipe/f ^ter-r* 
** k carpendo, in the sense o( scitidendo, quia ex5«Vm fie^^^t ligni^n'*! Suclj' 
ifi the progress that we have yet made in ^ science^ .iKhicti p^o|§sgi(^ ,|9r 
unfold tlie origin of words and the forniatioi) of laagu9ge«!, tj^^&i^jhs h^^ 
observed under the w^rd Carpaitumt U^at th<? French. /Cii^^^fiBiiriB^r— a 
Carpenter (fal?cr lignarius) is so called, ^^c^ixi^ X^^^.J^^KpiU hoc est, 
•* caedit/! But Menage has remarked tliat tlie Qlosses explain ** Carpen- 
^> tarius ^/AotH^fy®*;** and in this derivation we mjiy^ I think, rest satisfied, 
Xjot us obscr\e, that Carpentum — Covinus — dqffin — Cophimis — Cavema, 
&c. arc only various forms of tlie original Cabin, applied to different 
lilfi^s of eiivilpsurc?» / . • . 




GvBSRNO, (Lat.) 

GovBRN, (Eng.) &c. , 

Cabin. (Eng.) The Cabin oi^Skip. 


. 'l '. X » .. - ^ 

, It. is allowed th^t Govern — Gou- 
VERN^R, &c. are defiyed from Gu- 
BERNo and KTBEPNAXi, but it is not 
decided what is the origin of KTBEPNAft; 
Lennep derives it from KvC©* or KuGn, 
caput and Ef«i'^« qjt ^^^^<^fr€^VLpitQimov(o;. 
and then KuC^y«« will be,, saysXcnncp^. 
/' caput fl^//(? quod est gubcrno/' j L 
imagine that the Greek words Cubcnia 

y f derived 


(iR*^/tif;(Fr,yffaB same. •• - ^ deriyeci from a Ship; and should be 
'' . ^ *' • .^-v\ ':^'' tdiMcA Ko t\\c enclosure or Cabin, in 

j^J'Od^ A^^^Spdn.)'Th)e same. : whidi the piloti was. situated. It is n9 

{ .J; •;:! if i ' smtVll ^oftfirmatioit of this idea, that the 

enclosure of resty&k^^hiL^di^ikip still bc&arsfof ie appropriate, name the title of 
Cabin. In Frencli^ir ib lik«J|*$Se ciklled CA^ANs; ; and the Spdnish word is de- 
*H%A1^dmlhfe'feiftfe^EI«!fen (See Marcus Meibomius on the pas- 

sag«fftE2ttlti^l/'<^hi^; srS-Vv/V^ in his Treatise De Fabric. Triremium Gra*v. 
TfiWj TotAiii/'p:i4^i) Though r'<i»ft*tOt produce a passage, in which 
tWe^ptec^^©! rik5^j)Mor>lS*Ue4i*niinat^d '*y the Gk^eeks a Cabin; yet I^an 
prtfdd^^ftr^tbk'tfeh^;fbf tife same place, i^Hitih is connected with the idea 
lkrk>hgiil^l<>thaf'^w*ird. AynXif/m or Et^j/ia^ is interpreted by Calcagniiius? 
(^cc6i^)g'*'W *th* '^f<totet4on of Jungef^ ^^ l7iciina^orium, 9cu acculn^ 
''^tbfriiM;^ 'Wid'iS'^h'e nafifiewhichf\|uli'us Pdllui liasgiv^n us-for the place 

of the' pilot.* '* l^ h xomixXiirerou wjCi^vntf^, AnCAIlllA x«X«7cu: — Navis ^UO- 

'J' que locum; cai Gubcrriator innithui*, «yxA*fia» aiominant." (Jul. Pdll. 
Lib. }: d. 9.) We may w^ll imagine that the earliest and motet importitit 
species of enclosure, which was to be found in a vessel, would'*l)e tha^iiir 
which the pilot was placed in security from the inconveniences of the 
elements. The passage of Calius CaiArgnimis, to which, I imagine, Jun- 
german refers, is to be seen in his Treatise De Re Nautica, '* Quo autem 
loco accumbit gubcrriator, ehcfima, id est mclinatorium seu accubitoriwn 
vock'rit." (SCfe Grrihovlrf*, 'Thes^.' <5raec. vol. 11. p. 757.) It appears 
tTiAt this part' o^ the shij), \<^hcre'tfie jialot sat, was the place of honour, in 
which the persons who cnJ6yed the chief command had their tents or 

CABIN. *' Ta Si irt^i rrjy Vjujiav*/' (sayS POllux) " irf «;^ovt« ^uAa ir'i^irdvoucc xaliirrAl^ 

•* tiiH ftB ktu d-xiM oirofAOf^iYsii/ ro '"irnypvfAivov i^fotrnyu rt r^m^u^yja' TrabesquC circa 

•*" pfo'pprni promitjehtf^sj' j;)errtona^a aicuntur, iibi ct tabernaculkhi \6daitif^ 
'* Imperatori aiit Tficrhrcho ' cxthicta habitatio." (Jul. Poll. 1. s. 85.) 
I cannot bur^foftsidc'r'thiy Etytnblogy as cstreHicly {)TbBabIe; and it'inaV 
ceitabiiy'rtimain'tillaVbett^ be disccvered than that of KuC©- and Efi»««- 
^ •'*'"•• •* Carbine. 


> ; 'jO B^ > CiF, C Pt ,€V, &c. Ill 

GA»BiKE.(Ei!giyAspeciesofgtinv Carbh^^-^-jCarabinS, a spe^i^ 

• '. Ml : , . > . ^ >of fiiseitrms/ aiid Cdrabin, Which' sij^- 

Ca»abine. (Fr.) '^ ':'i^ • irifl^/sflj^ Mdnage, «^DuMeMMgin 

• ' t 'f et oh G^ttmlierr are *Wo»db whUh 

GAuaBik. (Fr.y A Caifalicr-K^om, have mightily ^doitibunded the Frefifch 

••' ; : EtymologwtSi They imagihe that Crtf- 

^' " *' rrdldtngO Asniali '^**'^^ *^^ user 'of th^f 

CfrAMBER^.-} '• * Cfcrbinii' |itfe<iede8 the name* ^f tfe^ 

u : ' '( piece of ordnfance* instrihhertt'?^ 'atid they resort W the 

-' • vocftbula^y oif Turkish and PerdiaW^ 

xvortis by.\Joht!*lieiltnclaviu9, where- they find *' OarrtftMr/zV speeulatores, c^- 

•cploratores^ -Mtirisi^. Mettkge caiididly-'aUttnot^ledgeS, that He rt totally * 

ignorant iabOtat thd matter. '' L'ortgiAe de 6eftnkrt-enc«&deux gigftificatiohs^* 

** nc m'est'paS connue'.^ ' Tfie rfeade^will instantly acknowledge that our 

liypotheisis s6l\»es these difficulties. The original wofd is the instnimcntrr^. 

the CARBiNfe, which means the CABINS — \\\o hollow — the enclosure — or the 

Tube. Gun and- Cctnn&n are dierived- from th^ same metaphor, as the 

Etymologists acknowtedge. » Tl>ey are taken frora Canna — a Cane or hoU 

low. There is a curious coincidence between carbine — cabin, and 

Chambers (the ancient name for a small piece off 6tdnaitc^)'ahd andther 

specie^ ot"^nclosurc-^-^Afe;*6^r,- Aft :ap^^ In a •s^)eecfi of q^/JhWing-' 

ribaldry, spoken by Falstaflf to Doll Tearsheet, we have an allusion to this 

double meaning, (2d Pt. of H. 4. aj,?-^S- t:) , ** Your brooches^ pearls, and 

'* ouches; for to serve bravely is to come halting off, you know: To come 

" off the breach with his pike bent bravely, and to surgery bravely; to 

•^ venture 'tipon the charged chambers bravely." ** To linclcrstand this 

*' quibble'' '(says "MKStcevert^) *' it^is necessary to say, that a chamber 

" signifies not otily an apartment, but a piece of ordnance." '* Cham- 

•' 'B^ERS**''(sdys Mr. Mitohc)'^'^ are very small pieces of ordnance, which 






** are yet used in London on Hb^ .ftiae.. failed rejoicing days, and were 
'* sometimes used in our author's theatre on particular occasions." The 
Globe Theatre in 16JL3. was burpt down, whilp they were acting Iie)|?yi 
8th- bjt^thp fire patching frpni a pealiof these Chambers, "They are 
callecl ;cii/[MB£i$s*! (say^ Mr. S.te^V/ens, Hen. 8. a. 1. s. 3,) " bepa«ij^i 
tl\^y are mer^.ci^A.M^'HRS :tQ> lodge powder; a chamber being the 
"•technical temi. for. that cavity in 4 piece of ordnance which contaiost 
" the combli$tibles/' Thq terra i^ still retained in the construction of a 
modern gun. CAicA»XN.Ukcwi|9|P sigqiiies a sjpecies pf Com. " Du blede 
** Sarasin.'' This too belongs tp our hypothesis — whatever is raised^^-^nucU-^ . 
ing — pf the Cyp or berry fomit ^c^ We shall have occasion to observe in 
the course^ pf our discussion, that a great race of words witli the Element 
CP;referred to tliisidea. The word Corn (or granum — grain) ig- 
itself to be classed under this notion : — ^It means something, if I may $a 
express myself, oiUkiQ grain form. Blew bled is derived from the same. 

source. Menage says, '^ Du Lalio-~ 

Q^^^ ^^^^^yj^ (From its berry ^' barbare AWi/^ ou bladum, qui s^^ 

I form. " \)iii^f fruity semcncc.'* . JS/ef and >/«^ » 

J5/if or ) (Fr.) Belongs ball^^pill^^ belong to such words as ball^^pilf-^^ 
Bled. J bulla, &c. &c. bulla — bubble^-^boivl — bouk — Mus-r^ 

bullet — pillow^— bladder — blood-^pouU 
(the pulse) &c. &p.— any thing * rising — ^wellingj* &c. &c. The French 
Critics will, I trust, be gratified by this specimen of Etymological enquiry^ 

. i 

Caravan. (Eng.) This word; says ^lenage, which 

the Turks pronounce Kervan, and th^^ 

Caravane. (Fr.) Arabs call Caphila, signifies properly 

^' un nombie de personnes, qui vor- 

** agent 

CB, OF, CP, CV, &c. 113 

KervanJ (Turkish.) " agent ensemble," Our English 

Etymologists have given us a quotation 

CAkVAK. (Pers.) from Hyde, which seems to attribute 

another idea to its original significa* 

CapiLA. (Arab.) tion. '' Vox Persica est," (says Hyde) 

'^ O ' 5J^*^^^^'*' ^^ ^^*' negotiator, 
Karbak. (Pers.) *' vel collective negotiatores ; scilicet 

^* tota eorum cohors simul iter faciens, 

•* qune Arabice aJoU Cqftla vocatur/' (See Junius sub voce Monger.) 

"We surely must allow that the origin of this word is to be found in the idea 

conveyed by Cabin. In another Persian word, or rather another foim of 

the same, it is represented by Richardson Karban ((^Li^L> ) — the company 

l>elonging to the same society — ^as* it were of the same family — house or 

C5ABIN. The name expressing the habitation, in which one family usually 

resides, has supplied in all languages the term to denominate a society or 

company imited by some common bond of affinity, laws, privileges, 

opinions, or interests. Thus Do?Htis in Latin — Assaraci Damns — Socratica 

Domusy &:c. &c. and in our own language. The House oi Lords — Iloitscoi 

Commons — The House of Stuart, &c. iS:c. In the phraseology of our 

University we apply it as die famihar term to express a certain set or order 

belonging to our Senate— The Black-Hood House-- Yhe White-Hood House; 

and among the terms of commerce it is used for partnership or union of 

interests in tlic same trade or occupation. Hence we shall not wonder that 

in the Eastern languages a company of merchants combined in a general 

interest for tlie safety of travelling and the convenience of trading should 

be called a House — a Caravan — a Cab^n. It might seem that Dr. 

Robertson had composed the following ip^s^^age for the express purpose .o& 

confirming my Etymology, ^f But : by> degrees, from attention to their 

^ mutual safety and < numerous bodies of mercliants assembled .at^ 

** stated times 9 andfoiming a temporary assQcifition, (known ajiencards by 

'* the name of a Caravan) ^gtov^itd ii^y .^cfrs pf dicir own choice, and. 

>. ti^ Gg " subject 



*' subject to rcgulatiom, of which experience had taught them the utiUty^ 
** they performed joumies of such extent and duration, as appear astonish- 
'* ing to nations not accustomed to this mode of carrying on commerce.** 
(Robertson's India, pag. ii. ed. 8vo.) I was not aware of this passage, 
when I wrote the above explanation of Caravan i and they may therefore 
be considered as forming a curious coincidence, mutually illustrative of 
each odier. We perceive that the Arabic word Cajila belongs to the same 
Element, and is of the same origin as Kaimx®*, &c. The '^L, as we have before 
observed, means to receive — take in — contain. Sec. and we have had frequent 
occasions to remark that words, as well as phrases, perpetually exhibit 
compounds, which liave nearly or altogether the same meaning. In the 
openi-ng of Richardson's Dictionary now before me, where Cqfila or Cablet 
k found, he has given us an account of tl^e famous mountain Kaf {i\3) 

so celebrated in the Eastern poems and 
r(Ar.) The mountain sup- romances. This too is derived imme- 

%osed to surround the world. ^^^^^^V ^''^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^"^ significa- 
tion of the Element CF, that which 

infolds — encloses — surrounds or bounds. ** Kaf," says Richardson, 
*^ a fabulbus mountain, anciendy imagined by the Asiaticks to surround 
*' the world, and to botmd the horizon on all sides. In their writings, 
'' therefore, to paint the rising of the Sun, they say, * When the Star of 
•' Day appeared from the height of Xi//* the world was enlightened: 
** whiktthey express the whole extent of the earth by iU (J Sl5^( From 
*• Kaf to Kaf On another occasion (Dissertation prefixed to Dictionary, 
36.) Mr. Richardson observes, that the mountain Kaf was imagined to 
*' surround the earth as a ring docs the finger." It is from this place that 
the extraordinary Phenomena of Nature are supposed to be produced — 
stomis, earthquakes, and volcanoes :-^Here the Dives or Genii have fixed 
their residence : In this mountain is the kingdom of the Peri (<^-i) or 
the Fairies — ^those frolick beings so familiar to an English ear, ^ whom 
wc^acktiowledge as the happy and .^willing subjects nof of Glonana, but of 




♦ ' 


AS I have *n6W given a general idda of that race of words belonging 
to the Element CP, which arc employed to express vessels — garmehti^--- 
•* enclosuircs iori\\^ purposes of resi^-sirfcty^ &c. &c. ;" 1 shall next proceed 
to' dnotMfiir portion of this 'discussion, in which it will be seen that tlie 
Elenlent 'still remains faithful td its original signification; though it assumes 
new forms, and appears invested with different properties. From the 
enclosure^ which is able to hold or contain, we pass directly to the general 
idea, and receive the notion of that which is ample — avtcnstve or capa* 
ciovs. Such is the propensity of the mirid to connect the idea of 
AMPLITUDE and ABUNDANCE wIth of holding — co7itaining---or pas* 
scssing, that we find through the whole extent of language terms denoting 
RICHES — PLENTY— POWEH, &c. &c, derived from this idea. From 
inanimate objects We pass to tliose which have life; There we find our- 
selves involved with all the various properties of animation— rffi/;v^—/? jWr;;w— 
feelings. Sec. and we have perpetually connected the idea of possession with 
Uie passions and actions that are attached to it — the desire of gaining — eager- 
7iess in semng-^iihApertinaeitt/m retaining. We' shall theireforc not wonder 
to see the same notion passhig fVom our thoughts to the symbols by which 
they are conveyed; and we shall readily understand, that a race of words 
would be formed from the simple idea of * holding or containing,' which 
are employed to express ** Plenty — Riches — Desire;'' and which signify 
*^ To catch at any thing frequently or eagerly — to hold forcibly — seize 
^* vehemently,'' &:c. &c. 

^ ' t ^"i I 




Copia is derived by Varro and 
Vossius from ** Ops, quasi coop is cum 
'^ ope;" though some have by accident 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c, 117 

fallen on the true derivation. *' Putant quidam," says Martinius, '* dici 

** ex eo, quod multa capiat." The propensity in tlie mind to form words 

signifying to contain in abundance or to receive with eagerness, from the 

simple element of holding or receiving-, shall be exemplified in a few cases. 

^X*** from its primary sense of * having' or ' possessing,* means gieat — 

jiwwerful or illustrious. In the Ajax of Sophocles wc find, 

** Ilf oc yaf Toy EXONT' fflov^ ifv«- (V* 154, &C.) 

■^ * Namquc convicia in magnos qui jaculatur viros, haud facile abcrrat, in 
"^'^ me autem si quls talia dicat, haud pcrsuadeat. Quippe virtuie ct gloria 
* "^ ctero^ petit invidia." ** Tov fp^orra," says Brunck, " gl. lu* nyw rov uirffij^dyr** 
^^ Alias w ipfoijff appellantur rf/i;//^^. Vid. Kusterum ad Comici Plutum, 
** 596/' Our Commentators on Shakspearc are aware of this idea; and 
"*Jiey have accordingly interpreted having by estate — possession — -fortune. 
QSee Macbeth, A 1. S. 3.) 

*' My noble partner 
'* You greet with present grace, and great prediction 
♦* Of noble HAVING, and of royal hope.'' 
TTie passages in Shakspeare do not however exhibit the full sense of tlie 
same idea in Greek; but the Spanish Hazienda, which Dr. Johnson, in a 
note on Shakspeare, produces as the parallel term for Having, precisely 
answers to the notion. (See Henry 8th. '* Our content is our best having'* 
A. 2. S. 3.) This w^ord is used to signify xvealth — riches — station, &c. 
though I know not whether Dr. Johnson be aware that Hazienda does not' 
belong to Habeo but to E;t«. From this idea is derived the Greek KAirrn 
avide comedo. Hemsterhusius observes on this word that it signifies *' repc* 
** tit is identidem i7iterpellatisque morsibus adpetere et vellicatim carpta 
*' demitlerc.'' (Vid. Hemster. ad Schol. Aristophan. Plut. p. 3 14-3 Iff. 
Lcimep. sub voce.) We have seen howcycp that it has likewise the- 

H h simple 



Cap TO, (Gr,) Avidc comcdere. 

Capto. (Mt.) 

Cupio— C.vPipus — Co 

CBB r(Heb,) Araare, cUligere, 



GB ^ (Ar.) Amor^ cupido. 

1 " ■ 
(Pers.) Lovely, bcautiiiil. 

simple noiioti o( containtJig or receiving 
— Xwf nv — xiroitx^o^^* To tlils idca belpHgs 
T the Latia Capto,, wlu<;h sl5mfi<3$,i;jks 
- Vos&ius explains ;it, capcre cupio. rjWfe 
shall >Hot Iiositatc to refer Cupio it^I/ to 
the sainc origin, and we might venture 
t^ CxpUi« it, as Vosj>ius does capto, by 
caftere <:iipio^ ^' Cupio/' (?ays Vossius) 
^f {Otuiw)4i ;iin amare, diligcre, cupcre. 
** Unde Arabicum 1T^ amor, cupido/* 
We do not find in Vossius any suggcs- 
-tion of the relation between Cupio ^itnd 
Caph; tJiough hejiasivwlnre^tojurule 
at the deiivation of Cupidin£s, adopted, 
as it should seem, by some facetious 
Etymologist. Cujud, say they, quasiy 
Cubit — a Cw^//-sized Deity. " At pro allusione ingeniojja, non pro sena 
" ETu/AoXoyioj, haberi debet, cum Ct^/^/W^'^a mmcupati dicuntur quasi Cubi^ 
'* tiiicsy quod cubitum non excedant.'' Martinius however derives cupio 
Worn capio; and the English Etymologists have seen that Cw^r belongs to 
Cupidus. In PcTsian Khub signifies -* beautiful, elegant, |)leasant, grajce&id^ 

* lovely, amiable, charming, &c..&a' In-: the PL Khubun signifies ,tfae 
' Fair sex.' There is an >odd coincidence between tliisjword rcfrnrod- to; 
another sense of. tlie. Element, (the Cub^ &c. ihe habitation) and the Gkicman 
Frauen-zinime^^-^ The Fair sex of condition— Ladies'— (literally) * Ciiamber--r^ 

* Wonxexi.' Th^ Kkid)a% however is most probitbly not -dciived frbii^.*bisi 
Idjoos,: but from the notion of coveted or desirable; . In atLthdsei 
senses does the idea of the Fair Sex belong to the Element; and in^ caseS' 
of this nature, it is impossible to determine tliat peculiar turn of sentiiricnt* 
from i^bich il is inruaaediately; dcHved. Tliat tJie Englisli word Ct^ioui* 
belongs to Mpt0i» 9cktfawl0iged;.:tlmiigh,kmay«facdoui»t)od whether cuM^^* 

' ought 



Accipiter^ from accipio. 

AaSfo?, vorax, from a»/a6«vw 

Ilaw/r, quas. Havock. 

Ilafoc — Hafuc. (A. S.) &c. 

Ubar, (Pers.) Devouring. 

OJis. (Gr.) A serpent. 

Aub. (Pers.) A large serpent. 

Avidns — Avarus, from Habeo. 

Avere, cupere. 

ABH (Heb.) Concupiscerc. 

Have, sive, Ave. (Lat. Vox salu* 

tandi) quasi. Have. (Eng.) '* Be 

Hap — happen. To have. 
Happer. (Fr.) ^''elocite^ rapcre. 
Arpazein. (Gr.) Rapere. 
Happen. (Dut.) Apprehendere. 

from the notion oiposessing or having. 
Hawk is quasi Havock. The Anglo- 
Saxon is Hafoc or Hafuc — tlie German 
Havich — the Welsh Hebog — the Dutch 
Havick, &c. (See Skinner.) Vossius 
derives the Dutch and German words 
from Happen, arriperc, as Skinner in- 
forms us. This is the origin of the 
Persian Ubar (^bjl) " Devouring, swal- 
** lowing; a devourer, glutton; any 
*' animal that devours other animals/* 
says Richardson. Perhaps Ofis (p^, 
serpens) in Greek belongs to this idea. 
In casting my eye over the same page 
in Richardson, where Uba?- occurs, I 
find Aub (v-jjl) tlie Persian for " A 
•' large serpent, the python." In so:ne 

cases, perhaps, the name of a Serpent 
with this Element is derived from a different idea. That Avidus and 
Avarus should be referred io Habeo will not, I think, after these instances be 
doubted. The Etymologists deduce these words from Avere, which sig- 
nifies * Cupio ;' and this they refer to the Hebrew ABH (^l^*) * concupiscerc/ 
This is certainly somewhat more advanced than the derivation of Festus» 
*' Avidus** (says he) *^ a non videndo, propter nimiam cupiditatem appellatur, 
'^ sicut amens, qui mentem suam non habet." There is another sense of 
the word, Avere, ^ salutare/ which Vossius derives from the Hebrew. • 
** Have, seu Ave, quo salutantes wtimur^ arbitror proprie notare vivc; ut 
'♦ nempesitab Hebraeo n^n" (CHJH) *' quod est vivere: unde et Adam 
♦* uxorcm suam Evaju, sive, Chavam vocavit, quia mater esset viventium. 
The salutation of Have or Ave is nothing but Habe, Have, ptmess 
(riches — honour — health, &c.) or, as we express it by a word derived from 

. the 

*» r 


languages/ and performs: so^ dmpoflbntian office^ tnust have found its W9f 
likewise among the Greek words, and have operated with considerable 
effect to produce^ the peculiar seqsca belonging to tliis Eiernent. We shi^ 
find fr(3qUent orcasians t)f reibarking the examples of itfi influeace. 
Afinj, ks has been observed, signifies falx from the toot. H^beaj and, the 
parallel term Hook in our language has a similar derivation from EXXI' 
The term Harj^^ ^ignil'yin^ a musical instrument, which occurs in so 
' •" ; :hf-^" r • V i -, . \ many languages, has, been deduced 

1l6Qk ix^lXi'Y.-^^* v; , ., from «f7ni falx, '* ob quandam curva- 

jFfrfr/J. ^ •: • r: < f i Htap. '* tune similitudinern/' says Junius; 

Heave, ' Hub. and in Skinnei: we fiod no other attempt 

Up. i • r Heaven. at derivation but/' Si cui Gr^ce ineptirc 

Ijyos : {Gr.y crflsxx^. Hob zndNob. " libeat, potest deGlinareir«f«T2f,«5jr^av 

' ' ■* • '^ r«; \J/ux«^'" Surely the obvious ide»^ 

from which the name* of this instrument is derived, would be that of the 
rapid catching oHyc^Vig^Df the strings — the sweeping of the lyre.-^— As tetm^ 
related to th^ WiSrd Have we might produce Heap — Heave — Hub — Up, 
&c. &c.'&C;- 'Heaven means that which is heaveb up — raiml higk^ 
&c. &c. Eviett the ''fetymologists/ acknowledge that Heaven is from the 
Anglo-Saxon '/f^fl/?tfn ' elevare/ ^We have seen that the Element CPh» 
been employed to denote the same object — the Cope of Heaven; and we may 
accordingly e«pe« fo find. that different Elejgients will express siiriilit 
objects, -whfen they -are /found originally to contain the same ineariingl 
Thus we- havc^oen K?r*02 — gibbus-^curvus ; and w,e ihall not. wondfer. 
to discover TBOI (curvus iaflcxus) Hub — Hob — Heave. The phrase HoA 
and Nob is stfid to be derjved from this source : : It ^afexiistomary for person^ 
to pledge tfach dther by .faking their'<:aps from the Hobs or Hubs and Nobs, 
on which they were placed on each side: of i the firepftujc..: We<have ietti 
likewise C(;jHVf derived from Capio; andii^eshalMhen be^jiArcpaDred to r^et' 
Opes to HalM. X)pes, we perceive^ isi nothing i but. tl^i^:ffati7igs^jn 

* A Shakspeare; 


is foond in great plenty about the island of Cyprus. 'Skinner ventures "^d 
think, that /7crArt/?j it is so called " i Toracitate, quia omnia carpit (i. 'e. 
*' arripit." 

n gt| iJ K i ) t ea«< 



Carpo. (I^t.) Carpo belongs itself likewise to 

the same idea, and means at^ide vdUidBt-^ 
Carfo. (Gr.)Miniio, frango. tim capio. Vossius deduces Carpo 

from K«f ^w, which in one of its scnscfis 
x^ ininuOf frango; but he is more pleased with deriving it from Kaf»0^ 
^* XqX Carped" (says he) *' (quod magis placet) ejusdem, ut significationis, 
sic oriajinis crit, ac Grascum Kap^oo/Acu vel K«fin^«, nempe a K«fT^, quod 
cuin June turam manus turn fructtim significat, qui proprie KAfTufctcu,' hoc 
/* est, carpitnr sivf- rivccrpitur." Vossius has not the smallest glimpse of 
the relation bot\\v . J C./r;?^ and Capio; and Martinius even separates 'Ac 
one from tl)*:^ '.tlicr. " Sicut Capio'* (says he) *' a ^2" CP *' sic ca7'po k 
^' KxoTTtd * Manus' rectissime dedueitur." Every thing, we perceive, coricors 
to establish my hypothesis. We have seen that Carpos (KafnO'i Carpus) 
signifies ' Manus,' because the Hand holds (capit) or, with a peculiar action^ 
carps or crnps. But what is curious, the thing itself intended to be carped 
or ctopped is likewise called Carpos (K«firof, fructus.) The reader will pet- 
haps smile, when I inform him that Ant-hos (AifJcc) is of the sarhe ori^ri; 
and is derived from the idea of being taken or gathered as by the HanA; 
There is no derivation in which I place a more implicit reliance than the 
present. This is an Element common to every language ; and which might 

be trafeed'by an enquiring observer through the various mazes of its medil-' 

i • 

itig; and it wduld be still found faithful to its originar idea : '^NZ-^^ND '6f 
^NS is what * holds or is held — has the power of holding,* &c. Arc. Thkfe^ 
Endon (Or. £»/») intus — ens — entis — ontos (Or. OiJ®*) — the ''ND in such'' 
WOi^lis prrfi-eiirf-o.— jRTm* in old English, a * purse' and to ehAricb— 






strength, belongs to the same idea. The connexion between Mak and 
Manus, as was before remarked, consists in the idea, o{ holding or confining; 
and they belong to the same race of words as Mcenio — Munio, &c. ice. 
I cannot forbear producing a very curious passage from Plutarch, in whicA 
we shall see how the knowledge of that *' learned Theban" would have 
been advanced, if he had fortunately been conversant with the familiar 
language of an English Peasant. In speaking of the ceremonies, which 
were used by Romukis in the foundation of Rome, he observes, " BOePOX- 

ecoxjyri ni^i to kuv KojEA»7»oy KTKAOTEPHX, oi7rci^)(^a.i n warrm oirotg i/ofAU ^Vf 6ff xoAoi; t^X^^ 
fAOi^OLVf cSosAov (tf Tct-jra x) o'lii'f/xiyvuok' KoAscf ii Codfoy TaTOk> » x, toy OAv/avov ovofunvy 

*' MOTNAON-" '* Namquc Comiao/owflest rotunda circumducta. In earn 
'* primitias dc^tulcrunt omnium, quae de more ut bonis, natura utebantiir 
" ut neccssariis. Postremo ex qua quisque advenerat regione, ejus tep'a& 
y portiunculam collatam eo conjecerunt et commiscuerunt : Fossam hanc, 
** eodem quo Coelum nomine, vocaverunt J/wwrf^/m." Without enquiring 
into the rites which are here performed, let us only observe, that a circular 
ditch was dug round a certain spot; and that a very extraordinary name 

was given to it. This circular surrounding ditch they called the World 

Mundus — the term which answers to the Greek Olympus. That they 
should distinguish a ditch by the title of the World, or by a term correspond- 
ing with the idea expressed by Olympus, is indeed extraordinary; but 
that they should dig a ditch round a certain spot, and then call that ditch 
•* Mund-MTti — (Mound'On) — a Mound;" an English rustic would veiy 
readily believe. That this was the original signification of Mundus I have 
good reason to imagine; and we may observe, that names to express ideas 
of this nature would be derived from objects, which belong to the most 
humble and familiar occupations of human life. By somcf, Altmdus k^ 
derived from Movendus, " quia in papeiuo motu sit.'* Others dedyce it 
from Mundities to answer to the Greek word Kor/bi^* Martinius obserr^ 
slightly, «< JSitsatie mundus a Munimdor but as if he had fotmed no^ 



CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 127 

sitfHcicnt reason to retain this derivatiooi he adds, ** vel si quis hoc mavult, 
^^ ^ Mavmdok'' Mundtis is likewise applied to the ornaments or apparatus 
belonging to the dress of women ; and to something which relates to the 
Country. " Nee tantum muUebrtnif' (says Vossius) '* sed et nisticinn 
'' mundum dicimus, quomodo loquitur Plautus Mercatorc." Were I to 
avail myself of this expression, *' rusticus mundus;" it would bring back 
tlie phrase to the very spot from whence I suppose it to be derived. The 
passage in tlie Mercator, to which Vossius alludes, is, I believe, the fol- 
lowing. In the prologue to the Mercator; Charinus, the son, describes 
the reproofs which his father gave him on account of his youthful follies; 
and tlie mode adopted by tlie old man on this occasion is the ordinary 
topic of displaying the discipline and restraint, which he endured from 
fUs father at the same period of life. 

*' Sese extemplo ex ephcbis postquam cxcesscrit, 
" Non, ut ego, amori, nequc dcsldicT In uUo 
" Operam dedisse, nee potcstatcm 9i\n 
*' Fuisse; adeo arete cohihitum e;se a palrc: 
** Multo opere in vnindo rnstiro se cxercitum." (V. 61, &c.) 
Many read *' immnndo rnslicoy*' and explain it in sordibus agresiinm. It 
may however be read, as Vossius and' others suppose, in mundo nistico; 
and then the sense will precisely correspond with my hypothesis — in a 
rustic CONFINEMENT. 7 he situation of Orlando m As You Like It may 
serve as a comment on Plautus. " He ketps me rustically at hatne, or, to 
^' speak more properly, stays me here at homeunkept." Warburton reads 
^* stys me;" and if that had been the true reading, the passages would 
have been perfectly parallel : (In Mundo rustico, in a Rustic Stye. J As a con- 
firmation of this sense of a imstic enclosure, I must suggest to the recollection 
of the reader Mandra^ which means a pen or enclosure for pigs and other 
catde. ** Mandra locus in quo porci includuntur, ut interpretatur vetus 
^' Juvenahs Scholiastcs in illud. Sat 3. 

t . '^ Stantb conTicia Mandra (sMnf^t) * 

'' Sed 


* Sed noil porcoriim tantum est, scd etiam jumcntorum." I will not 
determine whether Mandra from this rustic signification rose or" sunk in its 
idea; vet I cannot but observe that in-latter times Mandra was die famili&r 
term for a Monastery. Manf^ai (as we find in Hesychius) meant originally - 
*' t^Kn, p^ocyfjLoi, v\xi,** (L, auAai) " crwoj Co«> j^«inr«v:" Martinius thinks that tbc 
Greeks borrowed this term from the Chaldeans, and the Latins from the 
(ireeks. This is all which is known of its derivation. As another con^ 
fimiation of my hypothesis respecting MuiiduSf we find the phrase * In \ 
' minido* occur frequently in Plautus to signify paratum esse — prasto esse. 
•^ hi Mimdo esse dicebant antiqui," says Festus, ** cum aliquid in promlu 
*' CA'^ervolcbant intcUigi." '* Placet viris doctis," says Vossius, '^ esse a muit^o 
'* muliebritrzctumhoc loquendi genus, quia mulieres, quas ad corporis 
*' ornatum faciunt, diligcnter rzrn^Z/V custodiunt, quo si uti subito necesse 
'* habeant, quajsito opus non sit." Every idea, which the Critics and 
Etymologists produce, tends to confirm my opinion. The original sense 
oi Mundus is that of an e?iclosure, and certainly of the most humble kind. 
Afterwards it signified an enclosure of a more elevated sort; hence arcula 
vmlicbris; and from this idea it obtained the meaning of neat — clean — -finc^ 
Sec. &c. In mundo esse is derived from the metaphor, which Vossius has' 
employed — ' To have any thing in a place of security and confinement — r 
' ready to be produced.' — ^To remove all the doubts of the reader on this 
subject, he must be informed that ' In mujido habere* and • Domi habere' arc 
in Plautus synonimous phrases. *^ Domi iiahcre^'' says Parens, who well 
understood the spirit of Plautus, *' in proverbio eleganti formula dicitur is, 
*' qui non necesse habet aliunde rem aliquam anquirere; sicut in mundo ' 
«* habere.'' With this parallel phrase before the eyes of the Commentators, • 
I marvel much that they did not understand the force and origin of the 
expression. Jn some passages of Plautus, however, the phrases *^ Domi 
^^ habere — Domo cxperiri," &c. seem to take that peculiar turn, wi)ich 
belongs to our expression — ' To come home to a person — To come /iom€* 
' to men's business and bosoms,' signify ing. to feel strongly and intimately 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c, 129 

by our own suggestions and experience. '^ It has pleased the Gods," says 
the tender and affectionate Alcmena, *' to chequer our good witli evil, and 
" our joys with sorrow. This sentiment now comes home to my heart — 
" I experience and I feel its force. Ego id nunc experior domo, atque 
^* ipsa de me scio.'* (Amphit. A. 2. S. 2. V. 7.) If we should still retain 
any doubts respecting the origin of Mundus; let us finally observe, that 
in the very Latin words, by which \\t should naturally translate the 
English term Mound; we actually find Mound, that is Mentt as a part 
of the compound; as * Sepirz/aefum — Munimew/um,' &c. nay, what is still 
more curious, it exists in the very word which answers to AInndits, and 
which is acknowledged to be derived from the metaphor of a strong Fence 

' or FiRM-MouND — the Firma-ment. Ment, from this original idea of 
a/e;;ce or MOUND — a place of safety and security, became so familiar in 
the Latin language, that it supplied a great race of words with the termina- 
tion Maitum. This Element, MN or MNT, is universal. It has found 
its way into the modern languages; and it appears in its full force in the 
Persian. The student in that language will rejoice, I trust, to remember 
that *' Adjectives implying possession or plenty are formed by adding to 
'* Nouns the termination jl/e/zrf," &c. &c. (Jones's Persian Gram. p. 81.) 

* I shall close these remarks by observing, that as F\im2i?ne7it and .Mundus 
coincide, so Lucretius has applied the same metaphor and element to tlie 
same object. ** Flammantia Mcen/Vi MuNrf/. 

'* He pass'd the flaming bounds of time and space." 

The World — Welt, (German) &c. &c* 
World. (Eng.) Welt. (Germ.) is to be referred, I imagine, to a meta- 

Vallum. (Lat.) phor of the same kind, and should be 

Wall-^Gwal. (Welch.) classed among the race of words sig- 

Balla. (Irish.) nifying an enclosure; such as Vallum 

W It I (^^^ surrounding hem of Wall (in Welch Gxval — in Irish Bulla J 
I a garment. — Welt (the surrounding hem of a 

Belt. (Eng.) garment) — BeU-^Vault^ (See. Skinner 

l1 sub 




Go-wait. (Ger.) Power. 

Walt en. (Gcr.) To govern. 


Welde. (Chauc.) Tencfe. 

sub voce Wall. Hence in German 
Ge-WALT signifies power, and Walten 
to govern. Hold in English is anotlier 
\vord of the same sort, vi^ith a gentler 
breathing before ^LD. It is from hence 
that Welde in Chaucer means (as Junius 
expresses it) *^ To have power and dominion, tenere aHquem in sua 
•' potestate— Adam Welte al paradise saving o tre/' The words belonging 
lo this race signifying, niotion^ such as hurl — whirl — vatilt, &c. &:c. to 
fomc of which the idea of a circular motion is peculiarly annexed — ^To 
whirl ROUND, &c. may possibly be derived from the notion of a stir^ 
rounding enclosure. There is however another source, from whence words 
of motion may be deduced with the Element BL, PL, WL, &c. &c. whicb 
I have riot leisure to explain. After these illustrations we shall have little 
doubt, I imagine, respecting the origin of Mundus. To the idea of a 

circular enclosure in MN I refer Moan 
— Mene (Gr. Muvu) ; and I am of opinion 
that Luna is to be classed under the same 
idea. Those, who are conversant with 
the Welch Dialect of the Celtic, I shall 
readily convince of this circumstance; 
as the Element LN I has left such deep^ 
traces of its meaning in the names of 
places. '* From that ancient notion/' 
(says Mr. Rowlands, Mona Antiqua 
Restauratay p. 6S.) *' oiLlan or Llwyn, as betokening ^ fence and e7iclosigr€^ 
*• I take the compound words Per-llan, Gwin-llan, Yd-lan, Cor-laUy and 
" G/yft or Glany a valley enclosed with wood, to have been brigiilaUy 
•' denominated.'" Mr. Rowlands was himself vicar of Llan-idzw, in the 
isle 0f Anglesey. The Persian scholar will be pleased to remember •* Lan'* 
(Pers, ^ii) '< a wall^ round a house, any area, a fold, or enclosure fix 

" cattle,'* 


Mene. {Gr. Ur^m*) 

'M(Xfi--^Men— 1 The Sun and 

Mo7i. ) Moon. 

Luna. (Lat.) The same. 
Llan-Lltvyn. (Wei.) An enclosure. 
iMn. (Pers.) 'An enclosure. 
Linn-^Glinn. (Wei.) An enclosure. 

C B, CJF, C P^ C V, : &c, 131 

'f cattle/' as Richardson explains it. Hence Lane (ai nanvw or confined J?lace) 
-^Lhiea a line or boundary : — ^AWON, linum (from its winding:) iMria (Woet^ 
which docs not belong to this idea, but to a race of words similar to Velliis, 
Pellis^ &c.) Nay what is extremely curious, by the same metaphor of 
a Mound or enclosure, Linn, Glinn is the Celtic for Mundus, the 
World. (Sec Lhuydsub voce Mundus. J This, I think, after the expla- 
nation of Llan by Mr. Rowland, no one can doubt. These observations 
on MN, &c. will unfold to Count Gibclin and Major Vallancey, why 
** AIa?i, Men, Mon," mean the Sun and Moon, as tlie former observes; 
and as the latter remarks, ** Alan in Irish signifies the Sun, but it is 

** compounded with Sam, as Sam- 
Sam-Man. (Irish.) The Sun. ** Man.'' (See the Grammar of the 

Sherns — 5^7/1^ ) (Eastern terms.) Irish language, 2d. Edit. p. 130.) 
— CAtfm^i,&c.) The Sun, Heavens. From SM or KM, &c. are derived the 
Shemring — (Shams. J names in the Eastern languages, Shems, 

Shining' — (Sun.) Sama, Cham, &c. which express the 

Sun or the Heavens ; and Sam-Man 
therefore only means the Orb o( the Sun. The effect of this name for the 
Sun we perceive in our Old English word ' She?nnng,* which we now^ 
call, from our familiar term for that luminary, (the SujiJ Shi?iing. Our 
Etymologists, Skinner and Junius, have not perceived that Shine belongs 
to the Sufi. I suspect that, the chief names for the Sun and Moon are 
derived from the idea of an orb or ciraimferencc; and when they chance 
to coincide with the name for the Heavens, it is impossible, in many 
instances, to determine from which object a metaphor so natural for both 
was originally derived. We have had perpetual occasion to observe, that 
objects, which are at once opposite and allied, (if I may so express myself) 
have been denominated by the same Element with some variation to 
distinguish the one from the other — Man, Woxnzn — Male, JVmale — the 
vir QZ\>icns and cap/W, &c. ^c. The Eastern Scholar, who should cast 
\m eye over the names of Che Sun and Moon^ will find this circumstance 




strongly exemplified. I have not leisure at present to pursue tliis enquiry; 
though the research might afford a very curious subject of critical invcsti* 


nr^ • 

.^ .'f**'' 

Kraft. (Germ.) Power, 
Craft. (Chaucer.) The same. 
Crapat. (Bret.) Ancrcr. 


(Id.) Etonne, ravi, 
saisi de passion. 

Gravir. (Fr.) Rapere. 
Grivelee. (Fr.) Petite volerie. 
Grip OS. (Gr.) Rele, 


({Gr.) Rete, sermo aenig- 


Gripaomai. (Gr.) I zm griped. 



We have seen on a former occasion 
Gripe — Crib, signifying to confine or 
$ical — Kraft (German) and Craft 
(English) as the familiar term for powar 
or strength in tlie Teutonic languages; 
and in the Bretagne dialect of the Celtic, 
Crapat ancrer, and Craptha, etonne, 
ravi, saisi de passion. In French Gra- 
vir is rapere y and Grivelee petite 
volerie. Gripeus in Greek (rfiwcu^) is 
the person, whose employment it is to 
catch fish. Gripos (FfiTr^) is the net^ 
which enfolds or confines them; and 
Grifos (Ffiir^, rete, sermo aenigmati- 
cus) is at once the same instrument of 
confinement; and the entangling^ an^ 
barrassingox crabbed discourse. Grip- 
aomai (Ffiirao/Aa*) is used as our word 
GRIPED by Hippocrates, and relates to 
the twinges or velUcations of spasmodic 
aftection. Gripe leads us to Grap* 
PLE, which means to confine by seizing 
or holding any thing ; and the idea of 
confinement ox hindrance brings us at 
once to the term cripple. The French 


GB, err, cp, cv; &c. 


Cramp — Crimp. 


(Gr.) Adhaeresco, 

Grimper. (Fr.) To climb. 



Serpo. (Quasi Carpo.J 



Grumia. (Lat.) 



Climb — Clamber. 


Gktma. A disorder In the eyes. 


Clam-^Krubden. (Gr.) 

okiMPER, to climb up, which Henry 
Stephens refers to XPmnTEiN, but Me- 
nage imagines to be derived from 
repe7€, appears again under a similar 
sense in the word creep; and we per- 
ceive that the Greek CRiMP^em means 
to be CRAMPerf up (as it were) close to 
an object — to be fastened or adherent 
to any thing. Tlie idea of Climbing, 
which answers to grimper, is derived 
from the same notion of being * adhe- 
' rent or sticking to something;' as we 
perceive in the word Clammy, ^yhich 
at once associates itself to Clamber ; and 
we again see the meaning of these 
words in the term Cleave. Grim — 
Grimace, &c. mean tlie contraction 
— the crimping or cramping of the 
face with marks of anger or folly; and 
these terms appear again under the 
form of crabbed; but more pointedly 
in that of gruff. Creep is derived 
by our Etymologists from K^uW^y wai, 
clam, vel clanculum progredi. Let the 
reader. again mark)the coihpidence be- 
tween the Elements CRB and CLM 
^'^-rCrubden (KfuWuO and ^lam. We 
shall see that words denoting a rapid 
motion are derived from? tke idea of 
'seixing or catching at any thing; and 
^wse: shall not wondetr that a race of words 
Mm should 

s V) 

» > 

v<^>^ ^ 



Crabro. (Lat.) 
Spao. (Gr.)Traho. 
Sfex. (Gr.). Stringo, 

GRAVIS. (Lat.) 

Gravidus — Gremivm. 




Graf. (Teut.) 


r(Eng.^ A title of power 

QT possession. 

GiRiFTEN. (Pers.) To seize, catch* 
Greiffen. (Germ.) 
Greipan. (Goth-) 
Grip AN- (Sax;)iicc. &c. 

should be formed with an opposite sig* 
nification from a similar idea. As 
objects are seized upon for the purpose 
of conveying away rapidly, so are they 
seized or rather fastened upon for the 
purpose of confining or detain ing^ ii> 
their course. Hence the idea of tenacity 
— pertinacity — and of a slow motion. 
The motion of creeping animals cer- 
tainly impresses us with the idea of 
Griping, if I may so express it, the 
ground, in order to pull themselves 
forward. To Grope is anotlier wordi 
of the same sort and with a similar 
meaning. To grope out one's way is 
to discover the way by griping or 
feeling ; and To Creep is another spe^ 
cies of climbing. It is observable, that 
these ideas of a rapid and slow motion 
have often been united with each other 
under the same Element. Thus ive 

have Rapio^ repO, A^^ra^w, «f7rv^«, A^irvi*, 

(Harpyia, proeella) tf^u, and we must 
not fail to observe, that Serpo is but 
another form of the EJement CP, and 
corresponds with Catpo (iter, viam^ 
&c.) The Greek Crimptein (XPIMII-^ 
TRIN) and the French Grimper coih4 
cide with tlie idea conveyed by Creepj 
In Orpheus Crimptein is applied to 
an object, which is most related to this 


Cfit, CF, CP, C V, &c. 


GtiFFON. (£ng.)'\A Mavettius 
Gryphus. (Lat.) VBird, quasi the 

I . 

G]tirp8> (Gr.) jOripa. 


Falx^ that which 
gripes in order to 


Grape. (Eng.) 
GkAPPE. (Fr.) 

Grappo — Vital.) A bunch or 

Grappolo. J cluster of Grapes. 



To clutch^ seize. 

Gripper. (¥t.) 



To climb, gnmper. 



(Ital.) Seizing, Taction 

de gripper. 
.The stem of fruit. 








idea. It is used to express the action 
of the Creeper^ or, in another form, 
tlie Serpens — ^the Serpent. 

•' AXA» ctt y *nf toc, 

OuJ* f I K£v ru;(o7if ENIXPIMirrOINTO iro- 
*• j£<r<ri.** (AiOixa O^ituc* 74f &C.) 

** Tu vero heros lapide Siderite arma- 
tus, per reptilia omnia audacter, 
quamvis catervatim tibi occurrant, 
•*., media transi, nigram non extimes- 
'* cens mortem ; non enim illi fas am- 
*' plius erit recordari dentium, non, 
*' si vel maxime incedentis vnplicentur 
'* pedibus." I have not leisure to ad- 
just the text of this passage, as it con- 
tains no difficulty relating to the word 
in question. '* Protected by the Side- 
** ritis," says the Poet, *' you have 
'' nothing tp fear from Serpents, not 
*' even if they should meet you in 
'' troops, and creep (or crawl) about 
** your feet" It is curious that this 
^ord should hav^ hptfi transferred from 
the motion of the Serpent's body to the 
appropriate term for the ir\fixing of the 
sling— guided and enforced by that 





Grappiller. 3 To glean grapes. 

GRAPiLLEUR.-^gleaner, acheat, a 

picker and stealer. 




(Fr^) A' small anchor 
and a grqppWng iron. 

Group. (Eng.) 

(Fr.) motion. On the passage of the Apo- 

calypse, c. 9. V. 5. 6. which describes 
the pain arising from the sting of the 

(Fr.) A Grape Scorpion, Andreas Cassariensis observes,* 

To rtay anogvitav iirtfifn VTrofeiyfAX, aX^fiy*. 
rigacif T»iv ai(r6uo-iif m xtilga ErXPIMi^EI Troe^e- 

^' Xoirr(ay Scorpionumsubjungit exemplum, 
'* qui gravisshnum do lor is sensum aculei 
'* infixione prabent.'* ^' Ufei notanda** 
(says Bocliart) '' vox exxpim?I2^ vqJ, 
^' si mavis, «yxf*^*^* ^ verbo f>%f*/*«^«> 
*'* vel iyxgnflu deducta, quod in hoc 
/^'* ipso negotio adhibuit Megastheaes 

•'""apud iElianum libri decimi sexti 
* » " ' t_- • * « " ^ 

^' capitc quadra^esimo primo, cum Indicos SCorpioncs scribit to xei^o» 

'' ErxPiriTEiN TOK Evf«^a»oK irtK^ocirXynrmq aculcum iiifigerc /ere ad instar Euro^ 

" paonim. Pollux etiam librr sexti capite vigesimo nono, Zxofir*^, inquit, 

*^' ^nTUivol(aErxPr¥Elrco xtH^u Scorpius qti(erefu, cui aculekm ihj(gat. Itaque 

*' ErXPllTTElN idem ibi est quod ty;cf'"«'» quod fugit h^cjenus Lexicogriiphtis.*^ 

(Bochart. Hieroz. vol. 2. p.- 640.) — It is extremely curious that Grumia, 

according to Festus, means a disorder of the eyes, w^hich \)ther$ » cal> 

Glama. We jierceive here a recui¥eAce of similar Elements: We have 

Grim? EiL^^-^limb^^Cldhib&r-^Clkfnmy ; and here again we have^(j[&u]|^|A| 

— Glama; but^^vhat is more curidusf, *ds we bad QROkf^i'andiCxRUFF, so we 

find Glurh and Gloom. Weare now perhaps reniinded of the Latin Glomus 

— Glomero; arid we find thit'ih all these words the idea of cojitr action--^, 

coming togHher-^-^losiii^ w ftdding Up ^ &c. is uad^rftood. Many of our 

metaphors relatirtg^ to nighv in^ durhniss ^re^ on various accounts, derived 

from this source. We talk of the day and night closing and shiitting in. tf>. 

7^ » ^ f. « * ji 

express the approach of darkne;$$: Night is thicJIc, slt]^ ^* Ligl^t i/^ickens*^ Bt 


I < 1 • 

1 ,\\' 

' CB, CF, CP;rGV, &c. 137 

the end' of day, in Shakspcare; and in Virgil we find " Obtentft densanhir 
*' nocte tenebrse/' The cloudy darkness of a tempest contracts the 
Heavens. " Horrid a tern pestas cotXyxva contraxit;'* and in some passages 
ike tfikkeniTig' oi z black-GLoo my tempest from the collected cloudis i^ 
defifcribed by the very metaphor of Glomero. . . 

'* Saepe ctlam immensum co^lo venit agmen aquaram»L >^ h 

^' Et foedam olomekant tempestatem imbribus atris 

M Cdlectae ex alto niibas.". r.\ ^Oeorg; I, 72%) 

In that beautiful fragmciit of th<^ Danae, Adiieh) desctittes the^Ticissitudes 

of our life from the sun shhte of. joy to tlic glooinof sorcoVir; the Poet 

represents the sky as thickenings Winter by collecting th^ condensed 

clouds. ; , , , i: 

• • • . . 

" Tik^'ok jcaXHo-i* ««9if*i, «f«4Vri JVj.*: 

*' Onto; Off »^ n \a[JLfr^o¥ fxXftjCAirfl o-fXaC) 


*' Similem aio esse mortalibus casibus hunc.quem asthera vocantt cui hajc 
^' utique propria sunt. '• Hie aestatc splendidam lucem praebet, et densam 
*' i nubcm compatiens hUmem auget, facitq^ie virescere et hirfi. firescere, vivere 
^' et interirc. Sic quoque et mortaliuih genus: ali is serena lux fortunas 
f^! mitet: aliis nebulA interim* obtegitur." I havci noli leisure to appreciate 
the ^different conjectures 6n this disputed passage.. Every. Pod is full of 
imagery fcon veying ^ similar idea. The * jcejitraction of the. brow • has i» all 
times been the favourite 'mctalpbor to express wh4t isiund^rstood >by the 
vmtdA'<!t^vY¥,rr-iinAVBEi}lr&cc. :^;: . In the Knights iof/:Aristophartes> we 
find 5| bold metaphor derivicdJrom ^is source. )• Th^ whcrfe Senate' (says 
the Foiet)/ look'd mwt^di^nd pucherdd up its brow/ 


'Acceptable* ' '^ Si quid bonis ' . '' •' 

*' Boni fit, esse idem et Grave, et gratiimsolet." (A. 4*. s. 5. v. 2-3.) : 
'^ Grave,'* (saj's Salmasius) *' pro pretiosi ct caro accipiimt I^tini. Unde 
^^ Grji;(' donwn Symmacho." The Etyniology, wliich I have given of 
tills word, will be entitled at least to some regard, when it is compared 
with the usnal derivation given by others. •* Gravis'' (says Vossius) '* forte 
*^ quasi -^(T^w>, \ gerendo. Nam gravia toUi ferrique neccsse est, iinde 
'^ folerari ea dicuntqr. (Ab i5£olico Bf«yui?* Vide Etymol. /x^y* in Cf«yuf") The 
next word to Gravis m Vossius is Gremium (quasi) Grcvium or Gravium — 
that which ' holds — receives/ &c. The-ordihary. derivations of tliis word 
arc '* ab Ingrcdior K«r afli^o-ii^ — z Ge7'o, quasi Geranium, nisi potius a 
'^ jMkXi^y He$i/ch.** (Vossius sub voce.) The definition of Grernium in aii 
author quitcd by Vossius appears as if it liad been expressly written to 
coil fitm itay derivation. •* Sinum dicimus expansum recc})taculum : Gre-^ 
*' miuin vestis receptaculum, interius jacens secretum." — ^To flic idea 
conveyed by these words of holding oi possessing must be referred the 
German Gr af— ^a title of power and posscssiom.\ In our language it ap^ars* 
under the form of Grave, as ' Land-^Grr/w, Mar-G;mr.' Our EngiislV 
Etymologists derive it from rdpcre, zAd Martin ius from Crfltc; (or Grey) 
*' Canus, Senex.'* (Vide Skinnersub voce.) The Element, GRV — GRF ' 
or GRP, appears with the same sense ■ in the Persian language. Si>- 
GiriJ\t\\\^^yi S) tcic^ns io " take,«cize, catch, snatch,, to make prisoner.'f*^ 
Thus dur word Gripe is made the PersiaA infinitive by the addition of the 
ordinary termination of Ten\ ^ CiRiP-Zen* quasi GRiPE-/e?i;* and ittcor^ 
rcsiK>nds with the race of words bearing a similar meaning in the Teutonib. 
languages^ OREitFKN (Gferm.)--*-GRETPAN (Gothic.)rTGRi>AN (Saxorivy 
&c. '&c. ilie ravenous; aniriial called the GRLPFON^^^-^RYPHus-^GRirMl 
(rprirc) nuist be referred toUhts idea-^--the GRip^r. .We have seen oh -a 
fonner occasion' Gw/»»(Vultu[T) a word of the same kind* .Lennep derives' 
f^from>fvw» rado; and Martiniu&thitiks that the bird is so called 'irom* 
ife//do^ttf*b^ak^ •• Nate Tfur^,": says he, ** est qui ailunc0 est naso/aut 
• ' ' ' •' rostro;'* ' 

CB, or, CP. QY; &c. 139 

kold-T-GKi?E, &c. The word/ iv^ich in the ordinary Dictionaries is 
adjacent to -4n/hrcne isAriihvax (Ai^f^H) a coal, which belongs to the same 
Element, and is for some reason, which. I am unable t6 explain, derived 
from a kindred idea. Thjit Anthrzx is; to be referred to such an idea 
will be evident from considering the Latin word, which belongs to the 

Element. <^B. Carbo is ii^ AnthrTiXt 
^nArax.(Gr.) Carbo. what;Cr«fAro is to -^^w^hrene. This is a 

Anthxcnt. (Gr.) Crabro. curious comcidetice* The second part, 

£7ie, of tlie compound in ^n^r^i{€ be- 
longs to the Element '^N, and conveys in every language, wliat is under- 
stood in our word in — the Geek w,. (i*) &c. AnthreHe is Hej^t (or 
pinched) IN. Gravis — Gribf) — Grave,, &c. I refer to different senses 
of the same Element. J have observed thatt>ur Root meant ** Tohold — r 
contain — rget or bring together. 'in ii/^aai//ii;ice^ — with power — design or 
eflfect.*' This is precisely the idea conveyed by Gravis, Gripe may be 
considered as thfe action, of .whicK Gravis is the effect. To Gripe is to 
take into possession with jpaavr;i''anldr Gravis is " to possess in abun- 
doTfvi.*' ^Even the . ordinaxy Ldxlioonis have supplied* us with the same 
idea in tlie first sense, : which they iaittcibute to Gravis, ** heavy, weighty, 
**Jill£d with." The primary notion is. that of '. containing in al^mdance,' 
or being filled with any thing;, and: the ^secondary {One is t^ consecpience 
of the formcT-^Weight or Heavine^* W^have proved on fti^qtl^er occasion 
that Heavy 1% derived from aTOOt.qfi the.^ftmfc BK*aning-r-Jytf«;!e, to possess 
in abundiance, or (with the same Element) to ' Possess as it were in a Ae^/ 
Heavy is ijuasi Hcapy. . G« A viDUS, we see, |)recisely an^wer^ $ot the idea of 
holding pr containing; and ;the notion 06 Gravity fs^ni^usne^jl is dirpctly 
fonned from the sense ^of Hemn/ — Weighiy-r^^ opposite of ligh^. . G^iKif\ 
-!-GmiEvpus, &c. immediately f6Jlow 'from the idea of Qravity. Gra- 
viTCR means m Plautus, axidin the more aaqeiiit Latin: writer>s,.tf^fz</i/;i//y 
or Tttuch^ as the Critics : 'haver duly' : understood, i;^, In the^ Persa. of that 
Author we -find' Gra<ve n»ed cxfectly as W€j^ho«14 •cmplpyutfeet^wor^ 
>i: >: * ^ Acceptdblc/ 


into a bunch would peculiarly impress on us a similar notion. The word 
bunch in the sense of any thing rising or swelling into a protuberance, belongs 
remotely or directly to the 'swelling form of the \>Qi\i hand — the handi\xV 
It refers to the Pcnche — Ptnje, the fist in Persian — the English Fingers 
(quasi Fangtvs;) and to the name for Five derived from this idea in 
variousr languages; as we shall fully prove on another occasion. Our 
word Pinch we see is directly referred to the hand — the Pcnche or the 
Fingers (as it would be precisely, if the G were pronounced soft as in 
Range, &c.) I will not venture however to affirm that Bunch (in tlie sense 
of a Bunch of grapes) is directly deduced from the Pcnch or the * Hand/ 
Grapps in French, and Grappo — Grappolo in Italian mean a bunch 
or cluster of grapes, which is the original idea of the word — that which 
you GRiPB or GRAPPLE with the Hand. Let the reader mark, as he 
passes on, the word Cluster^ which is directly or remotely to be referred 

to the Clutched hand. Our Englisli 
Btaich of Grapes. Etymologists have derived Grape from 

Penchh — ^Fingtrs. Kosfw©^ quasi, the Fruit (KaT^^o^^nn ;) 

C/M^^er— «-C/?^/c/ied Hand. without understanding the idea which 

these words convey. Xlenagc has given 
us a pleasant derivation of this word from liacemus. As thus, Racemus, 
'* gracemus, gracebuSfgrapus, grapa, g7appe;*' and such has been the art^ 
which we were wont to dignify with the title of Etymology f Every thing 
belonging to this word confirms my derivation. Grappark means in. 
Italian to "r/2£/f A, seize, GRiPFER.*' (I use the explanation to be found 
in the ordinary Lexicon^,) Grappare signifies to " climb, grimper.'^ 
Grappo is a ''seizing. Taction (le Gripper; and, what is curious. Grappa 
'* signifies the stem o/ fruit, ki queue de fruit" — that part which you 
huld or GRIPE. In French Grapprr and Grappiller is at last applied 
to the minutest action conveyed by the word gripe — that of picking tlie 
remaining grapes of the vintage. Grapilleur means not only a ' Grape 


gleaner/ hiut .» ^piiko' .• of ft^c^her sort—^a cheat (a picker and stealer ;) 
..:,• J , and 

^\^ '•^^•■- \ • - •. • •« ■.•-••. -r^V 


. ■». '.^ 

'"/^O^ • >="Vy •^t'^'r'- / ^^//^^-^ —-■^■- (^^f/^'''-' ^^^^AA^J^ 



* cacumen, tlvc rising up part of the mountain) Umbilicus, (O/tAfax^- the 
' protuberant part of the navel) Umbo (the rising part of the Shield) U?nbra 

* (the surrounding covering forming the shade) Ofs^A^ (uva acerba — the 

* unripe grape^— the grape just swelling ouV) &c, Uva must be classed 
under the same race of words; and means the fruit ^ rising or swelling up 

* in a plump form/ Varro has a glimpse of this idea, when he derives it 
from Uvor, that is. Humor, because it is full of juice. We shall prove on 
another occasion, that '^M, '"X or'^B is the universal representation of Waters 
and -thus we readily understand the origin oi Humor or Uvor; and the 
notion which this race of words , conveys of ^ rising or swelling up.' Even 
Ixnncp has discovered that Ampelos belongs to this idea. Me derives it 
from a/iA pro afAa, and ttAo? from tiAw verso. *' Eximie autcm vitis sic dici . 
^M'idctur ab a7nplectendo variis flcxibus arborcs." I must again repeat, 
that after having. rfmrferf the general notion of a word, and the root to 
which it mM5^ belong; it is oftentimes extremely difficult to fix on the 
peculiar idea. If we consider Umbilicus — Omphalos — Ampulla — A?nplus, 
&c. we shall be led to refer Ampelos to the ^ swelling appearance of the 
' Grape or the Cluster.' In the Odyssey, H/Aff*?, which, as we jx^rceive, 
belongs to Uva and AMpolos, appears to mean the entzcining Vine; though 
it is accompanied with an epithet belonging to the same Element '"B, whiclv 
refers to the swelling grape. It occurs in the fifth book of the Odyssey, 
where we find so beautifully described the grotto of Caly|)so. " The vine,"' 
says the Poet, '* bearing the swelling fruit was. entwined around the Cavern. 

«* HMEPI2 HBfiaZA, rs^riXtp h fxfvhficr** - - . , 

'^ Ibidem porro cxtensa erat circa speluneam cavam 
^^ Vitis pubescens : fiorebat verb u vis." (Odyss.. 5. 69-70.) 

Vitis is certainly derived from ihe^ twining of the tendrik; and the Etymo- 
logists have thus properly explained it. Isidorus observes, " Alii putant 
^ m dictas^ quod invicem ^ vittis inncctant^ yicinisque arboribus rep^do 

'* religentur/* 

C B, C F, C P, C V% &c. 


' Uva. 


Engur orAn-ivor. (Pcrs.) Agrapf . 


Np Grapu 


^ar rccsin 

No krodh.n^uin. j 

Oifws — Foinos. (Gr.) Vinwm. 

Guin. -^(Celt.) 

Fian. )Fi?imw. 

Raisin. (Eng.) &c. 

Rasa. (Ar.) A long grape. 

Kitf, (Ar.) Gmjx:s, 

Crodh'b'hui7i. (Gal.) A vine. 

Atmm. (Ar.) A vine. 

Embalus. (Ar.) A vine. 

Weir. (Ar.) A grape. 

Zidhteb. (Ar.) Raisins. 

Zibibbo. (Ital.) Raisins. 

'* rcligcntiir." In Persian Engur or 
An-koor (jyS<i\) is a Grape, and in 
Arabic the term is Vnub (u-sac.) These, 
I imagine, to be compositions of "N 
and GR, and ''N and ^B; as will ap- 
pear by a comparison of the Celtic 
words for (7i;flf ; which I find in Lhuyd 
to be *' Graunuin, graun, y guinuydh, 
^' graun koed — rAr. Bar raesin. Ir. 
*' Fion-xyr, fion-aval, no grapa, — go 
" koit x^an ; Kaor [no kyr] 'hineavna, 
^' Gax meas-xyr, gax kyr-veasa, no 
*' krodh-v-uin.*' The reader, on ex-? 
amining these words, will find that an 
important part in their composition is 
the ""N, whicli 1 imagine to be the uni- 
versal word JVint. In the Greek Chios 
{Om;, Vinum) we perceive only tlie 
simple breadiing before the^'N: AVith 
the iEolic digamma it becomes Foinos 
(Fo»j^;) as it appears in the Celtic Fioji, 
and uijder another form Guin. '* Vinum," says Lhuyd, " Ar. Giiin. Ir.Fion.'' 
AttQther part in the formation of these words is GR or KR, as in l^vxgur 
orAnkoor — xy^- — Kaor, &c. In the Celtic we perceive likeM'ise Aval, 
which answers to the Greek Ainpelos. In the Armoric Rctsin we have 
the English and the French Raisiii, where the presence of the "N is again the composition. In the Arabic wc have the simpler form 
JZm (Ucj) ^^ a long grape." In Arabic likewise; Kytf (ujtbi* KTF) 
signifies G7Y^/>a ; where we again trace die Celtic Koed; and, >\hat i^ 
curious, in the other Celtic term Krodh-v-uin, or as it would be represented, 
without vowels, in an Arabic Lexicon, Krd-V-N, -ivc haye.Uie VcxmKyi:/. 

p p (Kl I ) 

► . 4 •» 


(KTF) with the addition of '^N, In Shaw's Galic Dictionary I find a 
Grape to be *' Fiondhc^tc^ crodJi-'Miuhi, fimchaor."' In GaHc a Vine is 
Fin-eam-hmn ; where in the e^m or "M, we have the -<4m-pelos and the 
£;n-eris (H/umpk) In Arabic it appears under a simpler form Artim (^.| 
ARM) a Vine; nay, what is still more curious, we have in that language 
tlie Greek Ampelos, as it appears in the sound ; though it is in reality a 
composition, of which Ampelos is only a part. Embalus, ((j#^JUJ1) as it is 
represented by Mr, Richardson, is a Vine, The word however is An-baUs; 
where in An we see the usual '^N, and in Bal or ""Bal, the Celtic aval 
and the Greek amvEhos. A black grape in Arabic is Wein ((^0 and a 
dried grape is Zubeeb, from which we have the Italian Zibibbo. These 
few facts will, I trust, lead the reader through a labyrinth ; in which, with 
any other clue, he would in vain attempt to discover a passage. That part 
of the composition in * Aval — Ampelos — Em/;tf/us — Ampulla — Amplus, 
which contains the PL and BL, I conceive to be related to such words 
BS boil — bulU — bubble — ball — poKos (toa^^) bolbos (CoaC<^) bulbus — pulpu^, 
&c. &c. any thing * rising, swelling, j5/ump.* I beseech the reader to 
mark that pl-ump is nothing but an inversion of amp-pel^^s av-yai.. 
Both parts of the composition mean the same — that, which is risi?ig — swelling 
out, &c, &c. Amp-pull^, Amp-plm5. I cannot leave this digression 

on the various terms for the Grape, 

n I (^^') Autumn, quasi without observing that Op-ora (Chntfm^ 

i (UV^arum hora,) Aulumnus) is the Ora (nja, tempus, 

Aui-um-n^us. (Quasi ^/as Uv- h ora) or time of the T OP or IJVa; 

irum.) and I suspect that Aut^um-n-us must be 

referred to the same idea. We perceive 
that there are two parts of the ordinary composition forming this race of 
t;frords, "M and ''N ; and the Aut I imagine to be the jEt-is or Time*. 
Among the names for Time in the Dialects of the Celtic, I find Oed, Eadh. 
This derivation may at least remain, till a better shall be discovered than 
^at, which is proposed by Fcstus* ** Autumnum quidam dictum^existimant, 

*' quod 

CB, CF, CF, :CV, &c. 


** ^od tune maxime aug^aotur bdminunv op^s, coaptis agrorum fructibus.'* 
We have seen tlie parts of tbi9 cop^ipound A\xt-um-n'\x% exist in the names 
of a Grape KrodhH^*wiWp Hiar^p-iuu Krodh-i-Aw/w; and in the Galio 
name for a Vine they particularly apptear Finram-fmn.. Though the termi 
with which the word Grape i^ siwrQunded in modern languages. Gripe — 
Group, &c. confirm me in the truth of my former derivation; yet I cannot 
but observe that Grape may possibly be a compound, of which GR and "P 
are the parts — Elements; which we have seen prevailing in this race of 
words. I will venture however to- affirm lliat from no other sources but 
these can the word be derived. ... 

Crave, r&c. &c 


v. . . . 

Crefu. < citeratione misericordi^ 

am cliciens. 



Xo this grf^at race of words, 

. Cri/?f»&c: we. mu3t refer the English 
(O. E.) Coward, quasi ^ i • i • i .i 

^ .. ^ Crave ;; wiuoli is . only the passion, 

the Graver. <>f which Gripe is the action. As wc 

hwfeQupia bolQnguig ioJCa^, eo /we 
\i.) Miserabihvo. haveCRAVE aB6weringtoGn>^-^r^,^ 

Ui^i Junius observes that he ibrmCTly 

derived Craw from Kf «wrwi for a reason, 

which, I imagine, the reader is not 

, , very solicitous^ to leiini : But ^ hawing* 

' considered that terms of tliis sort occur 

;> in various laiiguages, he has been since 

led to derive itfromtbe Welsh; where 

he finds CcREFt; to signify '* Jiumili 

.'• isummissoqiie vultu fractom aninuim' 

:^' testaifir ct miserabili Vociferatione 

" misericoidiam . al'rcujtis elicerc.'' — 

Here wc perceive the origin of our old 

(.word CrA|V£N, a coirard; uhich is 


Crop. The Craw of Birds. 
Craw. Quasi Crav. 

(Gt.) Among the Baeo- 
tians die belly. 



. :. r(C:atj) Litcrt%Crp/>-;' 'HothirtglHUil^ submiHiive' 

^^AfVLA.'. . .. Cr<rtw» ^ We: have sqen the word Cn^ 

: ■ * •'• sigirifying the Owtt' of birds : th* term 

_ . . . . c • j' -'i'-,.. - ? iCR^w^jiself is nothing but dib consonant 

\ •'-' : ' - -sound of- V (quastCrfly^: changed ihtO< 

Cppus.(Lat.) ; tHe^dvvel sound of U or W. In the 

Crow. (Erig.JForsan quasi Crop, same way. a CmBf-fish is quasi a Crab- 
' '" ■•■'■■ '! - ■■ • i ' fish. •' If >the term Crotf. be not dem-od 

. . f(Eng,.).^n,irQnCrott;,,^ine,,.j.pj,^.tl,Q^^ig^, ".cw vox corvorum/.*. 
Crow.< . , 

( dubio quasi Crov. U"") wei roust consider « to be quast^ 

P'ov. from its ravenous nature. That 
the Latin CoRVw^ belongs to this idea cannot be doubted. Martinius 
Qbi^ein^es on this? ^^tdl ^^'-'^orvtis nota rapax avis, Kofag; a Kif®'^ nigenr^^* 
^' Njobii e9trabey^qitifi^Wpttx/'^'''>Tt\\^^^insttumQi\t of ppic^r^ and force — the 
ironiORpw is dcrtaitily qiii^ Ciftov, aiid must be refer rea to the wgrds, 
wirii this Element 'exprp9»itigacti<ins of violence, such as Gripe — Crafty 
(po\vw).SF<?)kci ^I'Wi^have before noted a coincidence in the senses of the 
t\^o * Ete'FUenfe' C|tR >a[nid -GLV, which here " likewise is to be observed, 
Tfcc' CVop'in ^Latin is lnoLt^Vlf«y^ From Crop w^ p^ss . directly to Cra?^;^ 
anfd, what is curroUs^"^^e findCi^m still used as tlie appropriate term for 
the fattening of fowls-r^or filling the Crops of these anlmdls. Merio 
Q^uaubbri derives^ this wtord from ** K^^jUgu Bvassica,^ fagtidiuni p4,rcrc sqlit^i; 
" unde provcrbium;iCramlie bis coctai" lie adds however, that among 
thcJBneotians CR>^iviBJ^l(Kf«fAS4)wasiascdifor the /^e/Zy^^that general receivhr 
-Mtlie Chop the XJRIPER.:. To tbisidca^we shall have no difl^culty to rcfcT 
Crapula; a: surfeit, from > taking food, wine, &:c. into the Crop or 
CriwiAc: inrmoderately. CRAPUtAiJ is literally Crop-full. We have jufet 
observed' that the Element* BL.or FL has. supplied a race of words 
Hgiiifying r/^iV/g or sweliing out, or; as we express if by die same Element,! 
FILLED out In thd French and the Ehglish avattr — ^^w/zllow-^^w/ll — • 
jweLL,.tlic. £i)emait exists applied witli a kindred meaning to the same 


G>B,^ C F, . € P, CV, &:c, 1 >9 

AvtihT'-^swallaw-^smU — swell-— • subject. They may be considered as 

* (qu^Lsi) Jill'-^full— ^^11 — sfull'^ Stull — Sf/// — to take in simply; io Jill; 
/^/eos (Gr. arXir^)— p/enuSr^r-Jw/Zos or in abundance — to be full. The 

ni^-^'Ai^/to (CwXAii»f^^CiA^)*.uJ3pp/etus ^ (to eat greedily) which 

• — opj^teb*^»/&l*(Gotfa'.)*i&Cv M will be the subject of future enquiry i, 

i'' ' '• 'if j: ,^!' , is comix)sed of the same elementary 

rfo^ts as Cmpula.' In the Greek p Leo* (nxw^) and the Latin Fzenus, we 
havfe the English «5iileI<>! Strange as it may seem, neither Skinner nor 
JJtonltis percieive that i^u//? belongs to the familiar words P/eoi' and Plenus; 
&«tt tlie laiNier dcfl^iA'C^Sit^from the Greek Bulbs (pwxx^) opp/e^u^^ deasus. 
Biilh; Buxxw (gays he) is in Greek oppieo, \denso. l^MtLos and BuJ^ho belong 
to the same Element BL or PL, with the pirallel? terms to Full, produced 
by Junius and Skinner, wtridi appear in so many languages!,; i'^«//5 (Gothic) 
&c. &!c. Thfus wc perceive that Cnapula may be safily considered as quasi 
Crop-full r^i^ in other words, that the parts ^of the compound Crapzn^^ 
Pul werfe suggested by' a race* of/wiords conveying similar meanings to 
Crop and 4o TvLh^^contmhing or receiuing in i\abundance, Skjnnerf wha 
produces the derivation^ frdm 'Junius!, i adds *f Alliidufit et -^^lA^^iaug^o, 
** cumulo, ^£«, plfenus/s%im, >Ay^, buUio^i vohvu mulftis,. w^w> constipo, et 
'* ofiXm, offXw, augeo/* We perceive fthat all these words bdong t0:tlip sajme* 
Element. To the Element CB or CRB, &c. in the; fornt of Griper-rCribr^ 
Orabr &c, and to the same under the fohn 4fjrSP, Sfr^\^{<rpi) ,^jfr}pS9' 
(<r^iyyw) Sep-io, to endose^z&Ci &cjiiweinDrtist.refer;st\cl^woK4s^^ 
CRISP, &c. &c. We percieive tlidt this race of words^^S: i)qthing but a 
combination of the two 'forms CS^fi; or a repetitipn .of:the firstletter in 
the* Element with * a hireathing. interposed. We doiiot^vcmder thatftl^ej 
mind, impressed with: the force of the.iElem^nt ui)def:fach 0)C these fojf^gs^/ 
should have produced a tacje: oL^wds, in tvhi{:b ithey.wer? combined. 
I cannot be supposed to mean, that every word under sqch a fqrn^ consists 
of this species of composition ; I mean, siinply to observe . that in every 
Element a great .race of .Woxds^ will ihe found ari^gr^QQ) -Ih is double 
' ' i • Q q combination. 



Grasp. (Kng.) 

Crispus — Crisp. 

G* AS PARE. (It.) 

Crepu. (Fr.) CkESPU. (It) 

combination. Grasp is referred by die 
Etymologists to tlio Italian Gra^are 
and the English Grapple. Crisp— 
Ctispirs is that wbitb IS GRASPED up 
or contracted in a fold^-^-curl, ice. It 
is peculiarly applied to the hair — tortus 
capillus. So Ck&v in French and 

Crespo in Italian &c« signify Hiiat is 
CRi^t^ED or frizzled up. The word Crisp is applied to various objecCi 
among our ancient poets;. but always, I believe, with the sanie f uiiciamental 
ide^— enclosing — infolding — winding round — bringing togetlier or contracting 
as in ^fold — riir/, &c. In Miltpn we have, 

^ Along the cri/spei> shades and bowers , 
'* Rdvels the spriice and jocund spring," (Comits 98*,) 

Mr. Warton observes, '* 1 have supposed Crisped io be €urled. See //. 
** Petxs. V. 50. In the Tempest we have the ' crisp channels' of brooks. 
^ A. 4i S. 1. Perhaps in the isofme sense as in Purflrf. X. R 4. 237. ' The 
*^ CRfs^p£D brotoks,* wfaibh are ^id to run with mazy errour, v. 239. So 
^' in The firH p9Lrt Hem 4. a. 1, s, 4. ' The Severn hides his Crispeb 
" head in the hollow bank/ Yet I will not dCny, that the surface of 
^ water curled by the wind may be signified. . In Timon t^f Athens, * Cms? 
" Heavctf ttiay either ithply 'the curl'd clouds' or cw;w, hollow. A, 4. 
*• s. 3. JonsMi siyfe tff Zephyr m his Jf(w^i/ej, vol. S. p. 2^. 
'* The rivers nitt as \miaa^/ierf by his hand, ' 

'* Only their hcfads arc CHI SPED by his strokcJ." 
In the Arcades, ih^ curling of the gfovcs is allotted ;to the Genius ^f the* 
Woods; where thfcfrittaphot is ^'difeplaydd in its tiillfoixre.^^^ ^^ ^ ! r.M 

*• Fer fchow, by lot from Jove I am the Power . , > 
^ Of this fair W€K)d> and live in oaken bow^r, 
<• To nih« tlie%ipliiig^tall, and CURL./Zrf grove 
^ "WUhyiTigkts^uiaittt, smd witnton^mndiHgsxaowJ'; -, 



• - • • • *. 



Cft CF, CP, C.Y^ &c. i ' 151 

Hence we perfectly uiiderstand .the meaning of the ** crisfed sliades;" 
and we may leam from the kindred idea of iMntoJi winding, what the 
" CRISPED brooks" arc, which are said to run with tnazy enour. But 
CMSP is not only applied to the dez^iour course ov windings of a stream in 
it9 channel; it is likewise used to express the airling of the surface— top 
6t KBA^of Hie waller, i cannot but imagine., that the Crkpcd Head for 
th« • curled surface' Was suggested to the mind of the Poet by the powerful 
magic of a secret association. l^\\e cuHings or crtspings of the hair were 
sf^t present to the imagination of the Bard. Th^ same combination agaia 
occurs in the /mA ^l/fl^yz^ of Jonsoc. . . 

** So breaks the Sun Earth's rugged chains, 

'^ Wherein rude Winter bound her v*cins : 

'* So grows bodi stream and source of, j>ricc, , 

♦' 1 hat lately fetter'd w^re with ice : 

^ So naked trees get CRISPED HEADS, . 

** And coloured coats the roughest meads ; 

** And all get vigour, youth and spright, - 

'* That are but looked on by%ht/' (P^g. 37*. ed*fol. 1692.) 
The alkision here is intended and direct. In the translation of Cornelia 
by Thomas Kyd, we have Crisp coimccted with cm/7, and appHcd to the 
waters. * 

** O beauteouis Tiber, with thine easy streams. 
That glide as smootlily as a Parthian shaft; 
Turn not thy crispy tides like silver curl, l 

** Back to tliy grass-green banks to welcome us/\ 
> .. (A. 4. Sec Old Plays, vol. 2.) 

^ the passage in Timon ;jDf Athens^ ** With all the;ji)ltt>iieid births below 
•^ Cn^ heaven," Warburton observes, V we should read crj/j)t, i. e. vaulted, 
^* from the Latin CryjUa^ a vault;'' which we perceive is another .word fo 

i , ♦ ;be added to the. Element; and Dr. 

Cfc*prA.(L«#)A vwvih.'^ ./ .\ Jobnson remarks, that *' Mr.. Upton 

•* declares. 




^* declares, for crisp, curled, beiit, hblldw/* Tliese ideas, cannot- lie 
separated. We may learn from the rtiistakes of the vulgar, the mode: by. 
which kindred sounds are propagated to express the same or similar notions. 
Crisp, by a different order of the letters, is ceadiiy converted into. Crips^ 
•* I never*' (says Millamant, in a strain ofi ekqutsite affectation) ". I; neven 
'* pin up my hair with prose. I think I try'd onte. Mincing/' (MincmgJ 
^' O, Mem, I. shall never forget it." (Millamant) *^ Ay, poor Mincing^ 
*' tift and tift all tlie morning.'' (Mincing) " 'Till I had the cramp in, my, 
*' fingers, I'll vow, Mem ; and all to no :j)urpose. But when your Lstship 
'' pins it up with poetry, it sits so pleasant the next day as any thing; ^md 
** is so pure and so crips." Mincing has only recorded tlic language of 
ancient times. In Chaucer we have> 

*' Her heerthat was owndie and crips." 

(House of Fame, b. 3. .v. 296.) 
It is curious that in the word Curl a change has likewise been made in the 
Element CRL by a different mode of inserting the breathing. Chaucer 
describes die young Squire as '.. 

♦* A lover and a lusty Bach elere, i 

*' ' With his locks crull as dicy were laid in presse." ' • 

The Craping of the hair is ano*. 
Craping of the Hair. tlier action of contracting or frizzling i 

Crepi. (Fr.) Rougii-Cast, ^^^ ^^'^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^'"^^ will now be able 

to understand ; that Crepj, rough cast. 
Crape. (Eng.) |The fringe . of belongs to the Element, from the rough 

Crepe. (Fr.) ( garments. appearanceof a/;m/.rf head,&c. The 

' ' English Crape and the French Crepe, 

Crepine. (En) A fringe.!: ., used as a fringe to girments, is derived) 

fr^ \ T • ' • I. ' ' from the ordinary idea of surrounding* 
(Gr.) Limbus, mar- ^ ^ 

Craspedon.^ — enfolding, &c.; and we accordingly 

go littoris. find that Crepi ne in French signifies 

"•^^ .1 ;i • a Fringe. We have already seen that' 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 153 

{(Gr.) Quasi Crepao to the Greek Crepis (k^wk) and the Latin 
Crepido signify the banh — tlie bound" 
° ^ *^ ary or the Border of a stream. Bor- 

der is itself a term denoting ih^ fringe 
of a garment. Thus we find in Greek that CRASPedo7i (Kf«<nrf^ov, Hmbus, 
margo littoris, &c.) is the Border of a garment and of a stream. The 
ordinary Dictionaries derive this word from Cremm (Kf fjUKxw suspendo^ sus- 
pensum teneo)'to hold so (hat it may hang. This word likewise belongs 
to the Element,, and is only- the ordinary change of Pinto M. * Oemao* i$ 
quasi ^ Crep^o' to Gripe or hold any thing suspended. 

Having advanced thus far^ we might determine a priori the meaning 
of an ancient Greek word; which; has caused considerable embarrassment 
to the Critics on Thucyd ides. Cro^w/i^jr (KfroCvx^ villus si ve crmcs intorti) 
means in that author Hair CRisperi or CRAPe//---wound or FOLded up in a 
BALL- or lock. As the Crapod bclongSt^to the first part of tlie compound Crob, 
so do Fold, Ball, witli their corresponding race of wc^fi^^ toJBul; as we 

a \ lia,ve liaxl perpe^ival ^occasion to pbserve 
(Gr.) Alock of hair, respecting the ^cq.of the Element 

CROBULOS,^-An ornament be- ^^^ ^^^ ^^^"^ from Thucydides that 

it was once the custom for a certain 
longing to the men. pf^er. of the Athenians, to tie up a lock 

//- \ fi « I of their hair in a braid studded with 
(Gr.) The same, be- • 

..rfigUres of gpltjcn gj^hp^ppefs. This 
CoRUMBos.^ longing to the wo^ lock was denominated Crobulus. The 

. ; /whojie pa$aage of Tl^upy^ides j^iug^t bp 

.quoted; jthwgh Id^ltjajvoid en^^^ 
(Gr.)'Thej5aiiie, bc*> ^liug myself wiUli^cfse^p^r^ii^s pf this 
5Jcx)HPios. -^ . , ij^^x)] v^dr Septqnqe, ♦ whichj afe^ |iot irar 

^ ^ ^* mediately connected ;iw^'Ul)tb^:.9)b^^ 

. .. ^ -. ;; - how under di^cus^ioj). , Ofice^ says |t|ip 
! !. iir .» f • histofian, it w?& Jl^ BWf Iti9« qy^.,?il 

R r Greece 


(Gr.) The Scorpion, Greece to go about witli arms: — ^Thc 

^ . , . . ,. Athenians were the first, who laid aside 

bcoRPios, < from Us winding or , . , , , i , 

* ° this barbarous custom, and adopted 

devious motion, manners more gentle and refined. — 

^^ fio^lo oci^^fmthv, B ToXuf'p^oi^ tTTiitm )(^irupx^ n Xunn rrmvcM^o pofuHt^i j^ XPT££IN 

'^ Inter lios auteiti primi Athenienses ferrum deposuerunt, et remissiorem 
'^ cultum sequuti, ad genus vita; lautius transierunt; nee multum est 
*' tempus, ex quo apud eos illi, qui de senioribus, propter deiicatum vitae 
*' genus erant beatiores, ferrc desierunt lineas tunicas, et aureas cicadas^ 
'^ quas capitis c^mam rdigantes cjiicinnis inserebant/' (Lib. l,s,6.) The 
Scholiast remarks tbat the Crobiilos (KfwCux©») was a species of curling or 
folding up the hair ending in a point. Crobux-os was the appropriate 
name for this <)raiament as belonging to the Mai; Corumbos (KofvpCtc) 
to the Women; and Sc'oApios (Sxofri®^) to the Boys, (kpxibtaos Si i^i ui^ 

^-Xfy/Rol^ ruvlfi^Juyi Mmoclt(<t1f uq •^u^omvAfiyoi^* tysxccXitlo ftWuiv [/.ty apS^ay KPf2BTAOZ> 

ray ii yjvaiw>y ifcOPTMBOZ, ruy ft irotiiuy ZKopniOZ') The reader will perccivc 

that all'thes^ terms are fdrmed from the same Element r >M or B; and 

•' ;1 ^ S-C )P 

may be referrfed to- a race of word^ under their respective forms bearing 

a similar meanihg. Cerumbo$ or Q^n^Abos is nothing but the first part 

Crob (with an additional breathing between the C and R) of tlic compound 

^Crob'Uhi^, atid ahsv.'crfe in all its senses to the meaning, which I have 

attributed' to the Kement: CoR'UMBois (Rffvu^C^) means in Greek " quic- 

* f ... 

^' quid excelslim efet, vel eminen6^--Cacumen montium — coma certo rtiodo 
'^ nodata — caulis, racemus — Corymbus, bacca.'* As the lock of hair is 
called ScoRpros (Xii#fn^)from its being xvoiind up into a curl; so is the 
auiftlal Stfhfi&i (Sxif'»riO», Scorpiw, riepa) so called from its tcindivg or 
"* ' * devious 

CB, CF, CPs CV, &c. 


devious motion. Nicancler in liis Theriaca (v. 799) says, *' Oyi PAIBA ffje* 
•* ^oyi iixiXot, YMm* Et obliqiia fert membra flammae similia. Et ibi" (says Bo- 
chart) " ScUoliaStes. P«»6at piv w, tiy^y <rxfAQ», ^ r^t^ha' yvix ii vmv r^q iroSaq' 

*' CsAfW ya^ SriKdyt oI» rf eCAwf «-ff4ira7»<riv ot ZxofTTiot' Obliqua, id cst, inflcxa et 
'* tortuosa. Et membra, id cst, pedes. Significat enim scorpios oblique 
*' incedcre. Proinde sunt e Gramniaticis, qui ScorpioJiem dici volunt, 
<* wo^a TO oTta*ft>c ffTr£*v, eoquod oblique, (aut, eoquod lavorsumj repat." 
(Bochart. Hieroz. vol. 2. p. 633.) 



Cabiroi, (Gr.) 

Crabs or Pincers. 


(Gr.) An animal of 
the Crab kind. 


To steal — a small bed, or 
manger for art ox, &: c. 


CBEas. (Germ.) 

» » ■ . * i 

Among the animals distinguished 
for their ravx^nous nature, which belong 
to the Element CB or CRB, we must 
class the Cerberus of the Poets; that 
savage monster, who, gaping with his 
three, his fifty or his hundred jaws, is 
prepared to devour the discontented 
dead, who attempt to escape from the 
prison of the infernal regions. Now this 
said crabbed Cur, quoth liesiod, hath 
a vile trick with him : he fawns on all 
who enter, and cjevours all who en- 
deavour to depart. 

** E«^»^*j ^y xf Xainci TruXiuy ixro^-iiy $oyla»** . 

. ^ (Hes. 0£oy V. 769, &c.) 
, iV,; Hpffjfjopdus auteta canip pjjo . f^^b^ 

^ "custodit 

156 ETYM01.0G1C0N MAGNUM, 

(Eng.) Quasi, the en A- ^* ciistodit ssevus: artcm autem malam 

. ** habct; introeuntes quidem adulatur 

Crevice.< ^'^;? lip or confining . ,^ .. , , 

J * o o pariter caudaque et auribus ambabus : 

** exire vero non iterum permittit de- 
'* nuo, scd observans devorat, quern* 
*^ cunque prenderit portas extra euntem." Servius imagines that Cerberus 
is the Earth, and that he is so called, quasi K^ioCof^, the devourer of flesh ; 
because the earth is the consumer of all bodies. *' Nam Cerberus terra 
*' est, quae est consumtrix omnium corporum : unde cf Cerberus dictus 
" est quasi KfcoCof®*, id est carnem vora?iS: unde Icgitur (?55r/ super recubans; 
'* nam ossa citius terra consumit," Serv. ad ^En. 6, 395, On this Ety- 
mology it will not be necessary, I imagine, to make any commentary. 
To the seizing or taking hold of any thing we must refer the Greek 
Cabeiroi, which means either Crabs or Pincers. " Ka€£*fo»" (says Hesy- 
chius) *' Kajxivoi, id est," (as the Commentators have it) " ctforcipcs ct cancri.*^ 
The English Crab, we perceive, with its corresponding terms in other 
Teutonic languages, belongs to the same Element, and is nothing but 
Gripe under another form. The* Etymologists refer Crab to Carabos 
(KajaC^) animal *' e cancrorum generc," which, wcscc llkewiso, belongs 
to the same Element, There is still another animal (O/aw^u/ixoi/) which in 
the language of the vulgar is called a land monster; and, though of minute 
dimensions, is said to be jx)ssesscd of every vexatious quality which is 
annexed to the idea conveyed by Forceps and Cancer, I shall not incur 
the censure, which on a similar occasion the whole French nation in- 
flicted on the Abbe de la Bleterie; but shall content myself with observing, 
that the animal " is a familiar beast to man, and signifies — Love^r Crib, 
in the sense oi purloining or stealing, and Crib, a small bed or the manger 
of ah ox, &c. possess a similar sense of taking hold or of holding. The 
French Critics have duly understood that Ecrevisse belongs to this race; 
and we have just observed that Cratv-Fish is quasi the Crav-Vish, Tri 
German the Ecrevisse is the Crebs'; arid tlie word appears again in English 



'cs^ CF, OP, C(V; &c. : 157 

initbe word .G^'EviCEr--die c(>;i/?nm^ ehink. Among the few words in 
Hesychltjs jwith this Element, adjacent to the term KaC«f(^t I find the 
/bjlowing, which .are all deeply impregnated with the sense belonging to 

the. Root GB-'iiKABAItOXV airXur^'.KABOr yxg /^itjov <r»7»xoV— KABBI0PN0T2- 

jjflwwfewy [Wiiatevdr be the true reading, the cxplanatiqn gives the sense 

Of/tlie Element. 1-^KABA A AH2' ffy«Tfif iinror — KABEIPOI- )t«fx»i/ci* iraw h rif^'jiuUi 
nht fif Anjuw wc Jm** Afy«if1«i is iivai H^»r» waiJff— KABEI02* I'l®** Ila^io** [This has 

been produced on another occasion.] — kabhaoz* o awtirxoXufA^iif^ ro onfo^o^ 
<v Jf 6w|ii*--f— KABHAOS*. irtiAo? 9rA4x1@- [ Whatever bq tlie true reading for thjAp;, 
the. sense of the Element KB: is preserved in w-adcI^'] — ^KABAEEI- xoUotTnvir 
[This I have produced. in another place. J-—KABI5:' rf«x^f»«* xxiig- [What- 
ever, be the true reading, >vhetlicr,r'»'ox^P'»" x*^®*' anguslus locus, angustia 
or K*€*rf «•• . x*^f MS) icar«f ut n^mpe capistruni dicatur locus capistri, sitque locu* 
iir prajscpi we. have the same idea of an enclosure ox confinement.'] — 

The word Caballes (KagaAXtj?) answers to the Caballus ^f the Latins, Isaac 
Vossius imagines that the wofd is of Persian and Parthian origin. '* Omnino 
'* a Persis et Parthis httc vox ad Graecps delata. Atqui Parthoruni 
V e<iuitatvis crant c^neli,,gamal ctPctsicc gfiball dicti^" Isidprus. derives 
it. ^*om< CavQ. ',^ Caballus a ctfi^^wi/a dictus,. propterea quod gr^dieps^ 
*' imprcsbj. tprrat^, cwc^tv//' This word is pf yesry aiicient aR4 
uoivwsai usage; In the VVdsU Dialect of the Celtic, ,C^/ is now (he 
'!•;.,. •; .. i )I ..;.. '/.■■■::■' J hdm Appropf4*te .ftnfl fam^lia^ terra for 
€;EFFlfL; (WeJsl>i)iA;h.or$fi* .V :.> • a h<M-sp. The Welsh I^xicpns, w^q 
•i .' ••) .»•.'..■- J •)'•!•- ;,.;:;"-/ xif (RQUfse UBderfitancJo-its resenjblance tQ; 
CAyAUi.{Axta.) A b«ilsp. ; ,: , Cqbajilust .inform us tlut^Cgtia/wja^ tb.q, 

GAffVLi.^GalO A hoese ,<w mare, > jfoi'./he Qalift Pi(?tk)flaiy of.Mr, Shpyv^ 
• , .T. .1 ,1!'.; .'. ..eA?«Lisj^.J^orse,or ipare^ and/Majctf; 
Cabal — ") Vallanccy informs us tliat in Irish 

[(Ir.) A riding horse. . -.©»»»»- or Cappal is a riding horse; 

Cappul. ) , , 

o' ss » - ana 


Cheval. (Ft.) and at the same time affords ws a dtfri«« 

vation, which at once brings tlie word 
Cavallo. (It.) ^ to the sense of tlie Element* *♦ Alt' 

(esLys he) '' is a horse, in die Irish iaa- 
Caballo. (Span.) ** g^^g^; so also, EaCj peall, nunrc^ 

" stiadf CAB ALL, gread. Cah-ai, vcl 
Chevalier. Cavalliere. " eappal, is a riding horse, from cadp 

'* the mouth, i. e. a horse broke to the 
Caballiere. Chivalry. " bridle: hence the Latin Cabalius, 

" and French Cheval/' (Essay on tlie 
Celtic language, p. 30.) Major Vallancey here amuses himself, with tlie 
well known Epigram on a brother Etymologist, Monsieur Menage, who, 
m one of the most sprightly moments of Etymological fancy, has ventured 
to tlcrive' A If ana (the Spanish for a skittish horse) from the Latin wont 
Equus. •' Alfana vient d'equus sans doute ; 

** Mais il faut avouer aussi, 
Qu*en vcnant de la jusqu' ici 
11 a bieri change sur la route." : 

We shall prove on a future occasion that a race of words is derived from 
Cah, &c. (the Mimth) thht necessary receiver, by which we take sustenance. 
The same word Cabnl is to be found likewise in the Italian Cavallo and the' 
Spanish Caballo; which has produced the Chevalier — Cavalliere — CaMlkr 
—the Cavalier; and the significant word Chivalry. It is a curious and 
amusing contemplaticm to mark the fate of words and the vicissitudes of 
their meaning. A term, which in ate original sense conveyed only an 
idea of the Horse and the Hwst^man, has been ai>plied <q denonvinate the 
manners abd institutions of a peculiar period in the history of social life; 
atid a celebrated orator, at the clo^ of tiie eighloenlh eetU^ury, has lameMftd' 
ia the loudest of his strains tliat ''Ttic Age of Chivalry is no more." 

• < 


' CB,.Cr, CP, CV, See. 


CAVsa. (Lat) Quasi carpens^ 

* i ■^ 

CA7B11. (To dance.) 

I -■ 



Caprioler, &:c. &c, &c. 

To the idea contained in C4trp — 
Cropf bid refer Caper* Even Varro 
has derived Citper from this metaphor : 
*' StHdiese^^[^xa de ^estibus fructibut 
f' pascuntur; atque m locis cuitis vir^^ 
^' gulta carpunt; itaque k carpendo 
^' G//w<cnominatiB/'" From the Aowwrf^ 
vig—4eaping qualify of this animal is 
derived Caper, to dance — capricio- 
sus. Capricious, as the Etymologists 
understand . We siiall however on ano« 
tlier occasion observe a propensity in 
this Element to forms words denoting 

Sheep, that liarmless and useful 
animal, has obtained a similar name ia 
various dialects of the T^^utonic lan- 
guage, as may be seen in tl>e Etymolo- 
gists; who derive it from 2«ir« tego, 
because its wool has been used for the 
COvePiMg of garments, &c. I am not satisfied with this derivation ; aiul I <:annet 
but imagine, that the* word Sheep is deduced from the same idea as Caper. 
The Sheep, above all other animals, has this peculiar mode of taking 
fooi, and gives u^ the idea of an aigtr — tuitchhig — CAKPiiig motion. I 
have been told that in Yorkshire a Sheep is said, in eating, to 7iep or tup. 
Hence it itiiglit have been called the Nipper or Carper. We use the 
diminutive of tliis. term to.' express the same action; and every pastoral* 
songrter iias decked bis poesy fwith the praises of the nibbling Sheep. I 
have abo\'e ^hewikt(|€ coincidence of words derived from CQ^and "^B; 
and we might . remark among these Sheep — Ovis, The Commentators 
know noihifiig dbt>ut'iOi;ai4biii its com^spondingilernft f)!^; aa4' the >^^;^<;,; 

Sheep. (Eng.) 


SCEAP. (A, S.) 

ScAFF, (German.) 

&c. &c. 


CfT Vit orl^ittdl form 6f Ok, hy the insertion of the. E-'ifPir^.. 'I .camuSt 
doilbt that^ Ovis^ bekrigs to liobeoi either as it refers to one idea of that 
rooty Jfavings^'-^pes, fijjc. because * Sheep constituted . a .very impoitailt 
branch cK ^clentc^posiessiimi an^prnperty; or as it refers to Avidiis — Axmrus^ 
&^i &'c; from^tb* edgti' or greedy mbde of taking its food. . When'idea[& 
6f this sorfcoincide with each other, it is often extremely difficult to be 
determined in our choice; and in these discussions we are employed 
ofalyin discovering the general idea. To convince the reader that Ovis is 
' ~ '• . : . • i derived from. Hflf6/c>,, let Jiim: consider 

Ovum from Ilabeo. Ovu?7i, which I do not refer to Avis 

Egg from Eko (fix*** habeo.). • ^as the Etymologists do), but to Habc^; 
jiigd'n. {Go^.y- ' .. » and without enquiring into the peculiar 

^^ni(Sax.) Hftbe^fe. ' ' -^ '•' irf6a,of Ovum ^r\d Uabco, l.rely am- 

iifi'dently on this derivation, when I re- 
meriibei* tlie Engl ifi^h word for Or?^m — Egg; which is certainly connected 
with ^^'di Habeo.' -Were I to attempt an explanation of this origin, I 
shoAld'tefe^ b to '^Q'-abundance or the Having in the contents of ajfegg*.' 
The-sariie'^ropehsity in the -niijid, "which leads to a proverb directs lis 
Kketvise to^the formation of a word from a similar quality. We. talk of a 
person being asj%//of mischief^ &c.'&:c, '^ as an Egg is full of ?ncat,'* 
This at lettst'isa dtmous coincidence. In the Persian language, I i«i*yi 
cbhfidcntljr^'affifm, that the' name * for an Egg is derived frum a fiinliiAci 
'!' ' * - ^' * metaphor, ilt is -x^aJlod 7v/iaj/t;.(Ajlii,)' 

jt/?^3^^. (Pfers.) An 6gg. ^l^ie .Chaw-^ChAv/ or >J'^9od.r .Tfefi 

K^hayxdcu. (Peris.) To' cJiew: •- • reader will. have .no dqubt of- tlu$ faot^ 
*'^^ ' '-' ' '' ' '-/^^ ' V \. . wlicn he ^rcads tlie. article .imnftediatply[ 
ilrt^o^viBg'flri6 iri^ RicJiardson'^ Dictionary :. *' P.' /^ciujbL Kifwy<4finuiT0i 
^ c/^fi^.'^*' W-e^aH sdfc on a f oture dt ciiHian AliiC> f uU ibree . o£* th Is ii i? »f fn^ . 
^'tird^in tllfe'Sonsok:>f' eating, -J^ we should: doubt ire$pccting the .cxfUtoAQC! 
(Jf a correspond ing -term'4o^ Ex«*. iri. the ♦Tciucmic Jai%uage$, : it is jne«ijsstfi)ii 
to- '0b9br^feii tkfif ' Jttgai^ * aiid./i^tt ; am . theriOotbiC . ondj Sa^^ i trorid^, fon 



c% CF, cp, cv, &c. lei 

Habere. This Element exists in every language, with which I am 
acquainted, and has produced a very abundant family of words bearing a 
similar meaning. In our own language it is to be found hi liooh — hug — 
hatch (q. littch) — hedge (q. hege, in Saxon hcgge — hege — hag^ in German 
heckc) Sec. &c. This Element prevails much in the. Persian language. 
We must not wonder that Sheep and Caper belong to the same idea. In 
Hebrew they have a common name; and there is a chapter in Bochart 
with this title : *' Oves; et capras Hebraice codem nomine contiiieri; quia 
** multa habent commtinia.'' (Ilicroz. Lib. 2. Cap. 42.) In this he gives 
us the substance of a chapter in Aristotle on the same subject. . As I have 

derived Caper from Capio, to I deduce 

Aiks — Aigos. (Gr.) Ai^^c-, A\y^, A*^, Aiy^, from E;^w, for the same 

from Ex«, Eager — Acer. reason. We have before seen, that 

Goat forsan quasi get. certain words denote an eager mode 

Ilcedtis from cdo — eat. of receiving from the simple idea of 

hdving or receiving. It might be proved 
that eager and acer are likewise ultimately derived from t^w 5 and as, accord- 
ing to Varro, Caper is the Carper ; so I imagine that A*^, aiy^, is the Eager. 
If Goat does not belong to the notion in gad — giddj/, &c. such as it 
appears perhai>s in cat — /cid — kitten, 8cc. it must be referred to tlie idea ex^ 
presBed by Get. H(£dus, I believe, should be added to the race of words, 
which are connected with edo — eat: At least this Etymology may vie in 
probability with tlie ordinary derivation from /ofrfj^. For the same reasort 

.1 might refer Tfwy©* to T^wyw, rodO| 
Tf«o^» forsan a Tffi^yfli,rodo, comedo, comedo; and I might suggest that the 
TfciS, vermiculus qui legumina ar- insect famous for nibbling^ v^getable« 
\ mdit , t is derived from <bis. Element. Tfwg 

Tffii&|tA«, rami qui a pecore splent Tpy^, is the '• vermicultis, t^ui fegiH 
.>arr6dL . ; - *' mina arrodit — the gurgulio or cur- 

Tf*&ir^«t.Bmiem r<>dens, ,. '^ culie." I might add thutj .tli^ 

iliV^f i^xlni- Pemasii fa4ens. • y ..^raapljcs yf\f^\ SMre ^wverf , jijpoi^ J>jf 
u . Tt cattle 


1. • 


cattle are called rfto^ifAoc; and the nibbling mouse in the Batrachomyomctekto^ 
is derived from this source. The vaunting and ill-fated Psicharpax (the 
crumb-seizing hero) rashly boasts that he is descended from TKOxartcs^ '* the 
^ magnanimous bread-n/Ai/tr for his sire, and froin PtcnioTKOCTESp the 
'* hzcon-broxvsing Monarch for his grand sire/' 

TPflHAPTAO frocTf^ fAtyaXtirofQ** fih yv fAtimg 
Ai»xoi^vXi», fiuy«T»ff nTEPNOTPXlKTOr 6«(riAii^-" 

Psicharpax quidem ego vocor: Sum autem filius 
" T/'Ararta^ patris magnanimi ; at mater 
Lichomyle, filia Vternotroctie regis." 

(Batrach. v. 28, &c.) 
The deriratlon of Tjaty©* by tlie Critics is from Tf«x"^ *« a pilorum asperi* 
^* tatc;'^ aslhey deduce hirciis from hirtns; and they have not the slightest 
notion that Hircus belongs to Aif : The R, we know, means nothing in 
determining the root. It is curious that Ika or Jkka, (KpN or Np^N) accord- 
ing to Bochart, is the Talmudical name for Hircus. (Hiero2. 1. 3. c. 19.) 
Amdngthe Arabic and Hebrew names for lambs of different ages, we find 
the Element CB employed; though I am inclined to think, with Bochart^ 
that it is not derived from the idea, which I have annexed to the word 

Sheep. " tynD" (says Bochart) •* CA<- 

^ #w, 1 >^ ^' *^^> f »A^-^» Chebs est media? astatis 

Chebes. (Heb.n ^ * . 

t A Lamb. '^ agnus." (Hieroz. lib. 2; c. 43.) We 

Chebs. (Arab.) ) have seen that names of dignity and 

power belong to this Element; and 
Chebs. (Arab.) '^ that the 5wer^/^ and the subjcct-^he 

VARamu animal reigning over (super J aiiddiat 

. ^ • I . .. v.-/ placed under (^ibj we tqVkdlly con-* 

' ' nected with the idea. It is from hetice 

timt t^besiti Hebcew signifies die meek and humble lambf and in A>afait 

k%€tD»dm«detobtes^tti^t3i^ dlteiock — the boisMrMis and the ItvMjiig 


1^4. ^ 

CB, CF, e^ C<Vi &«. 


certain age. 
Zfoj'.^Yorksh.) A two-year Sheep. 

Jzarj (Pers.) A Sheep. 

Aiar. K^^^^O Teizing, impor- 

^ tunity. 

Tees. (Arab.) A Goat. 

7^,. :f(Pe«.) 


acute, impetuous. 

^ M »>x • •> 

rmm. Bochart'teik i\$ that a ram is expressed in Arabic by ^}.^}^^:u ffamal 
^Vaut {J^**f£=9 CkebSf aut ^1^; Suphi, aut, si sit proccrior, ^r^'^'^ 
*♦ gilichgiuchf et f^^^ Ilug/iug.'' (Hieroz. lib, ii. c. 43.) This quota- 
tion is curious^ . Hanimel is tlie GeiiDian for a ^/rrq9;-and ll0g is tlie 
„ J ^ ( (Ar«) A Ram of a: familiar tname ' aihhng the peasants. o£ 

( certain aee. Yorkshire for a iSSteep ^f the second 

yean Hog (says Sktimer) ** Ovis bimu^ 
^ Tel secundi anm." The Eastern 

•i * 

Scholar will oftsen discover in the vari-^ 

:ous naiues^for ^ Sheep and a: Goal tlie 

idea, which I :have endeavoured to 

prove belonging to Skeep and Caper. 

Thus the Pdrsian Ixar {^V^) i9Z SJtecp. 

The ward, consisting of the same kt- 

ters^n preceding: thifc in RicbafdsQn!a 

Dictionary, signifies '^ Chiding^ re-* 

^^ buking^ reproaching, stolding, iiaz- 

^^ ing, afTrontin^^ teprimainding, ivh 

" portunity.'^ Vc pe/ceive that Izarp 

the Sheep, beard the same relation to 

this word, as Cdper doesi to Cgrpo ; the 

sense of which latter term is precisely 

expressed by Richardson. ' * Teizing we 

know,- in the sense of pfovoking, is 

^derived from the idda of twitching or 

> pulling asuiider ^jtfr/jf or importunately. 

• » .; ' Itls«irtou^lhri7V«m AAbic (y^ 

signifies a Goat; aMLl )iave»«litd)s 'ddylbtblit thdt it beldbig* tt) the terms, 

which! find iti'i&e- sime ^age of Richardson's Dictionary, and which 

iefev to the ifiea^o^iMieyedi^byioiir trord? Teize. -^ t^ ^r ^^) '^ Sbarp^ 

-s^ ^' Bold, 

: TR~^K. 

Tr-Qgo. (Gr. Tfnyw) 
7T«r--7Vro. ^ v 
Teiro — ^TVibo. (Tnjw, Tj iC«, ter6,) 
J,. i (O, E.) To tear to pieces 

i in eager ravenous eating. 
Ak\. {Ax. and Heb.) To eaL 
JEj/Aio. (Gr. E<r«i«-) 
Esse— Est. (Lat.) 
Edo. (Gr. E*a-) -Erfo, (Lat.) 

♦ » -v »^ 


'^ Bold, hnpetuotts, vehement/' We * hare already sefrnthat Aiks^aigos 
(atg, ajyQe) belongs to actTf from which come acid — acute^ &ic. If the 
Eastern Scholar will consider the various names for bite — tut — grme-^tear 
— chaWf &c. he will receive much information on the* subject. I cannot 
forbear adding on this occasion the origin of Trogo {J^tayki) rodo; which, 
we know, is applied by the Greeks to a peculiar action in eating. The 
first part of this compound must be referred to our Englisli word Tti&p 
TR; which is an universal Element expressing a similar idea. It is to be 
found in the Latin re^o and the Greek rci^o — rKibo (T«f«, TfiCw, tero) 
and in Persian DiRedun ((^Os^^<A) signifies to tear. The Ogo (ny«) in Trogo 
l>elongs ta Eko (Ex«) or to a peculiar portion of that idea, such as we find 
it in terms expressive of eating; which may be considered as ultimately 
belonging to Eko (Ex«") Hence we have the first part of tlic compound ia 
the word A%1, to eat, ( JJl b^H) so familiar to the Arabic and Hebrew 
languages: As the hard sound of K slides in the hissing sound of S or tl>e 
mixed one of Z (where the T or D is found) we have the Greek Estkio 
(e^ici;) — ^the Latin Esse ztiA Est ^ the infinitive and third person singular of 
Edo ; in which latter word, together with the Greek Edo {Et^ edo) and" 
the English Eat, we perceive that the sound of S has disappeared. It. is 
curious that in Old English Tire is the appropriate tetni for an animal 
TEARingor pulling to pieces its prey eagerly or ravenously. So in Shak'- 
Bpcare'9 Venus and Adonis. . ! 1 \ 

» " Ev«i as an empty eagle, sharp by fast, 

. ^ « • » ' ^^ Tires, with lus beak on feather, flesh, and bone, 
M Shaking »his wings, devouring all in haste, 
. •• Till either gorge be stufF'd or prey be gone; 
.-. If* -Even ao she kiss )di his brow, his cheek, his chin, 
* ! • »j 'fi A^d where jh«.ends, efee^fdoth ifJn^w b^n.*' - ,.- . s 

-:. 1 ^ (Pag,.l^. ,MaIone'aJMit.) 

VV hile I' $4n (jmpteyetj an these cursory observations respecsting the 
pf >miiii>ftb;/X,!fanpfil )foi1iear makingpa few remaliksia»rtlie terms. Ik the 

4 • 

. ■'. 

C B, C F, C P, C V, &c. 


BK, BK\ BZ. 


Ox and the Qow in various languages. The word Ox occurs as the familiar' 
terra for this animal in the several branches of the Teutonic and in some of 
tlic dialects of the Celtic ; tliough I cannot satisfy myself with regard to 
its Etymology. It may possibly be of the same origin with the Horse and 
the Ass; and tlie idea which it originally conveyed might be that of 
a beast of burden ; as it was used in the earliest times for tlie purposes of 
ploughing^ &c. &c. In the Eastern languages the familiar word for this 

animal isBAKAR; and the Critics have 
advanced no furdier in the Etymology 
.of this term than to derive it from a 
verb which signifies to seek or to search. 
The aft'ection of these animals (say 
tliey) is such, that the one seeks after 
the other with great solicitude, if they 
are separated after their union under 
th^yoke. This term is very general in 
the Eastern languages. ^' npl Bakar'\ 
(says Bochart) *' ;bQVcm significat ma- 
*' rem aut fqemirtaiii. Hanc voccm, 
*^ praeter Hebrccos^ Qhaldcei etiam usur- 
" pant, et Syriet^rnbes.** (Hieroz. 
lib. 2. c. 28.) Bochart and die |:ty- 
mologists have. seen that Vaccu belongs 
to Bakar; though tljey have not ac- 
Pike — Beak-^Buck^^Poke^^Peak knowledged diat BOTS and Bos are 
^^--PasJi—^Piis/u'i ... r Bakar and Vojcccf under <ipother form.; 

BS. (Heb.) To;/mi/r downi They perceive how^vpr darkly that 

rKicn f (Heb^Toprfecedi-erfCome ..they bejong to something of the same) 
I or go before. , ; kind, witliout comprehending the mode; 

PK. (Heb.).To disjoin, pulverise, of. their formation, .//.ya<:c», ai Jpi^Q*; 
: i uu •'rum 

|(Heb. &Chaldce, &c.) 
V An Ox or Coxa. 

Facca. (Lat.) Bos. (Lat.) 

Bous. (Gr. Bicf-) 

Bj/ux. (Celtic.) 

Buachar. (Celt.) Cow dung. 

JS/^tf/Wiaile. (Celt.) A Cow keeper. 

Baukero. (Gips.) A Sheep. 

' r A Sheep (in some 

Chy Baukerq. < language on the 

( coast of Africa.) 

Birn |C^^^^-) An;Ox — to search 
\ — seek^tbe morning. 



(Heb.) " To hrcak the 
PZK. ^'» bones — to A/'^flX forth in- 

'* to a joyful sound/' 
PZ. (Ileb.) " To burst open." 
PZH. (Heb.) To " beat— bruised 
PZR. (Heb.) "To />rm hard." 
PK. (Heb.)Tocome or bring fortli. 

PKD |(^^^-) ^^ come or go to 

V any one — to visit. 
Piece. (Eng.) Pierce. (Eng.) 
Pash. (Pers.) Diffusing, scattering. 
Bashiden. (Per.) To trample. 

Pashidc. {^^^'"'^ Sprinkled, dis- 
V persed. 

Push. (Pers.) A Bubo or Push. 

Pash. (Scotch.) The head. 

Pate. (Eng.) The head. 

Butt. (Eng.) With the head. 

Ferk. (Ar.) The hefed — separation, 

Ferked. (Ar.) A Calf, 

jp.^^j^^ ( (Eng.) To attack—annoy 

( —-disturb. 

(Pers.) •* Before," quasi to 

push forward. 

** rum audimus" (says Vossius) ** fuerit 
*' a bos. Sic enim scribit lib. 12. c. 1. 
^' Vacca quasi b^acca. Est enim ex 
*' qualitate nobilium nominum: sicut 
" leo leana, draco dracana. Malim 
'* dixisset vacca esse ex boikh. Nam 
*' Bdixj^ vaccifius." The reader will 
perceive that Vacca is only the Latin 
fceminine termination of Bos. In the 
Celtic languages, one of the names for 
Bos (as it is represented by Lhuyd) is. 
Byux; and in Shaw. we find Buachar 
for Cow dung, and JButf/VAaile, a Cow 
keeper. In the Gipsey language Bau^ 
Xttc; signifies a Sheep; and, what is ex- 
tremely curious, the venerable Braxni-* 
ncss, who taught me this part of her 
language, informed me likewise, that 
some Blacks from the coast of Africa, 
whom she had . accidentally seen, had 
used a similar term for that animal. 
In their language a SJiccp was Chy 
Baukero. This is? extremely curious. 
That the dialectSiof'jAfrica should bear 
an affinity to die. Celtic, &c. will not 

be wonderful to those, who have seen the collection of Voids fxohx the 

Lingua Shilhensis by Jones, and the commentary by sMajor Vallahcey. 

(See his Essay on tht^ Celtic Language prefixed to his- OrqmiQid edit., p. 2p. 

&c.) The people who speak this language, are mountaineers in S. W. 

Barbary; and I can confidently assert from the few words Which JiavQ 




CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 167 

been cotlccted, that it preserves the same traits of a common origin^ as 
the languages which are the immediate objects of our discussion. It may 
perhaps approach nearest to tlie Celtic dialect; and this was the opinion 
of the learned Tunisian, Achmet Ben Ali; v^ho was in Dublin in 1780, 
and informed Major Vallancey, that, according to the received notion 
among his coimtrymcn, the people who speak the Showiah dialect (which 
differs only in some words from the Shillah) were originally Celts, and 
accordingly are called Keltic Let me add that the Chy in Chy^Bauhero 
is perhaps the word, to be found in various languages, signifying a young 
vivacious animal; which I shall take a future occasion of explaining; 
Were I to hazard a conjecture respecting the Etymology of Bakar in the 
Hebrew, &c. I should refer it to the sense of the Element BK, as it appears 
in the words Pike — Beak — Buck — Poke— Pash — ^Push, &c. &c. The 
Horns of the animal, I imagine, gave the origin to the word. The term 
Push may represent the race of words belonging to this idea; and I think 
would direct us most surely through the labyrinth of this Element in the 
Hebrew. The general notion, which I annex to BK in Hebrew, is that 
of PUSHING on — advancing fojwardi 8cc. &c. This accounts for Bakar^ 
aignifying to search or to seek. Push and Poke are employed in the use 
of this metaphor : to push forward an enquiry — and in vulgar language 
they talk o( poking into a business. Hence i^l BKR signifies to '* precede, 
*^ to be first in birth ;*' and Parkhurrt well observes, that " the idea of 
*• this word seems to be tKy precede, come or gp before.** BS 01 signifies to 
^o^A down und^r the feet-t—" to trample upon, tread under foot!'' BKR 
TJ>1 the same root, which signifies zn or and to seek, means the morning: 
••And the Evening and the niormng*' (BKR nj?n) were the first day," 
fee. &c. 'ft signiftfcs tlie dutim or momhig light, says Parkhurst, because 
tiaat dubiMiy4igWt which ^ipears at day^break requires a nice examination 
tiydistinguishitfirdnJ-the star or moon light. So hard are the Critics pressed, 
libo tonsider tli^ iidea ^f ^^rc/irng" or examining as the original notion. 
^o of 


of the Element. In my explanation the metaphor kapt arid natural.- It 
is the firi^t pushing Jhrward or breaking out of the light. The words 
PK ("^D) and PZK (nVB) exactly answer to the metaphor of break j 
which itself like^vi8e belongs, as we now perdeive, to the same Element* 
Parkhurst observes that the idea of this word .PK! is to *^ dissolve^ disjoin, set, 
^' loose, pulverise or the like." PZK signifies ** to break as the bones — to 
" BREAK forth into a jo^'ful sound." PZ (n"ifD) precisely ansvvcrs to pash or 
posh in English. In one of its conjugations it means to ** be burst open, 
^' riven, disi'upted.'' Mark again die word burst, which belongs to the same 
Element. PZH (yys) means '^ to beat, bruise, or crush.'" PZR (nys) 
signifies, says Parkhurst, to " press hard, urge with vehemence." Let us 
again oberve the words Beat (which under another form is Butt) — -Bruise 
and Press. PK (pS) in one ^f its senses signifies to ** come or brii^g 
^* forth." Even the. word PKD (ipS) to visit, which every student in 
Hebrew recollects, arises from this idea. It means, says Parkhurst, " to 
^^ visit, to come or go to any one either to see, or to benefit or punish." 
We perceive that the main idea in tliis word is that of going to — advaiicing 
to. Sec. &c. In English we have a word from this Element, in which is^ 
expressed the desire of going to or of attaining an object: We arc said tq 
peak zndpine after any thing. I shall not enlarge this catalogue of Hebrew 
words, as they will be sufficient to convince the reader, who is ardent in 
Hebrew learning, that such is the spirit of the Element. . He will ccrtainlv 
find some exceptions, as may reasonably be expected, in which the Word® 
will partake of other senses belonging to the Element; but he -will be satis- 
fied that the general idea is that Vusmng or advancing forward with various^ 
motives and in various actions with different degrees of force »nd e^cqt— rS9» 

as to break—burst bruise — ^FRBalS--^FIEHC«h--^i^r0^gh-•^0>J/fn— :^gftil^ 

. — out — forth-^to PIECES, &ic. &c, &c, (P^^s«, .or^^>yli!Wh,^S:;Ujje. swn^f! 
PASH, is of very familiar use in our ancient language t(> cxpTcss actions o^ 
force and violence. It is used in the vision of i l^iciO^Q Wpwij)aij,.tp i^^^Hw 


Ca, CF, CP/ CV, &c. 169 

tlie irncslstable dnd exterminating violence of the mighty subducr of 

'• Death came dryvying after, arid all to dust p ashed 
'' K^yngs and Keysers, Knyghiesand Popes." 

(See Warton's Eng. Poetry, v. 1. p. 215.) 
All this will explain to Mr, Malone, what at present he but imperfectly 
understands. In the Winter's Tale, Leontcs, si>eaking to his little son, 
and expressing doubts as to his legitimacy, says, 

*' How now, YOU wanton calf? Art thou my calf?" 

Mam. '' Yes, if you will, my lord/' 

Leon. ** Thou wants a rough paSh, and the shoots that I have, to be 
^Mull like me." (A. I. s, 2.) 

Mr. Malone observes on this passage, after proposing to read Plash, which 
lie rejects, " But I have lately learned that pash in Scotland signifies a 
*' head. The old reading therefore may stand. Many words, that are 
** now used only in that country, were perhaps once common to the 
^* whole island of Great Britain, or at least to the northern part of England. 
'* In* Turkey Basch, and perhaps Pasch also, has the same signification/ 
~f^ Hence Basha, or, as it is sometimes- written. Pacha. The meaning 
^ thcn^fore of the present passage, I suppose, is this: Vou tell mc (says' 
'* Leoiltes to his son) that you arc lUc mc, (hat you are my calf. Z am 
*'. f//c HORNED bull: thou xvantest the rough HEAb and the horns of that 
** animali completely to resemble your father.'' In the Eastern languages ff 
is -true that Basha — Pasha, See. Sac. signifies the i/c^r^, but witli the idea 
annexed to it of a leader — chief; not of a part of the body. Basha ia 
Persian is the participle of the verb to be — the being — the great man.- 
" liib Basha, , Being, existing. ■• a basha, governor of a province, Ogun^f 
•' scllor of state> great lord ; zho, sometimes the grand vizir." (Ricfcfeifdson 
sub voce;) But the word in Persian answers precisely to the idba, • \Wiich: 
I have given it. The article preceding' this is: ** (jib Posh, diffusinf , 
**/scattemig, spreading. ^\j Uju> Ziya pash, difftasiug light.'\ ♦^ Inth^niiexl 
T X :i column 

. •% • 


column I find ^' i^^. Pash, diffusion, scattering, sprinkling." The tw« 
succeeding articles are " o^-Nv^W Bashiden, to trample, tread upODn 
'^ spurn" — '^ ojyyi*'-? Pashide, '• Sprinkled, dispersed, &c. •• Any thing 
*' scattered or diffused/' I could not have invented terms more significant 
to confirm my hypothesis. Though Basha is not derived, I imagine, 
from the Head, ( a member of the body) yet we ought not to be unmind* 
ful of terms belonging to diis idea. Our word Pate certainly brings us 
to the very spot, which Mr, Malone has marked for Pash ; and we must 
again recall to our recollection tlie term Butt, the appropriate action of 
the part. When the SH becomes hardened into K, we may have Poh — 
Pike. I have perpetually observed, that when the same ideas coincide in 
different roots, nothing is so difficult as to be decided in our choice. That 
a term appropriate to the Head exists with this Element is certain by our 
word Pate : that some of the words, which I have produced, must be 
referred directly to this source cannot be doubted; but with respect to other 
terms, though they coincide in their meaning, they may probably be 
attached to different radicals. Fcrked in Persian (i>o J) means a Calf. That 
the same idea is annexed to the Element, as in the former words, will be 
evident from the first sense of Ferk, in which Richardson uses the words 
" separation, division." The reader cannot fail to be reminded of our 
word Firk; ('* Master Fer' — I'll fer him, and firk him and ferrit him") 
which, as Mr. Malone observes, ** is so variously used by the old writers, 
•* that it is almost impossible to ascertain its precise meaning." (Malone^ 
Shak. v. 5. p. 565.) It is not necessary that Mr. Malone should ascertain 
■its precise meaning; for such a meaning, like many other words, it does- 
not possess ; but he will now perceive that m its general sen& it conveys 
the idea of attacking — annoying — disturbing; and that it relates to actions 
of vioknce — irregular motions — disorderly proceedings, &c. &c. The 
tough Posh means, as Mr. Malone expresses it, the rough head and hom»* 
of a calf; because with these the animal pishes or pashes, as Bakar 6f 
Pushiriti Hebrew, &c. means an ax-^mj-^^alf, &c. &c. for the same 


CB, CV, CP, CV, ScQ. 171 

reason* We cannot have ia more convincing proof of the sense belonging 
to this Element in the Persian language than tliat wliicb we find in tlie word 
Pesh ((jiui) which is the appropriate term for the familiar particle Before. 
It means likewise *' a bar, bolt or any thing for securing a door;" and what 
is still more curious, Mr. Richardson in his explanation of the next sense 
belonging to Pesh, uses the very metaphor, which I have annexed to the 
word. *^ The hasp into which the bolt or bar runs, when making the 
*' door fast** — or, in other words, through which the bolt or bar is pushed. 
Two significations of this word, which he tlien exhibits under the form of 
Push, are *' a little place or purse in a belt, where they carry money — a 
** Bubo." He has used, we perceive, the very word which I should have 
wished — Purse; and what is ViBubo but a Push, as tliey call in common 
life the PUSHING or bursting out of a pimple, &c. &c. In all these the 
idea of something swelling out or protuberant is included. I have a strong 
impression on my mind that Pash is in the AVarwickshire dialect the name 

of a Calf. That this idea^ of butting 

BL with the horns stippUed the term Bull^ 

Bull — BiX&* — BccXXu-^^Pahis — Pilus cannot, I think, be doubted. It be- 

— Pole — Pale-^Bill. longs to the race of words BfXO* — C^aaw 

TP Tup — ^TuttJcd' — palus — pilus — pale — pale — bill, &c, 

KR Kfioc — Ktfar &c. Even Junius ventures to derive 

"RT Aria, Arietis, Hard. (Eng.) Bull from BoXu ictus. The wotdRain is 

Hurdh, V^d^h\rr it ^ \ * of the same origin, and its parallel term 

Urz, Hmdh. ^ Tup, in the Yorkshire language, is cet- 

Ard. (Celt.) -^rrfuus. (Lat.) tainly from a similar idea TTn-1«' Aries, 

TR Terra. (Lat.) -rfm/w might be proved to contain this 

Daiar, Tir. (Celt.) " metaphor; and even the Etymologists- 

Diirw5. (Lat.) /fyi/r, Ihyrf. (Celt.) have seen that Kfi©* belongs to Kff«r 

- - - -- -- -- - Aries, Arietis or ""KZ, -which is to be 

RM (Ar.) The earth. resolved into ''RT or /RS> is nothing 

J^^onu (Eng.) Space. i' ::: but oufuEnglish word JSmrdf' and it 



jRtfm. (itng.) The animal. means the* ^ Hard striking or butting: 

/?(;?/! tf. (Gr.) Strength, ' 'animal/ Our convicti<in will be im-L 

Iiomi. (.Egypt Jlnd Gipsey*) Man. niediatfei when we know that tl\e Cdtib- 
jf?f7w/.y ami I (Hindoo.) ^'drds for a /?flfw are Hurdh— ^Urdh- 

Rames. i AVhat is higli^ — great. — Urz — Hokdh, for thus variously 
p^ ( (Cant.) Strange— —<juaint, are they represented by Lhuyd (sub 
V queer. voce Arks. J The origin of Hard, &c. 

is ^RTS— ^RT— '^RS, the Earth; and 
lu'nce .irrfuus, &:c. in Latin, which in Celtic, as represented* by Lhuyrf, 
\^ Ard. Dwrtts is TR Terra, as Hard and Ardus belong : to the Earth.. 
In Celtic Dtiru^k Hydr—Dryd; and Terra is Daiar-^—Fir. Wc sec that 
the name of thx* Earth or Terra arises from "RT or TR by an inviersioin. 
of the same letters. Buttlusampjc theme will form an important articie^ 
of future discussion. It might be likewise proved that the word Ram hi 
ultimately ddeived from the Earth. Our English Etymologists hajve 
observed among their various conjectures its possible relation to the Greek 
Borne (Pfi^Mii> r<ibiir.) . RM (as we have before observed) is the great Elfcment 
in the Coptic lamguage to denote /wwrr — strength-. lio?Hi/is die ^Egyptian. 
and Gipseyname for Man; and Mr. Bryant has seen tiiai Ramis and llamas 
denote something ///g'A and^re^^ (Anal. v. ii. p. 302.) RM (^i) in Ardbic 
means the Earth; from whence arc derived all ihe significations- of ij/tfS/6Vy 
-^^abundafice—^ce [or Room) &c. &c. This word has lett very deep 
traces of its existence in all the languages with which I am acquainted; 
Our cant term RuMi (so expressive and therefore so inexplickble)^".i^Ru|i!f» 
'^ Fellow — ^RuM Touch,'* &c. &c. must be referred tb this race of vrofdi^. 
an<l- is immediately derived from the name of Man. It correspond^ with 
the various meanings attachedrfo the Greek Anvoc — a word of & sinajlaf 
origin. It exprefesds all the qualities belonging to tlii$won%r6us^otti pound 
of * cohtr4iribtiesc— r-It means whatever is powerful^^excelle/it'—Uliistrums-^ 
abl^-^dextroiu^extraordhiafj/^^^ridiculoits — singular — 'fantastical-'^^tmmu^ 
^qH4int^iplbtXr^iiQ. Sic J 'Thus it is that the language, on the borders a£ 


CB, CF, GP, CV, &c. 


die 'Nile becoiries the familiar jargon on the banks of the Thames; 
Before I cjuit Mr. Malone*s note on Pashf I must obser\ e . another 
curious similarity in the Persias^ language to the English. Mr. Malone, 
I imagine, is not aware, that his criticisms on Shakspearc might be often 
illustrated by the assistance of a Persian Dictbnary. *' Sir Thomas Han- 
/' jner," observes that Critic, " says Paz in Spanish is a kiss.'' And so it 
is in English (even as used by Shakspeare) in Latin, French, Italijip, Per- 
slain, the Dialects of the Celtic, flee. &c, &c. Buss — Basium — Basiare-rr 
Baiser-^Basciare^ &Cv^&c. &:c. — -— *' I will think diou smil'st, 

" And iiiw thee as thy wife." 
^ ' (King John, a. 3. 5.4.) 

Bus {{j^jJ Persian) " A kiss, buss, kiss- 
'* ing," says Richardson sub voce. 
Again, Biisd signi&cs a kiss, and Bus^ 
Dadcn to kisSf that is, to give a kiss, 
(where we must, again mark in daden^ 
do^datus:) Bmiden is the appropriate 
verb in the Persian language foi; this 
action of revirenck or of love, I might 
well refer the origin of this word to 
the idea which I have just unfolded^ 
as contained in the Element BS — PS| 
to the vvsuingi or tilting with, lips.; 
(** This is na worid to play with mam** 
" mets or to tilt with lips^') vend nothings 
as I have had occasion frequently to 
observe, is more difficult th^hto trace 
the peculiar idea, from which: a tenH 
is derived; when the notions arising 
from different sources become .blfended 
with each tfthen I believe hoif^ret 

^A Kiss. 

Pfl;?:. (Span.) 

Biiss. (Eng.) 

Basium. (Lat,) 

Bus. (Perfe) 

Pog, Pokyn,^ 

Pok, Bushet, [(Celt.) 

Piiket. ) 

Baiser. (Fr.) 

Banare. (Lat.) 

Baciare. (Ital.) 

Basciare. (Span.) 

Busiden. (Pers.) 


B0C€d. (Lat.) Thie Mouth. 

Puz. (Pers.) The Lip, the Mouth. 

Pus;Puisin. (Celt.) The Lip. 

•^To Kiss. 


. •♦ 




that Bt^ss the Km is immediaiely dmved from Bocca, et a term wilSji 
this Element signifyiiig the Mtmth ; as I haye observed th^t these ideas 
are connected in various famguages. It will be proved on a future occasicm 
that Su AVIUM, a kiss, is to be referred to the same idea; and Osculunh we 
acknowledge, belongs toOs; as £rf^<9v is related to Srcy^* Kiss^ which h^ 

^g gp found its way into »o many langus^es^ 

TTm. (Eng.) &c. &c/ ' Qwitn (Ang. Sax-) &c. &ۥ is one of 

Cyssan. (Ang. Sax.) &c. &c. '^'^ ^^^ ^"^^^^^ *"^ universal words 

... • /(PersOWhateverisplea. in the records of Speech, We may 

t sant, charming, &c. perpetually trace it under this pecuhar 

o o L fl-^ sense or with a kindred idea; and in 

Sugar — Saccharum, &c. ' 

p ^ tlie Persian language we may see the 

leading notion unfolded in th^femilisB: 
term iiCAusA (ysUiL) ^' Good,' sweety beautiful, fair, .chmrming, 

f^ delicious, pleasant, delightful, agreeable, cheerful, amiable, lovejy, 
f^ delicate,*' &c. &c. (Richardson sub voce.) The influence of. thip 
word has extended to evtSry languk^; and, perhaps I might h^ve s|id| to 
every being who gives utterance to these languages. It is connected .with 
the name of Sugar-^Saccharum, &o. &c. which is to be found in so .many 
forms of speech; and with those wondrous words, which my predecessors 
in the art of Etymology have discovered by their profound researches tp 
pervade all languages. The uninitiated reader will perhaps be astonished to 
find that these mystic words are famiUar to his ear in the humble terms of 
Chest and Sack ; and I shall leave for the present tlie coeval anUquity of 
the Kiss — ^the Chest and the Sack as a profound enigma, for the benefit 
of some adventurous GEdipus in the mysteries of E^yjuplQgjy.-^-To JBt^tf^ 
the month, must be referred the Persian Pm {jry^) which pigQii^qs, 99Ly$ 
Richardsbn, ^ The lip, the mouth, and the environs." Ip Sh?^sp^v^, t^ 
j^fotif A appears as a metaphor expreteive of this idea.-^'' He would mouth 
^^ with a beggar, though she smelt of brown bread and garlick." (Meas« 
fot Meat. Z4 1; s* 2.) . la Jtho! Celtic languages the term Buss wiU a{^ai. te 
■ 'M (lie 

/ -OBi.CF, C P/ CY; *c/ 175 

the eye of the reader more intimately related to Bocca. A Kiss, says 
Shaw in his Galic Dictionary, is Pog ; and To Kiss is Vaoam. In Lhuyd 
we find under Osculum ^^Kyssan — Im?OK — PoKityn, a little pretty moutji; 
*' Kiss or Buss, — Pok — BvsHet and PoKrt, to kiss.** For the Lip I find 
in Shaw PuisiV; and* iii Lhu/d Ptri; Mr. *Ma!(me/Mr^ter; ^illbe gratified 
by this specimen of verbal criticism ; and acknowledge *' tliat there are 
*' more tilings in Heaven and Eartli tlian are dreamt of in our Philosophy/' 

The digression on the names of Animals, which I have inserted in the 
preceding page^ was suggested by -^ portion of my ^enetal sviljject; to 
ivhichlmust now return. I have endeavoured io- illustrate by a due 
number of exanipl^s^ that the EJemcixt C^, &:c. signifies I' To hol({—'COfitain 
f\ in AByNDANCEf-H5t/^A,j)EsjG;^, Y ow^^ or EFffCTn^tp cdftch at any thing 
V freqi^entLy or eagevly-^'^tQ^ hold ^grciblyr^seizc vehemently :*\ ,That fron^ 
be^ce are derived ^' words expressing plenty^ richer desire— ^nd themmes 
" ^ unimaU distinguished by their eager and raverfpm mode of taking their 
^^foifd oj:, seizing on their, prey.'* I sh^tUnpwr proceed to janother^pgrjtion of 
my work; in which the reader y^iU perceive, that a i^^w Rce -^^of yjrords 
has been formed, from a kindred idqa; though they pday .appear on thq 
first view to be totally unconnected w^th the general notipPj, which I have 
attributed tp the Element. . 

The ^rdent enquirer after truth might find in discissions of tliis nature 
an ample theme qf useful meditation. To unfp|d the mystery of la,nguage 
is to exhibit the philosophy qf life by tracing the progress of id^as through 
the jnazes of .t^ie, mind« Qur .words as well as our actions must have 
thjeir origin ;^d th^ir, motive; Discover but the clue, and confusion 
lis^^iae? theforip. of ^«>ptrivp.iM;e:-(Ty^E l^guage,. tlie. work of jchance, 

becomes a sy^tqpi, of ^desigjx; Jffid .m?n,,that crcaim;? pf contrarieties, will 

• - ^ ^ * ' ' ' .1 • • * 

at once app^, ^pnsis^nt ia his, thoughts and luuform in his pr^cticps. 

' • t V 

■ • * • • • . . • . • . . ■ ; ' * " 

>f ) THOUGH 


,^1 J>: :^ 1 ^: :^lv?^n:^y.^v :^ ^:\j^i.?%kir:!%^-^>\:*.^\7^^v'^M?*v.j^vvj^vj%iMj^ii:^^.'^^: 


^ i 

THOUGH the general sense of the Element (as we have already 
unfolded it) will sufficiently explain why the names of animals distinguished 
by their ' eager or ravenous mode of taking their food or seizing on their 

' prey/ should be derived from this source ; yet it will by no means serve 

• ' ' . ' ' 

to account for the existence of that great family of words, which we find 
in so many languages las terms applied to those objects; which relate to Food 
and to the consequences of eatikg or drinking. There islikeirise 
a great race of words attached to this Element, which are referred to^ie 
faculty of Speech (GabblC'-Gibe—Gibbcrish, &c. &c, &c.) and which appear 
to bear no aflSnity t<J the general idea of* holding— ^containing — receiving/ 
&c. We perceive however on the first view of the question an immediate 
connection between the power of receiving Food- and of uttering Speech; 
and we should readily trace it to the common organ — the Mouth, by 
which these functions arc performed. After the abundance of examples, 
which have now been produced to unfold the nature of this Element, wfe 
might have expected k priori that the great receiver, most important to the 
existence of itian, the organ of the Mouth or the Lips^ would iri some 
languages be attached to iso universal and si^ificant *a?n Element. When a 
term with such a meaning was once formed, we may well conceive that 
an ample race of words' would from thence "be propagated, aiid be impre^Ssed 
with the peculiar idea attached to their original source. This we find 
really to exist, accompanied with all the consequences, which we should 
naturally have concluded to be produced. 

• CB, 

CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 


SAvan, Kab, 

« « 


Svyaisie, Cab, 



The Moutli. 

GfUEVL, GUEVYS,^ (Celt.) 


riic Lip. 

Gob. (Irish.) The Mouth. 

5>APAH. {Heb.)The Lip, speech. 

SHEFEh- — Shei^e. (Ar.) A Lip. 

Shufr. (Ar.) A margin, edge. 

Zefer. (Pcrs.) The Jaw — Mouth 

Zefrafiden, VPers.) To eat 
Zefrefiden. J much — little. 



(Lat.) A Lip or Kiss. 

Caibin — GpiBiK. (Gelt.) A Kiss. 

Chaps, *^ 

v(Eng.) Maxilla.', fauces. 
Chops. ). 

CB, KB, SV, &:c. &c. &c. are 
employed in various languages to ex- 
press the Mouth or the Ljps. In 
Lhuyd we find under Os ^' SAvan — * 
'' Kab — Svvaiste," Under Labium 
we have '* Guev/ — Guey^^^ — Kab," 
with other words; in which the conso- 
nant V, representing the root, is sunk 
into the cognate vowel U. In Shaw*s' 
' Gallc Dictionary we have Cab, Sub- 
/laiste, among the namics for the Mouth ; 
and the reader will not fail to ohsenc 
in the latter word Hhe part Hdiste; 
which corresponds with the Greek 
Esfhio (EtrOiw edo) and b^elongs to the 
Latin Os. In Irish, as we have before 
observed, (Job means the J/o7^/A. (Val-' 
lancey's Gram. p. 77. edit, iid.) In 
Hebrew SPH (nssy) Sap ah, signifies 
'^ the Lip, Speech, language. The 
" sea shore, the brink or bank of a 
" river. The brim of a vessel or cup. 
*' The edge of a curtain. A binding 
*' upon any edge of a garment. The 
^' border or edge of a district.**' (Tay- 
lor sub voce.) This quotation will 
convince us thzt Saptfh is derived from' 
the signification of the Element — that 
which eJicloses-i^suiToilnds, See. 8f.c. In 
Arabic Shefb^h (ajlm;^) or Shefe sig- 
nifies a Lip; and ShVfr ( JU-) in the 






Ceaflas, (Sax.) Id. 
CEAFt, (Sax.) Rostrum, 

CiDus, (Lat.) ^ 

GoBBiN, (Gips.)3 

GoBER. (Fr.) To swallow down. 
Gobble — Gobet. (Eng.) 

GOBEAU. (pp.) 

Kableei. (Gr.) Gobble. 
Gob. (Ir.) Rostrum. 

Sapio — Sapor. 
Sapidus — Suavis. 
Sapiens, &c. 

Sip. (Eng.) Sup. (Eng.) 

§aupfen, (Teut.) &c. &c. 



^(Heb.y *♦ To drink hard, 

to guzzle. 

same language means " a margip> an 
*♦ edge (partieulariy of the eye-lids, 
<^ UpSy &c.) ora vulvae," In Persian 
Xefcr (J)) signifies ^* a jaw, a jaw-bone, 
*^' the Mouth; and %efrajiden — %e- 

frefiden {i^O^\y) \o^^fj) respect- 
ively signify in that language to eat 
much and little. In Persian the appro- 
priate term for tlie Lip is Lib (<-^) the 
same word as in tlie Teutonic languages 
(Lippe^ Germ. &c.) and in Latin La- 
bium. In the Celtic dialects we find 
the LB used for Labiutn both in com- 
position and by itself. ' Gue/i;, Libsur^ 
* Klab,' we find in Lhuyd under La^ 
bium. The Latin Savium or Sua- 
VI UM, we know, signifies a Lip and a 
Kiss. This latter sense has been con- 
sidered as the original meaning of the 
word ; and it has been derived from 
Suavis, because, says Martini us. Sua- 
viu?n, '* est indicium suavis amoris/* 
Thus we see, a Kiss is to be referred 
to the Lips or the Mouth, as I have 
proved on a former occasion; and we 
accordingly find under Osculu?n in 
Lhuyd Caib/ti — GoiBm, correspond- 
ing with Cab or GoS the Mouth. In 
English the words for the Mouth or the 
parts adjacent, with this Element, still 
.exist in the language of the people. 


CB; CF, CP, CV» &c. 



(Gr.) Tq riot like a 




.» I 

A name of Bacxrhus. 

Quaff (Eng. )Kuafiz£;in. (Gr.) 

• ■ 

Soup. (Eng.) Brotli. . 

Soupe;.. (Fr.) 

SuppE. (Teut.) &c. &c. &c. 

Supper. (Eng.) The last meal. 

SOUPER, &c. &c. 

Chipoter. (Fr.) Pitissaie. 
Sops — Sippets. (Eng.) 
Sorbeo. (Lat.) 

SiRUPus-^SiRRUP. (Eng.) &c. 
Shariba. {At.) SQ?be?'e, bihcr^w • 
Shrub. (Eng.) Sherbet. (Eng,) 

Chops — Chaps (says Junius) " Max- 
*' illie, fauces a Kxwlu comedo;" and 
Skinner refers them to tlie Saxon Ceaf- 
las, which signifies, says he, " Fauces, 
" seu potius*! raandibiite rictus." — 
Ceaf/, he observes likewise, means in 
Saxon ' Rostrum/ We perceive tliere* 
fore that the Element is universally 
used to expres$ s'Qmethiog belpiigii^g to., 
those general receivers — the Mouth 
—the Lips or the Jaw§. . / That the 
names for food and the actions relating 
to eating and drinking should be de- 
duced from this source, we sh^U rqadily 
admit. Hence Cibus, which is de- 
rived by the Etymologists from ¥.i^^ 
Kift^Tiok, &c. '* Cibus," says Fcstus, 
appellatur ex Gr<ec.o, quod illi pe- 
ram in qua cibum recondunl K»CwT«ok 
" appellant." So universal is the ai'k 
— the KiCwT©*; that even the ordinary 
name for food has been dei'ivcd from 
this source ! We have already noticed 
the Gipsey word for food, Gobbii^, 
and the French verb Gober; which 
has been derived by Menage from Cupa 
^-^Qupare. To the terms Gobbin — Go- 
ber, we must refer a race of words in 
bur own language. Gobble — Gobet, 
&c. Gobble is referred by Junius to 
i IUCx«^^ which in Hesydiius isjexpjained 





SlIARAft. (Ar.)SHARBAT. (Ar.) 

SiiURBA — Shoorba. (Pers,) Soup, 
Shoob, (Ar.) The juice pf meat. 
Shooba, (Pers,) Gruel. 
SvBEN — KEV-fl/tn. (Celt,) Jus. 

Sherab — GHt/RUB— ^ (Arab.) 
Kyhuuf— Saapa, &CC.) Wine. 

...» > . 

SoiF. (Fr.) ^ 

Shurbet. (Ar.) } 

CivADE. (Old Fr.) Avoine. 

Giv— Jiv, (Gips.) Wheat. 

Gib. (Gips.) Barley, 

Jou, 3 Wheat — Barley, 


all see, is direct. Hence Sapere- 

Kotlkmm; dcvorftt, absorbet; and in 
Ljie it is compared tq the Irish Gob, 
rostrum. Gobet, which is used bv 
Chaucer as it is at present for qffa buccea, 
has been referred to the French Gobeau^ 
and Gob. '' II avalla tout de Gob,'' 
(says Skinner) '^ uno spiritu deglutiit." 
As Gqb — ^GoBBE^, &c. are derived^ 
from the word signifying tl>c Mouth ; 
so is the interprelati6n which I have • 
given, Buccea, deduced from Bocca. 
To this universal term for the Mouth 
or Lips must be referred tlie words ex- 
pressive of taste, whether it be of a 
pleasant or disagreeable nature. Hence 
Sapio — Sapor — Sapidus — SoAVts, ' 
&c. &c. Martinius has ventured to 
derive Sapio from the Hebrew word, 
which we have before given for the 
' I/ip;' though he adds " Pcssit ^7'^w/iw^ 
*' referri ad <rf« (pro (r»iO«) ottov percolo 
*' succum;" and he has not observed 
the affinity between Savium2ii\d Sapio. 
It might have been imagined that so ~ 
obvious a resemblance could not have 
been overlooked in any state of Etynio- ' 
logy. I find in \'^ossius the same silence 
luider the article Sapere. From tlie 
body to the mind the transition, as they 
-Sapiens, with the idea of Wisdom^ 

&c. TastCf we know likewise, l)as both senses. 


CD/CF, CP, CV; &c. 181 

Sip — Sup — Soup — Sop — Supper, &c. 'with their various parallel 
u^ords in other languages, belong to theis radical, I have dftly inserted 
a-fevv of those similar terms, as the reader wilt instantly supply in his own 
language the'words of ^ such familiar occurrence. In TOihe cases tljey bear 
tiic signiikatioii of a moderiHe Tmd gervUe mode in drinkmg,-'as iniSrp — Sup, 
&c. In others they con wy a contrary idea. Thus Sauffen means i it 
German to drink Aa/'rf — deep, kcJ This isi remarked by Junius, who has 
seen likewise that 'SAB»;2:*m (laEa^il bacchari) — ^^azios (EiSa^iQ^*, cogno- 
men Bacchi) ar(J terms belonging. to jBtfcrAi/jit and have some affinity witli 
ifee race of words ^fore us^i The Commentators on Hesy6bius (sub voce 
ixC©*) have not failed to produce the Hebr^jw word SBA (K2D) V^r^/w^ 
A/to.. This' word signifies, says* 'Parkh^rst, *' Tb drink hard , guzzle, 
^^' ingurgitare:" ' '^^Hencc," (says th4t Lexicographer) */jthe;GreekSa€a^«v, 
"^ to rave or riot like. a bacchanal^ bacchari. Hence also Bacchus ^as 
*' introduced among the Athenians under the name of 2fvc la6a^»^, but 
*' expelled their city by means of Aristophanes, who inveighed violently 
*f agninst him.^' Our £n^lifidi : word Quaff must be zAd^-^^o this race 
of words. Itmcans^ ^aysjiinius ^* avide se vino ingurgitar^^ . and appears 
" to be derived from tlic iEoIic word ¥ivATizdi?i (Kvxpt^siu) whi^h signifies 
the same Kua6»^iiv> cyathis iiidulgere." I shall leave tjie reader to determine 
whether Quaff and KvAFizein are immediately derived from the more 
general sense of thcElemeixt or tlonl tlie peculiar notion of the attendant^ 
on drinking, Cup-^(^* CuP'iis till the world go round.") Uncfcr th^ word 
Sip, Junius refers us to the Greek 2»(p«w^«v, and adds a quotation from the 
Plinian Exercitations\of* Salmasius, which wc shall afterwards apply to 
another purpose. • " Ora?ci> . inquit, .fr-^^m vel ^o-if^m vocapt Avenam, ct * 
'« xri^vi^£ik T6k oikdv vittumodalamis haurire." 2if«>^i8 not directly* derived 
f(on\ this' race of Avorde; ttJt 'belongs: to the. more, general ^errse of rfie: 
Element under the idea.:ofian.JnstKurae0t,. jtlut is hoWrw. . The French • 
Critics will iv>w undetstiritjjlihfe derijration.ofjtheir. woi:4;CH*fioi}tRi i»{hich : 
answers; i<o oor -Si/?i m * i3HiP.<^BR!) ^say^l4)bbe)v.^* /C* 4teriv«ifefiri8»»^^^^ 
.'! a: »i Aaa " s'amuser 


" s'amuser a buvoter du bout de levres sculement;'-* though Manage 
observes '^ Chipoter ne se dit parmi nous de ceux qui buvotent, xnais de 
*' ceux qui mangeotent/' Our derivation, we perceive, explains both its 
meanings. Whether Sou per — Supper be derived from the Soupe Uid the 
Supping, that light liquid food, which is sometimes used at these meals; or 
whether from the opposite idea of the great and substantial repast — the time 
of taking in the Cibus; I shall leave to the researches of the Antiquary to 
detennine. I have only to prove that it must be, and was originally^ 
derived from the idea of receiving sustenance. Sops and Sippets, though 
they may be deduced from another sense of the Element, belong probably to 
this idea : A Sop is bread souped , if I may so ex[N:e8s it, or bread soaked 
in the Soup; though I have suggested on a former occasion that it might 
be referred to the idea contained in Soft. Sorb eg in Latin must be added 
to this race of words. The Etymologists, Vossius and Martinius, are not 
aware that there is any word in the Latin language, which bears a kindred 
signification ; and they have accordingly had recourse to a foreign original. 
Vossius has referred it to the Arabic word; from which thefatniiliar term 
in our language — ^Syrop is derived. ** Sorbeo,** says Vossius, " ab Arabico 
" (VyS*) Sariba, sorbere, bibere; de quo et in Sirupus diximus." In 
Junius and Menage we have a similar origin of Sirrup; and Lye observes 
that our words Shrub and Sherbet are to be classed under the same idea. 
Sharab (wly^) denotes, says he, in Arabic, quicqnid bibitur; and Shar* 
BAT, (aj-it) aerived from the same stock, has the same meaning. Lye has 
rightly understood this matter; and all these terms, we perceive, belong 
to the Element CB or SB. Shoorba or Shurba (Lm^) i" Persian is 
'* Broth, Soup, gruel." Shoob (s-Um*) in Arabic comprehends both the 
senses of the element; and means what is received or taken in for sustenance 
both in eating and drinking. It signifies '* the juice of meat, honey, a 
•^ piece of cake or paste;" and Sbooba (ly^^ji) in Persian means 'Gruel/ 
I cannot help observing in tliis place that our English Etymologif>ts have not 
seen the affinity belw^n Jus afoU Juiw, though they have noticed the mom 



CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 


Jw — Juice. 

Bnth — waTO^-^Bread. 

2aimn.(Gips.)) Broth, 
Zmnon. (Gr .) ) 

remote resemblance between Juice and 
Succiis. Broth is derived by the Teu* 
tonic Etymologists from B(«^oif^ esca^ 
cibus; which is the same as Bread; 
and there is a similar coincidence be- 
tween Soup and Cibus. Let me add that the Gipsies and the Greeks 
coincide in their name for Broth — Zimin — %om(m (^w^o; — ^«f*«») In tl}c 
Celtic Dialects, among other terms for Jus^ I find Suben and KEV-alen, 
(See Lhuyd sub voce) and it might easily be proved that the terms for this 
species of liquid are generally derived from the ordinary words^ which 
signify to take food in general. We perceive that the Gipsey and the 
Greek words coincide likewise with the Celtic Suben, by the familiar 
change of M into B, letters of the same organ. Whether the Gipsey term 

for eat be derived from thb Element, I 
am unable to determine. '^ Nistis 
" Kauva ke divve'' means * 1 did not 

* eat to day;' in which instance VA 
may be the termination of the past 
tense ; as it is in tlie Latin and modern 
languages Am-«&-am — ^Am-flr;-i — ^Am- 
tfiKt (in Italian) &c. and in English ' I 
' have loved/ or as it might be, ' Loved 

* have 1/ or * Lovd«ft;i/ This coin- 
cidence of the Latin and English 
past tenses has been before observed. 
If VA be merely the termination of 
the tense, Kau belongs to our words 
Chem — Chatth-r-Jaw ; which is to be 
found in the sense of eating in a variety 
of languages^ and which was jMTobably 
derived from tbesouod madi^ by the > 



Kho(heA\xn, \ (Pers.) To chew. 

Nistis Kau-y^ ke diwe.'' (Gips.) 
I did not eat to-day. 

. :* 

iCA^-ai-edun, ) 
Ceo- wian. (Sax,) 
Kauhen. (Germ,) &c. &c. 
Gnaw. (Eng.) — Knau-tm. (Gr,) 
Chneg^^n. (Ger.) &c. 

Geauh — Gii/ah. (Pers.) Grass. 
Chatv. (Gips,) The same. 
Tche. (Chinese,) Tea. 
Ga-s. (Hindoo.) 
Gr^ass — G^5. (Eng.) 
Gie-rs. (Sax.) 


*' CWpes." (Lat) Jaxcs in that operation. Thusift Persian 

Grao, (Or. T^oua) ComeiJo. * Khai-cdun — - K hoo-cdun ATAcffai- 

Gr-astis. (Gr. rf«m) Grass. . ^ edun' ((^Oy^ls^ ^^OsM^ O*^'^^^) 

Gr-amen. are the words which signify to .CA^'. 

' ' Kdu7i is the termination of the infini- 

tive. The synonymops words to Chetv may be found in our Etymologists. 
Kauen, (German) &c. &c. Skinner advances no-fuxther than the Greek 
Xaivw and KaTtlto; and Junius refers us to the English Gfiaw — the Greek 
K?ian-eii\ {Xvuvttu) — the German Chneg-zn (now nag-en) Sec. &c. which 
are all derived from the same idea. We must ever be mindful of the union 
of G and N in the organs of speech ; for the enunciation of which in some 
languages a particular character is appropriated. Ge-auh or Giyah (oIa&») 
i^Wans in Persian '* Green Herbage or Grass;" and this in Gipsey is Chaw^ 
which is »<-cprcsented in Grellman by Char — Tsclutr; to which he has given 
the parallel Hindoo name Gas; where we see preserved the second part 
of the compound Gr-ass or G-ass. In Saxon it is sometimes Ga-rs. AJThat- 
ever be thfe origin of the compound, or whether it be so or not, the fact 
is precisely the same. The. Hindoo Gas and the English Grass belong* to 
eiKjh other; and in. the -French * G^^rion,' the R has disappeared. By 
Menage Capes is supposed ta be the root of Gazon : CV-^pes belongs toi 
the same family; and the English Etymologists are aware that the- Greek 
words Grao, to eaty-Orastis (Gramcn^ which is likewise to be noted) should, 
be referred to Gras^ Even that word, which is most familiar to our 
mouthsj and which many of our modern dames, I fear, repeat .oftcncr 
than their matins or their vcspcrs-^cven the word Tea is probably derived 
from the same general source t)f .a .common speech or a commjpn •nature.. 
We must evtr remember the mingled sound in the Eastern languages of 
the T and the-S. . Du Halde represents the Chinese word for Tea by l)scu^« -, 
It isthe*grcatsourc4:5 of subsistcnce-^lie Chaw or the CA^^^jpftliat .portion* 
of- the Efistcrh world;. and it is singularly curious that the prQductofso> 

distant a region «bou4d bdconie the anoM important object in the transaf^t^pns) 
wj \\ of 

..C3. qF, C.P, CV,,&c. 185* 

of. a British Day* Thq ' Te vcnicnte die, Te deccdrnte/ js a well known 
niece of waggery on. this topic, which, like similar pleasantries, never 

• ■* . ..V f''* •Jf»Ji"' 

tails to excite a smile. '\ r But smile of such a sort," 

*' As if we mock'd oi — ^"^^ — ^ '"■ ^^" 

■ . ri • ♦ 

" AS II we mocRU ourselves, ana.scorna our spint 

*' That could be mov d to smile at.silch a thing. 

The Arabs represent the noise made in gnawing by A AWe^-^A^w/?/ fO^^sL, 

ciAji/jik. J Crdsh — Crush — ^uash — Squash, &c. are terms formedftom the 

^ound, anid relate either to this action or to a similar effect in tlic forcible 

separation pf particles from each other^ In vulgar language we hay? 

CrdJich'-r') / I- J X ^ _\ I likewise C;Y7;ic/e — Scran'ch; and we 
J... . : wapplicd to eating.) •' r; ;; ::f^* % 

Scranch. ) bring it at once to the .Greek K?iau- 

Knackingf applied to the noise of cinand Gwfl-thos(rv«Oo?, the Jaw) when 

. the Gw^-thos-qr law. , we complain of the noise made in eat- 

Gen — Kanu (Celt.) The Jaw. ing, by saying *' What a Knackln^hi^ 

Qaia, Ganrn^ Gc;^^, )(Celt.) *' makes. We perceive that the GN 

Gen?/, G/on, ) The Mouth, exists in the Greek name for the Jaw: 

...... • . 

CImunehrKiinjch. (Pers.) The Jaw. In the Celtic it is Gen, Karn; and the 

Mouth is Gcna, Ganau, Gene, Ge?iu, 

', ' ■ * 

Gion. The Latin Gcwfl we know to be a contiguous part; and the Persian 

names for a Jaw 2lxc Chauneh and Kiinjch. (aJL^ dcs^"^^) The Jaw, by 

the ordinary addition of N, might have been the Jnaic, as it appears in 

Gnaic. I shall leave the reader to determine, whether these terms are 
♦' • * • ' ' ^ ' , * * * ■ ■ '' 

derived from the noise made in eating, or whether they do not belong to 

the general sense of the Elenient— the idea of a hollow or enclosure! That 

^any terms were originally derived from the supposed resemblance of an 

action to a sound ,cannot be doubted ; but we must remember that the 

• . • • ■ 

• > ■ . . . ■ 

resemblance often vanishes, as it parses from, one Imagination to another; 
^nd affords no proof of the original impression, when it is committed to 
the representation of Letters. By the record pf letters however we can 
aiscover the deep and unequivocal traces of a common language in the 
symbol's of sin>Uar ^Elements annexed to similar objects :— We can distiriguisli 

B b b with 

.If* ' .* * 

'I . > » 


with precision their devious stepk through the great labyrinth of speech'; 
though tlie vestiges of the original impression n\ay have long disappeared^ 
and are perhaps obliterated for ever. The Element CB or S6 not only 
forms words signifying a liquid composition — Shrub — Sherbet — Sirrup, &c. 
but it supplies the appropriate and familiar term for Wine. Sherab in 
Arabic (v«jl jii) signifies *' Wme or any beverage-;" and we shall find the 
same Element under various forms in that language expressing the sam<6 
thing, Ghufub — Kyfiauf^Saafa, &c. according to the representation of 
Richardson, (sub vocq Wine.) The liquid and the desire of the liquid 
imnxediately connect themselves with each other; and after we have got 
Sip — Sup — Sherbet, &c. we shall not wonder at the French So if and tHe 
Arabic Shurbet (y^^) " Thirst.^' I must suggest to the Arabic 
Scholar that the words for Thirst beginning with Lin that language are, I 
believe, most of them derived from the particle L, signifying from ov 
deprived of, and a noun expressing a liquid — wattr, &c. I im awate 
however of the word for Flame beginning with that letter in the Arabic 

and in many other languages English Lowe — ^Loweings, &c. '&c. 

though words of this sort often appear under the form of GL. As it 
supplies the important and necessary words expressing what is talcen into 
the Mouth by way of liquid; it affords likewise the familiar terms to 
denominate what principally supplies man with sustenance. * Civad/ 
in old French is Avoine, which the Etymologists perceive to bear some 
relation to Cibus; but what is curious, in the Gipsey language Giv h 
Wheat; and, according to the Collector of the words in Grellman, Jiv 
and Gib are respectively the Gipsey terms for Wheat and Barley; ink 
Giuw — Jou, those in the Hindostan language. The French Gibier, ano- 
ther very important species of Food, has been referred by the Etymologists 
to Cibus; though perhaps this word belongs to a different idea. The 
reader will, I trust, now be able from the examination of these few ex- 
amples to unravel the various words which he may find with the Element 
'''"H— SB, &c. relating to objects of sustenance ; and I shallnow piroceM 


Qldi G^> CP, CV, &6, 


f (Pefs.) The Tongue- 

tb {hineWtcIkiJstif \v0rd9 di^Ved tr^m the tiimt orgMi^-^die Svavivm — 
die Moutk^-^ht 'Laps; or Irotfk a ebtiliguous part employed in the same 
dffice. We have obiserved that a ttttk of words -bdongs te this Elemeitt 
reiatiflg to tl^fe ^weft iif '•Spc^h-^-Cabber — Gibberish, &c. &c. and tliat 
they are uaturfittydoHfiCilgted With the Mouth or Lips, an organ, which is 
directly ^ken Trtfm tiie ^fftlM fainiMidr sense conte^ in the Elcnaent. But 
80 intimate is ike iinio&l>et^'eeti the Mouth and the' jNwr;? of ipeech, that 
the Element has supplied lik^wisfe thfe name for a contiguous member — 
t^ Tongue; wiiich te inost dorineCtetl with the faculty of talking, and 


tirhich in every language has been «t 6nce the term for the organ and tlie 
dflfect. I am unable to conv6y my i<k^as on the subject, without illustrating 
file force of my observation in the words which I employ. 

The Tb*fGUfe (Lingua) felhfe organ andJtbe:spo€fdi or Ijanguioge: 

In Persian Zubaun ((^b^) is the ap- 
propriate ^and^fsmiliar tttm for the 
T4ngue or language ; and what is curi- 
ous, it possess^ a -metaphorical mean- 
ing, which belongs to another sense 
of our word Tongue : ^ The Tongue or 
•*^Shank of a button/' It is marvellous 
to observe the propensity in distant 
-!zruBXiiE.(Pers.)LingUlapud«ndi. nations to form similar metaphors from 

siftiilar objects. Zu & a ne '(^^^Ji) in 
Persian is likewise JLm^/a"pudendi. 
There is another meaning of the -word 
Zuban derived from a feelipg, which 
is*indeed well understood by the north- 
'efn nations, but which is only of suffi- 
'cient force in the eastern regions to 
'Operate on the formation of language. 



Language— the Tongue 
or shank of a l)utton — 


irrGu^FTEi*:" (Pefs.) To' Speak, say. 


€uft—Gityd. (Vers.) He said. 

^ Sy«r*." (EngV) 

'* S^WeAM.*^'(Ocrtn.) &c. 



" Gab- — Gabble — Gabbbr- 

'< GlBBERISH— r-GlBE — ^Jape- 

♦♦ Jabber," &c. 

Chop. (Eng.) To chop Ipgick. 
Gabber. (Fr.) 
Gabbare. (Ital.) Moqucr. 
Gabb. (Run.) Ludibriuni. 

I: . ' '. 

Gabbadur. (Run.) Deceptor. 


(Lat) Scurra apud 


Gabb. (Isl.) 

ZuftAj^f ^gnifics a Flame*; apd. Jby. ^ 

, phrase in ..Arabic w;c/,are brought back. 

to the spQcues of flapic, which supplied 

the original idea. Lisan (^^LmJ) in 

-Arabic nieans th^ M Topgi^e, language/'; 

and . " LUsaumC vH natir'' means the 

.'V Tongue of fire. I.e. Flame without 

. ^' smoke/' • We have perpetually ol>^ 
served, that when ideas from different 

• sources coincide, it is extremely djffi.^ 
cult to be decided in our judgment. 
T\\(tfon)i of the Tongue has certainly 
suggested the notion of Tongues of 
Fire; yet I imagine that in the present 
instance, the idea of burning heat con- 
nected with the Tongue has been de- 
rived from a diftcrent souirce. This 

. jvill be manifest .by, considc^ins: tneta** 
phoricai expressions of a similar nature. 
JBugloss, Borage, and Plantbne, (those 
vegetables so cooling to the Tongue) 

are in Arabic expressed by a compound 
G ABBAN. (A. S.) Denderc, illudcre. of which Lisan (the TongueJ is a part ; 

(See Richardson sub voce Usaii) zvA 
a similar compound takes place in Per- 
sian with Zubaim. We perceive in 
Greek that the Bugloss — the BayA«(r« is 
a word, of which the Tongue forms •& 
part. In Arabic Lehesan ((ma^) sig- 
nifies ''Thirst/' and J^has.{\^l^) k 


lAPTO— VGr.) 

Japto. JConviciis sector. 

Qujp. (Eng-) 

' CK, CI?", C P, C V> &c, 1 8P 

((Pcre.) A fboli^dr bitter explimed tjif Rkhaidscm ^' Lc^itig o^ 
GfiAd.4 ^' the tongue {vLS "SL dog, either from 

. v: 1; ext)rc^HW, ; ^ thirst :pr fot^ue)^- ,Buruiiig thirst/* 

. 13.'' li ^ J • Hit vui '^iBwry thiiig bdongiiliy to this liaice of 

Jawar. (x^r.) a wwdy'spiech. j wwds appearsitd be oo]iilpctedlwxth>the 

effect of /Airrf oh the organs of tht 
mouth. The word preceding the last quoted from Richardson is '< Uvula/* 
We have before ob^en^^d* that the images of the < Po6t| the sage ori the 
prophet, appeal at ohce to those prinei^Ies of the mind artd feelings of the 
ftMnk, which are mo€it intimately involved with the piedbminirting ener* 
gies of our nature ; as they are farmed or excited by the influence of custom, 
of climate, of liaws or of K^ligion. As our knowledge : therefore ofc» the 
human mind is enldfged or e»ligl¥teined, we shall be enabled ntlore ftilly 
to understand and admiJie these appals tooiur nature; (Lild we may: expei:i( 
most to profit in such €«nquities by«^tlie developement of language-r-which 
alone, of all the inventions of inah, has been formed' into a' system of 
consummate art by thasole operation of our /e^/m^5-H-withotii:the aid of 
reflexion, contrivance or design. la the sublime and atfectibg i story of 
Dives and Lazartu we iixid the most striking appeals to tlie feeding dierived 
from the condition-aqd customs of tlie Eastern world and the Jcwibh nation* 
The bliss of the beggar Laz^us in Uie kingdoari of Heaven is described 
by imagery, which relates to a well known distlnctioir iin the ceremobies 
of an ancient feast. We view him at one momenta prey < to want and 
disease^ — lying ^ despised outcast among dogs at the gake ofthe ri^h mail, 
who is cloathed with purple and fine linen, and faring sumptuously 
within: On a sudden we behold him exalted to a state of 'glory, and 
honoured (as it were), with the most di^inguished place hi the ^Mitqutt^ 
of Paradise— *' He is carried by the Angek into Abraham^ib&tkim:-^ At 
the same time we find the rich man snatched from all his ^fearthiydUxiiVies, 
and condemned to anothe^^tate of esist&nfce ^^tW^ly- different frOm^ the 
former.— We behold Mm^3K:IiHted fer-d^ffK*m^^'f^i(3i^ 

c c c and 


and doon^d tOcihe cdlidition of those beings, who, according to the 
same vein^of imagery on a similar occasion, are " cast into outer darkness, 
*' amidst wailing ai^d goagdirng of teeth;" of beings, who arc exposed to 
the. bitter angiiiah of £hdjjig the abode of joy barred to their approach; 
wbeteatll isgh)om arid horror wUhmUr, and all light and happiness u^/V/tm. 
But the torment of the rich man is exhibited by a peculiar circumstance, 
which to the feelings, of an eastern frame would be singularly impressive. 
He is seized with tlic pains of intolerable thirst, and hoprj^s for a drop 
of water. to cdoL the bunaiogs of his Tongue, : *' And in hell he lifted 
"; up lus-eye^rbeiag in torments and seeth Abraham afar off, and La^a* 
*/ rusT in his .bosom. And be cried and said. Father Abraham, liave 
*' njercy onime; .and send Lazarus, that he may dip thO: tip: of his finger 
V in water,: ahd icool iny ton^jue, for I am tormented in Uiis flame/* 
(Luke h&. V. 23-4.) In the Alkoran we find, that the thirst of the un- 
believer allayed only by the drinking of boiling water. *'Then 
'*. ye, <) Men, who have erred, arid denied the resurrection as a falshood^ 
^^ shall surely eat of the fruit of the tree of Al Zakkum; and shall fill 
*^ your bellies tlierewith ; and ye shall drink as a thirsty Camel drinkedi* 
\^ This shall be your entertainment on the day of judgment." (Sale's Al- 
koran, chap. 56. The Inevitable.) The latter expression, ^< Ye shall 
f* drink as a thirsty Camel drinketli," is singularly forcible. in the Arabic; 
and the terms used on this occasion for drinking belong to that family of 
words; which have lately fallen under our discussion. .*' SHAHBun shrb 

t'," (-.a^I Vf^ OJV^) " ^^ ^^^^^ drink the draught of a 
^ thirst^diseased Camel ;" or as it might be in Latin with the same Element, 
If SoABebitis soRBitionem," &c. The word expressing a Camel: means 
origingily Thirst; and afterwards a Camel diseased by drLnking bad water 
io consequence of Thirst. Again we find, •' Verily Hell shall be a place 
*' of Ambush, a receptacle for the transgressors, who shall remain there 
** ;for ages : they shall not taste any refreslunent therein, except boiling 
\\ mff^r arid i&lthy corruption : a fit recompense ibr their deeds." (Alkoran. 

c. 78.) 


CB, CF,.CP, CV; &c. Ifil 

c. 78.)' Those Critics are but little acquainted with the doctrines of the 
Aikoran, or the gravity of the Arab character, who imagine that th^ 
Paradise of Mahomet displays only. the gross epjoymjepts ; of sensual gratifi- 
cation. With die Feast and the Damsels aire -cpml^ed dehghts, Vvhich 
are capable of exciting and rewarding the mostr.digqified qf our faculties* 
The enjoyment of wisdom and of truth is exhibited ^am^rtg .the •blessings of 
Paradise : The praises of the Creator will perpetually resound in the ears of its 
Inhabitants: The songs of tlie Angel Israfil, tlie mq§t molodious of beings, 
will for ever celebrate the power and the goodness of God ; and the very 
trees shall join in this great chorus of adoratioit and thanksgiving. Harmony 
and peace shall be the reward of the true believer, after the troubles an^ 
contentions of life; and the Prophet has expressly promised, that^the 
society of Paradise shall never be polluted by the rude babblings of strife, 
of falshood,. or of folly. *' They shall not hear therein any vain discourse, 
** or any cliarge of Sin; but only the salutation. Peace, Peace.'' \ (Al- 
koran, c. 56,) Agalo we find tlut ** For the pious is prepared a place of 
'^ bliss: gardens planted with, trees; and vineyards and damsels with 
** swelling breasts of equal age with themselves; and a full cup. Tha/ 
** shall hear no vain discourse there, nor any falshood.'' (Alkoran, c. 78. 
See too Sale's Preface, 100.) , 

From the words belonging to the Element CJB> &c. representing the 
Mouth — the Lips and the Tongue, we must refer the appropriate and 
familiar term in the Persian language to express the effect produced by 
these organs. Gvnten ((jJCi-^tin Persian signifies *^ To say, to speak> 
•* to call, to relate, rehears*; repeat ;" and Gvvt (*' the third .pers. pret* 
and verbal xioMnoi Guftcfi'') means " *• He said, he spoke. •• A word^ 
saying, speech, discourse." This verb in the Persian language is very 
irregular. In the imperative it makes Gu or Guy, which signifies "a 
•* word, a speech. ^. Saying. ^ Say thou ;" and in the third person of tUe 




Aorist it makes Guyd. I have had frequent occasion to observe thstf Iho 
anomalies of language are often derived horn the accklcDtal concurrence 
of different roots bearing a similar meaning; which in the writingt of the 
Grammarian have been referred to one common stock, and reoo^ded 
among the irregularitifei or exceptions to the general analogjr of the Im*- 
guage. 1 have littfe dtfubt but that the imperative Gu — Guy is to be 

referred to the race of words, which 
Gi^-Gary. (Per.) Say thou, a speech, we have found existmg in a variety 
Jmtr. (Eng.) of languages ; and which ans^^r to our 

*' Gaoi-a shoodun Gooi-^nn.'* English words Cheta — Jsnx^, &c. See. 

' (Per^.) To speak, qwasi ** Jaxih We know that in vulgar language /or 
^' edtrn.- - signifies to speak. In Persian there are 

Jay. (Eng.)— /fly, Geay. (Fr.) — two verbs from thb Ga, which pie- 
' Kaa. I^Dan.) — Ka, Kac, Kato. ciscly answer ta that idea. " Gooi-a 
* (Belg.)Tliebird.' *' sboodun" and '* G«i-edun" {^cXA 

U^Ss — ;^cXx>^£9) signify to talk. 
Til c former means, as if we should say in EngitSh, to "make zJdmf^ 


and the latter would be the mode of converting the £lnglisli word into the 
Persian infinitive. '^Gooi-ediwvi is quasi /dra;-edun.'* The /ay^ that chat- 
tering bird, which has found its way into so many languages, is nothing 
but the Jaiv; and it might easily be proved that all its various names are 
derived from this idea. Skinner thinks that the Jay is deduced *' a sono, 
*' quern edit, ut plera^que aliae aves;'* and he ventures to observe that the 
derivation of Menage from KoXw©* is too violent (nimis violenter.) In thfe 

Eastern languages Kool ( JjS) is one of 
Kol'Oxo^. (Gr.) the appr(^iate terms for * talking', or 

Kool. (Ar.) Talk, Jaxv. jawmg. Hence is the Greek iLoiaios 

^ Graculus.*' (Lat.) (Ko^oio^, Graculus, impucfenter k)<|uax.) 

Cackle. (Eng.) The Latin Graailus is nothing but our 

Cajoll. (Eng.) vulgar word Cackle turned into Latiiu 

Call — CoiL (Eng.) Even the Etyttiologists are awaiediat 

■ "" ' Cajoll 

CB, CP, CP, C\\ &CC. 19S 

Cajoll belongs to Graculus. They have seen likewise, on the authority of 
CMrdarif that Call and K«xhi belong to the Eastern word Col, the voice ; 
though tlicy imagine that Coil, (*' To keep a coil,** J which, we now see, 
means to make a noise, ie derived frmn the idea of taking a person by the 
CoUar; or from the noise made in coiling up any thing. If Coif, in the 
sense of noise or distitrbance, were turned into Greek, as a verb; it might 
betepresented in that language hyKoLoao{KQ\MM,tumu\Uxor, do4urbas;) 
which is the very word applied by Homer to express this idea. Thersites 
only, says tlie Poet, still 'kept up a Coil/ 

To coil in the sense of coiling up a rope belongs to a great race of words, 
of ^hich the familiar Eastern term KL, signifying -4//, may be considered 
as the general representative; and the reader who should consult the page 
in. Mr. RicbardsoA'S Dictionary, where this word KL ( Jk^^) All occurs, will 

find " Kelab, z reel, any wheel on 
j^ f r ((Pers.) A yrheel on which *' which they u;iW thread, *' A clew, a 
V they wind thread, *' hank, a skein of thread." KL is 

Clew. (Eng.) Glomus, that, which makes an all (or whole) 

KuXi% volvo. of what is loose-^^scattered; &c.— *hat, 

Clywe. (Sax.) which brings all under one, by holding 

Kullab. (Ar.) The talons of a hawk. — confining, &c. &c. Mark the word 
Claw. (Eng.) cloi; (which is derived from the same 

Kelt. (Gr.) The claws of a crab. idea)— the Latin GLomus and the Greek 

KuXutf, volvo ; togetlier with the Saxon 
ctywe, &c. &c. to be found as parallel or explanatory terms in the Ety- 
mologists. The reader will likewise find in the same page of Mr. 
Richardson's Dictionary, ** Kullab, "• A pot-hook; also a hook for draw- 
f'ing bread from ovens. *' Th^Talons (of a Hawk);" and he will not fail 
to recollect tlic English word Claxv, the Talons of birds. The Etymologists, 
we may imagine, know nothing of all this : They cannot however avoid 
obierving that. iTr/if (Xn^^n) in Greek signifies the. C/im;^ of a Crab. 

D d d Gu^d 


Gui/d. (Pers.) Guyd- occurs in Persian as iaoiiltailjr 

Quoth. (Eng.) He said. as our ancient term Quoth; and I 

Cwathan. (Sax.) liave little doubt but that the one hzB 

Cythan. (Sax.) &c. an affinity with the other. iUMh 

Qithan. (Goth.) occurs in various dialects of the Teu^ 

Quat — Quadi (Dan. &c.) tonic language. * It is Cw4sthan or Cy-- 

—Quath, (Dixit. t/ian- in H^xon^-^&itban in Gothic, &cl 

and as a third person we find Qiiatf-^ 
quad quath (dixit) among the nortliern dialects of the Runic^ Danidi^ 
&c. We i^erceive in the English word Sp^^- — the. German Sf rechen, 
&CC. &c. tlut the sp exists in die first part of the word; and this, I 
have little doubt, should be referred to SAvium, the Lips; but of the 
second part of the compound I have not been able to discover afiy iBo^oiGe, 
which I can deem satisfactory. To this race of- words we nwst xefer 
Gab — Gabble — Gibberish — Gibe-^Jabber, &c. The Etymologists 
know nothing of tlieir derivation : They have produced only the *parall^ 
terms in other languages — the French Gabber (Moquer) atnl the Italian 
G abb ARE. The French Etymologists are equally ignorant of the origjia^ 
which refers^^to the Mouth. The name for the Mouth wc have seen ia 
English under the ibrm of Chops; and we shall now cease to wonder istt 
the phrase Chopping logick^ which has so much embarrassed the Critic 
on Shakspean^. To Chop logick is to J ABZ^err, or to utter it with the CnoFSi 
From the idea of talking we instantly pass to the signification of deceiving 
by talk, and from this to die notion of deceiving in general. Wc must 
however in this case observe that tlic idea of deceiving may be derived from 
the most familiar sense of the Element — ' To possess or take into pos^ 
' session/ The very phrase to take in is used, we perceive, with this 
ntetaphorical allosion ; and the word Deception^ wliich i have used as the 
appropriate term on this occasion, is derived from the Element CP. 
I >^ z& «vcry school boy has seen in the ordinary lexicons, means, ^* To 
Of delight, to allure, inveigle, wheedle, or trej>an/' One of tbe 


mo$t €Kpr?^ve tpra^ ^ tlie pjUxs^ctloQs of rfi^^npt^^i pl^rw^ O^tmte^ i$ 
derived £roin thiside^. i}n axaAVr c^s^ U is difi^cultr t^i4^Qide, whetb^ 
tbe word )be deduced frojip the gepcral or pcc\il^ sig4J^qai<HT; nor Is k 
oecesaary tQ\,for|^e 9qn|irnu^on.,of my ^ypo^c^^rirr?!^ .^e^i^ all 
belong to Ae Blefflfi^ frpi» ^?y^iatejie/c jswr^: fhey wf® ilP 'd^^ffd ?' 5ri»ey' 
all:sprii|g:frepa.rte|,faa^e,(floaiJ9W'.M<?9fc» fl^OIJgl) ^-?t!fiW»wM'?term4n© 
from whatpecuUv brajriRh.(tli(?f vf^qeine :<hcir,j;f9>v;lu; [.^Ij^itpip^l honirq 
«ver,.)asrefec !tO!ttH3t'S|>eci<?? of^eqcpt>oi^ wh\c\i bel^f^^ii^ j^krnrgiHf^uU 

t^lk—^pcech\ &<:^ i>ait )vhiicii, ^iftervvardp ar<c appiiod tp dpQ^U/U^—-^ vfiinry^ 
i^krr'-^yUm—^jaUHg' ^\At.,Kf &ic. &:c. Thus^ we kuow^ ** d^r^e v^bft aUcni;^ 

a«ipty ; .'an4 >FM^uUh ^e. in LajtlEi, \ w^jcU -is. <iptl>Mpg^t J^Wrff-fTT^rf^/'y 

F^Mtf^CLa^) > ., ) Celtic word for /a/A' Par A,WL,loq«elii; 

iNi^Mi^^.<La<.) ,r ,;ii ,— ^A«A»A.v, loc^t.. (8ee.LJi\iy4 

B(fbi^-^Palqvei\ ,1 i <■ i : : sub vpcibms^, I# Jrislii; ^^r^y^f i$ Ui» 

ifflraW. (Celt.) J-oqiUf la. ^ , ,. ; appropriate. Ijenn for: Jjxn^u^gp <* 

Pcrably. ,(Celt.) I^<}uprx Spopch ; - 4nd • tke: C<^c $ebiolaF; wjrU 

Bcwdm {It J) Speeclu' ' discover tliait aill tjh^se ^rais are to be 

PrUtbU'^Prabkl^-^I^abbkr. y rciferfcfd; to' th^ t\ame .fpr'itlne Moyt^ 

Favdla.. (Ital J ^Langu^^igp. , . . . , ; ,yyiU» the jEieipeut -.Bm* - ^ Tfei? -teriij ap. 

Parley— tPfirlatift ^f;^. .^ , r.- ; ,; .pears again, ip Englisb' uin^r «nothQt 

BAL, (Heb.) A hviikkr, ferm in the vulgar ;plirase Pribble — - 

BiUtiL (Eng.)..T<? jiooU. Prubble—Byabblfir, b^fn,, (" He will 

;„, , ,fi 11. -: ■ , "«peDd.lwftMrHHitV,,an^ p.ratnweUk« 

"Brehler^^i&.Mo^n^^' (Xk^A and,,t;r.).: la^ ,tlie .Italia^* /J/w^//^, »{«« h 
retwrn3tp its origipaj sense tpf spee/ch;iArg<?iieraI;' ^ki^d in |h« FfftnMi Purler 
Y-tlie italkui /^^rZore-rrtbe Het^rew BAIp.(^5)'a fi^/is/fl^'-^^andiiie jBn^iab 
^f^^c;/ l(tp;^t);,vfe .ba¥e c^y> a pdrt of; jtjb;^ W«ipfiiir^,,,/Jfn;th!p^xv|jiitiA 

ih. . Fabiilor, 

'. >. 


Fabulot^'^nih Celtic idea is likewise jrfesetvefd;* as the drdinarjr ittstan<Je 
from Plautus will prove: *' Otnnes sa^tentcs decet conferee et Jbbu 
larL" Under the word Cabber in Junius, who explains it *' Nugari^ 
jocari, s^rmones ineptos efRitire," t^ find the Runic GtfW ludibrhim 
et ' ^ Gabb^dur/ dfeceptus; He reminds us likewise of the ** cefeberrimus 
<^ -seutra'^' in Martial ^bba) and suggests the word Gi6*«kiSH as thi^ 
p6euliar term for the language of the Gipsies, or Mgyp^iMB. This we see 
ii^'only an accidental concurrence. Lye remarks the familiarity o£ the 
Isiaridk^iitfrBA to the Sax<>n '* Gabban' deridere^ illudete." ^ In our 
ancient language^ Chauc&, &ic. this terni appears un^r the fohn of Jap*;- 
and Junius imagines that it should be referred to th6 word Gape. A 
Gaping fellow means in English, as he imagines, jactabundtis ; and the wdl 
knb\|rn nft^taphor in HotSLce, he thinks, is of the same species : '^ Quid 
^' dignum i^nto* feret hie proraissor hiatu.'* A gaping fellow mestos hi 
English rather the Dupe titan the Dupcr ; yet we perceive that Gape and 
Jape; belong to the sihie object-^— the Chaps or the Chops — SuAV-«rI 
I shall leave the reader to determine whether the IafIo or JAPf(^ of thd 
Grfeeks (lairii, convicifi^se<^to^) should be referred to this race; We knoT^ 
that many of the words beginning with the Iota in Greek, or appearing 
under a vowel form, assume in other languages the power of the consonant; 
and we shall find the Various' senses of Japio (i«^1« mitto, jacio, jungo) tvell 
to agree with the spirit of the Element CB — ^JB, if we recollect that the 
name for the Hand, Cib, belongs to this race of words* To Jibe^^Japii 
Jtc. we shall have no difficulty in referring the ancient word QtripJ 
(" QuiPB and cracks and wanton wiles") *' Perstringere,'" says Junius,' 
^* acribus dicteriis excipere/' Our other Etymologists derive this word 
from Whip. In Persian, Ghab (OLc) means ** A foolish, also a bitter or 
^* malignant expression ;'* and in Arabic Jatvab (^jUjii.) ' signifies *' An 
*^ answer, a word, a speech, a proposition." Thii term occurs in the* Ode' 

« • 

of Hafiz, translated by Sir William Jones, in his Grartimar of the Persian 
Language ; which (in my (^)kiibn) is one of the most unprofitable an4 



above. I am aware, that the appropriate name for the Cofie does not 
belong to the Element SK; but every dabbler in Etymology has heard 
and wondered that the name for the hollow of a Sack |SK) is to be found 
in all languages. ** Vox omnibus Unguis communis, ut creditur, linguas 
'* ante Diluvium Catholicas awoavrufriJioHm'** We shall now, I imagine, for 
the first time, cease to wonder that this word should have survived the 
devastation of the deluge, and still continue among the sons of Adam to 
'* speak in every tongue ta every purpose." We know that things rqlating 
to each other, though of an opposite meaning, are expressed by variations 
of the same Element. We have ' Man' and rf'(;-MAN'— ^MAi:^: and Fe- 
MALE — CAP^iens^nd CAV-tuni — the KECEiv-ing and the RECEiv-crf, &c. 
&c. Hence we shall not wonder, if the Element SK should supply a 
term at once opposite and appropriate to S/ickr. ** So God created Man 
" in his own image, in tlie image of God created he him; Male and 
'* Female created he them." (Gen. 1. v. 27.) Zachar wtkebah (nip31 
131.) Zachar is the name for Man; and though we have not the same 
Element (SK) Sliekr, or some word of that kind, as the opposite term for 
Woman ; yet wc have the same idea under anotlier Element : — Ne^ab 
!lp3 (NKB) says Mr. Parkhurst, '* To make hollow, form cavities, bore, 
" pierce, or the like — to pierce, penetrate, perforate — ^a hole, or cavity — z 
** Female from her sex — as a noun, 2|?" (KB) " a Cab, a measure of 
'* capacity," &:c, &c. &c, I beseech the reader to mark the word Sex, 
which ,Mr. Parkhurst has used on this occasion. Can he doubt that 
ScX'—SexHs should be, referred to the Zachar and the Sheir? It is- 
pleasant to hear the derivations of our Etymologists from Sexiim pro scctum 
and sessum: From the former " quia" (says Vossius) '* per sexu?n animal 
•' in mareih ac fcemirtam secatur;'' from the latter; because^* Seji^u$'u& 
" paribus distifiguitur, quae in sedendo occuluntur." In Arabic Sar 
fv^M>*i) signifies *' one mode, order. Sex or sp^ies." We know that 
Sekos (inxo^) in Greek means an enclosure of various kinds, fiioip the hum- 
ble, sheepfoldto tlje mystic rec^(» qf the Temple. It signifies lik^wisci 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c, 199 

(as we find in Aristotle) what we have seen Shi/kb to mean in Arabic — the 

hollow, in which birds deposit their eggs. In Hebrew SK (rrDEf) signifies 

to *' set up a fence — as a noun^ an enclosure, a place fenced — Zxuvw/iAa" 

(let the reader mark ZKnyufAot) <' a tabernacle." If the Hebrew Critics will 

consider this, as the fundamental idea of their root, diey will find no 

difiiiculty in the various senses, which they labour so violently to explain on 

other principles. They will not wonder that the enclosure of rest — safety, 

&c. should produce a verb signifying to settle — another to lay to rest or 

appease, as anger, &c. to set snares, aso-ayuwi is in Greek. With respect 

to its sense of tlie Understandirig, we know that most terms relating to diis 

idea are derived from tlie metaphor of enclosiJig or taking in ; as * A man 

* of COMPREHENSION — CAPACITY,' &c. Mr. Parkhurst, with a quare 
annexed, refers the Latin ^cio and sag^x to this Hebrew root. He is cer- 
tainly right, and they are all derived from the same idea. Wc shall not 
^'onder likewise that the recesses of the Heart (Suke ^^x^) should be ex- 
pressed by this word; and that the enclosure of idolatrous worship (tlie 
Ifxof) should impart to die same Hebrew term the name for an idol or 
image. The word, which is next to it in various Hebrew Lexicons, SKB 
(iDttf) * to lie downas a min or beast to rest — to be quiet,* might have taught 
the Critics the origin of the idea. SKB is a compound of SK and KB, 
containing similar meanings. The most ordinary observer will instantly 
discover the force of this Element from the slightest glance over the Greek 
language. £iy*», * the covering of a man or beast' — Zay»jvn, * ihc enclosure of 

* a net' — 2^H {of Saks J * the fleshly covering' — ^should be referred, I imagine, 
to the Element SK; as Caro is derived from the Element CR or KR, the 
well known designation for a house — dicelling — that which surrounds or 
encloses, '^ Car ouCcr," &c. signifie *^ dans toutcs les hingucs enceinte.'' 
(Bullet's Memoipes Celtiqucs, vol.1, p. 2.) In die other cases of Caro, 
we have a different Element, CRN or CN, Carn-k, &cc. with a similar 
meaning, as we sh^ future fully illustrate. In the explanation o(Car — 
Cer, hy the word er^ccifii^j )wc. perceive tlic same change from the CIl to 

• X the 


S(fr/is. (Or.) Caro — Cani-h. the CN. This is- curious. As &iri:f 

Slin. (Kng.) (2^?5) belongs- to tlic race of words, iA 

S /i ejws. ({Gr.) which Skcir obtains a distingiitsiiotd 

Sknie. (T'^bernaculum, &c. place, so docs Ow/i-is (GN).bclotig id 

- --------- 'ftnotlier race, in which Cj/wnus isto bo 

Car — Ccr, &c. (Dans toutcs Ics found. Similar ideas produce racesi bf 

langucs) Enmwtc, words with similar, nicanings^ Out 

- - - - - - - - - - ' English word S/lIh is a copibinatioo of 

Iliiitc. (Germ.) A hut of house. the two Elemc*nts SK and KN, convey* 

7/^/?/^ (Germ.) The skin. ing the same idea. Thfe Etymologistt 

- - - - - refer itto 5Xr;2d^, (rx»iv(^ tabernaculum) 

.> . ((Lat.) The enclosure of They are right. S/ieiie and Skenos are 

( the skin. likewise comjx)unds of the same Ele* 

Cadusy Catena, Cot J Cottage, Sec. ' ments. In St. Paul, as wc allrcmem- 

Cros, Crotos. (Gr.) Cut\$. l>cr, there occurs a metaphorical aikii^ 

- - - - - - - - - - sion relating to this subject. " Fofwc 

Deima. (Gr.) Cutis. • '* know that if oiir earthly //r;?/«' »rf 

Denias — 56;m(7. (Gr.) Corpus. " this tabej'JiacU \KTrii di^blvccl^ wi 

Dcvio. (Gr.) ^Edifico. *' have a buiiding of God^ all* IlOCtSd 

** not made with hands, €ti?rnal iii dib 

" Heavens." *' di^iAty yaj, o7», locvntmyu^ rj/x«y OIKIA t« SKHNOTS H4jaiAi,M 

&:c. Sec. (lid. Cor. c. 5. v. 1.) This passage is so impregnated xvith riib 
metaphor, which I have unfolded above, that it coincides in every ^ri 
ticular. The Ouiia — ihv Ilausc, istheCr/r-o; and the -W^wo^r (2jwo?) tkcf 
*S///^ In Martin Luther's translation of this passage we hare *' Wit 
" wissen abcr, so unser irrdisch haus dicser IluUen Zubrochen wiidn"*? 
IIUTTE signifies in German a Hut — Cottage, &:c. and Haut signittos* 
the Skifi. Ci/fis in Latin is derived from the same metaphor, ' and belong 
to the race of words denoting an enclosure — that which surrounds, &4X' 
Cadus — Catena — A"7//os (Kut0>) — Coat — Cot — Cortage, &c. &c. As. Ci»ro 
and Carnis belong to different roots, so do Cor and C^'dh^—^Keif^ anil 


CJ^ CF, CP, CV, Sec «QI 

Kardia (Ki»( and K«fA«*) Cor and -Kear belong to CR, and Cordis — 

Kardiz lo CD. Tlite fficart in the Teutonic languages, and Etor (Ht^jj) in 

Hhe Greek/'should probably be referred to Kardh^ in which the rough 

bi-eathitlg of ibt^H is hardened into a consonant, i Junius has been .awails 

of this connexion. The Greek Cras-^^Crotas (Xfwj, K(<^r^) has a mixture 

« . 

of the Caro and Cutis; and nothing, is so common in languages as tliis 
species of composition.; In the Greek Derma, the Skin, and Dbm as, the 
Bady^ (Aff/A«, cutis; Ai?i*«c, Corpus;) which may belong to Demo (Aif4», «rii- 
fico;) we have the same metaphor of the^ building or the enclosed habita- 
tion ; and Soma (£«/!**, corpus) we may now perceive 18 oniy another form 
of the Derfna and the Dcmas. It will appear in the course of our 
discussion, that these words may possibiy be referred to another portion of 
^he general serine belonging ito tliis Element, It is certain however that 

f . ii CoKFUs means that, which * holds. 

Corpus. (Lat;) Quod r^/>iV. ^ contains, infolds;, encloses,* &c. and 

by such ideas bas the himian frame 
been^erpetually represented. The most ordinary metaphor in the lan- 
guage both of the PhilcKophcr and the Poet, k that of tlie Gamitnt or the 
fnrtoww^^ covering of Clay. 

'* But whilst this muddy vesture of decay 
.1 *' Hoxh ^toAj dose us in; we cannot hear at" 

In Ternenos (T«<6«>0*, agri portio a caeteris resecta, seorsum ab altis sha, ct 
dco dcdicata, ager* s^rrer) wa find the Sekosl (Sfik^) the sacred endosurt — 
the consecrated ground^ parted and separated from the adjacent land; 
and in Temtio (Ti/i&vw, divido, 9eco) we have tlie verb which expresses the 
action to p^t* — divide — separate or apportion; in the 6ame; jnanner as we find 
6Vr« belonging to 5eitos-*-4he ager ^^rer. tin Deni'^os (A'V**^* popUlus, 
|>ars tribus) we again find the Element in tlic signification of z portion or 
division of a people living in certain spots of lahd. The origin of tliat 
jgr^at race of words, which belong to tins Radical^, and wliich are to be 
iouQd iii pvery la«3igua^/ hairhitiierto ibeeii envd^ed iJi,thbii)Mst(|m]tfouivl 
daxluQ^s, without a single ray to direct us in our wanderings, 

Fff ZM 


ZM ^ DM, TM, SM. 
This mystery however\frillTanish, when the reader learns thsrt ZM and 
ZMN, or when resolved into D, T or S, DM, TM, SM, DMN, TMN, SMN^ 

signifies the Earth. In Persian Zumeen— Zemin or Zume— Zbmi, {\^^j<^ 
,>t^) is *' the Earth, ground^ soil, a region, country." It is ftlio appropriate 
and familiar term for the Earth in that language; and we find the. same 
Element used in the name of the Earth in the Liwnic (Summes) — Dalnia- 
tian— Croat tarty &c. &c. (See the Oratio Dominica iroXwyAorl©*, pag. 40. &c. 
ed. 1736.) In the modern Russian likewise Zema is the appropriate 
and fomiliar term for the Earth, ^yc perceive that the simpler forna 
is ZMjas Zemi and the compound ZMN, Zemin*. In dhie Gipsey# it 
lippca)'Ji uttdier its^simplcr form Te!m; which answers to. tlie Latin Rusr^^ 
the Country: Mr. Bryant has confounded this Gipscy term by adding to 
it -some other* word :-*-*^ A coimtrj^ liittnthcim.\ We pejccive however 
Theim belonging to tlie compound. Bitta means in Gipscy 5;;/^// — little; 
and Bittii iheim perhaps is a /x/Vre of land — a districtr^a cduntry. " Im the 
cbllection of Gipsey termis to be found in Grellman ZEMiN^is the Hindoo 
word for the Earth. The reader will be pleased, I imagine, wlien he 
casts his eyes on the Latin language, and contemplates the words belong- 
ing to this idea: Semen— Semi no he will instantly acknowledge. Even 
the Etymologists will direct us from the Greek Temcnos to the Latin 
'f'E^piwn. The BL or the »PL denotes in every language an enclosure — 
viU^—tmllwxn — pal\\% {paling) &c. &c. It is curious that in our own 
language die Element. PL stili exists representing a sacred enclosure — " the 
'M patttoi the Cbxircb/' As \iiex:o and Tpnrio (T«juwa) belong to Scko% (<riiicO*) 
and 7>i?i«i05; Jso we have Demo belonging to TEM — Demo^ (A»f/ai&*) or 
ZEMy. Demo signifies to cut off ov separate a portion from the whole-^ 
** partem 'soiido deinere de die." Sum(^ is Demo under another form. The 
Commentators on Plautus will inform us that %vmo is a parallel term to 
cmseo^-*^^ «word wiiich peculiarly relates to the apportioning — awgning^^ 



CB, CF, CP, C,V, &c. : 203 

choosing (taking a part from a whole.) Sumere (says Pareus) '* Militare 
** verbum est eligere ex omni nwnQO militum qiios in militiam ascribas/' 
In the Latin .Termini/^ we again ^ee jtbie Tenwios 2it\^ the Zemi?i; and in 
the Greek Term4 (r^e/^)?— the Epiglifil> Term (a boundary) we perceive the 
Zenii. . FrbnjL tliis materia) sense of Term, as a boundary, we have the 
abstract meaning of- Term — au^ord; that, which defines— viarks — signifies 
or expresses.; and thus it is that the language of Graromarians-r-Logi^iansi 
&c. (CC: is; formed from objects, which appear to aA ordinary observer 
most relnote from the i purpose. To a similar idea .mi|sti be referred the 
Greek Semain^^ (^Xnf^a^m, signo, noto) and Sema (Xi^jta, signum, nota) — words 
originally expressing the marks or the boundaries of land. The Etymologists 
d€ri\:€ these words ftx)m Sffio, agito. The reaKler; will not doubt the trijth of 
my derivation when/he reads the following Mr. Richard- 
son s Dictionaiy : '* Sam AN," (loci's. ^Ul^) " a ^wwjrftf/y, a limit ^ a place 
*\ where any sign or mark . is placed to , distinguish one territory from 
*V another/* In the English word, Daa?, the cppfijoing mound oi 
Etirthf we trace tlie.same icje^ under a different form; ar^ the reader may 
now iftiake . his choice bet we^p-^Avr-z^Inf (An pro Tu) or Ai^^-r-f^%lng, in the 
name for tlie G^xJdcss of tlie Earth : He will however instantly acknow- 
ledge tlie origin, of the English Teem. 

. .'.J .;r 01;' *' Copipaon Mother, thou; , 

*V,\yhose womb unmcasi|rable, and infinite breast, 
*^. Teems .^^jfeeds all; whose self-same mettle, i .. 

/[ Whejrpof thy) proud child, arrogant J/^?^, is puff 'd, ^ 

//'Jgngendergithe black toad^ and adder hi ue, ;.. r ^ •• 


V The; gil4fld nqwt, ^nd eyqlessjvenom'd wornj, , , . j 

.^V^\tlvc^ll,|li^;iabborred births below crisp Heaven, 
• ; , '* ^yhereoij. Hyperion's quickening fire doth shine." 
^, '^ : I,; .-. r ; ;j i . ^ (Timon of Alliens, a. 4. s. 3.) 

T\ii3 name.foxvtli^^/,^:C^ tl^inp. wc^pjiajj welUuppose 

'j'M/i.h'f r' •* objects. 


' •• * 


objects. IIiusDame is the venerable ilfo«Acr of the Fainily; and Djlm 
is the Mother of brute animals; which again is applied under the samie 
form to tlie Mother of human creatures^— Orand-D am. We may likewise 
well imagine that the primaeval nanhelof Afin---4hii o£%>ring of the Earek^ 
would be derived from an idea^ which referred to the original source of 
his existence. This child of the TEM or the i) AM was calied a-DAM. 
'^ And the Lord God formed Mafi (A^DM DlK) of the dtist of th« 
^' gmindr (A-DM-HnoTN) We now see that (TM— DM) TEM or 
DEM was the name for the Earth in the language oi Paradise. It might ; 
be allowed us perhaps on this occasion to suspend for a iow moments the 
tenor of our researches ; and we might be edified by a train of redcxions^ 
which may at once repress the pride of pompous 4eaming, and encourage 
the exertions of the humble though ardent enquirer; who 'SfCttrches abroad 
for truth, wherever it can be found; and -who believes that activity iiiay 
perform, what strengti^ has not accomplished. This important name of 
the primaeval world — ^ADAM, which, in sucli remote ages and distant 
nations, has i>een the theme of perpetual discag^ion>«*-£velti this«i|trMcl^ 
after all the researches of the most profound Rabbi es^^ and learned Theo* 
logucs, is now, I imagine, for the fiiist time rightly conceived and justly 
explained. The most general opinion has been, that A-dam is derived 
from ADMH (no^^e) rcrf £tfr//?, because (according to Josephus) the true 
virgin Earth is of this colour. Those, who derive it from the fofmitive A 
and root DM (Dl) which signifies " to liken oroomparei^ deduce it 
from the idea that* Man was made in the likeness of God ! They are' totally 
ignorant that TM or DM, in its simpler form, is the name^of the'*£drr//i. 
The A is intensive, and A-DAM means the DAM-^^he DEM-as (Aijwv, 
corpus) — the Form — ^the Being. The effect of this name fof • Manh to be 
traced in every language, with which I am acquaiilted. - tn Sanscrit 
Adim meant the^r^r; and I strongly suspect that their name for a Husband 
SwAA-MfiE, is the simpler forni of Dam — the'wiginaP name -for Mmi. 
ttoccofsin fbeJ^tfAiitf BAffffTO^; WOrean: War/th^gratt £pid Pbtinti^f imH«; 


tB, CF, CP, CV, &c. t05 

t - '* SwAivMEEboneetar potee, Swaamee boneetaar gotce/' 
^^ Tlie Husband is the Lord of the Wife; the Husband is the guide of the Wife." 
(See Mr. Halbed's Bengal Gram. p. S*.) In these few Sanscrit words, no 
less than three are found most^familiar to our ears : ' EHizaRnr — w^r; vorec 
— Forent; Gorce — GtuDe; Bon^tar—VeUus. ' BN is the appropriate and 
familiar name for Wdtnan in the Dialects of the Celtic. — Wc shall not 
wonder that the idea oi shape — :fonn or likeness should be derived from the 
plastic material^ of ihe£ff?t/i. We instantly see the coincidence oi Mould 

* • » 

(the substance of the Earth) and Mould, form or figure; and it might easily 
bfe^proved that Forf^ih itself derived from the same source. The FfcbreVid 
Lexicographers hjlve seen nothing of all this; though DMN (jDl) which 
sigriifies Dmw^^ follows next in order to DM (D1) ' to liken or compare;* 
which might have bee* uit^rpreted with the true metaphor, ' to mould 
* into 4 likefnei3s/ In the Celtic, Tomm is sterais, and Tommek is ster^^ 
corarban. (See thuyd siib vocibus.) The reader may now decide, whether 
the Greek Demas and Soma (Ai/»«<, Sw^ua, Corpus) the Body^ belongs to 
the metaJ)hor of the Building — the Doma — Domos (a«j{*«, a©/**?, Domus) 
or to th6 idea of- /c;r;n and composition; or in other words, whether this 
liame for xh^'Body of MaYi, which may be called a House of Clay ^ belongs 
to the metajpbof of the Home, or to to the materials and composition of that 
house — ^the Clay. To the idea of kneading earth, and bringing soil to a 
consistency J or, if I may so express myself, of moulding mould, belongs 
Temp ERG — Temper. I should find it difficult to convey, as I might 
desire, this idea to the reader, without anticipating the word. In Latin 
*re know that this term attaches itself peculiarly to the effect produced on 
the ground. 

" Ecce supercilio clivosi tramitis undam 

•* Elicit: ilia cadensraucum per levia murmur 

'* Saxa ciet, scatebrisque arentia temperat arva.*^ 

(Georg- 2. V. 108, &c;) 
I^t.the r^der mark, .as he passes '?on, the word Trascbs^ anothcir term 

Ggg belonging 


belonging to this race, and he will not fail tQ recollect Dromos {^ofMf^ 
cuisus) &c. &c. in Greek. In the English language, the idea of Tempero 
is still more pointedly preserved. To * temper inorUcr' is now an appro^ 
priatc phrase ; and we may recoember perhiaps in I/car,, • • 

:" Old fpnd eyes, 
; " Be wefep this cause again,' ril/pluck you out, 

** And cast you, with the waters that you lose, . , r 

" To TEMPER c^y." (A. 1.8.4.) 

T£MP£Ramf7i<2im — ^1>mper, &c, we shall instantly refeir to this idea,. 
Cohihiella well knew that Tt^ftzWiynefitnm wa^ the appropriate terra 
which related to the gcnius^-^mture or TEMPER of thfe soil; though 
he seems to have imagined- thai, this sense was metaphbrical not original. 
After descrijnnfcf the- varieties ot' soil ixemi Julius <ji;3ecin!Us, he .ob- 
serves, ** Opus est, ii\quit,. inter has izm diverse inaequalitates magno 
*^yt€tnper(nttento, quod in corporibus qdoque. oostris! desicferatur, quoruj^ 
^' bonavaletudo, calidi; et frigidi, humidi cjtjiridi, densietrari, examinato 
^' modo, continetur/' (LU). 3,- cap,J2.) The Temperament of tlie 
constitution is the ^T1ctaphor--^th?^t of the^^lorriA, original and apfr<H 
priate. The amelioration of soil' by itmperanient ecjitallvy applies ifcelf (q 
the mind as well as to the body:-^As we hjtve th^ cultivated man to 
describe one species of mental excellerice ; so by a similar metaphor we 
have Temper ANs-^the Temperate man, to expressa another. We shall 
not wonder at tlie connecdon between the Seasons and the SoU;^ and wc 
know, that Times and 5eff5£;«5 are inseparable. Hcace TEMPcrre^*— 
Tbmpus — ^TIME. It is singular that in Chaldee and Arabic tlie. word 
for Time appears in its full form. Zeman (pT) is the Chaldee^ foe 
Time, which the Welch LexiciogcapUers have recordfjd ;, and we may 
observe that in one:dklect ot the. Cjt^Uio is fottnd a aiftfiilar fQini>. Termen 
is Cornish (ot Time:: (See Lhuydi sttb vqw l^emfnis.) In Arabic Zeman 
(o'-tJ) ^ig^i^*^ " .*• . y/mie, . an age. *• The World;'' and in Persian Dem 

^^)i lidbfiiMifi jncBos Tltvtew JHidiw ;tlm^ iiiwti I>]V^ .^e hwQ i>ooif, ta 

'I'. : , adjudge 

r, -c B. C F, c P, cVi. &c* . r 807 


sdjudge-^^^ssigri, originally applied to (he apportioning or assigning of 
Hhi or Lend. Hence in Greek Themis (0«/*k) Justice, &c. as we may 
well imagine that in earlier times tlie chief exercise of Justice would con- 
sist in the d^^asisignmmt or distribution of iand. IQ the niy^Qlogy of 
Themis,, OS 3Deity, :we find .a faHithfui record to attest, fhei truth of niy 
litjimologv;^ Tkemh is the Daiigbtdr- of ,tlie Earth. - It is not^ necessary 
tOf load. ourpage with iquotaiions ' respecting the originran4tl>^^ history of 
thi3 [Goddess J as it\&mrliar to every school boy frotn the vfifit /book of the 
Metiiraocphosca^; and in the opening of the Eumenides-, ; tH^ Pythiai^ 
£riesti^ iuwQkcs aifdf adorcsr tbeDiYinitylof J'hcmis, aef secofldrortly to her 
J/*Aeif-^--diat aich'Ph)flbe«ci«v^^^ t^^ 

I'll ,; . <.JIIi•'^f;f^f*** tt:/^T0»teTPO2J JWrif* ToJf! t{-rrt , ^f . ; .. 

'* Eiqiudemf primnm precibus hisce veneror Dcorura primam r;V^tem^ 
•' Zmafcwi r post hanc.vero^ Themrni : Haecnimirutn a m^tr^ s^cunda ±^uiG 
Y^linacditM f In< the ^€ilr^ie^ ages* of the worjld^ wheti man .wa^ dependant 
for, farts eiistenoe €)(ia the amilial productions of \h^ Earth; it may well hp 
imaginedrtbathh'iciifio^y would be asixxlously alive to discover^ whether 
5he Were^lea*Eci to ilri^art. or withhold her blejsslng^; and to whom could 
hie jB(4 jufitly diredflhis enc^rfcsasito the Being herself, by whCjm thc^s^ 
Wewings S¥< be )xinpa]iitd;^r denied? I have^tpi-ovcd thatiTi^jEf i^ 
Aeiiii^ed fromiTM or IfKEiiris; th0 >£Ar^/e^ and: accordd»gly< w!^ find that 
Ocpheus iaias. cdRMidercd Time, ojt, w4iat is the .same thing, .die UQur^f 
(X2fa«) as the offspring of Themis; and what is still more curipufi' th<^ 
epithets forTaMB oil tlie/.H6W?*i;> are derived from objctto w froisa jmcta- 
pfaors bdoBJ^ir^ t5>th(luJBar//i- \&£i^mi in 0fpbrt)e> ^^\Umn^ iirl^tyaftl-, 
&rtcd:>£[tfa;f^»r'tbei'epidieHi wUick might before ap^s(F. temote ApqiA our. 
ifbtiai idea; a£ Thntitr willbecomcnotin^l andfappoefNriatei : i sl^aU prt^ve in 
some future work, whcav.l enteir Dtr ike #g|'edti ^^^ M^^y^kf^^^&^\}^S 
r- ,:>- Season 



Season is likewise derived from the Earth; ;and that; it beloiigs mt>itorer 
to the story and the name of Saturn — the Son tof the Em-ih — ^thelnvehtftr 
of Agriadture; who holds a Sithe or Scythe (another word of tlie same 
family!) for his emblem, and has Time (or his nume* .The word Seasons 
is a very marvellous word : It preserves the intermediate idea, by which 
Time is connected with the Soil; and 'li thereby a convincing record of 
the Etymology, which derives the one from the other. In the verb ' To 
^ Season, VisMeat,* &c, we have the origin of the word still more appa- 
rent. It does not signify, as the Etymologists ^oppose, that nice adjustment 
m mingling ingredients, which it is necessary tol adbpt rn our afl&irs-^ 
agriculture, &c. in order to profit by Thnes and Sea'^ons : ** Ab hoc 
interim vocabulo significante oppoftunitatem temporis prsecipue obser- 
vandam agricolis, videtur quoqucf^iiofluxisse metaphorica acceptio verbi 
" To SEASON Meates, condire cibos; quod epulas apparantibus, non 
*' minus quam agros colentibus, accurate captaiida sint omnia opportimi 
*' temporis momenta/' (Junius sub voce.) It means the due ininglirtg 
of materials^ and is precisely the «amc metaphor as Tempero, which might 
have been aptiy applied to this object (Tenjperare Cibum) in conformity 
with its general signification. In our old English, Season corresponds 
very exactly with the sense of Tentpero; and the idea of ^ seasoning meaf 
is only a partial application of a general idea. If the reader should be 
already disposed to admit this explanation, what will he say when he ii 
reminded of the Greek word, which expressesthe same operation? Arto^ 
(Ajmw, condio) sign^ifies to Season Meat, &c. which is^ tettainly derived 
from the Earth (quasi Eab.thuo;J as will be fully proved in tlie progress 
of our enquiries. . : 

This cufsory remark on the word Seasons y^^i]! tend to confirm. the 
chief pbject of the present discussion, and to unfold more fully the just^' 
ness of that Mythology ; which describes the Hours as the daughters of 
Themis, and adorns them with the various colours and the odours~^di 
the dews«-4be flowers and the blossoms of the Earth* 

. CB, CF, CP, CV, &ۥ 809 

/. « nPAl OrrATEPEI OEMIA02, KOi Zfii^ mfcotl^, 

< E\nf§iMn rt i^ixn ri km Ei^ni^ iroXvoXCft 

' • iBi«fiMU» Xii^wiftJk^y froXvayiifAOt, ayya^ 

HiwXui iifyvfAtifat ifoo'ifti w^m irpAvOifuScMfi 

. Temperiae jAviset JyriUsifiaactapropages, : .. i i^l . 

Aurea levi et fad et: pax^ditissima rerum/ .i : , 

Vern®^ graminea^, pUrasque et multivir^ntes^ ,: ■ 
OmnicoIores^i^avehaiauteSf spiritu amcsno, . i, 'f 

TcmperiaB.virides, vorterites etspecio^as, . . ? { . 

\ Pallas indiitie/ sertis pubentibus aptas^ ; , *. i» > 

Cbngcrras Proscrpinas uhi eim solemnibus.l^arcje^ 
Staticulis Juci revocant et Gratias ovante^ 
Diiovb imperils et matrisopiconsivae, 
' Hue mites ad saeca pia instaurat^ venite, . 

Ducenfes fosfiAndz propagmina tempestatuqi/- (Hymn., 42.) 
It is extremely euriops tiiatthe word Doom is used \n it$ appropriate 
sense, and returns to theapot, from which it was taken, in th^ memorable, 
record of William the Conqueror, ** called^///^ Book-' ('' Liber. 
M Judiciariw ;*' ) which dooms— ^judges pr assigns th^.pocUo^s of JLfinci 
belonging to eiftch county, d^^ict, kc. &pc. ^ Deem to judge or to thinA,, 
\% derived from the siune idea; and it answers pi^ecisely to N«/*i^w, exi^timp, 
which belongs to Nip^ tribuo, pasco; a word originally, relating to the 
distribution oi^Land for pqsturagc^ &c. , Eyery one knows, that the 
Egyptian division pf; Im^,^ idisfiriqt§. «e C9};i^Nm9h. .^«*«^MeW4se 

H h h answers 

» - 


• %'• -* 


answers to Np/uwc* in the «ense olf LeXf and to Nofo^wi . • lege sancio/ As 
Deem corresponds with the name of the Earth under the form of DM, so 
the odier form, with the addition q£ N^. or 1>MN^ supplies a^milar terra 
in our ancient language. Dem bn is used by Chaucer foe i^tf£»f» It occurs 
in die Prologue of '* The Prioresses -fale.". . v /,. 

" My Lady Prioresse, by^ your, l^ve, 

** So that I wist Ishuld you^not agreve, 
I wolde D £ M E N> that ye tcUen shold v . 
A tale next, if so were .that y^-wold/' > ': 

(Tyrwhitt's Cbaiicer, ^yoh £• p. 2 19^) 
This word is not to be found in Mr. Tyrwhitt^s Glossary ;** fi»r is there any 
authority for it in diat# \f;hi0h is ^dded' 'tO' 'Mr; U^rry"^ editipn) though we 
find in the latter the followitlg explanation : ^^iDmiCi iDxm^^, Demin, 
" To judge, determiile, to^ Mwdemn;" > I beseeck'<^^ observe, 
that in diis explanation' two > words « ai^ ilsed belonging' to diie Element, 
' c/eTERMiNE and co72D£mk/ T^frmww we- have • 3][read[y. ' proved to be 
derived from this source; and D'Aiy^K<> is dertaiillj^^rf taken t from the 
idea of doom&KO or tf^^^/tt^. I have used in m^'explaiiadGto of No/m^<i», 
exisriMo; and I might Ukewise have added ^en^iMa^ie^BtiM, where 
we again see the Deem and the Dew m wndei? the notion* of < an assigned — 
apportioned or peculiar vdlue. If we %bouid endeavour to>idiscover by a 
trilih of -^ta^tonSng a prhrii from- wttot'jsburce tl)€ idea' of tmlui-^estimation 

• * ■ * 

W0rthr^4perik/, &c*. Would be ftatulrally derived ; «we should' rbadily con- 
cur iti reftMring* such nott<ins to 'the Earth— tbat original poGGtession; /rom 
tl^hicX '<^Wry tMrig bel6figihg to tvorth- or ttblM must of necessity -arise*.* 
HenoeVel)aVe'^in(^s«^&^^i%1ifetd t^fkct; a6'M(filchieti<to/qt^aUtiies~^pcr»^^ 
or 'p^t^\iitis]t^fiin^-t'cM''^l>t^i>oin^Et^ «t^f<^ 

natty'theDoiMiff^dr j»rvp«/?^of>¥he'Kiri^^ £at4t and itiiiseedtiddb-^ 

setilc Z>M^ ' wa6 iiftenVards applied to 'express qiltiKty—^taCb— condition' tf 
prdpe^iy-ofvinother k\ndlr^FreeD&M, &g. &<?:'\ Tfce Te'mekos {iFV«wft> 
;tgtV'pflMi9i<xteyis^^tilk^edreutti'fe^^ the ttppt^thw p^j^ , 

■y.'I'-lU. i! il U -jj- 

bf iand peculiar to eadi • p6s5eas6r-44or^ in our , ordinary langua^^ the 
Farm; and we j^liall therefore nbl fwonderlb find the occupiers or cultt- 
vatots o€ these Farms ddared-from a similar ^igin. The hameof ZsMlfC* 
DAHV the /flf»rf-hoM€r/6nr the 'hank® oE the QRanges, still rings iof the eaiS 
^f the British nation^, yeb Ilikimhlyiinagine', (hat iicithi^r tbe Oratora^ ndt 
their Atidience had anyieenceptian, that- they were talking ^or hearing 
aboirt the SEMiN^wi-^thoOoiiiiNua-r-the cultivator! oc the possewoy of 
the TBMEiff^5 or, DoMA<i*r; aiidi still i less, I iroegine, ' did thiey coni^ivie, 
that from this source Yt^asd^rttred the most thstioguishedi personage ifi' 
their son^sandi tb<jif^'^Dnnets-»r-th^ ri/hf// hfiro!iof tlie -Ry^ortt/ strain—tlie 
*'gentie^I>AMGN,V wb|»^ ^ips 'along the i^ead 11^ This ; name far a Rmtic 
hw fotind its way intii ali ube. nib(9eivn\ langti^^^^ and vliai l^cout f banted ui 
distxilt ages andiciatioi^ va^ .thefanrditrite and famil^^aer t^ome 'o£ Jiucolic 
j>oe85F^%» the Don* 4^fi(Uiie' Manliiap' )Muse, In Homer fl^MENOS \ pre- 
ct^y answers to Db MA Ii*-^he1fair and ample posse^iten of a ftourishirt^ 
Pri«ce.^^ Ilife thus th(¥f'Sarpedd«' rouses Gliuculs. to fight by enumerating 
ihebtessirtgs'whicfc tJiey ftwjoyed^bwe their -coiiBtryknen, As (the iPrinccs 
lrf'>fhe^lkndv^ ^- ;.fii;v '^''^ • -'''• "'^ ' '^ ■^''') •"' - '^- ".^'^r:-.- 

•jI.— •/){ ' : i^KiKii ^EMEfto2'irivojLliM9Jt^|ft«yfl^ 

The corts^crtlted ^t- dedicated to th6 Gods is but a slight advance from 
thcJ jiossessidn • <if PHiibi^s honoured W Gods on the Earth; and we shall 
AwefoW'^nirt'ivdiid^^foVindtfeteT Ruler of the sacred Temert^^ or Domain — 
•fitt'Worshij^od DAiWdN (<A«^ or the D^mon, alike ^patent to save or 
to^d(**ro^. -Tl^idsi*, ^o delight !to trace the origin "of Pagan' superstition 
ilSom^the distingifisljedjSdssMscff^ of thef Earth, may here find a conftitnatiori 
•f^tbwf^ h^f^thefeisPin the rtibst simple condftI<)n •of social^ifc, aind in the 
«llHle«t^t>i#idd»iil iiUanIdihdi> ^'it^ Damon of^H Qater flge>l6 

i^l *' the 



I (Pers.) 

Zipneen, Zemin, 
Zuntc, Zemi. 
Zemin. (Hindoo.) 
Zema. (Russ,) 
Summes. (Livon.) &c. 

Tein. (Gips,) The country. 
Temenos. (Gr.) Agri portio. . 
Temno. (Gr,) Divido, scl. agrum. 
Demos. (Gr,) Populus, pars tribus, 
Doma^DoTnas. (Gr;) Damns. (Lat) 
Doffiintis. {LsX.) Domain. (E^ng.) 
Semen — Semino. (Lat.) - 
7Vm/>tom. (Lat.) » 
Z)e/7io — Sumo. (Lat.) 
Terminus — Terma-^Term. (Gr.) 
iSewMT. (Gr.) A Mark. — Semaino. 

(Gr.) To mark. — Saman. (Pers.) 

A boundary. 
Dam. (Eng.) Demeter. (Gr.) Ceres. 
Teem. (Eng.) Dame, Dam. (Eng.) 
A-DAM. Man, Adim. (Sans.) The 
first — Staaamee. (Sans.) A hus- 

-^. J |(Hcb.) To liken, or mould 

i into a likeness, 
DMN. (Heb.) Dung. 
Tomm—r ( (Gelt.) Stercus, 
Tommen. \ Stercorarium. 
Trames. (Lat.)Z>rcimo^.(Gr.)Cursus 
Tempera, (Lat») , 

the humble Damon of the primieval 
world — < the little Tyrant of \\\sjields,^ 
or the benevolent rustic, who freely 
dispensed his blessings to ail around 
him, within the limits of his contracted 
territory.— To beings of power — ^to Gods 
or to Men regarded as Gods, we attach^ 
notions of honour^-^-fear-^-^'onder — re^ 
vejmtial awe, ice. &c. Hence we have 
the Greek Time, (Tif««> honor) D£ima, 
DEiMAiNo/(Afi|Mi' Ttmor, An/Mtiw, Ti^ 
meo) Thauma, Thaumaino, (d«iy(^t 
admiratio^ e^/MMMb admiror) Semkqsi, 
(£ip«c» venerabilis) Thambos, (e«pe^t 
attonita admiratio) &c. &c. I feel re- 
pugnant to record the. supreme igno- 
rance : of 0ur £tynpK>lQg4fit3 respecting 
the words belonging to the Element 
TM, TMN; which I have unfolded in 
the preceding discussion.* By Lennep 
8««fAa{« is derived from ®«« or 0f« curro, 
which he observes V inter alia eximie 
^' tribuitur iis, f\\xi/r€qu€ntes accurrunt, 
*' spectandi cantemplandive caussfi."— r 
77mm4w(e«fAC^) he derives from the 
same root. TemM (Ti/^w). , h« 'refers 
ultimately to Tea (Ti«;) and Daimon 
he supposes to be deduced from the 
root Dao or Daia (d.^, d«i», divide;) 
because the Deities are the dispensen 
of good and evil; ; V Habebaatur aul^m 



CB, GF, CP, CV, &c. 


TempefaiTfiQntwm — Temper. 

TempcrvLM. (Lat*) 

7>;;i/?erate. (Eng.) Tejupcnes. 

Zcmaiu (Chald.) 
Termen, (Cornish.) 
Zenum. (Arab.) 
-Dcm.. (Per.) 


Doom— Themis. * (Gr. ) 
JDo^wiesd ay-Book . 
King-rfo/w, 8i6.Vreed0m, &<?. 

'* hi quasi distributores bonorum et ma^ 
^' brum, quae hominibus obtingerenL". 
Demo (Af/utw) to iw/Vrf, seems to be con- 
sidered by the Etymologists as tlie source 
to which Domus — Dominus — Dorna — 
Domos (Aw/tx«, Ao/xo;,) should be referred, 
and this word Lennep imagines to be 
derived from the root Deo (Afw, vincio,) 
which the reader may perceive to be 
the English word Tie. To the same 
root he refers Demos (An^tAOf, populus.) 
Semen Varro derives from Semi; and 

- - - - - - - .- - - Tempus has been deduced by some Ety-^ 

Deein-^I)emcn. (The same in mologists, says Vossius, 5(?//6wra^/0 from 

Chaucer.) Damno^ 
iEs//;?io — Existimo. 

%^w/w-dar, Damon. 

Dai man. (Gr.) Damon, Time. (Gr.) 

Dei ma, Deimaino. (Gr.) Timor. 

(Lat.) Thauma, Tkanmaino. (Gr.) 

Semnos. (Gr.) T/iambos. (Gr.) &:c. 

T umbos. (Gr.) 



TifjL9Ui, Seco, " quia etisi materialiter, ut 
" loquuntur, sit res continua, forma* 
*f . liter tamen est discreta." Such have 
been our conceptions on the origin of 
words and the nature of languages? 
As I have already extended this di- 
grcssion on the Element TM beyond 
its due limits, I shall close my observa- 
tions by a remark, which might have 
afforded to the Zealots of the Cabala 
a striking and affecting example of 
tlieir doctrine, in the history oi Man 

from the Alpha to the Omega. *' Dust 
'^ thou art, to dust thou shalt return. — ^IEM.(A-DAM) thou, art — to TEM 
*' (the TOMB — ^TTMC^, Tvyi-ulus) thou shalt return.''. We may well 
conceive that the name for this last event in the History of Man would bo 
dcnvcd -from the spot» in wliich it is transacted .-**»*To^inAii//i^^-iniferriHi; 

1 i i enroMB^ 


enroMB, &e. &c. at once describe the action and the scene-*>-the origiii 
and the end. ^ Earth to Earth — Ashes to Ashes — Dust to Duft.^ 

** Odor tUnetfQp UC TO ^Dl' »flXilQt 

We must now return from this digression to tiie consideration of terms 
with the Element CB, &c. signifying iotalk— speak, &l^. With tlie adjunct^ 
of A///er sayings^*— i/tfc^iWn^ language^ &c« &c. Gap in Anglo Saxon meaos 
'* turpis, vilis, loquax;'' and GAF-5]pr^o " Sermo scurrilis, turpiloquiuttin 
*^ derisio." (Lye sub voce,) Chepani (/^"^v^/ in Persian means a 
<* Knave or Rascal;'* and Ghabin (^^Ix) in* Arabic, an '< Impostor or 
•' deceiver;'* which will remind us of the French Chiifon and the 
Italian Cifpone. ^' Mr. du Cange" (says Menage) " a quelque opinion 
" qu* il vient de Ciffo. Ciffo, dit il, Italis Ciffone; garcio, garciunculus. 
*• Ugutio : Hifitrio^ quasi Ciffa, id est, gesticulator, joculator, qui diverts 
" gestus et habitus hominum scit repraesentare. Hinc forte nostri chiffofi 
^* pro re nihili.** In our vulgar language we say, I think, " He's but a 
^* Chivel/«o^ fellow," to express a tricking uncertahi person, oai whom no 
dependance can be placed. To this race we must refer Uie law term Covin 
(•* withoyt Fraud or Covin;'') and we learn from Junius that in Dutch, 
iCw/inken is " fabella, dictecium, facetus joous." Tlie English Cavil 
and the Latin Cavillor are derived from the same idea. Though Ca- 
viLLOK be a legal term as well as Caveo, it is not therefore derived from 
il. Their similarity however might have induced the lawyers to use meta- 
phors, by which they seem to be related to each otlier. Cavillor was 
af^lie^ to the law ia its ordinary sense of cavils — tawits — quips — tricAing 

ud tubtie language, &q. S^c In the original ^nse of cavillor, &c. 
Ih« idea of ttdking muck wo^ annexed to the Element CBL; whkh. X 

.' .•;.-;' imagine 

jOBi CF, CP, CV, &c. 


Gaf. (a, S«) Turpist vUis, loquax. 

*' <JAF-5jpr4CC. 

(A. S. Sermo sclir- 

Chbpani. (Pers.) A knarCj rascal. 


(At.) Animpbstor, a 


Chiffon, (Fr.) 

CiTFOKE. (Ital.) 

Covin. (Eng.) 


(Dut.) Fabella, 


(Eng.) Tricking, 

Cavil — Cavilloh, 

imagine to be a compound of CB and 
BL bearing similar meanings. We 
h^ve before seen that BL, as well as 
C9p has produced a race of words sig- 
nifying to speak — c flatter, &c. Ca- 
viLLOR is nothing but Gabble under 
another form. Mr. Parkhurst has re- 
! marked under the Hebrew word KBL 
(^Ip) to receive, acgept, &c. the simi- 
larity of QUIBBLE and CAvi£; and 
our English Etymologists have observed 
that Quibble is derived from the Latin 
Cymbalum, because " istud. facetiae ge- 
** nus tantum quidam cognatarum vo- 
*' cum Tinnitus est quasi Cymbali.*^ 
Though this derivation is sufficiently 
ridiculous, yet the reader will perceive 
that Cymbalum or Cybbalum belongs 
to the Element CBL in its sense of utter- 
ing a loud nokt. The MB is nothing 
but the doubling of the B. As the 
Hebrew KBL belongs to oilJsElement 
in one of its senses to receive^ accept, 
&c. so in the Chaldee we find it used 
in ahother. It signifies, says Buxtorf, 
*< Clamare excl^mare, voci^rari) coa^ 
^< queri, qui ri tare." In this sense it 
precisely answers to the rj^ce of wordsjr 
which are now the objects of discussion. 
This term signifie^^ likewise '^Qlfjseurump^ 

" tenebrasum. 



Quibble;' ' 

f • I • * 

I ' 


1 »♦ 


;* M I tc7iehfom7k^- caiighip$u!ni esse;!* . aid 

• the reader will perceive that we are 

^ vftrtw i^yri;vcd;;^l. a worjd^ so familiarly 

' ' uttered and so little undeiAopd by tlie 

student and tlife ad^pt in Hebraical 

' learning the Jewish Cabala. — 

. . •.^. ..:. . KBLH {rX}2,\>) says J^uxtorf, .is .** doc* 
• — ' =•' » •• ' ..*.*•: trina a majoribus traditaet accepta." 

(Heb:) To 'receive; ao- ^^^"^ original, meaning of. die word is, 

I imagine, '* dark and mysterious^ /ii«- 

. '•*^guag€;'' and it only signifies Trtfd/- 

tion from the mode, by which this 

.Language was imagined to be formed 

and propagated. Maimonldes informs 

(Heb.) The doctrines us, that when God delivered the law 

cept, . 

• < • * 

Cabal A.< of language ox oral tra- 


SyB'ILLA. (Lat.) A Sybil, 


(Eng.) Talk — a magical 


SlBIL^S.'X'^t-) SiFLOZO. (Gr.) 


SiBULLAiNo. (Gr.) A^aticmor. 

to Moses on Mount Sinai, the Divine 
Being imparted likewise to the Prophet 
its peculiar and precise meaning. This 
second and secret law was communi- 
cated bv Moses to the Elders* and 'ttt 
others of the people, who were de- 
sirous of receiving the Celestial Com- 
mentary : It lias descended from age to 
age by oral tradition, and is called the 
Cabala; which, ac<5ording to mj 
cx'planation, is the secret hsw^.of^tafi 
gUage or speech — the oral Eaw, i 
opiposltion to the published and tl 
written Law. The Cabala in 
ordinary sense denotes something rf^ 

.' M 

' O B, CE, C P, CV, 


-SyBtJLo (Tusosw^)^ Tibiceh. 

' . fi 


» • .' 

(Lat:) Rusticat' ^hce In- 

. • . - ." ' • • • 


iS i 

JBL. (Heb,) A trun:^l-4tlie 



1 1 

I I 


The inventor bf musrical 


• ' » 

Jovial, (Eng.) Loudly joyous* 

and mysterious; and has been used 
among the Christians to signify the 
sedrel ^rts of magical incantation. — ^ 
Th^Mgh I do not agree with th^ subtle, 
ahd (>rof0uiid Rabbies in their Mode of 
discoveringthesb mysterious meanings; 
yet I cannot but imagine that in the 
more ancient records^^aof^iMiinkind there 
is often a secondary ^n^ "belonging to 
the worlds, which has b6en totally hid* 
den from the observation of the most 
sagacious enquirers. As the same doc- 
trines pass from one age ta' another in 
Various forms and different languages, 
it is often infinitely difhcult to deter- 

mine with precision, wh6n words be- 
come invested with new meanings, and whether the writer was himself 
sufficiently 8k.iUed in the antiquities of distant ages and nations to be duly 
conscious of the genuine sense^ which belongs to his tsraditiotial phrai^ology. 
The eluoidation of this principle would lead us into a wide field of dis« 
cufsion, which in our present views of Elementary language we are not 
qualified to understand and appreciate/ 

To the idea contained in CBL of mystic ^eech I refer diosfe^rf^r/t 
prophetic talkers, so celebrated in ancient timei by the namfc^of Sibyls. 
Eveo the Etymologists^ who commonly derive 2UCuA^4t : from Zioc foff 0wand 
6Afi-— Z?« <oniiliiinlf have, yet been ai^we :of this ided. :**. Quord viden- 
** dum/' says Vossira, "an noa iiretisimilius sqntiant, qui Sibyllas ib 
^\ Hj^braso fcim^ dedwcente^, ita dictte puten(^ tj^coM CaballOs.'* Diodorus 
Sicukis imagines^ ' that Da'phne, the daughter of Tiresias, was called 5/*^// 
from the extradfdinary sakhd the . SiiiLus uttered in the moment of 

CRtt)U«ia«in^ , **'To jai o9iii^iiir..)tti)« yXi^dW. \»m)(jn XIBa^AAAINElN*** Ulis^ 

:. '\\ 




passage is quoted by Vossius, who appears riot to have known its meaning.' 
Our English word Spell, in the sense of a magical incantation^ is 
only Sibyl under anotlier form; and it is derived precisely from the same 
idea. Spell signifies, says Junius, Narratio; and Lye refers it to « the 
Gothic Spillon, narrare; and the Anglo-Saxon Spcllian. He adds likewise 
*^ Originem interim h\x]\j^ Spellian non male fortasse referamusad 2»6u\xi«t, 
'' Sibyllarunx instar oracula fundere, juxta illud Juvenalis * Credite me. 
*' *vobis folium narrare Sibyllse.*" Spell in its original sense meant 
simply to talk or Gabble; and it was afterwards applied to denote langumge, 
or njrrtfZ/M of a more elevated kind. Junius remarks that Spell in the 
sense of Narratio still exists in the word Gospell, which in Saxon is 
Goe/sPELL or GoodsvELL — Bonum nuntiiim — Evxyyixioy- To Spell in the. 
sense of * spelling a lesson — word,' &c. belongs to this idea : It means to 
speak in an intensive sense, clearly and deliberately, so as to express each 
syllable distinctly — to enunciate or speak out. Skinner is aware of this 
derivation. Spell, in the sense of ' taking a spell or turn,' is derived, 
I imagine, from the idea oi alteimation in discourse. The phrase, * TaJkhfg 
' aSpsLL/ seems to confirm this sense: We still use the word on a similar 
occasion^ ^ He took up the discourse;^ and in vulgar language to expness 
long talking upon a subject they say, * He took up his Parable,* which we 
now conceive to be a quaint phrase ; as if Parable was used in the Scriptural 
sense of that term ; whereas it signifies, I imagine, speech or talk in 
general, and belongs to that race of words, which I hav<) produced on a 
former occasion, (pag. 195.) This explanation will be- confirmed by re- 
membering the French expression Prendre la parole, and the Cxerman* 
Das wort Nekmen — * to begin to speak;' which Jiterally signify * To Mitr 
' the word or. discourse;' that is, to ' take your ttcrn'm speaking.' . • • 

To the.tenri >Sibilvs belong the French Sipler and the Gifefefc' 
XifXta^y, ejtsibilo. They are supposed to be derived from tlieir similarit}r to 
the sound which they express; and in coincidences of this nature, it is 
impossible to decide the origin of the word. We may observe howtiver, 

-' .' :? that 

that they all refer to the idea of sound, whatfcvet be the source fr6m which 
they are derived. Menage has remarked that Subulo is explained by 
Varro 'Tibicen;' and Varroand Festusboth agree that 5tei^ic/o is the Tuscan 
name for a Piper. The Latin Jubilo and its various derivatives in nvodem 
languages must be referred to this race of words. *^ Jnbilare,'* says 
Festus, '* est rustica voce inclafnare.** This word is of very ancient usage, 
and according to Varro has been preserved in the language of rustics, 
among whom we find the phraseology of ancient times tenaciously pre^ 
served. " Jubilare, ut docet Varro, vox est rusticorum, qui tenacissimi 
** plerumque esse solent verborum antiquorum. Denotat autem clamorem 
** lastum tollere, aut sonian indistinctum et confusum edere, gaudii et ex- 
*^ ultantis animi indicem/' The Etymologists have referred Jubilo to the 
Hebrew J BL (^2*) which signifies z trumpet, and the great period of 
rejoicing among the Jews — the Jubilee, which was proclaimed by the 
sound of Trumpets. Some imagine that we should refer this word of glad- 
ness, Jubilo to Jubal — the illustrious personage of the early world, who 
** was the fatlier of all such as handle the ketrp and organ.*' Jovial 
and its corresponding terms in other languages, in the sense of loudly Joy otis, 
belong to this race of words : From its accidental similarity to Jovial 
(relating to Jupiter J a confusion has arisen; and our ancient Poets as 
well as their Commentators appear to have imagined, that Jovial, in the 
sense of meny, was deduced from Jovial — as a quality belonging to 
Jox)e. In Cymbeline we have " A J&oial face ;'' and Mr. Malone 'imagines 
that Rosalind, in As Vou Uke It, invokes Jupiter , (<* O^ Jlifiter ! hoW 
*' merry are my spirits!-') because this Deity *' was supposed to be always 
** in good spirits." He adds likewise ^that '* a JtH^ial rmn #as a <x)mmon 
'* phrase in our Author's time. One,' of Randolph's plays is called ' Ari- 
**'^ptippus, or the /w/^ Philosopher;' and a ^c6medy of Brik)nie^s, • Tb^ 
''V/wiVr/ Grew or the Merry Beggars."' {As Viu Like It, p.lM.) In 
tlie latter instance, it precisely • answefrs to the sense ■ annex^ fe^ihfe word 
'u : i. at 



KoBALOS. (Gr.) A GabOla; Sec. 
K0BEIRO8. (Gr.) A Giiicr. 

a\Xoii tt(«T»ptfYi;, Hf-iul 

ulot,, Tiuflj;olii( 

at JjJ'esent; which conveys the strongest idea of loud and unrestrained 

There is anoUicr race of words belonging to this Element CBI-, which 

may deniand some explanation, and which will appear to us in difierent 

senses; as the ideas arc derived from the various signilications belonging to 

the Element. Kobalos in Greek 

(Koe«xoc) signifies a Gabbler — an »m- 

posior and dccchvr, " KoCwXe?," says 

HCfiychius, is " watsfTO', >wi«ify®», r*fM^ 

rmliw*, K«x»X*'''^'" I could iiotliavc dcvised 
a passnge more fiivourable to my hypothesis; — With the emp{y — su-eiiing 
chatterer or the Gabbler, wc have all the qualities which belong to such 
a. character^ — the deceiver — the dcrtder — the juggler, &lc. With respect 
to the latter word K«xox«^^» ^'^ should read with the Critics either 
Kukmc^x maledicvis, or K*KO(rx»^®'i otto male utens, improbus, homo male 
fciiatus; or, as we express it in our vulgar language, an idle — skackish 
fellow. There arc other articles in Hesychius belonging to the same race 
of words, aJI impregnated with similar ideas, 'ihe article preceding 
K»SiiAot is K»i;«x7j«, which js explained (if tliat be the true reading) by 
*• p.oAeKii'jtjil*, w«wfy»ifi»7«'" Tlic next articles are " KdCufa:, ytxoi** Kcetif©*, 
";y»^et«Ti(, ^wwrlnf, xet^Bfiptt;" and even the succeeding word witli this Ele- 
ment CB belongs, to tlie signification, whicli we have considered as Uic 
most proniioept idea ip.Uie root — that, which holds or conlums—" ^^io^^aKm 
;-,.., " t^i-£a.b/' — a disli. In the intcrprcta- 

" KQSfti,iwifftt.", (Gr.) A Dish. lion of Kubciros (Kee(.f«) we find Scoples 
■ \, ,' i ■ (Sxiiwlii); which is likewise to be added 

iQlho sfune.rafie. Tlwygh the SK at the beginning of a word oi'tcn reiwe- 
^nts the root, yet in many cases it is only a composition of t\^^ sounds 
belonging to the fust letter of tbe radical. Bochart and llemsteH^usius 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 221 

ScoPTO. (Gr.)To derive Scopto, to Scoff, (IxwVI«, il- 

ludo, derideo) from Scops (XxwvJ/, '^ Bu- 

ScoFF. (Engl.) '* bo, avis e generc noctuarum.") 

^ Sunt enim" (says Hemsterhusius) 

(Gr.) Having* the gift of " PP- ^^^^' ^^^ dicuntur ixu^irs^, imi- 
Kopi^.-? " tantcs hominum actiones." SxwiJ/ is 

Mho Gab/ j^s^lf derived by the author of the 

Etym. Mag, " Ilafa to o^xxiav iXfiv oirx'** 

Scopto (ixanrlw) is derived by others from Kopto, scindo, tundo; and it is 
certain tliat these metaphors have often been applied to tha attacks of 
successful raillery — * To cut up — to djnib — beat — wound/ &c. &c. Why 
the idea of cutting belongs to the Element CP or KP shall be explained 
on a future occasion. Kopis, (Koitk) as every one remembers, occurs in 
the Hecuba of Euripides, as a term to express the character of Ulysses — a 
personage at once celebrated for his wiles and his words, o vo^xixo^wv, Konir, 
7)fvXoy^, Juf*oX«f»nir Phavorinus, who has given the explanation of Suidas, 
adds moreover a reason for the sense, as if he considered it to be a meta- 
phor derived from KoirJ«* KOmS, a-vilo/Ao^, ofuf tw Xoyu, ny^ XatXef, prrug* Kopis, 

I imagine, means only, as it is exjires^ed in vulgar language, a person, 
who has ' the gift of die Gab/ There is a curious coincidence between 

the Greek Kobele, in the sense of 
KoBELE. (Gr.) A Cabal. XwH<r<a, communing or commu7iicating 

/o^e/Aer, and the English word Cabal ;. 
and with respect ta its sense of BAoim, a needle, we must be reminded of the 
operation performed by that instrument, which is used io sew or Cobble* 
But on this sense I shall take another occasion of enlarging. In Suidas 
we find, KOBAAEXEIN, to fAil»^^(fnv T« oXAolfi* fAiff^a x»T pAiyok' Alicna paulatiixi 

ad se pretio traducere. KOBAAEIA, iStag iXiyHo u vfoairoijH^ fjJT ocvcilrig ^raiAa* 
** 9^ KOBAAOSi ramn ^ufAtv^* goiXi ft cvyuifOfAuy ru 6»jC4oXo;^«* OiXo;^^^^ iivngu AriiS^^ 
ft Ov y«f moi*' (or, as Kuster reads, Ov y»(, »; <w«i,) " \iywi C«/AeXo;^ok nm, 9^ 
^< KOBAAON ytHoioti, \fOfi,%fi9it jw AiOKUo-^y* A^ iforiAii; h ty tivnga ^iom ifogiaf, roy utq^ 


" ^<n KOBAAON i^ fMifAiUnv oyla, - uvlo^x^fAfvov aX»<rx£(rOar K«f«X«a* Sic VOCabatUf 

** liisus jocusve simulatus et fallax. Et Kofax^, qui joco tali utitur. 
•' Videtur autem idem signlficare, quod Suf^oXox^' Philochorus. libro 
** secundo de rebus Atticis. No?i enhn, lit quidam ajunt, Bacchiim saarani 
*• et deceptorem fuisse exist ifmmdum est. Aristotclcs vcro libro secundo 
•' IlistorUe Animal. Otum, (avcm) ait, lusiis amantcm, et omnia imitari 
^' conantem, (ab aucupibus) capi^ dum saltantes imitctiir/* KoCax^, 
according to this definition of Suidas, may be considered as the • Antic, 

* who plays off his tricks in order to deceive ;' and the antic — imitative 
bird, which is caught in tlie midst of his own mimicry, will remind the? 
sportsman of the bird well known about the country adjacent to Newmarket 
by the name oi Dottrel. Again we have '* KoCox^, «K£Afu0£feo ^a^ajfyoc, xy^m airt 

♦* xoAaK£i«*'^ (Or, as Kuster supplies it, Ko6«Xw y«f «i >^#r tik osurirf ii xai xof uwi- 

** oAi rm xnrtim' 01 i% xo6«Xoy> mr /a/T ft^ajiif irWiou^* Kof«Aoc> Illibcralis. Astutus. 
** Latro. A wmv vel, qui malis artibus utitur. K©C«xa enim dicuntur mala 
** et xoCaXaoc improbi hominis assentatio. (Et xoC^aoij latrones,) Eosdem edam 
^^ xo^yn^o^s^ vocant. Aristophanes: Tanqtiam senes ms fraudibus circum 
** venit, vel prasdas loco nos ducit. Quidam vero noCaxov vocant lusum, 
•* quo quis decipitur." In the Equites of Aristophanes the KOBAAOI are 
addressed among the filths of Athenian depravity in the invocation of the 
Sausage-Seller, to inspire him with the qualities most accommodated to a 
successful Demagogue — the flippant tongue — the shaineless speech ; and 
above all, that coarse and unfeeling spirit of vulgar insolence, unchecked 
by any restraint of mind or of morals ; which in Greek is called 0PA2OX, 
and which we inadequately express by the name of Impudence^ 

" B#f £o^i6oi T<, 7^ KOBAAOI, ^ /apOwmj , 

** NuK f*w Of ao^j 9^ yXtctO'^M fviro^ tort, ' 

• ^ ^wmpramin.'' (Equit. 650, &c.) 

'* Agite, 

CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 


*' Agite, dicebam, impostores, viriimprobi, 
" Fatui, scurrae, servili praediti indole. 
" Et tu forum, in quo institutus sum parvulus,. 
** Ferte expeditam linguam, ferte audaciam, 
'* Os afFerte impudens." 
I shall not load my page with the common-place passages relating to this 
word, which the Commentators on Aristophanes and Hesychius will sup- 
ply; as those, which I have already produced, will sufficiently unfold its 
various significations. I cannot however refrain from citing the observation 
of Bochart, who informs us that the originof Kobalos is Chabil; which 
in Arabic signifies a Juggler ; and this be supposes to. be derived from the 
word Cheb£l, which in Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic means a Ropt or 
Fetter. In this imiversal word we perceive another sense of the Element 
to 'confine, retain, hold, &c/ and we moreover understand, that the same 
^ord is no other than our familiar term Cable, which is extant likewise 

in various modern languages, Cable^ 
(French) &c, &c. Menage isaware how 
universally this word is to be found; 
arid he justly refers it to the Camilos 
or Camelos (K^tpXof, * funis nauticus^ 
' quo nautas utuntur ad ancoras jaci- 
* endas ;') which Theophylact arid otliers 
suppose to be understood in the passage 
of St, Matthew. *• It is easier for a 

- '* Camel" (Camelos— z, Cable Bnpc) 

'* to go through the eye of a ii^dle, 
GB. (Heb.) To be bounds &c. ** than for a rich man to enter into the 

" Kingdom of Heaven/' 
CBA — CBH. (Heb.) To hide. • '' Sunt et Kobali,*' (says Bochart) 

^* Daemones in comitatu Bacchi. 
CBK. (Heb.) To infold, embrace. ^^^ Aristophanis Scholiastes in Plutum. 


r(Heb. Ar. and Syr.) 

A Rope. 

Cable. (Eng. and Fr.) 
Cam^elos. (Gr.) A cable. 


CBR. (Heb.) To conjoin — a SIX^II, " KoCaXoi, faiiAom u^i rm^ oicXfifoi Trifi to. 

** Aiovuo-w avcilwuti* COBALI SUTlt duri 

Zauberer. (Germ.) A magician. '* quidam damones circa Bacchum irn* 

** pos tores. Proinde Bacchus ipse voca- 
CBS. (Heb.) To bind round. '* tur KoCaXo? a Philochoro in Atthide. 

*' Vafrum et impostorem plerique red- 
CBT. (Heb.) A pan. *' dunt. Atque inde KoSaXsm est ver- 

'* sutia, et astus. Origo vocis est ^3H 
*' Chebel. Hebraji, Syri et Arabes funes et laqueos et pedicassic vocant. 
** Unde secundaria significatio ^in est techna, machinatio, saltern apud 
^VA^^abes.— Rursus Arabicunj>7lNn^N Al Chabilo apud Giggeium est 
•^ 77tagiis, pntstigiator, quasi pedicas iyijiciat.'* (Chanaan, lib. 1. c. 18.) 
The sense of Chebel, as a Juggler or Magician, belongs to Sibyl — Spell; 
and is derived, I imagine, from tiie idea of Gabble — the muttered 
charm. According to Parkhurst this word CBL (^2n) signifies *' to hindp 
'*^ tj/e, connect, confine.'* 

That the reader may fully understand how deeply the Hebrew lan- 
guage' is impregnated with the sense, which I have attributed to the 
Element; I shall produce all the words, which arc to be found in Parkhurst, 
beginning with 2H CB. . And first, CB (in) means " To be bound, obliged, 
** either to payment or punishment. It is often used in these senses 
*« both in Chaldee and Syriac." CBA (NlPl) "To hide, conceal;"* or, as it 
might have been with the same Element, to Cover. CBH (rilPl) ** To 
-' hide.'* CBT (nnn) " To thresh, or beat with a stick, or staff.** This 
signification falls under the idea of " Terms for instruments holding or 
*' held, with their uses and properties;" which I have stated as one of the 
senses belonging to the Element. The reader will perceive that the Greek 
KoPTO (KottIw, tundo) belongs to this word; and not, as Mr. Parkhurst imsL-- 
gines, beat-'^at'^battle, &c. Our hardy Lexicographer is a bold 
adventurer indeed in the field of Etymology ! CBK (pin) *' To infold, 
" embrace." CBR (nnn) */ To cofijoin, join^ ox Jit together — to join words 

" together 

CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 22S 

" together for the purposes of incantation — to use spells ^r inchantments.** 
Here we likewise perceive that this Hebrew word Chab ar in the latter sense 
means to Jabber — or mutter the incantation. This seems to have been 
the idea of jR. Levi Ben Gershom, who was of opinion that " it denotes to 
*' mutter a kind of charm over the bite of a Serpent." (See David Levi's 
Lingua Sacra sub voce.) To this word may perhaps be referred the 
German Zauber^/- — a Magician — literally, a Jabberer. CBS -(ttrin) 
** To bind round ar about.'* CBT (nin) '* Our translation renders it a Pan ; 
*^ it seems rather to denote such a plate of metal as the Arabs still use to 
'* bake their cakes of bread on." Mr. Parkhurst chooses to call this opiate, 
rather than ^Pan, to correspond with the idea of some thing ^^/ or plain, 
which he imagines to be the radical idea of the Hebrew word. These arc 
all the terms to be found in Parkhurst under CB in; and they form a 
vfery important string of words for tlie support of my hypothesis. 

The word Kobalos appears to 
Goblin — Hob-GoBLiN. contain ditferent senses of the Element ; 

one of which answers to the word 
KoBOLD. (Germ.) The scriech owl; Gabble, '2nd another to our vulgar 

word Gobble. In this latter significa- 
tion perhaps the Kobaloi (i. e. Gobblers) have been considered as the 
attendants of Bacchus — the Deity of mirth and good cheer. The Etymo- 
logists have properly imderstood that our word Goblin (Ifob^GosLiv) 
belongs to this idea. '^ Lingua Grsec^" (says Meric Casaubon) ^* K^Sai^ 
<^ Germ. Koboidi vocantur. Hos spiritus credunt habitare in occultis 
^* medium locis vel in congerie lignorum : Nutriuntque cos laute omni 
^* ciborum genere, eo quod afferre solcant nutritoribus sms frumentum ex 
** alienis horreis ftirto ablatunv." Our great Poet gives a more honourable 
reason for the feast of the Goblin; which he describes as the neward of 
useful labour, and not as the wages of theft, ITic reader perhaps will 
regard a quotation from* Milton, amidst the discussions of Etymology^ as a 
fountain or a palm trde in the deserts. . ^ 

M m m " Tefls 





Tells how the drudging Goblin swet, 

To earn his cream-bowl duly set, 
*' When in one night, ere ghmpse of morn, 

His shadowy flalc hath thresh'd the corn. 

That ten day lab'rcrs could not end ; 

Then lies him down the lubbar fiend. 

And stretch'd out all the chimney's length. 

Basks at the fire his hairy strength. 

And, crop-full^ out of doors he flings, 
'* Ere die first cock his matin rings." 
The Crop-full spirit is die Gobliti undec the same Elementary form, 
containing a similar ided. (See die derivation o(Crapula, pag 149.) I am 
confirmed in my conjecture that Goblin belongs to the idea expressed by 
Gobble^ when I find that Kobold is used in Mardn Luther's translation 
of die Bible, for the ravenous animal die Scriech-Owl. It occurs in that 
sublime description of desolation, which is exhibited by the Prophet Isaiah. 
'* The wild beasts of the desert shall also meet with the wild beasts of the 
" island, and the Satyr shall cry to his fellow; the Scriech-Owl also shall 
*' rest there, and find for herself a place of rest." (Chap. 34. v. 14-.) 
*' Der KoBOLD wird audi daselbst herbergen et seine ruhe daselbst 
'* finden." (See Schilter's Thes^ sub voce.) The three 'chief sources^ 
from which the name of this animal is derived, are the cry — the time of 
crying, the nighty and its ravenous or seizing quahty. Hence Owl-Ulula 
(Howl) — Nocttia, Lilith (Heb. the Night) — the Greek Su^woi^ from 2uf«, 
traho; and Strix may either belong to 5/Wrf(;, as Ovid conjectures, or to 
Stringo, which appears in German under the form of Streichen-^^JStricken, 
as in the Latin Strictus — Strictura. This ravenous animal was imagined to 
seize children in their cradles; and it is extremely curious, diat to the ~ 
Strix of the Latins and die Lilith of the Jews, the same mythology is 
attached. The Jews of Germany (says Buxtorf) are accustomed to mark 
in Hebrew about the bed of the Child's Mother, and the four walls of the 


. CB, CF, ,CP, CV, &c. 227 

chamber^ in which she lies, '* Adam, Eva, foras estoLilis," as a charm to 
preserve the new-born child. Ovid likewise in his Fasti has the same 
iablc; which Buxtorf has not failed to observe. 

*^ Sunt avidas volucres, non quae Phineia mensis 

'* Guttura fraudabant, sed genus inde trahunt. 

^^ Grande caput, stantes oculi, rostra apta ruinae, 

*' Canities pennis, unguibus hamus inest. 

" Noetc volant, puerosque petunt nutricis egcntes, 

" Et vitiant cunis corpora rapta suis. 

*' Carpere dicuntur lactentia viscera rostris; 

" Et plenum poto sanguine guttur habent. 

** Estillis Strigibus nomen; sed nominis hujus 

*' Causa, quod horrenda stridere nocte solent." 

(Fast. 6, 1»1, &Q.). 
Perhaps^ '* Foras esto Lilis" may cast some light on a corrupted passage of 
Festus, which relates to the Strix or Zufwov* «« Solent" (says Festus) ^' his 
*^ verbis eas velut avertere Graeci. 2vff»i!Jat vopirnv wAiKOfM^t o^fiyy* roxaoy o^yi» 
** cofWMitAy wi9wo^Hi iwiimoti*'' Gesner reads it in the following manner; and 
imagines, says Martinius, that three different Birds of ill omen are here 

intended. '^ Zv^ym tfoimtwuv ywUm^fJM rf^yya roXoop o(w» cumwvfjiov^ tdxvnvfov n mtxa^ 

y nempe Symium, alibi non nominatum, strigem et pnica, quae pnix 
" dormientes suffocare conaretur." This is certainly very remote from the 
idea of Festus; and Scaliger has approached nearer to the truth by reading 

the pas^ge thus: " Xrfiyy avov^iawqi/^ wxtiCouy^ rnv rf»)^* ctwo Xoh c^iv MWUfAop 6»cu- 

'* irffHctm irnac ixawi*" There is no necessity for eaawm; and we perceive 
that ChtuTopHs nri yficig aiiswcrs to the familiar form of abhorrence — ' Ek Kofaxau 
f E^ M«x«fia»i' &c. and particularly to ' Ek Saxa^^ctif*' (See Thomas Magister, 
sub Ef( Ko^oMft; ; where the Commentators will supply the ordinary passages, 
which belong to this subject.) It is a curious coincidence, that in our own 
system of Sorcery we banish Spirits and Goblins to the Red-Sea. . Sbakspeare 




has alluded to the popular story of Uiese ill-omen'd Birds; and has ranked 

them among the Sprights and the GobVms. 

** Dromio. O for my beads ! I cross me for a sinner. 

This is the fairy land ; O, spight of spights ! 
Wc talk with Goblins. Owls, and elvish Sprights; 
" If we obey them not, this will ensue — 
*' They II suck our breath, or pinch us black and blue." 

(Comedy of Errors, A. 2. S. 2.) 



Cobble — Cobler. (Eng.) 
Gobble. (Gr.) A Needle. 
KuBAL. (Pers.) A shoe-maker. 
Cwble. (Welsh.) Totus, integer. 
CuBLHAU, (Welsh.) Perficerc. 


r(Gr.) A rustic spe- 
V cies of Shoe. 

Charbatan. (Pers.) A Boot. 
Crefida. (Lat.) 

I have remarked in my en- 
quiry into the Element CBL, that 
Cobele (KwffiAu) means a Needle; 
which has a singular coincidence with 
our familiar word Cobble; and I have 
likewise obser\'ed on a former occa- 
sion that in Persian Kubal (JbjJ^ 
signifies a Shoe-maker. In Junius I 
find •* Coble, interpolare. Fortasse 
'* est k Kp6«Aiuiiv, quod non modo De- 
" cipere significat, verum etiam (testi- 
'* bus Suida et Etymologico) aliena 
" paullatim pretio ad se convertcre.** 
He adds moreover that Cwbl signifies 
in Welsh ' totus, integer,' et Cublh^, 
' perficerc, absolvere.' He imagines 
therefore that the more simple and true 
derivation is from hence; and that 
Coble will thus include our English 


OB, CF, CP, CV, ice. 




oodeu slioc. 

sense of mmding^ or making whole. 
SkiDner derives it from the Latin Copii- 
larc — * vcteramenta consucre.' The 
name for a Shoe I find in various Lan- 
guages derived from the Element CB ; 
and, as I imagine, in its most famiHar 
signifieatlon of * infolding or cohering." 
I have observed on a former occasion 
that Carhatint (Kof C«t*wi) is a rustic spe- 
cies of shoe, (page 26) which appears 
under a simpler form in the Latin Cre- 
pida. In the French Sabot or Cabod 
— a wooden shoe, the same Element 
CBD is applied; though Perion and 
Tripault imagine, that this word is 
derived from KaXowoAoi^* " Syllaba de- 
" trahitur,'' says Perion^ " ut Koxor^ 
'* iiov^ id est, calceus iigneus. A Turo- 
** nibus nostris aliisquc finitimis, Sabod 
" vel Cabod dicitur." M. Du Cange 
derives it from Sac de bos, which Mr. 
Menage conceives to be unworthy of so 
great an Etymologist. " II vient," says tliat latter Critic, *' de Sapus, 
*• qu'on a dit, par metaplasine, pour Sapa. Voyez Savate. Sapus, Sapo, 
'' Sapottus, Sabot." Under Savate we find '* De Sapata, fait de Sapa^ 
** qui signifie lamina; a cause^ que les souliers etant plats, ressemblent 
" k un lame/' We perceive that tlie sense of Sapa, lamina, precisely cor* 
responds with the idea of Covers or Covcnngs, which appears again under 
another form, in the plirase ' To Cap a shoe/ In Spanish the familiar 
name for a Shoe is Zap ato ; which is acknowledged to coincide witli 
the Sabot of the French. In Galic this terra appears in a simpler ^tate^— 

N n n Ckvbu, 

* To Cap a Shoe/ 

Zapato. (Span.) A Shoe. 
Crush. (GaL) A Shoe. 

Keb»ka9. (Ar.) a wooden Shoe. 


Kefsh. (Pen) A Shoe. 
Khuff. (Ar.) A Boot. 
Ceip. (GaL) A Shoe's last. ^ 

Chopine. (OldEng.)rA high 

Chapin. (Span.) 



Crubh, as represented by Shaw, sUb voce Shoe; and in Arabic the name 
is formed by a doubling of the Element CB — Keb-kae (wUaS) " A 
" Wooden Shoe or Sandal/' Among the Persians I find Kefsh {^JJiy) 
to be "A Shoe, sandal, slipper;" and in Arabic Khuff signifies '* A Boot/* 
In Persian we likewise find Chabatan (^LybL^) " A Boot, an upper 
*' Boot;'* which we perceive to be precisely tlie Greek Carbatine, 
The Celtic word for the * Last of a Shoe' — Ceip is the fir$t state of Cre^ 
pida. The existence of the PT or . BT in this race of words certainly 
belongs to oux word Boot; yet I cannot satisfy myself, whether it Is attached 
to this Element in the universal sense of something ' hollow — covering 
• or containing/ as in Boat — Booth — Bed, &c. — the Hebrew Beth (n*!l) 
A house — den — cave, &c. &c.; or whether it should not be referred to 
Feet — Pedis — Pedon {mio¥) — Pad, &c. I must however observe, that in 
all languages, names for the coverings of the person have been taken from 
BT, in the sense of ' an enclosure or house/ This seems to have been a 
favourite phraseology in the Chaldee language. A Veil is called in the 
Targum of Onkelos *' A House for the Face/' Chopine, a word used 
in our ancient language, must be classed among the terms of this species. 
It is acknowledged to be derived from the Spanish Chafin; which the 
Dictionary of the Academy explains to be ** Calzado proprio demugeres 
" sobre puesto al Zapato, para levantar el cuerpo del suelo/' Father 
Alcala refers the Chaphi to an Arabic term for ^ Cork / of which the soals 
of the Chopins were made. Spelman derives it from Chapa, bractea metalli, 
a common word in the Spanish language; and the origin of Chapa has 
been properly referred by the Dictionary of the Academy to the idea of k 
cover or covering. *' Puede venir" (Chapa, say the Academicians) " de 
" capa, porque cobre, y haverse corrompido en Chapa.'* The term 
Chopin, as we remember, occurs in Shakspeare; and has been rightly 
explained by the Commentators ** a high cork Shoe/' Perhaps the pas^ 
S2L^, in which it is found, may receive some illu^ration from a Spanish 
proverb. Hamlet (A. 2. S. 2.) addressing himself to the Players, thus 


— -J », 

vC'B, cr, <ip,! cy; &c. 291 

speaks to one of the boys, who was the actor of the women-s parts:. 
*\ O, old friend!, Yrby.ihy face is i^lanced" (i. e. fringed with a. beard)' 
" since I saw thee last; com'st thou to beard qie in- Denmark? What! my 
" young lady and mistress ! By -'r lady, your ladyship is nearer to 
'^ heaven, than when I saw you last, by the altitude of a Chopine. 
*' Pray God, your voice, like a piece of uncurrent gold, be not cracked 
'^ widiin die ring." : It sliould seem riiat the Chopine was not worn by 
girls, but by women of a certain age. Since Hamlet had ieen the boy^ 
he was so grown diat he assumed the Chopine^ and acted in the character 
of a woman. Hamlet however fears that he was too much grown — that 
his voice was cracked, and dierefore he was become unfit to represent the 
character of a woman. ' It was anciendy the custom in many places of Spaia 
not to assume the Chopine i\\\ the day of marriage ; and hence the Spanish 
phrase to Put into Chopines, means, as we should say. To make a woman oi 

her — to place her in the marriage states 
Poner enCHAPiNKS. '* Poner en Chapines. £s poner en 

^' estado k una muger, casandola^ y 
*' dandola differcnte nombre, 6 empleo de mera doncella: y assi en lo 
^' antique equivalik esta locucion k lo misn^o que casarse — Lat. Pauperem 
^' virginem matrimonio augere : ad altiorem fortunes gradum faustis nup* 
'' uis efferre. Covarr. en una palabra. En muchas partes no ponen chapines 
k una muger hasta el dia que se casa, y todas las doncellas andan ea 
zapatillas/' (Diet. Acad. Espan. sub voce Chapines.) The noise of the 
Chopine — ^the creaking of this Shoe, seems to have made a very lively 
impression on die Spanisli imaginadon ; as we find it , applied in faqiiliar 
language to express the satisfaction which is enjoyed by thp, presence of a 
woman in the house. We may expect to find in die- various -fonnsT of 
Colloquial pliprasqology, composed for the express purpose of commu« 
nicating the spirit of a language, those peculiar traits of speech and send-, 
ment exhibited, which are most appropriate to the genius of each nation; 
and we may accordingly observe, that diis idea respecting the creaking of 




the Chopinc has continued to distinguish the collections of Spanish Colloquy 
from the Dialogues of Minshew published at Lbndon, to those of Fran- 
ciosini printed at Venice in 1787. 


(Gr.) To utter abu- 

I have been induced to insert in 

this ptace the terms belonging to the 

GEFUEiZBiN.^sive language— to Element CB, 2i% coverings for the feet, 

/ . , , from the similarity of sound, which 


exists between Cobble, and the Words 

GEPHTRiBi. Quas. The Jabberers. Kobalos (KoeaXec) — Gobble, derived from 

that sense of the Radical, which relates 

to the Mouth-^he Gob — Ckops — Chaps, &c, &c. I shall now close 

my- remarks on this abimdant race of words, by proposing a few examples 

for the consideration of the reader. The Greek Gefurizein, (ri^f»^«r, 

derideo, cavillor^ subsanno) which signifies to utter abusive and reviling 

language, has afforded the Critics, ancient and modem, an abundant theme 

for the exercise of their art; and they can discover no origin of this word 

more probable than that of Gefura, a bridge ; because, say they, it was a 

custom in the Eleusinian Mysteries for persons to sit on bridges, and to 

abuse the better sort of people, who were passing over. A modem Scholar 

(< And a ripe and good one,' too !) has dropped the idea of the Eleusinian 

Mysteries ; and seems to imagine that the bridge only is tenable. '^ Undc 

^* Telimm rifvfi^civ in earn defluxerit significandi potestatem, non aliunde 

^ mihi videtur repetendum, quam ab hominibus nequam et desidiosis, 

*' qui nihil agendo, in pontibus diem conterebant." (Valckenaer. ad 

Ammon. Animadvers» p. 209. See too the commentators on Hcsychius, 

sub Toce rf^nui where the common place passages relating to this word 

arc stipplied.) Gurv%izern, as we shall readily, I trust, acknowledge, is 

nothing but 6ABBBitKmi»— to JABBER vile and abusive language. There 


^ I 

CB, CF, CP. CV, &c. 233 

is another curious coincidence in tlie term Gefuris, (r£f^f«f) the article in , 
Hesychius preceding Ttfvfir»h witli a race of words, which have before 
fallen under our discussion. Gefuris is not a Prostitute on a Bridge; 
(rifu^K* riofvn T*ff nri yifv^xu wc HfaxAcw^") but Is only another form of the 

Arabic, the Gra^cian, and tlie Celtic— 
Gefuris. (Gr.) A Prostitute. Chabar — Kupris — Giovar, the or- 

dinary words for the Goddess of Love 
and a Prostitute. (See page 20.) I shall prove on a future occasion, that 
this Element supplies the familiar and appropri^ite term for Woman in 
general, through a variety of languages. 

I dare not venture to determine whether the GEPHVRiEi, who came 
into Greece with Cadmus, should be referred to this idea, and be con- 
sidered as the Jabberers — the foreigners, who spoke an unknown lan«^ 
guage, or who expressed imperfectly tlie known language of the country. 
The Chopping French occurs in Shakspearc, (Richard the 2d.) which Mr. 
Malone explains by " Jabbering ^ talking flippantly a language unintelligible 
•' to Englishmen, or perha[)s it may mean the French, who clip and 
" mutilate their words." Mr. Malone refers this to tlie phrase * Chop 
* logick;* and though he has properly explained the general sense, yet 
he has mistaken tlie precise idea of the word Chop, by cohsidcring it as 
metaphorical. Let not the reader imagine tliat this idea of Gephyrai — the 
Jabberers, is totally unfounded ; and altogetlier remote from the spirit of 
other Greek words on similar occasions : What will he say, if I should 
actually lay before him an Attic appellation for foreigners ; in which they 
are represented under the name of Babvlouioi or Babblers. '* babta^ 
^ M¥m*** says Hesychius, ** w Cc^Cctfot, wa(a tpk At7mcok'" This has nothing 
to do with Babylon, as some have simply imagined ; but it precisely mean^ 
the < Men who Babble.' I have shewn on a former occasion (193) the 
universality of this compound, BB and BL, to express ' talk or language^' 
-^Fabulor — Palaver — Favella — Babble — Prabble, &c. &c. . The com* 
pound and its separate parts are common, I believci in every form of speech 

coo to 


to express a similar idea. BB is derived from the imperfect talk of the 
Baby (a word, which in some form pervades every language;) and BL is 
the familiar Celtic term for the Mouth. In the very same leaf of Alberti's 
Hesychius, where B«Cua«wi occurs, we find bab«^«v, to /um Auj Of «/*»« xiy«>* nrioi 
Ir, Cwtk* I must observe that the MS reads, as Schotv has discovered, r» tiof 

9f€oiAtya* BABaxoi, vro HXiicuv, Tirliyc^* mvo TLcHixay it, ioilfuj^et* Wc here perceive 

that the animals remarkable for their voice or noise are denominated by 
different nations the BAB-^Xt?/. — BABaxliK, of x^r»i^« u/av«*Ai^> fA«vi«Ji»^, xj ai;y«(r©*, ••» 

"nmt Biix;^^* BABAAoi^, xpa\;y«o'o»* Aanuinq* BAB«^, ju«|«»o(j AoAoc, fXuoif^, fytnTiiiw* 

BAB(a(n¥' xiK((xyuif ^vloyu)^* There IS oue word familiar to the ears of my 

reader; which I confidently trust he 

{(Gr.) Foreigners ^^^^ acknowledge to belong to this idea. 

Can he doubt that the BARBariansp the 
quasi Babblers. BARBari {BafCm(o^) are the BAB-Zm^ 

Strabo and otliers have had a glimpse 
J3ar6-aroi. (Gr«) Quasi Aii-blers. of this idea by referring the origin of 

the word to the imperfect mode of 
speaking, by which foreigners are distinguished ; who were all denominated, 
without any reference to other circumstances, by the name of Barbarians: 
Martinius derives it from a Chaldee word, Bara, which signifies ' extra, 
' foris/ These observations will at least shew that *ny Etymology of 
Gtphyt^i is not to be wholly disregarded, as the most imptobable of con- 
jectures. Those, who would know all that is* yet known iconcemiag 
these companions of Cadmus, must consult the Attic Xections of Meursiiis, 
lib. 5. c. 31. and the Chanaan of Bochart, lib. 1. c^ 21. 

The Greek Kapos, the breathy (lUnrof, flatus, spiritus) must bcr 
^^eferred to the Chaps or Chaps. The Etymologi&fts commonly derive 
Kmtw, Spiro, fromnvia- If my conjecture is well founded respecting* the 
origin of ¥mw9u &c. Spm? — Sviritus may perhaps b^ong to ihe same idea^; 
though Vossius imagines that Martinius has acut^y deriv^ed them from 
Xwm-m^ tr^o aera. Spiro under the fonai of SP corre^nds with other 


CB, GF, C?, CV, &r. 835 

Kapos, (Gr.) The Breath, &c. Latin words, which we must acknow- 

ledge to belong to the Mouth' — -Stf* 

KAFe/n. (Gr.) To Breathe, por—Sapio; and with the very word 

4» for the Lips^ Suavium. Gape and 

Gape. (Eng.) To gape for breath. Gasp are unquestionably derived from 

the Chap or Cfiop : ' To Gape or Gasp 

Gasp. (Eng.) To gasp for breath. ' for breath' is one of the most ordinary 

of our phrases, and this directly brings 
• - - . - . . • • -f us to the peculiar idea, which seems 

to have been originally affixed to tlie 

Spiro — Spiritus. (Lat) Greek Kapos. It is extremely curious, 

that the Scholiast on Euripides describes 

the idea of Kapos to be that of panting or gaping for breath from the fatigue 

of a journey. — ^Kairo^ ro euro rfi( qIh ac^fJM yipcfAiyo¥* 

<^ Km wifiUfA ai(wro¥, x«ir0* s)cCatA«» o^s**' (iHioenissa^, V. 857-8.) 
The aged Tiresias is here desired by Creon to collect his breath, as we ex- 
press it, and to free himself from that hard respiration, which he had 
contracted from the exertions of his walk. It is doubted whether A»o? or 
K«ir«f be the true reading in this passage; and it must be acknowledged, 
that in the last and best edition of the Phoenissae At#c is received into the 
text, Valckenaer however observes: on this passage, " Quantumvis autem 
^ A«#K in Euripidae loco designato significare possit xoijuoloy, hoc tanien ista 
" vox locum ndn invenit" The English Etymologists know nothing about 
the origin of Gape or Gasp, and they produce only the corresponding words 
which are to be found in other languages. Gasp, in such phrases as ' He 
' gasps for breath — At his last gasp,' is the most forcible of all die terms, 
which express actions of that nature ; and we may perceive a reason for 
this superior energy in the very structure of the word itself. It is a com- 
pound of the two Elementary forms of GP and SP ; under each of which 
such ideas have been frequently conveyed. In Homer We find a remarkable 



instance to support the truth of this discussion. A breeze from the north 
(says the Poet) refreshed and recovered the spirit of the fainting Sarpcdon — 
gasping hard for breath. 

'* Z«yfi» iTurvnittrat x«)t«; KEKA^HOTA Bu/xo>-" (II. E. V. 696.) 

'* Hunc autem deseniit anima, circumquc oculos otFusa est cahgo: Riirsus 
'* autcm spiritum recepit, ac circum aura Boreae recreabat aspirans aegrc 
'* spirantem animam." The use of these words as appUed to difficulty in 
breathing, in which the idea of Giving and GASPivg, or of the opening 
and action of the Jaws or Chaps is necessarily included, seems to bring us 
to the very spot, from which, I imaghie, tliese terms to have been originally 
derived. I have obsen^ed in a preceding page, that a singular union has 
been formed in our ancient Poets between Life — Breath or Soul, and the 
English word Keep, (page 44, &c.) We now perceive, that the Greek 
term for Breath, or its kindred idea. Life and Soul, is actually Kape or 
Keep. I have no doubt, but that in our more ancient language a word 
existed similar to Keep, denoting Breath — Soul or Life; and that from, 
hence these ideas became connected with Keep in the sense of preserve — 
care for, &c. &c. This is common through the whole compass of 
language ; and we may often successfully conjecture about one sense of a 
word from the ideas combined with it; though in that peculiar instance it 
is used in another. The very word Keep will supply a striking example 
of this fact, in a passage, which I have before produced. *' If of life 
" you Keep a care.'* I am persuaded that Keep was suggested on this 
occasion as an adjunct to Care, because Keep in one of its senses signifies 
precisely Care. 

*' If when this Breath from Man's frail body flies, 
*' The Soule takes Keepe, or knows the tiling done here." 
It h extremely curious that Hesychius has supplied us with a faithful 
record of the ancient meanbg; which I have supposed to jbe attached to 


' ^W t3 F, C Pi C V, &c. 237 


this word. Kape, sayshe^-dcnotcs the Soul. Kocim, '¥rxil, irytv^ot' It is 
tnie that this notion of violent respiration is not annex,ed to Spiro and 
Spirifus; and I have ihore^ore* cautiously observed that these words may 
perhaps belong to the same idea* > Th^re is however another, source, from 
which Spiro may be deduced; and I will venture to add, that a third 
origin cannot be discovered through the whole compass of language. 
WIten-thfe ahratageniefrt respiecting a race of words has been once diligently 
fdfttied, we iarc enabled to determine with precision, to what classes cer- 
tain terms must 6f necessffty be referred. I have shewn on a former 
occasion (page- 37) that Si>«:uR*4^the Galic word for the Sh/ ; and that 
ZePxmds (Zf^yf^)—ZEl»kYl!i under the same idea, belongs t0 the Sky or 
ffeitv^i. 9piiio.mny ^possiiMy be derived from this source. The -4/r — 
HMvefiS'^Wind'^)S7tdt% — i}iJ(^-^Sdul— Spirit, &c. convey ideas, which 
artf perpetually blended with' each other, whatever might have been the 
origin frorri which they Were respectively deduced.^ To Spiro is directly 
at&cli^d Sl^ERb J ihis Will not, I think, be doubted, when we considec 
Aat in the irittaphorical expressioii ' To aspire after honours, emoluments,' 
&c. we have the sense of Spcro under the form of Spiro. 

• i' - The reader in casting his eyes 

Spmse; (Gerrn.) Food.^ . ^ ov6r the languages, witli which he iar 

) r , -''" ^ m^fsX conversariti will perceive a great 

Spicb. (Eng.) EspiCE. (Fr.) race of words belonging to the Element 

CB, which must be irltimately referred 
to the Mouth— the £i/>^— the Chops or Chap;S'^--Gpb — Suav/i/.»?i, &c. &c.: 
He will instantly acknowledge tlie 'German Spme, that familiar Word for 
every sort of food — the English Spice — the French Epice, formerly 
written esvices, &c. &c. I suspect likewise, tliat an abundant family of 
words to be found Under the form of CM or GM, should be referred to 
the same origin, by tlie ^ordinary Celtic change of B fhto M. Thus 
Cojif ER' is the appropriate term (or J^at, in the Spanish, language. To 
Champ rtieans in Epglishjto ift4sticat^5 the food, in eating; and the Ety- 
mologists have seen that this word belongs to the Greek Gamfai, (r«/x^«K 

Ppp Maxilla;) 



CoMEK. (^D.) To eat. 
C^K^L?. (Eng.) To masticate. 
Gamfai. (Gr.) The Jaws. 



GouRMER kvia. To taste wine. 

(Fr.) To give a blow 
GouRMEJi.^with the fist on the 

JHouthf &c. 

^o put a 
Curb on a 



{(Fr.) The Curb of 
a bridle. 

/(Ar.) Muzzling a Camel, 

Kaim. Estopping the Mouth of a 


V vessel. 

Katm. (At.) Amuzzled Camel. 


{{Ar.) Kissing; the mouths 
Mr entrances of roads. 

Maxilke) the Jaws; where it may be 
observed^ that in both these terms the 
P and the F exhibit to ' u$ a record of 
the other form; and sdaeW us^ bow 
teadily the one slides into the other, 

TheFrench Gov ^Uander-^-Gonnandii^^ 
is a compound of GM and Manosr ; 
which latter term belongs to the name 
for the Mt)uthr^Mund in the (Fermaii 
language, and to our vulgar term Munsi 
which the Author of the Classical 
Dictionary explains by ^' The face^ or 
^' rather the Mouth; from the Ger^ 
^' man word if uM, the Mouth. Toute 
'' hia Muns; look at his face." To 
Muns' or Mufid nust be referred 
the French Mano^ and theJUatin 
Makdo^ It is eurioust that Martiniust 
though he has brought the German 
Mund and Mando in juxta position 
with each other, has not seen their 
coincidence, but has derived Mando 
from Manus : '* Malim a Manu edere, 
** ut sit Mafidere de Manu edere, von 
*^ der hand in Mund.'' This is no 
inadequate example of Etymological 
discernment ! Goumwnitr is OMt de- 
rived, as the French Critics imagine^ 
from Gourtfiand ; of which the.xx)m- 
ponent parts are Man, a German wordt 
<]Ubth Menage, signifying ' Homme;* 

CB, CF. CP. CV. &c. 


Camus. (Lat.) (. zle, bridle, &c. 


(Gr.) The gaping «f the 




1 » 

GraB*String. (Vulg. Lan.) Abridie. 


(Eng.) The Gum of the 

GoMPOi. (Gn) ^ Denies 

GoMA-TeM. (Sax.) jMolares. 

GiftQiva. (lot) The Gums. 

GuMi^. (Lat.) Gluttons. 

C(Heb.) Absorbene, ingur- 

V gitare. 

GMA. (Chald.) Deglutire. 

Gaum — ^(Germ.^ The palate or 

Gaumei?. ( roof of the Mouth. 

find Gmd0i an mvkM Q^U^Q WQtd, 

wHi«hf say0 Mr. de CMen«U¥«» might 

hftvp signified ' A Gr§»it ^ter/ '* Qui 

pw// dit U, avoir §ign[ifi6 .G«w4 

Mfmgeur/' $a}0>a$iu9 hv deriv«4 

. the . word Qmrmmi ifrow tbp , F^wign 

(Jour or CA^^wr, jsigfiifying */f>9ii;' wd 
^0114/^ a terminatipo iaiQitiiif to (hat Jaii 
guage, which I have sb^n^ 4m % fprraer 
occasion (page )ii9.) (jo dteaioltc an en- 
closure^ and which the reader iviU now 
see perfectly to cprrespond with jhe 
name for the JWou/A— MVNO'— Mun3 

-^i-quasi^ tlie MovNn of (he Mouth^-^ 
Jaws-r-Teeth, &c, — the Rf^O* «/ffl«ir* 
I am amazed that neither S^imasius nor 
Menage were aware of tiye l^tiji Gif- 
MiJE^T^the ancient term Amt Gluitow. 
QtHMiM,' says Sk»liger, '* vocaban- 
tur antiquitus gulosi/' Martinius 
justly observes, that GMA (nds) ia 
Hebrew signifies ''^ Absorbpre, ingiir^- 
'* tare;" and he moreover adds^ that a 
similar Chaldee word (yo3) racOTs ' de- 



' glutire.' The»aB Scholar will 
understand this race of words, when he recollects that Gaum or Gav^men 
signifies the PahUe or Roof of the Mouth. That my derivation of Geur* 
manner is jusu and that the GM-Hthe Gouum, in tliis con^pound relates to 
the Mouth or /ntws— the G ampai, will be evident from the riuwe Gour^ 
M£R Ic vin, which signifies * To taste wine"-^from tJi€ \rord Go^trajsh in 
another sense, signifying, aayaMena|;e, '' Dmner dea icowps de poiAg k la 

** bouche. 


^' bouche, aunez, elaux joues;" and from GouRMer un chpval, the verb 
expressing to put a Curb on a Horse; to which belongs OovKMette, the 
substantive for the Ct/rA itself. Whether Curb be another form of the 
Gourm, and derived directly from the Cab — the i Mouth, or whether it 
does not belong to the more general seiise of the Element, " To confine, 
** retain, hold," &c. I shall leave the reader to determine. It is curious 
that Kaim {^ixf) signifies in Arabic, according to Mr, Richardson, " '• Aluz^ 
" ;2;Aw5^a€ambl; »• Closing, stopping (the Mouth of a vessel;) 3- Kissing," 
that is, mouthing-^^^ Ht ^vrowXA mouth with a beggar;* and as my eye is 
passing down the page, where this word occurs, I find Kuum (^ajcT^) 
*' *• Kissing} '•• The Mouths, extremities^ or entrances of roads;" and Kajpn 
(wou) ** A bridled, or muzzled C{imel." The reader will now remenfitteir 
that the Greek and Latin names, belonging to this ideia, appear precisely 
in the same form. The Greek Kemos (k^jia^) and the Latin Camus 
mean a 'bridle, bit, rein, snaffle or jnuzzle;' which appears under another 
form in the Latin Capistrum; though I shall not decide, whether the latter, 
word relates to the Head — Chops — <ir the Caput; or whether it be not 
derived from the general sense of Capio, to restrain. That the. ILemos 

and Camus refer to the Mouth, I cannot doubt; and this will be further 

* * * 

confirmed by another Greek word, Keme, the gaping of the Mouth — 
Xn/iAii, '.Hiatus, oscitatio, quae fit ore hiante/ In the Classical Language 
' Go6-string* means a Bridle ; and Gob, the Mouth. (See Grose's Classical 
Dictionary, sub voce Gob.) That our English word Gums (die Gums of 
the Teeth) should be referred to this radical GM, signifying ther Mouthy' 
no one, I imagine, will deny. Junius properly explains " Gummes 
*' Palatum una cum gingivis;" and Skinner has produced the Saxon 
phrase Goma-7>M Dentcs Molarcs, which in Greek are called' Gomfoi. 
(See Suidas and Heyschius sub voce.) This neither Skinner nor Junius 
understand, though they acknowledge, that Gums may belong to Tojia^^, 
clavus, cuneus. The Saxon Goma means Gingiva, Palatum et Faux. The 
Latin Gingiva, which Isidorus imagines to be derived " A gignendis 

" dentibus/ 

^^ CB,> CIF, €P/ CV, *rc. 241 

dehtibw/' ba compound, of whicii the parts are pei-petuaHy tisid to signify 
whatever apper^ins to the Mouth. Even Martinius has seen Aat Ghigwa 
I>e}bng3 td the Gir^ek Geniioih (rumm^ Mentum,) quasi '* VtrntQi* ^e^, idekU 
^ iheMi fo§5»;** though the English Etymologists with difficulty ackifdUH 
ledge> that C/i/» betongs to GcnucT (riiruc') I hare discussed on a former 
occasion tl>e Element GN, as it relates to this subject, (pages 183-*4^5.) 
antt the second parti Gir^ of the compound Gmgiva, is the very ^adicdU 
OB or QT, die i1/i){^/A^ )which - is' now the object of our enquiry; aild 
we may perceive that it is only another form of Goma^-^ums-^an^^i^ 
AiCi &c. In ^ort, if the reader iis not disposed to allow, that this raee 
of words should be classed under the Element CB; the fact ^ which aione 
I am desirotfS' of ostablis^ng, okay be asserted under a differient mode and 
with a' skttilar ineiinrtn^;^*i-Thatl aigfeat race of wordi^^ rtlatiiig lb thfe 
Meuih—Lips^ &c. ice. is to be found alike Under the forms of CB and 
CM, and the letters* acknowledged by all Grammarians to be cognatte^ 
Md that - sometkyies the M af^iears- in; conjunction v with Ih^ second let<^ 
ttfthe-ra^icaP, as itviC//i*m/^-^flm/4arv I ); - ; ( A » <^ 

I eamK>t cleM this seotion without endeavbbting to iflusMte by^ 4 
stnwfer example my hy^othe^s tespecdng the originof Munu; theM<Mth; 
which' P 'H*te considered * 9s 'the enclosure or Mound. V iimagttio» 
tfitft the' DorK or^Doirr inf o-^DairT<^5 belon^^ to a similar i^eoi' 'kiid 
iihoiild be^ referred^ t» the DEir^a-4he enclosure^of the M4mth ot iTeiih, 
by «' kindred tnetajrfio^^ to ftM^ in the e^ a$ilm* The same |WriiieipTe 
of th^.MAind, Which operates* ^ in pMmpting a metaphorical eKpressiort, 
Would' stiggkt lifceiK^se tlfcfonbatioh of' a.: wdid. The Latiti^ l>s^9^-i- 
J)9rVTh, w suppoted i(X'bt the drigin; of the similar words in various th'odeite 
iMiguages. Vossiiiv^siiid Martibiua can scarcely be said to understand that 
l^m^f Deniis bel^g to Odontm. Maitinius' oUberves» '* Dens, qtiasi 
.•^edek,i ut o^, ab B^* Seal. Gap. 29. de Caus. Ling, Lat. MzUm 
'^lMHt»f9 diet » T4M €xi<x^'^ iHtei'theh pnidutie*' <^ pai^ 
t\»o(b iivodver k(i|^ia^eil^«^^ Hfibrew $H]$r^ G^ritfi )^rdU^ 

« q q '* Danic. 






J)eyi. (Eitg;) An enclosure. 

O-dont-os. {Gr.y ; . ' r » 

Vent'is. (LaL-)«n »• ;...;; 

8HN. (Heb.) > ;> j ./ 

%«^n. (Germ.) ; » • ■ 

Thaih (Sab.) 

7<sr«rf. (Dan.) 

Dundaun. (¥er^) ^ 

Sinn. (Ar.) D<i»: (Gips.) 
O-don. (Ion.) 

Dant-danz. (Celt.) 

Tttn/hus. (Goth.) ;. 

Tendo, (GrJ) To ezt. . 

Dine. (Eng.) Thoine, (Gr.),A feast: 

Z>iSf«n-umi. (Gr.) To give a feast. 

Dainty. (Eng.) Tone, iTune, &cc. 

" Danic. Tand. Pcrs. Danda" and 

adds . that Zaun signifies Septum, t(x»c 

,: ©feJ«>* In Persian Du>NDaw?i (qIOvi<3 

: and in- Arabic ' S^NN {^^yJ) signify ^ 

( Tooth; aud in Pq^ijin Piliun{i^^JI^) 

is the Mouth. In Gipsey Dan is a 

Tooth, which in Grellnjan is rcprcr 

eentcd by l>a«/,„a3 belppgrpg equally 

to the Gipsey. -and Hindoo languages. 

The preceding words in Grellman are, 

Tsc/iib, Tscheb, ^Jibb, tlic terms in 

thbse languages for. the Tongue ; ; wliich 

.. I; find in my coUectioiO of Gipeey 

words to be represented by Chibf.^^, 

simple form of the Persian Zubaunp 

(See page 187.) ^ Vas«ve >Ciii> aa^ 
JDenwox. (Gr.) A reproach. Tiiim/. . .Ivodsh ke Chib signify ,4:b*4iand;a 
(Eng.) 7bn//irus. (Gr.) The voice, good spoken person. This, we per- 
ceive, belongs to the Element ^B, as 
referring to tlie Mouth andlitsjad^a^qnt 
• organsi. I omitted; tQ,ol«?CFe Jft sny 
, fol^mer di$cisi£feiioo.otur vulgar) (.te^^ 
.tbQ Moutii <or LipSi a^ ^it appoaii^ u^d^ 
.the form of GB; / .C;onj|9^j;»y,^4|ear, 
^ .-If book up your Gib, ; and ,:b© kassedi- 
' is a. sehtencie fahiHiac to-the phrasooJiOgy 
' : '. of our streets; which neither the writer 

nor thp reader must disdain to record or to learn; if they a^ii:ie to any 
pretensions iu the myatexy of Languages. In Martinius , /wifr and Jak are 
jrec6rded3s the Bohcsciian andPolish wor<li5.for aToolh; .whiph hQimaj5ines 
to come from i5<8fr/;i> a word' Bignifying to ^ne* WiierQevier QViF re^^^tic^ 

Timthotho. (Gt.) To muttier. 
Disch. {Txxv.) ^ 

IT! r /A / * \Tooth, 

A^/A^Aiigv.Sai.) I'; J /.v ' - 

Taitc, ; T^atiU.TarU Titter f Toot. 

Tut. (Northern Labg.) Rostrum. 

Twit-^Toath-iio.{Gx.). ;To mack. 

* c# 


' t eA C F, C Pi C V, &c. 243 

Chib. (Gips,) ^ are directed, the Element still con- 

T rn' rl ^1 ^^'^S^*^* tinues to remarn faithful, to its office. 

* ■ XV J ( Thus //^A and /flft belong to the G/A; 

{(Vulg. Eng:) as Dois does to Dihun, the Mouth. 

f Vossius expresses the- doubts of, the 

The Mouth or Li]>s, i a \ *u n u ' r'r^- ' 

; V . , . learned, whether Dens he of Latin, 

JuB. (Boheni;) Y . Greek, or Hebrew origin. If froni the 

J* ^ A Tooth. ' I^ttn, says he, it is quasi Edens — if 

. . from the Greek Oi^^, still it is supposed 

Zabin. To eat. < ^^* ^^ ^ ^^^^ root; which is gonfirmed 

,.* . ^ , . i f ( : (quoth he) by die iEoUans using EJovIac 

jfor QJb»7af;,; and ; the. lonians employing oJ«y (quasi ,EJ«v) fpr oJac* Tli6 
future comnueotlttoiis ;on, Hesychius will not fail^ ,1 trust, to confirm the 
toue reading; of d>e manuscript, which . has been gprv^rted by Marcus 
Mu^urus. , We f€iad \n the presppt;prin^)^^ , copies , of Hcsyphius, p 9m o J«f ; 
l^hiphj'aicpor^ing |pith^^m^p4i^j^oj|i ,Qf Hqinaiu^, is^^^'^'| o^ov xa7«^- xaew«r" 
In thfeiCoilirt^a-qfiibeitiaoyscriipt l^y#S^^ it^pf^^f^f^fcl y^p^^^G we pei> 
i:^6ire that pJWi' i^ the Ipnicform* as recorded by Vossius, for the name of 
a TVolA, aQd that it is e^^plainedjlfy.the ippre familiar word oJ^r That the 
inogt'.iUu$trio\te.fPf ;OUf pfififjs^. sJv)uld h^v^ conU^^pe^ to exercip iheir 
^veqtidn in efmendatidi^rOi). thif I^xioDgrapher, wi^put being perfectly 
asbei;tained thal}lhfe opjy m^np^cript «^w extant had beqi faithfully copiecl, 
it Qrie of thfl most* extijaordin^ry facts in the History of Letters. ^Tflie 
masterly: colktjaa [of Shfixi^ may aln\ps^; \e considered as. ^ jbripin|j an ^ aera 
iif Gtecian:Lit6rat|ire»._ In.the JJialects^of the Celtic I fin^ *' ^antyDanz^^^ 
among the names for z,Tooth (See Lhuydjsub voce Dem.) , In ihe .TurkisI^, 
i)isCMf says Martinius, is dLTqojh, ^nd; in the .-^pglp, Sjixpp jt is JHo/A; 
th<)Mgh in the Gothic we ag^in&id^t .* Tt^i/hus.' . , , The. jfiadei: ,will now 
pfeccQive that ; tlk^rp are two fprpis, ; TT and DN, ,ujid^jr, which this nanie 
iato tn&foundi TT coi|fpsp<HMlf with J^isc^y-Ttf^TBjjrr-jTp^^-— and D^^ 
in the,Gfeek<C>«I>ovs; J>N:]0];;P|f^^ wt^^ J)mr^Pf}^\^±,^. Dont m 


». , r 

2*4 ETYMOL06l<56» MAGKiEJM. 

' • . 

O'poHt-os, (okHCf^yScc. Sec. TheO in O-Dous — O-Doni-M, is iht xeptcJ 
serifatioh of sdirife 'tcm^el icnitid perfonning theoffice of 4n article; whicb 
fhc treeks eithef mistook originally *for a part of the word itself, or vtbs 
at ^rsf iised fdf theif own article, and afterwards became blended with the 
word by a siihitar nii$take. A nfce of terms under both these forms TT 
driq IJN or DNT will be discovered by the diligent observer, conveying 
ideas connected with thfc Mnutk: Taste — ^Tattle — ^TARiy— TifremM^- 
Itoof, (tdniake a noise) we itistantly refer to the TT, the. Mouth; and the 
laborious Editor of the Scotch Poems will now see the force of the WOtii 
Ti/f , whicli he has found in the Nortliern Glossaries to meaa^Aaffrtfrn; 
(Pinktfrton's Ancient S. Poem^i vtA 2. p. 410.) To DN, the Mouthy 
belongs our fomiliar word/ for feating, DiWA;^— the GfeeSk THarifB (^Mi 
epiilum, dibu^) and tiAtr^'Uffii (^oiw/m, epulutn d (^^-4)3 if (a noiae)^ 
Toi^^--TfbN^B---ToiJk;i-— ^ which ha* notWiig. toi do witii 

Ti»w, teh^o, a wofd derived froili i xvery dlffer^At idea. The GreM: 
DENNOi (Aiirw pfobuni, dohtumelia) is ihfeEiigKsh TAUKt, wbith imd« 
the form df Tt kgairi aJ)j[)fearS in our 'Vulgat' Ivdrd^ TWi^^-t^^ Tti Wmiti A 
* persdii with arty^ thirig;?) aild thiieve» the EtyniotegistB have i^todtd 
a? a parallel leral to ^tirk^zd ('M^^a, il-ndeo, drcteriisF, cdhvkiiseibedBo) 
which literally' ^ighifid to tborAi An zp^lhi W 'eating, '*Tll^^JJ& if 
linger one feriA, Whkt i BlAtirfr-^JBiY is- uhdet* AnCffheV. l^hj<» tyUmmf 
digression on this ticie of words by pfoducirig thfe (st^k T&UrB^mt, (he 
voice, ^ndTo'tfrik'Orizo, which precisely ihcians, ^ w^ fisiy iti £i»glrdh^> to 
mutter stfni^uiiilg hetween thfe Teetk. {Tt^ir vox. T4it4^my 'Mtjitmvmti 

*^''r»avl»' ' *t9i^(V(, iftM''* (Hesych.) ■ • ' i . ' ' ,.'( ;: 

As we advance forward in these «ipeeulalIons/ We. f^all be eikibt64 
more fully td Understand and adniirethe^et-et wcM-kings of'thft^ ptt)4tjiff69i 
t)i6ugh e'ofitrouiing principle, whi<ib In the formatiofiio^ la«>gua|^ «titt 
cdntihuesto multipiy-^td Mark ahd to sepaivte ttieise ^banging fbnns; « 
tiiey ^^ith tapid pfZ^fess through klf tbiw VairieU^ b^'Bymbot^Mtf 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 245 

sound and of meaning. Order and uniformity, those products of design and 
meditation, appear here to be prompted without thought, and compleated 
without contrivance. Here only, as it should seem, the etfect corresponds 
not with the cause; nor does the end accord with the origin. We behold 
an ample and a stately fabric, fulfilling the most important purpose, and 
furnidied with every convenience; by which that purjx)sc can be pro- 
moted : We admire at once the beauty of the whole ; and we may learn 
duly to appreciate tlie proportions aud the symmetry of its parts. Still 
however we find in its formation no artist to devise — no rule to guide — and 
no plan to regulate. The agents in this extraordinary work appear not 
to co-operate in design ; nor are they conscious of the nature— the extent 
or the beauty of tliat fabric, which they are labouring with such activity 
and effect to raise and to compleat. . All seems to be the fortunate product 
of unmeaning chance ; the successful effort of blind and brutish materials. 
But these are maxims, which are equally abhorrent from the Philosophy 
of Language and tlie Laws of Nature. The cause ?nust correspond witli 
the effect ; and a system of arrangement must ever be referred to a prin- 
ciple of order. Apparent Chance is invisible Direction ; and the secret 
influence of some potent energy will be still found to predominate in the 
work, inspiring the purpose, and conducting to the end. — It is MIND, 
mingling witli the mass; which informs, disposes, and animates the whole. 

Spiritus intus alit, totamque infusa per artus ~ 
Mens agitat molcm ; et magno se cor pore miscet." 




R r r Wo 



CB, CF, CP, the Hand. 

Kef. (Pers.) 

The Hand. 

CiB. (Celt.) 
Carpus. (Lat.) 
Carpos. (Gr.) 
Caph. (Heb.) 

Cuff. (Eng.) 

Kvrten. (Pers.) To cuffl 

iZuRB — C(Ar. and Pers.) 
K.VB. V A cuffar blow, 

SciAFFo. (It.)Alapa. 
ZuFFA. (It.) Pugna. 
ZvvFare, &c. (It.) Pugnare, 



|(FrO A 

cuff or blow. 

{(Gr.) To cuff, beat, 
bruise, cut^ &c. 

We have seen in a former page (28,) 
that the name for the Hand belongs 
to the Element CB ; as in tlie Persian 
Kef — ^the Cehic Cib — ^tlie Latin Car- 
pus — the Greek Carpos — and the 
Hebrew Caph. In our own language 
the familiar term Cuff, both as an 
appendage to the wrist and as a blow, 
brings us at once to the same spot; 
and we may well ioiagine, that aa 
abundant race of words belonging to a 
similar train of ideas, would be formtkl 
from the Caph — ^the Hand, the most 
useful and important of the members. 
The names of Instruments held by the 
Hand would naturaily be derived from 
this source; and when such names 
were once formed, it will not be diffi- 
cult to understand that a series oi 
terms would froni thence be generated, 
expressing the accidents or the circum- 
stances, which are found to accompany 
their use. The appropriate term for 
holding in Latin — Capio is, I imagine, 
directly derived from the Cap or Hand; 
and in QkvuIus we perceive the same 
connection as in Hand and Handle, 
Manus and Manubrium. The Greek 
TiiMbe, (AaCn, capulus manubrium,) we 
know belongs to A»/eAC»v»> iXaUv} which 

I have 

CB, CF, CP, CV,.&c, > 247 

Chop — Chip. (Eng.) I have likewise proved to be derived 

from Lam or Lav, the Hand, (p. 28.) 
CoypHR. (Fr.) We have s^een the Persian Kuf/^;;, to. 

Cy*??; and the Arabic and Persian 
Kappen. (Dutch.) ZuRB and Kub, a blow. Skinner re- 

fers to Cw^the Italian Sciaffb, alapa, — 
XiFos. (Gr.) A sword. Zuffa, pugna, and Zuffare, Azzuffarsi, 

: . pugnare, manus conserere. It \% curi- 

ous diat though he has here used two words, Manus and Pugnare (Pugnus) 
expressing the Hand or its action, he has not seen that these terms are all 
derived from the Element CB (Kef, &c.) signifying the Hand. Even 
the French Coup has not beeu referred to this race of words; and Menage 
records no other dentation for it but Colpus, which comes, as he ob-- 
serves, from Colaphus^ and Kox«ir1w The other French word with this 
meaning, $ouff/(^/, according to tliat learned Etymologist, is quasi aSu^^- 

fttf-1-the swelling out of the cheeks; because it was the cu$toni Qf certaii) 

> • 

Antics to entertain an audience with swelling out tlieir cheeksj iO; ordet 
to receive strokes on that part. Ttese merry persbnages were called 
Buffons; a word, say the critics, of a similar origin. . Even thuus id^a Mn. 
Menage has borrowed from Vossius in his Notes on Catullus; ainl to con* 
firm the Etymology he has subjoined the following wejl-kopivn anwdote: 
** Un Auteur anonyme, parlant de Baudouin le Poteur: Debuit facert 
^* die natali Domini singulis annis^ coram Domino, Rege Anglic, nnum 
'^ solium, unum suffietum et unum bumbulum. Cestadire, selmi rinter^ 
f relation de Camden. Ut sallaret, buccas cum sonitu if{flaret et venfris 
aepituni ederetV' The intelligent reader will perhaps be inclined to 
judge, that our Etymologists themselves, if such are the exhibitions of 
their art, are but little advanced beyond the Antics, whom they describe. 
With regard to the first part of the compound, Soujlet — Souf; the reader 
will instaatly refer it to the CF or SF, the Hand; but with respect tp the 
FL» he must be reminded of the PAL in FALomd (p^snw) and FALJna. 





GV-L. In order to understand more fully the 

---------- nature of this race of words, a few 

Cualon. (Gr.) Vola manus. Paid- observations will be necessary. I have 
me, Palmz. (Gr. Lat.) Co/aphus. had occasion frequently to remark the 
(Lat. &c.) Slap, yy/apa, quasi, mingled sound of G and V; from which 
£;^*tf/apa. Blow. circumstance the same word sometimes 

LF, LP, 
LM, LV. 
Lofx. (Goth.) 
L/>i\ Lav, 
Pa/y, Lain 

I (Celt.) 

appears under the form of G and its 
corresponding consonants C, K; and 
sometimes under that of V and its 
cognate letters P, F, W. Thus in the fa- 

miliar example — Galli — Celta — Bclga 
— Gaules, Welsh — written sometimes 
Velchcs by the French ; and in my own name, what is Gualterus in one 
form is Walter in another. This mixed sound was extant among the 
Latins in the letter Q; to which we always find the U subjoined, as a 
faithful record of the fact. The U. likewise is frequently added to 
the Greek r on a similar occasion. Thus Gvalon of Gvalon is tlie hoilovir 
of the Hand ; which in Latin, when the sound of the G is lost, appears 
under the form of Voha; and again VL becomes PL in the Greek and 
Latin words, FaLamc and Vat.via, and in the English hhow. When the 
G is hardened into C, and tlie sound of V is faint, tlie Gual becomes the 
Col in CoLaphus (Kox«^^) — CoLpus — and the Italian CoLpo. As the 
L»\I, in PaLaMc — Pahua, belongs to LAM, the Hand; so does the LP 
in CoLap/ius belong to another form of the same word, LAP or LAF; 
When C has assumed the hissing sound of S, we have our common^ 
English word Slap. Otliers have discovered that Slap belongs to Colaphus; 
though Junius and Skinner are not aware of tlieir coincidence. The 
former however produces the Gothic Lofa; which, he observes, signifies 

* Vola.* Among the names for the * Hand' in Lhuyd, I find * Ihau, Ihov- 

* len, palv, lov, lav/ (Sub voce Manus.) We see therefore, that G\X 
and LM or LP arc tlic parts; and that GVLP is tlic compound. In some 


CB, CF, CP^ CV, &ۥ ; 249 

cases the sounds of the G and V are so blended^ that they appear only as 
a hard breathing; and we shall therefore not wonder to see the GV assume 
a vowel farm, as A, &c. Hence is derived the Latin Alapa, quasi 
QlJ-alapa. The Sou^flet we now peifceive is a compound, of which 
SF and FL helong to two names for tlie Hand. If the reader should 
wonder at the coincidence between -Sb^^^ef 2ind Suffiatus, what will he say, 
when he sees the same coincidence in tlie word Bloza — ^thc stroke and 
the swelling out or puffing of the breath. Nothing is more simple. The 
same cause produces a similar effect. We have seen that BL, PL signifies 
fiometliing rising or stvelling out, as in boil — bulla — bubble — ball, &c. &c. 
(See pages 77. and 146.) and the Element GL has the same meaning — 
what is hollow, &c. Now the name of the Hand belongs to the Element 
GL or BL, because in the action of using it, the form is something rising or 
swelling out — a hollow, Sec. Gualow itself {Tuxxoy, cavitas) in the first sense 
has the same meaning ; and the very terms Hollow — Hole belong to the 
Guatan — Koilon (Ko»xof, cavus ;) where the sound of the GU becomes a 
rough breatliing, as in ^/apa from C^/aphus. Hence then we have suf- 
Vhatus — FLd — BhoWf Sec. belonging to the swelling wind, and su/FLcf, 
FALame — blow, &c. attached to the swelling Hand. 

In the Greek Copto (KotJw) are included^ the various senses, which 
we might imagine a priori would be naturally derived from the Cop or 
Handi It means to beat'-^strike — bruise — wound — cut, &c. &c. Sec. That 
notable Etymologist, Daniel Lennep, derives this word ultimately from 
Km#, Ki»,K«M* ''Koirlw, tundo, scindo. Oritur a k^tm, quod ortum a Ko<v^ 
** cui vicina suntKi«,K««, quibus cum movendi^ tum cellendi, percellendi, 
^* similcsque significationes sunt. His autem vicina /U72£i^;it//, scindendiquc 
f* notio." (Lennep sub voce.) To Kopto belong the English words, 
Ch6p — Chip. Skinner does not refer Chop to Chip\ and he rejects in 
both cases tlie Etymology of, KottIw, proposed by Minshew. . Among the 
jFrench Critics, though Gosselin derives Couper from Koirm, and Du Cangc 
^m Korlur; yet the latter adds, '^ vel ox Cuppusp instrumentumj quo 
I- _ s s s «* pedes 


•' pedes reonini <^n$trifigebantur> ut sdnderentur.'' That CoPitf (Kt»»^ 
gladius) one of the Greek names for a sword is derived from this source, 
will not be doubted; and in Cope (Kftmj, manubrium, remus) we are 
brought immediately to the Cop or Hand. Cope, in the sense of Remus, 
may be considered as the ' Handle of the Boat/ This is a bold metaphor 
indeed ; yet it is natural, and, I believe, the true one : I must observe 
however, that Oar and Remus are derived from a very different idea ; and 
SO, I imagine, are generally the names for this instrument. — X1F05, (ffifo^* 
gladius) whose two forms we may consider to be Kifos and Sifos, must be 
^dded to this race of words — Copis, &c. The letters perpetually assumes 
new forms. Skiff 2iViA Skafos (Ika^o?) become in English Ship; and we 
find in Hesychius Zxi^o? and Xxi^»^f« for ff*?o? and SKpt^tc Whether the 
Greek Copis returns to anodier sense of the Element, when it signifies a 

Feast, is not easy to decide. Copis 
Copis. (Vox Laconi) A Feast. (Ktwr«?, convivium Laconicum) is de- 

scribed by Athenaeus as a species of 
entertainment among the Lacedaemonians (Lib. 4. c. 6.) We have seen 
(page 176, &c.) that the Element CB or CP has supplied a great race of 
words, which relate to * Food and to the consequences of eating and drink'- 
• ing :* Copis may therefore belong to this idea, and signify a Fenst, for the 
same reason as cJur word Supper. We must however likewise retnember 
the idea which Homer perpetually annexes to the jPetf*f-^the i^mlof EirHE; 
m which each 'person had his due share given X)r delivered ' but to him. 
Now this was precisely the case iti the LacedaemoniaTi Copfc. " Ev tat^KomL 
•' «•»»•'— (says Athenseus) ** rm xfim iiimfri fAoi^Ai ira&r** Aai?, the Feast, is 
certainly derived from the El6ment DS or ibD, sTgnifying the Hand; and 
hence .the reader will be enabled t6 see why A«»9 signifies a Fight — a 
Feast— ^zjiA a Torch. Dais, we knoW, appears in Latin under the fomi 
of Tieda, vvhich in English is represented by Torch. I suspect that thii 
very words, which I have here used in my explanation of A^ic — Fight and 
Feast, have precisely the same relation to each other, and that boA 


CB, CF, C P,: CV, ice . : «51 


should be refei*red to the great instrument of contention and of distrtbu'' 
tion^-^-the Fist. The word used by Athenaeus on this occasion, AiJcan 
[di^iofAi) belongs likewise to DD, the Hand; and in the phrase Give out, 
which I have employed to describe the /i«i? nem, or the CopiV, the term 
Giiie is derived from, our Element CP, or GV, signifying the Hand, as 
I shall prove on a future occasion. Another name for a F4:ast among 

the Lacedaemonians, recorded in this 
-<4/^fon. (Vox Lacon:) A Feast.. passage of Athenieus, Was Aiklon 

AKL. (Heb, and Ar.) To eat. (AixXov;) of which I can produt:e the 

' • • most satisfactory EtyTiiology. The ap- 

propriate terms for Eating in the Hebrew and Arabic languages are ^DH 
^nd Jk/1 AKL. I suspect that the Dialect of Lacedasmon is the important 
^ink, which connects the recent language of the Greeks withithe honours 
^f* the Celtic nanie. I cannot close n^tobsetvations on Ccjp/V, without 
observing its coincidence, in the sense of a • Sword or Kiiife,Vwith the 
<;haldee Cnpitx, Securis (f *Dlp) which is thus explained by fiuxtdrf in his 

Chaldaic snd Talmiudic/ I.exicoi\«^^ 
Ct;plT2. (Chal.) feecfufisi ' -^^ - *' Convenit Gra^cum KnrK Iquod.jsig* 

'^ r):i;' M nificat gladium seu cultrum aptum 

' (Chal. and Tiihriud.) *^-Fo-' «' -ad caedendum : NohnuUos etiam -Se^ 
, ' /-r ' .1.' i >: : f* 'airim interpretari observat Henricus 

d^er.^,C««pon?. .'.vOavar. :,<)stephanusin Thesaurd ^Graco.^ r ft. 

4' tateni; »* ta^hiiWri.^ '^''P(irt'- - ^'curious that in the opening of this 

' Lexicon now b6foii^ bi^^^d>inrtfa^ 

rum .c«wtatuoi|.;»- Foramen.. ^^ preceding pages, the following 

" ]■«• cftfpsa. ^-'tarbis. ''^'Arca!^ - ittbrpretations shyuM be foteJiJ,.vTrfcioh 
-:tii:\' fi . ■....■iyf/ ;.'i/i-ib4<ong to as many words beginning 

"^ DbRHimi ."•.Glaiwlerd./^.nnni^h th^ ienlen^. Cl^..^*f;^,y J staU 

LCaroJ4- Corona. 's-Ctf^aris. ' *«*nscribe them in their order. •• Fo- 

....v^,..)in . vlL .;);,.«.; ^-.f^rA 4t^rdeie, ptt^der«*^V<>-/«(«Ml&) . «J«A»i 
.•,V> :■:.-:> J >iK?. iuM luu. ; « 'jo ix-^Jx«.«», macellum, taberna, forum car- 
'■^ " narium. 





'' narium, caupona. 8- Clava. -^ Catena. ^ C^j9itium, tegumentum capitis, 
*' Graece, KE*«x«c* ^* Porrum capitztum, certa porri majoris species, quae 
*' in terra Israelis crescebat, a Graeco KE*ax«T^, KE*aAw ''Foramen securis 
^' vel instrument!, cuiinditurwfl/iM^rmw. *• Cofpsa, area, scrinium. ^' Cc;r^is, 
canistrum. *^* Area, ctfp^fl, scrinium, "-Dorsum, pars lata mallei, securis 
vel acus— dorsum acus, id est, pars obtusa et cava, cui filum inditur — 
dorsuin securis, cui lignum inditur. *•• Clauderc, occludere, ut Hebraice. 
^* '3- Caro. ^' Corona. *«• CappvLris, proprie putamen sive cortex capparis 
** fructus." It would be an idle labour to transcribe the various Chaldaic 
and Talmudic words belonging to this Element and to this hypothesis. I 
could scarcely however have hoped to find, within such narrow limits, 
fifteen words, which so perfectly coincide with the principles of my 
theory ; and in which even the explanations of Buxtorf abound with terms 
belonging to the same Element — ^KAnuXa, KAanXam — CAUPona, CAPitium, 
KE«aXic, CAPitatum, KEtaXwr^, KE^oXiov, CAPsa> CoRsis, CAva, CAPParis, 
This surely is extremely curious; and I produce tliese examples to con- 
vince the reader how abundantly every language and dialect are stored 
with words conveying the sense which I have attributed to the Element, 

To the names of instruments held by 
ScBPTRON. (Gr.) the Cib— ^IIaph— Kef, .&c. &q. we 

must refer the Greek ScEP/r(7w — Si^EP^n 
.ScEPTKUM.(Lat) . .! , (i*iwl$e». ^«^|1r4w)theScEP/rttma^dScEP- 

;; ... c./rtf— the Seipw^d. Staff. , Tlje S K 
Sceptre. (Eng.) Skepon, (Qrr ) . ; is^not the radical in tliis case, but barely 
u' : a combination of the sounds, which the 

SciPio.(L»t.) Staff. (Eng,) . fim letter of the Element CB, bears in 
;, ' -r 4*flferent words; and in our pronud* 

SiTEBET. (Heb.) A Staff or Sceptic. ' oiation of Sceptre, t)ne' only of these 

sounds . is preserved. The sound oT T 

Chov. {Pets.). A Staff, a Rod. , ,, we know is perpetually blierided with 

:i . f- .. a*. tkot X)f S ; and thus iSr^ is quasi 5ii/I 

CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 

25 S 


^KEPTO. (Gr.) To kan. 


(Gr.) Simulare, to 
hide or cover. 

In Hebrew the Sceptre appears under the form of Shebet (dIh;.) It means 
" A rod — a long twig or Staff — ^a pen to write with, and resembling a 
" small rod — a Sceptre, the ensign of authority.'* It perpetually occurs in 
this latter sense ; and it is found in that celebrated passage, which has 
afforded such an ample theme of controversy in every age to the mystic 
Rabbi and the profound Theologue. It is thus, that the dying Patriarch 
predicts of the race of Judah. " The Sceptre" (Shebet) ** shall not 
'* depart from Judah, nor a Lawgiver from between his feet, until Shilok 
come; and to him shall the gathering of tlie people be," (Gen. 49. 

V. 3.) From Ijanrjfok baculum, seep- 
trum, is derived IxnWJw, nitor, and not 
Zxfi^foif from 2xfprJ«; as is commonly 
imagined. This word again returns to 
its Elementary sense, when it signifies 
* simulo* — to hide, pretend, or cover. 
2KHnTETAI,'' says Hesychius, '' w^o^ 

ZKHYAX, irfo^«(r»<r«5— ZKHi^IZ, ir^ofaa-ir*' 

It is from hence tliat Kheb — Khyba — 
Khebif &c. Sec. mean in Arabic and 
Persian (as we have observed on a for- 
mer occasion) that which relates to 
concealnwit — --'mystery — hiding, &c. 
There is a famous chapter in the Al- 
coran, which takes its name from a 
root belonging to this Element, — (m^ 
Gheben — fraud — cheating. It is de- 
nominated The Chapter of Mutual 
Deceit, from tlie Day of Judgement, 
which in the metaphor of tlie Alkoran 
is called the Day of Deceit, (Gheben) 
T 1 1 because 

HEBEN. (Ar.) Fraud, cheating. 

^CEPTOMAI. (Gr.) To deliberate. 




ScEP. (Old Eng.) Cumera. 


(Gr.) An elevated spot 
for observation. 

ScoPEO. (Gr.) To look round. 


because *', The blessed" (says Sale) " vriW deceive the damned, by taking 
" the places^ which they would have had in Paradise, had they been 
" true believers; and contrary wise." (See Sale's Alcoran, c. 64.) From 
the Elementary sense of ' holdings — covering,* &c. Seep sij^ifies in old 
English a place to * contain — hold — or preserve ^ny thing.' '* Seep** (says 
Junius) " Cumera, D. Skaff. et B. Schap. est armarium, capssi, theca, 
" promptuarium." Skepo (2xiir«, tcgo, operio, velo) conveys a similar 
idea of hiding — covering, &c. The Sceptre of authority is connected with 
the idea of counsel and deliberation for the public weal ; and hence we have 
the Greek Sceptomai, (Ixivfo/itai, considero, perpendo, delibero, &c.) to 
consider — weigh — consult — deliberate, &c. &c. Whether Scopeo {in^wm, 
speculor) be deduced from this idea, is not easy to decide. It may perhaps 
be derived from the Scopie (Xxoviti) the elevated spot, from which observa* 
tions were made ; and indeed the general turn of sense, which Scopeo 
bears, appears to support this idea. Among the significations, which I 
have attributed to the Element CP, is that of ** being raised high — eminent 
cr — tij^ top— the head." 

In Persian Chop (L-^jrs^) signifies " a staff, a rod, a 
•* baton." Among the phrase^ belonging to the word in Richardson, I 
find *' Chop^Band, (oJuL-^ASfc.) a bridge ; and Chop-Pari, (qjljL-^Ars^) a Chip. 

^* a lath, a shavmg.'* We here see 
CnoV'Par6. (Pers.) Chips, Parings, that Chop'Par6 answers exactly to our 
CHOP-JBenrf. (Pers.) A bridge, />on5. Chip parings or SuAvings ; and that 

Chips and Shavings belong to the same 
----------- Element and have the same meaning. 

' i. With regard to Chop Bend, a bridge, 

SHAVing'^ (Eng.)of wood, &c. we see that Bend is the Latin Pom, 

Pont'is; and the French Pont, &c. 
We may leam from hence too the original notion conveyed by Pons. It 
is not derived from Pendeo, because it hangs in the air, but from an idea, 
which is familiar to the Element BNT—- PNT, &c. It means to infold— 


. CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 255 

confine-^kold'^join or put together. This is exactly the notion conveyed 
by Polls; and as if the Latins were still impressed with the same idea, 
they have fallen into a similar metaphor in the adoption of a phrase, with 
which they were impressed in the formation of their word — Jungere 
ripas polite — ' to bring together — to join the banks, which were before 
* separated, by means of n bridge.' — So jungere amnem ponte, to make 
the river a continued surface with the earth on each side, by means of a 
hridge-^^to join what is broken-^-to clasi up the gap of the river by means 
of a bridge. The word in Greek is derived from our Element GP, and 
literally means something belonging to a Gap or interstice, whether it 
be the interstice itself, or that which closes it up. This word is Gsfura 
-^rE*rPA* Thus in Homer it means the oaf or intertml between the 
ranks o? soldiers. Agamemnon says to Diomede, 

Cur trepidas ? cur et circumspicis belli semitas. 

*' Scholiasti,'' says Clarke, ** t«« titJi»i$( 
GEFura. (Gr.) Quasi '* t« i^oXtiA^* Spondano ordinum inter- 

** valla."' The victorious Trojans, at 
GAf ura, any thing belonging to a the end of the eighth Iliad, light 

their fires on the very spot, which on 
Gap, . '• The gap or interstice the jwreceding day had formed the 

ground of separation between the two 
between ranks of Soldiers — •• A armies. This parting space or gap be- 
tween the two hosts is called GEFura. 

• 'bridge closing the gap. ^* Oi Jt, ^yo^ f^oMomcj nr» irkAf/ubMo rE^TPA 


(0. ▼. 54.9.550.) 

Ipsi vero, muUum elati, in belli, (scl. pugnantium) intervallo (not as Clarke 
turns it, secundum bellicosos ordincs) sedebant per totam noctem, ignesque 
ek ardebant multi. As the Latins say/ Jungere amnem, to make a joining 




of the river, which is the gap; so the Greeks say at once, Fjoin the gap 

Band. (Pers.) "A band;' &c. &c. 
Pend. (Pers.) Counsel, &c. 
Pend dadm or Pcnd guften, to give 
advice — dare consilium. 

Bendab. (Per.) An island. 

/-(Pers.) A city, port, 
BeJider. <&c. — the binding or 

V enclosing place. 
Bundar- |(Pers.) Firm — Fundz- 


Pundar. t mental — knowing. 

( advice. 

Pindar. |(Pers.)P()nrfering, 

( Thought, &c. 

Pundits. Learned Instructors in the 
East. ' Pen. (Celt.) The Head. 
Fren. (Gr.) The Mind. Brain. 
(Eng.) M«?«ffikov* The back part of 
the Head. Pttn/-hanomai. (Gr.) 
To know, understand. Pinut-os. 
(Gr.) A Pundit f or wise man. 

Pendeo. *• To hang on, •• To weigh. 
Pendo. To pay. 

That the idea, which I have at- 
tributed to the Latin Pom and the 
Persian Bend^ is just, the reader will be 
convinced when he sees the words be- 
longing to tliis Element, BND, in Per- 
sian bearing the same meaning. They 
are precisely of the same kind as our 
words Pen — Bind — Bond, &c. &c. 
In Persian, " oJu Band. A band,'^ 
(says Richardson) " ligament, ligature, 
" bandage, chain, shackle, fetter, ma- 
" nacle, a knot, joint, belt, or any 
thing by which bodies are joined, 
bound, or fastened together." The 
next Persian word belongs to a similar 
idea. *' cXaj Pend. Counsel, advice, 
" admonition, exhortation." So *' Pend 
" dadeji or Pend guften,*' says Rich- 
ardson, " to give advice :" where tlie 
reader will mark Daden, the Datus of 
the Latins, and Gujlen, the Give of the 
English; and other Teutonic lan- 
guages. The articles, which succeed 
next in order, are tlie following :^ — 
^' Bendab, an island.-— —J3t£ni2flrr or 

*' Pundar, 



CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 257 

" PuPidar, «• Firm, solid, fundamental, certain, established — »• Knowing, 
'* intelligent. — Pendar, one who takes advice. — Pindar, pondering, 
" tliought, opinion, advice, counsel, judgment, thhiking, weighing, re- 
" volving.'* Among other articles in this page tending to the same point, 
we have ^* Bender, A city, an emporium; a port, harbour — the name of 
" a town in Bujuk or BcssarMbia, rendered famous in Europe by the re- 
'* sidence of Charles the 12th of Sweden." Bender is the binder — the 
conjinet (mark again a word of the same family !)— the enclosure of a 
city. Every thing, we perceive, conspires to favour my hypothesis. In 
explaining these terms, Mr. Richardson is forced upon Enghsh words 
with the same Element, or in other language, on the same words — " Band'*- 
'* /Mnrfamental" — /^onrfering." They have all invariably a similar meaning 
— what encloses — confines. With respect however to the sense of thought 
— -judgment, or the consequent power of advice ot counsel ; it is not easy to 
determine the precise idea, from which it is directly taken. It is certain, 
that the constant metaphor, from which the names for sense and judgment 
arc derived, is that of * infolding — enclosing;' and hence we have C(ww- 
prehcnsion — capacity, &c. though perhaps in this case, these terms are 
immediately borrowed from that peculiar enclosure, which is supposed to 
be the seat of thought — judgment, &c. PN — Pen* in the Celtic dialects 
is the appropriate and familiar term for the Head; and hence we have the 
English Brain and the Greek Fren (*ftj>, mens.) That *fiiv belongs to 
the Pen or Head will be manifest from its compound, which signifies * the 
' spot adjacent to the back part of tlie Head' — MiIa^PENON' Hence I am led 
to conclude, ihat the great race of words to be found \\ ith this Element 
in every language, expressing the faculties of the Mind, are immediately 
derived from the Pen. The Greek language abounds widi examples of 
this peculiar signification : we instantly acknowledge Pun^hanomai, 
(nuvOoufOjbtfti, scio, intelligo;) — ^Pmu/05, (ni^uTO*! sapiens,) which we know to 
be the appropriate terms for those who are skilled in the mysteries of 
science, AVe may remember perhaps in the Ai9mm of Orpheus, 

U U U *' hUKK$r 






MocXXov iy» IIINTTOIO irafaifaci¥ ctvtfoq tv(U¥ 
Ttf^ofACci^ flirty ^vo-ov airailm xoifotvov ayi^y' 

Magis mihi prudentis viri colloquium nactus 
Delectarer ; quam aurum, omnium rectorem hominum." 
The PiNUTOs or Pundit, whom Orpheus meets on tliis occasion, is the 
Priest Theodamas, one of the sons of Priam; who imparts to the Poet his 
profound secrets on the use and properties of Precious Stones. Did our 
great Eastern luminaries. Sir William Jones, &c. when they tell you of 
the learned Pundits, from whom they received instruction ; did they 
never remember their English, their Latin or their Greek, and discover 
that they were talking with the PoNDercr^ — the PENoento— tlie PuntAh- 
nomenoi — the Viwroi? It is marvellous indeed, that men like these, 
professedly and perpetually engaged in the study of languages, should 
thus slumber over their theme, and be unconscious of all that is ever 
passing before their eyes, and ever ringing in their ears? That Pendw, 
which belongs to the idea of enclosure or confinement, should signify to 

• hang on, at, to, or about any thing,' we shall not wonder ; that it should 

. . . ^ 
then mean to weigh will likewise be 

easy to comprehend ; and finally, that 
Pendo should afterwards be referred to 
the idea of paying, which in the earlier 
times was connected with weighmgf 
will be then perfectly understood ; and 
thus the darkness, which has hitherto 
enveloped this great race of words, be- 
gins to break and disappear. There 
yet however remains a variety of terms 
belonging to this Element PN — Penna, 
Pinna, Penis, Pen, Pin, &c. &c. which 
on the first view appear to convey an 
idea very different from the signification 


Penna, Pinna, Penis, Pen, Pin. 

w M M w •• «•■■• te m •• 

p ( (Celt.) The Head — a cape, 
i promontory, hill. 

Ba7ia. (Celt.) Lofty, high. 

Bina. (Ar.) An edifice, fabric, &c. 

Penam. (Pers,) A castle*, fort, &c. 
/-(Heb.) The face, the in- 

PNH. -J side of a book or house, 
>- the vwuth of a well. 

Penitus, Penetralia. 

Fons, fountain, fynnon, fent2ir\, 
piuns,Ji(ms. (Celt.) 

CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. S59 

which I have above unfolded. As in the Celtic dialects PEN means the 
Head or a part, of the Body, so it likewise expresses what we understand 
by. our term Head — the height— the top, &c, '* Bana, Lofty, high. 
** Pen, a cape, promontory, hill, the Head/' Hence it is, as every one 
Icnows, that Pen prevails so much in the names of Celtic places and their 
possessors. To this the familiar Proverb alludes. 

'* By Tre, Pol, and Pen 
** You shall know the Cornish men." 
The Greek Bouno5, a Hill, (Ba»0*, collis) will instantly occur, as a word 
"belonging to the Bana or Pen ; and the Hebrew Scholar will recollect ano- 
dier sense of the Element PN — the surface— face, &c. &c. so familiar in 
that language. In Arabic, Bin a (Uj) signifies '* An edifice, fabric, &c. 
and in Persian " Penam {JjS) a castle, fort, &c." In a word, this Element in 
the Eastern languages supplies the appropriate terms foe places of defence — 
safety, &c. The names for hills — mountains; &c. have been commonly 
derived from the sense of an enclosure or boundary, which we shall ackuow*^ 
ledge to be the most obvious and natural idea. Thus Mountain — Mons is 
the great Mound ; and hence it is, that Of<^ in Greek, with a different 
inflexion, signifies both a mountain and a boundary. As stakes or erect 
sharp pieces of wood — ditches and mounds of raised earth, supplied the 
original materials for the fortification; we shall not wonder to find the 
place of defence, and the modes of forming it by earth — stakes, &c. con- 
nected with each other under the same Element and in similar forms. 
Thus I find it through the whole compass of language : Villa, Polis (rioxif, 
civitas) Valluniy Vallus, Palus, Pale, Pale, &c. &c. Pinna, Pinnacles, &c. 
express at once the fortification — the sharp stakes — and the earth, by 
which those enclosures of safety and defence were originally formed. The 
¥eli-known line in Virgil contains the whole history of the ancient 

•' Castrorum in morem pinnis atque aggere cingit.' 
18 from hence, that the term for the Menibrum Virile is derived ; and 

^ to 


to this idea we must refer the name of that important instrument, with 
which I am now endeavouring to convey these observations to the mind 
of my reader. The Hebrew PN — the face or surface, is probably de- 
rived from the PEN-^— the Head, as part of the human frame. Hence in 
our language and in many others, the Face of the Country is a metaphor 
immediately taken from tliat distinguished feature. I cannot leave this 
Hebrew word without noting the senses which under various forms it 
sometimes bears; and first, that of a Mag7iet or Loadstone. We perceive 
at once that this sense is directly taken from the idea of confinement, and 
belongs to such words as Pe?zfl?ec^, which signifies, as was before observed, 
*' To hang on, at, to, or about any thing." In the sense of Pinna, {Uwa 
Pinna, genus conchae, margaritas in se habentis) — the pearl oyster, and 
thence the pearl itself; we see distinctly the prime idea preserved of the 
enclosing or surroundi?ig shell-fish. (See Parkhurst sub voce TOS.) In die 
celebrated passage, where the PN first occurs, the English and the Hebrew 
concur in the same metaphor. " And tlie Earth was without form and 
void; and darkness was upon the face* (PNH) '' of the deep; and the 
Spirit of Gpd moved uix)n the face'' (PNH) '* of the waters." This 
elucidation of the Element PN will remove from the Hebrew Lexicogra- 
phers a great embarrassment, under which they now labour; when they 
endeavour to reconcile the various senses of PNH, by taking as tlie 
original idea that of the face and of looking or regarding. It signifies, 
say they, ** the inside of a book or house,'' because *' it faceth tlie specta- 
^' tor, in opposition to the back or outside, which is turned from him/* 
(Taylor sub voce.) In my interpretation, the inside of a book signifies the 
contents; and with respect to tlie inside of a house, we perceive that it 
corresponds precisely with tlie Latin PE^itus — VE'setralia, and words of 
that kind to be found in every language. Taylor preserving the same 
metaphor, as it should seem, gives us for one signification of PNH " the 
" Mouth of a well." The reader will instantly remark the coincidence of 
this word with the Latin fons, fontiV, and the English founth/ii. 


- I 

CB, CF, CP, CV, kc. 


Among the Celtic terms for Fans are pynn(iw, TEuran, piuns, fions. 
The Fans is precisely the Fence. We may well imagine, and we well 
know, that the Fons — the FouJitain of fresh water, was one of the most 
important objects of care and attention in the early world ; and that it was 
the FENCED — ^the guarded — the sacred mclosure, dedicated to presiding 
nymphs, and haunted by rural Deities. Having endeavoured, in a short 
digression, to unfold the nature of the Element PN, I shall now return 
to the consideration of that race of words, which relates to the Kef — 
Caph, &c. &c. the Hand. 

CB, GB, &c. The Hand. 
Give. (£ng.)G£BEN. (Germ-) Sec. 

Gafol. (Sax.) 

Gabelle. (Fr.) 

Al Cavala. (Span.) 

A Tribute, 
Tax, &c. 

Al Cabala. (Ar.) Receipt. 

Gabbe — r(Heb.) 
Gabbian. vTax Gatherers. 

KuBooLET-*KuBz. (Ar.) Receipt. 
Kebez. (Pers.) Tribute, Tax. 

Our familiar word Give we shall 
instantly refer to this source : It is the 
appropriate term for tlie same idea 
through all the dialects of the Teutonic, 
in Saxon GiF^n, in German GEBen, 
&c. &CC. As Capio relates to one action 
of tlie Caph, so does Give to the other. 
Our Etymologists, Skinner and Junius, 
have not attempted a derivation beyond 
that, which we owe to the ingenuity 
of Merric Casaubon. The Greek £^- 
guan or Enguan (Eyyvccu) he imagines 
to be the origin of Give. " M. Casau- 
" bonus derivatab Eyyuay, quodproprie 
*' signiiicat tyyvaXi^np vel «yx«f»^"v, in 
*' manus traderc." In transcribing the 
opinions of my predecessor?, I am 
sometimes inclined to doubt, whether 
I have not ]ost tlic faculty of reading 
X X and 



GiRiFTEN. (Pers.) To take, seize. 

{(Chald.) To receive, lake 
away, exact. 


(Rab. Hob.) 
A Tax Gatherer. 

Ma-GBeatha. (Chald.) A Tax. 
Gavav. (Chald.) To gather. 


(Ar.) Gathering together 
with the Hand. 

KuBEZET. (Ar.) Snatching. 

KuBZET. (Ar.) A Handful. 

Kbbzet. (Ar.) A Handle. 

Javeau — ^Javelle. (Fr.) 
Capus. (Lat.)G£RB£. (Fr.G.)yA 
Garbe. (Germ.) 


and recording with fidelity their con- 
ceptions on the doctrine of Etymology. 
To this race of words. Give — Capio, 
&c. belongs, as I imagine, our ancient 
Saxon word GatoI, the appropriale 
term for a Tax or Tribute. This word 
appears in the language of the Law 
under the form of Gabel, *' in 
" French," (says Jacob) " Gabelle, 
*' i. e. vectigal;" which " hath the same 
" signification among our ancient wri- 
** ters, as Gabclle hath in France: it 
'* is a tax, but hath been variously 
'* used, as for a rent, custom, service, 
'* &c." The French Gabelle, which 
we know was peculiarly applied to the 
tax on Salt, has much perplexed and 
divided the learned Etymologists of that 
nation. Menage observes, ** II y a 
*' diversite d'opinions touchant Tori* 
'* gine de ce mot." Some derive this 
word from Javelle, a sheaf of corn : ** k 
cause," says Menage, *' ancienne^ 
ment on prenoit pour tribut des Ja^ 
velles des chaque fesceau," Grsevius 
communicated to Monsieur Menage 
the existence of the Saxon Gafol; and 
Bochart taught him, by an observation 
on the margin of the first edition of 
his Dictionary, that the Spanish lenxi 

for Gabelle was Al Gavala ; and that 






CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 265 

Shaft. (Eng.) \The weapon in Arabic ^/Cavala or -4/ Cabala 

f ^ , signifies recepte, quasi, the receipt of 

Spear-Javeline. Vcastfromtiie ^ ^ t „ „ / « i x 

4 custofu. " La Gabelle (says Bochart) 

Sparum. (Lat.) jHa7id. */ est la recepte du Roy, ou- on recoil 

** les daces et les impositions." These 
.--.•^-^•.-- Etymologists have moreover recorded 

among their doubts, tliatGAB means in 
Fascis — FtLstis — Fist. German -Afimiw ; that Gabbi a signifies 

in Hebrew stips collatilia;' and that 
Gabbe and GABB/an are the appropriate terms in that language for Pub- 
licans or Tax Gatherers. We may learn from hence, that words allied to 
Gafol are applied in a variety of languages to express a Tax — Tribute, or 
something of that nature. The word, to which, I imagine, Bochart alludes, 
is the Arabic KuBOOLe-u^ (c:ijJ^aj>) the appropriate term in that language 
for our word Receipt. Kubz {^^jolks) has the same meaning; and the 
iiiBt sense, which I find in Richardson, brings it directly to the Hand. 
It means ** taking, seizure, CAVture, sequestration;" and in the last sense 
I find " Kebez, Tribute, Tax ; whatever is taken from the people." If 
any doubt should still remain on the mind of my reader, respecting the 
origin of these words; the article immediately succeeding this will deter- 
mine the question. "Kebzet, (iufluo) *• Power. ■• The Hilt of a sword, 
<' a handle. Kubzet, a handful. Kubezet, (A Man) suddenly snatch-^ 
•* ing, and immediately dropping any thing," An adjacent word, Kybt, 
signifies likewise '* Gathering together with the Hand." In Persian the 
appropriate phrase for Receive is formed from an auxiliary verb and the 
preceding terms, Kubooleut and Kubz; and there is another word equally 
familiar in that language, expressing the same idea — GiRiF/en, *' to take, 
«• seize, catch, snatch, to make prisoner;" where we see the R attached 
to the root; as in the Greek and Latin Carp(w — CARPi/s; and the English 
GliP^, &c. &c. In Chaldee and Rabbinical Hebrew, the Root Geve 
(nSD) signifies '< To ttceivt, take away; choose, exact" GAi^:^aay m^ans 




" A ColTector of Treasurer;'* and Ma-GHcatha, " A tax, or tribute." In 
Chaldec GAVtfy is * to gather' or pick, sticks or flowers; as in tlie Targura 
ofOnkfilos, &c. (Sec David Levi's Critica Sacra sub voce ni3i where 
these words succeed cacb other.) 

We have seen in the derivations of Menage, that Javelle signifies 
A S/tcfff oi' Corn ; and iliis learned Etymologist has darkly discovered, thai 
Javkli.e must he referred to the Hand. " Javeau, Javelle. De 
" cavellui et dc cnpclla : qu'on a diis pour capcUus ct capella, diminutifs He 
" Capus; qui signilic proprement unc poi^tu'c; d'oii aipuliis. Caput, 
" cavics, cavitfus, Javeau. Capus, awns, cava, cavdla, Javelle. Capus 
" se trouve dans la signification de Javelle, dans cci endroit dc Philargyrius 
•* sur cu vers du 2. des Gcorgiques. Aul f'cctu pecorum, aut ccrcalls mergi le 
'* culmi. Mergile. Fasces culmorura spicas habentiuin, quas mcleiites bra- 
" chiis sinistris complectuntur. Quidam cavos dicunt." (Menage sub 
voce.) We here perceive that the simpler form is Javeac;; which in 
Provence, says M. Menage, is called Gaveau; and that Capus is.anoUicr 
term for the same object: These words we shall now, I hope, recognise 
under our own familiar term SHEAF; which in the language of Heraldry is 
called Garb. Skinner obsciTcs on this word. " Vox Fxcialium; a Fr. G. 
" Gerbe. Teut. Garbc, Fasciculus, Scgetum merges. Alludit G. K«frw 
" Mallcm tamcn deflectere a \ji\x. Carper e." The EtymoIogit.ts have referred 
Sheaf io Shaft, Teliim, which must likewise be added to tlic same class — 
the weapon tlirown by the Hand; as J. myelin corresponds with the form 
of Javelle. Hvcar, in Latin Hyanim, must be also referred to -the CB 
or SP, the Hand. That Sheaf, Javelle, &:c. come from the idea, which 
hasbeen above unfolded, will be indisputably cstabhshcd, when it is remem- 
bered diat a similar Latin \\on\ belongs to Manns — Man/);«/(«. I suspect 
moreover that the Pi/L — Vell — Fol — Bell in these words, mantPVLiu, 
javzLLe.jayELine, ga?oL, gaBBLi^c, bear the same sense as the Pal in 
PALfl?Hc, (n»A«ftJi) pALwtf; and mean Uic BALL or \'OLA of the Hand. 
(See page 31.) BEA©*, baaaw, are certainly derived from the same source- 




CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 



Manm, Mamibrium. 

iflw,Z^i;.(Celt.)The Hand. 

Xffify £y;^((^»jiov* 

Arms, Armij Arvia. 

Hand, Handle, Ent6?i, Ens\%, Ansz, 
JEnkos, Uncus, Onuks. (Gr.) 
AncYiorz, Ank\xv?L. (Gn) Anchor, 
Anko. (Gr.) Ango, Anguis, Enk- 

elus. (Gr.) AnguiU^. 
Anger, Hunger. 
^n^uish. Anxiety. 
Ananke. (Gr.) Necessity, 
-^n^^eu. (Welsh.) Death. 

Fangen. (Germ.) To seize. 
Fang, Fingers, Pang. 
Pente. (Gr.) Puiij.. (Pers.) 

Pansch. r ^ ^ 
Pansch. (Hindoo.) 
2umqu€. (Lat.) quasi, 

^ Five. 

The foregoing observations on the 
Element CB, as referred to the Kef 
— Caph, the Hand, will not fail, I 
trust, to conduct the reader through 
a wide labyrinth, which has hitherto 
»bccn totally unexplored. The exist- 
ence of this race of words he will trace 
in evety language; and he will dis- 
cover, that they are invested with llie 
properties, which I have endeavoured 
to unfold. I shall now subjoin an 
elucidation of this doctrine in other 
Elements ; where the same propensity 
in the mind will be apparent to form 
words from a similar idea. AVe have 
seen Manus and Majiubriuyn — Labe 
(AaSf}, capulus, manubrium) and Lam 
or Lav, the Hand. With the Hand 
and the Handle we are familiar; but 
perhaps we little imagined that Ansa 
was derived from the Hand, and was 
the Handle in a simpler form. Let us 
suppose the Element, which repre- 
sents this race. of words, to be '^NZ 
— r^'NSor ^NT; and thus we find Ans^ 
in Latin, as we have Hand in 
English. The origin of this word is so • 

totally removed firom the conceptiotis^ 

yy of 




Fu?i/. (Gcr.) Five. 

Punch, Pinch. (Eng.) 

Pe?ichc, Penjc. (Pers.) The Fijjt. 

ist/iz^-gastc. (Gips.) 


Guzho, UGips.) 

Gusto, y 

Engusht. (Pcrs.) 

Quasi, ^ng'gusht. 

Vaster, JI'/zi/,|(Gips-) 

IVass. ) The Fist. 

Bys, Bes, &c. (Ceh.) The Finger^^ 

Puks. (Gr.) Pugnus. (Lat.)p^be 

Pcing, Paignee. (Fr.) )FisL 

Pugno. (Lat.) Fight. 

Box. {Eng.)To jSght with the Fist ^ 

of our Etymologists, that they have 
derived it from Ara — A7ius, (a circle) 
and the Hebrew Ozcn (|TN) the ear. 
I imagine that the Dh in Handle is 
quasi Tooir the instrument or TO0I 
adapted for the Hand. The word 
HAND/e appears in its simpler fona 
among llie Greeks, in their term J/e/- 
Ai^Dcton, fAiXASAiloy gt^of * whicb lite- 
rally signified * a sword with a dark 
' coloured Hand/c.' Mf^^itov XmSnp tjpn 
(See Valckenacr's PlKEniss. page 7128.) 
The Makers of our Dictionaries have 
advanced no further than Meaik and Aht* 
If the reader should be startled at 
this reference of our familiar word 
Hand to the Greek Mel-^i^eton; what 
will he think, when he recollects or 
learns for the first time, diat an appio^ 
priate Greek term for a part o£ the 
Hand is And^wi. **T« * iaktoi^m MMif6\ 

'^ ANAfif oy xapu^Hki.* Quod aoitem biter ir, hypothenarem, et pectuscidiim 
'^ esty coneavitas manus appellatur,. quam nonBulM et ¥olanx Tocast 
*^ Pectusculum aulem est, quod post volam et ante metacarpk^n est,, quod 
'* etiam ANFfron nominatuF/* (JulK Poll, Onomast. Lib. i. Seg, 143-4.) 
This is curious. To those, wha are not conversant with the ancient 
phraseology of the Latin language^, the term I^R, wliicb the transfaitor of 
F»)|||« has adoptedi in the above passage, may perhaps appear uncmtl 




(Sans.) The entai^led 

Pampixiw&f Bamioo. 
Pymp, Pimp. {Cek.} |pj^^^ 
Pempe. (Gr.) ) 

CB, CF, CP, CV^ &c. 26T 

and extraordinary. IR or HIR Is explained by Prlscian eivx^y and it is 
extant in Cicero de Finibus, (Lib. 2. 8.) in a passage quoted from Lucilius. 
The Etymologists are duly aware of this circumstance; and they have 
rightly derived the word from the Greek Clieir (Xiij.) As the sound of 
the guttural C is weak, the word will appear un<kr a vowel form. Ensis 
belongs to ILmd and Ansa. Vossicis derives Emis from the Greek EKxe 
iMr E^Ter/, (Ef7>i, Eiltx, arma) arms. But tliis he dauhts, because En tea 
signifies the *' arma <nwT«fixa,'* or coverings for the body — helmet^ shidd. 
^ Quare vix dubito," says he, '* quin sit abEyxoc, quod non haslam modo, 
'< sed ct eTtsefn significat." We may perceive, that when the Element 
'^NT b hardened into ^NK, what was before ENxetf becomes Enkos; aiKl 
thus tf>e English word Hand will appear under the form of ViiQuis — 
Vffcns — Onuks (Oiwf) — Hank, &c. &c. If the reader does hot accede 
te this mode of transformation; the fact> which alone I am desirous of 
establishing, may be expressed in another manner and with the sanae^ 
meaning — that a great race of words is to be found under the £ocms of 
'^NC, ""NG, ''NK, aiid in Greek Tx, signifying actively or passively to 
' seize, gripe, hold, inclose^ enfold, curl round,.' ice. &c. and that 
the same sense is attached to a race of words with tkc Eiement ''NZ, ''NS, 
or '^NT. Thus we have Ahchot — ANCHora — ^AFKufa— Arx« — Ango — 
Awewj— inCfAu^ — A^Gnilh — Hent (an old word for c/fl5p) — ^ENTof — ENA*ir— 
PrekENDth — AJATTum — ENTTfliTi — BNTipo* — iKTestinum, &c. and hence are 
derived tlrosc expressive terms, which represent the most violent of the 
passions or accidents, tiiat are wont to seize on the frame and the mind of 
man — Hv^Ger — A»g«^ — AngwiVA-— ANx/e/y, &c. In Greek it is employed 
to represent the irresistible gripe of Necessity ^ an-AViKc (jwfAn&i) tte Hank; 
and in Welsh it expresses that forraidabie Ftn-ctj which seizes with im- 
foreseen though ii^vinciWe vidence on the inhabitaiats of the Eartli — 
Anom, Death f (" Improvisa lethi vis rapuit rapietquc gentes.-') in 
Horace, Necessity is furnished^ if I may so express myself, with her Hank 
and hcrfasfeningf, ythich she cariies^ In her ^nixM Jiia$fL 

'' Tc 


'* Te semper anteit Sa^va Xecessifas, 

Claras trabales, ct cuneos manu 

Gestans ahena ; nee severus 

Uncus abest, liquidumque plumbum." 
It will now be seen that Entc^ cquallyc conveys the sense of tht Element 
whether we understand it, as relating to tlie weapons of the Hand, or 
the arms, which caver^ inclose^ or infold the person. The Greek ENKOf 
(fiyj^oc) is certainly taken from the FIank or the Ilandf as Pugio is acknow- 
ledged to belong to Pugnus; and EyytioJi^ (p^^gio* gladiolus) to Xiif Arma 
— ^/Irm^ (the weapons) are derived, we know, from the yirm/ — the ^r/?i*; 
the parts of the person ; whatever be tlie precise idea, by which they are 
immediately connected. I have shewn on a former occasion, that certain 
words, which appear in one language under the form of ""NT, are found 
in another under that of '^XK (page 96.) Thus ANTrwm in Latin is 
Henk in Persian; which again is seen among the Latins in spcluNca. In 
splAVKnon {jLxXaYxwy^ viscus,) the Spelunca of another sort, and ExKa/a 
(Eyxolof, viscera,) the hardened form of ''XK prevails; but in Eurrails — 
Jsrcsiina — Et^r era (Eilif», viscera) the '"XT appears. 

There is still another race of words, where the same sense Is to be 
found; and which are only distinguished from the former by a rougher 
breathing before the "XK and ^XT; as F-ang — P-ang — F-ingers, &c. 
I shall here, as in the former case, leave the reader to determine, whether 
they are to be considered as a separate race of words belonging to diflFerent 
Elements; or whether it would not be more just and natural to record 
them as belonging to the same Radical, and as formed successively from . 
each other. The fact however retaains precisely the same; — ^That under * 
each of these forms a race of words is to be found conveying a similar 
meaning, and oftentimes applied to tlie same -objects. If we imagine the 
representation of this Element to bePXZ, by considering the Z as resolving 
itself into TS, TSH, and TG, we shall discover a clue to all the variations^ 
under which the Element appears. The reader will perhaps be somewhat 


. CB, CF, CP,,CV* &c. W9 

surpriz&d to find, that by this process the English word FiNoerf and th* 
Greek PtNTe, Five^ may be shewn to coincide. The Persian word for 
Five is^ruNj, or as it might be with the mixed sound of the T, familiar 
to the.Ea^ern languages^ Puktj, which again becomes, by losing tlie sound 
df J or (G) Pent^, IIBNTE* Nothing can be more simple than this process, or 
inore fafmiliar to our ordinary experience. We shall cease to wonder that 
'^NG should appear under the form of "NT^ when we recollect that the 
sound of the '^NT in Frpnch words, portaifr, &c. would be represented 
in English by "NGj /wrtoNO, &c. These words must be referred to the 
Element in the sense of homing or seizing; and we may well imagine 
that the name for the number Five would be derived from an idea con- 
nected with the Hand or the (Jive) fingers or f angers — the holders, &c. 
In Persian Penche or Penje (ass^.) is tlie Fist ; and thus Fang — FiNG^r^, 
Penje, and Pente coincide <\'itli each other. The Gipscy word for 
FivCf as represented by Mr. Bryant, is Peng, and by Gjellman, Pantsch 
-— Pansch; to which he adds the corresponding Hindoo word for Five, 
-^JPansch, The English rieader will. here be reminded of our vulgar 
word Punch; — ^ To ptmch a hole in any thing — ^To give a punch ifi the 
* face,' flee, but in our familiar term Pinch, we have the ve^y action which 
must of necessity belong to the Penche or Hafid. In our word Point,. 
(To point at any thmg,) which ^'c instantly acknowledge must refer to 
PNT, the ^i/wrf, we igain see the form, which belongs to the Pente of 
th« Greeks. QuiNQi7E.ory-viNGUE of tlie Latins, we ^hall no>y readily 
percei ve, is nothing but the ^-fingers of the English, The Q is supposed 
to have been inserted in the Latin alphabet for the purpose of combining 
a certain sound answering to G or G wi^h another similai* to. V; andso^ 
marked (as the Critics .observe) was the sound of V or .U-, as attached to 
Q, that we find in ^1 the Latin words the U or V added to Qr more* fully 
to express and distinguidi the i^culiar sound, which predominated in the 
enunciation of tiie compound. This mixed sound of the C or G with the 
V <ir W l>nfelican perpetual, andJs apparent tini^iei most ordinary fnstancesi 

Z zz Different 


Different nations Have represented the same words under each of these 
forms, as the sound 6f the G, or the V and W was impressed on their hear- 
ing. Thus War in English is Guerre in French — the word Welsh in 
English IS Gaulfs in French — the familiar Welsh name Gwin appears 
sometimes under the form of Winne, and is again visible under that of 
fluin, &c. &c. &c. A mixture of these two sounds of G and V or P 
prevailed in the Latin fluinque or G Vinquc ; but among tlie Greeks ^nd 
the Persians, the »und of the G was lost, and that of the V or P only 
was heard — Pente, Peng. In the mode of representing the Gipsey 
term for Five by Grellman, Pantsch, and in tlie Latin StUinguc or 
GviNGVE, we may trace tlie variations of form, which the terms for this 
number have assumed. As the Sch is lost in the sound of Pantsch, it 
becomes the Pente (iiiilt) of the Greeks; and as the T is lost, it becomes 
the Pensch or the Penj of the Persians. As the sound of the first G in the 
Latin 2.uinqu€ or gvinqve grows weak, we have V or the initial P in 
Pente or Penge. When the sound of the two Gs is lost fgyii^gVK,) 
the word is transformed into Vinve, which precisely corresponds with 
the German Funf. 

There is likewise another combination of sounds, by which G be- 
comes connected with N. Thus in the French language, "N is frequently 
enunciated like '^NG, as 0?i boit, C07ig boit) &c. &c. and the Hebrew 
Gnain (y) is said to be GN at the beginning of a word — Ngn in the middle 
—and Ng at the end. Thus if we suppose in Sluinque or gvivgVK the 
sounds of G to disappear with the attendant nasai tone of N, we shall 
instantly obtain Vive, or as we now express it in English, Five. This 
brings us to the Greek Pempe, (niprr) or Pepe; which belongs to the 
Celtic Pymp or Pemp, as represented by Lhuyd, (sub voce Quinque.) 
The relation between tlie number Five and the Fingers appears again in 
the Greek n£pT«^i#; which signifies to count by thejfingers, or to reckon by 
fives. In Welsh (as we have perpetually observed) the M is related to the 
P. ^' Words primarily beginning with P have four initials^ P, b, mh, ph ; 

" as 


CB, CF, cp, cv, &c. an 

" ^Pengwr, a man's head; eibcn, nishead; fi/mhen, my head; ei phen, 
'^ her head." (Richards's Welsh Gram* p. 4.) The ordinary Etymolo- 
gists have referred n»Ii and llifAin to Quinque, which they ultimately 
derive from . lliiAirf, mitto. '* Ilgflf quinque. Forte iEolicum Utti^wii 
componendum cUm ibfAwu^ mitto. [Videtur TUfAirt, Lat Quinque. (n 
enim est Lat. QU, ut in quidquid, quod Osci teste Festo pronunciabant 
Pitpit) TUfAirt, inquam videtur pp. esse Ablat. Sing, absolute positus, a 
inominat. Veteri Oi/atici missio emissio, ut n£/ub9rtsit pp. emUsione vel pro- 
Jectione manus, quo actu numerum V significare solemus. E. S.]'* Vide 
Lennep sub voce. When the sound of V is lost in Sluinque or ovinGue, 
and the nasal sound attached to the second G has likewise disappeared, 
we have QQ or GG, as the representation of the word, unincumbered 
with vowels^ It is curious, that in the Irish and Galic dialects of tliQ. 
Celtic, it appears precisely in this form. '* Kuio, ^oio," are the Irish I 
words for Five, as represented by Lhuyd ; and in Shaw*s Galic Dictionary,: 
Five is Coig. In Kuig the U exhibits a record of the Original soiujidi 
attached to the Q in Quinque. The mode of reasoning, which I iiave 
adopted on this occasion, may not indeed be well founded; yet the truth 
of it will not be affected by the dissimilarity of the forms, under which 
these terms appear — Quinque — Penj — Penie — Funf-^Five-^Pymp-^^Kuig 
-T-^^oig. If the steps, which I have exhibited in the process of one sound 
passing into another, are easy and natural ; the dissimilarity of the extreme 
forms ought not to be regarded. Nothing can be more remote in appear-^ 
ance than Bishop and Episcopos (ETioTcowof) Eveque — Vescovo, the familiar 
instance produced by Etymologists to iUustrate this position. Fortified by 
the above observation, we may perhaps venture to proceed in tracing thesiB 
varying forms. Let us now imagine, that the sound of Qiiinque or 
^-viNGt/e has become, what it appears in the English FiNG^r^, &c. &c. 
and in this state let us pursue the changes of the word, as they arise 
from the sound of N attached to the G. So intimate is this union, that 
among the Greeks the sound of N before G is expressed by two Gs. I fear 



tbat even this remarks plain and obvious as it is, has not been made by* 
those, who have endeavoured to illustrate the Hebrew Gnaifi (y.) In the* 
P^UGNtt^ ofthe Latins and the PoiGNe^ of the French^ the sound of N has. 
ucceeded that of G ; though in the Poing of the French it again* precedes^: 
as in the word FrNOer^ of the English. In the Greek Pux (nug, pugno) the- 
sound of the N has entirely disappeared ; which brings us at once to the 
English FisT-^*4he German Faust, &c. &c. This connexion even, tlie* 
Etymologists allow. . In the word Fight, &c. however, the CriticsL again' 
appear somewhat undecided; and Junius faintly observes,' 5*: Videnhir- 
*f afHnitatis aliqu id habere ciim ilpxliviiif, pugilem agere." . From this latter: 
form of Fist, FST, a great race of words is derived bearing a meaning, 
similar to that which we have seen in the preceding forms; and the. ^amc. 
idea is attached to words^ which appear without the consonant F, aod 
have only a vowel breathing before the "ST. I . must again repeat, that* 
under all the forms, which are above stated, the same peculiar notimi/ 
exi^; and I shall Ifcave the reader to determine, whctlier tliey are derived 
frt>ih-each^ther by the procest which I have endeavoured to unfold; whicb. 
mly at Icjaist serve to assist the memory of the Student in re-calling the; 
fact, which is detailed in the discussion. 

In the Eastern languages the coincidence between the names for Five' 
and the Hand will be' fully evident;, and we may perpetually trace our- 
familiar tertM Hand or Hani — :Finger or Fang and^ Fist^ among the" 
appropriate words relating to the same object. In the Persian, Penchc or. 
PENjif (AraJj) ^gnifies, as we before observed, " The Fist.*' In Persian: 
likewise, Musht (c:^A^) means '* the hand, the palm, the fist/' Surely i 
Musht is only Fist under another form. In the same language Engusht is- 
a Finger^ which perhaps is a compound of "NG and gV-^ST, quasi^/Eng-/ 
Guslit, bearing the same meaning as Hand or Hank and Fist, In the Gip-\ 
scy, Fanoaste are the Fingers. This coincidence is so strong, that I miglxt 
venture confidently to make the same conjecture as on the 'Persian £ii4. 
gusht; and suppose that the Aste or Gaste in Vangasta was a signi^cant. 


• CB, CF, CP, CV, 5cc; : 27S 

portion of the word corresponding with our term Fist. But here fortunately 
the fact itself exists. . VASTBistbe appropriate Gipsey term for the Hand 
or Fist. The Gipsey word, as exhibited in Grellman, for the Hand is 
Wast— Wass; and for the Finger, Kvzhila—GvzuDQ — Gusto. Even 
with this representation of the.wordis^ we see that he has not escaped from 
the sphere of the Element F/ST. In the Dialects of the Celtic I find " Bys, 
'* Bez, and Bes/' among the nzme^fot the Fingers.^ (See Lhuyd sub voce 
Digitus.) The other terms for a Finger, ** Griov, Crub," belong to the 
ClB and the Caph» Xhe Hand. As Fight coincides in form with Pugno 
f^PukS'-^Fist; so Boz (to jSg'A/ with the ^a/5^ corresponds witli jBy^ — Bex 
— Bes. 

That the Hindoo language uses the Element F-^NG (Fang or Vang) in 
the sense of the English Fang or Fingers — the Graspers, I can demonstrate 
foy the strongest evidence. In the Sanscrit V a ngs a is the Bamboo. The 
reader might almost suspect that I had forged the following passage for 
the support of my. hypothesis. In the original work, from which the 
Fables of Pilpay/ as they are called, have been taken, (The Heetopadesof 
Veeshnoo Sarma,} it is observed, tli^t ^' He who is the head of a confederacy 
f* of brothers, from their compactness, is as difficult to be rooted out as a 
V Bamboo, surrounded by impenetrable thorns.'' On this passage the trans* 
later, Mr. Wilkins, remarks — ^\ Bamboo. In the Sanskreet, Vangsa. They 
^\ grow m clumps, and often so closely connected by their own knotted 
*' branches, that it is with great difficulty they can be separated." (Heetop. 
p.. 253 and 333.) This is extremely curious; and let the reader again 
remark that the Bamboo is nothing but the Pempe of the Greeks— the 
graspers or the claspm. MTe perceive then that the Elements BMB or PMP, 
and, PNG or VNQ j^whethe; they were or were not derived from each 
other) Bamboo and Pempe — Vangsa— rPeng and Fingers conveyed a similar 
id^, and they are each of them attended with a race of words impressed 
with a corresponding ;sense. The family relating to the former, BMB or 
FMPr is no^ indeed jp*nuiperous as the lattery but they are stiU to be 

4 A discovered 


iiiscovered by the diligent eti^uifer* 1 have not leisoreto examine the 
race of words, which is immediately derived from PMP in its signification 
bf the Fingers or the Fungers; wx to investigate the more general idea# 
which was originally attached to the Element ; yet I cannot leave this 
subject without informing the reader, diat the BamlH^iiBUyht found among^ 
thf Latins in its full force. PAMPtittt^, we know, is the appropriate term 
for the clasping tendrils of the entwining Vine. The words belonging to 
Vangsa — Fingers^ &c. abound in the German language; where Fangeh 
is the familiar verb signifying to hold — seize, &c. &c. and it is accompanied 
with a great race of derivatives, which perform the most important offices 
through the whole compass of that language. --- 

I shall close this digression on terms, expressing instruments used 

hy the Hand, which belong to other 
Keif. (Old Eng.) The Hand. * Elements, by referring our fiuniliar 
Knife. (Eng.) Canif (Fr.) word Knife to a name for the ffanii 

Gnapto. (Gr.) To Nip, Nibble. which is to be found in ancient lam 

Knap. (Eng.) To chew. guage, and is still extant in' Provincial 

* Knap'Sack.* '- phraseology. This word is NfiiF of 

Neaf, which in the North, as Mrl 
Grose properly observes, signifies the Fist. (Provincial Gloss.) Perhaps even 
this word, Ne^f or Kncif may be referred to the Kaf — the Hand. Tlie 
The 71 in Kn only conveys the sound, which is perpetualty annexed to 
K or G, as in the Hebrew Gnain, (J) ice. &c. When in tihe' eminciadoti 
of this sound, the G is fiiintly expressed, the word to Which it bielongs would 
be represented as beginning with an N, Neif; when G cmt * K was attended 
with its nasal sound n, it would appear with Kn^ as in Itnife; and whea 
they are slowly uttered, the word would be exhibited with ^ vowel breatb** 
ingbetweeh the consonants KN ; as Knife assumes in French the toiok ^ 
Can//. Neif occurs twice iii Shakspeare. ** Sweet Knight, I kfes tky 
" Neif;'* (2d pt. of H. JJd.) where Mr. Steevens remarks thi* N«i» is 
still employed in this sense in the NorthiMi eottnttes. Again in ^# 

cb; cf, cp, cv, &C. 


Nigkfi Dream, *' Give me thy Neip, Monaeur Mustard 
f' Seed.*' We hate seen, that in words of this nature the simple idea of 
Ao/i/iii;^^ easify isUdes into that of eagerness to hold, or of catching at any 
tiling. Hence GnapM (iVotirV, veUico) — ^Nip— NiBB/e; and Knap for 
break: (f* He KNAPPefA the Spear in sunder."^) ^^ Cum subit^ quidam 
^ violentil crepttuque/' rays Lye under the word in Junius. Whether 
Kfhop or Cnap, in the sense of ** Mandere, Mianducare^'" belongs to this 
race of words, I am onaUe to determine; as it approaches so near to the 
word GTMrix; (rm;^, maxilla,) which has found ils way into so many languages. 
Tfae Km AP-5l(fC^ b deduced, as our Etymologists acknowledge, from the 
bag containing what you Knap or eat. If the root, which I have attributed 
to the Neif, be not the true one; I must confess that I am totally ignorant 
<yf theoiigin, to which it can possibly be referred. In its simple state, as 
belonging to the Element NF, the word almost stands alone; and if k 
should be considered as a componnd, KNF, it would be difficult to ascer- 
tain any two sources, firom which both parts could be duly derived. 



Gob . (Scotch.) The Hand. 





From the above digression on the 
names for the Hand^ &c. belopgiDg to 
different radicals, the reader will be* 
come more deeply impressed with the 
general nature of the subject; and I sluall 
accordingly return wkh confidence to a 
further jnvestigation of the various 
words, attached to the Element CB, 
cdateying the same idea. That the 
naihe for Work or Ijtbor should be de* 
iived from the Ji/emkr, which t$«iH>it 
employed in the action, wili be readily 
Admitted; aiMl.wt«aecof)diii^.fiiid in 



Griov—Kruv. (Celt) The Hand, die Greek and English languages, two 

appropriate and fiuniliar terms expressing 

{(Lat. and En^**.)' ^^ ^^^» deri?ed from the Carpos— ^ 

Caph— ^CiB, &c. Kopos in Greeks 
From I^A, the Hand. (^oir^o labor,) signifies Labor; and in 

oyr ordinary word Job, a piece of 
work, we again trace it iinder a different form. Court de Gebelin rightly 
derives Labor from die Celtic Lab, the Hand ; which he likewise under* 
stands to be connected with the Greek A^Aiani ; as explained on a former 
occasion. I shall prove in the progress of my work, that M0x^» n[«i^» the 
other Greek terms for Labor, are derived from the same idea. Work and 
Ergon (Efyw, opus) must be referred to a different origin — the Earth, as 
will afterwards be fiilly shewn ; and we shall perhaps find it difiicult to 
discover a third source, from which terms of this nature have been derived* 
The effect, which the name for the Hand, with the Element CB or GB, 
has produced in. various languages, may be perpetually traced by the 
diligent enquirer, and in some cases the Element has supplied the appro* 
ptiate term for the Hand itself; though it has escaped the notice of those» 
who are most conversant with the language in which it exists. Thus in 
Scotch, Gob signifies the Hand; though Mr. Pinkerton has placed it 
among the words, which he is unable to understand. It occurs in the 
account of *• The Thievis of Liddisdail.'' Among these Thieves, one of 
them is thus described. 

•* There is ane, callit Clement's Hob, 

'• Fra ilk puir wyfe reifi[is die wob, 

•' And all die laif 

•• Quhatever they half. The devil resave • . 

•' Thairfoir his Gob." (Scotch Poems, vol. 2. p. 333.) 

That the Gob (the Hand) of the Thief should be sent to the Devil we shall 
not wonder. In the Classical Language, Hands are called ^* Pickets, and 
^ Steaters,'' or ^^ Thieving irons.'* We have seen that the name of the 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c* 


Hand appears under the form Griov, Kruv; and to this immediately be- 
longs our term Craft, in the sense of a mechanical occupation. The 
Etymologists derive it from Kf aloo Kf aww, and Kf uir7«* We now add to it a ' 
term, which connects it with the original idea — * Handy-Cn aft.* It will 
now be readily understood, that the German Kraft, which signifies 
*' strength, force," &c. and our term Gripe, are directly taken from the 
Hand. (Seepage 132.) The ordinary sense of the word Craft, — guile, 
deceitr comes naturally from this source. Artificium — Artifice — Mup^a^, 
at once belong to the Artist or the Mechanic and the Deceiver: 


SP. The Hand. 

Shape. (Eng. 






To ihQ forming powers of that 
great instrument the Caph — Cib, &c. 
I must refer our familiar word Shape, 
, (formare, facere) which has found lis 
way through the various dialects of the 
Teutonic — the Anglo Saxon Scyppan — 
the Danish Skahe- — the Swedish and 
the Island ic Skapa — the German Schaf- 
fen and Schopffen, &c. &c. as may be 
seen in our Etymologists. They can 
discover however no better origin 
for this word than that of the Greek 
SxfirlojMat — ixiVBif, and the Latin Exca*^ 
Shap. (Old. Eng.) Fate or destiny, vare. In Gerrhan, Schaffen signifies 

I to *' cause* get, make, prt)cure, or pro- 

-., - - . -^ • - -. • - - ** duce something;'* and from hence 

are derived in that language the appro- 
priate terms for the most solemn and ' 
important operations. Sci^opffer i^s. 
4 B the 

Schopffer. (Ger.) The Creator, 


• i » 



^SPER. (Lat.) ^Quas, 
tf6KSP4rna9. (Qr.) jUn-fluitpfd. 

Sn^ETamon. (6r.) An Ax. 

Sparth, (Old: Ei>g.) An Ax. 

Spada. (It) 


Sl?ATHE. (Gr.) 

K ASwprd. 

(Ff.) Q\^ esjr<> 


esPADA. (Span.) 
Sword. (Eng.) Quasi, 


Spadb— 4SPVD. ('Eng.) 

Sphvd. (Chald.) 

Spxbd.q. (Ita^,) 
Spet. (Dutch.) 
Spies;. (Genu,) 
S^iT, (Eng.) 


• A Spit. 

■ • 

, \ 

tlie great former of all things— ^thc Cpe* 
ator of the Heavens and the EarA. 
ScHOPFFun^ means the Creation f and 
G^-S€HOFPi the creaiure, or the created. 
*' In the beginning God created the 
*' Heaven iand the Earth;** which in 
Martin Luther's translation is '^ Am an- 
^* fang Scuff Gott'himmel und ferden.'* 
The word Created, which is used in 
our English version on tliis occasion, 
is one of tlie most universal terms extant 
in language; which I shall take a 
future opportunity of illustrating. 

To this idea of forming, arranging, 
ordering, assigning, dooming, or attoh 
ting, particularly applied ta the great 
disposer of all things, belongs our an* 
cient word S^ap, Fate^ ot De$tiny. 
This term perpetually occurs in the 
Poems of Rowley; and Dean Milles 
has given us the following just idea of 
its meanings ■*' Shat is objected to 

** only because it is used as a noun; 

1.. .■•\ 

for the verb Shapen, with its par- 
ticiples, shopen, ishope, and ishape, 
occur very frequently in our iancient 
writers, in a meaning exactly cor- 
responding to the ~use of th'e word 
" in these poems. Shapen signifies 
not only to create, form, model, or 
shape, but also to allot, appoint, and 

^^ fix 








CB, OF, ,CP, qv, &C. 87* 

SjRIF, (Ar.) ^ ^* Jiv by a superior power and unalter^ 

'* able decree."' (Milles's Rowley, 51 !•) 

Shufr. fPers.) VA Sword, ,t .1 . 1 ♦ 

^ ' r He theu quotes various examples ta 

Sabre, (Eng.)&c.^ illvistrate the force of dm word; pf 

which I shall select the following. 
^* Now is me shape etcrnaHy to dwell, 
^' ^^ot x)nly in purgatory, bqt in hell. 
'^ Bishop Poiiglas thys translates that line in Virgil, (^n. 6. v. 4^66.) 
*< Quern fugis? extremum fato quod te alloquor hoc est, 
** Qujiam fteia thpu? Uus k the latter day. 
*' By tifcrdiS'SQHAJf that with thee speek I may. 

(P. J 80. V. 12.) 
--.---,---- *^ Wcrdis'ScHAif me^m parcaru?n fato, 

** whon^ Douglas in other traces call^ 
Sway. (Eng.) Power. *' tlie weird sisieris.'" (Ibid.) 

In Shakspeare the Shap pf Destiny 
Tq Sway t/te Sword, Sceptre^ &c. -the shaping pfHino^B affait^by tb« 

Ua7id of a Superior Being, is direedy 
Qonnected with the ckofping of the Wood in tlie forn>iat¥>o of instrument* 
The same metaphors, which we find displayed in the figurative diction of 
tlie Poet, have be? n employed in the construction pf Ift^guagep. 

*' There's a Divinity that shapes our ends,, 
*' Rough'hetv them how we will." (Hamlet, A. 5. S. 1.) 

It is not necessary to refer this idea to the mystery of ^Xet^er-making only; 
as the Commentators appear to imagine ; since in a variety of tlie most 
vseful tools or intrujx&ente, the shaping^ of the paint is the most necessary 
part of the work ; or in other words, the very object, to which tl^e Attist 
or 5/iq5er directs his pperation* We shall not wonder therefore to find, that 
^e term, which expresses the act oi forming in general, should be par- 
ticularly applied; to tjie fam4ng of the end or point. ^ Hence arises the turn 
of: our ordin^^ p^h^n^t, ^ IP^mimg ^^ ^ point;- and in die passage o£ 



Shakspeare we have " Shaping the end.'' We now shall instantly acknow- 
ledge, that to SHARPe;^ is nothing but to Shape the important part of the 
instrument — the point or the end. The term Sharp appears in the various 
dialects of the Teutonic; of which the Etymologists are aware; though 
they have not the most distant glimpse that it belongs to its attendant. 
Shape. It is curious however that in the wild conjectures, which have 
been formed about its origin, they have produced two terms which cer- 
tainly belong to this race of words. Merric Casaubon derives Sharp from 
Asper; as we are informed by Skinner; who adds, with a pleasantry, 
w^orthy of an Etymologist, ^' Satis quidem aspere et violenter." Aspcr is 
certainly a compound, of which A performs the part of a negative; and 
Spgr belongs to the race of words, which are now the objects of our dis- 
cussion — signifying what is Sh AP^rf — Cnivped, &ic. The first sense therefore 
of A-Sper is something rough or un-hezvfi — ^ Not-SHAP'd — Not-CnoT'd.* If 
the reader should be disposed to consider this Etymology as forced or 
fanciful, what will he say, when I actually lay before him a Latin word, 
tviilh the Element SP, whose appropriate and peculiar sense is tliat of 
CHOPPING or trimming. Salmasius derives Sharp from the Latin Sarpo, 
which signifies Puto^ amputo — the technical term for pruning of Vines. 
*' Sarpo, sarpsif Priscian. Lib. 10. id est, purgo falce^'* says Martinius, 
vA\o derives the word fromAf7rt»* This in my opinion is extremely curious 
and decisive; but this is not all which I am able to produce oh the occa- 
sion. We have seen that the two forms, SP and KP, have supplied the 
names for the Hand, and tlie race of words belonging to it; and that PN 
is another Element employed to express the same train of ideas. The 
combination of the forms attaclied to the first Element, SP and KP, is 
SK^P, and the compound from the two Elements would be represented 
by SKPN. Now what would the reader again say, if I should lay before 
him a Greek word belonging to this compound, signifying the instrument 
ior Chopping or Shaping ; and another Greek term derived from this with 
the negative particle, precisely answering to the sense of Aspa\ AVho 


C B, C F, C p. C V, S.C. 



remember, and who is not delighted to remember, tlic moUissimutn 
carmen, which dtscribes the place of final repose, that was destined tor 
the unfortunate CEdipus. " You, Dread Goddesses, after my labours long," 
exclaims the aged wanderer, " have conducted mc to this last spot: — - 
** Without your guidance I should never Iiavc reposed myself on tliis 
'* hallowed seat — untouched by the hands of the Workman." 

*' EytwN« (i.n ii\iv U( fit rtivJ* Tnv olov 
Oux trS* cTcui; u ittn* t£ u/xtinr iflf^or 

" B«flfo* ToJ" ASKEnAPNON'" (Oidip. CoIoH, 99, &C.) . 

" Enim vero Iiaud dubic intelligo, me ad hunc lucum prospero a vobis 
" augurio adductum fiiissc, vobisque \\x ducibus: alioquin baud unquam 
" iter sic tcmerc faciens, in vos primas incidisscm, sobrius in sobrias, atque 
" in hSc veneranda rudi scde consedissem." /i-SKEPARNOJ (Ai7xnraf*oc,- 
rudis, non exasciatus, securi non tactus) means what is rude or mi-hexvn — 
not CHOPPED into shape by the Skepabnon, (£wT«f.ev, ascia, dolabra) tlie 
^.t or Haichct. 

That this word is directly derived from the SP or KP, the Hand, 
will not, I think, now be doubled; and as nefind in this case, tliat the 
second part of the compound, PN, belongs to tlie same idea; so wc have , 
another Element joined to SP, forming a word, which corresponds with - 
Sktparnon. In Old English, Sparth is " A double axe, Bipennis," says 
Junius, carried in the Hand as a Stall". " He hath a Sparth of iwentie 
" pound of weight. Kn. T. 176i!. Apposite J. Bromton Chronic! sui 
*' columna 1075; Hibemici securim, i. Sparthe in woaa quasi pro 6(7ra/o 
" bajulant, quA sibi ccnfidcntes praeoccupant.". The PT belongs likewise ta 
the Hand. I have before shewn that Bi/s--Bes—Puh—Puitcno, (nuf, nwlfuw,) 
relate to tbci'w/; and when tlie hardened sound of K is lost, we have T 
or S for ihc second letter of the radical ; Of tliis, Fight is a remarkable 
4 c instance ; 


instance ; where the record of one form, FG, remain$» though it ii 
enunciated in sound by another, FT. To this race of words I must 
attribute the Italian Spada^ the name for a Swprd; as we have before: 
proved Ensis to belong to the Hand. Our familiar terms Sp ade-**-Spvo, 
hand instruments of another sort, must be added to this class- The French 
Etymoteglsts derive their word Ep^e (quasi esp^^^from Spat ha; of which 
the Italians have formed Spada, and the Spaniards Espada. Spatha in 
Greek, (2to9ii) is a species of sword. The idea of an instrument sharpened 
at the point is inseparable from words of this nature : Hence we have the 
Chaldee term, recorded by Menage, Sphud, (llBttf) a Spit, to which, as he 
observes, belong corresponding words in Italian, Dutch; and German — 
Spiido, Spet, and Spiess. These terms have been rightly referred to the 
Hebrew Shebet, the name for a rod or staff; as I have shewn in a preceding 
page. In the Eastern languages we find a simpler forin of the Elemeiit. 
In Arabic, Seif (v^jujim) signifies '' A sword, a scimitar^ a falchion^ a 

'* sabre;" and Shufr^ (y^) ^° Persian, is '^ a sword, the. edge o£ a 
** sword." We perceive now tliat Sabre corresponds with Shupr and 
with Spear — Sparum, &c. I have no doubt but that our familiar wcMrd 
Sword should be referred to Spada — Spatha; and that the W represent 
the Y or P (quasi SpordJ in this race of words. The £tynM>logist5 have not 
attempted a derivation beyond the Greek Sideros (£«^i)e«tii ferruio.) Sway^ 
(quasi Spay J power or empire, must likewise be classed among the tenos 
derived from SP, the Hand. Hence comes the appropriate phiase^ ^ To 
" sway the Sceptre." Junius is aware of this peculiar phrajseology—*-' T6 

* SWAY a sword or sceptre, vibrare gladium, sceptrum^* Skinner refeis 
this word to the German ' Schweben, movere;* and Lye? to the Islftndic 

* Sueigia, inflectere.' There is one pleasant Etymologist, who derives 
Sway from the Greek Aiges (AiyK) which be finds in Hesychius to signify 
Waves — ^KvptW The Commentators on that Lexicographer are mightily 
embarrassed about thiff signification of jiiges (Anycc }) and some even imagine 
that it signifies << J)es Moutmu. Sic i^afogam^ a saltibus fluctuuou'^ There 


CB, C F, C P, C V,. A:c. ^ «»S 

is no language, with which I am acquainted, where AlOKfr, or a wdrd of 
that sort, does notsighify Waves. What would these Critics conceive of 
^ Latin Aqua, ice: 'ice tec, ^ I sfadl iicre close my ol»ervatiods on the 
Element SPT, as it relaites to instruments held hj the Hand; since, I ima- 
gine, that what has been already unfolded will be sufficient to direa the 


reader in a path, iK/inch has beenibitheito totally iinexplored. 

Sfan. (Eng.) ' ' We shall instantly atekiiowledge^ 

tliat Span must of necessity belong to 
S9ANVE. (Germ.) &c. SP, the Hand. The Etymoltfgisto de-* 

ri?e it from the Grieek SPitkame, (Zm9»fAfi, 
Shebr. (Ar.) A Span* Spithama^ spatium inter podlicem eC 

loiiiimum digitum expansos^) a term^ 
as we perceive, bclongiog to tfie saine radical. This word is fo> be fotind;^ 
in the various dialects of the Teutonic, Span, (Anglo Saxon) Spajine, 
(Gperm.) &c. &c» In Latin Span, we know> is Palnms, belonging ta the 
Ptalma. In Arabic the tenn for a Span is iattached likewise to the Element 
SP or SB. Sheer ( y^M#) signifies in ifitat language,,: ¥ I'* Measnring-wiih a 
•• span. ■• A gift, giving-. *• The hitd for prostitution, also what is paid 
**- for the loan of a staUion for cohering mares, camels,t Scd. ^ Conj^gait 
** duty. Shibr. A span, a palm.'' These ideas appear on the first view 
very discordant to- each othef, and to the sense which I have given- of the 
Element. It will be^ seen howeveir ia the progress of this discussion, that 
the notion, which appears: soi remote', is intimately conilectedr in^tk the 
signification of the radic^al. Pan in the compound ^p an raiust be referred to 
the PN in Pbn/^ (nrfi, quinqoe) — tlie Persian PenjV — the English- Pin cA^ 
the French ForN^^,^ &c. terms^ fot the Hand, or derived from it, as 
explatned oiT*a formei^ occasion. In our word PoiKx ^* liapoint:,A zryy 
' thing') we instantly trace its orijjiii ttvthe PN or PNT, the Hand; as I 




Speck — Spot.- (Eng.) 

■ I 

Sfurcus. (Lat.)' 


have before observed ; and in Point, a mark, we perceive a congenial 
idea. This word the Etymologists rightly refer to PuNCTz/m; and Mar- 
tinius ventures to observe, that if Pugio comes from Pugnus, then Piirtgd 
may come from Pugio. The Greek tl^xH^n and tlt^u, (Punctum, puogo,) 

belong to T G and TS, the Hand. .... 

To this idea for zmarA, as derived from the puncture or. daubing 
with the Hand or Fingers, we must refer the English SPeck, SPot, and the 
Greek SPilos, {imxo^. Macula, Labes.) The PIL in spilos is the PAL in 
FALa??ie; as Lab in the Latin Lab^^ belongs to the LM or LB, a radical 
for the Hand, another portion 6(paLAMc. It might likewise be proved, 

■ that Macula is a compound ; the parts 

of which separately relate to the Hand. 
The Latin Spurci^^ is, I believe, ano- 
ther form of our English Speck; though 
Skinner and Junius are not aware of 
their coincidence. The Latin Etymo- 
logists refer Spurco to Spuo, ** ut sit 
" dignus, in quem despuas.'* Marti* 
nius has rightly conjectured respecting 
the origin of Spuo, by referring it to 
theChaldec NStt^ (SPA) Labium. It 
belongs to the great race of words un- 
folded in the preceding part of this 
work, (page 177, &c,) In Spuo, and 
our vulgar word for Vomere, the root 
appears in its simple, state: In Spit, 
Sputo, and Spawl and Splutter, we* per- 
ceive that PT and PL are parts of the 
composition. I have shewn on a for- 
mer occasion (page 173, &c.) that PS . 
or FT is the radical for the Mouth ; 


Spatter— -Splatter. (Eng.) 

Spatt — Spattle. (Eng.) 

Spatha — Spatvla. 



Spike. (Eng.) "^The point of 

Spitze.. (Ger 

any thing. 

' $piCK and Span new^.* 

C B, C F. C P. C V. ice. 


SP, the Moutli. and hence it is, tliat in Greek we 

have VTuo (n1u«,) Spuo. In short, Spit 
Spvo,&cc. and Sputo are compounds; of which 

SP«o and Wuo are parts. I have shewn 
Spit, Spawl, Spluttbb. likewise in page 195, that BL is ano- 

ther radical for the Month. Spatter 
and Splatter must be referred, I Imagine, to Spot and Spilos. Merric 
Casaubon supposes, that Spatter is derived from in-al.A«t liyfo* Itaxu^rifJM, 
though he produces, as a probable origin, iwafaw and ZT«Iax««; wliich, he 
says, sometimes signify " Ai«TX!«m{a), spargo, dissipo," Whatever we may 
decide on the origin of the words proposed by Merric Casaubon, we shall 
own, I tliink, that tlic terms in the article of Junius preceding 5/)tf»fr, 
belong to tlie SPT, the UaiuL " Spatt (Spattle,) Spatha, Spatliula, 
" Instrumenlum, quo Chirurgi ct Pliarmacopoei utuntur. B, Spalel. 
*' M. Casaubonus dcrivat a Sir«6r, rudcs, rudicula. Inde quoque Gallis 
" dicitur, £5/w/u/t*. It. Spatula. II. Espatula." (Junius sub voce.) 

We filiall not wonder, from considering the origin of Poi?il, and the 
sense, whicli it bears when employed to express the Point of an instru- 
ment or sharp-/;o/n?«/ instruments; that the Element SP should supply a 
race ofwords conveying a similar idea. Thus Spike corresponds in form 
with Speck ; and they coincide with the two senses of Point — the sharp 
crlreniifi/ of an instrument and a marA: In German, for tlie same reason, 
Spitze means " the /wm/, the sharp end of any thing. Die spitze eines 
*' speers oder eines lantze, the spear head, the head of a lance." I shall 
take this occasion of proposing a few observations on tlie phrase " Spick 
" and Span new," which has caused such embarrassment to tlie whole race 
of Etymologists. " Spick and Span new" mjglit have been originally 
applied to a Lance, new both in the spick — the /wm/, and in the spa.n 
— the grasp or handle. It is natural to conceive, that tlie La7ice or Spear, 
fo important in a rude state of society for the purpose of procuring food 
4- o and 



and for defence, would be considered as an object of the greatest attehtloik ; 
and that the accidents or circumstances, which arc attached to its use, 
would operate accordingly on the phraseology of languages. Hence have 
been formed our familiar nanies. Spears — SPEARm^'n — SkaksvEAHE — Wag- 
STAFF — BickersTATT — Lance — Pike, &c. and our ordinary phraise, "As 
" plain as a Pike-Staff," &c. &c. Among the various interpretations 
given of the proverb, an idea of this sort has, I believe, been suggested. 
Another mode of conceiving the origin of the phrase ought not to be 
omitted. Span in German signifies *' A Chip or splint/' At this sense we 
shall not wonder. Chips or Shaviw^^ and Span are the effects, which 
are produced by him, who chops with the Ilarid — the KAF and the 
SPAN. * Span-new' is a German phrase, and they have other sayings 
likewise of a similar nature ; as ' Funckel-neu,' ' Splintcr-neu,' which are 
explained in Ludwig's Dictionary by " Span-new, Spick-new, Fire-new, 
" or Brand-new." Funck signifies in German a Spark of Fire; and 
Splinter means precisely as it does in English. These expressions there- 
fore signify something newly made or directly come from Spanning or 
Splintering, that is chopping^ as wood; or from the F/re, as iron — the 
usual modes, by which instruments arc shaped— formed or made. With 
regard to Spick-w^u.*, that perhaps may be derived' from Spitze, the sharp 
point of any thing; and S?irzen, *' To point, spike, or sharpen anything, 
*' to make it sharp at the end, to sharpen the point of it." . SrtCK-new 
may then mean a lance or instrument with a new spike or s/iarp point to 
it — something newly pointed or sharpened at the . end. " This, we may 
imagine, was considered as a very important operation, to effect the pur- 
poses of destruction or defence intended to be produced by the instrument. 
• Brand-new,* or, as it is often written, * Bra7i-new,' signifies something 
newly come from the fire, from brenning or burning. Of this the Etymo- 
logists are aware. I do not propose the foregoing observations from any 
firm conviction, that they tend finally to decide the meaning of this 


CB, CF. cp, cv, &c. as? 

disputed proverb. They are proposed only for llie consideration of some 
future enquirer, who may be led perliaps by thlj additional infonjiation 
to a more certain method of determining the question. 

Spin. (Eng.) To the idea conveyed by Si)a7i we 

must refer our familiar word Spin; 
/(Gr.) To insert threads which is peculiarly the operation of the 
Hand. It is the drawing out of flax 
into a thread, by means of the Fin- 
gers. The Etymologists derive it from 
the Greek Spao {z^xa, traho) to draw 
out, and Spathao (Eirae«i.., licium in- 
culco spailiaj to insert threads in the 
warp by means oftheSPATHE; words 
citlier immediately or indirectly derived 
from the SP, the Hand. The meta- 
phorical sense of Spin, (' To spi7i out 
' a discourse,' &c.) will be readily un- 
derstood. Spizo (Za-i^w, extcndo, cx- 
CoB or Spjdeb. pando,) to stretch out or Spread ohi. 

is another appropriate action belonging 
to the Hand. It might be proved that Tendo contains the same idea, 
and FAtido is the PN, the Hand, in "the compounds span and spin. In 
the dialects of tlie Celtic, Dorn signifies the Hand; to which must be 
referred the Greek THENffr, (0w*f, vola manus,) the Ball of the Hand. 
Whether the word Spider should be referred to Spathao, the appropriate 
term for ttcaving, or to the more general sense of the Element, — ^^that of 
SPREADING ox extending over a surface, I am unable to determine. The 
reader however will not doubt, that tlic word is derived from an Idea of 
tills sort. Perhaps SPider is a compound, of which one of the parts is 


Spathao. < into the warp with tJie 

Spao. (Gr.) To draw out. 

Spiio. (Gr.) To stretch out, or 

Spread out. 

Cos-JVib. (Eng.) The Web of tlic 


Cob, the ancient word for this animal. The CoB-Web is the IVeb of the 
Cob or Spider. They are both however certainly taken from the same 
train of ideas^ and signify the animal, which spreads or covers over 
the surface with his Web. The Etymologists are aware that Cob signifies 
a Spider. 

We have seen that Span in German 
Splint. Splinter. (Gen & Eng.) signifies " a chip or Splint;'* and that 

the term Splinter is a word common to 
Spalten. (Germ.) To split. both languages. Spalten likewise 

means in German '* To split, slit, or 
Spall. (Old. Eng.) Assulae. *' cleave something." Surely it will 

be instantly acknowledged, that Splint 
— Splinter, &c. are terms derived from the operation ofthelfafids; 
and that they should be considered as compounds; which belong to the SP 
and PL, the radicals for the Hand. Perhaps Splinter is a compound, 
consisting of three parts; the latter of which, '^NT, should probably be 
at once referred to the Hand itself. In the interpretation of Spalten we 
find Slit and Cleave ; and we may remark, that die SL or CL in these 
words belongs to the same radical, as in SLap and CoLaphus. The LV, 
the second part of the compound CLeave, conveys the same meaning as 
the I.P in coLaThns, which we have before explained to be the Element 
for the Hand. In Old English, Spall means assuU; which Skinner 
has rightly referred to the German Spaltefi, findere. The word FiNDrrr, 
which is here used in the expkination of Spalten, certainly belongs to the 
PNT, (or END,) the Element likewise for the Hand. Our familiar term 
Find must be referred to the same origin; as it will be granted, I imagine, 
tliat if we should endeavour to determine k priori, fi-om what source a 
word of this nature would be naturally derived ; the idea of the Hand 
would readily occur to us, as the most obvious and probable origin. If wc 
are already disposed to receive tliis Etymology, cur conviction will be 


dB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 


PN, PNT, PNG, the Hand. 

Findo. (Lat.) To cleave. 
Find. (Eng,) 

Findan. \ (^- ^^) ^"^ "^^"S^' 8^^'^' 

V receive. 

Findig. I^^^-^-) ASeizerof any 

V thing. 






To mould, to subdue, 
to bind, to prick, to 
plant -compose— make 
a bargain, as witli the 
Hand or 


Figun, paxi, pegi, pcpigi, pu- 

pugi, vici, victus, &c. Puis,Jist. 

unshaken, when we read the various 
senses of the Anglo Saxon word, from 
which Find is derived. *' Findan, to 
''FIND. Invenire — Disponere — Dc- 
" ccrnere — Siippeditarc, subnmiistrare 
" AccipereJ'^ (Lye's Sax. and Goth. 
Diet, sub voce.) In an adjacent article 
I find FiNDi^, Inventor, raptor. We 
have here the peculiar actions, which 
are most appropriate to the Hand; and 
let us mark, as we pass on, dispovere; 
where in the Pono of the Latins we 
again see the operation of the PN — the 
Hand. In short, whea we cast our 
eyes over the • various languages, witli 
which we are conversant; the effect? 

of this Element, PN, PNT, or PNG, 
will be perpetually visible, sometimes coinciding in form with our word 
Point, and sometimes with the word Fingers. Thus Fing(?, to make — 
mould, &CC. is quasi. To Finger. So palpable is this coincidence, that 
Martinius has derived the German jF/n^er from Fingo. In Vinco we 
trace die operation of the subduing Hand — ^tlie Fangs or Fingers; but 
in Vimcio, to bind or fasten, we have the origin still more fully apparent. 
Even in the explanation, which I have here used, tiie Element again 
appears under another form — *To bind and to TAsren with the BND— the 
' Fist.' It will now be understood, that many of the words, which I have pro- 
duced in page 156, must be referred directly to the PN, the Hand; such as 
Band, Bind, &c. &c. Pungo and PuNCTi^m have been already explained, 
as belonging to this race of words; and«in Pang(?, to plant — covenant — 
to compose, &c. we have a similar form ; though tliey convey different 
senses of the same radical. As Fingers have migrated into Puks — Fists, 

4 B quasi 


quasi TiGers, by losing the sound of n attached to G ; so we find in the 
above words a similar. change, which the Qrammarians have considered 
as exceptions, irregularities, or anomalies. Thus Fingo is changed into 
FiGura — Pa?ige becomes pax/, peg/ or pcpioi, in one of its tenses — 
Pungo likewise appears as puvvoi — and Vinco is transformed into Vici, 
\ ictus; where we sec precisely the same change, as from Finger to Puks 
or Fist, and precisely for the same- reason. Thus every part of language 
is regulated by a simple and a similar process : — The same cause ever pro- 
duces .the same effect — anomalies appear not in the plan; but all is order, 
uniformity and consistency. 

We shall now be enabled to understand the full force of a great race 
of words, which I began to unfold in a former discussion (page 167.) 
These words were Pike, Beak, Pake, Pash, Push, Break, Burst, Bruise, 
Press, Pierce, &c. &c. which, as I observed, were all impregnated with 
a similar idea. I remarked likewise, and I remarked truly, that the 
name for the Head or Hmms belonged to this Element, BK, PK, PS, &c. 
and I moreover suggested, that the Hebrew Bak^;-, the Ox, was derived 
from the idea of pushing with the Beak (if I may so express it) or the 
Horns. We now see, that the name for the Hand, as well as the 
Head, belongs likewise to the same Element; and tliat the one is neces* 
sarily connected with the other; since the Hands of the Man and the 
Horns or Head of the Animal, perform a very important and familiar 
office common to each — that of pushing — pashing, &c. &c. There is 
likewise another great race of words wliich belongs to the same Element; 
and which in one vein of its simple meaning coincides with the train of 
ideas above exhibited. The terms Foot — Pes — Pedw — Pous — PoDoi 
and PEDon (Tlifov, solum,) &c. &c. have operated on every part of lan- 
guage ; and it is easy to understand thcij connexion with the sense expressed 
by Bruise — Press — trample to Pieces, &c. &c. The Feet or the 
Hoofs are equally employed with the Horns and the Hands, to produce 
effects of this nature. When ideas become tlius entangled wit^i each odier, 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 


it is often absolutely impossible to unravel the embarrassment^ and to deter- 
mine with precision the peculiar notion^ to which a term is directly 
related. From all these sources a race of words lias been formed impreg- 
nated with a similar train of ideas ; and in many cases, it is only by a 
minute examination of the peailia?' iuhi in the signification of die word, 
that the true origin can be fully ascertained. 

SP. The Hand. 

Speiro. (Gr.) Semino, 
Sow. (Eng.) Quasi, Sov. 

Sevi. (Lat.) 

Spargo— SPARsr. (Lat.) 
Spread. (Eng.) Spend. (Eng.) 
Spendo. (Gr.) Libo, fundo, 
Sphendone. (Gr.) Funda. 

LB, FND. The Hani. 

Libo, FundOf Funda. 


AVe have seen that Spread is de- 
rived from SP or SPT, the Hand; and 
we may well imagine, that this source 
would supply a variety of terms con* 
veying a similar idea. The English 
Etymologists derive Spread from the 
Greek Speiro, (Zmifw^Scmino^Spargo,) 
which must probably be referred to the 
same class. There is however another 
source, from which Speiro may be de- 
duced; though I imagine, from the 
words with which it is accompanied, 
that I have given the true Etymology. 
Sfargo, Sparsi must be added to the 
same race. In the Present and the 
Preterite we see the hardened and the 
hissing form, under which the Element 
appears — ^SPG and SPS, as in Puks 
and Fist. Our English word Sow is 
probably quasi Sov; and thus it will 
correspond with the Speiro of die Greeks 
and the Sev/ (Sero, sevi) of the Latins. 




Spill. (Eng.) 

Spoil. (Eng.) Spolium, 

Pilo, Pillage, Pilfer, Plunder. 

JMajitibice. (Lat.) Spolia. 

Sprengen. (Germ.) 
Sprenoe. (Old Eng.) 
Sprinkelek. (Dutch.) 

y To 

Sprencklen. (Germ.) 
Sprinkle. (Eng.) 

(Eng.) To bound from 
the ground — ^To burst 

Spring. \ forth as plants, &c. or 

water — ^To blow up as 
^ a mine, &c. Sic. &c. 

Springe. (Eng.) 
Sprencksl. (Germ 

A Snare. 

The Sero and the Sevi must certainly 
be referred to different radicals, which 
conveyed probably a diflFerent idea ; as 
the former, I imagine, is derived from 
the Earth and the latter from die Hand. 
Spend we shall instantly annex to the 
SP, tlie Hand; and in the second 
part of the Compound, whether we 
consider it as "ND or P-^ND, the 
same idea of the Hand is still con- 
veyed. Spend is referred by Skinner, 
&c. to die Greek Spends, (SvevAi^, Libp,) 

* to pour out drop by drop— to make 

* a Libation.' The word Li sat ion it- 
self, with its attendant terms, Libo — 
Leibo (Af*C«, Libo, fundo,) belongs to 
the LB, the Hand ; and Fundo must 
be classed under the race of n^ords, 
which I have just explained, Findo, &c. 
In short, Spendo, (sp-TEi^Do ovsp-Ei^DoJ 
is a compound, of which Hand — 
FuNDo, or a term of that nature, is a 
significant portion. That Spends in 
the Greek language is derived from the 
Hand under some Element, will be 
placed out of all doiibt, when we re- 
collect a word of a similar form ; which 
we shall instantly acknowledge must 
be derived from that source. This 
word is SPHENDa;ie, (Sffi^oyn, funda,) a 
Sling. Here again we see the Element 


. CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 29$ 

in FvsJki performing the same office as in Fundo. Sling is derived from 
the same train of ideas. SL belongs to the SL and CL in shap and 
coLaphus; and Ing is tlie Haihk or the Hand. Wherever we turn our 
researches, the radicals still continue faithful to dieir original sense in all 
the varieties bf form and the intricacies of combination. 

Spill is a term, signifying rf/^er«on; which must b^ added to the same 
family of *words. The Pill in this compound is the Pal in VALma, &c. 
Spill is referred to Spoil, which Junius seems to consider as a word 
derived from different radicals. Spoil, in the sense of * Corruihperc,' he 
classes with die Greek Znxsv, maculare; and in the sense of the Latin 
SpUutre, he produces the derix'ation of certain Critics from Zkvxm or £xuxcui^ 
Depraedor, expiio; and of others, whom he calls viri longe doctissimi, 
from the iEolic SiroXn, pro iJoxu «' ut Spoliare rtihil aliud sit, quam» S*roAii» 
** sive amictum alicui eriper^." I conceive that S^olium and Spotio were 
It first applied to the spoils of War; and dwt the Mands-^^t instruments 
of seizing these spoils, sup{^ied the original idea. * Hie Latin Pilo to 
TlLLMge — vitfer — Thunder, is the simpler state of sFOhio. In piLver 
and in pluHDer die reader will again mark the LF and ^ND, the Hand; 
and in the Greek SKUUzo^ie will not fail to note the combination of the 
forms SL and KL, the Element for die same member, a^ in Shup and 
Ki»LiipA^(KoXa^f, cohaphus.J If any doubts ^umld yet remain respecting 
d^ Qjrtgin a£ S^iOj they will probably entirely vanish, wh^ it is te66l* 
lected, that u^undkl term to Spalid in tlie Latin language is Ma Nti^/^e. 
In Chaucer, Spill seemg to be used in the sense of SpoiL " Spitk** 
(says Mr. Tyrwhitt) " To waste — ^to throw away — to desttoy — to perish." 
It first occurs in 'The Milkrfs Tide. - The Hendy Nicholas^ after preferring 
has suk, by aj pracdc^ application to the *' foyre yong wif of the Car- 
pentei^ thus addnesses her in words. 

** Ywist ♦but if I have myrwill,'* ^unless 

: " For derne love of diee, lemman, I spill/' (3277. Ed.Tyr.) 

IfFJtLS. tae^iSil perisfw We me Spoil in a neuter seti^er acmoeM^ii in the 

4 F same 

« » 


wne way, when wc talk of tljings spoiling by being kept, wom^ &c, la 
The Wife of Bathes Tale it is used in an active sense: 

** And yaf him to the quene, all at hire will 

" To chese whetlier she wold him save or spill." 

(6479, &c. Ed. Tyr.) 
Shakspeare uses *Spill in the same manner. 

*' So full of artless jealousy is guilt, 

** It SPILLS itself, in fearing to be spilt." 

(Hamlet, A. 4. S. 5.) 
It is extremely curious, that there is one word in our language, relating 
to dispersion of water, &c. in which are to be found tlie three radicals 
representing the Haiid — SP, ''NK and KL — Sprinkle; which appears 
in its full state in the Dutch Sprinkelen^ and the German Sprencklen; 
thougli it is again seen under a simpler form in the term SpRENGen, vt'hich 
signifies in German to sprinkle with water, &c. This word is familiar to 
the Poems of Rowley, Sprenge — ^JJ^-sprenge and J5e-sp rente, &c1 &c. 
" The mees be-spRENGED with the yellow hue." (iElla, v. 161.) 
'* j5ee-sp|i£NGEB all the mees with gore," (Song to yElIa.) 

In our word Springe, (" Springes to catch Woodcocks") and tlie German 
Sprenckel, '* A springe, snare,'* &c. &c. we behold anotljer property 
of the Hand — that of holding--<oiifining, &c. With respect to our term 
Spring, in the various senses of bounding from the ground, or leaping — 
of sliooting up or bursting forth from the earth, plants, oritr^es, as^ v^egeta- 
bles; or from a fountain, as water— of scattering or dispersing hy blowing 
up with gunpowder, (as, ' To spring a mine,') &c. &c. we perceive that 
they all contain the same idea, and were certainly derived from the action 
of dispersing — scattering — throwing fox various purposes and widi various 
degrees of force and effect, so familiar and appropriate to the Hand. 
The observations, which I have already made on this occasion, will be 
sufficient, I trust, to illustrate a great race of words, that are extant in 
every language, ioipressed with the peculiar idea, which I have here 

unfolded : 

CB; CF. CPi CV, ice. 


unfolded : Yet I cannoft take leave of the present discussion "without 
endeavouring to throw some light On the origin of a Greek word, which 
at the first view appears far removed from the subject before us, and 
which involves in its explanation, if I do. not deceive myself, an interestr 
ing theme of Crittcal Enquiry. 


(Gr.) Ashes ; quasi, some- 
thing scattered over. 
(Heb.) Ashes-a fillet— 

APAR. ^ a crown— garment— veil, 

quasi, something o vfiR. 
(Heb.), To COVER — the 

• • • 

CPAR. \Ho^v Trost ipread over or 
COVERING the ground. 

( t 


PZR. (Heb.) to disp^r^e, scatter. 
PK. (Heb.)To expand; spread out. 
PU7 I (Heb.) To disperse, scatter 

dbrbad, &c. 


PUK f e^^*^-) To itisnare — I:a- 
i mina^ — Ashes. 

LmrHna from Lam and Manvs, 

The Greek term for Ashes, Spo- 
DOS, should be referred, I imagine, to 
this race of words under the idea of 
scattering or dispersing abroad — strewing 
about — covering or spREADin^ oveVf 
&c. &c. &c The first glimpse, which 
I had of this: Etymology, was afforded 
me by a passage in the Psalms, which 
the reader will own to be singularly 
curious: ** He scaUeretk the Hoar 
♦'Frost like AsBtES.*' (Psalm 47. 
V, 16.) The words in Hebrew are 
^TB^ 1SKD •nsa; 'Now it is curious^ 
thkt the Hebrew word for Hoar Frost 
in this passage- is: precisely our word 
Cover ; that is, a word with the same 
Elenlentary consonants ; wd With Jh% 
same irieanin^. KFARy ("l&D) says Park* 
hurst, *' lU' general. To Cover, at>er^ 
^ spread-^ As 2i noun. The: Hoar Frost, 
^* which COVERS or is spread over the 
*« sur&ee of die ground. • ' Mr. Par k- 
bofst JoBB discovered no ^ derivatives from 



itftf/ttfi. (Eng.) this word, but Kfuilw, CoVEft and 

Ash^ (Heb.) Azur. (Pers.)x Coffer. In another part of this pas- 

/^nis. (Lat.)^^ce.(Hind,) vFire* sage, the Hebrew verb for Scatter 
Yog. (Gip6.)&;c. . • ) likewise belongs to die race of words» 

which are now the objects of our dis- 
cussion. It is the second portion — the PD or PS of the compounds 5POD0f, 
5PREAD — ^PARSi, &c. &c. PZR, (nffi) *' To disperse,'" says Parkhurst, 
*' dissipate,, scatter — ^To break in pieces, dissipate by breaking in pieces.'* Mn 
P^khurst has again prcxiuced his derivatives, which he finds to be *^ Spargo, 
*' Sparsum, whence asperse^ &c. disperse.'' The next Hebrew wordK 
which is explained by this Lexicographer, again coincides with the Puxs, 
(nvg, pugmj^i) tlie FiU. PK (ns) " The idea of this word seems to be 
^* To expand^ spread out, dilate — a net or snare expanded to catch prey." 
Whatever be the precise custom, from which the imagery in the Psalms 
is derived, it is certain that the xx)tion of somctliing spreading over or 
scattering about iwas intimately connected with the idea of Ashes ; and 
the cause, wbkh prodhticed the metaphorical allusion or comparison in 
the diction of the Poet, would operate likewise in the fbrmM^<^ ^ tbe 
word. ThjB scdtttHng of Ashes over the head on occasions of sorrow was 
alike familiar to the Greeks and the Hebrews; though I doubt, whether 
die effect of this custofli would be sufficiently striking and impressive, to 
call^fortha species of imagery, such as we find exhibited in tlie passage 
of the Psalms* As die name of the Hoar Frost is derived from the idea 
of coverings aiid from a word too corresponding with the English CoYja» 
^^*CFhR (*iB3 ;) so I suspect, that for a similar reasouj the Hebrew word 
for Ashes, APAH: (*ifi)K). aidopted rin this comparjsqA^ fi^oincides Uk'ewise 
with our fsoniliar term: oven/ I am acquainted wida no jangi^age, in 
which the. effect of this word over is not singularly conspicuous. When 
we recollect the important office,, diat Uper or Over (TTjf, super) 'performs 
in the Oreek language, as a preposition; we may i well imagine, < that 4jb¥ 
traces of its infhieiioe raif^ be |)erp€tually traced by a diligent dnquitipr; 


CB. CF, CP, C V, &c. 


and we know, that ihe Latin Supek, aiiotlier form of Uper, U equally 
familiar in that language, and consequently must be equally operative. 
I shall prove on a future occasion, that in Hebrew the force of this radical 
is visible in the most ordinary instances. In Caitle's Lexicon Heptaglott, 
this Root AP/ill (iSN) is explained in one of its senses, " Tiara, vitta, 
" pallium, pepium. Sudarium, velamcn, quo oculos tmmircnt advcrsus 
" PULVEREM." \Vc perceive how this profound Linguist is embarrassed 
to reconcile the sense of a P'cil with the idea of Anhes ; which he imagines 
to be the original meaning of tlie radical ; and we moreover understand, how 
readily the idea of what is over, or what covers any tiling, coincides with 
the Fiilei — the Croivn — ilie Garmait — and the Veil. The Hebrew letter 
representing our word Like in this passage (He scaltercth tlic Hoar Frost 
like Ashch) is D, C, which added toAP/iR (Ashes) becomes CAPAR; so that 
the Hoar Frost like Aihes appears iii Hebrew, as CP/zHUR CAPAR, 
wliich the Critics have imagined to be an elegant example of the Parotw- 
masia; or of that figure in Siieeeli, whicli in our humble language is 
denominated the Pun. " Nota," says Gcjerus, " in Hebrieo suavera 
" paronomasiam inter "il-JD" (CPAUR) " pruinam et 1DN3" (CAPAR) 
" Sicut Cinis." It is extremely curious, that another term for Ashes be- 
longs to the Element, now under our discussion — VZ or PK, which, 
as we have seen, supplies tlic verb in this passage of tlie Psalms, trans- 
lated by tlie word Scatter. PUK (nis) signifies in the first sense, says 
Taylor, " Afllare, aspirare, perfiare. '■ lUaqueare, To insnare, a snare. 
" 3. Lamina — Faviila, the Ashes of a furnace, so small as to be blown 
" away with the breatli or the wind." These senses appear so con- 
tradictory, that even the Hebrew Lexicographers doubt, whether tlioy 
belong to the^ame radical. AV'ith my sense of the Element for a guide, 
all is plain and consistent. The first signification of the Breath is derived 
from the name for the Mouth, belonging to the Element BC, which I 
have explained in a former page, (173, S:e.) and the other senses coincide 
with the name for the Hand, and its familiar action of conjining or 
■i G spreading 


spreading over. Lamina itself is a compound, of wliich Lam and Manus, 
terms in the Celtic and Latin for the Hand, are parts. In the opening of 
Taylor's Concordance now before me, where PUK (ms) occurs, I find 
PUZ (yiB) ** Spargi, dispergi. To disperse, scatter abroad, to dissipate^ to 
"shake, or l>reak in pieces." Where ever we turn our attention, the 
Element still remains faithful to its office. These observations on the 
Hebrew words for Ashes, and the comment on the passage of the Psalms, 
will be sufficient, I trust, to convince the reader, that my Etymology of 
the Greek Spodos (S^oJof, Cinis,) was not formed without a due enquiry 
into the nature of the subject. I shall take another occasion of explaining 
tlie Latin Cinis; and with respect to our word Ashes, that is certainly 
derived from the universal name for Fire, which pervades so many Ian* 
guages — ^ihc Hebrew ASH (e^n) — the Persian Azur — the Latin loni*— 
the Hindoo Aonce — the Gipsey Yoo, &c. &c. The n, which aj^>ears in 
the Hindoo and Latin forms of this word, is nothing but the sound of n 
often annexed to that <rf G, as in the Hebrew Gnain, (y) &c. which^ 
ftccorditig to the Grammarians of that language, represents Gn, nGn, nG, 
respectively, as the letter appears at the beginning, the middle, or the end 
of a word. In the modem languages, the same combination takes place ; 
diough tlie letter answering to N, is the representative of the sound ; as 
ON in French, quasi on^, &c. &c. The English Etymologists have only 
been aware of the corresponding words to Ashes in Gothic, Saxon, &c. as 
confined to that peculiar sense. 

Our familiar word Sport, which in the present sense signifies some 
play or pastime, must likewise be referred to SPT, the Hand. This on 
Ae first view appears extremely remote from the Element ; yet I shall be 
enabled, I trust, to give the reader full satisfaction respecting the truth 
of this Etymology. The original sense of Che word I imagiiie to be that 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &C. • 2fl9 

of mocking or deriding ; and this^ we perceive, brings lis at once to the 
action of the H^md. 

** But (alas !) to make me ' 

*' A fixed figure, for the Hand o( scorn 
'* To point his slow linmoving ^w^er at." 

I read tliis passage thus for the ^ake of 
• ------••- possessing the full imagery^ which I 

am desirous of unfolding to the reader. 
SP. The Hand. Whatever be the true reading, it will 

not be doubted, but that the present text 

f (Eng.) Play, pastime, ^^^^^ ™^^^ compleatly represent the 

Spor^.< metaphorical allusion adopted on this 

\^ jest, raillery, &c. occasion. Junius thinks, that the first 

sense of Sport was that of jaug^natical 
^ To Sport, as with a person's conversation'^the amusement at our 

ancient feasts ; and Lye imagines, thai 
'^ fedings,'' &c. Hickes has acutely deduced it from the 

Islandic Spott, Ludibrium. Others 
Spite. Spiteful. (Eng.) derive it from " Jucunde se portar^^ 

—from the Italian ScherzOf &c. — ^from 

{(Germ.) the Latin Excursus or Cursitare — and 

finally from JAwvhi, quasi, Ztai^Im* After 
A sport, mock, scoff. , !.•■ -^^ r t^^ i • i j 

^ such exhibitions of Etymological dex- 

(Germ.) To mock, tmty, it will be owned, I imagine, 

that a new adventurer in the same 
Spotten. ^deride, ridicule, scoff ^^^^ though he may not be success- 

^t. ful, cannot be disgraced. The original 

sense, which I have attributed to the 
-' To Sport a door. To break it ^^^^ ^^^,^ j^ ^ju apparent in phrases 

ft open." ^ this sort — ' To sport with the /ec/- 

* ings of another* — *. To speak in a 



To Sport a thing. .To exhibit ' sporting manner/ &:c, &c. I have 

any thing, no doubt, but that proofs of this sense 

are perpetually visible in our ancient 
• - -..*.-.• poets; yet I am at present unable to lay 

any examples before my reader ; as the 
Fig. (Not to care a Fig for a idea of this Etymology has been re- 
person.) cently impressed on my mind, and 

consequently, the passages containing 
DarH't^a ^S a ^C*^^ insult by that peculiar sense have passed by me 
To /?p^ roid Ene* ^ J P^^"^"^ ^^^^^ totally unobserved. I shall be compelled 

C the Hand. therefore to adopt the doctrine of an ob- 

scure writer, who, in " A Specimen of 
** a Commentary on Shakspeare," has laboured to enlarge the boundaries 
of Criticism, by applying a metaphysical principle to the elucidation of 
Poetic imagery, and figurative description. This doctrine is the Asso* 
ciation of Ideas — *' a fruitful and popular theme in the writings of meta- 
physicians, who have suppliqd us with innumerable examples, which 
prove at once the extent and the activity of its influence. They have 
taught us, that our modes. of reasoning, our habits of life, and even 
the motions of our body are affected by its energy ; and that it operates 
on the faculties by a kind of fascinating controul, which we sometimes 
** cannot discover, and which generally we are unable to counteract. If 
*' therefore, in the ordinary exertions of the understanding,*' continues 
this writer to observe, " the force of such an Association has been found 
" so powerful and extensive; it may surely be concluded, that its influence 
would predominate with absolute authority over the vigorous workings 
of a wild and fertile imagination." It is impossible, I imagine, to 
controvert the truth of this hypothesis; and whatever success we may attri- 
bute to the writer in tlie unfolding of his argument; the doctrine itself is 
surely well entitled to the attention of tlie Critic, who is desirous of 
enriching an imperfect art by a new vein of illustration, which is derived 




CB, CF, CP, CV, Sec. 301 

from a principle at once amply discussed and universally acknowledged. 
A curious example relating to this question shall, now be submitted to the 
candour and attention of the reader. Sport, in a celebrated passage of 
Milton, though used in a sense coinciding with its present meaning, is 
still associated with imagery, which expresses its ancient signification. 
Sport is personified and represented as a Deridcr. 

" Sport, that wrinkled Care derides." 
The mind of Milton was no doubt impressed with the genuine sense of the 
word, as exhibited in our ancient Poems;' and he was accordingly led, 
unconscious of the effect, to adopt that peculiar imagery, with which hiii 
imagination was deeply impregnated. But the German word, to which 
Sport certainly belongs, will establish the original sense beyond all con*- 
troversy. Spott, (says Ludwig,) '* A sport, joke, taunt, flam, scojQF, baffle, 
V jest, bantery, raillery, vwckay, mock^ or mockage.*' Spotten is explained 
*' To mock, ridicule, jeer, banter, or deride one, to laugh or scoff at him.*' 
I have on a former occasion referred Scoff to the CF, the Mouth ; and the 
reader will perceive, that the sense of Sport, as it is here unfolded by the 
Grerman Spotten, might likewise be derived from the s^me source. It is 
necessary therefore to explain more fully, why I have chosen to consider 
the Hand of Scorn as the origin of the word rather than the Mouth of 
Mockery. Sport is familiarly applied in otlier senses, which are certainly 
derived from the Hand. One of its significations is that of an act of 
violence committed hy ihe Hands. To sport a Door, in the phraseology 
of the younger Members of our University, isio.burst it open; and in 
another sense of the word, it expresses the idea of sometliing to he pointed 
at — an object of shetv or exhibition; as, * To sports minuet — To sport 
' a 71CXV Gig — To sport the agreeable.* These significations decide, with- 
out a doubt, the peculiar turn in the original idea of the word, and 
consequently confine it to the notion of tlie Hand; in which alone these 
various meanings are found to coincide.- Spite is only another form of 
Sport — to mock or to Scorn. In our idea of tlie Spiteful Man we are 

4 H affcjLtcd 


affected udth every impression, which the train of ideas above unfolded 
may be imagined to produce. 

" This is a Montague, our foe, 

*' A villain, that is hither come in Spight, 

" To scorn at our solemnity to night/' 
One of our most ordinary phrases expressive of Scom and Contempt, 
— * A Fig for a persan,* is acknowledged to be derived from the Hand. 
In tlie 2d. part of Henry 4th, we have, 

^* When Pistol lies, do this ; and fio me, lik^ 

" The bragging Spaniard." 
^* To FIG,'' (says Dr. Johnson,) " in Spanish, Highs dar, is to insult by put- 
** ting the thumb between the fore and middle finger. Fronv this Spanish 
" custom we - yet say in contempt, A Fig for you" '* So," adds Mr. 
Steevens, <' in The Shepherds Slumber, a song published in Englands 
" Helidbn, 1614. 

" With scowling browes their folies checke, 

" And so give them the Fig-" 
This is all true respecting the Spanish Proverb ; yet I imagine, that Fig is 
directly taken from the Fvonus — ^the Fist, and not from a form of the 
Hand, resembling the Fig; as amone the Spaniards. Our ancient Play- 
Writers, not knowing the origin of the phrase, naturally referred it to the 
Spanish custom and proverb, which were then well known; But whatever 
be the origin, the fact, with respect to expressing contempt by the Hand, 
remains the same ; and it will serve to establish the Etymology, which I 
have given of the word Sport, I shall find it necessary in the next article 
to illustrate a passage in a Latin writer, where the subject of derision, as 
expressed by the Hand or Fingers; will be again resumed. 

I have 

: CBi CF, CP^ CV; &c/ 


«• • 



{{Gr.) iiuigence, in- 
dustry, &c. 

{{Gr.) To urge a work, 


V to hasten, &c. 

(Gr,) To apply to 

SpouDAZo.-^any tiling with diJi- 

:ence,. ardor, &c. 


Spoubaios. ^ 

(Gr.) Industrious, 
earnest, serious, ar- 
dent in any busi- 
ness or pursuit. 

Spbrko. { (Gn) To hasten, press, to 
Sperksi. (.urge with vehemence. 



(Eng,) Dispatch in any 

(Sax.) Haste — the effect, 
product— prosperity— the 
means, power, facuUy of 

doing any thing — a por- 
tlon— a model— diligence. 


I nave proved in page 276, that 
Kopas (Kewc») and Lobar belong to the 
KP and LB, tlie Hmnd; and I have 
suggested, diat Jdokthdi and pMOf, 
(MoxO^ and Tlwu Labor,) two other 
Greek terms with the same meaning, 
are derived from a similar source. 
After the illustrations, which I have 
given of <he Element PN, as relating 
to the Hand) the origin of Ponos vnll 
not be doubted; and I shall, in the 
course of the ptesent investigation, 
prove that Moithas is a word of die 
same species. The Greek Spoitde, 
(Smlii, diligentia, industria, solertia,) 
mi/ii^/y, must be referred likewise, I 
Imagine, to the SM>, liie Hand. Len^ 
nep derives SviwAt and Sm^ from TUv, 
agito, premo. Spoudb signifies, as 
they all acknowledge, gr^at diligence 
exerted in the performance of any bu- 
siness; and from dienceis derived die 
signification of haste or dispatch. (Ztm- 
fa^99i festino, 'propeft>. Xmilw, festino, 
propero,) The adjective SPovDaios 
expresses every thing, which can re- 
late- to a character of diligence and 
ind ustry — ardent — ^urgent — constant — 
serious — persevering — laborious in the 
employment, which he htti urtder- 
taken to perfonb. We diall find in 



various languages a race of words corresponding to this idea. Sperko, 
Sperkso, {Xirtfx^, lififj^u, urgeo, festino, propero) to press, urge, or hasten, 
is another form of'Spoude, Speudo, Speuso, (Ittw^w, Dttwo-w.) The English 
word Speed even the Etymologists have referred to Iwcv^w and ZiraJii. If 
we were inclined to investigate 5i priori the probable idea, from which 
terms expressing diligence or industry were at first derived, we should 
readily agree, that the Hands — tliose important instruments, by which 
the great operations of man are performed, would naturally have furnished 
the original idea. Sluichiess and dispatch in the w^ork— prosperity and 
success in the event, are the ordinary attendants and rewards of Iiidustry: 
and in these ideas are comprehended the various senses, which are ex- 
hibited in the preceding words. To Speed in our undertaking is a familiar 
phrase; but in the expression. To speed tvell or ill in a business, the term 
appears to be used for action in general. When the reader has already 
seen the race of words, which I have above shewn to be derived from 
SPTf Uie Hand; the ;Etymology, which I have now given, will surely 
be at least Teceiyed as a probable conjecture ; yet the evidence, which 
I shall now add, will at once remove all our doubts and difficulties on this 
occasion. The Saxon word, from which Speed is derived, does not ex- 
pressly signify the Hand; but it contains the vapious senses, which wc can 
conceive to be naturally derived from that source by metaphor or allusion; 
such as we actually find attached to the Latin Manus, either directly as 
a signification of the word itself, or in meaning, when connected with a 
phrasQ, .This Saxon term is Sped, the senses of which! shall detail in 
the order adopted i>y Lye. Festinatio is, according to that Lexicographer, 
the first sense of the word ; in which it coincides, as we pcrceiV^c, with 
the ordinary use of the English term Speed. - I have shewn, how readily 
tliis idea is derived from the Hand; and the reader will remember a 
passage jn Horace, where the bustling diligence of all hands at work, 

as we express it, is described by *' Cunctsi Jest inat Manus.'' In the second 

* . ■ ■ 

iM^nse^ it means " Eventus, cxitus, proventus,'effectus, fructus." That the 



CBr C F, C P, C V; ica 303 

effect or final pjoduct of any thing should be derived fronl the IIa7id — the 
efficient csmsey we shall not wonder; and in the third spnsc, ** Eventus, 
^* sive, Exitus Aonvs, /e/ir, sccundus, prosperitas;** we ar^e reminded of 
the same natliral combination of /^r^^joienVy and manual operations in the 
prayer, ** Prosper thou the works of our Hands — O prosper thou our 
*^ /ztfnrfy-owiFi;" as likewise in the Latin phrase ** Succedere sub manus* 
in the thind sense, 'We have every thi?ng, which can belong to the Hand: 
. *' Opis, modus, ratio, facultasy potentia, copia, visJ^the vieans, power, 
" faculty of performing ' attvy wbrk^'* Tlie fourth sensfe is *' Substantia, 
f' opes, victus, proventiia^the purpose and the.CQaseqiience of industry or 
the labour of our Mandij In thcf ftalms we find the same metaphor: 
^' ThoiA^^ sl>all^<w lii^ 7(rteji/' of^thy'//(/wrf^/'• ^TWd nWt ^nse, Pdrttti^' 
^Very t)iie win ttck««wtedgd, »« appropriate to. th^^distribu^^^^ 9^ 

H>e //i772rf; and m the is^ce^ sense, ** Principium, exemplar," we 
have the htodel-^thc chef-d'ceiivne of the forititrig Member. ^Ehe last sense, 
^' Diiigentitt,' stU(KtJm,^tAl^tiO'ai^^ l^asr been .alrejady. explained ; and 
iitne' shall ^^b« ddljpn^are/ Ui£^ term for the attention bf the Mi7id 

tirotild 9i|c66»dl t&at of labobiii]^ Mrith the //^nflfiU'^tnillie latin phrase, 
^ Maniindpe^\i\j^is^,*'*'^q haiv&^evdry icjea conyeyefl, wtiich. belongs to 
the most^ streiwdua eteMionsiiin tHephrformance of any wool, tn^shprt^ 
ih the 'tiMtt]^(m^' of 'every cP6et>uaM even in^ithe'figuiati've phrjbeology 
of •^rdiiiak'yiiabginigeV Jtto^jM-d«^^.^^ and.teijms for that member^ 

are perpeCuclllyus^'ih the tenses,, vjbtiich ate aniiexeii to tlie Saxon(SpE]>5> 
It is difficult with i^trchfabniidaiit €xa«i|)les before us to select a du/e portion 
of necessary' iUa^tn((|onliii I iWelpecceitwe that in these words. Sped — Spoude, 
&cci ' the v<r)ml brdathing^is ioisi^rted . b^G^veto i tix iast jofters r of (h« Jllem.eni 
StPD ^or SF]r; but inX^rman we find it appficd lietweea t|>e! j^(t. ,Ggri 
ScHAPFTE is their ap^opriate and ^miliar lerin'^for jui '/ Affair, business^ 
*f ocicupatioo." .iGe*ScuAFrT*ig agfiidesz' person .-ifiiBusy, ibugy'd, ,Ih»$5(. 
** at w6rk;l^taiid GeMSciKA'RFT<^^A«»< , is >likewise thus ihterpi;^Qd b?;r JUid» 
w^: "^ Ooiupatioft, business. edip}oytneil^ jagoncy; ^tictiyityi Migfii^^tt 
■^ "'• 4 1 "application. 



(Ger.) An affair, 
Gc'ScHAFFTEX business, occupa- 
tion. . 
Ge-ScHAFFT-ig, (Ger.) Busy. 

Ge-ScHATFT'igkeit.K Occupation, 

Skufts. (Goth.) Fasciculus. 
Skafft. (IsL) Manubritnn. 

(Eng.) A* measure 
SHAFTmen^ <of half a foot taken 

1 . * 

on the Hand. 

*• application, plying." It is surely 
not necessary in this stage of our dis- 
cussion to observe, that tlie German 
Sch is sounded as tlie English SH. 
Shaft, in the sense of a dart, which 
coincides in form with Schaffte, is di- 
rectly taken from iho IIa?id; as I have 
shewn in a former page (264;) and 
Lye derives tliis word from the Gothic 
Sk^^fts; which signifies, says he, 
** <5[uidvis, ut videtur, in fasciculum 
** coUigatum;*' but what is extremely 
curious, he produces a parallel Islan^^ 
word, that brings us at once to the very 
idea, from which, as I am labouring 
to prove, all these terms Ijiave arisen/- 
.^ Islandis," (says be,) " ^KAtTx Manvn 
*'. brinm dettotat." I have pro ted m 

• V (Eng.)theStcmorS&ck- '*^^ f^^^ ^^: (^640.that.5j.^^js de- 


V oE anjT; thing. '■. 
(Westmorelana Dialect.) 

A Gift. 


1 Tivedi from the SF, ,. the Hand; as 

Manipulus comes from Manus; and H 

^ought to have obsarved at the same 

time, that Fa^cw belongs to the Fist, 

In our word FAGGot the hardened form 

of the Element appear)?, as in Puks. 

Tvsris is the English Fist and the German Faust widi the Latin termina* 

tioin. Btit this is not all, which I am able to produce in support of my 

liypothesisy that Sfu^t-^^Schaffte, &c. are originally derived from the 

b t find ill SkiDher, *f* SAii/menf, vel iSAo/he^ vox nautica. AbA.S. 

mJ^ This Half-foot we must own, savoui^s strongly 
^iSToiu/; yet ev^n with this evidence I 


^ • 

CB, CF, C P, C V; &c/ 307 

unwilling to be contented. I shall therefore finally arrest the conviction 
of my reader, by producing the following article from the Dictionary of 
Edward Phillips. -^ SHAFrmtnt. A kind of measure, of ai^^ut half a foot, 
*' commonly taken on a Hand of the largest size, from the >top of the 
" Thumb, held out straight, to the lowermost .<x)mer of the Palm.'* 
This in my opinion is decisive. Skafft,, we lia^c secor signifies in Islandic 
Manubrium; and this is tlie sense either remotely oi^., directly of the word 
Shaft in English. Shaft is the ant>w — ddrt or boU)\hx9v^j[i w w!ii*l<Jed 
by the Hand. The Shaft of ah instrujnaentK-rwea^o^, .&c; mean? the 
straight or substantial part of it; which serves (or ^ the ff old or Jl^ndie. 

* • 

Thus the Shaft of a Chaise, the long straight piece of vvofld, .by which the; 
Horses arc attached to it, certainly conveys an idea of the Hold or Handle of 
the Carriage. It is afterwards applied to ol)jects, which dq not indeed always 
convey the ndtion of art) tfl^awrf/e,-^ but still the idea of a stout ;9r straiglpfc 
instrument ;— the main, substantial part of a straight formed object, held — 
holding. vr upholding, is ever involved in tlie meaning of the ^ord^j ^l^e^mp 
term exists ako.ta German, and the explanatio»,>^ich is gi^v^^ J^uc|wig, 
may serve! to ill ustirgte this .matter, '* ScpyvFT.,]-^ pHAi!>(r,^ Shank, or 
^*" Stock — the Shaft or Shank of. a Pillar," (I omit tlie German phrases) 
'* — ^The Shaft or Staff of a halberd or javelin — the Stock of a firc-ann 
•' — the ShiUikiPf » candlestick." ^e pei^giyCjtli?^^,^ word Stock k 

used in tl)i8 exp|lsinAtiQni/;aJid:tl|^cfS/d^ of a pillar, we |cniO>v, ^js^quaH^ 
familiar with* the Shaft. The Stock and the Stem convey ; a similar id^ 
to tliat which I have attributed to Shaft; and even in thesjs; the notion pf 
^n. Handle is spAVctim^s promin^Dt apiofig ^eir signifiq^o^Sp, . Bolt aijd 
Arrow, the J)arallfil' ternjs to iSA/j/jf, will be found to contain a kindred 
idea. '^ As, straight as an flrrda;— pas i«prigh| .^s a. p^lt^^'i isythe 4fzi^^ 
formed 5/i^/< , rising up erect from Jt^,bafii$, Bokf^^hiiPfil^—^fi^los, (b^ao^,) 
belonging to PAL?aj* — the Vola of the Hand.^U close th}s article by 
producing anotheriitoord^ .with, a very diffcreivt ipeaoing^. tln^ug^ deif^ved 
from the saide 0<^rc€;i corr^spondiiJg^in;fo^j«^^ 




SpOi>, ill the Westmoreland Dialect, signifies what is most appropriate to 
the Hand— 3. Gift, " A good Spud," (says Mr. Grose, in his Provincial 
Glossary) ** a good gift or legacy/' . If we represent the Element by 
CPD or CFT, and consider that C in our language performs the office of 
S and K, (as City — Cap, quasi, Stty — Kap,J we shall perceive that Spud 
(^C/iwrf^ is only another form of Gift (Cift.) Junius represents the parallel 
terms to our word Give by the V Goth. Giban — ^A. S. Gyfan — ^Al, Geban, 
*^ Keban, Kispan—Cim. At Giefa — ^D, Gijffue — B, Geven.'* In the succeed- 
ing article I shall proceed to confirm tlie observations, which I have here 
advanced, by shewing, that other Elements, bearing the same meaqing, 
have furnished a race of words, impregnated with a similar idea. 

U ' 

/ . 

. .•.' . 

■■ I 

MK, the Hand, 

Having endeavoured to prove that 

- - • •- ^ • ^ - - - SpQudt {ifT^^^KopOS (Ko*-ec)-^P(»iai 

Mi>ktkos:{GrJ)ljdb(!k. : * (HoUr) and Xtf^r are derived from the 

Maki. {^T.y Pugna-^^ Fight:' Hamd; I shall now shew that MoXr> 
M A * f (Gr.)'thetoordrtraft" thos (Ma^H Labor,) hi us* be refeired 

T - of tJi*' • ' likewise to the same origin. The Ele- 

ment MK has siippKed. a variety ctf 
words belotiging to the 'Hand, ft is 
of no^onsequeflce with te^pett to the 
fact; whether we chusfe to consider it 
as a separate radical, or as another form 
of Bys, Bez, the Fist, Pugnus} &C;^ 
by the familiar chahge 6f B^ E,. Scc^ 
Jnto IMP. '■''W& mustfeVer keep itt;*iind, that in' the Dialects of the Cehie 
these letters are perpetually changed into each other ;- so^^haC.iR ^liiFereot 
cases or constructions of the sime word, as Pen, the Head, we find jBra^ 
Mheh,i^> Pkm. But if W^- W re^ugnaftt to allow this familiar- change^ 
^t^U H^h^ must W^re^edfo the JiF«?uf, vnder -the fbttn o^'MK,: aswci 
• ' find 

-ofth*' : • 

Mechanic . 

Make. (Eng.) Mticdhy{X,S.) v 
Mackm. {Genei.) " ■ .'-ii'l - * 
Musht. (Pers.) The Fist. ' ' • 
Mash. (Eng.) Masso. (Gr.) Piiiso. 
Mock, Moqucr. (Fr.) Mokao.^\Gt.) 

. C B, > C F, C P, C V, ice. 1 ao^; 

find it in the Gri&ek Make, {Uax^^ pugm) ?l fight; which we acknowledge 
to t)elong to the Pugnus and the Fist. But the sense of tliis Element, as 
relating to the j9ir7t(/, will be placed out of iall controversy, when we re- 
elect that the appropriate term in Greek for the instrument or die operation 
of the Hand is Mechane (Mux*wi, Machina, instrumentum, artificium) 
— the tool, or the cr^< of the Mechanic The verb for performing the 
operations of the Hand-^^MniLAikaoniai {lAnxfl^^^fJM, MacIiingr) appeanf 
in English under a simpler form, corresponding with Mokthos — the attend- 
ant Labor. This word is Make, which passes through the various dialects 
of the Teutonic — as in the Anglo Saxon Macan — ^the German Machen, &c. 
Our Etymologists are aware that these words have some relation to Mn^awi, 
M«x«f, Mo^Jrw} though, as ' we may imagine, they are totally in the dark, 
r^pecting the name for the Hand. We have seen the Persian word for 
ih^r^ist, MusHT, (jxige 272;) under which form it coincides with our 
term Mash and the Greek Masso (Mwrtru), pinso;) where the reader will 
again note in Pinjo the poundi«^ — the pinchiw^' (or kneading) with the: 
PNS, the Hand. With respect to the origip of the word Mock— the 
Qreek Mof^ao {Mtmm^, irrideo,) and the French Moquer, it is not easy to 
determine ; as we are ignorant of the peculiar turn in the signification, 
wJt^ich these words originally conveyed. If MQ)xa» was at first applied to 
t)iose Mocka-s, *' qu\ ore vultuque distorto, et valgis labiis aliquem deri- 
V dent/' it is derived from BKor MK, the 'Mouth; but if thi$ wais aot 
the original idea, I am unable to refer it to any other source than that of 
MKt the Hand. In this case, it will coincide with tlie idea, which I 

have attributed to the WQfd iSgM^r/. 


That Fiifso is derived from the Hand or Fino^^ will be fully evident, 

when we remember, that Pinso is the Latin word for a species of insylt 

performed by the Fingers, a^ in the well-known lines of Persius. i , 

" O Jane, a tergo quern nulla c/coma pin sit 

'* Nee manus auricula? imitata est mobilis albas, 

<< Nee linguas, quantum sitiat canis Apula, tantse.*' (Sat. 1. v, 58.&C.) 

4 k This 



PNS, PS, BK, tlie Hand. 

Pinso. {iMt.) To pointy as in " Cico- 
'* niajE^in^/Valiquem." The Hands 
*' jpoiVi/ at any one." 

r(Lat.) A Handful of 
P^ftsum. < wool, &c. a task, a piece 

(of work enjoined. 
Pinso. (Lat.) J To knead as 
Piso. (Lat.) (bread. 
Pisior. A Baker* 
BeL (Phryg.) Bread. 

• ♦ 

A-Gosto. {Gr,) f The Fist. 

Gusto. (GipB.) i 

Cast. {To throw or to form.) 

This passage is not without its diffi* 
culties, but the general aense is suffi- 
ciently inteBigiWe. Janw, who can 
see behind as well as befoiie, is coii« 
gratulated that he is not exposed to 
those mocks and derisiofis, which are 
played on others by persons behind 
their backs. ''You, Janus," says th«^ 
Poet; '' are not derided behind your 
back by the fingers bent into the 
form of a Stork's beak — nor by the 
^ Hand on the forehead, imitating the' 
*' ears of an asd — nor by the Tongue^ 
hanging out of the fnoutfa, as that 
of a thirsty dog.'* " Tria in*ist<K 
" num,'* (say the Commentatorsi) 







^* vel Bannarum genera ponuntur. Primum, Manu dcomam signifioare/ 
Secundum, appositoad tempora pollice asininas aures denotard« T^erduilir 
linguam sitientis canis imitari." — Ciconia : '^ Refer hoc ad digifm ^' 
" modum rostri ciconini coactos:"— " PiHSEtEest avium, dum rofttnmf' 
'' alicui rei crebro impirfgunt, et crebrd adi^tiidperoirtiUnt; ab antique 
*• verba />^Wl^ id est, ferio, unde Pistor et PisiiUuttiV' That'Plfti^* 
signified to Peck is cei^in ; and probably Perskis might su|^K)dfe, < that somfe'* 
such sense was annexed to the proverb ; yet I imagine, tl>at Persius 
received the word, attached to the allusion whitoh he producefe^j and ttiat 
it was the appropriate term belonging ^ to the metaphor from the time of 
its original formation. Pinso therefore signifies te FifNOcr or Po'iKr at; 
and Ciconia Pinsit means, that the Hand, made up in the form of a: 
Stork's bill, points at any one in a contempt\ious, scornful manner. 
This is probable; but this is not all, which I am able to advance oh the 
pr^^nt occasion. AmoQg the earlier Latin writets^ though Pinso is 


CB, CF, CP, CV; kc. 311 

applied, as among the moderns, in the general sense of ^ beating or 
* bruising/ as derived from the actions of tlie Hand; yet in some cases, 
they apply it to certain actions, in which it more particularly reverts to its 
original signification. Varro observes, ^* Ennius in terram cadentes dicit 
*^ cubitis piKSBBAKT humum :" They embraced or Pinched the ground 
with their arms ; for such is the meaning of the phrase, if a passage in 
Homer produced by Scaliger, as parallel, duly corresponds with the ex- 
pression of Ennius. The Greek Poet describes a warrior falling, and seizing 
the ground with his Fist^ When I use^he word Fist^ I mean to expresB^ 
that the term in Homer^ signifying the Hand on this occasion, is our 
familiar word Fist, t must repeat however the observation, which I have 
perpetually been compelled to bring fo^fvmrd, that the sounds of G and V 
or P, F, W, are sometimes blended with each other, and sometimes are enuo« 
ciated separately ; so that the same word appears- in these different forms^ 
when it is written in different languages^ Thus Guerrp in Frendi is fVof. 
in English; and the WtUh are the Gmtlet — the GalU-r^Ctlt^^^Btlga^ &c# 
The passage lA Homer pfx>duced by Scaliger is the following. :. n 

The Word for the Hand is a-Gosr-^ (Ayosm, interior pars ' ^manuum, 
vola;) where we must observe, that the a is thef repreeeixCatioii of some 
article, <>r Ivfletisive particle, and that Gost is die £i8t« The Q;in this 
Histafnce h^ pass6.d • iiito^ the F; as^ we he^otesBW OvAUfti (i^oXo^, vokr 
manus;) beoohie VOLifir and VALome. It is euriow, chat this Homeric 
form fbr the jP«sr> a» it might be in one of its teases. Go sto, precisely 
^rrespond^ with the representation, which Grellman gives us of the word 
for the jRwkgfW' in the Gipsey language, Guzhdo^ Gu«to (page 273;) 
Wedhall^ease 46 Wrider at this fbttii of Gost0-^Gu$M, or, as it might 
have beeh, Costo and CusTo, for the Hwki <x Fist j when we remember 
in English -and in Latin two words under a similar form, conveying 
ideas most a|>propriate to the action^ of that tiiember — Cast (to tktwv J 
ind CAsrigo{ix^ cnAM'sise.y Cas^t^ iiiaiioth^tr sSgfiificaitimi^ is ^ipplied to an 



operation of the Hands, very different from the former. The phrases " To 
" Cast the likeness of a person — ^To Cast, as in a mould, for a model-*— 
" The Cast of the features," &c. contain, we perceive, the precise notion^ 
which we might imagine k priori would be derived from the forming 
powers of the Costo or Hand. We shall perpetually trace the same idea 
under the same form. From these observations the original sense annexed 
to Pinso will, I trust, be manifest, which in its ancient form, say the 
Critics, was Piso, corresponding with Pistor; where we again see the 
same change, as from Fingers to Fist. That our word Baker belongs to 
PiSTOR will not, I think, be doubted ; and it will now be understood, that the 
Oi:iginal idea is that of kneading with the BK or PS, the Hand — the Vvonus 
H^r the Fist. The French Boulanger is derived from the BL and '^NG, 
the Elements for the Hand. It is not,, as Menage imagines, indubitably, 
formed from '^ Pollis-^Pollenta — Pollentia — Pollentiarius-^^Bov LAh^GKK.'^ 
He adds with triumph, " Cette Etymologic est indubitable." Lye ventures 
to refer Bake to tlie Phrygian term for Bread — Bek, as we learn from the 
well-known story recorded by Herodotus. That the Pinso however 
indubitably belongs to the Hand, will be manifest, when we remember the 
senses of Pensum. This word signifies, '* *• A handful of; wool or flaXt 
•* yarn, thread, spun. •• A task, a piece of xvotk enjoined. ^* A charges 
** work>. undertaking, an office, an exercise.*' I could not haye in-, 
vented terms more appropriate for the confirmation of my hypoth^is^. thasi 
those, which I find detailed in our ordinary Lexicons. f Task isi dedvH:e4 
likewise from TS, the Hand. The Etymologists derive Pcnsuta ^ i£i>a% 
Pendo, to Weigh, signifying the quantity of wool, yam^ &c. weighed qnt 
to the Spinner. I have observed in a former page (25 8,) that the Element 
PN or PNT signifies an enclosure or coi\finement ; , znd I h^ve illu^trate4 a 
race of words, derived from the general idea, without deciding on the 
species of hold or enclosure, from which certain terms were immediately 
derived. We may now, I (trust, in this advanced state of our discussion,^ 
confidently determiiie .on the peculiai: ; idea^ from which various words of 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. SIS 

^is race are immediately deduced. PENDeo certainly belongs to the con-- 
.finemefU or hold of the PNT, the Hand; and from hence it signifies to 
** HANO on, at, to, or about any thing/' We perceive that Hang is 
itself likewise the Hand or the Hank. Having decided on Pmdeo, to 
Hang 9 we shall readily comprehend why Pbndo signifies to weigh; and 
with respect to its sense of paying, two causes would operate in producing 
this signification. It is well known, ais I before observed, tliat in the 
earlier times, payment was made by weight; and we may now add, that 
to Pay is one of tlie actions most appropriate to the distributive faculty 
of the Hand. In coincidences of this nature^ we could only be decided 
in our judgment by an example of its signification, immediately con« 
nected with its original meaning. Perhaps we shall be inclined to consider 
the Hand as the most probable idea, when we remember diat our word Pay 
'^Payer, is derived from the PG or PK, the Puks — the Fist. The truth 
of this Etymology is established by the form under which Pay appears in 
the Italian and Spanish languages, FAoare — a^AQore. Junius refers this 
word to the Dutch Payen, which signifies, says he, placare; and Skinner 
derives it from the Latin Pacare^ satis£icere. We perceive tliat the I^tin 
Pace, whose first sense is that of ' subduing or bringing into subjection,' 
belongs to the power of the Puks — tlie Fist; and with respect to Pax, it 
18 impossible to determine, for want of ^camples containing its original 
sense, whether the idea of the Hand, imposing peace, (bringing into quiet 
peaceful subjection) or of the Hands joining or covenanting for the purpose 
of peace, supplied the original idea. Whatever our doubts may be with 
respect to these words, there can be no difficulties arise concerning the 
origin of Pactio — Pactum^ and Pacifcor^ the terms relating to a covenant 
or bargain. Even our ordinary Lexicons will afford us perfect; satisfaction 
on this head. " Paciscor,'' (say they,) '* To covenant, bargain, agree. 
** ■• To come to terms: To give or rbceive." These, we. see, are not 
only the appropriate actions of the Hand, but even the very words arc 
used (Give — re-CEiVE) which we have proved to b^ derived from GV 

4l or 



6r CV, the Hand ifself. Vft now txiay and<mtand die reason, why Pactmm 
signifies * a ccmthict or cofetiant;* and in the Ahlative, * the mode or 
' manher-^Eb pdcto fit/ kc. itc Eren the Etymologists allow^ that 
Manner is derived from Manus. Skinner eitf^ins Mminer by the Lata 
Gtstus, which is assuredly a word derived from the same source, and 
hearing the same form, as the Greek a-Gosr^s {AyntK^ man us)— die Fut. 
Laurentius Valla defines Gtstus by ^' Actio qu^dam et qmsi pronunciatio 
** corporis;" and Robert Ainswotdi, that useful and, I may add, accurato 
interpreter, explains it by '* '* Gesture, or motion, and carriage of the 
body ; demeanour, behaviour. ^ A making of signs." Gestw meais 
To shew joy, or desire, by gesture of body ;" and Gestkuicr signifies 
^ To make sport, by strange ^e^fir^ and postures^" TheGBSTnnE of the 
body here described was originally taken, I imagine, from the mimic 
motion of the Hands. The primary idea of another word belonging to 
this r^iCt^-Gesto, *^ To bear or carry," will be evident from the phnae in 
Terence — •^Gestare in mmibus;*^ and it will now be fully understood^ 

that GfiSTA exploits or atchievements wt the < mttnu ge8ta*-~4he feats of die 


6-GoBTos or GusTo-^e Hand. Here again we most mark the woni Fmis^ 
the performances of die Fist. This origin of Gestus, &c will be confirmed 
by the signifioation of a similar word in our ancient Poets* The woidi 
occurs in the Poetns t>f Rowley, and signifies brandishing with the Handf 
to which an idea likewise is annexed of a wild, ]m|>as8ioned motion, such at 
We find attached «o liie gestures of exhibition. 

»^ When Freedom, dreste yn blodde-steyned veslte. 
To e verie Knyghte her warre-songe sui^e, 
Upponne her hedde wyMe wedes were spredde, 
A gorie anlace by her honge, 

^ She daunced onne the heathe ; 
'* She hearde die* voice of deathe. 

'^ She sihooke the buried speere, 

*' On hie she jestb lier sheelde ; " Her 


'^ With a geaunt with hedes three, 
" For paramour and jolitee, 

'* Of one that shone ful brighte. 



'* Do come, he sayd, my minestrales 

'' And OESTOVRS for to tellen tales 
'* Anon in min arming, 

*' Of romances that ben reales, 

** Of popes and of cardinales, 
" And eke of love-longing/* 
Sir Thopas calls on his Mmstrels and Gestours to make him ^ game and gle/ 
by recounting interesting narratives, which were no doubt accompanied 
with all the graces of mimic exhibition adapted to the nature of the story. 
Mr. Tyrwhitt elucidates the signification of Gestawr in this passage of 
Chaucer by a parallel use of the word in the verses of an old -writer; and 
adds, " I cite these lines to shew the species of tales related by the ancient 
*' Gestours; and how much they differed from what we now call /ei/er/' 
(Tyrwhitt's Chaucer, vol. 4. p. 319.) This is true; yet we learn from 
hence the original meaning of our word Jest; and perceive how the 
ordinary term, expressing merriment or raillery in general, is derived from 
the mimic motions of the Hand; and this will be an additional confirmation 
of the Etymology, which I have before given of the word Sport. The 
readers of our ancient Poetry will now be enabled fully to understand the 
meaning of the word. Get, which signifies in Chaucer, " Fashion, ' be- 
" haviour." Mr. Tyrwhitt rightly refers it to the • French Ge^fe; which 
is explained by Cotgrave, "Gesture, fashion, behaviour, carriage, de- 
^' meanor; also a making of signes,or countenances; a motion, or stirring 
" of any part of the body/' This sense of Get or Gate perpetually occurs 
in the Scotish Poems. It is curious however, that in the present meaning 
of this word we are brought again to its original jsignification of a motion or 
GSSTURE in the bodyt— ^ What a strange Gait be has!' It will now 


C B, C F, C P, C V, ice. 


be understood that th:e French Jeder 
and the Italian Gettare arc terms derived 
from the same source ; and the Etymo- 
logists have duly seen, that JctteVt 
whicii in Old French was written Jecter, 
belongs to Jacto and Jacio; which we 
perceive arc likewise to be added to 
this race of words. Scaliger deduces 
Jacio from I"» «x,»(» mittere dolorem; 
and Martinius imagines, tliat the origin 
of the word is to he found in 6>a and 
, ((OldEng.) To play a part mtxt^i*. JacvLor is a compound, in 

( in a mask. which the LC bears tliesame meaning 

Cestour K*^'*^ ^"SO ^ Player or as in Couaphts. The same Element 
i Mimic relating stories, likewise is found in GesticvLor, and 
for the same reason. This coinci- 
dence will tend to establish my Ity- 
pothesis respecting the origin of Gestus 
— Gesture, &c. From tliis idea of fan- 
tastick motion in the body is derived 
the signification of our ancient terra 
Jet. In the Twelfth Night this word 
m applied to the ridiculous gestures of Malvolio. — " Maria. He has been 
" yonder in the sun, practising behaviour to his own shadow, this half 
" hour: observe him for the love of Mockery.^/fli/a«. O peace! Con- 
" templation makes a rare turkey-cock of him ; how he jets under his 
" advanced plumes!" (A. 2. S. 5.) " To jet," (says Mr. Steevens) *' is 
" to strut, to agitate the body by a proud motion." This is a very exact 
explanation of the term* as it occurs In our ancient writers. Shakspeare 
has applied the word with singular force and propriety in a passage of 
4 M Cymbeltiie ; 

P*^' PG- {the Hand. 

GS. GT, or GST, * 

PagarCf "i 
ApagAie, /To pay. 
Payer. J 

Pas, Paco, Paclio, Paciscor, 

Gettare, Setter, Jacio, Jacto. 
Gestus, Gesture, Gestio, Gesticuhr. 
Gesta. |(^^*-) '^'^Ploi's, quasi, 
^vianu gesta. 

Geste. (Fr,) Gesture, fashion. 
Get, Gate. (Old Eng.) Way, fashion. 
Gait. (Eng.) CaiTiagc of the Body. 

/ (Old Eng.) To agitate tlie 
Jet. J body by a proud fantastick 





Cymbeline; which, in my opinion, contains a grandeur of imagery 
and a splendour of diction unrivalled in the records of human genius : 
So rich and gorgeous a tissue was never woven in tlie loom of Fancy ! 
" A goodly day not to keep house, with such 
" ^Vhose^oof'3 as low as ours! Stoop, boys: This gate 
*' Instructs you how to adore the heavens; and bows you 
** To morning's holy otlice: tlie gates of Monarchs 
" Arearch'd so high, tiiat Giants may jet througli 
" And keep their impious turbands on, without 
" Good morrow (o Uie Sun." (A. 3. S. 3.) 


C B, C F, C P, C V. &c. 


Caput. (Lat. 

KuBE. (Gr.) 
Kefale. (Gi 


The Head. 

Capillus. (Lat.) 

Giv — KiAV, 

. (Celt.) j 

The Hair. 

Ir(Eng. &c.) A promontory 
(. or the /op part of a coat. 

I Gebha. (Heb.) A HUl. 

I GBH. To be high, &c. 


j Jeba 

Tur. (At.) A mountain, 

GiBRALTBR, quasJ, 


AL. ) 

(At.) A mountain. 

The due course and order of these 
enquiries now compel mc to examine 
another portion of my subject; and I 
quit with rehictance the investigation 
of a great race of words under various 
Elements derived from that important 
member, the Hand, which would af- 
ford an ample and interesting theme of 
Etymological discussion. I shall now 
therefore proceed to illustrate tliat sense 
of the Element CB, which I have de- 
tailed in the third article of my general 
explanation — ^To be raised high — 

to be eminent the top the 


The first term, which naturally 
presents itself as belonging to this race 
of words, is Caput; and the reader 
will perceive that I have applied me- 
taphorically a term derived from this 
very object, as the most appropriate 
and expressive, which I could discover 
on the occasion — Uie Head. There 
are various meanings belonging to the 


Element, which accord with our conceptions of the object; whether we 
consider its form, office or situation; and we shall find it difficult to imagine 
ally train of ideas more adapted to supply the name for this distinguislied 
part of the body, than that which I have exhibited in my general expla- 
nation of the Element CP. The metaphors, which are universally 
acknowledged to be formed from this source, will unfold to us the 
train of ideas, from which the term itself was originally derived. In the 
Etymologists we find Kof*, KsfotAn and KuCyi, among. the words from which 
Caput is supposed to have arisen. Varro imagines, that it is so called, 
** quod inde' initium capiant sensus et nenri." Martinius is of opinion, 
tliat the word should rather be deduced from the Hebrew CPP (*)D3) 
cuwOrCf inclinare. ^' Est enim,'" says he, '' globosum et aptum, ut infiecti 
" et converti queat. Syris MB3** (CPA) " inclinare. KM" (CPA) " Arab. 
'^ colhim, cervix, et iiide quoque est xut7civ, caput inclinare, xvCv, Caput, 
'^ xuCiraf, in caput se conjicere, xvCuC^', o xa7aucu4«f/* That Kube and the 
first part of KsFa/e (KtiCn, RifaXn) belong to tlie CP in Caput cannot be 
doubted. In Kube the term exists in its simple state, except only by the 
addition of the Greek termination. In Kefale there is another significant 
part — the FL in Fale; which, if I mistake not, will afibrd us a curiousi 
subject of investigation. 

I must remind the reader of a familiar observation ; which will ever 
prove a sure and faithful guide to direct our enquiries in the apparent 
labyrinth of lanjB^ages. We must always remember the mingled sound of 
GW or GV; and expect perpetually to find a race of words under each of 
these forms applied to the same or similar objects. The ordinary instance 
will sufficiently impress us with this general fact— Gfluto — Galli — Welsh 
Belga — Celta, &c. &c. In the dialects of the Celtic, we find Koll, and 
in the Persian, Kelle, (aJl/) as the name for the Head. If we suppose 
therefore that the mixed sound of G WL or GVL prevailed in this instance, 
we may have GL or KL for the Head in one language, and VL or FL 
in another; and what is extremely curious, we may thus account for a 



CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 


Roll (Celt.) 1^,^^ jj^^j 

KtlU. (Pers.) ) 

OmlhU (Celt.) The Hair. 

Galea — Galenis. 

GLB. (Hcb.) A Barber. 

Calvus—Kahl. (Ger.) Bald. 


V Go/gotha. 
GLD.(Heb,) The Skin. 
Bleo, Folt, &CC. (Celt.) The Hair. 
Pilus, Vellus, Pellis, Fleece, Fell, 
Pelt, Felt, Villus, Wool, Oulos. (Gr.) 
BHL. (Heb.) Hairy. 
Bel. (Gips.) Hair. 
Hallos— 'Melon. (Gr.) 
F%, Pull, Pluck, Velio, Vulsi. 
Vellico. Peel. Bald. 
PUez,Moel, Maol.(Ce\t.))^ j , 
^>Ffl/akros.'(Gr.) ) 

Pileus. Pelex. (Gr.) An Helmet. 
Falke. (Gr.) Matted Hair. 
Flax. Floccus. {Lat.) 
Falas. (Gr.)The top of tlie Helmet. 
Poll. (Eng.) The Head. 
Polos. (Gr.) The Top. 

variation of form in the name of this 
very object — the Head, under another 
Element, in the great dialects of tlie 
Celtic — the Irish and tlie Welsh : Cean 
and Pen are the forms^ under whidi 
the name for tlie Head appears in these 
languages; and the idea, which I have 
here suggested, will explain to Major 
Vallancey a known and established fact ; 
which on the first view may appear 
strange and unintelligible. •' Mr. 
Lhwyd" (says Major Vallancey) 
observes that many words whose 
initial is P in the British, begin with 
" C in the Irish : as praid, wherefore, 
*' Welsh, cread, Ir. Prj/v, a worm, W. 
" Cruim, Ir. Prenn, a tree, W. crann, 
" Ir. Pen, a head, W. Cean, Ir." 
(Grammar of the Iberno-Celtic, 25. 
ed. 1st.) Though I might not be able 
to produce an instance of the appro- 
priate term for the Head under tlie 
form of BL, &c. yet it would suffi- 
ciently account for the existence of BL 
or FL in X-^falc, if I should lay before 




tlie reader a race of words for a very 
important appendage to tlie Head; in which this Element is conspicuous. 
That Capillus must be referred to Kefalc we shall not doubt ; nor shall 
we hesitate to acknowledge, that the Pil and the Fal in these two wordsi 
were derived from the same idea. The connexion between Capillus and 
KifaU is not seen by the Etymologists; though it is curious that Isidorus 

4 N has 


has by accident fallen on the race of words, to which the PL and FL 
belong. Capillus^ says he^ is '^ quasi capitis pUus.*' Some of the Celtid 
names for Hair arc, '' Bheuyn pen, 6UALHT-«-BLeu an pedn — BLOh'-^io 
** — FOLT — Kiav.** Let us consider these words with some attention; 
and we shall not fail to discover the secret clue, which will guide us 
through the enquiry. In BLeuyn-^BLeu — blco — polt,. and the Latin 
TiLtis, we trace the origin of fil and fal in capillui and keFALc; but 
in the word Cvalht we have a representation of the very mode in which 
one form passes into the other. As the sound of the G prev^iled^ we find 
the Cehic Koll znd the Persian Kelid, for the Head; and as the enuriciatiott 
of the U or V |)redominated, we have the BL, FL, in Bheuyn — blcu, &c. 
It must be added, that in Giv and Kiap we perceive Caput and Kub^ (K»6i.) 

The connexion is obvious and natural between the Haa^ 
pf the Head and the s/utggy coverings or skins of animals composed 
of Hair or Vesembling it; and hence we have Vellus — P£lli> — iht 
FLeec^-^TKhh or PfiLT — ^Felt, &c. The Latin Etymologists imagjne# 
that Fellus is derived from Velio; because the earlier method of taking off 
the wool vf^ pulling and not shearing. Vellus, says Isidorus, '^zveltendOp 
*' quod prius lanae vellerentur.** Velio is itself deduced, according to the 
same Etymologists, from B«xm and Tiaxw* We have seen that KL, PL or VL 
is the Element, which supplies a great race of words relating to the 
Hand; from which Velio and terms of that nature appear to be immediately 
derived. The same Element, we see, is applied likewise to the Skim of 
Animals, with which the idea of stripping by the Hands is at once connected; 
and it is extremely difficult in coincidences of this nature to decide on the 
peculiar notion, which preceded in the formation of the words. I must 
be .contented therefore to detail the fact, without jn-esuniing to decide on 
the original notion. Villus the Etymologists acknowledge to belong to 
Vellus ; and Skinner has seen that the word Wool comes from Vellm or 
VUhu; to which they rightly annex Oulos and J(mlo$f (OuxOf, lftA0>«) 
Xift produces on this occasion the Welsh word for Wool-^-^iwlan ; which 



CB, CF. CP, CV, &c. 


we perceive to be a compound of tiie term Wool and the Latin LxNtf. 
The Greek Malloj (m«w«, Vellus) is only Fcllus or Wool under anotlicr 
form by the ordinary change of letters belonging to the same organ; am! 
MfiLon (MnXm, ovis) the Sheep, is the animal, to wliich the Mallos is 
appropriate. Everardus Schcidtus, the illustrious commentator on John 
Daniel Lcnnep, infonns us that Melon is indubitably derived from die 
sound Mec, Mee. " Haud duljie a sono |un, fw." Tlic terms for stripping 
dff the Hair or Skin must be enumerated with this race of words, Flav 
or Flea — Peel — Bald, &c. &c. The Etymologists derive Flay from 
Floizo («\ot^u> decortico;) and it is probable that the action has been 
transferred from the animal to the tree. Bald has been assigned to the 
Greek V Ai-akros, {^»\i*.^iiu Calvus;) and whatever be the precise import of 
Fal in this compound, it certainly belongs to the race of words, which 
form the object of our discussion. In Celtic, among the terms for Bald 
1^{\A" Pilcz, Moel, Maol;" and tlic familiar Celtic substitution of the 
M for P, visible in this instance, will establish the connexion of Mallos 
with Villus, Pilus, and Pellis. As Bald appears under a form, where 
the B is predominant in the mingled sound of Gvalfii; so in the Latin 
Calvus the enunciation of the G prevails, as wc find it in Koll and Kelle. 
By the Etymologists Calvus is derived from CapiUis vacuus — Irom Knfw, 
tondeo, or from aa^, albus, as ♦«A«xf^!^•, say they, comes from *(tA^, 
albus. Martiiiius has however recorded the German name for Calvus — 
Kahl; and he moreover rightly observes tliat GLB (n'7J)' signifies in 
Hebrew Vl Barber, GLD {l'73) likewise means in Hebrew, as Taylor ex- 
plains it, " Cutis, Pellis;" and we cannot but perceive the coincidence 
of this word with the "Welfih Gualkt; and how readily ihey resolve them- 
selves into the English Felt. That the covering for the Head — Galm, 
belongs to this race of words, I cannot doubt; and I strongly suspect, that 
as Gelca is to be referred to K<Ul or KeU6, so Kun«, (Kvwb, Galea,) the 
Greek term for the same species of defence, should be derived from Cean ; 
which wc have seen to be one of the Celtic names for the Head. There 


Cean. (Celt.) 

Kranon — Karenon. (Gr,) 

Cranium. (Lat.) 


are not wanting sufficient reasons for 
The the ordinary derivation of Kvw»i from 
Head, the Skin of the Ku«» or Dog; as Galea 

Crown. (Eng.) j. has been deduced from that of Gale^ 

Crinis. (Lat.) The Hair. (raXii> mustela,) the weazle. In coin- 

Kunee. (Gr.) -j cidences of this nature it is often diffi- 

C/nn-Bheirt. (Celt.) V A Helmet, cult to be determined in our choice; 
C9W0J. (Gr.)Thetopof) yet I cannot but observe tliat in the 

Kara. (Gr.) The Head. Celtic, CiNN-6Ac/rf is one of the names 

Korus. (Gr.) An Helmet. for an Helmet, which certainly means 

something belonging to the Cinn 
(Cean)— ^the Head; or, as we express it, *' A Head-P/Vc^." To this 
root wc must refer the Latin* Crinis, the Hair; which the Etymologists 
have been, pleased to derive from Sf iy», secerno. This likewise is the origin 
of our word Crown — ■■''The Crown of tlie Head.'' The term Crown 
is not metaphorical, but appropriate. It is frequently used by itself for 
** The Top 6f the Head'^j — Til crack your Crown; and so it is perpetu2tlly 
applied by the wiiters^ of die last age. The reader will be pleased to 
recollect the admirable description of Cibber, in 'his portrait of Underbill 
the player. ''A countenance of wood could not be more fixed tlian his» 
'/ when the blockhead of a character required it : his face was full and 
^' long: from his Crown to the end of his nose, was the shorter half of 
it; so that the disproportion of his lower features, when soberly com* 
posed, threw him into the most lumpish, moping mortal, that ever 
** made beholders merry." ' It is acknowledged, that Kranos (k^m^ 
galea,) another term for an Helnict, belongs to Kranon (K(cufop, caput,) the 
Head; which, together vixth Karenon, (Ko^oip, caput,) and Cranium^ 
words of the same, meaning, might be ultimately referred to the Celtic 
Cean. I suspect indeed that Kranon — Cranium, &c. are compounds 
formed of CR' and ""N; as we find a race of similar words in the simple 
0tate*f CR-r-KAica (KAPa, caput) and KoRt^ (KOPvo galea) an Helmet; 



:/CR CF, CP, CV, &c. 325 

CR In eVery language is ah height and an enclosure. Thus CRN becomes 
CN^ and under e^ . of . these . ibxms we find a series of words with the 
same meaning. In Old English the term for the ' Head' appears in its 
siinpkr formf as in Kma QtxCara. In the Merchant's second Tale, Cry 
sij^nifies the Hfod. ' i ^^ 

*V This Geflfrey stode upon a fourm, for he wold be sey, 

*' Above dl otliir tlie shuldris, and the Cry." 
. . ; , » - . .: > : J (Urry's Chaucer, page 619.) 

The * Shuldris 4itnd the Cr^ means, as the Authpf of the Glossary rightly 
observes, > the ^eorf. and the Shoulders ; though he is wrong in imagiping 
that Cry may be written for '* Creyn, Fr. Craive, Lat. Cranium, the skull ; 
** . the e and tlie. dash for n being omitted by the transcriber, . as well as that 
".;over**Sey at. the end of the foregping ve;:5e." iCry, we perceive, is in 
its simple^ genuine^ state. • u - i. : ^ 

It must be . remarked, that the existence , of the two forms, 
PL and GL, ia. terms cf this oiture^ is : singularly conspicuous in the 
fanuUar Latin Wo!ids)PiLft/s ztx^ ' GAherus. ; In! the Qreek P£Lex,..((itiAii& 
galea,) we diave another 'example of tthe PL, as;in .Ga^^cw of GL. y Pelex is 
a compound worjdv of>which ''X or "KS is a; portion. If the final S in 
tiie Latin words is not. ^ ineije termination, we may conceive it to represent 
the Et iu prf£Xl; whidi Jiowever certainly exists in /e^^ty—i/J^'^T?, (Qer.D 
r^in iour fafliiiiarj1*«W ;/2-Eecje: *nij, jWbat is. curious, in the Qre^ 
Jflr^iLR (*»?«ii) — th»t)\f haggy.jiW^ of die Hair, when it is foully matted 
ltogeth,er from disease, oi: negle?t, "* *«xxii,", says H,esycfeiyS, . */ f tw tofttit 
,«,* rnxj^'" Fi.Ocicyi^,the. reader; Nyill i^i^t^y.iackpowledg^tQ^ beleopg ,to 
tfcii».nace of >tQrjifc ; . 4n4 he : |](Kiy spiil;^ perhaps at the;.ipgcnip\is Etymo- 
Jl«Si?^ .whoiderjiv^jit .frii?to\f/a ,*; ; "i .1\\x<A]ay\ic^Jl^t^, impiBUhtir hue et illuc." 
ThatiF,Ai:.j»», (<^»x|^:je§nui5 g|ilea9»« crista,) the crest of t|ie Helinet, Ijelongs 
<Q.theP*roe w;e of.wqrd^ will now,-I: imagine,, be readily acknowledged; 
fto41«tiHH^J»ltqrF^t4tion.<)f this-t^m, C(M^.<K<w«^) bfipveylppked in 
oUf <!»qi*i^4< . iS9?¥>*iCV*^)(» SX|)l^ed;ty tbe,Tpnlina<y,iLejicqgraRhers, 
, ) 4 o «* Corpus 


" Corpus Mathematicum ex lato in acutum desineiis;" but by the same 
mode of popular illustration, it might have been interpreted •' ex lato in 
^« vcrticeni vel apicem desinens." 'Now the Vertex or Apex is the top — ^the 
Head, or in Celtic the Cean. I shall close 'these remarks on KefaU and 
Capillusj by producing the very word under the form of PL; which actually 
signifies the Head or the Crown of the Head, This word is POLL — *' All 
" flaxen was his Poll;'* where I beseech the reader again to mark in 
FLAxe« the FLEECfe — FLiTZ, &c. &c. Skinner observes that if he were 
inclinM to Greek ' Eiyriiologics, he should derive PoW from llox^. •* Si 
" Grsecus essem, nostrum Poll deducerem a On liox^. Caput et Capitis 
** vertex, sic diet, fortean quod vertebris impositum et coaptatum, instar 
" Sphaerae versatilis> iroX£*1«* (i. e.) vertitur, versatur et circumvolvitur.'* 
Surely the Greek Polos must belong to the great race of words^ which we 
see impregnated with the same idea ; nor can we hearken to the ordinary 
derivation of noXfii>, verto. As in the word Poll the name for the Head 
appears under the form of PL; so in Hebrew it is found under the form 
of GLu GoLgotha, we know^ is * the place of Sadls^' The name for 
the Scull, GL-GL/ (n^D'pi) appeal's to be formed by the doubling' of th^ 
Root GL; and the final / is only a mark of the feminine termination in 
substantitives. Scull is itself to be classed among the same race iof words. 
It IB not quasi dicas, ^ The Shell oi the Head;' no(tf is ;il delved from 
SKfXXi#» exicco, as the Etymologists imagine. The Hefolrew GL is to Poll, 
what GKhems is to Pil^!^« The student and the ^dept in that language 
may now understand, why BHL (^1) signifies Hairy y (2d. Kings, 1. 8.) 
and they will smile at the attempt of the Hebrew Lexicographers, who 
endeavour to reconcile the various significations of* the* words belonging to 
this Elenient with their imaginary sense of the original Root. *BHL, (•tjq) 
says Taylor, ^'Dominari: Dominum uxoris fieri : Ducere ukoretn, mari- 
*' tare. To own, or to have any thing, zsHair, Wings.'' We now readily 
understand, why BHL should signify '* to own or hzifeik shaggy or frizzled 
^* covering oiHaiir or Wings i'"^ yet surely nothing can exceed the ridicule 


..*r.^X > V*^5:'^ -•♦ 


: CB, CF, CP, C V, See ; 1 8«T 

(i(t an iitterpretation» which informs us that a certain verb signifies ^* To 
•* mon or to A/JW^^iy thing, as Hair, Wings," &cc. &c. The sense of 
Dominari belongs to the great name for 3fim— Baal, Chaldee, &c. and 
^e iid^ of ^t>rji^ a^nexeditlo tlie Element BL, will instantly remind th« 
reader of the fattiHiar terms Voiub^t^FL'Y-^FowL—.PLwwMr, &c. 

In Hebrew and Chaidee (nbi) GriiH (as Mr.;,Parkhurst and othei^ 
Hebrjeists wo«id represent it) signifies " To-5iunBe;V' and as:we can have no 
doubts, I imagine, respecting tlie connexion between die English Scutl 
and the Hebt*cw GL; so, I trust, we shall acknowledge, that anothet 
Englidi term with the same Element, which relates to the idea of taking 
off the Hair, must be referred likewise to the same race of words. This 
term is Scale, which in our ancient ' writers appears to be peculiarly 
applied to the tldnmng or takihg off the Hair^ In Th^ Honest Whore, by 
Tl^omas Dekkar; (1(504) Ft£i//^o recommends as an expedient t^ rouse the 
temper of the pallet Citizen, fo-^^ Make him drunk, and cut off hU 
*• beard.'' '* Fie, iit^'- (replie6 die- unsat^fied and adventurous^ wife) 
<^i Jdle^ idle : he's no Frenchman, - to fret at the loss of a. little sc a l'd Hair.*^ 
(Old Playsy vol. S^ p/25dl) Tlife Editpr explains? 5ea4f by ^^scattered dt 
^^ disper^d;'^ and he then rt^fers us to a^ ndftte of Mr. Steeyens' oo a passage 
ini3oriolanus, who obseyvee, ^at ** In the North, they say ScALft thies 
o corn, -i.e. *««ffer it i Scale, the muCk well/that is, spreud the dting 
''. well. The tw^ foregoing in^aticeS' are taken from Mr. Lambe's Notes 
^: on the old metrical histefy of FloddiM Field. Again, Holinshed, vol. 2. 
** p. 499. speaking of the retreat of the Welchmen during the absence 
•^ of Richard 2/«iys, * They would no longer abide, but aeAt£i> and 
'^ ^ departed away.' . In the Glossary to Gawin Douglas's translation of 
** Virgil, the following account of the word is given: 'Skail, Skale, 
^« ^ to scatter, to ^read, perhaps from the ¥r. escheveler, Itdl. scapigliare, 
** * crines passosy seu sparsos habere. ' All from the Latin capillus. Thus 
^^ ^ escheveler, $chnd, skailf but of a more genera) signification/ '' Now 
it is extremely <^uiious; tbatt'lahotlieriHefaitw Wofd wilh the same Element 





has precisely the same meaning, GLH (n^j) is the appropriate term in 
that language to express the most violent and calamitous action oi scattering 
or dispersing^ which can befall the Hiiman race. It signifies the dispersion oi 
a people by driving them from their own country 4ntP captivity. > It'ig the 
term universally adopted in Hebrew^ when we read in wx English transla-** 
tion of a people 'i going into captivity^— being carried into captivity— oi 
*^ carrying away captive/; :&cc. &€* This Elememt conveys the same idea 
in various languages. In Syriac, Ghja signifies, says Castle, " Captivus, 
*' exul, transraigrans;'* and among the. terms; which this Uexicographer. 
produces as parallel: to the Hebrew GLH, we have an Arabic word, which 
precisely expresses what Mr. Steevens has explained in hjs note to be 
the phraseology of the NortJx. JalIi means in Arabic, the ranoval or 
dispermn : of ii heap^-^ sand, gravel, &q. It is thug interpreted, by 
Ca?tle. JLH (xlb^)/' Abstulit, removitve e3C Jocp giaream, arenam, lapiH 
*^ , desve.'' \ This , is extremely singlilar, but wb»t iBjstiil more curious, in 
the sanje a^ti^!^ tliere « .is anothe? i woc^, which expresses \\\o falling off at 
thinningiof the Hair../ iJhlJhl^r^ anfcriore parte 

^\ dejluvium.'^' AgiiinVin: another pUcfe I. fi^nd, the.Arabi)c JLA and JLH, 
(Jcsfc. ^kXsil^) J 'f Dejlufiiim. Q^mm: ejc^ janteriore. c^tipitis parte usque ad vef- 
** ticem.'* The ne?c| Arabic WQnd iH Gastle to tl>e 4>rQQe^ihg i§ JLAj: (JAqt) 
whicji he exp>ins,by <' 4bst€X^iva,yisrr-M\gXf3k\iQ^^^^^ 
*/ lin(iatura:Wji/ftb/ofi»ii4.''(r>>Wje)lie^/p^ forge ofrthe Word*; 

^ndtthe ^dea^f thg,^^^^ and^^eVawlyAt^ remiftd3 u^ ^:our.iwofds Scalest 
and'ScAiiiJSG;: The ScALE$/6f a;r!isl!i)Oriof=a piecfe df> Metal, &c. tneian the 
rough, Qut'ward'. coverings -corriespanding with the ^^Atf^gy hair and rough 
skin of animals, which I haiye shewn- to be expressed by the Element; Mr. 
Gfipse explains Scal? by .;»« 3pread,;;as manure^ grwel,, or other loose 
'^" _Si|ai-e he interprets by ^' To pee/; perhaps ) to ^SAe/Z^ Also 
*' to slide down^ as th^ gide of a ba;ik." Shell isd, word- of the same 
species. It i? thq optit^eird, covering, of ^ny, thing; and. to, Shell is? to 
sejH^r^t^ ojT ; mf^m i il^»t ; w»e«i»gii)i ,^0 r«H#iflg * dow^: : of \th«r : bank atiH 


€ B, C F, C P, C V, &c. ^ 329 

conveys the same idea of dispersion. Sheal in another place^ he says, means 
to separate. (See Mr. Grose's Provincial Glossary.) Skale or Scille 
occurs in the Poems of Rowley with the precise sense annexed to it, which 
we have seen exhibited in the preceding observations. In the 3d Eclogue, 
the priest. Sir Roger, is introduced, directing his workmen in the business 
of the hay field. 

" The sweltrie sonne dothe hie apace hys waync. 
From everich heme a seme of lyfc doe fall ; 
Swythyn scille oppe thehaie uponne the playne; 
Methynckcs the cockes begynneth to gre talle." 
Chatterton explains Scille by Gather ^ and Millesby close up. The reader 
will now understand, that Scille expresses the operation exactly contrary 
to that of making into a heap. Scille signifies to scatter or spread; and 
Scille oppe means ' Spread ope or open the Hay upon the plain.' Chatter- 
ton and Milles have been deceived by imagining that Oppe answered to LTp. 
The sense of tlie next line, f Methynckes,V&c« I am unable to understand 
under any interpretation of the preceding words. I suspect that some 
mistake has been made, about which it is impossible to form any conjecture. 
The word Scille or Scyllye occurs again in another passage; whieh, though 
not perfectly intelligible, will at least afford an evidence for the meaning 
of the word. The attack of Freedom upon Power or Tyranny is described 
in the following manner. ' .* 

*' Harde as the thonder dothe she drive ytte on, 
Wytte scyllye wympled gies ytte to hys crowne, 
Hys longe sharpe speere, his sprcddynge sheclde ys gon. 
He falles, and fallyinge rolleth thousandes down." 

(Chorus to Goddwyn.) 
Chatterton explains Scyllye hy closely; and Dean Milles by rr/V/? skill; 
who reads moreover *' With Scill^ gewimpled," &c. that is, says he, 
covered and protected by Skill. Whatever be the precise meaning of the 
words belonging to this passage, we perceive that the general idea conveyed 

4 p is 




is that of. destruction or devastation, a sense altogether connected with the 
notion of scattering or dispersing. It is extremely difficult to determine 
the peculiar idea, from which Scale — ^Scill, &c, in the sense o( scatter 
or disperse, was originally derived. It may possibly be taken from the 
idea of 5A^i;/w^ the JSTwrf or Scull; as we know, that terms most expressive 
of devastation have been derived from this metaphor. The French word 
Raser will fully illustrate the force and energy of this figure. The fact 
however remains the same, that the Eleraient KL represents the Head or 
the top; and that it likewise signifies to scatter — disperse, or remove, as 
over or from a Surface. It is likewise peculiarly applied to the scattering 
or dispersion of the Hair on the SCULL. A Scald Head, which we 
perceive to be an appropriate phrase, the Etymologists refer to a Scaleu 
Head — * Caput squamosum;' and in Shakspeare there occurs a very curious 
passage ; which, I trust, will not foil to gratify the reader, if perchance 
he should be delighted to investigate the secret workings of the mind in 
the effusions of Poetic imagery; of which the writer himself was totally 
unconscious. In Troilus and Cressida the feats of Hector are thus 
described. " Anon, he*s there a foot. 

And there they fly, or die, like scaled sculls 
Before the belching whale.'* (A. 5. S. 5.) 

Mr. Steevens observes on this passage, that Scaled means " dispersed, put 
" to flight;" and that Sculls are " '^OT^numbers of fishes swimming 
*' together. The modern Editors not being acquainted with the term, 
'* changed it into Shoals." Sculls, we perceive, are Shoals under another 
form ; and they were originally so called, because they signified a mul- 
titude of fish, swimming on the scull, as it were, the head — the top or 

surface of the water. It is true, as Mr. Steevens has observed, that Sculls 


in this passage mean * Shoals of Fish;' yet I am persuaded that the writer 
was drawn into the combination of Scaled Sculls by the potent magic 
of a latent association. The Scaled Hair of the Head or Scull was 
exerting its secret though forcible influence on the imagination of the. 



CB, CF, CP, CV, ice. 


Poet. In Chaucer's inimitable description of the Sompnour^ the same 
word is used, I imagine, with its genuine sense. 

*^ A Sompnour was ther with us in that place, 

" That had a fire-red cherubinnes face, 

*' For sausefleme he was, with eycn narwc. 

** As hote he was, and likerous as a sparwe, 

** With sCALLED Aroow A/flf^e, and pilled herd, 

*' Of his visage children were sore aferd." 

(Prologue to the Canterbury Tales.) 
Scull. (Eng.) ^^The Mr, Tyrwhitt interprets Scalled in 

this passage by ** scabby, scurfy ;*' and 
in the Glossary to Urry's Edition we 
have, ** ScalL Scabbiness: A scalled 
" head. Scallid: Scabby, scurvy; 
*^ Scalded." It is impossible to sepa- 
rate in some cases the idea of the falling 
off or thinning of the Hair from the 
disease expressed by Scabby or Scurfy; 
because the one is an attendant on the 
other. Yet surely Scalled zndpilled 
bear precisely the same meaning in 
this passage; and, as we have seen, 
are only different forms of the same 
word. " Pilled. Fr. Pel^. Bald ;" says 
Mr. Tyrwhitt. On th\s point, I think, 
little doubt will arise; yet some diffi- 
culties still remain with respect to the 
meaning of other words in that passage. 
The Commentators, I suppose, con- 
ceive, that Browes signify the upper 
part of the forehead^ and Blake they 


Scalp. (Eng.) Calva. (Lat.)JHead. 
GLH. (Heb.) To shave. 

(Old Eng.) Hair 
* Scaled Haif.*^ felling or taken 

(North. Dialect.)To scatter 
Scale. < or disperse^ as dung, corn. 


' (Heb.) To scatter or dis- 


perse a people by driving 
them, as captives, from 

^ their own country. 

Ghja. (Syr.) An exile. 



( Ar.)To disperse or remove 
JLH. ^an heap of any tiling, as 
gravel, sand, &c. 

JLUh, JLH, ((An) The falling 


off or loss of Hair. 

(Ar.) Scouring — banish- 
JLA, ^ment from a country — 

Scales of a Fish, Metal, &c. 

' To Scale.' To take off the Scales. 

Sculls or Shoals of Fish. A multi- 
titude of fishes swimming on the 
scull or surface of the water; 

GL. The Hand. 

{(Heb.) To have a haiid in 
any thing. 


Gualon. (Gr.) Vola manus. 
GoLLS, (Old Eng.) The Hands. 

understand to be black. Yet Brawes 
may perhaps signify the ' Eye brows;' 
and then the passage will mean that 
the Hah^ of the Eye-brows was 
scalled. But whether the top part of 
the Forehead or the jEye-Brows were 
intended ; Blake may signify bare^ a 
sense familiar to ancient language. In 
Rowley we have the '^ blakied forme 
^' of kynde,*' (Eclog. 3. v. 4:)— the 
form of nature in its bare — naked — 
original state. This term exists in ouf 
modern word Bleak : — ^ A Bleak 
* Heath' means a bare — naked heath. 
The word is found likewise in the 
German Blosse: "Bare, naked, un- 
" covered — Eine blosse haut, da kein 
" haar auf ist, a bare skin, a skin with- 
** out hair upon it.'* I strongly sus- 
pect, that Blake — Bleak^ — Blosse, are 
but different forms of our word Bald. 
We have seen the German word for 
Bald, Kahl ; and the other terms for 
Baldness are Platte and Glatze; 
where we discover the two forms, KL 
or GL and PL, under which we have 
seen this race of words to appear. Thus 
then we perceive in the passage of 
Chaucer, that the Scalled Browes blake 
means the Brows left bare or naked by 
the Hair scaling off. Scalled is certainly 


' ■• ,' • -/^^ /^Jt ^ 

CB, CP, CP, C V, &c. . 353 

Blake. (Old' Eng.) Bare, an appropriate term, and Blake pro- 

Bleak Heath. bably retained some vestiges of its 

Platte, Glatze. (Germ,) Baldness. original sense. I must again repeat 

that Scalled is certainly appropriate, as 
I shall now finally demonstrate. I may be allowed to speak with con- 
fidence on this point, when I close my observations on the word by 
' the following decisive passage. In Leviticus we read, •' If a man. or 
** woman have a plague upon tlie head or the beard : Then the Priest 
*^ shall see the plague, and behold, if it be in sight deeper than the skin ; 
y and tliere be in it a yellow thin hair; tlien the Priest shall pronounce 
^* him unclean: it is a dry SCALL, even a leprosy upon the head or 
" BEARD." (C. 13. V. 29-30.) A more compleat definition of this word 
I could not possibly have devised. The term, commonly used in the 
Latin translations, corresponding with Scall, is Porrigo, a disease appro- 
priate to the Head; as every ope remembers in Horace- — " Caput — impexi 
** fcedum Porrigine.*' In the passage of Chaucer, the Scalled brows and 
pilled beard are attributed, I imagine, to the Sompnour, as characleristick of 
the consequences annexed to immoderate venery — '^ As hote he was and 
^^ likerous as a Sparine.'' In all ages, the reproach of Baldness has been 
connected with that idea. Caesar himself did not escape from this topic 
of calumny ; though the glories of his maturer age might be allowed to 
throw a veil over the vices of his youth. The brows of Csesar were bald 
indeed, as Mr. Addison somewhere observes, but he covered tliat defect 
with his laurels. ^' The web of our life is of a mingled yarn, good and 
** ill together: our virtues would be proud, if our faults whip'd them not; 
'* and our crimes would despair, if tliey were not cherished by our virtues." 
In tlie Sermons of the venerable Prelate, who still adorns the see of Wor- 
cester, tlie same thought respecting tlie baldness of Caesar has, if I mistake 
not, been adopted from Mr. Addison with great elegance and propriety. 

Before I conclude my observations on this race of words, I must suggest 
to thereader, that in our term Scalp, tlie LP appears corresponding with 

4q tbe 

»U\ uVj. v^^ ,.>^. .^^.^^^ ,^\j^ 


diB LV and LB ia Caivus—Calva, and the Hebrew GLB, a Barber. This 
perhaps might lead us to suppose, that as LV or LB belongs to the Ifand^ 
60 CL was likewise derived from the same source; and I must not pmit ^ 
<Aserve> that certain words in Hebrew* belonging to the Element CL or GL 
are unquestionably taken from this idea. Thus GLH(^^j) signifies, sajs 
Taylor, " Immiscere, To have a Hand, to ingage, or to meddle in any 
»' affair." Tliis certainly belongs to the GL, tlie Hand — 4he Gvaloi,^ 
(ruaxov, vola manus.) Would die reader imagine, that this term for the 
ILmd exists in its simplest state among our iancient Comic writers:^ hk 
The Honest WhorCy Pioratto . says, ** Done: 'tis a lay: join Golls^qaV 
i. e. Hands, says the Editor of the Old Plays. Again, dn Middleton^ 
^hayst Mayd in Cfteapeside. 

•» What Aeir Goi.i.8 
" Can clutch, gpes presently to tlieir Molls and Dols." 
(Seethe Old Pla5r5, vol. 3. p. 268. and vol. 11. p, 163. where the Editor 
has collected examples to illustrate tlie use of this word.) 

I have not leisure to pursue the investigation of diis great tace of 
words, belonging to the Element GL or PL — the Hsmd and the Hairs 
which, if duly separsited and considered, will be Cound faitlifuUy to ex- 
hibit the train of ideas, which I have above unfolded. I do not however 
Resume to determine, whether the name for the Hand or that for the 
Hair of the Human Savage, and for the ^Atf^^ covering of bruteanimal^ 
preceded in tfieir original formation. The stripping 43ff the skin nf aa 
animal, before the flesh was used for the purposes of food, .and the various 
uses, to which that skin was afterwards applied, must have .left a deep 
impression on the minds of those^ who were perpetually ei^gaged in rsudi 
employments; and we might therefore expect to discover in the Elemenls 
of Language a feithful record of these primaeval occupations. It is pro* 
bable, I think, that the familiar words, PuU — Pluck — FelUh^Vulsi'^ 
Vellico, &c. were at first appropriate to d^e PALwwrand PAijame, (paXmiAni) 

and were afterwards applied to ?he puUing 0r plucking of the V^lx-us or 


CB, CF, CP, CV, ^c. $S5 

FtKECE from die back of ^e animal; aad wei^ay still feci, in do not 
4ec€ive myself, in the pecuijiar sense, which Pluck and Vellico now 
convey totlie mipd, a cert^n impress^n of this {Mrim^tijire co^^nexion. 

Having thus illustrated iq a short digression the ;i9tyre qf the Element 
PL or FL; and fully, I trust, accoiinted fojr the existence of Fal in 
K^dli; I might be pemiitted perhaps to liazard a conjecture respecting 
die origin of Put in Caput or Cap-vvr. There is certa^ly -a sii^gular 
coincidence between this part of the compound, and our ^oxA Pate; 
and we know, that nothing is so common through the w,l;i9le compfiss of 
language, as to find terms of the same or a similar jmeaning foiling a single 
word. I have detailed pii a foriner pccasion (pages 169 and 290,) the race 
oi words, towhich^ I iqiagine, .P<z/^ shpuld be r^ferced; and tlie pbserva* 
tions, which I there .made, have been ^qnfir^piefi by subseqi^pt enquiry. 
In Gawin Douglas, JfvT is appli^ 1p th^/action of an animal ^rikwg or 
BViring with the Head — UcfK^s <V PAT^. *' Fuyn iind put with iiornes,'' 
says Junius, ** in iEneidos Scot, paraph, estp. Cornu pettre.'' IJhc ** Ja^ 
*^ cornu p^tatj' in the passage of Virgil, (iEa. II. v. j^5^;&c.) to^hiqh 
Junius alludes, is thus "translated • 

** Can all reddy with hornejs/t^n a^id jfiut." 
Junius then refers us to the word Foik; which I have iUustrated in a 
former page (91;) an^ this he interpr^ by '' [Lanc^mre, pungere. G. 
*' paindre. Cb^ucero^t, to ihrnst, to stifig, to prici, pungere;" an^I hf 
beseeches his reader tp-employ the whole ;force of a curipusly Investigating 

^intellect to discover, whether the Scotch 
Put. (Scot.) Corny petexe. word Puj/n h^ not some affinity wrdi 

fodico4 fF^t}^* ('* In{rosj>ice, <}ua^o, mi Lee- 

piquer, pricic, pe<:k9 begk. '' tor, quas su^pra diximus in Foine, 

..-.-.-^... i Pungere; ac vere diligenterqne.con- 
Fuyn. (Scot.) foin^ Jchm^ pmk, ** sule propriam curiosae mentis inten- 
pi^gOf punftum. ^^ tionem, pujtespe S^ot. Fut/n aUqu^m 

Pounce. Theclaw of an «ii»4l ^' j^iiut^tefigL fe^r^ ff^ff^M ti;aditis.") 



We have had perpetual occasion to observe, that nothing is so difficult a§ 
to form a decision respecting the peculiar idea, from which a signification 
is derived, when different portions of a radical coincide in their meaning. 
We have seen that PT or PS is the Element, which furnishes the name for 
the Hands as well as the Head or Horns; and perhaps we shall be inclined 
to suppose, that the Pate — the Evrring or vvrring^ jpart of the body, wai 
originally derived from the PT, the Hand — the member, by which Mao 
commonly performs those actions of attack and violence. I am the more 
inclined to this opinion by observing, that the name for the Head, attached 
to this Element, is found but rarely to occur; whereas that for the Hani 
may be perpetually traced through the whole compass of language. I 
must moreover add, tliat even those words, which contain a sense equally 
applicable to the acts of violence performed by the Hands and the Headi 
isometimes convey likewise another signification ; which is totally foreign 
from the idea of the Heady yet altogether corresponding with the qualities 
of the Hand. That Foin or Fuyn belongs to the PN, the Hand, will 
not, I think, be doubted ; when we perceive in the explanation of this 
word PoiNDre and PuNoere, (pages 285 and 2«9,) which we have already 
proved to be derived from this source. In Prick and in the French 
PiQwer the N is lost; and the S in PS assumes an hardened form as in the 
Greek Puks (nug.) Though Junius explains Prick by Pungere and 
Fodicare, he does not perceive that they have any connexion with each 
other. In Fod/co we perceive that it returns to the form of PD or FD; 
FoiN has the same meaning as our ordinary word Fence, (to thrust, as 
with swords ;) and we now perceive that they are only different forms of 
the same Element. Pink, (" To Pink a person) belongs to Faice, Pungo, 
and Punctum. In our ordinary Lexicons Punctum is explained in its first 
sense, " A prick — ?l point— z fain;** and Skinner derives P/n^ from Peck, 
the action of the Beak: Peck is explained by Junius, " Pinsere, 
*' ferire rostro;*' where in Pin sere the N is again visible. When I first 
unfolded thb race of words, I ventured to refer the English word Pinch^ 

a motion 

<:% C^, CP, C V, &c. S57 

a motion most appropriitfe t6 the H^nd, to the Persiaii Prnghe— pENje, 
the Fist; and we may now add Pounce, Xh^ Handy (if I may so express 
it) or claw of an animal. The form, in which the word appears in Gawin 
Dbuglas, signifying to strike or attack-^Vvr ^ will remind us of our 
&miliar teml Put, to place; which we shall instantly acknowledge to 
be derived from the arranging powers of the PT, the Hand. I have 
already shewn, that Pewo belongs to PN, the PotNg; and I must again 

note in Posirf, the form ^corresponding with the Fist. There is a singular 

• * ■ 

regularity antohg the words belonging to the idea of the Hand in this 
slpecies of change. With respect to- tb* term Put in the passage of 
Gawin Douglas, it is not easy to determine, whether it be a word of a 
general meaning corresponding to Peio, or whether it is used in an appro* 
priate and peculiar sense, as in the ^a of Buttiitg with the Pate. 
When the general notion has 'been once established, the writer of these 
discussions has duly performed the office, which he has undertaken to- 
sustain. The Latin Peto, we perceive, belongs to the same radical, PT; 
and its first sense was that of xfy^'^in^ or aaacking,zs' in the [Erases, ^^ Comu 
** petere — Mdlo petere,*' &c. / \ ' ■ — ■ 

I cannot forbear bti this occasion exhibiting a passage in? Rowley, 
which the preceding- observations' witt^ iMt ^iail^ I ^ trust, compleatly to 
illustrate. In The MinstrelCs Songi whic^h wa' find in the Tournament, 
the Poet describes* the illK)mei|*d animalts,! as ctpposinj} the progress of the 
blood-shedding Wiltian^, when he is ^Xissitig through tlie ^ods^. 

*' Throwe the merke jshade of twistyn'd trees hee rydes, 

" The flemed owlett flapps herr eve-speckte wynge; 

" The lordynge toade ynn all hys passes bides; 

" The B^EitTBir n^derb att hymm darte the styngj^^ ' ' (55, &c.) 
The deader has alr^yatt^ipat'ed the meaning ^of Bbrtrvt, and^U own,< 

thatnowbrd caii be more expressive" 
'* Berten Nedetis.'' Serpents butting ■ to decrote the darting actiqfn of a ser- 
^ ^-^^fUtting^i^ptltit^ 3) * .^tt|it]tl^DPthit>iidEi6h^^ 

4r Put 



Put — PetovUc. In this we $hQuId perfectly acquksca, without any od^ 
authority; yet what jnust\be our qoaviction, when we actually «e an 
interpretation of the word in an an^ii^nt Book unfolding precisely the same 
idea. *' The Bbrten Neden,** says Dem MiUes, ^* do not mean veiw* 
♦* mousp^ (as Ghatterton has explained it) *' but leaping^ to express tfaeiir 
" manner of attack. Tlie Promptuar. ParvuK explains BURTyN,^ by . 
** instliOt comiq^eto, \tQ leap upon, or PUSH, as hornep catti-k do.": 
This is extremely curious. Mr. Bryant and Dr. Millie have, rightly 
understood that Lprd^nge does not mean ' standipg/on thei^ hind legs,' asf 
Chatterton explains the WQfd ; but that it means the same as the ancient 
terms, LDurd-^^l/mrdy or Lourdon — ' dull — heavy — ^lumpish.' This race 
of words belongs to our ordinary term Load — 'that, which is Heavy;" 
and we may now ^inderstand the meanitig of the vulgar appellatiap:LoitDy 
as applied to a; AtiTi^Hbacked person. The Greek Lqrfiofi (Aa£^o», ^urvi^) 
to which this lias been referred, is a very curious word *, as it stands alone 
in the Greek language, if my recojilection does not deceive; me. ^ L/xid-^ 
Lour&^Lord^rr*I^rdas, hzvfSi the same relation to ^ch ol^er aSij^arar/i-^ 
Hebes — Hump or Hub and Ubos (rCofj curvus,) Thece is i a passage in 
Shakqidare^. which bears n lingular xesemblance to the idea of Rowley. 

*^ Feed not thy. Mvu^igfx*^ foe, my. gentle . earth, . : ^ 
[. <' Nor with thy sweto. comfort his rav'nouq. sense;, 

^* Butletthy spiders^ that suck up thy /^e^omf i 

*f And ttzxyx-'QAijEH froAm lie in iheir wfiy" 

(Richard 2d« A.3. S,2.) 

••', ■ i .. ••/. 

...I shall now agE^^a resume aoid <eooolu4e my bri^f. lojiwervations on the 
race of worlds belonging t» the; Element :CP*.rWhicb signify " 7'ft be raised- 
" high^to be emtBint^-^thtiTpp^^the Head.'' 

(IkpE {^ipr(nfumti^)^GAi^p (French) &c, ,is acJ^ovv^lpdg^d^^y ^e 
Etymdogiste tot iiedetiived from. ijQgmr. " Q. d, (^^S^j^.tearaVifieu.littoris, 

" quia 

. CBi CF, CP, CV. kc. . «W 

*• quia scilicet ultra roliquum I'lttus, "Capitis inslar, protenditur." (Skin.) 
The Capk ^f n Coat is*.likewise explained to be ** Caput scu summitas 
•* pallii.'* Ill these words^ we perceive the CP is in its simple state. In 
the Eastern lang^iages this EJ^ment supplies the familiar term for a Hill 
or Maufitatn. J^bill, (Jk^^) so variously represented by modern tra- 
vellers, is the familiar word in Arabic for a MountaiJi, which appears in 
that language under a simpler form in the term Sib (v^^a.) Another word 
for a Mountain iff Arabit is Turdr ri>e>r; and Gibraltar is ex preyed by 
Jebila afaur (^ILc Joji^^) as likewise Mount Sinai by Jebtla Toor {jJa 
JUt^) Surely, when we have advltnced thus far, it \yere idle to seek 
any other derivation for Gih altar t or, as it might have been, Gibfil-Tarf 
than that which is here exliibited.* > 1 he two words signifying Mountain 


ire in this case joined to express ' The famous — the illustrious Moui|tain/ 

In the opemiig o£ this work,, i produced various words relating to the 
idea of height-^^^^minence ; as, * Th^ Gcr^B qf> Heaaen^^^Thi Oopijfo of m 
Wall-^CvpoLA, and the- Anglo Saxon: Coppk, which. iSkinneciexplaioB 
hy <f Apex, Culmen, Fasti^um^.'* jTild!woi^.CjLF& appiebnidil«w]as)ihibe 
Hebrew langaagei as the appropriate term Ibr a Hill or ,3ithmi£tinL . . GbbhAi 
(Vl:)) has in Hebrew; BfijB Taylor^ three significationsi V .^V Chilis, a Hilh* 
•* — ^ Tiara, a oap^i bonnet,, a turban.-^^ Scyphus^ .a cup." We per** 
ceive that Taylor in this explanation his used three words belonging to thie 
Element CP—- ^-CcyF, ScypkuSy Cup. I . cannot forbeir layitig ^ before ihe» 
seader the tvord^ whU^ Taylor has here jproducediindeb the. letters QiB: 
(1:1;) that he may be duly sensible how fully the Hebrew language isr 
impregnated with the ^sense, which I h^ve attributed to the Element. .GB. 
(13) ^' Gibbus: Tetgumir Fort)ix: >£xccbum; Any paftr of a thing,! which 
*' rises above the rest,'" &c. &c. This very curious; ciroi^/i'h^vei^Qorded 
on a former occasion (page 14.) GBA, (**^) " A pit, pond, or pool/' 
GBH, (nn:) " To be high, tall, lofty," &c. &c. GBK, (Hi:) " One whose 
*• forehead is bald ;" which we percdve belongs to Caput and Capillus. 
GBL, (^U) << A bomidary ; the limits, coasts, or confines of a place or. 
•^ country." 



GBA. (Heb.) A pit. 


(Heb.) One whose fore- 
head is bald. 

GBL, (Heb.) A boundary. 



(Heb.) A cheese, from the 

idea of coagulation. 
(Heb.) A species of Crys- 
from the idea of con- 

'* country.^' GBN, (pj) " Cheese/' 
GB. (1:1) signifies the same ; and Mn 
Parkhurst has observed, that the verbs 
belonging to this word mean in Syriac 
and Arabic, " to coagulate — condense.^* 
(See page 14.) This idea, we see, 
brings it back precisely to the sense of 
the Element. GBR, (nu) " To be supe- 
<^ nor or mighty in valour," &c, which 
I shall produce on another occasion. 
GBS, (cfU) " Unio Margarita." 
Though I should be unable to explain, 
how the idea of this pearl is connected 
with the sense of the Element; yet 
we might safely venture to conjecture, that such a relation existed, from 
the meaning of the words, by which it is accompanied. The interpreta* 
tion however of Mr. Parkhurst will lead us to the true ncxtion, from which 
this term is derived. GBS. ^' An union or species of pearl, or perhaps 
** Crystal, (Greek K(gr«xAO'> ice) probably so called from its resemblance 
^< to hail.*' This will incline us to believe, that as GB means a Cheese in 
Hebrew from the idea of coagulation^ so GBS means a species of pearl 
or Crystal from that of congelation or contraction. The Etymologists 
have understood, that Crystal is derived from tfaia ;i4?&i V Kfurs^AOv 
'' glacies, gelu: Chrystallus, lapis: quia x^vm rMJlm%i[ iugoxt dntnihitur.*^ 
(Martinii Cadmus Grasco«Phcenix.) Tl»y^% another name for /ce, is 
derived. from a similar notion-"^^ nnyyvvi complngo, conorescec^. facio, con^} 

' gelo, cogQ, coa^^mento.* 

< ■ 

vl :^. ; 

. (. 



I .' 

« • t f "* . • 



• » 

. • < « A • A 


:/OB, CF, CP, CV, ice »4l 

IN my arrangement of the general sense belonging to the Element, 
I have observed* in the third article, that it signifies, ^'To have the power 
** -of ' holdii^ or containing,.ij&c. — to swell out — to be prominent — convex 
•^^wconcave— bowing, bending: — ^To be raised high — to be eminent— the 
/* tOj5>— the head/' I commenced my enquiries on this article by the 
consideration bf an object, pregnant with tli<ese various ideas, the Latin 
Cap tJt and the Greek Ku be;' the Head; and as I had nietaphoricaliy 
applied that English term in the latter portion of the article, to convey 
its familiar sense of an height — an emifience or the top, h was led first to 
examine the race of words, which were more immediately attached to 
tbiflf peculiar idea. When similar notions become blended with each 

ortier, or When the same term at once conveys to the mind various 

•. . ' . *. • ^' '\ 

impressions of a simlihur kind; the writer must of necessity find consider- 
able difficulty in the previous arrangement of his general subject, and in 
th^^subsequenC order of his^{>a]rticular discussions. He^must rest contented 
however With adopting the* most convenient :nK>de. of communicating 
fkcts; nor must he Embarrass > himself or hi& reader by any false or futile 
pretensions^ to accuracy of'fehTn or subtlety, of distinction. An abundant 
family of words, which might be aptly referred to this artiqle, have been 
Already considered in tlie former poisons of my wqrk ; andt I; had re3erved 
for the present ocoanoD the examination of certain > terpi;, which were 
peculiarly connected with the train of ide^ heie unfolded, or which 
could not be commodiously engrafted on the arrangement.of thepre^ding 
enquiries. /- j , ; . • ;: 

As the Situation of the /Hs AD in the hqman; frvne directed us to the 
race of words, whickirekte^.to Height w, Eminence; so tlie form of that 
meniber will suggest to ms ano^ier ,ti;ain of, ide;^ and a. different series of 
words. To the notion of swelling \mU, &cc. represented by the Element 
CB, belong the names o£ Pi^ants, FiJpWBRS, Acc^ ^p. wliich ^ li^ye a 
prominent or plUmp appeanw^e^-^wtv^ch posses^ ^P,dPfRV^^i9^ convexity 
and concavity f and which exhibit^ ,.if I may so ^xpooess i^ .^Xup or 

4 s CA?VT'iiie 


Cabbage. (Eng.) ChvvrMke form. To this idea cer- 

. ' fi \\ tainly. belongs our, familiar wOfd Cab- 

' *\ r . B age; vwhichiha^ been referred by the 

KABUTz-JTtftff. (Da)i.) i -> i: / Ejiglish Etymokigists to K^i^Cujci^ifc^^w, 

' Bfassica c^pitata. The word C abb agb 
Kabuvs-ITc^o/. (Belg.) ,^^ ^^^^ through a variety of Iftpguages^ 

CRAkBE - f(Gr.) Brassica wjftU as the Etymologists duly underhand; 

•< ' ' /;v 'who have prodilced the Italian * Ctf- 

Kebalote.I . tata. •pw^^i, Ciw/i'— the Danish ^iC^^utt 

Crumbs, Cream. ' ' Kaal'— the Belgic ' ^fl%^ Koor~ 

the Wolsh ' Cahetshen'^-^^nd the Ifish 
(qr.) An height— a . GabaUde: The . metaphor* iwhich 

CORUMBOS*^ . ^ ^ ^r,^.'.^.^„ « ^ 

lock ^f hair, &c. ^PP^^*^ '""^ Ke«,xC« KE*MftTH-*Ah 

sica capitata, and in our ordinary 

phraseology, ' A Cabbage with a good Head,' &c. will at once point <)ii( 
to us the immediate origin of these words ; and Lye has ventui:ed toobaer?ej 
*' Omnia non inepte deduciis a 6. Caboche^ Caput,. veMi. Cabeca,/ Quas 
'• formantur a did. Hoc autem a Lat. Ctfpii/." CrAmbs (*^«if*Cii) is 
the simpler state of Cabbage; and under this form a race of words is to be 
found conveying a similar idea of something rirm^ i^ or swelling ouh MiQi 
In our word^ CRtf MBS, or the Crummy part, of a loaft.'. the 's»m^ iKHi^ci 
exists ; and if CreAM be not a compound, thaHikewtseooiiveys a kindred 
signification. In the Gribek Corumbo^ the ElementJarysende aftpears in 
its full force. K#fVjMCoy or Ko^v/btCS^ say the ordinary Lexicons, ^* QuiCquid 
'* excelsum est, vel eminens, Cacumen montium — Coma certo mode 
'• n6data— ^caulii, rac^«iu&-^^o!rymb«B, bdtca/* ' - ^ •. . 

CAFPARisi (Kaiwifcfic)— Gajpers, &^. &cv*a wo*d tb be found in 50 
iriany ' language!?, rhmt be referred tb tHe^ame idea. Our Englisli Etymo- 
logists are akValrfedf the tJlHouscdr?eSpbilding terms in French, Dutch^&c« 
and Martinitis' haS nol56^ the' AtsAS* woixi for this species of firuit# He 
imdgin^ tf&t'tt^iSiwJfcalltd froni another Arfclnc «rm with the simc Elc* 
ment, whicfi signifies " crescei^e, invialescere." *' Forte/' quoth (his 
* - Etymologist, 

CappAris. (Lat and Gn) Etymologist^ ^^ 'quia est validibris ligni, 

^' et vim habet ad lienis jecorisque 
GApubs. (Fr;) rCAPPA&u^Ital.) . ^Mamolicndas obstructiones/' Isidorus 

) ii' liQWcVer has a glimpse. 6f the true idea; 

i4/-CAPPARA. (Span.) frMi which the word is ddrived^ when 

he a)nnects it widi thenotionof some- 
^APPBRS. (Be)g.) . iflfli|l» thing rising up. or round, in the Head 

'. ' !^^ or CAPUT-forra* I fVCapparis a Graecis^ 
Kaber. (Ar.) Capers,: (Eng.) : '* nomen sumsisse videt'ur, quod ha* 

^' beat rotunda in summitatibus semi- 
^V num capitella.'' There is a well known jxissage in Ecclesiastes^ to which 
Martinius refers, where the Septuagint and . the . English translators have 
t^en different portions of .an equivocalexpression, singularly illustrative 
of the peculiar idca^ which! have Attached ^ to the origin of the word. 
^^ The almond tree shall flourish, and the grashopper shall be a burden, 
*i and Dmrc shall fail;, because Mangoe^. to his. long home/' (Chap. 12.^ 
V. 5.} I will not vienture to. encounter the various^ difficulties, i which belong- 
to this passage: I shall only obseive, that what is here translated 2>ei3re, 
is rpndered by the Septuagint and the Vu\gai\/df^JLaMTa(HfC(tpparis. The 
Hebrew word, which has occasioned these different translations^ is thus 
^Iplained byiMr. Parkhuistin the first edition of his I^^xicoiv. ^'^rr^K," 
(ABH) '* Tlq. swell f heoM^ It occurs not as. a verb simply in this sense, 
*.' but hence, as a noun^-^-^^tate of matting, greenness, viridity, spoken of a 
*' plant while ^oof/n^ and d/tomg^— leathern bottles, swelling with ferment- 
* i^ . liquor-+-» Pjrtho^ a conjurer, who pretended t<^ give. prophetic 
answers. When inspired and injlated by the spirit — ^To swell, or heave 
'* with D£SiR£ — ^The CAPfcR^/ree or fruit — lUTT«f»c, Capparis.; which; 
^V according to Jerooi, excites both appetite for food and lust.*' I could 
i)ot have devised ad explto^ticm more pointedly illustrative of my opinion^ 
that the idea of Goywrm is derived from the plump — swelling form belong- 
ing to this fruit In ailatei «ditioo». . Mr. Parkhurst interj(kr^ts ^e passage 





of Ecclesiastes in a manner, which, if it be possible, is still more adapted 
to confirm my hypothesis.^ ** The Grashopper (the old Man resembling 
*^ the GraShopper) shall be a bra'den to hiniself, and the Caper (the 
\^ f^ound, smooth, spungy, soft, fleshy parts) shall fail or shrink/' I am 
imable to add anything to this illustration. 

A similar origin must be attributed to Cepa or Cepe. Isidorus has 
seen, that it is derived from the idea con^r^Mtj^y Caput. ** Cepa vocatur, 
** quia non aliud 6sti nisi tantum Caput.'' Ws we have Crambe belonging 
to * Cabbage,' so we diall not wonder to find ' Cromuon', {iL^miAm, 
KfofAuok) the Greek term for Cepa. In the same manner, Ciborium 
(K(6a)(iov) jsignifies a certain species of ^Egyptian Bean, which by some is 
explained ISjqclimv Aiyynfii^* The quotation, which Martinius has givdii 
from Dioscorides, exagtly explains the source of its derivation. ** ./Egjrp- 
*^ tia faba, ubi flore exuitur, fert foUiciilos, vesparum favis similes, in 
" quibus faba siipi:^ operculum bulliintis [dnipulla modo prominet.'* CUnh 
nVm, we know, was likewise a species of Cup; and is equally connected 
with the idea'derived from its ^m ; whether we regard the Bean as the 
materials or !the similitude. We iind in Martinius, that the Element CBR 
means among ) the Syriaqs, a species of vessel — among the Rabbies, ^ a 

; ' • . > * l^icker basket,'' &ic. &cc. CvAMon 

Cepa'. YLat.'i ^ belongs likewise to the Element CB, 

■ > An onion. and conveys the same idea as Ciborium, 

Cromuon. (Gr.) ) ^ Cepe and Kromuon. It is not necessary, 

I imagine, to increase the catalogue 
Ciborium. (Lat.) of this race of words; as the reader 

from this specimen will sufificiently^ 
iEUBORioN.(Gr.) understand, that various terms for jv/^n/s 

^^ ^-^flowers— fruits, &ic. belonging to the 
CBR. (Syr.) A species df vessel. Radical CB, have been derived from 

the idea of their ipjm, corresponding 
CuAMON. (Gr*) A bean. With the general sense of th^ Element. 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 345 

We may well imagiitet that the names for objects of this nature would be 
naturally taken firom the first impression of their form and appearance. 
I have thought it expedient to contract within narrow limits the present 
discussion on the third article of my general explanation ; as it relates to 
material objects, which have the power of' holding or containing* — which 

* swell out — ^are prominent/ &c. are ' raised high — eminent — the Top — 

• the Head/ A great portion of the words belonging to this idea have 
been already explained, as I have before observed, in the preceding divisions 
of my work. The terms in the Latin and Greek languages, derived from 
Caput, KuCn and Kf^oXn, are acknowledged and ascertai'ned by the ordinary 
Lexicographers; and tliough in Arabic and Hebrew, we may well imagine 
that the appropriate name for a Mountain would supply an abundant family 
of words expressing A^^A^ or eminence; yet the traces of this sense are but 
thinly scattered in the dialects of the Teutonic, nor are they often visible 
in Greek or in Latin. Enough has been already said to express and con- 
firm the fact; which will readily unfold itself to the curiosity of the 
enquiring reader. 

IN the succeeding section I shall engage in a more 
arduous task; and labour to unravel a subject, which, without a due spirit 
of investigation, at once patient and ardent, will elude our search and 
mock our enquiries. I shall endeavour to illustrate a great race of words, 
which are to be found in every language, conveying the idea of what is 
high — eminent or exalted ; as it relates to a Being invested with superior 
powers of reason and of action. It Ms a theme, which, if I do not 
deceive myself, will supply us with an ample and a fertile subject of 
interesting discussion. It will lead us into trains of thought, as yet totally 
unexplored; and develope those mysteries in language, which are at 
present either clouded by doubts or buried in the profoundest obscurity. 

4 T I must 



I must again be pehnitted to repeat ;and to ufge, that s^ii^^tyivince ferwafS 
i n these speciilationi, the natore ^of the ffufnan Mind will iMcoi^k^ mete: 
fully u/ifblded, and more feithfully: lexhibited.: > A»: we. ascend l>y dcrwi 
but perseycfing stepsr to those higher Beats and morebcoimnandHigc^i^ooBb 
in tlie regions of Knowledge, from which the mind delights to look abroad: 
oi> th6 wbrld around it; the clouds vanish— ^the scene opens—arid the' 
l^rospect hrightensto bur view.-r-Our conceptions will enlarge, as out ideas 
arc expanded; and while the understanding grows enlightened by the ^ 
contemplation of its own fex^ultics; we shall be still more enabled til: 
apprcciate-^to feci and to enjoy the energies of intellect— the powe^ dt 
knoRjflcdgdiand tlic blessings of truth; ." 

Y .: J I j'l.^ViSed nildulcius est, benequara munita tenere .' 

i:^t : ? >6*jlidita'doGtrina Sapientum tenipla serena ; 

■' *• Despiccre unde queas alios, passimque videre 
•* Errarc, atque viampalanteisquserere vita?/* 

, ■' - V-- 

• r T 

k ... 

%• Ml «* « • 

■ ..i 


v"* • »■ 

• » 

'V- .^^v■ i.:. 

» • I 

1 1 • 

ob I 

• \ 

-■' i:lj 

. ■-■->,;» 

r .: 

r - -> 

:. [ 


,/ . . -- 

'* i •• ::.l 

^ • • • 

• • » - 

, . .- . .. 


3 \ 

V - .< 

4 ■- • « 

L i 1- 


r,. > . . ' ' ij-jit y . .1 ]; •/ .''fi-^. r.rn 

TO*. :.» i. • :>iL oJ boifoLMj imi) i?'j!i!" 

GBk. Man. * THE name for Man is a very im- 

.^ -.. portdnt term m the history of Human^ 

rnj^ \ r' speech; and, \yh?n, a general copnexion 

UChald.) A Man. ,, . between certain languages has'beeij. 

J , once acknowledgeq, we should expect 

/c,r•^^ \TW .K^r«r. ^r\A\\o • to fijid Uic influence of such a term, 

. . under wha!tever Element it may appear,, 

quidam. Widely diffused through various parts 

/IT u \ A AT of these simil;ir languages, and ope-, 

rating either remotely or directly on 
GB2R. < A Lora, Master. innumerable occasions, where a care- 

._ , f ^ , ^ ,. less or an ignorant observer would be 

QBiR/t. VALady,^M« m: ::•;;•: v.v-^.^.' . ,- /: / .,-,.^ . ' j 

unconscious of its force. The name 

,-<,•• ... . 

iCiBAR. (Ar.) Men of distinction, for Man undfer the Element MN 

. ^ ^ exists in the various dialects oi the 
ni J; '. ••^Y/ArO-Tftfe) ohieifioiiao/i<» 'Vili u-;*' "'.• v^- rv. .. , ^. . .- - . ', 
v^tnirno J . • >r ' Teutonic, as tne appropriate and fami- 

»(. femily. bar term for .this J5«W5^. . We have seen^^ 

it likewise m the Latin ho-Mm-is — the 
J«b«Ar; (At:) ©ti«^at,-*Gi««ry&;e. ^^— UMaanWzo. &c. (page 125;) ' 

Ga3»k/. TbPPOwer&iLAngeU and, there is no language, witli which 

. , . . r am acquainted, where the eftects or 

A:«AB*l^Af;)tT^e'^eatgst/^^> '^^^^^^ ot.Tw .:> ' „ , . ,, : 

oL.r-. /•] 1.1 

. , . .the rational J5em^§^ bmisclt, or of the ^ 

(t7ra.Eng.; -i attribtites and quahties most allied lo 

KOBAR05. (Gr.) Man. 

.f . 'x 

^•; Jn^grcdicst. ^ jj^^g ^^j^^ j^^y jj^j 1^^ perpetually 

the rational Being bmisclt, or c ^ ' 


a48 ETYMOLQGIC^N >^AG|^l}M. 

the nature of such a being. When the name for Man appears under 
other Elements, we may well imagine, that the effects of that name would 
be equally visible; and I shall therefore illustrate a great race of 
words belonging to this idea, which are attached to the radiqjil now under 
our discussion. 

The reader must be informed that the appropriate name for Mak 
in the Chaldee language belongs to the Element GB or GBR, &c. 
*' And Adam said, this is now bone of my bones, and flesh oF my flesh: 
" she shall be called IVoman, because she was taken out of StAN;"' 
(Gen. c. 2. v. 23.) In the Targum or Chaldee Version of Onkelosj^ the 
name for Man is GE VAR ; The word for Woman is Itlha ; and Bochart 
has justly remarked that the spirit of the allusion is lost by the iise of these 
dissimilar terms; or, according to my phraseology, of terms belonging fo 
diflerent Elements. Through the whole compass of language we know 
that opposite affections of the same idea are represented by words with the 
same Element, distinguished by certain variations in their form; ^as in the 
CAF'itTis and the CAF-tus — the SEizing and the sEized — the HOLDer and 

the HOLDing, &c. &c. We may well imagine therefore, that the u 
for Man and Woman, (creatures at once opposite and alike,) would be 
derived from the same Element, or possess some part in common, with a 
distinguishing portion to separate the one: front the other. We see it in 
the English ' Man and Woman or WoM-mtfw' — Male and FEmale of 
VEM-male; and in the Hebrew IS, ISA, the teraasTor Man and Woman 
in the preceding passage. This artifice however does not appear in a " 
variety of other instances. The Latin Fir and Homo — Fosmina and 
Mulier — the Greek Aner and Anthropos, {Amgi A*0f4M>»)— Gmti/ and Gu- 
naikos, (ru^, rwaux^) are not related to each other; and in the Hebrew 
words for Male and Female — Zachar 2ind Nekab, ('*Male and Female 
*' created he them," Gen. c. 1. v. 27.) no such resemblance is to be 
found. Mr. Halhed seems to imagine, that in expressing objects of, this 


r ■ 

r . 

CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. «49 

nature, the diversity rather tlian the conformity of Elements is more 
adapted to the principles of the mind, " The Sex of human crca- 
♦'. tures," (says that learned Hindoo scholar) '•' and the more general 
'^ sedations, which they bear to each other, are of sufficient consequence 
*' to obtain different names, insteaff of modifications of the same name. 
*< Thus in almost all languages tHe distinctions of Man and JVoman, 
<* Husband zwA Wife, .Father and Mother, &c. are signified by separate 
** terms. — ^Thus in , the Bengal language, Maanoosho is a Man, and 
"f^ Strce a Vfo\\x?in\ Peataa a Father, Mataa a Modier; Pooroos/w z 
*' Husband, Naaree a Wife." Surely Mr. Halhed must be of opinion, 
that Man and Woman, Father and Mother, (Pater, Mater) Pectaa and 
Maataa, (with* Uieiii va^rious corresponding terms in other languages) are 
modifications of the ^me name : If] one case, precisely tlie same name — 
Man, exisits i^bpth words with the modification or addition of Wo or Worn 
•to distinguish* 4hem from each other; and in the instance of i'la/Aer, 
Moiher-^P.e^taa,iMa(Ufa, iUq same Element is employed witii the modifi'- 
catioa .t))f ^ different ypw^l breatliings anno^ec). tq different consonants, which 
belong to the same organ, tt will however. probably Ijc discovered, after 
a due inyestig^tioo pf v^vipMS languages, that term& of tliis sort correspond- 
ing with each otiier ha,ve c^ce exited j- though by the operation of accident 
tliese termt muy be no. longer applied,, as the f^^iiliar words for Man and 
Woman, iatl)e pne^nt forms, under which these languages appear. I have 
no doubt but that Maanoosho ^n^ Pooroosho are compounds; in the former 
parts ef which, iJ/tffl7i and Poor, we perceive the English Man and the 
li-atia Vir; the (peltic assumes die form at' (^'wr — Fhear, (Sec 
•Lhuyd subivocc.) I have had perpetual occasion to;^observe the mingird 
sound of G and Ui.and the appearance of a race of words under each of 
these forms, as the G or the U, A' predominates in the enunciation. In 
|he latter {xirt of the copipound — Oosho may be recognized the Hebrew 
ter^ foe J/tfAj I&H;.;andtQ;9U/tliesc words we have ;a name for Woman 
belpiiging to their pf^liar Eicmcnts. Thus to Isn we find Isiia — to Vm 

* u an 

t / 


Ptctaa — ('(Hindoo.) Father. an ancient term, Vira — to Gwr in 

Maataa. ( Mother. Welsh we have the corresponding 

J/tftfwoo^Ao. (Hind.) A Man. Gwraig; and the coincidence of 

Ish. (Heb.) A Man. Ma an in Maanoosho to our English 

/^//df. (Heb.) A Woman. '. \\^rd Man brings us at once to the 

Pooroosho. (Hind.) A Husband. opposite and appropriate tenn Wo- 
Gwr— ((Welsh.) Husband. man. Though the title of Wife is not 

Givraig. I Wife. related in its sound to Husband; yet 

when we remember, that this help-mate folr Man is likewise denominated 
the Hus-fTi/f, we shall acknowledge that the same modification is t6 be 
,^ .«.:^.; found. To the '^H in MaanoosHO we must refer the '^ST hi the Latin 
^,v.r/£^ Minhrer; 4nd the "SCH in the German MensCH. I shall now produce 

'^ \hi ^ ' '^^^^ observation of Bochart, to which I have above referred. " Gen. 2. 2S, 

** Vocabitur vira, quia ex vira sumpta ist. Hebraice ut ttf*f*' ISr pro viro, 
'* ita HttfM IssA pro muliere vox ^t usitatissima ; ciijus originem hoc loc6 
" apcrit irf«Wx«r»!?, cum mulierem dicit ideoPittfN ISSA vocari, quia Bf^jfO 
ex IS, id est, ex viro suitipta est.* Aliam esse linguam nbtiputa^ qui 
banc allusionem as^equatur. Chaldseis saltem et Syris scio aqUam hie 
^' haerere, et perire gratiam-allusionis apud illorum Paraphrastas, qui pro 
" muliere habeut HTiti Itlha vel wnnK Ithetha et pro- viro iij^Gevar aut 
" ^V^ Baal, voces plane dissonas, et nequaquanfi illi alteri sitniles.** 
(Phaleg. Lib. 1. C. 15.) In Syriac, GBR is the dppfopmte term. Tdr 
a Man. " Vir*' (says Schaaf) *' et generaliter «>6f««1>», Horhd;' sed 
** semper viiilis; interdum, Huidam, quisque.'' (See Schaaf *8 Lex.^Syriac. 
sub voce.) In Hebrew the GBR is not the appropriate and familiar name 
for Man in general; yet it signifies Man by way of eminence-i^he 
illustrious — the potent being. GBR, (il3) says Parkhiirst, ** To be strong, 
" powerful, to prevail. — A Man, as distinguished from a Woman or 
" Child on account of his superior strength. As a N. GBiR, a Lord, 
*' Master; Fem. GBiRA, A Lady, Mistress'* In Arabic 'there is a 
great race of words belonging to this Element, which convey a similar 




CB, CF, CP^.CV, &c. 3»1 

idea. Thus Kibar (jIk^) signifies " Grandees, Nobles, J/cn distinguished 
for wealth and knowledge/' Kibr or KubR (j^) nieans "Nobility, 
eminence, magnitude, magnificence; pomp, pride, haughtiness. — Ku^ 
** birr 9 the chief of a family, the first degree oi kindred, the. nearest of 
M kin to the head of a family/' Jjsbar (^U:^) means likewise in 
Arabic, " Great, omnipotent. A conqueror, an absolute sovereign, a tyrant, 
*^ an oppressor, or a giant*." It would prove an infinite task to produce 
words of a sirriilar meatiing in Arabic; which might readily be traced to 
this source througli all tlie varieties of their form and appearance. I have 

no doubt but that the familiar word Akbar in that language, " Greater, 


** greatest and most powerful," belongs td this root. It is a compound of 
the intensive A (rr» so common in the Hebrew and Cfaaldec dialects) and 
KBAR-*-the distinguished or eminent gj^^ai one, (if I may so express it) 
This is the important word, so often ' repeated by the lips of the pious 
Mussulman — '* ^Altahu . As£ar, (jaJT jJUI)/* God is most .powerful." 
This root supplies both in the Arabic and the Hebrew languages, accord- 
ing to the ai^rangement of Ca^le, the name of the Angel GABR-^^€/ — the 
potent-— the illustrious — the exalted Being. In the\^hiopic, GBR sig- 
nifies ** Servus, famulus puer, operarius." (See Castle's Lex. sub voce 1U.) 

The reader perhaps will be somewhat astonished to discover 
in a word familiar to his ear, that the Chaldee Gevar is likewise the appro- 
priate name for Man in our own language. This word is no other than 
the ancient term Gaff£R. Junius d<}rives it from the Saxon Gefere, Soda- 
lis, Socius; yet it is difficult to determine, whether the Saxon Gefere be 
a root or a compound of Ge and Fere answering to our words Pair, 
Peer, &c. Thistorm in our ancient language was applied, as a title of 
respect, to persons distinguished by their station or character. In Gammer 
Gurton's Needle^ the Priest of the parish is thus addressed by a countryman 
belonging to his flock: " Good morrow. Gaffer Vicar.'' (A. 4. S. 2.) 
Gaffer in this case corresponds with -S/r, (Sir Priest) a well known title of 
respect to the Clergy, familiar to our ancient language. We perceive, that 



Gammer is only a different form of Gaffer, which we shall take another 
occasion of illustrating. It is observable however, with respect to those 
terms, that, at the time when this play was vi^ritten. Gammer had already 
sunk down to the sense, which it bears at present, while Gaffer still sup- 
ported its ancient signification. Though the time, when this play was 
written, is not perfectly ascertained ; yet I see no reason in the present 
case to reject the date of 1551 for the publication of the first edition. Of 
the author we know only that it was written by " Mr. S. Master of Arts;" 
and \vc arc informed moreover, that it was acted in our University at 
Christ's College. 

We shall now be enabled to see the f6rcc of an article in Hesychiuj, 
which no one has at present understood. Would the reader imagine that 
KBR, supplied with vowels and the Greek termination os — KoBAR(?i, 
is the word for Man in that Lexicographer? kobapoz, a^Of wur©*. The Critics 
have . endeavoured by the devices of emendatipn to. remove this article, 
which they conceiv^e to be without. meaning. Albcrtlagrees with Pergerus, 
who observes, " Quomodo enim hominem simpliciter notct, juxta cum 
" ignarissimis scire me fateor.!' To tliis name for Alan, GBR or JBR, 
we must refer a term expressive of a state or condition, to which this 
creature of accident is perpetually exposed: J eo farcIj/, fear or danger, 
is the lot of the Gevar or tlie Jeopar. It might easily be proved, that 
the explanatory words which I have here used, should be referred to a 
similar idea. Fear belongs to Vir, or, as it appears under the Celtic form, 
Fhear; ^nd Danger belongs to tlie-otlier Jiamefor Man — Dean, Dai, &ic. 

The G in Danger is only a record of the 
. 1 ( (Eng.) The lot of the. sound attached to N, as we find it in the 

( Gevar. ^ French language,, fon — onG,J&cQ. &c. 

Fhear. (Celt.) Vir. Teen, an ancient term for Sorrow, is 

Fear. (Eng.) only another form of the same word. 

Dean. (Celt.) Man. Our Etymologists have discqverd that 

Tmu (Old Eng.) Sorrow. Jaopardt/ is quasi Tai perdu, or Jen 

iEi>(Eng.) perdu. But 

CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 


Groom. (Old Eng.) A Servant. 
GrRooM of the Stole. 


Com — Gome 


GoMMAN. (Old Eng.) 


Comes. (Lat.) A Man of power. 
CoMis. (Lat.) Gentle, &c. 
GiM — Gimp. (Scotch.) Genteel. 
A Jemmy Fellow. (Vulg. Phrase.) 


CoMvsos. (Gr.) Neat, elegant, &c. 

» • • • 

H6mo. (Lat.) (iuasi, Gomo. 


Quasi, CUtmman. 

I \ 

This name for 'Man*, GBR, 
Gaffer — Gevar, which is probably a 
compound, appears under a naore sim- 
ple form in our language by the ordi- 
nary change of F, V or B to M, letters 
of the same organ. Groom, which 
is now applied to the Servant or ^Man, 
who is occupied in the care of Horfees, 
was originally used for Servant or Mart 
in general. Groom, say the Etymo- 
logists, " Puer, famulus ;" which they 
derive from the Belgic Grom, a term 

' of the same meaning. Sjcinner how- 
ever observes on this word, *' Nescio 
^' an hoc sic dictum sit k Lat. sequioris 
*' sseculi Groma, seu norma pro TutafAuv, 

^' " ^c. isservus, qui in metandis campis 
" vel metietidis agris lineam ducit." 
He 'imagines likewise, thatf Guma, 
** feliciter alludit Gr. Ko/aw, euro, nu- 
''*trio,'alo." In Shakspeare, Groom 
appears to be used {or z Man of infl^rior 

• ■ • 

condition or manners; and in tlie'ex-' 

pression, ' A Groom of the Stole,* it 

• • • ' . 

may either meian ^ The Man (by way 
' of eminence) supel-intchding '^thfe * 
•^ w«i*oT)e— the '3f tf^ of iftie ward- 

^ robe-; or,'TJife 3ihfiX^S^'(^^ idea 
4x of 

/ft. < k 



' / w r ' . I *• 

354 ETYMOLOGICO?^ i^iAGlHy^M, 

f(Vulg. Eng.)Swag- of inferiority) — the Servatit appointed 
GvMTtious. < , tp t)jat. office. In JSnrfe-GROOM it un- 

vS 5 • equivocally means the Man destined 

((North. Dialect,) ^o"" ^^^ ^r''i^> ^^^^^. ^"^^ '^m'^^^ 

G.oppisH. \ \y. Skinner to be so called on this bcca- 

CProud— testy. ^ion, because on the day. of- hb ijWTr 

ringe he is the Groom or Servant of 
rCVulgar Eng.) ^^^ ^^.^^ ,, Nostrum autem J?ri(/<?- 

(skill— dexterity- *\ groom satis manifeste oritur a dicto 

*\ Bride et Groom; quia sc. Sponsu$. 
die nuptiarum Sponsse, saltern secundum morem nostrum, inservit/' In 
Sliakspeare we find an example of, this original and secondary sense 
con verted, in to thte pleasantry of a pun* 

" FfU. And is the bride and brideoROOM coming home? 
'* Gre. A^bpdeGKooM, say you?/ tis a g room indeed j^ 

*' A grumbling groom; .and that the girl shall find." 

(Taming of the Shrew, A. 3. S, %)^ 
Though the E^tymologists consider Groom to signify only ' Puer, Famulus;* 
they cannot avoid seeinjg, that it belongs to a word^ which^ signifies AI«n, 
The terms corresponding to Bridegrwrn. in other languages are collected by 
Skinner- — -jBj^/rfGUMA? — -Bf^d(^au^--^Bruw^ (Sajiioit—: , 

Danish — E|jatch— (^erman j).jWh/ere we perceive the R has disappeared, and 
the name for Mfl'^^ i« found in its simple form GM. Gom — GomBt— 
GoMo and .G.UMA> (as the Etymologists confess) was the ancient name 
for iWa^. ' QROMis rightly. int^rpr(?ted P«;r5?«, in., th^.qiossaiy. 19, M?., 
Pinkejrton's, Scotish, Poems. It, is a grievous fault in this Glossary that there 
is no reference to th^ passages, in whfch the wofds^ aire; tq bC' found^, \\^ 
occurs however in that, beautiful, Ajliegorical Poem by Gawin Douglas, 

" Jk^} «»4-A«y ?»^ «<>ne thai can,, tlji^uiRfi^dr^ 
**..*'»!1»«W.^ fiJxde^.as P»9A«ss unagaist." 


Cft CF, CF. CV, 8^c. 355 

'A This \vojr<I/' (f^^s (^ iqiiiusjtifipjKis Ggm^eiiitacor): '* sometimes spelt 
*^' Gjl^^E%, signifies simpl^> M^j^^k B^dcg?;oQm i^aapiies MarriagerMan, 
M. Spe tho Tiat^.oi^ S|#fi^.. GQt^ (^^.iQai A. ^> «4nd in Qctor^ao^. Ib^ The 
^f siQw^daAi3;Ciill(e4i<l«^€WP Game.]* (Vol. Si* p^ 970.) Tbis tBrmrenoiaiBecl 
on the English stage till the time 06. Charlie tiie 1st.. It occuns in The 
Widow, which was actedfin tliatreigfi with much. applause. 

<*• Rickarda^^ 5Jir.? . 

'♦ I'll try.' youri ladyship,, 'faitfai: — Lady, well met. 

*' t'ranciscih lido noti think. so. Sir* 

*f Richaxdsi. Ai scornful Gqm>'' 
On which passage the Commentatorohser^fis : '' Junius^ in his Etymologicoh 
^^ saySf that Go M or Gqmb signified a Mfin^ Ricbardo therefore means,, 
^f i that ErancisGO, ini hi$» assumed . character of: a Woman, acts not with 
M the softness and idelicaoy of ^.f(^maleu. but withi the scorn and haughtiness 
'\ ofzMaUr (OW Pjays, voK la^.p. SMffc) 

From this name for Mmh underr th^iform: pf GMi. Gam^-^ome, &c. 
the £tynu)logista.haye rightly7d!erWedr)GQMif AN,. which some, baye idly 
conceived to b^ quasi OoQdmtnk Junius> at pncer records axMl. corrects the 
error. ** OomrmnJ' (say$he) ^^quaju 'Goldman dixefunt-AngU quomodaet 
*^- Goo^tff irdkiunt pro Goodwifs. Nisi malisG0MMMt668e^akantiq4iK> Gomo, 
'^ quod Qtfrido passim Homiwm : 6i^x9tm qupinoda el GoMMAN^icidem • 
^' Otfrido pluribusin locis est vir^ G^eidoftOiU ubique fere Guma. dicitur. 
" [Gom, Gome v^Uk Anglis «r»(i:t^i .quod* ut Al. GeMo^et A> S. Guma, 
'* descendit a Goth. Gu^f]&II9$|4^if|(p|<4M^^]U]'' 

The Latin HoHO;a]e4 J^QM 1*^:19 ib^0jpg^: I iipiagine> to the ^0 wo and 
Qufmins. The^iH ^iOi.thj^scjjl^tin: words represents the: roug^ breathing; 
before the. ^Mj} wi»k^ wfi$. perh^p^.genoraUy haj^denedxiotO' the consonant 
sound of G;,a$ abifi^emioek&led :in .tbft beginning j[^ our words. in £nglish« 
Wc^mustlikewise/rgoMmbef itb^l^^th^iietler^^^^ to G iiK^thar languages 

is j>erpetuaHj.pieMQg uitfctbe fiMkndL<)fj a);vow^l: bceathipgni In Gothic the 
Gris; repTt&mteiibyit^fiifuiltj^VUI^^ Xjand.y j and . 



in Efiglish, we perceive that in such words as Might — Right, &c. &c. the 
effect of the consonant sound his entirely disappeared. H has been 
acknowledged by the Critics to accord in many cas^s with the Hebrew 
r\, Ch, and the Greek X; 'iind some one has facetiously observed that 
though KP be indeed no wa;e/, yet it is a constaYit retainer to that family. 
This derivation of Homo brings it at once to a name for ' Man' common' 
under some form or other to every language ; whereas if we consider the 
Root as a simple breathing before ^M!, it is a term peculiar only to the 
Latin dialect, and stands alone in die history of languages. The Min in 
IIoMi^ish2Ls been allowed to belong to our word Men; and thus we see 
that HoMiNw is only another form of the old English word Gomman, and 
the Gothic Gumeins. Ovk famit&r word Yeoman we shall now instantly 
acknowledge as a kindred t»m ; and perhaps it may be considered as the 
intermediate step between Gomman and Homin-h. The Etymologists 
have formed a variety of conjectures respecting its origin ; yet they see 
nothing of its resemblance to this family of words. > 

I have had frequent occasions of observing that a faithful record of 
the most important and universal words is still to be found in the language 
of the vulgar. Thus they talk of * A GvMvtious Fellow' to express a 
person with, a swaggering/ bold air or mode of speaking, (^ How Gump- 
• tious he is— How Gvuvttous be talks;') and in this sense it precisely 
answers to the use of the word Mannish. ' 

'^ We'll have a swashing and a martial outside; •- 

" As many other inannish cowards have, 
'* That do outface it with their semblances/' 
This term is likewise applied to express another quality 'most appropriate^ 
to Man — skill and dexterity. ^ What a Gumt//(?w^ felloH;Cf it is— ^There's* 
' some GuMP/ion in that^fellow,* &c; &c. I have remarked oa a former^ 
occasion, that Ut^m and A^j^o? are' used in a similar ^sen^e, and derit6d like-'» 
wise from the nzm6bi Man; (page 172;) but what is extretqel;;^ ctiriDU^ • 
we find in the language of ^e vulgar/ thist *liW« ^fe ^Cftt<jUly^ with^' 


Oiimpticku^ convey tn idea of: thia^ort. *i'>Owi^tim 4ThJRHm-Q»nipthn$* 
^xfai)i& aifthor «f the ClasBictd Dictionary^ **>B6t\\ity.i compnahenslQin* 
«<!!|;^a(3ky;" What areata pndar die, fimn 6fOtt77^.>i^<ond dialect ^be- 
comes O^ In aaochte)-' Thus 66pp»rA signifies in the North, as Mr« Gro^ 
cxidainc it> *' FroUd, testy, pftdsb, apt ta take exceptions/' (See Pro- 
irincial <jrl689ary rab vdce<) I hare prodiiced a p^uiage frpm a play acti^d 
in th^ reign of Charles the UU where we fiad a similar idea, attached ;t0 
the original WoHl — '^ A Sc&rn/ul QouC &nd I. shiU shew in aqothei; 
placei th^Ckuf, (a Chuff J^etUm, &a) has^ been deduced froiQ the €ame 


. • • • > 

CdMfiSt die C6unU ^at filmiliar title of dignity 
in the Feudal Ages, ftiuftt tto foferred likewise to thi^ ofigin: Ho i^ 
the GoM-r-the J/i«i--4he' Being I of wiiincnce— of pdWen-^authority — 
rank, &c, as I have before proved that temis ex^esang this idea are 
derived from a similar origitu / IX is not tak^n from th^ Latin Comes, a 
Companion; because (as tbe^ Etymologists inform tis) Co79l^s-^^the Count, is 
an attendant on some sit^rior9L4rd. The I4t)n Comis is the Com or Man 
m the best of \m form^ wfteiied by manneis and refined by letters-^ 
^ Gentle, mildy graeious, a^ble/^ (I quote the language of our brdinarjff 
Lexicons) '^ easy to be spoken to, good natu^ed^ kind, courteous, nicey 
*^ havkig a delicate taste, ' k»f tng' curious atts;'^ Even in thid very enb^ 
planation two words oooiifr which: spring froin the dame idea« Thud 
Gentle belongs, We'knoWi to O&irs^ the term expni^ing Meni and 

Kindj which Junius explains by Hu^ 
^erttle^'-'Xkni. ^ mania , must be' refenred to the same 

A'iairf, {MMy^Kini^^^^Genu$4 race cf wortb. The term preceding 

tlumanus^^Hamlnisr ' this in Junius^ is Kind, which he inter* 

17 it /(^^^ ^^!?-) prets by Otnust words, as we perceive, 

^ : l ijedt/ Jfiiwrfsomft- / ofttiesamcJckwi. iTbe reader will find 
i#«i^oS-^^;f^brdpOBi; (Or.) ' ' * it di^cult fSRiha^lo bclicfve, thai 

4 V Junius, 

Junius/ dif0u^' he hdsr pliiiced >tbese. ' words . together, faar not vefen^ thd 
o^ to the other. He derives Kin i>, Humaiuis^ frdm iKiNOA (Kii4ka) 
which in Hesychius, saf s . he, (Signifies ! z\ prostitute^ i beritause At is the 
custonv of the^ women ta address dieir Idvers in kind zssd eaticilig Jan? 
guage. Skinner and others have a .glimpse of the true origin. The 
interpretation-^JErumimtir, * which Junius gives of ' Kind/ is taken, we 
know, from the same ide^, Honw-^HoMi^is. , In Old. English,. Q&nuM: 
might be translated Hbndy, a word certainly derived froin the ANT-/erqwte 
•—AND-ro^, &c. (See page 125^ &c.) We have seen HiJMD-^J/flrn, in 
the grosser form; and in Hendy he presents himself to us in his better 
shape, Hendy, says Mr. Thomas in his Glossary to Chaucer, is " Gentle, 
*^ neat, handsome/' Who remembers not, and who does not rejoice to 
reniembfer, tlie description of the Hendy Mc/ro/tf^^ 
' » *f This clerk was cleped Hendy Nicfiolas, 

*' Of deme love he coude and of solas ; 
^* And thereto he was slie and ful prive, 
:' ^ And like a maiden meke fortose/' ; 

(The Miller^s Tale, 3199, &c. TyrWhitt.) 
One of the explanatory . words given by Thomas — HAifusorne, is a com- 
pound, in which Hand conveys a similar idea. It is not ^' Veluti ,ad 
'/ m^nt^m factus;" as the Etymologists im^de. The word JETuni/y in the 
sense of ' dextrous,', may perhaps be immediately derived from the Hfndi 
but in such coincidences it is impossible to decide. 

The Latin Cotnis appears under another form with the same meaning 
in the ancient word Gim or Gimp, which, says Lye, signifies '* Comptus, 
'' bdlus,. concinnus, elegans.^' . This word perpetually occurs in the Scotch> 
Poems, and is intet|)reted by Mr. Pinkerton, " Slender, genteel." Tlic 
reader cannot fail to mark the explanation of Lye — CoMTtus, which 
has certainly a marvellous afiinity to Gimp. On this word however, and 
its attendant terms, Canuhr-Cama — Comb, I dare not venture to decide ; yet 
we should remember that the great distinction of Man from the -beasts 


l\ CB;/CF, GFii X:VJ ttc^ . 9S9 

anmnd hitn» or from bimself in his s^age state, must eonsiat in dress land 
in the ornaments I of Jiis .person ;/whtd> would be forcibly impressed on 
die mind in the darnings I of' socsaL life. Such are tb^ reflection^ of the 
Pibet, when he;cbnttoiplajbes Man nediiced to the. forlosn condition of a 
naiked Savage i ^^ Why, thou were bletter in thy grave/ than to answer 
^^ iwith thy i^ncoi^^e^/.^ciidy this extremity of the skies! Is Man no more 
'^rithan tbis2 Consider him. weU: Thou owest the worm ho siik, the beast 
'< no hide, the sheep no Wool, the ca;t no. perfume: Ha.! here's three of 
'/ us are sophisticated ! TboMr' art the ihing itself: unaccommodtHed Man is 
" no more but such a poor, hare forked aninui I as thou art.** 

To this race of words I inust refer our vulgar term Jbmmy — /I Jbmmt 
Fellow, &CC. and our.fqujailit tlioug^ fiuniliar phrase, GiM-Cract. By 
some Etymologists, Engine has been imagined to be the origin of this ex* 
pression ; and there is one facetious personage of this race, who has supposed,^ 
that K(««»«, perficio, or Kfatiov, Caput, might have supplied a portion of 
the compound, GiVL^rack was originally applied, I conjec^e, to the 
person, and afterwards to the device. We still talk of a Gim-crack Fellow 
-*— a Fellow neat or spruce in hi& appointments — dress— furniture, &c. In 
the Classical Dictionary it ill explained '^ A spruce wench; a GiM-Crack 
*^ also means a perion, #ho has a turn for mephanical contrivances/' 
Cback is a term of nearly the. same import, and is derived from the name 
of Man. In ShakspeareJt signifies, :wlMit wq might express now by ' a 
* smartr active youth.* '^ I saw him," quoth Justice Shallow of his friend 
Falstafif, '^1 saw him break Skogan^ head at the court gate, when he was 
'* a CRACK not thus high/' (2d pt of Henry 4tb. A. 3. S. 2.) Mr. Tyr- 
whitt observes on ibis passage, '' This is an old Island ic word, signifying 
«« a boy or child. One of the fabulous kings and heroes of Denmark, 
^* called Hrolf, was sumamed Krake. See the %lory in Edda, Fable 63." 
This word occurs in another place of Shakspeare, and means a * wild, 
< humoursome boy/ I must tra ns cri b rthe whole of this exquisite Gossip- 
description^ that the reader may duly understand the peculiar force of the 



term. *'^ O* my wort!/* says Valeria, speaking of ^the: son of, -Coriobmisi 
^ The fad^er's don : I swear, •tis a very pretty boy . ^;0^ my troth, I looked 
^* upon him o* Wednesday half an hoai' together: i he: hai such aidonfirm'd 
^ countenance: I saw hiin lun lUfter a §^dedi butterfly; and when htf 
'^ caught it/ he let it go again ; attd after it again, v ind over and over be 
^* comes, and up again; catch 'd it again; or whether his fall enraged hhn; 
<* or how 'twas, he did so set his teeth; and tear it;i O, I warrant, how. he 
<* mammockM ii. I^ro/.^ One ofr bis^fatker*9 moods« (Val.) Indeed 
^ la, 'tis a noble cbild. jfT^r.^ A crAck^ Miadam/' On which Mr. 
Steevens has the following note: ^^^ Thiis in Cyntkia^s Revds^ by Ben 
^ Jonsbii:— * SlAce w« ate turned Cracks, tet'slstudy to be likeCaACKS, 
^ ' act fredVf careles$iy, ; and atprickmsly.* ^ Agejn, .i» tEwr Four PrcnticA 
^ of London, les^/ ^ A iiiotalde, idi£Sembling lad, la CitAihx/ Cttju^ 
^< signifies a b^, child/''' (Corkilanus, A* !• S^ 3.) In the quotation 
from Jonson, the word manifestly bears tbe idea of a mid, capricious^ 
whimsical felUm/ ' vihich is the precise 8ense^ of it in ^ the. phrase ' Gnpf^f 

V«/if ACK* - • . . I. . .... 

The* Grreek t^oMPAU {Kfl^tK) ig deeply impregnated with tbe V^ious 
(qualities, which are attached to the Com or Man; audit contaim in full 
force the pectiiiaridMs/ which I have wifolded i\^<^lim'-^Jaamj^-'^irnp 
G^iinptUmsi «&rtw SSr<; j €OMMd5, t9 our ordinary EKctronaiieswdi detail to uS/ 
signifies- ^^S(Ditti$i 'd)^fl8,'^b^ venusHus, ilepidon^wfacetus, ies\hru8^ 
^ toquae»lu9; ga^ruhis, vafeh versutus, plemis: jac^ntiift: et osOcatationia.'* 
Thrs-woFd^xpresses wbatev^ep is illbstricM or bas^ iu the nature df'tbii 
eXtraoldinary bdng.* '-'^ ■X>\fft>nt^ ll^Tlr«^ i^kv«(>«c* Ma^lttH^ : uri^* ^leaxsc*'^ 


! ? * '■ ' n ■ 1. 

. n ) i ^ : .'* t . . *•/ 

,.f '. W . V . • I •• .' r .•i\ i . )■) '^. ..■ ,\*.,'. ') 

\ -» »i 



. ::i.] TO 

C», CT, CP, CV, ice. 


Champion. (Eng.) 
Champion. (Fr.) 
Campsader. (Span.) 
Campewr. (Welsh.) 
CfiMPA. (A. S.) Miles* 

Kamff. (Germ.) "^ 

Camp — Comp. (A. S.) } 


Campian. (a. !J.) 

^ Athlete. 


Kamffen. (Germ.) )-Pugnare. 


Grim. (Celt.) Bellum^ 
Grymm War. (Rowley*) 
GKiM-visnged War. (Shaksp.) 

TO this race of words must be re* 
ferredCHAMPf^n, 1 term, which und^r 
some form or other may be perpetually 
traced through ev^ery dialect of the 
Teutonic languages. In the Anglo 
Saxon, Cempa it a Soldier; and the 
appropriate term in German for Pugna 
is Kampff, and that for Pugnard 
JSLamttch. The Etymologists are aware 
of the words bdongtng to this idea, 
though they are totally ignorant fre- 
specting the origin, from which they 
^re deduced. They imagine tliat these 
terms are all derived from Campus;. 
diough Skinticr adds^ *' Alludit Gr. 
^' lUfAKi/' That the reader may be 
duly scnsiUe how widd/ this term is 
diffused^ I shall produce in the margin 
the parallel words to be found in our 
Lexicographers. We stiall there seq 
that in Saxon^ &c. Campion, as in G^r-^ 
man^ Kamffen, is used as a verb; though 
Cluinipum is now .only applied as l 

substantive. We shall however not 
wonder to see our ancient Poets coincide With tha? original usdge ; aiid . wt 
accordingly find it in Rowley as a verb. In tlie Tournament, Bourtonni 
says to his antagonist, ^ . • 

'' Straungcrr, beboune; I CHAMPYaN!^ youto warr." (14^.) 
This w'ord is used in Rowley as at^ adjective likewise; (See Milks'» Rcnw* 
ley, 489,) and rn Norfolk, the 8pote,r on which die Htttict. co|ite»(l at ibot^ 

4 z ball. 


ball, &c. are called Camvi^g fields. The use of Champion as a verb is 

/TT^ i/c(A^^v[iO\\^ the petty objections :of Mr. Tyrwhitt agarinsttlie: authenticity oi 

y{^ f-?^ry^ Rowley: It has happened here, as. rib other cases, that we are captious, 

^r x^ 2y/i^cause we are ignorant. » . m; t ^*'* 

I' ^ /LuAptP^ ^ook-oes/io 1 have b^for0^•producecl, (page 349,) a? the term in.» 

/^ ' dialect of tlic Hindoo Jangua^e for a Husband;^ and I shall shew on 

another occasion, that Ero^ (HfW5)r— Herc;, belongs td Vir, as Er, (Hf) the 
Spring, appears in L^atin under die form of Ver; but \vhat is.e^tjeraely 
curious, tliis. word— Ujie Heho- asgunics in Sanscrit the consonant at the 
beginning., Bj^e^ro is the appropriate term in that language fo^ an 'Hero. 
In an Episode :ofthe Mohaa Bhaarot, or Great War, produced by Mr. 
Halhed, we have, 

'* Mooneb bola soono Poreekhyeetar tonoyo, 
• ;* -. .*' Jamota Saatyokee beero ho-ilo poraajoyo. 

" Moonee said. Hear, o son of Poreekl^yeefo, i< 

'* How the iHERO Saatyokee was overcome.'* 
' (Granimar. of Bengal Language, pages 37-42.) 

In another place Mr. Halhed says, " JSe^rc?, a Warrior, Vjif;*^ though be 
was little conscious, I imagine, that, in explaining Beer(? by Hrro^ 
WARRior — -Vir,' he was placing the same words in juxta-position with 
each other. I cannot leave th>s passage without directing the Utteption of 
the reader to JBo/a,/ (' said') the word, which expresses talk or language. 
I have observed on. a former occasion'; (page 195,) the universality of the 
Element. BLt to express .this iiiea; and I find that^kitthe Sanscrit it supplies 
the appropriate and fiamiliar term for speak — talk — call, &c. &c. (See 
' Mr. Halhed's Gram> :pages :S;8*65, &c, &c.)': It , must be owned, ili^t 
Campus afFords a, very probable d^riyatipn of. th^,(7/zfl;n/>/o7^; yet I prefer 
my own Etymology, as I have observed through the whole compass of 
language, that the. term; for War /is pftep attache4 to the name for Man. 
Thuji fVar b6longs tQ Fi/h— iii . Cieltif ^ J^^^ and, ^ this updqr tire form of 
Guerre Qorre$pQndsi'wilh< l^i4r^ijUiothe];:mpde; of representing the name pf 
. .. i Man 

Matt in the dialects of th^ Celtic«::Tbe^saniii.Jikmcnt supplies thfename 
fotlVar and . M/ni in the Sanscf it language.; In the^ utords ^* Mohaa^Bhaar ot'/. 
\i?0ihavc ahi^<jy sew, r (page iiQ5>)(tlul ]&haarot^ Is ;lhe/t^nii ifor.JF^rr,, ^""^^X^^^^ 
{quasi Beerot, Virot or IV ar-ot;) and what is extremely curious, .ifrappeaii vnh^ ^^^os^ 
precisely under the same form in our own. BARRAT^r, we know, is a '^^ aVA W >V^v\ 
term in our English law, irelating to conUniiom; vsi^\VL\Q Lexicographers 
have produced the corresponding terms in other languages — Baratta, 
^Mkandic and)S<jandiriaviani):iPf.aeIium, Lis-^iBar^«/7y (Italiafv) pu^ni, con- 
teirtio-^MZitfre/, (Ajigii^nNoniiain) Lis, coiatentitl^. -in Scqtclt likewise^ jB/rrr^/ 
meahs 'Contention;' ofwhicii Mxi^Pihkjerton^bafifprodMced eKamplesriu his 
Notes /ta '* Ancient Sdotisb Po^m»/' (vol. 2^ pr-*88.) Baxgane,^ w'ltktthe 
same idea, liiranpthetiiScotiiBh,. word^ i; It i as r;eQC^lained by Mn Pitrkerlon^ 
:v ^ '- ^ ^ ^^V^ if' /; conflict;', and has b^eaiu noted ib3r> 

Fir — WaVk : i . i /i. • Junius.: . " Bargane yel Bergane Scoiis 

Fear-^Gur. (Geltici.) AlMan. " est;.fic//tm, pugna/ pra5liun^;..pra5*j 

Guerre.. , - n^ ih r m- - *k ^*>;cipae tamen leoRgresswi 'l)osftlij(]|pi> 
Beeiv* {S^ns.) A\ff)etV4ri j iJ.l v >" acieruni, int^^ptiloco 
Bhiia^:ot.(SsLns.) W^rs' ... j.l r;; ^icertaminis cony^ait. : Gv TWugtass. 
Barr^tex. (Etig, Law.) Contfit^tious* '^-^pisoepi •l>unk. ,-: paraphrasia ,^cM^ 
Baratta 1(1^1. and Scand.)...o(a -> /Mibi/5. ^Enpidos. . .They foyngfat: 

iPraelium, Us^r i,tfif! - ' . .J'^utJiU, and.^ggWtoBfiROANE. Im- 
JBA^^YZ/Ztf. (Itat.) Pugna. , .(; ffjimiacffltque nianusmanibuspugnam- 

Baret. (Anglo Norm.) Lis. '^ <}ue lacessunt*" /Junius appears to 

Barrat. (Scotch.) Contention. , hajKC giy^ this explanation of Bargane, 

Bargane. (Scotclj^) B^Uuflfi^: ( ^i ,i i as,i:elatirjg to^ja jj^rf-time and place, 

that it may coincide with Bargain, a 
contract Qr agreement. I have shewn 
il/fl;7iamai. (Gr.). Jo, fight.' ^ in page M,&Cc!.^ that the Element BR 

Pugna, Fight— Pi4gnus^Fi^..„y or i FR, supplies due appropriate terms 
Polemos. (Gr.) War|.froift.i ^i .. r^hm^io commetct^' Fomm—Fair; 

Pii/fl;wc. (Gr.) The Hi«i4, ,,0- 4 .; .i&e.-eiKj J baye^VHippMtd^ that from 

:\ hence 

• t «■ ' f 


hence BrA&^m, (a eotnpact). and words, of that ti^ture'-^BargUigner, &c. 
are deriTcd : There is however another sourcCt from which Bargain may* 
possibly arise; which I shall lay before the reader in the course of this 
discqssion. ,,. 

Digressicmm a passage of Rowley. 


.^ I have shewn in page 89, that to the ralce . of words denoting the 
affairs of commerce^ a sense has^ been annexed^ which refers to the cir- 
eutnstanc^ generally connected with such transactions. Some of these 
terms express th& dou^ting-r^hesiiatifig—r^xceptious — dissatisfied spirit, which 
i^ conunoiily apparent, before' the parties have finally agreed on the con<^ 
djtions of their Bargam or contract From Barguigner and Bargain 
woidd readily be formed a diminutive Barganet; and it is extremely 
euTM^us, that this v^ry .word Barganet exists in Rowley, and that it is 
capable of bearing* in conformity with the spirit of the context, the pre- 
cise signification, w^ii^h I have just exiiibited. In the third Eclogue a 
rustic is introduced, as discontented 'with his lot, and proposing to the 
priest, SirR^iger, a captious question respecting the inequality of man* 
kind. ^' All-a-boon>' Syr Priest, ill-a-boon„- 

*♦ Bye yer preestschype now saye unto mee, 
^ Sy* Gawfryd the Knyghte, who ly vethe harde bie, 
<^ Whie should hee than mec 

^* Bee more greate, 
*' Inne honnoure, fcnyghtehood and «tate?^ 

■ • MP * • • 

Syr Rogerre. 
^* Attourne thine eyne around thys haied m^e, 
.** Tentyftie loke around the chaper de*le, . 
'^ An antwere lo thie BAReANETTE h^ see,- 
•^ Thy? welked flourette- wylle a leson teDei*^ - - - 


CB. CF, CP, CV, ice, S«5 

Barganette is explained by Chatterton, ** A Song or Ballad;'* and in 

Speght we find ^^S^neUX^ Song or Sonnet. 

Bargaret, ) A kind of dance. 
The Bargaret in Chaucer, to which this explanation refers, is a Song, 
which a Lady sings in honour of the Margarete or Daisy. 

** And at the last there tho began anon, 
A Lady for to sing right womanly 
A Bargaret in praising the daisie. 

'* For (as methought) among her notis swete, 

'* She said. Si douce est la Margarete.'' 

(The Floure and the Leafe, 347, &c.) 
Mr. Tyrwhitt explains Bargaret by the French " Bergerette^ A sort of 
•^ Song;" and others interpret it by *' Tripudium Pastoritium, A Dance 
^* used by Shepherds." Whatever be the meaning of Bargaret in Chaucer, 
it will contribute nothing to the explanation of Barganet in Rowley, which, 
we perceive, is a different word, and must be derived from a different 
root. The idea of a ^ Song or sonnet* is totally foreign to any sense, 
which we may conceive Barganette to possess in the passage of Rowley, 
though the sentiment annexed to Barguigner would at once supply us with 
a word, which is most adapted to the spirit of the sentence. We have seen 
in the French Dictionaries that Barguigner signffies to be *' irresolute^ to 
•• boggle, to haggle, to hum and fiaw.'' Barganette therefore means in 
the passage of Rowley, ^ a petty boggling — fiaggling question,' (if I may 
so express it) — a question which belongs to the little doubts of an uq- 
acquiescing — unsettled — discontented mind. This idea, we must acknow- 
ledge, precisely corresponds with the spirit of the passage ; nor can we, 
I imagine, doubt but that a meaning of such a kind must be conveyed by 
the word Barganette, as it stands connected with the present context. Wo 
have however no reason from hence to conclude, that a word similar in 
sound and orthography to Barganette is no where to be found, signifying 
a Song ; and the record of Speght, that a word of this sort actually exists, 

5a. is 


is -at least entitled' to our cohsideratioo; though he has produced ho authoritji 
for the establishment of the £act. It is curious however, that an example 
is supplied by Rowley, which confirms this interpretatiob. In the Tour- 
nament, theKing calls thus on the Minstrels. 

" The Barganbttjst, yee Mynstrclles tune the strynge^ : / : 
*' Some actyonn dyre of auntyante Kynges now synge." (V. 41-2.) 
Barganette, says Chattertony '* A song or ballad." Here Certainly Bar- 
GANETTE signifies a Song or something of that nature; and we must 
observe, that whatever may be the precise idea of the words in the two 
passages of Rowley ; we certainly should not expect to find the same 
explanation applied by the commentator, on occasions, which apparently 
are so totally' dissimilar to each other. But though we may imag'me the 
ignorance and the negligence of a Commentator to acquiesce in a senseless 
interpretation; what shall we say to the hypothesis, which supposes that 
the Commentator has interpreted his own meaning, and that the con* 
jectures of tlie one coincide with the deliberations of the other ? Here 
then, as it should seem, the author has purposely applied to opposite 
subjects the same word with the same significationi; that he may at once 
exhibit himself unmeaning as a Composer, and ridiculous as a Critic*^ 
But this confusion becomes wors6^^ confounded, wheti we learn that the 
author has been at last unable to accomplish -his own purpose, and diat 
his text is pregnant with sense, though his commentary brands it with 
absurdity. The reader must acknowledge, that according to my interpro-^ 
tation, the term Barganet has been applied with lingular propriety iatlie 
first passage; and in the second case, when we perceive that Barganrtti^ 
must of necesMty signify a Song or some species of wflif^ctf/ exhibition^ 
and have learnt moreover that Bargane means war — battle^-— cmfiict^ 
contention^ Sec. we must instantly feel and confess, that no term coAld hare 
been adopted more approfw'iate to the spirit of the context : — The King* 
commands his Minstrels to sound the BarganetYB— the rmtriuii struin 
—the song of combat, o{ broils and of battles, which describes 'joine 

' actyonn 

C B, C F, C P, C V, &d. : I " «6J 


* aclyann dyre of aiintyante Kyngbs'— same hardy adventure^^ of Knighte 
^ and Baroiis bold'— die Chiefe and CharApibns of the olden time* If 
it bte possibly . that \he reader should require^ any ! further confirmation of 
this sense,: h^ must be. finally informed/ that what appears here tinder .tb*l 
name of Banganetu^ 1% in^anotlifet part of the Poem faqpressly dcaominated 
^ '* War .Sowg^.'V. ' ' 

'' The Mynstrelles have begonnethe thyrde \VAftR..SoJ5^e." (V. 23.) 
Those, who are ardent' ifi the seairch of Truthr wilij» I trust,, be instructed 
and gmtified by ;this €tldearaur to elucidate a- contri^vcrtbd i question; an<^ 
I shall gladly ' Ifeave ibie supporters df an * opposite principle to tiie quief 
enjoyment of their QWti hypothesise Still however I might venture to 
observe^ for th*» benefit of that rsjc^ of disputants^ who form or rather 
maintain opinions on ^vib^ects like- these; that the business of. Griticisxii 

i i was once considered as an Airy whicft. 
7? wy ((Rowley.) A captious must be leamt, before it can be prac- 

i question. tisped; and/Uhat our dejcisions on the 

Ha / (Rowley .^) A War meaning^ of >. atidient .wwids imight pot^ 

^ v> Song. "^ '^ • cbiincbb^;son:icitim:e9 etitightOKidLbjfrift) 

knowledge of Ancients Lj^jajgiiagje. 

I shall now return to the consideration of ternis lexpmsingp JT^^r 0( 
iontention; whfch I Imv^fvitnd ^jnerally to bedei^iiped' fiiom; inQf^\tis^ 
• — Man or the Hand* ■■' As^Gtlet^re ai^idilfOjr telo«j^ttt<i«r)and F(Wf3{i(BciUwX 
Vir^ (Latin;) which in Saxon and OothifC are iVer and W^^:{}iir, mAs^ 
homo;) so I in^gincf that the Greek MAHi^amai belongs to ^ the Englisk 
Man — the Hindoo M^AAnosh^^ SiC. 8ic. ' J^ifc^(U«)tivi^qgna,)j Jihai^ei 
already shev^ (page SO©,) to be derived *fy«mpKlKi^ah0rif^i>irfv vmA) iha 

• • • 

relation between PuGKA and Pt^GrNtfS has been acknowfedgtfd evdn b^rther 
Etymologists. Though I have some scruples about Pneiium and Bdiu\h^ 
whether they belong to the name bf Man or of the Hand; yet Wa \^Qlb 
- instandy 



instantly grant that Polemo^ {UoXifAo^, bellum) is attached to Palm— Palm^ 
— Pa LA Me, (llaxa/Afi, manus.) I have explained this compound in a former 
page, (3 1) which is PL, the Ball of the Hand — VoLtf Manus, and Lam, the 
fariiiiiar Celtic term for that member. I shall leave the reader to determine/ 
whether BELLum and FKMLium are not derived from the first Element 
BLin the compound; and I must suggest, that I havcpreferred th6 origin 
of MAKi^amai from MAN rather than Manus, because I find that the 
Greek language abounds with words derived from the former source^ 
Seepage 125;) though I scarcely perceive any effects produced by the 
latter. We.liave had perpetual . occasion to observe, that the R is fre- 
quently attached to the Radical; as in pronouncing various words (Father 
-'r^Fartherr &c.) we are unable to distinguish those in which it really exists. 
Even in the i&^ instances now before us, we perceive Mamamai and 
Jhalium belonging to MN and PL, and in the dialects of the Celtic there 
is a term for War, attached to the Element GM, CM — Ckmpa, Kamff, 
CHAMp/on, &c. where the.R likewise is to be found. This word is Grim; 
(See Lhuyd sub voce £eUum, ),v/hich signifies Battle; and there is a very 
<mi90U5x:ircumstance . relating td this term, which requires some elucidation* 
Nothing is so common through the whole compass of language, as 
flP find a wdrd, which was originally applied in an appropriate sense, 
afterwards converted into sonie. other term with a difierent meaning, 
though with a kindred idea :; This ^condary J||>plication will afford tlie^ 
Etymolpgist a leaxd of the original sense; and it will generally serve as 
a faithful guide to direct him in his researches. Thus (as vve have just 
seen) the Ball of the Hand, which on the first view appears metaphorical, 
is really the appropriate term belonging to the subject- — ^the Voha — the 
FALobnev .^d jnmimeirabie instances might be produced of a similar 
natnie: /Grim, which originally meant ir^r in tlie dialects of the Celtic, 
still continued among our ancient Poets to be attached to the same subject, 
though from it3 accidental similarity to Grim, in the sense of Fierce^* 


:CB, CF, CP. CV, &c. S99 

looking, it was used as an epithet to War, and oftentimes with a metaphorical 
application derived from the idea of a furious countenance or mcjiqcing 
fonUk In Rowley we find, 

** Go, do theweaklie womnian in mann's geare, 

''And scond your mansion if Grymm War come there." 

(1st Battle of Hastings, 19, .20.) .. 
In a celebrated passage of Shakspeare we have the addition of the 
countenance, to which Grim was imagined to belong, and the metaphorical 
imagery arising from this notion. 

" GKiM-visag'd War hath smoothed his wrinkled Brow." 
I beseech the reader not to imagine, that this criticism is dictated by a spirit 
of ; hypothesis and refinenient, which discovers what never existqd; as 
there is no maxim in thtj discussions of Etymology morfc' certain or more 
frequently operating, than that which forms the basis of the present observa- 
tion. Before I close my remarks on the names for War, derived from 
Alan or the Fist; I must observe that Bargane, in the sense of Bellum^ 
contention, &c. belongs to tfie JRuGNt/^, ihc Fist, and is- only -another 
form of PuGNflf, with a vdwel bfeatbing between the GN. Bargain, an 
agreement, may possibly belong to the same Root; so that Bargain "w'lW 
only be another form of PAC/um and Vxciscor, which I have shewn , to. ^bfe. 
taken from. PK, the ^Hmid, (page 340.) InVhCtum and Vxciscor^ the 
Root exists witliout the sound of N attached to G/C or K; but in Bargain 
we find the N added with a vowel breathing preceding^ it — In the >)ame 
for Man under the form of Champ/ow — Cemp^, we perceive in the Pa 
record off the original Elenjent, CP, CF, or CP; ^nd I sJiaU now produce 
a race of words, in. whipb it appes^rs in its more simple state. 

» r • • I • 

ft.. ,' ' - t » . • • ' ' 1 • • ' 


r > ^F * 

5 B . These 


f • • 

Chief; These words. Chief, Chibr- 

TAIN, Captain, which are to be. 
CuiEFtaifi — CAvtain. found in so many languages, must be 

referred, I imagpne, to the CB, CF, CP, 
PrincEFB, (he illustrious, powerful, or distin- 

gmsiied Matu The Etymologists have 
. •.-^-^•^.^ derivted these words from Caputs which, 

though it be a term, as I have i^ewii, 
Dyn, Dean, >/p j^ ^-. belonging to thb race of words, yet 

Den, Duine. ) did not supply, as I conceive, the im- 

TVflnitf. (Gal.) A powerful Man. mediate origin. The Tain in the 
Thatk. (Scotch.) The same. compound words is deduced from the 

--'-.-*-•-• same idea. Chief taih or OiprAiv 
Prince — Priunse. (G2i\.) signifies the ^ Chief JWir^i*' DNorTN 

PrtneGps. in the dialects of tlie Celtic* signifies 


• y. ;• ^ - . • • . , Man, — " Djt/n, Dean, Den^ Duine/* 
mne^<{CM Eng.) &c (Lhuyd sub voce Vir.J In the 

Hmd. \ A Man servant. Scotch language and in Old Ez^tish we 

Antr, Andns. (Gr.) A Man. find it under tlie form of Thane, (* The 

-- - • •. ^ ^ •- - ^ Mnn of power, property,' &c.) In 
7W»€y. Hint. jKng, Names, the Etymology of Pmncbpi^ the- Latin 

Hind. \ Quasi, Man. Critics imagine that they have duly 

-.•.-.-•-- discharged their oflfice by telling us 
""R) K^iitiination quasi, V^. that Princbps covoes from Primm 

9t\d Capio — ** Qui primum locilm «- 
*' piat ;" and among the English Lexicographers we find Prince derived 
from Princeps. Nothing can be more inaccurate than this mode of con- 
ceiving it. Prince is the origin of Princeps; but even that word — Prince 
is itself a compound. Mr, Shaw observes in his Galic Grammar, that 
Agents or doers '' are formed by making the name Fear, a Man, or Bean, 

" a Woman, 

1 OB; C F, C(F^ IC V; &cu ^ ; : S71 


'V a Woman, govern the action tn the Genitive ; a^ FeaMighe, an bnsband- 
*' man; £<an-/^/if^ an housewife ; FeoTrceaird, a mechanic; Fear^baite^ 
'* a freeholder, a laird, sometimes a tacksman or lessee ; Fear-bainsCf a 
^* bridegroom; Bcmrbaime^ a. bride; JRpar-w^yir/, 'a murderer; JSibg^A, a 
^f king; Been-ripgh, a queen; Diuc^ a duke; J?etm-rfmc, a diitchess; 
^< Pajunse, a prince; jBran^-PHRiUNSB, a princess; /irr^, an earh i^ran* 
^^ iarla, a countess; Baran, a baron; JSron^^/uir/iM, a baroness; Morair, 
^^ a lord, or. great man; Beanimorairi Tiama, a general name for a pro- 
^^ )prietoF or lord over any thing, commonly an esquire, has Beantiatma, 
'• applied to gentlewomen in general, as the English word Lady,'*' (page 
91.) TIic word Peincx or Fhriunse is a compound; of which the parts 
a/ePR and ^NS or fNT, Elements of a similar meaning — signifying tlio 
Mart or. %h^ Being i — Greatr^patf/crftd — hamng — holding-^possessing\^ &c, 
PR denotes Man, and it belongs to tluit great race of words corresponding 
with the Latin Via; or, as it appears in the quotation before us, the Cehic» 
Feah« Even in this short sentence produced by Mr. Shaw, we find the* 
strongest example of its frequency and its use. Fear under another fonn 
becomes BARaor Baroa, the Aian of power, wealth, 8cc, and in MotLair 
('' a lord, or great Man,") is the same idea, with the familiar Celtic change- 
of B into M. The Element '^NS or "NT has been already explained 
(page 124-5,) to signify Man — the holder — the strong Being, &c* &c. 
such as it appears in Eks — AvD^ros-^^AjNT'^hri^s, (A»^, A»^f©», Aytfuiri^.y 
These Greek terms for Man, AND and ANT, are used in our own lan-> 
guage for the same object ; which the reader wilU I believe, for the! fiiit 
time acknowledge, when he recoUeots our old word HuiD^-a ficrvaol:,. or 
Jl/an employed in rustic occupations; and the coincidence will be found 
still more compleat, when he fcmembeiB that dib'same word appears uilder 
the form of Hine, (in Saxon, Hike or HfK^, domesticus ;) which eor^^ 
reaponda more partlcidarly with Anbk;' This, I liave no doubt, is, the 
oei^ of the word Prlnce; but the latin still .adde<| to Ithe cbmppsilion 
by'afiraing theplemeiit CF^ wbidi coiiveyeid>an jttc^ such 



as we find it m * CA/^/ &c. Princ-ceps (Princeps) is, as' we might 
say in English, the CHIEF PRINCE — ^The first among the powerful 

; I cannot l6ave this subject without taking occasion to illustrate the 
meaning! of the termination or — er, &c. ^R (denoting ih^ -Agent ot 
Doer} so universdlyto be found in the construction of languages — Amatot 
T-A Lov^Kf &c. &:c. .As the consonant sound of F or V becomes weak 
in Feaj' and Vii\ we have the vowel breathing before '^R to represent objects 
of die same nature. Hence comes the Greek ER(v, (Hf«?;) the sound oP 
which harder breathing is perhaps recorded in the aspiration affixed to it ; and 
in the H belonging to the Latin Her^^ and Her2/s — the English HerW— 
and the German Herr., Th^i Eras belongs to Vir will not be doubted, 
when it is remembered tliat Ear or Er, (E«f, Hj) the Spring in Greek, is 
Ver in Latin; of which word the origin shall be explained on another 
occasion. Now in the Galic dialect of the Celtic, '^R performs the same 
office which it does in other languages; as Mr. Shaw has observned in the 
same place, from which I have taken the above quotation. " Agents or' 
*^ Doers," i (says he) *' subjoin o/r, and sometimes £r/r to the present par- 
*' .ticiple of verbs." But what is extremely curious, Fhear is some- 
times writtea for this termination 0/r by the Galic authors; and though 
Mr. Shaw has thought it right to condemn this practice, yet by a whimsical 
mode of illustration, he has placed the matter in that very point of view, 
which is most accommodated to my hypothesis. •' Some WTite," (says 
Mr. Shaw) ** the ' termination Fhear in place of Oir, affecting aii idle 
•* knowledge in the etymology J of words, at the expence of hurting the 
V* eye of every reader with the brisdy appearance of an uselesss. assemblage 
** ^of consonants. — It would be as Justin Latin to write ^ma^viR instead of 
*^ AmatoBti as to write in Gzlic Slaniugh Fheair in place of Slanioiji.** 
(Page 9D-9L) In the ; termination of Fhear or Vir (the Manor Being;)* 
the original word is pnfcbrvdd : in that of Oir or Er the consonant soun^. is> 
lost.^. Before.I leave the tjuQtakions from Mr. ^li^iv; I must point put. to thai 
i' reader 

CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 


reader the word Tiarna, which is " a general name'* (says our author) 
^' for a proprietor, or lord over any thing/' This confirms my explanation 
of Tain in the compound word CaprAiN; and I must add, that our sur- 
name of TiERNEY. is derived from the Tiarna, or Duine; as that of Hine 
or Hind belongs to AN-er-r— AND-ro^ — ANr-hropos. Mr. Tierney and 
Mr. Hind or Hine answer precisely to Mr. Man. This signification of 
the Element TN or DN may be traced through every language, with 
which I api acquainted ; and in every form of speech it still bears the 
most distinct and unequivocal characters of its original force. As we have 
seen the Eleme^it CB, CF, or CP, representing Man, when he performs 
the higher part of a Commander or Leader; we shall now behold him under 
another form; as the sprightly— lively personage of common life — the 
familiar object of our ordinary objscrvation. 

Chap. (Eng.) A Boy. 
Shebb. (Ar.) Youth, j.. 
Sebi. (At.) a Boy, Youth. 
Shabb. (Ar.) A YoungiMftH. 

I . I 

Kabeios. (Gr.) A Youth. 
Chave. . (Gips.) A Boy., i 
Gava — Geeva. (Oips.)Life. 


Chiva ^cn. (Gips.) \ am^alive. 

The reader surely will instantly 
acknowledge that the term Chap be- 
longs to this universal name for Man. 
I have produced in a former page (84^) 
the observation of Mr. Steevens, that 
"Chap, i. e, Chapmar^p a word of 
" the same import with Merchant in its 
" less respectable sensp, is stiirin.use 

. **• among the vulgar, as a general de- 
": nomination for any .person <?f whom 

' " they mean to speak with freedom or 
*' disrespect." Chap. isnot<;anne,cted 
with Chapman, a Merchant — a Man, 
who trades or chaffers ; as will now be 

; readily understood. Chap in our 
5 c vulgar 



Shaben. (Ar.) A vigorous Vouth. 
Shepen. (Rowley.) Boyish. 
JuvENis. (Lat.) 
JuvAUNE. (Pers.) Youth. 
JuvAUN. (Pcrs;) Young. 


GiovANE. (It.) A Youth. 
JuvENCUS. (Lat.) A Bullock. 
Junior. (Lat.) Jeu7i. (Fr.) 
Young. (Eng.) Youth. (Eng.) 
Geong. (A, S.) Jtmg. (Germ.) &c. 

Gevank, J vank, '^ (Celt.) 

Itmg^ J wank. 

A Youth. 

Junix. (Lftt.) A Hdlfer. 
y^ye. (Lat.)Ta delight, assist. 
Jeu. (Fr.) Sport, play. 

vulgar language is applied to persons 
of all ages — * A clever young Chap 
• — An old sly Chap f yet it appears 
more particularly to denominate a 
Youth, vi^ith the attendant qualities of 
life — spirit and activity. We shall ac- 
cordingly find, that a great race of 
words exists in various languages, sig- 
nifying a Human Being in the earlier 
part of his existence; and we shall 
observe the same idea of brisk, active, 
lively motions — vigour — spirit, &c. &c. 
such as we naturally annex to this 
period of life. I shall profit by the 
present occasion, and endeavour briefly 
to unfold the race of words, conveying 
this peculiar notion. 

In Arabic, Shebb — Shabb — 
Sube or Sebi, mean A Young Man 
— Boy or Youth. Shebb, (v.^^) says 
Mr. Richardson, signifies in tlie first 
sense, '' Kindling (a fiaine or war.) 
*' ^- Being on fire. ^' Giving more life 
'* or brilliancy (to colour) — ^^ Youth." 
This term conveys in the Arabic lan- 
guage so strong an idea of the ihily 
— active motions, which belong to the 
season of Youth, that it has afforded a 
very striking and affecting saying. 
'* Min SheMa ilia dubba," (v^ J I 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &ۥ 3T5 

S^ O^) signifies " From Youtli to Age" — From the skipping to the 
crawling. Dubb, (v^) " creeping, crawling (as a serpent) — Going 
" slowly (an old Man leaning on a stick.)" (Richardson sub voce.) 
Sebi ((^aa^) means Hketvise in Arabic, *' A Bay, ^ Youth; and Shabb 
(^jUi) is interpreted by Richardson, " A Young Man.'* Shab£:N ((^U*) 
signifies in the same language, '^ A healthy, vigorous Youth;'* and perhaps 
the reader will be somewhat astonished to find a word in tliis very form and 
this very sense in the Poems attributed to Rowley. It occurs in The Story 
of William Canynge, who is thus described while he was yet in his 
boyish days. 

In all hys Shepen gambols, and chyldes plaie. 
In everic merrie-making, fayre, or wake, 

" I kenn'd a perpled lyghte of wysdom's raie, 

^ He eate downe learnynge wyth the wastle cake. 

*' As wise as anie of the Eldermenne, 

" He*d wytte enowe toe make a Mayre at ten.*' (97, &c.) 
Chattcrton has given no explanation of this word ; and Milles interprets it 
by *' Innocent or simple;*' supposing, I imagine, that Shepen was derived 
from the Sheep. We now perceive that the '* Shepen gambols^' are the 
gambols of the Boy — the Shaben or the Chap. In Hesychius we find 
that KjiBeios among the Paphians vras the name for a Youth. KABEIOX-: 
w•^ •i llflifioi. In the Gipsey language, Chave is a Boy, and Cki is a 
Girl. Tikno Ch AVE is a ' Young Chrld ;' where ' the reader will not ffl»a 
to observe the coincidence of Tikno with the Greek Tekno, (Tmw, Tti^9¥) 
a Child. Wkh respect to the term Chi, this corresponds with a great race 
of words to be found in a variety of fangu^es. It belongs to the word, 
which perpetually occurs in Hebrew to express whatever relates to life 
and existence, or to objects connected with that idea, ^^n H^, (CAYH, 
CAYY) Chayak or Chayay, (as these words have been sometimes reprc^ 
sented) signifies ' To live, life; any living thing; — applied to Beastsi 
'■ Viml, Fish/ &c. The Persian Zf, {(Sj) which is said to be the 



Chi, Schajf KGips.) Iraperative and Participle of ^jJ>^^ 

Tsche, Tschaj. ) A Girl. signifies '' LiveXhou. ^' Living. ^- Life;" 

C/r^yflf/^, |(Heb.) wliich we perceiye connects this race 

CAtfytfj^.iLife-— any thing living. , of words with the Greek %oe, %ao, Zo, 
%i. (Pers.) Living, Life. (Zcni, 2a«, Z<o) Life, Uvfi, &cc. and I 

Zoe, Zao, Zo. (Gr.) Life, Live. shall leave it to the Persian scholar to 

Che. (Pers.) \ determine whether Che (Asj^) which in 

Che. (ItoX.) /The Relative W^Ao; that laiiguage, ", added to nouns," says 
Sue. .(Fr.)&c./ Quasi, Sl^-who. Mr. Richardson, **form$ diminutives,'" 

Qui. (Lat.) J does not belong to this idea. Perhaps 

, ..likewise the Persian Relative Che, 

which is to be found in so m^ay langu^es, ^ui, (Latin) Que, (French) 
Che, (Italian) the English IVho^ qxx^si Q-tpko, &c. &;q. is derived from the 
same source.. In the colleqtion of Gipsey words to be found in GrcUman, 
Tschowo, Tschabo, is a Child, and Tsche, Tschaj, is a Girl. His words 
for a Son zre Tschaxvo, Schave ; ?Lnd' (oi a. Daughter, Tschaj, Schaj. In 
Mr. Bryant's collection, Chavo i^ a. Son; and h? has given us Cava or 
Gcevq ^ the Gipsey word for Life. ^Chiva, hen' means in that language 
* I am alive v' and ' Mera ben* means * I am dying.' Mr. Bryant has 
represented the names for Death by Moloo or Miraben ; in botli which 
words he is ipistaken. Molo is a Corpse; and Ben, as in our language,: 
and other dialects of the Teutonic, signifies '1 bin or am.' Deatli is 
Mar — the universal term in all languages. I have, before observed, that 
Commoben is not the Gipsey word for the substantive Love, as it has been 
represented; but a compound of Como^ Ben, which signifies *Iam loving." 
To this race of words, Chajy—Sebi-^Shabb, and especially the English 
Shep^n and the Arabic Shaben, denoting Youth; I n[iust refer tlie 
Latin Juvenw. This word has .been derived by the Etymologists from 
Juba, qu^i,Jubenis " quia comatus;" or quasi, Juperiis ** abuTm^n, Barba. 
It is observable, that in niany languages the important consonant V has 
been lost in the vowfil spund of V; 4nd thus the form of the original 


CB, CF, CP, CV, Sc9. 377 

Radical hat in theie cases disappeared ; as in the Latin Junior — the English 
Voung, Vouth — the Saxon Geong — ^the German Jufig, &c. The G in "these 
words is the familiar sound annexed to N, as in the French on, quasi, 
(mo, &c. &c, I do not doubt however, but that the Hoot is preserved to us 
under the form of GV, J V, Y V, and not under that of ON, &c. and we 
accordingly find as a record of this fact, that the U is' not omitted in the 
representation of the word. In the Celtic dialects it appears under both 
its forms ; and thus we have " Yevank — Ivank — Junk — Jouank,* among 
the names for Jtwenis. (See Lhuyd sub voce,) That Juvencus and Junix, 
those young, playful animals, are derived froip this source, cannot be 
doubted; and even Vossius, after the various derivations from /we — Juvando 
— Jugo, &c. ventures to adduce *' ^juvenili aetate." That Juvo likewise, 
signifying what relates to delight or pleasure, belongs to this idea, will 
now, I think, be readily granted; and the other sense of assisting ox helping 
is naturally derived from JV, the Young Man — the Being most able to 
afford assistance in war, labour, dangers, &c. Youth in Persian is Juvaune 
(z^'L:^) and Youthful is JuvAtJN ((^U>;) according to the representation 
of Richardson; which we see coincides with the mode, in which the Italian 
Gig VANE Is written; though in the French Jeun die sound of the radical 
consonant V is lost in its similar vowel; as in the Teutonic languages* 
That V and not N is the second letter of tlie Element, will be manifest from 
our words Yo u-ng^, \ov-th; where tlie additions of 7ig and th mark the 
Radical to be You or Yov. The French Etymologists should be awake on all 
occasions to this circumstance; as I have frequently observed, that the distin- 
guishing radical, which appears in other languages under the form of B,P, or 
V, is lost among the French in the vowel sound of U. Among the words to be 
found under the letters Z^/^, it is acknowledged tl)at Jeudi belongs to Jov\s\ 
and in Italian it is expressed by Giov^d'u I have little doubt but tliat Jeu> 
play, sport t &c. belongs to the race of J V, ' /i^i;enis Juvo.* This certainly 
is more probable tlian the Etymology, which the French Critics have 
commonly proposed to us. In Menage wc only {\\\i\ Jcu frpm Jocus. 

5 D The 


The word Chap we have already observed to be used in the most 
familiar of our phrases; and though it is often applied in the manner, 
which Mr. Steevens has described, yet it is generally used as the characte- 
ristic expression for Hoys or Young men ; and has probably been applied 
to persons of a different age with a ludicrous or familiar meaning. We 
seem delighted with phrases of this sort; and commonly apply such 
familiar addresses to persons of various ages from objects that are young 
— S^y — /eWy, &c. as in the language of our streets we perpetually hear 
of a ' Tight Lad — a pretty Chap — an old Boy — a queer Spark — a pert 
' Sprig,* &c. In all these words expressing youth — liveliness^ &c. we 
sometimes annex the Q^xiheiYoung (as Young Lad — Chap, &c.) to convey still 
more strongly the original idea, which is annexed to the terms themselves. 
From the word Sprig, though an inanimate object, have been derived 
expressions, which denote activity and briskness oi mind. — " He is a good 
** 5/?rtf^ memory/' says Parson Evans of his scholar; and Mr. Steevens ob- 
serves, ** I am told that this word is still used by the common people in the 
** neighbourhood of Bath, where it signifies ready, alert, sprightly, &c. and is 
'* pronounced as if it was written sprack;'' and another Commentator observes, 
" that * A sprackt lad or wench,' according to Ray, is one, who is apt in 
" lear?ii?ig or is ingenious." That the word is derived from the metaphor of 
a young Sprig will not be doubted, when we recollect the term Imp, 
which, from the idea of a young Shoot, meant in old language, a Boy 
or Youth. Armado addresses his Page in one speech by the name of 
*' Dear Imp ;" and in the next by that of '* Tender Juvenal." (Love's 
Labour Lost, A. 1. S. 2.) As Boys are 
supposed ' to be perpetually employed Sprig. 

• in mischief/ and addicted to malicious* Sprag. (Old Eng.) Ready, alert. 
tricks — teizing, &c. we readily fall Imp. (Eng.) Surculus. 
into the sense which the word bears at Imp: (Old Eng.) A Boy. 
present, and acquire the idea of a Little Imp. (Mod. Eng.) A little Devil. 
Devil — alert in all the pranks and 


CB, GF, CP, CV, &c. 579 

devices of wickedness.' It is curious to trace the propensity of the mind to 
fall into the same metaphor. As the Lnp (the mischievous boy) has become 
the appropriate term for a little Devil; so by* a recurrence of the same 
metaphor, a little Devil might now be used as the familiar appellation of 
" a mischievous Boy." 

Words belonging to the Element CB, &c. denoting a quick — nimble — 

rapid motion. 

Caper. (Eng.) To dance. Chap, and the corresponding 

terms in other languages, would lead 

Capriole or ^ us to expect, that a race of words 

>(Fr.) A Caper. would be attached to the Element CB, 

Cabriole. ) conveying the idea of ///e, spirit and 

activity — of nimble and brisk motion; 

CARPAiA.(Gr.)Aspecies of dance, such as we naturally ascribe to the 

season of Youth. The diligent enquirer 

{(Eng.) The Praniiihg of ^^^^ certainly discover a vaiiety of terms 
derived from this peculiar idea; but he 
a Horse. will moreover observe, that other sig- 

nifications of the Elenient have con- 
tributed likewise to the formation of various words, impregnated with a 
similar notion. . I shall profit by the occasion, which is now before me ; 
and endeavour to illustrate hy a few examples the truth of this remark. 
It is acknowledged that our word Caper, to leap nimbly abqut, and 
tlie French Capriole or Cabriole, have been taken from the Goat^- 
the Caper, which wehave already shewn to be derived from a familiar 
sense belonging to the Element. CuRve/, is likewise a word of this kind;* 
and if our Etymologists are right in their conjecture, it must be referred 
to another portion of the Elementary sense. It is derived, says Skinner, 



Cuft«-— ^ (Eng: The furniture ^^^ €uib, IbecauBe the Home makes 

V this CurveU:hy means of puiliog die 

Ceuppei. ) of a Horse. Curb. There b something,. I think, 

which we seem to feel in the significa- 
tion of this word, that inclines us to favour the conjecture.of our Etymologists. 
Curb, we perceive, itself belongs to the Element, and is that, which 
holds — restrains— conjines^ &c. Crupper, another part of the furniture 
belonging to a Hone, contains a similar idea; and means the Griper* — 
the holder, &c. Carpaia, in Greek, (lU(ir«i«, genus saltationis) is a 
species of dance ; andCARPALiMos, weknow, is a familiar term signify- 
m% (pdck-i^^^id, iic. (KtffirdEAi^, celer, rapidus.) **ls:a^MU/' iays Len* 
nep, ^^Saltationis genus; Si Graeo« driginis est, repeti potest ^ K«fin# ; de 
'^ quo modo dictum/* Tb the succeeding remark is annexed the name 
of TiberiMslHenuterhJusius; and I am- grieved diat die ol^rvations of so 
iliaastrioua a Critic should be iningled with the vile jargon of John Daniel 
X^nnepu ^^^ Kaftncx$($^i^ Celer. Auctum est a K«^iraXo(, quod a Kx^incc, ex 
^ barytono iUfnv, LaL Car pp. Itaque SMfwmk^^ pp. notavi t c^/erem, 
^ quftfi dka^ ^* ^MTTpit, refehurque ^ quod aliquis facit. Ejusdem 

^ pofestatB lest nostrum Ka^tfft^i/^.'* The reader will instantly acknow- 
ledge, that all these words belong to Karpos, (Ka^iroc^ Carpus) the iJ^mif. 
IpCARPo we find only ^ the Element CP, as in Cavlfos; but in Cai^palos, 
we perceive likewise the PL, as rn 'Volj Manus;' and in Karpalimos, 
we see with the PL another Element for the H^nd, LM, forming a com- 
pound, such aff we have it in Pa lamb (ilitA^iH Palinla.) In short; we now 
understand, tliat Carp ALiMa^ is a compound formed 'Of three Elements, 
denoting the Hand, CP, PL, and LM, as they ane exhibited in die words 
Carpm and Palam^. That great Critic Hemsterhusius has well 9een, 
that the quickness of motion expressed by tl^e word^' refers* to the work 
or toik, which any one performs. The readers of Hesychius will now 
urnierstand, why CAi^ein in Greek signifies to strUe. ♦♦ KAPHEIN. n\nrlt»'* 
says that invaluable Lexicograplier. In the explanatory >woid Pi^STTetn we 


CB^ CF, GP, CV, &c. 


CP, LM Of LF, PL. The Hand. 

Caf. (Ang. Sax.) 
Swift. (Eng.) 
Carpalos. (Gr.) 
Carpalimos. (Gr.) 
Craipnos. (Gr.) 


Chiffy. (V'ulg. Eng.) Haste. 


(Gr.) To lift up any 

KouFos. (Gr.) Levis, Light. 

Karpeint. (Gr.) To strike. 

Lo/e. (Goth.) ) 

Eihlejii. (Gr.) To receive. 

Lev0. (Lat.) To Lift. 

Levis. (Lat) Lufi. (Germ.) Air. 

*' « M M a * « 

Plettein. (Gr.) To strike or give a 

must again mark tl>e PL, the Hand; 
and we shall be reminded of our 
English word Polt-2-* To give aPoLX 
*' in the Face/ &c. C^Aivnos (k^«>k, 
velox, celer,) another Greek word for 
quickntss of motion or dispatch m any 
work, must be referred likewise to Che 
same idea; and what is cui'imn, as ini 
the name foe the HanA-Gtiiov, Krcv, 
(page 276;) the vowel breathing has 
been inserted after the R^ so we find 
the same position in Ckaivtios. The 
second part of this word—the PN, (if 
the N be not an organical adjunct to the 
sound of P) must likewise, be referred 
to the name of the Hand; (See pages 
269-2*3, &c.) such as we find it in 
Fotsgf &G. In a (raiment of Or* 
pheusi preserved by Prochis, we find 
KPAinwoi, as an epithet applied to tlie 
Deities — those great Demiurges^ wkcise^ 
active — ^vigorous — ^and efficient powers 
are contrasted with the sluggish nature 
of feeble Man. 

(Gesiicr Orpb. p.^389.) 
The Critics fat ^e advanced no fiwther 
in their researches reacting this word^ 
than to derive it firom K^a znd lli^— ^ 
^' quod, repetenduan esta vorbo Iire#; 
5 E *' premo. 



premo, unde ortum Iv1«/t*«»* volo, — K^a autem (pro K^f*) extremitatem 
notat atque ita K^aitvoc quasi suspensis vestigiis volans]^ est/' (Lennep sub 
voce.) Such are the men, who profess to instruct us in Etymology — to 
unfold thefm^ origin and nature of words! 

The Angio Saxon Cap, (acer, promptus, celer, agilis,) must be referred 
to the same idea; and all these words relating to dispatch in business convey 
a similar sense to the Greek Spoudaios, {imfcuO*, sedulus, industrius-, &c.) 
which we have proved likewise to be derived from the • Hand/ (Page 
303, &c.) To this race s>f words I must refer our vulgar word Chiffy, 
which is used to denote a similar idea- -' To do any thing in a Chifft/ 
The ' origin of Koufos, light, (Kov^, levis,) will be manifest from the 
action of the verb Koufizo, (K»f»^«, levo, sublevo,) to lift up or raise any 
thing; and we shall now not fail to understand, that the Latin Levo — Levis, 
and the English Lift, are derived from LF, the Hand. The Element LM 
appears * perpetually in this sense under the form of LF, as in the Greek 
etLEFa (|^^f«) and in the Celtic Loy — Lav, the names for the Hand, 
{See lAmydBnh voce Manus,) — ^the Gothic Lofa, vola, palma, &c. &c. 
When the general sense of what was light or L^ve was once formed, we 
may well imagine that a race of words would be generated from Levis, 
bearing a sense very difierent from the original idea ; and thus we shall per- 
ceive how the German Lvft, originally derived from the raising or light" 
making Hand, is now used to express the light air. 

Speed and Spaudc (Snlpi) we have already referred to the SPD or 
SFT, the Hand, (page 303 ;) and it will now, I imagine, be granted that 
another Englisli term for Quickness of' motion — Swift, is only Speed and 
Spaudc under another form. Swift, though used by our ancient Poets in 
its present sense of rapid motion, yet sometimes is applied in a signification, 
which refers it more intimately to its original idea. It is twice used in 
Shaks]f)eare, as referred to the aptness and dexterity of a Simile. '^ Rich 
" honesty," (says the Clown in * As you like it/) " dwells like a miser, 

" Sir, 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 383 

r, in a poof house ; as your pearl in your foul oyster." On which 
Uuke observes, " By my faith, he is very swift and sententious." 
.1 5. S. 4'.) In the 'Taming of the Shrew,' Tranio says, 
" O, Sir, Lucentio slipp'd mc like his greyhound, 
" Which runs himself, and catches for his master. 
Pet. A good SWIFT 5i;ni/c, but something currish." (A. 5. S. 2.) 
. Johnson observes on the use of Swift in these two passages, tliat 
besides the original sense of speedy in motion" it signified " witty, quick- 
witted." Perhaps the reader of taste will be disposed to believe, tliat 
■^e word Swift, as applied ^on the latter occasion to the ' Swift simile' of 
ne running greyhound, was forced oft the mind of tlie Bard by the 
Dowerful magic of tlie associating principle, which rules with absolute 
«authority over the workings of au ardent imagination. 

Tiiat a race of words denoting quickness or rapidity of motion should 
be derived from the Hands will surely be readily acknowledged ; and 
perhaps were we to endeavour by a train of reasoning ^ priori, to determine 
from what source terms of this meaning might be naturally derived; our 
decision would probably be directed to this origin. The idea of quickriess 
and dispatch in performing business isnccessarily connected with the import- 
ant instrument, by which it is performed; and we shall not wonder, that 
when the term was once extant, it should be applied to objects totally 
remote from the primitive signification. In short, a variety of qualities, 
which we attach to the powers of the Hand, would impress tlie mind 
with a similar idea. Thus the faculty of seizing with force and effect, in 
the ordinary action of removing any thing from its place with haste and 
dispatch, will at once suggest to us the sense of a rapid and violent motion ; 
and it is only from the peculiar signification inherent in the word, that 
we are enabled in some cases to determine with precision, whether the idea 
of celerity be derived from the Hand, as the instrument of labour, or as 
the engine of violence.. Whatever be the peculiar idea, we can perceive . 
at once tlie race of words, which arc related to each otlier under a general 

signification ; 


signification ; and decide with confidence, that the name for the Hand 
supplied tl>e original source. Wherever we turn oui* view, the examples 
inukiplyk around Us, and our conviction is strengthened, as we proceed. 
'1 he words, witH which wc are most familiar, and which are acknowledged 
to be derived from the Hand, will be found to contain a similar idea. 
Thus we know that Dexteritas, in Latin, means — (I quote the language of 
our ordinary Lexicons — ) " Aptness, readiness, dexterity, activity, agility, 
*' address;^ and Atj^to^ in Greek bears the same signification — " Agilis, 
" promptus, expeditus.'' Our English word Fast conveys the different 
senses, which ire have seen exhibited by terms derived from the Hand 
or Fist, such as seizing or i:onJining, and a quick or raj>id motion. ** To 
'' hold Fast, and to run Fast." As Fast belongs to the Fist, so I bare 
shewn on a former occasion (page 967,) that the words in the Greek lan- 
guage with the Element ''NT, or, in it^ hardened form, "NK, must be 
referred to the idea of the Hand or Hank. In son^re languages the appro- 
priate term for the Hand appears under the hardened form, as in the 
Persian Y.i^ouskt, the Fingers, (page 266;) and the Celtic Auoad, the 
Hand.' (See Lhuyd sub Toce * Manus.') The Greek Hggzis or tsUGns, 
(ET-yuf, prope) near, must be referred to this idea. It will be instantly seen, 
that the sense of nearness or proximity would be naturally derived from die 
notion of one object being HANK^rf, as it were, attacked or ¥ ASte?ied Xo 
another. Now it is extremely curious, that in OldEnglishy the sense of 
Tze^rne^ij or ]7ranm/(y belongs to the word Fast. 

" And Siloa's brook that flow'd 

" Fast by the oracle of God."- 
The reader must not imagine that Fast in this place signifies rapid;, though, 
perhaps he may be induced to believe, that the flowing brook tti^ht have 
suggested this word to the mind of the Poet by the secret? influence of. 
the associating principle. Siloa's Brook was noted as z slotv stream. " For- 
*' asmuch as this people refuscth the waters of Shiloah, thai g© softly^' &cc^ 
(Isaiah 8. v. 6.) In Lodge's Josephus we have " The roiali palace ctf 

" Amatha 

CB, CF. cp, cv, &c. sm 

'^ Amatha, that w?s past By Jordan.** (Lib. 17. c. 12.) kc. &c. The 
Latin FEsrtno must likewise be referred to the English Fast — the dispatch 
and diligence of the Fist. I have already quoted a passage in Horace, 
which brings Festino to its original spot — * Cunctsifestinat Manus.* With 
respect to tlie second ^rt of this word, Tik, I am unable to determine. 
I have shewn that DN or TN means the Hand, as in the Celtic Dork, 
Manus; and we perceive it again in the GreeluTHENjr, (e««f, vola manus,) 
* The Ball of the Hand.' We shall see perpetual traces of its effect, 
through the whole compass of language^ as in the Latin TAVgo, Tehco 
— the Greek Thkin(? (e£»v«, fcrio) to beat, &c. &c. We must again mark 
in Beat, (tlie French BATTr^, &c.) the BT or FT — the /^«/; and in our 
vulgar term Bastc (to Beat) we have only another form pf the same word .^ 
Baste is used in a similar sense, when it is applied to meat. It signifies to 
dab (if I may so express it)' any liquid, butter, &c. against or upon tlie 
Meat. We know, that our vulgar term Dab contains likewise this 
double meaning. It will now be understood, that Batt/^, like other 
words of the same kind, is derived from BT, the Hand. With respect to 
' Festino, I must likewise observe that die ^N has been attached to a multitude 
of words from the Infinitive termination — ^^N of verbs; which is observable 
in such a variety of languages, as in tlie Gotliic, Saxon, German, &c. 
— Greek, Persian, &c. &c. Martinius has referred tlie Latin YESTtno to 
the German Haste; which is conmion, as he jusdy observes, to their 
language and to the French. « It is tlie same as our English word Haste, 
denoting hurry or btistle. I beseech the reader to mark again in Busrle, 
tlie FEsrino and tlie Fist, or Bys', Bes, the form under wbicsh .the. name 

for the Fingers appears in the dialects 
DN. The Hand. of the Celtic. (See Uiuyd sub voce 

Der?!. (Celt.) The Hand. Digitus.) I imagine that Haste is 

TAc/zar.(Gr.) The Ball of the Hand, only anodicr form of Fast, and of the 
Tan^o. (Lat.) To touch. first portion Fest in Fest/w, by the 

TenQo. (Lat.) To hold. consonant F liaving passed into another 

5 F consonant, — 


MSfL — tfcrci Hcfnd-^Strength. Consonant — H, or into the vowel sound 

•- v^ - > - -p .: ;. ^ - ' ofH; as my readei-s may be disposed 

Man^ 'Mctnus. ; / tO: call it. Now it is curious, that 

Andlos.\GT.y Man. Hand. (Eng.) Fast iiiid ^Haste, assume as verbs the 

-^/zflferon. (Gr.) ApartoftheJB^tfwrf. '^N> and become /tf5*/EN, kastEi^; and 

Fos, Fvt. (Gr.) Man. jp/^, (Eng,) ^ from hence, perhaps, festINc; has been 

Mel:««rf-eton. \ ^^''^ "^''^ ^ ^^^"^^ ^'''"''^^' 

\ handle. . . ' Whether Vis and Force be- 

i4«/hos. (Gr.) Strength, Power, &c. , long directly to the Fist, I will not 

Den. (Celt.) Man. decide. Yet I must observe, that these 

Dorn. (Celt.) The Hand* words c//n belong but to two sources — 

GMr.(Celt.)Man. CA€fr.(Gr.)Hand. to the name of Ma?i under the Element 

• - - -I - - - - *; ^ ES, as we see it in the Greek Eos, 
Vis. (Lsd.) Force. -Fo^. (Gr.) Man. (*«?>?>«1o^> P^ir,) common under some 
?-^' - - -i - - -" i - - form in ^very language; and to the 
Vires. (Lat.) FVr.(Lat.)'< '. term for the -fiT/mrf, as it appears in 

- - - - . ^ .. - - - . the English Fist. I must likewise 
IS. (Heb.) Man. -' again remark, that the names, for Hnn 

IS. (Lat.) jEw. (Gr.) Unws. and the Hand are inseparable compa- 

En-^os. (Gr.) {7>i-us. (I^t.) One. nions of each. other. I have already 
£in^f.{Gr.yMzn. b /- 'i instanced Mak and Manijis — Hakiv 

Is — ^/n-08.'(Gr;) Strength. • -and AND-rw (AiJ^^);. and we may 

now add Fos or For and; Fist — D01.N 
(Manus) and Den (Vir)— GuR, (which we have seen to be another form 
of Vir \i\ the dialects of the Celtic) and the Greek Cheir, (Xvf, Manus.) 
The connexion betwejen tbd ' Strong Being' and the * Member of Strength' is 
inditeoluble; and we accordingly find the ideas perpetually blended in the 
same word. Thus ViRe5 is assuredly taken at once from the Via ; and 
this might lead us to Conclude that the idea of Vis was immediately derived 
from VS, asthe Jlfffn. The Etymologists have referred Vis to the Gjreek 
IS (ft, robur, vires;) and they have done rightly. The IS :of the Gjreeks 


CB, CF, Cvp, CV, ko. S&7 

corresponds with another form for the name of Man:, common likewise to 
every language — the Hebrew IS, (ttf^N) Man — the Latin IS — the Greek 
Eis, (E»f, unus) — ^the He — the One (if I may so express it) — the Being — 
Man. Now it iscurious^ that in the Genitive case of IS, which simple 
Grammarians would call an anomaly, another Element is used, which 
unquestionably belongs to the Alan. IN-(w, (l^, tpoc) is assuredly the strength 
of the An-ct; or, as it appears in our language, the Hike — the Un-z/j — 
the EN-oy.(£j?>fw)— the One — the Alan. This surely is a singular coin- 
cidence. Wherever we turn our eyes, all is consistency— relation and 
uniformity. We know, tliat in the Greek language tlie Man belongs to 
the Element '^ND or '^/NT- — AND-rw — ANT-hropos; and we have seen 
likewise in the same language, .under the form of ^ND or'^KT, the sig- 
nification of our word Hand, as in Ajsir>eron, (ANAufo^) a part of the inside 
of die Hand, and mMeU.ffDelon, {UiKctptf%y ^ifoc) applied loan instrument, 
with a black HandIc. (See page ii66.) From all this, we should naturally 
expect to find in the Greek language under the form of* '^ND or '^NT, 
words signifying, j/7W|^/A — might — J'arce^ iac^ I have conjectured on a 
former occasion, • lliat the Greek Aarhos .(Avfi#^, flos) is derived from the 
Hani>, asCARPoa(Kflf{7r«9) signifies both/^T^eib^ and fT/i^ir^. (Sec page 124.) 
Now what will the reader say, when he learns that Kifrhos likewise sig- 
nifies ;/circe—r/wuer — might; and tliat it is applied (as I havebrfore described 
the Element in page 267,) "to represent/ (he ntost/vioFent. of tb6 passions 
** or accidcutfs, that are wont to seize on the frame or ihfe mind of Man." 
In the Trathinia of Sophocles, it^ expresses tlie * Incurable i^«rc^ oiAfednc$s.' 
'♦ AxrjAuloK Mwas? ANeoi," (v. 1001-2.) ** implacabilem {uront violent iam," 
(say^Krilnck.) .8iri;ely we, shall agree, thai this sense of the word was not de- 
r'^ved?lFom thcmefcipbcTfceBA^cycdlDyllie Uoanufig^rM}[9e^ flourishing iyt mgor-^ 
ous state pf a Flowbii'; thobgh I'aiiiperfcctiy aware of the extent, to which 
this metaphor has befen carriied in; thi word Avft(K; and of the various senses 
annexed to. the Latin Flos;: and especially to the Greek Aclov in the lan- 
guage of Find at. Yetlbelie^fe it: wil^Jbe loutid, tbat word^ tiarv^ nf^ver 



arrived at so forcible a meaning, as we see it in the phrase before us, from 
such a metaphor; and tlie origin, which I have given of this sense, is so 
appropriate and precise, that I trust the reader will have no difficulty to 
admit the truth of my conjecture. Though the Greeks used the word 
with the peculiar sense of /orce — strength — power ^ &c, which they found 
attached to it; yet as they were no better skilled in the Etymology of their 
own language than other nations, I am ready to acknowledge, that they 
likewise might imagine this sense (if perchance they at all thought about 
the question) to have been derived from the idea oi z. flower ; nor should we 
be surprized to find on some occasions a vein of imagery, attendant on 
such a sense, derived from this metaphor. But I will not embarrass myself 
with their opinions on the origin of their own words: — It is my province to 
discover that original source from the peculiar turn in tlie sense of the word 
itself; and the characteristick meaning in the structure of a certain phra- 
seology; which was delivered down from one age to another, and which, 
amidst all the changes of language, still continues to preserve a firm and 
faitliful record of the primitive signification. We perhaps may imagine, 
and I will not deny the possibility of the case; that tliis sense of the 
highest pitch or point of any thing — the extreme state of any passion — mad- 
ness, &c. may have arisen from tlie idea of the flourishing condition of the 
flower; and that it has only an accidental coincidence with the metaphor of 
force or strength. Yet what shall we say to the turn of a peculiar phrase* 
ology, in which Anthos occurs, where the metaphor of the Flower must 
be excluded, and that of Force alone can be admitted. Now Anthos is 
used not^only to express the * flourishing state' of a passion, which by another 
metaphor we might denominate ^ The Force of a passion ;' but it is likewise 
used to signify the Force, by which a passion is expelled from the mind ; 
which, I humbly imagine, we cannot call * Theflouris/iing state of a passion/ 
In short, it is used to express ' The Forcer or the Plucker of a rooted 
* sorrow from' the memory.' " AAvirov ANeos 4twft$v" is applied to any 
-thing which forces Sorrow from the Soul. It occurs in the Fragment of 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 389 

Sophocles, and is applied to persons, who have tasted Wine for the first 
time; as characteristick of the effect, which is produced by this * Care- 

* subduing Liquid/ The Greek Critic, who has preserved the Fragment 
recorded by Valckenaer, has the following words: — *' AArnoN AN0O2; 

'' fv rw Aiovuo-iaxw £«7uf ixw CTi oiya ir^iolov yiDcafAt)f<a roy,** (Read, . say S RuhnkcniUS, 
yftica/Afvwy Tuy) ^* koUx roy x^(^^ Toclv^tay. Ilo9iy irolt AATIION tait vjf^oy ANdOZ ANIA2." 

Valckenaer seems startled at this unusual turn of the phrase, and grows 
confused in his ideas. *' In his Sophocleis," says that learned Critic, 
*' aptius mihi videretur Aau^o* avfloj «w«c' in Trachiniis contra, v. 1017, quo 
*' vulgatur, AxfiAiilok Mawac avflof , accommodatius futurum Aw»c arOo^, insana- 
" bilem vim doloris. Appollonii dictum Tuc ogv6vp«tc to <jy^oc fiawa legitur 
" apud Stobaeum, p. 173, 49/' (Diatrib. p. 179.) The AAvtov Ai^oc aw«^ 
might be translated ' Sorrow's Hank, which plucks grief from the mind.* 
This metaphor oi force applied to the efl'ect of Wine on the soul has 
been perpetually used. Horace describes it as the battering engine of the 
mind, though he softens it by an epithet, which expresses the grateful 
gentleness of its eflfect. 

*' Tu lene tormentum ingenio admoves 

*' Plerumquc duro.'' 
We sometimes find used on this occasion the obvious metaphor of ' pulling 

• away the burden from the mind/ What does not drunkenness produce, 
says the Poet? ** Sollicitis animis onus eximit;" and Ovid has wisely 
recommended, that this Engine to /7/wc^ sorrow fiom tlie soul should be 
applied witli force, . or that it should not be applied at all. 

** Aut nulla cbrietas, aut tanta sit, ut tibi curas 
" EriI^iat: Si qua est inter utrumque, nocet." 
In every language the idea of the Hand, as we may well imagine, has 
furnished a variety of metaphorical phrases and of words expressing might- 
— strength — power, &c. It is a favourite and familiar metaphor among 
the Arabs. ** Apud Arabes," (says Schultens) " Oji Mantis omnis rei, est 

5 o *' vis 


*' vis, robur, potentia, dominatio, viokniia. Verbi gratia Manns venli, 
^* JlamnKej &c. &c. In sacris habemus item Manum sepiilchri, Leonis, 
^* Ursi, Canis, Jjiqueip Flamma, pro violmtia ad arbitrium perdeiite.** 
(See Schulten's Comment in Job. cap. 5.. v. 19.) The Arabic word here 
given for the Hand is YD; and it appears in Hebrew under the same form, 
(t) Yad. We have seen Haste, which in French becomes IldtCf belong- 
ing to Fast and the Fist, by the loss of the consonant F; and we shall 
now understand how readily the Element f-ST, f-S, and f-T or f-Dj 
representing the Fist, becomes '^ST,^ '^T or ""D; and hence we perceive 
the origin of the Arabic and the Hebrew ydD. Junius, among the parallel 
terms for the Fist, gives us the German Fust or Uust and the Dutch Vuysl; 
where in utisr, we perceive, the consonant sound is lost. It is curious 
however, that in French, Hdte again assumes the consonant form. Can 
we doubt, that Vite, which in Old French was written Viste, belongs to 
Fast — the diligence of the Vuyst or Fist? " Viste en besognc,'* (says 
Cotgrave) '' Ready or quick at work ; fit or apt for a suddaine dispatch ; 
*^ also craftie, subtill, sly, warie." In this explanation, there are two words 
derived from the PTor FT, the Fist — apt — fit. The English apt — the 
Latin aprus, apro — and the Greek apro (Airl«, Ligo, necto, apto,) are 
compounds, of which a is intensive, and PT belongs to the Hand. Robert 
Ainsworth has described the various actions of this Member in the fol- 
lowing interpretations. "Apto. *'To^/, or make jf^; to accommodate, 
" to adapt, to adjust. ^- To join. ^- To address, make ready, or pre- 
** pare. *• To provide, or procure. Aptus. *• Tied, joined, fitted. ^• 
*' Made, wrought. ^- Tight, compact. ^*Pat, close. ^Proper, meet, 
" suitable, convenient, apposite. ^- Instrumental, good for; profitable. 
'* ''• Naturally disposed, inclined. ®- Easy, agreeable. ^- Rigged, equip- 
" ped.*' I have quoted the whole of this interpretation, that tlie reader 
may perceive how great a portion of these senses is directly taken from the 
Jdand. In the explanation of Viste by Cotgrave, and in that of Aptus 
— Apto by Ainsvfrorth, we have seen the word Fit; and again in the Latin 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 391 

Lexicographer we observe the term Pat. Can we doubl, that the simpler 
form of a-VTus — la-vro, is Pat — ^Fit — Viste, and that they are all to be 
referred to the arranging — adjusting faculty of the Fist? In Pat, a 
Blow, we have another operation of the Hand. The Etymologists are 
totally ignorant, as we may well imagine, respecting the origin of these 
words ; yet they supply us with some curious materials for the elucidation 
of this subject. Junius informs us, that among the Flemish, Vits signifies 
" Frequens, citus, agilis;" but what brings it directly to the point before 
us, he adds, that Vitsstin means " Habitum alicujus rei frequenter agendo 
" consequi.'* He cannot avoid perceiving, that Vits has a marvellous 
affinity (* miram affinitatem') to the French Viste ; though Menage derives, 
as he observes, this word from the Latin Vegetus. He imagines likewise, 
that the origin of all these terms is to be found in the Greek Fitta, (^n?*) 
which, as Eustathius observes, is a term of exhortation to Haste or Diligence ; 
and which Julius Pollus refers to a species of Sport, " *nTA MaA»aJfr, 
" WTTA Poifti, WTTAMiXia," in which Virgins celebrating the bride, ex- 
horted each other to aleriJiess and activity. (Jul. Poll. 9. cap. 7.) I 
suspect, that Fitta in this game of the Virgins has a different or at least 
a double sense; and that their exhortations to alertness and activity are 
directed to a peculiar object. I have glanced at this sense of the Element 
FT in page 20, and it pervades every language, with which I am acquainted. 
Fit, which is now applied to a disorder, * A Fit of the Ague, Fever,* &c. 
must be referred to the notion of the Fist or Hand. It originally signified 
* The rQcurrcnce to Diligence or Labour;' and in the application to 'An 
' Ague Fit,' we distinctly trace the idea of a return to the toil of pain 
and disorder after an interval of ease and rest. From hence is naturally 
derived the peculiar sense of this word in such phrases as the following: 
*' A Fit of melancholy — ^A Fit of drunkenness — A Fit of the gout — He 
" fell into a Fit," &c. where we again mark the notion of some change 
from a quiet to an agitated state. There is a another sense of the word Fit 
familiar to our ancient language, about which I shall venture to conjecture. 



Fit signifies a siraifi of Musick^ or a division in a Song, Poem, &c. &c. 
The interpretation of the Critics, and even the use of the word itself by the 
more modern of the ancient writers, seem to accommodate this sense with 
the peculiar meaning which I have here unfolded. *' The word Fitt 
for Part,'* (says Dr. Percy) " often occurs in our ancient ballads^ and 
metrical romances; which being divided into several parts for the con- 
venience of singing them at public entertainments, were in the intervals 
of the feast sung by Fits, or intermissions. So Puttenham, in his 
Art of English Poesie^ 1589, says, * The Epithalamie was divided by 
* breaches into three partes, to serve for three several Fits or times to be 
' sung. p. 4-1,' " (See The Reliques of Ancient English Poetry, vol. 2. 
p. 174.) We perceive in this interpretation by Dr. Percy, and in the use 
of the word by Puttenham, that they labour to preserve the idea of an 
interval — interynission and breaks such as we find it in *' The Fits of an 
*' ague — fever, &c." which supposes a previous state of intermission. 
Spencer has used Fit to signify a strain of Music; but he appears desirous 
of giving to the word that peculiar sense, which wc annex to it in the 
phrases " A Fit of gaiety — A merry Fit," &c. &c. 

" Provoked me to play some pleasant fit." 
Dr. Percy however, though he imagines Fit to have originally signified 
*' the panse or breathing time, between the several parts," cannot help 
observing that this word " appears originally to have signified a Poetic strain^ 
" versCf or Poem; for in these senses it is used by the Anglo Saxon writers." 
It would afford a curious subject of Critical enquiry to trace the peculiar 
turns of meaning in the use of this word among writers of different ages; 
and we might obtain from this source a very important touchstone to 
ascertain the periods of their antiquity. 

Fit, in the sense of ' A Poem,* belongs, I imagine to Bard, 
(Bardh — VKYDydh, Celt.) — Poet — VoEra — PoiETe^ (no»fiJ«c) — Vat^^ — 
Versus — PoiESw (Tloin(rn) — Fearsa — Poesi — BoRDz/n, (Celt. Carmen.) 
.^the Saxon Wit (Sapientia, intellectus, animus, ingenium) — the Gothic 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 


Fit. (Sax. & Old Eng.)' 
VersuSf Poiesis. 

Wiran, (scire, noscere,) — the Saxon 
WiTE, (gnaruSf sapiens f) Vfngap 

Fearsz, Poiesi, \fr u\ ^ A Poem. 
Bordwn. . ) 
Poetry, Poesy. (Eng.) 
Bardh, Prydydh, (Celt.) A 
Bard, Poet, Poeta, Poietes, Votes. 
Wit. (Saxon.) Wisdom. 

Witan. (Goth.) To know. 
Wile. (Saxon.) Wise. 
WitgSL. (Saxon.) A Prophet. 
FTiVoth. (Goth.) The Law. 
Wit. (Eng.) ' 

Ved. (Sanscrit.) Knowledge; 

" about him — He has lost his Wits^ 

(Saxon) a Prophet— Wft^i^A, (Gothic) 
the Law— the English Wit— Wise — . 
and the Sanscrit Ved^^, the books of 
science and religion, &c. &c. among 
the Hindoos. '* The word Ved or 
'/ VEDflf/' saysMr..Wilkins, *^ signifies 
" knowledge or science. The sacred 
'* writings of the Hindoos arc so dis- 
" tinguished." (Notes to the Heeto- 
pades, p. 298.) Now this; we see, was 
precisely the ancient sense of our word 
Wit; and in many instances, it is the 
modern likewise — " He has all his Wits 
-He has not Wit enough to solve this 
" question." In Shakspeare we have *'The five Wits;*' and Dr. Johnson, 
observes, that " in our author's time Wir was the general term for intellectual 
** powers." (Malone*s Shakspeare, v. 2. p. 210.) Mr. Wilkins and 
Mr. Halhed were but little aware, I imagine, that the sacred Veda— the 
adoration of the Mystic Brahmin in the holy city of Benares, was a word 
equally familiar to' the prophane or the polished Societies of London. 
Surely this cannot afford us any subject of doubt or wonder; when. we 
learn that our most ordinary terms. Father and Mother, were common like- 
wise to the present and the ancient language of India — Peeta, Mataa, 
(See page 349.) — Peetree, Matrbe. (See Notes to the Heetopadcs, 
page 307.) If we were only in possession of this single fact, pught wc 

not perpetually to expect such examples 
Peetaa, Mataa. (Bengal.) of coincidence; or rather ought w;c; 

Peetree, Matree. (Sanscrit.) not to wonder, if they did not]per- 

Father, Mother. petually occur { The reader will no^[ 

5 H understand 


understand that the Greek Poietes and Poiesis — the English Poesy and the 
Armoric Poesi, are not derived, as the Greeks might flatter themselveSi^ 
from their verb nwi«, nomw, &c. It must be owned however, that JP^/n 
and lloitj/xa are formed from this source. 

Having developed the origin of Fit, as it is used by our 
ancient writers for a Division of a Poem ; I shall now conclude my observa' 
tions on that term as it is applied in another signification, and derived, as 
I imagine, from a very different idea annexed to the Radical, And here 
it is extremely curious, that the word Fit still continues lo be. used, a^ 
the appropriate term in those very phrases, which are intended to express 
the exertions of returning Industry. — '* He zvorks by Fits and starU — * 
" He has taken to a Fit oi Diligence."" I have proved on a former occa- 
sion, that Speed — Spoude is derived from SPD, the Hand; and it is curi- 
ous, that to those words likewise a term belongs precisely corresp<Hidiqg 
with the sense of Fit, which I have now unfolded. This term is our vulgar 

word Spurt — " He does thin^ by 
SPT. The Hand. ** Spurts — He's only up to a Spurt/' 

&c, &c. In Sprout — Spuht and 

rfVule. Eng.) Spout (* To Spurt ox Spout water/ 

Spurt.< &'c.) the same idea is conveyed^ 

(a F/< of Diligence- ag we have explained in Spring, 

Spread, &c. (page 391, &<;.) Spout, 
SpitcuT^ Spurt, Spout. (Eng.) to speak, is derived from 5Pj the Mouth, 

(See page 189.) I expressed on a 
. ..•.«•*.«.- former occasion (page 194.) ixiy diili^ 

culties respecting the second part of the 
SPi PT, PK* The Mouth, compound SpeaL I now perceive that 

Spout and Speak (quasi Sp-pout, and 
Spout, Speak. (Eng.) Sp-peak,) are different forms of the 

same word ; and that Pout and Pnt^ 

Pout, Patter, (VuTg. Eng. Tolalk.) belong to the Pus PaK~*^Bocca» 


:CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 3W 

another Element for the Mouth. (Page 175.) From this expressive Wjord 

Fit, as applied to the recurring agitatiffns of a Fever, Shakspeare h^ 

formed a compound of singular energy, and has adopted it on the most 

affecting occasion. Our great Bard describes the Life of Man as one 

continued Fa^r^Fit — as an unremitting paroxysm of convulsive suffering^. 

unblessed by any interval of ease. 

c# R^Hor be wlili the dead, 

" Whom we, to gain our place, have sent ta peace, 

^' Than on tlic torture of the mind to lie 

*' In restless ecstasy — Duncan is in his grave : 

*' After Life's Fitfull Fever he sleeps well. 

WE have bad frequent occasions of observing, that (he R is perpetuaUy 
inserted between the letters representing the Radical ; and we have seen, 
that the cause of this insertion is extremely obvious ami afttUral, Th^ 
prolongation of the sound in a letter often producer the eff^t ol R; and 
thus it rea<!iiy be(x>mtii Attached to a Radical, of which it .Qriginally. 
formed no pai^t, or, in other words, when the terips belongfn^. tp that 
Radical coinrhonly appear without it. Fretta . sigmfi^ in . Italian Haste, 
Speed, Dilijgence! and tbis under another fornv becomes-PiiESXo, -a wocd 
of a similar meaning. Surely it will be ackno(udtedged, tbat:t|be$e,termi 
belong to FrT, PrffT, the Fit, Fiie, Vistc, -Ftfs^-^thc FiST- If the reader 
has any doubts oti'this subject, they vnSi vanish, I trust, when he remeovv 
bers our word Fuet, in the senaie of rubbing — m of a ' gantipnt'-'*^ound% 
&c. I^innec rightly refeis our EngKsh word FRST,-in this sense, to the 
French Frotier and the. Latin Frico. We perceive that Fric0 i$ only the 
hardened form (tf Fist, such as wcree it in Puks, (riug, P^/g^nus.) FuJBTi 
as applied to the irritatkn of the mind, is directly and natqraUy tak?n 
from this idea of eTCiting^ an uneasy seiiaatioh by rubhing. We have a 
▼epy common metaphofical expression-— 'VTo rub up any 0JW&;" and tim 
obvious figure tvas equally femlliar to the Latins — " Sale . multQ urbem 

'* defricuitr 



D, S,T, ST. The Hand or Fist. 

Fast. ( ) Nimble, holding, near. 
Fasten. (Eng.) To confine. 
Festino. (Lat.) To Hasten. 
JBustle. (Eng.) 
Haste. Quasi, F-hast. 
rite, UFr.) 

Viste. ) Ready or quick at work. 
Vits. (Flemish.) Quick, nipible, 

- /-(Flem.) To acquire the 
Vitsstin. } habit of any thing by 

(doing it often. 
ilV«fl. (Gr.)' An exhortation to haste. 
p. I (Eng.). Of the ague4-ofdili- 

gence, &cc. 

Beat/ (Eng.) Battre.XFT.) 
Baste. (Eng.) A person, or meat. 
A-pt-us, A'pt-'O. (Lat.) Fit. 
Pat. (Eng.) A blow; and suitable. 

'^B fl^ 4b ^b ^b ^a ^H ^b ^b ^m 

Fretta. (Ital.) Haste. 
Frotter, (Fr.) |^^ ^^^ 
Frico. (Lat.) ) 

^(Eng.) To rub or be rubbed 
Fr€t.\ — to be irritated or uneasy 


" defriaiit.'' Skinner however ima- 
gines, that Fret (succensere) is derived 
from Fremito or Fretiller, or Fret^ti, 
the Saxon verb for Eat, &c. &c. In 
this latter idea Junius agrees with* him, 
and observes that from this sense of 
eating. It wjiR nffprwards applied to 
those persons, " quorum exacerDaium 

** animum graves curse mordent atque 
" arrodunt." The Element FT or FS 
supplies in the Teutonic languages a 
great race of words signifying to eat, 
as in the Saxon Fretan, the German 
Fressen, &c. &c. which must all be 
referred to thePT, PS,. or FT, FS, tlie 
Radical for the Mouth. (See page 1 75 .) 
The Italian Pre;sto and the French 
Preste are only different forms of 
Fretta, and Viste. The interpretation of 
Prest by Cotgrave, .in which is in- 
cluded the sense of Pret, anciently 
written Prest, is full and accurate, 
f * . Prest, readie, fullzdight, furnished, 
** prepared, provided, prompt, neer at 
^* hand; .quick,, nimble, fleet, wight.'* 
These senses, we perceive, all coincide 
with the idea, which I have unfolded^ 
as belonging to the Hand; but in the 
verb Priter or Prester we discover the 
quality of the Hand in another office, 
and therefore still inore apparent. 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 3W 


Presto. (Ital.) n Ready, furnish- " Prester, To lend; also, to trust 
dPr^/, or ' >ed, &c. nimble, '* 0M^ to ^e// unto dayes ; also, to j^c/rf, 

Preste. (Fr.) -'quick. *' affoord, or give.'' These diflferent 

Prt^/^r, or I (Fr.) To lend, yield, isenses of Preste 2ind Prester direct us 
Prester. ) give, &c, unequivocally to the origin of the 

Pres. (Fr.) "i^ th d terms; by which alone this difference 

Presso. (Itdl.)) is reconciled. It is curious however 

Prastigia. (Lat.) ^Sleight of that Presto, in Italian, includes within 

Prestiges. (Fr.) }Hand or itself these several discordant meanings. 

Prestigie. (Itil.) ^ Legerde/w^ m. " Presto,** (says John Florio) " quick, 

" nimble, prompt, ready, fleet, swift, 
*' prepared, addressed, dight. Also, quickly, out of hand, without delay. 
*' Also, a lone or lending of money. Also, a place, or ban ke where 
'* money is lent." We perceive in these explanations of Cotgrave and 
Florio, that two phrases are introduced, which express tlie Hand 
Itself — ^' Out of hand — Near at hand.'* We have before seen nearness 
or proximity derived from the Hand — Ei^ous (E>r^> prope) and Fast; 
and we see that Pres in French, and Presso in Italian, the appro* 
priate terms for near, are derived from the same source. It will how be 
understood, why J^KEsrigie in Italian — PRESTi^e^ in French and Prest- 
igia in Latin, signify the tricks of Jugglers. FKJESTigiator, says Robert 
Ainsworth, '* A Juggler, one who uses leger-de-main or sleight of Hand;** 
where we perceive that in the Main and tlie Hand he has brought us to 
the very six)t, from which I imagine the term to be derived. We shall 
hear no more, I trust, that tlie Pnestigiator was so called, " quia oculos 
*' prxstriJigit.*' I cannot conclude these observations on tlie Italian 
Presto, without adverting to thatmarvellous pertinacity in words, (if I may 
so express it,) by which they still continue to be attached, as the most 
significant and appropriate terms, to the very idea, from whence they 
were originally derived. In performing these ' sleights of Hand;* 

5 I " 2w/c/> 


^ Hmck, Presto, begone,'* we know, are the magic wbrds of the nimble 
fingered Juggler, at the moment of exhibiting to his deluded audience 
tiae exertions of his dexterity. 

These effects of the name for the Ha7id, whether we consider it as 
belonging to the Element CB, or BT, are every where to be found ia the 
most ^miliar instances; and it was impossible for me duly to illa^rate the 
race of words derived from die former Radical, without unfolding the 
similar senses, which are attached to the latter. I have undertaken in 
this division of my work to explain tlje race of words belonging to the 
Element CB, which convey the idea of a nimble — quick motion; and we 
have now seen, that various terms with this meaning are derived from the 
Hands. I shall next direct the attention of my reader to the origin of a 
word^ which on the first view appears totally remote from any meaning of 
this nature. Should we «be disposed tb imagine, that our familiar instru* 
ment — ^the CaAFivo-dish is derived from an idea, which must be ultimately 
teferred to the <^>eratu>ns of the Kaefos — the Kef— the Caph — ^the Handf 
There is however no derivation, I trust, in which the rer Jer will more 
confidently acquiesce. It is derived, as all acknowledge, from Chafb 

in the sense of being kot or of /wUing; 

CF, the Hand. and even the Etynjologists allow, that 

, ^ , , , _ ^ , , , this idea of keatittg k derived from the 

' " property of Friction. This origin, 

(Eng.) To rub — to ex- yf^^ perceive, brings us directly to the 

CHAPB.^cite by rubbing-warmth, operation of the Hand. Chafe, says 

Lye, " proprie signiftcat/rictfifrfa cale- 
,&c. — ^To be angry. •* facere. Trandato autem seiisu Ir4 

• '* excandesccre." Junius derives it 

. A vessel to a/tf rm ^ ^ , i 

CHAPiRG-DiiA. -< "^™ ^•**^* ^^ "^™ '*^^ word now out 

up meat. of 

CB, CF. CP, CV, &c. $99 

of use, Kxixa; and Skinner imagines, that it is deduced from the Latin 
Calefacerc, Calfacere. Chafe answers to the sense of Fr^t both in its 
original and metaphorical signification; and this will serve to strengthen 
my hypothesis, that they are both derived from the same source — the 
rubbing of the Hand. We talk of a wound Chafing as well ts Fretting; 
and by a similar figure the initated Mind alike Frets and Chaf£S. In 
Shakspeare these words are applied with great elFect and propriety to de- 
scribe this irritated state of the Public Mind in the period of revolt and 
convulsion. It is thus, that, the malicious fiend, ' palters in a double 
' sense,' with the pride and folly of an unfeeling Tyrant. 

'' Be lion-mettled, proud, and take no care, 
" Who CHAFES, who FRETS, or whcre conspirers are : 
^' Macbeth shall never vanquished be, until 
Great Birnam Wood to high Dunsinane-hill 
Shall come against him.'* 
Even in the application of Chafe in CuAFisG-Dish to the heat arising from 
culinary Fire, its original sense still predominates in our idea of the opera* 
tion. The purpose of the Chafing-Dlsh is not to apply £or the first time that 
power of fire, by which the nature of Raw Flesh is totally changed : This 
process is supposed to have been already performed ; and the only object 
now is, to recover or excite the heat, which is grown faint or has subsided--* 
to Chafe — to rub up, (if I may so ejcpre^ it) cold food into hot food; or, 
according to the appropriate phraseology^ applied on this occasion, in 
which the idea of exciting is likewise preserved— Tb warm t/F Meat is the 
business of the Chafing-DiIs/i. 

In tlie French language we may discover a very curious coincidence 
with this train of ideas, which well deserves to be brought forward from 
its obscurity. We must observe that the operation of a Warming-Pan bears 
no small resemblance to that of a Chqfing-Dish ; as (he former likewise is 
designed not to apply the first strong action of fire on the object — to make 
dry^ what was before wet; but to infuse a warmth into that which was 



BS* The Hand. only cold. From an idea of this kind 

- - has been derived/ as I conceive, the 

jj . ( (Fr.) To rub, chafe, or French Bassinoire, their familiar 
V make warm. name for a Warming-Pan. Menage 

]5assinoire. (Ft.) A Warming-Pan. has no other derivation for this word 
---------- but its resemblance to Bassin or Bason. 

{(Ital.) A Chafing- What will the reader say, when he finds 
Dish, also A Warm- in the French verb Je Bassine, the 
ing-Pan. very signification, which we have seen 

in Chafe; and which we shall instantly 
grant to be derived from the action of the Hand — the Bys, the Bes, or 
the Fist. This word means, says Cotgrave, " To warme, foment, rub, 
•* CHAFE, hug, heat a thing untill it be full warme." Bassinement means 
likewise '• Warming, a fomentation, or fomenting; a rubbing, chafing, 
'• or heating," &c. That Bassin or Bassine, was not formed from 
the Bassinoire, will be evident by marking the termination gire in 
that word, and the men t in Bassine-MEi^r; the due particles expressing 
the instrument and the action appropriate to the verb Bassine. Whenever 
the Basin or Basinet is used for a Pan, and applied to objects of this 
nature; there is always a term added, expressing the purpose to which it 
is applied. So impressive is the resemblance between the Chafing-Dish 
and the Warming-Pan, that we find in the Italian language the same word 
employed to represent botli these instruments. Scaldatoio, says John 
Florio, *' A Chqfing-Dish, also, A Warming-Ban/* The names of vessels 
and utensils^ which are used in the ordinary concerns of life, would 
afford to the Etymologist an interesting subject for the exercise of his art; 
and we should admire the dexterity and readiness of the mind, in one 
period of society to mark relations and resemblances, which in another 
age can be discovered only by enquiry and reflexion. 


'' ClBrCr, CP/:CV, «cV • 1 


•// ' 

t .' ^ 

SP, CP. The Hand. 


I . '. » 

. ./ 


Sweep. (Eng.) 

e • ' 



ScoPARi^. (Lat.) 

SgoYARE. (Itjil:). 
ScoBARE. (Span.) 

Skybo, Skuba, ^^ 


* • « 


>^To Sicccp. 

^.. i:\\ 


Among the words, which denote 

. ai rapid . motion, belonging to the Ele« 

n ment CB, CP, or SP, is our famiHar 

term Sw^ep, deduced from the action 

of the Brmh. There are but two 

sources, from which the name for this 

i Astrumistntiand'operation are comfa»nly' 

dcrived-^the Earth and the Handl 

• The word Brush must be referred; T 

: imagine, to tlie Hapd; and .yet its 

i Coincidence wuIiBeesom, which .ori*i 

ginates, I believe, froni tlie Eai^hp 

forccis tne to waver in my opinion. 

Broom is unquestionably taken from a 

(Lati) A Bru^h. '*^ The name of the Earth, familiar only to 

a nation of the East; but this subject, 
would lead us into a vein : of enquiry, ^ 
totally urtconnected with » the present 
object of our researches. The EtymcHi 
oi . logistsi have produdettiflie various, terarit 
)Ad'iistcrorbudcli* •in'<>the> languagfcs cprrespondbigJixi'i^lt 

S<Mep — the Saxdn ^ttCD^n-r-rdie.TLatiil' 
of Grapes. Sc^pare^the Italiaii: Scoparc;: Scovare* 

■. . . . ' — -the Spanish ^SroW^ — the Welsh 5X3/- 

. i' ^i • ; ^f i ' . ''itw-^heArmoTio Si^uhtt'Qnd The Irish 
r(Lat)N \Xa ^^'hip ,or ' ScuabaHt.^ Lye scemsXa iiAa^nc, that 


I scource Sweep hi^he* sense of Firrt/A* and in 

• ) t\\?X oi Aujerre, diripcre, are two dif- 

lerefntwcrird^r^spid %: faa$ taco^fdisi^* 
5 K placed 

ScoPiEX'* Crops of Herbs,* of 

M 1 . « • t ... i. 

*' Trees, m /itf;if]?fulls. 



).. .t. ; 

nh^ quasi SfWiu«j (£ngt.) . . ^ 

Swabber. -| 


Swipe, SwEOP, VAng. Sax.) placed them in different articles; 

r though we shall justly wonder, that he 

Swiop. jTo whip. 1 ij ^ I • ju 

-^ ' ^ should not have perceived now univer- 

WiPE. (Eng.) Quasi, To sxveep. sally these similar notions have been 

connected with each other. This fa- 
^(Nautical Term.) ^.jj^^ instrument— the Brush, with its 

QMm, Sxvceper. attendant operation, has perpetually 

suggested the same train of ideas; and 
we find in a variety of languages a metaphorical expression derived from 
this action or attached to it, which has expressed a disturbed — rapid motion^ 
and sometimes the most furious and irresistible effect of exterminating 
violence. Among the Latin Poets, Verro is familiarly applied in this 
figurative signification, and it is particularly used, as every one knows, to 
express Sweeping the ocean. 

*' Haud mora, nautas 
" Adnixi torqucnt spumas; et casrula verrunt.** 
This metaphor of sweeping the ocean assumed a material form in a 
memorable transaction of our Naval History; when Van Trump, in a 
moment of insolent prosperity, fixed jsl Broom on the top of his mast, to 
signify that he was Sweeping the British Channel. There is one passage 
irt Virgil, which well deserves to be recalled to our remembrance, where 
this word Vara lias been adopted to perform the most violent part of its 
figurative meaning. *' Unless the power of iEolus" ($ays tlve Poet) '* had 
•^ been appointed to calm the fury of the Winds, they would s WEpp before 
'* diem tbc Seas — the Earth and the Heavens." 

*' Celsa sedet -^olus arce, 
•* Sceptre tenens; mollitque atiimos, et temperat iras. 
" NifisK:iat» maria ac terras, ccelitmque profundum 
*• Quippe ferant rapidi sectim, VERRANTgue per auras.'* 

(yEn. !• eo. &c.) 
ThkttuUime fMOsage apqpean to have Ibeen present to the imagiiiapon of 
'; Schiller; 

CB, CF, CP, CV, &c, 403 

Schiller; who has employed the same metaphor on an 'occasion still more 
awful and tremendous. We may be permitted, I trust, to soften the 
severities of Etymological discussion by the seasonable introduction of 
Poetic imagery and figurative description. The boldest effusions of the 
Muse are often but feeble imitations of the hardy metaphor, by which' 
words have been propagated in the formation of language ; and the writer, 
who should assume the province of unfolding the mysteries of speech, 
must pursue the wanderings of tlie mind in passing from one notion to 
another through all the mazes of Rhetorical confusion. In The Robbers 
of Schiller^ the Dream of Francis exhibits the most solemn narrative, that 
can well be presented to the feelings of an audience. It is The Day of 
Judgement in all its terrors from the mouth of guilt in the moment of 
delirium. '* Methought" (exclairiis the Dreamer) " I held a princely 
banquet, and all beat bliss about my heart !-r-and I laid me down in my 
Gardens of Pleasure, deep drunken with delights; and suddenly! — 
suddenly! — a monstrous thunder struck on my astonished eor^ — I stag- 
gered trembling up; and behold ! methought, I saw the whole Horizon 
out-flaming in a fiery blaze; arid Mountains and Cities and Woods all 
melting as wax before a ibrnace; and a howling Wind-storm sWbpt 
** before it the. Seas, the Heavens and the Earth.*' — — ^^' Siehe, mir 
^* dauchte, ich hatte cin koniglich mahl gehalten, und mein hitn ware 
'* guter dinge, und ich Jage bcraascbt im Rasea des Schlossgartens; und 
^^ plotzlich — plotzlich, traf ein ungeheurer donner mein schlummerndos 
^ ohr: ich taumelte bebend auf, et siehe, da war mirs, als sah ich 
♦* aufflammen den ganzen horizont in fcuriger lohe, und Berge und 
•' Stadtc und WaJder, wie wachs im ofcn zerschmelzcn un^ eine heulende 
*• Windsbraut feote voniiinhen Meer, Himmcl und Jlnde." 

From die World of Imagination, (the Phantasien-welt of Gerimaa 
genius,) we must now descend to the humble regions of Etyjnolpgyrrrthe* 
lower World of Words; where we must again trace through the $impli^ 
Elements of Speech 'the defiom tiioiiigh directed coiuse of the Humaa- 






mind:initi)eiarniali(jQ;of languages. The German 'word adopted, QrtitMs 
ocbasion^ — Tkgc7i, (to Sweep J is assuredly derived from the Vvonui or Fist. 
The similarity in form between Fegc;i and FEcnten, the ordinary German 
word answering to our tetmViQht, (which wc ackrio\<^ledge to be derived 
from the i^/^^^ will serve to strengthen tliis idea; yet there is another term 
adjacent in the order of the letters to Fegcti, which will convince us, that 
the Element FG, signifying the Fvonus, is deeply marked on the German 
language; and it will place, I trust, out of all controversy, the remark, 
which I made on a former occasion. I have observed in page 302, that 
ISiGf in our plirases-4-' A Fig for a person — ^To Fig a person,' is not derived 
from ' putting die thumb between the fore and middle finger,' so as to. 
resemble z. Fig; ijbut from tlie Vvgjius — the Fist — the ; Member, by 
which -actions of derision are commonly exhibited. I i!aust here .observe, 
that the rword Fig itself, and the Latin Yiciis^ arc derived from the Vugjims.' 
Tlxi risiHg or sxviciling but bf die bent hand we must owh* affords a very 
n?rtitraE and dbvIouB • resemblance to the form of the Fig on the tree, 
\V!hichjseettis(Ito havemaflaa very strong impression qn the mindn of diose, 
tb whom such a sight was familiar. We know, diiat the disorder denomi- 
nated the: i^iif, that; Jpainful attendant oii dieJabdriQus, studeiit, was 
derived from tlie similarity, which exists bet\veen the.fruit and the pto* 
tuberance.- Now ^ the German word which signifies ^ Fig, is ^likewise* 
EfiJGe, and it is used moreover in phrases of derision or contempt;: but 
iW'thii&term I fortunately the record is preserved bf it^ ancient sighification;* 
'/i FEiGe,''!-j(says I-udwig) *'.A Fig. £inem die fiegen weiseri, ^to.makc 
*f afool ofohe: toshevc* him the'figgs and give hi mi twne." In diiy 
eii)>iahati^n wfc f)erceiv^, that a different turn is^ given to>itiie woird Fig, as* 
expressing contem]^t';f but the last sense of this terra .will at once! remove* 
aMSi Wr^ J ffl cullfteiy on tfafe subjecti^; '* "SltieOhrrFEiGU^z btow.m Aox on the 

^■OiJ^ ^ <»*• bkw on the Chop.'' I Here; 'we. sQc-the -mystery is. 
^ib mark, as we pass on, the Gefman,,W£i$;e, JO.^//eiii;; 
tkkf»»ktdge:io:be.lieBml fix)m{th^.Fi^8^. \>I io^agiqie.: 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 405 

too, that Shew is quasi Shev ; and that it should be referred to the SV ot 
CV — the CiB — the CAPH^^he Hand. Nothing is more common than td 
find the consonant sound of'V passing into the vowel sound of U or W, 
as we have had perpetual occasions of observing. Thus, I think, has been 
established the origin of the German Fegen; and^ the reader will now 
perhaps be prepared to admit my conjecture, that the corresponding French 
word BALoyfr, is likewise derived from the Hand — tlie PALame (n«Aa/uf»,) 
-p-PALmtf, &c. &c. The PL for the Hand exists in the French language; 
as we know that P^wtts^ was anciently PAULme; and thus in the pro^ 
nunciatioR of our English word Palm, the sound of L has likewise been 

SWABB, another form of Sweep, means Penicula purgare> says 
Junius; and hence is derived the name of Swabber in Nautical language. 
In the Latin Scop^, a breont, hrtish^ or heefo^n, the SC is only a junction 
of the two sounds betonghig to tke first tetter of the Rladical S or C in SF 
or CP. ^ In the second sense of Scopa, by the confession of Qur Lexicogra^ 
*phers, we are brought directly to its original source*-*die Hand. Scov je 
signifies, says Robert Ainsworth, '^ The Crops of herbs, or trees, in Hani^- 
^* fulls." I could not have devised a passage more adapted to suji^rt 
my hypothesis. The Crtq^s of herbs mean the top part of herbs, whicb 
you Crop; and this will strengthen my conjecture, that Antho^, (AiIoc) the 
Flower, is derived from the Hand; as Cakpos ia Greek signifies bothr 
Fruit and the Hand. Robert Ainsworth usi^ a word, which was familiar 
in tliis sense to our ancient language. '' Croppe and rote'" occurs in Chalu^ 
cer; and Mr. Tyrwhitt explains Choppbs by •'• The extremities of tha 
•' shoots of vegetables.*' *' Scop-«," says R. Stephen^^^^ dicuntur Virg» ct 
^ putamina, quasique frondamenta virgultorum, vel KerDarum, et fr-uticum : 
'^ ut ScoPift muntor/er ehamaemeli, quas medici xvAgo maniputop vocznt"^ 
Seopro signifies moreover, as Robert Ainsworth again informs us, ^' (A 
^ Scoparum similit.) A cluster or hunch of grapes with the stalks.'^ This 
is-curious; I bav6 mckavouiedto pMve« (p^S^ 143|)ihat the name for di^ 

5 1- Grape, 


Grape, as it appears in a Bunch or Cluster, is derived from the swelling 
form of the bent Hand; and it iscertain that Bunch belongs to the race 
of words derived from tlie Hatid — Pench, Pinch, Pounce, &c. (page 
2()9, &c.) and that Cluster must likewise be referred to the CLV-xcHerf 
jp/^f— -the Gu A LOW — GoLL, &c. (Sec page 334.) 

" What their Golls 
'' Can clutch, goes presently to their Molls and Dols." 
Martinius has justly observed under Scopa, that Scopare signifies not only 
to Su,'cep, but to whip or scourge, — '* Fonettcr — flagellare, caedere virgis;" 
which we perceive confines the word to the action of the Hand. I^t us 
mark again in the French Fouetter, the Fist; and in our word JVhipf 
which is quasi Swhip, or Cwhip, we have again the same idea. That Whip 
belongs to this race of words will be acknowledged ; when we learn, that 
in Anglo Saxon the term corresponding to Whip appears under this very 
form — ^SwiPE— SWeop — Swiop, ''Flagellum, scutica;" as the £t3rmoio- 
gists have duly understood. 

In every language, as I before observed, the extreme violence of 
utter devastation has been described by the metaphor of the Brush or 
Beesom; and in a passage of Isaiah the full force of (his figurative expression 
has been employed and exhausted. ^' I will also make it a possession for 
^ the bittern and pools of water; and I will sweep it with the Beesom 
V of destruction, saith the Lord of Hosts." (14. 23.) This passage is 
rendered by St. Jerome ** Scopabo Babylonem in Scqpa terens." I must 
not omit to observe, tliat a very different sense has been attributed by some 
Critics to rthis jiassage, though I dare not venture to entangle myself with 
the difficulties, whicb attend these various interpretations. 

This reader. Wnf observe through the whole compass of language z 
laee Oif.wOfdd belonging to the Element CB or SB, denoting a quid — 
rapid-r^giitud niotim ; aild it will be often extremely difficult to deter- 
SMlfiPf ft|Hll..vIiat origin a peculiar term was immediately derived. We 
[ Hr«pffr: bave sujpplie4 a very important origin for words 



CB, CF, CP. CV, &c, 40? 

of this nature: — The swebpjng of the Scop a, or the Brushy (derived 
itself originally from the Hand, J has likewise operated on various occa- 
sions in adding a new force and spirit to the terms, with which it is con- 
nected ; and there are probably other ideas, which have contributed their 
aid in producing this ample family of words, so conspicuous in the History 
of Language. We have seen that the name of the Siy or the Hcavent 
belongs to the Element SP, as in the Persian Sipehr— the Celtic Spbur^ 
(page 37 ;) and in our familiar word Sphere, witli its corresponding terms 
in Greek and Latin, we perceive a similar idea. We have seen likewise 
the Greek Zephurus (Zifwf©*) — the Latin Spiro — the Arabic Sebah, the 
Morning, and the Persian Sheb, the Night; which are all probably re- 
lated to each other by the common name of the Sky ot. Heavens. Now 
it may well be imagined, : that such important terms could not have been 
familiar in those languages, without leaving the most abundant proofs of 
their existence in the formation of words; and I suspect, that these names 
for the Heavens or the Siy, with the attendant idea of agitation or com* 
motion in its Elements — Winds — liain — Storm, &c. have likewise operated 
in generating: a race of words impressed with the peculiar signification, 
which I have above ui^oldfed. 

SCHWEBEN in German, to which some of our Etymologists have 
referred Sweep, is one of those words, which are applied to varipus objects, 
and in all, singularly expressive; though their peculiar and appropriate 
meaning can be felt only by ^ general itnpression, and not minutely 
defined by a precise interpretation. It signifies . ' To wave, move, flutter, 
' hover;* and I imagine, that it has received this sense of an uncertaiii — 
iMconstant motion from the agitation of the Sty or Atmosphere. Schweben 
is used by Marti a Liitber, in his Version of the Bible, to express that in- 
describable motion — ^action or agitation; when, according to the weak 
language of our Translators^ ^' The spirit of God moved upon the Waters.'^ 
*' Undd6r GeistGottes scuwsbete auf dem Wasser.'* The word, used 
in Hebrew: oii.. this >Mifaa^6ii>'.:6i2^ni says Parkhutst^ ^^ To shake, 

" move 


^' move tremulausly. It is used for the fluttering of an Eagle over 
'♦ her nestlings." Now this is precisely the sense of Sehweben. '* Wie ein^ 
<' adler uber seinem . jungen sckwebet, as an eagle fluttereth over her 
^ young/' (sa3^ Ludwig.) 

SQB£(X in Greek, (So&«it abigo, expello. ^ Insolenter incedo.) con* 
tains various ideas belonging to this race of words. It means tlie sweeping 
away of any object; and it likewise denotes that undefined and fantastic 
motioQt whioh is exhibited in the gestures of the proud— -the pompous and 
the insolent. The ordinary Lexicons have sufficiently delineated the nature 
of these words: '^ ZoCff^o;, severus, tetricus, durus, concitatus; fastuodus, 
^^ impetuosus de vento, magnificus.'* *' XoC«;«(, Superbe, fastuose, inso- 
H lenter, et superbe se inferendo. (^•) Concitate, violenter, magno impetu." 
One of the words, belonging to thisi root, brings us at onoe to the sxveeping 
of the Brush. SoBB(£«eti, Muscarium, Cauda,) signifies ^ Fly^Flap znd 
a Tail. A Fox's Tail (as every true Sportsman knows) is denominated 
' The Brush.* In German likewise, Schweifpj^ signifies ^^ A Tail, trail, 
" or train.-' 

SWOOP, u woxk) £uxiiliar to our ancient language, which is some* 
times vulgarly pronounced Swap, denotes the rapid motion of aii 
animal seizing on his prey. It occurs in a very celebrated passage of 

'* Hehas no childreniwAll my pretty ones j : 

*' Did you say all ?-r»HO helUkiteJ— rAU ? : ^ 

^^ What all ray pretty chickens, and their dam, 
** At one fell SWOOP?*' (A. +.9.*.) 

SWOOF,*' says Mr. Steevens, *' is the descept of a^ bird of prey on his* 
quarry. It is frequently however used by Draytoa in^ hi& P^lyolbion, 
'< to express the swift descent of rivers.^' Mr. Steevens wouM i>or have 
wpndered «t this peculiar sense, if be had been awaare^ that S woof and ' 
^iVT wer« ti^ iSanle words under different forms. It is possible hbwev^r,*' 
that'S^ttfCMy^ applied. lo;. a. ravenous bird^ may be diwctiy ^takon fiom &P,^ 


' CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. I 40J? 

th6 Hand or Claw; and not remotely through the medium of words 
denoting aTrapid motion^ as Swecpf Sec. With such an idea, it will pre- 
cisely answer to *' An animal Pouncing on his prey," or seizing it with 
his Pounces or Claws. In the vulgar use of this term, '' To Swop one 
" thing for another,'* we are certainly brought directly to the operation 
of the Hands; and we must remember that the same word Swop appears 
under another fonn in the phrase *' To Chop and Change;" which I 
have produced in a preceding page, (83.) 

I have found it necessary perpetually to observe, that when the 
signiiication of a race of words coincides with different portions of a gene-i 
ral idea, it is often a task of great difficulty to decide on the peculiar 
notion, from which these terms are immediately derived. I have shewn,^ 
that an abundant family of words, relating to the affairs of Comjuerce, 
belongs to tlie Elepient CB, SB, &c. and I have endeavoured likewise to 
unfold the id6a, by which they are related to the general sense of the 
Element. *' The occupation of a Merchant," I have observed, " is at once 
" connected with the notion of collecting or bringing together— •(>/' pos^ 
*^ sessing or taking into possession ^ in abundance or with design^ yet I imagine 
" that many of the words belonging to this race are derived from the 
^* place of safety — the enclosure of security and convenience, in which 
" the business of Commerce was transacted." (Page 78-9.)' Both these 
ideas have, no doubt, operated on various occasions in the formation of 
this race of words; yet I must now observe, that the Hand — the member 
of exchayige^ has supplied likewise a very important source. Our ordinary 
metaphorical expression for exchange is that of * changing- Hands,' or 
* passing from one Hand to another.* Among these terms of Commerce, 
Shop assuredly belongs to the place of secmity or exhibition. The Cheap 
(' £ff^/-CHEAP,' &c.) must be referred, J imagine, to the same idea, as 
we find it in Market-/?/^ re ; and pechaps in A^oja, Forwn, &c. Yet 
in Chaffer (permutare, negotiari)-rVCHOP and change^" and Swop, we 

5 M unequivocally 


unequivocally marck the property of the Hand; and a similar sense 
prevails in Chevisaunck, which in Old English signifies " Mer€;handising 
" — an agreement/' &c. and moreover, according to Ms. Thomas, "an 
" action or achievement " It will now likewise be fully understood, that 
(/ACHIEVE and ^-chever, signify * Manu gerere;' and diat tliey are imme- 
diately derived from the great Instrument of action — theCAPH — the Hani. 
CHEVE, to thrive or prosper, and Che vice, to ' redeem or to 
* eflfect," (Page 84-.) we shall readily acknowledge to be deduced from the 
same source. Cheve in this sense Crorresponds with Speed — ('* To speed 
" in our undertakings;") and there is moreover another signification an- 
nexed to this word, which connects it with tlie idea of motion, expressed 
by Speed, and terms of a similar meaning. This word occurs in the 
Poems of Rowley. 

*• Liste ! now the thunder's ratding clymmynge sound 
/* Cheves slowlie on, and then embollen clangs." 

(Balade of Charitie, T. 3.6-7.) 
Chatterton explains Cheves by moves ; and Dr. Milles adds " rather, 
** trembles.'* ^* Cheves,'' says he, "expresses that tremulous sound* which 
^* is heard on the distant approach of thunder. It is used by Gower and 
^ Chaucer as equivalent to Shiver, R. R. 1732. In that day I have 
^ chever'd eft; and in The Black Knight's Tale, 251. That now I chiver 
*' for default of hctc. Chatterton did not know the force of the expression, 
'' when he explamed it by mwe^.^ Cheves imppesses w? with the idea 
of that indescribable species of motion, which we hav* seen conveyed by 
Schweben, and words of that nature. Chiver in Chaucer is aniy a difier^ 
ent mode of spelling Shiver, which must likewise be referred to CV or SV, 
the Hand: Though the origin of this word is not so apparent in its sense 
of Shivering with coM; yet in that of Shivering of breaking a i^Mig 
to pieces, we perceive uftequivoeaHy the appropriate action of that mem- 
ber. This word dienotes cutting^ — separating om breaking tQ pieces in aR the 


CB> C:F, jCP, CV, &c. 411 

various degrees of force or gentleness^ with which this acfion can be 
accompanied. ^ Shivbr or Shive of Bread means simply a slice 
of bread, as the Etymologists an4 Critics are aware. (See Malone's 
Shakspeare, v. 10. p. 398.) 

CHEVICEin Rowley is likewise used for the achievement of a Warrior 
—-the • manu gestam' of a valiant Hero. 

*' Some cherisatince it ys to gentle mynde, 
" Whanheie ba?e chevycbd theyre londe from bayne, 
•' Whan &eie ar dcdd, theie leave yer name b«hynde, 
^* And theyre goodedeedes doe on the earfhe remayne." 

(Introduction to Ella.) 
Chatterton explains Chbvtced by preserved^ and Milles by redeemed. 
Though the precise sense of this word is not ascertained^ yet we can leadily 
perceive, that the idea conveyed relates to a deed of hardihpod^—an action 
of valour and violence^ such as we have seen perpetually to be derived 
from the Hand — that instrument of power and mights Tlnis it is, that 
the terms of Commerce^ — Chevice^ &c. may be demonstrated to have 
been originally derived from the Hand, by shewing^ that such an origin 
fortcrms^of this nature is not only obvious and naturaJjr but that they 
contain likewise another sense, very different from the former; and that 
those opposite meanings can only be reconciled by referring to the Hakd, 
as the common saurice^ from, which tbey were originally derived^ 
Thus; Chov we knoiw not only relates to barter or excluinge, but it is ap* 
{died likewise la actioi^ <D(f forct and vioknct----'^ To Chop tvood — ^To Clwjk 
^ a^y one down;* aod iit the language of Boixlng, it is used to express 
a species of Blow, (* A Chopping Blow,' &c.) Swop or Swap alike means, 
zs we hOT«i aeeny to^ etchange, as in tlie aifiiirs of Commerce among Men ; 
9nd to sdiice an/ pny, as among^ Brutes. Swap or Swop $eem3 to have 
been used in our afAcicnr language, precisely as Pngno zn^ Fight, terms 
we know deriimd]eP2/j7»cs or Fist. Thus in the original Ballad of 
Cho^'Chase. " At 



': *f At last the Duglas and thje Perse met^ ;'r > : 

-- " Lyk to captayns of might and mayne;^ 

'* They swapte togethar tyli the both sWat . 
" With swordes, that wear of fyn myllan." . , , 
• - . . . . ;j (Reliques of Ancient Poetry, i?ol..V/p-. 10-) 

In the modern Ballad of Chevy-Chase, (which is supposed . to huve .b0ca 
written not later than the beginning of the last century,) we find the same 
transaction described by " They fofight untill they . both did sweat." 
(Page 216.) The Editor explains Swapte by V struck violently. Scot, 
*' Sweap, to scourge, (vid. gl. Gaw. Dougl.) Or perhaps exchanged, sc. 
^' blows; so Swop or Swopp signifies." It will now be perfectly under- 
stood, that Swop for fight is not deriyed from the. idea of exchange. 

COPE, in the sense of contend and cofmnutare, as applied to 
commerce, (according to the interpretation of JuniXis ) belongs to this race 
of words; and we shall readily acknowledge, that it is immediately de- 
rived from the Hand. I have before (Page 6.) properly explained Cop£» 
•^— To be joined together in contest^ — conserere, confcrre manus; in whicAi 
I have been fortunate and correct; though I attributed tlie origin of thid 
^ord to an impression arising from the general sense of tthe Element; (Td 
be joined together — conserere, conferre); and was not at that time duly 
aware, that the term was immediately derived from " joining together in 
" the contest (or congress) of the Hands" — from the conserere, conferre, 
*^ (jungere) manus ;" either in battle or in peace. From this original idc? 
C6>/>e naturally became applied to the contracts of Ck>mmerce!^-Hto . jd/ni»^5 
— meetings or rencounters of every species — of Hatred, of (Friendship and 
of Love. '. , . 1 . 

SHOVE, which Junius properly explains by ** TijiKjene., ager^, . pro- 
*' pellere, loco movere," must be referred to riiis racjs qf^ words;; ian^ wfi 
shall readily acknowledge, that it was immediately deri:ved;froqi the action 
of the Hand. Meric Casaubon imagines, tliat the. .Greek. JSeuOf .(Xiv^, 

CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 413 

agito, conclto, persequor, fugo) supplied the origin of this word. Seuo 
in Greek, I conjecture to be quasi Sevo; which at once brings it to the race 
of' words, which are now the objects of our discussion. Junius and Lye 
refer this term to the Saxon Scufan — the Swedish Skuffa — and the Island ic 
Skiufa. Though in modern English Shove expresses the action of 
removal from a place, as performed rather in a gentle and moderate man* 
ner; yet in our ancient language, and in the Saxon original, it is used to 
express the most violent performance of rejection or expulsion. Shovel, 
in Saxon Scofl, another term of this species, not only signifies, what it 
does in modern English, Ligo^ trulla, but it means likewise either alone or in 
composition, another instrument, used for expulsion — dispersion, &c. In 
Swedish, Skofwel signifies Vcntilabrum, and in Saxon IVindu-ScoTL, 
which in English would be fVind-SHovEL, means tlie same instrument. 
The Etymologists refer these words to Skafc/oti, (Sxa^nw, instrumentum 
fossoris, ligo,) a similar word, say they, to SKAPan^, [iKaxatm, ligo) " in- 
" strumentum, quo fossores terram eruunt/* Others refer Shovel to Scu- 
ba lon, (DnuCaXoy, fimus, rctrimentum) dung, rubbish, &c. *' quod fimo 
*' ejiciendo,*' says Junius, *' ranovendoquc inserviat/' 

I have perpetually observed, that though we are perfectly ascer- 
tained about the general idea, to which a race of words belongs; yet 
it is often extremely difllicult to decide on the peailiar notion, from 
which they were originally derived. The order, in which words are 
related to each other, cannot now be duly arranged ; and all that is at 
present left for the Etymologist to perform, must consist only in discover- 
ing the general notion, to which a race of words ought to be referred. 
Should his enquiries even have directed him to the peculiar idea, which 
originally operated in their formation, still however he may be unable to 
determine, how far a certain term is removed from the first source, and 
consequently he will be unable to decide, whetlier it be formed from a 
general impression of the force of the Element, as impregnated from that 
source, or whether it be not directly, ooinnccted with the origin itself. 

3 N In 


In short, though the parent be discovered, the various relations, which 
the descendants bear to each other, may be doubtful or unknown ; nor 
may we be able to ascertain by what degree of affinity they are connected 
with the original stock. The comparison between the families of words 


and of men may be still pursued withtrutli and precision. Even strong 
and striking features of resemblance will not always be sufficient to decide 
on the degree and order of affinity. The traits, which are lost in one 
generation, appear again in another; and the countenance of tlie father, 
which was faintly marked in the son, may become full and impressive in 
the grandson. It is likewise extremely curious, that these various branches 
of a family, when they are brought together in contrast with each other^ 
will exhibit characters of resemblance, which, separately considered, 
might be obscure or invisible. We shall thus discover at a single view those 
distinguishing features, by which a separate and peculiar race has been 
formed ; and we shall perhaps be moreover enabled to trace these varieties 
of resemblance or of difference in the lineaments of the common parent. 

The foregoing observations may be applied to illustrate the race of 
words belonging to the Element CP or SP, of which I am now endeavour- 
ing to unfold the origin. I have produced in page 103 the English Sap 
— the Persian Kaf itn — the Greek Skapio^ &c. (Zxairlw, fodio) to dig — to 
make a hollotv or to excAvate, which m%y possibly be related to the Caf, 
the Hand, the first instrument, by which the operation of digging — of 
making hollotvs — of forming or of fitting cavities to the purposes of rest and 
safety was originally performed. I have hazarded a conjecture in page 105 
respecting the origin of this CB, CF, as expressing the Hollow of a Cave; 
and if my present observation shoukl be founded on truth, it will follow 
that the name of Caf — the Hand and the Cave were coeval with each 
other. I must however repeat, as I observed on the former occaision, " that 
^ these speculations belong to theory and not to facts, which alone I have 
*' undertaken to explain and establish — that it is my province to trace the 
^^ Elements of speech, ^ it is propagated and preserved in the records of 

. . •'written 

CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. 415 

'* written language." This observation I must particularly press on the 
attention of the reader; as the fact remains precisely the same respecting 
the existence of a race of words belonging to both ideas — ^the Hollow and 
the Hand; whatever might be the order in which these words were 
formed, and whatever degree of affinity they may possibly bear to each 

We have seen the Caph or Carpus become under another form 
Griov andKRUV, (Page 276;) and if we should be inclined to imagine 
that Kaf ten, Cavo — Skapio, are more immediately derived from the former 
source, our conviction will be enlarged and confirmed, when we consider 
the race of words of a similar kind, which have a more striking re- 
semblance to the form of the latter. Thus the familiar word for Dig, or 
make a Hollow, in tlie Teutonic languages — GRAB^n, (Gothic) &c. &c. 
assumes this appearance;, to which belong our word Grave, the re- 
ceptacle for the Dead — Grave, (for engrave) which again appears in the 
Celtic GRAB/i^m — the Greek Grafo, (rf«^«j Scribo) — the Latin Scrib(>, 
&c. &c. — the English Scrape — Scrub — Grub — Grovel — Gravel — the 
Latin Scrupulus, Scrupus, Scrobs, &c. &c. Now in all these words we 
can trace, if I do not deceive myself, either remotely or directly, the 
operation of the Hand; and discover that the Gravel — the Scrupulus — 
the Scrupus and the Scrobs, are the dirt — the pebbles — the rubbish and the 
ditch, dug or Grubbed out (if I may so express it) by the agency of the 
Griov or the Kruv. When the R is removed, Gravel and Scrupulus 
become Sabulum, which in a simpler state is Saburra. All these terms I 


imagine to be derived from the idea of tlie earth thrown 1//1— Sapt — 
Shoved — Shovelled up by digging, &c. &c. 

The Shovel or Spade — the action of digging up or rooting up, 
has supplied metaphorical expressions, denoting the extreme violence 
of force and devastation, such as we have seen annexed to the Sweeping 
of the Brush. These terms and their actions are inseparably united through 
(he whole compass of language; and it would be an idle labour to 


/ . 


produce examples of this figurative diction, which is every where to be 
found. We all remember, that the final devastation of Troy is eifectcd 
by the Shovel of Nejptune's Trident, rooting up the walls from their 

" Neptunus muros, magnoque emota tridenti 
'* Fundamenta quatit, totamque a sedibus urbem 
'' Eruitr 

Digression on a passage of Rowley. 

It is extremely curious, that in the Poems attributed to Rowley, 
the Element SVL or SBL — the Shovel or Sable, is employed to repre- 
sent an object, which of all others impresses us with the idea of a violent 
and irresistible motion. Sable in these Poems is used to denominate 
the strong current of a rapid River up-rooting or 2//>-shovellin6 (if I may 
so express it) many a wood of oak in the swjft and sweeping violence 
of its course. This word occurs in the " Song of Seyncte Warburghe." 
The first of Rowley's Papers communicated to the public by Chatterton 
was an account of the ceremony observed iiv passing the new bridge at 
Bristol, '* referring," says Dean Milles, ** to the year 1247, (when, 
" according to Leland, Itin. vol. 7. p. 88. the new bridge was built.)'* 
This account appeared in Farley's Bristol Journal October 1st, 1768, 
when Chatterton was in the sixteenth year of his age. A part of the 
ceremony consisted in singing a Hymn to the honour of St. Wareburghus; 
which, according to the conjecture of Dr. Milles, was adapted to the 
language of the fifteenth century by Rowley, as we find it in the follow- 
ing Poem. In the MSS. afterwards produced by Chatterton there are 
other allusions likewise to the Story of St. Wareburghus, though Dean 
Milles appears somewhat alarmed that the name of this Saint caimot be 
found ki our English Legends, " which spealc only," says he/ *^ of the 
*•■ .female Samt Werburga.** Our opinions on ancient language will not, 
ftf^h^ disturbed by any doubts or difficulties on the Sex of a Saint. 
i Song 

. « • 

.• CB»'CF,.C)P; CV, »&c. .• ♦I? 

Song of ,StyncUWiur\mrgh£. 

.il: .' .' ' I.'f i •: : • ; J H)? •• * 

Whanne Kynge KyngfaiU jmnjiis honfl? i.j ..; 
Helde the sceptre of. thys.londe, J] ,: ., 
Sheenynge starreiftfChiyptes'lyghtn, , ijj * 
The merkie myts of pagan n nyghte 

Gan to scatter farr.tind wyde : 
Thanne Seyocte ^Warburgher jhfe arote^ > ,;.);i 
Doffed hys honnores and lyne yclotlifesa^. i / wr^rif. 
Preechynge hys JLorde Jtesusikaftie, : ^ :• ; i; .>] 
Toe the iande of. Wert Sexx came,.: i * . /Ih .V 

Whafeibkieke! Severniraib. hya tyde: ,' 

* I ' ■ V - i ' • ■ : ' f 



• a Hi : • , 

• • • 

Strohge ynxl faithfullne5S€i^:(he trodde . 
Overr the waterrs .lyice a Godde,. 
Till he gaj^nde the distduot becke, 
Ynn whose bankes hys staffe dyd stecke, 
. ^ iiWytnesBe tb.the imyrracle; - • 
' .^h^nn^* itie preechedd nyghte and dale, 
.; jf And'Setnnianee ynn ryghte waie. 

• Tbys goode staffe great wonders wroughte, 
• ii' Moe thann gueste bie mor^lle thoghte, 

1 •>' Orr thann mortall tonge caii telL 


• • 


t t 

•• : 


•* » , . .1 


* I 

• • • f 

III; • 

Thenn the foulke a brydge dydd make 
. Overr the streme untoe the hecke, 
: J\ll of wode eke longe and»wyde, 
; Pryde and gbrie of tlietyde; . .. • . 

5 o Whvche 

■ I ■ 1 ■ » 


Whyche ynii tyme dydd ftHie awaie : 
Then Erie Leof he bespedde 
Thys grete ryverr from bys bedde. 
Round 'hys cAfide for to ty nne; 
'Twas in trothe ann dmrftante onne« 

Butwatreatid tyvac iiiryU ail decaie. 

. I 

• • f < . r, 


' .- • 

111 I 

Now agajme^ vrpAv^ hTetnie fotcs^ 

Severn ynci hysoynciant couise 

Rolls hy s rappyd streeftie dlonge^ i . 
With a sable swifte and ttroiigtv I . . ' J: 

Mt»Mykvg iiiiftiie ann ^ki^ vi^oAt . I / 
Wee the menne of Bristowe towne 
Have yreerd thys brydgfe of stone, 
Wyshynge- ecfaofie ihsrt ytt mtiie liste ; 
Till the date of dales te past, i ^ . 

Standy nge where the other st6ode. ^ 'M :U'/ 

I shall not entangle myself with' the difficukks of ^lis poem ; as they 
are involved with the e^iepnui ^Vi(i&mk of Legendbry ftiitdry ; since tlie 
reader, I imagine, will be tittle interested in a discussidni. which should 
be employed in defending the consistency of a Poety ^wheii he details the 
miraculous achievements SDf ft popular or forgotten t>r toever existing Saint. 
I shall only direct my attbntion^ to the .ifiamal evWeiiCe, and endeavour 
to prove, that the Poet is an ancient Poet, and that his Language is an 
ancient Language. First, I trust, wxj shall allow that the ' Severn rolling 
• his rapid stream with a BXBiJEhuifte and sijvrig,* irnd '* mvrei/vig* or rooting 
up in its course ' fnanie ann okk kvoad,' xSonxoyt ptecisely the idea, which 
I have attributed to the term Babi^e^ imd the Corresponding race of words 
Shovel — Shoyji& — Sweep, &c. Thi^ «or^ectur4> xIiougH unsupported 


L - 


cb;^p, :cr5!CT; ac 419 

by any tnamiple, vtiXl be adcnowledged; I hope, as Mctremely probable^ 
abd St leatt be enttded to-a ^tourabk refceptkm from die intelltgent Critic, 
■^htn fi<s coAsidcrt- the terms witM- which ^Sn^ic is accompanied* and is 
duly aware of the various forms, under which the same or similar words 
are exhibited in our ancient laAgvm^.'^ iBut dib is not all the evidence, 
which I am able to produce Mi- tHe present occ&sipn. Though I cannot 
pYote dm the Radical SB^, Sitlu, in its compoand state, is used to ngnify 
die f^ij^ toUtie of it ^weri yst i'>cin*4liew, that in its siinpler form, SP, 
it siippli^ 'die <ippr<>p|-iate Wcm tt txptesi sdiSs loliject; Swoop, which, we 
know, iM viiklg^r Engli«h is pronounced SktiK^ ^' is frequenUy used by 
** Drtytdti* 'sAys Mr. 'Sleevens, »« -Iti' his Poly^Won, to expreis thk 
" iwiFt DfesCteirr «y^ tl*Viai»SL" i'Tliis' te <«tt^emely ctttious» and, in my 
6pinion, dt^ctsiVe. Vitdei-tytty'^fta wi« fi nd ^Ut«. :£leKk0nt $P and SBL, 
ot-SPL, «mploy«d W Wdfttey whiic^ttcoyhrey fafesiB- of jfo»ct and violence. 
In '' The Tumament <if l^ftttenbiMt)'' -di^ tib«4is, wh» contended in this 
mode e^hibitidn of C?bhratl<y, aire issi^i id ^ftvefaaii their ''hedys brokyn," 
tU.'Stt. -'WydiSW*i»ifrtr^AjrSwiS*«{/ft.^ : (kef»«|Ues of Ancient Poetry, 

t>3il!^.iip.a^.y'>'*'Su^^ppfii^'f^mytfiiafti Perc^.i-'^ Mrikiag fiut; (Cimb. 
<* 5iEt>M>> cito ageCe, or' lather i^ticbui^ingy' from voivere, lapUre.) Scot. 
*♦ >Sk«iq9ii to scourge, Vid. Otoss. to Gaw^'Doiigkis." Again, says Dr. 
Percy, " A Swepyl is that staflF of the flail, with which the corn is beateki 
" out, vulg. a iS'u/'plf." ""i ^il ,'.'.-;' iilii/;.. .; m:' j; v;^^ • 

Having established, asM iths^iierj ther'senfie'tdtf' Skhli, I shall take 
this occasion of explainit>g ^ttie^iw^i^ m the Poem tielbhe OS; which well 
deserve the attention of the Critic. '• Moreying manie ann okie wood," 
signifies, says Dean MiHdsj^ ^^ J¥a^/>lj^ -^ 60 e« plained in the Glossary 
" to Robert Gloucester.— ^^rt^i^' P.oil'ijdiggr^ll, gtiilJbedi The roots of 
" trees are^ttHbilte(iJl«re>te D^vik^hii^." They are likewise so called 
nil Obticest^rshirej as Mht^t^Me W)^feiAA6 lit) in hn Provincial Glo^^ but 
i^hat is extrert*e»y' burk)a¥;fttJi^WO^rfjiis:.iilb^ to denominate 

die' p^i^uliar iHstMMeitt/'b^q^hlth)' tlije'acttotilof ghihbing ml^ ireee is 



performed. A *' MoREiNGnAS:/' sajfs 'Mr. Grose, *Un Ax tor gr^kbing 
'' up the roots of trees :* Thus we sec thit " ThC: SABLE*swifte and strftngfl;! 
of tlie Severn is the great MorbxKq^A}^ of the Woods. ' In anotber f4rt 
of this Piiem we find, . j; , •: ' . :,.^//. •:: 

/' Then. Erie Leof he beq^edde ;. - liii; 

.'* Thysgrete ry verr from hys bedde/V : :::..' 

It is manifest, that Be^edde must signify in tbis place to turn awcyMxxn^y^ 


or to force from its course, in .a ^(coQg energetic sense. No>*^ ^lySped qin 
Speed ap^ars. to hear no signii&<^tion of th^ sort at present,. ^Ij^eanJ^Uios 
has been obliged toiarrive at the former idea through » the mediuip of our 
term dispatched, which, mpre intimately corresponds with the ^ familiar 
meaning of these words. . jSe$pe<frfe*jn this passage shears exactly the ,seqse, 
which my former remarks on this .word . (Pag? 3p5) would iead ,us to 
expect. Sped I have proved to, bje d^riiif^d fyifmAh^. M^^d i and accord- 
ingly we find, that ,ane> ofils significations* is, tl^at of /wi^e;;' or jfbrce-T-* 
" Potentia, vis,'' says Lyeit— ^' Tfeufch, hisiinibjlp StyjEp — -I?erejy^|poteiiti» 
V vim" (Lye sub voce-) ^Thus.w;^ s^e^ <hat J^i^^edde in -this .passage 
means prcciselyjirar«rf-^a.|ermi we TO W.t acfenowledge, most adapted 'J> 
the spirit of. the coritext.j.) Tlljereis likewise another wor4 in. t^^; I^opm 
before us, whicli well xiesetvesto be^consideredrr-HpcKE, int^prpted by 

Dr. Milles, Height. mA^: il!!*/: ^\\ul\ ^Ai :. 'I!:: J..: ; ' 5 \Z /. * ^ m.1 

" Strong ynn faithfuUnesse, he trodde \.. . *'. ,: .t,[!j, ^j,. . > 
. " . QVerrttbenvateitJ lyfcfe _» Qodde,. . ^ . ...i- . ^.\n^\ 
*' Till he (gaynde the di^taunt Hecke. : , . _, .,oi«:i;:. ^o >::ii 

«. .Th^fln the; foMl^.a ^isydgft dydd makq : . . • { ^-^;;, ^ , j,. ; „y,, , 

" QYerrthestrein6(iin^.0tl?p>iEf;KE/';: ,-^i,.,Kj jio*io;i c; »• 

The enquiring reader, I trust, wi^ be j?:%tife^4 byi.<li»?PYeiiing,.,;iiat 

Hecke is the appropriate termiforilihe.wR€(gi!»>,,3sat rel^s.t9.a^,Rjiy)E|^, 

" Eine land ecke,"* says .L^dwig in( hj&r%ffliaij; piptioflfiU35,,^<'^^^^ie^ .^i^ 

" dieseeerstrecket,^ ppint:<)f Jl$nd,:j»xi^p^j a pr«!W«lJPfy»;i«!jfPi#i»i^ 


i/'CB, C;E, CCFrCV, iiC' 

1 * 

L i 


• ( 

\ . / J 1 4 ' ' . ^ 

Swap— void Eng.) 
SwYP. 3^^ fig'^t, or strike. 


, SB, &c. The Hand. ** Ecken an denstromien. Comers or 

" 'Windings of rivers.'' The Heche 
•isr nothing but flic Greek Ak^e (AxIu, 
littus,) the Shore, vvhicji W6 again per- 
ceive in the firstpartof AiGifl/r?^ (Aiy««- 
>Mu littus.) These words mean siqiply 
the Land o^rEarihf; as we find the 


siame Element in AGer and ACre; and 
hence we shall understand, why Akte 
(Ax7d, Littus, farina,, fruges,) signifies 
the Shore and the fruits of the Earth. 
Every part of language is uniform and 
consistent. , We j)erceive that the Ger- 
man Ecke seems to| meaa ipcur^cular 
points or portions of the Shore ; but in the 
passage of Rowley, k appears to signify 
in general the Shore itself; according 
to the original idea of • the'wtfrd ; as tlie 
'sense of Ecke, for a r(;rwer, belongs to 
a different notion. I shall liow con- 
clude my obsefratiotis / on: tiie ^ .Song ' 

. ):;^ :. * of Seyncte Warburghe,' and I $hall 

with an agitated motiori. . , ., : '^.^ .• /. ' /j-' ,. : ^'i^-/ 

*^ , . t . leave the Critics and Antiquaries to 

''(01dEng.)ToiSttrq», determine, whethfTN my comnaentary 

' n: . • : . has been employed:^ in ex|4lai^ii1pg the 

i.e. Clearpradany ^^.^^^^^ ^^ an ktitle^ Ba^d. ftt a mo- 

I place^y anaeiiofe of > dern Boy. , ; ; ) 

I I .; , ,...;.. To this race of words derived from 

V lpow?r,force,.&c. the /Tcnrf, Vc must refer the English 

((Eng;) To thtcrchange, ttr word Scu ffi,^, «0|/^Ar pjr cyn^.. 
CoBE.s • t-i )• ■ :..>i;> Onr Etymologists have adianced no 

J.' i i.\o\y •.♦.ijj» 

(Old Eng.) Tb'seize on 

f • .»i'f"'' 

; ,,prey» (as a.Jbjrd). • 

■ > 

Swap — ^(Vulg.Eng.) 
Chop, .j To. change. . 
Chop— SeVek.- (Eng!) To cut, &c. 

T • " • 

' • ... 

SnivEor Shiver ,^-Breflfrf. A slice. 

^-CHIEVE. (Ertg.) 

• * - r * 

^-CHEVER. (Fr.) 

(Old Eng.) To prosper 

Cheve. < — ^To advance forward 


pm »• « !»-- ."'fir**- 

(^contend withj to join with. 





(Or.) Ta tlrive away, to 

< .. 

» • 1 

SoBEO.-^walk proudly^ fantasti- 
cally, &ۥ 
{(Northern Dialect.) 
To walk |ny>uaij^. 

# • / 

SoBE. (Gr.) A fly flap, or tail. 

(Germ,) A tail, trail. 

or train. 

» ♦ 

Settoi'ifam Sevo 

r(Gr.) To drive 

I < I • 


Shiver. (Eng,)To break in pieces. 

•» « 

Shov^— ^OVEL. (Eng.) 

* # 

ScuFAN. (Ang. Sax.) "fo shove. 

ScoFL; (Akigi Sax.) AShovel. 


i. t ' 

t I r 

Windu'ScovL. {Sax.) A Corij Fan. 

. » Tf ' :) ) • /Th^ itfpid 
Swoap,.(OlcJjEiig.)Yr) ;, , 

., r, ^ M - <pourse of a 

Sable*. (Rowley.) /* 


J t < « . ) i. * 

f . » ' »'. 

i« i 

'i(Q|<p! fi»g) Th^t part 

Swi*TL*. -fbf^'a Flail, by which 

; ^ii 1^1 V^^ <^oro is beaten. 

further than the tonjeclure of Meric 
Casaubon, who derives it from the 
Greek Z7u^fx»'^«, on which I will not 
venture to decide. ShVffle conveys 
various ideas, which we attadi to tlie 
t quality of the Hand. It signifies to 
miz qr confound, as in the phrase to 
'Shuffle Cards;' and in Shakspeare 
it is used to express the idea of rejecting 
—shaking or throwing off. ** When we 
'* have Shuffled off this mdrtal coil.'* 
From this sense of an unquiet-^unsteatfy 
motion, tlic term is naturally applied to 
a wavcri?ig and undecided character — 
not fixed by principles of virtue and 
rectitude. It is thus that the inimitable 
PalstafF reasons with ^ ancient Pistol.' 
'* Vou stand upon your honour!*-^ 
** Why thou unconfinable baseness, it 
is as much as I can do to ^eep the 
terms of my honour precise.. If If' 
'* I mysqlf soipnie times, leavin|; the fear 
'* of heaven oh the left hand, and 
'* hiding rtiine honour in my necessity, 
'* am fain to shuffle, to hedge and 
'* to lurch." Shift is ia simpler state 
of Sh^Lj^, \%v^ i^roirtains senses, which 
may all be readily traced to the Hand. 
In the expressions to ^'^^^ijift a Shirt 
f' — ^To Shift a, bu^yi^. from his 
^^ shoulders,'' we perceive the idea of 




" ft'- 

a: )■ 

1/: JCm^*T, CV* C V, Uc 


]Sk:ur»iiE5-SiatfFFLB^SHii'T/(Eng^.) 'Mritw/nj^o^aafin' Shuffle; and the 

:i' ', ■ i; r-' n , :■. ' coveiiiig called a Si»ilfT<Widfet species 

i!.rui >j 

r 'f .»: 


t . I « 


(0crtn;)'i ' 


T9 hover, flutter. 

!' li-of <lr*«si whicfh thfe weairer i6 triore 
^/^ pajrti<?uiarly accustomed to shift or 
'ihtmo^ff. Shivt. in the sense of a 
^'^tontrwanct^i^W^ has no 5A^<- tefit— 
', ' Mil^ is put to> hi^ 'Shifts^' &c. ^teci^ely 
'answers J t6»lii<i;^i*y>artificium;- a w<ord, 
as we have proved, derived from the 
Hand. This i& the most obvioussource 
for terms 66 this. nature ;a^d.mihe 
Ficus. (Lat.) Vx *r- ■' ^ i phraTso to '^m^r^for himself/ theitocaii^ 
ni^g^e. (Germ.)/ ^^ii , •.. . i ingi!> little inore than that of timrbihg 
*' Einemdie^4f«i«eisc»u*'^(Ger.) or Inbmiting far *Mmgdf. This word 

FG, &c.The Fw^ 
Fegen. (Germ.) To Sweep. 
Fechten. (Germ;) To Fight. 

To Jig a person^ Im >fti^G a fool 
. of him. -^i '■ '•••' -•• ' ' '•''■ ' 
" Eine Ohr:/jf^"^Ofen)^A*/imit 
or box oh the ear. i » 

BL. The Hand. 
JJfl/ayer. (Fn)To sweep. 

(Provincial Eng.) 
Moreing-Ax. ^An Ax for grub- 
bing up trees. 

Ilccke. { ^^^^ ^"S-^ ^^^ corners (^ 

windings of a stream. 

1 1 /f 


^A/e. |(Gr.) The Shore, 

^i^ialos. ) 

IBc'Spedde. (Rowley.) Forced. 

iiigpAn\ iKpp)^Am' its i^orst stose to 

thisi'-^cks' and/ de^ieeis of ^^aktiifl^; 
^^tVlwrtsik noiftmbdy; )I uvust coney-^ 
'• ck'ich, t ittust-'SmPTi^ ilh ^OM 
^English the ^mb term «;' tised to> icncu 
pres&' aMthet a«iti(Mi oft^ia^^Tiif-^thM 

of distributing or assigning, Shifte, 
says Junius, " usurpatur Chaucero, 
^* pro assignarc alicui, conferre in 
'^ aliquem." Lye too infonns us, 
that ScYFTflfw means in Saxon ** ordi- 
!V^gajj^dividere;*' and hemiglit have 
added that the word likewise sig- 
nifies * Pellere;' where we again mark 
an operation of the same Member. 
'Ihis sense of divide or separate will 




remind us of Sever, ^anotfier term, swhleh ifiustr be added to* this^ race of 
words. I!suspect that SEBAR&isi only Sever, with a Latin termination; 
and that it has nothing :tp do ^vrtbl^5«t and Paro. ' I must oTbserve, that in 
this race of words, iskoyEL-^smfFJue-^ &c. &c. the.^^^co/id part of the 
compound, VL, FL, &t:/&c. . belongs Ukewise to the IIa7id— to the VoLa 
Mdnus, l?ALma, &c. I must note moreover a singular coincidence in a 
Northern word to the ' Greek S'a^p, * (SoSfw, insolenter incedoj \vhich I 
omitted to observe on a former occasion. In the Dialect of the Nortli, 
SwAiP means, says Mr. Grose, *' To walk proudly." 

I shall here, close my remarks on the race of words, denoting a 
quick or rapid motion, which we have mow seen to be derived in a variety 
of instances from the Hand, whetherr it be considered as the instrument 
of diligence or of force and violetice. I have shewn, that me f name of the 
strong and effective Member has ever been CQnnected with the name of Man 
-*-the strong, the Potent Being r ^^fi^ it.will hence .he xeadi^y acknowledged, 
that these discussions were nebessarily involved witli each oth^r. I shall 
return to thie . coniidieration of* the. oames for Makt, belonging to the Ra- 
dical CB; whicb the reader , will now resume, furnished, . I trust, with 
more ample views o£ the general question, and more deeply impressed with 
the;force and ^irit of the Elemeot ; : ; : * • 

. V . . / . 

iK ' ^ 1 . ■ v; ... t 

• > 

.'f/i::i ' 

(■ . f • 


. , f 

*ff « * 

r.\.- . 

• • • 


.wt ^.*.- ,C»C- 


C B, C F, C P, C V, ktjm" *25 


CB, GV, i:c.— r/je name of Man. 


! • • . -v 

GEVAR we have seen, (Page 547.) is the appropriate and familiar 
name for Man in theChaldee language; and we have perceived the , j^aw^ 
word in our humble English term GAFFER — the venerable, though rustic 
father of a family. I have likewise proved, that in "Hebrew, Aftibic; 
Syriac and iEthiopic the nzmo (or AIa?i is found under this Element. In 
a simpler state we have seen Chief, and its corresponding tentos jBifiEF^am 
— CAvtain — Pr/ncEPS, where Man performs the mor6 illustrious part of 

his character ; but in our term Chap (a Boy,)^ we view him as the "lively,! 


** sprightly personage of common life;" and I have shewn (Page 373, &c.) 
that a great race of words, to be found in a variety of languages, is^ttached 
to this term, denoting a '* Ilumanhtin^ in the earlier part bf his existence," 
with the attendant qualities of brisk-^active — lively motions; such as we 
naturally annex to this period of life. I shall now proceed to consider 
this varying Being, Man, under another form and with other qua^itiqs. 

CHUFF ('A country' Chuff j^) must be referred to this general idea 
of Man ; as we have seen Hine or Hind, a country Man^ belonging to 
A7ier, Arid-ros, {Ayfift Api(Q» -y) and Man, we know, is used for the lowest 
order of Afen — a Servant. Skinner supposes it to come from :tlie Latin 
Ciipa, &c. signifying a Cask, " certe satis eleganti metaphora, prassertim si, 
^' ut suspicor, primitus de Rustico grand i, ventricoso, et tarn guke, quam 
** temulentiae dedito dictum fuit." Lye derives it from the Welsh Kuf, 
truncus, stipes; which belongs to another sertse of the Element; 'febcha^ 
we see it in the phrase, ^* A CuuB^headed Fellow'- — in »Chub, the Fishj 
and in the names of certain vegetables — the swdVmg^CABbctge, .&Lt. 5ccl 
The idea of " rising or swelling out** instantly brings us to the notion df 
a heap — lump or blocA; and from tliese sources, have. ever Jbeen jderived 
under various ElementsjJie id^)of stupidit?/. Thds Jlebes'in Latia is quasi 
Htapy. — ^A. ' Lt^i/yiiA . Eeilow' conveys ia. similar meaning;/ and, ^/ocXhcafli 

5 Q • is 


Chuff. A country Fellow. 

Cuff. An old Fellow. 

CuFFiN. ^(eant Language.) 
Cove. J A Man. 

Gip — Jip. A Servant 

the Man. 

is the most familiar of our terms on such 
occasions. Under this signification 
might be classed the vulgar phrases, 
• A CHU3BY or a Chopping Boy; 
which suggests to us an idea of the lumjh 
ish appearance belonging to a fat — full- 
sized infant. Chub means the Fish 
with a thick — stvollen head; where the 
ideas of the head and the apfiearance 
are so entangled, that they cannot be 
Servvs — ServjinI* , forsan, quasi separated. As Chuff denotes a rustic 

or ConnXxy^Man; so under tlie form 
Jip or Gip it signifies a Man or Servant 
in general. This term is peculiar, I 
believe, to our Universities — * A College 
' Jip,' &c. The name for a Servant 
has been commonly derived from the 
ordinary denomination of the being, 
who performs that office. As Man in 
our language is thus used, so in the 
Latin we ha^^e the same idea and the 
same root. M i n kter probabl y belongs 
to Man ; and is not, as the Etymolo* 
gists suppose, derived from Minor, 
quia Minor est Domino. Thus the German Dien^t, a Servant, must be 
referred to the Celtic Dyn — Dean, &c. the familiar and appropriate term 
for Man. I have observed on a former occasion (Page 46.) thaLtServm k 
deduced from the idea annexed to Servo, to preserve or ieep; and have 
brought as a confirmation of this Etymology, the phnses * Hsuse-KEi^EK 
^ — 6tf?i4e*KREP£]i,' where the same metaphor exists. I have Jiow to 
suggest that SfiRVUS may possibly belong to our Element CB or^B, in the 


Keof. (Welsh.) a block of wood. 

Chub. (Eng.) The name of a Fish. 

A Chubby — Chopping Boy.* 

C% CF, CP, CV^ &jtf^P 427 

sense of the Ma7i; and then S€?v& and Servh wiUQHrihe immediate deriva- 
tives. Iji coincidences of this nature it is the business of the writer to 
propose the evidence, and of the reader to judge. In our word Serv av[t, 
we perceive in the Ant the name of Man or person, such as it exists in 
Ai^rhropos — Akdtos, (Ajrflf woo AiJf o?) — servANS — servAiiTis, &c. &c. (See 
page 66.) Cluiff assumes anodier characteristic of its original meanings 
when it signifies in vulgar language what Shakspeare calls *' A Mannish 
^' spirit." — '* How chuff he is — The Fellow grows chuff upon it/' 
&c. &c. I have had perpetual occasion to observe, that when sig* 
nifications arising from different sources become blended with each other ; 
it is often a vain task to attempt a discrimination of these similar senses. 
The idea of a Rustic Fellow derived from the general term expressing 
Man, and that of a Stupid Clouni, from the notion of a lump — heap or block, 
would supply a new race of words, in which these kindred conceptions 
would be inseparably united. But diis word for Man appears on various 
occasions, where no idea of the lump — heap, &c. exists; but that only is 
exhibited, which belongs to tlie radical. ** Cuff,'* (says Mr. Grcse in 
his Provincial Glossary) "An old Cuff, an old Fellow. Midd/' and in 
tlie Chissical Dictionary, Cuff/w, he observes, signifies a Man. In the 
term Cove, familiar to the Cant language, Man appears under his worst 
form. " Cove. A Man, fellow, a rogue. The Cove was bit, the Rogue 
^ was outwitted. The Cove has bit the cole, the Rogue Jim got the 
*• money. Cant.'* (Classical Dictionary of the Vuigar Ton^^.) . Cove 
here signifies precisely die same as^ Man; and it means R^(fkc only, 
because it is employed in denominating the Men, who labour in that 
vocation. According to this mode of interpretation, the actors in the 
different employments »dr professions in Life might amuse thcnisclves^t^Uic 
expence oi tlieir Fellow Citizens, by discovering the various significations 
of the term Man, as it passed from the service of one order to that of 
anodier. Tht6 fnritful themfe of interpretation would soon exhaust the 
^' Glossary 



Glossary of the Decalipib. — Gentry Cove means, in tlie safne Cant lan- 
guage a GeyitleMAS. (See Classical Dictionary, sub voce Gentrt/.} 

SiPPER. VOtfrid.) 
SiBBON. ^Cognati: Adfinis. 

SiBBE — Y 
Ge-SIBBE. ) 

(Old Dutch.) 
Affinis, Cognatus. 


SiB-Z?(/Jr, < 

(A. S.) Amor tanquam 

inter cognatos, 

Sifi, (A. S^ and Goth.) Pax. 
Ga-siByon. (Goth.) Reconciliari. 

/A Godmother. 

Gossip, quasi 1 

JCognata ex parte 

God'Si?. / 


Gorf-si^JSaucer.) A Godfather. 

(A Provuicial term.) 

The Banns of Mar- 


SiBBE. "(Chaucer.) Related. 
SiBness. (Scotch.) Relationship. 

The n^mc for Man, CBbrSB, has 
supplied a. great race of words denoting 
Sdciety — Friendships — Kindred — Con- 
sanguinity, &c. Under anotlier Ele- 
ment the same idea has been derived 
from the same source. Thus Kin — 
KindxtA, we know, belongs to Hw^ — 
Genus — the term for Man in the ab- 
stract; and Fellow signifies at once a 
Friend or Companion and Man in gene- 
ral* — * A JV//(?tt;-Labourer — A strange 
' Fellow,* &c. &c. In the phrase * A 
* jpe//(?rc/-Companion/ it partakes of 
both these senses. Lye under the word 
SiB has collected: various terms belong- 
ing to this idea. (Junii Etym.) Sjjb- 
bon — Sip PER signify in Otfridus respect- 
ively Cognati and Adfinis; and in the 
ancient Belglc, Sibbe and.G^-siBBB 
meant the same as ** Affinis, cognatus, 
'' consanguineus.". In Anglo Saxon, 
Sib signifies \C031sanguineus9 proximo 
cogftatus; and SiB-Lufa is explained 
by Lye, " Amor (tai^quamj inter cog- 
'' nam,) bertevftleftdft, aroicitia;" and 



CB, Cr, Cl\ CV, Jc^^^B 429 

SAHEB.(Ar.)Acompanion, a friend, it is from thiJ^^^RatSiB alone means 
Pax, " HaWPi^f one with another," 

((Ar.) A Lady, a female i^^"^ * '• ^'- ^O.) is translated in Saxon 
Sahybex by " Habbath Sibbe betweox eow." 

( companion. ^jjee Lye's Saxon Diet, sub voce Sib.) 

In the Gothic language, Ga-siKyon 
SAHBET.(Ar.) Society, Friendship, signifies ' reconeiliari;* from Sib, pax, 
says Lye, The Etymologists acknow- 
ledge that GoisiP, which we now call Godmother, belongs to this idea; 
and they derive it from 6W-sibbe, q. d. (says Junius) " Cognata.vx 
" parte Dei." From the merry making, which is the common attendant 
of Christening!^, Gossip came to signify, what it does at., present; though 
even now the term is peculiarly applied to the company at a Christening. 
God-SiB occurs in a passiige of Chaucer for Godfather; who affords at the 
same time the Etymology of the word. " And certcs, parentelc is in 
*' two mancrs: eyther gostly or flesiily: gostly, is for to delen with hir 
" GoDSiBBEs: for right so as he that cngendreth a child, is his fleshly 
" father, right so is his godfather his father spirituel : for which a woman 
*' may in no lesse sinne assemble" (ojnixm) " with hire godsib, than with 
** hir owen fleshly broder." (The Parson's Talc, vol. 3. p. 251. Ed. 
Tyrwhitt, Svo.) This passage is cited by Junius sub voce Godxtp. In 
Anglo Saxon, the term for Incest is derived from this word io^jiJindred. 
SiB-leger is explained by Lye, ** Consanguineorum concubij^^fccestus" ' 
— the lying with those of your own Sib or Kindred. The ^^Btlogists 
have referred to Sib the Greek O/amTwi, a term applied by Cfflrondas to 
express * Persons of the same Family.' This is only an accidental coincir 
dence. %ivue, (£i»vn, panarium, mactra,) means, according to another 
sense of the Element, what we call a Safe, (a rc[>ository of victuals,) or 
something of that kind; and Ofinn^w then will mean the 'Zvaatln — those, 
who belong to th^ same mess — quasi 
SiPUE. (Gr.) A Safe. ex utto penu .viclitantes. This is the 

__ 5 a. received 


received, intcrpretan^^^m I believe it to be just. OftM-mti therefore has 
nothing To do with 5/^m the sense of Kindred or Relationship. In Ray's 
Collection of South and East Country Words, SiBBEn/rf^fc signifies "The 
" Banes of Matrimony;" where we perceive that Sibber is the name for 
Man in its full form, as in the Chaldee Gevar and the English Gaffer. 
Metrimonium we know belongs to the Maritus, the name of the Man. 
" Sib'd," (says Mr. Grose, ia his Provincial Glossary,) " A-kin, No sole 
" sib'd. Nothing a-kln. No more Sib'd than sieve ,and riddle, that grew 
•* both in a wood together. Prov. Chcsh. Syb or Sybe is an ancient Saxon 
" word signifying kindred, alliance, affinity." This word occurs likewise 
in Chaucer — " Your kindrede is but a fep kindrede; they ben but litel 
" 6IBBE to you, and the kin of youre enemies ben ntgh sibbe to hem." 
(The Tale of Melibeos, vol. 2. p. 280. Ed. Tyrwhitt, 8vo.) In the Scotch 
language, SiBnest means Relationship, as Mr. Pinkerton has properly 
explained it. (Glossary to 'Ancient Scotish Poems.') In Arabic, theCB, 
expressing Kindi-ed, has sometimes not the sibilant form of SB, but its 
hartfcned sound KB. Kerabc; (ajIJ) means in that language, " Pro- 
" pinquity, affinity, relationship, kindred, consanguinity, parentage, 
" alliance;" as Mr. Richardson has explained it. Again, Kebib (<.^^') 
is interpreted by that Lexicographer, " A relation, kinsman." The CB 
however sometimes appears under the form of SB. The most familiar 
word h ijth e Arabic language is pregnant with the sense, which I have 
attributM|||the Element; though in this case (as in other instances of a 
similftiV^re) it is not easy to determine the precise idea, to which it 
immediarely belongs. I have observed on a former occasion, (Page 35.) 
and I observed truly, that the names of power and subordination in the 
Eastern languages, were attached to tlie Element CB or SB; and I classed 
those terms with the 5upf rand Sub of the Latins and the ^uber and Sheeb 
of the Persians. I ventured however to conjecture about the original 
source, from which tliese names were derived; and I have been confirmed 
by observations since made, that my conjectures were not without 

. foundation. 


CB, CF, CP, CV. &c«^j^i^ 431 

foundation. Still however in a race of words^HJn^ have so widely 
pervaded all languages,^ we may well imagine ihWvxey have arisen from 
various ideas ; and I have no doubt, but that the name of Man has supplied 
a very prolific source for the production of this ample family. The 
Arabic Saheb, which I have given on a former occasion, (Page 35.) must 
be referred, I imagine, to this idea; as it not only signifies '^ A Lord, a 
Master, a great Man, a Governof, a Chief;*' but '* A Companion, a 
Friend." In the feminine, Sahybet or Sahybb means *' A Lady, a 
Wife, a female Companion," '* Sehb, u^a:*^ (Pi. of c^as^L^) Comr 
panions," says Richardson; who likewise interprets Svuset, (Axac*^) 
^ Society, friendship, companionship. ^- Conversation, discourse." The 
Arabic scholar in casting his eyes over the terms, whicli signify a Companion 
or Relation, will find various compound words, in which the SB is a part 
of th6 composition. On the whole, I might venture to observe respecting 
this race of words, which are used to denominate Kindred or Relationship, 
that they can only be referred to two sources; which equally belong to 
the signification of the Element. The name for Man must be considered 
as one source; and perhaps the idea of the same dwelling — the Cave — 
Cab BIN, &c. &c« may in some instances have supplied the other. It 
would not be a difficult task to enlarge the catalogue of words, which 
might be referred to this peculiar idea; yet I imagine that the examples, 
which I have already produced, will serve sufficiently to illustrate what 
I have endeavoured to establish in the preceding enquiries. 

Having advanced thus far, and 
/^(Law Terra.) being fully aware how widely extciuled 

GAVEL./Tmrf.^ Lands descending '' ^^^ influence of the Element CB or 

J GB in supplying the name for yl//77/, or 

\io the Alale. peculiarly the Male of the Human 

,„ . V Species; we shall now be enabled to 

(Bnt. ant.) '^ 

Gavell. < understand the origin of a term familiar 

Male Offspring. to our English Law, which has equally 



perplexed the sages^Hnat science and the adepts in the mysteries of 
Etymology. This term is GAVEh-Kind; which, after all the various 
conjectures respecting its origin, still remains to be finally decided. A 
quotation from the Law Dictionary of Jacob will supply to the reader 
and to the writer all the legal information, which it will be necessary 
for us to acquire on this occasion. ^* GAVEL-Kind is said by Lambard to 
** be compounded of three Saxon words, Gyfe, Eal, Kin, omnibus cog- 
*' natione proximis data. Verstegan calls it G^re/A/wrf, quasi, give all kind, 
*' that is, to each child his part; and Taylor, in his history of Gavelkind , 
*' derives it from the British Gavel, i. e. a hold or tenure, and cenned, 
" generatio aut familia; and so Gavel-cenedh might signify tenura gene- 
" rationis. But whatever is the Etymology, it signifies a tenure or custom, 
*' annexed and belonging to lands in Kent, whereby the lands of the 
" Father are equally divided at his death among all his Sons, or the land of 
•' the Brother among all the Brethren, if he has no issue of his own/' 
(Jacob sub voce.) Some derive this word from Gafol, which signifies 
Tribute, and Kind — Genus, q. d. Genus terrae seu fundorum tributarium, 
** Praedium vectigale." (Skinner sub voce.) Gafol belongs to a very 
different idea, as I have fully shewn on a former occasion. Will not the 
reader instantly acknowledge, that GaycI belongs to GV — GAV, the 
Male; and that the tenure of GAvel^Kind means the law or custom, by 
which lands descend to the Male of a Kynd or family. Nothing surely 
can be more indubitable than this derivation. It is extremely curious, 
that the word next succeeding Gavelkind in Skinner is Gavell, which, he 
says, is interpreted '* Progenies inascula, Brit. ant. Gavela, Givela, Gwella, 
*' quod Lambardus flectit a C. Br. Gefeillcd, Gemini : vide Gavelkind 
" supra.'' Though Skinner lias referred Gavell, the male offspring, to 
Gavelkind, he has not recorded this idea among the various opinions 
respecting its origin. GAvel, I imagine, to be a diminutive of Gav, 
signifying the yoMW^ Male or i/oung Men — the-Son^of a family. 


CB, CF, CP, CIt Scc^JW ' !*333 


A Gib Cdti A He Cat. Having proved, *lbat Gav signifies 

the . ilftf/e, as jfelatixig to the ^uman 
species, it will be natural to suppose'that the Element would be applied in 
that 'sense to animals of the Brute creatkm. Tke.comnienlatorspq Shak- 
speare will now be enabled perfectly to understand, what M present tiiey 
only faintly perceive, *' SbJood," say6 Falstaff, ^' I aoi as melancholy as 
a Gib Cat, or a lugged bear." ** A Gib Cat meanSf" says Dr. Jphnson, 
I know not why, an old Cat" '* A Gib Cat," rightly : observes Dr^ 
Percy, " is the common term in Northamptooshiret and yll adjacent 
•* counties, to express a He Cat.'' '*As melanchdiyiafiia Gr^'4^ <?4t iaa 
^^ proverb,'* says Mr. Ste^vens, '* ^numerated' antkong others io Kay'i 
'* Collection. So in Bulwer*s AHificiai Gkangtlmgt. XS^3, *5orae jn 
'^ ' Mania or melancholy madness bare attempted itli^ $^mfi,, not ^ without 
^success, although they have remained tsomewb^t ;^!»^^^ff<;^<>/j^ lii^e 

* gib'd cats/ " Mr. Toilet adds, that * Sherwood'^ English JDi^ti^n^ry^ 

* at the end of Cotgrave's French one, says GUtbi is/an oldM^cat/ Aged 
^' animals are not so playful as those wJiich are young." (Malone, v. 5, 
p. 123.) As the idea of the Alalc animal sometimes presents us with tl^ 
image of superior ^^ren^/A — vigour and activity; so in another point of 
view we are impressed with the notion of superior size, and its ordinary 
attendants— a bulky appearance and unwieldy motion^ Falstaff diarefbre 
means '^ I am as melancholy— ^that is, I am as dull or hejivy^bavp^j^ little 
'* life or spirit, as a great overgrowni unwieldy fie Cat, 'V .Th^.J^aroed An^ir 
quary, who publilshed the ^'Classical Dictionify Hpf the Vtilgar Tongue,'? 
appears to imagine, that the GiB-Crrt is derived^ frotn afiothor sourc^j ^nd 
be has moreover Suggested a different xa^se ifodi idle )>Qe^pholyf:of;^^ 
animal/ '^ GiB^Oat. A Northern: name £[^r^a l^e-C^d. j(fU^G^(^^fimfifiUf 

*< called Gilbeit* As xnelanchoiyiaB a^^JSn-Cfthrw fHll9^U^^^^l(f^^}^fi9U 
*' who k29 beenxatterwfiuluig; whencttbtitf>]r£»]iv|ijl;Q|^rn£/|^ 

* 5 s *' hungry^ 


" hungry, and out of spirits. Aristotle says, Omne animal post coitum est 
^' triste; to which an anonymous author has given the following exception : 
*' Prater Gallunt galii7iaceuvi et Sacerdotem gratis ^foniicantem/' I have 
quoted the whole of this simple piece of rihaldry, as it will afford a suit- 
able occasion for an interesting vein of observation. 

I must firs< remark that the name of the Cock has commonly been 
derived frorh the idea, ^yhich is here exhibited. The courage — the protvess 
and i\\t poxverSf so conspicuous in tliis animal, have naturally attached to 
it all the ideas, which belong to the nature of the Male or the faculties of 
Virility; and we accordingly find, that the terms expressing such ideas 
have been transferred In various languages to the animal. That the word 
Cock is derived from. this source, I cannot doubt; though with respect to 
the immediate or^in of Gallics, I have not yet sufiiciently satisfied my I 
mind. I am persuaded however, that only t\yo modes of deriving this ' 
term can be disfcovered; in one of which the s^une notion exists as in the 


English Cock, and the other belongs to its characteristick quality of crowing 
at the break of cky, or from being, as Shakspeare expresses it, *^ The 
*' Bird oi Dawn.*' GL is the Element for Light in the Dialects of the 
Celtic, &c. &c. &c. The GvctX^ Alektor (aaixIwj, gallus,) is not derived 
from AixlfOK, because the Cock rouses people from their Beds; but it is to be 
referred to the Element GL, quasi GALEK/or; and it prevailed as the 
&miliar name for this animal^ long before the Greeks themselves or tlieir 
Aixlfok were in existence. The appropriate Welsh term^ is preserved to tliis 
moment/ is^ Cd/iog^-^the Galic Caolach.; and the various words for Gallus 
in the several Dialects of the Celtic are thus represented by Lhuyd — 
'^ Ketliog, Keitog. — C. KulHag, Keliog, Ar. Kiliog and K6g. Ir, Kyliax, 
^^ Ca//." (Sub voce Gallus.J In. Persian Kelash (^Ji*^X/) signifies a 
Voiki'^LtiA in Arabic Gueles (q#JLc) means " The darkness before dawn, 
•f die Co^it^ crowing." ^ihefrew^e see. the idea of X)tfre^ is expressed; but 
whether il«plie0bde4 thtt ttaihe of the animal, or became ^tacbed to it, is 


adt luwim. TttDttgh X caddot decemune, whether Go/ZtM- belongs to GL, 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. : • 435 

as expressing Light; yet I could shew, that the word Cock must be referred 
to the notion of strength— prowess and virility;, and I shall now prove that 
GL furnishes an abundant family of words^ conveying a similar idea. 
The familiar term in M^clsh for * Power' is Gait, and for ' Powerful* 

Galluog ; and in the terms for ' Lord' — AroLwydd G'WALadr — GwLedig, 

we perceive the Element in its full force. In Lhuyd, Potens is GAhhyog 
— GALLudek — GALLudys; and such is the sense of the Radical, through 
all the Dialects of the Celtic. Nay, tlie very name of this great nation, 
the Galli — Celt-« — Galat-s, &c. must be referred, I imagine, ta 
this idea. They are not the Wanderers, as some Antiquaries imagine; 
but the Potent — the illustrious and the mighty People. We find however 
that CL or GL has been peculiarly applied to express, what more imme-» 
diately belong^ to the powers of Virility. This is the origin of the Italiatt 
Coglione or Cohione; and the diligent enquirer will perpetually trace, 
though sometimes in a disguised form, the application of this Element to 
tlie same train of ideas. 

I shall now apply this digression on the name of the Cock to die sub- 
ject of the present investigation — to the GB, GBR, tlie Gever — the 
Gaffer — the Man. The reader will perhaps be surprised to learn, that 
Gever, the ordinary term for Man, actually signifies in Rabbinical He- 
brew a Cock; and it is so called, says David Levi, '* on account of its 
** remarkable courage and gallantry.'' But what is extremely ciirious, 
some learned Jews have imagined, that even in the Prophet Isaiah this 
sense is to be found. I am astonished, that our Hebrew Lexicons have 
given us no information respecting such a meaning. In our English 
translation of that sublime writer we find the foUovinng passage: — ** Behold, 
•« the Lord shall carry thee away with ^ inighty Captivity." (Cap. 22. 
V. 17.) The word Gever (*QJ) in this place has been considered by our 
translators as an adjective, and has been interpreted mighty. .Some render 
this, says Bochart, ^ Dominus deportabtt te deportation e,. O vir;** — others, 
«« Deportatione p/ri\ id ett^ ii^piiunti vifili^forti, vehemettti;"~aivd certain 



Jews render it, •' Deportatione oalli/' Such was the opinion of the 
learned Jew, by wTiom St. Jerome was- instructed in Hebrew; who thus 
translates the ^assage^*. and records the anecdote whiiQh relates to it. 
'* Dominus Bsportari te faciet, sicut asportaftit gai^lus aALLiNACEUs:'' 
Hebrscus qui nes in veteris instruxncnti lectione erudivit, Galium 

«' ...^..^ 

*' ^flfl/Wcewm transtulit, . ' Sicut (inquit) Gallus Gallinaceus humero porti* 
*' * toris de Alio loco • transfertur ad alium, sic te Dominus de loco tuo leviter 
'•' * deportahit/ " (See Bochart's Hieroz- vol. 2. p. 118.) The name of 
this animal, as it, should seem, has the fate to be connected with words 
of a doubtful meaning. A celebrated passage of the Proverbs will afford 
us a very singular instance of this ambiguity. *' There be three things, 
^' which go well, yea, four are comely in going: A lion, which ii 
strongest among beasts, and turaeth not away for any; a greykoundt 
an hegostalso; and a king, against whom there is no rising up.*' The 
words answering to a Greyhound are 0^300 nmt, of wbi^ch the apparent 
interpretation is " Contracted in the loins;" and from this idea our English 
translators, with many others, have considered it to signify the Grey- 
hound, according to the well known description of those animals, '* Ad* 
" stricti succingunt ilia ventris." In the Septuagint version, the Greyhound 
is converted into the '* Cock stoutly strutting among his dames" — '< AAixI«f 
♦* tfAWigiwtSwf ifikiitti^ iirl^^xj^i Gallus inter foeminas alacriter incedens." With 
this idea the Arabic and Syriac versions agree, which ^re thus respectively 
translated by Bochart : ** Gallus, cum incedit inter foeminas gallinas cum 
" animi alacritate." — " Gtf//w superbe incedens inter gallinas./' Though 
diese versions are manifestly paraphrastical of the origin^ words; yet I 
imagine, that the Cock was the animal intended by Solomon. To confirm 
this opinion woiild lead me beyond the due limits of the present investiga- 
tion ; and I shall therefore only remind the learned* in : the Eastern lan^ 
guages, that in the discussion of this passage, .the .Arabic nvii^s for thi^ 
animal have not been duly examined, nor th^ idoasi wi^ whiiih they art) 
connected^ sufficiently understood* I CMUWt leavet this .digrefiuoa on the 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. *5I 

name of the Cock, without observing that our Engh'sli ter^i is ivikiel)^ 
diffused over various languages. We have seen tlie Celtic K^g; and Junius 
has referred us to tlie Anglo Saxon Coc — the French Coq, &:c. He remmAs 
Us likewise of a passage in Hesychius^ where Koko/ojs is said to bea ipecies 
of Cw:k. (KOKAAON-«-f»l«5 i6XixIfu«>©».) . .This word we perGei\^ to be a com- 
pound of our word Cock and the Latin Gallus. In Arabic Zuxm U^) ^' 
^ A Overcrowing;' and in Sanscrit KooKooraa is a Code. (See Haliied's 
Bengal Grammar, page 50.) If tJie course of these enquiries had led 
me to unf<^d die nature of the Element ZK^ SK, or CK» the reader^would 
have readily agreed that the term Cock was derived from< the name fak* 
Man, and the powers of Virility, t ri^ed only suggest for the present, that 
this same word is used by our children for the Membrum vbiie. 

The consideration of the extensive Element CL, as lexpress^ 
ing the powers of Virility, would^afford -us ^ wide theme of cnq^iiry, 
too ample for the present occasion ; yet I cannot leave this subject 
without suggesting a few observations, which may serve to illustrate the 
peculiar train of ideas attached to the Element CBor GB; such as we find 
to exist in G I B^ and words of that nature. Tcsticulus, in the Dialects of 
the Celtic, is Kalh Gur^rya; and we may observe' in the word T^esticulus 
Itself the CuL, which does not operate as a diminutive, but conveys the 
same idea, that is represented by Kalh. Testis and Tcstiailus are not 
applied to express this part of the frame, because they are the ' Testes 
' virilitatts,' as those good people, who write about languages, have been 
accustomed to teach us; but they are so used, because the words in thtfiir 
original sense conveyed the idea of Manhood or Virility i TJiis I shaU 
prove on a future occasion. We pCToeive through the whole compass of 
language, that its artifice consists in applying the same Element or word 
to express the opposite accidents ' or qualities^ belonging to objetts of the 
same kind, with some syllabic addition or flifierence of yowel breathings 
to distinguish the one from the other, . Thus theoppositeio Jl^aU is/crMale^ 
and to Man is fc;a-Man. To l)e dep«ivC(i. ai dbi^4>ov|;^.i^^|^|anhoQd^ h it 

5 T 1-atin 



Latin * e-Virari ;' where the e denotes 
deprivation; though in some cases, 
according to the genius of the language, 
the idea of privation is conveyed by 
the term itself, which expresjsies pos- 
session, as in the phrase, ' to slone 
* raisins,' &c. If tiierefore my hypo- 
thesis be well founded, that the Ele^ 
^ A Cock, ment CL or GL conveys the idea of 

Virility; we shall be prepared to expect 
that the opposite notion will be ex- 
pressed by the same Element ; and this 
very circumstance will be a confirma- 
tion of the original hypothesis. Hence 
we understand the propriety of the 
word Geld, castrare, which has foimd 
its way into so many dialects of the 
Teutonic. Skinner has derived this 
word from the German Gcil, *' Impu- 
dious, lascivus, q. d. Venerem et 
lasciviamamputareetauferre." Geld* 
ing is used by our ancient writers for 
an Eunuch. In an old version of the 
New Testament, the Eunuch recorde4 
in the Acts (Chap. 8.) is called " A 
•• Geldynge of Candace the queene 

€ock.{Eng.) Cog. (Ft.) 
cfiTc^^alon. (Gr.) ZuJcoo. (Ar,) 
KookoovzTi. (Hind.) 
CiocA, (Eng.) Membrum virile. 

4- - - - - - -'- 

G alius. (Lat.) 

Atector, quasi ) /p \ 

Galector. ) 

Ceiliog. (Welsh.) 

Caolach. (Gal.) 

Gall. (Ir.) &c. &c. 

Kelash. (Pers.) 

Gheles. (Ar.) The cock crowing. 

Geld. (Eng.) 

Gain. Priests of Cybele, quasi^ Gelt. 

Gallos. (Gr.) An Eunuch. 

Kelor. (Gr.) A son — an Eunuch. 

Caillam. (Gal.) To geld. 

Gillin. (Celt.) An Eunuch. 

Coleiis or ^(Lat.) 

Ctileiis. )The Cullions. 

Coles. (Lat.) '\^^ , . •• 

^ ' > Membrum virile. 

Caulos. (Gr.) ) 

KxiflofK. Myrtus. 

Testic{//us, Masru/us, Masni/inus. 

** of Ethiopiens.** (See Junius sub 
voce Gelde.) We now likewise shall understand, why Gallus should be 
the Cock — the bird of prowess; and why the Priests of Cybele, who, as it 
is well known, were deprived of these powers, should be denominated 
Galjli or-GsL-^n^t The GalU are supposed by the Etymologists to 




€B, CF, CP, CV, &c. 439 

be so called from a river in Phrygia; whose waters had the property of 
inspiring a species of phrenzy, which impelled the unfortunate drinkers 
to commit this desperate outrage on their own persons. When we perceive 
tlierefore in Hesy chius, TAAAOI, q awroxeir©*, lilo* o* cwifx&'f and passages of that 
nature, we must consider this sense of Gallus as the original idea, and 
not as the derivative signification from the Priests of Cybcle. The Com- 
mentators on Hesychius will supply the references belonging to this subject; 
tliough I cannot forbear producing the word Kelov, which has two senses, 
apparently but little connected with each odier. — KEAllP, tyyoy^, u»oc,ixIopa^, 
ya><xog,airoii(ay. OxiT hypothcsis will explain these discordant ideas ; as we 
^all not wonder to find the Male offspring, and the Man deprived of the 
powers of a Male — the * Mascula proles' and ' e-Masculatus vir* — the being 
with and without the KEL, belonging to the same Element. In Mr. 
Shaw's Galic Dictionary we read *' To Geld, Spotham, Caill^w;" and in 
Lliuyd, the words for an Eunuch are '^ Dispaidh — EttianaXf eanuk, 
" Gillin;** in which latter term we see the immediate origin of the 
Italian Coglione. If the reader was before inclined to admit my idea, that 
the CUL in testicvLUs belonged to this race of words; what will he say, 
when I produce the very terms in Latin and Greek under their simpler 
forms. CvLeus or Coheus is explained in our ordinary Lexicons to be 
*• A Man's or beast's stones — the cods — the cvLhions.** Coles is the 
3Iembrum virile, which in Greek is Cavlos, (K«uXo«, caulis, virga niembri 
virilis, ostium uteri muliebris.) Whether this race of words was originally 
derived from the '* Virga Mcmbri virilis," as belonging to the metaphor 
in Caulis, I shall leave the reader himself to determine. The Greek 
KAii7«fK» (myrtus in naturd muliebri,) must be referred to the same race of 
words; and we must learn that the term by which it is interpreted, 
Myrtus, (MufJot, caruncula in medio pudendi muliebris,) belongs to MRT, 
the. name for Jfiflwi— MARTii, Maritm^; as I shall shew on another 
occasion. - , - 

I cannpt omit <lus opportunity of illustrating a Greek saying, which 



occars in a Frtgm«it of Aristoplianes, tuid to which at present no meaning 
has been annexed. The reader howerer, who is now duly aware of the 
sense belonging to the Element CL, in Coks — Caulos, &c* &c. will require 
no comment, when he learns that a Brothd has been denominated the 
Place of the Kullos. (Sec Brunck's Aristoplianes under the Fragment 

A|»«|eA«|«.) '^ KlTAAOT nHPA. Zurirri im 7t ro Tn^vuvv, KvXka tm^ccv Aprofocm^ apipu^ o 
^' 6fctfi»m u KiUmjfct. TO AE IK5PNEION KTAAOT mfPA. En y«f x^^f *•» Afcmwi 

*' 'wnft^H^ (ut legh Is, Voss.) *' %»i ^gwm* «A A t« unfair, njf«v i^.** TTiis passage 
in Hesychius witl receire great light from the following article in Stiidas, 
relating to the/^ Kaxx« l*»f «,*• where we find, that it signified a place, in 
which there was a temple dedicated to Venus, and a fountain of such 
sovereign virtee, ifeat the women who drank of it became prolific, and 
even the barren were made pregnant. ** Kuxa« ihifmf. H Huf* x^*^ ^{^ ^ 

'^ TfAvfldt)* i^ w ftf^ Af gottrn^ ka* k^i^> c^ ^ifp «» ttivovi i^oHBTty, xdti m aycp^i yoMfMi ynf^Slm. 
'' K^WIrtro; h i¥ M«x9ftxoiCi KftXXidBv cc\jln9 fnvip* oi Si KvXAomi^aiy. 7«T7ffVi ilk n iragot^x m 

♦* T«» r?iir^«*iv C(a^«jutHMr ig «r»ri;ci^o-f«^. (Kvxxa llDfaMr. Cylli Peram, Pera locus 
" est prope Hymettum, in quo templum est Veneris, ct fons, cujus ea est 
*' vis, ut mulieres ex eo bibentes facile pariant, et steriles fiant £oecund». 
'* Cratinus vero in Mollibus hunc fontem Calliam vocat. Alii vero Cyllo- 
'^ peram dicunt. Proverbium autem istud dicitur de iis, qui arte naturae^ 
'' vim faciunt.") Whatever be the precise meaning of the proverb, we 
shall not, I think, doubt respecting the origin, firom which it is derived ; 
nor shall we wonder, that a Temple, dedicated to the rites of the Cullus, 
should contain within its precincts this sovereign and sole receipt for the 
disorder of Sterility. 

In the Celtic SpOTHflrm and di- 

Spado— ^ (Lat. and Gr.) spaidh, we trace the Latin Spado and 

V the Greek Spa Dim, (£ir«JU,) which we 

SPADON.JAn Eunutb. again find in the English Spat; 

where it appears in an uncompounded 
Spay. (Eng.) Castrarc. state. The Etymologists explain it by 


GB, CF, CP, CV, ice. 4« 

castrafe; and refer us to the Armoric Spaza and Spaz^ terms of a similar 
import. That these words belong to the Element CB or SB, in the sense- 
of a Male, will not, I imagine, be doubted ; and this brings us again to 
the former object of our discussion — the G/A-Cat; from whence ^his 
digression proceeded. The Etymologists suppose that Spadon is derived- 
from SpaOj (2ir«w) * Evello, cui evulsi sunt nervi, quibus colei suspensi sunt/ 
As my eye is passing over the page in Junius, where Spay is to be found, 
I perceive Spawn and Sparrow. With respect to the former word, I 
will not venture to decide ; but I can assert with some confidence, that 
Sp ARRort; belongs to SPR— the Animal possessing such qualities, as we attribute 
to the powers oi Virility. The iteration of the Sparrow has been the object 
or rather the theme of envy in the songs of the licentious bard; and in a 
well known passage of Sappho, preserved by Athenagus, the chariot of 
Venus is drawn by Sparrows. In the former words belonging to these 
notions of Virility — Spado — Spaz, Sec. we perceive tlie Pad and the Paz, 
as a part of the composition ; and we may be v/ell assured that these are 
significant portions relating to the same train of ideas, I am persuaded, 
that the Pas in Passer belongs to a similar race of words; and though I 
liave not leisure to unfold the mysteries of this Element, yet when the 
reader is reminded of such terms as Vvrain — Fvtuo — Peos, (n^f, penis,) 

— our vulgar word which refers to the 
SP and PS. The powers of Virility, same spot for reddere uririam, — Pune^ 

— FvDendiim, &c. &c. he will per- 
Sparrow. ceive, that my conjecture respecting 

PAss^r is not altogether unfounded. 
-...-•..•- What the origin of 2:7fa«6oci (passer,) is, I 

am unable to explain ; yet the sense^ 

Passer — Putdln — Futuo. which it sometimes bears, whether it 

Peos. (Gr,) Pudendum virile, &c. be secondary or original, will equally 

---------- shew a propensity in the mind to con- 

Struthcus. Obsccena parsvirilis. - nect the idea of thi^ animal/. with the; 

5 u powers 



powers or organs of Virility. *'Strutheum in mioftis . prsecipue vocant 
'* obscanam partem virilem, a salacitat^ videlicet passeris, quaj Grascis 
•« ^Tfiidpf dicitur," (Vide Vossium sub voce Pass€)\) The Etymologists, 
among other plensantrlcs, derive Passer from pariQ or paiipr, ' quia pariat 
"*■ yelpaiiatiir hbidinem/ 

Havipg advanced thus £ar, and convinced ourselves respecting the 
origin of svadon — sptfrft; and sray, we shall instantly idmit. that CAP(?n, 
a word to be found in so many languages, must be referred to tlie same 
Element, CB or SB, conveying tk-Q same idea. Capon, says Junius,, 
** Capo^, Capiis^ gallus spado."- He has. given us the parallel tcrmjs in 
other languages; but ke can discover no other origin for the word ^iiaa 

that of the Dutch Kapp^ti, * resecare„ 
• ittcid^re/ I cauuot find„ that the 
Latin : and Freacli Etymologists have 
advftrvced further in the derivation of 
this WQifd tlian by referring us to the 
idea e:2^ pressed by Capio. ** Copies,'' 
88Lys» Festus, *' Itala lingua dicitur a cfl|)i- 
" tikdoy — eo quod incurvis digitis sit/' 
I have liad perpetyai oc?:asian to ob- 
Cappo. (Germ.) CKAT^aN. (i^-) serve, that where two ideas concur, 

equally applicable ta the sdrr^ object^ 
it is oftenfimes extremely difficult to be 
determined in our choice ; and tlia only 
Capon — Galh Cafado. (Span.) dnjty, in such cases incumbent on tlie 

:; writer, is to unfold the fact, without 

presuming to interpose a decision. I 

have given in a former page (143,) the 

--•-----•- Etymology 0|fKAPHos,(Ka7rf »f„ Aper}; 

wbich I. have referred to the idea exr 
CAPROSi (Gl^.) Pudendum virile. pressed l>y|Ka9r7^| avi4e qomedo. This 


Capon. (Eng!) 
Capvs, Capo. (Lat.) 
Capon. (Gr. Gloss.) 
Capun. (A. S.) , 

Gafone. (Ital.) 

Kapfoen. (Dutch.) &c. 

/.•G«p£;W, CV/^Cr, &c. : 443- 

^ord however may |k)ssibly* be deri^jd from the well known quality of the 
animal; and thus Kaproi would be attached to the Element KBR or GBR» 
in the sense of the Male distiliguished for his powers and prowess. Many 
words, conveyhtg such ideas, . have been supposed to. be- derived froni th6 
animal; which will' shew us, 'how naturally the word itself might be de* 
duced from a similar iM>tion. • Thus the ^* SferfwW?*, ef/wil»wrix^»^flfrif|« at;wo^W 
has been directly referred to the impdtuoafy of this vigdrotjl^'ci'eature; yef 
in* Kocirfou v^ 'icJoi0t^ ru ANAPOSi ^thc • idfo^ pdss^ from the beast to, tlie Man;' 
and in ^' K^t ai> ai^ iN^lci^W ^If^i^ye^lMW tire notion of the Bodr* ha^ 

entirely disappeared. *This ktteii passage occun in Phavomrus; but in 
Suidas the sstnie words are found with a pecuhar application to a very difier- 

ent animal. *' Kaitf^fy ai^ tflc^ 'f<o» '^tp^iuHe^p ttm fv^tut rm x»(Jt%^(cy cTrvMrwctfi 

should be inclined ti> admit this origin of Kapros, perhaps he will imagine 
that tf-PER — VERRe^ — BOAity belong .to <he BR or.VR^ the Vpr. On this 
I shall decide nothing, as we ^ould ibe;involred in a loilg digression by 
unfolding the various evidence corinecoed with this derivatiofL It will not 
be necessary, {1 trust, to pursue my enquiries on the race of words contain- 
iog that peculiar ideai which we find exhibited in the GiMIIat— ^tlie Capo?t 
Spadon — Kapros, (pudendum virile,)'&c. &c. as enough has already been 
produced to convince the intelligent reader, that the Element CB or SP 
has supplied language with a series f>f ierms expressing those qualities and 
powers, w4iich^e peculiar to the AhtU animal^ under the various accidents 
of privation and possession — of vigour and imbecility. 

I have in a former page (20,) referred Jape, sensu obscceno, to 
the name of Woman — Caktr-^^Kttpris — Gaupe — Jap; and it is certain, 
that they all belong to the i same . train of ideas — the distinction of 5ct, 

with its powers and appendages. I 

Jape. (Old Eng.)^ Sensu ^^^^ brought a passage from Palsgrave's 

V French Grammar, to confirm the sense 

SvBo. (Lat.) jobsc;anj(h,,| :/ ^^f ^^ ^q^j. {'IjAtE a wench— je 


^^fousf) yet familiar as this sense appears to have been in our ancient 
writers, it has strangely escaped the observation <if the Commentators on 
Chaucer, who have confounded it with another meaning of the word — 
/tfpe, tom^ckor jest, as in Gibe — Jabber^ &c. The term Jape belongs 
to two significations of the Element, which are derived from very different 
ideas^; tliough the senses, whiclf we find of it in tl>e Glossaries of Mr. 
Thomas and Mr. Tyrwhitt, relate only to that, which is taken from the 
powers of Speech* Mr. Tyr\vhitt interprets Jape by " A trick, a jest ;*' and 
^ To Jape^* he tells us, is ' To jest — to cheat or laugh at;' and in this he 
coincides with the explanation of Mr. Tliomas. Jape occurs in * The 
* Wife of Bath's Tale, 'where it is certainly applied in a very different 
manner. This pleasant Dame thus details tlie language in which she was 
wont to attack her harmless husband in charges of conjugal infidelity. 

** What dost thou at my neigheboures hous? ' 
** Is she so faire? Art thou so amorous? 
^' What rownest thou with our maidc? benedicite, 
'* Sire olde lechour, let thy Japes be." . i 

(Pag. 231. Ed.Tyr.} 
There is a curious anecdote relating to this word, which is recorded by 
Speght and detailed in the Glossary jof Tliomas; and I nwvel much that, 
this latter Critic did not from hence discover its latent signification. ^ '* Jape, 
a jest. A word (says Sp.J by abuse grown odious,, and therefore by a 
certain curious Gentlewoman scraped out in her Chauceif, whereupoo 
her serving man writeth thus. 

*? My mistress cannot be content ; 

'*:To take a jest aS Chaucer meant; t 

'* But using still a woman's fashion, i. 

" Allows it in the last translation; 
'* She cannot with a word dispense, , .^ ^,,,., ... .. 
'* Although I know she loves the sense; 
. *' For such an use the world hath got, *, ' -^? ' . 

/ '* That words are sin, but deeds are not." Wc 


CB, CF, CP, CV, &c. . ♦♦$ 

We here perceive that the curious Gentlewoman and her facetious serving 
Man had discovered that peculiar signification, which escaped the learning 
and the gravity of our Critics. The Editor of the Old Plays however is 
duly aware of thi§ signification^ which he appears to consider as universally 
acknowledged. Though the vestiges of such a sense may he perpetually 
traced in our ancient writers ; yet we may well suppose from the nature of 
the word itself, that it will in some cases rather be darkly understood than 
directly apparent. . v • ' ^ 

The Latin Suae is derived, I imagine, from this source. -Th^ 
*' SuBANDo Tenta cubilia tectaque rumpit" marks the strong sense, which 
the Latins annexed to the term ; and the Etymologists have accordingly de- 
rived it from the animal, to which tliis violence seems most to be attached. 
^' Subare est suU foeminas appetere matem." The name of the Man pre- 
ceded, if I mistake not, in the formation of this peculiar sense, i Xn oui: 
ancient language, Swive is the appropriate and familiar terra . for trans- 
actions of this nature* In the * Tale of the Millar of Trumpingtdn,' the 
determination of Alein is imparted to his friend John in the foilowing 

\ » - 1 

*' For, John, (sayde he) as ever mote I thrive, ' 

" If that I may, yon wenche wol I swive." ; ..;; , 

(Tyrwhitt's Chaucer, vol.1, p. 163. Ed. ^vo*).,^ 
Skinner observes under Swive, *' Inire, coire, iq^cenfier^, p^^rynijcleflexp^ 
*' sensu a Teut. Schweben, se movere, agitare.!' The sense oi ^cl^'i^ebcn 
I have given on a former occasion, (Page 407.) *' To wave, move, flutter," 
&c. and if the idea of Skinner should be admitted, Swive, (Subagitare 
mulierem,) must be referred to the words denoting an agitqitd nwiidftsi, 
which I have unfolded in a preceding discussion. This however I do no^ 
imagine, as I cannot discover in our earliest writers any traces, of this 
metaphorical signification. 

J > . • ^ ' f ' 

. . . . i . .,1 . ..-.1 . « 

5 X 1 hav e 




r(OId Eng.) The 


Dame of the Family* 



GiovAR. (Celt.)^ 
Gefuris. (Gr.) 

Gaupe. (Fr.) 
Jaf. (Ar.) 

A Prostitute. 

I have observed> that to the name 
of Man may probably be found in 
some language or other a correspond- 
ing term for IVoman with the same 
Element. Thus to the appellation for 
Man with the Element GM— Com— 
Gome, we must refer our old term for 

Woman, Gammer the venerable 

Dame of a Family. The first Comedy 
in our language, as every one knows, 
is ' Gammer Gurton's Needle^ which 
describes the troubles of the good Dame 
or Mistress of the house, on losing that 
important instrument in domestick 
oeconomy. As Gammet answers to 
Gom — Gome, under the form of CM 
or GM; so we have a great race of 
words under the form of CB, &c. denoting Woman, and corresponding 
with Chuff— Gevar—Kibar — Gaffer, &c. &c. In a word, the Ele- 
ment CB, &<:. sup|>l!es one of the most ample sources for the appropriate 
and familiar name for Woman— that last and fairest among the works of 
Creation. We ^all not wotwler that the highest and the fewest — ^the purest 
and the. frailest, should be all denominated by a general term; which must 
alike comprehend within its ample sense the degrading vices — the pitiable 
failings and the brightest virtues of the Sex. We have seen on a former 
o<^casion, (Page 19.) that the Goddess of Love among the Arabs is de- 
nominated Cabar, who becomes a Grecian Deity under the form of 
KupRw. In the Dialects of the Celtic, Giovar signifies a Prostitute; 


Jape. (Old Eng.) Sensu obscceno. 

■ , . • ». 

jVe-CABH. (Heb.) A Female. 
Chava. (Heb.) Ox, Eve. 

CB, CF, CP, CV, &a ^ 4*t 

which is sometimes the sense of Kv^rzs, {fiwrfiu m^^ Hmfch.) and t shall 
prove in the progress of my discussion, that VentLs is derived from the 
familiar name for Woman in Ccltic-i-JBMn ; which we ,now see is the 
origin of another Greek word for a Prostitute-r—PoiTie, (dpfvn, meretrix.) I 
have before proved (Page 2J3.) that Gefubw (n^wj k IIpj im tk er* n^v^a?, wc 
rtpAJcAiwi^- Hesych.) is not derived from the Bridge. But Cabbarjxnd Kupris 
are found under a more simple form in tlie French Gaupe and the Arabic 
Jaf — terms likewise for a female wanton; and in the English Jape wc 
find the appropriate verb belonging to sucli objects. I have observed tliat 
these words should be referred to the notion of CAvacity — the familiar 
sense of the Element ; and that the idea of a Female in a variety of lan- 
guages has been derived from this source. It is certain, that the name 
for Woman is often accompanied with a great race of words conveying 
this idea; and I sliall leave the reader to decide on the peculiar notion^ 
whidi preceded in their original formation. The fact however, which 
I am labouring to establi^, remains precisely the same*; namely, that 
an abundant family of words belonging to tlie Element CB is universally 
to be found ; which all contain a similar idea, and refer to different portions' 
of a comnwn subject : — ^They equally exhibit the name for Man and for 
the being at once similar and opposite — Woman; with the various 
qualities and accidents connected with, the frame and the feelings of each. 
In Hebrew, as wc have before seen. Cab is the appropriate term £cH* a* 
Female; and wliatever sense might first be adopted, it is certain that the 
idea of a CAviiy ^r Chvacity is attached to the Radical. ** So God created 
" Man in his own image, in the image of God created he him: Male 
" and Fe/wcr/e created he them." (Gen. 1. v. 27.) AVCabh (nUpj) is 
the word for the Female; and the root signifies, says Mr. Parkhurst, ^* To 
'* make hollow^ form CAvUks, b^re, pierce, or the like— To pierce, peyietrate, 
'• perforate — A hole or cav ity — A Female from l>er Sex.'* The origin of 
the N£ in this word I shaU take occasion of explaining in a future 
P^g^'> y^t it is impossible, I imagifie,^ for the reader not to be convinced 



from the preceding observations, that Cab is a distinct and significant 
portion belonging to the compound. 

I ahiiost tremble at my own temerity, when I refef, as I imagine, 
for the first time, to this general name for WomaUf the significant appe