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AN 



ETYMOLOGY 



LATIN^ Al^TD GREEK. 



BY 

CHAELES S. HALSEY, A.M. 



BOSTON: 

PUBLISHED BY GINN, HEATH, & CO. 

1882. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1882, by 

CHARLES S. HALSEY, 
in the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



GiNN, Heath, & Co., Printers: 

J. S. Gushing, Supt., ioi Pearl Street, 

Boston. 



PEEFACE. 



The following work had its origin in a felt want. 
Many students of the classical languages, all along the 
early part of their course, use text-books provided with 
vocabularies. These vocabularies, from the necessity of 
their limits, are brief and imperfect, and they enter but 
little into the subject of etymology. Even when afterwards 
the lexicon is used, the etymology is often studied only for 
separate words as they occur in reading ; and the scattered 
and fragmentary information given in the lexicons pro- 
duces a corresponding state of knowledge in the mind 
even of a diligent student. No connected, systematic, or 
thorough knowledge of etymology is thus acquired. In 
the grammar something may be done for historical ety- 
mology ; but the requirements of other topics in a school 
grammar must always prevent this subject from receiving 
there the full treatment which its importance demands. 

There remain the larger works expressly devoted to the 
subject, nearly all of them in German, excellent when one 
gets to them and is prepared for them, but by their style 
and fulness, as well as size and cost, not adapted to the 
wants of an American school-room or of the ordinary stu- 
dent. They will be studied only by the few, and the 
benefit to be derived from them will generally come only 
when the student is far advanced in his course, and after 
years of study of other works. 

54? 244 



IV PREFACE. 



But historical etymology, that gives the original and 
central meaning of related words, and, gathering the words 
themselves together, unites them by the natural bond of 
their common origin, should not be so long deferred, nor 
should it be pursued only as a higher range of study. 
Itself the historical foundation of all the structure of lan- 
guage, certainly it should form a prominent part in the 
foundation of the course of study. Presented in a simple 
form, it can be made to furnish a large vocabulary of the 
most practical words, and these not arranged for compari- 
son in the separate language merely, Greek with Greek, 
Latin with Latin, but placed side by side, each language 
throwing light upon the other. A wider comparison en- 
riches with knowledge and enlarges the mind ; a deeper 
comprehension of the laws of progress in language reveals 
new and interesting truth, arousing curiosity and stimu- 
lating to further investigations. 

It has been urged against the study of etymology that 
we have not within our reach suflBicient material to furnish 
the basis of the science, and that etymologists, proceeding 
often not upon any well-ascertained general principles, but 
upon superficial resemblance of words, and even roaming 
off in wild excursions of fanciful associations, have pro- 
duced such results as to bring the study into deserved 
condemnation. We must always bear in mind that his- 
torical etymology is not specially concerned with the 
absolute origin of language. It is concerned to ascertain 
the early forms, wherever they are traceable. True, there 
are many words which we cannot trace to their early 
forms; but there are also very many words, and these the 
most important, that we can trace, and of their etymology 
our knowledge is as reliable as any in the whole range of 
language. It must be acknowledged, too, that the work 



PREFACE. V 

of many professed etymologists did in former times bring 
discredit upon the study. But the case is now widely 
different. The general principles and methods according 
to which all scientific etymological research must proceed, 
are now thoroughly established and recognized. The 
application of these principles requires a wide and careful 
comparison of kindred words. As this comparison is 
always going on and becoming still wider and more dis- 
criminating, the special results attained, relating either to 
single words or to the rules deduced, must always be held 
as open to any modification which may be reasonably 
required by continued investigation. 

For a long period of time, extending to the year 1876, 
the views of etymologists in regard to the rules of Indo- 
European phonetics were in substantial agreement. Be- 
ginning with that year, certain important modifications 
were proposed in some of the rules of the Indo-European 
phonetic system ; and these modifications are now generally 
accepted among the German philologists. These views will 
be found stated and explained in Part I., Chap. VL, and 
Part IV., Chaps. I.-III. In presenting them I am much 
indebted to Prof. Maurice Bloomfield, with whose cordial 
approval I have given the statement of those chapters 
condensed mainly from his paper on the Greek Ablaut, 
published in the '^ American Journal of Philology" for Sep- 
tember, 1880. The Preliminary Statement of the same 
views is condensed from his article in the Journal of De- 
cember, 1881. The roots, arranged in accordance with this 
system, are given by themselves near the close of the volume, 
so that the use of them will not lead to any confusion. 

In the preparation of the present work, the author has 
endeavored to conform to the latest investigations of the 
highest authorities. In general, doubtful or disputed ety- 



VI PEEFACE. 



mologies have been omitted, or, in the few cases given, they 
are marked doubtful. The table of vowel-scales is from 
Schleicher's ^^ Comparative Grammar." It is assumed that 
any student who may use this Etymology is already pro- 
. vided with a suitable grammar of Latin or Greek ; and, 
therefore, this work does not state in full the prefixes and 
suffixes which are given in the grammars. Neither does 
it aim to present in full the processes of inflection, which 
would require a larger treatise upon comparative grammar. 

The object of this work is to present, within the limits 
of a school-book, the most needful etymological information 
that is not adequately furnished by the grammar or the 
lexicon. Even within these limits, some things are stated 
that are not intended to be learned in the early part of a 
student's course, e.g., the Sanskrit forms. They are given 
because they illustrate the subject, and may be used for 
later reference. Great prominence has been given to the 
derivation of English words. Many of the cognate words 
here treated have descended to us through the French, or 
through the Teutonic family. A complete index is fur- 
nished for the Latin, the Greek, and the cognate English 
words. 

The study of etymology, as here presented, may advan- 
tageously begin at an early stage in the study of Latin; 
and it should continue, in some form, throughout the 
course of classical education. The present work may be 
used for regular daily lessons in connection with the study 
of the classical text, and may also, with equal advantage 
and facility, be employed for reference on individual 

words. 

C. S. HALSEY. 
Schenectady : April, 1882. 



PRELIMINARY STATEMENT OF THE NEW SYSTEM 
OF INDO-EUROPEAN PHONETICS. 



The clianges proposed by the new system have reference 
chiefly to the vowels. It is held that the European vowels, 
^, <^, 6, are not, as had been previously supposed, later modi- 
fications of an original Indo-European '^, but are themselves 
original Indo-European vowels. The theory of vowel-increase 
has been abandoned ; the consequence is roots of the form a^s, 
aH, sra^u, hha^r, ma^n, daHk, da^rh, hha^ndh, (icr, el, o-pev, (j>€p, 
/i,€v, Sct/c, SepK, irevO). Formerly the roots were inconsistently 
set down as ccr, <j>€p, fxeu, SepK, TTcvO, but t, arpv, and 8tfc, thus 
allowing the e a function in the one case and denying it the 
same in another which is perfectly parallel. These roots have 
in addition to the form with ablaut a° (Greek o : ot, 8opK, ttovO, 
etc.) a weak form, which differs from the strong by the lack 
of this e (o) : cr, t, o-pv, ^p, /xv, St/c, 8p/c, irvO, This reduced form 
may safely be assumed to have stood originally only in forma- 
tions which had the word-tone on some non-radical syllable, 
— thus naturally bringing about a less distinct pronunciation 
of the root-syllable. The graphical representation of this 
weakened utterance is root minus the e-o vowel. 

The recognition of these weak root-forms leads irresistibly 
to the assumption oi Indo-European lingual and nasal vowels; 
Indo-European r, (J), n, m, represented in Greek by ap or pa 
(aX or Aa) for the lingual, and a and av, a and a/A, for the 
nasal vowels. 

Strange in external appearance are the Indo-European and 
Greek groundforms or explanatory symbols which are the re- 
sult: ^Tn-wpiai for ravu/xat ; "^ f^n-ua for fiaivio =^ venio. The 



Vlll PEELIMINARY STATEMENT OF THE 

Greek groundform for icj^OdpaTo would be * i-cj^Op-yro, It cer- 
tainly does not seem as if one of the acquisitions of tlie gram- 
matical science of to-day were simplicity of method in repre- 
senting its processes. We will, however, gladly put up with 
a cumbrous system of symbols, if we are compensated for it by 
exactness — if such symbols help to convey to the reader the 
exact meaning of the writer. This quality the signs, which 
may be gleaned from the examples above, in general possess 
to a high degree, i is the designation for semi vocalic or semi- 
consonantal y in distinction from the full consonant (spirant) 
y ; the same is true for u. When we examine the symbol- 
group ^nsma% there can be no doubt as to the exact value 
represented by it : m- is a syllable in which the element that 
carries the syllable tone is in the main nasal (a nasal vowel). 
The vocalic color of this nasal vowel the symbol does not 
undertake to express, and it is indeed unknown. The repre- 
sentations of it in the various languages of the family diverge 
widely : Greek and Sanskrit a and an ; but German un, Latin 
en, Lithuanian in. In the same way r is an element mainly 
of a lingual character, bearing the tone of the syllable ; in the 
rendering of it the Sanskrit at least coincides with the symbol 
(Sanskrit r) ; the other languages again vary greatly : Zend 
^T^ ; Greek ap and a\ ; Latin and German or (ur) ; Lithu- 
anian ir. The remainder Tna^ is practically identical with 
Greek /xe. The symbol does not, however, profess to define 
the value of the Indo-European vowel, which it renders, quite 
so closely; a^ expresses a vowel sound lying somewhere be- 
tween e and a, but without quite reaching a ; in the same way 
a° is a sound between o and a which does not quite reach a. 
Nevertheless it is becoming more and more common to write 
simply e and o for a^ and a*' even at the expense of perfect 
exactness ; and in the present work the more simple forms are 
preferred, so that in Indo-European roots and words e may be 
found where a* could also be written, and o where a" could 
also be written. 



NEW SYSTEM OF INDO-EUROPEAN PHONETICS. IX 

' The writers of the new school treat the vowel-phenomena 
in * reihen,' ' vocalreihen,' an expression which, like many Ger- 
man grammatical terms, can be rendered but inadequately 
into English by 'vowel series.' Parallel with the three vocalic 
forms presented in the a^-reihe (form with a", form with a°, 
and form without this a^'-a'') there appear three other series 
— the ^-series : e, o, e, the a-series : a, o, d, and the o-series : 
0, 0, dj justifying the following proportion for the Greek : 

TABLE I. 

€-series : c : o : ~ = 

77-series : rj : 0) : € = 

d-series : d : cd : a = 

o)-series : w : w : o 

An example of the 17-series is presented by : rt-Orf-fit, Bay-fio-gy 
TL-Oe-fjiaL ; of the d-series by ^rj-ixi, cfxD'in], ^a-/xeV ; of the w-series 
by Si-8(D'fJii, Se-Sco-Ka, So-Tos. 

In order to understand the origin of these series, i.e., the 
method which led to their recognition, it will be necessary 
to refer to the ' Theory of Sonant Coefficients.' This theory 
assumes that all Indo-European roots can have but one vowel, 
a* (e) varying with a° (0) ; all other seemingly vocalic elements 
are in reality semiconsonants, which assume the function of 
vowels only when this e-o has for some reason been lost ; this 
semiconsonant is called ' sonant coefficient.' In cases where 
the root does not possess such a sonant coefficient, it remains 
vowelless (Trer-o/xau i-TTT'O/jirjv). This agrees incontrovertibly 
with all the facts in the case of roots of the a^-series ; ttct, Set, 
X^Vi Se/o, orrcX, fcev, Xcitt, i\€v6, Scp/c, irevO, etc., can interchange 
with TTOT, Sol, etc., but only upon the loss of this e or o do the 
semiconsonantal elements contained in these roots assume the 
function of vowels : St, x^, Sp, err A, /xv, AtTr, i\vO, SpK, iryO, etc. 
The possible sonant coefficients of roots of the a*-series are 
accordingly : i, u^ r, (^), n, m ; and if we add these to the 



PRELIMINARY STATEMENT OF THE 



real vowels of the a*-series, we obtain the following five (or 
six) series within the a^-series : 



TABLE 


II. 






€L I OL I L = 




(cX 


o\ 


'^)= 


€v : ov : V = 




€v : 


ov 


' Y ^^ 


ep: op: p = 




€fl 


op. 


: p. 



In Greek the roots made according to these models are 
about 250, and it is probable that more than one-half of the 
roots which occur in verbal formations are of this class. In 
the other languages also these roots are preponderatingly 
represented (e.g., Sanskrit and Gothic). The thought, then, 
that the remaining roots also may be found constructed on the 
same plan does not lie far removed, and the attempt has been 
boldly made. As in Table II., t, v, p, (A), v, /x are the sonant 
coefficients to c-o ; as these are forced in the reduced root- 
form to play the part of vowels (t, v, p, (A), v, p\ so in Table I. 
€ of the T^-series is a sonant coefficient (c), which is performing 
the function of a vowel, because the real root- vowel e-o has 
been lost ; i.e., 77 stands for ce ; w for o€ ; in the same way the 
vocalism of the d-series goes back to ea for d ; oa for w, and a 
is the sonant coefficient ; so also the w-series is to be resolved 
into €0, 00, and o. We could then add to Table II. three per- 
fectly parallel series : 

TABLE III. 



€€ : oe : € = 
ca : oa : a = 
€0 : 00 : o 



From the standpoint of the phonetist it is believed that no 
objection can be urged ; c, a, and o can be * consonans ' as well 
as L and v (Sievers, Phonetik, p. 123) : the contractions with 
the root-vowels into the vowel-forms actually occurring would 



NEW SYSTEM OF INDO-EUROPEAN PHONETICS. XI 

also pass criticism, though it is to be noted that in the first 
perpendicular column of Table III. the semiconsonantal ele- 
ments impress their vocalic color on the result (€€, ea, €o : rj, d, co), 
while in the second perpendicular column the semiconsonantal 
element succumbs, and the result of the contraction (w) has 
the vocalic color of the real root-vowel (o). 

From the standpoint, however, of the history of the Indo- 
European languages, we are not at present warranted in 
accepting these results (shown in immediate connection with 
Table III.). No one language shows even a single instance in 
which the elements supposed to underlie the contraction occur 
uncontracted. This, to be sure, is no final condemnation ; 
we are becoming accustomed more and more to view the 
immediate historic background of the separate Indo-European 
languages, — the Indo-European parent language, as a real 
language devoid of unnatural regularity, presenting in many 
respects phenomena of a very secondary nature, — phenomena 
which had a long history before them ; and the possibility of 
these contractions must not be absolutely denied. Practically, 
however, they cannot as yet he recognized in that form. This 
theory has, nevertheless, yielded one result that we may safely 
adopt, namely, the recognition of the fact that the yj and d of 
the 97- and d- series vary with w under the same circumstances 
under which € varies with o. 

It will be interesting now to see what vocalic and semi- 
vocalic material is furnished for the Indo-European parent 
speech. 

The a*-series yields two real vowels : a* and a° (e and 0) 
and the following sounds wavering between consonantal and 
vocalic function : y and i ; v and u ; r and r {I and I) ; n and 
72, m and m ; perhaps also the nasals corresponding to the two 
Indo-European guttural series, which could be designated by 
ft and fij and n and n. Its diphthongs would be ei, oi^ eu, ou^ 
(in a wider sense of the term also er, or (el, ol); en, on; em, 
om, and even m, on; en, on). 



Xll NEW SYSTEM OF INDO-EUEOPEAN PHONETICS. 

The e-series yields : e and & (so designated to differentiate 
it from the o's of the two following series) and e. 

The a-series yields : a and & ; and a. 

The o-series yields : & and & and o. Of diphthongal mate- 
rial in which the first part is a long vowel there appears cer- 
tainly at least : du in the stem ndu- ; Ionic (not pan-hellenic) 
vy]v-<i ; Sanskrit ndil-s ; Latin ndv-is. 

We subjoin a provisional scheme of Indo-European vowels 
and semivowels, claiming neither absolute correctness nor 
scientific symmetry in the symbols employed. It will, how- 
ever, suffice to give a fair idea of what is supposed to be the 
material contained by the immediate predecessor of the sepa- 
rate languages of the Indo-European family. 

Pure short vowels : ^ d; d 

Their diphthongs : ei oi; 



at 

eu ou; au 



Long vowels : e 



0" 



Short vowels or semivowels corresponding to these : e, a, o. 

One diphthong : du 

Semiconsonants : y-i; v-u ; r-r ; (l-l); m-m ; 
n-n (ii-n; n-n). 



SUGGESTIONS IN EEGARD TO THE STUDY OF 
ETYMOLOGY. 



As this subject, in its systematic form, has not been com- 
monly taught in the schools, it seems appropriate to offer some 
suggestions, in general for the study of Etymology, and in 
particular for the use of the present work. 

1. We must bear in mind that the most important and 
practical facts may be clearly ascertained without determining 
all their theoretical and antecedent conditions. Thus, to 
establish the important fact that certain words are etymologi- 
cally related to each other, it is not necessary to establish the 
roots of the words themselves. E.g., there is an undoubted 
etymological connection between the verb <^epco, to bear, and 
the adjective (t^op6<s, bearing; and this connection remains 
conclusively established whether we assign for the word-group 
three root-forms, cjiep, cftop, </>p, or two root-forms, <^€p, <^op, or 
one root-form, <^€/3, or even if we say that no root-form can be 
assigned at all. So, also, the verb tendo, to stretch, is to be 
connected with the noun tdnus, a stretching, sound, tone ; and 
this connection remains conclusively established whether we 
assign two root-forms, ten, ton, or only one root-form, ten, or 
even if we say that no root-form can be assigned at all. 

At the present time, there is a great deal of movement of 
opinion in the etymological field. Various innovations are 
proposed, prominent among them that of bi-syllabic roots. 
In view of all the proposed changes, it is well to be cautious 
about accepting any roots withou"t reserve. From the nature 
of the case, roots cannot be known by direct or positive 
evidence. They can be laid down only with various degrees 



Xiv SUGGESTIONS IN REGARD TO 

of probability in their favor; yet, at all events, tbey may 
serve a practical purpose as convenient labels to aid us in 
associating related words. 

2. In accordance with this principle, it is held that the 
word-groups, or sets, numbered in this work 1-528 belong 
etymologically as thus arranged. These words furnish an 
orderly and practical vocabulary ; and they may become 
fixed in the memory by the very association that binds the 
words themselves together, namely, their etymological relation 
to each other. 

3. Careful discrimination is needed in adapting the differ- 
ent parts of this study to the wants of the student in the 
different stages of his progress. A younger student, in the 
early part of a classical course, may advantageously learn 
some roots, and how to form from them stems and words, and 
may thus acquire a useful vocabulary ; but to master fully 
the principles involved in the theoretical views will require 
a mind more mature, and a higher and wider range of study. 
Therefore, at first and with younger pupils, the application 
should receive the greater attention, and the theory should be 
presented only in its most prominent and practical features. 

4. While it is desirable that the scholar should be ac- 
quainted with the leading principles of both the older and 
the later system, in practice one must be preferred to the 
other. In general, where the later views conflict with the 
earlier, the author would recommend the later views, as more 
likely to prove correct ; and especially would advise that the 
roots should be taken as arranged in Fart IV., Chap. IV. 

5. It is, of course, in itself undesirable to present conflicting 
views, even if they are only theoretical, in a work designed 
for school use. One system, uniform, consistent, and com- 
manding the assent of the etymological world, would be a 
great desideratum. But certainly such a system cannot be 
presented now. No one can prophesy how far distant the 
day may be when theoretical views shall be harmonized ; and 



THE STUDY OF ETYMOLOGY. XV 

it is not wise to defer to that uncertain day the acquisition of 
practical knowledge. 

In the present work, an effort is made to avoid as far as 
possible the confusion liable to arise from a statement of 
opposing theoretical views. For this purpose, in the body of 
the work, the principles of the older school are first clearly 
set forth. As these principles commanded until very recently 
an assent almost universal, they should be stated fully; and 
any part of them that may be modified or even overthrown 
by later investigation deserves to be stated, at least as a part 
of the history of the progress of the science. The principles 
of the new school are then given in Part I., Ch. VI., and their 
application in Part IV., Ch. I.-IV. 

It has been thought advisable to present at the very outset 
of the work a brief statement of the new-school system, with 
an explanation of the symbols which it employs. This pre- 
liminary statement has therefore been given in the preceding 
pages. 

6. This work can be intelligently studied by one who has 
no knowledge of the Greek language ; but it would be advan- 
tageous for a Latin scholar to learn the Greek alphabet and 
the sounds of the letters, as it would require but little time, 
and the additional benefit would be very great. 

7. A simple illustration is here presented to show one 
method in which the subject may be taught. Let us examine 
first the Latin words under set No. 142. In all these words 
we find a common syllable /^^; and in fugi, the perfect of 
fijigio, we find the same syllable with a long quantity, fug. 
Here, then, we have a root in its two forms, fug, fiXg. "We 
observe in these Latin words one meaning that is general in 
its character and common to all the words. This meaning is 
expressed in English by the word ' flee.' The syllable fug, 
fiXg, is a simple, primitive form, expressing only the general- 
meaning of these words. As such, it is called their root. 

By joining to this root significant elements, we may render 



XVI THE STUDY OF ETYMOLOGY. 

its meaning more limited, and so form stems and then words. 
Thus, by adding a to the icootfUg, we form faga^ the stem of 
the noun fitga, flight. By adding to this stem the various 
case-suffixes, we may inflect the noun through all its variations 
of case and number. By adding to the root fiZg the suffix a, 
we form ftlgd, the stem of the verb JUgare, to put to flight. 
By adding to this stem the various suffixes that make up the 
verbal endings, we may inflect the verb through all its varia- 
tions of voice, mood, tense, person, and number. The root fiXg^ 
with the termination ax, forms the adjective /^:^^aa;, apt to flee. 
Strictly speaking, we should say that the suffix added to the 
root is only that which with the root forms the stem of the 
word ; but it is often more simple and convenient, as well as 
customary in grammars, to state at once for nouns and adjec- 
tives the ending of the nominative singular, and for verbs the 
ending of the first person singular of the present indicative 
active. The other process, though accurate, may sometimes 
prove rather complicated. In this instance, in the termination 
ax, X is for c-s, of which the s is the case-suffix of the nomina- 
tive singular ; c-s is for cos ; and the a was originally the 
stem-vowel of an d-verb ; so that the entire process might be 
represented by fiXg-d-co-s, fUg-d-c-s, fiXg-dx, fiXgdx. 

A process similar in general to that illustrated with the 
Latin words may be applied to the Greek words in set No. 142. 
"We find the root in two forms, <^ei;y, ^vy. From this root 
stems may be formed, and then words. Thus, by adding the 
suffix a to the root <^uy, we form <^vya, the (original) stem of 
the noun <^vy77, flight. 

The various prefixes and suffixes used in word-formation, 
together with their significations and application, are given in 
the grammars ; and it is not thought best to enlarge the 
present work by a re-statement of what is already well stated 
in the grammars. 



OONTEI^TS. 

Paet I. 

Principles of Etymology. 

Page 

Province of the Science 1 

Classification of Indo-Eubopean Languages . . . 1-3 

Geowth of Language 3,4 

Boots 4-7 

Roots Classified by their Form 6 

Boots Classified by their Signification .... 6, 7 

Classification of Alphabetic Sounds 7 

Sounds of the English Alphabet 8 

Sounds of the Indo-European Alphabet .... 10 

Sounds of the Sanskrit Alphabet '11 

Sounds of the Greek Alphabet 11, 12 

Sounds of the Latin Alphabet . . . . . . 12-14 

Phonetic Change 14-20 

Grimm's Law 14, 15 

General Principle of Phonetic Change .... 16 
General Results of Phonetic Change .... 16-19 

I. Weak Articulation 16-18 

Vowel Change . 16, 17 

1. Substitution . . . . . . . . 16 

2. Loss 16 

3. Assimilation 17 

4. Dissimilation 17 



XVlll 



CONTENTS. 



Consonant Change 

1. Substitution 

2. Loss 

3. Assimilation 

4. Dissimilation 

II. Indistinct Aeticulation 

1. Labialism . 

2. Dentalism 

3. Parasitic Sound . 

4. Aspiration 
Vowel-Ikcrease 

'The Views of the New School 



Page 

17,18 
17 

17,18 
18 
18 

18,19 
18 
18 
18 
19 

19,20 

21-40 



.. Part II. 

Regular Substitution of Sounds. 

Table of Regular Substitution of Sounds . . . 41, 42 

K . 43-64 

r . . 64-74 

X ..... 75-80 

T 80-91 

A 92-102 

G . . . . 102-109 

n . . . . 109-123 

B . . . . 124 

$...'......... 124-131 

N ; . . . ! 131-138 

M . . . . 138-146 

P . . ! ! . 146-152 

A ....*.! '. 152-160 

2 ;...;; . 161-164 

A 164 

.F '. . . 165-167 



CONTENTS. XIX 



Page 

Spiritus Asper for Initial s 167, 168 

Spiritus Asper for j 168 

Vowels 168-170 



Part III. 

Irregular Substitution, of Sounds. 

Labialism 171-177 

Dentalism 177, 178 

Phonetic Weakening 178, 179 

Sporadic Change of Liquids 179, 180 

Part IV. 

Application of the Principles of the New School. 

Ablaut 1 181-185 

Ablaut II 186-188 

Ablaut III . 189-194 

Arrangement of the Roots 194-201 

Greek Index 203-220 

Latin Index 221-238 

English Index of Cognate Words 239-252 



EXPLANATIONS. 



In Part 11. and Part III. the words are arranged in sets, numbered 
from 1 to 528. In general, at the beginning of each set, five things are 
stated in the following order : 1. The Indo-European root ; 2. The 
Sanskrit root ; 3. The Greek root ; 4. The Latin root ; 5. The meaning 
of the roots. Each of the first four particulars is separated from the 
following by a semicolon, and. a dash is used to show that a root is 
wanting. If a root appears in one language under more than one form, 
the forms are separated from each other by a comma. In these sets the 
sign y/ is not needed and not used ; elsewhere it is used to denote a root, 
and Indo-European roots are printed in capitals. If any form, however 
placed or marked, contains more than one syllable, it may not be called 
strictly a root ; also, if inclosed in parenthesis, it may not be a root. 

At the beginning of each great division of the sets, the corresponding 
letters of Indo-European, Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, for that division 
are shown by the same method of representation. A cognate. English 
word is printed in italics ; and, if not a definition, it is also enclosed in 
brackets. In the separate indexes of Greek, Latin, and English, the 
figures refer to the number of the set of words. 

* denotes a theoretical form, i.e., a form which, though not actually 
occurring, may be supposed to have preceded the existing form to which 
it is attached. A theoretical form is also sometimes denoted by being 
enclosed in parenthesis and following the sign = . 

f denotes that a word is borrowed from Greek. 

% denotes that a word is found only in inscriptions, or in the old 
grammarians or lexicographers. 

Other signs and abbreviations are employed with the significations 
usual in grammars and lexicons. 



PAET I. 
Principles of Etymology. 

CHAPTEE I. 

CLASSIFICATION OF INDO-EUROPEAN LANaUAGES. 

Etymology treats of individual words, with reference to 
their origin and development. Its methods of investigation 
are historical, aiming to ascertain the forms which were earliest, 
with their corresponding meanings, and the form and meaning 
of each subsequent modification. 

Nearly all the languages of Europe, and two at least of 
those of Asia, the Sanskrit and the Zend, are found by com- 
parison to have such resemblances to one another as to prove 
• that they are descended from a common stock. They consti- 
tute a very large and important class, and as they have been 
spoken by nations living throughout a region that extended 
from India on the east to the western boundaries of Europe, 
they are called the Indo-European languages. They are also 
known by other names, — Aryan, Indo-Germanic, Japhetic. 

The common stock from which they spring is called the 
Indo-European original-language. The words of this original 
' language are not known to us by the direct evidence of any 
records, but from an extended comparison of the later existing 
forms in the derived languages we infer the forms of the orig- 
inal language. Neither do we know where or when the people 
lived who spoke this original language. It seems probable 
that their home was somewhere in south-western Asia, and 
the time of their dispersion not less than three thousand years 



2 rEINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOGY. 

V/efora Ojirkt, From their successive and continued migra- 
tions, chiefly toward the west, arose the most important 
nations and languages of the civilized world. 

Indo-European languages may be divided into three prin- 
cipal groups or divisions. These are : — 

I. The Aryan division, comprising the Indian and the 
Eranian (or Iranian) family of language. Of the Indian fam- 
ily, that of which we have the oldest record is the Old-Indian, 
which is the language of the oldest portion of the Vedas. At 
a later time, when it had become fixed in a more simple form 
and subject to certain grammatical rules as a written literary 
language, and thus distinguished from the popular dialects, it 
was called Sanskrit. The Eranian family includes the Zend, 
the Old-Persian, and the Armenian. 

II. The South-Western European division. This includes : — 

1. The Greek. The ancient Greek is represented now by 
the Eomaic or modern Greek. 

2. The Latin, akin to which were the Oscan and the Umbrian 
of central Italy. The chief modern representatives of Latin 
are Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and French. 

3. The Keltic, the language of the tribes found by the 
Eomans in Spain, Gaul, Britain, and Ireland. 

III'. The Northern European division. This includes : — 

1. The Sclavonic family, comprising numerous languages ; 
among them Russian, Bulgarian, Polish, Bohemian, Lithua- 
nian, and Old-Prussian. 

2. The Teutonic family. Of this family the oldest member 
is the Gothic, which became extinct in the ninth century. 
The modern Teutonic languages are divided into two distinct 
groups, the Scandinavian and the Germanic. The Scandina- 
vian includes the Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, and Icelandic. 
The Germanic is subdivided into two branches, the High 
Germanic and the. Low Germanic. The Low Germanic in- 
cludes: (1) The Friesic, (2) The Anglo-Saxon, (3) The Old 



GROWTH OF LANGUAGE. 



Saxon, (4) The Dutch, (5) The Low German. The English 
language is descended from the Anglo-Saxon ; but it has also 
received large additions from other sources, especially from 
Latin through the French. 



CHAPTER II. 

GROWTH OF LANGUAGE. 

The various forms of inflected words have been constructed 
by joining together elements that were originally independent 
words. To illustrate the process, let us compare the expression 
he did love with the expression he loved. Of the form loved, 
let us examine the suffix -d. In Anglo-Saxon it is -de, which 
is derived from dide, the imperfect of ddn, * do.' A similar 
form appears also in Gothic. From the Anglo-Saxon word 
dide comes the English did. Thus the suffix -d and the auxil- 
iary verb did have the same origin ; they have also the same 
effect on the meaning of the verb, so that, in regard to origin 
and meaning, loved = did love. The difference between the 
two expressions lies in the manner of applying the auxil- 
iary. In the form did love, the auxiliary appears before the 
principal verb, not united in one word with the verb, and not 
abbreviated in its English form. In the word loved, the auxil- 
iary appears after the principal verb, joined in one word with 
it, and abbreviated to -d, which we then call a suffix. In the 
word godly, the suffix ly is derived from an independent word, 
the same word from which we get the English lihe ; godly = 
god-like. This suffix ly is the one used in forming most of our 
English adverbs. So also the French adverbial ending ment 
is derived from the Latin ablative onente; grandement, 
' grandly,' was originally grandi mente, * with great mind.' In 
the Latin verb vbcaham, the suffix ham was originally an 
independent word, the imperfect from the root bhu (No. 348). 



PRINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOGY. 



The process here illustrated is of very great importance and 
wide application. In the Indo-European languages, all form- 
mahing which we can trace within the historical period is hy this 
same method^ namely^ hy external accretion. We may logically 
conclude that this was . the only method in the more ancient 
times, and therefore that it is sufficient to account for the 
whole structure of Indo-European language. Wherever we 
find in any word a subordinate part, indicating some modi- 
fication or relation of the main radical idea, there we find what 
remains of a formerly independent word, which has ceased to 
be independent, and has become an affix. The Indo-European 
original-language in its earliest stage consisted entirely of mono- 
syllabic words. 

Entire words in a language may pass out of use, and so be 
lost. This may occur from various causes, as when the idea 
is no longer sufficiently important to the community to call for 
any word as its exponent, or when a given word is crowded 
out of use by another word coming in to take its place, or 
when, from no assignable cause other than mere chance, a 
word becomes obsolete. Still more important in the history 
of language is the loss of forms of grammatical inflection. 
Of this, the English language furnishes the most striking illus- 
trations. Many of its suffixes have disappeared from their 
combination; but their place has been supplied by separate 
and auxiliary words. 



OHAPTEE III. 

ROOTS. 

A BOOT is a simple, primitive form, expressing only the 
general meaning of a word. Such a form, within the bounda- 
ries of any one of the Indo-European languages, we may 



BOOTS. 



properly describe by the name of the language in which it 
occurs ; the corresponding root in the Indo-European original- 
language we call the Indo-European root. Thus, the Greek 
aK(x)v, a javelin^ and the Latin dcus, a needle, are kindred in 
etymology. The Indo-European root from which they come 
is ale, the Greek root is d/c, the Latin root ac. So the Greek 
</)ei;yco and the Latin /^^zo are kindred; their Indo-European 
root is hhugh, the Greek root is ^vy, the Latin root fUg, Of an 
inflected word the fundamental part, to which the terminations 
are appended, is called the stem. 

By taking from a word everything that is formative or 
accidental, we obtain the root. In the verb v6cdham, the last 
four letters are strictly formative. The root is v6c, which 
means simply * call.' The suffix a forms with the root v6c the 
stem v6cd; the suffix ham was originally a separate word, 
the imperfect from the root bhu (No. 348), containing already 
the personal ending m, which marks the first person singular 
in the active voice. This m is from the pronominal root shown 
in t£e pronoun Tue (No. 385). In the word vocaham, the 
suffix ham performs the office of an auxiliary ; ha is called the 
sign of the imperf. ind., and m is called the personal ending. 
In the verb iriOeTo, the parts e, rt, and to are formative, c de- 
noting past time, tl denoting duration, and to denoting the 
person, number, and voice. The root is Oe, In the verb 
cy6yi/€To, the parts c, yc, c, and to are known to be formative, 
and when they are taken away, the remaining part yv might 
seem to be the root ; but the root is really the syllable yev, of 
which the e has in some forms of the verb been dropped. The 
full root ycv is seen in other forms of the verb and in the cog- 
nate noun yevos. 

Neither roots nor stems are to be regarded as mere abstrac- 
tions obtained by any mechanical process of separating a 
word into its parts. In the earliest history of the Indo-Euro- 
pean original-language, the roots were capable of independent 
use ; they were themselves the monosyllabic words of the Ian- 



PRINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOaY. 



giiage. They form, therefore, the groundwork upon which is 
built the structure of stems and words, — the process of build- 
ing being one of composition, or joining one root to another. Of 
an inflected word, the root which conveys the general and 
principal meaning is called the root of the word, or the prin- 
cipal root. The roots joined to this, and serving to define, 
restrict, or vary its application, are called affixes. An affix 
placed before a principal root is called a prefix ; placed after 
a principal root it is called a suffix. 

Every root is a monosyllable, and of every unmodified root 
the vowel is short. A root containing a long vowel is a modi- 
fied root. A root may sometimes vary in its form, and yet 
retain its meaning unchanged or but slightly changed. In 
such case we may place the forms side by side, generally giv- 
ing that one first which has the widest use. Examples are 
KoA, KcX; CTTcA, OTToA; l3aX, /5eX ; rpeir, rpair; ok, ott. Whenever 
we have evidence that one form of the root existed before 
another or others, we may call that which was historically 
first the unmodified root, and every later form a modified root. 
We find a considerable number of roots existing in double 
forms, of which one is longer than the other by a final con- 
sonant. In such cases, the shorter form is believed to be the 
original one, and it is called a primary root ; the longer form 
is called a secondary root ; and the process of adding is called 
expansion. Example : primary root (Indo-Eur.), bha; second- 
ary root, hhan. 

Roots are divided according to their signification into two 
classes : I. Verbal roots (called also predicative and notional) ; 
II. Pronominal roots (called also demonstrative or relational^ 
and sometimes called radicals). 

I. Verbal Roots. These express action, condition, or qual- 
ity. From them are formed verbs, nouns, and adjectives. They 
constitute by far the more numerous class, being numbered by 
hundreds. They are also more complicated in their structure. 



ALPHABETIC SOUNDS. 



II. Pronominal Eoots. These indicate simply relation, 
especially the relation of place. From them are formed pro- 
nouns, adverbs, conjunctions, and all original prepositions. 
The pronominal roots are very few in number. They are of 
the simplest structure. Examples (Indo-Eur.) are a, ^, ma, 
na^ tu^ lea. 



OHAPTEE IV. 

ALPHABETIC SOUNDS. 

The sound of a, as heard in the word/ar, is the fundamen- 
tal tone of the human voice, the tone naturally produced when 
the mouth is most fully open and the current of breath entirely 
unmodified. It is appropriately called a completely open 
sound, and the vowel representing it a completely open vowel. 
The opposite extreme is shown in the sounds of Ic as in Iceel, i 
as in tan^ p as in pan. Here, some of the organs of speech 
having been entirely closed, the sounds are heard only upon 
the breaking of the contact ; they are appropriately called 
completely close sounds, and are represented by the completely 
close mutes. Between these two extremes belong all the other 
alphabetic sounds, and they are properly arranged according 
to their relative degrees of closure. The principal mute- 
closures are three : one made by lip against lip, the labial 
closure, giving the sound represented by^; one made by the 
front of the tongue against the roof of the mouth, near the 
front teeth, the lingual closure, giving the sound represented 
by t ; one, in the back of the mouth, made against the soft 
palate by the rear upper surface of the tongue, the palatal 
closure, giving the sound represented by h. The other classes 
of sounds may also be arranged in three corresponding lines 
of gradual closure, proceeding from the completely open a to 
the completely close mutes, ^, i^ p. This method of arrange- 



8 



PRINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOGY. 



ment has been applied (Whitney's " Life and Growth of Lan- 
guage," p. 62) in the following scheme to represent the alpha- 
betic sounds of the English language : — 



Sonant. 



[ ng 



Surd. 


h 


Sonant. 


zh 


Surd. 


sh 


Sonant. 




Surd. 




Sonant. 


g 


Surd. 


k 




Palatal 

Series. 



r 1 
n 

z 

s 

dh 
th 

d 



Lingual 

Series. 



Vowels. 

Semivowels. 

Nasals. 

Aspiration. 

Sibilants. 



^ 1 

> Spirants. 



Mutes. 



o 

o 
\^ 
in 
O 

> 



Labial 

Series. 



As it is very important to observe the exact sound repre- 
sented by each character in this alphabetic scheme, illustrative 
words are here given. Beginning with a, and going down- 
ward at the left, we have a as in far ; ce, pan ; e, fate, they ; 
i, mete, pique; y, yet; ng, ring ; zh, azure; sh, shall; g, get; 
h, Iceel : going downward centrally, we have a as in far; 
d (inverted e), hut; r, ran; I, land; n, no; z, zeal; s, so; 
dh, then ; th, thin ; d, do ; t, tan : going downward at the 
right, we have a as in far ; A, war; o,note; u, tool, rule; 
w, wall; m, may ; v, vain; f fame; h, ban; p, pan. H is 
sounded as in hale. 

Let us first compare Ic, t, p with g, d, h, their corresponding 



ALPHABETIC SOUNDS. 



sonants. In the former series there is no sound while the 
organs of speech are closed ; in the latter there is, even during 
the continuance of the closure, a tone produced by the vibration 
of the vocal chords. Herein lies the fundamental distinction 
of * surd ' and ' sonant ' sounds. The former are produced by 
unintonated breath ; the latter by intonated breath. Surd 
sounds have sometimes been called by other names, as ' strong,' 
* hard,' ' sharp' ; and sonant sounds have been called by other 
corresponding names, as ' weak,' ' soft,' ' flat ' ; but these names 
should be rejected, and the terms * surd ' and ' sonant ' should 
be employed, because they express the true distinction. In 
Greek and Latin the surd aspirated mutes are often, and 
with sufficient propriety, called simply aspirates. Next to 
the mutes come the fricatives, divided into two sub-classes, 
spirants and sibilants. Then come the nasals (sometimes 
called resonants). 

Beginning now at the other extreme with the open vowel a, 
we form by successive degrees of approach of the tongue to the 
palate the series of palatal sounds represented in the scheme by 
a, 05, e, i. By contraction with the lips, we form the labial series 
represented by a, JL, o, u. The semivowels stand nearly on 
the dividing line between vowels and consonants. The closest 
of the vowels are i and u. By abbreviating their sounds suffi- 
ciently before another vowel-sound, we should change them 
into the consonantal sounds of 3/ and w. With them belong 
r and I, which are in many languages used also as vowels. 
The distinctions of long and short vowel, and the three com- 
pound vowel-sounds, or diphthongs, ai (aisle, isle), au (out, 
how), and Ai (oil, hoy), are for the sake of simplicity omitted 
in the scheme. The method of arrangement thus employed 
for the English alphabet may with equal advantage be applied 
to the alphabet of any language, to exhibit its internal rela- 
tions or to compare it with other alphabets. It is in this work 
employed to illustrate the alphabetic sounds of Indo-European, 
Greek, and Latin. 



10 



PEINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOGY. 



Sounds of the Indo-European Alphabet. 







a 




■ Vowels. 




Sonant. ■ 


i 




U 








y 


r 1 


V 


Semivowels. 








n 


m 


Nasals. 




Surd, h 






Aspiration. 


o 


Surd. 


s 




Sibilant. 


w 


Surd. kh 
Sonant. gh 


th 
dh 




^ Asjnrated 

Mutes. 


■ ^ 
> 

"A 

CO 


Sonant. g 
Surd. k 


d 

t 


b ^ 

P. 


► Mutes. 




Palatal 
Series. 


Lingual 

Series. 


Labial 
Series. 







The Indo-European original-language had three vowels, — 
a, i, u; three diphthongs, — aa, ai, au; and thirteen consonants, 
— h^ t^ p^ g, d, b, 3/, r, I, v, on, n, s. A was sounded as in far, 
i as in machine, u as in rule, tool. Every short vowel had the 
same kind of sound as its corresponding long vowel, but less 
prolonged in time of utterance. In the pronunciation of a 
diphthong, each, vowel received its own proper sound, — the 
sound of the second following that of the first without any 
interruption. The diphthongs were sounded approximately 
as follows: aa as in far ; ai as in aisle; au as ou in house. 
The consonants, Ic, t,p, d, h, r, I, m, n, h were sounded as in 
English ; ^ as in get ; y as in yet ; s as in so ; v slq w in wait ; 
kh, th, ph were pronounced almost as in inJchorn, hothouse, 
top heavy ; gh, dh, hh as in loghouse, madhouse, Ilohhouse. 



ALPHABETICAL SOUNDS. .11 

The aspiration h is found only in close combination with the 
mutes, All the aspirated mutes, and the letters, 3/, /, and v^ 
were wanting in the earliest stage of the language. 

Sounds of the Sanskrit Alphabet. 

Short a as in vocal^ cedar ^ organ^ or w-short in hut; long a 
as in father ; short i as in pin ; long i as in pique ; short u as 
in pull, push ; long t6 as in rule, rude; the vowel r represents 
simply a smooth or untrilled r-sound, assuming a vocalic office 
in syllable-making ; the vowel / represents an ^-sound similarly 
uttered — like the English Z- vowel in able, angle, addle; e is 
sounded as in prey; di as in aisle; as in so; du as au in 
German Haus or ou in Eng. house ; n^^ng in Mng ; Id = ch 
in church; V~i ^^ ^j'^dge; n=^gn in Campagna; j='y in 
yes; g = sh in shall; t, d, n are commonly pronounced as 
t, d, n, but they were produced originally by the influence 
of a neighboring r, the lower surface of the tongue being 
brought against the palate in pronouncing them ; v = prob- 
ably the Eng. w; Teh, th, 'ph are pronounced almost as in 
inkhorn, hothouse, topheavy ; gh, dh, hh as in loghouse, mad- 
house, Hohhouse. 

Sounds of the Greek Alphabet* 

For etymological purposes the following pronunciation is to 
be employed: a as a in far ; 7; as e in fHe; I as i in machine ; 
to as in note ; v was sounded originally as u in rule or 00 in 
tool, later as French u. Every short vowel has the same kind 
of sound as its corresponding long vowel, but less prolonged 
in time of utterance. In the pronunciation of a diphthong, 
each vowel has its own proper sound, the sound of the second 
following that of the first without any interruption. The 
diphthongs are sounded approximately as follows : at as ai in 
aisle; ct as d in eight ; ol as oi in oil; rt 2^^ ueein queen or as 
m in quit; au as oz^ in house; cv as eu in feud; ov as ou in 



12 



PEINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOGY. 



group ; a, rj, ta like a, 77, w. Of the consonants, yS, 8, /c, tt, t, p, 
A, /x, V, i/^ are sounded like their corresponding letters in Eng- 
lish ; y before k, y, ^, and x has the sound of n in anger (= ng 
in ring)^ and in any other position it has the sound of g in get; 





a 




Vowels. 




Sonant. ■ 


e 










I 1 

p A 


U 


Semivowels. 






y (= Ung. ng) v 


fi JSfasals. 




Surd. • 




Aspiration. 




Surd. 


a 


Sibilant {fricative). 






Surd. 


X e 


(J) Aspirated Mutes. 



■ ^ 


Sonant. 
Surd. 


y <5 

K T 


> Mutes. 
tt) 


^ 
^ 


Sonant. 
Surd. 


Palatal Lingual 
Series. Series. 


> Double Consonants. 

Labial 
Series. 





o- has the sound of s in so. The letters </>, 6, x probably had 
at first the sounds of ph, th, ch, in Eng. uphill, hothouse, block- 
head; afterwards they were sounded as in Eng. graphic, 
pathos, and German machen. The letter $ is sounded as x in 
mix ; t, may be sounded like dz in adze or like z in zone. 

Sounds of the Latin Alphabet. 

For etymological purposes, the Eoman (or Phonetic) method 
of pronunciation is to be employed. According to this method, 
a is pronounced as mfar; e as in they ; I as in machine; as 



ALPHABETICAL SOUNDS. 



13 



in holy ; 16 as i^ in rule or oo in k>ol. Every short vowel has 
the same kind of sound as its corresponding long vowel, but 
less prolonged in time of utterance. In the pronunciation of 
a diphthong, each vowel receives its own proper sound, the 
sound of the second following that of the first without any 





a 




. Vowels. 






Sonant. ■ 


e 

i y 



U 










J r 1 


V Semivowels. 




- 




n (= Mig. ng) n 


m Nasals. 






Surd, h 




Aspiration. 






Surd. 
Surd. 


8 


Sibilant. 
f Spirant. , 




o 

o 


Surd. 


ch th 


_i f Aspirated 
P^ 1 Mutes. 




> 

H 


Sonant. 
Surd. 


g d 

c, k, q t 


[ Mutes. 
P i 






Sonant. 
Surd. 


z 

X 

Palatal Lingual 
Series. Series. 


1 Double Con- 
j sonants. 

Labial 

Series. 







interruption. The diphthongs are (a^), ae, ei, (oi), oe, ui, au, 
eu, (ou) ; the forms inclosed in parenthesis being found only in 
early Latin. The diphthongs are sounded approximately as 
follows: ai as ai in aisle ; ae originally sounded as (Roman) 
de\ later as (Roman) e ; ei as ei in eight; oi as oi in oil; oe 
nearly as German oe in Oel, or Eng. o in world ; ui as uee in 
queen; au as ou in house; eu as eu mfeud; ou as ou in group. 
Of the consonants, 5, cZ, p^ t^ r, Z, m, w, A are sounded as in 



14 



PRINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOaY. 



English ; ^' as y in yes; 8 as in so; v like w in wait; f as in 
fate; g as in get ; c, k, q b>s c in can; ch, th, ph, as c, ?^, p, with 
the slight addition of A-sound, as in the words, hlochhead^ 
hothouse, uphill; x as in mix. The letters y and z were intro- 
duced into the Latin language after the time of Cicero, and 
were used only in words taken from Greek, y being employed 
to represent the Greek v, and z to represent the Greek C 
Latin y has the sound of French u, and for this reason its 
position in the scheme is between u and i ; z may be sounded 
like dz in adze or like z in zone. 



OHAPTEE V. 

PHONETIC CHANGE. 

Throughout the history of language, changes of sound are 
going on. In comparing one language with any of its kindred, 
we must first ascertain to what sounds of the latter the sounds 
of the former regularly correspond. We then have a guide 
for the regular etymological comparison of words. An illus- 
tration of this appears in what is called (from its discoverer) 
"Grimm's Law of Permutation of Consonants," which exhibits, 
with some exceptions not necessary here to be shown, the 
regular interchange between (1) Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, 
taken as one group ; (2) Gothic and Low German dialects 
(including English) ; (3) High German and its stock (including 
modern German). This law may be expressed by the following 
formula : — 



(1) Sanskrit, Greek, Latin 

(2) Gothic and Low German (including 

English) 

(3) High German 



Aspirate 

Sonant 
Surd 



Sonant 

Surd 
Aspirate 



Surd 

Aspirate 
Sonant 



PHONETIC CHANGE. 



15 



It may be illustrated by the followir 


[g table : 


— 




I. 
^ 1 Greek 9 . . . 
1 Latin f . . . 


dvyoLT'qp 


Brip 


dvpa 


fiedv 






fera 


fores 






2. English d . . . 


daughter 


deer 


door 


mead 




3. German t or th = t 


tochter 


thier 


thor 


meth 




II. 












^ 1 Greek 8 . . . 
' 1 Latin d . . . 


oBovs 


dufjLau 


Bvo 


edeiv 


vScop 


dens 


domare 


dvx) 


edere 


unda 


2. English t . . . 


tooth 


tame 


two 


eat 


water 


3. German z or s . . 


zahn 


zdhmen 


zwei 


essen 


wasser 


III. 












^ 1 Greek t . . . 
' 1 Latin t . . . 


rv {(Tv) 


TpeTs 




t6 




tic 


tres 


tenuis 


is-tud 


frater 


2. English th . . . 


thou 


three 


thin 


that 


brother 


3. German d . . . 


du 


drei 


diXnn 


das 


hruder 



General Table of Grrimm's Law. 





A 


B 

Gothic and 
Low Germ. 


C 




Sanskrit. 


Greek. 


Latin. 


High 
Germ. 


Aspirates . . \ TK 
[PH 


dh (h) 
bh(h) 


X 




t.f(g,v) 

f(d,b) 
f(b) 


g 
d 
b 


k 
t 
P 


G 

Sonants . . - i "^ 


g(j) 
d 


7 
S 


g 
d 


k 
t 


ch 
zz 


[b 


b 


i8 


b 


P 


f, ph 


K 

Surds . . . J T 


k 

t 


K 
T 


c, q 
t 


b, g (f) 
th, d 


d 


P 


P 


TT 


P 


f, V 


f, V 



16 PRINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOGY. 



PEINCIPLE OF PHONETIC CHANGE. 

The principle which underlies the greater part of phonetic 
change is the tendency to ease of utterance. In using the or- 
gans of speech, we naturally tend to economize or diminish 
effort, to reduce the distance between one sound and another, 
and so to make each necessary step in utterance as short and 
easy as possible. Accordingly, the general direction of pho- 
netic change is from the extremes toward the middle of the 
alphabetic scheme, movement in the opposite direction being 
only exceptional or from special causes. 



EESULTS OF PHONETIC CHANGE. 

The results of phonetic change appear chiefly under two 
forms : I. Weak Articulation; II. Indistinct Articulation, 

I. Weak Articulation. 
"Weak Articulation appears under four forms : I. Substitu- 
tion; II. Loss; III. Assimilation; IV. Dissimilation. These 
four forms are applied to vowels and to consonants. 

Vowel-Ohange. 

I. Substitution. By substitution the following changes 
may be made. Original a may be changed, — 

1. In Greek and Latin to c, e: V^ad, eSo9, sedes. This 
change was very extensive even in the Graeco-Italic period. 

2. In Greek and. Latin, to o, o: ->/dam, 80/A09, ddmus. 

3. In Greek, tot: Ind.o-'EnY., dd-dhd-mi; Greek, Ti-Orj-fiL, 

4. In Latin, to i, — a very frequent change, especially in the 
second member of a compound word : V^^^' capio, accipio. 

II. Loss. In the following examples, the vowel lost is en- 
closed in parenthesis. Greek : yty(€)vo)u,at, €(r(€);)(ov, 7raT(€)/oos. 
Latin : (e)sum, gig(e)no, disc ip(u) Una. 



PHONETIC CHANGE. 17 

III. Assimilation. When a vowel closely connected with 
a consonant has its utterance thereby made difficult, it may be 
changed to a vowel, having for that position an easier utter- 
ance. This is one form of assimilation. The resulting vowel 
is u in flagro, fulgor ; pello^ pulsus : e in genosis, genoris^ 
generis (from genus). Two vowels in contact may approximate 
each other : * (e)syam, * siam, * siem. Two vowels separated 
from each other only by a consonant sometimes assimilate : 
hone, bene. 

IV. Dissimilation. The obj ect of dissimilation is to prevent 
repetition of the same vowel. Thus, sequontur was a form 
retained instead of sequuntur ; aliinus became alienus. 

Oonsonant-Ohange. 
I. Substitution, 

1. In Greek and Latin we have a change from original 
surd to sonant; e.g., orig. k to y, g: -y/'BAK, iryjyvvfjiL, pagus. 

2. Greek shows an aversion to the original letters, y, 5, and 
V ; orig. y disappears, or is seen only in its effects ; v appears 
as'-P;' s is retained at the end of roots and words, but initial 
s before a vowel is generally changed to the rough breathing. 

3. In Latin, the original letters y, s, v are generally re- 
tained, but often s passes into r, and y and v are interchanged 
with i and u. 

II. Loss. This may be initial, medial, or final. In Greek 
and Latin an original initial 5 or -y is sometimes lost : ->/^^^> 
fi€iSdo), TYilTor ; -y/vARK, VALK, VLAK, poLKos, lacev. Medial 
loss is not so frequent, very rare in Greek : <l>ip€(T)L, /ActXo(v)a, 
fi€L^(a. In Latin, it occurs most frequently before y, s, and v : 
di{c)sco, raa{g)ior, sua(d)vis. It occurs also before nasals : 
lu{c)na, lu{c)men; and before t and d: tor(c)tus, i{s)dem. Loss 
at the end of a word affects single consonants or combinations 
of consonants. In Greek, when several consonants end a 
word, they are sometimes all dropped, as in yaXa(/cT); but 
generally the last only is retained, and the preceding vowel is 



18 PRINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOGY. 

then lengthened ; as, tlO€(vt)^, nOeU. In Latin, a combination 
of several consonants may end a word, as in ferunt, urbs ; but 
in the older Latin, final consonants, especially s, ?7i, t, were 
frequently dropped. 

III. Assimilation. The most important rules for assimi- 
lation of consonants in Greek and Latin are given in the 
grammars. 

IV. Dissimilation. The rules are given in the grammars. 
Examples are a^riovy aa-riov; i-Ov-OrjVy iTvOrjv ; Ot-Orj-fjuL, tlOtjixi; 
claudtrum, claustrum, 

II. Indistinct Articulation. 

In general, the immediate cause of indistinct articulation is 
an excessive tendency to ease of utterance. A part of the 
needful sound of a word is slurred or omitted ; then some 
indistinct or indefinite sound is added on ; and this, afterwards 
becoming more definite, may lead to the utterance of a sound 
even more difiicult than the original one which had thus 
suffered. Indistinct articulation appears under the following 
forms: I. Lahialism ; 11. Dentalism ; III. Parasitic Bound; 
lY. Aspiration. 

I. Labialism. This is a change from ^ to tt and p, or from 
^ to ^ and h. If the h is pronounced lazily, a slight t6;-sound 
is apt to be produced immediately after it ; and then, if the 
lips be nearly closed, an indistinct labial sound is produced. 
For examples, see Nos. 496-515. 

II. Dentalism. This is a change from h to r, or from gh 
to 0. For examples, see Nos. 516-520. 

III. Parasitic Sound. In Greek, Sy may regularly be- 
come C Initial y, if uttered lazily, may have a slight sound 
of S (here called parasitic) uttered before it, and then the hy 
may become C- Thus, for original y in -yjY^G, we find I in 



PHONETIC CHANGE. 



19 



IV. Aspiration. Examples are <f)povp6<;, for irpoopos; cTrtJSa- 
Opov, for Irri^aTpov ; vScop from y'UD. 

VOWEL-IISrCREASE. 

An important kind of phonetic change is what is called 
vowel-increase (' intensification,' * strengthening,' * raising '). 
The vowels, arranged in the order of their strength, and begin- 
ning with the weakest, are in Greek, t, v, c, o, a; in Latin, i, u, 
e, 0, a. Change of any vowel into one farther to the right, or 
into a long vowel or diphthong, is vowel-increase. Change in 
the opposite direction is vowel-decrease (' weakening,' ' lower- 
ing '). Vowel-increase is extensively employed in forming 
stems from roots. The following arrangement of the different 
vowel-scales will illustrate the successive steps of vowel-in- 
crease. Eeckoning from the fundamental-vowel toward the 
right, we have vowel-increase shown in two successive steps. 
The change from the fundamental- vowel as shown toward the 
left is vowel-decrease, which appears as either ' weakening ' or 
'loss.' 

Vowels of the Indo-European Language. 





Fund.- 
Vowel. 


First Step. 


/Second Step. 


a-scale ....... 

i-scale 

u-scale 


a 
I 


a, -\- a, = aa = a 
a -f i = ai 
Si + u = au 


a -j- aa = da = d 
a -t- ai = di 
a 4- au = dt6 



Vowels of Sanskrit. 



a-scale . 
i-scale . 
u-scale . 



loss 



Weakening. 



I, u; %, u 



Fund.- 
Vowel. 

a 

I 



First Step. 



Second Step. 



at 
du 



20 



PRINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOGY. 



Vowels of Greek. 





loss 


Weakening. 


Fund.- 
Vowel. 


First Step. 


Second Step. 


a-scale . 
i-scale . 
u-scale . 


*. ^ 


6, 0, a 

r 

V 


0, d, 7J 

€1 (at) 
€v (av) 


CO 
01 

ov (dv) 



a-scale . 
i-scale . 
u-scale . 



Vowels of Latin. 

(Old-Latin in heavy type.) 



Weakening. 



I, u 



Fund.- 
Vowel. 



^, d, & 
I 
iX 



First Step. 



0, e, a 

ei, ^, e, ai, ae 

eiz, au, 6 



Second Step. 





01, oe, u 
OK, U 



The following rules and examples illustrate some applica- 
tions of vowel-increase : 

In Greek, — 

1. Radical e is raised to o : ^(p^p, <p6pos ; ^y^v, yeyopa. 



2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 



01 : -y/t, ol-fios ; y/mQ, irevoida. 
ev: \^fp^yy ^eu7-w. 



In Latin, — 

1. Radical a is raised to d,e: y/dg, amh-dg-es, eg-i. 

2. " e " : yJuMn, mOii-eo. 

3. " e " e: V%» ^ep'-w^a. 

4. " i " l,oe: y/fld, fid-US, foed-us. 
5^ " ti " u: y/diic, duc-o. 



THE VIEWS OF THE NEW-»SCHOOL. 21 



CHAPTER YI. 

THE VIEWS OF THE NEW SCHOOL. 

The researches of comparative philologists have for the past 
few years been directed very largely to a closer study of the 
vocalism of the Indo-European languages. The final opinions 
on vocalism of Schleicher, as laid down in the third edition 
of his ** Compendium,'* 1870 (p. 10, if.), and of Curtius in 
the fifth edition of his " Grundztige der Etymologie," 1879 
(Bk. I. § 7), may be regarded as the ripest expressions of the 
views of the old school. 

The treatises of Verner, Brugman, Fick, Collitz, De Saus- 
sure, Johannes Schmidt, etc., contain more or less directly and 
explicitly the opinions of the new school, and these opinions 
are now generally accepted in Germany. 

1. The brilliant discovery of Verner, in which he success- 
fally explained almost the last remaining exception to the first 
*' rotation of mutes " of Grimm's law, was not of merely local 
importance. In explaining the exception, he proved indirectly 
that the accent of the Rig Veda, zn its broad outlines, was once 
the accent of every Indo-European language ; that, therefore, 
it is a correct method to search for the efiects of this accent 
where tradition has failed to bring it down to historical times 
(as in the German languages), or where it has been driven out 
by a new system (as in Greek). 

2. The accentuation of the Veda is wedded to a phenomenon 
which penetrates the entire language. The syllable upon which 
the tone rests has a fuller vocalization than the others, espe- 
cially those immediately preceding the tone. This causes the 
so-called strong and weak forms ^-mi and i-mds, ta-nd-mi and 
ta-nu-mds, pad-am and pad-a, etc. Tracing these weak forms, 



22 PEINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOaY. 

and distinguishing them from the strong ones, not only on 
Indian ground but also in the European languages (a process 
rendered safe by Verner), led Brugman to the discovery of 
lingual and nasal vowels on a level with Indian r and /, occur- ' 
ring in every language of the family in parallel and identical 
formations, and manifesting, therefore, a phenomenon of the 
original Indo-European language. Excepting r and Z, in India 
the lingual and nasal vowels lack separate alphabetic signs, 
and are expressed by certain fixed groups of letters. So Greek 
ap and pa represent Indian r, Gr. aX and Xa = Ind. /; so Sk. 
a and an, Gr. a and av, are the expedients by which nasal 
vowels (?i, y) are rendered. 

3. The time-honored opinion, which explained the European 
vow^els d, ^, d (a, €, o) as later modifications of an original 
Indo-European a which had been preserved intact in the Indo- 
Iranian languages, thus received its first shock ; for it appeared 
that Sanskrit d, when in connection with nasals it represented 
a nasal vowel, was a sound historically different from d in 
other connections ; while Greek a, in connection with linguals 
as well as nasals, was not the residue of the assumed original 
Indo-European d. This led Brugman to characterize European 
d, <5, 6 as Indo-European, an assumption which was destined 
to be verified from a totally diff'erent direction. 

4. This proof came from the Indo- Iranian palatal series : 
Sk. c, j, jh; Zd. c (sh), j (zh), which is a modification of the 
first Indo-European guttural series P, g^, gh}. The close study 
of these, inaugurated by Ascoli, Fick, and Hiibschmann, led 
at last to a recognition (simultaneous, as it seems, in various 
quarters) of the. fact that they owe their origin, not as had 
been previously assumed, to parasitic palatal vowels sounded 
after them, but simply to the fact that a palatal vowel actually 
following the guttural changed it to a palatal, and that this 
palatal vowel was often in Indo-Iranian written d, correspond- 
ing to European e ; that therefore this Indo- Iranian a had, at 
the period in winch the palatals originated, still a physiological 



THE VIEWS OF THE NEW SCHOOL. 23 

value, which is best expressed hy a®. So Brugman's assumption, 
that the European triad ^, ^, b was more original than the 
Indo-Iranian (X, became an assured fact of science. 



The vowel variation of the couplets XetTr-XotTr, l\^vO-l\ovB^ 
yev-yov, etc., reaches back to the earliest period of our family 
of languages, as far as the deepest investigation of scholars has 
pierced. It is the key-note, the starting-point from which the 
vocalism of every Indo-European language must be investi- 
gated. Whenever the question of priority arises between a 
root-form \nr on the one hand, and AetTr-XotTr on the other, the 
weak form must be regarded as a reduction. AetTr as well as 
XotTT, if occasion for reduction or weakening should present 
itself, would both naturally reduce to Aitt, while there is no 
reason to assume that AtTr can be heightened by the effect of 
accent into both \wir and Xonr. It is, therefore, the converse 
of guna which grammar must see in verbal formations when 
strong and weak root-forms alternate with one another. 

If, then, the root is to be looked for in the strong forms, the 
result is a double root where there exist two strong forms, a 
single root where there is but one. We should arrive then 
at such roots for the Greek : Trer-TroT, Set-Sot [in Se (3/) os and 
Se-8ot-Ka] ; x^v, ■)(pv [in X^if)^ ^^^ X^(^)^^^] 5 ^et7r-Aot7r ; eXevO- 
ekovO ; fxev-fJiov ; o-tcA-o-toA, TrevO-TrovO, etc. ; single roots XdO, 
Xd/S, cf>d, o-rd, etc. The weaJcest form ttt, St, KAt, AtTr, iXvO, /jlv, 
o-tX, ttvO, XaO, <^a, (rra, etc., has provisionally been termed a 
reduced form. It will not require very keen perception or 
close scrutiny to perceive that the term ' reduced ' is false. We 
must here watch lest grammatical method and terminology 
obscure the facts of language. In t-/x€i/ : et-/xt, t is no more a 
reduction from et than ct the guna of t ; they are forms as 
perfectly independent of one another as ActVo) and AcAotTro, as 
jSeAos and poXrj. When the form t-/x6v (originally <-/xei/) came 
into existence, it did not start from an accented base ct, which 



24 



PRINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOGY. 



lost its accent, with it an c, and became t; all that can be said 
is, that words of this group, when they have the accent on 
formative elements, appear with the radical or significant 
element t ; when they have the accent on the root, with one 
of the two radical elements ct or oL 

If what we have stated is in accordance with the facts, the 
idea of a single root falls to the ground. We have in word- 
groups which show the variation between € and o a root-system 
consisting of three forms, two strong ones and one weak one ; 
in all other word-groups a root-system of two forms, a weak 
one and a strong one. Designating the first class by AA, the 
second by BB, we have : — 



Class AA. 


Class BB. 


Strong Forms. 


Weak Forms. 


Strong Forms. 


Weak Forms. 


I. /M€1/ 




I. and II. 


III. 


II. flOJ/ 


III. fjiy 


(Tra 


ara 


I. Tveid 




I. and II. 


in. 


II. void 


III. iriO 


07, 


$€ 


I. TTCT 




I. and II. 


III. 


11. TTOT 


in. TTT 


\dd 


\d9 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 



All other root-forms are modifications of these ground-forms ; 
e.g., /xa in /JLe-jxa-rov and fiav in ixatvo/xaL (= fiav-T/ojxaL) are but 
modifications of /x,v, having their cause in the character of the 
inflectional elements which appear in connection with the 
root ; in the same way rpacj) and rapcji, in l-rpaf^-ov and rapcj^-v'Sy 
are but graphical expedients for rendering the sound-group 
Tpcfi (T/a<^) in the root-system Tpe4>, rpocf}, Tp(f>, etc. Hereafter we 
will designate a root-form like /xcv, x^v or x^(^)» ^^'j ^^''"» ^^^-j 
as ablaut I. ; /xoi/, X'^iF)^ '^^tO, ttot, etc., as ablaut II. ; fxv (/xa, 
fiav), x^i '"■^^» 'TT, etc., as ablaut III. 



THE VIEWS OF THE NEW SCHOOL. 25 



II. 

From the first days of tlie comparative study of the Indo- 
European family of languages, up to the year 1876, it was held 
almost without a dissenting voice that the body of short vowels 
which the so-called original Indo-European language possessed 
consisted of a, i, u. Of these a was supposed to have remained 
unchanged in the Asiatic division of the family, the Indian and 
Iranian languages ; while in the European languages it had in 
a large proportion of cases been weakened into e and o, the 
sounds holding physiologically a middle position respectively 
between a and i, and a and u. An exhaustive investigation 
of this supposed breaking up of Indo-European a on European 
ground was made by Curtius in 1864. It resulted in estab- 
lishing the fact that the deviation of a into e occurred on the 
whole in the same words and formations in all of the European 
languages ; that it could not have taken place in each one of 
them independently of the others ; that, therefore, a common 
European language must be assumed ; from this the several 
European languages had separated, as the Iranian and Indian 
languages had done from a common Indo-Iranian language. 
On the other hand, the coloring of a into o had taken place 
later and separately in the several European branches, be- 
cause the of one branch does not accord with the o of an- 
other. 

Fick, in his book " Die Spracheinheit der Indo-Germanen 
Europas," makes use of Curtius' results in the same direction ; 
he also holds to an Indo-European a which in Europe divided 
itself into a and e ; of these two, a again was resolved, in the 
separate European branches, into a and o. The vowel system 
of Schleicher, which on the whole is artificial, does not deviate 
in any material respects from those above mentioned, as far as 
the short vowels are concerned. 

Two points, which are the result of this system of short 
vowels, are to be carefully noted : — 



26 PRINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOGY. 

1. In Sanskrit a is througliout tHe language one and the 
same vowel, being everywhere the direct descendant of the 
original Indo-European a. 

2. Greek a represents throughout the language what has 
been left undisturbed of the original Indo-European a, a large 
part of this latter having been changed to c and o. 

The first serious attack upon this system of short vowels 
struck at the two rules which have been deduced. In vol. ix. 
of Curtius' " Studien " there appeared the famous article by 
Karl Brugman, entitled *' Nasalis Sonans," etc., which for the 
first time definitely proved the negative of these two rules. 
It will not be necessary to go through Brugman 's proofs. 
Though his article furnished the key to the understanding of 
the Indo-European Unguals and nasals, and more or less 
directly has formed the basis for most of the successful inves- 
tigations on vocalism since that day, principles which are laid 
down there can now be presented in a more comprehensive 
fashion, owing to further investigations by Brugman himself 
and by others. 

Brugman starts with the discussion of an interesting fact 
which Sievers teaches in his " Lautphysiologie," p. 26 ff. He 
observes that in the usual pronounciation of words containing 
nasals (n, m) and liquids (r, Z), these are pronounced both as 
vowels and as consonants. As vowels, they form in connec- 
tion with one or more consonants a distinct syllable, just as 
any other vowel. So in ' sieben mal acht ' {sie-bn), ' wir ritten 
nach hause' (rit-tn), 'tandeln' (tan-din), 'wandern' (wan-drn). 
English examples would be : * the father is ' {fa-thf), * ankle ' 
(an-kl), 'heaven' (hea-vn), 'handsome' (han-sm), etc. On 
the other hand, the consonantal pronunciation of Unguals and 
nasals is seen in ' heritt-ne ' : ' beritten ' (herit-tn) ; ' ath-me ' : 
'a-them' (a-thm)] Eng. ^ anlc-leV \ 'ankle' (an- Z:/), etc. The 
alphabets of these languages fail to furnish separate characters 
for these two classes of sounds, — a fact which of course in 
nowise throws a doubt on their existence. 



THE VIEWS OF THE NEW SCHOOL. 27 

The Yedic and Sanskrit, as is well known, do possess dis- 
tinct characters for lingual vowels, which are transcribed in 
the manner in which we have differentiated them in German 
and English from their corresponding consonants ; viz. : r 
and /. 

The change between the lingual consonants and lingual 
vowels is quite analogous to that between y and i, and %) and 
u ; before vowels there always appears the consonantal pro- 
nunciation r and I, y and v ; before consonants the treatment 
of the Unguals, though in principle the same as that of the 
dental and labial vowels, is characterized by a smaller degree 
of sensitiveness than these. While the latter always appear 
as % and u before consonants, r and I are changed to their 
corresponding vowels only when preceded as well as followed 
by consonants, or in the beginning of a word when followed by 
a consonant. A few examples will suffice. As the weak forms 
of the perfect of the verb m, 'to lead,' appear as ni-ny- before 
endings beginning with a vowel, so do the weak forms of the 
verb Icar appear as ca-hr- in the same connections : ni-ny-d, 
ni-ny-us, ni-ny-e, — ca-hr-d, ca-hr-ils, ca-hr-e. But between con- 
sonants the semi-consonantal elements of these roots appear as 
vowels : nl-td-s, Jcr-td-s, gru-td-s. So also the same change is 
seen in i-mds : y-anti; in ca-lcr-md : ca-hr-iXs ; in tu-stu-md : 
tu-stuv-7ls (for tu-stv-'ds) ; cf. cd-lclp-re. 

The Sanskrit does not possess distinct characters to express 
nasals between two consonants (nasal vowels) ; these, however, 
indicate their presence by very distinct and peculiar pheno- 
mena. As we have y : i, v :u^ r : r, and I : I, we have also 
n : n and m:m. n and m appear almost always as simple d, 
sometimes as dn (dvi) ; this an, which is the phonetic equiva* 
lent of n, can be differentiated from an == a + n by the aid of 
the Greek. While the latter an corresponds to Gr. ev or ov, 
the former appears in Greek also as av, occurring there, as well 
as in Sanskrit, only in formations which require the weak form 
of the root (ablaut III.). So mdn-as (an = a-]rn) = fj.€v-os ; 



28 PEINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOGY. 

Tna-mdn-tha (an = c)^ + 72) ^== Gr. fjui'/xov-a ; but mdn-ye for 
TYin-ye corresponds to Qr. /xatVo/xat for ixav-yofxat for jmy-yo/jLat. 

There appear, then, in Sanskrit, instead of merely the sounds 
9/-i, v-u, as mediators between vowels and consonants, the 
very considerable body which is made up by these and the 
Unguals and nasals in addition. The Sanskrit system of semi- 
consonants is as follows : — 

Consonants \ y v r I n m 

Vowels : i u r I a, an a, am 

This proves that SansJcrit a is not everywhere the same 
sound, and not everywhere the direct representative of Indo- 
Eurojpean a. The Indo-European a will suffer further infringe- 
ments in the course of our discussion, until it will have shrunk 
into comparative insignificance. 

This variable function of semi-consonants is by no means 
restricted to Sanskrit. In every language of the family these 
sounds occur, but with still less perfect systems of expression. 
In Sanskrit there are at least distinct characters for lingual 
vowels ; in the other languages these, as well as the nasal 
vowels, lack single characters, and are everywhere expressed 
by combinations similar to those which are found for nasal 
vowels even in Sanskrit. The following is the system for the 
Greek : — 

Consonants '- {y) {F) p \ v fjL 

Vowels : t v ap, pa oA, Aa a, av a, a/A 

Consonant y is shown in Se(y)o's; cf. Se-Soi-Ka: Ki{yyop.ai] 
cf. KCi-jjiaL. F is shown in x^iF)-o} ; cf. X'^^'^ '■ f<Xe(^Fyo^ = Sk. 
grdv-as. The consonants p, X, v, and p. are occasionally split 
^to ap, aX, av, and ap ; a phenomenon quite parallel with the 
breaking up of y and v in Sanskrit into iy and uv. 

The following is the system for Gothic and High German : — 
Consonants : j v r I n m 

Vowels : i u Goth. aiXr Goth, ul un um 
H. G. or H. G. ol 



THE VIEWS OF THE NEW SCHOOL. 29 

The following is the system for Latin : — 

Consonants : j v r I n m 

Vowels : i u or (ur) ul (ol) en em 

The extent to which Greek a and Sanskrit a do not represent 
Indo- European a is very considerable. In Greek the great 
mass of a's that appear in the vicinity of liquids and nasals 
are hut defective {or rather excessive) graphic representations of 
the weakest imaginable vocalic element (sh'va). 

The discovery of the preceding facts was soon employed as 
the entering wedge for a series of attacks upon Indo-European 
a, which have by this time resulted in a very serious curtail- 
ment of it, and by consequence in an almost totally changed 
system of Indo-European vowels. The first step was here 
again taken by Brugman (Curtius' Studien, ix. 367, fF. ; Kuhn's 
Zeitschrift, xxiv. 1, ff.), successful at least in that it pointed 
the right way for further examination. He there assumes for 
Greek €, o, a, three different Indo-European sounds, which he 
indicates by a^, a^, and a^\ a^ he regards as an original short 
a, which appears in Europe as a ; in Sanskrit sometimes as a, 
sometimes as i (examples : Gr. crra-ro-?, Lat. sta-tu-s, Sk. 
sthi-td-s) ; a} corresponds to European and Armenian e and 
Sk. Zend a; a^ corresponds to Greek, Italic, Celtic, and Slavic o, 
German and Lithuanian a, also to Sk. a in a closed syllable ; 
but in an open syllable, in cases represented by bhdr-a-mas 
(cjyip-o-fjiev) , pad-am (ttoS-o), ddtdr-am (Swrop-a), ushds-am (rjo-a), 
jdnu(y6vv), Sdpv (Sopv), o? is, according to Brugman, represented 
by Sk. a. That, however, the lengthening of the d in these cases 
is accidental or owing to special Sanskrit laws, was shown (in 
the main successfully) by Collitz and J. Schmidt. Aside from 
this, Brugman had intuitively seen the truth, though the more 
concrete proofs of his system came from a totally different 
direction, as will be shown in the next section. It will be 
seen that European and Armenian e's were e from all time ; 
that the Sanskrit and Iranian a, which correspond to it, are 



30 



PRINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOaY. 



either special deviations dating from a comparatively late period 
in the co-existence of these languages ; or, what is even more 
probable, that this a in these languages is but an insuiScient 
sign for a sound which would be best indicated by ae (of) ; as 
yet there has been no proof that the Sanskrit a which corres- 
ponds to Greek o is a sound which is colored by o {of) ; it is 
enough to know that the Greek ablaut e : o exists in every 
language of the family. 

III. 

The fact that the Indo-European languages have two series 
of guttural consonants was discovered and settled by Ascoli, 
and has become one of the best-known laws of Indo-European 
phonetics. They are generally differentiated by the designa- 
tions h^, g^, gh}, and F, c^, gh^, for the common Indo-European 
period. In Sanskrit the first series is left in part as h, g, gh 
(Zend Tc, g) ; it also appears palatalized as c, j, h (Zend c and 
and sh, j and zh). In Greek this series appears partly as k, y, ;(, 
partly as tt, /8, <^ ; these latter interchange in a few instances 
with T, 8, 0, under circumstances which are in principle the 
same as those in which Sk. Jc, g, gh, interchange with <?,;*, and h. 
The second Indo-European series F, ^, gl^, shows in Sanskrit 
a sign devoted solely to itself only for P, namely g ; while the 
sounds g^ and gt? share the signs j and h with the palatals of 
the series h, g, gh. In Zend P is p ; g'^ and gl? are z. In Greek 
P, ^, and gW' appear regularly as gutturals : k, y, Xr 

The following scheme will illustrate the subject : — 



Indo-Eukopean. 
¥ <7> gV> 
W g^ gh-' 


Sakskeit. 
k g gh 

f 1 ^ ^^ 


Zend. 
k (kh) g (gh) 
c {sh) j {zh) 


Indo-Eueopean. 

h^ g^ gV 
P f gV 


Greek. 

K y X TT ^ 
T 8 

« 7 X 


e 



THE VIEWS OF THE NEW SCHOOL. 31 

It is the palatal series wliich has branched off from the first 
guttural series — Sk. c, ^', h; Zd. c,j] Gr. r, 8, — which con- 
cerns the subject here treated. The true cause of this division 
remained unrecognized up to the time of Ascoli ; he was the 
first to get some inkling of the way to a legitimate explana- 
tion. He states that in Zend the change from a guttural to a 
palatal in the three degrees of the adjective, aha-, ashy 6, and 
acista- [h : c (sh)\ is due to the change of the vowel following 
the guttural, and also notes that there is no root of the form 
gi either in Sanskrit or Zend, but that they show ji. This is 
really a recognition, fragmentary as it may be, of the principle 
that palatalization is due to the influence of palatal vowels 
actually occurring after gutturals. According to J. Schmidt, 
Dr. Vilhelm Thomsen was the first to hint that the European 
languages, with their supposed secondary vocalization, might 
be drawn in as auxiliaries in such a way that Sanskrit and 
Zend syllables ca and ha should be explained from /c€ and /ca 
as European equivalents, and that thus the palatals before a 
written a owe their origin to the fact that this a was in such 
connections originally sounded as ae {of). The full principle 
was recognized, as it seems, nearly simultaneously by Collitz, 
Karl Verner, Saussure, and J. Schmidt. 

If we formulate the principles which are laid down by these 
writers, there result the following rules : — 

1. The Indo-Iranian palatals — Sk. c, j, h; Zend c(sh),j(zh) 

— are a modification of the first guttural series (^, ^^, gh^) 
before palatal vowels, — i (y), a* (a*^, a^'u), — and can origi- 
nally have stood only before these vowels. 

2. The vowel signs a, ai, and au, in the Indo-Iranian lan- 
guages, actually represent two series of vowels at least (more 
if more can be proved) ; namely : a*, a^'i, a^u, and a, ai, au^ 

— the former corresponding to e, ei, eu (Grr. e, ct, ev) in the 
European languages. 

The last rule bears upon the correct understanding of Greek 
ablaut in three vital points. 



32 



PEINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOaY. 



(a) In the ablaut series tlie c wliicli appears in the row 
marked I. (ablaut I.) is not the result of the weakening of 
Indo-European a, but represents an original sound, which is 
clearly expressed in the European branches of the family, and 



I. 

II. 

III. 



■7r€T 
TTOT 
TVT 



areX 

<TTO\ 

(Tra\ 



irepd 
iropd 
irpad 



trovd 
iraO 



pev (peF) 
pov (pop) 
pv 



ir€td, etc. 
ttolOj etc. 
TTid, etc. 



which is not expressed by a distinct sign in the Indo- Aryan 
languages, but there manifests itself in the palatals of the 
Indo-European series Jc^, g^, gh} ; namely, c, j, h. 

(h) Again looking at the series of roots laid down under (a), 
it will appear that all the forms under I. are on the same level 
as far as the root vowel is concerned ; «o also the forms under 
II. From necessity, the forms under III. are also on a level ; 
one of these holds the same grammatical position as the other ; 
one is used in the same kinds of formations, verbal and nominal, 
as the other. 

{c) The sound a appears in III. only in connection with 
Unguals and nasals ; it is something special. 

The following examples illustrate the origin of palatalization, 
and the Sanskrit sound a* : — 



cuTc-rd-s : gbc-ista-s; 
Sk. arh-d-s : arc-is. 
: tej-ista-s ; tyag-d-s : 



Variation between h and c : Sk. 
gaJc-rd-s : gac-ista-s ; Zend aha- : acista- ; 

Variation between g and j : tig-md-s 
tydj-as, etc. 

The facts and principles illustrated by these examples for 
the Indo-Iranian languages are represented in Greek also. 
The variation takes place here between labials (which represent 
original gutturals) and the dentals of Curtius' dentalism, which 
take the place of palatals. Not indeed in so widely diffused 
a manner has the original difference between the labials 
(— gutturals) and dentals (— palatals) been held fast ; it has 



THE VIEWS OF THE NEW SCHOOL. 33 

been wiped out very largely at the expense of the palatals ; but 
there are still enough data left to show that the Greek started 
with the same differences, and that these differences were 
based upon the same cause, the character of the following 
sound. As in Sk. a palatal before i (y), a" (aH, a^'u) corresponds 
to a guttural before other sounds, so in Greek there is still a 
respectable body of forms which show dentals before t and c 
(ct, €v) which vary with labials according to the proportion : — 

T, S, : TT, /3, cli = Sk. c, j, h : k, g, gJi. 

Greek palatalization appears in the following cases : — 

1. Tt9, gen. T^{(j)o, T€ : 7r6-T€po<s = Zend cis, cahyd, ca : Sk. 
Jca-tards. 

2. TreVr-c : Tre/xTT-ro? = Sk. pdnc-a : panTc-ti-s. 
8. TpL'OTTt<s, ocrcrc, oaaofxai : oij/ofiaL. 

4. oSeXo? : o/SoXos. 

The vocalism of the Greek has the largest claim to being a 
correct, undisturbed reflex of that of the corresponding roots in 
all the languages of the family, Sanskrit and Zend in reality 
possess the root-triad (ttct, ttot, ttt ; Acitt, Xoltt, Xltt) to even a 
larger extent than the Greek ; but the first two ablauts have 
fallen together, at least graphically. 

Surprising is the non-sensitiveness of the Latin to variations 
of root-vowels, especially if its otherwise close kinship with 
Greek is kept in view. It everywhere evinces the tendency 
to urge some one of the root-vowels through the entire group 
of formations belonging to the root. To a large extent this is 
the vowel of the root-form (ablaut I.). So the vowel of lego, 
clepo, tremo, pe{r)do, serpo, etc., fails to vary with ablaut II. (o) 
in the perfect. On the other hand, the Indo-European perfect 
vowel (ablaut II.) is contained in to-tond-i^ spo-pond-i^ and 
mo-mord-i ; but the radical vowels of these words have spread 
over their entire respective word-groups, either assimilating 
the vowel, or suppressing forms which show another root- 
vowel, and placing such as had o in their place. Such are 



34 PRINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOGY. 

the presents of these words : tondeo, spondeo^ Tuordeo, wliich 
legitimately show o, but are in reality causative formations, 
such as Gr. cj^op-eoy to ^e/aw. The weakest root-form (ablaut III.) 
is retained to the exclusion of the other two in the groups of 
which sci-n-d-Ojfi-n-d-Ojju-n-g-o are presents, e.g., jungo, junxi, 
junctus, jugum, conjux, etc. Still enough has been left of a 
Latin ablaut to show that it once coincided with the Greek, 
though there is no one case in which all three forms have been 
preserved. Examples of roots which show the first and second 
forms of the root are : nex : noc-eo; teg-o : tog-a; sequi : socius. 
Of groups which show ablauts I. and III., examples are 
fer-o \foT-(ti)s = Sk. hhr-t-is; dlc-o (= ddc-o) : causi-dlc-us ; 
duc-o (= deuc-6) : duc-em; ur-o (= eus-d) : iZs-tus. Of groups 
which show ablauts 11. and III., an example is mon-eo : 'men-{ti)-s 
= Sk. ma-ti-s. 

The triple form of the root is not an accidental modification 
on European ground of a simplex primitive form, but it 
belongs to our family of languages as a whole ; it is Indo- 
European. It is a fact which has until lately not been sufii- 
ciently emphasized that each one of the three root-forms is 
restricted to a certain numher of formations, nonninal and 
verbal; this fact alone, if reflected on consistently, is enough 
to establish the root- triad as Indo-European. 



IV. 

A closer look at the physiological construction of the roots 
which show the variation between c and o (Class AA) yields 
the following results : These roots have in their strong forms, 
as purely vocalic element, this c varying with o and nothing 
else. The remaining elements have never the character of 
pure vowels, but are either full consonants or semi-consonants, 
or both. Of the first category there is but one type, that 
exhibited in roots like Trer, e?, etc. ; the root-vowel is preceded 
and followed by a consonant (spiritus lenis in €9, c8, etc.). 



THE VIEWS OF THE NEW SCHOOL. 



35 



This we name type A. The rest arrange themselves best 
according to the following scheme : Type B, those which end 
in a semi-consonant ; type 0, those which contain a semi-con- 
sonant preceded and followed by other consonants : — 



A. 


B. 


c. 


Trer, ttot 




S6(3/), 


^01 


AetTT, 


AotTT 


€'5, (oS) in the 


X^^y 


X0(F) 


i\eve. 


iXovrS 


Goth. 


perf. 


Sep, 


Bop 


SepK, 


SopK 


at, etc 




(TTeA., 


(TTO\ 


/cAeir, 


K\0'lf 






/xei/, 


flOV 


7r€j/^, 


iroj/O 






T€fX, 


rofjL 


h/^<l>y 


pOfM<p 






etc. 


etc. 



This classification has especial value for understanding 
ablaut III., — the weakest, the accentless form of the root. 
This differs from the two strong ones in no particular, except 
that it does not possess the purely vocalic element (c or o) 
which appears in the strong forms. The root-forms which lie 
at the base of ablaut ill. are, therefore : — 



A. 


B. 


C. 


TTT 


Si 


AiTT 


a 


XV 


i\ve 


eto. 


Up 


dpK 




ar\ 


kAit 




fXU 


iryd 




T/i, etc. 


^fi(p, etc. 



It is evident that some of these last groups are unpronounce- 
able in certain connections ; e.g., according to type A we have 
€-(Tx-ov, the second aorist, which legitimately shows the weakest 
form ; so also c/c-tos for crx-ros, the verbal adjective, is made 



36 PRINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOGY. 

from the same degree of the root (cf. €'7nO-ov and Trtcr-ro?) ; 
but the difficult group of consonants crxr- necessitated the 
insertion of a short vowel. It is not to be supposed, however, 
that the e in €K't6<s possessed in speaking the same value as 
that of cx"^' ^^ ^o^g ^^ "^^^ position of the accent was not dis- 
regarded in pronunciation. In weak forms of the types crrX, 
SpK, TTvOf pfjicj), etc., the lingual and nasal consonants were 
changed to lingual and nasal vowels ; X, when vocalized, 
appears as ok, Aa ; p as ap, pa ; v and p. appear as a, ay, and 
a (a/i). 

It has appeared sufficiently that the assumption of a root 
AtTT or (j>vy by the side of ttct is inconsistent, because the two 
root-forms have totally different functions in their respective 
groups of words ; the above schemes will furnish a purely 
physiological reason. Roots which contain an t or v are never 
followed by another semi-consonant (p, A, /x, v) ; there are no 
roots of a type /^tv, Sip, ttlvO, StpK, etc., as there are p.€v, Sep, 
TrevO, SepK, etc. Nasals do, indeed, occur after t and v in cer- 
tain formations, generally the present, as 7rv-v-0-dvop.at, Lat. 
sci-n-d-o, etc. ; but a look at some other formation from the 
same root will quickly teach that the nasal does not belong to 
the root [ttcv (0) a-op^au, Sk. chi-ched-a]. On the other hand, 
when a nasal or lingual is preceded by e, it belongs to the root, 
and appears, or must be accounted for, in all formations ; so 
irivO'OS, Tri'irovB-a, Treta'o-p.aL (= 7r€vO-(Top,at) , Sk. tasthdTnb-a, 
ha-hdndh-a, etc. The morphological function of nasals and 
linguals, which belong to the root, is therefore precisely the 
same as that of t (y), v (F) belonging to the root. Both waver 
between a vocalic and a consonantal condition, according to 
their surroundings ; both are totally different from the € and o 
which appear in the root. These are the root- vowels proper, 
and about these the semi-consonantal and consonantal elements 
of the root are grouped. 

The triple root (Class AA) runs through nearly 250 groups 
of Greek words, is preponderant in Teutonic and Sanskrit, 



THE VIEWS OF THE NEW SCHOOL. 



37 



and is really the phenomenon from a discussion of which any 
treatise on ablaut must start. It is not, however, the only 
kind of root which appears either in Greek or in the kindred 
languages ; there are considerable numbers of roots which 
show but two forms, differing from one another merely in the 
quantity of the root- vowel. Class BB, and that in such a way 
that the form with the long vowel occurs in precisely those 
formations in which Class AA shows the forms with c and o. 
The form with the short vowel occurs in those formations in 
w^hich Class AA shows the weak form (ablaut III.) as the 
following scheme will show : — 





I. 


II. 


III. 


AA 


ireid-co, reTx-os 
<p€vy-Wf ^€vy-os 

fX€P-CC, JJL6J/-0S 


irc-troid-a 

i\-'f]\ovd-a 

/Jie-fioy-a 


i-ire-iriO-fxej/y 'iri(T-T6s 
i\-'f}\v6-/j.€yy <f>vK-T6s 
lx4-fxa-[X€Vy -/iid-ros 


BB 


Xdd-ooy \ad-os 
'l-a-rrj-fii, (TT-fi-fxcoy 
ri-dr)-fjiiy 6^-fi(ay 
St-5co-^t, du>-T(ap 


\€.\de.a 
€-(rTT}-Ka 


\4-\a(T-ixaiy -\a<T-ros 
e-crrd-jjiePy (Trd-r6s 
T€-6€-jJLai, 6€-t6s 

S€-5o-/iat, 5o-Tos 



The Latin exhibits ablaut consisting in variation between 
long and short vowels in scdh-i : scdh-o ; fod-i : fdd-io ; od-i : 
6d'ium, etc. Sanskrit has not often kept this kind of forma- 
tion undisturbed ; it appears in ga-gad-a : gd-gdd-ils ; d-sthd-t : 
sthi-td-s, etc. 

The question now fairly presents itself: What are the 
causes of these phenomena which penetrate the vocalism of 
our languages with such far-reaching regularity ; what is the 
cause that sets Se-So-fxat against 8e-Sa)-Ka ; ^jiVK-ros against 
<^€vy-a) ; irdO-oi against Tri-iroiO-a, and both against 7rto--Tos ? 
The question naturally falls into two distinct parts : (1) What 
is the relation, in both A A and BB of the scheme above, of 



38 PRINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOGY. 

the forms in column III. to those in columns I. and II. ? 
(2) In Class AA what causes the difference in the root-vowels 
of columns I. and II. ? 

Surprising as it may seem, this latter question remains as 
yet unanswered. In spite of the large extent of the material 
which is accessible, there has not been found anything upon 
which an explanation of the ablaut c : o can be rested with 
safety. That it is not accidental and inorganic, as it was 
formerly regarded, is clear from the regularity of its distribu- 
tion, and not the less clear because the reason of it has not 
been as yet discovered. It is to be noted that it is not restricted 
to the root of words ; it occurs as well in formative elements. 

Very different is the state of our knowledge with regard to 
the /ormer question. The cause whose workings we see in the 
difference between Trtcr-To?, and 7r€t^-a> and iri-iroLO-a, is perfectly 
well known. It is the varying position of the accent which 
creates the difference between strong and weak forms. The 
languages which have preserved this ablaut best, have fortu- 
nately also with it preserved a sufficient amount of data for its 
explanation. 

The Vedic texts which are accented show that, as a rule, 
the strong form of the root occurs when the tone rests on the 
root ; the weak form, when the tone rests on inflectional 
elements ; so e-mi {aH-mi) : i-mds ; da-ddrg-a : da-drg-us ; 
vdc-as : uk-tds, etc. 

The Greek originally possessed the law of accentuation 
indicated by these examples to much the same extent as the 
old Aryan language of India. But in the historical period of 
the language a new principle, the recessive accentuation, has 
usurped its place, leaving but a few fossilized remnants of the 
old method. In Opa(j-v<s, 7rto--T05, Xe-Xacr-fxevo^s, XiTr-e-crOaL, etc., 
we have survivals of the older accentuation, accompanied by 
the weak form of the root. Generally the accent has been 
subjected to the new law ; usually, however, without disturb- 
ing the form of the root which had accompanied the old accent. 



THE VIEWS OF THE NEW SCHOOL. 39 

So I'fx^v, 7r€-(^a-Tat, e-cfiOap-fxat, Kap-cns, were once oxytone, for 
they contain the weakest form of their roots : l, </)a (<^v), 
<liOap {<pOp), Kap (kp). 

The German shows the traces of the old tone system in two 
ways : — 

(1) In the ablaut. This coincides in its leading traits with 
the ablaut of the Greek and Vedic. The two strong forms 
(ablauts I. and II.), as steig and staig, bind and hand, occur 
in those formations in which Vedic words present the strong 
form of the root accompanied by the accent ; the weak forms 
of the root, as stig, bund (= bnd), in those in which the Vedic 
shows weak forms, and the accent on a formative element. 

(2) An exception to the first German rotation of mutes 
(Grimms Law) is due to this method of accentuation. In a 
considerable number of cases Indo-European surd mutes do 
not, as the law demands, appear in the Germanic languages as 
surd spirants, but as sonant spirants ; this irregularity takes 
place only in the middle of a word between two sonants. The 
irregular Teutonic sound to a considerable extent alternates 
with the regular one in inflected words belonging to the same 
root. In the inflection of verbs the Germanic languages, with 
the exception of Gothic, show this alternation in such a way 
that the irregular sound appears in precisely those forms which 
contain the weakest form of the root (ablaut III.) ; while the 
regular consonant appears in the two strong forms of the root 
(ablaut I. and II.). The entire phenomenon lives to-day in 
High German in such changes as ziehe : gezogen ; Iciese : erlcoren ; 
Eng. lose : forlorn. The cause of it was discovered by Karl 
Verner. He saw that there was a living remnant of Vedic 
and Indo-European accentuation preserved in this alternation 
of consonants. The forms with irregular consonant and weaTcest 
root form (ablaut III.) originally had the tone on their inflec- 
tional elements (zig-um and zig-a-na) in Indo-European times, 
and have it in the accented Vedic texts which have come down 
to us (e.g., bi-bhid-imd, and bhin-na) ; the forms with regular 



40 PRINCIPLES OF ETYMOLOGY. 

consonant were accented on the root (zi'h-a and ze'h) ; Ved. 
hhdr-a-mi and ja-hhar-a. Verner's law formed one of the 
most important factors in establishing the truth that the broad 
facts of Vedic accentuation once ruled in all Indo-European 
languages ; it is the strongest justification of the method of 
accounting for variations of root-vowels which is now univer- 
sally practised ; in fact, it has been seen that, so far, ablaut, 
wherever it is explainable, is so on the basis of this law of 
accent. Wherever this fails, there is as yet no other known 
fact or principle which furnishes additional light. Explana- 
tion must be held in abeyance until further investigation or 
new material shows the way. 



PAET II. 
Regular Substitution of Sounds. 



o>8^o 



Indo-European. 


Sanskrit. 


Greek. 


Latin. 


a 


a 


a € 


a e 
i u 


k 


a 


d -7] <a 


a e 6 


i 


i 


t 


i 
e 


t ? 


i 


I 


i 


u 


u 


V 


u 




ti ? 


ii 


V 


u 


ai 


e 


OJL €L 06 


ai ^ oi 
ae oe i ti 


^i 


ai 


9- V ^ 




au 


6 


av €v ov 


au 
u 


4u 


^u 


av rjv 


au 


k 


k kli k' 9 


K 


c q 


g 


g g' 


y 


g 



42 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OP SOUNDS. 



Indo-European. 


Sanskrit. 


Greek. 


Latin. 


gii 


gh h 


X 


init. h, med. g 


t 


t th 


T 


t 


d 


d 


8 


d 


dh 


dh 





init. f, med. d, b 


p 


P pli 


IT 


P 


b 


b 


P 


b 


bh 


bh 


^ 


init. f, med. b 


i ^ 


n n 


y before gutt. 


n 


n 

r 


n n 


V 


n 


i 

m 


m 


H- 


m 


r 


r 


P 


r 


1 


1 


X 


1 


J 


J 


init. spir, asp. 


J 


s 


s sh 


0-, spir. asp. 


s (r) 


V 


V 


F 


V 



REaULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 43 



k; k, kh, k^5 C5 k; c, k, q, (seldom g). 

1, ak, ank; ak'; oc^k; anc, unc; bend, curve. 

ayK-wv, a bend ; ajK-os, a bend, hollow, valley ; oy/c-o?, a 
bend, liook, barb ; ayK-vko^s, crooked ; ayK-vpa, an anchor. 

anc-ile, a small, oval shield ; anc-ulus (dim.), a man-servant ; 
anc-ula (dim.), a maid-servant ; anc-illa (dim.), a maid-servant, 
female slave ; anc-illaris, relating to maid-servants, [ancillari/] ; 
ang-iilus, an angle, a corner; nnc-us, a hook; imc-us (adj.), 
hooked, curved ; ad-unc-us, bent in, hooked, curved ; ung-ulus, 
a ring ; fanc-Sra, an anchor. 

2, ak ; a^ ; aK ; ac ; sharp, pointed, swift. 

oLK-iDv, a javelin ; aK-avos, a/c-acva, a thorn ; aK-pos, at the 
point or end, highest, outermost; ctK-pt?, oK-pcs, a mountain- 
peak ; d)K-vs, swift ; 6i-vs, sharp, keen, swift, [oxide, oxygen, 
oxytone\ 

ac-er, sharp, acute, [acrid, crabbed, eager'] ; ac-rimonia, sharp- 
ness, acrirnony ; ac-erbus, harsh; ac-erbitas, harshness, acerbity; 
ac-ervTis, a heap ; ac-eo, to be sour ; ac-esco (inch.), to become 
sour ; ac-etum, sour wine, vinegar, [acetic'] ; ac-ldus, sour, acid; 
ac-ies, edge, keen look, sight, army in battle-array ; ac-uo, to 
sharpen; ac-utus (part.), sharpened; ac-utus (adj.), sharp, 
pointed, acute; ac-umen, a point, acuteness, acumen; ac-ns, a 
needle, [to egg, to edge — to urge on or incite] ; oc-ior, swifter ; 
oc-Iter, swiftly. 

3, ark; — ; oXk, dpK; arc; keep off, hold good. In the root apK 
the more prominent meaning is the positive one, to hold good ; in dA/c, 
the negative meaning, to keep off. 



44 EEGULAE SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

oA-aXK-etv, to keep off; oXk-t;, strength, courage, defence ; 
apK-eo), to keep oif, to suffice ; apK-tog, certain, sufficient. 

arc-eo, to shut up, to keep off; co-erc-eo, to enclose some- 
thing on all sides or wholly, to restrain, confine, coerce; ex- 
erc-eo (lit. to thrust or drive out of an inclosure), to drive on, 
keep at w^ork, to exercise; ex-erc-itium, exercise; ex-erc-!tus, 
a trained or disciplined body of men, an army ; arx, a citadel, 
height, defence ; arc-a, a chest, [ark] ; arc-anus, trusty, secret ; 
aro-anum, a secret, a mystery. 

4. apKTog, a bear. 

Arctos, the Great and the Lesser Bear (Ursa Major et 
Minor) ; ursus (for urcsus), a bear ; ursa, a she-bear. 

5. — ; dac; SttK; — ; bite. 

SaK'Vo), to bite ; Solk-os, an animal of which the bite is dan- 
gerous ; Srjy'fxa, a bite. 

6. SaKpVy SoLKpvov, a tear ; SaKpva), to weep. 

lacrlma, lacruma (old form dacrima, dacruma), a tear, [lachry- 
onal] ; lacrlmo, laorumo, to weep. The root is perhaps the 
same as of No. 5. 

7. SoLKTvXo^, finger, [dacti/l]. The root is probably Sck (Sex) 
in Se/co/xat (Se^o/xat), to take. By some authorities the root is 
referred to No. 10. 

digitus, finger, [digit]. The root of this word is by some 
authorities referred to No. 10. 

8. SeVa, ten. 

decem, ten; December (deoem and -ber = fer, Sanskrit bhar, 
to carry, bear), December, the tenth month of the Eoman 
year (reckoned from March) ; declmus, deciimus, the tenth, 
[decimal]. 

9. — ; dare; ScpK, 8paK ; — ; see. 

SipK-ofiac, to look, to see ; 8e/oy-/xa, a look ; SpaK-oyv, a dragon; 
BopK-dsp a gazelle. 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 45 

10, dak ; die ; Sik, Scik ; die ; show. 

SeiK-vvfjii, to show, to point out ; Setf-ts, a pointing out ; Sety- 
/Att, something pointed out; SiK-rj, right, justice (orig. sense, 
custom, usage). 

dic-o (vb. conj. 1), to proclaim, to devote; ab-dic-o (to pro- 
claim one's self removed from a thing), to disown, renounce, 
abdicate; de-dic-o (to adjudge a thing from one's self to a 
deity), to dedicate; in-dlo-o, to point out, to indicate; prae- 
dlc-o, to cry in public, to proclaim, declare, [predicate] ; dic-o 
(vb. 3), to say, (compd. w. ab, ad, com, contra, e, in, inter, 
prae), [contradict, edict, interdict, predict, verdict]; dic-tio, a 
saying, diction, [dictionary]', die-to (freq.), to say often, pre- 
scribe, dictate; dio-tator, a dictator; dic-t!to (intens.), to say 
often or emphatically. 

11, dak; (dae-as, fame) ; 8ok; die; be esteemed, esteem. 
SoK-€(ii, to think, seem ; 8of-a, opinion. 

dec-et, it is proper, it is fitting, (compd. w. ad, com, de) ; 
dec-ens, becoming, fit, decent; dec-or (oris), what is seemly or 
becoming, elegance, grace ; dec-onis, becoming, suitable, deco- 
rous ; dec-orum, propriety, decorum; dec-us (oris), ornament, 
honor, glory ; dec-oro, to decorate, adorn, (compd. w. com, 
de) ; dig-mis (= dic-mis), worthy ; dig-nitas, worthiness, dig- 
nity ; dig-nor, to deem worthy, to regard as worthy of one's 
self, to deign; de-dig-nor, to disdain; in-dig-nor, to consider 
unworthy, to be indignant. 

12, du, du-k; duli; 8vk ; dtic; draw, lead. 
8a-Sv(rcr€-cr0ai, to draw. 

duc-0, to lead, conduct, draw, (compd. w. ab, ad, circum, 
com, de, di, e, in, intro, ob, per, prae, praeter, pro, re, retro, 
se, sub, subter, super, trans), [abduce, abduction, adduce, ad- 
duction, circumduct, circumduction, conduce, conduct, conduc- 
tion^ cbnduct, deduce, deduction, diduction, educe, eduction, 
induce, induct, induction, introduce, introduction, produce, 
produce, product, productioyi, reduce, reduction, retroduction, 



46 REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

seduce^ seduction, suhduce, suhduct, suhduction, superinduce, 
sujper induction, traduce, traduction^] e-duc-o (conj. 1), to bring 
up a child physically or mentally, to rear, to educate ; dux, a 
leader ; duc-to (freq.), to lead, conduct ; duc-tilis, that may be 
led or drawn, ductile. 

13. €iKO(n, Boeot. FtKaTL, twenty. 

viginti, twenty; vicesimus, vicensMus, vigesimus, the twen- 
tieth. - 

14, vik; vik''; Fik, Ik; vie; yield, give way. 

ctK-o), to yield. . ^ 

vl-to (= vic-i-to), to shun, avoid, (compd. w. de, e^;''vlc-is, 
change, alternation, vicissitude ; vic-issim, in turn. 

15. e/cardv, a hundred. Sk. cata-m, 

centum, a hundred, [cent] ; centeslmus, the hundredth ; cen- 
ttiria, an assemblage or a division consisting of a hundred, a 
century ; centurio, a commander of a hundred men, a centurion. 

16, vak; vac; Fck, €k; vie; will, desire. 

€K-u)v, willing ; eK-rjTi, by means of, for the sake of ; c/c-iyXog, 
at rest, at one's ease. 

in-vi-tus (= in-vic-i-tus), unwilling. 

17. €Kvp6<Sy a father-in-law ; iKvpd, a mother-in-law. Sk. 
cvacuras. 

socer, a father-in-law ; socrus, a mother-in-law. 

18, vark, vrak, valk, vlak, lak; — ; FcXk; lae; draw, drag, 
allure. 

cAk-o), to draw ; oXk-tj, a drawing ; oXk-os, that which draws, 
that which is made by drawing, a furrow. 

Jlac-io, to entice, allure, (compd. w. ad, e, in, per, pro), 
[elicit] ; de-lec-to (intens.), to allure, delight, [delectable] ; dell- 
catus, alluring, delicate ; deliciosus, delicious ; laqu-eus, a snare ; 
il-lec-ebra, enticement. 



EEGULAE, SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 47 

19. cAkos, a wound, an ulcer. 

ulcus, a sore, an ulcer ; ulcero, to make sore, to cause to ul- 
cerate ; ulceratio, ulceration. 

20. Sk. rt. ark^, beam. 

y\€KT(Dpf the beaming sun ; i^XeKrpov, amber, a shining metal 
\_electricit2/'\ ; 'HAcKxpa, Electra. 

21. Greek rt. Ik. 

lK-fjid<Sy moisture ; t/c-/xatV(o, to moisten. 

22. Greek rt. Fik, Ik, come. 

t/c-o), LK-vioixai, LK-dv(j), to come, reach ; tK-er?/?, LK-ryp, a sup- 
pliant ; LK-av6g, coming far enough, sufficient ; iK-fxevo^, follow- 
ing, favorable. 

23. kclSos, a jar or vessel for water or wine. 
cadus, a large vessel for containing liquids. 

24. Ka0-ap6^, clean, clear, pure ; KaO-acpo), to purify ; kolO- 
apo-ts, purification, [cathartic]. 

cas-tus (= cad-tus), pure, chaste; in-ces-tus, impure, unchaste ; 
in-ces-tum, in-ces-tus, unchastity, incest; cas-tigo (castum-ago), 
to set right, to correct, chastise, chasten, castigate. 

25. Pronominal stems, ka, ki; — ; Ka, ko; — . 

Kttt, and. From the same stem comes re with r for k. 
que, and. 

26. Greek rt. KaK. 

Ka/c-o9, bad ; KaK-ocD, to maltreat ; Aca/c-ww, to damage ; kolk-tj, 
wickedness. 

27. KaXajjios, a reed, a fishing-rod ; Kakdfjbr}, a stalk ; AcoAa- 
fX€vs, a reaper, an angler. 

Sk. kalamas, a kind of rice, a writing-reed, calamus, a 
reed ; culmus, a stalk, culm. 

28. kar, kal, kla, kla-m; — ; koX ; kal, cal, cla; call. 
KoX-eo), to call ; KXrj-Trjp, KXrj-Twp, one who calls or summons ; 

/cX^-o-is, a calling, call ; KXrj-revi}}, to cite, to summon. 



48 REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

cal-0, kal-0, to call, call together, summon; inter-calo, to 
intercalate; Oal-endae, Kal-endae, (the day when the order of 
days was proclaimed) , the first day of the Roman month, the 
Calends ; Oal-endarius, Eal-endarius, of or pertaining to the 
Calends ; Oal-endarium, Kal-endarium, the interest-book of a 
money-lender, \_calendar^ ; inter-cal-aris, inter calar, intercalary ; 
con-cil-inm, an assembly, a council; nomen-cla-tor, one who calls 
by name; nomen-cla-tiira, a calling by name, nomenclature; 
clas-sis (= cla-t-ti-s, or = /cXa-o-t? = kXtJ-o-i?), (a mustering, a 
summons), a class, an army, a fleet ; classlcns, (of or belonging 
to a classis), belonging to a class of the Roman people, belong- 
ing to the first class, of the highest rank, classical ; cla-mo, to 
call, cry out, shout, [claim], (compd. w. ad, com, de, ex, in, 
pro, re, sub), [acclaim, acclamation, declaim, declamation, 
exclaim, exclamation, proclaim, proclamation, reclaim, recla- 
Tnation] ; cla-mlto (freq.), to cry out violently, to vociferate ; 
cla-mor, a loud call, a shout, a cry, clamor, 

29. kal; (stem-form kala) ; koX; cal, eel; cover. 

Kok'ta, a wooden dwelling, hut, barn, granary ; KoX-to?, 
KoX-tas, a hut, a cabin. An expansion of the root koX is found 
in the stem KokvfB of koXvP-t), hut, and KaXvir-roi, to cover. 
Another expansion is probably the root kXctt, No. 55. 

fcal-ix, a cup; fcal-yx, the bud, cup, or calyx of a flower; 
cal-igo, a thick atmosphere, mist, fog ; cel-la (prob. a dim. form 
for cel-ula), a store-room, granary, chamber, [cell] ; cel-larium, 
a receptacle for food, a pantry, [cellar] ; cel-liila (dim.), a small 
store-room or apartment, [cellule, cellular, cellulose] ; cel-o, to 
conceal ; con-cel-o^ to conceal carefully ; oc-cul-o, to cover, cover 
up, hide, [occult, occultation] ; ctt-cul-lus, a covering, a cap, a 
hood; col-or, color; col-oro, to color; de-col-oro, to discolor; 
clam (old access, form cal-lim), secretly ; clan-destinus, (for 
clam-dies-timis), secret, clandestine ; gal-ea, a helmet ; gal-erum, ■ 
gal-ems, gal-era, a covering for the head, a cap ; clip-ens, clypeus, 
clnpeus, clipeum, a shield. From the root eel come the 0. II. 
Ger. helan, to conceal, and hella, hell ; A.-S. hell ; Eng. hell. 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 49 

30. KaXos, beautiful ; KaWtoiv, more beautiful ; /<aXA,o9, AcaX- 
XovT/, beauty ; /caAXww, to beautify. - The W of these words is 
produced by assimilation from Ij. Kindred with these words 
are the following : Sk. kal-jas, healthy, pleasant ; Goth, hail-s, 
sound, healthy ; Ger. heil, sound, whole ; A.-S. hal, sound, 
whole; 0. Eng. hale, hole; Eng. hale (written also hail), 
whole, heal, health. 

31. Sk. rt. kmar, be crooked. 

Ka/jidpa, anything with an arched cover, a vault, a covered 
wagon. 

camur, camiinis, crooked, turned inwards; f camera, f camara, 

a vault, an arched roof, an arch, [chamher]. 

32. kan; (kan-kaii-i, bell) ; Kav; can; sound. 

Kav-dcrcrtDj /cav-a^co, to SOUnd ; Kav-a)(rj, a sharp SOUnd ; Kov- 
a/?o9, a ringing, clashing ; kv-kv-o<;, a swan. 

can-o, to sing (compd. w. com, in, ob, prae, re, sub) ; can- 
orus, melodious ; can-to (freq.), to sing, (compd. w. de, ex, in, 
re), [chant, cant, chanticleer, enchant, incantation, recant] ; 
can-tor, a singer ; can-trix, a songstress ; prae-cen-tor (fr. prae- 
cln-o), a leader in music, a precentor ; in-cen-tor (fr. in-c!n-o), 
a precentor, an inciter; in-cen-tivus (adj.), that strikes up or 
sets the tune, that provokes or incites ; in-cen-tivnm, an incen- 
tive;^ cem-tuSj song, music; can-tillo (dim. fr. can-to), to sing 
low, to hum, [cantillate] ; can-ticum, a song, a solo ; can-ticiiliini 
(dim.), a little song, a canticle ; ac-cen-tns (fr. acclno), a blast, 
signal, accent, tone ; con-cen-tus, harmony, concent. 

33. kap ; — ; Kair; cap; take hold of, seize. 

KiDTT'Tj, any handle, the handle of an oar, handle of a sword. 

cap-io, to take hold of, (compd. w. ad, ante, com, de, ex, in, 
inter, ob, per, prae, re, sub), [conceive, conception, conceit, 
deceive, deception, deceit, except, incipient, inceptive, inception, 
intercept, interception, perceive, perception, receive, receipt, re- 
ception, susceptible] ; cap-to (freq.), to strive to seize, (comp.w. 
com, dis, ex, in, ob, re) ; cap-esso (desid.), to take or catch at 



60 EEGULAE SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

eagerly; anti-clp-o, to take before, to anticipate; oc-cup-o, to 
take possession of, to occupy, [occupation] ; prae-oc-cilp-o, to 
preoccupy ; cap-ax, capacious; cap-acitas, capacity ; cap-istrum, 
a halter ; cap-tor, a hunter, a captor ; captlvus, a captive ; cap- 
tilns, cap-ulum, a tomb, a handle, a hilt ; manceps (manus, capio), 
a purchaser, contractor ; man-clp-o, man-CTip-o, to make over as 
property, to transfer; eman-clp-o, to emancipate; muni-cip-ium 
(munia, capio), a free town; municipalis, municipal; princeps 
(primus, capio), first, chief; principalis, first, principal; prae- 
ceptor, one who takes beforehand, a ruler, preceptor ; re-cep- 
taculum, a receptacle. 

34. Kd7r-7j\o<s, a peddler ; Kair-rjXevo), to be a Kair-rjXo^^ or 

retail dealer ; Kair-r^Xua, retail trade, tavern-keeping. 

caupo, a petty tradesman, an innkeeper ; caupona, a landlady, 
an inn. 

35. kvap; (kap-ls, kap-ilas, incense); Kair; vap (for cvap) ; 
breathe forth. 

KaTT-vo), to breathe forth ; /ce-Kac^-T^w?, gasping ; Kair-vo^, 
smoke. 

vap-or (for cvapor), exhalation, vapor ; vap-oro, to emit steam 
or vapor ; e-vap-oro, to evaporate ; vap-!dus, that has emitted 
steam or vapor, i.e. that has lost its life and spirit, spoiled, 
vapid; vap-pa, wine that has lost its spirit and flavor, vapid 
wine. 

36. Kair-po^^ a boar. 

cap-er, a« he-goat, [caper, caprice, capricious] ; cap-ra, a she- 
goat ; Oap-ricornus (caper, cornu), Capricorn. 

37. Kcipa, KOLprjvov, the head ; Kpdvtov, the skull, [cranial, N. 
Lat. craniuTTi] ; Kapdvo^, a head, chief ; Kapdvooj, to achieve ; 
Kopvcfiri, the head ; Kpyvrj, a spring. 

cerebrum, the brain, [cerebral]. 

38. KYJp, K€ap, KapB-iOL, KpaS-trjy heart. 

cor (st. cord), heart, [cordial] ; cordatus, wise ; vecors, senseless. 



REGULAE SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 51 

39. KapKivos, a crab, 
cancer, a crab [cancer]. 

40. Greek rt. Kapir, Kpair. 

Kaj07r-aXt/AO9, swift ; K/oat7r-vos, swift ; KpaLTr-aXrj, a drunken 
headache ; kolXtttj, a gallop. 

41. Kap-rros, fruit, [harvest] ; KapTrcfjios, fruitful ; Kapirou), to 
bear fruit, (mid.) to get fruit for one's self; KpiDirtov, a sickle. 

Latin rt. carp. 

carp-0, to pick, pluck, gather, to carp at, (compd. w. com, 
de, dis, ex, prae) ; carptim, by detached parts, separately. 

42. Indo-Eur. rt. kar, hard. 

Kap'vov, a nut, the stone in stone-fruit ; Kapva, the walnut-tree. 

car-ina, the keel of a ship, a nut-shell, (cf. Eng. naut. terms, 
hull, shell) ; calx, a small stone, limestone ; cal-culus (dim. fr. 
calx), a small stone (used in playing draughts, in reckoning or 
in voting), [calculus] ; cal-culo, to calculate. 

43. Greek rt. Kav, KaF. 

/ca-t-(o, to burn ; /<a9-/xa, burning heat ; Kau-o-ro?, burnt, capa- 
ble of being burnt ; Kau-o-rtKos, capable of burning, caustic. 

44. ki 5 ^i > K€t (stem) ; qui, ci ; lie (recline). 

Ket'/jiaL, to be laid, to lie ; kol-ttj, a bed, a couch ; Koi^ixam, to 
put to sleep ; Kcj-fios, a jovial festivity, a revel ; Kto-fir}, a vil- 
lage, [home] ; K(o-/^a)Sos (kw/aos, detSo)), a comedian ; Kta-fjuoBta, a 
comedy. 

qui-es, rest, quiet; re-qui-es (re, quies), after-rest, i.e. rest from 
labor, suffering, care, etc., [requiem] ; qui-esco, to rest, to keep 
quiet, (compd. w. ad, com, re), [quiescent, acquiesce] ; ci-vis, a 
citizen; ci-vllis, of citizens, civil; ci-vicus, of citizens, civic; 
ci-vltas, citizenship, the state, a city. 

45. sak, ska, ski; k'ha; (rK€, o-Ka; sci, sec, sac; split, cleave, 
sever, distinguish, decide. 

K€t-a), K€-a^co, to split ; K€-a/3vov, a carpenter's axe. 

sc!-o, (prop, to distinguish, discern), to know, (compd. w* 



52 EEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

com, ne) ; sci-entia, knowledge, science; con-sci-entia, joint 
knowledge, consciousness, conscience ; con-sci-ns, knowing with 
others or by one's self, conscious ; sci-sco (inch.), to seek to 
know, to inquire, to decree ; a-sci-sco, ad-sci-sco, to receive as 
true, to receive in some capacity ; con-sci-sco, to approve, to 
decree a thing together or in common ; de-sci-sco, to set one's 
self loose, to free one's self from (this compound brings out 
most clearly the meaning of the root) ; prae-sci-sco, to find out 
beforehand ; re-sci-sco, to find out, ascertain a thing (bringing 
it again to light from concealment) ; sci-tus, knowing, wise ; 
sci-tum, a decree; sec-o, to cut, to cut off, (compd. w. circum,- 
com, de, dis, ex, in, inter, per, prae, pro, re, sub), \_secant, dis- 
sect, intersect] ; sec-ta, a path, way, sect ; sec-tio, a cutting, cut- 
ting off, section ; sec-tiris, an axe ; serra (?) (perhaps = sec-ra), 
a saw; serratus (?), serrated; seg-mentum, a piece cut off, a 
segment; sic-a (?), a dagger ; sax-um, any large, rough stone, 
a detached fragment of rock ; sex-us, (prop, a division), a sex. 

46. Indo-Eur. rt. skal, be rough, be harsh. 

KcX-atvos, black ; KeAat-ve<}!)77?, black with clouds, cloud-wrapt, 
black. 

squal-eo, to be stiff or rough, to be filthy or squalid ; sqnal-or, 
stiffness, roughness, filthiness, squalor ; squal-idus, stiff with 
dirt, filthy, squalid. 

47. Ki\-€V'6o^, a way ; olkoXov-Oo^, following ; aKoXov-Ooq 
(subst.), a follower ; d/coXov-^eo), to follow, [anucoluthon]. 

cal-lis, a path. 

48. kal; kal; kcX.; eel; urge on, drive. 

KeX-Xo), to drive on ; KcX-evo), KeA-o/>iat, to urge or xlrive on, 
exhort, command ; KeA.-?/?, a courser ; /3ov-k6X-o<;, a herdsman, 
[bucolic]. 

cel-lo (found only in compounds) ; per-cel-lo (lit. to impel 
greatly), to beat, strike, beat down, urge on ; pro-cel-lo, to 
drive or urge forward ; pr3-ciil, afar off ; cel-er, swift ; cel-eritas, 
swiftness, celcriti/ ; cel-ero, to quicken, hasten, be quick; ac-cel- 



EEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 53 

ero, to hasten, accelerate, make haste ; cel-ox, swift ; cel-ox, a 
swift-sailing ship, a yacht ; pro-cel-la, a violent wind, a storm. 

49. Kepa5, horn ; Kepaos, horned, of horn ; Kpi6<s (?), a ram ; 
ptvoKepiDs {pt<s, Kipa^), the rhinoceros. 

comu, horn, [corn (on the foot), corner, cornet, cornucopia, 
unicorn\ 

50. /cep-ao-o?, the cherry-tree (/ccpao-os is to /cepa? as comus to 
comu); Kpd'vov, Kpa-veia, the cornel-tree. 

cormis, a cornel-cherry tree, a javelin made of cornel-wood. 

51. skar; car; K€p; — ; cutoff, damage. 

/c€tp-a), to cut short, cut oiF, ravage, destroy ; /cop-/>to9, the 
trunk of a tree ; K€p-/xa, anything cut small, small coin ; Kovp-d, 
a shearing ; Kovp-evs, a barber ; Kep-at^o), to destroy, to plun- 
der ; K-qp-aivw, to destroy ; J^yp, the goddess of death or doom; 
Kyp, death, doom ; k6p'0<s, Kovp-o<s, a boy, a youth (from the 
custom of cutting the hair at the time of puberty) ; Kop-rj, 
Kovp-Y], a maiden, a bride ; Kovp-tSios, wedded. 

cur-tus, shortened, short, [curt, curtail]. 

52. Indo-Eur. rt. kap, grasp, have. (This No. is probably connected 
with No. 33.) 

K€</)aA,'7, the head ; KccfioXato^, of the head ; dKe<^aXo9, without 
head, acephalous. 

cap-ut, the head, [cap, cape, captain]; cap-Italis, relating to 
or belonging to the head, relating to life, capital ; Oap-itollum, 
the Capitol (at Rome), [a capitol]-, cap-ttulimi, (dim.), a small 
head, (in architecture) the capital of a column, (in late Latin) 
a chapter, section, [capitulate] ; cap-illus, the hair of the head, 
the hair ; cap-illaris, of or pertaining to the hair, [capillary] ; 
anceps, [an, caput], (lit. two-headed), double, that extends on 
two opposite sides, wavering, doubtful ; biceps (bis, caput), two- 
headed, divided into two parts ; praeceps (prae, caput), head- 
long, (of places) steep, precipitous ; praeceps (subst.), a steep 
place, a precipice; praeclplto, to throw down headlong, to 
precipitate. 



64 EEaULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

53. skap; — ; o-Kair; — ; dig. 
KyTT-oSi a garden. 

camp-US, a plain, a field, [camp, n. and v., encamp]. 

54. ki? 915 Ki; ci; rouse, excite, go. 

Kt-o), to go; Kt-vv/xat, to move one's self, to go.; Kt-vew, to 
move, to set in motion. 

c!-eo (fr. the primitive form cio prevailing in the compounds, 
accio, excio, etc.), to put in motion, to move, disturb ; ac-cl-o, to 
summon ; ex-ci-o, to call out ; cl-tns, put in motion, swift ; cl-to, 
quickly ; cl-to (freq.), to put into quick motion, rouse, summon, 
cite; ex-cl-to, to call out or forth, to excite; in-cl-to, to urge 
forward, to incite; soUi-ci-tus, sol!-c!-tiis (sollus, [old word 
meaning 'entire'] cieo), wholly, i.e. violently moved, dis- 
turbed, solicitous ; solll-cl-to, soli-cl-to, to disturb, urge, solicit. 

55. lilap; — ; kXcit; clep; steal. (This No. is probably connected 
with No. 29.) 

KXeTT-TO), to steal ; kXwi/^, KXoTr-evs, KXiir-TT}^, a thief ; kKott-tj, 
theft, [hlopemania, kleptomania]. 
clep-o, to steal. 

56. sklu; — ; kXci, kXciS; clu; shut, close, fasten. 
KXr)-t-<s, kXcls, a key ; KXa-o), to shut. 

clav-i-s, a key ; clav-icula (dim.), a small key, [clavicle] ; 
clav-us, a nail ; clau-d-o (in compounds cludo), to shut, close, 
(compd. w. circum, com, dis, ex, in, inter, ob, prae, re, se), 
[conclude, disclose, exclude, include, inclose, inter elude, preclude, 
recluse, seclude] ; claus-tra (in sing, clanstnim, rare), a lock, 
door, defence; clandus, lame. 

57. l^li? — 5 kXi'; cli; lean (incline). 

kXI-v-o), to make to bend, to lean, to incline, [enclitic] ; 
KX'i-yrj, that on which one lies, a couch ; KXX-fia, inclination (of 
ground), region, clime, climate; KXl-jxa^^ a ladder, a climax ; 
kXX-o-lo, a place for lying down, or reclining, a hut, a couch ; 
kXI-tv<s, a slope, hill-side. 

cli-vus, a gently-sloping height, a hill ; cli-no (found only in 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 65 

participle clinatus, inclined), [lean] ; ac-cli-no, to lean on or 
against ; de-cli-no, to turn aside or away, to decline, [declina- 
tion, declension] ; in-cli-no, to bend in any direction, to incline, 
[inclination] ; re-cli-no, to bend or lean back, to recline, 

58. kru, klu; cru; kXv; clu; hear. 

kAv-o), to hear ; Kkv-ro^Sy heard of, renowned, [loud] ; kX€-o<s, 
report, fame ; KAc-tw (poet, for /cXe-o)), to make famous, cele- 
brate ; K\€i'v6s, /cX€t-T09, renowned. 

cln-eo, clu-o, to hear one's self called in some way, to be 
called ; cli-ens, clu-ens, (one who hears), a client, dependant, 
retainer ; in-clu-tus, in-cli-tus, celebrated, famous ; glo-ria, glor^f/, 
fame ; glo-rior, to glory, to boast ; glo-riosus, glorious, famous ; 
cla-ms, (prop, well audible), clear, loud, brilliant, illustrious ; 
cla-ro, to make clear ; de-cla-ro, to make clear, to manifest, 
declare ; cla-r!fico (clams, facio), to make illustrious, [clarify] ; 
laus (for clans), praise, glory, [laud] ; lan-do, to praise ; lau-da- 
bllis, praiseworthy, laudable. 

59. klu; — ; k\v; — ; wash, cleanse. 
Kkv-t^ia, to wash ; /cA-J-Scdv, a wave. 

J clu-o (= purgo), to cleanse ; clo-aca, a sewer, a drain. 

60. sku, skav; kav; koF; cav; look, observe. 

Ko-e-o), to perceive, to hear ; 0vo-(rK6o<s, one who looks on at a 
sacrifice, a sacrificing priest ; olkov-o), to hear, [acoustic] ; aKov-rj, 
oLKo-^, hearing, a sound. 

cav-eo, to be on one's guard, to take care; cau-tus, careful, 
wary, cautious ; can-tio, caution ; cu-ra, care, [cure] ; cii-ro, to 
care for, [curate, curator] ; se-ou-nis (se = sine, cura), free from 
care, free from danger, secure, [sure] ; cii-riosus, careful, inquir- 
ing eagerly or anxiously about a thing, curious; cu-riosltas, 
curiosity ; cau-sa, canssa, a cause, [causal, because] ; ac-cii-so 
(orig. = ad causam provocare), to call one to account, to accuse; 
ex-cii-so (prop, to release from a charge), to excuse; in-cu-so, to 
accuse, to complain of; re-cu-so, to make an objection against, 
to refuse, [recusant]. 



56 EEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

61. Koyxv, /<oyxo?j a bivalve shell-fish, mussel (muscle). 
concha, a bivalve shell-fish, mussel (muscle), mussel-shell, 

snail-shell, trumpet, [conch, conchology], 

62. 1^^> l^iv, — ; — ; scream. 

KOKKv^, a cuckoo ; kokkv, the cuckoo's cry ; kvkkv^(x), to ciy 
like a cuckoo, to crow, 
ciiciilus, a cuckoo. 

63. KoX'iovos, KoX'(s}vy, a hill ; KoX-o(jf>ojv, a summit. 

cel-sus, high, lofty ; ante-cel-lo, to surpass ; ex-cel-lo, to raise, 
to rise, to excel; prae-cel-lo, to distinguish one's self, to excel; 
col-umen, cnl-men, the summit, [culminate] ; col-nmna, a column, 
a pillar ; col-lis, a hill. 

64. skap; — ; kott; — ; cut, strike. 

KOTT'Tiji, to strike, to cut, [apocope, syncope] ; KOfx-^ou, that 
which is struck, that which is knocked ofi", a piece, a short 
clause of a sentence, [comma'] ; kott-t;, a striking, a cutting in 
pieces ; kott-ci;?, a chisel ; kott-ls, a broad, curved knife ; KoV-t?, 
a prater, a wrangler ; kott-o?, a striking, suffering, weariness ; 
KOTT-tao), to be tired ; Koir-d^o), to grow tired or weary ; k(ocI>-6s, 
blunt, dumb, deaf. 

65. kar; — ; — ; — ; croak. 
Kop-ai, a raven ; Kop-^vrj^ a crow. 

These words are probably akin to the onomatop. words 
Kpa^o) [rt. Kpay\ to croak [like the raven] ; Kpio^o), to cry like 
a crow, to caw. 

cor-vus, a raven ; cor-nix, a crow. 

66. skar, skar-d, skra-d; (kurd, a spring, a leap); KpaS; 
card; swing. 

KpdS-Tj, the quivering twig at the end of a branch, a branch ; 
KpaS'doi, KpaS-atVco, to swing. 

card-0, a hinge ; card-inalis, of a door-hinge, on which some- 
thing turns or depends, principal, cardinal. 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 57 

67. kar; kar; Kpa, Kpav; cer, ere; do, make. 

KpatV-o), to accomplish, fulfil ; Kpav-royp, Kpet-oiv, Kpi-o)v, a 
ruler ; Kpdi/09, Cronos (identified with the Latin Saturnus), son 
of Uranus and Gaia ; Kpa-rv^, strong ; Kpa-rvvo), to strengthen ; 
Kpd-To<Sf Kap'Tos, strength ; /c/aa-reoo, to be strong, to rule ; icap- 
repos, /cpa-ratos, strong, mighty ; dptcrroKpaTta (apto-ro?, best), 
the rule of the best-born, an aristocracy ; avro-KpaTrj^, (avros, 
self), ruling by one's self, having full power, [autocrat] ; Stj^jlo- 
Kparia (Srjiuio's, the people), democracy/, popular government. 

Oer-es, Ceres (prob. the goddess of creation), the goddess of 
agriculture ; Oer-ealis, pertaining to Ceres, pertaining to grain 
or agriculture, cereal; pro-cer-us, high ; cre-o (old form cer-eo), 
to bring forth, produce, make, create, beget, [creator, creature] ; 
pro-cre-o, to bring forth, beget, procreate ; re-cre-o, to make or 
create anew, to restore to a good condition, re-create, recreate, 
[re-creation, recreation] ; cre-sco (inch.), to come forth, appear. 
grow up, increase, [crescent], (compd. w. ad, com, de, in, pro, 
re, sub), [accretion, concrete, concretion, decrease, decrement^ 
increase, increment] ; cre-ber (lit. made to increase), frequent, 
numerous; cor-pus, a body (whether living or lifeless), a corpse, 
[corps, corporal, corporeal, corpulent] ; cor-poro, to make or 
fashion into a body, (compd. w. ad, com, in), [corporate, in- 
corporate, corporation, incorporation]] caer-MoiiIa, cer-Imoiila 
(sacred work, divine rite), sanctity, veneration, a religious 
cererriony. 

68. kru, krav, karv; — ; — ; — ; be hard, curdle. 
Kpi-as, flesh ; Kpel-ov, a meat-tray. 

crii-or, blood ; cru-entus, bloody ; car-o, flesh ; car-nalis, fleshly, 
carnal. 

69. skar; kar; Kpi; cer, car (for skar) ; separate. 

Kpl-voi, to separate, judge, decide ; Kpt-pivov, coarse ground 
barley; KpX-rrj?, a judge; Kpt-cns, decision, trial, crisis; KpX-rX- 
Kos, critical, [critic, criticise] ; KpX-Trjptov, a test, a criterion. 

cer-n-o, to separate, distinguish, perceive, decide, (compd. w. 
com, de, dis, ex, in, se, sub, super), [concern, decree, discern. 



58 EEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

discreet, secern, secrete, secret, secretary^ ; cer-tus (part.), deter- 
mined ; cer-tus (adj.), established, certain; cer-to, cer-te, cer- 
tainly ; cer-to (freq.), to decide something by a contest, to 
fight ; con-cer-to, to contend zealously, \_conce7^t, concert] ; de- 
cer-to, to fight earnestly, to fight it out ; cri-brum, a sieve ; 
cri-men [contr. from cemimen, (lit. a judicial decision)], a charge, 
a crime; criminalis, criminal ; crimino, to accuse, to criminate ; 
dis-cri-men, separation, distinction ; dis-cri-mino, to separate, 
distinguish, discriminate. 

70. kru; (kru-ras, sore) ; Kpv; cru; be hard. (This root is prob- 
ably connected with Nos. 42 and 68.) 

Kpv-os, Kpv-fxos, icy-cold, frost ; Kpyo-ofxat, to be icy-cold ; 
Kpv6'€is, chilling ; Kpy-o-raivofjiaL, to be congealed ; Kpv-o-ToXXos, 
ice, crystal. 

. cru-sta, the hard surface of a body, shell, crust ; cru-sto, to 
cover with a rind, shell, etc.; in-cru-sto, to incrust; cru-dus, 
bloody, raw, unripe, crude ; cm-delis, cruel, fierce. 

71. Greek rt. Kxa, Krav, kt6V. 

KT€Lv-(x), to kill ; KTov-os, murdcr ; fcatV-w, to kill. 

72. Greek rt. kti. 

iv-KTc-fievos, well-built ; Trcpt-Kxt-ove?, dfji<l>L'KTi-ov€'s, the dwell- 
ers around, neighbors ; ktl-1<x), to settle, found, build ; ktl-o-cs, 
a founding, a settling. 

73. ku; cvi; kv, koi; — ; swell, be hollow. 

Ku-eo), to be pregnant ; kv-os, Kv-r]/jba, Kv-fia, a foetus ; kv-jjuo, 
the swell of the sea, wave ; Kv-ap, kv-to's, a hollow ; Kot-Aos, 
hollow ; KOi-Xta, a belly ; /cav-Ao?, a stalk. 

in-cl-ens, pregnant ; cav-us, hollow, [cave, cavity] ; cav-ema, 
a hollow, a cavern; cau-lis, a stalk; cau-lae, an opening, a 
hollow; cae-lum, coe-lum (for cav-ilum), the sky; cae-lestis, 
celestial. 



EEGULAE SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 59 

74. kar, kvar, kur ; (k^a-kr-a-s for ka-kra-s, wheel) ; Kvp, kv\ ; 

— ; curved. 

Kvp-Tos, curved, [croo^] ; dp-Ko^, a circle, a kind of hawk 
which flies in a circle ; kv\-X6<s, crooked ; ku-kAos, a circle, 
[cycle^ cycloid, cyclone, cyclopedia, or cyclopaedia (TratSeta, edu- 
cation)] ; Kv\'L(x) (KvX-tVSw), to roll along; Kop-u)vr), anything 
curved, e.g., the curved stem of a ship; Kop-o)v6g, Kop-covts, 
curved. 

cir-cus, a circular line, a circle ; cir-culus (contr. circlus), a 
circular figure, a circle; cir-ciilor, to form a circle, [circulate, 
circulation] ; cir-cum, cir-ca, around ; cor-ona, a garland, a crown, 
a circle of men, a corona, [coronal, coronation, coronel, colonel 
(prob.), coroner, coronet] ; cur-vus, curved. 

75. KV'tav, a dog, [cynic, cynosure]. 

can-is (for ovan-is), a dog, [hound] ; can-inus, canine. These 
words are by some considered to be akin to those under No. 73. 

76. Kco-vos, a pine-cone, a cone, [conic, conical, hone]. 
ciineiis, a wedge, [cuneiform, ciXniform] ; cos, a whetstone, a 

hone ; cau-tes, a rough, pointed rock ; ca-tus, sharp to the hear- 
ing, clear-sighted, intelligent. Of these words the meaning of 
the root is '' pointed, sharp." Of. No. 2. 



77. ra, rak, lak ; lap ; XaK ; loqu, loc ; sound, 

€-AaK-ov, Xe-Ad/c-a, Aa-o-Kco, to sound, shriek, shout ; Aa/c-cpos, 
talkative. 

loqu-or, to speak, (compd. w. ad, com, e, inter, ob, prae, pro, 
re), [allocution, colloquy, colloquial, eloquent, interlocution, 
obloquy, prolocutor]] loqu-ax, loquacious; loqn-ela, speech. 

78. vark, valk, vlak, lak ; (vrack^ scindere); FpaK, FXaK, XaK; 
lac ; tear. ■ 

pd-K'Os, a ragged garment, a ragr ; Aolk-o?, Aa/c-t'?, a rent ; 
AaK-cpo9, torn ; Aa/c-Kos, a hole. 

lac-er, mangled, lacerated, torn to pieces ; lac-^ro, to tear to 
pieces, lacerate ; lac-inia, the lappet, edge or corner of a gar- 



60 EEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

ment, a small piece ; lac-us (anything hollow), a tank, a reser- 
voir, a lake ; lac-tina, a cavity, a gap, a defect. 

79. Acvo-cr-o), to look. (Connected, though not directly, with 
No. 80.) 

80. ruk, luk; (ruk^ appear, shine); \vk; luc; light, shine. 
aix<j>i'XvK-rj, morning twilight; Xvx'vos, a lamp; Acv/c-os 

(adj.), light, white. 

liic-eo, to be light or clear, to shine, (compd. w. di, e, inter, 
re, sub, trans), [look, translucent] ; luc-esco (inch.), to begin to 
shine, to grow ^ig^^j (compd. w. in, re) ; luc-eraa, a lamp ; lux, 
lu-men (for luc-men), light; lu-m!-no, to light up; il-lu-m!no, to 
light up, to illuminate; lu-m!nosus, full of light, luminous ; Itic- 
Idus, shining, clear, lucid ; lii-na (for luc-na), the moon, [lune, 
lunar, lunatic] ; il-lus-tris, lighted up, clear, illustrious ; il-lns- 
tro, to light up, make clear, illustrate, render famous. 

81. A.VK09, a wolf, 
lupus, 2. wolf. 

82. mak ; makara-s ; |j.aK ; mac ; extend, make large. 
juaK-ap, blessed ; fxaK-pos^ long ; ixrjKoq, length. 

mac-to (lit. to make large), to worship, honor, (macto is best 
referred to No. 320, when it means to kill, slaughter, destroy) ; 
mac-tus, venerated, honored. It is probable that there were 
three related roots existing side by side, rtiak (No. 82), mag, 
and m^agh, all three perhaps to be traced back to the root ma, 
and all with the meaning of extension. 

83. nak; nao, ; v€k ; nee, noe ; perish, destroy, injure. 

v€K-v<;, corpse; veK-p6^ (noun), corpse; v€K-p6<s (adj.), dead. 

nec-o, to kill ; per-nec-o, to kill utterly or completely ; nex, 
a violent death, murder, slaughter; inter-nec-io, inter-n!c-io, 
a massacre, a general slaughter, a destruction ; inter-nec- 
Inus, inter-nec-ivus, deadly, destructive, internecine; per-nlc-ies, 
destruction, calamity; per-nlc-iosus, destructive, pernicious; 
uSc-eo, to do harm, to injure ; noxa (^ noc-sa), harm, injury ; 
nox-ius, injurious, noxious, guilty. 



REaULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 61 

84i nak; nak; (st. wkt); (st. nocti); perish, destroy, injure. 

The root is the same as of No. 83, since night is said to be 
** no man's friend." 

vviy night ; vu/c-rcop (adv.), by night, nightly ; vvK-repos, vvk- 
T€pLv6<s (adj.), by night, nightly ; vvK-rept^, a bat. 

nox, nigfht, [fortnight] ; noctu, nocte, nox (adv'ly), in the 
night; noc-turnus, nocturnal; noc-tua, a night-owl; an owl. 

85. vik; vie; Fik; vie; come, enter, settle. 

otKos (FoLKos), olKta, house ; olK€Tr]<s, an inmate of one's house ; 
olK€-(Dy to inhabit, dwell. 

Vic-US, a village, [-wick, -wich, as in Berwich, NorwicK] ; vic- 
iniis (adj.), near, neighboring; vic-inns (subst.), a neighbor; 
vic-iiiltas, neighborhood, vicinity; villa (most probably for 
vicula, from vicus), a country-house, country-seat, farm, villa, 
[yill, village, villain]. 

86. OKTOJ, eight ; oySoo'Sy eighth. 
octo, eight; octavus, eighth, [octave]. 

87. pak; — ; ttck; pec; comb. 

7r€K-a), Tretfc-o), TreAc-re-o), to COmb, to shear ; 7r€K-09, ttok-o^, 
wool, fleece. 

pec-to, to comb ; pec-ten, a comb. 

88. TT^vK-Tj, the fir ; ttcv/c-wv, a fir-wood ; irevK-Xvos, of or made 

of fir. 

89. G-reek rt. ttik. 

TTLK-po^, Treu/c-eSavo?, bitter, sharp ; c;(e-7rev/c-€9 (J3iX.os), sharp. 
Connection of this root with No. 88 is probable. 

90. Pi^> pig; pic; TTiK ; pie, pig, pi-n-g; prick, prick with a 
needle, embroider, color, paint. (Connection of this root with Nos. 89 
and 88 is probable). 

TTOLK-iXos, many-colored. 

ping-o, to paint, embroider, (compd. w. ad, de, ex, sub), 
[depict] ; pic-tor, a painter ; pic-tura, painting, a painting, a 
picture ; pig-mentum, paint, pigment. 



62 BEaULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

91. plak, pla-n-k ; — ; (st. irXaK) ; plac; spread out. 

TrAa^, anything flat and broad ; TrXaK-tvos, made of boards ; 
irXaK-ovs, a flat cake. 

planc-a, a board, 2^ planlc; pla-nns (iov plac-nus), even, level, 
flat, plane. 

92. park, plak, plag; park^; ttXck; plag, plec, pile; braid, 
plait, entwine. 

7rXeK-w, to plait, weave ; TrXiy-fxa, anything twined or plaited ; 
irXoK-rj, a twining, plaiting, anything plaited or woven ; ttAo/c- 
a/xos, a lock of hair. 

plec-to, to plait, interweave; am-plec-tor, to wind or twine 
around, to encircle, embrace ; com-plec-tor, to entwine around, 
[complex, complexion] ; pllc-o,.to fold, to wind together, (compd. 
w. ad, circum, com, ex, in, re), [applicant, application, compli- 
cate, complication, explication, explicit, implicate, implication, 
implicit, replication'] ; snp-pllc-o, to kneel down or humble 
one's self, to supplicate ; sup-plic-atio, a public prayer or sup- 
plication; plag-a, a hunting-net; plag-!mn, man-stealing, kid- 
napping, [plagiarist, plagiarism, plagiarize]. 

93. TTopKos, a swine, hog, pig. 

porcns, a swine, hog, pig, [porJc, porcupine, (fr. porcus, 
swine, and spina, thorn)]. 

94. o-Acato9, left, on the left hand or side, [sJcew, aslcew] ; 
(TKaioTTj^ left-handedness, awkwardness. 

scaevns, left, toward the left side, awkward ; scaevltas, awk- 
wardness, misfortune. 

95. — 5 — 5 (st. o-KaXir) ; scalp; cut, scratch. 
a-KaXoif/, cnrdXa^, acnrdXa^, the mole. 

scalp-0, to cut, scratch, engrave, [scalp] ; scalp-rum, a sharp, 
cutting instrument, a knife; scalp-ellum (dim.), a small sur- 
gical knife, a scalpel; talp-a (= stalp-a = scalp-a), a mole. 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 63 

96. skand; skaucL; o-KaS; scad; move swiftly. 

(TKOLvS-aXoy, (TKavS-dXrjOpov, a trap-spring, a snare, stumbling- 
block, scandal; o-/cavS-aXt{a>, to make to stumble, to give 
offence or scandal to any one, to scandalize. 

scand-o, to climb, to ascend, (compd. w. ad, com, de, e, in, 
super, trans), [ascend, descend, transcend] ; sca-la (for scand-la) 
(mostly in pi. scalae), a flight of steps, a staircase, a ladder, 
[scale, a series of steps, a graduated instrument for measuring ; 
scale, to climb]. 

97. skap; — ; trKair, o-kitt, ctkiimt ; scap; support. 

o-KrjTT-Tix), to support, to press against, to let fall upon ; Dor. 
CTKaTT-o?, o-KrJTT'Tpov, CTKTyTr-tov, a staff; (TKyTT'TOS, a gust of wind, 
a thunderbolt ; crKLix7r-T<o, collateral form of o-k-^ttto) ; o-KtV-coi/, 
collateral form of o-KyTr-oiv. 

f soap-US, a shaft; scip-io, a staff; scop-ae, twigs; scop-io, a 
stalk ; scam-num (for scap-num), a bench. 

98. Grreek rt. o-Kair. 

(TKOLTT-Toy, to dig ; (TKaTT'OLvrj, a spade ; crKctTr-cTo?, /ca7r-cro9, a ditch. 

99. spak; spa9; o-Keir; spec; spy. 

orKeTr'To/xat, to look carefully, spy, examine, consider; o-kctt- 
TLKos, thoughtful, reflective, [skeptic] ; o-KOTr-ew, to look at ; 
(TKonr-rj, (TKOTT-td, a lookout-place ; o-KOTr-eXos, a lookout-place, a 
high rock ; o-kott-os, a watchman, a mark, [scope]. 

spec-io, to look, to look at, (compd. w. ad, circum, com, de, 
di, in, intro, per, pro, re, sub), [aspect (noun), circumspect 
(adj.), conspicuous (adj.), inspect, introspect, perspective, per- 
spicuous, prbspect, prospectus, respect, respite, suspect] ; spec-to 
(freq.), to look at, (compd. w. ad, circum, de, ex, in, per, pro, 
re, sub) ; ex-spec-to, expecto, to look out for, to expect ; spec-ula, 
a watch-tower ; spec-ulum, a mirror ; spec-triim, an appearance, 
image, spectre, [spectrum] ; spec-ies, a seeing, sight, appearance, 
kind, species; spec-imeii, that by which a thing is seen or 
recognized, an example, a specimen; spec-iilor, to spy out, to 
watch, [speculate]. 



64 REGULAE SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

100. ska, skad ; — ; — ; — ; cover. 

o-Kt-ct, a shadow, shade ; crKLa-p6s, (TKi€-p6% shady ; orKid-o), to 
overshadow ; o-kyj-vt], a tent or booth ; ctkot-o?, darkness. 

cae-cus (== sca-i-cus), blind ; ca-sa (= scad-ta), a cottage or 
cabin ; cas-sis, a helmet ; cas-trum, a castle, fortress, (cas-tra, 
pL, a camp) ; scaena, scena, the stage, a scene. 

101. sku; sku; o-kv; scu; cover. 

cTKev-rj, equipment, dress ; o-Kev-o^ (mostly in pi. o-Kev-rj), 
furniture ; o-Kcv-a^o), to prepare ; o-kv-to^, kv'To<s, a skin, hide ; 
i-m-o-Kv-vLov, the skin of the brows ; ctkv-Xov (mostly in pi. o-kv- 
\a), the arms stripped off from a slain enemy, spoils. 

ob-scu-nis, dark, obscure; scu-tum, an oblong shield; cii-tis, 
the skin, the hide; sp5-liiim, the skin or hide of an animal ; 
spo-lium (usu. in pi. spolia), the arms or armor stripped from a 
defeated enemy, booty, spoil. 

102. Greek rt. o-kvX. 
o-KvX-Xu), to skin, flay, mangle. 

103. cf>dXK-r]s, a crooked piece of ship-timber, rib of a ship. 
falx, a sickle, [falcon] ; flec-t-o, to bend, curve, turn, (compd. 

w. circum, de, in, re), [deflect^ inflect^ reflect, flexible]. 



104. ag 5 ag ; 0,7 ; ag ; drive, move, convey, lead, weigh, consider. 

ay-o), dy-Lveo), to lead, drive, hold, account ; dy-09, aK-roip, a 
leader ; dy-wv, an assembly, a contest ; dy-vta, a street ; oy-/>tos, 
a straight line, a furrow ; dy-pa, the chase, the prey ; dy-pevw, 
dy-pco), to hunt, to catch ; lyy-eo/xat, to go before, to lead, be- 
lieve, suppose, hold ; df-to?, weighing as much, worth as much, 
worthy ; df-too), to think or deem worthy of, to demand ; dya-v 
(lit. drawing), very ; dy-rjvoip (dyav, dvyp), manly, proud, stately. 

ag-o, to put in motion, lead, drive, (compd. w. ab, ad, amb, 
circum, com, de, ex, in, per, praeter, pro, re, retro, sub, subter, 



REaULAE SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 65 

trans), [agent, act, cogent, re-act, transact] ; ag-men, a course, 
line, troop, army ; ag-ilis, easily moved or moving, agile, [agil- 
ity] ; ac-tor, a doer, agent, actor ; ac-tus, the moving, driving, 
doing, act (subst.) ; ac-tio, a doing, an action; ag-!to (freq.), to 
put in motion, agitate ; amb-Ig-uus, drifting or moving to both, 
sides, uncertain, ambiguous. 

105. Greek rt. 0.7. 

a^-ofxai, to stand in awe of, to dread, to reverence ; ay-vo'Sf 
pure ; ay-tos, devoted to the gods, sacred, accursed ; ay-t^o), to 
hallow, make sacred ; iv-ay-i^u), to offer sacrifice to the dead ; 
ay-OS, consecration, sacrifice, 

106. aypo-s (stem aypo), a field ; aypuos, living in the fields, 
wild ; dypLOix), to make wild. 

ager (stem agro), a territory, a field, [acre] ; agricultura 
(better separately agri cultiira), agriculture; agrarius, pertain- 
ing to land, agrarian; peragro (per, ager), to travel through 
or over, to traverse ; peregnnor, to live in foreign parts, to 
travel about, peregrinate. These words are perhaps all to be 
traced to the same root as under No. 104, dypos and ager being 
so named '' a pecore agendo," like the German trift, pasturage, 
from treihen, to drive. 

107. arg; arg^ rag^; apY; arg; shine, be light or bright. 
apy-os, apy-T/s, d/oy-€vi/o9, dpy-tvocts, bright, white, shining ; 

apy-vpos (subst.), silver ; dpy-tXAos, dpy-IAos, white clay. 

arg-entum, silver, [argent]; farg-illa, white clay, [argil, 
argillaceous] ; arg-uo, to make clear, prove, assert, accuse, 
[argue] ; arg-utns, clear, bright, clear-sounding ; arg-umentum, 
proof, argument. 

108. gau; — ; -yav, ^aF; gau; be glad. 

yav-po<s, exulting, haughty; ya-t-w, to exult; yrj-Oiio, to 
rejoice ; yrj-Oo<s, yrj-Ooo-vvrj, joy ; yrj-Oocrvvos, glad ; yd-vvfiat, to 
be glad ; yd-vos, brightness, gladness. 

gau-deo, to rejoice (inwardly) ; gau-dium, (inward) joy. 



66 REaULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

109. St. ^oXaKT (nom. yoXol), milk. 

Latin stem, lact (nom. lac), milk, \lacteal^ lactation]. 

■ 110. yacTTT/p (St. yaarep), belly, [gastric']. 

venter (perh. for gventer), belly, [ventricle, ventriloquist]. 
Original initial g became gv, of which Latin retained v. Of. 
No. 509 and 514. ■ 

111. gam; — ; ^cji.; gem; befall. 

yejx-iDy to be full ; y€/A-t^(o, to fill ; yo/1,-09, freight ; yo/^-ow, to 
load. 

gem-o, to sigh, to groan ; gem-!tiis, a sighing, sigh, groan ; 
in-gem-o, in-gem-isco, to groan or sigh over a thing. 

112. ga, gan, gna; g'an; ^cv, 7a; gen, gna; beget, bring forth, 
produce, come into being, become. 

yc-yvofxai (for yt-yev-ofiai), to come into a new state of being, 
to come into being, to be born, to become ; yetV-o/xat, to beget, 
bring forth, be born ; yeV-os, race ; ycv-co, race, family, [gen- 
ealogy] ; yev'irrjp, yev-errjs, father, son ; ycv-erctpo, mother, 
daughter ; yeV-co-ts, origin, [genesis] ; yvvrj, woman ; yviy-o-to?, 
legitimate, genuine. 

gi-gn-o (for gi-gen-o), to beget, bring forth, (compd. w. e, 
in, pro, re); gen-Itor, father; pro-gen-Itor, ancestor, progenitor; 
gen-etrix (less freq. gen-itrix) mother; gen-s, a clan, house, 
race, nation; in-gens (in, gens, that goes beyond its kind), 
vast, great ; gen-tilis, of or belonging to the same clan or race, 
national, foreign, [gentile, genteel, gentle, gentleman, gentry] ; 
gen-ns, birth, race, genus, [generic] ; in-gen-ium, innate quality, 
natural disposition ; . in-gen-iosus, of good natural abilities, 
ingenious ; in-gen-uus, native, free-born, worthy of a freeman, 
frank, ingenuous; pro-gen-ies, descent, descendants, offspring, 
progeny; gen-er, son-in-law; gen-ius (the innate superior na- 
ture, the spirit), the tutelar deity of a person, place, etc., 
genius; indi-gen-a, native, indigenous; gen-uinus, innate, gen- 
uine; gen-erosus, of noble birth, noble-minded, generous; gen- 
gro, to beget, produce, generate, (compd. w. de, in, pro, re). 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 67 

\degenerate^ regenerate] ; gemlnus, twin-born, twin- ; gemini, 
twins ; gen-etivus, of or belonging to birth ; gen-etivus casus, 
the genitive case ; gen-ltalis, of or belonging to generation or 
birth, genital; na-scor (for gna-scor), to be born, to be begotten, 
(compd. w. circum, e, in, inter, re, sub), [nascent^ natal, cognaie^ 
innate']; 'pva,Q-gRB>-TiSf pregnant ; na-ttira, nature; na-tio, birth, 
a race, a nation. 

113. y€p-avos, a crane. 
gr-Tis, a crane. 

The Indo-Eur. rt. is perhaps gar, be old. 

114. y€p-(Dv, an old man ; ypav-^, an old woman ; yrjp-a^ old 
age. The Ind-Eur. rt. is gar, be old, become infirm. 

115. gws; gush; 7€u; gus; taste, try. 

ycv-o), to give a taste of ; yev-ofjiai, ta taste ; yev-o-t?, a tasting, 
taste ; yev-fjia, a taste, food. 

gus-tus, a tasting, taste, [gust] ; gus-to, to taste, [gustatory/, 
disgust]. 

116. yrj (contr. from yea), ya-t-o, Earth, land, the earth, 
[geode, geodesy, geography, geology, geometry] ; yet-rwv, a neigh- 
bor. The Indo-Eur. rt. is probably ga, go (No. 509) or 
No. 112. 

117. gar; gar; 7ap; gar; sound, call. 
yrjp-v<s, speech, voice ; yrjp-voi, to speak. 

gar-rio (for gar-sio), to chatter, prate, chat, [call] ; gar-rulus, 
talkative, garrulous; gal-lus (for gar-lus), a cock; gal-lina, a 
hen ; gal-linacens, of or belonging to domestic fowls, gallina- 
ceous. 

118. Greek rt. 7Xa<|>. 

y\d(j>-(a, to hew, dig, hollow out ; yAa<^-v, a hollow ; yXa<^- 
vp6^, hollow, smooth, 
glab-er, smooth, bald. 



68 EEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

119. Greek rt. •y\v<|>. 

yAuc^-o), to carve, engrave, \_glyphic, hieroglyphic] ; yXu^-avos, 
a carving-tool ; yXv7r-r7]<s, a carver, a sculptor. 

fglub-o, to deprive of the bark, to peel; glu-ma, a liull or 
husk. 

120. gan, gna ; gua ; -yvo, yv<a ; gna, gno ; perceive, know. 
yL-yvu)-(TK(i), to learn to know, to perceive, to know, to ken, 

[can, con] ; yvw-o't?, a seeking to know, knowledge ; yvw-fir), a 
means of knowing, mind, opinion ; yvw-crro?, yvw-ro?, known ; 
yv(j}'pL^(ay to make known ; voos, mind ; i/oea>, to perceive, to 
think. 

gna-nis, gna-ruris, Jna-rus, knowing, skilful; i-gna-rus (in, 
gnarus), ignorant ; i-gno-ro, not to know, [ignore, ignorant] ; 
nar-ro, to make known, tell, narrate, (compd. w. e, prae, re) ; 
na-vns {gna-vus), diligent, active ; i-gna-vus, inactive, slothful ; 
no-SCO (— gno-sco), to g»t a knowledge of, to come to know ; 
i-gno-sco, not know, to pardon, overlook ; a-gno-sco, to know, 
to recognize (an object already known) ; co-gno-sco, to become 
acquainted with, to learn, [cognition, cognizant, connoisseur]] 
re-co-gno-sco, to know again, to recognize, [recognition] ; no-tio, 
an examination, an idea, a notion; no-bllis (= gno-bilis), that 
can be known or is known, famous, noble; no-ta, a mark, sign, 
note; no-to, to mark, to note, (compd. w. ad, de, e, prae, sub), 
[notation, annotation, denote]] nor-ma {j= gnor-ima), a square, 
a rule ; nor-malis, made according to the square, [norrnal] ; 
e-nor-mis (out of rule), irregular, immoderate, enormous ; e-nor- 
mltas, irregularity, vastness, enormity. 

There is a relationship between the root yvo, perceive, and 
the root ycv, produce. The connecting link is probably the 
idea of coming contained in the root ga, gam. 

121. yovvy knee ; yow-oo/xat, yovv-d^ofxat, to clasp another's 
knees, to implore ; yvv$y with bent knee ; irpo-xyv, with the 
knees forward, on one's knees. 

genu, the Jmee, [genuflection]. 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 69 

122i skrabh; — ; 7pa(|>; scrib, scrob, scrof; dig, grave. 

ypa<^-o), to grave, scratch, write, \_-grapK\ ; ypacf^-rj, writing ; 
ypacl>-LSi a style for writing ; ypac^-t/co?, of or for writing, 
graphic; ypa/x-zxij, a line; ypafx-fxa, a letter, \_grammar\ 

scrof-a, a sow, [^scrofula'] ; scrob-is, a ditch ; scrib-o, to write, 
(compd. w. ad, circum, com, de, ex, in, inter, per, post, prae, 
pro, re, sub, super, trans), [ascribe, circumscribe, conscript, 
describe, inscribe, postscript, prescribe, proscribe, rescript, sub- 
scribe, superscribe, transcribe] ; scrib-a, a public writer, a secre- 
tary, scribe. 

123. Greek rt. Fcp^. 

IpS-o), piCoi, to do ; epy-ov, WOrJc ; c/oy-a^o/xat, to work ; opy- 
avov^ an instrument, an organ ; opy-ia, secret rites, orgies. 

124. varg ; varg' ; FcpY, F€ip7 ; urg ; press, turn, urge. 

€py-(i), €ipy-o), €ipy-(ji, to shut in, to shut out, to hinder ; etpy- 
/Lto9, a shutting in or up, a prison ; elpK-ry, an inclosure, a prison, 
urg-eo, to press, to urge, (compd. w. ex, per, sub). 

125. juj yu, yu-g, yu-dh; jug'; Ivy; jug; bind, join. 
^evy-vv/iii, to join, yoke; ^evy-p^a, a band, bond, zeugma; 

f e{)y-o9, a team ; 6/i,o-^vy-o9, yoked together ; ^ary-ov, ^uy-os, a 

yoke. 

jus (that which joins together, that which is binding in its 
tendency or character), right, law, justice, [jurist] ; jus-tus, 
just; jus-titia,jii^sfo*ce; ju-dex, a^'^^c?^^; ju-dlco, to judge, (compd. 
w. ab, ad, di, prae), [adjudge, adjudicate, prejudge, prejudicate] ; 
jti-diciiim, a judgment ; ju-dicialis, judicial; prae-ju-dicium, a 
preceding judgment, a prejudice; ju-ro, to swear, to take an 
oath, (compd. w. ab, e, com, de, ex), [abjure, conjure] ; per-ju-ro, 
per-je-ro, pe-je-ro, {^er.juro), to swear falsely, to perjure one's 
self; per-ju-rium, perjury ; jur-go {jus, ago), to quarrel, to 
proceed at law ; in-ju-ria, anything that is done contrary to 
justice, injury ; ju-n-go, to join, yoke, (compd. w. ab, ad, com, 
dis, in, inter, se, sub), [adjoin, adjunct, conjoin, conjunctive, 
conjunction, disjoin, disjunct, disjunctive, subjoin, subjunctive] ; 



70 EEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

jug-um, a yolce; ju-mentum (ior jugimentum), a draught-animal ; 
con-junx, con-jux, husband, wife ; con-jug-alis, relating to mar- 
riage, conjugal; jiig-o, to bind, join, marry; con-jugo, to join 
together, unite, conjugate; sub-jug-o, to bring under the yoke, 
to subjugate ; bi-gae, bi-ga, (for bijugae)^ a pair of horses yoked 
together, a car or chariot drawn by two horses ; jiig-enim, an 
acre (or, rather, Sijuger) of land ; jux-ta (superlative form from 
jugis), near to, nigh, [juxtaposition] ; cunctus (contr. from con- 
junctus) [more freq. in pi. cuncti], all together, all ; jug-iilum, 
(the joining thing), the collar-bone, the throat, [jugular] ; 
jug-iilo, to cut the throat, to kill ; jil-beo, (perhaps from jus, 
habeo), to order, to command. 

126. dliigh; dih; Oi-y; fig, fi-n-g; touch, feel, knead. 

Oiy-ydv-ii}, to touch ; e-Ocy-ov, I touched ; Oty'rjfjia, a torch. 

fi-n-g-o, to shape, form, contrive, feign, [feint] ; fio-tio, a 
iorming, fiction ; fig-men, fig-mentum, formation, figure, produc- 
tion, fiction, figment ; fig-ulus, a potter; flg-tira, iovm, figure ; 
flg-uro, to form, to shape ; trans-fig-uro, to transform, transfig- 
ure ; ef-fig-ies, an imitation, image, ef 



127. lang, lag; — ; Xa^; lag; be slack, lax. 
Xay-ap6<s, slack, thin ; Xay-vos, lewd. 

laiign-eo, to be weak or languid ; langu-esco (inch.), to become 
weak or languid ; langu-ldus, faint, weak, languid; langu-or, 
weakness, languor; lax-ns, wide, loose, lax; lax-o, to make 
wide or roomy, to unloose, slacken ; re-lax-o, to stretch out or 
widen again, to unloose, relax ; pro-lix-us (pro, laxus), stretched 
far out, long, prolix. 

128. Connection of this number with 127 is probable. 
Xayya^o), Aoyya^w, to slacken, to give up, linger, [lag, lag- 

gard]. 

longu-s, long ; longl-tudo, length, [longitude] ; longinqiiiis, long, 
distant, prolonged. 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 71 

129. rug; rug'; \vy; lug; be grieved. 

Xvypos, sad, baneful ; Xevy-aXeo-s^ wretched ; Xotyo?, ruin ; 
Xoty-iO'S, ruinous, deadly. 

lug-eo, to lament, mourn ; llig-fibris, of or belonging to 
mourning, lugubrious; luc-tns, sorrow, mourning. 

130. lig; — 9 (st. Xv^); lig; join closely, bind. 

A.vy-o9, a pliant twig ; Avy-dw, to bend ; Xvy-to-ftos, a bending. 

l!g-o, to bind, (compd. w. ad, circum, com, de, in, ob, prae, 
re, sub), [alligation, oblige, obligate, obligation, liable, league] ; 
lig-amen, lig-amentnm, a band, [ligament] ; lie-tor, (lie who binds 
or ties the rods or culprits), a lictor ; lex (perh. fr. rt. Xex, 
[No. 150], denoting something laid down ; perh. fr. rt. leg, of 
lego, to read [No. 440], denoting that which is read, i.e., a 
proposition or motion reduced to writing and read to the 
people with a view of their passing it into a law), a law, 
[legal, legislate, legitimate]. ^ 

131 i mark, niarg; marg'; \i€\y; mulg; come into contact with, 
rub away, strip off. 

d-/x,€Xy-ft), to millc ; a-/x€Xf-t9, a milking ; d-/AoXy-ci;9, a milk- 
pail ; d-/xoXy-aro9, of milk, 

mulg-eo, to milk ; mulc-tns, a milking ; mulc-tra, mulc-trum, 
a milking-pail. 

132. mark, marg; marg'; jiepv; merg; come into contact with, 
rub away, strip off. 

d-/x€/3y-cD, to pluck off; d-/xopy-og, a squeezing out; o-fxopy 
wfjii, to wipe away ; o-/xopy-/xa, that which is wiped off, a spot. 

merg-ae, a two-pronged pitchfork ; merg-es, a sheaf, a two- 
pronged pitchfork. 

133. varg; urg'; op^; virg; swell. 

opy-dco, to swell, to be eager or excited ; opy-rj, impulse, pas- 
sion, anger; opy-ds, a fertile spot of land; opy-ds (fem. adj.), 
marriageable. 

virg-a, a green branch, rod, wand ; virg-o, a maiden, a virgin. 



72 REGULAE SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

134. arg, rag ; arg ; op7, op€7 ; reg ; stretch, extend. 

opey-co, opiyvvfXL^ to stretch out ; opty-vdofJiaL, to stretch one's 
self, reach after, reach ; opey-fxa^ a stretching out ; 6pe$-Ls, a 
longing after ; opex-Oeo)^ to stretch one's self ; 6py-vLa, opy-vid^ 
the length of the outstretched arms, a fathom. 

reg-o, to keep straight or from going wrong, to lead straight, 
direct, rule, (compd. w. ad, com, di, e, per, pro, sub), [regent, 
correct, direct, erect]; por-rlg-o (por^=pro, rego), to stretch or 
spread out before one's self, to extend; pergo {^per, rego), to 
go on, proceed, pursue with energy, arouse ; surgo, surrigo 
{suh, rego), to raise, to rise, (compd. w. ad, com, ex, re), 
[surge] ; resurrectio (in eccl. Latin), a rising again from the 
dead, resurrection ; rec-tus (led straight along), straight, cor- 
rect, right; rex, a ruler, a king; reg-alis, royal, regal; reg- 
num, kingly government, kingdom, dominion ; reg-tila, a rule, 
[o^egular] ; reg-io, a direction, line, boundary-line, portion (of 
the earth or the ]iQ2iYen^),%region ; erga (syncop. for e-rega, 
from ex and the root reg, to reach upward, be upright), over 
against, opposite, toward ; ergo (for e-rego, from ex and the 
root reg, to extend upward), proceeding from or out of, in 
consequence of, because of, consequently, therefore. 

135. stag; sthag; o-tcy; steg, teg; cover. 

o-rey-o), to cover ; crTey-Ty, riy-t]^ o-rey-og, Tky-o%^ a roof, a 
house ; o-rey-aro?, o-rey-vo?, closely covered. 

steg-a, the deck of a ship ; teg-o, to cover, (compd. w. cir- 
cum, com, de, in, ob, per, prae, pro, re, super), [thatch, decic, 
protect] ; teg-l-men, teg-u-men, teg-men, a covering, [integu- 
ment] ; teg-ti-lae, tiles, roof- tiles ; tec-tnm, a roof ; t6g-a, a 
garment, the toga ; tug-urinm (teg-urium, tig-nrium), a hut, a 
cottage. 

136. o-c^tyy-w, bind tight or fast; cr<jf>ty/<-ro?, tight-bound; 
o-<^t^-t?, o-^ty-/>tos, a binding tight ; <^t-/>to9, a muzzle. 

fig-o, to fix, fasten, (compd. w. ad, circum, com, de, in, ob, 



EEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 73 

prae, re, sub, trans), [affix, infix, prefix, suffix, transfix] ; fibula 
(contr. fr. figihixla), that which serves to fasten two things 
together, a clasp. 

137. vy-pos, wet, moist, [hygrometer] ; vyp6-T7j<s^ moisture ; 
vyp-atVo), to wet. 

iiv-esco, to become moist ; iiv-or, moisture ; ii-mor (not 
humor), a liquid, moisture, hum^or ; uv-idus, u-mldus (less cor- 
rectly humldus), moist, wet, humid; u-meo (less correctly 
hiimeo), to be moist or wet ; u-mecto (less correctly humecto), 
to moisten, to wet ; u-ligo, moisture. 

138. vag, ug, aug; vag, ug; v^; veg, vig, aug; be active, 

awake, strong. 

vyt-775, sound, healthy ; vyL-r}p6<s^ vyt-etvo?, healthy, [hygiene] ; 
vy-t€ta, health ; vyt-atVa>, to be sound or in health ; vyt-a^co, to 
make sound or healthy. 

veg-eo, to move, excite ; veg-eto, to arouse, enliven, quicken, 
[vegetate, vegetable, vegetation] ; v!g-eo, to be lively or vigorous, 
to flourish ; vig-esco, to become lively or vigorous ; vig-or, live- 
liness, vigor ; vig-il, awake, alert, [vigil] ; vig-il, a watchman ; 
v!g-!lo, to watch, [vigilant] ; aug-eo, to increase ; aug-mentum, 
an increase, [augment, augmentation] ; auc-tio, an increase, a 
sale by increase of bids, an auction ; auc-tor (incorrectly writ- 
ten autor or author), a maker, producer, author ; anc-toritas, a 
producing, authority; aug-ustus, majestic, augiXst ; Aug-ustus, 
Augustus, [August] ; aux-ilium, aid ; aux-iliaris, aiding, auxiliary. 

139. <^>;yo-s, oak ; <^7;y-cov, an oak-grove ; cf^-^y-Xvos, c^^^y-tveos, 
oaken. 

f fag-US, a beech tree ; fag-Inus, beechen. These words may 
perhaps be traced to the root </)ay (No. 340), thus referring 
originally to a tree with edible fruit. 

140. bhrag, bharg; blirag^; (|>X€7; flag, fulg; burn, shine. 
</)Xey-(o, (jyXey-eOa), to burn, blaze, [blink, bright] ; <^A€y-)u,a, 

a flame, inflammation ; </)Xcy-vpds, burning ; </>Xof, a flame. 



74 EEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

flEg-ro, to blaze, burn, (compd. w. com, de), [flagrant] ; 
flam-ma (=^ flag-ma), a blazing fire, flame; flam-mo, to flame, 
blaze; in-flam-mo, to set on fire, light up, inflame; in-flam- 
matio, a setting on fire, conflagration, inflammation; fla-men 
(= flag-men), (lit. lie who burns, sc. oflerings), a priest; flag- 
Ito, to demand anything fiercely or violently, to press earnestly, 
importune ; flag-!tium, an eager or furious demand, a disgrace- 
ful act done in the heat of passion, a disgraceful act ; flag- 
Itiosus, miajROus, flagitious ; fulg-eo, to flash, to shine, (compd. 
w. ad, circum, ex, ob, prae, re, trans), [effulgent, refulgent] ; 
fulg-or, lightning, brightness; fulg-ur, lightning, a thunder- 
bolt ; ful-men, a thunderbolt ; ful-mlno, to hurl lightning, [Jul- 
Tninate] ; ful-vus, deep yellow, tawny. 

141. bhrag, bharg; bharg'; <|>pv7; frig; burn. 

(jipvy-o), to roast ; <j>pvy-avov, dry wood ; cjypvy-eTpov, a vessel 
for roasting barley ; (j^pvK'Tos, roasted ; cfipvK-Tos, a fire-brand, 
signal-fire. 

frig-o, to roast. The words under No. 141 probably have 
some connection with those under No. 140. 

142. bhugh, bhug; bhug'; ^vy; fug; bend out, bend around, 
turn one's self, flee. 

</)€vy-a), to flee, [bow] ; c^vy-iy, flight ; ^v^a, flight, fright ; 
cfivy-d^, a fugitive, an exile ; <j>v^'is (^evf-ts), flight, refuge ; 
(jiv^-ifjiog (<^€uf-t/xo9), adj., whither one can flee. 

fiig-io, to flee, (compd. w. ab, com, de, di, ex, per, pro, re, 
sub, subter, trans) ; fiig-o, to cause to flee, to put to flight ; 
fiig-ito (freq.), to flee eagerly or in haste, to shun ; fiig-a, 
flight, [fugue] ; per-fiig-a, trans-fiig-a, a deserter ; fug-Itivus 
(adj.), fleeing SiWSij, fugitive; fug-Itivns (subst.), a fugitive ; 
re-fug-inm, a fleeing back, a place of refuge, a refuge ; subter- 
fug-ium, a subterfuge; fiig-ax, apt to flee, Aeet, fugacious. 



EEGULAE. SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 75 



gh; gh, h; x^ h, (in the middle of a word) g. 

143. — 9 arh; dpx; — ; worth. 

ap;j(-ci), to be first, begin, lead, rule ; apx'os^ a leader ; apx-y^ 
beginning, the first place or power, sovereignty ; ap^-^v, a 
ruler ; op;(-a/xos, the first, a leader ; dvapx-ta^ want of govern- 
ment, anarchy ; /xov-ap;)(-o9, /jLov-dpx-rjSj ruling alone, monarch; 
l€p'dpx'rj<s^ a high-priest, hierarch. 

144. agh, angh; ah; o-x? a-TXJ ^^Sy squeeze, press tight, cause 
pain or anguish. 

ayx-co, to press tight, to strangle ; dyx-ovrj^ a strangling ; 
^yX"'' ^yX"°^' near ; ax-wfjn, dx-opLat^ d;(-eva), d;(-€0), to be in 
grief, be troubled ; ax-09, pain, distress ; dx-Oos, a burden ; 
a^-^o/xat, to be loaded, weighed down, grieved. 

ang-o, to press tight, to cause pain ; ang-or, a compression 
of the throat, strangling, anguish, [anger] ; ang-ustus, narrow, 
close ; ang-ina, the quinsy ; anx-ius, distressed, troubled, anxious. 

145. vragh; — ; Pp€X, Ppox; rig; wet. 
/3pix'f^9 to wet ; ISpox-€T6<s, a wetting. 

r!g-o, to wet ; ir-rig-o, to lead or conduct water or other liquids 
to a place, to irrigate ; ir-rlg-uus, well-watered, watering. 

146. ragh, lagh; rah; Xax; lev for legv; flow, run, hasten. 
€-Xax-vs, small. 

lev-is, light (in weight), light (in motion), swift; lev-Itas, 
lightness, easiness or rapidity of motion, levity ; lev-o, to lift 
up, lighten, relieve, (comp. w. ad, e, re, sub), [alleviate, relieve]-, 
lev-amentmn, an alleviation. 

147. vagh ; vah ; €x, Fcx 5 veh ; move (tran 

ox'o^s, a carriage ; ox-^op^at, to be borne ; ox-'7/>ta, a vehicle ; 
0X-A.0S, a crowd ; ox-Aew, to move, disturb ; ox'^tos, a water-pipe. 



76 REGULAE, SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

veh-o, to bear, carry [wag (vb. and noun), weigh, wave (vb. 
and noun)], (compd. w. ad, circuni, com, de, e, in, per, prae, 
praeter, pro, re, sub, super, trans) ; veh-es, a carriage loaded, 
a wagon-load; veli-iciilum, a carriage, a vehicle, a wagon, a 
wain; vec-to (freq.), to bear, (compd. w. ad, com, sub, trans) ; 
vec-tor, a bearer, a rider, passenger ; vec-ttira, a bearing ; vec- 
tigal, a payment for carrying, impost, revenue ; ve-lnm (= veh- 
lum or veg-lum), a sail, a cloth, covering ; ve-lo, to cover, 
(comp. w. ad, de, re) ; vexillum (dim. of velum), a military 
ensign, a standard, a flag ; vex-o (freq.), to move violently, to 
trouble, vex; via (=veh-ia), a way; v!o, to go, travel; de-vio, 
to turn from tbe straight road, to deviate; ob-vio, to meet, 
prevent, obviate; de-vius, lying off tbe bigb-road, out of tbe 
way, devious; ob-vius, in tbe way so as to meet, [obvious]; 
ob-vlam (ob, viam) (adv.), in tbe way, towards, to meet. 

148. sagh; sah; (r€X» €x, ex; — > bold on, be strong. 

c^-co, to bave, to hold ; ex-ofjuat, to hold one's self fast, to cling 
closely ; o-xe-o-t?, a state, condition ; axo-fJ^oL, a form ; crxo-Xy, 
leisure (holding up) ; i$rj^, iietrj^y holding on to each other, one 
after another ; crxe-8oV, near ; to-x-o> (= o-t-o-cx-o)), to hold on, 
restrain ; tG^dv-a), to"xamw, to hold back, to check ; ix'Vpos, 
©x-vpos, firm. 

f schSla, (spare time, leisure; hence in partic.) leisure given 
to learning, a place of learning, a school, [scholar]. 

149. Greek rt. dx, o.yx, same as No. 144. 
€xt-9, ext-Si/a, an adder ; eyx^^^-s? an eel. 
angui-s, a serpent. 

150. lagh; — ; Xex; lee; lie (recline). 

Xex-os, a bed ; XeK-rpov, a couch, bed ; a-Xox-09, the partner - 
of one's bed ; Xox-evo), to bring forth ; Aox-eta, birth ; X6x-os, an 
ambush ; X6x-fJirj, a thicket. 

lec-tus, a couch, bed ; lec-tica, a litter, a sedan. 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 77 

151. rlgh; ligh; lih, rih; Xtx; lig, U-n-g; lick. 

X€L)(-o), Xt^-/xaa), At^-yLtct^o), to lick, lick over ; \i)(-av6-s, the 
forefinger ; Xtx-1/09, greedy. 

li-n-g-o, to lick, lick up ; llg-urio, to lick, to be dainty, fond 
of good things. 

152. stigh; stigh; a-ri\; stig?; stride, step, stalk. 

(rT€Lx-o), to walk, march, [stile, stirrup] ; crTt;(o-s, crTot;s(o-9, a 
row, rank, line ; a-Tixa-oixai^ to march in rank. 

ve-stig-o ? [etym. dub. ; perh. Sk. vahis (hahis) out, and rt. 
stigh], to track, trace out ; ve-stig-ium ? a footstep, trace, vestige. 

153. Greek rt. rpex- 

Tpex-oi', to run ; rpox-o?, a running, a course; rpox-os, a wheel; 
Tpox-t55 a runner, footman. 

154i gha, ghi; — ; x*»X*v; hi; yawn, gape, separate. 

XatV-o), ;i(a-o-K-a>, to yawn, gape ; x'^'^H-^i ^ yawning, hollow, 
chasm; x^'^^j chaos, space, a vast gulf or chasm; x^-O-vo?, 
gaping, loose ; x^"'^? ^ ^^^^ I XV' Mf ^ g^pi^g- 

hi-o, to open, open the mouth, be eager ; H-sc-o (inch.), to 
open, open the mouth, speak ; hl-atus, an opening, eager desire, 
hiatus. 

155. gadh, ghad; — ; x^S; hend; seize, take. 
Xa-v-S-av(o, to take in, hold, be able, [get]. 

pre-hend-o, prae-hend-o, prend-o, to seize, grasp, (compd. w. ad, 
com, de, re) [apprehend, comprehend, reprehend, apprehension^ 
comprehension, reprehension]', praed-a (= prae-hend-a ^= prae- 
hid-a), booty, prey; praed-atorius, plundering, predatory; 
praed-o, a robber ; praed-or, to plunder ; depraedatio (late Lat.), 
a plundering, depredation ; praed-inm, a farm, estate. 

156. ghar, ghar-d, ghra-d ; hrad, ghrad ; x^»S ; grad, gra*n-d ; 

sound, rattle. 

XoAa^a, a hail-storm ; xo^otf-ao), to hail. 

grand-o, hail, a hail-storm ; grand-Inat, it hails ; sug-grund-a 
(sub-grund-a), the eaves. 



78 REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

167. x^l^^'h on the ground ; xaixa-t^e^ x^/^^"^^^? ^o the grou^id ; 
yafxa-Oev^ from the ground ; x^l^'V^^'^'> x^"/^"^^^? near the 
ground, low. 

htim-us, the earth, the ground ; hum-i, on the ground or to 
the ground ; hiim-o, to cover with earth ; in-hum-o, to bury in 
the ground, inhume, inhumate, [exhu^ne] ; hiim-llis, low, hum- 
hie ; hiim-!l!tas, lowness, humility ; hSm-o (ancient form hemo), 
a human being, a man, [^ho^nicide^ ; ne-mo (= ne-hemo = ne- 
homo), no person, no one ; hum-aims, of or belonging to man, 
human, humane; hum-anltas, humanity. 

158. ghar, ghra; har; x^-PJ gra; shine, be glad, glow, desire 
enthusiastically. 

Xa^p-o), to rejoice, [yearn] ; x^P'^") ]^Y 5 X^P"/^^' ^ source of 
joy, a joy; x^P"^^? grace, favor; x^P'^^Co^w-at? to favor; x'^P'^^'-^^ 
graceful. 

gra-tus, beloved, grateful, agreeable, [agree] ; gra-tia, favor, 
gratitude, grace; gra-tiis, gra-tis, out of favor, for nothing, 
gratis; gra-tuitus, that is done without pay, gratuitous; gra- 
ttilor, to rejoice, to congratulate ; con-gra-tiilor, to wish joy, to 
congratulate; ardeo, to be on fire, burn, glow, [ardent, arson]. 

159. gliar; har; xep; Mr, her; take, grasp. 

Xetp, hand, [chirography] ; c^-xcp-T/s, easy to handle ; Zvcr- 
X^p-M-) difficult to handle or manage; x^P'V^ (^^j-)' subject, in 
hand; x^^P'^^ (— X^P"''^^)' worse, inferior; xop-^os? an inclosed 
place, a feeding-place, fodder, a yard, [garden]. 

hir, ir (old Latin), hand; ems, hems, a master; era, hera, 
mistress; her-es, an heir; her-edltas, heirship, inheritance, [he- 
reditary] ; hor-tus (an enclosure for plants), a garden; co-hors, 
a place enclosed, an enclosure, the multitude enclosed, a com- 
pany of soldiers, a cohort, [court]. 

160. ghjas, — , — , —, yesterday. 

X^es, €x^e9, yesterday ; x^'f o-5, x^^^-'^'o^, x^eo--tvo9, of yesterday. 
heri or here (for hesi^ orig. hes)^ yesterday; hes-temus, ci 

yesterday. 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 79 

161. ghl; (hi-ma-s, snow) ; xi; hi; winter. 

;(t-aji/, snow ; x^^'f^^ winter-weatlier, storm ; x^t-/xa^a), to 
expose to the winter-cold, to raise a storm ; ;(€t-^atVa), to raise 
a storm ; xl-ix^tXov, a chilblain ; ;;(€t-/x,cov, winter ; x^'-'f^^P^^^'^y o^ 
or in winter. 

hi-ems, winter; hi-emo, to pass the winter, to be stormy; 
hi-bemus, of winter, wintry, stormy ; hi-berna, winter-quarters ; 
hi-berno, to pass the winter, [hibernate]. 

162. xo'^O"?? X^'^^' 9^^^^ anger ; x^^-^'^o-s, bilious ; x^^'^^y ^^ 
be full of black bile, to be angry ; ^o^-o^^j to make bilious, to 
enrage ; /xeAay-xoX-to, a depraved state of the bile in which it 
grows very black, a melancholic temperament, [melancholy/]. 

fel, the gall-bladder, gall, poison. 

163. Greek rt. xpcji. 

Xpe/x-t^o), xp^fji-eTiCoi (onomatop.), to neigh, whinny, [grim^ 
grum] ; XP^H-'V^ XP^/^"^^» ^ crashing sound, a neighing ; xpo/x- 
aSo9, a crashing sound, a creaking. 

164. ghar; ghar; xp^; fri, fric; grate, rub. 

Xpt-w, to touch the surface of a body lightly, to graze, rub, 
anoint ; xP^-o-t?, an anointing ; xp^-fjua^ xp^-a-fjia^ unguent, oil ; 
Xpt-oTos, used as ointment, (of persons) anointed ; Xptcrros, the 
Anointed One, the Christ. 

fri-o, to rub, break into small pieces ; fr!-abllis, easily broken 
or crumbled to ipieces, friable; fri-c-o, to rub, [fricative] ; fric-tio, 
a Tvibhing, friction ; denti-fric-inm, a tooth-powder, dentifrice. 

165. ghu; — ; x^, X^^", x^^; fu, fud; pour. 

Xe(^)a), (fut. xev'-o-o)), to pour, [gush, gutter] ; x^'P-^f X^^"/*^> 
a liquid ; x^'"^^^? X^'V^ ^ pouring, a stream ; x^^^ (x^"^^)' ^ 
liquid measure, a heap of earth ; X'^"/^^^? j^ice, liquid ; x^'-^o?, 
juice, moisture. 

fo-n-s, a Qipring, fountain, fount [font] ; Jfu-tis, a water- vessel ; 
ef-fu-tio, to babble forth, to chatter ; con-fii-to, to cool anything 
by pouring water into it or upon it, to repress, to confute; 



80 REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

re-fii-to, to check, repel, refute, [refuse] ; fu-n-d-o, to pour, 
(compd. w. circum, com, di, ex, in, inter, ob, per, pro, re, sub, 
super, trans), [fuse, confuse, diffuse, effuse, infuse, interfused, 
suffuse, transfuse] ; pro-fu-sus (part.), poured forth. ; pro-fti-sus 
(adj.), lavish, pro/ztse; fu-sio, a pouring forth, a melting [fu- 
sion] ; fut-t!lis (=fud-tilis\ (less correctly fii-tilis), that easily 
pours out, untrustworthy, worthless, futile. 



t; t, th; t; t. 

166. aj/T-t', over against, instead of, [answer, fr. A.-S. and 
(against) and swaran (to swear) ; anti-, a prefix signifying 
against, opposed to, contrary to, in place of] ; avr-a, avry-v, 
dvTl-Kpv^ (advbs.), over against ; dvTL-o^^ ev-avrt-os, opposite, 
contrary to ; ai/T-oju,at, dvT-ao), avT-taw, to meet. 

ante (for anted, old form anti. The form ante-d is preserved 
in antid-ea, anteid-ea, and is to be regarded as an ablative, 
while dvTi and anti are locative in form, and avra is instru- 
mental), before, [used as a prefix in forming many English 
words (e.g., antedate), ancient] ; antSa (old form antid-ea, anteid- 
ea ; antea = ante, ea; cf. antehac, postea, posthac), adv., before, 
formerly ; an-terior, adj. comp., that is before, former, anterior ; 
ant-iquTis, ancient, [antique] ; ant-iquo, to leave in its ancient 
state, (of a bill) to reject ; ant-iquitas, age, antiquity. 

167. star; star; dcrrp; astr, ster; strew (cf. No. 185). 

do-TTjp, a star (the stars may have been so called from their 
being '* strewn over' the vault of heaven ") ; dcrre/odet?, starry ; 
darpov, a star. 

Stella (for ster-ula), a star, [stellar, stellated, constellatio7i] ; 
astni-m, a star, a constellation, [astral]. 

168. crt, still, longer, further, moreover ; irpoo-iTL, over and 
above. 

at, and ; et-iam, and also, and even ; at, ast, but, moreover ; 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 81 

atqui, but, and yet ; atque, ac, and also, and even, and; at-avus, 
a great-great-great-grandfather, an ancestor. 

169. €ro9, a year ; enyo-to?, lasting a year ; iTrja-iat, periodical 
winds ; ttJtcs (cr^re?), of this year ; veWa, next year. 

vetus, old ; veteranus, old, veteran ; veterasco (inch.), to grow 
old; vetustus, old, ancient; vetulus (dim.), little old. 

170. traXo?, a bull [from XraXos is derived Italia]. 
vittilus, vitula, a calf. 

171. /Aero, in the middle, in the midst of, among, with, after, 
(jLtera in form is instrumental and has perhaps no direct rela- 
tionship to fjL€(ro<s, though both words may possibly be derived 
from the root ma, No. 386) ; /xera^e, (adv.) afterwards ; /xera-fv, 
(adv.) between. 

172. 6o-T€ov, a bone ; oo-Teivo^^ ocrrti/o?, of bone, bony. 
OS, a bone, [ossify] ; oss-eus, of or like bone, osseous. 

173. pat; pat; ttct; pet; move quickly, (in Sk. and Gr.) fly, fall. 
Trer-o/xat, to fly ; uiKv-TreT-rjSy swift-flying ; Tror-dofxaL (poet. 

freq. of TreVo/xat), to fly about ; irri-pov, a feather, a wing ; 
TTt-TTT-o) (Dor. aor. €-7rer-ov), to fall ; Trroj-o-t?, a falling, fall ; 
TTOT-fio^, that which befalls one, one's lot, destiny. 

pet-o, to fall upon, attack, seek, (compd. w. ad, com, ex, in, 
ob, re, sub), [appetence, appetite, compete, competent, compe- 
tence, repeat] ; im-pet-us, an attack, impulse, [impetuous] ; per- 
pes (gen. per-pU-is), per-pet-uus, continuous, perpetual ; prae-pes 
(gen. prae-pH-is), flying forwards, swift of flight; acci-pit-er 
(from root ac and root pet; cf. wKVTrrepo?, swift-winged), a bird 
of prey, the hawk; penna (== pet-na, pes-na), pinna, a, feather, 
a wing, [pen]', pin-natus, feathered, pinnate, pinnated; pin- 
nacnlum, a peak, pinnacle (being in appearance like a feather). 

174. St. irera. TrcTa-wv-fJit, TrtT-vrjfJiL, to spread out ; Trer-atr/xa, 
anything spread out, (pi.) hangings, carpets; TreV-ao-os, a broad- 



82 REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

brimmed hat ; TreV-oAor, a leaf, a plate (of metal), [petal] ; TreVa- 
A.OS, outspread, flat ; irar-avT], a kind of flat dish. 

pat-eo, to lie open, to be open, [patent, Jathom\\ pat-esco 
(inch.), to be laid open, to become visible; pate-facio {pateo, 
facio), to make or lay open ; pat-ulus, open, spread out, wide ; 
pat-era, a broad, flat dish, a libation-saucer or bowl ; pat-Ina, 
a broad, shallow dish, a pan (fr. L. Lat. pannd) ; pat-ella 
(dim.), a small pan or dish, the knee-pan, patella. 

175. sta; stha; o-ra; sta; stand. 

e-(TT7j'V, I placed myself, I stood ; l-o-tyj-iull, to make to stand, 
to place, to weigh ; o-Td'cng, a placing, a standing, a party, 
sedition ; o-ra-fiLv, anything that stands up, (pi.) the ribs of a 
ship standing up from the keel ; G-Ta-/Ai/o9, an earthen jar or 
bottle ; to-Tos, anything set upright, a ship's mast, the beam 
of a loom, the loom ; o-r?;-/Aa)v, the warp ; o-tol-ti/p, a weight. 

sto, to stand, [sta]/], (compd. w. ab, ante, anti, circum, com, 
di, ex, in, ob, per, prae, pro, re, sub, super), [circumstance, 
constant, distant, extant, instant, obstacle, obstetrical] ; sta-tus, 
a standing, a position ; sta-tim, steadily, immediately ; sta- 
bllis, that stands firm, stable, [stability] ; sta-tio, a standing, a 
station, [stead, stead,y, steadfast, bedstead, homestead] ; sta-tor 
(fr. sto), a magistrate's attendant ; Stator (an epithet of Jupi- 
ter), the stayer, the supporter ; sta-tuo, to cause to stand, to 
set up, establish, (compd. w. ad, com, de, in, prae, pro, re, 
sub), [statute, constitute, destitute, institute, prostitute, restitu- 
tion, substitute] ; sta-bulnm, a standing-place, a dwelling, a 
stable; si-st-o, to cause to stand, to place, to stand, to be placed, 
(compd. w. ad, circum, com, de, ex, in, inter, ob, per, re, sub, 
super), [assist, consist, desist, insist, persist, resist, subsist] ; 
inter-sti-tium, a space between, interstice; sol-stl-tinm, the time 
when the sun seems to stand still, the solstice; super-sti-tio 
(orig. a standing still over or by a thing ; hence, amazement, 
dread, esp. of the divine or supernatural), excessive fear of the 
gods, superstition; de-stl-no (de and obs. stano), to make to 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 83 

stand fast, to establish, destine^ [destination] ; ob-stl-no (length- 
ened from ohsto), to set about a thing with firmness or resolu- 
tion, to persist in ; ob-stl-natus, determined, obstinate. 

176. stal; — ; crraX, crreX; stol; set, place. 

0-TeA-A.w, to set, place, despatch, send ; o-roA-o?, an expedition ; 
o-TaX-ii, a prop ; ary-X-rj, a post, a monument ; oltto'C-toX-o^, a 

messenger, an apostle. 

prae-stol-or, to stand ready for, to wait for ; stol-ldus ? (stand- 
ing still), dull, obtuse, stolid; stul-tns ?, foolish. 

177. Greek rt. (rT€fi.([>, <rT€iip, prop, stamp. 

crT€fJi(l>-v\ov, pressed olives or grapes ; d-o-re/Acjf)-!;?, unmoved, 
unshaken ; are^fi-oi, to shake, to misuse, [stamp] ; aro^-io), 
(TTo/B-d^o), to scold. 

178. Greek rt. <rr€V. 

o-reV-o), o-rev-axo), to groan, sigh ; crrov-o^ a sighing or groan- 
ing ; a-T€LV'(jD (Ep. form of o-reVo)), to straiten ; o-TctV-o/xat, to be 
straitened or confined ; o-rev-og, crretv-o?, narrow, confined, 
[stenography fr. o-rei/o?, ypdcfxi)] ; o-rcti/o?, a narrow space, press- 
ure, straits, distress. The meaning "groan" arises from that 
of '' confinement " or '* pressure." Cf. No. 188. 

179. Greek rt. amp, 

a-Tip-ofJiaL, to be without, to lack ; arrep-id), o-rep-tV/cw, to 
deprive of. 

180. o-T€p-€09, (rT€pp6<s, (rTip-L<f>o<:, hard, firm ; o-Tct/a-o, keel- 
beam ; o-rep-tcjir}, crretp-a, barren ; crTrjp'cyi, a prop ; o-Trjp'iCai, 

to set fast, to prop. 
ster-Ilis, barren, sterile. 

181. stap, stip; stha; ctt€<|> (for <rT€ir); stip; cause to stand, 
support, make thick, firm, full. 

crTicl>-(j), to surround, crown ; o-Tifx-fxa, crrec^-o?, crrcc^-avo?, a 

garland, [stem] ; o-recji-dvrj, an encircling or surrounding. 

stip-o, to crowd together, surround closely, surround, (compd. 
w. circum, com), [constipate] ; stip-ator, an attendant ; stip-es 



84 REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

(collat. form stips, gen. stlpis), a log, a post, a trunk of a tree ; 
stlp-is (a genitive from an assumed nom. stips, meaning origi- 
nally small coin in heaps), a gift, a contribution ; stip-endium 
(stips, pendo), a tax, tribute, income, stipend ; stip-iila (dim.), 
a stalk; stlp-iilor, (prob. from an unused adj. stipixlus, firm; or 
perhaps from stips), to bargain, stipulate. 

182. orrt-o, stone. 

183. stig; tig^; (ttiy; stlg, sting; prick, puncture. 

cTTL'^d), to prick, [sting, stick] ; o-rty-/xa, o-rty-jUT;, prick, mark, 
spot, a mark burnt in, a brand, [stig^ma] ; o-tlk-to^, pricked, 
spotted. 

f sti-lus, a pointed instrument, a style (for writing) ; sti-miilus 
(for stig-mitlus), a goad, incentive, stimulus ; sti-mulo, to urge 
onward, goad, stimulate; in-stig-o, to urge, incite, instigate; 
sting-uo (lit. to prick or scratch out, poet, and rare for exstinguo), 
to quench, extinguish ; ex-sting-uo, to quench, extinguish, de- 
stroy ; in-sting-uo, to instigate ; in-stinc-tus (part.), instigated ; 
in-stinc-tus (subst.), instigation, impulse, [instinct] ; di-sting-no, 
(prop, to separate by points), to separate, distinguish. 

184. o-To-fjLo, mouth ; crro-jxaxo^, mouth, opening, the throat, 
the orifice of the stomach, the stomach; o-Tw-fjivXo^, mouthy, 
wordy, talkative. 

185. star; star; <rTop; ster, stra; strew. 

cTTOp-e-vvv-fxt, (TTop-vv-fjiL, (TT p<j}-vvv- fLi^ to Spread Out, stTCiv ; 
o-Tpa)-/xa, a mattress ; o-Tpoi'fjLVTJj a bed ; o-rpa-ro^, an encamped 
army. 

ster-no, to spread out, (compd. w. com, in, per, prae, pro, 
sub, super), [prostrate] ; con-ster-no (conj. 3), to strew over, to 
throw down, to prostrate; con-ster-iio (conj. 1), to overcome, 
bring into confusion, to alarm ; con-ster-natio, confusion, con- 
sternation ; stra-ta, a paved road, a street ; stra-tus, spread out ; 
stra-tum, a bed-covering, bed, couch, [stratum, substratum] ; 
stra-men, stra-mentum, straw, litter; stra-ges, an overthrow. 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 85 

slaughter ; la-tus (old Latin, stla-tus), broad, wide, [latitude] ; 
stm-o, to place one thing by or upon another, to build, (compd. 
w. ad, circum, com, de, ex, in, ob, prae, sub, super), [construe, 
construct, destroy, destruction, instruct, obstruct, substructure, 
superstructure] ; stru-es, a heap ; in-stru-mentum, an implement, 
instrument. 

186. Greek rt. orrv. 

(TTv-w, to set up, erect ; o-tv-Xo^, a pillar, post ; o-ro-d, a 
colonnade, piazza,, portico ; ij o-ro-a rf iroLKiXr), the Poecile, or 
great hall at Athens (Zeno taught his doctrines here, whence 
he was called the Stoic) ; ^tcd'Cko^ a Stoic. 

187. o-TVTT-o?, a stem, stump ; o-Tvir-rj, tow. 

stup-pa (less correctly stup-a, stip-a), tow; stfip-eo, to be 
struck senseless, to be amazed [stupefi/] ; stup-ldus, amazed, 
dull, stupid. 

188. ta, tan; tan; ra, rav, tcv; ten; stretch. 

ra-j/^o), to stretch ; ra-vvo^ai^ ra-vv-juiaij to stretch one's self, 
to be stretched ; reLv-u), (tr. or int.), to stretch ; rt-ratV-w (Ep.), 
to stretch; ra-o-ts, a stretching; t6-vo<s, a cord, tension, tone; 
raw-, Ta-vao9, extended, long; a-rev-ysj stretched, tight, stiff; 
Te-Tav-09, stretched, rigid ; re-raF-o?, a stretching, convulsive 
tension ; reV-cov, a sinew ; ratv-ta, a band. 

ten-do, to stretch (compd. w. ad, circum, com, de, dis, ex, in, 
ob, obs, per, por, prae, pro, re, sub), [tend, tender (vb.), tension, 
tent, attend, contend, distend, extend, intend, ostensible, portend, 
pretend, subtend] ; ten-to or temp-to (freq.), to handle, try, 
prove (compd. w. ad, ex, in, obs, per, prae, re, sub), [ostentation, 
sustentation, tentative, tempt, attem.pt] ; ten-eo, to hold, to keep 
(compd. w. ab, ad, com, de, dis, ob, per, re, sub), [tenant, tenable, 
tcnem^ent, tenure, tenet, abstain, attain, contain, content, detain, 
obtain, pertain, retain, sustain] ; ten-ax, holding fast, tenacious ; 
per-tin-ax, that holds very fast, that continues very long, per- 
severing, pertinacious ; ten-ns (prop, lengthwise, to the end), 
as far as, to ; pro-tin-ns, forward, further on, continuously, 



86 REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

forthwith; ten-nis (prop, stretched out), thin, fine, delicate, 
[tenuous, tenuity'] ; ten-uo, to make thin, to rarefy (compd. w. ad, 
ex), [attenuate, extenuate] ; ten-or, a holding fast, an uninter- 
rupted course, tenor ; ton-o, to thunder (compd. w. ad, circum, 
com, de, in, re), [detonate, intone, intonate] ; ton-itrns, thunder; 
ton-US, a stretching, a sound, tone [tonic] ; con-tln-iius, connected 
with something, continuous; ten-er, soft, delicate, tender. 

The root of these words has the primary meaning " stretch." 
From this, three special meanings have been developed, viz. : 
1. thin, tender; 2. "that which is stretched out" (hence), 
string, sinew ; 3. tension, tone, noise. 

189. stag; — ; ray; tag; touch. 
T€'Tay-u)v, taking, grasping. 

ta-n-g-o (old collat. form tago), to touch, [tag, taclc, take, tan- 
gent] ; at-ting-o, to touch, attack, come to ; con-ting-o, to touch 
on all sides, to touch, to take hold of, to happen, [contingent] ; 
tag-ax, apt 'to touch, light-fingered, thievish ; tac-tus, tac-tio, 
touch, [tact] ; con-tac-tns, con-tag-io, con-tag-ium, con-ta-men, 
touch, contact, contagion; con-tam-Ino (— con-tag -mlno), to 
touch, defile, contaminate; taxo (— tag-so), (freq.), to touch 
sharply, to reproach, estimate, rate, [tax] ; in-teg-er, untouched, 
whole, entire, blameless, [integer] ; in-teg-rltas, completeness, 
blamelessness, integrity. 

190. ta ; — ; raK ; ta ; flow, die away, decay. 

Ty]K-oi (l-TaK'-qv), to melt ; TaK-€p6<Sy melting ; tt^ac-cSo)!/, a 
melting away, wasting away, decline ; Toiy-rjvov, rrjy-avov, a, 
saucepan. 

ta-bes, a wasting away, corruption ; ta-beo, to melt away, 
waste away; ta-besco (inch.), to melt gradually, waste away; 
ta-bum, corrupt moisture, corruption. 

191. TaT}/309, a bull. 

taurus, a bull, a steer. The etymology of these words is to 
be found in the adjectival use of the Sk. sth'draSj firm, strong. 
(Nos. 175, 186.) 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 87 

192. Pronominal stems : tu, tva, tava; tva; t€ (for tFc); te, tu. 
o-v (softened in ordinary Greek from tv), thou ; tgos (for the 

ordinary o-os), thy. 
tu, thou ; tuus, thy. 

193. Tcyy-(o, to wet, moisten ; reyft-?, a wetting. 

ting-o, to wet, moisten, soak in color, color, tinge; tinc-ttira, 

a dyeing, [tincture], 

194. tak, tuk; tak; raK, tck, tok, tvk, tvx; tec; form, generate, 
hit, prepare. 

TLK'TO) (aor. €'T€K-ov), to beget, to bring forth ; t€K'0<s, riK-vov, 
child ; TOK-ev^, a parent ; tok-os, birth, interest ; reK-fxap, a goal, 
an end; rcK-fxyp-iov, a token; to^-ov, a bow; to$-lk6<s (adj.), 
of or for the bow ; to rof-t/cov (sc. cjxipjxaKov), poison for smear- 
ing arrows with, [toxicoloc/y] ; rix-vrj, art ; Tc;(-i/tK09, artistic, 
technical; tc/c-tcdv, a carpenter; rvyx'^^^ (^ ^o^- ^-tvx-ov), to 
hit, happen ; tvx-Vj success, fortune, chance ; revx-(o, to make 
ready, make, produce ; tvk-o^ a mason's hammer. 

tig-num (= tec-nu7Yi)^ building materials, a stick of timber, 
a beam ; te-lum (= tec-lum), a weapon, a missile ; tex-o, to 
weave, fit together, construct, (coftipd. w. ad, circum, com, de, 
in, ob, per, prae, re, sub) ; tex-tns, texture, construction, text; 
con-tex-tus, a connection, [context] ; prae-tex-tus, (a weaving in 
front), outward appearance, pretext; tex-tllis, woven, textile; 
tex-tor, a weaver ; te-la (prob. = tex-la), a web, the warp ; snb- 
te-men {-= suh-teg-men^ contr. fr. subteximen), the woof; sub-ti- 
lls (sub, tela, prop, woven fine), fine, delicate, precise, subtile^ 
subtle; sub-ti-lltas, fineness, keenness, subtlety. 

195. tal', tul; TcX, TttX; tol, tul; lift, bear. 

TXTj-vai, to bear, endure ; rctA-a?, roAao?, rXrj-yioyv, wretched, 
suffering ; rdX-avrov, a balance, a thing weighed, a talent 
GL'TOLX-avTosy equal in weight, equivalent; raA-apo?, a basket 
reX-a/xcov, a broad strap or band, a pillar (in architecture) 
ToX-fxa, courage ; ToA-/xato, to bear, to dare. 



88 EEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

tiil-0 (perf. te-tiil-i ; ante-class, collat. form of few), to bring, 
bear ; tiil-i (used as perf. oifero), to move, carry, bear, endure ; 
tol-lo, to lift up, raise, to carry away ; la-tus (tld-tus), having 
been borne ; il-lat-ivus, inferential, illative ; pro-iat-o, to extend, 
to delay; tol-ero, to bear, support, tolerate; tol-erabilis, that 
may be borne, tolerable. 

196. tain; — ; tcji, rajji; teni; cut. 

T€fji-v(x) (2 aor. €'TafjL-ov), to cut; r/xTy-yco, to cut, cleave ; rofx-rj, 
the end left after cutting, a stump ; r/x-JJ-zxa, re/x-axos, a slice cut 
off; TOfji-cvsy one that cuts, a knife; ra/x-tas, a dispenser, a 
steward ; ra/x-ta, a housekeeper ; Tifi-€vo<s, a piece of land cut 
or marked off, a piece of land cut or marked off from common 
uses and dedicated to a god. 

tem-plum, a space marked out, a consecrated place, a temple; 
tem-pus(?), (prop, a section; hence, in partic, of time), a 
portion or period of time, a time, [tense, time, temporal, tem- 
porary, temporize, contemporary, exte^mpore, extemporaneous, 
extempo7'ize] ; tem-pestas, a portion of time, a tinie, time (with 
respect to its physical qualities), weather (good or bad), a 
storm, tempest; con-tem-plor (fr. templum; orig. pertaining to 
the language of augury), to*view attentively, observe, contem- 
plate ; ton-deo, to shear, clip ; ton-sor, a barber, [tonsorial^ 
tonsure]. 

197. tar; tar; T€p; ter, tra; step over or across. 

rep-fxa, a boundary, goal ; Tep-fjuav, boundary, end ; rip-Opov, 
an end ; T€p-/xto5, at the end, last ; T€/)-/xtdet9, going even to 
the end. 

ter-mlmis (collat. forms ter-mo, ter-men), a boundary-line, a 
limit, a term; ter-m!no, to set bounds to, limit, terminate; 
de-ter-mino, to limit, to determine, [determination'] ; ex-ter- 
mino, (to drive out from the boundaries), to drive away, banish, 
remove, destroy, exterviinate ; in-tra-re, to step or go into, to 
enter; tra-ns, across, through; tra-nstrum, a cross-beam, transom^ 
a cross-bank for rowers. 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 89 

198i tar; tar; rep; ter, tor, tri, tru; rub, bore. 

ret/3-co, Tpv-(D, T/3t-yS(o, to rub, [drill, throw, thread]] rpv-xw, 
to wear out, consume ; rip-rjv, smooth, delicate, tender ; Tc-Tpacv-io 
(rt-T/oatV-o), TL-Tpd'U)), to bore through ; rcp-eo), to bore through, 
to turn on a lathe ; rep-^rpov, a gimlet ; rep-rjSiDv,, a wqrm that 
gnaws wood, etc. ; rop-os, a borer; Top-6<s, piercing; rop-vo?, a 
pair of compasses, a turner's chisel ; rop-vvrj, a stirrer, a ladle ; 
Top-€V(i), to bore through, to work figures in relief, to chase ; 
Top-i(i), to bore ; rpv-jjua^ a hole. 

ter-o, to rub (compd. w. ad, com, de, ex, in, ob, per, prae, 
pro, sub), [trite, attrition, contrite, contrition, detriment] ; ter-es, 
(rubbed off), rounded off, smooth ; ter-§bra, a borer ; ter-ebro, 
to bore, bore through ; fter-edo, a worm that gnaws wood, etc. ; 
f tor-nus, a turner's wheel, lathe ; tor-no, to turn in a lathe, 
fashion, turn; tri-o, (the crusher, or the one that rubs to pieces, 
hence) an ox (as employed in tilling the ground) ; septentriones, 
septemtriones, (prop, the seven plough-oxen, hence) as a con- 
stellation, the seven stars near the north pole (called also the 
Wain, and the Great or Little Bear) ; tri-tor, a rubber, a 
grinder ; tri-tura, a rubbing, threshing ; tri-tiiro, to thresh ; tri- 
tlGiiin, wheat ; tri-bulum, tri-biila, a threshing-sledge ; tri-biilo, 
to press, oppress, afflict, [tribulation] ; trii-a, a ladle. 

199. — 5 tarp; repir, Tpau, 0p€<|>, rpccj), 0pa<|), Tpa<|> ; — ; fill, delight, 
comfort. 

TepTT'O) (rpaTT-et'-o/xev), to satisfy, to delight ; repif/L^, repTT'CDXrj, 
full enjoyment, delight; repTr-vd?, delightful; t/qcc^-co, to make 
firm, thick, or solid, to make fat, to feed, rear ; Tpo(j>-rj, nour- 
ishment, food ; a-Tpo4>'ia, want of food or nourishment, atrophy. 

200. tars ; tarsh ; T€p<r ; tors ; be dry. 

Tepor-ojjiaL^ to be or become dry ; rcpcr-atVw, to make dry ; 
Tpa(T-La^ Taper-id, a place for drying things ; rapo-'os, a frame 
of wicker-work. 

torr-eo (for iors-eo), to dry or burn; torrens (part, adj.), 
burning, (of streams) rushing, roaring, rapid ; torrens (subst.), 
a torrent; torr-is, a firebrand; tes-ta (tosta fr. torred), a piece 



90 EEGULAE, SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

of burned clay, a brick, a piece of earthenware, the shell of 
shell-fish ; testaceus, consisting of bricks, covered with a shell, 
testaceous; tes-tu, tes-tnm, the lid of an earthenware vessel; 
tes-tudo, a tortoise, tortoise-shell, tortoise (milit. term) ; terr-a ? 
(prop, the dry land), the earth, [terresti^ial, subterranean^ inter ^ 
terrier^ terrace]. 

201. tata; tata-s; T€TTa; t^ta; (Eng. papa), a name by which 
young children speaking imperfectly call their father. Cf Eng. dad, 
daddy. 

202. tras ; tras ; rpco- ; ters ; tremble. 

T/oe-o) (Homeric aor. rpeWa), to tremble, to run trembling, 
to flee ; rpi^-pcDv^ fearful, timorous. 

terr-eo (ters-eo), to make to tremble, to frighten ; terr-lfico, to 
terrijy ; terr-ibllis, frightful, terrible; terr-or, great fear, dread, 
terror, 

203. tram; — ; rpcfji; trem; tremble. 

Tp€fji-(x), to tremble ; rpoixo^^ a trembling ; rpofi-epos, trem- 
bling ; Ti-rpe/Ji-aivu), rpoiJi-iw, to tremble ; d-rpe/A-as, without 
trembling, unmoved. 

trem-o, to shake, to tremble; trSm-esco, trem-isco (inch.), to 
begin to shake or tremble ; treme-facio, to cause to shake or 
tremble ; trem-endus, (to be trembled at), formidable, tremen- 
dous ; trem-or, a trembling, tremor; trem-ulus, shaking, trem- 
bling, tremulous. 

204. Stems, tri ; tri ; rpi ; tri, tre, ter ; three. 

rpct?, T/a6-a, three ; rpt-ros, the third ; rpt-s, thrice ; rptcrcro?, 
threefold. 

tre-s, tri-a, three; ter-tins, the third, \tertiary\\ ter, three 
times ; ter-ni, three each ; tri-plex {ter, plico), threefold, triple, 
[trebW] ; tri-ens, a third part ; tr!-arii, a class of Roman soldiers 
who formed the third rank from the front; tri-bus, (orig. a 
third part of the Roman people), a division of the people, a 
tribe; trl-bunus Cprop. the chief of a tribe), a chieftain, a 



KEaULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 91 

tribune; tri-bunal, a judgment-seat, tribunal ; tri-buo, (to assign 
or give to a tribe), to assign, to give, (compd. w. ad, com, dis, 
in, re), [attribute, contribute, distribute, retribution^ ; tri-blitum, 
a tribute; tri-vium {tres, via), a place where three roads meet, 
a fork in the road, a cross-road ; tri-vialis, (prop, that is in or 
belongs to the cross-roads or public streets ; hence, transf.) 
that may be found everywhere, common, ordinary, trivial. 

205. tw 5 tu ; TV ; tu ; swell, grow, be large. 

Ti;-Ao9, tv'Xt}, any swelling or lump, a knot (in wood), 
[thumb] ; tv-Aooj, to make callous. 

tu-ber, a swelling, protuberance, [tuber] ; til-mor, a swelling, 
tumor; tii-meo, to swell; tii-mesco (inch.), to begin to swell; 
tiime-facio, to cause to swell; tum-ldus, swollen, tumid; tum- 
ulus, a mound, a hill, tomb. 

206. stud; tud; tv8; tud; thrust, hit, strike. 

TuS-ei;?, TuS-as, TvvS-dprjs, TvvS-dpeos, proper names signifying 
" Striker, Beater." 

tu-n-d-o (pf. tu-tiid-i), to beat, strike, (compd. w. com, ex, ob, 
per, re), [thud]; con-tu-sio, a bruising, a bruise, contusion; 
ob-tu-sus, blunt, dull, obtuse; ttid-es, a hammer. 

207. — 5 tup; Tuir; — ; strike. 

TVTT-T-a), to strike, [thump, stuTnp, stub, stubble, stubborn] ; 
TVTTos, TUTrry, tv/A'/xo, a blow ; TVTr-as, a hammer ; rvfjiir-avovy a 
drum. 

ftymp-anum, a drum, tympanum. 

208. stvar, stur; tvar; — ; — ; make a noise, make confasion. 
Tvp'ISyj, disorder, throng ; rvp-^a, pell-mell ; rvp-jSaCio, to 

trouble, stir up ; Tu/9-/?ao-ta, revelry. 

f tur-ba, uproar, confusion, a crowd ; tur-bo, to disturb, 
trouble, (compd. w. com, dis, de, ex, inter, ob, per, pro), [dis- 
turb, perturb] ; tur-bldus, disordered, disturbed, turbid; tur- 
bulentus, restless, turbulent; tur-bo, a whirlwind; tur-ma, a 
troop, a throng. 



92 REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 



d; d; 8; d. 

209. svad; svad; dS (<rFa8); suad; taste good, please. 
dvS-dvo) (e-aS-ov), to please ; yS-o/mat^ to enjoy one's self, to 

take pleasure ; ^8-os, '^S-ovrj^ pleasure ; t^S-us, yS-vfios, sweet, 
pleasant ; a(r-/xevo9, well-pleased, glad ; eS-avos, sweet. 

sua- vis (for suadvis), sweet, pleasant ; sua- vitas, sweetness, 
agreeableness, [suavity] ; sua-vium, (the sweet or delightful 
thing), a kiss ; suad-eo, to advise, to persuade, (compd. w. com, 
dis, per), [dissuade, persuade] ; suad-ela, persuasion ; sua-sio, 
suasion; sua-sor, an adviser. 

210. da, da-k; — 5 8a; doc; learn, teach. 

Se-Sa-€ (2 aor.), he taught ; Se-Sa-w? (2d pf. part.), having 
learned, acquainted with ; Se-Sd-aarOaL (for Se-Sa-ecr^at, 2 aor. 
m. inf.), to search out ; i-Sd-rjv (2 aor. pass.), I learned ; 
8t-Sao-K-a), to teach ; eSt-Saf-a (1 aor.), I taught. 

doc-eo, to teach, to show, (compd. w. com, de, e, per, prae, 
pro, sub); doc-!lis, easily taught, docile; doc-tor, a teacher, 
[doctor] ; doc-trlna, instruction, learning, [doctrine] ; doc-ilmeii- 
tum, a lesson, a specimen, [docui^iejit] ; disco, to learn, (compd. 
w. ad, com, de, e, per, prae) ; disc-Ipiilus (fr. disco and the root 
of jpuer, pupilla), a pupil, a disciple; disc-lplina, instruction, 
discipline. 

211. — ; daj; 8a; — ; distribute. 

Sa-L-u), to divide ; Sa-t?, Sat-rus, Sat'Trj^ a meal, a feast ; 8at- 
Tp6<;^ a carver ; hai-vv-fxi^ to give a banquet or feast ; BaL-w-fxat, 
to feast ; Sat-rv/xaiv, a guest ; Satt-w? to cleave asunder, to 
rend ; Sa-re-o/^at, to divide among themselves ; Sa-(r-/;tds, a 
division, a tribute. 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 93 

212. — ; du; 8aF; — . 

8a-t-(o, to kindle ; 8a-t-s, a fire-brand, torcli ; Sa-Xo-9, a fire- 
brand. 

213. dam; dam; Sajx; dom; tame, subdue. 

Sa/ji-d^-ix)^ Sa/x-a-co, Sa/x-m-oj, Sd/ji-vrj-fjiL, to overpower, tame, 
subdue ; Sa/x-ap, a wife ; Sa/x-oAT/s, a subduer, a young steer ; 
-Sa/xo9, (in compounds), taming ; a-S/XTy-ros, a-S/x?;-?, d-Sa/x-aro?, 
d-Sa/x-acrro9, unconquered, untamed ; 8/x(o-9, a slave. 

dom-o, to tame, subdue, \dauni\ ; dom-itor, a tamer, con- 
queror ; dom-inns, a master, [doTninie] ; dom-ina, a mistress, 
lady, wife, dame, [madaTne] ; dom-ininm, a feast, ownership, 
lordship, [dom^inion, domain] ; dom-inor, to be lord and master, 
to have dominion, [dominate, doTnineer, dominant, jpredomAnant\. 

214. dap ; dap ; Sair, Seir ; dap ; distribute. 

The modified root cZa^ is derived from the shorter root da 
(as given in No. 211), and possibly it is connected with the 
root da (as given in No. 225). 

SaTT-T-oj, to devour, to rend ; hanr-dvy]^ expense ; Sa7r-avrjp6^, 
Sa7r-avo5, extravagant ; Sai/^tX^y?, abundant, liberal ; Sa7r-vov, a 
meal. 

dap-s, a sacrificial feast, a banquet ; dap-ino, to serve up as 
food. 

215. dar; dra; 8ap0; dorm; sleep. 
8apO'dv-(x), to sleep. 

donn-io, to sleep ; \dormant, dormer, dormouse'] ; dorm-ito 
(freq.), to be sleepy ; dorm-itorium, a sleeping-room, dormiiori/. 

216. Sao-i;-9, thick (with hair, with leaves, etc.), rough ; 
Sav-Xo's', thick, shaggy ; Sd(ro<s, a thicket ; Sao-vvu)^ to make 
rough or thick. 

densus, thick, dense; denso, denseo, to make dense or thick, 
(compd. w. ad, com), [condense] ; du-mus (old form dusmus for 
de7islmus), a thorn-bush, a bramble ; dumosus (dummosus, dus- 
mosus), full of thorn-bushes, bushy. 



94 REaULAE SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

217. -Se, toward ; otKoVSe, homeward. 

-do (du) in en-do, in-du ; A. S. to ; Eng. to, 

218. — ; da; U; — ; bind. 

8e-oj, SL-Syj-fjiL, to bind ; 8e-crt9, a binding ; Se-Trj, sticks bound 
up, a fagot ; Se-cr-/^o?, a band, a fetter ; Kp-q-h^-^vov^ (Kpd^^ 
8ea>), part of a woman's head-dress, a veil; 8ta-8ea>, to bind 
around ; Sta-STy-jita, a band or fillet, a diadem. 

219. dam; dam; Scjj.; dom; build. 

Se/x-o), to build ; Se/x-a?, build, form, body ; Sofx-o^, a build- 
ing, a room, [timber'] ; 8to/xa, 8co, a house. 

dom-us, a house, [dome]; dom-estlcus, of or belonging to 
one's house or family, domestic, private ; dom-icilium (domus 
and eel-, root of celare, to conceal), a dwelling, domicile. 

220. dak ; daksh ; ScJ ; dex ; take hold of, seize. The root is the 
same as No. 7, with the addition here of an s. 

Sefto-s, 8e^t-Tcpo-9, on the right hand or side ; 7rept-Sefto9, 

d/x^t-Se^to9, with two right hands, i.e., using both hands alike. 

dex-ter, on the right hand or side, right, dexterous {dextrous), 

221. — ; dar; Sep; — . 

8ep-o> (Setp-co, Sat;3-(o), to skin, to flay ; Sip-o<;, Sop-a, Sep-/xa, 
skin, [c?(?r?7i, dermatology] ; Seppts, a leathern covering. 

222. 8€tp?/, Att. 8ep77, the neck, throat ; Setpd-s^ the ridge of 
a chain of hills (like avxw and Xocj^os). 

dorsum, dorsus, the back, a ridge or summit of a hill ; 
dorsiialis, of or on the back, dorsal. 

223. di; di, di; 8t; dl; be afraid, frightened, restless. 

8t-<o, to flee, to be afraid ; 8t-o/xat, St-€/xat, to put to flight, to 
flee ; Set-S-oj, to fear ; Sees, fear ; 8et-Ao-s, cowardly ; Set-vo-?, 
fearful, terrible ; 8et-/xos, fear ; St-vos, a whirling, dizziness, a 
threshing-floor ; St-vco, 8t-vcT;co, Sl-veo), to thresh out. 

di-ms, ill-omened, dreadful, dire, direful. 



EEGULAE, SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 95 

224. di, div, dyu ; di, div, dju ; 8t, 8iF ; di, div ; be bright, shine, 
gleam, play. 

Se-a-To, 8o-a-a-craro, seemed ; S^-Aos, clear, evident ; Zev? (st. 
Atf, gen. Aid?), Zeus; S'l'0<;, divine, noble; e^-Slos, at midday; 
€v-8t-a, fair weather, calm ; Atwi/ry, Dione. 

die-s, a day, [dial, dismal (dies, malus)] ; pri-die (fr. the obs. 
pri [whence prior, prirmis, pridem] and dies), the day before 
postri-die (loc. form fr. posterus and dies), on the day after 
cotti-die, coti-die (less correctly quoti-die) (quot, dies), daily 
prope-diem (also separately prope diem), at an early day, very- 
soon ; dlii (old ace. form of duration of time), by day (very 
rare), a long time ; inter-dlti, by day ; diur-nus (for dius-nus), 
of or belonging to the day, daily; J diur-nalis, diurnal, [jour- 
nal, journey'] ; du-dnm (diu-dum), a short time ago, formerly ; 
niidiiis (num [i.e. nunc] and dins == dies, always used in con- 
nection with ordinal numbers), it is now the . . . day since ; 
nudiiis tertius, three days ago, the day before yesterday ; div-us, 
di-Tis, divine ; divinus, divine ; div-us, a god ; div-a, a goddess ; 
deu-s, a god, a deity ; dea, a goddess; Diov-is or Dljovis (collat. 
form of Jovis, old norn. for later Juppiter), the old Italian name 
for Juppiter; Juppiter, Jupiter (Jovis, pdter ; Jovis for Djovis), 
Jupiter or Jove, [A. S. Tives-dag, Eng. Tuesday] ; Diana (for 
Divana), Diana; juv-o?, to help, to please; juv-ams, young; 
juv-enis, a young person ; juv-enilis, j oMiliivl, juvenile ; jiiv-eiicus 
(contr. ir.juvenicus), a young bullock; juv-enca, a young cow, 
a heifer. 

225. da, do, du; da; 8o; da, do, du; give. 

8t-Sa)-/xt, to give ; So-Trjp^ 8a>-T?//o, a giver ; Sd-o-ts, Sco?, a 
giving, a gift; Sm-tlvy], Sco-rvs, Sco-rt?, a gift; Sw-poi/, a gift, a 
present. 

do (inf. dare), to give, [da-te, n. and vb.] ; circum-do, to put 
around ; . pessum-do, to press or dash to the ground, to destroy ; 
addo, to put to or near, to add; de-do, to put away, give up, 
surrender, devote ; di-do, to give out, distribute ; e-do, to put 
forth, produce, [edit] ; per-do, to put through, put entirely 



96 EEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

away, destroy, waste, lose, [perdition] ; disperdo, to destroy, 
waste ; pro-do, to put or give forth, produce, publish, disclose, 
betray ; red-do, to give back, give up, [render, rendition'] ; 
tra-do (trans, do), to give up or over, to surrender, to transmit, 
to relate ; traditio, a giving up, a saying banded down from 
former times, a tradition; ven-do (contr. fr. venum, do), to sell, 
vend; da-tor, a giver; da-tivus, of or belonging to giving, 
(dativns casus, the dative case) ; pro-di-tor, a traitor ; de-di-tio, 
a surrender; de-dl-t!cius, one who has surrendered; do-mim, a 
gift ; do-no, to give one something as a present, donate, [donor] ; 
con-dono, to give up, pardon, condone; re-dono, to give back 
again, restore, forgive ; do-natio, a presenting, donation ; dos, 
a dowry, a gift ; do-to, to endow, provide, [subst. dower, dow- 
ry] ; do-talis, of or belonging to a dowry ; du-im, pres. sub., 
old Lat. for deni; damnum (for daminuni, neut. of old part, 
of d(Xre = To StSo/xevov), injury, damage; dam-no, to damage, 
condemn, damn; con-demno, to condemn; indemnis (in, dam- 
num), uninjured ; indemnltas, security from damage or loss, 
indemnity. 

226. Z6\o'<5^ cunning ; SeXeap, a bait. 

I dolus, guile, deceit; dSlosus, cunning, deceitful. 

227. — 5 <lra; 8pa; — ; run. 

aTTo-Spa-vat, to run away ; St-Spa-o-Kw, to run ; 8pa-cr-/x,o5, 
flight ; a-Spa-a-Tos, not running away, not to be escaped. 

228. Greek rt. Spa, do. (This root is possibly to be joined with No. 
227. Updaa-a} is originally a verb of motion ; the Skt. k'ar, run, and kar, 
do (No. 67), tar, pass over, and reAos, reXeTv (No. 197) are of the same 
origin.) 

8pa-(o, to do; Spa-yaa, a deed, act, drama; Sprj-crryp, a 
laborer ; Bpa-o-Too-vvrj, Sprj-o-Tocrvvrj^ service ; Spa-vos, a deed. 

229. — ; dram; 8pajji; — ; run. (This root is made from the shorter 
root dpa, No. 227.) 

e-Spa/A-ov, I ran ; Spo/m-o^, a running ; t7r7ro-8po/x-os, a chariot- 
road, race-course, hippodrome ; ^po/x-evs^ a runner. 



REGULAE SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 97 

230. Spv-?, a tree, an oak, \^Drmd\ ; S/)v-/xo9, a coppice, a 
wood ; Spu-To/xo9, '^pviyroixo'i^ a WOod-cutter ; SevSpov, SevSpeov, 
a tree, [dendriforvi, dendrology , dendrovieter'] ; Sopv, a stem, 
tree, spear-shaft, spear ; Soi^petos, Soupareos, wooden. 

231. Suo, Si;a), Sotot, z^i^;*?; 8ts (for SAs), twice; Se^j-Tcpos, tlie 
second ; Aev-repo-i/o/xtoi/ (Sevrepos, vofjio^)^ Deuteronomy (== the 
second or repeated law) ; Sotiy, doubt ; 8ta, through, apart (in 
compos.) ; St-x^? St-x^a, in two, asunder, two ways ; St-cro-os, 
double ; Svw-Se/ca, Scu-Se/ca, twelve. 

dilo, two, [deuce (in gaming)] ; dualis, that contains two, 
dual; du-plex (duo, plico), two-fold, double, [duplicity]; dfi- 
pllco, to double, [duplicate] ; du-plus (duo, pleo), double, twice 
as large, twice as much ; his (for duis, fr. duo), twice ; bi-ni 
(=z his-ni), two distributively, two for each ; bi-narius, contain- 
ing or consisting of two, [binary] ; com-bi-no (com, blni), to 
unite, combine; bi-vira (bis, vir), a woman married to a second 
husband ; dis- (in compos.), apart, asunder, away ; dii-bius (for . 
duhibius, duo, habeo, held as two or double, i.e., doubtful), 
moving in two directions alternately, wavering, uncertain, 
doubtful, dubious ; dii-blto (for duhlbUo, freq. fr. duhibeo, i.e., 
duo, habeo), to move in two directions alternately, waver, 
doubt; helium (ante-class, and poet, duellum), war, hostilities 
between two nations, [duel, belligerent] ; Bellona, the goddess 
of war ; per-duelHo, treason, a public enemy ; bello, to wage 
war ; de-bello, to finish a war, to subdue ; re-bello, to wage war 
again (said of the conquered), to rebel ; im-bellis, un warlike, 
weak. 

232. Svo--, insep. prefix opp. to e*, and, like the Eng. un- or 
mis-, always with the notion of hard, bad, unlucky, dys- ; Svo-- 
/xcviy?, ill-disposed, hostile ; Sucr-evrepta (Srcr-, evrepov), dysentery ; 
hvar-TTOpia (Sucr-, iriTmxi, Tricrcrijj), dyspepsia, dyspepsy. 

233. ad; ad; €8; ad, ed; eat. 

c8-w, Id'QL-ia^ €(r'6w, to eat; cS-cdS?;, i8-r}Tvs, cS-ccr/xa, etS-ap, 
food. 



98 EEGULAE. SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

ad-or (this word may belong to No. 251), a kind of grain, 
spelt, [oats] ; ad-oreus, pertaining to spelt ; ad-orea, a reward 
of valor (in early ages this consisted of grain), glory, fame ; 
ed-o, to eat, [edible], (compd. w. ad, com, ex, sub, super) ; ed-ax, 
voracious, edacious; in-ed-ia, fasting; e-surio (desid.), to desire 
to eat, to hunger ; es-ca (for ed-ca), food ; ves-cor (ve [here a 
strengthening prefix] and the root ed), to fill one's self with 
food, to take food, to eat ; vescus (contr. fr. ve [here a negative 
prefix] and esca), small, feeble. 

234. sad ; sad ; iS ; sed, sol ; sit. 

c^-o/xat, to seat one's self, to sit ; et-o-a, to make to sit, to 
seat ; eS-09, eS-pa, a seat ; IS-pvu), to make to sit down, to found. 

sed-eo, to sit, (compd. w. ad, circum, de, dis, in, ob, per, 
port [No. 317], prae, re, super), [set, settle, seat, sedentary, 
assess, assize, assiduous, possess, preside, reside, supersede] ; 
sed-es, a seat ; sel-la (for sed-la), a seat, a chair ; sol-ium (from 
root sol, kindred with sed), a chair of state, a throne ; sessio, 
a sitting, session ; de-ses, idle ; de-sid-ia, idleness ; in-sid-iae, 
an ambush, ■ plot, snare; in-sid-iosus, deceitful, insidious; ob- 
sid-io, ob-sid-ium, a siege ; prae-ses, sitting before a thing to 
guard it, protecting, presiding; prae-ses, a protector, ruler, 
president; prae-sld-ens, Si president; praesidiiim, a defence, a 
garrison ; subsidium, aid, support, [subsidy, subsidiary] ; sid-o, 
to sit down, settle, (compd. w. ad, circum, com, de, in, ob, per, 
port [No. 317], re, sub), [subside] ; sed-o, to allay, calm, check ; 
sed-atus, calm, sedate, [sedative] ; sed-atio, an allaying. 

235. sad; sad; eS; sed, sol; go. 

6S-o9,way; oS-tV?;?, a traveller; oS-evw, to travel; oS-o?, 
ov^-6% threshold ; ovS-a?, the ground ; eS-a<^09, foundation, 
ground ; Trept-oSo?, a going round, circuit, period. 

sed-ulus, busy, sedulous; sol-um, the floor, the ground, soil; 
s5l-ea, a covering for the foot, a sole, a sandal ; ex-sul ?, ex-ul ?, 
an exile ; ex-sulo ?, ex-ulo ? (also ancient form exsolo), to be an 
exile, to exile ; exsilium, exilium, exile. Scdulus, sdlum, sdlea^ 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 99 

exsul, exsUlo, exsilium are all referred by some authorities to 
No. 234 ; and by others, exsul, exsUlo, exsilium, together with 
praesul and consul, are referred to No. 523. 

236. vid; vid; 18, Ft8; vid; see. 

ctS-ov (Ep. eFt^ov, lS'Ov, FtSov), I saw ; etS-o/xat, to appear ; 
otS-a, I know (have seen) ; etSo?, form, species ; etS-oyXov, an 
image, [idol] ; ^A-tS-rjs, A-iS-t;?, aSrjs, the god of the lower 
world, the lower world ; to-'Toip, tcr-Twp, knowing, skilful ; 
lar-Topeoi, to inquire ; lo--Topia, history, story ; tS-pts, knowing, 
experienced ; tvS-aXAo/xat, to appear. 

v!d-eo, to see, (compd. w. in, per, prae, pro, re), [vision, vis- 
ible, invisible, prevision, provide, provision, revise, revision] ; 
videlicet (contr. fr. videre licet), it is permitted (or easy) to see, 
evidently, namely ; e-vld-ens, evident, manifest ; in-vid-ia, envy, 
hatred; in-vld-us, envious; in-vid-iosus, invidious, envious; 
pro-v!d-entia, foresight, providence; pro-vld-ns, pro-vid-ens, fore- 
seeing, provident, prudent; prudens (= providens), foreseeing, 
prudent ; vitrum (root in video, to see, as transparent), glass; 
vitreus, of glass, glassy, vitreous ; viso (freq.), to look at atten- 
tively, to go in order to look at, to visit, (compd. w. in, pro, 
re), [revisit] ; visito, to see, to visit ; visltatio, an appearance, 
visitation. 

237. svid; svid; 18, <rFi8; sud (for svld) ; sweat. 
tS-t'o), tS-pooD, to sweat ; tS-o?, tS-pws, sweat. 

sud-o, to sweat, (compd. w. de, ex, in, re), [exude] ; stid-or, 
sweat, [sudorific]. 

238. mad, med; md (No. 386) ; jicS; mod; measure, place a meas- 
ure or limit to. These roots are apparently derived from the shorter 
roots shown under No. 386. 

/-ceS-o), to protect, rule over ; /xeS-o/xat, to provide for, think 
on ; /x7yS-o/>tat, to resolve, contrive ; /xeS-ovrc?, guardians ; ixtjo-- 
TU)p, a counsellor ; /xtJS-o?, gounsel ; /x,eS-t/x,F09, a measure. 

m5d-us, measure, manner, mode, [m^ood] ; modo (orig. abl. of 
modus), only, merely, (of time) just now, lately ; mbd-emus 



100 REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

(fr. Tuodo), modern; com-mod-us, that has a due or proper 
measure, complete, suitable, convenient, commodious, [com- 
onode, commodity/] ; com-mod-um, convenience, advantage ; mod- 
Icus, having or keeping a proper measure, moderate ; mod-ulus 
(dim.), a small measure, a measure, [model] ; mod-ulor, to 
measure, ^modulate; mod-estus, keeping due measure, moderate, 
w^odest ; mod-eror, to fix a measure, set bounds, moderate, reg- 
ulate ; mod-ins, mod-ium, a measure, a peck ; mod-Iflco (modus, 
facio), to limit, regulate, [modify/]. 

239. Greek rt. jxeXS. 

fxeXS-iOy to melt, make liquid, [smelt] ; /x-cAS-o/xat, to melt, 
grow liquid. 

240. ad; — ; 68; od, ol; smell. 

o^-o) (pf. oS-coS-a), to smell (intrans.) ; oS-fxy (oo-'fjurj), a smell, 
odor ; Svcr-ioS-rjSy ill-smelling. 

6d-or, a smell, odor ; 6d-oro, to give a smell or fragrance to, 
to perfume ; od-oror, to smell at, to smell out, search out, 
investigate ; cd-6rarius, of or for perfuming ; J^d-oratus, sweet- 
smelling ; 5d-oriis, odorous, keen-scented ; 51-eo (ol-o), to smell 
(intr. or tr.), (compd. w. ad, ob, per, re, sub), [redoleiit] ; 
Sl-Idus, emitting a smell ; bl-or, a smell ; ol-facio (uncontracted 
collat. form, dl^fdcio), to cause to smell of, to smell, [olfactory]. 

241. 6Sov<s, a tooth. 

den-s (st. dent), a tooth, [dentist] ; dent-io, to get or cut teeth ; 
dent-itio, teething, dentition] dent-atns, toothed, dentated; bl- 
dens (old form duidens), an animal for sacrifice (having two 
rows of teeth complete), a sheep. 

242. pad; pad; ircS, iroS; ped; tread, go. 

TreS-oi/, the ground; ttS-Cov^ a plain; ireS-r}, a fetter; iriS-lXov 
(mostly in pi.), sandals ; ttc^-os, on foot ; Tre^-a, the instep ; 
TTovs, foot ; Tpi-irovs, three-footed, a tripod. 

pes, a foot, [biped, quadruped, centiped, centipede] ; pM-alis, 
of or belonging to the foot, of or belonging to a foot (in 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION Ot SOTJlSirDSJ ' , ' ' ' [ 101 

length), [pidal, pedal'] ; ped-es, one that is or goes on foot, a 
foot-soldier; ped-ester (adj.), on foot, pedestrian; ped-!ca, a 
fetter (for the feet) ; com-pes, a fetter or shackle for the feet ; 
com-ped-io, to fetter ; ex-ped-io, to extricate, disengage, [expe- 
dient, expedite, expedition'] ; im-ped-io, to entangle, impede ; 
prae-pedio, to shackle; ped-nm, a shepherd's crook; ftripus, a 
tripod ; pessnin (prob. contracted from pedis-versum, toward 
the feet), to the ground, down ; pessum ire, to fall to the 
ground, to perish ; pessum dare (less correctly in one word 
pessumdare or pessundare), to press or dash to the ground, to 
destroy. 

243. sak, ska, ski, ska-n, skan-d, ski-d; skhad; <rK€8, <rxeS, 
KcS; scand; cut, cleave, separate. 

cr/ceS-ayvi3-/xt, to scatter ; crKcS-va-jjiai, to be spread or scat- 
tered; cTKeS-acrts, a scattering; crxeS-r}, a tablet,, a leaf; cr;(€S-ta, 
a raft. 

scand-ula (scind-illa), a shingle. 

244. skidk?; k'kid; ctkiS, <rxi8; scid, cid, caed; cut, cleave, 
separate. 

(Tx^-t-^'i to split; o-xt'C-a? a piece of wood cleft off, (in pi.) 
firewood ; (rx"^-/>ta, a cleft, division, schis7n. 

soind-o (pf. scld-i), to cut, to split, (compd. w. ab, circum, 
com, de, di, ex, inter, per, prae, pro, re), [scissors, exscind, 
rescind] ; caed-o, to cut, strike, kill, (compd. w. ad, com, de, 
dis, ex, in, inter, ob, prae, re, sub, trans), [concise, decide, incise, 
incisive, incision, precise] ; cae-mentiun (contr. fr. caedimentum, 
fr. caedo), stone as hewn from the quarry, [cement] ; cae-lum, 
a chisel. 

245. spad, spand; spand; (r<t>a8; fund; move violently, reel, 
swing. 

(TcfiaB-d^o), to toss the body about, struggle, struggle spas- 
modically ; o-<^a8-a(r/xo9, a spasm, convulsion ; o-c^^eS-avo?, eager, 
violent ; (T(f>o8'p6<s, vehement, violent, excessive ; cr</)oS-/3a, ex- 
ceedingly, violently ; crcfyevS-ovr}, a sling ; cr<^evS-ovacu, to sling. 



. J.02' ^'' 'n J^EaUL AH .SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 



fund-a, a sling, a casting-net, a money-bag, \_fund^ n. and 
vb.] ; fusiis?, spindle. 

246. v^pa, vSpos, a water-serpent, hydra, [otter']. 

247. vad, ud, und; ud; vS; und; wet, moisten. 

vS'wp (st. vSapr)^ water, [hydraulic (av\6g^ a pipe), hydrate, 
hydrogen (rt. yev), hydrometer (ixerpov, measure), hydrophobia 
(</)o^o9, fear)] ; vS-pta, a water-pitcber ; vB-peva)^ to draw or 
carry water ; vS-patvo}, to water, [hydrant] ; av-vS-po^, wanting 
water, waterless ; v^-ap-qsi v8-ap6s^ watery ; vS-cpos, vS-panf/^ 
dropsy (abbreviated from hydropsy). 

und-a, a wave, water; imd-o, to rise in waves, to surge, 
(compd. w. ab, ex, in), [undulate, abound, abundant, inundate, 
redound, redundant]. 



© 

dh^ dh^ 65 sometimes f at the beginning of a word, usually d in the 
middle of a word. 

248. vadh; — ; FcO; vad; wager, pledge, bail. 

a-eO-Xov, aO'Xov, d-eO-Xtov^ tbe prize of a contest ; a^-Xo?, a 
contest ; dO-Xio), dO-Xevoj, to contend for a prize ; dO-Xyry^s, 

d6-\r]Typ, a combatant, prize-fighter, athlete, [athletic]. 

vas (gen. vdd-is), bail, security, (/a(je, [A. S. w edd = ipledge, 
promise, Eng. wedlocJc] ; vad-lmonium, a promise secured by 
bail, security ; vad-or, to bind over by bail ; praes (prae, vas), 
a surety, bondsman (in money matters). 

249. idh; indh, idh; al0 ; aed; burn, shine. 

at^-(o, to light up, burn ; aW-o^, a burning beat, fire ; aW-6<s, 
burnt, fiery; at^-wv, fiery, burning; aW-rjp, ether, tbe upper 
air ; atO-pr}, atO-pa, clear sky, fair weather ; olO-oij/ {aWos, oi/^), 
fiery-looking, fiery ; AI-OloiI/^ an Ethiop, Ethiopian. 



EEQULAE, SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 103 

aed-es (originally fire-place, hearth, altar), a temple, (plur.) 
a house ; aedi-fico, to build ; aedl-ficlum, a building, an edifice ; 
aed-ilis, an aedile ; aedilicius, pertaining to an aedile ; aedituus 
{aedes, tueor), a keeper of a temple, temple-warden ; aes-tas, 
the summer ; aes-tivns, of summer ; aes-tivo, to pass the sum- 
mer ; aes-tns, heat ; aes-tuo, to be warm, to burn ; aes-tuosus, 
full of heat, very hot. 

250. Greek rt. dX0. 

dXO-atvio, dXOrj(TK(x), to heal ; akO-y€Ls, healing, wholesome. 

251. Greek rt. d0, avQ. 

dvO-0% blossom, flower ; dvO-i(o, to blossom, bloom ; dv6-rjp6q, 
blooming ; dvO-€pio)v, the chin ; dvO-ipL^^ the beard of an ear 
of corn ; the ear itself; *A07]V7j (the blooming one), Athene. 

252. St. £'0 ((rF€0). 

e^09, rjOo<>^ custom, habit, [ethics, ethical] ; et-co-^a (pf.), to be 
accustomed ; c^-t^o), to accustom. 

siiesco, to become or be accustomed, (compd. w. ad, com, 
de, in) ; consuetudo, custom; mansuesco (manus, suesco), (lit. to 
accustom to the hand), to tame ; mansiietiido, tameness, mild- 
ness ; desuetudo, disuse, desuetude ; sodalis, a boon-companion. 

253. rudh; rudh; 6pv0 (c prothetic) ; rud, ruf, rub, rob; red. 
ip€vO-(D, to make red ; ipv0-p6<;, red, ruddy, [rusf] ; epevOo's, 

redness ; ipvOptdoi, to blush ; ipvcrtf^rj^ mildew. 

riib-er, rub-rus, rub-ens, rob-eus, rob-ins, rob-us, red, [ruhy] ; 
rub-eo, to be red ; sur-riib-eo (suh-ruheo), to be somewhat red ; 
riibe-facio {rubeo,facio), to make red; riib-esco (inch.), to grow 
red ; riib-edo, rub-or, redness ; rtib-ellns (dim.), reddish ; riib-us, 
a bramble-bush, blackberry-bush ; rubrica (fr. ruherica), red 
earth, the title of a law, the rubric; rob-igo, rtib-igo, rust, 
blight ; ruf-ns, red, red-haired ; Enfus, Eufio, Roman proper 
names; riif-esco (inch.), to become reddish; rii-tilus {^=rud- 
tilus), red, shining ; rii-tilo, to make red, to be red. 



104 REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

254. dha ; dha ; 6a, Qr\ ; fe, fi ; suckle, suck. 

Orj-a-ai^ to suckle ; Orj-crOat^ to milk ; Oy-o-aro, lie sucked ; 
Orj-Xr)^ teat ; Orj-Xcji), Or}-\ajjL(i)v, Orj-Xdcrrpia^ a nurse ; rt'Oy-vT], 
TLT'Or]^ a nurse; tlt-06s, a teat; Orj-Xvs, female; yaka-Orj-vos, 
sucking. 

fello, to suck ; fe-mina, a female, [feminine] ; fl-lius, a son ; 
fi-lia, a daughter, [filial]. Femina, fllius, and fllia may be 
derived from the root /it. 

255. Greek rt. 0aF. 

(Dor.) Oa-eofJiaLy (Ion.) O-q-loixai, Att. Oe-d-ofiaL, to look on, 
gaze at ; Oav-fia, a wonder ; Oc-ojpta, a looking at, contempla- 
tion, theory ; Oi-a, a view, a sight ; Oia-Tpov^ a place for seeing, 
esp. for dramatic representation, a theatre. 

256. dha; dha; Ge; da, fa, fa-c; place, make, do. 

TL-Orj-jULt, to place, to make, to do, [deed, deem., doom] ; Oi-fxa, 
that which is placed or laid down ; Oi-ons, a placing, a thesis ; 
Oe-o-fMos^ that which is laid down and established, a rule, a law ; 
Oi'fjLLs^ that which is laid down and established, law (not as 
fixed hj statute, but) as established by custom ; Oe-jxeXia, Oi- 
fjieOXa (pi.), the foundations, the lowest part ; Orj-Krj, a case to 
put anything in, a chest; aTroOrJKr], a storehouse, repository, 
[apothecary]. 

ab-do, to put away, to conceal ; con-do, to put together, to 
form, to put away carefully for preservation, to conceal ; in-do, 
to put into or upon ; ob-do, to place at or before ; sub-do, to 
place under ; abs-condo, to put out of sight, conceal carefully, 
[abscond] ; re-condo, to put back again, to stow away, conceal, 
[recondite] ; conditor, a maker, builder, founder ; credo (Sk. 
grat, grad, trust and dha), to put faith in, to trust, [credit, 
creditor, credence, credential, credible, credulous, creed] ; fam- 
tilus (masc), fam-tila (fem.), a servant ; fam-ilia, a household 
establishment, 2^ family ; fa-ber, a maker, a worker (in hard 
materials), an artificer ; fa-brica, the workshop or the business 
of an artisan ; fa-br!cor, to make, prepare, [fabricate] ; fa-bri- 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 105 

cator, an artificer, a contriver ; fac-io, to make, to do, (compd. 
[in form -ficio] w. ad, com, de, ex, in, ob, per, prae, pro, re, 
Rub) ; fi-o (=^fa-i-o), to be made, to become ; are-facio (a?To, 
facio), to make dry, to dry up ; assHe-facio (assuesco, facio), to 
accustom ; cale-facio (caleo, facio), to make warm or hot ; 
commone-facio (coniTnoneo, facio), to remind forcibly, to put in 
mind ; con-cale-facio (cum, calefacio), to warm thorougbly > 
labe-facio (Idbo, facio), to make to reel, to shake violently ; 
made-facio (madeo, facio), to make wet; pate-facio. (^ai^eo,/aao), 
to make or lay open; tepe-facio {tepeo, facio), to make mod- 
erately warm ; af-fic-io, to do sometbing to a person or thing, 
to treat in any way ; con-fic-io, to make thoroughly, to com- 
plete ; de-fic-io, to make to be away, to make one's self to be 
away, revolt, fail, [deficient] ; ef-fic-io, to make out, work out, 
bring to pass, effect ; in-fic-io, to put in, dip in a liquid, stain, 
infect; inter-ficio, (to make something to be between the parts 
of a thing, so as to separate and break it up), to destroy, to 
kill ; of-fic-io, to do over against, to hinder, to oppose ; per-fic-io, 
to make or do completely, to finish ; prae-fic-io, to set over, 
place in authority over; pro-fic-io, to go forward, make prog- 
ress, [proficienf] ; re-fic-io, to make again, to rebuild ; suf-fic-io, 
to make or cause to be under, to dip, dye, affect, furnish, 
[sufficient']', affectio (adf.), disposition toward, affection; af- 
fec-to (better adfecto), (freq.), to strive after, imitate, affect, 
[affectation] ; fac-to (freq.), to make, to do ; fac-t!to (freq. fr. 
facto), to make or do frequently, to be wont to make or do ; 
fac-esso (intens.), to do eagerly or earnestly ; pro-fic-iscor, (to 
make, i.e. put one's self forward), to set out, depart, proceed ; 
fac-ilis, easy to do, easy,/aa7c; dif-fic-ilis, (far from easy to do), 
difHcult ; fac-ilitas, ease, facility ; fac-ultas, capability, power, 
supply, [faculty]] dif-fic-ultas, difficulty; fac-tnm, that which 
is done, a deed, 2. fact ; fac-tor, a maker, doer, [factor] ; fac-tio, 
a making, a company of persons, a party, faction ; fac-tiosus, 
seditious, factious ; fac-Inns, a deed, a crime ; ef-flc-ax, effca-- 
cious ; pr5-fec-to {^ pro facto), actually, certainly; bene-ftcus, 



106 REGULAll SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

generous, heneficent; male-flcus, evil-doing, wicked ; aedl-flc-o 
{aedes, facio), to build, build up, edify; ampli-flc-o {amplus, 
facio), to enlarge, amplify. 

257. ghan; han; Gcv; fend; beat, strike. 
^etv-co, to strike. 

Jfend-o, tlie primitive word of tbe compounds, defendo, 
offendo, infensus and infestus ; de-fend-o, to ward off, repel, 
defend, fend, \defence, fence (n. and. v.), fender] ; of-fend-o, to 
strike, injure, offend; in-fen-sus, bostile ; in-fes-tus (for infens- 
ius), made unsafe, disturbed, infested, that renders unsafe, 
hostile ; mani-festus (manus, fendo, i.e., that one hits with the 
hand), clear, evident, manifest, 

258. Greek rt. 0€F. 

6i-oi (^Oev'crofjiaL), to run ; 6o-6s, swift ; ^o-a^a>, to move 
quickly ; /Sorj-Ooos ()So7;, ^eo)), hasting to the battle-shout, war- 
like, helping. 

259. Or/p^ Aeol. (jurjp, Orjp-Lov, a wild beast ; Orjp-do), to hunt ; 
Orjp-a, the chase. 

fer-us, wild; fer-ns, m., fer-a, f., a w41d beast; ef-fer-o, to 
make wild ; fer-!tas, wildness ; fer-ox, wild, bold, fierce, [fero- 
cious] ; fer-ocia, fer-ocltas, wild or untamed courage, fierceness, 
ferocity, 

260. dhars ; dharsh ; 0apo-| Opacr ; fars ; dare. 

Opaa-vs, bold ; Odpcr-os, boldness, courage ; Oapa-'io) (^app-eco), 
to be of good courage, [dare] ; Oapcr-vvo), to encourage. 

fas-tus (full form farstus), scornful contempt, arrogance ; 
fas-tidium (for fasti-ti-dium), loathing, aversion ; fas-tidiosus, 
(full of disgust or aversion), disdainful, fastidious. 

261. dhar, dhra; dhar; 0pa; fir, for; hold, support, bear up. 
Opi^-o-ao-Oat, to seat one's self, to sit ; Opa-vos, a bench ; Oprj- 

vvs, a footstool ; Opo-vos, a seat, chair, throne. 



REGULAK SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 107 

fir-mus, firm, strong ; in-fir-mus, feeble, infirm ; fir-mitas, fir- 
mitudo, firmness ; fir-mo, to make firm, support, strengthen, 
(compd. w. ad, com, in, ob), [affirm, confirm] ; fir-mator, an 
establisher ; fir-mamentum, a support, [firmament] ; for-tis, 
strong, brave, [ fort, fortress, fortify, force, forte] ; for-titudo, 
strength, firmness, fortitude ; fre-tus, leaning or supported on 
something, relying upon ; fre-num, a bridle. 

262. Greek rt. 0p€. 

Opi-ofjiaif to cry aloud ; Opo-o's, a noise ; Op^'vo<s, <* dirge ; 
OprjvioSta (Oprjvo^, i}^), a lament, dirge, threnode, threnody; 
Oopv-^os, a noise. 

263. dhugh-atar ; duh-i-ta ; Ovy-d-rrjp ; — ; daughter. 

264. Primary (Indo-Eur.) form, dhur, dhvar. Sk. dvara-m, 
dvcbr, door. 

Ovp'Ci, Ovp-€Tpa, door ; Ovp-do-L, at the door ; Ovp-cs, a window ; 
Ovp-eos, a door-stone ; Oaipo's, hinge, axle. 

f5r-is (more freq. in pi. for-es), a door; for-is (adv., an abl. 
form from an obs. nom. fora), out of doors; for-as (adv., an 
ace. form from an obs. nom./ora), out through the doors, forth. 

265. <Hiu 5 ^livL ; 0v ; fu. Of this root thg primary meaning is that 
of a violent movement, and from this spring three modifications: 1. to 
rush, excite ; 2. to smoke, fumigate ; 3. to sacrifice. 

^J-o), to rush, to sacrifice ; ^v-v-w, to rush along ; ^9-i/o9, a 
violent movement onward, an attack ; ^v-eAAa, a hurricane, 
whirlwind ; Ov-t-dsf Ov-ds, a mad or inspired womam, a Bac- 
chante ; 6v-fjL6<s, the soul, courage, passion, feeling; Ov-jna, 
Ov-o-Lo, a sacrifice ; Ov-os, a sacrifice, incense ; Ov-i^as, smoking 
or smelling with incense, fragrant ; ^u-/xo9, Ov'/xov, thyme. 

fu-mus, smoke, fume, [dust\ ; fu-meus, smoky ; fu-mldus, 
fii-mosiis, full of smoke, smoky ; fti-mo, to smoke, steam, /^6me; 
fu-m!go {fumus, ago), to smoke, fumigate; suf-fi-o, sub-fi-o 
(fio=^6v(x)\ to fumigate, scent; snf-fi-tio, fumigation; suf-fi- 
men, suf-fi-mentum, fumigation, incense ; fe-teo (less correctly 



108 REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

foeteo, faeteo), to liave an ill smell, to stink ; fe-tldus (faetidus, 
foetidus), tliat has an ill smell, stinking, fetid ; foe-dus, foul, 
iiltliy ; foe-do, to make foul, to defile, disfigure ; fu-nns, a fune- 
ral procession, burial, /i^rz-^raZ. 

266. sku, kudh; gudli; kv0; cud; cover, conceal. 
K€vO-o), to cover, hide ; KevO-os, K^vO-fxoiv^ a hiding-place. 
cus-tos (— cud-tos), a guard ; cus-todia, a guarding, custody, 

a guard ; cus-todio, to watch over, to guard. 

267. ftto-^o?, pay, [meed]. 

268. vadli; vadh; o0; od; thrust, strike, beat. 

wO-cu)^ to thrust, push; Ev-oort-;(^<ov, 'Evvoo-tycatos, Earth- 
shaker (epithet of Poseidon). 

od-i, to hate; od-ium, hatred, odium; 5d-iosus, hateful, odious. 

269. ovO-ap, an udder. 

iib-er, a teat, an udder, [exuberant]. 

270. "bhandh; bandh; irevO; — ; join, bind, [bond, band]. 
7rev^-e/oo9, a father-in-law, brother-in-law, son-in-law; ttcvO- 

epd, a mother-in-law ; 7reto'-/xa, a rope. 

271. bhandh; bandh; iriO; fid; join, bind, unite, trust. 
TretO-oj, to persuade ; TrelO-ofjiai^ to obey ; Tre-Trot^-o, trust (vb.) ; 

7rto--Tt9, faith ; ireiO-d), persuasion, persuasiveness ; Tret-o-a, obe- 
dience. 

f!d-es, trust, faith, [affiance, affidavit] ; fid-elis, faithful ; ftd- 
elitas, faithfulness, fidelity/ ; Fid-ins, a surname of Jupiter ; Dius 
Pidius, the god of truth ; medius fidins, by the god of truth, 
most certainly ; per-fid-us {^per, fides), faithless ; per-fid-iosus, 
full of perfidy, perfidious; fid-ns, faithful; fid-o, to trust; 
con-fid-o, to trust confidently, confide in, [confident, confidant/] ; 
dif -fid-o, to distrust ; [dffident, defy] ; foed-us, a league, com- 
pact, [fedeo-al] ; foed-ero, to establish by treaty ; foed-eratus, 
leagued iog^i^iQv, federate. 



REGULAK SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 109 

272. — 9 budh; irv9; — ; awake, inquire, perceive, know. 
TrvvO'dvojxai, TrevO-ojULai, to ask, inquire ; TTva-TL^, Trev-crts, an 

asking ; irvcr-fjia, a question ; 7r€vO-r]v, an inquirer. 

273. bhu, bhu-dh ; budh; irvO, irvvS ; fund; grow. 

TTvO-fJirjv, the bottom, the stock of a tree ; 7rw8-af, the bottom 
of a vessel. 

fund-US, the bottom of anything, the soil, a farm ; fund-o, to 
lay the bottom or foundation of a thing, to found; fund- 
amentum, foundation, [fundamental] ; pr5-fund-us, (having the 
bottom forward, 'i.e., at some distance off), deep, profound. 



n 

p; p,pli; it; p. 

274. oLTTo, from, away from ; aij/, back, back again. 

ap, af, ab, (av) au-, a, a, aps, abs, as-, from, away from, by, 
[of, of]. 

275. rap, rup; — ; dpir; rap; seize. 

"Kpir-viai, the Snatchers, the storm-winds (personified), (in 
later mythology) the Harpies ; apw-rj, a bird of prey ; apir-a^ 
(adj.), robbing; apir-a^ (subst.), rapine, a robber; apir-aXiosy 
grasping, greedy ; dpTr-a^w, to snatch away, seize, plunder ; 
apir-ayr), a hook, a rake ; apTr-ayrj, rapine, robbery, booty. 

rap-io, to seize and carry off, (compd. w. ab, ad, com, de, di, 
e, prae, pro, sub), [rap, rape, reave (obs.), bereave, rob, rapture, 
ravage, ravish] ; rap-ax, grasping, rapacious ; rap-acitas, rapac- 
ity ; rap-ldus, tearing away, fierce, tearing or hurrying along, 
Bwift, rapid; rap-ina, robbery, pillage, rapine, [raven, ravin, 
ravenous, ravine] ; rap-tor, a robber ; rap-tus, a carrying off, 
plundering, abduction ; rap-tim (adv.), by snatching or hurry- 
ing away, suddenly, hurriedly. 



110 REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

276. apTT-rj, a sickle. 

8arp-o, to cut off, prune; sar-mentum, tlie thing lopped or 
pruned, twigs. 

277. var, val; — ; FeXir; vol(u)p ; hope, desire. 

The root in Greek and Latin is connected with the shorter 
form in No. 525. 

iXTT-o), to make to hope ; eX7r-o/xat, to hope ; eXTr-t?, hope ; 
IXir-oiprj^ hope ; iXTr-i^o), to hope. 

voliip (shortened for vdliZpis), agreeably ; volup-tas, pleasure ; 
volup-tnosus, full of pleasure, [voluptuous]. 

278. ifjLTTL-Sf a gnat. 

apis, apes, a bee; apictila, a little bee; ap!-arius, relating to 
bees ; api-arium, a bee-house, bee-hive, apiary. 

279. cTTt, upon, to, toward. 

ob (old form obs), toward, at, before, on account of; apnd, 
with, near. 

280. cTTTo, seven ; €ySSo/x,o?, seventh. 

septem, seven ; septMns, septumus, seventh ; Septem-ber, Sep- 
temher (the seventh month of the Eoman year, reckoning from 
March) ; sept-eni, seven each, seven ; sept-les, seven times ; 
septuaginta (for septuma-ginta^ septem-decenta)^ seventy, \_Sep- 
tuagint]. 

281. sarp; sarp; cpir; serp, rep (for srep); creep, go with an 
even motion along the ground. 

€p7r-(i), to creep, to move slowly ; ipTr-v^o), to creep, crawl ; 
e/oTT-erov, a creeping thing, a beast. 

serp-o, to creep, crawl ; serp-ens, creeping, crawling ; serp-ens, 
a serpent; rep-o (serp = srep = rep), to creep, (compd. w. ad, 
com, de, in, ob, per, pro, sub) ; rep-t!lis, creeping, reptile; rep-to 
(freq.), to creep. 

282. Greek rt. Xajj.ir. 

Aa/xTT-o), to shine ; Aa/ATr-as, a torch, [lamp] ; Xafxir-pos, bright. 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. Ill 

lanterna, laterna, a lantern, lamp, torch ; limp-Idus, clear, 
bright, limpid. 

283. rup; lup; Xvir; rup; break, trouble. 

• AvTT-po?, wretched, painful; Xvir-y}^ pain, grief; XvTr-eo), to 
pain, distress; \v7r~rip6si painful. 

rump-o, to break, break asunder, (compd. w. ab, com, di, e, 
inter, intro, in, ob, per, prae, pro), [rupture, abrupt, corrupt, 
eruption, interrupt, irruption]. 

284. Greek rt. vctr. 

a-vei/^-tos, a first cousin, any cousin ; veV-oSe?, offspring, de- 
scendants. 

nep-os, a grandson, spendthrift, nephew, [nepotism] ; neptis, 
a granddaughter. 

285. pak, pag; pac; iray; pag, pac; bind fast. 

TT-qy-vv/xL {i-7rdy-r]v), to make fast, to ^x ; 7r5y-/>ta, anything 
fastened or joined together; Tnyy-o?, firm, strong; Tray-os, a 
firm-set rock ; 7ray-09, ird^-viq, TraycTos, frost ; irdy-rj^ anything 
that fixes or holds fast, a trap ; 7rao-o--aXo9, a peg, a nail. 

pa-n-g-o (old form paco, pago), to fix, record, determine 
(compd. w. com, in, ob, re), [impinge, impact] ; pac-iscor, 
pac-isco (old form paco), to make a bargain or agreement; 
pac-tum, an agreement, compact, ^^ac^; pax (orig. an agreement, 
treaty), peace, [appease] ; pac-o, to make peaceful, to pacify ; 
paci-fico, to make a peace, to pacify ; paoi-ftcus, peace-making, 
pacific; pag-us, (prop, a place with fixed boundaries), a 
district, the country ; pag-anus, of or belonging to the country 
or to a village, civil, (in eccl. Latin) heathen, pagan ; pag-anus 
(subst.), a countryman, a civilian, (in eccl. Latin) a heathen, 
2, pagan; pag-!na, 2, page; com-pag-es, com-pag-o, a connection, 
joint, structure ; pro-pag-o, to fasten or fix forward or down, 
to set slips, propagate, prolong ; pro-pag-o, a layer, a setting, 
ofispring ; pa-lus, pa-lum, a stake ; pig-nns, a pledge ; pig-nero, 
to give as a pledge ; pec-u, (the thing fastened up), a head of 
the larger cattle, cattle of all kinds, sheep, money ; pec-us 



112 BEGULAE SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

{ndis), a liead of cattle of any kind ; pec-ns {6ris), the larger 
cattle, a herd, cattle of all kinds, animals ; pec-unia (fr. pecus ; 
" omnis pecuniae pecus fundamentum," Var.), property, money ; 
pec-uniaris, of or belonging to money, 'pecuniary. 

286. P«> — > —J —J strike. 
7rat-(o, to strike. 

pav-io, to beat, strike ; pav-imentum, (the thing beaten or 
rammed down), a hard floor, a pavement; pav-imento, to cover 
with a pavement, to pave ; de-puv-io, to strike, beat. 

287. TToX-dixr), the palm of the hand, the hand. 

pal-ma, the palm of the hand, the hand, the blade of an oar, 
the palm-tree, [palmy] ; pal-mus, the palm of the hand ; 
pal-mula (dim.), palm of the hand, oar-blade ; pal-metum, a 
palm-grove ; pal-mes, a young branch or shoot of a vine. 

288. 7ra/oa, irapat, Trap, 7ra, (w. gen.) from the side of, (w. 
dat.) at the side of, (w. ace.) to the side of. 

per, through, throughout, by means of. 

289. pa 5 pa? '"'O'J pa 5 nourish, protect. 

Tra-ryp, a father ; Tra-r/oto, lineage, a clan ; 7raTpi-dpx>^<;, the 
father or chief of a clan, a patriarch; Trarptwr^?, a fellow- 
countryman, [patriot]. 

pa-ter, a father ; pa-temus, pa-tritus, pa-tr!cus, pl-trius, of or 
belonging to one's father, paternal; pa-tria, one's fatherland, 
native country ; pa-trlmonium, an estate inherited from a father, 
a patrimony ; parriclda (for patricida from pater, caedo), the 
murder of a father, a parricide, a murderer; pa-trims, a 
father's brother ; pa-tmelis, a cousin on the father's side ; 
pa-tromis, a protector, defender, ^a^^ron; pa-troclnor, to protect; 
papa, a father, papa, (in eccl. writers) a spiritual father, a 
bishop. 

290. Traro-?, a path ; Trare-w, to walk, tread. 
pons, a bridge. 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 113 

291. pa; pa; ira, Trar; pa, pen; nourish, protect. 

7raT-eo/>tat, to eat ; a-Tracr-ro?, not having eaten. 

pa-SCO, to nourish, support by food ; pa-scor, to feed upon ; 
pascuns, of or for pasture, grazing ; pascuum, pastura, 2(> pasture; 
pas-tor, a feeder, feeder of cattle, shepherd, pastor ; pas-toralis, 
of or belonging to shepherds, pastoral; pas-tus, feeding, food ; 
pa-bulum, food, fodder ; pa-bulor, to seek for food, to forage, to 
feed ; pa-bulator, a forager, a herdsman ; pa-nis, bread ; pen-us, 
food, food stored within a place (perhaps through the inter- 
mediate idea of storing food within, the root ^^ pen'' acquired 
the meaning ^^ within'')] Penates, the Penates, (deities of the 
interior of the house), guardian deities of the household and 
of the state; pen-es, with, in the possession or power of; 
pen-etro, to put into, enter, penetrate, 

292i pava ; — ; st. irav ; pau ; little. 

Trau-o), to make to end or cease, {^pause"] ; Trav-ofxai^ to cease 
from ; irav-Xa^ 7rav-(ro)Xrj^ a rest, an end ; TraO-po?, small, few. 

pan-cus, small, little, {-pi.) few ; pau-oitas, fewness, paucity; 
pau-culns, very small, (pi.) very few ; pau-lus, paullus, little, 
small ; pau-lum, (adv.), a little, somewhat ; pau-lo (advbl. abl.), 
by a little, somewhat ; pau-latim, by little and little, by degrees ; 
pau-lisper, for a little while; pan-per (adj.), poor; pan-per 
(subst.), a poor person, [pauper']] pau-pertas, po-y^-^^y; pau- 
peries (poet, and in post Aug. prose for paupertas), poverty ; 
pa-rum (adv.), too little, little. 

293. 7rcAAo9, TreXos, TrcXto?, TrcXtSvos, dark-colored, dusky, 
livid ; TToA-tos, gray. 

pal-leo, to be or look pale ; pal-lesco (inch.), to grow or turn 
pale ; ex-pal-lesco (inch.), to grow or turn very pale ; pal-lldus, 
pallid, pale, \_f allow] ; pal-lor, paleness, pallor ; ptd-lns, dark- 
colored, dusky ; pul-latus, clothed in soiled or black garments ; 
liveo (for pllveo), to be of a bluish or lead color ; livldus, of a 
leaden color, blue, livid; ob-llv-iscor {oh, liveo, to have the 



114 KEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

mind darkened), to forget; ob-liv-io, forgetfulness, oblivion; 
obliviosus, forgetful, oblivious. 

294. TreA-Xa, a hide, leather ; ipvat-TreXas (ipvOpoSy TreAAa), 
inflammation of the skin, erysipelas; iTn-TroXrj, a surface. 

pel-lis, a skin, hide (of a beast) whether on the body or 
taken off, a pelt, a fell. 

295. Grreek rt. ircv, want, toil. 

TreV-o/xat, to work, toil, be poor or needy ; Trev-?;?, irev-Lxpo^;, 
poor, needy ; irevca, poverty ; irev-eo-TaL, serfs ; ttoV-os, work, 
esp. hard work, toil ; Trov-eo), to work hard, toil, distress ; 
TTov-T^pog, toilsome, troublesome, bad ; Tretr-a, hunger. 

pen-uria, paen-uria, want, penury. 

296. par; par; ircp, irop; per, por; pierce, go through, go over, 
carry over. 

Trepd-o), to drive right through, to pass through or over ; 
7r6po<s^ a means of passing, a way ; irop-Op^o^', a ferry ; Trop-evw, 
to make to go, to convey, (pass, to be made to go, to go) ; 
TTop-t^o), to carry, to procure ; €/i,-7rop-o5, a passenger, a mer- 
chant; e/x-TTop-tov, a trading-place, emporium; ipb-irop'tKo^, com- 
mercial ; TTctp-a, a trial, attempt ; Trctp-ao), to attempt, [pirate \ ; 
a-TTup-os (d, TTctpa), without trial or experience of, ignorant of. 

por-ta, a gate ; por-ticns, a colonnade, porch, portico ; por-tus, 
a harbor, port ; ex-per-ior, to try, prove, attempt ; ex-per-ientia, 
a trial, experience; ex-per-imentum, a proof, experiment; per- 
itus, experienced, skilful ; per-iciiliim, trial, danger. 

297. iripa (adv.), beyond ; iripav (adv.), on the other side, 
across ; TrcpatV-o), to bring to an end ; Trcpato?, on the farther 
or other side ; 7repa-ros (adj.), on the farther or opposite side ; 
Trepa-rr) (sc. x^P^f ^^.nd on the farther or opposite side ; Tripas, 
TTCtpap, Tretpa?, an end, a goal ; a-7retpos (d, Tretpas, Trepas), 
d-7r€tp-e(rto9, (poet. d-Trcp-etcrto?), boundless, immense. 

298. Trepd-o) (orig. identical with No. 296), to export beyond 
sea for sale, to sell ; 7n-7rpd-(7/ca> (shortened from Trt-Trepd-o-Kw, 



REaULAE. SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 115 

reduplicated from Trepao)), to sell (often in pass., to be sold, 
esp. for exportation) ; Trep-vr^iii (poet, mostly Ep. for TrtTrpacr/co)), 
to export for sale, to sell ; Trpt-a/xat, to buy ; Trpa-o-tg, a selling, 
sale ; irpa-Typ, irpa-TLast a seller ; 7r6p-vrj, a prostitute. 

299. TrepL (prep.), round, about, all around ; irept (adv.), 
around, above, exceedingly, very ; irepL (in comp.), around, 
above, very ; irepL^ (strengthened for Trept), round about ; irepL- 
o-cro9, prodigious, extraordinary ; --n-ep (end. particle), very 
mucb, however much. 

per- (before adjectives), very; per-magmis, very great. 

300. These words are probably connected with No. 293. 

TTT/Xo?, clay, earth, mud; wyX-Xvos, of clay; Trpo-TnyXaK-ti^o), to 
bespatter with mud, to treat with contumely, 
pa-lus, a swamp. 

301 ■ These words are probably connected with No. 295. 

Trrjvog, 77771/77, the woof, (pi.) the web ; irqv'Lov, the quill or 
spool on which the bobbin is wound for weaving ; Trrjv-i^ofjLai, 
to reel, to weave ; TPTyvm? (fem.), the weaver. 

pannus, a cloth, a garment ; panus, the thread wound upon 
the bobbin in a shuttle. 

302. pi; pi; -n-i; pi; swell, be fat. 

TTt-cov, 7rZ-apo5, TrI-cpos, Trl-aAeo?, fat, plump, (of soil) rich; 
TTtap, TVLixekrj (subst.), fat ; Trt-atVo), to fatten. 
opimiis(?), rich. 

303. TTtAo?, wool or hair wrought into felt ^ anything made of 
felt, esp. a felt cap. 

pillens, pilleum, pileus, a felt cap or hat. 

304. par, pal; par; irXa, irXc; pie; fill. 

Tri-fx-TrXrj-jjLL (inf. 7rt/x-7rXa-j/at), to fill ; TrXiy^o), to be full ; ttXc-o?, 
TrXct-o?, TrXe-cD?, 7r\rj-p7]<;, full ; ttXtj-Ovs, ttXtj-Oos, a throng, a 
crowd ; ttXov-to?, wealth. 



116 REaULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

Jpleo, to fill, fulfil, (compd. w. com, de, ex, in, ob, re, sub), 
[complete, deplete, (adj.) replete, supply']) com-ple-mentum, a 
complement, [compliment] ; ex-ple-tivus, serving to fill out, 
expletive; im-ple-mentnm, a filling up, [i7nple7nent] ] sup-ple- 
mentnm, a supply, a supplement ; ple-nus, full, [plenary, replen- 
ish]] plebs, plebes, the common people, tbe plebeians; po- 
piilu-s, a people, the people ; po-piil-aris, of or belonging to 
the people, popular; ptib-llcus, (contr. from pbpUllcus, from 
pdpixlus) , public ; ptiblloe, on the part of the state ; pub-llco, to 
seize and adjudge to the public use, to confiscate ; ptib-l!cainis 
(subst.), a tax-gatherer, q> publican; mani-pul-us {manus, pleo), 
a handful, a small handle, a company, a r)%aniple, [manipulate]. 

305. plak; — ; -rrXaY (for irXaK), irXi^Y; plag, plang; strike, beat. 
TrXTycro-oj {l-irkqy-iqv ^ ef €-7rXay-7y v) , to strike ; TrXy^y-rj^ a blow ; 

ttAcl^o), to strike, drive off, make to wander. 

plang-o, to strike ; plang-or, a striking, beating, lamentation ; 
planc-tus, a striking, beating ; plag-a, a blow ; plec-to, to strike. 

306. pill 5 pi" 5 irXv, TrX.€, irXcF; plu. This root denotes movement 
in water and of water, under four main heads : float, sail, flow, rain. 

TrXe-co, to sail ; ttAo-os, a voyage ; TrAto-ros, floating, fit for 
sailing ; ttXco-tt/p, a sailor ; irXw-ia^ to wash ; TrXv-jxa^ water in 
which something has been washed ; ttAv-tos, washed ; irXwrrip, 
irXvv-o^^ a trough, tank. 

plii-o (usu. impers.), to rain ; pluv-ius, causing or bringing 
rain ; pluv-ia, rain ; pliiv-iaHs, pluv-iatlcus, of or belonging to 
rain ; lin-ter, (old Latin, liinter — plunter), a boat. 

307. pnu, plu; — ; irvv, ttvc; plu, pul; blow, breathe. 
TTi/e-o), to blow, breathe ; 7n/ei}-/xa, wind, air, breath, spirit ; 

7n/ei;-/xaTtK09, of or belonging to wind or air, pneumatic ; ttvo-tj, 
a blowing, a blast ; irvev-iJUDv^ TrXev-jjioiv, the lungs ; 7n/€v-/xoi/ta, 
a disease of the lungs, pneumonia; Tri-irvv-fxai (old Epic perf. 
pass, of TTi/eo), with pres. sense), to have breath or soul, to be 
wise ; 7rc-7n/i;-/x€Vos, ttIvv-to^^ wise, discreet ; iriyv'Trj^ under- 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 117 

standing ; Troc-Trvv-o), to be out of breath, to puff, to bustle 
about. 

pul-mo (= plu-mon), a lung, (pi.) tbe lungs; pul-moneus, of 
or belonging to the lungs, pulmonic ; pul-monarius, pertaining 
to the lungs, pulmonary. 

308. pa, pu, po; pa; tto, iri; po, bi; drink. 

TTt-vw, to drink; '7ro-T6<s (adj.), drunk, for drinking; tto-tov 
(subst.), drink ; tto-to^, a drinking, a drinking-bout ; 7rd-o-t9, a 
drinking, drink ; 7ro-/xa, 7rco-/>ta, a drink ; tto-tt;?, a drinker ; 
iro-rrjpiov, a drinking-cup ; ir't-vov, liquor made from barley, 
beer ; Trt-Trt'-o-Kw, to give to drink ; 7rt-cro9 (prob. used only in 
the plural), meadows ; Trc-o-a, Trt-o-rpa, a drinking-trough, drink. 

po-tns, po-tio, a drinking, a drink, Si potion; po-tor, a drinker, 
a drunkard ; po-to, to drink (usually from passion, habit, etc.), 
to tipple, (compd. w. e, prae, per) ; po-tatio, a drinking, a pota- 
tion; po-culum, a drinking-vessel, cup, bowl; bl-bo, to drink 
(from natural thirst), (compd. w. com, e, in, per, prae), [im- 
bibe] ; bi-bu-lus, drinking readily, bibulous ; im-bu-o (a sort of 
causative to imbibo), to cause to drink in, to fill, to imbue, 

309. TToi-ixrjv^ a shepherd. This word is to be traced to the 
root pa^ meaning protect. 

310. Pii 5 P^ 5 •n'O'' 5 Pw 5 cleanse, purify. 

TTot-i/T/, a penalty ; d-iroL-va (pi.), a ransom, recompense, 
penalty. 

pti-tus, purified, pure ; pii-to, (lit. to clean, cleanse, trim, 
prune, [in this lit. sense very rare]), (very freq. in the trop. 
sense) to make clear, set in order, reckon, compute, consider ; 
am-pu-to, to cut around, to cut off, [amputate] ; com-pil-to, to 
reckon, compute ; de-pu-to, to prune, consider, (in late Latin) 
to destine, allot, [depute, deputy, deputation] ; dis-pii-to, to cal- 
culate, consider well, discuss, dispute; ex-pu-to, to prune, con- 
sider well, comprehend ; inter-pu-to, to prune out here and 
there ; re-pii-to, to count over, compute, reflect upon, [repute, 
reputation, reputable] ; pu-tamen, prunings, waste ; ptl-tator, 



118 EEGULAE, SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

a pruner ; pli-rus, clean, pure, [puritan] ; im-pu-rus, unclean, 
impure; pii-ri-flco {p>urus, facio), to cleanse, purify ; pii-ritas, 
cleanness, ^i^n^fy ; purgo (contr. for purtgo, from puruvi, ago)^ 
to cleanse, purge; ex-purgo, to purge completely, \_expurgate\ ; 
pur-gatio, a cleansing, purgation ; pur-gator, a cleanser ; pur- 
gatorius, cleansing, purgative, purgatory ; f poena, expiation, 
penalty, [penal] ; pu-nic^ (arch, from poe-nio), to punish ; im- 
punitas, impunity ; pae-niteo (less correctly poe-niteo), to cause 
to repent, to repent, [^penitent] ; pae-nltet (less correctly poenltet), 
it repents one, etc., i.e., I, you, etc., repent; pae-nitentia, repent- 
ance, penitence. 

311. This group is related to No. 304. 

7rdAt-9, a city ; TroXt-Trjg, a citizen ; TroXlreta, citizenship, admin- 
istration, civil polity, [p)olicy, police] ; TroXtrtKo?, civil, political, 
[politic, politics] ; ixrjTpoTrokiq (^jjuT^Typ, ttoXls), the mother-state, 
the mother-city, a metropolis; Koo-fjiOTroXtTr]^ (Koa-fxo^ [world], 
TToXtTTy?), a citizen of the world, a cosmopolitan. 

312. par, pal; par; irXc; pie; fill (connected with No. 304). 
7roXv'<s (by stem ttoXXo), much, [j^oly-, in compds., e.g., poly- 
syllable] ; 7rAe-t-wv, more, [pleonasm] ; 'irXyv, besides. 

plus (= ple[i]os), more, [plus]; old Latin form pious 
(= plo[i]os), more ; plu-rimus (= old Latin plo-irumus = jjIo- 
isimus), Yerj much, (pi.) very many ; old Latin pli-slmus 
(== ple-isimus), very much ; plu-ralis, relating to more than 
one, plural ; ple-rus, very many, a very great part; ple-rusque 
(a strengthened form from plerus), very many, the most, (rare 
in sing., freq. in pL). 

313. par; — ; Trop; par; place, make, perform, do. 

e-TTop-ov, brought to pass, gave ; Tre-TrpcD-rat, it has been 
fated ; Trop-o-wo), to offer, prepare. 

par-o(?), to prepare (compd. w. ad, com, prae, re, se), [pre- 
pare, repair, separate]; im-per-o(?), [in, paro], to command, 
[i77iperative] ; im-per-ium (?), a command, authority, dominion, 
empire, [imperial] ; pro-perus, quick, speedy ; pro-pero, to hasten ; 



EEGULAE, SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 119 

par-io, to bring forth, to produce ; a-per-io (ah, pario), (lit. to 
get from), to uncover, to open ; o-per-io (oh, pario), (lit. to get 
for, put upon), to cover, conceal; par-ens, a pjctrent ; par-tiirio 
(desid.), to desire to bring forth, to bring forth ; par-tiiritio, 
pao^turition ; vipera (vivus, pdrio), (lit. that brings forth living 
young), a viper ; pars, a part, [parhoil, (prob. from pai^t and 
hoil), partake, partial, partner] ; par-ticula, a small part, a 
particle; par-tlcularis, of or concerning a part, particular; 
par-tio, to divide, (compd. w. dis, in) ; particeps (pars, capio), 
sharing ; particeps (subst.), a partaker ; participium, a sharing, 
(in gram.) a participle; participo, to share, to participate; 
ex-pers {ex, pars), having no part in, destitute of; por-tio, a 
&}idi\:Q, portion ; por-to (probably belongs here, though by some 
it is connected with fero), to carry, (compd. w. abs, ad, com, 
de, ex, in, prae, re, sub, trans), [comport, deport, deportment^ 
export, import, report, support, transport] ; par-So (intrans. form 
oi pdro, to make ready, and oi pario, to bring forth ; hence, to 
be ready, be at hand), to come forth, appear, appear (as a 
servant), obey, (compd. w. ad, com), [apparent], 

314. Indo-Eur. rt. pa; guard, protect. 

TTocrt-s (for TTort-s), a husband ; iroT-via (fem.), revered ; Secr- 
7roT->79, a master, a despot ; 3eo--7rotva, mistress ; Seo--7roo'wos, of or 
belonging to the master or lord ; Secr-TroX-cu, to be lord or master. 

pot-is, powerful, able; pot-ior, more powerful, preferable; 
pot-ior, to become master of, acquire, possess ; com-pos (com^ 
potis), partaking of, possessing, sharing in ; impos (in, potis)^ 
not master of, not possessed of; possum (potis, sum), to be 
able, [possihle, power] ; pot-ens, able, ^o^eviwi, potent ; pot-entia, 
might, power, potency, [potential]-, pot-estas, ability, power; 
ut-pote, as namely, inasmuch as. 

315. G-reek rt. irpa. 

TTLfL-Trprj-jjiL (inf. TTCfji-Trpd-vaL), to burn ; 7rpy-6(i)y to blow up, 
blow out, blow into a flame, intr. to blow ; e-irprj-o-ev (Hom.), 
blew, caused to stream ; irprj-SiDv, an inflammation ; irprj-a-T^jpy 
a flash of lightning, a hurricane ; irprj-fxaiva}, to blow hard. 



120 EEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

316. pra; pra; irpo, irpo), irpi; pra, pro, pri; before. 

Trpo, before ; Trpo-repos (compar.), before (in place, time, or 
rank) ; 7rpC)-To<; (sup. contr. fr. TrpoTaTos)-, first, foremost ; Trpo- 
/X09, the foremost man, a chief; Trpv-rans, a prince, a president ; 
TTpLv (= irpo-Lv, 7rpo-Lov\ before, before that ; 7r/9co-'t, early, early 
in the day ; Trpw-iyv, lately, day before yesterday ; Trpd-cra-w, 
7rpo-o-o>, TTop-cro), TToppo), forwards, far. 

prae {-= pra-i, loc), before, [j9re-, e.g., predetermine] \ pias- 
ter {prae, with the demonstr. suffix -ter), past, by, beyond, 
before ; prae-postenis, the last part foremost, reversed, perverted, 
preposterous ; prae-sto (adv., a sup. form from prae), at hand, 
ready ; pri-mus, the first, foremost, \^prime, prim, primer, 
primitive, primary] ; princeps (primus, capio), first, chief ; 
principalis, first, principal; principatus, the first place, pre- 
eminence, dominion; principium, a beginning; pr!-or, former, 
prior (adj.), \_priority, prior (subst.), priory]-, pris-cus (for 
prlus-cus, a comparative form), of or belonging to former times, 
ancient; pris-t!nus {iov prius-tlnus, a comparative form), former, 
pristine; pri-dem, a long time ago, long since; pri-die, on the 
day before ; pran-dium (Sk. pra), a late breakfast, luncheon, a 
meal ; pran-deo, to take breakfast, to eat ; pran-sus, that has 
breakfasted or fed ; pran-sor, one that eats breakfast, a guest ; 
pro (perhaps old abl. form, of which prae is the loc.) (adv.), 
according, just as ; pro (prep.), before, in front of, for ; prS-p§, 
adv. and prep, {pro and dem. suffix -pe), near, nearly ; pro-pior 
(adj. compar. from obs. propis), nearer; proxlmus (proxtimus), 
nearest, next, \^proximate, proximity] ; prope-diem, at an early 
day, very soon ; prope-modum, prSpe-modo {prope, modus), nearly, 
almost; pro-pitins, iduW or d^\Q, propitious ; pro-pltio, to propitiate ; 
prS-pinqims, near, neighboring, related ; prb-pinqnltas, nearness, 
propinquity, relationship ; propter (contr. for propUer), (adv.) 
near, (prep.) near, on account of; proprius (?), one's own, 
proper ; pro-nus, turned forward, bending down, ^rons; priiina 
(for provma), (the thing belonging to the early morning), 
hoar-frost; por-ro, forw^ard, further on; rgciprocus (?) (perhaps 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 121 

from reque proque, back and forth), turning back the same 
way, alternating, reciprocal. 

317. TTpo-TL (TTo-Tt), TT/oo-s (tto-?), (w. gen.) from, (w. (lat.) by, 
(w. ace.) to ; Trpoo-'Oeiy)^ (adv.), before. 

po (old Latin prep, port), insep. prep., a prefix denoting 
power or possession, or that renders emphatic the meaning of 
a verb ; polleo (po, valeo), to be strong ; polllceor (port, liceor), 
(lit. to bid or offer largely), to offer, promise ; pos-s!deo (port, 
s^deo), to be master of, possess; possldo (causat. oi possideo), 
to take possession of; po-nb (iov posno, poslno, from. port, slno), 
to put or set down, to place, (compd. w. ante, ad, circum, com, 
contra, de, dis, ex, in, inter, ob, post, prae, pro, re, se, sub, 
super, trans), [positive, position, apposite, apposition, compose , 
composite, composition, deponent, depose, dispose, expose, impose, 
interpose, oppose, postpone, prepositive, preposition, propose, 
proposition, repose, suppose, superpose, superposition, transpose, 
transposition']. 

318. spju, spu; shtiv; tttv, irvr; spu; spit. 

TTTv-o), to spit ; TTTv-aXov^ spittle ; ttvt-l^oj, to spit frequently, 
spurt ; \l/vTT-(i}, to spue. 

spti-o, to spit, spew, spue, (compd. w. com, de, ex, in, re) ; 
spu-tum (subst.), spit, spittle; spii-ma, foam, spume; spu-meus, 
spu-mldus, foaming ; spu-mo, to foam, to cause to foam ; pitu-ita 
(pitu = sputu), slime, phlegm, pituite. 

319. P«; P«5 "m); Pu; rot, stink, be foul. 

TTv-Oui, to make to rot ; irv-Oo-ixai^ to rot ; irv-OShiv, putrefac- 
tion ; TTv-ov, pus. 

pus, />ws; pu-rulentus, full of pus, purulent; sup-pii-ro (suh, 
pus), to form pus, suppurate; pti-tor, a stench, rottenness; 
pu-teo, to stink, to be rotten ; pii-tldiis, stinking, rotten ; pii-ter 
pii-tris, stinking, rotten ; pfi-trldus, rotten, putrid; p3-treo, to 
be rotten ; pu-tresco (inch.), to grow rotten, putrefy ; putre- 
facio, to make rotten, (pass.) putrefy. 



122 EEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

320. P«^g; — ; "Jtvy; pug; strike, thrust, prick. 

TTv^ (adv.), with clenclied fist ; ttuk-t-^?, Trvy-fxay^o^^ a boxer ; 
irvy-jjiy, a fist. 

pu-n-g-o (pf. ptc-pUg-i), to prick, puncture, (compd, w. com, 
ex, inter, re), [puiigent, compunction, expunge] ; punc-tus, a 
puncture, a point, [punctilious, punctual, punctuate] ; pug-io, 
a dagger ; pug-niis, a fist ; piig-il, a boxer, pugilist ; png-na, a 
fight, a battle ; pug-no, to fight, (compd. w. de, ex, in, ob, pro, 
re), [impugn, repugnant] ; pug-nax, fond of fighting, conten- 
tious, pugnacious. 

321. 7rvp,fire; irvp-cTos, burning heat, fever; irvp-d^ a funeral- 
pile, 2^ pyre; irvp-o-os, a firebrand; Trvppo-s, flame-colored. 

pru-na, a burning or live coal. 

322. pu; p6, pu; — ; pu; beget. 

TTwAo-s, a foal, a filly, a young animal ; TrcoX-tW (dim.), a 
pony; 7rot€-(o(?), to make; 7rats(?), a child, son, daughter; 
TratS-aywyos (?) (Trat?, ayco), a trainer and teacher of boys, 
[pedagogue, pedant]. 

pu-er, a child, a boy, a girl ; pii-era, girl ; pu-ella (dim. fr. 
pUi-^rd), a girl ; pii-erilis, childish, 'puerile; pu-eritia, childhood ; 
pu-pus, a boy, a child ; pu-pillus (dim.), an orphan boy, a ward, 
[pupil] ; pii-pa (puppa), a girl, a doll, b. puppet; pli-pilla (dim.), 
an orphan girl, a ward, the pupil of the eye ; pu-sus, a boy, a 
little boy ; pil-sillus (dim.), very little ; pu-sillanimis {pusillus, 
animus), of small s])ivit, pusillanimous ; pu-bes, pii-ber, pti-bis, 
of ripe age, adult ; pti-bertas, the age of maturity, puberty ; 
pnllus, a young animal, a young fowl, [pullet]. 

323. spar, sphar, spur, spal, sphal, pal; sphar, sphur; o-irap, 
(TiraX, xa\ ; sper, spur, pal, pul, pol. 

The fundamental meaning of the root is that of a quick movement, 
especially, 1. with the feet (whence the meaning, to spurn) and 2. with 
the hands (whence the meanings, to scatter, strew, shake, lift). 

(TTraip'O), a-o-Tratp-o), to pant, gasp, struggle convulsively ; 
o-TTctp-o), to sow seed, to scatter like seed, to strew ; (nrap-do-o-o), 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTIOK OF SOUNDS. 123 

to tear, to rend in pieces ; ira-o-TrdX-rj, Trat-TroA-Ty, the finest meal ; 
TrdX-rj, the finest meal, any fine dust ; ttoA-Ao), to shake, to 
quiver, to swing ; TraA-acro-co, to besprinkle, (in pf. pass.) of 
men drawing lots, because these were shaken in an urn ; 
TToA-ww, to strew or sprinkle upon ; 7raX-o9, the lot (cast from 
a shaken helmet) ; iraX- fxos, a quivering motion, pulsation. 

sper-n-o, to sever, reject, despise, spurn^ [spur'] ; a-spern-or 
{ah, spernor), to reject, despise; spre-tio, contempt; spre-tor, a 
despiser; sptir-iiis, illegitimate, spttnWs ; pal-ea, chafi*; pul-vis, 
dust ; pul-vero, to scatter dust, [pulverize] ; pul-verulentus, full 
of dust, dusty ; pollen, pollis, fine flour, fine dust. 

324. svap; svap; w; sop; sleep. 

vTT-vos (for avTr-vos), sleep ; vir-voo), to put to sleep, to sleep ; 
vir-voiTiKos, inclined to sleep, putting to sleep, hi/pnotic. 

sop-or (= svop-or), sleep ; sop-oms, causing sleep, soporous, 
soporiferous, soporific; sop-io, sop-oro, to put to sleep; som-mis 
(= sop-nus), sleep ; som-ninm, a dream ; som-nio, to dream ; som- 
nl-fer, sleep-bringing, somniferous; somni-flcns, causing sleep, 
somnific; somnulentus, somnolentus, full of sleep, somnolent; 
in-som-nis, sleepless; in-som-nia, sleeplessness; in-som-ninm, a 
dream, sleeplessness. 

325. VTrep, vTret/o, over; VTrcpOev, from above; vTrepo?, vTTcpov, 
pestle ; virepa, upper rope. 

siiper, above, over ; in-super, above, moreover ; supemns, 
snperns, upper, celestial, supernal; superior, higher, superior; 
supremns, highest, supreme; snmmns (from sup-imus, sup-mus), 
highest, [summit] ; sum-ma (sc. res), the summit, the main 
thing, the sz^m; supra, above, before; siip-ero, to go over, to 
overcome, surpass ; superbns, haughty, magnificent, superb ; 
con-summo, to sum up, finish, consumTnate. 

326. vTTo, virat, under, [up] ; virrio'? (= supinus), laid back, 
sub, under; snbter, belov/, beneath; siiplnus, bent back, 

upturned, supine; sursum {suh-vorsum), from below, upwards, 
on high. 



124 EEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 



B 

b^ b; P^ b. The correspondence here shown is found in but few 

instances. 

327. pdppapo^^ harharous, i.e., not Greek, foreign ; jBapPa- 
/Dt^ox, to behave or speak like a barbarian or foreigner. 

f barbarns, foreign, harharous (opp. to Greek or Eoman) ; 
balbus, stammering ; balbutio, to stammer. 

328. l3Xrj'XVy ^ bleating ; ySXiy^-as, a bleating sheep ; pX-rj- 
^ao/xat, to bleat. 

balo, to bleat; balatus, a bleating. 

329. /?oXySo-9, a bulbous root. 

bnlbus, a bulb, an onion ; bulbosus, bulbous. 

330. bargh, bhrag; barh; Ppax; — ; tear, tear off, torn off, short. 
/5pax-v9, short ; ^pa^-ca, shallows ; /Spax-vTrj's^ shortness ; 

ppax'vvdiy to abridge, shorten. 



bh 5 bh ; <(> 5 f and (in the middle of a word) b. 

331. arbh, rabh, labh; rabh; dX<|> ; lab ; lay hold of, work. The 
root aX4)- is probably akin to XaP-, \a<|>-. 

aXcji'dvQ), to bring in, yield, earn ; dXc^-co-tySotos, bringing in 
oxen ; 6Xcji-T^, aX<^-77/xa, produce, gain. 

lab-or, lab-OS, labor ; lab-oro, to labor, strive, (compd. w. ad, 
e, in), [elaborate] ; iSb-oriosus, full of labor, laborious. 

332. dXcf>6-<;, a dull-white leprosy. 

albus, white (prop, a dead white, not shining) ; albatns, 
clothed in white ; albumen, the white of an egg, albumen ; 
albeo, to be white ; albesco (inch.), to become white ; Alba, 
Alba Longa, the mother-city of Kome ; Albanus, Alban; Alpes, 
the Alps (from the whiteness of their snowy summits). 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 125 

333. d/xc^t', on both sides, about ; d/x<j!)t9, on both sides, apart ; 
St-a/x<^t-Sto9, utterly different. 

ambi, amb-, am-, an-, (prep, used only in compos.), around, 
round about ; am-plus (prob. from am and plus, akin to pleo, 
full all round), Urge, ample; am-plio, to enlarge; am-plifico, 
to enlarge, amplify; annus (for am^-nus, that which goes 
around), a year ; annuus, that lasts a year, that returns every 
year, yearly, annual; biennis, biennalis, lasting two years, 
[biennial^ ; blennium, a period of two years ; trlennium, the 
space of three years, [triennial] ; annalis, relating to the year 
or age ; annales (sc. libri), a historical work in which the 
occurrences of the year are chronologically recorded, annals; 
anniversarius (annus, verto), that returns every year, yearly, 
anniversary ; annona, the yearly produce, means of subsistence, 
grain ; annosus, of many years, old ; perennis {per, annus), that 
lasts the whole year through, everlasting, perennial; sollemnis 
(less correctly solemnis, sollennis, solennis, sollempnis), (sollis, i.e. 
totus, annus), (esp. in religious language, of solemnities), yearly, 
established, solemn, customary ; anulus, a ring ; annlaris, relat- 
ing to a signet-ring, [annular] ; omnis (?), all, [omnibus, omni- 
(in compos.)]. 

334. d/x</)a), both ; afjicj>6'T€po<s (more freq. plural or dual), 
both. 

ambo, both. 

335. nabh; nabh; vi^; neb, nub; veil, cover. 

ve<^-09, vecji-eXr], a cloud ; (Tw-ve^-ea), to collect clouds ; crw- 
i/€<^-€t, (rvi/-v€-vo<^-€, it is cloudy ; v€<^-ooju.at, to be clouded over. 

neb-ula, a mist, [nebular] ; neb-ulosus, full of mist or vapor, 
cloudy, nebulous; nub-es, ntib-is, a cloud; nub-!lus, cloudy; 
nub-llum, a cloudy sky ; niib-!lo, to be cloudy ; nub-o, to cover, 
to veil, to marry ; niib-!lis, marriageable ; nup-ta, a bride ; 
nup-tiae, marriage, nuptials; co-nub-ium (less correctly connu- 
bium), marriage ; co-ntib-ialis (less correctly con-nub-ialis), per- 
taining to iharriage, connubial. 



126 REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

336. 6/3<^-avo-s, orphaned^ [orphan] ; opc^-avt^w, to make 
orphan; op^ano-TT/?, one who takes care of orphans; op^-avcvw, 
to take care of orphans. 

orb-o, to bereave ; orb-us, bereaved ; orb-Itas, orbitudo, be- 
reavement, orphanhood. 

337. po(/)-ea), pi;</)-e(o, pocf}'dv(D^ to SUp greedily up ; pofi-fxa, 
p6(j>-rjfjia, thick gruel ; poTr-ro?, to be supped up. 

sorb-eo, to sup up, to drink down, (compd. w. ab, ex, ob, 
per, re), [absorb] ; sorb-illo (dim.), to sip ; sorb-Itio, a drinking, 
a drink. 

338. Greek rt. v^. 

v^-iy, a weaving, a web; v0-os, a web ; v<^-atV(o, v^-ao), to weave. 

339. bha, bha-n, bha-s, bha-v, bha-k, bha-d; bha; <(>a, <|>av, 
4)aF; fa, fa-n, fa-s, fa-v, fa-c, fa-t; bring to light, make known, 
declare, say. 

Et. <|>a. cj^rj-fjii, (j>d'(rK-(D^ to declare, make known, say, aiErm ; 
<^(x-Tt9, (fiYi-jjLTj^ a voice, saying, report ; (fxD-vrj, voice, sound, 
language, [pAomc.s, phonetic, phonography , phonology, phono- 
type, -phone in compounds (e.g., telephone^ from rriKf.^ far off, 
and (/xjd-v?/)]. 

Et. <|>av. cl>aLv-o), to bring to light, to show, to shine, [phe- 
nomenon^ ; <^av-Ta^a), to make visible, (pass, to become visible, 
appear) ; (f^dv-Tao-fxa, an appearance, phantom, phantasm, fan- 
tasm ; cjiav-TacTiKo^^ able to represent, [fantastic] ; <^av-Tao-ta, 
a making visible, an appearance, [fancy] ; <^aj/-epo9, visible, 
evident ; <f>av-rj^ a torch ; <f>d'0-L';^ information, appearance, a 
saying ; (fxx-cr-fjLa, an apparition, a vision. 

Et. 4>aF. cj>d-€ (— <^aA, Hm.), appeared ; v7ro-<^ai;o-t?, a 
small light showing 'through a hole, a narrow opening; </)a-09, 
^oj?, ^eyy-09, light, [photo- in compds., e.g., photograph] ; 
<^a-t^a), to shine; ^a-e^wv, son of Helios and Clymene, famous 
in later legends for his unlucky driving of the sun-chariot, 
[phaeton] ; <^a-etVa), to shine, to bring to light ; (ftaa-vos, shin- 
ing ; <^a-yo9, light, bright; 7n-(f>av-(TK(D, to show. 



REGULAE SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 127 

Et. fa. for (inf. fa-ri), to speak, say, (compd. w. ad, ex, 
inter, prae, pro); af-fa-bilis (better adf.), that can be easily 
spoken to, affable; prae-fa-tio, (lit. a speaking beforehand), 
2b preface; fa-tnm, a prophetic declaration, destiny, /a^c; fa-ma, 
report, reputation, fame; in-fa-mia, infamy ; in-fa-mis, ill 
spoken of, infamous ; in-fa-mo, to defame ; dif -fa-mo, to spread 
abroad, to publish ; fa-mosus, much talked of (well or ill), 
faTYious, infamous ; fa-mim, a place dedicated to some deity by 
forms of consecration, a temple, a fane ; fa-no, to dedicate ; 
fa-naticus, of or belonging to a' temple, inspired by a divinity, 
enthusiastic, frantic, \^ fanatic^ ; pro-fa-nus {pro, fanum, prop, 
before the temple, i.e., outside of it; hence opp. to the temple 
as a sacred object), unholy, not sacred, common, profane; 
fa-bula, a story, 2^ fable ; fa-bulosus, '/a^t^Zotts ; fa-cundus, elo- 
quent ; fa-onndia, eloquence ; in-fans, that cannot speak, not 
yet able to speak, infant, [infantry] ; infandus, unutterable, 
abominable ; ne-fandus, (not to be mentioned), execrable. 

Et. fa-n. fen-estra, a window, 

Et. fa-s. fas, that which is right, divine law ; ne-fas, that 
which is contrary to divine law ; fas-tus, a day on which judg- 
ment could be pronounced ; ne-fas-tus {dies), a day on which 
judgment could not be pronounced, irreligious, inauspicious ; 
ne-farius, execrable, nefarious. 

Et. fa-v. fav-illa, hot cinders or ashes ; fav-eo (?), to favor. 

Et. fa-c. fax, a torch ; fac-ies, form, appearance, /acg; super- 
flc-ies, the upper side, surface, superficies ; super-fic-ialis, of or 
belonging to the surface, superficial; fac-etus, elegant, polite, 
facetious; fac-ete, elegantly, pleasantly , /ace^ioz^s^y ; fac-etiae, 
witty sayings. 

Et. fa-t. fat-eor, to confess ; con-flt-eor, to acknowledge fully, 
to confess ; pro-fit-eor, to declare publicly, to profess ; in-fit-ior, 
not to confess, to deny ; confessio, a confession ; professio, a 
public acknowledgment, a profession; professor, a public 
teacher, prdfessor, one who makes instruction in any branch 
a business. ■ - - - • . • 



128 BEaULAE, SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

340. Greek rt. <|>aY. 

<f>ay-eiv^ to eat ; <^ay-as, glutton. 

341. bhar; — ; <|>ap; for; bore, pierce, tear. 

<j>dp-o<i, a plough. ; <jf>ap-oa), to plough ; a-<^ap-o9, a-<^ap-a)T09, 
unploughed ; c^ap-cros, a piece cut off or severed ; <f)dp-ayi, a 
mountain-cleft or chasm, a ravine ; cjxip-vyi, the throat. 

for-o, to bore, to pierce, (compd. w. per, trans), \j)erforate] ; 
fSr-amen, an opening or aperture produced by boring, a hole. 

342. — ; i>hLi; 4>€p; — ; fear. 

^eyS-o/Attt, to flee affrighted ; <t}6^'0<;, flight, panic fear ; <^o^- 
€CD, to put to flight, to terrify ; <^o^-eo/x,at, to be put to flight, 
to flee affrighted ; ^o^S-cpos, fearful (act. or pass.), causing fear, 
feeling fear. 

343. Greek rt. <|>€V, <|>a, kill. 

Aor. £-7re-<^v-ov, killed ; <^a-ros, slain ; <^w-05, <f>ov-ri^ mur- 
der; <^oi/-cv9, a murderer; dj/Sp-a-^oV-TTys, man-slaying; ^ov- 
los, <^otV-tos, bloody. 

344i bhar; bhar; <|>€p; fer; bear. The meanings of these words 
may be grouped under three main classes : 1. to bear a burden ; 2. to 
bear (with reference to the effect, the produce, and so), to bring forth ; 
3. to bear (considered as a movement). 

<^€/3-to, <^o/3-ea), to hear, [birth, bairn] ; <^ep-/xa, that which is 
borne, a load, a burden, fruit ; cj^ep-eTpov, a bier, a litter ; <l>ap- 
€Tpa, a quiver ; <^a)p, one who carries off, a thief ; cjiop-os, that 
which is brought in, tribute; cl>op-6^y bearing; tf>op-d^ a carry- 
ing, motion, a load ; cfyop-ixos^ a basket, a mat ; cj>6p-Tos, a load ; 
</)€p-v7/, a dowry. 

fer-o, to bear, (compd. w. ad, ante, circum, com, de dis, ex, 
in, intro, ob, per, post, prae, pro, re, sub, super, trans), [cir- 
cumference, confer, conference, defer, deference, differ, infer^ 
inference, offer, prefer, preference, proffer, refer, reference, refer- 
able, referrible, suffer, sufferance, transfer'] ; fer-tus, fer-ax, fer- 
tllis, fertile; fer-tilltas, fertility; fer-ciilum, that on which 
anything is carried, a frame, a litter ; fors, (whatever brings 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 129 

itself, i.e., happens, occurs), chance ; fors-an (ellipt. for fors sit 
an), forsitan (contr. froni/o?^s sit an), fortasse, fortassis {forte an 
si vis), perhaps ; for-tuna (lengthened from fors), chance, for- 
tune ; for-tuitus, csisual, fortuitous ; far, a sort of grain, spelt; 
far-rago, mixed fodder for cattle, mash, a medley, hodge-podge, 
farrago; far-ina, meal, flour, farina; fur, a thief; fur-turn, 
theft; fur-tiTUS, stolen, secret, furtive; fur4im, by stealth; 
fur-or, to steal. 

345. bhal, bhla, bMu ; — ; <|>Xa, (|>X.a8y <|>X6, <|>\i, <|>X.i8, <|>\v, ^\vZ, 
^\vy; fla, flo, flu, fle; bubble over, overflow, blow, swell, flow. 

a. Rt. <|>Xa. €/c-<^XatV-a), to burst or stream forth. Rt. <t>XaS. 
c-c^XaS-or, rent with a noise ; ^Xacr-fxosy empty boasting ; 7ra- 
<f)Xd$'0}^ to boil, to foam. 

Latin rt. fla. flo, to blow, (compd. w. ad, circum, com, de, 
dis, ex, in, per, pro, re, sub), [blow, inflate] ; fla-tus, a blowing, 
a breeze ; fla-men, a blowing, a blast ; fla-bra, blasts ; flos, a 
flower, [hlooTu] ; flo-reo, to bloom; to flower, to blow, io flourish ; 
flo-resco (inch.), to begin to blossom, (compd. w. de, ex, prae, 
re), [efflorescencel ; Plo-ra, the goddess of flowers, [floral\ 

h. Rt. <f>X€. <^\€-a), to swell, overflow ; ^Ae-Swv, an idle 
talker ; <^A.')Jv-a</)09, idle talk. 

c. Rt. <l>Xt. <^Xt-d9, son of Dionysus. Rt. <|>Xt8. c^XtS-aw, to 
overflow with moisture. 

d. Rt. <t>Xv. (^Xr-co, <^Xv-|;o), to boil over, to overflow with 
words ; (^Xv-o?, cl>Xv-apo<s, idle talk ; <l>Xv'dpe(Df to talk nonsense, 
to play the fool; <^Xu-a^, a jester. Rt. <|>Xv8. iK'cf>\vS-dv€Lv, to 
break out (of sores) ; </)XvS-aa), to have an excess of moisture. 
Rt. <|)Xv7. olv6-(l>\vi, given to drinking wine ; <^Xv/c-Tts, KJiXvK- 
ratvo, a blister. 

Latin rt. flu. flu-o, to flow, to overflow, (compd. w. ad, cir- 
eum, com, ex, in, inter, per, prae, praeter, pro, re, subter, 
super), [fluent, aflHuent, affluence, circumfluent, confluent, con- 
fluence, effluent, effluvium, efflux, influence, influx, refluent, 
reflux, superfluous] ; flWto (freq.), to flow, float ; flu-esco (inch.), 



130 BEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

to become fluid ; flti-men, a stream, a river ; flu-ldus, flowing, 
fluid; fluc-tus, a flowing, a wave, a billow ; fluc-tuo, to move 
to and fro, to fluctuate ; fluv-ius, a river, [flue] ; flux-us, flowing, 
loose, careless; flux-us (subst.), a flowing, a, flux; fle-o (j=flev-o), 
to weep, (compd. w. ad, de) ; fle-tus, a weeping, lamentation. 

e. St. <|>Xoi. <^Xot-a), to burst out, to swell ; (/)Aot-os, ^Xo-09, 
tbe inner bark of trees. St. <l>Xot8. <^Xot8-ea), to have an ex- 
cess of moisture ; <^Aota--)8os, any confused, roaring noise, as of 
a large mass of men, or of tlie sea. 

346. bhark, bhrak ; — ; <|>paK ; fare, frequ; press hard, shut up 
fast, cram. 

<^paorcr-a), to fence in, to secure ; <^pay-/xa, a fence, protection ; 
<^pay-/xos, a shutting up, a fence ; Spv-cfiaK-To^ (S/3v-<^paK-Tos), a 
partition. 

farc-io, to stufl*; con-ferc-io, to stuflf or cram together; con-fer- 
tus, pressed close, crowded ; re-ferc-io, to fill up, to cram ; 
re-fef-tus, stuflfed, crammed; frequ-ens, repeated, frequent; 
frequ-ento, to visit frequently, to repeat ; frequ-entia, a throng. 

347. (j^pdrpa, <jf>parp77, (f^pyTprj^ (ftpdrpia, a brotherhood, a clan, 
a political division of the people ; cfypaTrjp, (ftpdrajp, a member 
of a (ftpdrpa ; (^/oarp-t^o), <^parpt-a^a), to belong to the same 
^parpa. 

fra-ter, a brother ; fra-temus, brotherly, fraternal; fra-ter- 
nltas, brotherhood, fraternity, 

348. bhu ; bhu ; <t>v ; fu, fo, fe ; grow, become, be. 

<^v-co, to bring forth, to beget ; </)v-o/xat (pass.), to grow, to 
spring forth, to come into being, \he, hoor] ; ^v-y]^ growth ; 
^v-(ji% nature ; <j>v-(tlk6s, natural, physical, [physics, physic, 
physician, physiognomy , physiology] ; cjiv-fia, a growth ; cf^v-Tos, 
shaped by nature, fruitful ; <^t;-t€i;o), to plant, to beget ; cj>V'X.ov, 
<^i3-X7;, a race, a clan ; ^t'-rv/xa (= cj^v-rvfjia) (poet. (Jh-tv), a 
shoot, a scion ; <^I-tvw (= cfjv-TVio), to plant, to beget ; (jn'TvoixaL 
(mid.), to bear. 



EEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 131 

fu-am, fu-as, fu-at, fu-ant, for sira, sis, sit, smt; fu-i, I have 
been ; fu-tii-rus, about to he, future ; f5-rem, fo-res, fo-ret, fo-rent, 
for essem, esses, esset, essent; fo-re, for futurus esse; fe-tus, 
foe-tus, a bearing, ^offspring, fruit ; fe-to, foe-to, to breed ; ef-fe- 
tus, that has brought forth young, exhausted, worn out by 
bearing, [effete'] ; fe-cnndus, fruitful ; fe-cundltas, fruitfulness, 
fecundity ; fe-cundo, to make fruitful, io fecundate ; fe-hx, fruit- 
ful, favorable, happy ; fe-licitas, fruitfulness, happiness, /eZza^y ; 
fe-liciter, fruitfully, happily ; fae-num (less correctly fe-niim), 
hay ; fae-nus (less correctly fe-niis), the proceeds of capital lent 
out, interest; fae-neror (less correctly fen, foen), to lend on 
interest ; fae-nerator (less correctly fen, foen), a money-lender. 

349. (j>vXKov (= cjivX-Lov), a leaf. 

folium, a leaf, [foliage, foil (a leaf or thin plate of metal)]. 
These words are identical in their origin, and may be from the 
root shown in 345, c?, or from that in 348. 



N 



n; n; v; n. 

350. an; an; av; an; breathe, blow. 

av-€jxo<s, wind. 

an-Ima, air, breath, the animal life, the animal principle of 
life ; an-!mus, the rational soul in man (in opp. to the body, cor- 
pus, and to the physical life, anlmcc), the mind ; an-Imo, to fill 
with breath or air, to animate ; ex-an-Imo, to deprive of life or 
spirit, to terrify greatly ; an-!matio, a quickening, [aniTnationl ; 
an-imatus, animated ; an-lmosus (fr. anima), full of air or life ; 
an-lmosns (fr. animus), full of courage ; an-Imos!tas, boldness, 
vehemence, enmity, animosity; an-Imal, a living being, an 
animal. 



132 REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

351. dva-, di/-, d-, a negative prefix, Eng. un-^ in-, im-, not ; 
di/€v, without. 

in-, an inseparable negative prefix, Eng. un-, m-, im-, not ; 
in-tolerablKs, unbearable, intolerable. 

352. dvd, up, upon, on; dvco (adv.), up, upward. 

an-helo {an, halo)^ to draw breath up, to breathe with diffi- 
culty, to pant. 

353. yevv-9, the under jaw, the cheek, the chin, an edge; 
ycV-etov, the chin ; yva-Oof;^ yvaO- fx6<s, the jaw, an edge. 

gen-a, a cheek (more freq. in pi. gen-ae, the cheeks). 

354. nak ; na^ ; cvck (the initial e is a vowel prefix) ; nac ; reach, 
obtain, carry away. 

yvix-Or}V, iv-yvox-a, i^veyK-ov, rjveyK-a, carry ; Sovp-rjvcK-i^, a 
spear's throw or distance off; St-iyvc/c-Ty?, continuous ; ttoS- 
r)V€K-T^<s, reaching down to the foot ; ^i/ck-t;?, bearing onward, 
far-stretching. 

nanc-i-sc-or (pf. pt. nac-tus), to obtain, to find. 

355. iv (poet, ivt, dv, dvl), in, (in some dialects, also) into ; 
€ts, €9, (= €vt-9, C1/-9), into, to ; Iv't6% €.v-^ov^ within ; etcr-o), ccr-a) 
(j= ev-G-o)), adv., to within, into, within; ev-epot (— Lat. inferi), 
those below, those beneath the earth (used of the dead or of 
the gods below) ; tvep-Oc^ from beneath, beneath ; vTr-ivepOe, 
beneath; iv€p-T€po<s^ deeper; ev-repov (usu. in pi. ev-repa), 
inward parts, intestines, entrails, 

in (old form endd, indit), in, into ; in-ter, between, among, 
[under] ; interim, adv. (inter and old ace. of is), meanwhile, 
[interirri] ; intra (contr. from int^d, sc. parte), on the inside, 
within ; intro, adv. (contr. from int&ro, sc. loco), inwardly, to 
the inside ; in-terior, inner, interior; in-tMus, inmost, [intimate'] ; 
in-tus {in and the abl. termination -tus), on the inside, to the 
inside, from within ; intestimis, internal, intestine. 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 133 

356. iwia, nine ; evaro?, ei/varoSy (poet, etvaros), ninth ; ivoLKL^, 
lw<xKi^^ nine times ; ivaKocrtoL, ivvaKoo-toty nine hundred ; ivevi^- 
Kovra (Hom. Ivvtjkovtcl), ninety. 

novem, nine ; nonus (for novenus, fr. nove'm), the ninth ; nona- 
nus, of or belonging to the ninth legion ; novies, noviens, nine 
times ; nonaginta, ninety ; non-genti, nine hundred ; November, 
the ninth month of the old Roman year, November ; Nonae, 
the Nones, the ninth day before the Ides ; novendlalis, that lasts 
nine days ; mindlnae (sing, nimdlna), the ninth day. 

357. €vo-9, CV77, belonging to the former of two periods, old. 
sen-ex, old ; sen-ior, older, [senior, sire, sir'] ; sen-ex (subst.), 

an aged person; sen-ectns (adj.), aged, very old; sen-ecta, 
sen-ectns, old age ; sen-ilis, of or belonging to old people, senile; 
sen-inm, the feebleness of age ; sen-eo, to be old, to be feeble ; 
B§n-esco (inch.), to grow old, (compd. w. com, in) ; sen-ator, 
a senator ; sen-atus, the council of the elders, the Senate, 

858. T^^9 ma-d, ma-dh, ma-n, mna; man ; |i€V) fJiav; man, men. 

The meanings of this root have taken three main directions : 1. Thought 
accompanied by effort, striving. 2. Excited thought : hence, (a) to be 
inspired, raving, wrathful ; (5) to remain (as one engrossed in thought 
stands still). 3. To keep in mind, remember, (causatively) to remind. 

fxev-o), to remain ; fjbc-jjLov'a (pi. fii/jLafjuev), to wish, to strive ; 
fjiiv-o<s, might, strength, spirit, courage ; MeV-rwp, Mentor, 
[mentor] ; MeV-rTys ; ^Aya-jxe/xvayv ; fiaCv-ofxac, to rage, to rave ; 
fiav'Lay madness, Tnania, [maniac] ; /xdv-TL<s, one who divines, 
a seer ; fi^v-t^, wrath. St. jivd. fxi-jxyrj-fjiai, to remember ; 
jxya-ofxat, to keep in mind, to think much of, to woo to wife ; 
fivYjC'Typy /xi/7;o--TT/9, a wooer, a suitor ; fivrja-'Tevo), to WOO ; 
fiL-fjLvrj-cTKO)^ to remind (mid. and pass, to call to mind, to re- 
member) ; fjivrj-fjLrj, fjivrj-jjioo-vvr], memory, [mnemonic]. St. n-aO. 
fxavO'dva) (2 aor. t-ixaO-ov)^ to learn; ixaO-rjixaTiKoq, disposed to 
learn, of or for the sciences, esp. m,athem,atical ; rj fjLaO-rjfjLaTLK-j 
(with or without iTna-ryixr]) ^ mathematics, St. |xtiw. fx-qyv-ay^tQ 
reveal, inform. 



134 KEGULAE SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

man-eo, to stay, to remain, (compd. w. com, e, per, ob, re), 
\^2jermanent^ remain] ; man-slto (freq.), to remain, to dwell ; 
man-sio, a staying, a place of abode, a mansion; me-mln-i, to 
remember, [mind (vb.), 7nean (vb.)] ; com-memlni, to recollect 
a tiling in all its particulars ; com-min-iscor, to devise something 
by careful thought ; re-min-iscor, to recall to mind, to recollect, 
[7'eminiscence]; com-men-tum, an invention, a contrivance; com- 
men-tor, to study thoroughly, to contrive, to comment upon ; 
com-men-tariiis, com-men-tariuni, a note-book, a commentary; 
men-tio, a calling to mind, a mentioning, mention; Min-erva, 
Minerva; mens, the mind, [mental] ; a-mens, out of one's senses, 
frantic ; de-mens, out of one's mind, raving, foolish, demented ; 
vehe-mens, ve-mens, (ve, mens), (lit. not having mind, unreason- 
able), violent, vehement; men-tior, (to form in the mind, hence 
in a bad sense), to lie, (compd. w. com, ex, prae, sub) ; men-dax, 
given to lying, mendacious ; mon-eo, to remind, to admonish, 
(compd. w. ad, com, e, prae, sub), [admonish] ; mon-ltor, one who 
reminds, a Tnonitor ; ad-mon-itio, a reminding, an adm.onition; 
mon-itus, a reminding, warning ; mSn-umentnm (mon-Imentum), a 
memorial, a monument; mon-stnim, a divine omen indicating 
misfortune, an evil omen, a monstenr ; mon-stro, to show, instruct, 
(compd. w. com, de, prae), [demonstrate, remonstrate] ; Mon-eta, 
(the reminding one) : 1. The mother of the Muses ; 2. A sur- 
name of Juno, in whose temple at Eome money was coined ; 
mon-eta, the place for coining money, the m^int, money, [mone- 
tary] ; med-eor, to heal, to restore ; med-Icns, of or pertaining 
to healing, medical; med-Icns (subst.), a physician; med-ico, to 
heal ; med-!cinns, of or pertaining to a physician ; med-icina, the 
healing art, medicine ; re-med-ium, a remedy, a relief ; med-Itor, 
to think upon, to meditate, (compd. w. com, prae), [premeditate]. 

359. vaOs, a ship ; vau-rT/s, a sailor ; i/av-rtKo?, of or for a ship, 
nautical ; vav-ria, vav-o-ia, sea-sickness, nausea. 

navis, a ship ; navalis, of or belonging to ships, naval; nan-ta 
(ante-class., poet., and late Lat. navita), a sailor; nav!go {navis, 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 135 

ago), to sail, to navigate. The root of these words is perhaps 
the same as of No. 370. 

360. iiam ; — ; v€[j. ; nem, num ; allot, number, pasture. 

ve/A-w, to distribute, to hold as one's portion, to possess, to 
hold sway, to pasture ; vtu/x-aw, to distribute, to govern ; ve/A- 
rja-iS') a distribution ; vo/x-t;, a pasture, distribution ; vefx-eTOip, 
a dispenser of rights ; ro^-€V9, a shepherd, a distributer ; 
viiJi'e(rL<s, righteous indignation, resentment ; 'Ne/x-eo-is, Nemesis, 
the impersonation of divine wrath ; vc/x-eo-ao), ve/jL-eo-ado), to 
feel righteous indignation ; ve/x-ecrt^o/xat, to be wroth with ; 
vofi-osy custom, law ; vofx-L^ix), to own as a custom, to acknowl- 
edge, consider as ; vo/x-tcr/xa, a custom, the current coin ; vefM-o^, 
a wooded pasture or glade ; Ne/x-ea, a wooded district between 
Argos and Corinth ; vofx-o^y a pasture, a dwelling. 

num-erus, a number; num-erosus, numerous; num-ero, to 
count, to number, (compd. w. ad, com, di, e, per, re, trans), 
[numerate, enumerate^ ; niim-erator, a counter, numberer, the 
numerator ; mimnms, mimus, a piece of money, money ; mimina- 
rius, numarius, of or belonging to money ; nem-us, a wood with 
much pasture-land, a grove. 

361. — ; nns'y V€<r; — ; go, return. 

ve-o/xat, to go or come ; vtcr-o-o/xat, to go ; vocr-ros, a return 
home ; vocr-rew, to go or come home, to return. 

362. The words under this number are probably from the pronominal 
stem nu, No. 368. 

ve-09 (veF'O^), young, new; v€-09, vci-os, (new land), fallow 
land ; ve-apos, young, new ; vc-avta?, a youth ; ve-oo-cro?, a young 
bird, a young animal ; vc-orTta, ve-oo-o-ta, a nest ; i/e-ox/xo'?, new ; 
v€'Pp6<s^ a fawn ; ve-arog, the last, the latest ; ve-wo-rt, lately ; 
vet-aipa, the latter, the lower ; Ne-atpa, the Younger. 

novus, new ; nov-ellus (dim.), new, [novel] ; nov-itas, newness ; 
nov-alis, that is ploughed anew or for the first time ; nov-o, to 
make anew, (compd. w. in, re), [renovate] ; de-ntio (contr. from 
de n6vOj which never occurs), anew, a second time ; nti-per (for 



136 REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

novum-per), newly, lately ; nov-erca (for noverica, the new one), 
a step-mother ; nov-aciila, a razor (which gives a new appear- 
ance to the face), a knife. 

363. v€vpov, a sinew, cord, nerve, [neuralgia] ; vevpd, a bow- 
string. 

nervus, a sinew, nerve ; nervosus, sinewy, nervous ; e-nervis 
(e, nervus), nerveless, weak ; e-nervo, to enervate, to weaken. 

364. sna; nah; vc; ne; spin. 

v€-(u, vT^-6(o^ to spin ; vrj-fxa, yarn, thread ; vij-crt?, spinning ; 
vrj'Tpov, a spindle. 

ne-o, to spin, (compd. w. per, re), [needle, net] ; ne-tns, a 
thread, yarn. 

365. The words of this group are probably from the pronominal root 
na (Indo-Eur.). 

vTy-, insep. privative (= negative) prefix, [nay]. 

ne (old form nei, ni), (adv.) not, (conj.) that not, lest; -ne, 
interrog. and enclit. particle (weakened from ne) throwing 
emphasis on the word to which it is attached ; ne-, a negative 
adverb used in composition, e.g., ne-que (— 7iec), ne-fas ; nec-ne, 
or not; nl-si (= si, ni), if not, unless; ni-mirnm, [nl (=ne), 
mlrum], (not wonderful), doubtless ; non (probably contracted 
from ne, oenum or unum, old form nenum or noenum), not, non- 
(e.g., non-performance), [no, none]. 

366. nig; — ; V17, viP; — ; wash. 

vt^-o), j/tTT-To), to wash (usually said of the washing of a part 
of the person, while Xovofxai is used of bathing) ; x^P'^''^^ (ace. 
fr. x^^P^ ^^t^)i water for washing the hands ; viir-Tpov^ water 
for washing. 

367. snigh; snih; vi<|>; nig, niv (form^v); snow. 

vt</)-a (acc), snow ; rt^-a?, a snow-flake ; vt<^-€T09, vt<;()-€Tos, a 
snow-storm ; v't</)-€t, v£t<^-et, it snows. 

nix (gen. nlv-is = nig-vis), snow ; niv-eus, niv-alis, snowy ; 
nlv-osns, full of snow ; ning-it, ningn-it, it snows. 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 137 

368. These forms are connected with those of No. 362. 

vw, now ; vv-v-L (Att. form of vw, strengthened by -I demon- 
strative), now, at this moment ; vw, vv (postpos. and end.), a 
weakened form of vw, used to denote sequence or inference, or 
to strengthen a command or question. 

num (an ace. m. of which, nam is the ace. f.), an interrog. 
particle usually implying that a negative answer is expected ; 
nun-o (num and the demonstrative sufHx ce, just as tunc from 
tum and the demonstrative sujfix ce), now, 

369. nu; — ; w; nu; nod. 

vcv-o), to nod, incline ; vcv-fta, a nod ; vcv-ort?, a nodding, 
inclination ; vcu-o-Ttt^o), vv-o-Ta^o), to nod, to sleep ; vv-o-raXos, 
drowsy. 

-niio (used only in derivatives and in compound words), to 
nod; ab-niio, re-nuo, to deny, refuse ; ad-nuo, annuo, immo, to nod 
to, give assent, promise, [innuendo] ; nti-tus, a nod, command, 
will ; nu-men, a nod, will, the divine will, a divinity ; nu-to 
(freq.), to nod, to waver ; nti-tatio, a nodding, nutation. 

370. sna, snu; snu; w, <rw; na, nu; flow, swim. 

v€-(u (for (TviFdi), to swim ; vcv-o-ts, a swimming ; vf-v-a-rrip^ a 
swimmer; va-w (for o-va^w), to flow; de-va-os, ever-flowing. 

no, to swim, (compd. w. ad, de, e, in, prae, re, trans) ; nS-to 
(freq.), to swim, float, fluctuate, (compd. w. ad, de, e, in, prae, 
re, super, trans) ; nu-trio, (lit. to make to flow), to suckle, to 
nourish ; nti-trix, a nurse, [nursery] ; nu-tricius, niitritius, that 
nourishes, [nutritious, nutrition]-, nu-trimentum, nourishment, 
nutriment. 

371. VV09 (for (Ti/vo-os), a daughter-in-law. 
nurus (for snusus), a daughter-in-law. 

372. na ; — ; st. v» ; — . 

voj-t, we two. 
nos, we, us. 



138 REaULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

373. olv-q, the ace on dice ; oto?, alone, single. 

unus (old forms oinus and oenos), 07ie, [uni-, e.g., universal] ; 
nnio (subst.), the number one, unity, union; unio (vb.), to join 
together, unite, [unit] ; unlcus, one and no more, only, only of 
its kind, unique. 

374. gan, gna, gno ; — ; 7V0, ^vo) ; gno ; perceive, know. 
6'VO'fJLa^ (prob. = o-yvo-jxa), a name ; ovofxaTOTroirja-i^^ 61/0/xa- 

TOTToda, the making of a name or word (esp. to express a 
natural sound), onomatopoeia; av-(oi/i5-/x,os, v-covu/xos, nameless; 
ovofjid^o)^ oi/o/xatVoj, to name. 

co-gno-men, a surname; i-gno-minia, disgrace, ignominy; no- 
men (for (/no-men), a name, [noun, nomenclature (cdlo, to call)] ; 
no-mlnalis, nominal; no-minativus, of or belonging to naming, 
nominative; no-mino, to call by name, to name, to no7mnate, 
(compd. w. CO, de, trans), [denominate, denomination]. 

375. oi/vf , a claw, a nail. 

ungn-is, a nail (of a person's finger or toe), a claw, talon ; 
tmgu-iciiliis, (dim.), a little nail of the finger ; ungii-la, a hoof, 
a claw ; ungu-latus, having claws or hoofs. 

376. wvo-s, price of purchase ; wvry, a purchasing, purchase ; 

(ove-o/jiat, to buy. 

ven-ns, ven-um (occurring only in the forms venui, veno, and 
vemim), sale ; ven-eo [venum, eo], (to go to sale), to be sold ; 
venalis, of or belonging to selling, purchasable, [venal] ; ven-do 
(venum, do), to sell, vend, [vender, vendor, vendee, vendue]. 



M 

m; m; ^; m. 

377. — 9 — 5 <V>o|J^5 sim; like. 

oLfx-a, at the same time ; ofjio-s^ one and the same, common ; 
o/xoyevT/?, of the same race or family, of the same kind, homo- 
geneous ; ofi-ov^ together ; ofjio-Oev, from the same pla(Te ; 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 139 

ojxo'cre, to one and the same place ; o/xo-tos, 6/x,o-tos, like ; 
6/xot'-to-9, resembling; o/jLOLOTrdOeta^ likeness of condition or 
feeling, [Jiomeopathy^ hoifYioeopat}mj\ ; 6fxa-\6s, o/xa-Xy^, even, 
level ; o/xa-Xt^o), to make even or level. 

sim-ilis, like, similar; dis-s!m!lis, unlike, dissimilar ; slm-ul 
(adv.), at the same time, [^simultaneous^ ; sim-ultas, dissension, 
strife; sM-ulo, slm-llo, to imitate, simulate; dis-sim-ulo, to 
dissemble, dissimulate, conceal ; in-slm-ulo, to bring a charge 
against any one ; slm-iilator, an imitator, a pretender ; slm- 
llitiido, resemblance, similitude; sim-ulacrum, an image, like- 
ness ; sim-itu, (old Lat.), at once ; sem-el, once ; sem-per (-per 
= Trapa), ever, always ; sim-plex {sim-, plico), simple, uncom- 
pounded; sin-guli, one to each, single; sin-giilaris, one by one, 
single, singular. 

378. d/xa-o), to cut or reap corn ; a/jurj-Tos, a reaping, a 
harvest ; a/x?;-T09, the crop or harvest gathered in ; a/xoAXa, 
aixaXrj^ a sheaf. 

me-to, to mow or reap ; mes-sis, a harvest ; mes-sor, a reaper. 

379. mav; miv; — ; mov; push, push out of place. 

d-/xetyS-a) (Pind. d/xeuco), to change ; d-/x6t'/?-o/xat, to change 
one with another, to reply ; 7rap-a/x€t/?-co, to change, pass by, 
excel; d-/xot^-7;, compensation, change. 

m5v-eo, to move, (compd. w. a, ad, com, de, di, e, ob, per, 
pro, re, sub, se, trans) ; mo-b!hs (for movibilis), easy to be 
moved, movable, m^obile, [mob, m^obility, m^obilize, m^utiny] ; 
mo-mentum (for m&vimentum), m^ovem^ent, m^om^entum, a mo- 
ment (of time), m^oment, (importance), [momentous, momen- 
tary'] ; mo-tio, a moving, m^otion, a removing, [emotion] ; mo-tns, 
a moving, motion, disturbance; com-mo-tio, a commotion; mu-to 
(freq. = m.6vUo), to move, to change, (compd. w. com, de, in, 
per, sub, trans), [commute, transmute] ; mu-tabllis, changeable, 
Tnutable, [immutable] ; mu-tuus, borrowed, lent, in exchange, 
mutuAil. 



140 REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

L 380. niu; mu; jjlvv; mu; bind, enclose, protect. 

d/jLvvo), to keep off; d/Aw-o/xat, to defend one's self; d/Aw-rcop, 
oLfjivv-Trjp^ a helper ; d/Awa, defence ; fjivv-rj^ a pretence. 

mu-nis, ready to be of service, obliging ; com-mu-nis (serving 
together), co7n7non, [commune (subst.)] ; com-mii-iiico, (to do or 
have in common), to communicate, impart, share, commune ; 
im-mu-nis (m, munis), exempt from a public service, free from ; 
im-mii-iiltas, exemption from public service, immunity ; mii-nia, 
(that to v^^hich one is bound), duties ; mii-niceps (munia, capio), 
[one undertaking a duty], an inhabitant of a municipium or 
free town, a citizen ; mii-iilclplum, a free town ; mii-nlclpalis, of 
or belonging to a municipium, m^unicipal ; mu-nlflcus (munus, 
facio), liberal, munificent; mu-nus, a service, duty; mu-nero, 
mu-neror, to give, bestow ; re-miineror, to repay, remunerate ; 
mu-nio (old form moenio), to build a wall, to build a wall around, 
to fortify, (compd. w. circum, com, e, per, prae) ; mu-nimentum, 
a fortification, [muniment] ; mu-nitio, a fortifying, fortification, 
[munition, ammunition] ; moe-nia, defensive walls, ramparts ; 
mu-rus, a wall; mu-rahs, of or belonging to a wall, rnural ; 
po-me-rium, po-moe-rium {post, moerus — raurus), an open space 
within and without the walls of a town. 

381. vam; vam; 6[a, Fcfi.; vom; vomit. 

ifX'iix), to vomit ; l/a-eros, €/A-€o-ts, a vomiting ; ifx-^TCKos^ induc- 
ing to vomit, emetic. 

v5m-o, to vomit, (compd. w. com, e, pro, re) ; vSm-Ito (freq.), 
to vomit often ; v5m-Itus, v6m-!tio, a vomiting. 

382. This number is related to No. 377, since from the idea ' like,' the 
idea of like parts or halves is naturally developed. 

Tijjl', insep. prefix, half- ; ^/x-t-o-rs, half. 

semi-, half-, demi-, semi- ; semi-s, a half; se-libra {semi, libra), 
a half-pound ; ses-tertius {semis, tertius), a sesterce, a small 
silver com equal to two and a half asses. 

383i mad; mad; jiaS; mad; be wet, flow. 

/xaS-apds, melting away ; yxaS-do), to be moist or Wet. 



REaULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 141 

mad-eo, to be moist, wet, or dripping ; mad-esco (inch.), to 
become moist or wet ; made-facio, to wet, moisten, intoxicate ; 
mad-ldus, moist, soaked, intoxicated ; ma-no (?) (prob. for mad- 
no), to flow, run, (compd. w. de, dis, e, per, re). 

384. makh; — ; k-^-Xj i*^ac; kill, slaughter. 

/xax-o/xat, to fight; /J^ii-X'V') battle, [logoTnachi/, from \6yo<s, 
fjidxv] ; ftctx-t/xo?, warlike ; irpo-fxaxos, fighting before ; irpo-^a- 
X09 (subst.) a champion ; /xa;)(-at/oa, a knife, a sword. 

mac-ellum, meat-market ; mac-to, to slaughter (in sacrifice), 
to slaughter, kill, destroy. 

385. rasi'y ma; ^e; me; pronom. denoting the first person. 
/xe, €/x€, me. 

me, me; me-us, my. 

386. iJ^a, mii; ma; (jl€; ma, me = maz, men; measure. 
/xe-rpov, a measure, m^etre [-meter in compos., e.g., therm^om- 

eter (^ep)u,09, /xerpov)] ; jjie-TpiKos, of or for measure or metre, 
metrical; /jLe-rptos, Avithin measure, moderate; /xZ-/xe-o/xat, to 
imitate, 'mimic ; /xt-yLtTy-o-t?, imitation, Tnifnesis ; /xt-/xo9, an imi- 
tator. 

me-ta (the measuring thing), the goal ; me-to, to measure, 
mete, survey ; me-tor, to measure, mark off, encamp, traverse ; 
me-tior, to m^easure, Tnete^ mark oif, encamp, traverse, (compd. 
w. de, e, per, re), [imm.ense'] ; men-stira, a measuring, Tneasure^ 
[mensuration, mensurahle, commensurate, C07nmensurable\ ; 
men-sa, a table ; nl-mis (m-, ne-^ and root m.a), beyond measure, 
too much ; ma-mis (as the measurer, feeler, shaper), the hand, 
[m^anual, Tnanujacture, m^anumit, 7nanuscript\ ; ma-mis (old 
Latin for bonus), good ; immanis (negative of mdnus), mon- 
strous, (in size) immense, (in character) frightful, fierce ; ma-ne, 
(in good season), the morning, early in the morning ; Manes, 
(the good spirits), manes; mos(?) (from this root or from 
No. 379), (a measuring or guiding rule of life), custom, usage, 
(in pi. manners, Tnorals, character). 



142 REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

387. mag, magh; mali; jxc-y; mag; great. From the root ma 
there probably came at an early time three related roots, mak (No. 82), 
mag, and magh, all three existing together and having the common 
meaning of extension. 

fiiy-as (by-stem /xeyoAo), great, [mega- in compos., e.g., 
megatherium, megalosaurus] ; /xet-^wv (= /xey-tW), greater ; 
/xey-aXuVo), to magnify ; /xey-at/ow, to look at a tiling as great or 
too great, to grudge ; /^icy-e^os, greatness. 

mag-nus, great; mag-nitudo, greatness, Tnagnitude ; magna- 
nMus (magnus, animus), great-souled, magnanimous; major 
(= Tnag-ior), greater, onajor, [majority, mayor'] ; maj-estas, 
greatness, grandeur, m^ajesty ; mag-is, in a higher degree, more ; 
mag-ister, a master, [magisterial] ; magistratus, magistracy, mag- 
istrate ; mag-istero, mag-istro, to rule ; malo (mdgis, volo), to 
wish rather, to choose, prefer. 

388. smi; smi; |ji€i; ml; smile, wonder. 

/xet-Sos, fJLu-Srjfxa^ a smile ; /Aet-8aa), /xct-Staco, to smile. 

mi-ror (to smile upon, i.e., in indication of approval), to ad- 
mire, to wonder at, (compd. w. ad, e) ; mi-rab!lis, wonderful, 
admirable; mi-raculnm, (that which causes to wonder), a won- 
der, a miracle ; mi-ms, wonderful ; ni-ml-mm (ni, ne, mlrum), 
doubtless, certainly. 

389. marl; mard (for marZ) ; ^eXX, [jl€iX; — ; mild. 

/xetX-ta, soothing things, propitiations; /xetA-t^o?, gentle, kind; 
/xetX-txto5, gentle, soothing, mild, gracious; /xetX-L;(ta, gentleness, 
kindness ; /^eiX-tWo), to soothe, to treat kindly. 

390. />LeXt, honey ; /xeXt-^pwv (j^prjv), sweet to the mind, 
delicious ; /AeXto-cra, a bee. 

mel (gen. viell-is — melt-is), honey ; mellifluus (mel, fluo), 
flowing with honey, m,elUfluous. 

391. smar; smar; [xcp, jxap; mor; keep in mind. 
jmep-jjLTjp-a, jjuip- t/xva, care, anxious thought ; jxep-fjiaLpoi, fiep- 

IJurjp-iCoy, to be full of cares ; ixep-jmepa epya, warlike deeds ; /xep- 
/xe,o-o9, peevish, baneful ; fxap-rv^^ fjidp-Tvp, a witness, (later) a 



EEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 143 

martyr ; ^xap-TvpLov^ a testimony, proof ; jxap-rvpofjiaL, to call to 
witness. 

me-mor, mindful of, remembering ; me-mor-ia, meraory ; mS- 
mor-ialis, Tnemorial ; me-mor-o, to remind of, to relate; com- 
memoro, to recall an object to memory in all its particulars, 
[^commemorate]] me-mor-abilis, memorable; me-mor-Iter, from 
memory, accurately ; mor-a, a delay ; mor-or, to delay, (compd. 
w. com, de, in, re), \_clemur, demurrage']. 

392. mar; — ; jicp; mer; measure out, distribute to. 
fxetp-ofjiaif (efx-jjiop-a^ et-/xa/3-Tat) , to receive as one's portion; 

jjLep'OS', fJiep-LSf a part, share ; /xep-t'^w, to divide ; /x6p-o<;, fate, 
destiny ; fjbOLp-a, part, share, destiny, one's due ; /xop-a, a 
division (of the Spartan army) ; pL6p-crLjjLo<s, appointed by fate. 
mer-eo, mer-eor (to receive as one's share), to deserve, vierit, 
earn, obtain, (compd. w. de, e, pro) ; mer-itnm, that which one 
deserves, reward, punishment, Tnerit; merx, (the gainful thing), 
merchandise; com-mer-cinm, commerce; mer-o-es, hire, pay, 
recompense ; mer-c-or, to trade, (compd. w. com, e, prae) ; 
mer-cans (pres. part.), trading, [mercantile] ; mer-cans (subst.), 
a buyer, purchaser, [merchant^ Tuerchandise] ; mer-c-ator, a 
merchant; mer-c-enarins, mer-c-ennarins (in old Mss.), doing 
anything for reward or pay, Tuercenary. 

393. mar; mar; jjiep, p.op, jxap, fipo; mor, mar-c; waste away, die. 
Ppo't6<;^ fjiop-Tos^ mortal; a-jui/Spo-Tos (ai.-pLJ^p6o--Lo<i)y immortal; 

a-/x^poo--ta, ambrosia, the food of the gods ; fxap-atvo), to put 
out or quench, pass, to waste away, [aTnaranth] ; /Aap-acr-/>tds, 
fjidp-av(TL<s, decay. 

mor-ior, to die, (compd. w. de, e, in, inter, prae) ; mors, death, 
[fnurder, mortify] ; mor-talis, m^ortal; mor-bns, a sickness, dis- 
ease ; mor-bldus, sickly, diseased, m^orbid ; mar-c-eo, to wither, 
to be feeble ; mar-c-esco (inch.), to wither, to become feeble. 

394. mad ; madlijas ; |x€0 ; med, mid ; middle. 

/xeWos (=/xe^-Jo9), /xecros (a still further weakened form), 
middle ; />(,eo-a--77yi;(s), /xecr-?yyi;(s), between. 



144 EEGULAE, SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

med-ius, middle, Tnid-, [midst] ; med-lam, the middle, a 
Tnediuvi ; med-io, to divide in the middle, to be in the middle, 
[mediate] ; med-iator, a Tnediator ; med-iocris, middling, ordi- 
nary, mediocre; di-mld-ins (dis, midius), half; di-mid-io, to 
divide into halves, to halve ; mediterraneus (medius, terra), 
midland, inland, mediterranean; meri-dies (for rtiedi-dies), mid- 
day, noon; meridlamis, of or belonging to mid-day, meridian; 
meridionalis, southern, meridional. 

395. ma; ma; (st.) |ji.t]vs ; men; measure. 

t^W^ /AT/s, />tet9, a month; fJii^-vr]^ the moon; /xTyv-tatos, monthly. 

mens-is, a month ; -mestris, (= mensitris) ; bi-mes-tris, of two 
months duration ; tri-mes-tris, of three months ; mens-truus, 
monthly, menstrual, 

396. ma; ma; |j.a, jw^; ma; measure, fashion, make. 
IxTj-T-qp^ jxa-TTip^ a mother ; /^a-ta, good mother. 

ma-ter, a mother ; ma-termis, m^aternal; ma-trlmonium, mar- 
riage, matrimony ; ma-trona, a married woman, wife, [matron]-, 
ma-trix, a breeding-animal^ a public register ; ma-tricula (dim.), 
a public register, [matriculate] ; ma-teria, ma-teries, meatier, ma- 
terials, wood ; ma-terialis, of or belonging to matte'r, m^aterial. 

397. mik; mic; jii^; misc; mix. 

[XLoy-oi, fxty-vv-fjiiy to mix; />ity-a, /xty-Sa, fJbty-Srjv, confusedly; 
fji'Ly-ais, mixed pell-mell ; )u,tf-tg, a mixing. 

misc-eo, to mix, mingle, (compd. w. ad, com, inter, re) ; 
misc-ellus, mixed; misc-ellanens, mixed, miscellaneous; mis-tio, 
mix-tio, mis-tura, mix-tnra, a mixing, a mixture; pro-misc-uus, 
mixed, promiscuous, 

398. i*ia, mi; mi; jjliv, jjlc; man, min, men; diminish. 
fjLLv-vOoiy to make less, become less, perish ; ixlv-vvOo, a little, 

a short time ; fuv-vvOd^ios, short-lived ; ixe-ioiv, less ; /jl^-loo), to 
diminish. 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 145 

man-ens, maimed ; men-da, men-dum, a fault, a defect ; men- 
dosns, full of faults, faulty ; e-men-do, to amend, emend, mend ; 
men-dicns, beggarly ; men-diens, a beggar, a 7)iendicant ; men- 
dico, men-dieor, to beg ; min-uo, to diminish, (compd. w. com, 
de, di, in), [diminish, mince] ; min-iitns, small, TJiiwdte; mln- 
utnm, the smallest piece of money, pi. very small parts, 
[minute] ; min-or, m!n-us, less, [minor, minus] ; min-Imus, very 
little, least, ['minimum, minim]; min-ister, adj., (a double 
comparative in form, from minus and compar. ending -tety 
Gr. -rep-os), serving ; min-ister (subst.), a servant, a m^inister, 
[minstrel]; min-isterium, service, wAnistry ; min-istro, to serve, 
supply, m^inister, (compd. w. ad, prae, sub). 

399. fiop-jjivp-o), fjLvp-fjivp-(o (formed by redupl. from /xup-w), 
(of water) to roar and boil. 

mur-mur (formed perhaps by onomatopoeia), a Tnurmur, 
rushing, roaring ; mur-mur-o, to inur-mur, rustle, roar. 

400. kiul; mu; jtv; mu; bind, close. (Of. No. 380.) 

/Av-(o, to close (eyes, mouth) ; /jlv-q-ls^ a closing (of the lips, 
eyes, etc.); fjiv4vSa, blindman's-bufF; /av-wi/^, blinking, short- 
sighted, [myops, Tnyope, myopy] ; /^u-xos, the innermost place 
or part ; fjiv-eo), to initiate into the mysteries, to instruct ; 
Ixva-T-q^ (fem. fiva-TLs)^ one initiated ; pivo'-Trjpiov, a mystery or 
secret doctrine ; fiv-du), to compress the lips ; fxv-^coj to murmur 
with closed lips, to moan ; /^D-y/xo?, a moaning ; fiv-xOt^^^ to 
moan, to sneer ; /jlv-ktt^p^ the nose ; /xw-Sos, /x-J-So?, dumb ; 
jitu-^w, to drink with closed lips, to suck in ; fxy-^do)^ to suck ; 
jjiv-TTo^^ fjLV'TYjs, dumb. 

mu-tus, dumb, mute; mii-tesco (inch.), to become dumb, 
(compd. w. in, ob), mii-tio, muttio, to mutter ; mu-sso, mu-ssito 
(intens.), to speak low, to mutter. 

401. mus; mush; pvo-; mus; steal. (Of. No. 403.) 
fiv-la (for /xvo'-ia), a fly. 

mu-sca, a fly, [midge, mosquito, musquito]. 



146 REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

402. mar, mal; — ; jjlvX; mol; rub, grind. 

fivX-rj^ /AuX-o9, a Tnill, a millstone, [meal] ; /xvX- compos, a miller ; 
fxvX-ai^ /x-uX-oSovre?, juLvX-lraL, the molar teeth, the grinders. 

mol-o, to grind ; mol-a, a tjiUI, millstone, meal; mol-aris, of a 
mill, of grinding, molar ; im-mol-o (m, m^ola)^ to sprinkle a 
victim with sacrificial meal, to sacrifice, to immolate, 

403. mus; mush; jiv<r; nius; steal. (Cf. No. 401.) 
/xt)?, a 7nouse, a muscle (shell-fish). 

mns, a mouse ; mns-culus (dim.), a little mouse, a sea mus- 
cle {mussel), a muscle (of the body), [muscular] ; imis-cip-iila, 
mns-cip-iiliim, (mus, capio), a mouse-trap. 

404. Perhaps these words are from the root mu (No. 400). 

IJi(x)p6<;, dull, foolish ; /xwpta, folly ; /xwpoo/xat, to become dull, 
be stupefied ; /xcopatVco, to be silly, to be foolish. 

morns, foolish ; morosus, self-willed, peevish, morose. 

405. ojxppo<s^ rain; ofx/Sptos, rainy ; o/x^/dcoj, to rain. 

imber, rain, a rain-storm, a shower of rain ; imbrex, a hollow 
tile, pantile (used in covering roofs, for conducting off the rain). 

406. (0/X09, raw, fierce ; w/xoriys, rawness, fierceness. 
amarus, bitter. 

407. a)/xo9, the shoulder ; ^/jbOTrXdrr), the shoulder-blade, 
timerus (incorrectly spelled humerus), the upper part of the 

arm, the shoulder. 



P 

r; r; p; r (sometimes 1), 

408. ar; ar; dp; ar; fit, join closely. The Indo-European root ar 
has the fundamental meaning of motion in the direction of something. 
From this arise the meanings of attaining a goal, close union, fitness, 
closeness, narrowness. The root ar is in Sanskrit retained unchanged in 
form. In Greek it appears under three forms, ap, ip^ op; and to each of 
these forms a definite meaning is attached, to the one with a that of fit- 



REaULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 147 

ting (No. 408) and ploughing (No. 410), to the one with e that of rowing 
(No. 411), to the one with o that of raising or arousing (No. 414). Com- 
paring the Latin words, artus, remus, drior, we find a similar special 
meaning attached to each of the corresponding vowels. 

dp-ap-to-Ko), to join, to fit together, to be joined closelj 
together, to fit or suit ; ap-/>tevos, fitting, fitted or suited ; 
S.p-Opov^ a joint, (pi. limbs) ; dp-rvo)^ to prepare ; dp-Tv<Sy dp- 
Ofjios, a bond, friendship ; dp-i0jji6s, a number, a numbering ; 
dp-iOfJiriTLKog, of or for numbering ; y dpiOfxrjriKrj (so. rexvr]), 
arithTnetic ; v-yp-iTo^, v-rjp-tOfjbos, dv-dp-cOfjio^.) countless ; d/o-/xo9, a 
joint, the shoulder-joint; dp-rt^ just, exactly; dp-TLo^, suitable, 
exactly fitted ; dp-TtXa), to prepare ; apt-, insep. prefix, used to 
strengthen the meaning of its compound ; dp-ctW, better ; dp- 
tcTTo?, best ; dp-eo-Kco, to make good, make amends, please ; dp-errj, 
goodness, excellence, manhood, valor ; dp-erdo), to be fit or proper ; 
ipL-7]p-os, fitting exactly; dpa (dp, pd), then, straightway. 

ar-ma, armor, arms; ar-mo, to arTn, \_army^ armada^ ; ar- 
matura, armor ^ [arm^ature] ; ar-mus, the shoulder, the arm ; 
ar-tus, fitted, close, narrow, severe ; ar-tum, a narrow place ; 
ar-te, closely ; ar-tns, a joint, (pi. limbs) ; ar-ticiiliis (dim.), a 
joint, (of discourse) a part, a division, article; ar-ticiilo, to 
utter distinctly, to articulate; ars, skill in joining something, 
skill in producing, occupation, art, [artist, artisan, artifice, 
artificer, artificial, artful, artless, artillery] ; in-ers {in, ars), 
unskilled in any art, inactive, inert, [inertia] ; soUers, solars 
(sollus [old word meaning * entire '], ars), [having all art], 
skilled, intelligent. 

409. ark (expanded fr. rt. ar); — ; — ; — ; spin. 

dpdx'vr)<s, a spider ; dpdx-vrj, a spider, a spider's web ; dpa^- 
vLov, a spider's web. 

ara-nea (= aralcnea), a spider, a spider's web ; ara-nens, a 
spider ; ara-neum, a spider's web. 

410. ar ; — ; dp ; ar ; move, plough. 

dp-doj, to plough ; dp-oTiqp^ a ploughman ; dp-oro^^ a crop or 
cornfield, ploughing, seed-time ; dp-orpov, a plough ; dp-ovpa, 
tilled land. 



148 REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

ar-0, to plougli, [arable] ; ar-ator, a ploughman ; ar-atio, a 
j^loughing ; ar-atrum, a plougli ; ar-vus, ploughed, arable ; 
ar-vum, an arable field ; ar-mentum (?), cattle for ploughing, a 
drove, a herd. 

411. ar, ra; ar; cp; ra, re; move, move with oars. (Cf. No. 408.) 
oLjjLcft-yp-rjs, fitted on both sides, with oars on both sides ; 

aXi-rjp-T]';^ sweeping the sea ; rpL-yp-rjs, a galley with three 
banks of oars, a trireme ; TrevTrjKovT-opo-f;^ a ship of burden 
with fifty oars ; €p-€-T7}<s, a rower ; vTr-yp-e-Trj^, an under-rower, 
under-seaman, servant ; elp-eo-Lo, cp-ecrta, a rowing, a crew ; 
ip-ecrcro), to row ; ip-erfjiov, an oar. 

ra-tis, a raft, boat, vessel ; re-rnus, an oar, [rudder] ; re-mi- 
ginm, a rowing, the oars, the rowers; tri-re-mis (adj.), having 
three banks of oars ; tri-re-mis (subst.), a vessel having three 
banks of oars, a trireme. 

412. var; — ; cp, Ftp; ver; speak. 

ctp-o), to say, (ep-ew, eip-yjKa [for e-Fprj-Ko]^ ippyOrjVy prj-ros 
[for Fpyj-Tos]) ; prj-Ttap, a public speaker ; prj-TopiKo^ rhetorical; 
ri prj-TopiKYj (sc. rexyr]), rhetoric; py-rpa, a verbal agreement, 
an unwritten law, a law ; prj-pia^ a word ; p>}-crts, a speaking, 
speech ; a.prjvy], peace. 

ver-bum, a word, a verb ; ver-balis, verbal; ver-bosus, full of 
words, verbose; ad-verbium, an adverb; proverbium (^ro, ver- 
bum), a proverb. 

413. var; — ; — ; — ; cover. 

eip-o^s, €p'io-v, wool ; ep-tV-co9, ipeovs, WOollen. 
vell-ns, a fleece, wool; vill-us, shaggy hair. 

414. ar; ar; op; or; arouse, rouse one's self, rise. (Cf. No. 408.) 
op-vvfjii^ op'ivd), 6p-o6vvo}^ to stir up, excite, arouse ; o/o-ovw, 

to rise and rush violently on or forward ; av-op-ovcD, to start up ; 
ovp-ov, a boundary ; StcrK-ovp-a (pL), a quoit's cast. 

or-ior, to stir one's self, to rise, to have one's origin from, 
(compd. w. ab, ad, com, ex, in, ob, sub) ; or-tns, a rising, origin. 



BEGULAE. SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 149 

birth ; abortus, abortio, a premature birth, ahortion; or-iens, the 
rising sun, the East, the Orient; or-ientalis, oriental; or-igo, birth, 
origin^ [aborigines, aboriginal] ; or-iginalis, primitive, original. 

415. var; — ; op, Fop; ver; be watchful, wary. 

op-o/xat, to watch ; ovp-o^, a watcher, guardian ; l-iri-ovp-o^ a 
guardian ; <f>povp6<i (7rpo-op6s), a watcher ; <j>povpa^ a looking 
out, a watch, guard ; Tlpid'opo-<s, rl/xtopo?, upholding honor, 
helping, avenging, punishing ; irvXa-wpo's, ttuAcu/jo?, a gate- 
keeper ; Ovp-iopos, a door-keeper ; wpa, care, heed ; opa-oi, to 
see ; opa-fia, a sight, [cosmorama (Koo-jjios, world), diorama (Sta, 
through), panorama (jrav, all)] ; d-opa-ro5, invisible. 

vereor, to reverence, to fear ; re-ver-eor, to honor, reverence, 
revere, [reverent, reverend] ; ver-ecundus, feeling shame, modest. 

416. op'ixrj, 1. a violent movement onward, a rush, an attack ; 
2. the first stir or start in a thing, effort, attempt ; 3. a start 
on a march, etc. ; op-/xao), to set in motion, to urge on, (more 
commonly intrans.), to hurry on, to start; a<^-op-/x7/, op-jxr]- 
rrjpiov, a starting-place, an incentive. 

417. (opvy-T;, wpv^/xo?, a howling, a roaring. 
riig-io, to roar, to bellow ; rug-itus, a roaring. 

418. var; var; — ; — ; cover. 

ovp-avos (cop-avos, 6/o-avos), the vault or firmament of heaven, 
a ceiling, the roof of the mouth, palate ; ovp-dvLos, heavenly ; 
OvpavtWe?, the gods. 

419. piy'0<s, frost, cold ; pty-tov, more frosty or cold, more 
horrible ; pty-eco, to shudder with the cold, to shudder at any- 
thing ; pty-oo), to be cold, to shiver from frost or cold. 

frig-ns (subst.), cold ; frig-eo, to stiffen with cold, to be cold ; 
fng-ldus, cold, frigid. 

420. pt^-a, a root. 

radix, a root, [wort, radical]. 



150 EEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

421, sru; sru; pvycrpv; ru, rou, ro; flow, break forth, come out 
with vehemence. 

pe-o) (peu-o-o), i-ppvrj-v), to flow, to run ; p£-09, pe{}-/x,a, po-y^ a 
stream ; pv-o-t?, p€i}-o-ts, a flowing ; pv't6<s, flowing ; pevcr-ros, 
made to flow, fluctuating ; peiOpov^ pi-eOpov, a stream, the bed 
of a stream ; pv-af, a stream that bursts forth, esp. a stream 
of lava ; pv-fir], the force, swing, rush of a body in motion ; 
pv-OfJiO'Si any motion, esp. a regular, recurring, vibratory mo- 
tion, time (in music), rhythm. From the root pv comes the 
stem pw. pw-o/xat, to move with speed or violence, to rush ; 
pw-vvv/xt, to strengthen, to put forth strength ; po>-/x77, strength, 
force ; *Pcu-/x77, Eome ; c-pca-Ty, a quick motion, rush ; e-pco-eo), 
to rush, rush forth. 

Eu-mo, an older name of the Tiber ; Eo-ma (= Srou-ma, 
Rou-ma, stream-town), Rome; ni-o (= srov-o), to rush down, 
fall down, go to ruin, (compd. w\ com, de, di, e, in, ob, pro, 
sub, super) ; ru-ina, a falling or tumbling down, ruin. 

422. svar, sar; sar; crep, cp, €p, cr€tp, €tp, dep; ser, sre, sor; 

swing, hang, bind ; (Latin) arrange, put together. 

crctp-ci, a rope ; op-fxo^^ 1. a chain, necklace, 2. a roadstead, 
anchorage, place where the ships swing or ride at anchor, 
where ships are bound or fastened, 3. = ep-jna, ear-ring ; 
(opjjio^, with the second signification, is by some referred to 
opfido), No. 416) ; op'fiaOos^ a string or chain (as of beads, etc.) ; 
op-fjLca, a fishing-line; €p-p,a, an ear-ring (prob. of strung 
pearls) ; ep-/xa, prop, support, ballast, (prob. belongs with this 
root) ; ctp-oi (simple verb rare ; compds. w. ai/-, St, er, cf, arvv), 
to fasten together in rows, to string ; elp-fjios^ a train, series (as 
of things bound or fastened together) ; etp-epo?, bondage ; 
aap-w [Ionic], (Att. atp-(o, Aeol. deppo))^ to raise, to lift; aop, 
a hanger, a sword ; dop-ryp, a strap over the shoulder to hang 
anything to, a sword-belt ; atwpa, a machine for suspending 
bodies, a being suspended or hovering in the air, oscillation ; 
ap-Tctw, to fasten to or hang one thing upon another ; dp-ravrj, 
that by which something is hung up, a rope, cord. 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 151 

ser-0, to join or bind together, to plait, to entwine, (compd. 
w. ad, de, dis, ex, in, inter, pro, sub, trans), [insert] ; disserto 
(freq. fr. dissero), to discuss, to treat, [dissertation] ; in-ser-to 
(freq. fr. insero), to put into, to insert ; ser-mo (may be referred 
to No. 422 or to No. 423), a speaking, discourse, [sermon'] ; 
ser-tnm (rare in sing., freq. in pL), a wreath of flowers ; ser-ies, 
a row, succession, series ; re-te (= sre-te), a net ; re-ticulum 
(dim.), a little net, [reticule] ; rerticnlatus, made like a net, 
reticulated; circum-retio, to enclose with a net, ensnare ; ir-re- 
tio, to take in a net, catch, ensnare, hinder ; ser-a, a bar for 
fastening doors ; ob-ser-o, to bolt, bar, fasten ; re-ser-o, to 
unlock, unclose, open ; ser-vns, slavish ; ser-vus, ser-va, a slave, 
a servant; ser-vitium, slavery, the class of slaves, [service]] 
ser-vitiido, servitude ; ser-vilis, slavish, servile ; ser-vio, to be a 
servant or slave, to serve, (compd. w. ad, de, in, sub) ; sors (?), 
anything used to determine chances, a lot, (sero : sors =f&ro : 
fors) ; sor-tio (?), sor-tior (?), to cast or draw lots ; con-sors (?), 
having an equal share with another or others, partaking of in 
common; con-sors (?) (subst.), a sharer, partner, consort; ex- 
Bors (?), without lot, having no share in. 

423. svar; svar; o-vp; sur; tune, sound. 

(Tvp'Ly^, a musical pipe ; crvp-t^o), to pipe, to make any 
whistling or hissing sound ; o-vp-tyfjios, a shrill piping sound, 
a hissing. 

ab-sur-dus, 1. out of tune, giving a disagreeable sound, harsh, 
2. incongruous, silly, absurd; su-sur-rus, a humming, whisper- 
ing ; su-sur-ro, to hum, buzz, whisper. 

424. (Spa, any limited time or period (as fixed by natural 
laws and revolutions), whether of the year, month, or day, a 
season, spring-time, part of a day, hour, the right or fitting 
time ; wpo?, time, a year ; wpdo-t, in season ; wpatos, timely, 
seasonable ; awpos, untimely. 

hora, (lit. a definite space of time fixed by natural laws), an 
hour, a season. 



152 REGULAE SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

425. ru; ru; wpv (<» is here a prefixed vowel); ru, rau; sound. 

(Lpv-o/xat, howl, roar ; wpv-OfMo^f a howling, roaring ; 6pv- 
/;LaySo9, a loud noise, din. 

ru-mor, common talk, ruTn^or ; ru-mifico {rumor, facio), to 
report ; rau-cus, rav-us, hoarse ; rav-is, hoarseness. 



1;1;X;L Lis sometimes represented by Y. 

426. ^^9 — 5 ttX; al, ol, ul; grow, make to grow, nourish. 
av-aX-T09, insatiable ; aX-cros, a grove ; "AA-rts, the sacred 

grove of Zeus at Olympia. 

al-o, to nourish, support; al-esco (inch.), to grow up ; co- 
alesco (inch.), to grow together, become united, coalesce; 
al-imentum, nourishment, aliment; al-imonium, sustenance, sup- 
port, alimony; al-tor, (fem. al-trix), a nourisher ; al-umims 
(adj.), that is nourished; al-nminis (subst.), a foster-son, pupil, 
alumnus; al-unma, a foster-daughter, a pupil; al-umno, to 
nourish, educate ; al-mus, nourishing, cherishing, kind ; al-tus 
(lit. grown or become great), high, \old'\ ; al-titudo, height, 
altitude; ex-al-to, to elevate, exalt; el-ementum, a first prin- 
ciple, element; ad-ol-eo, to cause to grow up, to magnify; 
ad-nl-tns, grown up, adult; ad-ol-esco (inch.), to grow up; 
ad-ul-escens, ad-6l-escens, growing up ; ad-ul-escens (subst.), a 
youth ; sub-ol-es, a sprout, offspring ; ind-ol-es, inborn or na- 
tive quality ; pro-les (=pro-ol-es), offspring ; obs-6l-esco (inch.), 
to wear out, fall into disuse, become obsolete ; obs-ol-etus, 
worn out, obsolete. 

427. a/\Xo9, another ; oXXo)?, otherwise ; a\X-y\ov<Sj one 
another ; dXXa, (in another way), but ; aXX-olos, of another 
kind ; aXX-do-crw, to make other than it is, to change, exchange ; 
aXX'OTpLo^, of or belonging to another, foreign, strange. 



EEGULAH SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 153 

ali-us, another (of many), other, else; alio, to another place, 
elsewhere ; alia (sc. via), in another way ; all-as, at another 
time ; allter, otherwise ; all-bi (contr. fr. aliuhi), elsewhere ; 
ali-emis, that belongs to another person, place, object, etc., alien; 
ali-eno, to transfer, alienate ; all-quantus {alius, quantus), some- 
what, some ; all-quando, at some time, sometimes ; all-quis (alius, 
quis), some one, something ; all-quot (alius, quot), some, sev- 
eral, [aliquot] ; al-ter (a comparative form of alius), the other 
of two, one of two, [alter, alterative]] al-tenms (adj.), alternate, 
alternative ; al-temo, to alternate; al-tercor, to dispute, quarrel, 
altercate; al-tercatio, a dispute, altercation; alter-iiter, one of 
two, either ; ad-ul-ter (ad, alter), an adulterer. 

428. yXvKv-s, sweet ; yXvKv-Tys, sweetness ; yXevK-09, must ; 
d-yXeuK-?;?, not sweet, sour. 

dnl-cis (perhaps from gulcis, by dissimilation), sweet, [dulcet] ; 
dul-cedo, sweetness. 

429. var; val; FcX, FaX; vol; wind, roll, grind. 

cXt^-o), to wind, to twist together ; ctXv-o), to roll, enfold ; 
cLXv-/xa, a wrapper ; (Xv-rpov, a cover ; tXtyf, a whirling ; tXXa-9, 
a rope; 6Xot-Tpo;>(09, 6Xoi-Tpo)(o<S', a rolling stone ; oX-jito?, a round 
stone, a mortar; oiuXat', coarsely-ground barley; dXeo), to grind ; 
aXevpov, dXetara, wheaten flour ; oXerrjs, a grinder ; dXe-ros, a 
grinding, meal ; aXc-rpip-avo^s^ a pestle ; dXo-do), to thresh ; 
dXcD-Ty, oXcos, a threshing-floor. 

volv-o, to roll, (compd. w. ad, circum, com, cle, e, in, ob, per, 
pro, re, sub, super), [walh, ivell (vb.), convolve, convolution, 
devolve, evolve, evolution, involve, involution, revolve, revolution, 
^revolt, revolver] ; vol-tito (freq.), to roll ; vol-tibllis, rolling, whirl- 
ing, (of speech) rapid, voluble ; vol-umen, a roll, volume. 

430. cXatov, olive-oil ; IXaC-a (Att. iXd-a), the olive-tree, the 
fruit of the olive-tree, an olive. 

olen-m, oil, olive-oil, [oleaginous]-, oliva, an olive, olive-tree. 



154 KEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

431. eXos (feXo?), low ground, 
valles, valiis, a valley. 

432. ^Xos, a nail ; ecj^-rjXo-^y nailed on or to ; €^-77X0-0), to 
nail on. 

vallu-s, a stake, a palisade ; vallum, a rampart set with pali- 
sades, a fortification ; vallo, to surround with, a rampart and 
palisades, (compd. w. circum, com, e), [circumvallatlon] ; inter- 
vallum, the space between two palisades, an interval. 

433. las; lash; Xa, Xcur; las; wish, long for. 

Xa-o), to wish ; Xrj-fjLo, XiJ-crts, will ; Xt-Xa-to/xat, to desire 
earnestly ; Xe-Xirj-fxau (pf.), to strive eagerly ; Xta-v, very, ex- 
ceedingly. 

las-c-ivus, playful, wanton, lascivious, [lust]. 

434. Xatos, left, i.e., on the left side, 
laevu-s, left, i.e., on the left side. 

435. Xa^, XdySrjVy with the foot; XaK-Tt^w, to kick with the 
heel or foot ; XaK-irar-qTo^ trampled on. 

calx, the heel; calo-o, to tread under foot; circum-calco, 
circum-culco, to trample around ; con-culco, to crush or bruise 
by treading ; de-oulco, to tread down ; pro-culco, to tread down, 
to despise ; ex-culco, to tread out or down ; in-culco, to tread 
into or upon, to impress on, to inculcate; oc-culco, to trample 
upon or down ; re-calco, to tread again, retrace ; calcar, a spur; 
calc-eus, a shoe ; calc-Itro, to kick, to be stubborn, [recalcitrate ^ 
recalcitrant']. 

436. Xa-09, the people ; Xa-lVov, Xyj-ltov^ the town-hall or 
council-room ; Xarovpyos, (Xi'tTos or XetTos, cpyov), a public 
servant ; XeLT-ovpyLa, a burdensome public office or duty, any 
public service, the public service of the gods, [Uturgi/] ; Xetr- 
ovpyio), to perform public duties ; /SacnXev's (prob. from rt. /3a 
and Ionic Xcv ~ Xao), a king (as leader of the people). 



EEGULAE SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 155 

437. 1«> lav; — ; \aF ; lu, la; gain, get booty. 

Aa-(o, oLTTO-Xav-io, to enjoy ; Aet'a, Ion. Xyjirj, Dor. Aata, Xrj'i<s, 
Xai^y booty ; XrjL^ofjiaL, to seize as booty ; Xr)tTL<s, she who gives 
booty, epithet of Athena ; Aa-rpt?, a hired servant ; Xa-rpevcx)^ 
to work for hire, to serve ; Aw-tW (for Aw-AW), better. 

Ifi-cmm, gain, [lucre]; iS-cror, to gain; lu-crativus, lucrative; 
ll-tro, a hired servant, a hired soldier, a freebooter, a robber ; 
la-troc!nor, to practise robbery on the highway ; la-trocinium, 
freebooting, robbery, piracy. 

438. lap; — ; Xair; lab; hck. 

ActTT-To), to lap with the tongue, to drink ; Xacj^-va-o-o), to 
swallow greedily. 

lab-rum, lab-ia, lab-ea, lab-ium, a Up, [labial, labiate] ; lamb-o, 
to lick, lap, (compd. w. circum, de, prae, praeter). 

439. Aa^-vTy, soft, woolly hair ; Xdx'vog, wool ; Aa;)(-v>/€t9, 
woolly, shaggy ; Aax-veo/xat, to grow hairy ; AtJ-vos, wool. 

la-na, wool ; la-nti-go, down ; la-neus, woollen ; la-nicius, 

woolly, fleecy. 

440. rag, lag; — ; Xc^; leg; collect, gather. 

Aey-w, to pick, collect, count, tell, speak (the meaning 'speak* 
is the latest, and is developed through the intermediate notion 
of ' counting one's words ') ; Ae/c-ro?, chosen, spoken ; Aoy-as, 
gathered, chosen ; Sta-Aey-o/xat, to converse with, [dialect, di- 
alectic]', StaAoyos, a conversation, dialogue; Kara-Aey-o), to lay 
down, to pick out, to recount; o-vA-Aoy-r;, a collecting, levying; 
cK-Aoy--^, a picking out, election, selection; Aoy-os, a word, 
speech, reason, [logarithm (Aoyo?, dpiO/jLos), logic, logoTYiachy 
(Aoyos, p-dxr]), -logy in compds., e.g., geology {yrj, Aoyos)] ; Aef-ts, 
a speaking, speech ; Aoy-t^o/xat, to reckon, to consider, [syllo- 
gize, syllogism]. 

leg-o, to collect, gather, hear, see, read, (compd. w.- ad, com, 
de, e, inter, per, prae, se, sub), [lecture, collect, elect, select]; 
di-l!g-o {dis, lego), (to distinguish one by selecting him from 
others), to esteem highly, to love ; intellego, less correctly 



156 EEaULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

intelligo, [inter, Ugo\ (to choose between), to perceive, under- 
stand, distinguish, {intelligent, intellect'] ; neg-leg-o, less correctly 
neg-llg-o, nec-leg-o, [nee, lego], (not to gather), to neglect, to 
slight ; re-leg-o, to collect again, go over again, read again ; 
lec-tio, a gathering, a reading, lection ; lec-tor, a reader ; leg- 
Ibllis, legible; leg-io, (prop, a levying), a body of soldiers, a 
legion; leg-ionarius, legionary ; di-llg-ens (prop, esteeming, lov- 
ing), attentive, diligent; neg-leg-ens, neg-lig-ens, heedless, neg- 
ligent; e-leg-ans (another form of ellgens), luxurious, elegant; 
ri-lig-io, in poetry also rel-lig-io (by some authorities derived 
from rellgare), reverence for God (the gods), religion; col-leg-a, 
one who is chosen at the same time with another, a colleague; 
col-leg-ium, persons united by the same office or calling, a 
college, a corporation ; leg-umen, (that which is gathered), 
pulse, any leguminous plant ; lec-tus, a reading ; supel-lex 
{super, Ugo), household utensils, furniture ; lig-mim, (that 
which is gathered), wood, firewood, {lignum is by some de- 
rived from Sk. rt. dah, burn). 

441. lij — 5 ^-^i; lev; smooth, polish. 

Aet-os, \€v-p6<i^ smooth, even, level ; Xei-oTrjs, smoothness ; 
Xc-atVw, Xa-atW, to smooth, to polish. 

lev-is, smooth ; lev-Itas, smoothness ; lev-o, to smooth, to 
polish ; lev-!go, 1. to make smooth, 2. to make small, pulver- 
ize, levigate. 

442. lak; — ;— -; — ; bend. 

Ae^-ptos, slanting, crosswise ; Xe^-pt? (adv.), slanting, cross- 
wise ; Xo^'O?^ slanting, crosswise, indirect. 

lic-!nus, bent or turned upward; obliquus, slanting, oblique; 
obliquo, to turn aside or in an oblique direction ; li-mus, side- 
long, aslant; li-men, (prop, a cross-piece), a threshold; e-li-mino, 
to turn out of doors, [eliminate] ; sub-li-mis (etym. dub., per- 
haps sub, limen, up to the lintel ; or sub, Uvo), uplifted, high, 
sublime; li-mes, a cross-path, boundary, limit; li-mlto, to 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 157 

enclose within boundaries or limits, to liTuit ; Inx-ns (adj.), 
dislocated ; lux-um, lux-us, a dislocation ; lux-o, to dislocate, 
to luxate, [luxation], 

443. ri, 11, lib; — ; XiP; ri, 11, lib. From tlie fundamental idea 
' melt ' have been developed two meanings, viz. : 1. flow, drop, melt 
away, pass away ; 2. melt on to, adhere to. 

Xci^-o)^ to pour, to let flow ; Xot^-77, a drink-offering ; Xt'i/r, 
Xt^-a9, At)8-o5, anything that drops or trickles, a drop, a 
stream ; XtjS-po5, wet ; XeL/S-rjOpov, a wet country or place ; 
XtfS-dSiov^ a small stream, a wet place ; Xifx-vrj, a pool ; Xl-jjltJv, 
a harbor ; Xei-jjoDv, a moist, grassy place, a meadow. 

ri-vus, a small stream of water, a brook, [river] ; ri-vulus 
(dim.), a small brook, a rivulet; ri-valis (adj.), of or belonging 
to a brook ; ri- vales (subst.), those who have or use the same 
brook; ri-valis, a competitor in love, a rival; ri-vo, to lead or 
draw off ; de-ri-vo, to draw off, divert, derive, [derivation] ; 
cor-ri-vo, to conduct streams of water together ; ll-no, li-nio, to 
daub, spread over, (compd. w. ad, circum, com, de, ob, per, 
prae, sub, super) ; ll-tus, li-tura, a smearing, anointing ; ll-nl- 
mentum, smearing-stuff, liniment ; li-tus, the sea-shore ; littera 
(less correctly litera), a letter, a word, (pi. an epistle) ; litteralis, 
literalis, of or belonging to letters or writing, literal ; litteratura, 
literatura, philology, literature; oblittero, oblitero, to blot out, 
ohliterate ; de-le-o, to destroy ; lib-o, to take a little of, to taste 
of, to pour out in honor of a deity, to make a libation, (compd. 
w. de, prae, pro); lib-atio, a libation; lib-nm, lib-us, a conse- 
crated cake, a cake ; de-lib-uo, to besmear, anoint ; Lib-er, an 
old Italian deity who presided over planting and fructifica- 
tion, afterwards identified with the Greek Bacchus. 

444. Xxvo-v^ anything made of flax, linen; AtVeos (adj.), of 
flax, linen. 

lin-um, flax, linen; lin-ens (adj.), of flax, of linen; lin-ea, a 
linen thread, a line ; lin-earis, of or belonging to lines, linear ; 
lln-ealis, consisting of lines, lineal; lin-eamentnm, a line (made 



158 REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

with a pen, pencil, brush, etc.), a feature, lineo.ment; de-lin-eo, 
(lit. to make a line down), to sketch out, to delineate ; lin-teus, 
of or belonging to linen or flax. 

445. Xt9, XeW, lion; Xi-aiva, lioness. 
leo, lion. 

446. Xt-5 (st. Xtr), smooth; Xlr-o?, smooth, plain; Xtoro-0-9, 
Xtcr-Tros, Ato--<^o9, smooth; Xtor-Tpov^ a tool for levelling or 
smoothing, a spade ; yXot-05, sticky oil ; yXt-a, yXot-a, glue. 

Jglu-o, to draw together; glus (for the usual gluten), glue; 
glu-ten, glu-tlnum, glue ; glu-tlno, to glue, (compd. w. ad, com, 
de, re). 

447. lubh ; lubh ; Xi<|) ; lib, lub ; desire, long for. 

XtV-To), XtTT-To/xat, to be eager, to long for ; Xti/^, a longing. 

llb-et, lilb-et, (impers.), it pleases, it is pleasing; llb-eo, Iiib-eo, 
to please ; pro-lub-ium, desire, pleasure ; llb-ido, liib-ldo, desire, 
passion ; lib-er, doing as one desires, free ; llb-ero, to liberate ; 
lib-eratio, liberation ; lib-erator, a liberator ; llb-ertas, liberty ; 
lib-ertus, a freedman (in reference to the manumitter) ; lib-er- 
timis (adj.), of or belonging to the condition of a freedman; 
lib-ertiniis (subst.), a freedman (in reference to his condition or 
class), [libertine'] ; lib-erahs, of or belonging to freedom, noble, 
liberal; lib-eralltas, a disposition befitting a freeman, a noble 
spirit, liberality. 

448. lu; lu; Xv; lu; loose, release, ransom. 

Xv-w, to loose, [lose, -less\, Xv-77, Xv-a, dissolution, separation; 
Xv-o-t9, a loosing, release, [analysis] ; Xv-r-qp, a deliverer ; Xv- 
Tpov^ a ransom. 

lii-o, to loose, release ; re-liio, to redeem ; solvo (= se-lu-o), 
to loose, (compd. w. ab, dis, per, re), [solve, solution, absolve, 
absolute, absolution, dissolve, dissolute, dissolution, resolve, reso- 
lute, resolution]. 



HEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 159 

449. lu; — ; Xv, \o, \ov; lu, luv, lav; wash. 

Xv-fxa, filth or dirt removed by washing, defilement; Xv-Opovy 
defilement; Xv-firj, 1. outrage, ruin, 2. defilement; Xv-/jiaLvofjiat, 
to outrage, to ruin ; Xov-io (orig. form Ao-co), to wash ; Xov-rpov 
(~ XoF^Tpov), a bath ; Xov-ryp^ a bathing-tub ; Xov-rptov, water 
that has been used in washing. 

lii-o, to wash, cleanse, expiate, (compd. w. ab, ad, circum, 
dis, e, per, praeter, pro, sub), [ablution, dilute , dilution] ; 
pol-luo, to defile, to pollute ; lil-tum, lii-tns, mud, clay, [lute] ; 
lii-to, to daub with mud or clay ; lu-s-tmm (that which is 
washed, covered with water or flooded), a muddy place, a 
haunt or den of wild beasts ; lu-s-trum, (that which washes 
out or expiates), an expiatory ofiering, a period of five years, 
a lustrum, [lustral] ; de-lu-bnim, a temple or shrine (as a place 
of expiation) ; al-ltlv-ies, a pool of water occasioned by the 
overflowing of the sea or a river; al-luv-ius, alluvial; dl-luv- 
ium, di-liiv-ies, di-luv-io, an inundation, deluge, [diluvial] ; lav-o, 
to wash, bathe, lave; lau-tns (part.), washed; lau-tus (adj.), 
elegant, noble ; lo-tio, a washing, a lotion. 

450. XiDJS-rj^ maltreatment, outrage ; Xw-^Sao/iat, to maltreat, 
outrage; XcD^S-evco, to mock ; Xco-^t/ttJ/), a slanderer, a destroyer. 

lab-es, a spot, a stain. 

451. mal; mal; ixcX; mal; be dirty. 

fjiiX-a^s, black ; fxeX-acvw, to blacken ; /xoX-wa), to stain. 

mal-us, bad; mal-e, badly, ill, (in Eng. male-, mal-, e.g., 
TYialevolent, maltreat) ; mal-itia, badness, malice ; mal-igmis 
(for maligenus, from malus and gen, root of gigno), of an evil 
nature or disposition, rnalignant, malign; male-facio, to do or 
act wickedly; male-factor, an evil-doer, malefactor; male-dico, 
to speak ill of, revile, curse ; male-dictio, evil-speaking, male- 
diction. 

452. For this group of words, there is assumed a stem-form mluva. 
Ml was softened in Greek by means of the auxiliary vowel o, while m 
in Latin, being in immediate contact with I, was changed into p. 



160 EEaULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

/xdAvySo?, /xoXl/Bos, /xoAv^Sos, lead ; jxoX-v ^Sacva^ a ball of 
lead ; /jloXl/3ov^, fjLoXv/3ovsy leaden. 

plumbum, lead, [plumb, plumber, plumbago] ; plumb-ens, of 
or belonging to lead, leaden. 

453. ul5 ^1? vA; ul; howl. 

6XoXvt,(i), to ciy aloud ; oXoXvyy, oXoXvyfios, any loud cry. 
ulula, a screech-owl, [owl] ; iilulo, to howl, to shriek ; illula- 
tus, a howling, wailing, shrieking. 

454. ovXc, hail (a salutation) ; 6X/3os, happiness ; 6X^to<s^ 
happy, blessed. 

salv-us, safe, [save, salve, salver, salvage, salvation, savior] ; 
salv-eo, to be well ; sal-us, health, safety ; sal-ubris, healthful, 
salubrious. 

455. o-aX-os, unsteady, tossing motion, the open sea ; a-aX- 
cvco, to toss ; o-oA-os, a quoit. 

sal-um, the open sea. 

456. o-LoXov, spittle ; o-taXos, fat, grease. 
saliva, spittle, saliva. 

457. spal; sphal; or<j>a\; fal; deceive, disappoint. 

cr^aA.X-o>, to make to fall, to mislead ; arcfxiXfjia, a false step, 
a fall ; a-o-<^aX-7ys, firm, sure ; a-cjioX-epos, likely to make one 
fall, ready to fall. 

fall-o, to deceive, [fall]] M-BUBf false; fall-ax, deceitful, 
fallacious ; fall-acia, deceit, trick, [fallacT/]. 

458. vXrj^ a wood, forest ; vX^et?, woody ; vXrj/jia, under- wood, 
silva, a wood, forest ; silvestris, of or belonging to a wood 

or forest ; silvosus, full of woods, [s7/lvan]. 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTIOK OF SOUNDS. 161 



S ; S I cp ; S (or usnally , when between two vowels, r)» 

459i as; as; la-; es. The three principal meanings of this root are 
probably developed in the following order : breathe, live, be. The dis- 
tinction of this root from the root bhu (No. 348) is that the root as 
denotes, like respiration, a uniform, continuous existence, while the root 
bhu implies a becoming. By short and natural steps, we have the 
successive meanings, limng, real, true, good. 

el-jJiL (Aeol. i/Ji-fJLi== i(T-fjiL)^ a7}l, ia-'Tty is; €v-€(r-T(o (ev, elfjic), 
well-being; ecr-^Ao?, good, excellent; iv<s, good, brave, noble; 
ireo^s, true, real ; er-v/xo?, true ; to er-vfiov (as subst.), the true, 
literal sense of a word according to its origin, its etymology 
or derivation, the etymon or root ; eVv/xo-Xoyta, the analysis of 
a word so as to find its origin, its etymology ; €t-olixo's, ready, 
certain, real. 

OS, mouth ; oro, to speak, plead, entreat, (compd. w. ex, per), 
[oraZ] ; oratio, a speech, oration; orator, a speaker, orator; 
oraciiliim, a divine announcement, an oracle ; os-culum (dim.), 
a little mouth, a pretty mouth, a kiss; oa-culor, to kiss, (compd. 
w. de, ex, per); os-culatio, a kissing, osculation; orificium (o.s, 
facio), an opening, orifice; orarium, a napkin, handkerchief; 
coram (prob. from co = cum, os), in the presence of; os-c!to, 
os-citor (os, cieo), to open the mouth wide, to gape ; sum 
(= esum), am, (compd. w. ab, ad, de, in, inter, ob, post, potis, 
prae, pro, sub, super). Whenever s of the stem es comes 
between two vowels, e is dropped, as in su7n, sunt, or s is 
changed to r, as in eram, ero. essentia, the being or essence of 
a thing ; absens, absent ; praesens, present ; praesento, to place 
before, to present ; repraesento, to bring before one, to bring 
back, to represent; sons, (prop, he who was it, the real person, 
the guilty one) [adj.], guilty, criminal; insons, guiltless, inno- 
cent ; sontlcus, dangerous, serious. 



162 REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

460. vas ; vas ; €<r, Fco- ; ves ; cover around, clothe. 

€v-vvfjLty to clothe ; el-fjia, a dress, a garment, clothing ; 
l-fxaTLov, a piece of dress, a cloak ; icr-Orj^, dress, clothing ; 
c-avos, a fine robe ; c-dvd?, good for wear. 

ves-tis, clothing, [vest, vestment, vesture] ; ves-tio, to clothe, to 
vest, (compd. w. circum, com, de, in) ; vas (gen. vasis), a vessel, 
utensil, [vase] ; vas-culum (dim.), a little vessel, [vascular]. 

461. Under this number the root is perhaps the same as of No. 460. 
€o-7repo9, evening (subst. and adj.); ionripa^ evening; co-Trepto?, 

co-TTcptvos (adj.), toward evening, western. 

vesper, the evening, evening-star, the west, [vesper, vespers] ; 
vespera, the evening ; vespertinus, belonging to evening. 

462. sa ; — ; o-oo, <r« ; sa ; save, safe, whole and sound. 

o-ao-9, 0-00-9, (tQ)'0<;, cra>-9, safe and sound ; o-a>-/co9, strong ; 
au)'t,(D (lengthened from o-a-o), o-ao-co, orw-co), to save ; o-oy-ryp^ 
a savior, preserver ; a-crw-To?, without salvation, abandoned. 

sa-nus, sound, whole, sane; sa-no, to make sound, heal, 
restore; sa-nltas, soundness of body, soundness of mind, sanity; 
in-sa-nus, unsound in mind, insane; sos-pes (prob. from o-ws 
and the root pa, nourish, or from o-co? and peto), saving, 
delivering ; sos-pes (subst.), a savior, deliverer ; sa-cer, 1. 
dedicated to a divinity, sacred, 2. devoted to a divinity for 
destruction, forfeited, accursed ; sacrum, a holy or sacred 
thing, a sanctuary ; sa-cellum (dim.), a little sanctuary, a 
chapel ; sa-oro, to declare or set apart as sacred, to consecrate ; 
con-se-cro, to devote, to consecrate; ex-se-cror, to curse, to exe- 
crate; ob-se-cro, (lit., to ask on religious grounds), to beseech, 
implore; re-s§-cro,- to beseech again, to free from a curse; 
sa-cramentum, 1. the thing set apart as sacred, the sum depos- 
ited by the two parties to a suit, 2. the thing setting apart as 
sacred, the military oath of allegiance, a solemn obligation or 
engagement, 3. (in eccl. and late Lat.) something to be kept 
sacred, a mystery, revelation, sacrament; sa-cerdos, a priest, a 
priestess, [sacerdotal] ; sancio, to render sacred or inviolable, 



REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 163 

to confirm, to sanction ; sanctio, an establishing, a decree, 
ordinance, sanction; sanctlflco (sanctus, facio), to make holy 
or treat as holy, to sanctify. (The words sacer and sancio 
with their derivatives are by some considered to come from 
the root sale, shown in No. 497.) 

463. sa, si; — ; <ra, <n\; sa, sa-p, se, si; sow. 
o-a-(o, cr^-Oci), to sift ; crrj-o-Tpov^ a sieve. 

se-ro (= se-s-o) (se-vi, sd-tus), to sow, plant, beget, bring forth, 
(compd. w. circum, com, in, inter, ob, pro, re, sub) ; sa-tio, a 
sowing, planting ; sa-tor, a sower, planter, father ; in-sl-tio, an 
ingrafting ; se-men, seed ; se-mino, to sow, (compd. w. dis, in, 
prae, pro, re), [disse7ninate] ; se-mlnarium, a nursery, nursery- 
garden, seed-plot, seminary ; saeculum, seculum (perhaps to be 
referred to secus, sequor), a race, a generation, an age; saecularis, 
secTilaris, of or belonging to a saeculum, temporal, secular; 
Sa-turnus, (the Sower), Saturn; pro-sapia, a stock, race. 

464. a-rXcyy-U, crreXy-t'?, orrcpy-ts, iron for rubbing or scraping. 
strig-llis, a scraper. The root is the same as that of No. 465. 

465. strag, Strang ; — ; crrpaYY (st.) ; strag, Strang, strig, string. 

This root has two principal meanings : 1. to draw or force through, to 
press ; 2. to strip. 

arpdy^, a drop ; arTpayy-evo), to force through, to twist, (in 
middle voice) to turn one's self backward and forward, hesi- 
tate ; (TTpayy-dXyj^ a halter ; o-rpayyaX-ta, a knot hard to 
unloose ; o-rpayy-aAt^o), to strangle. 

string-o, to draw tight, press together, touch, strip off, (compd. 
w. ad, com, de, dis, in, ob, per, prae, re), [strong, strain, string, 
stringent, astringent, strict, stricture, restrict, restriction, constrict, 
constriction'] ; strang-iilo, to choke, strangle, 

466. si, siu,siv; siv; (Tu; su. The root si means' bind, 'sw means 'sew.' 
K(i(T'G-v-Q> (prob. contr. from Kara-o-v-co), fcarrva), to stitch or 

sew together like a shoemaker ; Kao--o-i}-jLta, Kctr-rv-fia, any- 
thing stitched of leather ; Kaor-ori;-?, /car-ri;-?, a piece of leather. 



164 REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

sii-o, to sew, (compd. w. ad, in, ob, prae, sub, trans) ; su-tor, 
a shoemaker, cobbler ; sti-tura, a seam, suture ,• sti-tela, (prop. 
a sewing together), a cunning device; su-bula, an awl. 

467. (n;5, vs, a swine, a pig. 

su-s (the prolific animal), a swine, boar, sow, pig. 

468. o-</»7^, a wasp, 
vespa, a ivasp. 

B . 

ks| ksh; |; hs, chs. 

469. oXe^-oj, to ward or keep off, to help ; aXe^r-qp, a helper. 
These words are formed on an expansion of the root oXk (No. 3). 

470. oii'Uiv, an axle; a/x-a^-a, a/x-a^-a (d/x is for a/xa, No. 377), 
a wagon. 

ax-is, an axle-tree, axle, axis, of the earth, the pole, the 
heavens. We may consider df as an expanded dy (No. 104), 
and the Latin ax as an expanded ag (No. 104). 

471. vaks; vaksh; avj; — ; increase. 

ai5^-a), au^-dvo), to increase ; avf-yy, av^-rjCTL^^ av^-rjjma, growth, 
increase. Of. No. 138. By adding s, the root vag becomes 
vaJcs (Sk. vaksh), Greek Fei, with prothetic a d/^e^, with a 
* thinning ' from Fe to v, ai'f . 

472. ef, cK (Locr. c), from out of, out of, forth from. 

ex, ec, e, out of, from; ex-ter, ex-terus, outward; ex-terior, 
outer, exterior; ex-tremus, outermost, extreme; ex-tra (contr. 
from extera), (adv.), on the outside, (prep.) outside of, without, 
beyond, [extra] ; ex-traneus, external, extraneous ; ex-ternus, 
outward, external; ex-trinsecus (adv.), from without, [extrinsic]. 

473. U (from Af), six; Ik-to'S') the sixth. 

sex (from a primitive Graeco-Italic form svex), six; sextus, 
the sixth. 



REGULAE. SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 165 



F 

t; v; F; y. 

474. at€9, aUv (act), always, even, for ever ; dt-Sto?, everlast- 
ing ; at(ov, lifetime, an age, a long space of time. 

aevu-m, lifetime, age, an age or generation, long time, eter- 
nity, \aye, ever^ ; aetas (contr. from aevitas), lifetime, age, an 
age or generation ; aetemus (contr. from aeviternus), eternal ; 
aetemalis, everlasting, eternal. 

475. av; av; dF; av, au; hear, attend to, help, treat affectionately 
or tenderly. 

dto), to hear, to perceive ; eTr-a-t-w, to hear, to understand ; 
d-t-ras (Dor.), a beloved youth. 

au-di-o, to hear, understand, listen to, (compd. w. ex, in, ob, 
sub), [audible, audience, audit] ; ob-oe-dio, ob-e-dio (ob, audio), 
to hearken to, to obey ; ob-oe-diens, ob-e-diens, obedient ; av-us, 
a grandfather ; av-ia, a grandmother; av-unciilus (dim.), uncle ; 
av-eo, to desire earnestly, to be or fare well ; av-ldus, longing 
eagerly for something ; av-lditas, eagerness, avidity ; av-arus, 
covetous, avaricious; av-aritia, av-arities, avarice; au-deo (for 
avideo, from avidus, prop, to be eager about something), to 
dare, to be bold ; audax, daring, courageous, audacious. 

476. av, va; va; aP, Fa; va, ve, a; breathe, blow. 

d-o), a-rjjjLL, to blow, breathe hard ; aT^-ri;?, a blast, gale, 
wind ; d-^Xa, a stormy wind, a whirlwind ; av-pa^ air in 
motion, a breeze ; ov-po<;, a fair wind ; d-T^p, the lower air or 
atmosphere, air, [aerolite (XcOos)^ aeronaut (yavTr}<s)] ; dto-^o), to 
breathe out; aa-O-jjia^ short-drawn breath, panting, asthma; 
av(j), to shout, to call aloud ; di3-T7y, a cry, shout, war-cry ; 
di}-T€(o, to cry, to shout ; i-w-t/, a shout or cry ; av-S?}, the 
human voice, speech. 



166 REGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

ven-tns, ivind ; ven-tulus (dim.), a slight wind, a breeze; 
ven-tilo, to blow gently, to ventilate; van-nus, 2. fan^ a van; 
aer, the air, (prop.) the lower atmosphere ; aerius, aereus, 
aerial, airy, high, \aerate, aeriform]. 

477. di3T-/A7;v, avT-fxy, breath ; dT-/x,o9, smoke, vapor, [atmos- 
johere]. These words are derived from No. 476, the root 
being expanded by ar. 

478. cap, 7]p (= AV-a/D = f ea/a), spring; eap-tvo9, of spring, 
ver (= ves-er or ver-er), the spring ; ver-nus, of spring ; ver- 

nalis, of spring, vernal. 

479. LO'V (= Fiov), the violet; iwSt;? (tov, ctSos), violet-like, 
dark-colored, [iodine]. 

vi5la, the violet. 

480. t-05, an arrow, rust, poison. 

virus, a slimy liquid, a poisonous liquid, poison, virus; 
viriilentus, poisonous, virulent. 

481. t-s (pi. tv-e§), sinew, strength ; tv-tov, nape of the neck ; t<^i, 
strongly, mightily ; t<^to?, strong ; L(j}OlfJio^, strong, mighty, goodly. 

Vis (pi. vires for vises), strength ; v!-6lo, to treat with vio- 
lence, to violate; vlolentus, forcible, violent. For these words 
there is assumed a Graeco-Italic stem vi, which, coming from 
the -y/vi, plait, (No. 482), meant band or cord, then (like nervus, 
No. 363) sinew, and finally strength. The stem is expanded in 
Greek in some forms by v, in Latin by s (afterwards becoming r). 

482. va, vl; vja, va; i; vl; plait, entwine. 

r-TV9, shield-rim, felloe of a wheel ; t-rea, a willow, [withe]. 

vl-e-o, to plait, weave ; vi-men, a pliant twig, a withe ; vitta, 
a band, a fillet ; vi-tis, a vine ; vl-tium, (prop, a twist), a fault, 
defect, vice ; v!-tupero (vitium, par 6), to censure, vituperate. 

483. ot-T/os (orig. Folvo^), wine; ol-vt}^ vine; ot-m?, oiv-apov^ 
a vine-leaf, a tendril ; olvdvOy, vine-shoot, vine-blossom. 

vi-num, wine. The Indo-European root is probably vi as in 

No. 482. 



REaULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 167 

484. o-ts (orig. oAs), ots, a sheep. (Sk. av-is, a sheep.) 
5vi-s, a sheep ; ovile, a sheep-fold. 

The Sanskrit avis, as an adjective, means devoted, attached^ 
and is probably derived from the root av (No. 475). The 
sheep may have been called pet, favorite, from its gentleness. 

485. 01-0)1/0-9, a large bird. (Sk. vis, a bird.) 

avis, a bird ; avlarium, a place where birds are kept, an 
aviary ; au-ceps, (contr. for aviceps, from avis, capio), a bird- 
catcher ; augur {avis and Sk. gar, to call, show, make known), 
an augur, soothsayer ; augiiro, auguror, to act as augur in any 
matter ; ex-augiiro, to desecrate ; in-auguro, to practise augury, 
to consecrate, inaugurate; auspex (a contraction of avispex, 
from avis-spicio), (lit. a bird-seer), an augur, soothsayer; 
auspicium, augury from birds, auspices, [auspicious'] ; augiirium, 
augury, prophecy. The root is probably va, av, blow, as in 
No. 476. We may assume the Indo-European stem avi, from 
which came Greek 6A = 6i, In Sk. the initial vowel was lost. 

486. w-ov (wtov), an egg. 

ovu-m, an egg, [oval, ovate, ovary]. . 

The older Graeco-Italic form was ovjo-m, of which the 
Eoman suppressed the j, and the Greek suppressed the F. 



Spiritus Asper. 

A Greek spiritus asper is in the following words the representative of 
an Indo-European initial s followed by a vowel, which s is retained in 
the Sanskrit and the Latin. 

487. Prefix d-, d-, o-, with. (Sk. sa, sam, with). The aspi- 
rated form is found in only two words, a-Opo-o^ and d-Tra? ; 
but the so-called d copulative, expressing union, participation 
or likeness, is very common with the spiritus lenis ; e.g., from 
d copulative and kolty)^ bed, we have aKOLTrjs^ husband, aKotrt?, 
wife. This prefix is not related to (tvv, fw, or to Latin com-, 
but it is probably akin to d-/xa(No. 377) and perhaps to No. 488. 



168 EEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

488. a in ttTraf (formed from d and the root Tray, No. 285), 
once ; a-7rAo-o?, single. 

sim-plex (sim = Sk. sam, plico), simple ; singnli, one to eacli, 
separate. These words are derived from a stem sam, sa, with 
the meaning one, and are probably akin to No. 487 and 377. 

489. Pronominal stem, I, A (for o-fe), cr<^€, (ov, ot, e), himself, 
herself, themselves; €-09, 09, crcjSd?, own, his own, her own, 
their own ; t-Sto-9, one's own, private, personal ; t-Stco-rr;?, a 
private person, one who has no professional knowledge, [idiot]; 
t-8ta>-/xa, a peculiarity, idiom.. 

se, himself, herself, itself, themselves ; snus, of or belonging 
to himself, herself, itself, themselves, \_suicide']. 

The Spiritus Asper appears in the following words as the represen- 
tative of an original j or y, which in Sk. and Latin may be retained or 
replaced by i or e. 

490. ya; ja; (st. o, fem. a, ij); i; pronominal forms. 
0-9, who ; 0)9, as. 

1-s, he ; e-a, she ; i-d, it ; iste (compounded of two pronom- 
inal stems, i and to), this, that, this of yours, that of yours ; 
ipse (is and pse for pte ; the suffix pte being from the same 
root as potis, No. 314), he himself; i-bl (from the pronominal 
root i, with dative ending hi [as in tihi, sihi\ in locative sense 
[as in uhi'\), there ; i-ta, thus ; I-tem (from the pronominal 
root i and -tain), just so, in like manner, also, [item] ; i-dem 
(from the pronom. rt. i and the demonstrative suffix -dem, 
meaning just, exactly), the same, [identical, identity,, identify] ; 
I-temm, (ace. sing. neut. of a comparative form from the 
pronom. rt. %), further, again ; I-tero, to do a thing a second 
time, to repeat, [iterate, reiterate]. 

In the following words (Nos. 491-495), in Greek a simple vowel is the 
representative of the Indo-European vowel corresponding to it : a, e, 0, 
representing original d ; d, 77, «, representing original a ; i and v repre- 
senting original i and u; and the original vowels are retained in Sk. 
and Latin, sometimes in a fuller form. 



KEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 169 

491. vas, us; ush, us; — ; us; burn. 
cvoj, cvw, to singe ; avco, to kindle. 

ur-o (— us-o) (us-si, us-tus), to burn, (compd. w. ad, amb, 
com, de, ex, in, per, prae) ; us-tor, a burner of dead bodies ; 
combtiro {com, huro = uro), to burn entirely, to consume ; 
com-bus-tio, a burning, combustion; bTis-tiim, the place where 
the bodies of the dead were burned and buried, a tomb. 

492. 17WS, Aeol. auw?, Att. cw?, the dawn ; 'EcDcr-^opos, Bringer 
of morn, (Lat. Lucifer), the Morning-star; avpio-v, to-morrow; 
r}-pi (adv.), early; -^pt-yeVeto, child of morn; rjipio^ (adj.), early; 
apto-Toi/, morning-meal, breakfast. 

aurora (for aus-os-a), the dawn, morning. Of these words 
the Indo-Eur. rt. is us, burn, shine. 

493. 1; i; i; i; go. 

" As the root i has been expanded in Sk. to ja, so Greek i has been 
expanded to U, which occurs in Uuai. From the same ja in a causative 
sense comes 'l-rj-fiiy i.e.,ji-jd-mi, and, with the addition of a c, Lat.j/acio." 
Curtius. 

€L-fjiL (pi. t-/x€v), to go ; t-TTjS', t-Ta-/xo9, hcadloug, eager ; 
ot-/jios, a way, path ; ot-/x7;, the course of a song ; o'i-To<s^ fate, 
doom ; LrjfXL (causal of ct/xt), to put in motion, to send. 

e-o (pi. i-mus), to go, (compd. w. amb, ab, ad, ante, circum, 
com, ex, in, inter, intro, ob, per, prae, praeter, pro, re, retro, 
sub, trans), [exit, transient, transit, transition, transitive, transi- 
tory'] ; Itns, !tio, a going ; ambltio, a going round, a soliciting 
for votes, ambition ; cSmes (com, eo), a companion ; I-ter (for 
l-tiner), a going, a journey, [itinerant] ; in-lt-ium, a going in, 
a beginning, [initial]] in-lt-io, to begin, to initiate; ex-lt-ium, 
a going out, destruction ; sed-It-io {sed, i.e., sine, itio), a going 
apart, dissension, sedition; subltus, that has come on stealthily 
or unexpectedly, sudden, unexpected ; coitus, coetus, a coming 
together, an assemblage ; praetor (for praeitor), a leader, a 
praetor (pretor) ; ja-c-Io, (to make go, cause to go, hence), to 
throw, (compd. w. ab, ad, circum, com, de, dis, e, in, inter, ob, 



170 EEQULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

prae, pro, re, sub, super, trans), [adjective, conjecture, dejected, 
eject, inject, interject, interjection, object, project, prdject, reject, 
subject, silbject] ; am!c!o (am = ambi, j(Xcio), to throw around, 
to wrap about ; amictus, an outer garment, clotbing ; jac-to 
(freq.), to throw, to hurl ; jac-tiira, that which is thrown over- 
board, loss; jac-ulus (adj.), that which is thrown, cast, or 
hurled ; jac-iilum, a net, a dart ; jac-iilor, to hurl a javelin, to 
throw, [ejaculate^ ; obex {ob, jacio), a bolt or bar, a barrier ; 
jac-eo (intrans. of jdcio), (lit. to be thrown or cast, hence), to 
lie, (compd. w. ad, circum, inter, ob, prae, sub), [adjacent, 
circumjacent] ; Janus, an old Italian deity (the month of 
January, as the beginning of the year, was sacred to him, 
as were also the beginnings of things in general ; and the 
doors of houses were under his special protection) ; Januarius 
(adj.), of or belonging to Janus; Januarius (sc. mensis), Janu- 
ary ; ja-nua, a door ; janitor, a door-keeper, a janitor, 

494. Is ; ish ; lo- ; — ; wish, long for. 

lo'Trjs^ will, desire ; t-/x€/oos, a longing or yearning after. 

495. ovs, the ear. 

aur-is (= aus-is), the ear, [aurist, auricular] ; aus-culto (freq.), 
to listen to, give ear to, [auscultation]. The Indo-Eur. rt. of 
these words is probably av (shown in No. 475). By adding s 
we have the stem aus shown in the Latin auris (= ausis). 



PAET III. 
Irregular Substitution of Sounds. 

496. vak; vak'; Fcir; voc, vec; sound, speak, call. 

€-(f)c67roT/, cTttoi/, I spoke, I Said ; ctt-os, a word, (pi.) epic 
poetry ; €7r-t/co9, epic ; oxj/^ a voice ; iv-oir-y^ a cry, voice, sound. 

vox (st. voc), a voice, sound ; voc-o, to call, (compd. w. a, ad, 
com, de, e, in, pro, re, se), [convokcj evoke, invoke, provoke, 
revoke] ; voc-abulum, an appellation, name, [vocahulari/] ; voc- 
alis, tliat utters a voice, vocal] voc-atio, voc-atus, a calling, 
summoning, [vocation, avocation, convocation, invocation, prov- 
ocation, revocation] ; voc-iferor {yox,fero), to cry out, vociferate; 
con-vic-ium (— con-vec-ium), a violent or loud noise, loud or 
violent reproaching ; invito (— in-vic-ito — in-vec-ito), to invite j 
ask. 

497i sak; sak'; cir (for o-cir) ; sequ, sec, soc ; follow. 

€7r-a>, to be about or with. ; c7r-o/Aat, to follow ; c-cttt-o/at/v 
(2 aor.), I followed; eTr-cTT/s, a follower, attendant; ott-Aov, 
an implement, (pi.) arms. 

seqn-or, to follow, (compd. w. ad, com, ex, in, ob, per, pro, 
re, sub), [sue, suit, ensue, pursue, sequence, consequent, conse- 
quence, subsequent, consecutive, persecute, prosecute] ; sec-tor 
(freq.), to follow continually or eagerly, (compd. w. ad, com, 
in) ; as-sec-la (ad-sec-la), a follower ; sequ-ester, a depositary, a 
trustee ; sequ-estro, to give up for safe-keeping, surrender, 
[sequester J sequestrate] ; sec-undus, following, the following in 



172 IRREGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

time or order, the next, tlie second, [secondary] ; sec-undo, to 
favor, to second ; sec-us, adv. (prop, following later in rank or 
order), otherwise; soc-ius (adj.), sharing, associated; soc-ius 
(subst.), a sharer, partner, companion ; soc-ialis, of or belong- 
ing to companionship, sociable, social ; soc-io, to associate, to 
share a thing with another, (compd. w. ad, com, dis), [asso- 
ciate, association, consociate, consociation, dissociate, dissocia- 
tion'] ; sSc-ietas, society. 

498. Ik; —; lir; Ic; hit. 

LTTTOfxat, to press hard, to hurt ; tij/ (st. itt), a noxious worm ; 
Itt-o?, (in a mouse-trap) the piece of wood that falls and catches 
the mouse, a fuller's press. 

ic-o, to strike, to hit ; ic-tus, a blow, a stroke, (in prosody or 
music) a beating time, a beat. 

499. tTTTTo? (tKKos), a horse ; t7r7ro-ra, a driver or rider of 
horses, a horseman, knight ; iTTTrtos, of or pertaining to horses; 
tTTTrevs, a horseman ; tTTTro-Spo/xog, a chariot-road, race-course, 
hippodrome ; t7r7ro-7rora/xos, the river-horse, hippopotamus. 

equu-s, a horse ; equ-imis, of or belonging to horses, equine ; 
equ-es, a horseman ; Equ-ltes, the order of knights ; Squ-ester, 
of horsemen, of cavalry, equestrian; eq-ulto, to ride, (compd. 
w. ad, in, inter, ob, per, praeter). The Indo-Eur. root of 
these words is probably ah (No. 2). 

500. rik; rik'; Xnr; liqu, lie; leave, leave free, 

XetTT-w, Xt/ATT-ai/o), to leave ; Xelfx-fxa^ Xaifz-avov^ a remnant ; 
XotTT-ds, remaining, the rest ; eX-Aeti/^-t?, a leaving out, ellipsis, 
ellipse. 

linqu-o (liqn-i, lic-tum), to leave; de-linqno, to fail, to be 
wanting in one's duty, [delinquent^^ ; re-linqiio, to leave behind, 
relinquish, [relic, relict]] de-relinquo, to forsake entirely, [dere- 
lict]-, re-liqu-us, that is left behind, remaining; reliquiae, relli- 
quiae, the remains, relics ; lic-et (it is left to one, open to one), 
is is lawful, permitted, (licet, being the intrans. to Enquire, as 



lEEEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 173 

jpendet to pend&re, jdcet to jdcSre), \licit, illicit] ; llo-entia, free- 
dom, license; lic-eo, to be for sale; llc-eor, to bid at an auction; 
pol-llc-eor, [to bid or offer largely, cf. No. 317), to offer, to 
promise ; l!qu-eo, to be fluid or liquid, to be clear or evident ; 
liqu-esco (incli.), to become fluid or liquid, to become clear; 
liqu-idus, flowing, fluid, liquid, clear; liqu-or, to be fluid or 
liquid, to flow ; llqu-or, fluidity, a fluid or liquid, liquor. 

501. mark; mare; [xapir, jAair; mule; touch, seize. 

fjidp7r-ro) (2 aor. e-/xa7r-o]/), to catch, seize; /xa/oTr-rcs, a seizer, 
ravisber. 

mulc-o, Jmnlc-to, to maltreat, injure; mulc-eo, to stroke, to 
touch lightly, (compd. w. com, de, per, re). 

502. ak; ac, ak-sh; oir; oe; see. 

->/67r (o;r-a)7r-a, oi/^-o/xat), see; o/x-/>ca, the eye, a sight; ^if/, 
the eye, countenance ; oi/^ts, the look or appearance of a person 
or thing, countenance, sight ; oTr-rr/p, a spy, a scout ; oir-tTrevo), 
oTT-tTTTcvw, to look arouud after ; ott-t^, an opening, a hole ; 
oTT-cas, an awl ; oTr-rtKo?, of or for sight, optic, optical, [optics, 
optician] ; 6<^-^aA/i,os, the eye ; 6</)-^aA/x,ta, a disease of the 
eyes, ophthalmia, ophthalnfiy. 

oc-uliis, an eye, \ocular, oculist, daisy] ; oc-iilo, to make to 
see, to make visible, [ogle] ; in-ociilo, to inoculate, i.e., to in- 
graft an eye or bud of one tree into another ; ex-oculo, to 
deprive of eyes. 

503. 077-09, juice, (properly) the milky juice which flows 
naturally from a plant or is drawn off by incision ; o-a</)-7/g, 
clear, sure (prop, of a keen, decided taste) ; oro<^-o9, skilful, 
intelligent, wise, [sophist, philosopher] ; o-oc^-ta, skill, intelli- 
gence, wisdom ; o-o</>-t^a), to make wise, to become wise. 

stig-o, to suck; ex-sugo, to suck out; suc-ns (snccus), juice; 
suc-nlentus, full of juice or sap, succident; su-men (— sug-ivien, 
sug-men), breast ; sap-a, must or new wine boiled thick, [sap] ; 
fsapo, soap, [saponaceous]] sap-io, to taste, to have taste, to 



174 lEEEGULAE, SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

have good taste, to be wise; sap-iens, wise, sapient; sap-or, 
taste ; sap-ldus, well-tasted, relishing, savory, wise ; in-slp-ldus, 
tasteless, insipid. 

604. TreWe, five ; Triixir-TO^^ the fifth. 
quinqiie, five ; quintus (= quinc-tus), the fifth. 

505. pak, kak; pak'; ireir; coqu, coc; cook, ripen. 

TreV-cov, cooked by the sun, ripe, soft, tender; ttctt-to?, 
cooked ; 7rei/^-t5, a ripening, cooking, digestion ; Svcr-Trei/^-ta, 
indigestion, dyspepsia^ dyspepsy ; TreTT'TO), to soften or ripen, 
to cook ; 7re/x,-/xa, any kind of dressed food, (but mostly in 
plur.) pastry ; Troir-avov, a sacrificial cake. 

coqu-o, to coo^, (compd. w. com, de, dis, ex, in, per, prae, 
re), [decoction]; coqn-us (coqnos, cocus), a cook; coqu-ina, a 
kitchen; cii-li-na, (= coc-llnd), a kitchen, [culinary]. 

506. ka; ka; tto, ko; quo; pronominal roots. 

7rd-^t, TTov, where; Tro-Oev (Ion. ko-^€f), whence? ttcos (Ion. 
Kto?), how F TTore (Ion. kotc)^ when? Tro-repos (Ion. Ko-repo^)^ 
which of two ? Tro-GTTos (ttoVos), which in a series ? tto-ios (Ion. 
Koto?), of what nature, of what sort? tto-o-os (Ion. koo-o^)^ of 
what quantity ? 

qno-d, that, because ; quo (prop. dat. or abl. of qui), where, 
whither; ii-bi (for quo-hi), ivhere ; qua-m (adverbial ace. of 
qui), how; quan-do, when; ftter (for cu-ter, or quo-tero-s, in 
form a comparative of quis), which of the two, [whether] ; 
iiterqne {uter, que), each (of the two), one and the other, one 
as w^ell as the other; quo-t, how many, as many; quotiens, 
quoties, how often, how many times, as often as, [quotient] ; 
quo-tus, which or what in number, order, etc., [quota] ; quan- 
tus (quam), how great, [quantity]; qua-lis, of what sort or 
kind, [quality]. 

507. Vo"€'»r, say. 

e-(j7r-€T€, say ; ev-t-o-Tr-ev, said. 



lEREGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 175 

508. tark; — ; rpeir, rpair ; torqu, tore; turn, wind. 

TpcTT'O} (Ion. TpaTTO)), to tum ; TpoTT-rj^ a turning round ; 
rpoTT-og, a turn, manner, trope; tpott-lkos, belonging to a turn 
or turning, [tropic, tropical] ; rpoTr-ato?, of a turning, of or 
belonging to a defeat or rout ; rpoir-aiov^ a trophy, a monument 
of the enemy's defeat (rpoTr?;) ; rpoTr-ts, a ship's keel ; rpoTr- 
-ijlov^ TpoTT-etov, a press ; rpaTr-co), to tread grapes ; ev-rpdtTr-eXog, 
easily turning, versatile. 

torqu-eo, to turn, to twist, (compd. w. com, de, dis, ex, in, 
ob, per, prae, re), [torsion, tort, tortoise, contort, contortion, dis- 
tort, distortion, extort, extortion, retort, retortion'] ; tor-to (freq.), 
to torture ; tor-tor, an executioner, torturer ; tor-tura, a twist- 
ing, torture; tor-tus, a twisting, winding; tor-tuosus, full of 
crooks or turns, tortuous; tor-mentum, an engine for hurling 
missiles, an instrument of torture, torture, torment; torqu-is, 
torqu-es, a necklace ; torc-ulum, toro-illar, a press. 



&5 &; P; bjVj^. 

509. ga, gva, (g)va-n, ba; ga, gam; Pa; bi, bi-t, bu, (ven), go. 

2 aor. t'P-q-v, I went; Hom. pres. part., ^t-)8a-9, going; 
(iterative) /Bd-o-Kc, go; (verbal adj.) ^a-ros, passable; pres. 
/5atV-(o, I go ; I3rj-fjia, a step, a raised place to speak from ; 
/3a)-/xos, an altar (with a base or steps) ; l3rj'X6s, the threshold ; 
pi-py]-\o% allowable to be trodden, profane ; /Sd-o-Ls, a step- 
ping, step, base, basis; dva-ySa-o-t?, a going up; /3d-0pov, that on 
which anything steps or stands, a pedestal, step, the ground ; 
^a-S-09, a walk ; ^a-S-t^w, to walk or go slowly, to march ; 
y8e-y8a-tos, firm, steady ; /St-ySa-^w (causal of /SatVw), to make to 
mount, to lift up. 

ven-io, to come, (compd. w. ad, ante, com, de, dis, e, inter, 
in, ob, per, prae, pro, re, sub, super), [advent, adventure, con- 
vene, cdnvent, event, intervene, invent, inventory, prevent, super- 
vene] ; ven-tlto (freq.), to come often ; ad-ven-a, one who comes 



176 lEKEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

to a place, a foreigner, a stranger ; ven-tio, a coming, [in- 
tervention, invention, prevention, supervention] ; con-ven-tio, a 
meeting, convention, agreement ; con-tio (less correctly concio) 
(— con-ventio), a meeting, a discourse; contionor, concionor, to be 
convened in an assembly, to deliver an oration ; ba-culum, 
ba-culus, a staff; be-to, bae-to, bi-t-o, to go, (compd. w. ad, e, 
in, inter, per, praeter, re) ; ar-b!-t-er {ar = ad, hito), one that 
goes to something in order to see or bear it, a spectator, one 
wbo approaches a cause in order to inquire into it, an arbiter; 
ar-bl-tror, to bear, judge, believe, arbitrate; ar-bi-trium, judg- 
ment, decision ; ar-bi-trarius, of arbitration, uncertain, depend- 
ing on tbe will, ai^bitraoy ; am-bu-lo {^ ambi-biX-lo) , to go 
about, to walk, (compd. w. circum, de, in, ob, per, re), [ambu- 
lant, ambulance, ambulatory, amble ^ perambulate]. 

510. — ; gal; PaX, pcX, PoX; — ; fall, glide, slip away, let slip, let 
fly, throw. 

ySaX-Xo), to throw, (intr.) to fall ; Sta-^aX-Ao), to throw over 
or across, to slander ; Sid-^oX-os, a slanderer, the Slanderer, 
the Devil; Sia-jSoX-iKoSf slanderous, devilish, diabolical; ^Xrj' 
/x€vo9, p\yj-r6<s, hit ; pXrj-fxa, a throw, a missile, a wound ; 
l3iX'0<;, a missile ; jSiX-e/jivov, a dart ; ^eX-ovy, a point, a needle ; 
poX-ri^ a throw, a stroke ; l36X-o<s, a throw with a casting-net, 
a net ; ySoX-t?, a missile, the sounding-lead. 

511. /Sapv-Sy heavy ; ^apv-rovo? (/3apvs^ Tovos:), deep-sounding, 
[barytone, baritone] ; f3ap-os, ^apv-Trj?^ weight, [barometer] ; 
/?ap€-(D, to weigh down; €7rt-/5ape-w, to weigh down, press 
heavily upon. 

grav-is (= gar-uis), heavy, grave, [g^ief] ; grav-itas, weight, 
gravity; grav-o, to load, to weigh down, (compd. w. ad, de, in, 
prae), [grieve, aggrieve, aggravate]; grav-esco (inch.), to become 
burdened or heavy ; grav-ldus, pregnant, laden ; bru-tiis (kin- 
dred with /3apv<Sj perhaps contracted from bdrutus), heavy, 
dull, irrational, brute, [brutal]. 



IREEGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 177 

512. gi> gvi-v, gvi-g; g'iv; pi; vi, vi-v, vi-g; live. 

^t-09, jSt'OTos, /Si'OTi], life, course of life, livelihood, [hiographT/^ 
autobiography, 'biology\ ; )St-oco, to live. 

vlt-a, life; vit-alis, vital; viv-ns, living, quich ; viv-Idus, 
living, animated, vivid; viv-ax, tenacious of life, vigorous, 
vivacious; viv-acltas, natural vigor, liveliness, vivacity ; viv-o, 
to live, (compd. w. com, pro, re, super), [revive, revival, sur- 
vive] ; vic-tus, that upon which one lives, provisions, victuals. 

513. g«; gu; Po; bo; cry aloud, roar, bellow. 

/So-?/, a loud cry, a shout ; /So-do), to cry aloud, to shout. 
bo-o, bov-o, to cry aloud, to roar; re-bo-o, to bellow back, 
resound, re-echo ; bov-inor, to bellow at, to revile. 

514. gar, gal; gar; Pop, Ppo; vor (for gvor), gur, gul, glu; 

swallow, devour. 

/5t-^pa)-o-Ka), to eat ; (Bop-d, meat ; /Sop-os, gluttonous ; /?/3(o-/xa, 
food ; Ppiii-Trjp, eating. 

vor-o (= gvoro), to devour ; de-voro, to swallow down, to 
devour ; vor-ax, swallowing greedily, voracious ; vor-acitas, 
greediness, voracity ; vor-ago, (that which swallows up), an 
abyss, whirlpool ; gnr-ges, a raging abyss, a whirlpool, [gorge]; 
in-gnr-glto, to pour in like a flood or whirlpool ; gur-gul-io, the 
gullet, windpipe; gul-a, the gullet, throat, [gully]; glti-tio, 
gluttio, to swallow or gulp down, [glut, deglutition] ; in-glii- 
vies, the crop, maw. 

515. gu; gu; po; bo; bellow. 

l3ov<s, an ox, a cow ; ^ov-k6X.o^^ a herdsman ; /Sou-fcoXc/co?, 
pastoral, bucolic. 

bos, an ox, a cow, [bos, bossy, bovine]. 

k; k'; r; qu. 

516. T€, and. 

que, and. This particle is probably derived from the inter- 
rogative stem (No. 506). 



178 lEREGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS, 



517. reo-a-apesy four ; T€Tapro<s, T€TpaTO<s, the fourtli ; rerpaKt?, 
four times. 

quattuor, quatuor, /o2^r ; quartns, the fourth, [quarter, quart, 
quartan, quartette, quarto] ; quater, four times ; quadro, to make 
square, [quadrate] ; quadrans, a fourth part, [quadrant] ; quad- 
rigae (contr. from quadrijugae, quatuor, jugum), a set or team 
of four ; qnadriipes {quattuor, pes), a four-footed animal, a 
quadrujped. 

518. V'»'''»pay- 

Ti-iiiy to pay honor to a person, to honor, to value ; rt-vco, to 
pay a price, (mid.) to have a price paid one, to exact a pen- 
alty ; Tt-/x77, honor, value ; Tt-/xao), to honor, to value ; Ti-ii/qixa, 
valuation, census ; rL-fjirj-Ti]s, one who estimates, the censor ; 
Tt-cTis, payment by way of return or recompense, vengeance. 

519. kij — 5 Ti; qui; interrog. pronom. roots. 

Tt-9, Tt (interrog. pronoun), whof ivhatf n^, tl (indef. 
pronoun enclitic), any one, anything. 

qui-s, qui-d, (interrog. pronoun), who^ lohich? what? qui-s, 
qui-d, (indef. pronoun), any one, anything. These forms are 
to be referred to M, the weaker form of the interrogative 
stem ; the stronger form is shown under No. 506. 

In the following example the corresponding letters are gh; ghj 0; f. 

520. gliar; ghar; Gcp; for, fur; hot, warm. 

Oip-ofiac, to become hot or warm ; Oip-osy summer ; Oep-fjio^, 
hot, warm, [thermometer] ; Oep-jjirj, heat ; Oip-fxat (pi.), hot 
springs ; Oep-jjiere (vb.), heat ; Oep-fxatvo)^ to warm, to heat. 

for-mus, for-midus, warm ; fnr-nus, for-nus, an oven ; for-nax, 
^furnace, an oven'; for-ceps {formus, cajoio), (lit. that which 
takes hold of what is hot), a pair of tongs, pincers, /orcc^s. 

In Nos. 521 and 522 we find a change of an original b or bh to Greek F. 

521. Sk. bhang' (bhanag'-mi), break, burst; bhang-as, breach. 
Greek V^<=^7* ay-vv/xt, to break; dy-?/, breakage, a fragment, 

the place where the waves break-, the beach ; d-ay-?/?, unbroken, 
not to be broken. 



IRREGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 179 

522. bargh, bhrag; — ; FpaY, FpT]7; frag; break. 

p-^yvvfjii, to break, break or burst through ; prjy-fxa, a frac- 
ture, a rent ; prjy-fits, prjy-jjiiv, breakers ; 8tap/ooj^, rent asunder ; 
pcuyaAeo-9, broken, cleft, torn. 

frang-o, to break, (compd. w. com, de, dis, e, in, inter, ob, 
per, prae, re, sub), [frangible, fraction, infringe, infraction, 
refract, refraction, refractory] ; frag-men, frag-mentum, a piece 
broken off, a fragment ; frag-or, a breaking, a crashing ; frag- 
Ilis, easily hioken, fragile, frail ; frac-tura, Si fracture. 

In the following words we find in Greek an interchange of X, and p. 

523. sar; sar; aX; sal; leap. 

oAA-o/xat, to spring, leap ; aA,-/x,a, a spring, leap ; aX-rtKo?, 
good at leaping, active. 

sal-io, to leap, (compd. w. ad, dis, ex, in, prae, pro, re, sub, 
trans), [salient, assail] ; sal-tus, a leaping, a bound ; sal-to 
(freq.), to dance, (compd. w. ad, de, dis, ex, in, per, prae, 
sub, trans), [assault, desultory, exult, insult]; sal-ax, fond of 
leaping, salacious; sal-ebra, a jolting-place, roughness in a 
road ; prae-sul, one who leaps or dances before others. 

524. aA-s (m.), salt; aX-eg (pi.), intellectual 'salt,' wit; aX-s 
(f.), the sea; aX-ios, marine; oA-teu?, one who has to do with 
the sea, a fisher, a sailor ; aX-fjurj^ sea-water, brine ; a\-fjLvp6<;^ 
salt, briny ; oA-t^w? to salt. 

sal, salt, the sea, intellectual acuteness, wit ; sal-io, salo, sallo, 
to salt down, to salt ; sal-sus, salted, salt. 

525. var, val; var; PoX, povX; vol; will, choose. 

^ovX-ofjiaL (Hom. f36\'€TaL<, e-/5oA-oT/To), to will, to wish ; 
/SovX-rj^ will, plan ; ^ovX-rjcn^, a willing, a purpose ; jBovX-y] pia^ 
a purpose ; /SovX-evo), to take counsel, to plan. 

vol-o, to will, to wish, [volition] ; no-lo (~ ne, volo), to wish 
or will . . . not, to be unwilling ; vol-untas, will, choice ; vol- 
Tintarius, willing, voluntary, volunteer ; vel (old imperative of 
vdlo, take your choice) (conj.), or; yel . . . vel, either ... or. 



180 IRREGULAR SUBSTITUTION OF SOUNDS. 

526. — 9 var; FcX; — ; press, restrain, shut in, protect. 

€tA-a), €tX-€(o, to pack close, to collect ; eTX-ap, a close cover- 
ing, a defence ; ouA-a/xo?, a throng of warriors ; elk-rj, tA-77, a 
crowd, a troop ; o/^lXos (6/xos, 1X77), a crowd, a throng ; ojjlIXco) 
(o/xtXo?), to be together with, be associated with. 

527. oAo-s (Ion. ov\os:\ whole, [catholic]. 

solln-s (old Latin form, retained in the compounds, sollennis, 
sollers, sollicituSj sollifereus), whole, entire ; sol-Idus, firm, solid. 

528. svar; (svar, heaven) ; o-cp (for <rF€p), <r€ip, (r6X(for o-FeX); ser, 
sor, sol; shine, burn. 

o-etp-to? = cretp-os, hot, scorching ; Setp-to?, Sirius, the dog- 
star; o-etp-tao), to be hot and scorching; o-cA-a?, light; o-eA-T/j/ry, 
the moon, [selenography]. 

ser-enus, clear, bright, serene; ser-eno, to make clear or fair; 
sol, the sun ; sol-aris, solar. 



PAET lY. 
Application of the Principles of the New School. 



CHAPTER I. 

ABLAUT I. 

The three root-forms which are treated under the names 
of ablaut I., II., and III., each occur regularly in Greek, as in 
the other languages of the family, only in certain kinds of 
formations, or, conversely, a certain Greek word has but one 
historically correct root-form or ablaut. But as in language 
everywhere, so especially in a language of the rich, indepen- 
dent life of the Greek, disturbing forces have operated against 
the laws which originally shaped the several word formations, 
and have in certain cases succeeded in almost obliterating the 
effects Qf these laws. The unfriendly forces at work are best 
defined as: 1. Assimilation by what is generally termed 'false 
analogy ' or form association. 2. JVew formation upon some 
already existing form, or upon the material abstracted from such 
a form. A single example to illustrate each will not be amiss. 

(1) The noun bases in e?, generally serving as abstracts 
(^€p-09, /cXcf-os, etc.), are made with ablaut I. According to 
this rule are made ^eV^-os and ttcv^-os, both occurring in 
Homer, but going out of common use about the time of 
Herodotus. In the later language there appear in addition 
to these j^aO-o^ and ttolO-o^, illegitimately made with ablaut III. 
These are evidently formed after the analogy of ySa^-vs, e-iraO- 
ov, etc., forms which regularly have ablaut III., and with 
which the abstracts were associated in the minds of the 



182 APPLICATION OF THE 

language-users until tliey crowded out the historically correct 
(3ev0-oq and 7revO-o<s, because there were no forms by mental 
association with which they could be kept alive. 

(2) The present pdir-TO) is made with ablaut III. Ordina- 
rily the theme of the present stands in no formal relation with 
the themes of the other tenses, e.g., the present 7rd(TX(jy is made 
with ablaut III., but future Truo-oixai (irivO-a-oixaC) with ablaut I., 
as the future regularly is. But the future and sigmatic aorist 
corresponding to paTrro) are made according to its root-vowel : 
pdij/oj, eppaij/a, where we should expect piixij/o}, eppefjuj/a ; cf. 
pojji'cjievs- 

Verbal Formations, 

1. The singular of non-thematic (root) presents originally 
was accented on the root, which appears in its first strong 
form. The material in Greek is very meagre : cT-yxt, cI and 
Hom. €t-o-^a, et-crt : t-/x€v. — €t-/xt (ecr-/>tt), Dor. ecr-o't, co--Tt: 
Dor. {(T)-evTL ; further the Hom. infinitive eS-fjicvat ; cf. Lat. 
es-t = Sk. at-ti. An Indo-European irregularity is contained 
in Kei'Tai ^= Sk. ge-te, because ablaut I. appears in the middle. 
From Class BB there is another example : cj^y-fjii, c^^y-s, </»y-o-t : 
cj^uL-piiv. Sanskrit has this class largely represented : e-mi, 
i-mds ; ds-mi, s-mds ; hdn-mi; ghn-dnti ; vdc-mi; uc-mds, 
etc. The only Latin instance which preserves the difference 
between strong and weak forms is contained in es-t : s-unt. 

2. The entire system, active and mxiddle, of thematic pres- 
ents, when corresponding to the Hindu I. class, is made with 
ablaut I. They are to be found in Curt. Verb. I^, 210 and 
223. Examples:' ex-^, Se;!(-o/xat, ret-co, Ke(2^)-o/x,at, KA.e(^)-aj, 
dAev-o/xat, Scp-o), TreX-o/xat, jnev-co, ^etS-o^at, <^ei;y-a), ripcr-oiJiaiy 
CTTrev-So), piipL(j>-ojJLaiy etc. Of Class BB : XrjO-oiy tyJk-o)^ yS-opiat, 
etc. Lat. leg-0, reg-o, trem-o, dlc-o {=^ deic-o),fid-o (=feid-o), 
duc-o (= deuc-o), ur-o (= eus-o), clej)-o, serp-o, etc. 

3. A considerable number of presents of the iota-class are 
made (irregularly) with ablaut I.: TreWco, creioo (creF-yoj)', irXao) 



PRINCIPLES OF THE NEW SCHOOL. 183 

(^TrXeF-yoi)-) KXeto) (kXcF-^/o)), retpco, cf^Oapo), crTretpo), dyapco, eyetpw, 
Seipo), /cetpw, /jLetpo/JLat, Tretpo), ct/aco (cTep-yoi), reAAco, SeAAco and 
^eAAo), 6^€tAa), ocfieXXo), oreAAo), kcAAo), okcAAco, /xeAAo), cTKeAAo), 
TetVo), yetVo/xat, ^etVco, ktclvo), Xevcau), epSu) (= F^py-yo)). 

4. The future systems, active and middle, are made with 
ablaut I. : €S-o9/;tat, Ket-o-o/xat, TrAev-o-ov/xat, Sep-co, crrcA-co, rev-to, 
vejJi-Q), Aeti/ro), <f>€v$ovfjLai^ repi/^o), ySAei/^-o), Trifjuj/o}, etc. 

5. The sigmatic (first) aorist system, active and middle, is 
made with ablaut I. : lAefa, e-SSet-cra, i-ppev-cra^ e-cf>OeLpa^ e-a-TeiXa, 
e-fietva^ e-Xenj/a, e-Opeij/a^ etc. To these correspond the simple 
s-aorists in Sk. (Whitney, §§ 878, 879) : a-gro-s-i, a-ne-s-i, etc. 

6. The first aorist passive, a special Greek formation, is 
made with this ablaut with very few exceptions. It differs 
in this important respect from the second aorist passive, 
which is made with ablaut III. The following are the in- 
stances from roots of Class AA : rjvix-Orjv^ i-7ri(l>-0r)v^ i-Trex'Orjv., 
i-crT€cl>-Or]V, i-Xe)(-Or)V, i-TTvevcT'Orjv, i-irXevcr-Orjv, rjyep-OrjV (dyetpo)), 
rjyip-Orjv (eyetpco), i-Kep-OrjVj i-ireLCT'Orjv^ rjXetcjy'Orjv , yjpeL^-Oyjv^ 
i-X€Lcl>-Or]v, rifji€L(j>-Or]V^ iXeLX-Or]V, i-BetX'Orjv^ i-il/€var-Or)v, i'Tcvx-Or]v, 
i'^€vx-Oy]V^ i-y€vcr-Or]V, ev-O^is, i'KXecfi'Orjv^ i-OeXx-OrjV^ i'lrXix-Orjy, 
i'/SXifft'Orjv, l-<f>X€.x-Oy]Vi i-SepX'Orjv, i'CrTpe(f>-Or]v, i-Tpecjy-Orjv, i-Opicf}' 
Or]v, i-(T7r€px-0r}v, i'T€p(f)'Or}v, i-l3p€X'0rjv, i'GTTepx-Orjv, e-o-Tretcr-^Tyi/, 
(= i'cnrevS-Orjv)^ i-fJLifJLcf^-Orjv^ i-TrifJLcji-Orjv ; of Class BB cf. c-At^c^- 
Orjv and i'Si^X'^W' 

Seeming exceptions are the Doric i-xrrpdcfi-Orjv, i'Tpdcji-OrjVy 
etc. Their vowels are on the same level with, and are to be 
explained like rpdcji-o), orrpd^-oi, rpdx'Oi^ etc., as a special dia- 
lectic peculiarity. 

Interesting are the cases in which first and second aorist 
passive occur from the same root : i-Kip-Orjv : i-Kdp-rju ; r]Xeicf>' 
Otjv : i^-rjXt(f>'r}v^ Tjpeccfi-Orjv : ypiTr-rjv ; i-^evx-Orjv : i-^vy-rjv ; 
l-KXecfi-Q-qv : i'KXd-TT-yjv ; i-7rX€X~^W • i-TrXaK-rjv ; i-Sepx-Orjv : 
i-SpdK-rjv ; i-cTTpecji-Orjv : i-(TTpd<f>-rjv ; i-T€p<p-Or}v : i-rdpTT-YjV ; 
i-Tp€(ji-Orjv : i'TpdTT-rjv ; €-0p€<p-0r)v : i-Tpd<f>-r]v ; i-^pex-Or/v : 
i-/3pdx'rjv ; cf. from Class AA i-ryx'^W • ^-raK-qv, 



184 APPLICATION OF THE 



Nominal Formations. 

7. Nominal and adjectival bases in €? are made with ablaut 
I. : {fyLiro^^ ve<^-o9, ty^(T-^iv ; It-o^^^ 7riK-o<s^ Ae7r-05, 7re(o-)-09, 
Kr€-09^ crrey-o?, rey-o?, ep^f^-o^^ X€;^-05, eS-09, pey-os, peO-o<s^ 
crT€<j}-o<s ; Se(?/)-09 ; pe(^)-09, kAc(/^)-os, o-xeO-o? ; Sep-09, fjiep-os-^ 
Oep'0<s^ €Lp-o<s^ ep-os ; eX-09, ySeA-os, reX-os, crKcX-os, /xeX-o? ; 
fjbev-osi ycv-09, o-^€j/-o9, ve/JL'O'S') ye/x-09 ; ctS-o?, /xetS-09, Tet;(-os ; 
yXcvK-o?, K€i}^-os, ^€i;y-os, tpevO-o^^ Tev^-o^i^ xj/evS-os ] K€pS-o?, 
epK'og^ O^pcr-oS'i crrpecji'og ; /SA.€7r-09, c^Xey-os, cXk-o?, /cAeTr-o?, 
/3iv0-o<s, Trev^-os, peyK-o<s^ (p^VX"^^)' ^TX'^^' €A€y;(-os, ^jicyy-o?^ 
Ae/x^-09, Ac/xc^-os. 

Adjectives : TroS-Tyi/eK?;?, €v-iJL€vrj<s, to-Sre^iy?, ev-o-e^S-T^s, 'Etco-kA^5 
(theme : -kAc/^-c?), Eu-TrrepT/s, vrjfjLepTri^s^ Trept-o-KeAiJ?, ^a-^Aey>ys, 
d-r€V7/5, oL/jicfiL-ppeTnj?^ a-orirepx^Sj a-jjLep(f>€^. 

As first members of compounds : <t>€pio-'l3Lo<s, €yepcrt'-/>(,a;j(09, 
^eA^c'-voos, etc. 

Cf. also nouns in as : creyS-as, Se/x,-as, creA-as, yep-as, o-K€7r-as, 
/cpe-as, AeTT-as. 

Formed by association with )Sa^-vs, Opacr-vg, Kpar-v?, etc., 
are made TrdO-os, /3dO'0<s^ Odpa-og and Opdo-'og^ Kpar-oq and 
KdpT'0<s, etc. ; some historically correct forms, ttcV^-os, etc., are 
also preserved. Otherwise irregular are Aa;j(-os, o;)(-os ; ei'-rvx^^ 
and Sucr-TTon/s are denominative formations. 

Lat., (/en-US, neTu-us^ vet-us, etc. In comp., de-gener. 

8. Bases in rwp, riyp, tt/s are formed with ablaut I. : "E/c-Toop, 

^€(T-T(x)p^ MeV-TCop, %TeV-T(iip^ Ve/Ji-€-T(J)p^ epK'TOip, Kej/(T)-Ta)p, 

OiXK-TOip^ revK'Twp ', — OcXk-ttJp^ Opeir-ryp^ crrpeTT-Typ^ ^€VK-rrjp^ 
TrevcT'Typ^ tcvk-ttip^ aXuTT-Trjp^ 7rct(r-T?;p (iTret^co), yev-e-riyp ; — 
€7r-e-T77S, V€(^€A-77yep€-T?79, ip-€-Trjs, Mcv-riys, avO-iv-rrj^, dActTr-TTys, 
\l/€V(r-Trjs^ 7r€V(j-T7js, kActt-tt;?, &ep(TL'Trj<s. 

The secondary suffix rpo- follows the same norm : XU-rpov 

K€.v{t)'TPOV^ Sip-TpOV^ <^ip-TpOV^ TOL OpilT'Tpa ; (j>€p€TpOV aud 

Tcp-e-Tpov. 

Lat., sec-tor^ em^p-tor, vec4or, lec-tor, tex-tor, gen-i-tor^ etc. 



PRINCIPLES OF THE NEW SCHOOL. 185 

9. Noun-bases in man (neuters in /^a-r ; masculines in /xcov) 
are made with ablaut I. : €t-/>ta ; Aeol. e/A-/xa (root Act), Trifx-jjia, 
Ae/A-/xa, ^ecr-/xa, crrifx-fia^ y8Secr-/xa, opey-/xa, piy-fxa ; Set-/xa, 
■^eX-fxa, TTvev'^a^ pev-fia, ^ev-fxa, vev-fxa^ Sev-fxa ; rep-/xa, ^ep-/Aa, 
(TTrep-fxa, ep-yu.a, Sip-fJia, Kep-jjia ; iriX-fJua, riX-jJia, criX-p^a ; aAet/x-yaa, 
€p£ty-/xa, epetcr-/xa, Aet/x-jLta, Scty'/xa, i/^eOcr-yaa, Te{}y-/xa, K€v6-p.a^ 
^ei}y-/xa, yev-p.a ; ^A.e/x--/xa, KXip^-pua^ OiXy-p^a, 7rAey-/xa, ^Aey-/xa, 
epy-/xa, Sipy-p.a, o-Tpip.-p.aj Opipu-pba^ Treicr-pia (= TrevO-pLo). As 
an example of an exception x^'f^^ i^ -^^"^^ > x€v-p.a Homeric. 

Sk., hdr-riian, hhdr-Tnan, tok-man^ vdrt-m-an^ etc. 

Lat., ger-men^ seg-men, ter-men^ lu-vien (= leuc-men). 

Nouns in /xcov : ;)(e6-/x(oi/, Xei-pnov, 7rXev-/>to)F, 7rvev-pL0)v, rip-pLcov ; 
rep-d-pLOiv and TeX-a-pojiv ; derivatives : (jyX^y-pLov-ijj /SiX-e-pLV-ov^ 
cTTeX'pLov'Lai ; in comp. av-et-pioyvj ' unclad ' : et-yLta. 

Lat., ter-rno, ser-mo. 

10. The comparatives and superlatives in t<ov and tcr-ro? are 
formations accented on the root-syllable, and are regularly 
made with ablaut I. : Kep3-tW, AcepS-tcrro? ; /xa^wv, ytxey-tcrro?, 
/xet-(y)a)i/ ; KpcLo-cTOiv (Kpir-T/oiv) ^ Doric-Ionic Kpia-crwv ; the super- 
latives Kpdr-KJTO's and Kapr-ca-To^ (abl. III.) have been attracted 
to the vocalic condition of the positive Kpar-vs. 

11. Formations in avo, ai/77, oft; (wt^) seem to be pretty 
equally divided between ablauts I. and II. With ablaut I. : 
eS-avo9, o-</)eS-avos, o-KCTr-avos, crrey-aro? ; CTKeTT-avov, SpeV-avoj/, 
Xeiifz-avov ; epK-avrj^ cr^ei/S-OFr;, Trep-ovrj^ pcX-ovy]^ 0LpiTr-€)(-6vrj ; 

Cf. T€pi-€VOS. 

With ablaut II. : t,6(J-)-avoVj opy-avov^ iroir-avov ^ o-^-avov^ 
XO^Fyavos ; x^^'^^o^j o/o<^-avos, poS-avds, ovp-avos (= Fop-avo^)^ 
opK'dvrj (ppX''d'Vrf)j Top'vvrj, 



186 APPLICATION OP THE 



OHAPTEE 11. 

ABLAUT II. 
Verhal Formations. 

The Greek, as well as tHe Indo-European, perfect is a non- 
thematic or root-formation. Like the non-thematic present, 
it originally exhibited the difference of accent and root-form 
between the singular active on the one hand and the dual- 
plural active and entire middle on the other. The singular 
active, having the accent on the root, contained and still regu- 
larly contains strong forms ; in case of Class AA, ablaut II. : 
€-otK-a, jxi'fjLova : €-lk-tov^ fii-fxa-Tov ; of Class BB : Xi-XrjO-a, 
7r€-<j>r}v-a : Xc-Xafr-Tat, 7re-<^ai/-Tat. The perfects with o are 
given in Curt. Verb. II., 185 and 188. Examples: re-roK-a, 
8e-Sot-Ka, €-</)^op-a, €-/^oA-a, K6-Kov-a, Se-Spo/x-a, 7r€-7rot^-a, eX- 
i^XovO-a ; Se-SopK-a, Ki-KXocfi-a^ Tri-irovOa^ Xe-Xoy;(-a, 7r€-7ro/x(j()-a. 

Lat., in the old perfects : 7no-mord-i, spc-pond-i, and 
te-tond-i. 

[Note. Many are the intrusions which have been made 
upon this rule of root-vowels for the singular active. So the 
vowel-group eu, as is well known, has, with the exception of 
the single iX-yXovO-a, supplanted the group ov : re-revx-a? 
7r€-<^€vy-a, K€-K€vO-a^ Tri-irvev-Ka, Not infrequently the weak 
forms of the perfect have intruded upon the singular, as vice 
versa the strong, forms have generally usurped the territory of 
the weak in the active dual and plural : Si-8i-a with Se-Sot-Ka ; 
t-(^Oap-Ka with e-(f>Oop-a ; e-cr7rap-Ka, Ke-Kap-Ka, c-o-raX-zca, 
re-ra-Ka, aX'rjXi<ji-a^ Ip-rjpLTr-a ; the frequency of x-perfects 
among these attests the fact that these are later formations, 
made after the accentual law, the cause of the difference be- 
tween strong and weak forms, had become extinct. A few 



PRINCIPLES OF THE NEW SCHOOL. 187 

perfects are made upon the theme of the present : Kc-^ai^S-a • 
)(avSdvo) ; (t-TTTap-a : Trratp-a)) ; el'Xy])(^a by the side of A€-Aoy;)(-a 
is made like e'l-Xyjcfi-a, Xi-XrjO-a^ etc. ; Aa-y-;(-ai/w, €'Xa)(-ov 
(root-syllable Xyx), apparently equal to Xa-/x-)S-ava), e-Xa/^-ov 
(root-syllable Aa^) show the reason.] 

2. Derived verbs in aya, Gr. €(?/)a>, take ablaut II. : ox-ew, 
cK-7roT-eo//-at, ^o^-eco, ijyop-io), pof^-iw^ ttov-cco, crrotx-eoj, Trop^-eo), 
crTpocf>-i(D, rpoTT-io), rpo^-eco, o'Topy-eco, rpo/ji-eo), (TTpo/3'€(jt), pofx/S-io), 
Spx-^o/jLai ; the same formations are contained in fjLe-fxop-rjTaij 
l3€-/36X-rjfjiai^ aTT'^-KTov-rjKa^ (T7rop-rjT6<s ^ Soyit-ryrcop, etc. ; an excep- 
tion is o-TL^-iix), made directly upon (ttl/3-o<s. 

Lat., mon-eo, noc-eo, tond-eo, tong-eo, spond-eo, etc. 

]Sfor}iinal Formations. 

3. A special Greek formation made in close junction with 
the preceding are the themes in cvs : tok-cvs, xo(F)cvs, Top-€v<s, 
<jf)op-6vs5 <j>Oop-€.v^^ (Tirop-evs^ yov-€V5, c^ov-cvs, Spofx-evs^ To/Ji-ev^s^ 
vo/x-eus, 7rop^-€vs, crrpot^-ei;?, Tpocji-€V'Sj d/xopy-evs, d/xoAy-evs, 
wAoK-cvg, kAott-cu?, po/x<j!)-e7;9, tto/x-tt-cvs, etc. ; (TTt/5-€U5 occurs 
like o-Tt/S-eo). 

4. Themes in a (Greek o, masculine and neuter, ?/ feminine) 
are formed with ablaut II. The accent in historical times is 
generally found on the suffix in the case of feminines ; on the 
suffix also in the case of masculines when they have the func- 
tion of adjectives or nomina agentis ; but on the root in the 
case of m^asculines when they are abstracts or names of objects. 
Accordingly there are : — 

(a) Feminines : iv'(F)o7r'y^ o-kott'-^, po(F)-rj^ Trvo^F)-^', /SoX-t], 

(TToX-T)^ ffiOV-iq^ TOjX-Tj^ (TTOifi-y^ CTTTOfS-iy, kAotT-T/, TTOfJUTT-y^ CtC. 

(13) Adjectives and Nomina Agentis : Sox-o^, o-kott-o?, Xoltt-o^, 
(Tfxoi'O^^ Oo(F)o'S, pop-OS) Top.-6s) dot8-09, d/xot^-09, rpocf>-6<s, kXott-os, 
6Xk-6s^ TToixTr-oSf <j>op-6s (cf. cj>6p-os)', rpox-os (cf. rpox-o?), etc. 

(y) Abstracts and Names of Objects : tok-os, cj^o/S-o^^ Aoy-09, 
Xo(F)-os, cro(f")-os, vo/x-09, cl>6v-o?^ Spo/x-os, ^oA-os, crroA-o?, 

TTTOp'OSj </)0p-0S5 CTTOl^COS) TP^X'^^^ SvO(^-OS, jJiOlJLCji'OS^ poy^-OS, CtC. 



188 APPLICATION OF THE 

Exceptionally forms with, ablant I. : <^etS-05, XevK-os, AeX</)-ot, 
epy-ov ; with ablaut III. : (f>vy-rj^ ^vy-ov, crTt)(-09, etc. 
Lat., dol-u-s, rtiod-u-s, tog-a. 

5. Themes in t are made with ablaut II. : rpox'i^j Tpo(^-t9, 
TpoTT-ts, ;)(po/x-t9, /xo/x,i/^-ts, SpoTT-t?. Those iu tS are pretty evenly 
divided between ablauts I. and II., and generally have the 
tone on the suffix : iXw-ts, o-KeX-t's and o-;(eX-ts, creX-ts, AcTr-t's, 
KepK-L<s ; t,o(^F)'i^', jBok-L^^ XoTT-Lg^ c^Xoy-t's, /SpO^-L^. 

6. A special Greek formation- (probably secondary) with 
ablaut II. are the nouns in aS : Aoy-a?, o-Trop-ag, orroA-a?, 
XoLTT-dsj oXk-ols, ttAok-cl?, Aott-cls, Spoyu,-a9, opy-as, SopK-d<s, <^opy3-as, 
vofji-ds^ 6p;(-a9, rpo^-d^^ <^OLT'd'i^ 2Tot;j(-aSe9, ^Tpocf>-d8€^ ; excep- 
tions with ablaut III. : <^vy-as, vt<^-as, jjny-d^. 

7. Themes in ma (/x,09, /a?/, ^hov ; t/^os, a/xos) are regularly 
formed with ablaut II. ; the accent wavers between root and 
suffix, except in the case of those in l/jlos : yov-t/xo?, Xott-i/xo?, 

/JLOpcr-LflOSf Tp6(ji-ipiO^^ TrXoK-LfJLOS'j CTTTOp-t/XO?, <f>06p-ifJLO<S. TllOSC 

without intervening vowel are, (a) With the accent on the 

root : TTOT-fJLO^S^ OL'JJLO^^ TOp-fJiO^^ Op'fJLO^^ 0/\-/X0§, OpK-fJiOS | Xo^-fJirj^ 

oL'pirj^ ToX'fjLT]. (b) With the accent on the suffix : poy-/xo?, 

dXot-p,09, XoL-fJLOS-) CVV-eO^-IJiO^^ KOp-fXOS^ <jiOp-IJiO<S^ CTToX-fJiO^^ I^P'^X' 

p.6<i^ pwX'fJ'O's.) 7rAo;j(-p-o9, ^Aoy-/>to? ; Sox'/jlt}^ op-fjirj ; also a base 
Kot-p-a- in Kot-p-a-o). In ap,os : TrAoK-ap-os, opx-a/xo^ ; ovX-ajJLOs 

(= FoX-)^ 7rOT-ttp,05. 

Lat., /or-7?ia (Sk. root dhar) ; for-mus (Sk. root ghar). 

8. Themes in i!^a (to, t?;) which are not verbal adjectives are 
regularly accented on the root-syllable and take ablaut II. : 

Ot-rOS, KOL-TOS, k6v(t)'T0<S^ VOCr-TOSj <l)6p'T0Sj )(Op'TOS» 

Lat., hor-tus =■ /cdp-ros. 



PRINCIPLES OF THE NEW SCHOOL. 189 



OHAPTEE III. 

ABLAUT III. 

This root-form is the one wliicli appears when the accent 
of a word rests on some formative element, not on the root 
itself. The special Greek law of accentuation has, however, 
engrafted itself upon the old Indo-European accentual system, 
leaving but a few fossilized remnants, which have resisted 
the new law (infinitives of second aorist, verbal adjectives in 
t6<S') etc.). 

Verbal Formations. 

1. The dual and plural active and the middle of non- 
thematic presents were originally accented on the personal 
suffixes, leaving the root-syllable without accent, which there- 
fore appears in its weakest form, ablaut III. : t-rov, t-/>tei/ : el/xt ; 
Doric (o-yivTL : ecr-rt ; the vowel is inorganically restored in 
€or-/AcV, €o--Toi/, etc., as is shown by Sk. s-mas, Lat. s-umus, etc. 
Of Class BB : (pa-fiev, cf^a-rov : cj^rj-fjii ; e-</)a-/x€T/, €-^a-Tov : 
e-cjyrj'crOa. Sk. s-TTias : ds-mi; i-mds : ^-m^; ha-thds : hdn-vii. 
Lat., s-unt : es-t. With the same ablaut are formed the optative 
and participle of non-thematic presents : I'Otrjv, t-oVros : cT-/xt ; 
(o-)-6vT0's and ((r)-€T€os = Sk. sat-yd-s; cf. <f)a-L7)v^ <^a-/x€vos : cfirj-fjiL. 

2. Reduplicated thematic presents are formed with ablaut 
III. : yt-yv-o-jitat, /xt'-/;Lv-a>, t-o-^-co, ttl-ttt-u) and tcktu) for Tt-TK-co. 
Lat. gi-gn-o. 

3. Presents whose formative element is the inchoative sufiix 
a-K added immediately to the root are formed with ablaut III. : 
pd-(TK(ji (/Sv-o-KO)) = Sk. gd-chdmi; Trdo-xoi (= Try^-cr/co)) : irivO-o^ ; 
fXicryoj (^iLiyo-Koy) : Metftas ; tcr/ca) (^Flk-ctko)) : e-FocK-a. Cf. of 
Class BB : cjxi-crKo} : cfirj-fii ; XdarKU) (AaK-o"Ka)) : Ae-Act/c-a ; )(ao'Kca 
(xdv'CTKo)) : Ki-^rjva, 



190 APPLICATION OF THE 

4. Only a small number of presents of the iota-clsiss (IV. 
class) are formed with ablaut III., though this is the histori- 
cally correct formation : Trratpco (Trrp-yii)) : E-u-Trrep-T;? ; cnraipoi 
and aa-nraipoi ; /SdWo) W^'V^) ' ^eA.-o§ ; Satpo) : Bip-jna ; /xatVo/xat 
(^/jLy-yofjiai) : /mev-o^ ; Kaivo) : Ke-Kov-a. Roots of Class BB : <^atVa> 
(cj)av-yo)) : iTi-(f>r]v-a ; ttcxXXw (TrdX-yw) : e-TrrjX-a. With redupli- 
cation : Tt-ratVo) (rt-TV-^/o)). 

5. A number of nasal formations are made with ablaut III. 
(a) Those in avo) : LK-dvo) : Ik-cd (= et/c-w), afxapr-dvoi : vrjjjL€pT'y<^ ; 

a-v^-dv(s) : d-F^i-o) i SapO-dvo). 

(h) Those with double nasals are uniformly made with 
ablaut III. : Oi-y-y-dvo) ; Xi-pL-ir-dvay \ TV-y-^-dvoy ; ipv'y-y-dvo) ; 
TTV-v-O'dvo/JiaL ; cftv-y-ydvio ; Xa-y-;(-av(jD (= Ay-y-;(-ava)) : X€-Aoy;(-a ; 
■^a-v-S-dv(D (^y-v-S-avco) : ^etVo/xat (= ^cvS-cro/Aat) ; Tra-v-^-avco 
(TTv-v-^-avo)) : ttcv^-os ; of roots of Class BB : d-r-S-avw : e-dS-a ; 

Xa-pL-jS-dvo) : Xrjxpopiai ; Aa-v-^-avco : Ai^^-o) ; pLa-v-O-dvo). 

(c) Presents with .nasals and v: ipvO-atvo) : epevd-os ; dAtr- 
atVo) : dAet'(T)-Ti;s ; a-v(o')-atVa) and a-"ti(or)atVa) : Lat. 'i^?'-0 (= eus-o) 
and Sk. ds-ati; iraO-acvoi : ttcV^-o?, /xap-atVw : Sk. mdr-ate. So 
also TTCTT-atVo) ; but ablaut III. of roots of the type A does in 
most cases not differ graphically from ablaut I. With redupli- 
cation : TC-Tp-aLV(D. 

6. The non-thematic second aorist (/x-t-form) is historically an 
imperfect belonging to a non-thematic present, and accordingly 
shares with it the peculiarity of differentiating the root-form 
of the singular active (ablaut I.) from that of the remaining 
persons of the indicative, active and middle, the entire opta- 
tive, and the participles (ablaut III.). 

In roots from Class BB the Greek has t-irr-q-v : i-irTd-fjirjv, 
TTTOL't-rfv ; €-^7)'V I /^a-L'Tjv ', €-TXrj'V : c-rXa-v, rXa-i'-qv ; e-ipOrj-v : 
cf>$d-v, etc. 

In roots of Class AA this original vocalic difference appears 
also upon close search. There occur in the first place the 
following forms with ablaut III. : l-xv-pL-rjv^ i-oro-v-iJirjv, kXv-Ol^ 
and KXv-jJi€VO<s ; diro-ypd-s and d7ro-vpd-/xei/os : diro- (/^) ep-cre ; 
c-Kra-TO : kt6v-o<; ; d-n-'i-cfia-TO. 



PRINCIPLES OF THE NEW SCHOOL. 191 

For traces of formations containing ablaut I. and supple- 
menting these, we must look to a set of peculiar aorists : 
e-)(€v-a and £-;(€(^)-a, c-crcrev-a, rjXev-afjirjv^ and rjX€(F)'a'/Jirjv, 
These are not sigmatic aorists which have dropped their o-, 
but they are strong forms of root-aorists, whose corresponding 
weak forms live in l-^v-nrqv and i-a-crv-fjiyv. An old conjuga- 
tion was e-)(€V'a (for e-x€v-/x), €-;j(€i;-9, €-;(ev-r : €-;(v-/x6v, etc., 
precisely as the imperfect of a /xt-verb : i-Tc-Orj-Vi etc. : i-TL-Oe- 
/A€v, etc. But the strong forms attracted the weak forms of 
the active to their vowel condition in accordance with that 
same tendency towards uniformity which has disturbed the 
original difference between the singular and the dual-plural 
of the perfect active. "^E-x^v-a, c-ora-ev-a, etc., are therefore 
conjugated independently through the active like sibilant 
aorists, and even middle forms (rjXcv-djjLTjv) occur ; but i-xv-M^ 
and i-o-o-v-fjirjv have preserved the historically correct root-forms 
belonging to all the persons, except the singular active. 

7. The common second aorist is a formation which corre- 
sponds to an imperfect of a thematic present which has the 
accent on the thematic vowel, therefore ablaut III. The true 
accentuation, which is the cause of the weak root-form, appears 
in the infinitives and participles : TnO-eiv ; iriO-ecrBai^ TrtO-cov^ 
7nO-6fjb€vo<;. From roots of type A : e-crx-ov, e-Trr-o-ftTyv, e-cnr-ov : 
Itt-o), e-cnr-ov ; Lat. in-sec-e ; 7]'vey k-ov. Irregularly with ablaut 
I. : e-T€K-ov. From roots of type B : a/A-Trvv-e, €-k\v-ov, e-Trrap-oi/, 
rjyp-ofxrjv : i-yetpoj ; ayp-ofxevo^ : dyetpo), wcf^X-ov, e-Kav-ov, e-Krav-oVy 
c-ra/i-ov, t-hpafji-ov. Irregularly with ablaut I. : dycp-icrOai : 
dyp-o/x€vos (both Homeric) ; (o<^eA.-ov : wcj^X-ov ; e-re/x-ov (late) : 
e-rafJL-ov. From roots of type C : e-TrcO-ov^ rjptK-ov, r^pLTT'OV^ 
€-(f>XiS-ov (Hesych.), etS-ov, LK-o/JL-qv^ e-AtTr-oi/, rjXiT-ov^ e-crnx^ov^ 
c-Oty-ov, e-StK-ov, e-ij/vO-ev^ €'TVX'OVj e-cjivy-ov^ t]XvO-ov^ e-KvO-ov^ 
i-irvO-ofjirjv^ ypvy-ov^ trirpaO-ov^ e-SpaK-ov, e-rpaTr-ov, rapTr-w/xe^a 
and Tpaw-eiOfjiev, e-jSpax-ov^ iqixapT-ov and rffJi^poT'OV, €-SapO-ov 
and €-SpaO-ov^ e-Spavr-ov, l-Tra^-ov, e-Sa/c-ov, e-;)(a8-ov, €p-pa<;f>-ov, 
€-Xax'Ov. From roots of Class BB : e-Aa^-ov, e-Aa^-oi/, St-e- 
T/xay-ov, c-AaK-ov, etc. 



192 APPLICATION OF THE 

8. The reduplicated thematic aorist is formed with ablaut 
III.: C€67rov (= c-A-Ztt-of) ; e-o-TT-o-fxrjV, i'Ke-KX-o-fMrjv, €-7re'(f>v-ov, 
€-Te-Tfi-ov, Tre-TnO-O'fJLTjv^ Tre-c^tS-o-zxT^v, T€'TVK-6-jjirjv, 7re-7rvO-6-fjbrjv, 
T€-Tap7r-6-/Jirjv ; from Olass BB : Xe-XaO-O'/Jirjv : XyjO-o). 

9. The second aorist passive system is formed with ablaut 
III., differing remarkably in this respect from the first passive 
system, which is formed with ablaut I. : i-ppv-rjv^ i-o-o-v-rjv, 
i'TTTdp'Tjv, icfiO'dp-rjVy i-(T7rdp-rjv, i-Sdp-yv^ i-Kdp-Yjv^ e-Trap-T/v, 
i- (^F ) dX'Tjv, i-(TrdX-7}v, i-Kdv-rjVy i^-r]Xi<p-7jv , Y}pL7r-r)v, €-/xty-iyy, 
i-XiTT-yy, i-t,vy-r]V^ i-KXaTr-rjv^ i-7rXdK-r]v^ i-XdTr-rjv, i-SpdK-rjv^ 
i-crrpdcji-rjv, i'Tpdir-rjv, i-Tpd(ji-7]V, i-TdpTr-r/v, i-^pd^-rjv, i-ppd<j>-rjv. 
Exceptions with ablaut I. : i-cftXiy-rjv, i-TrXeK-rjv, variant for 
l-TrXdK-rjv ; i-repcr-YjV. From roots of Olass BB : i-raK-yv : 
Te-T7]K-a ; i-craTr-rjv : cre-crrjTr-a ; i-crcfyaX-Tjy : e-crcjirjX-a ; i-<jidv-r]v : 
7r€-(f>rjV'a, etc. 

10. The domain of ablaut III. in the perfect, it has been 
seen, regularly is : The dual and plural active and the entire 
middle of the indicative ; the optative, active and middle, 
and the participles. 

In Greek this relation has been disturbed by the inroads of 
the strong forms of the singular active (ablaut II.), so that, 
as a rule, the perfect system follows their norm through all 
forms of the active, showing ablaut II. However, the traces 
of the old regime of ablaut III. in the active are not wanting, 
especially in the older language. Of the indicative and par- 
ticiple active from roots of Olass AA there are to be found : 
€-tK-Toi/, i'lK-Trjv : e-ot/c-a ; cf. middle : €-lk-to and ^-Ik-to ; 
e-7re-7rt^-/X6V : Tre-TroiO-OL ; ta-TOv, tS-/xev, IS-vta : oTB-a ; 8€t'-8t-/xeT/ 
and Se-St-/x€v, i-Se-Si-Trjv, Se-St-ws : Set-Sot-Aca and Se-Sot-Ka ; 
iX-7]XvO-afji€V : elX'iijXovO-a ; e/c-ye-ya-Tov, ye-ya-/x€V, ye-ya-(os : 
yi-yov-a ; fxe-fjia-Tov, //,e-/xa-/x€V, //,e-/>ta-a)? : fxi-piov-a ; Tri-iraa-Oe^ 
ire-TraO'VLa : Tre-Trov-Oa. From roots of OlaSS BB : T€-TA.a-/i,€V, 
T€-TXa-L-rjv : ri'TXy-Ka ; Ke-Kpa^'Oi : Ke-Kpay-a ; e-crra-rov, e-crra- 
/x€i/ : €'0-Tr]-Ka ; Se-Sa-ma : Si-Srj-e ; pLC-fxaK-vZa : fjL€'ixr)K-o)<s ; 
T€'0aX-v2a : ri-OqX-a ; Xe-AaK-vta : Xi-XrjK-a ; ore-o'ap-ma : 



PEINCIPLES OF THE NEW SCHOOL. 193 

(r€'(rr]p-ii>s ; ap-dp-vta : dp-rjp-m. Apparently of all forms of 
the active the feminine participle has resisted longest the 
attacks of assimilation. 

In the perfect middle system ablaut III. has generally 
survived : et/xat (/^€-/^o--/xat) : ecr-o-a ; Ke-KAt-/xafc, e-crcn;-/xat ; 
K€-)(y-/Jiai, e'CJ^Oap-fxai ; e-cnrap-fjiai^ Si-Sap- /xai, Ke-Kap-jxai^ ire-Trap- 
fxat^ Te-TaX-jULai^ e-o'ToA-yLtat, Te-Ta-/xat, Tre-^a-rat, dA-ryAt/x-/>tat, 
ip-^^pty-fiai, ip-7]pLfJi-]jLai, yu,e-/xty-/xat, re-Tvy-yU-at, 7r€-<^i;y-/xat, iri-Trvcr- 
fjiat, c-o-Tpa/JL-fxai, Te-Tpa/JL-jJiai, re-Opa/JL-jJiai,, In roots of type A, 
ablaut III., as usual, necessarily coincides with ablaut I. : 
e-^ecr- jJiat, e-o-Te/x-fiai, iv-yvey- (xat, ct-Aey-/xat, Xe-Xcy-fiat ; such 
forms as these have given rise to others made with the same 
vowel, where ablaut III. would be historically correct and 
possible : irk-TrXcy-piai (cf. k-irXaK-rjv) ^ K€-KXe/x-/xat (cf. l-KXair-rjv), 
/3e-ySp€y-/xat, 7r€-^Aey-/x,at, €-crrey-/xat, for Ke-/cAayLt-/Aat, etc. ; then 
also forms c-^evy-ynat, 8e-Sety-/xat, Ae-Xct/x-yu-at, etc. From roots 
of Class BB : Ae-Aacr-/xat : Ae-A^y^-a ; TTC-TTO-rat : 7r4-7ro)-Ka ; 
7r€-cfiav-TaL : Tre-^T^v-a. 

Nominal Formations. 

11. Verbal adjectives in t6<s and tIo^ = Sk. pass, participles 
in -tas accent the suffix and accordingly appear with ablaut 
III. In Greek this condition appears in the following cases : 

a-Tt-T09, pV-TOS, 7rAv-T09, kAv-TO?, fXOp-TO^ aud /SpO-TOS', cfiQap-Tos, 

(Twap-Tos, Spa-Tos and Sap-T09, Kap-Tos, crraA-ro?, ^a-T6<s, ra-rds, 
aurd-/xa-T09, c^a-rd?, ipa-TO^, 7rt(r-Tog, eptK-ro?, a-t(r-ro9, crrtTr-TO?, 
a-OcK-TOS, TVK-Tos, (f>vK-TO<i^ avd-TTvcT-Tog, joa7r-ro9. Roots of type 
A as usual cannot differentiate ablaut III. from I. : ck-to'?, 
AcTT-To?, TTCK-rds, TTeTT-To?, ^eo-'Td?, AeK-To?, etc. ; they perhaps 
were the starting point of illegitimate formations containing 
ablaut I. where III. was possible, e.g., cyep-reov, c^ep-rdg, 
d-SepK-TO<s^ a-^Ae/c-TO?, crrpcTr-Tds, yu-c/XTr-Tos, and even IpuK-TO^, 
SaK-riov, Trevcr-rd?, ^evK-rds, etc. These false formations, in 
the course of the development of the language away from its 
original laws and materials, have become on the whole the 



194 APPLICATION OF THE 

more common method for verbals. From roots of Class BB : 
^e-T09, 8o-T6<i, a-Xacr-Tos, iraK-ros, etc. 

The abstract nouns in ti (o-t) originally had the tone on the 
suffix, therefore ablaut III. : rt-crt?, pv-o-i^, ;!(i;-crts, Sap-crt?, 
Kap-crt9, (TraA-o-ts, ra-crts, (Krd-crts in) avhpo-KTa-(TL-a^ ttlct-tls^ 
Tv^t9, (jiv^LSf TTvcr-TLS') ponj/LSf ayappi^. From roots of type A 
necessarily : 7rei/^ts, ^e-o-ts, Aef t9, ope^ts. Thence the e has spread 
over by far the largest part of these nouns : Sep-pt^ (with 
Sdp-cTLs)', pev-cTis (with pu-crts), ^evfts (with <^u^ts), Tr^vcns (with 
7n;o--T6s), 7rAeft9, Opiij/Ls, /xe/xi/^t?, etc. From roots of Class BB : 
^ct-Tt9, crra-(Tt9, So-crts, ^e-crts, etc. Cf. Latin std-tio-(n) , 
rd- ti-o (n ) , q/y^^- tim. 

13. A number of adjectives in ra (po-) have the accent on 
the suffix and ablaut III. : ipvO-po^ = Sk. ricdh-irds = Lat. 
ruber; ij/vS-pos, Xt/S-pos, Xvy-po's, (TTicji-pos, iXa<p-p6s, yXvK-epo?, 
(TTvy-epos ; from roots of Class BB : imK-p6% : fxyK-LCTTos ; o-air-pos ; 
TOLK-epos, Tray -epos ^ etc. 



OHAPTEE IV. 

ARRANGEMENT OF THE ROOTS. 

In the present chapter, the roots assigned are to be taken 
in accordance with the principles laid down in Part L, Ch. 
VL, and Part IV., Ch. I.-III. It is impossible to arrange 
the entire etymological material of a language under desig- 
nated roots, because the roots are not all known. According 
to the most recent views, the roots of a certain group of words 
are one and the same element, which apj)ears in different 
forms when modified by certain surroundings and laws. For 
instance, <^€p, cj^op, (j^p are one root : cj^ep and <^op change with 
each other in certain formations, the law of the variation 
being not as yet ascertained ; it is clear, however, that there 
is some law : on the other hand, </)p varies with both <pep and 



PRINCIPLES OF THE NEW SCHOOL. 



195 



€f>op according to the well-known original accentual difference. 
Here we know the law. 

In all roots we look for processes and explanations as 
reasonable as this, but as yet only the variations described 
under ablaut I.-III. are understood with anything like satis- 
factory clearness. Other material, in cases involving variation 
of the root-vowel, is more or less obscure. Nevertheless, even 
in such cases, we may often assign roots that are fairly 
warranted by the evidence of comparison and that will be 
of practical benefit in associating related words. 

In the following sets, the numbers (1-528) are the same as 
in the body of the work ; the definitions of the roots are also 
the same. It is not necessary to restate the Sanskrit roots ; 
and the omission of them secures a form which exhibits 
regularly side by side for each set : 1. the Indo-European 
root ; 2. the Greek root ; 3. the Latin root. 



1. 


ak, ank ; ajK ; anc, unc. 


40. 


— ; Kapir, KpaiT] — . 


2. 


ak ; dKf dK ; ac, ac. 


41. 


skarp ; — ; carp. 


3. 


ark ; apKf a\K ; arc. 


42. 


kar ; — ; — . 


5. 


— ; ^aK ; — . 


43. 


— ; AcdF, Kav ; — . 


9. 


derk, dork, drk ; depK, 5op/c, 


44. 


kei, ki ; k€i ; qui, ci. 




5p/c (SpaK) ; — . 


45. 


sek ; (TKe, <r/ca ; s6c, sci. 


10. 


deik, dik ; Sef/c, Bik ; die, die. 


48. 


kel, kl ; AceA., k\ ; c6l. 


11. 


— ; Bok; d6c, die. 


51. 


sker, skor, skr; /cep, Kop, Kp 


12. 


deuk, douk, dnk ; 5u/c ; due, due. 




(Kap); — . 


14. 


vik ; Ft/c, Ik ; vie. 


53. 


skap ; aKair ; — . 


16. 


— ; F€K, €K ; vie. 


54. 


kei, ki ; /cet, ki ; ci, cL 


18. 


— ; Fe^K, fo\k ; la,C. 


55. 


klep, klop, kip ; KXeiTy ACXOTT, 


21. 


— ; *'/c; — . 




kAtt; el6p. 


22. 


— ; eiK, IK ; — . 


56. 


sklav ; K\df ; clav, elau. 


25. 


Pron. stems : ka, ki ; /ca, ko ; — . 


57. 


kli ; K\i ; cli. 


26. 


— ; KaK ; — . 


58. 


kleu, kla ; K\€Vf K\v ; clu. 


28. 


kal ; Ka\ ; kal, e^l, cla. 


59. 


klu ; K\v ; — . 


29. 


kal ; Ka\ ; cal, eal, eel. 


60. 


skav ; kof ; cav, cau. 


32. 


kan ; Kau ; can. 


62. 


ku ; — ; — . 


33. 


kap; Kair; cap. 


64. 


— ; KOir ; — . 


35. 


kvap ; Kair ; vap (for evap). 


66. 


kard ; Kpa5 ; card. 



196 



APPLICATION OF THE 



67. 


— ; Kpa, Kpav ; cer, ere. 


123. 


69. 


ker, kri ; /cpi ; cer, cri. 


124. 


70. 


kru ; Kpv ; cru. 


125. 


71. 


; KTeV (/Cej/), KTOV, KTa ; — . 


126. 


72. 


; KT€f, KTt ; . 


127. 


73. 


— ; /coF, Kv, KOI ; cav, cau. 


129. 


74. 


kur ; Kvpy Kv\ ; — . 


130. 


76. 


ko ; Kto; CO, ctl. 


131. 


77. 


— ; \dK, AttK ; lOqu, l6c. 


132. 


78. 


lak; \aK; lac. 


133. 


80. 


reuk, rouk, rk ; \vk ; luc, Itic. 


134. 


82. 


mak ; /xcuc ; mac. 


135. 


83. 


— ; vcK ; n6c, n5c 


138. 


85. 


vik ; FiK ; vie. 


140. 


87. 


— ; TTC/c, iroK ; pec. 


141. 


89. 


— ; Treu/c, irvK ; — . 


142. 


90. 


pik, pig ; TTiK ; pic, pig. 




91. 


plak; TrAa/c; plac. 


143. 


92. 


— ; 7rA€/c, ttAo/c; plS^g, pl6C, 


144. 




pile. 


145. 


95. 


— ; — ; scalp. 


146. 


96. 


scad, scand ; arKad ; scad. 


147. 


97. 


skap ; aKUTT, (tkitt ; scap. 


148. 


98. 


— ; (TKair ; — . 


149. 


99. 


— ; (TKeiTf (TKOTT j sp6c. 


150. 


101. 


sku ; CTKV ; ecu. 


151. 


102. 


— ; (rKv\ ; — . 




104. 


ag ; dy, hy ; ag, eg, ilg. 


152. 


105. 


— ; a?; — • 




107. 


arg; apy; arg. 


153. 


108. 


gau ; 7au, ydF, ya ; gau. 


154. 


111. 


— ; y^H-, yofi ; gem. 


155. 


112. 


gen, gon, gn ; yev, you, 


156. 




yv{ya); g6n, gn, gna. 


158. 


115. 


geus, gons, gus ; ycv ; gus. 


159. 


117. 


gar; yap; gar. 


160. 


118. 


grabh ; y\a(f) ; — . 


161. 


119. 


glubh ; y\v(p ; — . 


163. 


120. 


gan, gna, gno ; yycoy yvo ; gna. 


164. 




gno. 


165. 


122. 


— ; ypa<p ; scrib, scrob, scrof. 





verg; F6P7, Fp€7; —. 

verg ; F€p7 ; urg. 

jeug,jllg; C6U7, fu7; jtig. 

dheigh, dhigh; Q^iy, Biy, fig. 

lag; A07; lag. 

rug, lug; At;7; lug. 

lig; Kvy- llg. 

— ; /X6A7, fxoXy; mulg. 

— ; fJ-^py, fxopy ; merg. 

— ; 6py; virg. 

J^eg ; opyy opey ; reg. 

steg ; arey ; steg, teg, tgg, t5g. 

veg, aug ; vy ; v6g, vig, aug. 

— ; <^A.67 ; flag, fulg. 
— ; (ppvy; frig. 

bheugh, bhilgh; <^€i'7, (pvy; 
fug, fug. 

— ; a/>x; — • 

agh, angh; ax, ayx\ ang. 
— ; ^pex, $pox ; rig. 
— ; Aox ; l6v (for legv). 
— ; Fex, e'x ; V6h. 

— ; o-€X» o-x, fx ; — . 
— ; ax» «7X ; — • 

— ; Aex ; l6c. 

reigh, roigb, righ, ligh ; A^x ; 

iig. 

steigh, stigh; (ttcix, o-tXx; 

stigC?). 

— ; Tpex» Tpox ; —' 

gha, ghi ; x«> X"'' I ^i* 

— ; X^^^) X«5 ; hend. 
ghrad ; x^a5 ; grad. 
ghar, ghra ; x^P ; gra. 
— ; x^P ; ^ir, her. 
ghjes; — ; — . 

ghi; x«; hi- 

— ; XP^H-y XpoH-] ■—' 

— ; xp*; fri- 

gheu, ghou, ghti ; x^^t X^^t 
XV \ fu, fud. 



PRINCIPLES OF THE NEW SCHOOL. 



197 



167. ster, str ; aarp ; ster, astr. 
173. pet, pt ; Trer, ttot, ttt, tttol ; 
p6t. 

175. sta,sta,; (rTd,(rT77, (TTct; sta,sta. 

176. stel, stol, stl; o-reA., (TtoA, 

o-t\ (crraX) ; stol. 

177. — ; (rT^ix(p, (xre/j.^, arroficf), 

(TTofi ; — . 

178. — • ; (TTePy (TToy ; — . 

179. — ; (TTep ; — . 
181. — ; (rT€(^ ; stip, stip. 
183. stig ; (TTiy ; stig, stlg. 

185. 6ter, stor ; (XTpco, arop ; stra, 

ster, stor. 

186. ; (TT€V, (TTV ; — . 

188. ten, ton, tn ; rev, rov, TV 

{ra, rav) ; tSn, t6n. 

189. stag ; ray ; tag, t9,g. 

190. ta ; Td/c, ra/c ; ta. 

192. tva ; T€ (for tFc) ; te, tn. 

194. tek, tok, tk, — tenk, tuk ; 

reK, TOK, T/C, TeVK, TVK, 

— revXf Tvx ; tec. 

195. tel, tol, tl; rXd, tXt], rAd, — 

T€A, ro\, TdA. ; tol, tul, tla. 

196. tern, torn, tm ; re^, rofi^ r/x, 

T/xdy; tern, torn. 

197. — ; T6p ; ter, tra. 

198. — ; rep ; ter, tor, tri. 

199. — ; repir, Tapir, — rpe^, rpo^, 

rpacp ; — . 

200. — ; Tep(r, Taper ; tors. 

202. tres ; rpeo- ; ters. 

203. — ; rpe/x, Tpo/x; trem. 

204. Stems: tri; Tpi; tri. 

205. tn; Tu; tn. 

206. stnd; Tu5; tM. 

207. — ; tvtt; — . 

208. tvar; — ; — . 

200. svad ; (TFaS, a5 ; snad. 
210. da, da-k ; Sd, 5a/c ; d6c. 



211. 


— 


5a; — . 


212. 


— 


ddv, 5dF ; — . 


213. 


— 


dafi; dOm. 


214. 


— 


SaTT, 5€7r; dap. 


215. 


— 


Sap0\ dorm. 


218. 


— 


dr), 56 ; — . 


219. 


dem, dom ; Se/x, dojj. ; d6m. 


220. 


dek; Se|; dex. 


221. 


der, dor, dr ; Sep, 5op, dp 




(M; -.* 


223. 


dei, doi, di ; Set, Boi, 5i ; di. 


224. 


di, div ; St, 5lF ; di, div. 


225. 


do, d5 ; 8w, So, Scw/c ; do, da. 


227. 


— ; Spd ; — . 


228. 


— ; bpa ; — . 


229. 


— ; Spe/i, dpojLLf dpa/uL ; — . 


233. 


ed, 6d ; 7)5, 45, wS ; ed, 6d. 


234. 


sed ; eS ; sed, s6d. 


235. 


sed ; eS ; sed, Sfed. 


236. 


veid, void, vld; FetS, foiB, 




FiS (id) ; vid, vld. 


237. 


svid ; o-FiS, id ; snd (for svid). 


238. 


— ; /xeS ; ni5d. 


239. 


— ; fxeXd ; — . 


240. 


od ; w5, o5 ; 5d, 6l. 


242. 


— ; TreS, ttoS ; p6d. 


243. 


— ; (T/ceS, (TxeS, fceS ; scand. 


244. 


skid; (TKid, (TXiS; scid, cid, 




caed. 


245. 


spad, spand ; a-cpad ; fnnd. 


247. 


vad, nd, nnd ; vd ; nnd. 


248. 


— ; Fed; v^d. 


249. 


aidli, idh ; aid ; aed. 


250. 


— ; a\d', — . 


251. 


— ; aO, avd ; — . 


252. 


svedh ; (tFtiO ; sod, s6d, sned. 


253. 


rendh ; ipvd ; rnd, ruf, rub. 


254. 


— ; da, 07] ; f e, fi. 


255. 


— ; 6aF] — . 


256. 


— ; drj, de ; da, fa, f ^-C. 


257. 


ghen ; deu ; fend. 



198 



APPLICATION OF THE 



258. 


— ; dev (06F), dv, do ; — . 


315. 


— ; Trep, irp, irpa ; — . 


260. 


dhars; dapa, Opacr \ fars. 


316. 


pra ; irpooy irpo, irpi ; pra, pro, 


261. 


dhar, dhra ; Bpa ; fir, for. 




pri. 


262. 


dre; Op-q, dp€] — . 


318. 


spju, spu ; TTTw, ttut; spu. 


265. 


dhu ; dv ; fu. 


319. 


pu ; TTW ; pu, pil. 


266. 


keudh, klidh ; kcvOj kvO ; cud. 


320. 


pug; irvy; ptlg. 


268. 


— ',66; 6d, 5d. 


322. 


pu ; — ; pu, pti. 


270. 


— ; TTCpd; .— . 


323. 


spher, sphor, sphr, — spbel, 


271. 


bheidh, bhoidh, bhidh; ireid, 




sphol, sphl ; (TTTcp, crtrop, 




TToie, iriO ; fid (= feid), foed 




airp [crirap), — ttcA, ttoA, wA 




(= fold), fid. 




(ttoA) ; spfer, spre, sptlr, p5l, 


272. 


— ; irevB, irvO ; — . 




pal, pill. 


273. 


bhudh; irvdjirvpB] fund. 


324. 


— ; UTT ; sop, S5p. 


275. 


rap ; apir ; r^p. 


330. 


bargh; fipax; —• 


276. 


sarp ; apTT ; sarp. 


331. 


arbh, rabh, labh ; aA<^ ; lab. 


277. 


— ; FcAtt, eoATr; Vol(u)p. 


335. 


— ; v€<p ; n6b, nub. 


281. 


serp ; €pTr ; serp, rep (for srep). 


339. 


bha, blia-n, bha-s, bha-v, 


282. 


— ; XajULir ; — . 




bha-k, bha-d ; <pd ((^t;), (pa, 


283. 


reup, roup, rup, lup; Avtt; 




— (f)a-Py (pdv {(paF) ; fa, fa, 




rup. 




— fa-n, fa-s, fa-v, fa-c, fa-t. 


284. 


— ; yeir ; — . 


340. 


— ; (pay- — . 


285. 


pak, pag; irdy, Tnjy; pag, pag, 


341. 


bhar; (pap; f6r. 




pac, pac. 


342. 


— ; (p€^, (pofi ; — . 


286. 


pav ; TraF ; p^v. 


343. 


— ; (p€V, <pov, (pv {(pa) ; — . 


291. 


pa ; 7ra ; pa, p6n. 


344. 


bher, bhor, bhr ; (pep, (pop, 


292. 


pau ; irav ; pau. 




(pp ; f6r, for. 


295. 


— ; Trej/, ttou ; — . 


345. 


— ; (p\a, (p\aBy <P^^i <P^h ^AtS, 


296. 


per, por, pr ; irep, irop, irap ; 




<^Au, (/)AvS, (p\vy; fla, flo. 




p6r, pOr. 




fla, fie. 


302. 


pi; TTi; pi. 


346. 


— ; (ppaK ; fare, fr6qu. 


304. 


pel, pol, pi ; ireA, ttoA, ttA, 


348. 


bbu ; (pv, (pv ; fQ, fO, fe. 




ttAtj] pie. 


350. 


an ; av] an. 


305. 


plak; 7rAd7, 7rA777, 7r\a7 ; plag. 


354. 


— ; eVe/c, ipoK ; nac. 


306. 


pleu, plu ; TrAeu (7rA6F),'7rAu, — 


358. 


men,mon, mn, — madh; fiey, 




ttAco, ttAo ; plu. 




fiov, jxv {fxa, yiav), — fievO, 


307. 


— ; TTuev {in/eF), irvv ; — . 




jj-ad; m6n, mOn, man. 


308. 


p6 ; TTCO, TTO, TTL \ p6, bl. 


360. 


— ; pefx, vofx ; n6m, ntlm. 


310. 


pu ; TTOi ; pu, pti. 


361. 


— ; veo", voar ; — . 


312. 


— ; TrAe ; pie. 


364. 


— ; j'e; ne. 


313. 


— ; Trpoo, TTop ; par. 


366. 


nig; yiy, vi^; — . 


314. 


pa; — ; — . 


367. 


snigh ; vnp ; nig, niv (for nigv). 



PRINCIPLES OF THE NEW SCHOOL. 



199 



369. 


nu ; vv; nu. 




421. 


sreu, srou, srtl ; peu (peP), pov 


370. 


sna, snu ; vev (vef), vv , 


na, 




(poF), pv, f)v ; ru, rou, ro. 




na, nil. 




422. 


sver, ser ; o-Fe^), a^p ; s6r, sre. 


372. 


— ; vco \ no. 




423. 


— ; (rvp\ sur. 


374. 


gan, gna, gno; ypcc. 


yvo\ 


425. 


ran ; — ; ru, rau. 




gno. 




426. 


al ; aA ; al, Ol, Hi. 


377. 


— ; dfiy d/x ; Sim. 




428. 


— ; y\evK, yXvK ; — . 


379. 


— ; — ; mov, in5v. 




429. 


— ; F€\, Fa\ ; vOl. 


380. 


mu ; liiv-v ; mu. 




433. 


las ; Aao-, \a ; las. 


381. 


— ; Fe/*, ifi ; v5in. 




437. 


lau, lav ; AaF ; lav, lu, la. 


383. 


mad; /AttS; mad. 




438. 


lap ; AaTT ; lab. 


384. 


makh; fxax; mac. . 




440. 


leg, log; A67,Ao7; leg, l6g. 


385. 


ma, me ; )ue ; me. 




441. 


— ; Aet; lev. 


386. 


ma, mi ; /^e ; ma, me = 
men. 


mai, 


443. 


leib, loib, lib; Aeii3, \oiP, \ifi ; 
rl, li, ll, lib. 


387. 


mag, meg ; fiey ; mag. 




447. 


— ; Ai<^ ; lib, lib, Itib. 


388. 


smi; /LL€i] mi. 




448. 


lu ; Au ; lu. 


389. 


— ; fieW, /AetA ; — . 




449. 


— ; \ov, Au, Ao ; lav, 111, lllv. 


391. 


— ; fiepy flap ; mOr. 




451. 


— ; fie\ ; mal. 


392. 


mer, mor, mar ; ^ep, 


/xop, 


453. 


ul; uA; til. 




jxap ; m6r. 




455. 


sal ; aa\ ; sal. 


393. 


mer, mor, mar ; jx^p, fxop 


flap, 


457. 


sphal ; cr(l>a\ ; fal. 



jULpOy Bpo ; m6r, mar-c. 

394. — ; fied; m6d, mid. 

395. — ; — ; men. 

396. ma ; fia, firj ; ma. 

397. mik ; fiiy ; misc. 

398. — ; fiiu, fie ; man, min, men. 

400. mu ; fiv ; mu. 

401. mus ; fiver; mus. 

402. — ; fivk] mOl. 

403. mus ; fiva- ; mus. 

408. ar ; dp, dp ; ar. 

409. ark; — ; — . 

410. ar ; dp ; ar. 

411. ar, ra, er ; ip ; ra, re. 

412. ver ; Fep, ip ; v6r. 

413. ver; — ; — . 

414. or ; Fop, op ; 6r. 

415. — ; Fop, op ; v6r. 
417. raug ; — ; — . 



459. es, s ; eV, o- ; 6s, S. 

460. ves ; Feo", 60- ; ves. 

462. — ; (TaOy (TO) ; sa, sa. 

463. — ; a-a, o-rj ; sa, se, s6, sI. 
466. siu, siv ; o-v ; su 

471. — ; ae-l; — . 

475. av ; ctF ; av, au. 

476. av, va ; F77, Fe, dF, Fa ; — . 
482. — ; t; vi, vl. 

490. Pron. stems: ja; 6(fem.d,^); i. 

491. us ; — ; us, tls. 

492. aus ; avo- ; aus. 

493. ei, i ; et, t, — rj, e i^l-nfii) ; i, I. 

494. is ; Iff ; — . 

496. vek, vok, vk ; Vetr ; voc, v6c, 

vec. 

497. sek, sk ; (Tctt, (Ttt ; s6qu, s6c, 

sOc. 

498. ik; fV; ic. 



200 



APPLICATION OF THE 



500. 


reik, roik, rik ; AetTr, AoiTr, AtTr ; 


512. 


gi, gvi-v, vi-g ; /3i ; vi, vi-v, 




liqu, llqu, lie. 




vi-g. 


501. 


mark ; yuapTr, /taTr ; mulc. 


513. 


— ; )8o; b6. 


502 


— ; ««, OJT, OTT ; Oc. 


514. 


— ; fipw, fiop; v5r, gur, gul, 


503. 


sap ; CttTT, cracf} ; sap, s2.p. 




glu, gla. 


505. 


— ; TreTT ; cOqu, c6c. 


515. 


gOU ; ^0 ; bo. 


506. 


— ; TTftj, TTO, KO ; quo. 


518. 


— ; rei, rt ; — . 


507. 


— ; o-eTT, (TIT ; — . 


519. 


ki ; Ti ; qui. 


508. 


terk, tork, trk; rpeTr, rpoir, 


520. 


— ; dep; for, fur. 




rpair ; torqu, tore. 


521. 


— ; Fa7; — . 


509. 


gem, gom, gm;/3d,)877,i8a; bi, 


522. 


vreg, bhreg ; Fprjy, Fpcoy, Fpay ; 




bl,bi-t, bu,ven,v6n. 




frag. 


510. 


— ; )36A, ;3oA, $\ (;3a\), 


523. 


sar, sal ; aA ; sal. 




iSAT/;— . 


525. 


— ; 0ov\, fio\ ; vol. 






526. 


— ; FeA; — . 



SUPPLEMENTARY LIST OF GREEK ROOTS. 

The following list comprises some roots not included in tlie 
foregoing sets. These roots, with words to which they apply, 
are stated in accordance with the principles of the new school. 



529. 

530. 

531. 
532. 
533. 
534. 
535. 

536. 
537. 



538. 
539. 



fiddos. 
/3Aco (for fiXco), /JLoX, /iAo, )3Ao. 

^\do(TKiOf €/xoAoi/. 
fipcfi, ^pofx. fipe/xcOf $p6jj.os. 
)8co, )3o. fiScKco. 
ypd. ypdo), ypcvyrj. 
(^€)yep, {^)yP' iyeipcOf rjypSjuirjv. 
iKcvd, i\ov6j i\vO. iXevaofjLaif 

iKr]KovOa^ ^\dov (JjXvdou). 
Fax. *ciX'"' 
FcUf FoiKj FiK. €%K<a (= Fet/cw), 

ioiKOL (= F6-F0i/C-a), eiKTOV 

(= Fe-FLK-TOv). 

FeA. IfAA&j, i^AfjLCPOS. 
Fep. (kirovpas. 



540. 


Cv- Cv-r^w. 


541. 


(coo; Co<T. (dovvvfii. 


542. 


Tjar. ^fxat. 


543. 


6dy, d-fiyta. 


544. 


6aF. Oavfia. 


545. 


ed\. edWco. 


546. 


6j/df OvT), Bdv. OvdcTKooy eOapov. 


547. 


6pca, 6op. 6p(a(TK(ay iQopov. 


548. 


KdZy KTjB, icdd. Krjdca, KeKa^r]- 




<Toixai. 


549. 


icdcpf KdlT. /CCtTTTO?. 


550. 


KKdy. KiKX-qya. 


551. 


/cAaF, K\dv. K\alco, KKavffoo. 


552. 


Aa;3, \d(py AdjS. Xafx^dvco, eAa- 




^ov. 


553. 


\d6, \a6. \av0dvo3y ^\a.Bov. 



PUINCIPLES OF THE NEW SCHOOL. 



201 



554. 


^€7Xj '^oyx, ^ax- Kajx^v^i 


568. 


(TKXrj. airoffKKrivai. 




XeXoyxa, e\dxou. 


569. 


(TTeifiy (TTOifif (TrX^. (TTeifiWf 


555. 


fiaK. fieixaKvia. 




aroi^i], arX^ds. 


556. 


vdF. vaio). 


570. 


arepy, crropy. (Tr4py<a, ea- 


557. 


^dv. ^alvca. 




ropya. 


558. 


TreA, 7r\. ircKofiaiy enXero, 


671. 


(Trp^(f), (rTpo(f), (TTpdcp, (rrp€<pw, 


559. 


irrep. trroLpw^ai. 




€(rTpO(f)a, (Trpd(l)^(TO]j.ai, 


560. 


TreyUTT, TTO/iTT. TTeyUTTO), ircTro/j.cpa, 


572. 


T6A., raX. TeAAo;, 6T6ToA.to. 




TTO/uLirr]. 


573. 


Td0, Ttt^. Ta<piLV. 


561. 


irevdy TTOvO, (ttvO) trad, 7rci(rxw, 


574. 


rpca. riTpca(TK(a. 




Trelcro/xai, ireirovda, eirddou. 


575. 


(pay, <pd,y, icpdyov. 


562. 


irepd, TTopdy Trpad. irepOu), 


576. 


^€t5, ^15. (peiBofiai, Tre^tSe- 




iropdeo), eirpaOou. 




<rdai. 


563. 


TTTO/c. irri]a(T(a. 


677. 


<p6d, <j)6d. (j)9auca, €<pddKa. 


664. 


ffdrr. (T^TTO}. 


678. 


00€t, <pdt. (pdico, (pdivco, e^Otro. 


565. 


adp. aalpca, (T^ffapvta. 


579. 


(pdepf (pOop, (pop, (pOap. (pdclpco. 


566. 


crev, (TV. (Tevcoy iaffvro. 




ecpdapfjLai, (pOopd. 


567. 


(TKdK. (TKOLWQ), 


580. 


XVy X^' Kixm^, Kix^irjv. 



GEEEK INDEX. 



o>«Koo — 



[The figures refer to the numbers of the sets.] 



&. 


351 


y«5 


209 


aie6s 


249 


a\€a; 


429 


iL- 


487 


addfjLa(TTOS 


213 


aJdoxp 


249 


^axe 


250 


h.. 


487 


a^djiiaTOS 


213 


aWpa 


249 


aXdaivca 


250 


h. (st.) 


490 


&dlJ.7]S 


213 


alOpf) 


249 


aX6r]€is 


250 


aay'i]s 


521 


&B/j.7}ros 


213 


aWco 


249 


aXd-fio-Koo 


250 


V«7 


104 


ddpacrros 


227 


aWcou 


249 


aXievs 


524 


V«7 


105 


aBrjs 


236 


atpo) 


422 


aXi^ci) 


524 


'Aya/xe/xvcov 


358 


'An-ns 


236 


atadco 


476 


aXLTjpTjS 


411 


&yav 


104 


a^QXiov 


248 


airas 


475 


aXios 


524 


^y-h 


521 


6.eeKov 


248 


k'Ccc 


475 


^aXK 


3 


ayfivcap 


104 


h.d 


474 


aldov 


474 


aXK'f) 


3 


ayiCo} 


105 


aeipco 


422 


aidopa 


422 


aXXd 


427 


ay iu€(o 


104 


6,eWa 


476 


■s/aK 


2 


aXXdorcroo 


427 


ayios 


105 


deVaos 


370 


&Kaiva 


2 


aXX'fjXovs 


427 


V«7« 


1 


y}'p 


422 


'uKai/os 


2 


aXXo7os 


427 


&yKos 


1 


aeppoi} 


422 


aK€([>a\os 


52 


aXXo/xai 


523 


&yKv\os 


1 


v«p 


475 


OLKO^ 


60 


6.XX0S 


427 


6.yKvpa 


1 


ydF 


476 


aKOLTTJS 


487 


aXXSrpios 


427 


ayKcov 


1 


oi^ojxai 


105 


6.K01TIS 


487 


dXXoos 


427 


ayX^vK-iis 


428 


CL7]fXl 


476 


OLKoXovQeoo 


47 


dXfxa. 


523 


ayvSs 


105 


a-np 


476 


aK6\ovdos 


47 


aXfjLrj 


524 


&yvvfjLi 


521 


a7]Tr]S 


476 


aKovf) 


60 


aXfjLvpSs 


524 


aySs 


104 


Vd0 


251 


aKovco 


60 


aXodco 


429 


ayos 


105 


KQiivf) 


251 


&KplS 


2 


&XOXOS 


151 


6.ypa 


104 


adXevco 


248 


6.KpOS 


2 


dXs 


524 


aypcixa 


104 


ad\€(o 


248 


&KTQ}p 


104 


6,X(T05 


426 


ay p€ CO 


104 


adK't]T'}]p 


248 


&KOOJ/ 


2 


aXriK6s 


523 


&ypios 


106 


aSK-qThs 


248 


v«^ 


523 


"AXtis 


426 


aypi6(a 


106 


aQKov 


248 


^a\ 


426 


VdA</) 


331 


ay pos 


106 


ad\os 


248 


a\aXK€7i/ 


3 


aXcpdvco 


331 


ayvid 


104 


a0p6os 


487 


aXelara 


429 


aX(p€(ri^oioi 


' 331 


V^TX 144,149 


a'idios 


474 


aXe^-nT-fjp 


469 


aX(p'i] 


331 


^7X* 


144 


aUu 


474 


aXf^co 


469 


^Xipfifxa 


331 


a7X<^»"? 


144 


aUs 


474 


oAes 


524 


aX(p6s 


332 


ayxov 


144 


^aie 


249 


aXerrjs 


429 


aXwt] 


429 


&yX<»> 


144 


aW'f)p 


249 


aKerSs 


429 


aXo)S 


429 


&fya> 


104 


Aleioxl/ 


249 


aXerpi^avos 429 


yafi 


377 


ityc&v 


104 


aWos 


249 


6.X€VpOU 


429 


ajxa 


377 



204 



GREEK INDEX. 



ajxaXT) 


378 


aj/opovM 


414 


aperdoD 


408 


aar-fip 


167 


^.fiaWa 


378 


dvra 


166 


apcT'f} 


408 


■y/aa-Tp 


167 


6,/j,a^a 


470 


avrdco 


166 


ap9fx6s 


408 


6.(Trpov 


167 


ajj,a^a 


470 


6.VT7)V 


166 


6.pQpov 


408 


acrcpaX^s 


457 


a/jLoioi) 


378 


h.vri 


166 


api- 


408 


^acoTOS 


462 


a/j.fipoaia 


393 


auTido) 


166 


apldfXT]TLK^ 


408 


ardXavTOS 


195 


aix^poarios 


393 


avTLKpv 


166 


apiBin'nriKSs 


408 


aT€P'f]S 


188 


^jLL^pOTOS 


393 


avrios 


166 


apiQfx6s 


408 


CLTflSs 


477 


ajULei/Scu 


379 


^.VTOfxai 


166 


apicrroKparia 67 


arpefjias 


203 


afieijSofjLai 


379 


&uvdpos 


247 


6,pi(Trov 


492 


arpocpia 


199 


&fX€\^lS 


131 


&VQ) 


352 


&pi(Tros 


408 


avd^h 


476 


afjLcXyco 


131 


aVCOVVjLLOS 


374 


^apK 


3 


av^dvco 


471 


ajii€py(a 


132 


&^LOS 


104 


apK€Q) 


3 


avlrj 


471 


afx€v(a 


379 


a^i6(o 


104 


&pKLOS 


3 


av\T)ixa. 


471 


&ILL7JT0S 


378 


&^(av 


470 


&pKTOS 


4 


aV^7](TLS 


471 


afxyirds 


378 


&op 


422 


&pfJL€VOS 


408 


aij^cou 


471 


a/jLoifBr] 


379 


aoparos 


415 


apfjiSs 


408 


V«^l 


471 


afjLo\ya7os 


131 


aopT^p 


422 


yap^ 


410 


aijpioj/ 


492 


cLfioXyevs 


131 


a7ra| 


488 


apor^p 


410 


aijpa 


476 


afxopySs 


132 


airas 


487 


&porpou 


410 


■y/ava 


492 


dfjLvpa 


380 


^iracTTOS 


291 


6.pOTOS 


410 


avrcoD 


476 


ajxyvofiai 


380 


aireipeaios 


297 


dpovpa 


410 


OLVT't) 


476 


a/ULVUTCOp 


380 


oLTreipos 


297 


ap6(o 


410 


aVT/jL-f] 


477 


a/JLVVT^P 


380 


&ir€ipos 


296 


y/aptr 


275 


avr/j.'fjy 


477 


CLfJLVPOf 


380 


CLTrepeicrios 


297 


yapir 


276 


avTOKpar'fjs 


67 


ajx(p'i]p'ris 


411 


airKSos 


488 


apiray-f] 


275 


av(o 


476 


a/jicpi 


333 


0.1^6 


274 


apTrdyj] 


275 


aijM 


491 


afKpi^e^LOS 


220 


airodpai/ai 


227 


apirdCo} 


275 


avcos 


492 


ajj.(piKriov€S 


72 


airoOrjKr] 


256 


apira^ 


275 


a(pap6s 


341 


a/jLCplXvKT] 


80 


aiTOiva 


310 


apTraXcos 


275 


acpdpcoTOS 


341 


ajLKpis 


333 


ouroXavo) 


437 


apTTTJ 


275 


a(popijA) 


416 


aiJ.(()6T€pOS 


334 


airoa-KKyjpai 


568 


apiTT] 


276 


y«x 144 


,149 


&ix(p(a 


334 


air6frTo\os 


176 


"Apirviai 


275 


ax^vca 


144 


■Jhv 


350 


CLTTOVpaS 


539 


aprdvT) 


422 


axeoj 


144 


tv 


351 


V«/> 


408 


aprdo) 


422 


^X^ojxaL 


144 


hvi 


352 


^ap 


408 


6.pTl 


408 


&xQos 


144 


ava- 


351 


&pa 


408 


iLpri^w 


408 


&XWIXL 


144 


avdfiaffis 


509 


apaplcTKco 


408 


&pTlOS 


408 


^Xo/^at 


144 


txvaXros 


426 


apdxv-n 


409 


aprvs 


408 


^XO^ 


144 


avdpidfios 


408 


apdxv-ns 


409 


aprvco 


408 


^ 


274 


oLvapxiO' 


143 


apdxvi-ov 


409 


Vw 


143 


^OJ 


476 


audduco 


209 


\/«P7 


107 


0-PX'h 


143 


6.(iopos 


424 


aydp€i(p6uT7)S 343 


apyivv6s 


107 


apx^s 


143 






&V€fJLOS 


350 


apyits 


107 


&PXC} 


143 






av€\pi6s 


284 


&pyiX\os 


107 


apxoiv 


143 


B. 




^avd 


251 


CLpyLUoeis 


107 


aordfjLa 


476 


ViQa 


509 


avdeoo 


251 


^pyiXos 


107 


&(rfjLevos 


209 


^aoi^ca 


509 


avdepSccp 


251 


apySs 


107 


acnralpco 


323 


/3ddos 


509 


avO^pi^ 


251 


^pyvpos 


107 


&cnraXa^ 


95 


y/^aS 


529 


av67]p6s 


251 


ctpeicou 


408 


^arepoeis 


167 


fidSos 


529 


&y9os 


251 


ap€(TKQ} 


408 


aaT€jj,(l>7}s 


177 


^dQpov 


509 



GREEK INDEX. 



205 



^aBvs 


529 


V^oK 


525 


ydvos 


108 


7Au7rT7?y 


119 


fiaivQ) 


509 


^o\06s 


329 


ydvvfiai 


108 


y/y^v<f) 


119 


y/^a.\ 


510 


PSXerat 


525 


yaar-^p 


110 


y\v(pavos 


119 


^dXKw 


510 


^oKri 


510 


y/yav 


108 


y\v(pca 


119 


fidp^apos 


327 


^oKis 


510 


yavpos 


108 


y/yv 


112 


fiap&apiCd) 


327 


^6\os 


510 


^yav 


108 


ypadfiSs 


353 


^ap€(o 


511 


y/^op 


514 


yea 


116 


yvdQos 


353 


Pdpos 


511 


fiopd 


514 


yeivofiai 


112 


yv-fjO-ios 


112 


fiapvs 


511 


^op6s 


514 


ycircau 


116 


y/yyo 


374 


^apvTTjs 


511 


^6(TK<0 


532 


Vyjf^ 


111 


^yvo 


120 


^apvTOVos 


511 


^ovko\ik6s 


515 


ye^ii^w 


111 


yvvl 


121 


fia(n\€ifs 


436 


Povk6\os 48, 515 


y4fi(a 


111 


■yjyva 


374 


^dffis 


509 


■y/ySouA 


525 


y/yev 


112 


y/yv(a 


120 


fidaKc 


509 


^ovXeifO) 


525 


yeued 


112 


yvujixt] 


120 


fiarSs 


509 


fiovK'f) 


525 


yeyeiov 


353 


yv(aplC<^ 


120 


fie^aios 


509 


^ovXrjiuLa 


525 


y€U€(TlS 


112 


yvcacTis 


120 


^4^7jK0S 


509 


^ovK7](ns 


525 


yeuereipa 


112 


yvwGT^s 


120 


V)8€\ 


510 


^ovKofxai 


525 


y€V€T7}p 


112 


yv<ar6s 


120 


fie\6v7j 


510 


l3ovs 


515 


yev€rr\s 


112 


Vt^m 


111 


^eXcfiyop 


510 


V^P«X 


330 


yeuos 


112 


y^fxos 


111 


y/^^ve 


529 


^pdx^a 


330 


yews 


353 


yo/xSco 


111 


^^vBos 


529 


^pax^vo) 


330 


yepavos 


113 


yjyov 


112 


^4\os 


510 


^paxvs 


330 


yepcou 


114 


y6vv 


121 


fir)X6s 


509 


^paxvTT]s 


330 


^yev 


115 


yovvd^ojxai 


121 


^7}fxa 


509 


^pe/ULCo 


531 


yevfia 


115 


youv6o/j.ai 


121 


y/^i 


512 


531 


yevo/jLut 


115 


ypdfifxa 


122 


mdCco 


509 


I3p4xa 


145 


yevcTLS 


115 


ypa/xfi-f} 


122 


fii^ds 


509 


145 


yevco 


115 


ypavs 


114 


fii^pdoaKta 


514 


^/^po 


393 


yv 


116 


V7pa 


533 


fiios 


512 


y/^po 


514 


yr]6<^<a 


108 


y/ypa(l> 


122 


filOT-fl 


512 


y/$pOfl 


531 


yrjdos 


108 


ypacp-h 


122 


filoTOS 


512 


(3p6fJLOS 


531 


yrjOoavuTj 


108 


ypa<piK6s 


122 


fii6(o 


512 


fiporSs 


393 


yrjOocrvvos 


108 


ypa(j)is 


122 


v^^ 


510 


V^pox 


145 


yvpas 


114 


ypd(p(a 


122 


V^X97 


510 


fipox€r6s 


145 


yvpv (st.) 


117 


ypdca 


533 


fiXTJfxa 


510 


y/^pO 


514 


yrjpvs 


117 


yvvf} 


112 


^\i]fX€vos 


510 


fipcofia 


514 


yr)pv(a 


117 


ypdivr] 


533 


^XtjtSs 


510 


^pOJThp 


514 


yiyvofxai 


112 






fi\7)xdofiai 


328 


y/^co 


532 


yiyvwcTKia 


120 






fiXvxds 


328 


^(a^6s 


509 


y/yXa(p 


118 


A. 




^x-nx'fi 


328 






y\d<pv 


118 


VSa 


210 


y^iSAo 


530 


r. 




y\a<pvp6s 


118 


y/^OL 


211 


V^A<y 


530 




y\d<pu> 


118 


dadv(r(r€(rdai 12 


fiXdocTKca 


530 


V^a 


108 


y/y\€VK 


428 


■y/SaF 


212 


y/^0 


515 


Vra 


112 


yXevKOs 


428 


dat((o 


211 


yJ^O 


513 


ya? 


108 


ykia 


446 


balvvfjLai 


211 


■y/fio 


532 


yala 


116 


yAoid 


446 


dalvv/jLL 


211 


fiodio 


513 


yaiu) 


108 


y\oi6s 


446 


balpu 


221 


M 


513 


ydka 


109 


■^y\vK 


428 


SaU 


212 


fi07}d6oS 


258 


yaKadrjpSs 


254 


yKvKvs 


428 


dais 


211 


^fioK 


510 


yaKaKT (st.) 109 


y\VKVT7}S 


428 


dalrrj 


211 



206 



GREEK INDEX. 



SaiTp6s 


211 


Seiko's 


223 


bid^oXos 


510 


■y/bp 


221 


dairvfjLd^u 


211 


56?|tS 


10 


biad€(a 


218 


^bpa 


228 


BaiTvs 


211 


SeTTTUop 


214 


bidbT]/j,a 


218 


^bpa 


227 


halfo 


211 


deipds 


222 


biaXeyojj.at 


440 


^ybpaK 


9 


daiu 


212 


Scip-f] 


222 


bid\oyos 


440 


bpUKOOU 


9 


■^BaK 


5 


deipQ) 


221 


dia/jL<plSios 


333 


^bpafi 


229 


v'SaK 


210 


^/SeK 


7 


biappdo^ 


522 


bpa/jLU 


228 


BaKj/o) 


5 


b€Ka 


8 


biddaKoo 


210 


bpayos 


228 


SctACOS 


5 


dcKOjuLai 


7 


bid-niuLi 


218 


bpao-jiiSs 


227 


daKpv 


6 


deXeap 


226 


bidpdcrKCi) 


227 


bpacTToavvq 


228 


baKpvov 


6 


V^e/A 


219 


didoo/JLl 


225 


bpdia 


228 


haKpvw 


6 


Sefxas 


219 


bUfiai 


223 


^/bp^fi 


229 


SdKTVXOS 


7 


de/no) 


219 


VStF 


224 


bp7](rr^p 


228 


da\6s 


212 


deudpeov 


230 


dirjueK'fis 


354 


bp-qo-Toa-vvr] 


228 


■y/bafi 


213 


h€vBpov 


230 


V5*« 


10 


^bpK 


9 


BafjidCo 


213 


y/^^l 


220 


diKTj 


10 


■y^bpofx 


229 


BafidAris 


213 


Se|i(^s 


220" 


dlU€V(0 


223 


bpOfl€VS 


229 


Sdfiap 


213 


5e|iTepJs 


220 


diveco 


223 


bpSfiios 


229 


Zaixdta 


213 


h4os 


223 


b7vos 


223 


bpv^6s 


230 


dafivdw 


213 


VSeTT 


214 


Siveo 


223 


bpvorSfios 


230 


Sd/jLvrjiJLi 


213 


ySep 


221 


dio/xaL 


223 


bpvs 


230 


-dafios 


213 


hepyfxa 


9 


sros 


224 


bpurSfjLOS 


230 


VSaTT 


214 


bep-n 


222 


bis 


231 


bpv(paKTOS 


346 


duTrdvTj 


214 


■^BepK 
hepKOfiai 


9 


bicTKOvpa 


414 


^bvK 


12 


bairayrjpos 


214 


9 


bio-ffSs 


231 


bvo 


231 


ddiravos 


214 


depfia 


221 


blxa 


231 


bv(T- 


232 


SaTTTCtf 


214 


Bepos 


221 


bixOd 


231 


bvaeprepia 


232 


^5ap 


221 


d4pliis 


221 


bid) 


223 


buar/bLevfjs 


232 


^Bapd 


215 


Bepw 


221 


Alcci/7} 


224 


bvaircxj/ia 




dapedvo) 


215 


Seo-is 


218 


bfldoS 


213 


505 


, 232 


hafffxSs 


211 


SeaiJiSs 


218 


V^o 


225 


bv(TXep'f}S 


159 


Zdffos 


216 


decirS^CD 


314 


bodaaaro 


224 


bvad!)br}s 


234 


Batrvvco 


216 


d€(nr6(rvvos 


314 


^boi 


223 


bvQ) 


231 


daa{>s 


216 


Seo-rrSr-ns 


314 


boi^ 


231 


bvdobcKa 


231 


dareofiai 


211 


dea-'iro.iva 


314 


boioi 


231 


boo 


219 


^ddv 


212 


5€T^ 


218 


■^bOK 


11 


\^bco 


225 


hav\6s 


216 


AcvrepovSfi 


lOV 


bOKCO) 


11 


bdobcKa 


231 


Sa^iA-fjs 


214 




231 


b6\os 


226 


^bcoK 


225 


-5e 


217 


SevTcpos 


231 


■s/bo/j. 


219 


biajxa 


219 


V^e 


218 


ys^x 


7 


b6^a 


11 


b&pov 


225 


dcaro 


224 


dexofiai 


7 


b6lU.05 


219 


boos 


225 


bebdacrOai 


210 


Sew 


218 


^/bop 


221 


bwT^ip 


225 


SeSae 


210 


V^v 


218 


bopd 


221 


burivT} 


225 


bebad^s 


210 


brjyuia 


5 


^bopK 


9 


bcoTis 


225 


VS« 


223 


drjXos 


224 


bopKas 


9 


bcoTvs 


225 


56?7/ia 


10 


drjiLLOKpaTla 


67 


bopv 


230 






SelSw 


223 


V8t 


223 


bSo-is 


225 






V^Sei/c 


10 


■v/5* 


224 


boT'fjp 


225 


E. 




delKWIJLl 


10 


bid 


231 


bovpdreos 


230 


6* 


472 


b€i\6s 


223 


diafidWoj 


510 


bovpeios 


230 


i (St.) 


489 


heifiSs 


223 


diafio\iK6s 


510 


bovpriV€K€S 


354 


U 


489 



GREEK INDEX. 



207 



v« 


493 


e^Xvfia 


429 


eXKOs 


19 


yJiyoK. 


354 


^a^oy 


209 


elXvco 


429 


cXkco 


18 


iyo-ni] 


496 


idySs 


460 


€iK<a 


526 


eXX€i\j/LS 


500 


eyos 


357 


^ay6s 


460 


eTfjLa 


460 


eXos 


430 


'EyoalxSwy 


268 


iap 


478 


kiixaprai 


392 


^iXovd 


535 


eyrepoy 


355 


iaptySs 


478 


el/uLi 


493 


iXiriCo) 


277 


iyr6s 


355 


e^dofxos 


280 


eifii 


459 


iXnls 


277 


H 


472 


m-nv 


509 


€ly 


355 


eX-rrofiai 


277 


^■| 


473 


ifiSXoyro 


525 


itvaros 


356 


^Xirco 


277 


iieivs 


148 


iyeipta 


534 


€hi 


355 


iXircop^ 


277 


i^eirXdyriy 


305 




534 


cIttov 


496 


y/iXvd 


535 


e'Ms 


148 


534 


^eip 


422 


^Xvrpoy 


429 


eoiKa 


537 


e^xeAus 


149 


€ipyjj.6s 


124 


ix6co 


429 


^ioXir 


277 


^/iS 


233 


€'[pycti 


124 


yifi 


381 


^6s 


489 


V^5 


234 


e'lpyw 


124 


€jjLa7roy 


501 


V^TT 


497 


V^s 


235 


e'ipepos 


422 


efxaQoy 


358 


eirddoy 


561 


iddrjy 


210 


elpecria 


411 


f' 


385 


iiralo) 


475 


edauSs 


209 


eiprjKa 


412 


^ixeffis 


381 


€Tr err} s 


497 


edacpos 


235 


elprjurj 


412 


ifxeriKSs 


381 


ineroy 


173 


eheCfia 


233 


eipKT'fi 


124 


€,U€TOS 


381 


e-n-ecpyoy 


343 


idr^Tvs 


233 


€lp/j.6s 


422 


€1x4 (a 


381 


ini 


279 


idida^a 


210 


clpos 


413 


efx/iiopa 


392 


67ri)3a/)6« 


511 


edos 


234 


elpoj 


422 


cfjLoXoy 


530 


i-JTlKSs 


496 


edpa 


234 


e'lpoj 


412 


cfiiris 


278 


iiriovpos 


415 


ehpafxoy 


229 


els 


355 


i/jLiropiKSs 


296 


iirnroX'i] 


294 


iSco 


233 


elo-a 


234 


ijULTr6pioy 


296 


iirio-Kvyioy 


101 


idMi 


233 


el(T<t} 


355 


e/JLTTOpOS 


296 


eirXero 


558 


i€\fi€yos 


538 


etcoOa 


252 


iy 


355 


iirXrjyrjy 


305 


eFtSov 


236 


■y/^K 


16 


iyayl^ca 


105 


eirofjiai 


497 


eCofiai 


234 


Ik 


47-2 


iydKis 


356 


eiropoy 


313 


id (st.) 


252 


eKarSy 


15 


ivaKScriot 


356 


CTTOS 


496 


iddyoy 


546 


€K7jX05 


16 


ivavTios 


166 


eirpdOoy 


562 


^Oiyoy 


126 


eK7]Tl 


16 


eyaros 


356 


eirprjcrev 


315 


idiCa, 


252 


eKXoyfi 


440 


ey^ios 


224 


kirrd 


280 


edopoy 


547 


cktSs 


473 


eyBoy 


355 


€7rcu 


497 


^dos 


252 


CKvpa 


17 


-^iyeK 


354 


V^> 


411 


€(F)et7roi/ 


496 


€KVp6s 


17 


iyeyf^Koyra 


356 


v^> 


412 


€Wap 


493 


4K<l>Kaiy<a 


345 


eyepde 


355 


v^> 


422 


233 


iK(p\vy5dy€iyM5 


eyepoL 


355 


y/h 


422 


€lf5o/iat 


236 


eKc&y 


16 


iyeprepos 


355 


ipydCofjLai 


123 


eUou 


236 


i\da 


430 


eyrj 


357 


epyo) 


124 


6?5os 


236 


iXa^ov 


522 


ivfiyoxa 


354 


epSty 


123 


ethwXov 


236 


eXddoy 


553 


iyl 


355 


ipsovs 


413 


V^Ik 


22 


iXaia 


430 


eyicTTrey 


507 


epea-ia 


411 


etKoa-i 


13 


^Xatoy 


430 


iyydKis 


356 


ip€(r(r<a 


411 


^'Cktov 


537 


iXaKoy 


77 


iyyaKOcrioi 


356 


ip€Tr]s 


411 


elfccw 


14 


eXaxoy 


554 


iyyaros 


356 


ip€T/x6y 


411 


elf/co) 


537 


iXaxvs 


146 


iyyia. 


356 


epevdos 


253 


cTXop 


526 


^eXevO 


535 


iw^lKoyra. 


356 


ipevdo) 


253 


€iK4co 


526 


iXevcrofxai 


535 


'Eyyoarlyaios 268 


ipeca 


412 


ei\7j 


526 


iX-fjXovda 


535 


eyyvfii 


460 


epiripos 


408 



208 



GREEK INDEX. 



ipiueos 


4.13 


€UTpciTr€\OS 


508 


V^x 


147 


riepios 


492 


epLOu 


413 


i6-s 


459 


F^ 


476 


^dos 


2d2 


epfia 


422 


evxcp-fjs 


159 


VFfS 


236 


'HAe/cTpa 


20 


^kpiT 


281 


€VCO 


491 


Fidou 


236 


i]\€KTpOU 


20 


ipTrerSv 


281 


eijci 


491 


^FlK 


14 


r]\€Kr(op 


20 


kpTTV^a 


281 


ccpayov 


575 


y/FLK 


22 


iiKOov 


535 


epiru 


281 


€(pri\os 


432 


■^/FIK 


85 


?)\0S 


432 


i^^'fjOvP 


412 


i<pri\6oo 


432 


^FlK 


537 


^ixai 


542 


ippV7]S 


421 


i<pdaKa 


577 


FUari 


13 


mi- 


382 


^ipvO 


253 


€(pdapfJLai 


579 


-y/FAa/c 


78 


^ijJLKTVS 


382 


ipvdpos 


253 


eipdiTO 


578 


^/FotS 


236 


ijyeyKa 


354 


ipvai^t] 


253 


€(p\aBop 


345 


^FOIK 


537 


ijvcyKoy 


354 


epvai-rreKas 


294 


V^x 


147 


FoIkos 


85 


TjveK-fis 


354 


ipcoeco 


421 


V^x 


148 


FqlvOS 


483 


7lv4xB'nv 


354 


ipco-f) 


421 


V'^ , 


148 


^F0\k 


18 


?P 


478 


V^'^ 


460 


exeireu/ces 


89 


^Fop 


415 


iipi 


492 


-s/ia- 


459 


ixQ4s 


160 


^Fop 


414 


ijpiyeueia 


492 


is 


355 


extSya 


149 


■yjFpay 


522 


V^o- 


542 


4(rd'f]5 


460 


6Xts 


149 


y/FpaK 


78 


T)d0S 


492 


cadico 


233 


^ofiai 


148 


V^p^y 


123 






€ad\6s 


459 


ixvpSs 


148 


^Fp-ny 


522 


0. 




Ueco 


233 


«%« 


148 


s/'^po}y 


522 




eaircpa 


461 


eeos 


492 






V^a 


254 


earirepivSs 


461 


'E(a(r(j)6pos 


492 


z. 




Vf«7 


543 


ecnrepios 


461 








daeo/jLai 


255 


eairepos 


461 


p. 




VC^y? 


125 


^daF 


255 


€0-7r6T6 


507 






(evyfia 


125 


-^daF 


644 


eairSfiTju 


497 


^/Pa 


476 


ievyvvfii 


125 


daipSs 


264 


ecravTO 


666 


^Fay 


521 


(cvyos 


125 


y/dd\ 


645 


ia-TTiv 


175 


V^a^ 


429 


Z€i5s 


224 


edWco 


545 


io-rl 


459 


Vf«x 


536 


VCv 


540 


^Bav 


546 


iffTopya. 


570 


F6 (st.) 


489 


Qnr4<a 


540 


Oappeco 


260 


ea-Tpocpa 


571 


V^^ 


476 


y/Co<r 


541 


^dapo" 


260 


€(TCD 


355 


y/Ped 


248 


VC^7 


125 


dap(T€(a 


260 


iraK-^v 


190 


V^ei^ 


236 


Cvy6v 


125 


OoLpaos 


260 


^rajuLOV 


196 


■y/Fci/C 


537 


ivy6s 


125 


Oapavvoo 


260 


ircKov 


194 


^/F€ipy 


124 


^(avvvfii 


541 


davfxa 


255 


iT€6s 


459 


^/f'eK 


16 


y/Coxr 


541 


Qavjxa 


644 


ireroKro 


572 


^Fe\ 


429 






V^e 


256 


irrffflai 


169 


^Fe\ 


526 


H. 




e4a 


255 


ir'ficrios 


167 


^Fe\ 


538 




dedojjLaL 


255 


in 


168 


^Fe\K 


18 


^ (St.) 


490 


dearpov 


255 


erot/xos 


459 


FeAos ' 


430 


y/v 


493 


^d€F 


258 


eros 


169 


^FeA.7r 


277 


7]y€0fiai 


104 


■^/d€iy 


126 


iTVfioKoyla 


459 


V^e/^ 


381 


iiypSfxTju 


534 


6eiv(a 


257 


ervfjLOU 


459 


■x/F€ir 


496 


V^5 


233 


d4fxa 


256 


ervjULOs 


459 


■x/Fep 


412 


T^dofiai 


209 


e^fxcBKa 


256 


CTVXOU 


194 


V^^P 


539 


7}^0P'fl 


209 


OefieAia 


256 


evbia 


224 


\/^^py 


123 


^5os 


209 


e^jxis 


256 


€V€(TT(a 


459 


V^^py 


124 


^^VfJLOS 


209 


^Beu 


257 


ivKTifieyos 


72 


x/Fea- 


460 


^5vs 


209 


^Bep 


620 



GREEK INDEX. 



209 



0€pfxalv(a 


520 


0p7jyvs 


261 


hi^i- 


493 


Xrvs 


482 


QcpfxaL 


520 


0p7)v(^^ia 


262 


V;« 


21 


X(p0LlJiO5 


481 


6€p/Jl.€T€ 


520 


0p4]cra(T0(ii 


261 


■yjlK 


14 


l(f)i 


481 


dcpfxri 


520 


0p6vos 


261 


^Ik 


22 


X(pios 


481 


6€pfjL6s 


520 


0p6os 


262 


iKau6s 


22 


^ 


498 


depo/j-aL 


520 


^0pa) 


547 


iKapo) 


22 


IdodTJS 


479 


dcpos 


520 


0p(jo(rK(a 


547 


IK€T7]S 


22 


loo-i] 


476 


eicTLS 


256 


^y0v 


265 


Hkkos 


499 






Oeo-fxSs 


256 


Vea 


258 


iKfjiaiva} 


21 






^dev 


258 


0vds 


265 


iKixas 


21 


K. 




Oevcrofiai 


258 


0vydT7}p 


263 


tKjLieVOS 


22 


^Ka 


25 


dec 


258 


0v€\\a 


265 


iKpeofxai 


22 


^KdS 


548 


deoipia 


255 


0v^eis 


2ijb 


IKT'fjp 


22 


V/ca5 


548 


V&v 


254 


0vids 


265 


Xkco 


22 


Kddos 


23 


^dv 


256 


0vfia. 


265 


rAr; 


526 


y^KUF 


43 


Ofiya 


543 


0VIXOV 


265 


r\iy^ 


429 


Ka0aip(a 


24 


07) €0 fiat 


255 


0VjJ,OS 


265 


iXkds 


429 


Ka0ap6s 


24 


e-hK-n 


256 


0vfji6s 


265 


rAAcy 


538 


Kddapcris 


24 


dr)\a/jL(au 


254 


0VVOS 


265 


ifidriou 


460 


Kui 


25 


0ri\d(rrpia 


254 


0vvca 


265 


'(fieu 


493 


Kaivoj 


71 


0-nK'h 


254 


0VOS 


265 


'{fiepos 


494 


Kaiu) 


43 


07J\VS 


254 


0vo(jk6os 


60 


IvBdWofiai 


236 


^KaK 


2i^ 


0r}\(& 


254 


0{ipa 


264 


IVIOV 


481 


KdK7] 


26 


Hp 


259 


0vpd(n 


264 


iop 


479 


kukSs 


26 


e-fjpa 


259 


0vpe6s 


264 


Us 


480 


KaK6co 


2Q 


07jplov 


259 


0vperpa 


264 


16t7}S 


494 


KaKVVd) 


26 


07]pdaj 


259 


0vpis 


264 


-y/iTT 


498 


^KdK 


28 


0ri(rai 


254 


0vp(ap6s 


415 


Jttos 


498 


^Ka\ 


29 


0'i)(raTO 


254 


0v(7ia 


265 


linrevs 


499 


KaXafxevs 


27 


071(70 ai 


254 


0V(O 


265 


'{ttttlos 


499 


KoKdlXT] 


27 


^0cy 


126 






l7nr6Bo/xos 


499 


KdXafxos 


27 


0iyydt^CD 


126 






ITTTToSpOfMOS 


229 


Ka\€(0 


28 


^0vd 


546 


I. 




'Ittttos 


499 


Kdkia 


29 


^/0*^ 


546 


V* 


493 


iTnrOTrSTafJLOS 499 


Kokids 


29 


0V7](TK(a 


546 


V* 


482 


iinrSra 


499 


KoKios 


29 


0iy7}/xa 


126 


ldx<o 


536 


XTTTOfxaL 


498 


KaWioov 


30 


^00 


258 


V'S 


236 


^1<T 


494 


KdkXov^ 


30 


OodCco 


258 


V*5 


237 


Is 


481 


KaKXos 


30 


0o6s 


258 


tdios 


489 


'i<Tr7]IXL 


175 


KaWvvoi 


30 


^0op 


547 


idio) 


237 


l(TTOp€a> 


236 


Ka\6s 


30 


06pvl3os 


262 


Ibiw/jLa 


489 


ta-Topla 


236 


KdXirn 


40 


y/0pa 


261 


idldOTTIS 


489 


l(rr6s 


75 


KaXvfi (st.) 


29 


0pavos 


261 


idou 


236 


X(TT<ap 


236 


Ka\v07j 


29 


yJ0pa(r 


260 


Uos 


237 


%(Tr(ap 


236 


KaXinrroo 


29 


0paavs 


260 


Xdpis 


236 


Iffxavdo) 


148 


Kafidpa 


31 


■^0pa<f) 


199 


ldp6(o 


237 


larxdvo) 


148 


^Kav 


32 


VfP« 


262 


ISpVQ) 


234 


^o-x«y 


148 


Kaud(co 


32 


0p€Ofiat 


262 


idpd>s 


237 


iTa\6s 


170 


Kavd(T<T<i) 


32 


■^0p€(f) 


199 


Uvai 


493 


IrafjiSs 


493 


Kavax'fl 


32 


V^PV 


262 


Updpxvs 


143 


iTca 


482 


■y/KaTT 


33 


0p7ivOS 


262 


rc« 


234 


Xr7]S 


493 


y/KOLTC 


35 



210 



GEEEK INDEX. 



y/Katr 


549 


KcXavecp-ffs 


46 


y/K\eV 


58 


KOTTldw 


64 


Kdireros 


98 


Ke\aw6s 


46 


/cAeoj 


58 


kSttls 


64 


/caTTTjAeuft? 


34 


Ke\€vdos 


47 


KKTi'lS 


56 


KOiris 


64 


KairrjKeia 


34 


K€\€V(i) 


48 


K\rjais 


28 


kSttos 


64 


Kdir7)\os 


34 


KeXrjs 


48 


KX-nTcvco 


28 


KOTTTO) 


64 


KUTTpSs 


35 


K€\X(a 


48 


K\7}rr]p 


28 


^KOp 


51 


Kairpos 


36 


KeKofxai 


48 


K\'i]T(ap 


28 


K6pa^ 


65 


Kairroi) 


549 


^K€V 


71 


■y/K\l 


57 


K6pTJ 


51 


KaTTVCO 


35 


^K€p 


51 


K\ifia 


57 


KOpflOS 


51 


■y/tcap 


51 


KepdiCc'f 


51 


/cATyual 


57 


KSpOS 


51 


Kapa. 


37 


K€pa6s 


49 


K\iv7) 


57 


KOpvCpT) 


37 


Kapavos 


37 


Kepas 


49 


K\iv<i) 


57 


KOpcvUTj 


65 


KapavSd) 


37 


K€pa(r6s 


50 


KXiaia 


57 


K0p(OPri 


74 


KapUa 


38 


Kep/xa 


51 


kXitvs 


57 


Kopcovis 


74 


KapKlvos 


39 


^K€vd 


266 


■y/KXOTT 


55 


KOpCOvSs 


74 


^Kapir 


40 


KevOos 


266 


KXoirevs 


55 


K0(T/J,0Tr0\iT7]S 


KapnaXifios 


40 


Kevd/iidojf 


2m 


KXOTT'f) 


55 




311 


Kapiri/JLOS 


41 


K€vQ(i} 


266 


^kXtt 


55 


K6<ros 


506 


KapirSs 


41 


K€<l)d\aios 


52 


■yjKXV 


58 


Kore 


506 


KapirSci) 


41 


K€<paK'i) 


52 


^kKv 


59 


KSrepos 


506 


Kaprepos 


67 


^K7)^ 


548 


kXvScou 


59 


Kovpd 


51 


KOLpTOS 


67 


K^^Ci) 


548 


/cAiJfctf 


59 


Kovpevs 


51 


Kapva 


42 


KrJTTOS 


53 


k\vt6s 


58 


Kovpr} 


51 


Koipvoy 


42 


KVp 


38 


kXvco 


58 


KovplSios 


51 


Kdffffviia 


466 


K-flp 


51 


kX<v\1/ 


55 


KOVpOS 


51 


Kaaffvs 


466 


KTipalvo) 


51 


■\/ko 


25 


X/Kp 


51 


Ka(T(TV(a 


466 


^KL 


54 


KO (St.) 


506 


V^pa 


67 


KaTa\€y<a 


440 


KlV€(t) 


54 


nSyxv 


61 


-i/Kpad 


m 


KaTTVfxa 


466 


Kivvfiai 


54 


K6yxos 


61 


Kpahaivd) 


m 


Karrvs 


466 


KlpKOS 


74 


KO€Ci> 


60 


Kpabdu) 


66 


KarrvQ) 


466 


Kixeivv 


580 


■\/koF 


60 


Kpd'bt] 


66 


■^Kav 


43 


KLXVf^l 


580 


■y/KOF 


73 


KpahiT] 


38 


Kav\6s 


73 


KIO) 


54 


K6deu 


506 


KpdCco 


65 


Kavjxa 


43 


^K\ 


48 


^KOL 


73 


Kpaivd) 


67 


KaV(TTlK6s 


43 


■^K\ay 


550 


KoiXia 


73 


KpaiirdXr) 


40 


KavarSs 


43 


VfAdF 


551 


KolKos 


73 


KpaiTTvSs 


40 


■^Kd<p 


549 


■y/K\aloj 


551 


KOL/xdo) 


44 


^Kpav 


67 


K€dC<o 


45 


■y/K\du 


551 


KoToS 


506 


Kpdviia 


50 


Kcap 


38 


K\av(ra> 


551 


koIttj 


44 


Kpaviou 


37 


Kcappou 


45 


■^K\€l 


56 


kSkkv 


62 


Kpdvov 


50 


V«€5 


243 


y'/cAetS 


56 


k6kkvI 


62 


KpdvTWp 


67 


■y/Ket 


44 


K\€Ip6s 


58 


KOKKV^CO 


62 


-^Kpair 


40 


K€l (st.) 


44 


kXsIs 


56 


KOXoCpdu 


63 


KparaiSs 


67 


■\/K€L 


54 


K\€ir6s 


58 


KoXdoPTJ 


63 


Kpareca 


67 


Ke7fiai 


44 


Kkelco 


58 


Ko\(av6s 


63 


Kpdros 


67 


Keipco 


51 


/cAeto) 


56 


kS/jl/jlu 


64 


Kparvuco 


67 


/cetoj 


45 


/cAeos 


58 


K6j/a$os 


32 


Kparvs 


67 


KCKaB-fia-ofiai 548 


■y/KkCTT 


55 


■y/KOtr 


64 


Kpeas 


68 


K€Ka(l>7)(as 


35 


y/KXev 


29 


KoirdC<t) 


64 


KpcTou 


68 


KCKkriya 


550 


K\€TrTr]s 


55 


KOirevs 


64 


Kpeioou 


67 


V«6\ 


48 


KKiirro) 


55 


KOiri] 


64 


Kp4(av 


67 



GREEK INDEX. 



211 



Kp^Se/jLyov 


218 


K^TTlf] 


33 


KaxvoojuLai 


439 


Ki^d^iou 443 


Kp'^VT) 


37 


KUS 


506 


Xdxvos 


439 


\i^ds 443 


\Apt 


69 


KcacpSs 


64 


Aaco 


433 


\i^os 443 


Kpi/JLPOV 


69 






Aaoj 


437 


Xi^pSs 443 


Kpivco 


69 


A. 




Keaiva 


445 


\i\aiofiai 433 


KplSs 


49 




Xeaivo) 


441 


\ifipr} 443 


Kpia-is 


69 


V^a 


433 


V^^y 


440 


Xifi'fjp 443 


KpiT'fipioy 


69 


V^diS 


552 


V^^yx 


554 


Xi^jLirdvo) 500 


Kpirrjs 


69 


V^«i8 


552 


Key CO 


440 


xiv€os 444 


KpiriKOS 


69 


^\ay , 


127 


^\ei 


441 


Kivov 444 


Kpouos 


67 


\ayap6s 


127 


Aela 


437 


y/KlTT 500 


y/KpV 


70 


Kayyd^u) 


128 


Keiaivta 


441 


Kiirrofxai 4^41 


KpVjxSs 


70 


Xdyvos 


127 


^Kei^ 


443 


Mtttoo 447 


KpvSeis 


70 


\ayxd.V(t} 


554 


\eil3ca 


443 


Kis 445 


Kpv6ofji.aL 


•70 


^\aF 


437 


XeiPrjdpoi/ 


443 


Kis 446 


KpVOS 


70 


^\dd 


553 


Xelixixa 


500 


Kiffiros 446 


KpVffTalvOflOLL 70 


^\dd 


553 


Xeifiwu 


443 


\i(Ta6s 446 


KpvcTTdKKos 


70 


XaioL 


437 


\e7os 


441 


Ma-Tpov 446 


KpcoCio 


65 


Xai6s 


434 


\€l6r7]S 


441 


M(T(i>os 446 


KpCOTTLOU 


41 


Kais 


437 


y'AeiTT 


500 


\it6s 446 


-y/KTa 


71 


Xdirpov 


436 


Keiiro) 


500 


^\i(p 447 


■y/Krav 


71 


^KaK 


78 


\€iTOvpy€ca 


436 


^\iX 151 


■y/Kr€l 


72 


^KaK 


77 


\ciTOvpyia 


436 


\iXa.v<is 151 


KTclvU) 


71 


\aK€p6s 


77 


\€irovpy6s 


436 


Xixfido) 151 


^KT€V 


71 


KaK€p6s 


78 


A6tx<w 


151 


XiXf^dCio 151 


-yjKri, 


72 


XUKLS 


78 


\ei\pauoy 


500 


Xixvos 151 


ktICo 


72 


KUKKOS 


78 


\€Kt6s 


440 


A/^. 447 


Kriaris 


72 


XUKOS 


78 


KeKTpOV 


150 


AtV 443 


kt6vos 


71 


\aKTrdT7}T0i 


' 435 


KeXaKo. 


77 


V^o 449 


y/KV 


73 


XaKTi((o 


435 


KeXirifxaL 


433 


^Koy 440 


Kvap 


73 


Kaix^dv(a 


522 


XeXoyxo. 


554 


\oyds 440 


KV€(0 


73 


V^Aa/XTT 


282 


Ki^is 


440 


Xoyyd^ca 128 


K^ifia 


73 


Ka/Jiirds 


282 


\€vya\€os 


129 


Koyi^Ofxai 440 


^Kvd 


266 


\afnrp6s 


282 


\€vk6s 


80 


K6yos 440 


kvkXos 


74 


KdfjLirca 


282 


\€Vp6s 


441 


^KoyX 554 


KVKVOS 


32 


XavQdvtt) 


553 


Xevcraro} 


79 


^\oi^ 443 


KvXivhu) 


74 


\d^ 


435 


V^^x 


150 


KoL^i) 443 


Kv\i<a 


74 


\a6s 


436 


Kexos 


150 


Xoiyios 129 


KV\\6s 


74 


■yjKaiv 


438 


\4xptos 


442 


\oiy6s 129 


Kvfia 


73 


XdlTTCD 


438 


\expis 


442 


-y/AOiTT 500 


Kt5oS 


73 


■y/\a<T 


433 


Xiwv 


445 


\onr6s 500 


^KVp 


74 


XOLffKOO 


77 


Xri'i^OfiaL 


437 


\o^6s 442 


KvprSs 


74 


Karpevco 


437 


XTitf] 


437 


^\ov 449 


KVTOS 


73 


hdrpis 


437 


Krf'Cs 


437 


Kovriip 449 


KVTOS 


101 


VAd(/) 


552 


Krji'Tis 


437 


Kovrpiov 449 


Kvav 


75 


^\d(p 


552 


Xil'Crov 


436 


XovrpSv 449 


KCC/JLT) 


44 


\a<pv(T(r<a 


438 


\7)jia. 


433 


Xoico 449 


kSoixos 


44 


V^«x 


146 


Krivos 


439 


Aoxeta 150 


KCOJLLCpdoS 


44 


V^«x 


554 


Xrjais 


433 


Aox6i5w 150 


KcafxwUa 


44 


Kdxv-n 


439 


Xiav 


433 


aJxa*'? 150 


KWVOS 


76 


Xax^'7?ets 


439 


y/\i^ 


443 


k6xos 150 



212 



GREEK INDEX. 



VAu 


448 


fidvTis 


358 


fxeicou 


398 


firji'is 


358 


VAu 


449 


y/fiair 


501 


■y/^eX 


451 


fi-nvo- (st.) 


395 


Kva 


448 


^fiap 


393 


juLeXayxoXia 162 


/J.TJVVCD 


358 


^Kvy 


129 


■yJfJ^ap 


391 


fxiXaivio 


451 


/J.'fjS 


395 


\vy (st.) 
XvyKT/iiSs 


130 


^/fiap 


392 


fieXas 


451 


fi-fjcrTcop 


238 


130 


jxapaivoa 


393 


^fieXy 


131 


flT}T'np 


396 


\vyos 


130 


fidpav(Tis 


393 


-i/fieX^ 


239 


jbLrjTpSiroXis 


311 


\vy6(a 


130 


fiapa(rfx6s 


393 


fieXSoual 


239 


V^^y 


397 


Xvyp6s 


129 


V/UapTT 


501 


fjLcXda) 


239 


fxiya 


397 


\6ti 


448 


jXapTTTLS 


501 


fieXL 


390 


[XLyds 


397 


X^Bpov 


449 


ixdpirrco 


501 


/neXio-a-a 


390 


fjLiyda 


397 


^\VK 


80 


fxdprvp 


391 


lx^Xi<pp<av 


390 


fxiy^-nv 


397 


XvKOS 


81 


[xaprvpiov 


391 


^fJLCXX 


389 


fxlyvvfjLi 


397 


Xvfia 


449 


fiapTvpofiai 


391 


/j.€/xaKv7a 


555 


jui/LLeofiai 


386 


Xvfiaipofiai 


449 


fidprvs 


391 


fi4fjivr)fxai 


358 


/uLljULrjais 


386 


Xv/iir] 


449 


{xdr-np 


396 


ixifxova 


358 


fiifjiV'r]aKco 


358 


-y/Auir 


283 


\/m«x 


384 


^fMeu 


358 


fli/ULOS 


386 


Xvirew 


283 


fiaxaipa 


384 


■s/li^vQ 


358 


^fllV 


398 


Xinrq 


283 


f^ax-n 


384 


flCJ/OS 


358 


/JLlUvdci) 


398 


Xwr)p6s 


283 


f^dxLfios 


384 


MeWr/s 


358 


[xivvvOd^ios 


398 


XxnrpSs 


283 


fidxofxai 


384 


MeuToop 


358 


fxt^is 


397 


Xvais 


448 


Vi"^ 


398 


juL€y(a 


358 


fxiayw 


397 


XvT-fip 


448 


Vm^ 


386 


Vf^^P 


391 


/jli(t66s 


267 


Xvrpov 


448 


fl€ (st.) 


385 


Vm^p 


392 


^fxXo 


530 


Xvxvos 


80 


^6 


385 


Vm^p 


393 


■sji^v 


358 


At5a> 


448 


^H-^y 


387 


^fiepy 


132 


iJ-v-hf^-n 


358 


Xcofidofiai 


450 


/uLeyalpcD 


387 


fxepi^iva 


391 


juvrj/uLoavurj 


358 


Xw^evoi 


450 


fxeyaXvi/cD 


387 


fiepiCo) 


392 


jjLvdofiai 


358 


XcHi^T) 


450 


fieyas 


387 


fi^pts 


392 


fivnariip 


358 


Xco^TfT-flp 


450 


fxeyedos 


387 


fifpfxalpo) 


391 


jLLvrja-T-fjs 


358 


Xuicov 


437 


V/ieS 


238 


H-epfiepa 


391 


fJiV7](TT€V(a 


358 






fxedifivos 


238 


fiepfiepos 
fiep^Vpa 


391 


fio7pa 


392 






fX€bofiai 


238 


391 


^fioX 


530 


M. 




/iicSovT^s 


238 


fiepfi-nplCca 


391 


^fioXy 


131 






jj,4Sci} 


238 


fM€pOS 


392 


jul6XiI3os 


452 


^fxa 


358 


^fi^e 


394 


^ie(Tnyv{s) 


394 


/jLoXi/iovs 


452 


V/ia 


396 


^fl€L 


388 


fl€(T(T7)yv{s) 


394 


fxoXv^^aiva 


452 


V^/xa5 


383 


fxcibdoj 


388 


fiecos 


394 


jiiSXv^Bos 


452 


IJ.aSap6s 


383 


IJ.€idr]jULa 


388 


fi€a(ros 


394 


fJLOXv^OVS 


452 


fiaddd) 


383 


fieiBidoi) 


388 


fj-erd 


171 


fjiSXv&os 


452 


y/fjLa9 


358 


fieTdos 


388 


lxeTa^€ 


171 


floXvVd) 


451 


fxaOrj/jLariKS 


f358 


jxei^wv 


387 


jx^ra^v 


171 


■y/fXOV 


358 


fiaTa 


396 


■y/fJL^lX 


389 


fierpiKSs 


386 


fiovdpxv^ 


143 


fialpojuLai 


358 


ficiXia 


389 


fxerpios 


386 


jxSvapxos 


143 


■^fiaK 


82 


fxeiXiacro) 


389 


fxerpou 


386 


^ILop 


392 


^fiaK 


555 


fieiXixia 


389 


fx-^^ofxai 


238 


■yjixop 


393 


/LidKap 


82 


fieXixLOS 


389 


fxrjdos 


238 


jLiSpa 


392 


fxaKpSs 


82 


/uLclXixos 


389 


fxrJKos 


82 


^ixopy 


132 


V^av 


358 


fXClScD 


398 


fXTJP 


395 


fiopfxvpu} 


399 


fiavOduw 


358 


fielpofxat 


392 


ix't]v'n 


395 


fx6pos 


392 


fiavia 


358 


fiels 


395 


/JLTjUialoS 


395 


/j.6paifj.os 


392 



GREEK INDEX. 



213 



/jLopros 


393 


vavrla 


359 


PK]- 


365 


& 




^fxpo 


393 


vavTLKSs 


359 


p-fjdco 


364 




-y/flV 


400 


y/ve 


364 


prjfxa 


364 


^alpco 


557 


fxvdca 


400 


Neatpa 


362 


pilpiBixos 


408 


V|a^ 


557 


juLvy/biSs 


400 


veavicLS 


362 


p-fjplTOS 


408 






/jLvdos 


400 


veap6s 


362 


PTJcris 


364 


0. 




flVCO) 


400 


vearos 


362 


PTJTpOP 


364 




jiv^du) 


400 • 


V€^p6s 


362 


y/vi^ 


366 


6 (St.) 


490 


fxvCoj 


400 


P€f6s 


362 


y/piy 


366 


6- 


487 


flVLd 


401 


veiaipa 


362 


piCco 


366 


oySoos 


86 


•jLvh'^a 


400 


J/€l6s 


362 


piaaofxai 


361 


oyKos 


1 


fJLVKT-fjp 


400 


j/ef^et 


367 


piiTTpou 


366 


oyfios 


104 


■y/fxvK 


402 


y've/c 


83 


pilTTCO 


366 


V«5 


240 


IxvKai 


402 


ueKp6s 


83 


^vi<t> 


367 


b^evoo 


235 


/j.vXt] 


402 


v4kvs 


83 


pi(pa 


367 


ddirrjs 


235 


IxvXlTai 


402 


y/v^ii. 


360 


pMs 


367 


hhti-h 


240 


/ULvX6BoyT€S 


402 


N€fjL4a 


360 


pi(f)€L 


367 


6Us 


235 


JLLVXOS 


402 


P€fX€<TdQ) 


360 


PI({)Ct6s 


367 


oUs 


235 


fxvK(t)Bp6s 


402 


pefxeai^Ofxai 


360 


pliperos 


367 


odoTus 


241 


y/ii.VV 


380 


ve/iieais 


360 


poeo) 


120 


oScoSa 


240 


fjivydSs 


400 


Ne/iieo-is 


360 


^POIM 


360 


uCoj 


240 


jxvvri 


380 


vc/jLearardo) 


360 


POfXCVS 


360 


y/oB 


268 


/xvpfivpco 


399 


V6/i6TWp 


360 


POfM-f] 


360 


ol 


489 


y/ixva- 


401 


P€fl7l(nS 


360 


pofiiCd) 


360 


oUa 


236 


•y/flVO" 


403 


ve/uLOS 


360 


pS/uLLafjLa 


360 


0lK€r7}S 


85 


jULVS 


403 


VCflCO 


360 


p6/JL0S 


360 


oIk€CO 


85 


flXXTlS 


400 


veo/iiai 


361 


po/jlSs 


360 


oIkIu 


85 


flUCTT'fipiOV 


400 


j/e6s 


362 


POOS 


120 


o1k6p5€ 


217 


JbLVCTTlS 


400 


v4os 


362 


^poo- 


361 


oIkos 


85 


(ivar-ns 


400 


V€0(Tcria 


362 


P0aT€(O 


361 


oXjlT} 


493 


fjiVTrfs 


400 


v€0<T(r6s 


362 


pSaros 


361 


oljULOS 


493 


fivrrSs 


400 


veoTTia 


362 


PTU 


368 


oipdpBt] 


483 


fivxOiCco 


400 


V€0Xll6s 


362 


y/vv 


369 


oXpapov 


483 


fJ>vx6s 


400 


^veir 


284 


■yjvv 


370 


oipds 


483 


fjLV(a 


400 


veirodes 


284 


PVKT (st.) 


84 


oipT) 


373 


fivooxp 


400 


y/v^(T 


361 


pvKTepipSs 


84 


otpT} 


483 


jxoipaivca 


404 


pevfia 


369 


PVKTCpis 


84 


olpos 


483 


/jicopia 


404 


vevpd 


363 


PVKT€pOS 


84 


olp6<p\v^ 


345 


fxcopSofiat 


404 


vevpou 


363 


PVKTCap 


84 


olos 


373 


fi(ap6s 


404 


pevais 


369 


PVP 


368 


oTs 


484 






pevcris 


370 


PVP 


368 


ois 


484 






V€V(rTd(<i> 


369 


pvpI 


368 


oItos 


493 


N. 




uevcTT^p 


370 


yii 


84 


olcapSs 


485 




V€V(a 


369 


pv6s 


371 


OKplS 


2 


■yjva. 


370 


^ve<p 


335 


Pvo-rdCof 


369 


OKT<i) 


86 


■s/va.^ 


556 


V€<p€K'q 


335 


pvcrraX6s 


369 


oK^ios 


454 


vaia 


556 


P€(f)OS 


335 


pco (st.) 


372 


oX^os 


454 


v6.(a 


370 


yeipoofiaL 


335 


PCOl 


372 


SXK'f] 


18 


vavs 


359 


P€(a 


364 


PQ}/xd(0 


360 


u\k6s 


18 


vauffia 


359 


p^coari 


362 


pdopvfjLPOS 


374 


oXjULOS 


429 


voOttis 


359 


PiOOTCt, 


169 


P(OPVfjLOS 


374 


dXalrpoxos 


429 



214 



GREEK INDEX. 



oXoirpoxos 


429 


opyavov 


123 


ovs 


495 


irarpid 


289 


oKoXxjyi] 


453 


opyds 


133 


(x^QaXfila 


502 


irarpidpx'ns 


289 


oKoXv^oo 


453 


opydca 


133 


(xpQaXfxos 


502 


iraTpidoTTis 


289 


o\oKvyfx6s 


453 


opyfj 


133 


0x^0 fxai 


147 


^irav 


292 


'6Kos 


527 


upyia 


123 


ox^r6s 


147 


irav (st.) 


292 


Vof^ 


377 


opyuia 


134 


oxwa 


147 


iravXa 


292 


djULaX-fjs 


377 


opyvid 


134 


6% A €00 


147 


iravofiai 


292 


6/xa\iC(*} 


377 


^opey 


134 


uxXos 


147 


Travpos 


292 


o/iiakSs 


377 


^peyixa 


134 


oxos 


147 


iravacoX-fi 


292 


o/ijSpew 


405 


opeyuvfii 


134 


6xvp6s 


148 


iravQ) 


292 


OfX^pLOS 


405 


opeyo) 


134 


6xp 


496 


TratpXdQa) 


345 


ojiil3pos 


405 


ope^is 


134 


orpis 


502 


irdxvn 


285 


ofxiXeca 


526 


opex^^oo 


134 


oxpofiai 


502 


V^reS 


242 


d/iJLLXSs 


526 


opLyvdofiai 


134 






7r€577 


242 


OjuL/iia 


502 


bpivoj 


414 


n. 




ire^iXov 


242 


6/j.oyev'ffs 


377 


dpfia66s 


422 




TTcBioy 


242 


ojjLoCvyos 


125 


dpfidoo 


416 


7rd 


288 


TT^BOJ/ 


242 


diJ,6d€y 


377 


bpix'f] 


416 


V'ra 


289 


nrKa 


242 


bfxoiios 


377 


dpfiTiT-fipiov 


416 


V^ro 


291 


-,^.^68 


242 


S/jLOioirdOeia 


377 


dp/j.id 


422 


^Tray 


2^b 


^TTCld 


271 


<i/ilOlOS 


377 


opixos 


422 


irayerSs 


285 


Tveidofiai 


271 


bfxoios 


377 


opvufxi 


414 


irdyn 


285 


TTiidca 


271 


ofiopy/uLa 


132 


opoQvvo) 


414 


irdyos 


285 


TTSlddo 


271 


ofjLSpyyvfjLi 


132 


opofxai 


415 


y'TTttF 


286 


Tre'iKco 


87 


SfiSs 


377 


opovco 


414 


-^TraO 


561 


irelva 


295 


6jx6(r€ 


377 


opvfiay^Ss 


425 


iraiBaycDySs 


322 


Tre7pa 


296 


6/jlov 


377 


6p(f>au€V(a 


336 


iranrdXr] 


323 


Tre^pap 


297 


ovofxa 


374 


dp<pavi^(o 


336 


ira7s 


322 


irelpas 


297 


ovofxd^u) 


374 


6p(pai/l(TT'f)S 


336 


iralo) 


2m 


ir€Lpd<a 


296 


ovo^aivu) 


374 


6p<pav6s 


336 


^ira\ 


323 


ir€L(ra 


271 


6 VO jJ.aT OTTO lia 37 4: 


opxaM-os 


143 


TraXdfxri 


287 


'ire7afxa 


270 


dvo/xaTonoirjais 


OS 


490 


iraXdaata 


328 


Trela-o/jLai 


561 




374 


'6s 


489 


irdXrj 


323 


ireKOs 


87 


6vv^ 


375 


OO-fl'f] 


240 


TrdXXco 


323 


ire/ccy 


87 


o^^s 


2 


6(rT€lV0S 


172 


TraXij,6s 


323 


7r€KT6Cy 


87 


"■sJOTT 


502 


oareou 


172 


irdXos 


323 


Y^TreA. 


304 


oireas 


502 


OCTTIPOS 


172 


iraXvvci} 


323 


■y/treX 


323 


OlT'h 


502 


o5 


489 


irdp 


288 


y/ireX 


558 


OTTiirevca 


502 


ovdas 


235 


^irap 


296 


ircXiSs 


293 


oirnrrevcD 


502 


ovdos 


235 


irapd 


288 


TreXiBi/Ss 


293 


^v\ov 


497 


ovdap 


269 


irapal 


288 


ireXXa 


294 


ottSs 


503 


qvXai 


429 


Trapaficl^Ci} 


379 


Tr€XX6s 


293 


OTTT'fjp 


502 


ovXaix6s 


526 


Trao-TrdXr) 


323 


Tr^XojULai 


558 


otttikSs 


502 


ovXe 


454 


irdaffaXos 


285 


TTcXSs 


293 


oTTooTra 


502 


ovXos 


527 


irdo-xoo 


561 


Tre/dfia 


505 


Vop 


414 


ovpdvios 


418 


^irar 


291 


^irefXTT 


560 


yop 


415 


Ovpaviwves 


418 


irardpTi 


174 


irejULTrrSs 


504 


^pafia 


415 


ovpavSs 


418 


TraTeofiai 


291 


TrejunoD 


560 


opavSs 


418 


ovpov 


414 


Trarecw 


290 


^/ireyS 


561 


dpaco 


415 


ovpos 


415 


Trarrjp 


289 


^y-ircu 


295 


V^py 


133 


ovpos 


476 


Tcdros 


290 


irevearai 


295 



GREEK INDEX. 



215 



irevns 


295 


irevdo/JLtti 


272 


v^^ 


304 


TTpevfia 


307 


^ireud 


270 


^irevK 


89 


VttA 


323 


irvev/jLariKSs 307 


'ir€vdepd 


270 


Tr€VKeBaj/6s 


89 


y-TTA 


558 


irvevjxovia 


307 


ireifdepSs 


270 


TrCVKT] 


88 


y'TTAa 


304 


TTVeVflOOV 


307 


Treyla 


295 


irevKLVOs 


88 


^7rAo7 


305 


TTV€(a 


307 


irej/ixp^s 


295 


Tr€VK(*>U 


88 


irXdCco 


305 


yf-nvQ 


561 


Tr4voixai 


295 


Treva-is 


272 


irXaK (st.) 


91 


TTVO'fl 


307 


TreVre 


50i 


Tre^tSecr^ai 


576 


ivXaKivos 


91 


y/liVV 


307 


TvevTr]K6vropos 


irexpLS 


505 


irXaKovs 


91 


-no (st.) 


506 




411 


^w-ny 


285 


n\d^ 


91 


y/irO 


308 


y'TTCTr 


505 


Trrjyfia 


285 


V'^^€ 


304 


■y/TTOB 


242 


Treirvv/jLevos 


307 


Tr'i]yvv}iL 


285 


V^rAe 


306 


'rrod7]veK'f}S 


354 


ireTryv/uLai 


307 


Tt-nySs 


285 


V^A6 


312 


TrSdei/ 


506 


Treiroida 


271 


irr)\iuos 


300 


irKeyfia 


92 


ir6eL 


506 


ireirovda 


561 


Trr)\6s 


300 


V'ttAcF 


306 


■y/irOL 


310 


Tr€'jrofi(f>a 


560 


ir^vT] 


301 


TrAetos 


304 


TTOieO) 


322 


ireirrSs 


505 


iTTiuiCofiai 


301 


TrXeicov 


312 


^TTOld 


271 


ir€Troi}U 


505 


ir7]uiov 


301 


■^ttXck 


92 


TroiKiXos 


90 


TreVpajTat 


313 


'iTit)VLris 


301 


TrAe/co) 


92 


TrOlfJL-fjU 


309 


TreTTTO) 


505 


TTTivOS 


301 


TrAeos 


304 


irolos 


506 


V^rep 


296 


v^* 


302 


■y/ir\€V 


306 


y/iroK 


87 


^irep 


315 


V^i 


308 


irK€v^<av 


307 


ttSkos 


87 


-irep 


299 


TTiaivca 


302 


Tr\€(0 


306 


TTOlvi] 


310 


Trepa 


297 


TTiaXeos 


302 


irXecas 


304 


ironrvvco 


307 


irepaivoj 


297 


iriap 


302 


■y/irXii] 


304 


-y/iroX 


304 


Trepalos 


297 


iriapSs 


302 


irXrryfj 


305 


y/troX 


323 


ircpav 


297 


iriepos 


302 


irXrjdos 


304 


iroXiSs 


293 


TTCpas 


297 


^TTld 


271 


irXrjBvs 


304 


irSXis 


311 


TTCpaTT) 


297 


y/iriK 


89 


TrX-fiOco 


304 


TTOXLTcla 


311 


ireparos 


297 


■yJiriK 


90 


^irX-ny 


305 


TToXirTjs 


311 


Trepdo) 


296 


TriKp6s 


89 


irk-fju 


312 


ttoXitikSs 


311 


Trepdo) 


298 


ir7\os 


303 


irX'fjpTjs 


304 


TTOXVS 


312 


^rrepe 


562 


TTifieK-fi 


302 


TrX-fia-ao) 


305 


irS/jLa 


308 


nepdoo 


562 


TTifMirXdvaL 


304 


y^irAo 


306 


^/irOflTT 


560 


Trepi 


299 


irifiTrXrjiJ.i 


304 


-^ttXok 


92 


irOjULTT'fl 


560 


Trepibe^ios 


220 


TTifiirpduat 


315 


irXoKUfios 


92 


^irou 


295 


ircpiKrioves 


72 


Trijnrp7]fxi 


315 


TrXoK-f) 


92 


TTOJ/eCD 


295 


irepi^ 


299 


irlvov 


308 


Tr\6os 


306 


irovripSs 


295 


TreptoSos 


235 


TTLVVri] 


307 


ttXovtos 


304 


^irovd 


561 


irepKTa-Ss 


299 


TTiyvrSs 


307 


y'TTAv 


306 


ttSuos 


295 


Trepuri/j.1 


298 


ttIuco 


308 


TrX^fjLa 


306 


irSpdjuos 


296 


\/Tr€T 


173 


Triiriaicca 


308 


ttXvvSs 


306 


irS-rraPoy 


505 


Tvera (st.) 


174 


irnrpdaKco 


298 


irXvuT-fip 


306 


y/itop 


313 


TTeraAo*/ 


174 


irlitroj 


173 


irXvvu) 


306 


y/irop 


296 


veTaKos 


174 


iriora 


308 


ttXvtSs 


306 


iropevw 


296 


verdvvvfii. 


174 


irTaros 


308 


-y/7rAa> 


306 


y/iropd 


562 


Treraafia 


174 


TriaTis 


271 


irXcDT'fjp 


306 


TTopdeco 


562 


'jreraa-os 


174 


rri(TTpoL 


308 


ttXcotSs 


306 


iropi^cu 


296 


ireTOjuaL 


173 


'niTV7)ixi 


174 


-^TTj/e 


307 


nSpKOS 


93 


yf-KivB 


272 


iri^av(TK(a 


339 


■y/irveF 


307 


irSpvrf 


298 


irevd-fiv 


272 


iricoi/ 


302 


■y/'jr.v^v 


307 


Tr6pos 


296 



216 



GREEK INDEX. 



irSppco 


316 


TTpaJTOS 


316 


P4C<. 


123 


■y/traA. 


455 


iropa-vvo) 


313 


V^TT 


173 


peldpov 


421 


aaKos 


455 


TTOpffO} 


316 


^TTTd 


173 


l>4os 


421 


(Ta\evco 


455 


TTOS 


317 


^irrdK 


563 


yp€v 


421 


y/(Tao 


462 


TrScris 


308 


irrdpvvjxai 


559 


pevfia 


421 


(Taos 


462 


irScTLS 


314 


y/TTT^p 


559 


pevffis 


421 


(Ta6(i) 


462 


irocros 


506 


irrepov 


173 


pcvarSs 


421 


y/aaTT 


503 


irSa-TOs 


506 


TTT-fja-a-ca 


563 


pevaro) 


421 


y/adir 


564 


y/irOT 


173 


-^TTTV 


318 


peco 


421 


y/adp 


565 


TTOTaO^dL 


173 


tttvolKov 


318 


Prjyfia 


522 


^/(Ta(l> 


503 


irSre 


506 


ITTVCl) 


318 


Prtyfilv 


522 


aa<p'i]s 


503 


'jr6repos 


506 


trrSodiS 


173 


pvy^-ls 


522 


(rdco 


462 


TTOT^plOV 


308 


yjirv 


319 


p-fiyvvfiL 


522 


adca 


463 


ttSttis 


308 


■^/i^vy 


320 


prj/xa 


412 


y/(T€\ 


528 


TTOTl 


317 


iru7^axos 


320 


prjais 


412 


(TeXas 


528 


itSt/jlos 


173 


-KvyiiM 


320 


p-qropiKT] 


412 


(T€\i]V7] 


528 


irSrvia 


314 


yf-nvQ 


272 


p7}TOplK6s 


412 


y/(T^l.p 


422 


ttotSv 


308 


■yJirvQ 


273 


prjrSs 


412 


y/(reip 


528 


ttotSs 


308 


TvQihdov 


319 


p-firpa 


412 


(T€lpd 


422 


ttStos 


308 


irvOfirjif 


273 


fffjTCOp 


412 


(Teipidci) 


528 


irov 


506 


TTvdo/xai 


319 


piy4<a 


419 


(Telpios 


528 


TTOVS 


242 


irvdco 


319 


piyiov 


419 


y/o-eir 


497 


V'^p 


315 


■^irvK 


89 


Plyos 


419 


■\/(T€ir 


507 


■y/TTpa 


315 


irVKTt)S 


320 


piy6(o 


419 


V0-€f) 


422 


^irpad 


562 


TvvKacopSs 


415 


PiC<^ 


420 


Vo-e/) ^ 


528 


Trpaffis 


298 


'trv\(ap6s 


415 


plPOKCpMS 


49 


(T€(Tapv7a 


565 


irpar-fip 


298 


■^TTVV^ 


273 


VpoF 


421 


y/(T€V 


566 


irparias 


298 


irMal 


273 


H 


421 


(T€V(a 


566 


trpri^dv 


315 


irvvddvofiai 


272 


pSfifjLa 


337 


V^^x 


148 


-rrpriiuLaivoo 


315 


»■)! 


320 


poirrSs 


337 


-^(TFaS 


209 


irprjo'T'fjp 


315 


TTVOV 


319 


^/pov 


421 


aF€0 (st.) 


252 


^-npi 


316 


irvp 


321 


pO(p6.v<a 


337 


y/(TF€p 


422 


irpiajxai 


298 


nupd 


321 


po<p4(a 


337 


^(TFrjd 


252 


rrpiv 


316 


irvperSs 


321 


pSiprjfia 


337 


■y/o-FiS 


237 


■s/7rpo 


316 


trvpf)6s 


321 


y/pv 


421 


y/o-V 


463 


irpo 


316 


Trvp(r6s 


321 


y/P^ 


421 


aijdco 


463 


irp6fJL0S 


316 


TTura^a; 


318 


PM 


421 


O-^TTW 


564 


irpSixaxos 


384 


irva-fia 


272 


pvdjxSs 


421 


(TTjarTpov 


463 


TrpoTrjKaKl^ 


«300 


TTvcrris 


272 


p{)ia] 


421 


arrJT€S 


169 


irp6s 


317 


^TTVT 


318 


pvcris 


421 


aidkov 


456 


Trpoaeri 


168 


x/iroD 


308 


pvrSs 


421 


arlaXos 


456 


irpSa-de 


317 


•y^TTCO 


506 


pv^eo) 


337 


y/(rKa 


45 


irpSaa-co 


316 


naXiou 


322 


pa>ya\€OS 


522 


y/OTKaS 


96 


irpScrci) 


316 


TTWAOS 


322 


pca/xr} 


421 


<TKai.6r7\s 


94 


irpSrepos 


316 


TTWfXa 


308 


"PdoflK) 


421 


(TKaiSs 


94 


irpori 


317 


irias 


506 


pdoPVVfJLl 


421 


y/CTKdK 


567 


vpSx^v 


121 






^(oofiaL 


421 


aKd\o\p 


95 


trpvravLS 


316 


p. 








(TKdWca 


567 


■v/Trpcw 


313 


pi. 


408 


s. 




(TKaKir (st.) 


95 


V^p« 


316 


paKos 


78 


v^ 


459 


crKav^dXr)9pov 96 


vpoSt 


316 


p€€dpOV 


421 


y/<Ta 


463 


(TKav^aXi^ct) 


96 


TTpwrjv 


316 


^peV 


421 


aaipu) 


565 


CTKdvdaKou 


96 



GEEEK INDEX. 



217 



^(TKair 


53 


Vo-'T 


507 


(TTepetw 


179 


(TTpayyevw 


465 


^(TKair 


97 


airalpco 


323 


(TTcpia-Ka 


179 


(TTpayyaXla 


465 


■yJcTKa-K 


98 


^(TiraK 


323 


(TTepicpri 


180 


(TTpdy^ . 


465 


ffKa-Kavn 


98 


airdha^ 


95 


arepKpos 


180 


urpar6s 


185 


(TKaTreros 


98 


^(T-nap 


323 


(TT^pOfXai 


179 


^(TTpa<p 


571 


(TKairos 


97 


(nrapd(X(TCii) 


323 


(TT€pp6s 


180 


arpacpT] (TOfiai 571 


O-KaiTTW 


98 


crircipo) 


323 


■y/(TTeV 


186 


■y/aTpe(l> 


571 


■^(TKe 


45 


^(Tirep 


323 


y/'(rr€(p 


181 


(Trp4<l)(t3 


571 


■y/cTKeB 


243 


^airop 


323 


<T'ir^<pdv7] 


181 


^(Trpo(p 


571 


aKeSduvvjjLi 


243 


-^(Tirp 


323 


(Trecpauos 


181 


^arpco 


185 


arKc^acTis 


243 


\/(Tpv 


421 


(rr4<pos 


181 


arpcofjLa 


185 


■yJaKCTT 


99 


y/ara 


175 


cre^cy 


181 


(TTpW/jLvf] 


185 


(TK€TrTlK6s 


99 


■y/ffraK 


176 


Vo-TT? 


175 


(Trpuvvv^L 


185 


aKewTOjiiai 


99 


(TrdKil 


176 


(TT-hK-q 


176 


^(TTV 


186 


(TKCVoi^Q} 


101 


(TTafxiv 


175 


(TT'fjfKaU 


175 


(TTVXOS 


186 


(TKevt) 


101 


ardfxvos 


175 


(TT-hpiy^ 


180 


(TTvirr) 


187 


(TKevos 


101 


ardais 


175 


crT-npi^Q) 


180 


(TTtnros 


187 


aKevf} 


101 


a-raT-fjp 


175 


aria 


182 


(TTVW 


186 


(TKTJwfj 


100 


^o-Tey 


135 


^(TTl^ 


569 


:^tcoik6s 


186 


(TKrjirTpov 


97 


(rT€yap6s 


135 


(TTl&ds 


569 


(TTW/JLVKOS 


184 


(TK-^-KTCa 


97 


(TTeyrj 


135 


^o-Tiy 


183 


(TV 


192 


(TK^TTOUV 


97 


arreyvSs 


135 


<jriyfxa 


183 


V<rv 


566 


a Kid 


100 


<TT€y05 


135 


(TTiyfJL'f) 


183 


•^(TV 


466 


(TKiapSs 


100 


(TTcyca 


135 


ari^oo 


183 


avWoyfi 


440 


(TKldoj 


100 


^(TTei^ 


569 


ariKrSs 


183 


avvv€VO<pe 


335 


■y/aKib 


244 


(TTei^oj 


569 


y/f^-r^X 


152 


ffvvve^eL 


335 


UKL^vafxai 


243 


o-Tcivofiai 


178 


(TTixdofjLaL 


152 


■y/(TVp 


423 


(TKi€p6s 


100 


irT€iv6s 


178 


arixos 


152 


(T^piy^ 


423 


^aKlflTT 


97 


(TTCLVOS 


178 


^(TtK 


176 


(TvpiyfiSs 


423 


■y/aKlTT 


97 


(TTclvo} 


178 


arX^yyis 


464 


(Tvpi^w 


423 


■y/aKKf) 


568 


(TTetpa (n.) 


ISO 


(TTod 


186 


(TVS 


467 


■^(TKOTV 


99 


crT6rpa(adj.)180 


y/(rro^ 


177 


^(Tipa^ 


245 


aKSireXos 


99 


V^'^^^X 


152 


(TTO^dCco 


177 


acpabd^u) 


245 


(TKoneoi} 


99 


areixco 


152 


CTTO^CCa 


177 


(r<f)aBaafx6s 


245 


(TKOTci) 


99 


■y/(TT€\ 


176 


-y/OiTOl^ 


569 


■y/acpaX 


457 


CTKOTTld 


99 


(TT€\yis 


464 


(TTOl^'fl 


569 


<r(paX€p6s 


457 


CTKonSs 


99 


(rr4\K<a 


176 


(TTO^XOS 


159 


(r(f)dXXca 


457 


okStos 


100 


^(TTCfl^ 


177 


y/(TTO\ 


176 


(KpdXfxa 


457 


■^(TKV 


101 


(rrefifico 


177 


(Tt6Kos 


176 


(T<p€ (st.) 


489 


y/<TKV\ 


102 


arcfxfjLa 


181 


(TrSfxa 


184 


acpebavSs 


245 


(TKvKa 


101 


r,y(TT€/JL(J> 


177 


a-rSfjLaxos 


184 


(TcftcySovdcD 


245 


(TKvK\<a 


102 


arrefKpvXoy 


177 


^(TTOfJi<p 


177 


(T(pev^6v7\ 


245 


(TKVXOV 


101 


y/ar^v 


178 


^(TTOV 


178 


(Tcp-hi 


468 


(TKvros 


101 


(rT€udx<^ 


178 


(tt6vos 


178 


(r<piyyco 


136 


y/(TVV 


370 


aT€v6s 


178 


^(TTOp 


185 


(Tcpiy^is 


136 


cr6\os 


455 


(Trevci) 


178 


^aropy 


570 


cr(f)tyKr6s 


136 


(r6os 


462 


y/(TT€p 


179 


crrop^vvvfii 


185 


e<piyfji6s 


136 


(ro(f>ia 


503 


y'o-T€p7 


570 


crrSpyv/xt 


185 


(TcpSdpa 


245 


(TO(pi^(a 


503 


arepyis 


464 


V^rpayy 


465 


o(po^p6s 


245 


(T0<p6s 


503 


(TTCpyCi) 


570 


arpayydXT] 


465 


a<p6s 


489 


y/frtf 


497 


(TrepeSs 


180 


(TTpayya\i( 


w465 


V(^X 


148 



218 



GREEK INDEX. 



■v/o;xe5 


243 


T€ 


25 


TCTpdKlS 


517 


rOIUL€VS 


196 


(Txe^V 


243 


y/r. 


192 


rcrparos 


517 


TOfM-f] 


196 


crxeSta 


243 


re 


516 


TerpajbLaiyu 


203 


y/rou 


188 


a-x^Boy 


148 


Tfyyco 


193 


T€TTa 


201 


TOVOS 


188 


<rxeo"w 


148 


rey-n 


135 


y/T€VK 


194 


TO^LKOV 


194 


<rxw«' 


148 


T^y^LS 


193 


V'^^^x 


194 


to^ikSs 


194 


y/o-X^^ 


244 


reyos 


135 


T6V%CW 


194 


t6^ov 


194 


<rx^Ca 


244 


■y/T€L 


518 


rex^V 


194 


Topeva 


198 


^X^Cc> 


244 


reiya 


188 


t^xv^kSs 


194 


ropecc 


198 


(Tx^o-ixa 


244 


reipco 


198 


r'i]yavov 


190 


ropvos 


198 


(TXoH 


148 


^T€K 


194 


r7}K€5(OP 


190 


rSpos 


198 


-^(TW 


462 


reK/nap 


194 


r^Kca 


190 


Top6s 


198 


ad Co 


462 


TCKfxrjpioy 


194 


rrjres 


169 


Topvvq 


198 


(TWKOS 


462 


rcKvop 


194 


y/n 


518 


y/rpair 


199 


(tS)os 


462 


TCKOS 


194 


TidrjfjLi 


256 


y/rpaTT 


508 


acos 


462 


T€KrUiV 


194 


Ti6'f)ur} 


254 


rpairciofiev 


199 


a'coT'fip 


462 


y/reK 


195 


tIktco 


194 


rpaTreco 


508 


(TdoCi) 


462 


Vt€A. 


512 


Ttfidcopos 


415 


rpdiro} 


508 






reKajxdiU 


195 


Tifidca 


518 


Tpacrid 


200 


T. 




T6AA.W 


512 


rifxi) 


518 


\/Tpa.<p 


199 




y/re^ 


196 


rifi-njuLa 


518 


TpeTs 


204 


■\/Ta 


188 


T€fJLaXOS 


196 


rifl7)T'{]S 


518 


V'^pefi 


203 


■yj-rajy 


189 


rifxevos 


196 


TljbLMpSs 


415 


rpcfico 


203 


rdyrivoj/ 


190 


Tefiyo) 


196 


rli/o) 


518 


y/rpeir 


508 


raivla 


188 


y/T€V 


188 


TtS 


519 


rpCTTCW 


508 


-^TaK 


190 


revoov 


188 


TIS 


519 


y/rpear 


202 


raK€p6s 


190 


Te6s 


192 


rlo-is 


518 


Tpe(T(Ta 


202 


■^Ta\ 


195 


■y/r^p 


197 


Tiraivo) 


188 


y/rp€(p 


199 


y/raX 


572 


Vj^P 


198 


rire-t] 


254 


Tpe<p(a 


199 


TaKaSs 


195 


r€p€Tpotf 


198 


titOSs 


254 


Vyp^x 


153 


rdXavrov 


195 


T€p€(t) 


198 


TLTpaiv(a 


198 


rpexo 


153 


rdXapos 


195 


Tep7]^(av 


198 


rirpdci) 


198 


rpeco 


202 


rdXas 


195 


T€pr)V 


198 


TlTpda-KQ) 


574 


Tprjpcou 


202 


^/rafi 


196 


repBpov 


197 


tIco 


518 


■y/rpi 


204 


rajj.la 


196 


repjua 


197 


y/TK 


194 


TpL'f]p7]S 


411 


rafxlas 


196 


Tcp/jLiSeis 


197 


y/T\a 


195 


Tpia 


204 


■^rav 


188 


repfxios 


197 


-y/rX-n 


195 


rpiPoo 


198 


rava6s 


188 


rcpfxuu 


197 


T\'}]fi<av 


195 


rpiirovs 


242 


Tavv- 


188 


y/T€pir 


199 


rKrfvai 


195 


rpiros 


204 


rduvfiai 


188 


repirv6s 


199 


V'^/* 


196 


Tpis 


204 


ravvofxai 


188 


TepTTCO 


199 


y/Tfxdy 


196 


Tpl(T(r6s 


204 


ravvoi 


188 


T^pircaX'fj 


199 


TjLL'fjya) 


196 


y/rpofx 


203 


^rapir 


199 


y/T€p(r 


200 


Tjmrjfia 


196 


rpo/j,cp6s 


203 


-y/rapcr 


200 


repaaivco 


200 


V-rP 


188 


rpo/UL€CO 


203 


rapaSs 


200 


repo-OfxaL 


200 


■y/rOK 


194 


TpS/ULOS 


203 


rapffid 


200 


T€p}plS 


199 


TOK€VS 


194 


y/TpOtf 


508 


rdcris 


188 


T€(r(Tap€S 


517 


TOKOS 


194 


Tp6iraiov 


508- 


ravpos 


191 


reraydou 


189 


y/TO\ 


195 


rpoTraTos 


508 


^Td(l> 


573 


reravos 


188 


r6\fxa 


195 


rpoTretov 


508 


^ra<t> 


573 


T€TapTOS 


517 


TO\fjLd<l) 


195 


rpoTT-f) 


508 


rapeTy 


573 


rerpalyoD 


198 


y/TOfl 


196 


rpoTT-fjiov 


508 



GREEK INDEX. 



219 



TpoiriK6s 


508 


vSapSs 


247 


(payclv 


340 


^(pdap 


579 


rpSiris 


508 


v^epos 


247 


(f>aiuca 


339 


■^(pdeL 


578 


rpSiros 


508 


vSpa 


246 


^d\K7]S 


103 


(pdeipco 


579 


y/rpo<p 


199 


vdpalpci} 


247 


.y/(pau 


339 


^(pOep 


579 


Tpo<l)'fi 


199 


vdpeixo 


247 


jcpavepSs 


339 


^<pdi 


578 


rpSxis 


153 


vBpia 


247 


<pav^ 


339 


<peiv<a 


578 


rp6xo5 


153 


fidpos 


246 


<pav6s 


339 


(pdica 


578 


Tpox6s 


163 


iiSpcoxp 


247 


(pavrd^co 


339 


^(pdop 


579 


rpv/xa 


198 


aSojp 


247 


(pavraaia 


339 


(pdopd 


579 


Tpi5x« 


198 


^{;\ 


453 


(pdvrao-fxa 


339 


^<pep 


579 


rpvo) 


198 


V\v 


458 


(pavraariK 


t^s339 


y/(ptB 


576 


-^yrpco 


574 


v\'f}€lS 


458 


(pdos 


339 


(pifxSs 


136 


y/rv 


205 


ij\T]fjLa 


458 


■s/(pap 


341 


(pirvfjia 


348 


Tvyx'^V(»> 


194 


^/VTT 


324 


(pdpay^ 


341 


(pnvofjLai 


348 


Vri/S 


206 


Viral 


326 


(paperpa 


344 


(piriw 


348 


T{)da5 


206 


xrrrclp 


325 


(pampas 


341 


^<p\a 


345 


Tv^evs 


206 


vTTevcpde 


355 


(papoQj 


341 


^(p\ad 


345 


■yjTVK 


194 


tiT^p 


325 


(pdpaos 


341 


(p\a(Tjx6s 


345 


rvKos 


194 


virepa 


325 


(pdpvy^ 


341 


^(p\€ 


345 


rvKos 


205 


vircpdeu 


325 


(pdais 


339 


■y/cpXcy 


140 


Tv\6ca 


205 


virepou 


325 


<pd(TK(a 


339 


(pXeyedo) 


140 


rvfxfxa 


207 


virepos 


325 


(pdafia 


339 


<p\€yiJ,a 


140 


rvfiiravoy 


207 


VTTTjpeTTJS 


411 


(pdris 


339 


(pXeyvpSs 


140 


Tvv^dpeos 


206 


VTTUOS 


324 


(paros 


343 


(pXeyco 


140 


Tvvbdprjs 


206 


VTTvSoi 


324 


■^(pav 


339 


(pXedcov 


345 


■y/TVTT 


207 


vttpcotikSs 


324 


^/cpefi 


342 


<p\€CO 


345 


rvirds 


207 


vir6 


326 


(pe^ofiaL 


342 


^\r]va<pos 


345 


TW-fl 


207 


vir6(l>av(ns 


329 


(peyyos 


339 


V^?^'' 


345 


T{nros 


207 


l/TTTiOy 


326 


^y(p€l^ 


576 


^\ias 


345 


TtJTTTW 


207 


h 


467 


(peibojiiai 


576 


V^AiS 


345 


rvpfia 


208 


^b<\> 


338 


y/<P€V 


343 


(p\i^dci> 


345 


rvp^dCco 


208 


v<paiv(a 


338 


VfP^P 


344 


<p\oiBi(i) 


345 


rvp^affia 


208 


v<pda> 


338 


<p4p€TpOV 


344 


(p\oi6s 


345 


rvpfifj 


208 


{f^p-f) 


338 


(pep/xa 


344 


<p\o7(TPos 


345 


y/rvx 


194 


tjipos 


338 


(pepvf] 


344 


(p\oico 


345 


-rvx-n 


194 






(pepco 


344 


(p\6^ 


140 






^. 




Vf^vy 


142 


<p\o6s 


345 


Y. 






<p€vy(o 


142 


^(p\u 


345 




V0a 


339 


(pev^ijixos 


142 


<p\va^ 


345 


y/h 


138 


y/<pa 


343 


(pev^LS 


142 


<pXvap€<a 


345 


iryidCto 


138 


^<pay 


575 


^<Pv ^ 


339 


<p\6apos 


345 


vytahd) 


138 


^(pdy 


575 


(prjyiveos 


139 


^(p\vy 


345 


vyieia 


138 


<pd€ 


339 


(p'fiyiuos 


139 


■^(pKvd 


345 


vyi€iv6s 


138 


(fyaedd) 


339 


iprjySs 


139 


(pXvddco 


345 


vyir]p6s 


138 


^aeOwv 


339 


(p-nydov 


139 


(p\v(co 


345 


vyi-fjs 


138 


(paeivSs 


339 


(p-flflTJ 


339 


(pKvKTaiva 


345 


vypalvco 


137 


(paeipca 


339 


(p-nfxi 


339 


(pXvKTLS 


345 


vyp6s 


137 


V0aF 


339 


(p'hp 


259 


(pKvos 


345 


vyp6rr]S 


137 


<^aFe 


339 


^<pdd 


577 


<p\va> 


345 


y/vB 


247 


V<^o7 


340 


^<pda 


577 


y/<t>v 


343 


vdap^s 


247 


(fyayds 


340 


<pddu(o 


577 


^(pofi 


342 



220 



GEEEK INDEX. 



<po^eofiai 


342 


(fyvXij 


348 


X^^pw" 


159 


Xpio 164 


ipo^epSs 


342 


(pvWov 


349 


Vxfj'S 


155 


^Xpofi 163 


342 


<pv\ov 


348 


Vx«p 


159 


XpSfiaSos 163 


(pojBos 


342 


(pvfjLa 


348 


X€pvs 


159 


XP^^/^V 163 


<poivLOS 


343 


<p{)^ifxos 


142 


VX^F 


165 


Xp<if^os 163 


■y/<pOV 


343 


(pv^is 


142 


XetF)a, 


165 


VX" 165 


tpovcis 


343 


<pvo/j.ai 


348 


xe*«^ 


154 


Xv\65 165 


(f>Oirf) 


343 


<pv(nK65 


348 


X«/ua 


161 


Xvfia 165 


(pSvios 


343 


(f)6(ns 


348 


X^ifidCca 


161 


Xv/JL^s 165 


<p6vos 


343 


<pvT€va> 


348 


X^if^aiyco 


161 


X^o'ts 165 


^<pop 


344 


<Pvt6s 


348 


X€lfl€plVOS 


161 




(f>opd 


344 


<pv<a 


348 


X^^^l^^v 


161 


^. 


ipop€(o 


344 


(pwvi) 


339 


Xepyi&a 


366 


rpVTTOi) 318 


(popSs 


344 


<p(ip 


344 


Vx^» 


165 




ipSpos 


344 


(jiCOS 


339 


X^vfia 


165 


a. 


<popix6s 


344 






Vxv 


580 


V<y5 233 
V«5 240 


<p6pros 


344 


X. 




X'hiJ'V 


154 


■y/<PP 


344 




XQcLfJL7]\6s 


157 


cod^co 268 


<ppdytia 


346 


Vxa 


154 


xQ^s 


160 


V^Ac 502 


(f>payfx6s 


346 


VxaS 


155 


XOeffivSs 


160 


coKvircriis 173 


■y/(ppaK 


346 


Xaii'o 


154 


X^tfii/Js 


160 


UlKVS 2 


<ppd(T(T(0 


346 


X«^P« 


158 


xeiCSs 


160 


cofiOTrXdri) 407 


cppdr-np 


347 


Xd\a(a 


156 


Vx^ 


161 


S,fj.os 407 


(ppdrpa 


347 


XaXaCdco 


156 


Xi/JL€T\OU 


161 


difi6s 406 


(ppdrpr) 


347 


Xa/ndbis 


157 


Xi(iv 


161 


coixSr-ns 406 


(pparpla 


347 


X«M«Ce 


157 


VX^«5 


156 


o}V€ojxai 376 


(pparptdCa 


347 


XafJ.a.6€j/ 


157 


xo'h 


165 


cjvf} 376 


(ppaTpi^Q) 


347 


Xafxai 


157 


Xo\d<a 


162 


duos 376 


Kppdrcop 


347 


Xafi'n\65 


157 


XoX-f) 


162 


cS6u 486 


(pp^rprj 


347 


Vx«^ 


154 


Xo\ik6s 


102 


'^wir 502 


(ppovpd 


415 


XavSai/w 


155 


x6\os 


162 


&pa 424 


<ppovp6s 


415 


X^^os 


154 


Xo^Sco 


162 


6pa 415 


■y/<ppvy 


141 


Vx«p 


158 


xSpros 


159 


cjpaTos 424 


(ppvyavou 


141 


Xapd 


158 


Vxov 


165 


oopavSs 418 


(ppvyerpoj/ 


141 


Xa/>te(s 


158 


Xovs 


165 


ibpaai 424 


(ppvyco 


141 


XapiCofiai 


158 


VXP^M'^ 


163 


Spos 424 


(j)pVKT6s 


141 


Xdpis 


158 


XpefxeriCco 


163 


^d)pv 425 


^<pv 


348 


xd-PH-a 


158 


XP^/^C^ 


163 


o^pvyf] 417 


^<pvy 


142 


Xdo-KQ) 


164 


Vxpt 


164 


o^pvOfiSs 417 


(pvyds 


142 


XdcTfxa 


154 


Xplfxa 


164 


atpvOfiSs 425 


<pvyri 


142 


Xavvos 


154 


Xp'io'is 


164 


wpvofjLai 425 


(pvCa 


142 


Vxe 


580 


Xpio-rSs 


164 


&s 490 


<pvi] 


348 


X^^P 


159 


Xpiaros 


164 


&yl^ 502 



LATIl^ IlsTDEX. 



[The figures refer to the numbers of the sets.] 



A. 




adoleo 


426 


agmen 


104 


alternus 


427 


\/a 


476 


adolescens 


426 


agnosco 


120 


alteruter 


427 


a, ab, abs 


274 


adolesco 


426 


ago 


104 


altitudo 


426 


abdico 


10 


adscisco 


45 


agrarius 


106 


altor 


426 


abdo 


256 


adulescens 


426 


agricultura 


106 


altus 


426 


abnuo 


369 


adulter 


427 


Val 


426 


alumna 


426 


abscondo 


256 


adultus 


426 


Alba 


332 


alumno 


426 


absens 


450 


aduncus 


1 


Alba Long< 


a. 332 


alumnus 


426 


absurdus 


423 


advena 


509 


Albanus 


332 


am- 


333 


y'ac 


2 


adverbium 


412 


albatus 


332 


amarus 


406 


Vac 


2 


Vaed 


249 


albeo 


332 


amb- 


333 


ac 


168 


aedes 


249 


albesco 


332 


ambi- 


333 


accelero 


48 


aedificium 


249 


albumen 


332 


ambiguus 


104 


accentus 


32 


aedifico 249,256 


alb us 


332 


ambitio 


493 


accio 


54 


aedilicius 


2-t9 


alesco 


426 


ambo 


334 


accipiter 


173 


aedilis 


249 


alia 


427 


ambulo 


509 


acclino 


57 


aedituus 


249 


alias 


427 


amens 


358 


accuso 


60 


aer 


476 


alibi 


427 


amicio 


493 


aceo 


2 


acre us 


476 


alieno 


427 


amictus 


•493 


acer 


2 


aerius 


476 


alienus 


427 


amplector 


92 


acerbitas 


2 


aestas 


249 


alimentum 


426 


amplilico 


256 


acerb us 


2 


aestivus 


249 


alimonium 


426 


amplio 


333 


acervus 


2 


aestivo 


249 


alio 


427 


amplus 


333 


acesco 


2 


aestuo 


249 


aliquando 


427 


amputo 


310 


acetum 


2 


aestuosus 


249 


aliquantus 


427 


^^.n 


350 


acidus 


2 


aestus 


249 


aliquis 


427 


an- 


333 


acies 


2 


aetas 


474 


aliquot 


427 


Vanc 


1 


acrimonia 


2 


aeternalis 


474 


aliter 


427 


anceps 


52 


actio 


104 


aeternus 


474 


alius 


427 


ancile 


1 


actor 


104 


aevum 


474 


alluvies 


449 


ancilla 


1 


actus 


104 


affabilis 


339 


alluvius 


449 


ancillaris 


1 


acuo 


2 


afifectio 


25Q 


almus 


426 


ancora 


1 


acus 


2 


affecto 


256 


alo 


426 


ancula 


1 


acutus 


2 


afficio 


256 


Alpes 


332 


anculus 


1 


Vad 


233 


V^g 


104 


alter 


427 


V^ng 


144 


addo 


225 


ager 


106 


altercatio 


427 


angina 


144 


adnuo 


369 


agilis 


104 


altercor 


427 


ango 


144 


admonitio 


358 


agito 


104 


alterno 


427 


angor 


144 



222 



LATIN INDEX. 



anguis 


149 


arbitror 


509 


augmenturr 


I 138 


biennis 


ooo 

OOO 


angulus 


1 


y^arc 


3 


augur 


485 


biga 


125 


angustus 


144 


area 


3 


augurium 


485 


bigae 


125 


anhelo 


352 


arcanum 


3 


auguro 


485 


bimestris 


395 


anima 


350 


arcanus 


3 


auguror 


485 


binarius 


231 


animal 


350 


arceo 


3 


Augustus 


138 


bini 


231 


animatio 


350 


Arctos 


4 


augustus 


138 


bis 


231 


animatus 


350 


ardeo 


158 


auris 


495 


Vbi-t 


509 


animo 


350 


arefacio 


256 


aurora 


492 


bito 


509 


animositas 


350 


V^^g 


107 


Vaus 


492 


bivira 


231 


animosus 


350 


argentum 


107 


ausculto 


495 


Vbo 513,515 


animus 


350 


argilla 


107 


auspex 


485 


boo 


513 


annales 


333 


argumentumlOT 


auspicium 


485 


bovinor 


513 


annalis 


333 


arguo 


107 


auxiliaris 


138 


bovo 


513 


anniversarius333 


argutus 


107 


auxilium 


138 


brutus 


511 


annona 


333 


arma 


408 


y'av 


475 


Vbu 


509 


annosus 


333 


armatura 


408 


avaritia 


475 


bulbosus 


329 


annuo 


369 


armentum 


410 


avarus 


475 


bulbus 


329 


annus 


333 


armo 


408 


aveo 


475 


bustum 


491 


annuus 


333 


armus 


408 


avia 


475 






ante 


166 


aro 


410 


aviarium 


485 


C. 




antea 


166 


ars 


408 


aviditas 


475 




antecello 


63 


arte 


408 


avidus 


475 


cadus 


23 


anted 


166 


articulo 


408 


avis 


485 


caecus 


100 


anterior 


166 


articulus 


408 


avunculus 


475 


^/caed 


244 


ante 


166 


artum 


408 


avus 


475 


caedo 


244 


anticipo 


33 


artus 


408 


axis 


470 


caelestis 


73 


antidea 


166 


arvum 


410 






caelum 


244 


antiquitas 


166 


arvus 


410 


B. 




caelum 


73 


antiquo 


166 


arx 


3 




caementum 


244 


antiquus 


166 


ascisco 


45 


baculum 


509 


caerimonia 


67 


anularis 


333 


aspernor 


323 


baculus 


609 


Veal 


28 


anulus 


333 


assecla 


497 


baeto 


509 


Veal 


29 


anxius 


144 


assuefacio 


256 


balatio 


328 


calamus 


27 


aperio 


313 


ast 


168 


balbus 


327 


calcar 


435 


apes 


278 


V^astr 


167 


balbutio 


327 


calceus 


435 


apiarium 


278 


astrum 


167 


balo 


328 


calcitro 


435 


apiarius 


278 


at 


168 


barbarus 


327 


calco 


435 


apicula 


278 


atavus 


168 


bello 


231 


calculo 


42 


apis 


278 


atque 


168 


Bellona 


231 


calculus 


42 


apud 


279 


atqui 


168 


bellum 


231 


calefacio 


256 


Var 


408 


attingo 


189 


beneficus 


256 


Calendae 


28 


V^r 


410 


V^au 


475 


beto 


509 


Calendarium 28 


aranea 


409 


auceps 


485 


Vbi 


308 


Calendarius 28 


araneum 


409 


auctio 


138 


^hl 


509 


caligo 


29 


araneus 


409 


auctor 


138 


Vbi 


509 


calix 


29 


aratio 


410 


auctoritas 


138 


bibo 


308 


callis 


47 


arator 


410 


audax 


475 


bibulus 


308 


calo 


28 


aratrum 


410 


audeo 


475 


biceps 


352 


calx 


42 


arbiter 


509 


audio 


475 


bidens 


241 


calx 


435 


arbitrarius 


509 


V^ug 


138 


biennalis 


333 


calyx 


29 


arbitrium 


509 


augeo 


138 


biennium 


333 


camara 


31 



LATIN INDEX. 



223 



camera 


31 


catus 


76 


circumretio 


422 


collegium 


440 


campus 


63 


caulae 


73 


circus 


74 


collis 


63 


camur 


31 


caulis 


73 


cito 


54 


color 


29 


camurus 


31 


caupo 


34 


citus 


54 


coloro 


29 


Vcan 


32 


caupona 


34 


civicus 


44 


columen 


63 


cancer 


39 


causa 


60 


civilis 


44 


columna 


63 


canimis 


75 


cautes 


76 


civis 


44 


combine 


231 


canis 


75 


cautio 


60 


civitas 


44 


comburo 


491 


cano 


32 


cautus 


60 


Vela 


28 


combustie 


491 


canorus 


32 


^cav 


60 


clam 


29 


comes 


493 


canticulum 


32 


^cav 


73 


clamito 


28 


commemini 


358 


canticum 


32 


caveo 


60 


clamo 


28 


commemoro391 


cantillo 


32 


caverna 


73 


clamor 


28 


commentar 


lum 


canto 


32 


cavus 


73 


clandestinus 


, 29 




358 


cantor 


32 


Vcel 


29 


claritico 


58 


commentarius 


cantrix 


32 


Vcel 


48 


claro 


68 




358 


cantus 


32 


celer 


48 


clarus 


58 


commentor 


358 


Vcap 


33 


celeritas 


48 


classicus 


28 


commentum 358 


capacitas 


33 


celero 


48 


classis 


28 


commercium392 


capax 


33 


cella 


29 


Vclau 


56 


comminiscor358 


caper 


36 


cellarium 


29 


claudo 


56 


commodum 238 


capesso 


33 


cello 


48 


claudus 


56 


commodus 


238 


capiilaris 


52 


cellula 


29 


claustra 


50 


commonefacio 


capillus 


62 


celo 


29 


Vclav 


56 




256 


capistrum 


33 


celox 


48 


clavicula 


56 


commotio 


379 


capio 


33 


celsus 


63 


clavis 


56 


communico 


380 


capitalis 


62 


centesimus 


15 


clavus 


56 


communis 


380 


Capitolium 


62 


centum 


15 


Vclep 


55 


compages 


285 


capitulum 


52 


centuria 


15 


clepo 


55 


compedio 


242 


capra 


36 


centurio 


15 


Vcli 


57 


compes 


242 


Capricornus 


36 


^cer 


67 


cliens 


68 


complector 


92 


captivus 


33 


V^er 


69 


clinatus 


57 


complementum 


capto 


33 


Cerealis 


67 


clino 


57 




304 


captor 


33 


cerebrum 


37 


clipeum 


29 


compos 


314 


capulum 


33 


Ceres 


67 


clipeus 


29 


compute 


310 


capulus 


33 


cerimonia 


67 


clivus 


57 


concalefacio256 


caput 


52 


cerno 


69 


cloaca 


59 


concelo 


29 


^cri 


69 


certe 


69 


Vclu 


56 


concentus 


32 


^card 


66 


certo (vb.) 


69 


Vclu 


58 


concerto 


69 


cardinalis 


66 


certo (adv.) 


69 


cluens 


58 


concha 


61 


car do 


66 


cert us 


69 


cluo 


59 


concilium 


2S 


carina 


42 


Vci 


44 


clypeus 


29 


concio 


509 


caro 


68 


Vci 


64 


Vco 


76 


concionor 


509 


carnalis 


68 


Vci 


54 


coalesce 


426 


conculco 


435 


Vcarp 


41 


V^id 


244 


Vcoc 


505 


condemne 


225 


carpo 


41 


cieo 


54 


coelum 


73 


conditor 


256 


carptim 


41 


circa 


74 


coerceo 


3 


condo 


256 


casa 


100 


circulor 


74 


coetus 


493 


condone 


225 


cassis 


100 


circulus 


74 


cognomen 


374 


confercie 


346 


castigo 


24 


circumcalco 435 


cognosce 


120 


confertus 


346 


castrum 


100 


circumculco 435 


cohors 


159 


confessie 


339 


castus 


24 


circumdo 


225 


coitus 


493 


conficio 


256 



224 



LATIN INDEX. 



confido 


271 


Vcre 


67 


decens 


11 


devius 


147 


confiteor 


339 


creber 


67 


decerto 


69 


devoro 


514 


confuto 


165 


credo 


256 


decet 


11 


Vdex 


220 


congratulor 


158 


creo 


67 


decimus 


8 


dexter 


220 


conjugalis 


125 


cresco 


67 


declaro 


58 


Vdi 


223 


conjugo 


125 


cribrum 


69 


declino 


57 


Vdi 


224 


conjunx 


125 


crimen 


69 


decoloro 


29 


Diana 


224 


conjux 


125 


criminalis 


69 


decor 


11 


V'dic 


10 


connubialis 


335 


crimino 


69 


decoro 


11 


Vdic 


10 


connubium 


335 


Vcru 


70 


decorum 


11 


Vdic 
dico 


11 


conscientia 


45 


cm delis 


70 


decorus 


11 


10 


conscisco 


45 


crudus 


70 


deculco 


435 


dico 


10 


conscius 


45 


cruentus 


68 


decumus 


8 


dictator 


10 


consecro 


462 


cruor 


68 


decus 


11 


dictio 


10 


censors 


422 


crusta 


70 


dedico 


10 


dictito 


10 


consternatio 185 


crusto 


70 


dedignor 


11 


dicto 


10 


consterno 


185 


Vcu 


76 


dediticius 


225 


dido 


225 


consuetudo 


252 


cucullus 


29 


deditio 


225 


dies 


224 


consummo 


325 


cuculus 


62 


dedo 


225 


diffamo 


339 


contactus 


189 


y'cud 


266 


defendo 


257 


diffido 


271 


contagio 


180 


culina 


505 


deficio 


256 


difficilis 


256 


contagium 


189 


culmen 


63 


delecto 


18 


difficultas 


256 


contamino 


189 


culm us 


27 


deleo 


443 


digitus 


7 


contemplor 


196 


cunctus 


125 


delibuo 


443 


dignitas 


11 


contextus 


194 


cuneus 


76 


delicatus 


18 


dignor 


11 


contingo 


189 


cur a 


60 


deliciosus 


18 


dignus 


11 


continuus 


188 


curiositas 


60 


delineo 


444 


diligens 


440 


contio 


509 


curiosus 


60 


delinquo 


500 


diligo 


440 


contionor 


509 


euro 


60 


delubrum 


449 


diluvies 


449 


contusio 


206 


curtus 


61 


demens 


358 


diluvio 


449 


conubialis 


335 


curvus 


74 


dens 


241 


diluvium 


449 


conubium 


335 


custodia 


266 


denseo 


216 


dimidio 


394 


conventio 


509 


custodio 


266 


denso 


216 


dimidius 


394 


convicium 


496 


custos 


266 


densus 


216 


Diovis 


224 


■y/coqu 


505 


cutis 


101 


dentatus 


241 


dirus 


223 


coquina 


505 






dentifricium 164 


dis- 


231 


coquo 


505 


D. 




dentio 


241 


disciplina 


210 


coquus 


505 




dentitio 


241 


discipulus 


210 


cor 


38 


V^a 


225 


denuo 


362 


disco 


2]0 


coram 


459 


Vda 


256 


depraedatic 


) 155 


discrimen 


6d 


cordatus 


38 


damno 


225 


deputo 


310 


discrimino 


GO 


cornix 


65 


damnum 


225 


depuvio 


286 


disperdo 


225 


cornu 


49 


^dap 


214 


derelinquo 


500 


disputo 


310 


cornus 


50 


dapino 


214 


derivo 


443 


disserto 


422 


corona 


74 


daps 


214 


descisco 


45 


dissimilis 


377 


corporo 


67 


dativus 


225 


deses 


234 


dissimulo 


377 


corpus 


67 


dator 


225 


desidia 


234 


distinguo 


183 


corrivo 


443 


dea 


224 


destino 


175 


diu 


224 


corvus 


65 


debello 


231 


desuetudo 


253 


diurnalis 


224 


cos 


76 


Vdec 


11 


determine 


197 


diurnus 


224 


cotidie 


224 


decem 


8 


deus 


224 


dius 


224 


cottidie 


224 


December 


8 


devio 


147 


Dius Fidius 271 



LATIN INDEX. 



225 



Vdiv 


224 


dumosus 


216 


ex 


472 


fabrica 


256 


diva 


224 


dumus 


216 


exalto 


426 


fabricator 


256 


divinus 


224 


duo 


231 


exanimo 


350 


fabricor 


256 


divus 


224 


duplex 


231 


exauguro 


485 


fabula 


339 


Djovis 


224 


duplico 


231 


excello 


63 


fabulosus 


339 


ydo 


225 


duplus 


231 


excio 


54 


Vfac 


256 


-do 


217 


dux 


12 


excito 


54 


Vfa-c 


339 


do 


225 






exculco 


435 


facesso 


256 


Vdoc 


210 


E. 




excuso 


60 


facete 


339 


doceo 


210 


e 


472 


exerceo 


3 


facetiae 


339 


docilis 


210 


ea 


490 


exercitus 


3 


facetus 


339 


doctor 


210 


ec 


472 


exilium 


235 


facies 


339 


doctrina 


210 


Ved 


233 


exitium 


493 


facilis 


256 


documentumSlO 


edax 


233 


exoculo 


502 


facilitas 


2oG 


dolus 


226 


edo 


225 


expallesco 


293 


facinus 


256 


^dom 


213 


edo 


233 


expecto 


99 


facio 


256 


-y/dom 


219 


educo 


12 


expedio 


242 


factio 


256 


domesticus 


219 


effero 


257 


experientia 


296 


factiosus 


256 


domicilium 


219 


effetus 


348 


experiment 


um 


factito 


256 


domina 


213 


efficax 


256 




296 


facto 


256 


dominium 


213 


efficio 


256 


experior 


296 


factor 


256 


dominor 


213 


effigies 


126 


expers 


313 


factum 


256 


dominus 


213 


effutio 


165 


expletivus 


304 


facultas 


256 


domitor 


213 


elegans 


440 


expurgo 


310 


facundia 


339 


domo 


213 


elementum 


426 


exputo 


310 


facundus 


339 


domus 


219 


eligens 


440 


exsecror 


462 


faenerator 


348 


donatio 


225 


elimino 


442 


exsilium 


235 


faeneror 


348 


dono 


225 


emancipo 


33 


exsolo 


235 


faenum 


348 


donum 


225 


emendo 


398 


exsors 


422 


faenus 


348 


^dorm 


215 


enervis 


363 


exspecto 


99 


faetidus 


265 


dormio 


215 


enervo 


363 


exstinguo 


183 


faetio 


265 


dormlto 


215 


enormis 


120 


exsugo 


503 


faginus 


139 


dormitorium215 


enormitas 


120 


exsul 


235 


fagus 


139 


dorsualis 


222 


eo 


493 


exsulo 


235 


Vfal 


457 


dorsum 


222 


eques 


499 


exter 


472 


fallacia 


457 


dorsus 


222 


equester 


499 


exterior 


472 


fallax 


457 


dos 


225 


equinus 


499 


extermino 


197 


fallo 


457 


dotalis 


225 


Equites 


499 


externus 


472 


falsus 


457 


doto 


225 


equito 


499 


exterus 


472 


falx 


103 


■s/dvL 


225 


equus 


499 


extra 


472 


fama 


339 


dualis 


231 


era 


159 


extraneus 


472 


familia 


256 


dubito 


231 


erga 


134 


extremus 


472 


famosus 


339 


dubius 


231 


ergo 


134 


extrinsecus 


472 


famulus 


256 


Vduc 


12 


erus 


159 


exul 


235 


^fa-n 


339 


Vduc 


12 


Ves 


459 


exulo 


235 


fanaticus 


339 


duco 


12 


esca 


233 






fano 


339 


ductilis 


12 


essentia 


459 






fanum 


339 


ducto 


12 


esurio 


233 


F. 




far 


344 


dudum 


224 


et 


168 


Vfa 


256 


V^arc 


346 


duim 


225 


etiam 


168 


Vfa 


339 


farcio 


346 


dulcedo 


428 


evaporo 


35 


Vfa 


339 


farina 


344 


dulcis 


428 


evidens 


236 


faber 


256 


farrago 


344 



226 



LATIN INDEX. 



■^fars 


260 


fidelis 


271 


fluito 


345 


fragor 


522 


Vfa-s 


339 


fidelitas 


271 


flumen 


345 


frango 


522 


fas 


339 


fides 


271 


fluo 


345 


frater 


347 


fastidiosus 


260 


Fidius 


271 


fluvius 


345 


fraternitas 


347 


fastidium 


260 


fido 


271 


fluxus 


345 


fraternus 


347 


fastus 


339 


fidus 


271 


Vfo 


348 


frenum 


261 


fastus 


260 


Vfig 


126 


foederatus 


271 


y'frequ 


346 


Vfa-t 


339 


figmen 


126 


foedero 


271 


frequens 


346 


fateor 


339 


figmentum 


126 


foedo 


265 


frequentia 


346 


fatum 


339 


figo 


136 


foedus 


271 


frequento 


346 


Vfa-v 


339 


figulus 


126 


foedus 


265 


fretus 


261 


faveo 


339 


figura 


126 


foenerator 


348 


Vfri 


164 


fa villa 


339 


figuro 


126 


foeneror 


348 


friabilis 


164 


fax 


339 


filia 


254 


foetidus 


2Qd 


Vfi'ic 


164 


Vfe 


254 


filius 


254 


foetio 


265 


frico 


164 


Vfe 


348 


Vfing 


126 


foe to 


348 


frictio 


164 


fecunditas 


348 


fingo 


126 


foetus 


348 ■ 


V^^^ig 


141 


fecundo 


348 


fio 


2oQ 


folium 


349 


frigeo 


419 


fecundus 


348 


v/fir 


261 


fons 


165 


frigidus 


419 


fel 


162 


firmamentum261 


Vfor 


261 


frigo 


141 


felicitas 


348 


firmator 


261 


■yJ^OX 


520 


fiigus 


419 


feliciter 


348 


firmitas 


261 


■y/^OX 


341 


frio 


164 


felix 


348 


firmitudo 


261 


Vfor 


344 


v^^ 


348 


fello 


254 


firmo 


261 


for 


339 


v^^ 


165 


femina 


254 


firmus 


261 


foramen 


341 


Vfu 


265 


Vfend 


257 


Vfla 


345 


foras 


264 


fuam 


348 


fendo 


257 


flabra 


345 


forceps 


520 


fuant 


348 


fenerator 


348 


Vflag 


140 


fore 


348 


fuas 


348 


feneror 


348 


flagitiosus 


140 


forem 


348 


fuat 


348 


fene^ra 


339 


flagitium 


140 


forent 


348 


Vfud 


165 


fenum 


348 


flagito 


140 


fores 


348 


Vf^g 


142 


fenus 


348 


flagro 


140 


foret 


348 


Vf^g 


142 


Vfer 


344 


flamen 


140 


foris 


264 


fuga 


142 


fera 


259 


flamen 


345 


formidus 


520 


fugax 


142 


ferax 


344 


flamma 


140 


formus 


520 


fugio 


142 


ferculum 


344 


flammo 


140 


fornax 


520 


fugitivus 


142 


feritas 


259 


flatus 


345 


fornus 


520 


fugito 


142 


fero 


344 


Vfle 


345 


foro 


341 


fugo 


142 


ferocia 


259 


flecto 


103 


fors 


344 


fui 


348 


ferox 


259 


fleo 


345 


forsan 


344 


Vf^ig 


140 


fertilis 


344 


fletus 


345 


forsitan 


344 


fulgeo 


140 


fertilitas 


344 


Vflo 


345 


fortasse 


344 


fulgor 


140 


fertus 


344 


flo 


345 


fortassis 


344 


fulgur 


140 


ferus 


259 


Flora 


345 


fortis 


261 


fulmen 


140 


feteo 


265 


floreo 


345 


fortitudo 


261 


fulmino 


140 


fetidus 


265 


floresco 


345 


fortuitus 


344 


fulvus 


140 


feto 


348 


flos 


345 


fortuna 


344 


fumeus 


265 


fetus 


348 


Vfl^ 


345 


fractura 


522 


fumidus 


265 


vfi 


254 


fluctuo 


345 


Vfr^g 


522 


fumigo 


265 


fibula 


136 


fluctus 


345 


fragilis 


522 


fumo 


265 


fictio 


126 


fluesco 


345 


f ragmen 


522 


fumosus 


265 


•v/fid 


271 


fluidus 


345 


fragmentum 522 ' 


fumus 


265 



LATIN INDEX. 



227 



-^fund 


273 


genius 


112 


H. 




ignosco 


120 


funda 


245 


gens ^ 


112 






illativus 


195 


fundamentum 


gentilis 


112 


^hend 


155 


illecebra 


18 




273 


genu 


121 


Vher 


159 


illumino 


80 


fundo 


165 


genuinus 


112 


hera 


159 


illustris 


80 


fundo 


273 


genus 


112 


here 


160 


illustro 


80 


fundus 


273 


gigno 


112 


hereditas 


159 


imbellis 


231 


funus 


265 


glaber 


118 


heres 


159 


imber 


405 


^/(nt 


520 


gloria 


58 


heri 


160 


imbrex 


405 


fur 


344 


glorior 


58 


herus 


159 


imbuo 


308 


furnus 


520 


gloriosus 


58 


hesternus 


160 


immanis 


386 


furor 


344 


Vs^^ 


514 


Vhi 


154 


immolo 


402 


furtim 


344 


Vgi^ 


514 


Vhi 


161 


immunis 


380 


furtivus 


344 


glubo 


119 


hiatus 


154 


immunitas 


380 


furtum 


344 


gluma 


119 


hiberna 


161 


impedio 


242 


fusio 


165 


gluo 


446 


hiberno 


161 


imperium 


313 


fusus 


245 


glus 


446 


hibernus 


161 


impero 


313 


futilis 


165 


gluten 


446 


hiemo 


161 


impetus 


173 


futis 


165 


glutino 


446 


hiems 


161 


implementum 


futtilis 


165 


glutinum 


446 


hio 


154 




304 


futurus 


348 


glutio 


514 


^hit 


159 


impos 


314 






gluttio 


514 


hir 


159 


impunitas 


310 


G. 




Vgna 


112 


hisco 


154 


impurus 


310 




Vgna 


120 


homo 


157 


in 


355 


galea 


29 


gnaruris 


120 


hora 


424 


in- 


351 


galera 


29 


gnarus 


120 


hortus 


159 


inauguro 


485 


galerum 


29 


Vg^o 


374 


humanitas 


157 


incentivum 


32 


galerus 


29 


Vg^o 


120 


humanus 


157 


incentivus 


32 


gallina 


117 


VgJ^a 


158 


humecto 


137 


incentor 


32 


gallinaceus 


117 


Vgrad 


156 


humeo 


137 


incestum 


24 


gallus 


117 


^grand 


156 


humerus 


407 


incestus 


24 


Vgar 


117 


grandinat 


156 


humi 


157 


inciens 


73 


garrio 


117 


grando 


156 


humidus 


137 


incito 


54 


garrulus 


117 


gratia 


158 


humilis 


157 


inclino 


57 


Vg^^^ 


108 


gratiis 


158 


humilitas 


157 


inclitus 


58 


gaudeo 


108 


gratuitus 


158 


humo 


157 


inclutus 


•58 


gaudium 


108 


gratulor 


158 


humus 


157 


incrusto 


70 


Vgem 


111 


gratus 


158 






inculco 


435 


gemini 


112 


gravesco 


511 


I. 




incuso 


60 


geminus 


112 


graviius 


511 




indemnis 


225 


gemitus 


111 


gravis 


511 


Vi 


490 


indemnitas 


225 


gemo 


111 


gravitas 


511 


Vi 


493 


indico 


10 


Vgen 


112 


grave 


511 


ibi 


490 


indigena 


112 


gena 


353 


grus 


113 


Vic 


498 


indignor 


11 


gener 


112 


Vgui 


514 


ico 


498 


indo 


256 


genero • 


112 


gula 


514 


ictus 


498 


indoles 


42G 


generosus 


112 


Vg^r 


514 


id 


490 


inedia 


233 


genetivus 


112 


gurges 


514 


idem 


490 


iners 


408 


genetrix 


112 


gurgulio 


514 


ignarus 


120 


infamia 


339 


genitalis 


112 


■v/g^^s 


115 


ignavus 


120 


infamis 


339 


genitor 


112 


gusto 


115 


ignominia 


374 


infamo 


339 


genitrix 


112 


gustus 


115 


ignoro 


120 


infandus 


339 



228 



LATIN INDEX. 



in fans 


339 


internecinus 83 


jugum 


125 


laevus 


434 


infensus 


257 


interstitium 


175 


jumentum 


125 


Vlag 


127 


infestus 


257 


intervallum 


432 


jungo 


125 


lambo 


438 


inlicio 


25G 


intestinus 


355 


Jupiter 


224 


lana 


439 


infirmus 


261 


intimus 


355 


Juppiter 


224 


lancus 


439 


infitior 


339 


intra 


355 


jurgo 


125 


kingueo 


127 


inflammatic 


140 


intrare 


197 


juro 


125 


languesco 


127 


inflammo 


140 


intro 


355 


P^ . 


125 


languidus 


127 


ingemisco 


111 


intus 


355 


justitia 


125 


languor 


127 


ingemo 


111 


invidia 


236 


Justus 


125 


lanicius 


439 


ingeniosus 


112 


invidiosus 


236 


juvenca 


224 


lanterna 


282 


ingenium 


112 


invidus 


236 


juvencus 


224 


lanugo 


439 


ingens 


112 


invito 


496 


juvenilis 


224 


•laqueus 


18 


ingenuus 


112 


invitus 


16 


juvenis 


224 


Vlas 


433 


ingluvies 


514 


ipse 


490 


juvo 


224 


lascivus 


433 


ingurgito 


514 


ir 


159 


juxta 


125 


latro 


437 


inhumo 


157 


irretio 


422 






latrocinium 


437 


initio 


493 


irrigo 


145 


K. 




latrocinor 


437 


initium 


493 


iriiguus 


145 




latus 


195 


injuria 


125 


is 


490 


Kalendae 


28 


latus 


185 


innuo 


369 


iste 


490 


Kalendarium 28 


laudabilis 


58 


innoculo 


502 


ita 


490 


Kalendarius 28 


laudo 


58 


insanus 


462 


item 


490 


kalo 


28 


laus 


58 


inserto 


422 


iter 


493 


^klVL 


58 


lautus 


449 


insidiae 


234 


itero 


490 






Vlav 


437 


insidiosus 


234 


iterum 


490 


L. 




Vlav 


449 


insimulo 


377 


itio 


493 




lavo 


449 


insipidus 


503 


itus 


493 


Via 


437 


laxo 


127 


insitio 


463 






Vlab 


438 


laxus 


127 


insomnia 


324 


J. 




labea 


438 


Vlec 


150 


insomnis 


324 




labefacio 


256 


lectica 


150 


insomnium 


324 


jaceo 


493 


labes 


450 


lectio 


440 


insons 


459 


jacio 


493 


labea 


438 


lector 


440 


instigo 


183 


jacto 


493 


labium 


438 


lectus 


150 


instinctus 


183 


jactura 


493 


labor 


331 


lectus 


440 


instinguo 


183 


jaculor 


493 


laboriosus 


331 


Vleg 


440 


instrumentum 


jaculum 


493 


laboro 


331 


legibilis 


440 




185 


jaculus 


493 


labos 


331 


legio 


440 


insuper 


325 


janitor 


493 


. labrum 


438 


legionarius 


440 


integer 


189 


janua 


493 


Viae 


18 


lego 


440 


integritas 


189 


Januarius 


493 


Viae 


78 


legumen 


440 


intellego 


440 


Janus 


493 


lacer 


78 


leo 


445 


intelligo 


440 


jubeo 


125 


lacero 


78 


Vlev 


146 


inter 


200 


judex 


125 


lacinia 


78 


Vlev 


441 


inter 


355 


judicialis 


125 


lacio 


18 


levamentum 146 


inter calaris 


28 


judicium 


125 


lacrima 


6 


levigo 


441 


interdiu 


224 


judico 


125 


lacrimo 


6 


levis 


146 


interficio 


256 


VJ^g 


125 


lacruma 


6 


levis 


441 


interim 


355 


jugerum 


125 


lacrumo 


6 


levitas 


146 


interior 


355 


jugo 


125 


lact (st.) 


109 


le vitas 


441 


interputo 


310 


jugulo 


125 


lacuna 


78 


levo 


146 


internecio 


83 


jugulum 


125 


lac us 


78 


levo 


441 



LATIN INDEX. 



229 



lex 


130 


linteus 


444 


luto 


449 


mancus 


398 


VH 


443 


yliqu 


500 


lutum 


449 


mane 


386 


Vlib 


443 


liqueo 


500 


lutus 


449 


maneo 


358 


Vlib 


447 


liquesco 


500 


Vluv 


449 


Manes 


386 


libatio 


443 


liquidus 


500 


lux 


80 


manifestus 


257 


libeo 


447 


liquor 


500 


luxo 


442 


manipulus 


304 


liber 


447 


litera 


443 


luxum 


442 


mano 


383 


Liber 


443 


literalis 


443 


luxus 


442 


mansio 


358 


liberalis 


447 


literatura 


443 






mansito 


358 


liberalitas 


447 


littera 


443 


M. 




mansuesco 


252 


liberatio 


447 


litteralis 


443 




mansuetudo 252 


liberator 


447 


litteratura 


443 


Vma 


386 


minus 


386 


libero 


447 


litura 


443 


Vma 


396 


manus 


386 


libertas 


447 


litus 


443 


^mac 


82 


y^mar-c 


393 


libertinus 


447 


litus 


443 


-y/mac 


384 


marceo 


393 


libertus 


447 


liveo 


293 


macellum 


384 


marcesso 


393 


libet 


447 


lividus 


293 


macto 


82 


mater 


396 


libido 


447 


Vloc 


77 


macto 


384 


materia 


396 


libo 


443 


yloqu 


77 


mactus 


82 


materialis 


396 


libum 


443 


longinquus 


128 


^mad 


383 


materies 


396 


libus 


443 


longitudo 


128 


madefacio 




maternus 


396 


Vlic 


500 


longus 


128 


256 


,383 


matricula 


396 


licentia 


500 


loquax 


77 


madeo 


383 


matrimonium396 


liceo 


500 


loquela 


77 


madesco 


383 


matrix 


396 


liceor 


500 


loquor 


77 


madidus 


383 


matrona 


396 


licet 


500 


lotio 


449 


Vmag 


387 


^me 


385 


licinus 


442 


vi^ 


437 


magis 


387 


Vme 


386 


lictor 


130 


Vlu 


448 


magister 


387 


me 


385 


Vlig 


130 


y/lVL 


449 


magistero 


387 


Vmed 


394 


Vlig 


151 


^y\nh 


447 


magistratus 


387 


medeor 


358 


ligamen 


130 


lubeo 


447 


magistro 


387 


mediator 


394 


ligamentum 130 


lubet 


447 


magnanimus 387 


medicina 


358 


lignum 


440 


lubido 


447 


magnitude 


387 


medicinus 


358 


ligo 


130 


Vluc 


80 


magnus 


387 


medico 


358 


ligurio 


151 


luceo 


80 


majestas 


387 


medicus 


358 


limen 


442 


lucerna 


80 


major 


387 


medio 


394 


limes 


442 


lucesco 


80 


Vmal 


451 


mediocris 


394 


limito 


442 


lucidus 


80 


male 


451 


mediterraneus 


limpidus 


282 


lucror 


437 


maledictio 


451 




394 


limus 


442 


lucrum 


437 


maledico 


451 


meditor 


358 


linea 


444 


luctus 


129 


malefacio 


451 


medium 


394 


linealis 


444 


Vlug 


129 


malefactor 


451 


medius 


394 


lineamentum444 


lugeo 


129 


maleficus 


256 


mediusfidius271 


linearis 


444 


lugubris 


129 


malignus 


451 


mel 


390 


linens 


444 


lumen 


80 


malitia 


451 


mellifluus 


390 


V^i^g 


151 


lumino 


80 


malo 


387 


memini 


358 


lingo 


151 


luminosus 


80 


malus 


451 


memor 


391 


linimentum 


443 


luna 


80 


V'man 


358 


memoria 


391 


linio 


443 


luo 


448 


^man 


398 


memorialis 


391 


lino 


443 


luo 


449 


manceps 


33 


memoriter 


391 


linguo 


500 


lupus 


81 


mancipo 


33 


memoro 


391 


linter 


306 


lustrum 


449 


mancupo 


33 


^men 


358 



230 



LATIN INDEX. 



Vmen 386 


,395 


miror 


388 


•Y/mov 


379 


nanciscor 


354 


^men 


398 


mirus 


388 


moveo 


379 


narro 


120 


menda 


398 


"Y/misc 


397 


v^^^ 


380 


narus 


120 


meiidax 


358 


miscellaneus 397 


^ym\l 


400 


nascor 


112 


mendico 


398 


miscellus 


397 


^mulc 


501 


natio 


112 


mendicor 


398 


misceo 


397 


mulceo 


501 


nato 


370 


mendicus 


398 


mistio 


397 


mulco 


501 


natura 


112 


mendosus 


398 


mistura 


397 


mulcto 


501 


nauta 


359 


mendum 


398 


mixtio 


397 


mulctra 


131 


navalis 


359 


mens 


358 


mixtura 


397 


mulctrum 


131 


navigo 


359 


mensa 


38G 


^mod 


238 


mulctus 


131 


navis 


359 


mensis 


395 


modernus 


238 


Vmulg 


131 


navita 


359 


menstruus 


395 


moderor 


238 


mulgeo 


131 


navus 


120 


mensura 


386 


modestus 


238 


munero 


380 


y^ne 


364 


mentio 


358 


modicus 


238 


munia 


380 


ne- 


365 


mentior 


358 


modifico 


238 


municeps 


380 


-ne 


365 


^mer 


392 


modium 


238 


municipalis 




ne 


365 


niercans 


392 


modius 


238 


33 


380 


Vneb 


335 


mercator 


392 


modo 


238 


municipium 


nebula 


335 


mercenarius 392 


modulor 


238 


33 


,380 


nebulosus 


335 


merces 


392 


modulus 


238 


munificus 


380 


Vnec 


83 


mercor 


392 


modus 


238 


munimentum380 


neco 


83 


mereo 


392 


moenio 


380 


munio 


380 


necne 


365 


mereor 


392 


y'mol 


402 


munis 


380 


nefandus 


339 


Vmerg 


132 


mola 


402 


munitio 


380 


nefarius 


339 


mergae 


132 


molaris 


402 


munus 


380 


nefas 


365 


merges 


132 


molo 


402 


muralis 


380 


nefas 


339 


meridies 


394 


momentum 


379 


murmur 


399 


nefastus 


339 


meridianus 


394 


y'mon 


358 


murmuro 


399 


neglegens 


440 


meridionalis 394 


moneo 


358 


murus 


380 


neglego 


440 


meritum 


392 


moneta 


358 


y'mus 


403 


negligens 


440 


merx 


392 


Moneta 


358 


mus 


403 


negligo 


440 


meta 


386 


monimentem358 


musca 


401 


y^nem 


360 


metior 


386 


monitor 


358 


muscipula 


403 


nemo 


157 


me to 


386 


monitus 


358 


muscipulum 403 


nemus 


360 


metor 


386 


monstro 


358 


musculus 


403 


neo 


364 


meus 


385 


monstrum 


358 


mussito 


400 


nepos 


284 


Vmi 


388 


monumentum358 


musso 


400 


neptis 


284 


y^mid 


394 


^mor 


391 


mutabilis 


379 


neque 


365 


^min 


398 


^/mor 


393 


mutesco 


400 


nervosus 


363 


Minerva 


358 


mora 


391 


mutio 


400 


nervus 


363 


minimus 


398 


morbidus 


393 


muto 


379 


netus 


364 


minister 


398 


morbus 


393 


muttio 


400 


nex 


83 


ministerium 398 


morior 


393 


mutus 


400 


Vnig 


367 


ministro 


398 


moror 


391 


mutuus 


379 


nimirum365,388 


minor 


398 


morosus 


404 






nimis 


386 


minuo 


398 


mors 


393 


N". 




ningit 


367 


minus 


398 


mortalis 


393 




ninguit 


367 


minutum 


398 


morus 


404 


V'na 


370 


nisi 


365 


minutus 


398 


mos 


386 


Vna 


370 


^niv 


367 


mirabilis 


388 


motio 


379 


Vnac 


354 


nivalis 


367 


miraculum 


388 


motus 


379 


nactus 


354 


niveus 


367 



LATIN INDEX. 



231 



nivosus 


3G7 


nubilum 


335 


obsidio 


234 


orbitas 


336 


nix 


367 


nubilus 


335 


obsidium 


234 


orbitudo 


336 


no 


370 


nubis 


335 


obsolesco 


426 


orbo 


336 


nobilis 


120 


nubo 


335 


obsoletus 


426 


orbus 


336 


Vnoc 83, 84 


nudius 


224 


obstinatus 


175 


oriens 


414 


noceo 


83 


nudiustertius224 


obstino 


175 


orientalis 


4]4 


nocte 


84 


y'num 


360 


obtusus 


206 


orificium 


459 


nocti (st.) 


84 


num 


368 


obviam 


147 


originalis 


414 


noctu 


84 


numarius 


360 


obvio 


147 


origo 


414 


noctua 


84 


numen 


369 


obvius 


147 


orior 


414 


nocturnus 


84 


numerator 


360 


^00 


502 


oro 


459 


nolo 


525 


numero 


360 


occulco 


435 


ortus 


414 


nomen 


374 


numerosus 


360 


occulo 


29 


OS (bone) 


172 


nomenclator 28 


numerus 


360 


occupo 


33 


OS (mouth) 


459 


nomenclatura28 


nummarius 


360 


ocior 


2 


oscito 


459 


nominalis 


374 


nummus 


360 


ociter 


2 


oscitor 


459 


nominativus 374 


numus 


360 


octavus 


86 


osculatio 


459 


nomino 


374 


nunc 


368 


octo 


86 


osculor 


459 


non 


3G5 


nundinae 


356 


oculo 


502 


osculum 


459 


Nonae 


356 


nuo 


369 


oculus 


502 


osseus 


172 


nonaginta 


356 


nuper 


362 


Vod 


240 


ovile 


484 


nonanus 


356 


nupta 


335 


Vod 


268 


ovis 


484 


nongenti 


356 


nuptiae 


335 


odi 


268 


ovum 


486 


nonus 


356 


nurus 


371 


odiosus 


268 






norma 


120 


nutatio 


369 


odium 


268 


P. 




normalis 


120 


nuto 


369 


odor 


240 




nos 


372 


nutricius 


370 


odorarius 


240 


Vpa 


289 


nosco 


120 


nutrimentum370 


odoratus 


240 


Vpa 


291 


nota 


120 


nutrio 


370 


odoro 


240 


pabulator 


291 


notio 


120 


nutritius 


370 


odoror 


240 


pabulor 


291 


noto 


120 


nutrix 


370 


odorus 


240 


pabulum 


291 


novacula 


362 


nutus 


369 


offendo 


257 


pac 


285 


novalis 


362 






officio 


256 


VPac 


285 


novellus 


362 


0. 




oinos 


373 


pacifico 


285 


novem 


356 




oinus 


373 


pacificus 


285 


November 


356 


ob 


279 


Vol 


240 


pacisco 


285 


novendialis 


356 


obdo 


256 


Vol 


426 


paciscor 


285 


noverca 


362 


obediens 


475 


olefacio 


240 


paco 


285 


noviens 


356 


obedio 


475 


oleo 


240 


paco 


285 


novies 


356 


obex 


493 


oleum 


430 


pactum 


285 


novitas 


362 


obliquo 


442 


olfacio 


240 


paenitentia 


310 


novo 


362 


obliquus 


442 


olidus 


240 


paeniteo 


310 


novus 


362 


oblitero 


443 


oliva 


430 


paenitet 


310 


nox 


84 


oblittero 


443 


olor 


240 


Vpag 


285 


noxa 


83 


oblivio 


293 


omnis 


333 


pagan us 


285 


noxius 


83 


obliviosus 


293 


operio 


313 


pagina 


285 


■\/n\x 


369 


obliviscor 


293 


opimus 


302 


pago 


285 


\/iin 


370 


oboediens 


475 


Vor 


414 


pagus 


285 


^nub 


335 


oboedio 


475 


oraculum 


459 


Vpal 


323 


nubes 


335 


obscurus 


101 


orarium 


459 


palea 


323 


nubilis 


335 


obsecro 


462 


oratio 


459 


palleo 


293 


nubilo 


335 


obsero 


422 


orator 


459 


pallesco 


293 



232 



LATIN INDEX. 



pallidus 


293 


patrius 


289 


perennis 


333 


Vplang 


305 


pallor 


293 


patrocinor 


289 


periicio 


250 


plango 


305 


pal ma 


287 


patronus 


289 


perlidiosus 


271 


plangor 


305 


palmes 


287 


patruelis 


289 


perlidus 


271 


planus 


91 


palmetum 


287 


patruus 


289 


perfuga 


142 


Vple 


304 


palmula 


287 


patulus 


174 


pergo 


134 


Vpie 


312 


palmus 


287 


y'pau 


292 


periculum 


296 


plebs 


304 


palum 


285 


paucitas 


292 


peritus 


296 


plebes 


304 


palus 


285 


pauculus 


292 


perjero 


125 


Vplec 


92 


palus 


300 


paucus 


292 


perjurium 


125 


plecto 


92 


pango 


285 


paulatim 


292 


perjuro 


125 


plecto 


305 


panis 


291 


paulisper 


292 


permagnus 


299 


plerique 


312 


p annus 


301 


pauUus 


292 


perneco 


83 


plenus 


304 


panus 


301 


paulo 


292 


pernicies 


83 


pleo 


304 


papa 


289 


paulum 


292 


perniciosus 


83 


plerus 


312 


Vpar 


313 


paulus 


292 


perpes 


173 


plerusque 


312 


parens 


313 


pauper 


292 


perpetuus 


173 


Vplic 


92 


pareo 


313 


pauperies 


292 


pertinax 


188 


plico 


92 


pario 


313 


paupertas 


292 


pes 


242 


plisimus 


312 


paro 


313 


pavimento 


28G 


pessum 


242 


Vplu 


306 


parricida 


289 


pavimentum286 


pessumdare 


242 


Vplu 


307 


pars 


313 


pavio 


286 


pessum dare 242 


plumbeus 


452 


participium 


313 


pax 


285 


pessumdo 


225 


plumbum 


452 


participo 


313 


Vpec 


87 


pessum ire 


242 


pluo 


306 


particula 


313 


pecten 


87 


pessundare 


242 


pluralis 


312 


particularis 


313 


pecto 


87 


Vpet 


173 


plurimus 


312 


particeps 


313 


pecu 


285 


peto 


173 


plus 


312 


partio 


313 


pecunia 


285 


Vpi 


302 


pluvia 


306 


parturio 


313 


pecuniaris 


285 


Vpic 


90 


pluvialis 


306 


parturitio 


313 


pecus 


285 


Vpig 


90 


pluvius 


306 


par urn 


292 


Vped 


242 


Vpi-n-g 


90 


VPO 


308 


pasco 


291 


pedalis 


242 


pictor 


90 


po 


317 


pascor 


291 


pedes 


242 


pictura 


90 


poculum 


308 


pascuum 


291 


pedester 


242 


pigmentum 


90 


poena 


310 


pascuus 


291 


pedica 


242 


pignero 


285 


poeniteo 


310 


pastor 


291 


pedum 


242 


pignus 


285 


poenitet 


310 


pastoralis 


291 


pejero 


125 


pileus 


303 


Vpol 


323 


pastura 


291 


pellis 


294 


pilleum 


303 


pollen 


323 


pastus 


291 


Vpen 


291 


pilleus 


303 


polleo 


317 


patefacio 




Penates 


291 


pingo 


90 


polliceor, 




256 


,174 


penes 


291 


pinna 


173 


500 


,317 


patella 


174 


penetro 


291 


pinnaculum 


173 


pollis 


323 


pateo 


174 


penna 


173 


pinnatus 


173 


pomerium 


380 


pater 


289 


penus 


291 


pituita 


318 


pomoerium 


380 


patera 


174 


per 


288 


^plac 


91 


pono 


317 


paternus 


289 


Vper 


296 


Vplag 


305 


pons 


290 


patesco 


174 


per- 


299 


Vpiag 


92 


popularis 


304 


patina 


174 


peragro 


106 


plaga 


92 


populus 


304 


patria 


289 


percello 


48 


plaga 


305 


Vpor 


296 


patricus 


289 


perdo 


225 


plagium 


92 


porcus 


93 


patrimonium289 


perduellio 


231 


planca 


91 


porrigo 


134 


patritus 


289 


peregrinor 


106 


planctus 


305 


porro 


316 



LATIN INDEX. 



233 



porta 


296 


praeter 


316 


propemodum 


pulvero 


323 


porticus 


296 


praetextus 


194 




316 


pulverulent 


us 


portio 


313 


praetor 


493 


propero 


313 




323 


portus 


296 


prandeo 


316 


properus 


313 


pulvis 


323 


porto 


313 


prandium 


316 


propinqmtas3 1 6 


punctus 


320 


possideo 


317 


pransor 


316 


propinquus 


316 


pungo 


320 


possido 


317 


pransus 


316 


propior 


316 


puriiico 


310 


possum 


314 


prehendo 


155 


propitio 


316 


punio 


310 


postmoerium380 


prendo 


155 


propitius 


316 


pupa 


322 


postridie 


224 


Vpri 


316 


proprius 


316 


papilla 


322 


potatio 


308 


pridie 316 


, 224 


propter 


316 


pupillus 


322 


potens 


314 


pridem 


316 


prosapia 


463 


pupugi 


320 


potentia 


314 


princeps33,316 


protinus 


188 


pup us 


322 


potestas 


314 


principalis 




proverbium 


412 


purgatio 


310 


potio 


308 


33 


316 


providens 


236 


purgator 


310 


potior 


314 


principatus 


316 


providentia 


236 


purgatorius 


310 


potis 


314 


principium 


316 


providus 


236 


purgo 


310 


poto 


308 


primus 


316 


proximus 


316 


puritas 


310 


potor 


308 


priscus 


316 


prudens 


236 


purulentus 


319 


potus 


308 


pristinus 


316 


pruina 


316 


purus 


310 


Vpra 


316 


Vpro 


316 


pruna 


321 


pus 


319 


prae 


316 


pro 


316 


Vpu 


310 


pusilanimis 


322 


praecello 


63 


procella 


48 


Vp^ 


319 


pusillus 


322 


praecentor 


32 


procello 


48 


Vp^ 


322 


pusus 


322 


praeceps 


52 


procerus 


67 


puber 


322 


putamen 


310 


praeceptor 


33 


procreo 


67 


pubertas 


322 


putator 


310 


praecipito 


52 


procul 


48 


pubes 


322 


puteo 


319 


prae da 


155 


proculco 


435 


pubis 


322 


puter 


319 


praedatoriusloo 


proditor 


225 


publicanus 


304 


puto 


310 


praedico 


10 


prodo 


225 


publice 


304 


putor 


319 


praedium 


155 


profanus 


339 


publico 


304 


putrefacio 


319 


praedo 


155 


profecto 


256 


publicus 


304 


putreo 


319 


praedor 


155 


professio 


339 


puella 


322 


putresco 


319 


praefatio 


339 


professor 


339 


puer 


322 


putridus 


319 


praeficio 


256 


proficio 


256 


puera 


322 


putris 


319 


praegnans 


112 


proficiscor 


256 


puerilis 


322 


putus 


310 


praehendo 


155 


profiteor 


339 


pueritia 


322 






praejudiciuml25 


profundus 


273 


Vpug 


320 


Q- 




praeoccupo 


33 


profusus 


165 


pugil 


320 




pracpedio 


242 


progenies 


112 


pugio 


320 


quadrans 


517 


praepes 


173 


progenitor 


112 


pugna 


320 


quadrigae 


517 


praeposterus316 


prolato 


195 


pugnax 


320 


quadro 


517 


praes 


248 


proles 


426 


pugno 


320 


quadrupes 


517 


praescisco 


45 


prolixus 


127 


pugnus 


320 


qualis 


506 


praesens 


459 


prolubium 


447 


Vpul 


307 


quam 


506 


praeses 


234 


promiscuus 


397 


Vpul 


323 


quando 


506 


praesento 


459 


pronus 


316 


pullatus 


293 


quantus 


506 


praesidium 


234 


propago 


285 


pullus 


293 


quartus 


517 


praesidens 


234 


prope 


316 


puUus 


322 


quater 


517 


praesto 


316 


propediem 




pulmo 


307 


quattuor 


517 


praestolor 


176 


224 


, 316 


pulmonarius307 


quatuor 


517 


praesul 


523 


propemodo 


316 


pulmoneus 


307 


que 25 


,516 



234 



LATIN INDEX. 



Vqui 


44 


V^eg 


134 


V'rou 


421 


salebra 


523 


Vqui 


519 


regalis 


134 


Vru 


421 


salio 


523 


quid 


619 


regio 


134 


-^m 


425 


salio 


524 


quies 


44 


regnum 


134 


Vrub 


253 


saliva 


456 


quiesco 


44 


rego 


134 


rubedo 


253 


salio 


524 


quintus 


504 


regula 


134 


rubefacio 


253 


salo 


524 


quinque 


504 


relaxo 


127 


rubellus 


253 


salsus 


524 


quis 


519 


relego 


440 


rubeo 


253 


salto 


523 


Vquo 


506 


religio 


440 


ruber 


253 


saltus 


523 


quo 


506 


relinquo 


500 


rubesco 


253 


salubris 


454 


quod 


506 


reliquiae 


500 


rubeus 


253 


salum 


455 


quot 


506 


reliquus 


500 


rubigo 


253 


salus 


454 


quotiens 


506 


relligio 


440 


rubor 


253 


salveo 


454 


quoties 


506 


relliquiae 


500 


rubrica 


253 


salvus 


454 


quotus 


506 


reluo 


448 


rubrus 


253 


sancio 


462 






remedium 


358 


rubus 


253 


sanctifico 


462 


R. 




remigium 


411 


Y^rud 


253 


sanctio 


462 






reminiscor 


358 


Vruf 


253 


sanitas 


462 


Vra 


411 


remuneror 


380 


rufesco 


253 


sano 


462 


radix 


420 


remus 


411 


Rufio 


253 


sanus 


462 


Vrap 


275 


renuo 


369 


rufus 


253 


. Vsa-p 


463 


rapax 


275 


V^^P 


281 


Rufus 


253 


Vsap 


503 


rapidus 


275 


repo 


281 


rugio 


417 


Vsap 


503 


rapina 


275 


repraesento 459 


rugitus 


417 


sapa 


503 


rapio 


275 


reptilis 


281 


ruina 


421 


sapidus 


503 


raptim 


275 


repto 


281 


rumifico 


425 


sapiens 


503 


raptor 


275 


reputo 


310 


Rumo 


421 


sapio 


503 


raptus 


275 


requies 


44 


rumor 


425 


sapo 


503 


ratis 


411 


rescisco 


45 


rumpo 


283 


sapor 


503 


Vrau 


425 


resecro 


462 


ruo 


421 


sarmentum 


276 


raucus 


425 


resero 


422 


Vrup 


283 


Vsarp 


276 


ravis 


425 


resurrectio 


134 


rutilo 


253 


sarpo 


276 


ravus 


425 


rete 


422 


rutilus 


253 


salio 


463 


V^e 


411 


reticulatus 


422 






sator 


463 


rebello 


231 


reticulum 


422 






Saturnus 


463 


reboo 


513 


revereor 


415 


S. 




saxum 


45 


recalco 


435 


rex 


134 


Vs 


459 


-^scad 


96 


receptaculum 33 


Vn 


443 


"v/sa 


462 


scaena 


100 


reciprocus 


316 


V^^S 


145 


Vsa 


463 


scaevitas 


94 


reclino 


57 


rigo 


145 


Vsac 


45 


scaevus 


94 


recognosco 


120 


rivales 


443 


sacellum 


462 


scala 


96 


recreo 


67 


rivalis 


443 


sacer 


462 


Vscalp 


95 


rectus 


134 


rivo 


443 


sacerdos 


462 


scalpellum 


95 


recuso 


60 


rivulus 


443 


sacramentum 462 


scalpo 


95 


redono 


225 


rivus 


443 


sacro 


462 


scalprum 


95 


reddo 


225 


y'ro 


421 


sacrum 


462 


scamnum 


97 


recondo 


256 


V^ob 


253 


saecularis 


463 


Y^scand 


243 


refercio 


346 


robeus 


253 


saeculum 


463 


scando 


96 


refertus 


346 


robigo 


253 


Vsal 


455 


scandula 


243 


reficio 


256 


r obi us 


253 


Vsal 


523 


Vscap 


97 


refugiura 


142 


robus 


253 


sal 


524 


scapus 


97 


refute 


165 


Roma 


421 


salax 


523 


sceiia 


100 



LATIN INDEX. 



235 



schola 


148 


semper 


377 


sido 


234 


somnificus 


324 


^sci 


45 


senator 


357 


silva 


458 


somnio 


324 


Vscid 


244 


senatus 


357 


silvestris 


458 


somnium 


324 


scientia 


45 


senecta 


357 


silvosus 


458 


somnolentus324 


scindo 


244 


senectus 


357 


^sim 


377 


somnulentus324 


scio 


45 


seneo 


357 


similis 


377 


somnus 


324 


scipio 


97 


senesco 


357 


similitudo 


377 


sons 


459 


scisco 


45 


senex 


357 


similo 


377 


sonticus 


459 


scitum 


45 


senilis 


357 


simitu 


377 


Vsop 


324 


scitus 


45 


senior 


357 


simplex 377, 488 


sopio 


324 


scopae 


97 


senium 


357 


simul 


377 


sopor 


324 


scopio 


97 


septem 


280 


simulacrum 


377 


soporo 


324 


Vscrib 


122 


September 


280 


simulator 


377 


sopcrus 


324 


scriba 


122 


septemtriones 1 98 


simulo 


377 


^sor 


422 


scribo 


122 


septentrionesl98 


simultas 


377 


V^or 


528 


V^scrob 


122 


septeni 


280 


singularis 


377 


sorbeo 


337 


scrobis 


122 


septies 


280 


singuli 488,377 


sorbillo 


337 


y'scrof 


122 


Septimus 


280 


sisto 


175 


sorbitio 


337 


scrofa 


122 


septuaginta 


280 


V'soc 


497 


sors 


422 


Vscu 


101 


septumus 


280 


socer 


17 


sortio 


422 


scutum 


101 


Vseq 


497 


socialis 


497 


sortior 


422 


Vse 


4G3' 


Vsequ 


497 


societas 


497 


sospes 


462 


se 


489 


sequester 


497 


socio 


497 


Vspec 


99 


Vsec 


45 


sequestro 


497 


socius 


497 


species 


99 


Vsec 


497 


sequor 


497 


socrus 


17 


specimen 


99 


seco 


45 


y'ser 


528 


y'sod 


252 


specio 


99 


sectio 


45 


Vser . 


422 


Vsod 


252 


specto 


99 


sector 


497 


sera 


422 


sodalis 


252 


spectrum 


99 


secularis 


4G3 


serene 


528 


Vsol 


235 


specula 


99 


seculum 


4G3 


serenus 


528 


Vsol 


528 


speculor 


99 


secundo 


497 


series 


422 


Vsol 


234 


speculum 


99 


secundus 


497 


sermo 


422 


sol 


528 


Vsper 


323 


securis 


45 


sero 


422 


Solaris 


528 


sperno 


323 


securus 


60 


sero 


463 


solea 


235 


spolium 


101 


secus 


497 


Vserp 


281 


solemnis 


OOQ 

OOO 


Vspre 


323 


•v/sed 


234 


serpens 


281 


solennis 


333 


spretio 


323 


Vsed 


235 


serpo 


281 


solicito 


54 


spretor 


323 


sedatio 


234 


serra 


45 


solidus 


527 


Vsp^ 


318 


sedatus 


234 


serratus 


45 


solium 


234 


spuma 


318 


sedeo 


234 


sertum 


422 


soUemnis 


ctnrt 
OOO 


spumeus 


318 


sedes 


234 


servilis 


422 


sollennis 


527 


spumidus 


318 


seditio 


493 


servio 


422 


sollempnis 


333 


spumo 


318 


sedo 


234 


servitium 


422 


sollennis 


333 


spuo 


318 


sedulus 


235 


servitudo 


422 


sellers 527,408 


V^pur 


323 


segmentum 


45 


sewius 


422 


sollicito 


54 


spurius 


323 


selibra 


382 


sessio 


234 


sollicitus 54 


,527 


sputum 


318 


sella 


234 


sestertius 


382 


solliferreus 


527 


squaleo 


46 


semel 


377 


sex 


473 


soUus 


527 


squalidus 


46 


seme 


4G3 


sextus 


473 


solstitium 


175 


squakir 


46 


semi- 


382 


sexus 


45 


solum 


235 


Vsre 


422 


seminarium 


4G3 


Vsi 


463 


solvo 


448 


Vsta 


175 


semino 


463 


sica 


45 


somnifer 


324 


v'sta 


175 



^o5 




LATIN 


INDEX. 








stabilis 


175 


stupeo 


187 


superstitio 


175 


tempestas 


196 


stabulum 


175 


stupidus 


187 


superus 


325 


templum 


196 


statim 


175 


stuppa 


187 


supinus 


326 


tempto 


188 


statio 


175 


y'su 


466 


supplementum 


tern pus 


196 


stator 


175 


y'suad 


209 




304 


Vten 


188 


Stator 


175 


suadela 


209 


supplicatio 


92 


tenax 


188 


statuo 


175 


suadeo 


209 


supplico 


92 


tendo 


188 


status 


175 


suasio 


209 


suppuro 


319 


teneo 


188 


Vsteg 


135 


suasor 


209 


supra 


325 


tener 


188 


stega 


135 


suavis 


209 


supremus 


325 


tenor 


188 


Stella 


167 


suavitas 


209 


^sur 


423 


tento 


188 


Vster 


167 


suavium 


209 


surge 


134 


tenuis 


188 


Vster 


185 


sub 


326 


surrigo 


134 


tenuo 


188 


sterilis 


180 


subdo 


2oQ 


surrubeo 


253 


ten us 


188 


sterno 


185 


subitus 


493 


sursum 


326 


tepe facie 


256 


Vstig 


152 


subjugo 


125 


sus 


467 


Vter 


197 


Vstig 


183 


sublimis 


442 


susurro 


423 


x/ter 


198 


stilus 


183 


suboles 


426 


susurrus 


423 


ter (st.) 


204 


stimulo 


183 


subsidium 


234 


sutela 


466 


ter 


204 


stimulus 


183 


subtemen 


194 


sutor 


466 


terebra 


198 


vesting 


183 


subter 


326 


sutura 


466 


terebre 


198 


stinguo 


183 


subterfugium 142 


suus 


489 


teredo 


198 


Vstip 


181 


subtilis 


194 






teres 


198 


stipa 


187 


subtilitas 


194 


T. 




termen 


197 


stipator 


181 


subula 


466 


Vta 


190 


termine 


197 


stipendium 


181 


suculentus 


503 


tabeo 


190 


terminus 


197 


stipes 


181 


sucus 


503 


tabes 


190 


termo 


197 


stipis 


181 


^sud 


237 


tabesco 


190 


terni 


204 


stipo 


181 


sudo 


237 


tabum 


190 


tere 


198 


stipula 


181 


sudor 


237 


tactio 


189 


terra 


200 


stipulor 


181 


-y/sued 


252 


tactus 


189 


terree 


202 


stipulus 


181 


suesco 


252 


Vtag 


189 


terribilis 


202 


sto 


175 


sufficio 


256 


tagax 


189 


terrifice 


202 


Vstol 


176 


suffimen 


265 


talpa 


95 


terror 


202 


stolidus 


176 


suffimentum 265 


tango 


189 


Vters 


202 


■v/stor 


185 


suffio 


265 


tata 


201 


tertius 


204 


Vstra 


185 


suffitio 


265 


taurus 


191 


testa 


200 


Vstrag 


465 


suggrunda 


156 


taxo 


189 


testaceus 


200 


strages 


185 


sugo 


503 


Vte 


192 


testu 


200 


stramen 


185 


sum 


459 


Vtec 


194 


testudo 


200 


^Strang 


465 


sumen 


503 


tectum 


135 


testum 


200 


strata 


185 


summa 


325 


Vteg 


135 


tetuli 


195 


stratum 


185 


summus 


325 


V^eg 


135 


texe 


194 


stratus 


185 


suo 


466 


tegimen 


135 


textilis 


194 


Vstrig 


465 


supellex 


440 


tegmen 


135 


textor 


194 


strigilis 


464 


super 


325 


tego 


135 


textus 


194 


Vstring 


465 


superbus 


325 


tegulae 


135 


tignum 


194 


stringo 


465 


superficialis 


339 


tegumen 


135 


tigurium 


135 


strues #^185 | 


superficies 


339 


tegurium 


135 


tinctura 


193 


struo 


185 


superior 


325 


tela 


194 


tinc^o 


193 


stultus 


176 


supernus 


325 


telum 


194 


tla 


195 


stupa 


187 


supero 


325 


Vtem 


196 


toga 


135 



LATIN INDEX. 



237 



Vtol 


195 


tribunal 


204 


ulcere 


19 


vappa 


35 


tolerabilis 


195 


tribunus 


204 


ulcus 


19 


vas (bail) 


248 


tolero 


195 


tribuo 


204 


uligo 


137 


vas (vessel^ 


460 


tondeo 


19G 


tribus 


204 


ulula 


453 


vasculum 


460 


tonitrus 


188 


tri!)utum 


204 


ululatus 


453 


Vve 


476 


tuno 


188 


triennium 


333 


ululo 


453 


V^ec 


496 


tonsor 


196 


triens 


204 


umecte 


137 


vecors 


38 


tonus 


188 


trimestris 


395 


umee 


137 


vectigal 


147 


V^or 


198 


trio 


198 


umerus 


407 


vecto 


147 


v/torc 


508 


triplex 


204 


umidus 


137 


vector 


147 


torcular 


508 


trip us 


242 


umor 


137 


vectura 


147 


torculum 


508 


triremis 


411 


^unc 


1 


Vveg 


138 


tormentum 


508 


triticum 


198 


uncus 


1 


vegeo 


138 


torno 


198 


tritor 


198 


■y/und 


247 


vegeto 


138 


tornus 


198 


tritura 


198 


unda 


247 


Vveh 


147 


^torqu 


508 


trituro 


198 


undo 


247 


vehemens 


358 


torqueo 


508 


trivialis 


204 


unguiculus 


375 


vehes 


147 


torques 


508 


trivium 


204 


unguis 


375 


vehiculum 


147 


torquis 


508 


Vtru 


198 


ungula 


375 


veho 


147 


torreo 


200 


trua 


198 


ungulatus 


375 


vel 


525 


torrens 


200 


tu 


192 


ungulus 


1 


vellus 


413 


torris 


200 


Vtu 


205 


unicus 


373 


velo 


147 


Vtors 


200 


tuber 


205 


unio 


373 


velum 


147 


torto 


508 


Vtud 


206 


unus 


373 


Vven 


509 


tortor 


508 


tudes 


206 


Vurg 


124 


Vven 


509 


tortuosus 


508 


tugurium 


135 


uro 


491 


venalis 


376 


tortura 


508 


Vtul 


195 


ursa 


4 


vendo 


376 


tortus 


508 


tuli 


195 


ursus 


4 


vendo 


225 


Vtra 


197 


tule 


195 


V^s 


491 


veneo 


376 


traditio 


225 


tumefacio 


205 


ustor 


491 


venio 


509 


trade 


225 


tumeo 


205 


utcr 


506 


veno 


376 


trans 


197 


tumesco 


205 


uterque 


506 


venter 


110 


transfigure 


126 


tumidus 


205 


utpote 


314 


ventilo 


476 


transfuga 


142 


tumor 


205 


uvesco 


137 


ventio 


509 


transtrum 


197 


tumulus 


205 


uvidus 


137 


ventite 


509 


tre (St.) 


204 


tundo 


206 


uvor 


137 


ventulus 


476 


y'trem 


203 


turba 


208 






ventus 


476 


tremefacio 


203 


turbidus 


208 


V. 




venui 


376 


tremendus 


203 


turbo 


208 


Vva 


476 


venum 


376 


tremesce 


203 


turbulentus 


208 


V'vad 


248 


venus 


376 


tremisce 


203 


turma 


208 


vadimonium 248 


Vver 


412 


tremo 


203 


tutudi 


206 


vador 


248 


Vver 


415 


tremor 


203 


tuus 


192 


valles 


430 


ver 


478 


tremulus 


203 


tympanum 


207 


vallis 


430 


verbalis 


412 


tres 


204 






vallo 


432 


verbosus 


412 


Vtri 


198 


U. 




vallum 


432 


verbum 


412 


tri (St.) 


204 




vallus 


432 


verecundus 


415 


tria 


204 


uber 


269 


vannus 


476 


vereor 


415 


triarii 


204 


ubi 


506 


Vvap 


35 


vernalis 


478 


tribula 


198 


Vul 


426 


vapidus 


35 


vernus 


478 


tribulo 


198 


V^l 


453 


vapor 


35 


^ves 


460 


tribulum 


198 


ulceratio 


19 


vaporo 


35 


vescer 


233 



238 



LATIN INDEX. 



vescus 


233 


victus 


512 


virgo 


133 


vocatus 


496 


vespa 


468 


vicus 


85 


virulentus 


480 


vociferor 


496 


vesper 


4G1 


Vvid 


236 


virus 


480 


voco 


496 


vespera 


461 


Vvid 


236 


vis 


481 


VvolCu)? 


277 


vespeitinus 


461 


videlicet 


236 


visitatio 


236 


Vvol 


429 


vestigium 


152 


video 


236 


visito 


236 


Vvol 


525 


vestigo 


152 


vieo 


482 


viso 


236 


volo 


525 


vestio 


460 


V^ig 


138 


vita 


512 


volubilis 


429 


vestis 


460 


Vvi-g 


512 


vitalis 


512 


volumen 


429 


veteranus 


169 


vigeo 


138 


vitis 


482 


voluntarius 


525 


veterasco 


169 


vigesco 


138 


vitium 


482 


voluntas 


525 


vetulus 


169 


vigesimus 


13 


vito 


14 


volup 


277 


vetus 


169 


vigil 


138 


vitreus 


236 


voluptas 


277 


vetustus 


169 


vigilo 


138 


vitrum 


236 


voluptuosus 


>277 


vexillum 


147 


viginti 


13 


vitta 


482 


voluto 


429 


vexo 


147 


vigor 


138 


vitulus 


170 


volvo 


429 


v'vi 


482 


villa 


85 


vitupero 


482 


Vvom 


381 


Vvi 


512 


villus 


413 


y'vi-v 


512 


vomitio 


381 


via 


147 


vimen 


482 


vivacitas 


512 


vomito 


381 


V^ic 


14 


vinum 


483 


vivax 


512 


vomitus 


381 


v-'vic 


16 


vio 


147 


vividus 


512 


vomo 


381 


\/vic 


85 


viola 


479 


vivo 


512 


V^or 


514 


vicensimus 


13 


violentus 


481 


vivus 


512 


voracitas 


514 


vicesimus 


13 


violo 


481 


y'vOC 


496 


vorago 


514 


vicinus 


85 


vipera 


313 


vocabulum 


496 


vorax 


514 


vicis 


14 


•v/virg 


133 


vocalis 


496 


voro 


514 


vicissim 


14 


virga 


133 


vocatio 


496 


vox 


496 



ENGLISH INDEX OF COGNATE WOEDS. 



o'i^o 



[The figures refer to the numbers of the sets.] 



abdicate 


10 


acute 


2 


agility 


104 


amplify 333,256 


abduce 


12 


add 


225 


agitate 


104 


amputate 


310 


abduction 


12 


adduce 


12 


agrarian 


106 


anacoluthon 47 


abjure 


125 


adduction 


12 


agree 


158 


analysis 


448 


ablution 


449 


adjacent 


493 


agreeable 


158 


anarchy 


143 


aboriginal 


414 


adjective 


493 


agriculture 


106 


anchor 


1 


aborigines 


414 


adjoin 


125 


Alban 


332 


ancient 


166 


abortion 


414 


adjudge 


125 


albumen 


332 


ancillary 


1 


abound 


247 


adjudicate 


125 


alien 


427 


anger 


144 


abrupt 


283 


adjunct 


125 


alienate 


427 


angle 


1 


abundant 


247 


admirable 


388 


aliment 


426 


anguish 


144 


abscond 


256 


admire 


388 


alimony 


426 


animal 


350 


absent 


459 


admonish 


358 


aliquot 


427 


animate 


350 


absolute 


448 


admonition 


358 


alleviate 


146 


animated 


350 


absolution 


448 


adult 


426 


alligation 


130 


animation 


350 


absolve 


448 


adulterer 


427 


allocution 


77 


animosity 


350 


absorb 


337 


advent 


509 


alluvial 


449 


annals 


333 


abstain 


188 


adventure 


509 


Alps 


332 


anniversary 


333 


absurd 


423 


adverb 


412 


alter 


427 


annotation 


120 


accelerate 


48 


aedile 


249 


alterative 


427 


annual 


333 


accent 


32 


aerate 


476 


altercate 


427 


annular 


333 


acclaim 


23 


aeriform 


476 


altercation 


427 


answer 


166 


acclamation 


28 


aerolite 


476 


alternate 


427 


ante 


166 


accretion 


67 


aeronaut 


476 


alternative 


427 


antedate 


166 


accuse 


GO 


affable 


339 


altitude 


426 


anterior 


166 


acephalous 


52 


affect 


256 


alumnus 


426 


anti- 


166 


acerbity 


2 


affection 


256 


am 


459 


anticipate 


33 


acetic 


2 


affectation 


256 


amaranth 


393 


antique 


166 


acid 


2 


affiance 


271 


ambiguous 


104 


antiquity 


166 


acoustic 


60 


affidavit 


271 


ambition 


493 


anxious 


144 


acquiesce 


44 


affirm 


261 


amble 


509 


apiary 


278 


acre 


106 


affix 


136 


ambrosia 


393 


apocope 


64 


acrid 


2 


affluence 


345 


ambulance 


509 


apostle 


176 


acrimony 


2 


affluent 


345 


ambulant 


509 


apothecary 


256 


act 


104 


agent 


104 


ambulatory 


509 


apparent 


313 


action 


104 


aggravate 


511 


amend 


398 


appear 


313 


actor 


104 


aggrieve 


511 


ammunition 380 | 


appease 


285 


acumen 


2 


agile 


104 


ample 


333 1 


aj^petence 


173 



240 



ENGLISH INDEX OF COGNATE WORDS. 



appetite 


173 


astral 


167 


base 


509 


cap 


52 


applicant 


92 


astringent 


465 


basis 


509 


capacious 


33 


application 


92 


athlete 


248 


be 


348 


capacity 


33 


apposite 


317 


athletic 


248 


bear 


344 


cape 


52 


apposition 


317 


atmosphere 


477 


because 


60 


caper 


36 


apprehend 


155 


atrophy 


199 


bedstead 


175 


capillary 


52 


apprehensionloo 


attain 


188 


bee 


278 


capital 


52 


arable 


410 


attempt 


188 


belligerent 


231 


capitol 


52 


arbiter 


509 


attend 


188 


beneficent 


256 


capitulate 


52 


arbitrary 


509 


attribute 


204 


bereave 


275 


capricious 


36 


arbitrate 


509 


attrition 


198 


bibulous 


308 


Capricorn 


36 


ardent 


158 


attenuate 


188 


biennial 


333 


caprice 


36 


argent 


107 


auction 


138 


binary 


231 


captain 


52 


argil 


107 


audacious 


475 


bind 


270 


captive 


33 


argillaceous 


107 


audible 


475 


biography 


512 


captor 


33 


argue 


107 


audience 


475 


biology 


512 


cardinal 


G6 


argument 


107 


audit 


475 


biped 


242 


care 


60 


aristocracy 


67 


augment 


138 


birth 


344 


carnal 


68 


arithmetic 


408 


augmentation 


bleat 


328 


carp 


41 


ark 


3 




138 


blink 


140 


castigate 


24 


arm 


408 


augur 


485 


bloom 


345 


cathartic 


24 


arm (vb.) 


408 


augury 


485 


blow 


345 


catholic 


527 


armada 


408 


August 


138 


bond 


279 


causal 


60 


armature 


408 


august 


138 


boor 


348 


cause 


60 


armor 


408 


Augustus 


138 


bore 


340 


caustic 


42 


arms 


408 


auricular 


495 


bos 


515 


caution 


60 


army 


408 


aurist 


495 


bossy 


515 


cautious 


60 


arson 


158 


auscultation 495 


both 


334 


cave 


73 


art 


408 


auspices 


485 


bovine 


515 


cavern 


73 


artful 


408 


auspicious 


485 


bow 


142 


cavity 


73 


article 


408 


author 


138 


bright 


140 


celerity 


48 


articulate 


408 


authority 


138 


brother 


347 


celestial 


73 


artifice 


408 


autobiography 


brutal 


511 


cell 


29 


artificer 


408 




512 


brute 


511 


cellar 


29 


artificial 


408 


autocrat 


67 


bucolic 


48 


cellular 


29 


artillery 


408 


auxiliary 


138 


bulb 


329 


cellule 


29 


artisan 


408 


avarice 


475 


bulbous 


329 


cellulose 


29 


artist 


408 


aviary 


485 






cement 


244 


artless 


408 


avidity 


475 


C. 




cent 


15 


ascend 


96 


avocation 


496 




centiped 


242 


ascribe 


122 


axis 


470 


calculate 


42 


centurion 


15 


askew 


94 


axle 


470 


calculus 


42 


century 


15 


aspect 


99 


aye 


474 


calendar 


28 


cereal 


67 


assail 


523 






call 


117 


cerebral 


37 


assault 


523 


B. 




calyx 


29 


ceremony 


67 


assess 


234 




camp 


53 


Ceres 


67 


assiduous 


234 


bairn 


344 


can 


120 


certain 


69 


assist 


175 


band 


270 


cancer 


39 


chamber 


31 


assize 


234 


barbarous 


327 


canine 


75 


chant 


32 


associate 


497 


baritone 


511 


cant 


32 


chanticleer 


32 


association 


497 


barometer 


511 


canticle 


32 


chaos 


154 


asthma 


476 


barytone 


511 


cantillate 


32 


chapter 


52 



ENGLISH INDEX OF COGNATE WOEDS. 



241 



chasm 


154 


combustion 491 


concrete 


67 


constriction 465 


chaste 


24 


comedy 44 


concretion 


67 


construct 185 


chasten 


24 


comma 64 


condemn 


225 


construe 185 


chastise 


24 


commemorate 


condense 


216 


consummate 325 


chin 


353 


391 


condone 


225 


contact 189 


chirography 


159 


commensurable 


conduce 


12 


contagious 189 


Christ 


164 


386 


conduct 


12 


contain 183 


circle 


74 


comment 358 


conddct 


12 


contaminate 189 


circulate 


74 


commentary 358 


conduction 


12 


contemplate 196 


circulation 


74 


commerce 392 


cone 


76 


contemporary 


circumduct 


12 


commode 238 


confer 


344 


196 


circumduction 12 


commodious 238 


conference 


344 


contend 188 


circumference 


commodity 238 


confess 


339 


content 188 




344 


common 380 


confession 


339 


context 194 


circumfluent 345 


commotion 379 


confidant 


271 


contingent 189 


circumjacent 493 


commune(n.)380 


confide 


271 


continuous 188 


circumspect 


99 


commune (vb.) 


confident 


271 


contort 508 


circumstance 175 


380 


confirm 


261 


contortion 508 


circumvallation 


communicate 380 


confluence 


345 


contradict 10 




432 


commute 379 


confluent 


345 


contribute 204 


cite 


54 


compete 173 


confuse 


165 


contrite 198 


city 


44 


competence 173 


confute 


165 


contrition 198 


civic 


44 


competent 173 


congratulate 158 


contusion 206 


civil 


44 


complement 304 


conic 


76 


convene 509 


claim 


28 


compliment 304 


conical 


76 


convent 509 


clamor 


28 


complete 304 


conjecture 


493 


convention 509 


clandestine 


29 


complex 92 


conjoin 


125 


convocation 496 


clarify 


58 


complexion 92 


conjugal 


125 


convoke 496 


class 


28 


complicate 92 


conjugate 


125 


convolution 429 


classical 


28 


complication 92 


conjunction 


125 


convolve 429 


clavicle 


56 


comport 313 


conjunctive 


125 


cook 505 


clear 


58 


compose 317 


conjure 


125 


cordial 38 


client 


58 


composite 317 


connoisseur 


120 


corn 49 


climate 


57 


composition 317 


connubial 


335 


corner 49 


climax 


57 


comprehend 155 


conscience 


45 


cornet 49 


climie 


57 


comprehension 


conscious 


45 


cornucopia 49 


close 


56 


155 


conscript 


122 


corona 74 


coalesce 


426 


compunction 320 


consecrate 


462 


coronal 74 


coerce 


3 


compute 310 


consecutive 


497 


coronation 74 


cognate 


112 


con 120 


consequent 


497 


coronel 74 


cognition 


120 


conceal 29 


consequence 497 


coroner 74 


cognizant 


120 


conceit 33 


consist 


175 


coronet 74 


cohort 


159 


conceive 33 


consociate 


497 


corporal 67 


colleague 


440 


concent 32 


consociation 49 7 


corporate 67 


collect 


440 


conception 33 


consort 


422 


corporation 67 


college 


440 


concern 69 


conspicuous 99 


corporeal 67 


colloquial 


77 


concert 69 


constant 


175 


corps 67 


colloquy 


77 


concert 69 


constellation 167 


corpse 67 


colonel 


74 


conch 61 


consternation 185 


corpulent 67 


color 


29 


conch ology 61 


constipate 


181 


correct 134 


column 


63 


concise 244 


constitute 


175 


corrupt 283 


combine 


231 


conclude 56 


constrict 


465 


cosmopolitan 3 11 



242 



ENGLISH INDEX OF COGNATE "WORDS. 



cosmorama 415 


cyclopedia 


74 


deign 11 


desultory 


523 


council 28 


cynic 


75 


deity 224 


detain 


188 


court 159 


cynosure 


75 


dejected 493 


determination 


crabbed 2 






delectable 18 




197 


cranial 37 


D. 




delicate 18 


determine 


197 


cranium 37 




delicious 18 


detonate 


188 


create 67 


dactyl 


7 


delight 18 


detriment 


196 


creator 67 


daisy 


502 


delineate 444 


deuce 


231 


creature 67 


damage 


225 


deUnquent 500 


Deuteronomy 


credence 256 


dame 


213 


deluge 449 




231 


credential 256 


damn 


225 


demented 358 


deviate 


147 


credible 256 


dare 


260 


democracy 67 


Devil 


510 


credit 256 


date 


225 


demonstrate 358 


devious 


147 


creditor 256 


dative 


225 


demur 391 


devolve 


429 


credulous 256 


daughter 


263 


demurrage 391 


devour 


514 


creed 256 


daunt 


213 


dendriform 230 


dexterous 


220 


crescent 67 


day 


224 


dendrology 230 


dextrous 


220 


crime 69 


deceit 


33 


dendrometer 230 


diabolical 


510 


criminal 69 


deceive 


33 


denominate 374 


diadem 


218 


criminate 69 


December 


8 


denomination 


dial 


224 


crisis 69 


decent 


11 


374 


dialect 


440 


criterion 69 


deception 


33 


denote 120 


dialectic 


440 


critic 69 


decimal 


8 


dense 216 


dialogue 


440 


critical 69 


decide 


244 


dentated 241 


dictate 


10 


criticise 69 


deck 


135 


dentifrice 164 


dictator 


10 


croak 65 


declaim 


28 


dentist 241 


diction 


10 


crook 74 


declamation 28 


dentition 241 


dictionary 


10 


crow 65 


declare 


58 


depict 90 


diduction 


12 


crown 74 


declension 


57 


deplete 304 


differ 


344 


crude 70 


declination 


57 


deponent 317 


difficulty 


256 


cruel 70 


decline 


57 


deport 313 


diffident 


271 


crust 70 


decoction 


505 


deportment 313 


diffuse 


165 


crystal 70 


decorate 


11 


deplore 317 


digit 


7 


cuckoo 62 


decorous 


11 


depredation 155 


dignity 


11 


culinary 505 


decorum 


11 


deputation 310 


diligent 


440 


culm 27 


decrease 


67 


depute 310 


dilute 


449 


culminate 63 


decree 


69 


deputy 310 


dilution 


449 


cuneiform 76 


decrement 


67 


derelict 500 


diluvial 


449 


cuniform 76 


dedicate 


10 


derivation 443 


diminish 


398 


curate 60 


deduce 


12 


derive 443 


diorama 


415 


curator 60 


deduction 


12 


derm 221 


dire 


223 


cure 60 


deed 


256 


dermatology 221 


direct 


134 


curiosity 60 


deem 


256 


descend 96 


direful 


223 


curious 60 


defence 


257 


describe 122 


discern 


69 


curt 51 


defend 


257 


desist 175 


disciple 


210 


curtail 51 


defer 


344 


despot 314 


discipline 


210 


curved 74 


deference 


344 


destination 175 


disclose 


56 


custody 266 


deficient 


256 


destine 175 


discreet 


69 


custom 252 


deflect 


103 


destitute 175 


discriminate 69 


cycle 74 


defy 


271 


destroy 185 


disdain 


11 


cycloid 74 


degenerate 


112 


destruction 185 


disgust 


115 


cyclone 74 


deglutition 


514 


desuetude 252 


disjoin 


125 



ENGLISH INDEX OF COGNATE WORDS. 



24S 



disjunctive 


125 


dowry 


225 


elect 


440 


exclaim 


23 


dismal 


224 


dragon 


9 


electricity 


20 


exclude 


56 


dispose 


317 


drama 


228 


elegant 


440 


excuse 


60 


dispute 


310 


drill 


198 


element 


426 


execrate 


462 


dissect 


45 


dropsy 


247 


elicit 


18 


exercise 


3 


dissemble 


377 


Druid 


230 


eliminate 


442 


exhume 


157 


dissertation 


422 


dual 


231 


ellipse 


500 


exile 


235 


disseminate 463 


dubious 


231 


ellipsis 


500 


exit 


493 


dissimilar 


377 


ductile 


12 


eloquent 


77 


expect 


99 


dissimulate 


377 


duel 


231 


else 


427 


expedient 


242 


dissociate 


497 


dulcet 


428 


emancipate 


33 


expedite 


242 


dissociation 497 


duplicate 


231 


emend 


398 


expedition 


242 


dissolute 


448 


duplicity 


231 


emetic 


381 


experience 


296 


dissolution 


448 


dust 


265 


emotion 


379 


experiment 


296 


dissolve 


448 


dys- 


232 


empire 


313 


expletive 


304 


dissuade 


209 


dysentery 


232 


emporium 


296 


explicate 


92 


distant 


175 


dyspepsia 




encamp 


53 


explication 


92 


distend 


188 


232 


505 


enchant 


32 


expHcit 


92 


distinguish 


183 


dyspepsy 




enclitic 


57 


export 


313 


distort 


508 


232 


,505 


enervate 


363 


expose 


317 


distortion 


508 






enormity 


120 


expunge 


320 


distribute 


204 


E. 




enormous 


120 


expurgate 


310 


disturb 


208 




ensue 


497 


exscind 


244 


diurnal 


224 


eager 


2 


entrails 


355 


extant 


175 


divine 


224 


ear 


495 


enumerate 


360 


extemporaneous 


do 


256 


eat 


233 


envious 


236 




196 


docile 


210 


edacious 


233 


envy 


236 


extempore 


196 


doctor 


210 


edge (vb.) 


2 


epic 


496 


extemporize 196 


doctrine 


210 


edge (n.) 


2 


equestrian 


499 


extend 


188 


document 


210 


edible 


233 


equine 


499 


extenuate 


188 


domain 


213 


edict 


10 


erect 


134 


exterior 


472 


dome 


219 


edifice 


249 


eruption 


283 


exterminate 197 


domestic 


219 


edify 


256 


erysipelas 


294 


external 


472 


domicile 


219 


edit 


225 


essence 


459 


extinguish 


183 


dominant 


213 


educate 


12 


eternal 


474 


extort 


508 


dominate 


213 


educe 


12 


ether 


249 


extortion 


508 


domineer 


213 


eduction 


12 


ethical 


252 


extra 


472 


dominie 


213 


effect 


256 


ethics 


252 


extraneous 


472 


dominion 


213 


effete 


348 


etymology 


459 


extreme 


472 


donate 


225 


efficacious 


256 


etymon 


459 


extrinsic 


472 


donation 


225 


effigy 


126 


evaporate 


35 


exuberant 


269 


donor 


226 


efflorescence 345 


event 


509 


exude 


237 


doom 


25G 


effluent 


345 


ever 


474 


exult 


523 


door 


264 


effluvium 


345 


evident 


236 


eye 


502 


dormant 


215 


efflux 


345 


evoke 


496 






dormer 


215 


effulgent 


140 


evolution 


429 


F. 




dormitory 


215 


effiise 


165 


evolve 


429 




dormouse 


215 


egg (vb.) 


2 


exalt 


426 


fable 


339 


dorsal 


222 


eight 


86 


excel 


63 


fabricate 


256 


double 


231 


ejaculate 


493 


except 


33 


fabulous 


339 


doubt 


231 


eject 


493 


excite 


54 


face 


339 


dower 


225 


elaborate 


331 


exclamation 28 


facetious 


339 



244 



ENGLISH INDEX OF COGNATE WORDS. 



facetiously 


339 


fiction 


126 


friable 


164 


glue 


446 


facile 


256 


fidelity 


271 


fricative 


164 


glut 


514 


facility 


256 


fierce 


257 


friction 


164 


glyphic 


119 


fact 


25G 


figment 


126 


frigid 


419 


gorge 


514 


faction 


256 


figure 


126 


fugacious 


142 


grace 


158 


factious 


256 


filial 


254 


fugitive 


142 


grammar 


122 


factor 


256 


filly 


322 


fugue 


142 


-graph 


122 


faculty 


256 


fire 


321 


fulminate 


140 


graphic 


122 


faith 


271 


firm 


261 


fume 


265 


grateful 


158 


falcon 


103 


firmament 


261 


fumigate 


265 


gratis 


158 


fall 


457 


fist 


320 


fund 


245 


gratuitous 


158 


fallacious 


457 


fix 


136 


fundamental 2 73 


grave 


122 


fallacy 


457 


flagitious 


140 


funeral 


265 


grave 


511 


fallow 


293 


flagrant 


140 


furnace 


520 


gravity 


511 


false 


457 


flame 


140 


furtive 


344 


grief 


511 


fame 


339 


flexible 


103 


fuse 


165 


grieve 


511 


family 


256 


flourish 


345 


fusion 


165 


grim 


163 


famous 


339 


flow 


345 


futile 


165 


grum 


163 


fan 


476 


flower 


345 


future 


348 


• gullet 


514 


fanatic 


339 


fluctuate 


345 






gully 


514 


fancy 


339 


flue 


345 


G. 




gush 


165 


fane 


339 


fluent 


345 




gust 


115 


fantasm 


339 


fluid 


345 


gage 


248 


gustatory 


115 


fantastic 


339 


flux 


345 


gall 


162 


gutter 


165 


farrago 


344 


foal 


322 


gallinaceoi 


sll7 






farina 


344 


foil 


349 


garden 


159 


H. 




fastidious 


260 


foliage 


349 


garrulous 


117 




fate 


339 


font 


165 


gastric 


110 


hale 


30 


father 


289 


foot 


242 


genealogy 


112 


Harpies 


275 


fathom 


174 


force 


261 


generate 


112 


harvest 


41 


feather 


173 


forceps 


520 


generic 


112 


heal 


80 


fecundate 


348 


fort 


261 


generous 


112 


health 


SO 


fecundity 


348 


forte 


261 


genesis 


112 


heart 


38 


federal 


271 


fortitude 


261 


genital 


112 


heel 


4S5 


federate 


271 


fortify 


261 


genitive 


112 


heir 


159 


feign 


126 


fortnight 


84 


genius 


112 


hell 


29 


feint 


126 


fortress 


261 


genteel 


112 


hereditary 


159 


felicity 


348 


fortuitous 


344 


gentile 


112 


hiatus 


154 


fell 


294 


fortune 


344 


gentle 


112 


hibernate 


161 


felt 


303 


found 


273 


gentleness 


112 


hide 


101 


female 


254 


fount 


165 


gentry 


112 


hierarch 


143 


feminine 


254 


fountain 


165 


genuflection 121 


hieroglyph] 


cll9 


fence 


257 


four 


517 


genuine 


112 


hippodrome 


fend 


257 


fraction 


522 


genus 


112 


229, 499 


fender 


257 


fracture 


522 


geode 


116 


history 


236 


ferocious 


259 


fragile 


522 


geodesy 


110 


homeopathy 377 


ferocity 


259 


fragment 


522 


geography 


116 


home 


44 


fertile 


344 


frail 


522 


geology 440, 116 


homestead 


175 


fertility 


344 


frangible 


522 


geometry 


116 


homicide 


157 


fetid 


265 


fraternal 


347 


get 


155 


homoeopathy377 


fetter 


242 


fraternity 


347 


glorious 


58 


homogeneous 


few 


292 


frequent 


346 


glory 


58 




377 



ENGLISH INDEX OF COGNATE WORDS. 



245 



hone 


76 


implicate 


92 


inflate 


345 


interrupt 


283 


horn 


49 


implication 


92 


inflect 


103 


intersect 


45 


hound 


75 


implicit 


92 


influence 


345 


interstice 


175 


hour 


424 


import 


313 


influx 


345 


interval 


432 


how 


506 


impose 


317 


infraction 


522 


intervene 


509 


human 


157 


impugn 


320 


infringe 


522 


intervention 509 


humane 


157 


impunity 


310 


infuse 


165 


intestine 


355 


humanity 


157 


impure 


310 


ingenious 


112 


intimate 


355 


humble 


157 


in 


355 


ingenuous 


112 


intolerable 


351 


humid 


137 


in- 


351 


inheritance 


159 


intonate 


188 


humility 


157 


inaugurate 


485 


inhumate 


157 


intone 


188 


humor 


137 


incantation 


32 


inhume 


157 


introduce 


12 


hydra 


246 


incentive 


32 


initial 


493 


introduction 12 


hydrant 


247 


inceptive 


33 


initiate 


493 


introspect 


99 


hydrate 


247 


inception 


33 


inject 


493 


inundate 


247 


hydraulic 


247 


incest 


24 


injury 


125 


invent 


509 


hydrogen 


247 


incipient 


33 


innate 


112 


invention 


509 


hydrometer 


247 


incise 


244 


innuendo 


369 


inventory 


509 


hydrophobia 247 


incision 


244 


inoculate 


502 


invidious 


236 


hygiene 


138 


incisive 


244 


insane 


462 


invisible 


236 


hygrometer 


137 


incite 


54 


inscribe 


122 


invite 


496 


hypnotic 


324 


inclination 


57 


insert 


422 


invocation 


496 






incline 


57 


insidious 


234 


invoke 


496 


I. 




inclose 


56 


insipid 


503 


involution 


429 




include 


56 


insist 


175 


involve 


429 


identical 


490 


incorporate 


67 


inspect 


99 


iodine 


479 


identify 


490 


incorporation 67 


instant 


175 


irrigate 


145 


identity 


490 


increase 


67 


instigate 


183 


irruption 


283 


idiom 


489 


increment 


67 


instinct 


183 


is 


459 


idiot 


489 


incrust 


70 


institute 


175 


item 


490 


idol 


236 


inculcate 


435 


instruct 


185 


iterate 


490 


ignominy 


374 


indemnity 


225 


instrument 


185 


itinerant 


493 


ignorant 


120 


indicate 


10 


insult 


523 






ignore 


120 


indigenous 


112 


integer 


189 


J. 




illative 


195 


indignant 


11 


integrity 


189 


janitor 
January 


493 
493 
125 
224 
224 
125 
125 
125 


illicit 


500 


induce 


12 


intellect 


440 


illuminate 


80 


induct 


12 


intelligent 


440 


illustrate 


80 


induction 


12 


intend 


188 


jom 
journal 


illustrious 


80 


inert 


408 


intercalar 


28 


imbibe 


308 


inertia 


408 


intercalary 


28 


journey 

judge 

judicial 

jugular 

jurist 

just 


imbue 


308 


infamous 


339 


intercalate 


28 


immense 


386 


infamy 


339 


intercept 


33 


immolate 


402 


infant 


339 


interception 


33 


125 
125 
125 
224 
1125 


immunity 


380 


infantry 


339 


interclude 


56 


immutable 


379 


infect 


256 


interdict 


10 


impact 


285 


infer 


344 


interfused 


165 


justice 

juvenile 

juxtapositioi 


impede 
imperative 


242 
313 


inference 
infested 


344 
257 


interim 
interject 


355 
493 


imperial 


313 


infirm 


261 


interjection 


493 


K. 




impetuous 


173 


infix 


136 


interlocution 77 




impinge 


285 


inflame 


140 


internecine 


83 


ken 


120 


implement 


304 


inflammation 140 


interpose 


317 


kitchen 


505 



246 



ENGLISH INDEX OF COGNATE WORDS. 



kleptomania 55 


liberator 


447 


M. 


mediterranean 


klopemania 


55 


libertine 


447 


394 


knee 


121 


liberty 


447 


madame 213 


medium 394 


know 


120 


license 


500 


magisterial 387 


meed 267 






licit 


500 


magistracy 387 


mega- 387 


L. 




lick 


151 


magistrate 387 


megalosaurus 




ligament 


130 


magnanimous 


387 


labial 


438 


light (n.) 


80 


387 


megatherium 387 


labiate 


438 


light (adj.) 


146 


magnitude 387 


melancholy 162 


labor (n.) 


331 


limit 


442 


majesty 387 


mellifluous 390 


labor (vb.) 


331 


limpid 


282 


major 387 


melt 239 


laborious 


331 


line 


444 


majority 387 


memorable 391 


lacerate 


78 


lineal 


444 


mal- 451 


memorial 391 


lachrymal 


6 


lineament 


444 


male- 451 


memory 391 


lactation 


109 


linear 


444 


malediction 451 


mend 398 


lacteal 


109 


linen 


444 


malefactor 451 


mendacious 358 


lag 


128 


linger 


128 


malevolent 451 


mendicant 398 


laggard 


128 


liniment 


443 


malice 451 


menstrual 395 


lake 


78 


lion 


445 


malign 451 


mensurable 386 


lamp 


282 


lip 


438 


malignant 451 


mensuration 386 


languid 


127 


liquid 


500 


maltreat 451 


mental 358 


languor 


127 


liquor 


500 


mania 358 


mention 358 


lantern 


282 


literal 


443 


maniac 358 


mentor 358 


lap (vb.) 


438 


literature 


443 


manifest 257 


mercantile 392 


lascivious 


433 


liturgy 


436 


maniple 304 


mercenary 392 


latitude 


185 


livid 


293 


manipulate 304 


merchandise392 


laud 


58 


logarithm 


440 


mansion 358 


merchant 392 


laudable 


58 


logic 


440 


manual 386 


meridian 394 


lave 


449 


logomachy 




manufacture 386 


meridional 394 


lax 


127 


440, 384 


manumit 386 


merit 392 


league 


130 


-logy 


440 


manuscript 386 


mete 386 


lean (vb.) 


57 


long 


128 


martyr 391 


metre 386 


leave 


500 


longitude 


128 


master 387 


metrical 386 


lection 


440 


look 


80 


material 396 


metropolis 311 


lecture 


440 


loquacious 


77 


maternal 396 


mid- 394 


legal 


130 


lose 


448 


mathematical358 


middle 394 


legible 


440 


lotion 


449 


mathematics 358 


midst 394 


legion 


440 


loud 


58 


matriculate 396 


midge 401 


legionary 


440 


lucid 


80 


matrimony 396 


mild 389 


legislate 


130 


lucrative 


437 


matron 396 


milk 131 


legitimate 


130 


lucre 


437 


matter 396 


mill 402 


leguminous 


440 


lugubrious 


129 


mayor 387 


mimesis" 386 


-less 


448 


luminous 


80 


me 385 


mimic 386 


letter 


443 


lunar 


80 


meal 402 


mince 398 


levigate 


441 


lunatic 


80 


measure 386 


mind (n.) 358 


levity 


146 


lune 


80 


mean (vb.) 358 


mind(vb.) 358 


liable 


130 


lust 


433 


mediate 394 


Minerva 358 


libation 


443 


lustral 


449 


mediator 394 


minim 398 


liberal 


447 


lustrum 


449 


medical 358 


minimum 398 


liberality 


447 


lute 


449 


medicine 358 


minister 398 


liberate 


447 


luxate 


442 


mediocre 394 


ministry 398 


liberation 


447 


luxation 


442 


meditate 358 


minor 398 



ENGLISH INDEX OP COGNATE \V0ED3. 



247 



minstrel 


398 


muniment 


380 


nomenclature 


obviate 


147 


mint 


358 


munition 


380 


28, 


374 


olTvious 


147 


minus 


398 


mural 


380 


nominal 


374 


occult 


29 


minute 


398 


murder 


393 


nominate 


374 


occultation 


29 


mindte 


398 


murmur 


399 


nominative 


374 


occupation 


33 


miracle 


388 


muscle 


403 


non- 


365 


occupy 


33 


miscellaneous | 


muscular 


403 


none 


365 


octave 


86 




397 


musquito 


401 


Nones 


356 


ocular 


502 


mix 


397 


mussel 


403 


normal 


120 


oculist 


502 


mixture 


397 


mutable 


379 


not 


365 


odious 


268 


mnemonic 


358 


mute 


400 


notation 


120 


odium 


268 


mob 


379 


mutiny 


379 


note 


120 


odor 


240 


mobile 


379 


mutter 


400 


notion 


120 


odorous 


240 


mobility 


379 


mutual 


379 


noun 


374 


of 


274 


mobilize 


379 


myope 


400 


nourish 


370 


off 


274 


mode 


238 


myops 


400 


novel 


362 


offend 


257 


model 


238 


myopy 


400 


November 


356 


offer 


344 


moderate 


238 


mystery 


400 


now 


368 


ogle 


502 


modern 


238 






noxious 


83 


oil 


430 


modest 


238 


N. 




number 


360 


old 


426 


modify 


238 




numerate 


360 


oleaginous 


430 


modulate 


238 


nail 


375 


numerator 


360 


olfactory 


240 


molar 


402 


name 


374 


numerous 


360 


olive 


430 


moment 


379 


narrate 


120 


nuptials 


335 


omni- 


333 


momentary 


379 


nascent 


112 


nurse 


370 


omnibus 


333 


momentous 


379 


natal 


112 


nursery 


370 


on 


352 


momentum 


379 


nation 


112 


nutation 


369 


one 


373 


monarch 


143 


nature 


112 


nutriment 


370 


onomatopoeia 


monetary 


358 


nausea 


359 


nutritious 


370 




374 


money 


358 


nautical 


359 


nutrition 


370 


ophthalmia 


502 


monitor 


358 


naval 


359 






ophthalmy 


502 


monster 


358 


navigate 


359 


0. 




oppose 


317 


month 


395 


nay 


305 


oar 


411 


optic 


502 


monument 


358 


nebular 


335 


oats 


233 


optical 


502 


mood 


238 


nebulous 


335 


obedient 


475 


optician 


502 


moon 


395 


needle 


364 


object 


493 


optics 


502 


morals 


386 


nefarious 


339 


obligate 


130 


oracle 


459 


morbid 


393 


neglect 


440 


obligation 


130 


oral 


459 


morose 


404 


negligent 


440 


oblige 


130 


oration 


459 


mortal 


393 


nephew 


284 


oblique 


442 


orator 


459 


mortify 


393 


nepotism 


284 


obliterate 


443 


organ 


123 


mosquito 


401 


nerve 


363 


oblivion 


293 


orgies 


123 


mother 


39G 


nervous 


363 


oblivious 


293 


oriental 


414 


motion 


379 


net 


364 


obloquy 


77 


orifice 


459 


mouse 


403 


neuralgia 


363 


obscure 


101 


original 


414 


movable 


379 


new 


362 


obsolete 


426 


orphan 


336 


move 


379 


nine 


356 


obstacle 


175 


orphaned 


336 


movement 


379 


night 


84 


obstetrical 


175 


osculation 


459 


mow- 


378 


no 


365 


obstinate 


175 


osseous 


172 


municipal 




noble 


120 


obstruct 


185 


ossify 


172 


33, 380 


nocturnal 


84 


obtain 


188 


ostensible 


188 


munificent 


380 


nod 


369 


obtuse 


206 


ostentation 


188 



248 



ENGLISH INDEX OF COGNATE WOEDS. 



otter 


246 


pecuniary 285 


physiognomy 348 


potion 308 


oval 


486 


pedagogue 322 


physiology 


348 


poverty 292 


ovary 


486 


pedal 242 


picture 


90 


praetor 493 


ovate 


486 


pedant 322 


pigment 


90 


pre- 316 


over 


325 


pedestrian 242 


pinnacle 


173 


precentor 32 


owl 


453 


pelt 294 


pinnate 


173 


preceptor 33 


oxide 


2 


pen 173 


pinnated 


173 1 


^ precipice 52 


oxygen 


2 


penal 310 


pirate 


296 


precipitate 52 


oxytone 


2 


penalty 310 


pituite 


318 


precipitous 52 






penetrate 291 


plagiarism 


92 


precise 244 


P. 




penitence 310 


plagiarist 


92 


preclude 56 




penitent 310 


plagiary 


92 


predatory 155 


pacific 


285 


penury 295 


plane 


91 


predetermine 3 16 


pacify 


285 


people 304 


plank 


91 


predicate 10 


pact 


285 


perambulate 509 


plebeians 


304 


predict 10 


pagan 


285 


perceive 33 


plenary 


304 


predominant 213 


page 


285 


perception 33 


pleonasm 


312 


preface 339 


paint (v. and n.) 


perdition 225 


plumb 


452 


pregnant 112 




90 


peregrinate 106 


plumbago 


452 


prefer 344 


pale 


293 


perennial 333 


plumber 


452 


preference 344 


pallid 


293 


perfidious 271 


plural 


312 


prefix 136 


palm 


287 


perforate 340 


plus 


312 


prejudge 125 


palmy 


287 


period 235 


pneumatic 


307 


prejudicate 125 


pan 


174 


perjure 125 


pneumonia 


307 


prejudice 125 


panorama 


415 


perjury 125 


point 


320 


premeditate 358 


papa 


289 


permanent 358 


police 


311 


preoccupy 33 


parboil 


313 


pernicious 83 


policy 


311 


prepare 313 


parent 


313 


perpetual 173 


politic 


311 


preposition 317 


parricide 


289 


persecute 497 


political 


311 


prepositive 317 


part 


313 


persist 175 


politics 


311 


preposterous316 


partake 


313 


perspective 99 


polity 


311 


prescribe 122 


partial 


313 


persuade 209 


pollute 


449 


present 459 


participate 


313 


pertain 188 


poly- 


312 


preside 234 


participle 


313 


pertinacious 188 


polysyllable 312 


president 234 


particle 


313 


perturb 208 


popular 


304 


pretend 188 


particular 


313 


petal 174 


porch 


296 


pretext 194 


partner 


313 


phaeton 339 


porcupine 


93 


prevent 509 


parturition 


313 


phantasm 339 


pork 


93 


prevention 509 


pastor 


291 


phantom 339 


port 


296 


prevision 236 


pastoral 


291 


phenomenon 339 


portend 


188 


prey 155 


pasture 


291 


phone 339 


portico 


296 


prim 316 


patent 


174 


phonetic 339 


portion 


313 


primary 316 


paternal 


289 


phonics 339 


possess 317, 234 | 


prime 316 


patriarch 


289 


phonology 339 


position 


317 


primer 316 


patrimony 


289 


phonotype 339 


positive 


317 


primitive 316 


patriot 


289 


phonography 339 


possible 


314 


principal 33,316 


paucity 


292 


photo- 339 


postpone 


317 


prior 316 


patron 


289 


photograph 339 


postscript 


122 


priority 316 


pauper 


292 


physic 348 


potation 


308 


priory 316 


pause 


292 


physical 348 


potency 


314 


pristine 316 


pavement 


286 


physician 348 


potent 


814 


proclaim 28 


peace 


28o 


physics 348 


potential 


314 


proclamation 28 



ENGLISH INDEX OF COGNATE WORDS. 



249 



procreate 67 

proddce 12 

produce 12 

product 12 

production 12 

profane 339 

profess 339 

profession 339 

professor 339 

proffer 344 

proficient 25G 

profound 273 

profuse 165 

progenitor 112 

progeny 112 

project 493 

project 493 

prolix 127 

prolocutor 77 
promiscuous 397 

prone 316 

propagate 285 

proper 316 

propinquity 316 

propitiate 316 

propitious . 316 

propose 317 

proposition 317 

proscribe 122 

prosecute 497 

prospect 99 

prospectus 99 

prostitute 175 

prostrate 185 

protect 135 
protuberance205 

proverb 412 

provide 236 

providence 236 

provident 236 

provision 236 
provocation 496 

provoke 496 

proximate 316 

proximity 816 

prudent 236 

puberty 322 

public 304 

publican 304 

puerile 322 

pugilist 329 

pugnacious 320 



pullet 


322 


rape 


275 


refute 


165 


pulmonary 


307 


rapid 


275 


regal 


134 


pulmonic 


307 


rapine 


275 


regenerate 


112 


pulverize 


323 


rapture 


275 


regent 


134 


punctilious 


320 


ravage 


275 


region 


134 


punctual 


320 


raven 


275 


regular 


134 


punctuate 


320 


ravenous 


275 


reiterate 


490 


puncture 


320 


ravin 


275 


reject 


493 


pungent 


320 


ravine 


275 


relax 


127 


punish 


310 


ravish 


275 


relic 


500 


pupil 


322 


re-act 


104 


relics 


500 


puppet 


322 


reave 


275 


relict 


500 


pure 


310 


rebel 


231 


relieve 


146 


purgation 


310 


recalcitrant 


435 


religion 


440 


purgatory 


310 


recalcitrate 


435 


relinquish 


500 


purge 


310 


recant 


32 


remain 


358 


puritan 


310 


receipt 


33 


remedy 


358 


purity 


310 


receive 


33 


reminiscence 358 


pursue 


497 


receptacle 


33 


remonstrate 358 


purulent 


319 


reception 


33 


remunerate 


380 


pus 


319 


reciprocal 


316 


render 


225 


pusillanimous 


reclaim 


28 


rendition 


225 




322 


reclamation 


28 


renovate 


362 


putrefy 


319 


recline 


57 


repair 


313 


putrid 


319 


recluse 


56 


repeat 


173 


pyre 


321 


recognition 


120 


repent 


310 






recognize 


120 


repentance 


310 


Q. 




recondite 


256 


replenish 


304 




recreate 


67 


replete 


304 


quadrant 


517 


re-create 


67 


replication 


92 


quadrate 


517 


recreation 


67 


report 


313 


quadruped 




re-creation 


67 


repose 


317 


517 


,242 


recusant 


60 


reprehend 


155 


quality 


506 


red 


253 


reprehension 155 


quantity 


506 


redolent 


240 


represent 


459 


quart 


517 


redound 


247 


reptile 


281 


quartan 


517 


reduce 


12 


repugnant 


320 


quarter 


517 


reduction 


12 


reputable 


310 


quartette 


517 


redundant 


247 


reputation 


310 


quarto 


517 


refer 


344 


repute 


310 


quick 


512 


referable 


344 


requiem 


44 


quiescent 


44 


reference 


344 


rescind 


244 


quiet 


44 


referrible 


344 


rescript 


122 


quotient 


506 


reflect 


103 


reside 


234 






reflux 


345 


resist 


175 


R. 




refluent 


345 


resolute 


448 




refract 


522 


resolution 


448 


radical 


419 


refraction 


522 


resolve 


448 


rag 


78 


refractory 


522 


respect 


99 


rap 


275 


refuge 


142 


respite 


99 


rapacious 


275 


refulgent 


140 


restitution 


175 


rapacity 


275 


refuse 


165 


restrict 


465 



250 



ENGLISH INDEX OF COGNATE WORDS. 



restriction 


465 


salient 


523 


segment 


45 


solar 


528 


resurrection 134 


saliva 


456 


select 


440 


sole 


235 


retain 


188 


salt 


524 


selenography 528 


solemn 


333 


reticulated 


422 


salubrious 


454 


semi- 


382 


solicit 


54 


reticule 


422 


salvage 


454 


seminary 


463 


solicitous 


54 


retort 


508 


salvation 


454 


senate 


357 


solid 


527 


retortion 


508 


salve 


454 


senator 


357 


solstice 


175 


retribution 


204 


salver 


454 


senile 


357 


solution 


448 


retroduce 


12 


sanctify 


462 


senior 


357 


solve 


448 


revere 


415 


sanction 


462 


separate 


313 


somniferous 324 


reverence 


415 


sane 


462 


September 


280 


somnific 


324 


reverend 


415 


sanity 


462 


Septuagint 


280 


somnolent 


324 


reverent 


415 


sap 


503 


sequence 


497 


soporiferou 


s324 


revise 


236 


sapient 


503 


sequester 


497 


soporific 


324 


revision 


236 


saponaceous503 


sequestrate 


497 


sow 


467 


revisit 


236 


Saturn 


463 


serene 


528 


species 


99 


revival 


512 


save 


454 


series 


422 


specimen 


99 


revive 


512 


savior 


454 


sermon 


422 


spectre 


99 


revocation 


496 


scale 


96 


serpent 


281 


speculate 


99 


revoke 


496 


scalpel 


95 


serrated 


45 


spew 


318 


revolt 


429 


scandal 


96 


servant 


422 


spit 


318 


revolution 


429 


scandalize 


96 


serve 


422 


spoil 


101 


revolve 


429 


scene 


100 


service 


422 


spue 


318 


revolver 


429 


schism 


244 


servile 


422 


spume 


318 


rhetoric 


412 


scholar 


148 


servitude 


422 


spur 


323 


rhetorical 


412 


school 


148 


session 


234 


spurious 


323 


rhinoceros 


49 


science 


45 


sesterce 


882 


spurn 


323 


rhythm 


421 


scissors 


244 


set 


234 


squalid 


46 


right 


134 


scope 


99 


settle 


234 


squalor 


46 


rival 


443 


scribe 


122 


seven 


280 


stability 


175 


river 


443 


scrofula 


122 


sew 


466 


stable 


175 


rivulet 


443 


seat 


234 


sex 


45 


stable (n.) 


175 


rob 


275 


secant 


45 


shaft 


97 


stamp 


177 


Rome 


421 


secern 


69 


similar 


377 


stand 


175 


root 


419 


seclude 


56 


similitude 


377 


star 


167 


rubric 


253 


second(adj.)497 


simple 488 


,377 


station 


175 


ruby 


253 


second (vb.) 497 


simulate 


377 


statute 


175 


rudder 


411 


secondary 


497 


simultaneous377 


stay 


175 


ruddy 


253 


secret 


69 


singular 


377 


stead 


175 


ruin 


421 


secretary 


69 


single 


377 


steadfast 


175 


rule 


134 


secrete 


69 


sir 


357 


steady 


175 


rumor 


425 


sect. 


45 


sire 


357 


steer 


191 


rupture 


283 


section 


45 


sit 


234 


stellar 


167 


rust 


253 


secular 


463 


six 


473 


stellated 


167 






secure 


60 


skew- 


94 


stem 


181 


S. 




sedate 


234 


smelt 


239 


stenography 178 




sedative 


234 


smile 


388 


sterile 


180 


sacerdotal 


462 


sedentary 


234 


soap 


503 


stick 


183 


sacrament 


462 


sedition 


493 


sociable 


497 


stigma 


183 


sacred 


462 


seduce 


12 


social 


497 


stile 


152 


safe 


454 


seduction 


12 


society 


497 


stimulate 


183 


salacious 


523 


sedulous 


235 


soil 


235 


stimulus 


183 



ENGLISH INDEX OF COGNATE WORDS. 



251 



Sting 


183 


subtlety 194 


syllogism 


440 


thatch 


135 


stipend 


181 


succulent 603 


syllogize 


440 


theatre 


255 


stipulate 


181 


suck 503 


sylvan 


458 


theory 


255 


stirrup 


152 


sudorific 237 


syncope 


64 


thermometer 


Stoic 


186 


suffer 344 






386, 520 


stolid 


176 


sufferance 344 


T. 




thesis 


256 


stomach 


184 


sufftcient 256 




thin 


188 


stone 


182 


suffix 136 


tack 


189 


third 


204 


story 


236 


suffuse 165 


tact 


189 


thou 


192 


strain 


465 


sue 497 


"tag 


189 


thread 


198 


strangle 


465 


suicide 489 


take 


189 


three 


204 


stratum 


185 


suit 497 


talent 


195 


threnode 


262 


straw 


418 


sum 325 


tame 


213 


threnody 


262 


street 


185 


summit 325 


tangent 


189 


throne 


261 


strew 


185 


superb 325 


tax 


189 


through 


197 


strict 


465 


superficial 339 


teat 


254 


throw 


198 


stricture 


465 


superficies 339 


technical 


194 


thud 


206 


string 


465 


superfluous 345 


telephone 


339 


thumb 


205 


stringent 


465 


superinduce 12 


tempest 


196 


thump 


207 


strong 


465 


superinductionl2 


temple 


196 


thunder 


188 


stub 


207 


superior 325 


temporal 


196 


thyme 


265 


stubble 


207 


supernal 325 


temporary 


196 


timber 


219 


stubborn 


207 


superpose 317 


temporize 


196 


time 


196 


stump (n.) 


187 


superposition317 


tempt 


188 


tincture 


193 


stump (vb.) 


207 


superscribe 122 


ten 


8 


tinge 


193 


stupefy 


187 


supersede 234 


tenable 


188 


to 


217 


stupid 


187 


superstition 175 


tenacious 


188 


tolerable 


195 


suasion 


209 


superstructure 


tenant 


188 


tolerate 


195 


suavity 


209 


185 


tend 


188 


tomb 


205 


subduce 


12 


supervene 509 


tender 


188 


tone 


188 


subduct 


12 


supervention 509 


tenement 


188 


tonic 


188 


subduction 


12 


supine 326 


tenet 


188 


tonsorial 


196 


sdbject 


493 


supplement 304 


tenor 


188 


tonsure 


196 


subject 


493 


supplicate 92 


tense 


196 


tooth 


241 


subjoin 


125 


supplication 92 


tension 


188 


torment 


508 


subjugate 


125 


supply 304 


tent 


188 


torrent 


200 


subjunctive 


125 


support 313 


tentative 


188 


torsion 


508 


sublime 


442 


suppose 317 


tenuity 


188 


tort 


508 


subscribe 


122 


suppurate 319 


tenuous 


188 


tortoise 


508 


subsequent 


497 


supreme 325 


tenure 


188 


tortuous 


508 


-subside 


234 


sure 60 


term 


197 


torture 


508 


subsidy 


234 


surface 339 


terminate 


197 


touch 


189 


subsidiary 


234 


surge 134 


terrace 


200 


toxicology 


194 


subsist 


175 


survive 512 


terrestrial 


200 


tradition 


225 


substitute 


175 


susceptible 33 


terrible 


202 


traduce 


12 


substratum 


185 


suspect 99 


terrier 


200 


traduction 


12 


substructure 185 


sustain 188 


terrify 


202 


transact 


104 


subtend 


188 


sustentation 188 


terror 


202 


transcend 


96 


subterfuge 


142 


suture 466 


tertiary 


204 


transcribe 


122 


subterranean 200 


sweat 237 


testaceous 


200 


transfer 


344 


subtile 


194 


sweet 209 


text 


194 


transfigure 


126 


subtle 


194 


swine 467 


textile 


194 


transfix 


136 



252 



ENGLISH INDEX OF COGNATE WORDS. 



transfuse 


1G5 


ulcerate 


19 


vest (vb.) 


460 


vomit 


381 


transient 


493 


ulceration 


19 


vest (n.) 


400 


voracious 


514 


transit 


493 


un- 


351 


vestige 


152 


voracity 


514 


transition 


493 


uncle 


475 


vestment 


460 






transitive 


493 


under 


355 


vesture 


460 


W. 




transitory- 


493 


undulate 


247 


veteran 


169 




translucent 


80 


uni- 


373 


vex 


147 


wag 


147 


transmute 


379 


unicorn 


49 


vice 


482 


wagon 


147 


transom 


197 


union 


373 


vicinity 


85 


wain 


147 


transport 


313 


unique 


373 


vicissitude 


14 


walk 


429 


transpose 


317 


unit 


373 


victuals 


512 


warm 


520 


transposition 317 


unite 


373 


vigil 


138 


water 


247 


treble 


204 


universal 


373 


vigilant 


138 


wave 


147 


tree 


230 


up 


326 


vigor 


138 


way 


147 


tremble 


203 


urge 


124 


vill 


85 


weave 


338 


tremendous 203 






villa 


85 


web 


338 


tremor 


203 


V. 




village 


85 


wedlock 


248 


tremulous 


203 




villain 


8o 


weigh 


147 


tribe 


204 


valley- 


431 


violate 


481 


well (vb.) 


429 


tributation 


198 


van 


476 


violent 


481 


what 


519 


tribunal 


204 


vapid 


35 


violet 


479 


when 


506 


tribune 


204 


vapor 


35 


viper 


313 


where 


506 


tribute 


204 


vascular 


460 


virgin 


133 


whether 


506 


triennial 


333 


vegetable 


138 


virulent 


480 


which 


519 


triple 


204 


vegetate 


138 


virus 


480 


who 


519 


trite 


198 


vegetation 


138 


visible 


236 


whole 


30 


trivial 


204 


vehement 


358 


vision 


236 


-wich 


85 


trope 


508 


vehicle 


147 


visit 


236 


-wick 


85 


trophy 


508 


venal 


376 


visitation 


236 


will 


525 


tropic 


508 


vend 376 


,225 


vital 


512 


wind 


476 


tropical 


508 


vendee 


376 


vituperate 


482 


wine 


483 


trouble 


208 


vender 


376 


vivacious 


512 


Mdth 


171 


tuber 


205 


vendor 


376 


vivacity 


512 


wolf 


81 


tumid 


205 


vendue 


376 


vivid 


512 


wool 


413 


tumor 


205 


ventilate 


476 


vocabulary 


496 


word 


412 


turbid 


208 


ventricle 


110 


vocal 


496 


work 


123 


turbulent 


208 


ventriloquist 110 


vocation 


496 


wort 


419 


turn 


198 


verb 


412 


vociferate 


496 






two 


231 


verbal 


412 


voice 


496 


Y. 




tympanum 


207 


verbose 


412 


volition 


525 








verdict 


10 


voluble 


429 


yard 


159 


U. 




verrtal 


478 


volume 


429 


yearn 


158 




vesper 


461 


voluntary 


525 


yesterday- 


IGO 


udder 


269 


vespers 


461 


volunteer 


525 


yoke 


125 


ulcer 


19 


vessel 


460 


voluptuous 


277 


young 


224 



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