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Eugene O'Neill and the 
American Critic 

A Summary and Bibliographical Checklist 




© 1962, The Shoe String Press, Inc. 
All rights reserved 

Library of Congress Catalog Card No.: 62-8014 
Printed in The United States of America 


The twenty-two year disappearance of Eugene O'Neill as 

an active participant in the modern American theatre, save for 

the brief flurry of excitement attending THE ICEMAN 

COMETH in 1946, and the resurgence of interest in the man and 

his plays after his death have been a phenomenon unique in our 

\^ dramatic history. The almost complete oblivion of this writer 

J^^t"^ who contributed so heavily to the emergence of American 

V j drama as a world leader in stage literature after World War I, 

\N and his subsequent posthumous return to prominence raise 

O many interesting questions. Why did he cease writing so ab- 

\^\ ruptly? Why was he so completely forgotten for two decades? 

A^ What has caused the current interest in his admittedly heavy 

\i and somber plays? And how permanent will he become in our 

^S^ literary heritage? 

When this study was originally undertaken shortly after 

the death of Eugene O'Neill, its purpose was to determine only 

#w the reasons for his long absence from the theatre and the ap- 

v\ parent lack of interest in him at the time of his death. Major 

^ critics like Brooks Atkinson and John Mason Brown deplored 

■\ the disinterest in the passing of this "giant" who had "dropped 

'^ from the earth," as Atkinson put it, but surprisingly little note 

vi of the event was taken by the public in general or the theatre 

»^ in particular. As the work progressed, it became clear that 

(^ certain patterns could be traced through the large bulk of 

critical material that had been written about O'Neill and, 

indirectly by way of this opinion, through O'Neill's own life. 

^\ In the midst of the investigation, the O'Neill revival began with 

^ the oflE-Broadway production of THE ICEMAN COMETH and 

^ the sensation of LONG DAYS JOURNEY INTO NIGHT in 

'^^ 1956. For about three years O'Neill was once again the center 

^of attention in the theatre world; public and critics again found 
him worthy of serious and extended discussion. 

The final achievement of the original idea has been two- 
fold: First, the assembling of all important published items 
fV^, concerning Eugene O'Neill from his earliest successes through 
^ the posthumous revival up to the end of 1959 in a bibliography 



designed to guide the student of the American drama and of 
Eugene O'Neill to the location of this material and to its con- 
tents, for whatever further purpose may be desired. Second, 
the writing of a brief summary of the four major points which 
contributed to O'Neill's long absence and the subsequent re- 
vival, which manifested themselves in the careful reading of 
all the assembled material. Some of the many questions about 
O'Neill's past and possible future have thus been tentatively 
answered, and information about the great volume of O'Neill 
criticism and biography has been assembled, again tentatively, 
in a comprehensive, usable form. 

This investigation has relied entirely upon published criti- 
cal and biographical material available through the major 
library collections in the New York Public Library, at Yale 
and Columbia Universities, and at Dartmouth College. It is 
not based upon personal interviews nor upon any study of 
manuscript material except a few autograph letters available 
in the Landauer collection at Dartmouth. It is intended solely 
as a broad review of the public reception accorded Eugene 
O'Neill as seen through the eyes of the professional critics 
and essayists who saw and studied his plays, and who knew 
the man as a business acquaintance or personal friend. 

Because of the scope of the task and because of certain 
physical limitations, there are possibly some gaps in the bib- 
liography which can be filled at a later date; likewise, there 
may be unintentional errors which future revisions will correct. 
It is with these facts in mind that this work is regarded as 
"tentative." Those who make use of it, however, will find it 
as complete and comprehensive as possible, within the limits 
explained in the introductory remarks preceding each major 

In addition to the summarizing essay and the bibliography 
proper, considerable factual material concerning O'Neill and 
his plays has been included. There is a chronology of his life, 
a listing of the order of composition and publication of all the 
plays, and a chronology of major productions including casts 
and other production information. An index is appended to 
assist in locating specific material as needed. 

There are many to whom I owe my sincerest thanks and 
appreciation for their help on this project. In its original form 


it was my doctoral thesis presented to the graduate faculties 
of Columbia University. The encouragement and the patience 
of Prof. Lewis Leary, Prof. Oscar James Campbell and Prof. 
Maurice Valency, who comprised my major committee, were 
of vital importance in its completion. In the field of the me- 
chanics of research my gratitude is extended to the New York 
Public Library and its many departments whose cordial as- 
sistants were always ready to help. Particularly I wish to 
thank the curators of the Theatre Collection and the Newspaper 
Room for the time they expended on my behalf. I owe thanks 
as well to Mr. E. C. Lathem of Baker Library, Dartmouth, for 
allowing me the full facilities of the Treasure Room during 
my stay there. It is also pleasant to remember the brief moments 
with the late Mrs. Bella Landauer in Hanover as we discussed 
her collection of O'Neill programs and letters. To Prof. Kenneth 
Macgowan go my thanks for the pleasant interview I had with 
him and the helpful points he made in correcting certain portions 
of my chronology. Especial thanks must be extended to Mr. 
Donald Gallup, Curator of the Collection of American Litera- 
ture at Yale, who extended the full facilities of his office to 
me during the summer months I spent in New Haven, and 
who encouraged and assisted me in seeing this eflFort brought 
to publication. To my student assistants, Mrs. Judy Grossman 
and Mrs. Laurel Johnson, goes much sincere appreciation for 
their careful aid in proofreading. 

And finally to my wife and children who endured the heat 
of two New York summers with me and who sat out a cold 
rainy season on a Connecticut beach while I pored over assorted 
library collections I owe more than can here be expressed. 

Jordan Y. Miller 

Manhattan, Kansas 



Except for a limited number of significant references included 
herein as ADDENDA, this bibliographic checklist carries only 
to the end of 1959. In 1960 and 1961 no important book, either 
biographical or critical, was published about O'Neill, but in 1962 
three major publications appeared within a very few months of 
each other. Significant as biography is O'Neill, by Arthur and 
Barbara Gelb. As of now, their large volume is definitive biog- 
raphy, containing detailed information based on a vast amount 
of research on O'Neill and his family. Hence, certain statements 
contained in the introductory chapters, in the life chronology, 
and in the bibliographic annotations of this book may seem to be 
obvious and unnecessary discrepancies. However, they must be 
understood to antedate not only the Gelbs' book, but The Tem- 
pering of Eugene O'Neill, by Doris Alexander, and O'Neill and 
His Plays, by Oscar Cargill and others. 

July, 1962 J.Y.M. 


Eugene O'Neill and the American Critic 

Prologue 3 

I — The Unknown Man 9 

II - The Dry Well 29 

III - The Isolated Artist 52 

IV — Romantic Surrender 75 

A Chronology of the Life of Eugene O'Neill 91 

Chronology of Composition, Copyright and 

Domestic Publication 107 

Major Productions of Eugene O'Neill's Plays 132 

The Non-Dramatic O'Neill 167 

Critical Bibliography 

General References — Books 179 

General References — Periodicals 213 

Individual Plays 257 

Graduate Research 459 

Sources Consulted 461 

Index 467 



In February 1956 the simultaneous Stockholm production 
and American publication of Eugene O'Neill's LONG DAY'S 
JOURNEY INTO NIGHT brought renewed acclaim to the 
man who, nearly four decades earlier, had begun an artistic 
career destined to bring international fame to himself and 
world recognition to American drama. Then, in November of 
the same year, the New York premiere gave American news- 
paper and magazine critics an opportunity to write something 
they had written only once in over twenty years — an opening 
night review of a new play by Eugene O'Neill. 

The reports of this historic occasion sounded with a 
familiar ring. A new theatre-going generation read critical 
passages little altered from the days when the appearance of 
an O'Neill play was a normal and exciting part of a full Broad- 
way season. The drama was one of "helpless grief and hopeless 
loss," making its journey "on the usual square wheels of 
O'Neill's style." It represented once more the "tragedy of 
alienation," and the characters displayed the "moral schizo- 
phrenia" common to O'Neill's work. It was often 'Taarbarously 
written" and in bad need of editing. Its uncertain value as 
permanent literature was estimated as O'Neill's most significant 
contribution to our stage, or as inferior to his previous successes. 
But one decision seemed unanimous; the play was a profound 
theatrical experience of "tremendously powerful" effect. As 
usual, O'Neill made other modern writers "seem miniscule" 
and gave the current theatre "size and power." 

With the continuing success of Jose Quintero's revival of 
THE ICEMAN COMETH at the Circle-in-the-Square added 
to the public's enthusiastic reception of LONG DAY'S JOUR- 
NEY, O'Neill was suddenly as much alive on the American 
theatrical scene as any actively contributing playwright of mid- 
century. Within the next two years there was a substantial 
O'Neill revival of international scope. Stockholm continued to 
stage hitherto unproduced plays; A TOUCH OF THE POET 
appeared in 1957, HUGHIE in 1958, and MORE STATELY 
MANSIONS, in its sprawling, unedited form, was under con- 


sideration in 1959. New York at last saw A MOON FOR THE 
MISBEGOTTEN in 1957 after its abortive road tryouts of 
1947, and A TOUCH OF THE POET, both in print and on 
stage, the following year. The Yale University Press, O'Neill's 
posthumous publishers, brought out HUGH IE in 1959, the same 
year the Phoenix Theatre revived THE GREAT GOD BROWN 
at the Coronet Theatre, soon rechristened the Eugene O'Neill. 
Hollywood issued a gloomy, ponderous DESIRE UNDER THE 
ELMS. The musical stage saw Anna Christie sing and dance 
in New Girl in Town and watched television's Jackie Gleason 
dominate AH, WILDERNESS! in the successful creation called 
Take Me Along. 

Moreover, the name O'Neill now seemed to be attractive 
ojBFstage as well, and as many as eighteen different books about 
his life and works were reported by the New York Times as 
"in progress" simultaneously. In 1958 Doris Falk traced the 
theme of tragedy through all of O'Neill's plays in Eugene O'Neill 
and the Tragic Tension. The same year Agnes Boulton, the 
playwright's second wife and mother of his two surviving 
children, wrote Part of a Long Story to tell of their early years 
of life and love. In 1959 Croswell Bowen, seeking the help of 
Shane O'Neill, the derelict disinherited second son, wrote "A 
Tale of the House of O'NeiU" called The Curse of the Mis- 
begotten, an attempt to recreate the image of the doomed, 
isolated artist who more and more withdrew from public and 
family to become a legend years before his death. Critics began 
to analyze the "O'Neill renaissance" and to determine whether 
or not our theatre and its literature were about to accept, per- 
manently and with high position, the works of this largely 
unknown but unquestionably famous composer of plays. No- 
body was quite sure then. Nobody, even now, can tell. 

By 1960 the rush to O'Neill had subsided. It was clear 
that after HUGH IE there were to be no more new plays. Only 
a handful of the long hst of proposed books had been pub- 
lished. The true test was beginning. Could O'Neill survive this 
"second coming" and establish himself as a classic, or would 
he recede into the relative obscurity of classroom and text- 
book, to remain only as a famous name in the American theatre 
which he almost single-handedly changed into a world leader 
of provocative and stimulating dramatic entertainment? 


The still recent surge of popularity and the present in- 
decision concerning O'Neill's final artistic position have sharply 
emphasized the lack of interest in him which had become 
evident during the preceding twenty years. This lack of appeal 
becomes all the more pertinent in the 1960's because of the 
logical question, "Will it be repeated, and this time for good?" 
The privilege of witnessing hitherto unseen O'Neill plays, those 
created late in life, at a time when his artistic powers seemed 
to be heading toward the creation of a project of overwhelming 
scope and towering magnificence in the proposed mighty epic 
of eleven plays, could have indicated a renewed Age of O'Neill, 
with subject matter and theme achieving a maturity and wis- 
dom that would remove these last plays a broad distance from 
the journeyman works of his first twenty active years. The 
hopes and the promise of newer, greater things did not ma- 
terialize. The plays that did appear were mostly welcomed as 
substantial pieces of theatre art, but as in the case of LONG 
DATS JOURNEY, the comments reflected the oft-repeated 
O'Neill weaknesses of length and verbosity in his retelling of 
the frustrations of the struggle against life's many disillusions 
and delusions. What is more, the actual output of plays had 
been drastically limited because of the ill health which pre- 
vented O'Neill's yet active mind from transposing onto paper 
the thoughts it generated. With the positive knowledge that 
most of the fabulous "cycle" had been destroyed by his own 
hands and that what did survive in manuscript was nearly be- 
yond salvage, it was keenly apparent that there was to be no 
new "Age." Indeed, there would not be, even in a limited 
sense, a "new" O'Neill to diflPerentiate from the one whose major 
contributions to the active theatre had ceased, with one isolated 
post-war exception, in 1934. 

Whatever O'Neill's permanent reputation may ultimately 
be, it will be impossible to base it on the four plays since 1934 
to the exclusion of, say, DESIRE UNDER THE ELMS, THE 
and LONG DATS JOURNEY INTO NIGHT seem destined to 
endure as latter-day exponents of O'Neill's perennial theme of 
love-hate, reality-illusion, and the search for life's meaning. 
A MOON FOR THE MISBEGOTTEN, hardly a success even 


on its second try, and A TOUCH OF THE POET, too obviously 
part of the unfinished larger work of the "cycle," are acknowl- 
edged second-rate eflPorts. Conversely, no lasting evaluation can 
rest solely upon the O'Neill who had withdrawn from pubUc 
view after the failure of DAYS WITHOUT END over twenty- 
five years earlier. The tremendous power of the last plays, with 
their agonizing revelation of family sin and sorrow and their 
plainly evident compassion for entrapped human beings, are 
vitally important extensions of the same artistic philosophy. 
The entire canon must be considered. 

If the works of Eugene O'Neill are to survive as more 
than interesting historical segments of our literary heritage, they 
must surmont four diflBculties that have always prev(3nted their 
unqualified acceptance as dramatic art and have always stepped 
between their creator and his critical recognition as a dra- 
matic artist. 

1. The most immediate cause for O'Neill's disappearance 
from public interest during his lifetime lay in his personality 
which, at all times, remained almost completely unknown even 
to his friends. This is not to say that the writer must be known 
to appreciate or even understand his works, any more than we 
must know Shakespeare before we can accurately evaluate the 
literary and dramatic qualities of his plays. But in O'Neill's 
case there is something a bit different, particularly in view of 
tbe intense personal quality of LONG DATS JOURNEY. Al- 
though there is the constant danger that a play like this may be 
taken too literally as autobiography, there can be no question but 
that O'Neill transposed to the stage a picture of his own life and 
the image of his mother, father and brother, which must be 
regarded as a reflection of a good portion of the real thing. 
With this play in mind one realizes that almost nothing was 
ever known about the "real" O'Neill while he lived, and we 
are prompted into a further revaluation of his works. If a late 
play, like this one, is so intensely personal, what of others? 

Because of the tantalizing aspect of wanting to know more 
about him, of wanting to place other plays in some position 
perhaps more closely allied with his own experiences, or finding 
more of an autobiographical nature in them than we already 
know exists, we are left somewhat uncertain, still a little at sea, 
hesitating to place O'Neill's better works into a permanent 


niche of collective greatness. The discovery of O'Neill, the real 
man, will not change our attitude toward the literary value 
of most of his plays. Nevertheless, because he did inject into 
his dramas so much straight from his own life, it becomes 
almost impossible to distinguish between artist and man. He 
has, in a way, failed satisfactorily to separate the personal ele- 
ments from the artistic, and at the same time has deprived 
us of a complete understanding of where one begins and the 
other ends, to the possible detriment of his ultimate critical 

2. O'Neill's most obvious trademark, the unexpected 
theatrical device or dramatic eflFect, brought him widespread 
attention and made him the subject of international praise as 
well as condemnation. Here, too, he often failed, not only in 
the inability of the device to communicate what he often 
thought was an obvious message, but because he was unable 
to develop more fully the eflFects which he had so marvelously 
created. Furthermore, he was unable to lead new writers 
toward a similar style. He may have opened doors and en- 
couraged the technical and thematic innovator to step forward 
more readily, but he himself started no school, was followed 
by no movement. Through lavish overuse of his rich inven- 
tiveness he became an ultimate failure by neglecting to main- 
tain the kind of artistically original drama he sought to develop. 
The techniques of THE EMPEROR JONES or THE HAIRY 
APE have become dated; the race theme of ALL GOD'S 
THE ELMS no longer cause thrill seekers to rush for tickets 
(or censors to rush for their blue pencils!). Masks, spoken 
asides, interminable speeches, and six-hour plays, all products 
of a great O'Neill past, must face acceptance as valid theatre 
in the future in order to establish artistic permanence. Judging 
from the experience of the 1959 revival of THE GREAT GOD 
BROWN, O'Neill's techniques have not yet passed the true 
test of lasting quality, and the dangers that they may not are 
still present. 

3. ONeill's avowed artistic purpose was to explore the 
mystic relationships between man and God. Audiences and 
critics could not always successfully follow his patterns of rea- 
soning as he consistently failed to write in the spirit of the 


age in which he Hved. Distorted by civil censors and misunder- 
stood by the audiences, his themes, hke his physical techniques, 
frequently could not convey what O'Neill positively regarded 
as the clearly stated message. Now, with the writer no longer alive 
to explain his meaning, as he once did with THE GREAT GOD 
BROWN, still forcing upon his audiences long, garrulous dramas 
soaked in alcohol and inhabited by disillusioned dreamers, the 
question can be asked, "Has O'Neill, in spite of this, established 
himself as a permanent American classic? Or, as in his life- 
time, has he written apart from the spirit of the age and thereby 
failed to estabHsh the universality of a permanent literature?" 
4. In his early career O'Neill worked steadily against the 
stuffy, suffocating romanticism which dominated the American 
theatre before World War I. In his sea plays and early longer 
plays he received wide praise as the breaker of the ancient 
barriers in his use of earthy language, believably realistic situa- 
tions, and unconventionally unromanticized, or "unhappy," last 
acts. In fact, it seemed that he had set out to destroy the 
romantic ideal, for those of his characters who did live by 
such a code were invariably destroyed in the harsh realities 
of a world which did not care. None the less, he was con- 
tinually heading toward an ultimate surrender to the very 
romantic outlook which he initially set out to oppose. By the 
end of his first twenty years, O'Neill had returned to "con- 
ventional" Christianity in DAYS WITHOUT END and the 
sentimentalities of early-century Connecticut small town life 
in AH, WILDERNESS!, confounding friend and critic alike. 
The return to "realism" of THE ICEMAN COMETH and 
LONG DAY'S JOURNEY reversed this reversal, only to prove 
that the very basis of romanticism — the eternal look at life 
through the distorting lens of "pipe dreams" and illusions — 
lies at the heart of existence. Without it, all perish. What, 
then, is the "real" O'Neill in artistic theme and philosophy? 
Will we be forced to say that for all his impact as the dramatic 
and theatrical iconoclast, O'Neill ultimately surrendered to a 
conventional romanticism that prevents his achievement of a 
permanent high place in American dramatic literature? 


The task of clearly establishing the identity of the "real" 
or "true" O'Neill was exasperatingly difficult to his friends 
and almost completely impossible to others. With the great 
amount of material written about him, it is logical to assume 
that a pattern would evolve from which to construct a clear 
picture. Instead, rather than being parts of a single puzzle, 
the random pieces appear as a mixture cut from diflFerent 
stock, painted by varied hands, and rarely meshing to form a 
coherent portrait. Although he was the subject of more printed 
discussion than many of his greatest contemporaries, Eugene 
O'Neill as a man lived and died one of the most inaccessible 
and unknown American literary artists ever to achieve inter- 
national recognition. The scarcity of accurate information about 
him and his own adamant refusal to express himself outside 
his plays became one of the main factors in his failure to main- 
tain his reputation during his lifetime. Even today, this diffi- 
culty imposes severe limits upon our understanding of him. 

The source material for discovering the "inner" O'Neill 
(or, as will develop, for faiUng to discover it) can be arranged 
in five general categories. They are: 

1. O'Neill himself, revealed in his own words and deeds. 

2. The biographer, concentrating on a specific study of the 
man and his plays. 

3. The personal acquaintance, able to speak or write from 
first-hand knowledge. 

4. The interviewing journalist from newspaper or magazine, 
always seeking the new approach. 

5. The dramatic historian, writing in text or reference book, 
balancing and evaluating the subject's place in history. 

The following material, grouped under these five headings, 
represents a careful selection from the best sources and the 
most representative reports. None of it exhibits in any sense 
an intimate knowledge of the individual personality known as 
Eugene O'Neill. The friends who knew him longest after fame 
and success had been achieved were uniformly reluctant to 
say, "I knew Eugene O'Neill well." O'Neill commanded the most 


complete respect for his privacy, and that privacy was never 
violated. Wherever the search is made, the same conclusion 
is always reached: Eugene O'Neill was, both in life and after 
death, an almost unknown man. 

1. O'Neill Himself 

Eugene O'Neill was first and foremost a dramatist. "To- 
morrow," his only published short story, appeared in The Seven 
Arts in 1917 and was generally ignored. He wrote another con- 
taining the germ of THE HAIRY APE, but it was never printed. 
His poetry column in the New London, Conn., Telegraph, edited 
and kept going through his own efforts as contributor in 1912, 
saw his attempts at verse breathe and collapse permanently, 
though infrequent contributions to the left wing New York 
Call and The Masses, and to Franklin P. Adams' "Conning 
Tower" kept it briefly alive. He once consented to write an 
introduction to an obscure book of poetry by his very good 
friend, Benjamin De Casseres. The book fell stillborn from the 
press; the introductory essay died with it. O'Neill refused ever 
again to undertake such a task, although in 1931 he was per- 
sonally requested by Horace Liveright, his publisher, to write 
the introduction for the Sanborn and Clark bibliography of 
his works. When asked, on rare occasions, to appear in public, 
he declined with thanks, and with force. 

O'Neill did publish a small number of critical remarks. 
For the Provincetown Playbill No. 1, Season 1923-1924, he wrote 
"Strindberg and Our Theatre," which showed his admiration 
for the Swedish dramatist and the expressionistic style in gen- 
eral. On Playbill No. 1, Season 1925-1926, appeared "Are the 
Actors to Blame?" in which he pleaded for good acting and good 
writing through repertory theatre. In 1932 and 1933 he placed 
at least three other items in the short-lived American Spectator 
which he helped to organize and edit, along with Theodore 
Dreiser, George Jean Nathan, Ernest Boyd and James Branch 
Cabell. First was "Memoranda on Masks," a somewhat im- 
practical plea for more masked drama to help convey true 
inner psychological forces; next, "Second Thoughts," showing 
how most of his important plays might be improved by masks; 


and finally, "A Dramatist's Notebook," expressing confidence 
that further use of masks could aid the "imaginative" theatre 
and improve acting technique. 

O'Neill explained points about his current plays in an 
occasional communication to the editor of the New York Times, 
but these letters were rare enough to be called a part of his 
"works" and to be listed in Barrett Clark's biblography. He 
declined to reply to adversely critical letters from others, some- 
times terming them mere "yapping" of "dullards" and "morons." 
He made no eflPort to sell his own viewpoints, told his friends 
that a flop was a flop and that he had no intention of gnashing 
his teeth. When he did make one serious attempt to clarify 
THE GREAT GOD BROWN in a widely reprinted newspaper 
article in 1926, his "explanation regarding this explanation" re- 
sulted in deeper obscurity for the average reader. His notebook 
kept during the composition of MOURNING BECOMES 
ELECTRA, also reproduced in part in several publications, 
will be considered later. 

There is practically nothing else. To Eugene O'Neill, the 
play was the thing, and our final judgment of his contribution 
to our literature and stage tradition must rest solely thereon. 

The only other sources of information about the "real" 
O'Neill from his own hand are his personal papers and the 
plays. Like so many whose inclination is literary, he was a 
voluminous letter writer. He may never have spoken in pubhc 
utterance, but his friendly pen could move delightfully, with 
agility, and at quantity-output speed. There is no doubt that 
the O'Neill letters, properly collected and edited, would re- 
veal a clearer picture than exists today. This task remains im- 
possible until the large accumulation of letters, papers, manu- 
scripts and other personal material at Yale is released for 
investigation. Fortunately, there are several volumes of biog- 
raphy and personal reminiscences, plus a few dramatic his- 
tories, that reproduce a number of letters. Barrett H. Clark's 
Man and His Plays series contains several as does Isaac Gold- 
berg's The World of George Jean Nathan. Lawrence Langner's 
The Magic Curtain reproduces various excerpts connected with 
the Theatre Guild's production of O'Neill's plays. O'Neill col- 
lections in the libraries at Dartmouth and Princeton contain 
a modest number of originals. From these sources can be 


gained a reliable impression of O'Neill as a correspondent. 
All letters are cordial, detailed, sometimes argumentative; never 
are they dull, pedantic, overbearing, or foolish. They reveal a 
man faithful to his friends, helpful to strangers (no letter was 
ever curt; all were friendly and informal), happy to set down 
his views on any subject. 

The plays have often been studied for their revelation 
of O'Neill's character, and the autobiographical qualities of 
the later ones have prompted some thoughtful analysis and 
wild guesswork in an attempt to find more of the same in the 
plays up to 1934. Before LONG DATS JOURNEY and the re- 
cently published biographies, any estimate of the personal 
aspects of O'Neill's work was on uncertain ground for lack 
of a satisfactory starting place. JOURNEY provides the starting 
Une, but it also oflFers an opportunity to be misled by too close 
an analysis of the earlier plays. 

The one-act sea plays are based directly upon O'Neill's 
maritime experiences and a large number of the characters 
are straight from life. Smitty of MOON OF THE CARIBBEES 
and JN THE ZONE has often been identified with the author. 
It is not beyond credibility to assign Smitty 's melancholy and 
brooding upon a disastrous love to O'Neill's own unfortunate 
first marriage and subsequent attempt at suicide. Smitty's physi- 
cal and intellectual qualities are rather pointedly O'Neill's, but 
there is a legitimate question about the plays being true 
"autobiography." Smitty is, after all, a minor character who 
becomes lost in the noisy activities of the Glencairns rowdy 
crew. The sensitive misdirected Robert of BEYOND THE 
HORIZON, like Smitty, reflects O'Neill himself, but the tragedy 
that develops is hard to place directly in O'Neill's own life. 

THE STRAW is a direct transcription of life in a tubercu- 
losis sanitorium, with the young reporter, Stephen Murray, 
very like O'Neill. Eileen Carmody is based upon an actual ac- 
quaintance and the incidents are often close to reality. There 
does not seem to have been a love aflFair in O'Neill's experience 
as the play develops it, and, on the whole, the story is not 
really autobiography. Discordant marital relations in WELDED 
can be regarded as reflections of the writer's own experiences 
and his view of marriage bonds as seen in his own family. 
THE FIRST MAN, reversing the usual male attitude, portrays 


a father enraged and resentful at the impending birth of a child. 
O'Neill's own indifference to and often seeming dislike for his 
two younger children seem a definite part of this unpleasant 
and unsuccessful play, even though its date is early. The atti- 
tudes, evident later in real life, are clearly there. The esthete, 
Dion Anthony in THE GREAT GOD BROWN, represents the 
artist in O'Neill, and the brief but effective opening scene with 
the parents reflects the young O'Neill's inability to communicate 
with his own father. It has occasionally been pointed out that 
Dion and Brown speak with each other in a manner suggesting 
O'Neill's relationship with his much older brother, James, Jr. 

Ephraim Cabot of DESIRE UNDER THE ELMS physi- 
cally and emotionally bears marked resemblances to James 
O'Neill himself, and the often violent antagonisms between 
crude parent and sensitive son, with the underlying mutual 
admiration, is not unlike the attitudes of Eugene O'Neill toward 
his actor father. The whole picture of family loves and hates, 
of the distances separating husband, wife, son and lover in 
STRANGE INTERLUDE grows out of O'Neill's own experi- 
ences. AH, WILDERNESS!, hailed widely at its first appearance 
as a recollection of O'Neill's childhood, is known to be an 
idealized portrait of a situation that did not exist, but the re- 
bellious Richard, who was supposed to be the central charac- 
ter as O'Neill first conceived the play, is surely O'Neill the 
young dissenter. The characters which surround him have often 
been accurately equated to people O'Neill knew in New London. 
Muriel, though younger and more naive, has been identified 
as one of O'Neill's romantic interests during his summers in 
Connecticut. DAYS WITHOUT END summarizes many of 
O'Neill's past transgressions, but the return to conventional re- 
ligion is far from autobiography. In fact, as those who knew 
the original plans for the play can verify, O'Neill at one time 
made his priest a Protestant minister, refuting the argument 
that the playwright had returned to the church of his fathers. 
THE ICEMAN COMETH is inhabited by men and women 
O'Neill knew intimately, several of them only moderately dis- 
guised. Larry Slade, sitting in the midst of them, drinking, 
observing, philosophizing, is once more O'Neill. 

Still, all of this is more of a deliberate searching for evi- 
dence and an unsatisfactory equating of biography with the 


artist's ideas and themes, merely based on personal experience. 
To say each is a part of an autobiography is a dangerous 
generalization. Not until the very last plays can such be found, 
and even then the changes and omissions are obvious. A MOON 
FOR THE MISBEGOTTEN is, of course, based on the true 
story of James O'Neill, Jr.'s, return to New London with the 
body of his mother. How much of the rest of the story is 
related to the truth is mostly speculation. The incident of the 
hogs was, we know from LONG DAY'S JOURNEY, a family joke. 
But what of brother James' position otherwise? From whence 
comes Josie, the redeeming freakish virgin? And LONG DAY'S 
JOURNEY, as close as it is to O'Neill's life, omits and alters 
at will. Time is compressed; events we would like to know more 
of are not followed through; and others are not touched at all. 

Clearly the plays do not oflFer the portrait we seek, no 
matter how hard the search. They help create an image, but 
if the whole story is available, it must be sought elsewhere. 

2. The Biographer 

There is no completely satisfactory biography of Eugene 
O'Neill. A competent one by a person outside the O'Neill 
family cannot be forthcoming until the Yale collection is re- 
leased for study. We must rely on other sources for the time 

Barrett H. Clark was the first to regard the young play- 
wright as a worthy subject for biography. From 1926 to 1946 
he issued a series of volumes entitled Eugene O'Neill: The Man 
and His Plays. They discuss O'Neill's successes, his failures, 
artistic ideas and philosophies as expressed in personal letters 
and conversations. As biography the books are a disappointment. 
They suflFer from the same limitations found so frequently else- 
where in placing judgment too closely on the plays alone. 

O'Neill supplied Clark with a summary of his own early 
history, but both O'Neill's report and Clark's interpolations are 
remarkably deficient in precise date and detailed fact. Of the 
man, we learn little. The obvious vagueness did not displease 
O'Neill. He had given Clark his permission to write the original 
book, but had stated bluntly that he felt there was "too damn 


much of that premature sort of thing being done." He re- 
garded books about young writers with their major hterary 
accomplishments still ahead of them as quite unnecessary. 
When Clark revised the book in 1933 and sought clarification 
of certain anecdotes, Mrs. O'Neill suggested that her husband 
assist him in getting the stories straight. O'Neill replied "Non- 
sense!" — the further from the truth they were, the more privacy 
he would have, "like a mask." 

The one other early volume approaching biography is 
Richard Dana Skinner's Eugene O'Neill: A Poet's Quest of 1935. 
Its value is significant but limited. As critic of the Catholic 
weekly. Commonweal, Skinner frequently reviewed and often 
praised O'Neill's plays. In his book, he chose to explore them 
in terms of his own concept that O'Neill was a poet on a quest 
similar to the quests of Catholic saints who sought truth and 
meaning in life and man's relationship to God. O'Neill sent 
Skinner the most important section of the book, a chronology 
of composition of every major play. In wishing Skinner suc- 
cessful hunting, he admitted that the undertaking could well 
reveal aspects unknown to himself. 

Skinner hunted, and found much, but the discoveries and 
revelations presumed acceptance of Catholic doctrine and its 
attitudes toward saintly behavior. Critics reviewing the book 
warned that Skinner's "intense partisanship" must be taken 
into consideration and his belief that AH, WILDERNESS! and 
DAYS WITHOUT END, especially the latter, represented a 
positive arrival in artistic accomplishment was not a sound con- 
clusion. Skinner's comparison with the saintly pilgrimage was 
certainly original and did represent a new approach to O'Neill 
criticism, although the protests that the character of the writer 
cannot be judged by the plays alone were, and still are, valid. 

Most of the other full-length books before 1958 cannot be 
counted as biography. Sophus Keith Winther's Eugene O'Neill: 
A Critical Study, 1934, is an excellent discussion of the plays 
without biographical emphasis. It is weakened, as well, by Win- 
ther's inclination to find the entire O'Neill canon successful in one 
way or another. A similar point can be made against Six Plays 
of Eugene O'Neill by Alan D. Mickle, 1929, who ranks O'Neill 
with Shakespeare, Ibsen and Coethe. Edwin Engel's The 
Haunted Heroes of Eugene O'Neill, 1953, considers the plays 


critically, with extended plot resumes, and the man almost none 
at all. Doris Falk's Eugene O'Neill and the Tragic Tension of 
1958 comes closest to biography through its criticism, tracing 
the development of O'Neill's tragic theme through all the plays 
as the reflection of the "lifelong torment of a mind in conflict." 
It becomes, however, an artistic interpretation rather than a 
direct account of the writer's life. 

Of all the proposed books awaited during the O'Neill 
revival only two are purely biographical. The first, Agnes 
Boulton's Part of a Long Story fits more properly into the cate- 
gory of recollections by a personal acquaintance, and is there- 
fore treated later. The other, by journalist Croswell Bowen, 
assisted by Shane O'Neill, is the most complete and accurate 
that we yet have. Both, however, have their limitations. 

Bowen's The Curse of the Misbegotten, 1959, does more 
than any other single volume to pinpoint names, dates, times 
and places, and is a major contribution to our knowledge of 
O'Neill, the man. For the first time we can begin to form a 
coherent picture of the artist's life and the ideas and philosophies 
that grew into the written play. The impression that emerges 
is one of a man who searched his entire hfe for happiness and 
security, but who was never able to find it long enough at one 
time or in one place to remove the sense of pursuit by a re- 
lentless fate. Simultaneously, the book evokes tremendous re- 
spect for the man's intense desire to be left alone and for the 
remarkable body of work which emerged. 

Bowen's eflFort is, on the other hand, of limited value. 
The side we see of O'Neill, particularly his relationship with 
his wives and children, must necessarily come from Bowen's 
close work with Shane O'Neill, whose life in so many ways 
paralleled the aimlessness of his father's youth. The almost 
cruel neglect and calloused indiflFerence of O'Neill toward his 
family must be taken as a fairly one-sided interpretation. Al- 
most certainly there is another viewpoint we have not yet been 
allowed to see. Also, Bowen pauses far too long to evaluate 
the individual plays as they appeared in O'Neill's lifetime. The 
book loses interest as biography while contributing nothing 
of significance to O'Neill criticism. 

A "fictionahzed" biography appeared in 1959 with Max 
Wylie's Trouble in the Flesh, but the portrait of O'Neill in 


this invention, though recognizable at first, becomes so com- 
pletely distorted and without basis in fact that the book can- 
not be seriously regarded as any form of O'Neill biography. 

This, with Miss Boulton's book, completes the list. It is 
a gradually growing library, but it needs more solid contribu- 
tions to fill it out completely. Perhaps the next decade will 
provide them. 

3. The Personal Acquaintance 

O'Neill's personal friends supply little of additional bio- 
graphical value. The reasons are not diflBcult to find. O'Neill 
was never a person who could easily welcome anyone into 
his confidence. The requirement for intimate friendship was 
a willingness to be a friend on his own terms, which presumed 
unconditional acceptance of and adaptation to the O'Neill mode 
of life. While this could include a long and diflBcult journey 
over the Provincetown sands by foot or on horseback, a hair- 
raising trip in a powerful car on narrow French roads with 
O'Neill at the wheel, or a fish-like devotion to the water in 
nearly all seasons, more than anything else it involved a respect 
for O'Neill's strongest wish: a single-minded, unalterable desire 
to be alone and to be left alone. 

Nevertheless, O'Neill fostered some very unusual friend- 
ships. These might include the Hudson Dusters, a decaying 
underworld gang of his Greenwich Village days, who welcomed 
the somber, mysterious young man so far removed from their 
own kind, but who could drink many of them under the table. 
Or it could be the small band of intellectuals led by George 
Cram Cook and wife, Susan Glaspell, whose Provincetown 
Players started O'Neill on his way, as he, equally, started them. 
Noted among others are the names of H. L. Mencken and 
George Jean Nathan. Their Smart Set magazine published and 
praised the early eflForts of the young writer, and Nathan's 
criticism in its whiplash fashion stung playwright and public 
alike. Kenneth Macgowan, producer, critic, and later college 
professor, worked closely with him; Robert Edmond Jones was 
his devoted designer and one-time producing partner; and we 
have already mentioned Clark and De Casseres. 


a. Before Provincetown 

After his emergence as a successful writer O'Neill seldom 
encountered those who had drunk, sailed, or lived with him 
in the years before. He did not pointedly avoid his old friends, 
but his way of living became so different and his contacts so 
remote from his earlier acquaintances that there was no com- 
mon ground for intercourse. The world of Mencken, Nathan, 
Jones, Macgowan and the Theatre Guild was far different from 
that of the Hudson Dusters, Honduras and the forecastle. There 
is no indication that O'Neill himself avoided his erstwhile com- 
panions because of any changed attitudes of his own; rather 
it was their avoidance which marked the separation, for there 
was the feeling by some that "Gene" had risen above them. 

clues to the reasons for the meager documentation of O'Neill's 
childhood and youth. The continual traveling of the parents 
and the sort of "second-class" position which they held in New 
London society during the summers prevented the establish- 
ment of close and friendly contacts. We are given a picture of 
a household into which friends never dropped, callers never 
came. Of O'Neill's personal behavior. Judge Frederick P. Latimer, 
under whom O'Neill had worked on the New London Telegraph 
in 1912, once said that he was the most "stubborn and irre- 
concilable social rebel" the Judge had ever met. Clayton Hamil- 
ton, well-known critic and author, was a close friend of the 
family, but unfortunately he wrote almost nothing about this 
wild young boy he must have known so well. In one series of 
lectures, later published, he did mention that it was mostly his 
own urging which led the elder O'Neill to finance the publica- 
tion of THIRST and Other One Act Plays and to place Eugene 
in Harvard. Gladys Hamilton, his wife, has recalled the inarticu- 
late young man whose eyes seemed to speak what his tongue 
could not. 

Of O'Neill's friends and cronies on his many voyages we 
know almost nothing. Certain of his acquaintances became 
characters in his early plays, but none of them were literate 
enough to write any informative articles after O'Neill achieved 
his fame. Nearly all that we do know about the seagoing ad- 
ventures comes from O'Neill himself. 


The best comments by O'Neill's pre-Provincetown friends 
come from those who knew him in George Pierce Baker's play- 
writing class at Harvard. John V. A. Weaver wrote one of the 
most detailed reports of this period in an item for the New 
York World in 1926. O'Neill, according to Weaver, stood out 
in the class "like an oyster in a lunchroom stew." He would 
squirm in his chair and give the appearance of "delightful 
anarchy" in his attitudes. His withdrawal from the group and 
reluctance to speak prevented for some time his expression of 
opinion about the classroom studies, but once he spoke, sug- 
gesting that the piece under discussion might, with a few tunes, 
become "sure-fire burley-cue," he became more of a member of 
the crowd in their drinking, bull sessions, and other activities. 
Weaver also relates that O'Neill's attractiveness to women was 
apparently irresistible. 

Although O'Neill never completed much work during his 
stay in the class, his companions, according to Weaver, marveled 
at the outpouring of ideas, including plans for two of the 
a "lovely little fantasy about abortion"; and a play about a man 
who was always hoping to get away from his environment to 
go beyond the horizon. The class was appalled at O'Neill's 
"savage radicalism," but all were confident that he would some 
day be America's greatest playwright. When O'Neill did go 
on to his fame. Weaver felt that the swashbuckling charm had 
departed and that plays like THE GREAT GOD BROWN, ALL 
ELMS, and WELDED were "rungs down the ladder to sterility." 

The only other item relating to the Harvard experience was 
a composite article published in the New York Herald-Tribune 
under the title "Fellow Student Thought O'Neill 'Very Like- 
able,'" in 1927. It included, first, a statement from Barrett 
Clark, quoting a letter by George Pierce Baker, which found 
O'Neill a steady worker, able to write one-act plays, but no 
good in three acts. He seemed aloof, but a nice person when 
you knew him. Next was a statement by O'Neill, who said that 
most of his own stuff was "terrible" and that he received far 
more from Baker personally than from the class. The last part, 
from an unnamed "fellow Student," remembered THE DEAR 
DOCTOR, a bad one-act farce written for the class, and THE 


SECOND ENGINEER, a labored and stiff attempt. He recalled 
that O'Neill trembled, as if trying to keep from stuttering, but 
was likeable enough. 

b. After Provincetown 

From the start of O'Neill's fame in Provincetown until his 
death, his many friends contributed extensively to our knowl- 
edge of O'Neill as a person, and they have equally strengthened 
our awareness of what we do not know. Over and over again 
the point is reiterated that it was virtually impossible to be- 
come, in the generally accepted sense, a "close" friend of 
Eugene O'Neill. 

First, what is learned from the partners of his work — 
those of Provincetown and of the later producing companies? 
A good starting point is Helen Deutsch and Stella Hanau's 
interesting volume, The Provincetoton, telling the story of the 
Provincetown Players. The book does not dwell on O'Neill and 
his place in the expanding fortunes of the Players any more 
than it does the other members, but it provides the only com- 
plete account of the famous group's development and O'Neill's 
entry into it. O'Neill was never a close member of the Players 
and seldom appeared on the scene except during rehearsals 
of his own plays. When the organization lost the services of 
its president and guiding angel, George Cram Cook, O'Neill, 
always unsuited for any executive position, was never one of 
those considered as a possible replacement. 

In Theatre magazine in 1930, poet Harry Kemp, an early 
Provincetowner by way of Kansas, recalls that his first impres- 
sion of O'Neill reminded him of Edgar Allan Poe, dressed like 
a sailor who had jumped ship. He relates how O'Neill would 
write his plays in bed, covered with blankets, warming his 
fingers over an oil stove in a Provincetown flat over a grocery. 
In the days at the Golden Swan (the Hell Hole) among the 
Hudson Dusters, O'Neill could fight and hold his own, but never 
picked a quarrel. His magnificent independence constantly as- 
serted itself, as on the occasion when David Belasco sent a 
message that he wished to talk with O'Neill at the Belasco 
studio. O'Neill replied that his studio was the third back room 
of the Hell Hole if Belasco wanted to see him. The interview 


never took place. Always convinced that he knew what was 
best for his own plays, O'Neill would bluntly say so, and 
turned away from Cook to hire Arthur Hopkins to direct THE 
EMPEROR JONES. The play was a sensation, O'Neill was on 
his way, and from then on he and the Provincetown Players 
gradually lost touch. 

Also writing in 1930 for the Boston Transcript, Montiville 
Morris Hansford, although a frequent lengthy house guest of 
O'Neill during the composition of THE GREAT GOD BROWN, 
the impossibility of putting the man down in print. O'Neill, 
says Hansford, was aloof, had an elusive mind, and always 
conveyed the feeling of great distance, appearing almost anti- 
social. He nevertheless welcomed those who had something 
to say or were doing something worthwhile, but intensely dis- 
liked any discussion which did not have a definite point or 
reach a conclusion. He was completely unable to find his way 
through conventional social banter; in the midst of a conversa- 
tion he might get up from his chair, and immediately become 
absorbed in a book. He had a sort of physical helplessness, 
not knowing what to do with his body, and would flit from 
mood to mood in a manner at times almost comic. In a group 
of his closest friends, however, he could be entirely at ease, 
but would seldom discuss his own plays, preferring sports and 
current events. Those who knew him had the constant feeling 
that he was never at home with anybody and nobody was 
quite at home with him. 

There are other scattered reports of the "real" O'Neill, 
among them accounts by Harold de Polo and David Karsner, 
both of whom spent fishing holidays with O'Neill and family 
in the Maine woods in 1926. Theresa Helburn of the Theatre 
Guild has likened O'Neill to Lindbergh, a "lone eagle" in the 
drama, with courage and intense conviction and the same kind 
of desire for privacy. Lawrence Langner, patent attorney and 
leading light in the Theatre Guild, wrote his own biography. 
The Magic Curtain, in 1951. Entire chapters are devoted to 
O'Neill and his contacts with the Guild during that organiza- 
tion's tenure as his Broadway producer. The picture Langner 
paints is no different and no more complete than any other. 
He describes the restless, peripatetic author who refused to 


attend his own plays, could seldom be moved to change what 
he had already written, and remained adamant in his belief 
that he alone knew what was best for his own plays. Generous 
portions of the extended correspondence between O'Neill and 
Langner reinforce the impression of warm, informal friendliness 
gained from similar examples elsewhere. 

A second group, those who did not work directly with 
O'Neill in the staging of his plays, have also written a substantial 
volume of interesting comment. Outstanding was the poet and 
journalist, Benjamin De Casseres. So enthusiastic were his feel- 
ings for the playwright that many of his articles between 1927 
and 1930 must be read with a good deal of caution. The genius 
of O'Neill headed "into the light of eternal cosmic and human 
laws" and could be mentioned only in companionship with 
Shakespeare, Strindberg, Ibsen and Pirandello. O'Neill smashed 
through the morons and brought mountains to Mohamet, always 
the dissenter, the outsider, the "enemy of social convention" 
which only the strong Dionysiac could get away from. O'Neill, 
said De Casseres, was beyond good and evil, as inexorable as 
Sophocles or Hardy, storming and conquering life. When this 
flow of ecstatic praise has been penetrated, one can find some 
biographical facts from De Casseres' reports, particularly the 
account of their first meeting in a theatre. He had gone to a 
rehearsal of ANNA CHRISTIE with the assignment to "get a 
page for Sunday" for the New York Times Magazine. He was 
not prepared for the personality he was to encounter. The 
"volcanic black eyes" seemed to say, "Excuse me for not being 
nice, but I've just returned from Hell." O'Neill's personality 
was marked "No Thoroughfare — and stop lying to me." 

George Jean Nathan was an equally devoted friend, but 
not given to excessive eulogy. His portrait offers much more 
information about O'Neill's true character, although Nathan's 
vigorous style often seems to be working for an effect, rather 
than for truly objective reporting. Only once, says Nathan, did 
he ever hear O'Neill laugh out loud. ( De Casseres had described 
O'Neill's smile as "lightning across a black cloud.") When his 
indignation was aroused, he would avoid speaking, even to his 
friends. He was fond of writing long letters in reply to almost 
any question, but, paradoxically, the best way to lose his friend- 
ship was to ask him, face to face, for a direct opinion on some- 


thing. His outward appearance was cold, even icy, but to those 
who knew him, he displayed a "naturally boyish quaUty" and 
an innocent artlessness. Contrary to the popular impression that 
he was completely withdrawn into a dark, sunless and tortured 
world, Nathan emphasizes O'Neill's delight in Hght detective 
fiction, Damon Runyon, the sports column, swimming, prize 
fighting, garden work, his nickelodeon piano Rosie, and the 
latest music hall jokes. 

There are other personal reminiscences, some long, some 
brief, each presenting a genuine friend but a constantly distant 
companion. Russell Grouse, Pierre Loving, Alfred Kreymborg, 
Kenneth Macgowan, Mary Heaton Vorse — friends, companions, 
co-workers — all have described, as best they can, the strange 
and enigmatic man who walked among them. Few could pene- 
trate the mask of the dark, brooding face, but all saw in their 
friendship something unique and valuable. 

Perhaps it is not accurate to include Agnes Boulton's Part 
of a Long Story as the writing of a "personal acquaintance," 
but because it is not, strictly speaking, "biography," and because 
it came from one who, above all, should have been best "ac- 
quainted," it seems to fit. When one has finished her absorbing 
story, there is the same impression that strikes the reader of 
the items by those who knew him less intimately: Eugene 
O'Neill remained impossible to fathom, and his distance, whether 
in an alcoholic haze, submerged in his writing, or as a husband 
and parent, was always just beyond one's ability to cross and 
reach the true man. 

Part of a Long Story, engrossing as it is, remains a curiously 
unsatisfactory report of the early years of acquaintance and 
marriage. Its signal value is, of course, its intimate portrait 
unavailable from any other source. The strange young man 
seated in the dingy Hell Hole back room, declaiming poetry to 
bum and streetwalker — and commanding a fascinated audience; 
the restrained, uncommunicative, temperamental artist, shy to 
an almost pathological degree, but on occasion loud, compelhng, 
and violent, often without warning; the heavy drinker whose 
alcoholic binges became legendary; the dedicated writer who 
let nothing, not wife, friend, or drink, interfere with his steady 
intense concentration; the lover and husband whose aflFection 
bore a casual oflF-handedness that hid the sincere and serious 


need for love and understanding from others; all of these faces 
of the Eugene O'Neill of Provincetown and Greenwich Village 
stand forward in a unique collection of reminiscences told with 
unemotional compassion and without recrimination. The picture 
they form of life with a genius emerges best described as night- 
marish. The book is one of mood, more than of fact, as was 
probably Miss Boulton's original intent. Its disappointing lack 
of exact date and time, its distressingly casual "I don't remem- 
ber" attitude toward important matters, and its often repeated 
hour-by-hour recounting of a week-long drinking spree become 
disturbing. Yet it must be read as one of the most vital links 
in our very weak chain of O'Neill's personal history. O'Neill's 
brother James, his parents, the habitues of the Provincetown 
theatres, the Hell Hole and elsewhere, those of both sexes who 
sincerely loved O'Neill for all his exasperating inconsistencies 
and unpredictable temperament are all here, each treated with 
fairness and equality. Perhaps it is best that Miss Boulton leaves 
us only with a mood, for certainly her ten year life with this 
man must stand out in her own mind not as one of a series 
of orderly events, clearly placed in time, but as a decade spent 
in an ultimately fruitless attempt to reach out to an agonized 
soul that searched for, but eventually rejected, the kind of 
love she had to offer. 

4. The Interviewing Journalist 

Magazine and newspaper articles, complete with illustra- 
tions, began to appear regularly as early as 1918, while O'Neill 
was still considered little more than an effective writer of one- 
act plays. The accumulation of these reports from professional 
journalists is much greater than from those who knew him as 
a personal friend. They lack the intimacy of the others, and at 
the same time fail to contribute any more significant information. 

In 1922 O'Neill was already a legend of sorts, and there 
was a demand to know just who the "real " person was. Oliver 
M. Sayler, a frequent critic of the plays, wrote "The Real 
Eugene O'Neill" for Century in January 1922. He discussed 
O'Neill's lack of interest in public reaction to the plays and 
noted the "inner fire" in this intense, reticent young man with 


the piercing eyes and quiet sense of humor. His harshness, 
said Sayler, came from lack of maturity instead of striving for 
effect, but it may be softened in the future. The same month 
Malcolm Mollan of the Philadelphia Public Ledger printed a 
widely requoted newspaper interview entitled "Making Plays 
with a Tragic End: An Intimate Interview with Eugene O'Neill 
Who Tells Why He Does It." O'Neill will write of life as he 
sees it, said Mollan, providing a "conventional" happy ending 
only when necessary and in keeping with the individual play. 
Until that time, he would be forced to create something which 
audiences insisted on calling "unhappy" because his personal 
views permitted of nothing else. As an explanation of O'Neill's 
dramatic philosophy, the article remains of considerable value 
even today. Mary B. Mullet's "The Extraordinary Story of 
Eugene O'Neill" appeared in The American Magazine for No- 
vember 1922, a long factual report containing information now 
common knowledge. In 1923, Charles Merrill, interviewing 
O'Neill at his Cape Cod home, waxed extremely sentimental 
with a picture of cozy domesticity and peaceful isolation from 
the world. 

By 1924, when plays were appearing at the rate of two 
or three a year, Carol Bird wrote about "Eugene O'Neill: The 
Inner Man" in Theatre for June. O'Neill was described as taci- 
turn, laconic, reserved, shy, compassionate, with one outstand- 
ing feature, the somber, tender, melancholy eyes. As so many 
were to do. Miss Bird discovered O'Neill's hatred of superficial 
veneer. His silences were the product of genius. He was a man 
who was able to project the thoughts of those who hear in the 
silences. In 1928 Walter Prichard Eaton, acknowledging O'Neill's 
"irreconcilable rebellion," could not, however, find his personal 
behavior arrogant. Living in his own imaginative world and 
putting it in dramatic form, he increased the dignity of the 
dramatist's craft in this country. Like Emerson and Thoreau he 
retired to his Cape Cod dune home where he found "night 
stars are more important . . . than night clubs." By 1933 O'Neill 
was, to Brooks Atkinson, more relaxed than he had previously 
been, more human, capable of laughing "without brilliant provo- 
cation," somewhat released from his absorption with the tragic 
as he rehearsed AH, WILDERNESS!. To Newsweek he was 
still the "shy, dark boy." 


Except for some brief reports during the excitement of 
the 1936 Nobel Prize award, no important O'Neill interview 
occurred between 1934 and 1946. When he emerged from "re- 
tirement" with the production of THE ICEMAN COMETH, 
he had to be introduced to an almost entirely new generation 
of playgoers. A new O'Neill play was almost like something 
out of a distant historical past; in fact, it seemed downright 

One of the notable events of his return to New York was 
a press conference, something O'Neill had never before at- 
tempted. It was held in June 1946 in the oflBces of the Theatre 
Guild. O'Neill discussed his much-heralded but unseen "cycle" 
and his belief that the United States was at once the greatest 
success and the greatest failure as a nation in the world. Typical 
reports were by Robert Sylvester in the New York Daily News 
and by Muriel Band in Mayfair. Both described O'Neill's in- 
creased gauntness, his palsy, the piercing eyes, and underlying 
humor. His cordiality was universally acknowledged. Kyle 
Crichton of Collier's later gained a personal interview in O'Neill's 
apartment. He looked less like a ghost than one might imagine, 
said Crichton, and possessed a "sense of humor that will make 
a monkey out of you if you don't keep your guard up." In- 
formed of Crichton's surprise at this sense of humor, O'Neill 
rephed, "Oh, yes — some days. Other days, other moods." 

Edith Isaacs in Theatre Arts wrote one of the best articles 
during the ICEMAN period. She realized that O'Neill created 
a legend about himself with the help of no publicity agent or 
outside assistance. Nobody was so well loved and liked by his 
friends, a man who always remained above little spites and 
prejudices. She described him to the new generation viewing 
THE ICEMAN COMETH as shy, high strung, nervous and 
thoughtful, "a man driven by an unnamed force toward an 
unseen goal." 

The most complete picture of O'Neill at this time was 
drawn by Hamilton Basso in his New Yorker "profile" of Feb- 
ruary and March 1948. Typical of that magazine's biographical 
sketches, it was long, interestingly written and comprehensive. 
It oflFered a late summary of most of the facts of public interest, 
plus a review of many points about which others had once 
written, but which now existed in widely scattered sources, un- 


available to the average reader. Part I was completely historical 
and, because of accurate factual detail, far better as biography 
than Clark's Man and His Plays volumes. There was no sugges- 
tion anywhere of the background of his youth at home, so 
horrifyingly portrayed in LONG DATS JOURNEY, except one 
quotation about his father, whom he regarded as a primary ex- 
ample of "the tragedy of success." Part II was mostly about the 
plays, with some suggestion of their initial critical reception, 
and some of O'Neill's remarks about Strindberg. Part III dis- 
cussed various opinions about O'Neill as a man, from the 
pejorative term "black Irishman" to the highest artistic praise, 
and added O'Neill's own opinion of himself as a seaman who 
had taken up writing, rather than a writer who had been to 
sea. Then, near the closing page. Basso dropped the explosive 
news that all of the "cycle" had been destroyed except A TOUCH 
OF THE POET, because O'Neill felt he had become stale. 

5. The Dramatic Historian 

Dramatic and theatrical histories are poor assistance in 
analyzing the personality of Eugene O'Neill because of the 
obvious need of such works to speak on broad general terms. 
The following selected examples, taken from books which 
devote considerable space to O'Neill, show how Httle additional 
information can be gained from them. 

Joseph Wood Krutch in The American Drama Since 1918 
wrote that "in late years" {i.e., since DAYS WITHOUT END) 
he [O'Neill] had lived aktiost as a hermit, refusing to attend 
his own first nights and showing, externally at least, no interest 
in anything other than his immediate work. Remarking on 
O'Neill's inability to express himself precisely, Krutch pointed 
out the writer's diflBculties in thinking in abstract terms and his 
inability to communicate clearly. Krutch saw O'Neill as truly 
a mystic, concerned with the fundamentals of conflict between 
good and evil, which he continually inserted into his plays. 

Arthur Hobson Quinn gave O'Neill an entire chapter, 
"Eugene O'Neill: Poet and Mystic," in his History of the Amer- 
can Drama from the Civil War to the Present Day, 1936. He 
asserted that to know the plays we must understand the man. 


but his chapter remains mostly historical. Quinn saw O'Neill 
primarily as a poet, but also as a playwright, and a great drama- 
tist because he was "more than a dramatist." His "profound 
imaginative interpretation" of struggling, aspiring humanity was 
one of his great artistic contributions. John Gassner's excellent 
Masters of the Drama called this unique personality "a verit- 
able seismograph of the ideas, viewpoints, and promptings of 
the new age" who reflected the younger generation's discontent 
with a materialistic America. 

Other historians contribute very little more which could 
guide us beyond what we already know. There is always the 
feeling, as Quinn indicates, that to know the plays one must 
know the man, but no carefully thinking critic or historian 
will ever restrict the enjoyment of the collected works of any 
literary artist to an understanding of the writer's life. O'Neill's 
case is no diflFerent, but because of his isolation as an artist 
of the tragic theme and because of the admitted autobiographi- 
cal nature of LONG DATS JOURNEY, the search for more 
meaning in the interrelationship of man, artist and plays will 
continue. So far, the search has not brought its expected re- 
ward; there is no way of knowing if it ever will. 


In 1947 Edmund Gagey, Barrett Clark and others were 
confident that Eugene O'Neill had a strong future before him. 
Nobody would yet ofiFer an estimate of his final place in Ameri- 
can stage literature until his work was complete, and in 1947 
it appeared far from done. The production or active prepara- 
tion of at least three new O'Neill plays was familiar theatrical 
news. THE ICEMAN COMETH had already been staged; A 
MOON FOR THE MISBEGOTTEN was on its tryout tour; A 
TOUCH OF THE POET was to be produced "soon." The evi- 
dence was plain that the life work of Eugene O'Neill had not 
yet ended. 

Nobody, therefore, could have suspected that O'Neill's 
writing career actually was finished. Each of the "new" plays 
had been written at least three years previously. ICEMAN was 
ready in 1939; POET was done by 1940; MISBEGOTTEN was 
complete in 1943; and LONG DAYS JOURNEY had been an 
anniversary gift to Mrs. O'Neill in 1942. The future which 
Gagey and Clark hopefully awaited had already passed. None 
of these plays restored the reputation which had begun to 
suffer more than ten years earlier. As THE ICEMAN closed, 
MISBEGOTTEN suspended production indefinitely without 
ever reaching New York, and POET was abandoned, O'Neill 
faded as quickly as he had reappeared. The lapse of another 
decade between the first New York production of ICEMAN 
and LONG DATS JOURNEY did not change the fact that for 
over twenty years Eugene O'Neill disappeared from the pro- 
fessional American theatre. His last plays had shown nothing 
new. The rich vein of dramatic and theatrical technique, which 
had served him well during his career, had finally become so 
diluted that its immediate market value was of little worth. 

After 1956 the product seemed to find a market. ICEMAN 
commanded an off-Broadway audience and critical acclaim it 
could not attract ten years earlier. The power of LONG DAY'S 
JOURNEY overcame its lugubrious style to become one of the 
all-time O'Neill successes. The excellent production and fine 
cast of A TOUCH OF THE POET, now resurrected, ran out 


the season. A MOON FOR THE MISBEGOTTEN finally made 
New York. Then nothing more. Was this the start of that 
future once so strongly hoped for, or the last rush of a one- 
time strong dramatic force, a kind of shout from the grave, 
before its final disappearance? No suggestion of impending 
growth was, of course, possible, for Eugene O'Neill was dead. 
But perhaps there was, in these last plays, something new in 
dramatic style and theme which would exert some kind of 
guiding influence upon the theatre of the moment, would 
emerge from the deep reservoir of O'Neill's many and varied 
skills to point a new and better way. The truth is that no such 
thing happened, and the indication is that if O'Neill is to sur- 
vive in our active stage literature it will probably be in spite 
of, and not because of, the technical contributions of these or 
any other of his plays. There was really nothing new. Only 
two plays had previously been unseen, and they showed nothing 
beyond extreme length (this was old hat) and heavy-handed 
"realism" (an early O'Neill trademark). Even the grotesque 
dimensions of Josie in MISBEGOTTEN had been trimmed to 
manageable size. The plays proved, if they proved anything, 
that the latter day O'Neill had exhausted the deep well of 
genuine originality which at one time had sustained him; 
stylistically there was nothing new. 

Consistency in style was never a part of O'Neill's strength. 
Critics were always seeking the proper niche for his perma- 
nent mounting, but they were continually unable to find it. 
With the early sea plays, including ANNA CHRISTIE and 
BEYOND THE HORIZON, they fashioned for him a pedestal 
of "stark realism" that soon melted in the steaming jungle of 
THE EMPEROR lONES and the stoke hole of THE HAIRY 
APE; it was replaced by expressionism, in turn moulded into 
naturalism, and subsequently nicked and scarred with romantic 
and classical symbolism, all hastily patched from time to time 
with mysticism. Masks, half-houses, thirteen acts, and spoken 
thoughts brought playgoers and critics through a labyrinth of 
stage efiFects. None of these, in writing or production, ever 
solidified or developed into a specific "O'Neill style." Neverthe- 


less, this very unpredictability in itself became a style, forcing 
critic and audience to play a continual game of guessing what 
he would employ next. 

In an artist's development from his apprentice to his master 
works, varied experimentation along the way can be expected, 
O'Neill was aware of this, and defined his own nascent art as 
"mere groping" in a letter to George Jean Nathan in 1920. 
His definition can excuse the uncertainties of his approach 
before 1925, during his trials with intensely grim irony, reahstic 
melodrama, and expressionism. The groping, unfortunately, 
never ceased, and a cogent philosophy never evolved. By the 
middle of the decade some sort of levelling off in idea or style 
should have been forthcoming. Instead, O'Neill subjected the 
playgoer to more bewilderment and novelty as each play brought 
a fresh approach. 

If O'Neill was groping, he was simultaneously attempting 
to overcome this disadvantage through his intimate knowledge 
of what constituted good theatre. Although he forced upon 
the producer some extraordinary tasks in design, direction and 
acting, responsible critics never accused him of using trickery 
for its own sake. They knew he employed whatever medium 
he felt to be most appropriate for what he had to say with 
no appeal to the box oflBce or public feelings in mind. But 
there were warnings, at this middle period in his career, that 
O'Neill must emerge with something more substantial. The 
dangers were too apparent that the theatricality which so often 
threatened to engulf him would prevent his achieving the 
artistic strength of which he seemed capable. St. John Ervine, 
one of O'Neill's most astute English critics, sounded this note 
of caution. O'Neill, he asserted, was too fond of making ex- 
periments. Because he had a lot to say, he should have stuck 
to a single approach, along a steady path. Showing a kind of 
"wilful extravagance" and a refusal to use his material with 
any kind of economy, O'Neill dissipated his strength, despite 
the astonishing fertility and high imagination exhibited in the 
plays. All this was becoming a perversion of his talents, said 
Ervine, and he should get away from being the faddist and 
get down to being an accomplished dramatist. 

There is no need to discuss in detail the well-known 
O'Neill surprises of beating drums, masks and soliloquies. It 


is revealing, however, to trace them in certain patterns in order 
to indicate the continuing uncertainty of the viewing critic, 
and to show their eventual permanent disadvantage to the 

1. Critical Response 

Early Plays, 1917-1924 

Critical reaction during the first eight years of O'Neill's 
career forms the first pattern. As the one-act plays appeared in 
the Greenwich Village "art" theatres, O'Neill was greeted as 
the new realist on the American stage, the challenger of the 
trite sentimentalists and romanticists, unafraid to face life as 
he saw it. Critical confusion entered with the longer plays after 
1920, when O'Neill occasionally diverged from his expected 
path, but the professional reviewers readily accepted his posi- 
tion as a vivid, forceful creator of stage realism. The significant 
factor is that the reviewers themselves placed O'Neill in this 
position and were unable to realize that his aberrations were 
the beginnings of the overt theatricality that became his medium 
of expression after 1925. 

Opinion of the permanent value of O'Neill's first plays was 
varied, but there was consistent agreement about his strength 
and style. The early sea plays received almost uniform com- 
ment from the daily press and various national magazines. 
They were as realistically eflFective as Conrad, tense, grim, with 
the sense of tragedy. They were almost brutal, made audiences 
gasp with their impact, displayed "rugged craftsmanship" and 
hard, virile pathos. BEYOND THE HORIZON gave the pro- 
fessional critics their first opportunity to judge O'Neill as a 
writer of full-length plays suitable for the more sophisticated 
uptown theatres. They were further convinced of their first 
judgment. Here was great power, the essence of tragedy, a 
digging at emotional roots of real people in a real play. Terms 
like "greatest American drama within recent memory" were 
not uncommon. The names of Ibsen, Synge and Chekhov were 
used to describe this unusual new writer. 

THE EMPEROR JONES introduced a temporary road- 
block. The critics were careful what they wrote, and remained 


restrained in comment, and few assumed that O'Neill would 
continue in this unusual vein. It was an "extraordinary drama 
of imagination," admirable in its craftsmanship. While finding 
it "highly interesting" one newspaper commentator questioned 
if O'Neill was actually better than George M. Cohan or Eugene 
Walter. It was, to another, "possibly" a profound piece of 
work. Charles Gilpin, the first Negro in a leading dramatic 
role in New York, drew far more extravagant praise and com- 
manded more column space than the play itself. 

The "realistic" plays continued to dominate O'Neill's early 
writing. DIFF'RENT, the first play after JONES, opened in 
late December 1920, lasting 100 performances in the Village 
and uptown, where it failed to capitalize on JONES' successful 
invasion. It was frequently compared to the unusual JONES, 
and there was difiiculty in assessing its worth. The antithetical 
opinions that grew commonplace in later years now began to 
appear. Said the New York Clipper: "far superior" to JONES, 
which was merely "stagey." In contrast, Heywood Broun stated 
that O'Neill obviously did not know what he was writing about. 
Another found the hero sufiFered and died of "O'Neillitis," the 
instinct for violent death; Variety said the play should never 
have been written and that O'Neill ought not be produced 
again until he gains restraint. Oliver M. Sayler, who was to 
review many O'Neill plays, said it was one of his best, a great 
"naturalistic" play. 

GOLD, in June 1921, brought the critics no closer together. 
The unsuccessful tale of madness was a thrilling yarn of ad- 
venture and crime, or it was feeble, crude melodrama. In 
some ways it was O'Neill's most impressive, but it had too 
many "chunks of gloom." It was ANNA CHRISTIE in Novem- 
ber of the same year that brought back O'Neill's "realistic 
power," but even this Pulitzer Prize winner kept the critics 
reserved in their praise. The Sun called it merely an unconven- 
tional play that "dwindled" to a conventional ending. The 
Herald found there was too much "realism" and the sea a 
fantastic protagonist, while Burns Mantle in the Mail decided 
the "sheer realism" was all to the good. O'Neill himself could 
lay permanent claim to fame on this play alone, or, depending 
on the paper one read at the time, he displayed only "great 
promise." The next two plays helped in no way to decide in 


which direction lay the critical consensus. THE STRAW, also 
November 1921, was preferred for its optimism, had "one of 
the most thrilling" of last acts in our native theatre. It was, 
on the other hand, "a parody of a play," unbearable, strangely 
beautiful, lugubrious, depressing, and vital. THE FIRST MAN 
in March 1922 was painful and morbid, a "keen satire," one 
of O'Neill's best. There was "no glory here," no excuse for this 
revolting and abhorrent treatment of gestation. The majority, in 
this case, were disheartened by the grimness and despair and 
the too-strong "naturalistic" tendencies. 

In the two years from REYOND THE HORIZON to THE 
FIRST MAN, O'Neill had produced eight plays. Two Pulitzer 
Prizes had not eliminated the critical reluctance to welcome 
him as the complete answer to American dramatic prayers. It 
was beginning to be a case of damnation through lack of praise, 
rather than condemnation through adverse opinion. When re- 
viewing THE FIRST MAN, the Tribunes anonymous critic had 
called it "murky" and stated, "The name of Eugene O'Neill's 
star is Wormwood." Certainly that nova which was O'Neill 
of the one-act sea plays was rapidly burning out, and the result- 
ing haziness was beginning to obscure some erstwhile promis- 
ing talent. 

Then in March 1922, O'Neill finally drilled straight into 
the strong vein of imagination from which he was to draw for 
the next ten years. With THE HAIRY APE he proved that 
JONES had not been a fluke and that the same general style, 
more fully developed, could be successfully repeated. The play 
also evoked sensation and violent response as no other O'Neill 
play had thus far done. 

The uneven critical reaction remained, but it becomes 
more interesting because of the confusion. Convinced that 
O'Neill was a firm realist who only slightly dabbled in foreign 
expressionistic techniques, some writers were almost completely 
blinded by what they saw. The World said it was not as good 
as JONES because it was less articulate; Bums Mantle said it 
was better because of more intimate contact with the modem 
world. Maida Castellun in the leftish Call found it one of 
O'Neill's finest achievements, powerful and shattering; J. Ranken 
Towse, in the conservative Post, dismissed it as juvenile appeal 
to ignorance and passion, ominous of O'Neill's future and a 


worthless play. The inability to recognize the style was evi- 
dent when Arthur Pollock of the Brooklyn Eagle found enough 
realism to make Belasco weep, and Brock Pemberton in the 
Globe said the similarities between this and Tollers expres- 
sionistic Masse Mensch were uncanny. Others were confused 
by the shift from the "realism" of the first half to the "fantasy" 
of the second, but did not realize that O'Neill never intended 
a single part of the play to be realistic in any sense whatever. 

Those the furthest removed from comprehending O'Neill's 
intent were critics like R. Bobbins of Industrial Solidarity, a 
labor periodical, and Patterson James of Billboard. Bobbins 
praised this defense of the I.W.W. and saw O'Neill as painting 
the "inner tragedy of the proletarian soul." James wrote the 
most violent and vitriolic attack against any O'Neill play of 
that or any later time. He compared the drama's "realism" to 
swill wagons and slaughter houses. He could find no place on 
the stage for such a play and determined that it was the lowest 
point of modem drama in its vile language and revolting sub- 
ject matter. These two commentators were joined by the New 
York city fathers in their failure to comprehend O'Neill's pur- 
pose. THE HAIRY APE was the first of O'Neill's plays to meet 
threats of oflBcial censorship, although the accusations against 
it did not reach the peak to come with later plays. 

There was one more unsuccessful try at the old-style 
realism in WELDED, presented in March 1924. This portrayal 
of the war between men and women survived only twenty-four 
performances and has been almost completely ignored ever 
since. Outside of LONG DATS lOURNEY, which is heavily 
autobiographical, O'Neill never again attempted anything of 
its type. Critical response found it wearisome, prodigiously 
dull, garrulous, uneventful, morbid, without normal human 

2. Transition, 1924-1925 

In May and November 1924, O'Neill produced two plays 
which marked the transition between the reahsm of his early 
successes and the dismal failures, and the unconventional tech- 
niques so clearly identified in his mature work. Professional 


criticism, twice jolted by JONES and THE HAIRY APE, still 
was uncertain, but the words "Greek" and "genuine tragedy" 
were beginning to appear more regularly. 

The first of those plays, ALL GOD'S CHILLUN GOT 
WINGS, employed a stylized, almost expressionistic, setting, 
with color, space and stage properties designed to symbolize 
the impenetrable line drawn between the Negro boy and white 
girl. In dialogue and characterization, however, it was severely 
realistic. The cross between this "stark realism" and symbolism 
led critics once more into disparate reactions as they sought 
meaning in the social problem of miscegenation which O'Neill 
always insisted was secondary to the tragedy of lost souls he 
thought he had created. Heywood Broun saw it as a down- 
stroke in O'Neill's uneven career, and Alexander Woollcott 
agreed that it was "lesser O'Neill." Edmund Wilson in the 
New Republic thought it one of the best things about race 
prejudice yet written, and hence one of the best of O'Neill; 
Ernest Gruening in Theatre Arts thought the race issue should 
be more clear-cut. Ludwig Lewisohn, Nation, added that the 
transcendency of character was almost Greek. ^ 

In the second play, DESIRE UNDER THE ELMS, O'Neill 
demanded the utmost from his scene designer as he combined 
some of his best realistic writing (if the dialect, which most 
critics found strained and unreal, is disregarded) with a setting 
that became not only a symbol but a vital part of the play 
itself. The actors did not perform against this setting but 
directly within it. The walls of the entire front of the two- 
story house could be removed from scene to scene, and the 
many areas and levels of the four interior rooms plus the 
surrounding farmyard permitted some strikingly effective stage 
pictures. Even when the curtain descended, the audience was 
confronted with a somber stone wall jutting out beyond the 
proscenium, continually symbolizing the rocky hardness of the 
land and the people's lives. For the first time O'Neill had fused 
theatrical technique and literary form so completely that to 

'A completely atypical venture into historical romance with THE 
FOUNTAIN in December 1925 will not be considered. It was the only 
play of its kind that O'Neill attempted and it failed in twenty-four per- 
formances. Practically every critic found it a ponderous, boring play, a 
"trial by scenery," according to Gilbert Gabriel, Sun. 


have eliminated the required visual pattern would have can- 
celled the play's intended efiFect. 

This impressive departure in stage mechanics, though 
praised, did not receive the attention which critics paid to the 
dramatic theme itself. There was violent dissent, an expected 
part of the increasing quantity of O'Neill criticism, but the 
critic who sought for what O'Neill said, more than for what 
he did, began to discover the first indications of greatness in 
his tragic approach: 

Gilbert Gabriel, Telegram: Some vivid and great moments, 

such as the bedroom scene, slumping into repugnance 

in the last two scenes. 
Fred Niblo, Jr., Telegraph: Gruesome, morbid, as real to 

life as a sewer, one that "anyone who cares anything 

about the theatre cannot approve ... or disapprove 

in silence." 
Stark Young, Times: O'Neill has written nothing with more 

qualities of realism, poetry and terror than this. 
Burns Mantle, News: Should be seen by all who praise 

foreign drama, and by all students of drama. 
Richard Dana Skinner, Independent and Weekly Review: 

Not a tragedy because nobody is on a height to fall. 

Everybody is on one level and rots there. 
Louis Bromfield, Bookman: On fine level of Greek tragedy. 

Except for the one-act plays, abandoned as an art form 
after 1919, the only conventional works which brought O'Neill 
any kind of consistently favorable reception during his initial 
decade were BEYOND THE HORIZON of 1920 and ANNA 
CHRISTIE of 1921. Once he had ventured into the realm of 
experimentation and unusual staging, except for AH, WILDER- 
NESS! near the end of his active career, he never again was 
able to fashion a success in an "ordinary" manner. An O'Neill 
play came to mean an unusual play, creating an immediate 
audience sensation with new stage devices. The turning point 
had been reached, and the third pattern emerged suddenly 
and completely, preceded by warnings that can now be seen 
as ample, but which were not always entirely understood. 


3. Theatricality, 1926-1931 

After the production of DESIRE UNDER THE ELMS, the 
rush of three and four plays a year abruptly ceased. For the 
next six years, O'Neill wrote an average of only one play per 
year, but they all fit into the third pattern of overt theatricality. 
Critical reports almost never reached any point of agreement 
regarding either his aim or achievement, and O'Neill himself 
was sometimes disappointed in the accomplishments of his own 
devices. The theatre for which he wrote was often unable to 
do him the justice he wanted; at the same time, he could not 
adjust his work to the facilities which the theatre could o£Fer him. 
The following discussion will not only indicate reasons for 
this failure, but will show that the richness of a particular in- 
novation in style, once successfully used, could not be em- 
ployed again. Being forced to abandon each style in its turn 
and to strive anew, O'Neill finally exhausted the technical pos- 
sibilities. Then, when the stage effect and the message both 
failed, O'Neill, as an artist, rapidly declined. 

a. The Mask 

The first outstanding element was the mask. The Fifth 
Avenue promenaders in THE HAIRY APE had worn masks, 
and the Congo mask on the Harris' wall in ALL GOD'S CHIL- 
LUN had achieved symbolic importance. In THE GREAT GOD 
BROWN, however, the use of masks became an integral part 
of the message. Although this use became awkward in certain 
intimate scenes, no thoughtful critic condemned the play on 
the basis of this fault alone. 

Brooks Atkinson refused to be bothered by the lack of 
clarity which all critics found to a degree, especially with the 
transfer of the Dion personality to Brown. He found more 
important what O'Neill did, rather that what he did not do, 
admiring the fine shades of beauty, nuances of truth, and pas- 
sionate qualities of emotion. Gilbert Gabriel admired O'Neill's 
writing for posterity instead of popularity, and offered his 
high but troubled admiration for this "most poetic and pene- 
trating play." R. W. Osborn stated that the unexpected was 


introduced "as usual," but there was a certain symbolic run- 
ning away at the last. Richard Watts regarded it as eloquent 
and stirring, except that the whole remained a fascinating 
"half-mad" enigma with a trick last act which showed a reading 
of Strindberg with more care than wisdom. Alexander Wooll- 
cott, liking some of it, called other portions "pure undiluted 
blah!" Others found fault with the purely physical device of 
the masks, or praised them as an important part of the whole 
thematic design. Protests of the dissenters who used terms 
such as "glorious confusion," "pretentious," and "jerkily written" 
went mostly unheeded. Audiences supported the play and it 
ran out the season. 

For all the praise and satisfying public reception of this 
diflBcult play, O'Neill's theatrical technique was not placed 
on any more stable ground. The instability and uncertainty 
of what he was doing was evident in a letter O'Neill himself 
sent to Benjamin De Casseres in June 1927, in which he ac- 
knowledged that the simple double-personality conveyed by 
the masks was not what he had intended. He felt that the pro- 
duction had not satisfactorily developed them; the "right" masks 
would have become mystic instead of confusing, would have 
shown "the abstract drama of the forces behind the people." 
He was confident that a re-reading of the play would clarify 
the original intent — a dangerous assertion to make, and a dis- 
couraging one in view of the fact that no play should have to 
be read to be understood by an audience. O'Neill's own ex- 
planation in writing was published in many newspapers in 
February 1926, and reprinted in later books. This same line 
of reasoning was used to show what the play had been designed 
to do, and before he was through, he had to make use of an 
"explanation of this explanation" only to further complicate 
the whole thing. 

Complete loss of theatrical perspective occurred in 1927 
with LAZARUS LAUGHED, the only important play that 
O'Neill never saw professionally produced. Again to De Cas- 
seres, he stated that "of course" the play was better for reading 
than it ever could be for acting, since it was impossible to do 
on any stage of today. The "imaginative theatre" for which 
he wrote it did not exist. 


A reading of LAZARUS will quickly show that the fairly 
simple "abstract forces" of BROWN were not enough. O'Neill 
describes massed performers representing the "seven periods" 
of life such as childhood, youth, middle and old age, each 
group further represented by seven types such as simple, ig- 
norant, proud, servile, revengeful and so on. There were forty- 
nine different combinations in the varied groups which Lazarus 
encountered — Jews, Romans, or Greeks — all broken down in 
the same way. The accumulation of masks reached into hun- 
dreds. Amidst it all, Lazarus, unmasked, became younger and 
younger, while Miriam, his wife, became older and older. There 
were, in addition, half-masks for Caligula and other more im- 
portant characters. 

The Pasadena Community Playhouse in California under- 
took the only full-scale production of LAZARUS LAUGHED in 
1928. The few professional critics who saw it praised the effort 
of the many volunteer hands that had created what O'Neill 
demanded. Students at Fordham University attempted a revival 
in 1948, but those who attended found it far beyond the ability 
of undergraduates. Brooks Atkinson termed it shallow, sopho- 
moric, hortatory, overwrought; Variety labeled it an ordeal in 
the theatre. It was, to others, tedious, verbose, pretentious and, 
in one dismissal, O'Neill's "biggest lemon," worth forgetting 

If O'Neill had attempted to refine his use of the mask so 
that audiences, willing and eager to listen and watch, might 
see the facets of his philosophy, perhaps he would have de- 
veloped an ancient technique as an important and successful 
part of modern drama. But instead of careful reworking of a 
potentially great dramatic effect, he chose LAZARUS LAUGHED 
and leaped into a whirlpool of fantastic shapes and figures 
which drowned out any chance of more refined subtlety. 
Furthermore, in his typical fashion of misjudging his own 
talents, he regarded it as his finest piece of writing. 

The plays that followed made no attempt to reintroduce 
the mask either in the style of BROWN or LAZARUS. Except 
for the weird hybrid of DAYS WITHOUT END, O'Neill per- 
manently abandoned this particular technique. 


b. The Monologue-Soliloquy 

In THE EMPEROR JONES, O'Neill had experimented with 
what was essentially a monologue. Except for the opening 
scene and the brief closing dialogue, the entire play was a reci- 
tation of Jones' mounting terror. It was efiFective theatre, and as 
such was never severely criticized. THE HAIRY APE further 
developed the style, as Yank gradually lost contact with reality 
and concluded the play by talking to himself and to an inarticu- 
late gorilla. Expressionistic staging, with its attendant attrac- 
tions and distractions, welcomed the long, soliloquizing speech 
as part of its own style. A few of O'Neill's more realistic at- 
tempts, such as WELDED, had conveyed outwardly the ex- 
pression of an inner thought which would not normally have 
been uttered aloud, but this was accepted as legitimate dramatic 
license. Then, without previous warning, almost as in the 
case of BROWN'S fully grown but underdeveloped masks, 
STRANGE INTERLUDE'S stream-of-consciousness, expressed- 
thought, monologue-soliloquy style exploded the bomb which 
was to be the dramatic sensation of the 1928 spring season, and, 
to be sure, for many seasons to come. 

Critics hastened to assure their readers that this was 
nothing new, that the Greeks had long had the word for it, 
and that the Elizabethans could write it far better. They then 
equally assured everyone that it was an astounding new tech- 
nique, and that new dramatic vistas had been presented by 
O'Neill, the genius of the age, who had done the impossible. 

Brooks Atkinson, Times: The technique of experiment is 

more important than the story; the asides at times 

are "the very stuff" of drama. 
Gilbert Gabriel, American: "A magnificent venture," one 

which "cleaves the skyline of tomorrow." 
Robert Littell, Post: All future conventional plays will seem 

flat and two dimensional. 
Dudley Nichols, World: Perhaps the most important event 

in the modern American theatre. 
Percy Hammond, Herald-Tribune: "O'Neill has broken the 

drama's shackles." 


Other prominent critics such as Joseph Wood Krutch and 
Stark Young approved this "overwhelming milestone" in the 
theatre. The Literary Digest summarized this 'Taody blow" to 
realism, and Arthur Hornblow's staid Theatre Magazine saw a re- 
turn to the great days of the drama and reverence for the theatre. 

Dissenters like David Carb, Vogue, did not like the con- 
trivances, which were both irritating and depressing; he warned 
that if O'Neill so continued, there would be calamity for him 
and the American theatre. Gilbert Seldes, Dial, agreed, because 
he regarded O'Neill as too good a dramatist to have to employ 
the asides, a "technical felicity" which spoiled the play. 

It is interesting, knowing not only what followed in O'Neill's 
own career but in the development of American drama as a 
whole, to see how much closer to the truth David Carb spoke 
than the lyric singers who saw the vistas of drama so much 
greater. The "aside" influenced only one other play, also by 
O'Neill. Like the mask, the system could not be re-employed 
for the reason that the ultimate had already unknowingly been 
reached. A reflection of the technique back upon itself was 
fatal. No other writer would dare undertake it, for he would 
be immediately, and probably unfavorably, compared to O'Neill. 
Again, like the mask, there had been no gradual build-up, no 
series of plays in which it was perfected, but a sudden explosive 
and sensational birth of a theatrical efiFect in full form. Any- 
thing which followed would be anticlimax. 

DYNAMO, also in 1928, was therefore certain to fail. Its 
collection of O'Neill stage felicities brought no strength, but, 
instead, resembled a kind of junk heap of tricks. Foremost 
were the "interludisms," already worn out, which hung heavily 
in the air, saying nothing, contributing no inner revelations. 
Their style merely got in the way. The cut-away house of 
DESIRE UNDER THE ELMS, unequalled in its scenes of 
seduction, passion and murder, reappeared as two constructivist 
houses, completely lacking the vitality of the earlier form. In 
disturbing contrast, the final scenes took place against a setting 
designed to portary in sight and sound the Belascoesque realism 
of a humming Connecticut powerhouse.^ But no longer was 

"See Lee Simonson's The Stage is Set (New York, 1946) pp. 117, 
120, for a reprint of Simonson's memorandum from O'Neill explicitly ex- 
plaining his strong opinions about the necessity for this setting and its 
accompanying sound effects. 


realism a forte. Johnny-the-Priest's went out with THE LONG 
VOYAGE HOME, and the bar and barge disappeared with 

Critics and public alike refused to support DYNAMO. The 
asides were a crutch rather than an inspiration; the play was 
ludicrous and "frequently raving," sleazy and quick, of no 
importance. Charles Brackett's comment in the New Yorker 
summarized all attitudes well. Said he: "Pretentious rant." 

c. Five-hour Theatre 

The tremendous length of STRANGE INTERLUDE was 
novel enough in itself, but the multi-act marathon approach 
was yet to reach its chmax in the gigantic attempt of MOURN- 
ING BECOMES ELECTRA. O'Neill traced the development 
of the play in a series of published notes which can be read in 
the files of various newspapers and in Barrett Clark's European 
Theories of the Drama. 

Nearly a year after beginning the play and keeping de- 
tailed notes about attempting to reach the Greek classic design 
in a modern play, O'Neill began his struggles with technique. 
In March 1930 he was seeking the best way to show the in- 
creasing sense of fate hanging over his characters and thought 
that half-masks and asides might do it. In seeking more distance 
and perspective, he envisioned his approach as a display of 
"unrealistic truth, wearing the mask of lying reahty" and hoped 
he could catch the eflFect. By July he considered dropping 
the asides, warning himself that he must be suspicious of 
"hangover inclinations" from STRANGE INTERLUDE, the 
ruin of DYNAMO. A later notation the same month expressed 
dislike for the half-mask and it was eliminated the next day. 
By September he acknowledged that the omission of the asides 
helped "enormously " and he soon had dropped all soliloquies 
of any kind because they "get in the way." Not long thereafter 
all masks disappeared and stage makeup replaced them to 
show the family resemblances and the presence of fate. 

On 26 October 1931 the audience once more entered the 
theatre in the middle of the afternoon and departed toward 
midnight, with the INTERLUDE race for dinner in between. 
Those present did not know that practically everything in the 
O'Neill cupboard had been tried and abandoned, but they fully 


realized they were undergoing a unique theatrical experience. 
What the audience saw in MOURNING BECOMES ELECTRA 
was something never before attempted on the American stage 
by an American writer. Here was a conscientious and sincere 
attempt to bring to the contemporary stage a modern psycho- 
logical sense of fate in a classic form, closely paralleling the 
dramatic pattern of the Greek original. It could not be taken 
lightly. It refused to be shunted aside as the rant of DYNAMO 
had been dismissed. The major critics looked at it this way: 

Brooks Atkinson, Times: A cause for great rejoicing by 
O'Neill, the Guild, and the drama in general. 

John Anderson, Journal: A masterpiece, putting the flesh 
of modern psychology on the bare bones of impersonal 
Greek tragedy. A mark of "enduring greatness." 

John Mason Brown, Post: Proves that the theatre is very 
much alive. The play stands above the present day 
theatre like the Empire State Building. 

Gilbert Gabriel, American: One of the dramatic master- 
pieces of the world today. 

Richard Lockridge, Sun: Marks O'Neill's emergence as an 
artist of the theatre. 

The recurring problem of important O'Neill plays again 
appeared, such praise as this notwithstanding. Once accomp- 
lished, the format of the play could not be repeated. The trilogy, 
like the INTERLUDE asides, had to be relinquished in the 
future. O'Neill's eventual plan, as we know, was to go far be- 
yond a three-play series into the eleven plays of the cycle, 
whelming eflFort that never came close to completion. Length 
and compounded stories were a dead issue as a valid theatrical 

4. Unsuccessful Repetition, 1934-1947 

Although the Theatre Guild produced AH, WILDERNESS! 
in 1933 and DAYS WITHOUT END in 1934, O'Neill's long 
absence as a creative force in the American drama might as 
well have begun immediately after MOURNING BECOMES 


ELECTRA. The structure of the ensuing plays was uninspired, 
and the styhstic repetitions were discouraging to critics and 
public alike. Not until the skilled treatment given THE ICE- 
twenty-five years later was there cause for enthusiastic response. 

The dismal stumbling of DAYS WITHOUT END brought 
out most of the worst of the formerly successful O'Neill tech- 
niques.^ It was almost completely static, presenting the least 
action of any O'Neill play. STRANGE INTERLUDE had been 
mostly talk, but there was no improvement at all in DAYS 
WITHOUT END, whose talk was of no particularly original 
quality and of considerable quantity. The characters got nowhere 
as they sat in an office, pondering over the fake "novel" which 
the hero said he was writing, or arguing over the many philoso- 
phies of life and death which the protagonist had tried and 
abandoned during his lifetime. "Confusing, florid, ornamentally 
phony," said John Anderson; O'Neill's error was in making faith 
an intellectual process that could be touched through words. 
Robert Garland found it all sophomoric (a favorite term of 
many critics toward O'Neill's plays), told in the most awkward 
manner possible. It was little better than a high school debate, 
said Newsweek. Most reviewers agreed that it was one of the 
dullest things O'Neill ever wrote. 

What of the monstrosity called Loving, who pranced and 
hissed through the entire play under a hideous mask? He 
uttered the "interludisms" for John, the "live" protagonist, in 
the person of an alter-ego, but there was none of the subtlety 
of the changing masks in THE GREAT GOD BROWN, or the 
appeal of the personal asides in STRANGE INTERLUDE. 
Bernard Sobel observed that the poignancy and novelty of the 
masks had been lost by now, and although others Hke Percy 
Hammond could find it "theatrically effective" it never achieved 
the over-all powerful effect it was designed to create. John 
Mason Brown thought it was one of O'Neill's most feeble plays. 
Everybody pretty well agreed that the sex problem, the male- 
female struggle, the mask, the aside, the double personality 
were all tossed together in an agglomeration which the general 
public could not accept. It was all old, and every aspect of the 

''AH, WILDERNESS! that "strange interlude in the midst of a world 
of tragedy," as Sophus Winther termed it, will be discussed later. 


play's technique was forced into unfavorable comparison with 
each attempt in the past. 

The twelve year gap between DAYS WITHOUT END and 
THE ICEMAN COMETH brought a Nobel prize, reports of 
the growth of the cycle from three to eleven plays, and many 
rumors about new Broadway productions. When THE ICEMAN 
was finally staged in 1946, seven years after it had been written, 
it displayed little of technical appeal. For the third time O'Neill 
demanded that his audience break the evening with a meal, 
and the audience responded. This time, however, the length 
did not find compensation in some outstanding dramatic tech- 
nique. Praise for strength of character, tragic awareness, com- 
passion and beauty was continually tempered with a plea that 
O'Neill stop letting the volume of words interfere with what he 
had to say. The play had no strong and enthralling Nina and 
her three men, and it lacked the force of a Greek-style trilogy. 
Instead of accepting the length as incidental, the observer be- 
came uncomfortably aware of the deadening pressure of a very 
loquacious assemblage on the stage in front of him. 

Criticism of this over-extension was frequent, and many 
writers made a special point of discussing the play's efFective- 
ness in spite of its length. Brooks Atkinson, praising it as one 
of O'Neill's best, still termed it "over long and garrulous." 
Ward Morehouse termed it "long winded" but agreed that the 
imaginative theatre was still alive in the power and intensity 
of the writing. Robert Garland could not find why O'Neill felt 
called to write this combination of The Lower Depths and 
old-time vaudeville, while Sterling North stated bluntly "action 
draggeth, dialogue reeketh, play stinketh," wondering how this 
"turkey" ever got produced or published. Nowhere were the 
size and the style of production regarded as assets. 

There was more to come during O'Neill's lifetime: the 
debacle of A MOON FOR THE MISBEGOTTEN. Its collapse 
on the road in 1947 and the publication in 1952 with O'Neill's 
own brief preface explaining his decision to give it to the public 
with no prospects of New York production, put a final inglori- 
ous touch on a once tremendous technique. In its original 
form, if one is to follow the specific directions, it is not diflBcult 
to see why the play did not reach New York. O'Neill had still 
failed to learn the lesson of practicality. Now, instead of de- 


manding the utmost in the skills of designer or technician, he 
required in his heroine, Josie, something which nature herself 
had to supply. She was to be five feet eleven in stocking feet, 
weigh one hundred eighty pounds, and to be "almost a freak," 
She was to be stronger than any but exceptionally strong men, 
to be able to do the work of two "ordinary" men, but with no 
mannish quality about her. She is, said O'Neill, "all woman." 
In addition, as if to show the complete deterioration from the 
rock-hard God and the sturdy farm house of DESIRE UNDER 
THE ELMS, the Connecticut homestead, once more with mov- 
able walls, displayed its collapsing dismal form of broken win- 
dows, peeling paint and tar paper. 

The fate of A MOON FOR THE MISBEGOTTEN repre- 
sented a full swing of the pendulum, for the play followed 
closely and ironically the same path to obscurity of O'Neill's 
first printed work, THIRST and Other One-Act Plays, thirty- 
eight years before. It did not specify shark fins circling around 
a stage raft, as in THIRST, or floating icebergs, helpless lifeboats, 
and dead children crying, as in FOG, but it did require a woman 
who was "almost a freak." Moreover, as it returned on that 
path, MISBEGOTTEN touched a famiHar spot in O'Neill's tech- 
nique, asking the audience to see what writing could not ex- 
press, and acting could not interpret. There may have been no 
attempt to convey through mask or stylized makeup any 
"death-in-life" motives or "return to death-birth-peace" yearn- 
ings, but as the huge girl held a no-good drunkard close to her 
powerful body for a night of blissful death-like sleep over 
which she watched, unsleeping, madonna-like, she strove to 
save his soul through a return to the "womb of Infinity." And 
all characters, their habits of speech unaltered in over thirty 
years, still uttered "Nuts with that sin bunk" as if Yank himself 
were again treading the stage. 

5. Revival, 1956-1959 

The three year revival of public interest in O'Neill can- 
not be assigned to any appeal of his technical novelties from 
the past, or to anything which he might have created during 
his many years of silence. Only two new plays, not counting 


HUGHIE, as yet unstaged in America, appeared. Of the seven 
plays to receive widespread attention during this period, two 
were revivals, two were musical comedy versions, and one was 
a motion picture. Only LONG DATS JOURNEY and A TOUCH 
OF THE POET had never been seen before. Both, interestingly 
enough, were successful. 

All of the plays, it must be remembered, were completed 
by 1943. Nothing in the O'Neill revival represents anything 
composed more than seven or eight years after the last play 
to appear in New York, DAYS WITHOUT END. None of them 
contain a single new device, and the four legitimate productions 
(excluding the musicals and the film) rely on much that audi- 
ences had already seen, praised, and aften simply endured, as 
far back as 1926. 

First came Jose Quintero's revival of THE ICEMAN 
COMETH, late in 1956. Its astounding success must have been 
a pleasant surprise, considering the reservations given it at its 
first appearance and the limited success of its run. Everything 
was still there; no changes of consequence were made, except 
the single important one of placing the setting in the intimacy 
of theatre in the round, instead of a large Broadway house, 
and compelling the small audience of less than two hundred 
to surround the acting area. Somehow, the play's whole effect 
was radically changed. The same critics who ten years earlier 
had seen the original still felt that O'Neill stated and restated 
the obvious to a far greater degree than needed, but this 
time the extraordinary length did not interfere with the mood 
and the theme that O'Neill conceived. The intimacy of the 
audience, for one thing, seemed highly in the play's favor, 
for now there was a feeling of being a part of the experience, 
rather than a distant observer of it. Others felt that the length, 
already known, could be ignored and the play's message sought 
with greater ease. Perhaps the play was on a level that com- 
municated more directly a decade later than its original time. 
Whatever occurred, press and public alike were suddenly 
aware that O'Neill could become alive as much in the 1950's as 
in the 1930's, but they found this awareness through nothing 
technically new. Indeed, it was in spite of the cumbersome 
techniques still visible. 



only length, and was a kind of genetic throwback to the "sordid 
realism" of the earliest plays. Once more, there was nothing 
new in technique. Audiences were carried into the midst of 
BEYOND THE HORIZON (Edmund's continual wish to get 
away and his recollections of life aboard the windjammer); 
THE STRAW (the continual reference to tuberculosis); 
WELDED (husband and wife in a deadly fight, unable to live 
together or apart); THE FIRST MAN (inability of the family 
to understand or appreciate the talents and interests of other 
members) and so on. It was all from a distant O'Neill past, and, 
like the revived ICEMAN, telling its story in spite of a heavy 

A MOON FOR THE MISBEGOTTEN did not succeed, 
even with the talents of normal-sized Wendy Hiller interpreting, 
somewhat freely, the physical dimensions of Josie. Lacking 
the strength of JOURNEY and the intimacy of the new ICE- 
MAN, it was too much a part of the technical decline of years 
before. Brooks Atkinson wrote that no production could solve 
the problems O'Neill introduced, evident from the first time 
it was tried out, because it was prolix, uneventful, a tired work. 
Walter Kerr called the first half "rattled and blathered." There 
was praise, to be sure, because O'Neill's familiar fierce qualities 
brought a "shattering" experience to the theatre. But it proved 
that it had nothing to offer now, any more than it did before, 
and it showed that O'Neill's last play was, sadly enough, an 
exhausted work. 

A TOUCH OF THE POET had nothing to offer techni- 
cally. With small cast, conventional length and typically O'Neill 
theme, it gave only the smallest inkling of what the eleven 
plays in the POSSESSORS cycle might be like. There was no 
critical reaction particularly firm about any aspect of the play. 
The strongest debate involved matters of casting, with the 
choice of Helen Hayes regarded as everything from perfect to 
grotesquely inappropriate. Descriptive terms were monotonously 
familiar: "overwritten" and "garrulous" equated with "powerful" 
and "strong." 

The only echo from the far past was the Phoenix Theatre's 
revival of THE GREAT GOD BROWN in October 1959. The 
critical attitude toward the technique of the masks was no 
more enthusiastic than it had been when the play first appeared. 


No strong stand was taken, one way or another, and the luke- 
warm reception for the entire production did not encourage 
a long run. Brooks Atkinson regarded this thirty-six-year-old 
play exactly as "avante garde" as anything by Beckett or lonesco. 
Thomas Dash felt these same contemporaries were "rank ama- 
teurs" in comparison. John Chapman used the term "curio"; to 
Walter Kerr the whole thing seemed dry as sand; John McClain 
called it "a mess of dried shaving cream." There was no more 
appreciation of O'Neill's experiments on the occasion of revival 
than when Dion Anthony and Billy Brown first donned their 
papier-mache faces. 

There may have been many areas into which the inventive 
and highly imaginative mind of Eugene O'Neill could have 
entered. He never indicated where they might have been. The 
eleven play TALE OF POSSESSORS would have been uncon- 
ventional enough in its size and scope alone, but its destruction, 
because of O'Neill's fear that he was becoming stale, established 
his own recognition of his approaching failure. His careful out- 
line of the energy devoted to MOURNING BECOMES 
ELECT R A virtually admitted that he had given his all. He 
seemed to know that what he now used was old and tiresome. 
Agreeing with him, the critics more than ever begged that he 
apply a heavier hand on the obliterating blue pencil. 

O'Neill was not a writer who flooded the stage with queer 
eflFects and sensational tricks for their own sake, thereby re- 
moving himself from the norm as an eccentric of httle worth. 
None of his significant innovations were summarily dismissed; 
all of them were discussed, argued, and debated. They knew 
no language barrier, and in translated versions evoked com- 
parable response in every country in which they appeared. His 
mastery of what made good technical theatre was almost never 
questioned as long as each innovation was effectively handled. 

The impact of O'Neill's plays in the theatre — always fas- 
cinating, frequently electrifying — is part of a rare phenomenon 
in dramatic history: a man whose extraordinary skill and fre- 
quent success completely failed to influence others or to induce 
them to follow in any manner resembling his own. His trail 


was never followed, and no new school of theatre ensued. 
O'Neill may have shown those who came after him that they 
need not fear the unexplored territory of experimentation and 
unconventional style, and that the sloughs and entanglements 
of a deadening and well-established tradition could be suc- 
cessfully overcome. Nevertheless, he was unable to guide them. 
There was continual hope that O'Neill could tap new 
sources in his deep well of inventiveness, but his lavish use of 
the product had exhausted the vein. Other writers appeared 
with new commodities to sell, which they successfully marketed, 
and O'Neill disappeared as a dominant theatrical force. 


From the days when he traveled as an infant with his 
father's roving troupes to the last years of his life, Eugene 
O'Neill never "belonged" anywhere. Because James O'Neill 
always wanted his wife with him, the young Eugene was 
boarded out in a series of private schools when he did not him- 
self accompany his parents. As a child, deprived of making 
permanent friends with playmates, and with a brother ten years 
his senior, O'Neill never knew an actual home, even taking 
into consideration the large New London summer residence 
used as the setting for LONG DATS JOURNEY INTO NIGHT. 
The aimless wanderings of his sea voyages are a familiar story. 
In later years, more and more aloof, O'Neill often increased 
his distance from friends and associates by many hundred miles. 
From Provincetown to Bermuda, wrote George Jean Nathan 
in 1932, every place O'Neill resided was always the "best" and 
"only" place he could ever work and live. His life, like Yank's, 
could never discover its own place in the world. 

Had O'Neill's isolation resulted in successfully created dra- 
matic themes, or had the "purity of thought" which he strove 
to achieve by removing himself from close association with 
the Broadway area brought his plays any widespread under- 
standing, his personal distance would not be a matter of con- 
cern. The unfortunate truth is that Eugene O'Neill was an 
isolated artist as well. What he often conceived as an obvious 
messaged frequently became blurred or obscure as he repeatedly 
failed to communicate with his audience on the levels he had 
carefully planned. He was a playwright devoted to the artistry 
of his profession but unable to formulate and maintain a con- 
sistent dramatic approach which could successfully identify his 
artistic style and at the same time bring to the audience the 
desired message. 

His aims were prevented in these three ways: 

1. An indecisive thematic approach before THE GREAT 
GOD BROWN in 1925. 

2. A series of unfortunate encounters with the censor. 

3. The failure of his later plays to speak a language 


appropriate to the audiences and the times for which 

he wrote. 
Since O'Neill's death, only the third item is pertinent to 
his lasting position in our stage literature, but a study of all 
three will help to show the cause for his temporary eclipse, 
and at the same time indicate certain elements that must be 
overcome to achieve that permanent place. 

1. Thirteen Steps To Man And God 

"What are you trying to do," asked James O'Neill, after 
he had seen BEYOND THE HORIZON a few months before 
his death, "send the audience home to commit suicide?" To him, 
the theatre was a place for pleasant entertainment. To the 
young Eugene, the theatre was a place for the expression of 
art. Audiences could, of course, find entertainment in what they 
saw. But O'Neill, a dedicated dramatic artist, believed that 
they could find much more. He wholly accepted the criterion 
that great serious drama, to become great art, must seek mean- 
ing in the passions and troubled lives of human beings. In a 
widely quoted statement, he once explained his own refinement 
of this approach when he said, "Most modern plays are con- 
cerned with the relation between man and man, but that does 
not interest me at all. I am interested only in the relation be- 
tween man and God." 

Recognizing his intent, critical opinion seldom opposed 
him; recognizing his limitations, that same opinion repeatedly 
warned him to take care. Through the reckless tossing about 
and uncontrolled treatment of his subject matter in the phe- 
nomenal successes and abysmal failures which followed each 
other month by month, O'Neill had delineated no thematic 
pattern. The divergence of his approach, like the varied theatri- 
cality, became in itself an uncertain style — quicksilvery, in- 
capable of being firmly grasped. In 1922 J. Ranken Towse of 
the New York Post pointed to three plays running at one time 
and implored O'Neill not to let himself give way to the broad 
and easy "path of sensationalism" or to make use of the unique 
and abnormal merely to point out well-known general proposi- 


tions. He hoped that the young man's abiHty would keep him 
from destroying himself. 

O'Neill did not "destroy" himself, but for a period of five 
years he wrote and produced thirteen plays of uneven quaHty 
and uncertain direction, only half of which rose toward the 
high plane of his own affirmed motif. They broke into two 
distinct thematic classifications. One was, without question, 
Man-to-God. The other two must be labeled, despite O'Neill's 
professed eschewal, Man-to-Man. 

Written Produced 

Man-to-Man Theme 

1919 THE STRAW 1921 

1920 DIFF'RENT 1920 
GOLD 1921 

1921 THE FIRST MAN 1922 

1922 WELDED 1924 

Man-to-God Theme 



1921 THE HAIRY APE 1922 

1922 THE FOUNTAIN 1925 


WINGS 1924 

1924 MARCO MILLIONS (first version) 1928 

In neither of these groups did O'Neill achieve his desired 
communication with his audiences. In the first six, unable to 
go beyond the assertion that men and women are often trapped 
in snares of their own design, O'Neill brought no original dra- 
matic idea which could mark him as a thinker of consequence. 
With the single exception of ANNA CHRISTIE, these six had 
no commercial or critical success, and O'Neill personally re- 
jected each of them when Horace Liveright asked him to 
choose his best plays for a one-volume edition. He preferred 
to regard even the prize- winning ANNA CHRISTIE as one of 
his lesser accomplishments. 

In view of O'Neill's later achievements and his own stated 


intent as a dramatic artist, it is not difficult to show how the 
six plays in the man-to-man category never became more 
than a discussion of man's duties to his fellow man. In THE 
STRAW, Eileen Carmody, conscientious, hard working, no 
longer had any personal responsibility toward her family after 
the onset of her disease, while theirs toward her began. They 
were unable to recognize their duty and were glad to be rid of 
her. Once confined, Eileen's health was measured in terms of 
her love for Murray, another inmate. He reciprocated first as 
his duty to a dying woman, and then in a genuine emotion, but 
neither he nor she lived or loved in relation to anything be- 
yond their own human ideals. Isaiah Bartlett's madness de- 
stroyed himself and family (and the unfortunate shipmates) in 
GOLD. But his responsibilities were to himself as an individual 
and as head of a family, besides those as captain of a ship 
whose crew he treated unmercifully. His refusal to face reality 
was a very human trait. "We're all poor nuts," was Anna's 
estimate of the human position, and although Chris spoke of 
his "ole davil" enough to suggest a supernatural being, no- 
where in ANNA CHRISTIE was the responsibility of man to 
God clearly drawn. The responsibilities were those of Chris 
to his daughter, Burke to Anna, and Anna to them both. And 
so with all the rest: Emma toward Caleb in DIFF'RENT; 
Curtis Jayson toward his wife and child in THE FIRST MAN; 
and the Capes, of WELDED, toward each other. The direct 
responsibility of man for man (or woman), regardless of im- 
plied overtones otherwise, was all that one could successfully 
find in these plays. 

These six plays had not supplied O'Neill a method by 
which he could adequately communicate his turbulent yet 
vigorous thoughts. As Towse had indicated, they were strained 
presentations of over-simplified situations. All were realistically 
conceived in technique, treating basic human passions of love, 
lust, greed and selfishness. All were straightforward, non-mysti- 
cal, easy to understand; they were earthy, often highly melo- 
dramatic, and at times unattractively "authentic," as in the 
birth scene of THE FIRST MAN and the sanitorium background 
of THE STRAW. In trying to break the stranglehold of con- 
ventionality, O'Neill had created a tubercular heroine, a mad 
sea captain, a sexually frustrated old maid, and a philosophical 


strumpet, each of whom had hterary ancestors of much higher 
quahty, none of whom had anything to say worth the trouble 
of their creation. 

Happily for his future, O'Neill was simultaneously pro-, 
ceeding with plays of a more clearly articulated man-to-GodJ 
theme. The "God" of the second group of plays cannot be de^ 
fined concretely, for O'Neill never intended that his state- 
ment be interpreted as an attitude toward any specific deity 
of any specific faith. It must be separately defined for each play, 
but it will uniformly represent an abstract quality of spiritu- 
ality, involving the characters' relationship to an essence which 
dwelt within themselves, or was present in the universe in 
which they moved. The protagonists displayed actions which 
were not so much counter to their personal responsibilities 
toward others in society as against themselves and their make- 
up as human beings. 

In BEYOND THE HORIZON Robert's fatal decision to 
remain home conformed to the wishes of his family. He did not 
destroy himself and ruin the loves of others because of his 
lack of responsibility toward human society, but because of 
his failure to respond to what was within his own soul. He 
possessed no insane delusions like Isaiah Bartlett's, nor false 
standards of pristine delicacy such as drove Emma Crosby 
to her doom. Instead, he offended the sensitive, romantic soul 
which his maker had created. Brutus Jones, madly circling the 
forest, looked straight at Brutus Jones in each succeeding vision, 
and it was Brutus Jones who destroyed him. The silver bullets 
of the natives only administered a welcome coup de grace. Jones 
was his own god, and he found it was a false one. He hysteri- 
cally abandaoned it in a frantic plea to the "real" one, by then 
incapable of saving him. Yank, of THE HAIRY APE, could 
not find himself. His old god — force, fire, coal, sweat — had 
left him helpless, and he could^Jiot apply the principles of 
his faith to the new and strange world into which he was in- 
troduced. His was the story of a lost soul seeking to belong 
somewhere, and it was only superficially a tale of a beaten 
proletarian victim of capitalism. Ponce de Leon of THE FOUN- 
TAIN came to the realization that his prescribed Catliolic God 
never meant man to survive forever, and the eternal cycles of 
life, love and death must continue in defiance of man's fer- 


vent prayers for their ending. Jim Harris in ALL GOD'S CHIL- 
LUN would play right up to the gates of Heaven with his 
"Painty Face," reduced to childish imbecihty, and he could not 
understand how God could forgive Himself for what He had 
done. The problem was not that of human beings defying a 
social code, but of man's relationship to the God that had 
created him in different colors. The God of Marco Polo may 
have been one neatly defined by a church and represented 
on earth by the authority of a Pope, and the God of Kukachin 
may have been labeled "heathen" by the pious Polos, but 
Marco, incapable of understanding the meaning of any god, 
ignored the beautiful princess who pleaded with him to find 
the soul within himself and her love for him. He could not, 
for his god of material wealth deluded him, and Kukachin died.-' 
Finally, the hard God of Ephraim Cabot in DESIRE UNDER 
THE ELMS was everywhere in evidence. It was Cabot's im- 
movable relationship with that rigid, artificially created God 
of rocks and stones which saved him, while his son and his 
own wife, who had flung themselves against that God, were 
taken away to a punishment far greater than that which society 
itself would give them. 

In significant contrast to the man-to-man group with its 
lone success, ANNA CHRISTIE, only one of these man-to-God 
plays, THE FOUNTAIN, was a failure. They generally stood 
far above the routine offerings of other playwrights then holding 
the stage. Alexander Woollcott, in a statement which could 
be applied to each of the seven, said that BEYOND THE HORI- 
ZON was "so full of meat" that the rest of the season's offerings 
looked like "so much meringue. " 

The critics agreed that O'Neill said considerably more in 
these plays than in his others, but they did not, even then, 
fully comprehend all that he had conceived. BEYOND THE 
HORIZON, accepted universally as a moving tragedy, did not 
convey the abstractions of the "longing and loss" which O'Neill 
carefully planned in the rhythmic pattern of alternating ex- 
terior and interior scenes. Heywood Broun thought the con- 
struction was clumsy; J. Ranken Towse found it "shambfing." 
Many critics felt O'Neill had not yet mastered his trade. The 
sensational theatricality of lONES and Gilpin's performance far 
overshadowed the universality of the message. Some opinions 


accused the playwright of dwelling too much on Negro psy- 
chology; others found fault with the "visions" which lost their 
eflPect through too careful "selection." THE FOUNTAIN suf- 
focated under the weight of its own exotic trappings and the 
unimpressive attempt at poetic diction. The heavy-handed 
satire of MARCO MILLIONS was not even produced during 
the wave of anti-Babbitt sentiment when it was written; it was 
already out of date when the Theatre Guild presented it. But 
most discouraging of all was the distortion three of the plays 
received in their encounter with the law. 

2. The Interposing Censor 

Playwrights in New York have seldom encountered or- 
ganized resistance from oflBcial or private censorship bodies. 
"Banned in Boston" is a familiar phrase, and England's Lord 
Chamberlain still controls with absolute, although somewhat 
relaxed, power. Political dictators, rehgious leaders and citizens' 
leagues everywhere in the world have jointly or independently 
succeeded at one time or another in keeping from the public 
the plays judged contrary to the common good. In New York, 
however, stage censorship has seldom been a problem acute 
enough to cause alarm. Violent critical reaction and loud 
individual protests have always been heard, but the interven- 
tion of civic oflBcials has been rare. 

Unfortunately, Eugene O'Neill wrote three plays before 
1925, all of them within his man-to-God category, which ap- 
peared at a time when the manners and morals of the stage 
were under careful scrutiny. As he tried to develop his dra- 
matic philosophy in THE HAIRY APE, ALL GOD'S CHILLUN 
confused, bungling, often ridiculous attempts at censorship which 
all critics and serious-minded playgoers deplored. The result 
was the complete distortion of O'Neill's artistic aims, whereby 
his fundamentally serious psychological studies were twisted 
into lewd and obscene trash. 

O'Neill could possibly have compromised some of the dif- 
ficulties, but his attitude toward his work refused to let him. 
His own sincerity forced him to give his characters an ap- 


propriate milieu in which to operate, and he was unable to 
soften it. That milieu was the truth as he saw it, with no at- 
tempt at disguise or portrayal in veiled form. The truth involved 
strong sounding (but actually unreal) language, including many 
damns, Gods, Jesuses, hells, tarts, bulls, whores and guts; and 
a head-on encounter with social taboos such as miscegenation, 
incest, abortion and prostitution. The use of this truth, with 
no emphasis on its unpleasantries for their own sake, aroused 
in those conscious of public "morals" a sudden awareness that 
here was a lawless pervert daring to put into action before a 
defenseless public such shameful, degrading spectacles. O'Neill 
quickly became associated with the lowest category of bedroom 
farce and cheap burlesque smut. 

After THE HAIRY APE had run unmolested for two 
months, the police, according to the New York Times of 19 May 
1922, charged it with being "obscene, indecent, and impure." 
A copy of the play was forwarded to Chief Magistrate William 
G. McAdoo for his appropriate action. McAdoo, as quoted by 
the newspapers, denied he had any intention of taking action. 
The whole affair looked like a press agent's idea, according to 
one comment. Nobody was ever quite sure who started it, and 
official procrastination gave the papers an excellent opportunity 
to ridicule the absurdities of police censorship that suddenly 
found a play "indecent" after nearly 75 performances. The 
storm subsided almost as quickly as it had risen, but the damage 
had been done. The effectiveness of O'Neill's message, hidden 
as it was behind the confused critical reaction in the first place, 
became all but lost in the argument about "impurity." O'Neill 
himself had this to say in reply to a telegram from the World: 
"Such an idiotic attempt to suppress will bring only ridicule 
to the poor dolts who started it." 

Two years later. New York's Mayor John Hylan took a 
personal interest in ALL GOD'S CHILLUN GOT WINGS, al- 
ready published but not yet produced. Regardless of O'Neill's 
insistence that it was a tragedy far beyond a mere discussion 
of miscegenation, it was generally regarded as another social 
"problem play." The "problem" became so over emphasized by 
production time that Mayor Hylan intervened in an attempt to 
prevent the staging of a play that would dare to show a white 
woman kissing a Negro's hand. The Times first reported his 


protests in early March 1924, and the production was post- 
poned, bringing an immediate denial from Kenneth Macgowan 
that official threats had been the cause. 

The play finally opened in the Village on 15 May with 
Hylan still adamant. The mayor's attempt at censorship had 
taken a somewhat unconventional method: refusal to permit 
children to appear in the first scene because they were too young. 
Nevertheless, the curtains parted as scheduled, and James Light, 
the producer, read the first scene to the audience. The play 
thereupon continued as written. Insurrections and race riots did 
not materialize, and younger children with heavier parts in 
uptown theatres performed their nightly roles in freedom. The 
publicity only increased public interest in the play. The uproar, 
inevitable in such squabbles, drowned out the statement of 
O'Neill's tragic theme. The play never became the great work 
O'Neill had hoped for. He was sure that CHILLUN, one of 
his "most misunderstood" plays, would some day come into 
its own. 

As a dramatic piece, DESIRE UNDER THE ELMS, if 
left alone, could have remained a play of debatable tragic 
merit and possibly noble aspirations, with a limited audience 
and a modest level of popularity. A few critics could not break 
through O'Neill's crude New England dialect, surface Freudian- 
ism and violence to discover any meaning, although the play 
was widely regarded as O'Neill's first important step toward 
greatness. But once more the heavy hand of officialdom made 
the play something it was never designed to be — a sex drama 
full of suggestiveness and sensual sin. 

New York District Attorney Joab Banton, incited by a 
crusading New York World, was determined to clean the filth 
from the current drama. As he viewed the scene from City 
Hall he spied, along with questionable third-rate plays long 
since forgotten, an O'Neill play in which a step-mother seduced 
her step-son while in her nightgown. He ordered it closed. In 
February 1925 producer Kenneth Macgowan refused to be im- 
pressed by threats of jail and defied the order. A complex 
system of judgment by play juries finally evolved after weeks 
of haggling and the O'Neill tragedy received unanimous ac- 
quittal on 13 March. The result was a sharp upswing in at- 
tendance. The spectators came to see just what had so violently 


agitated the censors. The audience became a vulgar one, seeking 
an illicit thrill, snickering at the nightgown and the seduction. 
Others, hearing it was a "decent" play after all, came to see 
its deep moral lesson, and were also forced to depart without 
the eflFect for which they came. On both a critical and popular 
level, the play had failed to communicate, its great impetus 
lost amid the trampling of public guardians and their camp 

In the spring of 1926 a Los Angeles police oflBcer, offended 
at the floor-length nightdress, arrested the entire cast for pre- 
senting an obscene play. The case dragged on through months 
of litigation. A full production was staged before judge and 
jury, while the prosecutor loudly protested that it had been 
illegally expurgated. A hung jury in April ended the case, with 
the play continuing before capacity audiences whose morals 
were, supposedly, nightly corrupted. In England the Lord 
Chamberlain refused to permit a production of this work 
"abhorrent to English audiences" until January 1940. 

Through his insistence on veracity of scene and type as 
an instrument in his communication, O'Neill often lost contact 
with his audiences when they took that instrument as the pri- 
mary dramatic object. These misunderstandings worried him, 
but he could never alter his serious intent in order to conform 
with "safe" procedures. Then, as other plays like the cursing, 
blaspheming What Price Glory? raised howls of delight and 
gasps of disbelief, the barriers which had confronted O'Neill 
for the first years of his career completely broke down. No 
longer was such elemental behavior new. It was accepted as 
dramatically viable. Thereafter, save in Boston, O'Neill had no 
difficulty, and the adulteries, abortions, fornications and incests 
of his later works brought no threat of padlock or arrest. The 
public had grown up to O'Neill's standard. Now he should be 
able to communicate on a level common to both.^ 

'Troubles with censors in Detroit and elsewhere contributed materially 
to the failure of A MOON FOR THE MISBEGOTTEN to survive its 
road tryouts and enter New York in 1947. There was never any difficulty 
with the play in New York itself. 


3. Departure From The Spirit Of The Age 

After he acquired a firm and consistent attitude in the 
man-to-God theme, O'Neill gained a certain strength which he 
had badly dissipated in the thirteen earlier, unsteadier plays. 
With censors ridiculed and scoffed into silence and audiences 
attending the plays for their own values, instead of those falsely 
implied and exaggerated, O'Neill had every chance to develop 
into the greatest playwright in the language. He had the desire 
and the temperament. He had the inspiration and the material. 
He had the public and the producers. But he failed even then to 
reach the greatness so may serious critics prayed he would. 
He continually fell short, and the value of his communication 
was never appreciated to the degree worthy of the attempt. 
He wrote of his discouragement in 1925 to Arthur Hobson 
Quinn, convinced that "most of my critics don't want to see what 
I'm trying to do or how I'm trying to do it." 

Joseph Wood Krutch made some interesting remarks on 
this subject of communication. He observed that recent literary 
criticism had shown that men like Poe, James, Adams, Thoreau, 
Melville and Hawthorne were great literary artists and also 
lonely men whose public did not readily welcome what they 
wrote because of the failure to "participate in the spirit of the 
age." O'Neill, attempting to communicate something entirely 
different from what other playwrights tried, wrote "tragedy 
with a capital T," as he introduced a world of which the 
audience was afraid. He wrote his plays during a period of 
cheerful confidence. They did not attack Main Street and 
Babbittry as others did, but were absorbed with primitive pas- 
sions and dark Gods. Most people, then, could not understand 
what he was trying to say. Krutch pointed out that the charac- 
ters in an O'Neill play were in the grip of strong and primitive 
passions that the spectator could not believe possible. Because 
O'Neill's intent was serious, and his tragedy was meant to be 
tragedy, it was impossible successfully to "explain away" the 
plays. They had to be taken with the seriousness with which 
they were created. 

From 1925 until the middle of 1929, the entire nation was 
exhilarated by a booming prosperity of seemingly unquestioned 


permanence. It was a time of mounting riches, Fords by the 
milHons, Rotarians by the clubful, and God blessing the manu- 
facturer. Any person who doubted the future and the prosperous 
Hfe it represented by writing serious tragedy could not, cer- 
tainly, be understood. Writers might worry about the decline 
of morals, the racketeering of the bootleg era, and the irre- 
sponsible young generation with coonskin coats and flapper 
styles, but nobody was concerned with "tragedy with a capital 
T." In the face of this attitude, Eugene O'Neill, the dramatic 
artist, attempted to arouse that concern. He still followed no 
pattern; he continued to vary his approach from play to play 
with hardly a repetition. But he knew that he could no longer 
treat man's relation to God in plays which were too easily 
confused with soap box social criticism. The violence of inter- 
racial marriage or of labor's helpless wandering in capital's 
glittering world must not interefere with his direct statement 
that mankind was in serious trouble. The Great God Business 
was faulty, destroying alike the souls of the artistic sensitive 
dreamer and the practical hard-headed business man, com- 
pensating them both with a prostitute for a guardian angel. 
The strange interlude in God's electrical display was terrifying, 
as it presented the emancipated modern woman with lovers un- 
counted and a final old age of forty-five in which to rot in 
peace. The love-lit eyes of a beautiful Oriental princess were 
interpreted as signs of a cold by a completely unvisionary Marco 
Polo, welcomed home from his worldly success without a soul, 
but with a frumpish fat and forty sweetheart. Values were lost, 
were transvalued. From his Bermuda manor house, Eugene 
O'Neill saw a "sickness of today" and it worried him. 

At the height of this era when money conquered all and 
dollars flowed from stocks, bonds and John D. Rockefeller, 
O'Neill analyzed the sickness of today in a resounding failure, 
DYNAMO. Presented in February 1929, when the market began 
its last mad lurch for the top, this play showed several mentally 
unstable men and women on a search for a "new God to re- 
place the old one." Atheist, unbending Puritan, sensual daughter, 
monomaniac son, all clashed in a furious encounter involving 
murder, beatings, dynamo worship and electrical suicide. It 
solved little, but it displayed the deep disturbances within the 


writer. A new god was needed, because the old God was as- 
sumed to be dead. The result was nothingness, and critics were 
hard put to discover the salvation often suggested, if unachieved 
by the protagonists, in O'Neill's earlier plays. 

O'Neill always felt that DYNAMO was "right." Although 
he made no public statements, he defended it in letters to his 
friends. One letter to Benjamin De Casseres, written in March 
1929, was outstanding in its muddled confusion, and it bears 
comparison with the widely reprinted explanation for THE 
GREAT GOD BROWN. These two plays were the most openly 
direct attacks O'Neill ever made on the false gods of modern 
business and industrial life; in both of them he remained much 
farther away from his audiences than he wished. 

O'Neill began his explanation of BROWN by recognizing 
that an "open-faced avowal" of the underlying abstract theme 
could not be made by the play itself, because of the nature 
of the hidden theme. It was therefore up to. him as author to 
confess the "mystical pattern" which was the play's overtone. 
This was to by "mystically within and behind" the characters, 
forcing them to an expression in "mysterious words, symbols, 
actions" that they themselves do not understand. Similarities 
in the plea for DYNAMO are obvious. O'Neill asked that one 
not be blinded by the "general theme" because it was actuallly 
of secondary value. The psychological struggle of the protago- 
nist was three-fourths of the play which "not one damn single 
person" seemed to have discovered. O'Neill feared most people 
sought a much shallower symbolism than what he himself felt 
important, but he did admit that perhaps it was all his own 
fault in giving the audience a "wrong steer" anyway. He was 
sure ("unless I'm stark nuts") that the repudiation of old gods, 
the mother's drag on her son from her grave, the position of 
the dynamo as a mother, and the electrocution of Father Gods 
stood out like red paint. Some day, he was sure, the play would 
come into its own. As in the case of ALL GOD'S CHILLUN, 
nothing of the sort happened. To write a play with the general 
theme secondary and the secondary theme important, as seemed 
to be the case in DYNAMO as well as in BROWN, showed a 
positive failure to communicate. Unfortunately, O'Neill was 
never one to admit that the red paint might not be there if 
he insisted it was. 


Still in the seclusion of a far-oflF retreat, this time in France, 
O'Neill devoted almost the whole of two years, 1929-1931, to 
the creation of his "grand opus," MOURNING BECOMES 
ELECTRA. Without making the positive and damning assump- 
tion that the play bulged with symbolic references and alle- 
gorical meanings, one may discern generalities which reflected 
the temper of an artist who took the headlong destruction of 
Man as his own personal affair. O'Neill attacked the bigoted 
narrowness of a decadent Puritanism and clannish living, and 
the blind social acceptance of prestige and power founded on 
stained souls. In thirteen acts of violence O'Neill revealed a 
civilization rotten and collapsing. Could it be significant that, 
as he wrote and produced this climactic effort, the society 
whose sickness he feared was tumbling into Hell and taking 
with it the lives and livelihood of those at one time most de- 
voted to it? Contemporary comment and the available O'Neill 
letters and notebooks have not produced a satisfactory answer, 
but the O'Neill student cannot summarily dismiss a parallel 
between the writer's awareness of the catastrophe and the re- 
sulting creation of ELECTRA. 

The original Aeschylean trilogy was written by a thinker 
who questioned the ethics of a polytheistic society or the ec- 
centricities of gods possessed of most of the human failings 
and a few of the assets. From Prometheus to the Oresteia a 
powerful Zeus, untempered by wisdom and mercy, grew into 
a god who brought justice to both heaven and earth. The old 
social order of blood for blood, apparent in the heinous crimes 
of the Agamemnon and Choephoroi must change. Orestes and 
his deeds became only the instrument for elevated debate in 
The Eumenides, which established law and order, allowed 
justice to prevail, and moved the reconciled Furies to higher 
form. In their general lines, the first two plays of both trilogies 
were similar: the decaying society, blood for blood, the god 
of wrath and hell fire. In close comparison, the society of O'Neill's 
own age was sick and soulless, led by a capricious god of money 
and quick riches who put Al Capones in control of cities' des- 
tinies, and held out the offer of eternal salvation on the stock 
market, whose whims brought sudden and complete damnation. 
A new order had to come. The destruction of the old was 


The parallel vanished in the final play, The Haunted, 
counterpart of The Eumenides, as O'Neill brought his concluding 
acts around to more direct relationship to modern attitudes. 
Orestes became, in Orin, a secondary figure, but Electra, in 
Lavinia, emerged. Instead of emerging with her as a changed, 
bettered deity, the "old god," as in DYNAMO, died. Lavinia 
had to punish herself; the Puritan god of wrath was incapable 
of proper function or of alteration. A new god, also one of 
destruction, as in DYNAMO's electric generator, seemed the 
only one left. But it, too, failed. What was left? A living with 
the past which was possible only behind closed shutters and 
locked doors. Outside were ignorant townspeople, Peters and 
Hazels, conventional, conforming, unchanging. Their social 
leaders were destroyed. Who would replace them was yet un- 
known. A sterile vacuum existed. The next step could not be 
predicted, but until some force of equal strength arose, one 
could only look back at the Mannon vacuities with the resolution 
that in the future a better leadership would evolve. The opening 
night of MOURNING BECOMES ELECTRA, 26 October 1931, 
was almost to the day the second anniversary of 1929's wild 
downward skid. The old god was surely dead; the Mannons 
became dust in grave or airless mansion. No Erinnyes into 
Eumenides; no Zeus of thunderbolts into Zeus of peace and 
prosperity. The thread of modern fate, drawn uncertainly from 
William Brown's disastrous assumption of Dion Anthony's mask, 
became firmly spun in Nina's sexless, rotting peace, and was 
finally clipped as Lavinia disappeared behind the cold pillars 
of her living tomb. 

Although ELECTRA ran for nearly six months, it is logical 
to assume that most of the spectators did not begin to fathom 
what O'Neill was trying to communicate. The ordinary viewer 
lacked the scholarly knowledge of Greek tragedy and its sense 
of fate necessary to interpret the play on the level which 
O'Neill contemplated. The "Tired Business Man," said Vanity 
Fairs reviewer, could find nothing to amuse him in this display 
of violence. Robert Benchley saw it only as a grand, stupendous 
thriller, with the melodramatic hand of Monte Cristo much in 
evidence. The New York Times, speaking editorially, begged 
that poor old New England be left alone in its struggles with 
the depression instead of accusing it of such horrors as in this 


play. Joseph Wood Krutch thought that the play did not mean 
anything any more than Hamlet meant anything. Agreement 
with each or all of these views was quite possible, but none of 
them grasped what O'Neill had in mind. The play was never 
intended to amuse tired business men, and reading O'Neill's 
notes proves that a Monte Crista melodrama was never his aim. 
He was accusing New England of no horrors, and he wished 
the play to mean far more than Mr. Krutch's analysis would 
give it. Once again O'Neill's failure to project exactly what he 
felt must be marked against him. 

DAYS WITHOUT END, produced more than two years 
later, was O'Neill's most obvious aflBrmation of his man-to-God 
theme. It was welcomed by the religious press, both Catholic 
and Protestant, as a complete and wonderful surrender to 
Christ crucified. Once more there was widespread confusion 
of attitude and a loss of any solid value to the playgoer, who 
was almost never able to see the play without a preconceived 
conviction that it was a great and inspiring conversion of O'Neill 
the erstwhile unbeliever, or that it was only another inefiFectual 
repetition of what O'Neill had said many times over. Instead 
of attracting wider understanding, the popular symbol of the 
Cross enraptured the churchman far beyond the play's merits, 
and dismayed the layman at so conventional and cheap a trick. 

DAYS WITHOUT END received a successful Boston try- 
out and came into New York in January 1934. It was almost 
completely condemned by the New York press : 

John Anderson, Journal: Confusing, florid, ornamentally 

John Mason Brown, Post: Tedious and artificial, one of 

O'Neill's feeblest. 
Brooks Atkinson, Times: Written as if O'Neill had never 

written before; a bad play. 
Gilbert Gabriel, American: The real miracle is that it was 

done at all; nothing can make it a good play. 
Robert Garland, World-Telegram: Shoddy specimen of 


These opinions brought some vigorous and often hysterical 
counterattacks in the clerical press, accusing the lay reviewers 
of bigotry and prejudice, afraid of ridicule in case they dared 


praise this important play. An editorial in Catholic World was 
among the most even tempered. It felt the professional lay 
critics could not in justice be called upon to evaluate something 
as deep in meaning as a religious conversion. 

The solution of the play, to Joseph Wood Krutch, showed 
that the "primitive religious instinct" was still working, be it 
Catholic, Protestant, Hebrew, or other. It is easy to agree with 
this opinion, because O'Neill had failed to show any new 
outlook. The almost pagan treatment of the man-to-God theme 
in LAZARUS LAUGHED, in which the Dionysiac laughter of 
the protagonist affirmed the eternal life in "Yes" and sent all 
who encountered it into a kind of orgiastic frenzy, was at least 
original with O'Neill. In DAYS WITHOUT END, weakly 
echoing the theme of LAZARUS with a statement about life 
laughing with love, O'Neill plodded through a very unexciting 
play to an embarrassingly routine conversion and "miracle. " 
Static, obvious, heavy, it was a new O'Neill, for it communicated 
directly, simply, and by means of material which did nothing 
to elevate him above the routinely successful play maker. Para- 
doxically, that same directness, obvious as it was, prevented 
any uniform understanding among those who saw it. "O'Neill's 
greatness has begun. May they be Days without End," wrote 
Fred Eastman of Christian Century. "Magnificently Catholic; 
O'Neill is heading toward the light," said the Rev. Gerard B. 
Donnell, S.J., in America. "Dull, pedestrian, unconvincing in 
every respect," said Edith Isaacs in Theatre Arts. "Morbid in- 
spection of the human soul; spiritual indigestion," complained 
Cy Caldwell of New Outlook. 

The isolation of Eugene O'Neill the artist had become 
almost complete with the failure of DAYS WITHOUT END, 
and there ensued the dozen years' silence broken by THE 
ICEMAN COMETH in 1946. Just before and during that long 
period a number of thoughtful articles appeared concerning 
O'Neill's artistic future. All were reluctant to give him "perma- 
nent" evaluation, because O'Neill was still young (forty-four 
at the time of ELECTRA) and known to be hard at work on 
the "cycle" and other plays. Nevertheless, certain outstanding 


scholars regretted the change of O'Neill's approach to his work. 
At least four important critics, writing within a five year period 
between 1932 and 1938, not privileged to know what was yet 
to come, sensed the presence or the imminent approach of a 
surrender, and realized that the O'Neill of the past decade was 
in all probability gone. 

First: John Mason Brown, "The Present Day Dilemma of 
Eugene O'Neill," New York Post, 19 November 1932. In reply 
to O'Neill's American Spectator article, "Memoranda on Masks," 
Brown feared that O'Neill's concern for the importance of 
masks boded ill for the future, being symptomatic of the isola- 
tion which greatness had thrust upon him. Brown preferred 
O'Neill the emotionalist to O'Neill the thinker, the reahst to 
symbolist, seaman to Freudian, and straight-hitting dramatist 
to brave but self-conscious experimenter with tricky forms. Pre- 
occupied with form rather than content, O'Neill could no longer 
mingle with men and had become a recluse apart from life. 
Instead of gaining from his fame and contact with the crowd, 
he suflFered and was defeated by his victory. Brown took note 
of Casa Genotta, O'Neill's Sea Island, Georgia, home, terming 
it ironic that he had a house fixed up like Shaw's Captain 
Shotover's of Heartbreak House, to the cabin of which he climbed 
to read his Jung and Freud and to defend masks. Brown found 
it just as sad as any of the plays, and just as ironic. 

Second: Montrose J. Moses, "The 'New' Eugene O'Neill," 
North American Review, December 1933. Moses suspected that 
we had not been quite right in viewing O'Neill as the dark, 
wild, morose rebel of legend, for AH, WILDERNESS! com- 
pelled us to pause and question. This play did not mean that 
O'Neill was in smoother, calmer waters, but it did indicate that 
the portrait of the "wild sojourner in tortured souls, the mor- 
bidly resentful, brooding on social injustice" was challenged. 
Often in the past O'Neill had been violent and untutored in 
his thinking aloud, giving a sort of nervous reaction to his 
audience, and letting the plays disintegrate in anti-climaxes 
following climaxes, but now the "sustained simplicity" of AH, 
WILDERNESS! showed signs of being over sweet, of over- 
doing the opposite extreme. Because he had walked before us 
in such great steps and had projected most of his plays upon 
such a great canvas, we were struck by this unexpected dra- 


matic atmosphere. Being basically curious about a man of 
whom we had known so little, and whose close friends had 
offered little assistance, we had been made even more so by this 
play. What will this "tremendous showmanship" do next? 
asked Moses. 

Third: Hiram Motherwell, "O'Neill: What Next?" Stage, 
August 1935. After a year's silence, articles began to appear 
discussing the possibilities of what was to come. Motherwell 
found it surprising that O'Neill had been taken seriously in the 
first place. Since the plays could be regarded as "at once absurd 
and deeply true" this public acceptance was something of a 
compliment. It took great courage for O'Neill to write the kind 
of gloom he did, over and over again, and still convince his 
audiences that STRANGE INTERLUDE was not ridiculous 
but "part of the every day truth of modern psychology." 

END, said Motherwell, O'Neill had come to a parting of the 
ways, for his plays were neither tragedy nor comedy. He specu- 
lated that future plays would probably lie somewhere in be- 
tween, and he seemed to agree with others that O'Neill would 
not return to what he once was. Perhaps the new approach 
would not be so much about Man and God as about Man and 
the social system. Could the protagonist be the individual in 
struggle with the social order, or would it be the social order 
itself? Provided O'Neill's indignation at the fate of the down 
and outs, as shown in the early plays, could be transferred into 
an attack on social systems beyond mortal control, he might 
flower again with the same power of ten years previously. 
O'Neill, concluded Motherwell, had been the ruthless patholo- 
gist of the individual. Was he perhaps to become its diagnosti- 
cian and prophet? 

Fourth: Lionel Trilling, "Eugene O'Neill: A Revaluation," 
New Republic, 23 September 1938. This is one of the best 
essays published when O'Neill was still considered active. In 
fact, it is one of the best of any essays about O'Neill and his 
work. It was written by a scholar not normally considered a 
dramatic critic. Unlike Atkinson or Brown, Nathan or Krutch, 
Trilling brought what could almost be termed a neutral approach. 

Trilling first asked that we recognize O'Neill's genius. In 
this light, he also asked to remember that whatever the at- 


mosphere in which something was originally written, it is later 
read in light of the force with which it is presented ( as Sophocles 
and Aeschylus, for example, are now read), not to find the 
right answer, but to experience the strength of the attack on 
life and the "moral complexities." This is what we do with 
O'Neill, despite his many failures. In contrast to John Mason 
Brown's disappointment at O'Neill's results when he began to 
"think," Trilling pointed out that there had always been 
"thought" in O'Neill's works which permitted many people, 
Catholic as well as Communist, to find something of worth. 
O'Neill was always trying to solve life, doing it better in the 
non-realistic plays than the realistic. Through symbol and myth, 
O'Neill was always moving toward some kind of finality prom- 
ised by religion and philosophy. The world is continually one 
of plus and minus, and O'Neill's work "an algebraic attempt" 
at the solution. 

O'Neill's force came from the upheaval and breaking of 
taboos as in THE GREAT GOD BROWN, where both the 
ideals of the business man and the poet alike destroyed each 
other. He solved the problem of evil by the tragic "affirmation 
of life in the face of individual defeat." But, said Trilling, un- 
able to live in a world that is a tragic universe, O'Neill turned 
from man's strength of intellect and emotion to his oldest weak- 
ness: blind faith. DAYS WITHOUT END had to come to the 
Cross to find peace, but this, in turn, made it one of his weakest 
plays, because Life Eternal banished life itself. "O'Neill has 
crept into the dark womb of the mother church and pulled 
the universe in with him, " concluded Trilling. It was a far cry 
from the statement in THE GREAT GOD BROWN: "It isn't 
enough to be life's creature. You've got to create her, or she 
requires you to destroy yourself." 

By the time this series of articles began, O'Neill had been 
an active member of the American theatre and a contributor 
to its dramatic literature for over fifteen years. He was still 
unknown as a man, and in technique and subject matter had 
been unable to establish any recognizable and critically ac- 
ceptable consistency. Thus, by 1933, John Mason Brown had 


expressed the O'Neill paradox of increased success and mount- 
ing lack of communication, an almost complete defeat from his 
own victory. Montrose Moses, two years later, waited for the 
"real" O'Neill to emerge. Hiram Motherwell sensed a change 
of great value toward a better dramatic form that did not 
develop. Lionel Trilling, five years after Brown, discovered 
only a turn toward a blind faith and a departure from the 
previous courageous affirmation of life. 

The artist, "pulling the universe in with him," isolated in 
his California estate, worked on a mysterious "cycle" which 
he must have known could never be produced. Refusing to 
allow the release of any new play until the world returned to 
sanity, he became further and further removed from his country- 
men, and the return to Broadway in 1946 was unable to rein- 
state him. The revival of a decade later was therefore a remark- 
able phenomenon in the face of this seeming permanent 
disappearance. The lasting qualities of O'Neill's work, if it is 
to remain as part of our literature, must be those aspects which 
now, even more than before, communicate in the spirit of the age. 

easily be dismissed among the plays produced during the three 
years up to 1960. Generally accepted as a "tired" work, the 
eflFort of a dying, or at least exhausted, man, the play had failed 
miserably on its initial tryout and fared little better once it did 
arrive on the New York stage. Reviews found only a "ghost" 
of O'Neill's other plays, failing to reach the pinnacle of tragedy 
with a definite limitation to its "alcoholic values." As Woolcott 
Gibbs observed in the New Yorker, for all his verbosity elsewhere, 
O'Neill had something to say; here he does not. The theme of 
the giant virgin, a kind of grotesque extension of the earth- 
mother Cybel in BROWN, "redeeming" the pathetic alcoholic 
shell of a man by her night-long vigil, brought little message 
to today's audiences. 

both far more successful in the theatre, can more easily be placed 
within today's social and spiritual framework and emerge with 
something more closely communicating with the spirit of the 
age. The autobiographical qualities of the former must, in this 
instance, be dismissed. Over and above the personal history, 
the play did have a message about the sensitive soul in the 


midst of a society which would not, or could not, understand it. 
Lacking the often exasperating O'Neill devices that so fre- 
quently stood between author and audience, and void of the 
florid mysticism of such plays as DAYS WITHOUT END, or 
fairly plainly about the need of all mankind, however grim his 
fortunes or however self-created his existing unfortunate situa- 
tion, for love and understanding. Brooks Atkinson found it had 
"obvious truths" about the tensions and loyalties of family life 
which transcended the personal story. Clerical as well as lay 
press welcomed it for the picture it showed of tragic fate, 
understandable in today's terms. Christian Century saw an 
artistic stature coming from the consistent view of human nature, 
and Commonweal described a "seamless pattern of time, suffer- 
ing and nobility" typical of tragedy. By stripping himself and 
his family bare, O'Neill did the same for humanity in general, 
and for all the hell through which his characters are sent, they 
have his continual love and compassion. 

A TOUCH OF THE POET, the last full-length play we will 
probably ever see, can be judged by standards far more "typical" 
than many others. Robert Coleman in the Mirror discovered 
something missing in most of O'Neill's other plays — humor, 
along with the love and compassion. Richard Watts of the 
Post could also find enormous power and compassion quite 
typical of O'Neill. The Hudson Review thought O'Neill was 
improving as a dramatic craftsman with an authentic tragic 
theme. Dissension about the play rested mainly on the same 
complaints of all O'Neill's plays: repetition, overwriting and 
lack of focus. There were, however, few who could condemn 
the play for its lack of communication or its departure from 
the spirit of the age. 

We cannot rely on these last plays to provide O'Neill's 
final position in our literature. They do, however, indicate the 
possibility of a changed attitude toward the whole collection 
of O'Neill's works. The pipe dreams of THE ICEMAN COMETH, 
the illusions, self-delusions and bitter disappointments of wasted 
lives are universal, not of any one time. When they came upon 
the stage at the end of a global conflict, when life held promise 
of extended peace and goodwill, the inmates of Harry Hope's 
bar did not communicate. Perhaps now they do. While the 


Williamses, lonescos, Becketts, Genets and others of the con- 
temporary theatre find a permanent sickness and a meaning- 
lessness in Hfe associated with piles of chairs, life in ashcans 
and endless waitings for Godots, O'Neill stands forth in tower- 
ing strength and impact with a message that reveals a strong 
faith in the grandness of mankind capable of asserting the 
tragic afiirmation of life in the face of death. Although not a 
commercial success, THE GREAT GOD BROWN of 1959, in 
a society far from that of 1929, still speaks of the organization 
man in the grey flannel suit, the conformist, the suppressed 
artist who dare not be himself, and dare be nothing else. There 
is a message, and it communicates. 

Will this message communicate in the future? Will the 
Lavinia Mannons who shut themselves into dark houses, the 
Ninas who decay in peace at 45, and the Ephraim Cabots who 
defy their fates and embrace their rock-hard Gods, still speak 
in the spirit of the age in the universal permanence of great 
literature? If so, O'Neill has achieved the artistry for which 
he struggled. If not, he has ultimately failed to communicate 
in the spirit of any age. 


M. M. Morrill, after a visit to O'Neill's Cape Cod home in 
1930, was convinced that "he must be uncomfortable to be 
content; he must be lonely to be compassioned; he must suflFer 
to be happy; he must defy life to find its harmony." Morrill's 
soaring rhetorical ecstacy placed O'Neill against the elemental 
forces, surrounded by the "same dynamic power" that swept 
naked and dangerous through the plays. "God! what a stark, 
terrible, solitary place for a soul to be — a sane soul — this 
Cape Cod shack of Eugene O'Neill's!" he cried. 

By Morrill's account this "shack" would seem to be the 
ultimate in desolate isolation, a sort of Helhnouth itself, from 
which spewed the consuming fire of O'Neill's inspiration. In 
reality it was nothing of the sort. Eugene O'Neill, in all his 
defiance of tradition and conventionality, never regarded him- 
self as a sufiFering, sorrowing artist destined to fight the ocean's 
very waves for his survival. After the commercial success of 
ANNA CHRISTIE in 1921 O'Neill never lacked material com- 
forts. Other successful plays, phenomenal sales of published 
versions, and wise investments brought a considerable fortune 
that placed him far beyond the want and stress so commonly 
associated with the brooding artist. He was able to provide 
himself and his family with personal luxuries and magnificent 
homes throughout the last thirty years of his life. 

In both his manner of living and in his plays O'Neill con- 
tinually reflected a strain always inherent in his nature which, 
for lack of a better term, we shall call "romanticism." The 
facts concerning his homes will speak for themselves, but in 
the case of the plays a more subjective analysis will be re- 
quired, supported from time to time by professional reviews 
and critical opinion. 

Romanticism is an elusive term. A single, successful defini- 
tion of it probably does not exist. Historically, there is little 
argument that the freedom of imagination and artistic fancy 
of romantic drama separates it from the severe limits of classicism, 
but just what constitutes the "romantic" play today is open 
to an assortment of interpretations. Because it is impossible to 


consider O'Neill in the light of any single "movement," it 
would be erroneous arbitrarily to classify him in any way, as 
so many critics discovered during his active career. We cannot, 
for example, identify him as a "romanticist" in terms of the 
broad expanse of nineteenth century romanticism. It is best, 
then, to develop a definition for our own purposes, perhaps 
arbitrary in certain respects, but reflecting enough of the popu- 
lar concept to be accepted as a recognizable term, applicable 
to Eugene O'Neill. 

The romanticist, developing what he feels, is removed from 
the immediate world of the realist, who would recreate pre- 
cisely what he sees. The romanticist is able to maintain a strong 
faith in the goodness of things, turning to human inspiration, 
untrammeled, unmolested, as the source of human success. 
He is the advocate of individuality and personal freedom, for 
no ideal is reached through outer conformity, but through 
inner independence. Man's development is a matter not of 
direct concern with other men, in artificial societies, but with 
himself, his own soul. 

Although the romanticist recognizes that evil exists and 
he must often endure the oppressive forces upon which the realist 
may dwell, he has faith in powers that the realist or the 
naturalist cannot accept. Pure love may conquer and redeem 
all. Two hearts beating as one can stand unflinchingly against 
fate, even though it may be violently destructive. The power 
of dreams is great; life without its visions is useless. Nature has 
a beauty of its own, and the power to inspire awe. The fog 
is clean, white, purifying. The pounding surf is invigoratingly 
musical; the howling wind strong and inspirational. Man and 
nature in combination are grand. All of this can lead toward 
a kind of optimism, a confidence in the future of man, because 
the great things of the past have been inspired and accomp- 
lished by the same forces the romanticist admires. It can also 
lead toward sentimentality, with its delight in beauty, adven- 
ture and love for the sake of emotional pleasure. 

The theatre into which O'Neill entered had long been 
dominated by many trite conventions and artificial complica- 
tions which never failed to progress toward the properly happy 
ending. So violent, even savage, were O'Neill's early attacks 
on the conventional stage romanticism that critics and public 


never doubted his extreme distaste for anything hearkening of 
its contrived or saccharine implausibilities. His reputation as 
a "grim reahst" was so strong that by the time of THE GREAT 
GOD BROWN his audience was unable, or perhaps unwiUing, 
to recognize that he was creating dramatic characters whose 
romantic make up was designed to evoke sympathy. 

It is not difficult to trace the evolution of O'Neill's romanti- 
cism in the terms just defined. By the end of his career, 
O'Neill had completely surrendered to this romantic concept 
in both character and atmosphere, but instead of marking a 
final plateau of achievement, it served only to emphasize his 
weakness. The same trouble afflicted him in this respect as in 
all other facets of his development as an artist. Having come 
from no well-planned progression of artistic style, this romanti- 
cism seemed artificial, over sentimental and derivative. 

With the exception of BOUND EAST FOR CARDIFF in 
1914, O'Neill's best short plays were composed from 1916 to 
1918, the years of his acquaintance with the Greenwich Village 
radicals, the Hudson Dusters and those who summered on the 
uncommercialized Provincetown sands. Wherever the romantic 
ideal appeared in these plays it was ironically twisted, or used 
to destroy a character. O'Neill's open revolt against the re- 
stricted traditional theatre was everywhere apparent in the 
Glencairn cycle. The sultry, sensuous atmosphere of moonlight 
in the Caribbean, the crooning chant of native song drifting 
over the water, the ship idling at anchor in the bay, were in 
ironic contrast to the lustful brawling climax of the motley 
crew's free-for-all. Critical expression praised the authentic tang 
of the sea which this "Conrad of playwrights" inserted into 
his realistic portrayal of life afloat. O'Neill's unromantic inter- 
pretation was strongly reinforced by his treatment of all charac- 
ters whose romantic feeling persisted in the face of these un- 
favorable surroundings and impossible odds. None were al- 
lowed to survive. Smitty, the misfit, preferring to remain isolated 
with his memories of a shattered romantic life, was branded 
as an object of suspicion and fear by both the native girls and 
his own unsentimental forecastle mates. He had no place 
among them, and they inflicted a final ignominy before his 
helpless face, reading the letters which had spelled his doom. 
Yank's dying vision of land and a home of his own mocked 


him as he perished in agony from a mortal wound inflicted 
by the sea, while the ship plodded steadily, unheedingly toward 
Cardiff. And Olson, dreaming of home, mother and the farm 
in a highly sentimental re-creation of the projected return of the 
prodigal, found an unromantic, anti-sentimental world slugging 
him in the guts with a "mickey." 

The three other plays published with the Glencairn cycle 
pursued the same unrelenting destruction of the romanticist. 
Mrs. Keeney, of ILE, boarded her husband's whaler with typical 
romantic images of the sea, but found only monotony, mutiny 
and madness, in that order. In THE ROPE, Abraham Bentley 
prepared to welcome back his worthless son, Luke, not with a 
fatted calf but with a fortune, provided that the son would 
recognize his sins by offering to take his own life. Bentley 's 
weirdly distorted attempt at reconciliation resulted in Luke's 
further determination to find the money by torturing it out of 
the "old skunk," unaware that the feeble-minded Mary had 
already found it and was tossing the gold piece by piece into the 
sea. Finally, Isaiah Bartlett's mad romanticism in WHERE THE 
CROSS IS MADE brought hallucinations which killed him and 
drove his son insane. 

"No modern writer," wrote Sophus K. Winther in 1934, 
"has attacked [the romantic ideal] more consistently or more 
bitterly than Eugene O'Neill." The six plays of the man-to-man 
theme probably owed much of their limited popular appeal 
to the lack of any subtlety in this anti-romantic attitude. The 
antiseptic atmosphere of THE STRAW was largely unromantic, 
and although O'Neill suggested hope through the old standby 
of the regenerative power of love, in which the romanticist 
believes, he plainly told his audience that there was none. Anna 
Christie was "redeemed" by the love of a bumbling romantic 
Irishman in a plot line going directly to Marguerite Gauthier 
and beyond, but O'Neill, holding Chris' "ole davil" ready to 
strike at any time, did not admit of any romantic happiness- 
ever-after. Among the other plays the romantic ideal was also 
ruthlessly destroyed. Determined to have a man who was 
"diff'rent," who met the perfection of her own romantic stand- 
ards, Emma Crosby was turned into a disgusting picture of a 
sexually frustrated, desperate old maid. Married love in THE 
FIRST MAN merely produced an unwanted child for Curtis 


Jayson and killed his wife. In WELDED, the Capes, bonded to 
each other by the erotic attractions of sex, were destined to a 
series of violent squabbles and jealousies which had no con- 
nection with romantic concepts of marriage. They did not die, 
but as individuals with souls of their own they were destroyed. 

As a whole, the man-to-man plays were too strong in their 
attempt to destroy the romantic ideal. They shocked and re- 
pulsed, without any compensating attitudes. The audiences 
still hoped that the final curtain meant better things for the 
central characters, but the hope was vain. The spectators 
grasped the same straw that Eileen Carmody grasped; against 
better judgment, they hoped for and thought they saw happi- 
ness for Anna and Matt. Michael and Ellen Cape were, after 
all, reunited, and Curtis Jayson finally welcomed his son. But 
most of these were not good plays, and, except for ANNA 
CHRISTIE, none deserved or received serious consideration. 

In the man-to-God plays, more expert and appealing in 
character creation and technical skills, those who showed symp- 
toms of conventional romance were almost viciously eliminated. 
The striking fact, however, is O'Neill's failure successfully to 
convince his audiences that the destruction was inevitable be- 
cause of that romanticism. In nearly every case the denial of 
the romantic experience, not its accomplishment, resulted in 
the final catastrophe. 

For instance, Robert Mayo was destroyed by deliberately 
turning from his chance to fulfill his romantic dreams beyond 
the horizon. The "incurable romanticist" within him prevented 
any success with the practical realities of running a farm, but 
how much more convincing the "destructive power of the ro- 
mantic ideal" would have been had O'Neill permitted Robert 
to sail with his uncle to the exotic ports of which he dreamed. 
Romantic yearning may destroy when frustrated, which only 
proves its tremendous holding power. If it destroys when prac- 
ticed, then the point is successfully made. 

Yank, in THE HAIRY APE, wallowing in the filth of the 
stokehole, romanticized far beyond its true value his own 
contribution toward making the ship go. O'Neill could have 
destroyed him within that framework had he shown Yank's 
automatic stokers or diesel engines which would eventually 
failure to realize his own insignificance against the onrush of 


part. But Yank, like Robert, was destroyed out of his proper 
environment. He could no more fit into society than Robert 
could run a farm. He died, seeking a place for himself, which, 
in reality, he possessed all along, exactly as Robert belonged 
aboard his uncle's ship. 

In DESIRE UNDER THE ELMS Eben Cabot, far removed 
from the rock-hard father and his God, replaced the overly- 
romanticized picture of his dead mother with the living, sensuous 
Abbie. As the two lovers were led away to probable death, 
they were together, in a completely romantic union, in which 
their love for each other would conquer and be greater than 
their heinous deeds for which they must suffer. The romantic 
ideal, apparently destroying them, had succeeded only in ele- 
vating them to a stature which many critical reviews felt ap- 
proached the tragic. 

The thirteen plays written before THE GREAT GOD 
BROWN all drove their leading characters to an often horrible 
fate. But instead of proving the destructive power of an over- 
developed sensitivity to the romantic ideal, many of them de- 
manded further sympathy toward the sufferer. Under proper 
circumstances, plainly possible within the world in which they 
lived, the protagonists could have survived in peace and con- 
tentment. In his early plays, O'Neill had apparently erected 
a strong fortress against the romantic ideal, but it was jerry- 
built and eventually gave way. His final surrender was therefore 
not surprising, but a logical consequence. 

O'Neill could have found the isolation he wished for his 
work in many spots in New York, but instead he chose his old 
haunt, Provincetown, about as far out in the sea as one can 
get and still remain on mainland America, and again as far out 
on the sand as that narrow neck of peninsula permits. After 
his 1918 marriage to Agnes Boulton, he purchased the abandoned 
Coast Guard lifesaving station at Peaked Hill Bars and re- 
modeled it as a home. It was accessible only on foot or horse- 
back and then by the firmest determination. Because Morrill 
journeyed to the "shack," as he insisted on calling it, less than 
replace the hand-fired furnaces of which he was such a vital 


a year before it disappeared into the sea in a violent Cape Cod 
storm, and because O'Neill had gone to Bermuda and aban- 
doned the place as a home, his reaction to its stark loneliness 
is perhaps understandable. More pertinent to the conditions 
under which O'Neill lived was the description published by J. M. 
Breese in Country Life in America in November 1923. Some 
excellent photographs of both the exterior and interior prove 
that the building was far from being a mere "shack." 

Though condemned as a Coast Guard structure, it was as 
sound as most of the construction in the vicinity. The interior 
was tastefully and appropriately furnished: mat rugs on the 
Hoors and mat hangings on the walls, a convenient and com- 
fortable kitchen and dining area in the old galley, bedrooms 
meant for restful and breeze-fanned sleeping, and a sort of 
patio-terrace effect on the end, with huge fireplace. The large 
front room, made over from the boat room, still contained the 
hooks which suspended the rescue craft from the ceiling beams, 
above the thick-planked floors where many a drenched body 
had been laid out for identification. From the sandpocked win- 
dows could be seen the surf into which O'Neill loved to swim 
and row his kayak. On the roof, where he was often photo- 
graphed, smiling, tanned, content, was the lookout station, a 
frequented spot, reached by a steep staircase from below. Here 
he lived through the summers with his family. Walter Prichard 
Eaton refused to see discomfort in this type of life and com- 
pared O'Neill to Thoreau, who most certainly did not suffer in 
order to be happy. Mary Heaton Vorse, whose wharf first 
housed the commercial ventures of the Provincetown Players, 
noted that the collapse of the cottage, as she more appropriately 
called it, marked the end of a chapter, for it was here that 
O'Neill composed most of his early successes, beginning with 
THE EMPEROR JONES. The house was a shrine for friends, 
she said, who could always find a warm welcome. 

This was the first of the many homes Eugene O'Neill chose 
for himself. In this isolation there was no sign of hardship and 
suffering, but a desire to be comfortable. He could have been 
the gay Bohemian in Greenwich Village, the personification 
of artiness in Washington Square, or the suave young idol of 
Broadway. He preferred the sand against his bedroom window, 
while the ghosts of the dead victims and the courageous heroes 


from the Coast Guard station walked in the night. It was the 
atmosphere of the true romanticist at heart. 

THE GREAT GOD BROWN, marking the turn from earHer 
disorder to the concentrated man-to-God thesis, also showed 
that the makeshift anti-romantic battlements had weakened. 
The romantic ideal could still destroy, and the dreamy, artistic, 
misunderstood Dion Anthony was defeated in a society which 
could find no place for him except as a prostituted talent sold 
under the name of William Brown. The real Dion, completely 
sublimated, died, while the Dion of the public eye continued 
in Billy Brown. O'Neill knew, however, that without romance 
and sentiment, without joy of living for its own sake, life was 
without meaning. Brown was subsequently destroyed by his 
inability to realize that Dion's inner romantic self had made 
the mask live and work in a hostile society where Dion's own 
commonplace, conventional wife could not recognize him. The 
anti-romantic, anti-sentimental society, bent on its own personal 
achievements in cash and architectural monuments, was de- 
stroying its few saving graces. 

The strange perversions of Nina Leeds still fascinate stu- 
dents of drama who discuss STRANGE INTERLUDE as a 
tragedy, a psychopathic study, or the erotic biography of a 
nymphomaniac. Her fanatic idolizing of the dead Gordon, 
conceived in her mind as the perfect romantic image, prevented 
any normal life, and could easily be taken as a positive indica- 
tion of the hideous destructive power of the romantic ideal. 
The fact is, however, that O'Neill once more denied his pro- 
tagonist the privilege of fulfillment of a romantic dream. By 
allowing social taboos and moral teachings to keep Nina from 
her lover, and then by killing him, O'Neill sent Nina to her 
own destruction. Her distorted attempt to atone for her error 
by surrendering herself to nameless and numberless veterans 
in a hospital failed to remove her frustration, so she proceeded 
to marry without love and to undertake a purely "scientific" 
experiment in eugenics in an ironic attempt to maintain the 
front of a conventional happy home. The experiment succeeded, 
but with the sudden revival of a romantic impulse that she 


had presumed completely dead, she was unable to cope with 
the situation and brought ruin not only to herself, old and de- 
caying at forty-five, but to her "three men" — husband, lover 
and "father," all of whom, in their own ways, had been her 
romantic slaves. We must presume that had Nina's love with 
Gordon been consummated, illicitly or otherwise, things would 
have been much different: for the better, because there was 
little that could have been worse. 

non began its frightful course downward as a result of an earlier 
concept of romance with Marie Brantome. Likewise, Christine's 
desire for the love of a dashing romantic sea captain caused 
her personal downfall. Still, O'Neill held up the romantic ideal 
as the human and preferable course of life. The "afiFair Brantome" 
was illicit and destructive, but it was based on a kind of ro- 
mantic attitude which the Mannons were incapable of express- 
ing within their own narrow clan and which, by human nature 
itself, they were forced to seek. Christine came to her marriage 
bed wanting the tenderness of the romantic lovemaker. When 
it was denied, the marriage was destroyed, not by her clandes- 
tine aflFair with Adam Brant, but by the husband who sickened 
her and who, much too late, sought to recover the ground he 
had lost. Lavinia still had the way open and knew that obeying 
the romantic call of the South Seas would save her. O'Neill 
showed her the way, then took it from her as she called out 
in romantic passion "Adam!" to unsuspecting, unromantic Peter 
Niles. O'Neill let us know that without romance she could 
not live. 

In his last two plays before the twenty year eclipse O'Neill 
suddenly, dramatically and without apology, surrendered to 
the romantic ideal he had apparently fought for so many years. 
At the time, the sudden reversal was surprising and shocking, 
but in retrospect it appears more logical. 

We have already discussed the surrender to conventional 
religion which marked the romantic turn of DAYS WITHOUT 
END. The other play, the successful AH, WILDERNESS!, 
made a strong impression in its abrupt and complete change of 
view and its clearly comic intent. Gilbert Gabriel felt it was 
a comedy of recantation as well as recollection and hence very 
pleasing. Richard Lockridge was glad to see that O'Neill was 


"just plain folks" after all, and Brooks Atkinson was happy to 
see O'Neill on a level where he could talk to all of us. Others 
saw the play as O'Neill's own "personal revolution" aflBrming 
a new positive attitude toward life. Hope was expressed, how- 
ever, that this "new" O'Neill did not become ordinary and con- 
ventional and permanently remove from the stage one of the 
most exciting reasons for going to the theatre. Joseph Wood 
Krutch was afraid that O'Neill would now be compared with 
other "sentimental" writers. It was difficult not to make this 
comparison, and the picture of a summer night in a small 
Connecticut town, screen doors flapping, lovers and parents 
happily embracing, nostalgic atmosphere everywhere, showed 
plainly enough that simple sentiment had replaced passion. 

It is interesting, and somewhat disturbing, to observe how 
readily most writers leaped at this very ordinary play to prove 
that O'Neill was, after all, a human being. Regardless of the 
praise he had elicited for all his daring experiments of the 
past, and regardless of the welcome he received as the hewer 
of new paths, nobody had really understood him until he wrote, 
in six weeks time, a play which George Cohan himself could 
have done as easily. He was then welcomed as a member of 
the human race with all past sins forgiven. 

After writing DESIRE UNDER THE ELMS and beginning 
MARCO MILLIONS, O'Neill moved to Bermuda in 1925, for 
about a three year stay. Here, far from the increasing madness 
of Coolidge prosperity, he sat on the sands near his spacious 
manor house, Spithead, and wrote of the laughter of a Diony- 
sian Lazarus and the annihilating possessiveness of Nina. While 
Billy Brown was being destroyed and the artist Dion Anthony 
neglected, their creator lacked none of the comforts of life, 
in surroundings bearing no resemblance to the more primitive 
coziness of Peaked Hill Bars. Perhaps he gained a certain per- 
spective for the plays he was writing, but he was beginning 
to move further away from the direct contact with his subject 
matter that any other writer of less strength would certainly 
have needed. 

In December of 1928 O'Neill added further romance to 


his own myth by attempting to travel incognito through the 
Orient. Further interest was suppHed by rumors that it was 
part of a triangle involving a love aflFair with a beautiful actress 
and the impending divorce suit of his wife. Then in July 1929, 
after Agnes Boulton secured a Reno divorce and he married 
Carlotta Monterey, O'Neill took a thirteen year lease on the 
Chateau de Plessis in the south of France. It was an isolated 
spot, in spite of its size, reached only by considerable driving. 
It was perfect for the necessary quiet thinking as he labored 
on MOURNING BECOMES ELECTRA, but we learn that the 
man who struggled through the dunes of Cape Cod was to 
install a swimming pool, a roof garden and a gymnasium. 

In 1933, from his home at Sea Island Beach, ofiF the coast 
of Georgia, O'Neill sent the Theatre Guild his last two plays 
before the long silence. He had returned to America after less 
than three of the projected thirteen years in France. He was 
still adamant about his refusal to join the Broadway crowd, 
and found an obscure location in the small dot of land reached 
by causeway from the mainland. By so doing, he removed 
himself from the world more completely and was unable to 
regain the touch with reality and real people which he had 
shown in the plays from Provincetown, or even Bermuda and 
France. As the nation watched the quick and decisive, though 
at times bold and irregular, steps of the new administration 
and the Depression waters lapped at more and more households, 
the saccharine pleasantries of AH, WILDERNESS! and the re- 
Hgious sentiment of DAYS WITHOUT END bespoke much of 
O'Neill's permanent surrender. 

"Judge the man's house and you judge him," wrote the 
anonymous commentator in House and Garden for January 1934, 
whose article, "O'Neill Goes Mildly Pirate," presented in text 
and excellent photography a report of O'Neill's Georgia home. 
What appeared was not a "shack" once inhabited by rugged 
Coastguardsmen. It was not even a chateau of centuries age. 
It had been constructed less than two years before, designed 
by its present owners. It sprawled among rustling palm trees, 
behind a sturdy stone wall, its ancient Cuban tile roof glisten- 
ing. It could have been, in its isolation, a pirate lair, a den for 
smugglers, a hideout for spies and traitors. It was, instead, a 
private home, "a combination of the early Majorcan peasant- 


house of the 16th Century tinctured with a flavor of the 15th 
Century monastery." The outstanding exterior feature was a 
series of windows above the outside double door, boldly re- 
sembling the stern of a Spanish galleon. Through the entrance 
hall, past African wizard masks and Japanese No masks on the 
thick walls, and up the tiled stairs, the camera entered, to 
nobody's surprise, the kind of Captain's cabin which Sir Francis 
Drake might have occupied. The tilted bank of windows looked 
out onto the white-capped ocean beyond the spray-washed 
beach. Huge hand-adzed timbers formed the wall and ceiling 
supports, practically creaking with the roll of the ship that 
had seemingly been boarded. Nautical gadgets, a clock that 
rang ship's bells, a portion of a mast with marlin-spikes set 'round. 

The name of this spot, so removed from all reality, so lost 
in romance of pirate seas? "Casa Genotta" — the Castle of Gene 
and Carlotta. The essence of romance. 

In less than five years, O'Neill departed from Sea Island 
to gain more "atmosphere" in the Pacific Northwest for his 
projected multi-play cycle. He became enthusiastic about Cali- 
fornia and the Far West and decided to remain there. He 
finally built a Chinese-style mansion called Tao House in Contra 
Costa County, California. There were continual reports of plays 
almost ready. He told Barrett Clark in 1941 that he had finished 
two plays outside the cycle, was still enthusiastic about the 
whole idea, but preferred to wait until sanity returned to the 
world. By 1943 A MOON FOR THE MISBEGOTTEN was 
complete and A TOUCH OF THE POET rewritten. He men- 
tioned a cycle of eight one-act plays and said that LONG 
were the best he had ever done. There was also a shortened 
version of LAZARUS LAUGHED which he hoped to see pro- 
duced in college theatres. He consistently refused, nevertheless, 
to take interest in the production of any of the plays, and it 
was not long until the press was almost completely uninterested. 
From 1940 to 1945 there was virtually nothing about him. 

When THE ICEMAN COMETH at last appeared in 1946, 
what did it have to say? On the surface it said something about 


pipe dreams, and it said it many times. It presented something 
of the old O'Neill power and sincerity which could not be 
evaded. Critics often remarked on its thematic resemblance to 
Gorki's The Lower Depths or Ibsen's The Wild Duck. The ro- 
mantic ideal brought destruction here, too, but the actual death 
in this case came to an innocent party, Rickey's Ellen, who, 
loving, believing, faithful, had to be destroyed through no 
fault except her own perfect goodness. She, certainly, was the 
unseen tragic heroine. Mickey's revelation was terrifying, piti- 
ful and revolting, but the play still said one important thing: 
mankind cannot live without a certain kind of romantic idealism. 
Although it killed Ellen, it also demonstrated that up to her 
death she could not have lived without it, for her own life 
would have been destroyed with the admission of the realities 
of Hickey's faithlessness and debauchery. She had the biggest 
pipe dream of all; it both sustained and killed her. And yet, 
living is impossible without these dreams; death is the only 
logical result if we lose them. The derehcts who returned to 
their booze in Harry's bar were deliriously happy that reality 
had passed them by in what they could dismiss as a crazy 
phase of Hickey's last hours. No more did they need to face 
the reality that would soon kill them all. O'Neill said all this 
long ago, and, it appeared at the time, better and more skilfully. 

Eric Bentley, reviewing A MOON FOR THE MISBEGOT- 
TEN in the New Republic, found that the play would do httle 
to change anybody's view, as it was neither O'Neill's best nor 
worst. He thought it was better than some recent plays, which 
was so much the worse for recent plays. Opinions from others, 
as we know, were not enthusiastic. The play was an almost 
complete surrender to the romantic ideal in the grotesque 
creation of Josie, the giant virgin. Her virginity was great, and it 
was powerful, as she herself was a great and powerful good 
woman. She could redeem, madonna-like, the sins and suflFerings 
of little, insignificant, snivelling mankind who slept, as in death, 
on her great bosom all night through. The morning had to be 
beautiful to wake him, said Josie to her astonished father, and 
she waited for the proper instant before she roused Tyrone 
from his innocent sleep. The message of A MOON FOR THE 
MISBEGOTTEN was neither that of THE GREAT GOD 
BROWN nor of DAYS WITHOUT END, and at the same time 


it had neither the dramatic quality of one or the sectarian at- 
traction of the other. Perhaps, hke Anna Christie, Josie, giant 
that she was, was just a "poor nut," and maybe her Me, too, 
was just part of the strange interlude in the electrical display 
of God the Father. To have returned with vigor and new 
energy to the theatre after the very-near nihilistic message of 
THE ICEMAN COMETH, O'Neill would have had to come 
forth with more than the limited appeal and message of A 

Now, seven years beyond his death, the possibility of 
recouping much of O'Neill's reputation from the past and 
establishing his plays as permanent, important parts of our 
national dramatic literature is distinctly possible. While the 
"romantic surrender" seemed to reduce the forceful impact of 
O'Neill's pen during the last years of his creative life, causing 
head-shaking doubts among the critics who viewed the out- 
put, it may well be that it has been the saving grace which 
will now, and in the future, give universal appeal to the plays. 
Faced with the possibility of the annihilation of society in the 
miscalculations that could bring a final global war, and wit- 
nessing on all sides the writers who see mankind awash in a 
senseless world of sickness, perversion and vast meaninglessness, 
we can turn to the plays of Eugene O'Neill and find a far 
different outlook. Here is tragedy written, as Joseph Wood 
Krutch has often said, with a capital T, and the world it por- 
trays is not a happy one. But because of O'Neill's continual 
faith in mankind and his realization that he must maintain 
the romantic ideal to survive with any dignity at all, the plays 
avoid the blank outlook of so many who view our day as an 
empty space. O'Neill's characters are not perverse; they are 
not "sick." They are, to be sure, deluded and disillusioned. They 
can become obnoxious and bullying, or pitifully decayed. They 
are not, however, depraved. Their tragedy is their inability to 
maintain their romantic dreams in the face of a world unsympa- 
thetic to them. 

O'Neill's permanence will not rest upon the complete sur- 
render to the romantic sentimentalities of a bad play like 
DAYS WITHOUT END. It will not possibly survive upon the 
trappings of the suffocatingly lush THE FOUNTAIN or, for that 
matter, the exotic MARCO MILLIONS. It probably will not 


rely heavily upon Nina's distortions of romantic love in 
STRANGE INTERLUDE, nor upon Josie's freakish virginity. 
The hopeful message that does survive is that somewhere the 
human life must have the romantic outlook upon which to 
draw strength, or face the entombment of a tragic heroine like 
Lavinia Mannon, or the spiritual death of Cornelius Melody, 
whose beautiful mare lies slaughtered along with his dreams. 
Somewhere there must be a meeting, a compromise between, 
the qualities of Dion Anthony and Billy Brown, both of whom 
die under the sympathetic, comprehending eye of the prostitute 
Cybel, who can see them as the suflFering individuals they are. 

The "practical" Melody of A TOUCH OF THE POET is 
an empty man, just as the inhabitants of Harry Hope's bar are 
hollow men revealed for what they truly are when they face 
up to reality. Edmund Tyrone of LONG DATS JOURNEY can 
best survive when he leaves the sordid quarrels of family be- 
hind, realizing he should have been created a bird, capable of 
soaring into a romantic world far above this one. These are 
not depressing, discouraging, nor disgusting men, for this was 
not O'Neill's purpose in creating them. They, and others of the 
plays that see the need for the romantic, and ponder its position 
in the world that men have created for themselves, may enable 
Eugene O'Neill to achieve the permanence and the esteem that 
he at one time seemed so near to grasping, but which, while he 
lived, continually avoided him. 


This is a composite from many sources, because no single 
reference can supply all the information we would like to 
have. O'Neill strongly preferred to keep all details hazy and 
vague so that they could offer protection, "like a mask," to the 
personal life which he steadfastly maintained was his own 

Most of the source material, therefore, is discouragingly 
indefinite. Hamilton Basso's New Yorker profile, "The Tragic 
Sense," of 1948 (No. 170) contributes a substantial quantity 
of information about the early years, and Barrett Clark's Man 
and His Plays series ( No. 21 ) has been helpful. Agnes Boulton's 
Part of a Long Story, 1958 (No. 7) and Croswell Bowen's The 
Curse of the Misbegotten, 1959 ( No. 8 ) are the latest and most 
completely detailed sources, but even they, especially Miss 
Boulton's account of the early years of her marriage, are fre- 
quently distressingly imprecise. 

It is, none the less, possible to gather a substantial amount 
of interesting information that can supply a significant out- 
line of the events in the life of this individual who remained, 
while living and in many ways after death, a fascinating enigma. 

16 Oct. 1888. Born on third floor of Barrett House, Times 
Square, New York. ( Site now marked by bronze plaque on cor- 
ner of 43rd and Broadway.) Father: Irish-born James O'Neill, 
born 1846, Thomastown, Kilkenny County, famous throughout 
America in title role of Count of Monte Cristo. Mother: Ellen 
(or Ella) Quinlan O'Neill, quiet, beautiful, artistic, born in 
New Haven, Conn., 1857, convent-bred in South Bend, Indiana. 

1888-1895. Traveled with parents on road tours to im- 
portant cities all over the United States. Until age seven, under 
care of Scotch nurse who regaled him with tales of murder 
and terror. 

1896-1900. Attended Mount St. Vincent-on-Hudson 


boarding school, Riverdale, New York, operated by Sisters 
of Charity. 

1900-1902. Attended De La Salle Military Institute, New 
York, as day student and boarder. 

Sept. 1902-June 1906. Attended and graduated from Betts 
Academy, Stamford, Conn, (no longer in existence), considered 
one of better preparatory schools. Summers spent with family 
at New London, Conn., home, on Pequot Ave. 

Sept. 1906. Entered Princeton as freshman, class of 1910. 

Spring 1907. Sometime after two week suspension (and 
subsequent reinstatement) voluntarily left Princeton without 
completing first year's requirements. Cause of discipline, accord- 
ing to Bowen, was breaking glass insulators on telegraph poles 
along trolley line from Trenton. O'Neill's own tale of throwing 
bottle through Pres. Wilson's window later firmly denied. Whole 
episode has reached minor legendary proportions, may never 
be accurately explained. 

1907-1908. Lived on West 58th Street, New York, in 
apartment with Frank Best. Became "secretary to the president" 
of the New York-Chicago Supply Co., third-rate mail order 
house dealing in cheap jewelry, in which James O'Neill had 
financial interest. Meanwhile "did the town" with brother James, 
ten years his senior, and eager tutor in ways of the worldly. 

Summer 1909. Introduced by Frank Best to beautiful 
Kathleen Jenkins, non-Catholic, daughter of once wealthy New 
York family. Impulsively married in Hoboken, New Jersey, they 
lived together only a few days. (One source indicates marriage 
was compulsory.) Both families violently disapproved. (Bowen 
speaks only of Mrs. Jenkins, divorced, but Boulton, quoting 
O'Neill, continually speaks of "her parents.") 

Oct. 1909. Soon after 21st birthday, upon arrangement 
(virtually an order) by father, hoping to break up marriage, 
departed with Earl C. Stevens on gold prospecting tour to 

1900-1912 93 

Honduras. Contracted malaria, found no gold. Boulton reports 
return home in "three or four months"; Bowen says six. 

5 May 1910. Birth of son, Eugene Gladstone, Jr. Father 
and son did not meet until after child's eleventh birthday. One 
story, perhaps apocryphal, relates O'Neill did see him some 
weeks after birth at Kathleen's home. 

Summer 1910. Became assistant stage manager of father's 
road company. The White Sister. Toured three months, St. 
Louis to Boston. Main task was to watch ticket takers to pre- 
vent unauthorized admissions. 

Fall 1910-Summer 1911. Refusing to remain with father's 
acting company, shipped from Boston on Norwegian square- 
rigged barque, among last of active sailing vessels. After voyage 
of 65-85 days (reports disagree) jumped ship in Buenos Aires, 
took jobs with Westinghouse posing as draftsman. Swift and 
Company sorting hides, and Singer Sewing Machine as sales- 
man. Was fired by ( or quit ) each in succession within a matter of 
weeks. Subsequently shipped as seaman on cattle boat to Dur- 
ban, South Africa, returning to South America and living nearly 
destitute along waterfront. Later admitted that at one time he 
almost turned to robbery for money to live on. 

Fall 1911. Returned to New York as ordinary seaman 
aboard British tramp steamer, from which came many ideas for 
Glencairn cycle and other sea plays. 

Dec. 1911. Consented to give Kathleen divorce on 
grounds of adultery. 

Winter 1911-1912. Lived in destitution (room rent, $3.00 
a month) at Jimmy the Priest's waterfront dive. New York, sur- 
viving on whisky, free lunch, and allowances from father. Life 
here was later reflected in ANNA CHRISTIE and ICEMAN. 
Sometime during this period apparently attempted suicide with 
veronal but saved by quick action of friends and insufficient 
dosage. Bowen, quoting others, says summer of 1910, soon after 
seeing infant son. Boulton, quoting O'Neill, reports "a year or 


so later" after return from Honduras. Kenneth Macgowan re- 
inforces this version; both state suicide attempt was caused by 
distress over marriage difBculties. 

Spring and Summer 1912. Shipped as able seaman to 
Liverpool and back. Wages $27.50 a month. After wild New 
York party, took train to New Orleans and encountered father's 
Monte Cristo company. Joined and toured 15 weeks through Far 
West. Acting ability condemned by father and himself. 

Aug. 1912. Lived with family at New London summer 
home. Worked short while (variously reported from four to 
six months) as cub reporter on The Telegraph under Judge 
Frederick P. Latimer, who first felt O'Neill had talent. (Bowen 
says work began in May, which does not account for time spent 
on ship or with Monte Cristo company.) Ran column of poetry, 
often maintained by his own contributions, 24 of which were 
signed by various cryptic pseudonyms. Contributed limited num- 
ber of verses to left wing New York Call, The Masses, and Frank- 
lin P. Adams' "Conning Tower." Main interest was swimming 
and boating, rather than journalism. Apparently courted several 
"nice" girls in town, including anonymous young lady who ap- 
pears later as Muriel in AH, WILDERNESS! 

11 Oct. 1912. Final divorce decree from Kathleen Jen- 
kins on grounds of adultery. No alimony sought or received; 
support of child left entirely to the mother. 

1 Nov. 1912. Ill health compelled resignation from 

2A Dec. 1912. Health broken, entered Gaylord Farm 
tuberculosis sanitorium, Wallingford, Conn. While a patient 
began serious interest in reading plays, especially Strindberg. 
( THE STRAW is based directly on experiences as patient. ) 

24 May 1913. Discharged as an arrested case. 

Summer-Winter 1913-1914. Lived 15-16 months at Mrs. 
Rippin's New London boarding house overlooking Long Island 

1912-1916 95 

Sound. Became expert swimmer while health mended com- 
pletely. Began serious playwriting. Rippin daughters typed and 
mailed plays regularly to New York producers who never pro- 
duced them. THE WEB apparently the first, followed by eleven 
short plays and two longer ones. Most have been destroyed, 
although a few survive in Lost Plays of Eugene O'Neill, 1950 
( see Chronology of Publication ) . 

Spring 1914. Wrote BOUND EAST FOR CARDIFF, 
to be his first produced play. 

16 July 1914. At urging of Clayton Hamilton, critic, 
author, family friend, applied for admittance to George Pierce 
Baker's English 47, Dramatic Composition, at Harvard, stating 
avowed purpose of becoming "an artist or nothing." 

Aug. 1914. The Gorham Press, Boston, published 
THIRST and Other One Act Plays at personal expense ($1000) 
of James O'Neill. Book had no success whatever, is now valuable 
collector's item. O'Neill later disowned it, prevented its reissue 
during lifetime. Hamilton, who had insisted it be published, 
was the only critic to review it ( No. 1726 ) . 

Sept. 1914-May 1915. Attended Baker's class. Was 
known by classmates, all younger and less experienced in 
worldly matters, as nervous, shy, reserved, restless. 

Summer 1915. Took room at 38 Washington Square 
West, Greenwich Village, and began to be a "regular" at John 
Wallace's Golden Swan bar, popularly known as "The Hell 
Hole" and immortalized in THE ICEMAN COMETH. Return 
visit to New London ended romance with "Muriel." 

Winter 1915-1916. On income ($10 weekly) supplied by 
father, lived at Hell Hole. Became friend of political radicals, 
I.W.W.'s, and gang of underworld characters known as Hudson 
Dusters, many of whom he could drink under the table. Never 
became a member of any one group, but was always welcomed 
as fine drinking companion, entertaining all comers with memor- 
ized renditions of Francis Thompson's "The Hound of Heaven." 


Had little actual contact with typical struggling artists and 
writers of the Village. Although his alcoholic sprees were wild 
and could last for days, most evidence proves what Boulton 
says later: all drinking stopped completely whenever work was 
undertaken. Did not write anything while intoxicated, and never 
took drugs of any kind. 

Summer 1916. Resided in friend's shack in Province- 
town, Mass., haven for artists and not yet popular tourist at- 
traction. Continued to write short plays. Newly formed Province- 
town Players, headed by George Cram Cook and wife, Susan 
Glaspell, auditioned BOUND EAST FOR CARDIFF. Produc- 
tion undertaken in Mary Heaton Vorse's 50 x 100 ft. Wharf 
Playhouse, where success was immediate. 

Fall 1916. Lived over John Francis' Provincetown store, 
continually writing short plays. Favorite writing position was 
in bed. One story relates he affixed a sign on his door stating 
bluntly: "Go to hell." 

Nov. 1916. First bills by Provincetown Players at Play- 
wrights' Theatre, converted brownstone house, 139 Macdougal 
Street, Greenwich Village. BOUND EAST FOR CARDIFF, 
No apparent evidence that any New York newspapers reviewed 
any of O'Neill's plays. 

10 Dec. 1916. In the earliest known newspaper refer- 
ence. New York World reported "the son of James O'Neill" had 
been involved with a group of Provincetowners somehow con- 
nected with the "flight" of Richard Mansfield, Jr. Details re- 
main obscure. 

29 Mar. 1917. Arrested in Provincetown with friend 
Harold De Polo, on suspicions of vagrancy. Released without 
charge, although for some time thereafter, because of habit 
of roaming Provincetown sands, was carefully observed by au- 
thorities on suspicion of wartime "spying." 

Summer 1917. Turned down by Navy, claimed Army 

1916-1919 97 

exemption as arrested tubercular case. Returned to Province- 
town and wrote short story, apparently destroyed, forming 
nucleus of later play THE HAIRY APE. 

June 1917. "Tomorrow," his only published short story, 
appeared in The Seven Arts. Contained elements later found in 
ICEMAN. Received first important royalties: $50.00. 

Oct. 1917. THE LONG VOYAGE HOME appeared in 
The Smart Set, the first publication of a play outside Thirst. 
Royalties: $75.00. Met Agnes Boulton, handsome 24-year old 
widow, author of short stories and pulp fiction, from Connecticut. 

Winter 1917-1918. THE LONG VOYAGE HOME and 
ILE produced at Playwrights' Theatre, now in converted stable, 
133 Macdougal St. IN THE ZONE, first O'Neill play to be pre- 
sented by Washington Square Players, reviewed by major news- 
paper critics. Although an active contributor to Provincetown 
productions, still preferred Hell Hole gang. Returned to 
Provincetown; lived with Agnes Boulton in rented studio. In- 
come still provided by father's allowance. 

12 Apr. 1918. Married Agnes Boulton in Provincetown. 

Spring 1918. First steady and substantial income from 
IN THE ZONE, sold as vaudeville piece for $50.00 per week. 
Producer John D. Williams took six-month option on first full- 
length play, BEYOND THE HORIZON. 

Summer 1918. Lived in flat over a Provincetown store, 
writing more one-act plays and first drafts of CHRIS, the origi- 
nal ANNA CHRISTIE. Brother James a permanent house guest. 

Nov. 1918. Returned to New York for rehearsals. First 
meeting between Agnes and elder O'Neills at Prince George 

Winter 1918-1919. Resided at Agnes' former home. Old 
House, West Point Pleasant, New Jersey, within easy commuting 
distance of New York. Wrote CHRIS and THE STRAW. 


May 1919. Boni and Liveright published first important 
play collection, THE MOON OF THE CARIBBEES and Six 
Other Plays of the Sea. First meeting with George Jean Nathan, 
then editor on The Smart Set, who had arranged for first publi- 
cation of LONG VOYAGE HOME. Their acquaintance became 
permament close friendship. 

Summer 1919. Moved into remodeled former Coast 
Guard station on Peaked Hill Bars, Provincetown, purchased by 
James O'Neill and given to his son and family as a gift. House 
so remote from town could be reached only on foot or horse- 
back over dunes. 

30 Oct. 1919. Birth of son, Shane, in Provincetown. 

2 Feb. 1920. John D. Williams produced BEYOND THE 
HORIZON at Morosco Theatre. First shown at special matinees; 
eventually given permament run of 111 performances. Only 
one of his son's plays that James O'Neill ever saw. Disapproved 
of its serious realism. 

June 1920. Pulitzer Prize awarded to BEYOND THE 

10 Aug. 1920. Death of James O'Neill after long period 
of decline. Left estate of $165,000. 

Fall-Spring 1920-1921. Resided at Peaked Hill Bars and 
in rented Provincetown house during bad weather, writing EM- 
PEROR JONES and other long plays. Despite success of 
HORIZON, family remained in close financial straits. 

3 Nov. 1920. Opening at Playwrights' Theatre of EM- 
PEROR JONES to much acclaim. 

Fall and Winter 1921-1922. Lived in New York during 
rehearsals of ANNA CHRISTIE, which opened 2 Nov. 1921. 
Returned to Provincetown to write HAIRY APE. In early 1922 
met Eugene, Jr., nearly 12, only recently informed of his true 
parentage. O'Neill immediately took over cost of his private 
school education. 

1919-1925 99 

28 Feb. 1922. Death of Ellen Quinlan O'Neill in Los 
Angeles, where she and James, Jr., had gone to sell certain prop- 
erties. Left estate approximately $112,000. Her death and James' 
drunken return to New London with the body form basis of 

May 1922. Pulitzer Prize awarded to ANNA CHRISTIE. 
Weekly royalties (about $850 according to Bowen) permanently 
removed all financial diflBculties. 

Fall 1922. Purchased Brook Farm, Ridgefield, Conn., as 
winter home. Peaked Hill Bars still used as summer home. 

Winter 1922-1923. Breakup of original Provincetown 
group. O'Neill with Robert Edmond Jones and Kenneth Mac- 
gowan organized The Greenwich Village Theatre. 

Feb. 1923. Elected to National Institute of Arts & Letters 
and awarded gold medal for drama. 

8 Nov. 1923. Death of brother James at age 45. Left 
estate over $73,000. 

March-May 1924. First encounter with the law in cen- 
sorship difficulties with ALL GOD'S CHILLUN. New York 
Mayor Hylan, trying to prevent production of drama of misce- 
genation, forbade use of children in opening scene, on grounds 
they were too young. Play opened, without children and with- 
out difficulty, on 15 May. 

Dec. 1924. Moved to Campsea, Paget West, Bermuda. 

Feb.-Mar. 1925. DESIRE UNDER THE ELMS, ac- 
cused of "obscenity," cleared by New York "play jury." 

13 May 1925. Daughter, Oona, bom at Campsea. 

Summer-Fall 1925. Family moved to Nantucket Island, 
Mass. Barrett H. Clark received permission to write first of his 
biographies ( No. 21 ) . 


Dec. 1925. O'Neill listed as contributing editor, along 
with Carl Sandburg, Maxwell Anderson, and others, to The 
New Masses, radical left-wing magazine supporting international 
labor movement. 

Winter 1925. Rented Bellevue, large mansion in Ber- 
muda, while negotiating for purchase of 19th century 13-acre 
estate, Spithead. Worked on STRANGE INTERLUDE. 

Feb. -Apr. 1926. Cast of Los Angeles production of DE- 
SIRE UNDER THE ELMS arrested for presenting obscene play. 
Brought to trial, cast produced play in court and trial ended 
with hung jury. Case dropped; play continued. 

23 June 1926. Awarded honorary Litt. D. from Yale at 
annual commencement. 

Summer 1926. Resided with family at Belgrade Lakes, 
Maine. Acquaintance begun with Carlotta Monterey, who had 
appeared in a production of HAIRY APE. 

Fall and Winter 1926-1927. Resided at Brook Farm, 
then returned to Spithead, Bermuda, completing STRANGE 
INTERLUDE. Left family to attend rehearsals of MARCO MIL- 
LIONS and INTERLUDE and never returned. Resumed ac- 
quaintance with Carlotta Monterey. 

30 Jan. 1928. Opening of STRANGE INTERLUDE. 

Feb. 1928. Left for Europe on 3-year exile from United 

May 1928. Pulitzer Prize awarded to STRANGE IN- 

Sept. 1928. Eugene, Jr., entered Yale as freshman, class 
of 1932. 

Oct.-Dec. 1928. Embarked on a "round the world trip." 
Reasons obscure, but probably based on decision to leave family 

1925-1931 101 

for Miss Monterey. Details of entire venture are garbled. Clip- 
pings from New York Times and other sources tell of serious 
but undefined illness in Shanghai and certain unsuccessful at- 
tempts at disguise. Did not return to Europe until January. 

Jan. 1929. Took up residence at Villa Mimosa, Cap d'Ail, 

May 1929. Sued by Georges Lewys (Gladys Adelina 
Lewis ) for plagiarism of her novel The Temple of Pallas Athene 

2 July 1929. Agnes Boulton granted Reno divorce on 
grounds of desertion; terms of settlement kept secret. 

22 July 1929. Married Carlotta Monterey. 

27 July 1929-May 1931. Resided at Chateau de Plessis, 
Sainte Antoine du Roches, France, under 13-year lease. Com- 

16 Sept. 1929. STRANGE INTERLUDE banned in 
Boston; played to packed houses in nearby Quincy. 

6 Jan. 1931. Peaked Hill Bars home destroyed in Cape 
Cod storm. 

Apr. 1931. Plagiarism suit dismissed as "preposterous." 
Georges Lewys ordered to pay costs of $17,500. 

17 May 1931. Left France permanently; returned to 
New York. 

Summer 1931. Resided at Northport, Long Island. 

26 Oct. 1931. Opening of MOURNING BECOMES 
ELECTRA, last of the great tragedies before 12-year semi- 

14 Nov. 1931. In special ceremonies at Yale, bust exe- 
cuted by Edmond Quinn presented to Department of Drama. 


Winter 1931-1932, Resided in Park Avenue apartment. 

June 1932. Eugene, Jr., graduated from Yale, winner of 
three important prizes in classical scholarship. Married a year, 
received teaching appointment at Yale and started work on PhD. 

Summer 1932-Fall 1936. Lived in Casa Genotta (the 
Castle of Gene and Carlotta ) built to specifications on Sea Island, 
Georgia. Noted for its study, built to resemble sailing ship 
captain's study. Here wrote DAYS WITHOUT END and AH, 
WILDERNESS! Overwork brought on near-breakdown in 1934, 
which compelled several months' rest. 

Sept. 1932. Announced as editor of The American Spec- 
tator, along with Theodore Dreiser, George Jean Nathan, James 
Branch Cabell. Eventually wrote three articles (see Non-Dra- 
matic O'Neill ) before Spectator folded. 

19 Sept. 1932. Made associate member of Irish Academy 
of Letters. 

9 Nov. 1933. Elected member of American Academy of 
Arts and Letters. 

8 Jan. 1934. DAYS WITHOUT END opened in New 
York, last play to appear on stage until 1946. 

Fall 1934. Shane entered Florida Military Academy, St. 
Petersburg, which he attended four years. 

3 Nov. 1936. Having put Casa Genotta up for sale, ar- 
rived in Seattle, Wash.; rented house on Puget Sound. Hoped 
to get material for proposed play cycle, A TALE OF POSSES- 

Nov. 1936. Awarded Nobel Prize for Literature. 

Dec. 1936. To avoid further public contact over Nobel 
Prize, fled to San Francisco. 

1931-1945 103 

26 Dec. 1936. Appendicitis operation in Oakland. While 
a hospital patient, received Nobel Prize from representative of 
Swedish government. 

28 Jan. 1937. Casa Genotta sold. 

Dec. 1937-Dec. 1943. Lived in Tao House, Chinese- 
style mansion built to specifications, on 158-acre estate in 
Contra Costa County, California. Completed last plays, ICE- 
GOTTEN, TOUCH OF THE POET. Began other parts of A 

Dec. 1941-Fall 1943. Shane enlisted and served in Ameri- 
can merchant marine. 

Spring 1942. Oona graduated from exclusive Brearly girls' 
school. Named New York Debutante of the Year, 1942-1943. 
Moved as popular member of young society. 

16 July 1943. Marriage of Oona to famed film comedian 
Charlie Chaplin, his fourth wife. Her age, 18; his, same as 
O'Neill, 54. Her mother, according to New York Times, was 
very pleased. O'Neill never forgave her and eventually dis- 
inherited her, along with Shane, and all their issue. 

\ Jan. 1944. Tao House sold, moved to Nob Hill apart- 

\l ment, San Francisco. 

1944-1945. SuflFered permanently injurious paralytic 
stroke. Eugene, Jr., having left Yale, now in radio in Hartford, 
Conn. Shane in Greenwich Village, still without steady em- 
ployment, drifting toward drug addiction. 

31 July 1944. Marriage of Shane to Cathy Givens, Nor- 
walk. Conn. 

Oct. 1945. Moved to New York from San Francisco, 
living in various hotels and apartments. 


19 Nov. 1945. Birth of Eugene O'Neill, III, to Shane and 
Cathy O'Neill. Died in infancy, February, from "accidental suf- 

Spring 1946-Spring 1948. Lived in remodeled New York 
apartment on East 84th, former home of playwright Edward 

June 1946. Before opening of ICEMAN held first and 
only press conference in offices of Theatre Guild. 

9 Oct. 1946. Opening of THE ICEMAN COMETH, 
final play to be presented in New York during lifetime. 

20 Feb. 1947. Opening of A MOON FOR THE MIS- 
BEGOTTEN in Columbus, Ohio, last play to open anywhere 
during lifetime. Tryout tour abandoned; play never entered 
New York. 

1947. Resided in New York; ill health prevented any 
further writing. 

28 Jan. 1948. Slipped and broke an arm in New York 
apartment; became patient in Doctors' Hospital. 

Apr. 1948. Left New York for Boston, for treatment in 
Lahey Clinic. 

10 Aug. 1948. Shane arrested for possession of heroin. 

23 Aug. 1948. At suggestion of Judge Harold Medina, 
Shane sent to Lexington hospital for treatment of drug addiction. 

Summer 1948. Moved to Marblehead, Mass., and pur- 
chased shore home. Joined Euthanasia Society of America, 
eventually became member of its American Advisory Council. 

1948-1950. Although health seemed improved, unable 
to work consistently. Lived in virtual seclusion in Marblehead. 

1945-1953 105 

25 Sept. 1950. Eugene, Jr., committed suicide, Wood- 
stock, New Jersey, after many marital diJEficulties and unsuccess- 
ful life as classics teacher at Yale and Princeton, lecturer, tele- 
vision panelist, and stage actor. Death a profound shock to 

1 Feb. 1951. "Cruel and abusive treatment" charged by 
Carlotta Monterey O'Neill. 

5 Feb. 1951. Admitted to Salem, Mass., hospital with 
broken right knee. Wife admitted to McLean Hospital, Belmont, 
Mass., after breakdown. 

Mar. 1951. Signed petition stating wife unable to take 
care of herself. 

31 Mar. 1951. Arrived at Doctors' Hospital, New York, 
for further treatment of knee. 

Apr. 1951. Charges and counter-charges dropped; recon- 
ciled with wife. 

May 1951-Nov. 1953. Left New York, disposed of 
Marblehead home, and moved to Hotel Shelton, Boston. During 
this period destroyed most of remaining plays or portions of 
plays and virtually all of proposed DISPOSSESSED cycle. 
Treated for brief while in 1951 in Boston hospital for severe 
nervous trembling. 

27 Nov. 1953. Died in Boston. Official cause: bronchial 
pneumonia. Age: just past 65. 

2 Dec. 1953. Interred in Forest Hills Cemetery, Boston. 


This is a chronological list of all important facts relating 
to the composition, copyright, or pubHcation of various editions 
of all of O'Neill's plays. It does not, however, include those 
published in general anthologies. 

Few people realize the great number of apprentice works 
which O'Neill poured into the Copyright Office and never pub- 
lished, or which he wrote but never copyrighted. The unauthor- 
ized publication of Lost Plays by New Fathoms Press in 1950 
called brief atention to a few of these early plays. O'Neill him- 
self thought he had destroyed them, and never wished them 
to be made public. If we are to judge the quality of those 
destroyed by the appearance of those which New Fathoms 
resurrected, we can say that their loss was of minor conse- 
quence to American drama. 

Sources for this Part are varied. The primary text is San- 
born and Clark's Bibliography of the Works of Eugene O'Neill, 
published in 1931 (No. 115), which is the only detailed col- 
lation of O'Neill's plays. The second source is the U.S. Copy- 
right List of the Government Printing Office. The Greenwich 
Theatre Playbill No. 3, Season 1925-1926 for THE FOUNTAIN, 
contains a list of all the plays noted below as destroyed. Other 
source material is indicated where appropriate. 

The Chronology is arranged in the following pattern: 

1. Title of play in ITALIC CAPITAL LETTERS. In a 
few cases the play may comprise part of a more complete book 
title and will appear in this fashion: MOON OF THE CARIB- 
BEES and Six Other Plays of the Sea. 

2. Pertinent information concerning the play. Those 
plays which O'Neill copyrighted but never published, or those 
that he copyrighted himself before they were published, are 
described by inforaiation from the copyright record, including 
number of acts, type of play, and number of pages. Plays never 
copyrighted and known or presumed to be destroyed are listed 


with whatever information is available. Publication data, in- 
cluding city, publisher, and date, are shown if known. 

3. Other information of interest. 

4. Entry number in Sanborn and Clark's Bibliography. 
(This information is occasionally included in the material under 
2 and 3 above. ) 

All entries are as close as practicable to actual chronology. 



One act. Typewritten; copyrighted 15 Aug. 

The earhest recorded O'Neill play, although THE WEB 
is often considered his first play. Contents remained unknown 
until the publication of Lost Plays. 


Four acts. Typewritten; copyrighted 2 May. 

One act; 13 pages. Typewritten; copyrighted 14 May. 


One act. Typewritten; copyrighted 19 May. 

Apparently O'Neill worked on this play in Baker's 47 
Workshop at Harvard, because it is mentioned in some of the 
published reminiscences of his classmates. Contents unknown 
until publication of Lost Plays. 

One act comedy; 11 pages. Typewritten; copyrighted 1 July. 
Later published in Lost Plays. 

THIRST and Other One Act Plays 
Boston, Gorham Press, August 1914. Published as part of 
"American Dramatists Series." 

1913-1915 109 

This is O'Neill's first published book, an issue of 1000 copies 
which, during his lifetime, he insisted would never be repub- 
lished. It fell almost stillborn from the press; today it com- 
mands a high price as a collector's item, available only in large 
libraries. The entire project was financed by O'Neill's father. 

WARNINGS. None of these plays have been found under any 
other copyright date. Their date of composition is uncertain. 
THE WER is often considered the first play O'Neill ever wrote, 
probably very close to WIFE FOR A LIFE. 

Sanborn and Clark, No. 4. 

Three acts. Typewritten; copyrighted 23 Sept. Eventually 
published in Lost Plays. 

O'Neill says this was written before he attended Harvard, 
and various authorities place its writing as spring of 1914. It 
was apparently first copyrighted in Frank Shay's first series of 
The Provincetown Plays, 1916. 


One act. Typewritten; copyrighted 13 May. 

Six scenes, biblical. Never copyrighted; destroyed. 


One act, comedy. Never copyrighted; destroyed. 


Four acts. Never copyrighted; destroyed. 

Begun in Prof. Baker's Harvard 47 Workshop as THE 
SECOND ENGINEER. Deutsch and Hanau (No. 29) refer to 
a reading which O'Neill gave of the first act before the Province- 
town group, but it was never considered for production. 


From this point forward, this Chronology will list the 
dates of copyright or composition of those plays known 
either to have been destroyed or omitted from publica- 
tion. Other plays will be listed by publication (or copy- 
right, if different) date and no attempt will be made to 
place them in their year of composition. O'Neill spent 
many months, and even years, on his later plays, so 
the attempt to pinpoint the writing would be un- 



In The Provincetown Plays, First Series, edited by Frank 
Shay, N.Y., November, 1916. 

This volume contains the first published version of a major 
O'Neill play. 1200 copies were printed, mainly for friends and 
patrons of the Playwrights' Theatre. Some were sold at the 
door during intermissions. The book is not as rare as THIRST, 
etc., and can be found in many libraries. 

Sanborn and Clark, No. 6. 


In The Provincetown Plays, Third Series, edited by Frank 
Shay, N.Y., December, 1916. 

The first printing was 500 copies and others were made 
later without Shay's editing. 

Sanborn and Clark, No. 7. 


New York, Frank Shay, December, 1916. 

Prepared from the original text and type of the Province- 
town Third Series above. A rare volume; available in Special 
Collections, Butler Library, Columbia, and in American Litera- 
ture Collection, Sterling Library, Yale. 

Sanborn and Clark, No. 8. 

One act; pantomime. Never copyrighted; destroyed. 

1916-1918 111 

THE G.A.N. (Also reported as THE G.A.M.) 
One act; farce-comedy. Never copyrighted; destroyed. 
Greenwich Village Playbill dates it 1916; Kenneth Mac- 
gowan in Vanity Fair, April 1922, dates it 1917. 


Three acts, prologue and epilogue; 98 pages. Typewritten; 
copyrighted 23 May. 


In The Smart Set, 53 (October 1917) 83-94. 

H. L. Mencken and George Jean Nathan were among the 
very first to recognize O'Neill's importance. O'Neill was ex- 
tremely grateful to them for their assistance and criticism, and 
in a letter to Nathan expressed his surprise and pleasure at the 
publication particularly because he had submitted them only 
for comment. This is the first appearance of one of O'Neill's 
plays in a periodical. 

Sanborn and Glark, No. 11. 



In The Smart Set, 55 (May 1918) 89-100. Sanborn and 
Clark, No. 12. Also issued in printed wrappers extracted from 
Smart Set, as part of the Flying Stag plays for the little theatre. 

Three acts; 128 pages. Typewritten; copyrighted 7 June. 
Three acts; 121 pages. Typewritten; copyrighted 5 Aug. 


In The Smart Set, 55 (Aug. 1918) 73-86. 
Sanborn and Clark, No. 13. 


One act. Never copyrighted; destroyed 



Three acts, six scenes; 111 pages. Typewritten; copyrighted 
5 June. 

This play appeared on the stage in 1920 as CHRIS in an 
unsuccessful tryout run in Atlantic City and Philadelphia. After 
its withdrawal and rewriting, it emerged as ANNA CHRISTIE. 
It never appeared in print in either of its "Chris" forms, and is 
not included in the Sanborn and Clark bibliography. 

MOON OF THE CARIBBEES and Six Other Plays of the Sea 

New York, Boni and Liveright, June 1919. 

It is No. 14 in Sanborn and Clark which notes differences 
in various printings. The dialogue is "rougher" than in The 
Smart Set. This first printing of important O'Neill plays con- 
sisted of 1200 copies. 


Three acts, five scenes; 121 pages. Typewritten; copyrighted 
19 Nov. 

One act. Apparently copyrighted sometime in 1919, al- 
though exact date is not known. It was never published and 
was given one production by the Provincetown Players. It is 
not noted by Sanborn and Clark. 

One act. Never copyrighted; destroyed. 

One act; comedy. Never copyrighted; destroyed. 

1918-1928 113 


In Theatre Arts Magazine, 4 (Jan. 1920) 41-56. 
Sanborn and Clark, No. 16. 


New York, Boni and Liveright, March 1920. 

O'Neill's first publication of a long play. No. 18 in Sanborn 
and Clark, who point out minor diflFerences in the second 
printing of 1923. 

Four acts; 101 pages. Typewritten; copyrighted 27 July. 


Four acts; 119 pages. Typewritten; copyrighted 29 Nov. 

Never published, and not noted in Sanborn and Clark. Ap- 
parently elements of this were combined with CHRIS to be- 
come the final ANNA CHRISTIE. 


In Theatre AHs Magazine, 5 ( Jan. 1921 ) 29-59. 
The first publication of this play. The text, with many 
incidental editorial changes, was used later in Stewart Kidd 
edition below. Boni and Liveright used text prepared by O'Neill. 
( Information from Sanborn and Clark, in which this is No. 22. ) 


New York, Boni and Liveright, April 1921. 

This is the first of several series of O'Neill's plays published 
both before and after stage production and using two or more 
play titles. Published earlier than the Stewart Kidd edition of 
JONES. Slight differences in physical appearance of the print- 
ings are noted by Sanborn and Clark, in which this is No. 23. 
2200 copies were printed — 1000 more than the one act plays 
of 1919, above. 



Cincinnati, Stewart Kidd Co., Sept. 1921. Edited by Frank 

Adapted from Theatre Arts version, above, and the first 
separate edition of this play. Printed under general title of 
"Stewart Kidd Modern Plays" and later reprinted as one of 
"Appleton Modem Plays." 

Sanborn and Clark, No. 25. 

New York, Boni and Liveright, Sept. 1921. 
Uniform with MOON OF THE CARIRBEES, etc. 
Sanborn and Clark, No. 28. 

Nine scenes, prologue; 115 pages. Typewritten; copyrighted 
13 Oct. 

Four acts; 119 pages. Typewritten; copyrighted 13 Oct. 
The original title of THE FIRST MAN. 


New York, Boni and Liveright, July 1922. 
Uniform with other Boni and Liveright editions. 
Sanborn and Clark, No. 29. 


In Contemporary One-act Plays of 1921 (American). 

Selected and edited by Frank Shay. Cincinnati, Stewart 
Kidd, Oct. 1922. 

Text editorially changed from Theatre Arts edition, 1920, 
above. The first appearance of this play outside a magazine. 

Sanborn and Clark, No. 17. 

1921-1924 115 


Three acts; 73 pages. Typewritten; copyrighted 2 May. 

THE MOON OF THE CARIBBEES and Six Other Plays of 

the Sea. 
New York, Boni and Liveright, 1923. Introduction by George 
Jean Nathan. 

"The Modem Library of the World's Best Books" — the 
first of the Modern Library reprints of O'Neill's plays. Merely 
a re-issue of 1919 edition plus introduction. Not noted in San- 
born and Clark. 

One act, 7 parts. Never copyrighted. Not actually a play, 
but an adaptation of Coleridge's poem to a kind of stage panto- 
mime. No definite composition date has been established. Not 
noted in Sanborn and Clark. ( See below, 1960. ) 


In The American Mercury, 1 (Feb. 1924) 129-148. 
Mencken and Nathan, after the demise of The Smart Set 
and their founding of the Mercury, continued their interest in 
the fast developing O'Neill. This controversial play was pub- 
lished nearly three months before its production. 
Sanborn and Clark, No. 37. 


New York, Boni and Liveright, April 1924. 

A few minor variations from the Mercury version above. 
Unifoim with previous editions in this series. By now O'Neill 
is selling well enough to call for a first printing of 3200 copies. 

Sanborn and Clark, No. 38. 


Three parts; 156 pages. Typewritten; copyrighted 29 Aug. 



8 acts and epilogue; 217 pages. Typewritten; copyrighted 
28 Jan. 

The title appears thus in the copyright list. O'Neill always 
insisted that the play as produced should be called MARCO 
MILLIONS, the second term being meant as a surname rather 
than an indication of Marco's actual wealth. The copyright 
title is probably in error. 

The Complete Works of Eugene O'Neill 

New York, Boni and Liveright, Jan. 1925 (actually copy- 
righted 1924). 

These two volumes, limited to 1200 sets, contain the first 
printing of DESIRE. 



Sanborn and Clark, Nos. 42 and 43. 


New York, Boni and Liveright, April 1925. 

"The Provincetown-Greenwich Plays." The first separate 
edition of this play. Apparently reprinted from the Complete 
Works, above. 

Sanborn and Clark, No. 44. 

Five acts. Copyrighted 2 July 1926. 

1924-1926 117 

The Works of Eugene O'Neill. 

New York, Boni and Liveright, July 1925. 

In four volumes. DifiFers from Complete Works above in 
omission of the sea plays. Sanborn and Clark (Nos. 45, 46, 47, 
48) note several minor changes. This is the "trade" edition. 

Contents: Vol. I - ANNA CHRISTIE; ALL GOD'S 





OF THE CARIBBEES and other Plays. 
New York, Boni and Liveright, March 1926. 
Uniform with 1925 four volume "Works." 5000 copies 
were printed. 

Contents, in addition to those in title: BOUND EAST FOR 
Sanborn and Clark, No. 53. 

"Beading version" in Everybody's Magazine, 54 (April 
1926) 134-148. 

In Golden Book, 3 (April 1926) 517-530. 

Eight scenes. Copyrighted 23 June. 




New York, Boni and Liveright, April 1927. 

Uniform with 1925 and 1926 "Works" series above. The 
first pubHcation of a single long play before presentation, al- 
though some of the others had already been published before 
production. Even unproduced, the play was considered worth 
7000 copies. 

Sanborn and Clark, No. 58. 


New York, Boni and Liveright, May 1927. 

Limited edition, 450 copies signed by the author, of which 
440 were for sale. Sanborn and Clark (No. 60) note it is the 
same as the trade edition, same errors, pagination, etc. 

Nine acts. Copyrighted 1 July. 


First act only, in The American Caravan, edited by Van 
Wyck Brooks, Lewis Mumford, Alfred Kreymborg, and Paul 
Rosenfeld. New York, The Macaulay Co., September 1927. 

This is the first published version of any part of this play, 
and is much different from the later complete edition. It was, 
according to Sanborn and Clark, submitted at the personal re- 
quest of the editors. 

Sanborn and Clark, No. 62. 

LAZARUS LAUGHED, A Play for an Imaginative Theatre 
New York, Boni and Liveright, 12 Nov. 1927. 
The first publication of the entire play. 
Sanborn and Clark, No. 63. 


New York, Boni and Liveright, 26 Nov. 1927. 

A separate edition of 775 copies, 750 offered for sale. Ap- 
parently follows the precedent established by the limited edition 
of MARCO. 

Sanborn and Clark, No. 64. 

1927-1929 119 


New York, The Modern Library, 1928. With an introduction 
by Dudley Nichols. 

Not noted in Sanborn and Clark. This edition found in 
Publishers Trades List Annual. Apparently an unsuccessful 
Modern Library edition, for JONES is generally included in 
other collections. This has not been found in any library consulted. 


New York, Boni and Liveright, Feb. 1928. 

Uniform with others of this series of "Works" starting in 
1925. O'Neill is popular enough to risk an initial printing of 
20,000 copies. 

Sanborn and Clark, No. 65. 


New York, Boni and Liveright, March 1928. 

Limited edition, 775 copies, 750 for sale. Identical text 
with February printing, but text is in blue and black inks for 
ease in distinguishing between speech and thoughts. 

Sanborn and Clark, No. 66. 

New York, Boni and Liveright, July 1928. With 8 illustra- 
tions by Alexander King. 

Special limited edition of 775 copies, 750 for sale. 
Sanborn and Clark, No. 27. 

Three parts. Copyrighted 4 Oct. 



In Golden Book, 9 (February 1929) 87-93. 



New York, Horace Liveright, April 1929. With 9 illustra- 
tions by Alexander King. 

Another limited edition of 775 copies, 750 for sale. Uniform 
with JONES, 1928. 

Sanborn and Clark, No. 32. 

The Strange Interlude 

During the height of the controversy in Boston, when the 
play was banned, a pamphlet appeared under this title contain- 
ing excerpts to prove the play was "obscene." It was employed 
widely to support the censorship, but it was also vigorously at- 
tacked for its inclusion of a long list of passages out of context 
and hence meaningless. The publisher is unidentified. The New 
York Public Library has a copy. 

Sanborn and Clark, No. 68. 


New York, Horace Liveright, October 1929. 

Uniform with the four-volume trade edition of 1925 and 
subsequent volumes of "Works" series. Sanborn and Clark 
(noted as No. 71) state this is the third version. The first was 
the form presented by the Guild, the second went to the English 
publisher, and this is still another. There seem to be substantial 
differences among all of them. 

New York, Horace Liveright, December 1929. 
Limited edition, 775 copies, 750 for sale. 
Sanborn and Clark, No. 73. 



New York, Horace Liveright, November 1930. With illustra- 
tions by Alexander King. 

Limited edition, 775 copies, 750 for sale. Uniform with 
JONES and APE in this illustrated series. 

Sanborn and Clark, No. 33. 

1929-1932 121 


A trilogy. Copyrighted 12 May. 

New York, Horace Liveright, November 1931. 
The regular trade edition. 

New York, Horace Liveright, December 1931. 
Special edition of 500 copies signed by the author. 

A broadside 28 x 43 cm. was issued reproducing in facsimile 
O'Neill's inscription to the final longhand manuscript of the play. 
50 copies were printed. 


In Golden Book, 15 (February 1932) 151-156. 

Nine Plays, selected by the author. 

New York, Horace Liveright, December 1932. With an 
introduction by Joseph Wood Krutch. 


This later becomes the Modern Library Giant. 

Representative Plays by Eugene O'Neill. 

New York, Liveright, Inc., 1932. 



New York, Horace Liveright, 1932. 
The "Black and Gold Library." 


Four acts. Copyrighted 20 July. 

Four acts. Copyrighted 8 Aug. 

New York, Random House, October 1933. 

New York, Random House, November 1933. 
Limited edition of 325 copies, autographed, bound in leather. 
Published simultaneously by Macmillan in Toronto. 


DAYS WITHOUT END; A Drama of Religious Faith. 

New York, Random House, January 1934. 

The Yale Library catalogues an "uncorrected page proof 
of this play, with some errors corrected by an unidentified hand, 
which is one of 25 copies bound in paper wrappers. The College 
Library, Columbia, also catalogues one of these. It is dated 1934. 

New York, Random House, February 1934. 
Limited edition of 325 copies, autographed, bound in leather. 

New York, Appleton-Century, 1934, With a study guide 
for screen version by W. Levin and M. J. Herzberg. 
Published in "Appleton Modern Plays." 

1933-1936 123 


The Plays of Eugene O'Neill 

New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1934-1935. 

The Wilderness Edition, a 12-volume set, with illustrative 
plates and portrait, limited to 770 copies, signed by the author, 
with 750 for sale. Copyrighted as follows: Vols. 1 & 2, Nov. 1934; 
Vols. 3 & 4, Dec. 1934; Vols. 5, 6, & 7, Jan. 1935; Vols. 8 & 9, 
Mar. 1935; Vols. 10 & 11, May 1935; Vol. 12, June 1935. 

Contents: Vol. 1 - STRANGE INTERLUDE. 











Vol. 12 - The Glencairn plays; WHERE THE CROSS IS 



In Scholastic Magazine, 38 ( 15 February 1936 ) 4-6. 

Nine Plays by Eugene O'Neill. 

New York, Random House, 1936. Introduction by Joseph 
Wood Krutch. 

Same as 1932 edition by Liveright, but issued as "Nobel 
Prize Edition." 

New York, Samuel French. 
"French's Standard Library" edition. Drury's Guide to Best 


Plays lists the date as 1936. The Yale Library indexes a copy as 
1933, labels it "Sinclair Lewis' copy" (he once played the role 
in summer stock in 1940). The later date would seem more 
correct, since the play was having its initial run in 1933-1934 
season, during which time French would probably not bring out 
such a version. 


New York, The Modern Library, March 1937. Introduction 
by Lionel Trilling. Published simultaneously by Macmillan, 


During 1939 Dramatists Play Service, New York, issued the 
following O'Neill plays : 







Four acts. Copyrighted 12 Feb. 

During 1940 The Sun Dial Press, New York, issued the 
following volumes : 





1937-1941 125 





THE LONG VOYAGE HOME; 7 Plays of the Sea. 

New York, The Modern Library ( Random House ) . 

Merely a re-issue of the familiar THE MOON OF THE 
CARIBBEES etc., noted frequently above, which capitalizes on 
the successful motion picture, The Long Voyage Home. 

Nine Plays by Eugene O'Neill. 

New York, Garden City Publishing Company. Introduction 
by J. W. Krutch. 

A "deluxe edition" of the same volume issued in 1934 and 
1936, above. 


Nine Plays by Eugene O'Neill. 
New York, The Modern Library (Random House). Intro- 
duction by Joseph Wood Krutch. 

First printing of the Modern Library Giant. 

Plays of Eugene O'Neill 

New York, Random House. 

A three-volume boxed edition of O'Neill's plays; not a 
Modern Library series, and not considered "complete" because 
of omission of certain early one-acters. 

TAIN; The Glencairn Series; ILE; WHERE THE CROSS IS 






Four acts. Copyrighted 4 Jan. 

New York, Random House, October 1946. 
The first publication of this play, copyrighted in 1940. 


New York, Dramatists Play Service. "Acting edition." 


New York, The Modern Library (Random House). Intro- 
duction by Lionel Trilling. 

A new edition, but same volume, as 1937 issue. 


Lost Plays of Eugene O'Neill 
New York, New Fathoms Press. 

An unauthorized edition of five of O'Neill's earliest plays, 
"found" (with the copyright expired) in the Library of Congress. 

1946-1955 127 

O'Neill at first prepared to fight the publication, but his health 
was in a period of rapid decline and, feeling the struggle point- 
less, he dropped his action. The volume met with a varied, 
but generally unenthusiastic, reception, calling down the ire of 
most critics for the publisher's attempt to make capital on 
obviously inferior works at the expense of their creator. The 
book is available in most libraries, but as far as is known, it 
gained New Fathoms Press little if any cash, and no prestige 



Plays of Eugene O'Neill 

New York, Random House. 

"Random House Lifetime Library." A new edition of 1941 
set, above, still in three volumes, but including THE ICEMAN 
in Vol. 3. 



New York, Random House. 

Unable to secure New York production, and the play a 
catastrophe on the road in its tryouts in Columbus, Pittsburgh, 
and Detroit, O'Neill submitted this play to the publishers 
exactly as he had written it, prefaced by his own brief remarks. 
It was the last publication during his lifetime, and the last by 
Random House. 


Copyrighted as an unpublished work by Carlotta Monterey 



New Haven, Yale University Press, February 1956. 
O'Neill originally desired that this play not be published 
or produced until twenty-five years after his death because of 
its intense personal nature. He had given it to his wife in its 
original script as a wedding anniversary gift on 22 July 1941, 
written, as he said, "in tears and blood." Before he died, how- 
ever, he expressed willingness to allow the Royal Dramatic 
Theatre in Stockholm to produce it. Mrs. O'Neill requested 
Random House, in whose safekeeping O'Neill had deposited a 
sealed script, to publish the play. Although legally entitled to 
do so at Mrs. O'Neill's request as estate executrix. Random House 
declined, but the Yale Press accepted the work. Royalties from 
the publication are returned to Yale to help preserve the O'Neill 
collection and maintain the O'Neill scholarships at the School 
of Drama. 

New York, Random House. 

A reprinting of the 1946 edition but including pictures 
from the production at the Circle-in-the-Square. 



New Haven, Yale University Press. 

The only surviving play from the projected cycle, A TALE 
ca during the Stockholm production and before the 1958 staging 
in America. 


Lost Plays of Eugene O'Neill. 
New York, The Citadel Press. 

A subsequent printing of the 1950 publication by New 
Fathoms Press. 

1956-1960 129 



New Haven, Yale University Press. 

The only surviving play from a projected cycle of one-act 
"monologues" to be called BY WAY OF OBIT. The play was 
produced in Stockholm but by the end of 1960 had not been 
done in the United States. 



In Yale University Library Gazette, 35 (October 1960) 

Reprinted, with appropriate introductory comments by 
Donald Gallup, Curator of the Yale Collection of American 
Literature, with the permission of Carlotta Monterey O'Neill. 

The Two Projected Cycles 

O'Neill worked for some time on two multi-play cycles, 
most of which were destroyed before his death. Details about 
them are indefinite and often conflicting, but Mr. Donald 
Gallup, of the Yale Collection of American Literature, in which 
the O'Neill papers are preserved, has supplied some very 
helpful information concerning the over-all plan of the cycles 
and the plays contained within them. 

As early as February 1932 the New York Times reported 
that O'Neill planned three plays in a series to cover American 
life from 1776 to the present day. At the time of the Pittsburgh 
tryout of AH, WILDERNESS! newspaper accounts mentioned 
four plays "based on the Gold Rush," calling it a "monumental" 
work which would take years to complete and several nights 
to produce. In 1935 the total had reached seven, to begin with 
1829 in New England and encompass five generations. This 


"marathon drama," said one wire service release, made him 
the "Wagner of playwrights." The first plays were to be ready 
for the 1936-1937 season. By October 1935 the Guild was said 
to have announced that "eight separate dramas" had been com- 
pleted, covering 125 years, and that one or more were soon to 
be forthcoming. 

During 1936 conflicting reports about the status of this 
"octology" appeared frequently; some said the plays were 
nearly ready, others said they were far from finished with no 
prospect of early production. Early in 1937 the Guild was to 
do two of the eight per season, and the following December 
the number had increased to nine. Said the New York Times, 
mentioning that Walter Huston and Rosalind Russell might be 
cast in the leading roles, and that there was nothing "tricky" 
about the cycle: "It is just an old fashioned 4^2 years' run, at 
the rate of two plays per season." During the next few years 
predictions of all kinds appeared concerning possible produc- 
tion, and the total number finally reached eleven. 

Barret H. Clark's final edition of Eugene O'Neill: The Man 
and His Plays reported in 1947 that O'Neill intended to go back 
to his old vein of ironic tragedy. From Mr. Gallup's information, 
the whole series was to begin in 1776 and carry down to at 
least 1932, tracing the history of an Irish family in America. As 
far as can be determined, these are the intended plays: 

(originally entitled: A TOUCH OF THE POET) 

PLAY I. (THE) GREED OF THE MEEK. 1776-1793. 

PLAY II. AND GIVE ME (US) DEATH. 1806-1807. 

According to Mr. Gallup these first two plays at one time 
were inverted in order. O'Neill discovered that they were too 
long for single plays, and faced with the necessity of dividing 
them in two, finally destroyed both. The cycle then would have 
had the reported eleven plays, although only nine titles are 

PLAY III. A TOUCH OF THE POET. 1828. (Originally 

This is the only play to survive in condition to produce 
and is the only one ever published. Mr. Gallup states it was 
the first of the cycle to be completed. 



This play survives in draft form, far too incomplete to 
be produced as it stands. The Royal Dramatic Theatre in 
Stockholm has considered editing it for staging. 





PLAY IX. (THE) HAIR OF THE DOG. 1900-1932. 

This last play was originally the title given the third play, 
which eventually became A TOUCH OF THE POET. Mr. 
Gallup reports that O'Neill himself seemed quite uncertain 
about a title for the last play, and originally had considered 
reported at work on a play called THE LIFE OF BESSIE 
BOWEN (BROWN, BOLEN) which Mr. Gallup states finally 
became incorporated into the ninth play, HAIR OF THE DOG. 
Karl-Ragnar Gierow, director of the Royal Dramatic Theatre of 
Stockholm, reports in World Theatre, Spring 1958, that BESSIE 
BOWEN was to be about the motor car industry. He also men- 
tions another play, THE LAST CONQUEST or THE THIR- 
TEENTH APOSTLE which was to include Ghrist and Satan as 
characters. Gallup states that BESSIE BOWEN was finally de- 
stroyed in 1947. Mrs. O'Neill has reported that all others were 
destroyed by O'Neill and herself, torn and burned page by page. 
Unable to complete them, the playwright did not want any 
other hand to touch them. 

In 1939 O'Neill was reported at work on a play entitled 
BY WAY OF OBIT, but details were lacking. Mr. Gallup re- 
ports that this was to be another cycle of eight one-act plays, 
or, more accurately, monologues. One play survives, HUGHIE, 
written probably in 1940. It has been produced by the Royal 
Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm, and published in America by 
the Yale University Press. The over-all plan of this cycle re- 
mains uncertain. 


This is a chronological list of all important domestic pro- 
ductions of O'Neill's plays. Most of them opened "cold" in 
New York because of O'Neill's reluctance to permit road tryouts 
in the traditional manner. In two cases, CHRIS and A MOON 
FOR THE MISREGOTTEN, the original productions never 
reached Broadway. Others, like DAYS WITHOUT END and 
AH, WILDERNESS! opened with the same company which 
had appeared on limited out of town runs. This list includes 
data concerning the few road tryouts, with appropriate explana- 
tions where necessary. No attempt has been made to include 
any productions outside the United States. Also omitted are 
the touring companies which went on the road after the New 
York openings. 

Sources are varied. The greater part of the information 
comes from the Burns Mantle yearbooks. The early Province- 
town data is taken from Deutsch and Hanau's The Province- 
town. Other material is from newspapers and magazines, play- 
bills of various sorts, and other miscellaneous sources found 
in library collections. 



Presented Summer, second bill. Wharf Theatre, Province- 


Yank George Cram Cook 

Captain David Carb 

First Mate Eugene O'Neill 

The first production anywhere of a play by Eugene O'Neill. 
Mary Heaton Vorse owned the tiny wharf where the newly 
formed group produced its plays. This second season displayed 
the talents of the young man who had recently joined them, 
"dressed like Edgar Allan Poe who had just jumped ship." Only 

1916 133 

about 60 spectators could crowd into the theatre, but all re- 
ports speak of the play as a tremendous experience. The exact 
date is uncertain; all sources merely say "Summer, 1916." This 
is one of the few appearances of O'Neill as an actor. His stage 
fright was considerable. 


Presented Summer, fourth bill. Wharf Theatre, Province- 

The three-man cast included O'Neill in the part of the 
mulatto sailor. There is no record of a second production at 
any time, nor any record of the play having been reviewed. 


Presented November, first bill. Playwrights' Theatre, 139 
MacDougal Street, New York. 


Yank George Cram Cook 

Driscoll WilUam Stewart 

Cocky Edw. J. Ballantine 

Davis Harry Kemp 

Scotty Frank Shay 

Olson Bion Nordfelt 

Smitty Lew Parrish 

Ivan Francis Buzzell 

Captain Henry Marion Hall 

First Mate Eugene O'Neill 

The first New York production at the newly established 
theatre in Greenwich Village. The cast probably represents many 
from the original Wharf production. The performance attracted 
little attention and New York newspapers ignored it completely. 

Presented 1 December, third bill. Playwrights' Theatre. 



Mrs. Rowland Mary Pyne 

Alfred, her husband (unseen) Eugene O'Neill 

The last appearance of O'Neill on any stage. His appear- 
ance consisted of the insertion of his hand onto the set, and a 
subsequent oflFstage groan. 



Presented January, fifth bill, Playwrights' Theatre. 
This is apparently the only production the play ever re- 
ceived. The details of the production are unavailable. 


Presented 16 February, seventh bill. Playwrights' Theatre. 


Rougon George Cram Cook 

Priest Donald Corley 

German Captain Theron M. Bamberger 

Private of Regiment Morton StaflFord 

Another private Robert Montcarr 

Jean Ida Rauh 

Another of the very early works tried by the Provincetown 
group. It has never received any other production. It was also 
ignored by the press. 


Presented 31 October, first bill, Washington Square Players, 
Comedy Theater, New York. 

The first O'Neill play presented by this group. Neither the 

1916-1917 135 

New York Times nor the Burns Mantle volume gives individual 
casts, but among the actors appear such names as William Gil- 
lette (not the William Gillette), Arthur E. Hohl, Robert Strange, 
Frederick Roland, Jay Strong, Rienzi de Cordova and Harry 
Ehlers. This play became a favorite vaudeville skit, and brought 
O'Neill some of his earliest steady royalties. This performance 
is the first O'Neill play hsted by Burns Mantle (1909-1919), 
who does not include the Provincetown productions of that 


Presented 2 November, first bill. Playwrights' Theatre. 


Bartender George Cram Cook 

Olson Ira Remson 

Driscoll Hutchinson Collins 

Cocky O. K. Liveright 

First girl Ida Rauh 

Second girl Alice MacDougal 


Presented 30 November, second bill. Playwrights' Theatre. 
Directed by Nina Moise. 


Ben Everett Glass 

Steward Robert Edwards 

Capt. Keeney Hutchinson Collins 

Mr. Slocum Ira Remson 

Mrs. Keeney Clara Savage 

Joe Louis B. Ell 




Presented 18 April, Greenwich Village Players, Greenwich 
Village Theatre, New York. 


Ben Everett Glass 

Steward Francis McDonald 

Capt. Keeney Joseph Macaulay 

Mr. Slocum Harold Meltzer 

Mrs. Keeney Margaret Fareleigh 

Joe John Ahearn 


Presented 26 April, seventh bill, Playwrights' Theatre. 
Directed by Nina Moise. 


Abraham Bentley O. K. Liveright 

Annie Dorothy Upjohn 

Pat Sweeney H. B. Tisdale 

Mary Edna Smith 

Luke Bentley Charles Ellis 


Presented 13 May, Washington Square Players, Comedy 


Abraham Bentley Whitford Kane 

Annie Josephine A. Meyer 

Pat Sweeney Robert Strange 

Mary Kate Morgan 

Luke Bentley Effington Pinto 

1918-1919 137 


Presented 22 November, first bill, Playwrights' Theatre. 
Directed by Ida Rauh. 


Nat Bartlett James Light 

Dr. Higgins O. K. Liveright 

Sue Bartlett Ida Rauh 

Capt. Bartlett Hutchinson Collins 


Presented 20 December, second bill. Playwrights' Theatre. 
Directed by Thomas Mitchell. 


Yank Harry Winston 

Driscoll Hutchinson Collins 

Olson Wm. Forster Batterham 

Davis W. Clay Hill 

Cocky O. K. Liveright 

Smitty Charles Ellis 

Paul Percy Winner 

Lamps Phil Lyons 

Chips Fred Booth 

Old Tom William Stuart 

First Mate Louis B. Ell 

Bella Jean Hobb 

Susie Bernice Abbott 

Pearl Ruth Collins Allen 



Presented 31 October, first bill, Playwrights' Theatre. 
Directed by Ida Rauh. 
Settings by Glenn Coleman. 



Mammy Saunders Ruth Anderson 

Coely Ann Leathe Colvert 

Irene Margaret Rhodes 

The Dreamy Kid Harold Simmelkjaer 



Presented 2 February, Morosco Theatre. 
Produced by John D. WiUiams. 

Moved to Criterion Theatre, 23 February; Little Theatre, 
9 March. 


Robert Mayo Richard Bennett 

Andrew Mayo Robert Kelly 

Ruth Atkins Elsie Rizer 

Capt. Dick Scott Sidney Macy 

Mrs. Kate Mayo Mary JeflFery 

Mrs. Atkins Louise Closser Hale 

James Mayo Erville Alderson 

Mary Elfin Finn 

Ben George Hadden 

Dr. Fawcett George Riddell 

The first "uptown" production of an O'Neill play, undertaken 
on an experimental basis by John Williams. It was produced at 
special matinees, using cast members already committed to 
regular evening performances elsewhere. The critics welcomed 
the play and its popularity increased until it finally received, 
after two subsequent moves, a regularly scheduled run. It 
brought O'Neill his first Pulitzer Prize. 

Total performances: 111 

Presented 8 March by George C. Tyler in Atlantic City, N.J. 

1919-1920 139 


Chris Christopherson Emmett Corrigan 

Anna Lynn Fontanne 

The Mate Arthur Ashley 

This was the abortive road tryout of the first version of 
ANNA CHRISTIE. The newspaper reception was only luke- 
warm, and after a week in Atlantic City the play moved to 
Philadelphia where it died an unmourned death. O'Neill never 
permitted its publication and no existing script is known. After 
this failure O'Neill waited four years before permitting another 
out of town tryout. 


Presented 26 March, fifth bill, Playwrights' Theatre. 


Ned Malloy Jasper Deeter 

Jimmy M. A. McAteer 

Maj. Andrews William Dunbar 

Mr. Malloy Remo Bufano 

Nordstrom Lawrence Vail 

Listed as "a play of anti-climax" and never again produced. 
The director was Edward Goodman. It was never reviewed. 


Presented 1 November, Provincetown Players. 

Burns Mantle says "Neighborhood Playhouse" but Genevra 
Herndon in her dissertation says "Playwrights' Theatre." 

Moved to Selwyn Theatre 27 December; Princess Theatre 
29 January 1921. 


Brutus Jones Charles Gilpin 

Harry Smithers Jasper Deeter 

Native woman Christine Ell 

Lem Charles Elhs 


The sensational success which brought the public crowding 
up to the tiny Provincetown box office demanding to become 
members in order to witness this phenomenal play. Thereafter 
the small theatre in Greenwich Village was never the same. 
This also marks the first major role for a Negro in the American 
theatre. Gilpin's tremendous interpretation extended through 
the season and carried him throughout the nation on an ex- 
tended tour. 

Total performances: 204 


Presented 27 December, Provincetown Players. 

First performances listed at Playwrights' Theatre, then a 
transfer uptown on matinee schedule to Selwyn Theatre, 21 
January. Later transfers, giving it regular run, to Times Square, 
4 February, and Princess, 7 February. 


Capt. Caleb Williams James Light 

Emma Crosby Mary Blair 

Jack Crosby Eugene Lincoln 

Capt. John Crosby Alan MacAteer 

Mrs. Crosby Alice Rostetter 

Harriet Williams Elizabeth Brown 

Alfred Rogers Iden Thompson 

Benny Rogers Charles Ellis 

This was probably a case of pushing good luck too far. The 
play was given a moderate welcome by the few critics who first 
saw it. Mary Blair was generally felt to be a more than compe- 
tent Emma. Because of the apparent success downtown, the 
transfer was made to capitalize on the fortunes of the HORIZON 
matinees and the JONES regular performances. The move was a 
bad one, and the public would not come. Perhaps a longer run 
at the smaller theatre would have been more successful, but the 
play generally is not deemed worthy of much attention anyway. 

Total performances : 100 

1920-1921 141 



Presented 1 June, Frazee Theatre, New York. 
Produced by John D. WilHams. 
Staged by Homer Saint-Taudens. 


Abel Ashley Buck 

Butler George Marion 

Capt. Isaiah Bartlett Willard Mack 

Silas Home J. Fred HoUoway 

Ben Gates Charles D. Brown 

Jimmy Kanaka T. Tamanoto 

Mrs. Bartlett Katherine Grey 

Sue Bartlett Geraldine O'Brien 

Danny Drew Gharles Francis 

Nat Bartlett E. J. Ballantine 

Dr. Berry Scott Gooper 

This is generally regarded as the "expanded" version of the 
one-act WHERE THE CROSS IS MADE, but O'Neill always 
maintained that the longer play came first. The fourth and final 
act of GOLD provided most of the material for the more popular 
shorter piece. GOLD was not a success and quickly closed, al- 
though Willard Mack received some interesting notices for his 
portrayal of the mad captain. 

Total performances : 13 


Presented 2 November, Vanderbilt Theatre, New York. 
Produced by Arthur Hopkins. 
Settings by Robert Edmond Jones. 


Johnny-the-Priest James G. Mack 

Ghris Ghristopherson George Marion 


Marthy Owen Eugenie Blair 

Anna Pauline Lord 

Mat Burke Frank Shannon 

The first production of one of O'Neill's busiest seasons, in 
which four of his full length plays were produced both uptown 
and down. This rewrite of CHRIS won wide critical acclaim both 
for the writer and the star. It won another Pulitzer Prize and has 
become one of the most familiar of O'Neill's plays. Many felt 
the "happy ending" was poor, although O'Neill denied that it 
was happy. He never liked the play, and did not include it in 
his own choice of his best plays. 

Total performances : 177 


Presented 10 November, Greenwich Village Theatre. 
Produced by George C. Tyler. 


Bill Carmody Harry Harwood 

Nora Viola Ormonde 

Tom Richard Ross 

Billy Norris Millington 

Dr. Gaynor George Woodward 

Fred Nicholls Robert Strange 

Eileen Carmody Margalo Gilmore 

Stephen Murray Otto Kruger 

Dr. Stanton George Farren 

Most critics thought this second production of the season 
was a touching, well-written play, in spite of the distasteful 
subject of tuberculosis, but that its tragic qualities were debat- 
able. Margalo Gilmore, to star later in MARCO MILLIONS, 
was approved as a warm and charming heroine, but Otto Kruger 
met unenthusiastic response. The direction of the play was not 
particularly good and the whole production, which had far 
more to offer than other of O'Neill's failures, was ineffectively 
handled and terminated after a disappointing run. For many 

1921-1922 143 

O'Neill students, however, it has remained one of his better, 
although less known, plays. 
Total performances: 20 



Presented 4 March, Neighborhood Playhouse, New York. 
Produced by Augustin Duncan. 


Curtis Jayson Augustin Duncan 

Martha Margaret Mower 

John Jayson Harry Andrews 

John, Jr Gordon Burby 

Richard Alan Bunce 

Esther Margherita Sargent 

Lily Marjorie Vonnegut 

Mrs. Davidson Marie L. Day 

Mark ShefReld Eugene Powers 

Emily Eva Carder 

Richard Bigelow Frederic Burt 

Originally "The Oldest Man." The birth scene and its screams 
offended most critics, although many caught the humor of the 
satire of a close-knit family. 

Total performances : 27 


Presented 9 March, Playwrights' Theatre. 
Produced by the Provincetown Players. 


Yank Louis Wolheim 

Paddy Henry O'Neill 

Long Harold West 

Mildred Douglas Mary Blair 


Her Aunt Eleanor Hutchinson 

Second Engineer Jack Gude 

The sensation of this play's style and subject matter, and 
the acting of Louis Wolheim, rivalled the furor over JONES and 
the performance of Charles Gilpin. Theatre crowds once more 
came downtown in such large numbers that the play was forced 
to move to the Plymouth on 17 April. There were strong reac- 
tions from the District Attorney's office, which threatened to close 
it as obscene for its shocking, jolting language, but it continued 
on through the season unmolested. 

Total performances : 127 



Presented 17 March, Thirty-ninth Street Theatre, New York. 
Produced by Eugene O'Neill, Kenneth Macgowan, and 
Robert Edmond Jones in association with the Selwyns. 


Eleanor Owen Doris Keane 

Michael Cape Jacob Ben-Ami 

John Darnton Curtis Cooksey 

A Woman Catherine Collins 

The first of the productions by the newly formed company 
of O'Neill, Macgowan, and Jones, which broke away from the 
now disintegrating original Provincetown group. The play, which 
had tried out in Baltimore to unenthusiastic notices, was a dis- 
tinct failure. Few critics could find any pleasure or point of 
view in the sordid, heavily Strindbergian battle of the sexes. 
Some praise for individual performances could not save it. 

Total performances : 24 

1922-1924 145 


Presented 6 April, Provincetown Playhouse (no longer 
Playwrights' ) . 

Directed by Robert Edmond Jones and James Light. 
Settings by Robert Edmond Jones. 
Masks by James Light. 


Ancient Mariner E. J. Ballantine 

First Wedding Guest James Shute 

Second Wedding Guest H. L. Rothschild 

Third Wedding Guest Charles Ellis 

Helmsman James Meighan 

Bride Rosalind Fuller 

Bridegroom Gerald Stopp 

An attempt at a pantomimic dramatization of the Coleridge 
poem. Using both original directions and those contained in the 
poem, and with a combined system of actions and readings of 
the verse, O'Neill attempted to interpret the story. It was not 
a success, and most critics felt O'Neill was far away from his 

Total performances : 29 


Presented 15 May, Provincetown Playhouse. 
Directed by James Light. 
Settings by Cleon Throckmorton. 


Jim Harris, child William Davis 

Ella Downey, child Virginia Wilson 

Shorty, child George Finley 

Jim Harris, adult Paul Robeson 

Ella Downey, adult Mary Blair 

Mrs. Harris Lillian Greene 

Hattie Harris Flora Cole 


Shorty, adult Charles Ellis 

Joe Frank Wilson 

Mickey James Martin 

Because of muddled censorship attempts from City Hall, 
ofFended by the theme of miscegenation, the play was denied 
the use of children in the opening scene, ostensibly because they 
were too young. This did not halt production, because James 
Light, the director, read the passage to the audience, after 
which the play proceeded without incident. O'Neill always felt 
the work was badly misunderstood and would some day come 
into its own among his important plays. 


Presented originally 14 August by Barnstormer's Bam, in 
Provincetown, Massachusetts. Then in New York as follows: 

3 November at the Provincetown Playhouse, directed by 
James Light. 

16 December at the Punch and Judy. 

12 January 1925 at the Princess. 


Yank Sidney Machet 

Driscoll Lawrence Cecil 

Olson Walter Abel 

Davis Howard McCee 

Cocky Walter Kingsford 

Smitty E. J Ballantine 

Ivan James Meighan 

Swanson Samuel Selden 

Scotty Archie Sinclair 

Paul Abraham Krainis 

Lamps Clement O'Loghlen 

Old Tom Stanley Howlett 

Big Frank William Stahl 

Paddy H. L. Remsten 

Captain Edgar Stehli 

1924 147 

First Mate Lewis Barrington 

Bella Mary Johns 

Joe Stanley Jowlett 

Nick Edgar Stehli 

Freda Helen Freeman 

The first attempt to bring the four Glencairn plays together. 
It met with considerable critical success and has since been 
revived many times. 

Total performances : 99 


Presented 11 November, Greenwich Village Theatre. 
Produced by the Provincetown Players. 

Moved to Earl Carrol, 12 January; George M. Cohan, 1 
June; Daly's 63rd Street, 28 September. 


Simeon Cabot Allen Nagle 

Peter Cabot Perry Ivins 

Eben Cabot Charles Ellis 

Ephraim Cabot Walter Huston 

Abbie Putnam Mary Morris 

A success while in the village, this play moved uptown, 
where it prospered on its notoriety. A campaign was at the time 
in full swing to "clean up" New York plays by eliminating so 
much "sex." The long run can in part be attributed to thrill- 
seekers (most of them keenly disappointed at the lack of "filth" 
they came to see), but the play did have its merits that were 
widely recognized by others. It has often been regarded as the 
nearest O'Neill ever came to establishing the feeling of Greek 
tragedy. Many still think it is his best play. 

Total performances: 208 




Presented 10 December, Greenwich Village Theatre. 
Produced by Kenneth Macgowan, Robert Edmond Jones 
and Eugene O'Neill. 

Designed by Robert Edmond Jones. 
Musical setting by Macklin Morrow. 


Ibnu Aswad Stanley Berry 

Juan Ponce de Leon Walter Huston 

Pedro William Stahl 

Maria de Cordova Pauline Moore 

Luis de Alvaredo Egon Brecher 

Christopher Columbus Henry O'Neill 

Beatriz de Cordova Rosalind Fuller 

Diego Menendez Crane Wilbur 

Nano Curtis Cooksey 

This does not let one visualize the entire cast, or the over- 
whelming scenery which Jones designed, much to the critics' 
admiration and to the plays complete sufiFocation. This attempt 
at poetic romance and interpretation of history did not succeed 
any more than some of the heavily "realistic" plays of earlier 

Total performances : 24 



Presented 23 January, Greenwich Village Theatre. 
Produced by Kenneth Macgowan, Robert Edmond Jones, 
Eugene O'Neill. 

Staged by Robert Edmond Jones. 

Moved to Garrick Theatre, 1 March; Klaw Theatre, 10 May. 

1925-1926 149 


William A. Brown William Harrigan 

His Father Milano Tilden 

His Mother CliflFord Sellers 

Dion Anthony Robert Keith 

His Father Hugh Kidder 

His Mother Eleanor Wesselhoeft 

Margaret Leona Hogarth 

Cybel Anne Shoemaker 

Despite the complete mystification of the average audience, 
many critics and a good part of the public found this play 
thoughtful and somewhat profound. The use of masks was con- 
fusing, but did not hinder the viewer's pleasure. The play 
marked O'Neill's turning point away from the realism of the 
past and showed the beginnings of the mysticism that was to 
dominate future plays. It was also one of the few times when 
O'Neill felt obliged to explain his play's meaning, which he 
did by a widely reprinted article for the press. 

Total performances : 283 


Revived at the Provincetown Theatre, 16 February. 
Staged by James Light. 


Brutus Jones Charles Gilpin 

Harry Smithers Harold McGee 

Old native woman Barbara Benedict 

Lem William Stahl 

Revived 10 November, May fair Theatre. 
Produced by Mayfair Productions. 


Brutus Jones Charles Gilpin 

Harry Smithers Moss Hart 

Old native woman Hazel Mason 

Lem Arthur Ames 

Total performances, second revival: 61 


The 10 November Mayfair production is described by Moss 
Hart in Act One. 


Revived 30 November, Mansfield Theatre. 
Produced by The Actors Theatre. 


James Mayo Malcolm Williams 

Kate Mayo Judith Lowry 

Capt. Scott Albert Tavernier 

Andrew Mayo Thomas Chalmers 

Robert Mayo Robert Keith 

Ruth Atkins Aline MacMahon 

Mrs. Atkins Eleanor Wesselhoeft 

Mary Elaine Koch 

Ben Victor Kilian 

Dr. Fawcett Joseph Mclnerney 

The revival was widely praised by the critics. The per- 
formance of Aline MacMahon as Ruth was outstanding. 
Total performances: 79 



Presented 9 January, Guild Theatre, by the Theatre Guild. 
Staged by Rouben Mamoulian. 
Settings by Robert Edmond Jones. 


Marco Polo Alfred Lunt 

Donata Natalie Browning 

Tedaldo Morris Carnovsky 

Nicolo Henry Travers 

MafiFeo Ernest Cossart 

Kublai, the Great Kaan Baliol Holloway 

1926-1928 151 

Chu-Yin Dudley Digges 

Kukachin Margalo Gillmore 

The Guild's first O'Neill, staged lavishly, and moderately 
successfully. Many felt the Babbitt in oriental dress from Renais- 
sance Italy was not very amusing at this late date, but others 
saw its merits. It ran concurrently with the sensational STRANGE 

Total performances: 92 


Presented 30 January, John Golden Theatre. 
Produced by The Theatre Guild. 
Staged by Philip Moeller. 


Gharles Marsden Tom Powers 

Prof. Leeds Philip Leigh 

Nina Leeds Lynn Fontanne 

Sam Evans Earl Larimore 

Edmund Darrell Glenn Anders 

Mrs. Evans Helen Westley 

Gordon, a boy Charles Walters 

Madehne Arnold Ethel Westley 

Gordon, a man John J. Bums 

The first of O'Neill's over-length plays and, from all angles, 
the most successful of his works up to this time. It brought 
his third PuHtzer Prize and was heralded as the beginning of 
new and wonderful things in the modem drama. Its wide popu- 
lar support and long mn, the longest of any O'Neill play before 
the 1956 revival of ICEMAN, never failed to amaze even O'Neill's 
most ardent enthusiasts. 

Total performances: 426 


Presented 9 April, by the Pasadena, California, Community 


This "play for an imaginative theatre" was rumored in pro- 
duction by the Provincetown group, but the Pasadena perform- 
ance is the only large-scale staging it ever received. The pro- 
duction was lavish, complete with all costumes and masks as 
directed, and was enthusiastically received. The cast was en- 
tirely local, and all work was voluntary. 

Total performances : 28 



Revived at the Provincetown Theatre, 9 January. 


Yank Lionel J. Stander 

Driscoll Byron Russell 

Olson Walter Abel 

Davis Harold McGee 

Cocky George Tawde 

Smitty E. J. Ballantine 

Ivan George Tobias 

Scotty Archie Sinclair 

Paul Richard Gaines 

Paddy H. L. Remsten 

Captain Robert Lucius Cook 

First Mate Max Essin 

Bella Mary Johns 

Joe Robert Lucius Cook 

Nick A. Montague Ash 

Freda Dorothee Nolan 

Total performances : 90 


Presented 11 February, Martin Beck Theatre. 
Staged by Philip Moeller. 
Produced by the Theatre Guild. 
Designed by Lee Simonson. 

1928-1929 153 


Rev. Light George Gaul 

Mrs. Light Helen Westley 

Reuben Light Glenn Anders 

Ramsay Fife Dudley Digges 

May Fife Catherine Doucet 

Ada Fife Claudette Colbert 

The first of the proposed trilogy exploring "the sickness of 
today." O'Neill was unhappy that he had announced a coming 
trilogy, for many critics reserved judgment until the other two 
had been produced. The original plan was never carried through. 
O'Neill also objected to the leggy display of the heroine, who 
continually detracted from the play's eflFectiveness. He always 
felt the play was terribly misunderstood, along with ALL GOD'S 

Total performances : 50 


Revived at the Provincetown Theatre, 5 March. 

Mrs. Rowland Mary Blair 

Presented along with Vergil Geddes' The Earth Between. 
An interesting event for two reasons. First, Geddes, in his 1934 
pamphlet. The Melodramadness of Eugene O'Neill, was to be 
one of O'Neill's strongest critics. Second, the star of Geddes' 
piece was hailed as one of great promise. Her name was Bette 
Davis. Neither play in this bill was very well received. 

Total performances : 27 




Revived by the Theatre Guild, Liberty Theatre, 3 March. 


Marco Polo Earl Larimore 

Donata Helen Tilden 

Nicolo Frederick Roland 

Maffeo Harry Mestayer 

Kublai Sydney Greenstreet 

Chu-Yin Henry Travers 

Kukachin Sylvia Field 

Total performances: 8 



Presented 26 October, by The Theatre Guild, Guild Theatre. 
Staged by Philip Moeller. 


Seth Beckwith Arthur Hughes 

Christine AUa Nazimova 

Lavinia Ahce Brady 

Peter Niles Phihp Foster 

Hazel Niles Mary Arbenz 

Ezra Mannon Lee Baker 

Adam Brant Thomas Chalmers 

Orin Earl Larimore 

This trilogy which ran for many hours and many acts was 
commonly regarded as O'Neill's masterpiece and the climax of 
his career. It did have its violent detractors, but probably no 
more than many other of his plays. O'Neill's published notes 
report over three years of careful thought and planning, during 
which time he included and then rejected many of his previous 
stage eflFects such as spoken thoughts and masks. 

Total performances: 150 

1930-1933 155 



Revived by the Theatre Guild, 9 May. 


Lavinia Judith Anderson 

Orin Walter Abel 

Christine Florence Reed 

Adam Brant Crane Wilbur 

The road company returned for a brief engagement. Most 
critics found the play still eflFective, although the loss of Brady 
and Nazimova was acutely felt. 

Total performances: 16 



First performed at Nixon Theatre, Pittsburgh, 25 Sept. 
Presented 2 October, by The Theatre Guild, Guild Theatre. 
Staged by Phihp Moeller. 
Settings by Robert Edmond Jones. 


Nat Miller George M. Cohan 

Essie Marjorie Marquis 

Arthur William Post, Jr. 

Richard Elisha Cook, Jr. 

Mildred Adelaide Bean 

Tommy Walter Vonnegut, Jr. 

Sid Gene Lockhart 

Lily Eda Heinemann 

David McComber Richard Sterling 

Muriel Ruth Gilbert 

Belle Ruth Holden 

The "new" O'Neill emerged in this play, amazing his friends 
and critics alike with a nostalgic comedy of "recollection." It 


was the first time an actor received top billing in an O'Neill 
play. The name of George M. Cohan appeared on the marquee 
lights along with O'Neill's. This is undoubtedly the most popu- 
lar O'Neill play, and is constantly revived. It is a favorite with 
little theatre and college groups. 
Total performances : 289 



First performed at Plymouth Theatre, Boston, 27 Dec. 
Presented 8 January, by The Theatre Guild, Henry Miller 

Staged by Philip Moeller. 

Settings by Lee Simonson. 


John Earl Larimore 

Loving Stanley Ridges 

William Elliot Richard Barbee 

Father Baird Robert Loraine 

Elsa Selena Royle 

Lucy Ilka Chase 

The "return to the Cross" signified, for many critics, the 
"arrival" of Eugene O'Neill. For others it meant the worst play 
he had ever written. The reviewers in various religious 
publications, both Catholic and Protestant, overwhelmingly 
praised it; other critics almost universally condemned it. 

Total performances : 57 



Revived by the WPA Federal Theatre Project at the Lafay- 
ette Theatre, 29 October. 

Staged by William Challee. 

1933-1941 157 

Settings by Perry Watkins. 

This revival was presented by an all-Negro cast, none of 
whom achieved fame except Canada Lee, who played Yank. 
The critics praised O'Neill for having made all his plays available 
to the Federal Theatre Project, but in the case of the Glencairn 
cycle, it was difficult to adjust to the colored cast in such a 
variety of national roles. 

Total performances : 68 



Revived by Charles Hopkins for the WPA New York State 
Federal Theatre Project at the Maxine Elhott Theatre, 25 

Setting and costumes by Ben Edwards. 

Lighting by Feder. 


Capt. Caleb Williams Erford Gage 

Emma Crosby Lennore Sorsby 

Capt. John Crosby Gene Webber 

Mrs. Crosby Rose Morison 

Jack Crosby Douglas Campbell 

Harriet Williams Irene Taylor 

Alfred Rogers Jay Velie 

Benny Rogers Frank Daly 



Revived by the Theatre Guild, at the Guild Theatre, 2 

Staged by Eva Le Gallienne. 

Produced by Theresa Helburn, Lawrence Langner, Eva 
Le Gallienne. 

Settings by Watson Barratt. 



Nat Miller Harry Carey 

Essie Ann Shoemaker 

Arthur Victor Chapin 

Richard William Prince 

Mildred Virginia Kaye 

Tommy Tommy Lewis 

Sid Tom Tully 

Lily Enid Markey 

David McComber Hale Norcross 

Muriel Dorothy Littlejohn 

Belle Dennie Moore 

The critics found Harry Carey a pleasing replacement for 
Cohan but the play was now less of a starring piece. 
Total performances: 29 



Presented 9 October, Martin Beck Theatre. 
Produced by Theatre Guild in association with Armina 

Staged by Eddie Dowling. 

Supervised by Theresa Helburn and Lawrence Langner. 

Settings and lighting by Robert Edmond Jones. 


Harry Hope Dudley Digges 

Ed Mosher Morton L. Stevens 

Pat McGloin Al McGranary 

William Oban E. G. Marshall 

Joe Mott John Marriott 

Piet Wetjoen Frank Tweddell 

Cecil Lewis Nicholas Joy 

James Cameron Russell Collins 

Hugo Kalmar Leo Chalzel 

Larry Slade Carl Benton Reid 

1941-1947 159 

Rocky Pioggi Tom Pedi 

Dan Parritt Paul Crabtree 

Pearl Ruth Gilbert 

Margie Jeanne Cagney 

Cora Marcella Markham 

Chuck Morello Joe Marr 

Theodore Hickman James Barton 

Moran Michael Wyler 

Lieb Charles Hart 

The twelve-year drought was broken by this third long play 
demanding a dinner hour break. Press conferences, advance 
publicity, and O'Neill's return to New York made headlines 
throughout the country. It was to be his greatest eflFort, said 
George Jean Nathan. Reception, however, was mixed. It clearly 
did not herald the long awaited New Age of O'Neill on the 
Broadway stage. It was also the last new play presented in 
New York during O'Neill's lifetime. 

Total performances : 136 



Presented 20 February by the Theatre Guild at the Hartman 
Theatre, Columbus, Ohio. 


Phil Hogan J. M. Kerrigan 

Josie Hogan Mary Welch 

Mike Hogan J. Joseph Donnelly 

James Tyrone, Jr James Dunn 

T. Stedman Harder Lex Lindsay 

This was the official tryout opening of the last new O'Neill 
play to see production before his death. It ran its original week 
in Columbus and journeyed to Pittsburgh and Detroit, where 
it ran into considerable difficulty with censors. "Casting trouble" 
finally caused its withdrawal. Of conventional length, it was pub- 
lished with O'Neill's own brief preface, the last to be printed 
during his lifetime. 




Revived by the New York City Theatre Company, at the 
New York City Center, 20 May. 
Produced by Jose Ferrer. 

Cast: (principals only) 

Yank Richard Coogan 

Driscoll George Mathews 

Olson Ralph Roberts 

Cocky Kenneth Treseder 

Smitty Robert Carrol 

Ivan Harold J. Stone 

Bella Juanita Hall 

Captain Ralph Sumpter 

Fat Joe Jose Ferrer 

Nick Victor Beecroft 

Freda Nan McFarland 

Total performances : 14 



Revived by the New York City Theatre Company, at the 
City Center of Music and Drama, 9 January. 
Staged by Michael Gordon. 
Sets and costumes by Emeline Roche. 
Production Manager, Billy Matthews. 


Johnny-the-Priest Frank Rowan 

Chris Christopherson Art Smith 

Marthy Owen Grace Valentine 

Anna Celeste Holm 

Mat Burke Kevin McCarthy 

1948-1956 161 

A generally welcomed revival, with main criticism against 
Miss Holm's interpretation. The play was moved to the Lyceum 
Theatre for an extended run, but interest suddenly fell and it 
closed quickly. 

Total performances : 29 



Revived by the American National Theatre and Academy 
at the ANTA Playhouse, 16 January. 
Staged by Harold Clurman. 
Set by Mordecai Gorelik. 
Costumes by Ben Edwards. 


Eben Cabot Douglas Watson 

Simeon Cabot Lou Polan 

Peter Cabot George Mitchell 

Ephraim Cabot Karl Maiden 

Abbie Putnam Carol Stone 

Another highly praised revival which had more success than 
the ANNA CHRISTIE of City Center, yet was unable to main- 
tain a sustained run. Maiden's Cabot was considered to be 
very powerful. 

Total performances : 46 



Presented 8 May at Circle-in-the-Square, New York. 
Staged by Jose Quintero. 
Scenery and lighting by David Hays. 
Costumes by Deidre Cartier. 

Revival supervised by Leigh Connell, Theodore Mann, and 
Jose Quintero. 



Harry Hope Farrell Pelly 

Ed Mosher Phil Pheffer 

Pat McGloin Albert Lewis 

Willie Oban Addison Powell 

Joe Mott William Edmonson 

Piet Wetjoen Richard Abbott 

Cecil Lewis Richard Bowler 

James Cameron James Greene 

Hugo Kalmar Paul Andor 

Larry Slade Conrad Bain 

Rocky Pioggi Peter Falk 

Don Parritt Larry Robinson 

Pearl Patricia Brooks 

Margie Gloria Scott Backe 

Cora Dolly Jonah 

Chuck Morello Joe Man 

Hickey Jason Robards, Jr. 

Moran Mai Throne 

Lieb Charles Hamilton 

This tiny Greenwich Village theatre made theatrical history 
by undertaking this play. Its large cast and extreme length 
plus its unsuccessful stage history were enough to discourage 
any producer. The revival, presented in arena style, was none 
the less an immediate success. Most critics found the production 
superior to the original in nearly every way. The intimate at- 
mosphere of the theatre itself and the excellent casting and 
direction all contributed to the powerful impact. Mrs. O'Neill 
was so pleased with the entire undertaking that she asked 
Quintero to produce LONG DATS JOURNEY. 

Total performances : 565 


Produced 7 November at the Helen Hayes Theatre, New 

Staged by Jose Quintero. 
Settings by David Hays. 

1956-1957 163 

Lighting by Tharon Muser. 
Costumes by Motley. 

Production supervised by Leigh Connell, Theodore Mann, 
and Jose Quintero. 


James Tyrone Frederic March 

Mary Tyrone Florence Eldridge 

James Tyrone, Jr Jason Robards, Jr. 

Edmund Tyrone Bradford Tillman 

Cathleen Katherine Ross 

The immediate success of the Stockholm production and the 
praise given the published version in February, 1956, prompted 
a demand for a New York production. The play had been 
planned for release 25 years after O'Neill's death, but Mrs. 
O'Neill has revealed that her husband anticipated release much 
earlier, and always wanted the Royal Dramatic Theatre in 
Stockholm to do the play. The tremendous success of Quintero's 
ICEMAN at the Circle-in-the-Square prompted Mrs. O'Neill 
to ask him to stage this play on Broadway. It was highly praised 
by the critics. 

Total performances : 390 



Produced 2 May at the Bijou Theatre, New York. 
Staged by Carmen Capalbo. 
Settings by William Pitkin. 
Lighting by Lee Watson. 
Costumes by Ruth Morley. 

Production supervised by Carmen Capalbo and Stanley 


Josie Hogan Wendy Hiller 

Mike Hogan Glenn Cannon 


Phil Hogan Cyril Cusack 

James Tyrone, Jr Franchot Tone 

T. Stedman Harder William Woodson 

Ten years after the Guild failed to bring the first company 
into New York following its tryout failures, Carmen Capalbo 
independently staged O'Neill's last play to somewhat reserved 
critical reception which generally found Wendy Killer's inter- 
pretation of Josie the best aspect of the production. 

Total performances : 68 



Produced 2 October at the Helen Hayes Theatre. 
Directed by Harold Clurman. 
Designed by Ben Edwards. 
Produced by Robert Whitehead. 


Mickey Maloy Tom Clancy 

Jamie Cregan Curt Conway 

Sara Melody Kim Stanley 

Nora Melody Helen Hayes 

Cornelius Melody Eric Portman 

Dan Roche John Call 

Patty O'Dowd Art Smith 

Patch Riley Farrell Pelly 

Deborah Betty Field 

Nicholas Gadsby Luis Van Rooten 

Once again Stockholm witnessed this only surviving por- 
tion of the many-play cycle, A TALE OF POSSESSORS SELF- 
DISPOSSESSED before it arrived in New York. Despite its 
obvious fragmentary nature as part of a much larger concept, 
the production was enthusiastically received. 

Total performances: 284 

1957-1959 165 



Revived by the Phoenix Theatre at the Coronet Theatre, 
6 October 1959. 

Directed by Stuart Vaughan. 

Settings and costumes by Will Steven Armstrong. 

Lighting by Tharon Musser. 


Mrs. Brown Sasha Von Scherler 

Mr. Brown Patrick Hines 

Billy Brown Robert Lansing 

Mrs. Anthony Patricia Ripley 

Mr. Anthony J. D. Cannon 

Dion Fritz Weaver 

Margaret Nan Martin 

Cybel Gerry Jedd 

Total performances: 32 


O'Neill wrote nothing of permanent significance other than 
his plays. Before he entered Harvard in 1914, he edited a 
poetry column in the New London, Connecticut, Telegraph, 
but he was often forced to keep it going by his own contribu- 
tions. Some of the poems he signed; others he designated by 
various cryptic signatures, such as an "O" on one day, an "N" 
the next, an "E" the following day, and so on through his name. 
The left wing New York Call and F.P.A.'s "Conning Tower" 
printed some of his poems, and Sanborn and Clark ( over O'Neill's 
friendly protest) reprinted several in their 1931 Bibliography 
of the Works of Eugene O'Neill ( No. 115 ) . 

The list below includes the very few items other than the 
poems which O'Neill wrote in addition to his plays. Until the 
entire Yale collection of manuscripts is opened for investigation, 
this list represents a virtually complete report of O'Neill's non- 
dramatic writings. 

Entries are chronological. 


"Tomorrow." The Seven Arts, June, pp. 147-170. 

O'Neill's only published short story. He told Richard 
Dana Skinner that he once wrote another story con- 
taining the germ of THE HAIRY APE, but it was never 
published. (Reported in Skinner's Eugene O'Neill: A 
Poet's Quest No. 123. ) 


"A letter from O'Neill." NY Times, 11 Apr., VI, 2. 

Noted as No. 20 in Sanborn and Clark's bibliography. 
It is O'Neill's own explanation of the origin of HORI- 


ZON through his acquaintance with an old sea dog 
who continually cursed his foolishness for running away 
to sea 20 years before. 


"Eugene O'Neill's credo and his reasons for his faith." NY 
Tribune, 13 Feb., 1:4, 6:5. 

O'Neill's written defense of DIFF'RENT, which at- 
tempts to show that the characters are ordinary human 

Letter to the editor. NY Times, 18 Dec, VI, 1:8. 

Dated Provincetown, 12 Dec. Attempts to show that 
the ending of ANNA CHRISTIE is neither happy nor 
unhappy. Only the immediate crisis is solved; the prob- 
lem continues. Sanborn and Clark, No. 21. 


"Strindberg and our theatre." Provincetown Playbill No. 1, Sea- 
son 1923-1924. Also in NY Times, 6 Jan., VII, 1:1 [Reprinted 
in Deutsch and Hanau, The Provincetown, NY, Farrar 
& Rinehart, 1931 (No. 29).] 

A widely quoted article in which O'Neill states his debt 
to Strindberg and his belief in the Swedish dramatist's 
importance in world theatre. 


"Playwright and critic: The record of a stimulating corres- 
dence." Boston Transcript, 31 Oct., Ill, 8. 

1920-1926 169 

Letters from O'Neill to George Jean Nathan. They also 
appear in Isaac Goldberg's The Theatre of George Jean 
Nathan (No. 52). 

'Are the actors to blame?" Provincetoion Playbill No. 1, Season 
1925-1926. Also in NY Times 8 Nov., VIII, 2:1 [Reprinted 
in Deutsch and Hanau, The Provincetown, NY, Farrar 
& Rinehart, 1931 (No. 29).] 

A plea for repertory acting, which O'Neill feels will 
enable the modern actor to break the restrictions of 
type casting and give the playwright, director and de- 
signer something to work with. Sanborn and Clark, 

No. 36. 

"The Fountain." Greenwich Village Theatre program. No. 3, 
Season 1924-1925. 

O'Neill explains that this play represents his ideas of 
what prompted Ponce de Leon to seek the Fountain of 
Youth. O'Neill takes a solemn oath that the play is not 
"morbid realism." Sanborn and Clark, No. 41. (This 
Program also contains a valuable list of O'Neill's 
destroyed plays. ) 


"The playwright explains." NY Times, 14 Feb., VIII, 2:1 and 
other newspapers of 13 & 14 Feb. [Reprinted in Quinn, A. H., 
The American drama from the Civil War to the present 
day, NY, Crofts, 1936 (No. 110); and Durham and Dodds, 
eds., British and American plays, 1830-1945, NY, Oxford, 
1947 (No. 34).] 

O'Neill's explanation of the meanings behind the charac- 
ters in BROWN. It is not always clear, and his "explana- 
tion of this explanation" almost needs further clarifica- 
tion. Sanborn and Clark No. 50. 


Letter on Goat Song. NY Times, 7 Mar., VIII, 2:8. 

O'Neill writes his praise for one of the most stimulating 
evenings ever spent in the theatre. 


Foreword to Anathema: Litanies of negation, by Benjamin 
De Casseres. NY, Gotham Book Mart. 

O'Neill wrote the foreword to this book at the request 
of his very good friend, De Casseres. It was his first 
and last contribution of this type, and after its pubhca- 
tion he consistently refused to undertake anything else 
like it for any purpose whatever. This book of poetry, 
limited to 1250 copies, was not a success. Perhaps 
O'Neill's almost vicious attack on the public for their 
ignorance of De Casseres was no help. 


"O'Neill's own story of Electra in the making." NY Her-Trib. 
Th. Sec, 8 Nov., p. 2. Frequently reprinted elsewhere. 
Appears in Clark's European theories of the drama, NY, 
Brown, 1946, pp. 529-536 (No. 22). 

Revealing excerpts from O'Neill's working diary for 


"O'Neill says Soviet stage has realized his dreams." NY Her-Trib., 
19 June. 

1926-1935 171 

Excerpts from an O'Neill letter to the Kamemy Theatre, 
praising the performance of CHILLUN and DESIRE 
which he saw in Paris. This refers to one of the few oc- 
casions when O'Neill attended the theatre himself. He 
almost never saw a production of his own plays, here 
or abroad. 

'Memoranda on masks." American Spectator, 1 (Nov.) 3. 

O'Neill's plea for a masked drama to indicate true inner 
psychological forces, both in modem and classical 
drama. Only with masks can we see the true meanings 
as in Hamlet, etc. 

'Second thoughts." American Spectator, 1 (Dec) 2. 

O'Neill states that he wishes to add many more masks 
to all his plays, including all those which originally 
contained them. 


"A dramatist's notebook." American Spectator 1 ( Jan. ) 2. 

A further defense of masks for stage crowd eflFects, an 
aid to the "imaginative" theatre and an improvement 
for acting techniques. 


"Prof. George Pierce Baker." NY Times, 13 Jan., IX, 1:2. 

O'Neill's brief tribute to his teacher upon Baker's death. 
He says Baker's inspiration and encouragement made 
him believe in himself and his work. 


"We owe him all the finest we have." Emerson Quarterly, 
( Emerson College of Oratory, Boston ) 15 ( Jan. ) 1-2. 

Brief tribute to the inspiration Baker supplied. 


Brown, John Mason. "Eugene O'Neill salutes Mr. Anderson's 
Winterset." NY Post, 6 Apr. 

Reprints O'Neill's letter to Drama Critics' Circle prais- 
ing their choice for annual prize. 


"Prof. G. P. Baker, a note and some communications." In George 
Pierce Baker: A memorial. NY, Dramatists Play Service. 

O'Neill's contribution to this volume praises his erst- 
while teacher. 


"The last will and testament of Silverdene Emblem O'Neill. 
New Haven, Yale University Library, 1956. 

This is the will which O'Neill wrote on the death of a 
favorite dog. It was published by the Yale Library and 
presented to Mrs. O'Neill upon the publication of 



This Bibliography is designed as a comprehensive guide to 
the critical reception given Eugene O'Neill in this country 
from his earliest days as a contributing dramatist until the end 
of 1959, and to the limited but valuable biographical material 
found in American books and periodicals. It is arranged in 
the following three main divisions, each with its own individual 
pattern explained by an appropriate introduction: 

BOOKS. All references from individually published volumes, 
other than periodicals. 

PERIODICALS. All general references from any form of 
periodical, as distinct from reviews and criticism of 
individual plays. 

INDIVIDUAL PLAYS. All references, whatever the source, 
to produced and published versions of the separate 

Each main entry is briefly annotated. In most cases these 
notes do not criticize the reference material but merely give a 
short summary of each writer's central idea, so that the user 
may estimate its value without first having to seek it out. 

No bibliography of this type can hope to be absolutely 
"complete" by the inclusion of all available material. Limits 
must be set and lines must be drawn if the end product is to 
have practical use in an easily usable form. Furthermore, there 
are bound to be omissions because of unavailability of sources, 
or simply because of unintentional oversight. When these gaps 
do exist, it is hoped that any future revisions will be able to 
fill them. 

The following restrictions apply: 

1. Only those items relating directly to Eugene O'Neill 
have been included. This embraces all material about his life 
and plays: critical, biographical, or merely informational. It 
eliminates all comments upon this material by other critics. 
For example, books of criticism, like Richard Dana Skinner's 
widely quoted Eugene O'Neill: A Poet's Quest, or biographies 


by Barrett Clark and others, are listed. Subsequent criticisms 
of the books by other reviewers are not. 

2. O'Neill did not write for the screen or the musical 
stage; all motion picture and musical versions of his works were 
the products of other hands. Consequently, only those reviews 
and opinions dealing with his plays are included. This eliminates 
comments on the filmed STRANGE INTERLUDE, MOURNING 
others. It also eliminates the opera version of THE EMPEROR 
JONES, as well as New Girl in Town (ANNA CHRISTIE) and 
Take Me Along (AH, WILDERNESS!). 

3. With isolated exception, no foreign references, save 
those few items written by English or European critics espe- 
cially for publication in this country, have been listed. Prof. 
Horst Frenz of Indiana University has made a study of O'Neill's 
European reputation, and his forthcoming work on this subject 
will fill this important gap. Meanwhile, Prof. Frenz's several 
articles on the subject may be consulted with reward. 

4. Although several of O'Neill's plays, such as DESIRE 
STRANGE INTERLUDE and others, have encountered censor- 
ship difficulties, and a suit was instituted against STRANGE 
INTERLUDE for plagiarism, no factual news items about these 
events are included. Most facts of this nature and all important 
information concerning O'Neill's private life are placed in the 
Life Chronology ( p. 91 ) . 

For ease in cross reference and indexing, entries are num- 
bered consecutively straight through the entire biblography. 

Consult the introduction to each of the three main divisions 
for further explanation of the limitations and arrangements of 
the material it contains. 



Amer. — American 
Am. Lit. — American Literature 
Am. Mag. — American Magazine 
Am. Merc. — American Mercury 
Am. Quar. — American Quarterly 
Am. Rev. — American Review 
Am. Schol. — American Scholar 
Am. Speech — American Speech 
Ariz. Quar. — Arizona Quarterly 
Arts ir Dec. — Arts and Decoration 

Bk. - Book 
Brook. — Brooklyn 

Cath. Wld. - Catholic World 
Ch. - Chapter 

Christ. Cent. — Christian Century- 
Class. Jour. — Classical Journal 
Coll. Eng. — College English 
Comp. Lit. — Compartive 

Contemp. Rev. — Contemporary 

Cur. Op. — Current Opinion 

Dram. Mir. — Dramatic Mirror 

ed. — editor; edition 

Ed. Th. Jour. — Educational 

Theatre Journal 
Eng. Jour. — English Journal 
Eng. Rev. — English Review 
Eng. Stud. — English Studies 

Her-Trih. — Herald-Tribune 

illus. — illustrated 

Ind. <b Week. R. — Independent 

and Weekly Review 
Ind. Quar. for Bookmen — Indiana 

Quarterly for Bookmen 

Jour. — Journal 

Jour-Am. — Journal American 

Jour. Comm. — Journal of Commerce 

Ky. For. Lang. Quar. — Kentucky 
Foreign Language Quarterly 

Lit. D. — Literary Digest 

Lit. Supp. — Literary Supplement 

Liv. Age — Living Age 

mag. — magazine 

Mich. Alum. Quar. Rev. — Michigan 

Alumni Quarterly Review 
Mod. Dr. — Modern Drama 
Mod. Lang. Notes — Modern 

Language Notes 
Mod. Lang. Q. — Modern Languages 


New Rep. — New Republic 
New States. — New Statesman 
No. — Number 
North Am. Rev. — North American 

ns — new series 
NY - New York 
NYPL - New York Public Library 

p. - page 

pp. - pages 

Phila. - Philadelphia 

Pitt. - Pittsburgh 

PMLA — Publication of the Modern 

Language Association 
prod. — production 
pub. — publishing; publisher 

quar. — quarterly 

Quar. Jour. Sp. — Quarterly Journal 
of Speech 

Rev. — Review 

rev. ed. — revised edition 

Rev. of Rev. — Review of Reviews 

Sat. R. Lit. — Saturday Review of 

Literature. Also indicated as Sat. 

R. after magazine dropped the 

sec. — section 
South Atl. Quar. — South Atlantic 

South Sp. Jour. — Southern Speech 


Theatre — Theatre Magazine 

Th. Arts — Theatre Arts, including 

all of its many titles such as 

Theatre Arts Magazine, Theatre 

Arts Monthly, etc. 
Th. Guild Mag. — Theatre Guild 




Th. World - Theatre World 
Tulane Dr. Rev. — Tulane Drama 

Univ. — University 
Univ. of Cal. Chron. — University of 
California Chronicle 

V. — volume 

Va. Quar. Rev. — Virginia Quarterly 

Van. F. — Vanity Fair 
vol. — volume 

Week End R. — Week End Review 
Weekly Rev. — Weekly Review 
Wor-Tel. — World-Telegram 
W. W. Daily — Women's Wear Daily 


It is virtually impossible to discuss contemporary drama 
without mention of Eugene O'Neill, and his name receives ex- 
tended consideration in nearly every kind of dramatic history. 
References are also frequent in the broader literary histories, 
in collections of essays, books of literary criticism, and in simi- 
lar volumes. There is also a limited but important library de- 
voted exclusively to O'Neill as man and artist. This portion of 
the bibliography is a compilation of these references, arranged 
as explained below. 

I. CONTENTS. Certain restrictions have been made in the 
type and treatment of the material. 

1. No item has been entered unless it has been considered 
worthy of the efiFort to seek it out. This eliminates a con- 
siderable number of merely passing references to O'Neill 
contained in a wide variety of books. 

2. As a general rule, introductions to plays contained in 
standard drama anthologies have been omitted. Most of 
them, even in the finer collections, are so short and routine 
that they contribute nothing to O'Neill scholarship. Only 
a few of these prefaces are important enough for inclusion. 

3. Articles in other anthologies are listed independently, 
or under the title of the volume that includes them, depend- 
ing upon the type of book, the familiarity of its editor, or 
the importance of the original author. For instance, the 
introduction by Joseph Wood Krutch to the familiar Modem 
Library Nine Plays by Eugene O'Neill is listed under 
"Krutch." The book itself is not listed. On the other hand, 
an essay by Alan Reynolds Thompson published in a col- 
lection by Norman Foerster appears twice, under Thompson 
and Foerster, because of the reputation of each man. In all 
cases, cross references are included, but annotations appear 
only with the main entry. 


4. All items reprinted from other sources are handled in 
this manner: 

a. Essays from other books are included without an- 
notation under the title of the volume in which they are 
reprinted if the book's author and/or the title are of recog- 
nizable importance. Again, Krutch's "Introduction" is an 
appropriate example. It appears not only by itself under 
"Krutch," but is also listed under Moses and Brown's The 
American Drama as Seen by Its Critics, a well-known col- 
lection of critical essays. Cross references are included, but 
all items receive full annotation only under their main entry. 

b. Reprints of essays of a general nature (excluding 
individual play reviews) which first appeared in periodicals 
or newspapers are listed without comment under the title 
of the volume in which they appeared, with appropriate 
cross reference to the main entry included under Periodicals. 

c. Reprints of individual play reviews are listed with- 
out annotation under the title of the volume in which they 
appear, with appropriate cross references to the main entry 
under Individual Plays. 

II. MECHANICS. This biblography is patterned after stand- 
ard bibliographic practices, but departs on occasion as shown 
below. The order of information for each entry is as follows : 

1. Author or editor in alphabetical order. Title is used 
if author is unknown; no entry appears under "Anonymous." 

2. Book title, in italics. Library of Congress catalogue 
card procedure is followed by capitalizing only first words 
and proper nouns. 

3. City of publication (New York is NY throughout); 
publisher's name, abbreviated but easily recognizable; pub- 
lication year. Pertinent information about all subsequent 
editions follows immediately. 

4. Specific chapter or page reference to those sections 
dealing with American drama and/or O'Neill, if separate 
from main body of book. 

5. Information, included in brackets [ ], concerning all 
subsequent reprintings of the material in other publications. 

6. Brief annotation, primarily designed to furnish a con- 
cise picture of the contents of each entry. Occasionally, 

BOOKS 181 

significant references will be criticized or evaluated in the 
accompanying note. 

NOTE: Entries of more than routine interest or of special 
significance are marked with an asterisk ( * ) at the left margin. 
All of O'Neill's plays are spelled out in CAPITAL LETTERS. 
An abbreviated form is often used to save space; e.g., ICEMAN 
THE ELMS, and so on. 

1. Angoff, Charles, ed. The world of George Jean Nathan. 
NY, Knopf, 1952. 

Reprints the following essays by Nathan: 

"Eugene O'Neill," from Intimate Notebooks (No. 96), pp. 30-42. 
Review of ICEMAN, from Theatre Book of the Year 1946-1947 
(No. 100), pp. 395-411. 

2. Atkinson, Brooks. Broadway scrapbook. NY, Theatre 
Arts, 1947. 

Reprints these two essays : 

"O'Neill gets the Nobel prize," originally, "Ennobel-ing 
O'Neill," NY Times, 22 Nov. 1936 (No. 159), pp. 52-55. 

"The Iceman Cometh," originally, "Four-hour O'Neill," NY 
Times, 20 Oct. 1946 (No. 1169), pp. 241-246. 

* 3. Bentley, Eric. In search of theater. NY, Knopf, 1953; 
Vintage, 1954. Part Two, No. 9, "Trying to like O'Neill." 

The opening chapter, "The Broadway Intelligentsia," discusses 
the inferiority of ICEMAN. The essay "Trying to Like O'Neill" 
was originally published in Kenyon Review, July 1952 ( No. 172 ) . 

* 4. . The playwright as thinker. NY, Reynal & 

Hitchcock, 1946; Harcourt, Brace, 1949; London, R. Hale, 1949. 

Chapter Two, "Tragedy in Modern Dress," discusses the new 
genre of the tragedy of modern life. Section V and appended 
notes discuss Wedekind and O'Neill as representative of the 
aftermath of Ibsenesque bourgeois tragedy, of which ELECTRA 


is a "grotesque" example. O'Neill's seeming profundity turns into 
"silliness," says Bentley, taking issue with Krutch's attitudes 
(Nos. 68 & 69). The "melodramadness" school of Geddes (No. 
47) and others will applaud Bentley, while those who side with 
Skinner (No. 122) and Krutch may be oflFended. Bentley's well- 
founded comments, however, must be seriously considered. 

5. Blankenship, Russell. American literature as an expres- 
sion of the national mind. NY, Holt, 1931. "Eugene O'Neill," 
pp. 710-717. 

Mostly facts about the plays. The criticism finds LAZARUS 
and BROWN at top of O'Neill's works. 

6. Block, Anita. The changing world in plays and theatre. 
Boston, Little, Brown, 1939, pp. 137-193. 

Plot detail and dialogue passages from all of O'Neill's plays. 
Miss Block considers O'Neill a great genius and has only praise 
for his work. Interesting comparison can be made with Eleanor 
Flexner's left wing approach (No. 40). 

* 7. Boulton, Agnes. Part of a long story. NY, Doubleday, 


This is the first half of a proposed two volume account of 
O'Neill's eleven-year marriage to Miss Boulton. It begins with 
her arrival in New York and first meeting with the 29-year old 
playwright in 1917 and carries through the birth of their first 
child, Shane, in October, 1919. The story is told without emotion 
or recrimination as a romance between two lonely people seek- 
ing desperately to find themselves amid their hard drinking, 
hard living Bohemian friends. It is curiously erratic in precise 
detail. Many important dates and other facts we would like to 
know are frequently omitted or noted as "forgotten"; yet it is 
filled with minute descriptions of long alcoholic binges or the 
items of food at a particular meal. None the less, it is a rewarding 
book. For instance, it reveals O'Neill's own version of his first 
marriage and his suicide attempt as told to his wife, and there 
is considerable opportunity to become acquainted with the elder 
brother, James. More important, perhaps, is Miss Boulton's re- 
creation of O'Neill's early struggles for artistic recognition in 
Greenwich Village and Provincetown while submitting periodi- 

BOOKS 183 

cally to complete alcoholic paralysis. The entire story seems to 
emerge from an atmosphere that can only be termed night- 
marish. Even if Miss Boulton does not complete her second 
volume, the student of O'Neill will find much to be grateful 
for in this short work. 

* 8. Bowen, Croswell, assisted by Shane O'Neill. The curse 

of the misbegotten: A tale of the house of O'Neill. NY, McGraw- 
Hill, 1959. 

Extensively assisted by O'Neill's younger son, Bowen has at- 
tempted to tell the story of O'Neill's life and artistic career in 
terms of the apparent "curse" upon the "house"; namely, the 
inability of its members successfully to communicate to each 
other their deep capacity for love, with the resulting doom to 
a lonely isolated life in the midst of material and artistic plenty. 
It is not, however, merely a book of critical analysis or philo- 
sophical interpretation, but is by far the most complete factual 
account of O'Neill's personal history to be published through 
1959. Its early chapters provide specific detail helpfully sup- 
plementing Miss Boulton's account (No. 7), and the entire 
volume gives more insight into O'Neill's vastly complex inner 
nature and outer character manifestations than any other work 
up to this time. Still, it is not a true biography; it is, as Bowen 
states, a "tale" — highly readable, vastly interesting, and, like 
Miss Boulton's report, terrifying in the darkness it reveals but 
cannot successfully explain. Its major drawback is Bowen's 
many pauses to discuss the merits of individual plays as they 
appeared, thus slowing down the interesting story he is telling. 

9. Boyd, Alice K. The interchange of plays between Lon- 
don and New York, 1910-1939. NY, King's Crown Press, 1948. 

This detailed study of plays that crossed the Atlantic dis- 
cusses the comparative success and failure of each. Includes 
all of O'Neill's plays staged in England, with complete statistical 
data. An extremely valuable document for a comparative study 
of British and American writers and audiences. 

10. Brooks, Cleanth, and Robert B. Heilman. Understand- 
ing drama: Twelve plays. NY, Holt, 1948. 

Appendix A compares the Oresteia with ELECTRA. 


11. Brooks, Van Wyck. The confident years. NY, Dutton, 
1952. "Eugene O'Neill: Harlem," pp. 539-553. 

Brooks reviews O'Neill's plays and career, with emphasis upon 
treatment of the Negro. He determines that perhaps O'Neill is 
"all the more American because he was uncertain, tentative, 
puzzling, and groping." 

12. Brown, John Mason. Letters from greenroom ghosts. 
NY, Viking, 1934. "Christopher Marlowe to Eugene O'Neill," 
pp. 69-116. 

An original and clever book, incorporating much of Brown's 
dramatic criticism in the form of letters from great artists of the 
past. Marlowe finds similarity between himself and O'Neill and 
praises the tragic view, but warns that O'Neill is beyond himself 
in Freud. Having come this far, he is expected to go further, 
and mere recollection, as in AH, WILDERNESS!, will not suffice. 

13. . Seeing more things. NY, Whittlesey House, 

1948. "Moaning at the bar," pp. 257-265. 

Reprint of "All O'Neilling," review of ICEMAN, Sat. R. Lit., 
19 Oct. 1946 (Nos. 183 & 1174). 

14. . Still seeing things. NY, McGraw-Hill, 1950. 

Reprints "American tragedy," Sat. R. Lit., 6 Aug. 1949 (No. 
184), pp. 185-195. 

15. . Two on the aisle. NY, Norton, 1938. "Mr. 

O'Neill's Mourning Becomes Electra," pp. 136-142. 
Reprint of review in NY Post, 27 Oct. 1931 (No. 1455). 

16. . Upstage: The American theatre in perform- 
ance. NY, Norton, 1930. "Eugene O'Neill," pp. 60-77. 

O'Neill is ironic instead of tragic, says Brown. DESIRE is the 
nearest approach to Thebes. Brown finds O'Neill an "unsatis- 
factory genius" whose plays are "peaked with greatness rather 
than sustained by it"; his mysticism may be his undoing. 

17. Canby, Henry Seidel. Seven years' harvest: Notes on 
contemporary literature. NY, Farrar and Rinehart, 1936. "Scarlet 
becomes crimson," pp. 139-146. 

BOOKS 185 

Reprint of Canby's article on ELECTRA, Sat. R. Lit., 7 Nov. 
1931 (No. 1469). 

18. Cargill, Oscar. Intellectual America: Ideas on the 
march. NY, Macmillan, 1941. Ch. IV, "The primitivists," pp. 332- 
340; Ch. VI, "The Freudians," pp. 685-720. 

O'Neill is treated in two categories. The early works of JONES, 
APE and others are regarded as "primitivist," INTERLUDE and 
ELECTRA as Freudian. Good analysis of most of the plays, 
finding ELECTRA in many ways superior to the Greek. 

19. Carpenter, Frederic I. American literature and the 
dream. NY, Philosophical Library, 1955. "The romantic tragedy 
of Eugene O'Neill," pp. 133-143. 

A review of the more important plays in terms of their dra- 
matizing O'Neill's contrast between dream and reality. Carpenter 
feels that O'Neill has always known the impossibility of achiev- 
ing the romantic dream, and feels the result is resignation and 

20. Cheney, Sheldon. The art theatre. NY, Knopf, 1925. 
This book is not about plays but about the development of 

art theatres. Some excellent illustrations include pictures of the 
Guild Theatre, Neighborhood Playhouse, and Pasadena Play- 
house, all directly associated with major O'Neill plays. O'Neill 
is mentioned only in connection with the Provincetown and 
other groups. 

* 21. Clark, Barrett H. Eugene O'Neill. NY, Robt. M. 

McBride, 1926. Subsequent editions entitled Eugene O'Neill: 
The man and his plays, NY, McBride, 1929; London, Jonathan 
Cape, 1933; NY, McBride, 1936; Dover, 1947. [Excerpts printed 
in Theatre Arts, May 1926, pp. 325-326.] 

The 1926 edition was the first book published anywhere to 
be devoted entirely to Eugene O'Neill. The same general plan 
of the original was maintained in all subsequent editions: a 
brief life history and a short analysis of each play from WIFE 
FOR A LIFE to date of publication. Each edition contains pas- 
sages from letters and articles by O'Neill, plus various biblio- 
graphical material. O'Neill never quite understood Clark's mo- 


tives for writing the book in the first place; but, while expressing 
his plain disapproval, never interfered. The 1947 edition is, of 
course, the most valuable of all and includes MOON FOR THE 
MISBEGOTTEN. Although it is the best single book about 
O'Neill up to 1947, it is not a complete biography nor a detailed 
criticism. The material, however, still has its place on any refer- 
ence shelf. 

* 22. . European theories of the drama, with a 

supplement on the American drama. NY, Crown, 1947, pp. 529- 

Prints excerpts from O'Neill's working diary for ELECTRA. 
(See Non-Dramatic O'Neill, 1931.) 

23. .A study of the modern drama. NY, Appleton, 

1925, 1928, 1936, 1938, pp. 404-410 (same in all editions). 

Statistics and data on O'Neill's life and plays; appropriately 
changed with each new edition. 

24. , and George Freedly, eds. A history of mod- 
ern drama. NY, Appleton-Century, 1947. Ch. XIII, "Eugene 
O'Neill," pp. 682-691. 

General review of O'Neill life and works. The book itself is 
dedicated to O'Neill. 

25. Clurman, Harold. Lies like truth. NY, Macmillan, 
1958. "Eugene O'Neill," pp. 24-33. 

Three short essays on O'Neill's artistry, the published version 
of MOON FOR THE MISBEGOTTEN (No. 1410) and produc- 
tion of LONG DATS JOURNEY (No. 1309). Clurman finds 
O'Neill our greatest dramatist because of his consistent writing 
as an artist. 

26. Combs, George H. These amazing moderns. St. Louis, 
The Bethany Press, 1933. "Eugene O'Neill," pp. 248-270. 

A prejudiced view which finds ignorance of O'Neill's plays 
to be bliss, not loss. The critical comment makes no eflFort to 
go below O'Neill's surface violence. 

27. Commager, Henry Steele. The American mind: An in- 

BOOKS 187 

terpretation of American thought and character since the 180(fs. 
New Haven, Yale, 1950, p. 110. 

O'Neill discussed in connection with Faulkner, Hemingway, 
and JeflFers as spokesmen for a new determinism, taking away 
from the conscience of men the responsibility for social and 
human evils. 

28. Cowley, Malcolm, ed. After the genteel tradition: 
American writers since 1900. NY, Norton, 1937. 

Reprints Lionel Trilling's "Eugene O'Neill, a revaluation," 
New Rep., 23 Sept. 1936 (No. 377), pp. 127-140. 

* 29. Deutsch, Helen, and Stella Hanau. The Province- 
town: A study of the theatre. NY, Farrar & Rinehart, 1931. [Pre- 
publication excerpts printed in Theatre Guild Mag., Aug. 1930, 
pp. 20-21, and Sept. 1930, p. 30. Passages from Ch. 1 are in 
Drama, June 1931, p. 3.] 

This informal and interesting history is the definitive text con- 
cerning the Provincetown Players. No study of O'Neill is com- 
plete without it. Contains a complete Hst of all productions, 
with casts, from 1915 through 17 Nov. 1929. Also valuable for 
its publication of O'Neill's two articles, "Are the Actors to 
Blame?" (See Non-Dramatic O'Neill, 1925.) 

* 30. De Voto, Bernard. Minority report. Boston, Little, 
Brown, 1943. "Monte Cristo in modem dress," pp. 190-197. 

Reprint of "Minority report," Sat. R. Lit., 21 Nov. 1936 
(No. 220). 

* 31. Dickinson, Thomas H. Playwrights of the new Ameri- 
can theatre. NY, Macmillan, 1925. "The playwright unbound," 
pp. 56-123. 

The 67 pages of this essay represent the longest article about 
O'Neill in a book of criticism up to this time. It reviews each 
play in the light of O'Neill's creative vitality and imagination, 
unbound by the confines of criticism and definition. 

32. Downer, Alan S. Fifty years of American drama, 1900- 
1950. Chicago, Regnery, 1951. 


General review of American plays by type. O'Neill discussed 
in relation to his various contributions. 

33. Dukes, Ashley. Youngest drama: Studies of 50 drama- 
tists. London, Benn, 1923; Chicago, Charles H. Sergei, 1924, 
pp. 70-76. 

A discussion of modern drama since Ibsen. Favorable com- 
ment on O'Neill plays through ANNA CHRISTIE. 

34. Durham, Willard H., and John W. Dodds, eds. British 
and American plays, 1830-1946. NY, Oxford, 1947. "Eugene 
O'Neill," pp. 535-538, introducing BROWN. 

The essay on O'Neill in this anthology is brief, but these two 
items are also reprinted: 

O'Neill's own explanation of the play (See Non-Dramatic 
O'Neill, 1926.) 

Brooks Atkinson's opening night review, NY Times, 25 Jan. 
1926 (No. 1025). 

35. Eastman, Fred. Christ in the drama. NY, Macmillan, 
1947. "Eugene O'Neill," pp. 92-103. 

Because of his lack of spiritual insight, O'Neill lacks the sense 
of tragedy found in Euripides, to whom Eastman compares 
O'Neill in ELECTRA. DAYS WITHOUT END shows O'Neill 
realizes redemption in God's grace. 

36. Eaton, Walter Prichard. The drama in English. NY, 
Scribner's, 1930, pp. 331-343. 

Brief discussion, mainly about O'Neill's experiments. 

37. . The theatre guild: The first 10 years. NY, 

Brentano's, 1929. 

Eaton's informal history of the Guild is interesting and valu- 
able, but discussion of O'Neill, whom the Guild did not pro- 
duce until 1928, is somewhat incidental. Includes some excellent 
pictures of Guild productions and the Guild Theatre itself, 
and a list of all casts of Guild plays for the first ten years. A 
good non-critical reference. 

* 38. Engel, Edwin A. The haunted heroes of Eugene 

O'Neill. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard, 1953. 

BOOKS 189 

One of the most complete volumes devoted to a study of the 
entire O'Neill canon. It specifically avoids bibliography and 
biography, holding closely to the plays in a concentrated attempt 
to analyze them and to determine their over-all worth and cen- 
tral themes. Various sections, bearing interesting titles like 
"Only God's Chillun Got Wings," "Everywoman," and "Every- 
mannon," discuss important items from all plays in chronological 
order. Engel feels that O'Neill's early plays, up to about 1925, 
are best, and will in the long run survive. The detailed synopses 
and the many excerpts from the plays can be legitimately criti- 
cized, but to anyone not familiar with O'Neill's works, they will 
be helpful and revealing. 

* 39. Falk, Doris V. Eugene O'Neill and the tragic tension. 
New Brunswick, NJ, Rutgers Univ. Press, 1958. 

A 200-page study, expanding a doctoral dissertation, which 
takes all of the plays in order of their appearance and carefully 
analyzes them as the cumulative development of a single theme 
— expressing and assuaging "the lifelong torment of a mind in 
conflict." A valuable companion to Engel's treatment ( No. 38). 

* 40. Flexner, Eleanor. American playwrights, 1918-1938. 
NY, Simon & Schuster, 1938. Ch. V, "Eugene O'Neill," pp. 

A left wing outlook which deplores O'Neill's insistence on 
dealing with man's relation to God instead of taking into account 
that the main trouble in society today is man's relation to man. 
Interesting, if biased, account, especially in the light of O'Neill's 
initial welcome from socialist groups. 

41. Foerster, Norman, ed. Humanism and America: Essays 
on the out-look of modern civilization. NY, Farrar & Rinehart, 

See Thompson, Alan Reynolds, "The dilemma of modern 
tragedy" ( No. 134 ) . 

42. Gagey, Edmond M. Revolution in American drama. 
NY, Columbia, 1947. "Eugene O'Neill," pp. 39-70. 

Brief review of each major play. Lists nine important con- 
tributions O'Neill has made to the stage. He is best remembered 
for plays which show "ideal fusion of realism and imagination." 


43. Gassner, John. Form and idea in modern theatre. NY, 
Dryden, 1956. 

Occasional mention of O'Neill in an excellent study of the 
structure of modem drama. 

44. . Masters of the drama. NY, Random House, 

1940; Dover, 1945, 1954. "The voyages of O'Neill." 

One of the standard comprehensive histories of world drama. 
Its 16 pages on O'Neill review all the plays with plot outlines 
and fairly routine comment. 

* 45. . The theatre in our times. NY, Crown, 1954. 

"O'Neill in our time," pp. 249-256; "The Electras of Giraudoux 
and O'Neill," pp. 257-266. 

A major collection of essays on all phases of modern theatre 
by this tireless compiler of drama anthologies and theatre his- 
tories. An excellent companion to Masters of the Drama (No. 44). 
The two fairly brief articles on O'Neill are very good. The first, 
written before the revival of the mid-fifties, expresses concern 
for O'Neill's unwarranted neglect by the newer theatrical genera- 
tion; the second compares and contrasts two modern interpreta- 
tions of the perennial Electra theme. (Gassner erroneously calls 
O'Neill's Aegisthus "David Mannon" instead of the correct Adam 
Brant. ) The frontespiece is Gorelik's design for DESIRE UNDER 

46. , ed. A treasury of the theatre. 

First edition, 1935, and revised edition, 1940, were edited by 
Gassner together with Philo M. Buck, Jr., and H. S. Alberson. 
Subtitle: "An anthology of great plays from Ibsen to Odets." 
Gassner's brief essay, "Eugene O'Neill," pp. 245-248, precedes 
ANNA CHRISTIE. Publisher: Simon and Schuster. Distributor: 
The Dryden Press. 

Next edition, 1950, edited by Gassner alone. Subtitle: "From 
Henrik Ibsen to Arthur Miller," but spine prints "Ghosts to 
Death of a Salesman." Two essays on O'Neill, pp. 786-789 and 
817-818, precede ANNA CHRISTIE and THE HAIRY APE. 
Publisher: Simon and Schuster. Distributor: The Dryden Press. 

BOOKS 191 

Later edition, 1960, "Third College Edition," also by Gassner, 
bears subtitle on title page and spine, "From Henrik Ibsen to 
Eugene lonesco." Includes the same plays by O'Neill and the 
essays bear same pagination. Publisher: Simon and Schuster. 
Distributor: Henry Holt. 

The O'Neill essays are general summaries much in the same 
style as Gassner's discussion in Masters of the Drama (No. 44), 
but conclude that O'Neill's works are "surely the most Cyclopean 
dramatic enterprise in the English language." 

* 47. Geddes, Virgil. The melodramadness of Eugene 

O'Neill. The Brookfield Pamphlets, No. 4, Brookfield, Conn., The 
Brookfield Players, Inc., 1934. 

This 48-page pamphlet uses most of O'Neill's plays to prove 
that O'Neill is not truly a man of the theatre because he does 
not actually contribute to what the new American drama and 
theatre demand. He lacks a comic spirit, a realistic understand- 
ing of women, and a true art; his tragedy is more like melodrama, 
lacking any philosophy. Geddes' attack is not violent, like Salis- 
bury's (No. 113), but it is heavily one-sided. As one of the few 
early books devoted to O'Neill alone, however, it is well worth 

48. . The theatre of dreadful nights. The Brook- 
field Pamphlets, No. 3. Brookfield, Conn., The Brookfield Players, 
Inc., 1934. 

A somewhat violent attack on theatrical producers for their 
inability to present worthwhile plays. O'Neill is included among 
the writers which prove the point. 

49. Gilder, Rosamond, and others, eds. Theatre Arts an- 
thology: A record and a prophecy. NY, Theatre Arts Books, 1950. 

Reprints the following from Theatre Arts: 

Hutchens, John, "Greece to Broadway," Jan. 1932 (No. 1502), 
pp. 619-622. 

Isaacs, Edith, "Meet Eugene O'Neill," Oct. 1926 (No. 278), 
pp. 168-176. 

Macgowan, Kenneth, review of JONES, Jan. 1921 (No. 921), 
pp. 592-594. 


50. Glaspell, Susan. The road to the temple. London, 
Benn, 1926; NY, Frederick A. Stokes, 1927. 

This biography of George Cram Cook (Miss Glaspell's hus- 
band) recounts the development of the Provincetown Players, 
with the group's early realization of how important O'Neill 
was to become. 

* 51. Goldberg, Isaac. Drama of transition. Cincinnati, 
Stewart Kidd, 1922. "Eugene O'Neill," pp. 457-471. 

The first extended discussion of O'Neill in a book of criticism. 
Prints list of destroyed plays later to appear on Greenwich Vil- 
lage Playbill for THE FOUNTAIN (see Non-Dramatic O'Neill, 
1925). Goldberg finds O'Neill unable to fuse his elements per- 
fectly, with the "traps of melodrama" evident in his "realism." 

* 52. . The theatre of George Jean Nathan. NY, 

Simon & Schuster, 1926. "Eugene O'Neill to George Jean Nathan," 
pp. 143-165. 

Unique because of its fourteen letters from the young play- 
wright to Nathan, revealing his own attitudes toward his work, 
the producers, and the critics. No other book has such a large 
group of letters. 

53. Gorelik, Mordecai. New theatres for old. NY, Samuel 
French, 1940. "O'Neill," pp. 230-236. 

This volume belongs on every drama reference shelf as the 
finest account of twentieth century stage techniques. Gorelik 
discusses O'Neill's "inherited weakness of the will," and other 
aspects, such as a lack of clear statement of purpose. He agrees 
with Shaw's opinion that O'Neill is 'Ijanshee Shakespeare." 

54. Hamilton, Clayton. Seen on the stage. NY, Holt, 1920. 
Reprints review of BEYOND THE HORIZON, Vogue, 1 April 

1920 (No. 635). 

55. Hamilton, William Baskerville. Fifty years of the South 
Atlantic Quarterly. Durham, NC, Duke University Press, 1952. 

Reprints "Eugene O'Neill," by Homer E. Woodbridge, South 
All. Quar., Jan. 1938 (No. 395), pp. 258-271. 

BOOKS 193 

* 56. Hewitt, Barnard. Theatre USA, 1688 to 1957. NY, 

McGraw-Hill, 1959. 

A unique history tracing the development of American theatre 
and drama through contemporary critical opinion. Reprints the 

Gassner, John, review of ICEMAN, Ed. Th. Jour., Oct. 1956 
(No. 1222), pp. 279-281. 

Kerr, Walter, "Long Day's Journey into Night," NY Her-Trib., 
8 Nov. 1956 (No. 1302), pp. 481-482. 

Krutch, Joseph Wood, "The god of stumps," Nation, 26 Nov. 
1924 (No. 747), pp. 333-335. 

, "The tragedy of masks," Nation, 10 Feb. 1926 ( No. 

1054), pp. 363-364. 

Lewisohn, Ludwig, "An American tragedy," Nation, 21 Feb. 
1920 (No. 639), pp. 332-333. 

Macgowan, Kenneth, review of ANNA CHRISTIE, Th. Arts, 
Jan. 1922 (No. 568), pp. 337-338. 

, review of JONES, Th. Arts, Jan. 1921 (No. 921), 

pp. 333-335. 

Motherwell, Hiram, "Mourning Becomes Electra," Th. Guild 
Mag., Dec. 1931 (No. 1481), pp. 387-390. 

Seldes, Gilbert, "The Hairy Ape," Dial, May 1922 (No. 1141), 
pp. 338-340. 

Skinner, Richard Dana, "Strange Interlude," Commonweal, 
22 Feb. 1928 (No. 1653), pp. 371-374. 

57. Hicks, Granville. The great tradition: An interpreta- 
tion of American literature since the Civil war. Rev. ed., NY, 
Macmillan, 1935. Ch. VII, "Two roads," pp. 253-256. 

O'Neill is treated briefly as one of the literary pessimists of 
his age. 

58. Hoffman, Frederick J. The twenties: American writing 
in the post-war decade. NY, Viking, 1955. 

An astute and original discussion of the various types of 
literary expression during this ten-year period. Each section uses 
some literary work of particular significance for its "text." 
O'Neill's inclusion is noteworthy because of its brevity. In "Forms 
of Experiment and Improvisation" he receives two pages (221- 


223) only because of his innovations. He is then summarily dis- 
missed as a failure because of the failure of expressionism itself. 

59. Hughes, Glenn. History of the American theatre, 1700- 
1950. NY, Samuel French, 1951, pp. 399-402. 

Quick review of O'Neill's career, which brought our dramatic 
literature to "maturity." A fact-crammed history of the American 
theatre with excellent pictures of theatres and actors. 

60. Isaacs, Edith J. R, The Negro in the American theatre. 
NY, Theatre Arts, 1947. Ch. 5, "Bright lights on Broadway"; 
Ch. 6, "Plays and players." 

Full page picture of Gilpin's Jones; CHILLUN regarded as 

61. Jones, Robert Edmond. Dramatic imagination. NY, 
Duell, Sloan & Pearce, 1941. 

This outstanding book by the designer who worked as O'Neill's 
partner should be read by all serious students of the theatre, 
though there is little mention of O'Neill except INTERLUDE, 
a "brilliant exception" to Jones' generalization that the present 
theatre is essentially one of prose and journalism. 

62. Karsner, David. Sixteen authors to one. NY, Lewis 
Copeland, 1928. Ch. VI, "Eugene O'Neill," pp. 101-122. 

Karsner, who spent some time with O'Neill in the Maine 
woods (see his article in NY Her-Trih., 8 Aug. 1926, No. 283), 
feels the playwright's mystic quality cannot be conveyed in 

* 63. Kaucher, Dorothy J. Modern dramatic structure. Univ. 

of Missouri Studies, Columbia, Univ. of Missouri Press, 1 Oct. 
1928. Ch. VI, "Eugene O'Neill," pp. 125-158. 

A detailed study of the dramatic structure of Eugene O'Neill's 
major plays. Considerable dialogue and stage directions show the 
use of sound, action, etc., in the development of the individual 
play. The progress of insanity in GOLD is diagrammed by two 
interesting charts. This is a valuable contribution to O'Neill 
scholarship from the dramatic and theatrical point of view, 
rather than the critical. The entire work of 183 pages is well 
worth close study, as it represents an interesting if highly techni- 

BOOKS 195 

cal analysis of modem playwrights and their techniques. A better 
O'Neill play might have served more aptly for Miss Kaucher's 
elaborate graph, but otherwise she treats all the plays with 
equal emphasis. 

64. Kenton, Edna. "Provincetown and Macdougal street." 
Preface to Cook, George Cram, Greek coins, NY, George H. 
Doran, 1925. 

Miss Kenton's main tribute is to Cook's efforts with the 
Provincetown group in its formative days and his insistence that 
the world would some day know the plays of O'Neill. The rest 
of the volume is a collection of Cook's poetry. 

65. Kerr, Walter. Pieces at eight. NY, Simon & Schuster, 
1957, pp. 120-125. 

Kerr reviews LONG DAY'S JOURNEY as an exorcism of 
O'Neill's past. In summary, he feels that for all O'Neill's many 
weaknesses, the great strength in the plays is an overwhelming 
sense of the melodramatic. 

* 66. Kinne, Wisner Payne. George Pierce Baker and the 

American theatre. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard, 1954. Ch. 
XXXVII, "Beauty vs. Broadway - Enter Eugene O'Neill," pp. 

No student of the American theatre can neglect this book, 
which recounts the work of the man who "epitomized the lay 
forces at work in the evolution of twentieth-century American 
drama." O'Neill's name, of course, reappears constantly through- 
out the book, along with many illustrations of playbills and 
scenes from the O'Neill plays produced at Yale. The short chap- 
ter devoted to O'Neill is significant because it prints for the 
first time the letter to Baker in which O'Neill seeks admittance 
to the 47 Workshop at Harvard, stating "I want to be an artist 
or nothing." 

67. Kreymborg, Alfred. Troubadour: An autobiography. 
NY, Boni & Liveright, 1925. "The Provincetown players," pp. 

A discussion of O'Neill's association with the Provincetown 
by one who was there. 


* 68. Krutch, Joseph Wood. The American drama since 
1918. NY, Random House, 1939; George Brazillier, 1957. Ch. Ill, 
"Tragedy: Eugene O'Neill," pp. 73-133, both editions. 

This "Informal History" is the best single-volume treatment 
of the major aspects of modem American drama and those who 
wrote it. The essay on tragedy includes other dramatists, but 
O'Neill occupies the major position. Krutch consolidates several 
of his earlier comments, including his introduction to Nine Plays 
(No. 69) into a penetrating and lucid analysis of all of O'Neill's 
major works. Two central themes are O'Neill's sense of "belong- 
ing" and his attempt to bring the grandeur and elevation of 
tragedy into modern times and temper. This should be a standard 
reference in any American drama library, especially in its re- 
vised version. 

* 69. . Introduction to O'Neill, Eugene, Nine Plays, 

NY, Horace Liveright, 1932; Random House, 1936, 1939 (as 
Modern Library Giant). [Reprinted in Moses and Brown, The 
American theatre as seen by its critics, NY, W. W. Norton, 1934 
(No. 89); in Thorp and Thorp, Modern writing, NY, American 
Book Co., 1944; and in Oppenheimer, Louis, The passionate 
playgoer, NY, Viking, 1958, No. 107.] 

Krutch sets forth his consistently held tenet that O'Neill's 
tragedy is modern in every sense, feeling the view of its audi- 
ences as did all great tragedies. The height and depth of passion 
puts them in the class of those plays that "purge" by pity and 
terror, despite our lack of clear definition of the phrase. O'Neill's 
large weakness is lack of great language to accompany his tragic 

70. . Modernism in modern drama. Ithaca, NY, 

Cornell, 1953. 

A few general references to O'Neill's regard for tragedy and 
the man-God theme, which is seen as essentially anti-modernistic, 
along with views of Maxwell Anderson. 

* 71. Lamm, Martin. Modern drama. Translated by Karlin 
Elhott. Oxford, Blackwell's, 1952; NY, Philosophical Library, 
1953. "Eugene O'Neill," pp. 315-333. 

The essay is mainly a routine review of O'Neill's life and plays. 

BOOKS 197 

finding him a great writer, with faults, but certainly along with 
Synge the greatest in the twentieth century. This study of modern 
drama from the Scandinavian view is worth close attention. 

* 72. Langner, Lawrence. The magic curtain. NY, Button, 

This director of the Theatre Guild, O'Neill's major producer 
from MARCO MILLIONS through the unsuccessful MOON 
FOR THE MISBEGOTTEN, writes of his years in this distin- 
guished producing group, including information about his many 
contacts as a personal friend of O'Neill. An important document 
in the study of O'Neill the man and artist. 

* 73. Lawson, John Howard. Theory and technique of play- 
writing. NY, Putnam's, 1949. Part II, Ch. V., "Eugene O'Neill," 
pp. 75-120. 

An interesting discourse on O'Neill's confused philosophy 
and his attempts to display it in later plays. Nina and Hedda 
help compare O'Neill's and Ibsen's last phases. 

74. Lewisohn, Ludwig. Expression in America. NY, Har- 
pers, 1932, pp. 543-553. 

Strongly unfavorable review, concerned with O'Neill's faults. 
There is hope O'Neill may "amount to something" some day. 

75. Luccock, Halford E. Contemporary American litera- 
ture and religion. Chicago, Willet, Clark, 1934. 

ELECTRA is a direct contrast to the ideas of Hebrew and 
Christian religions. 

76. McCarthy, Mary T. Sights and spectacles 1937-1956. 
NY, Farrar and Strauss, 1956. 

Reprints "Dry Ice," Partisan Rev., Nov-Dec. 1946 (No. 1189), 
pp. 81-88. 

77. McCole, C. John. Lucifer at large. NY, Longmans, 
Green, 1937, pp. 112-115. 

In this somewhat narrow attack on modern literature's treat- 
ment of mankind as less than human, O'Neill is mentioned be- 
cause of his insistence on Freudian interpretations. 


78. Macgowan, Kenneth, and William Melnitz. The living 
stage. NY, Prentice Hall, 1955. "Eugene O'Neill - Dramatic 
pioneer," pp. 487-490. 

A comprehensive stage history designed for popular reading. 
It is somewhat disappointing because of the cheapening effect 
of its illustrations, which are all drawings instead of plates or 
photographs. It is, however, a good text, edited by O'Neill's 
one-time producing partner. O'Neill's original sketches for the 
setting of DESIRE are included. 

79. Mackay, Constance D'Arcy. The little theatre in the 
United States. NY, Holt, 1917. "The Provincetown players," 
pp. 46-53. 

Written when O'Neill's plays had been appearing less than 
a year, this brief history of the Provincetown group mentions 
the "signal power" of its writers, among them O'Neill and his 
original themes. 

80. Maier, Norman R., and H. Willard Reninger. A psy- 
chological approach to literary criticism. NY, Appleton, 1933, 
pp. 101-104. 

This interesting book, devoted to a somewhat different ap- 
proach to literary criticism, terms INTERLUDE successful be- 
cause it follows a successful literary technique, i.e., the direction 
of the reader is clearly indicated and the precise meaning 

81. Mantle, Burns. Contemporary American playwrights. 
NY, Dodd, Mead, 1938. "Eugene O'Neill," pp. 62-73. 

Factual account of O'Neill's life and works, with play list. 

82. Mayorga, Margaret. A short history of the American 
drama. NY, Dodd, Mead, 1932. "Eugene O'Neill," pp. 317-337. 

While mainly discussing playwrights before 1920, Miss 
Mayorga does review most of O'Neill's plays. Her main criticism 
is O'Neill's lack of knowledge about the real behavior of ob- 
sessed characters. 

* 83. Mickle, Alan D. Six plays of Eugene O'Neill. NY, 

Horace Liveright, 1929. 

BOOKS 199 

The title is misleading. The book reviews but does not re- 
INTERLUDE. Its complete and unqualified praise of O'Neill 
places him with Shakespeare, Ibsen, Goethe and Blake. Amidst 
all of Mickle's assertions that O'Neill could do no wrong, the 
most remarkable point is his "proof that all the characters in 
STRANGE INTERLUDE are perfectly normal. None of O'Neill's 
most avid supporters in America ever admitted this. The lyric 
adoration is interesting but of limited value, especially in view 
of the fact that Mickle bases all his criticism on having read but 
not seen the plays. 

84. Middleton, George. These things are mine: The auto- 
biography of a journeyman playwright. NY, Macmillan, 1947, 
pp. 118-119. 

Contains a letter from O'Neill replying to congratulations sent 
to him on the success of HORIZON. 

85. Morehouse, Ward. Just the other day. NY, McGraw- 
Hill, 1953. 

Random mention of O'Neill in connection with Morehouse's 
life as a New York dramatic critic. Brief discussion of his stay 
with O'Neill in France. 

86. . Matinee tomorrow. NY, Whittlesey House, 

1949. Ch. 11, "The drama's revolt - and O'Neill," pp. 180-193. 

General discussion of the new drama and O'Neill's influence. 
This is a very interesting popular history of 50 years of American 
drama and theatre by one who witnessed and criticized much 
of it. 

87. Morris, Lloyd R. Postscript to yesterday. America: The 
last fifty years. NY, Random House, 1947, "All man's blundering 
unhappiness," pp. 177-184. 

A general review of O'Neill's major plays and their treatment 
of the "sickness of today" in a chapter devoted to American play- 
wrights from Fitch to Behrman. 

88. Moses, Montrose J. The American dramatist. Boston, 


Little, Brown, 1925. Ch. 20, "Eugene O'Neill and the new drama," 
pp. 415-434. 

Moses views the early plays rather narrowly, especially ALL 
GOD'S CHILLUN, and finds O'Neill's view too dark and un- 

89. , and John Mason Brown. The American 

theatre as seen by its critics, 1752-1934. NY, Norton, 1934. 

Reprints the following articles : 

Anderson, John, review of DAYS WITHOUT END, NY 
Journal, 9 Jan. 1934 (No. 678). 

Benchley, Robert, review of MOURNING BECOMES ELEC- 
TRA, New Yorker, 7 Nov. 1931 (No. 1464). 

Broun, Heywood, review of BEYOND THE HORIZON, NY 
Tribune, 4 Feb. 1920 (No. 610). 

Krutch, Joseph Wood, Preface to Nine Plays, 1933 ed. (No. 69). 

90. Muller, Henry J. The spirit of tragedy. NY, Knopf, 
1956. "Tragedy in America: O'Neill," pp. 311-315. 

In a volume devoted wholly to tragedy as a dramatic art from 
Greek to modern, O'Neill is seriously and "respectfully" treated 
as one who, like others, had great but unrealized tragic potential. 
ELECTRA briefly reviewed as his best play. 

91. Myers, Henry Alonzo. Tragedy: A view of life. Ithaca, 
NY, Cornell, 1956. V. "Macbeth and the Iceman Cometh: Equiva- 
lence and ambivalence in tragedy," pp. 98-109. 

O'Neill's tragic view of our time is the sickness of an age. 
While O'Neill is ambivalent in his finding mankind at once 
attractive and repulsive, Shakespeare shows equivalence, i.e., 
joy and sorrow, guilt and remorse, and the justice of human 
destiny. An interesting and original approach to evaluating 
O'Neill's tragic idea. 

92. Myers, J. Arthur. Fighters of fate. Baltimore, Williams 
& Wilkins, 1927. "Eugene O'Neill," pp. 306-318. 

This book is subtitled, "A story of men and women who have 
achieved greatly despite the handicaps of the great white 
plague." It briefly reviews O'Neill's life and his accomplish- 
ments because of and despite his fight with tuberculosis. 

BOOKS 201 

93. Nathan, George Jean. Art of the night. NY, Knopf, 
1928, pp. 160-164. 

Nathan discusses O'Neill's sense of humor in MARCO MIL- 
LIONS. It is not a regular kind of humor, but is sardonic and 
bitter, and can be seen in most of O'Neill's plays. 

94. . Encyclopedia of the theatre. NY, Knopf, 1940. 

Not actually an "encyclopedia," but a series of items in alpha- 
betical order showing Nathan's extensive theatre knowledge. 
Four pages on O'Neill recount Nathan's personal acquaintance 
with the man to whom he dedicated this book. 

95. . House of Satan. NY, Knopf, 1926. "A few 

footnotes on O'Neill," pp. 199-207. 

General discussion of what O'Neill has brought to the stage. 
Contains a number of interesting comments on the public reac- 
tion to ALL GOD'S CHILLUN, which Nathan sees basically 
as no different from many plays treating similar problems. 

96. . The intimate notebooks of George Jean 

Nathan. NY, Knopf, 1932, pp. 21-38. [Reprinted in Van Doren, 
Carl, ed.. The Borzoi reader, NY, Garden City Pub. Co., 1938, 
pp. 590-603 (No. 137); and in Angoff, Charles, ed.. The world 
of George Jean Nathan, NY, Knopf, 1952, pp. 30-42 ( No. 1 ) ] 

Intimate notes on O'Neill's personality, with interesting quo- 
tations from a letter in which O'Neill sums up his feelings on 
the completion of ELECTRA. 

97. . Materia critica. NY, Knopf, 1924. "Certain 

dramatists," pp. 122-123. 

Discussion of O'Neill's failure in Strindbergian drama like 

98. . The morning after the first night. NY, 

Knopf, 1938. 

Chapter III discusses O'Neill and Anderson. 

99. . Passing judgments. NY, Knopf. 1935. Ch. 

VIII, "O'Neill," pp 112-126. 


General discussion; includes AH, WILDERNESS!, DYNAMO, 

100. . Theatre book of the year, 1946-1947. NY, 

Knopf, 1947. 

Reviews ICEMAN, pp. 93-111. Reprinted in Angoff, Charles, 
ed.. The World of George lean Nathan ( No. 1 ) . 

101. . The theatre in the fifties. NY, Knopf, 1953. 

Bits of personal reference here and there. Mentions some of 
O'Neill's ideas about newer playwrights. 

* 102. . The theatre of the moment. NY, Knopf, 

1936. Ch. XI, "The recluse of Sea Island," pp. 196-207. [Original 
article in Redbook, Aug. 1935, p. 34 (No. 329).] 

Nathan was O'Neill's close personal friend and here tells 
some highly interesting "inside" stories, dispelling some of the 
previous misconceptions about his personality. These ten pages 
and the other "intimacies" of which Nathan writes elsewhere 
oflFer some of the best material obtainable on O'Neill the man. 

103. . The theatre, the drama, and the girls. NY, 

Knopf, 1921. "Eugene O'Neill," pp. 181-185. 

Nathan championed O'Neill's cause in The Smart Set and 
elsewhere as early as 1917 (see Chronology of Pubhcation), but 
here mentions him in a book for the first time. Contains plot 
review of HORIZON and short discussion of "the most distin- 
guished young man of the American theatre." 

104. . The world in falseface. NY, Knopf, 1923, 

pp. 79-80; 141-143. 

Two brief attacks on the shortsightedness of O'Neill criticism. 

105. Nicoll, Allardyce. World drama. London, Harrap, 
1949; NY, Harcourt, Brace, 1950. Ch. VIII, "Eugene O'Neill," 
pp. 880-893. 

Concise review of each major play. O'Neill is the representa- 
tive of American drama as a whole, full of vitality and strength, 
lacking refinements of greatness or sense of relationship with 
his times, but with no true literary ability. ( Nicoll was Chairman 

BOOKS 203 

of the Department of Drama at Yale when the University 
awarded O'Neill an honorary LLD. ) 

106. O'Hara, Frank Hurburt. Today in American drama. 
Chicago, Univ. of Chicago Press, 1939. 

This short review of modem American plays includes frequent 
references to O'Neill, but mainly discusses APE and its left- 
wing atmosphere. 

107. Oppenheimer, George. The passionate playgoer. NY, 
Viking, 1958. 

Reprints the following: 

Benchley, Robert, "Mourning Becomes Electra," (originally, 
"Top") from The New Yorker, 7 Nov. 1931 (No. 1464), p. 580. 

Chapman, John, introduction to LONG DATS JOURNEY as 
originally printed in his 1957 Broadway's Best, p. 281. 

Krutch, Joseph^Wood, Introduction to Nine Plays (No. 69), 
p. 268. 

108. Parks, Edd Winfield. Segments of Southern thought. 
Athens, Univ. of Georgia Press, 1938. Ch. XVI, "Eugene O'Neill's 
symbohsm," pp. 293-313. 

Broad discussion of O'Neill's symbols. Despite his apparent 
turn to the cross in DAYS WITHOUT END, says Parks, O'Neill 
is merely using another symbol to express the same thoughts 
he always has. 

109. Pellizzi, Camillo. English drama: The last great 
phase. Translated by Rowan Williams, NY, Macmillan, 1936, 
pp. 253-262. 

Whether or not he is aware of it, O'NeiU is the Irish-Catholic 
rebel against Puritanism, very aware of the existence of evil 
and divine grace, according to this Italian critic. 

* 110. Quinn, Arthur Hobson. A history of the American 

drama from the Civil war to the present day. NY, F. S. Crofts, 
1927, 1936. Vol. II, Ch. XXI, "Eugene O'NeiU, poet and mystic." 
[This chapter reprinted in Scribners, ns, Oct. 1926, pp. 368-372.] 
This standard history of the American drama has been up- 
dated to 1945 and pubhshed in a consolidated one volmne edition 


with original volumes separately paginated. The essay on O'Neill 
has remained unchanged through the several editions and print- 
ings except for successive factual additions. Quinn finds his 
Celtic background has made O'Neill a mystic with the heart 
of a poet, and the analysis of the separate plays takes this central 
view. O'Neill's own explanation of THE GREAT GOD BROWN, 
which appeared in most New York newspapers in Feb., (see 
Non-Dramatic O'Neill, 1926) is reprinted in its entirety. There 
is also a personal letter from O'Neill, partly reproduced in fac- 
simile, explaining his artistic philosophy. Although Quinn's book 
dwells heavily upon American drama before O'Neill, it is a 
popular and easy-reading history which is a basic reference text 
in any drama library. 

111. . The literature of the American people. NY, 

Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1951. Ch. 49, "Vitalizers of the drama," 
pp. 928-934. 

A few pages devoted to O'Neill's plays in this survey of 
American literature. The book is on a level with the three volumes 
by Spiller et al ( No. 128 ) , but bibliography is not as complete. 

112. . Representative American plays. NY, Apple- 
ton-Century-Crofts, 1953. Seventh edition. "Beyond the Horizon," 
pp. 929-937. 

This anthology has gone through seven editions, 1917, 1920, 
1925, 1928, 1930, 1938, and 1953. It has always rehed heavily on 
early American drama, and is not truly "representative" since 
1918. HORIZON has always been the choice for O'Neill, and 
it has several pages of introduction in the last two editions. 

* 113. Salisbury, William. A dress suit becomes Hamlet. 

Why not, if Mourning Becomes Electra? New Rochell, NY, The 
Independent Publishing Co., 1933. 

Subtitle: "A dissertation upon the comedies of Eugene O'Neill, 
addressed to the author." This small pamphlet is a violently 
prejudiced attack upon all of O'Neill's major plays, full of ridi- 
cule based on superficialities of story form. Racial prejudice is 
injected without warrant in the form of vicious anti-Semitism; 
and there is name calling with no point. A low water mark in 
dramatic criticism. 

BOOKS 205 

114. Salzman, Maurice. Plagiarism, the "art" of stealing 
literary material. Los Angeles, Parker, Stone and Baird, 1931. 

Includes a factual report of the Georges Lewys plagiarism 
case against O'NeiU and STRANGE INTERLUDE (see Life 
Chronology ) . 

* 115. Sanborn, Ralph, and Barrett H. Clark. A bibliog- 
raphy of the works of Eugene O'Neill. NY, Random House, 1931. 

Careful collation of all texts to and including DYNAMO, 
with numerous plates illustrating variations. Contains limited 
references to periodical, newspaper, and book articles ( including 
separate books on O'Neill) and also a collection of little-known 
poems which O'Neill reluctantly gave permission to publish. 

116. Sayler, Oliver M. Our American theatre. NY, Bren- 
tano's, 1923. Ch. Ill, "Eugene O'Neill, the American playwright," 
pp. 27-43. 

Sayler regards O'Neill as the personification of the current 
American drama. Brief life sketch and review of plays. Excerpts 
from Hugo von Hofmannsthal's widely quoted criticism (No. 
277). Also includes O'Neill's own statement concerning his 
credo of leaving social ideas behind. 

117. Sergeant, EHzabeth Shepley. "O'Neill: The man with 
a mask," in Fire under the Andes, NY, Knopf, 1927. 

Reprinted from New Rep., 16 March 1927 (No. 359). 

* 118. Shipley, Joseph T. The art of Eugene O'Neill. Univ. 
of Washington Chapbooks, Seattle, Univ. of Washington Book- 
store, 1928. 

This 34-page pamphlet is the second small book (Clark's 
Eugene O'Neill (No. 21) was the first) devoted exclusively to 
O'Neill. Shipley finds that O'Neill's theme of life as a vale of 
tears is too restrictive. The booklet's value is limited by Shipley's 
emphasis on O'Neill's lack of humor. 

119. . Guide to great plays. Washington, Public 

AfiFairs Press, 1956. 

All important plays from sea plays of Glencairn cycle to ICE- 
MAN (DIFF'RENT thrown in for some reason) are included 


in this volume which reviews plots and some of the critical 
comments from the press. 

* 120. Sievers, W. David. Freud on Broadway. NY, Hermi- 
tage House, 1955. Ch. VI, "Freud, Jung and O'Neill," pp. 97-133. 

General review of O'Neill's plays in light of accepted and 
assumed influence of psychoanalysis. A MOON FOR THE MIS- 
BEGOTTEN is found to be one of the best. The entire book 
treats the Freudian theme in considerable detail as reflected 
on the New York stage during this century, often roaming far 
afield to include works one would normally not consider ap- 
propriate. An intriguing, if not always convincing, book. 

* 121. Simonson, Lee. The stage is set. NY, Harcourt, Brace, 

This excellent book treats most aspects of theatrical production 
from the viewpoint of one of our most successful designers. 
No specific section on O'Neill, but he is often mentioned, par- 
ticularly in the very fine discussion of language and dramatic 
poetry. Simonson's hilarious parody of Hamlet's soliloquies as 
O'Neill would write them shows precisely what Krutch (Nos. 
68 & 69) and others have meant in their deploring O'Neill's 
lack of poetic grandeur. DYNAMO is discussed in detail relative 
to its setting and O'Neill's emphasis upon sound eflFects. 

122. Sinclair, Upton. Money writes! NY, A. & C. Boni, 
1927. Ch. XXXV, "The springs of pessimism," pp. 175-177. 

Sinclair's study of American literature from the economic 
point of view briefly mentions O'Neill, whose pessimism is re- 
garded as part of the same disease afflicting art in a dying 

* 123. Skinner, Richard Dana. Eugene O'Neill: A poet's 
quest. NY, Longmans, Green, 1935. 

O'Neill's entire career is recreated as a poet's quest, com- 
parable to a saint's pilgrimage. An interesting study, carefully 
drawn, but effective only if the reader accepts Catholic doctrine. 
Otherwise, an able discussion of the positions the plays occupy 
in O'Neill's life, based on a chronology of composition supplied 
by O'Neill himself. Although Skinner realizes other plays are 

BOOKS 207 

yet to come, his conclusions would indicate O'Neill has "arrived" 
at the goal of his quest in DAYS WITHOUT END. The chro- 
nology, allowing for some inaccuracies in O'Neill's memory, is 
the most valuable item in the book. 

124. . "A note on Eugene O'Neill," in Skillin, 

Edward S., ed., The Commonweal reader. NY, Harpers, 1949, 
pp. 80-83. 

Reprints Skinner's review of AH, WILDERNESS!, Common- 
weal, 27 Oct. 1933 (No. 439). 

125. . Our changing theatre. NY, Dial Press, 1931. 

Ch. Ill, "The song in tragedy," pp. 43-47; Ch. IV, "Tragedy with- 
out song," pp. 76-96. 

Skinner believes that O'Neill will be a true poet of tragedy 
if he recaptures the vision of BROWN. The discussion of other 
plays, such as INTERLUDE, DYNAMO, DESIRE, forms the 
approach to Skinner's later book, Eugene O'Neill: A Poet's Quest 
(No. 122). 

* 126. Slochower, Harry. No voice is wholly lost: Writers 

and thinkers in war and peace. NY, Creative Age Press, 1945. 
"In quest of everyman: Eugene O'Neill & James Joyce," pp. 

This book deals with various literary and artistic reactions 
to the social and cultural instability of today. The brief analysis 
of O'Neill is excellent, going to the center of his philosophy 
more directly than many other extensive treatments of the sub- 
ject. Compare Slochower's essay with Krutch's opinion of O'Neill's 
tragic characters (Nos. 68 & 69), or Flexner's social viewpoint 
(No. 40). 

127. Spiller, Robert E. The cycle of American literature. 
NY, Macmillan, 1955. Ch. XI, "Full circle: O'Neill and Heming- 
way," pp. 243-274. 

O'Neill is discussed with Hemingway, Dos Passos, Wolfe, 
and others as part of the post-war generation Hterature of social 
protest, symbolism, and so on. O'Neill is clearly identified as 
apart from the "lost" generation. 


* 128. , and others. Literary history of the United 

States. NY, Macmillan, 1949. Vol. II, No. 73, "Eugene O'NeiU," 
by Joseph Wood Knitch, pp. 1237-1250. 

This two-volume compendium and its third volume of bibliog- 
raphy (containing extended references to O'Neill) is the out- 
standing work in the field of American literary history. Krutch's 
essay again summarizes most of the views which he has ex- 
pounded in other articles (Nos. 68 & 69). There is a brief 
account of the development of the little theatre movement and 
O'Neill's position therein. In discussing DESIRE, BROWN, 
INTERLUDE, and ELECTRA, Krutch considers that O'Neill's 
plays "are not so much summary of an era as a new mode and 
a new theme for the American stage." 

129. Stark, Harold. People you know. NY, Boni and Live- 
right, 1923. "The hairy ape," pp. 244-247. 

Interview between "Young Boswell" (Stark) and O'Neill, dis- 
cussing O'Neill's basic dramatic theories, 

* 130. Straumann, Heinrich. American literature in the 
twentieth century. London, Hutchinson's University Library, 
1951. Ch. V, "The great conflict: The rise of American drama." 

Written by a professor of English literature at University of 
Zurich. An interesting study which finds O'Neill the "most 
complete and powerful symbol ' of the conflicts between determi- 
nism and pragmatism, and the acceptance of reality on the one 
hand and the search for values beyond the world of experience 
as an oflFshoot of the old moral and refigious tradition on the 
other. This approach should certainly be considered in compari- 
son with many domestic attitudes toward O'Neill's tragic view. 

131. Stuart, Donald Clive. The development of dramatic 
art. NY, Appleton-Century, 1928, pp. 644-650. 

LAZARUS and BROWN discussed as expressionism, 
STRANGE INTERLUDE as "super-naturalism." 

132. Taylor, Walter F. A history of American letters. 
Boston, American Book Co., 1936. Ch. V, "The rise of the drama: 
Eugene O'Neill," pp. 406-418. 

O'Neill's work is divided into four categories called "Explora- 

BOOKS 209 

tions." ELECTRA does not suffer in comparison with Lear and 
Macbeth, though O'Neill is in the tradition of Webster and Ford, 
more than Shakespeare. 

133. Thompson, Alan Reynolds. The anatomy of drama. 
Berkeley, Univ. of California Press, 1942, pp. 298-306; 1946, 
pp. 303-312. 

Thompson downgrades O'Neill as a romanticist relying too 
heavily upon psychopathology. 

* 134. . "The dilemma of modern tragedy," in 

Foerster, Norman, ed.. Humanism and America: Essays on the 
outlook of modern civilization. NY, Farrar & Rinehart, 1930, 
pp. 127-148. 

The dilemma: a modern naturalist poet cannot be both honest 
and sublime. The elevation of tragedy cannot achieve its goal 
by modern naturalistic or even romantic means. The essay is a 
careful analysis of the tragic concept and treatment by modern 
writers. O'Neill seeks nobility in man and the answer to life in 
life itself without resort to romantic escape, but he does not 
exalt to elevation of heroic tragedy, finding life muddled and 
leaving it that way. 

135. Trilling, Lionel. Introduction to O'Neill, Eugene, 
The Emperor Jones, Anna Christie, The Hairy Ape. NY, The 
Modern Library, 1937, pp. vii-xix. 

Trilling discusses these three plays as a part of O'Neill's 
over-all philosophical pattern. O'Neill is uncopied because he 
is in the tradition of Lear and Faust, and nobody else is interested 
in the same thing. 

136. Untermeyer, Louis. Makers of the modern world. 
NY, Simon & Schuster, 1955. "Eugene O'Neill," pp. 662-668. 

Brief biography in a collection of 92 biographies of men and 
women "who formed the pattern of our century." 

137. Van Doren, Carl, ed., The Borzoi reader. NY, Garden 
City, 1938. 

Reprints "Eugene O'Neill," by George Jean Nathan, from 
Intimate Notebooks ( No. 96 ) pp. 590-603. 


138. , and Mark Van Doren. American and British 

literature since 1890. NY, Century, 1925; 1939, pp. 102-107. 

The first edition of this volume was one of the first American 
literature surveys to consider O'Neill worthy of discussion. The 
treatment, however, is very broad. 

* 139. Waton, Harry, The historic significance of Eugene 

O'Neill's Strange Interlude. NY, Worker's Educational Institute, 

Originally a lecture delivered at the Rand School, NY, May 
18, 1928. It is truly an astonishing document, showing the play 
to reflect "great, historic changes taking place in the life of 
mankind." The soliloquies show our double lives — that shown 
to the world, and that suppressed unhealthily — as well as how 
man has suppressed woman. Every character is a symbol of 
profound social significance. Nina is revolutionary woman; Leeds 
is the fossil priest-professor; Gordon is revolutionary hero who, 
like Jesus, dies young; the crippled soldiers are downtrodden 
masses; Darrell is modern science and crude materialism; and 
so on and on. 

140. Whipple, Thomas K. Spokesmen: Modern writers 
and American life. NY, Appleton, 1928. XI, "Eugene O'Neill," 
pp. 230-253. 

The essay is based on Whipple's New Republic article of 21 
January 1925 (No. 390). O'Neill is seen as a writer of tragedy 
based on his own attitude that life is a matter of spiritual frustra- 
tion — probably the tragedy of America as well. BROWN is his 
best play because it is not a tragedy of desolation, but of great 

141. White, Arthur Franklin. The plays of Eugene O'Neill. 
Cleveland, Western Reserve Univ., Studies by Members of the 
Faculty, Bulletin Vol. 26, No. 8, August, 1923. 

A pamphlet of historical interest as the first scholarly study 
of O'Neill's plays. It is rare, and not readily available in most 

142. Wilde, Percival. The craftsmanship of the one-act 
play. NY, Crown, 1951. 

BOOKS 21 1 

Comprehensive guide to the creation of successful one-act 
plays through all the elements of composition, O'Neill's short 
plays are frequently used to illustrate pertinent points. 

143. Wilson, Edmund. Shores of light. NY, Farrar & 
Strauss, 1952. "Eugene O'Neill and the naturalists," pp. 99-104. 

Two brief essays discussing mainly APE and CHILLUN. He 
finds O'Neill at home most when he is writing in the vernacular. 

* 144. Winther, Sophus Keith. Eugene O'Neill: A critical 
study. NY, Random House, 1934. 

An excellent study of O'Neill's dominant ideas in relation to 
the modern industrial age, written when he was still considered 
a practicing playwright. Highly favorable, without eulogy. The 
whole O'Neill canon is considered as a unit, and discussed in 
terms of moral and social philosophy. It bears comparison with 
Skinner's Poet's Quest (No. 123) and contrast with Geddes' 
Melodramadness (No. 47). 

145. Woollcott, Alexander. The portable Woollcott. NY, 
Viking, 1946. 

Reprints Wbolcott's review of ELECTRA from While Rome 
Burns ( No. 147 ) . 

* 146. . Shouts and murmurs. NY, Century, 1922. 

Ch. XI, "Eugene O'Neill," pp. 144-170. 

Woollcott was not an O'Neill admirer, but steers a neutral 
ground in his first major article about the playwright. He finds 
O'Neill the "most interesting playwright of the new generation," 
always vigorous, always somber, but undisciplined. 

147. . While Rome burns. NY, Viking, 1934, 1940, 

pp. 288-291. 

Prints a review of ELECTRA. 

148. Young, Stark. Immortal shadows. NY, Scribner's, 1948. 
Reprints these essays : 

"The Great God Brown," New Rep., 10 Feb. 1926 (No. 1066). 
"Eugene O'Neill's new play," New Rep., 11 Nov. 1931 (review 
oi ELECTRA) (No. 1493). 


"O'Neill and Rostand," New Rep., 21 Oct. 1946 (review of 
ICEMAN) (No. 1202). 

149. Zabel, Morton D., ed. Literary opinion in America. 
NY, Harper's, 1937, 1951. 

Reprints the following essays : 

Fergusson, Francis, "Eugene O'Neill," Hound and Horn, Jan- 
Mar. 1930 ( No. 246 ) . 

Young, Stark, review of ELECTRA, New Rep., 11 Nov. 1931, 
(No. 1493). 


This is a list of important articles about Eugene O'Neill 
the man and the artist, which have appeared in domestic peri- 
odicals up to the end of 1959. It is arranged within the limits 
explained below. 

I. CONTENTS. Certain restrictions have been made in the 
type and treatment of the material. 

1. Only articles of a critical or biographical nature deemed 
worthy of study have been included. This eliminates numer- 
ous items in which O'Neill is mentioned merely in passing, 
or which otherwise contribute little or nothing to O'Neill 

2. All items are concerned with O'Neill and/or his works 
in general. All references dealing primarily with the indi- 
vidual plays, such as opening night reviews and subsequent 
discussions in newspapers and periodicals, are included 
under the heading INDIVIDUAL PLAYS. 

3. Because it has been impossible to assemble every 
single item about O'Neill from every possible publication, 
sources are limited as follows : 

a. Only domestic publications, with rare exception, 
have been consulted. 

b. Because of comparative ease of access through the 
New York Public Library, only New York newspapers have 
been consulted. Important articles from other city news- 
papers found in various clipping collections and special 
bibliographies may occasionally appear. 

c. Primary sources for periodical references have been 
the several indexes: Reader's Guide, International Index, 
Essay and General Literature Index, and so on. Other spe- 
cial indexes and bibliographies, such as the Dramatic Index, 
have been employed as well (see Sources Consulted). 


Library clipping collections have frequently yielded loose 
articles from periodicals not regularly indexed. These have 
been included whenever their importance warrants. 

II. MECHANICS. The general pattern follows standard 
bibliographical practices, but departs on occasion as shown 
below. The order of information for each entry is as follows : 

1. Author in alphabetical order. Title is used if author 
is unknown; no entry appears under "Anonymous." 

2. Article title in "quotation marks." Library of Congress 
catalogue card procedure is followed by capitalizing only 
first words and proper nouns. 

3. Periodical title, often abbreviated, in italics. Consult 
abbreviation list (p. 177) for complete titles. 

4. Volume, date, and page. 

a. Periodicals other than newspapers include, wherever 
possible, full information in this manner: 

48 (21 Oct. 1946)71 
Some references were obtained from library collections of 
loose clippings, identified by title and date only. In these 
few instances ascertaining exact volume and page numbers 
was frequently impractical because of time limitations or 
impossible because of unavailability of the original source. 
Please Note: If periodical reference covers more than one 
page, inclusive pages are indicated only if they are consecu- 
tive. Those articles covering several pages scattered through- 
out the periodical are located by the first page on which 
the item appears. No attempt has been made to enumerate 
all consecutive pages. Again, practical consideration has 
been the governing factor. A more uniform reference is 
obtained by avoiding the confusion of multiple numbers or 
the indefinite abbreviation, ff. 

b. Newspaper references indicate date only. Because 
of frequent diflFerences among various editions of the same 
paper and because of the general unavailability of news- 
papers other than the New York Times, it was considered 
impractical to indicate column or page. The exception is 
the Times. Its index and uniform edition on file in most 
libraries permit full information. All references indicate 


date, section (Sunday edition only), page and column in 
this manner: 

25Jan. 1921, II, 1:3 

5. Cross reference information. This includes reprints in 
books and other publications. Most of the cross references 
are listed elsewhere in this bibliography. 

6. Brief annotation concerning the contents of the entry, 
occasionally including an evaluation of the item as a piece 
of O'Neill scholarship. Frequent cross references are made 
to other items within the bibliography for comparison and 
contrast of material. 

NOTE: Entries of more than routine interest or of special 
significance are marked with an asterisk ( * ) in the left margin. 
All of O'Neill's plays are spelled out in CAPITAL LETTERS. 
An abbreviated form is often used to save space: e.g., ICEMAN 
THE ELMS, and so on. 

150. Agee, James. "Ordeal of Eugene O'Neill." Time, 48 
(21 Oct. 1946) 71. 

Review of O'Neill's life and works upon opening of ICEMAN. 
Agee sees O'Neill as our greatest craftsman, rather than a 

* 151. Alexander, Doris M. "Eugene O'Neill as social critic." 

Am. Quar., 6 (Winter 1954) 349-363. 

An extended analysis of O'Neill's criticism of modern society, 
including facts from earliest plays like SERVITUDE and APE, 
OUT END, as well as AH, WILDERNESS!. Miss Alexander finds 
O'Neill's criticism cancels itself out because of his condemnation 
of all society and his rejection of all solutions to make it better. 

152. . "Eugene O'Neill: The Hound of Heaven 

and the Hell Hole." Mod. Lang. Q., 20 (Dec. 1959) 307-314. 

Well documented thesis that SERVITUDE, WELDED, and 
DAYS WITHOUT END are all based on O'Neill's fear of love 


and his fascination with Thompson's "Hound of Heaven," which 
he delighted in reciting to all comers in Greenwich Village's 
Golden Swan bar, known as the Hell Hole. 

153. Anderson, John. "Eugene O'Neill." Th. Arts, 15 ( Nov. 
1931) 938-942. 

An appreciation of O'Neill's powers. He is first important 
dramatist to contend with shifting values of modem Hfe. 

154. Andrews, Kenneth. "Broadway, our literary signpost." 
Bookman, 53 (July 1921) 407-417. 

JONES is the best argument against those who lament the 
passing of the "palmy days and their great tragedians." JONES, 
DIFFRENT, and HORIZON show we are beginning to think 
in the theatre. 

155. . "Broadway, our literary signpost." Book- 
man, 57 (April 1923) 191. 

O'Neill and the Guild are encouraging producers to give better 
plays. O'Neill makes us think, which is something new. 

156. Anshutz, Grace. "Expressionistic drama in the Ameri- 
can theatre." Drama, 16 (April 1926) 245. 

O'Neill is the best expressionistic writer in his welding of the 
external and internal — the body and the spirit — so harmoniously. 

157. Atkinson, Brooks. "After all these years." NY Times, 
12 0ct. 1941, IX,1:1. 

Atkinson wonders why more of O'Neill is not revived, though 
he realizes that many plays are beyond revival. 

158. . "Dramatist of the sail and the sea." NY 

Times, 3 May 1931, VIII, 1:1. 

The earthy, emotional characters of APE, JONES, DESIRE 
are better than those of O'Neill's recent confused experimentation. 

159. . "Ennobel-ing O'Neill." NY Times, 22 Nov. 

1936, XI, 1:1. [Reprinted as "O'Neill gets the Nobel prize," in 
Atkinson's Broadway scrapbook, NY, Theatre Arts, 1947, pp. 52- 

55 (No. 2).] 


The award is one of the most cheering things of otherwise de- 
pressing theatre season. It was awarded fairly, to a man whose 
accomphshments merited it. 

160. . "Eugene O'Neill." NY Times, 20 Jan. 1952, 


Atkinson praises the revivals of ANNA CHRISTIE and DE- 
SIRE and expresses sorrow for O'Neill's 25-year limbo. 

161. -. "Eugene O'Neill." NY Times, 13 Dec. 1953, 


Eulogy to a giant who has been dropped from the earth, a 
great spirit and a great dramatist. No one like him before, none 
like him now. 

* 162. . "Feuding again." NY Times, 25 Apr. 1948, 


Reply to the anonymous "Counsels of Despair" (No. 204) 
from London Times. Atkinson attempts to point out O'Neill's 
greatness, showing how this "peevish" London writer lost sight 
of what was behind the plays. Atkinson successfully attacks the 
obvious weakness in the article by pointing out that the writer's 
prejudice and illogical reasoning are not based on what O'Neill 
has done, but on the critic's own ideas of what he should 
have done. 

163. . "Head man in the drama." NY Times, 19 

Aug. 1951,11,1:1. 

Only an improvident theatre such as ours today would neglect 
this man who has written the finest dramatic literature we have. 

164. . "King of tragedy." NY Times, 28 Mar. 1954, 

II, 1:L 

Inquires why America does not recognize its own great master 
whose plays, regardless of one's personal opinion, have become 
accepted as the works of a man struggling with higher things. 

165. . "O'Neill's finale." NY Times, 12 May 1957, 


A brief look at the current revival with especial reference 


166. . "O'Neill off duty." NY Times, 8 Oct. 1933, 


Informal interview finds O'Neill a different, more human per- 
son, relaxed and capable of laughing "without brilliant provoca- 
tion," apparently having abandoned much of his earlier style 
of tragedy. 

167. "Author." New Yorker, 31 Dec. 1927. 

Brief discussion of the "quiet young man" sitting alone at 
rehearsals of his plays. Some "intimate notes" designed to alter 
the picture of O'Neill's morose pessimism. 

168. Bab, Julius. "Eugene O'Neill — as Europe sees 
America's foremost playwright." Th. Guild Mag., 9 (Nov. 1931) 

O'Neill is the most vigorous personality among all playwrights 
known to Europe, says Bab, and deserves at least some im- 
mortality for his tragedy of the proletariat. 

169. Baker, George Pierce. "O'Neill's first decade." Yale 
Rev., ns, 15 (July 1926) 789-792. 

Review of O'Neill's first ten years by his erstwhile teacher. 
Now at middle of his career, says Baker, O'Neill should develop 
his material more imaginatively. 

170. Band, Muriel S. "O'Neill is back." May fair, Oct. 
1946, p. 66. 

Report of the press conference before ICEMAN, with O'Neill's 
views concerning America's failings. 

* 171. Basso, Hamilton. "The tragic sense." New Yorker, 

24 (28 Feb. 1948) 34; 24 (6 Mar. 1948) 34; 24 (13 Mar. 1948) 37. 
The most extensive item to appear in any periodical, this 
typical New Yorker "profile" is written in straightforward repor- 
torial style, without criticism or evaluation of O'Neill or his 
work. Part I gives a good account of the playwright's background, 
in many ways better than what Clark supplies in his several 
editions of The Man and His Plays (No. 21). Part II lists and 
discusses all the plays. Part III deals with O'Neill's more recent 
life and closes with an interview expressing many of his personal 


views about his own work and the theatre. Basso makes the first 
announcement that the multi-play cycle, A TALE OF POSSES- 
SORS SELF-DISPOSSESSED, had been destroyed. 

* 172. Bentley, Eric. "Trying to like O'Neill." Kenyon Rev., 

14 (July 1952) 476-492. [Reprinted in Bentley's In search of 
theatre, NY, Knopf, 1953 (No. 3).] 

Having been asked to assist in directing the German language 
version of ICEMAN, Bentley thought he began to see some 
good points in O'Neill's work. But the period of "liking" was 
soon over, for O'Neill's great intentions are never realized, says 
Bentley, and he achieves less the more he attempts, with his 
characters blown up in size by cultural and psychological gas. 
The final conclusion is, however, that if one dislikes O'Neill he 
actually dislikes our age, of which O'Neill is the representative. 
This essay, together with Krutch's introduction to Nine Plays 
( No. 69 ) , is a widely quoted criticism. 

173. "Big run for O'Neill's plays." Life 42 (24 June 1957) 

Illustrations from the many revivals and adaptations in current 
popularity, such as LONG DATS JOURNEY, MISBEGOTTEN, 
POET, and the musical version of ANNA CHRISTIE, New Girl 
in Town. 

174. Bird, Carol. "Eugene O'Neill — the inner man." 
Theatre, 39 (June 1924) 8. 

This interview at the Provincetown Playhouse has particular 
interest because of its extended presentation of O'Neill's defense 
of his continued writing of the down-and-out. 

175. Blackburn, Clara. "Continental influences on Eugene 
O'Neill's expressionistic drama." Amer. Lit., 13 (May 1941) 

If "expressionistic drama" had been left out of the title the 
article would become clearer. Miss Blackburn finds many of 
O'Neill's plays have considerable Swedish and German influence. 
Carl Dahlstrom's "norms" for expressionism are used as points 
of departure, often much too literally. For instance, the simple 
battle of the sexes displayed by Nina and Darrell in INTER- 


LUDE is seen as "expressionism." Miss Blackburn frequently 
mistakes mere similarity for influence. 

176. Bodenheim, Maxwell. "Roughneck and romancer." 
New Yorker, 3 (6 Feb. 1926) 17-18. 

The first New Yorker "profile" (see Basso's 3-installment ver- 
sion, No. 171 ) regrets O'Neill's apparent change from the prober 
of lower world rowdies and adventurers to more "highbrow" 
world of Mencken and Nathan. 

177. Bowen, Croswell. "The black Irishman." PM, 3 Nov. 

The main discussion centers around O'Neill's loss of faith early 
in life and his failure to regain it. Some good pictures of New 
London home and the O'Neill family. Most of the material here 
is available in earlier articles elsewhere. (See also Bowen's 
Curse of the Misbegotten, No. 8. ) 

178. Boyd, Ernest. "A great American dramatist." Free- 
man, 3 (6 July 1921) 404-405. 

O'Neill's great ability is to create mood and atmosphere and 
great characters at expense of plot. 

179. Boynton, Percy H. "American authors of today: X. 
The drama." Eng. Jour., 12 (June 1923) 407-415. 

This long treatment of the history of American playwriting 
concludes with a discussion of O'Neill as the man who embodies 
so much of modern theatrical and dramatic history in his own 

* 180. Breese, Jessie M. "Home on the dunes." Country Life 

in America, 45 (Nov. 1923) 72-76. 

Detailed description of O'Neill's unique residence on Cape 
Cod's Peaked Hill Bars, including five excellent photographs of 
its interior and exterior. 

181. Brock, H. E. "O'Neill stirs the gods of the drama." 
NY Times, 15 Jan. 1928, V, p. 9. 

Discussion of this amazing young man who commands audi- 
ences to do as he likes. 


182. Brown, Ivor. "American plays in England." Am. 
Merc, 33 (Nov. 1934) 315-322. 

An attempt to explain why O'Neill is not generally accepted 
in England. The English have an idea of America which O'Neill 
does not present, and he is therefore ignored. 

183. Brown, John Mason. "All O'Neilling." Sat R. Lit., 29 
(19 Oct. 1946) 26. [Reprinted as "Moaning at the bar," in 
Brown's Seeing more things, NY, Whittlesey House, 1948 
(No. 13).] 

Combined review of ICEMAN and discussion of O'Neill's 
past work, which has always shown unmistakable courage and 
the single theme of the relationship of man to the universe. 

184. . "American tragedy." Sat. R. Lit., 32 (6 Aug. 

1949) 124-127. [Reprinted in Brown's Still seeing things, NY, 
McGraw-Hill, 1950, pp. 185-195 (No. 14).] 

The need for tragedy today, in its exaltation of Man, is great. 
O'Neill sensed it, and despite shortcomings and lack of language, 
did exalt man, finding happiness not in the happy ending but 
in the tragic concept of the greater nobility of man. All of his 
plays have been in the Greek and Elizabethan concept of tragedy. 

185. . "Eugene O'Neill, 1888-1953." Sat. R. 36 

(19 Dec. 1953) 26-28. 

Regardless of how high he aspired and how low he fell, O'Neill 
was never afraid to face and attack any theme he felt would 
forward his tragic theme. Wonder expressed that America, the 
land of laughter, should put forth the only major modern 
tragic writer. 

186. . "The present day dilemma of Eugene 

O'Neill." NY Post, 19 Nov. 1932. 

In his greatest victories, O'Neill has met defeat in his inability 
to keep in contact with the type of play he originally conceived, 
turning now from rough life of sea to the drawing room of 
Freud and Jung. Brown finds O'Neill's essay on masks in the 
Spectator (see Non-Dramatic O'Neill 1932) hard to take. It 
seems to mark the decline of a great original power. 


187. Brustein, Robert. "Why American plays are not litera- 
ture." Harpers, 219 (Oct. 1959) 167-172. 

O'Neill is included in a discussion of the serious shortcomings 
of American literary drama, including such aspects as O'Neill's 
own "inarticulacy." 

188. Burton, Katherine. "Aldous Huxley and other mod- 
erns." Cath. Wld., 139 (Aug. 1934) 552-556. 

This article on Brave New World includes discussion of 
O'Neill's ideas about machine worship, 

189. Garb, David. "Eugene O'Neill." Vogue, 68 ( 15 Sept. 
1926) 100. 

O'Neill's position as our first dramatist comes from his daring to 
be himself and a sense of theatre unequalled by contemporaries. 

190. Carpenter, Frederic I. "The romantic tragedy of 
Eugene O'Neill." Coll. Eng., 6 (Feb. 1945) 250-258. 

Carpenter regards O'Neill's belief in the unattainably perfect 
life as basically romantic. LAZARUS, INTERLUDE, ELECTRA 
discussed as a trilogy showing the development in O'Neill's 
attitude from the assertion of romantic perfection, through the 
inability to gain it, to the tragic despair in failure. (See Car- 
penter's book, No. 19. ) 

191. Cerf, Bennett. "Three new plays." Sat. R. Lit., 29 
(23 Feb. 1946) 26. 

Discussion of some of O'Neill's projected plays. 

* 192. Cerf, Walter. "Psychoanalysis and the realistic 

drama." Jour, of Aesthetics ir Art Criticism, 16 (Mar. 1958) 

Taking Laurents' A Clearing in the Woods and O'Neill's 
JOURNEY, Cerf attempts to show that modern realism cannot 
successfully convey "psychoanalytically guided retrospection" 
and that the impact of a play like JOURNEY is not good drama 
because in this retrospect there is no place for Aristotle's "perip- 
ity," or sudden turn, so essential to good drama. 


193. Churchill, Allen. "Portrait of a Nobel prize winner 
as a bum." Esquire 47 (June 1957) 98-101. 

Popular review of the influences behind O'Neill from the 
earliest days as a waterfront derelict until his death. 

194. Clark, Barrett H. "Eugene O'Neill, a chapter in biog- 
raphy." Th. Arts, 10 (May 1926) 325-326. 

Excerpts from Clark's first edition of Eugene O'Neill ( No. 21 ) . 

195. Clurman, Harold. "O'Neill revived." New Rep. 126 
(4 Feb. 1952) 22-23. 

O'Neill is an artist of deep personal feeling and a playwright 
of high order, despite certain lacks as a writer. 

196. Cole, Lester, and John Howard Lawson. "Two views 
on O'Neill." Masses and Mainstream, 7 (June 1954) 56-63. 

Discussion of whether or not O'Neill has merit in view of 
Marxist criticism. 

197. Coleman, Alta M. "Personality portraits: No. 3. 
Eugene O'Neill." Theatre, 31 (April 1920) 264. 

This is the first acknowledgement given this "suddenly ac- 
claimed" young writer by Arthur Hornblow's Theatre magazine, 
the "prestige" stage publication of its day. The article is a review 
of facts about O'Neill's life and writings. 

198. Colum, Mary M. "Drama of the disintegrated." 
Forum, 94 (Dec. 1935) 358. 

O'Neill brings his characters to life; they have disintegrated, 
but cling to sanity. Compared to these, Shaw's characters are 
mere abstractions. 

199. Conrad, Lawrence H. "Eugene O'Neill." The Land- 
mark, 11 (July 1929) 413-416. 

Whatever it is O'Neill is trying in the theatre, it is of tre- 
mendous significance. 

* 200. Cook, Jim. "A long tragic journey." NY Post, 2 Dec. 

The important part of this brief sketch of O'Neill's life is an 


interview with his first wife, the former Kathleen Jenkins, now 
Mrs. George Pitt-Smith of Little Neck, L.I. She lived with O'Neill 
for only a few days and in this article cannot recount much of 
their brief life together, although she does wonder why she is 
not even mentioned in LONG DATS JOURNEY. The article 
also includes some material on O'Neill's son Shane, whose dis- 
solute life in many ways paralleled that of his father. (See 
Life Chronology. ) 

201. Cooper, Grace. "Laurel wreaths." NY Telegraph, 9 
Oct. 1927. 

Review of pertinent but well-known facts of O'Neill's life 
and some comments on DYNAMO and INTERLUDE. 

202. Corbin, John. "The one-act play." NY Times, 19 May 
1918, IV, 8: L 

This is the earliest "critical" reference to O'Neill in the Times. 
Discussing the demise of the Washington Square Players, Corbin 
states that one of their "highest results" was the introduction 
of O'Neill's one-act plays. 

203. . "O'Neill and Aeschylus." Sat. R. Lit., 8 

(30 Apr. 1932) 693-695. [Reprinted in Walter, Erich A., ed.. 
Essay annual, NY, Scott, Foresman, 1933, p. 159.] 

Corbin believes a possible reason for O'Neill's decline of 
creative powers can be found in his increased interests in techni- 
cal stunts and morbid psychology. ELECTRA is not Aeschylus, 
and even Freud would disapprove of this exploration of the 
mental underworld. 

* 204. "Counsels of despair." Tim,es Lit. Supp. (London), 

10 Apr. 1948, pp. 197-199. 

Written after publication of ICEMAN in London. One of the 
most bitter and devastating attacks on O'Neill's plays ever to 
be published, ranking far beyond Geddes' "melodramadness" 
(No. 47) or Kemelman's "highbrow melodrama" (No. 285). The 
anonymous author finds O'Neill juvenile, puerile, contemptuous 
of fellow man, of church and society, obsessed with undisciplined 
emotions and jejune opinions, regarding human beings without 
love. The award of the Nobel Prize was "capricious." 


205. Cowley, Malcolm. "Eugene O'Neill, writer of syn- 
thetic drama." Brentands Book Chat, 5 (July- Aug. 1926) 17-21. 

Account of O'Neill's Hell Hole days, of which Cowley him- 
self knew. Review of O'Neill's attempts to break from the con- 
ventional forms. Does not approve of these later tendencies 
as in BROWN. 

206. . "A weekend with Eugene O'Neill." Reporter, 

17 (5 Sept. 1957) 33-36. 

Intimate glimpses of O'Neill's domestic life at Brook Farm, 
Ridgefield, Conn., in 1923. 

207. Crawford, Jack. "Eugene O'Neill: A Broadway phi- 
losopher." Drama, 12 (Jan. 1922) 117. 

O'Neill is shown as a man with a philosophy, literary courage 
and originality. Crawford does not seem quite sure whether or 
not O'Neill's philosophy is intentional. 

208. Crichton, Kyle. "Mr. O'Neill and the iceman." Col- 
lier s, 11^ {2Q Oct. IMQ) 18. 

A popular entertaining interview in O'Neill's NY apartment 
prior to ICEMAN. Writer finds O'Neill "less like a ghost than 
would be imagined. " 

209. Cummings, Ridgley. "Hail, sailor, and farewell." Am. 
Mer.,78 (May 1954) 45-46. 

Upon hearing of O'Neill's death, this writer tells how it felt 
when he himself was a bum on the waterfront and how he en- 
joyed reading O'Neill's plays. 

210. "Curse of the misbegotten." Look, 23 (12 May 1959) 

Brief discussion upon appearance of Bowen's book ( No. 8 ) . 

211. Dale, Alan. "On the rebound back to Broadway, with 
its bad plays, from 'cult' pieces." NY American, 12 Mar. 1922. 

Dale strongly attacks plays like FIRST MAN and STRAW, 
with their "slice of life, birth, death, and tuberculosis. Why not 
portray cirrhosis of the liver, or stage a post-mortem?" 


* 212. De Casseres, Benjamin. "Eugene O'Neill — from Car- 
di£F to Xanadu." Theatre, 46 (Aug. 1927) 10. 

O'Neill's friend and vigorous champion outlines several aspects 
of O'Neill's ideas. De Casseres' praise is highly eulogistic and 
must be taken with reservation. 

* 213. . "Eugene O'Neill — a vignette." Popular 

Biography, 1 (April 1930) 31-38. 

A eulogy, rather than a vignette, showing O'Neill as a man 
who has been to hell, whose life is an epic of will. 

214. . "The psychology of O'Neill." Arts 6- Dec, 

35 (Oct. 1931) 82. 

A summation of O'Neill's apparent psychological themes. 
The most moving and lasting are to be found in LAZARUS, 
while all are summed up in ELECTRA. 

* 215. . "The triumphant genius of Eugene O'Neill." 

Theatre, 47 {Feb. 1928) 12. 

Extravagant, hysterical praise for INTERLUDE, MARCO, 
LAZARUS. "The genius of O'Neill evolves naturally, rhythm- 
ically, and masterfully like a colossal symphony." 

216. De Polo, Harold. "Meet Eugene O'Neill, fisherman." 
Outdoor America, 6 ( May 1928) 5-8. 

Informal account of Maine fishing trip with O'Neill and wife. 

217. de Pue, Elva. "The tragedy of O'Neill." The Figure 
in the Carpet, No. 4, May 1928, pp. 18-25. (Known as Salient 
after this issue. ) 

The shortcomings of recent O'Neill plays come from deficient 
language, a proneness to repetition, and a lack of the real un- 
expectedness, richness and glamor of life. 

218. Deutsch, Helen, and Stella Hanau. "Flashlights of 
theatrical history — The old Provincetown." Th. Guild Mag., 
8 (Aug. 1931) 20-21; 8 (Sept. 1931) 30. 

Brief passages concerning early days at MacDougal Street 
from the book. The Provincetown ( No. 29 ) . 


219. . "When the Provincetown group began." 

Drama, 21 (June 1931) 3. 

Excerpts from first chapter of The Provincetown ( No. 29 ) . 

* 220. De Voto, Bernard. "Minority report." Sat. R. Lit., 
15 (21 Nov. 1936) 3. [Reprinted as "Monte Cristo in modem 
dress" in De Voto's Minority report, Boston, Little, Brown, 1943, 
pp. 190-197 (No. 30).] 

Sharp disagreement not only with the Nobel award but with 
the recognition of O'Neill as a great dramatist. By De Voto's 
standards, O'Neill has given us only great theatre, never great 

221. Dobree, Bonamy. "The plays of Eugene O'Neill." 
Southern Rev., 2 (Winter 1937) 435-446. 

This Enghsh critic analyzes O'Neill's style and finds the play- 
wright unable to overcome adolescent emotions. Despite great 
powers, fate is never inevitable, and too obviously man-made. 

222. Downer, Alan S. "Eugene O'Neill as poet of the 
theatre." Th. Arts, 35 (Feb. 1951) 22-23. 

Poetry of theatre is not necessarily the poetry of the printed 
word, as evidenced by the patterns and rhythms of O'Neill. 

223. Doyle, Louis F. "O'Neill redivivus." America 98 (2 
Nov. 1957) 137-138. 

Reviewing O'Neill's past in view of his popular revival, Doyle 
finds only JONES and APE great drama. He deplores the later 
autobiographical plays, defends the elder James O'Neill as one 
who really knew theatre, which the son did not. Finds O'Neill's 
final critical status, like Shaw's, undecided. 

* 224. Driver, Tom F. "On the late plays of Eugene O'Neill." 
Tulane Dr. Rev., 3 (Dec. 1958) 8-20. 

Believing O'Neill does not write true tragedy as Krutch and 
Nathan see it. Driver chooses JOURNEY, ICEMAN and POET 
to show that O'Neill's later mood was a combination of Romanti- 
cism and Stoicism. He disagrees with O'Neill's assertion that 
life is merely an inevitable progression toward death, but he 


feels the grandeur and imagination of O'Neill makes the rest 
of our theatre "petite and timid." 

225. Eastman, Fred. "Eugene O'Neill and religion." Christ. 
Cent., 50 (26 July 1933) 955-957. 

In Eastman's opinion, O'Neill will not become immortal as a 
great dramatist until he achieves a religious viewpoint. The 
preaching against sin and the devil never seems to recognize the 
help of higher grace. 

226. Eaton, Walter Prichard. "The American drama flow- 
ers: Eugene O'Neill as a great playwright." World's Work, 53 
(Nov. 1926) 105-108. 

With the publication of Clark's Eugene O'Neill (No. 21) 
Eaton believes O'Neill has achieved major status as the first 
contributor to a native dramatic literature. 

227. . "The hermit of Cape Cod." NY Her-Trib., 

8 Jan. 1928. 

A highly favorable critical appraisal of O'Neill's "natural rebel- 
lion" against theatrical convention. O'Neill is compared somewhat 
in extravagance to Emerson and Thoreau. 

* 228. . "O'Neill: New risen attic stream?" Amer. 

Scholar, 6 (Summer 1937) 304-312. 

A discussion of O'Neill's approach to good and evil and his 
plays in the Greek tradition, especially DESIRE. Eaton makes 
the interesting point that ELECTRA, most Greek in form, is 
possibly less Greek in spirit than many others. 

229. . "Where is the American theatre going?" 

World's Work, 52 (Aug. 1926) 461-465. 

While American drama exhibits no special direction, O'Neill's 
sincerity as a sensitive artist shows some indication of a tendency 
toward the spiritual. 

230. . "Why America lacks big playwrights." 

Theatre, 32 (Dec. 1920) 346. 

Success of HORIZON shows our lack of playwrights of real 


individualism, because the public generally approves only the 
"popular" writer. 

231. Enander, Hilma. "Eugene O'Neill — his place in the 
sun." Theatre, 43 (Jan. 1926) 7. 

This critic finds it diflBcult to evaluate the man and the plays 
separately, but has no doubt that O'Neill has elements of great- 
ness which will put American drama in its proper place. 

232. Engel, Edwin A. "Eugene O'Neill's long day's journey 
into hght." Mich. Alum. Quar. Rev. 63 (1957) 348-354. 

shows how O'Neill has faced himself and his past in his last 
plays to show he has at last given "love an ascendancy over 
peace" (the peace of death) and reveals that the "sickness of 
today" at which he always stated his plays were digging was, 
in reality, his own sickness. 

233. . "The theatre of today: Eugene O'Neill." 

Chrysalis, 6 (1953) No. 9-10, pp. 3-11. 

A general review of O'Neill's entry into the writing of Ameri- 
can drama. 

234. Ervine, St. John. "Is O'Neill's power in decline?" 
Theatre, 43 (May 1926) 12. 

Ervine finds indications of decline in O'Neill's reduction of 
his people to absolute bestiality. (See rebuttal by Frank H. 
Freed, No. 249. ) 

235. . "Literary taste in America." New Rep. 2A 

(6 Oct. 1920) 144-147. 

An article on American poets, novelists and other writers by 
this famous Irish dramatist. O'Neill and the Cape Cod group 
are "trying to create an American drama that cannot be mistaken 
for any other than an American drama." 

* 236. . "Mr. Eugene O'Neill." Observer ( London ) 

31 Oct. 1926, p. 15. 

Reviewing BROWN and others, along with Clark's Eugene 
O'Neill (No. 21), Ervine states O'Neill will not be an accomp- 


lished dramatist and live up to his tremendous ability until he 
stops being a faddist and settles down to a definite style. Ervine's 
attitude differs markedly from those who praise O'Neill for 
refusing to be a faddist. 

237. . "Our playwrights as Europe sees them." 

Theatre, 43 (Feb. 1926) 12. 

This discussion of the negligible influence of American plays 
in Europe shows that O'Neill has started no new movement in 
technique, despite his familiarity overseas. 

238. "A Eugene O'Neill miscellany." NY Sun, 12 Jan. 1928. 
An interview which gives a few of O'Neill's personal reactions 

to his own favorite plays. 

239. "Eugene O'Neill, newest of the Guilders." Van. F., 
29 (Nov. 1927)73. 

Upon O'Neill's first production by the Guild, this article offers 
brief comment as he returns from Bermuda for the production 
of MARCO. 

240. "Eugene O'Neill talks of his own plays." NY Her- 
Trih., 16 Nov. 1924. 

Anonymous interviewer tells of O'Neill's opinions on expres- 
sionism and his determination to use it in order to get his 
message across. 

241. "Eugene O'Neill's teacher." NY Times, 12 Dec. 
1936, 18:4. 

Report of O'Neill's Nobel prize acceptance speech which gives 
credit to Strindberg. ( O'Neill did not go to Stockholm himself. ) 

* 242. Fagin, N. Bryllion. "Eugene O'Neill." Antioch Rev., 

14 (March 1954) 14-26. 

An evaluation of O'Neill shortly after his death looks at the 
overexaggerated praise he received at first and the undervalued 
reputation of later years. Reviewing many of the plays, Fagin 
determines that O'Neill, while imperfect, can still be powerfully 
disturbing in this generation. 


* 243. . "Eugene O'Neill contemplates mortality." 

Open Court, 45 (April 1931) 208-219. 

This periodical is devoted to "the science of religion, the 
religion of science, and the extension of the religious parliament 
idea." Fagin finds that O'Neill has a positive approach to the 
question of what life is; namely that it is a matter of endless 
continuity and no death. (Most critics, of course, are disturbed 
by O'Neill's lack of positive approach. ) 

244. . " 'Freud' on the American stage." Ed. Th. 

Journ. 2 (Dec. 1950) 296-305. 

Discussion of themes from Suppressed Desires to Cocktail 
Party. O'Neill found to be preoccupied with morbid psychologi- 
cal "obsession" from DIFFRENT to ICEMAN. 

245. "Fellow student thought O'Neill Very likable.'" NY 
Her-Trib., 9 Jan. 1927. 

Facts about O'Neill's early experience in Baker's class. Com- 
pare this with John Weaver's account ( No. 386 ) . 

* 246. Fergusson, Francis. "Eugene O'Neill." Hound and 
Horn, 3 ( Jan.-March 1930) 145-160. [Reprinted in Zabel, Morton, 
ed.. Literary opinion in America, NY, Harpers, 1937, 1951 (No. 

Ferguson criticizes O'Neill for his inability to make his charac- 
ers a true part of the play alone, because of being too closely 
identified with O'Neill himself. This article is one of the most 
widely cited essays on O'Neill up to this time. 

247. Fiskin, A. M. "The basic unity of Eugene O'Neill." 
Writers of Our Years, Univ. of Denver Studies in Humanities, 
No. 1, 1950 ( no further issues ) p. 101. 

An attempt to relate all of O'Neill's plays up to ICEMAN as 
parts of a consistent artistic viewpoint, mainly that of Being 
and Becoming. Plays fall into three groups: obsession, view of 
the universe involving a naturalistic mysticism, and the human 
beings in action within the metaphysical system set up. 

248. Fleisher, Frederic. "Strindberg and O'Neill." Sym- 
posium, 10 (Spring 1956) 84-93. 


Carefully documented account of Strindberg's influence on 
O'Neill in subject matter, dramatic style, themes, and so forth. 
Plays, dialogue compared to show resemblances. General con- 
clusion, however, is that O'Neill was not as influenced by Strind- 
berg as he was by Nietzsche. 

249. Freed, Frank H. "Eugene O'Neill in the ascendant." 
Theatre, 44 (Oct. 1926) 30. 

A rebuttal to St. John Ervine's assertion of O'Neill's decline 
(No. 234). Freed maintains that tremendous effect of BROWN 
has everything in it which Ervine desires in a good play. 

250. Frenz, Horst. "Eugene O'Neill in France." Books 
Abroad, 18 (Spring 1944) 140-141. 

Brief review of O'Neill's success in France. 

251. . "Eugene O'Neill in Russia." Poet Lore, 

49 (Autumn 1943) 241-247. 

Review of the popularity of American writers in Russia, such 
as Twain and O'Neill. O'Neill himself liked the Russian produc- 
tions of DESIRE, CHILLUN, and others. 

252. . "Eugene O'Neill's plays printed abroad." 

Col. Eng., 5 (March 1944) 340-341. 

Frenz's list of foreign publication in Bulletin of Bibliography 
is better (No. 253). 

253. . "A list of foreign editions and translations 

of Eugene O'Neill's dramas." Bulletin of Bibliography, 18 ( 1943 ) 

A listing of the major foreign editions of O'Neill's plays. 

254. Gassner, John. "Eugene O'Neill: The course of a 
modern dramatist." Critique: Critical Rev. of Th. Arts 1 (Feb. 
1958) 5-14. 

In light of the revived interest in O'Neill, Gassner reviews 
his artistic career in an attempt to evaluate his position as a 
modern dramatist. Gassner concludes that no other dramatist 
of this century has approached O'Neill's "dark and disturbing 


255. . "Homage to Eugene O'Neill." Theatre Time, 

3 (Summer 1951) 17-21. 

Considerable disappointment at the lack of interest of the 
younger theatre generation in this man who wrestled with 
demons instead of pigmies. This survey of O'Neill's work at- 
tempts to give him the stature that Gassner thinks a writer of 
his passion deserves. 

256. . "There is no American drama." Th. Arts, 

36 (Sept. 1952) 24-25. 

The "new critics" says Gassner, insisting on comparison of 
American dramatic eflFort to that of Europe, find little in our 
modern drama. This is a sterile approach, he concludes. 

257. Geddes, Virgil. "Eugene O'Neill." Th. Arts, 15 (Nov. 
1931) 943-946. 

A typical Geddes approach to O'Neill — strongly negative. 
(See his pamphlets, Nos. 47 and 48.) The plays have no real 
dramatic sense but make use of the devices of the bad dramatist 
in tricks of the theatre which do not convey dramatic emotion. 

258. Gelb, Arthur. "O'Neill's hopeless hope for a giant 
cycle." NY Times, 29 Sept. 1958, II, 1:4. 

Factual account of the development of the ideas for TALE 
OF POSSESSORS upon the opening of POET, the only play 
of the cycle to survive suitable for production. 

259. Gierow, Karl-Ragnar. "Eugene O'Neill's posthumous 
plays." World Th., 7 (Spring 1958) 46-52. 

The director of the Stockholm Royal Theatre discusses the 
Cycle and its contents and O'Neill's plans which never material- 
ized. Also revealed for the first time are facts concerning O'Neill's 
nervous trembling which had afflicted him most of his life and 
which was definitely not Parkinson's disease, as commonly 

260. Gold, Michael. "Eugene O'Neill's early days in the 
old 'Hell-Hole'." Sunday Worker, 27 Oct. 1946. 

This is a "party line" report of ICEMAN, which Gold had not 


even seen. The play, he says, attempts to give our youth "musty 
flavor of our more recent literary past." 

261. Granger, Bruce Ingham. "Illusion and reality in 
Eugene O'Neill." Mod. Lang. Notes, 73 (March 1958) 179-186. 

Extended evidence from most of the plays to show how 
O'Neill consistently discussed his belief that the dilemma of 
modern man involves his inability to get order out of chaos 
without illusion, which in turn incapacitates him for meaning- 
ful action. 

262. Grant, Neil F. "The American theatre in England." 
Atlantic, 137 (Feb. 1926) 418-423. 

O'Neill is mainly responsible for the rise in literary value of 
American plays in England. Grant sees American influence in- 
creasing, a somewhat different view from St. John Ervine (No. 
237 ) who finds no influence whatever. 

263. Grauel, George E. "A decade of American drama." 
Thought, 15 (Sept. 1940) 398-419. 

In a review of the 1930's O'Neill is discussed as one who 
"sees conjunction of spiritual forces in the problem of evil," 
with DAYS WITHOUT END as climactic in its stormy, em- 
phatic final assertion. 

264. Groff, Edward. "Point of view in modern drama." 
Mod. Dr., 2 (Dec. 1959) 268-282. 

O'Neill briefly discussed with Miller in section entitled "Point 
of View in the Drama of the Inner Life." 

265. Gump, Margaret. "From ape to man and from man 
to ape." Ktj. For. Lang. Quar. 4 ( 1957) 177-185. 

APE discussed along with items by Huxley, Kafka, and others, 
as a part of literary comment on man's often ape-like qualities 
and tendencies. 

266. Halasz, George. "Crowds fame into 40 years." Brook. 
Eagle, 25 March 1928. 

Newspaper supplement article on O'Neill's life and fame, 
acquired in so short a time. 


267. Halline, Allan Gates. "American dramatic theory 
comes of age." Bucknell Univ. Studies, 1 (June 1949) 1-11. 

O'Neill leaves something to be desired in proportion and 

268. Halman, Doris F. "O'Neill and the untrained play- 
wright." Writer, 40 (July 1928) 215-217. 

Miss Halman gives firm warning to aspiring writers that 
O'Neill's genius transcends, rather than benefits by, theatrical 
tricks. They cannot be used to cover a shoddy plot. 

* 269. Hamilton, Clayton. "A shelf of printed plays." Book- 
man, 41 (Apr. 1915) 182. 

Under "Playwrights of Promise" Hamilton writes the only 
known review of O'Neill's first book, THIRST and Other One 
Act Plays. He finds the favorite mood is horror. (Hamilton, a 
friend of the O'Neill family, had urged James O'Neill to finance 
publication of this book. ) 

* 270. Hamilton, Gladys. "Untold tales of Eugene O'Neill." 
Th. Arts, 40 (Aug. 1956) 31-32. 

Recollections of the youthful O'Neill written by Mrs. Clayton 
Hamilton. She describes him at New London in 1914-1915 as 
the inarticulate, unobtrusive young man who did not wish his 
silences disturbed. Quotations from O'Neill's letters to Hamilton 
show gratitude for his help and guidance, especially because 
Hamilton urged James O'Neill to send his son to Harvard. 

* 271. Hansford, Montiville M. "O'Neill as the stage never 
sees him." Boston Transcript, 22 March 1930. 

Hansford lived with O'Neill for several years during the writ- 
ing of BROWN, INTERLUDE, and LAZARUS. He admits the 
almost impossible task of presenting the man on paper. His 
report is one of the better personal recollections and avoids the 
pitfalls of "explaining" O'Neill through childhood influences 
and social backgrounds. 

272. "Haunting recollections of life with a genius." Life, 
45 (25 Aug. 1958) 55-56. 

Ten pictures of O'Neill and his family from Agnes Boulton's 


own collection, printed at time of publication of Part of a Long 
Story ( No. 7 ) . Comments by Miss Boulton make this a valuable 
collection hitherto unavailable. 

273. Hawthorne, Hildegarde. "The art of Eugene O'Neill." 
NY Times, 13 Aug. 1922, III, 7:1. 

Miss Hawthorne is impressed by O'Neill's originality and 
power, although she sees a note of hysteria in his work. He has 
been too long with sick people. 

* 274. Hayward, Ira N. "Strindberg's influence on Eugene 
O'Neill." Poet Lore, 39 (Winter 1928) 596-604. 

Comparison of styles in language, character, technique be- 
tween the two playwrights. The language of BROWN and 
FOUNTAIN is poetic, according to Hayward, a view not widely 
shared with others. 

275. Helburn, Theresa. "O'Neill: An impression." Sat. R. 
Lt/., 15 (21 Nov. 1936) 10. 

Personal impressions by this Guild member who places O'Neill 
on a parallel with Lindbergh in his courage, conviction and 
strength, and desire to be alone, the "lone eagle" in his profession. 

276. Henderson, Archibald. "Two moderns." Va. Quar. 
Ret;., 5 (Jan. 1929) 133-136. 

Discussion of Shaw, past his zenith; O'Neill, the emotional 
adventurer; and Pirandello, the fantastic intellectual, as top men 
in the drama today. 

* 277. Hofmannsthal, Hugo von. "Eugene O'Neill." Free- 
man, 7 (21 Mar. 1923) 39-41. Translated by Barrett H. Clark. 

An important article by a distinguished Viennese poet and 
playwright who presents some strong indictments against much 
of O'Neill's material. He finds first acts good and last acts weak, 
heading toward a climax that is already expected. 

278. Isaacs, Edith J. R. "Meet Eugene O'Neill." Th. Arts, 
30 (Oct. 1946) 576-587. [Reprinted in Gilder, Rosamond, ed.. 
Theatre Arts anthology, NY, Theatre Arts Books, 1950, pp. 168- 
176 (No. 49).] 


Mrs. Isaacs reflects on the present interest in O'Neill after 
12 years. His early plays were the "trumpet blare" that broke 
the walls of resistance. 

279. . "The Negro in the American theatre." Th. 

Arts, 26 (Aug. 1952) 492-543. 

The entire issue is devoted to this topic. Includes illustrations 
and general remarks about JONES and CHILLUN. 

280. Janney, John. "Perfect ending." Am. Mag:, 117 (Apr. 
1934) 38. 

Popular account of O'Neill's life and personality. 

281. Jones, Carless. "A sailor's O'Neill." Revue Anglo- 
Americaine, 12 (Feb. 1935) 226-229. 

Portrayal of the working seaman is accurate and real, if at 
times restrained. Atmosphere is much better than character. 

282. Kalonyme, Louis. "O'Neill lifts curtain on his early 
days." NY Times, 21 Dec. 1924, IV, p. 7. 

Report of O'Neill's Hfe as reflected in plays of the sea. 

* 283. Karsner, David. "Eugene O'Neill at close range in 
Maine." NY Her-Trib., 8 Aug. 1926. 

In his interview at O'Neill's summer home in Maine, Karsner 
finds it impossible to describe what is behind the man and his 
work. This is an interesting and valuable account of a personal 
visit, which does not become sentimental in the manner of 
Merrill's account (No. 310). 

284. Katzin, Winifrid. "The great God O'Neill." Bookman, 
68 (Sept. 1928) 61-66. 

Imaginary conversation between Eustace Jones, American 
critic, and Achille Pasivite, New York correspondent of a French 
journal. Jones worships O'Neill, finds little fault. Pasivite finds 
no masterpieces, and seems to get the better of the argument. 

* 285. Kemelman, H. G. "Eugene O'Neill and the highbrow 
melodrama." Bookman, 75 (Sept. 1932) 482-491. 

An extremely hostile and ill-conceived attack on all of O'Neill's 


plays as "violent and unbalanced melodrama." Kemelman sets 
up and annihilates O'Neill's characters, action, dialogue and ex- 
perimentation as the work of a writer lacking any dramatic 
talent whatsoever. Kemelman is in a forest-trees predicament, 
as he makes little effort to find any value whatever in O'Neill's 
work. Instead he violently attacks many of the obvious short- 
comings which, in themselves and out of context, are admitted 
faults. Mere tabulating of deaths and murders, or listing the 
number of loose women is not valid criticism. Compared to this 
broadside, the opinions of Geddes (No. 47) and Salisbury (No. 
113) are mild dissensions. 

* 286. Kemp, Harry. "Out of Provincetown: A memoir of 

Eugene O'Neill." Theatre, 51 (April 1930) 22-23. 

Harry Kemp, a "vagrom poet" and an original Provincetown 
Players member, wrote this recollection of the early days on 
Cape Cod and at MacDougal Street. O'Neill is painted as a 
very human and entertaining friend. Main shortcoming of the 
article is its lack of specific dates to identify important events. 

287. Kerr, Walter. "He gave it to 'em, boy." NY Her-Trib., 
14 April 1957. 

An attempt to determine what made O'Neill great, assuming 
Pulitzer prize will go to LONG DATS JOURNEY. (Similar 
item in Kerr's Pieces at Eight, NY, Simon and Schuster, 1957, 
p. 120, No. 65.) 

288. . "The test of greatness." NY Her-Trib., 25 

Aug. 1957. 

Kerr attempts to determine if O'Neill is permanent, and gives 
a reluctant "No." It is only his personal power that still holds us. 

289. Kinne, Wisner Payne. "George Pierce Baker and 
Eugene O'Neill." Chrysalis, 7 ( 1954) No. 9-10, pp. 3-14. 

A report of Baker's position as O'Neill's teacher at Harvard. 
Reprints three letters from O'Neill to Baker: two application 
letters of July, 1914, and a letter of 1919, before production of 
HORIZON, thanking Baker for past help. 

290. Kommer, Rudolf. "O'Neill in Europe." NY Times, 


9 Nov. 1924, VIII, 2:1. [Reprinted in Greenwich Village Playbill 
No. 2, Season 1924-1925.] 

A valuable article on the poor reception of ANNA CHRISTIE 
in Berlin, condemning some of the inexcusable blunders such as 
the insertion of Anna's suicide. 

* 291. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "Eugene O'Neill, the lonely 
revolutionary." Th. Arts, 36 (Apr. 1952) 29-30. 

Like many American greats — Poe, Hawthorne, Melville — 
O'Neill is alone in his work, apart from the "spirit of the age." 
O'Neill's work with tragedy, which no one else attempted, kept 
him from successful communication with the mass of his 

292. . "The meaning of the modern drama. Ill — 

The American tradition." Nation, 141 ( 18 Sept. 1935) 320-323. 

In this series of four articles, Krutch discusses the "classical" 
and "revolutionary " plays as developed in his American Drama 
Since 1918 (No. 68). The public is now ready for the "liberal 
point of view " represented by Rice, Howard, Anderson, and 

293. . "O'Neill the inevitable." Th. Arts, 38 ( Feb. 

1954) 66-69. 

In Krutch's opinion, whatever you may think of O'Neill you 
cannot discuss American drama in the 20th century without 
him. As the drama had its obligatory scene, O'Neill is the obliga- 
tory subject. 

* 294. . "O'Neill's tragic sense." Amer. Schol., 16 

(Summer 1947) 283-290. 

Krutch discusses the outstanding shortcomings and the equally 
outstanding merits of O'Neill's works in an effort to see why, 
after 30 years of writing, O'Neill can still command an audience 
to do as he wishes. Matters of intuition, sincerity, and skills as 
tragic writer are mentioned to show how this man is either 
praised or damned, never considered in between. 

* 295. . "The rediscovery of Eugene O'Neill." NY 

Times, 21 Oct. 1956, VI, pp. 32-34. 


After two decades of neglect, O'Neill may now be in the posi- 
tion to be rediscovered and reappraised by a new generation. 
No artist can be accurately evaluated in his own time, and if 
O'Neill survives this test, he will have the marks of permanent 

296. . "Ten American plays that will endure." 

NY Times, 11 Oct. 1959, VI, pp. 34-35. 

INTERLUDE and LONG DATS JOURNEY are chosen along 
with Streetcar Named Desire, Green Pastures, Oklahoma! and 
others as likeliest American plays to last through posterity. 

297. Kutner, Nanette. "If you were daughter to Eugene 
O'Neill." Good Housekeeping, 115 (Aug. 1942) 26. 

An "intimate glimpse" of O'Neill as a father, told by daughter 
Oona, age 17, whose cafe society life was intensely disliked 
by the parent. 

298. Landauer, Bella C. "The international O'Neill." Am. 
Book Collector, 2 (1932) 55-56. 

Gives complete list of foreign performances from Moscow to 
Berlin and Tokyo. 

299. Lardner, John. "O'Neill's back." Look, 16 (26 Feb. 
1952) 4. 

Brief, admiring welcome to the revivals of DESIRE and 
CHRISTIE, plus a report of O'Neill's love of sports during his 
stay in south of France. 

300. Lewisohn, Ludwig. "Eugene O'Neill." Nation, 113 
(30 Nov. 1921) 626. 

Lewisohn was never one to praise O'Neill. In this accurate 
evaluation of the writer's early faults, he states that O'Neill 
must learn to stop interfering with fate if he is to create memor- 
able plays and not merely memorable fragments. 

301. Lindley, Ernest K. "Exile made him appreciate U.S., 
O'Neill admits." NY Her-Trib., 22 May 1931. 

Interviewed on his return from France, O'Neill gives some 
personal viewpoints on the European theatre. 


302. ^j;Ov:ell, John, Jr. "Eugene O'Neill's darker brother." 
Th. Arts, 32 (Feb. 1948) 45-48. 

By presenting the Negro on equal terms with white, O'Neill 
portends of a brighter future for stage treatment of the Negro. 

* 303. Loving, Pierre. "Eugene O'Neill." Bookman, 53 (Aug. 
1921) 511-520. 

This is one of the earliest long journalistic treatments of the 
rising O'Neill. It is a generally favorable account, written by a 
personal friend. Each play briefly analyzed in an attempt to 
discover influences of Conrad, Strindberg, etc., and possible 

* 304. McCardell, Roy L. "Eugene O'Neill: Son of Monte 
Cristo born on Broadway." NY Telegraph Sunday Mag., 19 Dec. 

A long article about O'Neill's life and early plays. The first 
important item to appear in a New York Sunday supplement. 

305. McClain, John. "O'Neill cometh back." NY Jour-Am., 
12 Oct. 1956. 

With the current revival in interest, McClain reviews O'Neill's 
background and early stage experiences. 

306. Macgowan, Kenneth. "O'Neill as stage director." NY 
Post, 18 Dec. 1926. 

O'Neill's producing partner gives examples of the demands 
which most O'Neill plays make on stage eflFects. 

307. . "O'Neill in his own plays." NY Times, 9 

Jan. 1927, VII, 2:7. 

Brief discussion by O'Neill's partner concerning matters of 
O'Neill's life as reflected in the plays. 

308. . "The O'Neill soliloquy." Th. Guild Mag., 

Feb. 1929. 

A discussion of the evolution of the O'Neill technique from 
the earliest plays like WELDED through INTERLUDE. 

309. Mayo, Thomas F. "The great pendulum." Southwest 
Rev., 36 (Summer 1951) 190-200. 


Tracing the swing from romance to rationalism and back in 
the history of western civihzation, Mayo finds O'Neill's early 
"ruthless dissection of emotions" part of the rationalism of 20's, 
and DAYS WITHOUT END and ICEMAN part of the swing 
to romanticism of 30's and 40's. 

* 310. Merrill, Charles A. "Eugene O'Neill." Equity Mag., 

Aug. 1923, pp. 26-29. 

An interesting report of an interview at O'Neill's Cape Cod 
home, which presents a sentimental picture of cozy domesticity 
and of peaceful isolation from the world. Merrill creates an 
image of a man extraordinarily eager to return to Ireland, a 
facet of O'Neill's personality no other commentator ever seems 
to have discovered. Compare with Karsner's interview in Maine 
(No. 283) and Cowley's report of a weekend in Connecticut 
(No. 206). 

311. Miller, Jordan Y. "Eugene O'Neill's long journey." 
Kansas Mag., 1958, pp. 77-81. 

O'Neill's enigmatic character and his reluctance to be any- 
thing but a devoted playwright discussed in a general review 
of his life and plays in view of the revived interest in his works. 

312. . "The Georgia plays of Eugene O'Neill." 

Georgia Rev., 12 (Fall 1958) 278-290. 

O'Neill's decline into romanticism and ultimate disappearance 
from the American stage for more than a decade are traced 
through the two plays sent to NY from Georgia, AH, WILDER- 

313. Mollan, Malcolm. "Making plays with a tragic end; 
an intimate interview with Eugene O'Neill, who tells why he 
does it." Phila. Public Ledger, 22 Jan. 1922. 

One of the most widely quoted articles of its type. O'Neill 
asserts he will write happy endings only when he finds the 
right kind of happiness. 

314. Morehouse, Ward. "The boulevards after dark: Four 
hours from Paris in his French chateau Eugene O'Neill is writing 
American drama." NY Sun, 14 May 1930. 


Report of O'Neill's life in France, including description of his 
love for speed in a 100 mph French sports car. 

* 315. Morrill, M. M. "Eugene O'Neill's shack." Drama, 
20 (Apr. 1930) 203. 

An overdramatic discussion of O'Neill's home at Peaked Hill 
Bars. This writer is firmly convinced its desolation is the only 
kind of atmosphere O'Neill could happily live in (a view ob- 
viously disproven within a short time). Three pictures of the 
home are included. 

316. Moses, Montrose J. "A hopeful note in the theatre." 
North Am. Rev., 234 (Dec. 1932) 528-535. 

O'Neill is one of those who is bringing new hope to the theatre. 

317. . "The new' Eugene O'Neill." North Am. 

Rev., 236 (Dec. 1933) 543-549. 

The O'Neill legend is shattered somewhat by AH, WILDER- 
NESS!. Does it represent a new O'Neill? Moses is not sure. 

318. . "New trends in the theatre: IV. American." 

Forum, 73 (Jan. 1925) 83-87; 73 (Feb. 1925) 231-237. 

Moses observes that O'Neill's treatment of the Negro was 
formerly impossible on the commercial stage. O'Neill also has 
the quality of soul which is not detected in other modern Ameri- 
can playwrights. 

319. Motherwell, Hiram. "O'Neill - what next?" Stage, 
12 (Aug. 1935) 28-30. [Reprinted in Walter, Erich A., ed.. Essay 
annual, NY, Scott, Foresman, 1936, p. 202.] 

After a year's silence from O'Neill, Motherwell speculates if 
he will emerge as perhaps the diagnostician and prophet of 
individualism in the social order. 

* 320. Mullet, Mary B. "The extraordinary story of Eugene 
O'Neill." Am. Mag., 94 (Nov. 1922) 34. 

The best article to appear in a popular magazine up to this 
date, discussing O'Neill's plays and personal philosophy. It 
recognizes O'Neill's successes as a new force in the theatre. 


321. Nathan, George Jean. "The American dramatist." Am. 
Merc, 17 (Aug. 1929) 500-505. 

In a review of the accompHshments of all modern American 
dramatists, Nathan finds O'Neill the leader, a first rate dramatist, 
despite his failures. 

322. . "The bright face of tragedy." Cosmopolitan, 

143 (Aug. 1957) 66-69. 

More personal recollections, designed to remove the idea that 
O'Neill was always gloomy. Many stories of his youth. Nathan 
reveals that O'Neill fought all his life against the nervous trem- 
bling which eventually incapacitated him. (See Gierow's ex- 
planation of this afflction, No. 259. ) 

323. . "The case of Eugene O'Neill." Am,. Merc, 

13 (Apr. 1928)500-502. 

Stinging attack in the Nathan manner on the critics who 
praise O'Neill's early amateur works and condemn the later 
ones, like MARCO and INTERLUDE. 

324. . "The Cosmopolite of the month." Cosmo- 
politan, 102 (Feb. 1937) 8. 

As a close friend for 20 years, Nathan attempts to debunk 
the common idea of the gloomy introvert by giving facts about 
O'Neill's personal life which show him the happiest most con- 
tented practitioner of belles-lettres. 

325. . "Eugene O'Neill — Intimate portrait of a 

Nobel prizewinner." Rev. of Rev., 95 (Feb. 1937) 66-67. 

O'Neill shown as lover of detective stories, sports, garden work, 
as opposed to the common depressing picture of him. 

326. . "Many are called and two are chosen for 

the dramatic hall of fame." Cur. Op., 69 (Aug. 1920) 201-202. 

George Jean Nathan chooses George Ade and O'Neill as top 
American playwrights. O'Neill chosen not for what he has done, 
but for what he has tried and failed to do. Nathan was the 
earliest important critic to recognize O'Neill's potential. LONG 


VOYAGE HOME and ILE had already been published in 
Nathan and Mencken's Smart Set magazine. 

327. . "O'Neill." Van. F., 41 (Oct. 1933) 30. 

After years of restiveness O'Neill has found calm and tran- 
quility. Nathan also shows how he has been a severe O'Neill 
critic while remaining a close friend. 

328. . "O'Neill: A critical summation." Am. Merc, 

63 (Dec. 1946) 713-719. 

Critical appraisal of O'Neill as writer, taking all plays in 
chronological order. Nathan cites some of Eric Bentley's criti- 
cism from Playwright as Thinker (No. 4) to show lukewarm 
British reception. 

329. . "The recluse of Sea Island." Redbook, 65 

(Aug. 1935) 34. [Reprinted in Nathan's The theatre of the 
moment, Knopf, 1938, pp. 196-207 (No. 102).] 

More of Nathan's revelation of intimate facts about O'Neill 
as a man. Many pictures from the plays. 

330. Neuberger, Richard L. "O'Neill turns west to new 
horizons." NY Times, 22 Nov. 1936, VIII, p. 6. 

Purely reportorial account of an interview, relating well- 
known facts about his life, etc. Portrait and scenes from APE, 

331. Norton, Elliot. "Conscience and a touch of the poet." 
Boston Post, 2 May 1954. 

An attempt to show why O'Neill uses New England almost 
exclusively for settings, mainly because of the "laconic, volcanic, 
soul searching people" whose conscience is "uneasy, accusing, 
and relentless." 

332. "Notes on rare books." NY Times, 18 Nov. 1928, 
IV, 29:1. 

An attempt to review Benjamin De Casseres' poem, "Anathema! 
Litanies of Negation" to which O'Neill wrote the introduction. 
O'Neill is out of his element in this introduction, says the anony- 
mous critic, who finds himself unable even to finish the poem 


333. "O'Neill as actor is recalled by one who saw him in 
17." NY Her-Trib., 17 Mar. 1929. 

Report of O'Neill's few stage appearances in early Province- 
town days. 

* 334. "O'Neill goes mildly pirate, etc." House <b- Garden, 
65 (Jan. 1934) 19-21. 

Description and six excellent photographs of Casa Genotta, 
Sea Island Beach, Georgia. 

335. "O'Neill in Paris." NY Times, 18 Nov. 1923, VIII, 2:8. 
This report of O'Neill's Paris failures, especially JONES, gives 

some interesting examples of the complete misunderstanding of 
the French critics. 

336. "O'Neill, 'shy, dark boy' bold master of modern 
drama." Newsweek, 2 (19 Aug. 1933) 16-17. 

A general news report concerning O'Neill's life and current 
activities upon completion of DAYS WITHOUT END and AH, 

337. "O'Neill's future." Drama, Oct.-Nov., 1921. 

O'Neill may become spoiled by the praise heaped upon him, 
but so far he has not. He occupies a "seat which has long 
been empty." 

338. Pallette, Drew B. "O'Neill's A Touch of the Poet 
and his other last plays." Ariz. Quar., 13 (Winter 1957) 308-319. 

All of the later plays, starting with AH, WILDERNESS!, are 
reviewed as parts of O'Neill's changed aproach of more indi- 
vidualized characters instead of Freudian representatives and 
a tone of compassion for the "damaged" human being. POET 
is a synthesis of the various elements of all the others. 

* 339. Parks, Edd Winfield. "Eugene O'Neill's symbolism." 
Sewanee Rev., 43 (Oct.-Dec. 1935) 436-450. 

Attempting to analyze the poor critical reception of DAYS 
WITHOUT END, Parks goes into a complex explanation of 
O'Neill's symbols and philosophy. Parks' main theme, apparent 
amidst frequently unclear digressions, is that O'Neill has con- 


sistently overused symbols, employing them as the reason for the 
play itself. An interesting contrast to Skinner's viewpoint in 
"poet's quest" (No. 123), because Parks sees no continuity of 
philosophy at all. 

* 340. Peck, Seymour. "Talk with Mrs. O'Neill." NY Times, 
4Nov. 1956, II, 1:6. 

A rare interview with O'Neill's widow, in which she describes 
the background of LONG DAY'S JOURNEY and the eventual 
destruction, page by page, of the entire cycle, A TALE OF POS- 
SESSORS SELF-DISPOSSESSED. Some other interesting per- 
sonal revelations, including O'Neill's initial doubts concerning 
their life in a French chateau. 

* 341. Peery, William. "Does the buskin fit O'Neill?" Univ. 
of Kansas City Rev., 15 (Summer 1949) 281-287. 

Taking O'Neill's statement of his goal in writing tragedy plus 
a good general definition of what tragedy should ofiFer, this 
article makes a telling case for those who would prove that, 
through lack of nobility of character, O'Neill never really achieved 
true tragedy. 

342. Phelps, William Lyon. "Eugene O'Neill, dramatist." 
NY Times, 19 June 1921, III, 17:2. 

Phelps sees O'Neill as one of the "rarest birds" in America — 
an American dramatist. "He may well become of international 

343. Prideaux, Tom. "Most celebrated U.S. playwright 
returns to theatre." Life, 21 ( 14 Oct. 1946) 102-104. 

A well illustrated popular account of Hfe and plays. 

344. "Prof. Baker advises writers for stage." NY Times, 
7Mar. 1926, 1, 13:1. 

Speaking before League for Political Education, O'Neill's old 
professor praises his ex-student, whose poetry in his soul is just 
beginning to be seen. 

345. "The proletariat of the sea." NY Call, 6 July 1919, 
Mag. Sec, p. 10. 


This workingman's paper, to which O'Neill had at one time 
contributed some poetry, finds favor in his treatment of the 
laboring man at sea, deprived of the human relationships of 
the landsman. 

* 346. Quinn, Arthur Hobson. "Eugene O'Neill, poet and 

mystic." Scribners, 80 (Oct. 1926) 368-372. 

Reprints this chapter from 1927 ed. of Quinn's History 
(No. 110). 

347. . "Modern American drama II." Eng. Jour., 

13 (Jan. 1924) 1-10. 

O'Neill's tragedies meet the highest test of being "spiritually 

348. . "The real hope for the American theatre." 

Scribners, 97 (Jan. 1935) 30-35. 

O'Neill's later plays discussed in light of their contribution 
to the hope of the American theatre. 

349. . "The significance of recent American 

drama." Scribners, 72 (July 1922) 97-108. 

A long discourse on the rising value of American drama, in- 
cluding details about all major writers. O'Neill is unique in his 
sincerity, integrity, subject matter, volume and success of plays 
in three years. 

350. Rahv, Phillip. "The men who write our plays." Am. 
Merc, 50 (Aug. 1940) 463-469. 

O'Neill is the single exception to the fact that no American 
creative writer of the first rank has used drama as a natural 
means of expression. 

351. Handel, William. "American plays in Finland." Am. 
Lit., 24 (Nov. 1952) 291-300. 

This brief factual review starts with 1900 and indicates that 
O'Neill is a "most respected" dramatist in Finland. 

352. Reniers, Percival. "If I were you." Theatre, 41 (Apr. 
1925) 12. 


"A dialogue between Eugene O'Neill and Owen Davis — over- 
heard in the imagination." They discuss writing about the hard 
New England life. 

353. Riddell, John. "Strange interview with Mr. O'Neill." 
Van. F., 30 (May 1928) 86. 

Parody of O'Neill's style in a dialogue between O'Neill and 
his own inner voice. 

354. Royde-Smith, Naomi. "Eugene O'Neill." Forum, 76 
(Nov. 1926) 795-796. 

It is time O'Neill stops being a Conrad and Maupassant and 
starts being "our one and only Eugene O'Neill." 

355. Sayler, Oliver M. "The artist of the theatre." Shadow- 
land, 49 (Apr. 1922) 66. [Reprinted in Theatre Arts, June 1957, 
p. 23.] 

"A colloquy between Eugene O'Neill and Oliver M. Sayler." 
Discusses playwright as an artist not only in but of the theatre. 

356. . "Our awakening theatre." Century, 102 

(Aug. 1921) 514-524. 

O'Neill may yet be able to blend the old realism and the new 
theatre into a successful combination. 

357. . "The real Eugene O'Neill." Century, 103 

(Jan. 1922) 351-359. 

Sayler attempts to explain this man who is already a kind of 
legend. It is too early, says Sayler, to mark him as our greatest, 
but his background enables him to bring forth essential tragedy 
of life. 

358. . "Seeking a common denominator to An- 

dreieflF, Pirandello, O'Neill." NY Her-Trib., 26 Apr. 1931. 

The native writing of these 3, says Sayler, transcends nation- 
al limits. 

* 359. Sergeant, Elizabeth Shepley. "O'Neill: The man with 

a mask." New Rep., 50 (16 Mar. 1927) 91-95. [Reprinted in 
Fire Under the Andes, NY, Knopf, 1927 (No. 116).] 


An attempt to analyze the mask O'Neill wears in life. Compare 
this discussion with O'Neill's revelation of his own family life 
in LONG DATS JOURNEY. This critic explains O'Neill's plays 
in terms of childhood rebelliousness against parental autocracy 
and the need for the "lovely distant mother" who was never 
there when wanted. Many of the interpretations of O'Neill's 
later behavior are much closer to the truth than was probably 
recognized at the time. No other contemporary critic pursued 
this line of thinking. 

360. Sisk, Robert F. "Eugene O'Neill disgusted with op- 
position to stage art." NY American, 29 May 1927. 

Admiration expressed that O'Neill has maintained his ideals 
and has written what he wanted, despite opposition of those 
who would discourage true stage art. 

361. Skinner, Richard Dana. "O'Neill and the poet's quest." 
North Am. Rev., 240 (June 1935) 54-67. 

Excerpts from Skinner's book, Eugene O'Neill: A Poet's Quest 

(No. 123). 

362. Slochower, Harry. "Eugene O'Neill's lost moderns." 
Univ. Rev., 10 (Autumn 1943) 32-37. 

His characters often being "masochistic products of modem 
rationalistic self-probings" they never find any release or resting 
place, live in a closed world, their doom foreshadowed. 

363. Smith, Winifred. "Mystics in the modern theatre." 
Sewanee Rev., 50 (Jan.-Mar. 1942) 35-48. 

General discussion of all mystics, including O'Neill, Sherwood, 
and Hemingway. 

364. Smyser, William L. "A temporary expatriate again 
views Broadway." NY Times, 1 July 1928, VIII, 1:4. 

A returning traveler points out that much of O'Neill's tech- 
nique is really gleanings from what Europe long since discarded. 

* 365. Stamm, Rudolph. "The dramatic experiments of 

Eugene O'Neill." Eng. Stud., 28 (Feb. 1947) 1-15. 

Interesting survey covering O'Neill's main phases from one- 


acts to DAYS WITHOUT END. To one unfamiliar with O'Neill 
it is somewhat misleading because the "phases" of atmosphere, 
emotional struggle, and split personality do not follow in 
chronological order. Conclusion is that most plays are admir- 
able experiments. 

366. . " 'Faithful reahsm': Eugene O'Neill and the 

problem of style." Eng. Stud., 40 (Aug. 1959) 242-250. 

This European critic is convinced that after rejecting the un- 
satisfactory experiments of his plays before 1934, O'Neill at last 
found his own consistent style in ICEMAN, JOURNEY, and 
MISBEGOTTEN; i.e., a behef in a Puritanical view of Hfe as 
worse than death, portrayed in a style of "faithful realism" in 
scene and language. 

367. . "The Orestes theme in three plays by 

Eugene O'Neill, T. S. Eliot and J. P. Sartre." Eng. Stud., 30 (Oct. 
1949) 244-255. 

ELECT RA, Family Reunion, and The Flies diagnosed care- 
fully in terms of the concept of guilt and sin in Orestes story. 
O'Neill finds no purification or liberation therein, which the 
others definitely do. 

368. Steinhauer, H. "Eros and Psyche: A Nietzschean 
motif in Anglo-American literature." Mod. Lang. Notes, 64 ( Apr. 
1949) 217-228. 

Convincing partial explanation of BROWN and meaning of 
LAZARUS in terms of Nietzschean philosophy on evils of sex- 
repression, plus certain aspects of ELECTRA in the same vein. 

369. Stevens, Thomas W. "How good is Eugene O'Neill?" 
Eng. Jour., 26 (Mar. 1937) 179-186. 

Attempt to evaluate O'Neill in light of his Nobel prize. The 
contribution of each major play is discussed as seen by PuflF 
and Sneer of Sheridan's Critic. The decision determines that he 
cannot be judged from literary standards, and many no better 
than he have received the award. 

* 370. Straumann, Heinrich. "The philosophical background 

of the modern American drama." Eng. Stud., 26 (June 1944) 65-78. 


A brief but excellent analysis of O'Neill's place in modern 
American literature from an objective European viewpoint. 
American drama is classified into three schools: empirico-prag- 
matic, historical, and ethico-religious. O'Neill achieves greatest 
success in combination of all in ELECTRA. Straumann finds all 
of these groups evident to varying degress in all O'Neill's plays. 

371. Sullivan, Frank. "Life is a bowl of Eugene O'Neills." 
Golden Bk., 18 (July 1933) 60-62. 

A parody on O'Neill's style, presenting the struggles of the 
General Baddun family. 

372. Sweeney, Charles P. "Back to the source of plays 
written by Eugene O'Neill." NY World, 9 Nov. 1924. 

Report of brief interview with O'Neill before production of 
DESIRE, revealing where he got the ideas of many of his plays. 

373. Tapper, Bonno. "Eugene O'Neill's world view." Per- 
sonalist (Univ. of So. Cal. School of Philosophy), 18 (Winter 
1937) 40-48. 

INTERLUDE and ELECTRA taken as examples of O'Neill's 
world view, determining the manner in which he has diagnosed 
the "sickness of today." 

374. Taylor, Joseph R. "The audacity of Eugene O'Neill." 
Jour, of Expression, 3 (Dec. 1929) 209-212. 

A run-down of O'Neill's "rule-breaking" that brought him 

375. Towse, J. Ranken. "A word of warning to Eugene 
O'Neill." NY Post, 18 Mar. 1922. 

Towse's opening night reviews of FIRST MAN, APE, STRAW 
were not particularly favorable, and APE was roundly con- 
demned. He therefore warns O'Neill that he must not give way 
to the broad and easy "path of sensationalism" or use the ab- 
normal merely to point up general propositions. 

376. Trask, C. Hooper. "Eugene O'Neill in Berlin." NY 
World, 4 Jan. 1925. 


Discussion of minimum success of APE, JONES and ANNA 

* 377. Trilling, Lionel. "Eugene O'Neill, a revaluation." 
New Rep., 88 (23 Sept. 1936) 176-179. [Reprinted in Cowley, 
Malcolm, ed., After the genteel tradition, NY, 1937, pp. 127- 
140 (No. 28).] 

Although Trilling is no great admirer of O'Neill, he regards 
the playwright's artistic efforts worthy of attention and therefore 
of criticism. In this excellent survey he contrasts the "surrender" 
of DAYS WITHOUT END to O'Neill's more typical great force 
in affirming the power and hope of life by saying, "O'Neill has 
crept into the dark womb of the mother church and pulled 
the universe in with him. " 

378. "Trouble with Brown." Time, 62 (7 Dec. 1953) 77-78. 
Obituary, review of life and works. He may not have achieved 

his tragic view, but few tried so hard as he. 

379. Vernon, Grenville. "Our native dramatist comes into 
his own." Theatre, 41 (May 1925) 20. 

O'Neill is not yet the great American dramatist, says Vernon, 
but in imagination and courage he represents the great hope in 
native playwriting. This article contains an interesting photo- 
graph of O'Neill at age 8, sitting on a rock, pad and pencil 
in hand. 

* 380. Vorse, Mary Heaton. "O'Neill's house was shrine for 
friends." NY World, 11 Jan. 1931. 

Written by the owner of the famous wharf which saw the 
first production of an O'Neill play, BOUND EAST FOR CAR- 
DIFF in 1916, Miss Vorse relates in detail the collapse of the 
Peaked Hill Bars cottage during a storm. 

381. Watts, Richard, Jr. "Can O'Neill do wrong or not?" 
NY Her-Trib., 17 Mar. 1929. 

Criticism which condemns O'Neill for lack of "intellect" and 
use of "tricks " is invalid, says Watts, who argues that good use 
of theatrical tricks is a perfectly valid step for any playwright. 


382. . "Difficulty in staging plays is no concern 

of Mr. O'Neill." NY Her-Trib., 8 Jan. 1928. 

A catalogue of the almost impossible demands O'Neill makes 
on actor and stage designer with his written directions, but ad- 
mitting they come from a knowledge of the theatre and a desire 
to blend all the arts into one. 

383. . "Realism doomed, O'Neill believes." NY 

Her-Trib., 5 Feb. 1928. 

Quotes O'Neill's belief that realism as we know it is doomed, 
though not necessarily in the style of INTERLUDE. 

384. . "A visit to Eugene O'Neill, now of Arcady." 

NY Her-Trib., 8 June 1930. 

Report of an interview at O'Neill's chateau at Villa Mimosas, 
France. Watts wonders how the lovely home and easy life will 
aflFect O'Neill works yet to come. Compare this with Morrill's 
view concerning O'Neill's home on Cape Cod (No. 315). 

385. Weaver, John V. A. "Eugene O'Neill and Pollyanaly- 
sis." Van. F., 16 (July 1921) 43. 

Weaver maintains that the "Pollyannas" who attack O'Neill 
have only one real complaint — his lack of pity for his characters. 

« 386. . "I knew him when. . ." NY World, 21 Feb. 


Weaver was O'Neill's classmate in Baker's English 47 at Har- 
vard. This informative report is one of the few such personal 
reminiscences in existence. Weaver is unhappy to find that the 
"swashbuckling" O'Neill he knew has now disappeared. 

387. Welch, Mary. "Softer tones for Mr. O'Neill's por- 
trait." Th. Arts, 41 (May 1957) 67-68. 

The actress who played the original Josie in the first abortive 
production of MISBEGOTTEN writes of her experiences trying 
out for the part and acting under O'Neill's supervision. Some 
interesting glimpses into O'Neill's personality not long before 
his death. 


388. Welsh, Robt. G. "Behind the scenes." NY Telegram, 
24 Feb. 1922. 

Some interesting background material on O'Neill's life. 

389. Wenning, T. H. "Dead man triumphant." Newsweek, 
49 (17June 1957) 65-68. 

General review of life and works by the magazine's theatre 
editor in view of the widely popular O'Neill revival. 

390. Whipple, Thomas K. "The tragedy of Eugene 
O'Neill." New Rep., 41 (21 Jan. 1925) 222-225. 

This writer sounds a different note in his analysis. While most 
critics observe that O'Neill's characters are far beyond the identity 
of the audiences which view them, Whipple believes their 
tragedy of frustration in modern society is ours as well. 

391. Wiegand, Charmion von. "The quest of Eugene 
O'Neill." New Theatre, Sept. 1935. p. 12. 

Lengthy detailed analysis of all plays, showing that O'Neill's 
quest for his "long lost innocence" has gotten him nowhere. 
Strongly leftish article condemns O'Neill as the "poet" of the 
decadent American petty bourgeois, whose audience is fast 
dwindling. ( Compare with Skinner, No. 123. ) 

392. Winchell, Walter. "Portrait of a playwright." NY 
Mirror, 13 June 1957. 

Facts and information about O'Neill's life and personality, 
quoting Nathan and others. 

* 393. Winther, Sophus Keith. "Strindberg and O'Neill: A 

study of influence." Scand. Stud., 31 (Aug. 1959) 103-120. 

The best study of Strindberg's influence on O'Neill, going 
much farther in matters of artistry and philosophy than either 
Hayward ( No. 274 ) or Fleisher ( No. 248 ) . Winther is convinced 
that Strindberg and Nietzsche were far more important to O'Neill 
than Freud and Jung throughout his entire creative life. 

394. Wolf son, Lester M. "Inge, O'Neill, and the human 
condition." South. Sp. Jour., 22 (Summer 1957) 221-232. 

Comparison of Inge's "often deftly slick" treatment of the 


isolated, lonely individual with O'Neill's "deadly earnest" por- 
trayals in ICEMAN, MISBEGOTTEN, and JOURNEY. Wolfson 
finds JOURNEY a tragedy of near-Shakespearean quality. 

395. Woodbridge, Homer E. "Eugene O'Neill." South Atl. 
Quar., 37 (Jan. 1938) 22-35. [Reprinted in Hamilton, W. B., 
Fifty years of the South Atlantic Quarterly, Durham, N.C., Duke 
Univ. Press, 1952, pp. 258-271 (No. 55).] 

A tendency toward melodrama, and an inability successfully 
to mix symbol, naturalism, and melodrama deprive much of 
O'Neill's work of great success. An interesting analysis of each 
play in light of this opinion. 

396. Woollcott, Alexander. "The rise of Eugene O'Neill." 
Everybody's, 43 (July 1920) 49. 

Mainly a review of his life and explanation of strength of plays. 

397. Young, Stark. "Eugene O'Neill." New Rep., 32 (15 
Nov. 1922) 307-308. 

Young hopes O'Neill gets out from the burden of the fairly 
limited world he has created and goes on to find his own truth 
in the complex nature of life. 

398. . "Eugene O'Neill: Notes from a critic's 

diary." Harpers, 214 (June 1957) 66. 

Some interesting facts about Young's personal acquaintance 
with O'Neill revealed in notes from 1923 to 1956. 


This portion of the bibhography has been designed to pre- 
sent a clear picture of the tenor of O'Neill criticism as seen in 
the reviews of individual plays. To do so most efiFectively the 
following entries have been arranged in a somewhat arbitrary 
fashion which, it is sincerely hoped, offers the best possible 
system for the purpose in mind. 

To establish the precise pattern of criticism throughout 
O'Neill's lifetime and during his posthumous revival would 
demand a strict chronological listing of each article, regardless 
of the play under discussion, the writer of the article, or the 
periodical source. This might be interesting, but it would be 
tedious to assemble and beyond practical use. On the other 
hand, to present the accumulated opinions of each individual 
critic would demand a straight alphabetical listing by author. 
This would force a large number of anonymous items to be 
grouped together without meaning and would prevent deter- 
mining the attitude of the critics as a whole toward any one 
play. Grouping articles together by periodical title would offer 
many of the same problems. In this fashion one could easily 
enough follow the opinions of Brooks Atkinson, John Mason 
Brown, Joseph Wood Krutch, the Saturday Review or Theatre 
Arts, but the cumulative reaction to each play by those who 
saw it or by the magazines that reviewed it could not be 
clearly delineated. 

The best method would seem to be the inclusion of all 
critical references under the title of the individual play, and 
for practical purposes to list the plays in alphabetical, rather 
than chronological, order. This has been the basis for the more 
than 1400 references in this section. 

Once the items are assembled under the play title, the 
most appropriate order of presentation again becomes a prob- 
lem. Several plays were published before they were produced; 
some died on the road; and others tried out and then entered 


New York. Many were revived, some with more success than 
when first presented. Frequently periodicals have discussed the 
plays long after they first opened, and scholarly journals, such 
as the literary quarterlies, have often published studies of 
individual plays with no relationship to their publication or 
presentation dates. Again, a strict alphabetical listing of opinion 
by author or title under the individual plays would not suc- 
cessfully indicate the interesting pattern of developing criticism. 
In the hope that the most satisfactory compromise has been 
found to meet the objective for which the bibliography 
was designed, the entries in this portion are listed in the fol- 
lowing manner: 

1. BOOK. In a very few instances, as in the case of LONG 
published version appeared before the play was actually staged. 
These were reviewed somewhat irregularly, generally by literary 
commentators rather than drama critics. Reviews of published 
versions that have been located are therefore presented as the 
first series of entries. Column headings appear in this fashion: 


Book - 1956 

followed by entries in alphabetical order by author or title. 
Periodicals are indicated with volume and page when known. 
Dates will include month and day but not year because of the 
designated date in the heading. 

2. ROAD TRYOUTS. O'Neill would not ordinarily permit 
his plays to be given road tryouts and preferred to open "cold" 
in New York. A few, however, did open out of town. Reviews 
of these tryouts form the second group of entries. Opinions from 
local newspapers (Pittsburgh, Atlantic City, Boston, and others) 
form the bulk of the entries. Infrequently a New York newspaper 
comment is also listed. Column headings appear in this fashion: 



Opening night reviews — Pittsburgh Tryout 
Newspapers of 26 Sept. 1933 

followed by entries in alphabetical order by author or title. 
Newspaper titles are given but dates are not included because 
of designated date in the heading. 

3. OPENING NIGHTS. In the great majority of cases, 
opening night reviews are the first listed entries. There are a 
few matters in this connection which must be explained. 

a. New York critics generally ignored the plays of the 
openly avowed "art" theatre of the Provincetown Players 
during its first years. The group made no eflFort to attract 
them and it was considered more of a "club" than an im- 
portant theatre. Therefore, most of O'Neill's early one-act 
plays were reviewed only spasmodically, except for those 
given by the Washington Square Players, the "little" theatre 
which actively competed with Broadway and invited the 
major newspaper and magazine critics to attend. Even THE 
EMPEROR JONES in 1920, after Washington Square had 
become the Theatre Guild, did not receive its full comple- 
ment of reviews. 

b. In the case of the one-act and a few other full-length 
plays, reviews often came some days after the play opened. 
In this case, there will be a series of entries grouped to- 
gether as opening run reviews, with several diflFerent dates. 

c. The number of newspapers has been purposely re- 
stricted. Certain clipping collections, particularly the 
Provincetown scrapbooks in the New York Public Library 
and O'Neill's own newspaper clipping service scrapbooks 
at Yale, contain reviews from newspapers throughout the 
United States, often reproduced from wire service releases. 
These have been omitted. Other less known newspapers 
from the New York metropolitan area, such as the Newark 
Evening News and the various Brooklyn papers, reviewed 
the plays, but these papers are difficult for the average reader 
to find and the reviews themselves appear in clipping col- 


lections and other sources in highly irregular fashion. There- 
for, opening night (or run) reviews and all subsequent 
reviews have been restricted to New York City {i.e., Man- 
hattan Island) dailies plus the Brooklyn Eagle. A page by 
page search of each of these journals was instituted in the 
New York Public Library in order to locate all possible 
reviews. Those found are included here. If a review is 
omitted it is because that particular newspaper did not 
review the play, it was no longer (or not yet) publishing 
at the time, or for some reason was unavailable in the Public 
Library newspaper collection. 

Column headings appear in these two fashions : 


Opening night reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 3 Oct. 1933 

followed by entries in alphabetical order by author or title. 
Please Note: The date is always the day following the first per- 
formance. Newspaper titles are given but dates are not included 
because of designated date in the heading. 


Opening run reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 12 to 15 Nov. 1924 

followed by entries in alphabetical order by author or title. 
Newspaper titles are given and month and day included. Year is 
omitted because of designated date in the heading. 

4. OTHER REVIEWS. Subsequent reviews and discussions 
in magazines and quarterlies and in newspapers themselves on 
drama pages or Sunday supplements are included in the next 
heading. Trade dailies, such as Women's Wear Daily, The Wall 
Street Journal, or Variety, were often several days late in their 
opening night reviews. These are included here to avoid con- 
fusion with the conventional opening night reviews of the large 
dailies. (On the occasions when these papers printed their 


reviews on the same day as the regular papers they are, of 
course, included. ) When volume of material under this category 
warrants, it is broken down by year or group of years. Column 
headings appear in this fashion: 


Other reviews and criticism 

followed by entries in alphabetical order by author or title. 
Periodical titles, often abbreviated, follow with volume, date 
and page when known. Year is omitted because of designated 
date in the heading. 


followed by entries in the same manner. In some case, years 
have been condensed as follows: 


Other reviews and criticism 

followed by subsequent heading 


Entries will then contain complete dates to distinguish their 
chronological position. 

5. REVIVALS. When the revivals warrant, as they generally 
do, they are included under a separate listing, with entries 
treated in the same manner. Column headings appear in this 


Opening night reviews — Revival — New York 
Newspapers of 3 Oct. 1941 

followed by entries in the same fashion as before. 


6. FURTHER REVIEWS. Subsequent reviews and criti- 
cism are treated in the same manner as those following open- 
ing nights. 

NOTE: To achieve the cumulative opinion of any one critic, 
consult the index, which lists each reviewer in alphabetical 
order and the plays he has reviewed. Also, be sure to consult 
the editorial comments that accompany any unusual listing of 
entries. These comments appear in various appropriate spots 
under the individual plays. 

It can readily be seen that this arrangement is unorthodox. 
It does, however, supply at a glance the immediate reaction of 
the important professional critics ( 1 ) to each separate production 
of an O'Neill play immediately after it opened; (2) to the subse- 
quent reconsideration by the same reviewers or by others, and 
(3) to the revivals which were often attempted. The general 
chronological order is maintained within this framework, and 
the user of this bibliography can determine, by placing each 
play in its chronological order of production, the whole order 
of development of the professional critic's attitude toward this 
vigorous and mystifying new playwright, or their subsequent 
distress or exaltation at the plays of his later years. 

The general MECHANICS of this section — order of pre- 
senting the material — follow the same system used under the 
preceding section, GENERAL REFERENCES - PERIODI- 
CALS. Only the New York Times entries contain page and 
column number. Other papers have date only. Magazine entries 
contain full information concerning volume, date and page if 
known, but as in the case of those in the previous section, cer- 
tain information is lacking because of the impossibility or im- 
practicality of locating it. Consult the introduction to the Periodi- 
cal section for full details. 



The title will be punctuated as O'Neill intended: Ah, Wilderness! 
Variants within diflFerent reviews will be disregarded. 

Opening night reviews — Pittsburgh Tryout 
Newspapers of 26 Sept. 1933 

399. Gaul, Harvey. "O'Neill, Cohan share spotlight in 
world premiere at Nixon." Pitt. Post Gazette. 

It is Cohan's piece; long arid stretches need trimming. 

400. Parry, Florence F. "Wherein the boy Penrod grows 
older under the new and nostalgic pen of Eugene O'Neill." 
Pitt. Press. 

Negative report; not a play, but a series of unmatched scenes 
strung together; old O'Neill is much preferred. 

401. Seibel, George. "O'Neill world premiere of Ah, 
Wilderness! hit at Nixon." Pitt. Sun Telegraph. 

Praise for O'Neill's ability to restrain and condense. 

Opening night reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 3 Oct. 1933 

402. Allen, Kelcey. "Ah, Wilderness! O'Neill play, is bright 
comedy." W. W. Daily. 

General account of play's subject, showing that O'Neill can 
write in a lighter vein. 

403. Anderson, John. "Humor flows from O'Neill pen." 
NY Jour. 

High praise for charm and vivacity, "affectionate, indulgent, 
and tear-stained humor." 

404. Atkinson, Brooks. "In which Eugene O'Neill recap- 
tures the past . . ." NY Times, 28:2. 

O'Neill now on level where he can talk to all of us; highest 


recommendation, even with evidence of the commonplace and 

405. Brown, John Mason. "George M. Cohan in Eugene 
O'Neill's comedy." NY Post. 

Praise for cast, production, and O'Neill's laying aside the 
tragic mask. 

406. Gabriel, Gilbert. "Ah, Wilderness!" NY Amer. 
Comedy of recantation as well as recollection; the play is 

"paradise enow." 

407. Garland, Robert. "Laughs, tears in Ah, Wilderness!" 
NY Wor-Tel 

Enthusiastic praise for all elements of play and production. 

408. Hammond, Percy. "Ah, Wilderness!" NY Her-Trib. 
Dismissed as little more than sentiment; Cohan is better than 

the script. 

409. Lockridge, Richard. "Ah, Wilderness! ... is oflFered 
by the Theatre Guild." NY Sun. 

O'Neill is just plain folks after all. 

410. Mantle, Burns. "Ah, Wilderness! — and George 
Cohan." NY News. 

Praise for Cohan; play fits the groove of American family life 
as it is currently being presented in drama. 

411. Pollock, Arthur. "Eugene O'Neill writes a gentle, 
kindly play." Brook. Eagle. 

O'Neill has gone through his own revolution and likes the 
world a bit more. 

412. Winchell, Walter. "Cohan triumphs at Guild theatre 
in O'Neill hit." NY Mirror. 

Eventful night, abundance of delight; "chords of emotion 
played with skill, dignity and good taste." 


Other reviews and criticism 

413. Adams, Franklin P. "The conning tower." NY Her- 
Trib., 2 Oct. 

Best O'Neill play ever seen; worth "50 Interludes and dozen 

414. "Ah, Wilderness!" Variety, 10 Oct. 
Admirable start for Guild; helps enliven new season. 

415. "Ah, Wilderness!" NY Wor-Tel, 13 Oct. 

This editorial regards O'Neill's experiments as a good thing, 
but the writer is delighted with this play's turn toward gentle- 
ness and simplicity. 

416. Bolton, Whitney. "Geo. M. Cohan is THE THING 
in O'Neill's Ah, Wilderness!" NY Morn. Teleg., 4 Oct. 

Not great, but extremely satisfying, the skilled trickery of 
good theatre. Cohan is a better actor than O'Neill is a playwright. 

417. Bowen, Stirling. "E. O'Neill and G. Cohan." Wall St. 
Jour., 5 Oct. 

A folksy play, full of nostalgia, which brings together in O'Neill 
and Cohan two foremost virtuosi of observation and showman- 
ship in this generation. 

418. "Broadway boy." Time, 22 (9 Oct.) 26. 
"Human, kindly, sure drawn" picture of home life. 

419. Burr, Eugene. "Ah, Wilderness!" Billboard, 45 (14 
Oct. ) 16. 

Strongly negative report; most of the play is trite, full of stage 
tricks. Written by anybody else it would have been thrown out. 
(Burr, however, finds the beach love scene one of the theatre's 
"most lovely," while many other critics condemned it. ) 

420. Caldwell, Cy. "To see or not to see." New Outlook, 
162 (Nov.) 42. 

Charming, tender, thoroughly delightful. 


421. Corbin, John. "O'Neill backs and fills." Sat. R. Lit., 
10 (28 Oct.) 217. 

A new facet of O'Neill's genius, but with the same preoccupa- 
tion with deadly sin. 

422. Eaton, Walter Prichard. "Eugene O'Neill changes 
style and mood." NY Her-Trib., 22 Oct. 

O'Neill proves he can write a normal play and please the 
masses; smiling, tender, simple treatment of subject. 

423. Gabriel, Gilbert. 'Tersonal element." NY Amer., 
5 Oct. 

Gabriel draws some tenuous parallels between O'Neill's early 
life and the play's events. 

424. Garland, Robert. "Finds subtle change in outlook of 
O'Neill." NY Wor-Tel, 5 Oct. 

Garland likes this best of any O'Neill. 

425. . "Hails O'Neill play for wit and daring." 

NY Wor-Tel, 9 Oct. 

Extensive quotes from Clayton Hamilton's high praise; the 
kind of play nobody previously dared write or produce in this 
"over-wearied world." 

426. . "Hokum that assays at humanity." NY 

World, 3 Nov. 

O'Neill and Mae West both use hokum and both succeed. 

427. "Garment of repentance." Lit. D., 116 (28 Oct.) 24. 
"The family scenes strike one as things overhead rather than 

lived or truthfully imagined." 

428. "Guild's new O'Neill play escapes dullness with 
Cohan." Newsweek, 2 (7 Oct.) 29. 

"Moonlight and soft roses in old New England" which do not 
stand up very well without the stars and splendid supporting cast. 

429. Hammond, Percy. "The theaters." NY Her-Trib., 
8 Oct. 


Cohan keeps the play from being completely boring. He has 
been good in many bad plays, "among the worst of which 
is Ah, Wilderness!" 

430. Isaacs, Edith J. R. "Good plays a plenty." Th. Arts, 
17 (Dec.) 908-909. 

Not much of a play, but merely conventional comedy. 

431. Jordan, EHzabeth. "Mr. O'Neill soft pedalled." 
America, 28 Oct., p. 89. 

This critic does not admire O'Neill's usual plays and is happy 
to see this one. She concludes that if his recent marriage was the 
cause of his change, his wife is a pubhc benefactor and should 
be awarded Pulitzer and Nobel prizes. 

432. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "Mr. O'Neill's comedy." 
Nation, 137 (18 Oct.) 458-459. 

Charming humor, pleasant entertainment, written about senti- 
ment instead of passion. 

433. Lockridge, Richard. "Requiescat in pace?" NY Sun, 
7 Oct. 

Hope expressed that the change in O'Neill will not remove 
one of the most exciting reasons for going to the theatre by 
becoming ordinary, unexciting, conventional. 

434. Mantle, Burns. "Mister O'Neill changes a few spots." 
NY News, 15 Oct. 

Attempts to explain the change in O'Neill, tracing back some 
of his personal history. It is to O'Neill's credit that he should 
have written this play. 

435. Nathan, George Jean. "A turn to the right." Van. F., 
41 (Nov.) 66. 

Proof O'Neill can write comedy as well as serious material. 
Nathan is glad he can work in a conventional medium. 

436. "Old man O'Neill, and others." NY Her-Trib., 5 Oct. 
This review of published version warns that if this is a changed 


O'Neill, we may soon expect a satire on "serious young Freudian 
of yesteryear." 

437. "O'Neill relaxes." Stage, 11 (Nov.) 7-9. 

Large double page picture of dinner scene, with brief review. 
O'Neill has put people you are drawn to on stage just because 
you love them. 

438. "O'Neill turns to simple folk." NY Post, 11 Oct. 
Mainly discusses the ease with which the play was com- 
posed in six weeks. 

439. Skinner, Richard Dana. "Ah, Wilderness!" Common- 
weal, 18 (27 Oct.) 620. [Reprinted as "A note on Eugene 
O'Neill," in Skillin, Edward S., ed., The Commonweal reader, 
NY, Harpers, 1949, pp. 80-83 (No. 124).] 

More than just Tarkington; O'Neill is looking into his own 
soul as he pauses on a difficult journey. 

440. Wyatt, Euphemia Van R. "A great American comedy." 
Cath. Wld., 138 (Nov.) 214-215. 

No more tender plea could be made for the Pope's Encyclical 
on Marriage than this play, written in keeping therewith by 
Catholic O'Neill. ( In reality, O'Neill did not practice his religion 
after his childhood. ) 

441. Young, Stark. "Variegated hits." New Rep., 76 (18 
Oct.) 280. 

Some eflFect lost by O'Neill's lack of gift for true words and 
living speech rhythm. The basic appeal is still O'Neill. 


442. "Ah, Wilderness!" Th. Arts, 18 (May 1934) 390. 

The published version, while gracious, nostalgic, and trivial, 
loses much without Cohan. 

443. Brandt, George. "Ah, Wilderness!" Rev. of Rev., 89 
(Feb. 1934) 39. 


"Booth Tarkington sort of tenderness." 

444. Eaton, Walter Prichard. "The drama in 1933." Am. 
Schol, 3 (Winter 1934) 96-101. 

Reviewing the season, Eaton hopes O'Neill has not departed 
from his gropings into the human spirit. 

445. Gilbert, Douglas. "Did the Nobel judges consider 
O'Neill's Ah, Wilderness!?" NY Wor-Tel, 14 Nov. 1936. 

A play not to be taken lightly; more rational than any of 
O'Neill's others. 

446. Wyatt, Euphemia Van R. "O'Neill and his miracle." 
Cath. Wld., 138 (Mar. 1934) 729. 

This play is a "sincere confession of faith" and forecasts the 
"miracle" of the later DAYS WITHOUT END. 

Opening night reviews — Revival — New York 
Newspapers of 3 Oct. 1941 

447. "Ah, Wilderness!" W.W. Daily. 

Has lost none of its flavor and charm; welcome to excellent 

448. Anderson, John. "Ah, Wilderness! revived by Guild." 
NY Jour-Am. 

Enduring comedy; never reaches the sentimental or slushy. 

449. Atkinson, Brooks. "Eugene O'Neill's Ah, Wilderness! 
restaged." NY Times, 26:2. 

Welcomes return; still a play of great pleasure, "never more 

450. Brown, John Mason. "Ah, Wilderness! remains tender 
and enjoyable." NY Wor-Tel. 

Even better than the original, despite Cohan's absence. 

451. Coleman, Robert. "Ah, Wilderness is again a hit." 
NY Mirror. 


One of the best scripts from the master's pen. It has heart, 
decent sentiment, hterate humor. 

452. Kronenberger, Louis. "The Miller family stands the 
test." P.M. 

More sentiment than Tarkington, without the gentility. 

453. Lockridge, Richard. "O'Neill's Ah, Wilderness! is 
revived." NY Sun. 

Better than the original. 

454. Mantle, Burns. "Ah, Wilderness! is happily revived." 
NY News. 

Expertly written play, intelligently revived. 

455. Pollock, Arthur. "O'Neill's Wilderness pleasingly re- 
vived." Brook. Eagle. 

Still a pleasant comedy; O'Neill's insight into character 
is apparent. 

456. Waldorf, Wilella. "Theatre Guild's revival series be- 
gins with Ah, Wilderness!" NY Post. 

Measures up in every respect to the original, and there is 
even some improvement. Still provides a tender and amusing 
picture of family life. 

457. Watts, Richard, Jr. "O'Neill revival." NY Her-Trib. 
Enchanting picture of a lost decade, despite some dawdling. 

Other reviews and criticism 

458. "Ah, Wilderness!" Commonweal, 34 ( 17 Oct. ) 613. 
Fresh as the day it was written; Guild is to be thanked for 

reviving it when the theatre needs spiritual awakening. 

459. "Ah, Wilderness!" Variety, 8 Oct. 
"Least exciting " of Guild's proposed revivals. 


460. "Ah, Wilderness! revival is season's best play." Life, 
11 (3 Nov.) 59-61. 

Mainly pictures of the revival, small amount of text. 

461. Cooke, Richard P. "O'Neill revival." Wall St. Jour., 
4 Oct. 

Refreshing reminder that there are still some good plays in 
existence, though its open and unabashed sentiment lacks what 
we call "pace" today. 

462. Freedley, George. "Guild presents poignant revival 
of Eugene O'Neill's Ah, Wilderness!" NY Telegraph, 4 Oct. 

Eight years have not dimmed the success of this play. 

463. Gibbs, Wolcott. "Ah, Wilderness!" New Yorker, 
17 (11 Oct.) 47. 

Full of cliches; less to believe in than even a Tarkington story. 

464. Gilder, Rosamund. "Candles that light the way — 
Broadway in review." Th. Arts, 25 ( Dec. ) 867-868. 

Mellowed with age; still has basic quality of Americana ap- 
propriate in these times. 

465. Kronenberger, Louis. "Wanted: Six grade B play- 
wrights." P.M., 12 Oct. 

A minor play, but not a false one. Kronenberger pleads for 
more plays of this type, about ordinary good people. The theatre 
should stop its search for new Ibsens and Chekhovs and con- 
centrate on some good adult plays on a level with good maga- 
zine fiction. 

466. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "The fires of spring." Nation, 
153 ( 18 Oct. ) 381. 

Better than original. The play is typical of O'Neill in dealing 
with "hard virtues vs. the soft ones." 

467. Lockridge, Richard. "Footnote on Ah, Wilderness! and 
the way of life it celebrates." NY Sun, 18 Oct. 

Improved in quality; paints life as basically good and a way 
of life all but forgotten at this time. 


468. Warner, Ralph. "Theatre Guild revival reveals the 
true O'Neill." Daily Worker, 7 Oct. 

Welcomes the revival of this lovable family. 

469. Wyatt, Euphemia Van R. "The drama." Cath. Wld., 
154 (Nov.) 212-213. 

Thoroughly recommended revival. 


Opening night reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 16 May 1924 

470. "All God's Chillun Got Wings proves a poignant 
drama." W. W. Daily. 

The more it is understood, the less virulent will be the 
criticism. Powerful, somber, and poignant, probing into the 
human soul and ferreting out truths of its dark recesses. Probably 
better as a treatise than a play. 

471. Broun, Heywood. "All God's Chillun Got Wings." 
NY World. 

A "downstroke" in O'Neill's uneven career; tiresome problem 
play about sanity and insanity. Some of the characters' reactions 
are not very clear. 

472. Corbin, John. "All God's Chillun Got Wings." NY 
Times, 22:3. 

"A painful play" which, if left alone, would not have received 
the attention it got. 

473. Hammond, Percy. "The mayor interferes a little bit 
with All God's Chillun Got Wings." NY Her-Trih. 


Plays better than it reads, but without significance one way 
or another. 

474. Mantle, Burns. "Fitful fevers attack drama." NY 

A dull drama, but sincere; sometimes exciting, but never in- 
spiring. Nobody will go back twice. 

475. "New O'Neill play and the mayor." NY Fost. 

It would be a good one-act play and does not rank with 
O'Neill's best. The second act climax is the O'Neill of JONES, 
going straight to the heart. The landscape is wreckage, but it 
is breathtaking. 

476. Pollock, Arthur. "All God's Chillun." Brook. Eagle. 
Not a play to arouse great enthusiasm. O'Neill can be heard 

explaining and expounding most of the evening, for it is mainly 
exposition. AfiFectation still persists in the Provincetown, and 
O'Neill is not free of it. 

477. Welsh, Robert G. "James (sic) O'Neill's Negro play." 
NY Telegram and Eve. Mail. 

From the standpoint of a situation drawn out to its conclusion, 
one of the most "appealingly moral" plays. 

478. Woollcott, Alexander. "All God's Chillun Got Wings." 
NY Sun. 

Strange, wanton, largely unbelievable tragedy in which the 
antagonist is a taboo. The author is too much in evidence, push- 
ing his characters into a trap and weeping for them. It is some- 
thing tried, but missed. 

Other reviews and criticism 

479. Bjorkman, Edwin. "Plays and playmakers." Outlook, 
137 (11 June) 238. 

Reviewing published version of this and WELDED, finds 
both worth reading, with shortcomings hard to define. 


480. Carb, David. "To see or not to see." Bookman, 59 
(July) 582. 

Many faults, but stabs "as only great tragedy can stab." 

481. Corbin, John. "Among the new plays." NY Times, 
18 May, VII, 1:1. 

In a rather surprisingly blunt assertion of white superiority 
over the Negro, Corbin pleads for a sane attitude toward the 
play, judgment of which will be by those who see it and by 
the play itself. 

482. Gruening, Ernest. "The wings of the children." Th. 
Arf*,8 (July) 497-498. 

Has O'Neill poignancy, vigor, honesty, but race issue should 
be more clear-cut without the abnormalities. 

483. Hornblow, Arthur. "Mr. Hornblow goes to the play." 
Theatre, 39 (July) 15. 

The "tremendous theme" (which Hornblow does not define) 
lamely handled; Provincetown Players add nothing to their laurels. 

484. Kantor, Louis. "O'Neill defends his play of Negroes: 
All God's Chillun." NY Times, 11 May, IX, 5:2. 

Presents O'Neill's defense of this and APE as nothing but 
the treatment of problems of the individuals involved. He ad- 
vocates nothing, merely presenting what is in the problem itself. 
Race prejudice is not O'Neill's concern. 

485. Lewisohn, Ludwig. "All God's Chillun." Nation, 118 
(4 June) 664. 

Race prejudice idea brings O'Neill new heights "hitherto 
inaccessible to him." Symbolic character, almost Greek. 

486. Metcalfe, J. S. "Stage miscegenation." Wall St. Jour., 
17 May. 

The obvious strain of showing "realism" in relationship be- 
tween white and Negro prevents the play from becoming real. 
Dramatic values are lost in the obvious racial basis of the play. 
(This critic makes the interesting suggestion that white actor in 


blackface, or Negro in whiteface would have eliminated much 
of the diflBculty. ) 

487. Nathan, George Jean. "The theatre." Am. Merc, 2 
(May) 113-114. 

Done with sincerity and intelligence, if overly sketchy. The 
violent attacks on the play all miss the point. 

488. Wilson, Edmund. "All God's Chillun and others." 
ISlew Rep., 39 (28 May) 22. 

One of best things about race prejudice and one of best O'Neill. 

489. WooUcott, Alexander. "All God's Chillun etc." NY 
Sun, 20 May. 

Lesser O'Neill; compromises realism of the past with lack 
of persuasion; highly improbable situation in the first place. 


490. Rice, Elmer. "Sex in the modern theatre." Harpers, 
164 (May) 665-673. 

In a discussion of aspects of sex and sex taboos on the mod- 
ern stage, Rice finds this play an "only moderately successful 
attempt" to deal honestly with the problem of miscegenation. 


Opening night reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 7 Apr. 1924 

491. Allen, Kelcey. "New plays at Provincetown Play- 
house." W. W. Daily. 

Impressively done. Flawless stage lighting, but the whole 
thing drags terribly. 


492. Broun, Heywood. "The Ancient Mariner." NY World. 
Base metal from a cracked test tube in the Provincetown lab. 

The ballad is now dreary recitation. 

493. "Coleridge, Moliere and O'Neill on Provincetown 
bill." NY Post. 

Even with the O'Neill assist, Coleridge as theatrical enter- 
tainment is under serious handicap. Neither narrative drama nor 
dramatic narrative. The weird imagery came through from time 
to time, but it was not sustained. 

494. Corbin, John. "A new Provincetown playbill." NY 
Times, 15:5. 

Less grewsome and thrilling than the poem as read. 

495. Vreeland, Frank. "Ancient Mariner made vivid even 
for schoolboys." NY Her-Trib. 

It is so vivid, fresh and heart stirring that schoolboys will go 
home and start memorizing it. The production has all the beauty 
one has suspected of being in the poem. Dramatic fire has been 
drawn down to it. 

496. Welsh, Robert G. "Classics and Provincetown." NY 
Telegram b- Eve. Mail. 

Skillfully arranged as sort of a dramatic monologue. Students 
of the stage will find much to discuss here. 

497. Woollcott, Alexander. "Coleridge and Eugene 
O'Neill." NY Sun. 

More a charade than anything else; Coleridge comes out 
second best. 

Other reviews and criticism 

498. Canfield, Mary Cass. "The Provincetown Playhouse 
takes a chance." Ind. & Week. R., 112 ( 10 May) 259. 

"Almost comes off," but offering no comment on O'Neill's con- 


tribution this critic states she does not know the amount of 
O'Neill's own effort. 

499. "The chorus as used in the Ancient Mariner." NY 
Sun, 23 Apr. 

Anonymous critic comments on the part of the chorus, which 
was used without any choral training. 

500. "Coleridge and O'Neill." NY Times, 13 Apr., VIII, 1:4. 
Reprints portion of MS to show the adaptation. Some stage 

directions are actual lines from the poem. A drawing of scenery 
is on p. 2. 

501. Corbin, John. "The playboys of Macdougal street." 
NY Times, 13 Apr., VIII, 1:2. 

Force of the poem shrinks to the size of the Provincetown 
stage. The producers are fooling around, getting nowhere. 

502. Hornblow, Arthur. "Mr. Hornblow goes to the play." 
Theatre, 39 (June) 19. 

Ponderous and dull despite artistic background effects. The 
poem is destroyed; production wearisome, far from entertaining. 

503. Macgowan, Kenneth. "Crying the hounds of Broad- 
way." Th. Arts, 8 (June) 357-358. 

A beautiful and significant form which is what is important, 
having nothing to do with the poem itself. 

504. Metcalfe, J. S. "Playing theatre." Wall St. Jour., 8 Apr. 
A strong suggestion of the kind of theatre children would 

put on at home before a curtain hung in a doorway; it is not 
art. Those who have forgotten the poem's dreariness will find 
it recalled here. "O'Neill's pretentious experiment seems hardly 
worth the hard work wasted on it." 

505. Nathan, George Jean. "The theatre." Am. Merc, 2 
(June) 243-244. 

No scenery or lighting will remove the fact that this needs a 
writer. Too much an attempt at literal interpretation. 


506. "Plays and players." Town and Country, 81 (1 
May) 48. 

A very thrilling experience. 

507. Pollock, Arthur. "About the theatre." Brook. Eagle, 
13 Apr. 

One of the most interesting of the week's productions. The 
Provincetown players are always a step ahead of the Guild, 
being daring instead of dainty. 

508. Woollcott, Alexander. "The Ancient Mariner." NY 
Sun, 12 Apr. 

Reminiscent of a charade by children in the back parlor. 


ANNA CHRISTIE was originally conceived as a play about the 
old barge captain, Anna's father, and was named both CHRIS 
CHRISTOPHERSON and merely CHRIS. Under the latter title 
it was given a tryout tour in Atlantic City and Philadelphia 
before being withdrawn for major revisions. Because CHRIS 
has never been published and because it is the play from which 
ANNA CHRISTIE emerged, the few notices it received are 
included here from No. 509 to 523. ANNA CHRISTIE begins 
with No. 524. 

Tryout reviews — CHRIS 

Atlantic City and Philadelphia 

Miscellaneous reviews of March 1920 

509. Bronte, C. H. "Chris and the modernist school." 
Phil. Pub. Ledger, 21 Mar. 

O'Neill discussed in relation to modern ideas of realism. This 
unsuccessful piece cannot be dismissed. 


510. Casseboom, Will, Jr. "A masterly play at the Apollo." 
Newspaper unidentified on NYPL clipping. Apparently an At- 
lantic City paper of 9 Mar. 

Not a masterpiece, but masterly piece of writing; the tragedy 
of life. 

511. "Chris." Dram. Mir., 81 (27 Mar.) 577. 
Slim plot, very httle action. 

512. "Chris." Phil. Bulletin, 16 Mar. 
Hardly enough story for a good one-act. 

513. "Chris a new play by Eugene O'Neill." Phil. Record, 
16 Mar. 

Worthy of serious attention in character and dialogue, but 
it is more of a short story expanded into a play than an 
original play. 

514. "Chris a sea play, is Conrad on stage." Phil. Eve. 
Ledger, 16 Mar. 

Little or no action or plot, like a staged Conrad story. 

515. "Chris at Broad." Phil. Inquirer, 16 Mar. 

Draggy, dreary play helped by excellent dialogue, though 
even that is tedious at times. 

516. "Chris at the Apollo tonight." Apparently Atlantic 
City Union, 8 Mar., but source and date on NYPL clipping are 
not clear. 

The story's climax is told with "unerring art." 

517. "Chris sailor play at Broad." Phil. Press, 16 Mar. 
Suggestions of Conrad. We should recognize the talent in 

this new writer. 

518. "Lounger in the lobby." Phil. Press, 21 Mar. 

The young writer is feeling his way, has defective sense of 
drama, but talent for character and atmosphere. 


519. Martin, Linton. "Dramaless drama." Phil. North 
American, 22 Mar. 

The overemphasis on art and atmosphere nearly omits the play. 

520. . "Novel note struck in Eugene O'Neill's 

Chris." Phil. North American, 16 Mar. 

A novel note in playwriting. Everything is here for the success 
of a play but the play itself, which is a "colossal failure" be- 
cause it is dramaless. 

521. "Saline zephyrs blow through O'Neill's play." Atlantic 
City Daily Press, 9 Mar. 

The play is a surprising comedy which everybody seemed to 
enjoy, but this critic lost interest in the conflict between the man 
and the sea after Act III. 

522. "Sea story Chris by Monte Cristo's son." Phil. Pub. 
Ledger, 16 Mar. 

Little feeling of theatre. Play is not engrossing; real drama 
comes too late. 

523. "Seafaring folk as they really are." Phil. Record, 
21 Mar. 

Loses intensity in happy ending, but play is the work of a 
"realist with poet's vision." 

Opening night reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 3 Nov. 1921 

524. "Anna Christie at Vanderbilt." NY Telegram. 
A hit, promising to repeat former O'Neill success. 

525. "Anna Christie has its premiere." NY Sun. 
Unconventional play dwindles to conventional happy ending, 

but still proves O'Neill can write 3-act play. 

526. "Anna Christie is sordid and sad." Journal of 


Falls short of great play; dialogue far out of proportion to 

527. "Anna Christie new triumph for O'Neill." NY Journal. 
Great promise for future successes. 

528. Dale, Alan. "Anna Christie is oflFered at the Vander- 
bilt." NY American. 

Nothing comes through the oleaginous, permeating fog, and 
there's nothing worth coming through anyway. Better to have 
presented the fog without either O'Neill or Anna Christie. 

529. De Foe, Louis V. "Another grim O'Neill drama." 
NY World. 

Performance makes this production worth seeing; shows keen 
imagination and ability of this yet immature artist. 

530. "Drab hfe of the sea in O'Neill's Anna Christie." NY 

Not worthy of O'Neill's ability. Too much "realism"; needs 
something more. Fantastic to have the sea as the protagonist. 

531. Hammond, Percy. "Anna Christie, by the acrid 
O'Neill." NY Tribune. 

Recommended for "veracious picture of some interesting char- 
acters in interesting circumstances." 

532. Kaufman, S. Jay. "Round the town." NY Globe. 
Good play, despite repetition and happy ending. 

533. Macgowan, Kenneth. "... A notable drama notably 
acted." NY Globe. 

No American drama has searched its portion of life as this 
does. Power and humor; notable in vision, writing, acting. 

534. Mantle, Burns. "Anna Christie, vivid drama." NY 

Whatever your opinion, it is finest piece of O'Neill writing, 
sheer realism "stripped to its ugly vitals." 


535. Marsh, Leo A. "Anna Christie at the Vanderbilt." 
NY Telegraph. 

O'Neill's claim to fame could rest with this alone. Continuing 
vitality despite apparent compromise in happy ending. 

536. Pollock, Arthur. "Anna Christie." Brook. Eagle. 

At last produced as O'Neill should be; a play of real persons. 
Happy ending comes naturally out of the plot. 

537. Torres, H. Z. "Anna Christie a triple triumph." NY 

End result somewhat unhappy because of ugliness and mor- 
bidness of the story, despite brilliant writing. 

538. Towse, J. Ranken. "Anna Christie." NY Post. 
"Incredible" happy ending is "disastrous." The play promises 

more for the future than is presently achieved. 

539. WooUcott, Alexander. "The new O'Neill play." NY 
Times, 22:1. 

Mark of imagination. Much better than most current plays. 

Other reviews and criticism 

540. Allen, Kelcey. "Anna Christie superbly played drama 
of the sea." W. W. Daily, 4 Nov. 

Ranks with the best of several seasons. 

541. "Anna Christie." NY Clipper, 16 Nov. 

Too literal a transfer from life; too much gloom, common- 
place dialogue. 

542. "Anna Christie." Drama Calendar, 21 Nov. 
As fine a play as American theatre has yet produced. 

543. "Anna Christie." Variety, 11 Nov. 

While most critics are lyrical in praise of Pauline Lord, this 
one finds her very ordinary, using stock mannerisms. 


544. "Anna Christie at the Vanderbilt Theatre." Town 
Topics, 10 Nov. 

Does not cohere; more of shreds and patches than a unified 

545. Benchley, Robert. Untitled review. Life, 78 (24 
Nov.) 18. 

Miss Lord's performance better than the play, but it is still 
one of the season's most important productions. 

546. Boyd, Ernest. "Mr. O'Neill's new plays." Freeman, 
4 (7 Dec.) 304. 

The ending is the worst anti-chmax in the tlieatre, after one 
of the most tremendous third acts ever written. 

547. Castellun, Maida. "Anna Christie thrilling drama, 
perfectly acted, with a bad ending." NY Call, 4 Nov. 

Ending not a blunder but a crime; 3/2 acts have the quality 
of greatness. 

548. . "The plays that pass — the season's climax." 

NY Call, 6 Nov. 

Reiteration of praise; "the spark of divine fire." 

549. Darnton, Charles. "Anna Christie human flotsam." 
NY World, 4 Nov. 

Chris is the main character, Anna merely a 'TDamacle on the 
paternal hulk." Treatment of character is the most impor- 
tant aspect. 

550. Dawson, N. P. "Books in particular." NY Globe, 
23 Dec. 

This writer, who "knows nothing about the theatre anyway," 
does not find the ending of the published version sentimental. 

551. Hackett, Francis. "After the play." New Rep., 29 
(30 Nov.) 20. 

Essentially a hoax, full of fantasy. To become great, O'Neill 
must use people for their eflFectiveness as they are. 


552. "How Joseph Conrad influenced O'Neill." NY Eve. 
Telegram, 16 Nov. 

This critic finds interesting parallels between O'Neill and 
Conrad by quoting their common idea toward the sea. 

553. Kaufman, S. Jay. "Anna Christie." Dram. Mir., 84 
(12 Nov.) 701. 

Simple story and theme played upon by a great artist; honest, 
not stooping to theatrical effect for its own sake. 

554. "The O'Neill irony." NY Herald, 6 Nov. 

"None of the works of the O'Neill theatre is so destitute of 
imagination as Anna Christie." 

555. Parker, Robert Allerton. "An American dramatist de- 
veloping." Ind. ir Week. R., 107 (3 Dec.) 235. 

O'Neill is in the literary class of those who continually create 
anew. This has some of his most exalted moments. 

556. . "Deeper notes in the current drama." Arts 

ir Dec, 16 (Dec.) 110. 

This play, despite its faults, is preferable to most of the 
technically perfect, but superficial, offerings. 

557. Pollock, Arthur. "About the theatre." Brook. Eagle, 
6 Nov. 

Play not so significant as earlier works, but excellent staging 
brings out the best, more than in any other O'Neill play. 

558. Seldes, Gilbert. "The theatre." Dial, 71 (Dec.) 

Conclusion and "happy ending" unsatisfactory; O'Neill sur- 
renders to a certain amount of theatricality. 

559. "A triumph for Eugene O'Neill and Pauline Lord." 
NY Review, 5 Nov. 

Questionable ending; deep ethical significance in play. 

560. Whittaker, James. "O'Neill has first concrete heroine." 
NY News, 13 Nov. 


For the first time characters surmount environment; O'Neill 
denies the sea its prey as in earlier works. 

561. Woollcott, Alexander. "Second thoughts on first 
nights." NY Times, 13 Nov., VI, 1:1. 

Despite faults (last act) "hardened with theatrical alloy" and 
should be seen again and again. 

562. . "Second thoughts on first nights." NY Times, 

25 Dec, VI, 1:1. 

Comment on O'Neill's letter to editor (see Non-Dramatic 
O'Neill 1921) defending the "happy" ending. Woollcott informs 
O'Neill that he, O'Neill, should not have been surprised at the 
public reaction to it. 


563. "Anna Christie." Cur. Op., 72 (Jan.) 57-66. 

Retells the plot, with some critical comment from New York 
press. Well illustrated. 

564. Bone, David W. "The sea across the footHghts." NY 
Times, 15 Jan., Ill, p. 3. 

This member of the British merchant marine finds that the 
character and atmosphere of the sea as the sailor knows it is 
now shown for the first time on the stage. 

565. Eaton, Walter P. Untitled comment. Freeman, 11 Jan. 
The main aspects that puzzle the O'Neill audience are: sym- 
pathy for actually unsympathetic characters, poetry in brutal 
dialogue, grim naturalism that attracts. 

566. Hammond, Percy. "The theaters." NY Tribune, 
28 May. 

Justifies the award of the Pulitzer Prize; the play meets 
the specifications. 

567. Hornblow, Arthur. "Mr. Hornblow goes to the play." 
Theatre, 35 (Jan.) 29. 


A youthful interest in tragedy is shown by this play. It blun- 
ders at times, but has some unforgettable scenes and good 
character delineation. 

568. Macgowan, Kenneth. "Anna Christie." Th. Arts, Jan. 
[Reprinted in Hewitt, Barnard, Theatre USA, NY, McGraw-Hill, 
1959, pp. 337-338 (No. 56).] 

"The most searching and the most dramatically consistent 
study in realism that our playwrights have produced." 

569. . "Anna Christie." Vogue, Jan. 

O'Neill's most mature play yet. Finest first act ever written 
by an American. Clear, vigorous pictures of life in the characters. 

570. Pearson, Edmund L. "New books and old." Inde- 
pendent, 109 ( 19 Aug. ) 78. 

On reading the published version, this critic cannot under- 
stand the "extravagant praise" the play has received. 

Opening night reviews — City Center Revival — New York 
Newspapers of 10 Jan. 1952 

571. Atkinson, Brooks. "Anna Christie." NY Times, 33:1. 
Still a play of vitality. Tumultous and elemental, with honest 

and dramatic characters. It is part of our American theatre 

572. Chapman, John. "A fine O'Neill play in a grand 
revival." NY News. 

After 30 years it still stands the test because "when it was 
made it was made right." 

573. Colby, Ethel. "Revival of Anna Christie reveals 
O'Neill still packs a poteht punch." Journal of Commerce. 

One of the best O'Neill's, still has a fascination. 

574. Coleman, Robert. "Anna Christie welcome revival 
at the City Center." NY Mirror. 

Comparison of Lord and Holm in the roles. 


575. Dash, Thomas R. "Anna Christie." W. W. Daily. 
Because of valid, well drawn characters, play is not dated. 

It is basically a comedy. 

576. Hawkins, William. "Anna Christie back — why not 
sooner?" NY Wor-Tel. b- '^un. 

Great stature and power; O'Neill's theme "crystal clear." 

577. Kerr, Walter. "Anna Christie." NY Her-Trib. 

Still "seaworthy," but "shipping light" because characters not 
presented as O'Neill demanded; too much comic emphasis. 

578. McClain, John. "Anna Christie." NY Jour-Am. 
Celeste Holm is as good as Garbo or any of the rest. 

579. Sheaffer, Louis. "Only 'Anna' herself disappoints in 
City Center O'Neill revival." Brook. Eagle. 

Still effective; flavorsome, true dialogue. 

580. Watts, Richard. "Revival of O'Neill's Anna Christie." 
NY Post. 

Still has emotional power and atmosphere, "brute intensity." 

Other reviews and criticism 

581. "Anna Christie." Time, 59 (21 Jan.) 73. 

This production stresses the age and O'Neill's "adolescence." 
Wasn't one of his good plays anyway. 

582. "Anna Christie." Variety, 16 Jan. 

"Somewhat dated" but still of power and "compelling drama." 

583. Beyer, William H. "The state of the theatre: Classics 
revisited." School <b Society, 75 ( 16 Feb. ) 107. 

"An unfortunate production." 

584. Bolton, Whitney. "An interesting, vigorous version of 
Anna Christie." NY Telegraph, 11 Jan. 

Still touching and at times witty; age has affected it a Httle. 


585. Brown, John Mason. "Dat ole Davil and a hard God." 
Sat. R. Lit., 35 ( 16 Feb. ) 32-34. 

Irony rather than tragedy; still moving and effective. 

586. Gibbs, Wolcott. "Two from way back." New Yorker, 
27 (2 Feb.) 48. 

"One of the most engagingly absurd works in the English 
language" but still effective theatre, on a "primary level." 

587. Kerr, Walter. "New generation gets two looks at 
O'Neill." NY Her-Trib. 

Revaluation of the revival (including DESIRE) finds ANNA 
CHRISTIE the more read and genuine play. 

588. . "The stage — Anna Christie." Commonweal, 

55 (25 Jan.) 399. 

Still has a strong ring. 

589. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "Anna Christie." Nation, 174 
(26 Jan.) 92. 

While "dated" as any play of another time is "dated" this 
still has strength of its own. 

590. . "The strange case of Anna Christie." NY 

Her-Trib., 6 Jan. 

Explanation of why the public liked and O'Neill disliked 
this early play, clearly indicating the completely opposite views 
of playwright and playgoer. 

591. Nathan, George Jean. "Mr. Nathan goes to the play." 
Th. Arts, 36 ( Mar. ) 70. 

Better than the original, which is not saying much. 

592. "O'Neill shines again." Life, 32 ( 4 Feb. ) 82. 
Pictures of Celeste Holm in City Center revival and June 

Havoc on Celanese Theatre TV performance. 

593. Watts, Richard, Jr. "Those two plays by Eugene 
O'Neill." NY Post, 27 Jan. 

Praise for revival of this and DESIRE. 


594, Wyatt, Euphemia Van R. "Anna Christie." Cath. 
W/fi., 174 (Mar.) 462-463. 

Agrees this is not one of O'Neill's best. 


Search through the files of major New York newspapers could 
not reveal a single report of the Provincetown's third bill, 1 De- 
cember 1916, which included this play. The first references 
appear after the revival of 5 March 1929, when BEFORE 
BREAKFAST was given on the same bill with Vergil Geddes' 
The Earth Between. 

Opening night reviews — Revival — New York 
Newspapers of 6 March 1929 

595. Allen, Kelcey. "Before Breakfast." W. W. Daily. 
Evidence even in this apprentice work that O'Neill would 

develop into the incorrigible experimenter. 

596. Anderson, John. "Before Breakfast." NY Journal. 
Flimsy and artificial; so tedious as to seem longer than 


597. Atkinson, Brooks. "The McDougal street blues." NY 
Times, 33:1. 

O'Neill a glutton when he composed this interlude of do- 
mestic horror. 

598. "Before Breakfast, short O'Neill play, produced in 
Village." NY Her-Trib. 

The least of all O'Neill plays currently showing. 

599. "The Earth Between in the Village." NY News. 


"Mary Blair played Eugene O'Neill's Before Breakfast as a 
curtain raiser. She played it for half an hour." 

600. Gabriel, Gilbert. "Incest and other dark drama down 
MacDougal street way." NY American. 

Little service is rendered O'Neill in doing this. 

601. Garland, Robert. "Before Breakfast." NY Telegram. 
Miss Blair "did wonders with a role which called for no less 

a star than Harpo Marx with a skirt on." 

602. Littell, Robert. "The play." NY Post. 

Moderately eflFective. Does not like the intrusion of the dis- 
embodied hand. 

603. Lockridge, Richard. "Some dramatic episodes." NY 

This critic's hair stood on end only mildly. 

604. Pollock, Arthur. "The theatre." Brook. Eagle. 
No need to see this twice. 

Other reviews and criticism 

605. "Before Breakfast." Arts and Dec, 81 ( May) 104. 
Powerful, but tricky in construction. 

606. Clark, Barrett H. "Eugene O'Neill and the Village 
experiment." Drama, 19 ( 29 Apr. ) 200. 

"It is not an impressive work." 

607. Ervine, St. John. "Greenwich gloom." NY World, 
7 Mar. 

A monologue misnamed a play; mostly bunk. 

608. Littell, Robert. "Broadway in review." Th. Arts, 13 
(May) 334. 

Insistent, clumsy tour de force, not well written. 


609. Riley, Wilfred J. "Before Breakfast." Billboard, 41 
(16 Mar.) 49. 
IneflFective and incoherent; O'NeiU at his worst. 


Opening matinee reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 4 Feb. 1920 

610. Broun, Heywood. "Beyond the Horizon by O'Neill 
a notable play." NY Tribune. [Reprinted in Moses and Brown, 
The American theatre as seen by its critics, 1752-1934, NY, 
Norton, 1934 (No. 89).] 

Signs of clumsiness because the young man has not mastered 
the tricks of his trade, but deserves attention; significant and 

611. Darnton, Charles. "Beyond the Horizon close to life." 
NY Eve. World. 

"A real play with real people"; the writer should go far. 

612. "Eugene O'Neill's tragedy played." NY Herald. 
O'Neill's fame will be vastly increased. Profoundly moving 

and human story, although unnecessarily long and formless. 

613. Marsh, Leo A. "Beyond the Horizon stirring drama." 
NY Telegraph. 

"This new American tragedy is one of the best New York has 
been fortunate enough to see in many a season." 

614. "O'Neill play is a tragedy of misery." Journal of 

Shouldn't be missed; one of season's great plays. 


615. Towse, J. Ranken. "Beyond the Horizon." NY Post. 
"Uncommon merit and definite ability" though shambHng and 

unnecessarily gloomy. 

616. "Tragedy of great power at Morosco." NY World. 
Great power from psychological study of character; much 

promise for this young writer. A real event in intellectual theatre. 

617. Welsh, Robert G. "Bitter, ironic strength in Beyond 
the Horizon." NY Telegram. 

Masterpiece; because of its type and subject it may not 
be popular. 

618. Woollcott, Alexander. "Beyond the Horizon." NY 
Times, 12:1. 

O'Neill is a gifted writer; the play is so full of meat the rest 
of season's offerings look like so much meringue. 

Other reviews and criticism 

619. "An 'American tragedy'." Lit. D., 64 (28 Feb.) 33. 
This item summarizes other reviews, mainly NY World. 

620. "Better days for the theatre." NY Post, 21 Feb. 
Gonsiderable accomplishment that so young a man could 

write such a play and draw audiences; the theatre is showing 
a healthy reaction. 

621. "Beyond the Horizon." Dram. Mir., 82 (14 Feb.) 258. 
"Fine sense of the theatre," with much promise in the mood 

of Synge, Chekhov. 

622. "Beyond the Horizon." Independent, 101 (13 
Mar.) 382. 

Powerful play, weak construction. 

623. "Beyond the Horizon a frank tragedy, is very interest- 
ing." NY Clipper, 68 ( 11 Feb. ) 21. 


Strong in human appeal, frankly a tragedy. The writer has 

624. "Beyond the Horizon is presented at matinee." NY 
News Record, 6 Feb. 

The essence of tragedy; we await further writings of this man. 

625. "Beyond the Horizon one of season's real successes." 
NY Review, 26 Feb. 

Proof that American public will support a tragedy of their 
own soil. 

626. Bishop, John Peale. "At last an American tragedy." 
Van. F., June. 

Great, within narrowness of the genre. Perhaps it could be 
better as a novel. 

627. "Broadway banter." Town Topics, 12 Feb. 
Greatness is here; our first modern native tragedy, and it 

must not fail. 

628. Broun, Heywood. "Books." NY Tribune, 29 Mar. 

The published version deserves much praise, but it is im- 
mature in spots, showing false tragedy. 

629. . "The heroine may die and the play still 

live." NY Tribune, 15 Feb. 

A long discussion of "rule breaking" in modern drama (such 
as the death of the leading character) uses this play as a 
striking example. 

630. Dale, Alan. "With Alan Dale at the new plays." 
NY American, 8 Feb. 

The slow acting pace is sharply criticized, but the play is of 
"sterling merit." 

631. Eaton, Walter Prichard. "Eugene O'Neill." Th. Arts, 
4 (Oct.) 286-289. 

Judging by this first major play and some of O'Neill's others. 


this young writer is spiritually thin, but with organic form so 
necessary to true works of art. 

632. "Eugene O'Neill's Beyond the Horizon is one of the 
great plays of the modern American stage." NY Call, 5 Feb., p. 4. 

Overpowering with realism and naturalness, devoid of theatri- 
calism but great in drama. It is memorable drama; the writer 
has great promise for the future. 

633. "Eugene O'Neill wins fame." NY Telegraph, 31 Mar. 
An explanation of who this suddenly popular writer is. 

634. Firkins, O. W. "Beyond the Horizon." Weekly Rev., 
2 (21 Feb.) 185-186. 

O'Neill has slipped and fallen in the transfer from one act 
to three. 

635. Hamilton, Clayton. "Seen on the stage." Vogue, 1 
Apr. [Reprinted in Hamilton's Seen on the stage, NY, Holt, 
1920 (No. 54).] 

He will write better plays if he steers clear of theatres. 

636. Hornblow, Arthur. "Mr, Hornblow goes to the play." 
Theatre, 31 (Mar.) 185. 

A tragedy that could happen anywhere, but Hornblow wonders 
why the intelligent man married the clod of a woman. 

637. James, Patterson. "Beyond the Horizon." Billboard, 
21 Feb. 

Uncommonly fine play about real people; beauty, tenderness, 
faithfulness to artistic ideal. 

638. Kaufman, S. Jay. "Round the town." NY Globe, 1 Mar. 
If O'Neill keeps this up he will become the American Ibsen. 

639. Lewisohn, Ludwig. "An American tragedy." Nation, 
110 (21 Feb.) 241-242. [Reprinted in Hewitt, Barnard, Theatre 
USA, NY, McGraw-Hill, 1959, pp. 332-333 (No. 56).] 

Establishes American kinship with the stage of the modern 


640. McEUiot. "Eugene O'Neill's new tragedy is most 
pathetic." NY Illus. News, 11 Feb. 

"It is art, and it is life, but it hurts intolerably." 

641. Macgowan, Kenneth. "America's best season in the 
theatre." Th. Arts, 4 (Apr.) 91. 

Just as powerful and sturdy as the one-acts were, but could 
be perhaps shorter, getting the doom "over with." 

642. . "Eugene O'Neill writes a fine, long play." 

NY Globe, 7 Feb. 

Extraordinary ability in stretching the theme out; gets down 
to emotional roots, shows real power. 

643. Mantle, Burns. "A fine performance of a fine play." 
NY Mail, 5 Feb. 

True sense of theatre; much promise for future in this tragedy, 
which should hearten those interested in serious drama. 

644. Metcalfe, J. S. "Beyond the Horizon." Life, 75 (19 
Feb.) 332. 

Before "placing the crown of greatness" on O'Neill's head, 
we had better wait to see if he can write further tragedy without 
the great gloom shown here. 

645. Nathan, George Jean. "Beyond the Horizon." Smtirt 
Set, April. 

Praise from this magazine which first printed O'Neill's 
early works. 

646. Pollock, Arthur. "About the theater." Brook. Eagle, 
6 Feb. 

Not as good as some of the one-acts, but at his worst O'Neill 
is far better than most current drivel and this is not his worst. 

647. Untitled discussion in column on drama. Freeman, 
17 Mar. 

Not native in form and tone, because naturalism and tragedy 
are foreign to us, but the theme is universal. 


648. Woollcott, Alexander. "The coming of Eugene 
O'Neill." NY Times, 8 Feb., VIII, 2:1. 

One of the real plays of our time. At times impracticable 
and loose, but a tragedy of the misfit which in mood and austerity 
has seldom been written in America even half so good. 

649. "Words versus situations." NY Sun, 19 Mar. 
Richard Bennett, star of play, discloses great admiration for 

way O'Neill can use words alone to bring his idea. 

650. "A worthwhile' drama." NY Sun, 5 Feb. 
Discriminating theatregoers will put this bleak but poignant 

tragedy on their select list. 


651. Macgowan, Kenneth. "1920 saw great progress in 
the American theatre both in plays and acting." NY Globe, 
15 Jan. 1921. 

This and JONES are two of the most important plays of an 
encouraging season. 

652. Ridge, Lola. "Beyond the Horizon." New Rep., 25 
(5 Jan. 1921) 173-174. 

The published version is good drama, but short of being a 
great play because of "theatre consciousness" of playwright. He 
is "too anxious a father to his brood." 

653. Shipp, Horace. "Conviction and the drama." Eng. 
Rev., 42 (May 1926) 701-703. 

Despite "realism" the play fails because the writer seems 
to follow too many rules and predestines his characters. 

Opening night reviews — Revival — New York 
Newspapers of 1 Dec. 1926 

654. Anderson, John. "The Actor's theatre revives O'Neill's 
Beyond the Horizon." NY Post. 


It has withstood the years well; a rich and engrossing evening. 
Its early, naive approach in its strict sorrow is still vivid and 
compelling. For all its creakiness its blunt impact on the feelings 
is tremendous. 

655. "Beyond the Horizon is seen here again." NY Times. 
Still fine and engrossing; an almost perfect tragedy. It has 

lost none of its power. 

656. "Beyond the Horizon staged in revival." NY American. 
Its realism never tires; the intensity holds the audience. The 

revival is befitting the play's power and beauty. 

657. Gabriel, Gilbert. "Recalling the early O'Neill." 
NY Sun. 

Still one of the great contributions to our American drama. 
It is full of vigor, simplicity, fierce sincerity. 

658. Garrick. "An O'Neill revival." NY Journal. 

Still stands out as one of the finest American dramas of all 
time. Seems infinitely better than when first produced. 

659. Hammond, Percy. "Beyond the Horizon revived skill- 
fully by the Actors' Theatre." NY Her-Trib. 

Even better in its production than the original. 

660. Mantle, Burns. "Beyond the Horizon food for the 
O'Neills." NY News. 

Still an eloquent drama of frustration. 

661. Osborn, E. W. "Beyond the Horizon." NY World. 
One of O'Neill's finest. There is a feeling of being cleansed 

rather than of sorrow on leaving the theatre. 

662. Zimmerman, Katharine. "Actors' Theatre revives Be- 
yond the Horizon." NY Telegram. 

Still strong and unimpaired by its age. 


Other reviews and criticism 

663. "Beyond the Horizon." Brook. Eagle, 2 Dec. 1926. 
Distinguished production, although O'Neill's plays are "always 

something of a penance to witness." It is about average O'Neill. 

664. "Beyond the Horizon, O'Neill's tragedy of soil, born 
at sea." NY Her-Trib., 5 Dec. 1926. 

O'Neill explains how he came to creat Robert. 

665. Brown, John Mason. "The gamut of style." Th. Arts, 
11 (Feb. 1927) 86. 

One of our "starkest" plays, showing signs of age. 

666. Clark, Barrett H. "Dirty plays and dirty minds." 
Drama, 17 (Feb. 1927) 136. 

The season's review finds this one of O'Neill's minor efiForts. 

667. Harkins, John. Untitled article. NY Telegram, 5 
Dec. 1926. 

Still O'Neill's best; a play of great dramatic moments. 

668. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "A note on tragedy." Nation, 
123 (15 Dec. 1926) 646-647. 

After giving a clear definition of what tragedy is now and 
has been, Krutch then praises HORIZON because it comes closer 
to the real thing than other modern plays. 

669. Leland, Gordon. "Beyond the Horizon." Billboard, 
38 (11 Dec. 1926) 9. 

Improved with age; shows O'Neill's great ability in tragic 
drama. It is not depressing; one actually feels refreshed. 

670. Stengel, Hans. "Beyond the Horizon." NY Telegraph, 
5 Dec. 1926. 

Whatever else O'Neill has done he has never come nearer 
greatness. He is best in his love of soil, but loses much in flights 
of symbolism. 



Opening night reviews — Boston Tryout 
Newspapers of 28 Dec. 1933 

671. Crosby, Edward H. "Mr. O'Neill drama at Plymouth." 
Boston Post. 

A strange play. 

672. Eager, Helen. "Eugene O'Neill's new play in first 
performance at the Plymouth theatre." Boston Traveler. 

A fascinating and absorbing evening with this sombre 
serious drama. 

673. Holland, George. "Eugene O'Neill's new play has 
masterpiece possibilities." Boston American. 

More than a love story: that of the soul sold to the devil. 
Ridges as Loving should make New York critics "delirious." 

674. Hughes, Ehnor. "O'Neill play has world premiere 
here." Boston Herald. 

On dangerous ground; O'Neill now the aflSrmer instead of 
the denier. 

675. "In new vein the new play from O'Neill." Boston 

O'Neill's "Faust." He writes, reborn, out of his inner life. 

676. "Premiere performance of Days Without End." 
Boston Globe. 

Typically O'Neill; a little more baffling than usual. 

Opening night reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 9 Jan. 1934 

677. Allen, Kelcey. "Days Without End, O'Neill's new 
play, here." W. W. Daily. 


A work of exceptional strength and characterization; the 
speeches are vigorous and strikingly written, but it is mainly 
for the serious theatre goer. 

678. Anderson, John. "Guild makes fine production of 
work in which author delves into religion." NY Journal. [Re- 
printed in Moses and Brown, The American theatre as seen by 
its critics, 1752-1934. NY, Norton, 1934 (No. 89).] 

Fundamental error in making faith an intellectual process 
that can be touched through words. Confusing, florid, orna- 
mentally phony. 

679. Atkinson, Brooks. "Days Without End." NY Times, 

A bad play, written as if O'Neill had never written a play 
before. Lacks size, imagination, vitality and knowledge of 
human character. 

680. Brown, John Mason. "The play." NY Post. 

Tedious and artificial, one of O'Neill's feeblest. Split infinitive 
of a hero. Conclusion so trite that without the O'Neill name the 
play would not have been tolerated. 

681. Gabriel, Gilbert "Days Without End." NY American. 
Nothing can make it good; true miracle is that it got pro- 
duced at all. 

682. Garland, Robert. "O'Neill's drama is certain to mean 
many things to many people." NY Wor-Tel. 

Sophomoric; told in the most awkward manner possible. 

683. Hammond, Percy. "Days Without End." NY Her-Trib. 
Signs of showmanship, but Hammond is not sure just what 

the play is. 

684. Lockridge, Richard. "O'Neill's miracle play." NY Sun. 
Not his best, but shows O'Neill as the poet seeking God. 

685. Mantle, Burns. "Back to the soul with O'Neill." 
NY News. 

"A thrill for the true religionist." 


686. Pollock, Arthur. "Days Without End." Brook. Eagle. 
Many audiences will listen devoutly. The Guild has a valuable 

piece of theatrical property. 

687. Sobel, Bernard. "Eugene O'Neill's new play." NY 

Outmoded theme; masks have lost poignancy and novelty. 

Other reviews and criticism 

688. Anderson, John. "Defenders rally to O'Neill play." 
NY Journal, 20 Jan. 

Having spoken twice against the play (Nos. 678 and 689), 
Anderson reports on those who favor it, including the secular 
press. He still maintains, however, that it is not a matter of faith 
but of analyzing the playmaking itself. 

689. . "O'Neill's interest in religion." NY Journal, 

12 Jan. 

A review of the aspects of O'Neill's interest in religious themes 
from FOUNTAIN and MARCO through DYNAMO and DAYS 

690. Atkinson, Brooks. "On Days Without End." NY 
Times, 14 Jan. IX, 1:1. 

This criticism is clear in its analysis of O'Neill's failure to 
reach exhilaration and spiritual exaltation needed for the theme. 
Language, expression and story all fail to gain the heights. 

691. Bolton, Whitney. "Mr. O'Neill has not taken holy 
orders, but new play misses fire." NY Telegraph, 10 Jan. 

Befuddled concept of religion and sophomore philosophy. 
DiflFuse, immature, completely lacking in O'Neill's usual authority. 

692. Bowen, Stirling. "The O'Neill drama." Wall St. Jour., 
11 Jan. 

O'Neill has not changed, as AH, WILDERNESS! suggested, 


but in plays of this type he keeps ahve the idea that drama can 
be art in the classic sense, infused with imagination. 

693. Brown, John Mason. "Mr. O'Neill and his champions." 
NY Post, 22 Jan. 

This article prints quotations from some of the more violent 
attacks by the clergy on the lay critics. Brown tries to show that 
professional criticism was not against the theme but against 
O'Neill's presentation. 

694. . "O'Neill's interest in the agents controlling 

the fate of his characters in Days With End." NY Post, 15 Jan. 

Brown reviews many plays in which God or Fate becomes a 
vitally interested, directly interfering personification in O'Neill's 
plays. DAYS WITHOUT END fails miserably to achieve any 
solution, and it is something that has bothered O'Neill since 
the days of THIRST. 

695. Burr, Eugene. "Days Without End." Billboard, 46 
(20 Jan.) 17. 

The truly religious should be ofiFended. The play has no 
real relation to fundamental realities. Blind, groveling faith; 
a bad play. 

696. Caldwell, Cy. "Days Without End." New Outlook, 163 
(Feb.) 48-49. 

Morbid inspection of the human soul. The weird and lugubrious 
"Siamese twins" are not real stuff. "Spiritual indigestion." 

697. Corbin, John. "Psyches without end." Sat. R. Lit., 
10 (20 Jan.) 419. 

Much of theatrical value here. 

698. "The critics and Days Without End." Commonweal, 
19 (26 Jan.) 357-358. 

Because critics are unable to recognize faith as a worthwhile 
subject they will not see this as a good play, although it is 
probably one of O'Neill's most important works. 

699. "Critics out of their element." Cath. Wld., 138 ( Feb. ) 


Lay critics are not qualified to criticize a play of this type 
without understanding the religious experience it portrays. This 
article is not, however, typical of the hysterical attack made by 
many of the clergy as shown in Brown's article ( No. 693 ) . 

700. "Days Without End." Lit. D., 117 ( 10 Feb. ) 17. 
Summary of professional and clerical criticism. 

701. "Days Without End." Newsweek, 3 (20 Jan.) 34. 
The play suggests a high school debate. 

702. "Days Without End." Th. Arts, 18 (May) 390. 
Confused, pedestrian, no better as a book than as a play. 

703. Donnelly, Rev. Gerard B., S.J. "O'Neill's new Catholic 
play." America, 50 ( 13 Jan. ) 346. 

Magnificently Catholic play in characters, story and mood. 
Priest is "noblest priest in the history of the modern theatre." 
Defies Broadway tradition; O'Neill at last heading toward 
the light. 

704. Eastman, Fred. "O'Neill discovers the cross." Christ. 
Cent., 51 (7 Feb.) 191-192. 

"O'Neill's greatness has begun. May they be Days Without 

705. Eaton, Walter Prichard. "Days Without End." NY 
Her-Trib., 11 Feb. 

This play dispels fears that O'Neill was becoming "normal." 
It is one of his weaker works. 

706. Fergusson, Francis. "Mr. O'Neill's new play." Am. 
Rev., 2 (Feb.) 491-495. 

There is no more Christianity in this than in DYNAMO or 
CHILLUN. It is like all the others and has all the same faults. 
"It is not about a conversion; it is Mr. O'Neill's debate with him- 
self about a man like Mr. O'Neill who is writing a novel about 
another man like Mr. O'Neill, who is toying with the Idea of 
the conversion of Mr. O'Neill." 


707. Gabriel, Gilbert. "As to Mr. O'Neill's latest Guild 
drama." NY American, 21 Jan. 

Churchly in theme and well meant, but it is pretentious, wordy, 
and childishly indignant, like nursery blocks clumsily raised. 

708. Garland, Robert. "Jesuit editor hails O'Neill miracle 
play." NY Wor-Tel, 12 Jan. 

Extended quotations from Donnelly's article ( No. 703 ) . 

709. . "O'Neill miracle play of shopworn fabric." 

NY Wor-Tel, 10 Jan. 

A stingingly sarcastic review; doubts the play's sincerity, finds 
it a shoddy specimen, and "holy hokum." 

710. Hammond, Percy. "Mr. O'Neill's experiment with 
masks and faces." NY Her-Trib., 14 Jan. 

Mainly a protest against the unnecessary alter-ego. 

711. Isaacs, Edith J. R. "Parents and other people — 
Broadway in review." Th. Arts, 18 ( Mar. ) 167. 

Must not confuse bad play with religion. It is dull, pedestrian, 
unconvincing in every aspect. 

712. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "The sickness of today." 
Nation, 138 (24 Jan.) 110-111. 

After an unpromising first act, the play shows good theatre, 
but it is one of O'Neill's least successful plays. Does not solve 
today's sickness, but merely shows how "primitive religious 
instinct" survives. 

713. Lockridge, Richard. "Quest Without End." NY Sun, 
20 Jan. 

A review of the play's religious aspects. The play challenges 
as it was meant to, but it is unsafe to assume O'Neill is 
now converted. 

714. Mantle, Burns. "An illuminating winter for the first 
dramatist." NY News, 21 Jan. 

A serious and intelligent play. 


715. March, Michael. "A book critic disagrees with the 
drama critics." Brook. Citizen, 17 Jan. 

Strong rebuttal to comments by the critics, whom March ac- 
cuses of bigotry and prejudice. The play is of great importance, 
showing O'Neill's sincerity in his theme. 

716. "The mask and the face." NY Times, 7 Jan., X, 2:5. 
Mainly quotes from O'Neill "Memo on Masks." (See Non- 
Dramatic O'Neill 1932. ) 

717. Motherwell, Hiram. "Days Without End." Stage, 11 
(Feb.) 16-18. 

Not about religion, but about one man's experience in his 
own problem of personal salvation. Illustrated with four ex- 
cellent pictures. 

718. Nathan, George Jean. "L'amour et — mondieu." Van. 
F., 42 (Mar.) 42. 

One of poorest and dullest things O'Neill has written. 

719. . "Whither?" Van. F., 42 (June) 49-50. 

This O'Neill failure was notable among several others during 
the season. 

720. Skinner, Richard Dana. "Eugene O'Neill's next play." 
Commonweal, 19 ( 5 Jan. ) 273. 
It may be his most important play. 

721. . "Can religious plays succeed?" Common- 
weal, 19 (23 Feb.) 469. 

Skinner realizes other professional critics did not think the 
play truly dramatic, and he shows why he thinks it is. This is 
one of the most rational criticisms which appeared in a re- 
ligious journal. 

722. . "Days Without End." Commonweal, 19 

(19 Jan.) 327-329. 

Culmination of every play O'Neill has written, fitting the 
sequence of his work. John Loving's struggle will live among 
the great poetic and religious creations of world literature. 


723. Wyatt, Euphemia Van R. "A modem miracle play." 
Cath. Wld., 138 (Feb.) 601-602. 

Clumsy, and not his masterpiece, but "it is the cry of a man" 
with O'Neill baring his poet's soul to God. 

724. Young, Stark. "Days Without End." New Rep., 77 
(24 Jan.) 312. 

Dramatic skeleton good; writing bad, though it does have 
theatrical and spiritual creation. 


725. Cajetan, Brother. "The pendulum starts back." Cath. 
Wld., 140 (Mar. 1935) 650-656. 

This play is one of the most outstanding examples of the swing 
back to Christian tradition in literature. 

726. Eastman, Fred. "O'Neill's drama of Christian hope." 
Christ. Cent., 73 (15 Aug. 1956) 950-951. 

Eastman asks us to take note of the one play of hope which 
O'Neill wrote as we come to a reappraisal of his life in view 
of LONG DATS JOURNEY. (See Eastman's original review, 
No. 704.) 

727. Ceier, Woodrow. "O'Neill's Miracle play." Religion 
in Life, 16 (Autumn 1947) 515-526. 

In Christian terms Loving's redemption is very pleasing. 



Opening run reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 12 to 15 Nov. 1924 

728. Broun, Heywood. "Desire Under the Elms." NY 
World, 12 Nov. 

Despite some faults which he enumerates, Broun finds this 
towers high and could be CNeilFs best work. 

729. Dale, Alan. "Desire Under the Elms." NY American, 
14 Nov. 

Strenuous vein of morbidity presumably presented seriously. 
So much could be funny — and isn't. 

730. "Desire Under the Elms an outspoken drama." Jour- 
nal of Commerce, 12 Nov. 

This review does little more than sketch out the story. 

731. Gabriel, Gilbert. "Desire Under the Elms." NY Tele- 
gram, 12 Nov. 

Some vivid and great moments, such as bedroom scene, but 
play slumps into repugnance in last two scenes. 

732. Habersham, Stanton. "Another O'Neill oflFering at 
the Greenwich Village." NY Graphic, 13 Nov. 

"An unnecessary subject most impressively handled." Grude 
and vulgar dialogue. 

733. Hammond, Percy. "Mr. O'Neill's Desire Under the 
Elms is the best of his pleasing tortures." NY Her-Trib., 12 Nov. 

Hammond always leaves an O'Neill play glad he is not one 
of the people involved. 

734. Mantle, Burns. "O'Neill's new play is lustful and 
tragic." NY News, 14 Nov. 


Should be seen by all who praise foreign drama and by all 
students of drama. Go prepared for lust, infanticide, sin. 

735. Metcalfe, J. S. "The slums of New England." Wall St. 
Jour., 15 Nov. 

O'Neill makes use of new freedom to create interesting drama, 
and this is faithful reproduction of New England at its most 
degraded. He is showing the daring for which he is known, but 
he will be admired only when he stops working in this field. 

736. "Mr. O'Neill runs aground on a bleak New England 
farm." NY Post, 12 Nov. 

Sterile bit of realism, mistaking crudity for power. 

737. Niblo, Fred, Jr. "New O'Neill play sinks to depths." 
NY Telegraph, 12 Nov. 

"A gruesome, morbid" play, as real to life as a sewer. "Any- 
one who cares anything about the theatre cannot approve . . . 
or disapprove in silence." 

738. "O'Neill wins new somber laurels in latest drama." 
W. W. Daily, 12 Nov. 

The gloom is deepened by pathos and horror and tragic 
irony. Its realism is lit by sympathy and a grim authentic 
poetry throughout. 

739. Osborn, E. W. "Desire Under the Elms." NY World, 
14 Nov. 

This play is very effective in its "relentless realism," making 
it better than the disliked ANNA CHRISTIE or APE. 

740. "Shades of O'Neill." Brook. Eagle, 12 Nov. 

Much of the material from the sea plays is now on a New 
England farm, which is not necessarily good. It is unentertaining; 
the more O'Neill's genius repeats itself, the more ingenious it 
appears. Nobody can paint yellow sin more gleaming white 
than O'Neill. 

741. Woollcott, Alexander. "Through darkest New Eng- 
land." NY Sun, 12 Nov. 

Criticizes the "fake" dialect and "ugly" climax. 


742. Young, Stark. "Eugene O'Neill's latest play." NY 
Times, 12 Nov., 20:7. 

O'Neill has written nothing with more qualities of realism, 
poetry and terror than this. 

Other reviews and criticism 

743. Benchley, Robert. "Two ways." Life, 84 (11 Dec.) 18. 
Up to a point O'Neill's finest, after which it becomes phony 

and ends in "a blaze of green fire." 

744. "Desire Under the Elms." Time, 4 (24 Nov. ) 12. 
People will object because they won't believe life can be 

so brutal. 

745. Edba. "Desire Under the Elms." Variety, 19 Nov. 
Written in his best style; depth of story and characterization 

are typical O'Neill. 

746. Howard, Sidney. Letter to the editor. NY Times, 
14 Dec, VIII, 4:1. 

A true tragedy, which can be compared only with Macbeth 
in practically every aspect. 

747. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "The God of stumps." Nation, 
119 (26 Nov.) 578. [Reprinted in Hewitt, Barnard, Theatre, USA, 
NY, McGraw-Hill, 1959, pp. 360-362 (No. 56).] 

This criticism attempts to get to the basis of O'Neill's plays; 
there is something in his nature that makes him "brother to 
tempest.' If this quality is recognized and then overlooked, 
there are great compensations in this play. 

748. Nathan, George Jean. "The Kahn-Game." Judge, 87 
(6 Dec.) 17. 

May not be better than others he has done, but better than 
most being done nowadays. 


749. "Plays and players." Town and Country, 81 
(1 Dec.) 58. 

A concentration of realism, rather than realism itself; elemental 
life and passion is presented in the spirit of blank verse. 

750. RML. "Desire Under the Elms." New Rep., 41 (3 
Dec. ) 44. 

Exterior is stark and tragic, but interior, like the setting, is 
huddled and confused. 

751. Skinner, Richard Dana. "Decay 'under the elms.' " 
Commonweal, 1 ( 17 Dec. ) 163. 

Once the theme is accepted the play is worked out with 
often masterful intensity. The theme of decay, however, de- 
mands challenge. 

752. Young, Stark. "Acting in Eugene O'Neill." NY Times, 
7 Dec, Vm, 5:1. 

On the surface it may seem realistic, but it is actually on the 
edge of poetry and a tremendous task for the actor. 


753. Bromfield, Louis. "The New Yorker." Bookman, 60 
(Jan.) 621. 

This simple and terrible story on fine level of Greek tragedy 
is best analysis of witch-burning Puritans yet done; better than 
Scarlet Letter. 

754. "The censored audience." Nation, 120 ( 1 Apr. ) 346. 
Attacks those who come to this to see a "dirty" play, or who 

go to one approved by the "play jury" because it must be "clean." 

755. Crawford, J. R. "Desire Under the Elms." NY World, 
26 Apr. 

Book review. "His creative passion almost sufficient to bridge 
those gaps of somewhat pedestrian writing." 

756. Eaton, Walter Prichard. "Desire Under the Elms." 
NY Her-Trib., 24 May. 


Book review. Crude and elemental tale elevated toward poetry. 
Fails as great work of art because of too much emotion and 

757. Garland, Robert. "Eugene O'Neill and this big busi- 
ness of Broadway." Th. Arts, 9 (Jan. ) 3-16. 

At his most "O'Neillian" and in ways one of his finest plays, 
going his own way completely apart from the big business 
of Broadway. 

758. Hornblow, Arthur. "Mr. Hornblow goes to the play." 
Theatre, 41 (Jan.) 22. 

Powerful enough by an ordinary writer, but must be judged 
diflFerently because O'Neill demands diflFerent standards. Fails 
mainly because he gives in to the designer's art. 

759. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "Drama — Summary I." 
Nation, 120 (10 June) 672-673. 

Thanks to the producers, apart from the "commercial mana- 
gers," we have such masterpieces as this. 

760. , "Drama - Summary II." Nation, 120 (24 

June) 724. 

Most "fundamentally important" of the season's major plays. 

761. . "Establishing a new tradition." Nation, 120 

(7 Jan.) 22-23. 

This play shows that writers no longer must have thesis plays 
but can proceed with the assumption that these subjects are 
already understood by audience. 

762. Nathan, George Jean. "By the dawn's early light." 
AHsirDec.,22 (Jan.) 76. 

The play lifts above all contemporary playwriting, but still 
lags after first half. 

763. . "The theatre." Am. Merc, 4 (Jan. ) 119. 

Reads better than it acts. O'Neill does not define diflFerence 
between real intensification and overexaggeration. 


764. Seldes, Gilbert. "The theatre." Dial, 78 (Jan.) 82. 
Outstanding fault is failure to make us believe in murder 

of baby. 

765. Skinner, Richard Dana. "Decay and flowing sap." 
Ind. ir Weekly R., 114 ( 10 Jan. ) 51. 

O'Neill will not be great until he is able to let light of finer 
things come into his soul; not a tragedy because nobody is on 
a height to fall, and everybody is on one level and rots there. 

766. Whipple, Leon. "Two plays by Eugene O'Neill." 
Survey, 53 ( 1 J^n. ) 421-422. 

Fails in its attempt to cross the abyss between realism and 
romanticism with bridge of symbolism. 

767. Woollcott, Alexander. "Desire Under the EUums." 
Van. F., 23 (Jan.) 27. 

"A mad play, my masters," but still the kind that will be read 
long after other contemporary work has been forgotten. 

768. Wyatt, Euphemia Van R. "Eugene O'Neill on Plym- 
outh rock." Cath. Wld., 120 (Jan.) 519-521. 

An unclean play and unhealthy scenes, with no healthy idea 
behind it. 


769. "Desire Under the Elms." Dial, 80 (Jan. 1926) 70. 
O'Neill is a much better dramatist than a literary man. Plays 

should carry their own emotion instead of having it written 
into them. 

770. Van Druten, John. "The sex play." Th. Arts, 11 (Jan. 
1927) 23-27. 

Plea for treatment of sex as Elizabethans regarded it — in- 
cidental and universal. This play is a sex play in the theme 
of physical desire, which is unobjectionable enough. 

771. Watts, Richard. "Regarding Mr. O'Neill as a writer 
for the cinema." NY Her-Trib., 4 Mar. 1928. 


Presents a synopsis of O'NeilFs own film scenarios for DESIRE 
and APE, neither of which were produced. They are much 
altered from the stage versions. 

Opening night reviews — ANT A Revival 
New York — Newspapers of 17 Jan. 1952 

772. Atkinson, Brooks. "At the theatre." NY Times, 23:4. 

It may turn out to be the greatest play written by an American; 
the design of a masterpiece. 

773. Chapman, John. "Desire Under the Elms remains 
powerful, if just a leetle quaint." NY News. 

A first class revival, but it seems a shade fancy and self- 

774. Coleman, Robert. "ANTA puts on O'Neill's Desire 
Under the Elms." NY Mirror. 

Makes a lot about people not worth it; a literary Tobacco Road. 

775. Hawkins, William. "Desire Under the Elms revived." 
NY Wor-Tel. ir Sun. 

Praise for this stark, hard play of elemental, overblown 

776. Kerr, Walter. "Desire Under the Ehns." NY Her-Trib. 
Well worth seeing. 

777. McClain, John. "A powerful drama, highly recom- 
mended." NY J our- Am. 

Still a good play, powerful drama. 

778. SheaflFer, Louis. "O'Neill's Desire soundly revived." 
Brook. Eagle. 

A play of uncommon stature, with no show of age. 

779. Watts, Richard, Jr. "The tragic power of Eugene 
O'Neill." NY Post. 

Play of overwhelming elemental power and almost em- 


harassing intensity, still one of the distinguished works of 
modern stage. 

Other reviews and criticism 

780. Beyer, William H. "The state of the theatre: Classics 
revisited." School ir Society, 75 ( 16 Feb. ) 106-107. 

Incredible that this powerful play has not been produced more. 

781. Bolton, Whitney. "Desire Under the Elms comes 
ahve again as ANTA project." NY Telegraph, 18 Jan. 

The original attitude that this was a play of strong and elo- 
quent statement of man's fate still remains today. 

782. Brown, John Mason. "Dat ole davil and a hard god." 
Sat. R. Lit., 35 ( 16 Feb. ) 32-34. 

Still retains its strength and intensity; achieves tragic grandeur. 

783. Cooke, Richard P. "Another O'Neill." Wall St. Jour., 
18 Jan. 

It seems a bit heavy-handed, with a lack of conviction. Ele- 
mental passions often come close to parody, and O'Neill's "potent 
magic" does not come across. 

784. "Desire Under the Elms." Newsweek, 39 (28 Jan.) 83. 
Recognizable symbols of classic tragedy are here. 

785. "Desire Under the Elms." Time, 59 (28 Jan.) 44. 
A play neither realistic nor tragic, but clumsily in between. 

786. "Desire Under the Elms." Variety, 23 Jan. 

A classic in its own right which years have failed to dim. 

787. Gibbs, Wolcott. "Desire Under the Elms" New York- 
er, 27 (26 ]an.) 53. 

At times coming close to parody, it is still one of America's 
few classics. 


788. Kerr, Walter. "Desire Under the Elms." Common- 
weal, 55 (1 Feb.) 423. 

A play that should be revived; characters so human it is diffi- 
cult to present them. 

789. . "New generation gets two looks at O'Neill." 

NY Her-Trib., 26 Jan. 

A revaluation of the revival (including ANNA CHRISTIE) 
finds the characters in DESIRE are "mere figures," behaving 
in unnatural rhythms against a cosmic background. 

790. Nathan, George Jean. "Desire Under the Elms." Th. 
Art*, 36 (Mar.) 70-71. 

Comes oflF pretty well, all considered. 

791. "O'Neill shines again." Life, 32 (4 Feb. ) 82-84. 
Pictures from revival, text is generally approving. 

792. Watts, Richard. "Those two plays by Eugene O'Neill." 
NY Post, 27 Jan. 

Praise for the revival. Possibly O'Neill's mightiest play. 

793. Wyatt, Euphemia Van R. "Desire Under the Ehns." 
Cath.Wld., 174 (Mar.) 464. 

Stylized form of this production better than original. 


794. Conlin, Matthew T. "The tragic eflFect in Autumn 
Fire and Desire Under the Elms." Mod. Dramxi, 1 (Feb. 1959) 

Compares DESIRE with the successful Autumn Fire by T. C. 
Murray, both plays of 1924 concerning May-December marriages 
destroyed by father-son conflicts. DESIRE is less a tragedy be- 
cause of its failure to evoke pity for the protagonist in the 
play's "painful nihilism." 

795. Gelb, Arthur. "At the roots of O'Neill's Elms." NY 
rime5,2Mar. 1958, 11,5:3. 


In light of the coming motion picture version, Gelb shows 
how much of the original play came out of O'Neill's own back- 
ground, including the "autobiographical" sketch of Cabot — 
taken in many points from his own life and that of his father, 
James O'Neill. 


Opening run reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 28-31 Dec. 1920 

796. "A new O'Neill play." NY Globe, 31 Dec. 

The conclusion is hard to stomach because it is brutal and 
bitterly nauseating but "true enough, God pity us." It is hoped 
O'Neill goes more toward the vein of JONES than continuing 
this way. 

797. "New O'Neill play produced." NY Tribune, 28 Dec. 
A brief notice of the opening, without comment. 

798. "O'Neill's latest play presented by the Provincetown 
players." NY Sun, 31 Dec. 

It is not a pleasant play, but written with the strength and 
subtlety that stamp O'Neill as a leading playwright. Well 
worth seeing; front rank O'Neill. 

799. "Provincetown players offer second bill." NY Com- 
mercial, 31 Dec. 

A reaction must have set in after success of JONES for this 
play and its companion piece represent a poor bill. 

800. Towse, J. Ranken. "The play." NY Post, 29 Dec. 
Relentless, ironic, sometimes gripping tragedy; intense drama. 


801. "Two plays on programme." NY World, 28 Dec. 

The play was warmly received. O'Neill is a fine drawing card 
for the Provincetown organization. 

802. WooUcott, Alexander. "A new O'Neill play." NY 
Times, 29 Dec, 8:1. 

Despite O'Neill's seeming lack of interest at the end, this 
will cause attention because of the great power of dramatic 

Other reviews and criticism 

803. Broun, Heywood. "DiflTrent comes to Broadway at 
the Selwyn." NY World, 1 Feb. 

O'Neill obviously does not know about what he is writing. 
O'Neill, a new Puritan of the theatre, finding man basically evil. 

804. . "Grey gods and green goddesses." Van. F., 

16 (Apr.) 33. 

Broun complains against these "real" plays which are not art. 
True artist cannot be neutral and cannot be the scientist that 
O'Neill tries to be in this play of sex starvation. 

805. Castellun, Maida. " 'Diff'rent' ... is true but not 
good drama." NY Call, 14 Jan. 

Interesting sex psychology study; hero dies of "O'Neillitis" 
which is instinct for violent death rather than one from character 
or situation. 

806. "Diff'rent." Dial, 70 (June) 715. 
Brief book review. 

807. "Diff'rent." NY Independent, 105 (12 Feb.) 153. 
A problem play "well written but amateurishly played." 

808. "Diff'rent." Th. Arts, 5 (Oct.) 334-335. 
Book review. "A backward step." 


809. "Di£F'rent." Variety, 4 Feb. 

Should never have been written; until O'Neill gets restraint 
he should not be permitted to write again. Theatre should not 
be used as a chamber of horrors. 

810. Firkins, O. W. "Drama." Weekly Rev., 4 (2 Mar.) 

Feeling of strangulation; curious rather than serious. 

811. . "Plays for the reader." Weekly Rev., 4 

(25 June) 406-407. 
O'Neill is still not the master of the long play. 

812. "Fresh horrors in DifiF'rent brought from the Vil- 
lage." NY Herald, 1 Feb. 

A clinical case; the move uptown is not successful. 

813. "Greenwich Village cannot keep away from Broad- 
way." NY Review, 5 Feb. 

"Incisive study in the seamy side of human nature." 

814. Hornblow, Arthur. "Mr. Hornblow goes to the play." 
Theatre, 33 (Apr.) 261. 

Curious, if interesting. 

815. James, Patterson. "Diff'rent." Billboard, 22 Jan. 
Savage, true, brutal, told without faltering. 

816. Kaufman, S. Jay. "Round the town." NY Globe, 
17 Jan. 

Greater than JONES; hope expressed it will move uptown. 

817. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "Diff'rent." Bookman, 52 
(Feb.) 565. 

Brief book review along with JONES. 

818. Macgowan, Kenneth. "The centre of the stage." Th. 
Art*, 5 (Apr.) 102. 

"Utterly of the theatre in the best sense" but questions if 
O'Neill is at his best here. 


819. "Provincetowners put on Diffrent, a really great 
play." NY Clipper, 68 (5 Jan. ) 19. 

Best he has done to date; vitahty far superior to JONES. 

820. Sayler, Oliver M. "Eugene O'NeiU master of natural- 
ism." Drama, 11 (Mar.) 189-190. 

High, almost blind praise for a great naturalistic play, one of 
O'Neill's best and perhaps best of any American writer. 

821. VSGL. "DiflF'rent." New Rep., 26 (25 May) 386. 
Unfavorable review, together with JONES and STRAW. 

Opening night reviews — Provincetown Revival 
New York — Newspapers of 11 Feb. 1925 

822. "Diffrent." NY World. 

It rings in a strange key "that will sound in your sleep." 

823. "Diffrent's revival at Provincetown players." NY 
Telegram 6- Mail. 

Emma Crosby is probably the most enraging feminine creature 
a playwright ever conceived. O'Neill was not in a happy mood. 

824. "Diffrent revived." Brook. Eagle. 

Passing notice that "Mary Blair is the starved old maid." 

825. "Double bill excellently presented at the Province- 
town." NY Post. 

The acting is praised; the production is by-passed. 

826. "O'Neill's Diffrent revived." NY Times, 19:2. 
Not in the best O'Neill tradition. 

827. "Triumph of the Egg played at Provincetown," NY 

Mary Blair effectively plays the lead in this specimen of O'Neill 


Other reviews and criticism 

828. Brown, John Mason. "Halfway theatre." Th. Arts, 9 
(May) 291. 

Brief mention of revival in a "discouraging" season. 

829. "DiflF'rent." Drama Calendar, 23 Feb. 

This clinical analysis of abnormal people does not rise to the 
element of poetry as does some O'Neill. 

830. "DiflPrent." Time, 5 (23 Feb.) 13. 

One of the most unpleasant plays in our literature. 

831. Littell, Robert. "Three shades of black." New Rep., 
42 (4 Mar.) 45. 

The marionettes on strings never become individualized 

832. Skinner, Richard Dana. "O'Neill and Anderson." 
Commonweal, 1(4 Mar. ) 466. 

O'Neill a prisoner of his own feelings, and the gloom and 
decay deprive the tragedy of any power. 

833. Young, Stark. "Mary Blair in Diffrent." NY Times, 
1 Mar., VII, 1:2. 

A "moving and unforgettable" performance. 

Opening night reviews — Federal Theatre 
Revival — New York — Newspapers of 26 Jan. 1938 

834. Brown, Herrick. "Diffrent." NY Sun. 

Worth doing. Full of closely knit action and well-drawn 

835. "Early O'Neill." NY Times, 26:4. 


Worth study and revival, but O'Neill of 1921 is not the O'Neill 
of 1938. 

836. "Eugene O'Neill's Diffrent at Maxine Elliott theatre." 
NY Wor-Tel. 

Theme seems old fashioned; does not ring true to contem- 
porary dramatic reasoning. 

837. Francis, Robert. "O'Neill revival." Brook. Eagle. 
Performance brings significance and power to this early work. 

838. Waldorf, Wilella. "Federal theatre troupe in O'Neill's 
Diffrent." NY Post. 

Welcome relief from the more pretentious O'Neill of recent 


Opening night reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 12 Feb. 1929 

839. Allen, Kelcey. "Whir of Dynamo electrifies audience 
of O'Neill admirers." W. W. Daily. 

A veritable anthology of O'Neill drama; everything so typical 
of him. Stirring and provocative, and actually reverent and 
pious; the most dynamic of O'Neill's plays. 

840. Anderson, John. "Dynamo has premiere." NY Journal. 
Digs around roots of the big question about what is God 

with nothing more than a toothpick. No passionate sincerity and 
blazing vision. Too hysterical and sensational — no more im- 
portant religious matter than that of Hottentot. 

841. Atkinson, Brooks. "God in the machine." NY 
Times, 22:1. 


The play is a center of controversy, but with much strength 
and breadth. "At last he seems to have gotten his drama in 
harmony with the universal theme he is freely developing." 

842. Bolton, Whitney. "O'Neill's machine-god." NY 

Incoherent disappointment. Nobody else could match thought- 
ful and sympathetic first act — best part of the play. One cannot 
completely condemn on first visit because many overtones come 
out in later visits. 

843. Gabriel, Gilbert. "Eugene O'Neill salutes our god of 
the machine with new play, Dynamo." NY American. 

A disappointment; the scheme only intermittently comes alive. 
Settings more eloquent than the play. 

844. Garland, Robert. "Eugene O'Neill's Dynamo dis- 
played in 45th Street." NY Telegram. 

O'Neill "shook his fist at God and blew kisses in the general 
direction of electricity. Each of the gestures seemed a wee bit 
childish." Self consciously profound, phoney. 

845. Hammond, Percy. "The Theatre Guild in Eugene 
O'Neill's slow and startling Dynamo." NY Her-Trib. 

This amusingly bitter criticism finds little to recommend. 
Asides are crutches, play at times ludicrous, "frequently raving." 

846. Littell, Robert. "The Theatre Guild presents Dyna- 
mo." NY Post. 

Second-rate O'Neill. Goes into "often foolish neomysticism" 
with a "silly and dull" last act. 

847. Lockridge, Richard. "Mr. O'Neill's Dynamo." NY Sun. 
Sophomoric, O'Neill fumbling whatever intentions he had. 

848. Mantle, Bums. "Dynamo throbs with mystery." 
NY News. 

An indeterminant drama meeting with mixed reception. 

849. Osborn, E. W. "Dynamo." NY Eve. World. 


Applause sounded symbolically like a question mark. Not a 
satisfactory play — began better than it ended. 

850. Pollock, Arthur. "Dynamo." Brook. Eagle. 

A play of hardly any importance, sleazy and quick compared to 

851. Winchell, Walter. "In the Einstein manner." NY 

Incoherent, listless, a bore, will not survive. 

Other reviews and criticism 

852. Anderson, John. "About Great God Gene, his new 
play and Mr. Broun." NY Journal, 16 Feb. 

This is "unconscionable bunk" from one who takes himself 
so seriously he doesn't recognize how bad he is. 

853. Atkinson, Brooks. "Concluding a dramatic cycle." NY 
Times, 17 Feb., IX, 1:1. 

In this play O'Neill has completed the cycle started by Ibsen; 
i.e., the return to plays of a general instead of a specific nature. 

854. Bellamy, Francis R. "The theatre." Outlook, 151 (27 
Feb.) 331. 

Departs too far from reality, but O'Neill at his worst remains 
"more provocative and interesting than most others at their best." 

855. Benchley, Robert. "Dynamo." Life, 93 (8 Mar.) 24. 
"Nobody who could write this play is above being kidded." 

Now convinced that BROWN and INTERLUDE were as bad 
as they seemed. 

856. Bolton, Whitney. "By easy stages." NY Telegraph, 
17 Feb. 

A general review of the first O'Neill decade, including some 
of Heywood Broun's comments on O'Neill and on DYNAMO. 


857 Boyd, Ernest. "Eugene O'Neill and others." Bookman, 
69 (Apr.) 179-180. 

O'Neill's capacity is projecting simple, elemental emotions, 
but in treating ideas he is dramatically lost. 

858. Brackett, Charles. "Essays in the sublime and the 
ridiculous." New Yorker, 6 ( 23 Feb. ) 27. 

Pretentious rant. 

859. Broun, Heywood. "It seems to me." NY Telegram, 
14 Feb. 

This review sharply attacks the poor criticism which enables 
O'Neill to become more than he actually is. This play is 
not tragedy. 

860. Garb, David. "Dynamo." Vogue, 73 (30 Mar.) 61. 
Intemperate outpouring of adolescence; boring, flatulent, 


861. Clark, Barrett H. "O'Neill's Dynamo and the Village 
experiments." Drama, 19 (Apr.) 201. 

A refusal to write oflF O'Neill as "lost," despite his unimpres- 
sive result as thinker and prophet. 

862. Colum, Padriac. "Dynamo." Dial, 86 (Apr.) 349-350. 
Whatever possessed O'Neill to write it? Insists on thinking 

in the philosophy of the day-before-yesterday. 

863. De Casseres, Benjamin. "Broadway to date." Arts h- 
Dec, 30 (Apr.) 72 

If he had continued the play in the souls of his characters in- 
stead of the electric plant, would have been a different story 
to tell. 

864. "Dynamo." Variety, 13 Feb. 

Not the best he has written, but the inspiration of a poet. 
Terrific, moving and agitating, will probably be a resounding 

865. Ervine, St. John. "The Greenwich Village atheist 
prepares to meet his God." NY World, 13 Feb. 


O'Neill is killing the poet in himself determining to be intel- 
lectual. A plea to cease before it is too late. 

866. . "Mr. O'Neill takes a toss." NY World, 

24 Feb. 

Undeniably juvenile. O'Neill is a dramatic poet "who per- 
versely imagines himself a philosopher." This long column by a 
critic not given to O'Neill praise, discusses O'Neill's difiBculties, 
and asks not to condemn him in this piece alone, in view of 
his tremendous ejfforts otherwise. 

867. Gabriel, Gilbert. "Opening Nights." NY American, 
17 Feb. 

Reviewing the play at a later date Gabriel admits that it is 
a bad attempt on a mighty subject, although other critics have 
missed the point of its drama of frustration. 

868. Garland, Robert. "Eugene O'Neill's Dynamo and 
what the critics say." NY Telegram, 14 Feb. 

Summary of statements from major critics. 

869. Gould, Bruce. "O'Neill faw down, go boom!" Wall 
St. News, 14 Feb. 

O'Neill has been living beyond his intellectual means and this 
finds him bankrupt. He has redramatized a drama dramatized 
a hundred times all ready. 

870. Hammond, Percy. "Mr. O'Neill, an unfair iconoclast." 
NY Her-Trib., 17 Feb. 

Unfair to electricity and public utilities — such things don't 
happen in power houses. An amusing but telling attack against 
the artificial uses to which O'Neill puts his power house and 
his people. 

871. Hansen, Harry. "Dynamo." NY World, 19 Oct. 
Review of book. 

872. Hornblow, Arthur. "The editor goes to the play." 
Theatre, 49 (May) 45. 

Shocks O'Neill followers by intellectual ineptitude. 


873. Jordan, Elizabeth. "Plays of early spring." America, 
30 Mar. 

"Annoyingly childish," often ridiculous, most of it too un- 
pleasant to discuss. 

874. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "Epitaph I." Nation, 128 (29 
May) 655-656. 

Krutch admits that as a critic he was one of few who found 
this play interesting. 

875. . "The virgin and the dynamo." Nation, 128 

(27 Feb.) 264. 

An attempt to explain O'Neill's point, as a man on an indi- 
vidual quest for the meaning of existence. 

876. Littell, Robert. "The land of the second best." Th. 
Alt*, 13 (Apr.) 245-247. 

When O'Neill makes mistakes he makes big ones. Full of 
crudity, unconscious caricature, muddy oratory. 

877. . "Two on the aisle." NY Post, 16 Feb. 

In discussing O'Neill the Thinker and O'Neill the Artist, Littell 
finds a real issue in who is to rescue the artist from the thinker. 
O'Neill does not think through his profound thoughts. Passages 
from Adams' Education on "The Dynamo and the Virgin" are 
quoted to show O'Neill is not a thinker. 

878. Macgowan, Kenneth. "Eugene O'Neill's new play." 
Van. F., 31 (Feb.) 62. 

If used often enough the asides may become standard in our 
theatrical conventions. 

879. . "O'Neill's new play Dynamo to be presented 

by the Theatre Guild." NY Post, 9 Feb. 

In this preview, Macgowan warns that the play, though about 
religion, is not comforting, and would be banned in funda- 
mentalist religious areas. 

880. "Machines and motives." Psychology Mag., Apr. 


Obscurity need not enter — may be avoided by realizing 
O'Neill deals in symbols. 

881. Mantle, Burns. "The Messrs. O'Neill and Ibsen. 
Dynamo both irritates and mystifies." NY News, 17 Feb. 

A plea not to judge the whole trilogy on basis of this play. 
No interested person can afford to miss it, especially those seek- 
ing what O'Neill actually is. 

882. "Mr. O'Neill and the audible theatre." NY Times, 
3 Mar., VIII, 4:6. 

An explanation of O'Neill's viewpoints toward the use of the 
definite rhythm of sound as an important part of theatrical art. 

883. Moses, Montrose J. "Eugene O'Neill searches for 
God." Rev. of Rev., 79 (Apr. ) 158. 

Nothing particularly new being said, but it is done "dynami- 
cally and with mad frenzy." 

884. Nathan, George Jean. "Judging the shows." Judge, 
96 (9 Mar.) 18. 

Crude, childish, trivial; a dud. 

885. . "A non-conductor." Am. Merc, 16 ( Mar. ) 


Reprints complete stage directions from Act I, with some 
condensed dialogue, to show how ridiculous the play becomes. 
In science and philosophy O'Neill is lost. 

886. "The new Dynamo as seen by O'Neill." NY World, 
27 Jan. 

Excerpts from some of O'Neill's letters to the Guild concerning 
his ideas, such as the emphasis upon sound and the insistence 
that the cast visit an actual power station. 

887. "O'Neill wrestles with God." Lit. D., 100 (2 Mar.) 

Evidence from most reviews that O'Neill was "thrown in the 
first round." 


888. Pollock, Arthur. "Mr. O'Neill gets excited again in 
Dynamo." Brook. Eagle, 17 Feb. 

Under the impression he is to be taken seriously, O'Neill takes 
himself seriously. Mistakes excitement for thought. 

889. Riley, Wilfred J. "Dynamo." Billboard, 41 (23 
Feb.) 47. 

Must await the rest of the proposed trilogy before a deci- 
sion is made. 

890. Ruhl, Arthur. "Second nights." NY Her-Trib., 17 Feb. 
A detailed review of the many symbols and the general ap- 
proach O'Neill uses — aimed at showing how preposterous and 
outlandish the whole play is. 

891. Shipley, Joseph T. "Dyna-Might." New Leader, 
15 Feb. 

Distinct advance technically beyond INTERLUDE. The ex- 
pressed thoughts are eflFective; a bold replacement of speech. 

892. . "Dynamolatry." New Leader, 1 Mar. 

O'Neill can reach power, but perhaps his misdirection of aim 
keeps this from being poetry; he has gone astray. 

893. Skinner, Richard Dana. "Eugene O'Neill's Dynamo." 
Commonweal, 9 (27 Feb.) 389-390. 

Not about world sickness, but about O'Neill's own. 

894. Watts, Richard. "Literary ancestor of Dynamo." NY 
Her-Trib., 24 Feb. 

Interesting review of other literary uses of the machine as in 
Frankenstein, RUR, Processional, and others. 

895. Wellman, Rita. "In and out of town." Town b- 
Country, 83 ( 15 Mar. ) 58. 

An arrogant experiment that does not come across. 

896. Wyatt, Euphemia Van R. "Plays of some importance." 
Cath. Wld., 129 (Apr.) 80-82. 

O'Neill is the loser in his clenching with a tremendous theme. 


897. Young, Stark. "Dynamo." New Rep., 58 (27 Feb) 

Significant as a "personal document" showing what can mean 
so much to O'Neill. 


Opening run reviews — New York 
Newspapers of November 1920 

898. Broun, Heywood. "Emperor Jones gives chance for 
cheers." NY Tribune, 4 Nov. 

Extreme praise for O'Neill's great value. 

899. Castellun, Maida. "O'Neill's Emperor Jones thrills 
and fascinates." NY Call, 10 Nov. 

Provincetown players give the most thrilling evening of their 
theatrical lives. Vivid imagination, relentless power; a rare feast 
for lovers of the true drama. 

900. Macgowan, Kenneth. "Emperor Jones an extraordi- 
nary drama of imagination." NY Globe, 4 Nov. 

High praise for this new drama designed for the new stagecraft. 

901. Mantle, Burns. "Plays, players and playwrights." NY 
Mail, 6 Nov. 

"A weird tragedy, this one." It does not cheer, because it 
leaves one cheerless, lacking O'Neill's promising distinction of 
text evident in other plays. Some traces of simple eloquence. 

902. "Provincetown players stage remarkable play." Brook. 
Eagle, 9 Nov. 

"Admirable piece of dramatic craftsmanship." 


903. Rathbun, Stephen. "Provincetown players stage a 
brilliant bill." NY Sun, 6 Nov. 

One of the noteworthy events of the season, both in depth 
and power. 

904. Towse, J. Ranken. "The play." NY Post, 3 Nov. 
O'Neill knows how to communicate the feelings of character 

to the audience. Typical of little theatre experiments, and O'Neill 
took the chance of being a trifle ridiculous in this one. 

905. Woollcott, Alexander. "The new O'Neill play." NY 
Times, 7 Nov., VII, 1:3. 

The "as yet unbridled" O'Neill has strength and originality 
so far unequaled in the American theatre. 

During November and most of December 1920 THE EM- 
PEROR JONES continued in the tiny Greenwich Village theatre 
of the Provincetown Players. By popular demand it was moved 
uptown into a larger theatre, the Selwyn, on 27 December, and 
thence to the Princess on 29 January 1921. Reviews continued 
to appear, and many critics who had missed it downtown wrote 
their opinions after seeing it in the Broadway house. Others, 
who had seen it earlier, reviewed it again. Later in 1921 various 
publications of the play, in the same volume with DIFF'RENT 
and THE STRAW and in separate editions, were also discussed 
in periodical columns. To simplify matters, all reviews and 
criticism after November 1920 and through 1921 are placed 

Other reviews and criticism 

906. "Amusement notes." W. W. Daily, 28 Dec. 1920. 

The move uptown is an improvement because action flows 
more quickly without the long waits between scenes. 

907. Castellun, Maida. "The Emperor Jones at the Selwyn 
repeats its success with Charles Gilpin." NY Call, 30 Dec. 1920. 

Still unusual and thrilling. 


908, Dale, Alan. "Emperor Jones artistically staged; ap- 
peals to fancy." NY American, 28 Dec. 1920. 

Somewhat unique, somewhat impressive, somewhat artistic, 
could be improved with some comedy. 

909, "The Emperor Jones." Dial, 70 (June 1921) 715. 
Brief book review, JONES reads well, in spite of its essen- 
tially pictorial character, 

910, "The Emperor Jones." Independent, 105 (8 Jan. 
1921) 33, 

A "sensation." 

911, "The Emperor Jones," Th. Arts, 5 (Oct. 1921) 334-335, 
Book review, JONES is "briUiant and forward looking." 

912, "The Emperor Jones," Variety, 14 Jan. 1921. 
Genuine tragedy, mixed with the "cynicism of youth." 

913, "Emperor Jones at Selwyn," NY Sun, 28 Dec, 1920. 
The transfer from Greenwich Village is an improvement. 

914, "Emperor Jones uptown," NY Herald, 28 Dec, 1920. 
Few pictures of terror are so engrossing as this. 

915, Firkins, O, W, "Eugene O'Neill's remarkable play. 
The Emperor Jones." Weekly Rev., 3 (8 Dec. 1920) 567-568. 

Literary and theatrical, rather than dramatic; highly imagina- 
tive, possibly a profound piece of work. 

916. , "Plays for the reader." Weekly Rev., 4 (25 

June 1921) 606, 

Book review, O'Neill is not yet the master of the long play. 
A sense of theatre and honesty should be helpful in the future. 

917. GiUiam, Florence. "The Emperor Jones." Quill, Nov. 
1920, pp. 24-26, 

The production could have been smoother. 

World, 4 June 1921. 

918. Harrison, Hubert H. "The Emperor Jones." Negro 


It is aimless to criticize this play because it "does not elevate 
the Negro," since it could have been written about any race 

919. James, Patterson. "The Provincetown players." Bill- 
board, 14 Dec. 1920. 

"One of the pitiably few compensations of the season." 

920. Lewisohn, Ludwig. "Native plays." Nation, 112 (2 
Feb. 1921) 189. 

Power and promise, though visions of the Negro seem to 
have been carefully selected rather than leaping from "crea- 
tive necessity." 

921. Macgowan, Kenneth. "The new season." Tfi. Arts, 
5 (Jan. 1921) 5-7. [Reprinted in Gilder, Rosamond, ed., Theatre 
Arts anthology, NY, Theatre Arts Books, 1950, pp. 592-594 (No. 
49); and in Hewitt, Barnard, Theatre USA, NY, McGraw-Hill, 
1959, pp. 333-335 (No. 56).] 

A new and untheatrical power, with rhythmed beauty; genius 
and imagination are evident. 

922. "More room improves The Emperor Jones." NY 
World, 28 Dec. 1920. 

Vigor and charm of Gilpin stood out stronger and the charac- 
ters are more convincing with the move. 

923. Moses, Montrose J. "O'Neill and the Emperor Jones." 
Independent, 105 ( 12 Feb. 1921 ) 158-159. 

Mainly a discussion of the one-act play as a dramatic form 
and O'Neill's use of it, especially in this play. 

924. "Not as others are, but still worth it." Outlook, 126 
(22 Dec. 1920)710-711. 

Remarkable, despite severe shortcomings in drama and staging. 

925. "Provincetown bill best thing they've done for long 
time." NY Clipper, 68 (24 Nov. 1920) 19. 

Highly interesting, although O'Neill is not great. It is not 
certain whether he is better than Cohan or Walter. 


926. Sayler, Oliver M. "Delving into the sub-conscious." 
Freeman, 2A Nov. 1920. 

Success is limited because of O'Neill's plunge into the field 
of Negro psychoanalysis. 

927. VSGL "The Emperor Jones." New Rep., 26 (25 
May 1921) 420. 

Book review. It is better not to read JONES if you liked it 
on the stage. 

928. Whyte, Gordon. "Provincetown players." Billboard, 
Nov. 1920 ( exact date undetermined ) . 

About the best of O'Neill so far. 

Opening night reviews — Paul Robeson revival 
New York — Newspapers of 7-9 May 1924 

929. "The Emperor Jones." NY World, 7 May. 
Robeson is almost as good as Gilpin. 

930. "The Emperor Jones reappears at the Provincetown 
with a new emperor." NY Post, 7 May. 

On the whole worthily presented. One comes away with a 
new respect for O'Neill's dexterity. 

931. "The Emperor Jones revived." NY Times, 7 May, 18:1. 
The play instead of the player seems to hold the audience. 

932. "Paul Robeson wins fame in O'Neill play." NY Tele- 
gram 6- Mail, 7 May. 

High praise for Robeson's interpretation. 

933. Pollock, Arthur. "The Emperor Jones." Brook. Eagle, 
8 May. 

The revival is praised, as is Robeson's interpretation. 

934. "Provincetown theatre — The Emperor Jones." NY 
American, 9 May. 


Completely satisfying, but there is a "bridge of diflFerence" 
between Robeson and Gilpin. 

935. Vreeland, Frank. "Bayoo they cry as Robeson rages in 
The Emperor Jones." NY Her-Trib., 7 May. 

High praise for the performance. 

936. Woollcott, Alexander. "The Emperor Jones revived." 
NY Sun, 8 May. 

Recommended without reservation. 

THE EMPEROR JONES was revived twice in 1926, once by 
the Provincetown Theatre, 15 February, and once by the Mayfair 
Theatre, 10 November. Both starred Gilpin. Newspaper reviews, 
when they appeared, still maintained their high praise, and 
were so repetitive as to be of httle value here. Moss Hart, who 
played Smithers in the Mayfair production, describes his ex- 
periences in some detail in Act One. Periodicals outside of New 
York gave these other revivals only random mention. One other 
opinion, however, is worth noting, and is included below. 

937. Shand, John. "The Emperor Jones." New Statesman, 
25 (19 Sept. 1925)628-629. 

O'Neill is basically a one-act dramatist and should not at- 
tempt something beyond his scope. This will never be a famous 
play because a good idea is spoiled by the wrong treatment. 


Opening night reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 6 March 1922 

938. Allen, Kelcey. "The First Man produced." W. W. 

Well written, but far too morbid to succeed. 


939. "Another O'Neill play on Grand Street." NY Telegram. 
Distinct departure; keen satire, one of O'Neill's best. 

940. "Convocation of woe in The First Man, O'Neill's 
new play." NY Tribune. 

A murky play; it is hard to recognize O'Neill. "The name of 
Eugene O'Neill's star is Wormwood." 

941. Dale, Alan. "The First Man, Eugene O'Neill's play 
staged." NY American. 

The theatre is out of place in such painful and morbid exhibits. 

942. DeFoe, Louis V. "Another play by O'Neill." NY 

"Grimly humorous satire" on contemporary human traits; not 
O'Neill's best. 

943. "Eugene O'Neill's study in morbid paternity." NY 

A strain between O'Neill and theme; hardly an O'Neill play 
at all. 

944. "First Man presented at Neighborhood Playhouse." 
NY Sun. 

No glory here; should stick to the sea which is his best friend. 

945. Mantle, Burns. "O'Neill's The First Man." NY Mail 
Repetitious, lacks convincing detail. 

946. Marsh, Leo A. "New O'Neill play a morbid drama." 
NY Telegraph. 

Modern play with primitive theme; O'Neill still is able to 
write well about human frailties. 

947. Reamer, Lawrence. "First Man ... is a gloomy 
suburban story." NY Herald. 

Should never have been produced; nothing new in the theme. 

948. Torres, H. Z. "Latest O'Neill opus a drama of gesta- 
tion." NY Commercial. 


No dramatic or literary excuse for this revolting and abhorrent 
treatment of gestation. 

949. Towse, J. Ranken. "Eugene O'Neill's latest play." 
NY Post. 

Signs of ability and inventive mind; what good is here is ob- 
structed by violence and exaggeration. 

950. Woollcott, Alexander. "The new O'Neill play." NY 
Times, 9:2. 

Reiterative, clumsy, rubbishy language. 

Other reviews and criticism 

951. Andrews, Kenneth. "Broadway, our literary signpost." 
Bookman, 52 (May) 284. 

"Revives one's shaken faith in the author" after the HAIRY 
APE. Powerful and well rounded. 

952. Baury, Louis. "Mr. O'Neill's new plays." Freeman, 
5 (3 May) 184-185. 

O'Neill must learn responsibility of his art and stop wallow- 
ing in words. 

953. Castellun, Maida. "Eugene O'Neill misses his mark." 
NY Call, 8 Mar. 

Badly constructed, overwritten, far from a good play. This 
critic points up the interesting fact that this is the first time 
in a play that a man instead of a woman has shown he does 
not want children, 

954. "The First Man." Brook. Eagle, 7 Mar. 
O'Neill on unfamiliar ground, but still a very good play. 

955. "The First Man." Drama Calendar, 13 Mar. 

Not up to O'Neill's rest, but shows ability to write comedy 
scene and to handle more than two or three people in his dialogue. 


956. "The First Man." Town Topics, 9 Mar. 

Personal rancor, missing the form of art; ill-written melodrama. 

957. "The First Man new O'Neill play at the Playhouse." 
NY Clipper, 15 Mar. 

Distasteful, badly acted, worse O'Neill language than usual. 

958. Hopkins, Mary Alden. "First Man at the Neighbor- 
hood Playhouse." Greenwich Villager, 11 Mar. 

This critic tries hard to find something to praise, but is not 
convincing. Says we must understand what O'Neill is doing, etc. 

959. Hornblow, Arthur. "Mr. Hornblow goes to the play." 
Theatre, 35 (May) 308. 

Stretches to the straining point the obligation to be "truthful" 
about life. Some dramatic eflFectiveness, but not much more. 

960. Macgowan, Kenneth. "Broadway at the spring." Th. 
Arts, 6 (July) 182. 

Shallow and arbitrary. 

961. Whittaker, James. "O'Neill vents his gorge in The 
First Man." NY News, 18 Mar. 

Rampant and arrogant pessimism. 


Opening night reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 11-14 Dec. 1925 

962. Allen, Kelcey. "O'Neill's The Fountain leaps to geyser 
heights of fantasy and romance." W. W. Daily, 11 Dec. 

Gushes, tumbles, and drops, like a fountain. Smothered with 
scenery, throwing sprays of condensed prose, colorful and dull. 


Reminds one of Rostand; Cyrano always seems to be peeking 
out somewhere. 

963. Anderson, John. "New O'Neill play at the Greenwich 
Village theatre." NY Post, 11 Dec. 

"Desire under the palms." Beautifully, often brilliantly writ- 
ten, lit with genuine poetic imagination and literary craftsman- 
ship. Faults are poor construction, too many jerky tableaux, lack 
of cumulative interest. 

964. Coleman, Robert. "Author explains play." NY Mirror, 
14 Dec. 

More pageant than play; feast for eyes, lean diet for ears. 

965. Dale, Alan. "The Fountain." NY American, 12 Dec. 
Without O'Neill's program notes it would have been impossible 

to gain the slightest idea what the play was meant to be. 

966. Gabriel, Gilbert. "De Leon in search of his spring." 
NY Sun, 11 Dec. 

"Trial by scenery"; probably should not have been produced. 
Overly wordy, out-talking its aspirations. 

967. Hammond, Percy. "Eugene O'Neill's The Fountain; a 
large romance done in a small way." NY Her-Trib., 11 Dec. 

Perhaps all right as a book, but it suffers from lack of elbow 
room in production. Needs too many of O'Neill's program ex- 

968. Metcalfe, J. S. "The first Florida boom." Wall St. Jour., 
12 Dec. 

O'Neill has discovered Ponce de Leon and embalmed him. 
One feels that George Cohan, Anne Nichols and others can 
claim rights as dramatists if O'Neill does so with this one. "A 
large section of Mr. O'Neill's most enthusiastic followers will 
be disappointed ... It is a perfectly clean play." 

969. Mr. O'Neill seeking romance." NY Times, 11 Dec, 


Unwieldy, climactic scenes too brief. O'Neill is still brooding 
on human beings caught in the web of existence. 

970. Pollock, Arthur. "Plays and things." Brook. Eagle, 
11 Dec. 

Structurally faulty, and O'Neill demands a Reinhardt pro- 
duction in his scenery. Some scenes are fluent, but dogged, and 
the romance seems amateurish. 

971. Vreeland, Frank. "Te Deum and tedium." NY Tele- 
gram, 11 Dec. 

Too many pauses; it meditates too much. It is an obvious 
play which lays bare O'Neill's weaknesses. 

972. Woollcott, Alexander. "The Fountain." NY World, 
11 Dec. 

Never uninteresting, but almost never alive. O'Neill fails for 
the first time to create real characters. 

THE FOUNTAIN received only one production and was 
never revived. Many reviews did not appear until several weeks 
after the 11 December 1925 opening, so for this reason all re- 
views and criticism after 14 December are combined in a 
single group. 

Other reviews and criticism 

973. Atkinson, Brooks. "New O'Neill aspects." NY Times, 
20 Dec. 1925, VII, 3:1. 

Attempting poetical history, O'Neill leaves his best medium 
of "morbid realism" behind. This is neither realism nor drama. 

974. Barretto, Larry. "The New Yorker." Bookman, 62 
(Feb. 1926)704-705. 

Fantasy is not O'Neill's forte. A fantastic, over-long tale. 

975. Benchley, Robert. "Art work." Life, 86 (31 Dec. 
1925) 18. 


O'Neill's morbid realism preferable to this boring play. 

976. Brown, John Mason. "The director takes a hand." 
T/i.Art5, 10(Feb. 1926) 77. 

Full of inequalities; long winded and tiresome. 

977. Carb, David. "Seen on the stage." Vogue, 67 ( 1 Feb. 
1926) 60-61. 

Maundering play, arousing no emotions. Here shuffles instead 
of strides. 

978. Clark, Barrett H. "The new O'Neill play and some 
others." Drama, 16 (Feb. 1926) 175. 

The romantic is unfamiliar to O'Neill, but he surprises critics 
who do not realize he is an idealist and a poet. 

979. Eaton, Walter Prichard. "Masks and mysticism." NY 
Her-Trib., 16 May 1926. 

Published version reads extremely well despite failure as play. 

980. Freeman, Donald. "A mid-season dramatic mixture." 
Van. F., 25 (Feb. 1926) 118. 

"Enriching and glamorous experience" despite certain failures 
in writing. 

981. Gillette, Don Carle. "The Fountain." Billboard, 37 
(19 Dec. 1925) 10. 

"It interests but it does not stir; it pleases but it 
does not impress." 

982. H.J.M. "The theatre." New Yorker, 1 (19 Dec. 
1925) 17. 

Questions how long O'Neill can be considered great with this 
and plays such as WELDED and ALL GOD'S CHILLUN. 

983. Hornblow, Arthur. "Mr. Hornblow goes to the play." 
Theatre, 43 (Feb. 1926) 4a. 

The scenery conceals much of what the play is about. 


984. Kalonyme, Louis. "Delectable mountain of current 
drama." Arts ir Dec, 24 (Feb. 1926) 66. 

Shows some greatness in O'Neill, despite over-production. 

985. M.W. "The play." Commonweal, 3 (23 Dec. 1925) 

Though a good portent that O'Neill may achieve his search 
for beauty and truth, the play itself is vague and dull. 

986. Nathan, George Jean. "O'Neill's latest." Am. Merc, 
7 (Feb. 1926) 247-249. 

Much rewriting has ruined it, but it still shows O'Neill as 
our greatest native writer. 

987. "Plays and players." Town and Country, 81 (1 Jan. 
1926) 43. 

Lusterless, formless and windy; prodigious, talky bore. 

988. Seldes Gilbert. "The theatre." Dial, 80 (Feb. 1926) 

Interesting play, produced with passion and beauty. 

989. Sisk. "The Fountain." Variety, 16 Dec. 1925. 
Moments of dash killed by slow movement; not a popular 


990. Young, Stark. "The new O'Neill play." New Rep., 
45 (30 Dec. 1925) 160-161. 

A beautiful mood, new to O'Neill, but unequal to the demands 
the style places on words. 



Opening night reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 2 June 1921 

991. Allen, Kelcey. "Eugene O'Neill's drama Gold acted 
at Frazee theatre." W. W. Daily. 

Worth seeing if you like your drama strong. 

992. Broun, Heywood. "Gold at Frazee shows O'Neill 
below his best." NY Tribune. 

Slow, conventional beginning, with the O'Neill sign in last act. 

993. Dale, Allen. "Artistic moments in Gold at the Frazee." 
NY American 

Curious symbolism, but too close to 10-20-30 melodrama. 

994. De Foe, Louis V. "New O'Neill play Gold is shown." 
NY World. 

Moments of genuine drama, lacks efFectiveness of his others. 

995. "Eugene O'Neill's Gold tells a weird tale." NY 
Times, 14:2. 

Interesting, but "curiously unconvincing" play; not up to 

996. "Eugene O'Neill's new play Gold not without alloy." 
NY Herald. 

Too many "chunks of gloom" falling on the stage. 

997. "Gold." NY Sun. 
Over long; not among his best. 

998. "Gold a triumph for Willard Mack." Jour, of Comm. 
O'Neill seems unable to pen one light idea or pleasant thought. 

999. Macgowan, Kenneth. "Eugene O'Neill's Gold disap- 
points in spite of many distinctions." NY Globe. 


"Conceived in a bigger way than executed," but strength shows 
even in inadequate presentation. 

1000. Mantle, Bums. "A new O'Neill tragedy." NY Mail 
Approaches JONES in study of conscience-driven fear, but 

with less of the novelty. 

1001. Marsh, Leo A. "Gold opens at Frazee theatre." NY 

Looking for entertainment, don't go to this; full of O'Neill's 
"morbid vein" and shivers and shudders. 

1002. "O'Neill's Gold not glittering." NY Telegram. 

Has power, but lines are blurred and uncertain; O'NeiU de- 
liberation becomes labored mannerism. 

1003. Pollock, Arthur. "Another O'Neill play." Brook. 

Hard to determine its aim; much of aimless nothingness. 

1004. Torres, H. Z. "Willard Mack glitters in Gold." NY 

Thrilling tale of adventure and crime, suflFers from repetition 
and halted action. 

1005. Towse, J. Ranken. "Gold." NY Post. 
Crude melodrama; feeble play at best. 

1006. "Willard Mack scores in new drama." NY Journal. 
Praise for acting, oflFers no criticism of play. 

Other reviews and criticism 

1007. Andrews, K. "Gold." Bookman, 53 (Aug.) 528-530. 
O'Neill forgets his story between Acts I and IV, ends with 

his strange fire at his best. 

1008. Benchley, Robert. "Gold — and some forty-niners." 
Li/e,77(16June) 876. 


Clumsy, resembles something Benchley (by own admission) 
might have written. Drought-provoking play. 

1009. "Eugene O'Neill's Gold is a drama of greed and 
gloom, plus symbolism." NY Call, 3 June. 

Much repetition and discussion, enough to irritate the spirit. 

1010. Firkins, O. W. "Gold." Weekly Rev., 4 (18 June) 

Two extraordinarily good first acts, but plot is abandoned and 
instead of Stevenson we have Conrad, the plot merely being 
towed into port. 

1011. "Gold." Independent, 105 (18 June) 633. 
It is not up to O'Neill's best. 

1012. "Gold." Lit. Rev. of NY Eve. Post, 8 Oct., p. 74. 
Gives hope of better things in the future. 

1013. "Gold." Variety, 10 June. 

A big failure without merit; talky, balky, tiresome, impossible. 

1014. "Gold O'Neill's new play interesting but far from 
writer's best." NY Clipper, 69 ( 8 June ) 19. 

Almost 10-20-30 melodrama, but still more interesting than 
general run. 

1015. Hornblow, Arthur. "Mr. Hornblow goes to the play." 
Theatre, 35 (Aug.) 97. 

Much force of expression but this is tedious, reiterative, banal. 

1016. Kaufman, S. Jay. "Gold." Dram. Mir., 83 (11 June) 

Chaos when O'Neill writes conventional melodrama. 

1017. . "Seen on the stage." Vogue, 15 Sept. 

As vivid and vital a first act as any American has ever written; 
play is ruined by acting and production. 

1018. Lewisohn, Ludwig. "Drama." Nation, 112 (22 
June) 902. 


Seem to have heard all this before. Interesting comment by 
this critic who places O'Neill second to Susan Glaspell as our 
leading writer. 

1019. "O'Neill's Gold proves to be an impressive play." 
NY Review, 4 June. 

In some ways O'Neill's most impressive play. 


1020. Boyd, Ernest A. "Shorter notices." Freeman, 4 (4 
Jan.) 406. 

Book review. Prefers this to WHERE CROSS IS MADE, be- 
cause of more wild elemental force. 

1021. "Gold." Cath. Wld., 114 (Jan.) 555. 
More dramatic than literary value. 

1022. "The truth of O'Neill's technic." Dramatist, 13 (Jan.) 

O'Neill must learn the rules of playwriting like everybody else. 


Opening night reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 25 Jan. 1926 

1023. Allen, Kelcey. "Great God Brown by O'Neill 
unique." W. W. Daily. 

The transfer of personality is unacceptable and far-fetched 
Expressionism and symbolism must have some relationship to 
the sphere of logic; there is mask switching to the point of 
strangulation. A laboratory experiment not good for the theatre. 


1024. Anderson, John. "Another O'Neill play comes to 
town." NY Post. 

O'Neill has ventured everything and achieved a superb failure. 
It is more than the stage can hold; O'Neill's fall from the heights 
of dramatic imagination is 'Tjrilliant and thrilhng." The play 
eventually drowns magnificently in the seething theories of 
the writer. 

1025. Atkinson, Brooks. "Symbolism in an O'Neill trage- 
dy." NY Times, 26:1. [Reprinted in Durham & Dodds, British 
and American plays, 1830-1945, NY, Oxford, 1947 (No. 34).] 

Acknowledging what O'Neill is trying to do, Atkinson refuses 
to be bothered by the fact the play is not always clear; what 
O'Neill does is more important than what he does not do. 

1026. Coleman, Robert. "God Brown tedious." NY Mirror. 
IneflFective and tedious psychological study. Despairing dirge 

of puzzled pessimist. 

1027. Gabriel, Gilbert. "All God's chillun got masks." 
NY Sun. 

O'Neill does not write for popularity but for posterity. One 
will remember the play, whatever he thinks of it. Gabriel's ad- 
miration is "hot but troubled" for O'Neill's most poetic and 
penetrating play. 

1028. "Great God Brown opens at Greenwich Village." 
NY Graphic. 

Strength and beauty of lines, but you will go home mystified 
and bored. 

1029. Marsh, Leo. "O'Neill's latest pure experiment." NY 

A clinical experiment. 

1030. Metcalfe, J. S. "A plea in defence." Wall St. Jour. 
The masks hinder instead of help, making some speeches 

seem laughable. O'Neill is no longer the great dramatist of 
realism and low-life characters. 


1031. Osborn, E. W. "The Great God Brown." NY World. 
The unexepected is again introduced and spells wonderful, 

though there is some symbolic running wild in the last act, 

1032. Pollock, Arthur. "The Great God Brown." Brook. 

Very little critical comment; mainly plot review. 

1033. Vreeland, Frank. "The masked marvel." NY Tele- 

O'Neill at both his best and his worst. 

Other reviews and criticism 
(With two exceptions all dates are 1926) 

1034. Anderson, John. "O'Neill the realist turns mystic." 
Lit. Rev. of NY Eve. Post, 10 Apr., p. 2. 

O'Neill is still handicapped by his tools of the theatre, but 
he is also still an impressive dramatist. 

1035. Anschutz, Grace. "Masks, their use by Pirandello 
and O'Neill." Drama, 17 (Apr. 1927) 201. 

An interesting comparison of the two styles. Pirandello may 
do better through character portrayal alone, than through use 
of actual masks. 

1036. Atkinson, Brooks. "Ibsen and O'Neill." NY Times, 
31 Jan., VII, 1:1. 

The two writers have much in common in emotional sensi- 
tiveness and philosophy, dealing with things that are not quite 
what they seem. Ibsen can be understood, but in this play O'Neill 
is on the verge of becoming unintelligible. 

1037. Barretto, Larry. "The New Yorker." Bookman, 63 
(Apr.) 213. 

"O'Neill has come a cropper while riding on a brave quest." 


1038. Benchley, Robert. "So deep!" Life, 87 (11 Feb.) 20. 
Last half unintelligible jumble, but it probably reads well. 

1039. BogdanofiF, Rose. "Masks, their uses, past and pres- 
ent." Drama, 21 ( May 1931 ) 21. 

O'Neill's use of the mask is the finest in modern theatre, as 
much a part of the play as the lines themselves. 

1040. Brown, John Mason. "Doldrums of midwinter." Th. 
Ar^5, 10(Mar.) 145-146. 

In an otherwise dull season, this comes as utterly diflFerent 
experiment. Fine for two acts, then confusion. 

1041. Carb, David. "The Great God Brown." Vogue, 67 
(15 Mar.) 106. 

"Subtly conceived symbolic tragedy, finely imagined, written 
with glowing loveliness. It fails to succeed only because of a 
physical device." 

1042. Clark, Barrett H. "Fin de saison on Broadway." 
Drama, 16 (May) 289-290. 

Hopes Pulitzer Prize is awarded to this play. 

1043. . "High spots in a dull season." Drama, 16 

(Mar.) 212. 

Highest development of O'Neill's genius we have seen. Like 
all poets, he writes ahead of us. 

1044. Eaton, Walter Prichard. "Masks and mysticism." 
NY Her-Trib., 16 May. 

The reading text may be clearer, but the absence of masks 
loses emotion. 

1045. Gillette, Don Carle. "The Great God Brown." Bill- 
board, 38 (6 Feb.) 43. 

Audiences must be educated to O'Neill more slowly; he is 
given in too big doses. This is "glorious confusion." 

1046. "The Great God Brown." Drama Calendar, 8 (1 
Feb.) 1. 


Has partly succeeded in "externalizing" the process of spiritual 
rebirth, and should be praised for it. 

1047. "The Great God Brown." Outlook, 143 (26 May) 151. 
Tragic allegory. The characters attain stature. 

1048. "Great God Brown and other plays." Dial, 81 
(Aug.) 175. 

Most people over 40 would look at this with amused tolerance 
of the rebellion against life. 

1049. "Great God Brown — Another grotesque conun- 
drum." Dramatist, 17 (July) 1307-1309. 

This review is almost unbelievably narrow and unimaginative, 
calling the play a drama "for dumb Doras," about an architect 
who masquerades as his dead rival and fails. 

1050. G.W.G. "Goat Song, Great God Brown and other 
crashing symbols." New Yorker, 1 (6 Feb.) 26. 

Some of the finest writing of O'Neill's career; underneath the 
"foam" of the masks lies the "nutritious fluid of a deeply di- 
gested idea." 

1051. Hornblow, Arthur. "Mr. Hornblow goes to the play." 
Theatre, 43 (Apr.) 18. 

The mask exchange in late scenes is piffle. Nothing in the 
play outside of some utterly incomprehensible hocus-pocus. 

1052. Kalonyme, Louis. "Dramatica Dionysiana." Arts and 
Dec, 24 ( Mar. ) 62. 

O'Neill's greatest achievement to date. This critic finds no 
confusion in mask switch, sees it as an "inevitable and integral 

1053. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "Review of the season." 
Nation, 122 (16 June) 675. 

One of O'Neill's most moving and most chaotic plays. 

1054. . "The tragedy of masks." Nation, 122 ( 10 


Feb.) 164-165. [Reprinted in Hewitt, Barnard, Theatre USA, 
NY, McGraw-Hill, 1959, pp. 363-364 (No. 56).] 

Never a more powerful or confused O'Neill play. Confusion 
perhaps because O'Neill is too close to subject; it masters him 
as much as he masters it. 

1055. Macgowan, Kenneth. "The mask in drama." Brook. 
Eagle, 30 Jan. 

Discussion of differences between O'Neill and the Greeks. 

1056. . "The mask in drama." Greenwich Playbill 

No. 4, Season 1925-1926. 

Points out this is the first modern play making direct use of 
the mask, using it for character change instead of physical or 
emotional change. 

1057. Mantle, Burns. "Great God Brown fascinating mys- 
tery." NY News, 26 Jan. 

Difficult play to follow, but one of most gripping tragi- 
comedies. Will stand as one of O'Neill's greatest messages. 

1058. Nathan, George Jean. "The Theatre." Am. Merc., 7 
(Apr.) 503-504. 

Richly imagined, brilliantly articulated, has power of convic- 
tion and dialogue of profundity seldom equalled in native drama. 

1059. "Plays and players." Town and Country, 81 (15 
Feb.) 60. 

Jerkily written, pretentious, masks clumsy and annoying, the 
theme better to be treated by European writers. 

1060. Quinn, Arthur Hobson. Letter to editor. NY Times, 
21 Feb., VII, 2:6. 

Calls attention to this profound study as worthy of support. 

1061. Sisk. "Great God Brown." Variety, 27 Jan. 

He has hit on something almost great in the masks — but 
not quite. 

1062. Skinner, Richard Dana. "Blossoms in arid dust." 
Ind. ir Weekly R., 116 (6 Mar. ) 275. 


Approval for masks, but audiences may not follow everything. 
O'Neill at his best. He is laying bare his own life, an opinion 
Skinner further develops in Poet's Quest ( No. 123 ) . 

1063. . "The play." Commonweal, 3 (10 Feb.) 384. 

O'Neill emerges from the swamp of despair and shows faith 
in resurrection. A notable play; O'Neill capable of "lofty vision." 

1064. Smith, Geddes. "Three mirrors." Survey, 56 (1 
Apr.) 43. 

"Heavy with implications . . . sometimes clear, sometimes 
muddled, always insistent." 

1065. Wyatt, Euphemia Van R. "Plays of some impor- 
tance." Cath. Wld., 122 (Mar.) 805-807. 

If O'Neill is not a mystic, he is as close as any contemporary 
American. The play is a subtle study of the hide and seek men 
play with their lives and souls. 

1066. Young, Stark. "The Great God Brown." New Rep., 
45 (10 Feb.) 329-330. [Reprinted in Young's Immortal Shadows, 
NY, Scribners, 1948 (No. 148).] 

Some unequal writing, but a feeling of great groping of life 
behind the play. Some effective use of masks. 

Opening night reviews — Revival — New York 
Newspapers of 7 Oct. 1959 

1067. Aston, Frank. "Great God Brown reopens at the 
Coronet." NY Wor-Tel. 6- Sun. 

Everyone deserves praise for courage in the revival; the dif- 
ficulties of performance are beyond most people. Masks are 
clumsy, but play is harrowing, engrossing, rewarding. 

1068. Atkinson, Brooks. "Theatre: O'Neill's Great God 
Brown." NY Times, 48:1. 

As avante garde as any play of Beckett or lonesco. In form 
there is nothing today more modern; memorable characters in 
a fascinating fantasy. Whether or not it is a "success" is pedantic. 


O'Neill's power of introspection is magnetic, for he writes about 
permanent ideas. 

1069. Chapman, John. "O'Neill's Great God Brown an 
impressive theatrical curio." NY News. 

Nothing is any more clear now than ever. Perhaps a great 
work, but it seems now to be a curio. 

1070. Coleman, Robert. "Great God Brown not O'Neill 
at best." NY Mirror. 

O'Neill's mind and soul were in ferment. In seeking faith 
he had little interest in clarity. Appealing for students, not for 
regular playgoers. 

1071. Dash, Thomas R. "Great God Brown confusing but 
stirring." W. W. Daily. 

Beckett & lonesco are "rank amateurs" in the bewitched, 
bothered, and bewildered kind of play compared to this. Still 
confusing after 33 years, the last scene being a "charade of 
fakery," fatuous and ludicrous. 

1072. Kerr, Walter. "Great God Brown." NY Her-Trib. 
Seems to have been written when O'Neill's energy was near 

exhaustion. Poor characters rob it of any cumulative force. 
Neither poetry nor people swell to any size. Seems dry as sand. 

1073. McClain, John. "A well-acted puzzler." NY Jour-Am. 
"A mess of dried shaving-cream" well performed, challenges 

anyone to dig out its meaning. McClain questions: "Why must 
good theatre be so oblique, so different?" 

1074. Watts, Richard. "O'Neill's drama of men and masks." 
NY Post. 

At times can be nothing short of maddening. Probably a 
failure, but a failure of genius. Third act philosophy is too 
much. Disturbing beauty, final confusion, but still a work of 
dramatic art. 


Other reviews and criticism 

1075. Atkinson. Brooks. "Great God Brown." NY Times, 
ISOct, II, 1:1. 

Absolute standards of excellence mark this a failure, although 
O'Neill fascinates and enthralls with his attempt. The Phoenix 
production meets with high approval, but O'Neill is too far 
beyond his audience by the third act. None the less, it is a 
major theatre work, full of O'Neill's indomitabihty and tragic 

1076. Berkelman, R. "O'Neill's everyman." S. Atl. Quar., 
58 (Fall) 609. 

This is a 20th century Everyman's journey through life. 
Brown and Dion are one person, and the women combine in 
Everywoman as well. The play is not, however, O'Neill's best. 

1077. Bolton, Whitney. "O'Neill play has areas of con- 
fusion." NY Telegraph, 8 Oct. 

The last act can become clownish. We are never sure whether 
the masks are good or bad, but the fact O'Neill tried is a 
tribute anyway. 

1078. Brustein, Robert. "O'Neill's adolescent talkathon." 
New Rep., 141 (Oct. 19) 29. 

Despite talk and abstractions, the play shows O'Neill's great- 
ness was in his probing of character instead of his hazy views 
of the universe. Too many undeveloped themes make it inco- 
herent, and the play cannot hold us now. 

1079. Clurman, Harold. "Theatre." Nation, 189 (24 Oct.) 

A crucial American tragedy in its portrayal of the incomplete- 
ness of American civilization as it focuses on the individual. 
For all his faults, O'Neill is our most important dramatist be- 
cause he is more truly relevant to the American people. 

1080. Cooke, Richard P. "O'Neill's maskers." Wall St. 
Jour., 8 Oct. 


Poetic jumble. Seems old fashioned and literary, still bearing 
the marks of an unsuccessful experiment. 

1081. Gelb, Arthur. "An epitaph for the O'NeiUs." NY 
Times,4 0ct., II, 1:1. 

A review of the play as an epitaph for his family of father, 
mother, and brother, all lost within the previous five years. This 
play therefore begins a lifelong evaluation of O'Neill's relation- 
ship to them, cubninating in LONG DAYS JOURNEY. The 
article points up interesting parallels between the play's charac- 
ters and the real people O'Neill knew. 

1082. "The Great God Brown." Th. Arts, 43 (Dec.) 88. 
There is more immediacy and impact than in the original. 

The masks are not dated, and they illustrate more than ever 
O'Neill's anger and grief. 

1083. Hobe. "Great God Brown." Variety, 14 Oct. 
Remains one of O'Neill's important works; engrossing, chal- 
lenging, uneven, a milestone in his career. The masks, whOe 
still novel, require more than most audiences will give. 

1084. "Into the shadows again." Newsweek, 54 (19 
Oct.) 80. 

It is still vahd as an experiment. The philosophy is sometimes 
inspired, but confusing. A difficult but compelHng play. 

1085. Lewis, Theophilus. "The Great God Brown." Ameri- 
ca, 102 ( 31 Oct. ) 139-140. 

It is not O'Neill's most impressive, but probably his most 
fascinating work. It is good to see a revival of this challeng- 
ing play. 

1086. "Old play in Manhattan." Time, 74 ( 19 Oct. ) 56. 
Prolix and banal, as heavy with fog as it is lacking in flesh. 

The production is not good. Some vivid tricks, but the "gaudy 
orchestration" merely emphasizes the music's hoUowness. 

1087. Rhodes, Robert E. "A brilliant revival." Newsday, 
14 Oct. 


Just as absorbing, stimulating, and eflFective as ever, regard- 
less of time. 

1088. Tynan, Kenneth. "O'Neill in embryo." New Yorker, 
35 (17 Oct.) 131. 

A fascinating evening. The end, however, is in the "soggy 
realm" of bad fantasy and cannot be accepted. 

1089. Watts, Richard. "A maddening and fascinating 
play." NY Post, 18 Oct. 

Still disturbing as it was when first produced. A magnificent 
failure because of the confusion. It is impossible to strike a 
balance between its great virtues and its great defects. 


Opening night reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 10 Mar. 1922 

1090. "Hairy Ape a logical tragedy." NY World. 

Similar to but not as good as JONES because of less articulate 
human note. 

1091. Hammond, Percy. "Hairy Ape shows Eugene O'Neill 
in a bitter and interesting humor." NY Tribune. 

An "interesting thing," the best since ANNA CHRISTIE. 

1092. Macgowan, Kenneth. "Eugene O'Neill sets a new 
mark in The Hairy Ape." NY Globe. 

Welcome to a tremendous new drama form, "extraordinarily 

1093. Mantle, Burns. "The Hairy Ape." NY Mail. 

A better play than JONES because of better mood, more inti- 
mate contact with the modern world. 


1094. Reamer, Lawrence. "Hairy Ape, new O'Neill play, 
an impressive study of life." NY Herald. 

General praise. Downfall of JONES more effective than fall 
of this "feeble giant." 

1095. Towse, J. Ranken. "Eugene O'Neill's latest effort." 
NY Post. 

In his vigorous attack on the play's "juvenile appeal to ignor- 
ance and passion" Towse sees ominous foreboding for O'Neill's 
future. One of the strongest dissents among a minority of the 
critics who did not like the play. Towse finds the play worthless, 
and assigns it social and economic aspects which O'Neill probably 
never intended. 

1096. Welsh, Robert G. "Behind the scenes." NY Telegram. 
Expressive and weird; does not do well in the shift from real- 
istic beginning to "fantasy" of the second part. 

1097. WooUcott, Alexander. "Eugene O'Neill at full tilt." 
NY Times, 18:2. 

"Monstrously uneven" but O'Neill towers above the milling 
mumbling crowd of contemporary playwrights. 

Other reviews and criticism 

THE HAIRY APE moved from the crowded Provincetown 
stage to the Plymouth theatre uptown on 17 April 1922. Several 
newspapers sent their critics to review it again, and their com- 
ments are included below. 

1098. Andrews, Kenneth. "Broadway our literary sign- 
post." Bookman, 55 ( May ) 284. 

The play is like a "badly written editorial in the 'Gall.' " 

1099. "As to the Hairy Ape." NY Star, 22 Apr. 
Ending is inevitable, very natural. A vivid play. 


1100. Baury, Louis. "The Hairy Ape." Freeman, 5 (19 
July) 449. 

Baury replies to Kantor (No. 1123) and denies that APE has 
been categorized as completely expressionistic. 

1101. . "Mr. O'Neill's new plays." Freeman, 5 

(3 May) 184-185. 

This and FIRST MAN are failures. O'Neill must learn re- 
sponsibilities of his art and cease "wallowing in mere words." 

1102. . "On reply to Mr. Block." Freeman, 5 ( 14 

June) 330. 

Sharp reply to Block's letter (No. 1104). Baury shows respect 
for O'Neill but feels APE did not achieve greatness that modem 
drama is capable of. 

1103. Benchley, Robert. "The Hairy Ape." Life, 79 (30 
Mar.) 18. 

His most powerful thing yet. 

1104. Block, Ralph. "The old order changeth." Freeman, 
5 (31 May) 281-282. 

Letter protesting Baury 's approach (No. 1100) which seems 
to assume there are rules and responsibilities an artist must fol- 
low, which this writer believes do not exist. 

1105. Broun, Hey wood. "The Hairy Ape." NY World, 
2 Apr. 

Interesting and gallant attempt that does not come off. 

1106. . "It seems to me." NY World, 25 Apr. 

In reply to an accusation that he did not give the play justice 
as a social document, Broun states the artistic sense is lost when 
the artist adopts a cause, and this is the case with O'Neill. 

1107. . "It seems to me." NY World, 3 May. 

Cites a letter from Michael Gold attacking Broun and his 
"gang" for wanting sugar-coated stuff instead of this terrific 
kind of play. 


1108. Castellun, Maida. "The plays that pass — O'Neill's 
Hairy Ape a powerful tragedy of today." NY Call, 12 Mar. 

One of his finest achievements; a powerful and shattering play. 

1109. Dale, Alan. "Hairy Ape is presented at Plymouth," 
NY American, 19 Apr. 

The audience should go to enjoy it for the new type play it is, 
and should forget the "bosh" about what it means. 

1110. Darnton, Charles. "The Hairy Ape despair run 
amuck." NY World, 19 Apr. 

Yank's bad liquor must be causing him bad dreams. 

1111. Dawson, N. P. "Books in particular." NY Globe, 
17 Apr. 

O'Neill plows a very new and deep furrow in this one. 

1112. Eaton, Walter Prichard. "The Hairy Ape." Freeman, 
5 (26 Apr.) 160-161. 

O'Neill is the writer of the future; no matter what one's 
opinion you cannot get away from it; whatever the symbols and 
interpretations, it is a tragedy. 

1113. "The Hairy Ape." Drama Calendar, 20 Mar. 

A great play, but makes one wince. Beautiful in bold direct- 
ness and stark reality. 

1114. "The Hairy Ape." NY Post, 22 Mar. 

This editorial praises the play, which shows that the next 
decade in the theatre will be filled with admirable and sur- 
prising things. 

1115. "The Hairy Ape." NY Tribune, 20 Apr. 

O'Neill is a young genius and our greatest playwright, com- 
pletely lacking in superficiality. 

1116. "Hairy Ape at the Provincetown Playhouse." Town 
Topics, 16 Mar. 

It should reach Broadway; if it does not it will be a disgrace. 


1117. "Hairy Ape is O'Neill at best." NY Journal, 19 Apr. 
Tremendous force and imagination. 

1118. "The Hairy Ape, O'Neill play, is dull and tiresome." 
NY Clipper, 70 ( 22 Mar. ) 22. 

Neither his best nor worst; interesting if you like O'Neill. 

1119. "Hairy Ape — Undramatized sensation." Dramatist, 
13 (July) 1117-1118. 

"Brute force that goes nowhere." 

1120. Hopkins, Mary Alden. "Hairy Ape at the Province- 
town Theatre." Greenwich Villager, 11 Mar. 

Not a criticism; merely reviews matters of staging. 

1121. Hornblow, Arthur. "Mr. Hornblow goes to the play." 
Theatre, 35 (May) 305. 

"Towering accomplishment" brilliant, vitally poetic, apocalyptic 
in message. 

1122. James, Patterson. "Off the record." Billboard, 34 
(15 Apr.) 18. 

Violent, vitriolic attack comparing the play to swill wagons 
and slaughter houses in its "realism" of staging and language. 
This opinion is partner to Towse's (No. 1095) and Robbins' 
(No. 1138) in its purely surfacy attitude. The critic is so hor- 
ribly offended that he makes little effort to offer worthwhile 

1123. Kantor, Louis. "The Hairy Ape." Freeman, 5 (5 
July) 402-403. 

A letter to the editor differs with Baury's reply (No. 1100) 
to Block's letter (No. 1104). Kantor says O'Neill is like the 
"modernist movement" in Germany, which he does not identify. 

1124. Levick, L. E. "Hairy Ape and the I.W.W. Marine 
transport workers turn dramatic critics and praise O'Neill." NY 
Call, 14 May. 

Report of review in Marine Worker, which recommends the 
play to its members. 


1125. Lewisohn, Ludwig. "The development of Eugene 
O'Neill." Nation, 114 (22 Mar.) 349-350. 

O'Neill cannot work freely within established drama forms, 
but this is his best and approaches his own true form. 

1126. Macgowan, Kenneth. "Broadway at the spring." Th. 
AHs, 6 (]u\y) 182. 

Our first expressionist play and quite successful. 

1127. . "Curtain calls." NY Globe, 13 Mar. 

A sharp rebuttal to Towse (No. 1095), scolding "learned 
critics " who don't know a new form of drama when they see it. 

1128. . "Hairy Ape uptown." NY Globe, 18 Apr. 

Improved with the move from the Village; the same surging 
and exciting piece. 

1129. . "The theatrical callboard." Van. F., 18 

(Apr.) 16 d. 
This radically new play one of the big events of the season. 

1130. "Mr. Brady's view of the season." NY World, 30 Apr. 
It is part of a season that strives for the exceptional, bizarre, 

and shocking. 

1131. Pearson, Edmund L. "New books and old." Inde- 
pendent, 109 ( 19 Aug. ) 78. 

Book review only. Gives feeling of being "deafening." 

1132. Pemberton, Brock. "Mr. Pemberton goes to The 
Hairy Ape." NY Globe, 15 Mar. 

Just back from Germany, writer finds "uncanny" similarities 
in comparison with Toller's Masse Mensch, though they are un- 
like in concept and execution. 

1133. "A play to see." Commerce and Finance, 15 Mar. 
"Not to see it is to have failed to have seen the best that 

American art has produced." 


1134. Pollock, Arthur. "About the theatre." Brook. Eagle, 
21 May. 

Questions if we are to be confined to "sweet romances and 
banal detective plays" or if we will be permitted to encourage 
plays like APE so that America "may become articulate in the 
eyes of the artistic world." 

1135. . "The Hairy Ape." Brook. Eagle, 12 Mar. 

Enough realism ( "imaginative realism" ) to make Belasco weep. 

1136. "A portrait play." NY American, 20 Apr. 

Notes O'Neill's insistence that the play is only about a man 
who does not 'Tjelong." 

1137. Rathbun, Stephen. "Eugene O'Neill's Hairy Ape is 
one of the most vital plays of the season." NY Sun, 11 Mar. 

Opposes O'Neill's "negative philosophy," but finds there is 
something here to think about. 

1138. Bobbins, R. "The I.W.W. on the stage." Industrial 
Solidarity, 8 Apr. 

The critic of this labor periodical considers the play one of 
the most helpful and legitimate defenses of the I.W.W. position 
today. O'Neill has painted the inner tragedy of the proleterian 

1139. Sayler, Oliver M. "The Hairy Ape is a study in 
evolution of a play." NY Globe, 6 May. 

This interesting account of the original idea for the play 
counts JONES as its "father." 

1140. . "Our theatre at cross purposes." Century, 

104 (Sept.) 748. 

The season was a "patchwork of perversity," with O'Neill 
closest to whole garment. 

1141. Seldes, Gilbert. "The Hairy Ape." Dial, 72 (May) 
548-549. [Reprinted in Hewitt, Barnard, Theatre USA, NY, 
McGraw-Hill, 1959, pp. 338-340 (No. 56).] 

Critic does not like shift from one framework to another. 


1142. Towse, J. Ranken. "The Hairy Ape in new condi- 
tions." NY Post, 18 Apr. 

Initial view (No. 1095) not changed; still a potboiler and 
melodramatic thriller without significance. 

1143. Whittaker, James. "That horrible gorilla crushed the 
Hairy Ape." NY News, 16 Mar. 

JONES was dissection of a reverting type; this is vivisection. 
Yank never had a chance, and O'Neill is not fair to him. 

1144. Woollcott, Alexander. "Second thoughts on first 
nights." NY Times, 16 Apr., VI, 1:1. 

General speculation on O'Neill's chances on Broadway in 
Plymouth Theatre, as opposed to success in Village. 

1145. Young, Stark. "The Hairy Ape." New Rep., 30 (22 
Mar.) 112-113. 

Whatever the opinion of the play or of O'Neill, this must be 
recognized as important in O'Neill's abihty to free himself and 
carry through without impediment of event or convention. 


1146. "The Hairy Ape." Cath. Wld., 116 (Feb. 1923) 714. 
The ape is a tour de force, an artificial product; fails in pri- 
mary quality of convincingness. 

1147. "The Hairy Ape." Th. Arts, 18 (Aug. 1934) 598. 
O'Neill has caught the conflict of the individual and world 

around him more than anybody else. 

1148. Johnson, Annette T. "The Hairy Ape." Ind. 6- Week- 
ly R., 110 (28 Apr. 1923) 282-284. 

Some reflections on civilization's responsibility to all the 
"hairy apes." 

1149. Macgowan, Kenneth. "Experiment on Broadway." 
Th. Arts, 7 (July 1923) 175-185. 

OTHER REVIEWS-1 923-1 934 HAIRY APE 363 

A discussion of experimentation and expressionism includes 
this play. 

1150. Robbins, R. "The emperor O'Neill." Industrial Pio- 
neer, 2 (] an. 1925) 26-27. 

Labor (I.W.W. ) publication praises O'Neiinor creating real 
characters in an age of dramatic sham and counterfeit. 

1151. Watts, Richard. "Regarding Mr. O'Neill as a writer 
for the cinema." NY Her-Trib., 4 Mar.1928. 

Synopsis of O'Neill's own film scenarios for DESIRE and APE, 
neither of which were produced. They are much altered from the 
stage versions. 


The following four references represent all the entries in 
The Readers Guide through 1959 plus the New York Times Book 
Review. The book apparently did not receive wide notice, and 
the play will not be important in the O'Neill canon until it is 
produced in the United States. 

1152. Gelb, Arthur. "Dream and live." NY Times, 19 April 
1959, VII, 5:3. 

This reflects the same theme from many of the longer plays, 
namely that man must have his dreams in order to survive. The 
play, more of a short story, is a "compassionate, shattering charac- 
ter study." 

1153. Hewes, Henry. "Short night's journey into day." 
Sflf.R., 41 (4 Oct. 1958) 27. 

A report on the Stockholm production. "Top drawer O'Neill." 
The whole cycle of life has been put into forty-five minutes. 
The technique is Chekhovian. 


1154. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "And now — Hughie." 
Th. Arts, 43 (Aug. 1959) 14-15. 

A real addition to the canon, and unhke most posthumous 
works, a good one, showing perhaps O'Neill was reaching ma- 
turity of his powers. It is restrained and more compact than 
the longer plays, and the dialogue is better. 

1155. Weales, Gerald. "Variation on an O'Neill theme." 
Commonweal, 70 (15 May 1959) 187-188. 

Another illustration of O'Neill's theme of the need for life 
illusion. Impressive because it says so briefly what ICEMAN 
developed in such detail. 


Opening night reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 10 Oct. 1946 

1156. Allen, Kelcey. "The Iceman Cometh." W. W. Daily. 
O'Neill's skilfull writing is here; it is vivid and dramatic, but 

has its dull moments. Its truthful dialogue seems unnecessarily 
profane, but the characters are real. 

1157. Atkinson, Brooks. "Iceman Cometh has its world 
premiere." NY Times, 31:3. 

One of O'Neill's best; over-long and garrulous, but he has 
heart of a poet. 

1158. Barnes, Howard. "O'Neill - at long last." NY Her- 

Striking plot twist of the characters facing their pipe dreams, 
but climax is disappointing. Excellent production does not re- 
move confusion. 


1159. Chapman, John. "Eugene O'Neill's Iceman Cometh 
great drama, wonderfully acted." NY News. 

Magnificent drama, cuts the ordinary commercial theatre down 
to size. 

1160. Coleman, Robert."The Iceman Cometh a terrific hit." 
NY Mirror. 

Everyone urged to hurry and buy tickets. 

1161. Cooke, Richard P. "New O'Neill play." Wall St. Jour. 
A play more for people who think than for those who feel. 

Too long. 

1162. Garland, Robert. "Iceman Cometh at Martin Beck." 
NY Jour-Am. 

Combination of Lower Depths and old time vaudeville being 
put on simultaneously. Cannot find why O'NeiU felt called to 
write it. 

1163. Hawkins, William. "O'Neill's Iceman here at last." 
NY Wor-Tel. 

O'Neill can bring poetic grandeur to these little people he 
knows so well. 

1164. Morehouse, Ward. "The Iceman Cometh is power- 
ful theatre . . ." NY Sun. 

Long winded, but has power and intensity, rich and vivid 

1165. North, Steriing. "Eugene O'Neill's turkey." NY Post. 
Judging from reading version, "action draggeth, dialogue 

reeketh, play stinketh." North wonders how it ever got produced 
or published. 

1166. Pollock, Arthur. "The Iceman Cometh." Brook. Eagle. 
Over-long and too much repetition. 

1167. Watts, Richard, Jr. "Eugene O'Neill's new play is 
powerful and moving." NY Post. 

Too long and slow, still gives American theatre dignity and 
importance; moving, powerful, beautiful, eloquent, passionate. 


Other reviews and criticism 

1168. "Applause in December." Harpers Bazaar, 80 
(Dec.) 220-221. 

Absorbing, disturbing, magnificently acted. 

1169. Atkinson, Brooks. "Four hour O'Neill." NY Times, 
20 Oct., II, 1:1. [Reprinted as "The Iceman Cometh" in Atkin- 
son's Broadway scrapbook, NY, Theatre Arts, 1947 (No. 2).] 

Our most dramatic dramatist; the play returns the theatre 
to its high estate. 

1170. . "To be or not to be." NY Times, 27 Oct., 


Disputes the O'Neill premise that illusions must be kept to 
remain alive, but finds it one of O'Neill's best plays. 

1171. Barnes, Howard. "The Iceman Cometh." NY Her- 
Trib., 20 Oct. 

This critic, after a few days' study, dissents, finding much of 
O'Neill's early power dissipated, and the curtain lines contrived. 

1172. Bentley, Eric. "The return of Eugene O'Neill." At- 
lantic, 178 ( Nov. ) 64-66. 

O'Neill must be judged far above regular Broadway standards. 
This evaluation by a critic not generally favorable toward O'Neill 
finds him less "terrific" than in ELECTRA, and less emotional 
than INTERLUDE, in many ways "cooler and steadier." 

1173. "Broadway goes highbrow." Life, 21 (28 Oct.) 

Imperfect, but absorbing; reaffirms man's struggle toward 
dignity. Six very good production pictures accompany the article. 

1174. Brown, John Mason. "All O'Neilling." Sat. R. Lit., 
29 (19 Oct.) 26. [Reprinted as "Moaning at the bar" in Brown's 
Seeing more things, NY, Whittlesey House, 1948, pp. 257-265 
(No. 13).] 


Blue pencil and shears needed to make it a better play, but 
there are fine examples of compassion, insight and theatricality 
that only O'Neill can bring. 

1175. Bull, Harry. "The Iceman Cometh." Town & Coun- 
try, Dec, p. 117. 

This somewhat different review sees the theme as "the sur- 
viving need for violence in a peacetime world of artificial 
bourgeois convention." 

1176. Chapman, John. "O'Neill brings new hope to the 
theatre." NY News, 20 Oct. 

A frightening picture because it applies to all of us, drunk or 
sober. O'Neill's most profound work. 

1177. Doyle, Louis F. "Mr. O'Neill's Iceman." America, 
30 Nov., pp. 241-242. 

This Catholic priest finds O'Neill a master playwright who 
falls short of being great because of his limitations in the field 
of thought. Keen disappointment that O'Neill's final solution 
is defeat. 

1178. Eaton, Walter Prichard. "Habitues of Hope's saloon." 
NY Her-Trib., 20 Oct. 

Representative of nothing social or significant because the 
people are "self-made bums." 

1179. Francis, Robert. "Time (4 hrs) goeth, as Iceman 
Cometh, reintroduces O'Neill." Billboard, 19 Oct. 

O'Neill has not lost touch — each character meticulously de- 
veloped, lusty, salty. He still packs a wallop. 

1180. Freedley, George. "Iceman Cometh proves O'Neill 
is America's greatest dramatist." NY Telegraph, 11 Oct. 

First rate O'Neill. 

1181. . "Many brilliant performances given in 

O'Neill's The Iceman Cometh." NY Telegraph, 16 Nov. 

The published version emphasizes even more so the great 
writer in O'Neill. 


1182. Gibbs, Wolcott. "The boys in the back room." New 
Yorker, 22 (19 Oct.) 53-57. 

Central theme of illusion very ordinary; ambiguity about end- 
ing shows O'Neill not the craftsman he should be. Not up to 
his best. 

1183. Gilder, Rosamond. "Each in his own way." Th. Arts, 
30 (Dec.) 684. 

Despite unnecessary length and O'Neill's lack of humor, it 
still shows theatre is not just dumb show. 

1184. Green, E. Mawby. "Echoes from Broadway." Th. 
World., 42 (Dec.) 31-32. 

Work of a genius, not talent; heavy and ponderous, but still 
monumental in stature that is rare in the theatre. 

1185. Hawkins, William. "Iceman is long, but acting is 
superior." NY Wor-Tel, 12 Oct. 

Review of the fine performances, with some comment on 
O'Neill's attitude in the play. 

1186. "The Iceman Cometh." Variety, 16 Oct. 
"Bingo for the Theatre Guild"; a never to be forgotten play. 

1187. Kronenberger, Louis. "Eugene O'Neill after 12 
years." PM, 11 Oct. 

O'Neill contributes nothing especially new to the dream idea. 

1188. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "Drama." Nation, 163 (26 
Oct. ) 481-482. 

Comparable in many ways to The Wild Duck, and contains 
more of O'Neill's sincerity, which removes him from any other 

1189. McCarthy, Mary. "Dry ice." Partisan Rev., 13 (Nov.- 
Dec. ) 577-579. [Reprinted in Miss McCarthy's Sights and spec- 
tacles, 1937-1956, NY, Farrar & Strauss, 1956, pp. 81-88 (No. 76).] 

O'Neill frankly cannot write. He is estranged from all influences 
and impressions, a man laughing in a square, empty room. 


1190. Nathan, George Jean. "The Iceman Cometh, seeth, 
conquereth." NY Jour-Am., 14 Oct. 

The theatre is once more dramatically alive. Play approaches 
essential tragedy, and is far above any attempts by others in 
the intervening 12 years. 

1191. "O'Neill's Iceman." Newsweek, 28 (21 Oct.) 92. 
Too much of a good thing, though characters are developed 

with warmth and good humor. 

1192. "O'Neill speaks." Cue, 19 Oct. 

Like a slow motion magic trick; almost, but not quite, 
comes off. 

1193. "The ordeal of Eugene O'Neill." Time, 48 (21 
Oct.) 71. 

As a drama, not much deeper than a puddle. This article is 
mainly about O'Neill, finding him not a great dramatist but our 
greatest dramatic craftsman. 

1194. Pegler, Westbrook. "Sinks his sharp tongs in O'Neill's 
Iceman." NY Jour-Am., 8 Nov. 

The play never even starts — it is worse than a schoolgirl of 
8 would write. Work is slapdash; nobody talks that much. 

1195. Phelan, Kappo. "The Iceman Cometh." Common- 
weal, 45 (25 Oct.) 44-46. 

The play is daring on its esthetic level, but must be judged 
by its level of content. This critic wishes O'Neill would definitely 
choose his God or gods. Devil or devils. 

1196. Pollock, Arthur. "Edmond Rostand and Eugene 
O'Neill get the theater back on its feet." Brook. Eagle, 13 Oct. 

With Cyrano and ICEMAN now playing there is much to 
praise in the theatre. Still there are times when the O'Neill play 
is quite a bore, but it is something that makes you think. 

1197. Shipley, Joseph T. "Iceman cometh: Chill from the 
world of doom." New Leader, 19 Oct. 


It is too sprawling. O'Neill is constantly struggling to inte- 
grate his theme. 

1198. Single, E. A. "Eugene O'Neill, our foremost drama- 
tist, returns triumphantly in Iceman." Jour. Comm., 11 Oct. 

O'Neill has lost none of his matchless skill in creating charac- 
ters. Memorable experience in theatre going. 

1199. Watts, Richard, Jr. "The controversies cometh over 
O'Neill's new play." NY Post, 19 Oct. 

Watts takes sharp issue with North's book review (No. 1165) 
and sees the play even more tremendous as a book. O'Neill's 
philosophy is not so important as the humanity. 

1200. Woolf, S. J. "Eugene O'Neill returns after 12 years." 
NY Times, 15 Sept., VI, p. 11. 

Informal account of interview with O'Neill before play opening. 

1201. Wyatt, Euphemia Van R. "Who against hope be- 
lieved in hope." Cath. Wld., 164 ( Nov. ) 168-169. 

Horrid, brutal, unflinching, yet with piercing analysis, truth, 
and insight. Bears mark of great playwright. 

1202. Young, Stark. "O'Neill and Rostand." New Rep., 
115 (21 Oct.) 517-518. [Reprinted in Young's Immortal shadows, 
NY, Scribners, 1948 (No. 148).] 

General review of plot, scenery, acting; very little criticism. 


1203. Alexander, Doris M. "Hugo of The Iceman Cometh: 
Reahsm and O'Neill." Am. Quar., 5 (Winter 1953) 357-366. 

Attempting to show that O'Neill's portrayal of Hugo was not 
the literary abstraction Bentley (No. 1172) and others thought. 
Miss Alexander proves conclusively through document and 
photograph that Hugo was the nearly literal translation of an 
O'Neill acquaintance, Hippolyte Havel. In conclusion, she shows 
the basic deficiency of the play because of its portrayal of a 
series of static characters. 


1204 Arestad, Sverre. "The Iceman Cometh and the Wild 
Duck." Scand. Stud., 20 (Feb. 1948) 1-11. 

The two plays have much in common in exposing man's re- 
fusal to accept the truth as basis of life. Ibsen is optimistic, 
O'Neill pessimistic. 

1205. Burke, Ed. "New York plays." Players Mag., 23 
(Jan.-Feb. 1947) 58-59. 

Some of the most penetratingly analytic writing on the stage 
in a long time. 

1206. Dobree, Bonamy. "Mr. O'Neill's latest play." Sewa- 
nee Rev., 56 ( Jan.-Mar. 1948) 118-126. 

This article, pursuing the question "Where is O'Neill taking 
us in this play?" concludes he uses more techniques of the 
novel than of the play. 

1207. Gaynor, Leonard. "O'Neill's Iceman seen as ghost of 
Ibsen's Wild Duck." NY Her-Trib., 2 Mar. 1947. 

Comparison of many aspects of plot and theme. Ibsen is some- 
what better because of the tragedy that he keeps pent up, while 
O'Neill's tragedy has occurred before the play begins. 

1208. Gilder, Rosamond. "Broadway laurels." Th. Arts, 
31 (June 1947) 16. 

Not sufficiently above other O'Neill plays to merit the Pulitzer 

1209. Hopkins, Vivian C. "The Iceman seen through The 
Lower Depths." Coll. Eng., 11 (Nov. 1949) 81-87. 

Interesting comparison, showing why O'Neill is more negative 
in his conclusion that death is the only solution. Gorki becomes 
far more dramatic, despite his errors regarding the perfect so- 
ciety and revolution. 

1210. Morgan, Frederick. "The season on Broadway." 
Sewanee Rev., 55 (Apr. 1947) 344-346. 

O'Neill treats nothing beyond the most crude and general 
level because his characters have lost all humanity. The play 
lacks good dialogue. 


1211. Muchnic, Helen. "Circe's swine: Plays by Gorky 
and O'Neill." Comp. Lit, 3 (Spring 1951) 119-128. 

Excellent analysis of Lower Depths and ICEMAN, showing 
their wide divergence. Gorki maintains man is in an evil society; 
O'Neill maintains man himself is evil, 

1212. Winther, Sophus. "The Iceman Cometh: A study in 
technique." Ariz. Quar., 3 (Winter 1947) 293-300. 

Detailed analysis of O'Neill's use of the paradox as an instru- 
ment of tragedy in character, action, settings. 

Opening night reviews — Circle-in-the-Square Revival 
New York — Newspapers of 9 May 1956 

1213. Atkinson, Brooks, "O'Neill tragedy revived." NY 
Times, 38:1. 

Major production of a major theatrical work. O'Neill achieves 
value on level with Ibsen, Gorki, Strindberg. 

1214. Coleman, Robert. "O'Neill's Iceman deserveth re- 
vival." NY Mirror. 

Eminently deserves revival, an absorbing cavalcade of hu- 
manity on the rack. O'Neill at his most interesting in plays about 
people he knew. 

1215. Dash, Thomas R. "The Iceman Cometh." W. W. 

Anticipates Becket's Waiting for Godot. We cannot identify 
with these people, so it is not good tragedy. 

1216. Hawkins, William. "Circle cast revives Iceman." NY 
Wor-Tel. 6- Sun. 

There is not one dull or indifiFerent moment. O'Neill is bitter 
but compassionate, and play reveals new, biting vividness. 

1217. Kerr, Walter. "Iceman revived at Circle in the 
Square." NY Her-Trib. 

The author's compulsive conviction is our own. Play is ver- 
bose, but built "like a drunken, somnambulistic dance." O'Neill 
is ready for reexamination and this revival should do it. 


1218. McClain, John. "Iceman's message too elusive." NY 

O'Neill in one of his most depressed moods. Audience is in 
for a long haul. 

1219. Watts, Richard, Jr. "The revival of O'Neill's Iceman." 
NY Post. 

A pleasure and honor to see it again, the work of titanic power, 
quite possibly is O'Neill's finest drama. Deep insight into human 
heart, closer to Godot than to Gorky. 

Other reviews and criticism 
1956 (One entry dated 1958) 

1220. Atkinson, Brooks. "Iceman returns." NY Times, 20 
May, II, 1:1. 

O'Neill essentially romantic, driven by a romantic dream. His 
characters are romantic, and heroes to themselves. This play ranks 
with DESIRE and ELECTRA as O'Neill in his greatest form. 

1221. Day, Cyrus. "The Iceman and the bridegroom: Some 
observations on the death of O'Neill's salesman." Mod. Drama, 
1 (May 1958) 3-9. 

Asking if there is a more nihilistic play in drama. Day shows 
O'Neill's pessimistic anti-Christian approach through a correla- 
tion of Hickey with the Biblical bridegroom in Mark 25:5-6. 
Whole play points to man's destiny of awaiting Death and ful- 
fillment through annihilation. Day shows some interesting paral- 
lels between the characters and the men and women surrounding 
Jesus at the time of his death. 

1222. Gassner, John. "Broadway in Review." Ed. Th. Jour., 
8(Oct.) 224-225. [Reprinted in Hewitt, Barnard, Theatre, USA, 
NY, McGraw-Hill, 1959, pp. 479-481 (No. 56).] 

A devastating and exhilarating experience. 

1223. Gibbs, Wolcott. "Good old Hickey." New Yorker, 
32 (26 May) 72-74. 

The revival is better appreciated than the original because 


its great length is expected and not a hindrance. All modem 
tragedies seem like soap operas compared with this. 

1224. Hatch, Robert. "Theatre." Nation, 182 (26 May) 458. 
O'Neill works with acid that eats deep. Leaves you glad you 

do not have to wrestle with a Hickey yourself. 

1225. Hayes, Richard. "Waiting for Hickey." Common- 
weal, 64 (24 Aug.) 515-516. 

Pain and personal upheaval is made into art by some inex- 
plainable process. Main shortcoming is lack of any sense of pos- 
sibility or of reality. 

1226. Hewes, Henry. "Derelictical materialism." Sat. R., 
39 (26 May) 24. 

In spite of obvious artificialities, it is a good production. The 
characters are "desperately real." 

1227. "The Iceman Cometh." Variety, 16 May. 
A brilliant study of self-delusion. 

1228. Lewis, Theophilus. "The Iceman Cometh." America, 
95 (June) 251. 

An intellectual challenge. One cannot quite decide what O'Neill 
is saying, and we do not have to believe him. 

1229. Mannes, Marya. "Theatre: A matter of style." Re- 
porter, 14 (28 June) 35-36. 

O'Neill makes all modern "realists" seem mannered, crude, 
and sterile. The play moves relentlessly toward Hickey's doom. 

1230. Oppenheimer, George. "Long night's journey." 
Newsday, 25 May. 

The stuff of which nightmares are made. Better than Lower 
Depths; a bitter play, reflecting O'Neill's bitter life. 

1231. Wyatt, Euphemia Van R. "The Iceman Cometh." 
Cath.Wld., 183 (July) 310. 

The fact nobody leaves the play is some kind of proof of 
O'Neill's "haunted genius." 



Reviews of first Greenwich Village production 

1232. Allen, Kelcey. "Fourth bill presented by Frank Con- 
roy." NY News Record, 20 Apr. 

Intensely dramatic, a fine piece of writing. 

1233. "Art improves at Greenwich village theatre." NY 
Herald, 21 Apr. 

Displays the start of skill and power in the young writer, "son 
of James O'Neill." 

1234. Broun, Heywood. "Greenwich Village players." NY 
Tribune, 21 Apr. 

Disapproval of making the wife go mad for no adequate reason. 
It shows lack of inventiveness. 

1235. Gardy, Louis. Review of the Greenwich bill. NY 
Call, 22 May. 

Biggest attraction on the bill; highly dramatic, if not always 

1236. "Greenwich players in 3 new acts." Brook. Eagle, 
19 Apr. 

Nothing new here; ILE something of a tour de force. 

1237. "Greenwich Village bill." NY Telegram, 19 Apr. 
A grim little play with the writing better than the acting. 

1238. "The Greenwich Village theatre." NY Post, 19 Apr. 

A certain vigor, but too obvious as a shocker to have much 
value as realism. 

1239. Homblow, Arthur. "Mr. Homblow goes to the play." 
Theatre, 27 (June) 356. 

It's a mercy that the audience does not lose its mind also. 


1240. "He." NY Drama Mirror, 78 (4 May) 620. 

Typical of the young writer. Vigorously characterized, tense, 

1241. Mantle, Burns. "Greenwich Village players oflFer 3 
short plays." NY Mail, 19 Apr. 

Obviously theatrical, not so good as IN THE ZONE, but still 
this "son of James O'Neill" has gift of realism and characterization. 

1242. "New bill at the Greenwich Village." NY Globe, 
19 Apr. 

Much interest in this man O'Neill. This play is the only one 
on the bill worthy of praise. 

1243. "A new bill at the Greenwich Village." NY Times, 
19 Apr., 13:3. 

Not pleasant, but vigorously characterized; another of these 
sea plays "owed" to O'Neill. 

1244. Sherwin, Louis. "New bill at the Greenwich Village." 
NY Globe, 19 Apr. 

Young O'Neill arouses interest, seems to have promise. Wonder 
what he can do with a three-act. 

1245. Smith, Agnes. Review of Greenwich Village bill. 
NY Telegraph, 19 Apr. 

Written with some literary distinction. EfiFective if you like 
this sort of thing. 

1246. "Village players present best bill." Jour. Comm., 
22 Apr. 

ILE attracts most attention; morbid, depressing, strongly 

1247. "Village theatre stirs patriotism." NY Sun, 19 Apr. 
O'Neill's idealistic sense of drama is perhaps too idealistic 

because he pictures the actors carrying his work to the audience 
with the same refined sense of his own. 



Opening night reviews — New York 

Newspapers of 1 Nov. 1917 

(One magazine review dated 10 Nov. 

also included) 

1248. Block, Ralph. "The Washington Square players in 
4 one-acters." NY Tribune. 

Not the best play on the bill. 

1249. "The Comedy opens season." NY Sun. 

The play is tense, but not exciting as it could be because of 
early emphasis on comedy. 

1250. Dale, Alan. "Worth while is new bill at Comedy." 
NY American. 

The best of the bill; good idea and good thrills. 

1251. "Four plays to start season for players." NY Herald. 
Praise for realism; held audience well. Ingenious dramatic 


1252. "In the Zone." NY Drama Mirror, 77 ( 10 Nov. ) 5-7. 
Appealing and exciting; does not go off into melodrama. 

1253. "In the Zone at the Comedy." NY World. 
A significant play; effective realism of a Conrad. 

1254. Mantle, Burns. "Washington Square Players present 
James O'Neill's son as a new playwright." NY Mail. 

"This boy's first play . . . easily the best thing in the open- 
ing bill . . ." 

1255. "New play bill from Washington Square." NY Times, 

Tense O'Neill sea play marks top of the evening; sense 
of tragedy. . 


1256. "New season of short plays at the Comedy . . ." 
NY World. 

Dialogue out of all proportion to substance of play; does 
have a certain amount of real suspense. 

1257. "Play season opens for Washington Square." NY Sun. 
Much dialogue about the box could have been done away with. 

1258. Sherwin, Louis. "The Washington Square players 
at the Comedy." NY Globe. 

A young man capable of writing this has a marvelous gift. 
This play quite enough reason to go see the bill. 

1259. "The Washington Square players." NY Post. 
A clever thriller of the "sell" variety. 

1260. "The Washington Square players at the Comedy." 
NY Telegram. 

"A bit of human history which holds the interest and sym- 
pathy of the spectator." 

1261. Wolf, Rennold. "Players begin Comedy season." NY 

"Grim little story" most eflFective because of the unusual setting. 


This play is reviewed in its pubhshed form from Nos. 1262 
to 1269. The Pasadena Playhouse production is included in Nos. 
1270 to 1274. The Fordham University version begins with 
No. 1275. 


1262. Aiken, Conrad. "Lazarus Laughed." NY Post, 24 
Dec. 1927. 


Much that is fine; "pitched a Httle too high" and comes close 
to parody. Lacks humor, too serious and grandiose. 

1263. Atkinson, Brooks. "Man's challenge to death in 
Lazarus Laughed." NY Times, 27 Nov. 1927, V, 5:1. 

Akin to pre-reformation miracle and mystery plays, recovering 
some of the "primordial impulses of drama." Ranks with heroic 
poetry in its creative imagination. 

1264. . "O'Neill again on the horizon." NY Times, 

llSept. 1927, VIII, 1:2. 

If he were not serious, poetic and forceful, this first act would 
be dismissed as "incohate, unwieldy figment of madness." 

1265. Bjorkman, Edwin. "A dramatist of moods." NY Sun, 
26 Nov. 1927. 

The "big idea" is carried out "constructively, dramatically, 
picturesquely" within O'Neill's limitations. Masks go to verge 
of absurdity — maybe good on stage but superfluous in reading. 

1266. Kalonyme, Louis. "Eugene O'Neill's dithyrambic 
Lazarus Laughed." Arts & Dec, 27 (Sept. 1927) 68-69. 

High praise for this "spiritually liberating dithyrambic poem 
which should convince all that O'Neill is no morbid pessimist." 

1267. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "Beyond fife." Nation, 126 
(4 Jan. 1928) 19. 

Whole idea of death being an illusion and permitting laughter 
is "so effectively bodied forth that it seems true so long as the 
play endures." Succeeds because of emotional ardor. 

1268. Lustig, Norman. "Poetically dramatic." Brook. Citi- 
zen, 25 Dec. 1927. 

Reviews the poetry and legends of this play with Masefield's 
"Tristan and Isolt." O'Neill seeks truth rather than beauty. 

1269. Mumford, Lewis. "Lazarus laughs last." NY Her- 
Trib., 20 Nov. 1927. 

This review traces O'Neill's development from earliest plays 
to present, showing his treatment of human nature up to this 
arrival at a positive decision in affirmation of death. 



1270. Hersey, F. W. "Lazarus Laughed." Drama, 18 ( May 
1928) 244-246. 

Pictures of preparation for production and some actual scenes 
(pp. 242-243). 

1271. Kehoe, M. E. "The amateur stage." Theatre, 48 
(July 1928) 42-44. 

Full page of illustrations of production and general review 
of the efiFort put into it. 

1272. "Lazarus Laughed." Rev. of Rev., 78 (Oct. 1928) 

EflFectiveness of music discussed. It is possibly a great Ameri- 
can opera. Pictures of production. 

1273. Stechan, H. O. "Lazarus Laughed." Billboard, 40 
(21 Apr. 1928) 11. 

Reviewing Pasadena Playhouse production, this not unen- 
thusiastic critic sees much real merit, but items like the laughter 
are monotonous. 

1274. "The tributary theatre." Th. Arts, 12 (June 1928) 

3 pictures and brief review. Reports unanimous critical praise 
for the effort. 


1275. Atkinson, Brooks. "O'Neill's affirmation." NY Times, 
9 Apr. 1948, 27:4. 

Shallow, sophomoric, hortatory, unwieldy, practically unbear- 
able theatre. 

1276. Freedley, George. "Fordham ambitiously offers 
O'Neill Lazarus Laughed." NY Telegraph, 10 Apr. 1948. 

Poor acting, monotonous performance mar the first New 
York production. 


1277. Garland, Robert. "University players present O'Neill 
play." NY Jour-Am., 9 Apr. 1948. 

"Over-written, over-wrought, and frequently bombastic." 
Lazarus talks and talks and talks and the play stands still, or 
limps in "sophomoric circles." 

1278. Hartung, Philip H. "Stage and screen." Common- 
weal, 48 (30 Apr. 1948) 674. 

The substitution of the musical note for the laughter is ap- 
proved. But the play is "biggest lemon" in all O'Neill works, 
worth forgetting immediately. 

1279. Hawkins, WiHiam. "Lazarus Laughed — but very 
gloomily." NY World-Tel, 9 Apr. 1948. 

Requires almost superhuman, heroic efforts of even the best 
players. It is essentially literary. 

1280. "Lazarus Laughed." Variety, 9 Apr. 1948. 

Shows commercial impracticability of the play. As presented 
it is an ordeal for an evening in the theatre. 

1281. Watts, Richard, Jr. "Fordham players in Lazarus 
Laughed." NY Post, 9 Apr. 1948. 

Tedious, verbose, pretentious; written beyond a subject play- 
wright could adequately handle. 

1282. Wyatt, Euphemia Van R. "The drama." Cath. Wld., 
167 (June 1948) 64. 

Slumps down into complete ineptitude and bathos. 

Other reviews and criticism 

1283. Alexander, Doris M. "Lazarus Laughed and 
Buddha." Mod. Lang. Quar. 17 ( Dec. ) 357-365. 

An attempt to clarify the character of Lazarus by a list of 
saviours "upon whom he has been modeled." He is Christian 
and Greek (Dionysus) as interpreted by Nietzsche, as well as 
a lot of Zarathustra. Buddha must be added to make the charac- 


ter completely understandable because of his abstractness in 
time of family danger and the cool quality of his affections. A 
well documented article developing the entire thesis in Miss 
Alexander's typically scholarly fashion. 


Book - 1956 

1284. Atkinson, Brooks. "Tragedy behind a tragic masque." 
NY Times, 19 Feb., VII, p. 1. 

Prolix and repetitious, but written "by the mind of a great 
dramatist." Thoroughly absorbing and characteristic work. 

1285. Breit, Harvey. "In and out of books." NY Times, 
19 Feb., VII, 8:1. 

An explanation of how the book was published by Yale in- 
stead of Random House. 

1286. Clurman, Harold. "The O'Neills." Nation, 182 (3 
Mar.) 182-183. 

A valuable play; it does far more good released now than in 
the proposed 25 years. 

1287. Fagin, N. Bryllion. "Remembrance of things past." 
New; Rep., 134 (5 Mar.) 20. 

Despite some fog, rises to a poignant clarity which only the 
poet-dramatist can achieve. 

1288. Hewes, Henry. "O'Neill and Faulkner via the abroad 
way." Sat. R., 39 (20 Oct. ) 58. 

Like so many O'Neill plays, a work of desperation; abounds 
in arguments hashed and rehashed. 


1289. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "Domestic drama with some 
difference." Th. Arts, 40 (Apr.) 89-91. 

More than biography and domestic tragedy; it is modern 
tragedy of ahenation or not belonging, and universal tragedy of 
search for the cause of our fates. 

1290. "The last O'Neill tragedy." Life, 40 (12 Mar.) 93-99. 
A general review of O'Neill's background and the play, to- 
gether with some fine pictures of the Stockholm production and 
of the O'Neill family. 

1291. Lewis, Theophilus. "Long Day's Journey." America, 
95 (5 May) 141. 

Impressive play, but not inspiring. 

1292. Pickrel, Paul. "Unconventional memoirs." Harpers, 
212 ( Mar. ) 96-97. 

"It is as much an American tragedy as Dreiser's novel, and it 
has the power of Dreiser at his best." 

1293. Prescott, Orville. "Books of the Times." NY Times, 
20 Feb., 21:4. 

O'Neill's tragic pessimism "is one of the most psychologically 
interesting of American literary problems." Not up to his best. 

1294. Seldes, Gilbert. "Long Day's Journey into Night." 
Sflf. R., 39(25Feb.) 15-16. 

Does not measure up to the tortured genius of O'Neill. Con- 
tains his usual weaknesses. 

1295. Whichner, Stephen. "O'Neill's long journey." Com- 
monweal, 63 ( 16 Mar. ) 614-615. 

Much of the mood of homelessness and helplessness of the 
early plays. Completely transcends biography. "If our definitions 
of tragedy do not fit this work, we should perhaps rethink 
our definitions." 


Opening night reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 8 Nov. 1956 

1296. Atkinson, Brooks. "Theatre: Tragic journey." NY 
Times, 47:2. 

"The American theatre acquires stature and size" with this 
play. The tragedy transcends the material facts. 

1297. Chapman, John. "Long Day's Journey into Night 
a drama of sheer magnificence." NY News. 

"Exploded like a dazzling skyrocket over the humdrum of 
Broadway theatricals." A most beautiful play; one of the great 
dramas of any time. 

1298. Colby, Ethel. "Entertainment on Broadway." Jour. 

A bitter drama. The script's indictment of the father is 

1299. Coleman, Robert. "O'Neill's last drama emotional 
dynamite." NY Mirror. 

Needs editing; repetitious, yet fascinating. Sprawling, ruggedly 
chiseled monument "carved from granite." Never touches the 
heart, but excites admiration. 

1300. Dash, Thomas R. "Long Day's Journey into Night." 
W. W. Daily. 

Savagely incisive and harrowing, but does not rank with IN- 
TERLUDE or ELECTRA. The very nature of the work prevents 
catharsis or exaltation. Repeats and meanders exasperatingly. 

1301. Donnelly, Tom. "A long journey but worth taking." 
NY Wor-Tel. & Sun. 

Long and tortuous, but the ultimate efiFect is "tremendously 
powerful." Requires patience; early scenes come close to parody. 

1302. Kerr, Walter. "Long Day's Journey into Night." NY 
Her-Trib. [Reprinted in Hewitt, Barnard, Theatre USA, NY, 
McGraw-Hill, 1959, pp. 481-482 (No. 56).] 

Deliberately, masochistically harrowing, but it is an obliga- 


tion for anyone who cares about the theatre. "It is a stunning 
theatrical experience." 

1303. McClain, John. "Superb cast supplements O'Neill 
genius." NY Jour-Am. 

One can never doubt its stature. "O'Neill makes today's play- 
wrights look a little silly." 

1304. Watts, Richard, Jr. "Superb drama by Eugene 
O'Neill." NY Post. 

Magnificent and shattering. "Unmistakably" registers O'Neill's 
giant stature. Play gives the entire season stature. 

Other reviews and criticism 

1305. Appleyard, J. A. "Long journey's end." America, 96 
(19 Jan. 1957)452-454. 

O'Neill, for all his sensitivity to human problems, is in- 
articulate and generally beyond his ability in most of his plays. 

1306. Atkinson, Brooks. "One man's truth." NY Times, 3 
Mar. 1957, II, 1:1. 

While the "truth" of O'Neill's family is, of course, hard to 
determine, even from this play, there is obvious truth in the 
tensions and loyalties of family life. If it were merely autobio- 
graphical the play would not succeed as it has; there are other 
universal and tragic truths. 

1307. . "O'Neill's journey." NY Times, 18 Nov. 


It is hard to determine if this is O'Neill's greatest, but it ranks 
with his finest. The end fulfills the tragic definition. 

1308. Boulton, Whitney. "Long Day's Journey O'Neill at 
his best: Monumental play." NY Telegraph, 9 Nov. 1956. 

The theatre grows up with this, reaching size and power of 
which it is capable. One of the most important plays in quarter 
of a century. 


1309. Clurman, Harold. "Theatre." Nation, 183 (24 Nov. 
1956) 466. [Reprinted in Clurman's Lies like truth, NY, Macmil- 
lan, 1958(No. 25).] 

A play everybody should see and admire. 

1310. Cooke, Richard P. "Formation of a playwright." 
Wall St. Jour., 9 Nov. 1956. 

A strong play, weakened by length. It is difficult for the play- 
goer to assimilate it all. There is enough for a half-dozen family 

1311. Driver, Tom F. "Long and short of it." Christ. Cent., 
74 (20 Feb. 1957)235. 

It takes on artistic stature because it gradually reveals shape 
of a consistent view of human nature. Here is a picture of Fate 
which enables us to bear the hell these people are in. 

1312. "Eugene O'Neill: A new phase." Chrysalis, 9 (1956) 
No. 5-6, pp. 3-13. 

Reviews essence of the play and its place in O'Neill's work. 
Questions whether or not it is pessimistic or optimistic. 

1313. Gassner, John. "Broadway in review." Ed. Th. Jour., 
9 (Mar. 1957)43-44. 

Great vibrancy of life. O'Neill makes most other modern writers 
seem miniscule. 

1314. Gibbs, Wolcott. "Doom." New Yorker, 32 (24 Nov. 
1956) 120. 

Despite need of editing and the fact it is often "barbarously" 
written, it is impressive. It will not go down as a major contri- 
bution to the drama of our time. 

1315. Hayes, Richard "A requiem for mortality." Com- 
monweal, 65 (1 Feb. 1957) 467-468. 

Spirals inward to the tragic fact; weaves a "seamless pattern 
of time, suffering, and nobility" typical of tragedy. Final wisdom 
and love elevates these people. 


1316. Hewes, Henry. "O'Neill: 100 proof - not a blend." 
Sat. R., 39 (24 Nov. 1956) 30-31. 

It may be "the most universal piece of stage realism ever 
turned out by an American playwright." 

1317. Hobe. "Long Day's Journey." Variety, 14 Nov. 1956. 
It may stand as O'Neill's finest play. Tremendous and inspiring; 

an unforgettable theatrical experience. 

1318. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "The rediscovery of Eugene 
O'Neill." NY Times, 21 Oct. 1956, VI, pp. 32-34. 

A review of O'Neill's artistry in an attempt to determine 
whether or not he will remain in our literature after this revival 
of interest. Concludes with a discussion of the tragic view as 

1319. Lerner, Max. "To face my dead at last." NY Post, 
7 Jan. 1957. 

". . . . no one, after seeing it, can be content again with any- 
thing less than the unflinching truth about his work, his world, 
and himself." 

1320. "Long Day's Journey into Night." Th. Arts, 41 ( Jan. 
1957) 25-26. 

It is a play as well as frank autobiography and it commands 
attention. It can lay claim as one of his finest works. 

1321. "Long Day's Journey into Night." Vogue, 128 (15 
Nov. 1956) 105. 

Includes small picture of O'Neill family in New London. 

1322. Mannes, Marya. "A dissenting opinion on the O'Neill 
play." Reporter, 15 (13 Dec. 1956) 38-39. 

A rare theatrical experience, but it is not a great play nor a 
great tragedy. Too embarrassingly personal. 

1323 ."New play in Manhattan." Time, 68 (19 Nov. 
1956) 57. 

May constitute his most substantial legacy to the American 


stage. O'Neill has achieved more here by "stripping himself 
bare" than he did with masks. 

1324. "O'Neill's youth on U.S. stage." Life, 41 (19 Nov. 
1956) 123-128. 

Several fine pictures of the play, and three of interior and 
exterior of the original home in New London. 

1325. Oppenheimer, George. "The tragic truth." Newsday, 
16 Nov. 1956. 

There has been no family so haunted since Oedipus. But 
O'Neill never loses his love for his people. It is something to see 
for all its faults of being prolix, prosy, and montonous. 

1326. Raleigh, John Henry. "O'Neill's Long Day's Journey 
and New England Irish-Catholicism." Partisan Rev., 26 (Fall 
1959) 573-592. 

Interesting and detailed study of this play's autobiographical 
qualities as they reflect the traditions and the mores of American 

1327. Rubinstein, Annette. "The dark journey of Eugene 
O'Neill." Mainstream, 10 (Apr. 1957) 29-33. 

In reviewing O'Neill's portrayal of his family, this article 
shows how the playwright has frequently written two plays at 
once — philosophic "false conclusion" and the artist's "truthful 
presentation." This play throws this contradiction into "start- 
ling relief." 

1328. "Theatre notes." Eng/w/i, 12 (Spring 1959) 140. 
Powerfully compelling. Not uplifting; an "orgy of accusation." 

Stark, excorciating. 

1329. "Triumph from the past." Newsweek, 48 (19 Nov. 
1956) 117. 

Less a play than willful act of autobiographical catharsis. 
The mark of America's greatest living playwright even in death. 

1330. Winther, Sophus Keith. "O'Neill's tragic themes: 
Long Day's Journey." Ariz. Quar., 13 (Winter 1957) 295-307. 


Important play because of the revelation of O'Neill's creative 
life. Father is symbol of evil, and home as a place of failure and 
death — items present in the most important of his other plays. 

1331. Wyatt, Euphemia Van R. "Long Day's Journey into 
Night." Cath. Wld., 184 (Jan. 1957) 306. 
Sartre's Hell is less violent than this. 


Book Reviews — 1950 

1332. Brown, John Mason. "Finders keepers, losers weep- 
ers; ugly business of publication of Lost Plays of Eugene O'Neill." 
Sfl^.R.Li^., 33 (17 June) 28. 

Resounding condemnation of the shoddy, if legal, practice 
of exploitation of unpublished MMS. No decent excuse for the 
publication over O'Neill's protest; the copyright laws should 
be changed. 

1333. Clark, Barrett H. "Lost Plays of Eugene O'Neill." 
Th. Arts, 34 (July) 7. 

Nothing much in these plays; cannot imagine them being 

1334. Colin, Saul. "Without O'Neill's imprimatur." NY 
Times, 18 June, VII, 4:3. 

In discussion of other famous works published after death 
against writers' wishes, Colin finds these plays "extremely 

1335. Eaton, Walter Prichard. "Young O'Neill." NY Her- 
Trib., 25 June. 

390 LOST PLAYS 1950 

Publication of these "juvenile ineptitudes" is deplorable; they 
can cause O'Neill admirers only pain. 

1336. Freedley, George. "Lost Plays of Eugene O'Neill." 
Library Jour., 75 ( 15 June ) 1048. 

Crude and bathetic; for library collections only, though there 
is a spark of genius. 

1337. Pollock, Arthur. "Guide for the young playwright." 
NY Compass, 7 June. 

Plays are condemned as the floundering of an inept writer. 

1338. R.H. "Lost plays of Eugene O'Neill." New Rep., 
123 (28 Aug.) 21. 

Extraordinary workmanship. The plays are tightly organized. 

1339. Wagner, Charles. "Books." NY Mirror, 18 June. 
This should be welcomed because it fills in a chunk of the 

O'Neill mosaic never seen before. All of the plays have a 
"strange fascination." 

1340. Watts, Richard, Jr. "The early sins of Eugene 
O'Neill." NY Post, 23 June. 

The pubhcation was a shabby deed, but O'Neill will not suflFer. 


The published version is reviewed from No. 1341 to No. 1356. 
Reviews of the Theatre Guild production begin with No. 1357. 
Other reviews and criticism start with No. 1374. 


1341. Atkinson, Brooks. "Marco Polo as an American mer- 
chant prince." NY Times, 15 May 1927, III, 6:1. 


Common vein of satire, but background and impulses are 

1342. Canfield, Mary Cass. "The albatross afoot." Sat. R. 
Lzf.,4(10Sept. 1927) 102. 

O'Neill's past writing of passion and "blasting sincerity" is 
likened to Emersonian "self-moved, self-absorbed" man or to 
Baudelair's albatross afoot. 

1343. Eaton, Walter Prichard. "A cycle of Cathay." NY 
Her-Trib., 29 May 1927. 

Not a comedy, but the same O'Neill following the Gleam to 
far Cathay. 

1344. Firkins, O. W. "O'Neill and other playwrights." 
Yale Rev., 17 (Oct. 1927) 173-174. 

Real stufiF of drama is here, but questions why writers must go 
so far in their satire of America. Admiration for O'Neill's "re- 
fusal to be tethered by success." 

1345. Garland, Robert. "Well, what of it?" NY Telegram, 
23 May 1927. 

"A swell Eugene O'Neill drama to stay away from." 

1346. Gilder, Rosamond. "Theatre Arts bookshelf." Th. 
Arts, 11 (Sept. 1927) 724-725. 

Gorgeous and far-flung pageant, a challenge to any producer. 
An allegory, with moral of definite interest and application. 

1347. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "Marco the westerner." 
Nation, 124 (18 May 1927) 562-564. 

Krutch likes the spiritual depth realized in both the "idealized 
Orientals" and the "shallow, bumptious complacency" of Marco. 

1348. Macy, John. "O'Neill's wise and humorous Marco 
Millions." NY World, 22 May 1927. 

Glorious satire, streak of burlesque, does not slide to farce. 

1349. "Marco Millions." Outlook, 146 (29 June 1927) 292. 
Some good poetry. O'Neill still is an "incorrigible mystic" but 

he can write satire. 


1350. "Marco Millions — Theatric travelog." Dramatist, 
18 (July 1927) 1341-1342. 

No plot, no problem, no sequence. It is not a play; O'Neill's 
style "is not art, it's abortion." 

1351. Nathan, George Jean. "O'Neill's new play." Am. 
Merc, 8 (Aug. 1926) 499-505. 

Long detailed review of plot. O'Neill is a man not unaware 
of sardonic humor even in most tragic drama, says Nathan, and 
in this play answers those who say he has no sense of humor. 

1352. Roedder, Karsten. "The book parade." Brook. Citi- 
zen, 19 June 1927. 

O'Neill's first bid for the library makes perfect transition from 
stage. In many respects his best play, a "perfectly constructed 

1353. Simon, Bernard "Some notes on Marco Millions." 
NY Her-Trih., 22 May 1927. 

A superb piece of literature which will depend much on the 
production for its effect. 

1354. Untitled item. ISlew Yorker, 28 May 1927. 
The satire is superb, with lots of poetry and wisdom. 

1355. Watts, Richard, Jr. "Marco Millions versus Marco 
Polo." NY Her-Trih., 12 June 1927. 

Instead of sympathy, this shows hatred of Polo. Watts won- 
ders why he is made a "bumptious ass" and "clownish dolt." 

1356. Whipple, Leon. "Scripts for the summer solstice." 
Survey, 58 ( 1 July 1927) 390. 

"Bravura piece" which shows more sureness instead of the 
gropings of previous O'Neill. "Intellectual mastery of the 


Opening night reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 10-11 Jan. 1928 

1357. Allen, Kelcey. "Marco Millions is poignant O'Neill 
satire." W. W. Daily, 10 Jan. 

An eventful night in the theatre. The play is "corruscating 
satire, biting in irony, suflFused with poetry, rich and dramatic." 

1358. Anderson, John, "Marco Milhons gorgeous specta- 
cle." NY Jour., 11 Jan. 

Expansive, expensive, opulent, colorful and utterly beautiful. 
O'Neill in gayest mockery, almost lighthearted. Despite looseness 
and tiresome verbosity, it has poetic beauty in writing. 

1359. Atkinson, Brooks. "Eugene O'Neill's gorgeous satire." 
NYTimes, lOJan., 28:2. 

It is a tragedy of emotion as well as satire. 

1360. Cohen, Julius. "Marco Millions." Jour. Comm., 
11 Jan. 

Masterpiece of writing. O'Neill was never more poetical or 

1361. Coleman, Robert. "Marco Millions fine tragic play 
by Eugene O'Neill." NY Mirror, 11 Jan. 

Amusing, heart-breaking, blending humor and grim drama, 
sympathetic and ironic. Prose soars to meet poetry. A fine play, 
flawless, without a single dull moment. 

1362. Dale, Alan. "Marco Millions by Eugene O'Neill." 
NY American, 10 Jan. 

Voluminous, sketchy, occasionally tiresome and "inordinately 
flimsy"; almost a travelogue with words. Never drab, but a sense 
of humor might have helped. 

1363. Gabriel, Gilbert. "Marco Millions." NY Sun, 10 Jan. 
The poetry raises it above being merely dramatic or undra- 

matic. This has much strength and power. 

1364. Hall, Leonard. "Theatre Guild presents its first 
Eugene O'Neill play." NY Telegram, 10 Jan. 


O'Neill's uppercut to the "quivering jaws" of those who said 
he had no humor; it is a very comical creation. 

1365. Hammond, Percy. "Marco Millions." NY Her-Trib., 
10 Jan. 

Interesting satire; splendid and thoughtful burlesque. 

1366. Higley, Philo. "New O'Neill play at Guild." NY 
Telegraph, 10 Jan. 

If intended as a spectacle, then it succeeds. If a drama with 
dominant theme, then perhaps not. But much of it stirs im- 
pressively to life in stately, if wearisome, stride. 

1367. "Immortal Marco." Wall St. Jour., 11 Jan. 

A complete delight; a beautiful play of infinite intent. Not 
often is such literary achievement so well treated, histrionically 
and pictorially. 

1368. Littell, Robert. "Mr. O'Neill pillories a Venetian 
Babbitt." NY Post, 10 Jan. 

O'Neill, taking a vacation from his post as our greatest play- 
wright, is way below par, surprisingly "simple minded, obvious, 
foolish." Delights the eye, distracts the ear. 

1369. Mantle, Burns. "Marco Millions impressive." NY 
News, 10 Jan. 

The story is stimulating to the imagination. An unusual and 
altogether satisfying evening. 

1370. Osborn, E. W. "Marco Millions." NY World, 10 Jan. 
O'Neill's high mark up to this moment. Almost poetic in han- 
dling of Kukachin. 

1371. Pollock, Arthur. "The Theatre Guild does a play by 
O'Neill at last." Brook. Eagle. 

Worth "something less than the time" it takes to present it. 
Not one of his best. Could be said more easily, briefly, per- 
suasively in simple 3-act play. 

1372. Winchell, Walter. "O'Neill the clown. NY Eve. 


Pictorially gorgeous. O'Neill never so gay and kidding. For 
the most part unique and enchanting, an artistic if not pros- 
perous achievement. 

1373. Woollcott, Alexander. "Marco Polo of Zenith." NY 

The Babbitt theme is now a little worn; this is an elaborate 
way of saying the same thing. 

Other reviews and criticism 

1374. "After Babbitt what?" Daily Worker, 16 Jan. 
Excellent satire, fourth rate poetry, excellent fun. But O'Neill 

really knows nothing about what makes up the modem business 
man. Despite faults, it should be seen. 

1375. Atkinson, Brooks. "After the battle." NY Times, 22 
Jan., VIII, 1:1. 

Much of value, though it may not come across because O'Neill 
is not a wit and he cannot express his thoughts clearly. 

1376. Benchley, Robert. "The prevalent scoffing." Life, 
91 (26 Jan.) 19. 

Splendid production hurt mainly by satire coming too late. 

1377. Brackett, Charles. "Tears and spectacles." New 
Yorker,3 {21 ]an.) 25. 

Obvious, repetitious, dull. Others have taken the subject and 
done it much better. 

1378. Brown, John Mason. "New York goes native." Th. 
Arfs, 12 (March) 163-166. 

More than a satire, for O'Neill never intended it to be just 
that. More nearly tragic in the disintegration of Marco. 

1379. Garb, David. "Marco Millions." Vogue, 71 ( 1 Mar. ) 


Does nothing, causes nothing to happen, is not even good 
theatre; it was not worth producing. 

1380. Clark, Barrett H. "Eugene O'Neill and the Guild." 
Drama, 18 (Mar.) 169-171. 

Reviews MARCO and INTERLUDE together, finding the 
former "minor." 

1381. De Casseres, Benjamin. "Broadway to date." Arts 
i:r Dec, 28 ( Mar. ) 62. 

A "whack in the face" after reading the original. Production 
is much too heavy with too much caricature. 

1382. "Digging for Marco Polo." Brook. Eagle, 8 Jan. 
Interesting account of some of the historical points which 

O'Neill observes in the play. 

1383. Farquhar, E. F. "Marco Millions." Letters (Univ. 
of Kentucky) 1 (Nov.) 33-40. 

A provocative comment on the purpose behind writing "poetic" 
drama. This play, says Farquhar, is not poetry, but he approves 
of it more than plays like GREAT GOD BROWN, which "fuss 
and fume." 

1384. Gabriel, Gilbert. "The boor of Venice." NY Sun, 
16 Jan. 

The play proves the possibility of singing freely, with tongue 
in cheek. Admiration for O'Neill power to "read into a curious 
and devious travelogue such living scorn and modern beauty." 

1385. . "The newer O'Neill." Van. F., 30 (Apr.) 


MARCO and INTERLUDE show that O'Neill is the most in- 
fluential and contributive playwright America has yet produced. 

1386. Gould, Bruce. "O'Neill takes a crack at Babbitt." 
Wall St. News, 12 Jan. 

Thrilling beautiful production, but O'Neill "falls far." Stinging 
disappointment. Apparently a "slashing thoughtless attempt" to 
say his angry say about money mad people. 


1387. Hammond, Percy. "Marco Millions a rich and sar- 
donic extravaganza." NY Her-Trib., 15 Jan. 

Further comments upon reflecting back on the play. 

1388. Houghton, Wilham M. "East and west." NY Sun, 
22 Apr. 

It is important to behave as we are, rather than to put on 
appearances of another society; hence Polo's leaving Kukachin 
behind is approved. 

1389. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "Marco Millions." Nation, 
126 (25 Jan.) 104-105. 

Great purity of outline with a "delicacy of execution." The 
other treatments of Babbitt theme now seem "raucous and dull." 

1390. Leland, Gordon M. "Marco Millions." Billboard, 40 
(21 Jan.) 10. 

Can be called "hooey" or "tripe" or whatever; unpoetic, theatri- 
cally dull. Shaw does it much better. 

1391. Mantle, Burns. "Mr. O'Neill writes a comedy." NY 
News, 15 Jan. 

For once we would like to think of O'Neill as happy, and this 
play seems written without the burden of the cares of the 
world on his shoulder. 

1392. "Marco Millions." Variety, 11 Jan. 
Will add prestige to the Guild. 

1393. "Marco Millions O'Neill's latest, done by Guild." 
NY Review, 14 Jan. 

Satire obvious, humor not overly spontaneous otkeen. 

1394. "Marco Polo masquerading as Babbitt." Lit. D., 96 
(4 Feb.) 26-27. 

Three illustrations. Some excerpts from press reviews. 

1395. Nathan, George Jean. "Judging the shows." Judge, 
94 (4 Feb.) 19. 


"Uncommonly well-wrought play" adding luster to American 

1396. "O'Neill and his plays." NY Times, 8 Jan., VIII, 2:4. 
Article traces history of development of the play plus a sum- 
mary of O'Neill's past history with Provincetown and others. 

1397. "O'Neill took few liberties with life of Marco Polo." 
NY American, 22 Jan. 

Review of some of the historical facts which O'Neill made 
use of. 

1398. Osborn, E. W. "The theatres." NY World, 14 Jan. 
Osborn reviews some of the facts about Polo which O'Neill 

did and did not follow in constructing the play. 

1399. Pollock, Arthur. "Eugene O'Neill and Marco Mil- 
lions." Brook. Eagle, 15 Jan. 

Because O'Neill is "bent on growing" instead of just develop- 
ing naturally, his plays get longer and less comprehensible. 
Marco MilHons is at times actually banal. Too wide and flat — 
he should try to make the point, rather than adorn it. 

1400. Sayler, Oliver M. "The play of the week." Sat. R. 
LtY., 4 (11 Feb.) 590. 

Pales into insignificance beside Nina Leeds; could have been 
written with his left hand. 

1401. Shipley, Joseph. "Babbitt Billions." NY New Leader, 
14 Jan. 

First act weakens it. O'Neill is too indignant about moderns 
to treat his theme well. 

1402. Skinner, Richard Dana. "Marco Millions." Common- 
weal,! (25 Jan.) 986. 

Little of dramatic importance, few moments of authentic 
drama, a "Strange Interlude" in the career of our premiere 

1403. Young, Stark. "Dilations." New Rep., 53 (25 Jan.) 




Much promise of an extraordinary drama, but lacks delinea- 
tion of satire and lyricism. The satire is spread over too wide 
a field. 

MARCO MILLIONS was given a revival of 8 performances 
beginning 3 March 1930. New York newspapers reviewed the 
play, finding it very little different from the original. 


Opening night reviews — Columbus, Ohio, Tryout 
Newspapers of 21 Feb. 1947 

1404. Kissel, Bud. "Two much conversation in A Moon 
for the Misbegotten." Columbus Citizen. 

Cast wasted time on an unimportant play. Mostly conversa- 
tion. Action occurs only when somebody picks up a bottle and 
drinks. Beautiful story to tell but too much time telling it, a 
Tobacco Road with an all Irish cast. 

1405. McGavran, Mary V. "O'Neill lifts curtain on sympa- 
thetic drama." Columbus Ohio State Journal. 

Represents all the art that is theatre, but it is not arty. Shows 
O'Neill talent for stripping the comic mask from life and re- 
vealing it naked and afraid. 

1406. "New play by O'Neill opens in Columbus." NY 
Times, 16:2. 

This "conventional" play is about "straightforward lust to 
obscure psychological complexes." 

1407. Wilson, Samuel T. "A Moon for the Misbegotten 
has world premiere here." Columbus Dispatch. 

Arresting and fine play. Third act has muted beauty, a tre- 
mendous emotional impact. 


Other reviews and criticism, including published version 

1407. Adams, Phoebe Lou. "The inner truth." Atlantic, 
190 (Sept. 1952)76. 

Thoroughly interesting plot; more readable than most of 
his works. 

1409. Bentley, Eric. "Eugene O'Neill's pieta." New Rep., 
127 (4 Aug. 1952) 17. [Reprinted in Bentley's The dramatic 
event, NY, Horizon Press, 1954, pp. 30-33.] 

Will change nobody's views; not O'Neill's best or worst. Better 
than some recent plays, so much the worse for recent plays. 

1410. Carroll, Joseph. "A play Broadway could use." Th. 
Arts, 36 (Sept. 1952) 6-7. 

Scholars of theatre should take a new look at O'Neill. Other 
writers may "approach his best or surpass his worst" but none 
equal his achievements. 

1411. Clurman, Harold. "Theater." Nation, 178 (8 May 
1954) 409. [Reprinted in Clurman's Lies like truth, NY, Mac- 
miUan, 1958(No.25).] 

Noting the success of MOON in Stockholm, Clurman reviews 
O'Neill's status as an oflF-Broadway possibility. 

1412. Darrach, Henry B. "Moon in Columbus." Time, 49 
(3 Mar. 1947) 47. 

Brief review of Columbus premiere, with feeling it is much 
more impressive than ICEMAN, but needs much more work. 

1413. Eaton, Walter Prichard. "A bookshelf premiere for 
a play by Eugene O'Neill." NY Her-Trib., 3 Aug. 1952. 

Increasingly difficult to find a soul in the fumes of Bourbon; 
not O'Neill's best and only he could or would have written it. 

1414. Freedley, George. "A Moon for the Misbegotten." 
Library Journal, 77 (Aug. 1952) 1307. 

"Highly recommended." 


1415. Jones, Johnny. "A Moon for the Misbegotten." Bill- 
board, 1 Mar. 1947. 

Usual O'Neill philosophy of frustration. Intricate play that 
should smooth itself out and do business. 

1416. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "Genius is better than talent." 
Th. Arts, 39 (Oct. 1954) 22-23. 

This general review finds the play to be an ANNA CHRISTIE 
with an unhappy ending. Lacking the facility of talent, O'Neill 
does have genius, which is probably better anyway. 

1417. McCarthy, Mary. "The farmer's daughter." NY 
Times, 31 Aug. 1952, VII, p. 7. 

Crude technique. Still exacts "homage" for its "mythic powers." 

Opening night reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 3 May 1957 

1418. Atkinson, Brooks. "Theatre: O'Neill's last." NY 
Times, 21:2. 

No stage production can solve the problems of the play which 
were evident when it first appeared. It is prolix and uneventful, 
lacking much of O'Neill's elemental power. A tired work. 

1419. Chapman, John. "Wendy Hiller is magnificent in 
A Moon for the Misbegotten." NY News. 

Without the impact of JOURNEY, but still a compelling piece 
of theatre; another beautiful O'Neill play. 

1420. Dash, Thomas R. "A Moon for the Misbegotten." 
W. W. Daily. 

It has all of the virtues and many of the vices of O'Neill's 
plays. A superb study of people tormenting themselves, spasmodic 
power, trenchantly realistic, but also overwritten. It is not one 
of his best. 

1421. Donnelly, Tom. "A long night's moongazing." NY 
Wor-Tel ir Sun. 

The serious playgoer will want to see it, but it will be a labor 


of love. O'Neill is close to smothering everything in a mass 
of tedium. 

1422. Gilbert, Justin. "O'Neill play grim, uneven work." 
NY Mirror. 

Alternately grubby and funny, grim and poetic. O'Neill's 
incandescence "barely flickers here and there." 

1423. Kerr, Walter. "Moon for the Misbegotten." NY 

First half rattled and blathered, without mercy and without 
meaning. O'Neill seems to have lost his sense of the theatre, 
although last act is a superb "dance of death." 

1424. McClain, John. "O'Neill opus long but fiercely great." 
NY Jour-Am. 

Power and grandeur evident, the same fierce qualities of 
JOURNEY. Brings poetry to this squalid place, never losing 
control of understanding the characters. 

1425. Watts, Richard, Jr. "Another moving O'Neill trage- 
dy." NY Post. 

Suffers from typical faults of length and lack of eloquence, 
but still moving and shattering. Haunting emotional experience, 
further proving O'Neill was a titan of the theatre. 

Other reviews and criticism 

1426. Atkinson, Brooks. "O'Neill's finale." NY Times, 12 
May, II, 1:1. 

A minor work. Only fitfully alive; the tragic drive is missing. 
O'Neill's grand achievements were over when this was written. 

1427. Colby, Ethel. "Entertainment on Broadway." Jour. 
Comm., 6 May. 

The need for condensation is a "glaring fault." Too much 
reiteration. Rich and vital though it is, it is not up to O'Neill's best. 


1428. Cooke, Richard P. "O'Neill's last." Wall St. Jour., 
6 May. 

Minor O'Neill with touches of greatness; lacks tragic inner 
fires of JOURNEY. The recital of drunken deeds is tiresome. 

1429. Driver, Tom F. "Misbegotten." Christ. Cent, 74 
(22 May) 657. 

O'Neill's loquacity has spun a good one-act play into four. 
Does not achieve nobility of vision seen in ICEMAN or JOUR- 
NEY. The valid, poignant theme needs lightness. 

1430. Gibbs, Wolcott. "A tired Tyrone." New Yorker, 33 
(11 May) 84. 

It is hard to see how this will add much to O'Neill's reputa- 
tion. His other plays, for all their verbosity, had something to 
say; this does not. 

1431. Hatch, Robert. "Theatre." Nation, 184 (18 May) 446. 
O'Neill is trying to lay the ghost of his brother. The truth in 

this play is very evasive; the ending rings false. 

1432. Hayes, Richard. "The image and the search." Com- 
monweal, 66 ( 30 Aug. ) 541. 

"Full of sucking guilt and reddened with whiskey." It does 
not demand audience response as much as endurance. 

1433. Hewes, Henry. "Requiem for a roue." Sat. R., 40 
(18 May) 34. 

There is too much time spent on trivial things, but it is still 
a memorable experience. 

1434. Lewis, Theophilus. "A Moon for the Misbegotten." 
America, 97 (25 May) 270. 

O'Neill is too long getting started. Many early scenes are 
written with the frenzy of a man who knew he did not have 
much longer to live. 

1435. "A Moon for the Misbegotten." Th. Arts, 41 
(July) 12-13. 

Comparisons to JOURNEY and others are unfortunate, but 


final impact is worth waiting for. Unhappily the rest of the play 
does not measure up to the last forty-five minutes. 

1436. "More Eugene O'Neill." Newsweek, 49 (13 May) 70. 
O'Neill can no longer transport his characters to the pinnacle 

of tragedy. A minor work. 

1437. "New play in Manhattan." Time, 69 (13 May) 91. 
Too much talk. Becomes a ghost of O'Neill's other plays. It 

is nothing to be remembered. 

1438. Wyatt, Euphemia Van R. "A Moon for the Misbe- 
gotten." Cath. Wld., 185 (July) 308-309. 

It is still too long, too much talk. There is a limitation to 
alcoholic values. It is sad to think that O'Neill's play is itself 
so sad. 


Because newspaper critics generally ignored the early pro- 
ductions of the Provincetown Players, there are only limited 
reviews of O'Neill's one-act plays. The following are the only 
two discovered in a search of the files of major New York news- 


1439. Broun, Heywood. "Susan Glaspell and George Cook 
have bright one-act play." NY Tribune, 23 Dec. 

A disappointment in spite of the true dialogue and atmosphere. 
A pointless tale; Smitty is an uninteresting deep sea snob. The 
trouble is with the playwright, not the actors. 

1440. "Greenwich Village sees new dramas a la Province- 
town." NY Herald, 21 Dec. 


The play is mainly just an interlude; the prelude and afterlude 
are left to the audience. 

Book reviews 

The Moon of the Caribbees and Six Other Flays of the Sea 
was the first volume of O'Neill's plays to be published, other 
than the abortive Thirst and Other One Act Plays of 1914. These 
are some of the more important notices which it received. 

1441. Broun, Heywood. "The Moon of the Caribbees." 
NY Tribune, 4 May. 

O'Neill's very unusual talent is confirmed by these plays, 
which read well. 

1442. Clark, Barrett H. "The plays of Eugene O'Neill." 
NY Sun, 18 May. 

Our most promising young native playwright. 

1443. "Eugene O'Neill's plays." NY World, 18 May. 
Collection is not for weaklings; does not fear ugly truths. 

Breezy as a sea gale and realistic as a rocky shore. 

1444. Leonard, Baird. "The Moon of the Caribbees." NY 
Telegraph, 17 May. 

Pleasant to read, an exception to most published plays. 

1445. "Mr. O'Neill's plays." NY Sun, 17 May. 
These plays show a true theatrical gift. 

1446. "The Moon of the Caribbees." Dial, 66 (17 May) 524. 
Atmosphere of the stage production is still present in the 

printed version. Action halting; motivation commonplace. 

1447. "The Moon of the Caribbees." NY Globe, 10 May. 
Too many stage directions, but they read better than they act. 

1448. "The Moon of the Caribbees." Rev. of Rev., 60 
(July) 112. 


Should convince us that O'Neill has arrived; he is the Conrad 
of playwrights. 

1449. "The Moon of the Caribbees." Th. Arts, 4 (20 
Jan. ) 80. 

"No one has more completely mastered the technique of the 
one-act play." They read as well as they act. 

1450. "Sea plays." NY Post, 30 Aug. 

Much to gratify the admirers of theatrical thrillers. 

1451. "Seven artisans and an artist." Nation, 108, (14 
June) 948. 

O'Neill's best gift is "hard and virile pathos." The introduction 
of women makes the plays lapse almost into melodrama; he 
presents them as merely romantic. 


Opening night reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 27 Oct. 1931 

1452. Allen, Kelcey. "Mourning Becomes Electra seethes 
with epic tragedy." W. W. Daily. 

Magnificent tragedy of classic proportions; has quahty as piti- 
less and remorseless as the original Greek. 

1453. Anderson, John. "O'Neill's trilogy." NY Journal. 
Unreserved praise for masterpiece with strength, clarity and 

unflagging intuition, putting flesh of modern psychology on the 
bare bones of impersonal Greek original. Play of "enduring 

1454. Atkinson, Brooks. "Strange images of death in 
Eugene O'Neill's masterpiece." NY Times, 22:1. 


Superb strength, coolness and coherence, much Greek but no 
slavish imitation. Cause of great rejoicing for O'Neill, Guild, 

1455. Brown, John Mason. "O'Neill's trilogy Mourning 
Becomes Electra presented at the Guild theatre." NY Post. 
[Reprinted in Brown's Two on the aisle, NY, Norton, 1938, 
pp. 136-242 (No. 15).] 

Proof that the theatre is very much aHve; rises above the 
"scrubby output of our present day theatre" like the Empire 
State Building above New York. 

1456. Coleman, Robert. "Mourning Becomes Electra fas- 
cinates brilliant audience." NY Mirror. 

It will cause a lot of controversy and be subject of much debate. 

1457. Gabriel, Gilbert. "Mourning Becomes Electra." NY 

A grand scheme grandly fulfilled. One of the dramatic master- 
pieces of the world today; O'Neill achieves new stature* 

1458. Garland, Robert. "Eugene O'Neill turns out a mas- 
terpiece." NY Wor-Tel. 

Bears out the promise of earlier plays. 

1459. Hammond, Percy. "Mr. O'Neill blends Athens, New 
England, and Broadway in an exciting new tragedy." NY Her- 

Easily applauded despite length. O'Neill to be congratulated. 

1460. Lockridge, Richard. "Mourning Becomes Electra." 
NY Sun. 

An implacable and unrelenting tragedy marking O'Neill's 
emergence as an artist in the theatre. 

1461. Mantle, Burns. "Mourning Becomes Electra." NY 

If we had to have the old story rewritten it was nice O'Neill 
did it. 


1462. Pollock, Arthur. "Broadway sees New Eugene 
O'Neill play." Brook. Eagle. 

May not be his most fascinating, but in many ways his best. 
O'Neill has grown wiser and calmer. 

Other reviews and criticism 

1463. Atkinson, Brooks. "Tragedy becomes O'Neill." NY 
rzme5,l Nov., VIII, 1:1. 

O'Neill's only masterpiece, but not a great play because of 
lack of nobility of character and appropriate language. One of 
"supreme achievements" of the modern theatre. 

1464. Benchley, Robert. "Top." New Yorker, 7 (7 Nov.) 
28. [Reprinted in Moses and Brown, The American theatre as 
seen by its critics, NY, Norton, 1934 (No. 89); and Oppenheimer, 
Louis, The passionate playgoer, NY, Viking, 1958 (No. 107).] 

Grand, stupendous thriller, with the melodramatic hand of 
Monte Cristo much in evidence. 

1465. Bolton, Whitney. "By easy stages." NY Telegraph, 

Five days after opening it is still possible to feel the impact 
of great tragedy. 

1466. Bowen, Sterling. "The O'Neill play." Wall St. Jour., 
28 Oct. 

Hard to place in the catalogue of O'Neill work. The first part 
is melodrama, the last is dilution. Instead of becoming tragic, 
the characters are merely exotic. 

1467. Brown, John Mason. "Two on the aisle." NY Post, 
28 Oct. 

A widely quoted article reprinting many of the notes from 
O'Neill's working diary. Clark also includes excerpts in European 
Theories of the Drama (No. 22). 


1468. Burr, Eugene. "Mourning Becomes Electra." Bill- 
board, 43 (7 Nov.) 17. 

Written by any other man the play would have been taken as 
the misguided outpouring of an inferior writer. It is little more 
than a good three-act "meller." 

1469. Canby, Henry Seidel. "Scarlet becomes crimson." 
Sat. R. Lit., 8 (7 Nov.) 257-258. [Reprinted in Canby's Seven 
years' harvest, NY, Farrar & Rinehart, 1936, pp. 139-146 (No. 17).] 

An excellent approach to modern decadence. The Greeks 
would not have liked the approach of the abnormal instance. 
But O'Neill has "consummate skill" as a writer which none 
can question. 

1470. Chatfield-Taylor, Otis. "The latest plays." Outlook, 
159 ( 11 Nov. ) 343. 

Argument about length and needed editing are unimportant 
beside the fact it is the most actable play of the year. Some per- 
formances that are rare experiences in the contemporary theatre. 

1471. Clark, Barrett H. "Mourning becomes Electra." Con- 
tempo (Chapel Hill, N.C. ), 1 ( 1 Dec. ) 2. 

Artful, skillful, magnificent, though it still does not represent 
the goal O'Neill has set up for himself. 

1472. Eaton, Walter Prichard. "Powerful but not Greek." 
NY Her-Trib., 22 Nov. 

Not a Greek tragedy, though gripping, because of contemptible 
and small characters. O'Neill is as near classic as we can ask 
in modern drama. 

1473. Evans, Harry. "Mourning Becomes Electra." Life, 
98 ( 13 Nov. ) 19. 

Adds stature to the theatre, establishing O'Neill as the "leading 
dramatist of his time." 

1474. Fergusson, Francis. "A month of the theatre." Book- 
man, 74 (Dec.) 440-445. 

Bad taste shown in attempting to present a case history in 


classical trappings and confusing psychological approach. The 
Greek values are not with us today. 

1475. Garland, Robert. "Second thoughts on prophets, 
playwrights, the critics of Mourning Becomes Electra." NY Wor- 
Tel, 29 Oct. 

A review of the press comments shows American theatre is 
not dead. 

1476. "Greece in New England." Time, 18 (2 Nov.) 34-38. 
The significant straightforward treatment of the theme is 

good. Most of this review discusses O'Neill's background and 
the play. 

1477. Jordan, Elizabeth, "Mr. O'Neill and others." America, 
28 Nov. 

Drawn as we are to morgues, or around accident victims, we 
want thrills, and this has them. 

1478. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "Our Electra." Nation, 133 
(18 Nov.) 551-552. 

A great play, not "meaning" anything in sense of Ibsen or Shaw, 
but like Hamlet it means that human beings are great and 
terrible when in the grips of passion. One of the "very greatest 
works of dramatic literature" despite a lack of appropriate 

1479. Lockridge, Richard. "Out of the show shop." NY 
Sun, 29 Oct. 

The highest point O'Neill has reached; true art. He is now 
above his early faults, showing the theatre is not trivial. 

1480. Mantle, Burns. "Yankee Electra releases a flood of 
superlatives — What next?" NY News, 1 Nov. 

Reviews the critical reaction, wonders if there will not soon 
be a recession of praise. O'Neill treatment of Electra is a greater 
writing achievement than the original Greek, but it is probably 
not as great in character as INTERLUDE. 

1481. Motherwell, Hiram. "Mourning Becomes Electra." 


Th. Guild Mag., 9 (31 Dec.) 14-20. [Reprinted in Hewitt, 
Barnard, Theatre USA, NY, McGraw-Hill, 1959, pp. 387-3Q0, 
(No. 56).] 

This is a modern tragedy of psychology and shows need for 
shift of emphasis from Orestes to Electra in today's reliance on 
woman. An interesting counter to criticisms finding the play 
only a murder melodrama. 

1482. "Mourning Becomes Electra." Variety, 1 Nov. ( ? ) 
Lusty, vigorous drama with more human emotional punch 

than any gang melodrama ever written. Never lets you out of 
its grip. Grim, horrifying, intensely absorbing. 

1483. Nathan, George Jean. "The theatre of — " Judge, 
21 Nov. 

One of the most important plays in history of American drama. 
Monument not only to O'Neill but American Theatre as well. 

1484. "O'Neill at top notch." Lit. D., Ill (21 Nov.) 18-19. 
Excerpts from other reviews, with two illustrations from 


1485. "O'Neill's own story of Electra in the making." NY 
Her-Trib., 8 Nov. 

Excerpts from O'Neill's diary, first published by John Mason 
Brown in NY Post, 28 Oct. (No. 1467). 

1486. Pollock, Arthur. "O'Neill does his finest work in 
Mourning Becomes Electra." Brook. Eagle, 29 Oct. 

Beautiful play, showing O'Neill improved, no longer a faddist; 
more self-reliant than ever before. 

1487. "Priscilla and Electra." NY Times, 31 Oct., 16:4. 
Editorial comment; an amusing plea to leave poor old New 

England alone in its struggle with the Depression instead of 
accusing it of such horrors as here and in DESIRE UNDER 

1488. Ruhl, Arthur. "Second nights." NY Her-Trib., 1 Nov. 
Brief discussion of the eflFectiveness of play. 


1489. Skinner, Richard Dana. "The play." Commonweal, 
15 (11 Nov.) 46-47. 

Emotions and artistic abihty still not mastered enough to 
make O'Neill a great playwright, though this is his finest. 

1490. . "What of the new season?" Commonweal, 

26 (Aug.) 406. 

Because O'Neill's future is important to our theatre. Skinner 
hopes forthcoming ELECTRA returns to the "rich intuition" 
of BROWN. 

1491. Wellman, Rita. "In and out of town." Town & 
Country, 86 ( 1 Dec. ) 46. 

No softening element in the tragedy; like a New England 
boiled dinner the effect does not soon wear off. 

1492. Wyatt, Euphemia Van R. "Agamemnon turned Puri- 
tan." Cath. Wld., 134 (Dec.) 330-331. 

Misses Olympus because of complete lack of human nobility 
and charity, without which human race would have long since 

1493. Young, Stark. "Eugene O'Neill's new play." New 
Rep., 68 (11 Nov.) 352-355. [Reprinted in Zabel, Morton D., 
ed., Literary opinion in America, NY, Harpers, 1937, 1951 (No. 
149); and in Young's Immortal shadows, NY, Scribners, 1948 
(No. 148).] 

The entire approach of Young's criticism is an objective dis- 
cussion successfuly opposing those who would pick the play 
apart because of departures from the Greek. He finds modern 
additions "exhilarating." 


The road company, starring Judith Anderson, Walter Abel, and 
Florence Reed gave 16 performances starting 9 May 1932. New 
York critics reviewed it briefly, with little change in their origi- 
nal opinions. 


1494. Atkinson, Brooks. "Tempest of the fates." NY Times, 
22 May, VIII, 1:1. 

Revaluation of the play upon return engagement finds it still 
tremendous, written "with the heat and fume of humanity." 

1495. Brown, John Mason. "Two on the aisle." NY Post, 
15 Apr. 

Extensive quotes from St. John Ervine's criticism of O'Neill 
in London Observer ( No. 234 ) . 

1496. Garb, David. "Seen on the stage." Vogue, 79 ( 1 Jan. ) 

Abandoning tricks, O'Neill returns to characters about whom 
he can write at first hand. Majesty, dignity, tremendous sweep. 

1497. Clark, Barrett H. "Aeschylus and Eugene O'Neill." 
Eng. Jour., 21 (Nov.) 699-710. 

This criticism is good to contrast to Feldman's article (No. 
1518 ) . Clark objectively compares the Greek pattern and O'Neill, 
making clear O'Neill used Aeschylus only where necessary in 
trying to show a modern idea in psychology in pattern of basic 
Greek sense of fate. It was ready-made story that did not 
need explaining. 

1498. De Casseres, Benjamin. "Broadway to date." Arts 
^ Dec, 36 (Jan.) 52. 

Most unique American play ever to be seen on the stage, 
some of O'Neill's greatest and mightiest characters, the culmina- 
tion of all his work. 

1499. "Electra revisted." Th. Guild Mag., 9 (Mar.) 10. 
Second visit shows more visual beauty and expression; a play 

for both eyes and ears. 

1500. Fergusson, Francis. "Recalling the highlights." Book- 
man,75 (June-July) 290-291. 

Jones and Nazimova brought brilliance to a "stiff and pre- 
tentious monstrosity." 


1501. Frederick, J. George. "Evening becomes intolerable." 
Van. F., 37 (Jan.) 46-47. 

A T.B.M. (tired business man) taken as guest expresses definite 
and adverse opinion that things like this do not make drama. 
A convincing case is made for the theatre of pure entertainment. 

1502. Hutchens, John. "Greece to Broadway." Th. Arts, 
16 (Jan.) 13-16. [Reprinted in Gilder, Rosamond, ed.. Theatre 
Arts anthology, NY, Theatre Arts Books, 1950, pp. 619-622 
(No. 49).] 

For the first time O'Neill shows himself the great story teller 
in this horrific murder melodrama, having none of the uncertainty 
of former emotional writing. 

1503. Kirstein, Lincoln. "Theatre chronicle." Hound and 
Horn, 5 (Jan.-Mar.) 280-282. 

A "low high-water mark" of current theatre. Not a great play, 
not a tragedy, but given so much, one wants so much more. 

1504. Knickerbocker, Frances Wentworth. "A New Eng- 
land house of Atreus." Sewanee Rev., 40 ( Apr.-June) 249-254. 

Close comparison and contrast of Greek and O'Neill. Not 
great tragedy because Mannons are not great people and there 
is no "gleam of reconciliation." 

1505. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "O'Neill again." Nation, 134 
( 17 Feb. ) 210-211. 

Defending his original enthusiastic response, Krutch finds the 
criticism against the psychoanalytical approach worthless, be- 
cause it is merely explaining actions of the characters in a way 
we today can readily understand. 

1506. "Mourning Becomes Electra." Th. Guild Mag., 9 
(Jan.) 2. 

The one play you cannot walk out on or stop watching; O'Neill 
doing the thing he can do better than anything else. 

1507. Nathan, George Jean. "Our premier dramatist." Van. 
F.,37(Jan.) 24. 


Nathan attempts to show why O'Neill, except O'Casey, is the 
only living writer of English plays of any stature. 

1508. . "Retrospect." Van. F., 38 (June) 57. 

A less important work than STRANGE INTERLUDE. 

1509. Skinner, Richard Dana. "The play." Commonweal, 
15 (6 Apr.) 636. 

Reviewing the season, Skinner discusses the production and 
what O'Neill tries to do. The next great period of our writing 
will come when the feelings of O'Neill are harnessed into right 

1510. . "Some thoughts on O'Neill and Sophocles." 

Commonweal, 15 (3 Feb.) 386. 

Almost nothing of Greek is in this because of failure to find 
substitute for fate. 

1511. Smith, Althea E. "Mourning Becomes Electra." 
Players Mag., 8 ( Jan.-Feb. ) 11. 

Seeing is much different from reading; characters do not move 
one to pity on the stage. There is no faith transcending disaster, 
and we do not identify. 

1512. Wyatt, Euphemia Van R. "The Theater weathers 
depression." Cflf/i. Wld., 135 (June) 336. 

Despite a high price, this production brought the audience 
in and swept them into a world of imagination, which is art's 


1513. Alexander, Doris M. "Capt. Brant and Capt. Brass- 
bound: The origin of an O'Neill character." Mod. Lang. Notes, 
74 (April 1959) 306-310. 

Convincing argument that O'Neill "borrowed" Brant of ELEC- 
TRA directly from Shaw's Capt. Brassbound. 

1514. . "Psychological fate in Mourning Becomes 

Electra." PMLA, 68 (Dec. 1953) 923-934. 


Hamilton and Macgowan's 1929 What is Wrong with Mar- 
riage is shown as O'Neill's text in establishing his legitimate ele- 
ments of psychological fate. The Puritan attitude toward love 
contributes about half; fate is completed by the Oedipus and 
Electra complexes handed down through parents to children in 
a vicious, never-ending circle. 

1515. Asselineau, Roger. "Mourning Becomes Electra as 
a tragedy." Mod. Dr., 1 (Dec. 1958) 143-150. 

A carefully detailed analysis of the play, especially Lavinia, 
to show that O'Neill conceived a tragedy in the genuine classic 
sense, equal to if not surpassing the Greek, despite his lack of 
distinctive style. 

1516. Barron, Samuel. "The dying theatre." Harpers, 172 
(Dec. 1935) 108-117. 

The theatre is dying because of narrow traditions unable to 
handle demands of modern drama. ELECTRA fails because of 
the limits of the stage. 

1517. Battenhouse, Roy W. "Mourning Becomes Electra." 
Christendom, 7 (Summer 1942) 332-345. 

An interesting and provocative analysis of the characters. 
O'Neill is writing variations on the one basic human ill, the 
"original" sin of insubordination to God, which can only end 
in dismal tragedy. 

1518. Feldman, Abraham. "The American Aeschylus?" 
Poet Lore, 52 (Summer 1946) 149-155. 

A lamentable failure, using theatrical tricks instead of drama 
to gain an "obscene" interpretation of Freud. Violently opposed 
to the entire play. 

1519. Lecky, Eleazer. "Ghosts and Mourning Becomes 
Electra: Two versions of fate." Ariz. Quar., 13 (Winter 1957) 

Both deal with the power of past over the present, including 
heredity, envirormient, and sexual conflict. The structure and 


e£Fect in both are, of course, diflFerent, and they are divergent as 
regards the future — Ghosts essentially optimistic, ELECTRA 


Opening night reviews — Playwright's Theatre 
New York — Newspapers of April-May 1918 

1520. Broun, Heywood. "Brilliant one-act play called The 
Rope Provincetown feature." NY Tribune, 29 Apr. 

Glorious success among other neutral plays; finely imaginative 
story with surprising ending that comes without trickery. 

1521. "Provincetown players give new playlets." NY 

A dramatic gem; the best of the works from this gifted author. 

Opening night reviews — Washington Square Players 
New York — Newspapers of 14-15 May 1918 

1522. "Brace of new plays given at the Comedy." NY 
Morn. World, 14 May. 

Ironic and vigorous; better than the companion piece by 
Susan Glaspell. 

1523. Broun, Heywood. "Two new plays at the Comedy." 
NY Tribune, 14 May. 

In the best vein of O'Neill. 

1524. Dale, Alan. "Two new playlets at Comedy theatre." 
NY American, 14 May. 


It may have been meant well, but you make of it what you 
like or don't Hke. 

1525. Darnton, Charles. "The Rope." NY Eve. World, 
14 May. 

Admiration expressed for O'Neill's ability to draw character. 

1526. Gardy, Louis. "The Rope put on at the Comedy." 
NY Call, 15 May. 

A tremendous piece of rugged craftsmanship, carrying promise 
of future greatness. A terrifying spirit throughout. 

1527. Mantle, Burns. "Washington Square players add a 
dose of tonic to their spring bill." NY Mail, 14 May. 

Ugly but thrilling little drama; O'Neill's usual "fine, free 
active imagination." 

1528. Sherwin, Louis. "Two new ones at the Comedy." 
NY Globe, 15 May. 

Disappointing, not nearly as effective as others by O'Neill. 

1529. "Three comedies and a drama." NY Sun, 14 May. 
"A very original play." 

1530. "Two new playlets instead of Salome." NY Times, 
14 May, 11:5. 

Has O'Neill vigor, lacking "singleness and bigness of motive" 
of his other better works. 

1531. "Two new playlets on bill at Comedy." Brook. 
Eagle, 14 May. 

The most striking and best of current bill; strength almost 
to brutality. 

1532. "Two new plays at the Century (sic)" NY Telegram, 
14 May. 

Questionable taste at times, but good for those who like 
their drama straight. 


1533. "Two new plays by Washington Square players." 
NY Herald, 14 May. 

Review of plot, no comment. 

1534. "Two new plays given at Comedy." NY Sun, 14 May. 
"Lamentably lacking in clearness and motive." 

1535. "The Washington Square players." NY Post, 14 May. 
A happy replacement for Salome, though it contributes nothing 

much of dramatic value. 

1536. "Washington Square players win new laurels." NY 
Journal, 14 May. 

Frank, direct, even brutal tragedy; its realism fairly makes the 
audience gasp. 

Other reviews and criticism 

1537. Hornblow, Arthur. "Mr. Homblow goes to the play." 
Theatre, 27 (June) 358. 

O'Neill is a young playwright to be reckoned with, showing 
much literary value. 

1538. "The Provincetown Players." Vogue, 15 June. 
Surprise at curtain is admirable, yet expected. Much talent for 

the theatre in this young man. 

1539. Untitled note in drama column. Life, 23 May. 

In spite of repulsiveness, it does get a strong grip on the 

1540. "Washington Square players." Dram. Mir., 78 (25 
May) 730. 

The better of the two plays on the bill. 



The plays of the Glencairn cycle - MOON OF THE CARIB- 
THE LONG VOYAGE HOME - were each produced separately 
during O'Neill's early career by both the Provincetown Players 
and the Washington Square Players. Only a few of the major 
New York newspapers sent their critics to the Provincetown, 
although the Washington Square productions were generally 
well covered. The four plays were later combined into the col- 
lective S. S. GLENCAIRN. 

Opening night reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 4 Nov. 1924 

1541. Dale, Alan. "Cycle of plays oflFered at Province- 
town." NY American. 

Little significance; too much of the unlovely and squalid. 

1542. Four little O'Neill plays are revived." NY Times, 

This does not seem as good as the originals. 

1543. Gabriel, Gilbert. "The S. S. Glencairn." NY Tele- 
gram ir Mail. 

Four stark, beautiful pictures of the sea and its men. They 
remain among the most aflFecting and poetical of O'Neill's plays. 
He has accomplished the music of the sea. 

1544. Hammond, Percy. "S. S. Glencairn." NY Her-Trib. 
"Honest relentless bits of humble sea life" told in the best 

O'Neill way. 

1545. "Mr. O'Neill gets three hits and a foul ball." NY Post. 
If you take your drama seriously here is a program to see. 

There is less salt, and more hokum than in his later plays, some 
of it too obvious. 


1546. Pollock, Arthur. "Young Mr. O'Neill." Brook. Eagle. 
These plays contain some of O'Neill's best work, but in view 

of recent plays since they first appeared, they now seem tame. 
But the force is still here, and they cut deep. 

1547. "S. S. Glencairn." NY World. 
Vivid pulsating drama. 

Other reviews and criticism 

1548. Hornblow, Arthur. "Mr. Hornblow goes to the play." 
Theatre, 41 (Jan. 1925) 22. 

A service to English speaking drama in presenting these. 

1549. Nathan, George Jean. "O'Neill steams into port." 
Judge, 87 (29 Nov. 1924) 10-11. 

An excellent evening's entertainment. 

1550. "S. S. Glencairn." Drama Calendar, 10 Nov. 1924. 
This should forever cure any young boy who wishes to run 

away to sea. 

1551. "S. S. Glencairn." Time, 4 (17 Nov. 1924) 14. 
Best thing on the current Provincetown bill. 

1552. Sisk. "O'Neill's one acters." Variety, 12 Nov. 1924. 
Though of little commercial value as plays, production is 


1553. Whyte, Gordon. "S. S. Glencairn." Billboard, 36 
(15 Nov. 1924) 36. 

"Welded into a fine show." 

Opening night reviews — Provincetown Revival 
New York — Newspapers of 10 Jan. 1929 

1554. "Cast and forecast." NY World. 
Brief notice of the revival of these "popular plays." 


1555. "O'Neill's four plays of the sea revived." NY Times, 

Their vigor and freshness do not abate with the years. 

1556. "O'Neill four sea episodes survive second revival." 
NY Telegram. 

General praise for the revival. 

1557. "O'Neill sea cycle at Provincetown." NY American. 
Review of the play, no critical comment. 

1558. "S. S. Glencairn." NY Sun. 
Glad to see it back. 

1559. "S. S. Glencairn at Provincetown playhouse." NY 

Recreates all the rude power and tang of life of the early 
plays, which forecast O'Neill's later attainments. This far out- 
weighs most current plays. 

1560. "S. S. Glencairn here on return voyage; drab tale 
endures." NY Her-Trib. 

Indelible picture of the dregs of human existence. 

1561. "S. S. Glencairn revived here." NY News. 
Brief notice of the revival. 

1562. Waldorf, Wilella. "S. S. Glencairn." NY Post. 
Decidedly worth the trip to see it. 

Other reviews and criticism 

1563. Atkinson, Brooks. "Honor enough for everybody." 
NYTime5,27Jan., IX, 1:1. 

Warm praise. O'Neill's later works had roots in nature, sprang 
from the elemental. 


1564. Ballantine, C. J. "Smitty of S. S. Glencairn." NY 
World, 6 Jan. 

Tells of O'Neill's description of an actual young man, model 
of this character. (Note: Many critics at one time or another have 
identified O'Neill himself with Smitty. ) 

1565. Clark, Barrett H. "The real background of O'Neill 
in his S. S. Glencairn group." NY Her-Trib., 10 Feb. 

Discussion of the source material. 

1566. "Down to the sea." NY World, 3 Mar. 
Some references to the originals of the stage characters. 

1567. "Four O'Neill plays on view." NY Sun, 11 Feb. 
Mostly a review of O'Neill's past. He is in select group of 

writers with four plays running simultaneously. 

1568. Lenz, Elita M. "S. S. Glencairn." Billboard, 41 (19 
Jan.) 5. 

"Lusty meat and ale of life"; wonderful evening of drama. 

1569. Littell, Robert. "Brighter lights: Broadway in re- 
view." Th. Arts, 13 ( Mar. ) 172. 

Stretches toward something "simple, elemental, fine" but 
achieves "sentimentality and crudity much too often." 

1570. Nichols, Dudley. "Testing the play." NY World, 
10 Feb. 

Meets real test of good drama; true sweep of emotion. 

1571. "O'Neill drew his gallery of sea characters from life." 
NY Post, 5 Jan. 

This review of O'Neill's early life points out the sources. 

1572. "O'Neill's one act plays." Wall St. Jour., 16 Jan. 
No parallel with these plays so far in the season. 

1573. "S. S. Glencairn." Commonweal, 9 (23 Jan.) 349. 
O'Neill at his best; moreso than when he is lost in the sub- 


1574. "S. S. Glencairn." Drama Calendar, 5 Jan. 
Grip of the scenes still holds; pulsating, tempestuous. 

Opening night reviews — City Center Revival 
New York — Newspapers of 21 May 1948 

1575. Atkinson, Brooks. "At the theatre." NY Times, 21:2. 
The acting makes these still fine sea plays. Honest realism 

with the perspective of the poet. The modern American theatre 
has nothing more genuine in its library. 

1576. Barnes, Howard. "Smooth sailing." NY Her-Trib. 
The mood becomes attenuated before' the end, but there is 

evidence of the flowering of great dramatic talent. 

1577. Chapman, John. "O'Neill's S. S. Glencairn playlets 
seem a bit quaint at City Center." NY News. 

More interesting in history than in performance. The sailor 
talk once seemed reahstic, now seems stilted. 

1578. Coleman, Robert. "S. S. Glencairn is top-flight 
O'Neill." NY Mirror. 

One of the finest contributions by the City Center. These plays 
form an important page in the chronicles of the drama. 

1579. Curril, George. "O'Neill's S. S. Glencairn still grips 
an audience." Brook. Eagle. 

There are anachronisms and inconsistencies, but the theme 
still rings true. 

1580. Dash, Thomas R. "S. S. Glencairn." W. W. Daily. 
One can still see the writer in embryo, lacking technical skill 

and dramatic proficiency. 

1581. Garland, Robert. "Revival at City Center no credit 
to O'Neifl." NY Jour-Am. 

Disapproval of the production. 


1582. Hawkins, William. "Four O'Neill plays pale in City 
Center." NY Wor-Tel. 

The sense of intimacy is lost. The serious mood cannot be 
conveyed in this large theatre. 

1583. Morehouse, Ward. "Eugene O'Neill's S. S. Glen- 
cairn." NY Sun. 

Curiously flat and unmoving. The theatrical realism of yester- 
day seems flat and tame here. 

1584. Watts, Richard, Jr. "O'Neill's sea dramas done at 
City Center." NY Post. 

These are now accepted as "classics" and much of the excite- 
ment and brightness have worn away. Other writers have come 
forward with more pungent dialogue, but they are worth seeing. 

Other reviews and criticism 

1585. Atkinson, Brooks. "The tragic dream." NY Times, 
30May, II, 1:1. 

A good revival. These plays are an authentic part of our 
hterature of the stage, truly tragic in theme and beautifully 
executed in character. 

1586. Beyer, William. "The state of the theatre." School 
ir Society, 67 (26 June) 478. 

"Tepid, contrived, routinely touching." 

1587. Clurman, Harold. "O'Neill again." New Rep., 118 
(7 June) 27-29. 

Good to see the classics of our literary heritage brought back, 
however inferior the production. O'Neill has given a lifetime 
of service in literature. 

1588. Cooke, Richard P. "Early O'Neill." Wall St. Jour., 
24 May. 

The moods of these early plays at times are poignant and 


dramatically interesting. At other times, they are lifeless and 

1589. Freedley, George. "Expert staging of O'Neill Glen- 
cairn." NY Telegraph, 23 May. 

Nobody has done a better job of interpretation of the sea 
and its men than O'Neill. 

1590. Gibbs, Wolcott. "Song and dance." New Yorker, 
24 (29 May) 43-44. 

The plays may have been something new when first produced, 
but they should now be relegated to the library. 

1591. Nathan, George Jean. "A brief biography of Ameri- 
can stage tars." NY Jour-Am., 1 June. 

They were amazingly popular because they presented for the 
first time in the drama the sea very close to reality. 

1592. Phelan, Kappo. "S. S. Glencairn." Commonweal, 48 
(4 June) 185. 

The plays are hardly worth it any more. 

1593. "S. S. Glencairn." Variety, 26 May. 
More fragmentary drama compared to later works. 

1594. Wilson, John S. "Four of O'Neill's early one-act 
plays." PM. 


Opening night reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 31 Jan. 1928 

1595. Anderson, John. "O'Neill's nine-act play opens." NY 


Profound drama of subconscious. Ordeal by watered dialogue, 
sprawling, reckless waste — but still "profoundly engrossing." 
Bursts the seams of theatre in "stretching for deeper meaning 
and sharper truth." Passages of "soaring poetry," much "unwink- 
ing courage." 

1596. Atkinson, Brooks. "Strange Interlude plays five 
hours." NY Time*, 28:1. 

Atkinson does not oflFer the high praise that others do, recog- 
nizing however that the unoriginal story is not as important as the 
technique of experiment. The asides are at times "the very stuff" 
of drama; at other times, used unwisely. 

1597. Coleman, Robert. "Strange Interlude opens." NY 

Great day for faddists. "Long winded bark at the moon in 
nine fat acts." Tiresome, jerky, heavy-footed, obvious. 

1598. Dale, Alan. "Strange Interlude." NY American. 

The French would toss it off as a ribald farce. "A sordid mess"; 
"Pecksnijffian outbursts," hysterical analysis of a psychopathic 
woman. "Six-hour bore." 

1599. Gabriel, Gilbert. "Last night's first night." NY Sun. 
This "magnificent" venture "cleaves the skyline of tomorrow." 

It is a "hewer of ways" in technique, and "enthralling" in theme. 

1600. Hall, Leonard. "Eugene O'Neill is off on a huge and 
ambitious adventure." NY Telegram. 

"One of the most astonishing adventures a stage ever held." 
". . . great daubs of grays and browns and royal purples on 
a canvas the size of the side of a barn." Authentic genius. 

1601. Hammond, Percy. "The theaters." NY Her-Trib. 
Contains everything but brevity to make it an exciting evening 

in the theatre. Grand interlude for drama lovers who are patient 
and above average intelligence. 

1602. Littell, Robert. "A great play." NY Post. 


Greatest contribution to our stage, beside which all future plays 
in conventional style will seem flat and two dimensional. 

1603. Mantle, Burns. "Strange Interlude nine acts." NY 

Frankly biological. Solid gray in tone, slow-paced, repetitious, 
forbidding in length. 

1604. "New O'Neill play worthy experiment." W. W. Daily. 
Momentous and significant experiment in art and technique 

of dramaturgy. Wearisome to the layman, but attractive to the 
"epicurean." Less clumsy than masks of BROWN. 

1605. Nichols, Dudley. "Strange Interlude." NY World. 
Perhaps the most "important event in the present era of the 

American theatre." O'Neill catches not only a life but life itself; 
not just man and woman, but mankind. 

1606. Pollock, Arthur. "Eugene O'Neill's nine-act play. 
Strange Interlude, proves fascinating." Brook. Eagle. 

Fascinating as Hfe itself. A novel written for the stage, but 
not a stunt. Sharply, beautifully written with a 'Taitterness and 
hard truth that hurts." 

1607. Van Dycke, Thomas. "Nine-act O'Neill drama 
opens." NY Telegraph. 

The most significant play O'Neill has written. Finest play yet 
written by an American, perhaps "most remarkable play of our 
generation." A monument in the history of American dramaturgy. 

Other reviews and criticism 
1928 (Two entries dated 1927 also entered) 

1606. "Accounting for the popularity of O'Neill's nine- 
act drama." NY Post, 30 June. 

Three factors may explain the play's popularity: desire to see 
something out of the ordinary, curiousity about what Guild and 
O'Neill had done to split the critics, and the possibility he 
wrote a great play. 


1609. Aiken, Conrad. "Strange Interlude." NY Post, 21 
July. [Reprinted in Aiken's Reviewers ABC, NY, Meridian 
Books, 1958, pp. 315-318.] 

Book review. "Finest play by an American . . . ever seen on 
the stage." 

1610. Anderson, John. "Pieces of eight-thirty." NY Post, 
3 Dec. 1927. 

This report of the play before production calls it a "jawbreak- 
ing endurance contest" which has certain literary, perhaps poetic, 
qualities. "O'Neill spreads a vast and impressive net to catch 
a nuance" as he did in GREAT GOD BROWN. 

1611. Anthony, Luther B. "Strange Interlude, disease 
germs disseminated." Dramatist, 19 ( Jan. ) 1356. 

Brief and strongly prejudiced attack against the play — sug- 
gests O'Neill's next step is dissemination of disease germs among 

1612. Atkinson, Brooks. "Laurels for Strange Interlude." 
NYr/me5, 13May, IX, 1:1. 

The Pulitzer prize is approved, but the play is not great be- 
cause of "cramping intrusion of the tenets of science." O'Neill 
has not ventured far enough into real tragedy to have written 
great drama here. 

1613. . "Strange Interlude." NY Times, 5 Feb., 

VIII, 1:1. 

Listing many faults in technique and philosophy, Atkinson 
none the less admits "when Mr. O'Neill is the black magician" 
nothing is boring and it is a very enjoyable evening. 

1614. Bellamy, Francis R. "Lights down." Outlook, 148 
(22 Feb.) 304-305. 

Not the last word in a new type drama, but the first, and 
O'Neill has given some of the most compelling drama ever 

1615. Benchley, Robert. "All about Strange Interlude." 
Life, 91 ( 16 Feb. ) 21. 


Only O'Neill could make an audience stick through this kind 
of play. Highly important, maybe great, far from perfect. 

1616. Brackett, Charles. "Not at their best." New Yorker, 
3 (11 Feb.) 24. 

An interesting stunt, four acts too long. Stream of conscious- 
ness cannot compare to Woolf or Joyce, and has much phony 

1617. Broun, Heywood. "It seems to me." NY World, 1 Feb. 
Broun points up the basic difficulty of getting all thoughts 

into words. Try as he might O'Neill can't really get the "lowest 
part of the iceberg" in. 

1618. Brown, John Mason. "Intermission — Broadway in 
review." Th. Arts, 12 (Apr.) 237-240. 

O'Neill taking himself as mystic seer is not so good, crystal 
ball in one hand, volume of Freud in another. But play is con- 
stantly interesting despite repetitions and asides. 

1619. Garb, David. "The prize drama." Vogue, 72 (1 
July) 62. 

Play is above all else on the boards, but O'Neill's continued 
use of trick devices is bad. He is above such fiddle-faddle. 

1620. , "Strange Interlude." Vogue, 71 ( 1 Apr. ) 


O'Neill not a thinker or philosopher. His work on contrivance 
is both irritating and depressing. If he so continues it will be 
bad for him and calamity for American theatre. 

1621. Cohen, Julius. "The Strange Interlude." Jour. 
Comm., 1 Feb. 

O'Neill's greatest; also greatest ever written. 

1622. Dale, Alan. "Theatre and food cannot mix." NY 
American, 5 Feb. 

"The unification of drammer and dinner is no more possible 
than that of oil and water." A biting attack on the whole matter 
of demanding that the audience eat during the play. 


1623. De Casseres, Benjamin. "Broadway to date." Arts 
& Dec, 28 (Apr.) 65. 

Greatest play of the century; with LAZARUS it should make 
him a world figure. Nina is Eternal Woman in all respects. 

1624. "The editor goes to the play." Theatre, Apr. 

A masterpiece — it casts the hard and fast traditions on the 
scrapheap. O'Neill "shows the mechanism of the human soul 
under a microscope of verbal power and beauty." High praise 
for this "magnificent adventure into the guarded secret re- 
cesses of the mind." 

1625. Gabriel, Gilbert. "Freud's first play." NY Sun, 5 Feb. 
Successful with Freud for first time. Asides and soliloquies 

vital in probing of past lives, so much more important than what 
goes on at present. 

1626. Gilder, Rosamond. "Plays bound and unbound." 
r/i. Arfs, 12 (May) 362. 

"Surprising dramatic force." Asides bring us one step closer to 
the "springs of being." 

1627. Gould, Bruce. "Suggestion for cutting O'Neill's 
Strange Interlude." NY Post, 12 Mar. 

Reviewing the book, Gould finds the spoken thoughts do not 
intrude as much as on stage. But even in reading it is too long. 

1628. Hall, Leonard. "O'Neill's drama is stirring up the 
playgoers this week." NY Telegram, 3 Feb. 

Discussion of the way in which the play is afiFecting audi- 
ences, and the investigation into the matter of life which 
O'Neill attempts. 

1629. Hammond, Percy. "Strange Interlude." NY Her- 
Trib., 5 Feb. 

"O'Neill has broken the drama's shackles and escaped from its 
prison more successfully than other fugitives from its many walls." 

1630. Hope, Edward. "The lantern." NY Her-Trib., 28 Feb. 
Devotes full column to the futility of trying to put everything 


down in the subconscious. Joyce failed, and so does O'Neill. 
Characters often speak obvious things that don't need speaking, 
though the play rises above "minor ineptitudes of technique." 

1631. "In and out of town." Town and Country, 15 Feb. 
"Richly wrought, handsome piece of pornography." A slow 

start, but by the end it is "incredibly fascinating." This critic 
sees Joyce and Proust as O'Neill's literary antecedents who stimu- 
lated him but whom he did not imitate. 

1632. Jordan, Elizabeth. "Mr. O'Neill's dramatic 'stunt.' " 
America, 25 Feb. 

The play would be infinitely clearer without the revelation of 
thought. O'Neill looks at humanity with jaundiced, red-rimmed, 
astigmatic eyes and sees abnormal people in abnormal situations. 

1633. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "A modern heroic drama." 
NY Her-Trib., 11 Mar. 

Capable of doing on stage what novel could only do before; 
may start a new form. "Interesting, subtle, great, and also direct." 

1634. . "Strange Interlude." Nation, 126 ( 15 Feb. ) 


Does O'Neill say anything worth saying in such unusual 
technique? Krutch believes so, because he has made dramatic 
those elements of the novel heretofore forbidden to the stage. 

1635. Leland, Gordon M. "Strange Interlude." Billboard, 
40 (11 Feb.) 10. 

Pretty much of a triumph all around, perhaps greatest play 
written by an American. 

1636. Littell, Robert. "Two on the aisle." NY Post, 4 Feb. 
No doubt it is the greatest contribution to our stage. This 

"brief expedition into the depths" of the play finds any simplified 
account of it difficult to write. 

1637. Mantle, Burns. "A play that makes history." NY 
News, 5 Feb. 

It will be parodied and kidded as a freak for some time, but 


no doubt will become part of the Guild repertory. Cannot be 
compared with anything else ever written. Significant milestone 
in progress of drama. No matter what you think of it, it has 

1638. Moeller, Phillip. "Silences out loud." NY Times, 26 
Feb., VIII, 4:7. [Reprinted in Theatre Guild Quarterly, 5 
(Feb.) 9.] 

Interesting account of many attempts tried and discarded in 
the establishment of correct procedure for defivering the asides. 

1639. Nathan, George Jean. "The idea and comedy." Am. 
Merc.,U (May) 120. 

Asides have gotten rid of infantile stage directions of 19th 
century which suggest sotto-voice asides, etc. The full and articu- 
late speech is much to O'Neill's credit. 

1640. . "Judging the shows." Judge, 94 (18 

Feb.) 31. 

One of his most important contributions to the American 
drama, which could have been written in no other way. 

1641. . "O'Neill's finest play." Am. Merc, 11 

(Aug. 1927)499-506. 

A long synopsis of play before production with lament that 
O'Neill has not been properly produced before this time by the 
Guild. Finds play one of the most distinguished pieces of dra- 
matic writing our stage has known. 

1642. Osborn, E. W. "Strange Interlude." NY World, 
21 Jan. 

An amazing play. Cleverly conceived use of the soliloquy. 
Characters rounded out and full. 

1643. . "The theatres." NY World, 4 Feb. 

Comparison of the reading and acting versions. The play 
definitely becomes an acting play, because of the eflFect of the 
spoken asides. 

1644. Pollock, Arthur. "Eugene O'Neill and Strange Inter- 
lude." Brook. Eagle, 5 Feb. 


His finest drama, in which he is not so much a philosopher 
as a propagandist against life, which he finds is Hell. 

1645. R. S. "Obsessions." Wall St. Jour., 2 Feb. 

The story is of questionable material for theatre; more for 
a mental clinic. 

1646. "The rhyming reader." Bookman, 67 (Aug.) 692-693. 
Amusing eleven-verse rhymed account of play, finding no 

real human being in entire work. 

1647. Ruhl, Arthur. "Second nights." NY Her-Trib., 19 Feb. 
Deserves the attention it is getting as great news item, but 

there are many questions as to the value of technique and the 
fact everybody acts like "so many Freudian rats." 

1648. S. M. W. "O'Neill's Strange Interlude is his supreme 
efFort." NY Review, 31 Jan. 

Clinches O'Neill's right to be called "most individual dramatist 
in America if not world." His success in defiance of tradition and 
rules "one of the greatest triumphs of individualism in the history 
of the theatre." 

1649. Sayler, Oliver M. "The play of the week." Sat. R. 
Lif., 4 (11 Feb.) 590. 

A tour de force which may be over-praised too easily, or too 
easily dismissed. Encouraging to see the work of one who dares 
the unknown and forbidden. 

1650. Seldes, Gilbert. "The theatre." Dial, 84 (Apr.) 

The merits are almost entirely spoiled by "technical infelici- 
ties." O'Neill too good a dramatist to have to use the asides. 

1651. Seligman, Herbert J. "A diagnostic poet." NY Sun, 
10 Mar. 

This review of the printed version enters into considerable dis- 
cussion of O'Neill's interest in diagnosing his characters. Re- 
gardless of how he does it, O'Neill is plumbing phases of 
American life with true theatricality, seriousness and profundity. 


1652. Shipley, Joseph T. "Strange Interlude." ISlew Leader, 
11 Feb. 

Unique experience not to be missed; a profound study of 
well-rounded characters. O'Neill's experiments are not within 
but are without the realms of conventional drama. 

1653. Skinner, Richard Dana. "Strange Interlude." Com- 
monweal, 7 (22 Feb.) 1098-1099. [Reprinted in Hewitt, Barnard, 
Theatre USA, NY, McGraw-Hill, 1959, pp. 371-374 (No. 56).] 

Combination of novel and play makes a very interesting if 
not necessarily great drama. 

1654. Sloan, J. Vandervoort. "Strange Interlude." Drama, 
18 (May) 248. 

A masterpiece comparable in "elemental quality" to Dostoiev- 
sky. The greatest play written by an American. 

1655. "Strange Interlude." Brook. Eagle, 6 May. 

By style and length O'Neill has shown in impressive way facts 
of our lives and the absence of meaning in much of our desires. 

1656. "Strange Interlude." Christ. Cent., 37 (7 June) 737. 
Tremendous; has depth. Shows souls turned inside out. 

1657. "Strange Interlude." Independent, 120 (31 Mar.) 315. 
Brief book review. Asides legitimate, if unnecessarily long. 

1658. "A Strange Interlude." Psychology, Mar., p. 53. 
Mainly a review of the play's plot, but raising the question 

interesting to the psychologist concerning whether or not mo- 
nagamy is instinctive and what can be done when one cannot 
live that way. 

1659. "Strange Interlude." Sat. R. Lit., 4 (3 Mar. ) 641. 
Book review. First truly successful drama using "double voice." 

New power; play becomes more articulate because of it. 

1660. "Strange Interlude." Theatre, 47 (Apr.) 39-40. 
Great days of the drama have returned; O'Neill makes us 

have reverence for the theatre. 


1661. "Strange Interlude." Time, 11 (13 Feb.) 36-38. 
Reviews the play act by act and gives brief background of 

O'Neill's life and career. 

1662. "Strange Interlude." Variety, 1 Feb. 

The best thing O'Neill has ever done, throwing much cold 
water on his disparagers. 

1663. "Strangest interlude is one of indigestion." NY Post, 
31 Jan. 

Report on the difficulties of eating the evening meal between 
acts — and a comparison of the more efficient way the Germans 
do it when attending Wagner. 

1664. Strunsky, Simeon. "About books, more or less: Mis- 
cellaneous." NY Times, 20 May, IV, p. 4. 

Reviewing Pulitzer awards, finds interesting contrasts in length 
of the play and brevity of Wilder's Bridge of San Luis Rey. Play 
has something of the "trick" about it. 

1665. "Three dimensional play." Lit. D., 96 (25 Feb.) 26-27. 
Realistic drama has received a body blow. 

1666. Van Dycke, Thomas. "The make-up box." NY Tele- 
gram, 5 Feb. 

Looking back on his previous comments about the significance 
of the play and the writer, this critic still feels O'Neill has made 
"the most significant contribution to the drama of America." 

1667. Winchell, Walter. "Another Eugenic O'Neill baby." 
NY Eve. Graphic, 31 Jan. 

Gripped, awed, fascinated for six episodes, grew cumbersome 
last 3. Acutely interesting, powerfully spellbinding, tense and 
breathless tragedy. 

1668. Woollcott, Alexander. "Giving O'Neill till it hurts." 
Van. F., 29 (Feb.) 48. 

Subtitle: "Unofficial program notes for the most punishing of 
his plays." The Guild not having given any O'Neill up to now, 
insists on giving until it hurts. 


1669. . "Mr. Hecht goes to Strange Interlude." 

NY World, 14 May. 

Extensive quotes from an unidentified Hecht writing about 
his amazement at this "cultural shell game" with which Woollcott 

1670. . "Second thoughts on first nights — Strange 

Interlude." NY World, 5 Feb. 

Admiration for the impulse to write this, but finds no living 
characters after the five hours of "resonant emptiness." 

1671. Wyatt, Euphemia Van R. "Plays of some impor- 
tance." Cath. Wld., 127 (Apr.) 77-80. 

Despite some unpleasantness, the work of a master dramatist, 
written with sincere thought; an absorbing play. 

1672. Young, Stark. "The new O'Neill play." New Rep., 
53 ( 15 Feb. ) 349-350. 

Whatever its shortcomings, an overwhelming milestone in 
American theatre. 


1673. Alexander, Doris M. "Strange Interlude and Scho- 
penhauer." Am. Lit., 25 (May 1953) 213-228. 

Extremely convincing development of thesis that Schopenhauer 
was followed almost completely and that Freudian psychology 
is not the basis. If accepted, this does explain much of seemingly 
pointless ending which so many critics disliked. 

1674. Battenhouse, Roy. "Strange Interlude restudied." 
Religion in Life, 15 (Spring 1946) 202-213. 

Thorough and fresh analysis in terms of failure of individual 
to find peace by natural conscience or scientific reason when 
God has been rejected. Critic feels play bears restudying today. 
Has an interesting set of speculations on possible symbolic mean- 
ing of title itself, plus statement that much in the play satirizes 
the American of its day. 


1675. Garland, Robert. "O'Neill play's success has critics 
gasping." NY Telegram, 15 June 1929. 

After sitting through it again, Garland observes that the "only 
thing wrong with O'Neill characters is they're crazy." Play is 
childish, obvious, unnecessarily disagreeable. 

1676. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "The new American drama." 
Nation, 130 ( 11 June 1930) 678-679. 

Instead of thesis plays which must be explained and contain 
a "point" the modern American writer as here aims at contem- 
porary American life, making comedy and tragedy acceptable 
to contemporary audiences. 

1677. Littell, Robert "Two on the aisle." NY Post, 30 
Jan. 1929. 

Criticizes O'Neill for his continual identifying characters with 
himself instead of standing aside. A contrast of this play with 
other earlier O'Neill shows how far he has come. 

1678. McGuire, Harry. "Beyond Strange Interlude." 
Drama, 19 (Mar. 1929) 172. 

Attempt by this admirer to show O'Neill's faith in life and 
living despite apparent almost nihilistic disillusion of the play. 

1679. Malone, Kemp. "The diction of Strange Interlude." 
Am. Speech, 6 (Oct. 1930) 19-28. 

An attempt to discover if O'Neill realism in language is con- 
sistent, reaching obvious conclusion he is as realistic as he wished 
to be. 

1680. Philipps, AHce E. "Strange Interlude and the blah 
brotherhood." Drama, 19 (Mar. 1929) 174. 

Based on reading only, takes sharp issue with creation of 
Nina as a woman, and with critics in general for praise of what 
to this critic is only an expression of sex. 

1681. Shipp, Horace. "The x-rays up to nature." Eng. Rev., 
52 (Mar. 1931)378-380. 

"An amazing, a lovely and provocative play which must be 
seen by everbody who loves the theatre." 


1682. Wynne, Stella. "The Strange Interlude." Overland, 
87 (July 1929) 220. 

Nina becomes the very ancient and primitive woman desiring 
to propagate the race. 


Reviews of the pubhshed version appear from No. 1683 to 
No. 1688. Reviews of the produced play begin with No. 1689. 


1683. Firkins, O. W. "Plays for the reader." Weekly Rev., 
4 (25June 1921) 406-407. 

O'Neill is not yet the master of the long play. A sense of 
theatre and honesty should be helpful in the future. 

1684. Reniers, Percival F. "O'Neill's plays." Lit. Rev. of 
NY Post, 16 July 1921, p. 3. 

Interesting, sincere, realistic; scenes of unquestioned dra- 
matic skill. 

1685. "The Straw." Dial, 70 (June 1921) 715. 
Reviewed with JONES. STRAW is a less important work. 

1686. "The Straw." Th. Arts, 5 (Oct. 1921) 334-335. 
Strongly and truly written, with good character, but everybody 

is tied up too much with tuberculosis. 

1687. V.S.G.L. "The Straw." New Rep., 26 (25 May 1921) 

No half lights, no gray shades, nothing fragile and delicate. 
Constructed of 2x4's spiked together with O'Neill's reiterated 


1688. Woollcott, Alexander. "Second thoughts on first 
nights." NY Times, 8 May 1921, VI, 1:2. 

Typical O'Neill, recognizable any place. Pure tragedy; a study 
of human misery, salted with irony. 

Opening night reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 11 Nov. 1921 

1689. Allen, Kelcey. "Eugene O'Neill puts real vigor into 
The Straw." W. W. Daily. 

Optimism makes it less bitter than HORIZON or CHRISTIE; 
well written dialogue and skillful characterization. 

1690. Broun, Heywood. "It seems to me." NY World. 

Last act "one of the most thrilling things our native theatre 
has ever known." 

1691. Dale, Alan. "Tuberculosis dramatized in the latest 
play by Eugene O'Neill." NY American. 

Parody of a play; O'Neill wasting his time on a subject nobody 
cares about seeing dramatized. 

1692. Darnton, Charles. "The Straw human and moving." 
NY World. 

Does not make this forbidding and gloomy; gives it saving 
quality of youth and hope. A memorable play. 

1693. De Foe, Louis D. "O'Neill's triple extract of gloom." 
NY World. 

Unbearable and strangely beautiful, superior quality but ex- 
ceedingly lugubrious and depressing. 

1694. "Eugene O'Neill's The Straw is gruesome clinical 
tale." NY Sun. 

The sight of a tuberculosis sanitarium in full operation is not 
a good tonic. The play is a good example of "morbid Teutonic 
drama." The end hardly justifies the tubercular means. 

1695. "Eugene O'Neill's The Straw profoundly impressive 
play." NY Herald. 


Much could be made shorter, and though moving, it is a 
painful play. 

1696. Hammond, Percy. "The Straw." NY Tribune. 
O'Neill does not make use of any of the TB props for pity, 

yet manages to bring much new emotion to the viewer. 

1697. Macgowan, Kenneth. "The Straw." NY Globe. 

"A drama of character, uneven in emotion until last scene, 
when it surges into undeniable tragic power." 

1698. Mantle, Burns. "The Straw a hopeful play." NY Mail. 
More conventional than most O'Neill plays; surprisingly sym- 

1699. Marsh, Leo A. "Another O'Neill play presented." 
NY Telegraph. 

Striking study on subject of the strength of hope. 

1700. "O'Neill scores new triumph in The Straw." NY 

Written with great force; the interest of real life is in it. 

1701. "The Straw." Brook. Eagle. 

Not up to ANNA CHRISTIE, but still a play that should 

1702. "The Straw by Mr. O'Neill." NY Telegram. 

Every play assures O'Neill of a strong position, and this play 
proves him to be the most vital American dramatist. 

1703. Towse, J. Ranken. "The Straw." NY Post. 

Not the play admirers of O'Neill might have expected, but 
it is good realism and absorbingly interesting. 

1704. Woollcott, Alexander. "Another O'Neill play." NY 
Times, 16:2. 

Interesting and moving, with last scene having tragic irony 
and pathos seldom seen in the theatre. 


Other reviews and criticism 

1705. Andrews, Kenneth. "Broadway, our literary sign- 
post." Bookman, 54 (Jan. 1922) 463-464. 

A new step in the as yet immature but developing O'Neill. He 
is able to weep with characters and feel their passions. 

1706. Benchley, Robert. "The great plague." Life, 78 (8 
Dec. 1921) 18. 

Margalo Gilmore should recover because she is such a nice girl. 

1707. Boyd, Ernest. "Mr. O'Neill's new play." Freeman, 
7 Dec. 1921. 

Depressing, unpleasant and vulgar. 

1708. Broun, Heywood. "It seems to me." NY World, 12 
Nov. 1921. 

O'Neill's awareness that the greatness in tragedy lies in the 
struggle rather than defeat calls for praise. 

1709. . "More moral victories." Van. F., Jan. 1922. 

Impossible to place O'Neill in any one category; in this play 
he sides with characters against fate. 

1710. Crawford, Jack. "Broadway sheds tears." Drama, 12 
(Feb. 1922) 152. 

One of the first of the year's plays worthy of significance. 

1711. De Foe, Louis V. "Our foremost apostle of woe." 
NY World, 20 Nov. 1921. 

With continual emphasis on woe and depression, O'Neill's 
eflFectiveness and contribution may be limited. 

1712. Hammond, Percy. "The theatres." NY Tribune, 20 
Nov. 1931. 

The play deals far more in troubles of the heart than the lungs. 

1713. Hornblow, Arthur. "Mr. Hornblow goes to the play." 
Theatre, 35 (Jan. 1922) 31. 

OTHER REVIEWS-1 921 -1922 THE STRAW 443 

The production is a disappointment. 

1714. Kaufman, S. Jay. "The Straw." Dram. Mirror, 84 
(19 Nov. 1921)737. 

O'Neill's power does not ring as strong and ferocious as it 
could, but it is true, with a tremendous final scene. 

1715. Macgowan, Kenneth. "The Straw." Vogue, Jan. 1922. 
Not as well written or well knit as CHRISTIE, but tremen- 
dously moving at the end. 

1716. . "Year's end." Th. Arts, 6 (Jan. 1922) 6. 

A disappointment through production and no fault of the 

1717. Parker, Robert A. "An American dramatist develop- 
ing." Independent, 107 (3 Dec. 1921) 236. 

Lacks the interest and conviction of ANNA CHRISTIE. 

1718. Reamer, Lawrence. "The Straw shows the efiFect 
of the sanitorium drama." NY Herald, 20 Nov. 1921. 

O'Neill's promise may lead to great popularity uptown as 
well as down. 

1719. "The Straw." Town Topics, 17 Nov. 1921. 

From the standpoint of logic, integrity and soundness, it is 
O'Neill's best; ranks as a great American tragedy. 

1720. "The Straw and its message." NY Sun, 18 Nov. 1921. 
Dr. Lyman Fisk, eminent medical authority, sees a message 

of hope which is always important in medicine. 

1721. "The Straw is play of hopefulness, pain, and death." 
NY Clipper, 16 Nov. 1921. 

Merely plot review; little critical comment. 

1722. "The Straw is repellant study in tuberculosis." NY 
Review, 12 Nov. 1921. 

Seems mostly wasted eflFort; ugly subject is not embellished 
with art. 

444 THE STRAW OTHER REVIEWS-1 921 -1922 

1723. "The Straw . . . remarkably well acted." NY Call, 
23 Nov. 1921. 

Despite the subject matter, play stands on its characteriza- 
tions, which are extraordinary. 

1724. Pollock, Arthur. "About the theatre." Brook. Eagle, 
13 Nov. 1921. 

No need to fear seeing it for its unpleasant subject, although it 
does not come oflF as well as could be hoped. 

1725. Whittaker, James. "O'Neill's Straw compact history 
of girl's heart." NY News, 27 Nov. 1921. 

Sanitorium used only to telescope an entire life and to indicate 
afflictions of a girl's heart. 


This play first appeared in O'Neill's initial venture into print 
called Thirst and Other One Act Plays, published in 1914 at 
the insistence of Clayton Hamilton. The entire expense was 
borne by James O'Neill. The Provincetown Players gave one 
performance of the play in 1916 at the Wharf Theatre during 
one of their summer series, but there is no record of any other 
production. The only printed review of the play was written by 
Hamilton soon after the book appeared. 

1726. Hamilton, Clayton. "A shelf of printed plays." Book- 
man, 41 (April 1915) 182. 

Under "Playwright of Promise" Hamilton states that the young 
writer has a knowledge of the sea, and that the plays have 
violent emotion. 



A select number of entries discussing the Stockholm produc- 
tion and the version published by the Yale University Press 
appear from No. 1727 to No. 1733. Opening night reviews begin 
with No. 1734. 

Stockholm and Published Version 

1727. Atkinson, Brooks. "O'Neill's Poet." NY Times, 22 
Sept. II, 1:1. 

The book seems a temperate play after JOURNEY; it does 
not probe the "black corners of O'Neill's life." Although Melody 
somewhat overburdens the plot, it is vigorous and original and 
the characters come alive. 

1728. Belair, Fehx, Jr. "World premiere for O'Neill." NY 
Times, 7 Apr., II, 3:1. 

A review of O'Neill's Stockholm reception and of the play's 
subject matter, "What is truth?" It is portraying O'Neill's con- 
viction that those who are loneliest are the proudest, and in this 
play he has found entirely new characters to express what has 
been called his one obsession. 

1729. Fleisher, Frederic. "A long day's journey into 
O'Neill." New Rep., 136 (3 June) 21. 

This review of the Stockholm production finds the play remi- 
niscent of The Wild Duck in its destroying of the life-lies so 
typical of O'Neill. 

1730. Hewes, Henry. "Self delusion in Stockholm." Sat. 
Ret;., 40 (13 Apr.) 24. 

A distinguished and vital example of demon-driven drama- 
turgy. Even with its shortcomings it shows O'Neill's growth into 
this final great period. 


1731. "The Iceman crumbleth." Time, 70 (30 Sept. ) 102. 

A distressingly flaccid play, but it still makes most Broadway 
productions seem stillborn, even it its published version. 

1732. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "Eugene O'Neill's claim to 
greatness." NY Times, 22 Sept., VII, p. 1. 

Another ICEMAN theme, a nihilistic Wild Duck, and it will 
not add to O'Neill's stature as did JOURNEY. Despite strong 
adverse criticism against him, O'Neill still draws audiences, and 
seldom is a writer given the second chance he now is. This re- 
view of O'Neill's present position offers a convincing case for 
his permanence in our theatre because, for all his lack of a 
facile style and his other major and obvious faults, he does com- 
municate to the audiences which have always supported his 
plays in the past and which are apparently doing so once again. 

1733. Seldes, Gilbert. "Small touch of genius." Sat. Rev., 
40 (21 Sept.) 21. 

This reworking of old themes might just as well be left un- 
produced. JOURNEY had well developed characters, but this 
is only about a drunkard. O'Neill seems to have lacked conviction 
in this play. 

Opening night reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 3 Oct. 1958 

1734. Aston, Frank. "Touch of Poet at Helen Hayes." NY 
War-Tel. ir Sun. 

Without much comment on the play, aside from its being a 
"garrulous, sardonic, clinical examination of a British major," 
this review praises the acting and production, particularly the 
performance of Helen Hayes. 

1735. Atkinson, Brooks. "Theatre: Eugene O'Neill's A 
Touch of the Poet." NY Times, 23:2. 

A recognizable O'Neill play in its characters and its illusions 
and pipe dreams though it is not typical in the lack of death 
at the end. Characteristically overwritten, full of O'Neill's big- 
ness, bitterness, and hatred. 


1736. Chapman, John. "Portman, Hayes and Stanley mag- 
nificent in Touch of the Poet." NY News. 

O'Neill seems very much alive today; not a great O'Neill play, 
but makes much of contemporary theatre look pallid. "Once 
more Eugene O'Neill gives stature to the theatre." 

1737. Colby, Ethel. "Entertainment on Broadway." Jour. 

A lesser O'Neill, though nothing he ever wrote can be called a 
waste of time. Some brilliant dialogue and eflFective scene, but 
the over-all picture lacks marked eflFect. 

1738. Coleman, Robert. "Touch of Poet magnificent." NY 

One of O'Neill's best. There are touches of O'Casey and Shaw, 
but it is genuine O'Neill, including as it does love, compassion 
and humor — a heart that is missing in many of his plays. It 
can be seen again and again. 

1739. McClain, John. "O'Neill again proves he's incom- 
parable." NY Jour-Am. 

Even a lesser O'Neill play proves he is "majestically alone" in 
American theatre. Intensely created, full-dimensioned characters, 
though lack of sympathy weakens them. "Once more Mr. O'Neill 
makes everybody else look silly." 

1740. Watts, Richard, Jr. "Eugene O'Neill's Touch of the 
Poet." NY Post. 

The season takes on dignity and importance. Not quite what 
his others have been, but there is enormous power, compassion, 
and emotional impact. It is more than the revelation of character; 
it is a drama of America's formative years. A powerful, stirring, 
beautiful play. 

1741. Whittaker, Herbert. "A Touch of the Poet." NY 

It may not rank with O'Neill's greatest, but it is worthy of 
them. The power of JOURNEY is evident here, and the collapse 
of Melody is set forth with force and brutality, hewn out of 
four compact acts. 


Other reviews and criticism 
1958 (two entries dated 1959) 

1742. Atkinson, Brooks. "A Touch of the Poet." NY Times, 
12 0ct., II, 1:1. 

One of O'Neill's best, which takes skilled acting to bring out 
the vigorous internal life of the play. On its many levels of 
pessimism, savage quarrels and "boisterous theatricality" it is 
all O'Neill. 

1743. Brustein, Robert. "Theatre chronicle." Hudson Rev., 
12 (Spring 1959) 96-98. 

Actually a story of a hero divested of heroism and it has 
tragic possibilities. It shows O'Neill was improving as a dramatic 
draftsman with an authentic tragic theme. 

1744. Cooke, Richard P. "Love and pride." Wall St. Jour., 
6 Oct. 

Not upper-echelon O'Neill, but has unmistakable mark of 
craftsmanship and bears his trademarks of a "great flow of often 
wonderful words, . . . flashes of dark light." 

1745. Dennis, Patrick. "Rake's progress." New Rep., 139 
(20 Oct.) 23. 

Power and greatness abundantly evident. "A big evening of 
real O'Neill fireworks." 

1746. Driver, Tom F. "Imagination in crisis." Christ. Cent., 
75 (26 Feb.) 252-254. 

Perhaps our greatest crisis today is that of the imagination — 
the way man thinks of himself in relation to the world and his 
dreams. The published version suggests it is an age of meaning- 
lessness because of man's lack of confidence in his ideas. In this 
play O'Neill is not negative, but merely skeptical. 

1747. . "Kiss of death." Christ. Cent., 75 (3 Dec.) 


The play greets the theatre like a kiss of death. If the theme 
is "the making of America" it does not fit the script as produced, 
for the production never focuses but is almost a parody of itself. 


1748. Gelb, Arthur. "O'Neill's hopeless hope for a giant 
cycle." NY Times, 28 Sept., II, 1:3. 

Upon the opening of POET, this informative article traces 
much of O'Neill's plans for the multi-play cycle, of which this 
play is the only surviving member. 

1749. Hayes, Richard. "The music of old manners." Com- 
monweal, 69 (7 Nov.) 151-153. 

The defect is loss of grandeur, though one must admire the 
way O'Neill orchestrates and distributes his substance. It is not 
his best play. 

1750. Hewes, Henry. "The playboy goes west." Sat. R., 
41 ( 18 Oct. ) 56. 

It glows "like a beautiful bridge" between the old fashioned 
theatrical conventions and the new love-filled O'Neill we are 
now discovering. The last act has some unforgettable moments. 

1751. Hobe. "A touch of the poet." Variety, 8 Oct. 
Second rate O'Neill but it should appeal to the box office. 

Diffuse, repetitious, somewhat old-fashioned in technique, but 
nobody can match its sheer theatricalism. Stunning emotional 
impact; a tremendous play. 

1752. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "The O'Neill's on stage once 
more." Th. Arts, 42 (Oct.) 16-17. 

It is more than a melodrama with a happy ending, because 
O'Neill had in mind more than just this play. Krutch assumes 
the entire POSSESSORS cycle was O'Neill's picture of his own 
family. It is better constructed than many of his plays. 

1753. Lardner, John. "Irish pride and Mexican love." New 
Yorker, 34 (11 Oct.) 87. 

Strident, sluggish, overmagnified people and an overly massive 
point of view. Compensations are found in intensity of purpose 
and honesty in writing. 

1754. Lewis, Theophilus. "A Touch of the Poet." America, 

100 (25 Oct.) 118. 


A brief review offering "bravos" for those concerned with 
the production. 

1755. McCarthy, Mary. "Odd man in." Partisan Rev., 26 
(Winter 1959) 100-106. 

As in the case of many present-day plays this lacks both hero 
and villain, seen in JOURNEY, Epitaph for George Dillon or 
Look Back in Anger. Main characters alternate between brutality 
and seeking forgiveness, always needing a woman who "under- 

1756. Mannes, Marya. "A matter of motive." Reporter, 19 
( 13 Nov. ) 37-38. 

These are real people in real situations, held together in better 
structure than in ICEMAN or JOURNEY. O'Neill's purity of 
intent raises him above everybody else. 

1757. "New play in Manhattan." Time, 72 (13 Oct.) 89. 
The play has "centripetal force and centrifugal wastefulness, 

giant strength and giant sprawl." The characters are superior 
to the action, but it never gets the power of cumulative drama. 

1758. "Once again the giant." Newsweek, 52 ( 13 Oct. ) 112. 
Middling-best O'Neill, but characteristic. It still charges the 

stage with electricity. "Another belated gift from the greatest." 

1759. "A Touch of the Poet." Th. Arts, 42 ( Dec. ) 9-10. 
Though a "mellow" O'Neill, it is still strong medicine and 

has considerable substance. It is not as forceful and convincing 

1760. "A Touch of the Poet." Vogue, 132 (15 Nov.) 105. 
"Acerbates the nerves" with repetition in the early part, then 

"excites them" in the last half. 

1761. Vidal, Gore. "Theatre." Nation, 187 (25 Oct.) 

The appeal is strong because of the element of Cornelius 
Melody in all of us. It is "human and gently wise," a contrast 
to the usual O'Neill. 


1762. Watts, Richard, Jr. "Another triumph for Eugene 
O'Neill." NY Post, 12 Oct. 

O'Neill can only be compared to his own work, and this is 
not quite JOURNEY or ICEMAN. It is not a minor work, either. 
Enormous force and impact. The American theatre is at its 
best again. 

1763. Wyatt, Euphemia Van R. "A Touch of the Poet." 
Cath. Wld., 188 (Dec.) 243-244. 

The play leaves us wondering what came before and what 
followed in the cycle. Much is needed to understand this vigor- 
ous play. 


This play appeared in the small volume Thirst and Other 
One Act Plays, published in 1914 at the expense of James O'Neill. 
So far as is known, it has never received any important produc- 
tion, but one article appeared in 1936 and is listed below. 

1764. Shklofsky, Bryna. "Eugene O'Neill and deafness." 
Volta Review, 38 (January 1936) 48. 

This publication devoted to the teaching of the deaf relates 
the plot of this story of a ship's wireless operator who gradually 
loses his hearing. To this reviewer the play should be con- 
sidered a tragedy. 



Opening run reviews — Baltimore Tryout 
Newspapers of March 1924 

1765. Clark, Norman. "New play by O'Neill at Audi- 
torium." Baltimore News, 5 Mar. 

Not in conventional dramatic form and the uncovering of 
human souls through conversation is not appealing. 

1766. "Eugene O'Neill's latest drama here." Baltimore Sun, 
4 Mar. 

Motionless and wordy, though competent and dignified as is 
usual with O'Neill, but it probably will not succeed. 

1767. Garland, Robert. "Welded fails to add to Eugene 
O'Neill's fame as author." Baltimore American, 9 Mar. 

High strung and overly introspective, exasperating; strains 
our emotions and sense of humor. 

1768. . "Welded is drama of married bondage." 

Baltimore American, 4 Mar. 

"Provocative, earnest, not entirely convincing." 

1769. "O'Neill play falls short of ideal upon its premiere." 
Baltimore Post, 4 Mar. 

It is a disappointment. 

1770. "Welded seen as probe of human soul." Baltimore 
Sun, 9 Mar. 

An extensive article with dialogue excerpts showing how the 
play fails mainly because of our own failure to become interested 
in the characters. 


Opening night reviews — New York 
Newspapers of 18 March 1924 

1771. Allen, Kelcey. "Latest O'Neill play Welded is study 
of marriage." W. W. Daily. 

Reviews plot only. 

1772. Corbin, John. "Romantic marriage." NY Times, 24:1. 
Work of an original and distinguished playwright but the play 

is not up to the writer's ability. 

1773. Gabriel, Gilbert. "Linked bitterness long drawn out 
in O'Neill's newest play." NY Sun. 

True and wise and wearisome. 

1774. Hammond, Percy. "Welded a lugubrious conver- 
sazione about life among the artists." NY Tribune. 

Dull, uneventful, garrulous, about people in whom we have 
no interest. 

1775. Mantle, Burns. "Welded intense but monotonous." 
NY News. 

Uninspiring, repetitious, "written in a single doleful key." 

1776. Osborn, E. W. "Welded." NY Eve. World. 
Powerful first act, with anticlimactic ending. 

1777. Sinnott, James P. "Welded a drama of married 
life." NY Telegraph. 

Not much of a play, little but conversation; O'Neill falls from 
the heights of realism. 

1778. Torres, H. Z. "Welded displays morbid tendency." 
NY Commercial. 

O'Neill capable of better things; repetitious and dull, based on 
a pathological premise. 

1779. Towse, J. Ranken. "O'Neill's Welded is disappoint- 
ing." NY Post. 


O'Neill befogs whatever he is trying to say and must learn 
the diflFerence between power and sensationalism. 

1780. "Welded." NY World. 

For 2 acts as bold and true and well written a play as any- 
thing on the stage now. 

1781. Welsh, Robert G. "Two chatty egotists." NY Tele- 
gram ir Mail. 

Characters created with skill and clear dialogue. A masterpiece 
with so few characters. 

1782. Whittaker, James. "Eugene O'Neill's play shown at 
39th Street." NY American. 

Bilious cupid with poison arrows, a bull in this china shop 
of high society the same as in the grog shops of O'Neill's other 

1783. Woollcott, Alexander. "O'Neill's new play." NY 

Perhaps O'Neill's integrity instead of incompetence is what 
makes this so prodigiously dull. 

Other reviews and criticisin 

1784. Benchley, Robert. "Three hot ones." Life, 83 (3 
Apr.) 26. 

Moves as if directed for slow-motion movie; very dull. 

1785. Bjorkman, Edwin. "Plays and playmakers." Outlook, 
137 (11 June) 238. 

Brief review together with CHILLUN. 

1786. Carb, David. "To see or not to see." Bookman, 59 
(May) 332. 

Poor acting and script which is not up to O'Neill standard; 
distressingly overwritten. 


1787. Corbin, John. "Among the new plays." NY Times, 
23 Mar., VIII, 1:1. 

Characters are human but lack contact with normal experi- 
ences; play is uninspiring and dull. 

1788. Gruening, Ernest. "The wings of the children." Th. 
Arts, 8 (July) 497-498. 

Harrowing, garish bathos and morbid melodrama; a wild and 
maudlin night. 

1789. Hammond, Percy. "Oddiments and remainders." NY 
Tribune, 23 Mar. 

Interesting only to those of similar temperament. Romance has 
never been shown in so miserable a fashion. 

1790. Hornblow, Arthur. "Mr. Hornblow goes to the play." 
Theatre, 39 (May) 16. 

O'Neill is not using his great dramatic gift; talky, morbid, 

1791. Krutch, Joseph Wood. "Patterns." Nation, 118 (25 
June) 743-744. 

Reviews mainly ALL GOD'S CHILLUN. 

1792. Lewisohn, Ludwig. "Pseudo-marriage." Nation, 118 
(2 Apr.) 376-377. 

A "new departure" as O'Neill once more starts his career over 
again. The play is not thought out; becomes murky. 

1793. Macgowan, Kenneth. "Crying the hounds of Broad- 
way." Th. Arts, 8 (June) 357. 

Brief review of season's offerings. 

1794. . "Eugene O'Neill as realist." NY Times, 

23 Mar., VIII, 2:6. 

Being romantic instead of a realist, O'Neill wished to get 
straight to the emotions and passions which realistic technique 
could not have done, which is the reason for the style of dialogue 
in this play. 


1795. . "Seen on the stage." Vogue, 63 ( 15 May ) 


Actually a piece of expressionistic writing instead of realism. 
More for experiments of Provincetown than Broadway. 

1796. Metcalfe, J. S. "The need of segregation." Wall St. 
Jour., 19 Mar. 

A sharp attack against O'Neill and those of Greenwich Village 
who would sell wares like this as dramatic art or literature. Like 
the brothels of Tokyo, they should be segregated and perform 
without publicity. Plays of this type incite obscene thoughts and 
provoke ribald comment. There will be time enough to present 
O'Neill when he has written a decent piece. 

1797. Nathan, George Jean. "Welded." Am. Merc, 2 
(May) 115-116. 

Attempting a Strindberg, O'Neill has missed it completely. 
Full of "three-alarm dramaturgy" without point. 

1798. Osborn, E. W. "The theatres." NY Eve. World, 22 

Further discussion of the play as a dramatic study of two 

1799. Pollock, Arthur. "About the theatre." Brook. Eagle, 
23 Mar. 

O'Neill still writes like a young man, refusing to be placed 
in a rut. The impression of this play is blurred. 

1800. "Welded." Variety, 26 Mar. 

Mostly a review of story, along with the assertion it will not 
run long. 

1801. "Welded — luminous psychology of neurots." Dra- 
matist, 15 (Apr.) 1208-1210. 

Only play-going neurots of New York would go to this. 

1802. WooUcott, Alexander. "O'Neill's new play Welded 
a melancholy stage study of quarrel of man and wife." NY Sun, 
22 Mar. 



These two reviews of the original Provincetown production 
are the only ones found in the New York Public Library. 

1803. Broun, Heywood. "Provincetown players give fine 
thrill in sea play." NY Tribune, 23 Nov. 1918. 

One of the Isest things O'Neill has done. Sweep of story has 
exceptional skill. 

1804. "Only the captain's daughter stays sane." NY Tele- 
graph, 23 Nov., 1918. 

A good play to watch to enjoy sensation of going mad. 


O'Neill was a popular subject for graduate research during 
his lifetime, but by the end of 1959 the revival of interest in 
his works had not further prompted any extensive scholarly re- 
search. While masters' essays have formed the greater bulk of 
graduate investigation, it is nearly impossible to determine their 
total among the tremendous outpouring from the large number 
of institutions ojffering the degree. The subject matter and the 
extent of its treatment in most masters' theses is compartively 
superficial as well. On the other hand, doctoral dissertations 
have been more lasting contributions. Several, such as those 
by Doris Alexander, Doris Falk, and Edwin Engel, have formed 
the basis for further important publication. (See Nos. 38, 39, 
151, 152, ) The extent of doctoral research is also a simple matter 
to determine through the regularly pubHshed Dissertation Index. 

Consequently, only PhD research has been listed below. 
None except Genevra Herndon's has been consulted. All are 
therefore listed without comment in alphabetical order. 

Alexander, Doris M. "Freud and O'Neill: An analysis of 
Strange Interlude. New York University, 1952. 

Bucks, Dorothy S. "The American drama of ideas, 1890- 
1929." Northwestern, 1944. 

Burns, Sister M. Vincentia. "The Wagnerian theory of art 
and its influence on the drama of Eugene O'Neill." Univ. of 
Pennsylvania, 1943. 

Dawson, Mary E. "The idea of tragedy in the contem- 
porary American theater." Univ. of Iowa, 1945. 

Engel, Edwin A. "Eugene O'Neill as a writer of tragedy." 
Univ. of Michigan, 1948. 


Falk, Doris V. "Eugene O'Neill and the tragic tension." 
Cornell, 1952 

Foster, Jacob Flavel. "The development of social criticism 
in the Broadway theatre during the inter-war period, 1919-1939." 
New York University, 1943. 

Callaway, Marian Hesse. "A composite study of the de- 
velopment of skills in plot construction by a group of living 
American dramatists." Univ. of Iowa, 1941. 

Gould, Arthur S. "The idea of tragedy in modern American 
drama." Univ. of Michigan, 1948. 

Hahn, Vera T. "The plays of Eugene O'Neill: A psycho- 
logical analysis." Univ. of Louisiana, 1939. 

Halline, Allan Cates. "Main currents of thought in Ameri- 
can drama." Univ. of Wisconsin, 1936. 

Herndon, Cenevra. "American criticism of Eugene O'Neill, 
1917-1948." Northwestern, 1948. 

Kaucher, Dorothy J. "Modern dramatic structure." Univ. 
of Missouri, 1928. 

Miller, Jordan Y. "A critical bibliography of Eugene 
O'Neill." Columbia, 1957. 

Poag, Thomas Edward. "The Negro in drama and the 
theater." Cornell, 1943. 

Redfern, Richard K. "A study of art structure in the 
American drama." Cornell, 1950. 

Willoughby, Pearl Vivian. "Modern dramaturgy, British 
and American." Univ. of Virginia, 1928. 


American Bibliography. Published as an annual supple- 
ment to PMLA. 

An invaluable reference list, mainly of scholarly material, 
including new books and all important contributions in periodi- 
cals and journals. 

Baker, Blanche M. Dramatic Biblography: An annotated 
list of books on the history and criticism of the drama and stage 
and on the allied arts of the theatre. NY, H. W. Wilson Co., 1933. 
One of the basic reference books for any theatre library. 
General and specific subject matter; many cross references, 
well annotated. 

. Theatre and Allied Arts. NY, H. W. Wilson 

Co., 1952. 

A smaller reference book based on the Dramatic Bibliography, 
and brought up to date. 

Bibliographic Index. Edited by Dorothy Charles and Bea 
Joseph. NY, H. W. Wilson Co., 1945-1953. 

The standard index to all bibliographies published in English. 

The Book Review Digest. NY, H. W. Wilson Co. Pub- 
lished monthly. 

Gives brief summaries of major books, together with short 
digests of leading reviews. At times it tends to favor some rather 
obscure publications, but still an excellent source of reference. 

The Bulletin of Bibliography, Boston, F. W. Faxon. Pub- 
lished quarterly. 

The journal devoted to pursuits of scholars in the field of bib- 
liography. A primary source of current bibliographical informa- 
tion. Also lists magazines as they appear or cease publication. A 
separate section, "The Dramatic Index," appeared until the first 
quarter of 1953. It listed many articles about the drama in peri- 
odicals, but it was in many ways far from complete. ( See below, 
The Dramatic Index. ) 


Catalogue of Copyright Entries: Books and Dramatic 
Works. Washington, Government Printing OflBce. Published an- 

A priceless help in determining names, dates and places. Much 
of the material on O'Neill's unpublished plays secured here. 

The Cumulative Book Index. NY, H. W. Wilson Co. Pub- 
lished annually. 

Regular listing of all the books in English in print. 

Dramatic Compositions Copyrighted in the U.S., 1870- 
1916. Washington, Government Printing OflBce. 

Two volumes separate from Catalogue of Copyright Entries. 
The same information is now contained in the regular catalogue. 

The Dramatic Index. Boston, F. W. Faxon. Published an- 

Faxon's separate volume devoted to dramatic works and 
articles about them, based on the items in the Bulletin of Bibliog- 
raphy. The most complete single listing of its type, although 
not as comprehensive as it would at first seem. Unfortunately 
discontinued as a book after 1949. 

The Education Index. NY, H. W. Wilson Co. 
The companion index to Reader's Guide, International Index, 

Essay and General Literature Index. NY, H. W. Wilson Co. 
Index of essays and other material of general literary interest 
to be found in anthologies and other published collections. 

Firkins, Ina Ten Eyck. Index to Plays, 1800-1926. NY, 
H. W. Wilson Co., 1927. Supplement 1936. 

A valuable source of basic information on full length plays. 

Herndon, Genevra. American Criticism of Eugene O'Neill, 
1917-1948. Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern Univ., 1948. Un- 

The text is a general review of major criticism, but the bibliog- 


raphy is very complete and was of considerable assistance in 
cross checking and amplifying this one. 

Index to American Doctoral Dissertations. Ann Arbor, 
Michigan, University Microfilms, Published annually. 

A cumulative index by subject matter (not individual topic) 
and author based on monthly publication. Dissertation Abstracts. 

An Index to One-act Plays. Compiled by Hannah Logasa 
and Winifred Ver Noey. Boston, F. W. Faxon. 1924, 1932, 
1941, 1949. 

The original volume and its supplements are a fine complement 
to the Firkins editions. Very complete in its field. 

The International Index to Periodicals. NY, H. W. Wilson 

Companion to Readers Guide, etc. Indexes foreign and scholar- 
ly periodicals not included in the more popular indexes. 

Johnson, Merle De Vose, ed. Merle Johnsons American 
First Editions, Cambridge, Mass., Research Classics. 

Published first in 1929, and in various editions up to 1947. 
Fourth edition, 1942, was revised and corrected by Jacob Blanck. 
Offers very little beyond the Sanborn and Clark O'Neill bibliog- 
raphy. A good reference for establishement of first editions, 
neatly and clearly arranged, but not as complete in information 
as might be desired. 

Leaiy, Lewis, ed. Articles on American Literature appear- 
ing in Current Periodicals. Durham, North Carolina, Duke Uni- 
versity Press, 1947. 

The standard source of its type. Now revised, typed copy of 
which Mr. Leary permitted me to use in compiling this bibliog- 
raphy. An excellent source for scholarly and semi-scholarly 
entries. Cumulative listing from the same section in American 

. Doctoral Dissertations in American Literature 

1933-1948. Durham, North CaroHna, Duke University Press, 1949. 


Valuable source list of all such work compiled from quarterly 
listings in American Literature. 

Leisy, E. E., and Jay B. Hubbell, eds. "Doctoral Disserta- 
tions in American Literature." American Literature, 4 (January 
1933) 419-465. 
Antecedent to the Leary compilation. 

The New York Times Index. NY, The New York Times. 
Published periodically during the year, and in annual volumes. 
A tremendous aid in establishing pertinent facts about current 

Readers Guide to Periodical Literature. NY, H. W. 
Wilson Co. 

The standard periodical index. 

Sanborn, Ralph, and Barrett H. Clark. A Bibliography of 
the Works of Eugene O'Neill. NY, Random House, 1931. 

Only 500 copies were printed. Contains a careful collation 
of all texts to and including DYNAMO, with numerous plates 
illustrating variations within editions. Contains limited refer- 
ences to periodical, newspapers, and book articles (including 
separate books on O'Neill) and also contains a collection of 
little-known poems which O'Neill reluctantly gave permission 
to publish. 

Schweitzer, Elizabeth L. Eugene O'Neill: A Bibliography. 
Wisconsin Library School, no date. 

Typewritten copy consulted in New York Public Library. 
Often carelessly done, ofiFers little except a listing of reviews of 
each play and a chronology of all first performances up to 

Theatre Collection, New York Public Library. 
The Theatre Collection has no separate O'Neill collection, 
but it does have all of the scrapbooks and clipping collections 
kept by the Provincetown Players, much of which is in an alarm- 
ing state of deterioration. (Two complete scrapbooks have been 
missing for many years.) The material is not filed for ready 


reference, but requires tedious searching. The library's collec- 
tions of theatre reviews were consulted for many of the newspaper 
reports included in this bibliography. 

Thomson, Ruth Gibbons. Index to Full Length Plays, 1926- 
1944. Boston, F. W. Faxon, 1946. 
Another valuable index to all plays. 

University Collections 

American Literature Collection, Yale University Library. 

The large file of O'Neill's personal papers is not yet available 
to scholars, but there are many other items of value which may 
be consulted. All of O'Neill's scrapbooks compiled from the 
many clipping services to which he subscribed are available, 
and there are several boxes of loose material — photographs, 
pamphlets, and other newspaper items, all in a good state of 
preservation. The Theatre Guild scrapbooks may be consulted 
as well. The collection maintains an excellent card catalogue of 
all O'Neill material in the entire Library. 

Landauer Collection, Baker Library, Dartmouth College. 
The late Mrs. Bella Landauer turned over to Dartmouth her 
unique collection of programs of first night performances of 
O'Neill's foreign productions. Her collection of O'Neill letters 
is extremely valuable and helps close the gap existing by the 
restriction on the Yale material. There are also some books and 
galley proofs in this collection, but its main value is in the pro- 
grams and the letters, which may be readily consulted. 

O'Neill Collection, Princeton University Library. 
This is the third major collection of O'Neill material although 
it is the smallest. It consists mainly of some manuscripts and a 
small group of letters. These may be consulted without restriction. 


The first series of figures following each index entry, or 
following each subheading of each entry, indicates page numbers 
and is printed in Italic. The second series of figures indicates 
bibliography entry numbers and is printed in Roman. Bibliogra- 
phy entries of particular interest or importance are marked with 
an asterisk ( * ) . 

Subheadings are self-explanatory. If no subheading appears 
following a major entry, it is to be assumed that the material is 
of general interest and cannot be successfully categorized. These 
items of general interest appear first, followed by the subheadings 
in alphabetical order, followed by the titles of Eugene O'Neill's 
plays, abbreviated according to the list which immediately follows 
this explanation. 

Entries are arranged in the following patterns: 

AUTHOR. All authors and /or editors of books, miscellaneous 
articles, and specific dramatic criticism of O'Neill's plays. A 
typical entry: 

Atkinson, Brooks, 70, 157-158, 160-162*, 163- 
165; interviews 25, 166; Nobel prize 2, 159; 
AHW 404, 449; ANNA 160, 571; BB 597; etc. 

Under Atkinson, therefore, will be found items of general interest 
on page 70 and in the bibliography under numbers 157-158, 
160-162, and 163-165. Item number 162 is starred, and is of 
special importance. Material concerning interviews with O'Neill 
appears on page 25 under number 166 in the bibliography; the 
Nobel prize is discussed in bibliography entries 2 and 159. 
O'Neill's plays are treated in bibliography entries as indicated: 
AH, WILDERNESS! in numbers 404 and 449; ANNA CHRISTIE 
in numbers 160, 571; BEFORE BREAKFAST in number 597, 
and so on. 

Editors of books which reprint items by other authors are 
indicated in this manner: 

Cowley, Malcolm, reprints Trilling 28; per- 
sonal reminiscences 205-206, 310; GGB 205 

468 INDEX 

Dodds, John, reprints Atkinson (GGB) 34; 
O'Neill's explanation GGB 169, 34. 

Cowley is editor of a volume which reprints an article of general 
interest by Trilling, noted in bibliography entry number 28, and 
is author of articles of a personal nature noted in numbers 205- 
206 and 310 plus a review of THE GREAT GOD BROWN in 
number 205. Dodds reprints a review of THE GREAT GOD 
BROWN by Atkinson, number 34, and reprints O'Neill's own 
explanation of the play, also discussed on page 169. All of the 
reprinted items are, of course, listed under their original author 
as well. 

SUBJEGT. 1) Eugene O'Neill himself. Because all of 
O'Neill's plays are listed separately under their own titles, 
O'Neill is entered as subject only. All headings and subheads 
under his name are adequately explained, with frequent cross 
references to further topics either under O'Neill, or in the main 

2) O'Neill's plays. The plays appear in CAPITALS under 
their own titles in the main listing, and are treated in this 

DYNAMO, 63-64, 66, 88, 121*, 125, 201; 
O'Neill's explanation 64; production 152-153; 
pubhcation 119-120,123, 125-126; use of mon- 
ologue-soliloquy 42 

REVIEWS. NY opening 1929: 839-851; 

other 1929: 852-897 

Thus on pages 63-64 and 66 will be found material of general 
interest concerning the play DYNAMO, as well as in the 
bibliography under numbers 88, 121, 125, and 201. Number 121 
is starred because of its special interest. On page 64 appears a 
discussion of O'Neill's explanation of the play; production infor- 
mation, including cast, appears on pages 152-153 and publication 
of the play is discussed on pages 119-120, 123, and 125-126. The 
monologue-soliloquy is discussed on page 42. Reviews of opening 
night in 1929 are included in the bibliography from number 839 
through 851, and subsequent reviews and discussion of the play 
are included from number 852 through 897. 

INDEX 469 

3) Miscellaneous. All other miscellaneous subject material, 
including names, titles, and subjects, not included in any other 

TITLE. 1) Books. All books which pertain directly to 
O'Neill, contain significant material about him, or reprint articles 
concerning him or his plays are listed by their titles, un- 
capitalized, as in the bibliography, except for initial words and 
proper nouns. Typical entries: 

After the genteel tradition, reprints Trilling 28 
American and British literature since 1890, 138 
Development of dramatic art, The, GGB LAZ, 
SI 131 

These books contain, in order, a reprinting of an article of 
general interest by Trilling, bibliography number 28; an item 
of general interest, number 138; and a specific discussion of THE 
INTERLUDE, number 131 

2) Periodicals. Entries are treated similar to author entries, 
containing an indication of the type of material to be found 
under each periodical title. A typical entry: 

American Mercury, 209, 321, 323, 328, 350; 
Enghsh productions 182; ALL GC 115, 487; 
AM 505; etc. 

This periodical contains items of general interest listed in the 
bibhography under numbers 209, 321, 323, 328, and 350. A 
discussion of English productions appears under number 182. 
ALL GOD'S CHILLUN GOT WINGS is discussed on page 115, 
and in the bibliography under number 487; THE ANCIENT 
MARINER has an entry under number 505, and so on. 

NOTE: Periodical titles are fully capitalized to distinguish 
them from book titles, following the general pattern of indicating 
titles appropriately capitalized in the bibliography itself. 

3) Articles. Only articles of general interest are listed and 
their contents are not generally noted. Article titles are included 
to enable the reader to locate some particular item by title if 
necessary, but more assistance will come from either the author 
or publication entry. Titles are indicated by quotation marks. 

470 INDEX 

and are not capitalized except for initial words and proper nouns. 
Please note that specific reviews of the individual plays are not 
included. The reasons are many and obvious: the repetition of 
play title as the only title for newspaper reviews, or the repeti- 
tion of column titles in other periodicals are the most immedi- 
ately apparent reasons. Sheer volume of the number of reviews 
is another .No problem is really involved in finding specific 
articles about individual plays because they may be found by 
consulting the play titles and then the bibliography. 









LOST — Lost Plays of Eugene 




NY - New York 




Abbot, Richard, 162 

Abel, Walter, 146, 152, 155 

ABORTION, 108, 127 

Act one, 150,334 

Actors' Theatre, 150 

Adams, Franklin P. (F. P. A.), 10, 

94, 167; AHW 413 
Adams, Henry, 62, 877 
Adams, Phoebe Lou, MMIS 1407 
Ade, George, 326 
Aeschylus, 65, 71, 203 
"After all these years," 157 
After the genteel tradition, reprints 

Trilling 28 
Agamemnon, 65 
Agee, James, 150 
AH, WILDERNESS!, 8, 15, 25, 

37, 44, 45n, 69-70, 85, 102, 129, 

12, 99, 151', 317; as biography 

13, 94; as romanticism 83-84; 
production 132, 155-158; pub- 
lication 122-124, 126; Take me 
along 4 

REVIEWS. Pittsburgh opening 
1933: 399-401; NY opening 
1933: 402-412; other 1933-1936: 
124, 413-446; NY revival 1941: 
447-457; other 1941: 458-469 

Aheam, John, J 36 

Aiken, Conrad, LAZ 1262; SI 1609 

Alderson, Erville, 138 

"Aldous Huxley and other 
modems," 188 

Alexander, Doris M., 459, 151- 
152; AHW 151; DAYS 151-152; 
GGB, HA 151; ICE 1203; LAZ 
1283; MARCO 151; MOURN 
1513-1514; SERV 151-152; SI 
151, 1673; WELDED 152 

WINGS, 7, 19, 38, 54, 57, 64, 
60, 88, 95, 143, 251, 279; as 
expressionism & symbolism 36; 
as social comment 36; censorship 
58-60, 99; European production 
171; production 152; publication 
115, 117, 121, 123-124, 126 




REVIEWS. NY opening 1924: 
470-478; other 1924-1932: 479- 

"All O'Neilling," 183 

Allen, Kelcey, AHW 402; AM 
491; ANNA 540; BB 595; DAYS 
677; DYN 839; FM 938; 
FOUNT 962; GOLD 991; GGB 
1023; ICE 1156; ILE 1232; 
MARCO 1357; MOURN 1452; 
STRAW 1689; WELDED 1771 

Allen, Ruth Collins, 137 

America, 223; AHW 431; DAYS 
68, 703; DYN 873; EJ 223; 
GGB 1085; HA 223; ICE 1177, 
1228; LDJ 1291, 1305; MMIS 
1434; MOURN 1477; SI 1632; 
TP 1754 

American Academy of Arts & 
Letters, 102 

American and British literature 
since 1890, 138 

"American authors of today: X. 
The drama," 179 

American bibliography, 461 

American Book Collector, Euro- 
pean reputation 298 

American Caravan, early version 
LAZ 118 

"American criticism of Eugene 
O'Neill, 1917-1948," (PhD dis- 
sertation ) 460, 462 

"American drama flowers. The: 
Eugene O'Neill as a great play- 
wright," 226 

American drama from the Civil 
war to the present day, 169, 

American drama of ideas. The, 
( PhD dissertation ) 459 

American drama since 1918, The, 
27, 68* 

"American dramatic theory comes 
of age," 267 

American dramatist, The, 88 

"American dramatist. The," 321 

American Literature, 464, 175; 
European reputation 351; SI 

American literature and the dream, 

American literature as an expres- 
sion of the national mind, 5 

American literature collection, Yale 

American literature in the 
twentieth century, 130* 

American Magazine, 25, 280, 

American Mercury, 209, 321, 323, 
328, 350; English productions 
182; ALL GC 115, 487; AM 
505; DES 763; DYN 885; 
FOUNT 986; GGB 1058; 
MARCO 323, 1351; SI 323, 
1639, 1641; WELDED 1797 

American mind. The, 27 

American National Theatre & 
Academy, 1 61 

"American plays in England," 182 

"American plays in Finland," 351 

American playwrights 1918-1938, 

American Quarterly, The, 151*; 
ICE 1203 

American Review, DAYS 706 

American Scholar, 228*, 294*; 
AHW 444 

American Spectator, 10, 69, 102, 

American Speech, SI 1679 

American theatre as seen by its 
critics 1752-1934, The, reprints 
Anderson ( DAYS ) , Benchley 
(MOURN), Broun (BH), 
Krutch 89 

"American theatre in England, 
The," 262 

"American tragedy," 184 

Ames, Arthur, 149 

Anathema: Litanies of negation, 
foreword by O'Neill 170, 332 

Anatomy of drama. The, 133 

lication & production 115, 129, 

REVIEWS. NY opening 1924: 
419-497; other 1924: 498-508 





Anders, Glenn, 151, 153 

Anderson, John, 153; AHW 403, 
448; BB 596; BH 654; DAYS 
45, 67, 89, 678, 688-689; DYN 
840, 852; FOUNT 963; GGB 
1024, 1034; MARCO 1458; 
MOURN 44, 1453; SI 1595, 

Anderson, Judith, 155 

Anderson, Maxwell, 100, 70, 98 

Anderson, Ruth, J 38 

Andor, Paul, 162 

Andrews, Harry, 143 

Andrews, Kenneth, 155; BH, 
DIFF, EJ 154; FM 951; GOLD 
1007; HA 1098; STRAW 1705 

Andreyev, Leonid, 358 

Angoff, Charles, reprints Nathan 
( general & ICE ) 1 

ANNA CHRISTIE, 22, 30, 37, 
43, 54-55, 57, 75, 78-79, 93 
97-99, 46, 83, 135, 160, 173, 
290, 299; as realism 33; New girl 
in town 4, 173; production 139, 
141, 160-161; publication 112- 
114, 116-117, 120-121, 123-124, 

REVIEWS. NY opening 1921: 
524-539; other 1921-1922: 56, 
540-570; NY revival 1952: 571- 
580; other 1952: 581-594 {See 
also CHRIS ) 

Anschutz, Grace, expressionism 
156; GGB 1035 

ANTA Playhouse, 161 

Anthony, Luther B., SI 1611 

Antioch Review, 242** 

Appleyard, J. A., LDJ 1305 

Arbenz, Mary, 154 

"Are the actors to blame?" 169 

Aristotle, 192 

Arizona Quarterly, 338; ICE 
1212; LDJ 1330; MOURN 1519 

Armstrong, Will Steven, J 65 

Arrestad, Sverre, ICE 1204 

Art of Eugene O'Neill, The, 118* 

"Art of Eugene O'Neill, The," 


Art of the night, 93 

Art theatre. The, 20 

Art theatres, 32, 20, 79, 128 

Articles on American literature ap- 
pearing in current periodicals, 

"Artist of the theatre. The," 355 

Arts and Decoration, 214; ANNA 
556; BB 605; DES 762; DYN 
863; FOUNT 984; GGB 1052; 
LAZ 1266; MARCO 1381; 
MOURN 1498; SI 1623 

Ash, A. Montague, 152 

Ashley, Arthur, 139 

Asselineau, Roger, MOURN 1515 

Aston, Frank, GGB 1067; TP 1734 

Atkinson, Brooks, 70, 157-158, 
160-162**, 163-165; interviews 
25, 166; Nobel prize 2, 159; 
AHW 404, 449; ANNA 160, 
571; BB 597; DAYS 67, 679, 
690; DES 158, 160, 772; DYN 
841, 853; EJ 158; FOUNT 973; 
GGB 38, 50, 34, 1025, 1036, 
1068, 1075; HA 158; ICE 46, 
2, 1157, 1169-1170, 1213, 1220; 
LAZ 40, 1253, 1264, 1275; LDJ 
73, 165, 1284, 1296, 1306-1307; 
MARCO 1341, 1359, 1375; 
MMIS 49, 1418, 1426; MOURN 
44, 1454, 1463, 1494; SSG 1563, 
1575, 1585; SI 41, 1596, 1612- 
1613; TP 1727, 1735, 1742 

Adantic City Daily Press, ANNA 
(CHRIS) 521 

Atlantic City Union, ANNA 
(CHRIS) 516 

Atlantic Monthly, Enghsh reputa- 
tion 262; ICE 1172; MMIS 


"Audacity of Eugene O'Neill, The," 

"Author," 167 

Bab, Julius, European reputation 


Babbitt {See references MARCO 
beginning No. 1341 ) 

"Back to the source of plays writ- 
ten by Eugene O'Neill," 372 

Backe, Gloria Scott, 162 

Bain, Conrad, 162 

Baker, Blanche M., 461 

Baker, George Pierce, 19, 95, 109, 
171-172, 66, 169, 243, 289, 386 

Baker, Lee, 154 

Baker library, Dartmouth, 465 

Ballantine, C.J., SSG 1564 

Ballantine, Edward J., 133, 141, 
145-146, 152 

Baltimore American, WELDED 

Baltimore News, WELDED 1765 

Baltimore Post, WELDED 1769 

Baltimore Sun, WELDED 1766, 

Bamberger, Theron M., 134 

Band, Muriel, 26, 170 

Banton, Joab, 60 

Barbee, Richard, 156 

Barnes, Howard, ICE 1158, 1171; 
SSG 1576 

Barnstormer's Bam, 146 

Barratt, Watson, 157 

Barretto, Larry, FOUNT 974; 
GGB 1037 

Barrington, Lewis, 147 

Barron, Samuel, MOURN 1516 

Barton, James, 159 

"Basic unity of Eugene O'Neill, 
The," 247 

Basso, Hamilton, New Yorker pro- 
file, 26, 9i, 171*, 176 

Battenhouse, Roy W., MOURN 
1517; SI 1674 

Batterham, Wm. Forster, 137 

Baury, Louis, FM 952; HA 1100- 

Bean, Adelaide, J 55 

Beckett, Samuel, 50, 74, 1068, 

Beecroft, Victor, 160 

duction 133, 153; publication 
110, 116-117, 121, 123, 125 

REVIEWS. NY revival 1929: 
595-604; other 1929: 605-609 

"Behind the scenes," 388 

Behrman, S. N., 87 

Belair, Felix, Jr., TP 1728 

Belasco, David, 20, 35 

Belgrade Lakes, Maine, 100 

Bellamy, Francis R., DYN 854; 
SI 1614 

Bellevue, Bermuda, 100 


Ben-Ami, Jacob, 144 

Benchley, Robert, ANNA 545; 
DES 743; DYN 855; FOUNT 
975; GOLD 1008; GGB 1038; 
HA 1103; MARCO 1376; 
MOURN 66, 89, 107, 1464; SI 
1615; STRAW 1706; WELDED 

Benedict, Barbara, 149 

Bennett, Richard, 138 

Bentley, Eric, 3*, 172, 328; 
tragedy 4«; ICE 3', 172, 1172; 
MMIS 87, 1408; MOURN 4 

Berkelman, R., GGB 1076 

Bermuda 52, 81, 84, 99-100 

Berry, Stanley, 148 

Best, Frank, 92 

Beyer, Wilham H., ANNA 583; 
DES 780; SSG 1586 

34, 37, 49, 53-54, 56-57, 97, 
103, 112, 154, 230; as biography 
12; as tragedy 32; explained by 
O'Neill 167-168; production 138, 
140, 150; publication 111, 113, 
116-117, 123-124, 126 

REVIEWS. NY opening 1920: 
89, 610-618; other 1920-1926: 
54, 56, 619-653; NY revival 
1926: 654-662; other 1926-1927: 

Bibliographic index, 461 

Bibliographies and bibliographic 
indexes, 460-465, 21», 115" 

Bibliography of the works of 
Eugene O'Neill, A, 107, 167, 
464, 115* 

"Big run for O'Neill's plays," 173 




Bijou Theatre, 163 

Billboard, AHW 419; BB 609 
BH 637, 669; DAYS 695; DIFF 
815; DYN 889; EJ 919, 928 
FOUNT 981; GGB 1045; HA 
35, 1122; ICE 1179; LAZ 1273 
MARCO 1390; MMIS 1415; 

' MOURN 1468; SSG 1553, 1568 
SI 1635 

Bird, Carol, interview 25, 174 

Bishop, John Peale, BH 626 

Bjorkman, Edwin, ALL GC 479; 
LAZ 1265; WELDED 1785 

"Black Irishman, The, 177 

Blackburn, Clara, European in- 
fluences 175; SI 175 

Blair, Eugenie, 142 

Blair, Mary, 140, 143, 145, 153 
(See also references BB, DIFF) 

Blake, William, 83 

Blankenship, Russell, general & 

Block, Anita, 6 

Block, Ralph, GGB 1104; IN Z 

Bodenheim, Maxwell, New Yorker 
profile 176 

Bogdanoff, Rose, GGB 1039 

Bolton, Whitney, AHW 416; 
ANNA 584; DAYS 691; DES 
781; DYN 842, 856; GGB 1077; 
LDJ 1308; MOURN 1465 

Bone, David W., ANNA 564 

Book Review Digest, 461 

Bookman, 154 - 155, 284 - 285*, 
303**; ALL GC 480; BH 154; 
DES 37, 753; DIFF 154; DYN 
857; EJ 154; FM 951; FOUNT 
974; GOLD 1007; GGB 1037; 
HA 1098; MOURN 1474, 1500; 
SI 1646; STRAW 1705; THIRST 
269"; WELDED 1786 

Books Abroad, European reputa- 
tion 250 

Booth, Fred, 137 

Borzoi reader. The, reprints Nathan 

Boston American, DAYS 673 

Boston Globe, DAYS 676 

Boston Herald, DAYS 674 
Boston Post, 331; DAYS 671 
Boston Transcript, letters 168- 

169; personal reminiscences 21, 

271"; DAYS 675 
Boston Traveler, DAYS 672 
"Boulevards after dark: Four hours 

from Paris in his French chateau 

Eugene O'Neill is writing Ameri- 
can Drama," 314 
Boulton, Agnes (Mrs. Eugene 

O'Neill), 8, 85, 97, 101; as 

biographer 4, 16, 23, 91-93, 96, 

7*, 272 

77, 95-96; production 132-133; 

publication 109-110, 112, 

Bowen, Croswell, biography 4, 

16, 91-94, 8», 177, 210 
Bowen, Stirling, AHW 417; DAYS 

692; MOURN 1466 
Bowler, Richard, 162 
Boyd, Alice K., English productions 

Boyd, Ernest A., 10, 178; ANNA 

546; DYN 857; GOLD 1020; 

STRAW 1707 
Boynton, Percy H., 179 
Brackett, Charles, DYN 43, 858; 

MARCO 1377; SI 1616 
Brady, Alice, 154 
Brandt, George, AHW 443 
Brave new world, 188 
Brecker, Egon, 148 
Breese, Jessie M., 81, 180* 
Breit, Harvey, LDJ 1285 
Brentano's Book Chat, GGB 205 
"Bright face of tragedy. The," 

British and American plays 1830- 

1946, reprints Atkinson (GGB) 

34; O'Neill's explanation 

(GGB), 169,34 
"Broadway, our literary signpost," 

Broadway scrapbook, reprints At- 
kinson ( general & ICE ) 2 


Brock, H. E., 181 

Bromfield, Louis, DES 37, 753 

Bronte, C. H., ANNA (CHRIS) 

Brook Farm {See O'Neill, Eugene 
Gladstone, residences of) 

Brooklyn Citizen, DAYS 715; 
LAZ 1268; MARCO 1352 

Brooklyn Eagle, 266; AHW 411, 
455; ALL GC 476; AM 507; 
ANNA 536, 557, 579; BB 604; 
BH 646, 663; DAYS 686; DES 
740, 778; DIFF 823, 837; DYN 
850, 888; EJ 902, 933; FM 
954; FOUNT 970; GOLD 1003; 
GGB 1032, 1055; HA 35, 1134- 
1135; ICE 1166, 1196; ILE 
1236; MARCO 1371, 1382, 
1399; MOURN 1462, 1486; 
ROPE 1531; SSG 1546, 1579; 
SI 1606, 1644, 1655; STRAW 
1701, 1718; WELDED 1799 

Brooks, Cleanth, tragedy & 

Brooks, Patricia, 162 

Brooks, Van Wyck, 118; Negro 
plays 11 

Broun, Heywood, ALL GC 36, 
All; AM 492; BH 57, 89, 610, 
628-629; DES 728; DIFF 803- 
804; DYN 859; EJ 898; GOLD 
992; HA 1105-1107; ILE 1234; 
MOON C 1439, 1441; ROPE 
1520, 1523; SI 1617; STRAW 
1690, 1708-1709; WCM 1803 

Brown, Charles D., 141 

Brown, Elizabeth, 140 

Brown, Herrick, DIFF 834 

Brown, Ivor, English productions 

Brown, John Mason, 69-72. 172, 
12, 183, 185-186; reprints An- 
derson (DAYS), Benchley 
(MOURN), Broun (BH), 
Krutch 89; tragedy 14, 16, 184: 
AHW 405, 450; ANNA 585; BH 
665; DAYS 45, 67, 680, 693- 
694; DES 16, 782; DIFF 827; 

FOUNT 976; GGB 1040; ICE 

13, 183, 1174; LOST 1332; 

MARCO 1378; MOURN 44, 15, 

1455, 1467, 1495; SI 1618 
Browning, Natalie, 150 
Brustein, Robert, 187; GGB 

1078; TP 1743 
Buck, Ashley, 141 
Bucknell University Studies, 267 
Bucks, Dorothy S., 459 
Buddha, 1283 
Bufano, Remo, J 39 
Bull, Harry, ICE 1175 
Bulletin of Bibliography, 461; 

European reputation 252-253 
Bunce, Alan, 143 
Burby, Gordon, 143 
Burke, Ed, ICE 1205 
Bums, John J., 151 
Bums, Sister M. Vincentia, 459 
Burr, Eugene, AHW 419; DAYS 

695; MOURN 1468 
Burt, Frederic, 143 
Burton, Katherine, 188 
Buzzell, Francis, 133 
BY WAY OF OBIT, 86, 129, 131 

Cabell, James Branch, 10,102 
Cagney, Jeanne, 159 
Cajetan, Brother, DAYS 725 
Caldwell, Cy, AHW 420; DAYS 

68, 696 
Call, John, 164 

Campbell, Douglas, 157 
Campsea, Bermuda, 99 
"Can O'Neill do wrong or not?" 

Canby, Henry Seidel, MOURN 

17, 1469 
Canfield, Mary Cass, AM 498; 

MARCO 1342 
Cannon, Glenn, 163 
Cannon, J. D., 165 
Capalbo, Carmen, 163-164 
Cape Cod, Mass., (See O'Neill, 

Eugene Gladstone, residences 



Capone, Al, 65 

Garb, David, 132, 189; ALL GC 

480; DYN 860; FOUNT 977; 

GGB 1041; MARGO 1379; 

MOURN 1496; SI 42, 1619-1620; 

WELDED 1786 
Garder, Eva, 143 
Garey, Harry, 158 
Gargill, Oscar, EJ, HA, MOURN, 

SI 18 
Garnovsky, Morris, 150 
Garpenter, Frederic I., 19; 

tragedy, LAZ, MOURN, SI 190 
Garrol, Robert, 160 
GarroU, Joseph, MMIS 1409 
Gartier, Deidre, 161 
Gasa Genotta ( See O'Neill, Eugene 

Gladstone, residences of) 
"Gase of Eugene O'Neill, The," 

Gasseboom, Will, Jr., ANNA 

(GHRIS) 510 
Gastellun, Maida, ANNA 547- 

548; DIFF 805; EJ 899, 907; 

FM 953; HA 34, 1108 
Catalogue of copyright entries: 

Books and dramatic works, 462 
Catholic World, 188; AHW 440, 

446, 469; ANNA 594; DAYS 68, 

699, 723, 725; DES 768, 793; 

DYN 896; GOLD 1021; GGB 

1065; HA 1146; IGE 1201, 1231, 

LAZ 1282; LDJ 1331; MMIS 

1438; MOURN 1492, 1512; SI 

1671; TP 1763 
Gecil, Lawrence, 146 
Gensorship, 7, 8, 35, 58-61 
Century, 24, 356-357; HA 1140 
Gerf, Bennett, 191 
Gerf, Walter, psychonalysis & LDJ 

Ghallee, William, 156 
Ghalmers, Thomas, 150, 154 
Ghalzel, Leo, 158 
Changing world in plays and 

theatre. The, 6 
Ghapin, Victor, 158 
Ghaplin, Gharles J 03 
Ghapman, John, ANNA 572; DES 

773, GGB 50, 1069; IGE 1159, 
1176; LDJ 107, 1297; MMIS 
1419; SSG 1577; TP 1736 
Gharles, Dorothy, 461 
Ghase, Ilka, 156 
Ghase, Stanley, 163 
Ghateau de Plessis (See O'Neill, 
Eugene Gladstone, residences of, 
France ) 
Ghatfield-Taylor, Otis, MOURN 

Ghekhov, Anton, 32, 621 
Gheney, Sheldon, art theatre 20 
Choephoroi, 65 

GHRIS, 97; production 132, 138- 

139, 142; publication 112-113 

REVIEWS. Atlantic Gity & 

Philadelphia tryout 1920: 509- 



Christ in the drama, 35 
Christendom, MOURN 1517 
Christian Century, 225; DAYS 
68, 704, 726; LDJ 73, 1311; 
MMIS 1429; SI 1656; TP 1746- 
Chrysalis, 233; Baker & Harvard 

289; LDJ 1312 
Ghurchill, Allen, biography 193 
Gircle-in-the-Square, 3, 161 
Gity Genter Theater, 160 
Glancy, Tom, 164 
Glark, Barrett H., 10-11, 17, 19, 
29, 86, 107-108, 167, 464, 115, 
226, 236, 277; as biographer 
14, 27, 91, 99, 21*, 23-24, 194; 
O'Neill's working diary 170, 22*, 
1467; BB 606; BH 666; DYN 
861; FOUNT 978; GGB 1042- 
1043; LOST 1333; MARGO 
1380; MOON C 1442; MOURN 
1471, 1497; TP 130; SSG 1565 
Glark, Norman, WELDED 1765 
Clearing in the woods. A, 192 
Glurman, Harold, 161, 25, 195; 
GGB 1079; LDJ 25, 1286, 1309; 
MMIS 25, 1410; SSG 1587 




Cocktail party. The, 244 
Cohan, George M., 33, 84, 155, 
968 (See also references AHW 
beginning No. 399 ) 
Cohen, JuHus, MARCO 1360; SI 

Colbert, Claudette, 153 
Colby, Ethel, ANNA 573; LDJ 
1298; MMIS 1427; TP 1737 
Cole, Flora, 145 
Cole, Lester, 196 
Coleman, Alta M., 197 
Coleman, Glenn, 137 
Coleman, Robert, AHW 451; 
ANNA 574; DES 774; FOUNT 
964; GGB 1026, 1070; ICE 
1160, 1214; LDJ 1299; MARCO 
1361; MOURN 1456; SSG 1578; 
SI 1597; TP 73, 1738 
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 115, 
145 (See also references AM 
beginning No. 491 ) 
Colin, Saul, LOST 1334 
Collections of O'Neill papers, 

College English, European repu- 
tation 252; ICE 1209 
Collier's, interview 26, 208 
Collins, Catherine, 144 
Collins, Hutchinson, 135, 137 
Collins, Russell, 158 
Colum, Mary M., 198 
Colum, Padraic, DYN 862 
Columbia University, 110,122 
Columbus Citizen, MMIS 1404 
Columbus Dispatch, MMIS 1406 
Columbus Ohio State Journal, 

MMIS 1405 
Colvert, Leathe, 138 
Combs, George H., 26 
Comedy Theatre, 134, 136 
Commager, Henry Steele, 27 
Commerce and Finance, HA 1133 
Commonweal, AHW 439, 458; 
ANNA 588; DAYS 698, 720- 
722; DES 751, 788; DIFF 832; 
DYN 893; FOUNT 985; GGB 
1063; HUGHIE 1155; ICE 
421; ALL GC 472, 481; AM 

1295, 1315; MARCO 1402; 
MMIS 1432; MOURN 1489- 
1490, 1509-1510; SSG 1573, 
1592; SI 1653; TP 1749 

Commonweal reader. The, 124 

Comparative Literature, ICE 1211 

Complete works of Eugene O'Neill, 
The, 116 

"Composite study of the develop- 
ment of skills in plot construc- 
tion by a group of living Ameri- 
can dramatists. A," (PhD dis- 
sertation ) 460 

Confident years. The, 1 1 

Conlin, Matthew T., DES 794 

Connell, Leigh, 161,163 

Conrad, Joseph, 32, 77, 303, 354, 
1010, 1253 

Conrad, Lawrence H., 199 

"Conscience and A Touch of the 
poet," 331 

Contempo, MOURN 1471 

Contemporary American literature 
and religion, MOURN 75 

Contemporary American play- 
wrights, 81 

Contemporary one-act plays of 
1921, 114 

"Continental influences on Eugene 
O'Neill's expressionistic drama," 

Conway, Curt, 164 

Coogan, Richard, 160 

Cook, Elisha, Jr., 155 

Cook, George Cram, 17, 20-21, 
96, 132-135, 50 

Cook, Jim, interview with Kath- 
leen (Jenkins) Pitt-Smith, 

Cook, Robert Lucius, 151 

Cooke, Richard P., AHW 461; 
DES 783; GGB 1080; ILE 
1161; LDJ 1310; MMIS 1428; 
SSG 1588; TP 1744 

Gooksey, Curtis, 144, 148 

Cooper, Grace, DYN, SI 201 

Cooper, Scott, 141 

Corbin, John, 202-203; AHW 
1195, 1225; LAZ 1278; LDJ 73, 


494, 501; DAYS 679; MOURN 

203; WELDED 1772, 1787 
Corley, Donald, 134 
Coronet Theatre, 165 
Corrigan, Emmett, 139 
Cosmopolitan, 322, 324 
"Cosmopolite of the month. The," 

Cossart, Ernest, 150 
"Counsels of despair," 204* 
Count of Monte Cristo, The, 67, 

91, 94, 
Country Life in America, O'Neill's 

residence, 81, 180* 
Cowley, Malcolm, reprints Trilling 

28; personal reminiscences 205- 

206, 310; GGB 205 
Crabtree, Paul, J 50 
Craftsmanship of the one-act play. 

The, 142 
Crawford, J. R., DES 775 
Crawford, Jack, 207; STRAW 

Crichton, Kyle, interview, 26, 

Criterion Theatre, 138 
Critic, The, 369 
"Critical bibliography of Eugene 

O'Neill, A," (PhD dissertation) 

Critique: Critical Review of 

Theatre Arts, 254 
Crosby, Edward H., DAYS 671 
Crouse, Russell, 23 
"Crowds fame into 40 years," 266 
Cue, ICE 1192 
Cummings, Ridgely, 209 
Cumulative book index. The, 462 
Current Opinion, 326; ANNA 563 
Curril, George, SSG 1579 
Curse of the misbegotten. The, 

4, 16, 91, 8* 
"Curse of the misbegotten," 210 
Cusak, Cyril, 164 
Cycle of American literature. The, 

"Cycle" plays of O'Neill {See A 



Dahlstrom, Carl, 175 

Daily Worker, AHW 468; MARCO 

Dale, Alan, 211; ANNA 528; BH 
630; DES 729; EJ 908; FM 211, 
941; FOUNT 965; GOLD 993; 
HA 1109; IN Z 1250; MARCO 
1362; ROPE 1524; SSG 1541; 
SI 1598, 1622; STRAW 211, 

Daly, Frank, 157 

Daly's 63rd Street Theatre, 147 

Damton, Charles, ANNA 549; BH 
611; HA 1110; ROPE 1525; 
STRAW 1692 

Darrach, Henry B., MMIS 1411 

Dartmouth College, 465 

Dash, Thomas R., ANNA 575; 
GGB 50, 1071; ICE 1215; LDJ 
1300; MMIS 1420; SSG 1580 

Davis, Bette, 153 

Davis, Owen, 352 

Davis, William, 145 

Dawson, Mary E., 459 

Dawson, N. P., ANNA 550; HA 

Day, Cyrus, ICE 1221 

Day, Marie L., 143 

DAYS WITHOUT END, 6, 8, 15, 
27, 44-46, 48, 67-68, 70-71, 73, 
85, 87-88, 102, 35, 99, 108, 123, 
151*-152, 263, 309, 339*, 377*; 
as biography 13; as romanticism 
83; production 132, 134; pub- 
lication 122-124, 126; use of 
masks 40 

REVIEWS. Boston tryout 
1933: 671-676; NY opening 
1934: 89, 677-687; other 1934- 
1956: 688-727 

"Dead man triumphant," 389 


"Decade of American drama. A," 

De Casseres, Benjamin, 10, 17, 
22, 39, 170, 212*-213*, 214- 




215", 332; DYN 64, 863; LAZ 
214-215; MARCO 215, 1381; 
MOURN 214, 1498; SI 215, 

de Cordovan, Pienzi, 135 

Deeter, Jasper, 139 

De Foe, Louis V., ANNA 529; 
FM 942; GOLD 994; STRAW 
1693, 1711 

Dennis, Patrick, TP 1745 

de Polo, Harold, 96; personal 
reminiscences 21, 216 

DePue, Elva, 217 

7, 19, 36-38, 42, 47, 54,57, 80, 
84, 16, 125, 128, 158, 160, 251, 
299; as biography 13; as roman- 
ticism 80; censorship Los Ange- 
les and London 61, 100; censor- 
ship NY 58, 60-61, 99, 148; 
European production 171; movie 
version 4; production 147, 161; 
pubhcation 116-117,121, 

REVIEWS. NY opening 1924: 
728-742; other 1924-1928: 56, 
743-771; NY revival 1952: 772- 
779; other 1952-1959: 780-795 

Deutsch, Helen, Provincetown his- 
tory 20, 109, 132, 168-169, 
29*, 218-219 

Development of dramatic art. The 
GGB, LAZ, SI 131 

"Development of social criticism in 
the Broadway theatre during the 
inter-war period, 1919-1939, 
The," (PhD dissertation) 460 

De Voto, Bernard, 30*, 220* 

Dial, ANNA 558; DES 764, 769; 
DIFF 806; DYN 862; ET 909; 
FOUNT 988; GGB 1048; HA 
1141; MOON C 1466; SI 42, 
1650; STRAW 1685 

Diary of composition ( See 
ELECTRA, working diary) 
Dickinson, Thomas H., 31* 

"Difficulty in staging plays is no 
concern of Mr. O'Neill," 382 

DIFF'RENT, 33, 54-55, 78, 154; 
O'Neill's defense 168; produc- 
tion 140, 157; publication 113, 

REVIEWS. NY opening 1920: 
796-802; other 1921: 803-820; 
NY revival 1925: 821-826; other 
1925: 830-833; NY revival 1938: 

Digges, Dudley, 151,153,1 58 

Dobree, Bonamy, 221; ICE 1206 

"Doctoral dissertations in Ameri- 
can literature," 464 

Doctoral dissertations in American 
literature, 1933-1948, 463 

Dodds, John, reprints Atkinson 
( GGB ) 34; O'Neill's explanation 
GGB 169,34 

"Does the buskin fit O'Neill?" 

Donnelly, Gerard B., DAYS 68, 

Donnelly, J. Joseph, 159 

Donnelly, Tom, LD J 1 30 1 ; 
MMIS 1421 

Dos Passos, John, 127 

Doucet, Catherine, 153 

Dowling, Eddie, 158 

Downer, Alan S., 32, 222 

Doyle, Louis F., EJ, HA 223; 
ICE 1177 

Drama, 207, 337; expressionism 
156; O'Neill residence 315*; 
Provincetown history 219 

Drama Calendar, ANNA 542; DIFF 
828; FM 955; GGB 1046; HA 
1113; SSG 1550, 1574; SI 1654 

Drama in English, The, 36 

"Drama of the disintegrated," 198 

Drama of transition, 51* 

Dramatic bibliography: An anno- 
tated list of books, etc., 461 

Dramatic compositions copyrighted 
in the U. S., 1870-1916, 462 

"Dramatic experiments of Eu;:^ene 
O'Neill, The," 365* 

Dramatic imagination, SI 61 

Dramatic index. The, 462 

Dramatic Mirror, ANNA ( CHRIS ) 




511; ANNA 553; BH 621; 

GOLD 1016; ILE 1240; IN Z 

1252; ROPE 1540; STRAW 

Dramatic structure ( See O'Neill, 

Eugene Gladstone, artistry & 

technique ) 
Dramatist, GOLD 1022; GGB 

1049; HA 1119; MARCO 1350; 

SI 1611; WELDED 1801 
"Dramatist of the sail and the 

sea," 158 
"Dramatist's notebook. A," 171 
DREAMY KID, THE, production 

137; publication 113-114, 

116-117, 123, 125 
Dreiser, Theodore, 10, 102, 1292 
Dress suit becomes Hamlet, A, 

Driver, Tom F., 224*; ICE 224: 

LDJ 224, 1311; MMIS 1429; TP 

224, 1746-1747 
Drury's guide to best plays, 123 
Dukes, Ashley, 33 
Dunbar, William, J 39 
Duncan, Augustin, 143 
Dunn, James, 159 
Durham, Willard H., reprints 

Atkinson (GGB) 34; O'Neill's 

explanation GGB 1 69, 34 
DYNAMO, 63-64, 66, 99, 121*, 

125, 201; O'Neill's explanation 

64; production 152-153; publi- 
cation 119-120, 123, 125-126; 

use of monologue-soliloquy 42 
REVIEWS. NY opening 1929: 

839-851; other 1929: 852-897 

Eager, Helen, DAYS 68, 672 
Earl Carrol Theatre, 147 
Earth between, The, 153 

Eastman, Fred, tragedy & religion 

35, 225; DAYS 35, 704, 726; 

Eaton, Walter Prichard, 25, 81, 

36-37, 226-227*, 228*-230; 

AHW 422, 444; ANNA 565; BH 

230, 631; DAYS 705; DES 756, 
1228; FOUNT 919; GGB 1044; 
HA 112; ICE 1178; LOST 
1335; MARCO 1343; MMIS 
1412; MOURN 228,1472 

Edba, DES 745 

Edmonson, William, 162 

Education index. The, 462 

Educational Theatre Journal, 
Freud 244; ICE 1222; LDJ 

Edwards, Ben, 157, 161 

Edwards, Robert, J 35 

Ehlers, Harry, 135 

Eldridge, Florence, 163 

Eliot, T. S., 367 

Ell, Christine, 139 

Ell, Louis B., 135, 137 

Ellis, Charles, 136-137, 139-140 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 25, 227 

Emerson Quarterly, 172 

30, 32-34, 36, 54, 57-58, 81, 98, 
18, 135, 154, 158, 223, 279, 335; 
as monologue 41; production 
139-140, 144, 149; publication 
113-114, 116-117,119-121, 

REVIEWS. NY opening 1920: 
898-905; other 1920-1921: 49, 
56, 906-928; NY revival 1924: 

Enander, Hilma, 231 

Encyclopedia of the theatre, 94 

Engel, Edwin A., 15, 459, 38*, 
231-233; ICE, LDJ, MMIS 232 

English, LDJ 1328 

English drama: The last great 
phase, 109 

English Journal, 179, 347, 369; 
MOURN 1497 

English Review, BH 653; SI 

English Studies, European reputa- 
tion 365*-367, 370* 

"Ennobel-ing O'Neill," 159 
Epitaph for George Dillon, 1755 

Equity Magazine, interview 310* 


"Eros and Psyche: A Nietzchean 
motif in Anglo-American litera- 
ture," 368 

Ervine, St. John, 31, 234-236*; 
European reputation 237, 249, 
262; BB 607; DYN 865-866; 
GGB 236 

Esquire, biography 193 

Essay and general literature index, 

Essin, Max, 151 

"Eugene O'Neill." Articles under 
this title, written by the follow- 
ing authors, may be found in the 
bibliography as indicated: An- 
derson, John 153; Atkinson 
Brooks 160-161; Garb, David 
189; Conrad, Lawrence 199; 
Fagin, N. Bryllion 242'; Fergus- 
son, Francis 246*; Geddes, Vir- 
gil 257; Hofmannsthal, Hugo 
von 277*; Lewisohn, Ludwig 
300; Loving Pierre 303'; Mer- 
rill, Charles A. 310*; Royde- 
Smith, Naomi 354; Woodbridge, 
Homer E. 395; Young, Stark 397 

"Eugene O'Neill, 1888-1953," 185 

Eugene O'Neill: A bibliography, 

"Eugene O'Neill: A Broadway 
philosopher," 207 

"Eugene O'Neill: A chapter in 
biography," 194 

Eugene O'Neill: A critical study, 

Eugene O'Neill: A poet's quest, 
15, 167, 123* 

"Eugene O'Neill: A revaluation," 
70, 377* 

"Eugene O'Neill: A vignette," 

"Eugene O'Neill and PoUyanaly- 
sis," 385 

"Eugene O'Neill and religion," 

"Eugene O'Neill and the highbrow 
melodrama," 285* 

Eugene O'Neill and the tragic ten- 
sion, 4, 16, 460, 39* 

"Eugene O'Neill as a writer of 

tragedy," ( PhD dissertation ) 

"Eugene O'Neill: As Europe sees 

America's foremost playwright," 

"Eugene O'Neill as poet of the 

theatre," 222 
"Eugene O'Neill as social critic," 

"Eugene O'Neill at close range in 

Maine," 283* 
"Eugene O'Neill contemplates mor- 

tahty," 243* 
"Eugene O'Neill disgusted with 

opposition to stage art," 360 
"Eugene O'Neill, dramatist," 342 
"Eugene O'Neill: From Cardiff to 

Xanadu," 212* 
"Eugene O'Neill: His place in the 

sun," 231 
"Eugene O'Neill in Berlin," 376 
"Eugene O'Neill in France," 250 
"Eugene O'Neill in Russia," 251 
"Eugene O'Neill in the ascendant," 

"Eugene O'Neill: Intimate portrait 

of a Nobel prizewinner," 325 
"Eugene O'Neill miscellany, A," 

"Eugene O'Neill, newest of the 

Guilders," 239 
"Eugene O'Neill: Notes from a 

critic's diary," 398 
"Eugene O'Neill, poet and mystic," 

"Eugene O'Neill salutes Mr. An- 
derson's Winterset," 172 
"Eugene O'Neill: Son of Monte 

Cristo bom on Broadway," 

"Eugene O'Neill talks of his own 

plays," 240 
"Eugene O'Neill: The course of a 

modern dramatist," 254 
"Eugene O'Neill: The Hound of 

Heaven and the Hell Hole," 



"Eugene O'Neill: The inner man," 

25, 174 
"Eugene O'Neill, the lonely revo- 
lutionary," 291 
Eugene O'Neill: The man and his 

plays, 14,27,91,130,21'', 

226, 236 
"Eugene O'Neill, writer of syn- 
thetic drama," 205 
"Eugene O'Neill's credo and his 

reasons for his faith," J 68 
"Eugene O'Neill's darker brother," 

"Eugene O'Neill's early days in 

the old 'Hell Hole'," 260 
"Eugene O'Neill's long day's 

journey into light," 232 
"Eugene O'Neill's long journey," 

"Eugene O'Neill's lost modems," 

"Eugene O'Neill's plays printed 

abroad," 252 
"Eugene O'NeUl's posthumous 

plays," 259 
"Eugene O'Neill's shack," 315* 
"Eugene O'Neill's symbolism," 

"Eugene O'Neill's teacher," 241 
"Eugene O'Neill's world view," 

Euripides, 35 
European reputation ( See O'Neill, 

Eugene Gladstone, foreign rep- 
utation ) 
European theories of the drama, 

170, 22*, 1467 
Euthanasia Society of America, 

Evans, Harry, MOURN 1473 
Everybody's, 396; EJ Ji7 
"Exile made him appreciate U. S., 

O'Neill admits," 301 
EXORCISM, publication and 

production 112,139 
Expression in America, 74 
Expressionism ( See O'Neill, 

Eugene Gladstone, artistry and 

technique ) 

"Expressionistic drama in the 
American theatre," 156 

"Extraordinary story of Eugene 
O'Neill, The," 25,320* 

Fagin, N. Bryllion, 242*, 243*, 

244; LDJ 1287 
" 'Faithful realism': Eugene O'Neill 

and the problem of style," 366 
Falk, Doris V., 4, 16, 460, 39* 
Falk, Peter, 162 
Family reunion, 367 
Fareleigh, Margaret, J 36 
Farquhar, E. F., MARCO 1383 
Farren, George, 142 
Faulkner, William, 27 
Feder, 157 

Federal Theatre Project, i 56-1 57 
Feldman, Abraham, MOURN 

"Fellow student thought O'Neill 

very likable," 245 
Fergusson, Francis, 149, 246*; 

DAYS 706; MOURN 1474, 1500 
Ferrer, Jose, 160 
"Feuding again," 162* 
Field, Betty, 164 
Field, Sylvia, 154 
Fifty years of American drama, 

1900-1950, 32 
Fifty years of the South Atlantic 

Quarterly, reprints Woodbridge 

Fighters of fate, 92 
Figure in the Carpet, The, 217 
Finley, George, 145 
Finn, Elfin, 138 
Fire under the Andes, 117 
Firkins, Ina Ten Eyck, 462 
Firkins, O. W., BH 634; DIFF 

810-811; EJ 915-916; GOLD 

1010; MARCO 1344; STRAW 

FIRST MAN, THE, 34, 49, 53-55, 

78, 97, 211; as biography 12; 

production 143; publication 114, 


REVIEWS. NY opening 1922: 

938-950; other 1922: 951-961 


Fiskin, A. M., 24? 

Fitch, Clyde, 87 

"Flashlights of theatrical history: 
The old Provincetown," 218 

Fleischer, Frederic, 248, 393; 
TP 1729 

Flexner, Eleanor, 40, 126 

Flies, The, 367 

Foerster, Norman, reprints Thomp- 
son (tragedy) 41 

FOG, 47, 96, 109, 134 

Fontanne, Lynn, 139, 151 

Fordham University, production of 
LAZ, 40, 1275-1282 

Form and idea in modern theatre, 

Forum, 198, 318, 354 

Foster, Jacob Flavel, 460 

Foster, Philip, 154 

FOUNTAIN, THE, 36n, 54, 56-53, 
88, 107, 83, 274; O'Neill ex- 
plains 169; production 148; pub- 
lication 114,117,123,125 

REVIEWS. NY opening 1925: 
962-972; other 1925-1926: 973- 

Francis, Charles, 141 

Francis, John, 96 

Francis, Robert, DIFF 837; ICE 

Frankenstein, 894 

Frazee Theatre, 141 

Frederick, J. George, MOURN 

Freed, Frank H., 234, 249; GGB 

Freedley, George, 24; AHW 46 ; 
ICE 1180-1181; LAZ 1276; 
LOST 1336; MMIS 1413; SSG 

Freeman, 178, 277*; ANNA 546, 
565; BH 647; EJ 926; FM 952; 
GOLD 1020; HA 1100-1102. 
1104, 1112, 1123; STRAW 1707 

Freeman, Donald, FOUNT 980 

Freeman, Helen, 147 

Frenz, Horst, European reputation, 
176, 250- 253; ALL GC, DES 

Freud, Sigmund, 69, 12, 186, 

203, 393, 1673 
"Freud and O'Neill: An analysis 


( PhD dissertation ) 459 
Freud on Broadway, 120* 
" 'Freud' on the American stage," 

Freudian qualities of plays ( See 

O'Neill, Eugene Gladstone, 

philosophy and philosophical 

attitudes ) 
"From ape to man and from man 

to ape," 265 
Fuller, Rosalind, 145, 148 

G. A. N., THE, 111 

Gabriel, Gilbert, AHW 83, 406, 
423; BB 600; BH 657; DAYS 
67, 681, 707; DES 37, 731; DYN 
843, 867; FOUNT 36n, 966; 
GGB 38, 1027; MARCO 1363, 
1384-1385; MOURN 44, 1457; 
SSG 1543; SI 41, 1599, 1625; 
WELDED 1773 

Gage, Erford, 157 

Cagey, Edmond M., 29, 42 

Gaines, Richard, 152 

Callaway, Marian Hesse, 460 

Gallup, Donald, 129-131 

Garbo, Greta, 578 

Gardy, Louis, ILE 1235; ROPE 

Garland, Robert, AHW 407, 424- 
426; BB 601; DAYS 45, 67, 682, 
708-709; DES 757; DYN 844, 
868; ICE 46, 1162; LAZ 1277; 
MARCO 1345; MOURN 1458, 
1475; SSG 1581; SI 1675; 
WELDED 1767-1768 

Garrick (sic), BH 658 

Garrick Theatre, 14S 

Gassner, John, 28, 43-45*, 46, 
254, 256; ANNA, HA 46; ICE 
56, 1222; LDJ 1313 

Gaul, George, 153 

Gaul, Harvey, AHW 399 

Gaylord Farm sanitorium, 94 

Gaynor, Leonard, ICE 1207 




Geddes, Virgil, 153, 4, 47»-48, 

144, 204, 257, 285 
Geier, Woodrow, DAYS 727 
Gelb, Arthur, DES 795; GGB 

1081; HUGHIE 1152; TALE 

258; TP 258, 1748 
Genet, Jean, 44 
George M. Cohan Theatre, 147 
George Pierce Baker: A memorial, 

"George Pierce Baker and Eugene 

O'Neill," 289 
George Pierce Baker and the 

American Theatre, 66** 
"Georgia plays of Eugene O'Neill, 

The," 312 
Georgia Review, AHW & DAYS 

Ghosts, 1519 
Gibbs, Wolcott, AHW 463; ANNA 

586; DES 787; IGE 1182, 1223; 

LDJ 1314; MMIS 72, 1430; SSG 

Gierow, Karl-Ragnar, TALE 259 
Gilbert, Douglas, AHW 445 
Gilbert, Justin, MMIS 1422 
Gilbert, Ruth, 155, 159 
Gilder, Rosamond, reprints 

Hutchens ( MOURN ) ; Isaacs, 

Macgowan (EJ) 49; AHW 464; 

ICE 1183, 1208; MARCO 1346; 

SI 1626 
GUlette, Don Carle, FOUNT 

981; GGB 1045 
Gillette, William, 135 
GiUiam, Florence, EJ 917 
Gilmore, Margalo, 142,151 (See 

also various references MARCO 

Gilpin, Charles, 3-3, 57, 139-140. 

144, 149, 60 (See also references 

EJ, beginning No. 898) 
Givens, Cathy (Mrs. Shane 

O'Neill), 103-104 
Glaspell, Susan, 17, 96; Province- 
town history 50, 1018, 1522 
Glass, Everett, 135-136 
Gleason, Jackie, 4 

Glencairn cycle, 19, 77-78, 93, 
123, 125, 146, 119 (See also 

Goat Song, 170 
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 

J5, 83 
GOLD, 33, 54-55, 63*; production 

141; publication 113-114, 


REVIEWS. NY opening 1921: 

991-1006; other 1921-1922: 

Gold, Michael, 1107; ICE 260 
Goldberg, Isaac, 45, 51*; letters 

11, 169; 52* 
Golden Book, parody, 371; BB 

121; EJ 117; ILE 119 
Golden Swan (See Hell Hole) 
Good Housekeeping, personal 

reminiscences 297 
Goodman, Edward, 139 
Gordon, Michael, 160 
Gorelik, Mordecai, 161, 53 
Gorki, Maxim, 87, 1209, 1211, 

1213, 1219 
Gould, Arthur S., 460 
Gould, Bruce, DYN 869; MARCO 

1386; SI 1627 
Graduate research, 459-460 
Granger, Bruce Ingham, 261 
Grant, Neil F., English reputation 

Grauel, George E., DAYS 263 
"Great American dramatist, A," 


8, 19, 21, 52, 71, 73, 77, 80, 

82, 87, 99, 169, 5, 34, 83, 125, 

128, 131, 140, 151*, 205, 236*, 

249, 274, 368; as biography 13; 

O'Neill's explanation 11, 39, 64, 

34, 110*, Phoenix revival 1959 

4, 7, 49-50, 74, 165; production 

148-149, 165; publication 116- 

117, 121, 123, 125-126; use of 

masks 38, 40, 45 

REVIEWS. NY opening 1926: 

34, 1023-1033; other 1926-1931: 




56, 148, 1034-1066; NY revival 
1959: 1067-1074; other 1959: 

"Great God O'NeiU, The," 284 

"Great pendulum, The," 309 

Great tradition. The, 57 


Green, E. Mawby, IGE 1184 

Green Pastures, The, 296 

Greene, James, 162 

Greene, Lillian, 145 

Greenstreet, Sidney, 154 

Greenwich Village, 17, 24, 33, 60, 
77, 81, 95-97, 103, 133, 140, 162 
(These are page references out- 
side the bibliography. Incidental 
references to the Village are so 
numerous elsewhere as to be- 
come impractical to index) 

Greenwich Village Playbill, GGB 

Greenwich Village Players ( Thea- 
tre), 99,136,142,147-148 

Greenwich Village theatre pro- 
gram, prints article by O'Neill, 

Greenwich Villager, FM 958; HA 

Grey, Katherine, 141 

Groff, Edward, 264 

Gruening, Ernest, ALL GC 36, 
482; WELDED 1788 

Gude, Jack, 144 

Guide to great plays, 119 

Guild Theatre, 150, 154, 157, 20, 

Gump, Margaret, HA 265 

Habersham, Stanton, DES 732 
Hackett, Francis, ANNA 551 
Hadden, George, 13S 
Hahn, Vera T., 460 
"Hail, sailor, and farewell," 209 
HAIRY APE, THE, 7, JO. 30, 36, 
38, 53-54, 56, 97-98, 100, 167, 
18, 46, 83, 106, 135, 143, 151*, 
158*, 223, 265; as expressionism 
34-35; as monologue 41; as ro- 

manticism 79-80; as social com- 
ment 35; censorship of 58-59, 
144; production 143; publica- 
tion 114, 116-117, 120-121, 123- 
124, 126 

REVIEWS. NY opening 1922: 
1090-1097; other 1922-1934: 56 

Halasz, George, 266 

Hale, Louise Closser, J 38 

Hale, Henry Marion, 133 

Hall, Juanita, J 60 

Hall, Leonard, MARCO 1364; 
SI 1600, 1628 

Halline, Allan Gates, 460, 267 

Hahnan, Doris F., 268 

Hamilton, Charles, 162 

Hamilton, Clayton, 18, 95; BH 54, 
635; THIRST 269*, 1726 

Hamilton, Gladys, 18; personal 
reminiscences 270* 

Hamilton, Wm. Baskerville, re- 
prints Woodbridge 55 

Hamlet 67, 1478 

Hammond, Percy, AHW 408, 429 
ALL GC 473; ANNA 531, 566 
BH 659; DAYS 45, 683, 710 
DES 733; DYN 845, 870; 
FOUNT 967; HA 1091; 
MARCO 1365, 1387; MOURN 
1459; SSG 1544; SI 41, 1601, 
1629; STRAW 1696, 1712; 
WELDED 1774, 1789 

Hanau, Stella, Provincetown his- 
tory, 20, 109, 132, 168-169, 29* 

Hansen, Harry, DYN 871 

Hansford, Montiville M., personal 
reminiscences 21, 271* 

Hardy, Thomas, 22 

Harkins, John, BH 667 

Harper's 187; personal reminis- 
cences 398; ALL GC 490; LDJ 
1292; MOURN 1516 

Harper's Bazaar, ICE 1168 

Harrigan, William, 149 

Harrison, Hubert H., EJ 918 

Hart, Charles, J 59 

Hart, Moss, 149-150, 334 




Hartman Theatre ( Columbus ) , 

J 59 
Hartung, Philip H., LAZ 1278 
Harvard 47 Workshop, 19-20, 

95, 108-109, 66*, 245, 289, 386* 
Harwood, Harry, 142 
Hatch, Robert, ICE 1224; MMIS 

Haunted heroes of Eugene O'Neill, 

The, J 5, 38' 
"Haunting recollections of life with 

a genius," 272* 
Havel, Hippolyte, 1203 
Hawkins, William, ANNA 576; 

DES 775; ICE 1163, 1185, 1216; 

LAZ 1279; SSG 1582 
Hawthorne, Hildegard, 273 
Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 62, 291 
Hayes, Helen, 49, 164 
Hayes, Richard, ICE 1225; LDJ 

1315; MMIS 1432; TP 1749 
Hays, David, 161-162 
Hayward, Ira N., 274*, 393 
"He gave it to 'em, boy," 287 
"Head man in the drama," 163 
Heartbreak house, 69 
Heilman, Robert B., MOURN 10 
Heinemann, Eda, J 55 
Helbum, Theresa, 157-158; per- 
sonal reminiscences 21 , 275 
Helen Hayes Theatre, 162, 164 
Hell Hole, 20, 23-24, 95, 97, 152, 

Hemingway, Ernest, 27, 127, 363 
Henderson, Archibald, 276 
Henry Miller Theatre, 156 
"Hermit of Cape Cod, The," 

Hemdon, Genevra, 139, 460, 462 
Hersey, F.W., LAZ 1270 
Herzberg, H. J., 122 
Hewes, Henry, HUGHIE 1153; 

ICE 1226; LDJ 1288, 1316; 

MMIS 1433; TP 1730, 1750 
Hewitt, Barnard, reprints many re- 
views including Gassner, Krutch, 

Macgowan, Skinner and others, 

Hicks, Granville, 57 

Highley, Philo, MARCO 1366 

Hill, W. Clay, 137 

Hiller, Wendy, 49, 163-164 

Hines, Patrick, 165 

Historic significance of Eugene 

O'Neill's Strange Interlude, 

History of American letters. A., 

History of modern drama. A, 24 
History of the American drama 

from the Civil war to the present 

day, 27, 110* 
History of the American theatre 

1700-1950, 59 
Hobb, Jean, 137 
Hobe, GGB 1083; LDJ 1317; TP 

Hoffman, Frederick J., 58 
Hofmannsthal, Hugo von, 

European reputation 277* 
Hogarth, Leona, 149 
Hohl, Arthur E., 135 
Holden, Ruth, 155 
Holland, George, DAYS 673 
Holloway, Baliol, J 50 
HoUoway, J. Fred, 141 
Holm, Celeste, 160 (See also ref- 

ences ANNA beginning No. 571 ) 
"Homage to Eugene O'Neill," 255 
"Home on the dunes, " 180* 

Hope, Edward, SI 1630 
"Hopeful note in the theatre. A," 

Hopkins, Arthur, 21,141 
Hopkins, Charles, 157 
Hopkins, Mary Alden, FM 958; 

HA 1120 
Hopkins, Vivian C, ICE 1209 
Homblow, Arthur, ALL GC 483; 

AM 502; ANNA 567; BH 636; 

DES 758; DIFF 814; DYN 872; 

FM 959; FOUNT 983; GOLD 

1015; GGB 1051; HA 1121; ILE 

1239; ROPE 1537; SSG 1548; 

SI 42, 1624; STRAW 1731; 

WELDED 1790 




Houghton, William M., MARCO 

Hound and Horn, 246**; 
MOURN 1503 

"Hound of heaven, The," 95, 152 

House and Garden, O'Neill's resi- 
dence 85, 334" 

House of Satan, 95 

"How good is Eugene O'Neill? " 

Howard, Sidney, 292; DES 746 

Howlett, Stanley, 146 

Hubbell, Jay B., 464 

Hudson Dusters, 17-18, 20, 77, 

Hudson Review, TP 73, 1743 

Hughes, Arthur, 154 

Hughes, Elinor, DAYS 674 

Hughes, Glenn, 59 

HUGHIE, 4, 48, 129, 131; Stock- 
holm production 3 

REVIEWS. Stockholm 1152- 

Humanism and America, reprints 
Thompson 41 

Humanities, The, 65-66 

Huston, Walter, 130, 147-148 

Hutchens, John, MOURN 49; 

Hutchinson, Eleanor, 144 

Huxley, Aldous, 265 

Hylan, John, 59-60, 99 

I. W. W., 35 

"1 knew him when . . ." 386* 

Ibsen, Henrik, 15, 22, 32, 87, 33, 
73, 83, 1036, 1204, 1207, 1213, 

26, 29, 45-46, 68, 73, 86-88, 93, 
97, 103-104, 3*, 100, 172, 183, 
224*, 260, 309, 366; as biogra- 
phy 13, 95; production J 58, 161; 
publication 124, 126-128; 1956 
revival 3, 48-49 

REVIEWS. NY opening 1946: 
1156-1167; other 1946-1953: 1- 
2, 13, 76, 100, 148, 1168-1213; 

NY revival 1956: 1214-1219; 
other 1956-1958: 56, 1220-1231 

"Idea of tragedy in modem Ameri- 
can drama. The," (PhD disser- 
tation) 460 

"Idea of tragedy in the contem- 
porary American theatre. The," 
PhD dissertation) 459 

"If I were you," 352 

"If you were daughter to Eugene 
O'Neill," 297 

ILE, 78; production 135-136; 
publication 111-112,116-117, 
119, 123-125 

REVIEWS. 1232-1247 

"Illusion and reality in Eugene 
O'Neill," 261 

Illusions ( See O'Neill, Eugene 
Gladstone, philosophy and philo- 
sophical attitudes ) 

Immortal shadows, 148 

In search of theatre, 3* 

IN THE ZONE, 97; as biography 
12; publication and production 
112, 116, 124, 134 

REVIEWS. NY opening 1917: 

Independent, ANNA 570; BH 
622; DIFF 807; EJ 910, 923; 
GOLD 1011; HA 1131; STRAW 

Independent and Weekhf Review, 
AM 498; ANNA 555; DES 37, 
765; GGB 1062; HA 1148; SI 

Index to American doctoral disser- 
tations, 462 

Index to full length plays, 1926- 
1944, 465 

Index to one-act plays. An, 463 

Index to plays, 1800-1926, 462 

Indexes, 460-465 

Industrial Pioneer, GGB 1150 

Industrial Solidarity, HA 35, 

Inge, William, 394 

"Inge, O'Neill, and the human 
condition," 394 

Innovations ( See O'Neill, Eugene 




Gladstone, experiments and in- 
novations ) 
Intellectual America: Ideas on the 

march, 18 
Interchange of plays between 

London and New York, 9 
International index to periodicals. 

The, 463 
"International O'Neill, The," 298 
Interviews ( See O'Neill, Eugene 

Gladstone, interviews with ) 
Intimate notebooks of George Jean 

Nathan, The, 96 
lonesco, Eugene, 50, 74, 1068, 

Irish Academy of Letters, 102 
"Is O'Neill's power in decline?" 

Isaacs, Edith J. R., 26, 49, 278; 

Negro plays 60, 279; AHW 

430; ALL GC 60, 279; DAYS 

68, 711; EJ 60, 279 
Ivins, Perry, 147 

James, Henry, 62 

James, Patterson, BH 637; DIFF 

815; EJ 919; HA 35, 1122 
Janney, John, 280 
Jedd, Gerry, 165 
Jeffers, Robinson, 27 
Jeffrey, Mary, J 38 
Jenkins, Kathleen ( Mrs. Eugene 

O'Neill), 92-94,200* 
Jimmy the Priest, 93 ( See also 

Greenwich Village) 
John Golden Theatre, 151 
Johns, Mary, 147, 152 
Johnson, Aimette T., HA 1148 
Johnson, Merle De Vose, 463 
Jonah, Dolly, 162 
Jones, Carless, 281 
Jones, Johnny, MMIS 1415 
Jones, Robert Edmond, 17-18, 


155, 158; SI 61 
Jordan, EHzabeth, AHW 431; 

DYN 873; MOURN 1477; SI 

Joseph, Bea, 461 

Journal of Aesthetics and Art 

Criticism, LDJ 192* 
Journal of Commerce, ANNA 526, 

573; BH 614; DES 730; GOLD 

998; ICE 1198; ILE 1246; LDJ 

1298; MARCO 1360; MMIS 

1427; SI 1621; TP 1737 
Journal of Expression, 374 
Jowlett, Stanley, 147 
Joy, Nicholas, J 58 
Joyce, James, 1616,1631 
Judge, DES 748; DYN 884; 

MARCO 1395; MOURN 1483; 

SSG 1549; SI 1640 
Jung, Carl, 69, 186, 393 
Just the other day, 85 

Kafka Franz, 265 

Kalonyme, Louis, biography 282; 
FOUNT 984; GGB 1052; LAZ 

Kamemy Theatre, 171 

Kane, Whitford, J 36 

Kansas Magazine, 311 

Kantor, Louis, ALL GC 484; HA 

Karsner, David, interview & per- 
sonal reminiscences 21, 62, 
283*, 310 

Katzin, Winifrid, 284 

Kaucher, Dorothy J., 460, 63* 

Kaufman, S. Jay, ANNA 532, 
553; BH 638; DIFF 816; GOLD 
1016-1017; STRAW 1714 

Kaye, Virginia, 158 

Keane, Doris, 144 

Kehoe, M. E., LAZ 1271 

Keith, Robert, 149-150 

Kelly, Robert, 138 

Kemehnan, H. G., 204, 285* 

Kemp, Harry, personal reminis- 
cences 20, 133, 286* 

Kenton, Edna, Provincetown his- 
tory 64 

Kentucky Foreign Language 
Quarterly, HA 265 

Kenyan Review, 172 

Kerr, Walter, 65, 287-288; ANNA 
577, 587-588; DES 776, 788- 


789; GGB 50, 1072; ICE 1217; 
LDJ 56, 65, 287, 1302; MMIS 
49, 1423 

Kerrigan, J. M., 159 

Kidder, Hugh, 149 

Kilian, Victor, 150 

King, Alexander, 119-120 

"King of tragedy," 164 

Kingsford, Walter, 146 

Kinne, Wisner Payne, Baker & 
Harvard 66*, 289 

Kirstein, Lincoln, MOURN 1503 

Kissel, Bud, MMIS 1404 

Klaw Theatre, 148 

Knickerbocker, Frances W., 
MOURN 1504 


Koch, Elaine, 150 

Kommer, Rudolf, European repu- 
tation & ANNA 290 

Krainis, Abraham, 146 

Kreymborg, Alfred, 23, J 18, 67 

Kronenberger, Louis, AHW 452, 
465; ICE 1187 

Kruger, Otto, 142 

Krutch, Joseph Wood, 27, 62, 70, 
88, 121, 123, 125, 4, 68", 69'- 
70, 89, 107, 121, 126, 172, 291*- 
293, 294*-295* 296; AHW 84, 
432, 466; ANNA 589-590; BH 
668; DAYS 68, 712; DES 56, 
128, 747, 759-761; DYN 874- 
875; GGB 56, 128, 1053-1054; 
HUGHIE 1154; ICE 1188; LAZ 
1267; LDJ 296, 1289, 1318; 
MARCO 1347, 1389; MMIS 
1416; MOURN 67, 128, 1478, 
1505; SI 42, 128, 296, 1633- 
1634, 1676; TP 1732, 1752; 
WELDED 1791 

Kutner, Nanette, personal remi- 
niscences 297 

Lafayette Theatre, 156 
Lamm, Martin, 71* 
Landauer, Bella C, European 

reputation 298 
Landauer collection. Baker library, 

Dartmouth, 465 

Landmark, The, 199 

Langner, Lawrence, 157-158; 
personal reminiscences 11, 21, 

Lansing, Robert, 165 

Lardner, John, ANNA, DES 299; 
TP 1753 

Larimore, Earl, 151, 154, 156 


"Last will and testament of Silver- 
dene Emblem O'Neill," 172 

Latimer, Judge Frederick P., 18, 

"Laurel wreaths," 201 

Laurents, Arthur, 192 

Lawson, John Howard, 73*, 196 

118, 5, 131, 190, 214-215, 368; 
Fordham production 40; man to 
God theme 68; Pasadena pro- 
duction 40, 151-152; publication 
117-118, 121, 123, 125; use of 
masks 39-40 

REVIEWS. Book 1262-1269; 
Pasadena 1928: 1270-1274; 
Fordham 1948: 1275-1282; 
other 1283 

Leary, Lewis, 463 

Lecky, Eleazer, MOURN 1519 

Lee, Canada, 157 

Le Galhenne, Eva, 157 

Leigh, Philip, J 51 

Leisy, E. E., 464 

Leland, Gordon, BH 669; 
MARCO 1390; SI 1635 

Lenz, Elita M., SSG 1568 

Leonard, Baird, MOON C 1444 

Lemer, Max, LDJ 1319 

Letters ( See O'Neill, Eugene Glad- 
stone, letters ) 

Letters, MARCO 1383 

Letters from greenroom ghosts, 

Levick, L. E., HA 1124 

Levin, W., 122 

Lewis, Albert, 162 

Lewis, Theophilus, GGB 1085; 
ICE 1228; LDJ 1291; MMIS 
1434; TP 1754 


Lewis, Tommy, J 58 

Lewisohn, Ludwig, 74, 300; ALL 

GC 36, 485; BH 56, 639; EJ 

920; GOLD 1018; HA 1125; 

WELDED 1792 
Lewys, Georges, 101 
Liberty Theatre, 154 
Library Journal, LDJ 1336; 

MMIS 1413 
Lies like truth, 25 
Life ( new series ) , 343; biography 

272*; AHW 460; ANNA 173, 

592; DES 791; ICE 1173; LDJ 

173, 1290, 1324; MMIS, TP 173 
Life (old series), ANNA 545; BH 

644; DES 743; DYN 855; 

FOUNT 975; GOLD 1008; GGB 

1038; HA 1103; MARCO 1376; 

MOURN 1473; ROPE 1539; SI 

1615; STRAW 1706; WELDED 

"Life is a bowl of Eugene 

O'Neills," 371 


Light, James, 60, 137, 140, 145- 

146, 149 
Lincoln, Eugene, 140 
Lindbergh, Charles A., 21, 275 
Lindley, Ernest K., interview 301 
Lindsay, Lex, J 59 
"List of foreign editions and trans- 
lations of Eugene O'Neill's 

dramas. A," 253 
Literary Digest, AHW 427; BH 

619; DAYS 700; DYN 887; 

MARCO 1394; MOURN 1484; 

SI 42, 1665 
Literary history of the United 

States, 128" 
Literary opinion in America, 149 
"Literary taste in America," 235 
Literature of the American people, 

The, 111 
Littell, Robert, BB 602, 608; 

DIFF 831; DYN 846, 876-877; 

MARCO 1368; SSG 1569; SI 

41, 1602, 1636, 1677 

Little Theatre, 138 

Little theatre in the U. S., The, 

Littlejohn, Dorothy, J 58 

Liveright, Horace, JO, 54 

Liveright, O. K., 135-137 

Living stage. The, 78 

Lockhart, Gene, 155 

Lockridge, Richard, AHW 83, 
409, 433, 453, 467; BB 603; 
DAYS 684, 713; DYN 847; 
MOURN 44, 1460, 1479 

Logasa, Hannah, 463 

London Times Literary Supple- 
ment, 162, 204* 

NIGHT, 3, 5-6, 8, 29, 35, 45, 
48-49, 52, 72-73, 86, 89, 103, 
172, 65, 165, 173, 192*, 200*, 
224*, 287, 296, 340*, 366; as 
biography 12, 14, 18, 27-28, 72- 
73; production 162-163; publica- 
tion 128; Stockholm production 
3, 128, 163 

REVIEWS. Book 1956: 1284- 
1295; NY opening 1956: 56, 
1296-1304; other 1956-1959; 25, 
107, 1305-1331 

"Long tragic journey. A," 200* 

43, 97-98; production J 35; pub- 
Ucation 111-112,116-117, 125 

Look, biography 210; ANNA, 
DES 299 

Look back in anger, 1755 

Loraine, Robert, 156 

Lord, Pauline, 142 (See also ref- 
erences ANNA beginning No. 

Lord Chamberlain ( London ) , 58 

LOST PLAYS, 95, 107-108, 126- 
128, 1332-1340 

Lovell, John, Jr., Negro plays 302 

Loving, Pierre, 23, 303* 

Lower depths. The, 46, 87, 1209, 
1211, 1230 

Lowry, Judith, J 50 

Luccock, Halford E., MOURN 75 

Lucifer at large, 77 


Lunt, Alfred, 150 
Lustig, Norman, LAZ 1268 
Lyceum Theatre, J 61 
Lyons, Phil, 137 

McAdoo, William G., 59 

McAteer, M. A., 139-140 

Macaulay, Joseph, 136 

McCardell, Roy L., 304* 

McCarthy, Kevin, 160 

McCarthy, Mary T., ICE 76, 1189; 
MMIS 1417; TP 1755 

McClain, John, 305; ANNA 578; 
DES 777; GOB 50, 1073; ILE 
1218; LDJ 1303; MMIS 1424; 
TP 1739 

McCole, C. John, Freud 77 

McDonald, Francis, 136 

MacDougal, Alice, 135 

McEUiott, BH 640 

McFarland, Nan, J 60 

McGavran, Mary V., MMIS 1405 

McGee, Howard, 146, 149, 152 

Macgowan, Kenneth, 17-18, 23, 
60, 94, 99, 111, 144, 148, 78, 
308, 396; biography 307; AM 
503; ANNA 56, 533, 568-569; 
BH 641-642; 651; DES 78; 
DIFF 817; DYN 878-879; EJ 
49, 56, 900, 921; FM 960; 
GOLD 999; GGB 1055-1056; 
HA 1092, 1126-1129, 1149; 
STRAW 1697, 1715-1716; 
WELDED 1793-1795 

McGranary, Al, J 58 

McGuire, Harry, SI 1678 

Machet, Sidney, 146 

Mclnemey, Joseph, J 50 

Mack, James C, 141 

Mack, Willard, 141 (See also ref- 
erences FOUNT beginning No. 

Mackay, Constance D'Arcy, 
Provincetown history 79 

MacMahon, Aline, 150 

Macy, John, MARCO 1348 

Macy, Sidney, 138 

Magic curtain. The, 11, 21,7 2** 

Maier, Norman R., SI 80 

"Main currents of thought in 
American drama," (PhD dis- 
sertation ) 460 
Mainstream, LDJ 1327 
Makers of the modern world, 136 
"Making plays with a tragic end: 
An intimate interview with Eu- 
gene O'Neill, who tells why he 
does it," 25, 313 
Maiden, Karl, 161 
Malone, Kemp, SI 1679 
Mamoulian, Rouben, 150 
BACK, 131 
Mann, Theodore, 161,163 
Mannes, Marya, ICE 1229; LDJ 

1322; TP 1756 
Mansfield, Richard, Jr., 96 
Mansfield Theatre, J 50 
Mantle, Bums, 132, 135,81; 
AHW 410, 434, 454; ALL GC 
474; ANNA 33, 534; BH 643, 
660; DAYS 685, 714; DES 37, 
734; DYN 848, 881; EJ 139, 
901; FM 945; GOLD 1000; 
GGB 1057; HA 1093; ILE 1241; 
IN Z 135, 1254; MARCO 1369, 
1391; MOURN 1461, 1480; 
ROPE 1527; SI 1603, 1637; 
STRAW 1698; WELDED 1775 
"Many are called, and two are 
chosen for the dramatic hall of 
fame," 326 
Marblehead, Mass., 104-105 
March, Frederic, J 63 
March, Michael, DAYS 715 
MARCO MILLIONS, 54, 58, 84, 
88, 100, 142, 83, 93, 151*, 215; 
production 150-151, 154; pub- 
lication 116,118,121,123, 125- 

REVIEWS. Book 1341-1356; 
NY opening 1928: 1357-1373; 
other 1928: 1374-1403 
Marion, George, 141 
Markey, Enid, 158 
Markham, Marcella, 159 
Marlowe, Christopher, 12 
Marquis, Marjorie, J 55 


Marr, Joe, 159, 162 

Marriott, John, J 58 

Marsh, Leo A., ANNA 535; BH 
613; FM 946; GOLD 1001; 
GGB 1029; STRAW 1699 

Marshall, Armina, J 58 

Marshall, E. G., 158 

Martin, James, 146 

Martin, Linton, ANNA (CHRIS) 

Martin, Nan, 165 

Martin Beck Theatre, 152, 158 

Masefield, John, 1268 

Masks {See O'Neill, Eugene Glad- 
stone, experiments and innova- 
tions ) 

Mason, Hazel, 149 

Masse Mensch, 35, 1132 

Masses, The, O'Neill's poetry, 10, 

Masses and Mainstream, 196 

Masters of the drama, 28, 44 

Materia critica, 97 

Mathews, Billy, 160 

Mathews, George, 160 

Matinee tomorrow, 86 

Maupassant, Guy de, 354 

Maxine Elliott Theatre, 157 

May fair, 26, 170 

Mayfair Theatre, 149, 334 

Mayo, Thomas P., DAYS, ICE 

Mayorga, Margaret, 82 

"Meaning of the modem drama," 

Medina, Judge Harold, 104 

"Meet Eugene O'Neill," 278 

"Meet Eugene O'Neill, fisher- 
man, " 216 

Meighan, James, 145-146 

Melnitz, William, 78 

Melodramadness of Eugene 
O'Neill, The, 153, 47" 

Meltzer, Harold, 136 

Melville, Herman, 62, 291 

"Memoranda on masks," 69, 171 

"Men who write our plays. The," 

Mencken, H. L. 17-18, 111, 115, 

Merle Johnson's American first 

editions, 463 
Merrill, Charles A., interview, 25, 

Mestayer, Harry, 154 
Metcalfe, J. S., ALL GC 468; AM 

504; BH 644; DES 735; FOUNT 

968; GGB 1030; WELDED 

Meyer, Josephine A., 136 
Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Re- 
view, 232 
Mickle, Alan D., 15, 83* 
Middleton, George, letters 84 
Miller, Arthur, 264 
Miller, Jordan Y., 460,311; 

AHW, DAYS 312 
Millington, Norris, 142 
Minority report, 30* 
"Minority report," 220* 
"Mr. Eugene O'Neill," 236* 
"Mr. O'Neill and the iceman," 

Mitchell, George, 161 
"Modern American drama II," 

Modern drama, 71* 
Modern Drama, 264; DES 794; 

ICE 1221; MOURN 1515 
Modern dramatic structure, 460, 

"Modem dramaturgy, British and 

American," ( PhD dissertation ) 

Modern Language Notes, 261; 

Nietzschean influences 368; GGB 

368; LAZ 368; MOURN 368, 

Modern Language Quarterly 152; 

LAZ 1283 
Modernism in modern drama, 70 
Moeller, Phillip, 151-152, 154- 

156, SI 1638 
Moise, Nina, 135-136 
Mollan, Malcolm, interview 25, 

Money writes!, 122 


Montcarr, Tiobert, 134 

Monterey, Carlotta ( Mrs. Eugene 
O'Neill ) , 85,1 00, 1 05, 1 28-1 29, 
162-163, 172, 340 

TEN, A, 5, 29-30, 46-47, 49, 
72, 86-88, 103-104, 120, 165, 
173, 366; as biography 14, 99; 
censorship of 61n; production 4, 
132, 159, 163-164; publication 

REVIEWS. Columbus tryout 
1947: 1404-1406; other 1947- 
1954: 25, 1407-1417; NY open- 
ing 1957: 1418-1425; other 
1957: 1426-1438 

THE, as biography 12; produc- 
tion 137; publication 111-112, 
114-117, 121, 125 

REVIEWS. NY opening 1918: 
1439-1440; book 1441-1451 

Moon of the Caribbees and six 
other plays of the sea, 98 (See 
also above, book reviews ) 

Moore, Dennie, 158 

Moore, Pauline, 148 


Morehouse, Ward, 85-86; inter- 
view 314; ICE 46, 1164; SSG 

Morgan, Frederick, ICE 1210 

Morgan, Kate, 136 

Morison, Rose, 157 

Morley, Ruth, J 63 

Morning after the first night. The, 

Morosco Theatre, 188 

Morrill, M. M., O'Neill's residence, 
75, 80, 315*, 384 

Morris, Lloyd R., 87 

Morris, Mary, 147 

Morrow, Macklin, 148 

Moses, Montrose J., 69, 72, 88, 
316-318; reprints Anderson 
(DAYS), Benchley (MOURN), 
Broun (BH), Krutch 89; AHW 

317; ALL GC 88; DYN 883; 
"Most celebrated U. S. playwright 

returns to theatre," 343 
Motherwell, Hiram, 70, 72, 319; 
DAYS 717; FOUNT 982; 
MOURN 561, 1481 
Motley, 163 

TRA, 5, 43-44, 50, 65-66, 68, 85, 
101, 4*, 10, 18, 35, 45*, 75, 90, 
96, 128, 132, 190, 203, 214, 367- 
368, 370*, 373; as romanticism 
83; compared to Oresteia 65-66; 
production 154-155; publication 
121, 123, 125-126; working diary 
11,43, 170, 22* 

REVIEWS. NY opening 1931: 
15, 1452-1462; other 1931-1959: 
17, 49, 56, 89, 107, 145, 147- 
149, 1463-1519 
Mower, Margaret, 143 
Muchnic, Helen, ICE 1211 
Muller, Henry J., tragedy & 

MuUett, Mary B., 25, 320* 
Mumford, Lewis, 118; LAZ 1269 
Musical versions, 4, 173 
Musser, Tharon, 163, 165 
Myers, Henry Alonzo, tragedy 91 
Myers, J. Arthur, biography 92 
Mysticism {See O'Neill, Eugene 
Gladstone, philosophy and philo- 
sophical attitudes ) 
"Mystics in the modem theatre," 

Nagle, Allen, 147 

Nantucket, Mass., 99 

Nathan, George Jean, 10, 17-18, 
31, 52, 70, 98, 102, 111, 115, 
169, 1, 93-99, 103-104, 138, 176, 
321, 323, 326, 328; personal 
reminiscences 22, 101-102*, 322, 
324-325, 327, 329; AHW 99, 
435; ALL GC 95, 487; AM 505; 
ANNA 591; BH 103, 645; DAYS 
99, 718-719; DES 748, 762-763, 




790; DYN 99, 884-885; FM 97, 
986; GGB 1058; ICE 159, 1, 
100, 1190; MOON C115; 
MARCO 93, 1351, 1395; 
MOURN 96, 1483, 1507-1508; 
SSG 1549, 1591; SI 1639-1641; 
WELDED 97, 1797 

Nation, The, 292, 300; AHW 432, 
466; ALL GC 36, 485; ANNA 
589; BH 639, 668; DAYS 712; 
DES 747, 754, 759-761; DYN 
874-875; EJ 920; GOLD 1018; 
GGB 1053-1054, 1079; HA 
1125; ICE 1188, 1224; LAZ 
1267; LDJ 1286, 1309; MARCO 
1347, 1389; MMIS 1410, 1414, 
1431; MOON C 1451; MOURN 
1478, 1505; SI 1634, 1676; TP 
1761; WELDED 1791-1792 

National Institute of Arts & 
Letters, 99 

Naturalism (See O'Neill, Eugene 
Gladstone, artistry and tech- 
nique ) 

Nazimova, Alia, 154 (See also 
references MOURN beginning 
No. 1452) 

"Negro in drama and the theatre, 
The," ( PhD dissertation ) 460 

Negro in the American theatre. 
The, 60 

"Negro in the American theatre, 
The," 279 

Negro plays ( See O'Neill, Eugene 
Gladstone, Negro plays) 

Negro World, EJ 918 

Neighborhood Playhouse, 139, 
143, 20 

Neuberger, Richard L., interview 

" 'New' Eugene O'Neill, The," 
69, 317 

New girl in town ( adaptation of 
ANNA) 4, 173 

New Leader, DYN 891-892; ICE 
1197; MARCO 1401; SI 1652 

New London, Conn., 18,92,94, 
270, 1321, 1324 

New London Telegraph, 18, 94, 

New Masses, The, 99 

New Outlook, AHW 420; DAYS 
68, 696 

New Republic, 70, 195, 235, 
359*, 377*, 390, 397; biography 
359*; AHW 441; ALL GC 36, 
488; ANNA 551; BH 652; DAYS 
377, 724; DES 750; DIFF 820, 
831; DYN 897; EJ 927; FOUNT 
990; GGB 1066, 1078; HA 1145; 
ICE 1202; LDJ 1287; LOST 
1338; MARCO 1403; MMIS 87, 
1408; MOURN 1493; SSG 1587; 
SI 1672; STRAW 1687; TP 
1729, 1745 

New Statesman, EJ 937 

New Theatre, 391 

New theatres for old, 53 

"New trends in the theatre: IV 
American," 318 

New York ( See any of various per- 
tinent subjects. Because of con- 
tinual mention throughout this 
volume no indexing of New York 
as separate entry is practical or 
useful ) 

New York newspapers. 

American 211, 360; AHW 406, 
423; ANNA 528; BB 600; BH 
630, 656; DAYS 67, 681, 707; 
DES 799; DYN 843, 867; EJ 
908, 934; FM 211, 941; FOUNT 
965; GOLD 993; HA 1109, 
1136; IN Z 1250; MARCO 1362, 
1397; MOURN 44, 1457; ROPE 
1524; SSG 1541, 1557; SI 4, 
1598, 1622; STRAW 211, 1691; 
WELDED 1782 

Call, 345; poems 10, 94, 167; 
ANNA 547-548; BH 632; DIFF 
805; EJ 899, 907; FM 953; 
GOLD 1009; HA 34, 1108, 
1123; ILE 1235; ROPE 1526; 
STRAW 1724 

Clipper, ANNA 541; BH 623; 
DIFF 818; EJ 33, 925; FM 957; 



GOLD 1014; HA 1118; ROPE 
1521; STRAW 1722 

Commercial, ANNA 537; DIFF 
799; FM 948; GOLD 1004; 
WELDED 1778 

Compass, LOST 1337 

Daily Mirror, biography 392; 
AHW 412, 451; ANNA 574; 
DAYS 687; DES 744; FOUNT 
964; GGB 1026, 1071; ICE 
1160, 1214; LDJ 1299; LOST 
1349; MARCO 1361; MMIS 
1422; MOURN 1456; SSG 1578; 
SI 1597; TP 73, 1738 

Daily News, 26; AHW 410, 434, 
454; ALL GC 474; ANNA 560, 
572; BB 599; BH 660; DAYS 
685, 714; DES 37, 734, 773; 
DYN 848, 881; FM 961; GGB 
1057, 1069; HA 1143; ICE 
1159, 1176; LDJ 1297; MARCO 
1369, 1391; MMIS 1419; 
MOURN 1461, 1480; SSG 
1561, 1577; SI 1603, 1637; 
STRAW 1725; TP 1736; 
WELDED 1775 

Globe, ANNA 532-533, 550; BH 
638, 642, 651; DIFF 796, 816; 
EJ 900; FM 943; GOLD 999; 
HA 35, 1092, 1111, 1127-1128, 
1132, 1139; ILE 1242, 1244; IN 
Z 1258; MOON C 1447; ROPE 
1528; STRAW 1697 

Graphic, DES 732; DYN 851; 
GGB 1028; MARCO 1372; SI 

Herald, ANNA 33, 530, 554; BH 
612; DIFF 812; EJ 914; FM 
947; GOLD 996; HA 1094; ILE 
1233; IN Z 1251; MOON C 
1440; ROPE 1533; STRAW 
1695, 1719; WELDED 1783, 

Herald-Tribune, 227, 287-288, 
358, 381-383; article by O'Neill 
170; Baker & Harvard 245; in- 
terview 240, 283*, 301, 384; 
personal reminiscences 19, 333; 
AHW 408, 413, 422, 429, 436, 

457; ALL GC 473; AM 495; 
ANNA 577, 587, 589; BB 598; 
BH 659, 664; DAYS 683, 705, 
710; DES 733, 756, 771, 776, 
789; DIFF 826; DYN 845, 870, 
890, 894; EJ 935; FOUNT 967, 
979; GGB 1044, 1072; HA 1151; 
ICE 1158, 1171, 1178, 1207, 
1217; LAZ 1269; LDJ 287, 
1302; LOST 1335; MARCO 
1343, 1353, 1355, 1365, 1387; 
MMIS 1412; MOURN 1459, 
1472, 1485, 1488; SSG 1544, 
1560, 1565, 1576; SI 4, 1601, 
1629-1630, 1633, 1647; TP 1741 
Illustrated News, BH 640 
Journal, AHW 403; ANNA 527; 
BB 596; BH 658; DAYS 67, 678, 
688-689; DYN 840, 852; GOLD 
1006; HA 1117; MARCO 1358; 
MOURN 44, 1453; ROPE 1536; 
SSG 1559; SI 1595; STRAW 
Journal-American, 305; AHW 
448; ANNA 578; DES 777; GGB 
1073; ICE 1162, 1190, 1194, 
1218; LAZ 1277; LDJ 1303; 
MMIS 1424; SSG 1581, 1591; 
TP 1739 
Mail, ANNA 33, 534; BH 643; 
EJ 901; FM 945; GOLD 1000; 
HA 1093; ILE 1241; IN Z 1254; 
ROPE 1527; STRAW 1698 
News Record, BH 624; ILE 1232 
Post, 53, 69, 172, 186; biography 
200*, 306, 375; AHW 405, 438, 
456; ALL GC 475; AM 493; 
ANNA 538, 580, 593; BB 602; 
BH 615, 620, 654; DAYS 67, 
680, 693-694; DES 736, 779, 
792; DIFF 800, 824, 838; DYN 
846, 877, 879; EJ 904, 930; FM 
949; FOUNT 963; GOLD 1005, 
1012; GGB 1024, 1034, 1074, 
1089; HA 34, 1095, 1114, 1142; 
ICE 1165, 1167, 1199, 1219; 
ILE 1238; IN Z 1259; LAZ 
1262, 1281; LDJ 1304, 1319; 
LOST 1340; MARCO 1368; 


MMIS 1425; MOON C 1450; 
MOURN 44, 1455, 1467, 1495; 
ROPE 1535, 1545; SSG 1562, 
1571, 1584; SI 41, 1608-1610, 
1627, 1636, 1663, 1677; STRAW 
1684, 1703; TP 73, 1740, 1762; 
WELDED 1779 

Review, ANNA 559; BH 625; 
DIFF 813; GOLD 1019; 
MARCO 1393; SI 1648; STRAW 

Star, GOB 1099 

Sun, 238; interview and biography 
314; AHW 409, 433, 453, 467; 
ALL GC 478, 489; AM 497, 
499, 508; ANNA 33, 525; BB 
603; BH 649-650, 657; DAYS 
684, 713; DES 741; DIFF 798, 
834; DYN 847; EJ 903, 913, 
936; FM 944; FOUNT 36n, 966 
GOLD 997; GGB 1027; HA 
1137; ICE 1164; ILE 1247; IN 
Z 1249, 1257; LAZ 1265; 
MARCO 1363, 1384, 1388; 
MOON C 1442, 1445; MOURN 
44, 1460, 1479; ROPE 1529, 
1534; SSG 1558, 1567, 1583; SI 
1599, 1625, 1651; STRAW 
1694, 1721; WELDED 1773 

Telegram ( also Telegram and 
Mai/), biography 388; ALL 
GC 477; ANNA 524, 552; BB 
601; BH 617, 662, 667; DES 
37, 731; DIFF 822; DYN 844, 
859, 868; EJ 932; FM 939; 
FOUNT 971; GOLD 1002; 
GGB 1033; HA 1096; ILE 
1237; IN Z 1260; MARCO 
1345, 1364; ROPE 1532; SSG 
1543, 1556; SI 1600, 1628, 
1675; STRAW 1702; WELDED 

Telegraph, 201, 304*; AHW 416, 
462; ANNA 535, 584; BH 613, 
633, 670; DAYS 691; DES 37, 
12,1, 781; DYN 201, 842, 856; 
FM 946; GOLD 1001; GGB 
1029, 1077; ICE 1180-1181; 
ILE 1245; IN Z 1261; LAZ 

1276; LDJ 1308; MARCO 1366; 
MOON C 1444; MOURN 1465; 
SSG 1589; SI 201, 1607, 1666; 
STRAW 1699; WELDED 1777; 
WCM 1804 

Times, 11,103, 168, 157-158, 
160-162', 163-165, 181, 202, 
273, 295'-296, 342, 344, 364; 
articles by O'Neill 169, 171; 
biography 282, 307; European 
reputation 290, 335; interview 22, 
166, 330; letters 167-168, 170; 
Nobel prize 159, 241; non- 
dramatic O'Neill 332; personal 
reminiscences of Mrs. O'Neill 
340*; AHW 404, 449; ALL GC 
59-60, 472, 481, 484; AM 494, 
500-501; ANNA 160, 290, 539, 
561-562, 564, 571; BB 597; BH 
618, 648, 655; DAYS 67, 679, 
690, 716; DES 37, 158, 160, 
742, 746, 752, 795; DIFF 802, 
825, 833, 835; DYN 841, 853, 
882; EJ 158, 905, 931; FM 950; 
FOUNT 969, 973; GOLD 995; 
GGB 1025, 1036, 1060, 1068, 
1075, 1081; HA 59, 158, 1097, 
1144; HUGHIE 1152; ICE 
1157, 1169-1170, 1200, 1213; 
ILE 1243; IN Z 135, 1255; LAZ 
1263-1264, 1275; LDJ 165, 
1284-1285, 1293, 1296, 1306- 
1307, 1318; LOST 1334; 
MARCO 1341, 1359, 1375, 1396; 
MMIS 165, 1414, 1417-1418, 
1426; MOURN 44, 66, 1454, 
1463, 1487, 1494; ROPE 1530; 
SSG 1542, 1555, 1563, 1575, 
1585; SI 41, 1596, 1612-1613, 
1638, 1664; STRAW 1688, 
1704; TALE 129-130, 258; TP 
258, 1727-1728, 1732, 1735, 
1742, 1748; WELDED 1772, 
1787, 1794 

Tribune, ANNA 531, 566; BH 610, 
628-629; DIFF 168, 797; EJ 
898; FM 34, 940; GOLD 992; 
HA 1091, 1115; ILE 1234; IN 
Z 1248; MOON C 1439, 1441; 


ROPE 1520, 1523; STRAW 
1696, 1712; WELDED 1774, 
1789; WCM 1803 

World, 19, 96, 376; censorship 60; 
interview 372; O'Neill residence 
380*; personal reminiscences 
386; ALL GC 471; AM 492; 
ANNA 529, 549; BB 607; BH 
611, 616, 661; DES 728, 739, 
755; DIFF 801, 803, 821; DYN 
849, 865-866, 871, 886; EJ 922, 
929; FM 942; FOUNT 972; 
GOLD 944; GGB 1031; HA 34, 
59, 1090, 1105-1107, 1110, 
1130; IN Z 1253, 1256; MARCO 
1348, 1370, 1373, 1398; MOON 
C 1443; ROPE 1522, 1525; SSG 
1547, 1554, 1564, 1566, 1570; 
SI 41, 1605, 1617, 1642-1643, 
1669-1670; STRAW 1690, 
1692-1693, 1708, 1711; 
WELDED 1776, 1780, 1798 

World^Telegram, AHW 407, 415, 
424-426, 445, 450; DAYS 67, 
682, 708-709; DIFF 836; ICE 
1163, 1185; LAZ 1279; MOURN 
1458, 1475; SSG 1582 

World-Telegram and Sun, ANNA 
576; DES 775; GGB 1067; ICE 
1216; LDJ 1301; MMIS 1421; 
TP 1734 

New York Public Library, 120, 

New York Times Index, 464 

New Yorker, The, 167; profiles 
26, 91, 171*, 176; AHW 463; 
ANNA 586; DES 787; DYN 43, 
858; FOUNT 982; GGB 1050, 
1088; ICE 1182, 1223; LDJ 
1314; MARCO 1354, 1377; 
MMIS 72, 1430; MOURN 1464; 
SSG 1590; SI 1616; TP 1753 

Newsday, GGB 1087; ICE 1230; 
LDJ 1325 

Newsweek, 25, 336, 389; AHW 
428; DAYS 45, 701; DES 784; 
GGB 1084; ICE 1191; LDJ 
1329; MMIS 1436; TP 1758 

Niblo, Fred, Jr., DES 37, 737 

Nichols, Anne, 968 
Nichols, Dudley, EJ, STRAW 

119; SSG 1570; SI 41, 1605 
NicoU, Allardyce, 105 
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 248, 368, 

393, 1283 
Nine plays of Eugene O'Neill, 

121, 123, 125, 69' 
Nixon Theatre ( Pittsburgh ) , J 55 
No voice is wholly lost, 126* 
Nobel prize ( See O'Neill, Eugene 

Gladstone, Nobel prize award ) 
Nolan, Dorothee, 152 
Norcross, Hale, 158 
Nordfelt, Bion, 133 
North, Sterling, ICE 46, 1165 
North American Review, 69, 316- 

317, 361 
Northport, Long Island, 101 
Norton, Elliot, 331 
"Notes on rare books," 332 

J 31 

O'Brien, Geraldene, 141 

Observer, The (London), 236* 

O'Casey, Sean, 1738 

Off Broadway productions, GGB 
4, 7, 49-50; ICE 29 

O'Hara, Frank Hurburt, HA 106 

Oklahoma!, 296 

OLDEST MAN, THE, 114,143 


O'Loghlen, Clement, 146 

"On the late plays of Eugene 
O'Neill," 224* 

"On the rebound back to Broad- 
way, with its bad plays, from 
'cult' pieces," 211 

"One-act play, The," 202 

O'Neill, Ellen (Ella) Quinlan, 

O'Neill, Eugene Gladstone 

general remarks and miscellane- 
ous criticism 

1914-1926: 32-39, 11, 21*, 
23, 31*, 33, 51, 88, 95, 97, 
103-104, 116, 118, 138, 141, 


146, 154-155, 169, 176, 
178-179, 189, 197, 202, 
207, 226, 229-231, 234- 
235, 249, 269*, 277*, 300, 
303*-304*, 318, 320', 326, 
337, 342, 344, 349, 352, 
354, 356-357, 375, 379, 
385, 396-397 

1927-1934: 15-16, 460, 5, 
21*, 23, 26, 37, 47*-48, 
69*, 74, 82-83*, 110*, 
113*, 121*, 144*, 153, 181, 
186, 199, 212-213, 217, 
227*, 239, 246*, 266, 276, 
284-285*, 316-317, 321, 
323, 327, 336, 358, 360, 

1935-1947: 459-460, 6, 18, 
21*, 23-24, 34, 40*, 42, 44, 
46, 53, 57, 68*-69*, 81, 87, 
98-99, 106, 110*, 123*, 
132-133, 138, 150, 157, 177, 
183, 191, 198, 220*-221, 
260, 278, 281, 292, 294*, 
328, 343, 348, 350, 362, 
365*, 369-370*, 377*, 391, 

1948-1955: 459-460, 3*, 19, 
27, 32, 38*, 44-45*, 46, 
59, 66*, 71*, 78, 85-86, 
101, 105, 111, 127-128*, 
130*, 160-162*, 163, 171*- 
172*, 185, 195, 204*, 209, 
222, 233, 242*, 255-256, 
293, 309, 331, 378 

after 1955: 5-8, 460, 8, 39*, 
43,46, 65,68*, 119, 187, 
192, 223-224*, 232, 254, 
265, 287-288, 295*-296, 
articles by 10-11, 69, 167- 

i72, 21*-22, 29*, 34, 110*, 

115*-116, 332 
artistry and technique, general 

remarks 4-8, 10, 29-51, 

68-72, 460, 21*, 23, 25, 43, 

53, 63*, 72*-73*, 80, 121*, 

129, 142, 156, 189, 203, 

205, 212*-222, 227-236*, 
247-248, 257, 267-268, 
273-274*, 285*, 294*, 306, 
308, 338, 355, 360, 381-383 
artistic failure 7, 50-51, 

69-74, 77 
artistic isolation 52-74 
expressionism 30, 34-36, 

131, 156, 175, 240 
naturalism 33-34, 131, 143 
realism 30, 32, 34, 77 
( See also various play refer- 
ences, especially early one- 
acts and others such as 
STRAW, or later plays such 
flsLDJ, TP) 

romanticism 8, 36n, 75- 
89, 19, 28, 133, 190, 
224*, 309, 312, 377* 
satire 34 ( See also refer- 
ences MARCO begin- 
ning No. 1341) 
symbolism 30, 36, 38, 
65-66, 69, 71, 108, 
127, 339* 
(See also entries under 
philosophy & philosophical 
attitudes; themes & thematic 
patterns. Also consult vari- 
ous references to specific 
plays involving any or all of 
these artistic and technical 
qualities ) 
as actor 132-134, 333 
biography and biographical ma- 
terial, general remarks 4, 6- 
7, 14-17, 9-28, 52, 75, 85, 
91-105, 8*, 21*, 23, 65, 71, 
81,92, 94,96, 101-102*, 116, 
136, 150, 171*, 177, 193- 
194, 197, 200*-201, 210, 266, 
280, 304*-305, 311, 322, 336, 
343, 359*, 378, 388-389, 392, 
396, 398 

1888-1908 (childhood and 
youth) 18,52,91-93,8", 
21*, 270*, 322 


1909-1916 (before Province- 
town, including Harvard 
and sea voyages ) 18-20, 
23-24, 52, 93-96, 8', 21, 
193, 197, 245, 386' 

1916-1922 (Provincetown 
years) 20-21,23-24, 
96-99, 7'-8', 21*, 29', 193, 
197, 205, 272, 286' 

1922-1936 (Bermuda, France, 
Georgia) 21-23, 85, 
99-102, 8', 21*, 72', 85, 
193, 206, 271', 283', 299, 
314, 327, 329 

1936-1953 (California and last 
years) i02-J 05, 8', 21', 
72', 167, 171*, 193, 259, 
324-325, 340, 387 

by O'Neill, excluding plays 
10-14; in plays 6-7, 12-14, 
18, 232, 282, 307, 359' 
( See also references various 
plays, specifically AHW, 

in personal notes and remi- 
niscences by friends and ac- 
quaintances 9, 17-24, 1, 
7', 8*, 21*, 72*, 85, 94, 96, 
101-102*, 200*, 206, 216, 
245, 270»-271', 272', 275, 
286, 297, 322, 324-325, 327, 
329, 340', 380', 386', 392, 
collections of papers, letters, 

etc. 14, 465 
essays by ( See articles by ) 
Eiuopean influences on 459, 

175, 248, 274', 364, 393' 
experiments and innovations, 

general remarks 7, 30, 

38-47, 50, 171, 36, 58, 158, 

203, 227, 236', 240, 257, 

268, 306, 308, 366, 374, 


expressionism ( See artistry 
and technique) 

masks 38-40, 45, 69, 186 
( See also references particu- 

lar plays in which masks are 
significant, especially AM, 
monologue-soliloquy 41-43 
( See also references DYN, 
(Other aspects of experiment 
and innovation are discus- 
sed under various plays 
mentioned above, and in 
others, such as MOURN, 
ICE, DES, MMIS, etc. ) 
foreign reputation of 9, 130', 
168, 182, 204, 221, 236'- 
237, 250-253, 262, 277', 
290, 298, 335, 351, 365-366, 
370*, 376 
interviews with 24-27, 166, 
170-171', 174, 208, 238, 
240, 270', 283, 301, 310', 
314, 330, 372, 384 
letters, in collections 14, 
465; published 11,39, 
167-170, 172, 21', 52*, 
66*, 72*, 84, 110', 115*, 
man-to-God theme ( See 
themes and thematic pat- 
marriages 92,97, 101 (See 
also Boulton, Agnes; Jen- 
kins, Kathleen; and Mon- 
terey, Carlotta) 
Negro plays 57-60, 460, 11, 
60,279,302,318 (See also 
references ALL GC, EJ ) 
Nobel prize award 26, 46, 
102-103, 2, 30', 159, 204, 
220', 241, 369 
philosophy and philosophical 
attitudes, general remarks 8. 
15, 21, 52-74, 86-89, 19, 
73', 87, 110', 126', 135, 
152, 188, 207, 212*, 232, 
243*, 248, 261, 263-264, 
291*, 339*, 365*-366, 368, 
373, 377* 
man-to-God theme ( See 


themes and thematic pat- 

mysticism 7-8, 30, 16, 62, 
110*, 123*, 183, 346*, 361, 
psychological aspects 70, 
82, 38*-39*, 120*, 133, 
172, 192*, 203, 214, 232, 
244, 368 

Freudian qualities 60, 69, 
12, 18, 77, 120*, 186, 203, 
244, 388 ( See also various 
plays, especially SI ) 
religion and religious aspects 
63-64, 66-68, 71, 35, 75, 
109,188,225,243* {See 
also references DAYS, LAZ) 
tragedy and tragic quahties 
16, 32, 36, 44, 60, 62, 
65-66, 73-74, 88, 459-460, 
4*, 10, 12, 16, 18, 35, 45*, 
47*, 68*-69*, 70, 90-91, 
110*, 125, 128*, 130, 132, 
134*-135, 140, 154, 164, 
168, 184-185, 190, 203, 217, 
224*, 228*, 294*, 313, 
341*, 347, 357, 362, 367, 
390, 394 (See also individ- 
ual plays as needed, especi- 
ally BH, DES, EJ, ICE, 
( For more references concern- 
ing philosophy and associ- 
ated aspects, see also main 
entry Censorship, and con- 
sult specific play references 
as needed) 
poems by 10, 94, 167, 115* 
Pulitzer prize award 33-34, 
98-100, 138, 142, 287 {See 
also various references un- 
der ANNA, BH, LDJ, SI) 
residences of: Bermuda 100; 
Brook Farm 99-100; Cape 
Cod 25, 75, 80-81, 84, 
98-99, 101, 180*, 315*, 
380*; Casa Genotta 69, 
85-86, 102-103, 334*; 
France 85, 101; Marblehead 

104-105; Nantucket 99; 
New London 18, 92, 94, 
177; New York 102-104; 
Puget Soimd 102; San Fran- 
cisco 86, 102-103; Tao 
House 86, 103 
schools attended 91-92 {See 
also main entry. Harvard 47 
workshop ) 
sea voyages ( See biography 

and biographical material ) 
stories by JO, 97 
themes and thematic patterns 
52-58, 39*, 118*, 185, 248, 
261, 338, 365*-367, 373; 
man to God theme 53-58, 
70, 79-80, 82, 40*, 70, 183 
( See also entries under phil- 
osophy and philosophical at- 
titudes, especially tragedy 
and tragic qualities) 
social criticism and related as- 
pects 35-36, 63-67, 70, 74, 
460, 40*, 106, 122, 
126*-127, 139*, 144*, 
151*, 168, 188, 196, 260, 
265, 319, 345, 373, 391 
( See also references ALL 
GC, HA, and others ) 
tragedy ( See philosophy and 
philosophical attitudes ) 
O'Neill, Eugene Gladstone, Jr., 93, 

98, 100, 102-103, 105 
O'Neill, Eugene Gladstone III, 104 
O'Neill, Henry 143, 148 
O'Neill, James, 52-53, 91-92, 95, 

223, 269-270 
O'Neill, James, Jr., 14, 92, 97-99, 

O'Neill, Mrs. Eugene {See Mon- 

tery, Carlotta) 
O'Neill, Oona, 99, 103 
O'Neill, Shane, 4, 16, 98, 102-104, 

7-8*, 200* 
"O'NeiU," 327 
"O'NeiU: A critical summation," 

"O'Neill: An impression," 275 
"O'Neill and Aeschylus," 203 




"O'Neill and the poet's quest," 

"O'Neill and the untrained play- 
write," 268 

"O'Neill as actor is recalled by one 
who saw him in '17," 333 

"O'Neill as stage director," 306 

"O'Neill as the stage never sees 
him," 271* 

"O'Neill Cometh back," 305 

"O'Neill goes mildly pirate," 334" 

"O'Neill in Europe," 290 

"O'Neill in his own plays," 307 

"O'Neill in Paris," 335 

"O'Neill is back," 170 

"O'Neill's back," 299 

"O'Neill lifts curtain on his early 
days," 282 

"O'Neill: New risen attic stream? " 

"O'Neill off duty," 166 

"O'Neill redivivus," 223 

"O'Neill revived," 195 

"O'Neill says Soviet stage has 
realized his dreams," 170 

"O'Neill, 'shy, dark boy' bold mas- 
ter of modem drama," 336 

"O'Neill soliloquy, The," 208 

"O'Neill stirs the gods of the 
drama," 181 

"O'Neill the inevitable," 293 

"O'Neill: The man with a mask," 

"O'Neill turns west to new hori- 
zons," 330 

"O'Neill: What next?" 70, 319 

"O'Neill's A Touch of the poet 
and his other last plays," 338 

"O'Neill's finale," 165 

"O'Neill's first decade," 169 

"O'Neill's future," 337 

"O'Neill's hopeless hope for a 
giant cycle," 258 

"O'Neill's house was shrine for 
friends," 380* 

"O'Neill's own story of Electra in 
the making," 170 

"O'Neill's tragic sense," 294 

Open Court, 243* 

Oppenheimer, George, reprints 
Benchley (MOURN), Chapman 
(LDJ), Krutch 107; ICE 1230; 
LDJ 1325 

"Ordeal of Eugene O'Neill," 150 

Oresteia, 65, 10 

"Orestes theme in three plays by 
Eugene O'Neill, T. S. Eliot and 
J. P. Sartre, The," 367 

Ormonde, Viola, 142 

Osbom, E. W., BH 661; DES 739; 
DYN 849; GGB 39, 1031; 
MARCO 1370, 1398; SI 
1642-1643; WELDED 1776, 

Our American theatre, 116 

"Our awakening theatre," 356 

Our changing theatre, 125 

"Our native dramatist comes into 
his own," 379 

"Our playwrights as Europe sees 
them," 237 

"Out of Provincetown : A memoir 
of Eugene O'Neill," 286* 

Outdoor America, personal remi- 
niscences 216 

Outlook, ALL GC 479; DYN 854; 
EJ 924; GGB 1047; MARCO 
1349; MOURN 1470; SI 1614; 
WELDED 1785 

Overland, SI 1682 

?M, 111; AHW 452, 565; ICE 
1187; SSG 1594 


Pallette, Drew B., 338 

Parker, Robert Allerton, ANNA 
555-556; STRAW 1717 

Parks, Edd Winfield, 108, 339*; 
DAYS 108, 339* 

Parody, 121*, 353, 371 

Parrish, Lew, 133 

Parry, Florence P., AHW 400 

Fart of a long story, 4,23,91,7", 

Partisan Review, ICE 1189; LDJ 

Pasadena Playhouse, 20; produc- 
tion of LAZ 40, 151, 1270-1274 
1326; TP 1755 




Passing judgements, 99 
Passionate playgoer. The, 107 
Peaked Hill Bars ( See O'Neill, 

Eugene Gladstone, residences of, 

Cape Cod ) 
Pearson, Edmund L., ANNA 570; 

HA 1131 
Peck, Seymour, personal reminis- 
cences of Mrs. O'Neill & LDJ, 

TALE 340 
Pedi, Tom, 159 
Peery, William, 34 1» 
Pegler, Westbrook, ICE, 119 
Pellizzi, Camillo, 109 
Pelly, Farrell, 162, 164 
Pemberton, Brock, HA 35, 1132 
People you know, 129 
"Perfect ending," 280 

Personalist, MOURN, SI 373 
"Personality portraits: No. 3. 

Eugene O'Neill," 197 
Pheffer, Phil, 162 
Phelan, Kappo, ICE 1195; SSG 

Phelps, William Lyon, 342 
Philadelphia Bulletin, ANNA 

(CHRIS) 512 
Philadelphia Inquirer, ANNA 

(CHRIS) 515 
Philadelphia North American, 

ANNA (CHRIS) 519-520 
Philadelphia Press, ANNA 

(CHRIS) 517-518 
Philadelphia Public Ledger, inter- 
view 25, 313; ANNA ( CHRIS ) 

509, 514, 522 
Philadelphia Record, ANNA 

(CHRIS) 513,523 
Philipps, Alice E., SI 1680 
"Philosophical background of the 

modem American drama, The," 

Philosophy and philosophical atti- 
tudes ( See O'Neill, Eugene 

Gladstone ) 
Phoenix Theatre, revives GGB 4, 

49-50, 165, 1075-1089 

Pickrel, Paul, LDJ 1292 

Pieces at eight, 65 

Pinto, Effington, 136 

Pipe dreams {See O'Neill, Eugene 
Gladstone, philosophy and phil- 
osophical attitudes, and consult 
various play references, especi- 
ally ICE ) 

Pirandello, Luigi, 22, 276, 358, 

Pitkin, Wilham, 163 

Pittsburgh Post Gazette, AHW 

Pittsburgh Press, AHW 400 

Pittsburgh Sun Telegraph, AHW 

Plagiarism case ( See STRANGE 
INTERLUDE, plagiarism case ) 

Plagiarism: The "art" of stealing 
literary material, 114 

Play jury, NY, 60 

Players Magazine, ICE 1205; 
MOURN 1511 

Plays of Eugene O'Neill, The, 
123, 125, 127, 141 

"Plays of Eugene O'Neill, The," 

"Plays of Eugene O'Neill, The: A 
psychological analysis," ( PhD 
dissertation ) 460 

"Playwright and critic: The rec- 
ord of a stimulating correspon- 
dence," 168 

Playwright as thinker. The, 4*, 328 

"Playwright explains. The," 169 

Playwrights of the new American 
theatre, 31" 

Playwrights Theatre, 96-98, 110, 
133-137, 139-140, 143 

Plot reviews, 6, 38*, 44, 103, 119 

Plymouth Theatre ( Boston ) 1 56 

Poag, Thomas E., 460 

Poe, Edgar Allan, 62, 132, 291 

Poems by O'Neill ( See O'Neill, 
Eugene Gladstone, poems by ) 

Poet Lore, European reputation 
251; Strindberg's influence 
274*; FOUNT, GGB 274; 
MOURN 1518 


"Point of view in modern drama," 

Polan, Lou, 161 
Pollock, Arthur, AHW 411, 455; 

ALL GC 476; AM 507; ANNA 

536, 557; BB 604; BH 646; 

DAYS 686; DYN 850, 888; EJ 

933; FOUNT 970; GOLD 1003; 

GGB 1032; HA 35, 1134-1135; 

ICE 1166, 1196; LOST 1337; 

MARCO 1371, 1399; MOURN 

1462, 1486; SSG 1546; SI 1606, 

1644; STRAW 1718; WELDED 

Popular Biography, 213* 
Portable Woollcott, The, 145 
Portman, Eric, 164 
"Portrait of a Nobel prize winner 

as a bum," 193 
"Portrait of a playwright," 392 
Post, William, Jr., 155 
Postscript to yesterday, 87 
Powell, Addison, 162 
Powers, Eugene, 143 
Powers, Tom, 151 
Prescott, Orville, LDJ 1293 
"Present day dilemma of Eugene 

O'Neill, The," 69, 186 
Prideaux, Tom, 343 
Prince, William, J 58 
Princess Theatre, 139-140, 146 
Princeton University, 92, 105, 

Processional, 894 
"Prof. Baker advises writers for 

stage," 344 
"Proletariat of the sea. The," 345 
Prometheus hound, 65 
Proust, Marcel, 1631 
Provincetown, 52, 77, 80, 96-98, 

7, 29 {See also O'Neill, Eugene 

Gladstone, residences of. Cape 

Provincetown, The 20, 132, 

168-169, 29* 
Provincetown and Macdougal 

street, 64 
Provincetown Playbill, prints article 

by O'Neill, 168-169 

Provincetown players, 17, 81, 
96-99, 109, 112, 139-140, 143, 
147, 20, 29*, 50, 64, 67, 79, 
218-219, 286*, 333 (See also 
various references O'Neill one- 
act plays ILE, IN Z, MOON C, 
etc., and to Provincetown pro- 
ductions such as DIFF, EJ, HA, 
STRAW, efc.) 

Provincetown Playhouse 

( Theatre ) , 145-146, 149, 152, 
334, 174 

Provincetown plays. The, 110 

"Psychoanalysis and the realistic 
drama, " 192* 

Psychological approach to literary 
criticism, SI 80 

Psychology and psychoanalysis 
( See O'Neill, Eugene Gladstone, 
philosophy and philosophical at- 
titudes, psychological aspects ) 

Psychology Magazine, DYN 880; 
SI 1658 

"Psychology of O'Neill, The," 214 

Publishers trades list annual, 119 

Pulitzer prize ( See O'Neill, Eugene 
Gladstone, Pulitzer prize award ) 

Punch and Judy Theatre, 146 

Pyne, Mary, 134 

"Quest of Eugene O'Neill, The," 

Quill, EJ 917 
Quinn, Arthur Hobson, 27, 62, 

110*-111; 346*-349; BH 112; 

GGB 169, 110*, 1060 
Quinn, Edmond, J 01 
Quintero, Jose, revives ICE 3, 48, 


R. U. R., 894 

Racial plays ( See O'Neill, Eugene 
Gladstone, Negro plays ) 

Rahv, Philip, 350 

Raleigh, John Henry, LDJ 1326 

Randel, William, European repu- 
tation 351 

Rathbun, Stephen, EJ 903; HA 1137 

Rauh, Ida, 134-135, 137 




Reader's Guide to periodical liter- 
ature, 464 

"Real Eugene O'Neill, The," 24, 

"Real hope for the American thea- 
tre, The," 348 

Realism ( See O'Neill, Eugene 
Gladstone, artistry & technique ) 

"Realism doomed, O'Neill be- 
lieves," 383 

Reamer, Lawrence, FM 947; HA 
1094; STRAW 1719 


"Recluse of Sea Island, The," 329 

Redbook, personal reminiscences 

Redfem, Richard K., 460 

"Rediscovery of Eugene O'Neill, 
The," 295 

Reed, Florence, J 55 

Reid, Carl Benton, 158 

Religion and religious aspects (See 
O'Neill, Eugene Gladstone, phil- 
osophy and philosophical atti- 

Religion in Life, DAYS 727; SI 

Remson, Ira, 135 

Remsten, H. L., 146, 152 

Reniers, Percival, 352; STRAW 

Reninger, H. Willard, psychology 
& SI 80 

Reporter, 206; ICE 1229; LDJ 
1322; TP 1756 

Representative American plays, 

Representative plays by Eugene 
O'Neill, 121 

Residences ( See O'Neill, Eugene 
Gladstone, residences of) 

Review of Reviews, personal remi- 
niscences 324; AHW 443; DYN 
883; LAZ 1272; MOON C 1448 

Revivals, 3-5, 47-50, 72, 160, 165, 
173, 223, 254, 305 

Revolution in American drama, 

Revue Anglo- Americaine, 281 

Rhodes, Margaret, 138 

Rhodes, Robert E., GGB 1087 

Rice, Elmer, 292; ALL GC 490 

Riddell, George, 138 

Riddell, John, parody 353 

Ridge, Lola, BH 652 

Ridges, Stanley, 156 

Riley, Wilfred J., BB 609; DYN 

Ripley, Patricia, 165 

Rippin, Mrs., 94-95 

"Rise of Eugene O'Neill, The," 

Rizer, Elsie, 138 

Road to the temple. The, Province- 
town history 50 

Robards, Jason, Jr. , 1 62-1 63 

Robbins, R., HA 35, 1138, 1150 

Roberts, Ralph, 160 

Robeson, Paul, 145 (See also ref- 
erences EJ beginning No. 929 ) 

Robinson, Larry, 162 

Roche, Emeline, 160 

Rockefeller, John D., 63 

Roedder, Karsten, MARCO 1352 

Roland, Frederick, 135, 154 

"Romantic tragedy of Eugene 
O'Neill, The," 190 

Romanticism ( See O'Neill, Eugene 
Gladstone, artistry & technique ) 

ROPE, THE, 78; production 136; 
publication 112,116-117, 123, 

REVIEWS. NY openings 
1918: 1520-1536; other 1918: 

Rosenfeld, Paul, 118 

Ross, Katherine, 163 

Ross, Richard, 142 

Rostand, Edmond, 962 

Rostetter, Alice, 140 

Rothschild, H. L., 145 

"Roughneck and romancer," 176 

Rowan, Frank, J 60 

Royal Dramatic Theatre, Stock- 
holm, 128, 163, 258 

Royde-Smith, Naomi, 354 

Royle, Selena, 156 

Rubenstein, Annette, LDJ 1327 




Ruhl, Arthur, DYN 890; MOURN 

1488; SI 1647 
Runyon, Damon, 23 
Russell, Byron, 152 
Russell, Rosalind, 130 

S. S. GLENCAIRN, production 
146, 152, 156-157, 160 

REVIEWS. NY opening 1924: 
1541-1547; other 1924-1925: 
1548-1553; Provincetown re- 
vival 1929: 1554-1562; other 
1929: 1563-1574; NY revival 
1948: 1575-1584; other 1948: 

"Sailor's O'Neill, A," 281 

Saint-Taudens, Homer, 141 

Salient {See The Figure in the 
Carpet } 

Salisbury, WilUam, 47, 113*, 285 

Salzman, Maurice, SI & plagiarism 

Sanborn, Ralph, bibliography, 
statistics & O'Neill's poetry, 10, 
107, 167, 464, 115* 

Sandburg, Carl, 100 

Sargent, Margherita, 143 

Sartre, Jean-Paul, 367 

Satire ( See O'Neill, Eugene Glad- 
stone, artistry & technique ) 

Saturday Review of Literature 
(also Saturday Review) 183, 
185, 192, 203; Nobel prize 220*; 
personal reminiscences 275; trag- 
edy 184; AHW 421; ANNA 585; 
DAYS 697; DES 782; HUGHIE 
1153; ICE 183, 1174, 1226; LDJ 
1288, 1294, 1316; LOST 1332; 
MARCO 1342, 1400; MMIS 
1433; MOURN 1469; SI 1649, 
1659; TP 1730, 1733, 1750 

Savage, Clara, 135 

Sayler, Oliver U.,24, 33, 116, 355- 
358; DIFF 819; EJ 926; HA 
1139-1140; MARCO 1400; SI 

Scandinavian Studies, Strindberg's 
influence 393*; ICE 1204 

Scholastic, ILE 123 

School and Society, ANNA 583; 

DES 780; SSG 1586 
Schopenhauer, Arthur, 1673 
Schweitzer, Elizabeth L., 464 
Scrihner's, 346*, 348-349 
Sea Island, Georgia, 69, 85, 102 

20, 109 
"Second thoughts," 171 
Seeing more things, ICE 13 
"Seeking a common denominator 

to AndreiefF, Pirandello, O'Neill," 

Seen on the stage, BH 54 
Segments of Southern thought, 

symbols 108 
Seibel, George, AHW 401 
Selden, Samuel, 146 
Seldes, Gilbert, ANNA 558; DES 

764; FOUNT 988; HA 56, 1141; 

LDJ 1294; SI 42, 1650; TP 1733 
Seligmann, Herbert J., SI 1651 
Sellers, Clifford, 149 
Selwyn Theatre, 139-140 
Selwyns (producers), 144 
Sergeant, Elizabeth Shepley, 117, 

SERVITUDE, 109, 127, 151*- 

Seven Arts, The, publishes O'Neill's 

story "Tomorrow" 10, 97, 167 
Seven years' harvest, reprints 

Canby (MOURN) 17 
Sewanee Review, mysticism 363; 

symbols 339; ICE 1206, 1210; 

MOURN 1504 
Shadowland, 355 
Shakespeare, William, 15, 22, 53, 

Shand, John, EJ 937 
Shannon, Frank, 142 
Shaw, George Bernard, 69, 53, 

223, 276, 1478, 1513, 1738 
Shay, Frank, 110, 114, 133 
Sheaffer, Louis, ANNA 579; DES 

Sheldon, Edward, 104 
"Shelf of printed plays. A," 

THIRST 269* 


Sheridan, Richard Brinsley, 396 
Sherwin, Louis, ILE 1244; IN Z 

1258; ROPE 1528 
Sherwood, Robert E., 363 
Shipley, Joseph T., 118*-119; DYN 

891-892; ICE 1197; MARCO 

1401; SI 1652 
Shipp, Horace, BH 653; SI 1681 
Shklofsky, Bryna, WARNINGS 

Shoemaker, Anne, 149, 158 
Shores of light, ALL GC, HA 143 
Short history of the American 

drama. A, 82 
Shouts and murmurs, 146* 
Shute, James, 145 
Sievers, W. David, Freud 120* 
Sights and spectacles 1937-1956, 

ICE 76 
"Significance of recent American 

drama," 349 
Simmelkjaer, Harold, 138 
Simon, Bernard, MARCO 1353 
Simonson, Lee, 152, 156, stage 

techniques & DYN 42n, 121* 
Sinclair, Archie, 146-152 
Sinclair, Upton, 122 
Single, E. A., ICE 1198 
Sinnott, James P., WELDED 

Sisk, Robert F., 360; FOUNT 

989; GGB 1061; SSG 1552 
Six plays of Eugene O'Neill, 15, 

Sixteen authors to one, personal 

reminiscences 62 
Skinner, Richard Dana, 167, 4, 

124-125, 144, 339, 361, 391; 

biography 15, 123*; AHW 124, 

439; DAYS 123, 720-722; DES 

37, 125, 751, 765; DIFF 832; 

DYN 125, 893; GGB 125, 1062- 

1063; MARCO 1402; MOURN 

1489-1490, 1509-1510; SI 56, 

125, 1653 
Sloan, J. Vandervoort, SI 1654 
Slochower, Harry, 126*, 362 
Smart Set, The, 17, 98, 115, 103, 

326; BH 645; LVH 97, 111-112 

Smith, Agnes, ILE 1245 
Smith, Althea E., MOURN 1511 
Smith, Art, 160, 164 
Smith, Edna, 136 
Smith, Geddes, GGB 1064 
Smith, Winifred, mysticism 363 
Smyser, Wilham L., 364 
SNIPER, THE, 19, 96, 109, 127, 

Sobel, Bernard, DAYS 45, 687 
Social plays & social criticism ( See 

O'Neill, Eugene Gladstone, 

themes & thematic patterns ) 
"Softer tones for Mr. O'Neill's 

portrait," 387 
Soliloquy ( See O'Neill, Eugene 

Gladstone, experiments and 

innovations ) 
Sophocles, 22, 71 
Sorsby, Lennore, 157 
Sources consulted, 460-465 
South Atlantic Quarterly, 395; 

GGB 1076 
Southern Review, 221 
Southern Speech Journal, ICE, 

LDJ, MMIS 394 
Southwest Review, DAYS, ICE 

Spiller, Robert E., 127*-128* 
Spirit of tragedy. The, MOURN 90 
Spithead, Bermuda, 84, 100 
Spokesmen: Modern Writers and 

American life, 140 
Stafford, Morton, 134 
Stage, 7, 319; AHW 437; DAYS 

Stage is set. The, stage techniques 

and DYN 42n, 121* 
Stahl, Wilham, 146, 148-149 
Stamm, Rudolph, 365*-367*; 


Stander, Lionel J., 152 
Stanley, Kim, 164 
Stark, Harold, 129 
Statistics, 91-165, 9, 23, 29*, 37, 

51, 81, 123*, 171*, 298 
Stechan, H. O., LAZ 1273 
Stehh, Edgar, 146-147 


Steinhauer, H., Nietzschean motifs, 

Stengel, Hans, BH 670 

Sterling, Richard, J 55 

Stevens, Earl C, 92 

Stevens, Morton L., 158 

Stevens, Thomas W., 369 

Stevenson, Robert Louis, 1010 

Stewart, William, J 33 

Still seeing things, 14 

Stockholm productions, 3, 129, 
131, 163-164, 259 

Stone, Carol, 161 

Stone, Harold J., 160 

Stopp, Gerald, 145 

Strange, Robert, 135-136, 142 

43, 45, 70, 89, 100-101, 459, 18, 
61, 73*, 80, 83, 114, 125, 128, 
131, 139', 151*, 175, 190, 201, 
215, 296, 273; as biography 13; 
as romanticism 82-83; censorship 
(Boston) 101; plagiarism case 
101, 114; production 151; publi- 
cation J 18, 121-123, 125; use of 
monologue-soliloquy 41-42 

REVIEWS. NY opening 1928: 
1595-1607; other 1928-1953: 
56, 1608-1682 

Strange Interlude, The ( pam- 
phlet), 120 

"Strange interview with Mr. 
O'Neill," 353 

Straiunann, Heinrich, European 
reputation 130*, 370*; 
MOURN 370* 

STRAW, THE, 34, 49, 53-55, 78, 
97, 211; as biography 12, 94; 
production 142; publication 112- 
113, 116-117, 119, 123, 126; 

REVIEWS. NY opening 1921: 
1689-1704; other 1921-1922: 

Stream of consciousness ( See 
O'Neill, Eugene Gladstone, ex- 
periments and innovations, 
monologue-soliloquy ) 

Streetcar named desire. A, 296 

Strindberg, August, 22, 39, 94, 

168, 97, 241, 248, 274* 303, 

393*, 1213 {See also O'Neill, 

Eugene Gladstone, European 

influences on ) 
"Strindberg and O'Neill," 248 
"Strindberg and O'Neill: A study 

of influence," 393* 
"Strindberg and our theatre," 

"Strindberg's influence on Eugene 

O'Neill," 274* 
Strong, Jay, J 35 
Strunsky, Simeon, SI 1664 
Stuart, Donald Clive, expression- 
ism, naturalism & GGB, LAZ, SI 

Stuart, WiUiam, 137 
"Study of art structure in the 

American drama. A," ( PhD 

dissertation ) 460 
Study of the modern drama. A, 

Sullivan, Frank, parody 371 
Sumpter, Ralph, 160 
Sunday Worker, ICE 260 
Suppressed desires, 244 
Survey, DES 766; GGB 1064; 

MARCO 1356 
Sweeney, Charles P., interview 

Sylvester, Robert, 26 
Symbolism ( See O'Neill, Eugene 

Gladstone, artistry & technique ) 
Symposium, Strindberg's influence 

Synge, John Millington, 32, 71, 621 

Take me along, 4 

DISPOSSESSED, A, 5-6, 26- 
27, 44, 46, 49-50, 68, 72, 102- 
103, 105, 128-131, 164, 171*, 
258-259, 340 ( See also refer- 
ences TP beginning No. 1727 ) 

"Talk with Mrs. O'Neill," 340* 

Tamanoto, T., 141 

Tao House, ( See O'Neill, Eugene 
Gladstone, residences of) 

Tapper, Bonno, MOURN, SI 373 


Tarkington, Booth ( See various 
entries AHW, beginnnig No. 

Tavemiex, Albert, 150 

Tavvde, George, 152 

Taylor, Irene, 157 

Taylor, Joseph R., techniques 374 

Taylor, Walter F., 132 

Temple of Pallas Athene, The, 

"Temporary expatriate again views 
Broadway," 364 

"Ten American plays that will en- 
dure," 296 

"Test of greatness. The," 288 

Theatre and allied arts, 461 

Theatre Arts, 26, 153, 222, 256- 
257, 278, 291*, 293; biography 
194; Negro plays 279, 302; per- 
sonal reminiscences 270*, 387; 
AHW 430, 442, 464; ALL GC 

36, 279, 482; AM 503; ANNA 
568, 591; BB 608; BH 631, 641, 
665; DAYS 68, 702, 711; DES 
757, 770, 790; DIFF 808, 817, 
827; DK 113-114; DYN 876; EJ 
113-114, 279, 911, 921; FM 960; 
FOUNT 976; GGB 1040, 1082; 
HA 1126, 1147, 1149; HUGHIE 
1154; ICE 1183, 1208; LAZ 
1274; LDJ 1289, 1320; LOST 
1333; MARCO 1346, 1378; 
MMIS 1409, 1416, 1435; MOON 
C 1449; MOURN 1502; SSG 
1569; SI 1618, 1626; STRAW 
1686, 1716; TP 1752, 1759; 
WELDED 1788, 1793 

Theatre arts anthology, reprints 

Hutchens ( MOURN ) ; Isaacs, 

Macgowan ( EJ ) 49 
Theatre book of the year 1946- 

1947, 100 
Theatre collection, New York 

public library, 464 
Theatre Guild, 18,21, 26, 58, 85, 

120, 130, 150-152, 154-159,164, 

37, 72*, 155, 239 {See also 
references Guild productions 


Theatre Guild Magazine, 168; 
Provincetown history 218; tech- 
nique 308; MOURN 1481, 1499, 

Theatre guild: The first ten years. 
The, 37 

Theatre in our times. The, 45* 

Theatre in the fifties, 101 

Theatre Magazine, 197, 212*, 
215*, 230-231, 234, 249, 352, 
379; European reputation 237; 
interview 25, 174; personal 
reminiscences 20, 286; ALL GC 
483; AM 502; ANNA 567; BH 
636; DES 758; DIFF 814; DYN 
872; FM 959; FOUNT 983; 
GOLD 1015; GGB 1051; HA 
1121; ILE 1239; LAZ 1271; 
ROPE 1537; SSG 1548; SI 42, 
1624, 1660; STRAW 1713; 
WELDED 1790 

Theatre of dreadful nights. The 

Theatre of George Jean Nathan, 
The, reprints O'Neill letters, 
169, 52 

Theatre of the moment. The, 102 

"Theatre of today: Eugene 
O'Neill," 233 

Theatre, the drama, and the girls. 
The, 103 

Theatre Time, 255 

Theatre USA, 1688-1957, reprints 
many reviews including Gassner, 
Krutch, Macgowan, Skinner and 
others 56* 

Theatre World, ICE 1184 

Theory and technique of play- 
writing, 73* 

"There is no American drama," 

These amazing moderns, 26 

These things are mine, reprints 
O'Neill letters 84 

THIRST, 18, 47, 97, 108-110, 
133, 269*, 1726 





Thirty-ninth Street Theatre, 144 
Thompson, Alan Reynolds, 133; 

tragedy 41, 134* 
Thompson, Francis, 95, 152 
Thompson, Iden, 140 
Thompson, Ruth Gibbons, 465 
Thoreau, Henry David, 25, 62, 

81, 227 
Thought, 263 
"Three new plays," 191 
Throckmorton, Cleon, 145 
Throne, Mall, 162 
Tilden, Helen, 154 
Tilden, Milano, 149 
Tillman, Bradford, 163 
Time, 150, 378; AHW 418; 

ANNA 581; DES 744, 785; 

DIFF 829; GGB 1086; ICE 

1193; LDJ 1323; MMIS 1411, 

1437; MOURN 1476; SSG 1551; 

SI 1661; TP 1731, 1757 
Times Literary Supplement ( Lon- 
don), 162,204* 
Times Square Theatre, 140 
Tindale, H. B., 136 
Tobacco road, 1404 
Tobias, George, 152 
Today in American drama, APE 

Toller, Ernst, 35, 1132 
"Tomorrow," ( O'Neill's short 

story) 10,167 
Tone, Franchot, 164 
Torres, H. Z., ANNA 537; FM 948; 

GOLD 1004; WELDED 1778 

4-5, 27, 29, 48-49, 72-73, 86, 89, 

103, 130-131, 224*, 258, 338; 

production 164; publication 126, 

1 28; Stockholm production 3 
REVIEWS. Book 1727-1733; 

NY opening 1958: 1734-1741; 

other 1958-1959: 1742-1763 
Town and Country, AM 506; 

DES 749; DYN 895; FOUNT 

987; GGB 1059; ICE 1175; 
MOURN 1491; SI 1631 
Town Topics, ANNA 544; BH 
627; FM 956; HA 1116; STRAW 
Towse, J. Ranken, 53, 375; 
ANNA 538; BH 57, 615; DIFF 
800; EJ 904; FM 949; GOLD 
1005; HA 34, 1095, 1142; 
STRAW 1703; WELDED 1779 
Tragedy ( See O'Neill, Eugene 
Gladstone, philosophy & philo- 
sophical attitudes ) 
Tragedy: A view of life, 91 
"Tragedy of Eugene O'Neill, The," 

"Tragedy of O'Neill, The," 217 
"Tragic sense, The," 91, 171* 
Trask, E. Hooper, European repu- 
tation 376 
Travers, Henry, 150, 154 
Treasury of the theatre. A, 46 
Treseder, Kenneth, 160 
Trilling, Lionel, 70, 72, 124, 126, 

28, 135, 377*; DAYS 28, 377* 
"Tristan and Isolt," 1268 
"Triumphant genius of Eugene 

O'Neill, The," 215* 
Troubadour: An autobiography, 

Provincetown history, 67 
Trouble in the flesh, 1 6 
"Trouble with Brown," 378 
"Trying to like O'Neill," 172* 
Tulane Drama Review, ICE, LDJ, 

TP 224 
Tully, Tommy, 158 
Twain, Mark, 251 
Tweddell, Frank, 158 
Twenties, The: American writing 

in the post-war decade, 58 
SORS, 131 
"Two moderns," 276 
Two on the aisle, MOURN 15 
"Two views on O'Neill," 196 
Tyler, George C, 138, 142 
Tynan, Kenneth, GGB 1088 




Understanding drama: 12 plays, 

tragedy, MOURN 10 
University collections of O'Neill 

papers, 465 
University of Kansas City Review, 

tragedy 341* 
University Review, 362 
Untermeyer, Louis, biography 

"Untold tales of Eugene O'Neill," 

Upjohn, Dorothy, 136 
Upstage, 16 

Vail, Lawrence, 139 

Valentine, Grace, 160 

Vanderbilt Theatre, 141 

Van Doren, Carl, 138; reprints 
Nathan 137 

Van Doren, Mark, 138 

Van Druten, John, DES 770 

Vanity Fair, 111, 239, 327, 385; 
parody 353; AHW 435; BH 626; 
DAYS 718-719, 767; DIFF 804; 
DYN 878; FOUNT 980; HA 
1129; MARCO 1385; MOURN 
66, 1501, 1508; SI 1668; 
STRAW 1709 

Van Rooten, 164 

Variety, AHW 414, 459; ANNA 
543, 582; DES 745, 786; DIFF 
809; DYN 864; EJ 33, 912; 
FOUNT 989; GOLD 1013; GGB 
1061, 1083; ICE 1186, 1227; 
LAZ 40, 1280; LDJ 1317; MAR- 
CO 1392; MOURN 1482; SSG 
1552, 1593; SI 1662; TP 1751; 
WELDED 1800 

Vaughan, Stuart, 165 

Vehe, Jay, 157 

Ver Noey, Winifred, 463 

Vernon, Grenville, 379 

Vidal, Gore, TP 1761 

Villa Mimosa ( See O'Neill, Eu- 
gene Gladstone, residences of ) 

Virginia Quarterly Review, 276 

"Visit to Eugene O'Neill, now of 
Arcady, A," 384 

Vogue, 189; ANNA 569; BH 635; 

DYN 860; FOUNT 977; GOLD 

1017; GGB 1041; LDJ 1321; 

MARCO 1379; MOURN 1496; 

ROPE 1538; SI 42, 1619-1620; 

STRAW 1715; TP 1760; 

WELDED 1795 
Volta Review, WARNINGS 1764 
Vonnegut, Marjorie, 143 
Vonnegut, Walter, Jr., J 55 
Von Scherler, Sasha, 165 
Vorse, Mary Heaton, 23, 81, 96, 

132; O'Neill residence 380* 
Vreeland, Frank, AM 495; EJ 

935; FOUNT 971; GGB 1033 

Wagner, Charles, LOST 1339 

"Wagnerian theory of art and its 
influence on the drama of Eu- 
gene O'Neill, The," ( PhD dis- 
sertation ) 459 

Waiting for Godot, 1219 

Waldorf, Wilella, AHW 456; 
DIFF 838; SSG 1562 

Wall Street Journal, AHW 417, 
461; ALL GC 486; AM 504; 
DAYS 692; DES 735, 783; 
FOUNT 968; GGB 1030, 1080; 
ICE 1161; LDJ 1310; MARCO 
1367; MMIS 1428; MOURN 
1466; SSG 1572, 1588; SI 1645; 
TP 1744; WELDED 1796 

Wall Street News, DYN 869; 
MARCO 1386 

Wallace, John, 95 

Walter, Eugene, 33 

Walters, Charles, 151 

Warner, Ralph, AHW 468 

WARNINGS, 1764; publication 
J 09 

Washington Square Players, 97, 
134, 136, 202 (See also refer- 
ences various one-act plays in- 
cluding Glencairn cycle ) 

Watkins, Perry, 157 

Waton, Harry, SI 139* 

Watson, Douglas, 161 

Watson, Lee, 163 

Watts, Richard, Jr., 381-383; in- 
terview 384; AHW 457; ANNA 


580, 593; DES 771, 779, 792; 

DYN 894; GGB 39, 1074, 1089; 

HA 1151; ICE 1167, 1199, 1219; 

LAZ 1281; LDJ 1304; LOST 

1340; MARCO 1355; MMIS 

1425; SSG 1584; TP 73, 1740, 

"We owe him all the finest we 

have," 172 
Weales, Gerald, HUGHIE 1155 
Weaver, John V. A., 19, 385; 

personal reminiscences 245, 386" 
Weaver, Fritz, J 65 
WEB, THE, 95, 108-109 
Webber, Gene, 157 
Wedekind, Frank, 4 
"Weekend with Eugene O'Neill, 

A," 206 
Weekly Review, BH 634; DIFF 

810-811; EJ 914-916; GOLD 

1010; STRAW 1683 
Welch, Mary, 159, personal 

reminiscences 387 
WELDED, 49, 54-55, 79, 97, 

152; as biography 12; as realism 

35; production 144; publication 

115-117, 123-124, 126; use of 

monologue 41 

REVIEWS. Baltimore tryout 

1924: 1765-1770; NY opening 

1924: 1771-1783; other 1924: 

Wellman, Rita, DYN 895; 

MOURN 1491 
Welsh, Robert G., biography 388; 

ALL GC 477; AM 496; BH 617; 

HA 1096; WELDED 1781 
Wenning, T. H., 389 
Wesselhoeft, Eleanor, 149-150 
West, Harold, 143 
West, Mae, 426 
Westley, Ethel, 151 
Westley, Helen, 151,153 
Wharf Theatre, 96, 132-133 
What price glory? 61 
"When the Provincetown group 

began," 219 
"Where is the American theatre 

going?" 229 


78, 137, 141; publication 112, 

116-117, 121, 123-125; 1803- 

Whicher, Stephen, LDJ 1295 
While Rome burns, 147 
Whipple, Leon, DES 766; 

MARCO 1356 
Whipple, Thomas K., 140; 

tragedy 390 
White, Arthur Franklin, 141 
White sister. The, 93 
Whittaker, Herbert, TP 1741 
Whittaker, James, ANNA 560; 

FM 961; HA 1143; STRAW 

1725; WELDED 1782 
"Why America lacks big play- 
wrights," 230 
"Why American plays are not 

literature," 187 
Whyte, Gordon, EJ 928; SSG 

Wiegand, Charmion Von, 391 
WIFE FOR A LIFE, 108-109, 

Wilbur, Crane, 148, 155 
Wild duck. The, 87, 1188, 1207, 

1729, 1732 
Wilde, Percival, technique 142 
Williams, John D., 97-98, 138, 

Williams, Malcolm, 150 
Williams, Tennessee, 74 
Willoughby, Pearl Vivian, 460 
Wilson, Edmund, ALL GC, HA 

36, 143 
Wilson, Frank, 146 
Wilson, John S., SSG 1594 
Wilson, Samuel T., MMIS 1406 
Wilson, Virginia, 145 
Winchell, Walter, biography 392; 

AHW 412; DYN 851; MARCO 

1372; SI 1667 
Winner, Percy, 137 
Winston, Harry, 137 
Winther, Sophus Keith, 15, 78, 

144*; Strindberg's influence 

393* AHW 45n; ICE 1212; LDJ 



Wolf, Rennold, IN Z 1261 
Wolfe, Thomas, 127 
Wolfson, Lester M., ICE, LDJ, 

MMIS 394 
Wolheim, Louis, 143 
Women's Wear Daily, AHW 402, 

447; ALL GC 470; AM 491; 

ANNA 540, 575; BB 595; DAYS 

677; DES 738; DYN 839; EJ 

906; FM 938; FOUNT 962; 

GOLD 991; GGB 1023, 1071; 

ICE 1156, 1215; LDJ 1300; 

MARCO 1357; MMIS 1420; 

MOURN 1452; SSG 1580; SI 

1604; STRAW 1689; WELDED 

Woodbridge, Homer E., 395 
Woodson, William, 164 
Woodward, George, 142 
Woolf, S. J., ICE 1200 
Woolf, Virginia, 1616 
WooUcott, Alexander, 146*, 396; 

ALL GC 36, 478, 489; AM 497, 

508; ANNA 539, 561-562; BH 

57, 618, 648; DES 741, 767; 

DIFF 802; EJ 905, 936; FM 

950; FOUNT 972; GGB 39; 

HA 1097, 1144; MARCO 1373; 

MOURN 145, 147; SI 1668- 

1670; STRAW 1688, 1704; 

WELDED 1783, 1802 
"Word of warning to Eugene 

O'Neill, A," 375 
Working diary, MOURN 11, 43, 

Works of Eugene O'Neill, The, 

World drama, 105 

World in falseface. The, 104 

World of George jean Nathan, 11 

World Theatre, TALE 259 

World's Work, 226, 229 

Writer, 268 

Writers of Our Years, 247 

Wyatt, Euphemia Van R. 

AHW 440, 446, 469; ANNA 
594; DAYS 723; DES 768, 793; 
DYN 896; GGB 1065; ICE 
1201, 1231; LAZ 1282; LDJ 
1331; MMIS 1438; MOURN 
1492, 1512; SI 1671; TP 1763 

Wyler, Michael, 159 

Wylie, Max, 16 

Wynne, Stella, SI 1682 

Yale Review, 169; MARCO 1344 
Yale University, 100-102, 105, 110, 

122, 124, 128-129, 167, 172, 

66, 105 
Yale University library, 465 
Yale University Library Gazette, 

AM 129 
Young, Stark, 397; personal 

reminiscences 398; AHW 441; 

DAYS 724; DES 37, 742, 752; 

DIFF 833; DYN 897; FOUNT 

990; GGB 148, 1066; HA 1145; 

ICE 148, 1202; MARCO 1403; 

MOURN 148-149, 1493; SI 

42, 1672 
Youngest drama, 33 

Zabel, Morton D., reprints Fer- 

gusson. Young ( MOURN ) 149 
Zimmerman, Katharine, BH 662 


The following list represents a limited selection of major publi- 
cations about O'Neill which have appeared since December 
1959. These must, of necessity, remain unnumbered and unin- 
dexed, but their importance to O'Neill scholarship makes their 
entry in this publication imperative. Reviews of the three books 
are not normally included, and the several criticisms of the off- 
Broadway revival of DIFF'RENT have also been omitted. 


Alexander, Doris. The tempering of Eugene O'Neill. NY, Har- 
court. Brace & World, 1962. 

A biographical study of the young O'Neill, ending with the 
award of his first Pulitzer Prize. 

Cargill, Oscar, N. Bryllion Fagin, and William J. Fisher. O'Neill 
and his plays. NY, New York Univ. Press, 1962. 
Nearly 100 articles are reprinted to show a wide variety of 
O'Neill criticism and opinion, including some of O'Neill's 
own remarks. 

Gelb, Arthur, and Barbara Gelb. O'Neill. NY, Harper's, 1962. 
A truly monumental volume of over 1000 pages, incorpor- 
ating over five years' study of O'Neill's life and works. The 
most complete and authentic biography to date. 


Adler, Jacob H. "The worth of Ah, Wilderness!" Mod. Dr., 3 

(Dec. 1960) 280-288. 
Alexander, Doris M. "Eugene O'Neill and Light on the path." 

Mod. Dr., 3 (Dec. 1960) 260-267. 
Arnett, B. M., and Nicola Chiaromonte. "Eugene O'Neill 

(1958)." Sewanee Rev., 68 (Summer 1960) 494-501. 

Chaitin, Norman C. "O'Neill: The power of daring." Mod. Dr., 
3 (Dec. 1960)231-241. 

Clurman, Harold. "At odds with gentility." Nation, 194 (7 Apr. 
1962) 312. 

Dahlstrom, Carl. "Dynamo and Lazarus Laughed: Some limi- 
tations." Mod. Dr., 3 (Dec. 1960) 224-230. 

Day, Cyrus. "Amor fati: O'Neill's Lazarus as superman and 
savior." Mod. Dr., 3 (Dec. 1960) 297-305. 

Engel, Edwin A. "O'Neill, 1960." Mod. Dr., 3 (Dec. 1960) 

Falk, Signi. "Dialogue in the plays of Eugene O'Neill." Mod. 
Dr., 3 (Dec. 1960)314-325. 

Frenz, Horst. "Notes on Eugene O'Neill in Japan." Mod. Dr., 

3 (Dec. 1960) 306-313. 

Gelb, Arthur, and Barbara Gelb. "As O'Neill saw the theatre: 

Excerpts from his letters and interviews between 1920 and 

1946." NY Times, 12 Nov. 1961, VI, p. 32. 
. "Start of a Long day's journey. The." Horizon, 2 

(March 1960) 25-40. 
Hartman, Murray. "Desire Under the Elms in the light of 

Strindberg's influence." Am. Lit., 33 (Nov. 1961) 360-369. 
Hanzeli, Victor E. "The progeny of Atreus." Mod. Dr., 3 ( May 

1960) 75-81. 
Hicks, Granville. "O'Neill." Sat. R., 45 ( 7 Apr. 1962 ) 16. 
Hofmannsthal, Hugo von. "Eugene O'Neill." Tulane Dr. Rev., 

5 (Sept. 1960) 169-173. 
Klavsons, Janis. "O'Neill's dreamer: Success and failure." Mod. 

Dr., 3 (Dec. 1960) 268-272. 
Krutch, Joseph Wood. "Why the O'Neill star is rising." NY 

Times, 19 Mar. 1961, VI, pp. 36-37. 
Mayfield, John S. "Eugene O'Neill and the senator from Texas." 

Yale Univ. Library Gazette, vol. 35, pp. 87-93. 
Nethercote, Arthur H. "The psychoanalyzing of Eugene O'Neill." 

Mod. Dr., 3 (Dec. 1960) 242-256. 
Pallette, Drew B. "O'Neill and the comic spirit." Mod. Dr., 3 

(Dec. 1960)273-279. 
Parks, Edd Winfield. "Eugene O'Neill's quest." Tulane Dr. Rev., 

4 (Spring 1960) 99-107. 

Shawcross, John T. "The road to ruin: The beginning of 

O'Neill's Long Day's Journey." Mod. Dr., 3 (Dec. 1960) 

Waith, E. M. "Eugene O'Neill: An exercise in unmasking." 
Ed. Th. Jour., 13 (Oct. 1961) 182-191. 

Weissman, Philip. "Mourning Becomes Electra and the prodi- 
gal: Electra and Orestes." Mod. Dr., 3 (Dec. 1960) 257-259. 

Whitman, R. F. "O'Neill's search for a language of the theatre." 
Quar. Jour. Sp., 46 (Apr. 1960) 153-170. 

Winther, Sophus Keith. "Desire Under the Elms: A modern 
tragedy." Mod. Dr., 3 (Dec. 1960) 326-332. 


Raghavacharyulu, Dhupaty V. K. "The achievement of Eugene 
O'Neill: A study of the dramatist as seeker." Penn. 1959. 

Date Due | 





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