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Full text of "Etymologicon universale; or, Universal etymological dictionary. On a new plan. In which it is shewn, that consonants are alone to be regarded in discovering the affinities of words, and that the vowels are to be wholly rejected; that languages contain the same fundamental idea; and that they are derived from the earth, and the operations, accidents, and properties belonging to it"

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The Teutonic Dialects, English, Gothic, Saxon, German, Danish, S^c- c^-c— • 
Greek, Latin, French, Italian, Spanish. The Celtic Dialects, Galic, 

Irish, Welsh, Bretaene, <^-c. <^c The Dialects o/'^Ae Sclavonic, 

Russian, ^c. Sfc. The Eastern Lanouaoes, Hebrew, 

Arabic, Persian, Sanscrit, Gipsey, Coptic, Sfc. S^c. 


rector of hardinoham in the county of Norfolk, 
and late fellow of clare hall, cambridge. 

Vol. III. 


Printed by J. Smith, Printer to the University ; 




4* <• '• ETHEftlDflE T^ 



In the former Volumes of this Work I considered the Race of 
Words, which belong to such terms as Era, (Ejoa,) Earth, &c. and 
which are represented, as I there express it, by the Elementary Character 
"R, *RT, RT, &c. In the Preliminary Dissertation, prefixed to this 
Work, I have fully explained the principles, on which the new- 
Theory of Languages has been founded, and the forms, which are 
adopted for the purposes of Systematical arrangement. To this Dis- 
sertation the Reader must resort, who wishes to be fully informed on 
the nature of these principles ; yet a few observations should perhaps 
be prefixed to the present Volume, which may be sufficient to eluci- 
date the doctrine, adopted in this new System of Etymology. In in- 
vestigating the affinities of kindred words to each other, I consider, 
that the Vowels are to be wholly rejected, and that the existence of 
Cognate Consonants containing the same idea, or similar ideas, should 
alone be regarded. The Alphabet may be divided into three Classes, 
1st, B, F, M, P, V, W, which are called Labials; 2nd, C, D, G, J, K, 
Q, S, T, X, Z, called Gutturals, Dentals, &c. ; 3d, L, N, R, sometimes 
called Liquids, and Immutables, In the two first Classes, all the Letters 
composing each class familiarly pass into each other in the inflexions 
of Nouns and Verbs, in the same word of the same Language, and 
in different words, passing through different Languages, containing the 



same idea, which some would consider as the same word, though 
under different forms, or in different words, passing through different 
Languages, containing kindred ideas. The third Class contains letters, 
which do not in the regular operations of Language familiarly pass 
into each other. — It must be understood, that I use the phraseology 
and the principles of the ordinary Grammarians, when I consider Cog- 
nate Consonants, as those, which are interchaiigeahle with each oth^r 
in the Inflexions of Nouns and Verbs, and I only differ from them, 
when they contradict themselves. In our Elementary Grammars, P, B, F, 
TT, /3, (p, are considered as Cognate, but M is added to the class L, N, R, 
called Liquids, or Immutahles. — " Liqiiidce, vel Immutabiles, afieTa- 
" /3o\a, A, M, N, P, quia non Antistoichas, vel Cognatas, quibus ipsae 
" mutentur in verborum et nominum inflexionibus, habent." I exclude 
M from the class of Immutahles, and place it among its Cognate 
Labials, P, B, F, because they are all mutually changeable into each 
other, as the Grammarians might have learnt from the example, to 
which they are indebted for the fact, relating to the commutability 
of P, B, F, namely, from the Labial Conjugation of Verbs. In Tvtttu), 
ervTTOv, TCTucpa, rervfxfxai, we perceive the forms Tup, Tuf, and Tum, 
that is, we have the Labials P, F and M, Cognate, or Changeable into 
each other. As we know not the exact sound of the Greek v, I should 
say, that the action of Beating is expressed in Greek by TP, TF, TM, 
and as there are such words as Tap, Tup, Thump, (Eng.) Doupo*, 
(Gr. Aoi»7ros,) in English and Greek, I should make my position more 
extensive, and say, that the idea of Beatiyig is expressed in different 
l^anguages by T, D, &c. ^ P, F, M. This union of Consonants I call 
an Elementary Character, which expresses a general idea without the 
intervention of Vowels. In the Welsh Language the changes of the 
Ivubials into each other are fully understood, as they are perpetually 
visible in representing the same word. "Words primarily beginning 


" with P," have four initials, as Mr. Richards observes, " P, B, M//, PA, 
"as Pen gwr, a man's head; ei Ben, his head ; /^ Mhen, my head; 
" ei Phen, her head," where Pen, Ben, Mhen, Phen are different forms 
of the same word for the name of the Head. The s in the future of 
the Labial Conjugation Tupso, (Tv-^oo,) has been derived, I imagine, 
from the analogy of the s existing in the future of the Guttural and 
Dental Conjugations. 

The Consonants in the Second Class C, D, G, J, K, Q, S, T, X, Z, 
familiarly pass into each other in the ordinary operations of Language. 
The Grammarians have observed, that K, G, Ck, (K, F, X,) pass into 
each other, and that T, D, Th, (T, A, 0,) pass into each other ; and 
that S, S, is a letter of its own kind, " Litera sui generis," but they ought 
to have seen from their own examples, that they all pass into each other. 
In Tasso, or Tatto, cTagon, Taxo, teTacha, Taa-aco, tuttw, erayof, 
ra^u), Teraxa, we have Tas, Tat, Tag, Tax, Tach, or without the 
Vowel, we have the forms TS, TT, TG, TX, TC^ relating to the idea of 
arrangement, and we see, how S, T, G, X, (where X, or H is KS, GS, 
CAS, ^, K<r, 70-, xo">) ^nd Ch are changeable into each other. In Frazo, 
eFradon, Fraso, peFraka, ^paCto, ecppadou, (ppacrw, 'TrecppaKa, we per- 
ceive how Z, (or DS, SD, ^, So-, et o-S Dorice,) D, S and K, or C, M'hen 
pronounced hard, are changeable into each other. Thus we see, how 
the Letters in the two Classes K, G, Ch, and T, D, Th become united, 
and are Cognate, or Commutable with each other. The Letters Z, X, 
and S, we see, must likewise be added to the same Class. Similar 
facts appear in the Latin Verbs. Thus C is changed into X, CT, by a 
general analogy, and sometimes into S, T, as diCo, diXi, diCTim, parCo, 
parSi, parSum, sarCio, sarSi, sarTum : — D into S, raDo, raSi, raSum .• 
G into X, and CT by a general rule, reGo, reXi, reCTiim ; and some- 
times into S, as merGo, merSi, tnerSum ; Q into X and CT, coQuo. 
coXi, coCTum ; SC into T and ST, noSCo, noTum, paSCo, paSTum ; 

a 2 


T into S, as miTYo, miSi, miSSum; CT into X, JleCTo, JleXi, JleXim. 
In the Latin and Greek nouns the same changes are likewise visible. 
Thus in Latin, C is changed into CT, as laC, laCTis ; S into D, T, as 
peS, peDis, parS, parTis ; X into C, G, CT, paX, pads, leX, leGis, 
noX, noCTis. In Greek S passes into T, Th, and D, as gelo^, geloTos, 
km'uS, koruThos, lanipaS, lampaDos, (FeXws, yeXwro's, Kopv^, Kopvdos, 
Xa/uTrai, Aa/xTTaSos,) X into K, CT, G, Ch, as kiiliX, kuUKos, anaX, 
atiaCTos, tettiX, tettiGos, beX, beChos, (Kuki^, kvXiko^, Kva^, uvuktos, 
reTTi^, TCTTiyo^, (it]^, /3>/xos.) These observations respecting the Cog- 
nate, or Commutable Consonants relate to the familiar facts, which are 
perpetually visible through the whole compass of Language. 

The relation between some Letters of the Second Class C, D, G, &c. 
and the Labials, and the changes of Letters in the third Class L, N, R, 
into others will be daily explained, when any occasion shall arise, \vhich 
may render the elucidation of these facts necessary. Thus we shall 
find, that the Guttural G, or Q, is sometimes connected, with the Labial, 
and hence Q is succeeded by U. Hence words, passing through dif- 
ferent Languages, appear under different forms, with a Guttural, 
a Labial, or a Vowel breathing at the beginning, as in Gualterus, IFalter, 
Gulielmus, William, Guerre, JVar, Gwin, (Welsh) IVine, Viniun, 
Oinos, (Oivo^y) Vesta, Estia, (Eo-rm,) &c. &c. The JEolic Digamma 
expressed this union of sounds, which is a double Gamma F, or F, 
which is our letter F, performing the office of a Labial. All this is 
explained in pages 341, 2, 3 of the present Volume. The L is sometimes 
changed into the R, as in Lilium, Leirion, Aeipiov, and it is sometimes 
blended with C, G, D, T, and sometimes with the Labials: Thus 
Clamare in Latin, becomes LLamar in Spanish, Pluvia, LLuviw, in 
Italian, the forms of the Article and Pronouns //, Li become g Li, egLi, 
egLino, &c. and hence we have Pollux, and Poludeukes, {UoXvBevKtji,) 
Ulysses, Odysseus, (OSu<r<rei;s,) Giles, ceGidius, &c. &c. The Til is 


frequently connected with the S, as in Arren, Arsen, (^Apptjv, Apcniv,) 
and in Mus, Maris, &c. Though these changes sometimes occur, they 
are not so familiar as to derange the Class of Immutable Letters. 

Having thus ascertained the Cognate, or Commutable Consonants, 
I shall now shew, that the Cognate Consonants, containing the same 
sense, or the same train of ideas, preserve and record the qffiniti/ of 
ivords, and that the Vowels contribute nothing to that purpose. The 
Vowels render the Consonants Focal, by producing sounds, and thus 
constitute in conjunction with Consonants different words, expressing 
different meanings, by which Human Speech is constituted. But in 
written Languages, Consonants alone are able to preserve and record 
IVords, and Cognate Consonants mark their affinities. On the contrary, 
Vowels, when placed alone, can record nothing in exhibiting a Language, 
and even in conjunction with Consonants, when words pass through 
different Languages, or Dialects, or Provincial varieties, they serve only 
to confound, and obscure affinities. The reader in order to learn this 
fact has only to open any Etymological Dictionary, as the Lexicons of 
Skinner or Junius, and examine in a few instances only the varieties 
of the same word, as they are recorded by these writers, when the 
word passes through different Languages; and he will at once grant, 
that the word, which all would acknowledge to be the same word, 
cannot justly be so denominated, unless he disregards the vowels, and 
considers only as important the same Cognate Consonants, containing 
the same idea, or kindred ideas. The attention of a few minutes only 
employed in this business will afford him the fullest conviction, re- 
specting the truth of the position, which is here maintained. Thus 
the word Father is pronounced in different manners in our Provincial 
Dialects, and might be expressed by Feether, Fauther, &c. and in (he 
various Dialects of the Teutonic, &c. the word is expressed, as repre- 
sented by the Etymologists thus. Feeder, (Sax.) Voter, (Germ.) fader. 


(Belg.) Fader, (Isl. and Dan.) Pater, (Lat.) Pateer, Pafer, and Patr, 
(Gr. Uartip, TTarepo^, Trarpo^,) Padre, (Ital. and Span.) and in Persian 
and Sanscrit we have Pader, and Petree. Though the word Father 
has assumed these various forms, we observe at the same time the 
greatest uniformity, as the difFerence arises only from the change of 
tlie Vowels, while the mme Consonants, that is, Consonants of the 
same kind, called Cognate, still remain as records of the same word. 
Thus the word Father may be expressed under a more abstract form 
without the vowels by F, P, V,^ D, T| R, FDR, VTR, VDR, PTR, 
PDR, and any of these forms is sufficient to record, what we all ac- 
knowledge to be the same word, and to preserve its affinity. 

If we adopt the vowels only, which appear in the variations of this 
word, ae, aee, aue, cee, aee, a, eee, we record nothing; and a Language 
so represented would become an absolute blank, without any traces of 
ideas or meaning. Now the word Father, Pater, &c. has different 
senses, all related to each other, signifying the Parent, the person like 
a Parent, or the Author, or Producer of any thing, the Founder of a 
Sect, the Protector, &c. &c. Thus in denominating words under dif- 
ferent forms to be the same word, we mean those forms of a word, 
which are represented by Consonants of the same kind, containing the 
same idea, or the same train of ideas. In the French Pere, the second 
Consonant of the Radical has been lost, but the sense, which this word 
bears, and the Consonants, which remain, supply full evidence, that 
the term must be referred to the series of words Pater, &c. Language 
is liable to these accidents ; yet it commonly happens, as in this case, 
that sufficient evidence remains for determining the origin, from which 
the words so mutilated are derived. We shall all agree, that the evi- 
dence of the identity of Pere with Pater, &c. is not disturbed by this 
accident of the loss of one Consonant, nor is our dependence on the 
permanency of Consonants, as the records of affinity, at all diminished. 


In considering the terms belonging to Father under the form FTR, &c. 
we shall marvel, that such uniformity has prevailed among Words, 
those products of the fleeting breath, which are regarded by some as 
most changeable, inconstant and capricious. We shall marvel, I must 
again repeat, that a word, so familiar as Father, and therefore so liable, 
as we should conceive, to change, has remained invariably the same, 
through so long a period, in so many Languages, spoken in such distant 
regions of the globe. 

In page 26 of this work I produce the parallel terms for Foot, in 
different Languages, as Fotus, Fot, Fode, Foed, Voet, Fuss, Footur, 
Pous, Podos, (Jlov^, rioSos,) Pes, Pedis, &c. &c. where we cannot 
affirm, that these different forms represent the same word, unless we 
say, that the Vowels are to be wholly disregarded, and that the Cognate 
Consonants F, V, P| T, D, are only to be considered as recording the 
identity of the word Foot. The Vowels 00, on, 0, oe, u, oou, e, ei, which 
are employed in representing these words, record nothing. This example 
Foot opens into a world of ideas connected with the discussions of 
the present Volume, and the principles of my Theory. Hitherto, as 
in Father and Foot, we have considered only what all would call the 
same word with the same meaning, as the Parent, and the Limb used 
in treading on the Ground, though Foot is applied to ditferent purposes, 
as the Foot of a Table, Foot Stalk, &c. Here likewise we may say, 
that the identity of the same word is recognized by the existence of 
the same Cognate Consonants, containing the same idea, or the same 
train of ideas. But it is the business of the Etymologist not only to 
consider the affinity, existing between various forms of the same word 
with the same idea in one of its applications, but of different words, 
bearing different senses, which senses may be sometimes apparently 
very remote from each other. Now the fact relating to the affinity of 
different forms of the same word must be applied in considering the 


affinity between different words, namely, the existence of the same 
Cognate Consonants, and same train of ideas, or the same fundaniental 
idea. — A series of words cannot belong to each other, unless they 
have a power of passing into each other, and of receiving different 
senses, under some common fundamental idea, as the same word receives 
different senses, or different turns of meaning, by means of some com- 
mon or fundamental idea. Words cannot familiarly pass into each 
other, unless by means of Cognate, or Commutable Consonants, or 
Consonants, which have the property of familiarly passing into each 
other, and their affinity cannot be recognised, unless by observing, 
that they contain the same Cognate Consonants under the same train 
of ideas, or under the same fundamental idea imparting different senses. 
The affinity of the Languages, with which we are most conversant, 
has been perpetually observed, and the fact, that Father exists not 
only in the kindred Dialects of the Teutonic, but in Greek, Latin, and 
Sanscrit, will suggest to the most unfurnished reader the proba- 
bility of this fact. I shew in my Preliminary Dissertation, that the 
Earth or Ground supplies Languages with the materials for the various 
ideas, with which words are impressed. It is acknowledged, that words 
must relate originally to Matter; as every thing expressing the opera- 
tions of the mind must be metaphors derived from Matter, and where 
is the Matter to be found, with, which man is perpetually conversant, 
but the Matter of the Earth or Ground, Dirt, Mud. This Theory 
of the Earth, supplying ideas, — with the fact of the affinity of Lan- 
guages, and the Doctrine of Consonants, as being able to propagate and 
record ideas, and of Cognate Consonants, as capable of preserving and 
marking words related to each other, open into a new World in the 
investigation of Human Speech. These truths will render what might 
appear too intricate for the powers of research, intelligible to our 
conceptions and open to the devices of our skill, duly and diligently 


applied. We cannot but at once see, under this view of Languages, 
how Foot, Pes, Pedis, &c. connects itself with Pad, Pass, Path, 
Patco, (riarew,) FoiTao, (^oiTato,) BxDizo, (BaSt^w,) and with Bog 
or Dirt Matter, on the Pedoh, (YleBop,) which brings us to the subject 
of the present Volume. 

When 1 place Consonants without Vowels, and suppose, that words, 
commencing with those Consonants, convey the same train of ideas, as 
BC, &c. I denominate BC, an Elementary Character. 1 endeavour to prove 
in the present Volume, that the Race of Words, under the Elementary 
Character B, F, M, P, V, W^ C, D, &c. or those AVords, which have 
any of the Labials for their first Consonant, and any of the letters, 
belonging to the second Class, C, D, &c. for the second, relate directly 
or remotely to the idea of the Watery, Low Spot, or Matter, to Bog 
or Mud Matter, &c. I consider in the first division of my Work, 
for reasons, which I assign in the commencement of my enquiries, 
the Elementary form B, F, P, V, W\ C, D, &c. and we shall now see, 
how this form so expressed and explained, contains the following words, 
and illustrates their affinity to each other, Foot, Pes, Ved'is, (Lat.) Sec. 
Pad, Pass, Path, (Eng.) Patco, FoiTao, Bxmzo, (Vlarewy Calco, 4>oiTaw, 
Ito, BaSi^w, Eo,) Pedo?i, (YleBov, Solum,) Bog, Pash, Peat, Puddi.k, 
Pit, Base, Bottom, &c. &c. I have already in my former Volumes 
considered the Elementary Character ^R, "R] T, &c. RT belonging to 
Ena, (Epa,) Earth, &c. The mark of a caret before a Consonant 
expresses a Race of words, in which the Consonant, bearing that 
mark, whether it should precede or follow the Consonant, has 
a Vowel breathing, and not another Consonant, before or after it. 1 
have found it convenient in unfolding the Elementary Character B, F, 
P, V, W| C, D, &c. to adopt the colloquial term Pudge, or Podge, 
with a sense, similar to that, which it bears in Hodge-VoDGiL, and when 

I say, that the words under this Elementary Character are to be referred, 



directly or remotely, to such terms as Pudge, Bog, Pash, Peat, Puddle, 
Pit, Base, Bottom, Pedon, (Ue^ov,^ &c. &c. I mean, that the words 
included in this Race bear senses, either directly or remotely derived 
from the Earth, and the objects on its surface, which are expressed by 
such terms as Pudge, Bog, &c. and that all the words, under this 
Elementary Character, have in various degrees an affinity with each other, 
under a train of ideas, which is expressed in their original and general 
import, by such terms as Pudge, Bog, &c. &c. 

The spirit of my Theory does not lead me to adjust the affinity of 
one word to another, as I conceive words to be derived from a general 
impression on the mind of the force annexed to the Elementary 
Character, which impression was originally formed from the Dirt 
of the Earth. In some cases words are directly derived from each 
other, or directly belong to each other, as Boggle is immediately 
taken from Bog, by the manifest nature of the Language; but 
when I say, with a ditierent turn of meaning, that Boss and 
Botch, the Swelling Lumps, belong to each other, and to Bog, I 
understand by this, that all these words have an affinity with each 
other, as belonging to the same Elementary Character, and as con- 
veying the same common idea of the Swelling Mass, which idea was 
derived from the Sivelling up Mass of Dirt, expressed by the kindred 
word Bog. 

That Languages may be recorded by Consonants only, we learn 
from the fact exhibited by some of the Eastern Languages, Hebrew, 
Arabic, &c. in which certain Vowels exist indeed, but they are of little 
importance, and do not discharge regularly and familiarly those offices, 
which the Vowels in our own Language, and in other forms of Speech 
of a similar kind are accustomed to perform. I have illustrated this 
fact by writing the Lord's Prayer without Vowels, or with that scanty 
mixture of Vowels with the Consonants, such as I imagine will suf- 


ficiently represent the nature of those Languages : " Ur Fthr, ivhch art 
" in avn, hhud be thy nam : th hngdm cm .- th lul he dn in arth, as if 
" is in avn : gv-s ths dy ur dly brd, and frgv-s ur trspss, as w-forgv 
" thm tkt trsps agnst-s: and Id-s nt int tempttn, ht delvr-s from avi, fr 
" thn is th kingdm, and th poivr, and th glry,fr avr and avr."' This will 
give the reader a sufficient idea of the mode of recording Language 
among the Hebrews, though it may well be imagined, that a precise 
resemblance cannot be formed. 

This mode of writing Languages answers every purpose of recording 
and speaking the words intended. It is true, that we cannot speak words 
without Foivels, but if we can excite the idea of the word intended to be 
spoken by the use of Consonants only, our purpose of speaking the word 
duly, in order to be understood by those, who speak the same Language, is 
fully answered. Those, who well understand a Language, do not attach 
to a word, as Father, &c. the sounds, which ought to be adopted, 
by a nice consideration of the force belonging to the Vowel symbols 
a and c, but from an immediate impression of the sense, which the 
whole symbol conveys to the mind. Now if the symbol Fthr be suf- 
ficient to excite in the understanding this idea, any attempt to represent 
the vowel breathing is superfluous. We know, that in the Eastern 
Languages, the Consonants are of themselves sufficient to excite this 
idea, and if the Reader will make an experiment upon the English 
Language written after this form, he will be convinced, that a small 
portion of practice would render this mode of writing words for the 
purpose of reading them easy and familiar. In the Hebrew Dialect 
of the Bible, now become a dead Language, a slight embarrassment 
has sometimes arisen from the same symbol, bearing different senses ; 
but it is not so great as that, which arises in our own Language from 
the more ample symbol composed of Vowels and Consonant, when 
the same word has passed through different ages, and suffered a change 



of the Vowels, according to the various modes of pronouncing the word, 
at different times or in different Dialects. 

In composing a Dictionary of the Hebrew Language, the Lexico- 
graphers, when they produce a single word, as they would call it, 
represented by two Consonants, detail the different senses that it bears, 
and endeavour to shew the connexion between one sense and another. 
This is the same process, as if in our Language we should consider 
CP as a \\ ord, and should say, that it denoted a Species of Dress, a 
Vessel for (irinldns;, and a Covering for the Head, such as we express 
by Cope, (an ancient Dress of Priests,) Cup, and Cap, and as if we 
should moreover assert, that the fundamental idea pervading these dif- 
ferent senses, was apparently that of Holding, Containing, &c. The 
Hebrew Lexicographers consider CP under these different senses as the 
same word, and they would say, that this word had assumed these 
different kindred senses, by the use of different Vowel points. — We 
should say, that Cope, Cap, and Cup, were different words, and with 
respect to the fact, that the same Consonants are adopted in all of them, 
which in Hebrew is supposed to be so important, it would either entirely 
escape our notice, or if it were perceived, it would be considered only 
as the effect of an accident, unworthy of our regard. If the Hebrew 
J^exicographers have formed a true idea of the matter in this respect, 
a Dictionary might be formed in English on the same plan ; since Man 
is the same creature in the west as in the east. Yet the views of 
the Hebrew Lexicographers, however just the}- may be, as far as they 
proceed, are yet most bounded and contracted. We shall find, that 
they considered the same train of ideas to belong to that word only, 
or they considered that word only to be the same word, which was 
represented by the same Consonants, or Consonants of the same name 
and form, and they seem to be unconscious, that there existed, among 
other words, any species of relationship whatever. 


In the Hebrew Lexicographers we find no traces of Etymological 
enquiry, as it relates to the Language, which they have undertaken to 
explain, and in that respect they are inferior to their fellow labourers in 
the same employment. Without any minute research into the cause of 
these kindred significations being attached to the same Consonants, we 
should at once say, that this circumstance did not arise from the Jigu re 
and name of the symbol, but that it must have arisen from the power 
of these Consonants. We have seen from the above facts, that this 
power of preserving the same idea, or train of ideas, extends to what 
are called the Cognate Consonants ; and thus the same train of ideas, 
which is expressed by CP, will be conveyed likewise by KP, C/?P, 
CV, &c. SP, SB, &c. Hence we have words, relating to what Holds, 
Contains, &c. under these forms as Cavms, Cavo, with the parallels 
Cave, &c. — Coif, &c. — the parallel terms to Cup, as Scyphms, &c. — 
Ship, Skiff, with their parallels, passing through many Languages, 
as in the Teutonic Dialects, Scip, Skip, Skib, &c. in Greek and Latin 
SKAp/ze, SkapAos, (JE,Ka(pti, Sica^os,) Sc\pha, &c. &c. &c. 

According to this mode of conceiving the matter, the Cognate Con- 
sonants in each peculiar Language convey the same train of ideas. 
When we remember moreover, that certain Languages, or Dialects of 
the same Language, are more intimately connected with each other, 
as the Dialects of the Teutonic, the Celtic Dialects, the Dialects of the 
Chaldee, or Hebrew, &c. we extend the sphere of action in these 
Cognate Consonants still further; and we should find no difficulty in 
conceiving, that they convey the same train of ideas, through these 
kindred Dialects. The Etymologists themselves allow, that the most 
intimate union exists between these kindred Dialects; and they would 
grant, that in the general course of these Dialects or Languages the 
words, which they contain, are the same words under some difi^erence 
of form, and some variety of meaning. Hence it has been the business 



of the Etymologists to collect those words, which they consider as 
the same, under their various forms, and to exhibit them to their readers, 
under the name of Parallel terms. — But we must extend our views 
still further, and trace the power of the Cognate ConsoJiatifs through 
the fvhole sphere of their action. Not only the several Dialects in 
these Classes of Languages are thus intimately connected, but the Classes 
themselves are acknowledged likewise to be closely allied to each other. 
Many have conceived, that the various forms of Human Speech have 
arisen from some Universal Language, once existing on the face of 
the Earth, and the general affinity of Languages has been fully ac- 
knowledged by different orders of writers, under the name of Ety- 
mologists, Philologists, &c. in their various modes of considering the 
question, however imperfectly they may have understood the extent 
or nature of that affinity, which they labour with such diligence to 
discover and illustrate. I suppose, that the prevailing ideas conveyed 
by Human Speech have arisen from the contemplation of the objects 
on the surface of the Earth, as Dirt, Mud, &c. under the various 
qualities and accidents belonging to these objects. I must again repeat, 
what in fact all have allowed, that Language is composed of words 
originally denoting material objects, and that the operations of mind 
are expressed by a metaphorical application of these words : Now where 
is Matter to be found, with which Man is perpetually conversant, but 
that Matter, which exists on the surface of the Earth P If this hy- 
pothesis respecting the origin of Human Speech should be true, we 
at once perceive, how the process of investigating the relations of 
Language, which before might seem to be involved in inexplicable 
intricacy, becomes bounded, distinct and defined. With the Earth, its 
accidents and operations, we are well acquainted ; and when we have 
duly studied the peculiar habits of the Human mind in the mode of 
considering this object and its appendages, from known and acknow- 


ledged examples ; we shall be enabled to understand the familiar process, 
which is passing in Language, and to detect its influence in other 
examples ; where the original impression is no longer visible. 

Thus then we may venture to assert, under this idea, that our Labours 
are directed to the study of one great Universal Language, which is itself 
derived from owe great Universal object, ever present, ever visible, and 
perpetually pressing on the attention of man. We now see, that the 
same operative cause has been constantly employed on the same Lan- 
guage, in preserving the force of those impressions, which it originally 
excited ; and hence we perceive, from the course of our observations, 
how the mind and the organs of man have been enabled to maintain, 
through different ages, and in distant places of our globe, the same 
Elementary Language, not existing in the various and fleeting forms 
of different Languages, but in the Cognate Consonants, abstractedly' 
considered, which propagate and preserve the same train of ideas. 

Nothing is new in my conception, that the Vowels afford no record 
in determining the affinity of words, and that the Consonants only are 
the Essential and Elementary parts of words, but the express mode, 
in which this principle has been declared, and the comprehensive manner 
in which it has been applied. All the Etymologists do in fact tacitly 
acknowledge this truth, in producing what they consider to be parallel 
words, as these words bear no resemblance to each other in their form, 
but by the exhibition of the same Cognate Consonants. Though all 
the Etymologists tacitly acknowledge this fact, when they produce 
their parallel words, yet they still work in the dark, uftder the cloud 
of this principle obscurely understood ; and their labours are deficient 
in the purposes of an Art, because this fact has never been explicitly 
declared and acknowledged. Yet others have proceeded still further, 
and some hardy Theorists have from time to time ventured to assert, 
that Consonants were the Radical parts of words. Yet the Vowels 


still retained their place in representing a Race of words : — No abstract 
mode was adopted of expressing a Series or a Race of words by Con- 
sonants only, without the Vowels, and the state of Etymology remained 
the same, veiled in its ancient obscurity, just as if no such truth had 
been declared. That part however of my hypothesis may be considered 
as perfectly new, in which it is maintained, that the ideas conveyed 
by Language have been derived from the Earth, the Ground, &c. and 
the objects appearing upon its surface. On the whole, I might venture 
to observe, that the Doctrine unfolded in this Work, founded as it is 
on a new idea, and supported by a new mode of applying principles, 
which were before inadequately conceived, may be considered as affording 
to the subject of Etymology, an Art altogether neiv, and totally unlike, 
in its form and purposes, to every other mode, which has ever been 
adopted in discovering the affinity of words. 


Another Volume on the subject of Etymology, unfolded by a new 
mode of illustration, is here presented to the Public, under favorable 
impressions, which the former Volumes could not be expected to obtain. 
On the first appearance of a Work of this nature, which professes to 
consider a familiar topic of discussion, under a point of view, wholl} 
different from all former conceptions on the subject ; it is necessary, that 
the Reader, who has not devoted his attention to studies connected 
with these enquiries, should proceed with care and caution in forming 
his opinions and uttering his decisions. The writer likewise of such a 
work, who has duly estimated the nature of Public favour, when it is 
excited in the cause of Literature, would feel but little gratified with 
a reception hastily and negligently bestowed, from the impulse of motives, 
which bear no relation to the powers of the author, or the value of 
his performance. The final doom, destined to every work, is governed 
by its own laws; and the writer, who has chosen a topic, which 
alone belongs to the decision of instructed and meditative men, must 
wait patiently, till their judgment can be formed, and their influence 
can be felt. It is from that order of men only, who pursue Literature 
for its own purposes, with minds accustomed to enquire, and intent 
solely on the discovery of truth, that the Public opinion, when it assumes 
its important office, is at first slowly adopted, and at last firmly esta- 


(ii) PREFACE. 

blished. Some years have now passed away, since the Doctrine, contained 
in the present Volume, has been promulgated, and due time has been 
afforded for the examination of the principles, on which the Theory 
is founded, and of the evidence, by which it has been supported. The 
Work has now found its way beyond the limits of our own Country, 
and has obtained a reception on the Continent, which is most gratifying 
to the mind, and most congenial to the feelings of the Writer. I 
might venture to observe, that among the Scholars of Paris and Vienna 
the new System of Etymology has now passed through the ordeal of 
its probation, and has been admitted, as a Work, founded on just 
principles and directed to extensive purposes. The reward of our 
labours in the search of truth is to be found in the voice of au- 
thentic testimony, that the truth has been discovered, and I am 
urged by duty and by feeling to acknowledge the value of that evi- 
dence, which is obtained from a Foreign Land, where no other motives 
can exist for the acceptance of a new Theory, but such, which 
are alike honourable to those, who confer the reward, and those, who 
receive it. There is one Parisian Scholar, to whom my acknowledge- 
ments are particularly due for the very flattering opinion, which he 
has been pleased to declare of my Work, in a private and voluntary 
address, which is at once distinguished by an English style, worthy 
of an Artist in our Language, and by a zeal in the cause of Letters, 
such as belongs only to the higher order of liberal and enlightened 
minds. I have no dpubt, that my System of Etymology has felt ail 
the beneficial consequences, which can arise from the influence of such 
a Patron, who by his character, his station and extensive communica- 
tions throughout Europe is enabled to impart an impulse to a Work 
of IjCtters, which would be most favorable to its reception and propa- 
gation on the Continent. 

PREFACE. (iii) 

In the course of the present Volume I have found it necessary to 
enter into various investigations, which are connected with Celtic Litera- 
ture. I have suggested, that the foundation of our two Universities is 
of Celtic origin, and that it is lost in the most unfathomable antiquity : 
I have shewn, (p. 87, &c.) that our venerated Granta, situated amidst 
the Grons or Marshes of the Cam, and Ox-Ford or Water-Ford on 
the banks of the Isis, were purposely chosen, as the favorite retreat of 
the Muses, from a Druidical propensity to such spots, and that the term 
Academy, alike belonging to the banks of the Ilissus and the Cam, is 
derived from the Celtic Dialects, as denoting the place for the education 
of youth. I have shewn likewise, that the title of Alma Mater, which 
we all cherish with such reverence, connects the Ceres of the Romans 
with the Cerid- Wen of the Celts, the Goddess, who in the Mythology 
of the Druids is supposed to watch over the 'tender age of youth;' — 
that tradition assigns to Oxford an establishment for the Priests of Cerid- 
IVen, called Pheryllts, an order of Chymists or Metallurgists, and that 
our University might possibly have possessed an establishment of a similar 
kind. I have suggested, under this train of ideas, that the Eleusinian 
Ceres or Cerid- JVen, when she travelled from the vicinity of the Academy 
on the Ilissus to the Academy on the banks of the Cam, may perhaps 
have returned to a kindred spot, which had been once dedicated to the 
performance of her rites, (p. 241.) I have ventured to conjecture, that 
the antiquaries, who refer the foundation of our University to the Spaniard 
Cantaber, do not deal in such strange and improbable stories, as some 
have imagined, and I have shewn, that Pythagori is the appropriate 
Welsh name, relating to Philosophy, — that the Grecian Pythagoras 
derived his title from this source, and that the Schools of Pythagoras, 
a name still remaining in our University, mean probably the Schools 
of Philosophy, (p. 240.) It is not necessary therefore that Pythagoras 

a 2 

(iv) PREFACE. 

should have visited the banks of the Cam, as some antiquaries may have 
supposed, in order to give existence to his Schools ; but even " this 
" conjecture," as I observe, " is not wholly removed from the sphere 
" of probability." I have noticed the tradition in the old Chronicles of 
Oxford, (p. 89.) which ranks Virgil among the Phcryllts, and I have 
marked the strange coincidence between this tradition and a curious story 
recorded by Sir Walter Scott, from an antient Book, in which Virgil 
is described as a worker in Metals, and as performing " many marvayles" 
by " whychcrafte and nygramancye." The title of Pheryllt must be 
learnt from the Welsh Language ; and though it may appear to the 
reader not conversant in this species of knowledge as a term removed 
from the pale of Classical reading; yet he will find in the name of 
Perillus, the fabricator of the Brazen Bull for Phalaris, that it was 
not wholly unknown to the Greeks, as a term appropriate to a personage 
skilled in the art of Metallurgy. — As the value of the Celtic Dialects 
in the investigation of Languages, and of Celtic knowledge in unfolding 
the mysteries of Mythology, is not duly appreciated even by those, who 
have directed their thoughts to such enquiries ; I shall seize on the present 
occasion of making a few observations on this subject, and I trust, that 
the favorable position of these remarks at the front of the Work may 
arrest that attention, which the cause demands, but which perhaps it 
would have failed to obtain, in a place less propitious for so desirable 
a purpose. 

The learned author of a work, intitled " Opus Tripartitum seu de 
" Analogia Linguarum Libellus," published at Vienna in the year 1820, 
has made an observation on the Celtic and Teutonic origin of Languages, 
which expresses at once his agreement and dissent with -the Writer of 
these Discussions, on this curious and difficult question (p. 179.) The 


author of that work is pleased to quote the opinion, which I expressed 
in my former Volumes, relating to this subject, after the following 
manner: " Celtas ubique Whiter, nos videmus Germanos, (Gothos,^ 
" et tamen consentimus, quoniam the dispute about a Gothic, or a Celtic 
" origin is idle and almost unmeaning, as they are ultimately to be con- 
" sidered, as belonging to each other ; though under one point of view, 
" the Dialects, which we denominate Celtic and Gothic, will afford us 
" a just and proper ground of distinction (520.) Id tamen ambabus 
" tenemus manibus, quod ad Zwitzere legitur. {Whiter, 3l6, 355, 365, 
" 757, 815, 1089, 1220,)" Though our learned author appears to agree 
with my conceptions on this subject in one part of the above sentence ; 
yet the principle, which he so tenaciously retains, (ambabus manibus,) 
in the following passage, under the term Zwitzere, seems to place our 
opinions in opposition to each other. In this passage our author ex- 
pressly asserts, as follows : " Germanica, Dux et Lux Linguarum, 
" reliquas custodit atque declarat." (p. 1Q3.) It may well be imagined, 
that my zeal for the honor of the Teutonic Dialects is as strong and 
ardent, as this learned German can desire ; and an Etymologist, if he were 
not even attached to the Teutonic stock by the ties of his maternal 
Language, must have profited but little by the labours of Wachter, 
if he did not consider the German Dialect, as a rich fund, abounding 
with precious materials for the elucidation of Language. But I must 
still be permitted to conceive, that the Celtic Dialects ought to be re- 
garded, as constituting the great Store-House of Human Speech, and 
I cannot express my ideas better on this subject than by observing, 
that this Store-House of Languages preserves all the materials, of which 
other Languages are formed ; while it declares and illustrates the original 
affinities, by which they are connected with each other. It ought to 
be understood however, that the Celtic Dialects cannot be supposed in 

(vi) PREFACE. 

their present state to exhibit in such striking features these valuable 
properties ; as no Work has yet appeared, in which their riches have 
been collected and displayed, with full and convincing effect. The 
German Dialect has been investigated and unfolded through all its recesses 
by the learning and the sagacity of Wachter, and his researches have 
spread a bright and steady light over the kindred Dialects of the Teutonic. 
The Hebrew Language has received the amplest illustration from the 
study of the Scriptures, and the kindred Dialects of the Arabic, Chaldee, 
Syriac, &c. have obtained their full benefit from this research, and 
from other sources of enquiry. The Sanscrit Language and the customs 
of the Hindoos have formed a theme of discussion, from which we have 
learnt all, which can interest our attention on these subjects. 

In unfolding the stores of the Celtic Dialects, nothing worthy of 
so ample and important a theme has yet been accomplished. In the 
Archceologia Britannica of that illustrious Celt, Edivard Lhuyd, the 
foundation of a great building has been laid, but the fabric still remains 
to be erected. The Irish or Hiberno-Celtic Dictionary of General 
Vallancey, of which only a Prospectus has appeared, is still unpublished, 
though the work of a profound Artist, on which the labour of thirty years 
had been employed. The Galic and the Irish Dictionary of Mr. Shaw 
is a work of great utility, and it supplies us with the chief information, 
which we have under an Alphabetical form, respecting the words, which 
belong to these Dialects; but it is furnished with no examples, which 
alone can lead us to a true knowledge of the original senses of words. 
The Welsh Dictionary of Mr. Owen is a most valuable repository, 
and it is enriched with passages, taken from the Welsh Writers; but 
the explanations of this Author are not always happily conceived, and 
Mr. Owen sometimes fails, when he is desirous of giving, what he 

PREFACE. (vii) 

conceives to be the original idea, which is annexed to the word ex- 
plained. The ancient Race of the Cymry can boast of many precious 
Volumes, still remaining; and a great Work, a possession for ever, 
might be formed, if a scholar of that nation, another Lliuyd, would 
fully profit by these stores, and compose a copious Dictionary of the 
Welsh Language, furnished with the materials, which I shall here 
describe. The Dictionary of General Vallancey should be published, 
under the precise form, which it bears in the Manuscript, and every 
thing should be extracted from thence, which can contribute to the 
completion of the projected work. The Poems of Ossian should be 
diligently studied, and the Galic terms should be produced, illustrated 
by ample quotations from this source. A perpetual appeal should be 
made to the kindred terms in the Armoric, the Basque, the Cornish 
and the Manx Dialects, and their senses should be investigated with 
great diligence, and precision. The publication of the Poems of Ossian 
in the original Galic by the Highland Society has formed a new aera 
in the study of the Celtic Dialects, and may contribute to afford in- 
formation on the subject of Language, which cannot be too highly 
appreciated. A new Galic Dictionary might be published under the 
auspices of this zealous and enlightened Body, and the Irish Dictionary 
of General Vallancey would readily see the light, if the influence of the 
same zeal, intelligence and power were exerted in a similar cause. — 
While I was engaged in studying the Poems of Ossian, T was enabled, 
from the peculiar turn of meaning annexed to Galic words in these 
Poems, to discover the original idea, at present imperfectly understood, 
which belongs to many Hebrew and Chaldee terms. 

I shall take this occasion of performing a task, which my solicitude 
for the advancement of Celtic Literature has often urged me to under- 

(viii) PREFACE. 

take, by endeavouring to impress on that portion of the Public, which 
is interested in such studies, the value of General Vallancey's Work, 
and the views of the Author in compiling it. I shall be enabled briefly 
to state these views in the words of the writer himself from a private 
and voluntary communication, which I received from him some years 
ago on the first appearance of these Etymological Researches, when 
they were yet in an incipient and imperfect form. The Introduction 
and the Preface to the Prospectus of the Dictionary published by the 
Author in 1802, contain an abundance of recondite erudition, relating 
to the Hiberno-Celts, and Hindoos, &c. ; but it would be difficult to 
extract from them so clear a view of his intended Work, as that, which 
the reader will find pourtrayed in the following short and direct account. 
I might feel repugnant to repeat the flattering terms, in which this 
veteran enquirer has been pleased to speak of my Work, if the com- 
munication were not connected with a statement, important to Celtic 
Literature, and if the good opinion of such an adept might not be directed 
to a good purpose, by infusing into the mind of the reader the same 
confidence, which cheers me in that portion of my labours, when I 
attempt to unfold from scanty materials the affinities of the Irish Dialects. 

General Vallancey had arrived to his seventy-sixth year, when he 
announced to me the completion of his Dictionary in a letter which 
is dated the iQth of September 1800, (two years before the publication 
of his Prospectus,^ and which commences thus, " Permit me to express 
" the great pleasure I have enjoyed in the perusal of your learned and 
" laborious Work, the Prospectus of an Etymologicon Magnum. I have 
" spent thirty years in a similar Work, making the Irish Language 
" the leading word, because I found it approaches the Oriental nearer 
" than any other Northern, or Western Dialect, and its construction 

PREFACE. (ix) 

" v/ith Serviles the same as the Hebrew, Chaldee and Arabic. Bochait 
" shewed the way to a work of this kind, Gebehn (with whom I was 
" in correspondence for many years) followed. You have improved 
" on both. The great affinity of the Irish to the Sanscreet is remarkable, 
" and plainly shews, the ancient Irish were, as they denominate them- 
" selves, Aiteac Coti, or Ancient Coti, of the banks of the Indus, the 
" Atti Cotti of Dionysius Per, and the hido-Scuthce of the Greeks, and 
" as is evident from Irish MSS. that they worshipped Budh, Rama, 
" Calli, &c. I am doubtful if the Brahmin Religion did not spring from 
" the Aiteac Coti. For their knowledge in Astronomy I beg leave to 
" refer you to some papers of mine published in the Oriental Collection. 
" There is no Dictionary of the ancient Irish yet published, although 
" mine is finished. At the age of seventy-six I cannot think of putting 
" a huge Folio to the press." 

Nothing can exceed the value of this Work to those, who are en- 
gaged in the study of Celtic Literature ; as a perpetual appeal to Sanscrit 
terms and superstitions, in the examination of Irish words, must suppiv 
a regular and compact body of information on these subjects, which 
we cannot expect to derive from any other source. The connexion of 
the Hindoo ceremonies with those, which were of Celtic origin, and 
which were practised in the sacred Islands of the West, is now fullv 
acknowledged, and General Vallancey has illustrated some portions of 
this subject with singular success, in works already published, as it 
relates to the Mythological History of Ireland. It is now well known, 
that the Cave of St. Patrick is recorded in the Pitranas, the sacred Books 
of the Hindoos, by the very name, which it bears at this moment iu 
Ireland ; and it is probable, that in remote periods of the world, the 

pious Hindoo performed a Pilgrimage to the sacred Islands of the West, 

* b 


to Ireland and to Britain, for the purpose of receiving under a certain 
process the great rite of Regeneration, in the spots, which were most 
celebrated for their sanctity, the Cave of St. Patrick in Ireland, or the 
Hole in the Peak of Derbyshire, which received from the Monks in 
latter times, a Latin appellation expressive of the ancient superstition. 
(^Moors Hindoo Pantheon, 291. — Maurice s Histoty of Hindostan, II. 167. 
Faber on the Cabiri, II. p. 395, Sec.) All this would open into a wide 
field of discussion, which does not belong to the present occasion, 
but which I have endeavoured to unfold in some Mythological Essays^ 
already prepared for the Press, from the stores of Celtic Literature, 
which have been imparted to the Public, relating to this subject. I must 
observe, however, that the Celtic Scholars are alone able to supply the 
information, which can do justice to this curious topic, and that the 
learned Brahmins, when they attempt to unfold the primitive meaning 
of words in their own Language, or to explain the source of their 
Mythology, are altogether remote from the secret, and know nothing 
of the original idea, from which their words and their Legends are 

Their Deity Chrishna has furnished the most abundant source of fable, 
and has been regarded as Fishnu, the Neptune of the ancients, and 
as Brahma, Mahadeva, Sec. It is only occasionally, that Chrishna is 
considered as the Snn, which is his original character in the Irish 
Mythology, as General Vallancey has unequivocally proved from an 
ancient Irish Manuscript, in which there is an address to the Stin be- 
ginning thus : " Be auspicious to my lays, O Creas, thou only God of 
" the seven heavens, who swayest the Universe through the immensity 
" of space and matter. O universal brilliant Sun !" General Vallancey 
observes, that "in this Poem we find Creas without an adjunct, and 

PREFACE. (xi) 

" it is often written Creasan, Creasna, Cintsiv, Crusna. There are 
" many high places so named, and others called Grian, another name 
" of the Sun." We shall now see, that Creas, Creasan, &c. and Grian 
belong to each other, and to Circus, Circultts, &c. an Orb, or Circle. 
In Mr. Shaw's Galic and Irish Dictionary, we have Ct^eas, Crios, a 
Girdle; Cuairt, Circulation; Cearcal, a Ciixle, &c. &c. Through the 
whole compass of Language, CR, GR, &c. which is the simple form, 
bears the same meaning, as in Gy^-us, G\jk-os, Guroo, (Vvpo^, Tvpow, 
in Curvo, &c, &c.) From the form Grian, as denoting the Sun, we 
pass to the CARNeaw and GRYHcean Apollo, and I have shewn, (^Etyju. 
Univers. Vol. I. 518,) that the name for the Heavens in the Mohawk 
Language is Karonghyagouh, in which word I have conjectured, that 
Karon is the Grian, and that Ghyagouh is the Irish Gogor, Light. 
The Iroquois call the Heavens, or the Ruler of the Heavens Garonhia, 
and the Hurons call it SoRonhiafa. (^Sainte Croix Recherches, I. p. 13.) 
The Grian belongs to the Ground, just as Globus belongs to Gleba. 
In Mr. Shaw's Galic and Irish Dictionary Grian is the Sun, and in 
the next article we have Grian, the Ground, &c. Ossian in his famous 
address to the Sun, or Grian, compares it to the Round orb of a Shield, 
Cruin mar Ian scia, Rotundus instar pleni clypei, which word Cruin 
Mr. Shaw explains by Round, Circular, and near it I see Cruinne, 
The Globe of the Earth, Roundness, and Crun, a Crown. Thus 
we perceive, how all these words belong to each other, Grian, Ground, 
Cruin, Crun, Crown, &c. The history of Chrishna relates to 
the Sun or Apollo, when the Legends describe him, as living among 
the Herdsmen, as Apollo dwelt with Admetus. The very name Apollo 
brings us again to the Celts, and wherever we turn our attention we 
are directed to the same source. The aPollo, oPollin-w, with whom 
we are so familiar from the Greeks and Latins, is the Beli, the Belin, 


(xii) PREFACE. 

or BiLLiN of the Celts, with whom we are so familiar in the name 
of BillingV Ga^e, which is the Gate of Pollin, aPoLLiN-is Porta. 
These observations on Creas, &c. for the name of the Sun will shew- 
to Mr. Faber, how his radical Syllable Car, Cur, Cor, or Sar, or as 
he might have said, CR, SR, &c. &c. enters into a great variety of 
names for the Sun. (^Faber on the Cabiri, I. p. 164.) 

The Welsh Dialect of the Celtic is most allied in the familiar ac- 
ceptation of its words to the Arabic ; and the examples in the Welsh 
Dictionary of Mr. Owen will often prove of great advantage to the 
reader of the Book of Job, who should be desirous of uniting the in- 
vestigation of Languages with the study of this precious volume, which 
exhibits a singular Dialect, at once Arabical and Hebraic, belonging 
to a remote age, and which abounds with a vein of Poesy, such as is 
not to be found, except by imitation, in any other work. The Philo- 
sophical and Metaphysical sentiments contained in the Book of Job 
are altogether Druidical, which will be readily developed by those, who 
are conversant in ^he learning of the Celtic School. I cannot forbear 
giving an example of the similarity, which exists between the appli- 
cation of a term in the Book of Job, and that of a Welsh word, as 
it is illustrated by an example in Mr. Owen's Dictionary. God demands 
of Satan, "Whence comest thou?" and his reply is "From going to 
" and fro in the Earth, and from walking up and down in it." The 
word for Going to and fro is the Hebrew DlJi', SUT, which corresponds 
to our word Scud, a term particularly applied to the motion of Spirits, 
&c. In Dr. Johnson's Dictionary two passages are produced under 
Scud, where the term is applied to Frighted Satyrs, and a Frighted 
Spectre. The parallel terms in Welsh are Sitiaw, " To whirl, to wisk 
about," and Sitiwb, "One who whirls, turns, or goeth round," as 

PREFACE. (xiii) 

Mr. Owen explains these words. In the example produced by Mr. Owen 
from the Arch Mystic Taliessin, under this latter term, the Welsh word 
is, actually applied to Safan, "Seven hours had they been guarding the 
" garden, before meeting with Satan, the Ranger of Tartarus," — 
" Satan Sitiwr Tartara." This in my opinion is extremely curious. 
It might be asked, whether the name of Satan be not derived from 
this source, and not from the idea of the Adversary, as it is commonly 
imagined. Norberg in his Onomasticon to the Liber Adami, seems 
to be of this opinion, who derives Satan from this Hebrew word £0W 
SUT, corresponding as he says, with the Arabic \>\Ji. Shat, Circumivit, 
and thus he considers Satan, as agreeing with the Latin Erro. What- 
ever we may think of the origin of Satan, we shall all agree, I imagine, 
that the term Satyr belongs to Sitiwr. The Satyrs, we know, are 
perpetually described under their quality of a tvild, extravagant, de- 
sultory, quick motion, and hence they are called Celeres, Leves, Fu- 
gaces. Vagi, Saltantes, &c. &c. The word adopted for Walking, in 
its radical form, is l/H, HLK, which Mr. Parkhurst has justly referred 
to the English Walk. Wachter has produced under Wallcw, Am- 
bulare, the French ALLer, the English Walk, but he has not seen 
that the UL in amb-Vj^are is of the same origin, where Am, or Amb 
is circuni. Now it is curious, that both Walk and Ambulo are applied 
to the Motion of Demons, Spirits, Gliosis, &c. His Ghost Walks, &c. 
" For which they say, you Spirits oft Walk in death." The Ranger 
of a Forest is said likewise to have his Walk, and in the Merry Wives 
of Windsor, as we know, " Heme's Walk" is at once the Walk 
of the Forrester Heme and of his Spirit. The term Ambulo is ap- 
plied in Plautus to the motion of a Demon, who Walks to and fro 
upon the Earth, for the same purpose as Satan does, in order to 
observe the actions of men, and to make his reports to Jupiter. The 

(xiv) PREFACE. 

Spirit of the Star Arcturus, thus prologizes in the Rudens of that 

" Nomen Arcturo est mihi, 

" Noctu sum in coelo clarus, atque inter Deos : 
" Inter mortales Ambulo interdius." 

The reader of taste, when he compares the opening of this Play 
with that of Comus, will perceive, that Milton had his mind forcibly 
impressed with the imagery of Plautus. The Spirit, who prologizes 
in Milton, is called Demon, in the Cambridge Manuscript. Now it is 
curious, that the first Character among the Dramatis personce in Plautus 
is called Dcemones. The Prologue begins thus : 

" Qui gentes omnes, mariaque et terras movet, 

" Ejus sum civis civitate coelitum, 

" Ita sum, ut videtis, splendens Stella Candida." 

As the Demon here is a Star, a citizen, under the empire of Jupiter 
in the City of the Celestials, so Milton's Demon belongs to the Starry 
threshold of Jove's Court, where bright Spirits are inspherd. 

" Before the Starry threshold of Jove's Court 
" My Mansion is, where those immortal shapes 
" Of bright aereal Spirits live inspher'd." 

When any favoured of Jupiter want the assistance of this Spirit, then, 
says he, 

" Swift as the sparkle of a glancing Star 

" I shoot from heav'n, to give him safe convoy." 

I shall produce a singular example of the coincidence between the 
Arabic and the Welsh Language, in which I may venture to say, that 
no Arabic Scholar can form any conjecture about the origin of the word, 
while every Welshman perfectly understands its composition. The term 

PREFACE. (xv) 

J«x« Mensil signifies in Arabic, according to Mr. Richardson, " Gene- 
" ration, Progeny. — Munsel. Begotten, generated. Munsil. 1 . Moulting, 
" (as a bird); changing the hair (as a camel). 2. Falling off, or flowing 
" down (as garments). 3. The time when animals change in general 
" their hair or feathers. 4. Shooting out, putting forth. 5. Falling off; 
" rejecting. 6. Preceding. MunsUL Withdrawing one's self; falling off, 
" dropping from the middle." Now the original idea of all these various 
senses is contained in the fourth sense, "Shooting out, putting forth," 
as will be manifest, when we see the Welsh word, from which it is 
derived. This word is Manzeilaw, which means " To shoot out the 
" first leaves," from Manzail, " Small leaves." The term Manzail is 
derived, as all acknowledge, from Mmi, Small, little, &c. and Daii, 
leaves, the verb to which, where we see the radical idea, is DEihiaw, 
" To bring forth, or bear leaves." The substantive Dail signifies Leaves, 
because it denotes something, which Shoots forth. The words, of which 
Mx^izEihiaw are formed, are common to all Languages, but the com- 
pound belongs only to the Welsh, where its component parts are known, 
and acknowledged to agree with the nature of the Language. The 
Man, denoting Little, belongs to Minute, Mince, &c. (Eng.) Minuo, 
(Lat. and Gr. Mit/vw,^ Minutus, &c. &c. — the Hebrew DID MNH, 
" To distribute by number, to compute, reckon up, or number distinctly, 
" and by parts," which means "To Part out, as into MiN«/e portions," 
and to the Arabic \x< Mena, which signifies " A Part of any thing 
" opposite to another Part."' The word Deiliaw To Bring forth, or 
Shoot forth, belongs to Thallo, (GaAAw, Germino,) Telia, (TeAAw, 
Orior,) awa-TELLo, (Ai/areWw, Produco, emitto, extrudo, ut cum vitis 
gemmam ; aut cum quis facem ardentem extollit ; — Orior ut Sol,) where 
let us note a kindred term cxTollo. In the Teutonic Dialects we have 
Telg, (Germ, and Dutch,) Surculus, Teeuv/, (Dutch,) "To beget, 

(xvi) PREFACE. 

" engender, generate, procreate," and various other kindred words, which 
it is not necessary to produce. In Arabic jJU? Talia means "Arising, 
" appearing. Breaking forth, being born, or produced, the Dawn," &c. 
jJi? Tela means "A branch of a palm tree; also the buds, flowers 
"and fruit. — A Prospect. — Telia, High, Tall," &c. where we note the 
kindred term Tall; the next word to which in Mr. Richardson's 
Dictionary is 'i^ Telat, "Aspect, face, countenance, appearance." 
Here again we are brought to a Welsh word Tal, which Mr. Owen 
thus explains. " That is over, that tops, that is fronting, or upon ; 
" a front; the forehead. — Towering, Tall." Hence is derived Taliesin, 
which means Fair Fro?it. In the names of places, says Mr. Owen, 
Tal answers to End in English, and hence we see the origin of the 
Greek Tel-o«, (TeAos, Finis.) — To the familiar Welsh word Manzail 
belongs, I cannot doubt, the familiar Welsh name Mansel; and we 
shall surely be surprized to find, that a surname common to the Welsh 
Language should exist in an Arabic word. I cannot but consider 
the coincidence between the Welsh and Arabic Languages, in the 
example, which I have here exhibited, as most striking and singular. 

Before I conclude this Preface, I think it necessary to inform the 
Reader, who may feel some interest in the fate of these Etymological 
Enquiries, that three other Volumes are now ready for the Press, which 
would equal in magnitude the present Volume, and which unfold three 
Elementary Characters C, D, G, &c.| N.— C, D, G, &c.^ M, B, F, &c. 
and B, F, M, &c. ^ N. I have made likewise considerable progress in 
illustrating the Elementary Character B, F, M, &c. \ R, which a few 
months of health and leisure would perhaps enable me to compleat in 
the same ample form, which I have adopted in the other Volumes. 
The necessary collections are moreover already made for the purpose 

PREFACE. (xvii) 

of unfolding the remaining Elementary Characters ; but on the fate ot 
these materials I dare not entertain any hopes, or form any conjectures. 
Time is hastening forward in its course, and my health no longer permits 
me to be occupied in these pursuits with the same perseverance, which 
I was accustomed to exert in days more propitious to study and medi- 
tation. Still however perchance something may be performed, and the 
broad outlines may still be drawn of the Elementary Characters, which 
now remain to be discussed, in such a manner, that the whole System 
may be pourtrayed, though some portions of the tablet may appear in 
forms, less finished and compleat. 

To the Syndics of the University Press the Author is indebted for 
the same patronage, which they were pleased to bestow on the former 
Volumes, and which he acknowledges with the same feelings of grati- 
tude and respect. It affords a source of reflexion most touching to 
the mind, when it is our fortune at the decline of life to associate 
ourselves in the same good cause of Letters with the venerated spot, 
where the ardor first stole upon us in the days of our youth, and 
where all our Literary feelings and friendships were formed, fostered, 
and matured. 


Hardingham Parsonage, 

Norfolk, April 13, 1825. 

Words under the form 

B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.} /,m,w,r. 

(That is, Words having one of the Labials B Sec. for the first Consonant, and 
C 8tc. for the second, with I &.c. sometimes annexed for the third,) 

are to be referred, directly or remotely, 
To Terms under the same form, signifying the Earth, Ground, Soil, Dirt, &c. 

which Terms are found particularly to contain 
The idea of the Low Spot, the Watery, Muddy, Bog Spot, or Matter. 

such as 


&c. &c. &c. 


B, F, &LC.I C, D, &c. I /, &c. 

Words expressing the Ground, Earth, Land, &c. in general; as 
likewise those, which relate to the same spot, when considered as the 
Low, Inferior Spot, as the Pedo/?, (FleSoj/, Solum,) Booen, (Germ.) 
BoTTO/«, Base, &c. (Eng. &c.) — Terms directly connected with these 
words, which contain the original idea of the Pudge, Loiv spot, as 
oByss, (Eng.) aBuss-os, us, (Gr. h^var<ro's, Lat. Abysms,) Pit, (Eng.) 
Fossa, (Lat.) &c. &c. — Words, which relate to the Ground, the Base, 
Pedo/?, (rieSoj/), &c. as expressing motion on its surface, by the member, 
appropriate to that action, as Pass, Pad, (Eng.) Pat<?o, (Jlareta, Calco,) 
Foot, (Eng.) Pes, Pedw, (Lat.) Pous, Vodos, (Iloi/s, IloSos,) &c. &c. — 
Words, which relate to the Low- Inferior, Base Spot, or to the Foiif, 
Pudge, Spot or matter, signifying * What is Low or Inferior, What is 
Depressed or Reduced to a Low state, what is Base ;' as likewise * What 
is Foul, Filthy, Vile; What is in a state of Dissolution ; What is IFealt, 
Decayed, &c. as Bad, Vvinid, VExid, ^Aoed, &c. ; (Eng.) FuTRidus, 
FcEOus, Voiridus, (Lat.) &c. 

B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z. | l,m,n,r. 

In my arrangement of the Elementary Characters, under which the 
Terms in Language may be disposed; I have observed, that the union 
of any of the following Labials B, F, P, V, W, as the first Consonant, 
and one of the letters C, D, G, J, K, Q, S, T, X, for the second, as BC, 
BD, &c. FC, FD, &c. may be considered as forming a distinct and 
separate Radical. — (Prelim. Dissert, p. 105.) I have observed likewise, 
that though the Labial M is perpetually com mutable with the other 
Labials at the end of a word, yet at the beginning of a word the M 
appears to be somewhat distinguished from the rest by a barrier of 
separation. — (Prelim. Dissert, p. 18.) Still, however, the two forms 
BC &c. and MC &c. may be considered as familiarly passing into each 
other in the same series of words, and they are so intimately allied, 
that they might have been discussed in the same portion of my work, 
if the abundance of the Terms, under each of these forms, did not 
render a separation necessary for the convenience of a due and orderly 
arrangement. — The Race of Words under the form MC, MD, &c. 
receive their force, as I imagine, from such terms as Mud, Muck, &c. 
and we may adduce the following words, as exhibiting a general idea 
of the force and spirit of this Elementary Character ; Mud, Muck, &c. 
*To Mute,' Muc2^5, Matter, Materia, Muceo, Moist, Madeo, 
Mudao, (MuSaw, Nimio ]\Iadore Fifior, Piitresco;) Moss, MusH-roo?w ; 
Mash, sMash, Macero, Masso, (Maa-crw, Subigo, Pinso,) Mix, Misceo, 
MiGNUo, {ML'yvvw.) — Mass, Massa, Make, Mhcuine, Mxcnina, Mech- 
ane, (M^^xa^^'^) ?'Mage, iMAGo, &c. &c. We here see the Matter 
of Mud, in its various states, and under the various ideas which we 
may conceive annexed to it, as of being Foul, as being in a Watery— Soft— 
Dissolved — Mingled state, as being in a state of Consistency, of a Plastic 
nature, &c. 


In this portion of my work I shall consider the Elementary Character 
B, F, P, V, W, 1 C, D, G, J, K, Q, S, T, X, Z, as BC, BD, &c. FC, FD, 
&c. The Letters /, m, n, r, will frequently be found annexed, as mere 
organical additions to the second Radical Letter, without imparting 
any force to the Element; as BC/, BC/w, BCw, BCr, &c. I shall consider 
likewise, in this portion of my work, the Race of Words, which 
appear under the forms above recited with the Letter s preceding the 
first letter of the Radical, as sBC, sBD, &c. sFC, sFD, &c. &c. as 
5P1T, ^Patter, sPittle, sPade, sPatula, &c. The s is an organical 
addition, which does not alter the sense of the words under the more 
simple form. It is a received notion, among the Philological Gram- 
marians, that the s is a letter which expresses Dispersion, Commotio?! , &c. 
and t have no objection to the hypothesis, that the s became prefixed 
to the first letter of the form PD, &c. as sPD, &c. ; under this impression. 
The Labials have likewise been supposed to have a power of expressing 
Soft matter, whatever may be the source from which that power 
was originally derived. If any Theorist therefore should be desirous 
of maintaining, that the Elementary form BS, PS, &c. was originally 
applied to Pash matter from an impression of the force of the Labials 
P, B, &c. and of the S with its cognates sC, shG, &c. conveying, in 
a separate state, the same idea, I can have no objection to such a notion 
nor to any Hypothesis of this kind. Such an Hypothesis, indeed, 
will not assist us in discovering a single fact belonging to Language ; 
but it will not disturb any fact, which may be discovered from any 
other source ; and I suggest it merely for the benefit of those, who 
are desirous of penetrating into the regions of Theory, where every 
thing may be supposed, and nothing can be known. The Enquiries 
pursued in this Work are employed on Language, when it appears in 
that state, which is capable of becoming an object of discussion, in 
the discovery of intelligible facts, such as the present Volume will 
exhibit in the most marked and unequivocal characters. 

The spirit of the Elementary form jVIC, MD, &c. will be duly 
represented to us by the English word Mud, but it unfortunately happens, 
that we have no word in familiar use, belonging to the Elementary 

6 B, F, P, V, W. } C, D, G, J, K, Q, S, T, X, Z. | /, vi, n, r. 

Character BC, BD, &c. which corresponds with so intelligible a term 
as Mud. Skinner has inserted in his Lexicon the term Podge, which 
he compares with the Latin words Fossa and Puteus, and with the 
German Pfutze, which my Lexicographer explains by " a Puddle, 
Lake, Slough, Plash, Quagmire; Hollow Pit;" and which is a term 
fully expressing the sense of the Elementary Character BC, &c. The 
term Podge exhibits the same sense as that which we see in Hodge- 
PoDGE, and I think that in vulgar language this word as applied to 
Mud matter is generally expressed under the form Pudge, which 
appears to bring us more directly to Puddle. In the word Puddle 
we seem rather to have the idea of JFatery INLntter, but in Podge 
or Pudge we have the sense of Mud in its more Consistent state, and 
therefore this term may be applied, when we regard Mud Matter, 
or the Dirt of the Earth, under its various properties, of a Lumpy 
a Sticky and Plastic state. If the form Pudge should not be so familiar 
to the ears of the Reader, as a colloquial term, he will perfectly feel its 
force from the meaning of Podge in Hodge-FoDGE, and the impression, 
which he will receive from the remembrance of the kindred terms 
Paste, Pottage, Putty, Pudd//;o-, &c. But though we have no word 
belonging to our Elementary Character BC, &c. which is received and 
accepted in written Language, corresponding in sense with Mud; yet 
the Reader, if he pleases, may consider Podge or Pudge, as a quaint 
colloquial term formed from the sound, in order to represent from 
a strong impression the general idea belonging to various familiar words, 
attached to the Element PD, without containing the precise idea of 
any of those kindred words — such as Puddle, Pash, Paste, Pottage, 
Putty, Pitch, &c. &c. I shall therefore for the purpose of a 
familiar and impressive representation of the Elementary idea adopt 
perpetually the term Podge or Pudge, and I shall venture likewise 
sometimes to apply the term as a verb. Under this idea we shall 
see, that To Pash is nothing but To Pudge to Cast, or scatter about 
the Pudge, or Dirt. We are not to understand from the above repre- 
sentation of the force of the Element, that the idea of Pudge matter 
will be perpetually exhibited in the meaning of that great race of 


words, which the Element comprehends; yet we shall still find, by 
a diligent enquiry Jnto the original sense of the various Terms, which 
appear under this Elementary Character, and by a careful comparison 
of these Terms with each other, that such is the prevailing-fundamental 
idea, which pervades this Race of Words, through the whole compass 
of language. 

The difficulty of arrangement for ever presents itself in discussions 
of this nature, and though different modes might be adopted, which 
would conduct us to the same series of facts; yet I imagine, after 
the most mature deliberation, that the- following arrangement will be 
found as commodious and impressive as the state of our materials is 
capable of atFording. — In the First Section, I shall consider that Race 
of Words, which express the Ground, Earth, or Land in general ; 
the Pedon, (rieSoj/), and likewise the Ground, when considered as the 
Loiv Inferior Spot, the Boden, (Germ.) Bottom, Base, &c. In de- 
tailing such words we shall perpetually recur to those Terms which 
contain the more original idea of the Loiu-Vvdgy Spot, as aBvss, 
BuTH05, (Bi/^os,) Pit, Fossa, &c. &c. In this Section I shall consider 
in a separate article those terms, which relate to the Ground, the Base, 
Pedo/?, {Ylelov), as expressing motion upon its surface, by the member 
appropriate to that action, the Feet, as Pass, Pad, Patco, {llarew, 
Calco,) Foot, &c. Pes, Ped?,9, Pous, Podos, &c. {U.ov^, IloSos). In 
another article of the same Section will be unfolded those words, which 
relate to the Base or Low Spot, to the Pudge Spot or matter, as 
denoting 'What is Low or Inferior; What is Depressed, or reduced 
' to a Low state ; What is Base,' &c. and as signifying, * What is Foul, 
' Filthy, Vile, or Bad ;' — What is in a state of Dissolution ; — What is 
' Weak, Decayed,' &c. ; as Bad, Vwmid, FetzV/, Yxned, (Eng.) Vvrmdus, 
Fced«.v, Vi£.ridas (Lat.) &c. &c. — In the Second Section I shall consider 
that race of words, which express Bog, or Pudge matter, as BOG, 
PUDGE, as likewise those words which denote 'What is of a Bog, 
or Pudge kind, form, or consistency, as Botch, Batch, Paste, 
PuDoing, Sec. &c. Among the terms, which express matter in a 
Bog or Pudge state, I shall examine the words which relate to JFatcry 

8. B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.>j l,m,n,r. 

matter, or IFater in general, as Boda, (Russ.) Bedu, (BeSy, vZwp $,ou7es,) 
Wash, Water, Uoor, (Y^wp, Aqua.) &c. &c. We see that in Wash, 
&c. the force of the Labials B, F, &c. has become weak, or has dis- 
appeared ; and this will lead me to consider those terms under the 
forms VC, WC, &c. '^C, ''D, &c. which more directly attach themselves 
to the form BC, &c. as Wash, &c. Aqua,. (Lat.) the Celtic terms for 
Rivers, Haters, &c. Isc, Use, Ox, &c. «Scc. Wag, Waggle, VAGor, (Lat.) 
Weak, Wax, Eiko, {Eikw, Similis sum, cedo,) Oicwomai, {Oixofxai, 
abeo, pereo, dissipor). This article will supply to us a curious theme 
of discussion, where we may expect to encounter some difficulties ; 
as the subject will oftentimes appear to become embarrassed, when 
we approach to those confines, at which dilFerent Elementary Characters 
pass into each other ; though in their general operation they may be 
justly considered, under one point of view, as producing distinct and 
separate Classes of Words. Since, therefore, many of these words have 
thus assumed a different Elementary Character, I shall not interrupt 
the regular order of my Enquiry, which relates to the Radical form 
BC, by introducing this discussion into the main body of my Work, 
but I shall reserve it for a separate and final Section. In another 
article of my Second Section, where I examine words expressing matter 
of a Pudge consistency, I shall detail those Terms, which are derived 
from Pudge matter, as Clay &c. when considered as of a Plastic nature, 
and which relate to Form, Figure, Shape, as Pottc?', (Eng.) Facio, 
TiGulus, TiGura, (Lat.) TiGure, &c. &c. 

The Third Section will contain those terms, which signify To Rise 
or Swell up — the Rising or Swelling object, form, &c. and which 
receive their force, as I imagine, from the idea of Bog or Pudge matter, 
Rising, Swelling, Puffing, Bulging out, up, &c. as Botch, Pock, &c. &c. 
This idea is applied to various purposes, and we shall accordingly find 
different sets of words, with various meanings ; as Terms, which denote 
Plants and Herbs, in their Swelling state, as Bud, &c. Terms which 
signify ' To Bend,' from the Swelling out Curve form, as Bough, Bow, 
Bcjce;?, (Germ.) &c. &c. — Terms of Terror, from the idea of the 
Sivelling out, large appearance, attended sometimes with the notion 


of Jgitation, Commotion, as BuG-J5car, belonging to Big, &c. — Names 
of Boys, Children from the Swelling out. Plump, humpy form, as 
Boy, Pais, (Hat?,) &c. These terms for Boys we shall find to be 
often entangled with the words, which denote something lAttle, the 
Little, Squabby, Lumpy thing, as we express it; and this will bring 
me to the consideration of those words, which express Minute objects, 
as referring to the Little Lump, Mass, Piece oi Dirt, &c, as Piece, &c. — 
Terms, which are derived from the Swelling out appearance of the 
Pudgy object, when applied to the state of animate matter from nourish- 
ment, as Fat, Feed, Food, &c. 

The Fourth Section will contain an examination of those words, 
which convey the idea expressed by such terms as Pash, Push, Poke, 
Pike, sPike, Pitch, Put, ?«Fix, Fix, Pat, Patter, Beat, Batter, &c. 
which I conceive to be derived from the action of Vx?,mng, PusHwg-, 
Fixing, Furring, PxrrEiiing, &c. amongst, about, up, itito, &c. Pash, 
Pudge, or BATTER-/i/ie matter; so that To Pash, Push, &c. mean 
nothing but 'To Pudge,' (if I may so say,) about, into, &c. 'Pudge- 
raatter.' This examination will divide itself into two parts, in one 
of which I shall more especially consider those Terms, which relate 
to the sense of Fusning, FoKing, inTixing, Fixing, under the idea of 
what we express by Sticking into any thing, or together, as into or 
amongst Sticky or Pudge matter, in a state of Consistency, Tenacity, 
so that an object may remain inVixed, or Fixed. In the other part 
I shall consider those words, which relate to the action of FASuing, 
Pusning, BE.Kring, B\rrERing, where the idea of Fixedness does not 
appear, but rather that of making some Impression or Impact, by 
Sticking into, at, upon, &c. with various degrees of force, sometimes 
attended by the effects of Jgitation, Dispersion, Commotion, Fiolcnce, &c. 
Under this part I shall produce the terms, which relate to Haste, Bustle, 
&c. derived from the Agitation of Pudge Matter; and likewise those 
terms, which express Noise, and which are intimately blended with 
the Words relating to the action of F\SHing, or Patter///o-, &c. against 
Pash, Pudge matter. The Fifth Section, as I before observed, will 
contain the words under the form VC, WC, &c. &c. as likewise kindred 


10 B,F,P,V, W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

words, under other forms, connected by the process which I have already 
stated ; as AVash, Water, Udor, {Y^wp,) Aquu, the Celtic terms Isc, 
Osc, &c. relating to Water, or Ooze matter. We perceive how the 
ideas, which I have arranged under different divisions of my enquiry, 
pass into each other, and that in many cases the separation has been 
adopted only for the purposes of convenience and facility, in detailing 
a variety of Words. AVe perceive moreover, that, although these 
divisions have been adopted, it will be a part of my duty, on many 
occasions, to repeat under one division the Terms, which arc discussed 
in another ; as the same Word, in its different turns of meaning, may 
be directly connected with various other Words, which belong to different 
trains of ideas. In this repetition of Words, accompanied by a due 
comparison with other Terms, especially when those Words express 
the more prevailing sense of the Element ; the great force and spirit 
of my argument will be found to consist. — I must again impress upon 
my reader, that our colloquial term Podge or Pudge will be per- 
petually adopted in the course of my discussions, as the most appropriate 
and convenient term, which appears in our Language, for the purpose 
of explanation. It is not, however, to be imagined that when this 
explanatory term, is adopted, I am desirous of adjusting the degree of 
affinity, which may exist between that peculiar Term and the Word 
to be examined ; but that I adopt it only for the purpose of expressing 
the General Fundamental sense, which prevails through the Elementary 
Character. The nature of the arrangement, and the mode of unravelling 
the question, under its various bearings and relations, can be understood 
only, when the examples themselves pass under the view of the Reader, 
and I delay not to lay before him a great body of facts in the formation 
of Language, which were before altogether unknown, and which, as 
I confidently trust, will afford to the enquiring mind a conviction, 
most direct and irresistible, such as was not to be expected in an 
enquiry of this nature. 


Terms relating to the Ground, Earth, and to the Loiv, Inferior, 

Pudge Spot, &c. 

Peda, Pedo«, Pais, Peat, VEsra, &c. 

(Gr. Fr. Eng. Lat. Sec.) Vasoo Deva. 

(Sans) the Goddess of the Eartli. 
Paoms, Vicms, Wick, Wich, &c. (Lat. 

Eng.) a Village, Town, .&c. 
Bottom, Boden, Pithmen. (Eng. Germ. 

Base, Bas, Basis, See. (Eng. Fr. Gr.) 

PoTAMOs, (Gr.) the Bottom, or Bed of a River. 
Bathhs, BoTHros, Bussos, aBussos, aBvss, 

aBysme, &c. (Gr. Eng. Fr. &c.) 
Vadum, Wade, &c. (L. Eng.) 
Fathom, &c. (Eng.) 

PuTCHs, Fossa, Pit, 8cc. (Lat. Eng. &.c.) 
Pfutz, (Germ.) Puddle, Bog, Pit, &c. 
&c. &c. &.C. 

In this article of the First Section I shall consider those words, 
belonging to the Element BD, &c. which express the Ground, or 
Earth in general, the Pedo/j!, {Uclov, Solum,) and particularly, when 
considered as the Pudge Spot, the Base, or Boti'om, &c. &c. as we 
shall find, that the more original idea perpetually presents itself to our 
view, under every portion of our arrangement. — Though the Greek 
Pedow, {WeZov, Solum, Terra, Humus,) denotes the Ground in general, 
yet we find that this word and its derivatives recur to the more primitive 
sense of the Low Spot, when they denote a Plain-Flat country, (neSoi^Se 
In Solum, in Terram, in Campum, Yleliov, Campus, Planities, Yle^tvo^, 
Campestris, Planus.) In the following application Pedw// (FleStoi/) 
is brought to the original idea of the Pudge or Bog. Diodorus 
Siculus (1. 18.) describes a part of ^gypt thus, Ta h'eptifxos irepiex^i 
Kal Ileh la TeXfxarto^t] Ta Trpoa-ayopeuofxeva (iapadpa, Qujedam loca 
circumdant tlesertum et Carnpi Palustres, qui vocantur Barathra vel 
Voragines, I shall shew, that the explanatory Latin term Campus denotes 
the Swamp for the same reason, and that the names of the Boggy 
country here described the Gijp in ceGyptus, and the Chem in Chemia, 
another form of the name, is the Swam, Swap, or Swamp Land. In 
Hesychius we have another form of the term Pedo//, (IleSoi/,) as Peda, 
(IleSa,) In English Peat relates to the Ground, as denoting the Marshy 

B 2 

12 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

Spot. The Spanish and French Pais, the Italian Paese, with their 
derivatives Paisan, Peasant, &c. (Fr. Eng.) have been referred to Vxgus, 
Paganus, Pagan, &c. &c. The Latin Pagm* does not belong to Pege, 
{Ut^yri,) as some have imagined, because a village consisted of people 
possessing a common Fountain, but because they both denote the Pudge 
Spot, as of Land or of Jfafer. Some of the Welsh Lexicographers 
have produced as parallel to the French Pais their term Peys, signifying 
likewise 'A Country.' The next word to this Welsh term in the 
Dictionary of Mr. Richards is Peythin, which he explains by Matter, 
where we are brought to the more original idea. — The Latin Yicus is 
another form of Vagus, and this form brings us to such terms as Wick, 
WiCH, &c. in our names of Towns, as Wiir-wicn., Nor-wicu, &c. 
The Wic is referred to the more original idea, when it relates to a 
situation in a Wash?/ Spot, or by the WAxer Side, " Portus, Sinus 
Maris," as Lye explains the Saxon Word; and hence we have the 
term in its true sense in such names as jBc/'-Wick upon Tweed, 
Green-WicH, Har-WicH, Ips-Wicn, &c. In the Latin Vesta we have 
the Goddess of the Earth, which becomes Estia in Greek, (Eo-rta,) 
where we may see how the forms V S and *S pass into each other. These 
words are applied in their more original sense, when they relate to 
the Loiu Spot, the Hearth, Foundation, or Base. In Sanscrit Vasoo 
Deva is the Goddess of the Earth. In Mr. Shaw's Galic and Irish 
Dictionary we have the following names for the Groiwd, &c. Faiche, 
"A Field, green." YAiruche, Faith, "A Field." FAiTueimid, "A 
Field, green." Fath, " A Mole, a Field." Fatche, " A Green." Fich, 
"A fee Farm," — "A Country Village or Castle." Fioch, Fith, Fiadh, 
"Land." Fod, "A Clod of Earth, Glebe, Soil, Land, a Peat," and 
in the same column of the Dictionary I see " YiochaU," " Dirt, Filth, 
Corrupt Matter." Foid, "A Turf, Peat." Foig/»w, "A green Plat, 
or Mead," &c. &c. The sense of Peat, and of the Green Spot, is 
attached to the original idea, and we shall be reminded of the Greek 
Piso«, [Uia-o^, Locus Humidus et irriguus, Hortus, Pratum,) where we 
are directly brought to the Pudge Spot. Among the terms for Pratum 
in Lhuyd are the Cornish words Bidhen, Bydhin, who has produced 


likewise the Irish Faighiie, Faithxe, by which he means, I imagine, 
two of the words which I have produced. 

The form Pedon, (fleSot^,) directly connects itself with the Cornish 
BiDHEX, Bydhin, and the German Bodex, sometimes written Bodem, 
which signifies "The Bottom, Ground, Floor, Soil," where let us note 
the kindred English term Bottom. Wachter has referred the German 
BoDEN, in its senses of Fundus and Profundus, to Pedon, (Yledou), 
PuTHMEN, (IlvdiuLriv,) PoDAMME, (Glozz. Pcz.) Fundum, and the English 
Bottom ; and he sees, moreover, that such terms belong to " Peddcm 
Calcare. Nam Bod est locus calcandi, sicut Bedd locus jacendi." 
Bathm5, (Bo^y?, Profundus,) Boddi, (Welsh,) Mergere, and Mergi, and 
the French Bas. He supposes, moreover, that Padms the River Po, 
the Sinus BotunIcus, the Country BoTHxia, the BoDENsee, (Lacus 
Profundus,) all belong to these words, and denote " quod est Profundum." 
It is marvellous, that he did not produce among these words the Greek 
P0TAM05, (rioTa/xos, fluvius,) which means, as we now see, the Low 
Spot or Channel, the Bottom or Bed in which the River flows. In 
this phrase, "The Bed of a River,'' the term Bed is brought to its 
original spot and primitive idea. In Scotch we have the form Boddum, 
which denotes a Bottom, Hollow, Valley. The English Etymologists 
under Bottom have likewise justly reminded us of the Greek Both/'o*, 
BoTHUNOs, and Buthos, (Bodpo^, Fovea, scrobs, Bodwo?, idem, Bvdos, 
Gurges, Profundum,) which bring us to Bussos, aBussos, uByssus, the 
aBvss, (Bi/cro-os, Fundum, imum maris, Al3v(r(ro<i, Abyssus.) In Bathw*, 
Bathos, (Ba6v9, Ba^ov,) we have the simpler form, and in Bathm/.?, 
Bathmos, (BaO/mi^, gradus, Basis, Bad/uLO^, gradus, limen,) we have 
the form BTM, the Bottom. Nathan Bailey explains Bottom by 
"The Ground of any thing; a Blossom or Bud," in which latter sense 
it denotes the Swelling up substance, as of Soft Bog Matter. — A Bottom 
of thread, "Glomus fili," is referred by Skinner to the French Bateau; 
where we have only to ask, whether it denotes the Swelliiig up substance, 
or means Thread wound about something, as about a Bottom or Base. 
In Arabic BetHi, and Beten, ^ Jo) occur in the same opening of 
Mr. Richardson's Dictionary, as signifying respectively "Low Lying, 


B,F,P,V,W.J C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,7i,r. 

Muddy Grounds," — " Low Ground." In the French and Scotch terms 
for the aByss or gulf, we have the form BSM, BSN, as gBysmc, 
Ahvne (Fr.) Bism, Bysyme, Bisnc, Bisme, as Dr. Jamieson represents 
them. In Welsh aFwYS is "a precipice, a bottomless gulph ; the deep," 
which Mr. Owen has referred to Pwys, ' the state of being put down, &c.' 
The term Bason, with its parallels Bassin, (Fr.) Becken, (Teut. Belg. 
&c.) Bac'ino, (Ital.) Bacia, Bacin, (Span.) must, I think, be directly 
referred to these words, as it appears to be used in its original sense, 
when we talk of " Water in a Canal or Bason," and the French BassiN, 
&;c. has a similar meaning of a Reservoir of JFater. I shall produce 
in a future page a Race of Words denoting Vessels, which have probably 
been derived from different senses. In Spanish Bacin is particularly 
applied, as the French term sometimes is, to the Pan of a close-stool, 
where we approach to the original idea. In my Spanish Dictionary 
I see, as an adjacent term, Bache "A mirey place in a road," and the 
term Bas, Base, in French, a Loiv place, will shew us the spot from 
which Bassin is derived. The BASsiNoi/e belongs to Bassin, and the 
Basson, the Bassoon, refers to the Base note. The term Basane, 
"Tawny, sun-burnt, of a swarthy complexion," means the Dark colour, 
like that of Dirt, the matter on the Bas Spot. 

The term Bosom with its parallels produced b}' the Etymologists, 

Bosm, (Sax.) Boesem, (Belg.) Busem, Busen, Buse, (Germ.) Sinus, 

gremium, so directly connects itself with the form Bottom, that we 

must conceive these terms to belong to each other under the idea of the 

Deep, Sinking in Spot. The explanatory word Simis signifies "The 

Hollow of any thing," and R. Ainsworth has explained it in one sense, 

by "The Bosom, or gulph of the Sea," where we have the true sense 

of the word Bosom, and this is the idea annexed to the German See- 

Busen, "Sinus maris," as Wachter explains it. — In BATUU-Kolpos, 

(BaSuKoXTTo^ , Profundum Sinum habens,) we observe a similar image, 

and here the Bath and Bos in Bathz«, (Ba^ys,) and Boso/?? belong to 

the same Element and idea. Wachter observes, that the Anglo Saxons 

use Bosm and Fcethm in the same sense, and he remarks moreover, 

that those, whose ears have been used to the changes of letters, will 


easily understand, how one may arise from the other; though he is far 
removed from any knowledge of the origin of the words ; as he derives 
FcETHM, from Fassen or Fatte}i Capere. He cannot help, however, 
perceiving, that these words have some affinity with Bessa, (B>;o-o-a, 
Convallis.) — In the following passage Bosom means no more than 
Bottom, "When I strike my foot upon the Bosom of the Ground, 
rush forward." (King John, Act 4. S. i.)— Beesom, with its parallels 
Besm, (Sax.) Basein, Besen, (Germ.) Bessem, (Belg.) Scopa, means 
that, which sweeps the Bottom or Ground. Skinner has arrived no 
nearer to the origin of this word than the Latin Perso ; but Wachter 
derives it from Butzen, Mundare; which is a very probable conjecture, 
and which I reject only because the forms of Beesom and Bottom 
appear to connect themselves so directly with each other. I shall shew 
that BvTzen means "To remove Dirt or Pudge." 

The Latin Vadum, "A ford, or shallow place in a river, where 
one may go over on Foot. The Sea. Also a Bottom," belongs, we 
now see, to these words Bottom, &c. and means the Spot through 
which you Wade in passing through a Jfater. — In these terms the sense 
of the JFuterij Spot is comprehended under the idea of the Ground or 
Bottom. Wade occurs in various Languages, JVudan, (Sax.) JVaden, 
&.C. (Belg.) IFadten, JFattcn, (Germ.) &c. which are produced by the 
Etymologists. We cannot but see how Water connects itself with 

Wade, which will be more fully illustrated in a different place The 

adjacent term to Wade in my Dictionary is Waddle, which is derived 
from the unsteady motion in passing over Washy — Marsh Land. Vado, 
we know, directly belongs to Vadmw, and it is understood, how Vado 
connects itself with the English terms Wade and Fade. — The Latin 
Fastigium seems to belong directly to the Bottom, &c. and R. Ains- 
worth has explained it in one sense, by "The Bottom, or Depth, as 
of a Pity This may be the original idea, and the sense of Height 
may be derived from it. Hence it may be, that Fastus and Fasto^ms 
relate to "Haughtiness, pride, arrogance, &c. ;" as R. Ainsworth 
explains the former word, where Haughtiness, brings us to Height for 
a similar reason. Under this idea, VASTigium and Fossa directly belong 

16 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Y,Z.| l,m,n,r, 

to each other, " Forsitan et Scrobibus quae sunt Fastigia quaeras;" or 
as it might have been expressed by kindred words " Forsitan et Fossw 
quae sunt FAST?^fa quceras." 

The English term Fathom, Fadom, as Skinner expresses it, with 
the parallel words Fcethm, (Sax.) Fadem, (Germ.) &c. Fadem, (Belg.) 
" Mensura sex pedum, Belg. Vademen, utraque manu expansa metiri," 
are only different forms of Bottom. — This relation has not been perceived 
by the Etymologists, though Skinner cannot help seeing that these terms, 
in the sense of a measure, have some relation to the Greek sPitham-c, 
(^TTidafxt], Spithama, spatium inter pollicem et minimum digitum ex- 
pansum.) In the English term "To Fathom the Depth of any thing," 
the original sense of Depth, as relating to the Loiv Watery Spot, "To 
Sound the Bottom of a Water," is fortunately preserved; and we see, 
how the sense of the Measure in general is derived from it. But in the 
Greek word this application of the idea of Measm^e is lost, and unless 
the parallel terms to it had existed, we should in vain have endeavoured 
to discover its original notion, and to connect it with the sense of our 
Elementary Character. — Wachter has two articles, in one of which 
Fadem, Faden, denotes the Measure, and in another Filum. Though 
he does not refer them to each other, he derives both of them from Fassen, 
Capere. The term Fadem, the Thread, might have originally denoted 
the Fathom/'wjO- Measure, or Line, and then a Line or Thread in general ; 
yet whatever may be their point of union, we cannot doubt that by 
some process they belong to each other. Wachter, under the term 
denoting the Thread, cannot help observing, " Mira interim convenientia 
est inter frustum vocis FleSoi//' Pedon et Faden. But there is another 
article, in which Faden occurs, where it actually denotes the Jf'atery 
BoDEN or Bottom, " Faden Nass, alia dialecto BAD-iVass, h. e. Madi- 
dus tanquam ex balneo, sicut VYvrz-Nass Madidus tanquam ex palude," 
where let us note the kindred term. Bad, the Bath, and Pfutz, which 
my Lexicographer, as I before observed, explains by " A Puddle, lake, 
slough, Bog, plash, quagmire, hollow Pit." The words preceding and 
succeeding this term are Pfuscher and Pfuy, the former of which my 
author explains by " A Spoil -trade. Bungler, Huddler," that is, the 


person, who Muddles a business, as we express it; and the latter by 
our corresponding interjection Ft/, which seems to mean the Foul— 
PuDGE thing, or as it is expressed in Latin, by a kindred term Proh ! 
PuDo/-/ Whether the Elementary form PD, &c. is derived from the 
simple Labial form ?\ B% &c. must be considered on another occasion. 
Remote as the Greek Fatne, (Oarvj;, Prnesepe,) the Manger, appears 
from the sense of these words ; and however probable the conjecture 
of some may appear, who derive it from Feed, &c. yet still, as I 
imagine, it must be referred to the words before us, the Faden, &c. 
under the idea of the Pit- like Spot, the Hollow, &c. The Greek <^aTvn 
is explained by " Praesepe, Laquear, sc. in Praesepis formam excavatum. 
" Sed (^uTvai vel ^arviai — sunt etiam loculamenta dentium," and the 
term YxT's-omata, ^arvwfxara, is explained by ''Lacunaria, Laquearia. — 
" ^arvw^xa, Mandibulum. Ph. Alveolus dentis." We here see that one 
sense of these words is that of the Sockets, or Pits of the Teeth, 
which in Latin are called Alveoli, belonging to Alveus, "The Channel 
or Bottom of a River," and in the sense of Lacunaria, we are directly 
brought to the Lacuna, "A Ditch, wherein water standeth, a Puddle, 
or Dike ; a furrow, a trench for a drain," to which belongs the word 
Lacuno, "To Pit, to fret, to chamfer, to gutter, to work with fret 
work." It is acknowledged that Laquear, the High vaulted fretted 
Roof belongs to the Lacuna, the lowly Ditch, and the Pit, Puddle, &c. ; 
and thus we at once see, in the commencement of our enquiry, how 
the humble objects of the Pit — the Puddle, &c. &c. may supply the 
names for things, which are apparently most remote from so lowly 
an original. This sense of Jjaquear, the High vaulted Roof, &c. as 
referred to Lacuna will again shew us, how Fastigium, Fathom, and 
Bottom may belong to each other. 

In Welsh Pyd signifies "That sinks in or falls, a Pit, a snare, 
" danger," as Mr. Owen explains it, — V\Datv, " An oozing fluid ; a quag ; 
" a well, or spring," which shews the genuine idea, and which brings 
us to PuTC«s, &c. — Pyd//, "To Sink; to cause a sinking; to form 
"a snare, to create danger; to endanger; to become dangerous." The 
preceding term to this in Mr. Owen's Dictionary is Pydru, "To rot, 



B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,v,r. 

" to Putrify, to corrupt," which under other forms is Pwd, Pwdr, Podyr, 
" A Rot ; the Rot in Sheep ; Rotten, corrupt, Putrid, — Powdery, 
" Mouldering," where let us mark the term Putrzc?, attached to the Latin 
PutrzV/ms, and Powder, which brings us to Poudre, (Fr.) and observe, 
that the French word does not belong to the form PL. We here see, 
how Powder, which denotes Dust in general in its dry state, is yet 
derived from the prevailing sense of the Element, — that of Putrid, or 
Pudge Matter. — Fossa is the ditch, to which we know there is a verb 
attached Fooere. In Welsh Fos is " A Ditch, a mote, a trench," — 
Fosi, " To make a trench or dyke," and Vosawd, " A gash ; a stroke, 
or cut, with a sword," the sense of which latter word agrees w^th 
the use of FoDio, "To Stick or stab," and Yomco, "To pierce or 
bore." In Mr. Shaw's Galic and Irish Dictionary we have Pit, which 
he explains by "A Hollow, Pit," and to this he adds another sense, 
corresponding to that of the Italian Fossa, which John Florio explains 
in one part of his interpretation by " Pleasure-Vvr, Nonny Nonny," &c. 
where the commentators on Shakspeare will mark Nonny Nonny, 
which they at present only imperfectly understand. Adjacent to the 
term Fossa in John Florio's Dictionary I see " Fosca, "Duskie, glomy, 
thick, and darke, mistie. Foggy," &c. which belongs to the Fossa, 
and means what is of a Dirt hue. The parallel terms we know are 
Yuscus, which brings us to Fuc?/s, the daub, Fuko^, (4>fKos,) the 
Daub, and Faios, quasi Faj-o.9, (<I>aios, Fuscus.) Let us mark another 
kindred term in the explanatory word Foggy. The Latin Tvcus, the 
Drone, is the File Sluggish Creature. — The term Pit, Lacuna, with 
its parallels produced by the Etymologists Pit, Pitt, (A. S.) Pet, Put, 
(Belg.) Puzze, (Fr. Th.) Puif, (Fr.) Pozzo, (Ital.) Puteus, (Lat.) &c. 
belongs to this race of words denoting the Low Spot, and in the sense 
of a Well we unequivocally see the idea of the JFatery, or Pudgy Spot. 
The Etymologists have justly reminded us of Buth?os, (By^tos, Pro- 
(fundus,) and Yorizo, (IloTi^w,) which belongs to the idea of the Pudge, 
Watery, Liquid Spot, and from hence it is referred to what is Liquid 
in general, with the accidents attached to it. Among other applications 
of the term Pit, there is one, where the idea of the fVatcry Spot does 


not appear, but where we see only the sense of the Loiv Spot, or 
Ground, as the Pit of a Phiy-House. The French hkewise call that 
part of a Theatre the Parterre, (Par Terre,) the Ground Spot. The 
Commentators on Shakspeare have justly observed, that in the middle 
of the public Theatres in the time of our Poet, " There was an open 
" Yard, or Area, where the common people stood to see the exhibition; 
" from which circumstance they are called by our Author Groundlings, 
" and by Ben Johnson, The under-standing gentlemen of the Ground^ 
(Malone's Historical Account of the English Stage, p. 59.) Mr. Malone 
adds in a note "The Pit Dr. Percy supposes to have received its name 
" from one of the Play-Houses having been formerly a CocA'-Pit. The 
" place where the seats are ranged in St. Mary's at Cambridge," (or as 
he should have said, the place on the Floor of St. Mary's Church, 
where seats are ranged for a certain order of the University, while the 
other orders are placed in situations above the Ground,) " is still called 
" the Pit, and no one can suspect that venerable fabric of having ever 
" been a Cock-Pit, or that the phrase was borrowed from a Play- House 
"to be applied to a Church. The Pit is a place Low in its relative 
" situation, and such is the middle part of a Theatre." The Spanish 
Pat?'o is used in a similar manner for the Loiver situation in any Building, 
and my Lexicographer explains it by "Court, an open Space in front 
"of a house or behind it. Pit in Play-Houses. — Hall in Universities, 
" Academies, or Colleges." In Don Quixote we have Patio del Castillo, 
the Castle Court. The Dutch Bak contains the various senses in Pit, 
Basow, and Fatwc, {^arvti,) as likewise that of the Boat, which will 
unequivocally shew, that my conception on the origin of these words 
is well founded. The term Bak means, as my Lexicographer explains 
it, " A Wooden Bowl, Trough. — The Middlemost part of a Coach- 
" waggon," which corresponds to the Norfolk sense of Boke, in the 
BoKE or Body of a Waggon. — "The Pit in a Play-House. — A Manger, 
" Basox of a Fountain. — A ferry Boat." I see in the same page of 
my Dutch Dictionary Bak-Beest, " A massy bulk, a thing of a huge 
" lioness," where we have the idea of what Rises or Swells up. 
Capacious, &c. — Bad, A Bath, Bag/«'o, and Baggc/-, Alud, where 

c 2 


B, F, P, V, W. I C, D, G, J, K, Q, S, T, X, Z. \ I, m, n, r. 

we are brought to the very idea supposed in my hypothesis. The original 
idea of the Latin Faux Faucw, the Jaws, is the Fossa, or Hollow, as 
in its sense of" the straits, or narrow passages between Hills," and " the 
" mouth of a River," in which latter sense we see the true notion. 
John Florio explains the Italian Foce by " the mouth of a River, the 
" closing of Vallies; a Hole, a Ditch, and also the gullet of one's throat, 
" an outlet into the sea." To this idea belongs the Latin Foc«^, the 
Low, or Hollow Spot, containing the Fire, the Hearth, as we call it, 
which belongs to the Earth or Ground. Thus we see, how Focus, 
Faux, Faucw, and Fossa belong to each other. 

We have seen that the term Fed is applied to the Bed of a River, 
where it is used in its original sense, and it is likewise brought to the 
Ground, when it is applied to a Bed in the Garden. The great Teutonic 
Bard has surrounded this term with imagery, which belongs to its 
primitive spot, in the following passage, " I wish myself were Mudded 
" in that Oozy Bed, Where my son lies." The term Bed is now, we know, 
used for the place of rest, and it appears in various Languages, under 
that sense, as in Bed, (Sax.) Bedde, (Belg.) Bett, (Germ.) Bad, (Goth.) 
Bett, Pet, (A Franc, and Alam. &c. &c.) produced by the Etymologists. 
Some have seen, that these words belong to Booen, and others have 
noted the compounds graBATUs, Stipadium, or stip-Y\Dium, BvDastoria, 
&c. Wachter has produced Bedd, denoting Sepulcrum, according to 
the Welsh use of this word. He likewise produces the German com- 
bination BEDD-iJie^e, which corresponds with our phrase Bed -Rid, 
"homo diuturno morbo lecto affixus," the latter part of which com- 
bination Rid he refers to Ricse, Caducus a Riesen, Cadere. In Welsh 
the same combination, as it should seem, takes place, as BEz-Rawd, 
which Mr. Owen explains by "A sepulchre ; a burying-place," from 
Bez, the Sepulchre, and Rhawd, " A way, course, &c." If these 
combinations belong to each other, we must seek for the true inter- 
pretation, as I imagine, in the Welsh Dialect, where the materials of 
the composition are known, and not in the Teutonic Dialects, where 
all is conjecture. The BED-Rid person signifies probably the object ready 
for the Grave, the Capularis, Tvn^o^epwv, &c. 


Some of the Welsh Lexicographers have justly referred us under 
Bez or Bedd, to the Hebrew r\^2 BIT, which denotes, says Mr. Park- 
hurst, " Capacity, power of receiving or contaimng, room, place, A Bath, 
" the largest measure of capacity, next to the Homer. — Boxes to hold 
" perfumes, — Capacities — f allies of Capacities. A House. — A Den for 
*' wild beasts. — A nest for birds. — A Temple." The original idea of the 
word occurs, when it is applied to Vallies, or the Dens of Beasts, as 
denoting the Low Hollow Pit, or Bed on the Ground. This term 
has its parallels, denoting a House, Lodgi?igs, &c. in the Dialects of 
the Chaldee, Samaritan, Syriac, Arabic, and -/Ethiopic. In Arabic Bit 
means among other things, a Sepulchre, directly answering in sense 
to the Welsh term. — We may commonly expect to find in a race of 
parallel words, that the Artibic and Welsh Languages exhibit their 
terms under a similar application of the fundamental idea. I observed 
this coincidence very early in my study of Languages ; while I was 
employed in reading a few chapters of the Alcoran, and the Welsh 
Prayer Book. — In Hebrew nriD PC/^T signifies as a Noun, "A Pit, 
" Foss," says Mr. Parkhurst, but in Arabic it means as a verb, " To 
" cut, cut in," and in Syriac, " To Dig, Dig up." The preceding term 
is "ina PC//R, A Potter, where we are brought to the Plastic materials 
of Pudge. Mr. Parkhurst has referred to this Hebrew word nnD PC^T, 
the terms Pit, Putcms, and Puits, (Fr.) The combination Paddan- 
Aram is commonly rendered by "Mesopotamia Syrias ;" where Ara7n 
stands for Syria, as denoting the Desert, because a great portion of 
it was in this state, but Paddan represents that part, which was fertile 
and well watered. Here Paddan or Pad is the Potam, as it appears 
in the explanatory term Messo-VoTAM-ia, the Pedon, (HeSoj/,) or Boden 
in its original sense of the ffatery Spot ; that perhaps, which lay between 
the two rivers, as some conceive it to be. [Bochart. Geograph. p. 76.) 
But whatever be the precise spot intended, such is the force of the 
Eastern Paddan. The Pad assuredly contains the idea, annexed to 
these words, and the Hebrew Scholars have only to decide, whether 
the Den be significant. Some have supposed, that the Hebrew aBaddon, 
(A/3a8Swj/, piax) means the oBtss, "Conclavium inferni infiraum," 


B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

and hence in the Apocalypse aBADDON is applied to 'O AyYeAos t>;s 
Afiucra-ou. The term is said likewise of the Receptacle of the Dead, 
" De Sepulchro, Inferno loco in quo esse et versari manes Judaei 
" opinabantur," in which senses we see a kindred term in the explanatory 
word aByss, and meanings corresponding to the Bottom or Boden 
part. In the sense of " Pernicies, vastatio, interitus, perditio, mors," 
it denotes the Base or Bad state. (See Schleusner's Lexicon, stib voce.) 

Sanscrit Terms, Sfc. 

Among the Hindostanee names for a Bed I find in Messrs. Gilchrist 
and Roebuck's Dictionary BicH-hiiona, BiSTura, Bisaf, of a Garden, 
BiGHEE, of a River, — Pet. For Bog I find Phusao, and for Boggle 
Puso-Pesh, where the Element is doubled to give it greater force, 
y^o-fl-PEECHHA-K, and To Ooze is Fuseejna, PicH-Picnawa. We have 
seen, that in Sanscrit Yasa or Vasta- Det^a is the Goddess of the Earth, 
which brings us to the Latin Vesta-Diva, or Dea, and again in that 
Language the Byse Tribe means the Base or Lower tribe, as the 
Proprietors of Lands, Merchants, &c. The Sanscrit Scholars have seen 
the coincidence between these Goddesses, and they have noted the 
ceremony called YkSTX-piija, at once belonging to Earth and to Fire. 
This brings us to the idea of the Hearth, the Estia, {Ea-ria, Focus, 
Lar, Domus. Vesta Dea, Sedes,) the Low Spot, the Base, &c. as of 
a House, &c. and that this Radical sense belongs to the Sanscrit term 
will be manifest from Mr. Colebrook's observation, who informs us, 
that the word Vasta signifies, "not the Habitable Earth in general, 
" but the Site of a House, or other edifices in particular," (J^Ioor's Hindu 
Pantheon, p. 113.) The Great Deity Vishnu sometimes called Bishen, 
&c. &c. belongs to this race of words under the form BDn, and means 
the Ground, as referred to a Low-IFatery Spot, the Bisne, aBYSM, 
Bottom, &c. The Greek Poseidon, {Yloareilwv ,) Posdon, Posn, &c. 
and Vishnu, are the same ; and the Latin Neptune appears to be a 
compound of Nep or CNep and Ptunc; yet on the composition of 
this word there is some difficulty. I am however almost satisfied, that 


the part Ptune, Potune, &c. belongs to Posdon. The Hindu Scholars 
themselves will confirm my origin of the Sanscrit word, when they 
inform us, that " Vishnu is sometimes the Earth, he is WAxer, or 
" the Humid principle generally ; hence he is Air, which the Hindus 
" know to be a form of Humidity y" {Moor's Pantheon, p. l6.) In a 
variety of stories relating to Vishnu, that Deity is connected with JVater. 
" It is related," says Mr. Wilford, " in the Scanda Purana, that when 
" the whole Earth was covered with JFixter, and Vishnu lay extended 
** asleep on the Bosom of Devi, a Lotos arose from his navel, and its 
" ascending flower soon reached the surface of the Flood." (Id. p. 17.) 
The Lotos is called in Sanscrit Pedma, where we again see the Plant 
of the watery Bottom, or Potamos, (IloTajuos,) Podamme, &c. This 
Plant is a perpetual attendant upon Vishnu. His Wife Lakshmi is 
called Padma, PaDma/a, VxDMA-Devi, and he himself is styled Padma- 
Nahha, Yxnuxksha, as likewise Pitamba, which have all the same 
Radical idea, under kindred forms with his own name Vishnu, the 
Deity belonging to the Low, Watery, Boden, or Bottom, [Moors 
Pantheon, p. 137. 154. 57. 133. 73.) There is a sublime idea respecting 
Vishnu, when he is represented as reclining amidst the vast generating 
Ooze or Bottom of the Ocean, " willing and contemplating the creation 
" of the world." (Id. 26.) The place of bliss or Paradise, among the 
Hindoos, is called YxiKOJitha, where Vaik still denotes the Watch/, 
Pleasant Fertile Spot, and Kontha signifies Place, as in County, Country, 
&c. Cthon, (X^wi/,) Can-Ton, Town, &c. Through the whole compass 
of Language the Elementary Character Dj-//, denotes the Earth, the 
Ground, &c. &c. {Fid. Prelim. Dissert, to Etym. Univers. p. 100.) and 
I shall shew, that the original idea, annexed to this Element, is that of 
Earth in a Mud state, as CoiNw;;/. The Kontha may relate to this 
more appropriate and original sense. 

Mr. Moor observes, that "the Paradise or celestial abode of Vishnu 
" is called Vaikontha, where he enjoys Beatitude in the Elysium of 
" Lacshmi's Lap," and again he informs us, that Paradise is sometimes 
described " in the IFatcrs under the Earth. Vaikontha is sometimes 
" placed in a subterraneous Sea of Milk." (23.) The sentence, which 


B, F, P, V, \V. } C, D, G, J, K, Q, S, T, X, Z. | /, m, n, r. 

is here produced, is well worthy of our attention. The term Beatitude 
which belongs, as we know, to Beatws, is the appropriate term for 
the idea conveyed, and I shall shew that Beatm« denotes the Wxrery, 
Fertile Soil. I shall likewise shew, that a similar idea appears in 
Ykvstus, TfEcioidns, and FACundiis, FAxfm, as in " Nutrit rura Ceres, 
" almaque Faustitas," — Terra FcECUNt/a, Fcecun</«w?, solum ^gypti 
Specus FcECUNDUs aquis, &c. &c. Another of these words appears 
in our term Foison, where we actually see the idea of Moisture, and 
it is applied to the prolific Ooze of the Nile, " when Dearth and 
" FoisoN follow." Let us remember that Fat?/« is likewise a name 
for the Goddess of the Earth. In the following description of the 
Grecian Y xi^ontha, the term Beat;/s is applied in its true sense, " De- 
" venere locos Lsetos, et amoena vireta, Fortunatorum nemorum sedesque 
" Beatas." Let us note Amoeniis, which I shall shew to belong to 
Amnis for the same reason, and Lcetus a parallel term, is, we know, 
actually applied to Oozy Matter, Slime, Slush, if I may so say, &c. &c. 
as in the well known application, " Pinguis humus, dulcique Uligine 
" Lcefa." Under the form LT, LS, &c. we have such terms as 
" Luxuriant, Luck, Luscious, Letch, Lust, Lusty, Lush," (" How 
" Lush and Lusty the grass looks,") (Eng.) Loetus, (Lat.) &c &c, and 
all belonging to Lutum, ^Lush, &c. Hence we have the name of 
Lacshmi, sometimes written Letchemy, the wife of the Deity, now 
under consideration. When a vowel breathing precedes the "L we 
have Uligo, Vui^Ysium, Eleusw, Elos, Ilus, and hence Ulc, ELoiow, 
Oil, (E/\os, Palus, Wvs, Limus, YA>/, INLiteria, EXaiov, OhEUjn.') In 
Ohiva, Ohive, the labial sound succeeds the L, and when the vowel 
breathing is lost before the L, we have the form LM, LV, and hence 
we have Limus, belonging to sLime, as likewise Lap, Lip, Labial, 
Leibo, (Aet/3a)), &c. attached to sLop, sLip, &c. &c. In Milton, 
Elysium itself has a Lap " Who as they sung would take the imprisoned 
•* soul and Lap it in Elysium." When we talk of a Soft Lap, 
*' Lap me in Soft Lydian airs," we bring the word to the idea of the 
original matter, from which it is taken. It is by this secret charm, that 
kindred words are collected in impressive sentences, and hence it is, 


that personifications are formed, with their various appendages of in- 
cident, fable, &c. &c. If we should say, that the Sanscrit Vaikontha 
and the Latin Fcecundms exhibit compounds of a similar kind, we should 
not, I imagine, be very distant from the truth. That my conjecture 
respecting the origin of the name of the Goddess Lakshmi is not 
altogether remote from the fact will be evident from the authority of 
the adepts in Hindoo Literature. Mr. Moor is struck with the simi- 
larity of Sanskrit words to terms in European Languages, which he has 
illustrated, "among hundreds of others," as he says, by five Examples. 
The " word Lasksh in Sanskrit," from whence the name Lakshmi, 
or LuxMi is derived, " has the meaning of Lux, as well as of Luck, 
" Luxury^ He adds likewise, that " Aswa and Baswa, are Horse 
" and Bull, Bos, and pronounced not very unlike those words. Aksha 
" is Ox; and Gow, a Cow."' {Hind. Panth. p. 131.) That the Letch 
in the name of this Goddess LExcHC/wy bears the same meaning, which 
appears in our words Letch, Lust, &c. will be manifest from the 
following passages in the Ayeen Akbery, (Vol. L p. 297-8.) — " God 
" manifested himself under the form of a Woman, who is called Maha- 
" LKTCumeen. — Then Maha-h^Tcwnecn will'd that the Lusts of the 
" Flesh should operate." Before I quit this name for the Goddess of 
Felicity, &c. I cannot help observing, that in Galic Luchmhaire, is , 
" Abundance," the origin of the first part of which word — the Luck 
will be manifest from the succeeding term to this in Mr. Shaw's Galic 
Dictionary, which is Lvcnthaire, "A gulph, whirlpool." — In Sanskrit 
FATTdla means Hell, where the Patt denotes the Pit. I see in Gilchrist's 
llindoostance Dictionary for Hell, Putal/oA', Pakh, and in Swedish 
we have Putten, bearing the same meaning, the sense of which will 
be manifest from a word occurring in the preceding column of Widegren's 
Dictionary, — Puss, "Puddle, Plash." In the Swedish Language like- 
wise HcI-Yete is Hell, where the Swedish Hel and the English He// 
belong to each other, denoting the Hole, and Vete means the Pit, &c. 
Hence are derived the Hel-YzTii, the people living in the Low-Marsliy 
Spot, and the term HcI-Voet Sluys. 



B,F,P,Y,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S.T,X,Z.f /,/«,«, r. 

▼VoRDS, relating to the Base, or Pedo/z, (rieSoi/,) &c. M^hich 
express Motion on its surface by the member appropriate to that action, 
the Foot, &c. 

Foot, Fotus, Fode," Fuss, 

Pes, Pedis, Pous, Podos, 8cc. (Eiig. Goth. 

Sax. Germ. Lat. Gr. Scc.) 
VESTigium, (Lat.) Footsteps. 
Pad, Pass, Passer, Stc. (Eng. Lat. Fi. 

&c. &.C.) 
Path, Pfad, Sic. (Eng. Germ. &c.) 
Pascha, the PASS-ove/v, (Heb. Eng.) 

PEolar, Pat/o/, VAirouille, &c. (Eng. Fr.) 
Bad/20, PnoiTrto, PATeo, &c. (Gr.) To Go, 

Pass, Tread, 8cc. 
Vado, (Lat.) To go. 
Vad//Wj (Lat.) the Ford, through which men 

Pa, Pae, Pachc, &c. (Pers.) ilie Foot, 

&C. &.C. &.C. &.C. 

I shall consider in the present Article those terms, which relate 
to the Base, or Ground, as denoting Motion upon its surface, by the 
member, appropriate to that action, or those terms, which express 
the action of Padd//?o- about the Pedo//, (Ylelov,^ by the Feet. Among 
the terms, containing this train of ideas, we must class the following. 
Foot, with its parallels collected by the Etymologists, Fotus, (Goth.) 
Fot, (Sax.) Fode, Foed, (Dan.) Joet, (Belg.) Fuss, (Germ.) Footur, 
(Isl.) Pous, Podos, (Gr.) Pes, Pedis, (Lat.) Pied, (Fr.) Piede, (Ital.) 
Pie, (Span.) &c. where the second Consonant of the Radical is lost, 
Ped, (Welsh and Armor.) Skinner has produced under these words 
the Greek Phoitoo, (^oiraw, Ito,) and some Etymologists have derived 
Fedou, (rieSor) from Pous, P0D05, (nob's, FIoSos,) the relation of which 
words to each other will be allowed by all, whatever may be the 
order in the process of derivation. — Peza, (Ile^a, Malleolus Pedis, 
Planta Pedis,') which the Lexicographers have written, as a Root; 
though it is directly adjacent to Vedou, (Ue^ov.) Some have duly- 
seen that T/'A-Peza, (TpuTre^a, Mensa, is the Three-VooTed utensil, 
as in Tn'-Pous, Tri-YoDOS, the TH-Pod, (Tpnrov^, Sos,) another species 
of utensil. PiETmer means in French " To strike the ground several times 
" with one's Foot," — Pieto??, a Toot- Soldier, — PiETcr, " To bowl from 


" the place agreed upon," which relates to the Spot, marked out by 
the Foot, an adjacent word to which is PiExre, " Paltry, sorry, 
" Dirty, &c. where we are brought to the spot, on which the Foot 
treads. Pet«soh, and Vktuso, {UeTua-iov, Perna,) belong to the Foot, 
&c. — Bad in Balic means the Foot. (^Asiatic Researches, Vol. II. p. 24. 
ed. 8vo.) — Basis, (Bao-ts, Gressus, gradus, incessus. Pes, planta Pedis, 
fulcimentum,) not only signifies the Base of the Ground, but likewise 
a Step or Pace, and the Foot. In the same column of my Greek Vo- 
cabulary, in which this word occurs, we have BAssflrm, (^aa-a-apa, 
genus calceamenti,) a species of Shoe, with other senses, which will 
be explained in their due places, and Bastow, (Batrror, Calceus,) which 
names will remind us of terms for the same object, as Pax, (Oa^, 
Calceamenti genus indutu facile,) Baxca, (Lat.) and PnAiKas/o?/, (Ji>aiKa- 
(TLOv, Calceamenti genus Atticum, dictum Kor/tTroi/?,) the Pie-Poudre, 
as we might call it, or the Pudge-Foot, Shoe. — VESTigiiwi, which the 
Etymologists have explained by " Signa Pedwwz," though they have derived 
it from Bestias agere, Vestis ago, " ut signet, qua Jestis Acta,'' &c.&c. 
YESTibuhtm, which is acknowledged to belong to Vesta, the Ground, 
though it is not easy to define the precise meaning of each part of 
the compound. The Buhim however appears to belong to Bclos, 
and Pelos, (B>//\os, Limen domus, vel templi, quod calcatur, n^Ao?, 
Limus,) and the whole compound seems to be the Bulum, the Threshold 
or Dirt part, trodden by the Vest, or Feet, Voet, &c.— Piste, (Fr.) 
" Track, Foo/step." Poach, (Eng.) "To Tread with the Feet, as in 
" the expression, the cattle Poach the Land." The PoAcner is the 
person, who Poaches or Pads about the Land, here and there, for 
plunder, game, &c. Paut, (Grose's Provincial Glossary,^ " To kick, 
" as to Paut off the bed-clothes. Yorkshire." — Pote, (Id.) "To Pote 
" the clothes off, to throw or kick off the bed-clothes. North." VoTce. 
(Id.) "To PoTcc, to Push with one's Feet, Exm." The adjacent 
words in Mr. Grose's Dictionary to the latter terms are VoT-Diing, 
" Farm-yard dung, Berksh." And Powse, " Rubbish, or rubble. 
" North ;" where we are directly brought to the spot, supposed in my 
hypothesis; Poud, "A Boil or Ulcer," Powt, "a Hay Powt; a Hay 

D 2 

28 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,R,Q, S,T,X,Y, Z.| l,m,n,r. 

" cock," PooK, "a cock of Hay or Barley, West;" where we have 
the Foul Pudge Mass or Matter rising or swelling up, and a Mass 
or Heap in general rising up. I see likewise Powx, " To Stir up, 
and PoTCH, " To Poke, or Push suddenly," and I shall shew in another 
place, that all the terms under our Element, bearing the same sense 
as Push, mean ' To Pudge into, up, or about,' &c. if I may so say, 
that is. To Stick into, Stir up, &c. the Pudge, or Dirt, whether by 
the Feet, or by other means. — ^ASTern, which N. Bailey explains by 
" the Hollow of a Beast's heel, that part of a horse's foot under the 
"Fetlock to the heel; also a shackle for a horse," and which the 
Etymologists have referred to the following parallel terms, Pasturon, 
Paturon, (Fr.) Pastora, Pasfoia ; (Ital.) where Skinner has observed, 
that the Italian words seem to be derived from Passare. The Fet/ocA' 
is acknowledged to belong to the Feet, and so is the Shackle under 
the name of Fetter. The Greek Pterna, (Urepva, Calx,) should perhaps 
be considered, as Paterna, the Pastern. The reader may perhaps 
wonder, that I should express any doubt on this point, until he is 
reminded, that the Element PR and PR// affords the same idea, as in 
sPhuron, (1.([)vpou, IVIalleolus pedis,) Pernio, (Lat.) sPurn, (Eng.) 
and thus Pterna may be quasi Perna. — Pattin, (Eng.) with its parallels 
Patin, Pattini, (Fr. Ital.) produced by the Etymologists, who perceive, 
that these words have some relation to Patco, {Ylarew.) The French 
verb PATiNer, "To skate, and To Paw, To handle roughly. To Fumble, 
" To Feel," at once belongs to the Feet, and the Paic or Hands. In 
Paw the second letter of the Radical is lost, but in Patte, (Fr.) " Paw, 
" Foot," of some animals,— Hand, Claws, &c. it is preserved.— Pad, 
(Eng.) Foot-Pad, to which term the Etymologists have justly referred 
Pad, the Horse, Mannus. An adjacent word to Pad in Skinner's Lexicon 
is Paddle, Rallum, which is justly compared with the Welsh Pattal, 
and the Greek Pattalos, (OaTTaAos, Palus,) though it might more 
aptly be compared with Pittulos, {UittvXo^, Sonus seu strepitus, 
qualis praesertim aqure remo percussre, &c.) where it is impossible not 
to see, that Paddle, Pittulos, &c. belong to Pash, and to the action 
of Striking upon Pudge or Puddle Matter. We see, how the terms 


for Strildng and for making an impression on the Ground, the Pedon 
(IleSoi/,) or Pudge, by moving over it, as Pad, Pass, Pash, Pat, Beat, 
Patco, (riaTeo),) Pat«sso, {YlaTacrcru}, Percutio,) may be considered 
as signifying 'To Pudge,' if I may so say, and thus 'To Pad about' 
is 'To Pudge, or Pash about.' In some words the idea of the Pudge 
matter has disappeared ; yet we cannot but perceive, when we consider 
their kindred terms, how we come back again to this fundamental idea. 
The other terms adjacent to Pad in Skinner are Paddoc/i, which means 
a part or piece of Pad, Pudge, or Land, Paddock, Padde, (Germ.) Toad, 
where Pad has the same meaning, as in Pad the substantive, the Bundle, 
or Pack, denoting the Pudge — Lumpy Substance ;—Pad/ocA', where 
Pad may denote the Shackle, as belonging to pETTer, Ped^cq, &c. or 
it may mean the Lumpij, Large kind of Lock. In the Musical Farce 
bearing the name of the Vxulock, Mungo describes it, if I remember, 
as a Thumper. — Page, (Eng.) Page, Pagg'io, (Fr. and Span, Ital.) the 
Toorniaii, who Pads about. — Path, with its parallels. Path, Pceth, (Sax.) 
Pad, Pat, (Belg.) Pfad, &c. produced by the Etymologists, who have 
here justly reminded us of Pato^, Patco, (IlaTos, Trita Via, Semita, YlaTew 
Calco,) Pat(7sso, (Ylaracra-ui,^ and the Latin word "^xruerc, q. d. Via 
" Calcata, Trita," a BEAxe// way. Here we have another illustration, 
that Beat, Bat«o signified originally To Pad, or Beat on the Ground, 
as in the English expression, and in the French Batt^c le pave, &c. &c. 
These terms for Striking and Noise will be more fully considered in 
another place. — Pace, Pass, Passage, with the parallel terms, Pas, 
Passer, (Fr.) Passare, (Ital.) Passage, Passagio, (Fr. Ital.) Passus, (Lat.) 
Pnssio, (Welsh.) &c. &c. produced by the Etymologists, who have 
reminded us that in Hebrew nOii PSC// means Transire, to which the 
term Pascha belongs, and which we justly render by a kindred term, 
•' the PASS-oyer." In German we have sV\T7Jeren, To walk abroad, &c. 
which brings us to the form sYxTiari. sPArium, sPace, &c. We cannot 
well produce a more striking example of the wretched state of our 
Etymology, than by observing, that Skinner and Junius place Pass, 
Transire, and Pass, " well to Pass," opulentus, &c. in two separate 
articles, though the former Etymologist has seen, that these terms may 


B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.j l,m,n,r. 

belong to each other, under a most forced explanation, "Ego mallem 
" deducere ab alt. Pass," (Transire,) " Metaphora sc. a viis angustis, 
" periculosis Juxta pr£Ecipitia, sumta." Surely it is not necessary to 
observe, that "well to Pass," means, that a person Passes or Goes on 
well, as we express it. — To Pack away, " Abire, Discedere," means 
probably To Pass or go away. — VAGeant means the solemn Procession, 
which Passes before the view, and is not derived from the German 
JFagen, Currus, i. e. the Waggon, as Skinner imagines. PASsiw (Lat.) 
' may belong to Pando, 'PASSiiin, as the Etymologists suppose ; though 
it may be attached to Tassus, as denoting Pass?';?^ here and there. In 
Welsh Pas is explained in Mr. Owen's Dictionary by "That is expulsive, 
" that causes to Pass ; a Pass, an exit ; a cough ; a hooping-cough," 
where we have another proof, that the idea of Noise, expressed by this 
race of words, is annexed to the action of VAssing or Padd//?^ on the 
Ground. Again, in Welsh Paeth means " That forms a Course, that 

The terms Pas, (Fr.) and Passage are used in a peculiar sense in antient writers, 
^yhich I explained in a former Work, and which I shall again detail here. In the Poems 
attributed to Rowley, the following dialogue occurs between two of the combatants at a 
Tournament : 

Bourtofitie. I claym the Passage. 

Nevjjl/e. I contake thie waie. 

Bourtonne. " Thenn there's mie gauntlette onn mie gaberdyne." 

Passage, as I observe, is an appropriate term in the Language of Chivalry. — " Passage 
"of a man of armes, Pas." {Pa/grave's Fr, Gram. 1530. fol. 53.) So in Cotgrave's 
Dictionary we find "Pas, also a strait narrow Passage, or strait Path, "and such a 
"Passage kept by one or more Knighls against all commers, and thence also a Tournaif" 
(sub voce Pflj.) Passage is the appropriate term for • A Guarded and Defended Passage,' 
whether in matters of Chivalry, or on other occasions. Cassio, after he has been wounded, 
cries out, "What, ho! no Watch? no Passage? Murder! Murder! (Act. 5. Sc. 1.) 'Is there 
« no Guarded or Watched Passage kept here .' or in other words. Is there no Guard or 1{ atch 
'here?' This sense, as we may well imagine, is too remote for the view of our Commentators, 
and hence Dr. Johnson has explained it by " No Passenger ? Nobody going by ?" and Mr. 
Steevens quotes our author in the Comedy of Errors, "Now in the Stirring Passage of the 
" day." — It is not necessary, I think, to observe, that Chatterton had but little chance of under- 
standing a phraseology, which had escaped the diligence and the resources of Mr. Steevens 
or Mr. Malone. 


keeps in a D'ack, &c. the term next adjoining to which in Mr. Owen's 
Dictionary is Paetw, "Every side, round." We cannot doubt, that 
Paetu belongs to Paeth, and for the same reason it is, as I conceive, 
that Passim belongs to Passus. In the Pit of the Latin comVira, we 
Iiave again the Path, and in piilPirum the Pit means the Surface or 
Ground, bearing a similar meaning to the Ped in epiVzuon, (eTrtTreSoj/,) 
by which term the ancient Glossarists explain pu/FiTum, (^Pulpitum, 
QvfxeXtj, a-avihwfxa eTrnreSov.^ The Pul means the Raised up spot, originally 
belonging to Pe/os, (Flf/Aov,) and it has a similar meaning to the same 
Pu/, in the adjoining words Pidpa, Puis, Puhnentum, Puhno, the Rising 
up — Swelling out substances, as of Mud-matter. — Ped/«/% (Eng.) has 
been understood to belong to the Foot, &c. but the Pat/'o/, TATrouiile, 
VATrouiller, " To tread in the Mud, or in a Muddy place," has been 
supposed by some to belong to Platea ; though Menage supposes, that it 
is another form of Vxroui/Ier, " Touiller avec la Pate." The same 
writer however derives Pate from Platus, in which the French Etymo- 
logists appear to agree. — Bados, Badcw, Bad/j;o, Basko, Baino, perhaps, 
quasi B.\J)io, Toirao, Patco, (BaSos, Iter, gressus, Ba^tjv, Pedetentim, 
Badt^io, Vado, eo, Bao-fcw, Tado, Baiuco, Gradior, (^oiTaw, Ito, frequento, 
riaTeo), calco.) Beto, Bit?o, (ancient Latin words,) Vado, (Lat.) &c. 
all signify "To Pad about." From Beto, Bet/o, Ire, are formed the 
compounds «c?Bito, co???BrTo, &;c. and hence, says Festus, " Birienses 
dicuntur, qui assidue peregrinantur." Vado is acknowledged to belong 
to the y.\Dum, the Low Watery Spot, through which people Wade. 
Way, (Eng.) with its parallels produced by the Etymologists, Fot/e, (Fr.) 
Fia, (Lat.) Jguia, (^Ayvia,^ ^^<^g> (Sax. and Germ.) //^c/?, &c. (Belg.) 
Puog, (Fr. Th.) Vicus, (Lat.) &c. &c. Some of these terms will bring 
us to a race of words, in which the Boggy Spot appears. In the same 
opening of my Lexicon, where Way is found, I see Wave, iraver, parallel 
terms to which are to be found under the form WG, as Jf'cpg, (Sax.) 
Waeghe, (Belg.) fague, Wagian, IFaeghcn, Movere, Vacillare, where 
the Etymologists justly refer us to Wag, and Waddle. From hence 
we pass to Vagwc, Vagws, VxGahond, V^acillo, Waggle, and Boggle, 
where we are directly brought to the Bog. The terms, which more 


B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n, 

particularly belong to the Boggy Spot I consider on another occasion, 
and I only produce in this place those terms, which more especially 
relate to Motion on such a surface. In YoYuge, (Fr.) ''Travel, Journey, 
" Voyage, travel by Sea," we perceive how the word reverts to the 
IFafery spot, when it denotes, as in English, a journey by Water. In 
the verb Budge, (Eng.) BouGer, (Fr.) to which we annex the idea 
of something Ridiculous or Contemptible, we have the image of a Coarse, 
unsteady. Bog like motion if I may so say. Adjacent to the French 
Boiiger, we have Bouge, " A Di?^ti/ House or room," as my Lexicographer 
explains it, where we directly see the sense of Filth, and in Bougie, 
the Wax-Candle, &c. Bougee, (in its Surgical application,) we have 
the idea of the SweIIi?ig out substance. Nathan Bailey explains "To 
" Bouge out, To Stick out." The Budge, denoting the Bag or Pouch, 
has the same meaning of the Swelling out Substance. 

In examining the Welsh words, belonging to the Fed, the Pedair, 
the Foot, Four, which are numerous, I cast my eyes on Pedol, Ped- 
BUSAW, Pedi, Pedu, Pedestryz, Pedestyr, Pedair, on which 1 shall 
make some brief remarks. The term Pedol is explained by "What 
" is under a Foot; a Pedal; a shoe of a horse, or other animal," to 
which term the Greek Pedilo« belongs, (Ue^iXov, Calceus, talare,) 
which my Lexicographer places as a Root, though it appears within 
a few words in the order of his Vocabulary of Pedo??, (IleBoi/.) In 
Gipsey ^ETXi^-Engro is a Farrier, and Gre sko Petalles is a ' Horse- 
' Shoe.' The term Engro means //;, 'Engaged In, Concerned ///,' and 
is added to Substantives for the purpose of expressing the occupation 
of a person, as Cacave-Engro, a Tinker, i. e. a Person employed In 
Kettles, &c. &c. The term Gre or Gri is a Horse, and sko is the post 
positive article denoting Of. Mr. Hadley expresses the Horse's mouth 
by ' Ghoorau kau moo,' in his Hindostanee Dialogues. My Lexicographer, 
Mr. Owen, explains V^mnisaw, by "To start aside, to hesitate, to doubt, 
" to scruple," which may belong to the Fed, the Foot, as denoting 
' To Start out of the JFay — To go Round about a thing, and not to 
' come directly to it, by making up your mind,' or it may be attached 
to the terms, denoting Commotion, which will be examined in a future 


page. Again Pedi and Pedu occur as adjacent terms, the former of 
which JSIr. Owen has justly explained by " A round about ivay of asking 
" or craving, also a guarding against a request, by anticipating a similar 
«' want.— To ask or crave indirectly, and the latter by "To ask or to 
" crave in a round about way," &c. &c. The terms Pedestryz, and 
Pedesttr, &c. denote the Foot Traveller, or Pedestrian, which I pro- 
duce only to remark, that the form of the Latin Pedestrw is directly 
taken from the Welsh. Before I quit these Celtic terms for the Feet, 
I must remark, that in Irish Vosram is " To trample with the Feet." 
This term is surrounded by various words, belonging to our Elementary 
character, which must be explained on another occasion. 

In Arabic Jc^ Weten signifies "A Country, a dwelling, residence, 
" abode, wherever one lives, whether native or not." This brings us 
to the form Pedon, {Uedov,) Boden. In the same column of Mr. Richard- 
son's Dictionary, where this word occurs, we have "Weta 1^, "Kicking, 
" Treading under Foot, putting the Foot to the Ground, or making 
" an impression with it. — Low Ground," where we see the more original 
idea. WETatt »lL.j "Equal, level, soft (Ground,) Sec." Wzraf, nW^j 
"A Foot step, the impression of the Foot." Wett«s, ^l?;, "A 
"Shepherd, a Pastor." WetiscJoj, " Treading ^rm\y ." WetHi ^j" Any 
" kind of Filth, which adheres to the Feet of cattle, fowls, &c." WErid 
" Establishing, confirming, joining, consolidating. — Firm, solid, perpetual, 
" perennial. — Making a deep impression, planting or fixing in the 
" Ground. — Treading upon, wearing down, kicking. Trampling under 
" Foot, ramming hard, making (Ground)." The sense oi Firm annexed 
to this word brings us to the signification of the Greek cwPedo5, (Eju- 
■Kelo's, Stabilis, firmus, in Solo stans, seu fixus, k YleZov.) — In Arabic Feza 
laj means "A plain, field, open place, a court, an area," and in another 
sense it means Fyza, " Water overflowing Ground." The preceding 
Arabic term is Fezz ^, "Breaking open (a letter,) Dispersing, separat- 
" ing people." This sense of Breaking, or Dispersing is very familiar in 
the Eastern Languages, which is derived from the idea of PAsning 
about, to pieces, &c. In Arabic _jo Bedii means "A Field or Plain, 
" (particularly uncultivated and extensive.)" In the same Language LLj 



B, F, P, V, W. J C, D, G, J, K, Q, S, T, X, Z. | /, m, n, r. 

Besq^ signifies "Extensive, (track of country.) A wide plain, an open 
" country. Bisat, a Bed, covering, carpet, cushion, or any thing spread 
" upon the Ground for sitting, recUning, or sleeping," where in the sense 
of being Spread on the Ground, we are brought to the true idea. We 
have as adjacent terms in Mr. Richardson's Dictionary Bisardaden, 
^jS\jijImj "To Plough, to break the Earth. Bisarde, Ploughed, JFatered 
Grounds;" — Pest, (Pers.) c>^ " Humble, Depressed, low, abject, 
" mean. Base, vile;" the two next words to which are JJ^ Bastan, 
" A breast, nipple, Busxcm, A Garden for flowers or herbs. (A fruit 
" garden being expressed byy^b Baghi,) and Pesta/?, The most humble. 
" The Basest, the lowest, &c. the meanest, most avaricious of man- 
" kind, Pestan, The breast, the nipple." In the sense of the Garden 
we see from what source the idea of Base is derived. In Persian 
i^U BAsire is a Sown Field," and in the same column of Mr. Richardson's 
Dictionary we have the Arabic ijju BAsinef, " A plough-share, coulter," 
and there are various other adjacent words, belonging to the Element 
BS, &c. which most fully illustrate our doctrine, and which will be 
duly produced. In Persian ^ji Bezen is "A Harrow," the succeeding 
word to which in Mr. Richardson's Dictionary is Pezshen ,^ "the 
" Bottom, or end of a street," where we have the form Boden, &c. In 
the same column I find Push;// J^^ " the Ancle, 7\STern." The succeeding 
word is Vvzsmdlden, ^JoJjjj " To provoke, irritate, excite, incite, instigate, 
" stimulate. — To move, Wag, stagger." An adjacent word is Vuzshuh 
itjijj " An examiner, searcher, explorer, investigator, inquirer." Pcjzsh- 
ukiden, "To examine, enquire," which words belong to such terms as 
Push, Poke, &c. and it is impossible not to see, that Push and Poke 
attach themselves to the Push, and the Pock, the Foul Pudge matter. 
Rising, Swelling, Vvsuing, or VoKing up. The origin, from which the 
Persian terms are derived, will be manifest from the word succeeding 
this latter term ^jjj Puzsh?^.7«, " Filthy, Nasty, Dirty, &c. &c." The 
next word is Beze sy "A Sin, crime," which is the metaphorical 
application of the former term, as denoting, what is Foul— Base, Bad. 
In the same column we have B^ziden ^j^ji. To blow, as the wind. 
Bvziden, "To pluck, tickle with the fingers, pull off hair, wool, 


*' feathers," &c. The sense of Blowing brings us to the idea of Swelling 
out, or up, and the sense of Plucking will remind us of the English Pick, 
belonging to Push, &c. The next word is ^Ezsuiden ^^joj> To Cook, 
and we see in the two uses of Dress, Dressing Land, and Dressing 
meat, and in the phrase Coqnere glehas, how the sense of Cooking may 
belong to Pudge, or Dirt. — This Persian word will remind us of the 
English 'To Poach Eggs,' and the Greek Pesso, Pe/jto, quasi Peto, 
{Uea-a-w, Coquo, UeTrrw, Coquo, Digero.) The next word in Mr. 
Richardson's Dictionary is BEzer, jiy Downwards, where we are brought 
to the Base, the low Spot, supposed in my hypothesis, and again, in 
the same column, we have the Persian s^j^ PEzirc, "Meal, Flour," 
where we actually see matter of a Pudge consistency. I shall shew, 
that Meal belongs to Mould for the same reason. The word adjacent 
to the Greek Pesso, in the Vocabularies of that Language Pessos, 
(neo-o-05. Calculus, Seu Scrupus lusorius,) the little stone, brings us to 
the spot, supposed in my hypothesis. I must leave the reader to decide 
whether in Opson, Epsao, Optao, {O\lrou, Proprie Piscis, Edulium omne, 
quod una cum pane comeditur, 0\/^oj/. Pulpamentum, Eyfyaw, Coquo, 
Elixo, Oirraw, Asso,) and Ohsonium, the radical form be not PS, PT, 
BS, &c. and whether the original idea was not that of Cooking Poxxage 
sort of food, as in the sense of Pulpamentum. Again, in Persian, Jijs^. 
PuKTew means "To boil. Cook, or make ready. — To ripen," and an 
adjacent word is Pukhti " Jelly (of fish) congealed Broth," where we 
unequivocally see the original idea. There is another adjacent word, 
which brings us to the very spot, supposed in my hypothesis, as Bekh- 
chiziclen, "To roll or wallow upon the Ground, (as Dogs.)" As one 
species of Stone is expressed in Greek by Pesso«, (Ileo-a-os,) so another 
kind is denominated by the word PExra, {Uerpa, Saxum.) 

Tn Persian Ij ^_s^ j_sj Pa, Pae, Pei as the word is represented by Mr. 
Richardson, is the appropriate and familiar term for " the Foot, the 
sole of the Foot, a /bo/step, a resiigc." Here the sound of the second 
Consonant of the Radical, is lost, as it is in the sound of the French 
Pas and Pied, and the English Paw. In some Persian terms, however, 
the sound is preserved. Thus <i^U Pache means " Feet (of sheep, 

E 2 


B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

" calves, or other animals, especially when boiled,)" and the next term 
to this is Vkcuile, " A Shoe, slipper, sandal." The adjacent terms to 
these are Pakh, which at once means "Ornamented," and Vile, Lime, 
Plaster, &c. — Bakhte, "The Plaster, incrustation, smoothing, or 
" polishing of a Wall," where we see one process, among others, by which 
ornament may be derived from Dirt; — VxvJiise, "Worn, trampled, or 
trodden under Foot," — VxKlmst, or Paikhust c^^^srti " Trodden under 
" Foot, trampled upon," and in the same column with the latter word 
I find among other kindred terms ^j\i^ Paizcw, " A ruffian, cut-throat." 
Now this is a sense, which appears very remote from the meaning of 
the Radical, and unless Mr. Richardson had fortunately removed all 
difficulty on the original idea of this word, I should have in vain 
endeavoured to discover its connexion with the Radical notion. Mr. 
Richardson adds to his explanation, " One who steals upon you tiptoe, 
with the ^^ Feet of a woman." — It would be a long task, indeed, to 
produce all the words in the Persian Language, which relate to the 
Feet under the Element PD, &c., as Pashte, <u.ilj "the Heel, the 
" fleshy part of the Foot," Bashine, or Pashine, <iULi.b "the Heel, the 
*' fleshy part of the Foot," which will remind us of the form Pastern. 
In the same column with these words is Yxsniden i^sxL\i "To sprinkle, 
" scatter, disperse, diffuse, pour out, dissipate," which we cannot doubt 
to belong to the terms for the Foot, and to the English word Pash. 
There is another Persian word preceding this term, under the slightest 
variety of form, which takes a different turn of meaning, as ^sjJL\> 
BxsHiden, " To be. — To stand. Stay, Stop, tarry for any one, to expect," 
where, as we might conceive, the sense of Stability would belong to 
the Firm Ground, on which a person Stands, or Walks steadily with 
his Feet. The sense, however, of Being will be more fully unfolded 
in a future page. 

The word Pedair denotes in Welsh the number Four, and Pedru, 
" To Quadrate, to Square," to which terms various words are attached 
in this Dialect of the Celtic, relating to that number. It is impossible, 
I think, to doubt, that Pedair, signifying Four, belongs to Ped, de- 
noting the Feet, and that it originally related to the race of animals 


with Four Feet. In considering, however, this word some difficulty 
will arise, which must be diligently examined. In the Irish Dialect of 
the Celtic, Ccithair, or Ceathair signifies ' Four,' where the termination 
Air at the end of Pedair, and Ceathair, would lead us to conjecture, 
that these words belonged to each other. The Latin Qiiatuor, or CFatuor, 
where we see QU, or QV", will shew us, how the Guttural and Labial 
forms Catuor, or Ceathair, and Fattior, or Pedair may pass into each 
other. Surely the Greek Tessarc*, or Tettarcs, {Tea-a-apes, Terrape^,) 
belongs to the form Ceathair, or TcEXTAR-es. The Etymologists have 
collected the parallel terms to Four, which are as follows : Pefora, {Ueropa, 
Police, Quatuor.) Pedwar, (Wei.) Fidur, Fidivor, (Goth.) Fyther, Feather, 
Feower, (Anglo. Sax.) Fiar, Fior, Feor, (Franc, and Alam.) Vier, (Belg. 
and Germ.) Four, (Engl.) Fior, (Isl.) Fyra, (Suec.) &c. I have given 
these forms, as they are represented by Wachter, and it is impossible, I 
think, to doubt, that Fither, Feother, (A. S.) Fidtjr, Fidwor, (Goth.) 
Petora, (JEol.) Pedwar, (Wels.) together with the Cornish Padzhar, 
as Lhuyd represents it, belong to each other. It is likewise, I think, 
impossible, to doubt that the Saxon Feoiuer belongs to the term in the 
same Language for the same number, Feother, by the loss of the t ; 
and when this form is obtained, we at once arrive at the other terms 
Four, Vier, &c. under the same form FR. For a similar reason to 
that, by which the form FR is obtained by the loss of the t in the 
form Fl'R, we have the form QV-R, QR, CR, SR, &c. derived from 
the form QV-T-R. Hence we have the name for this number under 
that form CR, SR, as in the Persian j\^ Ciiuhaur, and j\s- Chaur, 
Four, where in the a H of the first word we see perhaps a record of 
the t, the Gipscy Staur, the English S(juare, and the French Carre, 
or Quarre. The Etymologists agree, that these English and French 
words belong to Quadrare, and Quatuor. In the Quar of Qu\K-tus 
we again sec, how the T or D is lost. I once thought, that the form 
QR was the original form, and that the other forms were derived from 
it, in a contrary order, by the process of accretion. But the Welsh 
Pfioair unequivocally brings us to Ped, the Foot, and the connection 
of the terms under the forms PDR, FIR, is, I think, indubitable, as 
likewise is the process, by which the other forms are derived. 


B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.} l,m,n,r. 

Words signifying 'What is Base and Bad, What is Lotv, In- 
'ferior, Depressed, What is Foul, Filthy, Vile, What is in a state of 
' Dissolution, What is IFcak, Decayed, &c. &c.' all which are to be 
referred to the Base or Pudge Spot, or matter of the Gromid, Dirt, &c. 

Base, Bas, Bose, &C. &c. (Eng. Fr. Germ. 

Bate, oBate, aBash, Bash/!</, &c. (Eng.) 
«Battre, aBassare, Baxar, &c. (Fr. 

Ital. and Span.) 
Bad, &c. (Eug.) 


DEO, Pestis, P^dor, Putridus, (Lat.) 

Putrid, Fetid, (Eng.) 
Fag, Fudge, Pish, 8tc. &c. (Eng.) 
ViTiuM, Vice, (Lat. Eng.) 
Vetus, Vietus, &c. (Lat.) 
Fade, Wither, 8cc. (Eng.) 
Feig. (Germ.) Faint hearted, dejected. 
Feigur. (Isl.) A dead Body. 
PG, PGR, (Heb.) To be Faint, A dead carcase. 

Pest, (Peis.) Humble, Depressed, &c. Base, 

Bad name, (Pers.) 'A Bad name.' 
Bis. (Ar.) Bad. 
Baid, (Ar.) Little, mean, Vile. 
Bheit, BesHj (Sanskrit and Gipsey.) Down. 
Byse Tribe, (Sans.) The Base, or Low Tribe. 
VASsare, (Gips.) Bad. 
Bas, (Welsh.) A swoon, qualm ; A fainting 

Fit ; A Shallow. 
Basu, (Wei.) To fall or Lower. 
BATHflOT, (Ir.) To Drown, Faint, Die. 
Bos, (Ir.) Abject, Mean, Low. 
BD, (Ar.) Perishing, Death, Mean, Vile, &c. 
Fater, (Ar.) Weak, Languid. 
FeiDj (Ar.) Dying, Macerating. 

I shall produce in this Article those words, which denote " What 
is Base or Bad, What is Lotv, or Inferior — What is Depressed or 
Reduced to a Low state : — What is Foul, Filthy, Vile ; — What is in 
a state of Dissolution — What is JVeak, Decayed, &c. &c. and which 
are derived, as I imagine, from the Base or Pudge Spot or Matter 
of the Ground, Dirt, &c. Among these terms we must class the 
following, Base with its parallels produced by the Etymologists, Bose, 
(Germ.) Bas, Base, (Fr.) Basso, (Ital.) Basis, (Bao-iv) Baios (Baios, 
Parvus,) Basa, (Bao-a, apud Hesychium, hia-xwn,) Bassa, (Bacrcra, 
B>j(T<ra, vel B>yo-(Tai, Loca in montibus, per quae gradi possumus, &c.) 
&c. &c. — Bate, oBate, oBase, Bash, aBash, Bash/w/, (Eng.) «Bessie, 


(Old Eng.) Humility, Baisser, Ahaisscr, Jbatfre, (Fr.) Ahassare, 
Abattere, (It.) Baxar, Abaxar, (Span.) &c. Sec— Vassal, (Eng.) &c.— 
oBed?o, (Lat.) Obey, &c. — Baito;?, Baitas, BwTada, (Bairwi/a, tov 
evreXtj avSpa, Bairas, evreXrjs, ap^'^ia Se Ae^is" BairaSa, eureXti^ 
yvvt}. Hesych.) the Vile, Base Man or Woman, Bad, Bawd, Bawdy, 
(Eng.) — Tjedus, (Lat.) which is the preceding word in my Latin 
Vocabulary to Fjex,; the former of these terms has been re- 
ferred to Faios, (<^aio9^ which brings us to Fusc«s, and from hence 
we pass to Tuciis, Fukos, (^vko^, Alga, Fwcus.) — FcExeo, VcBTidus, 
(Lat.) to which belong the terms in modern Languages Fetid, Sec. — 
TxTuus, (Lat.) from which, we know, hiYxTuated, &c. is derived. — 
Fiddle Faddle, (Eng.) which form will bring us to Piddle, &c. in 
its senses of M'wgere, and in that of a Little PioDLiwu- business, (Eng.) 
Fusty, (Eng.) Fester, (Eng.) — Fag, as Fag end, the Vile Base end, 
' The Fag at School, To be VAGced, here and there, up and down, 
' to pieces, to death,' &c. ' To be all in a Muddled state, as we express 
' it, in Moiling, Joiling,' &c. I shall shew that Moil belongs to Mould, 
(Eng.) and Toil, to Tellies for the same reason. Fudge, (Eng.) quasi 
Pudge Stuff, to which we may refer such interjections as Pish, Pshaw, 
Fye, Foil, (Eng.) &c. Pfuy, (Germ.) which is the succeeding word 
in my German Dictionary to Pfutze, "A Puddle, Lake, slough," &c. 
&c. — PuTco, Vvridies, Putrw, PutrzV/«^, (Lat.) FvTRtd, &c. (Eng.) 
PuTHo, (^Tlvdu), Putrefacio,) which Latin words, we see, directly con- 
nect them with Puretis, "the Well, or Pit," that is, the Pudgy spot, 
as I have observed on a former occasion, where I have produced the 
Welsh Pydr«, Pwdr, &c. and the English and French PowDer, 
PouDRc. — PuDe/, To be ashamed, as of something Vile ; and hence 
the terms for the opposite of what is File, for Shamefaced iiess, as we 
express it. Modesty, Chastity, &c. Pudo/-, ^vdicus, &c — PjEDO/-, (Lat.) 
Filth, Pest/s, PESTilentia, (Lat.) Pest, PEsrile/ice, &c. (Eng.) pEJor, 
PESsinius, (Lat.) with their parallels, Pis, (Fr.) &c.— ViT/«;rt, (Lat.) 
Vice, &c. (Eng. Fr. &c.) — Vito, Veto, Yvtupero, (Lat.) To aVoiD, 
To Forbid, Blame, To Fly as something File. — Feuo^o, (Gr, <I)ei'7w,) 
Fuoio, Fugo, (Lat.) which signify in the neuter and active sense, 'To 


B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

'fly as Vilc,^ and To treat as Vile, or To Be- Vile, If I may so say, 
by Driving away, Routing, &c. as in Fcedo, 'To Daub, defile. — 
' To Lay in the Dust, Beat down, &c.' — Vet«s, Yiwtus, VETernus, (Lat.) 
Fade, with its parallels produced by the Etymologists Vadden, (Belg,^ 
Fade, (Fr.) Fad, (Iss.) Defectus, who have justly likewise compared 
it with the Latin Fafuiis, and with Vado, which I shew to belong to 
JVade and VxDum, the Pudge spot. — Wixner, (Eng.) &c. &c. There 
are various words, which relate ad ?'es Venereas — ad Vvx>enda, &c, as 
Fut;/o, &c. some of which are directly connected with these words, 
denoting, what is Foul, Vile, &c. though they are so intangled with 
terms which relate to other senses of the Element, that they must be 
considered in a different place. Whether Y\3ceau, or Vvcelle refers to 
PuDor, &c. in its good or bad sense, cannot easily be determined, yet 
PuzzEL in old English certainly relates to the Vile, Foul Girl, and is 
so used in Shakspeare alluding to the French Pucelle, and accompanied 
with imagery, which brings us to the Puddle, or Miry Spot, In 
Henry VI. (Part I.) Talbot says, 

" Pucelle, or Puzzel, dolphin or dog fish, 
" Your liearts I'll stamp out with my horse's heels, 
" And make a quagmire of your mingled brains." 

The word Pussel, according to Mr. Toilet means " A dirty wench, or 
"a drab, from Puzza, i. e. Malus Foetor, says Minsheu," where let 
us mark in Fcetor, a kindred term. — Byas with its parallels Biaise, 
BiECO, (Fr. Ital.) seems to relate to a Downward tendency, as to the 
Base part or Ground. 

The Etymologists derive Vassal, ("qui Gallice Vassi seu Passales 
" dicuntur.") from the Gothic Fad, and Scale, Minister, as in Mare- 
Schallus ; but whether the Sal in Vassal has this sense, or whether 
the L be only an organical addition, I cannot decide. The Greek 
Basilcms, (Bao-tAeys, Rex,) may perhaps belong to this word Vassal, 
as denoting a person, who is Governour under a Superior Lord. In 
Scotch Vassalage, IVasselage, means, says Dr. Jameson, " Any great 
" achievement. — Fortitude, Valour," where the good sense of the word 


is used. Ruddiman has given the same origin of the term, which 1 
have proposed, and has observed, that hence Miles and Knight came 
to be titles of honour. The Knight is acknowledged to be the Knecht, 
the Servant, Attendant, or Soldier, serving under a superior Warrior : 
General Vallancey has compared the Greek Basilcms, (Bao-tAey?,) with 
the Irish Basal, Judex. — If it belongs to this term, the Greek word 
must be referred to the same fundamental idea attached to our Element, 
though after a different process. — In Mr. Shaw's Irish and Galic 
Dictionary, we have Bassoil, a Vassal; and Basal, Judgment; in the 
same column of whose Dictionary and the adjoining one I find Bas, 
Death; Bath, "Slaughter, death, murder," and BAXHa/w, "To drown, 
" die, perish, to faint." We may here see, that the idea of Drowning 
or of Water belongs to the Low, Watery, Pudgy Spot, and that the 
sense of Death, Fainting, &c. is derived from the metaphor of being 
Laid low, or down, in a state of Decay, Dissolution, &c. In such 
a case we cannot separate these ideas from each other. The sense of 
Judgement in the Celtic Basal is probably derived from the idea of 
Death, pronounced against a Criminal ; but on this point the Celtic 
Scholar must decide. It has been imagined that Varlet, (Eng.) Falet, 
Valetto, (Fr. Ital.) were quasi Yxdetti, or Vassal«^//, the Sons of 
Vassals, which may perhaps be the case. It has been likewise supposed, 
that Vavasour, sometimes written Falvasour, is quasi Vas-Vasour. What- 
ever may be the first part in this word, we see in VASo«r, the second 
part, our Elementary character distinct. 

The Latin word oBedw, with its derivatives, Oheir, (Fr.) Obey, 
Obedient, &c. (Eng.) in some of which the second letter of the Radical 
is lost, is not derived from Ob and yludio, but appears in its true form 
Bed, as denoting the Lowly and Submissive action. — In Arabic Sis. 
aBED means a "Servant, Slave," and it signifies likewise "Blushing, 
" ashamed, penitent," or as Mr. Richardson explains the word, under 
the substantive form, aBEoet, B\SHfulness, and this substantive contains 
another sense of the Element, " Fatwcss." The word for a Servant 
appears under various forms in Arabic jUc Ybad, jjjlc Abid, Sec. &c. 
In Hebrew 12^ ABD signifies, "To serve, labour, work. — To serve, 



B,F,P,V, W.| C,D,J,K,Q,S,T,X, Z.| l,m,n,r. 

"be Obedient to another man as a Servant," says Mr. Parkhurst. 
It is particularly applied, says Taylor, " to labouring in the Earth, or 
" to the tilling of it." — INfr. Parkhurst understands the relation of the 
Latin Ohedio, and its derivatives to this Hebrew word. In Hesychius 
we find Bouse, a Female Slave, (Boy<r>/, Aoi^A*;,) where the Critics 
refer us to another word in this Lexicographer, Abovtou, Slavery, 
a term used by the Argives, (A/3oi/Tor, Tr,v ^ouXeiav Apyeioi.) The 
word recorded by Hesychius may perhaps be considered, directly as 
Egyptian. In this Language Boki is Ancilla, and Bok, Aoi/Aos, Servus, 
and that these words are taken from the idea, which 1 suppose will 
be manifest from the terms, which appear in the same column of my 
-Egyptian Lexicon, published by Woide, Bot, Bout, Abominandum, 
BBeXvy/j-a, where we see the idea of what is Vile or Base ; and here 
let us note the BD in the explanatory term BDelugina from BDco, 
(BSeAvYyua, Abominatio, BBew, Pedo, flatum ventris emitto, Fceteo, Puteo,) 
having the same force, which is again visible in the Ped, Fcet, Put, 
of the Latin words, produced by the Lexicographers. In the Dialect 
of Boeotia, BxiDiunen means ' To Plough,' and Bochart compares this 
term with the Hebrew word, which I have just produced ; — " Baihvjxtiv, 
" aporpiav Boiwror Et Kpiade/uLtiv 'yevvav Boiwrta 3e »/ Ae^ts. Utrumque 
" in Hesychio. Boeotica haec duo aTrape/ncpaTa simul confero, quia sunt 
" similis formae, Bai^ufxtiv, vel BaiBvfxev potius est ex BaiBvw, ut Kpiaoe/meu 
" ex Kpiadew. Porro Baidvu) est Hebr. 13;/ Abad. Utrumque est 
"■ colore terram," (^Geograph. Sac. Chan. Lib. I. c. 17.) — To the Arabic 
and Hebrew words signifying ' To serve,' are acknowledged to belong 
the names ABD-Jllah, the Servant of God, Obed, Obadiah, &c. &c. 
The following words might belong to the idea of the Inferior Spot, 
or station, unless we should imagine that they are to be referred to 
such words as Push, &c. under the sense of Fvsuing, or Pressing upon 
in the different actions of AtfachmeJit and Annoyance, as Post, Postc«, 
PosTcrior, with the acknowledged derivatives Puis, (Fr.) which has 
the same form as Puis, " A "Well, a Draw Well, a Pit," says Cotgrave, 
Pues, (Span.) Poi, (Ital.) where the second letter of the Radical is lost, 
the Greek oPiso, &c. (Owia-w, Retrorsum, retro, &c. Post, Postea, &c.) 


oPedco, oPadco, oPazo, &c. (Ottj/Scw, OTraSew, Comitor, OTra^w, Persequor, 
sequi jubeo, comitem do, &c.) the English oFt, aFxer, the Saxon 
ceFrer, &c. The nautical terms Aft and Jbaff seem to be justly 
referred to the preposition Jft^^- Yet I do not understand the precise 
force of the compound Abaft, and there is some ditficulty in these 
words which cannot be unfolded, tiU the Element ''B, *F, shall be 
examined. The term Back would appear to signify the Hinder, or 
Inferior part, but here again some ditBculty occurs, which will be more 
manifest, when it is compared with other words. Perhaps the original 
idea annexed to the Greek oPis, oYizomai, {Otti^, Ultio, vindicta divina, 
Cura, consideratio, respectus, OTri^ofxai, Curo, revereor, Caveo, Rependo, 
ulciscor,) may be that of Following, either for the purposes of Respect, 
or Revenge. The name of Diana oiiPn, (Oi/ttjs, Upis, Dianae epith. 
Callim. Dian. 201.) might be referred to this Race of words as denoting 
the Folloiuer, or Chaser of Wild Beasts, or the Radical might be Oup, 
and refer to the Noise or Hoop made in hunting. — In oPikos, (Otti/cos, 
Opiciis, deformis, sordidus, immundus,) we see the true idea of Dirt, 
Filth, &c. In Chaldee, inn BTR signifies After, and in the Arabic 
jkjy Bad means " After, Afterwards,'' says Mr. Richardson. The origin, 
from which this Arabic word is derived, will be manifest from the 
next term in Mr. Richardson's Dictionary, under the same form jmj 
Baid, Baad, Buad, &c. signifying "Little, mean. Vile. Any thing 
" in which there is little Good ;" which brings us directly to Base and 
Bad. The term likewise means " Perishing, Death," which brings us 
to the Celtic Bath, and Bas. The succeeding term is BADa«, Afterwards, 
Budan leha. Evil be to thee. In the same column we have Baat, 
Turpitude, and in the same opening of Mr. Richardson's Dictionary 
I find Bet?'/?, ^ " Low lying. Muddy Grounds,'' and Beten Joj Low 
Ground, which I have before produced. In Mr. Richardson's Dictionary 
j\) Baz, and ,^ Pes are produced as the appropriate terms for After. 
The term Baz jU answers to our word Back, in the sense of Back 
again. Sometimes these Persian words are both used on the same 
occasion, as " Bas, Pes riften ^j ^^^ jb To go £acA'ward," I must 
leave the Persian Scholars to adjust the various senses belonging to 

F 2 

ii B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,J, K,Q,S,T,X, Z.| /,m,7i,r. 

the term Baz jb ; yet, I see in Mr. Richardson's Dictionary an adjacent 
word, where we are directly brought to a sense, belonging to our 
Element, as j]j\j Yxzar, A Peasant's " Shoe made of raw leather, or the 
" bark of a tree. — Any kind of bandages, wrapt round the Feet." 
Perhaps the Eastern word j\j\i BAZor, the Market-place, which is the 
preceding term to this in Mr. Richardson's Dictionary, may mean the 
Place trodden by the Feet. — We cannot but note, how Trade belongs 
to Tread, under some idea ; and the term Traffic,' we know, whatever 
be the race of words, to which it is attached, applies itself to a similar 
idea, ' There is much Traffic on the Road.' — One sense of the word 
Baz, j\i Back again, is a " Falcon, hawk," and that this word is by some 
process attached to the Ground, will be manifest from its derivative 
jbjb ^xzyar which not only means a " Falconer, Fowler," but likewise, 
" a Labourer, Plowman, Farmer.'" In the same column of Mr. Richard- 
son's Dictionary I see Baze, A Fatho/w, &c. where we have the sense 
of the Low-sinking in Spot, or Matter, and Vxzeher Treacle, where 
we perceive the idea of Pudge Matter ; — FAzshawe, " A Wart, a knob, 
and an excrescence," where we again see the idea of the Swelling out. 
Pudge matter, or as we express it, the Push, or Boil, Yusning out or 
up, — Bazi, "Play, Sport: — One falcon. — A little sphere, or globe," 
Bazij, " Little globes, or things similar, suspended above infants' cradles 
"for their, amusemetit,'' from whence it will be understood, that the 
sense of Play, Sport, which appears in Persian under the form BZ. 
BAziden, To play, &c. is derived from the idea of the Ball, or Swelling 
Lump. In the same side or page of Mr. Richardson's Dictionary is 
the verb, B\zushten, " To curl, twist, plait, to sew in plaits, to hem," 
which means to form into a Lump, and Bxzname, burden, "To dart, 
" to throw ; To Boast,'' which means To Push out, at, about, up. To 
throw about, or at, and ' To Swell up,' where let us note in the 
explanatory word Boast, a kindred term, belonging to Boss, Bog, 
&c. &c. 

In the next column of Mr. Richardson's Dictionary to that, in which 
j^ Pes is found, I perceive Pest c>— j which signifies, " Humble, 
" Depressed, low, abject, mean, Base, vile," where let us note the kindred 


term Base, and we find likewise, as an adjacent term yLj Pester, 
" FosTcrior, latter." I likewise see -^^ Besci'i, " Depravity, wicked- 
ness." In- the same leaf we have j^ Bezc/'^ Downward, adjacent to 
which are various words, which I produce on another occasion, fully 
impregnated with the Elementary sense. There is one Persian term 
BEzegh cjj signifying "A dam, a pond, or any piece of water 
" confined by dikes and mounds," where we are directly brought to 
the original idea of the Bog Spot. In Persian ^s^Jij Pusht means " the 
" Back, shoulders, loins," and it likewise signifies "A support, prop." 
When similar ideas are entangled with each other, we find ourselves 
embarrassed in deciding, to what peculiar notion a term should be 
referred. We here see, that the Back is connected with the sense 
of Support, and the Back might certainly have been derived from the 
action of Cary^ying, or Supporting, and not from that of the Bosterior 
part. — The English Back occurs in various Languages, Bag, B^c, (Sax.) 
Bag, (Dan.) Back, (Isl. Belg.) Bach, (Germ.) &c. &c., and if we 
say, that Back is derived from the idea of the Supporting Base, we 
have at once the sense of the Back, or PosxeWor part, with the notion 
of Support added. When different senses of the Element are entangled 
with each other, it is sometimes impossible to decide on the peculiar 
notion, from which a term is derived. I shall examine Back in another 
place, where we shall see it involved with terms, which signify 'To 
' Rise or Swell up,' from the idea of the Swelling Lump ; and 
this might have been the original notion. It will, however, be enough 
for us to shew, that the term belongs to the spot, supposed in my 
Hypothesis, the Pudge Spot, or Matter, and when this is manifest, 
we shall not wonder, that these ideas are involved with each other. 
In the same opening of Wachter's Dictionary, where Back, Tergum, 
occurs, we have Bach, " Rivus, parvum fluentum," and Backe, " Collis, 
" tumulus," where we have the Bog Spot, and the Lump; and Backe, 
" Gena, mala," which means the Swelling out object. — In the same 
opening of Mr. Richardson's Dictionary, where the above Persian words 
are found, I perceive the Arabic ^j>^^ Pesin, " Posterior, last, the 
" newest." 

46 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,a,S,T,X,Y,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

1 shall here produce some Persian terms, which relate to the sense 
of Base, Bad, Bawdy, &c. in their metaphorical sense of Vile, as derived 
according to my hypothesis from the Loiv, Foul, Spot. Thus jo Bad, 
or Bed means " Bad, wicked." — In the same column of Mr. Richardson's 
Dictionary we have \si Beda, (Pers.) " Wickedness, obscenity, improper, 
" wicked, profane, or obscene discourse," — jj PD for ob Pad, "A guard, 
guardian alij^j FAVsIiaic, "An emperor, or great king, as being the 
"protector of his people," and the Arabic |jo Bedi, "Beginning," 
which meant probably the Base or Foundation. AMience the sense 
of a Guardian annexed to the Persian word is derived, I cannot decide, 
yet Mr. Richardson in another place explains Pad jIj thus, " (Prefixed 
" to a noun.) i. Carrying off, hindering, preventing. 2. Driving, forcing, 
" impelling. 3. Curing, healing." The sense of Driving brings us 
to terms of Violence Pash, Push, &c. which is probably the original 
idea. — Words, denoting Beings of power, are commonly derived from 
the notion of Hurting, Injuring, &c. though they are afterwards apphed 
to other actions of might, in which the sense of doing good, of Guarding, 
Preserving, &c. &c. appears. — In Arabic too I find ja Bezz, denoting 
" Conquering, Victory, Bad," where we see, how Power is united with 
"what is Bad, Wicked, &c. the succeeding words to which are Jo Beza, 
" Hating, abhorring, detesting, despising, undervaluing, treating with 
" contempt. Obscene, impudent ;" J!Jo Bezos, " Being in a Bad state, 
" or habit. Becoming old, worn, and nasty," and in the next column 
I see i^jj Bezi, " Impudent, obscene, immodest (particularly in speech) 
" Despised, Hated," &c. There is a Persian compound, which in both 
its parts corresponds with two English words, as BAD-Nam »\}^ 
" Having a BAD-Name, infamous." Mr. Richardson observes, that 
in the Arabic Language, " the verbs of Praise are two," and that there 
are two likewise "of censure, or abhorrence, as j*«jo" Bis "is Bad, 
"horrible,'' &c. &c. {Grammar, p. IQS.) This will point out to us the 
familiarity of the word, and we shall be reminded likewise of the Latin 
Bat, which R. Ainsworth says, is " A word of reproving, as Tusk, 
" Pshaw, Pish ;" where let us note the kindred English terms PisH, 
" Pshaw, quasi Pishaw." 


I have conjectured, that the Byse Tribe among the Hindoos means 
the Base or Low Tribe. In the Hindoostanee Dialects I find Pit, the 
Bach, and in the same page of Lebeditl"s Grammar, (p. 70,) we have 
Par-FATa, "the Sole, apart under the Foot." Mr. Hadley represents 
the Back and B4CK?rrr/v/ by Peete and Peachev, which, however, may 
be derived from the Persian. Tlie same writer produces ByT/um as 
the appropriate term for Sit down, and in describing the mode, in which 
the Elephant is managed by the staff of his rider, he observes, that 
when the animal is To lie down, " it is thrust in a perpendicular direction, 
" the rider crying out Bheit, Bheit." {Dialog, p. -14.) In the Dialect 
of the Gipsies, VadcI means, differ, Besh, Down, Besh^c s'o ham, the 
sun is set, or down; — Besh tche, Sit down; Okhis scammin, Besh-Posiie 
mandce. There's a chair, ' Sit dow}i by me,' where we see in Besh, 
and PosHE, the Element used in different forms to express the congenial 
ideas conveyed by the verb and adverb, Sit and Down. Let us likewise 
note in Okhis and Scamrnin, the Greek Ekei, (EKei,) and the Latin 
Scamnum. In Gipsey, Vassave means, Base or Bad, as " Vassave Chih, 
" a Bad Tongue, or Bad spoken person," and I have already observed, 
that in Sanskrit Vasa Deva is ' the Goddess of the Earth,' where we 
are brought to the spot, from which all these terms are derived. 

In the Hebrew Language the sense of the Element BS, &c. is most 
manifest and unequivocal. It abounds with words, denoting Scattering, 
Dispersing, Breaking, &c. corresponding with Pash, &c. and it contains 
likewise other senses of the Element. We must always remember 
in this Language the term i(1 BZ, which means " Soft Mud, or Mire,'' 
and to this idea the senses of the other words should be referred. In 
this Language D3 BS means "To trample upon, tread under Foot; ' 
where Mr. Parkhurst records, as parallel terms, Bas, Baisser, Abaisser, 
(Fr.) Base, Abase, (Eng.) The next term in this writer's Lexicon is 
"103 BSR, which means as a noun in Hebrew, "An unripe Grape," 
and as a verb in Chaldee and Syriac, "To despise, contemn," from which 
idea he supposes the sense of the Grape to be derived ; though the word 
might denote this Fruit, under the notion of what is Trodden down, in order 
to express the juice from it. The succeeding terms have for the second 


B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

letter V, which has sometimes the power of G, and sometimes that of 
h, as "IJ/a BGR, which, as an Hebrew particle, " always exhibits the same 
" notion as the Latin Post, After, Behind, and imports the Back, or Hinder 
''termination of a thing," says our author; — T\V'2. BGH, "■To Swell, 
"Swell up or out, i. e. To Bag out, as we express it, where we have 
"another familiar sense of the Element," and as a noun this word 
denotes " Pushes, or Pustules," where we see two kindred terms. 
In Chaldee the word signifies "To seek, ask, &c. which is nothing but 
" To Push for any thing," as in Peto, Posco, (Lat.) &c.— D;;n BGT, 
To Rich up ; — hV^ BHL, " To take possession," — Baal, the Ruler, which 
belongs probably to the Element BL ; "i;^3 BHR, To clear off, take 
clean away, which belong to the Element BR, and must be referred 
to another Hebrew word 12 BR, with a similar meaning, where the 
true form appears. Mr. Parkhurst justly sees, that our English term 
Bare belongs to it. — T\]31 BGT, "To disturb, affright," which belongs 
to words of terror, BuG-JBear, &c. &c. which will be produced on a 
future occasion. The next word, which follows in Mr. Parkhurst's 
Lexicon, is the term just produced, 1(1 BZ, Soft Mud, or Mire. Again, 
in Hebrew tt'n BS, U^^l BSS, signifies, "To flag, fail, grow flaccid, 
" spiritless, or inactive, be confounded,'' " To flag very much, loiter, 
" delay. — To flag through shame, be abashed, or ashamed of oneself, 
" to be quite confounded," to which Mr. Parkhurst has referred Bash/m/, 
Abash. — This term is applied in the following passage, " And they 
" were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not Ashamed," 
or, as it might have been " were not aBAsne^," i:i*ti'*2r\'' X? la it BSS?/. 
Mr. Parkhurst has observed, that as a noun mE'^ihi means the Pudenda, 
and we shall now see, that the Pud in Vxaoenda, &c. belongs to the 
same idea of Pudge, what is Vile, Shameful, &c. 

That the idea of Flagging, Faititing, &c. belongs to the Base, or 
Pudge spot, will be manifest from the Welsh Bas, , which Mr. Richards 
has explained by "A swoon, a qualm, a fainting fit." Under the same 
form we have Bas, " A shallow, not deep," which the Lexicographers 
have justly referred to Batuus, (Badvs.^ Mr. Owen explains Basu by 
" To render shallow, to fall, or Lower." 1 see as an adjacent word 


Bxsoarz, sometime written Bastardd, " ^Yhat is of Base growth," a 
BASTflrrc?. We cannot, I think, doubt, that the English term Bastard, 
and the Welsh word directly belong to each other ; and all will agree, 
that the Bas in both of these words must be referred to the Low-Base 
Spot. Yet on the second part of this compound Aid, or Tard, Darz, 
some difficulty may arise. If we conceive the composition to be of 
Teutonic origin, then w-e should say, that the Ard meant Nature, as 
in ' Dvunk-ArdJ &c. but if it be of Celtic origin, we must accord 
with the derivation of the Welsh Etymologists, who consider the second 
part to be their term Tarz, or Tard, ' Springing, budding,' &c. Adjacent 
to these words in the Welsh Dictionaries I see Bawdd, Drowning, 
referred by Mr. Richards to Boddi, a term of the same meaning, 
which he compares with the parallels Beyddi, or Beuzi, (Arm.) Bathain, 
(Ir.) &c. Here we have the Base or Low Spot, connected with the 
Watery or Pudge Spot. In Mr. Owen's Dictionary I see " Baw^\iz, 
"Dirty, mean, or vile, sordid," and Bawdy, "A necessary house;" 
an adjacent terra to which, is Baw, " Dirt, mire, excrement," where 
we see a form, in which the second Consonant of the Radical does 
not appear. It would be idle to enquire, which should be considered, 
as the original form ; since this question does not disturb the facts, 
which I detail respecting the form BD, &c. In Irish, Bas means Death, 
and the adjacent terms to this in Mr. Shaw's Dictionary are Bath, 
" Slaughter, Death, murder," — Bath, Drowning, and Bathotw, To 
" Drown, die, perish, faint," where we see how Fainting and Death 
are connected with the Pudge, or IVatery Spot. An adjacent term 
is Bassoile, Vassal, which I have produced with these words, in a 
former page. — Again, Bos means in Irish, "Certain, abject, mean, low,'' 
as Mr. Shaw has explained it. General Vallancey has compared the 
Irish Bas with the " Arabic jjj& heBxz, mortuus fuit, (^Pocock, C. T.) 
"jVl «Bbaz, sudden Death, (R.) j^jj Vaz-Vaz, Death, (R.)" (Speci- 
men of Irish Diet.) In an Arabic word the various ideas, which I 
suppose in my hypothesis, are combined. The word jju Bad as repre- 
sented in different forms by Mr. Richardson, means Baed, Perishing ; — 
Bud, Death; — Baad, '^Little, mean, t)i/e;" — Buad, "Any thing, in 



B,F,P,V,W.| C.D,G,J,R,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

" which there is little good;" where the same word, under different dia- 
critical marks, or vowels, comprehends the senses of the Celtic Bas, &c. 
and the Enghsh Base, Bad, &c. 

The German Feig means " Faint-hearted, heartless, timorous, shy, 
" dejected, daunted, cowardly," which will remind us of the English 
Fag, ' To be Fagged down to death,' Wachter explains it in one sense 
by Paucus, and he has justly compared with it the term Paucms itself, 
which he considers as parallel to the' terms. Few, (Eng.) Foi, (Alman.) 
Peu, (Fr.) &c. &c., remarking likewise, that Feig, in the sense of 
Vilis, corresponds to the use of the term in Italian, Huomo da Poco, 
Homo iiihili. It means too Moribundus, and this is the sense of the 
Saxon F^GE, which Hickes explains by " Moribundus, morti appro- 
" pinquans, ad moriendum destinatus ac expositus fatis, cui extrema 
" Parcfe jam nunc fila legunt. Cimbrice Feigur." (Grammat, Anglo. 
Sax. p. 114.) Wachter has referred us to this passage, with his usual 
diligence ; though he has not seen, how the German Feig connects 
it with the terms, which appear in the same opening of his Lexicon, 
as Feige, verber, which, as I shall shew, means ' To Pash, as with 
' PiTDGE matter,' and Vegcu, Purgare, which means ' To Pudge off, 
' or, To remove Pudge,' as will be evident from its corresponding term 
in English, Fey, or, Feigh, ' To Feigh a Po?id.' I see likewise Feige, 
Ficus, which means the Pudgy stuff. Swelling out, &c. In Hebrew 
32 PG means "To Fail, Faint," and hence says Mr. Parkhurst, the 
English " To Fag, Fag-end.'' This word likewise means " The first 
" young Figs, which shoot forth in the spring," and which, as he 
says, " d7'op as soon as they are ripe." If this Hebrew term for a 
Fig directly belongs to the words for the same species of fruit in 
other Languages, it must be referred to the idea, which I have proposed. 
In the same page of his Lexicon I see IJD PGR, "To Faint, loose one's 
"strength or activity," which occurs in two passages, where Montanus, 
says our Lexicographer, " preserving the Latin derivatives from the 
" Hebrew, renders it Pigrescebant, Pigri fuerant." As a noun this Hebrew 
word means " A dead inactive carcase, whether of man or beast." 
Mr. Parkhurst derives from this word our term Badger, " from his 


" idleness," which is not, I imagine, the true idea. The sense of a 
Carcase is that of the Cimbric Feigur, just produced from Hickes, who 
records the following passage in the fo/uspa immediately after the 
above quotation, " Fill est liami jiorve Feigra manna, Saturatur vita 
*' expirantium hominum." The adjacent terms to this Hebrew word 
are m^ PGS, To meet, I^JS PGH, To meet, &c.— To meet with, or 
light upon another, in a bad sense, or with force and violence, to rush or fall 
upon, to which Mr. Parkhurst refers Fight. These terms mean, To 
Push against, upon, &c. with various degrees of force, &c. The pre- 
ceding term to these is '7JD PGL, " To Pollute, defile," where we 
are brought to the true idea. I see other terms adjacent to these 
under the form ID PD, signifying, ' To Pash about, or to be in a 
' Pashed separated state,' with some degree of violence annexed to 
the action, which will be considered in another place ; though I might 
here produce the following TD PD, which "in Syriac signifies, To Fail, 
" in Arabic, 2b Die, and in the fourth conjugation answering to Hebrew 
" Hiphil, To destroy, put to Death:'—" As a n in Hebrew Ts5," PID, 
" Destruction, calamity," to which Mr. Parkhurst has referred the 
English and French Fade. — 11^ PDR, the Fat, in Hebrew, where it 
directly m^ans Pudge matter, but in Arabic it signifies, as a verb, 
" To Fail, or faint through languor,'' where we have the metaphorical 
sense, according to my hypothesis. The Latin Piger has the form 
PGR, as in the Runic Feigur, and the Hebrew "IJD PGR; yet in Pigeo, 
we have the form PG. 

In the same page of Robert Ainsworth's Vocabulary, where these 
Latin words occur, we have terms, which bring us to the same idea ; 
such as PiGwero, To Pawn, which means ' To Put, or Pudge down,' 
PicT«s, Painted, i. e. the Fudged, or Daiuhcd over surface, and Yiceus, 
made of Pitch, Picor, To be ViTcned, or Dawbed over, where we 
unequivocally see Pudge matter. I perceive likewise Pius, Pietas, 
which bring us to Pity, Pit/c, (Fr.) &c. and these terms denote, as 
I imagine, in their original idea, ' What is of a File, Low abject, nature,' 
A FiTiful Fellow, state, &c. The terms in French, with which ViTie 
is surrounded, direct us to this idea. In the same page of my French 

g 2 


B,F,P,Y,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

Dictionary, where this word is, I find the following terms, PiXTflnce, 
a File, small piece of any thing, Viraud, " A clownish Fellow," Pis, 
'"Worse," Pis, " Udder, dugs, breast," which may either mean the Loiv- 
Hanging dow7i part of animals, or the swelling out part, Pisser, and 
ViTiiife, Phlegm, in which words we are unequivocally brought to File, 
Pash, or Pudge Matter. I see the adjacent term Pitow, which I must 
leave the French Etymologists to refer to the Radical idea, though 
perhaps it means the Little object. Ring, nail, &c. In Martinius we 
find adjacent to Pioeo, The terms Pige, "Graece dicitur depressum, 
" Vet. Vocab. An eo respicit, quod Ylvytj est e^pa, Kadicrima ? Hesych. 
" UvYfxaTov, ea^yoLTOv, id alioqui riiz/iaTor," et YiGella, " Artopta, 
"genus vasis, — Dicitur a Pige, quia depressa est;" though others 
derive it from BACKew, To Bake. Unless the original idea could be 
ascertained ; we know not, to which of the Elementary senses such 
terms should be referred. ViGclla, however, must probably be referred 
to the names of Vessels, which will be examined in another place. 

In Arabic cjU Fat means " Fate, Death," and an adjoining word 
is jM Fater, " Weak, languid, remiss," as Mr. Richardson explains 
them ; in the same column of whose Dictionary I see jLsJi Fahysh, 
«' Shameful, Base, mean, dishonest, wicked, obscene, impudent." In 
the succeeding column we have Fadir jjU " Languid." " Ineundi potentia 
" defectus per nimii coitus causam." Let us mark the explanatory^ word 
Fate, Fatmw, (Lat.) which might be referred to the same idea, though 
the Etymologists may be right, when they conceive it to be " id quod 
" Fatum, vel Dictum est." Again, in Arabic, pED/r ^a- means " Foolish. — 
" Easily broken, (Wood.) Fed?;'. Languid, impotent (ex nimio con- 
" gressu.)" In the same Language Fawt, c^ji is "Death." — Fawd 
jjj " Death, dying," and Fawak jlji " A sigh, sighing, sobbing, the 
"last breathing of a dying person. — Fainting, swooning," all which 
words occur in the same column of Mr. Richardson's Dictionar}% and 
in the succeeding column we have other words, under the same Element, 
bearing a similar meaning, as by Fawz, " Death, giving up the ghost." 
In the same leaf of this Dictionary, I see Feid jjo " Dying. — Saffron. — 
" ^loistening, macerating, diluting, Saffron and other aromatics," wherein 


the sense of macerating, we are brought to the idea of reducing to a 
Pudge state; ,^^ Feiz, "Plenty, abundance. — Dying, expiring," &c. 
where these meanings, apparently so different, are reconciled under my 
hypothesis of Pudge, in a state of prolific moisture, dissolution, &c. 
FuTUz, " Dying, Death," to which I see an adjacent Persian word 
Feye <ui " a shovel for Mud," &c. These words from the Arabic 
Language will be sufficient to shew us one vein of meaning, which is 
attached to our Element, in that form of Speech. 

The sense of Foolish will bring us to the French term Fat, " A silly, 
" conceited man," and the Italian Pazzo, which John Florio explains 
by " A Fool, a Patch, a Mad-man," which will shew the commentators 
on Shakspeare, that Patch, which occurs frequently in that Poet, 
("A Crew of Patches, rude mechanicals," &c. &c.) is not taken from 
the name of Cardinal Wolsey's Fool, as Mr. Warton supposes, or from 
the Patched, or Pyed coats worn by Fools, as Mr. Steevens thinks, 
but that it belongs to the Italian term, as Mr. Tyrwhit supposes. 
Perhaps we should not say, that Patch is derived from the Italian 
Pazzo, or is a corruption of it, as Mr. Tyrwhit expresses it, but that 
it belongs to our own language, and is a parallel term to this Italian 
word. — Mr. Warton has justly remarked that Ooss-Patch is still used 
for a "Perverse, ill-natured Fool," which is, I think, too colloquial, 
for a direct Italian derivation. I shew in another place, that Patch, 
belonging to the Garment, is the coarse Lumpy, Pudge addition ; and 
thus Patch, the Lump of a Fool, is nothing but another application 
of the same term. In the same page of John Florio's Dictionary, 
where Pazzo is, I see Patta, " Accord, covenant," &c. which belongs 
to the Latin Pactw;;?, the com-Vxcr, which I shew in another place 
to be derived from the idea of something co?7i-VvDGed, if I may so say, 
or something made up into a Lump or Mass, but the succeeding word 
in John Florio directly brings us to the idea of Diri, and decides on 
my hypothesis, " VxTacchiar^e, To besmear, to bedaub, to bcspaule, 
" to beblurr, to beslaver." In the preceding leaf of John Florio, we 
have " Pasta grossa. Coarse Paste, also a gross-Pated or shallow-witted 
" Fellow," where we have the metaphorical sense of Pazzo, as supposed 

54 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

in my hypothesis. No one can doubt that Paste belongs to such 
words as Pudge. The next term to the French Fat in their Dictionaries 
is Fata/, where we still might be led to think, that Fat in both these 
words had the same meaning, but in the adjacent term Yxrique, 
" Fatique, Weariness, toil, labour," we certainly see the same metaphor 
as in Fat, and in FATras, " Trash, rubbish, paltry stuff, things of no 
" value," we are unequivocally brought to the original idea of Pudge, 
or Dirt matter. 


B, F, &c.| C, D, &c.| /, &c. 

Terms, signifying Bog, or Pudge matter, as BOG, PUDGE, &c. 
What is of a Bog or Pudge kind, form or consistency, as Botch, 
Batch, Paste, Pudding, &c. &c. — Terms which relate to Pudge 
matter, as more particularly expressing, the Marshy Spot, Watery matter, 
or Water in general, as Boda, (Russ.) Bedu, (BeSi/, vlwp ^pvye?,) Wash, 
Water, Udor, {Yhwp,) &c. &c. — Terms derived from the idea of what 
is of a Pudge consistency, or of a Plastic nature, which relate to Form, 
Figure, Shape, &c, as Poti'er, (Eng.) Facio, Figulus, Figura, (Lat.) 
Figure, (Eng. Fr.) &c. &c. 


B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,aS,T,X,Z.f l,m,n,r. 

1 ERMS expressing Bog, or Pudge matter, and what is of a Bog or 
Pudge kind, form, or consistency. 

Bog, Pudge, Puddle, (Eng.) 
Vase, (Fr.) Mud. 
BZ, (Heb.) Soft Mud. 
Batch of bread, (Eng.) 
Battek, (Eng.) 
Pattuma, (Ital.) Dirt. 
Paste, Pate, &c. &c. (Eng. Fr.) 
Botch, Pock, &c. (Eng.) The Swelling, 
Sore, &c. 

Pottage, Horfge-PoDCE, (Eng.) 

sPoGGos, (Gr.) the Spungy Substance. 

Posset, (Eng.) 

Pith, Putty, (Eng.) 

Pus, PlTUITA, (Lat.) 

Ptuo, (Gr.) To sPit. 

Pudding, (Eng.) 

&c. &c. &.C. 

In this Second Section I shall consider that Race of words under 
our Elementary Character B, F, &c. ^ C, D, &c. which express Bog 
or Pudge matter, as BOG, PUDGE, &c. or what is of a Bog, or 
Pudge kind, form, or consistency, as Botch, Batch, Paste, Pudding, 
&c. This enquiry will occupy a separate Article, which will appear 
first in the present Section. In the next Article I shall detail those 
terms, which express Pudge Matter, as more particularly relating to 
the Boggy, Marshy, or JFatery Spot, or JVater in general, as Boda, 
(Russ.) Bedu, (BeSi/, vloyp (ppvye^.^ Wash, Water, Udor, (YBwp.') 
In the succeeding Article I shall detail those terms, which are derived 
from the idea of Pudge, or Clay Matter, when considered as of a Plastic 
nature, and which relate to Form, Figure, Shape, &c. as Potter, (Lat.) 
Facio, Figulus, Figura, (Lat.) Figure, (Eng. Fr.) &c. &c. 

I shall now proceed to the Enquiry, which I have destined for the 
First Article, in which I propose to detail those terms, which express 
Bog or Pudge Matter, as likewise what is of a Bog or Pudge kind, 
form, or consistency. Among the terms, which convey this train of 


ideas, we must class the following. Bog, (Eng.) which amidst various 
attempts at derivation has been justly referred to the German Boden, 
and the Irish Bog, which more directly belong to it. — Buggle, (Scotch.) 
" A Bog, Morass," which brings us to the form of the English Boggle, — 
Pudge, Puddle, &c. &c. — Pattume, (Ital.) Dirt. — Vase, (Fr.) Mud. — 
Pfutze, (Germ.) A Paddle, Bog, &c. — Pit, Pvtcks, Puteal/s, Sec. &c. 
(Eng. Lat.) &c. — Pot, (Scotch,) contains the different turns of meaning 
in this Race of words, as it signifies " A Pit, Dungeon. — A Pond full 
" of water, a Pool or deep place in a river. A Moss-hole from whence 
" Peats have been dug," where Dr. Jamieson has referred us to the 
combination of kindred terms Pete-Pot, "A Hole out of which Peats 
" have been dug," under which he has duly recorded the terms cor- 
responding with Pit, as the Teutonic Put, " Lacus, locus Palustris,'' 
&c. &c. The preceding article to this is Pet, Pettle, " To fondle, 
** to indulge, to treat as a Pet," where the only difficulty is to decide 
on the original turn of meaning, belonging to the same fundamental 
notion. I shew, in another place, that terms denoting Little, are 
derived from the idea of the minute Piece, or Lump of Dirt, and such 
may be the signification of Pet. Yet the sense of Fondling seems to 
bring us to the idea of Soft matter, and not of what is Small. The suc- 
ceeding word to Pot in Dr. Jamieson's Dictionary is l^orard, occurring 
in a work, of which some copies read, Dotard. — Here Pot means Soft, 
and we see how *To Pet,' To Fondle may belong to it, just as Fojid, 
{" Foolish Fond old man,") belongs to Fondle. — Bog, (Ir.) Soft, 
penetrable, to which General Vallancey has justly referred the Algonkin 
term Bogo, Soft, (^Essay on Celt. Lang.) BoGac/?, Boclach, (Ir.) 
"A Marsh, Moor, Bog, Swamp." — BoTuach, (Ir.) A Fen, or Bog; 
FoTHUclt; (Gal.) a Lake. — Boidhlia, (Ir.) Puddle. — BAKoias, (BaKoia^, 
n>?/\os, Hesych.) Alud, Clay, &c. I see adjacent to this word in 
Hesychius Bako«, a Cretan word for Falling; corresponding with Pesow, 
(BuKou, ritcroi', KjO>jTes,) and wc shall all understand, how the idea of 
SHp/)ing and Falling bring us to Mud, and I shall shew in a future 
Volume, that Labi, (Lat.) belongs to sLip, sLinie, Limus, &c. I see, 
moreover in Hesychius BxKoa for BxTiiron, a Step, and Bakchoa for 


58 B,F,P,V,W.} C, D, G, J, K, Q, S, T, X, Z. ^ l,m,n,r. 

BoTHros, A Ditch, (BaKoa, 'QuQpov. — BuKXoav, Bodpov AtoAeiS.) — 

Bezzle, cwBezzle, To Swallow up as in a Puddle, — Boggle, or 

Bog Spot. The term Joro belongs to Vorago for the same reason, 

Johnson explains c/^Bezzle by, ' To SwAhloiv up in riot.' The term 

Sivalloiv has a similar origin and meaning, as referred to the Radical 

SL, GL. It means in one sense what ^wzBezzle does, as Johnson 

explains it by, " To engross, to appropriate, often with up emphatical," 

and in another sense he explains it by, " To absorb, to take in ; to sink 

" in any ahyss, to i?/GULPH, with tip," as in Milton, " In Bogs, 

" Sivalloivd up and lost."—" f 2 BZ," (Heb.) " Soft mire.— As a n. 

" p3" BUZ, " Byss«/5, of which very fine white garments, like linen, 

" were made," where we see, how a term denoting Fine garments is 

derived from Mud, whether as referred to the Soft, Fine substance, 

when it is formed into cloth, or as referring, as Mr. Parkhurst appears 

to suppose, to the Soft dotvny " substance formed in the inside of the 

" pods of the shrub." I see an adjacent term to this pV3 BZK, " To 

" be made Soft by moistening. — As a n. Meal moistened with water, 

" Paste, or Dough unleavened," where let us mark a kindred term 

Paste. In Arabic, says our Author, the word signifies to Spit, " Spuit, 

" Sputavit,'' where let us again note in sPit, sPuto, other kindred 

terms. — Batch- CwAe, Batch of Bread, in which latter application it 

refers to a certain quantity of Batch, or Dough matter, put into the 

oven at once. The succeeding words to this term in Nathan Bailey 

are, "To Bate, To oBate, which belongs to the idea of Lowering,'' 

derived from the Base or Low Spot, and Bate, The texture "of wood," 

which means the Matter of Wood. The next word is "To Bate," 

a term in Falconry, which refers to the fluttering, or Beat/w^ of a 

Hawk's wings. — Batter, " A mixture of water, flour, eggs, &c. to 

" make Pancakes," which the Etymologists derive from Battre, 

" because it is always well BEATe/? together." This may be the fact, 

and if it be so, it is but a step removed from the original idea. I 

suppose, that To Beat, or To Batter, means originally 'To Pash,' 

i. e. ' To reduce to Pash, or Pudge Matter,' or * To strike against 

' Pash matter ;' and it would be idle to enquire, whether Batter 


means Pash matter, or Pash'd, BatterV, or Beatc^ Matter. — Butter, 
with its parallels in various Languages, Butcr, (Sax.) Butter, (Germ.) 
Boter, (Belg.) Butyrum, (Lat.) Bouturon, (Bovrvpov,^ &c. &c. means 
the Battek like matter. Wachter has justly seen, that the term Butter 
is not derived from the Greek word, but that it was adopted by the 
Greeks from the Barbarians, as they are called. When the term was 
written by the Greeks, it should seem, as if the form Bovrvpov had 
been purposely adopted under some Etymological fancy, which now 
exists, that the word belonged to their terms Boys and Tvpo^, quasi 
Coagiilum I7iccce. This must be added to innumerable other examples 
of that monopolising spirit, for which this lively nation was so much 
distinguished. The Glossaries give us Pikeu?o??, (YliKepiovy Butyrum,) 
under which form the Greek pretensions are lost. — Bake, Coquere 
panes, means To make up, or to be made up into a consistent Liwip. 
Some of the parallels produced by the Etymologists are Boecan, (Sax.) 
Pinsere, coquere, Bage, (Dan.) Backen, (Germ, and Belg.) Baka, (Isl.) 
Pachan, (Franc.) and the Phrygian Bek, or Bekkos, (Be/cKos, Panis, 
Phrygum lingua. Stultus, Delirus,) denoting Bread. — They fail not, 
moreover, to remind us of that notable story of the Egyptian King, 
who having secluded some children from the means of hearing any 
Language spoken, at last found that they uttered of themselves the 
sound Bek, which he discovered to be the Phrygian term for Bread. 
If we should imagine, that in spite of all the vigilance of our enquiring 
King, these children had found the means of procuring a Teutonic 
Tutor, our wonder might be considerably diminished. The Etymologists 
record likewise the Greek Bago5, which according to Hesychius signified 
a piece of Bread, or Pudding, (Bayos, KXaa-fxa aprov t] /jlu^)]^.) In 
Scotch we have a term which directly connects Bake with the BoG. 
In the same column of Dr. .lamieson, where we have Bakster, Baxster, 
a Baker, from which form our name Baxter is derived ; we find 
likewise Bakie, " the name given to one kind of Peat." Those who 
suppose this to be a secondary sense, still illustrate the union of ideas, 
supposed in my hypothesis, by observing, that " When brought to 
" a proper consistency, a woman on each side of the line Kneads, 

H 2 

60 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.] l,vi,n,r. 

" or Bakes this Paste into Masses, of the shape and size of Peats, 

" and spreads them in rows on the grass. From the manner of the 

" operation, these Peats are called Bakies." Mr. Parkhurst compares the 

Phrygian and Grascian terms, just produced, with the Hebrew BG J3, 

which signifies "Meat, Food, — and in composition with r\D," PT, 

" A portion." The two succeeding terms in Mr. Parkhurst are ^J2 

BGD, a covering of Cloth, and 12, BD relating to Separation, where 

we have Matter, under its two forms of a Mass, or Lump, and of 

Separation in its Yielding, Loose State ; where we see only different 

turns of meaning, annexed to the same idea, as Mr. Parkhurst supposes, 

that the term BG J3 in its' original notion means, "To Spoil, Pluck, 

" Break off." The substantive signifies a Lump, Piece, or Part, and 

the Verb To Part or Separate. Junius produces under Bake, another 

term in Hesychius, Bxaaron, which among the Lacedemonians signified 

Tepid, (Bayapov, ;!^Aia|0Oj/,) and which he refers to the Teutonic 

" Bakerc/?, Fovere, focillare, niodico calore reficere. D. quoque Bagar 

" et saar est Fovere vulnus," which means, perhaps, to Rub, Foment^ 

or Bathe, as we express it, in Soft-Liquid matter, and from hence it 

might pass into the idea of Warmth, acquired by such Bath/wo-, or 

Fomenting. The term Bathe and its kindred Bath, belong to the 

idea of the Watery-Liquid Matter. In Scotch Beik, &c. has a similar 

meaning, which Dr. Jamieson explains by and refers to Bask, (Eng.) 

as likewise to the Dutch Baheren, the ancient Swedish Ba/ca, and the 

English Bake, &c. &c. The preceding term to Bake in Junius, is 

Baize, or Jine Freeze, 'Villosus pannus,' which means the Fuzzy, or 

Pudgy swelling up stuff. — PisTor, Pisi, Pinso, "To bruise, stamp, 

" bray, as in a mortar," i. e. To reduce to a Pudge state. To Knead 

up Pudge matter. Here we see how the form PS, and PN, pass into 

each other. In one sense this Latin word means, "To Peck," where 

we see a kindred term. — Vvuving, with its parallels produced by the 

Etymologists, Puding, (Swed.) Boudin, Bodello, (Ital.) Budella, (Ital.) 

Intestina, Botulus, BoteUus, &c. The verb BouDcr means " To Pout," 

where we see the idea of the Swelling out appearance, and here let 

us note a kindred term Pout. In Gaelic Vvrag is a ' Pudding,' and 


in Welsh Poten means, as Mr. Owen accurately explains it, " What 
" Bulges out, a Paunch ; a Pudding." — Paste, Pastey, Pie, &c. in 
which latter word the second consonant of the Radical is lost, with 
their parallels, produced by the Etymologists, Paste, Pate, Patee, (Fr.) 
Pasta, (Ital, and Span.) Pasticcio, (Ital.) Pastello, (Span.) Posteeg, 
(Dan.) Pastet/e, (Belg.) &c.- &c. to which they might have added 
YastH/us, (Lat.) The Etymologists justly remind us under these words 
of a kindred term Passo, {Ylaa-a-a), Conspcrgo,) which means to Pash 
about. In Irish Pigiie is "a Pye, and Pighe-F^o/, a Pasty;" and 
in the same column of Mr. Shaw's Dictionary, where this word occurs, 
I see PiGadh, Pig//?, " An earthen Pitcher," which together with the 
English term Pitcher are to be referred to the Hollow of the Pit, 
or the materials of Pudge matter, from which it is formed ; as likewise 
Pic, Pich, denoting Pitch, where we are unequivocally brought to 
Pudge matter. — I shall shew, that the verb 'To Pitch' in English 
means to Pudge, or Stick in, upon, &c. — Adjacent to the word Paste, 
I see in Junius Past//?/*, with its parallels, Past///oc«, (Lat. Ital. and 
Span.) Pastcnade, (Fr.) Pastinake, (Belg.) &c. which may mean the 
SwcUiug out substance, as applied to its form, or it may belong to 
Pasco, as the Etymologists suppose, from its SweUiiig out, or YxTrcning 
quality. I shall shew, that Fat, Feed, Pasco, belong to the idea of 
Swelling or YvoGing out. Perhaps the Nip in Vxsr-Nip may signify 
To Pluck up. — Another adjacent word is Patch which unequivocally 
means the Swe/ling up, Pudge Substance. In its application to a 
Plaister, " Panniculus medicamento illitus atque affects parti impositus," 
we see the idea of Smeary Pudge matter, and in the phrase " A Patch 
" of Dirt, Land,'' we arc brought to the Substance, and the Spot 
supposed in my hypothesis. In the sense of a Patch on a Garment, 
we come to the Botch, and the BoTcner; the origin of which is 
manifest in the sense, which Botch bears of the Fout Swelling Soi'e. 
The parallels to Botch produced by the Etymologists are Bosse, (Fr.) 
Bozza, (Span.) Botch in the sense of a Sivetling, Rising Sore, brings 
us to Pock, Pox, &c. &c. — Skinner under P.vtch has justly reminded 
us of the word Piece, the Italian Pezzo, Sec. which mean nothing 


B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Y,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

but the hump. In the sense of Piece, as applied to a Warlike instru- 
ment, having capacity to hold or contain, with its parallels produced 
by the Etymologists, Buyse, Busse, (Belg.) Harque-BusE, we see the 
SiveUing out object, or Hollow, &c. able to hold or contain. — sVoggos, 
(S7ro7709, Spongia,) the Spungy Substance, where we see, how the 
forms PG and PN pass into each other. — Pottage with its parallels 
Potage, Potaggio, (Fr. Ital.) where Junius refers us to Broth, Porridge, 
which belong to the Element BR, and to Pot, which with its parallels 
Pot, Potto, (Fr. Ital.) Pocu/um, (Lat.) Poterion, (TloTtipiov,) seem to 
mean that, which contains Liquid, and to be derived from the Watery, 
Pudgy Spot, the Pit, though this term will be considered on a future 
occasion. The next word to Pot is PoTa^oes, Potados, (Span.) Potate, 
(Ital.) Battata, where the PT, BT, would represent the Elementary 
sense of Rising, or Sivelling, if the Radical PT was the source, from which 
these words are derived. — Podge, as in Hodge-7oi>GE, has been under- 
stood by the Etymologists to have some relation to the German Pfutze, 
Lacus, &c. Vessica, Pustula, as Skinner explains it, (where let us mark ' 
in VESsica, and PusT«/a, kindred terms,) and to the Latin Fossff, and 
PuTcz/s. In the same column of Skinner's Lexicon, with these words, 
I find Pod, Folliculi leguminum. Pocket, with its parallels Pocca, (Sax.) 
Poche, Pochette, (Fr.) Poke, (Belg.) which is sometimes the English 
form, Pocket, quasi Packet, or Pack of wool. Pock, Pox, and 
Poach'c? eggs, where we see the Swelling out Substances, as of a Pudge 
kind. I find likewise Vocard, a Lincolnshire term, for a species of 
Duck called Bosca, which Skinner derives from Acrd, natura, and 
Pocca, (Sax.) the Poke, or Bag, "quia sc. rostrum latius habet ad 
*' quandam Perce, seu cochlearis speciem." Even Poesy, which occurs 
in the same column of Skinner; and which belongs to Poieo, Poieso, 
(Tloiew, riou/o-o),) must be referred to the same train of ideas. I shall 
shew that the Greek Poieo is quasi Pojeo, and signifies, 'To make 
* up, or Form shapes of Plastic, or Pudge matter.' — Posset, which 
some derive from Potus, and others from Poser, Residere.— Pith, with 
its parallel produced by the Etymologists Pid, Pitted, Medulla, all 
>vhich denote the Soft Pudgy substance. Some derive Pith from Pix, 


and others from Bvdo^. — Putty, (Eng.) the composition of a Pudge 
nature, used by Glaziers, &c. The verb under a similar form in English 
Put is nothing but 'To Pudge in,' if I may so say, just as "To Stick 
" in " belongs to Sticky matter. — Pitch, (Eng. substantive,) with its 
acknowdedged parallels, Pic, Pix, (Sax.) Peg, Beg, (Dan.) Pege, 
Poix, (Fr.) Pcccia, Pecc, (Ital.) Pech, (Germ.) Pecf,; (Belg.) Pix, Picea, 
(Lat.) Pitta, Pissa, Pit/is, (Uirra, Uicra-a, Ylirra, Pix, UevK)], Pinus, 
ntri/s, Picea, Pinus.) We should imagine, that Pinus was only a 
different form of these words, which will be considered in another 
place, among the words under the Elementary character PN. The 
verb, ' To Pitch,' is to Stick as into Pitch, or Pudge matter, as I before 
observed. Wachter has the form Bech, for Pech, Pix ; the next 
article to which is Bech, an ancient word for Tenehrce; the origin 
of which, as he says, is obscure. He observes, however, that this term 
seems to exist in the compound ^Ecn-schtvartz, " Ater instar tenebrarum, 
" nisi referre malis ad PicemS' This combination answers to our phrase, 
" Pitch dark," and the sense of Bech, Darkness, belongs directly to 
Bech, Pitch. — In Shakspeare we have "F itchy -Night," (All's well, &c.) 
and "Night is fled, whose Pitchy mantle overveil'd the Earth," 
(Hen. VI. P. 1.) Nothing can be more marvellous, than that Wachter 
should not at once understand and acknowledge this relation. There 
are various terms belonging to our Element, which relate to the Black, 
Dark colour, as we express it, which are to be referred to the terms, 
denoting Dirt, under that Element, such as Phaios, (<I>a4os,) Fusc«*, 
Bis, (Fr.) &c. Sec. It is impossible not to see, how Fuscus, " Brown, 
"Tawny, a dim, or dark colour; dusky," &c. connects itself with 
Yvcus, the Foul Dawh, and with F^x, Ymcis, Dregs, Dirt. I shall shew, 
that Dark, Dregs and Dirt, all belong to each other for the same reason, 
and that Dusky belongs to Dust.—Tirvita, "Phlegm, Rheum," &c. which 
the Etymologists have justly compared with PET//rt, {TliiTua, Coagulum,) 
which belongs to Pett/'o, and Petto, (iltiTrw, Yltja-a-oo, Figo, Gelo.) 
These words will shew us, that Figo, Fix, &c. is attached to the 
idea of Pudge matter, quasi, * To Pudge in,' or 'To be in a Pudgy. 
' Pudg'd in state;' just as 'To Stick in' belongs to Sticky matter. 


B,F,P,V,W.| ■ C,D,J,K,Q,S,T,X, Z.| l,m,n,r. 

The form Pit in Firuifa will suggest to us, that the following 
words belong to our Elementary form PT, Spuo, sVutu??}, s?vto. Spew, 
sPiT, sPuTTER, sPiTTLE, with their parallels Spewan, (Sax.) Speyen, 
(Germ.) &c. &c. sVjETan, (Sax.) sPuxzew, sPetkeln, (Germ.) &c. &c. 
Vtuo, Put/xo, (IItvu), Spuo, UvnXw, Crebro Spufo.') In the compound 
Latin term c-FvvtIo we have, likewise, the full form. The preceding 
term to Put/so in my Greek Vocabulary is Pux/a, {Uuna, Coagulum,) 
which they derive from Puos, and this brings us to the Latin Pus, 
" Matter, corruption," &c. [Tluo^, ov) Colostrum, seu colostra, primum 
" lac a partu in omnibus animantibus ; ITi/os, Uueos, Pus." Hence 
we pass to Pux/io, (Uvduj,^ corresponding with the Latin Puxreo, 
PutWc/, Furridus, &c. and in the same column of my Greek Dictionary, 
where this word occurs, I see Furumen, (nvd/dtiu,^ the Bottom, and 
VvTuomai, (Hudofxai,') Audio. This brings us to Punthanoniai, where 
we have the form PN, and FEVTHomai, {Uwdavojjiai, Audio, intelligo, 
cognosce, Interrogo, Percontor,) the original idea of which is that 
of Enquiring, or Fusning into the Pudge, or Botto/w, just as Scrufor 
means Routing into old trumpery, and as the explanatory word Percontor 
means, in its first sense. To rout into the Ground with a Pole, &c. 
What in Greek is called Puos, (FTi/o?, Colostrum,) is in English called 
B-EJLSTings, to which the Etymologists have produced as parallel Beost, 
Bysting, (Sax.) Biest, '(Belg.) Bcton, (Fr.) some of whom derive it, 
though not without an expression of doubt, from Best, optimus, and 
others refer us to Pex«o, (Utjrva, coagulum.) —The words, which 
appear under the form sFT, must be considered as belonging to the 
form PT. The Etymologists understand, that sFATrer, To bedawb, 
belongs to sPix, sPuxxer, sFjEr/ian, sPadl, Sputum, and they refer 
us likewise to the Greek sFxrhao, sPataloo, (^1.7ra6aw, J.-TraraXaw,') 
which Skinner has well translated in their fundamental sense, by Dissipo ; 
all which will be explained on a future occasion. It will be agreed, 
that our vulgar term, belonging to the French Pisser, the Italian Pisciare, 
the Danish Pisser, is to be added to these words. In Piddle we see 
the form Puddle, and when we talk of a FiDDlif?g fellow, we have 
the sense of a Person Puddling about vile, little, or insignificant affairs. 


The PiS77«Ve, is not " q. d. quae in luto mingit," but the animal, which 
Pudges amongst, or Passes amongst Pudge or Mire. The Murmex, 
(Mup/ixt]^,') Formica, belong to the forms Mire, Meer, Mare, which will 
be explained in its due place. 

Terms, which express Bog, or Pudge matter, as more particularly 
relating to the Boggy, Marshy, IVatcry Spot, or to Water in 

Bog, Pudge, Puddle, &c. 

BooacA, Boolach, (Ir.) A Marsh, Moor, 

Bog, Swamp. 
BoTHacA, FoTHflcA, (Ir.) A Fen, Lake. 
Pit, Puteus, Putealis, (Eng. Lat.) 
Pydaw, (Welsh.) An oozing fluid, a Quag, 

a well, spring. 
PrUTZE, (Germ.) A Puddle, Bog, Quagmire, 

Hollow Pit. 
Pege, PiDaar, (Gr.) A Fountain. 

PiSEA, (Gr.) Watery Spots, A Meadow, &c. 
PoTflffJOS, PoTon, PoTJZO, &c. (Gr.) the 

Low Watery Spot, Liquid. 
Baiter, Bedu, Voda. 
Vos, WeTj Wash. 
Water, Udor. 
Aqua, Esc, Isc, &c. &c. (Celt. Phryg. 

Sclavon. Cng. &,c.) Terms relating to 


The terms, denoting Water, are perpetually connected with the 
Boggy, JVatery Spot, full of Pudge, Mire, Mud, &c. &c. The term 
Meer means the Spot abounding with Mire, and to Meer belongs Mare, 
the Sea. In Saxon the same word Mere signifies " A Mere. Palus, 
" Lacus," and likewise " Mare,'' as Lye explains it. It has been per- 
petually remarked, likewise, that Limne, in Greek, (Atjui/f/, Palus, stagnum, 
lacus, Mare,) is at once the Marshy Spot, and the Sea, (HeAtos ^'avopovae 
XiTTwv TrepiKuWea Xifxvriv, Odyss. 7. 1.) I shall shew in a future 


66 B, F,P,V,W.| C, D, G, J, K, Q, S, T, X, Z. ^ l,m,n,r. 

Volume, that Limne, Leimon, Sec. (^Aijuur], Aeijuwv, Pratum, &c.) 
belong to such terms as Limns, (Lat.) Lime, Loam, (Eng.) &c. &c. 
signifying peculiarly Mud, or Dirt of a Watery, sLimy nature. — Among 
the terms, which belong to the Element BC, &c. denoting Bog, or 
Pudge matter, as particularly relating to the Miry, Marshy, or Jf'utery 
Spot, or to JFatcr in general, must be classed the following. Boo, 
Pudge, Puddle, (Eng.) Buggle, (Scotch) a Bog. — Bocae/?, Bog/ucA, 
(fr.) "A Marsh, Moor, Bog, Swamp," Boidhlt«, (Ir.) Puddle, Bog, 
(Ir.) Soft, BoTH«c/?, (Ir.) A Fen, or Bog, Fothoc^, (Ir.) a Lake, 
Pit, (Eng.) Putcm*, PuTca/is, (Lat.) the Pit with tvater, with the 
parallels before produced — Vyduiu, (Welsh.) "An oozing fluid, a quag; 
"a well or spring." — Pfutze, (Germ.) "A Puddle, Lake, Slough, 
" Bog, plash, quagmire, hollow Pit," under which Wachter has produced 
the Hebrew Bots, Batso/?, Palus, the Greek Buthos, BuTH?se/«, (By^os, 
Profunditas, gurges, 'QvBi^eiv in profundum mergere.) — These terms 
1 have before produced. — Bais, Baister, Baiter, (Ir.) f filter, Baite, 
(Ir.) Drowned, BAiSDeaw, "To baptise; to dip." Baidh, (Ir.) 
A Wave; — BEDyz, (Welsh,) Baptism ; Bawz, (Welsh,) " Drowning, 
" demersion." — Baz, (Welsh,) "A Bath, A Bathing place," where 
let us note the kindred terms in English Bath, Bathe, with their 
parallels produced by the Etymologists, Bceth, Bath, (Sax.) Thermae, 
Balnea, Bcethan, Baihian, Lavare, Bedian, Fomentare, (Sax.) Bad, 
Baden, (Belg. and Teut.) Bagner, Bain, (Fr.) Bagno, Bagnare (Ital.) 
&c. &c. Some of these words are applied to what we express in 
English by Bath/wo^, or Fomenting with IFarm water. Hence also 
Junius explains To Bathe, by, "To Wette, or Wash, or Soke with 
" lukewarm liquor," and he produces, likewise, the term of the Hollanders 
BETTen, Aqua emollire. Under the term Bath Junius has produced 
the Belgic BxD^Stove, which properly means the Stove for the Warm- 
Bath. Hence is our combination BxTu-Stuve, which now signifies 
a Stov2 for containing Fire, without any application of the original idea. 
Some have conceived, that the BATU-Stovc is a Stove from a Bath 
manufactory, and if any such exists, it is a whimsical coincidence. — 
The name of this spot, we know, is derived from the Baths, which 


it contains ; and Wachter has justly seen, that Baj^ is derived from 
the Baths, or Thermcc, for which it was famous, as this Etymologist 
observes under Bcvhen, Fomentare, where he records, likewise, a Greek 
term Bo, (Bw,) which means, as he tells us, Caleo. General Vallancey 
explains Bais, (Irish,) by " Water, stagnant AVater, whence Baiste, 
" Wetted, Baptized., Bathac/?, J^otcmcIi, Marshy Ground, 
" Swampy." He adds, likewise, that in Chaldee yV3 Bezz is a Swamp, 
and that the Arabs, like the Irish, use Bais in general for " Wbter 
" stagnant, or fluent, from the Arabic ^j^. Baj?/*, aqua fluens. — In 
'* the dialect of one of the Burma tribes, rain is named Bister, and 
•* Bc-Baiste was the goddess of rain or moisture among the ^Egyptians," 
{Specimen of an hish Dictionarij.) Mr. Richardson explains this Arabic 
word by " (Clouds) pouring down rain." In the same opening of 
this writer's Dictionary, I see, among other words, singularly illustrative 
of my hypothesis, Besk jJj " Breaking down banks, dikes, or Mounds, 
" (A Rivcr,^ DifTusing ff^ater, overflowing, (a River,y' — Bisk, the 
place, or Breach, through which Water bursts, and Bis/?<?f, " Plain, 
" equal, level and Soft Ground. — Soft Sand, Butter," and Besa, " Soft 
'•■ Ground, name of a Fountain." In Hebrew^ HDD BKH is "To ooze, 
" ooze out as liquor, to distil in small quantities," says Mr. Parkhurst. 
This word signifies, "To weep,'' and Castell has produced terms under 
the same Element BC, «Scc. in Chaldee, Syriac, Samaritan, Arabic, and 
vEthiopic, which have a similar meaning. The preceding term to this 
Hebrew word in Mr. Parkhurst's Lexicon, is i03 BKA, the exact sense 
of which is not ascertained. Some think, that it means a Shrub, 
distilling "an odoriferous Gum,'' and we find it applied to a Valley, 
which is conceived by some, to be the Valley of Thorns, and by others, 
of Tears, where we are brought to the Low Oozij, or Bog Spot, In 
Welsh, we have terms, denoting the Low, Base spot, connected 
likewise with IFatcr, as Bas, " A shallow, shoal, or flat, Basu, To 
" render shallow; to fall, or lower," Bais, " Flats, or shallows; a Ford." 
BEisiaw, " To render shallow, to feel the Bottom ; to Ifadc, or Ford ; 
" to Dare," and in another article we have BEizmw, "To Dare, to 
" adventure," which is derived from the idea of passing over the Muddy 

I 2 

68 B,F,P,V,\V.} C,D,J, K, Q,S,T, X, Z.| hm,n,r. 

Ford. I shall shew in the course of my discussions, that various words 
for Danger are derived from Sinking into the Miry Spot. I see adjacent 
to Bas, in Mr. Owen's Dictionary, Bath, " Likeness; Emblem ; a Copy,, 
"a Coin." I must leave the Celtic Scholars to decide, whether Bath, 
the Coin, be not taken from the Vessel, or the Bath, in which it is 
melted. I see in my Galic and Irish Dictionary, the term Bad, a Boat, 
adjacent to some of the words, produced above, which might lead us 
to conclude, that Boat, and its parallels Bate, (Sax.) Boot, (Belg. and 
Germ.) Bateau, Batello, (Fr. Ital.) &c. &c. meant that, which goes 
upon the JFater; though it probably means the HoUotv vessel, as 
derived from the Low-Sinking in Pudge Spot. I ought not to omit, 
that in Irish, Baid is a Wave, and that Bad, the Boat, means, " A bunch, 
" Bush, cluster, tuft," in which sense, the term is certainly derived from 
the idea of Rising, or Siuelling out, as of the Baid, Wave, i. e. Watery 
Bog matter. In the same column of Mr. Shaw's Dictionary we have 
Bacho/Vc, " The Boss of a Shield," where we have a similar idea. — 
Bedw, (BeSy,) the ancient Phrygian name for Water, " Be Si/ tovs <^pvya^ 
" TO vdwp Kptjcri KaXeiv, kuQo kui Opcpev^, Kai Bedv vvfx(pawv KaTaXei/Serai 
" ayXaov vlwp,'" {Orph. Gesn. p. 384-5.) — BoDA, or Voda, (BoSa,) the 
Sclavonic name, as Russian, &c. for Water. — Bach, (Germ.) " Rivus, 
" parvum fluentum," to which Wachter has justly referred Becc, (Sax.) 
Bceck, (Swed.) Beek, (Belg.) Becke, (Eng.) and the Greek VEoai, 
or PAcai, (Yltiyai, Uayai, Pontes.) The Beach, or Strand, is the part 
belonging to the Bach, or Water, Wachter records under Bach, the 
derivation, which Festus gives of Pagms, from the Doric form, for a 
Fountain. Vagus is only another form of Views. The term FAoina 
is not derived from Pangc7ido, but belongs to Vagus, just as Plagula, 
a Sheet of Paper belongs to Plaga, a tract of Ground. Festus sees 
something of this idea, when he tells us, that " Paging dictae, quod 
" in libris suam quaeque obtinent Regionem, ut Pagi.'' The Pagans 
are so called probably because their religion was at last to be found 
only in Villages. — Wachter has duly noted the names, in which Bach 
is found, as Brude-BEc, Caude-BEC, &c. &c. and in another article 
Wachter has the term Beuchcw, or Bucnew, which he explains by 


" Macerare lixivio, Anglice To Buck, Sax. inf. Byken, Byen, Gall. Buer, 
" Omnia a Lat. Biio." Whether Buo, Inibuo, Imbue, Sec. directly 
belong to the form BC, as being derived from it, or as an original 
form, it would be idle to enquire. We know only that under the simple 
Labial form B*, few terms exist, and that the other forms BC, &c. 
when once existing constitute a separate Radical form. AVachter pro- 
duces, likewise, the Italian Bvcato. We now see, how according to 
my hypothesis Buck, the animal, and the Wash, may belong to each other. 
I suppose, that Buck means the animal, which Sticks with his horns, 
and I conceive, that the terms for Sficking belonging to our Element 
BC mean, as Buck does. To Push, &c. To Pudge in, as it were, just 
as Stick belongs to Sticky matter. Again, in German Beizc/?, Bf.issc/?, 
is " Macerare," which I see in the same opening of Wachter's Dictionary 
with Beisscv?, Puiigere, Mordere, belonging to our word Bite, which 
we now see means ' To Stick the teeth into any thing.' Again, in 
German, Feucht is "Madidus, humidus," &c. — Pash, (Eng.) — Passo, 
(Jlaa-arw, Inspergo, Conspergo,) To Pash about ; — Pioax, (Ylila^, Fons, 
Scaiehra, aqua saliens,) which connects itself with Ped«o, (Y\y]^uco, 
Salio, salto, Scaturio,^ To Pash up, about, &c. — Pisea, (Jlia-ea, Locus 
humidus, et irriguus, hortus, pratum,) the Pashy or Pudge Spot ; 
which appears in the same page of my Greek Dictionary with Pissa, 
(riio-o-a, P/.1',) Pudge matter, and VittuIos, (YIittvXo^, sonus seu 
strepitus, qualis praesertim aquae remo percussae,) where we have the 
PASHino" noise of water; — PoTumos, Potow, Poso, Kat-e-VoTHcn, TotIzu, 
(Gr.) Pot/o, &c. (Lat.) (norajuos, Fluvius, Uotou, Potio, Potus, 
Tlivw, Tlwcru), Bibo, KaTaTriuco, Absorbeo, Bibo, Deglutio, Devoro, 
KareTTodtjv, Uori^w, Irrigo.) In the sense of Devoro, to Swallow up 
as in a forago, or Quagmire, wc have the true idea; as in the phrases 
KaTa7ro6t]vai utto tov x«o'/^«'7"05^, To be swallowed up, as in a Gulph, 
'* Ot AiyuTTTioi KaT£7ro6//o-ai/," The Egyptians were ingulphed in the 
Red Sea. Again, in amPoTis, (Ajuttwt/s, seu A/unrwa-i^, Reciprocatio 
aestus marini,) we have the true idea. In Pino, (Uiuw,^ we pass into 
the form PN. The Etymologists refer the English and French Poison 
to the Latin Poxio, and they might have recorded the term Boucon, 


B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

in the French Language, as denoting Poison. This French word may, 
however, directly belong to Boucque, or Bouche, the Mouth, which 
denotes the Hole, or Hollow. Cotgrave explains Boucon by "A Bit, 
" morsel, mouthful, especially such a one as is empoisoned." The 
next terms to these are ^ovcquinc " A Rammish, or Lascivious queane," 
BouDiN, A PuDDiJSG, and Bone, Dirt. The true sense of Poison appears, 
when we talk of Bog Land, as being Boisoiied by Standing water. 
BoissoN is another term relating to Liquids, which brings us to Boire, 
&c. where we pass into other forms. The English Boose must be 
added to these words. Two of the terms for Herbs, Grass, &c. in 
Greek are Borane, and Poia, which I consider to be quasi Poj<7, (BoTavrj, 
rioia, Herba.) There is a line in Homer, in which the kindred words 
Pegc, Poxawo*, Piscfi and Poia, or Poja all appear, " Kui Yltiya? 
"YloTafjLwv Kai Uia-ea UoirjevTa.'' In examining the terms Potamos, 
&c. (rioTa/xos,) in a Greek Vocabulary, I cast my eyes on Fotmos, 
(rioTjuo?, Sors, Fatum, casus seu fortuna fatali sorte obveniens, 
Interitus, Mors,) which seem to belong directly to its adjacent term 
PoTAMOS, (rioTa/ios,) the Low Pudge Spot, or Bottom, and to 
signify the Accident of Sinking in a Muddy watery Spot. This is a 
very familiar source for terms of Peril, &c. Dangerous accidents, &c. 
though we have seen, that the general idea of Pudge matter, as connected 
with the Low spot, presents to us various ideas relating to Death, m 
which we are in a state of Dissolution, are brought Low, &c. &c. &c. 
The origin of Potmos, (floTfios,) belongs, I imagine, to Potamos, 
(riora^os,) from the Dangerous accident of Sinking into the Quagmire, 
or Watery Spot. The verb belonging to the Welsh V^Daiv, " An 
" oozing fluid, a quag, a well, or spring," before produced, is Ptdu, 
which Mr. Owen explains by, "To Sink; to cause a Sinliing; to form 
" a snare ; to create Danger, to Endanger, to become Dangerous,'' 
where we see my hypothesis about Potmos, (IloT/aos,) illustrated. 
I shall shew, that Danger, under the Element DN, belongs to the same 
idea of Sinliing into Mud, or Dung; and hence we shall see, how 
Dangle, " To Hang, or Sink Down," and Dairk, Wet, Moist, may belong 
to each other. Let us mark Down another of these terms, and we 


cannot but observe, how a kindred word, under a different form Sink, 
' My heart Sinks within me. — A Sink'uig Fit,' belongs to the sub- 
stantive 'A Sink," a collection of Foul Mud, and how this form brings 
us to Sand, Coenum, Konis, (Koi/ts, Pulvis.) Hence we shall have 
Kineo, and Kindunos, (Kivew, Moveo, Kiv^vva, Periculum.) "^I'he sense 
of PoTMOs might be explained by Rat-e-PoTHe/?«/ upo tou Potamom, 
(KaraTTo^j/i/at wo tov UoTafxou,) the accident of being Engulphed in 
a Bog, or Quagmire. In Pothos, {Uodo^, Desiderium, Cupido,) we 
pass from the idea of Taking, or Sicalloicing up, to that of the Desire, 
to Take; just as Cupio belongs to Capio. — Wet, with its parallel terms 
produced by the Etymologists IVaf, (Swed.) JVaf, Wceta, (Sax.) Voed, 
(Dan.) JVette, (Belg.) Lacus, &c. &c. — Wash with its parallels JVascan, 
Wacsan, &c. (Sax.) JFaschen, (Teut. and Belg.) IFaska, (Swed.) &c. 
&c. — Washes explained by Junius, " Dicuntur Norfolciensibus Terra 
" quaedam plana, et plerumque arida, cui nomen a lavando, vel alluendo 
" ductum." The interpretation of Junius ought to have been "Terra 
" htunida et palustris," &c. and Lye has accordingly produced under 
it the Islandic Vos, Fcesa, " Locus Palustris, et Hiunidus, vocatur." 
The explanation of this Islandic term is a precise description of the 
Provincial word the Wash, and such is the name of a piece of Land, 
once possessing this property, which is adjacent to the spot, where 
I am writing these discussions. — Water with its parallels JFcefcr, (Sax.) 
IVasser, (Germ.) Udor, (Gr. YSw/j,) Uato, (Goth.) Watn, (Swed.) 
Uatn, (Cim.) land, (Dan.) Ouodc, (Ruthen.) foda, (Sclavon.) ffoda, 
(Pol.) produced by the Etymologists, to which add Bedlt, (Phr^'gian,) 
Baister, Baiter, &c. &c. before produced. It is impossible, I think, 
for us not to acknowledge, that all these words belong to each other, 
and it is equally, I think, impossible not to allow, that the forms tv-AsH, 
v-Ms, &c. connect themselves with that great Race of words, denoting 
Water, which appears without any vowel-breathing before the *C, *S, &c. 
as AQua, (Lat.) Asc, Esc, &c. (Okie.) which I have examined in 
a former work. In German Feucht means ''Moist, Humid, Wet, 
" damp," to which Wachter has justly produced as parallel, the Belgic 
VucHT, VocHT, to which he might have added the Danish Fugtc, 

72 B, F,P,V, W.J C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.} l,m,n,r. 

To moisten, or Wet, &c. Vaad, " Wet, Moist,'' &c. and the Swedish 
FtrcKTA, " To Wet." In this latter Language Vattu-ader, is "a spring 
" of Water," and Vatt-Puss, " Puddle, Plash." I shall in a future 
page resume my consideration of this subject, and examine the terms, 
appearing under the forms VS, WC, &c. "^S, '*C, which I conceive to 
be fundamentally connected with the form BC, though they may be 
regarded, and should be discussed as separate Radicals in their ordinary 
operation. In l\Ir. Gilchrist's Hindostanee Dictionary I find Wet 
represented by Bheega, which I conceive to be the Sanscrit term, 
and To JVash by PEECHwa, and to be JFashy by " PicH-PiCHowa," 
which is the only term produced, where Pich-Pich is doubled, as with 
us Wishy-Washy, in order to express the idea more strongly. Among 
the terms for a Bog, we have Phusa, and to Boggle is represented 
by ^^a-Peechha-^-, and Puso-Pesh, where again the term is doubled 
for the same reason. In the Malay Language, I see in Mr. Marsden's 
Dictionary Basg/j, "Wet, Moist," Baso/?, "To Wash," and Basi, 
" Musty, Mould, Mother," terms directly succeeding each other. 

In the Peruvian Language the Element PC affords the term for 
JVater, a Fountain, and Court de Gebelin has the following observations 
in his collection of words from that Language : " Paccha, Fountaine, 
" Source. 2° Conduite d'eaux. C'est le primitif nD2 Pache, couler; le 
" Grec Puga, et puis Peghe, Fountaine, source : mot qui entre dans 
" celui d'Jrco-Page. Les Peruviens disent aussi Pucyo, Fountaine. 
" Tvci/u, Citerne, Puc«/o, Vucyu, lieu rempli de sources, de fountaines." 
(Monde, Primitif, Vol. IX. p. 532.) In the same page of this work 
I see two other Peruvian words, "YicQiii, Gomme, elle distille des 
" arbres. C'est I'Oriental HDl Uahhc, BRH, pleurer," YiCQiie, pleurs, 
" YicQueyani, verser des larmes," where we have the idea of Pudge 
matter. In Irish Bigh is " Glue, Bird-lime." Let us mark the An 
in the verb YicQueyani, which is the termination of the Infinitive, as 
Gebelin has remarked, " commune avec la plupart des Langues de 
" I'Europe." In the same page is Pacar?, the Morning, which he 
has justly referred to the Hebrew "ipa Bakar, bearing the same meaning. 
The great Deity of the Peruvians is Pacha-Camac, where Pacha means 


Great, and belongs to a race of words, bearing the same meaning, 
which 1 examine in another place, and which I shew to be derived 
from the Rising, or Swelling Lump of Pudge. Now it is curious, that 
among the terms detailed in this Language, we have this very sense. 
Gebelin observes, A-V\cmta, " CoUine, Montagne de pierre, de Pac, 
" Pic, Montagne Pic," where we have the Greek Pagos, {Ti.a'yo%, 
Tumulus, Collis.) Thus the Peruvian Vxcmta, the Hill, belongs to 
Paccha, the Fountain ; just as the Greek Pago5, and Pagc, or Pege, 
{Ylayo^, Wayt], Ylriyt],) belong to each other. Let us mark Camac, 
" Souverain ;" and we must learn, that in this Language, the term 
Capac has the same meaning. The Cap has been referred by Gebelin 
to Chef, (Fr.) but Cam and Cap are only different forms of each other ; 
and they belong with Chef, Chief-Caput, &c. to the Cum, and Cop, 
in Cumulus, and Copia, the Lump of Dirt, as of the Swamp, Campus, &c. 
where we see the S, C, \ M, S, C, \ P. 

In the same opening of Wachter's Dictionary, in which Bach, Rivus 
is found, I perceive likewise Bach, Tergum, the Back; — Bach, Porcus 
silvestris, to which he has justly referred the English Bacow, and the 
German sPeck, which mean the Swelling out, Pudgy animal ; Back, 
Linter, Scapha, which he has rightly compared with the German Bauch, 
Venter, Bak', Alveus, vas concavum, all denoting the Swelling out, 
or BoGGz'wor out object, if I may so say, able to hold, contain, &c. 
Backe, Collis, tumulus; Backe, Gena, mala, which have still the same 
meaning of the Sivelling out object, and in Backe, Tumulus, the Heap 
of Dirt, or Pudge, Bog matter, we see the origin of these terms, 
according to my hypothesis. There is likewise another term Back^w, 
" Pinsere, conficere panem," corresponding with Bake, which is to make 
up Pudge, or Bog matter into a consistent Lump, as I have before 
observed. Backe, Gena, is justly referred to Bucca, (Lat.) and the 
Celtic Boch, which bring us to the terms for the Mouth in modern 
Languages, as Bouche, Bocca, Sec. from all which we pass to Exsium, 
Buss, &c. &c. The term, which Wachter acknowledges to belong 
to Backe, Tumulus, not only at once conducts us, as the German term 
does, to Dirt, but likewise to that peculiar species of Dirt, which we 


74 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

conceive under the idea of Pudge matter. This term is Pagos, (110705, 
Tumulus, collis, glacies, gelu ; CoJicrcta Massa, &cc.^ belonging to Pegwmo, 
(Ylrijvvw, Compingo, Concrescere facio, congelo, cogo, Pango, Figo, &c.) 
from whence we pass to Fix, Pitch, co?«Pact, &c. &c. &c. I have 
before expressed my doubts on the peculiar idea annexed to Bach, the 
Back, Tergum, but if we say, that it originally meant the BoGG/;?g part, 
we shall see, how entangled the two ideas are of the Lotv, or Back 
part, and the protuberant part, as in the phrase " His Back is up,'" &c. 
The relation between Backe, the Cheek, and Back, the Water, is 
precisely the same in the corresponding Persian term, Bej, or Pej ^., 
as Mr. Richardson represents it, who explains it by "the Cheek, the 
"Jaw-bone, the interior part of the Cheek. — Water,'' and the same 
term Puj means likewise " Any thing Bumping out, convex, globular." 
I have before produced the Persian Pusht c:^ "The Back, Shoulders, 
" loins," which seems directly to coincide with the German Bach. 
In the same and preceding columns of Mr. Richardson's Dictionary, 
we have the following terras J:^ Pesh, which means ^^ Before; the Hasp, 
" into which the Belt or bar runs, when making the door fast. The 
" mane of a horse. — A Bubo," all which means, what Pusnes, or 
PuDGes out, through, up. — Pushte, <u^ " A little Hill, Rising Ground, 
" eminence, declivity. A Heap, the Shoulder-blades," where we directly 
come to the Pudge matter, as in Backe, Collis, and Pagos, (Uwyo^.^ 

In this state of our discussion, we should naturally refer the names 
of Lakes, Haters, &c. which appear under the form BC, PC, &c. to 
the idea of the Bog, or Pudge spot, and we should be likewise led to 
enquire, whether the names of Places, Countries, Towns, &c. especially 
of those, to which remarkable Lakes, or JVaters, are attached, may not 
be derived from the same source. Under the form Bog, we have the 
name of a River in Poland. Wachter supposes, that BoTHNJa, and 
BoDEN-Set', " Lacus, profundus," are derived from an idea of this kind, 
when he records these terms under Boden, and he refers likewise Padw* 
to that word. In the same column of his Glossary, we have Boheim, 
or Bohemia, which is called Bojehemu7n, and which he imagines to be 
Regio Pascua, {Fieh-Land.^ The Heim is acknowledged to belong 


to the parallel terms, to our word Home, Heim, (Germ.) * Regio, Sedes, 
* Domicilium,' and Boj either relates to the Pasaium, in which sense 
it must be referred to the Watery Spot; or, as Wachter conjectures, to 
the habitation of the Boii, or Bojj, signifying Coloni, where we have 
likewise a similar idea of the Ground. Bochart has remarked, that the 
river ^MTis is so called from the Stagnant hakes and Pooh belonging 
to it, " ob id ipsum Punice "^V^3 Bitsi, id est. Paludosus dictus est." 
(^Geograph. Sac. Lib. I. c. xxxiv. p. 6o0.) The part of BcEx/ca, as the 
same writer remarks, at the mouths of the BcExis is called Libystiniis, 
(Lacus,) where there was a city of a similar name, from Le-BiTsm, 
Ad Paludes. The name of this illustrious Hierophant in the mysteries 
of Language, Bochart, is derived from the same origin, and means a 
Marshy Land. The Boch is the Bog, and Art is Nature, Kind, as 
in Drunk-Ard, &c. The term ^oG-hiirst means the Boggy Wood, 
or Grove, Bochart likewise remarks, that Boeth is the name of a Lake, 
which was near Aphaca, a spot adjacent to the River Adonis, where 
was a famous temple to the honor of Venus, who was from hence 
called Aphacis. The term Aphaca is supposed to be derived from a 
Syrian word, signifying An Embrace; but we shall now conjecture, 
I think, that the Phac, and the Boeth refer to the same idea of the 
Pudge, or Bog Spot. Bochart has produced a passage from Zosimus, 
where he tells us, that the Lake near Aphaca, was like a work of art, 
Toi/TOi/ TrXtjcriov At/Lti/»; Tts earriu eoiKvia 'xeipoTroitjTtio ^e^a/mevrj, (Prope 
fanum istud lacus quidam est cisternas manufactee similis,) (^Gcograph. 
Sac. Lib. IL c. xiv.) This lake was probably what it seemed, a work, 
which owed its form to design and labour. — This operation on Lakes 
is among the great employments of the ancient world on those spots, 
where we have any vestiges of its Religion, or its Science. Mr. Davies 
will add this example to his catalogue of Artificial Lakes, &c. and he will 
remark, that the Egyptian Buto, with its Sacred lake and floating island, 
is the Bog spot. (Mythology of the Druids, p. l.'iS.) There is like- 
wise an island, near Crete, a Mystic Land, which bears the same name. 
Let us mark the river Anoms, where the DN, or DJ-N denotes 
the Low, Down Spot of Ground, the Watery, Miry, or Marshy Spot, 

K 2 

76 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,T. 

Waters, Rivers, &c. the Fertile Spot, Gardens, &c. the place of Rest^ 
Settlement, &c. The Gromid in general, C-Thon, (X^wi/,) where we 
perceive the two forms CN, TN, (See Preliminary Dissert, to Etym. 
Univers. p. lOO.) Hence we have the names of the Rivers Tyne, 
Eden, the Dons, &c. of the north, the Dx^ube, the DNiEPer, which 
two latter are only different forms of each other, and which coincide 
with the Eastern term Dien — Ab, &c. where the Ub, Ep, Ab, denote 
Water; as in Avon: — The Den in Garden, with its parallels in various 
Languages; Jar-Dm, &c. — Wharton, i. e. Wort-To^, the Herb, or Wort 
Garden ; the JANNa^ of Eastern Language, Al-J^NNat, the Garden, 
or Paradise, i. e. Eden, which is nothing but our familiar term Eden, 
the Watery delightful spot, adjacent to Rivers, or Edens, &c. (" And 
" a River went out of cDen to water the GarDEN.") — The names of 
TovTNs, Lo??-DoN, &c. &c, the parallel words to which are acknowledged 
by all Etymologists. Hence the story of Adonis is connected with 
Gardens, Horti Adonidis, and the relation of Venus to Ado??/s arises 
from the common idea of Fertility, annexed to each of these personages, 
or objects. The aDoN sometimes means " A Lord, Chief," under which 
sense it still belongs to the idea of the Down Spot, the Base, &c. just as 
hpxn contains the same double sense, (^Apxn, Basis, Principium,) as is 
manifest from the Hebrew \1^ ADN, " A Master, A Lord, &c. — A Base." 
Such is the secret attached to the Element DN. I have shewn, that 
Paddan, in the compound expression Vxnok^-Araw, means the Bottom, 
&c. the Low, Watery, Fertile Spot, and that the Hebrew r\3 BT, " Any 
" Receptacle. A House q, d. A Receptacle for Man, frequently occurs. 
" A Den,'' 8cc. says Mr, Parkhurst, belongs to our word Bed, which 
is brought to its true sense, when we talk of ' A Bed in a Garden, 
* and of the Bed of a River.' Now it is curious, that the part about 
Damascus, that rich fertile Spot, so abounding in Water, is called Beth- 
Eden, the Vale, or Bed of Eden, where the words are applied in their 
precise sense, according to my hypothesis, {Geograph. Sacr. Lib. II. 
c. vii.) The Hebrew scholars might consider, whether the Den in 
Paddan be significant, and whether Paddan is not quasi Pad-cDen, 
corresponding in sense with Beth-cDen. — The Pool of Bethesda is 


supposed to be derived from this term 21^3, BIT a House, and nivn 
CASDH, Mercy ; but we now see, that Beth is applied in its more 
original sense of the Low, Watery Spot. The Greek term for this Pool 
is Columhcthra, (KoXvfxfiridpa, Locus, ubi natare possumus, piscina ; 
Baptisterium,) which is acknowledged to belong to Columbao, (KoAi/ju/Saw, 
nato,) but it is not understood, that the second part of the word is 
significant, and that the whole term is Cohimb,} Bethra, or Ethra, 
where Bethra, or Ethra are the forms Baister, or Water, Udor, 
(YSwp.) The Columb belongs to Slime, Clammy, &c. as denoting the 
Muddy Spot. Let us mark in the English Den, the true sense of the 
Element, as denoting the Low-Hollow spot, which brings us to our 
term Dungeon. We shall now understand, that the Scotch Lady, who 
said, that Dr. Johnson was a " Dungeon of Wit," used the term in its 
true sense, and that she meant only to observe, as she might have 
expressed it, under the same metaphor, that he was a man of Profound 
understanding, or a man of a Deep Fund of understanding, or if we 
might so say, " He was a Profound Fund of understanding," where 
Found and Fund belong in the same manner to the Low spot of Ground, 
the Fundus. It was well for the praiser, and the praised, that the allusion, 
as Dr. Jamieson observes, is not to the Darkness, but to the Depth of a 
Dungeon. " It must be remembered, however," says this Lexicographer, 
who has recorded the story, "for the honour of our Scottish intellect, 
" that the allusion is only to the depth, not to the darkness of a dungeon." 
In my opinion the good Lady would have been singularly fortunate in 
the choice of her term, if she had removed from her conception every 
idea of the depth, and had referred only to the darkness and the dieari- 
ness of the Dungeon. Dr. Jamieson might have remarked on this 
Scotch application of Dungeon, that the French have applied the IVelly 
or Deep Pit in the same manner, when they say " C'est un Puits de 
" Science." Dr. Jamieson in the preceding column of his Dictionary 
to that, in which Dungeon occurs, has the term Dun, " A Hill, eminence," 
where it denotes, as we see, something opposite to the idea of the Loiv- 
Dungy Spot ; but even here we come at once to the original notion. 
The first example, which Dr. Jamieson produces, is the following. 


B,F,P,V, W.| C,D,J,K,Q,S,T,X, Z.} l,m,n,r. 

" There are four or five Moats in different parts of the parish, one of 
" which, (the Dun of Boreland,) is very remarkable," where we see, 
that Moat is a synonymous term, which will be acknowledged to belong 
to the Moat, the Boggy Low spot, as connected with the idea of a 
Hill, or that spot, which contains Masses, or Lumps of Mud Matter. 

The origin of the name of the Boeotian Thebes has been the subject 
of great controversy ; but Bochart has observed, that the Bes in this 
word is derived from y2 BZ Mud. Dic^archus calls this City Kadvdpo^, 
and observes likewise UriXou e^ei ttoXw. {Geograph. Sac. Lib. I. c. xvi. 
p. 427.) The name of the whole country BcEOTia, is derived from the 
same source, and so is Vnocis. The Fogs of BcEoxia, the produce of 
Marshy Lands, have passed into a proverb ; and our ears still ring with 
the fame of those illustrious PEoai, (Urjyai,) or Bogs, with which it 
abounds, the Fountains of Dirce, of Hippocrene, and Aganippe. 

On the origin of BtEoxia I have no doubt, but on that of 
Thebes, there is some difficulty. This great enquirer into Language, 
Bochart, is generally unfortunate, when he recurs to the particles of 
his Eastern Languages, for the formation of his words in other orders 
of Speech. When he refers to the simple terms themselves ; he appeals 
to Radical words, which are common to other Languages. If Thebes 
should be a compound, we might conjecture that the Bes belonged to 
the words before us ; and the existence of the terms Thebes, Thebais, &c. 
in the Egyptian Language, would serve to confirm this idea, in which 
we should conceive, that the Bes was the Radical, and the T an articular 
prefix. We must remember however, that the Elementary Character 
TB, TM, SV, SM, &c. affords the names for Waters, Rivers, Fountains, 
&c. through a wide compass of Human Speech. Lhuyd observes as 
follows: "Tam, a great number of our larger rivers began with the 
" word Tav, and Tiv, or as anciently written Tani and Tim ; hence 
" Thame, or Thames, Tav, Taiiy, Tyiiy, Teivi, Dyji, Deva, Rom. 
" now Dee, Dove, in Staffordshire." (Append, to Baxter s Glossary, 265.) 
Fihuyd supposes, that the Tam in the Greek Potamos, (IloTa/io?,) belongs 
to these terms, which is an extremely probable conjecture, and which 
I once thought to be the fact, though on the most mature deliberation. 


I now conceive, that the Potam is the Bottom. In Irish Tobar, or 
TioBAR, is " A Well," and Taib, the ocean. Hence is our term Tub, 
the receptacle for IViater, and thus in Hebrew H^H TBH, the name 
for the Ark. The form Tobar brings us to the Tihitr, and to the name 
of a river in Sicily, recorded by Theocritus, called Thumbr-?s, {Qvn^pis,) 
sometimes written Dumbr?'*, whose Scholiast has observed, that in 
some Dialects the Sea is called by this name. The Severn, and ^XBmna, 
are only different forms of these words, which Baxter has seen to be 
the Irish and Scotch DABro/m, and T>\waniis, (Gloss. A. B. p. 2o6.) 
He has likewise informed us, that these Rivers sometimes appear under 
the forms of Havrcw, when the sound of S is not heard. In Cornwall 
we have the River Tamar, and a great Poet has given us various forms, 
under which the names for Rivers have passed, derived from the same 
stock. — " Vorticibusque frequens Abra, et nemus omne Treantas, Et 
" Thamcsm meus ante omnes, et fusca metallis Tamara, et extremis 
" me discant Orcades undis." {Milton, Epitaph. Damon. 178, &c.) 
Ahra, says Mr. Warton, is the name for the Tweed, the Humber, 
and the Severn, where let us note the terms Humber, &c. as other forms 
of these words. There is no difficulty in understanding the affinity of 
such terms, if we consider, that the Radical for Water is the Labial 
*M, *B, &c. with the accretions s, S, 8cc.\ "M, "B, &c.} r, n, &c. 
When the n is added to the Radical, we have dVon, aMnis, &c. &c. 
Under the form S, C,} M we have the names of those " immortal 
" Rivulets," the SiMois, and ScxMander. Let us not conceive it to be 
an improbable conjecture, that names corresponding with the Tiiamc^, 
the TiBur and the Seve^z are to be found at Troy, as there is actually 
a River falls into the ScAuander called Tuymbr/ma% where Apollo had 
a grove and a temple, from which he is called TuYMnrceus. Baxter 
conjectures that the Tainesis is a compound of Tuni and Isc; and the 
Ois in Sim-Ois may perhaps likewise belong to Isc, Water, {Gloss. 222.) 
In the same page he records the form SM for a River, as Samara, La 
Sambre, as likewise Damara, Demer, where surely no one can doubt, 
that Samar and Damar are the forms Thumbr-?'*, Dumb;--?'*, Sever 
in Severw, &c. before recorded. Perhaps the Der in Scamander is the 


B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

familiar Celtic term for Water, Dur, &c. Before I quit Thebes, we 
must remember that it is situated on the banks of Ismenus, where the 
SMN is the Seaman of Scamander. We find Ismenias, another form 
for the name of a Boeotian River, where Apollo had a temple, and from 
whence he was called Ismenius. The Temple and the Stream are in- 
dissolubly connected with each other; and here all is Mystical lore, 
relating either to Religion, or to Arts, or to both. The personage 
Scamander, from whom the River is supposed to receive its name, is 
the son of Corybas, who introduces into Phrygia the Festivals of Cybele, 
or Cerid-iuen, and the institutions of the Corybantes. Hence perhaps 
we have Apollo's name SMiNtheus. 

I shall here briefly propose a few names of Places, Lakes, &c. be- 
longing to the Element BC, &c. as derived from the idea of the Watery 
Bog Spot, &c. Of these some will be acknowledged, and others I must 
leave to be considered by our Geographers, &c. &c. BcExwna, BfETis, 
the River, Bai^, quasi Bajce, before produced, Bithynia, called also 
Pontus ; which Bochart imagines to be the same terms, with the 
letters fn of BTN, or PTN, in a different order. However that may 
be, I shall shew, that Pontus the Sea, Lake, &c. belongs to the form 
PN, under the same idea, and that it is ultimately connected with the 
form PTN, &c. — BisxoNm should be considered, and we must not forget 
in this enquiry, the Lake, Biston/'s. The English Town of Bath is 
called in Latin Bathon/o, and in Welsh Caer-BAOON, and we have 
Baden, in German the Baths. — BxTavia is a term, which the Ety- 
mologists have supposed to be derived from B\TONS-Have, Bafonis 
Peculium, a Batone, " sc. Cattorum-duce." The Av in this word may 
denote water, as it does through the whole compass of Language, — Eau, 
(Fr.) qu. Eav, Avon, (Eng.) &c. &c. — Bosphorus, where Bos probably 
means Water, whatever the other part may be. — BcEOTm, from its 
number of Springs. — Booo/na, the River Firth near Edinburgh. — Bod- 
inciis, "An ancient name of the River PADzm," &c. and I have already 
produced Pad»s from Wachter and likewise BoDcn-See, and Bothnjo. 
Let us remember, that Padwo, the Town, is called Y\Tk\ium, and hence 
, the TATAYinity of Livy. In Patav, we seem to have the form Batav, 


in Batav?o. Under the form BSN, we have Bosnia, the Province of 
Turkey, which should be considered. In the name of the place Bos/on, 
the Ton appears to be the Town, and Bos, the Water. The word 
^vsxton has the same origin, to which our common Sirname belongs. 
This will shew us, that the name of the ^OG-Town must have been 
familiar. Skinner is not satisfied with the ancient Saxon name for this 
place, — Baddecan, which, he says, signifies " Pontes Calidi," but he 
refers Bux to Beach, because many Beaches are planted about that spot. 
While I examine this word in Skinner, I cast my eyes on the name of 
HvG-Den, which he acknowledges to be derived from Bog, Palus, and 
Den, Vallis, where we see how Den is taken in its true sense of the 
Doirn, Dungy Spot. — Focin«s, "A Lake in Italy." — Pison, the River 
of Eden. — Phaszs, A River in Taprobane, (^Bochart Geograpli. Sac. 
Lib. II. c. xxvii.) as likewise a River in Colchis, which Bochart refers 
to the Syrian name for a River. From the Phases the term Pheaso/?^, 
VnAsianus, is supposed to be derived. — Phut, the River of Africa. This 
is conceived to be connected with the name of the person Phut, who 
with Misraim is recorded to have divided Africa. It is not the business 
of the present discussion to arrange the order, in which the names of 
Places and Persons were formed. We cannot doubt, however, that the 
Miz in Mizraim, as the name for JEgypt, denotes Mud, and we must 
be here reminded, how the forms PT, and MT, pass into each other. 
Bochart records various names of places belonging to Phut, as Phtemphuti, 
where we have the PT doubled, PuTea, &c. &c. and he records moreover 
the Greek Phth^ <^6ia, Ai/uLtju, (Ibid. p. 235.) We may well imagine, 
that the names of places in w^gypt would be perpetually derived from 
the idea of Water, and Mud. Hence the region Path ros, which is 
supposed to be the Thehais. Under other forms of words, relating to 
this region, we have Pathm, and Busir, which correspond with the forms 
Bottom, and Water, Baister, &c. " Aliis, Path/'o^, vel Patur^* villa 
" est, vel oppidulum prope marc, vel unum ex Nili ostiis, Pathmeticum, 
" ut puto, vel quod idem est, Busiritim.'' (^Ibid. 276.) According to 
Bochart it is a region, but it might be likewise the name of a place. 
J shall shew, in a future Volume, that the name of Lyhia belongs to 


82 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

Limus, and that it was applied originally to ^gypt, the latter of which 
positions some imagine to be the fact. The form Pathm will remind 
us of the Island Patmo5, which Bochart conceives to be derived from 
Batmo, &c. signifying Turpentine in Syriac, Chaldee, and Arabic. 
This term for Turpentine will lead us to consider, whether the Bit, or 
BiTM in HiTumen, does not mean the Pudge matter. I suspect, that it 
is a compound of BT, and TMw, bearing the same meaning. The city 
Pa/i-BoTHRA, which " is now finally fixed by Sir AVilliam Jones, at the 
" junction of the Saone, and the Ganges,'' says Dr. Vincent, {Prelim. 
Dissert, to the Peripl. of Eryth. Sea, p. 18.) means the Water Spot, 
The BATHro7z in Malo-Bathron, " An Indian leaf, whereof Spikenard 
"is made. The unguent itself," as the ordinary Lexicographers decribe 
it, is true under some sense to its Radical idea, and it might refer to the 
Marshy situation, in which it grows. Of this original idea, even the 
Etymologists and Lexicographers have some notion, who refer the word 
to MaXov, Malum, and Bathos (Ba6os, Profunditas, qu. d. in Paludibus 
erescens.) The Malo-Bathron is supposed to be the Betel, or the 
Betre Nut. The Malo?i appears to be the Greek addition, in order to 
express the Apple, or Nut, and the Bathr is assuredly meant for the 
original term. In Mr. Richardson's Dictionary, we have Betle, or 
BTRH i^, or gjL, (Pers.) which he explains by "the Betel Nut, or 
" leaf, much chewed in the East for strengthening the stomach, and 
" giving an agreeable flavour to the breath." The preceding term is 
BETlur, or Vvrkub, " A confection made of nuts, quinces," &c. where 
the Bet, or Put relates to its sense of Pudgy stuff; and perhaps the 
Bet in Bet/c, and BETr, may refer to the same idea, from the process 
of Mastication. I shall shew, that Masticate belongs to Mash, Mud, &c. 
In this column of Mr. Richardson's Dictionary, I see the Arabic term 
Betl, "Cutting, dividing," &c. and the Persian VvTuk, or Putk, 
" A Smith's Hammer, also an anvil," which signifies, what Beats, 
BATTers, or reduces to a Pudge state, and thus we see, how the English 
Beetle, and the Bejel nut, the Masticated substance, contain funda- 
mentally the same idea. In the preceding column of Mr. Richardson's 
Dictionary, we have the Persian Bett, or Pett, " Weaver's glue,'' 


where we see unequivocally the original notion, and in the succeeding 
column we have the Arabic Besr, " IVater absorbed in sand."— Puteoli, 
or Puzzuo/i, is acknowledged to belong to Putems, and so is Puticult. 
I suspect, that the Pausil in Pausilypum, or Yosii^ypo, near this spot, 
belongs to the same term, and that the Yp denotes Water, as in Avon, 
&c. &c. The idea of Ylava-i^ and AvTrtj, as the origin of Pausilypum, 
exhibits a precious specimen of our craft. — Pisa, the celebrated spot in 
Elis, is acknowledged to belong to the idea of a Fountain, whatever 
may be the process by which the term is obtained. Elis belongs to 
the idea contained in Elos, (E\o?, Palus,) and so do Eleiisis, and the 
Elysian Fields. The form Pisa, (Jli<ra,~) as the name of a place co- 
incides with the familiar Greek term, for a Pudgy, Spring Spot, Visos, 
(rittros, Humidus locus, et Irriguus.) The Author of the Analysis of 
Ancient Mythology, (Vol. I. p. 251. Ed. 8vo.) observes, that "Pisa, 
" so celebrated in Elis, was originally Pisan, of the same import, as 
" the Aquce PisanjE above. It was so called from a Sacred Fountain,' 
" to which only the name can be primarily applicable, and we are 
" assured by Strabo T>;i/ Kptjvtjv Tlia-av eiptjcrdai, that the Fountain had 
" certainly the name of Pisan." It is not necessary to enquire, whether 
the Fountain was called Pisa, or Pisan, yet I think, nothing can be more 
certain, than that Strabo has ?iot assured us, in these words, that the 
Fountain had certainly the name of Pisan. The word is supposed to 
be Pisan, as in the Ager PiSAmis of Italy, in order that it may agree 
with Hanes and Phanes, " only the terms are reversed," as this writer 
expresses it. Such are the devices of Mr. Bryant, in the Art of Ety- 
mology; the popularity of whose System, (if any thing so futile may 
be so called,) must be considered, as an indelible disgrace to our national 
good learning, and good sense. — I may venture to hope, that these 
discussions, by which the genius of Languages has been unfolded, will 
for ever operate as barriers against any similar inroads of ignorance and 
audacity, on the credulity of that portion of the Learned world, who 
know but little, and who think less. While I examine the term 
Pisa in the Vocabulary of Robert Ainsworth, I cast my eyes on the 
name of the River called Pisauros. — The Ganges is called by the natives 

L 2 

84 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Y,Z.| l,vi,n,r. 

PuDDA, or Padda, &c. and sometimes Burra-Ganga. Some derive 
the name of Pddda, from a Sanscrit term of a similar kind Pad, in Balic 
Bad, &c. denoting the Foot, as it is supposed to flow from the Foot 
of BEScAa;?, Yisinou, the Deity, which particularly relates to the Genera- 
tive, Fertilizing power of Water, where we see kindred terms. — The 
other great River in India is called Burram PooTer, where the PooTer, 
still denotes the River, and Buna Great. In Thibet this River is called 
San-Poo, Zanciu, where the San, Zan, belongs to the Gan, in Ganges 
denoting the River, the Watery Muddy Spot, Coenum, Channel. 

We have seen, that some of the titles of Apollo have been taken 
from the names of Rivers, or Streams, near which his temple was 
placed. Two of his titles are Put, and PYTH^'^^s, which are acknow- 
ledged to belong to each other. [Bochart, G. S. c. 11.) The name of 
PxTHius is supposed to be derived from Python, the Serpent, which 
he destroyed ; and whatever may have been the origin of the fable, the 
term Python, in the story of its arising from Mud, brings us to the sense 
of our Element, the Pedon, (lleSot/,) &c., or the Pudge Spot and 
matter. The Etymologists justly refer it to a kindred term Putho, 
(riy^o),) PuTreo, denoting what is VuTrid. — The Prophetess of Apollo 
is called PYTHONma, and we know, that in the NeW' Testament, 
"a certain damsel," is recorded, as "possessed with a spirit of Divi- 
" nation," or Python, " which brought her masters much gain by sooth- 
" saying." — ^The story of the Serpent Python, whatever it may be, 
does not interfere with any other fact, to which a term under a similar 
form may belong ; and I must leave the Celtic Scholars to decide, 
whether the Mystic term Python has not, under one of its allusions, 
some reference to the Book of the Druids, called Peithyncw, from 
Peithyn, a term of a similar meaning. Mr. Owen explains Peithyn 
by " Open space ; open work ; that is plain, clear, or open ; what 
" clears, or the reed work of a loom, a slay; a slate, a tile, or other 
plain body," and Peithyncw, "That is plain or clear; a plain body, 
" as a slate, tile, a sheet of paper, and the like ; the elucidator, or frame 
" of writing, the Book of the ancient Bards, which consisted of a number 
" of four-sided, or three-sided sticks written upon, w^hich were put 


" together in a frame, so that each stick might be turned round for 
" the faciUty of reading." It is singular, that in the celebration of the 
Eleusinian Rites, " The Holy Mysteries were read" to the Initiated, 
" out of a Book, called UeTpwua, which word," says the author whom 
I have now before me, " is derived from Uerpa, i. e. a Stone, because 
" the Book was nothing else but two Stones fitly cemented together." 
{Potter's Antiq. Vol. I. Book II. c. 20.) We cannot help noting the 
coincidence of the names for the sacred Book in Y^imynen, and Y^Troma, 
and that amongst the Greeks it was of Stone, which corresponds to the 
sense of the Slate, or Tile, which was probably sometimes used for this 
purpose, as we know it to have been on other occasions. Perhaps 
the victory of Apollo, or Polli, Beli, Belemis, Baal, &c. &c. over the 
Python, might refer in one of its stories to the contests between two 
rival codes of Religion, or Peithync/?. Perpetual allusion is made to 
these contests in the Druid superstition, that great store-house of 
Mythology, to which all our attention should be directed. (^Davies on 
the Druids, 420.) — The fable of killing the Serpent, arising from Mud, 
may refer, in one of its stories, to the cleansing of Lakes, or forming of 
commodious Lakes for the purposes of celebrating the Druid rites, about 
which situations we hear so much, in the records of this extraordinary 
order of men. (^Ibid. p. 158, &c. &c.) 

There was another name of Apollo, VkT\B.cBus, which Bochart derives 
from 1J1S PTR, To Interpret ; from whence, as he thinks, Joseph 
received his name Poter. (G. S. c. QQQ.^ Others refer it to the Town 
of Lycia, Patara, situated " on the eastern side of the mouth of the 
" River Xanthus, with a capacious harbour, a temple, and an oracle 
" of Apollo, sirnamed Patarcms," as our familiar books on Mythology 
describe it. I suspect, that PAXAua means the Water, River, Fountain, 
Spot, &c. General Vallancey in his Specimen of an Irish Dictionary 
has given an account of this term, which seems to bring us closely to 
the same idea, though he has no notion of such an origin, but directs 
our attention to the source proposed by Bochart. " Patrun, An Oracle, 
" Ch, ]Tl£OiS Patrun. Patrun is the name given, and yet retained, 
" to certain festivals, when the Peasantry assemble at Fountains and 


B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

" Wells, on Saints' days, where Mass is usually said by the Priest, after 

" which they go to drinking, dancing and commonly conclude with 

' fighting: It is a Pagan custom, as they commonly invoked the Giola- 

' Boist, i. e. r\t:'inTl'7J Gelah-Bousht, or Naiads, who were supposed 

' to give responses ; hence "liriQ Petour, so named from an oracle, was 

' the place of Balaam's nativity. Numb. xxii. 7. Patera in Lycia, where 

' Apollo had a Temple and Oracle, and Patera in Achaia, were oracles. 

" Apollo's Priests were called Patera by the Gauls. "ir>D Petar, 

" Sacerdos Apollinis, oraculorum interpres. Unde Joseph Poter, vel 

" Photar, quia somnia interpretabatur. Gen. xl. 41." — The assembling 

of the People about the JVells and Fountains, and invoking the Naiads, 

bring us, we see, directly to my idea, and here let us mark the term 

for Water, Boist, or Bousht. 

The word Gelah might perhaps belong to the Gwyll?'ow, the nine 
Maids, who watch over the caldron of Cerid-Wen, or Ceres, and sing 
by night, in the hosoms of Lakes. (Davies on Druids, 166, &c.) It is 
acknowledged, that the nine Muses are derived from hence, and from 
this source, we have the stories about Meer Maids, Sp^ens, &c. i. e. 
Maids, or Females, singing in Meers or Lakes. From the Qwyllion are 
derived the Galli, the Priests of Cybele ; who are said to have deprived 
themselves of the powers of Virility. — When the Priests happened to 
be Men ; this was done probably in order to imitate, as far as they were 
able, the more ancient custom of having Women Priestesses. — An order 
of Priests is said to exist at present, under the same predicament ; and 
this is thought to be done, and in fact is done, for the purpose of 
improving the voice. It is however a relict of an ancient rite, and 
1 might almost venture to say, that there is scarcely any ceremony in 
the ritual of ancient superstition, of which some traces may not be 
observed in the institutions of the present times, on the most ludicrous, 
as well as the most solemn occasions. We see the nine GwYLLion again 
in the ancient Latin term, Noven-^, which some have justly supposed 
to be the nine Muses. The origin of the word Syren has much 
perplexed me, though I have commonly acquiesced in the idea, that 
it belonged to the Element SR, CR, denoting through the whole compass 


of Language, ' To make a noise, as Cry, Keriio, (Kt]pvw,y &c. &c. yet 
I must propose to the Celtic Scholars, whether the Syren may not 
belong to the term GEiRioyi/dd, the spot, in which she sang. " It was 
" the presage of the Druid, who earnestly attended in the jethereal 
" temple of GEiRiomydd, to the songs of the Giuyllion, the children of 
" the evening, in the bosoms of the lakes," {Davies on the Druids, 5QQ.) 
Taliessin, says Mr. Davies, was said to have dwelt upon the bank of 
the Lake of GziRioNydd. The origin of this term must be investigated 
by the adepts in the Celtic Dialects, and above all they should consider, 
whether it is not derived from the Gron, or Fen. 

The Element GRN denotes the Fen, Marsh, Lake, the Gron, the 
Low spot, or Ground ; through the whole compass of Language, and 
we must expect to find the Element particularly applied in the stories 
of Mythology, where our great search must be among Lakes, Fountains, 
Fens, &c. Hence we have the mystic terms Charon, and aCheron. 
Mr. Owen explains the Welsh Gwern by " That is inundated ; a Swamp, 
" a Bog, a meadow ; also alder trees ; which are also called coed Gwern, 
" or the Swamp trees, also an epithet for Hell." To these words 
belong the Greek Krene, Krouno^, (Kprjvrj, Pons, Kpofj/os, Scatebra,) 
Hippo-CRENE, where the Hipp denotes Water, as in Avon, &c. the French 
Eau, quasi Eav, &c. and the English Gron will bring us to such words as 
CRAN-?i'e//, CRAN-Mer, Crans/o«, CRAN-J5er/7/, and to that profane spot, 
where I fear, no Naiads are now to be found, ' CRk^-Bourn Alley.' 
The IVell, Meer, and Bour7ie, we know, are terms relating to Water, 
and the Bourne, again appears in the name Hol-Born, which is ac- 
knowledged to be the Spot of the //«7/-Spring, or Bourne. — To the 
Gron we must refer our beloved Granta, and thus we see, that the 
Muses still continue to haunt the Crans, the Grans, or the Grons of 
the Cam, who once dwelt among the Grons, or Crens, (Kptjvat,} of 
Boeotia, and danced about the Fountain of Hippo-CRENE, &c. &c. — It 
has been understood by some Antiquarians, that Granta is the Spot 
situated in the Gron, but they have not seen, that this Gron Spot was 
expressly, and purposely chosen, as the favorite retreat of the Muses, 
in which their rites and mysteries might be more quietly and securely 


B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,Tn,n,r. 

celebrated. — I have no doubt, that in the most ancient periods of the 
world, the Muses haunted the Grons of the Cam, not as metaphorical, 
but material personages, Damsels of mortal mould, such as were found, 
performing the same ceremonies, over the caldron of Cerid-IFen, among 
the Grons of Boeotia. The name of the Cam belongs to the familiar 
names for Rivers, which we have seen under the Element CS, T^ M, V, 
as Sam, Sav, Scamander, Simois, Thames, Tav, Tcivl, &c. all belonging 
to the Swamp, where we see, how the forms S, T^ M, V, pass into each 
other. Now it is curious, that Tav, as Baxter informs us, is the ancient 
form for the name of the Cam. In his Glossary, (p. 225,) we have 
the following remark, " Tavus etiam Cantabrigiense flumen est, quod 
" vulgari errore Cai7i, et Grant appellatur, ob vernacula scilicet vocabula 
" Cambridge and Grantchester. Cum tamen superiori saeculo verius 
" scriberetur, Cantebrugge, de quo Latinizantium Canfabrigia, cum 
" deberet dici Cantobrigay The steps in the formation of the term 
Cam-Bridge, may have been Granta- Brugge, the place where there is 
a Bridge over the Grun, the Watery, Fen Spot, Ganta, or Canta- 
Brugge, and Cam-Bridge, by the familiar change of the n into a Labial 
before another Labial. We must add however, that the name Cani' 
Bridge, may be a separate term, and mean the place, where there is 
a Bridge over the Cam, the River. In these coincidences, where the 
evidence is nearly equal on both sides of the question, is it impossible 
to decide. 

The banks of the Isis, or the Ford of Ox, or Water, Uisc, Osc, 
Isc, &c. were likewise chosen by the Muses, as their favorite haunt; 
for the same reason, as they delighted in the Grons of the Cam ; and 
what is extremely curious and singularly applicable to the train of ideas 
which I am now pursuing, some Antiquaries have even conjectured, 
unconscious of the force of their opinion, that the Corybantes had 
anciently a school, or dwelling at this celebrated Ford. Mr. Davies 
has justly observed, that the Priests of Ceridwen, called Phcryllt, "are 
" deemed to have been the first teachers of all curious arts and sciences ; 
" and more particularly are thought to have been skilled in every thing, 
'' that required the operation of fire." Mr. Davies imagines, that they 


were the same as the Priests of the Cabiri, whom others have acknow- 
ledged to correspond with the Curetes, Corybantes, &c. The CuRExe*, 
we shall now see, are the persons belonging to Cerid, and the Cor«/- 
Bantc's are the followers of Cer?V/-Wen, Cer?W-Bek, or Cer?'-Ben. 
Mr. Davies observes moreover on the term Pheryllt as follows. " The 
" Poet Virgil, whose sixth ^neid treats so largely of the mysteries of 
" heathenism, has been dignified with this title ; and an old chronicle, 
" quoted by Dr. Thomas Williams, asserts that the Pheryllt had an 
" establishment at Oxford, prior to the founding of the University by 
" Alfred." 

I have the most perfect reliance on the truth of this chronicle ; and 
we shall now understand, how idle all disputes have been on the superior 
antiquity of these illustrious Founta'ms of Knowledge, which so refresh 
and fructify the intellects of our Land. I have no doubt, that the 
institution of these celebrated seminaries, as seats of learning, is lost 
in the most unfathomable antiquity. — The reader will perhaps start, 
when for the first time I venture to observe, that the very name of the 
Goddess whom the Pheryllts adored, is at this very moment, I had almost 
said the hallowed term, by which the votaries of these Seminaries delight 
to shew their piety, their gratitude, and their affection to that Mystic, 
or Metaphorical Being, who presides over the spot, and who dispenses the 
blessings of instruction to her ingenuous Sons, — Alma-Mater. We all 
know the familiar titles of this Goddess, Magna Mater, Bo?ia Mater, 
At]fxr]T>]p, Alma Ceres, Alma Mater, &c. &c. In a Welsh Poem, 
the Bard celebrates Ceridtven, {Dav. 285.) as "The Modeller oj" our 
" tender age ; full of meekness ; her juvenile discipline has she freely 
" bestoivcd." Whether the Welsh Writers originally gave the title of 
Pheryllt to Virgil, or recorded it only as a traditionary name of the 
Poet, their thoughts were directed, not to his account of Heathenish 
rites in the 6th Book of the ^neid ; but to his Work of Science, in honor 
of the inventions of the Goddess, the Georgics, "If you would learn 
" the tempering of land, and its tillage, dysg lyvyr Feryll, yr hwn a elwir 
" Virgil, learn the book of the Feryll, who is called Virgil." 
I suspect however, that the title was not invented by the Welsh, but 


90 B,F,P,V,W.^ C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,vi,n,r. 

was traditionary, and that the names of Virgil, or Viril is the Ferill. 
The surprize of the reader, which will not, I imagine, be inconsiderable 
at this derivation, may perhaps be somewhat abated, when he remembers, 
that the original occupation or pursuit of this great, and Philosophical 
Poet, was that of an artist, who belongs in some of his occupations to 
the office of a Feryll, a Smith, a person employed about Horses, 
a Horse-Doctor, and that he was actually introduced into the Stables 
of Augustus under that character. This surprize will be still more 
abated, when we remember that VirgiVs Father was an assistant to an 
Itinerant Conjurer, or Magician, (" Magi cujusdam viatoris initio mer- 
" cenarium.") This account of Virgil, as a Philosophical Mystic, will 
reconcile the opinions of Warhurton and Gibbon, on the nature of the 
sixth Book of the ^neid. It is certainly full of the lore, which was 
taught in the Caverns of Eleusis, but I think, it is probable, that Virgil 
was not actually initiated into those secrets on that celebrated spot. — 
Mystic Societies of the same sort every where abounded in his days, 
and they are continued to this very moment, with some variety of rites, 
practices and doctrines, according to the state of knowledge, and of 
opinions, in the country where they were held, and in the personages, 
by whom they were frequented. — Virgil disclosed no secrets, forbidden 
to be promulgated ; as this crime cannot be incurred, unless the secrets 
are of a peculiar nature, or are attended by peculiar circumstances. As 
the writer of these Discussions has the honor of belonging to an illus- 
trious Society of Mystics of the same kind, I dare not proceed further 
in the elucidation of a subject so pregnant with such high and hidden 
themes of investigation, and so important in the achievements of the 
Human Race. (J^dey^oixai ots deixis ecTTV Qvpa^ 8' eiridea-de 0€^ri\oi9, 

The Stories, relating to Virgil, are well worthy of our attention, 
and all tend to illustrate the idea, which I have given respecting his 
character. Augustus on his first knowledge of Virgil is said to have 
consulted him, as a personage endowed with the gifts of a Conjurer, 
by proposing to him a question, which no one but a Conjurer could resolve. 
The Emperor is imagined to have entertained doubts of his own legiti- 


macy, and to have made enquiries of Virgil respecting his real Father. 
The Poet, with great address, resolves the question, like a Wizard, 
skilled in the ways of the world, by a seasonable jest, which reminds 
the Prince of the inadequate reward, bestowed upon a person, whom 
he conceives to be invested with such extraordinary powers. But the 
circumstances, which I have recorded, do not supply all the authority 
for the fame of Virgil, as a Conjurer. Sir Walter Scott in his notes 
on Sir Tristrem (page 318.) has quoted the title of a very scarce Book, 
under the following words, " This boke treateth of the life of Virgilius, 
" and of his deth, and many marvayles that he dyd in hys lyfe by 
" whychcrafte and nygramancye, thorowghe the helpe of the devyls 
" of hell." But in the extract made by the same writer from this book, 
Virgil is actually described as a Pheryllt, or Worker in Metals. " Than 
" made Virgilius at Rome a metall serpent with his cunninge, that 
" who so ever put his hande in the throte of the Serpent to swere his 
" cause right and trewe, and if his cause were false, he shulde nat 
" plucke his hande out ageyne, and if it were trewe, he shuld plucke 
" it out ageyne, without any harme doyinge." The Conjurer however, 
with all his cunninge is outwitted by the wiles of a woman ; and the 
Serpent, though faithful in performing his destined office, co-operates 
with the woman to the confusion of his Master's prescience. This 
woman, who is suspected by her husband of infidelity to his bed, 
voluntarily submits to the ordeal of the Serpent, for the attestation of 
her innocence, even against the remonstrances of the Wizard, whose 
knowledge had discovered her guilt, and she contrives so to declare the 
truth by an artifice, under which she confesses and conceals her crime, 
that she at once frees herself from the suspicions existing in the mind 
of her husband, and from the perils of the spells attached to the Conjurer 
and his Serpent. In order to effect this she brought her Paramour with 
her, disguised as a Fool, and with her hand in the Serpent's mouth, 
sware, before her husband, that she had no more to do with " hym 
" than with that fole that stode hyr by. And bycause that she sayd 
" trowthe, she pulled hyr hande ageyne out of the throte of the serpent 
" nat hurt ; and then departed the knyght home, and trusted hyr well 

M 2 

92 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T, X, Z.'^ l,m,n,r. 

" ever after. And Virgilius having therat great spyte and anger that 
" the woman had so escaped, destroyed the serpent ; for thus scaped 
" the Ladye away, fro that great danger." The Conjurer then comments 
on his own defeat by a reflexion, which the Poet might have transferred 
to his ^neid, by observing, that " the tvomen be ryghf wyse to emmagyn 
" ungraciousenes, but in goodness they but innocentes. (i. e. simpletons.)" 
We have seen, that the term Pege, (n>/7>7,) belongs to our Element, 
as denoting the Bog, Pudge Spot. Now Fegcisus, the Winged Horse, 
is acknowledged to be derived from the Fountain, the Pege, whatever 
may be the process, by which the fable has been formed. The Horse and 
the Fountain are often connected with each other. Pegasus is the 
favorite of the Muses, and hence to this very day and hour our Poets, 
of all ranks and denominations, bestride their Pegasus, as their lawful 
and appropriate conveyance. — In the fable of Pegasus various tales are 
probably confounded. — I have sometimes thought, that the story of 
striking with the Foot, and a Horse springing up, arises from a mistake 
in similar sounds, denoting Water and a Horse; and some mythologists 
have had a glimpse of this idea. We cannot but see, how Eq//«s 
connects itself with Aqua, and Ippos, (Ittttos,) the Hobby, with the terms 
for Water, Avrow, &c. &c. Through the whole compass of Language 
the Elements \S, ^Q, &c. '^B, *P, &c. denote Water. The Mythologists 
likewise understand, that the Horse is sometimes connected with Jfafer, 
because Boats and Ships are called IFater Horses, and hence Pegasus 
has been supposed to be the name of a Ship. Thus Veg-Asus may 
have two origins, and denote either Peg-As-ws, the Equus of Pag, 
Water, the Boat, or Peg-As-?/s, the Aqua, or Water of the Pag, or 
Fountain. The first part of the word is, I think, manifest. I propose 
conjectures on the second part for the purpose of furnishing some 
materials for the employment of others. We must remember, that 
Pagasa is an harbour of Macedonia, where the Ship Atgo was built, 
and surely Pagaso, and Pegasms somehow belong to each other. The 
received opinion is, that PAGrtSrt was so called from the number of 
PEGai, (n>;7at,) which it possessed, and as Bochart informs us, the 
Phoenicians gave it a name relating to this property. (G. S. 400.) — 


Thus I unequivocally establish the sense of my Elementary character 
PG, though on other points I am obliged to resort to conjecture. It 
has been supposed, that Pegasus received the idea of a winged Horse, 
from being applied to a Ship, or Boat, when it was furnished with Sails ; 
and we all remember such metaphorical expressions as AevKOTrrepo^, 
Albas alas, vel etiam alba vela habens, applied to Ships, CI AevKOTrrepe 
Kpticria Ylopdfxi^, &c. Hippolyt. 749, &c. Hence it was, as some 
have conjectured, that maritime cities often adopted the device of a 
Winged Horse for an armorial distinction, as Corinth. (^See Gebelin, 
Vol. IX. p. 172.) Another train of ideas is annexed to the story of 
Pegasus, as he is sometimes considered as a Horse of Fire; and we have 
likew^ise the combination of " A Muse of Fire." The office of the Muse 
is to watch over the caldron of Ceridwen, and hence the Muse is con- 
nected with Fire, and I seem to perceive in the description of Druid 
ceremonies by the Welsh Bards, that the Caldron of Ceridwen was 
sometimes under the form of a Horse. The neck might serve, as the 
funnel, or chimney of the furnace ; and if we suppose, that this Caldron 
received the shape of other animals, we shall perhaps gain more light 
in our researches on this subject. In the following passage the Horse 
is directly connected with the furnace. — " Then they caused their 
" Furnaces to boil without water, and prepared theif solid metals to 
" endure for the age of ages: The Trotter, (Horse,) was brought forth 
" from the deep promulgator of song." (P>avies on the Druids, p. 61 1.) 
One of these mystic Horses is represented under the figure of a Centaur, 
{See the Plates to the book of Mr. Davies on the Druids,) and I have some- 
times thought, that the story of the Centaurs was taken from this source. 
That point should be well considered by the Celtic Mythologists. The 
Story of our Witches, or JFise women riding on broom-sticks, belongs, 
by some process or other, to the Pegasus of antiquity, and even the 
proverb, ' Set a beggar on horseback, and he'll ride to the Devil,' must 
be referred to the same origin. Remote as this may appear; it will 
become evident, in part at least, by the following observations. 
The deity answering to the Latin Bellonw is called Malen, Velex, 
Helena, and she is " a popular name amongst the Britons, for the fury 

94 B,F,P,V,\Y.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,in,n,r. 

" Andrasta, or as the vulgar call her, the Devil's Dam. Fable reports, 
" that she had a Magical Horse, called March Malen, upon which 
" sorcerers were wont to ride through the air. Whence the common 
" proverb seems to have taken its rise, A gasgler ar Varch Malen dan 
" ei dor ydd a. — IFhat is gotten on the hach of the horse of Malen will 
" go under his belli/.'' [Davies 6^7, from Baxter's Gloss.) It is allowed, 
that to this Welsh saying belongs our familiar proverb, ' What is got 
' on the Devil's back, is spent under his belly.' It has not been seen 
however, that to Malen belong the MELiNoe, (MtjXivot],^ of the Greeks, 
and Melaina, (MeAatt-?;,) applied to Ceres, which is supposed to be 
an epithet for this Goddess, derived from her black garments. In 
Orpheus we have {Hym. 70,) M.n\Lvot]v KaXeio vuix(pi]v -^Qoviav KpoKo- 
TreirXov. Let us mark the epithet KjooKOTreTrAos, which answers to the 
Druid mythology, as she is called by the Welsh, y Fad Ddu Hyll, 
" Bona Furva, effera," and "y Fad lelen," that is, Helena, or "Bona 
" Flava," as Baxter has observed. The same writer has perceived, that 
Pegasus has some reference to the Horse of Malen, or Mi7ierva. He 
has not seen however, that Verscus, w^ho mounts Pegasus, means the 
Bard, the FRYDuydh, the Priest. Perseus, in the fable of the Greeks is 
entrusted to the Priests of Minerva, where we see him associated with 
Malen. These Magical Horses are connected with the Talisman, called 
Gwarchan, in which w-ere represented Hideous Figures, as of Horses, 
&c. one of which is thus described, — " Ceithin, March Ceidiaw, Corn 
" avarn arnaw. Hideous, the Horse of Ceidio, which has the horn of 
" Avarn." AVe shall now understand, how Perseus and his Horse 
Pegasus become connected with the Hideous figures of the Gorgons, 
and we shall moreover now acknowledge, that the Gorgon is nothing 
but the Gwarchan, the Charm, the Talismanic figure. The Welsh 
Gwarch is only another form of the Teutonic Guard. Mr. Owen 
explains Gwarc, by " What incloses, or shuts up," and Gwarcan by 
" What secures, an irresistible influence, a talisman, an enchantment, 
" an incantation." The parents of the Gorgons are Phorcys and Ceto, 
where the Celtic scholars should consider, without regarding the tales 
of simple Greeks, and their still more simple interpreters, whether the 


Phorc be not the Marc, Varc, and Ceto, the Hideous Horse Ceiwo. 
The Ceidio is the Ked, a title of Cend-JVeu, belonging to our Teutonic 
^cCate. The habitation of the Gorgons is placed in various parts of 
the world, by the various narrators of the fable ; and they have done 
well in extending the scene of such adventures. The Gorgons, or 
Talismans are to be found, wherever the Druid ceremonies have been 
practised, and I know not, what portion of the globe we can exclude 
from their influence. Mr. Bryant has seen, that the Ceto of antiquity 
belongs to Ceres, and Mr. Davies produces as parallel to Ceto, the Celtic 
Ked, {Davies on Druids, p. 1 14.) The Gorgon is the Gwarchan, the 
Guardian, or Warden, the Hideous figure marked on the protecting 
Talisman. Mr. Owen explains Qw KV^caivdwr by "one who Guards; 
" a Wardcw." The Head of one of the Gorgons was applied, we 
know, as a terrific appendage to the Shield of the Goddess of War, and 
perhaps the origin of Armorial bearings with their strange frightful 
figures of Animals, &c. may be traced to the Talismanic devices of the 
Protecting and Appalling Gwarchan. 


B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.} ],m,n,r, 

Terms, which express the action of Formhig the Plastic materials 
of Pudge matter into certain Shapes, Forms, Appearances, &c. or 
which relate to Forms, Shapes, Appearances, Representations, &c. in 

Potter, Potiee, (Eng. Fr.) 

Fingo, Finxi, FicTum, (Lat.) To Form. 

FeigNj (Ei)g.) 

FicTor, Figm7«s, TiCTilis, (Lat.) A Potter, 

Earthen, or Pottery Ware. 
Pingo, Pinxi, ViCTum, To Paint. 
Pango, peViGi, Pactm/«, To Form, or make 

Figm;o, FiGwra, FiGwre, (Lat. Eng. Fr. &c.) 

Facio, FACies, Face, Fashion, Facon, 

&c. (Lat. Eng. Fr. &c.) 
Poieo, quasi Poj-eo, (Gr.) To make. 
sPEcies, (Lat.) Form, kind. 
«Pecto, &c. (Lat.) Wliat relates to Form, 

or Appearance. 
rfeVisE, t?eVicE, (Eng.) 
Visage, &c. (Eng. Fr.) 

Stc. &c. 8tc. 

I shall in this Article produce a Race of words, which either directly 
express the action of Forming the Plastic materials of the Earth, or 
Pudge matter, into certain Shapes, Figures, Appearances, &c. or which 
relate in general to the idea of Forming, Shaping, &c. or to Forms, 
Figures, Shapes, Appearances, Representations, Spectacles, &c. &c. and 
which were originally derived, as I imagine, by metaphorical allusion, 
from the Plastic Materials of Pudge matter. We know, that Mould 
at once expresses the Dirt of the Earth, and Form, Shape, &c. I have 
already produced some terms of this nature, which relate to Pudge- 
like. Plastic matter formed into masses for eating, as Paste, Vvumng, 
Batch, Bake, &c. and I shall now produce other applications of the 
same notion. Among the terms, belonging to our Element, which 
convey the train of ideas, respecting the Form, Shape, &c. of Plastic 
matter, as above described, we must class the following : PoTTer, (Eng.) 


Potter, (Fr.) &c. and in Irish we have Potair, Potadoir, the next word 
to which in Mr. Shaw's Dictionary is Poxa/w, To drink. The adjacent 
words to Potter in Skinner's Etymologicon, are PoTTa^e, To Potter, 
Poteren, &c. (Belg.) Agitare, Fodicare Rimari, which Skinner derives 
from Pultare ; but which, as we now see, belongs to our Element, 
signifying ' To Pudge about, or To Stir about the Pudge,' and let us 
mark the explanatory term Yomcare, where we are brought directly to 
the Spot, supposed in my hypothesis, Pottle, the measure, which is 
referred to Pot, and Bottle. — Pouch, the Bag, both which mean 
the SiveU'nig or VvoGing out object, and Pouchcs, a Nautical term, 
which probably has the same idea. I see too Pouder, which seems 
to belong, as I have before stated, to our E^lement PD, though it might 
appear to be attached to the form PL, to Pulvis, when we consider, that 
the term Poudre was anciently written Pouldre. — Fingo, Finxi, YiCTiim, 
" To make, To Fashion, to Mould. — To imagine, to suppose, to devise, 
" invent, or contrive. To forge, to Feign, or counterfeit. To Suit, 
" adapt, or accommodate," where let us mark the parallel terms Fash/o/?, 
Feign, and let us observe likewise, how the Element FN belongs to FC. 
In the English Feigw, we see the n after the Radical G, but in the French 
Feindre, the n precedes the D. Under the form FN we have Fange, 
Fango, (Fr. Ital.) Mud, Dirt. We see the origin of this Latin word 
FiNGo, in FiCTor, *' A Potter, one that worketh in Clay,'" in TiCTilis, 
" Earthen, or made of Earth," and in the following application, as the 
sentence appears in our ordinary Vocabularies, " Homulus ex Argilla 
et Luto FiCTUs. In Italian the term for a Potter, is Pentolajo, where 
the form PN appears. In Scotch, Pig is " an Earthen Vessel, S. Douglas 
" uses it for a Pitcher. — Any piece of Earthen ware, a potsherd," 
where let us note Pitcher, and the Pot in Forsherd. A Pig Man and 
Wife are sellers of Crokery. Dr. Jamieson appears to see no parallel 
terms to this word but the Gaelic Fioadh, and Pigin, An Earthen 
Vessel. The only difficulty here is to decide, whether these terms for 
a Cup, relate to the idea of ' What is Earthen, or to the Hollow, as of 
' a Pit, the Mud spot.' It is understood, that Fangle in New Fangle 
belongs to such words, as Fingo, &c. We shall now understand, that 


98 B,F,P,V,W.| C, D, J, K, Q, S, T, X, Z. f l,m,n,r. 

Pingo, Pinxi, PiCTum, with its parallels Peindre, &c. Paint, Picture, 
(Eng.) &c. is only another form of Fingo, Finxi, TicTum, and that 
Pango, peFiGo, Vxcriun, comVxcTus, relating to the Sticking in or 
together of Sticky, or Pudge matter, is but a different form of the same 
words. It would be idle to enquire, whether Pictmw relates more to 
the idea of Daubing or Forming with Pudge Matter. Yiguto, To 
YiQure, Make, &c., belongs, we know, to the terms in modern 
Languages Figure, (Eng. Fr.) &c. &c. The origin of these terms will 
be manifest in Fioulus, "A Potter, or Worker of things in Clai/.'' 
We shall now understand, that the Fig in FiGwre, and Figo, " To Stick, 
" to Fix, to Fasten, to thrust in," belong to the same idea, and that Figo, 
To Fix, FAsren, relate to the action of VuDoing, or Sticking, as into 
Pudgy, or Sticky Matter. — PKR ina in Chaldee signifies ' A Potter, 
' and an Earthen Vessel,' as Martinius has observed, who has likewise 
given us an Arabic term in Hebrew characters, which is probably the 
term, [^ Fekker, explained by Mr. Richardson " Potter's clay, Earthen 
" Ware." Mr. Parkhurst has remarked under the Chaldee term, that in 
Syriac the word signifies "To Form, Fashion.'^ — Fac?o in Latin is another 
of these words, and to this we must add the term so often adopted in my 
explanation, Yashio7i, with its parallels produced by the Etymologists, 
Facon, (Fr.) Faccione, Fazzo, (Ital.) Facion, Fatzon, Fatsoen, (Dan. and 
Belg.) &c. &c. In the phrase Y\conner la Terre, we are brought to the 
original spot. Yxcies, the Face, belongs we know to Facio. In the 
Dialects of the Celtic I find for YiGura the Armoric Feson, and the Irish 
Fighair, and Lhuyd has produced the Armoric Poder under TiGulus. In 
Italian Fucina, means a Forge, which is another form of Faccioke, &c. 
The Greek Poieo is quasi Pojeo, (Jloiew, Facio,) and is another form of 
Facio. The Poet is the Maker, or Former, and hence we see, how this 
elevated name belongs to Dirt, or Pudge. Even in the Sublimest 
effusions of his art, as I have observed on another occasion, he is still 
a creature of the same Spot, and is but just emerging above the Mire, 
(^Sublimis, qui supra Limum.^ In Scotch, Maker is a Poet; and I shall 
shew, that Maker belongs to Mud ; and that from hence we have 
iMAGo, the /Mage, &c. &c. iMAGinafion, &c. &c. The forms PD and 


MD, Pudge, Mud, &c. may be considered, under one point of view, 
as belonging to each other. In the Armoric, PoExnaw is a Poet, and 
PoEsi, is Poesy, or Poetry. The term Facio, Feci, FACT?/m coincides 
with the senses of Fict?^^, and Rictus, when it means, " To Paint, limn, 
" drawn, or Fashion." Let us mark the term Liitin, which I shall 
shew on another occasion to belong to Limus for a similar reason to 
that, which exists in the words before us. The Latin FAce^//s, from 
which Fxcefious comes, and its parallels in Modern Languages, Facete, 
(Fr.) &c. is acknowledged to belong to Facio. In the " Molle atque 
" Facetum Virgilio annuerunt gaudentes rure Camcenae," we see an 
application to Poetry, connected with the Softness of Plastic materials. — 
To Facio belong the French and Italian, &c. Faire, Far, Fait, Fatto. 
To this Race of words so rich in examples, we must refer Feat, 
Bellus, Concinnus, YzxTiire, &c. &c. The term Fetive belongs to 
our ancient Language, and is frequently found in the Poems attributed 
to Rowley. In the prose part of these compositions we find it 
oftentimes applied in its more original sense, as relating to dexterous 
workmanship, in the operations of art; as in the following passage, 
" Rounde the cabynette are coynes on greete shelfes Fetively Paync- 
" ted.'' (See a Publication called, the Works of Thomas Chatterton, 
Vol. III. p. 279.) The terms adjacent to Fatzo, " A Fashion," &c. 
in John Florio's Italian Dictionary, is Yxzzatoia, "A bin, or hutch, 
" or maund for bread," which means probably something Made up 
for holding, &c. and FazzuoIc, Fxzzoletto, which Florio explains by 
" A Handkerchiefe, a mucketer, a towell, a wiper, a barber's cloth." 
where Fazz I imagine relates, to Dirt, and the term for the wiper means, 
what is employed about Dirt, just as Muclteter belongs to Muck. Our 
Author explains Fazzolettacio, by " A Filthy Fazzoletto," and in 
the same column we have Feccia, Dregs, lees, or filth of wine, be- 
longing, we know, to the Latin F^x, VjE.cis. In Danish Fagtc/- 
means " Gestures, looks, demeanour," the next word to which in my 
Dictionary is Fajcwcc, " Delft ware," which conducts us to the 
true idea. — Pattctw, with its parallels, produced by the Etymologists, 
Patron, (Fr.) Patroon, (Belg.) Patrwn, (Wei.) denotes the Form. 

N 2 


B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,R,Q,S,T,X,Z.< l,m,n,r. 

Its adjacent word Pattin brings us at once to the Ground. The French 
Patron not only signifies " Pattern, Model," but likewise a Patron, 
which with its parallels belongs to the Latin Patromis from Pater. 
A word in the same column of my French Dictionary with PATRO?^ is 
FATROuillage, " Dirt made by walking on the Mud." — Bust, with its 
parallels, Busfe, Busto, (Fr. Ital.) means the Plastic Mass, or Form; 
and the Busk, Busque, (Fr.) is that, which belongs to the Bust, or the 
Body, the Sivellhg out Mass. The Latin BvsTum means directly the 
Raised Mass of Dirt. In Saxon Brscr is " Exemplar, Similitudo," and 
the adjacent word to this in my Saxon Dictionary is BxsGian, Occupare, 
To Bust, which relates to Dirt in agitation. As Brser is applied 
to Matter, so BYSgian relates to a person who is heMatterd, if I may 
so say, who is engaged ' in various Matters," and hence BrsGu signifies 
Matters, or Affairs, "Negotia, occupationes." We use he-Muddled 
in a similar manner. I shall shew, that Busk in the combination, so 
familiar to our ancient Language, " Busk and Boun," relates to Ornament 
and Dress, under the idea of removing the Dirt. In Persian c:^ But 
means "An idol, image, any figure that is an object of adoration, 
"a lover, a beautiful woman," the original idea annexed to which word 
will be manifest, from one of the two preceding terms under the same 
form. Put, " A worm which pierces ships' bottoms," which means 
probably the animal living among Dirt, and Bett, " Weaver's Glue," 
where we directly see Pudge matter. Again in Persian ^ Pish means 
" Before, the anterior part, before the eyes. — An example, model, 
" exemplar, coripheus, chief, superior, commander," If the original 
idea of this word appears in the term Before the sense is probably that 
of Yvsning forward. This however the Persian Scholars must decide ; 
yet they will unequivocally see the sense of the Element in various words, 
with which it is surrounded. In the same column of Mr. Richardson's 
Dictionary with Pish, Before, I see Pishar, Piss, Urine, and in the next 
and succeeding columns I see Pish-Pade, " A Cake made of flour, honey, 
'■' and oil or butter, Pishwa, an exemplar, a model, guide, leader, &c. 
" Pishe, Art, Skill, a trade, profession," &c. and Bishe, which among 
other senses means, " A Forest, (especially the Thickest parts, &c.) 


" It was formerly, or Before," and " Coagulated, Curdled, Thickened,'' 
where we unequivocally see the original idea of Pudge matter, however 
the other senses may be connected with it. In the sense of the Thick 
parts of a Forest, we see the idea of the Bushy Spot. I have before 
produced the Persian .u^li Bakhte Plaster, and in the same column of 
Mr. Richardson's Dictionary we have Pakh, Lime, Plaster, &c. adorned, 
ornamented, &c. which seems to be derived from the idea of Plastering 
over. — VYGmalion, the name of a celebrated Statuary, presents to us a 
compound term, in which the Pyg must surely be referred to this race 
of words, denoting Plastic materials, and the Mai belongs to the Element 
ML, under a similar idea of the Mould, or form. He inhabits a city 
called Amvthus, which is a Mystic term, connected with some art, 
and belongs to Matter, Mud, &c. either as signifying a place famous 
for its Earth, in making iMAce*, or as abounding with rich Earth, or 
Ore, for which it was famous. The Amuth is the same term as Ometh 
in Pr-OiviETHEus, Amadis, &c. (^See Prelim. Dissertat. to Etym. Univers. 
p. 105.) Bochart derives Amath«s from Amath, a Son of Canaan; 
but he derives another city T-Amassms, abounding with mines, " ubi 
" fxeraWa xaA/cof eari aipdova,"" from the Syrian word Etmesa, To Melt. 
The idea of Melting in this term is derived from that of a Mash, or Mud 
state. The term Melt, and sMelt, (sMelting Ore,^ belongs to Mould, for 
the same reason. Whatever be the precise idea, the Math, as I before 
observed, is a mystic term, derived from some operations of Art. Pyg- 
inalion, we know, is the name of a King, and we must remember, that 
the Phoenician names of Dignity are derived from Arts. — Votis, Fossuni, 
Voxestas, &c. belong to the idea of the Plastic materials of Pudge; 
just as the PoTTer is said to have Power over the Claij. To these Latin 
words belong the terms in Modern Languages Power, Possible, &c. 
Poreut, Sec. (Eng.) Pouvoir, Fvissant, Vyjissance, Possible PoTEre, (Fr. 
Ital.) &c. &c. The term Puissawce occurs in the same page of my 
French Dictionary with Puits, the Pit, the Pudge Spot. PoTior, and 
Possideo are acknowledged to belong to Poris, and we shall now see, 
how my origin of these words brings us to the adjacent term Poms, &c. 
which s»ill relates to Pudge, JVatery matter. In some of these terms 


B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

the form PS, PT does not appear as in Power, &c. To this idea of 

PoTW, when applied to the Potver of the mind, the T Acuities, as we 

call them, or the YxciUty of doing any thing, must be referred probably 

the terms for Art and SUll in the Celtic Dialects, as Fod, (Ir.) " Art, 

" skill, science," Fodh, " Knowledge, skill," which certainly belong 

to the Spot, supposed in my hypothesis, whatever may be the precise 

idea, by which they are connected with it, as Fod directly means 

" A Clod of Earth, glebe, soil, land, a Peat." The next word is Fooar, 

" Straw, hay, provender Fodder," which I suppose, in another place, 

to belong to the idea of Pudge, as the Swelling out YxTrening substance, 

and an adjacent word is VoDhailam, " To loose, untie, divide," where 

we have the Fod in a more relaxed state. Again in Irish, Feth is 

" Science, Knowledge, instruction," and in the same column of 

Mr. Shaw's Dictionary I see Feud, " Can, able." In another place we have 

Feat, "Music, Harmony," Feath, "Learning, skill, Knowledge," and 

a term under the same form Feath, means " A calm tranquillity, a Bog," 

where we again see the original idea. In the same column I see Featha/, 

" The Face, countenance ;" VEicam, " To be in a continual motion, 

" to Fidget," where we see, how TranquiUity and Motion may alike 

belong to the Bog. In the next column of Mr. Shaw's Dictionary, we 

have FeidzV, " Able, Possible." I shall not attempt to produce the 

various terms for Kjioivledge belonging to our Element in the Celtic 

Dialects; but shall conclude by citing the terms Fadh, Science, and 

Faid, " A Prophet," which will bring us to the Latin Vatcs ; from 

whence we shall understand, how under my origin, the terms Yatcs, 

and YxDiim, the Pudge Spot, may belong to each other. The Sanscrit 

Vedas, the Books of Knoivledge, must probably be referred to these 

words. I must leave the Celtic scholars to adjust, how the terms, 

with which these words are surrounded, belong to the Elementary 

sense, which I have here unfolded. Yet they will find little trouble, 

I imagine, to make this arrangement. Thus they will see, that the 

preceding term to Faid, the Prophet, which is Faidh, He went, 

belongs to Vado, &c. that Fadh, the Mole, is the router about the ] 

Pudge. j 


Mr. Owen explains the Welsh Fes by '• What penetrates, subtlety, 
" knowledge," and in the same opening of his Dictionary, I see TEiTaiaiv, 
" To Effectuate, to make," where he justly refers us to Faith, " A Fact, 
" an Act," which directly brings us to Facjo, TACTian. I see likewise 
adjacent to Fes the Terms Fest, " Fast, speedy, hasty, or quick ; adroit, 
"clever," TEiSTimaw, "To Festinafe, To hasten," where let us note 
Fast, Festinate, from Festino, which, we see all contain by some 
process a common idea with FacIo. I shall shew that Fast, and Fasten 
belong to Pudge matter, which under another idea brings us to motion. 
Let us note the explanatory word Quick, which I shall shew .to belong 
to the Quag, as in Quick- Sa?H/. — The English Prophet is directly taken 
by us from the Greek Prophetes, (Jlpofpnm^, Propheta,) but this term 
does not belong probably to the Greek Language, as derived from llpo 
and $>/jUi, or if it does really belong to it, it furnishes a most singular 
example in the accidental coincidence of terms. In Welsh Profwyd, 
or Prophuyd, and in Cornish and Armorio Prqfuit is a Prophet. 
Mr. Owen derives this Welsh word from Pro, which he explains by 
" That is counter, or coming against," and Pwyd, which he explains 
by "The act of putting by, or passing." There is another term, adjacent 
to this in Mr. Owen's Dictionary, which is Profesu, " To predeterminate 
** a course; to make a vow. To Profess," This likewise forms a strange 
coincidence with our term Profess, which is directly taken from the 
Latin Prqfifeor, Professus, and this is derived from Pro and Fafeor, 
Fassus. In such cases we find ourselves somewhat embarrassed. 
Mr. Owen derives the Welsh word from Pro and Fes, which latter 
term, as we have seen, he has explained by, " What penetrates, subtlety, 
** knowledge." Thus we have got the Welsh Profesu, connected with 
a term, which I have referred to Faid, the Prophet, and surely the Phet, 
FwYD in pro?nET, proTwYD belong to the same term Faid. If this 
should be so, the Latin Fatco;- will relate in its original sense, to the 
solemn declaration, saying, vow, or engagement of the V.\Tes, and this 
conjecture will be strengthened, when we remember the adjacent term 
to ¥\-reor, the Latin Yxrutn, Fate. I must leave the Celtic Scholars to 
discover, whence the Pro, or Prof is derived in these words Profwyd, 

104 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Y,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

and yet surely we need seek no further than the term, which occurs 
in the same column of Mr. Owen's Dictionary with these words, as 
Provi, "To Prove, try, examine." Thus then the Professor, and the 
Prophet mean the personage, who utters his solemn vows, declarations, 
predictions, &c. on Approved and well examined grounds. We might 
conjecture, that to these words belonged the Latin lotiim, the J^oiv, 
but on this point too there is some difficulty. Perhaps the Bus and Pis, 
in Pres-Bus, and ThesYis. (UpecrfSu^, Senex, 0eo-7r/s Vates, Divinus,) 
might be referred to these terms Vatcs, &c. The Pres may belong to 
Bard, in (Celtic Bardh, Prydydh, produced in Lhuyd under Vates, 
and the Thes may belong to the terms of respect for Father, as Tad, 
Tat, Sec. The terms for a Poet, under the form BRD, PRD, as Bardh, 
Prydydh, belong to the Welsh Pryd?/, " To Represent an object ; to 
" Represent an event ; to record time ; to delineate, to form ; to compose ; 
'•' to compose Poetry," and to Prid, or Priz, "Mould, or Earth," just 
as I have supposed Poet, and MAKer to belong to Pudge, or Mud 
matter. The Greek Melos, (MeAos, membrum, artus. Carmen modu- 
latum,) belongs to Mould, for the same reason. We have seen, that 
Limn belongs to Limus, and so does Limb. — Pasko, (Flao-Kw,) Fxrior, 
TASSiim, from whence are derived the terms in modern Languages, 
Vxssion, PATHetic, &c. (Fr. Eng.) &c. belong to the Plastic and yielding 
nature of Pudge. In the expressions afFEcrion, afFEcriis, dolore, 
we see, how these terms attach themselves to Fac?o. In such examples, 
as "Non rastros VAxietur, Humus," &c. the term is brought to its 
original spot. In Peitho, VEiTH07nai, (Yleidw, Persuadeo, Ueido^ai,^ 
which brings us to Pisxis, Pistcmo, (Ulo-ti?, Fides, YliG-revu}, Confido,) 
and Ywes, Faith, we can hardly distinguish between the Yielding 
Property, and the Tenacity of that species of matter, which I call Pudge, 
and which we unequivocally see in the terms under a similar form to 
these Greek words, Pisos, (riicros. Locus irriguus,) and Pissa, (Ilto-o-a, 
Pix,^ Pitch. In VEiDomai, {^eidofxai, Parco, Veniam do, Ahstineo, &c.) 
we have the metaphor of the same Matter in a Soft, Yielding state, 
unless there likewise we should suppose, that the idea of Tenacity cannot 
be separated from that sense. Among the meanings of this word, we 


find Abst'ineo, and in the explanation of its derivatives, *^eiZ(a\o^, &c. 
we see the words Tenax, Tenaciter, &c. adopted. We know, that to 
Tenax belongs the idea of Tenacity, as applied to Clay, and I shall shew, 
that it must be referred to the Element TN, denoting such a substance, 
as Tho7i, &c. (Germ.) Mud, Clay, &c. The Greek Feido, and pEiDOMoi, 
(^eiZw, Parcimonia, ^eihofxai, Parco,) seem to belong directly to the 
Celtic Fedh, " Calm, respite," Feth, " A calm, tranquillity, a Bog," 
Feith, "Tranquillity, silence, calmness," Feitham, "To wait, attend, 
"stay." To these words probably belongs the Welsh V^iDiaw, "To 
" cease, to leave off, to give over, to desist," as Mr. Owen explains it, 
who likewise interprets VEiDiannii by "To make a Pause." This will 
lead us to consider, whether Pause, Pauo, Pauso, {Ylavw, Ylava-oj, Cesso,) 
be not another of these words. I produce these terms on a different 

To these terms, expressing Form, Appearance, &c. we must refer 
various words, where s has been added to the Labial of the Radical, as 
sPecth/w, "An Idea, or Form, of a thing represented to the intellect," 
sPEc/es, "A Form, FiGMz-e, Fash?o;?, or Shape,'' s?E.cimen, "A mode, 
" PATTcrw," &c. — sPecto, sVEcio, sYECulor, &c. &c. to which, as we 
know, belongs a great Race of words in Modern Languages, ' Spectre, 
' Species, Specimen, Spectacle, Inspect, Speculate,' Sec. &c. the origin 
of which is acknowledged by all. — The term sPecus, the Den, is sup- 
posed to be a place, " ex quo Despicitur," and it has therefore been 
interpreted, as the " Lurking place," and hence sPEculor has been 
explained by " To Scout." The terms, adjacent to these, are sPica, 
sFicatus, belong to Pike, sPiK.ed, which relate to the action of Sticking 
into Sticky, or Pudge matter, just as I suppose sVEcies, the form, to 
belong to Sticky, or Pudge matter, under the idea of its Plastic nature. 
The Latin sPes may directly belong to sPecto, &c. and mean ' The 
' Looking for, or exsPECTing something,' and if this be so, we must 
not refer it to the term Spero, which belongs to such words as Spuren, 
(Germ.) ' To trace. Spy out, the Footsteps,' &c. where let us note 
Spy, quasi Spyr, and which under another form is Peer, Sec. &c. 'J'he 
term ^Pice and its parallels Kspices, Specie, Spetic, (Fr. Ital.) Aromata 



B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

are acknowledged to belong to sPzcies, and in our expression, ' To have 
' a sVice of a thing,' the word is referred to the same source. In this 
expression, the term sPice simply signifies a portion of some Matter, 
Substance, and in the application of sFEcle to money the word seems 
to mean little more than a Piece of matter, as of Coin, where it coincides 
with Piece. We have Vice in old English, used for sPice, though in 
the following passage it is applied w^ith some peculiarity of meaning. 
Troilus says to Hector in Shakspeare, 

" Brother, you have a Vice of mercy in you, 
" Which better fits a lion than a man. 
" Hect. What Vice is that, good Troilus? chide me for it." 

(Troilus and Cressida, Act v. S. 3.) 

The Poet uses the obsolete word Vice in its true sense of sPice, from a 
just impression of its meaning, though its coincidence in form with 
another familiar word. Vice, Vitium, makes him doubt about the 
justness of the impression, and he accordingly accompanies it with a 
turn of meaning derived from that familiar word. Thus in the expression, 
" A Vice of Mercy," Vice means a sPice, or Piece of what belongs 
to a Vice, or Bad quality. In Vice for Piece, we have simply the idea 
of a Lump, or Mass of Matter, but in Vice, YiTuim, we have the idea 
of ' Foul, Pudge matter.' In Shakspeare a word corresponding to 
Pudge, the term Pitch, may be considered to be used for Vice, as it 
is put for something opposite to Virtue, " So will I turn her Virtue 
" into Pitch," (^Othello, ii. 3.) 

Among other interpretations of Fingo, Tictus, we have ' To deViSE,^ 
and we shall now understand that the following terms are to be referred 
to this Race of words, Yisage, with its parallels Visage, Vis a Vis, (Fr.) 
Viso, Visagagio, (Ital.) &c. denoting the Face ; all which bring us to 
the Latin Video, Visum, &c. with their numerous and acknowledged 
derivatives, Eido, (EiSw,) quasi FeicZo, loea, quasi FiDeo, (Ihea, Idea, 
Species, Genus, and Forma,) an loea, Form, Kind, Sort, Species, &c. 
From EiDO, we come to Eiko, quasi Feiko, (Eikw, Similis sum, cedo, 
non repugno,) where we see the sense of Form, together with another 


property of Plastic matter, that of Yielding to the touch. — Phiz, (Eng.) 
Visat\l, (Eng.) signifying, ' What is of a nature, or Ard, like the Vis, 
' or Countenance.' The Etymologists have produced under it Visiere, 
Visiera, Visera, (Ital. Span.) — deViCE, deViSE, " To imagine, invent, 
" Fancy, or Feigw, also to contrive, or Forge," says N. Bailey, vi'ith 
the parallels Deviser, Devis, (Fr.) — To adVisE, (v^ith the parallels Avis, 
Avviso, Sec.) which means ' To suggest contrivances, or deVices to 
' another,' To Inform, in general, where let us note the term Form 
in the explanatory term Inform applied to the same purpose. To dcYise 
in the Legal sense means To Form, under the sense of Arranging, 
Putting in Form and order, or as we express it, Disposing ; and Skinner 
reminds us under r/eVisE, both in its common and legal sense, of the 
Latin Divisare, the frequentative of Divido ; where the Vido in diYiDO, 
To diViDE, may belong to the more general idea of Scattering, or Pash- 
ing about. — Vice, the Fool in the ancient Comedy, means the Strange 
Fantastic Form, exhibiting ridiculous Postures, tricks, and deVicEs, the 
Antic, or Afimic, as some understand *. 

* It is necessary, that we should produce our authority to shew, that the sense of Vice, 
expressing the Fool of the ancient Moralities, belongs to the idea of Form, or Fiaure. Some 
of the Commentators on Shakspeare have suggested to us the true meaning of the word. 
FalstafF says of Shallow, "And now is this Vice's dagger become a Squire," (Henry IV. 
Part II. Act iii. Sc. 1.) on which Mr. Malone has the following remark: "Sir Thomas Hanmer 
" was of opinion, that the name of the Vice, (a droll Figure heretofore much shewn upon our 
" stage, whose dress was always a long jerkin, a fool's cap, with ass's ears, and a thin wooden 
" dagger,) was derived from the French word Vis, which signifies the same as Visage does 
" now. From this in part came Visdase, a word common among them for a Fool, which 
" Menage says, is but a corruption from Vis d'asne, the Face, or Head of an Ass. By vulgar 
" use this was shortened to plain Vis, or Vice. Mr. Warton thinks, that the word is only 
"an abbreviation of deWiCE, the Vice in our old Dramatic shows being nothing more than 
" an artificial Figure, a puppet moved by Machinery. So Hamlet calls his Uncle, A Vicf. 
" of Kings, a fantastick, and factitious image of Majesty, a mere Puppet of Royalty." Dr. Johnson 
has explained the same expression by "A low Mimick of Kings, where the term Mimic well 
expresses the idea. Mr. Malone in explaining the passage of Hamlet might have profited by 
a quotation, which he has produced in another place, where wa find that the term Vice cor- 
responded in sense with the Latin Mima. Philemon Holland has thus translated the following 

O 2 passage 


B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

I cannot leave the Latin Vioeo and its parallels Eido, loea, (EtSw, 
iSea,) without observing, that in some of the terms, belonging to them, 
we actually see the idea of Watery, Moist Matter, as iDaliiiios, {UaXifxo^, 
^Estuosus, sudorem ciens, Speciosus,) which is acknowledged to belong 
both to Idos, (l8os. Sudor,) Sweat, and loea, (iSea,) the Form. The 
term Idalimo*, (iSaAi/^os, Speciosus,) relating to Form, becomes as a 
substantive. Indalmct, (IvSaXfxa, Simulacrum, Species,) belonging to 

passage in Pliny : " Lucceia Mima centum annis in scena pronunciavit. Galeria Copiola, 
" emboliaria, reducta est in scenam annum centesimum quartum agens, — Lucceia, a common 
" Vice in a play, followed the stage, and acted thereupon 100 yeeres. Such another Vice, 
" thai plated the Foole, and made sporte betnveene •whiles in interludes, named Galeria Copiola, 
" was brought to act on the stage, when she was in the lOith yeere of her age." (Historical 
account of the Stage, Vol. I. Part II. p. 119.) 

The mind of Shakspeare was strongly impressed with the idea of this Fantastic Figure in 
every part of the imagery, which belongs to the passage before us. 

" A Vice of Kings, 

" A cut purse of the empire, and the rule; 
" That from a shelf the precious diadem stole, 
" And put it in his pocket. 
" Queen. No more." 

Enter Ghost. 

*' Ham. a King of shreds and patches: 

" Save me, and hover o'er me with your wings, 

"You Heavenly Guards ! —What would your gracious Figure?" 

I have little doubt, but that the imagery of stealing the diadem from a shelf was taken from 
some scenical representation, in which the Vice performed an achievement of this nature. 
The King of Shreds and Patches, is still the 'Vice of Kings,' as Dr. Johnson has well observed, 
and the reader, who should amuse his mind by tracing the influence of the Associating Principle, 
on the imagination of the Poet, will perhaps suspect, that the word Guards, (You heavenly 
Guards) was impressed on the writer by the Guards, — " The fringes, the Shreds and Patches 
of the VuE, and that the idea of the Gracious Figure was likewise suggested by the opposite 
Fantastic Figure, of the Vice, which now occupied the thoughts of the Bard. — Though the sense 
of Vice is such, I imagine, as I have explained it to be, we must remember that the word is 
used to represent the Bad Character, introduced into our Moralities, called sometimes Iniquity, 
as in the passage, " Thus like the formal Vice, Iniquity," where Vice appears to the Poet to 
mean the Vicious, or Bad Character. Yet even here, though such be his conception, he 
cannot help recurring to the original idea, that oi Form, " The Formal Vice." 


lNDALLO/«ai, (IvBaWofxat, Similis,) where we have compounds of Id, 
or l/icl, and Dal, which latter portion has a similar meaning of Form, 
Shape. To the Element DL, under this idea belong the Latin Doh, To 
hew into Form, Shape, &c. Dolabra, Dolus, which R. Ains worth explains 
in the first sense by a deYiCE., Dolos, &c. (AoAos,) all belonging to the Celtic 
Dull, (Welsh) " Figure, Shape, Fashion, Form," &c. In Idol, Eidolow, 
quasi Eid-Dol-ow, (EiSwXov, Simulachrum,) we have the same compound. 
The Greek loios, (iSios, Peculiaris,) has been referred to loea, (Idea,) 
as denoting ' A Peculiar, Separate Form, Sort, Kind,' &c. which is pro- 
bably right. — Wise, used in Adverbs, A^oWise, OtherWiSE, signifies 
in no Form, Manner, Way, Sort, &c. The parallel is Wise, (Sax.) 
the German Weise, which my Author explains by " The Wise, Guise, 
" way, method, course, manner, rate, or Fashion." Wachter has justly 
compared Weise with the French Guise, (Fr.) Guisa, (Ital. and Span.) 
&c. where we have the Elementary character GS. Hence is derived 
Guiscards, Gysarts, &c. The Harlequins, or Maskers, people disGuised, 
or in Vizards. We have a familiar Cant term Quiz, about which a Story 
is told, affording no satisfactory account of its origin. It probably meant 
the person of a Strange Guise, or Form, and thus Quiz, or qViz, and 
Vice, will be only different modes of representing the same idea. The 
verb belonging to the German Weise, is Weis^/z, To Shew, Sich Weiscw, 
lassen, " To be docile, docible, or teachable," &c. and hence we have 
" Weise, Sage, judicious, discreet, JVitty,'' &c. belonging to our words 
Wise, Wit, Witty, Wist, Wote, &c. with their parallels in various 
Languages, JFis, (Sax.) IVeise, Wissen, (Germ.) JViis, (Dan.) JVeten, 
&c. the various terms, relating to Knowledge, or Information, as we 
express it, where we have a similar sense attached to the idea of the 

I examine, on another occasion, a Race of words belonging to the 
form WS, where we shall see these terms Wit, &c. entangled with a 
Race of words, denoting ' What is Quick, Nimble, Moving,' &c. and we 
shall now understand, whence this connection has arisen. I suppose, 
that these words denoting Shape, Form, &c. are derived from the Plastic 
nature of Pudge matter, which under another idea brings us to what 

110 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

is Easy to be Moved. — I shall shew, under the Element QC, &c. that 
Quick, Quake, &c. belong to the Quag; and we shall at once ac- 
knowledge one part of this fact, when we recollect the combination of 
the ' Q«/c^-Sand.' Hence we shall learn, why these terms JFise, Wit, 
&c. (Eng.) IFeise, IFissen, Jfefen, &c. are attached to such words 
as JFash, IVet, Water, &c. (Eng.) JFasser, (Germ.) &c. and the Moist, 
Pudge Spot. The adjacent term to the Italian Guisa in the ordinary 
Vocabularies is Quizzare, " To swim, frisk, row," where the idea of 
Nimbleness is derived, I imagine from the Soft, Plastic, easily moved 
matter of the Quag, or Squashi/ spot, as we express it. — No difficulty, 
or embarrassment arises from the form QWS, and WS, PS, &c. coinciding 
with each other. — The Guttural and the Labial forms may be considered, 
in one point of view, as perfectly distinct from each other, and they will 
constitute separate subjects of discussion. At the points, in which the 
two forms coincide, their coincidence will be noted ; and this union 
will be most visible, when we consider the words, where the F, or IF 
is the first letter of the Radical. 

Terms, expressing Vessels, &c. able to Hold, or Contain any thing. 

We should perhaps on the first view be disposed to imagine, that 
the names of Vessels, for Holding, or Containing any thing would be 
derived from the Plastic materials of Earth, or Clay, from which in one 
state of society they were commonly formed. — We shall find too on 
examining such v^^ords, that they inseparably connect themselves with 
this species of Matter, and with the Spot, to which it belongs ; yet it 
is not always easy to discover the precise idea, by which such terms 
are connected with that Spot. — These words are probably derived from 
different sources, or different turns of meaning belonging to the same 
fundamental idea. Some must surely belong to the Plastic materials 
of Clay, as connected with the Art of the Potter ; and others seem to 
be derived from the idea of Capacity, and to be more immediately con- 
nected with terms, which signify the Pudge Spot, or the Pit, the Lozv, 


Siu/i'uig in Spot, the Low, Deep, Hollow, or Cavity, able to Contain, 
Comprehend ; and this perhaps we should consider, as the prevailing and 
fundamental notion for Vessels of Depth, and Capacity, and hence for 
Vessels in general. We shall sometimes see these words connected with 
the idea of Sivelling up, or out, which may alike belong to the Hollow, 
or Pudge Spot, either from its form, or its matter. What is Hollow, or has 
Capacity, though containing the idea of the Low Spot, under one point of 
view, gives us the notion of Swelling out in another. The ideas of Siiiking 
down, and Rising up. Depth and Height, Concavity and Convexity are 
only different modes of conceiving the same object. — The Latin Sinus will 
illustrate this train of reasoning, as it is applied to any Hollow, as of 
Water, a Gulph of the Sea, which is called the Bosom, — to a Bosom in 
general, where we see in Bosom, how the ideas of Sinking in and 
Swelling out, are connected with each other, — to a Vessel to drink from, 
&c. &c. Though I produce in different parts of my Work, most of 
these terms, denoting Vessels, &c. yet it would be commodious 
perhaps to collect under one view this Race of words, which denote 
such Vessels, Instruments, Utensils, or Objects, formed for the purpose 
of Holding, Containing, or existing under that property. Among these 
terms, we must class the following Vat, Fat, Vessel, Vas, (Lat.) &c. — 
Bed, Basin, Beaker, Pot, (Eng.) Yoculum, (Lat.) PiTcner, Pitho*, 
(rit^os,) VxTina, YhTclla, (Lat.) Butt, Bottle, Bushel, Boot, Bus^v'w, 
Boat, Bucket, &c. &c. — Vat, Fat, and Vessel are justly referred by 
the Etymologists to Fat, Fata, (Sax.) Fat, (Belg.) Fasz, (Germ.) Vas, 
(Lat.) Vase, Vaisseau, Vasello, (Fr.) Vaso, Vase, Vasello, (Ital.) The 
French word Vase, not only signifies "A Vase, or Vessel," but likewise 
Mud, Slime, which determines on the origin of the word, whatever may 
be the precise idea, by which it is connected with the Matter of Mud. 
The words adjacent in our Italian Dictionaries to Vaso, Vase, a Vase, 
Vessel, Vassellajo, Plate, Vasellame, Gold and Silver Plate, are 
Vxsajo, and Vasellajo, A Potter, which would lead us at once to affirm, 
that the names for Vessel, &c. were directly derived from the Art of 
the Potter, working on the Plastic Material of the Vase, or Mud ; 
and they are so entangled with each other under the idea of Vase, or 


B,F,P,V, W.| C,D,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.} lm,n,r. 

Mud Matter, that we cannot separate the one from the other, whatever 
may be the precise process, by which they are related.— In English, 
however, when we talk of a Tan Vat, or Fat, which is by some 
called a Tan Pit, we see in Vat, the Pit, or Pudge low spot on the 
Ground, or Vase, the Mud. — But however we may settle this minute 
point, we are brought unequivocally to the Spot, supposed in my 
hypothesis; and we now understand, how this idea renders every 
thing consistent, which is connected with these words. We see, how 
Vessel, and Vassal agree in form, and I have supposed, that the Vassct/ 
is derived from the same Low, or Base Spot. We perceive too, how 
Fat, the Hollow Vessel, connects itself in form with Fat, Adeps, and 
Fast, firmus, which I refer to the same matter of Pudge. — Bed has 
already been referred to the Low Pudge Spot, or Pit, as in the Bed 
of a River, and the Hebrew r\3 BT, the Receptacle, Den, &c. has been 
classed under the same idea. — Basin has been shewn to be used in its true 
sense, when it signifies " A Hollow Bed of Water, or Channel^ The 
Etymologists have produced the various parallels to this term, as Bassin, 
(Fr.) Becken, (Germ. Belg. Dan.) Bacino, Bacile, (Ital.) Bacia, Bacin, 
(Span.) Junius refers us to Martinius and Spelman, under Baucale, 
and Bauca ; the former of whom produces the Greek BAUKALiow, 
(Bai//caAio>/,) the Italian Boccale, which might seem to belong to Bocca, 
though in French we have Bocal. Under Becken, (Germ.) Malluvium, 
Wachter produces the modern Greek word Baking/?, (Bukivov,) &c. and 
under Becker, Patera, another modern Greek term Beikar/ow, (Bej- 
Kapiov,) an ancient Greek word Bikos, (Bikos,) the Italian Bichiere, 
from which our term Beaker is derived, &c. Dr. Jamieson collects 
under the Scotch Bicker, the parallel terms in Islandic, Swedish, and 
Danish, Baukur, Bikare, Bagare, and Begere, and he observes, that 
" this was the term used to denote the cup drunk by the ancient Scan- 
" dinavians in honor of their deceased heroes. It was not only called 
" BroguzfnU, but Brog-a-BiKARE." Our industrious author records 
likewise the definition, which Dr. Johnson, the great Lexicographer of 
our Language, gives of the English term Beaker, " A Cup with a spout 
" in the form of a bird's Beak,'' which, as the same author gravely adds, 


" by no means corresponds to the sense of this word in Scotch and other 
" Northern dialects." Dr. Jamieson will find abundance of employment, 
if he should think it necessary to record and to relate the opinion of an 
Etymologist like this. Wachter sees a resemblance between these words 
Bfxher, &c. and Bauch, "Venter, quia crater est vas alveatum," and 
to~ Back, Linter. It is impossible not to note the term Alveatum, 
belonging to Alveiis, which signifies in its first sense, " The Holloiv of a 
" River,'' and then "Any hollow large vessel, — the Belly of any thing," 
&c. &c. Mr, Shaw explains Baisix, by a Bason, which is adjacent 
to Baisteu IFater. From the French Bassin comes BASsixo/re, the 
Warming Pan, and Bassixct. — Let us mark the explanatory Latin term 
adopted by Wachter for a Vessel, the term Vvrern, and let us remember 
V.vr'ma, in Greek Patane, (Jlaravii,) and PATclla. The term Patina seems 
to connect itself with the form Basin, and Martinius has a word under 
a similar form Patena, M'hich some explain by " Alveiis ad hordeum 
" ministrandum." The term Patera might seem to coincide in form 
with our word Pitcher, under which the Etymologists have produced 
Picker, Pichier, (Fr.) Pittaro, (Ital.) Picarium, (Lat.) Pithos, (Ylidos, 
Dolium.) In Sanscrit Patra is a Cup, employed as Patera is, in Religious 
ceremonies. (^Moors Hindu Pantheon, p. sgi.) Minshew derives this 
English word from Pit, which bring us to my hypothesis. But whatever 
may be the precise idea of the English word, we shall perceive how it 
is connected with terms, expressing the species of matter, supposed in 
my hypothesis, when I produce the adjacent words Pitch, and Pith, 
which mean as substantives the Pudge stuff, and, To Pitch, as a verb, 
signifying 'To be in a Pitchy, Sticky situation,' if I may so say, or 
' To Stick in.' — Pot, (Eng.) ?ocv\.um, (Lat.) with their parallels Pot, 
(I'V.) Potto, (Ital.) &c. are naturally derived from Pot«^, Potos, PotcWo?/, 
(IloTos, X\ort]piov,) as denoting the Cups, which hold Li(juid. I have 
shewn, in another place, that the terms for Liquid, Votus, &c. are 
derived from the Pudge spot, and here we cannot separate the hiquid 
Waterij Matter from the Hollow, in which it is contained. In the same 
page of my French Dictionary with Pot, I find Potage, that is. Pudge 
stuff, PoTcaM, a Post, a Stake, Pote/c^, a little Post, PosTwre, PosT«/r, 


114 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.t l,m,n,r. 

PoT£«ce, A Gallows, i. e. A Post, which all relate to the idea of Pudgu/£^, 
or Sticking in, out, &c. and let us mark, how Stake belongs to Stick, 
and Sticki/ Matter, for the same reason; — Foxelet, Plump, Pox/er, a 
Potter, PoTiroM, Pumpion, PouAcre, Nasty, &c. &c. where we see the 
idea of Pudge matter, and FuDGiiig, or Swelling up. I find likewise 
ToTenfato, Vorentafe, belonging, we know, to the Latin Fotis, which 
J shew to be derived from the Plastic materials of Pudge. I find more- 
over Pou, a louse, Poa de Sore, Padesoy, and Poudre. The Pou is quasi 
Pous, the Vile animal, in Italian Viv>ochio, ViDocchieria, " Idle stufF, 
"trifle," where the PD appears; and in French the interjection of 
contempt is both Poua and Pouas. The Pes and ]^EDiculus, the 
Louse, belong to the part on which the Feet tread, and mean the File 
Animal. In Bohemian the term is Weiss, say Martinius, who derives 
Lauss, the Louse, from Loes Vilis. In examining the term Poua in 
Menage I cast my eyes on PoucHe^ for Peu, where in Pouchc^ we see 
the true form of Peu, denoting what is Vile, Little, &c. The Poudre 
is supposed to belong to Pulvis, though this perhaps is not so, as 
I have before observed. — Butt, Cupa, dolum, has various parallels, Butte, 
&c. (Sax.) Botte, &c. (Belg.) Biete, Butte, &c. (Germ.) Botte, (Fr. and 
Ital.) &c. Under the same form as Butt in English, the Tub, we have 
Butt, a species of Fish, where Skinner refers us to Halli-BuT, and 
JSe^-PouT, where in Pout, we unequivocally see the idea of l^ovring 
out, or Rising and Swelling out ; and likewise Butt, Cornu Impetere, 
which belongs to such terms as Beat, Pat, Pash, Push, &c. derived, as 
I shall shew, from ^Asning about, or Fusning into Pudge Matter. 
I see likewise the term Butter, where we are brought to the true idea. 
The term preceding But in Skinner is Butler with its parallels, Bouteil- 
lier, (Fr.) &c. &c. which brings us to the name of another favorite 
receptacle, the Bottle. This term has been compared with its ac- 
knowledged parallels Bouteille, BottigUa, (Fr. Ital.) and likewise with 
the Latin Barbarous word Buticula, the English But, Bota, (Span.) 
Bouttis, (BovTTis fxeyaXn, nv Tive'i yauXov KaXovcri.) In Plautus Batiola 
is a Cup, to which some produce as parallel BxTioca, and BATiake, 
(BartaKr;, Poculum.) We find too Batillms mensarius et cubicularius. 


* A Chafing Dish, and a Warming Pan.' In the same page of Skinner 
with Bottle, I see Bottom, where we come directly to the spot supposed 
in my hypothesis, and Bottom of Thread, which is referred to Botea7/, 
Fasciculus, where we note, how the idea of Swelling out is entangled with 
this spot, which signifies under one idea what is Low; — Botts, "In 
" equis lumbrici," which is again referred to Bote, Fasciculus, \Ahere 
we have the same notion of Swelling; — " To Bouge out," Tumere, where 
the sense directly occurs, and two terms under the same form as Bottle. 
The one term Bottle is applied as a termination to Towns and Villages, 
which has been referred to the Saxon Botle, Villa, and to Abode, Bide, 
&c. which brings us to the Ground, or Bottom, as likewise Bottle of 
Hay, where again we are referred to ^oteau. Fasciculus, the Swelling 
out object, and to the German Busch, Buschel, Fasciculus. Lye explains 
BoTL by " Domus, atrium, jedes, domicilium," and it occurs in the same 
column of his Dictionary with Botm, Fundum, the Bottom, where the 
relation of these Saxon words to each other is the same, as that of 
Fundatiim, what is Founded or Built to Fundum. Among other terms, 
which occur in the same opening of Skinner's Dictionary, where the 
above words are, I find Bosom, which I have referred to the Bottom, 
and Boss, and Botch, the Swelling objects. In Botch, Tumor, we 
absolutely see the Foul Pudge, or Bog Matter. — The German Buschel, 
A Bunch, or Truss, which belongs to Busch, " a Bush, Thicket," brings 
us to the form of an English term for a Measure, as Bushel, which 
has been justly referred to this German word, and likewise to the French 
Boisseau, Boisselee. The French Bottk supplies us with full evidence 
respecting the origin of these words. It denotes "a Boot, a Bundle. 
" a Butt of Beer; — a Bottle of Hay and a Lump of Earth." — Box, the 
receptacle, occurs in various Languages, Boxe, (Sax.) Bucks, (Teut.) 
Boite, (Fr.) Bussola, (Ital.) Buxeta, (Span.) Puxis, (Jlv^i^,^ Pyxis, 
(Lat.) &c. produced by the Etymologists. It is not derived from the 
Box tree, Buxus, because made of that wood, as the Etymologists 
suppose. Skinner has seen, that the Box tree, Puxos, (riiy^os,) mav 
belong to such words as Pukuzo, {YlvKa^u), Denso,) To Pudge out. 
Box means likewise Alapa, which belongs to the Pux, (FIk^,) as the 

P 2 

116 B,F,P,V, W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

Etymologists suppose ; and I shew, that such words as Box, Beat, Pat, 
Pash are attached to the idea of Pash?'/?^ about Pudge, or Bog matter ; 
and thus we see, how Box in both senses conveys the same fundamental 
idea. — Again in Italian Bacheca is "A Glass Box." There is a Dutch 
term, which contains various senses annexed to the words, which I have 
before produced. This term is Bak, which denotes " A wooden Bowl, 
" or Trough." — " The middlemost part of a Coach, Waggon," i. e. the 
Bowk, (Norfolk.) " The Pit of a Play House ;" — " A Manger, — A ferry 

" Boat A Bason of a Fountain," as my Lexicographer explains it. 

This word occurs in the same column of my Dutch Dictionary with 
Bagger, Mud ; where we are brought to the Spot, supposed in my 
Hypothesis. The term Bucket is a Vessel, to hold water, and has 
for parallels Bacquet, (Fr.) Buc, (Sax.) produced by Skinner. In the 
same column of my Saxon Dictionary with Buc, I see Buce, " Secessus, 
" venter, alvus, uterus, lagena," where we again see Alviis, as the 
explanatory word. — Boat occurs in various Languages, as Bate, Sec. (Sax.) 
Boot, &c. (Belg.) Bot, (Germ.) Bateau, Batelet, (Fr.) Batello, (Ital.) 
Bad, (Welsh.) &c. produced by the Etymologists. — An adjacent term 
to Bad in Mr. Owen's Dictionary is Baz, " A Bath, A Bath/«o- place," 
where we are brought to the Spot, supposed in my hypothesis ; whatever 
may be the precise idea, by which these words are united. In Mr. 
Shaw's Dictionary we have Bad, "A Boat," and Bad, "A Bunch, 
" Bush, cluster, tuft," in which latter word we have the idea of Risi?jg, 
or SivcU'mg up. In the next column of his Dictionary I see Baidh, 
" A Wave," where we are brought to the sense of IVater. In our 
French Dictionaries we find adjacent to Bacquet, the Shallow Tub, 
the terms Bag, Bachot, A Wherry, as likewise Bache, A Waggon. 
I find likewise BACKEcr, " To bar, or chain a door," which Menage 
derives from Bacuhim. In French ^xTeau signifies not only a Boat, 
but the " wooden part of the Body of a Coach," and in English Boat 
is applied to a Hollow for various purposes, as a Butter-BoAT, a Sauce- 
BoAT. The term Boot is applied by us to express part of the Coach, 
which holds the Luggage, and in the Norfolk Dialect the Bowk of a 
Coach is the Body of a Coach. The term Batelage, is " A Waterman's 


" fare, and Juggling," from which BxTELJer, the Juggler, Buffoon, &c, 
is derived. The Buffoonery and Ribaldry of Bargemen, &c. have been 
the subject of perpetual observation. Junius has recorded under Boat, 
the Greek Kibotos, (K//3wtos, Area,) where the Box in this term appears 
to belong to the words before us, denoting a Hollow. In the Kibit-Ken, 
the tent of the Calmucs, Kibit exhibits the same compound. — Whether 
Basket belongs to the idea of the Hollow will be considered on another 
occasion. These observations on the Element BC, as denoting 
Vessels will be fully sufficient to illustrate all, which is necessary to 
be recorded on the nature of this Race of Words. 


B, F, &c.| C, D, &C.J /, &c. 

Terms signifying, 'To Rise, Stvell, or Bulge out,' the Rising, Swelli?ig, 
or Bulging out object, originally derived from the idea of BOG, or 
PUDGE Matter, Rising, Swelling, or Bulging out, up, &c. &c. as Botch, 
Pock, &c. — This idea is applied to various purposes, and among others 
it supplies races of words, relating to PlaJits and Herbs, in their Swelling 
state, as Bud, &c. — Terms signifying " To Bend,'' from the Swelling 
out Curve form, as Bough, Bow, Buoen, (Germ.) — Terms, referring 
to Terror, derived from the Swelling out, Large, Big appearance, at- 
tended sometimes with the idea of Agitation, Commotion, as Bug- Bear, 
&c. &c. — Terms, denoting Boys, Children, &c. from the Swelling out. 
Plump, Lumpy form, as Boy, Pais, (Ilais,) — These terms are often 
entangled with words, which denote something Little, the Little, 
Squabby, Lumpy thing, as we express it, and thus we may pass to a 
Race of words, expressing Minute objects, as referring to the Little 
Lump, Mass, or Piece of Dirt, or Pudge, as Piece.— Terms, which 
are derived from the Swelling out of Pudge Matter, when applied to 
the state of animal substances, from the effect of nourishment, as Fat, 
Feed, Food, &c. &c. 


Words signifying, what is Rising, or SiveUing out, or up, Tumid, 
Bulgmg out, Puffing up, PuDGi??o- out, or up, originally connected with 
the idea of Bog, or Pudge matter, BoGciwg-, and PuDciw^ up. 

Boss, BossE, (Eng. Fr.) 

emBosset/, (Eng.) applied to Froth, Foam, &c. 

Botch, (Eng.) The Swelling Sore, &c. 

Patch of Clotli, Land, Sec. 

Baste, (Eng.) To Sew, Beat, To dab grease 

over meat. 
Pock, Pox, Push, Pustule. 
FusA, Fusao, (Gr.) Follis, Flo. 
Vesica, Vessie, (Lat. Fr.) The Bladder. 
Bud, Button, Botane. 
Botany, (Eng. Gr.) 
Bacca, (Lat.) 

Bush, Buisson, &c. &c. (Eng. Fr.) 
Budge, (Eng.) Fur, the Fuzzy Stuff. 
BucK-ra/n, FusT/an, &c. (Eng.) 
Bag, Baggage, Poke, Pouch, Pocket, 

Pack, Package, Packet, &c. (Eng. 

Pad, Wad, WADDiwg, &c. (Eng. &c.) 

Bow, Buoaw, &c. (Eng. Sax. &c.) The 

Cavity, Swelling up, &c. 
Bough, (Eng.) 

Buckle, Buckler, &c. (Eng.) 
BACK,(Eng.)Dorsuin, ToBeK^i^BACK, (Eng.) 
Bauch, Buck, &c. (Germ. Dutch, &c. &c.) 

The Belly. 
Bowke, Body, Bust, 8tc. (Eng.) 
Pot EN, &c. (Welsh.) What Bulges out, a 

Pudding, Pauach, &c. 
Pothon, (Welsh.) A round Lump, Boss, 

a Cub, a whelp. 
Pwtan, (Welsh.) A squat female. 
BACge«, (Welsh.) A Boy. 
Pais, Paidos, Pus/o, Putms, Boy, &c. &c. 

(Gr. Lat. Eng. &c.) The Pudgy, Lumpy 

Big, "RvG-Bear, &c. &c. 
Fat, Feed, Food, 

&.C. &c. &c. 

In this Third Section I shall produce a Race of words, belonging to 
our Elementary Character BC, BG, &c. which signify what is Risiijo 
up, SiveUing out, or up, Tumid, Bulging out, Puffing up, VvDoing 
out, or up, if I may so express it, and which, as I imagine, are inseparably 
connected with terms, denoting Pudge, or Bog matter, when considered 
under the idea of its VuMoing, BooGing, or BAccm^ out appearance. 


B, F, P, V, W. J C, D, J, K, Q, S, T, X, Z. \ I, m, n, r. 

if I may thus describe it. — Though we shall find this sense of Swelling 
Old, or up, oftentimes applied to objects, which are very different from 
the idea, commonly annexed to Pudge matter; yet we shall perpetually 
perceive, how the notion of Swelling out as of Pudge matter prevails 
in the Race of words, which I am now about to produce, and how 
impregnated such words are with the original notion. This idea of 
Sivelling out is applied to various purposes, and hence we have a great 
variety of words, expressing very different ideas, among which, for the ' 
purposes of distinction, we may enumerate the following ; as Terms, 
relating to Plants and Herbs, in their Growing, or Swelling out state, 
as Bud, &c. — Terms, signifying to Bend, from the Swelling out Curve 
form, as Bough, Bow, Buoew, (Germ.) — Terms, referring to objects 
of Terror, which are derived from the Swelling out, Big appearance, 
attended sometimes with the idea of Agitation, Commotion, &c. as Bug- 
Bear, &c, &c. — Terms, denoting Boys, Children, &c. which are con- 
nected with the idea of the Swelling out. Plump, Lumpy form, as Boy, 
Pais, (Ilais.) — These Terms are often entangled with words, which 
denote something Minute, or Little, the Little, Squabby, Lumpy thing, 
as we express it ; from whence we shall pass to a set of words, which 
express Minute objects in general, as referring to the Little Lump, Mass, 
or Piece of Dirt, or Pudge, as Piece, &c.— Terms, which are derived 
from the Swelling out of Pudge Matter, when applied to the state of 
animal substances from the effects of nourishment, as Fat, Feed, Food, 
&c. &c. These different ideas M'ill be discussed in separate Articles, 
as far as the nature of the subject will admit, which presents to us Races 
of kindred words, perpetually passing into each other, and which must 
be unfolded under all its varieties, according to the course of its own 

In this first Article I shall consider various Terms of difFerent 
meanings, which express objects, Rising, or Su'elling up, and in this 
race I shall insert the words, which relate to Plants, Herbs, &c. 
Among these terms we must detail the following, Boss, (Eng.) Bulla, 
&e. under which Skinner has justly referred us to Bosse, (Fr. and Belg.) 


" Umbo, tuberculum, tumulus," and has reminded us of the kindred terms 
PusA, PusuLA, or PusTULA, which bring us to the English Pustule 
and Push, the Sore, where we directly see the idea of Rising, SiveUing, 
or Pushing up, as connected with Foul, Pudge Matter. — Let us here 
note how Push, the verb, is at once brought to the Spot, from which, 
as I suppose, it was originally taken, that of the Pudge place, or Ground. 
Skinner reminds us likewise of other kindred terms as Fusa, and Fusao, 
(<t>i/o-a, Follis, Vesica, flatus, <^ua-aw, Sufflo,) where let us note the 
parallel term Vesica, from which is derived the French Vessie, &c. 
The English term Boss, says Skinner, together with the French Bosse, 
is applied by Gardeners to a species of Swelling out Cabbage, " Brassica 
" TuherosaJ' The French Bosse is thus explained by Cotgrave, " A 
" Bunch, or Bumpe, any round, swelling, uprising, or puffing up; hence, 
" a M'en, Botch, bile, or plague sore ; also a hulch in the back ; also 
" a Knob, Knot, or Knurre in a tree, also a Hillocke, mole-hill, 
" small hill, or barrow of ground," where we are brought to the 
original idea of Dirt, "also a Bosse, or Imbossing in workemanship." 
From the Bosse, as we see, is the term of Art, emBossED, applied 
to works of Art, " Ouvrage releve en Bosse." But there is a sense 
in English of this word, which directly brings us to the idea of 
Pudgy stuff. In Shakspeare we have, "The poor cur is Embost," 
(Taming of the Shreiv, Act L Sc. 1.) where we are informed by 
the Commentators, that this word is a hunting term, and that it is 
applied, when an animal, as a Deer, &c. is "hard run, and Foams at 
" the mouth." In Shakspeare we likewise have Embossed Froth, 
(" Whom once a day with his Embossed Froth the turbulent surge 
" shall cover," Timon of Athens,^ and again we find the word applied 
in its original sense to the Foul Stvelling Matter, as in the following 
passage, " A Boil, a Plague Sore, an Embossed carbuncle," (Lear,') — 
" All the Embossed Sores and headed evils," (Js you like it.) In the 
First part of Henry IV. the term is applied with great force and 
propriety to the Foul Swelling form and character of Falstaff, " Why 
" thou whoreson, impudent Imbossed rascal." Among the terms ad- 
jacent to Boss in our Vocabularies, we have Botch, where we again 



B, F, P, V, W. I C, D, G, J, K, Q, S, T, X, Z . \ I, m, n, r. 

see the Foul Tumour; and we know, that the same word is applied 
to a coarse Pudgy mode of mending cloth, as To Botch, the Botcher. 
In Patch we have the same idea, and Patch we know directly relates 
to a Piece of La?id. In Baste we have another term applied to Coarse 
Sewing, and in Baste, Ccedere, we see the term Beat, but in the 
application of the term, 'To Baste Meat,' we unequivocally see the 
original idea of Pash?'/?^ with Pudge matter. We have the Foul Sore 
again, under the forms of Pock, Pox, with their parallels Voc-Adle, 
(Sax.) Variolffi, Morbilli, Pocca, Pustula, Puckel, Pockel, &c. (Belg.) 
Pocken, Bocken, (Germ.) Variolis laborare, Pocker, (Dan.) &c. &c. 
If the word iiuTosThume belongs to hiroarTt^fxay as some suppose, it must 
not be classed with these terms. Under Pock, &c. some have recorded 
the Greek Poikilos, (UoikiXo^, Varius, Variegatus, Inconstans, Dubius,) 
which either belongs to such words as these, and means, < What is in 
' a sPeckled, sPeck'd, sPottcc? state,' where we see the idea of Dirt, 
or to Boggle, Waggle, where we have the same Dirt connected with 
Motion. In the column of Skinner, where Pock is, I see Podge, which 
he refers to the German Pfutze, Lacus, &c. and to Fossa, and Puteus, 
which I call Pudge, as it is commonly pronounced, though in Hodge- 
PoDGE we have the sound, as in the form of Skinner. I see likewise 
Pocket, Pod, Folliculi leguminum ; the Fooeijig out substances, — 
Vocard, a species of Duck, with a Beak, like a Poke, or Pockc^ *' ex 
" Pocca, et Belg. Aerd. Teut. Jrt. natura, quia sc. Rostrum latius habet 
" ad quandam Perce seu cochlearis speciem," and Poch'd Eggs, " Oeufs 
" PocHEZ," which relates to Cooking Eggs in a Pudgy, Soft state, in 
opposition to what are called Hard Eggs. The Etymologists cannot 
help seeing that Vocnd belongs by some process to Pash,— (' Potch'd 
Eggs, quasi Pash'd Eggs',) though the reason is somewhat unfortunate, 
" quia sc. corticibus defractis et exutis in aquam conjiciuntur." I have 
shewn in another place, that the Poacher is the person, who Pads 
about, or Pashes amongst the Pudge with his VEues, or Feet. In the 
French PoTc/e, Plump, we have the idea of Swelling out, and in the 
adjacent word PoTa^e, FoTrage, we see the true idea. In the Mai/iPoTE, 
the Weak Hand, we again see the Soft, relaxed object. The term 


VkTaude, the Plump boy, directly, we see, connects itself with Pate, 
Paste. While I examine EwBoss, I cast my eyes on c/wBezzled, 
which, if it had been written cwBosseW, we should have said that it 
belonged to the metaphor conveyed by Boss, Bosh, Pash Matter, and 
that it meant what was emBosnd, or Pudged up, Cover d or Swallowed 
up, in an Hugger Mugger way, as we sometimes express it, where 
Mugger belongs to Mud, Muck, Sec. with a similar metaphor. 

We have seen, that Boss, and Bosse, (Fr.) according to Skinner, 
relate to the Swelling out Cabbage, the Brassica Tuberosa, and it is 
impossible not to perceive, how the terms Fusa, and Fusao, (^vara, 
Follis, Vesica, *i;o-aa), Fufflo,) belong to the words similar in form Fus?'*, 
Futo??, (Oi/CT-ts, Natura, <t>i/Toi/, Pianta, a ^vw, Gigno,) where it is not 
necessary to enquire, whether Phuo be the original form, or whether it 
does not appear in the future Fuso, (J^va-w.^ Whatever may be the 
original form, the facts, which I unfold, respecting the relation of words 
to each other, under the form BD, FT, &c. is not disturbed by this 
circumstance. Among the terms, relating to Vegetable productions. 
Rising, Swelling, or Pudg?»o- up, out, in which race of words we see 
the idea of Soft matter, or the tender substance, we must class the 
following. Bud, with its parallels, produced by the Etymologists, BouTer, 
(Fr.) " proprie impellere, item Germinare, To Put forth, Belg. Botte, 
" Fr. G. Bouton, Gemma, Germen,'' says Skinner, where we see in Put, 
how this term belongs to Push, and we perceive likewise, that they 
both relate to the idea of VuDoing out, in, about, &c. The form Bouton 
brings us to the English Button, in its senses of the Swelling out 
vegetable Substance, the Gemma, and the Knob, used as an appendage 
to the dress. Fibula, in which latter sense the Etymologists produce 
Buttone, (Ital.) the Welsh Bottwn, &c. and refer us to Butter, Buttare, 
(Fr. Ital.) " Foras seu prorsum impellere," where we again see, how 
BuTTc;-, BuTTare, Butt belongs to Push, Put, &c. all signifying to 
Pudge out, about, m, &c. In old English Botham, is the form adopted 
to express a Button, or Bud. It is perpetually applied by Chaucer 
in the Romaunt of the Rose, to the Rose-BvD, " The Botham so faire 
" to see, &c. &c." From this term our- surname Botham has been 

Q 2 

124 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Y,Z.| 1,m,n,r. 

derived. In Italian Boccia is a Bud, and a Button. — Botanc, (BoTai/»;, 
Herba, planta,) from which the term Botany with its parallels has 
been derived, is nothing but the Swelling Button, and to this term 
we must surely refer Futon, Yvtcuo, Fus^s, Fitwo, Yitus, FiTros, (^vtov, 
Planta, germen, <^vrevw, Planto, 4>uo-i?, Natura, ^irfw, Planto, ^^irvs, 
Pater, genitor, ^jtjoos, Stipes, truncus.) From the SweUlng Plant we 
pass to the Planter, and hence we have Fitz/s, (J^nvs, Pater,) A Father. 
We should from hence at once say, that the terms pATHer, PATer, with 
their parallels, belonged to the same idea, but on this point there is some 
difficulty, which will be explained on another occasion. The Etymologists 
understand, that the name of the Spring Month Bus?os, (Bvaio^, 
Mensis quidam apud Delphos,) belongs to Fuo, Fusz's, (<i>ya), <t>i;o-t?,) 
" quia eo omnia germinant." — Bochart in his profound discussion on 
the Paschal Lamb finds occasion to record this month, '' Delphis unus 
" mensium Bi/o-tos dici creditus est, quasi Ofo-tos, quia cum incipiat ver, 
" Ta TToWa (pveTai Ttiviicavra Kai ^lafiXatrTavei, multa eo mense nas- 
" cuntur, et progerminant." {Hieroz. Vol. I. Lib. 2. c. 50.) The Greek 
VTorthos, (n.Top6o?, Ramus, surculus,) seems to be a compound of PT, 
or Phut, the Shoot, the Phutow, {^vtou,) and Orthos, (OpQo^, Erectus,) 
Rising up. In examining the Greek BoTa/ze, (Borar*?,) I cast my eyes 
on ^orrus, (Botjous, Botrus, Uva, Racemus,) the Bunch of Grapes, 
where we see a similar idea of the Swelling out object, and on BosTrwa-, 
(BocTTpv^, Cincinnus,) the curled locks, which is only another form of 
it. — Bacca in Latin is the Swelling Berry, and a Pearl ; to which the 
Etymologists have justly referred the French Bague, and the old English 
word BiGHES. (^Skinner s Fourth Index.^ The term frequently occurs 
in old English, and we find it in the Poems attributed to Rowley, " But 
" landes and castle tenures, golde and Bighes, &c. (The Storie of 
William Canynge, 121.) BAKKam, BAKKanow, (BctK/ca/jis, BACcar, 
BuKKupiov, Unguentum ex Baccari,) may mean the Ointment, or Smear 
made of a certain Plant. The term Baccar is explained by Festus to 
be " Vas vinarium simile Bacriow?," where we have two forms for 
the names of Vessels. We shall now see, that these words for a Vessel 
or Cup are not derived from Bacchus, as Vossius conjectures ; though he has 


justly seen, that they belong to such words as the Belgic Beker, which 
corresponds with our term for a Cup, Beaker, and the Italian Bicchiere, 
&c. While I examine these words, I cast my eyes on a kindred term 
Bad?«s, " Brown, Bay, sorrel, chesnut colour," — the colour, which 
belongs to the Shooting out, Blooming Bay Tree. Skinner refers Bay, 
the Colour, to Bay, Baio, (Fr. Ital.) Bad'uis, and the Greek Baton, 
(Ba/oj/,) though under Bay, Laurus, he observes " Fort, a Baiov, Ramus 
" Palmae." The term Baion, (Batoj/,) is quasi Bajo/?, and to these we 
must add Bais, (Baj?, Ramus palmae,) s?\mx, (^ttuZi^, Ramus palmae,^ 
and the Latin sPadw', sV\mceiis, &c. In the Egyptian, Bai and Bet 
are " Rami palmarum," and in the same column of Woide's Dictionary, 
where the first word occurs, 1 see Bacour, Stibium, which belongs to 
the Latin and Greek Baccar, and BakkaWs, (Ba/cKapts.) The term 
BxYard, the name of a Horse, so familiar to our ancient Language, meant 
probably the Horse of a Bay ^rd, Kind, or colour. 

Among the names for natural productions, belonging to our Element 
BC, &c. we have others under somewhat of a different turn of meaning 
to that, which is annexed to Bud, &c, — These signify the Pudgy 
Swelling out object, under the idea of what we express by one of these 
terms, the Bushy, or Bushing out object. These terms are Bush, with 
its parallels produced by the Etymologists Bois, Bosco, (Fr. Ital.) Sylva, 
BuscH, (Germ.) Buisson, (Fr.) Dumus, Vepres, Bouchon, (Fr.) Hedera, 
ofBvsculuin, ov arBusTum, arBvTus, (Lat.) Batos, (Baros, Rubus, Sentis,) 
and Bocage, Bosquet, (Fr.) "A grove, or thicket," where in Thicket, 
belonging to Thick, we see a similar idea, Buche, (Fr.) A Billet, or 
a Log of Wood, &c. &c. I have given in another Work the origin 
of the Jrb, in the words Arbustum, and Arbutus, (Efym. Universal, 
p. 1204.) and perhaps we should consider them as compounds of the 
Elementary Characters 'RB, and BS. The sense of Bust, or But in 
these words appears in the term BvsTum, which does not come from 
Ustuni, but means the Swelling up, Heap of Earth, or Pudge. While 
I examine this word, I cast my eyes on B\j\us, the Box Tree, 
in Greek Puxo*, (Ily^o?,) which means the Bushy, Thick growing Tree. 
The Etymologists understand, that the name of this tree has some 


B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

relation to Puka, {Uvku, Dense,) where we have the true idea. In 
Scotch Bus is a Bush, the succeeding terms to which in Dr. Jamieson's 
Dictionary are Busch, "Box JVbod,'' and To Busch, " To He in amhiish" 
It is duly understood that awBusH, am^\j&cade, with the parallels 
Embuscher, Embuscade, (Fr.) Imboscare, Emboscar, (Ital. Span.) belong 
to the Bush, Bois, (Fr.) &c. &c. 

In the same column with Bux?/s, I see BvTeo, the Buzzard, and 
here we might record some of the names of animals, in which our 
Element BT, &c. occurs, denoting the Pudgy, Swelling out animal. 
Hence we have Buxeo, Buzzard with its parallels Buse, Busart, Bousart, 
&c. (Fr.) Buzzage, (Ital.) Bushard, (Germ.) where let us note how 
in Buzz, the noise, we have the same idea of the Pudgy beMiiddling 
sound, if I may so say, — Busxa/v/, with its parallels, produced by the 
Etymologists, Bistarde, &c. (Fr.) Abutarda, (Span.) Bucciario, (Ital.) 
&c. where the Ard denotes ' Nature, Kind,' &c. Butter- Bump, where 
Bump has a similar meaning, Butter^j/, which might mean a Swelling 
out fluttering motion; — Butt, the Fish, with its parallels Bot fisch, 
(Belg.) &c. where the Etymologists have justly referred us to HalUBvT, 
and £e/-PowT, to which we must add Tur-BoT, or Turb-BoT, BurBoT, 
Sec. In PowT, To PowT out, or Pudge out, we unequivocally see the 
original idea. Among the terms under the form But, in English, which 
are recorded by Skinner, are the following Butt, the cask, Buttoc^, 
Butto??, BuT/er, belonging to Bottle, and Butter, where we une- 
quivocally see the idea of Swelling out, and in the latter term we perceive 
the Pudge matter, from which these words are derived ; — Butt, Cornu 
petere, which belongs to the Soft substances of Butter, Batter, &c. 
just as Baste, To Beat, belong to the action of BASTing, or BAsmng 
meat, with soft substances BATTer, &c. and as To Batter is only the 
verb of Batter, the substantive ; — But, the extremity, with its com- 
pounds Bout, (Fr.) extremitas, Aboutir, and the English aBuT, But, 
the conjunction ; — Buttery, Cella Promptuaria, BuTwinc, Capella avis, 
BvTTress, and Butcher. Skinner derives But- fVinc from Bute, Extra 
and JFincian, " Nivere, forte a frequent! istius avis nictitatione." With- 
out knowing the nature of the Bird, it is impossible to decide on the 


peculiar sense, annexed to But, yet it probably bears the meaning, which 
I am here unfolding, on account of some of its properties. Buxrery 
is the store-house for Butter, which I think it necessary to observe, 
because some derive it from Bolder, (Fr.) Ponere, — But, the Extremity, 
means the Mass or Lump of Pudge, ^\JTv'uig, Vusui/ig, or Sirel/ing out, 
as a notable object, serving for a Mark, Boundary, &c. The Butt, or 
Cask, is still the Lumpy Shaped object. Swelling up, or out, BvTTing, 
or FuDGing out. The Butts, the Mark for Archers, takes in two ideas 
belonging to this fundamental notion, as denoting the Mark, or Notable 
object, BvTring out, and likewise the object, which is Butted, or Shot 
at, by the Archers. In the BuTTress, and the Buttocks, we have still 
the same notion of a BuTring out, Mass of Matter. Perhaps the Butty 
may mean the assistant, BuTTing, or Standing out, on your side, by way 
of BvTTress, or Support. Menage has seen the true spot from which 
the French Bout is derived, when he compares it with the Eno-Hsh 
BoTTom, the German BoDe», the Swedish Boren. Menage under Bute, 
produces the terms Bodo, and BoroNtinus, used by the Roman Lawyers, 
as relating to the Boundaries of Land, and the Butta Terrce, as used 
in Barbarous Latin. — The English term About should seem only to be 
another form of Ahutt, but on this point there is some difficulty. The 
term About is properly referred by the Etymologists to Abutan, Ymbutan, 
where in the first part Ab, and Ymb of this compound, Skinner justly, 
I think, discovers the Saxon Ymb, circum, belonging to the Latin and 
Greek Am, Atnphi, (Aju^j.) On the second part there is some difiiculty. 
Skinner refers it to Ute, or Ufati, belonging to our word Out, which 
is very probable ; yet the second part may be Bout, But, and may belong 
to the terms, now before us. — In Scotch Bout is used for About; as 
the BovT-Gate, "A circuitous road, a way which is not direct, S, 
" from About, and Gait, way." The preceding terms to these in Dr. 
Jamieson's Dictionary are Bout, " A sudden jerk in entering, or leaving 
" an apartment, &c. and To Bout, To spring, To Leap," which belongs 
to Butt, &c. To Push forward, &c. and to terms of a similar kind, 
which Dr. Jamieson has justly introduced as parallel. 

The English Particle But seems to be a compound, quasi Be-Out, and 

128 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,vi,n,r. 

not to belong to the Race of words, now before us, under the Elementary 
character BT, yet it affords at the same time some difficulty, as to its 
origin, and may require to be considered in this place. In its Gram- 
matical uses, it is perfectly clear and intelligible, whatever may be the 
origin from which it is derived. We should on the first view affirm, 
that But, the particle, relating to the Outside, belongs to But, the 
Extremity ; yet on more mature consideration, some doubts will occur. 
But, the particle, is a parallel term, as Skinner has justly observed, to 
the Saxon Bute, Butan; and he moreover tells us, that Bute, Butan, 
may be derived from Be, Circa, and Ute, or Utan, Foris. We must 
regard this, I imagine, as the true origin of the word, and thus But must 
be conceived to be a compound. — Whether But be a compound or 
not, its sense would be equally the same, as denoting the Extremity, 
or Outside part ; and from this fundamental idea of the Outside part, 
its different uses, as an Adverbial, or Conjunctive Particle, have been 
derived. Dr. Jamieson has placed But, in different articles of his 
Dictionary, among which we have But, JFithout, where he refers us 
to BoT; — But, "Towards the outer apartment of a house," which he 
has justly referred to Bute, (Sax.) &c. — " But, the outer apartment of 
" the House," to which senses the expression belongs of the But and Beti 
of a house, ' The outward and inner apartment of a house.' In the 
But and Ben, the term Ben is derived from Be-In, as all agree ; where 
we appear to have a confirmation, that But is a compound of Be-Out. 
In another article this Lexicographer has But, besides, which he refers 
to Butan, Praeter, (Sax.) and here But is used in a passage, which our 
author thus explains " Besides archers, and Besides burdowys and cross 
" bow-men, he had no more than five hundred men at arms," and he 
remarks on this application of the word, " In what manner soever, 
"But, JVithout, be derived, this must have a common source; for it 
" is evidently the same word, very little varied in meaning." Under 
BoT, which he explains by the English But, he observes, " This is often 
" confounded with But, prep, signifying Without. They are however," 
as he adds, " originally distinct, and are sometimes clearly distinguished 
" by old writers." 


" BoT thy werke sail endure in laude and glorie, 
" But spot, or fait condigne eterne memorie." 

(Doug. Virgil, &c.) 

In the former case, as we perceive, our author imagines, that But, 
Besides, and But, JFithout, belong to each other, and here, as we see, 
he appears to imagine, that Bot, corresponding to our word But, Besides, 
Moreover, &c. and Bur, Without, were originally distinguished, or as 
he probably means to say, had a different origin. 

As I have given, I imagine, the true origin of the term But, I should 
not have thought it necessary to make any further observations, which 
might relate to its application ; if this Particle had not once formed an 
object of general discussion, from considerable attention having been 
bestowed upon a work, which was written by a personage of notoriety 
in the last age, whose opinion Dr. Jamieson has thought it necessary 
to record in his observations on this word. But in its use, as it appears 
in the two following sentences ; " But to say no more," &c. " You pray, 
" But it is not that God would bring you to the true religion," is said 
by the writer, whom Dr. Jamieson quotes, to be " corruptly put for 
" Bot, the imperative of Botqw," which however Dr. Jamieson observes 
does not exist. This BoTa?/ is stated by the same writer as signifying, 
"To Boot, i. e. To superadd, to supply, to substitute, to atone for, 
" to compensate with, to remedy with, to make amends with, to add 
" something More in order to make up a deficiency in something else." 
But in the following phrase, " I saw But two plants," is referred by 
the same Investigator, to Be-Utan, as the Etymologists have done. 
Skinner has justly seen, that the sense of But in the phrase "None 
" But he," where he explains the original Saxon words by " Praeter, 
" nisi, sine," passes into the sense of Sed " levi flexu," and Junius, 
who produces the sense of But, as in " But Spot, or fait," which he 
considers as the primary signification, likewise understands, that But is 
quasi Be-Out, for JVith-Out. In this sense But may be considered 
as a preposition, and it may justly be so denominated, though we all 
know, that the uses of the Preposition and Conjunction perpetually 
pass into each other. These Grammatical distinctions however are 


130 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,.T,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.'j l,m,n,r. 

sufficiently proper, and answer on most occasions their due purpose. — 
Skinner in explaining, what may be considered as some of the senses 
of But, when used as a Conjunction, as in our familiar Grammatical 
Language we should all call it, has added likewise PrcBter and Sine, which 
we should call Prepositions. — How was it possible for Dr. Jamieson, 
or for any one, who had ever reflected for a single moment on such 
subjects, not to see, that But, Sed, (^Conjunct.^ which we may likewise 
express by the Latin Prceterea, and the English Beside, and Biif, Nisi, 
or Sine, (^Conjunct, and Prep.^ which we may equally express by Prceter, 
and Beside, contain the same fundamental idea, and belong to each other ? 
Do not the terms Prceterea, used for Sed, and Prceter for Nisi, and 
Sine, like the term Beside, used equally for Sed and Nisi, (' Beside 
' I must observe — There are none at home Beside John and William,') 
shew us, that the same word, bearing the same fundamental idea, may 
be used in the senses of Sed, and Nisi, and Sine. Nay, what is curious, 
when Prceterea, as used for Sed, may be considered as performing its 
office, as a Conjunction, even then it performs that office by virtue of 
a Preposition, connected with its case as Prceter-Ea. — Does not Dr. 
Jamieson moreover perceive, that the sense of Be-Out, which, as all 
acknowledge, may justly express the ideas of Nisi and Sine, belongs 
equally to that of SedP Is not Be-side the same as Be-Out, i. e. ' By 
' the Side,' or By the out part; and is not Be-Side equally used for Sed, 
and NisiP — It is true enough, that But, in the sense of Sed, may be 
considered under one idea, as having the force of something More, To 
Boot, Superadd, and it might be, as to its sense derived from that source; 
but cannot the sense of Be-Out, Extra, or Beyond what has been before 
done, said, &c. bring us to a similar idea of something Super, added, or 
as we express it, Something Extra, or ' Over and Above.' Let us mark 
the explanatory term purposely adopted Extra, in which word the Ex 
belongs to Out, and which R. Ainsworth has justly explained by 
" Externally, Without, out of, not in. — Beyond ; Except, saving. Over 
"■ and above." Here we see all the senses, which are, or may be con- 
ceived to be expressed by But. Mr. Locke justly enough observed, that 
But denotes a " Stop in the mind in the course it was going," on which 


the Investigator quoted by Dr. Jamieson, remarks, " the truth is, that 
" But itself is the farthest of any word in the Language from intimating 
" a stop. On the contrary it always intimates something More, some- 
" thing to follow." Mr. Locke is supposed likewise to have had this 
particle But, chiefly in view, and to have been misled by it, when he 
speaks of Conjunctions as making "some stands, turns, limitations, and 
*' exceptions." If a Limitation, or Limit cannot be expressed by that, 
which signifies the Outside; or if an Exception, or a taking Out, by 
that, which signifies Being With-Ow^, we shall find it difficult to conceive, 
from what source such an idea can be derived. In short. But, as a 
Preposition and a Conjunction denotes ' Putting, or Being Out, Ex- 
' eluding,' and operates alike in both cases as an Exclusion of something. 
In the phrase, 'I saw But two Plants;' the meaning is, 'I saw two 
' Plants Exclusively ,' that is, ' I saw no Plants, But, or £a;-Cept, or 

* 0?//-taking two.' In the sentence ' you pray indeed. But you pray, 

* not with the proper effect of praying,' that is, you pray indeed ; 
Exclude, or Take Out, however something from this general position : — 
' You Pray improperly, as if not praying ;' or as we might say, if we 
now used But, as a Preposition in the same manner, as we do ' With- 
' Out,' 'You pray With-Ow^ praying.' In short, when But, as a 
Conjunction, is used as a qualifying Protest against any wrong Conclusion 
from a former general Proposition, as all allow to be its force ; we might 
refer, as an illustration of the force of But, to Lord Coke's definition of 
a Protest, namely, that it is "An Exclusion of a conclusion.'' Through 
the whole compass, of Language, we frequently see the same word, used 
like But, as a Conjunction and Proposition, from whatever idea that 
word may be derived. In the following phrase, YlXnv, which belongs 
to the idea of Moreover, as derived from IlAeos, Plenus, Abundans, is 
used as a Preposition, A7ro/3oA^; -^pux*!^ ouhe/nia earai e^ u/jiwv rrXriv tov 
ttXoiov, There will be no loss amongst you But, or Over and Above that, 
More than that of the Ship. In the following, as a Conjunction, ^A^;t/ 
^tlTCLTe Tijv (Saa-iXeiap tov Oeou, But seek the Kingdom of God, &c. 
Do something Over and Above; More than you have done, — namely, 
Seek the Kingdom of God. The Greek hWa, which belongs to AAAos, 

R 2 

132 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S, T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

Another, is used in a similar manner, Ovketi ov^eva eihov, hWa tov 
Itjaovv fxovov fxed' eavTiav. They saw no man But Jesus only: They 
saw no Other man, or no More men than Jesus. — " Man shall not live 
" by bread alone, But, (AAAa,) by every word, that proceedeth out 
" of the mouth of God;" that is, He shall do something More than 
live on bread only. It often happens, that the two words of Addition 
are joined ; yet still they may be translated by the Preposition of Ex- 
clusion, Except, as Y\\t]v aW »;, &c. Nisi, Ou yap evyia^ei o laTpevuiv, 
TlXriv aW V Kara arvixfie^mo^, But, Except by accident, in no other 
way than by accident. These are the familiar examples, produced in 
the ordinary books respecting the Greek Particles ; and it is not necessary 
to record other examples on a point so obvious, I should not have 
thought it necessary to detail at such length, what is so clear and obvious, 
if I had not seen so contemptible a vein of observation, and the name 
of its author, produced in so respectable a work as the Dictionary of 
Dr. Jamieson. 

Words signifying what Swells, or Pudges out, as Bud, &c. 

The term Bud means what Swells, or Pudges out, and while I examine 
this word in Skinner, I cast my eyes on other terms, which refer to the 
same idea of VuDGJng, or Swelling out, as Bucket, Budge — Barrel, 
BucKvam, Budget, Buckle, Buckler. — The term Budge in the sense 
of a Vacillating motion, as in Bouger, &c. manifestly belongs to the 
Pudge, or Bog matter, as in Boggle, and in the explanatory term, 
which I have adopted, VACCiLLa^e, belonging to Vacillo;-, Vago^, (Lat.) 
Waggle, Wag, (Eng.) &c. — Budge — Barrel is a nautical word, which 
denotes the Swelling out cask. The word Budge likewise refers to Fur, 
where it means the Pudgy stuff, the authorities for which sense I produce 
in another place, where I observe, that Fur signifies Dirt, as in the 
' Furred Tea-kettle.' In English Budge means Swelling out. Idle, empty 
stuff, which is probably taken from its general sense, and is not derived 
from the personages dressed in Fur, The general sense is probably 
intended in the passage of Milton; when he talks of " The Budge 


" Doctors of the Stoic Fur" though the sense of the Fur may be justly 
apphed to persons, who assume importance from this emblem of station 
and gravity. The ' Stoic Fur,' however, was probably suggested to the 
mind of the writer, from the application of Budge in the other sense. — 
We cannot but understand, how Fuzz, and Fuzzy belong to Pudge, 
Pudgy, and this will lead us to enumerate some terms, which express 
Cloth of this nature, as Fust/V/«; (Eng.) the original idea of which 
fully appears in its metaphorical application, " Vvsrian style," a Swe//ing 
out style; — BucKm/w, with its parallels Boucherame, Bougran, (Ital. Fr.) 
the original idea of which latter word appears in its adjacent term 
BouGRE, the Foul, Vile, abominable character — i>?/m-BAST, and its 
parallels /^o/w-Basin, (Fr.) Eom-BYx, (Bo^/3y^, Bovibyx.^ The name 
of the worm, or fly, is supposed to be derived from the Bomhos, (Bo|U/3os,) 
the Swelling Noise, and whatever may be the precise idea, we shall be 
of opinion I imagine, that the Bom and Byx are both significant under 
the same idea. The name of the Silk is supposed to be taken from 
the animal ; yet the animal may perhaps be taken from the Silk. Boin- 
BAST is Cotton, and the Plant is called the Bombast tree. The Com- 
mentators on Shakspeare have produced a passage from Stubbs, in which 
the custom is described of lining the cloths with Bombast, and from 
which we learn, that the doublets were sometimes " stuffed with foure, 
" five, or sixe pounde of Bombast at least." 

It is acknowledged that Byss«/5, (Byo-tros,) belongs to the Hebrew, 
pn, or p BUZ, or BZ, which signifies Cotton, as Mr. Parkhurst 
thinks, and this Hebrew word actually denotes, " Soft Mud, or 
" Mire." The next term to this in Mr. Parkhurst's Lexicon is b'^2 
BZL, An onion, which means the Swelling out object. In an adjacent 
word, we have pV2 BZK, which Mr. Parkhurst justly considers, as 
meaning in its primary sense, "To be made soft by moistening," and 
in another sense it signifies, as a Noun, "Meal, moistened with water, 
" paste, or dough unleavened," where Mr. Parkhurst observes, that he 
prefers " the above interpretation of the Root to that, whicli is commonly 
" given, namely, Swclli?ig." Our author is right in preferring this in- 
terpretation ; in which we have the idea of Pudgy matter, because it 


B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^^ hm,n,r. 

is the original notion, from which that of Swelling is derived. We may 
however from hence learn, that the idea of Swelling out cannot be 
separated from objects of this nature, and that on many occasions this 
is the predominating notion. 

The term Budget with its parallels Bougc, Bongette, (Fr.) will 
remind us of various terms, signifying the Sack, Bag, &c. something 
holding, or containing any thing. Swelling out with its contents, as 
Bag, Baggage, with the parallels Bagage, (Fr.) Bagaglio, (Ital.) &c. 
among which however we must not admit such terms as Beige, &c. 
as this word belongs to the Element BL. To these terms must be referred, 
as Skinner justly observes, Bagasse, Bagascia, (Fr. Ital.) Scortum, 
Meretrix, presertim, militaris, the vile Appendages, or Impediments to 
a Camp. The origin of the term Baggage will be manifest from the 
parallel term in Dutch Bagagie, which is adjacent in my Dutch 
Dictionary to Bagger, Mud. The word inserted between these terms, 
is Bagge, " An ear-jewel," which still contains a similar idea. — Pack, 
Package, with their parallels. Pack, (Germ.) Pacquet, Pachetto, (Fr. 
and Ital.) — Pouch, Poke, Pocket, (Eng.) with the parallels Pocca, (Sax.) 
Poche, Pochette, (Fr.) Skinner observes, that the Pocket of wool, 
though belonging to Packet, alludes (jalludit,^ to the Greek IIokos, 
Vellus, a YleiKu), Pecto. The Pokos, (YIokos, Vellus,) certainly means 
the Pudgy, or Fuzzy substance, and Peiko, (rieiKw,) and Pecto, with 
their derivatives Pecten, Pectino, &c. relate to actions performed on 
that substance. The term " To Fooaz,- To level the surface of a Fleece 
" of woo', with the shears," brings us directly to Fuzzy Stuff. In 
the phrase *To Bag out,' we see unequivocally the sense of the Bag, 
and in another phrase, 'To Bouge out, which the Etymologists have 
referred to Bouge, (Fr.) Bulga, we have likewise the true idea. Skinner 
observes on this word *' Bouge autem a Bulga ortum esse nemo adeo 
" A/xoi/o-os est, ut dubitet." 1 am forced however, in spite of this severe 
decision,, to consider these words, as distinct from each other, though 
they contain the same idea, under different Elements. In the opening 
of Skinner's Dictionary I see " A Bouge of Court," a certain allowance 
of the King in Bread, Beer, or Wine, to his attendants, which the 


Etymologists derive from Bouge, the Wallet, " Mantica regis donis 
" plena." Near the terms Bag, and Baggage, I see in my English 
Dictionaries, the term Badger, which Junius explains by "Animal sibi 
" avidum, et esculenta in longum tempus recondens,'' who adds likewise, 
" unde a Badger of Corn, Frumentarius, sive Mercator magnarius fruges" 
" undique coemcns atqiie in uniun comporfans." The Badger is the 
animal and personage, who Bags up, or collects things into a Heap, &c. 
I see too Badge, Tnsigne, which means the BxGGing, or Swelling up 
Patch of Cloth, &c. annexed as a mark of Distinction. 

In the same Column of Skinner, where Vusrian is, I see Fust, " vox 
" Architectonica, a Fr. G. Fuste, Scapus columnse, hoc ni fallor, ab It. 
" Busto, Truncus seu reliquum corporis capite dempto," where all these 
words mean the Swelling out,. Lumpy substance ; — Fusty, Fuste, (Fr.) 
Fracidus, where we are directly brought to the idea of Dii't ; — Futtoc^s, 
Vox nautica, which they suppose to be quasi TooT-hooks. — Fig, with 
its parallels Foy, (Belg.) Ft, (Ital. Fr.), which some refer to the Latin 
Pah, and the Greek Feu, (4>ey,) and others derive it from Fcedus; where 
we are brought to the original idea. — Fuzelly, "a Fr. Fusille, vox 
*• Feecialium," and Fusil, (Eng.) Fuseau, Fusel, which the Etymologists 
derive from Yusus. All these words denote Agitation, Swelling up, in 
Noise, Motion, &c. The term Fusee means at once " A Spindle, and 
" a Squib." Add to these terms Fiz, Viz-Gig, Feist, Fuzzle, with the 
parallels produced by the Etymologists, Fist, Feist, (Sax. Germ.) Foest, 
(Belg.) Fessir, (Fr.) Vissire, Pedere, (Lat.) Bdeo, (Gr. /3Sew,) Fusao, 
[^va-aw, Flo.) &c. Fuzz, Fuzzy, (Eng.) before produced Fuzz-Ball, 
Puck-Fist, where both parts of the compounds belong to our Element ; — 
Fuss, &c. &c. The senses of Boeo, BDclussomui, (B8ew, Pedo, flatum 
ventris emitto, Fosto, Puteo, BSeAi/trcro/xat, Exsecror, et abominor, 
detestor, proprie ob Foetorem,) convey likewise the idea of what is Foul; 
and here let us mark the kindred explanatory terms, Fcetco, and Putco. 
The term Foist, in one sense means 'To Stuff out, or in.' Adjacent 
to Puck-Fist, in Bailey's Dictionary are Puckc/-, the swelling out stuff, 
which means likewise, as our author says, " a nest of caterpillars, or 
" such hke vermin," When we talk of a person being 'All in a Pucker,' 


B,F,P,V, W.| C,D,J,K,Q,S,T,X, Z.] l,m,n,r. 

the term has nearly the same meaning as the next word to it in Skinner's 
Dictionary, Pudder, whose true sense together with that of its succeeding 
term Pudd?/?^, appears in another adjacent word Puddle. 

In examining the term Pack, I cast my eyes on Pack, To Pack off, 
Pad, To Pad, and Pad of Straw, to which we may add Wad, WkXimng, 
the Stuffing out matter. Adjacent to Pad is Paddle, where we are 
brought to the Pudgy spot and action supposed in my hypothesis ; and 
we moreover see, how these verbs of motion, ' To Pad, Pack,' &c. 
together with the term Budge, &c. are derived from the Pudgy Spot, 
and connect themselves with the PuDG/'wg- out object. Other terms 
in the same column of Skinner with the above words are PaddocA% 
sometimes called PuttocA-, the Toad, and Pad/ocA-, the Swelling out 
object ; where, let us remember another term under one of these forms, 
PaddocA", an enclosed piece of Land, in which sense we are brought to 
the original spot, and PAD-iVao-, which means the Vx\>mng Nag. — I shew, 
that 'To Poke,' means 'To Pudge, or Stick in, out, &c. and thus we 
see, how the substantive, and the verb Poke become the same term. 
[ shew likewise that Wade, and Waddle mean to Walk in the Pudgy 
Spot, the Vadmw, and thus we perceive, how Wad, and WM>T>ing, which 
relate to Pudg//?^ out, may belong to Wade, and Waddle. — In the 
same column of Skinner with Bagge, I see Badge, which is only the 
Patch, or Botch upon clothes; — Bacon which brings us to Pig, Bigge, 
(Belg.) &c. where we have a similar notion of the Pudgy substance ; 
Badger, which as a substantive is explained, and as a verb. To Badger, 
refers to hunting the animal, and Bad, where we are directly brought to 
Base, the Low Pudge place and matter. The animal Pig, will remind us 
of the Greek Phoke, PnoKame, (^wKtj, Vitulus marinus, Phoca. fPwKaivrj, 
Phocoena, balaena.) 

The terms preceding PnoKame, or FoKaine, (4>wKati/>?,) in my Greek 
Vocabulary are Tooes, (<l>a)Ses,) Pustulce, where we see the true idea 
of Swelling, Foul matter, and terms relating to Fire, as Fozo, Fogo, Fog- 
niio, (<t>w^w, 4>w7ft), in Foco aliquid torreo, a Ows, ^^wyvvw, Torreo.) We 
should at once agree, that the terms, relating to Fire would be naturally 
derived from the idea oi Agitation, Commotion, SiveUing out; and such 


I imagine to be the idea annexed to these words. 1 might here produce 
the various terms relating to Lig/if, or F'ne, under our Element, as Fos, 
YoTos, (<I>a)9, <I>wTos, Lumen, Lux, Focus, a <t»aw,) where we are referred 
to the simpler form Fao, (JSfaw, Luceo, &c.); and if this should be the 
more original form, it does not at all disturb the relation of the words, 
which exist under the form FS ; — Yaus'is, Fausko, Fauzo, Faos, Feggo*, 
&c. (fpavcri^, Lux, ^aua-Kw, Luceo, (Pav^w, Frigo, 4>aos, Lumen, <i>eyyo^, 
Splendor, &c.) Focms, (Lat.) &c. &c. Whether they all belong precisely 
to the same idea, it is not easy to decide. 1'he sense of Fire is attached 
sometimes more particularly to that Foul species of Light, or Fire, which 
we call Smother, or Pother, arising from ff^et, Green materials, not 
favourable for lighting. Hence we see Focms allied to terras, which 
signify to Smother, or Choke up, to Pudge up, under another turn of 
meaning. Thus sufYoco, ' To suJYocate,' attaches itself to Vocus. 
V ossius derives it from Yocus, when the second syllable is short, and 
from Faux, Faucis, when it is long, according to the ancient verse, 
" Suffocat, extinguit, Suffdcat guttura, stringit." The quantity of syllables 
will sometimes be affected by that palpable species of affinity, which 
Grammarians call Derivation, but it affords us no guide in that species 
of affinity, which it is the purpose of Etymology to discover. This is 
commonly accident, except when the mind is directly led to change the 
quantity of a word, under the principle, which operates on all occasions 
in the propagation of Language, namely, for the purpose of conveying 
a different turn of meaning annexed to a fundamental idea. I^et 
v\s mark the term Faux, Fauc/s, which means the Swelling out. Wide 
opening object. — In Italian Affocarc, signifies " To set on fire, to kindle. 
" Also to neale red hot. Also to stijle, or smother,^' and AFFOGr//t', 
" To stifle, to smother, to choake. Also to drowne," as John Florio 
explains them, which certainly belong to Fuoco, and Fuogo. Under 
the simpler form we have Fooare, " To choke, to stifle, to smother. 
" Also to put to flight," as the same writer explains it, where let us note 
the sense of " Putting to flight" which brings us to the Greek and 
Latin words Feugo, FuGto, (i^ftvyw, Fugio, Fugani Capio,— Refugio, 
V^ito,) where it would be idle to enquire, whether these words belonged 



B, F, P, V, W. I C, D, J, K, Q, S, T, X, Z. \ I, m, n, r. 

to Foul, vile Stuff*, in its violent sense, as able to Choke, Stifle, Repress, 
or to the idea of Foul, Vile Stuff, which you Avoid, Shun, &c. The 
origin of the Latin Fug/o, and Fugo will be manifest in a term, which 
1 see adjacent to them in our Vocabularies, Fuc//s, the Vile Daub, or 
Pudge, and the quotation produced under Fugo by R. Ainsworth, 
" Flammas a classe YvGavif precisely corresponds with the sense of 
Focare, To Choke, Stifle, &c. The next word to Fooare in John Florio's 
Dictionary is FoGc/a, " Any kind of Fash/ow," &c. and I shew in another 
place, that these terms for Fash/o/? are derived from the Plastic materials 
of Pudge, and thus we see, how every thing coincides to illustrate the 
same point. But the origin of these Italian words will be fully evident 
from an adjacent term in John Florio's Lexicon, whatever may be the 
precise idea, by which they are connected with that term, as Fog/?«, 
which our copious interpreter explains by " A common shore, sink, 
" or Jakes. Also any Filth, or Carrion. Also an interjection of contempt, 
*' as we say Fough, Fie, it stinks," where let us note the interjections 
FouGH ! Fie ! belonging to this Race of words. In Fie the second 
consonant of the Radical is lost, or does not appear. Here again it is 
idle to enquire, which was the original form. I have already produced 
tlie German Pfuy, Fy ! Foh, which is the next term in my German 
Vocabulary to Pfutze, " A Puddle, Lake, Slough, Bog," &c. In Scotch 
we have the form FG, as Feigh, Feech, " Fy, an expression of disgust, 
" or abomination," as Dr. Jamieson explains it, where he has properly 
produced the parallel terms, and among these the ancient English word 
used by Wiclif, " He that seith to his brother, Fugh, schal be guilty 
" to the counsell." In the same page of Dr. Jamieson's Dictionary 
we have Fey, "A Fief, or possession held, by some tenure, of a 
'' superior;" — Fey, " A Foe", Feid, Fede, " Enmity, hatred; a quarrel," 
Dr. Jamieson has produced various terms under the form FD, FG, &c. 
relating to Hatred, as Faide, Fed, (Isl.) Fegd, (Su. G.) Fewd, (Eng.) 
&c. &c. as likewise some words, under the form F\ as Fa, Fah cor- 
responding to our word Foe; under both which forms the same idea 
prevails, as in Feigh ! Fy, &c. what is Foul, Vile, &c. The Fey, the 
Fief, or Possession, he refers to Fe, Fee, denoting Cattle, and Possessions 


in general, Money, Hereditary Property in land, &c. &c. and these he 
refers to terms denoting, Cattle, as Fe, Fae, Feo, Vieh, (Isl. Sii. G. 
A. S. Germ.) which likewise appear under the form BC, PC, &c. as 
?zciis, Pasco, &c. and which I shew in a future page to belong to Fat, 
the Pudge Matter. He refers the Law Latin term Feudww, &c. from 
which our combination Feudal System is derived, to these words, 
denoting Cattle, as others do ; which is probably the right derivation ; 
though I do not conceive, that Feudm//! is a compound of Fea, and HaiU 
denoting quality, as Somner imagines. The term Vevxhivi is no more 
a composition than Fief is. 

Before 1 quit the terms, above produced, for Light, Fire, &c. I ought 
not to omit the Welsh Foe, " A Focus ; a fire-place ; a furnace ; a 
" caldron," and in the same column of Mr. Owen's Dictionary I see 
Fozi, "To cast a splendor, to illumine." In the same column I see 
too VoKmg, " Fugitive, fleeing, retreating," which has a parallel term 
under the form Foi, or Fo, "To run away, to flee, to retreat." Again 
in Welsh Faglu is " To blaze, to flame, to conflagrate ; to be all in a 
" flame;" as Mr. Owen explains it, to which there is an adjacent term 
in this writer's Dictionary, — YxGod, "A Faggo^, a bundle of sticks, or 
" twigs," where the sense of the Faggo^, Fasc?'s, Fasc/o, &c. belongs 
to that of the Swellijig up Lump. The word signifying a Blaze may 
be taken from the materials of the Faggot, but this I believe is not so. 
In the same column of Mr. Owen, I see Fag, " What unites together. 
" or meets in a point." — Y.KGlad, " A gathering round to a point," and 
Faig, "An extremity, or farthest point; a stop; a turn; a nonplus, or 
" embarrassment." Here again we have according to Mr. Owen Fa, 
or Fai, with a similar turn of meaning. — The word Faig is used in a 
passage, quoted by Mr. Owen, where we see the original idea; of which 
passage he gives us the following translation, "A boiling agitation, like 
" the cataract of the rock of torrents, from the streams of the springs of 
" Extremity y Whatever be the sense of this passage we see, that the 
sense of Extremity is connected with the Stvelling up of Pash matter. 
In the preceding column, we find Faeth, " Luxuriant, fruitful, rich, 
" FECund, mellow, ripe," which brings us to Beatws, FiEcmidus, Fat, 

s 2 


B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.5 l,m,n,r. 

&c. &c. {"adw, "To be disguised, to be covered over," which means 
to be Dauh'd over, and Faced, "Curds, posset-curds,'' where let us 
note the explanatory term Posset. In these Welsh and English words 
Faced and Posset, we unequivocally see the idea of Pudge matter. 
Mr. Owen has himself referred Fxced to Fag, and thus we see, how, 
according to the acknowledgement of our Lexicographer, the term Fag, 
relating to the idea of Rising, or Su'eUi7fg up to a Point, belongs to 
the notion of Pudge Matter. — In Irish Faic is a Sparkle, and pAicam, 
' To see ;' an adjacent word to which in the same column of Mr. Shaw's 
Dictionary is Faiche, "A field green," where we perceive its union with 
the Spot, supposed in my hypothesis ; whatever may be the process, by 
which they are united. In the preceding column, I perceive YxGhaim, 
" To get, obtain, find," and Fagaw, " To leave, quit, wrest," the original 
idea of which terms I should not have discovered, if I had not seen 
in the second Volume of Mr. Shaw's Dictionary, 'To Bemire,' expressed 
by " YxQam am poll," where we are brought to the original idea. 

Terms, relating to the sense of Cleansing, Cleaning, Ornamenting, 
Improving, Amending, Repairing, &c. which are derived from the 
idea of Pudge Matter, either from the action of removing it, or from 
that of Daubing a Surface over, — Botch/w^ something up, as we 
express it. 

We have seen the forms of the Interjections Fie, Feigh ; as denoting, 
what is Vile, (where the sound of the second letter of the Radical is 
not heard,) which will remind us of the familiar Rural terms Fey, or 
Feigh, when used as verbs, expressing the action of Cleansing. I might 
take the present occasion of examining the Race of words, under our 
Elementary form FG, &c. which convey this train of ideas, and which 
relate to the sense of Cleaning, Cleansing, Ornamenting, Improving, 
Amending, Repairing, &c. These words may be considered perhaps, 
as derived from different turns of meaning, belonging to our Element, 
though under such minute points of difference, as scarcely to be dis- 


tinguished from each other. Such Words appear on the first view to 
convey a sense, directly opposite to Dirt, and so indeed they do ; yet 
we must remember, that the action of Cleansing is no other than that 
of removing Dirt, and hence we see, how the idea of Dirt may still 
fundamentally prevail in these words. In the verb Feigh we are directly 
brought to the substance of Pudge Matter, in the expression 'To Feigh, 
' a Pond,' that is, ' To remove the Pudge,' just as ' To Mud a Pond,' 
means 'To Remove the Mud.' Mr. Grose explains Fey by "To Fey, 
" or Feigh it, to do any thing notably. To Fey meadows ; to cleanse 
" them. To Fey a Pond, to empty and cleanse it from Mud. Also 
" to winnow with the natural wind," and TEring he explains by " Ruh- 
" hish ; Earth cut up and thrown aside, in order to get turf," where 
we are brought to the original spot, and the true idea. In the same 
opening of Mr. Grose's Glossary, I see Feusome. Handsome. Feu. A 
" Method. A good, or bad Feu of doing any thing; — Few, To Few; 
" to change," which seem to belong to Fey; Fettle, "To pETT/e; to set, 
" or go about any thing; to dress, prepare, or put in order; To Fettle 
" the tits; to dress the horses." — Fee, "To Fee; to winnow. Perhaps 
" the same with Fey, to cleanse, scour, or dress :" — Feg, " Fair, handsome, 
" clean," and Feg in another sense means " To Feg, or Fag ; to flag, 
" droop, or tire," where let us note our Term Fag, To be in a vile, 
Pudge, Relaxed state ; and here we must remember the Latin Fatigo, 
and its parallels in modern Languages, Fatigue, Fatiguer, &c. We 
must remember likewise our combination Fag end, where we have 
another application of the same idea ; and our expressive term Fudge, 
which means * All Pudge,' &c. — We cannot but remember with what 
felicitous effect this interjection is used in that amusing and original 
Romance, the Ficar of JVaheJield. Mr. Grose has likewise the term Pegs, 
an Exclamation, which may answer to our interjections, 'Fecks, 
' Feck?7?s,' which seem to be sometimes used as a term of admiration 
at the neatness of any thing ; and sometimes they appear to be modes 
of affirmation, like i Faith. The interjection is preserved by Congreve 
in the character of Fondle Wife, who says to Laetitia, " Nay, look you 
" now if She does not weep, — 'tis the fondest fool. — Nay, Cocky, Cocky, 

142 B,F,P,V,W.J C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

" nay, dear Cocky, dont cry, I was but in jest, I was not, ipECK," and in 
the same scene we have, " Go, naughty Nykin, you don't love me. — 
" Kiss, Kiss, /Feck I do." — The next word to Fegs in Mr. Grose is 
Feit, " Neat, dexterous," &c. which seems to belong to Fait, (Fr.) 
VvjTwe, Facio, (Lat.) &c. which I have derived from the Plastic Materials 
of Dirt. In the same page I see Feat, " Nasty Tasted," where we are 
brought to the true idea, and Feausan, "Taste, or Moisture," which 
belongs to Foizon, or Fuzon, which he explains by " The nature, juice, 
" or moisture of the grass, or other herbs," &c. which means what is 
of a Pudgy, Moist, abundant nature, as I shew in another place. — In 
German pEOew signifies, according to Wachter, " Purgare, Mundare, — 
" Februare, Polire, Ornare," where he has produced the Islandic Fcegia, 
bearing a similar meaning; and to this word he has attributed the English 
term Fair, which in other Languages appears under the form FG, as 
Foegur, Fager, &c. (Sax. Goth.) &c. This probably is a just mode of 
conceiving the matter ; yet we shall find, that the Elementary Character 
FR supplies the same idea. — In German TEG-Feur, denotes that great 
Fire, supposed to Purge, or Purify men from all the foul stains of Sin, 
called Purgatory. Adjacent terms to this word in Wachter are Feige, 
verber, which he properly refers to Box, ^vonus, Pux, (fli/^,) where 
the sense of Striking belongs to the idea of PuDGiwg, or Pash^w^; — Feig, 
having various senses, in one of which it is parallel to Few, (Eng.) 
Pauc?/5, (Lat.) containing, as he thinks, the sense of Vilis, &;c. which 
belong as I imagine to the Little Lump, or Piece of Pudge, or Dirt, 
and in another sense it means Timidus, Moribundus, &c. where we see 
the relaxed state of such matter, and " Feige", " Ficms," and " Morbus 
ani," which directly brings us to the sense of Swelling out, as it exists 
in Pudgy, soft, or Foul matter. 

In German Butz means " Orname?ituvi,'' of which the true idea 
appears in BuTzew, " Mundare, Purgare a Sordibus quocunque modo 
" id fiat," and BuTzew, " Sordes, quae expurgantur. Nasen-BvTZEN , 
" mucus," as Wachter explains it, who has justly referred it to the Latin 
PuTMS. In one of the senses of BvTzen, as a verb, we have " Praecidere, 
/' die beume BvTzen, inutilia arborum ramenta praecidere," which he 


has referred to the Latin Puto, 'To Prune', That the Latin Puto is con- 
nected with the idea, which I suppose of Pudge matter by some process, 
will be manifest from the terms, by which it is surrounded in that 
Language, under the form Put, as Puxeo, Vvridus, Putcws, &c. In 
Fvranien, the Shell, we see Pudge, coarse matter, as a covering. In the 
Latino- Belgicui/J Lexicon, published by Ruhnkenius, Puto is explained 
by the Dutch Poetzc^, or PoTze//, a kindred term, which my Lexi- 
cographer explains by "To trim, shave, or barb," which is one of the 
senses of Bvrzen, Den bart Buxze/?, Barbam radere. The origin of 
PoTzew will be manifest from a term in the same column of Sewel's 
Dictionary by Buys, Por-Jard, Potter's Clay. Our Lexicographers 
have well detailed the senses of Puto, by which we see, how the idea 
of Thinli'wg is derived from that of Lopping, or Pruning off any ex- 
crescencies, as they explain the second sense of the word by " To make 
" even, clear, adjust, or cast up, accounts," and the third by "To think," 
&c. We directly pass from the idea of CVertW/^o- off material impediments, 
that an object may receive its due form, to that of Clearing off the doubts 
of the mind, in order to form an opinion. In German PuTzew is another 
form of BvTzen, as Wachter justly supposes. The vile source, from 
which these words are taken, will be manifest. From the following 
facetious interpretation, by my Lexicographer of kindred words, PuTz/g, 
" A mannikin, Punch, Pigmy, Shrimp, Short-A-se," and FvTzinell, 
" The Punchinello, a Stage Punch,'' where we see the idea of the Pudge 
Form ; and here let us note a term, with the same fundamental idea, 
PiGWT/. The term Punch is only another representation of these words, 
and means the Swelling out figure, in the Pamwh, or Belly, &c. Under 
other Elements the same union of ideas is to be found, which I suppose 
in PuTO. It is acknowledged, that Lop belongs to Lepo, (AeTrw, Decortico, 
delibro, PvTumen, vel Scjuamam detraho ;) where we see how the sense 
of PvTamen belongs to the action of Lopping, and in Lepra, (^Ae-n-pa,^ 
the Leprosy, we see the Foul matter, as of Dirt. I shall shew, that these 
words belong to Linius, &c. Robert Ainsworth has justly annexed to 
the substantive Plash the Latin terms " Lacus, Lacuna," and in an 
adjacent article we have " To Plash Trees, Puto," where ' To Plash' 

144 B,F,P,V,W.J C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

belongs to Plash Matter, just as I suppose Puto does to Pudge Matter. 
While I examine the German word in Wachter, I cast my eyes on 
BussEN, " Emendare, reparare, reficere," which he justly refers to the 
Saxon BETaw, under the same meaning, to which belong our terms 
Better, Best, with their parallels Beter, Besser, Bessern, Bedre, &c. 
(Belg. Germ. Dan. &c.) In Persian Ji^ Behter, as Mr. Richardson 
represents it in one place, is Better. The next word in Mr. Richardson's 
Dictionary is Behter, (Arabic) which means "A Lie. Buhter, Short 
" in stature with compact, or contracted members," where we have the 
idea of what is Base, or Bad, and the Pudge, co/wPact figure. To 
l&vssen is acknowledged to belong the German Busse, Repentance. The 
German Butz is explained in the ordinary Lexicons by " Set off, orna- 
" ment, finery, attire, dress. — An Aepfel und Birnen, the Core, of Fruit, 
" as of Apples, Pears." This brings us to the Botchy Core, and thus 
we see, how Butz directly signifies a Botch, whatever may be the 
precise idea, from which it gets the sense of ornament, whether it means 
' To Botch off;' that is, ' To remove the Botch, or filth,' or * To Botch 
' on, over,' &c. To Patch on. To repair by addition ; and I think, that 
I perceive, in some of these words, denoting Repairing, Emending, &c. 
the latter idea. Every one understands the union between the ideas 
of Healing, arid of Mending, or Repairing garments, as in the Greek 
Afceofiat, Sano, medeor, medicor. — Metaph. — Sarcio, Resarcio, &c. 

Junius refers Boote, Prodesse, juvare, conducere, afferre utilitatem, 
to Betan, (Sax.) " Emendare, &c." — In the following sentence, produced 
by Junius under this word, Bot seems to mean Botch, — "To miclan 
" bryce sceal micel Bot nyde. Magna ruptura magna indiget emendatione," 
" To a mickle breach there shall be need of a mickle Botch," where 
it answers to the Greek ETri^Ki^fxa, Additamenhan, Panmculus. In our 
phrase " To Boot," the term seems to mean ' What is Botch'd, or 
' Patch'd on something else by way of addition to a purchase,' which 
addition the Greeks call U.po(rdt]Kfh or which might have been from the 
origin of the word E-jn^Xnixa. Junius sees a great affinity between this 
word • To Boot,' and the Greek Botho, or Boetheo, (Bw^ea, Hesych. 
Bo»j0e<i/, Adjuvare.) The Bui-xy, or assistant, might belong to this term, 


but it seems rather to be attached to the sense of the Bwrress. Lve 
interprets the Saxon Box, or Bote by " Poenitudo, medela, reparatio, 
" emendatio, compensatio, restauratio, satisfactio, correctio, auxilium. — 
"To Bote, compensationis gratia; it. Insuper, ex abundanti," and in 
Gothic we have Borjan, " Proficere, prodesse, juvare." The Saxon 
Bote/os, and Borleas mean " Sine emendatione," and " Inexpiabihs, 
" inemendabilis ;" from whence our term Boorless is derived. This word 
Betan is particularly applied to the action of Repairing the Fire, as 
" Betan fyr, Struere focum." In Scotch To Beit, Bete, Beet, means 
"To help, supply; to mend, by making addition," as Dr. Jamieson 
explains it, who has justly seen the parallel words in other Languages, 
and the use of the term, as applied to Fires. He imagines that the 
French BouTcr was anciently used in this sense, as appears by the 
compound Bout- Few, which is parallel to the Italian Butta- Fmoco. 
The French Bouxer, according to Menage, is used in the sense of Fr upper, 
and Mettre ; and the Italian BuTTo/e is explained in John Florio's 
Dictionary by "To throw, to fling, to hurle, also to drive, or thrust in," 
in which several senses we see the ideas expressed by our terms Beat, 
Push, or Pash about. Push in, Butt, &c. These ideas are perpetually 
sliding into each other, and I shew, that all such terms signify, 'To 
' Pudge about, at, on, in," &c. if I may so express it. The Editor of 
Menage produces a Modern Greek term Bovrizein, (Eovri^eiv,^ which 
he explains by " Plonger, mettre dans I'eau," where we are brought to 
the idea of the Pudgy Spot. In Swedish Bot is " Remedy, Cure. — 
" Penance" and Bota, " To Cure, to Heal ; — To repair, mend." In Danish 
Boed is a Remedy, Penitence, and Bode ybr means "To make amends, 
" reparation for, satisfy for. — To pay, smart for. — To expiate your faults, 
" atone for, or make atonement for them. — To pay a fine, mulct, or 
" amercement, to fine.— Bode, To Patch, Botch, Piece, mend, repair," 
as my Lexicographer explains it, where we see the precise idea, supposed 
in my hypothesis. This, I imagine, would be alone sufficient for the 
purpose of deciding on the original idea, which is annexed to this Race 
of words. 

Dr. Jamieson refers to the German BuTze/j the term familiar to thr 


146 B,F,P,V,W.J C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Y,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

Scotch Language, and to our ancient Poetry, Busk, "To dress, to attire 
" oneself, to deck, — To prepare, and make ready in general," from 
whence the familiar combination arises of Busk and Bonn, — " They 
" Busked and maked hem Boutin The term Busk is brought to its 
original spot, when it is applied to Hens, Sa^atching about the Ground; 
' See how the Hens Busk on that Ground.' Under this expression is 
generally comprehended the idea of Scratching Holes on dry dusty Ground 
in Summer, in order to rest upon it, and to this idea the term Bask 
belongs;— 'To Bask in the Sun.' — The sentence might have been, 'See 
' how the Hens Busk on the Ground, and Bask there in the Sun.' 
I have given however another turn of meaning to this word on a former 
occasion. In Irish Busgawi means " To dress, to stop, hinder," as 
Mr. Shaw explains it ; in whose Dictionary I likewise see YASonam, 
" To purge," the next term to which is TAsnam, " To cleanse, winnow," 
in the same column of whose Dictionary, I perceive TAS7ie, "A wheal, 
" pimple, measle," where we unequivocally have the Foul Pudge matter. 
Swelling out, &c. — FASTrughani, " To stop, stay, make Fast, to hire," 
YASGadh, " Wringing, Squeesing," which belongs to Faisgaw, " To 
" squeeze, wring, compress," and FAisoain, "A press, a spunge." 
I shew, that Fast, Fix, and Figo, &c. are derived from the idea of 
Sticking in Pudge matter, and we cannot help seeing, that the ex- 
planatory term Squeeze belongs to Squash// matter, as we express it, or 
Quag Matter. In the sense of a Sputige, as Spungy Ground, &c. we 
directly see this species of Matter. 

Whatever be the precise sense, by which Busk is connected with the 
idea supposed in my hypothesis ; it will be evident from the terms, 
adjacent to this word in Dr. Jamieson's Dictionary, that such is the 
fundamental notion. The term, immediately preceding this word is 
Bush, which Dr. Jamieson explains by " Expressive of a rushing sound, 
" as that of Water Spouting out," where we have the very idea of Pudge, 
or Pash matter, VAsmng about. Dr. Jamieson observes, that the word 
is found " in a coarse enough passage," but however coarse it may be, 
it exhibits precisely such a sense, which my hypothesis supposes, of 
Foul Pash matter,—" Till Bush ! — he gae a desperate Spue."' The 


adjacent terms are Busk, A Bush, BusKe;»"w^, which appears to 
denote S/vel/'mg out, or " High flown Language," and which our Lexi- 
cographer has derived from Buskin, " the high shoe anciently worn by 
"Actors." — BussiN, A Linen cap, or hood, &c. Bvssing, "Covering, 
" Bust, a Box," Bustine, "Fustian," Cloth." Busthoms, "Huge, large 
" in size," to which Dr. Jamieson has justly referred a Race of words, 
signifying Agitation, Swelling out, Sec. Biisa, (Su. Goth.) " cum impetu 
" ferri," Boisterous, (Eng.) &c. &c. Bostio, (Welsh,) Proud, and Bust, 
Boost, Bytter, (Teut.) Ferox, BusTen, (Germ.) To Blow, Bust. " Tar- 
" mark upon Sheep, commonly the initials of the proprietor's name." — 
To Bust, To Beat, and "To Bust, To Powder, to Dust with flour," 
where we are actually brought to the Dirt, or Pudge of the Ground, 
and we see, how "To Bust," means nothing but 'To Pudge, Pash, 
' To Powder,' &c. according to my hypothesis. The verb ' To Dust,' 
has the same relation to the substance Dust, to which belongs Dash, &c. 
In Scotch Pawky means "Sly, Artful, 8. Arch, Cunning, Artful, North. 
" Gl. Grose," says Dr. Jamieson, and he has justly referred it to such 
terms, as the English BxcKing, Patcherie, and Packe. — "You hear him 
" Cogge, see him dissemble, know his gross Patciiery," &c. (Tiynon 
of Athens.^ — "What hath been seen, Either in Snuffs, and Packings 
" of the Dukes," (Lear.) Mr. Steevens has observed, that Packings 
are " underhand contrivances,'' and that wc still talk of Packing Juries, 
&c.— Whatever minute difference there may be in the turn of meaning 
annexed to these phrases, the Pack and Patch still keep us within the 
sphere of the Lump of Pudge matter, the Vile Botch, Stuff, &c. In 
the same column of Dr. Jamieson's Dictionary, where this word occurs, 
we have the term Paut, " To Paw, to strike the Ground with the Foot, 
" to stamp," where we are brought to the Spot, supposed in my 
hypothesis. Dr. Jamieson refers the Scotch term to the Saxon Paecan, 
Decipere, Mentiri, and in the same page of Lye's Saxon Dictionary, 
where this Saxon word Paecow occurs, I see PACCElade, " Locus in 
" regionc Palustri," &c. &c. where Pacce denotes the Pudge Place. 
I see likewise V^rig, " Astutus, callidus," the preceding word to which 
is P^TH, " Semita, Callis — Item Vallis," where we are again brought to 

T 2 


B,F,P,V, VV.J C,D,J,K,Q,S,T,X, Z.| l,m,n,r. 

the original spot. I see in the same column the Gothic Paida, Tunica ; 
and I have frequently had occasion to observe, that the explanatory 
word Tunica belongs to the German Tmich, which relates at once to 
the Garment and to Clay, " Tunica, Litura e Calce, Gypso, vel Ccemento." 
That the sense of Cunning, Skill, &c. may belong to the idea of 
what \sThich, Dense, or Pudgy, under some turn of meaning, will 
be manifest from the Greek terms Puka, VuKinos, and Pukozo, (Ili/Ka, 
Dense, spisse, Prudenter, accurate, affabre, YIvkivos:, Densus, creber, 
frequens, Prudens, Callidus, Elegans, UvKa'^w, Denso, stipo, tego, intego, 

orno, exorno,) where we see likewise the idea of Ornament To this 

race of words denoting Cleanliness, Ornament, where the original idea 
is manifest, as stated in my hypothesis, we must add the Persian Pak 
A), which means, says Mr. Richardson, " Pure, chaste, innocent, modest, 
"clean, neat, holy," in one sense; and in another we have Pago^, 
" A Privy." Another Persian word Pakh ^\j seems directly to belong to 
this term, and it signifies in one sense " Adorned, Ornamented, decorated, 
"beautiful," while in other senses it means, "Gold, or Silver, full of 
" Dross, or bad alloy, unrefined. — Vile, Base. — Lime, Plaister, Mortar, 
" Cement,'' which decides on the truth of my hypothesis, respecting 
the union of Dirt, and what is Clean, under some process of combination, 
whatever that process may be. 

Terms, which express the sense of what Bends in, or Bows out, &c. 

In the same opening of Skinner's I^exicon, with the terms Botch, 
BouGE, &c. I cast my eyes on Bough, with its parallels Boga, Boh, &c. 
Ramus, and on BOW, Flectere, Bugan, Bygan, &c. (Sax.) Beugen, 
Biegen, Bugen, &c. (Germ.) Buygen, Bocken, Sec. (Belg.) Abugan, (Sax.) 
" Incurvare, declinare, cedere, servire," and BOW, Arcus, Boga, Boge, 
Rogen, (Sax. Belg. Germ. &c.) which are all allowed by the Etymolo- 
gists to belong to each other, though they are totally unconscious of 
the idea, from which this sense of Bending, or Bowiw^ is derived. This 
sense may be derived from different modes of conceiving the same 


species of Soft, Pudge, or Bog Matter, and the Low Sinking in Bog, 
Pudge, or Pit spot, in which it is deposited. If we say, that the sense 
of Bow///o^, BouGH?Wjg-, &c. is attached to that of 'RooGing, Pudg/«^, 
or ViTTing, if I may so say, in, out, &c. we shall comprehend all the 
ideas, relating to this sense, as derived from the Boo, or Pudge Matter 
of the Pit. These ideas cannot on many occasions be separated, and 
I must leave the reader to decide in particular instances, which idea 
predominates, if he should imagine, that any distinction is apparent. 
The term Buxom, in Saxon Boc^a/w, " Obediens, tractabilis," is ac- 
knowledged to be derived from Bugan, Flectere, which, says Skinner, 
is confirmed by the fact, that in Chaucer, Bvxumnes is explained by 
Loii'Iiiiess. In Old English, Buxum commonly means Obedient, and 
in Scotch Bousum, Bowsum signifies " Pliant, tractable," and in another 
sense " Blyth, merry," as Dr. Jamieson explains it, in which signification 
it agrees with the common use of the word Buxom, at present, ' A 
' Buxom Lass,' Flexible, and Light in her form, actions, and spirits. 
In Buxom we seem to see the idea of Flexibility, as relating to Pliant, 
Soft Matter. In the phrase 'To make a Bow,' or as in Vulgar 
English * To make a Bowk with the head, or Body,' we have the 
sense of Bending, or Sinking down. The Elbow, Elboga, Ehlen Bogen, 
(Sax. Germ.) &c. which has been justly derived from Ell, (Eng.) 
Ulna, (Lat.) Olene, (QXeut],^ and Bow. In the Kentish Dialect, 
according to Mr. Grose, Bug is " To bend." In German the substantive 
Bug, to which Buaen, Flectere belongs, is explained in Wachter, by 
" Armus, Curvatura, circulus, Sinus," to which sense he justly refers 
the English Bay, the Winding Recess for Ships, which in modern 
German, as Wachter says, is Bucht, "Curvatura littoris." In Old 
English ^kY-fVindow occurs, which is justly referred to this term Bay, 
or more directly to what we now express by a ^ow- Window. The term 
Bay, as applied to Buildings, from the idea of the Hollow, Cavity, or 
Vacant Space, made by the Bow/a/o- out, or Bending out form, seems 
often to have signified, ' A Hollow, Cavity, Facant Space, Interstice' in 
general. These explanations will unfold all the senses annexed to Bay, 
as referring to Buildings. Mr. Steevens has seen that a Bay- ff^indow 

150 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

means a Bow-JFindow, ("Why it hath Bay- fFindows, transparent,, 
as barricadoes," &c, Tivelfth Night, Act IV. So. 2.); though he adds, 
as if confused in his conception of the term, " A Window in a recess, 
or Bay." This however, as we now see, is perfectly just, as every Bow 
necessarily includes in it a Bay, or Recess, that is, every convexity 
must have its cojicavity. — Minshew produces ' Cavce Fenestree,' as the 
Latin for Bay- Windows. — Bay occurs again in Shakspeare, " If this 
" law hold in Vienna ten years, I'll rent the fairest house in it, after three 
" pence a Bay," on which Dr. Johnson observes, " A Bay of building 
" is, in many parts of England, a common term, of which the best 
" conception, that I could ever attain, is, that it is the space between 
" the main beams of the Roof, so that a barn crossed twice with beams 
" is a barn of three Bays." Nathan Bailey explains " A Bay in Archi- 
" tecture to be a space left in a Wall, for the door, gate, or window," 
and Mr. Tyrwhitt considers Bay to be " the space between two cross 
" beams," and from hence he derives the idea of a Bay- JFindow, which, 
as he conceives the matter, is "A large window, probably so called, 
" because it occupied a whole Bay, i. e. the space between two cross 
'^ beams," (^Glossari/ to Chaucer.^ There are few writers, who have 
assumed a more imposing appearance of extreme accuracy, and profound 
research, than the Critic, whom I have here quoted, — Mr. Tyrwhitt; 
yet I must reluctantly observ-^e, that in my opinion his profundity is but 
little answerable to his pretensions, and that his views of a subject are 
generally most confused, contracted, and superficial. — The German Fach 
is only another form of Bay, the Hollow space. Wachter explains it 
by " Loculamentum, Proprie receptaculum, capedo, a Fahen, Capere. 
" Dialecto Anglosaxonica dicitur de Spatio, Intervallo, et Distantia Loci, 
" et temporis, quasi esset ab Heb. Bak, vel Bakak, evacuavit." This 
is all right, under one conception of the matter; and I shall shew, that 
the Hebrew term, as well as the Latin Yacuus, belongs to the idea of the 
Loose Pudge matter of the Pit. Let us mark the Latin term Intervallum, 
where Fallum, the Ditch, under the Element VL, supplies the same idea, 
which we see in Bay. The Danish Fag means " A Bay, Square of 
" equal space, between the Pillars, or Beams for the Windows in a 


" Building," and it means likewise " A Science, profession, trade, 
" province," where it denotes a certain peculiar occupation. Distinct, 
and Separated from another. In the same column of my Danish 
Dictionary, I see " Fakkc/ (af Beeg,) A Link, (af Fox,^ Torch," where 
the Fak, and Beeg, Vox, denoting Pitch, Wax, all belong to each other, 
where we plainly see Pudge Matter. I perceive too pAGxer, Gestures, 
looks, &c. and I suppose in another place, that these words denoting 
Foi^m belong to the Plastic Materials of Mud ; the next term to which 
is pAJawce, Delft- Ware, and which brings us to the very idea. 

The origin of these words relating to Bowing, or Bending will be 
manifest from considering a term under the same form with the Saxon 
Bygow, Flectere, curvare ; the adjacent word to which in Lye's Dictionary 
is Byge, Angulus, Sinus. Bycas. Ancones. " Aties If ealles Br ge, Muri 
" Ancones et Sinus;" and we shall now see, that Byge, as denoting 
Sinus, the Bay, the Hollow for Ships, and Bucht, (Germ.) bearing 
the same meaning, to which the terms for Bow//?o- are acknowledged 
to belong, unequivocally bring us to the idea of the Pit, the Basow ; 
to receive Water, the IIolloiv, or Cavity in the Pudge Spot. Having 
performed my duty in bringing the reader to the very spot, which I 
maintain in my hypothesis, I must then leave him to take his share 
in adjusting the precise turn of meaning, by which these terms for 
Bowing, &c. are connected with it. When different ideas combine in 
the same object, which may alike lead to the same meaning, it is difficult 
or impossible to decide with precision. All, that the writer can do, is 
to unfold the different modes of conceiving the same object, by which 
the same idea may be obtained. We shall at once see, that the Pit 
itself, without considering the matter with which it is filled, is able to 
supply us with the two opposite, though kindred ideas of the Convexity, 
or the Swelling, Rising up object, and the Concavity, or Sinking in 
object, just as YASTigiian is applied alike to Height, and to Depth, and 
as Lacunar, the Fretted rault, or as R. Ainsworth explains it, " A cieled 
" roof Arched, fretted, or set off with distances of rafters, like Pits ; — 
" The main beam of the House, Arched, or e/«Bowe</," belongs to 
Lacuna, " A Ditch wherein water standeth ; a Puddle, or Dike ; a furrow, 

152 B,F,P,Y,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q, S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

" or trench for a drain ; any little Hole, or Hollow place," and to Lacus, 
the halie, or standing Pool, &c. Let us mark the explanatory term 
emEowed, and observe the senses given of Bay, as above explained, 
and we shall then see how Bow, and Bat, Bough, &c. may have the 
same relation to Bog, which Lacunar has to Lacuna and to Lacus. 
Let us mark too the term Vault, the Vaulted Roof, and remember the 
verb, ' To Vault up ;' and we shall agree, that these senses belong to Vault, 
the Low spot, the Tomb, Cellar, &c. for the same reason. I shall shew, 
that the deling. Caelum, belong to the Koilon, (KotAoi/,) the Hollow of 
the Solum, the Cellar, &c. under a similar idea. 

In Scotch Bought is " A curvature, or bending of any kind, S. 
" The Bought of the Arm," the Bending of the Arm at the Elbow," 
as Dr. Jamieson explains it; where Bought has the same meaning, as 
the Bow in El-Boir, Ellen-BoGen, (Germ.) &c. The El in £/-Bow 
belongs to the Hole for a similar reason, as Bow does to the Bay, Sec. 
The Bought of a blanket, is that part of the Blanket, " where it is 
" doubled," or where it is Folded, as we express it. Dr. Jamieson has 
duly referred this term to the words, relating to Bending, which I have 
detailed above; and he produces one use of the Scotch term, which 
brings us directly to the idea, advanced in my hypothesis, when he 
observes, that " Where the Sea forms a sort of Bay, it is said to have 
" a Bought." In the same column of Dr. Jamieson's Dictionary we 
have BoucHT, &c. A Sheepfold, and he has justly referred these terms 
to each other. In the same opening of Wachter with Bug, Armus, 
Curvatura, Sinus, and Bucht, " Curvatura littoris, littus maris sinuosum," 
I see BvcKen, Curvari, Buckel, Gibbus, which he justly refers to Buccl, 
(Welsh,) Pustula, Buckle, (Eng.) Fibula, Buckel, Pockel, Bulla, 
Buckel, im schild, umbo, Buckler, (Eng.) Clypeus, with its parallels 
Bouclier, (Fr.) BeuMaar, Bucklari, (Isl.) Buccled, (Welsh,) &c. 
Junius, as Wachter observes, derives these words from Bocken-Leer, 
" Corium hirci, quod hujus potissimum animantis corio parmas olim 
" inducerent," but Wachter observes, that they are more probably derived 
from the Gibbous part of the Shield, just as UiJibo meant originally the 
projecting part of the Shield, before it meant the Shield. It is sufficient 


for us to know that Buckel, denoting Swcl/'n/g out, is the sense intended 
in the terms for the Shield, whether as originally applying to the pro- 
jecting Boss, or to the figure of the Shield itself We all know, that 
Shields were oftentimes of a curved shape. While I examine these terms 
in Wachter, I see in the same opening BvcKhitig, Halec Passa, which 
some have derived from BACKe», in fumo coquere, and others refer it 
to different sources; — Buck, from the " fcetor hircinus," on which points 
we cannot decide, unless we understood well the history of the Fish, 
with its preparations, &c. I see likewise in Wachter Buck, " Liber, 
" codex, volumen," with its parallels, Book, (Eng.) Boog, (Dan.) 
Boek, (Belg.) &c. &c. and Buche, Arbor e genere glandiferarum, with 
its parallels Beech, (Eng.) Fagus, (Lat.) Phegos, (J^nyo^,^ Boc, (Anglo. 
Sax.) Bog, (Swed.) &c. The former of these words does not belong to 
the latter, because Books were written on the Barks of the Beech, but 
because Book denotes Volumen, the Swelling out Roll, and thus we see, 
how the German Buch belongs to Bug, Circulus. In German Buck 
Papier is what u^e call a Quire of Paper, where Quire belongs to the 
Cir in Circulus, for a similar reason: The term Book is referred to any 
piece of Paper, or Materials, written on, which may form a Roll, 
however minute it may be ; and this may assist our Lawyers, in deciding 
upon these points, which have turned on the original sense, annexed to 
the word Book. In Shakspeare we have "By this, our Book is drawn, 
" we'll but seal and then To horse immediately," {Henry IV. Part I. 
Act iii. Sc. 1.) where Mr. Steevens has observed, "Every composition, 
" whether play, ballad, or history, was called a Book, on the registers 
" of ancient publication." The Phegos, (4>f;7os,) is commonly derived 
from Phago, (^^ayio. Comedo,) as being an Esculent Tree, which is 
probably right. There is another tree Buche, " Arbor e genere 
" acerum," which Wachter derives from Bugen, Flectere. I refer Fago, 
(4>a7a),) Fat, Feed, to the idea of Pudg?/?o- out. 

Wachter has compared Buckel, Gibbus, with Backe, Collis, where 
we are brought to the idea supposed in my hypothesis, the Mass, or 
Heap of Dirt, and he has another article Buckel, Dorsum, which he 
refers to Back, a word belonging to our term, Back, Tergum. The 


154 B,F,P, V,W.J C,D,J, K, Q,S,T, X, Z.^ l,m,ii,r. 

precise idea of the term Back, as denoting Tergum, and Pone, is that, 
as I imagine, of the Rising up object, which Bows out, and in, or which 
Bows out, and then Bows, or Bends Back again, as we express it. 
This is manifest from the Danish Language, which is not so apparent 
in other Dialects of the Teutonic. Bag in Danish is the Back, and 
Behind; and Bagse, as my Lexicographer explains it, means "To turn, 
" set, or Bend a thing," — or 'To Be7id Back a thing,' as he might have 
expressed it. In Danish, as with us, BxG-huus, is " a BACK-House,'' 
which we sometimes confound with another combination " Bake-Z/omsc." 
In the same opening of my Danish Dictionary, I see Bxclasf, Ballast, 
where the Bag has the same force, as in Pack, the Swelling out Mass. 
The term Last means Load, and we shall now understand, that in Ballast, 
the sound of the G is lost, as in other Dialects of the Teutonic, &c. 
Skinner and Junius understand the form of the Danish term, though 
they doubt about the origin of the words, under the form BL. I see 
likewise in the same opening BxGtale, " To BxcKbite, defame, calum- 
" niate," &c. &c. to which perhaps the terms in other Languages 
BagatelU, Bagatclla, Bagatela, (Ital. Span.) directly belong. Yet the 
Bag has precisely the same sense in these Languages in other words, as 
Bxoage, BxGaglia, &c. BxGGtano, a Dunce, and BAGGio/<y, a Prop, 
in which latter word the sense of Swelling out is annexed to its use of 
Propping. I shew, that Burxress, has nearly the same idea, and that 
it belongs to Butt, which means ' To Push at, out.' 

I shall prove, that the terms for Carrying are derived from the idea 
of Bvsning, Stirring, or Lifting up, off, about, or away, under ditTerent 
turns of meaning, as BASTazo, (Bao-ra^w,) Veho, Vexi, Vectz/w, and 
the term for the art, which relates to the treatment of disorders, incident 
to Beasts of Burden, as \ETerinary. The word YECxigal is acknowledged 
to mean the " Custom properly of Freight, or for Carriage.'' Vectjs 
is derived from the same idea, as denoting " A bar, or spar of wood ; 
" a Lever to Lift, or Bear; a Betty, or engine to force open a door," 
where let us note the term Betty, which may perhaps be a kindred 
term. N. Bailey represents it by Bet- Tee, and explains it by " An 
*' instrument made use of by house-breakers, to break open doors," &c. 


The term Betty, or Bess however may be a Cant term, as it is called, 
which appears probable from Mr. Grose's Vocabulary of that Language, 
where we have the phrase, " Bring Bess and Glym, bring the instrument 
" to force the door and the dark lantern ;" and if this be so, it belongs 
probably to the name of the Female Servant, or House Maid, who 
opens the door in the morning. In the Cant combination, 'Brown Bess 
' for a firelock, — To Hug the brown Bess,' we have again the name 
of the Female. — I ought to observe however, that our F'lement BS 
relates to a Fire-Lock, under the idea of the Swelling Hollow, as Arqiie 
Buse, (Fr. Eng.) with its parallels, Arco Bug/o, &c. produced by the 
Etymologists, where the term is acknowledged to belong to Arcus, and 
Bugzo, Foramen, Cavum, &c. ; and here again we see, how the idea 
of the Bow, (the Arcus,^ connects itself with the Swelling Holloiv, 
Buoio, &c. In Danish we have the simple form Bosse, " An Handgun, 
" Arque-BusE, Fire-Lock," and this term means likewise a Box. In the 
same opening of my Danish Lexicon, I see Boo, A Beech, Boge, 
To Bellow, BoGer, Books, Boie, To Bend, Bow, &c. — "A Puff, blast," 
&c. "A Buoy;" where the BG, and BJ, convey the same meaning of 
Swelling np. In Arabic Vizir, the Minister, or Vicegerent, means the 
Carrier, or Supporter of the weight of Government ; VVezir, *' Bearing 
" a Burden, Supporting, Sustaining," and in the plural Wuzera, " Vizirs, 
" privy counsellors, ministers of State." Before I quit the term Bag- 
atelle, I must observe, that the French Scholars consider it, as a diminu- 
tive of Bague, belonging to BAOage, Bacca, where the BG, BC, bears 
the same idea. We all agree, as to the sense of Bag, and I merely 
suggest to the consideration of the Etymologists, whether Telle be 

I shall now examine some Celtic terms, belonging to our Element, 
which signify to Rise, Swell out, Bow, Bend, &c. In Welsh Bac signifies 
"A Hook; crook, tenter; grappling-iron," and Bacu, " To Hook ; oi- 
" Hitch; to grapple; to go into recesses; full of windings; to lurk; to Be?id,' 
as Mr. Owen explains them; in whose Dictionary I find as adjacent terni.s 
Bacow, Berries, where we have the idea of the Swelling out object; — 
B.\cgcn, a Boy, and Bac, Little, where we mark the Little Lumpy object, 

u 2 

166 B,F,P,V,W.J C, D,G,J, K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

or Lumpt as it might be of Dirt. I perceive likewise Baez, A Boar, 
which may perhaps belong to such words as Bacow, Pig, the Pudgy, 
Swelling out animal ; or it may belong to a succeeding term Baezu, 
" To verberate. Beat, or thump ; to pound, or bruise," as denoting the 
Fierce, Fighting animal. There is another adjacent term Baz, "■ A Bath ; 
" a Bathz/?^ place," which brings us directly to the Pudge spot, from 
whence, as I suppose, all these words are derived. In the same leaf 
of Mr. Owen's Welsh Dictionary we have Bagl«, "To liold with a 
" crook ; to hook," Bagyl, A crook ; or crutch, Bagell, " A Corner ; 
" a snare," ^xGiuy, "A Cluster, ^xoad, a Cluster, or bunch; a troop; 
" a multitude," where we see, how the idea of Hooking in, as within 
the Crook, or concave Bend, is connected with that of Swelling out. 
The term O7K0S has the same double meaning of Tumor, and Uncus. 
I see in the same column Baesg, " The ring of a wheel," which means 
the Bending, object; — Baic, "A Burden, or load," the SweUing out 
object, and Baic, " An outcry, or scream," where we have the idea of 
Commotion, under the application of Noise. I have supposed, that Beat, 
Baezw, &c. belong to the action of VATTing, or PASHi;?o- about Pudge 
matter, which bring us to Patter, as ' The Rain Patters,' and hence we 
see, how the idea of Noise may be attached to Pudge Matter, Mud, &c. 
The succeeding terms to Baic are Baid, " Briskness, liveliness, Baiz, 
" A challenging, daring, or adventuring," and Bais, "Flats, or shallows: 
" a ford ;" which latter word brings us again to the Pudge Spot, or 
Matter, and which is accompanied by terms relating to Commotion, an 
idea derived, as I suppose, from that species of Matter. We see how 
the form Baglu coincides with the Teutonic Buckle, &c. and Wachter 
has justly referred the term Bagaude, which he explains by " Colluvies 
"quondam rusticorum seditiosorum, in Gallia," to Bagad, "Turba, 
" turma, grex, voce apud Cambros, et Armoricos adhuc residua." The 
preceding term in Wachter to BxGaude is Bag, Contentio, BxGen, 
Contendere, Paga, (Gloss.) where we have the idea of Beatw^, &c. 
Wachter refers this term to Mache, (Ma;^>;,) which under one point of 
view is just. The forms BG, and MG, &c. must be often considered 
as directly coinciding with each other, and this perhaps is one of the 


instances. He very justly observes, " Labiales permutari, quid inagis 
" obvium ?" and yet to what little use has this illustrious Etymologist 
applied so indisputable, so palpable, and so important a truth, without 
which all his labours have almost been in vain. 

In examining the Galic and Irish terms belonging to the Welsh Bac, 
Bagyl, &c. denoting a Hook, Crook, &c. we shall find them accompanied 
with certain words, which unequivocally establish my hypothesis. I find 
in Mr. Shaw's Dictionary of these Dialects the following words, Bac, 
Bacal, Bacad/i, "A let, stop, hindrance, a prop, Crook, fulcrum," 
Bac, BAca/z, "A Hook, hinge of a door," BAca?«, BAcaigham, "To stop, 
" hinder, to make lame, or halt;" — Bacal, "An obstacle, hindrance;" 
Bacal, "A Slave, prisoner," i. e. the confined person, Bachul, " A Staff', 
" crosier, crook," where we see, how the idea of the Hinchance is derived 
from that of the fJook/ng in instrument. The Latin Bacul?</« surely 
belongs to Bachul, and however probable the conjecture may be, that 
BAcidum is to be referred to the idea of B^ATing, or to Batwo, as the 
Etymologists suppose, yet if this Latin word directly belongs to the Celtic 
term ; the idea of the Staff is that of a Prop, or Support, derived from 
the Hook form. I suppose, that the idea of the Hook is derived from 
the Swelling out Form, and thus we see, how the Bac in BacuIuiu, and 
Bacca convey the same idea. The Greek BAK^erm, and Bakter^wo, 
(^aKTfjpia, Baculum, BaKT>/joeyw, Baculo nitor,) must be added to these 
terms. I see adjacent to the Greek words, BAKKam, (BuKKapi's, Baccar, 
seu Baccaris, herba odorata,) Bakkowo?/, (Bukkuvov, raphani sea BrassiciP 
semen,) and BAKcfos, (BaK;;Aos, Homo magncc statura;, sed excors, et 
efFeminatus; Eunuchus, spado; mollis,) where the Bak in all these words 
has the same meaning of Strdliiig out, or up. 

I perceive in Mr. Shaw's Dictionary other v\ ords, belonging to our 
Element, which I shall take this occasion of examining; as Back, "A 
" breach, violent attack, or Surprize," BACHrt///rt, " Prating," Back, 
"Drunkenness," Bacho/Wc, "The Boss of a Shield," BACHXwa, " Strife, 
"contention," MAGiinta, "Warlike, corpulent, tight," BAoaram, "To 
"threaten," BAiciiaw, "To touch, strike," where we seethe idea of 
Swelling out, or iip, Commotion, Disturbance, &c. We shall now under- 

158 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.< l,m,n,f. 

stand whence the names of Bacchz«, os, (BaK;^os, Furore percitus, Bacchus,^ 
Deus vini,) and Bacchantes are derived, and why the God under this name 
is at once a Drunkard, and a JFannor. The sense of BACHo/rfe, and BkQanta, 
the Boss, Corpulent connects these terms, with the race of words, which 
I have before produced relating to the Swelling out form. The sense, 
which this latter word bears of Tight, and that of another term Bagh, 
" A Promise, tie, bond," either belongs directly to Bac, the Hook, what 
Hooks in, or Ties, or to the general sense, as we see it in cowPact, 
derived from the Pudge matter, in a made up, CoJisistent Mass. I per- 
ceive moreover among these words Bach, Loving, Baigh, " Love, 
" kindness, friendship," which idea seems remote from the senses, which 
I am here unfolding. I must leave the Celtic Scholars to determine the 
precise turn of meaning, by which the sense of Love, &c. is connected 
with the words before us, but that it is attached by some process with 
the fundamental notion supposed in my hypothesis, will be evident from 
an Article in Mr. Shaw's Dictionary, " Bagh, Badh, Kindness, an 
" Estuary," where we actually see the idea of Bog, or Pudge matter. 
The sense of Kindness, Love, is probably taken from the idea of Soft 
matter, — SiveUing out, with desire, affection, &c. The term, from which 
Estuary is derived, the Latin JEstus, means in one of its numerous senses 
Love, as it signifies " Any distemper of the mind, and the sway of unruly 
" passion ;" and if this term should be well examined, we should at once 
see, what various senses, such indeed as are exhibited in the words before 
us, may be attached to the idea of Pudge watery matter in Commotion. 
But the term Bad actually signifies " A Bunch, Bush, cluster, tuft," 
where we directly see the idea of Swelling out, and an adjacent term 
Baidh, " A Wave," shews us the species of matter, with which it is 
connected. Under the same form Bad, we have the sense of the Boat, 
which denotes probably the Hollow, as in the Pudge Spot, the Pit, 
Bas/??, &c. &c. I perceive likewise Baigh//?, a Waggo//, and I shew 
in another place, that Waggo/?, &c. belongs to Wag, as denoting unsteady 
motion, and that it is attached to If^ceg, (Sax.) Unda, Bog, &c. — 
Bkcualhun, "To clip round, to trim," the precise idea of which I do not 
understand, Bachla, " A Cup, chalice," belonging to Pocul///w, — Back- 


lach, Full of curls, where we have the SwcUing out substances, and 
BAca/a, A Bake-Housc, where Bag, Bake relate to the Swcl/ing Lump. 

There is however another form in the Celtic Dialects for terms, 
denoting Bending in, a Hook, &c. which decide on the truth of my 
Hypothesis, almost without a possibility of doubting on the subject. 
These words are Boca», " A Hook, or Crook," Bocanac/?, " Hooked, 
" Bent." BocAxa/w, " To Bend, make crooked," Bogha, A Bow, 
BoGiiani, "To bend like a Bow," which are accompanied by the 
following terms in the same page of Mr. Shaw's Dictionary, Boc, 
"Deceit, fraud; a blow, stroke, Box," — Boc, "A He-goat, a BacK," 
where let us note the kindred term Buck, and remember its parallels 
produced by the Etymologists, Bucca, (Sax.) Bock, (Belg. and Germ.) 
Bouc, Biche, (Fr.) Beke, (B>/'c>7,) &c. who have justly referred us to 
terms for Striking, Bocken, Buquer, (Germ. Fr.) Tundere, and here let 
us note the French Biche, the Female, to which the Etymologists have 
referred the Female Dog, Bitch, (Eng.) Bicce, Bice, (Sax.) &c. — 
Bocaide, "The knobs in a shield, a Boss," Bocam, "To Swell; to skip 
" as a deer," which might lead us to consider, whether the Boc, the 
Buck, is taken from its Striking, or its Skipping quality, Bocar, Cow- 
dung, Bocuan, a Cottage, Boc///«, A Covering, Bogh/«///, " A building, 
" roof, or vault," Bochnu, "The Sea, a narrow sea, mouth of a River," 
BocHT, " A breach, fire." — Bocht, " Reaping, cutting down," BocHDani, 
'• To impoverish," Bochd, " Poor, needy," Bosca, " A Coffer, Box, ' 
Bocoide, " Studds, Bosses;" — Bocuthonn, "A Swelling surge;" — Boo, 
" Soft, penetrable," BoGadh, I'cnderness, Bocaw, " An egg in embryo;" 
Bocan, "A Hobgoblin, sprite;" — Bogaleo, A Bumpkin; — Booa/n, 
" To move, put in motion, to Wag, to Wave," and lastly the word, 
containing the idea, to which all these terms belong, BOGock, BOGlac/i, 
" A Marsh, Moor, BOG, Swamp." It cannot be doubted, that all these 
terms belong to each other, and to the Bog, whatever may be the precise 
idea, by which they are connected. Yet we unequivocally see, that the 
idea of Swelling up is the prevailing notion, and that I am right in my ' 
conjecture, when I refer Box, the Blow, and the covering, Boss, &c. &c. 
to the Bog. The term Bochd, Poor, is the Vile personage, under some 

160 B,F,P,V,W.J C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

idea annexed to Dirt ; and I see in the next leaf of Mr. Shaw's Dictionary, 
another term Bos, "Certain, abject, mean, low," which brings us to Base, 
&c. directly adjacent to which term I find Bosd, Boast?/?o-, Bosa/2, 
A Purse, Bos, a Palm, Hand, Bosscro-, " A Slap on the face," Boshhiia/adk, 
" Clapping of hands," in all which terms, according to my hypothesis, 
we see the same fundamental idea of Soft Pudge, or Pash matter, as 
of an object in a Pash state, Pash'c? down, oBaseW; — of an object 
FxsHhig, Vusning, or Swelling up, and ofFAsning at, about, Striking, &c. us mark Slap and Clap, which I shall shew to belong to Slip, Slop 
matter, for the same reason. In considering the Celtic Bochd, let us 
remember the Greek Ptochos, (Jlnoxo^,^ quasi Potochos, or Potch-o*. 
The term Bocht, Reaping, cutting down, may belong to the instrument, 
the Hook, or to the term of Commotion and Violence, denoting the Breach. 
1 have before produced BACHALLa/w, "To clip round, to trim," which 
may belong to this term for Reaping. — In the same leaf of Mr. Shaw, 
from which most of the above words are taken, I see Boigh, " A Teat,' 
BoiGE, Softness, Bogun, Bacon, BoGuram, To threaten, Vioineachan, 
A BodAv'//, and Boidhlia, A Puddle, on which words the Celtic 
Scholars will decide, Boid, A vow, and Boidh, "Neat, trim, spruce," 
BoDOg, " Rage, anger, fury, a yearling calf," Bodach, ** A Rustic, old 
" man, an English print." — Bod, " A Tail, a man-yard." 

I likewise perceive on the same spot the terms Bodar, Bodhar, Deaf, 
Bodar, or BoTHAR, "A Lane, road, street;" from whence we shall 
learn, that our term Bother is not derived from Both-ears, but that it 
belongs to these Celtic terms, under the idea of Commotion, as of Dirt. 
That BoTHAR, belongs to this idea, under some process, will be manifest 
from the word adjacent to it in Mr. Shaw's Dictionary,— BoxnacA, 
" A fen, a Bog." In Welsh the parallel term, denoting Deaf, is BroDAR, 
or Byzzar, under which term the Welsh Lexicographers have produced 
the Irish term, just exhibited, the Armoric Beuzar, and the Cornish 
Bythak. The term in Mr. Owen's Dictionary, preceding the Welsh 
term Byzar, is Byzaik, " An ambuscade, an army for scouting." I have 
already shewn, that the Bush, from which amBuscaJe is derived, means 
the Pudg/wo- out object. 1 see likewise Bvz, " A Tye, a keeping together," 


Byzagyl, " A snare," &c. which belong to the terms, before produced, 
denoting the Hook, &c. I see likewise Byzin, " A snare ; a scouting 
" party ; or a party for an Ambuscade, or secret enterprize ; now, a band, 
" or troop, drawn in array ; an army." It might here seem, as if the 
idea of a Scouting, or Ambuscade army was derived from that of a Snare, 
which may be the case. Yet the fundamental idea still remains the same. 
The sense of a Snare, or that, which Binds, and the Band, Heap, or Troop 
of Soldiers, equally belong to the idea of Bind, the true sense of which 
appears in the phrase ' Binding ClayS Such I imagine is the original 
idea, attached to these Welsh words, whatever may be the process in 
a particular case of one sense passing into another. 

Let us mark the explanatory term Troop, which belongs to Turba, 
Turbo, Turbidus, and the Turf for a similar reason. Robert Ainsworth 
explains Turbidus in the first sense by Muddy. Thus then Byz/??, and 
Byzair belong to Byzar, and Byzaru, "To deafen; to stun; to be 
" stunned," just as Turba belongs to Turbo, which might hare been 
explained by "To Disturb, To stun, To Bother," &c. Lhuyd gives us, 
among the terms for Turbo, the verb, the Irish Buadiir/'w, and for 
Turpis the Welsh Bvdyr. Mr. Shaw explains Buaidhr«w by " To vex, 
"Disturb, tempt." Mr. Owen explains the Welsh Budyr by "Dirty; 
" unclean ; nasty ; vile ; mean," and Budr«//, BuDRa?^; by " To pollute, 
" or defile; — To make dirty, or to soil." Among the terms, relating to 
Commotion, Disturbance, &c. as connected with Dirt in Agitation, under 
the form PDR, &c. are the following Pother, or Pudder, (Eng.) " Let 
" the great gods. That keep this dreadful Pother o'er our heads, Find 
" out their enemies now." — VoTHvram, (Vulg. Eng.) another form of 
BoTHEra;«; — Poussiere, (Fr.) — Foudre, Fouoroycr, (Fr.) To Thunder, 
&c. ' To Batter, or Beat down with warlike instruments. To ruin, 
' to overthrow, to destroy :' — .sPutter, «Patter, &c. Patter, Batter, 
&c. (Eng.) PuDARizo, PoDAuizo, (JlvZapit^w, Ylohapi^w, Salio, Calcitro,) 
«FoDROs, (^(po^po%, Vehemens, acer, acerbus, alacer, violentus, pertinax,) 
&c. &c. The term Poivder, Poudre is supposed to belong to Pulvis ; 
and Foudre to be quasi Fouldre, and if this be so, they belong to the 
form PL, and not to the form PI). The words, which 1 see in the same 


162 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.'j l,m,n,r. 

column ot" my French Dictionary, are the terms of Commotion, Fouet, 
FouETTER, "To Whip, flog," &c. FouGUE, Fury, &c. Fougon, "The 
" Kitchen in a Ship," belonging to Focws; Fouoe/e, the Fern, which does 
not come from Filix, but means the Bushy object, and YovGade, a sort 
of mine, which means the Low Pudge spot, or Hollow. 1 cannot leave 
these words under the form BDR, denoting Confusion, &c. without 
producing another term of the same kind, the Spanish Boor/o, which 
means, says my Lexicographer, " Any Hodge-FooGE ill dressed, any 
" medley of broken meat." I find as adjacent terms in my Spanish 
Dictionary Booigo, " A small loaf," &c. BoDoque, " Pellet, a small ball 
" of Clay shot from a cross bow," where we see the swelling mass of 
Pudgy matter, as likewise Bocha, " Bowl, a round wooden mass rolled 
" along the ground in a game of bowls, Fold, or double in Clothes, where 
" they do not sit well, but purse up," Bocaran, " Fine sort of BucKra/w," 
BocEL, " Brim, the upper edge of a vessel ;" — Bocal, " Pitcher, an earthen 
" vessel filled with a narrow mouth," Boca the mouth, where all these 
words convey the same idea of Swelling out. I see likewise Boga, the 
act of rowing, which means the act of BoGGing about, if I may so say, or 
?.KS,mng about Bog, Pash, or Watery Matter. In Galic Fothram means 
" A great noise, rustling;" the origin of which will be fully manifest 
from a word in the same column of Mr. Shaw's Dictionary, FoxnacA, 
" A lake. Pond." This, I imagine, is the term intended in the Poems 
of Ossian, where it is applied with great force to the emotions of 
iNIalvina, when she hears the voice of her departed lover in her dreams, 
" Tha Fath/'mw mo chleibh go ard," which Mr. Shaw in his Grammar 
translates by " I feel the Jiuttering of my soul." Mr. Shaw has not 
Fathrum in his Dictionary ; though I imagine, that it is only another 
form of Fothram. In the Copy of Ossian published by the Highland 
Society, it is Forum, which is translated by Strepitus. (Vol. I. p. 210.) 
This word does not appear in Mr. Shaw's Dictionary, and it is perhaps 
an error of the press. 

Some Lexicographers represent the Welsh Byzin by Byddin, and 
this form brings us to the parallel Irish word, Bvionean, which Mr. Shaw 
explains by " A Troop, company," and again he explains Feadhaijs 


by "A band, troop, company." These words under the form FDN, &c. 
will bring us to the Greek Pitana, (Uiraua, Turma, cohors,) which is 
surrounded by terms, which conduct us to the Spot, from which I 
suppose these words to be derived, as Pituro//, (Uirvpoi', Furfur, capitis 
sordes, porrigo,) where we see the idea of Filth, under the form PTR, 
PissA, PiTMS, (UKTcra, Pi.r, and Uirv?,^ where we have Pudgy matter, 
and the tree producing it, Pisos, (fltcro?, locus humidus et irriguus,) 
where we directly see the Pudgy spot, — Pistcmo, (Uia-reuu}, Credo, Fido,) 
which I shall shew to belong to Figo, under the idea of Fix?'??^, Vvvoing, 
or Sticking in. — Pitulo*, (JIitvXo^, Sonus seu strepitus, qualis praesertim 
aquae remo percussae,) where we have the Pashw?^ noise against Pudgy 
Matter : — Pixwao, and Pixwco, (nirvaco, Expando, extendo, Concutio, 
projicio, UiTi/eto, Cado, Labor,) which are justly referred to the term 
Pipto, (YinrTw, Cado, ruo, Labor,) which I consider to be quasi Pito, 
as in the Pes of cPesow, (Ettcctoi/.) In the interpretation Labor, we have 
the true sense of the word, which I conceive to be that of Slipping upon 
Pudge matter. I shall shew, that Labor belongs to sLip, and Slip, 
brings us at once to sLop, Slap, Slime, &c. I see likewise Pitune, 
{Ylirvvt], Vimen,) or rather as some have it, PuTiNe, {U.vTivtj,) which 
the Tarentines, say they, call Butinc, {^vTivtj.) If it relates to the Vine, 
or something of that nature, the Withy, or to a Flask platted round 
with IFithies, &.c. it may be taken from the idea of the Bi?idi?ig, and 
thus it will agree with Pitan(?, (YliTavri, Turma,) which signifies a Band, 
or Company. I see too FiTrakion, [YliTTaKioi/, Index, vcl Titulus Pice 
illitus,) which may be derived from Pitch smear'd over, as is probable. 
Martinius has produced the term Pitana from the Glossaries, which is 
supposed to mean the same as, or to be put for Vnuita, where we have 
the more original idea. The learned reader will see under the term 
PiTANa/es, FltTaj/aTt/? in Hesychius, the same idea of a Troop, or Band 
of Soldiers, &c. YliravaTn'^ "LrpaTO^, o rwv EWtji/wu, t] roi utto fxepov^, 
n oia Tou MeveXaov, os t]v YliTavart]^, ov X'^P'-^ eaTpaTevcrav. ea-ri Se ri 
XliTuvri, (pvXtj, &c. &c. In Spanish Botan« is "A plug, or stopple 
" used to stop up bung holes. — Cataplasm, or Plaister, put on a wound 
" to heal it," &c. 

X 2 

161 B,F,P,V,W.J C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,7i,r. 

I find various words in Spanish under the form Box, all conveying 
the same idea of Swelling out, Bulging, or Push?'??^ out, Bote, " Gallipot, 
" &c. Toilet, Box," &c. and the same term means a " Thrust with a 
" pike, lance, or spear," to which belongs the verb Boxar, "To cast, to 
" throw, to fling, to launch. To vow, to make vows," where the sense 
of the Pot, and a Thrust, or Push belongs to each other, as Push is applied 
to the Swelling out sore, that which Pushes up or out, and to the action 
of Vusui77g at an object. Let us note here the sense of Fbw, and remember 
the Latin YoTian, which might be derived from this idea ; though it 
is not easy to form an opinion on that point. — Bota, a " Butt, or pipe 
" with hoops, Boot," &c. and Botella, Bottle, &c. Botin, Buskin, 
and Booty taken by soldiers, &c. from whence we shall see, that Booty 
and its parallels, Butin, Biitino, (Fr. Ital.) Buet, (Belg.) Beiite, (Germ. 
&c.) belong to the idea of the Swelling up Heap. — Boto, Blunt, round 
at the point : — Boto, " Large gut filled with butter," &c. — Boton, 
"Button, Bud, or gem. Put forth by vines and trees in the spring," 
where we observe in the expression Vjjt forth, or as he might have said 
Fvsued forth, how Bot may relate to the Thrust, or Push, and likewise 
to a Pot, Box, &c. I perceive likewise adjacent to these words the 
term Box, denoting a " Box Tree," and " the act of doubling a point, 
" or headland," where we see in the expression Doubling, how this latter 
sense may belong to the Sivelling, or Bushy Box-tree; — Bozo, "Down, 
"soft and tender hair, growing about the lips and chins of young men," 
where we have the idea of the Pudgy Soft stuff", and in another sense 
it means " A Head-stall, &c. to which belongs Bozal, Muzzle, a sort of 
" bag made of bassweed," &c. where we see the same idea of the Sivelling 
stuff, encumbering, or Pudg?>/^ up the head. I shall shew that Muzzle 
belongs to Muddle, for a similar reason ; and Bozas Stoppers, &c. what 
Stops, or Stuffs up. I observe too Boya, which I conceive to be quasi 
BoJA, signifying "Butcher; Hangman, public executioner. Buoy, 
" a barrel, block, or piece of cork, fastened to an anchor, to serve as 
" a signal for sailors." We cannot doubt, that Buoy, Boi/e, (Fr.) means 
that, which Swells, or Rises up. 

On the term Butcher and its parallels, Bucher, Beccaaro, Becajo, 


(Fr. Ital.) there is some difficulty, and it has been derived from Biicca, 
Bouche, Banc, &c. The exact sense of Butcher, Bucher, seems to be 
that of the person, who Pashcs, or Knocks to pieces in a coarse manner. 
Hence Boucher means in French " A Butcher. An unskilful surgeon. 
" A bad barber. A bad carver of meat," and this idea of the word will 
shew us, how it agrees with the verb Boucher, which means " To 
" Pudge up," as will be evident from the explanation of my Lexi- 
cographer, who interprets Boucher, by " To stop a hole, &c. To 
" block up a passage. To stop up a window. To cork a bottle. To 
" Bung a vessel." We may conceive, that Boucher, To Bung a vessel 
belongs to Boucher, the Butcher, as Bung belongs to Bang. The 
French terms adjacent to these words all convey the same fundamental 
idea, as Bouchon, A Cork, stopple, bundle, &c. Boucle, A Buckle, 
a Curl of hair, Bouclier, a Buckler, Bouder, To Pout, i. e. To swell 
out, BouDiN, Pudding, Boudin, a small closet, to which one retires, 
w^hich means the little Box, as it were; Boucan, "A Bawdy house; — 
" A Hut where the Americans dry and smoke their flesh in," where 
we have the same idea of the little Swelling out Box, Shed from which 
term may be derived the BoucANier. " One who dries fish or flesh, 
" after the manner of the Americans, A Buccaneer," though on this there 
is some doubt. — Bouc, the Buck, the Vvsning out animal. — Bouge, 
" A small room adjoining to a larger one; a dirty house or room; the 
" middle of a Cask," the VvDoing out, or Pudgy, dirty spot, and Bougie, 
"A wax candle," the Pudgy substance, BouGraw, BucKra/w; — Bosse, 
A Bunch ; — Bouche, the mouth, and lastly Botte, A Boot, Butt, 
Bottle, and " A lump of Earth, or snow at one's foot," where we come 
to the genuine idea. Adjacent to all these terms I find Boue, Clay, Mud, 
where we have the original idea, however it may be related to these 
words. I suppose, that BECcaro, or Beco/o, the BuTcner, relates to the 
idea of ^xsmng to pieces; and we accordingly find, that the terms con- 
nected with these Italian words relate to this idea of Sinking, Knocking, 
Pvsuing, Sticking, as BEccare, To Peck, in French lip.Qucter, Becco, 
in French Bec, the bill of a bird, from which the Becc«c/(/, and Becc- 
acino, with the parallels Bccasse, Becassin, the Woodcock and the Snipe 

166 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Y,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

are derived, Becco, Bouc, (Fr.) A He-goat, Becca morti, A Grave 
maker, BECcasiri?io, in French Beche, Becher, A Mattock, A Spade and 
To Dig, vv^here we are brought to the true idea of Fusuiug into the 
Ground, or Pudge. I find likewise BECCHe//o, a Band, where we have 
the Swelhng himp, or Bundle. — That my hypothesis respecting the origin 
of the French Boucan, the Bawdy House, and the Hut is just, will be 
manifest from considering the parallel Celtic term, Bocna/z, A Cottage, 
BocAN, " A covering, cottage," which are directly adjacent in Mr. Shaw's 
Dictionary to Booach, A Bog. — The French Scholars will now see, how 
Becher, " To Break up the Ground with the Spade," connects itself 
with Boucher, the Breaker up of an animal, uhere let us note Bi^eah, 
which was an ancient term for Carving ; and how Becher, To Stir up 
the Pudge; or to Pudge up, about, belongs to Boucher, the verb. To 
Stop or Pudge up. — On the origin of Boucan, the Cottage, we have no 
doubt, but on that of the Boucanier there is some difficulty. When we 
learn that Vicking-Ur means in Islandic, a Pirate, the Person, who lurks 
in ViKS, or Creeks of the Sea, we should imagine, that BoucAN-Jier 
belongs to it. The Vik is the Hollow Watery Pudge Spot, or Pit. 

Terms, which relate to the Belly, the Bulk of the Frame, &c. 
as Bauch, (Germ.) &c. &c. 

We have seen in the course of these discussions, that the German 
Bauch, the Belly, has been produced on many occasions, among terms 
denoting the Swelling out object. — I shall here exhibit a brief detail of 
the words in various Languages, which relate to this part of the frame ; 
as Bauch itself with the parallel terms, Buch, Buh, (Franc.) Buich, 
(Belg.) Buuk, (Swed.) &c. produced by Wachter, who condemns the 
derivation of some from Pahi, (Jlaxv,^ and Vacuus ; which are two 
kindred terms; though he sees, that it may belong to Bugc//, Arcuari, 


and to the names for Hollows, such as Bac, Linter, alvcus, &c. Buc, 
Lagena, Becher, Crater, Becheir, Pelvis, Pohal, Poculum, &c. just as 
Jlvtis, and Jlreas signify Venter, and Vas cavum. At this point the 
collection of Wachter terminates. Let us mark, how Alvus, the HoUonV 
Channel, illustrates my hypothesis, that these words Bvoen, Bauch, &c. 
ultimately belong to the Sinking in Pudge Spot, the Hollow of the Pit, 
&c. &c. BowKE, Bowkie, (Old English, as in Rowley, " As ynti 
" the BowKE nete alleyn cann bee donne, Syke ynn the weal of kynde 
" all thynges are partes of onne." Tourn. ig. 20.— " Theie yeave mee 
" lyfFe, and dyd mie Bowkie kepe.")— Bouk, Buik, (Scotch) which 
Dr. Jamieson explains by "The trunk of the body, as distinguished from 
" the head, or extremity, — The whole Body of Man, or carcase of a beast. — 
" Size, stature," Bouktii, "Bulk, the largeness of a thing." Gl. Lancash. 
&c. which he has justly referred to Bauch, (Germ.) Bench, (Teut. 
" Truncus corporis," Buce, Bug, (Sax. Dan.) and he records likewise 
the Galic Bodhaic, the Body. To these terms we must add the English 
Body, Bodige, (Sax.) Truncus corporis; and the term Bust, (Eng.) 
Buste, Busto, (Ital.) with Busk, (Eng.) the piece of Whalebone, &c. 
applied to that part of the frame, Base, Base, &c. (Fr.) The term 
Body in Skinner is the next term to Bog. The succeeding words in 
Dr. Jamieson to Bouk are the verb "To Bouk, To Bulk," and the 
adjectives Boukit, Bowksum, Bouky, Large, bulky. The next word 
is BouKE, " A Solitude," which he does not refer to these terms, but to 
BucE, (Sax.) Recessus, " a solitary and secret place." The Saxon Buce 
means that which belongs to the Hole, or Hollow, Swelling out, able 
to contain, &c. " Secessus, venter, alvus, uterus, lagena," I have before 
observed, that Boke, in the Provincial Dialects, Norfolk, &c. means Bulk, 
(' There will be a great Boke of straw, and little grain.') In Rowley 
the Bawsin Elephant, Giant, &c. means the Bulky creatures. — In Shak- 
speare " Bisson, or Beesome conspectuities," (Coriol. ii. 1.) mean 
Thickened Sights, and again in Bisson Rheum, we see the precise idea 
of Pudgy matter. Dr. Johnson observes on the former passage, " Bisson," 
(blind) in the old copies Beesome, restored by Mr. 'J'heobald. Both 
forms are equally right, as in Bottom, Boden, &c, — Buzzo, Buzzone, 

168 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X, Z.| l,m,n,r. 

(Ital.) the Belly, Big bellied.— Bes, (Ir.) "The Belly," and it means 
likewise, as Mr. Shasv explains it, "Art, trade," which must have the 
same fundamental notion, whatever may be the intermediate link, by 
which these senses are connected. In the same opening of Mr. Shaw's 
Dictionary, 1 see Biach, " Membrum virile." — Poten, (Welsh.) " What 
" bulges out; a Paunch; a Pudding," and under the same form PTN, 
I see PoTHAN, "A round Boss, bump, or bunch, a cub." — Pothon. 
" A round Lump, or Boss ; a cub, a whelp." Under another form of 
FPN, we have Pitan in Welsh, " A Teat, a nipple." We have seen 
in Irish, that under the form BG, Boigh means a Teat, and Boighe, 
Softness, belonging to Bog, Soft, and Bogwc/?, the Bog. Mr. Grose 
has Begge, an Essex word for " A Pap, or Teat,''' which some call 
the Bag, that is, the Big Swelling out object. In French Bedame is 
the Belly; the next words to which are BEDe««, the Beadle, or Mace- 
Bearer, the BEAxe/', or Lumper, if I may so say, where we can scarcely 
separate the form of the instrument, the Club, or Lump from the action 
o( Lumping, andBEDON, the "Fat, Thick man," where we see the idea 
of the Swelling out object. Some of the Welsh Lexicographers under 
Poten, the Belly, remind us of the Hebrew ]D3 BTN, which as Mr. 
Parkhurst observes, " occurs not as a verb in Hebrew, but in Chaldee 
" and Syriac, denotes To conceive in the Bellij, or Jlomh; and in Arabic 
" To hide, or be hid. — Asa noun, the Belli/ of nn animal, male or female." 
He produces likewise, as a derivative, our English term Batten, " make 
" Fat, or great bellied." I shew in another place, that Bat, Batten, 
Fat, Feed, &c. all belong to the idea of FuDoing out. In Chaldee and 
in Arabic the Element BTN likewise signifies the Belly. Mr. Richardson 
explains ^ Betyn, by "The Belly, the Paunch," and it likewise signifies 
" Whatever is contained in the Belly, as a Foetus." The term likewise 
means Low Ground, which brings us to the Spot, supposed in my hypo- 
thesis, and to such terms as Bottom, Boden, &c. An adjacent work is 
^ Betyn, which Mr. Richardson explains, by " Large, prominent, gore 
" bellied.— BuTAiN, A little Belly. The second mansion of the Moon, 
" distinguished by three small stars in the Belly of Aries." In Sanscrit 
Baga is the Belly, and I find in different writers the terms Pate, Pait, 


and Pash, which latter word is interpreted by " The Sides of the Belly," 
to which is given as a parallel term in some Dialects Bogo/. (^Lebediff's 
Gram. p. 70.) I shall have occasion to produce some of these words 
for the Belly in another place, and to contrast them with terms, which 
pass into a different turn of meaning. 

Terms, denoting Children, or young persons, animals, &c. connected 
with the idea of the Lumpy Sfvelling out form. 

The Welsh term Pothon means, as we have seen, " A Round Lump, 
" or Boss;" but it likewise signifies "A Cub, a Whelp," and Vosned 
denotes, "A round Body, or that Sivells out; a Squat figure, A Small 
" pan, skillet, or Porringer ; a Small saucepan," &c. &c. Among the terms 
in Welsh under the form Pwt, I find Pwt, " Any short thing," Pwxa//, 
"A Squat female," Ywryn, "A short round Body, — Pwtj/;^ zyn, 
" A short squab of a Man." There is a verb likewise belonging to these 
terms, Vwriaw, " To Butt, to thrust against, to Poke." We cannot 
but perceive here, how the idea of the Pudgy Lump, Fvsmng, or 
Swelling out, which under one mode of conceiving this species of Matter 
supplies us with terms, expressing objects of an enlarged size, suggests 
likewise, under another view, that species of Lumpy form, which belongs 
to Little objects, as the Little round Lumpy figure, the Little object, 
of a Squat, Squab nature, as we express it. In the explanatory terms 
Squat, Squab, which have been justly selected by the Lexicographer, 
as most appropriate to his purpose, we may still see the idea of Pudgy 
matter. The term Squat belongs to Squash, &c. and in Squab, which 
I shall shew to belong to Swamp, &c. the idea is most evident. We 
see in the above examples, how our Elementary Character PT is applied 
to the Human form in a Little, Lumpy State; and hence, as I imagine, 
are derived the terms under our Element, which express Children, as 
likewise those terms, which denote what is Small, Minute, &c. Among 



B,F,P.V, W.| C, D,J,K,Q,S,T,X, Z.| l,vi,n,r. 

the terms for Children, we must class the following, BAcgew, (Welsh,) 

which Mr, Owen derives from Bac and Cen, "A Boy; a child," Bac- 

genes, (Welsh,) " A young girl ;" and in the same page of jNIr. Owen's 

Dictionary, where these words occur, we have Bac, "Little, Small,'' 

" Da ngenetii Vac?, That's my good Little gh],'' and Bac, "A Hook,'' 

&c. which I have shewn to be derived from the idea of Swelling out, 

in a Bow/??g- or Bending form, as in Bacu, To Hook, &c. — To Bend ; — 

Baccs, " A term of endearment ; a Pretty Little Woman," &c. &c. The 

term Bac comes to its due sense, when it is joined with a term before 

produced Vosned, " A round Body, or that swells out, a squat figure," 

as in the phrase " Oy Fosned, Bac, O the Little Squab," as Mr. Owen 

translates it. — Beg, or Beag, (Irish,) "Little, Small," Beagan, "A 

" little, few." That these terms are connected with the idea of Swelling 

out will be manifest from the following words, adjacent to the latter 

of these terms, BExcutamhuil, "Circular, Roundish,^' Beachtawz, "To 

" compass, embrace, criticize," Beacht, "A Multitude, a Ring," &c. 1 

must leave the Celtic Scholars to adjust other senses, belonging to the 

adjacent words, under this fundamental notion. — I see among these terms 

Beac, Beachan, the Bee, which might mean the Little Roundish, Thick 

form. The term next to these, Beacan, means A Mushroom, where we 

unequivocally see the Swelling out form. There is some difficulty in 

the name of the Bee, which in other Languages appears under the simple 

form BS as in Bee, (Eng.) Bii, (Dan. and Isl.) Bie, (Belg.) Beo, (Sax.) 

and again under the forms B| C, and N, L, as BEAcna/?, cPis, (Lat.) &c. 

Biene, (Germ.) aBeille, (Fr.) &c. where we cannot doubt, I think, that 

they all belong to each other. 

Having now established the union of words, denoting the Child, and 
what is Small with those expressing the Swelling Lump, I shall first 
produce the terms, which signify the Child, Girl, Young man, JFoman, 
&c. and I shall then produce the terms which signify, ' What is Small, 
' Little,' &c. We shall not wonder to see these terms, which are thus 
connected with the idea of the Swelling Lump, attaching themselves 
likewise to objects, denoting the Swelling out, Lumpy figure of larger 
dimensions. I must here distinctly state, that these names for Children, 


and young Men and Women, are inseparably involved with the terms, 
denoting the Lumpy, Swelling out form, when considered either as in 
a Little, Small state, or as of Large}' dimensions, by whatever process it 
may have arisen, that their union has been effected. Among the terms 
denoting Children, Boys, and Girls, Young Men and IFomen, &c. are 
the following Baxg<^n, (Welsh,) Bigel, Pofr, (Armor.) Paisfe, Buachit, 
(Ir.) produced by Lhuyd under Puer. — Bor, (Eng.) which according to 
my idea agrees in sense with the Buoy of an Anchor, the Swelling up 
object. — Pais, Paidos, (Flats, IlatSos, Puer,) which the Etymologists have 
recorded under Boy ; to which they have added Bou-Pais, (BovTrais, 
Puer, vel Adolescens grandis.) To Pais, (riajs,) might belong 
emPAX, (EfXTra^, Curator, Tutor, Educator, E^Tra^o^a/, Curo, rationem 
habeo,) unless we suppose, that E/xTra^ofxai is another form of Aa-Tra^o/jiai, 
as are the acknowledged terms Faidcuo, {Uai^evw, Doceo, &c. &c.) 
Pusio, PvTus, (Lat.) A Boy, Minion, &c. Pvceau, Pvcelle, (Fr.) which 
belongs to the Element PC, and not to PL, as the French Etymologists 
suppose. — Pxraud, Pxraude means a Plump Boy and Girl, where the 

relation to Pate, Paste, i. e. Pudge like matter, is unequivocal Badw, 

or Bados, (Gr.) A Son, (BaSis, vel BaSos, secundum MS, vio^, Hesych.) 
adjacent to which I find in Hesychius, BaSas, KivaiZos, ws Afxepia^. — 
PiGE, (Sax.) " Puellula, Dan. Pige. Et inde forsan nostra Pigsney.'' 
Skinner has referred Pug, the Ape, Devil, &c. " Vox blanditoria et 
" vTTOKopKTTiKf]," to this sourcc. I have shewn, that Pug belongs to the 
same idea of the Pudgv Figure, whether as exciting Terror, Disgust, &c. 
or as a term of blandishment. Adjacent to Pige in my Saxon Dictionary 
I see Pic-tyra, Pix fluida, Picung, "Stigma inustum, unde etiam, et 
" infamia, ignominia, opprobrium. — Figura, schema," where we directly 
see the idea of Pudge Matter, and of Form, Shape, belonging to the Plastic 
nature of that species of matter. Hence we unequivocally see, why Pige 
signifies the Girl, the Soft, Plump, Pudgy form. An adjacent word to 
PiGsney in Skinner is Pig, where we again see the idea of the Pudgy 
animal, though the Etymologists refer it to Pica, Puellula, under the idea 
of the " Filia, vel Filius Porci, vel Suis.'' Hence, Picksey means a 
Fairy in Devonshire, the Little Pretty Being. — Bej, or Pej, ^ in Persian 

Y 2 


B,F, P,V,W.J C,D,G,J, K,Q,S,T, X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

has various significations, which unequivocally decide on the truth of my 
hypothesis, as Bech, " A child, a Boy, a youth ; a Servant, Puj. Any 
" thing Bumping out, convex, globular," Bej, Water, Buj, the Cheek, 
" the ball of the Cheek, the external part of the cheek and mouth," 
belonging to Bucca, &c. That the Arabic Language is faithful to the 
sense of the Element will be manifest from the term in the same column 
of Mr. Richardson's Dictionary, as Bejj, Bursting, (a boil, or other sore.) 
" SiveUing almost to bursting," &c. Busz/r, Pustm/cs, Pimples, &c. 
Besnc/, " Plain, equal, level and Soft ground, Soft sand, Butter," which 
brings us to the form of Pedon, (IleSoi/,) Boden, &c. In the same 
opening of this Dictionary I see the Persian Peche Jisri, "An Infant, 
" Boy, child, son. A lion's whelp, or the young of any animal," and 
Pechegan, ^l^-d " Boys, children, infants. The young of any animal," 
which is precisely the same combination, as the Welsh ^xcgen, " A Boy, 
"a. child." Again in Persian ^j^ Piser, or Puser is "A son, a Boy, 
" a youth," the preceding word in Mr. Richardson's Dictionary is the 
Arabic term under the same form Besr, which means, " A young man, 
" a youth," and the same term likewise means, " Unripe dates full grown, 
" and beginning to ripen," that is, the Swelling out Fruit. In the same 
opening of this writer's Dictionary, I see Pest, " Humble, Depressed, 
"Low,'' &c. and Pister, " A Bed, mattrass, bolster, pillow, cushion," 
which have been derived, as I imagine, from the Low Pudgy Spot. 
The term Pestan ^JJ^ likewise means The most humble, and the Breast, 
' the Nipple;' the preceding term to which is Busitan, or Bustan, a 
" Breast, Nipple, and a Garden for flowers, or herbs," where we see the 
Swelling out object, connected with the Ground. These words for the 
nipple bring us to the parallel Welsh term Pitan, " A teat, nipple." 
The same term VzsTan, signifies likewise, "A place abounding with, 
" Pistachio Nuts, the Pine-tree ;" where the sense of the Pine-Tree brings 
us to the Pix, Pitch, or Pudge, and the VisracJw, (Jlia-raKia, Pistacia, 
&c.) Nut is derived from the same source of the Swelling out substance. 
The next word to the Greek term in our ordinary Vocabularies is Pista, 
or Pistra, which occurs in the same column with Pisos, and Pissa, 
(Jlia-Ta, Uia-rpa, canalis, in quo adaquantur pecora, ITto-os, Locus 


humidus, nia-a-a, Pix\) the Pudgy Spot, and Matter. — In Hebrew ina 
BC/?R means a Young Man, but the same term is supposed to signify, 
" To look at, or behold with admiration, or approbation, To choose," &c. 
I shall not stop to examine the senses of this word, nor to adjust the 
precise idea, from which it denotes the Young Man ; yet the Hebrew 
Scholar will, I trust, understand, that the fundamental notion is that 
of PusH/rtg, or PoK?//o- up, out, forward, into, &c, and that the term 
"ID3 BKR is only another form of it, which Mr. Park hurst actually 
explains by " To he forivard, precede, to come, ov go before.'' This word 
nD3 BKR is applied to Young animals, when it means, " The First born," 
but we unecpiivocally see the original idea, when it relates to " First-Fruits, 
" fruits Jirst ripe, i. e. before others of the same kind," — "The first ripe 
" Fig, the BoccoRE, as it is still called in the Levant, nearly by its 
" Hebrew name," where we actually see the idea of Soft, Pudge matter, 
Sivelling out, &c. Under another form we have "Ipn BK/«R, where I add 
the h to the K, in order to distinguish it from the other terms, and this 
word means " To look, search, examine : — The Morning. — ABeeve," which 
still conveys the idea, of Push/wo-, or VoK:ing into, out, forth, &c. The 
name of the Beeve belongs to this idea, either as referring to the Horns, 
or the Swelling out Shape. — Under another form we have "Iti'D, BSR, 
which Mr. Parkhurst explains in one sense, by " To spread, to spread 
" out, spread abroad," &c. which might be 'To Pash out, about,' &c. 
and in another sense, " Flesh, that Soft muscular substance, which is 
" spread over the bones." — In Arabic Jj P>KR, means " A maid, a virgin, 
" a girl. — The eldest first-born. — The Morning, &c. — Ripe dates, and 
" in general all fruits which ripen soon." In the same opening of Mr. 
Richardson's Dictionary, I see Bekeu, Black cattle, (the bull, cow, ox,) 
&c. and I likewise perceive another term Bukat A*i! " A Place, part, 
" country, region, &c.— A Building, fabric, edifice, &c. — A low place, 
" in ivhich IFater stagnates,'' where we come to the original idea of the 
Boggy Spot, Matter, &c. The term ^Kj BKAR signifies " Unmarried," in 
general. In the same opening of Mr. Parkhurst's Lexicon with "IHS 
BC/?R, I see SOD BTA, "To utter, or speak rashly, foolishly, or un- 
" advisedly, Effutire," to which Mr. Parkhurst refers Batto*, (Barro?,) 

174 B,F,P,V,W.| C, D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,in,n,r. 

BxTTo/ogeo, (BaTToXojew,') which mean nothing but to Pash, or Push 
out, \-ile Pudge stuff, as in the kindred Latin word Fut?'o; — nLD3 BTC^, 
" To hang close, cling, To trust, rely upon," which means to be VuDoed, 
Push'c?, Tixed in, or close to any thing, ' To Stick to any thing,' and in 
another sense it means " Fruits, or Plants of the Pepo, or Melon kind," 
where we unequivocally see the idea of VvDoing out, and ]tD3 BTN, 
before produced, the Belli/, which again decides on the fundamental sense, 
belonging to these words.— ill in Hebrew, signifies a Daughter, the Pupil 
of the Eye, and it means Hkewise "A House, q. d. A Receptacle for man. 
" A den, or receptacle for Wild beasts," where the original sense is 
a Loiv Spot, as the Ground, with the idea of the Pudgy matter, which 
is contained in such a spot, annexed to it, from whence the Daughter 
and the Pupil of the Eye are derived. The senses of a Girl, and the 
Pupil of an eye, about which we have heard so much, belong to the same 
word for no other reason, than that the fundamental idea refers to the 
Soft Sivelling out Substance, as in Pupilla, Sec. and that this property 
is common to both these objects, as in Kopv, (Pupa, Puella, Pupilla, 
nigrans pars oculi.) In Hebrew likewise n'^inn BTULH signifies "A 
" Marriageable Firgin," to which Mr. Parkhurst has, I think, justly 
referred Batalos, (BaraAos, Mulierosus, EfFeminatus, Cinadus, Podex,) 
and to these words we must add the name of a youth, Bathyllz^s. In 
examining this Greek word in my Vocabulary, I cast my eye on Battule, 
(BarrvXti, Femina Nana,) which means the Squat, Squabby Figure. 
I observe likewise Baukos, (BavKos, Jucundus, delicatus,) Bauzo, 
Baukalco, (Bau'(w, Latro, Baubor, BavKuXew, Sopio cantu, nutricum 
more,) where we have still something belonging to the Child. I see 
moreover Batto*, (Button, Princeps Cyrenaeorum, balbus et exili voce 
prjeditus,) and B\TKachos, (Barpaxo^, Rana,) which may belong to the 
Patter?'/?"-, idle noise, or Batr may relate to Water. In Arabic JyL. 
Betul signifies " A virgin averse to marriage and worldly concerns, 
from religious motives." The term likewise signifies that, which Pushes 
forth, or out, as "The Shoot of the palm, when ready to be planted by 
" itself; or a young Shoot already planted." I see likewise in the same 
column of Mr. Richardson's Dictionary Betil^^ " A shoot from a palm," 


&c. and " Any joint, or member of the body, with the Flesh belonging 
" to it, a Fleshi/ part ;" the next term to which is Betile, or Petile, 
" The ivick of a candle, the Match of a lamp." In the next column 
I perceive the Persian Bejal, " A prince, an aged man, a great Lord, 
" a powerful. — An old corpukut, and on that account, respectable man, 
" (the Eastern nations in general considering corpulent men, as the 
" peculiar favourites of God Almighty.) A Fat camel." This term is 
adjacent to Bech, A Boy, and PuJ, "Any thing bumping out." 

We have seen in the Celtic Dialects, the terms Bigel, and Buachil 
for Puer, and to the words, under this form, we must refer the English 
BACHELor and its parallels BxccAi^aurens, Bachclier, Bacalorio, (Lat. Fr. 
Ital.) &c.— " A lover, and a Lusty Bachelere," which means ' A Lusty, 
' Stout young man.' We shall now understand, that these terms are 
not derived from Baculum, or from Bacca, and Lauriis, or from Bataillc, 
or Bas Chevalier, &c. General Vallancey has compared the Greek 
Bakelos, (BaK>/\os, homo magnje staturae, sed excors et efFeminatus, 
Eunuchus, spado, Mollis,) another of these terms denoting a Lump of 
a Fellow, though under somewhat of a different turn of meaning, with 
the Irish BATHLac, which Mr. Shaw places with Balach, A Clown. Here 
we may doubt, whether the form BTL, or BL, be the true one. But 
in BoGALEO, Bumpkin, we unequivocally see the true idea, which is 
manifest from its adjacent term Bog, Soft, &c. Bogloc//, A Bog : We 
see then, that the Greek Bakelos, (Bajo/Aos,) has justly been interpreted 
by Mollis. We perceive in Bumpkin, how the Clownish Fellow belongs 
to the Bump, or Lump. In Arabic Jib Bakel, is the " Name of a stupid 
" ignorant man," &c. who has given occasion to an Arabic proverb, 
" More stupid than Bakel," and in other senses it signifies (" Ground,^ 
" producing herbs, shrubs, verdure," where we are brought to the spot 
supposed in my hypothesis, " The cheeks and chin of a young man, when 
"just beginning to shew marks of puberty," which relates, we see, 
to the Young Man, or BACHELor. Let us note the term Puberty, relating 
to Youth, under the Element PB, w^hich still belongs to the idea of 
Swelling, or Puffing out, Pubesco, "To Bud, grow turgid, or shoot 
" forth." This is the perpetual metaphor, under which the form of youth 


B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

is represented. The Becillz/s in the Latin //wBecillz/s belongs to this 
race of words, under the representation BCL, either as the Lusty Stout 
Bachelor, in which sense In, or Im is privative, or as the Lumpy, Soft, 
Weak, Fellow, in which case In is intensive. The articles in the 
Grammar of General Vallancey next to the Greek Bakelos, (BaKj/Ao?,) 
which he has compared with Bathlac, are Basilcws, and Basilc, (Baa-iXevs, 
Bex, Ba(ri\»7, Regnum,) which he compares with the Irish Basal, Judex, 
and Basal, Superbia. I have already given the origin of these Greek 
words, which is probably just ; yet they might have belonged to the idea 
of Swelling out. I ought to observe here, that Basilz's, among the 
Tarentines, is the term for Venus, which belongs to the Betul, the 
young woman of the Arabs and Hebrews; and BASiL?Wes means likewise 
Pudendum Muliehre. (Ylapa TapavTivois Se kui rj Acppohtni, Baa-iM^. 
He.sych. sub voce Baa-iXivda ; — Bao-tAiSe?, Ta •yvvaiKeia ai^oia.^ We 
have terms, relating to the Clown, or Country man, under the form BGL, 
both in Greek and Latin, which seem to belong to the name for the Ox, 
or Coiv, Cattle, Sec. as Boukolos, Bekulos, (BovkoXos, Bubulus, 
BejcyAos, Pecuinus, O villus,) and in the Celtic Dialects Bugail, By gel, 
(Welsh,) a Herdsman, Buachail, (Ir.) &c. from which words the term 
Bucolics is derived. The first part of these words may belong to the 
Animal, as it is conjectured ; though the second part of the compound 
cannot be derived from Kolon, (KoXou, Cibus,) if all these words belong 
to each other, but must be sought for in the Celtic Dialects. Mr. Owen 
supposes, that Cail, a Fold, is the second part of the compound in the 
Welsh words. — These terms however might belong to the general idea 
of the Swelling out form, and accordingly we find, that Bygel nos, 
means "A Phantom, or Hobgoblin," which has nothing to do with the 
Herdsman, but with the Boggle Bo, the Large frightful form. The 
Latins in attempting to introduce the Bov of Bovis into Bubulus have 
deformed the word, whatever be its origin. A term adjacent to Bek- 
ulos, (BcKi/Aos,) in our Greek Dictionaries, is Bekko«, (Be/cKo?, Panis, 
Stultus, Delirus,) where we have at once the Lumpy, or Pudgy Form, 
and Mind, &c. An adjacent term is BEKKesi7e//os, (BcxKeo-eA^yi/o?, 
Delirus, stupidus, Antiquus, quasi ante B^kkov, panem, et Ze\>ji/»;>', 


Lunam,) which might originally mean a person in a state of YkTinty, 
arising from the influence of the Moon, that is, a Lunatic. The term 
BouGo/os, (BowYaios, Convicium in hominem magnre staturse, et viribus 
stulte ferocem,) is again the Lwnpy form. The BouAGor, (Bovwyoip, 
Pastor, armenti ductor) is supposed to be derived from Bows and Kyw, 
and that may be the case ; yet it may be attached to these terms. In 
Welsh BuAc is "A Churl, Clown," and in English we have Bekky, 
for a simpleton, and Bogeg, is a cant term for an awkward fellow. 

In Irish Poth is a Son, as General Vallancey observes, or a Bachelor, 
as Mr. Shaw explains it, and in the same column of Mr. Shaw's Dictionary, 
where this word occurs, we have Posawi, To Marry, Fosadh, " Marriage, 
" Wedlock," which surely belong to Poth, the Bachelor. We might 
imagine, that the English sPouse and the Latin sPonsus were attached 
to these terms ; yet Spondeo, &c. seems to refer to the idea of the Bargain , 
or Compact, as in Pango, peViai, PACTwrn, which is derived from Pudge 
Matter, or a Mass of Matter, made up into a due consistency. To the 
Celtic Poth, belongs the Greek Phos, Phot, and Posis, ('t>ws, ^wto^, 
Vir, rioorts, Maritus.) Whatever may be the precise idea, by which the 
Irish Poth is connected with Pudge matter, it will be evident, that some 
connection exists, when we learn, that the adjacent word to it in 
Mr. Shaw's Dictionary is Porair, a Potter. I find in the same column 
with these terms Posta, A Post, which is derived from the idea of being 
Put, Pudged, or Stuck up, Vosram, To trample with the Feet, where 
we are again brought to the spot, supposed in my hypothesis, and Potaim, 
To drink, which I have supposed to be derived from the Pudgy Watery 
Ground. General Vallancey in his Specimen of an Irish Dictionary has 
the following observations, " Poth, Puth, Piuthar, a Son, dearlh- 
" Piuthar, a Sister, i. e. descended of the Athair; Zend Pothre, a Son ; 
" Parsi et Pehlevi Poser, Sanscrit, Pothrc/z, as Brama VovTiircn, Son 
" of Brama ; /2q/a-PouT, son of Raja. Bayer in his Bactriana derives 
" the P«/i-BoTHRas, from Pali, an Indian King, and Pothra, A De- 
" scendant. In the Gentoo code Pootro^, a Son ; and in the Heetopades 
" PooTRA often occurs. The word is also Persian, as in iic/e-PouT. 
" Poth signifies a descendant, and not a Bachelor, as Shaw has copied 


178 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.'^ l,m,n,r. 

"from O'Brien: — turn to his English-Irish Dictionary, at the word 
" Bachelor, no such word as Poth occurs, and the compound dearb- 
" Paithar, he has properly translated a Daughter. Is not the English 
" Pout, a young Fowl, derived from this ?" — The sense of Poth, 
Bachelor, is, I doubt not, justly translated, and we cannot but note how 
the forms Pootr, &c. in some of these words accords with the form 
BKR in Hebrew, and Arabic. Adjacent to the Greek Posu, (no<rts,) 
I perceive Posthe, Posth?o;?, Posthon, (Jloa-dn, Pellis, qua glans pudendi 
virilis integitur. Penis, Yloa-Biov, Pudendum virile, Yloa-doov, qui magno 
pene est aut preputio, Puerulus, Infans,) where we directly see the sense 
of the Boy, and his appendages ; yet here too the sense of Swelling out 
seems to prevail, as we plainly see it in another adjacent word PosTnia, 
(Yloa-dia, Tuherculum parvum in palpebris super pilos,) where the sense 
of the BoT, &c. is lost. I see too another adjacent term Vosiptermdes, 
the veins in the Heel, (YloariTrrepviZe^, Venee in calcaneo,) which the 
Lexicographers have derived from Pons, (Floys,) the Foot, and Pterna, 
(Urepva, Calcaneum,) the Heel. Surely the Foot is not necessary to be 
introduced in this composition, when we have already the Heel, though 
we have nothing to express the veins. Perhaps the Pos means the 
Swelling up parts, or Veins, as in Vnvmgx, (^vcriy^, Vesicula,^ &c. I 
suppose, that a term under the same form Pos/s, (Jlocri<s, Potus,) belongs 
to the idea of the Pudgy Spot, or Matter. 

We have seen, that the term Pige, Puella, has been compared with 
Pug, and ViGsnee, and that ViGsney is an adjacent term in Skinner to 
Pig, where we unequivocally see the idea of the Pudgy Animal. The 
succeeding word in Skinner to Pig is Pigcow, to which the Etymologists 
have produced as parallel. Pigeon, Pigione, Pipione, (Fr. Ital.) which are 
supposed to belong to riiTTTros, Avium puUus, from their noise. To these 
terms we must add the Greek Fassa, Fatta, Fatt/'o;?, (<I>a(ro-a, ^arra, 
^amov, Palumba, Palumbula,) all which are probably derived from their 
Pudgy form, and have from hence become words of endearment. The 
term Phassa is adjacent in my Vocabulary to TascIos, and FnAskolion, 
(<I>a(r»;Aos, Phaselus, leguminum genus, <Pa<TKw\iov, Pera,) where we 
have the same idea of the Swelling out Mass. — The Partridge with its 


parallels Perdrix, (Fr.) Perdix, (Gr. Lat.) &c. &c. is quasi VxTridge; 
and belongs, I believe, to the idea of Push?'w^ otit ; though this idea 
relates perhaps rather to its actions, than to its form. We might be led 
to imagine, that it belonged to its form, as we all know, that this bird 
is celebrated for the Plumpness of its appearance, — 'As Plump as a 
' Partridge.' In the Dialects of the Celtic, this bird appears under the 
form PT, as PetWs, (Welsh,) Paithso-, (Irish,) as Lhuyd represents 
them. Mr. Owen explains Petrms, or Pedrws by "Apt to cause a start ; 
" apt to start ; doubtful, dubious," yVzTKus, " The Starters, Partridges.'' 
We cannot, I think, doubt from this, that the Welsh Petrus, as denoting 
the Bird, relates to the idea of Starting ; nor can we doubt, I think, that 
Partridge, and its parallels belong to Petrus, Mr, Owen derives 
Pedrms from Ped, " That is the agent of progression, that bears onward, 
" a Foot," and Rhus, " A beginning of motion ; that Starts out," &c. 
and if this derivation should be just, which appears probable, we are 
brought within the sphere of my hypothesis, by the signification of the 
Foot, which treads in the Pudge, I must add however, that the sense 
of Starting, as connected with the idea of Vvsuing forward, might 
belong to the Pet, or Ped, as I find in the same column of Mr, Owen's 
Dictionary with Peth/s the term Pest, which means "That is Violent, 
" Vvsning, or penetrating;" as likewise FEsrodi, "To Bustle about; 
" to frisk," where in Bustle, which belongs to Busy, we have a kindred 
term. I find likewise, as adjacent terms, Pesgi, "To Feed, to YATren ; 
" to pamper, to cram ; to become Fat," to which the Latin Pasco, &c. 
directly belongs, where we see the idea of FvsHing, or PvDGi?ig out, in 
the sense, from which the bird Peth/s might have been derived, under 
another quality of the animal ; and Veswc, ' A Cough,' where we see 
again the action of Vusuing out, with some effort, as annexed to this 
disorder of the frame. In Irish FAiTrisg, is A Partridge, and I must 
add, that the terms, with which it is surrounded, belong to the idea of 
Vusui?}g out, as denoting the Pudgy form, substance, &c. To this idea 
we should certainlv have attributed the name of the Bird, if the evidence 
of the Welsh term had not seemed so unequivocal. This shews, how 
important it is to be perpetually on our guard, and to obtain all the 

z 2 

180 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

evidence, which we can acquire on the meanings of words, as they pass 
through kindred Dialects. 

The terms, which I shall produce from Mr. Shaw's Dictionary, will 
serve to confirm my conception on the origin of the names for Children, 
&c. In the same column of words in this Dictionary, where VxvTrisg, 
a Partridge, occurs, I find Paisde, A Child, and the next term is PAisoin, 
an Infant: I moreover perceive the following terms, Paisgaw, "To 
" starve with cold," to which belong the Greek Vrghiio, and Pago«, 
Ylt]yvvu>, Gelo, congelo, na<yo^, Tumulus, Glacies, gelu, concreta, massa,) 
where we are directly brought to the Lump of Dirt, or Pudge ; — 
PAixeog-, Butter, Paitt, a Hump ; the next term to which two words 
is PAiTm^, " A Partridge ;" — PASoa/n, To enwrap, swaddle, Pasgaw, 
" A Bundle," where we unequivocally see the idea of the Swelling out 
form, ^ATantachd, Thickness, Pata, A Vessel. 

The same term, Pata means likewise, "A Hare," and Pataw, is 

" A Leveret," the names of which animals I conceive to be taken from 

their Pudgy, or Fuzzy skins of Fur. In Scotch Bawd is a Hare, and 

Dr. Jamieson has produced under this word the Irish term Pata, and 

Miol Bhuide, or Boide, where Miol signifies " a beast of whatever kind," 

or as he might have said, ' An an'iMal of any kind,' and Bhuide, or 

Boide he considers to be put for Baidhe, Yellow. The common term 

for a Hare in Irish is Moideach, and Lhuyd represents Lepus by "Mil 

" Moighe, Mil Boide." In the same column of Mr. Shaw's Dictionary 

with Moidheach, I find Moghur, Soft, Mild, where we see the true idea. 

Mr. Shaw has likewise in his Dictionary Vvran, A Hare, which is the 

succeeding word to YxsTog, a Vvnning, where we are directly brought 

to the Pudge like composition. The next term is Pus, placed in two 

separate articles, as denoting a Lip, and a Cat, and the adjacent word 

is PuTaw, To Push. The words denoting the Lip, Mouth, Cheek, &c. 

under our Element BC, &c. are derived from their Push?«^, or Swelling 

out. The name of the Cat, Pus, to which our term Puss belongs, both 

for a Hare, and a Cat, has the same meaning as Bawd, as referring to 

the Pudgy, Soft covering. The term Felis belongs for the same reason 

to Felt, (Eng.) Pellis, (Lat.) and to Pelos, (n>;Aos,) Field, Foul, Vile, 


&c. It is curious, that Felts means in another sense, " A Bawd, that 
" picks up girls," which may be directly taken from the insidious qualities 
of the Cat, or it may belong to the general sense of Foul, as it appears 
in a word, under the same form Fel, Gall, The Vile, nasty stuff; and 
thus these senses will bear the same relation to each other, which we find 
in Bawd, the Hare, and the Bad Woman. The sense of Bawd, as a 
Hare, must have been common to our ancient Language, or at least it was 
well known to Shakspeare, which will be manifest from considering the 
following passage. I marvel much, that no Scotch Critic has illustrated 
this passage. In Romeo and Juliet, when Mercutio hears the Nurse 
enquiring for Romeo, he cries, " A Bawd ; a Bawd, a Bawd ! So Ho ! 
" Rom. What hast thou found ? Mer. No Hare, sir, unless a Hare, sir, 
" in a lenten pye, that is something stale, and hoar ere it be spent." 
In reviewing this passage nothing is more manifest, than that our 
Poet in his use of Bawd, the Vile woman, alludes likewise to the sense 
of Bawd, as denoting the Hare. The other parts of this ribaldry do 
not belong to the present discussion, though I cannot consider it under 
the point of view, in which Dr. Johnson has conceived it, or rather as 
we should say, when we speak of such a writer, in which he has 
expressed it. "The rest is a series of quibbles, unworthy of explanation, 
" which he who does not understand, needs not lament his ignorance." 
This sententious observation is worthy only of an ignorant Critic, and 
a simple Moralist. — Every Commentator, who undertakes to explain an 
author, is bound to explain him, if he can ; and if he cannot, it is some- 
thing worse than ignorance to shelter his inability as a Critic under his 
gravity as a Moralist. And what Moralist is there, so foul or so foolish, 
who could corrupt himself, or his reader, by a brief and proper inter- 
pretation of such idle, though harmless ribaldry. 


B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

Terms, denoting what is Small, Minute, 8cc. derived from the Minute 
Lumps, or PiEces of Dirt on the surface of the Ground. 

We should all agree, that the sense of What is Minute, Little, Small, 
&c. would be attached to the idea of the Minute, File particles of matter, 
or Little Lumps of Dirt, visible upon the surface of the Earth. — The 
sense of the Lump equally belongs to objects of all sizes and dimensions, 
whether Small, or Great ; and hence on many occasions, these ideas 
are involved with each other. Among the terms, signifying Small, 
Minute, Sec. some of which have been before produced, we must class 
the following. — The Welsh Fosned, " A round body, or that swells out ; 
" a Squat figure; a Small ^an, skillet, or porringer; a tS/wa// saucepan," 
&c,— Bac, or Vac, (Welsh,) " Little, small," Vosned Bac, (Welsh,) 
" a Little S(/uab.'^ —Byc, (Welsh,) " A poor creature; a wretch;" Bycan, 
(Welsh,) " Little, small, or diminutive." — Beg, Beag, (Ir.) " Little, small," 
Beagan, (Ir.) " A Little, Few," &c. Big, (Ir.) Little, a term adjacent to 
BiGH, (Ir.) in Mr. Shaw's Dictionary, which bears the sense of "Glue, 
" Birdlime," where we see the original idea of Bog, Pudgy, Lumpy matter, 
supposed in my hypothesis. The term, between these words, is Bigeun 
" A coif, cap, hair lace," which means the ' Little Close cap, or Fillet for 
' the Head,' where we are directly brought to the Biggin, (Eng.) Beguin, 
(Fr.) Beghino, (Ital.) " Calantica Infantilis," and we learn moreover, that if 
these words belong to the order of Nuns, called Beguines, the name of 
the Cap precedes that of the order :— Fake, Fako5, (^uKn, Lens, Lenticula, 
^a/cos. Lens cruda,) adjacent to which I see, Fak?o/os, (4>aKioAos, Fascis, 
Fasciculus,) where we perceive likewise the idea of the Lump, which 
brings us to YkGGot, and its parallels Fascw, TASciculus, &c. — BiK?a, 
(BiKta,) aFake, (AcpaKt],) Yicia, (Lat.) Vetch, or Fetch, (Eng.) with 
its parallels Fesse, (Fr.) Fezza, Feccia. We shall now see, how Yicia, 
and \\cium, or Yirium, Vice, belong to each other, as being both 
derived from Dirt, considered either as the Little Lump, or what is File, 
Foul, &c. In YiTiligo, Leprosy, we at once see the idea of what is File, 


and the Little Lumpy excrescencies ; and in Pet?^o, (Lat.) Petec/ues, 
Petecchic, (Fr. Ital.) the Pushes, we see how we are brought to Peto, 
To Push, or Pudge out. I shew, that Fetch, the verb, is derived from 
the Plastic, Sticky nature of Pudge.— Phasc/os, (4)ao->/Ao9,) Vnxselus, 
(Lat.)— Piso;?, (YIktou,) Fisum, (Lat.) Pease, (Eng.) with the parallels 
Pisa, (Sax.) Pois, (Fr.) Piso, (Ital.) Pessair, (Ir.) Pi/s, (Welsh,) &c. 
Pesso*, Petto«, (Fleo-a-os, nerros, Calculus seu Scrupus lusorius,) which 
actually denotes the Little Luinpij Matter, belonging to the Ground, or 
Pedow. This brings us to PExm, and PExros, (Uerpa, Ylerpos, Lapis,) 
where we have the Lump of Dirt, of a larger size. — The succeeding 
word to Pessos, is Pesso, (Uea-crw, Coquo, Maturo,) which means ' To 
' bring to a Pudge state, I shall shew, that Coquo, belongs to the terms 
for Dirt, (Glebus Coquere,) under the Element CC, as Caco, &c. and Maturo 
to Mud. Under another form of Pesso, (lleo-o-w,) we have Peesso, 
(^^;c^(^a), Figo, Gelo,) where we actually see the idea of the Pudgy Lumpy 
Matter, or Mass, as in Vzonuo, {Ylt^yww, Figo, Gelo,) where let us mark 
a kindred term Figo. In the same leaf of Mr. Shaw's Dictionary, where 
PEssazr, Pease, is, we have Peas, Peasqw, a Purse, Peitscg^, " A Peach," 
belonging to Pesche, Pesca (Fr. Ital.) Peick, "A Peck," the Swelling 
out objects, Peac, &c. " Any sharp pointed thing ; the sprouting germ 
" of any vegetable, a long tail," which means the Pike, that which 
Pokes, or Pushes up, in, &c. the next word to which in Mr. Shaw's 
Dictionary is Vzccadh, " Sin, transgression ;" — FEACcaigham, " To Sin, 
" offend against," to which, as we shall all agree, the Latin Pecco 
belongs. It should seem by this juxta position, that the original idea of 
these words, denoting Sin, Offence, &c. was that of Annoying by Vv?,mng 
against, as by a Sharp-pointed instrument, though we should have 
conceived, that the original idea of Pecco was simply that of something 
Vile, or of a Pudge kind, as we see that species of Matter plainly 
exhibited in the adjacent term of a Latin Dictionary, Pix, Picw. In 
Welsh, Pec means " A cessation ; a ceasing to exert ; a still state ; 
" a swerving from; the Sin of inaction; Sin," as Mr. Owen explains it, 
where we see nothing of Push?'?/"-. — PEAsa?/, " Punchy, sorry, Little 
" Fellow," — Peist, " A worm, beast, monster," — Peistco^, " A Little 

184 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| /, w, w, r. 

" worm, Insect ;" — YETadh, " A Pet, a tame animal." The term Pet, 
where we see the idea of ' What is Little,' connected with the Si?ian, 
Young animal, brings us to Petty, which the Etymologists have referred 
to Pet//, (Fr.) Fvtus, Parvus, YjetHus, Fjetus, &c. to which they might 
have added the Latin Paucms, which some may conceive perhaps to 
approach nearer to the form of Bac, Vac To 1?auc-us belongs Few, 
(Eng.) and its parallels Feig, (Germ.) Bac, or Baj-o*, (Bajos,) Peu, (Fr.) 
&c. Adjacent to the word Petty in Skinner, I see VETTttoes, which 
the Etymologists acknowledge to belong to Petty ; though they derive 
the other part from Oi/e, Oca, and the term Pettitose is explained by 
" Intestina preesertim anseris." Surely Pettitoes signifies, what it appears 
to do, PETTY-Toe5, Little Feet, or the Feet of Little animals, as of 
Sucking Pigs, &c. Petty- Fog-g'er is the person concerned in Petty, 
Little, Foggy, Foul, Vile business, and the latter term Fogger does 
not directly belong to Fogere, Procus, or Fugen, Aptare, as the Ety- 
mologists have conjectured. The FoGere, the Woer, is the Pusher, 
and FuGew means To Stick to any thing. PETTicoa/ is acknowledged to 
be derived from Petty and Coat. 

In the French and English term Vnrafice, we have again the idea of 
what is Petty, and in the same opening of my French Dictionary I see 
PiET/-me, Paltry stuff, sorry goods, Pietre, " Paltry, Sorry, Dirty," 
as likewise Viraud, a clown, Tirie, Pity, Sec. Piete, ViEty, Humility: 
— Viruitc, Phlegm, where we see the Pudge matter, and Pitow, 
" A nail, or pin, the head of which is made in the form of a ring," 
which may mean perhaps the nail with a Lumpy head. These 
terms I have produced on another occasion. — In Welsh Peth means 
" A thing ; a something ; a part, share, or fragment ; a some, a quantity, 
"a Little," and Pethan, "A Little thing; a new born infant," 
where the term is applied, as in the English Pet, the young animal, 
and the French Pet?7s, "The young ones of an animal." — The English 
word Piece must be added to these terms, denoting the Little 
Mass, or Lump of Dirt, the parallels to which in other Languages arc 
Piece, Pezzo, Pezza, Pieca, (Fr. Ital. Span.) Pecia, (Lat. Bar.) Fod, 
Vbdde, (Belg.) which latter word means "A rag, shred, tatter; — 


" tatter ; — Also, a slut." These various words Wachter has produced 
as kindred terms to the German Fetz, " Lacinia, frustum, segmentum," 
and which he has derived from the Latin Yivere, in diYiDcre. To these 
terms we must add the Armoric Pez, and the Irish PiosA, " A Piece, 
" a silver cup to drink whisgy," and Piosaw, "A hitth Piece, any Little 
" engine, or instrument," the next term to which in Mr. Shaw's 
Dictionary, is Piosxa/, " A Pistol," which would lead us to conclude, 
that the Piosta/ meant 'The Little Piece of Ordnance;' and if this 
should be so, it will have the same sense as Pistole, the Piece of 
money. I have conjectured in another place, that Pistol may mean 
the Fistula, the Hollow Tube, which idea of a Hollow in FiSTULa, 
I shew to be connected with the idea of the Spungy, Pudgy substance. 
In the same and in the preceding column to that, in which Piosa is, in 
Mr. Shaw's Dictionary, I see Pis, Psssir, Pease, Piothcw, Pighe, A Pye, 
and Pic, Pitch, where we are directly brought to the sense of Pudge 
matter. Fitters, in Skinner, To Cut into Fitters, is compared with 
the Italian Fetta, the German Fetzen, Segmenta, which are referred 
to Fendere (Ital.) Findcre, which becomes Fidi, and Fiss?/s. The suc- 
ceeding word in Skinner is Fitts, " paroxysmi morborum," which he 
refers to Fights, which is sufficiently exact. In old English Fit is 
' A portion of a Poem,' The First Fit, Second Fit, which may simply 
mean Piece, or Part, or it may belong to the more intensive sense of 
Fit, as paroxysmus morhi, motus qiiidam suhitus, vel novus, when the 
Poet breaks out into a fresh strain, as we call it. The terms signifying 
a Piece, as Fitters, and the term of Commotion Fit, refers to the same 
species of Loose, Pudge matter, when considered under different points 
of view, just as Divisio, A Division, and Divido, To Divide, relate under 
one idea simply to Partition, and in another Divido signifies "To Break 
" down, Dividiinus Miiros.'' 

Bit in English is used for a Piece of any thing, and these terms 
cannot well be separated from each other. If we say, that the Bit 
means what is Bit, or Bittcm off, we come almost to the same idea. 
I shall shew, that " To Bite," Mordere, Bitan, Beissen, &c. belongs to 
Pike, Poke, &c. To Stick up, out, into auyt/iing, as we express it. — 


186 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Y,Z.^ l,m',n,r. 

In German Stilclt means, "A Piece, Part, parcel, — A Pohit,'" and belongs 
to Stechen, To Stich, precisely for the same reason. To the sense of 
Stiick, a Piece, must be referred our term Steak, in ' Beef Steak.' — 
In German Stiick means "A Great Gun, Cannon," &c. which is the 
sense of Piece, in ' A Piece of Ordnance,' which will remind us of 
BuYSE, BucKSE, (Belg. Germ.) Hargue-BusE, the SwelUng out Lump, 
or Hollow. — BiTtuckle means " Repositorium acus Nauticae," which the 
Etymologists have justly referred to such terms as To Bite, To Prick, 
alluding to the property of a Needle, and Tackle. Bitter, with its 
parallels Biter, (Sax. Belg. Germ.) Pikros, (ritKjOos,) means what is of 
a Disagreeable, Pricking, Pungent taste, as it were, where in Pickle, &c. 
we have the same metaphor, &c. though Pungent, and Pickle are 
applied to difFei'ent tastes. The term Bitte/v;, with Butoor, Butor, 
(Belg. Fr. Germ.) Buteo, (Lat.) has been referred to Butter Bump, 
which is supposed to be called from its noise. Whatever may be the 
precise idea, we see by Bump, how these names for the Bird, may be 
derived from the SweUing Lump according to our hypothesis. The next 
word to this in Skinner is Bitts, Bictcs, (Fr. G.) a Nautical term, which 
Skinner explains by " Duge magnai quadratae trabes, seu Impages in 
'' navi," and he derives the term from Pitch, "quia affiguntur navi, &c." 
where Pitch and the two explanatory terms, ^wzPages, afFiGo, bring us 
at once to the idea of Sticking, or FuDoijig, if I may so say, which 
decides on my idea respecting Bit, and Bite. — Another form of the 
Welsh Peth is Pitw, which Mr. Owen explains by " Very Little, minute, 
" or Petty ;" and the next term is " That is like Grains, that is Granulated." 
Under the former of these words Mr. Owen refers us to Pid, " A Point, 
" what tapers to a Point," where we again see, how these words are 
entangled with terms, signifying to Push, or Stick up, out, in, &c. 
In the same column of Mr. Owen's Dictionary with Pid I see Piciaw, 
" To dart ; to fly suddenly," Pig, " What terminates in a Point, &c. 
"a Pike," &c. Vioaw, "To prick, to prickle; to sting; to Pick; 
" to Peck." — When we endeavour to detail one Race of words, with 
a peculiar sense, as that of Little, we are perpetually drawn aside to 
interpret other terms, bearing a different idea, where all these terms are 


mutually illustrative of each other. In PicK-^a; we come to the action 
of PicK?7?^ amongst Pudge, or Dirt. — In Italian Picciwo, Piccio/o, 
Picco/o relate to what is Little, Small, &c. and Picciare is " To Pinch, 
" Snip," &c. that is, to Pick, Peck. I see in John Florio adjacent to 
these words PiccH?o/?e, "A Pigeow, a Dove, a Chicken," Piccnfo, 
A Wood Pecker, Piccio, "The Bill, Beak, or snout of any bird," 
where we might ask, whether the Pigeow be not the Picker, or 

The terms adjacent to Petty, &c. in Skinner's Lexicon are the 
following. Pet, To take Pet, "Indignari, Stomachari ;" — Petrowc/, 
Petrinal, (Fr.) &c. Scloppus Equestris, which the Etymologists refer to 
Pectus, Petra, &c. — FETard, (Eng. Fr.) &c. where we are justly re- 
minded of the French PETe/% to which we may add PETzV/er, To sparkle, 
crackle, all which words relate to the idea of Commotion, Sivelling out, 
^Asning out, &c. In one spnsp VvT^ller, is " 'Vo quake, shake, also. To 
" stamp, trample," and I see in Cotgrave Pestil/ct, " To Paddle, Pat- 
" TER," which brings us to Pash matter. — PESTer, (Eng.) under which the 
Etymologists produce Empester, Turbare, PiSTare, Pinsere seu contundere, 
which brings to the next word VisriUum; — Pestzs, (Lat.) where we 
come to Pest, ^ESTtlence, &c. all which words mean ' To Pash about, 
' to pieces, as amongst, or into Pudge matter.' I see likewise, ' A 
' Pettrc/,' for a Horse, which the Etymologists have justly referred to 
Vectus, Pectoris, Poictrail, Poitrzwc, &c. where the terms for a Breast 
are derived from the idea of Swelling out; — A Pew, (Eng.) (as in a 
Church,) Puye, Pnyde, (Belg.) Fouium, (Lat.) which belong to the 
raised up Pedow, (Uedov.^ — Pewit, (Eng.) Piewit, (Belg.) Piette, which 
is supposed to be formed from the Noise ; and it may belong perhaps to 
Petty, as alluding to its Squeaking, Shrill sound. — Pewter, (Eng.) 
Peauter, Speauter, (Belg.) Pcltre, Peltro, (Span. Ital.) the parallel 
terms, produced by the Etymologists, which they derive from exVkvrrer, 
exMATVuere, Contundere, conterere. To Beat, or Pash, &c. though 
whether this be the origin I cannot ascertain. We must mark the PL 
in the Spanish and Italian words ; yet I ought not to omit observing, 
that Peodar, Pewter, occurs among the Celtic terms, adjacent to 

A A 2 

188 B,F,P,V,W.] C,D,J,K,Q,S,T,X, Z.| l,m,n,r. 

Pesseir, Pease. I am disposed to think, that Pewter relates to Plastic 
Matter able to be Beat out. — Piache, corrupted from Piazza, which is not 
derived from YlXareia, but means the spot, on which you Pass, or Walk. 
Pheasaw^, with its parallels, Faisan, Fagiano, (Fr. Ital.) which is justly 
derived from Ynxsis, the River of Colchis, where the name of the River 
means perhaps the Pudge spot. Bochart, {Geograph. Sac. Lib. IV. Cap. 3 1 .) 
supposes, that Phases, as the name of a Rwer is a Syriac term, as in 
Psalm xlii. 2. " AI Phasidc demojo, ad rivos aquarum." So little had 
this great man seen of the sense of our Element, that he is only able to 
discover a single term of the same kind. He should have remembered, 
that the corresponding Hebrew term in this passage is aPiKE, "^p"'2i<, 
which means in one sense CowPact, Firm, strong, and in another, a 
TofTent, and which Mr. Parkhurst has justly compared with Pegnz/o, 
(Tltjyvvu}, Congelo,) Figo, Fix, where we are unequivocally brought to 
Pudge Matter, in its more cothPact, and more Watery, or Pash state. 

I now again recur to the terms denoting Little, as Petit, &c. Near 
to PetzV in Cotgrave, I see Pet, which brings us to Pedo, what is File, 
next to which I see Petac^, " Peeccc?, be?ATcned,'' where we see, that 
Patch, and Piece are similar terms. I see too Petow, "a Little Foot," 
PETOWwer, " To Pat, or tread down the Earth by often stepping, or 
" trampling on it," all which words bring us to the Pudge spot, and 
shew us the origin of VETit. In «Pot, sPeck, sVoired, sPeck'c?, sPeckl- 
ed, we unequivocally see the idea oi Dirt, and to the idea conveyed by 
these words, sPECKLer/, or PECKLec?, we may refer the kindred term, 
the Greek Poikilos, (YIoikiXo^, Varius, Dubius,) unless we think, that 
it more directly belongs to Boggle. Yet in such a case the turns of 
meaning attached to the same fundamental idea can hardly be separated. 
In sPoDos, (SttoSos, Cinis,) we see the Dirt, or sPot, and in sPoDoeides, 
(liTTohoeidt]^, Visu cinereus, seu cineris speciem gerens,) we see the 
Sprifihling, or sPott/»o-. The term sPodos, (SttoSos,) is adjacent in my 
Vocabulary to sPoggos, (ZTroyyo-;, Spongia,) the Boggy, or Pudgy 
matter. The English Pied, and the French Pie, and the Latin Pic«*, 
which the Etymologists have justly classed with each other, should perhaps 
be all referred to this train of ideas. There is a minute difficulty about 


PiCMS, which is explained by " A WoodPECKc;-, a Speckt," &c. whether 
it belongs to the idea of VzcKing the wood, or of being Speck'c?, or 
Speckled. — The preceding term to Pic«s is Pictws, which means 
FuDoed, or Dawh'd over; but which is explained in one sense by 
" sPeckled, 5P0TTED." The preceding term to Pied in Skinner is 
Piddle, or Pitle, Circa parva versari, which Skinner refers to Piccolo, 
(Ital.) or to Peddle, or to PetzV, Petilma-, and Petty. — To Piddle in 
all its senses is nothing, but ' To Puddle, To Pash about Pudgy, Petty, 
■* vile stuff.' 

In Scotch, Pickle, &c. means "A grain of Corn.— A single seed, of 
" whatever kind. — Any minute Particle, as a grain of Sand," where 
Dr. Jamieson has justly referred us to Piccolo, Paucidus, &c. The term 
Pickle may be derived from its PicKzwg', or Pungent quality, yet we 
remember the phrase ' To be in a Pickle,' which means to be in a Dirty 
state, as if in 'a Puddle,' and I shew, that the Terms for Cookery, are 
derived from the Dirt. Our good Housewives arc accustomed to Powder 
their Meat, and the Pickling Tub is called the Powderw^- Tub. We 
know, that in Greek, a term which signifies To Sprinkle with Dung, 
is a term relating to the most exquisite Condiment. Ov6t]\evu), " Proprie 
" fimo agrum aspergo, deinde cibos exquisite Condio." We cannot but 
see, how Condio belongs to Condo, To Bury, or cover with Dirt. In the 
following passage of Shakspeare, Pickle, as relating to the Foul Puddle, 
and as a term of Cooker//, supplies our Poet with a vein of pleasantry. 
" How cam'st thou in this Pickle," says Alonzo in the Tempest, to 
which the Jester Trinculo answers, " I have been in such a Pickle since 
" I saw you last, that, I fear me, will never be out of my bones : I shall 
'' not fear fly blowing;" on which Mr. Stcevens observes, " The Pickle 
" alludes to their plunge into the Stinking Pool, and Pickling preserves 
" meat from fly blowing." The term Pickle, Pycle, or Pightel is 
used in various Counties, Berkshire, Norfolk, &c. for a Small Piece 
of Land, where we are brought to the original idea. One of my own 
Fields, the Spot, adjacent to which I am writing these Discussions on 
Language, is called 'The Dove House Pightel.' The term used by 
Printers, Pica, The Small Pica, means the Little Piece, which constitutes 


B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ hm,v,r. 

the Metal, Type, or Mark: The Pica in Medicine, the depraved appetite 
in pregnant Women, is the Foul Yniated taste, which brings us to the 
original idea. Some derive Pica from the Pie, "The old Popish Service," 
w^hich term Pie has been referred to Xliva^. Others however justly 
consider Pie, the Service, as belonging to the Pied colour, "from the 
" party coloured letters, of which they consisted : the initial and some 
" other remarkable letters and words being done in Red, and the rest 
" all in Black." The term Pie, the Service Book, belongs to Pie, relating 
to various colours, just as we talk of the Rubric, or Red colour'd Service. 
It is understood, that the adjuration, used in Shakspeare, " By Cock and 
" Pie," means 'By God and his Service, or Religion." The term Pie 
is only another form of Piece, or Patch, which I suppose to belong to 
Pudge, or Dkt Matter, just as Macula and Maculosus belong to Mud. 
The term FiEbald directly precedes in Johnson's Dictionary the word 
Piece; which he explains in the first sense by Patch, and the first 
example is " His coat of many colours, (in the Margin, " Pieces.") 
Under Piebald he has three quotations where it is joined with Patch, 
one of which is from Hudibras. " It was a particolour'd dress of 
" Patch'd, and VivJxdd Languages." The term Patch was applied 
as the name of the Fool, kept by the great men in former times, not 
from the Italian Pazzo, nor from Patch, a person's name, but from the 
Patch'd, or Party-coloured dress, which he wore. The Italian Pazzo 
is derived from the more general sense of the Elementary' character, as 
denoting the Contemptible, Vile, Patch, or Lump like personage. When 
Patch is used in English, as a term of contempt, "A Crew of Patches, 
" rude Mechanicals," it is in vain for us to attempt to distinguish, 
whether it's more general sense be adopted, or whether the word does 
not refer to the Patch, the Party-coloured Fool. Mr. Nares in his 
Glossary has justly observed, that " the term Cross-PATCH, still used 
" in jocular Language, meant originally ill-natured fool." Let us note 
the combination Party -Coloured, where a term signifying a Part, relates 
to Colour, as I suppose Patch, Piece, and Pie, to belong to each other, 
as referring to Colour. The term Pie, the Piece of Pastry, brings us 
directly to a Piece of Pudge like Matter, to a Batch, if I may so say, 


as of Dough. The form Pie, in ViE-Poivderd, again brings us by another 
process to the same spot and matter, the Pied, (Fr.) Pes, Pedis, or the 
Foot stirring up the Dirt. 

Terms, which express the idea of Swelling up, out, &c. as relating to 
Commotion, Disturbance, and as connected with actions of Violence, 
and with objects of Terror, &c. &c. 

Among the various terms, belonging to our Elementary Character, 
BC, &c. which express the idea of Swelling up, out, &c. sometimes 
accompanied by Commotion, Disturbance, &c. it is frequently difficult 
to select those words, which may be most aptly introduced in each 
particular spot of my discussion. I have already found it necessary, on 
former occasions, to introduce various terms of this sort, particularly 
from the Celtic Dialects ; and I shall proceed with the same vein of 
enquiry, as chiefly illustrated in those forms of Speech. In this article 
I shall consider more especially those terms, which express the idea of 
Swelling out, as with Commotion, Disturbance, &c. and as connected 
with actions of Violence, by Routing, Subduing, &c. and with objects 
and actions of Terror, by Affrighting, &c. which are all derived, as 
1 conceive, from the idea of Bog, Pudge Matter, Swelling out, up, &c. 
in a loose state of Commotion, Jgitation, &c. I shall not attempt to 
produce, with unnecessary minuteness, the various terms, which relate 
to these ideas, nor to mark the precise turn of meaning, by which one 
word may be distinguished from another. I shall produce only some 
of those terms ; from which full evidence will be obtained, that the Race 
of words, containing these notions, is derived from the spot, supposed 
in my hypothesis. Among the terms, belonging to this Race, we may 
class the following Bach, (Ir.) "A Breach, violent attack, or surprize," 
E\Gach, BkGanta, (Ir.) "Warlike, corpulent, tight," &c. Bxaaram, 
" To threaten ;" — Bocan, " A Hobgoblin, sprite," Bocam, To Swell, &c. 


B,F,P.V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

adjacent to which in Mr. Shaw's Dictionary, we find BoGac^, and BoG- 
lach, the Boo : BuAioAaw, (Ir.) " To conquer, overcome," says Mr, 
Shaw, in the same column of whose Dictionary I see BuaidAjV^, 
"Tumult," a term adjacent to l&v xxuhr'am , "To vex, disturb, tempt." 
BuAio/i, " Victory, virtue, attribute." — Budh, Buas, " A breach, rout ;" 
Buich, a Breach ; — Bugha, " Fear, a leek," where we at once see the 
idea of Fear, and of the SwelUng out object. — In the same column 
of Mr. Shaw's Dictionary, we have the following terms relating to the 
same idea of SweUlvg out, as Buas, "The Belly," Buc, "Cover of a 
" Book, Bulk,'' Bucla, A Buckle, Bugan, An unlaid Egg, Buicain, 
A Pimple, Bvicaid, "A Bucket, Knob," which shews, from whence 
the idea of Bucket is derived. — Bugsa, Box tree, a Box, Buige, 
" Softer," Buidal, " A Bottle, anchor," Bmvnean??, " A Troop, 
" company," before produced.— Buzi/o-, (Welsh,) "The Victorious one; 
" the Goddess of Victory," which Mr. Owen has justly referred to 
BoADicm, by supposing that this was not her real name, but a title 
applied to her;— BuzuGazf, " To gain advantage ; to triumph," to which 
belongs the term in a simpler form Buz, "Advantage, gain, profit," 
Bvzai, "That yields, or begets gain; a churn; also the Bittern," where 
in the sense of the Churn, we have the idea of Pudge matter. I observe 
in the same opening of Mr. Owen's Dictionary Bvoad, "A terrifying; 
" the Bellowing of Cattle in fighting ; a confused noise, or bustle ;" 
BvGxdu, " To terrify ; to vaunt ; to Boast," the next word to which is 
BuGAiL, "A Herdsman; a Shepherd," which Mr. Owen derives from 
Bu, Kine, and Cail, a Fold. It is impossible, I think, to doubt, that 
the Greek Boukolos, (Bovko\os, Bubulcus,) belongs to Bugail, and if 
Mr. Owen's conjecture should be just, who may be supposed to under- 
stand his own Language, better than the Greeks, the derivation of 
Boukolos, (BovKoXo^,) from Kol-on, (KoXov, cibus,) is entirely out of the 
question. The Bugle Horn is the Herdsman, or Shepherd's horn to 
call his cattle.— BwG, (Welsh,) " A Hobgoblin, or scarecrow,"~BwGaw, 
(Welsh,) "A BvGbear, or Scarer," Bwotvl, (Welsh,) "A terrifying; 
" a threatening, or menace,"— Bogelz/, "To affright; to hide from fear," 
and that this word belongs to the idea of Rising, or Szcelling up will 


be manifest from the adjacent terms in Mr. Owen's Dictionary, as Bog, 
" A Sivelling, or Rising up,'' as this writer explains it ; — BoGeiliaw, 
"To Boss, or Swell out T — Bogel, "The navel; a nave of a wheel," 
and BoGhi/iui, "To Boss; to form into knobs; to cw/Boss." In the same 
column of his Dictionary, I see Bozi, "To drown; to immerse," which 
brings us to the Watery Bog Spot. I see likewise in the same column, 
Boziau', "To please, or satisfy," belonging to Boz, " Tlie will, consent, 
" or good pleasure," which certainly is attached to Bozi, &c. under some 
idea, and probably under that of a Soff, Pliant disposition. I see like- 
wise BoD, a Kite, called by Mr. Owen a Buzzard, and I have shewn in 
another place, that Buzz has the same idea of Swelling out. I see 
moreover Boza, a red shank, which must have a meaning connected with 
these words, whatever it may be; — Bourwi/, A ring, which Mr. Owen 
refers to Bawd, tlie Thumb, which means the Thick, Big finger, and 
Rhwy, which he explains by, " That runs out, or through ; excess, super- 
" fluity, ' — Bomydav, "A place of resort, or gathering together; a bee- 
" hive; also metaphorically, the leader of an army, considering him as 
" the nucleus of it," where Bodr belongs to Bother, (Eng.) Byzar, 
IJvzAiR, (Welsh,) — Bod, A Being, existence, &c. which I shew to belong 
to Feed, Fat, &c. and Boc, "A Cheek; the Chop," which means the 
Sv\elling, Puffing out object. I see directly adjacent to this word 
Boc-iSac, "A vaunting, or Bragging," and Bo, "A Bug-hear, A hob- 
" goblin, one set to keep an eye on people; an overlooker. Bo 
" interj. of Threatening, scaring or territying." — BYGivyz, (Welsh,) 
"A Hobgoblin, or phantom." — Bygy/m, (Welsh,) "To intimidate; 
"to threaten." — Bwca?', (Welsh,) "That produces dread, or disgust; 
" a maggot." Adjacent to BwG, I see Bw, " A threatening, or 
"terrifying object; a Bug- bear ; terror, dread; also an overseer, or 
" a looker after workmen ;" — Bw-Bac, " A Bug bear, or scarecrow ; 
" a hobgoblin," where we see the same ideas under the form B% without 
the C, &c. which we have seen under the form BC, &c. 1 shall not 
enquire into the point of Theory, whether the form B\ or BC should be 
considered, as the original form, or by what process they are connected. 



B, F, P, V, VV. J C, D, J, K, Q, S, T, X, Z. \ I, m, v, r. 

It is sufficient to know, that these forms are connected with each other 
at certain points, and whatever may be the process, by which it is 
effected, it does not disturb the tacts, which I am now unfolding, re- 
specting the form BC, &c. — Bost, (Welsh,) " A Boast///^, or Bragging." 
I see adjacent to this word in Mr. Owen's Dictionary the following 
terms, all relating to the idea of Rising, or StoeUing up ; Box, Any round 
body, BoTAS, " A Busk/'/? ; also a Boot," Bot/^'w, " A Boss, a Buttow," 
Both, "A rotundity; the stock, or nave of a wheel; the Boss of a 
" BucKLe/'; also a Bottle;" — Bothell, "A Rotundity; any round 
" vessel ; a Bottle ; a wheal, or blister," where let us note in all these 
terms the parallel English words. 

To these Celtic words we may add the following terms, conveying 
the same train of ideas. Boast, BoiSTero?/s, Big, (Eng.) BuGoe//?, Bagg- 
xig^y, (^C/iaucers Gloss. Disdaincth, DisdahifKlJy, Swe//i//gli/,) Bug, 
(Eng. the loathsome animal,) BuG-Bear, (Eng. Larva,) VuG-Dog, (the 
Pudgy formed. Ugly Dog,) Pug, Pucke, (Eng.) An Hobgoblin, the 
Devil, BoGGLE-iio, (Eng. Larva, &c.) where Bo belongs to these words 
of Terror, whatever may be the precise meaning of Boggle. — Boo, (Eng.) 
as in the expression, ' He dare not say Boo to a Goose,' Boh, The 
Northern Deity; Boge, The Sclavonic name of God, (Russian, &c.) 
Baga/os, (Ba7atos, /uieya^, Hesych.) Bovgaios, (BovyuLc^, convicium in 
hominem magna' stature, et viribus stulte ferocem,) which the Lexi- 
cographers derive from Bou, (Bov,) the intensive particle, which is a 
kindred term, and Ga'io, (Taiw, glorior,) which has nothing to do with 
it. We here see how Bou, Bous, Bos, Vacca, (Boys, Bov, Bos, Taurus, 
Vacca,) connect themselves with these words, and that they mean, under 
some process of connection, the Swelling out Animal. — We shall pass 
from hence to the terms of Tumult, Su>elfi7ig out, Noise, Boe, Boao, 
(Boj;, Boaw, Boo, Clamo,) BosTReo, (Boa-rpew, clamo,) which latter 
word seems most to coincide in form with the English Boisterow*. — 
I might have left it to the reader to decide, whether the adjacent terms 
to Boe, as Boetho^, BoETHeo, (Botjdo^, Auxiliator, Bondew, Auxilior, 
opitulor,) do not belong to the idea of the Bold, Blustering personage, 
who Defends another, if I had not given a different conjecture in another 


place, supported by due authority.— Beg ^ Beg in Persian signifies, 
" A Prince, chief, governor," which we have adopted in our Language 
under the form Bei/.—BxGaios, as we learn from Hesychius, is Vain, 
Foolish, the Phrygian Jupiter, Great, &c. and Bagos, is a Ring, Soldier, 
as likewise, what at once shews us the origin of these words, according 
to my hypothesis, A Lump of Bread, or VvDohig, the matter of a Bog, 
or Pudge consistency, (Bayaios, o ixaraio's, n Zevs *^pvyio^, f^eya^, ttoAu^, 
raxvs' — Bayo^, KXacr/uia aprov, fJ.a'^r]?, Kai (iacriXev^, kul crTpaTiwrrir^ — 
The ancient German word Vogd, Praepositus, Patronus, Defensor, &c. 
should perhaps be added to these words. 

I might here produce the ancient word Bav^^syn, the Swelling out 
Figure, as applied to Animals, &c. as in Rowley, " Lyche Bawsyn 
" olyphauntes mie gnattes doe shewe," (JS//a, 57.) and the term Bison, 
The Large fierce wild Ox, or Bos. In the combination ' Bisson, Rlieiun.' 
we are brought to the idea of Foul, Pudge Matter. In Coriolanus we 
have " BissoN Conspectuities," where the old copies have Beesome. 
Skinner has Beesen, Bison, and Beezen, which he explains by Ccecus, as 
a word very common in Lincolnshire, and which he derives from By, 
for Besides, and Sinn, Sensus, " q. d. Sensu omnium nobilissimo orbatus." 
To such words as Bisson, &c. belongs the term Bezon/qw, used by our 
Comic writers, which we all remember to be adopted by Shakspeare, 
"Under which King, Bezonian ? speak, or die," (^Hen. IV. Part II. 
Act v. Sc. 3.) where Mr. Theobald refers the word to the Italian 
Bisognoso. In another place we have " Great men oft die by base 
" Bezonians," (//c/2. VI. Part II. Act iv. Sc. 1.) where Mr. Steevens 
produces the same derivation, and quotes the following passage from 
Markham's English Husbandman, "The ordinary tillers of the earth, 
" such as we call Husbandmen, in France pesants, in Spain Besonyans, 
" and generally the clout shoe." In my Spanish Dictionary, I find 
BisoNO, " Raw, undisciplined, applied to recruit^, or new levied soldiers. 
" Novice, beginning to learn any art or profession. Unbacked horse, 
" not yet broken in, or tamed for use," and it occurs in the same column 
with BisoNTE, " Bison, a large quadruped of the family of oxen," &c. 
It cannot be doubted, that the idea of the unbroken man, the Novice, 

B B 2 

196 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J.K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,7n,n,r. 

belongs to the unbroken wild Bisox. This juxta position has this moment 
led me to discover the origin of the Latin Tiro, which I never before under- 
stood, but which I now see to belong to Trio, Ploughing Ox, the Ox 
Broken into the Plough, from his wild state. The Trio belongs to sTeer, 
Taurus, &c. The terms Bisognoso, (Ital.) and Besoin, (Fr.) 1 have 
considered in another place. In John Florio's Italian Dictionary, (Ed. 1.) 
1 see BisoNTE, " a filthie, greasie, slovenlie fellow," and Bisonte, 
" A great beast like a horse in Polonia," and in Cotgrave i find an 
interpretation, which decides on the origin of the word. — Bison, the 
Bison, «&c. &c. "BisoNgne, as Bison, Also, a filthie knave, or clowne; 
" a raskall, Bisonian, base humored scoundrell." In examining this 
part of my Manuscript, as it was passing to the press, I find, that 
Mr. Nares in his Glossary has produced this passage from Cotgrave. 
The next term to Betonia?i in this Writer's Glossary is Bezzle, or Bizle, 
" To drink to excess," which brings us to the original idea of the IVatery 
Bog. Mr. Todd refers it to the old French t^rms BESLer, Beselc, Besi^^cz, 
f/wBEzzLED, which English word he justly refers to these terms. In 
the term emBEZzj^ed , we see the idea of something swallowed up, as in 
a Bog, or lorago. 

The term BuG-hear, Larva, in English, and the Bug, the animal, 
belong to each other; as in the Welsh Bwc/»', "That produceth dread, 
" or disgust, a maggot." The Etymologists under Bug, or BvG-bear, 
remind us of Pug, or Pucke, the Devil, and they cannot help seeing, 
that they all belong to Big. — In the phrase ' He looks very Bugg of it,' 
we see, as Skinner has duly observed, the sense of Big, ' He looks Big.' 
The Etymologists see likewise, that Big has some relation to the terms 
for the Belly, Bucc, (Sax.) &c. and for the Cheeks, Bucca, &c, as 
likewise to the Greek Puka, {Uvku, Dense,) which is all right. In the 
same column of Skinner's Lexicon with Bigg, I see Biggin, " Calantica 
" infantilis," which has been supposed by the Etymologists to be derived 
from the Beguiues, the Nuns, who are imagined to derive their name 
from a Saint Begga; — Bigarreur, the Pear, 'Pyrum varium,' which is 
referred to the compound BiGarrer, Colore variare ; — Bight, a Nautical 
term, Circulus, which is justly referred to Byga/?, Flectere, and Bigot, 


Superstitiosus, about which so much conjecture has been formed. Some 
suppose, that it is a compound of By-God, which Menage supposes, 
though Wachter imagines, that it is derived from Bioaw, Colere, and that 
from hence the Religious Characters Beguins are taken. Yet Caseneuve 
produces a passage from an ancient French Romance, where Bigot is 
the name of a people, which he refers to Goths, and JFisi-Gofs, in which 
Etymology I am inclined to acquiesce; yet the origin of the word is very 
doubtful. The term Big might have reminded the Etymologists of the 
term Bag, and BAGcage, the Swelling out objects; the succeeding word 
to which in Junius is Baggeth ; on which he observes, " In gl. quod 
" additum est Chaucero, exponitur Disdainctk ; quomodo et BAGGh?g/i/ 
" idem gl. exponit Disdainfidly, SiveUingly, Tumide." He produces 
likewise under this term the Teutonic words Baigcw, Jactare, ostentare, 
gloriando vanitare, pompizare, verB\G^ii, hoPoKVier, — Jactator, ike. 
vet^BxGitJg, verBocn, VoKerye, jactantia, vanitatio, BAGHe/'e», Ostentare, 
&c. &c. We shall now see, that Hocus Vocus is nothing but Swe/Iing, 
empty, idle stuff, and that it has assumed a Latin form in order to give it 
the idea of unintelligible jargon. The Hoc Poc in Hocus Pocus is nothing 
but Hodge-FoDGE. The term Hodge and similar words may be con- 
sidered often- as directly connected with the v\ords, under the form PD, 
p-'D, quasi pH-ODge. In Hygledy BiGGledy, we have a combination 
nearly similar, as meaning things in a Huddledy Puddle^/y/ state, if 1 may. 
so say. 

Skinner considers Pug, as vox blandiioria, and derives it from Piga, 
(Sax.) Pige, (Dan.) Puella ; though others refer it to Pu-g, or Bug, 
the Demon, as in our expression ' My little Devil.' The names for the 
child, or the girl, and the Dog belong to the same idea of the Pudgy 
form, under different turns of meaning. Skinner explains Pugs by 
Demones, though he gives a reason for this meaning, very remote trom 
the true idea. — Dr. Jamieson explains FucK-flary, by "The designation 
" anciently given to some sprite, or Hobgoblin," and he observes, that 
in P. Ploughman, Powke, and //t'/Z-PowKE occur for a Demon, and 
that in Islandic and ancient Swedish, Puke is 'Demon, Satanas,' &c. 
In Shakspeare Bug is used in its simple state for a Frightful object. 

198 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,R,Q,S,T,X,Z.( I,m,v,r. 

" Tush ! Tush ! Fear boys with Bugs," and in Hamlet it is coupled with 
the Goblin ; " With ho ! such Bugs and Gobl'ms in my life," on which 
Mr. Steevens has observed, that a Bug was no less " a terrific being than 
" a Goblin.— We call it at present a BuG-Z»ear." The Bug is the 
Frightful, or Foul Animal. Lye has remarked, that Buggys in Chaucer 
has the same meaning, who refers us likewise to the Welsh Bwg, The 
BoGGLE-iJoe, Manducus, is supposed by Skinner to be a Lincolnshire 
word, and he considers it to be quasi Bucidus, (i. e.) Bos-Boaiis, but Lye 
understands, that it has some relation to the Welsh Biigul, Timor. The 
terms before, and following BoGGLE-£oe, are Bog, and Boggle, where 
we see the origin of the word, according to my hypothesis. Skinner 
understands that Boggle belongs to Bog, though Lye derives it from 
Bogil, Larva. Thus we see, that the Etymologists acknowledge the 
relation of these words under some process. Dr. Jamieson has the 
following Scotch terms BoGearde, " A Bugbear," Bogill, Bogle, 
■' A spectre, a hopgoblin. — A scarecrow, a Bugbear," Bogill--Bo, 
" A hopgoblin, or spectre ;" and " Bogill about the stacks, or simply 
" Bogle, A play of children, or young people, in which one hunts several 
" others around the stacks of corn in a barn yard." This would lead 
us to conclude, that the precise sense of Boggle-£o, was that of the Bo, 
the Spectre, who Boggles about here and there, in order to scare people 
at every turn. I see adjacent to these terms in Dr. Jamieson Bois, or 
Bos, Hollow, and " To Boist, Boast, To threaten, to endeavour to 
" terrify." Under Bogill-£o, Dr. Jamieson remarks from Mr. Warton, 
that Bo " was one of the most fierce and formidable of the Gothic 
" Generals, and the son of Odin ; the mention of whose name alone 
" was suflicient to spread an immoderate Panic among his enemies." 
The name Bo is quasi Bog, and belongs to the Race of words now before 
us. Our familiar expression ' He dares not say Bo to a Goose,' arises 
from this source, and means that the Person is so timid, that he has not 
courage enough to utter a word of Defiance, by way of intimidation 
against an antagonist, even to such an animal as a Goose. Dr. Jamieson 
adds to his remarks on this article the following observation, " I know 
" not if this be the same personage, whom " RuJbeck calls Bagge, 


" a Scythian leader, who, he says, was the same with the Bxcchus 
" of the Greeks and the Romans." We now see, how all these names 
belong to the same fundamental idea, which may be considered as 
referring to the same real, or imaginary personage, bearing a twm de 
guerre, and signifying the Boisterous, BAGoiiig character, either as a 
IViirrwr, or a Drunkard. Let us mark the name RucI-Bkck, where 
Beck still signifies the Bog spot, Brook, &c. and Rud bears a similar 
meaning, unless it relates to the Red colour of the stream. Dr. Jamieson 
might have illustrated the term BoGiLL-i>o* from our ancient writers. 

"^ The term Boggle-Ss, or Buggle-Boe, must be restored to Shakspeare. Pistol in 
taking leave of his wife, says, " Let housewifery appear; keep close, I thee command." On 
which Mr. Steevens observes, "The quartos 1600, and 1608 read. Keep fast thy Buggi.k Boe, 
" which certainly is not nonsense; as the same expression is used by Shirley in his Gentleman 
of Venice. 

" The courtisans of Venice 

" Shall keep their Buggle-Bowes for thee, dear Uncle." 

" The reader may suppose Buggle-Boe to be just what he pleases." On this an anonymous 
commentator observes, " "Whatever covert-sense Pistol may have annexed to this word, it 
" appears from Cole's Latin Dictionary, lG7B, that Bogle/'o, (now corruptly sounded Biiga- 
" boiv,) signified 'an ugly luide mouthed Picture, carryed about with May games.' Cole renders 
" it by the Latin words, ' Alanducus, terriculametttum.' The interpretation of the former word 
"has been just given. The latter he renders thus: ' A terrible spectacle; a fearful thing; 
" a scarecrow.'" (Henry \ . Act ii. Sc. .'3.) The covert allusion of Pistol certainly belongs to 
the -wide Mouth of the Frightful figure, and this Figure on the stage was, I imagine, the ivide 
Mouth of the form, or personage, representing the Devil, which was intended to express the 
luide mouth of Hell. " In the ancient Religious Plays," says Mr. Malonc, "The Devil was very 
"frequently introduced. He was usually represented with horns; a very wide Mouth, (by 
" means of a mask,) large eyes, a large nose, red beard, cloven feet, and a tail." — This figure 
is again thus described. "The little children were never so afraid of He// Mouth in the old 
" plaies, painted with great gang teeth, staring eyes; and a foul bottle nose; as the poore 
"devils are skared with the Hel-Mouth of a I'riest." {Declaration of Popish Impostures 160.3. 
See CapelPs Scliool, page G.) — " I'll put me on my great carnation nose, and wrap me in a 
" rousing calf's skin suit, and come like some Hobgoblin, or some Devil ascended from the grisly 
" pit of Hell, and like a scarbabe make him take his legs. I'll play tlie Devil, I warrant ye." 
(Wily beguiled, 1606.) — Sometimes there was a representation of Smoke and Flames, issuing out 
of Hell. In a Mastjueof Jonson's, the first scene, whicli presents itself, is an Ugly lleli, which 


^200 B,F,P,V,W.^ C,D,G,J,K,U, S,T, X, Z.( l,m,n,r. 

by a train of observations, wliicb the Commentators on Shakspeare 
would have supplied. 

Jlariting beneath smoked to the top of the roof. — In a small volume, which I published some years 
ago concerning the Influence of the Associating principle on the mind of a Poet, these passages 
are collected, and numerous examples have been produced to shew, how the imagination of our 
ancient writers has been affected and swayed by the exhibition of such scenical representations. 
The following passage in Lear has however not been produced on that occasion ; and it contains 
a singular illustration of the same principle, under the train of ideas, which I am now unfolding. 
In this passage the wild, or licentious imagination of the Bard, has combined that object, to 
which he covertly alludes in the exhortation of Pistol, under the names of the Buggle-Bow, 
with all the horrid appendages of the Inferiutl Buggle-Boe, from whence, as I conceive, the 
allusion of Pistol is derived. 

" Down from the waist they are centaurs, 

" Tho' women all above, 

" But to the girdle do the gods inherit," 

" Beneath is all the fiends; there's Hell, there is darkness, there is the sulptiurotis pit, burning, 
" scalding, stench, consumption, Fie, fie, fie ! pah ! pah ! give me an ounce of civet, good 
" apothecary, to sweeten my imagination." 

The advice of Pistol to his Wife occurs at the end of the scene, which describes in such 
an exquisite strain of comic melancholy the last flashes of merriment, which closed all the 
humours of the ' unimitated and inimitable Falstaff.' Through the whole of the scene the 
imaf>ination of the Poet is possessed with a train of ideas, relating to Hell, and its inhabitants, 
under the various grotesque circumstances, which were suggested to the imagination by the 
scenic representations of the day, all co-operating to form a wild group of solemn, though of 
ludicrous and phantastic imagery, which is singularly congenial with the spirit of the occasion. 
Bardolph wishes himself with Falstaff, " wheresomeer he is, either in Heaven or in Hell," 
and the dying Wit himself observes, that Women were " Devils incarnate." The term 
Incarnate refers probably in one of its senses, either by a voluntary, or involuntary allusion, 
to the Devils, with the great Carnation nose, with which the audience of Shakspeare was so 
familiar. The commentators have shewn, that Incarnate is sometimes applied to the colour; 
and in this sense it is taken by iSlrs. Quickly, " 'A could never abide Carnation, 'twas a colour 
" he never lik'd;" by which she means, that he never liked his women to be dressed in clothes, 
or ornaments of a Carnation colour. To the speech of Mrs. Quickly, the boy adds, " 'A said 
" once, the Devil would have him about women:" "'A did in some sort indeed," confesses 
Mrs. Quickly " handle Women, but then he was rheumatic, and talk'd of the whore of Babylon," 
The whore of Babylon, we remember, "was arrayed in purple and Scarlet colour," and we 
understand, " 'A never could abide Carnation," relates in one of its allusions to the Prostitute 
in Carnation colours. In the next speech a wild vein of imagery is introduced, which I have 



The terms for Victory and Triumph do not only appear under the 
form BD, BZ, &c. in the Celtic Dialects ; but we perceive likewise, that 
in the Mythology of the Druids Buzug is the " Goddess of Victory." 
Mr. Davies has produced various forms, under which the God or Goddess 
of Victory is to be found. The Goddess of Victory is called Buddud, 
and BuDDUG, {Davies on the Druids, p. 314 and 317,) from whence the 
name BoADicea is taken ; and Aneurin describes the Minister of Buddud, 
as the Illustrious President of Song: — Budd, Buddwas, and Buddugre, 
are the titles of Hu, the great Bardic Deity; {Id. Il6. 118. 557-) and 
Budd is a sacred title, which is supposed sometimes to be applied to 
Red, or Cerid-Wen, a Deity of mighty power, among the Bards, cor- 
responding with the Greek Ceres, (p. 364. 584.) — Whatever may be 
the original meaning of the Bardic Deity Budd; we shall not, 1 think, 
doubt that this Deity is the Bhood, or Budda of the Eastern world. 
The Coll of the Bardic Mythology is the Call of the Hindoos. — If the 
Budda of the Eastern world means Victory, either as a personification, 
or as an addition to the name of some Victorious Warrior, who suc- 
ceeded in his conquests of that Country, we shall see a coincidence 
between Budd and Bxcchus, the Conqueror of India, and the Bagge 
of the Scythians. We have seen too, that the same term Bacchws may 
under another idea be annexed to a Violent, TurhuleiU character, and 
mean a Drunkard, and the God of Wine. We have seen moreover, 
that this sense of Violence or Turbulence is connected w ith the idea of 

referred in my illustration of the Associating Principle to the Foul Bottle, or Carnation nose, 
belonging to the figure of Hell Mouth, or the Devil, {Specimen of a Conunenldri/ on Shakjpeare, 
p. 181.) "Do you not remember, 'a saw a flea stick upon Bardolph's nose ; and 'a said, it was 
" a black soul burning in Hell-fire?" It is impossible, I imagine, to doubt the truth of this 
conjecture; as it will be acknowledged, I think, that without such an intermediate idea, a 
combination so singular and remote would never have been formed. The reader of Shakspeare 
will now cease to wonder, that our licentious Bard, deeply impressed with the train of ideas, 
which I have here unfolded, should conclude this extraordinary dialogue, by making a phan- 
tastic character, like Pistol, take leave of his wife, who had herself been a principal performer 
in the frailties of the scene, with a caution at once, so quaint and so pertinent, " Keep fast thy 


C C 

202 B,F,P,V,W.{ C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

Sivelling out, and that from this SivelUng out, Lumpy form, the name 
of the Child, Bag, belonging to Boy, quasi Bog and Pais, Paid-oat, 
(riais, n«i^os,) has been derived. Hence we may understand, how the 
fundamental sense annexed to BAG, &c. may have given to ^xcchus, 
the Plump form of the Boy, or Bog. In the mythology of the Greeks, 
among other animals, the Dragon was sacred to Bacchus, and in an 
ancient Welsh Poem we have " The Red Dragon, the Bitdd (victory) 
" of the Pharaon, (Higher Powers.") Bacchus is sometimes painted 
with Horns, and in the Bardic Mythology we have BvDD-Fa7i, the Horn 
of Victory, though he is represented as a personage (344.) in a human 
shape. With respect to the expedition of Bacchus into India, and his 
supposed conquest of the country ; all this relates, I imagine, to a 
Missionary rather than to a Military warfare, and it contains, as I 
conceive, an obscure record of the propagation of some new Sect, or 
System of Religious ceremonies, as the- worship of Buddha. — It will 
much assist our enquiries into the tales of Mythology, if we consider that 
Religious zeal in learning or spreading different forms of worship, was 
singularly alive in the operations of the ancient world, and that many 
wars and expeditions were roused and undertaken from the same spirit 
of Proselytism, which in latter ages we have found so important an 
agent in the revolutions of Mankind. — Before I quit the name of the 
Goddess of Victory, I must observe, that a name of the Greek Goddess 
of War, preserved by Lycophron, is to be referred to this source. 
Minerva has sometimes the name of Boudeia, which I conceive to be 
quasi BouDEJa, Buddug, or BoADicea, H ttoWu St] BovSeiau, Aiduiau, 
Koptju, Apwyoi' avda^aa-a, Tappodov yafxwu, (v. 35Q, 36o.) The Horns 
of Bacchus are supposed to allude to the Horns of oxen used by the 
ancients for Cups, as Creuzer and others have conceived, {Dionysus, p. 8.) 
This may be so in one tale of Mythology, but another story applied in 
a different way will demand another interpretation. 

We shall find, that the terms, with which the Celtic words above 
produced are surrounded, all confirm the hypothesis, which I unfold to 
the reader in different parts of my work respecting the original sense 
of these words. I perceive in the same opening of Mr. Owen's Dictionary 


with Bw, BwG, relating to Threatening, Frighting, &c. Bwyd, " Meat, 
" Food, or victuals," which I suppose to belong to Fat, the Pudgw^ 
out, or Pudgy substance, as likewise Bwth, " A Hat, cottage, or Booth," 
where let us note the kindred English term Booth ;— BwTms, " A pair 
" of Boots;" Bwt, "A hole; a Butto/? Hole; also a dung cart; and 
•' a kind of Basket, to place in the stream to catch fish ;" — Bwsg,. 
" An instrument for raising the Bark in grafting, or inoculation ;" all 
which terms I conceive to convey the idea of something Risi?ig, or 
Swelling out. I perceive moreover Buw, " Kine ; a bullock, steer, 
" or ox," Buwc, A Cow, where the form Bw, will bring us to Bu, 
"A being; a living principle; also a Kine," I imagine, that all these 
terms for Life Animals, whether under the form B"^, or BC, &c. belong 
to the same idea of PuDG?77g- out, either as denoting Feedm?^-, Fat, in 
general, or as applied to large animals, peculiarly SiveUing out. The 
names of all animals, under the form B^, BC, do not probably convey 
precisely the same idea, yet it is extremely difficult to discriminate, when 
different turns of meaning derived from the same fundamental idea may 
be applied. Thus I see, in the same opening with the words just 
produced, Bwc, A Buck, which, as I have observed, is either derived 
from the idea of PuDGi??o- in, or Sticking in, or FvDGing up, Bounding up ; 
just as Bound itself and its similar term Mount belong to the Boundari/, 
or Mount, the rising up Heap of Dirt. — In such cases it is impossible 
to decide. 

The term in Irish, answering to the Welsh Buth, A Cottage, Booth 
is Both, Both^^, "A Cottage, hut, tent, bower, shade," and the origin 
of this term will be unequivocal from the adjacent words Both«c//, 
"A Fen, a Bog," Borach, "A Reedy Bog." The adjacent terms to 
these are Bot, "Fire, a cluster, a bunch," Borin, Bot?*, A Boot, Bosd, 
" Boasting," — Boscr;?, A Purse, Borigar, A Fork, i. e. The Bending. 
Hooked, Bowing instrument, where we see the idea of Risiftg, or Swelling 
up, as connected with the Bog, and Bos, "Certain, abject, mean, low," 
as connected with the Base, or Low spot, Bouoog^, A Bawd;" — 
BovDach, "A Pimp," where we have the Foul character, and UoTHar, 
" A Lane, road, street," where we have the Foul spot. Again, in Irish, 

c c 2 


B,F,P,V, VV.^ C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

we have Bochan, A Cottage, and Bocan, " A covering, cottage," which 
means likewise " A hobgobUn, sprite," adjacent to Bocae//, A Bog. 
The French Boucan, A Bawdy House, and a Hut, directly belong to 
these Celtic terms. Hence we pass to the terms denoting a Booth, 
which is referred by the English Etymologists to the Welsh Bivtk, the 
Belgic Boedc, Bode, Domuncula, casa, the Danish Bood, Taberna, which 
they derive from the Belgic Boiiwen, ^dificare, and the Saxon Bidan, 
Byan. From hence we seem to be brought to Bide, gBide, «Bode. 
Under oBide, the Etymologists refer us to the Saxon Abidaji, Bidan, 
the Belgic Beyden, the Italian Badare, Subsistere, Manere, and the Saxon 
Byan, Habitare. There is some difficulty in these words. We should 
at once say, that the Booth and the aBoDE are attached to each other ; 
and if Booth belongs to the Celtic terms, conveying the same idea, which 
we can scarcely doubt, then Booth is the original, and is derived from 
the idea of the Swelling out, Rising up object. Yet surely we should 
say, that another Welsh word Bod, "A being, or existence; also a 
" dwelling, or a place of existence; a being stationary; also station in 
" life," belongs likewise to these terms. All this is perfectly intelligible; 
and however we may class certain words, as more immediately belonging 
to each other, we come ultimately to the same point. I suppose in 
another place, that these terms for Being, Life, &c. as Bios, Biotos, 
(Btos, BiOTo?, Fita,^ belong to Fat, Feed, Pasco, Bosko, (Boo-kw,) and 
that the sense of being Fat refers to what is of a Pudge nature, as in the 
substantive Fat. Now the terms for Buildings, Booths, &c. I derive 
from the same idea of FvoGtng, or Swelling out, and we have seen, 
that some of them are directly connected with Pudge, or Bog Matter, 
Among the terms for Booths, &c. we must reckon the Scotch word 
Bucht, &c. before produced. Dr. Jamieson explains Bought, Bought, 
Bucht, Bught, " A Sheep-fold," &c. &c. to which the combinations 
Ewe-BvcHT, Ew-BuGHT belong. These words occur in the same column 
of Dr. Jamieson's Dictionary with Bought, Bought, "A curvature, 
" a bending of any kind," &c. as of the arm, as in El-Bow, &c. of 
a Garment, called the Fold of a Garment, belonging to Bow, To Bend, 
and its parallels, which are duly produced, and our author has justly 


seen, that all these words denoting Bending, and the Inclosure of the 
Pen, are related to each other. I have already shewn, what is ac- 
knowledged, that the idea of Bowiwo- belongs to the Bug, the Bay, the 
Sinus, the Hollow of Pudge, Pash Matter, IFater, 8cc. This is allowed 
by all ; so that, whatever may be the process, by which these various 
words arc connected, we are still brought to the spot, supposed in my 
hypothesis. — I find myself obliged oftentimes to produce the same terms 
in different parts of my work, that the Reader may be enabled to view 
these various terms, connected with words bearing a different idea, 
and thereby to form his own judgment from all the evidence before him, 
respecting their relation to each other. 

In the same column with Pugs in Skinner, we have Puke, Vomere, 
where we see the notion of Swelling out, or tip, in the effort of Vomiting. 
Lye produces a Puke of Hay, which he justly refers to Pack, Sarcina; 
where we have directly the Swelling up Heap. Mr. Grose explains 
PooK by " A cock of hay, or barley. West." Boke, Nauseare, is another 
word bearing the same sense as Puke, and for the same reason. Skinner 
produces Boke, as a Lincolnshire term, and refers it to the Spanish 
Bossar, Vomere, and Boqueur, Oscitare. Boke is the succeeding word 
in Skinner to BoiSTerous, and we now see, that they have the same 
meaning. In Norfolk Boke means Bulk; as 'The Wheat has a great 
' Boke, but it does not yield well, i. e. There is a great Bulk, or 
' quantity of straw, and but little grain.' The Spanish Bosar means, 
" To run over, to overflow," where we see the Swelling out, or over 
of Pash Y matter, — "To vomit; To utter lofty words." The term next 
succeeding this is Boscage, "Tuft, clump, or cluster of trees, or plants," 
where my idea is confirmed respecting the origin of these terms, and I 
see likewise BosQuejar, signifying amongst other things, " To make 
" a rough model of a figure, or basso relievo in wax ; clay, plaister of 
" Paris, or any other soft matter," where we directly see the idea of 
working with the Plastic materials of Bog, or Pudge. — Boke is applied 
to the Body of a Cart, which may seem to bring us more directly to 
Bauch, (Germ.) The term Body is the Boke, or SwellijJg out Sub- 


B,F,P,V,W.| C, D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X, Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

Terms relating to the Lips, Cheeks, Month, from the idea of 
PuDG/77^, or Sivelling out. 

In the Irish Dialect of the Celtic, Pus is the Up, and the term 
adjacent to it in Mr. Shaw's Dictionary is Puxr/^, A Vuxming, and 
Puxa;;?, To Push, from which it is manifest, that the sense of the Lip 
is derived from the idea of Pudge, or Pash matter, of the Soft object, 
PuDciwg-, Vvssmng, or Sivelling out. When we talk of the Pouxewg- 
Lip, though it is sometimes applied to a particular action ; we see the 
same idea. There are various terms, belonging to our Element BC, &c. 
which relate to the Mouth, Lips, Cheek, &c. and to the accidents 
attached to these parts, which belong to each other, and which are 
derived from the idea of Swelling up, out, &c. Among these terms 
we must class the following; Bucca, (Lat.) "The Hollow inner part 
" of the Cheek ; the Cheek itself — The Hollow part of the Cheek, which 
" stands out by blowing. — A Trumpet," to which belong BucciNa, 
BuKawe, (Bvkuvii, Buccina,^ &c. — Buccea, " A Morsel, or Mouthful, 
" a collop," &c. &c. — Bocca, Boca, Bouche, (Ital. Span. Fr.) "The 
" Mouth."— Boc, (Welsh,) "A Cheek, or Chop," Boc-Voc, "Cheek 
" to Cheek, touching," which form Voc will shew us from whence 
the Latin Vox, Yocis is derived with its parallels Voice, Voix, (Eng. 
Fr.) &c. &c. While I examine this word in Mr. Shaw's Dictionary, 
1 cast my eyes on an adjacent term Boo, "A Swelling, or rising up," 
BoGeilia7'o, " To Boss, or Swell out," where we see the true idea. — 
Bus, (Welsh,) "The Human Li/)."— Bus, (Ir.) " Mouth, Snout, a Am," 
as Mr. Shaw explains it ; in the same column of whose Dictionary, I see 
Buxis, "A Boot; — Buth, A Shop, tent," or Booth ; — Buta, "A short 
" ridge, a tun, Boot," to which But belongs, where we still see the 
same idea of Rising, or Sweirmg up, and in the sense of a Ridge we are 
brought to the idea of Sivelling up Dirt. In the same column T find 
BvsGam, "To Dress, to stop, hinder," which unequivocally means 


To Pudge up, as in the French Boucne;-, and the Greek Buzo, (Bv^w, 
Refercio,) whatever may be the precise idea, to which the sense ot 
Dressing belongs. — In the English part of Mr. Shaw's Dictionary, we 
have PuisiN, for a hip. Under Osculum in Lhuyd I find wiVok, VoKkyn, 
" A little pretty mouth ; Kiss, or Buss. — PoK.kail, imVoG, Pok, Bvsnet, 
" and PoKC/, To Kiss. — Poo." In the same column of Mr. Shaw's 
Dictionary with Pog, a Kiss, and PoGaw, To Kiss, I see Poc, Boc, 
" A He goat, Poc, or Boc-Iluad, a Roe-BucK," Yocac/h, "A Pockc^, 
" or little Bag," where we still see the idea of Push?/?o- ai, oaf, &c. 
I see likewise Poixam, " To drink," which I have before derived from 
the Pudge spot, Pota, A Pot, and Foirckriadh, FoTrers clay, where 
we are brought to the species of matter, supposed in my hypothesis. 
Mr. Owen explains Poc by "A smack; a kiss," the adjacent words to 
which are Podi, " To take in, to comprehend," i. e. What Swells out, 
so as to be able to take in, and Podyr, " Powdery, mouldering," where 
we are brought to the spot, supposed in my hypothesis. — Buss, with its 
various acknowledged parallels produced by the Etymologists, BAsiare, 
(Lat.) Baiser, (Fr.) Basciare, Besar, (Ital. Span.) Boesen (Belg.) where 
Lye has seen, that these words may belong to the Celtic terms, produced 
above. The preceding term in Junius to Busse, Osculari, are Buss, 
Grandior navis piscatoria, &c. and BusA///, Cothurnus, where we see the 
Swelling out Hollow. In the terms adjacent Busk, Bust, Butt, Butter, 
Bush, Burrress, ButtocAs, &c. we still perceive the idea of the Swelling 
out substances, and in Butter, we are directly brought to Pudgy matter, 
to which they all belong. — Puz, (Pers.jy} "The Lip, the Mouth, and 
" the environs ; which means likewise the Calf oj the Leg.'' — Bus, (Pers.) 
ijuji " A Kiss, a Buss, Kissing," the terms adjacent to which in Mr. 
Richardson's Dictionary will decide on the origin of these words. The 
preceding term to Puz, is Buz, " A Goat," i. e. the Pvaning out animal, 
a parallel term to Buck, wdiere we may see, how these senses are 
reconciled under my hypothesis. — Fvzei, jame, di?x'kt, " Wool, the 
" Pile of Cloth, the Pith of a tree; Pustigi, the cream upon milk, the 
" Fat upon broth," where we see matter of a Pudgy nature. The next 
word to Bvsiilen, is Fvsiden ^J<iJ^y^ " To Rot, corrupt, spoil, wither, 


B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,J,K,Q,S,T,X, Z.| l,in,n,r. 

" to become PuxReV/," where we are actually brought to Pudge 
matter itself. Hence we see from this Pudgy, or Fuzzy matter for 
Clothing, why we have as adjacent terms ^Asuiden ^^>xxijj signifying, 
" To Cover, conceal, Clothe," Push, "A veil, covering. Mantle, garment," 
Vusmsh, "A Covering, garment. — Pusnes^, A coverlet. Sheet, Blanket," 
the next word to which is Pushek, " A Cat, Puss," which confirms my 
former idea on the origin of this word Puss. Let us note the term 
Mantle, which I have shewn to be brought to its original sense, when 
it is applied to the " Green Mantle of the Standing Pool." I cannot help 
producing an Arabic term or two, adjacent to these words, as ^j,^) Baws, 
or Bus, " Preceding, going before, being superior, excelling, &c. — 
" A woman's Hips, Bausa, Having /a/'g^e Hips, Baws^/', "The Heemorr- 
" holds, piles. A kind of herb, which cures them, verbascum, touchweed, 
" lungwort, woolblade. Petty Mullein, or high taper." The Piles, we 
see, are so called from the idea of their VvoGing, or Swelling out, and 
the Herb may be so denominated from curing it, yet it might belong 
to the general idea of being of a Pudgy, or soft nature, and such I 
imagine to be the force of Basc in Verbascum ; quasi Herb-BAScum. 
It is called Wool Blade from this property, and Mullein, as belonging 
to Mollis. Before I leave these Persian and Arabic words I ought to 
observe, that the next word to the term, relating to Wool, and Pith, is 
Vvziden, which among other senses signifies " To Cook," that is, ' To 
' reduce to a Soft, Pudge state,' and to this idea belong the Greek 
Pesso, or Petto, (Uea-a-o, Trerrw, Coquo, maturo,) and the English 
Poach, &c. "To Poach Eggs," &c. Some Etymologists imagine, that 
' PocHED Eggs,' bear the same meaning as Pashed Eggs ; and others 
refer us to Pocher, (Fr.) Effodere. I must observe, that Poched occurs 
in the same column of Skinner with Podge, or Pudge. The French 
PocHER means "To Push, Pash, or Pudge, if I may so say, as ivith, 
or into Pudgy matter; Pocher les yeux au beurre noir, To give him 
a black eye, To Pudge his eye, Pocher une lettre. To make a round 
top, or bottom to a letter, To Pudge, or mark a letter, Des oeufs Poches, 
Poached, or Fudged eggs. In Armoric Poaz is " To Boil, bake," &c. 
The Poche in French, the Pocket, is what Pudges out. The Poacher, 


after game is the Pudger, the person who Pads about in the Pudge. 
The origin of Pesso, (Uecra-w,^ will be manifest from its preceding term 
in my Vocabulary, Pessos, (rieo-cos, Calculus seu scrupus lusorius,) 
where we are directly brought to the Dirt of the Ground. There is 
another word Pepto, (JleTrrw, Coquo, matiiro,) bearing a similar sense, 
which might be quasi Peto; yet here there is some difficulty, as the form 
PB, or PP supplies the same idea. In Welsh Pobi signifies " To bake, 
" to roast, to toast." Before I quit these terms, belonging to the Mouth, 
Lips, &c. I must note the explanatory term for Poc, a Sviack, which 
I shall shew to belong to the Soft matter of Mud, as I suppose Poc to 
belong to Pudge, or Pash, under some process. In Smack we see the 
idea of Noise, and we cannot perhaps separate this idea in some cases 
from the words here examined, Buss, &c. If we should say, that these 
words for Kissing, &c. relate to the metaphor of FAsmtig, or Vvooing, 
we shall express the whole of the idea. I shall shew, that the term Kiss 
belongs to Squash matter, or to the action of Squashing, if I may so 
express it, just as we talk of Slipping and Slopping, as applied to the 
same thing. 



B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,R,Q,S,T,X,Y,ZJ l,m,n,r. 

1 ERMs, relating to what is Fat, to Food, to Feeding, Sec. or conveying 
ideas connected with such notions, as of a Swelling out form, of 
Plenty, Abundance, Fertility, Prosperity , Cheerfulness, Sec. Life, 
Existence, Being, an Animal, Sec. which are all derived originally 
from the form and property of the Fat, Pudge matter of the Earth, 
or Pedow, &c. (rieSoi/.) 

Fat, Fatten, Food^ Feed, Fodder, 

Foster, &c. (Eng.) 
Pasco, Paitre, Phago, Bosko, Botco, 

&c. (Lat. Fr. Gr. &c.) 
Vescor, (Lat.) 
FoT^^s, Fauti^, Fcetms, VfECundus, Fac- 

undus, FestmSj Festwus, (Lat.) 
Feast, Fest^a/, &c. (Eng.) 
Bat, Batten, (Old Eng.) To Feed, grow 

Bait, (Eng.) Food for fish. To stop for Food 

at an Inn. 
Baster, Bastar, Basta, &.c. &c. (Fr. 

Span. Ital.) Terms relating to Abundance. 
Be ATMS, (Lat.) Prosperous, Fertile, &c. 
Bus, (Pers.) Enough. 
FoizoN, (Old Eng.) The Moisture of Grass, 

8cc. Abundance. 

Fatjw, a/FATim, (Lat.) 

Fatua, (Lat.) The Goddess of the Earth. 

oBesms, heBes, heSEris, (Lat.) 

aBS, (Heb.) To stuff with Food. 

PioTes, Pinguis quasi Pigg!»s, (Gr. Lat.) 

Pakus, Pakiws, Pukwos, 8tc. (Gr.) Fat, 

Fudging out, Thick, &c. 
sPissMs, cPais, sPesso, &c. (Lat. Fr. Ital.) 
BEETHa/gArt/n, Biadh, &c. (Ir.) To Feed, 

Food, &c. 
Bous, Bos, Vacca, &c. (Gr. Lat.) an 

BouKo/os, Bekm/o5, BvcHail, &c. (Gr. 

Welsh.) A Herdsman. 
BwYD, (Welsh.) Meat, Food. 
Beatho, Bywyd, Bios, Biot-os, Vito, 

(Ir. Welsh, Gr. Lat.) Life. 
&c. &c. &c. 

I shall produce in this Article, a Race of words, belonging to our 
Element BD, &c. which relate to Fat, or to what is Fat, to Food, and 
to the action of Feeding ; or which convey a train of ideas, perpetually 
connected with such notions, such as terms relating to Plenty, Abundance, 


Fertility, Prosperity, Cheerfulness, &c. Life, Existence, Being, &c. 
In this Race of words we must class the very terms adopted, Fat, Feed, 
Food, which together with their kindred words, I conceive to be derived 
from the idea, which we annex to the substance called Fat, or to the 
Fat matter of Soil and Dirt, that is, to the Soft Unctuous Matter of 
a Boxj, or Pudge nature, PuDG?'wg, or Swelling out, up, &c. When 
we talk of a Fat, Rich, Soil, and of " Clouds dropping Fatness," we 
are directly brought to the Bog, or Pudge Matter of the Ground, from 
which I suppose these ideas to be derived. A variety of circumstances 
annexed to the Soft, Unctuous Fat, or Pudge matter of the Ground, 
operate in suggesting to us the train of ideas, which relate to objects 
Swelling out, VvDoing out, with Juice, &c. and which belong to Growth, 
Increase, Abu7ulance, Fruitfulness, Fertility, Prosperity, and hence to 
a Prosperous, Happy, Fortunate state of things, to a Gay, Cheerful 
appearance ; to Mirth, Gladness, &c. &c. whether our minds are im- 
pressed with the Swelling form, and the Soft, Smooth, Sleek Appearance 
of such Fat, Unctuous matter of the Ground, the Pudge, &c. or whether 
we regard the Property of Ground, in this Pudge, Fat state, as producing 
Fertility. In many cases these ideas of the Appearance and the Property 
of such matter cannot be separated : Yet we shall find, that the 
impression of the Form and Appearance of Fat, or Pudge Matter is 
commonly most visible, and that the Property of the Ground in pro- 
ducing Fertility is not perhaps so much to be considered as the object, 
which has attracted the attention of the mind in the formation of terms, 
conveying this train of ideas. 

The notion of a Fat, Oily, Unctuous Substance of Grease, Oil, &c. 
is perpetually connected with the idea of a Plenteous, Rich state of things, 
of a Beautiful, Charming, Gay appearance, or oi Beauty, Grace, Excellence, 
&c. This is a fact, which I shall prove by unequivocal examples ; and I shall 
shew moreover in the progress of my Work, that the words expressing these 
Fat, Oily, Substances, were originally derived from terms, under different 
Elements, denoting the Uliginous, Oily Matter of Clay, Mud, Pudge, &c. 
But whether we allow this origin, or not, I shall prove by indisputable 
facts, that these terms, which express at once Grease, Fat, &c. and a 

D D 2 


B,F,P,V,W.J C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,v,r. 

Beautiful appearance, are actually applied to such Uligi?iotis matter, and 
therefore might be derived from it. In Latin Unctus, signifies " Anointed, 
" Greasy, Oily,'' and it means likewise " Wealthy, plenteous, copious," 
where we simply see Greasy matter, and its concomitant idea, Plenty, 
or Abimdance. This term is particularly applied to Rich Food, " Uncta 
" Coena,'' &c. Under the sense of IVealthy R. Ainsworth has produced 
the " Uucta devorare Patrimonia,'' of Catullus, to which he has brought 
as parallel our combination a " Fat Benejice,'' and he has moreover 
produced a passage, containing a well known use of the term, where 
it is applied to the Graces of Composition, " Uncfior splendidiorque 
" consuetudo loquendi." I shall shew, in the course of my enquiries, 
that Grace, Gratig^, and Charis, (Xajots,) belong to Grease, for the same 
reason ; but whether they do or not, this single instance of Unctus is 
sufficient to prove, that this relation might have existed. — The Greek 
Liparos, Aiwapo^, from Lipos, Anros, Pinguedo, adeps, selum, is ex- 
plained by " Pinguis, obesus, adiposus, Unctus; Opimus, opulentus ; 
" Pulcher, praclarus, Beatus, felix, est et epith. precum, Ambitiosus, 
" vehemens, assiduus." The Latin Opimus contains this union of ideas, 
and it is supposed to be derived from " Ope, i. e. Terra, Fest. ut propria 
" dicatur Pingui Solo.'' Robert Ainsworth explains Opimus by " Fruitful, 
" rich, fertile, Fat, well grown, large, gross. — Large, fair, plentiful. 
" Abounding with all good things, rich, well furnished. Most honour- 
" able, or great." This word likewise is applied in a familiar example, 
produced by this Lexicographer, to the Graces of Language, accompanied 
by another term, which is almost taken in its material sense. " Opimum 
" quoddani, et quasi Adipatce dictioiiis genus." — The Latin hMTUS 
contains the union of the various ideas, which I have above unfolded, 
and I sliall shew in a future Volume, that it belongs to terms denoting 
Mud, under the form LT, &c. as Lut«/?/ ; but whether it does or not, 
1 shall here shew, that it might be derived from this source, and that 
it is actually applied to \jVTeous, or Uliginous Matter. R. Ainsworth 
explains Lcetus by "i. Glad, merry, frolicksome, cheerful, joyous, 
" joyful, jolly, jovial, jocund, pleasant, delightsome. 2. Lucky, fortunate. 
" 3. Of fields, Plentiful, fruitful, verdant. 4. Of Cattle, Fat, in good 


" liking. 5. Welcome, acceptable. 6. Brisk, lively. 7- Willing. 8. Swift." 
The various applications of this word to the Ground. Lteta Terra, &c. 
Lcetas segetes. — Tellus Lcetior, &c. L(efa Pascua, "Locos Lcetos et 
" amoena vireta," &c. &c. all bring us to the true spot, but in the 
following well known passage, we at once see the whole fact, as stated 
in my hypothesis. Here Lceius is directly connected with the Fat 
Ground, and with Uliginous matter, " At quae Pinguis Humus, dulcique 
" U/igine L^ta." Let us mark the explanatory terms Joyous, Jocund, 
Glad, Merry. 1 shall shew, that Joy, Jocund, Jocus, Joke, &c. belong 
to Juice, (Eng.) Jus, Succus, &c. for a similar reason, and Glad is 
acknowledged to belong to the German Glaf, Lubricus, Hilaris, which 
Wachter has very justly referred to Gloios, Gloiodes, Gliskros, (FAotov, 
Sordidus, Sordes Olei, r\otwB>i^, TXia-xpos, Glutinosus Viscidus,) where 
we are brought to Glue, Glutinous, Clay, Givalt, (as they call it in 
Cambridge,) arGilla, arGillos, (ApyiWo^.} My Lexicographer explains 
Glatt by "Smooth, even, Sleeked, plain, well polished, Glatte Hand- 
" schuh, Glazed gloves," where let us note Sleek and Glazed, from 
which latter word we shall pass to Glister, Glitter, and the term Glatte 
will likewise remind us of Glide, and Slide. It will now be perceived, 
how terms, denoting Splendor, Brightness, &c. may be derived from the 
Shining of Fat, Greasy Matter. I have shewn in another place, that 
the idea of Dii't may bring us by different processes of the understanding 
to the same idea of what is Fine, Gay, &c. (^Prelimin. Dissert, p. i i8-ig, 
&c.) We shall now understand the propriety of adopting the term Glad, 
or Gladness, on such occasions as the following, where the writer 
unconscious of the origin of the term was guided to its use by a just 
impression, " He shall anoint thee with the Oil of Gladness above thy 
" fellows." It will now likewise be understood, how Neat and Nitidus 
may belong to Nasty, and how the Latin word may signify in some of its 
senses " Neat, clean, spruce, trim, gay, fine, genteel in dress or manners, 
" florid, gallant, gorgeous. — Bright, shining. Glittering, Glistering. 
"Looking bright, fair and beautiful; also smooth, splendid, delicate; 
" also elegant," and likewise, " Slick, well Fed, Fat, Plump." Thus 
we see, how the mind passes from " Nitent Unguenfis, to Nitet diffuso 

314 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

" lumine Caelum." The term NiTor, " To Strive, Struggle," relates to 
Struggle, and Contention, in the Nasty, Greasy, Path. If the sentence, 
which R. Ainsworth produces, relating to Struggling in a Path, " Ardua 
" per loca agresti ac trepidante gradu Nititur," had been of the following 
kind, " Luhrica per loca Labente gradu Nititur," or if we might have 
said ' Per loca adipe, vel unguento NiT?rfa NiTiT^/r,' we should have 
seen the true idea. The Latin Luctor bears the same relation to Lutum, 
as Nitor, To Struggle, does to Niteo, To be Fat, Greasy, &c. and thus 
hipares, (^Aiwapt]^, Assiduus,) Sticking to, in, at any thing, is connected 
with Liparos, (AtTrajoos, Pinguis,) denoting Sticky matter, and Labor, 
Laboris, Laboro, relating to Labour, with Labor, Labi, To sLip. It 
will now be seen, how Nidor, the smell of Greasy matter, may belong 
to Nitor, Nitoris. I shall shew, that the terms Merry, Mirth, &c. belong 
to Mire, for the same reason. Cicero has combined Nitidus and Lcetus 
w4th great eftect, and has applied them to a certain species of ornamented 
Language, and what is curious, he involves his combination with the 
direct mention of the Greasy substance of Oil, by the aid of an apt 
metaphorical allusion, or comparison, " Nitidum quoddam genus est 
" verborum et Lcetum, sed Palcestrs magis et Olei, quam hujus civilis 
" turbcc ac fori." 

The introduction to this article has been extended to a greater length, 
than I usually adopt on such occasions ; as it is destined to unfold to us 
a train of ideas, which is perpetually visible through the whole compass 
of Human Speech ; though we were but little acquainted with the extent, 
or the force of its operation. I shall now proceed to the detail of the 
terms themselves, proposed to be explained in this article; and shall 
exhibit those words, belonging to the Element BD, &c. which relate 
to ' What is Fat, to Food, and to the action of Feeding, or which relate 
' to ideas perpetually connected with such notions,' as before explained. 
Among these terms we must class the following; Fat, Fatten, Food, 
Feed, Fodder, with their parallels produced by the Etymologists, as 
Feet, (Sax.) Fett, Feist, (Germ.) Fet, (Belg.) Fetten, (Germ.) &c. 
Fode, (A. S.) Foda, (Dan.) Btvyd, (Welsh,) Biotos, (Btoros,) Fedan, 
(Sax.) Vbeden, (Belg.) JFeyden, (Germ.) Paistre, or Paitre, (Fr.) 


Pasco, Pastum, (Lat.) Fodan, (Goth.) Foeda, (Isl.) the Greek Botein, 
Boskein, with the terms, attached to them, Boter, Boton, Botane, &c. 
(Boreiv, Boa-Keiv, Pascere, Bortip, Pastor, Botop, Pecus,) Fodre, Father, 
&c. (Sax.) Futtern, (Germ.) Foederen, (Belg.) &c. &c. The Latin Pasco 
has Ukewise been referred to Pasko, Pao, Paomai, {Uaa-Kw, vel potius 
Ylaonai, f. atro^ai, Possideo, Gusto, Vescor.) In the German Weidc//, 
To Pasture cattle, we see the Weide, the Pasture, the Pudge Ground 
directly connected with it. It is in vain here to decide, whether Weidc// 
means "To grow Pudgy, or Fat," or To crop the herbage of the 
Pudgy Meadow. — The German Futter not only means " Fodder, 
" Food, &c. but it signifies likewise the " Lining of a garment," where 
we are unequivocally brought to the idea of Vvv>Ging, or Stuffing out. 
In our vulgar term Fother/wc/z^, which corresponds to Bother, Puther, 
&c. &c. we have a similar idea of a Pudgy state, applied to another 
purpose. — Fodder in English, and in German Fuoer is used likewise 
for a Load of any thing of Wood, stone. Lime, Lead, &c. where we 
have still the idea of the Sivelli?ig out, Pudgy Form, Substance, or Mass, 
&c. We talk too of a " Pig of Lead," where Pig, both as appUed to 
the Lump and the animal, means the Pudgy substance. In German 
" Bin Fdder Wein,'' is "A Vat, or Tun of Wine," where let us mark 
Vat, or Fat, a kindred term ; and we shall hence understand, how Fat, as 
an adjective and substantive, is derived from the same idea. In examining 
these words in Skinner, I cast my eyes on other terms belonging to our 
Element, appearing in the same leaf, as FAsniow, Fast, Firmus, and 
Jejunium, Fastcw upon, pATHer, and Fathow, Faucc/. 1 shew, that 
Fash/ow or Form is derived from the Plastic nature of Pudge matter, 
that Fast and Fastcw, relating to the sense of Holding, or of Tenadous- 
ness, belong to the idea of Sticking in Pudge matter, that ' To Fast,' 
Jejunare, means ' To keep Fast,' or Tenacious to the purpose, as of 
Abstaining, just as Abstain belongs to Teneo, and Tenacity, and that 
Fathom relates to the Watery Bottom, through which a person 
Wades. The Faucc/, Faussc^, (Fr.) obturaculum, is that which Fastc/w, 
Pudges, or Stops up. The term Father I shall consider in another 


B,F,P,V, W.J C,D,J,K,Q,S,T,X, Z.| l,m,n,r. 

Let us mark the kindred term, adopted in the explanation of the 
Greek word Pasko, (riao-Ko),) the term VEScor, and remember Esca, 
where the Labial sound is lost. An adjacent term to VEScor in our 
Vocabularies is Yiscum, where we directly see the idea of Pudge matter, 
and let us again note its parallel term Ixos, (I^o?, Viscum,) where the 
Labial sound is wholly lost. — The term Visc//s, Viscem, may be derived 
from Y^scendo, as the Etymologists imagine ; or it may belong to 
Yxscum, or Visc?«, under the idea of the Glutinous adhesion of the 
Bowels. We ought however to remember, that the sense of the Bowels 
brings us to the idea of the Deep, Low spot, as referred to the Earth, 
The Bowels of the Earth, Viscera Terrce, which would at once conduct 
us to the Spot supposed in my hypothesis. — Vict?/*, Sustenance, Food, 
connects itself with Vivo, Vixi, YicTum, where we have the two forms 
VV, and VC, as in Pavi, and Pasco, &c. From Victms we pass to 
ViCTuals, and its parallels Victuailles, (Fr.) Vittouaglia, (Ital.) &c. 
The Greek Fago, {^wyw, Edo,) may belong to these words for Food, &c, 
I must leave the Reader to consider whether Esca, which is certainly 
attached to y-Escor, does not connect itself likewise with Edo, EsTHio, 
(Eo-^tft),) Wachter derives the German Yocuenz, "Panis similagineus," 
from Fago, (J^ayu),') and he sees no relation between this word, and the 
succeeding term in his Glossary Vod, FoTor, Nutritor. The succeeding 
term is Vogd, which means Prcefectus, Patronus, and I must leave the 
German Scholars to decide, whether the idea of a Master, Guardian, 
Governour, has not been derived from that of a Feeder, Nourisher, 
Sustainer, &c. The term, says Wachter, is used " De principibus, et 
" omnibus imperium habentibus, et eminentissime de Deo, coeli et terrae 
" Moderatore, quamvis non nisi a Poetis." We all remember the familiar 
application of the metaphor of Y2.B.mng, as of Sheep, &c. to that of 
Governing, Yloifxeva \awp, Pastor, a Pasco, " One who keepeth any sort 
" of animals, a shepherd, a herdsman, a keeper of poultry, as pigeons, 
" peacocks, &c. — Met. A King, or Governour,'' I examine however in 
another place a Race of words, denoting the Great Personage, which 
I shew to be derived from the idea of the Great Mass, Rising, or 
Sivelling up in general, without a direct reference to the idea of Nourish- 
ing ; and to these words Vogd may belong. 


Foster, with its parallels Fostrian, Foedsteren, (Sax. Belg. &c.) 
is acknowledged to belong to Feed, Fodder, and we are reminded 
likewise of Yorare, which brings us to Foveo, and Fot?^s. We here 
see both forms Foveo, and Fotus, from which some might imagine, that 
the Labial F" supplied the original Elementary character. This however 
belongs to Theory, and does not interfere with the truths, which I am 
unfolding respecting the Elementary form FT. In Pasco, Pavi, and 
Pastmw, we have likewise both forms PS, and PV. The Latin Foveo, 
and ¥oTus, bring us to Faveo, Favi, Fautm/w, which originally belonged 
to the idea of Favouring, or of shewing kindness by Nourishing, or 
FfiEDzwg. From Fautm/w, YkVTrix, " Ykvtrix natura," we pass to 
Faust;/*, " Lucky, auspicious," &c. and from thence to Festwws, Festz/s, 
the YzsTwal, the Feast, where in Feast we are again brought in contact 
with the idea, expressed by Feed. The Fasti the Calendar, is the 
composition, where the Festi dies are recorded, and Fas, " Piety, justice," 
&c. seems to belong directly to Faustms, as denoting what is Fair, Good. 
We shall at once see with what a variety of ideas the sense of Yz^v>ing 
or Nourishing is connected, if we consider the various purposes, to 
which Almus is applied, " Properly cherishing, nourishing ; but may 
" be rendered into English, Holy, pure, fair, clean, calm." The term 
Ah likewise means "To Nourish, Feed, cherish, maintain, keep and find 
" with all things necessary ; to bring up ; to make much of; to augment, 
" increase, improve," where we see how Fautww, and YoTum, may 
belong to such terms as Feed, &c. &c. The following well known 
passage will confirm my idea respecting the origin of Faustz/s, and will 
shew us likewise the curiosa felicitas of the Poet, who is thus enabled, 
by the force of a just impression, to bring terms together, which contain 
the same fundamental idea. 

" Nutrit riira Ceres, almaque Faustitas." 

In F(et?<s, " Big, or great with Young," and VcECundus, we have other 
terms of the same race, and in the word Big, belonging to our Element, 
we see the idea of Swelling, or Pudg?7?^ out, as supposed in my 
hypothesis. In Fce/co, " To Stink," we have Pudge Foul matter, under 


218 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G;J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.J l,m,n,r. 

another idea, and in its kindred and adjacent term Fgedw«, Filthy, we 
have a similar notion. I shall shew, that Ymous, the Bargain, Treaty, 
brings us still to Pudge matter, under the sense of the cowPact, what 
is made up in a cotwPact, consistent Lump, Mass, form, state, &c. 
Yxcv^vnis seems to be only another form of Fcecund?<s, as in one sense 
FoECUNm/os means " Exuberancy, fluency. Eloquence.^' We see, under 
my hypothesis, how T(BCu?HUtas may belong to F^x, FjEcis, Dirt, Dregs. 
T have shewn, that Fac?o is derived from the idea of Pudge Matter, 
under its Plastic iiature. 

In Irish Yxsam is "To Grow, or increase," and Fas, "Growing, 
" increase, growth." Fas likewise signifies, as Mr. Shaw explains it, 
" Empty, vacant, hollow;" and I find as adjacent terms, FasacA, 
•' A desert, wilderness," — Yxsachaiti, " To desolate," and FAsam huil, 
" Growing, increasing, wild, desert." I must leave the Celtic Scholars 
to decide from what idea the sense of a Desert is derived. It should 
seem from the last article, that the Desert meant the Spot, where every 
thing Gi'oivs Wild, as we express it, in " waste fertility." It might be 
derived from the idea of " Empty, Facant, Hollow," which is connected, 
as we know, with Swelling out objects. In the next Article we have 
Fas 7iah aon oich, " A Mushroom," which directly brings us to Pudge, 
Spungy matter. I see adjacent to these words Fasaw, Fashion, which 
belongs to Fas, Growing, &c. just as Fac/o does to YcECundus. In 
Welsh the corresponding word to Fas, Growing, &c. is Faeth, which 
Mr. Owen explains by " Luxuriant, fruitful, rich, Fecund, Mellow, ripe," 
and in the example, which this Lexicographer has produced of its 
application, we are brought to the spot, supposed in my hypothesis, 
" Tyr givyz, a thir Faeth, Wild Land, and cultivated hand.'' In the 
same column of Mr. Owen's Dictionary, we have Fxced, "Curd; Posset 
" curds," where we perceive in the term Posset, the true idea of Pudge 
Matter. In the same opening of this Dictionary, I see likewise Fawd, 
" Fortune, luck, prosperity, happiness," where our author refers us to 
Fau', signifying, "A flowing form ; radiancy; glory," &c. It is curious, 
that from the Welsh Faeth, the sense of a Desert is derived, but by 
a process not like that, which I have above exhibited from Fas, as 


jD/-Faeth, " What is wn-FECUND, a Desert, or barren place," from Di, 
privative and Faeth. 

The terms adjacent in the order of a Latin Vocabulary to the words 
in that Language, vvhich I have just produced, are Fastz^s, YxsTigium, 
and VASTidiitm, which all belong to the idea of Swelling out. Yet 
Yksrig'mm, which signifies the Top, relates likewise to "The Bottom, 
" or Depth, as of a Pit,'' where we are actually brought to the spot 
supposed in my hypothesis, — The Botto?» of the Pit, — The Pudge 
Hole, or Matter. I see likewise Fatmws, " Insipid, Mawkish, that hath 
" no taste," where we again have the Vile Pudgy stuff. I perceive 
likewise the word Fatww, which has some difficulty. If Fat?^7» is that, 
" quod Fatww est," this term must belong to the words, relating to 
Noise, PAxrer, &c. which I suppose to be derived from the noise in 
Pash?/?^ against Pudge Matter. If YhTum, as denoting Death, belongs 
to Tathus, pATigo, &c. it relates to the idea of being reduced to a weak 
Relaxed state. There is still a third notion on the origin of this word, 
which I have given in another place. I see likewise as adjacent terms. 
Faux, Fax, Fati^o, Fxreor, Tatisco, Fasces, Fasc/g, and FASciman. 
I have shewn, that Faux means the Holloto, or Fossa; and Fascm, 
A Faggo/, &c. — A Pach, or Packet, and pAScm, the Band, or Roller, 
denote the Lump of matter, where let us mark the kindred term Pack, 
and l^ACKet. In Fat/^o, and Fat/^co, we see the Loose, Relaxed state 
of Pudge Matter, and I give in another place some observations on the 
origin of Fatco/-. The term Fax, the Torch, is supposed to belong 
to Faos, (<I>aos, Lux.) and so it may, yet it should perhaps be referred 
to the idea, expressed by Pix, &c. the Pudge, Pitchy, or Unctuous 
Matter, of which it is composed. The term Fascinum is explained in 
another place. We shall now understand, that the familiar word Bait, 
in the phrases ' The Bait for Fish,' and ' To Bait at an Inn,' belongs 
to Bat, &c. as relating to Food, and the Etymologists have accordingly 
referred it to the French Paitre, &c. In the sense of Baiting Dogs, 
the word Bait must be referred to terms of Excitement, and Agitation, 
Beat, &c. which I shall shew to have been originally derived from 
Pashing, Vusning, &c. as amongst Pudge Matter. The Reader must* 

E E 2 

220 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q, S,T,X, Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

not be wearied by this useful and significant word, though it be not in 
general familiarly adopted. In French ap?kT, signifies a Bait, and 
flpPAS, " Charms, Graces," &c. that is the Bait of Beauty, apYxrer, 
" To put a Bait on a hook, or snare. To Feed Birds with a sort of 
" dough, in order to Fatten them," and Menage refers aPAs, Esca, 
to Pastww^. That Grace constitutes the Charm, or Bait of Beauty, by 
which alone men are caught, as Fish by the Baited Hook, we have 
all learned in our earliest days from Classical authority, 

KaXXo? avev ■)(apiTwv repirei fiovov, ov Kare-^ei Se, 
Qy axep wyKiaTpov vrf^^ofievov ceXeap. 

The three succeeding articles in Skinner to Bait, are " The Hawk 
" Baiteth," which means "The Hawk Beateth with his wings;" — 
Baize, with its parallels Bay, (Germ.) Bayeta, (Span.) Bayette, (Fr.) 
&c. &c. Pannus villosus, which means the Fuzzy, or Pudgy Stuff, 
as it were, and Bake, belonging to BAciaw, (Sax.) Pinsere, Pachan, 
(Franc.) &c, &c. and to Pinso, Pis?*, Pistmw, which signifies To Pudge 
up, or Form into a Lump, Pudge like Matter. The Etymologists here 
justly remind us of the Phrygian term for Bread Bekkos, (Bekkos,) 
about which we have heard so much. 

The sense annexed to Fat, and Fatten, brings us to the kindred 
terms Bat, Batten. We know, that the term Batten occurs in 
Shakspeare, and it seems to have retained some of its original idea of 
File, or Coarse Feed, while the term Feed had lost this more primitive 
meaning. In Hamlet we have, " Could you on this fair mountain leave 
" to Feed, And Batten on this moor?" Mr. Steevens explains Batten 
by " To grow Fat," and produces a passage from an old Play, " And 
" for Milk, I Batten'd was with blood," where Batten is likewise 
used in a contemptuous sense, ' I was Pudg'd out, or bloated out with 
' blood,' and he adds likewise " Bat is an ancient word for Inc7'ease.'' 
Hence we have the adjective Bai/w/, so often used by Drayton in his 
" Polyolbiony Mr. Grose explains Batten by " To Feed, or Fatten," 
and the adjacent terms to this are Bashy, "Fat, Swelled, BATttig with 
" child. Breeding, gravid," i, e. Big with child. Batten. " The Straw 


" of two Sheaves folded together," BxTTlrngs, " The loppings of trees, 
" larger than Faggots, and less than timber," in all which we see the 
idea of Swelling out substances, and I likewise see Battles, which 
Mr. Grose gives us, as the Cambridge and Oxford term for " Commons, 
" or board." This is an Oxford, but not a Cambridge term ; and it 
must be referred to the idea of VEEning, or BATTe7iing. In Sherwood's 
English and French Dictionary, (l630,) we have "To Battle, 
" or get flesh, prendre chair. Battle, Fertile, To Battle, or grow 
" Fatter," &c. &c. — To Battle, (as schoUers doe in Oxford,) " Estre 
" debteur au College pour ses vivres." — Battling, " Vivres manger 
" morche." Adjacent to these terms, I see Batter for pancakes, or 
fritters, BxTTcrd, Batw, Battel, Bataille, combat, which terms for 
BEXTing, I shall shew to be derived from Batterw/^-, or Pashm?^ about, 
Batter, or Pudge like matter, and thus we see, how Battle, relating 
to BxTTeriy/g, and B\TTe/iiiig contains the same fundamental idea. I see 
in Grose among the terms, produced above, a Derbyshire combination 
Battle- ff^ig, an Ear Wig, which means perhaps the troublesome animal, 
which Battles, or Beats about you. This may be the original of the 
Fluttering Bat. I see in Grose another adjacent term, which is used 
likewise in Derbyshire, "To Bat with the eyes, to wink; that is. To 
" Beat with the eyes." In Mr. Todd's Edition of Johnson's Dictionary, 
Bat/uI is produced as a term familiar to Drayton, in his Polyolbion, 
with two quotations in which we have Bat/?// FASTures, and BatJ'uI 
Meads. Under Batten, which is considered as a word of donbtful 
Etymology there is a quotation from Philips, where we have " The 
" Meadows here with BATTcning Ooze enrich'd," where the Ooze brings 
Bat to Pudge Matter, according to my hypothesis. Under Battel 
we find one sense to be that of "Fruitful, Fertile," with a quotation from 
Hooker, where we have Battle (irounds. John Florio adopts the words 
" Battle, Fruitfull," in explaining the Italian Lieto, belonging to the 
Latin Lcetus. We may observe, that Bat, Battle belongs to Pudge, 
Bog Matter, just as Lcetus does to sLush, z/Ligo, " At qua? Pinguis 
" Humus, dulcique uLigine, hceta." 

The term Bat, denoting Plenty, Increase, has various words belonging 

332 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.} l,m,n,r. 

to it, in Modern Languages BASxer, (Fr.) BASxar, (Span.) " To abound, 

" to be plentiful," Basto, (Ital.) and the Latin Beatm«, which is brought 

to its original spot and idea, in such applications as BEAT/rw Riis, Beata 

Uhertas, Beati Campi, Beatus Eurotas, &c. &c. The term Beatz/s 

has been justly referred to Beo, though the adjective represents the more 

original form. In the Dialects of Hindostan Bhat, as represented \>y 

Mr. Hadley, is the term applied for the Comparative Degree, answering 

to our word Moie, Bhote is another form signifying "Very much, 

" many," (^Gramm. page 26, and Part IL p. 4.) In Persian jlw BESj/ar 

means " Many, much, numerous, frequent, ample, copious," and in the 

simple form we have Bus ^J^ " Enough, it is sufficient. — A great number, 

" many, more." In Persian Ijj Feza signifies "More, Encreasing, grown, 

" augmented," Tvzuden, " To increase, multiply," and Fuzun, " More, 

" greater, larger, Increase, Multitude, magnitude." This latter form 

Fuzun will remind us of the English and French term, Foison, " Earth's 

" increase, and Foison plenty." In one sense Foizon, or Fezon is used, 

says Mr. Grose, for " The nature, juice, or moisture of the grass, or 

" other herbs, the heart or strength of it," that is. The SiveUing out 

juices of the Plant. Skinner cannot help reminding us of the German 

Feist, Fat, though he prefers the origin given by Menage of Fusio. 

The term Fundo Fuoi, Vvsurn, belongs to the same idea of Watery 

Pash matter. Mr. Weston has seen this resemblance between the French 

and Persian words (^Specimen, &c. page 124.) the adjacent words to 

which belonging to our Elementary character are jl^ Fistek, Pistacheo 

cL5y Fawt, " Death, Passing away," to which he refers Fat«7k, though 

he observes, that the Romans have a good derivation for the word, 

YkTum, " quod Dii Fantur,'' and jy Fuz, Phyzz. In the explanation 

of the Arabic word Fawt, Mr. Richardson has adopted the term Slipping, 

where in Slippery Matter we see the original idea. We see too an 

adjacent Persian word Fudej, Fermentation, where again we have the 

true idea. In Arabic and Persian j^j Fuz is Victory, Escape, Death, 

that is Slipping away from peril, and j^ Fuzth, (Pers.) "The circum- 

" ference of the mouth," which seems to bring us to Faux, Fauc-?*, 

The Hollow of the Jaws, Bocca, &c. &c. The term Phyz seems to 


be the Face, which belongs to Fac^o, relating to Plastic Matter. I have 
produced the name of the River PisoN, as belonging to our Element, 
and as directly denoting JFatery Matter; but according to Josephus it 
denotes Foizon, or Plenty, a Multitude ; nay the word which he uses 
for a Multitude, is a kindred term to Plenty. "Kai ^eia-wv ^lev. 
" 'Li^fxaivei Ze 7r\t]dov royi/o/ua," (l. c. 1.) 

The Persian term Feza, or Fuzun produced above is supposed to 
be the word, which was intended to be represented in the well known 
scrap of Persian extant in the Acharnenses of Aristophanes, where the 
Ambassador Pseudartaba is made to say " lartaman exarx' anapissona 
" satra," laprafxav e^ap^' avaTTi<T(70va a-arpa. If Pisson, TlKrcrov, in 
this passage relates to Abundance, or FoizoN, and if Pheison expresses 
the same idea in the name of the river Pison, {(Peia-wu,) it must be owned, 
that the Greeks in their representation of the same idea, on such different 
occasions, have duly performed their part in delivering down the record 
of sounds, and of meaning. I dare not venture at an attempt to dis- 
entangle the Persian contained in this passage ; yet I cannot refrain from 
making a few observations on the occasion. It is supposed, that the 
name Pseudartaba, is Sha Dara Zab, or Tab, where Zab is the Eye, 
and Sha-Dara is the Sha Bar, names for a King. It is supposed, that 
the a satra is As Tra, or Az Dara, ' From the King.' Perhaps Asa 
Tra, or Assa Tra is As-sa Tra, or Az Sha Dara, from the Sha 
Dara, as in the name of the Ambassador. The Elementary Character 
TS, DS, Z\ R, is the name for a King, and hence, from the form DR, 
we have the Dara in this representation corresponding with Dar/w.v, 
and from SR, terms corresponding with Cyrus, and XEnxes among the 
Greeks, just as the mixed sounds of the first letter were impressed on 
the Greek ear. Hence we have the Sir, and Sire of the English, 
with their acknowledged parallels. Sire, Sieur, (Fr.) &c. &c. the 
Kvnios, (Kvpio^,^ of the Greeks, and the Czar of the Russians, all 
belonging to the SuR in SuR-face, &c. The idea of the Persian 
Ambassador bringing Gold is so much the drift of the dialogue in 
Aristophanes, that I cannot but consider the part Xarx, as representing 
the Persian word for Gold. In Persian Zer jj is " Gold, Money," which 

224 B,F,P,V,W.J C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

Aristophanes has perhaps represented here bj Xar-^t, as in XER-a:-es, 
the sound of .r is added. The sounds of s, or z, and r are so connected 
in Persian, that the same character is used for both, though when z is 
intended, a little dot is put over the letter j as j as in the representation 
of this very word jj ZR. The same union of sounds between r and s 
appears in the Greek word appt]v, ap<r>]v. Nay the Greeks have adopted 
the same artifice in the very word, which they have in their own 
Language, directly belonging to the Persian Zer, Gold, as in Chkv-s-os, 
(Xpi/o-os,) and thus, if my conjecture be just, the representation Xarx, 
which they have made of the Persian term for Gold, is no other than 
that which they have used in their own term Chrus-o*, or Churs-o*, 
Chars-o«. Now we may venture almost to atfirm, that no creature, 
under a Greek name, from the time that Cadmus taught them letters, 
till the present moment, by his own efforts, with Plato himself at their 
head, the prince of their Etymologists, amidst all their intercourse 
with the Persians, ever conceived, that the Persian and the Greek names 
for Gold were the same word. — Such was the mind of this extraordinary 
people, who in the abundance of their communications knew and 
thought so little themselves, and yet who have taught others to think 
and to know so much. 

The Scotch have the same term Foison, which Dr. Jamieson explains 
in one sense by "Pith, ability; used to express both the Sap of a Tree, 
" and bodily strength," where in the sense of Sap, we see the idea 
of Soft Pudge matter, and in Pith we have a kindred term. Fouth 
in Scotch has the same sense of " Abundance, plenty, fullness," though 
Dr. Jamieson does not refer them to each other, but he seems to think, 
that the word Fouth stands alone, if we may judge from the following 
remark annexed to it, " It does not appear that there was any substantive 
" noun resembling this in A. S." In the same and next column of 
his Lexicon we have Foutch, or Fotch, To exchange. Shift, Flinch, &c. 
which is derived from the Agitation of Soft, yielding Matter; as in 
Boggle, directly belonging to the Bog; — Fousee, Fousy, "A Ditch, 
" a trench," belonging to Fossa, where we are directly brought to the 
spot, supposed in my hypothesis the Pudge Spot, or Pit ;— Foutie, 


FuTiE, " Mean, base, despicable," Fouttour, Foutre, " A term expres- 

" sive of the greatest contempt," where we see the idea of Vile Pudge. 

The term Foutie, or Fouty is still used in Warwickshire in the same 

sense, and Foutra occurs in Shakspeare, " A Foutra for the world, 

" and wordlings Base," — " A Foutra for thine office." In Scotch we 

have a strong term, relating to VvDGing out with Fat, as Fodgc/, "Fat, 

" Squat, and plump," where Dr. Jamieson refers us to Voedcw Alere, and 

FuDGiE, " Thick, gross." The next term to Fodgel is Fog, Fouge, 

Moss, i. e. the Soft Pudge Stuff, or the Pudge spot. The next term 

to FoTCH is FouD, "The name given to the President of the supreme 

" court," &c. which Dr. Jamieson has justly referred to a race of words, 

bearing the same meaning in the Teutonic Dialects, as Fogde, &c. (Su. G.) 

Vogd, (Germ.) &c. which I conceive to mean the Great personage, 

from the idea of Swelling out matter. In the next opening of Dr. 

Jamieson's Dictionary we have Fozy, " Spungy, Soft, as a Fozy Peat," 

where we are directly brought to the Pudge matter, supposed in my 

hypothesis. This term he justly refers to a race of words, denoting 

Moist matter, appearing in a great variety of Languages, which I exhibit 

on another occasion. The preceding term to this is Fox, " To employ 

" crafty means, to act with dissimulation," which probably belongs to 

Fozy matter, just as Boggle does to Bog. — From hence perhaps Fox, 

the Crafty animal, is derived. 

To this race of words Foison, &c. belongs the Latin TaTim, afFATim, 
and hence, as I imagine, we have the Pid in opViDO. In opPiDum we 
have the Pedow, (rieSoi/,) the certain peculiar sPot of Ground, and in 
the Pit of comViTum, and pulVirum, we are brought to the same object ; 
though in this latter word we seem to perceive the idea of the Raised, 
or Swelling up Earth. The sense, which the Etymologists annex to 
Pal in Piil-FiTiim, is precisely that, which I am ascribing to this Race 
of words, that is, the Raised Heap of Earth or Pudgy Matter, Rising, 
Swelling out, &c. " Malim," says Martinius, "quod sit locus in Tumidum 
" editus, sicut est BoA/3os aut Pttlpa." — From opVioo we should pass, 
I think, without difficulty to oPS, oPis, oPes, oVYimus, where the Timus 
in OvT-Tinius may be the representation of the superlative termination 


^26 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.} l,m,n,r. 

Issimus. We know, that oPS is the Goddess of the Earth ; and Marti nius 
concludes his article on this word by observing, " Eandem faciunt Deam, 
" Bonam, Faunam, Opem, et Fafuam," where in TATua we see un- 
equivocally the form, which I am now examining, and we perceive 
moreover, how Fatm/?, and Tatuus connect themselves in FArua with 
the spot, from which my hypothesis supposes them to be derived. The 
oPicus, Barbarous, may belong to oPS, as denoting File ; just as Fatuus 
is attached to Tatuo. Surely oPTo, To wish, connects itself with oPS, 
Abundance, as the object of desire. With oPS the terms oPiis, oPeris, 
oPera, seem to be immediately combined ; yet on this point there is 
some difficulty, which will be explained on another occasion. Before 
I quit the form with a vowel breathing before the first consonant, 
I should note oEesus, and IibEes, where the Bes unequivocally denotes 
the Swelling out, or Lumpy form. These observations on Bat and 
BAT^re/i will shew us, how they connect themselves with words under 
a similar form, as Bat, the Instrument, which is applied in order to 
Beat, and which, as I suppose, originally signified 'To Pash,' that is, 
' To strike with, about, or amongst Pash, or Pudge Matter,' and the term 
Baste, which actually means to Beat, and to Pash meat with Greasy 
Pudge matter. When Baste signifies ' To Sew ;' it means To Patch, 
or Botch any thing up, as it were, in a Pudgy, vile, course manner. 
We see, how Botch, To Sew, belongs to the Botchy, or Pudgy matter 
of a Sore. — Under another Element we have Dab, and Daivb belonging 
to each other, just as Baste, Pash, &c. may belong to such terms as 
Botch, the Sore, Paste, Pudge, &c. &c. 

Among the parallel terms for Fat, we should reckon the Latin 
Pinguis, quasi PiGGuis, and the Pios, Viores, Pion, (Iltos, Pinguedo, 
Yliorn^, Pinguedo, Obesus, lliov, Pingue, i. e. quod Pingue est, res 
Pinguis, Pinguedo, Adeps ; in lacte Pinguedo supernatans, flos lactis ; 
in sanguine melior pars,) where in the sense of the Substance Fat, and 
of the thing similar to Fat, as Cream, &c. we have the Pudgy Matter. 
In the application of these words to the Ground, we are brought to the 
Spot, supposed in my hypothesis, as in Greek YioTaton Vzi>io7i Ylio- 
Tarov rieSioj/, Ylieipav apovpav, ritoi/o/uos, Pinguia Pascua habens, &c. 


&c. and in Latin, Pabula Terr^ Pinguia concipiunt, &c. Pingui Arvo, 
Fimo Pingui, — Pinguis Humus, dulcique Ulighie Laeta, &c. where 
we are directly brought to Pudge matter. Here again let us note the 
explanatory term oBesus, which I have just produced. In the same 
column of my Vocabulary with this word I see Obex, which seems to 
belong to Ohjicio, as the Lexicographers suppose ; yet it might be derived 
from the Race of words, now before us, and the Bex might be the 
Radical part of the word. Some write Objicis, which seems to decide 
on its origin, but it has often happened, that terms have been rendered 
conformable to each other in their mode of representation, from an 
accidental similarity of form, which suggested their relation to each other, 
"^he Etymologists have produced, as parallel to oBesms, the Hebrew 
aBS D2X, which signifies, says Mr. Parkhurst, " To stuff, cram, or fill 
" with food," where the word is taken in its more original idea of 
grossness, — as of being Pudged out. Mr. Parkhurst has seen the relation 
of this Hebrew term to the Latin word, which others have noticed. 
In English Boose is explained by Junius, " Stabulum, in quo vaccas 
" hiberno tempore Pascuntur,'' which he refers to Bosig, Bosga, (Sax.) 
Prjesepe belonging, as he thinks, to Bosko, (Boo-kw,) and Lye adds 
" Malim derivare ab Isl. Bas idem significante," where we have another 
term of the same Race. Again in Hebrew "nii PDR means, as a sub- 
stantive, Fat, and in Arabic ^j\j Badn denotes " Fat, thick, gross." 
In French Bouse de vache is the Dung of a Cow, and in Modern Greek 
BouTZA, (BofT^a, Lo stereo di bue,) has the same meaning. In 
Greek Buo, Buso, (Bi/w, Bva-w, Obturo, Obstruo, impleo,) and Buzo, 
(Bw^o), Refercio, Vagio, Bubulo, A Byw, Obturo, vel By voce infantium, 
vel Byas, Bubo,) signify To Stuff, Stop, or Pudge up, out, &c. The 
term Buas, (Bvas, Bubo,) the Owl does not seem to be derived 
from the noise, but from its Pudgy appearance. We see how Bubo 
belongs to such terms as Bubby, Pap, &c. for a similar reason. If 
the Reader should be of opinion, that the Labial sound was the sole, or 
chief Elementary character, from which these words are derived, the 
writer has no objection to that idea; as it interferes not in any respect 
with the relation, which the words under the form BS, &c. bear to each 

F F 2 


B,F,P,r.,.>v.| C,D,J,K,Q,S,T, X, Z.| l,m,n,r. 

other. In the same column with Buzo, &c. (By^w, &c.) I see another 
word, which relates to the idea of Swelling up, out, &c. as BuKane, 
(BvKavt], Buccina,) which brings us to Bucca, Bocca, Bouche, (Lat. 
Ital. Fr.) and I see likewise an important term, conveying, according 
to my conception, the original idea, which is annexed to this Race of 
words, as Buthos, (Bi/^os, Gurges, Profundus,) the Pudge Spot, in 
which idea of the Hole, or Hollow, the terms Bucca, &c. are involved. 

Among the terms, which denote what is of a Pudgy nature, what 
is TJiick set, or co/wPact in its consistency, what is ThicMy placed, 
as it relates to Frequency, we must add the following, Pak?^5, Pakwos, 
PuKA, PuK«06% (Jlaxvs, Crassus, Spissus, densus, Crassus ; i, e. Pinguis, 
Obesus, Stupidus, Hebes, tardus, Rudis, Vilis, Opulentus, Dives, Gravis, 
robustus, Yla-x^vtT, Pruina, gelu, stiria, glacies, YIvku, Dense, Spisse, YIvkvo^, 
pro U.vKivo'i, Densus, creber, frequens,) Peg««o, (Ui^yvvw, Compingo ; — 
Concrescere facio, Congelo, Pango, &c. &c.) Pago^, (Jlajo^, Tumulus, 
collis, glacies, gelu, Massa concreta,) where we actually see a Lump, 
or Mass of Pudge matter; — Pango, peTiGt, ^ACTum, where we see, 
how the forms PN, and PG pass into each other ; — Pogow, (Uwywv, 
Barba.) — oVacus, (Lat.) oPaqmc, (Fr.) &c. &c. sPissm*, (Lat.) "Thick, 
" Clammy,'' where we have the true idea, cPais, «Pesso, &c. (Fr. Ital.) 
PucKer, (Eng.) where the Etymologists have rightly recorded the Greek 
Puka, (riy/ca.) — YTux, VTusso, (Utv^, Plica, Plicatura, IIti/o-o-w, Plico, 
complico ; — sPizo, (Stti^w, Extendo, expando, Pipio, ut aves,) where 
we seem to have an opposite idea to these words ; yet in its kindred 
terms we come to the true notion ; as in sPiDe*, (^iriSn^,^ which my 
Lexicographer explains by sVissus, as likewise by " Amplus, Longus," 
and Hesychius in his explanation of sYwnon, and sPiDoe;/, adopts two 
terms before produced Peg71uo, and Pukwos, {Utiyvud), Uukvo^.) — STTiSvoj/, 
Heirriyo^, (rvve)(^£^, '^.iri^oev, iieXav, TrXarv, (TKOTeivov, YIvkvov, fxeya. 

The idea of Spreading, or Extension annexed to these words, I 
conceive to be derived from that notion, which we express by Dawbing, 
Plastering, or Smearing, and hence we talk of Spreading a Plaster, 
Spreading Bread and Butter, &c. The verbs ' To Pash, or Pudge, or 
' Baste over, about a surface' will sufficiently explain the original idea. 

BOG, PASH, PEAT, PUDDLE, PIT, BASE, isv. .TOM, &c. 229 

The Etymologists have derived sVioer from sPin, and under sPin we 
are referred to the Greek 5Path«o, (^waOau), Licium inculco spatha, 
vel tudicula, Texo ; Profuse insumo, prodigo ; dilapido, luxurio,) which 
is all right. Here the two forms have passed into each other, and they 
both contain the same fundamental idea. — In the sense which sPathao, 
(STTa^ao),) bears of Profusion, we are brought at once to the idea of 
Pashixg, or Dashing about, as we express it. In the term Profusion, 
Fundo, FuD?', Vusum, we have a kindred term belonging to our Ele- 
mentary Character, and we here see likewise, how the forms FS, and FN 
may belong to each other, as in sPin, and ^Pioer. It has been a 
received opinion, among the most ordinary Grammarians, that the S 
is added to words, on the principle of Onomatopoeia, in order to express 
Dispersion. This is certainly done in the Italian Language, by a familiar 
and acknowledged artifice, which arose probably from some impression 
of this kind, and this impression may have operated on other occasions, 
when it has not been perceived. — It is curious to observe, how words 
cling to their original idea ; and how they pass from actions to the names of 
instruments, still retaining their primitive meaning. The term sPathc, 
(I.7ra6>i,) as a substantive, belongs to Spatha, Spathula, where sPatha 
means the Ladle, or the instrument, which takes oti' the Scum, or Pudgy 
matter from a surface, and together with sY.vrhala, is the appropriate 
term among Surgeons for that instrument, with which they spread the 
Pudgy matter of Salve. In the word sPade we actually see an instru- 
ment, which is used for the purpose of Stirring up Pash, or Pudge 
matter, or Dirt. Before I quit the words, denoting Frequency, as sPesso, 
&c. I should propose to the consideration of the reader the English term 
oFT, oVYen, and its parallels uYTa, (Gothic,) oFT, (Germ.) &c. &c. 
whether they belong to the form FT. In the ancient German Dialect, 
Oft, and in Saxon and Gothic Eft, and Aftra, signify Iterum, as words 
of number, as Eft-accenncd, Regenitus ; which seems to bring us to 
After, I have before referred aYYer, to our Element FT, denoting the 
Base, the Low, or Inferior spot, as in oYi^the, oPiso, (OTna-6e, Ott/ctw.) 
There is considerable probability in this derivation ; yet still there is some 
difficulty respecting the origin of these words. — Wc cannot well decide 

330 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

on this point, till the Elementary character ''F, with a vowel breathing 
before the simple labial shall have been duly unfolded. 

In the same leaf of Skinner's Lexicon with FoDDcr, and Foizon, we 
have other terms belonging to the Element, as Fog, Nebula, Fog, Gramen 
Serotinum, Foist, Fuste, (Fr. and Belg.) Fusta, Navigii genus, " To Foist, 
" per furtum obtrudere." The Fog, Nebula, and ' Gramen Serotinum, 
' The after Grass,' means the thick Pudgy substance of the dark dense 
Cloud, and the Vile, Coarse substance of the Rank Grass. The word 
in the former sense has been referred to Focus, or the Saxon and Belgic 
Fog, Vbeghe, Collectio Vaporum, and the latter to Affogare, Suffocare, 
" q. d. Gramen hiemali frigore Siiffocatum.'' The Latin Foc«s would 
be at once classed with the terms for Light, belonging to our Element, 
as Fos, FoT, Faos, Feggos, (<l»a)s, cpwro^, <&ao?j $€7705, Lux,) which 
might be derived from the idea of Commotion, SiueUing out, about, 
as of Pudge Matter, in a state of Agitation ; yet these words might 
originally relate to Light of a Smoky, Foggy, Pudgy kind, arising 
from undried Wood, &c. newly kindled. This idea of YvDGing up, 
in the sense of Stijiing appears in afFooare, and sufVocare, To suf- 
Tocate, which is not derived from Faux, as the Etymologists imagine. 
In Foisow, and To Foist, we have the idea of Swelling out, though in 
the former word we have the original idea of Swelling out, as with Moist 
matter. In Puck Feist, or Foist, the Stvelling Fungus, the Puck 
and Feist have the same idea ; which appears too in Fungus, quasi 
VvGGUs, sYoGGos, (ll-TToyyos,^ the Spongy, or sFoGcy substance. — The 
Etymologists have collected under Feist, &c. its parallels Fist, (Sax.) 
Feist, Fist, Feisten, (Germ.) Vbest, (Belg.) Vessir, (Fr.) "omnia," 
says Skinner, " a Latin Vissire, quod Paedere signat, hoc a Gr. ^va-aoo,"" 
Fusao, " Sufflo, Inflo," where in Feist we have a similar idea of PuDGiw^ 
out, with the sense of Filth annexed to it. The term adjacent to Feist 
in Skinner is Feed, and my German Lexicographer, having explained 
Feist by Fat, produces in the next article Feistcw, which he explains 
by " To Foist, or Fizzle." The term Fizzle will remind us of Fiz, 
which brings us to Fuss, &c. already produced. Before I quit the Latin 
Focus, *'The Fire Hearth," I might observe, that it may belong to the 


idea of the Hearth, the Low Spot, Hole, or HoUoiv, and thus it might 
coincide with Faux, Faucz's. 

In considering the Greek terms Bous, and Bosko, (Boi/s, Bos, Boo-kw, 
Pasco.) we should instantly refer the one to the other; and thus the 
parallels to Bous, (Boy?,) as Bos, (Lat.) Vacca, &c. must be referred 
to the same idea of animals supported by Food. When we had advanced 
so far we should then, I think, refer ail the terms, signifying Animals, 
or Beasts, which appear under our Element to the same source, as 
Bestia, Beast, with their parallels in modern Languages, B6te, (Fr.) 
&c. &c. — the Greek Boto«, (Botoi/, Pecus, Armentum, quod Pascitur,) 
which is acknowledged to belong to Bosko, (Boo-kw,) the Latin Pecm*, 
and perhaps we should add the Vis, Bat, Bis, Vex, Weth, in 
the names for a Sheep, as oVis, (Lat.) proBATon, (^TlpofSaTov,') breBis, 
(Fr.) fcrVEx, (Lat.) WETHer, (Eng.) though there is some difficulty 
belonging to these words. The Fer-YEx, is sometimes written Ber-Bix ; 
and the French Etymologists have justly referred Br-eBis to these words. 
The Fer, Ber, &c. seems to be the Fir, the Male animal, or rather the 
Furious, The Butting animal, and the compound afterwards signified in 
some cases, a Sheep in general. Some conceive, that the Ber-Bix is the 
Wild Sheep ; yet here we come to the same Radical idea, as the Ber, 
Fer, &c. might belong to Fera, and to the terms for animals recorded 
by Wachter under Beer, Animal. We cannot, I think, doubt, that Pro- 
Bat-ow, (Upo/Sarov,') is a similar compound ; whatever may be the nature 
of the composition. In the Greek Ois, (0«s,) which is quasi oFis, or 
oBis, &c. &c. the sound of the labial has been lost. — The term WErher, 
and the Vex in Fer-VEx. will be more particularly considered in another 
place; where I shall suggest, that these terms may denote violence, as 
in Vexo. In the Dialects of the Celtic we have Davad, or Dafad, (Wei.) 
Davos, Davat, (Corn.) &c. as the name for Sheep, (^Lhuyd sub Ovis,^ 
where I suspect, that the D is an addition as in Dechreu, which the 
Welsh Lexicographers refer to ^px*h &c. &c.— The Latin Bzcunia is 
acknowledged to belong to Pecus ; though the Etymologists differ about 
the idea, by which they are connected. Some think, because the figure 
of Cattle was impressed upon the first coins, and others imagine, that 

332 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

Vzcunia denoted originally the property of Cattle, which was the most 
ancient species of Property, and that it was afterwards applied to any 
other species of possession, money, &c. The term PECUL/wm, Private 
Property, &c. is likewise acknowledged to belong to Pec«s, and V^culor, 
To rob, or defraud, as in Public Peculation, &c. is derived "a Pecu, 
" inde enim initium Peculatus esse coepit, ante ass aut argentum sig- 
" natum." The term Yirulus is connected by some Etymologists with 
Vita ; and if YiTellus, signifying, a Little Calf, and the Yolk of an 
Egg, relates in its sense of the Egg to the quantity of Meat, or Food, 
which it affords, (according to the proverb, ' As full of mischief, as an 
' Egg is Full of Meat,'^ the force of Vit remains true to the Radical 
idea ; which belongs to the words now before us. 

In various Languages the Element BK supplies the name for the Ox, 
and sometimes for the Sheep. BAKar signifies an Ox, or Cow, in the 
Hebrew, Arabic, Chaldee and Syriac. In the Gipsey Dialect Baukero 
signifies A Sheep ; and in the Language of a race of Blacks, on the coast 
of Africa, Chy Baukero has the same meaning. The Hebrew Ipl BKR 
signifies in one sense " To look, search, or examine," — in another, The 
Morning ; and in a third, A Beeve, and collectively. Beeves, i. e. Bulls 
and Cows, or a " herd of such," so called perhaps, from their Staring 
eyes, &c. &c. says Mr. Parkhurst. The sense of this Root seems to be that 
of PusH?'wg into, 071, forward, &c. as in the term "1D3, which for distinction 
sake I must express by BCR, as I use the K for another Hebrew character. 
This term signifies "To he forward, precede, to come, or go before," 
and that it relates, under some turn of meaning to the Vusning, or 
Swelling up of Pudgy, JFatery Matter, will be manifest from the pre- 
ceding term in Mr. Pavkhurst's Dictionary' HDQ BCH which means 
" To ooze, ooze out as liquor." This conception on the original idea 
of the Hebrew ")D3 BCR will explain to the Hebrew Scholar, why it 
denotes " The first ripe Fig, the Boccore," the soft Swelling, or Push/wo- 
out Fig. Let us note the Latin and English Ficms, Fig, where the 
Element is employed to express the same object, under a similar idea. 
The term for the wild Ox is Bisson, which we should surely imagine 
to belong to the Bos. In old English Bawsin signifies Great, or Big, 


and it is applied in the Poems, attributed to Rowley, to the Elephant, 
" Lyche Bawsin olyphauntes mie gnattes doe shewe." (^Ella, .57.) — 
I have before observed, that in Shakspeare Bisson occurs, as " Bissok 
" conspectuities,'' (^Coriolan.^ " Bisson rheum,'' in which latter case it 
is applied, according to its original idea, as denoting Foul, Pudgy stuff. 
Arrian mentions a species of Elephant in India called Bosare, (Bu](rap>i,^ 
which Bochart supposes to be derived from the Phoenician Bosari, 
Carnosus. Surely the Bosare belongs to the Bakar ; and let us note 
Bosari, expressing Flesh, the Soft, Swelling out substance. 

In examining the terms relating to animals in the Celtic Dialects, 
we shall see how these terms connect themselves with others, which 
convey the train of ideas above unfolded, relating to Food, Sustenance, 
Life, Being, &c. &c. We shall find likewise, that some of these 
kindred terms appear under the form B', without the second letter in 
the Radical form BC, BD, &c. which is now under examination, and 
we have already noticed the terms under other forms BV, &c. as Bovis, 
Beef attached to Bos, Pavi to Pasco, &c. &c. We shall not doubt, 
that all these words belong to each other, and some might be inclined to 
think, that the simple form B* was the original form. To this idea 
I can have no objection, nor shall I oppose any Theory on the formation 
of Languages, which should attempt to assign a cause for the original 
adoption of the Labials to express this train of ideas. The numerous 
facts, which I have produced respecting the relation of the words to 
each other, having the form BC, and conveying the ideas, which 1 have 
unfolded, cannot be disturbed by such an hypothesis. If any Theorist 
therefore should imagine, that the Labials were originally adopted from 
the infantine sounds Ba, Pa, Ma, Papa, Mama, &c. to express Father 
and Mother, Boys, Being, &c. nay even that the idea of the Swelling, 
Plump, Pudgy form of Children, first supplied the terms for the V^u-Jge, 
M''ud, MHre of the Ground, I have no reason to oppose such an hy- 
pothesis. Though it aflbrds no help in discovering the relation of words, 
it presents no impediment ; and when we have contemplafed Language 
in its full and formed state, furnished with all its various stores, which 
are derived from the influence of that important object the Earth, under 



B,F,P,V, W.| C.D,J,K,Q,S,T,X, Z.| hm,n,r. 

its various properties, we shall find no embarrassment, or difficulty in 
admitting such a theory, however obscure and doubtful it may be, and 
however inefficient it may prove in the discovery of any facts, which 
relate to the affinities of Human Speech. 

The Latin Vivo, Vix?", Yicrum, Vita, Victms, Vesco/' shew us, how 

the ideas relating to Food and Life, or Existence belong to each other. 

Among the terms produced by the Etymologists, as parallel to Food, &c. 

are Bwyd, (Welsh,) and Biotos, (Btoros, Vita,) to which Greek word 

belong the simpler form Bios, (Btos,) and the Latin Vixa. Under Vita in 

Lhuyd, we have Byuyd, Byxedh, Bui, &c. (Welsh,) Byliedh, Buevi?i, (Arm.) 

Beatha, Beata, Beadhas, (Ir.) &c. Under YicTus we have Byuyd, Buz, 

BiADH, Beatha, and for Bestia, we have Buystvill, (Welsh,) Beatliodhax, 

" whence probably our Biax,' says Lhuyd. In Mr. Shaw's Dictionary, 

we have Beathw, Life ; the succeeding words to which are Beathac/z, 

" A Beast, animal," ^EXTiiaigham, " To Feed, nourish," BEXTuayhadh, 

" Food, nourishment," &c. &c. and in the same column I find BE\Tlira, 

IVater, where we see the union of ideas, which I have unfolded in my 

hypothesis. Again, I perceive in other places Buadh, Food, Biadh, 

" Meat, Food," and Biadhta, Fatted, Beistin, A little Beast, and 

Bias, Biasd, " A Beast." What we call Usque-Bagh is in Irish 

" C/Jsg'e- Beatha, Aqua-YiTjE, whisgy," says Mr. Shaw, where the Latin 

and the Irish terms exhibit a similar compound. In the same column 

of Mr. Shaw's Dictionary with Biadh, Food, I see Bi, Living, and Bha, 

denoting Was, which may be considered as a kindred term. We cannot 

doubt, I think, that these terms for Being and Food belong to each 

other, and the form B' will bring us to a great Race of words for Being, 

through the whole compass of Language, Be, (Eng.) Fui, (Lat.) Fuo, 

(_<l>ya),) &c. &c. and to Pa, Ma, PaPa, MaMa, &c. &c. of which great 

Race I have produced a brief collection in a former Volume, (ist, p. 280, 

&c. and 339.) If the two forms B', and BD should be considered as 

ultimately belonging to each other, the relation of the words under the 

form BD will not be affected, as I have just observed, and even at the 

points of union, where the two forms pass into each other, the affinity 

of the terms under these forms might be acknowledged, though the 


precise idea, originall)- annexed to the terms themselves may not be 
ascertained, or rather perhaps we should say, that it would be idle in cases 
of this nature to attempt such a precision. If we should conceive, that 
Pater and Mater belong to Pa, Ma, &c. our idea would perhaps be just, 
and if again on considering the form PT, MD, we should suppose, that 
Pater, and Mater are connected likewise with Pudge, Feed, Mud, 
Matter, as denoting the Forming, pEEoiwo- Matter, affording and 
preserving Life — Vita, &c. ; we cannot be very remote from the truth. 
These ideas are so entangled, that it is impossible in many cases to 
separate them ; and we shall agree, I think, that Pater and Mater, either 
in their original notion, or in their secondary relations, are intimately 
involved with a train of ideas of this sort. In our Language Mother 
is directly applied to Matter; as 'The Mother of Wine,' and the most 
familiar metaphor in Language is that relating to the Earth, and the 
Mother. This is enough to lead us to suspect, that the terms conveying 
the ideas of Mother, and the Earth, Ground, Dirt, &c. would be involved 
with each other, whatever might be the process, by which they are 
united. In Spanish Madre signifies "Mother, Basis, Foundation. Bed 
" of a River. Sewer, Sink." We shall not wonder from hence, that 
Pater may by some process be connected with Pudge, as Mater is, we 
see, with Matter and Mud, and that they should all be related to 
each other. — I must leave the reader to take his share in the arrange- 
ment of these ideas, if he should imagine that such an arrangement 
is placed within his reach ; and I must rest contented with having 
proved, how intimately these ideas are blended with each other, and 
how, under every view of the subject, we find ourselves within the sphere 
of that influence, which is supposed in my hypothesis. 

In Welsh Bywyd means " Life, existence," Buc, " Life, Live stock ; 
" cattle, or kine," — Bwyd, " Meat, food, or YiCTuals," — Bwydo//', 
"To Feed, or give Food," — Bwyta, "To Eat, Bwytal, Victuals; 
" provision," Bwyst, " Wild ; ferocious, or savage," i. e. A Beast, 
BwYSTwi/, A wild Beast, Binv, " Kine, a Bullock, a steer, or ox," — Buw c, 
" A Cow," Bygel, " A Herdsman ; a Cow, herd," in Galic Buachail, 
&c. which brings us to the Greek Bekulo*, Boukolos, (BtKi/Aos, 

G G 2 

236 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ I,m,v,r. 

Pecuinus, ovillus, BovkoXos, Bubulcus,) from whence we learn, that the 
Greek Kolon, (KoAoi/,) is not a portion of the Greek words.— In Welsh 
Byw is "To live, exist," Bo, May Be, &c. Bod, "A Being, or existence; 
" also a dwelling, or a place of existence ; a being stationary ; also station 
" in Life," where Bod passes into another idea. Bod likewise means 
a Kite, which may denote the Ravenous Feeder. In Welsh Byz means 
" Will Be,'' -And Byd, which is referred to Bod, " A World, or Universe," 
BYDiazf, "To run the course of existence, To Exist," BvoiaeM, " Course, 
" or condition of life, livelihood," and in Mr. Shaw's Galic and Irish 
Dictionary, we have Budh " the World," Bith, " The world, a Being, 
" existence, being, life ;" in the same column with which I see Bithe, 
"Female;" — Bioth, Bith, " Life; Existence, a Being;" — Bioth, "The 
" World," and Bioth, Bigh, " Gum of trees, Pith of trees," as in Welsh 
By WED means " The core of fruit, the Pith of Shrubs," where we are 
brought to the original idea of Pudge Matter ; and let us note in Pith 
a kindred term. In another place Big is explained by " Glue, Birdlime ;" 
where vi^e unequivocally see the fundamental notion. In Welsh Pyth 
signifies " A space, revolution, or period of time ; a world ; the duration 
" of the world ; ever, never ;" where in the sense of the JVorld we are 
brought to the Pedo//, (IleSoi/.) 

I have observed on a former occasion, (^Etymolog. Univers. p. 3o6,) 
that the Element BD, and YD denote Being, through the whole compass 
of Language, and I remark likewise that in considering such words as 
Bha, (Ir.) I was, Fid, (Lat.) Bhiodh, (Ir.) Be thou, &c. the Elements 
''B, and BD, FT, &c. are distinct from each other. This under one 
view of the question is indeed true, and I shall accordingly assign different 
portions of my Work, for the consideration of these forms ; yet we 
cannot doubt, I think, that the terms for Life, before exhibited, under both 
these forms B , and BD, belong to each other ; and this therefore may 
be regarded, as one of the points, at which those forms, which should 
in general be considered as separate, pass into each other. The form '*M, 
B% supplies the terms for Being, in that Class of verbs so familiar to 
Language, under the name of Ferbs of Being, through a wide compass 
of Human Speech, as Am, (Eng.) Eimi, (Etjui,) Be, (Eng.) Fui, (Lat.) 


&c. &c. to which forms 'M, ^V I have shewn the terminations of verbs 
to belong, as S-Vm Tiipt-OM.u, (TyTTTOjuat.) Sa/f-AB-Au, Salt-A\i, 
&c. &c. all which I have fully illustrated in a former Volume, (Etyni. 
Ufiivers. p. 29;, &c.) and 1 have shewn too, that compounds have arisen 
from this Elementary form ¥\ &c. and the Element 'S, "T, as m Fu-lsti, 
Fu-It; which 1 consider to be compounds, though in other instances the 
Elementary form BD, FT, &c. is found in its genuine state, as in Bhiodh, 
Vita, &c. through the whole compass of Language denoting Being, and 
it is applied, as the form B* is, in the race of words, called Verbs of 
Being. In considering however these instances, we must examine the 
construction of the Language, in order to decide, whether the word under 
the form BT, or FT be in its Elementary, or compound state, with 
another Radical *S, *T, &c. If Fuit had stood alone, we might have 
been unable to decide on this point; yet when we see the other parts 
Fu,\ Isti, Imus, Istis, Erunt, we cannot doubt that Fa is the original 
form, and that It, Isti, &c. belong to some other analogy. In the Welsh 
Dialect, among the verbs of Being, we find Bvz, Boz, as well as Bu, 
Bi, in Irish Bidh, Biodh, and Bi, Bha, in Gaelic Bith and Bhu, &c. 
in Armoric Beza, Vesa, &c. which bring us to the Teutonic forms. 
Was, Wesen, (Germ.) &c. in Cornish Bez, Bos, &c. in Russian Boudou, 
&c. &c. and in Persian Bud, Buoe/?, jjj ^jy is the verb of Being, 
denoting "Existence, Being, a Dwelling place. To Be, become. Exist," 
and the next word to Bud is Pud, " Meat, or Food," where we have the 
same union of ideas, as in the Celtic Dialects. The term likewise means 
A Poker, where Pud belongs to Poke, Push, which, as I have shewn, 
means, "To Pudge, or Stick in." Let us note a sense of the Persian 
word expressing Being, when it signifies a Dwelling Place, and we have 
seen a similar connexion of ideas in the Welsh Bod, which not only 
means " A Being, or Existence," but likewise " A Dwelling, or a place 
" of Existence." If the terms denoting a Place of Dwelling had not 
been so unequivocally connected with those, which signify Food, Feed, 
we should not have so readily perceived their relation, though the passage 
is easy and natural from Feed, Food, &c. to Being, and from Being to 
the Place of Being. We might here record the terms in Ii^nglish relating 


B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

to the place of Dwelling, as Bide, Bode, aBiDE, «Bode, with their 
acknowledged parallels Beidan, (Goth.) Bldan, (Sax.) Bidia, (Isl.) &c. &c. 
In Persian likewise we have oBad jb) " A city, building, House, dwelling, 
" habitation. Abad when added to a noun denotes a city, or other 
" place of Abode. — A created thing," which brings us to the meaning 
of Existence, conveyed by these words. 

Whether the English and Saxon terms should be considered, as 
directly belonging to the Celtic and Persian terms I cannot decide, yet 
the Elementary sense is alike visible in all, and they approach to each 
other so nearly in their turn of meaning, that they can hardly be separated. 
The Saxon Abidan signifies Manere; the next word to which in my 
Saxon Dictionary is Abiddan, signifying Impetrare, Petere, Postulare, 
both which belong to each other, and Bidqw at once means BiDa?i, 
Manere, and Postulare, Petere, Poscere. Remote, as these senses seem, 
they are most naturally connected with each other. The sense, which 
these words have of Demanding, Requiring, Seeking after any thing, 
appears in our term Bid, and in Beads-Mow, BEGoar; the fundamental 
idea of which is Push, or Poke after any thing, with more or less degrees 
of violence, as in the kindred explanatory terms Peto, Posco, FosTulare. 
I shew, that Push, and Poke means To Pudge into any thing, and we 
may consider, that Bioaw, Manere, Expectare is To Stick, or Remain 
in the same condition, or in other words, the two senses of this word 
Manere and Petere may be considered as no other than those of ' To be 
' Fixed, and To z'wFix.' My hypothesis was, that the terms for Existence, 
above produced, were derived from the idea of Sticking, or PuDofwg- 
out, and thus we see, how all these ideas are entangled with each other. 
To Bode, and Fore-BooE belong to the idea expressed by Bid, ' What 
' is BiDDCw,' as it were, ' What is Announced, or Denounced.' In Saxon 
BoD is " Jussum, mandatum. — Nuncius," to which, as it is acknowledged, 
Bode, (Eng.) l^oman, Prcedicare belong. In the same column with 
Boman in my Saxon Dictionary is Bonig, Statura, A Body, the Pudgy 
form, and in the same column of Skinner with Bode, I see Body, Bookin, 
which means what Pusnes, or Sticks in, and Bog, Palus, the Pudge, or 
Sticky matter. Under every mode of conceiving the subject, we come 


to the same point, and we observe, that the human mind upon ditferent 
occasions perpetually falls into a similar combination of ideas from the 
same, or similar materials. Among the explanatory words used by 
Skinner for aBiDE, and its parallels, we have Subsisfcre. The verb 
Subsisto is explained in Robert Ainsworth by " To Abide, To Subsist," 
and thus we see from the terms Subsisto, Subsist, Subsisfe7ice, and their 
parallels Exist, Existence, Consist, the Consistency of any Mass, or 
Matter, how the ideas, which are annexed to such words as aBiDE, 
Food, Bhiodh, Vixa, and the comPACx/zes^ of Pudge Matter, may 
belong to each other. 

Observations on the Druids, Pythagoras, &c. 

I shall again recur to the Welsh word Pyth explained by " A space, 
" revolution, or period of time ; a World ; the duration of the World ; 
" ever, never," which will afford me a vein of illustration not unaccept- 
able, I trust, to those, who are conversant in Druid Lore. The next 
terms to Pyth in ISIr. Owen's Dictionary, are Pythagoras, which he 
interprets by, "Explanation of the Universe; Cosmogony," and Py- 
THAGORi, "To explain the system of the Universe;" and in the same 
column I see Python, " A system of the Universe ; Cosmogony." — 
Pythonas, " A system of Cosmogony ;" Pythones, " A female Cos- 
" mogonist." The term Pythagoras is derived from Pyth, belonging 
to Pedon, (rieSoi/,) and from Agori, as Mr. Owen says, which he explains 
by, "To open; to expand." The simpler form is Ag, "An opening, 
" cleft," which brings us to Oigo, (Oiyw, aperio.) We cannot doubt, 
that the name of the Grecian Philosopher Pythagoras belongs to the 
Welsh Pythagoras, which he assumed from his Druid Masters, or Fellow 
Scholars, with whose doctrines, as others have acknowledged, he was well 
conversant ; in the same manner, as amongst the Greeks, he assumed the 
name of the Philosopher. I have remarked, that the Institution of our 
two Universities, as Seminaries of Learning, " is lost in the most un- 
" fathomable antiqu'-ty," (p. 89.) Those enquirers, who have search'd 
into the ancient History of our venerated Alma-Mater, will now under- 
stand, that the Schools of Pythagoras at Cambridge were the Schools of 

240 B,F,P,V,W.^ C,D,G,J,K,Q, S,T, X, Z.'^ l,m,n,r. 

Philosophy, in which the Explanation of the Universe was the theme of 
instruction ; and if the Druids, amidst their acknowledged advances in the 
science of Astronomy, were in possession of the great law, by which the 
motion of the Heavenly Bodies is regulated ; as their Fellow Scholar, 
bearing a name derived from their language, Pythagoras is supposed to 
have been ; we can well understand, that great truths may have been 
taught on the banks of the Cam by the Druid Kepler s and Neiotons of the 
ancient world. It is not necessary, as we now likewise perceive, that 
Pythagoras should have himself visited this spot, in order to give existence 
to his Schools : but even this conjecture is not wholly removed from 
the sphere of probability. It is marvellous to observe, what an alliance 
appears to have existed in the ancient world between spots, widely distant 
from each other, which were distinguished as places devoted to Learning 
and Religion. In the celebrated account of Hecataeus, the race of the 
Hyperboreans or Celts are said to have had a remarkable omeioTn^, 
a family relationship to the Greeks, and especially to the Athenians, 
and Delians; nay, what is still more extraordinary, Abaris, the illustrious 
Druid, who is reported to have communicated with Pythagoras himself, 
is supposed to have renewed in his travels this family affinity, avyyeveia, 
which the Greeks had originally commenced with the Hyperboreans. 
(^Davves" Celtic Researches, p. I89.) The Sage, with a Druid title, 
Pythagoras, might have visited Britain, and even Cambridge ; as Abaris 
travelled into Greece and to Athens. The name Abaris is supposed by 
Mr. Davies to belong to the name of the Celts, the Abroi, the Kimbroi, 
ov the Kimmerioi, The form of Abroi brings us to the Hebrcei, or 
Hebreivs, who claim the honors of the Celtic name, and who speak 
a dialect, connected with the language of the Cymri. The Hyper in 
the Hyper- Boixans, or Hyper- Dor eadce belongs to the Abroi, and the 
Abri in the Cant-Abri affords a record of the same people. Aneurin 
has divided the Celts of the British Isles into " Cynt, a Givyddil, 
" a Phrydin," and thus in the Cant-Abri, we see the tribe of the Cynt- 
Abroi. In the fables, as they are imagined to be, which relate to the 
Antiquities of our University, the Spaniard Cantaber is supposed to have 
founded Cambridge, or what is the same thing, to have made an important 


change in its institutions, about 400 years before Christ. I shall say- 
nothing on the truth of this tale, about which we have no legitimate 
records, but I cannot refrain from observing, that a personage is employed 
in the business, who might be conceived, under our present view of the 
question, as best adapted for the task. He bears the name of Cantaher. 
He comes from a land inhabited by the race of the Cyvt-Abroi, and he 
arrives at a spot where the Cynt-Abroi, belonging to his own race, might 
possibly, or probably have resided. The recorders of the tale of Cantaher 
in former times were as ignorant, as the readers of the tale in the present 
age of the affinity, which might possibly have existed between the people, 
from whom he came, and to whom he directed his course. We have 
seen, that according to ancient tradition the Priests of Ceridwen or 
Ceres, had an establishment at Oxford. If our two Universities had 
originally institutions of a similar kind, the Goddess Cerld-IVen, who 
is the Goddess of Arts and Learning, once presided at Cambridge, and 
we at this moment rejoice to shew our veneration for the presiding 
Goddess of the spot by a name of Ceres, or Cerid- Wen, Alma-Mater. — 
Nay, what is ' passing strange,' our Alma-Mater at this moment confers 
her benefits in granting degrees, and in passing Graces by the ancient 
and mysterious writing of the Druids, — the Ogham. Thus it is, that the 
Eleusinian, or Athenian Ceres or Cerid-IVen, as if conscious of the 
ancient affinity between the Greeks of the Ilissus, and the Hyperboreans 
on the banks of the Cam, has returned to her original abode, on this 
hallowed stream, in the Island, where she was honoured in primaeval times 
with her most acceptable rites, — that sacred Island in the depths of the 
Western Ocean, which was inhabited by the Prydens, or the Britons of 
the illustrious race of the Cymri. 

I have observed, that Fen or Marsh spots " were expressly chosen, 
" as the favorite retreat of the Muses, in which their rites and mysteries 
" might be more quietly and securely celebrated," (p. 87.) This venera- 
tion for Lakes and Swamps is now fully understood, and Mr. Davies 
has well illustrated the Celtic attachment to these spots in his work on 
the Mytholog}' of the Druids, (p. 144, &c. &c.) Hence pleasant 
Gardens, near IVatery Spots, are combined with Learning and Instruction ; 

H H 

243 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,ii,r. 

and hence we unite the search of truth with the Groves of Acadetmis. 
(^Inter Academi sijlvas, &c.) The Gardens of the Academy at Athens 
were chosen from their Swampy situation, ahhough they were attended 
with the evils arising from Marshy places : Nay the very name Academy 
is of Celtic origin, and is not derived from a personage called Academus, 
as the simple Greeks are pleased to inform us. Mr. Shaw in his Galic 
and Irish Dictionary explains Aca-Damh, by Academy, and refers it to 
Damh, Learning. The preceding word to this in Mr. Shaw's Dictionary 
is Ac, a Son ; and thus Aca-Damh, the Academy, is the place, to which 
persons send their sons, or young men for Learning, or Instruction. 
Thus it is, that the term Academy, Aca-Damh, as the name for a place 
of Education on the banks of the Cam, might have been applied to the 
same spot long before it received that title through the medium of the 
Greeks and Latins, and might have been coeval with the schools of 
Pythagoras, where the Druidical Python, or System of the Universe 
was unfolded. Thus it is likewise, that Ceres, or Ceridtven after a lapse 
of ages may have left the vicinity of one Celtic AcaiJemy for a residence 
in another Academy of a kindred nature, though still more illustrious 
for the truths, which it unfolds ; even though Plato himself once walked 
and talked amidst the Groves of Academus. I cannot refrain from adding 
another singular coincidence between the kindred Academies of Athens 
and of Granta. The Cit}' of Athens was supplied with its water from 
the Fountain of the Nine Springs, the Ennea-Kroun, (EvveaKpowa,') 
and Granta is at this moment likewise furnished with its water from the 
source of the Nine JVeUs on those Hills, which bear the mysterious name 
of Gog and Magog. I cannot doubt, that the Nine . Wells, placed in 
this spot, were so denominated by some ancient sage, from a remem- 
brance of these Athenian Springs and its relation to the number of the 
Muses. I have shewn, that the Kren in Krene, or what is the same 
thing the Kroun in Krounos, (Y^pnvt], Y^powo^, Fons,) belongs to the 
same Elementary character as the Gron, Granta, and the Cran in 
CRAN-Meer, Ckan- ffell, Cn an -Berry, CRAN-Bourn Alley, &c. &c. 
(^See page 87.) 

With respect to the Python, which Apollo is supposed to have 


killed formed from Mud, we shall readily admit a story of this nature ; 
when we are employed in a discussion, which attempts to prove, that 
the Elementary character PD, PT, relates to Mud, or Pudge matter, nor 
shall we be surprized to find, that a word relating to Cosmogony, or the 
formation and disposition of the Earth, belongs to the same Matter of 
Pudge, or Mud. The Phoenician Cosmogonist has told us, what all 
Cosmogonists must tell us, under some form or other, that the first 
principle of all things is Mot, or Mud, Mwx, Tovto nve-s (paaiu i\vv, 
oi Se vSarovBov^ m^ews arri^iv, Limus, aut aquosce mixtionis Putredo ; 
where in the Put of VxjTvedo we see the origin of the Python, the animal 
arising from, or living among Pudge, and the Python, what relates 
to the world, or Earth, arising from or consisting of Pudge, under some 
of its modifications. The achievement of the God of Wisdom in subduing 
the Serpent bred in the Slime of the Earth after the Deluge, or when 
it was overwhelmed by Water, is the great achievement of subduing, 
or Draining the Pestilential Marsh, by the arts and inventions of instructed 
Man, and rendering it accommodated for the purposes of his existence 
and his happiness. The History of Cosmogony in the songs or systems 
of the ancient world can be nothing but the detail of the visible Chaos, 
or great Quag, which then overspread the Earth, and which must undergo 
the process of a new Creation, or of formation into firm solid Land, 
before it could become a fit spot for the habitation of the Human Race. 
Thus then the History of the Python, the Serpent of the Marsh or 
Quag, is the History of the Python, the Chaotic or Quag World itself, or 
in other words it is a system of Cosmogony. We may consider therefore 
the Pythian strains, of which we have heard so much, either as Songs 
describing the destruction of the Deadly Serpent, or recording the History 
of the World, and celebrating the triumphs of enlightened man in the 
subjugation, or cultivation of Noisome and Destructive Land. In one 
of the Songs of Silenus, we have a Python or System of Cosmogonv 
in its earliest state, when the face of nature was in its first Chaotic 
form, " Ut his exordia primis Omnia, et ipse tener Mundi cuncreverit 
" orbis. Tum durare Solum, et discludere Nerea ponto," &c. The contests 
of Isis, the Goddess of Fertility, and Typho, the Disturbing, Destroying 

H h 2 

244 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,J,K,Q,S,T,X, Z.| l,in,7i,r. 

Being relate to the same idea, and allude to the annoyance, which is 
produced by Marsh Ground, inundated with stagnant Water, to the cause 
of Increase and Fecundity. ^Egypt, we know, would be a spot above all 
others, where this great contest between the good and the baleful effect 
of Water would be carried on with all its force, and where the struggles 
to subdue the Destructive enemy would be most continued and most 
laborious. The term Is-Is denotes Ooze-Ooze, Moist Land, or Land 
well watered, with water in its good state, and Tyvho, who is sometimes 
called Sm«, (S/xy,) must be considered as belonging to the Elementary 
form TS, TCfi,\ M, P, &c. denoting the Swamp, the Sopp?/ Ground, 
the TipAos, (Ti(poi, Palus.) The name of the country is CnEMia, or 
(eGxpf, the Sw^amp, or Sop Ground. The term ceGrT't is acknowledged 
to be derived from the Gyp, the Hollow in which the water was 
conveyed. Thus then the Gyp, DGyp, DJyp, the Chem, TChem, DJem, 
the Smu, TSmm, TShm?/, the Typho, TSypho, and the Tipho*, TSiphos, 
all belong to the TSam, TSap, the Swamp. In the Mythology of the 
Druids the achievement of drawing the Avanc, or Beaver out of the 
Lake by the Oxen of Hu Gadarn, " so that the Lake of Waters burst 
" no more," is recorded as one among the three master works of the 
Island of Britain. At this moment in Wales, the proverb remains in 
allusion to this deed, " The Ychen Banairg cannot draw the Avaiic out 
" of deep Waters,'' and Mr. Owen has informed us, that " there is a 
" strange piece of Music, still known to a few persons, called Cainc yr 
" y chain Banawg, which was intended as an imitation of the lowing 
" of the Oxen, and the rattling of the chains, in drawing the Ava7ic out of 
" the Lake.'' (^Davies' Celtic Researches 157, and Mythology of the 
Druids 129.) The Strange Music corresponds with the Pythian strains 
of Apollo in his triumphs over the Python. The perils of the Marsh 
are still recorded in the plays of our Children, and To Draw Dun out of 
the Mire is a well known game, which has descended from age to age 
among these faithful Chroniclers and preservers of ancient customs. 
Nothing is lost, and the vestiges of the most ancient and even Mystic 
Rites are to be found still in existence, obscured indeed and concealed, 
but not obliterated and destroyed. 


SiLENUs, who sings the Python in the verses of Virgil, is the Druid 
Priest, the Country Parson, as he might be called, the reChuse, who 
inhabits the conCEkled , or retired places of the Woods, as the Druid 
Priests did. Hence he is the companion of Fauns and Satyrs, and he 
is attached to Bacchus, because he is a Priest, officiating in his rites. 
The Welsh Celm is explained by Mr. Owen, "To Hide, conCEAL, to keep 
" secret," who has justly referred it to the Latin Celo, and Cell, 
" A separation, a Grove, or arbour; a Cell; a private room, or Closc^" 
Hence in Welsh Celi means " The mysterious, or secret one ; a name 
" of the Supreme Being." Silc/zm^ is at once the Solitary, the con- 
Cealcc^, or retired personage, and the Priest of the conCv.k^ed, or 
Mysterious Being. Bochart has observed with admirable sagacity the 
resemblance which exists between Silenus, the rider on the ass, who is 
associated with Wine, and the Sacred personage, recorded in the dying 
speech of the Patriarch Jacob. " The sceptre shall not depart from 
" Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come, 
" and unto him shall the gathering of the people be. Binding his fole 
" unto the vine, and his Ass's colt unto the choice Vine ; he washed 
" his garments in IFine, and his clothes in the hlood of grapes. His eyes 
" shall be red with Wine, and his teeth white with milk." Shilo is 
supposed to signify " The giver of Peace, Tranquillity, or Security ; the 
" Saviour," as derived from the Hebrew word Th^ SLH, " To be quiet, 
" easy, secure," which belongs to the Welsh word Celu, Celo, (Lat.) 
cowCeal, &c. as originally denoting the Security and Tranquillity, which 
arise from Retirement. Among the Greek and Latin writers, the Sage 
Silenus appears only associated with Wine, as a Drunkard ; but in the 
Prophecy of Jacob we see the idea of Wine, under the process of 
making it, and hence we may understand, why the character of the 
Philosopher is so attached to the Juice of the Grape. His philosophical 
master became a God for his inventions, and the Priest continued to 
practise the art of his Deity. The Caldron of Ceridwen, or of the Druid 
Priests, is symbolical of various arts, through the whole mystery of 
Decoction, and is applied alike to the brewing of Fruits, Herbs, the 
mixing of Metals, &c. If we should imagine, that the terms Ceh 

246 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

and Shiloh belong to the Hindoo Cali, the Coll of the Mythological 
Triads, (^Davies on the Druids, p. 428,) and the Cei^cus of the Greeks, 
we should perhaps not be far remote from the state of the question. — 
Before I guit Silenws, I cannot help observing, that our term Colin, 
for a Rustic, has the same fundamental meaning of a Person living in 
Woods, or Retirement. The Monkish Priests called Culdee's, are 
nothing but the conQ,v.xled, the SiLewz' of another age. Some have 
understood, that Culdee is a Galic w^ord, signifying "A Monk, or 
" Hermit, or any sequestered Person. CviLdeack is common to this day, 
" and given to persons not fond of Society. This word is derived from 
" Cuil, a retired corner," as a writer observes, quoted by Dr. Jamieson, 
sub voce Culdees. Mr. Shaw explains Cuil by " A Couch, a corner, 
" a Closet,'' where let us note a parallel word Closet. Hence we shall 
be reminded of the ?'eCLUSE, living in Cells, where we have appropriate 
terms, belonging to the Culdee order. In the same column of Mr. Shaw 
1 see Cvii^idh, " A Cellar, storehouse," where in CELLar we have another 
term of this Race. In the Codex Nazarceus, the hiber Adami, or, as it 
should be called the Sidra, or Shaster of Adam. Kaldoji are recorded 
as living in Watery spots, or Shandy, Mountainous spots, whom I conceive 
to be the Culdees. (J^ol. II. Onomast. 80.) 

Words, relating to the notion of Animal Life, or Being, as it is in- 
volved with the ideas, which are annexed to the Facultas, the Actio, 
and the Partes Generandi, (tam in honesto quam in impuro sensu.) 

It is necessary for me in the course of my discussions to produce 
a Race of Words, some of which are justly placed in the Index Ex- 
purgatorius of Language, and which I shall therefore endeavour to 
examine with all possible brevity.— I shall not however decline any part 
of the duty which is imposed upon me by the nature of my Enquiry ; 
as I cannot for a moment suppose, that I shall have any readers of minds, 
so perversely and unfortunately framed, as to pursue the consideration 


of these words, under any other point of view, than that of an Ety- 
mological discussion on the formation of Languages. This Race of words 
relates to the notion of Animal Life, or Being, as it is involved with the 
various ideas, which are annexed to the Facidtas — the Actio, and the 
Partes Generandi, (tani in honesto quam in impuro sensu,) and they 
are connected in their different applications with various turns of meaning, 
expressed by our Elementary Character BD, &c. We shall find, that 
some of these words immediately belong to the terms, relating to Animal 
Life, Being, &c. which I have just produced, Feed, Foster, Ycb.tus, &c. and 
which T shew to be derived from the idea of VvsnGing out. Some words 
are connected with the idea of what is File, or Pudge, as in Puoejidnm, 
belonging to Puoe^, Puxeo, FuriJus, VuTriclus, &c. just as Fcetus is 
connected by some process with Fcetco, FcetzWms, YETid, &c. and other 
words appear to attach themselves to terms, denoting the Matrix, or 
Venter, which I have shewn on many occasions to contain the idea of 
Rising, Swelling, or Pudg?"/?^ out. We cannot in various cases separate 
from these ideas, the notion of the Low, or the Hollow situation, the Pit 
belonging to the Pudge Spot, or Matter; and to these different turns 
of meaning, which are oftentimes indissolubly interwoven with each other, 
we must refer, as I imagine, the Race of words, which I am now about 
to examine. 

Among the terms, containing the train of ideas above unfolded, 
we must class the following: Fut//o, and its parallels Foutre, Fotere, 
(Fr. Ital.) &c. &c. and the English vulgar term bearing the same 
meaning. The Latin Etymologists refer Futwo, to Yvreuo, (<l>uTeyft),) 
which Skinner has produced, who has observed, with unnecessary 
pleasantry on our vulgar English word, belonging to Fuiv/o, as follows, 
" Mercurio autem simul et Veneri litavit, qui flcxit a Belg. Fuyeken, 
" Focken, Trudere, Pulsare." I shall produce the remainder of this 
article in Skinner, as it will exhibit in a narrow compass, and in a 
Learned Language, some of the parallel words belonging to this Race. 
" Posset tamen simplicius et sine tropo formari a Teut. Fucksc/z idem 
" signante, hoc li Futz, Belg. Fotte, Vulva, Cunnus, hinc It. Potta, 
" vel k Cimbr. Fud, apud Fr. Jun. Vulva, hoc a Dan. eoque Goth. ant. 


B,F,P,V,VV.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

" FoDER, Genero, Gigno, q. d. Genitorium, seu officina generandi. Fr. 
" Jun. deflectit a Gr. Byrro?, quod Hesychio exponitur TvvaiKo^ aitoiov. 
" Possem et, si Grcecus essem, deducere aGr. Ox^veiv, praemisso Digamma 
" ^olico." Wachter has three articles, in which Fooen and Fcedcw 
are explained by " Pascere, nutrire, Parere, gignere, procreare," and 
" Nasci, oriri," under which he produces many of the words, exhibited 
by Skinner, as likewise the terms Fio, Fuesthai, (^'i>u6(r6ai,^ Patris, and 
some of the words for Food, Fat, which I have just examined. If the 
substantives Potta, Fud, &c. had not so unequivocally connected them- 
selves with these terms for Being, Fooew, &c. we might have thought, 
that the original idea in such substantives was that of Pit, as in the 
Italian Fossa, the Ditch, which John Florio has explained in one sense 
by " Pleasure-PiT, Nonny, Nonny," where let us mark Nonny, Nonny, 
which will explain to us the sense of this term in Shakspeare. We 
cannot in many cases separate the idea of the Pit from words bearing 
this meaning. Again in Wachter, we have PasE, pudendum muliebre, 
which he refers to the Welsh Puttain, the Islandic Puss, and the Greek 
B1/TT09, and FoDe?z, Parere. In the next column of his Dictionary we 
have Putte, " Locus defossus, ex quo aqua hauritur," i. e. Yuteus, 
The Pit. 

In our Language we have an expression, the origin of which is, 
I believe, not understood. To pay your Footing, which refers to work- 
men or others, when they are demanded to pay something on entering 
into a new work. I write it Footing according to the sound, which 
generally, I believe, presents itself to the ear, when it is repeated. All 
conjectures on the precise idea annexed to this phrase had been in vain, 
if the original application of the expression, or of that, from which it is 
taken or corrupted, had not been preserved among the Scotch, though 
Dr. Jamieson, who records its meaning, seems totally unconscious of the 
source, from which it is derived. Our Lexicographer explains FuTE-y^/e 
by " A sort of entertainment given to those present, when a woman, 
" who has born a child, for the lirst time gets out of bed; pron. Fit- 
" Ale, S." If the same words had been written with a different punc- 
tuation, after this manner. " A sort of entertainment given to those 


" present, when a woman, who has borne a child for the Jirst time, gets 
" out of bed," they would have described, as I imagine, the original idea 
annexed to the phrase. Dr. Jamieson has informed us, that the Su. G. 
Oel, Cerevisia, is "compounded in a great variety of ways," from which 
we learn only, that the form Ale in this compound YuTE-Ale denotes 
Cerevisia, but he gives us no information about the word Fute. If we 
were to judge from the succeeding Articles, where Fute appears in a 
compound, we should imagine, that it belonged to the Foot, as Fute- 
brod, " A TooTstool,'' and Fute Hafe, Fute Hote, " Straightway, im- 
" mediately, without delay," which he supposes to be Foot- Ho/. The 
Fute in FuTE-^/e belongs, I imagine, to the Race of words now before 
us, which have a kindred term in the Scotch Fud, Fude, the Matrix, 
to which Dr. Jamieson should have referred us, who has duly produced 
the parallel terms to Fud, such as appear in Skinner under our vulgar 
word belonging to the Latin Fut//o. The ¥vTE-A/e, we now see, is 
the Ale of the Fud, Fude, Matrix, the Lying in Ale, just as our Caudle 
is applied on the same occasion, and in order to explain the proverb, 
' To pay your VooTing,' Vurifig, VooT-Ale, or YvTE-Ale, in its applica- 
tion to persons doing any business for the First time, we must suppose, 
that the custom of paying Yvte-AIc was originally derived from the 
practice of giving Ale at the First time, when the female produced a 
child. Hence then our English phrase, 'To pay your Footing,' might 
be simply. To pay something for the Fating, or the produce of the 
Fude, or it may be a corruption of VooT-Ale, or ¥uTE-Ale. One sense 
of the word Fud, Fude, is "A hare's, or rabbit's tail, or brush, and 
" another the Backside," i. e. the Vooex. In Scotch Fode is "Brood, 
" offspring," where Dr. Jamieson refers us to Fud. The next article 
to Fud in Dr. Jamieson's Dictionary is Fudder, " A large quantity, 
" although indefinite, &c. — A certain weight of Lead," which brings us 
to the English Fodder, used in this sense. When Fodder is applied 
to the Food of Cattle, we come to the same idea, as in both cases they 
have the same notion of the Pudge Mass, or Matter. 

The sense which the Scotch Fud has of Yodcx, a kindred term, will 
bring us to the Greek word Puge, {Uvy}], Nates,) from whence we pass 

I I 

250 B,F,P,V,W.| aD,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

to the English ButtocA\s. In Sanscrit Pod has the sense of Podcx, 
{Lchediff's Gramm. p. 71.) Under Clunes Lhuyd has ^Muten, (Welsh,) 
FATshan, (Corn.) The French Fesse may not be derived from Fissce, 
and Fesse, the Heraldic term, brings us to Fasc^, the Bundle, Lump, 
or Mass. The Fesse, Pooea-, surely belongs to the words before us. 
In Hebrew Jti'D PSG means, as Mr. Parkhurst explains it as a verb, 
" To Pass, go, go forward," &c. and as a noun mVSGk, " The Buttock," 
which according to our author's idea, is " that part of the body, where 
" the legs Pass, i. e. divaricate, or diverge from each other." In Persian 
k^ BusuT, means "The middle of any place. The navel, the Buttocks, 
" hips, PoDEx," and ^\^jj BusTi/an, " Buttocks," as Mr. Richardson 
explains them, who in the same column of his Dictionary with the latter 
word has ^^jjwj.j Vvsideti, "To rot, corrupt, spoil, wither; to become 
" PutWc?," with other words, which bring us to the original idea, and 
which are detailed in their due places. 

VVachter has produced under Foden, the term Fisel, Penis, to which 
we may add Pizzle, the Bull's Fizzle, Peos, (Ileos, Penis,) Yit, Vite, 
(Ital. Fr.) &c. and we might here produce Posthe, (Jloadri, Pellis, qua 
glans Pudendi virilis tegitur. Penis,) and prceFuTium, the j&rePucE. 
The Etymologists under prceVvTium refer us to Puta, " Verendum 
" muliebre," and to Funis, Vviilla, which they conceive to be applied 
by nurses, vTroKopia-riKto's, to Boys and Girls, "e partibus, quibus Pueri 
" et Puell^ sunt ;" and some imagine, that Prce-VvTiurn is that, " quod 
" est ante VvTidum,'' where they are equally found in the same train 
of ideas. Martinius refers Puta to the Hebrew r\12 PUT, " Cardo ostii, 
*' deinde FuDendum.'' Potms is another form of these words for Pu- 
dendurn Virile, and we cannot help seeing, how the form Puta brings 
us to VvTcus. Mr. Parkhurst considers the Hebrew na PT, as signifying 
' To part,' &c. and he imagines, that it denotes the Buttocks from the 
idea of Partition, and that it does not mean Hinges, but " Flat Pieces, 
" or Plates of Gold, of which the doors were formed." He observes 
however, that as a noun it means " A District, or Tract of Country.'' 
I find for Mentula in Lhuyd Pidin, Bod, Boidin, Biax, and General 
Vallancey compares the Irish Bud, Bod with the Hindostanee and Persian 


Bud. The Greek and Latin sPadow, ^Pado, (STraSwi/,) and the English 
To sPay relate to the deprivation of the Membrum Virile, or at least 
of the powers, belonging to it. In Lhuyd for these words we have 
£)?«-Baidh, sPadh. The PASser may perhaps belong to these words, 
as the Bird celebrated for its prowess. In German it is sPatz, derived 
by Wachter from sPiza, (JLttiXo., Fringilla,) which seems to belong to 
the idea of Pick//?^, or Peck??;^, or it may refer to the Noise, as in Spizo, 
(STTi^w, Extendo, Expando, Pipio, ut Aves.) The Sparroiv may be 
quasi Spassotv, but the origin of these words is not very manifest. If 
we suppose, that the primitive idea, annexed to VASciinim, was that of 
Vile, Pudge, FvDe?2duin, &c. we shall see, how it may at once refer 
to the Wiched Art of enchantment, and to the membrum virile, the 
Puoenda ars and pars. The Greek Bask«wos, (Bao-Kat-o?, Fascinator, 
&c. Invisus intolerandus, dirus, execrabilis,) not only means ' An 
' Inchanter,' but the personage most Vile, Base, Bad, &c. In Persian 
^^yui FusuN means " Incantation, Fascination, Fraud, deceit." In Malay, 
Butu is "Membrum virile," and Puki, Pudendum Muliebre, as Mr. 
Marsden explains them, (Malay Diet, pages 52, and 238.) That the 
Malay Language conveys the Elementary sense will be manifest from 
some terms in the two first leaves in Mr. Marsden's Dictionary, which 
contain the words beginning with B. In these leaves are the following- 
terms Baja, Manure, Dung, Basa, Wet, Moist, BasoA, To Wash, 
Basi, Musty, " Mould, Mother," which brings us to Base, Bad, &c. &c. 
The Commentators on Hesychius, under Button, (Bi/ttos,) before 
produced, have referred us to the Gothic Fud, &c. and likewise to another 
Greek term saBuxros, (Sa/3i/TTo?, Tive^ Ze, to yvvaiKciov.) In Hesychius 
we have likewise Bousia bearing a similar sense, (Bovcrta, yoyyvXiEt 
o/jLOiov BocTKriTiipiov 649 €vpv €ipt]Tai KaKO(rxo\(o^ €7n Tov yvvaiKeiou 
ai^otov,^ though the passage, which explains it, is obscure. — Again we 
have a compound Basigikoros, (Baa-ay iKopo^, 6 Bacra-ov (rvvova-ia^wu, 
Ylap iTnrwvaKTi,^ which I do not understand ; yet the Bas may belong 
to this race of words, and the Kor may have been taken from Kore, 
(Kopri, Puella,) or from Choiros, (\oipo?. Pudendum Muliebre.) In 
Hesychius we have Bado/w«/, (BaBofxai, AyaTraco,^ To Love, which 

I I 2 

252 B,F,P,V, W.| C,D,J,K,Q,S,T,X, Z.| l,m,7i,r. 

might belong to these words, and there is a passage of Paiisanias, where 

Badu. (BaSi/,) occurs, which relates to a Love adventure, from whence 

we might be led to conjecture, that these terms relate to the words now 

before us, (See the corrupt Article Bahidoi.} Yet a pleasant spot, and 

a River under the name of Badu would bring us to such terms as Beatz<s, 

&c. &c. before explained. — In Persian Bukan, Pugan, or Pukan, J^y 

as Mr. Richardson represents it, means " The Belly, the Womb, Matrix, 

" Uterus," and again ^\^_j^ Buigan has the same meaning. In Arabic 

Betyn ^^^ means " The Belly, the Paunch. — Whatever is contained 

" in the Belly, as a Fcetms;" and it signifies moreover Low Ground. An 

adjacent word to this in Mr. Richardson's Dictionary is the Arabic 

BETyhet, which he explains by " Marshes, Low lying Grounds overflown 

" with Water." In Persian aBiST Jwjl means " A Pregnant Woman. 

" An animal with young. — A T(etus, A new born child," and it means 

likewise " The Pulp of a Citron," where we come to the true idea of 

Pudge matter. In the column of Mr. Richardson, where this term 

occurs, we have among other words of a similar kind, " Abeste', Ground 

" prepared for sowing. — Abiste', A pregnant woman, the Womb, 

" a FcETUs, a new born child ; an animal with young." In Arabic Beden 

^jo signifies " The Body," and in another sense as Budun, it denotes 

" TATTiess, Corpulency." The next words in Mr. Richardson's Dictionary 

are the Persian terms Bvven, To be, and BAwiame, Having a Bad Name, 

and in the same column I see the Persian Bedi, " A Dunghill (particularly 

" when composed of Rotten wood.) — A worn, or corrupted thing," 

which brings us to the Radical idea BvTridus, &c. In Willmot's Arabic 

Lexicon, the Arabic ^jo BDN just produced is explained by " Corpu- 

" lentus seu Crassus, Pinguis evasit," and compared with another Arabic 

word Joj BTN, Sidit, Subsidit, which we have seen to mean the Belly, 

and Loiu Ground, where we note, how the idea of the Bottom, Boden, 

(Germ.) Subsiding, as to the Bottom, or on Low Ground, coincides 

with that of Swelling out with FArness. Under another form we have in 

Arabic ^^ BTDN, which signifies " Large, prominent, gore bellied, 

" and the .second mansion of the Moon, distinguished by three small stars 

" in the Belly of Aries." Now it is curious, that this very mansion of 


the Moon is called in Sanscrit Yofii, or Bhaga, where let us note Yoni, 
which belongs to c-Unn?/s, c-Unni, &c. In Dr. Gilchrist's Hindostanee 
Jjcxicon, I find for Pudendum MuUeris Bhug, and Jon, where we see 
the true form. The Commentators on Shakspeare have some notion, 
what " Hey, Nonny, Nonny,'' means, and it is curious, that in this 
collection of Hindostanee names for the same thing is Nihanee. In 
Malay, Nono is " Pudendum muliebre nondum nubilis," says Mr. Marsden. 
In Persian Busitan ^KL^ is " A Breast, Nipple," and it means likewise 
A Garden. The succeeding word in Mr. Richardson's Dictionary is 
Pestan bearing the same meaning of " The Breast, nipple," and it signifies 
moreover "The most humble. The Bascs^, the Lowest," &c. the simpler 
form of which appears in the term preceding these, as Pest, " Humble, 
" Depressed, Low, abject, mean, Base, Vile," where we unequivocally 
see the original idea. General Vallancey in his Preface to his Specimen 
of an Irish Dictionary, (p. 44,) has produced the Zend term Fischtane, 
and the Pehlvi Pestan, as the word for a Teat, and again, (p. 86,) 
he has given us the word Pet, as the Hindostanee for Matrix. In Welsh 
PoTEN is " What bulges out ; a Paunch, a Pudd/ho-," &c. where we 
unequivocally see the idea of the Pudge, Swelling out object, and again 
in Welsh we have Pitan, " A Teat, a Nipple." To this form PTN, 
as denoting that which belongs ad partes muliebres Pariendi, Nutriendi, 
&c. ad eas partes, quee Mulieri maxime sint propriee, — Pudendum, 
Matricem, Mammas, &c. must be referred the honcstum verhum of 
respect, so expressive among the Greeks, which marks the Feminine, or 
Maternal Character, PoTxa, and Potn-/os, (FIoTi/a, Alma, adoranda, 
veneranda, Diva, FloTi/ios, Venerandus, honorandus, augustus.) The true 
sense of this word appears in such applications as the following TloTvia, 
MrjTtjp, TloTvia r>/, lloTVia Xdwi/, YloTi'iaL FevervWide'i. 

In Irish Feis signifies " Carnal copulation," and Feisr, " Lustful, 
" adulterous," as General Vallancey has explained these words, who adds 
moreover, " Curba cud, Feisr curha cuil. Prohibited incest, (^Cuil 
" prohibited,) Feisr Craobh, Incest, i. e. carnal copulation with kindred ; 
" Ar. iij\ji Kerahef, Consanguinity, propinquity, relationship, jj^ Fejur, 
" Adulterium, lustful i^\J.]\ j^ Fejur'/ Kurabeh Incest." This coin- 

254 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

cidence of the Irish and the Arabic Language in the use of a phrase is 

extremely curious, though perhaps it is only the effect of accident, which 

our ingenious enquirer seems to fear on another occasion, when he 

compares the Irish Craob with the Arabic word. This however is not 

the place, in which such a point can be adjusted. I might here produce 

another quotation from this writer, which belongs to a Race of words, 

denoting Increase, Abundance, as Foison, &c. examined in another place, 

though it contains a vein of imagery, which coincides with the subject 

now before us. We shall here see the sense of Foison, as it appears 

in a well known passage of Shakspeare, " Your Brother and his lover 

" have embraced : As those that Feed, grow full, as blossoming time, 

" That from the seedness the bare fallow brings To teeming Foison ; 

" even so her plenteous IFomb Expresseth his full tilth and husbandry." 

General Vallancey observes as follows " Vosam, To Marry, and Fas^w, 

" To encrease, and multiply, I think, are both of the same root. Ch 

" lV^^ Pous, Crescere, augere, multiplicari, fructuosum reddere. It is 

" the word used through Genesis for the encrease of mankind. Sojourn 

" in the land, I will Phous ye and will bless thee, for unto thee and thy 

" seed, I will give all these countries." From this root the Hebrew 

" Lexiconists derive the Arabic Phesih, Pregnant, conceiving ; Arabic 

" ^J^6 Fouz in matrimonium sibi junxit foeminam, (citra dotem.) Consors, 

" (Gol.) Cum illo Consors fuit mercimonii i^mvvii Pouzoa diversi sunt, 

" ac alter alteri adversatur, in quo habet Giggeus, par et gequalis, etiam 

" Consors fuit, (alter.) Arabic ^y Fouzy inter se requales, et consortes, 

" permixtique fuere, mutuum inter se commercium habuere, et invicem 

" pensarunt, Castellus, who derives them from V"*^ Pouts, sparsus, 

" dispersus fuit, dispersit se ; Persian ^.m Peoos, A Bride, (Richardson) ; 

" Arabic ^j\j>J1^\ Atash Baze, A fire lighted at a marriage, (Richardson) 

" Arabic yi.^ Baza coivit cum foemina, congressus cum foemina, con- 

" nubium. Sanscrit Paisacha, When a lover secretly embraces the damsel 

" either sleeping, or flushed with strong liquor, disordered in her intellects, 

" that sinful marriage called Paisacha is the basest." (Laivs of Menu. ^ 

The name of a Bride too in Persian appears under the same form, J^jm 

Pyokan, as we have seen the terms for the Womb, Pukan, or Pugan, 


and we have likewise the simpler form ijM Pyok, bearing the same 
meaning. — We shall here be reminded of the Greek Phos, Phot-05, 
(<1>W9, <l>a)T09, Vir,) Pos/'s, (noo-i9, Maritus,) and of the English .sPouse, 
though the kindred words appear under the form SponsKS, and Sponsa, 
which cannot well be understood, till the form PN shall have been 
unfolded. The Race of words, which I have here endeavoured to 
illustrate, pervades the whole range of Human Speech ; yet the Examples 
which I have already produced, will be sufficient to communicate to us 
a due notion of the various turns of meaning, which these words are 
found to contain. 


B, F, &LC.I C, D, &c.^ /, &c. 

Words containing ideas, such as are expressed by the terms Pash, 
Push, Poke, Pike, sPike, Pitch, Put, ?;?Fix, Fix, Pat, Patter, Beat, 
Batter, &c. which belong to the action of ^Asning, Fvsmng, Fixing, 
FuTTitig, VATTEuing, &c. &c. among Pash, or Pudge matter, considered 
under a twofold division. 1st. Terms, relating to the sense of Vvsning, 
PoKi»g, infixing, Fixing, under the idea of what we express by Sticking 
into any thing, or together, as into, or among Sticky, or Pudge matter, 
in a state of Consistency, Tenacity, so that an object may remain inFixED, 
or Fixed. 2ndly. Terms, relating to the action of Fxsning, Fvsmng, 
BEAT/'wg", Batter?wo-, wlicrc the idea of tenacity does not appear, but 
rather that of making some Impression, or Impact, by Striking upon 
an object with various degrees of force, sometimes attended with the 
effects of Agitation, Dispersion, Commotion, Violence, &c. — Terms ex- 
pressing Haste, Bustle, Agitation, derived from the Agitation of Pudge 
matter, as Fidget, &c. — Terms relating to Noise, as Patter, &c. &c. 


M. ERMs, relating to the idea of Fusuing, inVixwg, Fixing, or 
Sticking into, up, out, together, as it relates to Pudgy, or Sticky 
matter, when considered, as in a Mass, in a state of Tenacity, 
Consistency , or Fixedness. Terms signifying To Hold Fast, To Bind, 
Entwine round. — To be Bound, Wound round, up, made up, as in 
a Bond, Bundle, derived from the idea of Sticky, Tenacious, or Pudge 
matter, adhering together, as in a Mass, or Lump. — Words expressing 
things, which end in a Point, Sharp things, things able to Stick in, &c. 

Push, Put, Poke, Pitch, Put, Fix, 

iiiFix, Fast, Fasten, &c. (Bug) 
Posiii, pePioi, FiGO, &.c. &c. (Lat.) 
PEGWMffii, (Gr.) To form into a consistent 

Mass, To Stick in, Figo, iriFigo, &c. 
FtT, Pat, oPt, qPths, oPto, 8cc. &c. 

(Eng. Lat. Gr.) 
Fist, F'aust, Pugwms, Pux, &c. (Eng. 

Germ. Lat. Gr.) 
4F1GG0, Faiig, Fingers, &c. (Gr. Eng.) 
PisTis, FiDes, Faith, 8tc. (Gr. Lat. Eng.) 

What makes Fast, or tliat, on which de- 

pcndance may be placed. 
PEisffja, (Gr.) A Rope. 

FiDfs, FiBicula, Fiddle, &c. (Lat. Eng.) 

From the strings, which tie, or Fasten. 
F(EDus, Wed, WEoning, &c. (Lat. Eng.) 

What Fastens. 
Fasc/o FAScis, FAGGot, &c. &c. (Lat. Eng. 

&c.) What Binds, or is Bound up. 
Withy, WicKer, Vitta, Vit«, &c. (Eng. 

Lat.) What is able to Fasten' Entwine. 
Basket, &c. &c. (Eng.) Made of Wicker. 
FiscMi, Fisciwa, &c. (Lat.) 
Pike, Peak, Beak, Peck, Vwk-Ax. 

Peg, &c. (Eng.) 
aPicfl, sViGot, «PiKE, (Lat. Eng.) 
«Pex, (Lat.) 

In this Fourth Section I shall consider that Race of words, which 
convey ideas, such as are expressed by the Terms Pash, Push, Poke, 
Pike, sPike, Pitch, Put, iwFix, Fix, Pat, Patter, Beat, Batter, &c. 
and which belong, as I conceive, to the action of FAsning, Fvsmng, 
Fixing, FuTring, FATrering, FA'rring, amidst, into, or upon, Pash, 
Pudge, or Sticky matter. I have already considered those words, which 

K K 

258 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J, K,Q,S,T,X,Y,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

relate to the action of Padd?wo-, or Vxssing amidst, or through Pudge 
matter, as connected with the Feet, in walking on the surface, or the 
Base of the Pedow, (FleSoj/.) The other portion of the discussion, which 
refers to this Race of words, may be divided into two separate Articles, 
for the convenience of arrangement ; though it must be understood, that 
the ideas unfolded in these several divisions, are often blended with each 
other. In the first of these Articles I shall consider those words, which 
belong to the action of PuDoiw^, Push?7/o-, ?7iFix/wg, Fix?/?o-, &c. or of 
Sticking into, up, out, together, &c. as it relates to Pudgy, or Sticky 
matter, when considered as in a Mass, or in a state of Tenacity, 
Consistency, or of Vixedness, if I may so say. — In the next Article I shall 
consider the action of VAsmng, Fusning, Beatw?^, &c. as into, or about, 
amongst, &c. Pudge matter, as it is connected with the idea of Dispersion, 
Separation, Agitation, Violence, &c. I must again repeat, that the ideas, 
which I shall examine in these separate articles, are perpetually blending 
with each other; and it may therefore be imagined, that terms will be 
inserted in one Article, which might be placed with equal justice in the 
other. — Something however must be done for the purpose of commodious 
arrangement, and such appeared to me the most convenient form, under 
which that arrangement could be made. 

In the present Article I consider those words, which relate to the 
action of PuDG/wg, if I may so say, Pusniwg', inFixitig, Tixing, or of 
Sticking into, up, out, together, as it relates to Pudgy, or Sticky matter, 
when considered as in a Mass, or in a state of Tenacity, Consistency, 
or of Fixedness. The term Stick is a fortunate term for the illustration 
of this Race of words ; as we know, that it belongs to the idea of Sticky 
Matter, and we see, how it relates likewise to the Sharp Poixxec? object, 
or Instrument accommodated for a certain purpose ; such as the Stick, 
which is able to Stick in, &c. I shall in this Article produce likewise 
those words, relating to objects, which signify to Grasp, or Hold Fast, 
To Bind, Enttvine round, or To be Bound, or Wound up, Rolled up, 
made up, as in a Bond, Bundle, all which, as I conceive, are derived 
from the idea of Pudgy, Tenacious, Sticky matter, adhering together, 
simply, or collected, as in a Mass, or Lump. We shall see, how the 


sense annexed to Bind may belong to the property of Tenacious Matter, 
when we remember the expression — Binding Clay ; and as we pass from 
Bind to Bundle, we see how the idea of Entwining may connect itself 
with the Lump, or Mass. I shall produce in this Article, among other 
terms, a Race of words, denoting Objects, or Instruments, terminating 
in a Point, which are able to Push, Poke, iwFix, &c. and which belong, 
as I imagine, to the action of Pudg»?^, or Sticking in, up, out, into, or 
amidst Pudge matter, &c. 

Among the terms, under the Element B, F, P, &c. \ C, D, G, &c. 
expressing the train of ideas above unfolded, we must class the following : 
FEGuumi, (UvyvuiJLi, Compingo, Compingendo struo et fabricor, con- 
crescere facio, congelo, cogo, Coagmento, Pango, Figo, Infigo, Yltjywfxai, 
Hcereo, Figo, Dirigeo,) a word containing most of the various senses, 
which I propose to examine in this Article, and which actually relates 
to a Pudgy state of things, to Sticking in, and to a mass of Pudge, 
or Sticky Matter, as in Pagos, (Uuyo^, Tumulus, Collis; Glacies, Gelu, 
concrcta Massa.") Let us note the explanatory and kindred terms, as the 
Etymologists acknowledge, Pango, and Figo : Pango, pePiGi, Pactmw, 
is explained by "To strike, or drive in, To Plant, or Fix plants in the 
" G7'0und. — To Fix, set out, or settle," to which belong, we know, 
FxcTuni, and PACiscor, as likewise Paco, Pax, with its derivatives Peace, 
Paix, (Fr.) The Etymologists understand the union of these Latin 
words, and likewise record under them the ancient word Pago, together 
with the Greek Pauo, Pauso, (Uavu), Uaucrw, Cessare facio.) The 
Latin Pungo, puYvoi, Punctum, "To prick, or sting," is only another 
form of Pango, &c. and hence the substantive Punctum, with its various 
parallels Point, (Eng. Fr.) &c. under the form PN. — Push, Put, Poke, 
Pitch, Fix, Fast, Fastcu, &c. (Eng.) which I shall separately examine. 

Push, (Eng.) has been compared with Pousser, or Poulser, and with 
Bussare, (Ital.) Percutere; though if Poulser be the true form, it does 
not belong to this race of words. In Push, Pustle, the sore, PusT?//a, 
we unequivocally see the Pudgy stuff. The Latin term Peto, Posco, 
PosTulo, means to Push at, after, into, any thing for various purposes, 
and among others for that of Enquiring after any thing. In the following 

K K 2 

260 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J, K,Q, S,T, X, Z. \l,m,n,r. 

passage, the term Posco, under the sense of Demand, is absolutely 
connected with an action, in which the Ground is described, as being 
?vs,ned into, or Routed up in the operation of Ploughing, "Nee tantum, 
" segetes alimentaque debita dives Poscebatur Humus; sed itum est 
" in Viscera Terrae." {Ovid. Met. I. 137-8.) — Put, (Eng.) has been 
justly referred to Poser, Posare, belonging to Posui, Vosifus, Pono, in 
which latter word we have the form PN. The origin of Put will be 
manifest from its adjacent word Putty, where we have the Pudge 
matter. The Latin Post?>, the Post, is that which is Stuck up. In 
Welsh the term Post means " what projects, or branches out, a Post," 
which is adjacent in my Welsh Dictionary to Pos«e^, " A round body, 
" or that swells out," and Poth, "That swells out, a Boss," where we 
see the idea of ' What Pudges out.' — Pitch, (Eng.) To Stick into, upon 
any thing, has been acknowledged by the Etymologists to belong 
to Pango, Figo, Utiyw/^i ; though Skinner has considered the term in 
two separate articles ; in one of which we have ' To Pitch upon ones 
' head,' where he has recorded Peser, (Fr.) and Ylirvaw. It appears 
not to be understood, that any relation exists between 'To Pitch,' the 
verb; and Pitch, Pix, Picis, the substantive; yet we shall now un- 
equivocally see, that 'To Pitch, To Stick,' is the verb belonging to 
Pitch, the Sticky matter. Skinner records Pight in his glossary of 
ancient words, as the participle of Pitch. In PiTCH-i^or^, FiG-Forch, 
(Welsh,) as in PicK-^a:e, we are directly brought to the spot; though 
here the action is that of Pvsmng, or Routing up, effected by that of 
Fvsmng, or Stickiyig in. The Greek Pipto, or Pito, cPeso/z, and FiTneo, 
(niTTTto, e-Trecrov, Cado, Ylirvew, Cado, Labor,) To Fall, To Slip, co- 
inciding with Pitch, when a person is said to Pitch upon his Head, 
and to Slip, brings us to the idea of walking upon Slimy, or Pitchy 
matter. The form PiTwao, {YliTvaw, Expando, Extendo, &c.) signiiies 
To Pitch, or To Put out, as in an extended manner. 

In the Poems attributed to Rowley, the sense of the verbs Pitch 
and Pight will illustrate my observations on the use of these terms. 
In the English Metamorphosis, (v. 75,) we have "To slea her where- 
" soever she shulde be Pyghte," i. e Pitched, or Settled, and in the 


Tournament, " Anenst all menne thou barest to the Grounde, Lyche 
" the hard hayle dothe the tall loshes Pyghte," where it means ' To Push, 
' or Beat to the Ground,' and in Godwin we have twice " Pyghte 
" doivne .•" In Ella we have (v. 6o8,) " Oppe hie the rootes oure tree 
" of lyfe theie Pyghtes," where it signifies To Push, or Rout up, as 
with a PicK-^ae, &c. Again the word occurs under the form Pete, 
as " Pete everych tree," &c. (Ella, looo,) in which passage Dean Milles 
explains the word by " Beat, or Pluck out," where he has used a kindred 
term under its due application. — In Shakspeare, {Licar, Act II. Sc. i.) 
we have " When I disswaded him from his intent, And found him Pight 
" to do it," &c. where Dr. Johnson properly observes, " Pight is 
" Pitched, Fixed, settled," and Mr. Steevens has justly referred us to 
a passage, in which Tents are said to be Pight, or Pitched, as w^e nov\ 
say ; where it agrees with the application of the Greek PEGm/o, Pexo, 
(J\y]'yvv^i, ^w, Ylti^aa-dai (TK^va^ em tov aiyiaXov.^ In English PiTT is 
another form of Pitch, &c. when we talk of ' A man FiTring his love 
* upon a girl,' and ' Pitt/wo- two combatants together,' just as we talk of 
'A Pitched Battle.' — In the expression 'Frned with the small pox,' 
it is impossible to separate the Pit, or Hollow from the idea of being 
Picked, if I may so say, Viqu6, Vicot^, or Stuck with the marks of the 
Small Pox. Hence we see, that Pitted, Hollowed into Pits, is nothing 
but Pitched, Picked, or Stuck into Pits. In the Italian Buttc'a-«^o, and 
the French Pico/d de petite verole, the idea of Sticking is annexed. 
John Florio explains Bvrrare by " To throw, to fling, to hurle. Also 
" to drive, or Thrust in,'' which belongs to our word Butt. — Robert 
Ainsworth, or Morell explains Pight in the English Vocabulary, by 
" Delapsus, Pos?7ms," &c. where in Positus we have a kindred word, 
and in the succeeding term we are brought to the spot supposed in my 
hypothesis, Pyghtel, " A small close, Agellus circumseptus." A Pyghtc/, 
is what we call sometimes ' A small Patch of Land,' where in Patch 
we come to Pudge Matter. Nathan Bailey gives us Pickle, Pightel, 
and Pingle, in which latter word we have the form PN. Pitch, as 
a substantive, is applied to the idea ot' Rising, Swelling, or Pudg?';?^ out, 
up, &c. if I may so say, as ' To Rise, or Mount to a high Pitch,' or, 

262 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

if I may so say, Pagos, (Jlayo^, tumulus, collis,) belonging to YEGnumi, 
(n>;7)/i//wt, Figo,^ To Pitch, or Stick, where let us note the term Moimf, 
which is derived from the Mount, Mountain, the Mom, Montis, (Lat.) 
the Mound, or Heap of Dirt, for a similar reason. It is marvellous 
to observe, how words continue to retain their original idea. In 
Shakspeare it is actually applied in the sense of a Substance, Rising, 
or VvxiGing out, with a direct allusion to a Lump of Dirt, or Pudge 
matter, under its plastic nature, " All men's honours Lie like one Lump 
" before him, to be fashioned into what Pitch he please," (^Henry VIII. 
Act II. Sc. 2.) — In the following passage of Shakspeare, Pitch, as a 
verb, is applied in its original idea of Sticking in the Mire, or Pudge. 
" His Spirits hear me, and yet I needs must curse ; but they'll nor pinch. 
Fright me with Urchin shows. Pitch me in the Mire,'' Sec. 

The English term Pay, with its parallels Payer, Pagare, (Fr. and Ital.) 
Solvere, is not derived from Pacare, Satisfacere, but it means simply 
to Pitch, Put, or Stake down, as we express it, where let us mark, how 
Stake belongs to Stick and Sticky, for a similar reason. — In our ancient 
writers the word Pay is accompanied with its kindred term Pitch, 
as in " Pitch and Pay." Pistol in his advice to his wife gives her the 
following caution, "Let senses rule; the word is Pitch and Pay ; Trust 
" none." — The term Pay is sometimes used in the more violent sense 
of PiTCHz'wg down, Beat?;?^', &c. under which application Skinner has 
referred it to Paio, (Ilata),) which is quasi Pajo, a similar term. This 
sense was likewise familiar to our ancient writers, " Seven of the eleven 
" I Paid," and on some occasions the term Pay directly signifies " To 
" Stick,'' as in the Twelfth Night, " I had a pass with him, rapier, 
" scabbard, and all ; and he gives me the Stuck in, with such a mortal 
" motion, that it is inevitable ; and on the answer, he Pays you as surely 
" as your feet hit the ground they step on : They say, he has been 
" Fencer to the Sophy." In the Nautical phrase ' To Pay the bottom 
' of a ship,' to smear it over with Pitch, we see the original idea. 

These terms signifying To Pitch, Put, &c. bring us to the French 
apPuYcr, and the Italian apYoaiare, To Rest upon. The preceding term 
to this latter word in John Florio's Dictionary is apVoGare, " To stifle, 


" to smother," which means ' To Pudge up,' and in the same column 
of his Dictionary we have apPiciare, in the interpretation of which he 
uses the verb, " To Pitch," and in an adjacent term we have apPiccare, 
" To hang, to pASxe/z, to Cleave unto," where in the term Cleave we 
approach to the original idea, but in those words, which appear in 
the same column with this latter term, we see most indubitably that idea 
fully displayed, as in apYiccaticcio, " Clammy, gluish, burrish," and 
opPiAsxriccmre, " To bedawh, to heplaister, to helomc. Also to Clam, 
"or Stick together; — apVAsrare, "To knead, or make Paste. — Also 
" to make clammy.'' I could not have devised terms so illustrative 
of my hypothesis. 

The English words Put, Pose, and the Latin terms Pono, Vosui, 
Fositu7ii mean, ' To Push, Pudge, or Fix in.' In the phrase ' To Pose 
' a person,' we have the sense of Setting him Fast, as we express it ; 
but in Puzzle we see the idea of Puddle, or as we say, ' To be Muddle 
' a person.' The term Puzzle, " The dirty slut," as N. Bailey explains 
it, belongs to the Puddle, as Slut belongs to Slush. We cannot but 
see, how Piddle, reddere urinam, relates to the Puddle, and when we 
talk of a person ' Piddling in Uttle vile matters,' it is almost in the sense, 
which we apply to a Puddling fellow. The application, by which 
words are brought to their original spot, and genuine idea, perpetually 
presents itself to our view. We have seen, that Pango, pePiGi, &c. 
means "To Plant, or Fix plants in the Ground,'' Laureas Pangere, 
and under this word I cannot but note another application, where the 
term has peculiar force, as derived from its original idea of impression 
on Soft Matter, Pangere Suavium. The term Figo " To Stick, Fix, 
" or Fasten," has the same appropriate sense, Fica^ liumo plantas; and 
that it is derived from Sticky matter will be unequivocal, when we 
remember a term under the same form Fig, as FiGulus, " A Potter, or 
" Worker of things in Clay," but in Italian the case is still, if possible, 
more indubitable, where Fitto not only signifies " Fixed, Fast, driven, 
" or Peg'd in," but Fitto, or Fitta, says John Florio, means " Also 
" a thrust, a punch, a foine, a Push. Also close driven, or hard woven. 
" Also J Slough of }Vaters. Also the Rut of a cart wheele in deepe 

264 B,F,P,V,W.J C,D,G,J, K,Q,S,T, X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

" and foule waies.'' The term Pono, Yosui, particularly signifies, * To 
' Plant,' &c. Ponere vites, Fositis, Arborihus, &c. and our English word 
Put, as Junius has remarked, was in its primary sense applied to opera- 
tions on the Ground, "Anglis verbum Put multiplicem habet usum, 
" quem passim inculcant Lexicographi Angli. Olim tamen primariam 
" verbi acceptionem ab Agriculturd desumptam puto. Nam Danis 
" etiamnum hodie Putter i jorden till at plante est Depa^igere, vel 
deYiGere surculum humi, ^vTeveivy We know, that Pango, peViGi, 
Pactmtw, To Plant, or Fix Plants in the Ground, and proPAGO, pr6?xGKte, 
have this appropriate sense. Let us mark the Greek Phutcwo, (^vrevto, 
Planto,) which may mean in its original sense, ' To Plant, or Put in,' 
and if so, then Phuto/?, Q^vrov,^ and perhaps Botane, (Borai/?/,) bear 
the same meaning. I have produced these terms, in another place, 
among a race of words, which signify ' To Stick up, or out, To Swell 
' out,' just as Put is used in a similar way, ' To Put, or Push forth, 
' leaves, buds,' &c. In many cases these ideas cannot be separated from 
each other. In Scotch Put is the form for Push, and perhaps our term 
'A queer Put,' may mean, as we say, 'The Butt of people,' 'The 
' person Push'd at, or attacked.' In Galic Putaw is To Push, adjacent 
to which is PuTog, A VvDning, where we are brought to the Pudge stuff. 
Again, in Mr. Shaw's Dictionary we have Yosam, "To stay, rest, Pitch, 
" lodge," and Fos, Fosadh, " A delaying, staying, resting, Yixitig, 
" Vircning; a prop, buttress, wall, or Ditch," where in the Ditch we 
are brought to the true spot, and to the Latin Fossa, Fod?*o, &c. Under 
another form we have Foisaw, "To Stop, rest." I must leave the 
Celtic Scholar to class the words adjacent to these under their due senses, 
as compared with the fundamental idea, such as Fos, the particle, signi- 
fying, "Yet, still, also," where in Still we see how it belongs to the 
idea of Rest, Fosram, To hire, which means likewise To Stop; — Fotho, 
A foundation, i. e. The Bottow, and " Fot, A giant. Raging, storming, 
" violent," which brings us to the adjacent term, the origin of all these 
words, FoTHach, "A lake, pond." We see how the Pond, or Pudgy 
Ground, as the Low Spot, may mean a Foundation, and as considered 
in its Swelling up State, how it may signify Raging, &c. If I should 


refer to the Irish Fos, Staying, Resting, the Greek Pauo, Pauso, (Flayw, 
Cessare facio, Flai/o-w,) the relation would be sufficientlj precise. 

The terms belonging to Figo, and Fix, in French are Fixer, FiGcr, 
FiCHer. The words Fix, Fixer are brought to their true idea in their 
Chemical sense of 'To Fix, or to deprive of volatility,' to keep in a 
compact state ; and the word Fioer actually means to Congeal, coagulate, 
&c. Adjacent to Ficner in my French Dictionary T see Fic, " A kind 
" of stinking Wart. — (A sort of Wart on the frush in horses,) Fig," 
and Fichu, " Sorry, pitiful," which mean ' The Swelling out Pudgy 
' Matter,' and ' What is Pudge, or File.' — The English Heraldic term 
FiTCHerf, "Acuminatus, vel in acutum apicem desinens," means, 'What 
* Sticks out in a Peak, or Pike ;' the succeeding word to which in 
Skinner is Fitcher, or Fitchow, Fissau, (Fr. G.) Fisse, Visse, (Belg.) 
" Viverra putida," which this Etymologist derives from PuTeo, and 
FcExeo, (Lat.) where in these Latin words we directly come to Foid 
matter. This animal however may be derived from its Sticking qualitv 
of inTixing its teeth. The terms Fast, FAsrew, (Eng.) have various 
parallels Fast, (Sax.) Fast, (Belg.) Fest, Fest, (Germ.) Fasten, Fahen, 
&c. &c, Wachter has justly referred to these words the Greek Piezo, 
and PiAzo, (Jlie^w, Ylia^w, premo,) and we cannot but see how the 
idea of Squeezing brings us to Squashy matter, as we term it in our 
vulgar Language. In our expression ' He is Fixed Fast in the Mud,' 
we see the true sense of the words, which I am considering. Fast often 
means simply Attachmetif to any thing, or being Close to any thing, 
as in " Fast by the Oracle of God," and among other interpretations 
Lye explains the corresponding Saxon word by Tenax, as ^r-F^ST, 
Honoris Tenax, Under F^ste, Firmiter, Lye produces a phrase, which 
brings us to the original idea, " Swithe F^ste to somne gc-Limeti, 
*' Firmissime Conglutijiatus," and again under Lam, Loam, Limus, 
Lutum, we have the following phrase, as a translation of a passage in 
the Psalms, " AriESTNot/ ic eom on Lame, Yixus sum in Luto,'' where 
let us mark, how Fixws is used in its just sense. Fast, as applied to 
Abstaining from Food with its parallels Fcestan, Fasten, (Sax. Germ.) 
&c. has been derived from A7rao-Tos ; but the German Lexicographers 


^6 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

have seen, that their term Fastcw, Servare, Custodire, observare, and 
TASTe?i, Jejunare, belongs to the same idea of what is Fast, or Firm. 
In such phrases as ' To Fast on bread and Water,' or as we might say, 
' He continues to Fast, or Keeps Fastw^ on bread and water,' we 
perceive, that Fast means ' To keep Fast, Finn, or Constant to the diet 
' of bread and water,' or ' To Keep, or Stick,' as we express it, * to 
' bread and water.' In periods, when Abstinence, or Keeping from 
Food, was the great exercise of Constanci/, or Firmness, we shall not 
wonder, that these ideas have been entangled with each other. The term 
Fast, in the sense of Quickness, Dispatch, or Diligence, still belongs 
to the same idea of Sticking Fast, or Constant to any employment. 
In Hard we have a similar union of ideas, as * He keeps Flai^d to study,' 
and He * Runs Hard.' We shall find in the course of these enquiries, 
that many terms of Motioji have been derived from the soft matter of 
Pudge in agitation, and such might have been the origin of Fast, Citus ; 
yet the process, which I have given, seems to be the true one. The 
original idea, however, still continues to operate, and cannot often be 
separated from a turn of meaning, belonging to another process. 

Some derive Fast, Firmus, or^-AsT, from Estos, and IsTewf, (Ecrrws, 
IerT^;jU^,) and I can have no objection to the opinion, that these forms 
ST, ./-ST have passed into each other. If this conception should be just, 
the idea of Stability will be derived from that of Sticki?ig in, to, up, 
out, &c. That is, if we suppose the sense of the Element *C, *S, *T, &c. 
to be that of Sficki/ p-VoGE, or z^^Ash, &c. matter, every thing will 
aptly agree, and we shall then understand by what peculiar idea all 
the terms, under that form, which I discussed in a former Work belong 
to each other, and to the words before us. Under the form Vest, 
Firmus, validus, &c. Wachter has properly applied the explanatory 
word Tenax, where the idea of Tenacity, which is, we know, applied to 
Sticky matter, brings us to the original idea. Wachter has supposed, 
that some names of Warriors have been derived from this idea of Firm- 
ness, annexed to Vest, as Ario-YisTus, YASTmar, &c. In German Veste 
is Firmamentum, and Domus, what is Fast, or Strong, and hence we 
have as Wachter observes, Vesta, (Lat.) ' Terra Firma,' as it might 


be called, which in Greek becomes Estia, (Ecrna, Focus, Lar, Domus, 
Vesta,^ to which probably belongs Hodse, &c. To Vest, Fast, belongs 
Vest?o, (Lat.) and V^est/5, with its various parallels, the Garment, what 
FASTe//s a person in ; and hence To be mVESTec? with a property means 
' To be Secured in a property,' — To 7'«Vest a Town, To FASTe«, or 
Inclose it with troops, &c. In Greek we have the form EsTHes, (Eo-0>;?,) 
but I shall forbear to examine the words under this form, VS, or t'-*S, 
which passes into "S ; as they will be considered in a separate Article. — 
In German Tunch means " Litura e calce, gypso, vel Ctcmento," and 
Tunica; which Latin word, we see, belongs to the German term, under 
the metaphor of a Clay covering. The word Coat in English is attached 
to a similar metaphor of a Coating of Clay. In Belgic the term Vast, 
corresponding to Fast, is brought to its true sense, when it is applied 
in the phrases " Een Vaste Grond, A firm Ground." — Het Vasts Land, 
" The Firm Land, or Continent," &c. — Vast hlyven, raahen, " To Stich 
" to, Vast Lymen, To glue, to Fastc^ with glue," as my Lexicographer 
explains it, where let us mark, how Lymen, To Glue, or Lime belongs 
to Limus, Mud, for a similar reason. Adjacent words to these in my 
Dutch Dictionary are YATren, " To take, catch, apprehend, gripe," which 
is another form of Vast, Fast, &c. and Vat, "A Fat, tun," &c. which 
I conceive to be brought to its true sense, when we talk of a Fat, as 
applied to a Ta«-PiT ; the Low Hollow Pudge spot. From the Fat, Vat, 
Pit, or Hollow of the Ground, we have the Hollow of a Barrel, the Vat, 
Vas, Vessel, &c. I shall shew, that Vasto, Waste, Vaco, Vacuus, &c. 
belong to the idea of the Bog, or ^'Wag Spot. The notions of Boggv, and 
Spungy matter are directly combined with each other, and in the sense 
of Spungy matter, we see unequivocally the notion of Insterstitial 
VACuity, if I may so express it. Nathan Bailey explains Spungy by 
" Holloiv like a Spunge." I shew, that Vacillo belongs to Waggle, 
or Boggle, and Vago, To Wag, or Bog about, and hence w^e shall see, 
how YAoina, the Hollow, may belong to Vago. The term Vag?o, 
the indistinct, inarticulate Noise, belongs to the term of Commotion 
Vago. In such expressions as " Gladius YAoina Yacuus,'' — Ense ebur 
YACuum, we see how the Vag and Vac in VAG?'«a, and Yacuus, belong- 
to each other. 

L L 2 


B,F,P,V,W.J C,D,J, K,Q,S,T,X, Z.( l,m.,n,r. 

The various terms, belonging to our Element, which convey a similar 
sense to such w^ords as Fast, Fasten, must be referred to the idea, from 
which these words are derived. Some of these terms unequivocally 
present this fundamental meaning, and others are sufficiently manifest- 
We shall at once acknowledge, that our familiar term Fetch, which is 
applied to so many purposes, must be referred to this source, and that 
the original notion of the term is that of Taking hold of any thing. 
Taking up any thing, or being Attached to any thing, place, or action, 
so as ' To Bring, Carry, Procure, Perform, Effect,' &c. The word Take 
is used likewise, we know, for a great variety of purposes, and corres- 
ponds in most instances with the application of Fetch. The Ety- 
mologists understand, that Fetch belongs to this Race of words, by 
producing, as parallel, the terms Feccan, (Sax.) Adducere, and Vatcw, 
VxTTen, (Belg.) " Comprehendere, Tenere, Capere," Let us mark the 
Latin Teneo, and remember its sense of Tenacious Matter, Clay, &c. 
Tenax Bitumen, " Loca Tenacia gravi cceno,'' &c. from which we shall 
learn, that it belongs to such words, as Tunch, Thon, (Germ.) Clay, 
Mud, &c. for a similar reason. While I examine pEccaw, To Fetch, 
in my Saxon Dictionary I cast my eyes on pEcaw, Jungere, to which 
belongs Fog, "Conjunctio, connectio ;" and the next term to this I find 
YoGere, Procus. Fair means in Scotch, " To grasp, to inclose in 
" one's hand," where Dr. Jamieson has justly recorded from Ruddiman 
the Belgic Voeghen, Conjungere, as likewise Facken, (Fland.) Appre- 
hendere, Empoigner, (Fr.) Fae, Fick, or Faek, (Isl.) Capio, though he 
has not seen that it belongs to the familiar term Fast. 

The articles in Dr. Jamieson's Dictionary next to Faik, ' To Grasp,' 
&c. are Fair, signifying " To fold, to tuck up," and Faik, " A Fold 
" of any thing, as a ply of a garment," where we see the idea o( Matter 
adhesive, or conjoined to Matter; but in Faik, " A Stratum of stone in 
" a quarry," we are brought to the very spot, supposed in my hypothesis. 
Our author has produced parallel words for the Fold, as Fake, (Eng.) 
" among seamen a coil of rope," Veck, Wika, Vika, Faggor, (Swed.) 
to which he refers pAcewf/, and Fockcw, (Teut.) To Hoise up the Sails. 
Dr. Jamieson faintly acknowledges, what others have observed, the 


relation between Fair, To grasp, or Inclose in one's hand," and To Faik, 
To Fold. These words might have been explained by 'To infold, or 
* Inclose,' and ' To Fold.' The German Fock, Velum, to which Wachter 
has produced as parallel VoGuer, " plenis velis navigare," seems to belong 
to Vague, the Waves, and the terms of motion. Wag, Yagok, &c. 
We have likewise in Dr. Jamieson's Dictionary, adjacent to the above 
terms, Faik, the name of the Fish, called the Razor bill, which appears 
under the form Faik, where we see probably the true form, Faik, 
" To lower the price," which Dr. Jamieson refers to Falka, licitari, 
" Faik, To fail, to become weary," which he has justly referred to the 
English Weak, Fekna, (Swed.) Flaccescere, &c. &c. and " To Faik, 
" To stop, cease," which he attributes to Faik. This word for Fa'mtness 
belongs to Pudge, or Matter in its dissolved state. Faik, To lower, 
means to be in a IVeakened state. In the same opening of Dr. Jamieson 
we have a term, answering to our familiar word Fade, — "To Fade, 
" To taint, to corrupt," where we see the idea of vileness annexed to 
the term. We have likewise Fadge, " A Bundle of Sticks," and FagoW, 
" Fog-^o^," under the latter of which words Dr. Jamieson observes, 
that it is evidently the French Fagot, a little disguised, though he sees 
not this relation in the first word, which however he has yery justly 
compared with such terms, as geFeg, " commissura, com^Ago ;" where 
let us mark Pago, belonging to Pango, peV\Gi, PACTUtn, a kindred term, 
Foeg, (Belg.) A joining, &c. Our author here produces FAO-etid, 
which means the File end ; and Fag, To be Fagg'(/, signifies " To be 
" all in a Pudge, or Puther, or to be in a Muddled state, as we express it. 
But Fadge likewise means "A large flat loaf, or bannock," where we 
are once more brought to the original idea of a Lump of a Pudgy kind. 
The term too means " A lusty and clumsy woman," and in the combi- 
nation " Fat Fadge, (And I shall hae nothing to my sell But a Fat 
" Fadge by the fyre,") we have kindred words joined with each other. 
The next article in this Dictionary is 'I'o Fadle, Faidle, " To walk in 
" an awkward and IFaddling manner," where our author sees some 
resemblance to the English Waddle, " The origin of which," as he says, 
" is very uncertain," Yet the next article Fado/;/, " A Fatho/w," a mea- 


B,F,P,V, W.| C,D,J,K,Q,S,T,X, Z.} l,m,n,r. 

sure, which in Islandic, as he informs us, signifies a Bottom, might 
have unfolded the mystery. Our author might have passed from Fathom, 
' To Fathom the depth of a Water,' or to find the Bottom, Vadum, or 
Ground, to the action, which we express by Wade, and from Wade, 
Vado, (Lat.) we proceed without any violent effort to Waddle. These 
words under other forms become Wag, Waggle, Vacillo, Boggle, &c. 
which again brings us by another process to the BOG. 

We see in the Islandic terms Fae, Fich, or Facck, that the idea 
annexed to Fast, appears under the form Fae, without the second 
consonant of the Radical FC; and thus it appears in other Languages, 
as Fahen, (Germ.) where Wachter refers us to words of the same meaning 
under the form F*, and among other terms, to the Greek Piao, (lltaw,) 
in which Language we have the form PZ, as in the terms before pro- 
duced, PiAzo, and Piezo, (Ilta^w, Uie^ca, Prehendo.) Wachter likewise 
refers us to Fangen, To Catch, Seize, &c. which brings us to Fang, 
Fingers, &c. where we see how the form FG, or FGG, connects itself 
with the form FN, FNG, as in the Greek «Figgo, or sFingo, CZcpiyyw, 
Constringo.) The name of the Sphinx, or sPigx, (^(pij^, Sphinx,) 
is acknowledged to belong to this term for Constriction, and "The 
" Sphinxes," as Dr. Vincent has observed, {Perip. of Eryth. Sea, p. 28.) 
" are supposed to be Apes by Wesseling, and from their tameness it is 
" probable." I know not, whether this enquiring Scholar understands, 
that the Greek names for the Ape and the Sphinx constitute the same 
term, as Pithex, or Pithx, and sPigx, or Pigx, (Ui6n^, Simla, and 
2^J7^.) The Prophetic qualities of the Ape, or Sphinx continued to 
a late period ; as we all remember from the well-known adventures of 
Gines de Passamonte. 

To the words, now under discussion, Piezo, Pieso, &c. (Jlie^w, 
riteo-w,) we must refer the Greek terms Pas, cwPas, diamFAx, oPax, 
em?\zomai, as?AZoniai, (lias, Omnis, ATras, Omnis, E^uTras, Omnino, 
prorsus, Aiafxira^, Penitus, prorsus, kira^, Semel, Omnino, prorsus, 
EfXTra^o/uLaL, Curo, rationem habeo, revereor, Aa-ira^o^ai, Amplector,) 
which all relate to the idea of Sticking, or Squeezing together, as into 
one single Mass, or Lump, or so as ' To be attached to, Cling about,' &c. 


Schneider in his German and Greek Dictionary explains asVxzomai, 
(Aa-Tra^o/jLai,) by unipASse?!, To Fastc/z about. This idea will shew us, 
how Pas, (lias,) may belong to its adjacent terms in our Greek Vocabu- 
laries Pxssaleuo, (Tlaa-a-aKeuw, Palum FiGo,) To Fix, or Stick together 
with a Peg, &c. and Passo, (Uacra-w, Conspergo ; — Intexo, contexo,) 
relating to Pash, or Pudge matter. Sticking together, as in the sense of 
Intexo. In the following passage one of these terms is joined with a 
kindred word, in its appropriate and original sense, referring to agents 
and instruments of mighty force, DiamVxx VASSkleii', &c. &c. " Peg 
" down quite firm and Fast his stubborn jaws with a Wedge of Adamant," 
AZafxavTivov vvv acpnvo^ avBaht] yvaOov 1,Tepvwv AiafiTra^, Ylaa-a-aXev 
eppw/uLevo^, (^jEschyl. Prometh. 64-5.) Here the Commentators have 
supplied us with another passage, where the same word is applied, 
relating to the action of Yixing by a nail, Tiovl' €(pri\wraL Topw^ yo/jLcpo^ 
Aia/jiTra^. In the compound GomfoFAGes, (TofxcpoTrwyij^, Clavus 
firmatus,) and in the Latin interpretation of Gomfoo, (To/mfpow,) clavis 
Compingo, we see in Pagcs from ^EGnuwi, (nriyvv/ni,^ and pePiGi 
belonging to Pango, Compingo, kindred terms. We cannot help per- 
ceiving, how the Latin word Palus, the Peg, or Pen, coincides 
with Palus, the Pool, or Lake of Sticky matter, and how Clavus belongs 
to such words as Cleave, Clammy, &c. derived from the Sticky Clay. 
The term eni?Azomai, EjjLira^ofiai, Curo, rationem habeo, Revereor,) 
signifies * To be Attached to, or to be About,'' for the purpose o( Attending, 
Taking care of; and in the familiar phrase Ovrt Qeoirpoiria's EfXTra^oinai, 
tjvTiva oila, the term means ' I am not Attached to, I do not Attend 
' to, or pay any Attention to any thing of a Divine nature, which I have 
' heard,' &c. The word Attend, Attendo, relates to Attachment, almost 
under a similar idea. In the same leaf of my Greek Vocabulary with 
emPAzoJuai, (E/ivra^Ojuat,) I perceive e;//PisTt'//o, [E/nTTtarTevw, Fido,) 
where the Pist and the Fid, relate, as I have shewn, to the idea of 
what a person is firmly Fixed, or VASTened to, in, &c. The preceding 
term to this is emPis, (EyUTrts, Culicis genus,) which means the Animal, 
which inYxy^es, or Sticks itself into a person. Schneider explains e;;/Pis, 
by " Die Steckmucke,'" The Sticking animal. In the next column of my 

372 B,F,P,V, W.} C, D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

Dictionary to that, in which asYAZomai, (Ao-Tra^o/iat,) is, I see «sPis, 
(ATTTTts, Clypeus, Aspis serpentis genus,) which contains the same idea 
of Cleaving to, or about a person ; where let us note the Latin Clypeus, 
which belongs to the very term Cleave, relating to Sticky matter ; and 
we now understand, that asPis, in the sense of the Asp, or Serpent, 
the idea of inFixing, or Sticking in, is still preserved. I have produced 
on a former occasion terms for Following, or what we express by 
' Going After a person,' as Post, (Lat.) Puis, (Fr.) Pues, (Span.) 
&c. &c. «Fter, (Eng.) &c. oPiso, (OTTitro),) oPedco, aPADeo, oPazo, 
(OTTtjBew, OTTudew, Comitor, O-Tra^w, Persequor,) oPizomal, oPis, {Otti^o- 
fxai, Curo, revereor, caveo, rependo, ulciscor,) which, as I have observed, 
contain the sense of Following, either for the purpose of Respect, or 
Revenge, and which are derived probably from the notion of Pressing 
about, on, upon, Pv&mng on, or at, in an action of regard, or of annoy- 
ance. It is marvellous to observe, how kindred terms become connected 
with each other, as in OTrt^o/uei/o)!/ 8' E/x7ras tjs enrev kui role, &c. 
{Pind. Pyth. p. 152-3.) 

In Danish Faae is, "To get, receive, obtain, gain, acquire," and 
the Danish Scholars, I trust, understand, that their familiar particle of 
Attachment, Paa, " On, upon, at, in, after," belongs to the same idea, 
as in such expressions, as PAA-Gribe, "To apprehend, seize, take hold of," 
Paa-Faeste, " To Fix, or Fasten on," as my Lexicographer explains it, 
PAA-Kline, "To Paste upon," Paa-Passe, "To observe, have an eye 
" upon," where it is joined with a kindred word Passe, "To be Fit, 
" adequate, adapted, conformed, congruous, or congruent to." Let us 
note the explanation of the Danish Passe by Fit, and odApTed, from 
whence we shall see, that Fit, oPt, aPrus, oPto, (Lat.) oPto, aPromai, 
(Atttw, Necto, kirrofxai, Tango, Haereo,) together with Fadge, (Eng.) 
which N. Bailey explains by "To agree, to be adaPred to, to be made 
" Fit." and Pat, must be likewise added to this Race of words. 
In Aphe {A(pn, Tactus, &c.) we have the form *F. The term aPTO, 
(Atttw, Accendo,) means nothing but ' To Catch fire,' as we express 
it, and the very word in Belgic, corresponding to these terms, Vattcw, 
" To take. Catch, apprehend, gripe," is applied in one of its senses 


in the same manner, as " Het tender wou geen Funr Vatten, the 
" tinder would not Catch fire." The Greek a?Tomai, (hirrofiai,') means 
To Fasten to, or be Attached to, and likewise in a more violent sense, 
To pASxe/? on, as we express it. To Seize, Lay hold on, Catch, &c, 
A well known passage in Thucydides will illustrate the latter sense of 
this word : ' The Beasts and the Birds of Prey,' says he, ' or those, which 
' are wont to pAsxew on, or Seize men, at the time of the plague, when 
' many carcases were unburied, either did, not approach them at all, or 
' were destroyed by tasting them,' " Ta opvea kui rerpuTroda, ocra avQpwTrwv 
" aTrrerai, TroAXwt' aracpcov jiyvoimevwv, >; ov irpotnjei, jj •yeva-aiitva 
" hefpdeipeTo y In Danish the verb Fatte, which belongs to Fast, 
" To hold Fast, be Fast, Stick Fast," is exactly applied, as the Dutch 
Y.vrren, and as the Greek words are in the sense of Seizure, and 
Catching Fire, when it signifies "To Catch, take. Seize, lay hold of, 
" apprehend. To take, or Catch Fire," as my Lexicographer explains it. 
The Etymologists have justly referred Fadge to geFegan, (Sax.) Com- 
ponere, Fitgen, Foeghen, Focken, (Germ, and Belg.) "Conjungere, 
" Adaptarey Fit is derived by Skinner from Fait, (Fr.) Factum, and 
Junius only understands, that it may belong to a Flemish term Vitten, 
Aptare, Fits, Frequens, and a Greek word Fitta, {<biTTa,) a term of 
exhortation to Haste. The substantive Fit of an ague he refers to this 
Flemish term Fits, and Skinner reminds us of Fights. — In the expression, 
* To fall into a Fit, To sink down in a Fainting Fit, A Fit of Melancholy,' 
we seem to have the original idea, which appears to be nearly the same 
as ' To fall into a Pit, a Pudgy Qwag spot, or Situation.' We see how 
Quick belongs to Qwag, Quick-sands, &c. and this will shew us, hovs- 
Fit partakes of the sense of Un steady. Loose, violent motion, or Luctation, 
if I may so say, as of a person struggling in this species of matter, 
' He fell into strong Fits,' &c. If we say, that Fits is quasi Fights, 
we come nearly to the same idea, as I shew, that Fight, Pugwo, belongs 
to the sense of ^Asmng about, &c. The Latin Luctari is quasi in 
Luto Niti. The German Anstoss, " A Fit, Access, Paroxysm, " 
belongs to Anstossen, " To hit, dash, kick, knock against, in der Rede, 
" To Hesitate, stammer. Stick, hum and haw," where in Stick we see 

M M 

374 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

the true sense of the word Stossen, which my Lexicographer explains by 
" To Thrust one, Push a thing, give them a thrust, or Push, &c. — 
" Etwas in morser Stossen, To Beat, pound, bray, bruise, or stamp 
" something in a Mortar." Here Stossen under the Element ST-S, 
relating to the idea of Sticking, Sticky Matter, &c. has precisely the same 
meaning, which 1 annex to Beat, Push, Pash, &c. in their violent sense, 
as belonging to Pudge Matter. But the German Anstossen has another 
sense, which relates to Sticky matter in its adhesive application. Just as 
I suppose Fit, the adjective and verb, to belong to Pudge, as this 
German word signifies " To be contiguous, adjacent, Joining, confined." 
Thus we see, that there certainly is a process, by which Fit, the sub- 
stantive, ' The Ague Fit,' may be connected with Fit, the adjective 
and verb, relating to Joining; and it is probably the process, which 
I have supposed. 

The Latin aVTus explained in Robert Ainsworth's Vocabulary by 
'' Tied, Johied, Fitted, Pat, close," where let us again note the term 
Pat, which we shall at once allow to belong to the verb 'To Pat, strike, 
' or Pash against any thing.' The term Pat, as a verb, most unequivo- 
cally brings us to an action upon Soft, Paste like matter, and this idea 
of its original sense has operated in producing the application of the word 
on the following occasion, in a well known stanza in the verses of our 
children, " Pat a Cake, Pat a Cake, Bakers Man, So I do. Master, 
" as fast as I can." The repetition of this stanza is accompanied by 
the action of Pxning the Hands, where the word is again applied in the 
service of Soft matter. We have seen the Danish Passe, to which there 
is annexed an adjective Pas, Fit, which means likewise " A Pass, 
" Passage." Here is another confirmation of my hypothesis; as I shew, 
that To Pass signifies ' To go among the Pudge.' The compound 
TO-Pas my Lexicographer explains by " To the purpose, Pat/z/." In 
Dutch likewise we have Pas, " Fit, ViTring, convenient, Pat, proper, 
" in time," as my Lexicographer explains it ; and there is a verb likewise 
Passcm, "To Fit." In Dutch likewise Pas is a Pass^jwc and Pace, 
an adjacent term is FAstey, a Pie, where we are brought directly to 
Pudge Matter. In Swedish Passa means "To Fit, to suit, to Adapt," 


and Pass is a Pass; and the next word to these terms in my Swedish 
Dictionary is Patt, " Bubby, Breast, Pap." In the same opening of 
my Swedish Dictionary, I see Puss, " Puddle, Plash." The next terms 
to Puss are Puss, Trick, and Vusserly, Comical, Ludicrous. In the 
same column of Nathan Bailey's Dictionary with Fadge, we have Page 
" A Merry tale," which Skinner derives from Foegen, Laetus. We now 
see, that Page belongs to Fadge, Fudge, Pudge stuff; just as Puss 
in Swedish relates at once to a Puddle, and to what is Comical. In 
the Hindostajiee Dialects Pauss is the sign of the Dative case, signifying 
" Near to," as " Sauheb Ray Pauss jaou, Go fa, (or rather, Near to^ 
" master," as Mr. Hadley explains it (^Gram. 28.) Dr. Gilchrist produces 
as Hindostanee, or in this case Sanscrit, for To Stick, or To adhere 
(in Mud,^ Yiivsna, Buj//o. Perhaps the Latin Post, «Pud, " Close by, 
" nigh," should be referred to these words ; and the definition of Festus 
seems to confirm this idea, who observes, " Apud mutuam loci et 
" personje Conjunctionem significat." The Danish Ved, " By, at, on, 
" about," and the Swedish Wid, or Vid, "Near, nigh, about, at, upon, 
" by," must be referred, I imagine, to these words, and this will bring 
us to the English With, and some of its parallels, under the form MD, 
the German Mit, which Wachter explains in one sense by aPuD, 
the Swedish Med, and the form MD supplies such terms as Mix, Mass, 
&c. where we have the same idea. The French Puis is acknowledged 
by Menage, &c. to belong to Post. — In the Malay Language jj PD, 
or Pada signifies " At, to, on, in; according to," as Mr. Marsden explains 
it, (sub voce ;) and it is applied to nouns, in order to express the Dative 
and ablative Cases, similarly to the Hindoo Paus, as Ka Pada rumah, 
To a House, Deri Pada rumah, From a House, (Malay Gramm. p. 32.) 
The term Pada is the succeeding word in Mr. Marsden's Dictionary 
to PiCHE, "Mire; clay; Miry," where we are brought to the original 

The same union of ideas, which we find in the above terms between 
Pass, Pace and Pat, Fit, Joining, Cementing, &c. is visible in the 
kindred Greek terms hiExzo, (Bifiu^w, vi admoveo, adigo, venire facio ;) 
To make to Pass forward, or to Push, or Put forward, on, &c. and 

M M 2 

276 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

sum-bi-BAzo, CZv/jifiifSa^a), Concilio, &c. Coagmento, &c. 'To Pur 
' together, so as to Join, Cemetit, make Pat, Fit,' &c. We all remember 
that this latter word is applied with great force by St. Paul, {Ephes. iv. i6.) 
" E^ ov irav ro trwfxa (ruvapjxoXo'yovfxevov, Kai ^v/Ji^ilSa^Ofxevov" &c. 
(^Vid. etiam Epist. ad Coloss. ii. 19.) "From whom the whole body 
" Fifli/ joined together and Compacted,'' &c. where let us note two 
kindred terms, Fit and cowPact, In Schleusner's representation of the 
original idea of this word, he justly tells us, " Est verbum proprium de 
" fabris lignariis, qui trabes, vel asseres ita compingunt et conjungunt, 
" ut arctissime coeant et cohcereant. Respondet nostro In einander 
" Fest, zusammenfugen ;" which means "To join, or Fit, Fast, or firmly 
" together one into another," where let us note the kindred German 
terms Fest, and Yvoen. My Lexicographer explains Fuoew, by " To 
"join, unite, Put together," and "Es VvGte sich, It came to Pass," 
where we see again, how Pass by another process connects itself with 
these words. I cannot forbear producing a term belonging to our 
Elementary Character, which occurs in a verse preceding that, to which 
I have referred for the use of sum-biBAzo, (Ei//i/3i/3a^a),) in the Epistle 
to the Colossians. This word is emBATeiio, (E/i/^arei/w, Fastuose incedo, 
Invado, Ingero, &c.) which means ' To Pass, Pad, Pace, or Stalk about, 
' into,' &c. and to Push Thrust on, forward, in, into, &c. or to Intrude, 
as we express it, by which latter term it is translated in our version, 
" Intruding,'' (^vn^aTevtav,^ " into those things, which he hath not 
" seen," &c. (Coloss. ii. I8.) I perceive in my Greek Vocabulary 
ewBATE, (Eju/Sar/j, Solium, vel alveus, sive Vas, quo in balneo ad 
lavandum utuntur,) where in Vas we have a kindred term, and we see 
in the sense of Alveus, the Pudge Low Spot, or Bottom, into which 
men Sink, or Pass, Push, Pash, in, down. 

It is marvellous to observe, how words composed of the same 
materials, though not directly belonging to each other, conduct us to 
the same idea. In Spanish we have the compound EmEvTWy explained 
in Mr. Neuman's Dictionary, by "To inlay, to enchase one thing in 
" another, To mix confusedly, to jumble, To cram, to eat much," which 
might be explained by " Ingerere," and in the same page of this 


Dictionary I see Em-Bvcnar, "To Stuff with minced pork, or other 
" meat," &c. which brings us to the French Boucher, To stop, or 
Bung up, and Em-FAcare, "To Pack up in Chests," Em-^Acnar, 
" To Impede, embarrass, to disturb," which bring us to the French 
Em-TECHer, Ehi-Buste, Fraud, Imposition. Let us mark the term 
//^-Position, and we cannot but perceive in all these terms, the idea 
of VuTTftig, or FvDGing in, on, &c. I find likewise Em-Bvoar, " To 
" Put a funnel, or Mouth-piece to a Wine-Bag," and em-BvDO, " Funnel, 
" or Pipe, by which liquors are poured into vessels," where we at once 
see the sense of Yvrrhig in, and of the Hollow, or Pit. In the next 
page of Mr. Neuman's Dictionary we are directly brought to the train 
of ideas here untblded ; as we find eiiiYxTar, " To equal, or make equal," 
i. e. To make things Pat, or YiTied to each other, and em?\?,Tar, 
" To Paste, to form with Paste." The proper sense of all the Greek 
words Baino, or Bajwo, Beso, Bazo, Bx-reuo, &c. (Batvw, Gradior, 
incedo, abeo, coeo de animalibus in Perf. etiam Situs et Fixus sum, 
Fundatus sum, B>/o-w, EnfiifiaXw, Impono, e. gr. navi, Impello, deduco, 
E;u/3aTei;w,) is ' To Put, Fix, Pash,' &c. as on the Ground, sometimes 
with the idea of Motion, as To Put Toorsteps, or To Pass, Incedere, 
or of Force and Violence, as To Push on, Impellere, and sometimes 
under that of Stability, To Put, or Fix, as on a Base, Base's, (Bao-iv, 
Fundatus sum ; and then To Put, Fix, Push, &c. in general. The terms 
Bad/«o, (BaSt^ft),) and Vado bring us to VADwm and Pudge matter, 
and mean To Pash, or Pad about. In Bazo, (Ba^w, Loquor,) and 
Bauzo, (Bau'C^co, Latro,) we have the idea of Noise, as in Push/w^- about. 
In modern Greek Bazo, (Ba^w,) is the familiar term for Vo&ition, " Ich 
" setze, lege, stelle, porre, ponere, mettere," as Weigel explains it. In 
the same page of Weigel is the term BagmWzo, (BwyvpiK^to, Ich be- 
schimpfe, &c. I affront, insult, &c. and Bagga, {Bwyya, Der Graben, 
Fossa,) the Ditch, &c. where we are brought to the original idea. In 
Homer Bese, (B>;<re,) denotes To Put simply, or To Push, Beat, or 
Drive down to the Ground with the greatest violence, Es I' eKuro^firitf 
B^;o•e, &c. "fis tov<s afx<pOT€pov^ e^ nnrwv TfSews i/ios Btjcre, kukuk 
aeKovras, Sec. in which places the Scholiast explains Bese by en-e-hi- 
Base, (Ej/e/3j/3a<re, eve6t}Ke,^ and Kat-e-bi-B ASEN, (KarelSi^aa-ev.) 

378 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| /, m, n, r. 

The preceding term to Fit in Skinner is Fist, which has various parallels, 
some of which Fist, Vuyst, Fmist, (Sax. Belg. Germ.) are produced 
hv this Etymologist, who has justly referred us to Fassen, Prehendere, 
To Hold Fast. This is one idea, annexed to the Hand ; yet there is 
another, which is that of BE.vri?ig, and to this notion some of the terms, 
denoting the Hand, seem to attach themselves. These ideas cannot in 
many cases be separated. If we say, that the Fist meant the ^UDoing 
member, the Vixing, or i7iFixing member, we shall get all its senses of 
Sdc/i'ing, Holding, or Seizing Fast, and of FxsHhig, Fusning, BEAring. 
Hence we have Fugnus, Pugno, (Lat.) Fight, (Eng.) Fight, &c. (Sax.) 
Fechten, (Germ.) Vichten, (Belg.) &c. &c. Pux, Puktemo, (Hi;^, 
Pugno, vel Piignis, YlvKTevw, Pugilatu certo,) with the Celtic terms 
for the Fingers, which according to Lhuyd, are Bys, (Welsh,) Bez, 
(Arm.) and Bes, (Corn.) — The term Finger has various parallels Finger, 
.(Sax. Dan. and Germ.) Finger, (Belg.) Fanger, (Germ.) Capere, pro- 
duced by the Etymologists ; with the English Fang, &c. I consider 
Fang, Finger, to be quasi Fagg, Figg?-, and to belong to these words 
Fast, Fist, &c. In the Greek sFiggo, {^(piyyu), Stringo,) which the 
Etymologists produce, we see the form FG. To these words we must 
add the Greek Fechus, {Ut]xv^, Cubitus, Mensura a cubito, &c.) PuGwe, 
(rivyimt], Piignus, manus in Pugnum contracta, Mensura spatii a cubito 
ad Pugnum,^ from which we have the term Pygw^, Fuomaios, (Uuy- 
/jLuio^, ^quans seu explens, Uuyfxtjv, Pygmaeus, Nanus, pumilio, pusillus 

The various terms, which relate to what we call Faith, mean 
nothing, but that, which is Fast, or Secure, that on which a person 
tirmly relies. Among these terms we must class Fido, Fioes, (Lat.) 
Faith, (Eng.) with the terms in modern Language, as Foi, (Fr.) where 
the second consonant of the Radical is lost, Fede, (Ital.) &c. Pist?^, 
Pistc^o, {Uia-Ti^, Fides, UicrTevw, credo, Fido,) to which belong Peitho, 
PEiTH07nai, (Yleidw, Persuadeo,) " To Fastcw, or Attach any body to your 
"opinion;" which sense of FAsrening is understood by our popular 
Lexicographers, who give us the following information, " Primitiva 
" significatio verbi," Peitho, (Ueidw,) "est Vincio, astringo loro, et 


"sic fiine religatum quo volo duco ; vide Ueia-a, et neto-yua," which 
terms signify Ropes, (Ueia-a, Funis ancoralis, Ueia-fxa, Fiducia, Funis 
nauticus,) where Funis belongs to the form FN, as in Fingers. We 
shall now see, why Fioes means at once Faith, and a Fiddle, and that 
this instrument has been so named from its Strings, and hence it is, 
that FiDiculce means " Little Cords wherewith they stretched people 
" upon the rack to make them confess." One of the senses of the 
adjective Yioelis is " Sure, Fast." But my hypothesis will be unequivo- 
cally manifest, that all these words are connected with the Sticky matter 
of the Earth, Clay, &c. when we recollect, that FiDelia means " An 
" Earthen vessel serving to divers uses." In German Fadcw is " A 
" Thread," which Wachter has properly referred to Fasscw, Vattcm, 
Capere ; and under the same form we have Faden, A Fathom. " Mensura 
" sex pedum," which I refer to the Borrow, VADum, where we are 
brought to the spot, supposed in m}' hypothesis. In the same column 
of my Greek Dictionary with Pistewo, (Ilio-Tei/a),) I find Pissa, and 
Piso5, (Ylia-a-a, Fix, and Ilto-o?, Locus humidus et irriguus,) where we 
are brought to the Pudgy Matter and Spot. In Hebrew nt03 BTCh, is 
" To Trust, rely upon," says Mr. Parkhurst, but the same term likewise 
signifies, " To hang close. Cling," where we see the genuine idea. 
That this sense of Clinging is taken from the Pudge like, Watery, Soft, 
substance, will be manifest from another sense of the word ; — the Water 
Melon, the Juicy, Pashy Fruit. In the same leaf of Mr. Parkhurst's 
Lexicon we have the term HOD BKH, To Ooze. The Etymologists 
refer Fcedms, The Treaty, to FiDes, and we shall now understand, how 
FcEDZ«, The Treaty, and Tjevus, Foul, may appear under a similar form. 
We shall likewise see, how Vas, Vad/s, A Surety, or Bail, belonging 
to Fast, Vest, (Germ.) &c. may appear under similar forms to Vas, 
VAsis, the Earthen Vessel, and to Vaduw, The Ford, Bottom, The 
Pudgy Spot. In French Vase is a Vessel, and "Mud, slime." In 
our ancient Laws, the personages, who may be considered as answering 
to the Latin Vas, Vad2s, or Vadc*, were called Fast^w^ men, " Pledges, 
" or Bondsmen, which, by the custom of the Saxons, were Fast Bound 
" to answer for one another's peaceable behaviour." The Etymologists 


B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

see the relation between VEcialis, The Herald, and Fcedus, The Treaty. 
Under Tioes, The Fiddle, we are reminded by Vossius of the Greek 
sFlDes, Strings, (S^tSes )(^opdai /jLuyeipiKai, 1.(pidi}, ;^0jo3^^) 

Our English term ' To Wed,' is only another form of F(edus, and 
means " TiEDus inire, vel Fioem dare." The Etymologists understand, 
that Wed, Wedded-, Wed-/ocZ-, with the parallels JVed, (Sax.) Pignus, 
Arrha, IFeddian, Pacisci, Spondere, IVetten, (Germ.) and the Spanish Boda, 
have some relation to the Latin Vas, Yxms, and it has even been per- 
ceived, that EDNa, (Ehva, Munera sponsalia,) is quasi Vedno, and that 
it belongs to the Wedding. In Scotch Wad, Wed means "To pledge, 
" to Bet, to Wager," as Dr. Jamieson explains it, where let us note 
the parallel terms Bet, and WAoer. The term WxDset is a term of 
legal use, and belongs to IVadsaetta, Vaedsettia, (Su. G. Isl.) oppignerare, 
where let us note the kindred Latin terms Fxciscor, with Pactm/;;, and 
PiGWw*. InsPoNDeo we have the form PN, but in sPouse, ePouser, (Fr.) 
&c. we have the form PS. Wed-IocJc belongs to the Saxon Jfed-lac, 
" Arrhabo, Pignus," in which compound we must refer the latter part 
to Lac, (Sax.) Munus, If this derivation had not been so direct, we 
should have thought, that Lock related to Secu?'iti/. The Etymologists 
refer Bet to these words, and they likewise record under it the term 
oBet. These words may perhaps directly belong to each other ; though 
aBET may be classed, as the Etymologists have done in some of their 
conjectures, under another race of words. A WAoer has been justly 
compared with Gager, &c. where the two forms WG, and GS coincide 
with each other. Wagcs are the Gages, and if To Wage War should be 
considered as belonging to Gager ; yet To Wage War is directly attached 
to the terms of Unsteady, Uncertain Motion, to Wag, as referred to a state 
of Uncertainty and Danger. The next term to Wed in Skinner is 
Wedge with its parallels Wecg, (Sax.) Wegghe, (Belg.) Week, (Germ.) 
which means that, which Fixes, FAsrens, Squeezes in, together, &c. 

The Vise, or Vice, The Screw, is that, which Squeezes, or FxsTens 
up. We now see, how Vice, what is Vile, from the Foul Matter, 
may belong to the Vice, the instrument, which is derived from the 
same matter, considered as the Yiscous, or Fusrening Matter. Let us 


mark Viscous, Viscns, Ixos, (I^o?.) Nathan Bailey explains Vice, by " An 
" instrument used by Smiths, or other artificers to Hold Iron, or any 
" other thing Fast, while they file, or work it." Vice means likewise 
" An instrument with two Wheels, made use of in drawing their lead 
" for glazing work," and " The nuel, or spindle of a winding stair-case." 
In Italian Vite is both the Vice, and the Fine, and we mark, in the 
interpretation of a Winding stair-case, that the idea of Winding, or 
Twining is applied rather to the form than to force. In Shakspeare 
Vice and the Fist are combined with each other; where we may see 
one idea annexed to this member. Phang the Bailiff, in the Second 
Part of Henry IV, says of Falstaff, whom he is about to arrest, " An 
" I but Fist him once ; an a' come but within my Vice," on which 
passage Mr. Henley observes, that the " Fist is vulgarly called the Vice, 
" in the West of England." The term Vice, The fantastical FiGure, 
in our ancient Comedy, relates, as I have shewn, (p. 107.) to Plastic 
matter capable of admitting Forms Shapes, or f/eVicEs. The terms 
Fetter, P£D?ca, Pede, PEOrto, (Jleh], Pedica, Compes, UeSaw, Compe- 
dibus astringo,) iniVEDio, seem directly attached to the Feef, Pes, Pedis, 
&c. and not originally derived from that of FAsrening. Yet where ideas 
are so entangled with each other, it is often difficult to be decided in our 

I shall here produce the words, which express the idea of Tying, 
or VASTcning, as relating to objects of a Twining, or Binding nature ; 
among which we must class the following: Vitta, The Fillet; — Yxtis, 
The Vine, Vine-YavA, Vinea, (Lat.) where we have the form VN, 
as in Viyicio, Vinxi, Vinctum, to which form VN, as in Vinea, belong 
the terms for Wine in various Languages : Vinw//?, Oinos, (Ojj/os,) &c. 
Withy, WiCKcr, Wiede, (Germ.) &c. &c. — Fascia, (Lat.) The 
Band : — Fasc?s, The Faggo/, what is Bound up, The Bundle, &c. with 
their parallels. Fagot, Fagotto, (Fr. Ital.) Fakc/Zos, or Fak?o/os, (<I>aKe\- 
Ao?, ^uKioXo^, Fascis, Fasciculus,) and here let us remember sYakcUos, 
(2<^a)ceA\os, Fascis,) and a word under a similar form sTakelos, 
(S^a/ceAos, Membri inflammationem perpessi mortificatio, Salvia,) where 
we have the genuine idea of the Pudgy Foul Matter, from which we 


282 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.>^ 1,m,n,r. 

know the Medical term Sphacelus is derived. The word means too Sage, 

as likewise does sFako*, (^.(paKO's, Salvia,) because probably this herb 

was applied to PocKy Sores: — FAGot?, (Welsh,) "A Fagot, a Bundle 

" of Sticks, or Twigs." — Fasgw, (Welsh,) " To Bind, or tie in a Bundle," 

Fasgell, (Welsh,) A Bundle.— Fiogh, (Gal.) "A Braid, or Wreath;"— 

TiGuam, (Gal.) " To weave, plait, twist," and in the same column of 

Mr. Shaw's Dictionary, I see TiDhigham, " To weave, knit," and Fiohal, 

A Fiddle, which will shew us, that the Fiddle is connected with the 

idea of TASTening, which I imagine to relate to the Strings : — Fithe, 

Fighte, (Gal.) " Woven, wreathed, twisted, braided ;" the preceding 

term to which in Mr. Shaw is Fith, Land : — Yiscus, Fisc/V/a, Fisce//a, 

(Lat.) " A Little Basket of twigs, or a frail ; a Wicker Basket,'' Sec. &c. 

Ficelle, (Fr.) Packthread, belonging to FicHcr, which is explained by 

to Pitch, and Fix. — Fase means in German, "A Thread, string, fibre, 

" filament," and pAsew, FAseln, " To Feaze, fray, ravel out Fazze,'' 

as my Lexicographer explains it, where we mark the parallel terms 

Feaze, Fazze." This word is adjacent in the Dictionaries to Pass, 

a Cask, &c. and pASse/z, To take hold, &c. pASxew, To Fastc;?. In 

Weigel's German and Modern Greek Dictionary pAsew. is expressed 

in Modern Greek by ^e-Phtuzomai Xecprv^o/jLai, where Xe is a particle, 

and Phtuzomai belongs to the ancient Greek Ptusso, quasi Patwsso, 

(Ylrva-a-oo, Plico,) which is adjacent to Ptuo, quas Patwo, Pitz/o, &c. 

{YItvw, Spuo,) to sPiT, where we see the original idea. — Baskc^, with 

its parallels Basgawd, Basged, (Welsh,) Bauscauda, (Lat.) produced 

by the Etymologists. These terms are so called, I imagine, from the 

Ttvining Materials, of which they are made. Mr. Owen explains Basg 

by "A netting, or plaiting of Splinters; Basket Work." — BASoed, 

A Basket. In the same column of Mr. Owen's Dictionary with the 

first word, I see Bas, " Shallow, Shoal, or Flat," where we are brought 

to the spot, supposed in my hypothesis. The Base, or Bottow, The Low 

Pudgy Ground. — Byz, (Welsh,) " A Tye ; A keeping together." — 

Byziw, " A Snare ; a scouting party ; or, a party for an ambuscade, 

" or secret enterprize ; now, a Band, or troop, drawn up in array ; an 

" army," where we see, how a Mass of people, a Band, is connected 


with the ' Snare,' or Band, which Binds, or Ties. — Bid, (Welsh,) 
" A Hedge, a quick set hedge;"— Bioaw, "A twig, or slender branch," 
&c. in the same column with which in Mr. Owen's Dictionary I see 
BiDO^/, "To poniard; to stab," which means to ?7?Fix, while the terms 
relating to the flexible Twigs signify To Fix, or Fasten. From the idea 
of the Flexible twigs we have, as I imagine, the Welsh Bed?^ , Birch. — 
Baic, (Gal.) "A twist, turn," the succeeding word to which in 
Mr. Shaw is Baicha/w, " To touch, strike," which again means ' To iwFix, 
' Push, Beat,' &c. In the preceding column of Mr. Shaw's Dictionary 
we have Bagh, "A promise, tie, bond," B\Gham, "To give, or pledge 
"one's word," and BAGa7ita, "Warlike, corpulent, tight," where in 
Tight and Corpulent, we at once see the Pudgy, ComPact mass. — 
Page, {Ua-yt], Laqueus, tendicula,) ' The Tie, rope, trap,' is acknowledged 
to belong to YzGymmi, (Utjyvuidi, Compingo, concrescere facio, Pango, 
Figo,^ which relates to the comVACTness of Pudgi^ Matter. The terms 
iBisc-os, hiBisciis, (I/Sio-Ko?, Hibiscus, species malva,) seem to be derived 
from their Twining quality, " Gracili Fiscellam texit Hibisco." R. Ains- 
worth explains Hibiscus by "A kind of twig, or bull-rush." — In Persian 
jjo Bid is "A Willow," the succeeding word to which brings us directly 
to the idea of Dirt Matter; as Pid juo Pid, " Fat, grease, tallow." In 
the same leaf of Mr. Richardson's Dictionary we have Picn/t/e " Twisted, 
" A bracelet, Ivy." The participle of the verb Bicaiden, which Mr. 
Richardson explains by " To Twist, distort, bend, involve, to WTCath, 
" or coil as a serpent, to wind in a serpentine form, to surround, invelope, 
" to involve. To assemble, meet, collect together," where in the sense 
of Collecting together, as in a Mass, we see the true idea. But there 
are words in the same leaf, which will directly bring us to the genuine 
notion, as Bicnad, "The Gum of a species of Pine." — Pik/j, "A Gumnii/ 
" humid substance adhering to the corners of the eyes." — BiK/m/, " Bird's 
" dung," an adjacent word to which is Biktc//, or ViKren, "To take 
" prisoner, to subjugate, enslave," which means "To Fix, or Fastc;?." — 
The English term .sPidc/-, has been justly referred to Spin, or ,vPji\. 
where under both these forms PD, PN, we have the same idea of 
l\vining, or Clinging about, together, &c. derived from Glutinous matter. 

N N 2 

284 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Y,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

The term Fascino, To Fascinate in Latin, has been referred by the 
Etymologists to Fascia, according to the well known customs and ideas 
on these matters, as in YiepiajxnaTa, TLepiairra, Amuleta, — The obliga- 
mentum magicinn, and the " Necte tribus nodis ternos, Amarylli, colores." 
&c. &c. The Etymologists may perhaps be right, and it is certain, 
that on manv occasions the idea of Enchantment is taken from that of 
Binding. The Etymologists suppose, that Fascin?//?z means the Memhrinn 
Virile, because it was used as a symbol to avert the power of incantations. 
The Yxscmiim may perhaps signify the form, which is able to inVix, 
and the verb Fascino, will signity, " To Fix, or Fasten. The term 
PrtE-FisciNE has been derived from Fascino, " ut ad verbum sonet 
" a^aa-Kavrw'i ac citi^a invidiam , s'ltque idem, quod absit verbo invidia." 
If Fascino had belonged only to the Latin Language, we should have 
thought, that it was attached to Facinms, and meant the Horrid deed; 
but it surely appears again in the Greek Baskaino, (Baa-Kaivw, Fascino, 
Invideo,) where no such origin can take place. Perhaps Basanos, 
(Bacraj/o?, Lapis, quo probatur aurum. Lapis Lydius, Exploratio, probatio, 
inquisitio, probatio, inquisitio, examen. — Queestio per tormenta, Tor- 
menta, Cruciatus, &c.) may belong to these words under the idea of 
Trying by Tivining, or Torturing, and it might afterwards signify ' To 
' Try, or Prove by any means or process.' — I shall not enlarge my 
catalogue of terms, which relate to the idea of Tying, Binding, &c. 
derived as I imagine, from the action of Sticky matter, as these terms 
will be sufficient to illustrate my hypothesis. The enquirer into Language 
will find under our Element words conveying this idea, through the 
whole compass of Human Speech, and he will familiarly see words, 
under other Elements, conveying the same sense, which are derived from 
the same origin. Among innumerable instances of this sort a Saxon 
word is now passing before my view, which fully illustrates this 
hypothesis. In Saxon Clam means Lutum, and it means moreover 
Vinculum, under which Lye observes, " Item ut Veer, Septum, quod 
" retinet : and Ved, Foedus, quod vincit," where let us note Ved, and 
YcEDUs, The Pledge, Security, Treaty, &c. which for the same reason 
I have referred to such terms, as Yjedus, Vile, Foul, or Pudge matter. 


This Saxon word means moreover " Clasma, Fragmentum," as the same 
substance, which under one point of view, gives us the idea of Cohesion y 
or Tenacity, presents to us likewise the idea of what is Lumpy, or in 
Brohen Lumps, To this Saxon word Clam belong our terms Clammy, 
Clamp, relating to Confinement, Clumps, or Lumps, &c. &c. and Cleave, 
relating to Separation. The verb To Lime in English belonging to Lime, 
cLam, sLime, &c. means likewise to Catch, Hold, Fastcw, &c. 

Among the terms signifying " To Push, Stick in, into, up, out,'' &c. 
and those denoting Sharp Pointed instruments, which are able to Stick 
in, or which Stick out, up, or Rise up into a Point, are the following : — 
Push, the parallels to which produced by the Etymologists are Pousser, 
(Fr.) Bussare, (Ital.) Pujar, Puxar, (Span.) In Push, The sore, we 
liave the foul Pudge Matter. — Poke, with the parallels Pocher, (Fr.) 
Fuycken, (Belg.) Trudere, Paka, Pota, (Swed.) — Butt with its parallels 
Soften, Bouter, Battare, Botiazein, (Belg. Fr, Gr. Bwna^eiv.^ — Peto, 
Posco, FosTulo, (Lat.) To Push, or Poke after any thing, Sec. — Put, 
(Old Eng.) for Butt, To Put with horns, a stronger sense of our familiar 
term Put, which is brought by Junius to its original spot, who informs 
us, that it relates in a peculiar sense to the action of Sticking into the 
Ground, or Pudge matter ; quasi to Pudge in, FnvTeuein, (^vreueiv, 
Plantare.) — Pike, The Lance, and the Fish, in which latter sense we 
have the diminutive Pick/'c/. — PiKed, Acuminatus, which have been 
referred to Pique, Piquer, (Fr.) Picca, Pico, (Ital.) Peak, (Eng.) &c. 
iPica; to which might have been added sPike, sPiggo^, &c. &c. — 
' To Peak, and Pine after any thing ;' — A Vzxviing Fellow relates to the 
idea of Vusning after, or Seeking anxiously, and foolishly any thing. 
To Peak, Skinner has referred Peek, the nautical term, for Perpendicu- 
lariter. — Peck, with its parallels, Picken, Becken, (Belg.) Becquer, (Fr.) 
Bicken, (Germ.) Beccare, (Ital.) Rostro, Impetere, in which explanatory 
word we see the true sense of Peto, and here the Etymologists have 
referred us to Beck, or Beak, under which they have produced Bee, 
Becco, &c. (Fr. Ital.) To these we must add Pinso, Pisi, Pist//w, 
To Peck, and Knead, in which latter sense we see its union with Paste, 
or Pudge like matter. Some have seen, that Becken belongs to these 

286 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.} l,m,n,r. 

words, as signifying The Sign, or Mark, made by Sticking, Notching, 
or VECKijjg, as with the Beak, Head, &c. &c. The Beacon, Pyra 
Specularis, is supposed by some to belong to Becken, as denoting the 
Signal Spot ; yet it may be derived from its Sticking up, or out form, &c. 
Pick, with its parallels produced by the Etymologists Piic, (Belg.) Picken, 
(Sax.) Piquer, (Fr.)— In Pick-^^, as in Pixc/i Fork, we see the term 
brought to its original idea of Fusuing into Pudge, or Dirt. — In PicKeer, 
'PiCK.eroons, Picare, Picorer, (Eng. Ital. Fr.) Vagari ad praedam cap- 
tandam. — Diripere, depraedari, Vastare, as Skinner has explained it, we 
see the sense of Push?'??^, or Routing about in its more violent action, 
as in the explanatory term Vasto. — It is acknowledged, that PicKe^, 
PiCQUET, &c. Lusus chartarum, &c. belong to PiQwer. — The Pickle 
is the sharp YoiGnant composition, and under the idea of something 
Sharp, or Annoying to the taste, we have another sensation of the palate 
expressed by the Greek PiKros, {lliKpo^, Amarus.) In the Belos Eke- 
Peukcs, (BeAos Ex^Trevx^'^,^ we have the metaphor in its most abundant 
state ; as we there find the quality of Sticking, or Fusning in, belonging 
to a dart, connected with Sticky, or Pudge Matter, of a 'Poionant, 
PiKro??, (TliKpov,) or BiTxer nature. The word Bixxer is a kindred term, 
attached to the action of BiTing, inFixing, or Sticking in the teeth. — In 
PoiGN«//^, (Fr. and Eng.) VoiGi^ard, a Poniard, &c. we see, how the n 
attaches itself to the G, and how the Race of words, now under discussion, 
are connected with the terms Pungent, Pango, Punctum, Point, &c. under 
the form PN. In PoiGwee, A Handful, which must be referred to the 
names for the Hand, as Fisx, Vvomis, &c. we see, how the name for 
this member connects itself with the idea of Pusin;?^-, Striking, Sec. 
Peg, (Eng.) explained by ini?KGCs, and which Skinner has justly, though 
reluctantly compared with YRGnumi, (Uvywini.^— F ess u I us, VaxHIus, 
(Lat.) PASsa/05, (riaa-craAo's, Clavus ligneus, Paxillus, Palus,) where let 
us note Palus, i. e. The Pale, Pole, &c. which belongs to Palus, udis, 
The Marsh, the spot full of Pehs, (n»//\os, Limus,) just as these words 
do to Pudge iNIatter, under the form PD, and as Stick, Stake do to Sticky 
Matter.— Pego, (Eng.) Puga, (Ital.) Penis, Bull's Pizzle, (Eng.) 
aPex, aPic/s, (Lat.) where let us note the terms Pin, Penis, under the 


form PN, and remember Pen, Penna, &c. The Pis in c/<sPis seems 
to have the same force, which we see in these words, as likewise the 
Pis in a«Pis, (Ao-ttjs,) The Venomous Serpent. We might ask, whether 
the Pis in as?is, (Ao-Trts, Clypeus,) refers to the Shield, with a Rising, 
or SticMng out in the middle Feather, with its parallels, Fcether, Veder, 
Feder, (Sax. Belg. Germ.) has been referred to the Greek Ptcron, Ptao, 
and Petomai, (JlTepov, Ylraw, Ylerofxai, Volo,) and this relation seems 
unquestionable. If they should all belong to each other, the Feather, 
as denoting the Sharp Pointed figure, is the original, and accordingly 
Wachter has explained Fedc?' in one sense by "Telum Fod/caws." If 
this had not been so manifest, we might have conceived, that VETomai, 
(UeroiJLai, Volo,) was the original, and that it belonged to the idea 
expressed by Petajo, (neraw, Pando, explico.) These notions however 
are on some occasions so involved with each other, that they cannot 
be separated — Feder in German means in one sense " Lamina ex chalybe." 
The idea of Spreadifig I conceive to be derived from that of PuDo/we- 
about, over; and the sense of the Sharp Pointed instrument from that 
of PuDG?7?^ out, in, &c, so that these two ideas, different as they appear, 
and as they are, on many occasions, become sometimes inseparably 
blended with each other.— Foxos, {(Po^os, Cujus caput est acutum et 
veluti turbinatum, verticem habens Fastigiatum,) means the Head, whose 
form verges to a Sharp Point, or oPex, where let us note FAST/giinn, 
" The top. Point, Peak, or height of a thing, the ridge of a house," 
and let us remember, that in the sense of a "Bottom, or depth, as of 
" a Pit," we are brought to the original spot. Its adjacent terms 
Vastus, and VASTiditwi belong to the same idea of Rising, or Sivellijig up. 
Testucu, (Lat.) "A Shoot, or stalk of a tree," which brings us to 
Fescue, (Eng.) with its acknowledged parallels IFaese, (Belg.) &c. 
Festu, or Fetu, (Fr. G.) These terms express the shape, which has 
the power of Sticking, or Vvsning, in its gentler sense. But in FiST//ca, 
another form of pESTwca, The instrument for ramming piles into the 
Ground, we are brought to thje spot, supposed in my hypothesis, under 
the most violent action of Vxjsmng, or Beatw?^ upon its surface. 

The adjacent terms Findo, Fioi, Tissum, " To Cleave, to rive, to slit. 


B,F,P,V, W.J C,D,J,K,Q,S,T,X, Z.} l,m,n,r. 

" to chop," brings . us to the same spot. It is impossible not to note, 
that Cleave, to Split, and Cleave, To Stick together, must be considered 
as the same term, whatever may be the precise process, by which they 
are connected. — The sense of the Hole, or Hollow is connected with the 
Pudgy spot, among other modes, under the idea of the letting in matter, 
as we express it, or ingulfing matter; and hence the German Kluft, 
corresponding with Cleft, is explained, when combined with Grosse, 
(^Gi^osse Klitft,^ "A Gulf, Abyss, Bottomless Pit, unfathomable 
" depth, Kliiffe, Gulfs, Abysses." We see, that G«^ belongs to Kluft, 
or Cleft, and if we do not take Fido, Tissus, in the more violent sense, 
as in VisTuca, we see, how Fissz/s locus may belong to the Pudgy spot, 
and bear the same meaning as Pit, and the Byssws in Ahyssus. In the 
adjacent word YiSTula, " A Pipe, to carry water, A Hollow, oozing ulcer," 
w^e are directly brought to this idea ; where we cannot but note, that 
in the Hollow to carry Water, or Foul oozy matter, we are brought to the 
original idea of the Oozy, or Pudgy Spot. If we call this Spot the Spongy 
Spot, we shall at once see, how the idea of the Hollow is attached to it ; 
and our ordinary Lexicographers supply us with an interpretation, and 
with a passage, which unequivocally decide on my hypothesis ; — " Fistm/o, 
" To be Hollow, like a Sponge, or Pipe, — Te)Ya bibula, et pumicis vice 
" FiSTi</a/?s." I observe in the same page of my Dictionary Fissm*, 
Cloven, Tisrulatus, Spungy, Yisus, Trusting, Tixus, " Tixed, or Stuck up," 
and we now see, that they all convey the same fundamental idea, which 
we may express by Cleave, as Cleaving to, or Sticlii7ig to, and Cloven, 
or being in Hollows, or Clefts. In other words the same Pudge, Viscom*, 
or Clammy matter, which under one point of view easily Cleaves, or 
Sticks together, under another mode of considering it easily Cleaves, or is 
Cleaved, is easily parted into Clefts, or Holloivs, is readily PushV, or 
Parted into Hollows, interstices, Y\cuities, on account of its Spungy, 
or FiSTulous nature, that is, " Ea materia Visco^a, quee vim habet 
" Glutinandi, Tioendi, facile etiam tactui cedit, et in VACua insterstitia 
" fit Fissa, vel separata, eo quod sit natura Yxcillanti, Fisrulosd, et 
" Spongiosd, vel sit quasi sPoggos, (S7ro77os, Spongia.)" The Latin 
Vatisco has the same sense with Fidi, Tissus, " To chink, chap, rive. 


'•' or Cleave,'' &c. and it means likewise "To fail, grow faint, or feeble," 
which brings us to the sense of Fatigo, Fatigmc. 

Fiscina, denotes, as we have seen, what Sticks about, or together, 
and this will remind us of Fuscina, The eel spear, what Sticks in, and 
from hence we might pass to Fxscmum. The French Ficelle, Packthread, 
directly belongs to Fichc/-, "To Pitch, drive, or thrust in. To Fix in 
•' one place," and this union will shew us, how the Fis in Fiscc//a, 
and FiSTWcfl, which appear most remote from each other, may contain 
the same fundamental idea. As a substantive Fiche means "A Peg, 
" to mark one's game t^'ith at tric-trac," and likewise " A Fish to count 
" with at cards." The Fish, we shall own, is an extraordinary animal 
to be adopted on this occasion, (^Delphinus in sylvis,^ and some would 
be led to conjecture, that the French Fische, the Peg, became converted 
into the animal, the Fish, among those nations, with whom such a sound 
was familiar in expressing that animal. The Fish, Piscis with its 
parallels, under the form "S denotes the animal living in Pash, Jf^itery 
Matter, or in Watc/', Wassc?', &c. &c. The term Pig means in Welsh 
" What terminates in a point, a pointed end, a Point ; a Pike ; a Beak, 
" Bill, or Nib," &c. as Mr. Owen explains it in his Welsh Dictionary ; 
and in the same leaf, in which this word occurs, I see ^igqw, " To Prick, 
" to Prickle, to sting; to Pick; to Peck," — Pid, " A point; what tapers 
" to a Point," PiDj/n, "A P/w//e," Viciatv, "To dart; to fly suddenly," 
PiccV/, " What is darted ; a dart ; a javelin,"— Pi c/o«, " A Pike staff,"— 
Vicforc, "A PiTCH/br^-." — Pigwx, "A round heap, or tump; a cone; 
" a turret ; a Beacon,'' where let us note the kindred term Beacon, 
which we should from hence conclude to be derived from its Towering, 
or Rising up form. Let us here mark too, from the interpretation of 
" A round heap, or tump," how the terms, signifying the Pointed form, 
which is able to Stick in, are inseparably connected with the idea of 
the Lump of Matter, Sticking up, or out, and hence 1 have added this 
notion, in my interpretation of the fundamental sense. In Galic Feachw^/ 
is " A Vicv^-Ax, Mattock," the adjacent terms to which in Mr. Shaw's 
Dictionary are Feack/^, " They Put, set," Feacc, " a Tooth," pEAca///, 
"To bow, bend," YE.\cham, "To behold, to trv," and YE..\CHadair, 

O o 

290 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,J, K,Q,S,T, X, Z.'^ l,m,n,r. 

" A wizard, a Seer," from whence we shall understand, that the idea 
of Seeing, Trying is derived from the metaphor of Stiching, or Routing 
into the Dirt ; and this might be the sense of the Latin Specto, &c. 
yet I have given it a different turn of meaning in another place. In 
Italian Piccare, is "To Sting, Prick," and Picchio, "A Knock, blow," 
&c. to which kindred words belong Becca, "The Bill, nib of a bird, 
" A He goat," BECcare, To Peck, as we have already seen ; — Becca- 
Morti, A Grave Digger, BEccastrino, A Mattock, where we are brought 
to the original idea. In French Biecc?', or BEche?- signifies To Dig, 
Delve, &c. where the BC brings us to the Beak. Adjacent to BiEce/^ 
in Cotgrave's Dictionary are Bidet, " A little Nag, or curtail ; also a 
" small Pistol." Bioe^ de culebute, Membre viril, and BicQiie, "a Goat, 
" or as BicHE," says Cotgrave, who explains it by " A Hind ; the Female 
" of a Stagge." The original idea otBioet, whatever be the intermediate 
notion, by which the sense of a Nag is connected with it, seems to be 
that of a Sticking in form. The French Critics might enquire whether 
it relates to the form of the Tail, Curtail. The BiCQ?/e, or Biche, is 
derived from the Sticking property of the Goat and Stag, and from the 
Female of a Stag, we have the sense of a Female Dog or Bitch. 
Becco/o, a BuTCHer, Bovcher, (Fr.) which we shall now see to be 
derived from the idea of FECKing, if I may so say, or Cutting to pieces. 
Buscare, To Search, is derived from the idea of Stickiiig, or Routing 
into the Dirt, into Holes, as in Rimor, and hence we have Bucarc, 
To Bore a Hole. — In the Latin Vxsrino, Fod?'o, Fod?co, we are brought 
to the action of Sticking on its original spot.~I shall not enlarge the 
collection of these words ; which particularly relate to Sticking with 
a Pointed Instrument, as they every where occur; and as I have fully 
detailed the principle, on which they are formed, by a sufficient number 
of examples. If the original idea does not immediately appear, the adepts 
in each Language, assisted by the history of facts in the formation of 
words, must supply, what is omitted. An example of this sort occurs 
in the name of a celebrated spot Piccadilly, which is derived likewise 
from the Pointed Sharp Peak ; though unless the History of the term had 
been known, all conjectures on its origin would have been vain and 


unavailing. Ttiis spot is now understood to have been so called tVom 
a Taylor, named Higgins, who began to build the street, and who 
acquired a fortune by making Stiff", or Peaked Collars, which were then 
called PiccADiLLiES, or Pickadilles. This fashionable Collar was so 
well known in our University, that in the beginning of the seventeenth 
Century, the use of it among our Scholars supplied an object of reprehen- 
sion. Mr. Archdeacon Nares (^G/oss. on Shokspeare,^ has the following 
observation on this point. " It seems there was an order made by the 
" Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge, when the King was expected there 
" in 1615, against wearing Pickadels, or Peccadilloes, as they were 
" also called, to which allusion is made in these lines: 

" But leave it, Scholar, leave it, and take it not in snuff, 
" For he that wears no Pickadel, by law may wear a ruff." 

(Cambr. Mag. Hawk. Ignoramus, p. 118.) 



B, F,P,V, W.^ C, D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

Terms, which signify To Pash, Push, Pat, Patter, Batter, Beat, 
Sec. under that turn of meaning, when they relate to the idea of Dis- 
persion, Separation, Agitation, Striking against, making an Impression, 
or Impact upon, &c. with various degrees of force, derived from Vhsning, 
Vvsuing, &c. amongst, about, up, into Pash, or Pudge Matter. 

Pash, Push, Pat, Patter, Batter, 

Beat, (Eng. &c. 8tc.) 
Taio, quasi Pajo, Passo, Patosso, Vxiage, 

&c. (Gr.) To Strike, Sprinkle, or Pash 

over, about, &c. 
■sPeiso, (Gr.) To Pash, or Sprinkle about. 
PiTULOs, Paddle, (Eng.) Terms relating to 

the Agitation of Pash matter. 
Pedoo, PiDao, PiDax, Pegc, (Gr.) To spring 

up, Scatter about; the Spring, or Fountain. 
sPathc, sPathula, sPatula, (Gr. Lat.) 

What spreads, or Pushes about. 

PtUELOS, iPlTTLE, (Gr. Eng.) 

Pat, PitoPat, Patter, palPno, pal- 
PiTATE, (Eng. Lat.) 

sPiT, sPouT, sPatter, sPgt, sPeck, 
sPeckle, &c. &c. (Eng.) 

Beat, Baste, Bat, Batter, Battery, 
Battle, BATTLE-Dore, rfeBATE, cow- 
Bat, &c. &,c. (Eng. &.C.) 

Battre, Battere, Bat!/o, BACVLum, 
Baktroh, &c. &c. 8ic. (Fr. Ital. Lat.^ 

&,c. &,c. &c. 

In the former Article I considered the terms, which relate to Fusaing, 
or Sticking in, as connected with the idea of Fixing, or Fastenzw^, and 
with that of infixing, as belonging to the property of objects coming 
to a Point, or able to ?//Fix. I shall now consider the action of Fusaing, 
as connected with the idea of FAsning, in, on, about, &c. that is, 
I shall consider in the present article such terms, as Pash, Push, Pat, 
PATje/-, Batter, Beat, &c. &c. under that turn of meaning, when they 
relate to the idea of Dispersion, Separation, Agitation, Striking against, 
making an Impression, or Impact upon, &c. &c. with more or less 
degrees of force and violence. All these terms were originally derived. 


as I conceive, from the action of PAsmiig, Pusniwo-, VxTTing, PAXXER^wg, 
BATTERi??g, BEATing, amongst, about, up, into Pudge, or Pash Matter. 
Among the terms, conveying this train of ideas, we must class the 
following. — Pash, which the Etymologists have justly compared with 
Palo, quasi Pajo, Fatusso, (Tlaica, Percutio, ferio, pulso. Alicubi et 
pro subagito, item raptim comedo. Uaracra-w, Cum strepitu Palpito, &c. 
Percutio,) to which we must add Paxagos, Fragor, &c. and let us here 
mark the Pix in palPiTO. In the application Kai tuv Tav eirara^e, 
we are brought to the original spot. — Passo, (Jlaa-a-w, Inspergo, con- 
spergo,) adjacent to which is Paxeo, (Jlarew, Calco,) which brings us 
to the terms for Walking on the Pudge, as Pad, Pes, Ped/s, Foox, &.c. 
Pass, &c. produced on a former occasion. Next to Paxagc, (JluTwyt],^ 
I see in my Dictionary Paxaiko/, (YlaraiKoi, Patasci Dii Phcenicum 
navigantium,) the Deities of the ?Asning Spot, or IVater. I see likewise, 
in the same opening of my Dictionary, Pasko, (Flao-Koj,) belonging to 
Pax/o/', both which terms are derived from the Pashy, Pudgy matter, 
capable of impression. The succeeding term to Paio, is Paion, (flauoj/, 
Apollo, Deus Medicinae, Medicus,) which means the personage who deals 
in Pash, or Pudge matter, Mixtures, Decoctions, Embrocations, Plaisters, 
&c. The cpiPASTA, (^ETriTratrros, OvBev ttottou eptara TvecpvKei (pap/maKoi' 
aWo, NjKja, ovt ey-x^pia-rov, efxiv BoKei, out' ETrnraa-TOi',^ PisXA, 
(Ylia-ra, Ovk rju aXe^tj/j.' ov^eu, ovre (ipoicrijjLOv, Ov xpi<rTou, ovre YIig'tov. 
&c. Prometh. Vinct. ^J88C).) Dr. Blomfield has diligently collected under 
the passage of ^schylus many medical expressions, among which we 
have other terms belonging to our Elementary Character, The Poxa, 
and the Porima, {Ylora, UoTifia,) The Pormis, or Pash preparations 
of a Drug kind. The Etymologists acknowledge that under some process 
an ancient word Pio, and the terms Piso, Piso*, Pisea, belong to each 
other, (Uiw, ni<rw, Bibo, Ilio-os, Locus humidus et irriguus, hortus, 
pratum. Hinc Uia-ea, Prata, loca irrigua.) In Pisos we have directly 
the Pudge, or Pash Spot. The Medical terms emPIastron, (E/unrXaa-Tpov, 
ab Ef^TrXacra-u), Illino, inspergo,) Plaister, &c. belong to Plash, sPlasli. 
Pool, Palus, Pelos, (n^/Aos, Limus,) for a similiar reason. Homer has 
decided on the derivation, which I have given of this name Pami, 


B, F, P, V, W. I C, D, G, J, K, Q, S, T, X, Z . \ I, m, n, r. 

(Jlaiuiv,') or at least he has proved, that such might naturally have been 
Its origin by describing Paieon, or Vxieon, as the Passon, (Jlacraujv,^ 
The Sprinkler, or Pasher, (TwS' eiri Ylait](av o^vvr](paTa fpapfxuKa 
riacro-w^.) The term P^an is probably derived from this source. I must 
add, that in Homer the Pceones, the inhabitants of Pceonia, are recorded 
with the Watery Spot, or River, which belonged to their country. (Ai/rap 
Ylvpafx^fxo^ aye Datoi/as ayKvXoTO^ov^, TrjXoQev e^ AfxyhtDvo^^ aw' A^iou 
kvpvpeovTo^, A^iov, ou KaWia-rov vdwp eTTiKidvarai Aitj.) Let US mark Odune- 
Fata, (Ohvvnfpctra,') where the Fat has the same idea, as Passo, (nao-o-to.) 
The succeeding word to this is OdimosV\s, (OSi/i/oo-Tras, Dolore con- 
vulsus,) where the sPas, or Pas from (UTraw, ^Traa-w, Traho, vello,) 
performs a different part with the same Radical idea of Agitation, and 
I shall shew, that sPaso relates to the idea of Agitation, as connected with 
the Pash Spot, Sucking, or Drawing in, &c. In the Peiso, of sYeiso, 
(27rei/Sftj, ZTTCio-w, Guttatim Fundo,) we again see the idea annexed to 
Passo, (llacro-w,) — Pitulos, (JIltu\o<s, Sonus, seu Strepitus, qualis prae- 
sertim aquae remo percussae et oris pugno,) directly relates to an Impres- 
sion, accompanied with Noise, on Pash Matter. To the same idea we 
must refer Pedos, Pedow, and Pedaoqw, (n>/Sos, T\t]lov, Ligni species, 
Palmula Rami ex eo ligno, quod Yltjlov, Remus ex eo preesertim ligno, 
Y\f)la\iov, Gubernaculum seu clavus navis,) which are adjacent to the 
kindred terms, PEoao, V'Enethmos, (Jlrilato, Salto, salio, scaturio, Y\r]hri6jxoi, 
Saltus, Y\riZr}6^o^ (pXeftcDv, Venarum saltus aut percussus,) where in 
Scaturio we see the true idea, and in the Beat?/?^ of the Pulse, we see 
an Impression connected with Soft matter. The term PEoao is only 
another form of Pidao, To Spring up, (Ylrjhaw, Ylilaw, Salio,) which 
brings us at once to Pioao-, (Ylila^, Fons, scatebra, aqua saliens,) The 
Pash matter of the Spring. — Paddle in English signifies 'To Stir up 
' the JVater, or Mud, The Puddle,' &c. and it conveys the same idea, 
which we have in the Greek term Pitulos, and Pedal^ow, (JlirvXa, 
n>/8a\toi'.) The English word has been referred to such terms, as Pad, 
PATouiLLer, (Fr.) Aquam manibus seu pedibus Agitare, which will 
remind us of Patrouille, PAXRouiLLe/', "To tread in the Mud, or in 
" a Muddy place," as likewise Patco, PAxasso, ijlarew, Calco, Uaraoria, 


Percutio,) and sFhadozo, (S^aSa^w, Pedes agito, jacto.) The Paddle 
Staff, The Instrument for removing the Mud, brings us likewise to the 
original idea. The terms sPathc, and .sPatulo, &c. (^Tradt], Spatha. 
Spatula, 1.7ra6a\iov, Spatula, ramus palmee, 1.7ra6aw, Licium inculco 
Spatha, vel tudicula, STraraAaw, Lascivio, prodigo,) preserve their idea 
of PADDLi//or amongst Pashy Matter, when they relate to a Scummer, 
or Ladle, and to the " sPatula, which Chirurgeons use." — When the 
terms are used as verbs sPathao, sPatalao, they signify To Pash, 
Disperse, Scatter about, &c. The word Passo, (Jlaa-a-w, Superinjicio, 
intexo, contexo,) is applied to an operation of Embroidering, &c. and 
it conveys the same fundamental idea, which belongs to the term 
expressing the operation of JFeaving. The form sP-T, &c. supplies us 
with various words, which are derived from, or which unequivocally 
express the idea of Pash matter, and which will be illustrated more fully 
in another place, as sPit, sPout, sPittle, Pt//o, (YItvio,~) sPot, sPatter, 
sPuTTER, sPade, sPud, sPot, sPeck, sPeckle, &c. &c. where the reader 
if he pleases, may consider the letter s as added on the principle of 
Onomatopoiia. — Pat, Pix-a-PAX, palFiTO, palPvrate, PAXxer, (The 
Patter?//^, or FASuing of Rain,) at once exhibit their origin. — In 
the expression ' To Pax the Hands,' the term is brought to its true 
idea of making an Impression, or //wPacx on Soft Matter, but in 
the song of our Children, the term is applied with singular propriety ; 
as it is adopted to express the /wPacx which takes place in forming the 
Pudge, or Paste Matter of a Cake, while the action is going forward, 
which relates to the Hands. The reader must be reminded, that in this 
song the action of Patt/'w^ the Hands accompanies the repetition of 
the verses ; if perchance he should have forgotten those days, when 
he was wont to listen to such strains, lulled, or delighted by the chaunt; 
" Pax a Cake, Pax a Cake, Baker's man,— So I do Master, as fast as 
" I can,— Prick it, and prick it, and mark it with T,— And so to the 
" oven for Tommy and me." In a German Dictionary now before me 
the phrase " Leimen oder mortel treten," is translated by "To mix, 
" Beax, Pax, or Plash Mortar," where the two words belonging to our 
Element are used in their original sense. Let us note the explanatory 

296 B,F,P,V,W.J C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

term imV xct, which I have purposely adopted in my present discussion, 
as a kindred word, peculiarly applicable to this vein of enquiry. In 
Pango, pePiGi, Factiwi, and its compounds iwPiNGo, ?*wPeg?, miFACTUin 
we see unequivocally the original idea of a Mass, as of Pudge Matter, 
together with the sense of Sfriking, Stick}/2g, &c. The term imP'nigo, 
imPEoi, imVACTum means "To Hit, Dash, or Throw against," where 
let us note Dash, which belongs for the same reason to the Dashing 
about of Water, and the same Latin term means likewise " To Put, clap, 
" or FASTe« upon," where we see, how the idea of Sticking, or of 
attaching one thing to another, as in Figo, FAsren, is involved with that 
of Sfriking. While I examine this word I cast my eyes on ?w«Pet«a, 
" Violence, Force, — An assault, onset," where we have Peto, a kindred 
term, still signifying to Push, or Pash. In the term m;?Pact, as it is 
used in our Language, we at once see the idea of Striking, and of 
Attachment. In the expressions imFEoit VuGnum in os, we have the 
zwPact of one Soft substance upon another, though in an action of 
Violence; as likewise the union of kindred terms: The two applications 
of the verb will shew us, how in the idea of Fuonus, the sense of 
Attachment or FAsrening cannot be separated from that of Striking, 
or FASuing. The Mathematicians have likewise understood the true 
idea of the term iniFAcr, when they apply it to the action of bodies 
Yielding to each other in collision, as ' The ///jPact of Elastic Bodies.' 
I'he Peg in the verb iniFEG/t has precisely the same sense as the English 
Pash, and the phrase FuGnitm iniFEcit will exhibit the same union of 
kindred terms, as that of Fist and Pash in the following words. " If 
" I go to him, with my armed Fist I'll Pash him in the face," (Troilus 
and Cressida.y 

In modern Greek, Patzo« means a Box on the ear, or Smack on 
the face, jaws, &c. tlar^o'^, " Die Ohrfeige, Maulscheller," as my Lexi- 
cographer Weigel explains it ; where let us note the English Box, and 
the German Feige, derived from the same source. In the same column 
of Weigel's Dictionary I see Fatos, the Ground, and the soal of the 
Shoe, FATcma, The Tread, Ylaros, Der Grund, Uara, Die Sohle, 
Seliuhsohle, FATzanzes, YlaT^auT'^n?, " Eine Art von turkischem, Speise- 


" wirth, Una sorte de oste, or Trattore, Turchesco," A Turkish Traiteur ; 
the origin of which will be manifest from Pastitz?*, Ilaa-TtT^t, Die 
Pastete, Pasticcio, Pasto, YIuo-to, Die Speise ; das Futter, Pastos, (Flao-Tos, 
Die Gasterei, der Schmaus,) which denote Paste, Food, where we 
mark kindred terms, and we must likewise note the German sPeise, 
Putter. Some of these modern Greek words should be considered 
perhaps as directly taken from the Italian, though others should be 
considered as belonging to the general stock of Languages, to their own, 
the Turkish, &c. It is not necessary to decide, how words are found 
in a Language ; as my hypothesis is proved by the fact of their existence, 
under the fundamental idea, which that hypothesis supposes. It is 
curious, that in modern Greek PiTTAKO/wa, WnTaKWfxa, " Das quetschen 
" des Kuchens, lo schiacciare la foccaccia," is applied to the action of 
VxTTing in forming a Cake. John Florio explains Schiacciare by "To 
" crush, to bruise, to Squeese, to Beat, to Batter, or make as flat as 
" a Cake. Also to bedash with Dirt." (ist. Ed.) where let us note 
the kindred terms Beat, Batter, and remember the substantive Batter ; 
and let us mark again our Elementary character in Foccaccia. We see 
how the Italian word directly relates to the forming of a Cake, and of 
bedashing with Dirt. I shall shew, that the German Quetschen, "To 
" Quash, Squash, Crack, or Bruise," as my Lexicographer explains it, 
together with its kindred adjacent term in my Lexicon, Quatschen, 
" To clash, in Dreck treten, dass es Quatschet, To Plash in the Mire," 
Kitchen, the English sQueese, Quash, sQuash, Cake, The Italian Schi- 
acciare, all belong to each other, and to Quag Matter, Caco, &c. and 
just for the same reason, as I suppose the terms Pat, Pash, Pudge, 
Beat, Batter, &c. to be words of the same family. 

The ancient Greek Pit«/os is used for VAsning the Fist on the face, 
as likewise for the action of YAsning, or Clapping the Hands together, 
(ntTi;Ao9, Strepitus oris Pugno percuss! ; — ntruAous ^iZovcra x^'po?. 
Enrip. Troad. 1244.) " FI/TfAos, 1,va-Tpo(pt] Ttj^ ^eipo^, otc TriKpco^," 
(leg. forsan cum viris doctis ttukvco^,) " €7n(pept]rai." It is marvellous 
to observe, how terms still adhere to their original sense. At the close 
of the Hippolytus ?itu/os, (riiTi/Xos,) is applied to the ?Asuing, or 


29S B,F,P,V,W.} C.D,G,J,K,Q, S,T,X, Z.^ l,??i,n,r. 

Gushing out of what we call Floods of Tears, (UoWwv ZuKpvtov ea-Tui 
riiTi/Aos.) Professor Monk in his Edition of this Play has collected 
various passages, in which the term is used ; and there is one application 
ritruAos (pofSov, which will supply me with a fresh vein of observation. 
The use of this term, as applied to Fear, will shew us the force of the 
Elementary Character PT, FIT in the following words, PToeo, VTesso, 
FTosso, (YlToeo), ISIetu consterno, terrefacio, exterreo ; obstupefacio, 
attonitum reddo ; amore, cupiditate aliqua vehement! incendo ; etiam 
lastitia eifero, Urtia-a-w, Proprie de ave, cum frigore metuve alas contrahit, 
Metu contrahor. Exterrefacio Hrwa-crw, Perterreo, Trepido, expavesco, 
metu perculsus concido; abscondo me prae metu; Timide mendicans 
oberro, unde Urwxo?, Proprie timidus ; Mendicus, pauper, egenus.) 
The Lexicographers have seen, that the IIT in these words, and some 
others, as Pxmo, Pxairo, and PT^/o, (UTia-a-co, Tundo, Pinso; Decortico, 
Uratpco, Sternuo, Sternuto, Utvw, Spuo,) have the sense of Commotion 
and Agitation. (" In quibus omnibus est significatio Commotionis, 
•' Agitationis, Ern.") In the Latin Pinso, Visi, which is adopted as 
explanatory of Pt^o, (Jlricrcrw,^ we see a kindred term. 

In Vtuo, (nri/o),) sPiT, we are directly brought to the idea of Pash 
matter, and in the Ptuel, of Ptuel^xo, PTUELis?/io*, from which the 
medical term Ptyeu's//? is taken, we have the form of Pitulos, {TiTveXi^w, 
Saliva abundo, nTyeAtcr/zos, qu. die. Salivatio, Saliva abundantis fluxus, 
ritTi/Aos.) In PxoiALeos, (rirotaAeos, Pavidus, timidus,) we have the 
same form, as likewise its sense of Agitation, as in the expression 
ritTi^Aos (pojiov. We have the same form moreover in Ptilos, and 
PxiLo^iS, (rirtAos, cui ex ciliis pili periere, Lippus, YItlXuxti^, Pennarum 
plumarumque annua mutatio ; Defluvium pilorum e palpebris callosis 
et rubentibus, Lippitudo,) which might belong to Ftilon, {YlnXov, Penna, 
Pluma,) The Feaxher, from which it might pass to the idea of Hairs, 
of something Sticking out, as of a Bristly appearance ; yet the sense 
of Defluvium would bring us more directly to the original idea; and if 
Lippitudo had been explained by " Detluxio oculorum," the same idea 
would have been preserved. Under this interpretation the fundamental 
meaning appears as in the term Pxuelzswo*, nryeAio-yuos, relating to the 


FIhxi/s SalivK. In Ptcw/, VErojnai, (Utijijil, UeTOfxai, Volo,) we have 
the sense of Agitation, and we have seen, that some of the words 
produced above relate to that species of trepidation in the motion of Birds, 
called Fluttering. The Vreron, (Jlrepov, Ala, pluma,) is considered 
as a Root by the Lexicographers ; though we should be inclined to refer 
it directly to TETomai, (Jleroiuiat.^ Yet the Pter in Ptero//, (Ilrepov,^ 
will bring us to Feather, and this word might seem to connect itself 
with terms, which signify to inTix, as relating to the property of objects 
ending in a point. This appears to be the sense of PTERis, [Hrepi^, 
Filix,) what has a Bristly, Prickly appearance. In the Language of 
the obscure Poet, where Ptilon {YlriXov) is applied to the oars of vessels, 
whitening, or being frothy, when struck by the surge, we are reminded 
of the sense of Pitulo^, {UitvXo^, Sonus seu strepitus, qualis praesertim 
aquae remo percussa?,) — AevKa (paivovcrai OrtAa {Lycophron 25. Tas 
xrwTras, on vir' uutwv XevKaiverai ro vBwp ■jrXfjTTOjxevov. Joan. Tzetz. 
ad loc.) — Whatever may be the precise idea annexed to these words ; 
the succeeding term Vrerva, {YlTepva, Calx,) directly brings us to the 
Spot, supposed in my hypothesis ; though I have suggested on another 
occasion, that Pterna may possibly be Perna. In the same column 
of my Dictionary I see VTaio, (nratw, Impingo, ofTendo, labor, Vacillor,) 
which belongs to Pi/>To, Peso, &c. (riiTrTw, Uecru), Cado,) and which 
unequivocally brings us to the action of Slipping on the Pudge, or Pash 
matter of the Ground. Let us here note the kindred term imPingo, 
or i?«pEG?', denoting the action of Striking, or ^wPact, as likewise 
the term VACiL/or, which latter word I have compared with the form 
Boggle. Now these terms for Striking, Falling, Praio, Peso, &c. 
belong to such words as Pisea, (Tlia-ea,) Pash, &c. just as Slap, and Slip 
belong to Slop; all which terms under the form SL bring us to Slime. 
In the same opening of my Greek Vocabulary with these words, which 
I have above examined, I see Ptusso, {UTua-a-w, Plico, complico,) which 
is derived from the same species of Matter, by which the action expressed 
by Pra/o is produced, when considered as in a state of greater con- 
sistency, or in a more Lumpy form, such as is expressed by the term 

P P 2 


B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

In the next opening of my Greek Vocabulary I see Puge, (Ylvyfj, 
Clunes,) Pux, (III;^, Pugnus,) Vvidnos, {YlvKivo^i Densus,) Puoanxo, 
{Viv^api^w, Salio, ut Ylo^api^o), Resilio, calcitro ; calce nates ferio,) Putho, 
{V[v6o3, Putrefacio,) some of which bring us to Pudge Matter. The 
term Pudar?'so, (Jlvlapi^w,) is justly considered as belonging to Pous, 
PoDOs, (Jlovi, rio^os,) yet it is directly derived from the form PDR, 
as in PoDARZO/?, {Ylo^apiov, Pediculus,) which we again see in Poder-c*, 
[Ylohnpn'i.) In modern Greek Podari, {YloZapi,) is the familiar and 
appropriate term for the Foot. The form PDR, though not on other 
occasions directly connected with the Foot, furnishes a form for various 
words, which belong to our Element, expressing Commotion, Agitation, 
Dirt, &c. as Pother, or Pudder, Powder, Patter, Bother, Botherww, 
sFoDRos, (Z^oSpos, Vehemens,) with some Celtic terms, which I have 
before produced. In Galic TATHRum, or FoTHRaw is applied to the 
Fluttering of the Soul, as I have observed in page 162, and the Greek 
scholar cannot fail to remember, that Sappho in the most elegant of 
her strains has applied the Greek PToeo, (Uroew,^ or, as it might have 
been, PAToeo PiToeo, to the emotions of the Heart, under the feelings 
of Love, when it is said "To Flutter, to Beat, to go Pit-a-Pat, or 
" to palPnate.'' — To fj.oi 'fiav Kaphiau ev a-radecriu ETrroaa-ev, " 'Twas 
" this deprived my soul of rest, And raised such tumults in my breast." 
The idea of palYiTation, or Beat^w^ of the Heart, Arteries, &c. appears 
again in the Greek sVuvzo, s^Hvxis, sVnvomos, (1.(pv^w, Salio, Pulso, 
Mico, Palpito, Icpuyjuo?, Pulsus, 1(pv^is, Pulsus, micatio arteriarum, 
cordis Palpitatio, Z^kyjuos, Motus cordis et arteriarum.) 

Patsche in German is "A Pltddle, Mire, Mud," and the same word 
" Eine Patsche, denotes likewise ' A Hand;' to which belongs the verb 
Patschgw, "To Pat, or Plash in the Dirt," as my Lexicographer explains 
it, "Einem mit der hande auf die Backcm, oder handeschlagen, dass 
" es PATSc^e^ To Pat one, give him a Pat, with the Hand upon the 
" Hand, or Cheek, so that it makes a clap," where my hypothesis, 
on the union of Dirt and the Blow, is most unequivocally and fully 
unfolded. To these terms belong the German Peitsche, " A Whip, 
" or Scourge," PEiTscnew, To Whip, Scourge, and hence too we have 


PETSchqft, or FETSchnff, or Virschnft, a Seal, ViTsc/iiren, To seal, from 

the VATTing, or Impression on Plastick Matter. In speaking of Coins 

we talk of Stamping, or Strikwg the impression, &c. We shall now 

understand, why the two terms next to Pat in Skinner's Lexicon, relate 

to coins, as Patacoo;?, and Fxrart, with their parallels Patacon, (Hispan. 

and Lusitan.) Patache, (Span.) Patare, (Fr.) Perhaps the Pistole, 

Pistolier, Pistoier, the coin, may belong to this idea, and does not .take 

its origin from the City near Florence, Pistoil, as is commonly imagined. 

An adjacent term to Patcsc/^cw in my German Dictionary is Pauke, 

" A Kettle Drum," together with Paukcv?, "To Beat the Kettle, the 

" Drum," which are derived from the action of Patt?;?^, or Beatz'/?^. 

The term Peitche, &c. will remind us of the French Fouet, and 

FouETTer, which is adjacent to the term of violence, YovDroyer, To 

Storm, FouDRE, Thunder. In French too we have YvsTiger, which 

will bring us to the Latin Fustis. In German Feige means, says 

VN'achter, Verbei', and he refers it to the English Box, Alapa, and To 

Box, Palma Percutere. In the same column of his Lexicon is Feig, 

signifying " Paucms, Timidus, vilis, moribundus," which means the Vile 

Pudge creature, in a relaxed state. In the preceding column we have 

Fegc«, Purgare, which means ' To Stir up, about, the Pudge, so as to 

' remove it,' corresponding with our word 'To Feigh a Pond.' The 

term signifies ' To Sweep,'' in its most violent sense, as in the famous 

description of Schiller of the Day of Judgment, " Und eine heulende 

" Windsbraut Fegte von hinnen meer, himmel, und erde," ' And a 

' howling wind storm Swept before it, The Seas, The Heavens and 

' the Earth.' The Malay Language decides on the union of ideas 

supposed in my hypothesis, just as we see the same fact in the German 

Patsche, and Patsc^cw Mire, or Pudge, and Pattwo-, or Splashing. 

Mr. Marsden explains the term ^j^ Piche by " Mire, Clay, Miry." 

The preceding term to which is pAcua^, Pecho/?, and Yichah, " To 

" break, break in pieces, break open, break up, to break out, burst, 

"crack; to break off, discontinue; to dismiss, cashier, broken, 

"smashed; wrecked; put to the rout," that is, To Pash about, to 

pieces, &c. &c. 


B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

Among the terms relating to Yxsning, we must refer the vulgar term 
Piss with its parallels, Pisser, Pisciare, ("Fr, Ital.) &c. produced by the 
Etymologists, who should have recorded likewise the Welsh Pis, which 
means, as Mr. Owen explains it, " A Spout, that is Spouted ; a Piss, 
" Urine, Piss" where let us mark the parallel term sPout, with its 
parallels, Spuyte, Sputze, (Belg. Germ.) &c. &c. which belong to sPit, 
Pt/<o, (riTuo),) from whence we get to sPot, — To sPot a thing all over, 
which is To Pash, or Posh, if I may so say, any thing over with dirt, &c. 
The adjacent terms to Pis in JSIr. Owen's Dictionary are Piser, " A Jug, 
" Pitcher," what is made of Clay, or Pudge Matter, or the Hollow, 
as of the Pit, and PisG, " Small blisters, bladders, or Pods, that is, the 
^xjDGing out Stuff. I observe likewise Pistyll, "A Spout, and Pistyll- 
iaiu, To Spout out, which brings us to Fistula, " A Pipe to carry water, 
" A Hollow, oozing, ulcer," where we cannot separate the Holloiv from 
the Oozing, or PAsniug. — To Fistula, as denoting the Hollow only belongs, 
as the Etymologists understand, Pistol, The fire arms, Pistole, (Fr.) &c. 
&c. The French Pistow, The sucker of a Pump, is the Hollow, attended 
with the ^Asmng, The Pisse/-. In the same Language I see adjacent 
to Pisser, and Pistow, The term Pisso/iere, A Water Spout. 

We have seen, that Puddle has been referred by the Etymologists 
to sPhadazo, (S^aSa^o), Pedes jacto, Palpito, de morientibus ;) which 
will lead us to conclude that the terms in Greek, which bear a similar 
form, and which relate to a violent action of destruction, belong to 
the same source, as sPhazo, (S^a^w, Jugulo, Macto.) The term Pash 
is applied to the most violent action of destruction in the following 
example : 

" Death came dryvyng after, and all to dust Pashed, 
" Kings and Keysets Knyghtes and Popes." 

{Warton's Eiig, Poet. Vol. I. p. 25.) 

I shall shew for the same reason, that Macto belongs to Mash and Mud. 
The well known word in Herodotus, which all our enquirers into the 
resemblance of Languages have exhibited, ^loi-Pata, should be produced 
in this place. This is a Scythian name for the Amazons, says this writer, 
signifying Men-Killers, from yEor vir, and Pata, Ccedere. — We shall 


now see, that Herodotus might have produced, as parallel terms to his 
Scythian word, sPhazo, Paio, quasi Pajo, Paiso, and Pato^so, (S^a^w, 
YluLw, riato-o), riaTao-o-w.) The ^or as denoting Man, belongs to a 
great race of words, Heroc, Heros, Eeros, (Hpajs,) some of which 
have been detailed by Wachter, (^Picef. xii,) and others, as likewise 
more fully in the Etymologicon Universale, Vol. I. p. 1 148-9, &c- — 
The author of the Mechanisme du Language, (Vol. II. p. 73.) has 
joined in the cry of our Philologists, Wachter, &c. (though ' not like 
' a hound that hunts,') and has produced with his predecessors some 
of the terms above exhibited. — Under the form of Pash in English we 
have a term for the Head, and it means, as I imagine. The Pasher, 
or Striker. It is used in Shakspeare in the Winter's Tale, " Thou 
" want'st a rough Pash, and the shoots, that I have, to be full like me.'" 
Here the force of the passage consists in the application of the term 
to a Horned animal. Mr. Malone at first supposed, that Plash was 
the true reading, but he has since heard, as he says, that " Pash in 
" Scotland signifies a Head.'' Dr. Jamieson acknowledges the word, 
and has justly produced our expression "A mad Pash, a mad-brains," 
where Pash belongs to its more violent sense of Pash/??o-, as if by the 
attack of a furious animal. The word Pash, as we shall now see, is 
only another form of our familiar term Pate, which the Etymologists 
derive from Tete, or Patina. In Scotch Put is "To Push with the 
" Head, or Horns," which we call Butt. We see, that Put in this 
sense directly coincides with the Latin Peto, Cornu PETere, from whence 
we have the sense of PETulance, ?ETulantia, " Aptness to Butt, or 
" gore, &c. PetuIcus, Apt to Butt, &c. — The words in the same column 
with Pate, in Skinner are Patee, Cross PATee, Croix Patcc, Cross 
Patowcc, which have been derived from Crux FxTula, and Patc////, 
" Blatero, Garrulus," which latter word means the Pudge, vile fellow, 
under some idea, whether it be that of PATTen'wg, or Pashing out 
vile stuff, or the vile contemptible person in general. This will be 
manifest, when we remember, that the term adjacent to PATe/m in the 
French Dictionaries is Pate', Pasty, which directly denotes Pudge 
Matter. — The adjacent term to Paio, or P.uo, Paiso, (Ilaiw,) in our 

304 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.} l,m,n,r\ 

Greek Vocabularies is paiPnASSo, {YlaKpaa-a-w, Impetum facio tumultuor,) 
where we have a similar term of Commotion, and it has been seen, 
that it bears a relation to sPhazo, sPhadazo, &c. {1,<pa^w, 1.(paBa^w, 
Pedes jacto, Palpito, &c.) \ei-^ava TlaKpaa-a-ovTa kui aa-Traipovra 
(povoic-i, (Oppian. Cyn. ii. 2.')0.) 

Mr. Malone in his remarks on the term Pash, as used in the Twelfth 
Night, though he sees nothing of its relation to our familiar term Pate, 
has yet produced the Eastern terms Basha, or Pacha, as kindred words, 
Mr. Richardson explains the Persian Basha lib by "A Being, existing." 
A Basha, governour of a province, &c. If the Basha signifies, ' The 
' Being, or the Great Being,' it does not belong to the idea of the 
Head, though I have shewn, that the terms for Being relate to the sense 
conveyed by Food, Fat, &c. the Pudge Matter, or Matter, by which 
things exist. The sense of our Element however is peculiarly con- 
spicuous in the terms, adjacent to this Persian word. The term suc- 
ceeding it is Pash ^b " Diffusing, scattering, spreading," The participle 
of PASmWew ^<i^\i " To sprinkle, scatter, disperse, diffuse, pour out, 
" dissipate," an adjacent word to which is Pashine, The Heel, and in 
the preceding column we have Pashte, The Heel, where we are brought 
to the spot supposed in my hypothesis. The preceding term but one 
to this latter word is the Persian Bashane, <)oliilj "Fat Things, scattered, 
" dispersed," where we have both senses of PuDoiw^ up, or out, and 
PuDGiwg, or PASHWg about. Again we have as an adjacent term Bash- 
iden, " To be, — To trample, tread upon, spurn," where the verb of 
Being is brought to its original spot, whatever may be the idea, by 
which it is connected with it. — The English BuTc^e/^ with its parallels 
Boucher, Beccaro, or Beccaio, (Fr. Ital.) denotes the person, who Pulls, 
or Tears to pieces. The Italian term belongs to the Beak, and signifies 
To Peck. 

I might here produce some terms, not already exhibited, which relate 
to actions of Annoyance and Commotion, attended with more or less 
violence, and which are all derived from the idea of PAsniwg about, 
down, to pieces, To be in a Vxsued state, as originally connected with 
the metaphor of Pxsaing about, into, &c. Pudge matter. Among these 


terms we must class the following TcEDa/e, " To dawb, defile, pollute, 
" or stain ; to contaminate. To Lay in the dust, to Beat down ; — To 
" Tear, or rend, to disfigure," where we actually see the idea supposed 
in my hypothesis ; an adjacent term to which is FoDio, To dig, or delve, 
FoDzco, To Pierce, or bore, "To sting, vex, to grieve, to torture," where 
we are brought to the same spot. — Fundo, Fudi, Yvsiim, " To Pour out, to 
" spill, to shed, or let fly. — To difflise, spread, scatter, or extend. — To rout, 
" discomfit, or vanquish. — To throw down, to lay along, to pour into," 
which is acknowledged to belong to the Fundus, or Low Ground, where 
we see, how the forms FN, and FD pass into each other. — ?«Festo, 
" To trouble, to vex, to plague, to ?;?Fest, to disquiet, to molest," 
where let us note the word ?7iFEST, and remember, that in English 
under the same form pEsxer, we have the Foul ivound, or Pudge, in. 
a state of disquiet. — FATig-o, " To Fatigue, weary, or tire. To vex, 
" or trouble much," — Fatisco, Fess?/s, "To chink, gape, To be wrought 
" out of heart, as land. To be weary, to tire," and here I have already 
shewn, that the idea of chinks, in opposition to firmness and solidity, 
is derived from Matter in a Pudge state. — Fash in Scotch is "To trouble ; 
"to Vex; where let us note the kindred term Vex, Vexo, (Lat.) 
" To disturb, to Mud, to toss up and down, " To Vex, trouble, harrass, 
" cumber, or disquiet. — To tease, or molest," where we actually see 
the idea of Pash?;/^ about Pudge, or Mud, " Vexat Ititulenta balnea 
" turba." These words will be sufiicient to mark out the turn of 
meaning, which is annexed to many of the terms, belonging to our 
Elementary Character in various Languages, and wherever they are 
to be found, such is the mode, in which their meaning should be in- 
vestigated. — There is a term of Contention belonging to our Language, 
Feud, which under some process and form must be referred to the 
Ground. Feud, The quarrel, is referred by Skinner to the Saxon Fcehth, 
and Fa, Hostis, et Had, conditio, the Belgic Feede, Veide, Feete, and 
the German Fchd. Wachter under Fede inimicitia aperta, reminds us 
of words, which I have before produced, as the term belonging to the 
English word Fetr, and Feig, moribundus, &c. The next word in 
Wachter is Fedc;-, "Telum Fodicans,'' and in another article "Penna;" 


306 B,F,P,V,W.^ C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Y,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

where in Fooicatis we see the true idea. The Feude, Feudq/ tenure, 
Fie, Fief appear under various forms, but we shall now see, that they 
all relate in their original idea to arrangement about Land. These 
words are commonly referred to f^ieh. Cattle, which brings us to the 
same spot, and to Feed, Fat, &c. In the same opening of Wachter, 
where the above word is found, I see Tegcii, Purgare, Mundare, before 
produced, which he justly sees to relate to Pudge Watery Matter, 
by deriving it from Wago!, Aqua, and Waschc/?, and I moreover see 
Feige, Verber, and Feig, Moribundus, Timidus, &c. The corresponding 
Dutch words are Veeg, A wipe, A gash, slash, Veegcw, To sweep, 
wipe, Veeg, Fatal, Een Veeg teken, A Fatal sign, Hy is Veeg, 
He gives signs of Death. Dr. Jamieson has justly seen, that the Scotch 
term Fey, Fee, Fie, " Predestined, on the verge of Death," &c. belongs 
to these words. The Dutch term, we see, contains the various senses, 
which I have supposed to belong to this race of words. — We might 
ask, whether the Latin Yatu?ji, Fate, did not belong to the idea here 

BEAT, BATTER, &c. &c. 

Among the terms under the form BT, &c. which signify ' To Beat,' 
&c. with the instruments of Beat/wo-, &c. and the names of Buildings, 
which are the objects of Attack, or from which an Attack is made, 
we must class the following. Beat, with the parallels produced by the 
Etymologists, Bcatan, (Sax.) Battre, (Fr.) Battere, (Ital.) Baedd, 
(Welsh,) Batuo, (Lat.) Patctsso, (narao-o-w.) — Batter, (Eng.) Baste, 
(Vulgar Eng.) To Beat, Battery, (Eng.) with its parallels Baterie, 
(Fr.) Batteria, (Ital.) &c. &c. — Battle, with its parallels, Bataille, 
BattagUa, (Fr, Ital.) &c.— BATTLE-Dore, the latter of which is justly 
derived from Treo, (A. S.) Dera, (Fr. Th.) Arbor, a Tree, or piece 
of wood. Battlements, (Eng.) Bastile, (Fr.) Bastion, (Fr.)— Battoow, 
or Batune, with its parallels, Baston, Bastone, (Fr. Ital.) Baculus, 


Bakfro/i, Bakterin Bastos, {BaKTpovy BaKnipia, Bao-ros, Baculus.) — 
Beetle, BAsxo^rt^o, &c. — Bat, (Eng.) with its parallels Bat, (Sax.) &c. 
Brick-BAT, Ad feriendum. — Bate, deBxTE, with its parallels deBai, 
deBatiu, (Fr. It.)— cowBat, with its parallels comBat, &c. &c. Bait, 
as in B/iIl-BAiTing, The Hawk BAireth, " alas concutit," i. e. Beatc^^ 
with her wings. — Bout, (Eng.) To have a Bout with a person, Con- 
tendere cum aliquo, to have a Beat^w^ inatch with any one, and hence 
it signifies what the Latin term Fices does ; just as Coup in French 
has the same double meaning ; says Skinner. — Bicker, (Eng.) which 
has been referred to Bicre, (Welsh,) Conflictus, and Pickeer, Pike. — 
Butt, which the Etymologists have compared with Butte, Bytte, (Sax.) 
Botta, (Ital.) Ictus, Bouter, (Fr.) Buttare, (Ital.) &c. &c. which brings 
us to the words for Bvsning, or Sticking before produced. — Box, which 
the Etymologists have referred to Pux, (ITi/^,) Pochen, (Germ.) Per- 
cutere, Fuycken, (Belg.) Trudere, Buquer, Bucquer, (Fr.) and to these 
we should add the names for the Hand in other Languages, with the 
terms, which seem directly to belong to them, relating to the action 
of Beat/ho-, though some of them seem often to relate to the idea of 
Vixing, YAsrening, or Griping, rather than that of inFixing, or making 
an impression by Striking. Yet these ideas, we see, cannot in many 
cases be separated from each other. I have already produced Fist, 
and its parallels. In Pugn?/s, Pugno, (Lat.) Fight, &c. (Eng. Sax.) 
Fechten, Fichte, (Germ. Belg.) BuKteuo, {UuKTevio, Pugilatu certo,) &c. 
we see the action of Striking. 

The term Beat is brought to its true sense of Batter?'/?o^, if I may 
so say, against Batter, or Pudge matter, in the phrase "To Beat up 
" a PuDDz'w^," and to the original spot, from whence this idea is derived, 
when it is applied to the Ground, as ' To Beat the Ground with the 
' Feet; — The Beaten road, or Path, Fia Battm/a, C/iemin Battu.' 
In Chaucer the Millar of Trumpington is called a Market-BETer, which 
Mr. Tyrwhitt imagines on a more attentive consideration of the phrase 
" to be understood in a sense similar to that, in which the French 
" phrases Batre /es rues and Battre de pavez are used; — Batre les rues, 
" To revell, jet, or swagger up and down the streets a nights ;" — " Bateur 

Q Q 2 

308 B,F,P,V, W.| C,D,J,K,Q,S,T,X, Z.} l,m,ii,r. 

" de pavez ; a jetter abroad in the streets. — A pavement Beater." See 

Cotgrave.) In this sense Beat means To Pad about the Streets, 

i. e. The Pudge. We use the term in a similar sense, when young 

men are said to ' Beat the rounds,' and perhaps in the phrase ' To Beat 

' up a person's quarters.' In the Greek ^Kvarmos, (Btirapfxa^, Saltatio 

concinno gressu, seu ad sonum. Ex Bau), et Apfjio^w,') we are brought 

to the same spot. In the expression 'The Pulse, or the Heart Beats.' 

Batta di ciiore, Battata di pulso ; — Mon pouls Batte, &c. &c. we 

perceive the idea of an impression connected with Soft Matter. The 

French and English terms Beat, Battre, are used in their due sense, 

when we talk of the Waves Beatwz^, or Dashing against the ship, 

and when the French apply Battre to the churning of Milk. — In the 

verb "To Batter," it is impossible not to see, that it is the verb, of 

which Batter, The Pudge, or Pash mixture, is the substantive. In 

Scotch Batter is used as a verb, though not under the idea of violence ; 

but as signifying To he-Plaister, or be-sPATTER, as if with adhesive 

matter, — " To Batter, To Paste, or cause one body to adhere to 

" another, by means of a viscous substance," as Dr. Jamieson explains 

it. In the vulgar term Baste, To Beat, it is impossible not to see, 

that ' To Baste, or Beat, is the same as ' To Baste meat,' where we 

again see the VAsning of Pudgy matter. — It is likewise impossible not 

to acknowledge, that Bat, Baste and BATrer, belong to Pat, Patter, 

ie-sPATTER, Pash, and we shall all agree, that Pash belongs to Pudge. 

In the term Beetle, as in the French Bato?V, The Rammer, by which 

the Ground is Beat, we are again brought to the same spot, as likewise 

in the Latin Batillzu/z, The Spade, or Shovel. In German the Beetle, 

or Rammer, is called " Tenne Batsche, or Patsche." The Beetle, 

Scarabasus, is supposed to be so called, " quia scarabcei vesperi pree 

" CEecitate incursantes facies nostras percutiunt instar Mallei^ Perhaps 

the Batt, Vespertiiio, may belong to Bat, The Staff, for the same reason. 

The next word in Skinner to these terms is a Beat of Flax, Lmifrangi- 

bulum, from Beat, as he says. The Beadle, with its parallels, Bydel, 

(Sax.) Petel, Butel, (Germ.) Bedeau, (Fr.) Bedello, Praeco, Nuntius, 

is supposed to be derived either from Bid, Biddan, (Sax.) Rogare, or 


from the Staff, which he carries, or from Paddwo- about. On the whole 
I am inclined to the opinion of those, who suppose, that they are so 
called from the Staves which they bear. The Bats, the Beetles, which 
were intended probably to enforce their citations by Bloivs. They 
are called in French " Sergens k Verge, a Masse d' Argent," and " Sergens 
Battonniers." In our modern Language deBxTE is only applied to 
the contest of words, but in our ancient Language it was used, as cowBat 
is now, for the contest of Blows*. 

* There is a passage in Shakspeare, in which </^Bate is introduced, on an occasion, con- 
nected with the cowBats of Chivalry, whatever may be the precise sense, in which it is 
applied : 

" This child of fancy, that Armado hight, 

" For interim to our studies, shall relate 

" In high born words, the worth of many a Knight, 

•' From tawny Spain, lost in the world's Debate." 

{Love's Labour Lost, Act I. Scene 1.) 

Without entangling ourselves in the observations of Dr. Warburton, or Mr. Tyrwhitt on the 
origin of Chivalry and Romance, (about which they were in truth both equally ignorant, and 
both equally assured,) I must observe, that Debate is the appropriate term for the conflicts 
of Chivalry. On which account, the term has been impressed on the mind of the Poet, 
whatever may be its direct application ; and it is on this account, that C/ii/d is here introduced, 
in a direct, or latent allusion to its ancient sense of a Knight, as in C/ii/d Roiulattd, &c. In 
Shelton's translation of Don Quixot, the word Debate occurs under its more original 
meaning. In the ceremony of investing our heroe with the appendages of Knighthood, the 
girl says, in girding on his sword, " God make you a fortunate Knight, and give you good 
" successe in all your Debates." The precise meaning of the passage of Shakspeare is not 
very manifest. It is an opinion, universally and justly conceived, that the Spaniards delighted 
in the narrations and the feats of Chivalry, and therefore Uon Armado, the Child of Fancy, or 
the Fantastic Knight, is properly introduced, as the narrator of these Romantic Stories. The 
World's Debate may either mean the Crusades, the great contention in which the World was 
engaged for a long period, as Dr. Warburton supposes, or it may mean in general the perilous 
contentions and turbulence of the world, that wild scene of adventurous competitions of discord 
and of danger, in opposition to the calm, peaceful scenes of retirement, which the King and his 
Courtiers were now about to enjoy. We accordingly find, that the mind of the Poet is strongly 
impressed with the distinction between that retreat of quiet, and the bustling world with all its 
passions, its vices, and its temptations. Dumain talks in a preceding part of being mortified 


310 B,F,P,V,W.J C,D,G,J, K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| hm,n,r. 

The term Bid, which I have just produced, occurs in various 
Languages, Buidan, (Goth.) Beodan, Biddan, (Sax.) geBieten, Bitteji, 
(Germ.) &c. &c. By Junius Bidde is placed in two separate articles, 
as signifying " Jubere," &c. and " OfFerre pretium," and Skinner has 
three articles, in which he introduces " To Bid guests, hospites seu 
" convivas vocare." — We shall agree, that these senses all belong to 
each other, whatever may be the precise idea, from which they arise. 
The primitive notion annexed to Bid seems to be that of a strong 
Impression, or appeal made upon another, or Pressing and Urging, or 
Fvsning another strongly, in order to obtain some purpose. Now this 
idea seems to have been in the mind of the Etymologists, who have 
derived this word in its strongest sense, from Bia, Bi\zomai, (Bia, 
Bia^ofxai,) and Peto. We see, how Peto, To Push, brings Bid to the 
sense of Beat, under the idea of making a strong Impression upon 
another, somewhat under the same sense, as when we talk of " B^XTing 
" a thing into a person's mind." The term Peto at once means to Beat, 
and to Bid, "To throw at, to Pelf," i. e. To Beat, or Batter, as in 
Brick-BAT, and "To intreat, to desire, &c. — To demand, or require," 
i. e. To Bid. The terms Urge, Urgeo, and Press, Premo, "To stick, &c. 
" To thrust. To force, compel, &c. To importune, to be earnest with, 
" to desire greatly," &c. &c. have similar applications of an action of 
violence transferred to Earnest Desire, &c. Wachter explains BiTTen 

to the World's Delights, which he throws on the IVorlls Slaves ; and the King, addressing the 
companions of his retirement in the first speech of the Play exhibits the metaphorical imagery 
of the World's Warfare in the most strong and lively colours : 

" Therefore, brave Conquerors, — iox so you are, 

" That war against your own affections, 

" And the huge army of the World's desires." 

It must be observed however, that the great Historian of our Language agrees, as it appears, 
with the interpretation of Dr. Warburton. " By the command of the Sultan, the churches 
" and fortifications of the Latin cities were demolished : a motive of avarice, or fear still opened 
" the holy sepulchre to some devout and defenceless pilgrims ; and a mournful and solitary 
" silence prevailed along the coast, which had so long resounded with the World's Debate." 
(Gibbon's Hist. Vol. VL p. 120.) 


by " PjiTcre, precibus flagitare, sive oratio tendat ad Deum, sive ad 
" hominem," to which he refers Betcw, "adorantibus proprium." He 
likewise refers these words to PExere. In the same column of Wachter, 
where Bittcw occurs, we have Biss from Beisscw, Mordere, Pungere, 
belonging to our word Bite and Bitter, Amarus, where we have a 
similar sense of Sticki7ig into, as in Peto, morsu PEXcre. Robert Ains- 
worth gives us, as the Latin expression for " To inveigh Bitterly against 
" a person, " Dictis mordacibus aliquem lacessere," which might have 
been " Dictis Mordacibus aliquem PETere," The terms Bitter, and 
and PiKROS, (lltKrpos,) have precisely the same metaphor, as in Pickle. — 
Before I quit the word Bite and Bit, I ought to observe, that in Norfolk 
Bit is applied to the Instrument, which Bites the Ground, is Pushed 
into, or Stuck into Pudgy Ground, in order to make Holes for the 
procuring of Water. It is marvellous to observe, how words adhere 
under some application to their original notion. — Beads, and Bead-RoII 
are supposed to belong to Beade, the Prayer. This may be so ; yet 
Bead might be attached to Pod, &c. and mean the Swelling out object. 
A BEADs;na/i however certainly means " Orator, Precator," and is some- 
times applied to those, who asTt charity of another, or depend upon 
another for charity. Hence Nathan Bailey has the following explanations, 
" Bede-Housc, or Hospital," and Bedeswc/?, " Alms men, who prayed 
" for their benefactors and founders," which latter term is still retained 
in our University. The name of the venerable Bede is supposed by 
some to be derived from " his earnestness in Prayer.'' — The next word 
to Beads in Skinner is Beagle, which some refer to Bugler ; Mugire ; 
and others to Bigles, (Fr.) from Piccolo. The English Beagles may 
directly belong to such terms as Beak, &c. the Pu?-suers, Pushers. 
Bigle likewise signifies in French Squinting, which Menage derives from 
Bioculus. Under this word he records the Latin Vmtus, which is sup- 
posed to be derived from Peto. The German BETar//?, To Etg, 
Mendicare, belongs to Bitten, or Beten, Petere, as Wachter supposes. 
Some derives Bedlam, from Betteln, and others from Bethlehem, Beth- 
Lechem Domus Panis. Our English word Beg must be referred to these 
terms for Prayer, and does not belong to Bcgeren, (Germ.) Qua?rere, 
which is a compound of Be and Geren. 

313 B,F,P,V, W".} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

In the Welsh Dialect of the Celtic we have the following term 
relating to the action of Beat/w^, &c. as Baezu, " To verberate, Beat, 
" or thump ; to pound, or bruise," as Mr. Owen explains it, who 
considers it, as another form of Maezu, which I shall shew to belong 
to Mud, Mash, &c. where we see, how the forms MD, and BD, &c. &c. 
pass into each other. To this word Baezu, we must refer an adjacent 
term, in Mr. Owen's Dictionary, Baez, " A Boar." — Bys, A Finger. — 
BusTaa/. "To Buffet about," adjacent to which we have Busxac, 
" A steer, or young bullock," which Mr. Owen derives from Bu, a Kine, 
and Tac, which he explains in another place by "That spreads, vanishes, 
or is diffused." Adjacent to these terms is Bustyl, " Gall, bitterness," 
BusTLazf/, "To imbitter; to be surly." The idea of Bile, we know, is 
always connected with Anger and Turbulence, O^vxo'^o'i, &c. &c. — 
BiDo^i, " To poniard ; to stab." — Bicra, " To fight, or skirmish ; To 
"Bicker." — Pastwn, "A long staff;" — Pastynu, "To Beat with 
" a staff," to which the Latin terms Pastinzw/?, " A two forked tool," &c. 
and Pasting, seem directly to belong. In the Galic, or Irish Dialect 
of the Celtic, as unfolded in Mr. Shaw's Dictionary, we have the following 
words, — Bas, Bos, " The palm of the Hand," the next term to which 
is Bas, Death, and in the same and preceding column we have, Bata, 
" A Stick, Staff, Baton," Batail, " A Skirmish, Fight, and Bath, 
" Slaughter, Death, Murder," which likewise signifies " The Sea," where 
we are brought to the original idea of Pash Matter, whatever may be 
the precise notion by which they are combined. — Bachul, "A Staff, 
" crosier, crook," which assuredly belongs to the Latin ^xcvucm, 
though as I have before shewn, it bears likewise another sense of the 
Element. — Bida^, "A dirk, stilletto," the next word to which is Bid, 
A Hedge, just as the Welsh Bidoo-?, To stab, belongs to Bid, "A Hedge," 
and Bioaw, a Twig. — Biach, "Membrum virile." — Baitin, "A little 
" Stick." — Facht, " A BattZ/'w^-, or FiGHTiwo"," adjacent to which is 
Vxcnaim, "Matter, cause, reason, motive," where in Matter we see 
the original idea. In the same opening of Mr. Shaw's Dictionary, 
I perceive Faiche, " A Field, green." — Bis, " A buffet. Box," an adjacent 
word to which is Bith, "A wound," — Boo, "Deceit, fraud; a Bloiv, 


" Stroke, Box," the next word to which is Boc, " A he-goat, a Buck." 
That the Boc, the Box, and the Buck are connected with the idea 
conceived in my hypothesis, will be evident from a word in the next 
column BoGflcA, "A marsh, moor. Bog, swamp." — I shall not produce 
any more terms under the form BC, &c., which relate to BEAxiwg, &c. 
as the fundamental idea is now fully understood, and as they are generally 
referred by the Etymologists of the Language, in which they occur, 
to some of the terms, already produced, as Bacchio, (Ital.) A Stick, 
pole, ^xccmare, " To Beat," Bussare, BuTTaye, (Ital.) &c. &c. These 
Italian words are accompanied by terms of Violence and Commotmn, 
Confusion, &c. as ^kccante, a Bacchant, BAccawo, Noise, uproar, 
tumult, which in French is Yxcarnie, " A great Noise, &c. BaccaAi/c, 
" A Swaggerer, a furious swash buckler, &c. as John Florio explains it ; 
and adjacent word to which in another of my Italian Dictionaries is 
BAC«r<?, " To grow maggotty, or Rotten," where we are directly brought 
to the idea of Filth, or Dirt. 

Terms relating to Haste, Activity, Restlessness, &c. &c. as Fast, 
To run Fast, Festino, Fidget, &c. &;c. 

Among the terms of Commotion, which relate to Haste, Activity, 
Restlessness, &c. and which are derived, as I imagine, from the Agitation 
of Loose, Pash, or Pudge Matter, we must class the following :— Fast, 
Citus, which expresses likewise another idea of this species of Matter, 
that of FxSTEiiing, by one thing being attached or Sticking to another ; 
unless we suppose that Fast, Citus, is derived from the idea of a con- 
tinued action, as • To set Hard and Fast to a business:' — Festiwo, Fest^w, 
conFESTim, (Lat.) to which Latin words Martinius has justly referred 
the English, German and French Haste, Hasten, HATer, (where we see, 
how the forms HS or "S and FS pass into each other,) and the terms 
in the Teutonic and Greek Dialects, sPeed, and sVevdo, sPoudc, (STrei/Sw, 
Studeo, Festino, Propero, Sttoi/S^;, Festinatio, &c.) with the acknowledged 

R R 


B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,J,K,Q,S,T,X, Z.| l,in,n,r. 

parallels, Sped, Spedan, (Sax.) Spuden, (Germ.) Spoedeh, (Belg.) &c. 
Fest, (Welsh,) which Mr. Owen explains by "Fast, Speedy, Hasty, 
" or quick ; adroit, clever," Fest?'w, (Welsh,) " Of an active nature, 
"Hasty,'" VESTiNiaw, (Welsh,) "To Festinate ; to Hasten,'' the ad- 
jacent terms to which in Mr. Owen's Dictionary are Fes, " What 
"penetrates; subtilty ; knowledge;" Fesu, "To penetrate, to pervade ; 
" to have perception, or knowledge," from whence we shall be led to 
conclude, that the prevailing idea for terms relating to Knowledge under 
our Element FS, &c. is that of Motion, Activity of Mind ; and Fetan, 
" A Budget, a Bag ; a saucy girl," where we have at once the Swelling 
OM^ object, and the idea of Commotion: — Fw'd, (Welsh,) "An abrupt- 
" ness ; a quick motion, or impulse," which Mr. Owen refers to Fw 
" Volatility, or Quickness of motion ; — Fwdan, " Bustle, Hurry, flurry 
" or agitation ." — Fwg, " What is Volatile, or light ; long, dry grass ;' 
In the same column of Mr. Owen's Dictionary I see Fust, " A flail 
" a thresher," which brings us to the Latin Fust/'s, and FusTfa 
" A Beat/wot, a Boxwg- Match." — Pystyl, (Welsh,) " A restless motion,' 
which Mr. Owen refers to Ystyl, where we have the form "ST ; — 
Pystylm, "To move about in a restless manner; to caper." Under 
another form we have the original idea ; as Pistyll, " A Spout,'' Pistyll- 
iaw, "To Spout out," which Mr. Owen refers to Pis, "A Spout, that 
" is Spouted; a Piss; urine. Piss," where we see the genuine idea of 
Pash matter. Ihe latter portion of the word he refers to Tyll, or Tw/l, 
A Hole, a Pit, &c. The Fistula, of the Latins is surely only another 
form of Pistyll, as I have before observed, and if the Welsh term should 
be a compound, such we must consider the Latin ; yet on this point 
there is some difficulty. Let us mark the explanatory word sPout, 
w hich belongs to this race of words, and to sPit, sPittle, sPot, ^Patter, 
be sPATTcr, sPeckle, &c. &c. — Fuss, Fizz, &c. produced on a former 
occasion. Mr. Grose explains Fuss by "A confusion, a hurry, an 
" unnecessary to do about trifles," and the succeeding articles in his 
Classical Dictionary are Fussock, " A lazy fat woman. An old Fussock, 
" a frowzy old woman;" — Fustian, Bombast Language. Red Fustian; 
"port wine;" — Fusty Laggs, "A beastly, sluttish woman. — To Fuzz, 


" To shuffle cards minutely ; also, to change the Pack." — These words 
will remind us of the terms, relating to Dirt, Fusty, (Eng.) Foust, Dirt, 
FousTY, Dirty, (Exmore Dialect,) says the same author in his Glossary, 
and Fuzzy. — Fidge, Fidget, and Fig are terms relating to Unquiet 
Motions, and there is a common combination 'To Fiddle and Fidget 
' up and down.' The expressions To Fid-Fad, Fiddle-Faddle, nearly 
mean the same as To Puddle about, where we are brought to the 
original metaphor. The word Fiddle, the Instrument, I explain on 
another occasion, as relating to the Fides, The String, or Chord, whose 
general use is that of Fixiw^, or Tying. The term Fickle, which the 
Etymologists have justly compared with Poi kilos, (not/ci\os,) Ficol, 
(Sax.) Fickcln, (Germ.) Ficken, (Bclg.) belongs to Boggle, Waggle, 
Vacillo, (Lat.) where in the Bog we have the original idea. To Fig 
a Horse means, I imagine, to put him in a Lively, Brisk, FiGoijig state. 
A Fioary is supposed to be a corruption of Ykoary, which we should 
at once assert to belong to Ykgus. Yet obvious, as this appears to be, 
there is some difficulty on the point, which will be acknowledged by 
those, who are aware of the Scotrh term Be-Garie, "To Variegate, 
" to deck with divers colours." 

The phrase * A Fig for you,' and ' To Fig,' Q' When Pistol lies, 
" do this, and Fig me, like the bragging Spaniard,") is explained in the 
last edition of Johnson's Dictionary by " To insult with Ficoes, or 
" contemptuous Motions of the Fingers," which would lead us to suppose, 
that the idea of Motion prevailed in the words Fig and Ficoe, as in the 
sense of Fig, the ve^b. The term Fico is explained by "An act of 
" contempt done with the Fingers, expressing A Fig for you." Here 
the idea of Motion seems to be abandoned, yet in a quotation from John 
Florio it again appears: Fico, "A Flirt with one's fingers, given in 
" disgrace ; Fare la Fica, To bid a Fig for you." It is not doubted, 
I believe, that this phrase belongs to the Spanish Higas dar, as the 
Commentators on Shakspeare understand, and here an allusion to the 
fruit called a Fig must surely be intended. Though Higo is the Fig, 
and not Higa, which seems to belong to Figo, To Fix, The appendant 
Amulet, yet Higas dar must have originally, I imagine, meant the same 

R R 2 

316 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,R,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

as HiGos dar. Johnson in a note on the passage of Shakspeare just 
quoted says, that the insult consists in " putting the thumb between the 
" fore and middle finger," which is no doubt meant to imitate the 
Swelling Fig. Yet still I do not find explained the precise idea of this 
insult, whether it means to say, that the person does not care a Fig 
for another, which would be a natural source of contempt, where Figs 
are plentiful, or, whether it has any other meaning. The Latins say 
' Ficum Ficum dicere,' To call a Spade a Spade, that is, to call an 
ordinary thing by its familiar ordinary name. This species of insult 
is now, I believe, sometimes used to old men in order to express the 
diminutive dimensions of the Membrum Virile. In Italian Fica is the 
Pudetidum MiiUebre, as we learn from John Florio, and I must leave 
others to decide, whether this sense belongs to the FiG-leaf or to 
the Swelling form of the Fig. John Florio explains Ficaia by " A Shade, 
" or arbor of Figge leaves ; a bower of Figge leaves. Also a discourse 
" made of Figs, or rather of Women's Quainfs," and he explains 
Yicarda by " One that loves Figs, also a lecherous woman." This 
might lead the Commentators nn Shakspeare to enquire, whether 
Charmian, in her wanton conversation, has not a double meaning, when 
she says " I love long life better than Figs." (^Antony and Cleopatra, 
Act I. Scene 2.) It must be distinctly understood, that the words in 
Italian belonging to the Fica, whatever be their metaphorical application, 
relate only to the fruit of the Fig, nor must they be confounded with 
words, bearing a similar allusion, which are real English words, and which 
have not an Italian origin. Phraseology, derived from the Spanish 
and Italian Languages, was not uncommon in the time of Shakspeare. 
In English Fig is applied in sensu ohscoeno, as belonging to the verb 
of Motion ; which we learn from the following passage in Cotgrave, 
(sub voce Danse.~) " De la panse vient la Danse, When the belly is 
" full, the breech would be Figging, (for by this Danse is any lustful!, 
" or sensuall motion understood.") 

Wachter has the terms FicKe/?, Fricare, and Fick-Fack-cw, " Intri- 
" care, turbare," to which he has produced as parallel Fyg-Fag, Confuse. 
An adjacent term to these in Wachter is Fichte, Pinus, which he justly 


refers to Pitch, Pix, where we see the species of Matter, supposed 
in my hypothesis. — Feyk, (Scotch.) "This seems to signify that kind 
" of restlessness, sometimes proceeding from nervous affection, which 
" prevents one from keeping in one position ; otherwise called the 
" Fidgets." This word Dr. Jamieson refers to the verb To Fvke, 
" To be restless, to be constantly in a state of trivial motion, without 
" change of place. — To be at trouble about any thing. S. synon. Fash," 
which term Fash he has justly compared with pACHer, (Fr.) The 
terms Vessus and Fat/oo, must be added to this race of words. The 
next term to Fash in Dr. Jamieson's Dictionary, is Fasse, Hair, which 
is probably so called from the entangled state, in which it is often found. 
Grose produces Fukes, as the Northern term for " Locks of Hair." 
Dr. Jamieson is duly aware of the parallel terms belonging to Fyke, 
as Fichen, Fricare, (Germ.) Fyka, Fika, (Is. Su. G.) Citato cursu ferri, &c. 
and the Provincial term, produced by Grose, Pick, " To struggle, or 
" Fight with the legs, as a cow in the tie, or a child in the cradle." 
In Grose too we have Peek, " To walk about in perplexity," in the 
same page with which, I find Feat, " Nasty tasted," and Feague, 
" A Dirty Sluttish, idle person," where in Dirt we see the true idea. 
In Scotch the combination Pike-Facks means " Minute pieces of work 
" that cause a considerable degree of trouble to the agent, those especially 
" which are occasioned by the Troublesome humour of another," which 
Dr. Jamieson has justly compared with the German combination, before 
produced from Wachter. The exclamation i'pECK/HS related originallv 
perhaps to some embarrassment. In the same opening of our author's 
Dictionary, where Pike occurs, I perceive Feckle, " To Puzzle, to 
" perplex, to reduce to a non plus," which he has justly compared with 
the terms of Commotion, Pickle, WiCEhian, VxciLhare, &c. &c. To 
Feckle, and Puzzle means 'To Puddle, or be Muddled,' &c. To be 
Fuddled means likewise to be Puddled, or Muddled. The Dutch say 
" Bestooven van den wyn," i. e. be Dusted with Wine. — Fidder, 
" A Multitude," and ViG-Malirie, " A Whim, a Maggot," appear in the 
same opening of our author's Dictionary. I find in other places, 
" To Fizz, or Fizz about, To make a great ado, to be in a Bustling state," 


B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

which he has justly compared with other terms of a similar kind, as 
Fysa, (Isl.) To instigate, Fysan, (A. S.) Festinare, Foesa, (Su. G.) 
Agitare, &c. &c. and the Islandic Piasa, Niti ; and I find moreover 
the term To Feeze about, " To move backwards and forwards within 
" a small compass," which is applied in one sense to the action of the 
Screw, and hence this writer has compared it with our term Vice. 
I have shewn, that Vice, the Screw, belongs to the metaphor of 
Squeezing, as by, in, amidst, Glutinous Pudge matter. The terms 
preceding Fizz in Dr. Jamieson's Dictionary are Fix-Fax, " Hurry, 
" the middle of any business," and Fix-Fax, " The Tendon of the neck 
" of Cattle," which he compares with the English Pax-Wax, and the 
Dutch Pees, which mean the Pudge Swelling out substance. The 
Dutch Pees likewise means a Pizzle, " A Bull's Pizzle," &c. 

In Shakspeare Pheese occurs, as a strong term to express Trouble 
and Annoyance. The Taming of the Shrew commences with these 
words " I'll Pheese you in faith," and in Troilus and Cressida, Ajax 
says, speaking of Achilles, " An he be proud with me, I'll Pheese his 
" pride." Dr. Johnson thinks that "To Pheese is to Cond), or Curry," 
and Kersey, in his Dictionary, as Mr. Malone observes, say&, that "it is 
" a sea term, and that it signifies, to separate a cable by untwisting 
" the ends," and Dr. Johnson gives us a similar account of its original 
meaning. " But whatever may have been the origin of the expression," 
says Mr. Malone, " it undoubtedly signified in our author's time. To 
"Beat, knock, strike, or whip. Cole in his Latin Dictionary 1679 
" renders it, Flagellare, Firgis ccedere, as he does ' To Feage,' of which 
" the modern school-boy term 'To Fag,' is a corruption." The term 
Fag, ' To Fag,' must certainly be added to these words, denoting some 
Annoying action, as I have before illustrated. The sense of ' To Pheese,' 
To Beat, or Strike, differs nothing from the term Pash, which Ajax 
uses in the preceding speech to that, which I have just produced. "If 
" I go to him, with my armed Fist, I'll Pash him o'er the face." Let 
us here note again, that the Fest, under one idea is the member, which 
is able to Pash. The sense, which Pheese has " To comb, or Curry," 
will bring us to another English term Fooaz, which Mr. Grose has 


explained by "To level the surface of a fleece of wool with the shears," 
where we unequivocally see the action of doing something with Fuzzy 
matter, which brings us to Pudge matter. These terms will likewise 
conduct us to the Greek and Latin Peiko, Peko, and Pecto, Pexi, 
(UeiKw, rieKw.) The Latin term is brought to another sense of Pheese, 
and joined with a kindred term in the well known combination l^UGiiis 
Vectus, and again in Fusxi PEcxere. In one of its applications we 
are directly brought to the Spot, supposed in my hypothesis, " PECxere, 
" TeUurem," — VECtita Tellus, which in Ruhnkenius' Edition of Scheller's 
Latin Dictionary is explained in Dutch by he-sVvT, that is be-sFAued, 
sPaxxerV/, or Dug up. — Teicciih in Galic means " To be in a continual 
" Bustle, to FiDGEX," as Mr. Shaw explains it. The next term is Feich, 
Feixh, a Sinew, which brings us to the Scotch Fix-Fax, just produced. 
In the same column of Mr. Shaw's Dictionary I find Feaxh, "A calm, 
" tranquillity, a Bog," where in the sense of Bog we have the origin 
of these terms, and in that of a Calm, or Soft state, we have another 
idea, annexed to this species of matter. In the same column I see 
too Feaxha/??, " Fur, Hair," which appears under another form Fexha ; 
and which means, as I observed on a former occasion, The Fuzzy,- 
Pudgy Stuff, or state. The names for a Bawd, (Scotch,) and for 
a Hare, or Cat, Puss must be referred to the same idea. We have seen 
Fasse, (Scotch,) " A Hair,''' and Fukes " Lockes of Hair/' Dr. Jamieson 
should have produced the Saxon Feax, Caesaries, which under another 
form is F^x. To Feax, the Hair, belongs the name Fair-Faj:, quasi 
Fire- Fax, or, as it is in Saxon, Fyr-Feaxa, Ignicomus. The Saxon 
FjEx means likewise Fueus, where we see the origin of Fvcus, and 
we likewise see, how they belong to the Latin FjEX. The next words 
to F^x in my Saxon Dictionary are Fag, Versicolor, variabilis. — Color, 
and Fagcw, Fai7i, Laetus, YhGennian, I^atari. The term YjEGen, Fain, 
means Laetus, Hilaris, YjEGcniau, Blandiri, and FjEGcr, Fair, Speciosus, 
and we now see, that Fain, quasi Faj/z, or Fagm, and Fair, or Fagc/- 
belong to the FiEx, Fuc//s, the Fine gay Datub. The term before 
YjEGcn in my Saxon Dictionary is FyEGe, Moribundus, where the term 
is a Metaphor from F^x, or Foul Matter, in its relaxed state. In 

320 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.f l,m,n,r. 

Mr. Shaw's Dictionary I see near to pEATHaw the terms relating to Mind, 
Feas, Feath, " Learning, skill, knowledge," which appear from the 
Welsh parallel terms to be derived from Activity of mind. I see more- 
over in the same opening of Mr. Shaw's Dictionary Feighe, " A Warrior, 
" champion, slaughterer," which brings us to Pug//o, Fight, &c. 

The term Fit, denoting the paroxysms of a disorder, which is so 
expressive of Agitation, Convulsion, &c. as of an object in a state of 
Struggle, at once connects itself with these words. In the expression 
Pit-a-Pat, we see Agitation, or Beat?;?"-, connected with the idea, 
which is annexed to Pash, Patter, &c. Under Fitt of an ague, 
Junius has produced the Teutonic Vits, Celcr, citus, as I before observed, 
and under Fitt, Accommodare, which he cannot help seeing to belong 
by some process to these words of Motion, he produces Viste, or Vite, 
(Fr.) and Fitta, Q^irTu,^ an exhortation to Haste, among the Greeks. 
The French Etymologists under Vite justly remind us of VEGe^?/s, where 
the Veg has the same force, as the Vag in Vago, and Wag in English, 
and they remind us likewise of a term, corresponding with our word 
Whet, which belongs to the idea of Agitation in the act of Sharpening, 
and which at once brings us to Wett, Wash, Wat^?-, The Pudge, 
or Pash matter, supposed in my hypothesis. — Busy and Bustle, would 
in sense directly connect themselves with this race of words, but there 
is some difficulty in the matter, which should be unfolded. The Ety- 
mologists refer Busy to Bysgian, Abysgean, (Sax.) Occupare, Be-Sich, 
(Belg.) Occupatus, Bisogne, Besogner, (Fr.) Bisigare, (Ital.) It might 
seem, from the form of the Belgic word, that the term Busy, or Busig, 
Be-Sich, was a compound of the particle Be and Sich, Sig, &c. a separate 
Radical. In my Danish Dictionary one of the terms for Business is 
Sag, which means A Cause, Matter, affair, &c. where let us mark Cause, 
a kindred term. Thus then the compound might be Be-Sag. I ought 
to observe moreover, that Sich might be put for the Belgic Zich, one's 
Self, which species of pronoun finds its way into expressions relating to 
Busi7iess, ' As To be Stir Oneself in a matter.' My Danish Lexicographer 
explains " Busy Body," by " Der som blander Sig i alle Sager " The 
" person who blends, or engages Himself in all matters," where Sig, 


Himself, and Sagei^ affairs, are both used. I cannot satisfy myself on 
the origin of these words. The Sogne in the French Beaogyie seems 
a separate part, and to belong to Soin. The English term Dispatch, 
which relates to Haste, is acknowledged to be derived from dePecher, 
and emPechcr, which some of the French Etymologists have justly seen 
to belong to exPedio, from which, we know, exPedition is derived; 
where Ped is referred to the confinement of the Faet, as in Pidica. 

Terms under the form sP-D, &c. as sPit, ^Patter, &c. 

I shall in this place consider the terms, which appear under the form 
sP-D, &c. and which I imagine to connect themselves directly with the 
terms under the form PD, &c. I have produced on a former occasion 
sPeed, and its parallels Sped, (Sax.) Spoeden, (Belg.) Spoude, Speudo, 
(27royS>7, Proprie Festinatio, &c. 1.Trev^w, Studeo, valde cupio, Festino, 
&c.) where the Peed, &c. has the same force from the same origin, 
as the Fest in Fest?7?o, &c. &c. The true sense of the Saxon Sped, 
Festinatio, may be understood from its application to Matter, or Suh- 
stance, as we call it. Lye explains it by Substantia, though he joins 
that sense with the interpretation of " Opes, victus, proventus." Yet 
the genuine meaning of the word, as denoting Substantia, in its more 
appropriate use, is so familiar, that the Grammatical term in Saxon 
for what we call a Substantive is derived from this source, as " Nama 
" Spediglice, Nomen Subsfantivum.'' In our application of the verb 
Speed, ' Speed the Plough,' we are brought to the Ground, from which 
it is derived. The terms directly adjacent to Sped in my Saxon 
Dictionary arc Specca, A Speck, Macula, and Sped, FiTuita, and in 
the preceding column I sec Sputqw, Spuere, Spathl, Spattle, Spittle, 
SPAT/mw, Pitissare, and SpATlu?ig, Spumatio, Pituita, Speiiuan, (Goth.) 
Spuere, in which words we are brought to the original idea of Pash 
Matter. Let us here note kindred terms, under the more simple form, 

S s 

332 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

PiTuita, and Fixissare, and we may moreover observe, that in the Gothic 
term Speiwan, the Latin Spuo, with the vulgar English term, signifying 
To vomit, and their parallels Spywan, (Sax.) Spmven, (Belg.) &c. &c. 
the second letter of the Radical does not appear. In the same opening 
of my Saxon and Gothic Dictionary, I see the Gothic Sped^s^s, Ultimus, 
which Lye has justly compared with the familiar terms in German 
and Belgic, Spat, Spade, &c. Sero, Serus. When we do not exactly 
understand the mode, by which the senses of words have passed into 
each other, it is difficult to decide on the precise process, by which 
a term bears a certain meaning. If Spat, &c. denoting Late had been 
ascertained to have originally signified The Night, we should have 
resorted perhaps to a line of Milton, in order to arrive at our primitive 
idea. The " Goddess of Nocturnal Sport, the Dark veil'd Cottytto," 
is invoked, "When the dragon woom Of Stygian darkness Spetts her 
" thickest gloom, And makes one blot of all the air;" where we see, 
that the Darkness of Night is represented as a blot, or Spot of Spatter'd 
Gloom. I have produced this passage for the purpose of shewing to 
what extensive purposes this metaphor may be applied; yet I imagine, 
that Spat, Late, belongs to the same species of Spatter Stuff, under 
another turn of meaning ; namely, from the idea of a Relaxed, IVeakened 
state, and that from hence it bears the sense of Serus, Tardus. The 
parallel word to Spat denotes in one Teutonic Dialect Early, and is 
there unequivocally connected with this species of Soft, Diluted Matter. 
In Swedish Spad signifies, as Widegren explains it, "Tender, soft, 
" Effeminate, Spada ar, Tender years, Alt sedan mina Spadastc, ar 
" Ever since my earliest years," and the verb Spada, means " To Dilute, 
" to make thin. To make weak," as the same writer explains it, " Spada 
" up vin med vatten, — To dash wine with Water. Han talar alfvarsamt, 
" men Spader i med skamt. His discourse is serious, but he seasons it 
" with pleasant expressions," where in the explanatory word Season, 
we are brought to Spices, which shews us, how 'To Spice any thing,' 
may be "To Spatter any thing ;" — " Han skrifver Svenska, men Spader 
" in Fransyska ord, He writes Swedish, but interlards it with French 
" words," where we see the idea of be-SFATTERUig, and we hence too 


understand, what it is to have a Smattering of Languages, where we 
are actually brought to Matter itself. Let us mark the explanatory 
word Dash, which I shall shew to belong to Bust for a similar reason. 
In the same column of my Swedish Dictionary, I see the term Spaka, 
" To Subdue, mortify," where we still see the idea of Softening. In 
Belgic under the same form, as Spade, Late, we have Spade, a Spade, 
and in the same opening of Egbert Buys' Dictionary I see Spat, A Speck, 
Spot, Spatel, " A Spattle, Spatule, a slice to spread a plaster," 
and SpATTt'//, "To Spatter, to bedash," Spa-Water, Spa-IVater, — 
Speater, "A mixt metal of Pewter and Brass, SpEcer^, Spice, Specht, 
" A Speight, Wood Peckc/-, and Specz'c, Sort." Various as the 
offices are, which these words perform, we shall now understand, how 
they contain the same fundamental idea. We see, that SpEcie, Sort, 
denotes Matter, and Spicer_j/, the Mixture of Matter, as in Speatc/-, 
where let us note PEWTcr, which means the Mixture. The Speight 
is the PECKer belonging to Spike, &c. which according to my hypothesis 
is derived from Sticky Matter, and we now see, that the Spa is the 
Water-Place, The Pash, or Spatter place. Here we perceive, that 
the Spatula is unequivocally connected with the action of ^vxTTering, 
and in the Spade we are brought to the same spot and action. 

In Scotch Spait, Spate, Speat denotes " A Flood, an inundation. 
'• Also used metaphorically for Fluency of Speech ^ as Dr. Jamieson ex- 
plains it, and Ruddiman has derived it from the terms, which I am here 
unfolding, Sptettan, Spcethian, Sec. Spumare, To Spit forth Frothy 
Matter. In English we have a fFater Spout, Water falling in a Bodv, 
&c. &c. and To Spout, which is " To pour out words with affected 
" grandeur," says Johnson. To this might be referred our familiar term 
Speak in Spceccan, but on this point there is some difficulty. In the 
same column of my Saxon Dictionary with this word I see Spadl, 
Sput///;?, or Spittle, as likewise Spad, a Spade, Spac, a Spoke, which 
brings us to Spike, Pike, the Sticking in instruments, and Sp^c, 
Framen. — ^Termes, Vimen, Sarmentum, The Intwining Twigs. With 
respect to the word Speak, I nmst observe, that it only appears once 
under that form in Saxon, but in the same Language we have likewise 

s s 2 

304 B,F,P,V,W.5 C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

the form Sprecan, and in all other Dialects of the Teutonic we have 

the form SPRC, SFRK, &c. as Sprechen, (Germ.) &c. &c. This would 

lead me to conclude, that Speak is a corruption, and should be considered 

as quasi Spreak. The form Speak however is not without an Etymology, 

as Wachter seems to suppose, since it may belong to Spout; yet I agree 

with him, that Sprechen is the original form, and that it belongs to 

Brechen, though he would have come nearer to the form of his word, 

if he had referred it to the terms, with which it is directly connected 

in the same leaf of his Lexicon, Sprengen, quasi, Spreggen, Spargere, 

Spriessen, Germinare To Sprout out, Forth, &c. Springen quasi Spriggen, 

Germinare, To Spring forth, Scaturire, Spritten, Spuere, To Spurt out, 

just as Speccan, if that had been the true form, would have signified 

To Spout out. In Scotch Spat is the Spawn of Oysters, where Dr. 

Jamieson has justly recorded a term of a similar meaning Spad, (Su. G.) 

" Jus, humor," but there is another word in Scotch under this form, 

which directly brings us to the precise idea of the Pudge, or Pash 

Matter, or Spot, supposed in my hypothesis. — Spout is explained by 

Dr. Jamieson to be " A sort of Boggy Spring in Ground," to which, 

as it seems, our author has discovered no parallel term, since no parallel 

term is produced. While I examine Spat, hate, in my German Dictionary, 

I perceive in the same leaf, where this word occurs, Spass, Pastime, 

sport, &c. which belongs to the idea of Agitation conveyed by its adjacent 

terms Spatel, A Spat, Spatule, &c. Spade, A Spade, as likewise 

SpATzierew, To Walk abroad, which belongs to sYxTium, sVxTior, sY.vriari, 

relating to Pass/??^, or ^xomiig about, or in the Pudge ^Pot; — Speck, 

Bacow, Pork, SpECKfeige, A Great Fig, Speck Birne, Great melting 

Pears, Speck?c^^, Fat, which relates to the Fvueing out substance; 

and Speichcl, Spittle. I see too Speise Meat, Food, &c. which still 

relates to the same idea. Let us mark the terms B\con, Fig, Food, 

where the same fundamental notion prevails. Wachter understands, 

that sPjec belongs to Bxcon by the addition of the sibilant. 

In the same opening of Wachter, where Speck, &c. occurs, I cast 
my eyes on sPass, Vxsser, a Sparrow, which he justly refers to that 
Latin word, though he seems to doubt its relation to sPiza, (iTrt^a, 


Fringilla,) and on «Pecht, Picks ; where let us note, that all these words 
refer to the idea of the Peckc/', or Tearer. In Sparrow and its parallels, 
under that form, the second letter of the Radical has passed into R. — 
My Lexicographer explains Spade by " A Spade, or Dibble,^'' where 
let us note the term Dibble, which belongs to Dab and Dabble, just 
as Spade does to Spatter and Spittle. In German the term signifies 
" Ligo, gladius, and Hasta," and we know that in some of the modern 
Languages its derivatives mean the sword, Spada, Espada, Espee, Epee, 
(Ital. Span. Fr.) In the Spanish verb Espadar, " To break hemp, or 
" flax v^^ith a swing staff," the term is brought to its original idea of 
Vxsning to pieces. In English the Spade has passed into the Spud, 
the Spit, &c. &c. and in German we have again the sharp pointed 
instrument in Spitze, Spiess, &c. &c. I have already observed, what 
is acknowledged, that the Greek Spathe, 'Liradr}, Spatha, Spathula, &c. 
connects itself with the terms of Dispersion, Prodigality , &c. Spathoo, 
Spatalao, (^iraQaw, Licium inculco, Spatha, vel tudicula texo. Profuse 
insumo, Prodigo, &c. 1.TraTaXaw, Lascivio, delicior, &c.) I have noted, 
that Spatula is used in its original idea, when it refers to spreading of 
Salve, or Pash matter, but in the Language of the Poet, sPathc, (LTrad)],) 
is applied to an oar, which Pashcs about Water, as in Pitulos, (UitvXo's, 
Sonus, vel strepitus, velut aquce remo percuss^,) Qeivou I.Tradai-s, 
{Lycophron. v. 23.) In examining these words in my Greek Vocabulary, 
I cast my eyes on Spato.s, (STraros, Corium, Pellis,) and Spao, Spaso, 
(STraw, aau), Traho, attraho, cxtraho, educo, vello, convello, Sugo, 
Bibo.) The radical form of this verb is, I imagine, Spaso, and the 
original idea is that of Drawing, or Sacking in, as belonging to Pash 
Quag Matter. Perhaps Spatos, (STraro?,) means, what is Draivn, 
or Pulled off. I shall shew, that Sugo and Suck are to be referred 
to the Quag, &c. for a similar reason. This is the force of the Greek 
Porizo, (rioTi^w,) and Poto, " To Suck, or Soak in," as R. Ainsworth 
explains it. I cannot help shewing the course of the human mind in 
the formation of such words by producing a Welsh term, now before 
me, belonging to Sugo and Suck. Mr. Owen explains Sug by " An 
" imbibing principle; a Suck, or Drawing; what is imbibed, Juice; sap," 

326 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Y,Z.^ I,m,n,r. 

and in the same column of his Dictionary I see a kindred term Suz, 
" That pervades or sinks in, moisture, Juice, sap." 

Thus it is, that Pas in sPaso, relating to Drawing, may belong 
to such terms as Pash, or Watery, Matter, &c. — In the following passage 
the Pas and Pot in the terms s?Ks-as, and Vor-isthenfas, (J-Traa-a^, 
Uoricrdevra^,') are applied to the idea of Suching, or Drawing in, so 
as To Imbibe, be Soaked, Steeped, &c. Zeno, the Stoic, though harsh 
and crabbed among his acquaintance, when he was sober, became mild 
and agreeable, when he had sucked in his wine, just as Lupines, which 
of themselves are very bitter, become Sweet and pleasant ; when they 
are Soaked and macerated. " Z^vcov o Kimevs, crKXnpo's wv Kai ttuw 
" dvficoTiKOs iTpo'5 Tov^ 'yvuipifj.ovs, CTTt TrXeiov Tov oivov Y.TTa(ra^, rjdv^ 
" eyivero kul jneiXi^o^' Trpo? tou? Trvvdavofxevov^ ovv rov Tpoirov Tt]V 
" Zia<popav, eXeje to avro TOis dep/jLOis 7rao-;\;eii/" Kai yap CKeivov^ irpiv 
" Zia(ipa-)(^tivai TriKpoTarovi eivai, ttot laOevTa's Ze yXvKei^ Kai 7rpocrr]v- 
" ecTTarovi.'" {Athen. Lib. IL c. 15.) In Mr. Shaw's Galic Dictionary, 
we have Spad, " A Spade," and in the same column of his Dictionary 
we have Spad, " A Clod, flat, dead," — Spaid, " A Clod,'' Spadal, 
" A Paddle, a plough-staff," and Spad^w, " To knock in the head, 
"knock down, to fell." In another place we have Speid, "A great 
"river, flood; a being busy," which again brings us to Speed and 
Speudo, (ZTreySw,) and to the idea of Pash Matter, and in the same page 
of Mr. Shaw's Dictionary I see Spice, " A Spike, long nail," Speic, &c. 
"A bar, spar, prop, stroke," SpocHmw, "To rob," Spocnaiw/, "To pro- 
" voke, affront," Spiaeawz, " To mock, scoff," Spid, " Spite, malice," where 
we see, that the English term Spite belongs to the same metaphor 
of Spittw?^', Spatter^??^, Sticking in, over, &c. In Belgic Spyt is 
" Spite, despite. Vexation," and Spytcw, "To Vex, displease, fret." 
Under another form we have in Belgic Spottcw, or AcSpottcw, "To 
" mock, to scoff," &c. Spittc//, "To cut with a sharp Spade, To Dig," 
" SpiTze«, " To empale," &c. In the preceding column of my Dutch 
Dictionary to /;eSpoTTe/j!, we have ^cSpattc//, " To bedash, or be- 
" Spattc/'." The Galic Spad, or Spaid, Dirt, brings us to the form 
of the Greek Spodos, (SttoSos, Cinis.) We see, how the form Spod 


connects itself with Speud, in Speudo, (STrei/Sw,) according to my 
hypothesis, and how again this principle unites under the same race 
the Speis in Speiso, (STrej/So, 27rei<rw,) To SpAXxer about, as Pash, 
or Pudge matter. 

The Sphodelos, or (zSphodelms, (Acrc^oSeAos, Asphodelus, Planta. — 
King's Spear, or Asphodel,) is supposed to be derived from Spaxhe, 
(I.Tradri,') which brings us to the form SpAXHULa. The Daffodil is 
imagined to be a corruption of Asphodel, which becomes more cor- 
rupted in the term Daffodown Dilhj. The term Spad^j:, (^L-rrahi^, 
Termes, palmes,) is adjacent to Spaxhe, (S7ra6>/,) and seems to be con- 
nected with that word ; though the Lexicographers derive it from Spao, 
and Spad?"zo, (STraw, Traho, STraSi^w, Avello, detraho,) " quasi Avulsus 
" k Palma Termes." The next word to Spadix in my Greek Vocabulary 
is Spado/?, (^-rralodv, Eunuchus, cui testiculi sunt Avulsi,) which they 
derive from a similar idea. The Greek Spado;?, (I.iradwu, Spado,) directly 
belongs to the English Spay, or Spade, as the Etymologists understand, 
who should have added likewise the Welsh Dyspaiz, An Eunuch, 
Dyspazu, To Geld, and the Irish Spux, an Eunuch ; all which words 
refer to the idea of Spouxing, (if I may so say,) Spudd/;?^-, or SpAoiwg. 
The Latin Castrare, To Cut out. Geld, &c. belongs to Castrum, the 
Ditch, from a similar metaphor of Cutting, or Casting out Dirt. Mr. 
Owen refers Dyspaiz, &c. and Dypazu, To Yspaiz, " Being Emptied, 
or Exhausted," and Yspazii, " To exhaust. To empty." In the same 
column of Mr. Owen's Dictionary I see ?/sPas, Passw/^, which brings 
us to the Spot, supposed in my hypothesis ; and in the same opening 
I see ?/Spyz, a Jutting, or Run out, which Mr, Owen has justly referred 
to Pyz, "A state of Running out, or a spread," the verb to which is 
Pyzm, "To run out, to spread," and ySPYzaid, "Jetting; prickly; 
" harsh ; sharp, repulsive, protected," all which words bring us to Spout, 
(To Spout, or Jet out,) Spike, &c. But the original idea is une- 
quivocal in the Irish Sput, which Mr. Shaw explains by "An Eunuch; 
" hog wash, a word of contempt for bad drink, a Spout, and in the 
corresponding verb, directly succeeding it, Svurani, "To Spout." In 
the same column of Martinius, where Spado occurs, I see ^Paco, Canis, 


B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

Persis. Justin. Lib. I. Hesych. 'Zttuku, Kvva, ;/ 1.(piy^, which the sPac, 
and the sFigx, {^(piy^,) belong probably to the same idea, which we 
have in Fix, To Seize, or Fastcw upon. 

Terms relating to Noise, as Patter, Pitter-Patter, palPnafe, &c. 

I shall here produce a few terms, appearing under our Element, 
which relate to Noise, Sound, &c. and which are often connected with 
the notion of Agitatioji, Commotion, Sec. Some of these terms un- 
equivocally attach themselves to the train of ideas, which I have above 
unfolded, and we shall at once acknowledge, that they relate to the 
action of ^Asning about Pudge Matter. There are other terms, which 
may seem to belong to other trains of ideas ; and the reader perhaps 
will be inclined to consider, that some of these words have arisen from 
the Elementary form B\ Those, who delight to imagine unproductive 
Theories on the origin of Language, may suppose, if they please, that 
some of these words are derived from the infantine sounds, Ba, Pa, &c. 
To this hypothesis, or any other hypothesis of a similar kind, I can 
have no objection; as it affords no impediment to any efficient modes, 
by which the relations of words to each other may be discovered ; 
though it supplies no facilities for their discovery, and opens into no 
facts for their illustration. As we approach to these limits in our dis- 
cussions on Language, where every thing may be conjectured, and 
nothing can be ascertained; I shall forbear to interpose any opinion, 
and I must leave the reader to form his own judgement on the relation 
of these aequivocal terms to each other, and to the Race of words, which 
appear under our Elementary form BC, BD, &c. Among these terms, 
relating to Noise we must class the following Patter, Pitter-Patter, 
Pat, Pad,. (Eng.) Fxreo, Patasso, Patagos, Pittulos, (narew, Calco, 
UaTaa-a-o), Cum strepitu Palpito, vehementer Pa/pifo, Percutio, &c. 
Jlarayos, Fragor, strepitus, UittvXo?, Sonus, seu Strepitus, qualis pra- 


sertim aquae remo percussae,) &c. &c. in some of which we unquestion- 
ably see the idea of Noise, as connected with Pudge, or Pash Matter. 
In Pash we mark the idea of Noise, as attending that action, which 
is likewise apparent in Pal-Yiio, P«/-Pitate, and Pit-a-Pat, and in 
Beat and Batter, we still perceive the same meaning. — Pato?"s, (Fr.) 
the origin of which, or the relation of which to other words will be 
manifest by considering the adjacent terms in the French Dictionaries 
PATt'ouiller, " To tread in the Mud,'' &c. Posaww, (Germ.) " A Sack- 
" But, a sort of Trumpet," where let us mark the term But, in Sack- 
But, having a similar force. — Buzz is supposed to be a word formed 
from the sound. It is applied, we know, to the sound of the Bee, 
and the name of this animal is to be found under various forms, in 
which the Labial may be considered, as imparting to the word its 
characteristic force, as Beo, Bi, Bye, (Sax. Dan. Belg.) Bien, (Germ.) 
Aheille, (Fr.) Baedd, (Welsh,) Pecchia, aBEJa, (Span.) aPis, (Lat.) 
&c. terms collected by the Etymologists, in some of which we have 
the Elementary form BS. I cannot help observing, in this place, that 
the Hyb in Hybla belongs to the Bee, or aPis, whether the BFy be 
significant, or whether Hybla should be considered as agreeing in form 
with the French AbeiUe. — Bat, (Lat.) the term in Plautus, is supposed 
to be taken from the Sound, which term is adjacent in the Latin 
Vocabularies to Batwo, To Beat, Battc/', BAriUuni, A Paddle staff, &c. 
J^ATTologeo, BxTTxrizo, (BaTToXoyew, BaTTapi^oi, Balbutio, lingua titubo 
et haesito, &c.) which are supposed to be derived from a personage 
called Battos, (Button, Battus, princeps Cyreneeorum, Balbus et exili 
voce prwditus.) Mr. Parkhurst derives the Greek Battos, (Barros,) 
from the Hebrew i<£D2 BTA, To Utter, or speak rashly, foolishly, or 
unadvisedly, efFutire. Let us here note the But and the Bus in Balbutio 
and Balbus. I see in my Greek Vocabulary an adjacent term to these 
Greek words, as BATrachos, (Barpaxo^, Rana,) which is supposed 
likewise to be derived from the Noise. — Bauzo, Bazo, Bauko/co, Ba- 
Bax, Ba-B\zo, Bu-Baktcs, Phasko, Be?n-BEx, Bom-Bux, Bex, Buas, 
which is the succeeding word in my Greek Dictionary to Bu, The cry 
of Infants, (Bav'(u), Latro, Baubor, Ba^w, Loquor, dico, BavKaXew, Sopio 



B,F,P,V, W.J C,D,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| hm,n,r. 

caiitu, nutricum more, a Bau/3aw, Ba/3a^, Garrulus, Ba/Sa^w, idem quod 
Bajufiaivci), Balbutio, BajSuKrv^, Loquax, Oatr/co), Dico, a <^aw, Beju/3;;^, 
Turbo, Bofji^v^, Bombyx, B;?^, B?/;;^os, Tussis, Byas, Bubo, avis nocturna, 
Bi/, Vox infantis Vhgicntis.^ The term Bt^io will remind us of the 
verb in the line " Inque paludiferis Buxio, Biibit aquis. — Bezo, Beka, 
The cry of Sheep, which is supposed to belong to the Imitative Ba, 
to which is referred the Latin Balo, &c. (B>;^a>, Clamo B»; ut oves, 
clamo. BrjKu, Oves,) which will remind us of Boe, Boao, Boeso, BosTReo, 
(Hot), Clamor, Boaw, Borja-w, Clamo, Boa-Tpeto, Clamo, Voco.) — Vag/o, 
(Lat.) which directly connects itself with Vago?', which I have proved 
to belong to Wag, Bog, &c. — Bay as a Dog, Bough, Wough, Baugh, 
Bawse, Exclamare, (Eng.) The Etymologists have referred Bay, to 
Abbayer, Abbaiare, (Fr. Ital.) the Latin Baubo, and the Greek Bauzo, 
(Bai/^ft),) and they have likewise observed, that the phrase " To keep 
" at Bay," belongs to this idea of Barking. The term Beagles, for 
Hounds, may be derived from the Noise. In Wachter's German Glossary 
we have • Waschc//, Garrire, which is in the same column with 
WASCHew, Lavare, Wase, Ccenum, where we are brought to the idea 
of Pudge, or Pash matter, according to my hypothesis. Our Ety- 
mologist refers this term for Chattering to the Greek words Y^SKe^n 
and Baskc/m, (^aa-Keiv, Bao-Kcti/,) and reminds us of the German pATzen, 
Nugari, which form brings us to the Put in eJ'FvTio. 

^Egyptian terms signifying to Beat, Strike, Cut, Knoch, Bruise, «&;c. 

In the ^Egyptian Language, there are various words signifying 
' To Beat, Strike, Cut, Knock, Bruise' , &c. which ideas might be 
expressed by the Latin Ccedo, a term comprehending various turns of 
meaning, in actions of violence. Among these words we may class 
the following, Besh-Bosh, which in Woide's ^Egyptian Lexicon is 
explained by " Virgis Ccedere,'' where we see the term doubled, quasi 
Beat-Beat, in order to express more strongly the idea, an artifice 
rommon to various I^anguages, but particularly apparent in the -Egyptian. 


The preceding term to this in Woide's Dictionary is Besh, Nudus, which 
appears under the forms Bish, Bash, Bosh, Exuere. An adjacent 
word to Besh, Nudus, is Bedji, Locusta, The great Stripper, or Borer 
of Verdure, and the next term to Bash, Exuere, is Bashor, AAM7^^;^, 
Vulpes, to which certainly belongs the Greek Bassara, (Bacra-apa, 
Genus calceamenti, Baccha, Meretrix, Vulpes,^ signifying a Fox. But 
the question is to decide, from what idea the -Egyptian word for a Fox 
is derived; and on this I must observe, that a comparison of the ^Egyptian 
words, which appear to be connected with this term for a Fox, and 
the senses of the Greek word, will serve to illustrate each other. In 
the same column of Woide's Dictionary I see Bakshar, Coriarius, which 
if we conceive to mean the person, who Strips off the Skin, and if 
we suppose, that the sense of the Fox is derived from the idea of the 
Skin so Stripf off, the Exiivice, all will be intelligible: The Fox maj' 
denote the Stripper, or Plunderer, and such is the idea of the English 
Fox, the Vexer, Plaguer, Depredator. Many suppose, that the name 
of the Bacchant, Bassara, and the title of Bacchus himself Bassarcws, 
are taken from the Fox Skins, which were worn in celebrating his rites, 
and hence we see, why the sense of a Shoe is annexed to the Greek 
word as being made of Skin, or Leather, and how it coincides with 
the Egyptian term for a person, dealing in Leather. The sense of 
Meretrix seems to belong to that of the Disorderly, Loose, Bold Bacchant. 
This is the idea adopted by Schneider, who explains it by " Ein Freches 
" Weibsbild," and who supposes that this word is of Thracian origin, 
and that it denoted the dress of the Thracian Bacchants, made of Fox 
Skins. Martinius records under the word Bassaro, (^ua-trapa,^ the 
Hebrew term for Flesh BSR "^^1, which plainly belongs to the idea 
of Pash Matter, To Pash about, off, &c. whatever may be the precise 
notion, from which that of Flesh is taken. Mr. Parkhurst explains 
the general idea of the word to be that of Spreading out, Abroad, 
and as a substantive it denotes what is Soft and Pliable. The Hebrew 
term seems to be taken from the idea of Soft Matter. Martinius sup- 
poses, that the Greek word in the sense of a Fox may belong to this 
Hebrew term, as denoting a Carnivorous animal, or to the Hebrew 

T T 2 


B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

"IV2 BZR, Vindemiare, as the Injurer of Grapes. The Hebrew term, 
relating to the Vintage, seems to be derived from the action of FASHmg, 
or Pressing, and Mr. Parkhurst refers to it the name BASSARe?/^, as 
a title of Bacchus. I see too in the Egyptian Language the terms 
Bashour, Serra, Bac, Tlpieiv, vel Trpi^eiv, Dissecare, where we have still 
the sense annexed to Ccedo; — Basnit, or Besnit, ^rarius, the BEAxer, 
or Knocker ; — Bashom^, Utiyavov, Ruta, which is probably derived from 
its Pungent quality, where let us mark ^EGanon, (Ylrjyavov,') from 
FEGnumi, {Ut]yvufxi, Figo,) To Stick, Push, &c. — Bahci, Vacca ; — 
Bacour, Stibium, produced on a former occasion ; — BAGjiw?', Vitrum ; 
Bot, Far, in which three latter words we see the idea of Matter of 
a Pudge, or Di7^f kind, though of a ditlerent form. The sense of the 
^4)gyptian Bacour will be manifest in the parallel terms, Latin and 
Greek Baccar, BAKKam, {BuKKapi^, Unguentum,) the Smear. In the 
same column with Box, I see Boxo, Bellum, where we have the sense 
of Beax, Fighx, &c. In the preceding page I see Big, Tessera, Bigi, 
Naufragium, what is in a Broken, Baxxek'^^ state, in Pieces, Lumps, &c. 
BoKi, Praignans, the Lumpish form, Rising, or Swelling up, to which 
idea belong two terms in the same column Besh, Yicus Immaturae, 
and Bix, Ramus palmee ; — Bax, Boux, Aboniinandum Bok, Servus, 
Boki, Ancilla, what is Base, or Vile, and Bocer, Remi navis, the 
PASHers about. I cannot help noting the next term to Bocer, which 
appears under the Element BR, and which will unequivocally shew 
us, how the Egyptian Language is altogether connected with the forms 
of Speech most familiar to our knowledge. This term is Bor-Ber, 
which under another form is Ber-Bor, Excutere, Ejicere, Projicere, 
the next word to which is Ber-Ber, Calidus. These terms of Commotion 
afford precisely the same compound as the Latin Ver-Bero, which is 
pERio-FERio, all belonging to Bor-Boro5, (Bop/Sojoos, Coenum, Limus.) 
I see moreover under our Element BC, &c. in Egyptian, Bex, Costa, 
ialus, which probably belongs to Bed, the Surrounding Hollow ; — Beche, 
Mia-do^, Merces, which perhaps is another form of the Greek Misxh-os, 
and Baki, Urbs, which belongs to Yicus, and a race of words, which 
1 shall explain on a future occasion. — The ^Egyptian K\snit, -^rarius, is 


probably derived from the idea of BEATi«o^, or Reducing into form, 
to pieces, &c. in the various operations of the Artist upon Metals, by 
Moulding, Melting, &c. Under the sense of Melting, w^e have the 
more original idea of the Element, as it relates to a Soft state of things. 
To this Egyptian term we should probably refer the Greek Basanos, 
BASANexo, (Ba<rai/o?, Lapis, quo probatur aurum. Lapis Lydius, Explo- 
ratio, &c. Tormenta, &c. Bao-ai/t^o), Exploro, probo, Torqueo, Affligo, 
&c.) which latter word perhaps ought to be explained by Contundo, 
Ccedo, &c. quasi Excudendo, Tundendo, Fingendo, Prohando, &c. Metalla ; 
Exinde Probo, Examino: — Contundo, Cwdo, Affligo, Torqueo, &c. as 
likewise the Hebrew ^na BCAN, which Mr. Parkhurst explains by "To 
" Try, Prove, Examine, as Metals^ In another sense Mr. Parkhurst 
explains this Hebrew term by "A Place, or building for examining, 
*' or spying, a Watch Tower," to which he refers the English terms 
Beacon and Beckon. This relation I do not acknowledge, however 
striking their resemblance may appear. The Mythologists might enquire, 
whether these Fire-Toivers, about which we have heard so much, were 
not often Smelting Houses. The English word Beckon surely belongs 
to Beck, The Nod, Sign, or Mark with the Beak, and though the 
parallel term to Beacon in Saxon does not afford any strong evidence 
of its origit), yet the Dutch parallel terms Baak, " A Beacon, a Sea-Mark. 
Een Fuur Baak, Fuur Tooren, A Fire Beacon, Fire-Tower must be noted. 

Terms in Hebrew signifying 'To Pash, or Dash about, to pieces, &c. 
* To Separate, Divide, Dissipate, Disperse, Break, or Knock to 
' pieces,' &c. &c. 

1 shall now produce the Hebrew words, which signify ' To Pash, 
' or Dash about to pieces, &c. To Separate, Divide, Dissipate, Disperse, 
' To Break, or Knock to pieces', &c. &c. This sense is particularly visible 
in the Hebrew and its kindred Dialects. Among these Terms we must 
class the following, 13 BD, " Separate, alone. It occurs not as a verb 


B,F,P,V,\V.| C,D,J,K,Q,S,T,X, Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

" in Hebrew," says Mr. Parkhurst, " but in Arabic signifies To Separate^ 
" Disjoin,'' Hence, says our author, " The Arabs, roving in the Deserts 
" of Asia and Africa, had their appellation, BEoaid, or, as the Europeans 
" call them BEDOuifis, or BzDoweens.'' Mr. Parkhurst justly compares 
this word with Vimmsy Wido?v, to which we must add Void, Vacmw*, 
&c. discussed on a former occasion. Adjacent to this Hebrew word 
1 see 22 BG, Meat, Food, which I have before produced, and which 
Mr. Parkhurst has compared with the Greek Bagos, (60705, ) denoting 
" A Piece, or fragment of bread, or Paste,"' where in Piece and Paste 
we see kindred words, and which he conceives to signify in its original 
idea, < To Spoil, Pluck, Break off,' &c. I see likewise as an adjacent 
term ti'i^n "To Sti/>k as carrion, or dead animals in a state of Put- 
'■' refaction, or the like," where in TuTrid we find a kindred word, 
bearing the original idea. — K13 BDA, " To feign, or devise of himself 
" alone," where by the term Alone Mr. Parkhurst seems to refer it to 
the idea of Separation. If that be not the idea, perhaps the explanatory 
terms Feig??, and deVisE, as derived from the Plastic materials of Mud, 
which have been unfolded on a former occasion, exhibit the original 
notion. — hl2 BDL, " To Divide, Separate, Distinguish," the succeeding 
words to which are pl3 BDK, which, says Mr. Parkhurst, occurs not 
as a verb in Hebrew, but as a Noun is " constantly used for a Breach, 
"Rupture, Fissure, Chink:'— 112 BDR, "To Scatter, Disperse.— '2, 
i<'2 BZ, BZA, To Spoil, Strip, "iT2 BZR, To Dispense, Dissipate, 
p'2 BZK, " Occurs not, as a verb in Hebrew," says Mr. Parkhurst, 
" but in Syriac signifies To Stroiv, Disperse, Break to pieces. As a N, 
" in Heb. p*2," BZK, "A flash oi Lightning," adjacent to which word 
we have pn3 BHK, which " occurs not as a V in Hebrew," says 
our author, but in Chaldee and Syriac signifies "To Shine," the true 
idea of which is unequivocally manifest in another sense of the word, 
which is that of "a kind of Leprosy, or Leprous Spot on the skin;" 
where we see Foul Spots, as of Dirt, Scattered, or Sprinkled over the 
surface of the Body. I find adjacent to this term DHQ BHS, " Red 
" marble, Porphyry, or some kind of beautiful stone," which means what 
is Spotted, or Sprinkled over. 1 find near these words the term n22 


BKH, " To Ooze, to Ooze out as a liquor," where we see the original 
idea of Pudge, or Pash Matter, capable of being Pash'd, or Sprinkled 
about, from which idea, as T conceive, these terms signifying To Pash 
about are derived. — On BS, To trample upon, tread under feet. — IDi 
BSR, "To reject, cast off," and in Chaldee and Syriac, To Despise, 
contemn, which is the sense of rn3 BZH, " To Despise, contemn, slight^ 
i;va BZG, "To Break, or cut off; the preceding term to which in 
Mr. Parkhurst's Lexicon are h)i2 BZL and p BZ. The former term 
BZL occurs not as a verb in Hebrew, but in Arabic signifies "To Peel 
" off the bark of a tree, or coats of an onion," though in Hebrew it 
denotes the Onioit itself, " from its several coats, or integuments," where 
the original idea of the word is that of Breaking, or Cutting off, &c. 
The term p BZ denotes " Soft Mud, or Mire,'' where we are at once 
brought to the original idea. — The adjacent terms to these are i?p3 BKG, 
" To Separate contiguous, or adjoining parts, to Cleave, Split, Burst, 
" or the like." In one sense as a noun DUp^ BKGH denotes " A Valley, 
" or rather a Comb, or gill, a Break," between mountains, where we 
come to the original idea of the Loiv, Hollow Spot, p3 " To Empty, 
" Empty out. — A Bottle," to which Mr. Parkhurst has justly referred 
Back, or Buck, A large Vessel, Bucket, Vaco, Yacuus, &c. Bucca, 
BoucHE, where we have the same fundamental idea; — IVi BZR, 
" To restrain, shut up," i. e. To Pudge up, to which sense of being shut 
up, Mr. Parkhurst refers the Eastern term Bazar, The Covered Market 
place, — " somewhat like our Exeter Change in London, but frequently 
" much more extensive ;" — p^3 To be made Soft by moistening.'' Let 
us mark the explanatory term Cleave, which relates, we know, to Sticky 
Matter, and denotes Sticking together, yet contains the idea likewise 
of Separating, Dividing. The next word to the term, signifying To 
Cleave is "lp3 " To look, search, examine," which belongs to the idea 
of Cleaving, just as the Latin word Rimari, To Search, belongs to Rima, 
The Chink, or Cleft.— Dmi BSS/?, " To Tread, Trample," the next word 
to which is "Itfl BSR, To Spread. — VriD BTL occurs not as a verb in 
Hebrew, but in Arabic signifies "To separate, sever." — "in3 BTR, 
" To divide asunder," the next word to which is n'7"T2 BDLC/?, which 

336 B,F,P,V,W.| C, D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

Mr. Parkhurst derives from blQ BDL, To Divide, and n"? LCA Smooth, 
from its Smooth " Coats Spread with perfect regularity one over the 
" other." These Hebrew^ Terms have their parallel words in the kindred 
Dialects, Arabic, Syriac, &c. some of which have already been produced 
on former occasions ; from whence we shall learn, how widely this 
train of ideas is diffused in the Mechanism of Languages. 

I shall now examine the Hebrew words under the form 3D PG, &c. 
and shall not only note those, which belong to Separation, Dispersion, &c. 
but those likewise, w^hich contain other senses of our Elementary 
Character J2 PG signifies "To Fail, Faint,'' and a Fig, to which Mr. 
Parkhurst refers Fag end : "1^2 " To Faint, lose one's strength and 
" activity, and A Dead inactive Carcase,'' ID PD in Syriac means 
To Fail, in Arabic To Die, To Destroy, and in Hebrew Destruction : — 
112 PDR means in Hebrew Fat, but in Arabic it denotes "To Fail, 
" or Faint through languor. This idea of Faintness, &c. is derived from 
the Matter of Dirt in a Soft, Loose state, and hence it is applied to 
Fat, and a Fig, The Soft Sivclling Substances. — 7JD PGL means " To 
" Pollute, Defile," where we come to the original idea : — V^^ PGO and 
tt'JD PGS signify ' To meet with.' The former word refers to an action 
of Violence, and means To rush upon, and Mr. Parkhurst asks, whether 
the English Fight be not derived from it : — ms PDH signifies " To 
" Separate, Sever," and then To Rescue, or Redeem from evil; — To 
Redeem, To Deliver from Death, and the term ;/lD PDO has the sense 
of Delivering. As a noun PDN with Aram, as VxDx^-Aram, refers to 
Mesopotamia, where Pad an is the Greek Pedon, (YleZov,^ and the 
German and English Boden and Bottom, The Lotv Spot. — TD PZ relates 
to " Solidity, Compactness, strength," and it means Gold from its Solidity, 
where let us note com^Acrness, a kindred word, in both which terms 
we see Matter in its Pudge state, as relating to a consistent Mass. 
The next words to this are "ITD PZR, To Disperse, Dissipate, Scatter, 
to which Mr. Parkhurst improperly refers Spargo, &c. — FID PC/?, To 
expand. Spread out, dilate :~1U^ FChD, To be Agitated, Pant, Pal- 
pitate:— 'U^ YChZ, To overfloiv, as Water doth its banks; which Mr. 
Parkhurst refers to Tusum, where we have the original idea of Pash, 


Watery Matter. DHi PC^M, where Mr. Parkhurst refers us to HSJ 
NPCA in its sixth sense, which is that of Living Coals. In its fifth 
sense, under the form n"'2 PICA, it denotes Ashes : — ins PC/zR, A Potter, 
nnsi FChT means To Dig, and in Arabic " To Cut up— A Pit;' to 
which our Author justly refers Pit, Fvtcus, Puits. In these words 
we are brought to the original idea of Dirt, or Pudge Matter. — IDD 
PTD means the Precious Stone called the Topaz, roTra^iov. Perhaps 
the Paz in foPAz belongs to the Hebrew term, which brings us to the 
Ground, from which, as we should imagine, the name of a Stone would 
be derived.— "I££)D PTR means To open, " To let loose by opening;^ where 
we see the idea of Dirt in a Loose state, and to this same idea we must 
refer the Latin Patco :— tt'DD PTS, To Strike, Smite, Pound, the true 
idea of which appears in its adjacent term 12 PK, To Dissolve, Disjoin, 
Set Loose, Pulverize, or the like, which sense occurs in the Syriac and 
Arabic. — " To run out, or be Diffused, as Waters," where we have 
the idea both of Pudge and Pash Matter. This word expresses likewise 
the Mineral substance, or Dirt substance, if I may so say, which is so 
much used in the East, as a Pigment for the Eyes, called Stibium. 
Mr. Parkhurst has referred to this word in this sense the Greek Fuko6', 
($iyK09,) and Fucus, which mean the vile Daivb. — D2 PS, To Diminish, 
To be Diminished, A Small parcel, or Particle, Chald. " A Piece, apart;' 
where in Piece we have a kindred word : Mr. Parkhurst refers to it 
Piece, nao-o-en' and Patch.— JD2 PSG, To Divide, Dissect.— HD^ PSC/j, 
" To Pass, or Leap over by intervals. — The Passover;' to which Mr. 
Parkhurst justly refers Pass, Passus, Passer, (Lat. Fr.) Pace, Pas, 
(Eng. Fr.)— '7DQ PSL, " To Hew, chip out witli a tool."— There are four 
terms in Hebrew under the form i^Q PG, or PO, in which wc might 
enquire whether the U, the Gnain, should be considered as the ('onsonant 
G, or a vowel, n;;D PGH, '*To swell with blowing, or Puffing, a Piper;' 
We might here ask, if the Labial F in Puff has not been lost in the 
form POH. The term hv^ POL means To Work, operate, &r. This 
belongs to UoXeu), Plough, Ply, and Dj;2 PGM, To Smite, Agitate, &c. 
" by turns, strike, or smite alternately, or repeatedly. — An Anvil, 
" The Foot."— -|;;2 PGR, or POR, " To gape, open wide, as the mouth — 

U u 


B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

" Baal-Peor" We might enquire, whether it should be Baal Peor, or 
Baal Pegor.— nVD PZH, " To Let Loose, or open as the mouth, or Lips,'' 
where we unequivocally see the form PZ. — r\V2 PZT, " To Break with 
" a Noise, to Crash, as the bones."— "7^2 PZL, " To take off the Bark, to 
" decorticate, pill, or peel :'~-'0')i^ PZM, " To Break, or Burst openr~-V^^ 
PZG, " To wound, hurt."' — ")V2 PZR, " To press hard, urge ivith vehemence y 
where we have the sense of Push, &c. — p2 PK, " To Totter, Stagger, 
" stumble,'' where we have the sense of Bog, Boggle. — TpQ PKD, " To 
" take notice, or care of, either by one's self, or by another appointed 
" to do so. To Visit, Review, Oversee." This word seems to have 
signified, in its original idea. To Poke, Push, &c. To Poke after any 
thing, as we express it, in order to try, or examine it. It is used 
sometimes in a sense of violence, for To Hurt, or Punish. In one sense 
it means " To commit to, Deposite, or Lay up in a place," where it 
appears simply to mean To Put, To Posi/e, or deposite, Pono, Fosui, 
Positum. — ^p2 PKD, To Open, which we might express by. To Push 
open.— i7p2 PKG, signifies in Chaldee, " T'o Rive, Cleave, Burst, Break. 
In Hebrew it means the Cologuintidas, whose fruit, when ripe. Bursts 
and throws it's liquor and seeds to a great distance." — HSi'a PSH, " Jb 
" Spread, be diffused," to which Mr. Parkhurst refers Push and Yusum. — 
ntt'D PSC/?, To tear in pieces.— IDi:;^ PST, " To Divest, strip off,~To strip 
" off the Skin, to Jay," where we have the sense '7^2 of PZL.— ;?J:'2 PSG, 
" To Pass, go forward , march," &c. where Mr. Parkhurst justly records 
Pass, Pace, &c. and reminds us of riDD PSCh, To Pass over. — pITS, 
" To Distend, open." — Itt'Si PSR, means in Chaldee, " To Expound, 
" Explain, Interpret," and in Hebrew, An Exposition. n::'D, PST, occurs 
not as a verb in Hebrew, but as a substantive it means Flax, Linen, which 
Mr. Parkhurst is inclined to refer to Ott'a PST with a Teth instead of a Tau 
for the final Consonant, signifying To Strip: PQ PT, " To Part, Dispart, 
" Divide."— ^n^ PTA means " Sudden, Hasty.— The Hasty, Precipitate, 
" Pass on (and) are punished," from which passage produced by Mr. 
Parkhurst we should imagine, that the sense of Precipitate belongs to 
the idea of PASsing on, which exists in V^^ PSG, &c.— nr\2 PTC^, 
" To draw aside, withdraw, To entice, or seduce to evil," the original 


idea of which seems to be that of Separating, or Taking away. Mr. 
Parkhurst refers to this word ATraraw, &c. nn2 PTC/i, "To Open, 
" or Loose, what was shut, or bound. It is applied to Opening the 
Ground by Ploughing, and to this word Mr. Parkhurst refers Petoo, 
(neraw,) Patco, Path, and with a qiicere Yxreor, Conjiteor. This may 
be the origin of pATCOr, and if so, the Pat and Fat in Patco and pATeor 
must be referred to the same source, — hT\^ PTL signifies " To Twist, 
" wreath, intwist, intwine," the next word to which is \T\^ PTN, 
" To Stir, move, disturb, make a commotion,'' in Arabic, but in Hebrew 
it means a Serpent, and a Threshhold. The idea of what is Twisted 
is generally derived from that of Matter in a state of Commotion. The 
Serpent may perhaps be derived from the idea of being, or Crawling 
on the Ground, and not from the sense of what is Tortuous, as in the 
Arabic term. The sense of the Threshhold in the PTN at once brings 
us to Pedon, {UeZov,) Boden, or Bottom.— VT^^ PTG, To Break in pieces ; 
A Small Portion, or division of Time. The idea of what is Small brings 
us to Petty, Pet, (Eng.) Pet^/, (Fr.) &c. &c.— "ins PTR, " To expound, 
"■ explain, interpret, as Dreams," &c. To this Mr. Parkhurst refers 
Patr^e, and Pataua, spots, where oracles were established, and Patera, 
the Priests of Apollo, among the Gauls. 

V C 2 


V, W.| C, D, &c. 

C, D, &c. 

GU, QU, &c.> ^ ,. . 

^-W, ^fU, &c. 

Terms, relating to Bog, Pudge, Pash, or Puddle matter, in its most ' 

Washy and IVatery State ; Water, &c. as Baister, Baiter, Bedu, Boda, j 

VoDA, Oude, &c. (Celt. Phryg. Sclavon.) &c. Wash, Washes, Whet, j 

Water, (Eng.) Wasser, (Teut.) &c. Udqr, (Yaw^,) &c. Woge, j 
Vague, &c. (Germ Fr.) — Aowa, (Lat.) Asc, Esc, Uisge, &c. &c. 
(Celt.) QwAG, QwASH, &c. or </Wag, jWash, &c. &c. 


In this Fifth Section I shall particularly consider the Race of 
words, which appear in various Languages under the form V, W,\ C, 
D, G, &c. In the discussion of these words I shall appear to depart 
from the direct course of enquiry, which I had purposed to follow in 
the general arrangement of the present Volume. We shall find, that 
the form V, VV, \ C, D, G, &c. furnishes that state of our Elementary 
Character B, F, P, \ C, D, G, &c. in which we readily pass into other 
forms, where the Labials B, F, P, &c. are no longer found. These 
new forms, which I shall find it necessary more particularly to consider 
in this Section, are ''C, -"D, where a vowel-breathing only appears before 
the order ^C, ^D, &c. or G, G W, QU, \ C, D, G, &c. where the Labials 
have passed into an order of Consonants called Gutturals, which are otten 
connected with the Labials. This process will be fully understood and 
acknowledged. We have already seen, that the terms Bog, Pudge, 
Pash, Pit, &c. &c. belong to a Race of words denoting the IVatery 
Spot, or IFater as Boda, (Russ.) Bedu, (BeSy, vlwp, <Ppvye^,^ Wash, 
WoGE, (Germ.) Water, Udor, {YBcop,) &c. &c. and from such terms 
as w-Oge, tv-AsH, &c. we pass to the Latin Aqua, and the Celtic words 
for Water, as Isc, Use, Ox, &c. &c. under the form ''C, &c. which 
is to be found, containing this idea, through the whole compass of 
Language. We see too how Wag, Waggle, VAGor, &c. belong to 
BoG, Boggle. — We shall understand likewise, how iv-Ag, &c. may 
be connected with the terms of Commotion under the form "C, ''G, &c. 
as Ago, (Lat. and Gr. Ayw,) Aaifo, &c. and how such terms as ^^^-Eak, 
w-Ax, &c. relating ta Soft, yielding. Plastic matter may belong to Eiko, 
(EiKw, Cedo, Similis sum,) &c. as the Etymologists understand. In 
considering the words, under these forms VC, WC, &c. it will be found, 
that they are perpetually connected with terms, under the form G,\ 
C, D, &c. or as it appears in Welsh G\J,\ C, D, &c. and it will be 
necessary for me to produce some of these terms, when they are 
immediately connected with other words, which form the subject of my 
discussion. We shall not wonder at this connection of the forms GC, 
GWC, &c. VC, WC, when we consider a property in Letters, which 
all Grammarians understand and acknowledge. It is allowed, that a 

340 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

mixed enunciation of sound is to be found in the Human voice, which 
consists of the Guttural and the Labial sounds united, and which in 
Latin is represented by Q with the Labial letter U, united to it, and 
on some occasions and in other Languages by GW, &c. &c. As the 
sound of G predominates, we pass into a Race of words, in which 
G and its cognate Letters appear, as the first Radical Consonant of 
the word, and when the sound of G becomes weak, we pass into the 
form VC and WC. The form VC, WC passes into that of BC, PC, &c. 
as the Labial sound is stronger, and as this sound is weaker, the form 
vC, ivQ passes into ^C, &c. The Latin terms Qui, Qiice, Quod, Qualis, 
&c. appear in other Languages, represented by Who, J'Fhich, JVhat, &c. 
or as Skinner observes under Which, " Antiquis Whilk, ab A. S. Hivilc, 
" Dan. Hvilck, Teut. Welch, Welche, Belg. Welch, Welcke, Fr. Th. 
" Vuelic, Quis, Quce, Qualis, q. d. Qualicus,'' and in Lye's Junius we 
have the parallel Gothic term Cwileiks, and the Swedish Hwilken. In 
Scotch Which is expressed by Quhilk and Who by Qivha. We here 
see how the same original sound has been represented, under various 
modes of enunciating it, by QU, QUH, CW, HW, HF, W, WH, VU, 
&c. What is Guerre in French becomes War in English, and Gulielmns, 
Guillaume becomes William in English, as my name Gualterus becomes 
Walter, &c. &c. In Welsh the terms under the form GW, | C, G, &c. 
perpetually appear under the forms WC, WG, &c. as Givez, Wez, Gweg, 
Weg, Gweisgi, Weisgi, &c. &c. In Greek the Guttural Class G, &c. 
and the Labial Class B, &c. are alike adopted to represent the initial 
sound of terms, corresponding with the words, which are here described, 
as sometimes appearing under the forms G W, ^ C; &c. for the same 
reason, as it happens in other Languages, namely, because the mingled 
sound sometimes assumes more strongly the Guttural sound, and some- 
times the Labial. We may observe however, that in general the terms, 
which in many Languages appear under the form VC, WC, are found 
in Greek under the form *C, &c. beginning with a Vowel. The sound 
of V, or W is sometimes attempted to be expressed in Greek by the 
Vowels Ou, Ou, or H, and among the Grammarians by the mark of 
an aspirate. The Greek H, we know, was first intended as an aspirate, 


and in our Alphabet we still adopt it for that purpose. — All this takes 
place, under the present representation of the Greek l^anguage ; as the 
Critics and Grammarians understand, who are aware likewise, that in 
some Dialects, as in the ^olic, a peculiar letter existed for the purpose 
of expressing this sound, which has been called a Digamma, or a double 
Gamma, corresponding with the figure of our printed F. The figure Y 
was itself, as we are told, adopted sometimes for that purpose, where 
we have the Guttural representation, but the figure of the F has found 
a place in our Alphabet, to express a Labial sound. From this ac- 
knowledged connexion of Sounds in the Guttural and Labial Class it 
has happened, that in the arrangement of the English Alphabet, the 
B and C,— F and G, P and Q, and in that of the Greek B, T,— * and X 
are placed adjacent to each other. The Critics have attempted, with 
more success than thej' usually attain in such matters, to discover the 
words, in which the JEolic Digamma existed ; and their observations 
on this point assume an air of research, into the mysteries of Language, 
which on all other occasions appears to be alike remote from their 
powers and their purposes. Nothing however can be more superficial 
and scanty than the materials, which they have collected on this subject, 
and a few terms in Homer, which the necessity of some remedy to the 
versification of that poet generally forces upon their attention, compose 
the greater portion of their accumulated labours on a theme so abundant 
and important. It has been seen that Esthes, Estia, Esperos, Eer, Xros, 
Is, Oikos, Oinos, &c. &c. (Ea-Qi]^, Eo-Tta, Eo-Trepos, Hp, I^os, Is, Oiko^, 
Oil/OS, &c.) belongs to Festis, Vesta, Fespera, Fer, Fiscus, Fis, Ficus, 
Finiim, &c. &c. and moreover that Birgilios and Ourgilios, (BipyiAio^, 
OupyiXioi,) are forms of FirgiUus, Nerhioi and Neroui, (N€,o/3to/, 
Nepofoj,) of Nervii, &c. &c. The collection of words, which the whole 
compass of the Greek and Latin Languages has supplied to the Critics, 
from their views of the question, as under the influence of their Digamma 
is extremely scanty, and of but little importance in the developement 
ot Human Speech. Some of these words have been occasionally com- 
pared with English terms, and resemblances have been discovered in 
the course of the discussion, which may be considered, however bounded 

344 B,F,P,V,W.^ C,D,G,J, K,Q,S,T, X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

they are, as laudable and well directed efforts. The Etymologist Wachter 
however, in that part of his Glossary, in which he examines words 
beginning with V and W, has been peculiarly successful in discovering 
remote affinities, obscured by the changes, which I have above detailed. 
We may observe in general, that this illustrious enquirer, though un- 
furnished like his brethren with any principles of his art, has by the 
force of good feeling, and by the abundance of well arranged materials, 
exceeded all his fellow Labourers united. Critics and Etymologists, in 
the same pursuit. 


Terms, under the form V, W,'^ C, D, &c. or ^C, ^D, &c. relating 
to Bog, Pudge, or Pash matter in its Watery, Oozy state, or to Water 
in general. 

VODA, i-ODA, 6-EdU, 6-AlTER, 6-AlSTER, 

&c. (Sclav. Phryg. Celt. &c.) 
Whet, Wash, Washes, (Eng.) with their 

W.ET, VOED, W.CSCflW, &.C. 

Water, WasseRj UdoRj &c. (Eng. Sax. 

Dan. Germ. Gr.) 
Woge, Vague, &c. (Germ. Fr.) Untlje. 

Aqua, (Lat.) 

Asc, Esc, Uisge, &c. (Celt.) 

Ocean-OS, us, Oceuu, Aigein, (Gr. Lat. 

Eng. Celt.) The Sea. 
Ugros, Vdos, Udms, &c. (Gr. Lat.) 
Ooze, (Eng.) 
Osiers, Oisms, &c. (Eng. Gr. &c.) 

The First Article will contain those words, under the form V, W, \ 
C, D, &c. and that of "C, *D, &c. which relate to Bog, Pudge, Pash, 
or Puddle Matter in its more Washy, or Watery^ state, or which 
relate to Water in general, or to that, which is Whet, Oozy, Moist, 
Liquid, &c. Among these terms together with their kindred words, 
we must class the following b-OG, />-Udge, p-Asu, j5-Uddle, pf-VrzE, 
(Germ.) which my Lexicographer explains by "A Puddle, Lake, 
" Slough, Bog, Plash, Quagmire, hollow Pit," &c. &c. A-Aister, 6-Aiter, 
6-Edu, Z>-Oda, Voda, (Celt. Phryg. Sclavon.) denoting Aqua; Whet, 
Wash, Water (Eng.) with their various parallels produced by the 
Etymologists Wat, (Swed.) W^t, W^ta, (Sax.) Voed, Vaad, (Dan.) 
W^tte, (Belg.) Lacus, Wmscuii, Wacsow, &c. (Sax.) Waschc?/, 
(Teut. and Belg.) &c. — Washes, (Eng.) Marshy Land: — WvEter, 
(Sax.) VV'asser, (Germ.) Udor, (Ydwp,') Wato, (Goth.) Watn, Uatn, 
(Swed. Cim.) Fund, (Dan.) Oude, (Ruthen.) Voda, (Sclavon.) Woda, 
(Pol.) &c. &c. The parallel terms to Wave, produced by the Ety- 
mologists, are W^g, W^ge, (Sax.) Waeghe, (Belg.) Woge, or 


346 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Y,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

Wage, (Germ.) Vague, (Fr.) &c. which they justly connect with terms 
of unsteady motion, belonging to the English Wag, as WAGiaw, (Sax.) 
Bc'-Wegcw, (Germ.) &c. &c. In the same page of Wachter, where 
Waschcw and Wasser occur, we have Wase, Coenum, Lutum, and 
Wasen, Caespes, as in French we have Vase, Mud. — Wak, (Scotch,) 
" Moist, WAxen/," where Dr. Jamieson has justly produced a great 
race of words, which appear in various Languages, as JVack, (Teut.) id. 
Wack, Wedca, Aer Humidus, A Wak Day, S. B. — Vaukve, &c. Vocht, 
Weicken, Waecka, (Isl. Dutch, Germ. Swed. G. &c.) relating to 
Moisture, &c. Waggle, (Scotch,) A Bog. — Weet, (Lye in Jun.) Pluere, 
who justly refers us to Wet. In the preceding column to Weet we 
have Weep, where the form WP appears, which will be considered 
on another occasion. — Wet-Mo/', (Sax.) " Humidus Mons," — Wet- 
Moore, " Hodie WED-More." Perhaps the name WniT-More may be 
derived from this source. 

Among the terms, denoting ' What is of a ?^'-Ash, ?^-Et nature, 
' 2i^-ATER,' &c. or ' What belongs to that Element,' which appear 
commonly under the form ""C, ''D, &c. are the following ; Aqhu, (Lat.) 
with its parallels, in modern Languages, Acqua, (Ital.) &c.— Asc, Esc, 
Use, UiSGE, UiSHG, OicHE, Eask, Easkong, &c. &c. Celtic terms for 
Water; (See Lhuyd on the names of Rivers, annexed to Baxter's An- 
tiquities ; — his Archccologia, and its Appendix sub voce Aqua, and Shaw's 
Dictionary sub Water.) — Okeanos, Ogen, (p.Keavo^, Qytjv,} Oceanus, 
(Gr. and Lat.) Eigion, (Ir. and Welsh.) The Ocean ;— Udor, (YBwp,) 
before produced, Vdus, (Lat.) Vdos, (Y3o9, Aqua,) Vgros, (Yypo^.') 
Hyger, or Eager, (Eng.) The current of a stream; Egor, (Sax.) 
tEquor, (Lat.) The Sea.— Ichthi/s, ilx^^^>) I-^^g, (Ir.) /-Isii, p-Iscw, 
p-OissoN, (Eng. Lat. Fr.)— tEst/zs, (Lat.) Yth, (Sax.) Unda;— Hyst, 
^ST, (Sax.) " jEstus Maris."— Hyth, (Sax.) Unda, Fluctus, and hence 
' Portus,' the Station of Vessels, by the Water side; to which the term 
Hithe belongs, as in Queen s-Hitre, Lamb-HiTUE, or Lamb-ETU. — 
Eddy, Idy, (Eng. Scotch,) Vortex, &c.— //-East, " The ?/-Easty Waves/' 
(Shak.)-OozE, (Eng.)— Oases, The Inhabited, Fertile Spots of ^gypt, 
made so by the Ooze of the Nile. Perhaps Oasis is Ooze-Ooze, in 


order to express the idea more strongly, and the great Egyptian Goddess 
of the Fertility of the Earth, his, or Is-Is has probably the same origin. 
The name of the River Is-Is, &c. must be referred to the same idea. 
The artifice of doubling a simple term in order to add force by the 
composition is most familiar in the ^Egyptian Language. Bochart 
imagines, that the term Oasis is of Arabic origin. Our great Bard has 
brought us to the true derivation of Oasis by applying the term Ooze 
to the Ground of ^gypt, fertilized by the Inundation of the Nile, 

" The higher Nilus swells, 
" The more it promises : as it ebbs, the seedsman 
" Upon the Siime and Ooze scatters his grain, 
" And shortly comes to Harvest." 

Asis, or As-Is seems to be another form of Is-Is, and Oas-Is, (Ao-j?, 
Coenum, sordes, Limosus.) — In the combination Acriio ev Aei/jLcovi, we 
are brought to the Oozy Meadow. The terms Leimon, (Aei/jLuv,^ LiMwe, 
{Ai/mvr],) belong to Limns, sLitne, Loom, for the same reason. To these 
terms for Dirt, Asis, &c. we must refer Ase and Ado, (Act?;, Fastidium, 
Nausea, Sordes, AZw, Satio,) To be Cloyed, or Clogged, as with Foul 
matter. Under the same form we have Ado, (ASw,) cano, which brings us 
to Aeido, (AetSft),) and Udo, {Yhw, Celebro, Cano,) which latter term 
is next to Uoor, (Y^wjo.) Hence we learn, that these terms for Noise, 
to which belong Hoot, Hrss, Whiz, &c. are derived from the Agitation 
of Washy Matter. In German tv-Asciietj, means at once Lavare and 
Garrire ; and let us remember, that in order to express contempt of idle 
chatter we call it Wishy- Washy, Stiiff'. — The term Udder with its 
parallels Uder, Euter, Uter, Outhar, (Sax. Belg. Germ. Lat. Gr. Ovdap,^ 
belong to the form Udor, (Y^wp,') and so does Oduro;««/, (OSi/|0Ojuat.) 
The term Askos, (Ao-kos, Ufe?% Pellis,) is only another form derived 
from the same sense, and in Ascites, (AcrK£T»;s, Species Aquw intercutis, 
sive Hydropis,^ we are brought to the very idea. In Askco, (Ao-/cew, 
Exerceo,) we have the sense of AGitation as derived from the idea of 
this species of Matter; the peculiar idea annexed to which I shall more 
particularly consider in a future page. — AVhey, Whisky, mean nothing 
but Liquids, though applied to Liquids of such different kinds. In 

X X 2 

348 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.( l,m,n,r. 

VsQU E-Baugh, or VisQVE-Beafha we have precisely the same compound 
as in AQUA-Fitce. Whey in Scotch appears under the form Whig, 
" A thin and sour liquid of the lacteous kind," says Dr. Jamieson ; 
and from hence the Party term Whig, as opposed to To?y, is supposed 
to be derived, expressing the poorer sort of Presbyterians in Scotland, 
who were obliged to drink this species of liquor. There are however 
other derivations, on which it is difficult to decide. The Toty is supposed 
to be derived from a term, denoting the Bold and outrageous Robber, 
or Plunderer, &c. The word Whig, &c. means likewise in Scotch, 
" A small oblong roll, baked with butter and currants," which denotes 
the Soft matter, Risitig, or Swellhig up. The English Wig is applied 
likewise to a composition of Bread, and my German Lexicographer 
explains Wecke, by " Wigs, round Wigs. Ein Butter Wecken, Roll 
" Butters." The Wig belonging to the Head, means the Raised up, 
Soft Covering. In the Perruque, or Perri-WiG, the PRQ, or PR 
means, I believe, the Enclosure, as in Parh, &c. 

In examining the term Wet in Skinner, I cast my eyes on Wheat, 

with its parallels Hivcet, (Sax.) JVeitz, or JFeitzen, (Germ.) &c. which 

has been referred to White, Albus. The term White with its kindred 

words Hwit, (Sax.) Wit, (Belg.) Weiss, (Germ.) &c. &c. is taken 

I imagine, from the colour of Water, hevKov vBwp. Lye has justly 

observed, that the Welsh Gwenith, Triticum, belongs to Gwyti, Albus, 

for the same reason that Wheat belongs to White. I see in the same 

column with White in Skinner's Lexicon, terms belonging to it, as 

WHiT-1/Oii', The White Inflammation, or Loiv, which means Flamma, 

as Lye justly observes ; and it is not derived, as Skinner supposes, from 

Wite, Dolor, and Loup, Lupus : — Whittle, A White garment : — 

yV WIT- Sun day, which is probably to be referred to the White garments, 

worn on that day by those, who were baptized; as it is commonly 

supposed. In the same page of Wachter, where Waschc;?, Lavare, 

occurs, we have Waschc?;, Garrire, which he compares with pASKem, 

and BASKezw, Q^aa-Keiv, BacrKeii^, Dicere,) where we see, how the idea 

of Noise is connected with the Agitation of Pashy, Washy Matter, 

according to my hypothesis. Wachter justly compares Wase, iv-Kse, 


Coenum, with the Greek Asis, and under Wasen, Caespes, he properly 

produces the French Gazon, and he might Ukewise have seen, that the 

C^s in CcBspes, and the Gaz, in the Latin and French words, belong 

to each other. Let us note the Pes, which is probably a distinct part, 

with the same meaning, under the Radical form PS. In German Weide 

means Pascuum, which is only another form of Wase, Coenum, Locus 

Coenosus, et Humidus. The verb Weidcw means at once Pascere, 

and Venari. I suppose, that Pasco and Feed belong to the Pudgy Spot, 

and that the sense of Venari is derived from the idea of Agitation, or 

Vmning into, about, &c. the same Pudge matter. The German AVeide 

likewise means Salix, what grows in the Wet Spot, which brings us 

to our words Withy and Wicker, with their parallels Vidda, Figre, 

JFidia, JFiddy, (Dan. Swed. Scotch.) Hence we pass to the term 

Oziers, which directly brings us to the Oozy ground ; though I do not 

perceive, that this connection is understood by the Etymologists, who 

refer us only to the parallel terms in other Languages, as Osier, Ozier, 

(Fr.) Oisua, Oisus, {Oia-ua, Oia-vs Salix.) To these words belong Oison, 

(^Oia-ou, Funis Nauticus,) derived from the Flexible Willow, Irea, Qrea, 

Salix,) Itus, (Iti^s, Circumferentia et curvatura rotae, &c.) from the 

same property of Flexibility. In German Weid is "Vinculum et 

" Intestinum." The sense of Intestimun will bring us to a kindred 

term, the Latin Viscws, eris, which directly connects itself with \\scus, 

i, Glutinous, or Sticky matter. We should imagine, on considering 

these terms for a Tye, Rope, Bond, &c. Weid, &c. as connected with 

the Willow, that this idea is taken from the Flexible nature of that object. 

Yet we must remember, that the idea of Flexibility, of Winding about, 

or Attachment of one thing to another, may be taken from the general 

sense of Yiscous, or Glutinous matter; as hentus, we know, means at 

once Pliable, Flexible, &c. and Clammy, or Tough, as we express it. 

When the same idea may be derived from different sources, we are 

sometimes unable to decide on the peculiar turn of meaning, to which 

a word should be referred. The Wicket Gate has nothing to do with 

the substance of Wicker, but it is acknowledged to belong to Guichet, 

where we have the form GC, and this Guichet has been referred to 

350 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

Hnis, Uscietto, Uscire, &c. &c. which will be examined in a future 

BC, BG, &c. V, WJ C, G, &c. C, ^G, &c, 

J. ERMS denoting Unsteady, Desultory, Excited, Quick, Violenf 
motions and actions, — Agitation, Commotion, 8cc. which connect them- 
selves with Bog, Boggle, &c. Woge, Wage, Vague, &c. &c. terms 
for Washt matter. 

Waggle, (Scotch,) A Bog, Marsh. 

Wag, Waggle, Waddle, be-WEcen, 

Wachelm, &c. (Eng. Germ. &c.) 
Vacillo, VACiLLflfe, &c. (Lat. Eng.) 
Vagus, Vague, Vogue, &c. (Lat. Eng. 

Wake, Watch, Wait, WACKe/j. Sec. (Eng. 

Germ. &c.) 
Bi-Votjac, (Fr.) Quasi J3e-WATCH. 
Vegghia, Veglia, Vigilo, Vigils, &c. 

(It. Lat. Eng.) 
ViGor, Vigco, &c. (Lat.) 

Wig, Vig, Wageow?-, &c. (Germ. Sax. 

Eng. &c.) The Active warrior. 
Wage War, (Eng.) 

Wode, Woden, Odin, &c. Furious, &c. 
Weather, Whtsk, Whisp, &c. &c. 

Whet, Wetzen, &c. (Eng. Germ.) To Stir 

up. Sharpen up. 
Ox UNO, Oxus, Acer, Acutus, &c. (Gr. Lat.) 

To Stir up. Sharpen up. Sharp, &,c. 
Waste, Vasto, Vacuo, &c. 8cc. (Eng. Lat. 


I shall examine in this article, a race of words, which express 
Unsteady, Desultory, Excited, Quick, Fiolent motions and actions, 
under the form BC, BG, &c. V, W,} C, G, &c. as Wag, Waggle, &c. 
and we shall readily acknowledge, that they would naturally connect 
themselves with such terms as Bog, Boggle, &c. and the terms for 
IVatery matter, before produced, as Wash, &c. (Eng.) Woge, Wage, 
Vague, (Germ. Fr.) &c. &c. Let us note the explanatory word Quick , 
which, we see, comes to the same idea of an Unsteady Quaking motion 
in the combination Quick-Sand, the Qwag Matter, and we now 
perceive, how for a similar reason Quick, Quake and Qivag belong to 


each other. We cannot but perceive too, how ^Wag, ^Uick, jUake, 
may belong to Bog, Boggle, Wag and Waggle, and thus how the 
form QW-G, and WG, VG, &c. may pass into each other. Among 
the terms appearing under the forms BG, &c. VG, WG, denoting 
Unsteady, Desultory, Quaking, Quick, Excited, Violent motions, as 
connected with the idea here unfolded, we must class the following. 
Bog, Boggle, Waggle, (Scotch,) " A Bog, a Marsh, S. B. Wuggle," 
Wag, Waggle, Wiggle, Waddle, (Eng.) with the parallel terms to 
these words produced by the Etymologists, IFaeghen, IFaeghelen, (Belg.) 
Be-Wegen, Wackelen, (Germ.) Vacillo, (Lat.) Vacillate, &c. (Eng.) 
Ykgus, Vague, YxGabond, (Lat. Eng.) &c. from whence we have 
Vogue, &c. the original idea of which words appears in Yagus Amnis. — 
Wadel?* JFicelian, (Sax.) Sec. To Wag, the term of Motion, belong 
we know, the words relating to Pleasantry, as Wag, Waggery, 
Waggish, &c. From Waddle we pass to Wade, (Eng.) Vado, Vad?<w, 
which brings us to the spot supposed in my hypothesis. — WiEGe?i, 
(Germ.) " Movere, Vexare," where let us note the kindred Latin term 
Vexo/'C. — WiEGE, (Germ.) Cunae, from the Rocking. — Wiegelw, (Germ.) 
Movere. — Wattles of a Cock, which is acknowledged to belong to 
these terms of Motion. — Fickle, (Eng.) which is justly referred to 
FicoL, Versipellis, Inconstans, and Poikil-os, (UoikiXo^, Varius, Dubius, 
Inconstans.) — Wake, Watch, (Eng.) with the various parallels, pro- 
duced by the Etymologists, fi^acian, IFceccan, (Sax.) Waecken, IFachten, 
(Belg.) JVccken, fFacliten, JVache, &c. (Germ.) Faagur, (Dan.) &c. &c. 
Wait, Waits, (Eng.) To Watch, Lyricines, noctu excubias agentes, 
where the Etymologists have produced terms, under the form GT, as 
Guef, Gueter, Excubi^, Excubare, &c. &c. From this source is derived 
the name of the chief among my brethren in the art of Etymology, 
Wachter, which means The Wachtek. The French Military term 
Bivouac, is acknowledged to be a Teutonic combination, quasi Be- 
WxcHBii, To JBe- Watch. The Etymologist just quoted has explained 
Wachtc/? and Wachter by Vigilare and Vigil; where let us mark 
the kindred Latin terms Vigil and Vigilo, which some have justly 
seen to belong to ViGor and Viceo, the simple forms. It has been seen 


B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

likewise, that Vioeo is connected with Vis, which brings us to Is, (Is,) 
where the Labial breathing is not represented. The terms Vigco and 
ViGor, from whence the words in Modern Languages are derived Vigor, 
Vigeur, (Eng. and Fr.) &c. are acknowledged to belong to the idea of 
Excited Motion. Martinius produces under Vigilo, the parallel Hun- 
garian term YiGyazok. In French the sound of G is lost, as Teiller, 
but in the Italian Vegghia, YEolia, it is preserved. I find in Wachter, 
adjacent to Wachen, the following words JVachteJ, Coturnix, The Quail; 
Wackc/?, Nutare, Titubare, VACiLLare, Wackel;?, To Waggle, and 
Wacker, Vigil, Vigilans, which latter German word, in other senses, 
means " Aptus, idoneus, — Venustus, acceptus, pulcher." These senses 
our Etymologist refers to different sources ; though as we now see, 
they belong to the same species of excellence, that of Lively Motion. 
Hence have been derived the Italian Vago, which at once means 
IVandering, and is applied likewise to a great variety of indescribable 
excellencies, as VAGHEsxa, Vezzo, &c. &c. I see adjacent to the ItaUan 
Vago in the Dictionaries of that Language, VAGELLare, To Wander, 
Vagello, a Brass Pot, where we are brought to Vasello, and Vase, 
the Vessel, as likewise Vajo, YAjezza, Yk3oi.ato, relating to what is 
Black, and Vagello, Dyer's "Woad, Vajuole, The Small Pox, where 
we see the idea of the Foul Die, Stain, or Mark, as of Dirt. Let us 
note the explanatory term IVoad, which Junius has referred to Glas, 
(Welsh,) IFad, (Sax.) Giiesde, Giiedde, (Fr.) Giiado, Gualdo, (Ital. 
Span.) where if the GL represents the true form of these terms, as 
in Glas, Glastum, &c. the term Woad must be referred to a different 
order of words. Under the form Wad in Lye's Junius we have Wadd, 
the Scotch term for Wedd, Pactum, and Wad, Wadding, which refer 
to Pudge Matter in its more consistent and CowPact state, where let 
us note co?«Pact and VkCTum kindred terms. Lye has moreover Wad, 
a Northamptonshire term for a Path, or Boundary between two fields. 
Mr. Grose explains Wad, as a Cumberland term for Black Lead, and 
a Neighbourhood, in which latter sense it agrees with Yicus, and Yicinus. 
It is impossible surely for us to doubt the connection of these words 
Waggle, Watch, &c. with Bog and Boggle. But to remove all 


our doubts I shall observe, that in the same page of Dr. Jamieson's 
Dictionary, where Waik, To Watch, and Waigle, Weeggle, " To 
" Waddle, to Waggle" occur, I see likewise the terms before quoted 
Waggle, or Wuggle, " A Bog, a Marsh," which Dr. Jamieson faintly 
observes to be " Allied perhaps to Teutonic Waggel-cw, Agitare, motitare, 
" because Marshy ground shakes under one's tread." The same writer 
adds, as if afraid to tread on such dangerous ground, " It can have 
" no affinity, surely, to Isl. VEGA-fall, Sw. WAEG-fall, A Way destroyed 
" by the overflowing of Rivers, so as to be rendered unfit for travelUng." 
If we say, that these words Vega and Waeg, belong to Way, we arrive 
at the same point ; as the Ways of earlier times were not Turnpike Roads, 
but WAEG-ya//s. 

In the same page with WECKe« in Wachter's Dictionary I see 
Wecksel, Permutatio, W^edc/??, Ventum Excitare, Wedcw, Weidcw, 
Runcare, which latter word brings us to the English verb To Weed, 
To Rout up, where we see the idea of Commotion under another action, 
I perceive likewise Weck, Panis oblongus, belonging to our word Wig, 
A Cake, which means the Swelling, Soft Matter of Bread. We have 
moreover Weg, Abeo, Motus Apage, Via, with the parallels in various 
Languages IVag, (Eng.) IVeg, (Belg.) Vegur, (Isl.) &c. &c. Wegch, &c. 
Movere, to which words Wachter has justly referred Via, Aouia, (Ayvta,) 
Yicus, EEGeomai, {Hyeofxai, Duco,) Age/w, quasi YAOein, with the 
JEoVic Digamma, (Ayw,) Ago, OicHomai, (Oixofxai, Abeo,) Waggow, 
with its parallels, WAGew, (Germ.) contract, IVcen, Anglice Wain, Vogn, 
(Dan.) Fagn, (Isl.) &c. &c. Aganna, (^Ayavpa, a/ia^a, Hesych.) &c. 
VeJio, Yzxi, YECTum, (Lat.) Ochco, (Oxew, Veho, porto,) Wage, Libra, 
WucHT, Pondus, which brings us to Weigh, with its parallels, IFcegan, 
Vega, JVcagen, &c. &c. (Sax. Isl. Germ. &c. &c.) — Wage, Mare, Woge, 
Fluctus, WiEGEj Cuna?. In Wachter Wage means at once Libra, and 
Fluctus. Let us mark the explanatory term in Latin Apage, which 
seems directly to coincide with our form Away. In one sense Wachter 
has explained Weg by Tempus, as in the English Al-IVaics, says our 
author, and Fram-^NiGis, (Goth.) Semper, &c. To these terms of 
Motion belong Vices, Vicissitude, &c. &c. and the English term Week, 


3bi B,F,P,V, W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

Hebdomas, with its parallels Woche, (Germ.) Weche, (Swed.) IVehe, 
(Belg.) &c. &c. produced by the Etymologists, where we perceive the 
sense of Recurrence as referring to Times and Objects in a state of 
Change, or Motion. Hence we see, how Wick, belonging to a Candle, 
and as denoting Linamentum, belongs to the same species of Soft Matter, 
from which I suppose the idea o^ Motion to be taken. 

In the same page of Wachter with WiEcew, Motitare, VExare, we 
have a word relating to Quick, Violent motion, as referred to Strength, 
Whr, &c. as Wig, " Agilis, velox, celer ;" where he records YiGiir, 
(Islandic,) YEoetus, Viceo, Okus, (Q.kv^,^ and Wegcw, Movere, under 
the same relation, as AGilis belongs to Ago, and Wig, " Fortis strenuus, 
" bellicosus," where he records the Welsh Gwas, Gwych, Vir fortis, 
in which terms we see the form GW-C, and Wagc/z, Audere. To these 
words we must add Wage, as ' To Wage War,' in Wachter Wicew, 
Bellare, VfxGeour, or Yxoeour, produced by Lye in Junius, as denoting 
Miles in Scotch, which some connect with the term Wages, Merces; 
but Lye refers it to the Islandic Vega, Dimicare ; — WiGGcr, (Lye apud 
Jun.) " Validus," &c. — Wig, or Vig, (Sax.) " Mavors, bellum, pugna, prje- 
" lium ; WiGa, Miles, bellator, heros, Vicxor," (where let us note the Latin 
ViCTor,) " Homo vir, prccsertim vero prcestantior aliquis," and hence 
we have the Vic in such terms, as Mero-Yicus, Ludo-Yicus, corrupted 
into Louis, Lewis, as others understand. The Mer and the Liid in these 
words belong to Mcere, Magnus, corresponding with our word More 
and Hlud, signifying and belonging to Loud, — WiGttW, (Goth, and Sax.) 
" Bellum gerere." — The animals under the following names, as Vech, 
(Germ.) Felis, The Weezc/, The YiTcnew, The Fox, The Vixew, Dog, 
and perhaps Bitch, &c. mean ultimately the Vex?w^, Disturbing animals; 
though I do not attempt to adjust the relation, which they bear to each 
other, nor the precise idea, by which each of them is connected with 
the different turns of meaning, conveying this fundamental sense of the 
Element. We plainly perceive, that Alo-Pex, and Ful-Pes, (AAwtt;?^,) 
belong to each other, and that they are compounds, in which the Ah 
and Fill are the same, under the idea perhaps annexed to Fello, Pello, 
(Lat.) Pull, (Eng.) &c. and that Pex and Pes are the same as Fox. 


The term Fox occurs in various Languages, as Fex, (Sax.) Fos, Vosch, 
(Belg.) Fuchs, (Germ.) and it is derived by some with great probability 
from the Islandic Foxa, Decipere, which Wachter has justly seen to 
belong to such terms as Fahen, Capere, Dolo Capere, w^hich, as I have 
before shewn, means 'To FASxew, or Seize upon;' and this perhaps 
may be the idea of the word, without applying to its metaphorical sense. 
Fox is used as a verb, "To Fox one," which means 'To Fuddle a 
* person,' as we express it, where Fuddle belongs to the idea conveyed 
by Muddle; and if we should say, that the verb means ' Turbare sensus,' 
and that the substantive denotes the animal 'quod Tnrbat, VExa^,' 
we cannot be very far from the idea. In the same column with Fuchs, 
in Wachter I see Fuckc/?, " mercaturam exercere," which he refers to 
the English Buy, the Gothic Bugjan, and the French BiGwer, and which 
he derives from Vices, (" German! Fach, Cambri Ffaig,") as if signifying 
Vjcare, Bicare. "Quid enim est permutare, nisi rem, pro re, Ficem 
" pro Fice reddere." I have no great confidence in this derivation, 
though I have no evidence before me respecting the original meaning 
of these words, from which I am able to propose a better. The term 
Weezel occurs in various Languages Wesle, (Sax.) Fcesel, (Dan.) 
IViesel, (Germ.) &c. and if we should say, that it belongs ultimately 
to the Latin Mustela, we cannot be far removed from the truth. 
The Ear Wig is the animal, Waggiwo-, or Fluttering about the Ear. 
The WiDGWo- is supposed to be the " Avis Pugnax,'^ from \YiGend. 
The English Wight, Homo, creatura, belongs to Wig, Homo, as 
likewise to Wid, ('Never a Wid,') — Whit, (Eng.) to the Saxon Wiht, 
" Creatura, animal, Res," and the Gothic Waihts, &c. We might 
think, that Ought directly belongs to these words, and if that should 
be the case, we must refer Owe, To possess. Own, in Gothic Aign to 
the same source. If we should say, that Aig?? and Echo, (E^w, Habeo,) 
are to be referred to each other, we are but a step removed from the 
same idea: I shall shew, that Echo, (E;^a),) To Hold, or Stick by, &c. 
is derived from the same species of v-lscous Matter, not so much under 
the idea of its motion, as its Tenacity. Lye in his Edition of Junius 
has an article Whittle, which he explains by " Cultello resecare," 

Y Y 2 

356 B,F,P,V, W.J C,D,J,K,Q,S,T,X, Z.] l,m,n,r. 

which he refers to Thwite. The term relates to the Instrument as well 
as to the action of cutting into small Pieces, and it might belong to 
WiHT, the small Piece. All these ideas coincide, if we remember, 
that according to my hypothesis the terms for Motion above produced 
are derived from the idea of Pieces of Dirt easy to be Stirred about ; 
and thus under one view of the question, we may consider the union 
of these senses to be the same as we see in Mico and Mica, a Piece 
of Dirt, &c. which latter words, as I shew, belong to Mud. The term 
WiTTAL, the foolish Fellow, as in Sir Joseph Wittal, might be a 
diminutive of Wight, the Light despised personage ; yet the Etymologists 
conceive it to be the " Maritus, qui scit uxorem meechari, nee tamen 
" indignatur," and they derive it from Wittol, Sciens. Whether such 
be the original notion of the vi'ord, I cannot decide, yet we must own, 
that this origin is not improbable. Yet perhaps Wittal may be a 
diminutive, denoting contempt, from Wit, and may mean the personage 
of Little Wit, or understanding. 

The term Weak, as we shall at once agree, is to be referred to this 

Race of vi^ords. Wet, Wach, &c. as denoting the S'q/?, Mo?s/ substance, 

easilv giving way to impressions, as being in a state of Dissolution, &c. 

and the Etymologists have justly produced under Weak its parallels 

IVac, IVcBc, (Sax.) ireeh, (Belg.) Weich, (Germ.) Feeg, (Dan.) and 

the Greek Eiko, (Eckw, Similis sum, cedo, morem gero,) where we see 

at once the idea of the Soft substance, equally ready to assume Forms, 

Likenesses from its Plastic nature, and to Yield, or Give way. In Eike, 

(Ejk>7, Temere,) we have the same Soft substance, in a state of Agitation, 

Confusion, &c. The succeeding article in Junius to Weak, is Weaky, 

Humidus, Madidus. We may consider the Latin Yici and Yictum, 

belonging to Finco, under the idea of To Weakcw, or make Weak, 

and in the sense, which Ago has in suh-\GO, To subdue, we see a similar 

notion, but when it is applied to the Kneading, or Working up of Soft 

Mudlike matter, " Sub-lccre farinam," we are brought to the original 

idea. The German Weic^c;; means, " To soften, Weakc/?, mollify, 

" to soak, steep, macerate," and Weight, means 'Make ffay. Clear 

' the JVai/, — Cede.' In the same column of Junius with Weak, I see 


Wax, Cera, with its parallels Jfeax, (Sax.) IFachs, (Germ, and BeJg.) 
Fax, (Isl.) &c. &c. and Wax, Crescere, with its parallels fVahsjan, 
(Goth.) JVeaxan, (Sax.) IFachsen, (Germ.) Wassen, &c. the Greek 
Auxe?« and AuxANeiw, {hv^eiv, hv^aveiv,) and the Latin Auoeo, to 
which we must add our old word Eak, Eke, Eak out. Junius sees no 
relation between these two senses of Wax, as a substantive and a verb, 
though he refers the substantive to the words before us, signifying Soft. 
It is curious to observe, how terms revert to their original application 
in the Language of the Poet. Wax, To increase. To Swell out, is 
combined in the following passage, with the Swelling Waves, "His 
" pupil age Man-entered thus, he Waxed like the Sea.'' (Coriolanus, 
Act II. Scene 2.) Here Wax is brought to Wash, Woge, WACHsaw, 
&c. &c. To these terms of Increase we must add the German Wucher, 
Usury, which means likewise " Fructus Terrce." The next word to 
this in my German Dictionary is Wuchs, The Product. An adjacent 
word in Wachter is Wucht, Pondus, belonging to Weight, &c. before 
produced, where we are justly reminded of the Greek Aktho^, (A;^^os, 
Pondus.) In the adjacent words to this term in the Greek Dictionaries, 
we see the same origin ; as in Acwia, (^Ax^a, Gluma, acus, fumus, 
fuligo, Spuma, sordes,) which denotes Dirt, and which under the sense 
of Spuma, means Washy Dirt. In Acho.s, (A;)^os, Dolor;) belonging 
to Ache, (Eng.) &c. we see the idea of Trouble, or YExation. In the 
Latin Vexo we have a similar notion of Washy Matter, Stirred up, 
or in a state of Agitation. The Greek Ochthco, (0;^^eft), Indignor, 
Gravor,) has the sense of KciiTnomai, (^AxOo/uLai, Gravor,) and in 
OcHTHo^, (0;^^o9, Ripa, Littus, Terra tumulus, collis, Labra ulcerum 
prffitumida, Ox6ii, Littus, Ripa,) we have the Sivelling out Heap of Dirt, 
connected with the Washy Spot, or Matter. The term Akte, (Akt*/, 
Littus, Farina, Sambucus,) conveys the same idea, and in the sense of 
Meal and the Elder, we have still the notion of the Soft, Pudge, Pith 

Wachter compares Axo, (A^w, Frango,) or as he might have said. 
Ago and AGnumi, (A7W, Aywfxi, Frango,) with Wase, Gleba, and they 
are assuredly taken from the Loose state of this species of Matter, and 


B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

in another place, the same Etymologist has referred Ago, (A7&J, Ago, 
Agito,^ which brings us to the Latin Ago, A.GIT0, KQifation to such 
terms of Commotion, as ivKo, Sec, which I shew to belong to a similar 
idea. In the same column of my Greek Dictionary with Ago, [Aya),) 
I see Agcho, (Ay;^^, Constringo,) which again belongs to the same 
species of v-lscosus Matter, in its Tenacious state, and hence we pass 
to Echo, Isko, Exco, Habeo, Exoixai, Prehendo, et Prehensum Teneo 
Adhccreo, Conjunctus sum, &c. &c. Icrxt^, Teneo,) belonging to the 
idea of Sticking to any thing, all which words, as we shall now see, 
connect themselves with Ixos, or Iksos, (I^os, Viscum, Parens, Tenax.) 
In the same column of my Dictionary with Ixos, (I^os,) I see, 
(I^vs, Lumbus, Coxa,) and near Isko, (Icrxoo,^ I see Isk?s, (la-xi^, 
Lumbus,) where we may observe, that these terms for the Loins with 
their kindred words, Oxiis, Osphns, (O^ys, Lumbus, Oa-cpv^,^ are derived 
from the same species of Matter, either in its Sivelling up, or Agitated 
state. On such an occasion, we cannot separate these ideas. The 
English word Hitch contains the same original notion, Hitch Buttocks ; 
where we may observe, that this term Hitch seems at once to denote 
Catching, Sticking to, ' The Door Hitches,' and * Sivelling, or Rising 
' up,' with the idea of Motion, sometimes annexed to it, ' To give a 
' person a Hitch, or a Lift, — To Hitch about, here and there,' in which 
applications we have various properties belonging to v-lscous Matter. 
The next word in my Dictionary to Osphus, {Oa-cpu?,) is Oscnecr, (Oa-xcu, 
Scrotum,) which perhaps should be considered as conveying the same 
idea as Askos, (Actkos, Uter,) the Swelling out Bag. The Uter is 
another form of Water. The term AsKeo, (Ao-Kew, Colo, Meditor,) 
relates to Aoitation, under another turn of meaning, as in Aaere, 
Consilia, &c. 

We have seen, that the Wicket Gate, the French Guichet and Huis, 
the Italian Uscie^^o, Vscire, relates to the idea of what Issices out, 
quod Ex-It, where let us note the terms Issue, Out, Ex, It, (Lat.) 
which all belong to the idea of Oozy, or v-lscous matter. Oozing, Issuirtg, 
Out, up, &c. — Stirred up, about, &c. or Sticking together, tip, Out, &c. 
Hence we pass to the verbs of Being, Est, &c. IsTEmi, (la-rti^xi,^ Sec. 


about which I have said so much in a former Volume. (Etym. Univers. 
272, 826, &c. &c.) I have shewn, that Terms denoting Existence, 
are derived from the idea of " What is Placed. Set, Situated, Stands zip," 
&c. and this idea of Existence, I now connect with that of Consistency, 
belonging to Ooze, v-l^cous Matter in a Consistent state. We cannot 
but see, how the v-lscous state of Ooze Matter must be perpetually 
passing into Ooze Matter, in its more Washy state, when it Iss?<es 
forth, Out, &c. and it is in vain to attempt on many occasions at a 
distinction, which should endeavour to separate the ideas of Ooze Matter, 
when it Sticks Out, and when it Issues Out. These ideas are constantly 
passing into each other, and cannot be separated in discussing this Race 
of words. The verbs of Being, under the form "C, *D, are to be 
found in various Languages, as I fully unfold, of which the Etymologists 
are duly aware to a certain extent. The verb of Being in the past tense 
Was belongs to the form Is, Est, (Eng. Lat.) as Wachter is awarC; 
who refers iv-^sen, " Esse, Existere cum qualitate," to the Latin and 
Greek, Esse and JLsesthai, where let us still mark the Ex, as likewise 
the St in the explanatory words Existere. In the sense, which Wesc// 
has of " Durare, Perseverance, manere in statu. Fieri," which Wachter 
refers to Vest, Stabilis, belonging to our word Fast, we see Viscow.v 
Matter, Sticking Out, up, together, in its more cowzPact state. In 
Fer-WEsen, "To rot, consume, or moulder away," &c. we see the 
passage of this species of matter to its more relaxed state. The next 
word to WEse/i in my German Vocabulary is Weser, The River, which 
means the Wasser, or Water. 

The English verb Issue, and its parallels Issir, 'To Hoist up,' 
Ex, Aus, (Germ.) Out, &c. unequivocally connect themselves under 
one idea with terms of Stability, IsTEini, (la-Tnfxi,^ &c. yet in the 
substantive Issue, we plainly see the idea of ^.vrery. Foul matter 
Oozing Out, as the Issue of a Wound, and the verb Issue applied 
to a Liquid has the same force. Hence we pass to a great Race of 
words, which render the chain of relations compleat and perfect. From 
Huis is derived the UsHcr of a School, &c. as the Etymologists allow. — 
Nothing appears more improbable, on the first view, than that the 

360 B,F,P,V,W.J C, D, G, J, K, Q, S, T, X, Z. 5 I,m,n,r. 

Usher of a School should be derived from a term signifying JFater ; 
yet when we remember, that Usner relates to a Door Keeper, ' as the 
•' UsHe?" of the black rod,' whose office it is to Usher those people in 
and out, who pass or Issue in and out ; we at once see, how these 
ideas become connected with each other. It is marvellous to observe, 
how fertile the mind of the Poet is in forming these original combinations, 
from the force of a powerful impression, and how fully the reader 
understands, and feels from the same source the beauty of the combi- 
nation, though they are both equally ignorant about the origin, from 
which the terms have been derived. Our great Poet has combined Usher 
with the idea of IVater, in the following passage, with exquisite propriety 
and effect. 

" Or Ushek'd with a Shower still." 

The term Huis is acknowledged to be attached to OsTiiim, which brings 
us to Os, the Mouth. These Latin words Os, Osriiati, we now see, 
are applied in their primitive idea, when they relate to the Oozy Spot, 
from which Water Issues, as Os Partus, Tiberis, Ulceris, OsTiuni, 
Tiberinum, Fluminis, &c. The Latin Os, Ossis, and the Greek Osteo/?, 
(Oo-Teov, Os,) are applied in their true sense, when they relate to the 
Kernel, or the Pithy, Gummy matter of fruit. This idea is not remote 
even in the opinion of the Etymologists, who refer Oze, or Ozey Ground 
to the Saxon Ost, "Squamma; q. d. Solum Squammosum." Lye 
explains Ost by "Nodus, Squama," an adjacent term to which is 0sT?"a, 
OsTreum, OrsTcr, where we have a similar idea, and I perceive likewise 
in the next column of his Dictionary, Oxer, An Otter, where we 
directly see the W.\ter animal. In Oscillm?;? we have the VACiLhatirig, 
or Waggu'w^ object. In Oscito, Orium, or Oc»/w, Ease, we have 
a metaphor from Oozy Matter, in its Loose state. When we talk 
of the Easy Flowing of a Garment, Curls, &c. we approach to the 
original idea. In the combination Ociosus and v-Acuus, the same 
fundamental idea prevails. 

In the phrase, " To Wage Jf^ar," we see the idea of Agitation, as 
in Wag ; and we must surely think that Wager, in its more strong sense, 
as applied to an adventurous transaction, or to a Venture, as we express 


it, approaches to the sense of Wage ; and thus some understand the 
matter, who refer Wager to the Belgic Waeghen, Periclitari, magnum 
" discrimen adire, rem fortunce permittere." Yet it is understood like- 
wise, that Wager belongs to such terms, as Gagcr, Gage, denoting 
the Pawn, or Pledge ; which we express by a kindred term Wages. 
In the sense of a Bargain, or coiiiFact, the term cowPact, Pango, 
peFioi, Vxctuin, will shew us, that we pass into the sense of Pudge 
matter, in its more Consistent, or Fix«/ state, whereas in Wage, Wag, 
we have the same species of Bog, or Pudge Matter, in its state of 
Agitation. We see, how my hypothesis brings ideas together, which 
appear most remote ; and how readily we slide from one notion to 
the other. That the idea of the Pledge is by some process connected 
with the species of matter, which I describe, will be manifest from 
the Etymologists themselves, who allow, that Gager, the WAGer, 
belongs to Vas, Vad/'s, which surely all agree to be connected by some 
means with Vadw;w, The Pudge Spot. Vas, Vas?'*, the Vessc/ is nothing 
but the Holloiv, as of the Pit, or Vat, as in Ta«-VAT. With Vas, 
Vad/6', Wagc/', Gag^/', are justly compared the following words, 
belonging to a co/wPact, as Wed, Vxcnus, where the Latin word ViGnus 
supplies a kindred term, Wed, relating to a Marriage Contract, to which 
belong Wedding, or Weden, Eedna, (Eeoi/a,) W^D-lock, where Lock 
means what Locks, or confines, and does not belong to Lac, Munus, 
as some suppose, IFedden, ffetten, (Belg. Germ.) Obligare conjungere 
matrimonio, as Wachter explains the latter word, Boda, (Span.) Gwed, 
(Welsh,) &c. The combination WAD-Set is produced by Lye, as in 
use among the Scotch, which is right, and it belongs likewise to other 
Teutonic Dialects. In Scotch Wad, Wed, &c. is a Pledge, and Wad, 
Wed, "To Pledge, to Bet, to Wager," where let us note the term 
Bet, another form of these words, as the Etymologists understand. 
In the opening of Dr. Jamieson's Dictionary to that, in which these 
words occur, I see "To Waidge," "To Pledge,'' "To Wadge," 
"To shake in a threatening manner, to brandish," — "To Waigle, 
" Weegle, To Waddle, to Waggle," and Waggle, " A Bog, Marsh," 
where we are brought to the original spot. 

Z z 

362 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ hin,n,r. 

Wachter explains Wette, Wied, Weid, in the first sense by "Vin- 
" culum, copula, ligamen," and he reminds us of the Danish Vidde, 
the copula viminea, which brings us to Withy, and from hence we 
pass -to Oziers. This may seem to create some slight embarrassment. 
The sense of Binding might not be derived from the merfe general idea 
of the Sticky, Pudge Matter, but from that of the Flexible plant, growing 
in Pudge, Oozy spots. When ideas are so entangled, it is in some 
cases altogether idle to attempt their separation. The next term to 
Wed in Skinner is Wedge, with its parallels If'^egghe, JVigghe, Week, 
(Sax. Germ.) &c. which belong to the idea of compressing, or Squeesing, 
as in the qJVag, or in the Bog spot. Let us mark Squeese, which 
belongs to Squash, Qiuag, for the same reason. The term Vice, The 
Screw, has a similar idea to Wedge, and hence we see, how Vice, 
the Screw, and Vice, Yvxium, The File thing, and Vice, the Form, 
as from Plastic Matter, agree. The Was/>, Guespe, (Welsh,) VEspa, 
seems to belong to these terms for Squeesing, or Nipping, either as 
referred to the Nipped up form, or to its Nipping quality of Stinging. 
The Wasp belongs to the words under the forms OS, CS, &c. The 
Welsh Giud, is a "Twist, a Wind, or turn, and Givden, A Withe; 
" a coil ; a ring," where Withe brings us to Vitta, Yirex, &c. The form 
Wden in ^--Wden seems to coincide with Edna, (E§i/a,) and Wedding, 
Wedin. I have before produced various words, belonging to Fast, 
Fixed, under the form VD, &c, as Vest, (Germ.) Firmus, Fix^^s, Tenax, 
Veste, Firmamentum, Arx, Propugnaculum, Domus, Vestcw, Figere 
Stringere, &c. &c. — Vast, (Dutch,) &c. &c. The original idea of 
which is to be found in the combination YxsT-Lymen, "To Glue, 
" to Fastc// with Glue.'' Hence we have Vesta, EsTia, (Ecrrta,) and 
to this source we should perhaps refer the names for a Dwelling, the 
place of Security, or Hold, as House, Hut, &c. with their parallels, 
among which is OiKOS, (OtKos,) where we are brought to the form 
Wick, the receptacle, which I suppose to be derived from the Hollow 
Recess of the Pudge, Sinking in Spot. We cannot separate the idea 
of a Receptacle, the Holloiv, which Receives, or Confines, and the Matter, 
of which it consists, which Yxsiens, or Confines too. If we should say 



that the terms, denoting Security, a Receptacle, Hold, &c. and Con- 
jinement, Compression, &c. are derived from the Hollow, Sinking Pudge, 
Viscous VAsmess, Vat, or Fat, &c. we cannot be far from the idea. 
To these terms for FAsrening in, PuDGw/g about, in, Sec. Covering round, 
over, &c. we have the terms for Garments Vest, YESTimenfnm, Vest?"o, 
&c. from whence we come to the Greek Esthcs, (Eo-^^/?.) In German 
Wad means, Pignus, "Tela, Pannus; — Tegmen, Vest?7?/5," which 
brings us to the form of Wad, Wadd^wo-. Lje has produced the com- 
pound WoAD?we/, which has been derived from Vad, Textum, and Mai, 
Mensuratum. The Mentum in Festimentiini and Firma-Mentuni, has 
the same force ; and it belongs to Munio, Munimen, which latter word 
is quasi Mun-Mun. In the idea of inYzsTing a Town we come to 
its general sense. In Esthio, Estho, Edo, {Ecrdiw, EcrOw, EBto) Edo, 
Es, Est, (Lat.) Eat, (Eng.) w-ith its parallels Etan, Itan, (Sax. Goth.) 
Essen, (Germ.) &c. &c. some difficulty may perhaps occur. If they 
relate to the idea of Consuming, we have the same sense as in Waste, 
&c. and they belong to the Relaxed state of Ooze, or Pudge Matter. 
If they are attached to Esca and Vesco/-, they belong rather to its 
ViscoMS state, and to the idea of Rising, Swelling up, as in the terms 
Fat, Feed, &c. The English term Weed, the Dress, appears to be 
attached to Vest/s, &c. and it has only an accidental similarity to Weed, 
The File Herb, which is perhaps derived from the idea of Agitation,- 
" To Rout up, Waste," &c. This is a confusion, which frequently 
takes place, and leads often into great errors. I see in the 
same column of Wachter with Vestcw; the term Vetteu, Cognatus, 
which he has justly compared with Wettc;?, Conjungere, and the Saxon 
Min FcEDERA, Patruus meus. We cannot help noting, how the form 
F(edera brings us to the Latin Foedus, Fiederw, which bears the same 
fundamental idea. Wachter rejects the alliance of Vater, Pater, Father, 
&c. with these words; yet it must be owned, that if strong evidence 
did not connect these important terms Vater, &c. with a more general 
idea, we should be inclined to this derivation. Wachter records likewise 
the Ancient British word Ewythr, patruus ; which, as it is now written 
in Welsh, appears under the form Givythyr, Surely these words bring 

z z 2 

364 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T, X, Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

us to the Greek Ekuros, (E/cyjoos, Socer,) or Giu-^kvros, which is one 
of the terms selected by the Critics on Homer, for the addition of their 
Digamma, or as the Welsh would call it, Giv ; and to the Latin S-Ocer, 
where the S represents the annexed Digamma. Whether the Welsh 
term belongs to the German word is a point to be considered ; but we 
shall surely not doubt, that the Greek, Latin and Welsh terms belong 
to each other. The Welsh Lexicographers refer their term to the Greek 
T/ieios, (Qeios, Patris vel matris, Frater, Avunculus, Patruus,) which 
belongs to Tad, Dad, &c. and so perhaps Eivthyr may belong to Attn, 
Attar, &c. other forms, expressing the same idea. In these coincidences 
it is impossible to decide. 

I have already examined various words under the form VD, VT, &c. 
I have fully shewn that Vit« is derived from the Fat, Yiscous substance, 
and I have just produced Vitta, Vitex, relating to Binding, Entivining, 
as derived from the same species of matter, when considered as what 
we call Tough. This is the origin of Yitruui, which belongs directly 
to the form GDr, or GU-D;', as in the Welsh Gwydr, " Of glass ; 
" of a glass colour, of a greenish blue colour;" the original idea annexed 
to which will be manifest in an adjacent term Gwronez, ''Toughness, 
" Tenacity, Viscidity, glutinousness." I see as adjacent terms in Mr. 
Owen's Dictionary Gwyd, "Quality; disposition; passion; a prevailing 
" bent, or inclination, Vice," where let us note Vice, and remember 
\\Tiiim, which may be considered as directly coinciding with the Welsh 
GwYD. I have supposed that the idea annexed to YiTium is that of 
Foul, Vile, as derived from Foul matter, and we see the same idea of 
what is Foul in Ymligo. In Ynellus, we have the sense of Yiscous 
Matter, without that of Foulness. The terms, which belong to the 
Welsh word for Vice, convey the same train of ideas, and by the 
examination of these terms, we shall unequivocally understand, how 
both forms GU-D, G-D, V-D, coincide with each other. Mr. Owen 
refers Gwyd, to Gioy, (Giv,^ which he explains by " A fluid, or liquid ; 
'• Water." He adds moreover the following observation, "This word, 
" and Aiv, are in the composition of a great number of terms, which 
" relate to Fluidity ; and especially the names of Rivers ; as Dyvrdon-fVy, 


" Ed-Wy,'' &c. &c. and the reader, who is disposed to form Theories 
on the original germs of Language, may imagine, if he pleases, that 
such sounds, as we may express by GW, SHJV represent the original 
germ for words, denoting Oozy Washy, sQuash Matter, if I may so 
say: — that from the portion G, arose the Terms under the form 
■*G, *C, "^S, as Kctua, Ooze, Wash, and when combined with a vowel 
breathing between them, SQ-aSn, GU-Sh, and that from the portion 
JV, or the Labial form B, F, M, P, are formed such Terms, as Wave, 
Avon, &c. and that to the combination of the T>ahial and G. S, &r. with 
a vowel breathing inserted between them, belongs the form P-uDGe, 
P-aS/i, B-oG, 8cc. To this theory, whether true or false, I can have 
no objection, as it will not disturb the facts which I detail on the original 
idea, relating to words, when they appear under the more familiar 
forms, by which the business of Language is conducted. The sense 
of the Welsh Gwyd, Quality and Vice, will be manifest from kindred 
terms in the same opening of Mr. Owen's Dictionary, Gwst, which in 
one article he explains by " A Humor ; a distemper; disease, or malady ; 
" any humoral pain," and in another article by "Humid, moist, fluid." 
We are brought to the Gvsmng Matter of Water, and to Gutta, Gusto, 
(Lat.) &c. &c. We see moreover that the original idea is that of 
Moisture, as my Hypothesis supposes; and that the idea of a Foul Humor, 
or Moisture, as on the Ground, from whence it is applied to a Foul 
state, as in Diseased Matter, is the preceding step, which brings us to 
the sense of Humor in a metaphorical sense. When it denotes Quality, 
disposition, passion, &c. Mr. Owen has referred Gwst, Humid to 
WsT, which he explains by " A Thrust, Push, or drive ; a Gust ; the 
hypocondria, the hip," and I see near to this word Gwth, IV^ynf, 
"A squall of Wind," or as it might have been 'A Gust of Wind,' 
where let us note the kindred term Gust. The sense of Wst, The Hip, 
what Pushes forth, or Out, shews us the original idea annexed toOsphus, 
(Oo-^i/s, Lumbus,) IsK-is, (la-xi^,) &c. In the same column with Gfvsf, 
I see, Gwth, A Push, or Thrust, Gwrmatv, "To Push, to thrust, 
" to press, or to Squeeze forward ; to obtrude," where we unequivocally 
see, how the idea of Pushing, Squeezing, Pressing is connected wit!i. 

366 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.} l,m,n,r. 

the Moist, or Gwst, sQuash, or Qwag matter; just as I suppose under 
the form PS, &c. that Push belongs to Pash, or Pudge Matter. We 
hence unequivocally see, that YiTiuin denotes Foul Moisture, and hence 
we have Excoquitur Vitium. Mr. Owen refers us under Gwth, to 
Wth, which form brings us to Othco, (Odew, Trudo,) Ico, (Lat.) Hit, 
(Eng.) &c. The next word to Wst in Mr. Owen's Dictionary is Wsw, 
which he explains by " That abounds with impulse, or energy; an epithet 
" for the Horse ; a steed," which shews us, how Eq?///«, and Aciua may 
belong to each other, as alike signifying what Issues, or Spjings forth, 
about, &c. The sense of Gwth, To Pash, thrust, &c. which under 
another form is Gwasg, " A Pressure, a Squeeze, &c. brings us to 
Squeeze, Quash, sQuash, Gash, Cut, with their various parallels, 
through the whole compass of Language. 

To the terms of Agitation, Violence, &c. produced above, as Vexo, 
Wig, Vigo/-, YiGour, &c. &c. we must add the following, which pass 
into a variety of ideas, as Waste, Vasto, with the parallels produced 
by the Etymologists JFast, yer-JFasten, (Germ.) Woest, &c. (Belg.) 
Gaster, Guaster, (Fr, Ital.) &c. where we have the form GS ; — Weidc/?, 
Fenari, Capere, Arripere, says Wachter, with the parallels Waith, 
(Scotch,) which Dr. Jamieson explains in one article by " The act of 
" Hunting," and in another by " Wandering, Roaming," the relation 
of which senses to each other our Lexicographer faintly perceives. — 
VixiTHman, or WAiT?rta«, The Hunter, to which our Surname under 
the same form belongs, Yeida, (Island.) &c. — Wode, (Old Eng.) Mad, 
Furious, with its parallels produced by the Etymologists, Fods, (Goth.) 
IFut, Widen, (Germ.) Uuotag, (A. Franc.) Odur, Oede, (Isl.) &c. &c. 
Under the same form with Wut, Ferus, Wachter has Wut, Lignum, 
Arbor, Sylva, and Sylvestris, which he has referred to the English Wood, 
&c. and to various words, under this form, as likewise to the Welsh 
Gwydd. From hence it should seem, that the original idea of the word 
was that of Savage, JFild, and that it denoted the Wood, or Forest, 
as growing in Wild places. We must remember however, that the term 
for Wood appears under the form 'L, or 'LD, 'LG, &c. SL, as Ulc, Wald, 
Wold, Aldos, Alsos, Xulon, (YA?;, AXcos, AAct-os, Sylva, HyAoi/,) Sylva, 


Ugninn, &c. which refer to a different idea. To the form Wuten, or 
Uten directly belong, as I imagine, the Greek terms Odunc, and Odin, 
(OZvvij, Dolor, D.^iv, Dolor parturientis.) To the form Oede belong 
the Latin Auoeo, Avshn and Audax, which seems directly attached 
to UuoTAG. Wachter has justly referred to Wode, Furiosus, the name 
of the Northern Warrior, or Deity, Odin, Othin, Woden, Voden, 
GoDEN, to which Deity, as all acknowledge, our term WEDNEsr/o^ 
belongs. This Lexicographer has moreover informed us, that Woo 
in Gothic is Dcemoniacus, and that it belongs to our form God. We 
may well imagine, that the names of many Deities were originally 
derived from the idea of Violence, in the action of Destruction. Odin's 
place of Abode is called Asgard, the Guarded spot, or Yard of the As^, 
or Gods, where As means Deus. Wachter refers this word to Aisa, 
(Ajo-a,) quasi aei ovcra, to Es-Us, Aisoi, (hicroi, 6eot, utto, Tvpptjvwv,') 
EsAN, EsA, As^, &c. These terms for Deities relate to the same idea 
of Force and Excitement, which according to my hypothesis is derived 
from the Agitation of Washy, or Ooze Dirt. The words in the same 
opening of Wachter serve to decide on this opinion, which are As, 
Cadaver, Asche, Cinis, Pulvis, to which is referred the Greek Aza, 
(A^a, Pulvis,) and Asche, Aaua. I perceive likewise Asche, 
Fraxinus, which belongs to the same idea of Excitement, "Veteres 
" Agitantur Orni," the old Ashes are kmtated; where in Ash, and 
Aaito, we have kindred terms *. 

* We might conjecture perhaps, that the Latin AssAmenta, or AxAtnenta, the ancient 
term belonging to the Salian Priests, meant the Hi/mtts, Kites, &c. of the Asa;, or Gods. 
These AssAnienta peculiarly related to Hercules, who corresponds with the Asa Odin. 
I must assure my Reader, that I made this conjecture, before I discovered that the very combi- 
nation AssAMEN, or AsiAMEN exists, as denoting the Asje-Men, the God-Men, or God-like 
Beings, who accompanied the Asa Odin in his return to Scandinavia, " Verel. in Ind. As, 
" Deus, Odinus, Thorus, &c. Asiamenn Dii, qui cum Odino in Scandiam revertebantur, 
" Aski/ndur, divina; originis, ex origine Asarum sive Deorum." (Wachter sub voce Js.) Let 
us mark the name Askyndur, to which perhaps AscAH-ius belongs. This Trojan name has 
been referred to Ashkuenos, tha son of Gomer, which is still probably right ; and both these 


S68 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Y,Z.^ lm,7i,r. 

The English preposition With is a term of Agitation, Contention, 8cc. 
the original idea which appears in yVvin- Stand; Vs^vrn-say ; — To be 

words may have the same meaning. The prophetess Cassandra is perhaps quasi Ass an dr A, 
belonging to the Askyndur ; which, remote as it may appear at the first view, will be a little 
accommodated to our conceptions, when we remember that in Greek she is called Alexandra, 
which brings us to the Warrior Alexander, who in the East is called Iscander, or Scander. It is 
allowed, that this name belonged to the East, long before they knew any thing about the Greek 
Alexander. We shall be startled perhaps at the application of a Teutonic name to a Trojan 
personage-, but our astonishment will subside, when we remember, that Pergam«/ is acknow- 
ledged to be nothing but our word Bergham, in which Berg has the same meaning as in 
Borough, Edin-BvROH, Att/e-BvRGH, or Borough, and Ham denotes what it does in 
Noithig-HAM, and in the name of the Spot in which I am now writing these observations, 
Harding-H Ayi. But we shall bring more closely together the Askyndur, and the Assan- 
dra, or c-Assandra, to terms belonging to the Teutonic Odin, and to Troj/, when we learn 
that Troy is supposed to be the Asgard of Odin. " Sedes Odini, unde in Europam profectus 
" dicitur, ab Edda Islandorum vocatur Asgard, quod vulgo Trojam interpretantur." Wachter 
sub voce Othinus. Having proceeded thus far we might ask, whether the name of the Town 
Troij was not of the same origin as our word Thursdai/, which all acknowledge to be the Day of 
Thor. Now Thor is supposed to be Odin himself, or his Son. Wachter observes, Thor, 
vel TJiur, "Jupiter Saxonicus, Odini ex Friga filius," and Lye remarks under Tir, Tyr, 
" Nomen Odini, vel principis saltern Asaritm." If this should be so then Troy and Asgard 
would denote the City of Thor, one of the As*. I find under Tir in Lye the combination 
j^isca-Tir, Hominum Princeps, where the ^sca denoting Man still means the Illustrious 
Personage, and I moreover see a remark, which I had long since made in the margin of my 
Saxon Dictionary, that the Trojan /;-Ec-ToR may be perhaps .S^sca-Tyr. These are at least 
strange coincidences. 

The Welsh Lexicographers compare a Deity in their System of Mythology with the 
Teutonic Odin. The name Gwydien is applied to "A Spirit supposed to preside in the 
" Air," &c. and Givydion denotes " A mythological personage, the son of Don, whose history 
" is but little known ; a spirit supposed to preside in the air, or rather in the starry regions. 
" Caer-Gtuydion, an epithet often used for the Galaxy. Probably he is the same as the Teu- 
" tonic Woden." This Deity Gwydien relates to the idea of Commotion, and hence he has 
been chosen to preside over the Gusts of Wind. In Welsh, as we have seen, GwTniaiv, 
means " To push, to thrust, to press, or to Squeeze forward, to obtrude ;" where in Squeeze we 
see a kindred term relating to Squash, or Qvvag Matter; and we have likewise in the same 
Language Gv;TH-lVijni, "A squall of Wind;" Gwyc, sometimes written Wy"c, "Gallant, 
"brave, gaudy, gay," which brings us to VzGetus, &c. — Gwyci, "The Wa.xy Scum of 
" Honey," where we have the original idea of Viscc;/j- Matter; as in another term GwYDiiaad, 



Angry With, or Against, as in the Saxon With, Contra, in, ad versus ; 
With gectjnde, "Contra naturam ; lrsian-W\Tvi, Irasci, indignari, 
" excandescere in." The same idea appears in the German Wider, 
Against, and in the old Law term " WiTner-nam, Vetitum namium," 
The term Wider, or Wiedeu means likewise Rursum, to which Wachter 
has justly referred the Latin Iter//w, Itero; and he might have observed, 
that the Latin Iterum more directly coincides with the German form 
Wiederum. We might consider, whether Wider, iv-Id^k does not bring 
us to the Greek Ater, (Arcp,) With-om^, Atar and Eithar, (Arap, 
Eidap.) The same term Wider means ^nes, which belongs to Weather, 
The Sheep, as the Etymologists understand. They see however no 
relation between Weather, the animal ; and that object ot Violence, 
or Agitation, relating to the Air, the Weather, where we have the 
original idea, in its application to Water like matter. Wachter finds, 
as he says, Ethr?s, (E^pi?,) among the Greeks for Ver-Vex, where let 
us note the Vex, belonging to our Elementary Character, with the sense 
of Vexo. Some have understood, that Ver in this word belongs to the 
terms for Strength and Violence, as Vir, &c. 

" A rendering Tough, or Viscid; a becoming Tough." Wachter supposes, that the Greek 
AiDONwj (Aicwi-eu?,) belongs to Odin, which agrees, as he says, with the idea, that Odin is 
supposed to reside in Valhalla, i. e. Jtula Mortuorum, and to entertain those, who are slain in 
Battle. — Tlieir coincidence is certainly very striking; yet I must leave the Reader to consider, 
whether it be not a coincidence of words, derived from different sources. The Anes, and 
AiDONfw, {■Mti<:, Tartarus, Inferi, Pluto ; — Sepulchrum, AiSoii/eu?, Pluto, Orcus,) may be quasi 
Vad, Vaidon, and belong to the Low, Hollow Spot, the Bottom, Boden. We haveseen, 
that in Welsh Brz, or Vez is the Grave, and such is the sense of the Hebrew m BT. Under 
the form 'TN, *DN, we have words denoting the Hollow of a Mine, Furnace, Vulcano; from 
which, as it is acknowledged, jEtmi is derived. {Bochurt. Geogruph. Sac. Lib. Lc.28.) I suspect, 
tiint a race of words is to be found, under the form 'TN, "DN, which relate to Artists and 
operations, connected with Mines, Forges, &c. ; but whether they belong to the Elementary 
character 'D/;, &.c. or DN, &,c. must be the subject of future consideration. I have often 
thought, that Odin in one sense, and by some process, relates to an Artist of this kind. We 
must remember that Mount Ida was famous for its Iron. The enquirer into the Mysteries of 
the ancient world would do well to consider, whether the Language of the Gods, about which 
Homer speaks, does not refer to the Language of the Asia- Men, or the As-Ki/nder, that is, to a 
Teutonic Dialect. 

3 A 


B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S/r,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

Weather, Aer, as we shall all agree, must be referred to these terms 

of Agitation, relating to Wet matter. The Etymologists have duly 

produced the parallel words in other Languages, as JFeder, Wetter, 

(Sax. Germ.) &c. and the Greek Aithek, (Aidtjp,) which is acknowledged 

to belong to the Latin -^ther. Adjacent to the Scotch Weddyr," 

denoting Weather, we find in Dr. Jamieson's Dictionary the verb 

" To Wede, To Rage, to act furiously," which brings us to Wode. 

I perceive likewise a term under a strange form IVedonypha, occurring 

as a name for a Disease, which has been referred by Dr. Jamieson to 

Wed-07i-fa, the On-fall, or Attach of the Weid, a fever peculiar to 

puerperal Women. Though Weid, the Disorder, is the next article 

in our author's Dictionary to Weid, Furious, he sees no affinity between 

the terms, but tells us of a piece of information, which he has received, 

in the following words. "I am informed, that Germ. IVeide, or IVeite, 

" corresponds to Fr. Accable, as signifying that one is oppressed with 

" disease." He has certainly been justly informed, that there are German 

words, which signify something belonging to If'eigh, Weight, &c. the 

corresponding terms to which are produced in the very same column 

of his Dictionary, and which are duly referred to their German parallels. 

The Saxon term Wedaw is explained by Lye " Infestare, insanire, furere, 

" Mstuare,'' where the Latin tEstwo gives us the true sense in a parallel 

word, and we likewise see the original idea in the following Saxon 

sentence, "Tha Itha Weddq;?, Fluctus furebant," where in Itlia, we 

have another kindred term. In German Weiscw means " Inculpare," 

which Wachter has justly referred to the Greek AiT?a, (Atrja, Crimen, 

culpa.) In Scotch Wite has the same meaning " To blame, to accuse," 

as Dr. Jamieson explains it, who refers us to the parallel terms in other 

Languages, to the Saxon Witan, &c. and to its use in old English by 

Chaucer and Gower. In the expression " Wite yourself, if your wife 

" be with bairn ;" which, says Dr. Jamieson, is " spoken when people's 

" misfortunes come by their own blame." The application of these words 

exactly corresponds to the use of the Greek AiT-iaomai, (Airiaofxai, 

Causam attribuo, adsigno, Imputo, &c. — Criminor, accuso, culpo,) where 

there is a mixture of the senses of Cause and Blame ; and the sentiment 


conveyed by the Scotch proverb, agrees with the Greek idea in the phrase 
AiTiaa-daL eavrov o-iy/i/3e/3»/KOTwi/. Under the substantive Wite, the 
Islanic Vyt« is explained by " J^itii notare aliquem," by a foreign 
Lexicographer, who duly understands its connection with the Latin 
Vrx/o, If we should say, that Aixia, (Atrza,) or Y wTia denotes Foul 
Matter, or Matter in general, and that AiTiaomai, (^AiTiaofxai,^ Vait- 
iaomai, means Vix/o, Dare, Yiruperare, we come to the same point. 
An English Lexicographer might explain the Greek Aitia, (Atrta, Causa, 
ratio, occasio. Crimen, Culpa, Accusatio,) by ' Ground, Matter, Subject- 
* Matter in general, but particularly of complaint, as of something Foul, 
' File, Bad, to be imputed to any one,' where in Ground and Matter, 
we are brought to the Dirt of the Earth, just as in German the same 
Greek word might be translated by Grand, and Stoff, terms adopted 
by Schneider, in his Lexicon, belonging to Ground and Stujf, in English, 
or as in Greek it might be explained by Y\?;, Materia qu^cunque, which 
the Scholiast on Pindar has employed, in a passage produced by Schneider. 
Pindar says, that a person performing illustrious deeds affords an Airia, 
(AtTia,) an Argument, Subject, or Matter for verses, where YXtj is 
employed, as an explanatory word. The term Y\r] in Greek belongs 
to lAys. The preceding word to Weather in Lye's Junius is Wkath, 
Mollis, where we see the idea of Wash matter, under another property. 
Lye produces the Saxon Hwith, Lenis aura, where we have the sense 
of WEATHer in its gentler state of Agitation. The reader will now 
understand, whence the terms in Greek for Agitation of various sorts 
and degrees, under the form Aith, (At6,) are derived, as Aixnra, &c. 
(^Aidpa,') aeris serenitas, (^Aidpew, Conturbo tempestate,) which the 
Lexicographers do not refer to Aixher, (^Aidijp,^ Aixho, (^Ai6w, Uro, 
Accendo,) Aithusso, (^Aidva-a-w, Splendeo, Suscito, Moveo, quatio,) 
AiTHo, (Aj^o), Respiro,) AixHiops, (^Ai6io\}/; .-Ethiops, Fuscus,) which 
is supposed to mean the Sun-burnt person. I have conjectured, in 
another place, that AiTHuia, (^Aidvia, Mergus, Fulica,) belongs to 
these terms, under the idea of Burning, just as Fulica belongs to 
Fuligo. This is partly wrong perhaps, and partly right. The A\T\iuia, 
(Ai^yja,) probably means the animal belonging to the ?^-Ash, or 

3 A 2 

373 B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

iv-Et spot, just as Fulica belongs to the Foul spot, and matter, as in 

The following terms denote Commotion, sometimes accompanied 
with Noise, as Whisk, (Eng.) Scopula, with its parallels Hwiska, (Swed.) 
Wisch, (Belg.) Wiske away, (Jun. Scotis est " Repente se alio prori- 
" pere, atque ex oculis hominum amoliri,") Wisp, (Eng.) Cesticillus, 
where let us remember the application of ' A Will of the Wisp,' in 
which the term of Agitation is brought to its original spot, as denoting 
the Vapour of the Wash spot. — Whizz, (Eng.) which brings us to 
Hiss, &c. — Whist, (Eng.) the term of Attention, and the game which 
demands attention. Hence we pass to Hist, Hush, &c. &c. Wachter 
has produced Wist, Host, Schwude, as terms of excitement to Horses. — 
Whispc;- with its parallels Hwisprian, (Sax.) JVisperen, JVispelen, 
(German, &c.) In Susurro, pSithuros, (j^idvpo^,^ Ziito, (Ital.) we 
have the form SS. — Whistle, with its parallels Hivistlan, fFistlan, (Sax.) 
Suyselen, (Belg.) Fistulare, (Lat.) &c. &c. where let us note the use 
of the Latin term FisTw/a, Fistw/o applied to Hollow, Spungy, Oozy 
Matter, which brings us to the original idea, — Terra bibula et pumicis 
vice VisTu/ans. — TiSTuIa, "A Hollow, Oozing ulcer," says R. Ainsworth, 
Wheese, with its parallels Hwesa, (Su.) Hivesan, (Sax.) &c. where we 
see the sense of Noise, with the idea of Oozing up, if I may so say. 
Wet matter. Dr. Jamieson explains the Scotch "To Weese, Weeze," 
by "To Ooze, to distil gently," and he justly refers it to terms, relating 
to Moisture, Vos, Humor, &c. (Isl.) all belonging to Wet, WATer. 
— The next word to Whisk, Scopula, in Junius, is Wis?m« IFyndis, 
a Scotch combination, which is equivalent, as he says, to Chaucer's 
" Whisking blastes." Lye says, that Junius is wrong, and that Wis- 
nand means Aridus, Marcescens, from whence we are brought to 
Wither, which the Etymologists have derived from Weather, or 
Wither, (Sax.) Contra. We cannot separate in the phrase Wisnand 
Wyndis, the idea of Parching from that of Whisk?/?^ ; and the union 
of these two words with the f Finds shews unequivocally their origin. 
Dr. Jamieson explains Wisen, Wyssin, by " To Wither, to become 
" dry and hard," and justly produces the parallel terms Wizzen, (Eng.) 


WYS)i}ar, for ireos-ian, (Sax.) Tabescere, &c. and Wisna, Foer-WisnU) 
(Su. Goth.) Dr. Jamieson has produced the form Wina in the same 
sense, where the sound of s is lost, and let us note the combination 
For-Weosn, &c. from which we have For-lVine in old English, as in 
the Poems attributed to Rowley, " Thys ys alyche oure doome ; the great, 
" the smalle, Moste Withe, and bee Fo;'-Wyned by deathis darte. 
" QEclog. III. 35-6.) — Look in his glommed face, his sprighte there 
" scanne, Howe woe-be-gone, how Withered, Fo?'-Wynd, deade." 
The next term to Wisen in Dr. Jam ieson's Dictionary is Wishy-Washies, 
" Bustling in discourse ; a cant term for being slow in coming to the 
" point," where we are directly brought to Washy matter. I see as 
adjacent articles; "To Whisk, To hurry away," &c. and Wiss, 
" The Moisture, which exudes from Bark, in preparing it for tanning," 
where our author has justly referred us to Weese, before produced ; 
and WiscH, Washed. In Welsh Gwystyn means " Flaccid, flabby ; 
" WiTHERed; Humid,'' where in Humid we have the original idea. 
I see in the same page of Mr. Owen's Dictionary, Gwyth, Wrath, 
GvvYTH, "A channel; a drain; a gutter; a vein," where let us note 
the parallel term Gutter, the Spot, through which the IFater Gushes ; 
GwYSG, or Wysg, " A Tendency downwards, or to a level, as of a fluid; 
" gravity ; a Stream, or Current,'' Gwys, " A Bottom ; a profundity. 
" Low, deep, profound," where we have likewise the original idea. 
The Welsh word Wysg will shew us, how JEciuus, Level, may belong- 
to Aquu ; but whether it is under this precise idea, or whether the 
Welsh and Latin words directly belong to each other must be considered 
on another occasion. 

We see, that the Saxon Weosn/ow is translated by Tabescere, and 
Wesan is explained by Macerare, in Lye's Saxon Dictionary. I must 
leave the reader to consider, whether the Greek words Fthino, Fthio, 
Ftheo, Fthiso, Ftheiro, {<^6ivo), Corrumpo, Tabesco, ^diu), Corrumpo, 
Macero, Tabesco, '^dia-w, 4>t^ew, Corrumpo, ^deipw, Corrumpo, Vitio, 
Vexo, Vasto,) be not quasi Feth/'/w, Fethco, VzTmo, VETnisis, pETHEiro, 
belonging to our Element FL, &c. Let us note, that Fethc/'/o is 
explained by three words, attached to the same Elementary Character, 

374 B,F,P,V, W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| hm,n,r. 

ViTio, Vexo and Vasto. In Ffthin, or FETHiNopora, (^^divoirodpa, 
Autumnus,) we have the season, where the fruit becomes Wizzen. 
In Fetheiro perhaps we have the form Wither. Having proceeded 
thus far we must surely pass to Fthoneo, and Fthano, Fthaso, (j^douew, 
Invideo, ^davw, Prcevenio, Occupo. — Servit celeritati exprimendre, <bda(r(o,) 
or Fethokco, Fethano, FExnaso. The term FxHONeo, (^'Pdovew,') is 
only another form of Ftheino, (O^eti/w,) Fetheino, and it means. To 
Waste, or Pi?ie away, through Etivy, " Invidus alterius Macrescit rebus 
" opimis ;" The sense of Haste, attached to Fthano, {<^dav(a,) Fethano, 
might belong to the idea of Agitation, as in Festino, Vite, Haste, 
Hasten, Fast, Fasten. If we should say, that Fthano, or Fethano, 
means ' To go Fast,' so as to Seize, or Fasten upon an object, before 
others; (^dapei, YlpoTpex^i, -TrpoKaTaXafx^aveiy) we cannot be very far 
from the idea, and we are probably directly connecting the term with 
its kindred words. This term has much embarrassed me, and I once 
sought for its origin in the ^Egyptian Language, by supposing, that 
the p might possibly be a prefix. In this Language Ton signifies Surgere, 
and with the article Yi-Tonf, means " Resurrectio," and I find, that 
I have thus endeavoured to explain it in my Copy of Woide's Dictionary, 
p. 107. " Tam subito et celeriter Siirgo, ut alicui aliqua in re Pree- 
" veniam, ut prior aliquid faciani. Origo hujusce vocis niihi semper 
" aquam ha^rere fecit." I now seem to satisfy myself, that I have 
given the true origin, in referring it to the Radical PT. 

To the terms expressing Agitation, Noise, Whisk, Whisper?/?o-, &c. 
as relating to the Wet matter of the Elements, The Air, Winds, 
Weather, &c. we must refer East, West, Vespera, Espero5, (Eo-ttcjoos,) 
&c. which originally, I imagine, denoted the Winds, blowing in those 
quarters of the Heavens. The Etymologists have duly referred East 
to its parallels East, Oest, Ost, &c. (Sax. Belg. Germ.) Eos, (Hws, 
Oriens,) Oster, Austr, (Swed. Isl.) &c. and the term West to its 
parallels West, (Belg. Germ. Sax.) Wester, Fester, (Swed. Isl. Dan.) 
Esperos, Hesperms, (Eo-Trejoos,) Vesper. Wachter derives these words 
for the East, Ost, Osten, from VsTan, Surgere, and Martinius from 
JEsTUSy by which we are still brought to the same idea, as all these 


words are derived from Ooze matter, Risi?ig, Swelling, or Issuing up, 
Out, &c. Wachter has duly produced the words derived from the East 
and West in the names of places, people, &c. as Austria, OsTARm7/e, 
and in the compounds ^ksr-Dcele, West-DcbIc and Visi-Gofhs, &c. 
This source should be considered in investigating the origin of our names, 
as JFastel, Ifesfon, Aston, Sec. Wachter has noted the derivation of 
those, who refer West to iVehen, Spirare, as signifying " Aura lenis,'' 
Sec. by observing, that West in composition sometimes relates to the 
Wind, as G/mc^-- West, The favorable West, or Wind, "Favonius," 
and our Sailors, I believe, talk of a Wester, as referring to the JVind. 
Wachter however derives the terms West, Wese, &c. from the Greek 
Peson, (Uecroi/, Cecidi,) the place of Sun-set. We shall surely agree, 
that the Vesper, Esperos, quasi Veser, (Ea-Trepo^,^ belong to Wester, 
&c. and here the labial p has been added as in Whisper. We shall 
then perhaps think, that Zephuros, (Ze(pvpo<s,^ quasi We-Zephur-os, or 
We-Zphur, belongs to Vesper, &c. ESper-os, We-Sper-os. Thus then 
Zephyr, ov We-Zphyr, is the Whisper?/?^ Wind, (WmsPEmng Zephyr.) 
The Latin Auster assuredly belongs to these terms for a Wind, Austr, 
&c. though it is applied to a different quarter. The Etymologists derive 
Auster ab Haurienda aqua, and yet they cannot help recording some 
kindred terms, as Aitho, (Ai^w,) JEstus, &c. Some might imagine 
having proceeded so far, that Iberia belonged to Hesperia; which they 
might conceive to denote the Western or Vesper part. The term Iberia 
however brings us to the Ibeii, Celt-Iberi, &c. the name of a Celtic 
tribe, from whence we should pass to the Abroi and Cymry. (Af3poi, 
\Lifx(ipoi, ft)s Tii/es (pa<ri, Kt/ufxepLoi, Steph. Byzant.) All this however 
would require much deliberation ; yet the Celtic Scholars might still 
have before their view the idea, which I have here stated, as a possible 
or probable origin, from which the name of that illustrious Tribe among 
the Celts may have been derived. In deliberating on this point we ought 
not to forget, that the Cirmnerii are supposed to live in Darkness, which 
might allude to the l^*^e/-» situation of this tribe. Gibelin, (Vol. I. 250.) 
has referred the name Europe to the term 21i! WRAB, (which cor- 
responds with Erebus,) as denoting the West. This origin for the word 

376 B, F,P,V,W.| C, D, J, K, Q, S, T, X, Z. ^ l,m,n,r. 

is probable, yet perhaps Europe may be considered as quasi EvROpe, 
where the form EVR would bring us to IsER-m. All this I suggest 
as matter of meditation for future enquiries. There are often strange 
coincidences in words derived from different origins. 

In the same leaf of Wachter with Ost, Oster, &c. Oriens, I see 
OsTERN, Pascha, the season of Easter, which the Venerable Bede has 
referred to the Saxon Goddess Eostra. Wachter rejects this idea, and 
calls the Goddess Frivola Dea, about whom all antiquity is silent, " silet 
" tota retro antiquitas." If the name however of the Goddess Astarte 
belongs to this Deity, as some suppose ; antiquity has not been regardless 
of her glory. Wachter adds another reason for doubting the opinion 
of Bede, which, being admitted as a general principle, would be most 
fatal and deluding in the researches of the Antiquary and Etymologist. It 
is not probable, as he imagines, that pious Christians should adopt a 
name for so sacred a matter drawn from a profane source ; yet in the 
same breath he relaxes in his principle, ("quamvis hac ratio non valde 
" stringat,") when he remembers, that the early Divines in the Saxon 
Church, by an unaccountable piece of indulgence, (" nescio qua in- 
" dulgentia,") permitted Pagan names to exist for the Days of the Week. 
The Antiquary, who wishes to succeed in his researches, must proceed 
on a principle directly opposite, and suppose, that all around him is of 
Pagan origin, that is, derived and continued from the most ancient 
periods. Dr. Jamieson has discovered this weak place in the most 
illustrious of our brethren, and he has added some valuable researches, 
relating to the Goddess, and to the Season. (Vid. sub voce Pays.^ He 
supposes, that the Element *S, as I should express it, relates to Love, 
God, the Sun, &c. AsTar-Hita, Amor venereus, Astuin, Amasius, 
and that his is a Goddess corresponding with Astarte, &c. If Dr. 
Jamieson .will consider the Latin Msrus, he will perceive at once the 
original, and the metaphorical idea. In AsTar-HiTa, we have the Heat, 
or JEsTus of Love, where kindred terms are combined. The As^, 
The Gods, Ooin, &c. who is called As, are the MuTuantes, The Furious 
bemgs, the Wode, Ode personages. In the Scotch Ettyn, the giant. 
Dr. Jamieson will again see Odin, and in the phrase "To Eassin, 


" To desire the ISIale," he must decide whether it denotes the animal 
JEsTitans, ' amore,' that goes to Heat, as we express it, or whether 
it belongs, as he thinks, to Esne, The Male, another Odex, or creature 
* viribus ^stmows.' The great Goddess Isis, IS-IS, is quasi ^st-JEst- 
us, Ooze-Ooze, the Goddess of the Oas-Is, as I have before observed. 
If Dr. Jamicson will examine the Article Pfitigsten in Wachter he will 
find, that this great Etymologist, to whose industry we are all so much 
indebted, has again entangled himself in the same toils. Yet I seem 
to perceive on some occasions, that similar scruples have seized on those 
who propagate, and those who explain words, and that attempts have 
been made to soften down a Pagan term into a word of a similar sound, 
formed from a more Christian source. 

Waste, Vasto, Void, WiDo^t', &c. 

The terms Waste and Vasto, produced above, demand a fuller 
explanation. The Etymologists have detailed the parallels to Waste 
and Vasto in various Languages, Wust, Wusten, (Germ.) IVoest, 
Woesten, (Belg.) Ost, Uiiostan, (Apud Francos,) Alstoo, Ahtoun, 
(kia-Tou), Aia-Tovv,) Giiastare, Guafer, or Gatcr, (Ital. and Fr.) Giiaso, 
(Welsh,) Sec. 8cc. To these belong Vacuus, Vacuo and Void, where 
in Vacuus we perceive more strongly the idea of Spungy, Bog Matter. 
Waist, The Middle, means the Hollow, Void Spot, and as applied 
to the part of the frame, we are brought to the Greek ^-AsTer, (Taa-Ttjp, 
Venter, Uterus.) Let us mark the explanatory term \5tekiis, under 
the form "TR v\ith Uter, and compare these words with Outhak, 
(Ovdap,') Udder, Euter, (Eng. and Germ.) Usfcra, (Ya-repct, Vulva, 
Uterus,) and g-AsTcr, (raa-Tup,) and wc shall see, that they all belong 
to each other, and to the form Udor, (Y^wp,) ^^'-Ater, w-Assek, &c. 
The er in Veuter would lead us to think, that it was quasi Vetter, 
and that it was directly attached to these words. The idea of the Waste, 
Void part of any thing, when considered as of some extent, as when 


378 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

we speak of a Desert, brings us to Ykstus, Vast, from whence we pass 
to a kindred term Wide, with its parallels Wide, Weit, Wild, &c. 
(Sax. Germ. Belg.) &c. In Welsh Gwag, or as it is sometimes written 
Wag, means, as Mr. Owen explains it, " A Void, a Ykcuum,'' &c. &c. 
We are brought to the original idea of Vastms in the following applica- 
tion, "Turbidus hie Coeno YxsTAqiie voragine gurges ^studt, atque 
" omnem Cocyto eructat arenam." (^Virg. JE.n. VI. 296-7.) We see 
in JEsTuat the same fundamental idea, applied to another turn of meaning. 
From the term Void we pass to Vuide, or Vide, (Fr.) Viioto, (Ital.) 
Yix>uus, ViDO, in c/iViDO, (Lat.) Wido/^', with the parallels Widiva, 
(Sax.) civeddiv, (Welsh,) Jfeduwe, IVitwe, (Belg. Germ.) Vesve, (Fr. G.) 
B'nida, (Span.) Vedoua, (Ital.) &c. &c. produced by the Etymologists. 
In aVoiD we at once see Void and Vito, where we cannot separate 
the Pudge Hollow, and the Vile Pudge matter. From Vito we pass 
to Yirium. In the phrase "Void the Room," produced by the Ety- 
mologists, we see the Hollow, or Empty place ; but in the phrase ' To 
* Void rheum, spittle,' we see Void directly applied to the WATery 
Foul matter, from which I suppose it to be derived. Under a similar 
form to Yicium, we have Vicia, The Vetch, or Fetch, which I have 
shewn to belong to the idea of ' Small Pieces of Dirt.' In Wachter 
we have Widujji, which is explained by " Vitalitium Fiduce," and some 
derive it from WiTwe, Yimm; though this Etymologist supposes, that 
it is the same word, as Widum, Dos, the portion given by the Husband 
to the Wife ; and that it is derived from Wetten, Conjugare, which 
belongs to M^edding, as is shewn on another occasion. In the same 
column I see WiDuen, Dicare, which Wachter refers to Widum, 
" Dos Ecclesiae." In German Waise and Waisen, mean Orphanus 
and Orbari, which Wachter has justly referred to YiDUus, &c. He 
has justly seen likewise the kindred words, under the form GT, QT, 
as Guith, Qweddw, (Welsh,) and he has produced moreover the English 
Quit, from whence we may pass without effort to Quiet, and Quietus, 
belonging to the same species of Soft Matter. Wachter understands 
likewise, as others have done, that Vido in di-Yioo belongs to this 
race of words Ywmis, &c. and that such is the origin of the Etruscan 


word luvare, div-lDE7e, to which the term of the Calendar Ions belongs. 
The Greek loios, (iSios,) is produced as a kindred word, which would 
lead us to consider, whether the terms for Unity under the form *S, &c. 
as Eis, (Ets,) &c. should not be classed among the same race of words. 
Wachter produces the term Idis, sometimes written Itis, which he 
explains by " Mulier solitaria et a consortio utriusque sexus separata, 
" quales olim erant foeminae Esaeorum." This is a mystic term of great 
dignity in the ancient Teutonic Dialects, corresponding with the Beafa, 
the Devotee, the Recluse, &c. and it is applied in its highest application 
to Elizabeth, the Mother of John, to Anna the Prophetess, and to the 
Virgin Mary. — We might enquire, whether that Mystic personage, 
called Atys, " a consortio utriusque sexus castratione separatus," be 
not a perverted application of this word. We might ask, whether the 
Es^i were not to be referred to the idea of the Solitary. Wachter 
imagines, that the German pronoun Jeder is another of these terms. 

Wachter has justly referred to Wusxew, iv-\]?,Ten, the Greek Aistoz<//, 
(^Kkttovv, Delere,) and Guastare, Guaster, or Gater, (Ital. Fr.) Luther 
has applied the German Wust, with great force and propriety, to the 
Chaotic state of the Earth, and our translators have used Void, for 
the same object, as terms corresponding with each of the two Hebrew 
words, employed on this occasion, which belong to a different Element, 
" Und die Erde war Wust und leer. And the Earth was without form 
" and Void." The term Chaos means the Qwag, the Wag, or Bog. 
It is the Cage in the French " Mare-Coge," The Bog; so that Mare- 
Cage is Mire, or Mere-Quag, or the Quag-Mire in a different order. 
In Greek too the Chaotic state is called the Bog, or «Byss, " And 
" darkness was upon the face of the Deep,"' or aByss, (A/Syo-o-oi/.) — 
The adjacent word to Void in Skinner is Vogue, belonging to \xgus, 
&c. which I have shewn to be derived from the Vagues, or fVaves ; 
and in the same column I see Vouch, which this Lexicographer refers 
to the Norman Voucher, affirmare, or rather "citare in advocationem 
" seu Auxilium, a Lat adVocare.'' The term VoucHsafe is supposed 
to signify, that the Superior, in granting a request to his Client, warrants, 
or Vouches for the safety, or secure possession of the thing promised. 

3 B 2 

380 B,F,P,V, W.| C,D,J, K,Q,S,T,X, Z.| l,m,n,r. 

The terms Voice, Vox may belong to the Race of words denoting 
the Mouth, produced on the former occasion, as Bucca, &c. yet Voco 
may be a term of Excitement, signifying * To Stir up,' &c. as in Vexo, 
&c. In the same opening of my Dictionary, where Yxcuus occurs, 
I see Vacillo, which 1 have shewn to belong to Boggle, Vagms ; — 
Vagina, which means the Yacuus locus. The Hollow for the Sword, 
as in the phrase, " Ense ebur Vacm?«m," which is ' Ense YAGina Yacuo,' 
though these words are sometimes combined in another manner, as 
" Gladius YAGind Yacuus T — Y Accinum, "A Blackberry," &c. where 
the Vac may perhaps belong to Bacca, and Yxnum, where we are 
brought to the spot, supposed in my hypothesis. In Irish Faigin is 
" A Sheath, Scabbard," and in the same opening of Mr. Shaw's 
Dictionary I see Fahdb, " A fault, a Widow ;" — Fadh, A Mole, 
FADH^aw, A Mole, Hillock, FACHaiw, A Puffing, and in another place 
we have Fas, " Empty, YAcant, Hollow," Fas ?m h aon Oich, A Mush- 
room, which means likewise " Growing, increase," and which I have 
before derived from the idea of the Swelling out of Pudge Matter; 
and I see likewise as adjacent words Fasoc/?, "A desert Wilderness," 
Fiswe, "A wheal, pimple, measle," with various other terms produced 
on a former occasion. In other places I see YASuicham, " To destroy, 
" to lay Waste ;" — Feadhb, " A Widow, a fault, defect." In the same 
page of Mr. Shaw's Dictionary with the latter word, we have Feadhan, 
"Wild, Savage." Fead, "Timber, Woods,'' YzADH-chua, "Venison, 
" An extent of Country," which brings us to the Teutonic terms 
produced on a former occasion, WEioen, Venari, Wut, Ferus, Lignum, 
&c. and I see moreover VEADCtn, " A pipe, reed, flute, a spout, hollow 
" place, through which the wind eddies," which brings us to FisTu/a, 
FiDi, Tissum, Fead, Whist/c, or Shrill noise, Fead, A bulrush, an Island, 
Fathom, which conducts us to the Vad«w, The Pudge, Wash spot, 
supposed in my hypothesis. 

The English Odd is justly referred by the Etymologists to Oed, 
(Belg.) Oed, Od, (Germ.) Desertus, Yacuus; and Wachter has properly 
referred the German Oede, Ost, &c. to tu-VsTE, &c. We shall now 
be reminded of the Greek Oigo, {Oiyco, Aperio,) which connects itself 


with the Og in Ogkos, (Oy/cos, Tumor, Moles, massa, strues, Gleba 
terrae,) where we have the SweU'nig up of Soft Earth. Hence too 
we have Oomos, (Oy^uos, Sulcus,) The Raised Furrow. All the Greek 
words, with which these terms are surrounded, belong to the same idea, 
OiDCO, OiD7ion, OiDiiia, Ozos, {OiEew, Tumeo, OiBvov, Tumor Terrae, 
Oidna, Unda, fluctus, maris, .^stus, 0^09, Nodus arboris, Ramus,) 
signifying To Sivell up, — The Swelling AV^ATtr, &c. Oiax, (Oia^, 
proprie Clavus, Gubernaculum,) belonging to Echo, Ischo, (E^w, \cryja,) 
which contain the idea expressed by Ixos, (I^os, Visciun,) or v-lscoiis 
Matter, and Ozo, (O^w, Oleo, Foeteo,^ in Latin Ooor, &c. which belong 
to the idea of the Foul smell, of the vapour, or exhalation, which Oozes, 
or Issues from Ooze Matter. — Q\, On.iiros, iOi^vs, yRrumna, Miseria, 
OiXvpo's, ^rumnosus,) Ouune, (Olwn, Dolor,) Ouusso, (02yo-o-w, 
Irascor,) derived from the idea of Agitation, or Disturbance, OnuRomai, 
(OSvpofxai, Fleo,) To Weep, where we have the form Udor, (Y^wp,') 
Water, and Odos, (OSos, Via,) The Fia, Way, Weg, &c. &c. — 
In Greek Ozotheke, (0^odt]Kri,^ is Oletum, Cloaca, which brings us to 
the true idea, and here let us mark Oletum and Oleo, which connect 
themselves with Olea, Oil, &c. All these words ultimately belong to 
Uligo, Ulva, (Lat.) Ilus, Elos, (lAv?, Limus, EAos, Palus.) The term 
OiTOS, (OtTos, .^rumna, calamitas, &c.) denotes Calamity, Destruction, 
and the metaphor, from which it is derived, will be manifest from terms 
in the same column of Hederic's Vocabulary, Oisxro^, (Oia-rpos, OEstrus, 
tabanus, asilus. Furor, insania, Irritatio, Cupiditas vehemens,) the 
strongest term for Agitation, Irritation, &c. Oistos, (Oitrros, Sagitta,) 
and Oisua, {Oia-va, Salix.) The origin of OisTros, (Oto-Tjoos,) from 
Oozy, v-lscous Matter, will not surprize us, when we learn, that it is 
used with Chrio, (^Xpiw, Ungo,) which actually signifies To Smear, 
or Grease over, as with Sticky matter, and then To Stick into, " Xpiei 
*' Tts av fxe rav raXaivav OicTTpo^.'' (^Prometh. 583.) 

Wetzen in German is another term of Agitation, and means 
" Acuere, instigare, incitare, acriter impellere," as Wachter explains it, 
to which he has produced as parallels, Whet, (Eng.) Hwettia, Hwcessa, 
(Swed.) Hwcttan (Sax.) &c. &c. It is impossible not to acknowledge 

383 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Y,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

that Whet, the term of Excitement, belongs to the Wet, Watery 
Matter. The term Wass means " Mucro, adjective Acutiis" and it is 
referred by Wachter to Wetzcw ; yet he sees no relation between these 
terms and the words for Water, though Wass occurs in the same 
column of his Lexicon, with Wasser, Aqua, and Wase, " Coenum, 
" Lutum." This Etymologist has however justly referred Wetzen and 
Wass, &c. to a series of Greek and Latin words, denoting what is Sharp, 
as Acer, Acutus, Acuo, &c. (Lat.) Ox//s, Oxiino, (O^f?, O^yi/w,) and 
it is impossible, I think, for us to doubt, that the terms for What is 
Whettcy/ up. Stirred up, or Excited, what is Sharpened up, — What is 
Sharp, or Sharp-pointed, — What Cutts, &c. &c. belong to the idea 
of Excitement, as existing in Ooze, Aquo, &c. ?i;-ET, w-Ash Matter, 
in a state of Aoitation, as Hack, Hash, Hatchc^, Ax, Hough, &c. &c. 
which I have examined in a former work, {Etym. Univers. Vol. L 
p. 652, &c.) and which I there refer to the Ground in a state of 
Agitation. I now differ in nothing from my conceptions detailed on 
that occasion, but by supposing, that the Agitated Ground, or Dirt, 
more particularly relates in its original idea, to Dirt in a Washi/, or 
Oozy, iv-Et state, as in tv-As¥. Coenum, Lutum. 

When we consider this idea of Washy Dirt, if I may so say, as 
the original and prevailing notion ; it will shew us more distinctly and 
unequivocally the state of the question. It will at once unfold to us, 
how Races of words are connected, which under another point of view 
do not exhibit such striking marks of affinity, and it will suggest to us, 
on many occasions, whence that peculiar turn of meaning in certain 
terms is derived, from which they have their force and spirit under their 
various applications. We may observe in general, that terms denoting 
the action of Sharpening up. Hacking, Cutting, are derived from the idea 
of Wash, Slip-Slop Matter, easily Separated, Loosened into various 
parts, Pashed about. Stirred up. Excited, Agitated, &c. The idea of 
Cutting, of Sharp pointed Instruments, or of making an Impression 
upon any thing by the action of Gashing, Cutting, Sticking is connected 
through the whole compass of Language with that of Wash, v-\scous 
Matter, at once easily Separated, or Stirred up, — Compressed, or Squeesed, 


and Compresshig, or Squeesing. The terms Gash and Squeese alike 
belong to sQuash Matter, easily Squasfid, Gushing, or Gushed about, 
if I may so say, and likewise having the power of Compression. The 
action of Squeesing is generally for the purpose of Squashing, or Sepa- 
rating. We see how the terms Stick, Sticky connect themselves with 
the idea of Sticking together, to, out, in, into, &c. and I shew in another 
place, that Pash, Push, Poke, Fix, inYix, belong to Pash, or Pudge 
Matter. In Figo, inFix, we at once actually see the idea of Sticking 
together, and of Sticking into, and we perceive, how from hence we 
pass directly to Sharp Pointed Instruments able to Stick into. Where- 
ever we direct our attention, we come to the same species of Matter, 
producing the same train of ideas; whatever may be our mode of 
representing the connection in particular cases, according as the terms 
may seem to belong to the different qualities of that species of Matter, 
conceived under different actions, and in different points of view. These 
observations will fully shew us, how Hack, Hash, Hatchet, &c. 
(English,) Acuo, (Lat.) with their kindred terms expressing the action 
of Cutting, &c. belong to Ooze, Kaua, Wet, W\Ter, &c. &c. We 
see how Cleave, To Divide, and to Stick, belongs to Slimy, Clammy 
matter, under its two properties in different states of being easily 
Separated, and of Sticking together ; and Sliver belongs to Slaver, Slip, 
Slop matter, from its property of Slipping about, Parting, Separating, 
&c. In Dutch and German the two words Slypen and Schleifen 
respectively mean, as my Lexicographers explain them, "To Whet, 
" to Sharpen, and to make Sharp," and "To Whet, grind, set an Edge, 
" furbish, brighten, polish." The German word likewise means, "To 
" drag, trail, or train," that is. To Slip about, and the Dutch phrase 
Straat-Slyper means a lazy fellow, that goes up and down, or Slips 
about the Streets. Both these terms occur in the same page of their 
respective Dictionaries, with Slym and Schleim, corresponding to our 
English Slime. Wachter has justly referred the German word Schleifen 
to the Greek and Latin Glufo, (TXvcpw,) and Lcevo ; and he might have 
added Lima, The File, Litno, To File off, Limpidus, &c. where we 
cannot help seeing, how Limo connects itself with Limus, by some 

384 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

process. The first passage under Limo, produced by R, Ainsworth^ 
is, " In arbores Exacuunt, himantque, cornua Elephanti," where we 
may observe, that, according to my conceptions, Actio belongs to 
w-Y/Tzen, w-Ash, ^^^-AsE, by the same, or a similar process to that,^ 
under which Limo, in the sense of Actio, is connected with Lhmis. 
Again let us mark the Ex in Ex-Acwmw^, which I refer to the same 
source, as Actio, and which we see co-operates with the force of Ac 
in Actio in strengthening the idea. The Greek verb Askeo directly 
belongs to this race of words, and we shall hence see, why it has some- 
times been explained by Polio, (Ao-Kew, Colo, exerceo, percolo, meditor. 
Polio.) The proper sense of Askein, Ao-kciv, is To Wet, Wetzen, 
To Sharpen, Polish, or JFbtk any thing tip, and then To Practice, or 
Perform any thing in a Worked up, elaborate state or manner. Hence 
it is applied to Action, in its more excited and intensive state, that is, 
to Practise and Exetxise, in opposition to any action done without 
continued practise, — Siooi^e? et; HcrKtja-av, scl. Pocula, &c. — Ep/nii- 
AcrKy](Ta^, E^i/s' AcKricra^, &c. Sec. Aa-Keiv Te-^vt]v, apernv, Xoyovs, Sec. 
Aa-KrjTti^, Ad\t]T>i^, &c. When AsKeo is joined with ^Xuo, ''Xeo, &c. 
(Hi/w, Heo), Scalpo, Polio, &c.) it meets with kindred words, (Kai tu 
fjiev Aa-Ktja-as Kepao^oo's tjpape tektwi/.^ We shall agree, that Askeo, 
(Ao-zcew,) To Whet up, is the verb belonging to Askos, (Ao-kos, Uter,) 
and we have only to determine the precise idea, by which they are 
connected. The original sense of Askos, (Ao-/cos, Pellis, Uter,) seems 
to be that of Pellis, The Skiti, and next the Bottle made of a Skin. 
The sense of the Skin is derived from the sense of Scalpo, To Scalp, 
or Tear off: I shall shew% that Pellis, Peel, and Polio, belong to each 
other for the same reason, and ultimately to Pelos, {UriXos, Limus.) 
If the first sense annexed to Asko5, (Ao-ko?,) had been that of the Bottle, 
or Bag, I should have imagined, that the original idea was To Swell, 
or Rise, as in Jmpiilla, where the Pitl still ultimately belongs to Pelos, 

Wick, Wich, &c. belonging to the names of Towns. 

I have found it necessary to introduce in various parts of my Work 
the term Wick, Wich, &c. existing in the names of Towns, as in 
ff^arWiCK, iVbrWicH, &c. and I have shewn, that this term reverts 
to its genuine idea, when it is applied to Towns by the Wxrer side, 
as BerWicK upon Tweed, IpsWicu, &c. I have compared w-Ich 
with the OcHTH, Akt and Aig in the Greek terms Ochthos, Ochthe, 
Arte, Aioialos (Ox^o^, Ripa, Littus, Terras tumulus, coUis, Labra 
ulcerum preetumida, Ox6f], Littus, Ripa, Aktt], Littus, Sambucus, Farina, 
AiytaXo^, Littus :) To these we might add Os, Ost/w?«, which are taken 
in their original sense, when they denote "The Mouth, or Haven of 
a River.'' To Wick belong likewise Fagus and Vicus. Wachter after 
having explained Wik, or Wig by " Arx, turris, propugnaculum ; — 
" Oppidum, Vicus, villa, multorum secura mansio; — Monasterium," 
produces as another sense of the word, " Sinus Maris vel fluminis," 
where we have the original idea of a Recess, or Hollow, or of Ooze, 
Wash, or Pudge Matter. Whence it had the sense of a Town, as 
connected with this idea, whether secondary, or original, I must leave 
the reader to decide; as I have performed my duty by bringing the 
word to its original Spot, according to my hypothesis. To determine 
this connexion is equally the business of the Lexicographer, whose duty 
it is to discover the intermediate idea, by which one sense is allied to 
another. We may observe in general, that the sense of flolding, or 
the Hold is derived from different modes of conceiving the same species 
of Pudge Matter, either as being of a Viscous, Tenacious nature, able 
to Hold; or as belonging to Holes and Hollows, capable of containing, 
which sense of Holes or Hollows is attached to Pudge, Spungy matter, 
separating into Y Acuities, into which people Sink, or as being in the 
Lotv, Depressed, Hollow spot in point of situation. We must remember 
too, that Towns were commonly placed by the water side, for the 
advantages of Drink, FertiliUj, &c. and thus both from the original 


386 B,F,P,V,W.} C,D,G,K,J, Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

Etymological idea, annexed to Yicus, Wich, Wick, &c. and likewise 
from custom, such terms are more frequently found to be applied to 
places by the IFater-Side, as in Ips-Wicu, Green-WicH, &c. I shall 
shew, that the word Town, with its great race of parallels, belongs 
to the Element TN, under a similar union of ideas, and that Holm in 
the names of Towns, is attached to the Hole, Hollow, &c. by a similar 
process. In the same opening of Wachter, where Hole, Cavitas, Holen, 
Cavare, Holen, Capere, i. e. To Hold, Holle, Tartarus, or Hell, occur, 
we find likewise Holm, "Locus aqua circumfluus," as this writer 
explains it, who observes moreover, that it means in Anglo-Saxon, 
" Insula Amnica, et planities herbida aquis circumfusa," though he sees 
no relation between it, and the terms, with which it is surrounded. 
Hence we have the name Stock-Ho/w, and hence, says Wachter, 
is the name of XJlm on the Danube. Our familiar surname Holmes is 
derived from this origin. In German Wick is equally common, as in 
English, for the names of Towns, and to this, says Wachter, we must 
refer the term Bnins-Yicmn, Bruns-WicK, Brunonis oppidum. If 
Brun means the JFell in this name, the Wick will bear its more original 
sense. In Baiti-WicK, Candle-WicK Ward, we have the Secured, 
Separated Spots, or Divisions of a similar kind, and in the Dutch Wyk, 
" A Retreat, refuge," and " A Ward, quarter, Parish," we have the 
same term. The verb to this substantive is Wykcw, "To retreat, with- 
" draw, depart, to give way," where we pass into the sense of Wzichen 
and EiKei«, (Eikciv, Cedere.) We might here ask, whether the term, 
which we hear for an Indian Village, Wig- JFam be not of Teutonic 
origin ; where the Wig might belong to the words before us, and the 
Wam might denote the same as Ham in our names for Towns, as 
Notting-Ha/w, and the spot, where I am now writing these dis- 
cussions, Harding-iiaw. The Welsh however affords probably the 
original combination from Gwig and Gwam, similar to Jrick and Ham. 
Among other senses of Wik, the Hold, is that, as we have seen, of 
Monasterium, The Sacred, or Guarded Hold of the Cloisier, as it is 
called. Wachter suggests, that if the word comes from IVeichen, Cedere, 
then "Monasterium est secessus, nee hoc tantum, sed etiam asylum. 


" et sacrum refugium." I wonder that this sense of a Sacred Hold, 
or Sanctuary, as we should say, did not direct our Etymologist to the 
German JFeilie, Sanctus, Sacer, under which he produces WiG-bed, 
Altare ; and here we are told, that Wig signifies Templum. I ought to 
note however the combination Jfei-IVasser, and the sense of IVeihen, 
" Lustrare, mundare, purgare," from whence we might suppose, that 
Jfei was quasi Wej, relating to WATfr, the great Cleanser, or Purifier. 
Wachter compares the Greek Agios, (Ajlos, Sanctus,) with this German 
word. I ought moreover to observe, that the form G denotes Fire, 
from the same idea of Commotion, and we know, that Fire is another 
great Purifier. I must add too, that in Aoion, (^Ajiov, Sanctuarium,) 
we seem to be brought to the idea of the Sacred Hold, and in the Comic 
application of the verb, we see the same idea, Taud' tiyt^eu ets a-uKTav 
riva, (Arisfoph. Pint. 68 1 .) where the Priest is described as going round 
the altars; and if he found any cakes left, says the Poet, "He secured 
" them in the Sanctuary of his sack." Thus it is difficult to decide 
on the precise idea annexed to the term Agios, (Aytos.) Under the 
form Agg ATT in Greek we have Aggos, (A770S, Fas,^ which will 
bring us to Agkos, (A7K0S, Vallis,) where we have the sense of iv-lv;., 
" Sinus, vel profundus locus." Wachter justly refers JVeihe to Weich, 
Sanctus, as the original form, which means likewise " Mollis," and 
" Civitas, multorum secura mansio." In Gothic Weiha, Weihs is 
Sanctus, Sacer, IVehs, Weihs, Viciis, castellum, and in the preceding 
column of Lye's Dictionary I see Wegs, motus, fluctuatio. 

In Scotch Weik, or Week denotes "A Corner, or Angle." — The 
" Weiks of the Month, The Week of the Ee," where Weik signifies 
The Brinks of a Hollow, as in Ochthe, Akte, (PxQti, Aktij, Ripa, 
Littus.) Dr. Jamieson has justly referred this word to Wik, (Su. Goth.) 
Oegen Wik, and he adds, as follows. " Perhaps Hoek, Angulus, is 
" radically the same. The terms, in different Languages, originally 
" denoting any Angle or Corner, have been particularly applied to those 
" formed by Water. A. S. IFick, the Curving Beach of a River ; Teut. 
" fFijk, id. Su. G. JFik, Isl. Fih, a Bay of the Sea ; whence Pirates 
" were called Viking-ur, because they generally lurked in places of this 

3 c 2 


B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

" description." He moreover justly refers Wick in the names of Towns 
to these words. Let us first mark the word Vihingur, from whence 
perhaps the term Bucancer has been taken, yet this is not a decided 
point, and I have referred it to a different origin in another place. Let 
us mark the terms Bay and Beach, which convey precisely the same 
idea as Wic. Dr. Jamieson is right in conjecturing, that Hoeck, the 
Angle, is radically the same, as Weik, &c. but he has not seen, that the 
Agg, or Ang, in Angle, is a kindred Radical form. Let us note the Oeg 
in Oegen JVih, and we shall perhaps now be of opinion, that Oeg with 
its kindred terms Eye, Oculus, &c. denotes the same as Hoeck, z^-Ik, 
the HoUoiu. We shall now understand the force of the word Hecke, 
as it is adopted in the Poems attributed to Rowley, in reference to a 
Nook in a stream. {Roivleys Poems, Edit. Milles, p. 434.) 

" Stronge ynn faithfullnesse, he trodde 
Overr the Waterrs lyke a Godde, 
Till he gaynde the distant Hecke." 

Thenii the foiilke a brydge dydd make 
Overr the streme uiiloe the Hecke." 

My German Lexicographer under Ecke has the following explanation, 
" Eine land Ecke, so sie in die see erstrecket, A point of Land, a cape, 
" a promontory, a foreland. Ecken an den strovien, Corners, or Windings 
" of Rivers." We here unequivocally see, that Rowley has applied 
Hecke most accurately in its appropriate sense of something belonging 
to the Banks of a Stream, whatever may be its precise turn of meaning, 
as connected with the original idea. The interpretation of the German 
word is directed to the sense, which Ecke has of what we call by a 
kindred term, the Edge, Point, Extremity of any thing. When ideas 
run into each other, it is impossible, or rather it is an idle attempt, to 
disentangle them. I have shewn, that the sense of ' What is Shwpened 
' up, — What is Sharp Pointed, of WuETring up, or of What is WHETxet^ 
' up,' is derived from that of Wet, or Wash Matter, in a state of Excite- 
ment. Under another mode of considering the same Spot, the idea of 
the Edge, or the Top, brings us still to the Hole, or Hollow of the Low 
Wet, Pudge Spot, just as VASTigium signifies the Top, or Bottom, 


Height, or Depth of the Fossa ; as the Vaulted Roof relates to the Vault, 
or Low Spot, as Lacunaria, belongs to the Lacuna, because the Con- 
cavity, or a Hollow implies likewise Convexity, and as Angulus, the 
containing Recess, supposes likewise the Salient Angle, as it is called, 
or Projecting Point. Thus we see, how Hoek, the Recess, or Hollow 
of Ooze Matter, the w-lcvi, the Bay, &c. the YiooKing in part, may 
belong to the Edge, the Projecting Part, and how these ideas may be 
sometimes so involved with each other, that we know not how to 
separate them. Whatever mode we may adopt in conceiving the matter, 
the fact of the Hook, Hank, Angle, dec. belonging to the Swelling 
Ooze Matter, is unequivocal in the Greek Ogkos, or Onkos, (OyKos, 
Tumor, Moles, Massa, strues, gleba terree. Uncus, &c. &c.) and Ogke, 
or Onke, (OyKij, Angulus, seu Uncus, Magnitude, &c.) 

Terms under the forms ^G, *K, &c. *GG, *GK, or ^NG, ^NK, &c. 
denoting ' What Holds, Conjines, Constringes,' &c. as Hook, Hank, 
&c. &c. &c. 

The train of ideas, which I have above unfolded, and which I now 
propose, as the last result of my researches on this Race of words, will 
bring us to the terms under the form "G, ''GG, or ■'NG, "NC, which 
express what Hooks or Hanks in. Holds, Conjines, Constringcs, Nips, 
Pinches, Gripes, Grieves, Annoys, &c. These words, I imagine, are all 
derived from Pudge, Bog Matter; or as we may represent such words, 
when the vowel-breathing becomes weak p-VoGE, b-Oc, v-lscous,f-lxijig- 
in. Oozy, ?t'-AsH«/ Matter, considered simply as Oozy, t'TscoMS, or Tenacious, 
Matter, capable of admitting and making Impressions, or as Tenacious 
Matter, in a Hole, Pit, w-Ick, &c. &c. in various states of Action, 
Agitation, Commotion, &c. &c. We see how the form ^GG, as in Greek 
rr, or FK, GR brings us to the form -"NG, 'NC, &c. Aggos, or Angos, 
AcKai, or ANKai, (A770S, Vas quodlibct, ut dolium, Ajkui, Ulnae,) 
and thus we understand, how Hook and Hank may belong to each 
other. Among the words, under these two forms expressing the train 

390 B,F,P,V, W.J C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.| l,m,n,r. 

of ideas above unfolded, we must class the following. Hook, Hug, 
Heck, \i\sp, Hatch, (The Catch of the Door,) Hitch, (To Hitch on, 
To Hitch about, where we see at once Tenacity and Motmi,^ Hack, 
Hough, Ax, &c. Pick-Ax, &c. Matf-OcK, the Mud-Ax, where we 
perceive combined the two ideas of Sticking info, or Impression on an 
object, and the Loosening, or Separation of Parts belonging to the action 
of Gashing into a thing, when referred to Gash Matter, if I may so 
say ; — Heck, Heckle, To fasten by means of a Hook, To Dress Flax, 
by HACKing, Catching, or Twitching upon its surface. Hatch Eggs, 
i. e. to Hack Eggs. — Echo, Isko, Ago, (E^w, lorx<^> Ayw, Duco, 
Frango,) Ago, (Lat.) where we have terms expressing Tenacity, 
and viscosity, and likewise Separation of Parts with Commotion, 
w-AoGing, &c. — Agos, (A70S, Cubitus,) Ag-Osto5, (^Ayoa-ro^, Interior 
pars manus, Vola,) Agka;/, AGKon, AGKoine, Agk-Ist/'o«, AoKa/e, 
AgkuIc, AgguIc, AgkkIos, AgkIos, AgkIcuo, Ankoz, Ankos, ANKo/ne, 
A^Kale, Ankm/c, ANG?i/e, AnkuIos, A^kIos, Ank/cwo, (^AyKai, Ulnae, 
AyKwv, Cubitus, Quaelibet curvatura, AyKoivri, Ulna, AyKicrrpou, 
Hamus, Uncm*, quilibet, AyKuXtj, Ulna, AyKuXrj, Jaculi genus, Cur- 
vatura cubiti, Ayyi/Av, Lorum, AyKvXvs, Curvus, adlJNCus, A7KA0S, 
pro A7K1/A0S, AyKXevu), Servo,) Aggo5, or Angos, (A770S, Vas 
quodlibet,) Vv'here in t^-As, we have a word under the form VS, v-S ; 
Agkos, or Ankos, (A7KOS, Vallis,) where we have the Low, and often 
Watery Spot, or e^'-IcK : — AGKalpis, or ANKa/pfs, (^AyKuXTri?, Prae- 
cipitium,) Ogke, or Onkc, (OyKri, Angulus, seu Uncus ;^ — Ogkos, or 
Onkos, (O7/C0S, Tumor, Moles, massa, strues, gleba terrae, Vncus, Pondus, 
Onus,) where in Gleba Terrce, we see the original idea of Consistent, 
v-lscous Matter, or a Mass, or Lump of Dirt ; and let us note, how in 
the form Ogk of Ogkos, denoting Pondus, we are brought to Weigh, 
Weight, &c. and how under that of On, we come to the Latin Onms. — 
AGKura, or A^Kura, {AyKupa,) Amcaora, ANcnor, (Lat. Eng.) EgchcIus, 
or ENGCHe/;<s, {EyxeXvs, A^Guilla, An-Agkc, or An-Ankc, Ai/ayKt], 
Necessitas,) where we mark the kindred Nee, quasi Anek in 'Nzcessitas, 
O^ux, (Ovv'^,^ VNGuis, (Lat.) O^gIcs, (Fr.) which form "NGL brings 
us to Nails, or Naiglc*; — Uncms, Ang-Ustws, which is the same form 


as Ag-Osto5, (Ayoo-Tos,) A^Gidus, ANG?m, &c. &c. — Hank, HANKcr, 
Hinge, Hand, Hent, (To Seize, Hold,) And, (The Conjunctive of 
Coupling, or HANKing.') — Hound, Hunt, Handle, Ansa, Ensz's, Egchos, 
Encho5, (£7^09, Hasta,) ENxea, (Ei^rea,) What a person Holds, or 
what Holds him In, En folds him, What is On him. — To Haunt 
a place. To frequent a place, as to appear Hank'd to it. — Ungo, An- 
OiNT, &c. where we see the original idea of Sticky smear Matter ; and 
we note in An with its kindred terms On, how these particles may be 
derived from this species of Matter, quasi Ogg, 0/ig, On, &c. — Egkata, 
or ENKflto, ENTcra, (EjKara, Evrepa, ENTrails, iNTestitws, Spl- 
AGchnon, or Spl^A^scH7^on, (^irXa'yxvov , v-\scus,^ Spel-VNca, Antr, 
on, um, (^Avrpov, Antrum,) Eggus, Aoc^i, or Engms, AncM, Echomenos, 
(£77119, A7;(;i, Prope, E^ofxevo^, £771/9, Suid, Adhaerens, Conjunctus, 
Vicinus,) Agos, Wng, (Welsh,) Near, -"Nigh, ■'NeighZ/ow;-, *Next, 
NGS/i, ti'Ji " To be close to, confined by, or In. To Straiten, oppress, 
" Squeeze," &c. says Mr. Parkhurst, NiGGarJ, (Eng.) of a Griping, 
Atd, or Nature, where the breathing before the N is lost and inserted 
between the two Consonants : — Isle, Island, InsuIu, " A Land Closed 
" In, or Environed with the Sea," &c. as Robert Ainsworth explains it ; 
Innis, (Celt.) "Nesos, (Nj/o-os,) &c. &c. where we are brought directly 
to the original idea of Water, whatever we may think of the secondary 
sense, which it may bear of an Enclosure. — These terms will be fully 
sufficient for the purpose of shewing us, how such various forms, M'hich 
appear in many cases so remote from each other, may all ultimately 
be referred to the same form, and to the same fundamental idea. 

The Terms Vidco, Wise, &c. &c. considered. 

I have supposed on a former occasion, that such Terms as the 
following are to be referred to the Plastic nature of Pudge, or y-IscoM« 
Matter, under the idea of Form, Shape, &c. &c. ViDeo, with its parallels 
(Lat.) EiDo, (£iSw,) loea, (Eng.) \x>ol, (Eng.) Eivolon, {EilwXov, Idolum, 


B,F,P,V,W.| C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

Simulacrum,) Indalma, (IvSaXfjia, Simulacrum, Species,) Isemi, (Ic/jjut, 
Scio,) EiKO, (EiKw, Similis sum, Cedo,) which I have before compared 
with the English Wkak, and the German Weiche, and in which we 
unequivocally see the idea of Soft fielding Matter; — Phiz, (Eng.) 
Visage, (Eng,) with its parallels Vis a Vis, (Fr.) Plso, Visaggio (Ital.) 
&c. Yisard, (Eng.) Visiere, Visiera, &c. (Fr. Ital. &c. ;) — f/eViCE, 
</eViSE, adVis^, &c. (Eng.) — Vice, The fantastic Figure of our ancient 
Farces; — Wise, as in A^o-Wise, OMer- Wise, No Form, JFay, &c. — 
Guise, (Eng. and Fr.) Giiisa, (Ital.) Guiscards, (Ital.) people dis- 
Guised in Visards, &c. — Quiz, (Cant Word,) — Wise, Wit, Witty, 
Wist, Wote, (Eng.) with their parallels in various Languages, JFis, 
(Sax.) JVeise, IFissen, (Germ.) Wits, (Dan.) &c. &c. to which we 
must add Witness, Witch, Wizzard, (Eng.) &c. Wnega, (Sax.) 
Propheta. These words relate to the notion, which I have supposed ; 
yet we shall see, how some of them are attached to words, which belong 
to the idea of Agitation, Commotion, &c. These ideas are in many cases 
inseparably involved with each other. I might state my hypothesis 
by observing, that these Terms expressing Form, Appearance, Sight, 
Knowledge, are derived from the Pliant, Plastic nature of Oozy, v-Iscous 
matter, which is readily or easily moved. Stirred about, together, &c. 
which quickly, or readily gives way, so as to receive, or admit of Form, 
and hence it relates to that Quick, Pliant, or Ready Faculty of the Mind, 
able to Form images to c^eVisE, Invent, &c. or to the Quick Powers 
of the Imagination, as we express it. In the same manner we see, that 
the term Imagination belongs to Image, which I shall shew to be 
derived from the Plastic Matter of Mud. That the Greek words relating to 
Sight are connected with the notion of Ooze Matter, under some process, 
is evident from the following terms, which are directly attached to 
these words, and which actually relate to this species of Matter, as Idos, 
(iSos, Sudor,) and Idal?wos, (IdaXi/mo^, .^stuosus, sudorem ciens, 
Speciosus.) I have shewn, that the Italian Guisa, Manner, connects 
itself with Guizzare, To Swim, frisk, row, and Witz, in German, not 
only means " Acumen ingenii," but likewise " Protinus, Ocius," as Wachter 
explains it, who has referred it to the French Vite, and the German 


WfiTzen, Incitare, to IVhet up, which directly brings us to Wet, 
W\Tery Matter. Here let us note the Latin Ocius, and remember the 
Greek Okws, (fl/cys, Citus.) Witch occurs in Skinner in the same page 
with Wise, Wit, &c. and he justly considers among the terms 
produced, W iseqAc/' to be quasi Wiis-SeggAer, the W\?,z-Sayer. 
'J'he next word is Wish, in Saxon Wiscia/z, though it appears in other 
Dialects under the form WN, as JViinschen, &c. Meric Casaubon derives 
it from EucHo/wai, (Ei/;^ojuat,) and they alike refer to the idea of Rising, 
or Swelling up, Agitation, &c. as with Desire, &c. In EucHowai, 
(EvxojJLai, Precor, Glorior, jacto,) andAucneo, Aucnew, (Ai(;)^€ft), Glorior, 
hvx^v, Cervix,) we have the same idea of Swelling up; but in Kvscnmos, 
(Ai/;^juos, Siccitas ex -^stu vehementi ; — Squalor, Situs, Pcedor, Illuvies,^ 
we directly see the idea of Foul Ooze Matter. In German Wicker 
is " Divinator," as Wachter explains it, who has seen, that it belongs 
to Wicce, Saga, WiGLiaw, Hariolari, and the Latin Augur, quasi 
Wager, and he records the barbarous Latin words Yeguis, Divinator, 
and YEGiafura, Pretium indicincc. He explains WicHEL-i^oo^e, Virga 
Divinatoria ; where I must note, tliat if I had seen this combination 
alone, I should have supposed, that Wichel in this application had 
belonged to Waggle, as the motion of the Rod is, I believe, a part of 
its operation. Wachter explains Wigole Fugeles by Oscines aves ; 
where let us note the Latin word Oscen, which may be derived from 
Os and Cano, as the Etymologists imagine. We may consider however, 
whether Oscen does not belong to WiTCHEN-c/fl/if. If it be really of 
a Latin origin, I should rather think, that the Os and Aus in Oscen 
and ^Mspicium belonged alike to Avis, and that the distinction between 
the two consisted in Cano and Specio as alluding to observations, by 
Singing, or Flying. The form Witchen, and the Infinitive form of 
the verb belonging to Wise, Witch, &c. as Wissen, Wiccian, cannot 
but remind us of the terms Baskaino, (^Baa-Kaiuw,) and Fascino; 
and we shall be led to imagine, that they all belong to each other. 
I have suggested however in other places different ideas ; yet I seem 
to be most satisfied with the origin, which I have here exhibited, ll 
is not often that I have occasion to make different conjectures on the 

.3 i) 

394 B,F,P,V,W.^ C,D,G,J,K,Q,S,T,X,Z.^ l,m,n,r. 

source of the same word; yet I think, when we know that in Saxon, &c. 
WicciAN, &c. means to he-ffitch, we cannot doubt, that the Fascin 
in Fascino belongs to it. In Scotch WYss-/iFi/e means A Wise, 
Witch IVife, or tVoman, where Dr. Jamieson has duly produced the 
parallel terms belonging to this train of ideas, as Wissen Frauen, 
(Germ.) &c. &c. — Vit, Vaet, (Isl.) Knowledge, A Witch. The form 
Vaet will remind us of the Latin Y atcs, and the Hindoo Vedas, and to 
the same source we should probably refer another Latin word VkTum. 

These observations will sufficiently illustrate the relation, which the 
Race of words, under the form B, F, P, V, W. \ C, D, G, K, Q, S, T, X, Z, 
has with the Terms, which appear under different forms, when the 
sound of the Labials B, F, P, V, W, becomes weak, or when it is con- 
nected with the Guttural sound G, Q, &c. I shall examine in a separate 
Part of my work the Race of words, where the other Labial M is the 
first letter of the Radical, and a Letter in the order of Letters C, D, &c. 
the second, in which Race the term Mud may be adopted as the leading- 
term. The Races of words under the form '*C, "D, &c. which Ooze, 
Aaua, &c. &c. may represent, and under that of SC, SD, SG, &c. where 
the term Squash may be adopted as a representative term, will afford 
us an abundant theme of future discussion. We at once see, how 
separate and remote these forms appear to us under the first view ; 
yet we have unequivocally understood, how connected they are on many 
occasions, and how they pass into each other by a simple and easy process, 
without confounding those characters of distinction, by which they 
perform the part of separate and peculiar Radicals. I shall conclude 
these discussions by an observation which I made, when I delineated 
the first sketches of this Etymological System : — " As we advance 
" forward in these speculations, we shall be enabled more fully to under- 
'« stand and admire the secret workings of that productive, though 
" controuling principle, which in the formation of Language still con- 
" tinues to multiply, to mark and to separate those changing forms; 
" as they pass with rapid progress through all their varieties of symbol, 
" of sound and of meaning. Order and uniformity, those products of 
" design and meditation, appear here to be prompted without thought, 


" and compleated without contrivance. Here only, as it should seem, 
" the effect corresponds not with the cause ; nor does the end accord 
" with the origin. We behold an ample and a stately fabric, fulfilling 
"the most important purpose, and furnished with every convenience; 
" by which that purpose can be promoted. We admire at once the 
" beauty of the whole; and we may learn duly to appreciate the pro- 
" portions and the symmetry of its parts. Still however we find in its 
" formation no artist to devise, no rule to guide, and no plan to regulate. 
" The agents in this extraordinary work appear not to co-operate in 
" design ; nor are they conscious of the nature, the extent or the beauty 
" of that fabric, which they are labouring with such activity and effect 
" to raise and to compleat. All seems to be the fortunate product of 
" unmeaning chance ; the successful effort of blind and brutish materials. 
" But these are maxims, which are equally abhorrent from the Philosophy 
" of Language, and the Laws of Nature. The Cause must correspond 
" with the effect; and a system of arrangement must ever be referred 
" to a principle of order. Apparent chance is invisible direction ; and 
" the secret influence of some potent energy will be still found to pre- 
" dominate in the work, inspiring the purpose and conducting to the 
" end. — It is Mind, mingling with the mass, or rather pervading and 
" directing its operations, which informs, disposes, and animates the 
" whole." 

Spiritus intus alit, totamque infusa per artus 
Mens agitat molem ; et niagno se corpora iniscet. 

3 D 2 

fVords under the form 

M. I C, D, G, J, K, Q, S, T, X, Z.] I, m, n, r. 

(That is, Words having the Labial M for the first Consonant, and 
C, D, 8ic. for the second, with /, m, Sic. sometimes aimexed for the thiid,) 

are to be referred, directly or remotely. 
To the idea, represented by our familiar and expressive term, 



General View of the senses attached to tlie Elementary Character 

M\ C, D, &c. 

This Matter of Mud may be considered under various points of view, 
belonging to its various states, and regarded either materially or meta- 
phorically, as being in a IVatery, Moist, Mashy, Dissolved state, or 
as Dirt, Filth, in general ; — The Earth, Ground, as What is Foul; as 
being Soft, Swelling up, as being stirred up, as in a Mingled, Confused, 
Embarrassed state, as affording Mashes, Messes, or Compositions ; as being 
in a Broken, Minute, Mutilated state ; as being in a Mass, or Heap of 
some Magnitude: as being in a state of Consistency, or in a Made up, 
Regidated, Formed state ; as being of a Plastic nature, and capable of 
being Kneaded up into Forms and Shapes, or as Matter supplying Form 
and Existence. — When the Matter of Mud is considered, under these 
points of view, we may conceive a Race of words to exist, such as the 
following, which will serve to represent the various senses of this 
Elementary Character MD ; MUD, Muck, To Mute : Matter ; Mother, 
(The thick scum of Wine, &c. or The Foul Matter, and the Pro- 
ducing Matter ;) Moat ; Mead; Meadow: — Moist: Mudao, (MuBaw, 
nimio Madore vitior, putresco ;) Macies, Mut, (Heb.) Death : Musos, 
(Mva-o^, Scelus;) What is aMiss; Miss- Deeds ;— Moss, Mvsn-room;— 
MiTis:— Mash, sMash, Macero, Masso, (Macra-w, Subigo, pinso ;) 
Macto :— Motion, Mix, Misceo, Mignuo, (Miyvvu)-.) Maze, oMaze, 
Mad: Mute, Mutter, Mussito : Mess, Medicine :— Mite, Mikros, 
(MiKjoos,) Mutilus,— Macula :— Mass, Magnitude :— Make ; What is 
duly, or artificially Made up; — Mode, Moderate, Measure:— 
Mechane, (Mtjxavv,^ Machinate; a Maker, ^Mith : The Making, 
or Made, Matter, as Mother, Maid. 


M.| C, D, &c. 

Terms relating to the Matter of MUD, To Dirt, Filth, the Ground, 
Earth, To what is Moist, fVhet, &c. in Situation, Nature, &c. To 
the MuDDV, Bog Spot; as Moat, Mead, Meadow, &c. — To what is 
Soft, Tender, Swelling up, out, &c. as Moss, Musn-Room, &c. Mit/a,, 
(fjat.) To what is Foul, f^ile. Bad, &c. in actions, persons, quahties, &c. 
&c. as Musos, (Muo-os, Scehis, piaculuni, faciniis detestandum,) r/Miss, 
Miss-deeds, (Eng.) &c. &c. Terms relating to Noise, and connected 
\\'ith the idea of something Confused, Embarrassed, Impeded, or as it 
were Mudded up, such as Mute, MuTTe/-, Mvssito, &c. (Eng. Lat.) &c. 
Terms signifying What is Concealed, Hidden, Choaked zip, or AVhat 
is, as it were, in a Mudded up state, as Hugger-Mv ggek, Mysxery, 
&c. &c. 


M. J C, D, G, J, R, Q, S, T, X, Z. ( /, m, n, r. 

The present Volume is destined to consider the Race of words, which 
have any of the Labials B, F, M, P, V, W, for their first Consonant, 
and the series of Consonants C, D, G, J, K, Q, S, T, X, Z for their 
second, with any of the Consonants /, ?n, n, r, sometimes annexed to 
any of this latter series of Consonants, as an organical addition. In 
the former part of the Volume I examined those words, which have any 
of the Labials, except M, for the first Consonant, and C, D, &c. for their 
second. In the present portion of my Work, I shall consider those 
words, which belong to the form M.| C, D, G, J, K, Q, S, T, X, Z,| 
/, in, II, r, or which have the Labial M for their first Consonant, and 
any of the Consonants C, D, G, &c. for their second, with an ad- 
dition sometimes of one of the Consonants /, m, n, r, as an organical 
adjunct, for the third. I must be here understood to mean, that the 
Labial M, as I conceived of the other Labials in the former part of the 
Volume, is the first Radical Letter of the word, and that it is not a prefix 
derived from the construction of any Language. I say nothing of the 
Consonant, which follows the second Elementary Consonant, C, D, G, &c. 
as it will either be an organical addition, without signification ; or if 
the word be a compound, it will be a part of another term, either 
belonging to the same, or a different Elementary character. In v^hatever 
part of the word the M.| C, D, &c, exists, as an Elementary Character, 
that word will be examined; whether the M should begin the word, 
as it commonly does ; or be found in any other place. I have stated 
on a former occasion, that the Race of Words, appearing under the form 
M.| C, D, G, &c. where