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Xortoocti lirrss 

J. S. Gushing & Co. - Berwick & Smith 
Norwood Mass. U.S.A. 


Page 247. The footnote is a part of the footnote on page 245, and there- 
fore the reference figure " i," on page 247, should be 

Page 335. Top line ; for " pediments " read " tympanums." 
Page 399. Line second from bottom ; for " one bay " read " two bays." 
Page 549. s. v. Bell ; for "has no echinus " read "is the echinus." 
Page 550. s. v. Channel ; for " Greek or Doric " read " Grecian Doric." 
Page 552. s. v. Corbel ; for " in course " read " in courses." 
Page 559. s. v. Quoin ; for " one or many " read " one of many." 


THIS book is intended to show that the history of 
architecture is a study of absorbing interest. If the atten- 
tion is fixed upon the inherent and essential peculiarities 
of each style, the effort of the student will be of neces- 
sity to discover the reasons for those peculiarities. Thus, 
in the simplest case imaginable : wherein does Gothic 
architecture differ from Romanesque architecture, and 
what are the causes of the difference ? These causes 
are to seek in a minute comparison of the works of the 
Gothic and the Romanesque builders. They are to be 
found in actual masonry and carpentry and, in a sec- 
ondary sense, in sculpture and colour-decoration. The 
analysis and comparison of these peculiarities, with such 
reference to well-established chronology as will show 
which pieces of building are contemporaneous and which 
other pieces of building follow one another closely in 
order of time, is certainly the most fascinating pursuit 
possible for all those who have the instinct of form and 
colour. The farther refinement of this enquiry into eth- 
nological and anthropological research is rather for the 
scientifically inclined than for those to whom decorative 
art is the chief matter. For these last, the analysis and 
criticism of their beloved art itself is quite enough. A 
multitude of questions arise which are purely artistic 



questions, and the more carefully the answers to those 
questions are sought, the more they are elaborated, re- 
fined upon, confirmed, verified, the more interesting does 
the history of architecture become. 

It is to be remembered also that the subjects of this 
enquiry are in themselves full of interest. The buildings 
which we study are always singularly attractive and often 
of extreme beauty. The beauty is increased, and the 
attractiveness of the less beautiful is multiplied many- 
fold by minute examination into the ways in which their 
builders and sculptors did their work. In the study of 
any fine art, gain in the power of distinguishing the better 
from the less good is accompanied by a still increasing 
power of enjoying the best. It is better to sit at home 
with a plan and twenty photographs, with a sense of what 
that architecture truly means, than it is, without that sense, 
to visit the cathedral itself or all the cathedrals in France. 

The sense of what is fine in architecture is to be 
gained by the study of the buildings themselves ; and 
the more, the better. It is not too much to say, however, 
that a few weeks rightly spent, among the best examples 
and with a knowledge of what to look for, is worth many 
seasons of travel under other conditions. It is therefore 
with some confidence that this book is offered as a guide 
to those who would study architecture for themselves. 

For those who cannot at once visit the monuments 
which still exist in Europe, it may be said that their 
position toward all European architecture is not unlike 
the position which the most favoured of us hold with 
regard to Greek and Roman architecture. Greek and 



Roman monuments have perished, and their loveliness or 
grandeur can be appreciated only by a mental process of 
reconstruction. Somewhat in the same way the stay-at- 
home student may get much comfort out of photographs 
accompanied by trustworthy plans. To such students, 
also, this book is offered as a help in the interpretation 
of their photographs. 1 

It is claimed that study of ancient architecture has 
been the ruin of modern architectural design. There are 
other reasons than this, why architecture is not, at the 
close of the nineteenth century, a living fine art ; but it 

1 It is well to state that among the photographs available for students are 
to be included the plates and cuts made from the originals by photographic 
process and which illustrate many recent works. Such works are: Barock- 
und Rococo-Architektur, by R. Dohme. Denkmaeler Deutscher Renaissance, 
by K. E. O. Fritsch. Die Holzarchitektur Deutschlands vom XIV-XVIII 
Jahrhundert, by Carl Schaefer. Architectur der Niederlande, by L. Krook. 
Motive der Mittelalterlichen Baukunst in Deutschland, by Hugo Hartung. 
Baudenkmaeler in Grossbritannien, by C. Uhde. Architecture of the Renais- 
sance in England, by J. A. Gotch and W. T. Brown. London Churches of 
the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, by G. H. Birch (includes St. Paul's 
Cathedral). La Normandie Monumentale et Pittoresque. La France Artistique 
et Monumentale, by M. H. Havard and others. Die Baukunst Frankreichs, 
by C. Gurlitt. L'Art Gothique, by L. Gonse. Die Baukunst Spaniens, by 
Max Junghaendel. Baudenkmaeler in Spanien und Portugal, by C. Uhde. 
Die Architektur der Renaissance in Toscana, begun by a society in Florence, 
carried on by C. von Stegmann. Palast-Architektur von Ober-Italien und 
Toscana, by R. Reinhardt and others (especially the volumes on Genoa and 
Venice). Raccolta delle Vere da Pozzo in Venezia, published by F. Ongania 
(contains many views of courtyards). La Basilica di San Marco in Venezia, 
published by F. Ongania (includes several hundred photographic plates of 
details, which form the most important part of the work). 

Some of these works consist almost wholly of plates with but little text ; 
others have half-tone cuts scattered through the text and which cannot be 
separated from it. 



is also true that archaeological study has been 'unfavour- 
able to the growth of natural and original design. This, 
however, is because the modern student of architecture 
as an art to be practised, has studied the superficial as- 
pects of ancient styles rather than the essential nature 
of those styles. Our pseudo-Gothic churches and our 
pseudo-Roman colonnades would be alike unknown if it 
had been the true nature of second century and thirteenth 
century art which had interested the designer and absorbed 
his attention, in place of the mere exterior details which 
are so easy to copy. It is to be urged as a remedy for 
the modern disease of borrowing and copying, that the 
true nature of each favourite style of ancient art should 
be made more familiar to our practising architects and 
their draughtsmen. 

August, 1896. 








The Archaeology of the Subject .... 



Doric Buildings 



Ionic Buildings ...... 



Corinthian Buildings 

2 9 


Architectural and Figure Sculpture 



Exceptional Buildings . 



Polychromy ........ 






Buildings for Amusement and Ceremony. Tombs 

. 46 


Picturesqueness and Simplicity .... 

. 48 


I. Buildings of Solid Masonry 51 

II. Cut Stone with Solid Masonry ....... 66 

III. Columnar Buildings 71 

IV. Triumphal Arches .......... 85 

V. Other Memorial Structures 89 

VI. Architectural Details 92 

VII. Buildings of Exceptional Style 96 



VIII. The Five Orders " . ...... 101 

IX. Architectural Sculpture . . . . . . . . .105 

X. Architecture of Interiors . 107 

XI. Economy of Roman Building . .108 

XII. Dwellings . . . .109 

XIII. Theatres. Circuses, etc. . . . . . . . . no 


I. Building under New Conditions 112 

II. Early Christian Churches .119 

III. Inferior Materials and Skill 128 

IV. Byzantine Building 136 

V. Byzantine Decoration ......... 143 


I. Northern Churches before 1150 A.D 147 

II. The Development of Vaulting 154 

III. Resulting Architectural Forms 175 

IV. Later Byzantine Buildings .181 


I. Origin of Gothic : France 186 

II. Provinces, North and South of France ...... 223 

III. Germany 226 

IV. England . 235 

V. Italy . . . 245 




I. France .... 260 

II. Provinces, North and South of France 278 

III. Germany ........... 286 

IV. England 296 

V. Italy 307 


I. France 327 

II. Provinces, North and South of France ..... 348 

III. Germany 354 

IV. England ........... 357 

V. Italy 365 


Prefatory Note 389 

I. France . . . 391 

II. Provinces, North and South of France 417 

III. Germany ........... 426 

IV. England 437 

V. Italy 450 


Prefatory Note 474 

I. France 476 

II. Provinces, North and South of France 497 

III. Germany 504 

IV. England 516 

V. Italy ,538 


INDEX .... 565 



Archives : Archives de la Commission des Monuments Historiques. Art pour Tous : 
Periodical of that Name. O. H. B. : Otto H. Bacher. Billing's' Carlisle : Architectural Illus- 
trations of Carlisle Cathedral, by R. W. Billings. Billings' D. Cath. : Architectural Illustra- 
tions of the Cathedral Church at Durham, by R. W. Billings. Billings' D, Co. : Illustrations 
of the Architectural Antiquities of the County of Durham, by R. W. Billings. Britton : Archi- 
tectural Antiquities of Great Britain, by John Britton. Boetticher : Die Tektonik der Hellenen, 
von Karl Boetticher. Bunsen : Die Basiliken des Christlichen Roms, by Gutensohn & Knapp, 
Illustrating Bunsen's Work. Choisy : L'Art de Batir chez les Remains, par A. Choisy. 
Cicogn. : Le Fabbriche e I Monumenti Conspicui di Venezia, illustrati da 'L. Cicognara, etc. 
Come : Archaeologische Untersuchungen auf Samothrake.von Alexander Conze, Alois Hauser 
und Otto Benndorf. S. C. : Sebastien Cruset. Dartein : Etudes sur 1' Architecture Lombarde, 
par F. de Dartein. D. &* D. : Histoire de la Sainte Chapelle du Palais, par MM. Decloux & 
Doury. De G. : Itineraire Archeologique de Paris, par M. F. de Guilhermy. Durelli : La 
Certosa di Pavia descritta . . ., dai Fratelli Gaetano e Francesco Durelli. Durm : Construc- 
tive und Polychrome Details der Griechischen Baukunst . . ., von Josef Durm. Ency. : 
Encyclopedic d' Architecture (a periodical begun in 1872). Enlart : Origines Frangaises de 
1' Architecture Gothique en Italic, par C. Enlart. Entretiens : Entretiens sur L'Architecture, 
par Vi6llet-le-Duc. Fergusson : A History of Architecture in All Countries, by James Fergus- 
son. Foerster : Denkmale Deutscher Baukunst . . ., von Ernst Foerster. France Artistique : 
La France Artistique et Monumentale . . ., de M. Henry Havard. Gailh. : Monuments 
Anciens et Modernes, par Jules Gailhabaud. Gailh. D. B. : L'Art dans Les Diverses Branches 
. . ., par Jules Gailhabaud. A. M. G. : Miss Alice M. Gamble. Gruner : Specimens of Orna- 
mental Art . . ., by Lewis Gruner. Handbuch : Handbuch der Architektur (Darmstadt, 1881, 
etc.). Isabelle : Les Edifices Circulaires et les Domes . . ., par M. E. Isabelle. King : The 
Study Book of Mediaeval Architecture and Art . . ., by Thomas H. King. Laspeyres : Die 
Kirchen der Renaissance in Mittel-Italien . . ., von Paul Laspeyres. Lenoir : Architecture 
Monastique, par M. Albert Lenoir. Le Ta. : Edifices de Rome Moderne, par P. Le Tarouilly. 
Afallay : Essai sur Les Eglises Romanes . . ., du Puy-de-Dome, par M. Mallay. Martha : 
Manuel d'Archeologie Etrusque et Romaine, par Jules Martha. E. J. M. : E. J. Meeker. 
Prentice : Renaissance Architecture and Ornament in Spain . . ., by Andrew N. Prentice. 
Rohault : La Toscane au Moyen Age . . ., par Georges Rohault de Fleury. K.-R. : L'Archi- 
tecture Normande . . ., par V. Ruprich-Robert. Salz. : Alt-Christliche Baudenkmale von 
Constantinopel . . ., von W. Salzenberg. Sauvageot : Palais, Chateaux, Hotels, et Maisons 
de France . . ., par Claude Sauvageot. Schaefer : Die Holzarchitektur Deutschlands . . ., 
von Carl Schaefer. E. H. S. : E. H. Schutt. Shaw : Architectural Sketches from the Continent, 
by Richard Norman Shaw. Z>. N. B. S. : Danford N. B. Sturgis. Street : Some Account of 
Gothic Architecture in Spain, by George Edmund Street. Stuart : Antiquities of Athens . . ., 
'by James Stuart and Nicholas Revett. V.-le- D. : Dictionnaire Raisonne de 1'Architecture 


Fran?aise . . ., par Viollet-le-Duc. Vogue : Syrie Centrale ; Architecture, Civile et Religieuse, 
par le Comte de Vogue. Willis : On the Construction of the Vaults of the Middle Ages, by 
R. Willis [in the Transactions of the Royal Institute of British Architects for 1842]. 

1 . Athens, Theseion, plan . . . . . . . . . 5 

2. Athens, TJieseion, exterior. Drawn by D. N. B. S. . . . . 6 

3. Paestum, Temple of Poseidon, interior. Drawn by D. N. B. S. . . 8 

4. Athens, Parthenon, plan . . . . . . . . . 9 

5. Athens, Parthenon and Olympia, Temple of Zeus ; two fronts on same 

scale .11 

6. Eleusis, Temple of Artemis, plan . . . . . . .12 

7. Athens, Propylaia, plan 13 

8. Athens, Propylaia, sectional perspective. Drawn by D. N. B. S. . 14 

9. Corner of a Doric Temple. Drawn by D. N. B. S 16 

10. Construction of a Doric Temple. Drawn by D. N. B. S. ... 17 

11. Athens, Doric Cap, indications of colour. Drawn by E. H. S. . . 18 

12. Outlines of Different Doric Capitals 19 

13. Ionic Capital at Athens. Drawn by D. N. B. S 22 

14. Athens, Erechtheion, plan 23 

15. Athens, Erechtheion, elevation of order. Direct from Boetticher . 26 

1 6. Ionic Corner Capital, plan 27 

17. Ionic Corner Capital, from within. Direct from Durm ... 27 

18. Corner of an Ionic Temple. Drawn by D. N. B. S 28 

19. Athens, Lysikrates' Monument. Drawn by D. N. B. S. ... 31 

20. Athens, Lysikrates 1 Monument, restoration of top. Direct from Stuart 32 

21. Epidauros, Corinthian Capital. Drawn by D. N. B. S. . . . 33 

22. Corinthian Capital. Direct from Boetticher ..... 34 

23. Corinthian Capital. Direct from Boetticher ..... 34 

24. Samothrace, the Arsinoeion. Direct from Conze .... 35 

25. Athens, Erechtheion, Caryatid Portico. Drawn by D. N. B. S. . 39 

26. Athens, Throne in Theatre. Direct from Handbuch .... 40 

27. Akragas, Temple of Zeus, plan ........ 43 

28. Rome, Pantheon, interior. Direct from Isabelle . . . -57 

29. Rome, Thermae of Caracalla, interior. Drawn by E. H. S. after Viol-., 

let-le-Duc 62 

30. Rome, S. M. degli Angeli, interior. Drawn by S. C 64 

31. Nimes, Nymphaeum, interior. Drawn by D. N. B. S. ... 67 

32. Nimes, Nymphaeum, detail. Direct from Choisy .... 68 

33. Musmiyeh, Pretorium, interior. Direct from Vogue .... 69 

34. Rome, Trajan's Forum and Basilica Ulpia, restored plan ... 72 

35. Cori, So-called Temple of Hercules, front. Direct from Gailh. . . 74 

36. Nimes, Maison Carree. Direct from Martha 75 

37. Baalbek, Temple of Jupiter, plan ....... 76 



38. Baalbek, Temple of Jupiter, interior. Drawn by D. N. B. S. . . 78 

39. Palmyra, Part of Great Colonnade. Drawn by D. N. B. S. . . 82 

40. Restoration of Roman Temple with Portico. Direct from Entretiens 84 

41 . Saint Chamas, Roman Bridge, with two arches. Drawn by D. N. B. S. 86 

42. Benevento, Arch of Trajan. Drawn by D. N. B. S 88 

43. Saint Remy, Monument. Drawn by D. IV. B. S. . . 91 

44. Rome, Theatre of Marcellus, detail. Direct from Entretiens . . 93 

45. Rome, Arch of Constantine, detail. Drawn by D. N. B. S. . . 95 

46. Saintes, Roman Gateway. Drawn by D. N. B. S. . . . . 97 

47. Athens, Arch of Hadrian. Drawn by D. N. B. S. . . . 98 

48. Lambese, Pretorium. Drawn by D. A r . B. S. 99 

49. Spalato, Palace of Diocletian, arcade. Drawn by D. N. B. S. . 100 

50. Composite Capital. Drawn by D. A 7 ". B. S. . . . . .102 

51. Capital with Figure, Lateran Museum. Drawn by D. JV. B. S. . .103 

52. Capital with Rams, Lateran Museum. Drawn by D. IV. B. S. . .104 

53. Composite Ionic Capital from Temple of Saturn. Drawn by 

D. IV. B. S. 104 

54. Panel of Leafage, Lateran Museum. Drawn by D. IV. B. S. . . 105 

55. Kalb Louzeh, Interior of Church. Direct from Vogue . . .114 

56. Deir Siman, Triumphal Arch. Direct from Vogue . . . .116 

57. Serjilla, Two Columns from the Church. Direct from Vogue . . 117 

58. Kalat Siman, Apse of Church. Direct from Vogue . . . .118 

59. Rome, Basilica of S. John Lateran, plan . . . . . .122 

60. Rome, Basilica of S. Clemente, interior. Direct from Bunsen . .123 

61. Rome, Church of S. Costanza, plan . . . . . . .126 

62. Rome, Church of S. Costanza, interior. Direct from Isabelle . .125 

63. Nocera, Church of S. M. de la Rotonda. Direct from Isabelle . .127 

64. Rome, Basilica of S. Lorenzo Fuori le Mura, interior. Direct from 

Bunsen . . . . . . . . . . . .129 

65. Biella, Chapel. Direct from Dartein 133 

66. Montmajour, Chapel. Direct from V.-le-D. . . . . 135 

67. Cividale, Church of S. M. in Valle, interior. Direct from Gailh. . 137 

68. Constantinople, Church of H. Sophia, plan ...... 139 

69. Constantinople, Church of H. Sophia, section. Direct from Salz. . 141 

70. Aix-la-Chapelle, Chapel, plan. Direct from Dartein . . . .148 

71. Saint Saturnin and Querqueville, plans of chapels. Direct from Lenoir 149 

72. Vignory, Church, plan. Direct from V.-le-D 150 

73. Vignory, Church, interior. Drawn by A. M. G. . . . .150 

74. Clermont-Ferrand, Church of N. D. du Port, section. Direct from 

V.-le-D 152 

75-. Poitiers, Baptistery. Direct from Archives 153 

76. Clermont-Ferrand, Church of N. D. du Port, plan. Direct from Mallay 1 54 



77. Clermont-Ferrand, Church of N. D. du Port, vaulting of choir-aisle. 

Direct from V.-le-D 155 

78. Clermont-Ferrand, Church of N. D. du Port, plan of vaults. Drawn by 

E.H.S. 156 

79. Perigueux, Church of S. Front, plan. Direct from Handbuch . . 157 

80. Pdrigueux, Church of S. Front, interior. Drawn by E. H. S. after 

Gailh .158 

81. Diagrams of Vaulting. Drawn by E. H. S. . 159 

82. Vdzelay, Abbey Church, aisle. Drawn by D. N. B. S. . . .161 

83. Diagrams, plan and undersurface of vaulting. Drawn by E. H. S. 162 

84. Diagrams, plan and undersurface of vaulting. Drawn by E. H. S. 163 

85. Diagram of Vaulting. Direct from V.-le-D. . . .... 164 

86. Diagram, plan of vaulting. Drawn by E. H. S 164 

87. Diagram, plan of vaulting. Drawn by E. H. S. . . . .165 

88. Romanesque Vaulting, view. Drawn by E. H. S 166 

89. Diagram of Vaulting. Drawn by E. H. S 167 

90. Milan, Church of S. Ambrogio, partial section. Direct from R.-R. . 168 

91. Pavia, Church of S. Michele, one bay of nave. Direct from R.-R. . 169 

92. Spires, Cathedral, two bays of nave. Direct from Gailh . . . -171 

93. Vdzelay, Abbey Church, nave. Drawn by D. N. B. S. . . 173 

94. Peterborough, Cathedral, partial plan. Direct from R.-R. . 175 

95. Peterborough, Cathedral, interior. Drawn by E. y. M. . . .176 

96. Tournai, Cathedral, group of towers. Drawn by S. C. . . . 177 

97. Durham, Cathedral, Galilee. Direct from Billings' D. Cath. . -179 

98. Aries, Church of S. Trophime, cloister. Direct from V.-le-D. . .180 

99. Vendome, Tower of Church. Direct from V. -le-D 182 

100. Vernouillet, Tower of Church. Direct from V.-le-D. . . .183 

101. Constantinople, Church of Theotokos, plan. Direct from Salz. . 184 

102. Constantinople, Church of Theotokos, elevation. Direct from Salz. . 185 

103. Diagram, plan of vaulting. Drawn by E, H. S. . . . .187 

104. Romanesque Vault. Direct from V.-le-D. . . . . .188 

105. Diagram of Vaulting. Drawn by E. H. S. . . . . . 189 

1 06. Skeleton of Vaulting Ribs. Drawn by E. H. S. . . . .189 

107. Rib and Shell of Gothic Vault. Drawn by E. H. S. . . . .191 

108. Skeleton of Vaulting Ribs. Direct from V.-le-D 193 

109. Scheme of Shell of Gothic Vault. Direct from V. -le-D. . . . 193 
no. Scheme of Shell of Gothic Vault. Direct from V. -le-D. . . . 194 
in. Diagram Plan, sexpartite vault. Drawn by E. H. S. . . -194 

112. Skeleton of Ribs, sexpartite vault. Direct from V.-le-D. . . -195 

113. Diagram, alternative arrangement of vaulting spaces. Drawn by 

E.H.S. 196 

114. Diagram, two pointed arches. Drawn by E. H. S. . . . .197 



115. Diagram plan, Gothic church without aisles. Drawn by E. H. S. . 198 

116. Diagram, flying buttress construction. Drawn by E. H. S. . , 199 

117. Reims, Church of S. Remy, buttress system. Direct from King . 200 

1 1 8. Soissons, Cathedral, interior of S. transept. Direct from V.-le-D. . 203 

119. Diagram, comparative sections. Drawn by E. H. S. .... 204 

1 20. Noyon, Cathedral, plan. Direct from V.-le-D. ..... 206 

121. Noyon, Cathedral, interior. Drawn by E. J. M. .... 208 

122. Paris, Sainte Chapelle, exterior. Direct from D. r* D. . . .212 

123. Reims, Cathedral, window. Direct from V.-le-D. . . . .214 

124. Paris, Sainte Chapelle, one bay. Direct from V.-le-D. . . .216 

125. Paris, Cathedral, gable. Direct from V.-le-D. . . . . .217 

126. Paris, Cathedral, N. door of W. front. Direct from V.-le-D. . .218 

127. Scheme of a Gothic Cathedral. Direct from V.-le-D. . . . 220 

128. Reims, Restoration of House of the Musicians. Direct from V.-le-D. 224 

129. Magdeburg, Cathedral, interior of choir. Drawn by E. J. M. . . 228 

130. Magdeburg, Cathedral, doorway. Drawn by E. J. M. . . . 230 

131. Treves, Church of Liebfrauen Kirche, plan. Direct from Gailh. . 231 

132. Freiburg, Minster, two bays of S. flank. Direct from King . . 234 

133. Lincoln, Cathedral, plan of choir vaulting. Drawn by E. H. S. . 240 

134. Lincoln, Cathedral, plan of nave vaulting. Drawn by E. H, S. . 241 

135. Lincoln, Cathedral, view of nave vaulting. Drawn by E. J. M. . 242 

136. Carlisle, Cathedral, part of N. choir aisle. Direct from Billings' Car- 

lisle 244 

137. Salisbury, Cathedral, tomb of Bishop Giles. Direct from Gailh. . 246 

138. Fossanova, Chapter-House. Drawn by E. J. M. . . . . 248 
1 38 A. Fossanova, Refectory. Drawn by E. J. M. 249 

139. Santa Maria d 1 Arbona. Drawn by E. J. M. after Enlart . . .251 

140. Florence, Church of S. Maria Novella, nave. Drawn by E. J. M. . 253 

141 . Verona, Church of S. Anastasia, one bay. Drawn by D. N. B. S. 

after Gruner 255 

142. Verona, Church of S. Anastasia, exterior. Drawn by D. N. B. S. . 256 

143. Assisi, Church of S. Francesco, one bay. Direct from Gailh. . . 258 

144. Rouen, Church of S. Ouen, plan. Direct from V.-le-D. . . .261 

145. Carcassonne, Cathedral, N. front. Direct from France Artistique . 265 

146. Reims, Cathedral, window of nave. Direct from V.-le-D. . . . 267 

147. Paris, Cathedral, window of chapel. Direct from V.-le-D. . . 269 

148. Troyes, Church of S. Urbain, diagram of window tracery. Direct 

from V.-le-D 270 

149. Carcassonne, Cathedral, window. Direct from V.-le-D. . . . 272 

150. Rouen, Cathedral, pierced gable of N. transept door. Direct from 

V.-le-D 274 

151. Chateaudun, Front and plan of house. Direct from V.-le-D. . . 277 



152. Troyes, Chapel of S. Gilles, detail of framing. Direct from V.-le-D. 279 

153. Toledo, Cathedral, plan of apse. Direct from Street . . . 280 

154. Toledo. Cathedral, outer aisle of choir. Drawn by E. J. M. . .281 

155. Vilvorde, Church, plan. Direct from King ..... 283 

156. Vilvorde, Church, section. Direct from King ..... 284 

157. Antwerp, Cathedral, section. Direct from King .... 285 

158. Oppenheim, Church of S. Katharine, detail of S. flank. Direct from 

Foerster ,*.'_*; 287 

159. Nuremburg, Church of S. Sebaldus, E. end. Direct from Foerster . 289 

1 60. Erfurt, Cathedral, plan. Direct from King 291 

161. Erfurt, Cathedral, exterior. Direct from King . . . . . 292 

162. Vienna, Cathedral, plan. Direct from Foerster 293 

163. Lincoln, Cathedral, central tower. Direct from Brit ton . . . 297 

164. Beverley, Minster, one bay, exterior and interior. Direct from Brit- 

ton 299 

1 64 A. Carlisle, Cathedral, E. window. Direct from Billings'* Carlisle . 300 

165. Staindrop, Church, choir. Direct from Billings^ D. Co. . . . 302 

1 65 A. Ely, Cathedral, plan of vaulting of octagon. Drawn by E. H. S. . 303 

1 66. Durham, Cathedral, detail of vaulting. Direct from Billings'* D. Cath. 305 

1 66 A. London, Westminster Hall, roof 306 

i66B. Plans of three churches compared. Drawn by E. H. S. . . . 308 

167. Bologna, Church of S. Petronio, detail of interior. Drawn by E. J. M. 309 

1 68. Florence, Cathedral, part of interior. Direct from Gailh. . . .312 
1 68 A. Lucca, Cathedral, part of interior. Drawn by E. H. S. after Shaw . 314 

169. Florence, Loggia dei Lanzi, interior. Direct from Rohault . .316 

170. Venice, Ducal Palace, detail of fa9ade. Direct from Cicogn. . . 324 

171. Verona, Tomb of Mastino II. Drawn by E. J. M. .... 325 

172. Paris, Church of S. Germain TAuxerrois. Direct from De G. . . 329 

173. Narbonne, Cathedral, detail of pier. Direct from V.-le-D. . . 330 

174. Rouen, Church of S. Maclou, gables of porch. Drawn by A. M. G. . 331 

175. Evreux, Cathedral, buttress. Direct from V.-le-D. .... 332 

176. Narbonne, Cathedral, detail of cloister. Direct from V. -le-D. . . 333 

177. Avioth, Chapel, plan. Direct from V.-le-D 336 

178. Avioth, Chapel, exterior. Direct from V.-le-D 337 

179. Albi, Cathedral, S. porch. Direct from V.-le-D. .... 339 

1 80. Tours, Cathedral, central doorway. Direct from V.-le-D. . . 340 

181. Eu, Church, pendant of vaulting rib. Direct from V.-le-D. . . 341 

182. Troyes, Church of S. Madeleine, jube. Direct from Gailh. . . 343 

183. Paris, Hotel de Cluny, plan. Direct from V.-le-D 344 

184. Paris, Hotel de Cluny, exterior. Direct from V.-le-D. . . . 345 

185. Rouen, Front of house. Direct from V.-le-D. ..... 347 

1 86. Valladolid, Church of S. Gregorio, cloister door. Drawn by E. J. M. 350 



187. Guadalajara, Courtyard of a palace. Drawn by E, J. M. . . . 352 

1 88. Hanover, Rathhaus. Drawn by A. M. G. . . . . -355 

189. Taunton, Church of S. M. Magdalen, tower. Direct from Britton . 359 
189 A. Warwick, the Beauchamp Chapel. Direct from Britton . . . 361 

190. Oxford, Christ Church College Hall, vestibule. Drawn by E.J. M. . 363 

191. Windsor, S. George's Chapel, vaulting. Direct from Willis . . 364 

192. Florence, Pazzi Chapel. Drawn by A. M. G 370 

193. Mantua, Church of S. Andrea, plan. Drawn by E. H. S. . . . 372 

194. Certosa, near Pavia, detail. Direct from Durelli .... 375 

195. Relief Arabesque. Direct from Art pour Tous 376 

196. Venice, Church of S. Zaccaria, front. Direct from Cicogn. . . 378 

197. Diagram Plan, Renaissance Church. Drawn by E. H. S. . . 380 

198. Venice, Church of S. Fantino, interior. Drawn by S. C. . . -381 

199. Cortona, Church of S. M. Nuova, plan. Direct from Laspeyres . 382 

200. Montepulciano, Church of S. Biagio, plan. Direct from Laspeyres . 383 

20 1. Rome, Palazzo Stoppani, front. Direct from Le Tarouilly . . . 387 

202. Chateau of Chambord, central mass. Direct from Gailh. . . . 397 

203. Blois, Chateau, stairway tower of Frangois I. Direct from Archives 398 

204. Bussy-le-Grand, Chateau, detail. Direct from Sauvageot . . . 399 

205. Varengeville, Manoir d'Ango, detail. Drawn by A. M. G. . . 400 

206. Rouen, Front of house. Direct from Gailh. ..... 402 

207. Ecouen, Chateau, detail. Drawn by A. M. G. . . . . . 403 

208. Nogent-sur-Seine, Church, detail. Direct from Gailh. D. B. . 405 

209. Paris, Church of S. Etienne du Mont, front. Direct from De G. . 406 

210. Paris, Church of S. Etienne du Mont, interior. Direct from Encyc. . 407 

211. Tillieres, Church, roof of choir. Direct from Encyc 408 

212. Tillieres, Church, diagram plan. Drawn by E. H. S. . . . 409 

213. Moulins, Hospital, part of front. Direct from Gailh. D. B. . .411 

214. Paris, Luxembourg, pavilion. Drawn by E. H. S. . . . 413 

215. Paris, Church of S. Roch, interior. Drawn by E. J. M. . . . 416 

216. Antwerp, Church of S. Charles Borromeo, tower. Drawn by E. J. M. 418 

217. Avila, Casa Polentina, detail. Direct from Prentice . . . .421 

218. Granada, Palace of Charles V., detail. Drawn by E. J. M. . . 423 

219. Hildesheim, Wooden house. Direct from Schaefer .... 429 

220. Danzig, Zeughaus, detail. Drawn by E. H. S. . . . -431 

221. Cologne, Rathhaus, porch. Direct from Gailh. ..... 433 

222. Ratisbon, Rathhaus, doorway. Drawn by E. J. M. .... 434 

223. Munich, Church of S. Michael, interior. Drawn by E. J. M. . -435 

224. Bramshill, Manor House, detail. Drawn by S. C. . . . 440 

225. Wollaton House, one tower. Drawn by E. H. S. . . . . 442 

226. Gainford Hall, doorway. Direct from Billings 1 D. Co. . 444 

227. Moreton Old Hall, detail. Drawn by O. H. B 447 



228. Venice, Palazzo Widman. Drawn by A. M. G. * . . . 455 

229. Venice, Scuola di S. Rocco. Drawn by S. C. . *. . . 461 

230. Vicenza, Palazzo Thiene. Drawn by S. C. . , ; -.-. . . . 463 
230 A. Vicenza, Villa Rotonda. Drawn by S. C 465 

231. Rome, Church of S. Peter, partial plan. Direct from Gailh. . . 466 

232. Rome, church of S. Peter, N. front. Direct from Gailh. . . . 467 

233. Rome, Palazzo dei Conservator!. Drawn by 6". C 472 

234. Versailles, Chapel of Chateau, interior. Drawn by E. J. M. . . 483 

235. Paris, Ministere de la Marine. Drawn by E. J. M. . . . . 486 

236. Paris, Church of the Invalides. Direct from Gailh. . . . . 489 

237. Paris, H6tel Soubise, interior. Direct from Art pour Tons . . 494 

238. Paris, Hotel Soubise, pavilion. Drawn by E. H. S. . . . . 495 

239. Antwerp, Doorway of a court. Drawn by E. H. S. . . . . 497 

240. Louvain, Church of S. Michael, detail. Drawn by E. J. M. . . 499 

241. Zaragoza, Old Cathedral, tower. Drawn by E. J. M. . . . 500 

242. Madrid, Palace, detail. Drawn by E. H. S. . . . . . 503 

243. Zurich, Town Hall, detail. Drawn by E. J. M. . . . .506 

244. Magdeburg, Rathhaus, detail. Drawn by A. M. G 508 

245. Dresden, Catholic Court Church, detail. Drawn by E. J. M. . . 512 

246. Bruchsal Schloss, interior. Direct from Art pour Tous . . -513 

247. Stuttgart, Schloss, " Solitude. 1 ' Drawn by 6". C 514 

248. Munich, Street Front. Drawn by O. H. B 515 

249. London, Temple Bar. Drawn by E. J. M. . . . . .519 

250. London, Church of S. Mary le Bow, steeple. Drawn by E. J. M. . 520 

251. London, Church of S. Paul, partial section. Direct from Gailh. . 523 

252. London, Church of S. Paul, W. front detail. Drawn by E. J. M. . 527 

253. London, Church of S. Mary le Strand, steeple. Drawn by E. J. M. 532 

254. London, Somerset House, vestibule. Direct from a print . -536 

255. Venice, Palazzo Grassi. Drawn by S. C. 540 

256. Rome, Piazza di S. Pietro, colonnade. Drawn by E. J. M. . . 543 



I. Angouleme : Cathedral, west front . . . . . . .178 

II. Salisbury: Cathedral, from the southwest ..... 238 

III. Rouen: Church of S. Ouen, from the southeast .... 262 

IV. Florence: Cathedral, part of south flank 318 

V. Antwerp : Cathedral, spire 348 

VI. Louvain: Town Hall . . 348 

VII. Valladolid : Church of S. Pablo, west front 350 

VIII. Cambridge: King's College Chapel, interior 364 

IX. Venice: Old Library of S. Mark, part of front .... 456 

X. Illustrations of term "Arch " in Glossary, drawn by E. H. S. . 548 



THIS book is devoted to the study of those ancient 
styles of decorative building which have most powerfully 
influenced later styles, and to those later styles them- 
selves ; down to the present epoch, in which no style 
prevails. It is a brief sketch of the history of European 
architecture, of its often repeated progress and decline, 
and of a new progress and decline in the fifteenth and 
following centuries which were in many ways unique. 
The record begins with the Greek buildings of Doric 
style ; but there are some few vestiges of earlier ways 
of building and of adorning buildings which must be 

Architecture is what is known as a decorative art ; that 
is, it consists in applying fine art to certain objects of 
utility in this case to buildings. Therefore mere rough 
walls used for enclosure, or to retain and support loose 
earth, massive and permanent military buildings, roads 
and bridges, however skilfully and well built, are not 
architecture in the strict sense. When we have no other 
remains of a lost civilization, we have to study such rough 


and unarchitectural remains. These forgotten styles of 
building, however, have had little immediate influence on 
later architecture, so far as can be traced. 

Near the eastern shore of the Morea are two low hills 
on the tops of which have been discovered extensive ruins. 
These have been identified with the ancient Greek cities 
Tiryns and Mykenai, the latter of which we know from 
Homer as the capital of Atreus and Agamemnon, and the 
former as the still older and more mythical city of Perseus. 
Both these towns existed still in the historical era, as 
unimportant towns, but the vestiges on the hilltops are of 
an epoch far older than even the early days of Peisistratos 
or of Solon. We are left to suppose that in each case 
the later city was built in the plain or on the lower hill- 
sides, while the ancient fortress remained the citadel, its 
palace-interior perhaps dismantled, but its defences kept 
in condition. Both cities were deserted in the fifth cen- 
tury B.C. The ruins have been studied, those of Tiryns 
with especial care and knowledge, and much that is 
curious has been well established, although there is much 
more that might be done if money could be had for fur- 
ther exploration. 

At Tiryns a castle, built with walls of prodigious thick- 
ness and a very elaborate system of flanking projections 
and angles for better defence, contained a series of halls, 
rooms, passages, and stately gateways, the whole forming 
such a palace as a king of the Homeric poems might well 
have possessed. Traces of columns, probably wooden 
ones, show where the roof of a large room was supported, 
and a fire-hearth in the middle, taken in connection with 


those posts, shows where a raised part of the roof must 
have let off the smoke through louvres. A heavy thresh- 
old still in place shows, by the round holes in it and the 
marks of swinging doors, that those doors were supported 
by pivots at top and bottom and not hung on hinges. 

At Mykenai, and at other points in Greece, are several 
round chambers roofed, or rather closed at top, by means 
of courses of stone successively overlapping one another, 
and projecting inward ; corbelled out, as modern build- 
ers say ; each ring of stones smaller than the one below, 
and the uppermost ring covered by a single stone. These 
are all meant to be buried in the earth ; they have there- 
fore no exterior design, no walls, only a decorative door- 
way to which a narrow passage leads. The largest of 
these has been known for centuries ; it is the so-called 
"Treasury of Atreus"; and, like the others, is undoubt- 
edly a tomb. Such structures are found also in Italy, in 
islands of the Mediterranean, in Scotland and the Scot- 
tish islands, and in Mexico ; they are not in themselves 
important to students of architecture ; but the great 
Mykenai tomb chamber is nearly fifty feet in diameter, 
and fragments of a once rich architectural doorway point 
to a developed and decidedly Asiatic style of decoration. 
With this structure is to be associated a lining or interior 
ornamentation of some material once held in place by 
nails whose holes may be seen ; it is generally thought 
to have been bronze. The famous Gate of the Lions, not 
far away, and affording entrance to the enclosure of the 
Acropolis, is probably later, though still very early in 
date. In the Tiryns ruins fragments of blue glass im- 


bedded in marble slabs have been found. All the evi^ 
dence points to an architecture richer in ornament than 
in constructive design ; the building rude, but the added 
ornament rich. 

In Northern Italy are found remains of large mounds, 
cased outside, wholly or in part, with cut stone. Within, 
these may be mere chambers like those treated of above, 
or still more simple and faced with a few large slabs ; 
but without they have had some monumental character. 
Buildings of this character, and evidently meant for tombs, 
are found in Asia Minor and in Algeria, and on a gigantic 
scale in India, where they are the prototypes of the splen- 
did " pagodas " of later times ; but those of Tuscany and 
Umbria are peculiarly important to us, because of their 
connection with Roman tombs of the great imperial epoch. 
These buildings we associate with the Etruscans or Etru- 
rians, the people of Etruria, who governed all Italy from 
the Tiber to the Po, and at one time held the city of 
Rome in subjection. Their language cannot be read by 
moderns ; no complete building nor even any extensive 
ruin of theirs remains ; we have only movables, such as 
bronze lamps and mirrors and jewelry, stone and terra- 
cotta coffins and urns ; and, of building, fragments of 
fortress wall, tombs and gateways, and one or two struct- 
ures in the city of Rome itself. Among those rough 
and unarchitectural structures there is one element intro- 
duced which is of surpassing importance to all subsequent 
time, the true arch built of radiating voussoirs. This 
way of covering-in a chamber or a passage, or spanning 
a doorway, was known to the people of a remote antiquity 


in Egypt and in Western and Eastern Asia, but the 
people who built what we call Etruscan buildings were 
the first to use it commonly in Europe. Their gateways 
of fortified cities remain at Perugia and Volterra, and the 
famous sewer which drained the Roman Forum, the 
Cloaca Maxima, was of the time of the semi-Etruscan 
Roman kings. Their temples have gone, and of them 
only the account by Vitruvius remains. His work tells us 
that a great deal of wood was used in their construction ; 
that practically only the substructure and the columns 
were of stone ; that they were often built with three cham- 
bers side by side in the cella, with a portico across the 
fronts of the three, making a structure nearly square. 
Buildings of that type undoubtedly existed in Rome even 
in the great days of the Empire, but the Roman temples 
were not the most characteristic nor the most success- 
ful Roman buildings, and, moreover, the Greek influence 
prevailed over the Etruscan in that as in other things. 

Thousands of hillsides and of riverbanks have seen the 
buildings of half-barbarous people rise and fall again, with 
no result except the piles of ruin in which later, not more 
civilized people quarry. Once, only, in a series of cen- 
turies, appears an architectural thought destined to grow 
great and stimulate other thoughts and call out their em- 
bodiment in visible form. Such a beginning was made in 
Egypt we do not know when, perhaps five thousand 
years before our era, and this was great and prevailed 
mightily for an incredible length of time. Such a begin- 
ning must have been in the lowlands along the Euphrates 
and the Tigris, perhaps as early as the African one. In 


a different way, such another must have taken shape 
along the Hwang-ho, we may yet learn at what period 
of early history. But the one commencement of con- 
structional art which is the most important to us was 
much more recent. Somewhere in Grecian lands, about 
seven hundred years before our era, such a beginning of 
architecture was made ; two centuries and a half later 
this had grown into the Grecian architecture which we 
admire ; from this it came to pass that Roman building 
was what it was, and from Roman building has come all 
that of later Europe. 




IN the seventh and following centuries B.C. the people 
who called themselves Graikoi and Hellenes, and whom 
the Romans called Graeci, occupied what is now the king- 
dom of the Hellenes, or Greece as we call it in English, 
and also some part of what is now Turkey in Europe. 
Colonies of these people were in possession also of much 
land on the neighbouring seacoasts, and in some of these 
places so many Greeks had come as immigrants, or had 
been born of immigrants, that the whole populace must 
have seemed Greek to a visitor. Such colonies held most 
of the western coast of Asia Minor ; in Italy the coast on 
the Gulf of Taranto, that of the little peninsula nearest to 
Sicily, now called Calabria, and many other isolated places 
on the eastern and western coasts ; and in Sicily practi- 
cally all the coast except some parts of the northern shore, 
Besides these possessions the Greeks controlled Crete and 
Rhodes and the small islands of the Archipelago ; and the} 1 
generally held a predominating influence in Cyprus. 


In all these countries ruins of Greek buildings and 
remains of Greek art have been found, and more are found 
every year. The buildings are all more or less ruinous-, 
they have lost their sculptures, except for a few shattered 
fragments, and they have lost, except for a few faint traces, 
the painting in vivid colours which was a part of their deco- 
ration. But there is a universal agreement among stu- 
dents of art that this architecture of the Greeks was most 
beautiful and worthy to be studied. From the sixteenth 
century there have been travellers who have brought back 
to western Europe some account of what remained of it. 
In 1762, James Stuart and Nicholas Revett published in 
London the first volume of a great book on the Antiquities 
of Athens ; two or three less elaborate studies had pre- 
ceded this, and scholars in western Europe then began 
to feel that there was a noble architecture which had 
remained unknown to them. In 1811 the Earl of Elgin 
brought from Athens those sculptured stones of the Par- 
thenon, the Erechtheion, and other ancient buildings at 
Athens which are now in the British Museum. The 
science of archaeology, that is the study of the remains 
of ancient art and building and the like in a thorough 
way, may be said to have begun with the writings of 
Johann Joachim Winckelmann, who died in 1768. 

The Greek remains have been studied in a more and 
more serious fashion as this science of archaeology has 
been more developed and perfected. A great deal of 
money and labour has been devoted to digging and explo- 
ration, and also to careful measurements and minute study 
of what has been found. Some of the explorations will be 


mentioned in this book. There are at Athens, the capital 
of modern Greece, four schools of archaeological study, kept 
up by the French government, the German government, 
and by societies in the United States and in England. 
Very many books on this subject, some of them very large 
folios of plates, have been published ; and photographs by 
thousands have been made of Greek remains of all sorts. 
Casts of sculptures and of architectural fragments have 
been made and distributed among museums all over 
Europe and America. Many periodicals are issued, de- 
voted wholly or in part to Greek architecture and art. 
Many of the great universities and colleges have professor- 
ships and whole departments of study of these same sub- 
jects. And there is a constant discussion going on con- 
cerning all those points which are doubtful or disputed. 


The best preserved early Greek buildings which remain 
to us, except three which will be separately described, are 
oblong rectangular structures one story high, having many 
columns which form a portico at one end, or porticoes at 
both ends, or on all sides of an inner chamber or pair of 
chambers. Their remains show that they each had a 
double-pitched roof of slight inclination, which ended in a 
gable at each end ; such a low gable as is called a pedi- 
ment. These buildings are recognized as temples dedi- 
cated to the divinities of the Greek Mythology; and 
inscriptions found in and near them, or the allusions of 
ancient writers, often enable us to say positively that such 


a building is a temple of Athena, as the Parthenon at 
Athens ; or of Zeus, as the great temple at Olympia ; or 
of some other divinity or some hero or demigod. Now, 
no one of these temples is in any respect like a modern 
place of worship ; they have but small interiors, and those 
interiors seem not to have been lighted by windows in any 
case, but only through the doorway or by lamps, except 
where there was a part left unroofed. It is maintained by 
some writers that a system of small openings was made in 
the slope of the roof, and by others that there were open- 
ings in low walls supported on columns within, somewhat 
like the clear-story windows of basilicas and Gothic 
churches (Ch. III., IV., V.). Some writers maintain that 
an open court was left, as wide as the whole space within 
the solid walls, and others think that the space between 
those walls and an inner row of columns was left unroofed. 
There is no evidence that any such means were used, 
except a sentence, hard to understand, in Vitruvius (see 
the Glossary), but this sentence does not say that temples 
were commonly lighted in any such way or in any way. 
It has been merely assumed that there must have been 
light openings, and different writers have tried to find a 
way in which they might have been made. The interiors 
were small and the need of daylight was not very great ; 
incense may have been burned in front of the principal 
statue, and a score or two of persons may have been pres- 
ent to witness this ceremony; but the space was hardly 
sufficient even for these, for we know that much of it was 
given up to other statues, and to the display of gifts and 
rich treasures. Those religious ceremonies which needed 



to be seen by the whole people were necessarily performed 
in the open air, and we know that often an altar was per- 
manently set up in front of the temple or in some cases at 
one side. 

A very few temples remain with all their principal 
columns standing and some part of their walls and of the 
structure once raised upon the great columns still in place. 
The best preserved of all is at Athens : the temple usually 
called that of Theseus, but probably that of Hephaistos. 
Figure i gives the plan of this building. The enclosed part 
(naos or cella) was 
only about nineteen 
by thirty-eight feet, 
and the whole length 
of the walls, includ- 
ing the two vesti- 
bules, called pronaos 
and epinaos, is only 
seventy-two feet. A 
portico of columns, 

six at each end, and thirteen on each side, including the 
corner ones, carries the entablature, upon which the roof 
once rested. Some part of the ceiling of the pteroma, or 
space between the naos wall and the colonnade, remains, 
but no part of the sloping roof. During the Middle Ages 
the building had been used as a church, perhaps as a 
mosque, after the Turkish conquest, and a vaulted roof 
had been built ; also a kind of apse at the east end, of both of 
which additions traces remain. Still, no part of the original 
building except the roof can be misunderstood (see Fig. 2). 


1 '3 


m V 


505 25 50 

FIG. I. Athens : so-called Temple of Theseus. Fifth 
century B.C. Plan. 



Another temple very much like the one described 
above, longer by thirty feet and nearly as well preserved, 
is the one called temple of Concordia, near Girgenti, on 
the south coast of Sicily. The ruins around it are known 
to be those of the ancient city of Akragas, called by 
the Romans Agrigentum. This temple, as well as the 
Athenian one, belongs to the best period of the style: 
the period of the most graceful proportions of larger and 

FIG. 2. Athens : so-called Temple of Theseus, from the northeast. 

smaller parts. Another well-preserved hexastyle temple is 
at Paestum, on the west coast of Italy, near Naples. This 
is about 1 90 feet long, and, like all these buildings, of pro- 
portionate width and other dimensions : it is generally 
called the temple of Poseidon because the town was sacred 
to that god, and was called by the Greek colonists Posei- 
donia. Another very similar, but much smaller, not 
even as large as the Theseion at Athens, and called the 
temple of Demeter, stands also within the walls of Paestum. 


Another is on the southern coast of Sicily, among the 
ruins of the ancient town of Segesta. This building had 
not been entirely finished when the work was interrupted ; 
and a great deal has been learned from it about the 
Grecian ways of stone-cutting and building. Besides 
these, of which all, or nearly all, the outer screen of col- 
umns remains standing, there are at Akragas two ruined 
buildings of the same character, of which many of the 
columns still stand; one on the island of ^Egina, near 
Athens, with twenty of its columns erect, and famous for 
its sculptures, which have been removed to the sculpture 
gallery at Munich ; one on the promontory called Cape 
Colonna, near Athens, and known as the temple of Sunion ; 
one at the ancient Bassai, on the west coast of the Morea, 
with thirty-six columns erect ; one on the shore of the Gulf 
of Taranto, among the ruins of Metapontum ; two at Syra- 
cuse, in Sicily ; one, the temple of Hera, at Akragas ; and, 
in the ruins of Selinus in Sicily, several temples, overthrown 
by earthquakes, but lying nearly as they fell. There have 
been explored and studied also, thoroughly and with great 
gain to our knowledge, the ruins of more completely de- 
stroyed temples at Assos on the coast of Asia Minor, and 
Olympia in Greece ; and still other ruins have been more 
or less carefully examined, as at Corinth, at Nemea, south- 
west of Corinth, and at Taormina in Sicily. 

The plan, Fig. i, will suffice to explain the general 
arrangement of each and all of these temples. They differ 
from one another only in having one, two, or more com- 
partments in the part enclosed - by walls, in the width of 
the pteroma, in the spacing of the columns, in the forms of 

FIG. 3. Paestum, Italy : so-called Temple of Poseidon. View of inner colonnades. 



shaft and capital, and in dimensions. Greater differences 
may have existed, of which we cannot be sure in the 
present state of our knowledge of these ruins : thus the 
interior of the naos is known to have had two rows of 
columns m several of the temples, and in two or three it is 
certain that these colonnades were two stories high. Figure 
3 shows this arrangement, as it still exists at the temple 
called that of Poseidon at Paestum. This is, of all the 

FIG. 4. Athens: Parthenon. Finished 438 B.C. Plan. 

Doric temples, the one whose interior disposition is best 
preserved. It is peculiar in having the floor of the naos 
raised high above the floor of the pteroma; but in other 
respects the plan of the Parthenon (Fig. 4) may be consulted. 
It is evident that in these buildings there are no arches, 
but only plain post-and-beam construction ; no windows, 
no chimneys, and in general nothing complex or hard to 
understand in all the building. All the structure, the roof 
excepted, is made up of carefully cut stones, laid one upon 


another in wall or column, or stretching across from one 
column to another or from column to wall. The columns, 
like the walls, are made of blocks laid one upon another. 
It is found, moreover, that no mortar has been used in any 
of these buildings. The stones rest in their places because 
of weight and friction alone, except that, as a precaution 
against earthquakes and to help in the original setting of 
the large blocks, iron or bronze cramps were often used. 
It appears, too, that special means were used to make the 
stones fit one another closely, with almost invisible joints. 
It is thought that the drums of the columns were revolved, 
one upon the other, so as to grind their surfaces smooth 
and uniform. 

Besides these hexastyle temples a very few are known 
to us which have eight columns at each end, and which 
are therefore called octostyle. The best preserved of these 
is the celebrated Parthenon at Athens. Figure 4 gives 
the plan of this temple, and Fig. 5 an outline elevation 
of one end of it compared with a similar elevation of the 
temple of Zeus at Olympia, that the reader may note how 
the carefully considered proportions of the hexastyle temple 
were at once abandoned when an octostyle temple was 
decided on. In all minor proportions, and in the propor- 
tion of length to width, there is no change, and the usual 
minute care is observed, but no attempt seems to have 
been made to allow for or accommodate the design of the 
fronts or ends of the temple to this addition of one-third 
to the width. It seems probable that the general mass of 
the Parthenon was, therefore, less perfect in the relations 
of width to other dimensions. The great temple at the 

FIG. 5. Athens, Parthenon; and Olympia, Temple of Zeus. Each of the fifth 
century B.C. Elevations on the same scale. 




ancient Selinus, mentioned above, was another octostyle 
structure. It may have been even more excessively broad, 
in appearance, than the Parthenon, for the space between 
the columns and the wall of the naos is very wide. A 
temple arranged in this way is called pseudodipteral. The 
little temple at Eleusis, thought to be that of Artemis (see 
Fig. 6), is of the form called distyle in antis. 

A very few buildings are known to us which were cer- 
tainly or probably not temples but which are like the 
temples in the style of the columns, the entablatures, and 
other details. One of these is the singu- 
lar and puzzling building at Paestum, 
having nine columns at each end. This 
seems not to have had a naos ; in place 
of a naos wall are inner rows of columns, 
with square pillars at the four corners, 
enclosing a space which may have been 
screened by low walls between the columns. And a third 
row of columns divides it lengthwise. It is called the 
Basilica (Ch. II.) because it seems to have been a portico 
for walking in shelter a covered promenade. Another 
is the Telesterion at Eleusis. Little is known of this but 
its ground plan, and the recorded fact that it was used for 
the initiation of persons into the mysteries of Eleusis. It 
was dodecastyle, but not peripteral ; that is, it had columns 
in front, twelve in one portico, but none on the sides nor 
rear. Another such building is the little known colonnade 
at Porto Mandri, in Attica, among the ruins of the ancient 
Thorikos. Still another is the round building at Samo- 
thrace called the Arsinoeion ; and most unusual and curious 

FIG. 6. Eleusis: so- 
called Temple of 
Artemis. Plan. 



of all is the round building (Tholos) at Epidauros, on the 
eastern coast of the Morea, in which it appears that a 
complete circular portico of twenty-six Doric columns sur- 

FIG. 7. Athens : Propylaia of Acropolis. 437 to 432 B.C. Plan. 

rounded a circular sekos, or enclosed chamber. Of these 
buildings it will be necessary to speak when we are con- 
sidering the Grecian Corinthian style (see p. 30). 

Another and a most important building of this class 
is the gateway structure or Propylaia of the Acropolis at 


Athens (see Figs. 7 and 8). A hexastyle portico facing 
westward is flanked by two lower and smaller porticoes of 
only three columns each, which project about twenty-five 
feet toward the west. Behind these smaller porticoes are 
rooms of no very elaborate architecture, forming wings 
to the main structure, and a door in the southern wing 
leads out upon the high platform where stands the temple 

FIG. 8. Athens : Propylaia of Acropolis. Sectional perspective. 

of Athena Nike, which will be described in the next 
section. All the three porticoes face upon the ancient 
approach to the Acropolis. Foot-passengers who had 
reached the top of the rocky ascent stepped upon the 
lowest of three marble steps which formed the stylo- 
bate. Four-footed creatures, and the wagons or carts 
drawn in procession or otherwise, passed through the 
central and wider intercolumniation, where the rock was 


left bare in a continuous roadway. This roadway sloped 
steadily uphill toward the east, and the foot-passengers 
passing through the Propylaia had to ascend five steps 
more before reaching doorways pierced in a solid wall and 
passing out through these into the eastern portico, almost 
exactly like the main western portico, though on a higher 
level. Six columns of a different pattern from the rest, 
nearly like those inside the temple of Bassai (p. 7), sepa- 
rate the central roadway from the raised floor of the por- 
tico on each side of it. (See the next section for the 
account of these Ionic columns.) 

Figure 9 shows three columns and the entablature upon 
them of one of these buildings. Beginning at the bottom, 
it should be noticed that the shaft is set upon the stylobate 
directly, whereas all the other columns we shall have to 
speak of in this book have bases. Generally the shaft is 
built up of many pieces, each of the full thickness of the 
shaft : these nearly cylindrical masses are called drums. 
The ruins of a temple at Corinth have monolithic shafts : 
the columns there are of shorter and stouter proportion 
than others, and the temple is assumed to be the oldest of 
any of which considerable remains exist, and probably of 
the seventh century B.C. The shaft is always grooved with 
channels having only a sharp edge or arris between them : 
these channels are of a flattish curve, generally elliptical. 
The number of these channels is sixteen or twenty. The 
capital is made up of the round bell and the square abacus. 
Upon the abaci rest horizontal bars or lintels of stone, and 
these together form the epistyle or architrave. In nearly 
all the buildings these epistyles were left by the builders 

Fiu. 9. 



plain, as we find them, although they were often decorated 
afterward with bronze shields hung up, with inscrip- 
tions, and with 
painting. In a 
single known 
instance, the 
temple at As- 
sos, the epi- 
style is carved. 
Upon the epi- 
style rests a 
second tier or 
layer of stone, 
built up in a 
more elaborate 
way: the stone 
blocks called triglyphs are 
thick, and carry the cornice 
and all above it, but the 
metopes between them are 
filled with thinner pieces 
often carved with figures 
and groups in high relief. 
It is thought that in very 
ancient times these metopes 
were left open. Upon the 
frieze rests the cornice, 
which is shaped so as to 
allow no water to run from it along the frieze and archi- 
trave ; that is, it is cut with a drip-moulding. Figure 10 

FIG. 10. A, Epistyle or architrave in this 
case two stones in depth. , Triglyph; 
the metopes are between the triglyphs, and 
the whole horizontal band is the frieze. 
C, Cornice. D, Abacus of the capital. 




gives all the parts of the structure which are common to all 
these buildings. 

All the buildings which have been mentioned are said 
to be of the Doric style of architecture. The columns 
with their entablature above form the Doric order; and 
we say that one of these porticoes is only one order high, 
that is, that there is only one column with its entablature 
in its whole height not two or three stories of columns. 

FlG. II. Athens: Parthenon. A capital with colour indicated restored. 

The particular beauty and charm of this Doric order are 
in the extreme refinement of its details. Every detail of 
the whole order was the subject of constant thought, and) 
the designers were always modifying the section of the 
grooves in the triglyph and of the channels of the shafts, 
and of the swelling bell of the capital. The column 
in a special way was constantly studied and often changed. 
Figure n gives a large detail of a capital of the Parthe- 
non, with the ornamental painting restored nearly as it 
must have been. The colour leaves traces behind it even. 



when entirely gone, so that the pattern can be seen 
plainly, and, moreover, the colour itself has been found 
in small parts. Figure 12 gives the outline, on a still 
larger scale, of several capitals of different buildings. It 
will be seen that the curve of the echinus is very deli- 

FlG. 12. Profiles of Doric capitals, as follows: Nos. I and 6, early capitals found on 
Acropolis at Athens. No. 2, Athens : so-called Temple of Theseus. No. 3, Athens : 
Propylaia. Nos. 4 and 5, Athens : Parthenon. No. 7, Cori (Southern Italy) : so-called 
Temple of Hercules. 

cate indeed, and the four annulets and the little groove 
called the gorgerin, or necking, are very minute and very 
carefully modelled so as to make thin and delicate lines 
of shadow around the column at the junction of shaft and 
capital. So the slight rounding-out of the shaft at the 
very top, above the gorgerin, is arranged so as to give a 



series of little rounded lobes of shade. If, now, we were 
to put side by side the capitals of many other buildings, 
as a few are compared in Fig. 12, we should find that the 
curve of the echinus and the shape and place of the annu- 
lets and gorgerin were different in them all. It is evident 
that each designer set himself to a most careful considera- 
tion of these curves and these minute differences of place 
and of outline. The shaft too was delicately modelled ; it 
was always tapered, but generally in a curve and not in a 
straight line. This convex swell is called the entasis, and 
much study has been given to it by modern archaeologists 
in order to ascertain its exact curve and the manner of 
determining that curve mathematically ; but there is little 
doubt that it was made by hand and eye only. There are 
other peculiarities which have been discovered by very 
careful measurements, as in the Parthenon. In that 
famous building the columns are not truly vertical, but 
those at the angles of the eastern portico, for instance, 
are set a little slanting inward at top; those next to the 
corner ones are set more nearly vertical, the slope becom- 
ing less and less toward the middle of the portico. Per- 
haps this slant in the corner columns may be put at an 
average of two inches in the height of about thirty-one 
feet. The object of this is to give an appearance of per- 
fect solidity, and therefore of repose ; not only by making 
the base a little broader in comparison, but also by giving 
the upright lines an appearance of tending to come 
together at top. Of course the eye could never detect 
the inclination; but it was thought to affect the spec- 
tator, insensibly. Another similar device was this: the 


seemingly horizontal lines of the stylobate and of the 
entablature are really curved upward in the middle. The 
stylobate of the east end, in its length of about 102 feet, 
is crowned up a little more than three inches, and the 
under side of the architrave above is crowned up a little 
more than two and a half. At the west end the curvature 
is slightly greater. On the two long sides it cannot be 
judged so well, because of the shattered condition of the 

If, then, it seems surprising and incomprehensible to the 
modern student that the Greeks, with their great power 
of invention, should have gone on for a century or more 
repeating so closely the features and the general disposi- 
tion of their Doric buildings, it is equally surprising that 
they should have found satisfaction in such very minute 
and invisible refinements of design. Their architectural 
conception hardly included ornamental sculpture as an 
adjunct (Sec. V.), and the general scheme of the temple 
was not changed from two or three main types. The 
arrangement and re-arrangement of mouldings with deli- 
cate profiles, and the determination of a greater or less 
slope or curvature, were clearly important elements in their 
design. This, with other indications, would lead us to 
believe in an artistic sense among the Greeks far superior 
to that possessed by any modern community of European 





After the Doric temples, the most numerous Greek 
buildings known to us are those the principal design of 
which is like that of the interior orders of the temple of 
Bassai and the Propylaia of Athens alluded to above. 
The most striking feature of this Ionic style, as it is called, 
is the curious capital with what are called volutes ; that is, 
spiral ornaments (see Fig. 13); but all the other members 

of the Ionic order 
differ, as well, from 
those of the Doric 

One small Ionic 
temple stands on 
the Acropolis of 
Athens, close to the 

Propylaia. This is known to be the temple of Athena 
the giver of victory, or Athena Nike ; or, as this imper- 
sonation of the patron goddess is sometimes called, 
Nike Apteros, or the Wingless Victory. This little 
building had been entirely removed, and its fragments 
built into the wall of the Turkish or Venetian fortress built 
upon the Acropolis; as it now stands it has been put 
together again since the fortress was torn down about 
sixty years ago; it is therefore not certainly correct in 
general form, although valuable for its details. Near the 
Parthenon, on the northern edge of the Acropolis, is a 
wonderful double or triple temple called the Erechtheion,. 

FIG. 13. 

Ionic capital, found on the Acropolis at 

SEC. Ill] 


from Erechtheus, to whom it is known to have been dedi- 
cated, at least in part (see Fig. 14). This building has a 
hexastyle Ionic portico facing the east ; a tetrastyle Ionic 
portico to the north and on much lower ground; and a 
very curious and beautiful portico of Caryatides to the 
south, for which see p. 39. The west end of the main 
building, opposite and corresponding to the east portico, is 
lost; the wall that 
remains, 1 reaching 
halfway up the 
height of the north 
portico, is plain 
and smooth, ex- 
cept for a small 
door which is ab- 
solutely unorna- 
mented and which 
probably opened 

into some struct- 
ure that has now 
wholly disap- 
peared. The fact 
that the building 
is as irregular in plan as its site is uneven, and that its 
interior, although only sixty feet long, is seen to have 
been divided into at least two, and probably three, sepa- 

1 In 1852 a storm blew down the wall which stood upon the present low wall or 
dado ; the wall so destroyed is shown in Stuart and Revett's book as having three 
windows and four engaged columns. There can be no doubt that all that super- 
structure was of a late period, probably built in the fourth or fifth century, to 
make the building useful as a Christian church. 


FIG. 14. Athens: Erechtheion. Finished about 407 B.C. 


rate rooms, has caused great discussion as to the original 
dedication of the temple. It is generally thought that a 
part of it was dedicated to Athena Polias, or Athena as 
the guardian of the city, a part to Erechtheus, and a part, 
perhaps the south porch only, to Pandrosos, a daughter 
of Kekrops; but it may have been that one or the other of 
those shrines was outside of the building as we now have it. 

Other Ionic temples were as regular in form as are the 
Doric ones ; but it is noticeable that fewer of those which 
are known to us were peristylar, or had columns on every 
side. The forms known as prostyle and amphiprostyle 
were more common. On the other hand, the great temple 
at Branchidai near Miletos was dekastyle and dipteral 
(see Glossary), and must have had 108 columns in its 
outer porticoes. In like manner at Ephesos the great 
temple of Artemis, that of Zeus at Aizani, that of Athena 
at Priene, that of Dionysos at Teos, that of Aphrodite at 
Aphrodisias, and that of Artemis at Magnesia, all on the 
western coast of Asia Minor, were Ionic temples. These 
are all ruined so completely, perhaps because overthrown 
by earthquakes, that a very laborious task of digging, 
exploration, and comparison must be undertaken before 
they can be understood. The restorations of them in 
published books are generally untrustworthy. 

There are, however, some few recently discovered or 
recently studied Ionic buildings which should be named 
apart, as showing how, in the changed conditions of the 
Greek world Under Alexander and his successors, the 
Ionic order was applied to other than the old temple 
architecture. At Bergama on the western coast of Asia 


Minor are the ruins of the ancient Pergamon, and among 
these are the remains of an amazing structure. High up 
on the rocky hillside is a square platform, and from this 
platform there rose a high retaining Wall, broken through 
by the broad flight of steps which led to the square open 
court, in which stood the great altar of Zeus. On three 
sides of this court stood a building, or at least a portico, of 
Ionic columns, the two fronts of which, one on each side 
of the central court, much resembled the fronts of temples. 
The great retaining wall was covered with sculpture in 
high relief and of heroic size, representing in a very 
spirited fashion the battle of the gods with the giants. 
At about the same epoch was the portico erected by At- 
talos of Pergamon in the city of Athens. This was a two- 
storied structure having Doric columns below and Ionic 
columns above, and among the Ionic columns some pillars 
of the curious form mentioned below as belonging to the 
tomb of Mylasa, but Ionic instead of Corinthian in detail. 
The best preserved as well as the most elaborate speci- 
men of the Ionic order, though a small building, is the 
Erechtheion at Athens. This is also the most beautiful 
in form and in sculptural ornament ; and here, more even 
than elsewhere, is seen evidence of that minute care for 
small details which is the most marked characteristic of 
Grecian architecture. Figure 15 gives the order of the 
Erechtheion restored from fragments of that building. It 
will be seen that the capital has two sides and two ends, 
and is not the same on all four sides, as is the Doric 
capital. The Greek builders did not like the effect of 
these two-sided capitals at the angle of a peripteral build- 




ing, where capitals 
showing their broad 
sides and volutes must 
stand next to the 
corner capital which 
shows its ends; and 
accordingly a capital 
was invented of which the 
plan maybe seen in Fig. 16. 
Figure 1 7 shows such a 
corner cap seen from with- 
in. Still another plan was 
tried : that having four 
volutes set off at the angles, 
radiating from the centre 
of the circle formed by the 
plan of the shaft. Some 
archaeologists think that 
this was the earliest form 
of Ionic capital. 

In other details the Ionic 
order is more free than the 
Doric. Bases of two differ- 
ent patterns are used for 
the columns, and there are 
varieties of each of these. 
The entablature differs 
greatly in different exam- 
ples ; in general the frieze 
is uniform, without tri- 

FIG. 15. 

SEC. Ill] 


glyphs ; the architrave is 

stepped into two or three 

different surfaces, slightly 

in projection, the upper 

ones beyond the lower; 

and there are carved orna- 
ments similar to those of 

the capital. The shaft of 

the column is grooved 

with what are called 

flutes, usually of circular 

curvature, and separated 

by fillets. As there are so very few monuments of the 

Ionic style which have been thoroughly studied, it is 

best to take the beautiful and well-known Erechtheion 

as its type. Figure 18 gives an angle of its hexa- 

style portico, without its 
more elaborate sculpture. 
This should be compared 
with the Doric type, Fig. 10. 
The Ionic style prevailed 
especially in the Greek col- 
onies of Asia Minor. Its 
richest and largest build- 
ings, so far as we know, are 
later than those of the Doric 
style. If the epoch of great- 
est splendour of the Doric is 

FIG. 17. Athens: Temple of Athena Nike; c ~f of * in i> r- o fc^r T^OKC 

>5Cl dl ZL -sL) Jj.V.,., d ICW VCdic* 

one of the corner capitals seen from 

within, close of fifth century B.C. after the Parthenon, the 

FIG. 1 8. 


Propylaia, and the temple of Zeus at Olympia had been 
completed, so far as we know, then the time of great- 
est splendour of the Ionic style was perhaps a century 
later. It seems evident that the artists of the years 
after 430 felt more and more drawn to a style more 
elaborate in a purely architectural way than the Doric ; 
and that they found this in the Ionic style with its 
greater freedom, and also with its greater abundance of 
purely architectural sculpture. Figure 18 shows some- 
thing of this sculpture. The capital has its volutes, 
and a ring of what we call the egg-and-dart orna- 
ment, and below these a broad band, sometimes adorned 
with the honeysuckle ornament, which is a row of an- 
themions or bouquets of two different patterns in alter- 
nation ; similar bands of ornament are on the edge of 
the cornice, and at different parts of the entablature. 
There are indeed but three or four different patterns in 
use in the whole Grecian Ionic style as we know it by 
its remains, and it is as surprising to us to note this con- 
tentment of the artists with their few patterns as to note 
that willingness of theirs to cling to the Doric style 
and to the Ionic style so long. But at least the Ionic 
style has this architectural carved ornament, while the 
Doric style has none. 


There are, among the Greek buildings which have been 
studied, some curious pieces of mixed style and uncertain 
date, as in the so-called Absalom tomb near Jerusalem and 
the tomb of Theron at Akragas, where a triglyph frieze is 


combined with an Ionic order ; and there are a few excep- 
tions to all rules, as at Assos, where the temple architrave 
is sculptured. The marvel is, however, that these excep- 
tions of all kinds are so few in the aggregate, and so unim- 
portant in most instances. The time came, however, when 
the Ionic style was to be modified into something very 
new indeed, another style, which the Greeks had begun 
to use when the time came for their pure and refined art 
to pass into the bolder and coarser Roman development. 
This style is seen in the little circular building in Athens 
known as the Choragic Monument of Lysikrates (Fig. 19). 
The capitals here were surrounded by a belt of leafage of 
great richness, and above this was a combination of scrolls 
ending in volutes, leaves like those below, and anthemions. 
These capitals are so shattered that no photograph nor 
exact drawing of one of them would explain their design, 
and the reader is referred to Fig. 2 1 for a Greek Corinthian 
capital of still finer type. Figure 20 gives one of Stuart's 
excellent prints of details of the roof of this little building. 
The only other building on the mainland of Greece which 
is known to have had Corinthian capitals was the Tholos 
or round building at Epidauros. This had a ring of four- 
teen Corinthian columns within the circular wall of the 
sekos and a ring of twenty-six Doric columns outside of 
and surrounding the same circular wall. Figure 21 gives 
a capital of this order. It is more massive and more evenly 
filled with foliage than the capital of the Lysikrates monu- 
ment can have been. A capital has been found in the 
ruins of the temple at Bassai near the ancient Phigalia, on 
the western coast of the Morea ; one also has been found 

FIG. 19. Athens: Choragic Monument of Lysikrates. Built about 334 B.C. 



among the ruins of the temple of Apollo at Branchidai, on 
the coast of Asia Minor. The little octagon building of 

A I 1 

FlG. 20. Athens: detail (see Fig. 19). 

later date, also in Athens, and called the Temple of the 
Winds, from the sculpture upon it, though really built to 




contain a clypsedra, or water-clock, has at its doorway two 
pilasters with capitals now much injured; others have been 

FIG. 21. Epidauros: capital apparently intended for the Tholos, about 300 B.C. 

found in the Grecian islands ; and the general character of 
these is shown in Figs. 22, 23. These various types of 
capital are different enough ; and yet by common agree- 




ment they are classed together as of the Corinthian style ; 
chiefly because it was afterward the Roman practice to use 

each of these patterns of 
capital, as well as many 
more, with the other de- 
tails of the Corinthian order. 
The Lysikrates monument 
is known to have been 
erected soon after 335 B.C.; 
that is, during the early 
years of the reign of Alex- 
FIG 22 ander the Great, and long 

after the great age of the 

Doric temples, and even later than the great epoch of the 
Ionic style. The Tholos at Epidauros may be supposed to 
have about the same date. And yet, late as it is, this is 
the earliest date at which we can be sure that Corinthian 

decoration was used. In < 

the island of Samothrace 
are the ruins of a cylindrical 
building which have been 
thoroughly examined and 
their meaning shrewdly ex- 
plained by German archae- 
ologists. There was a ring 
of pillars carrying the roof 
(see Fig. 24), and each of 
these pillars was finished 

on the outside nearly like a Doric pilaster. On the 
inside, however, each pillar had a half-round, engaged 




FIG. 24. Island of Samothraki (Samothrace) : Restoration of a building of fourth 

century B.C. 

column, with Corinthian details complete. At Melassa, on 
the western coast of Asia Minor (the ancient Mylasa), is a 
curious tomb, which has four corner piers, square, with 


Corinthian details, and eight smaller pillars made up of 
two half-columns each, all Corinthian. The conclusion is 
that the Corinthian style had been used in but few build- 
ings when the wars which preceded the Roman conquest 
came and were followed in Greece by exhaustion and com- 
parative languor under the Roman rule. The Roman im- 
perial governors and their architects took up this style as 
their favourite one, and did wonders in its use, as will be 
related; but the Greek Corinthian of the mainland of 
Greece, so far as known to us, is in the few buildings 
named above, and there it appears that it had not been 
completely matured : it is still a modification of the Ionic 
style. 1 Something of that character it retains in the build- 
ings of the islands and of Asia : it seems to have been still 
undeveloped when the East was brought under Roman 


Many of the Greek temples known to us were deco- 
rated by figure sculpture, and some of this is of such 
unsurpassed excellence that it has given great fame to 
the buildings which once held it : thus the temple at 
^Egina (p. 7) would be a ruined Doric temple less 
important than many others, but for its famous statues 
representing the battles before Troy, now in the sculpture 
gallery at Munich. Greek figure sculpture had its own 
development, quite apart from that of Greek architecture. 
Separate statues were set up on tombs, on pedestals in 

1 The Epidauros Corinthian was more developed, but there are curious cir- 
cumstances which seem to show that it was still an unfamiliar style. 


the temples or in the sacred enclosures, and along the 
public ways ; and marble slabs richly carved in relief with 
groups, symbolical or commemorative, were used as tomb- 
stones, or as records of treaties made, victories won, or 
decrees published ; or, finally, as votive offerings. Relief 
sculpture is obviously that which most easily finds its 
proper place on the walls and pillars of buildings ; and, 
accordingly, the outside of the naos walls as in the Par- 
thenon, the inside of it as at Bassai, both the inside and 
outside of the bounding wall of a sacred enclosure as at 
Gjolbaschi in Asia Minor, the outer face of a great retain- 
ing wall as at the Pergamon altar, the outside of a para- 
,pet as around the temple of Nike Apteros at Athens, the 
outer wall of a tomb as in the Xanthos tombs, the sculpt- 
ures of which are now in the British Museum, a well-curb 
as in the one from Corinth, now lost, 1 the shafts of col- 
umns and the plinths which support them as at Ephesos 
and Branchidai, and the epistyle in one case at least at 
Assos, are charged with such sculpture. The metope 
slabs were sometimes sculptured as at Bassai, Selinus, 
Assos, the Theseion and the Parthenon at Athens, and 
this sculpture was sometimes in very high relief, the 
figures almost separated from the background. It is no- 
ticeable that sculpture is seldom put on the construc- 
tional parts of the building. It is generally put in the 
metopes, which are mere filling-in slabs, however thick 
they may be, or at the top of a wall which does not 
seem to do much work except as an enclosure, or upon 

1 See Stackelburg, Grdber der Hellenen ; Michaelis, Ancient Marbles in 
Great Britain. 


accessories. The capitals are not sculptured at all in 
the Doric style, and but little in the Ionic style, and of 
sculptured shafts, bases, epistyles, and other such working 
members of a building, only a few instances occur. We 
shall find a very different state of things in other archi- 
tectural epochs. The Greeks seem to have hesitated to 
carve their buildings. In the Doric style, which seems 
to have been much more common throughout the whole 
Greek world than the Ionic, they used no ornamental 
sculpture at all, and figure sculpture only in metopes, and 
most rarely in a continuous frieze. In the Ionic style 
they used a good deal of ornamental sculpture, but only 
in small and very narrow bands and lines, and only of five 
or six patterns, constantly repeated with slight changes ; 
and they used figure sculpture tentatively, as it were, try- 
ing it in this part of the building and in that. There 
are almost no instances of that mingling of ornamental 
and figure sculpture, that insensible passing of one into 
the other, which was not unknown in Roman work, and 
which is the very life of later styles. 1 The draped maidens 
used as pillars in the south porch of the Erechtheion (Fig. 
25) are the best instance known to us of true Greek archi- 
tectural sculpture of a high order. To such figures the 
name Caryatide was applied at a later time. These carry 
an entablature, exactly as if they were columns. Indeed, 
the whole ordonnance of figure, stylobate, and entablature 

1 The Eleusis capital with winged goat-headed griffon ; the Erechtheion an- 
themion with a bird ; the Priene pilaster head with a pair of griifons ; the marble 
chair in the theatre at Athens, described on p. 40 are exceptions and show us 
how little is really known. The reader is reminded, too, how few Ionic build- 
ings have been thoroughly studied. See Section III. 




is considered an order, although the entablature may be 
more simple than that of a large portico, as is the case 
in the Erechtheion Caryatide porch ; and this is called a 
Caryatide order, or sometimes a " Persian " order, for no 

FIG. 25. Athens: Erechtheion, the southern portico. 

good reason. That really is architectural sculpture of the 
most admirable sort, and it is greatly to be regretted that 
we have not more such instances of Greek imaginative 
creation and good taste and judgment in such matters. 
One other but less fortunate instance will be named 
below in connection with the temple of Zeus at Akragas. 



There can be no doubt that there existed decorative 
sculpture of the best time, applied to buildings as well as to 
those minor objects which are preserved in our museums. 

FIG. 26. Athens : marble seat in Theatre of Dionysos. 

An admirable example of such sculpture, given in Fig. 26, 
applied to a fixed marble throne in the front row of seats 
of dignitaries in the theatre of Athens, goes far to prove 


the existence of similar work applied to temples and porti- 

In three or four cases known to us the pediments of a 
building were filled with sculpture. This sculpture was in 
the round, that is, the figures are full statues, standing free ; 
the tympanum behind them serving merely as a wall 
against which they were seen. The most admirable of 
these instances is also fortunately the best known, the 
collection of statues from the Parthenon now in the Brit- 
ish Museum. These are, in the opinion of many, the most 
perfect works of sculpture known, unequalled in beauty 
and in power. The archaic ^Egina statues in the Munich 
Glyptothek, though elaborately restored by Thorwaldsen, 
are still of great value in the history of sculpture. The 
recently discovered statues from the temple of Zeus at 
Olympia were a disappointment to lovers of Greek art, 
who had hoped to find in those pediments described by 
Pausanias something more comparable to the figures of 
the Parthenon. Their singular lack of finish and their 
exaggerated force and almost violence of expression are, 
however, of high interest. The questions which arise with 
regard to them cannot fail to widen immensely for us the 
field of Greek sculpture and its decoration by means of 
colour. Lastly, in the small treasury building of the 
Megarians, at Olympia, we have a few remains of pedi- 
ment statuary. 1 In these examples it is very noticeable 
that, while the pediment is selected as being a good place 
to exhibit statuary, and while the deep recessing of the tym- 
panum may well have been planned with a view to such 

1 It is as yet (May, 1896) impossible to judge of the discoveries at Delphi. 


placing of statuary, these splendid sculptures are still in 
no sense architectural. Where such sculptures exist, the 
whole building, or at least its front, becomes a pedestal 
and a setting for them. Even the front of the Parthenon 
in the time of its splendour was not too rich or too beautiful 
to serve as a mere adjunct to the unparalleled grourJs of 
statuary in its gable. Moreover, the free use of colour 
aided in uniting these groups with the architectural com- 
position and in producing a harmony which it is very hard 
for moderns to understand. The most noticeable and im- 
portant consideration is, however, this, that the statuary was 
conceived by itself, and made up into groups by itself, with 
no reference to the building more than was necessary for 
placing it. Why this is not architectural sculpture we 
shall understand better when we can compare other styles 
of architecture with this of the Greeks. 


There are a few monuments left us by the Greeks 
which are especially hard to understand. Such is the 
great temple of Zeus at Akragas. When it was thought 
to be of a late epoch, perhaps Roman, its strange character 
was more comprehensible ; but it is now recognized as a 
building described by ancient writers and belonging to the 
best period of Doric art. It was complete except for its 
decoration before 409 B.C., and was almost contempora- 
neous with the Parthenon. The ruins have not been thor- 
oughly studied, but it seems clear that it was a wholly 
enclosed structure (see the plan, Fig. 27), built in the 




semblance of a peripteral temple. It was very large, about 
350 feet long and nearly half as wide, and all that space 
was enclosed with solid walls, the outside face of which 
was built with huge semicircular projecting piers, de- 
signed so as to resemble half-columns of the Doric order. 
These were not real columns between which screen walls 
were built, but were constructed together with the walls, 

FIG. 27. Girgenti, Sicily : ruins of Akragas. Temple of Zeus. Approximate plan. 

and of comparatively small stones, all bonded together. 
The plan of the interior is not perfectly understood, but 
the interior decoration seems to have included a number 
of gigantic male figures used as pillars to carry an entabla- 
ture of some sort. Such male figures are called Tela- 
mones, and sometimes Atlantes. There are very few 
instances of their use in ancient art. It is greatly to be 
desired that these ruins should be thoroughly explored, the 
fragments measured and compared, and brought together 


in the juxtaposition that their form and markings dictate, 
and the original plan and arrangement of the building re- 
discovered ; for here is a gigantic edifice of the best time 
of art, although in an outlying colony, which seems to con- 
tradict or ignore the principles of design which we deduce 
from all the other Greek buildings known to us. 

It is in reference to the temple of Zeus at Akragas that 
the excellent suggestion has been made that the Greeks 
may not always have made the outer coatings of stucco 
of uniform thickness throughout. It is well known that 
the temples built not of fine and close-grained marble as 
in Athens, but of softer stone not capable of taking a fine 
surface and of retaining a sharp edge, were covered with 
plaster, cement, or stucco of some kind, concealing the 
joints, and bringing the whole structure to the semblance 
of a monolith, or to that of a solid block of fine concrete 
or artificial stone. Scraps of this surface-coating are 
often found clinging to the stone and sometimes still 
holding the colour which had been applied to them. Now, 
where the stone-work left to us is very rough and coarse, 
it is a natural assumption that in that particular case the 
architect had expected to model in this outer coat of 
plastic material all his delicate ornaments and even to 
bring out the exact curve desired in the echinus of his 
capitals, if not that also of the entasis of his shafts. The 
smaller details, such as the annulets of a Doric capital, 
would naturally be left entirely to the worker in stucco. 
And the importance of these considerations is seen in the 
fact that archaeologists have too freely taken the shape of 
the cut stone, as found at Paestum, Segesta, or Akragas, as 


the final architectural form to be studied, and have found 
its inferiority'hard to understand. 


Painting in vivid colours was applied to Greek buildings 
generally. We are not able to decide whether some kinds 
of buildings were more freely painted than others, nor 
whether a temple was usually covered all over with paint- 
ing, down to the very stylobate. But it seems clear that 
all the most important parts, such as the capitals, the 
mouldings which divide the entablature, etc., were painted 
with patterns in three or four bright colours, red, blue, 
and yellow or buff, sometimes green, and often gilding; 
that the sculpture was covered with painting, which often 
was relied upon altogether for some of the details of cos- 
tume and other accessories ; and finally that large surfaces 
of plain walling, of the shafts, etc., were painted in plain 
colour, probably relieved with borders and bands of pat- 
terns. In fact, a Greek temple, whose yellow-white sim- 
plicity and majesty has been so much admired by the 
moderns, must be thought of by students of ancient art as 
glowing with colour, the four or five positive colours em- 
ployed being modified by light and shade and shadow, and 
still more by full sunshine, into hundreds of delicate tints. 


Greek dwelling-houses were very simple and generally 
very small, throughout the times of the purest art, and 
even in later times their exterior was not architecturally 



important. But few and slight remains exist; but it is 
evident that with the Greeks, as generally in antiquity, 
and still commonly in the lands of the Mediterranean, the 
outer walls were blank and hardly even pierced with 
windows, and that all beauty of design and all decoration 
and architectural elaboration were kept for the courts and 
chambers within. 

So far as our knowledge extends, Greek building of the 
pre-Roman epoch knew neither windows nor chimneys. 
The placing of story above story is known to us only in 
the cases of the interior colonnades of temples, as at 
Paestum, and of porticoes such as that of Attalos in 
Athens. For these reasons the common assumption that 
Greek houses were very like Roman houses and may be 
judged by what we know of the latter is not safe. The 
Romans used second stories freely, and even third and 
fourth stones, and windows, as was to be expected. 


Greek theatres were generally arranged upon hillsides, 
the funnel-shaped hollow being partly natural, partly dug 
out, partly built up. The bottom of the funnel was oc- 
cupied by the orchestra, in which the chorus danced, sang, 
and recited, and the stage and whatever rooms were built 
behind it for actors occupied one side of this, so that the 
funnel was completed for only little more than the half- 
circle. No remains of the stage and its accessories exist 
of any building of the great time: those which we possess, 
even in ruins, are of the time of the Roman Empire, when it 


was natural to rebuild all theatres in accordance with the 
changed conditions of theatrical performances. 1 These 
buildings were of course open to the sky. Only the 
stage and its appliances had even a partial roof, and this 
would not rise high nor occupy much horizontal space. 
The roofed music halls, as we have their remains, the 
largest being in Athens, are of Roman time. The Stadion, 
or running-ground, and the Hippodrome, or enclosure for 
horse exercises, were low and open, not rivalling the great 
Roman structures used for similar purposes. Indeed, the 
only structures in or about a Greek city which would vie 
with the temples in importance and in height and archi- 
tectural display were some few of the tombs which were 
erected in a suburb. The so-called tomb of Theron still re- 
mains among the ruins of Akragas: a two-storied structure 
without doors or windows, of undetermined date. Many 
such structures exist in Asia Minor, in the neighbourhood 
of the ancient cities of Mylasa, Xanthus, Limyra, Knidos, 
and Halicarnassos. Some of these are roofed like temples ; 
some with pyramidal piles of steps ; some have only 
columns to support the roof, while others have small en- 
closed rooms, like those of temples, within the peristyle. 
Some, again, are without columns, and are solid-walled, 
closed structures, having but small window or door open- 
ings, if any. They all affect considerable height in pro- 
portion to their horizontal size, and this height is got in 
general by a plain basement of heavy stone-work, upon 

1 So great was this change, that it has been urged upon excellent authority 
and with great appearance of truth that the Greeks used no elevated stage, but 
that all performers stood on the level of the orchestra. 


which the more decorative upper story is raised. Some of 
these have a great deal of sculpture, especially friezes, 
as in the case of the remarkable tombs whose remains, 
brought from Xanthus, are in the British Museum ; the so- 
called Harpy Tomb and Nereid Tomb. Statues were also 
set between the columns of the peristyle or upon the 
corners on the summit of the roof. 

The chief of all these structures, one famous throughout 
the ancient world, is the tomb of King Mausolos at Hali- 
carnassos, erected after his death in 351 B.C. The remains 
of this have been discovered, and many of the sculptures 
removed to London, but there is still dispute as to its exact 
design. There seems no doubt, however, that it had the 
high basement, the peripteral temple form above, and the 
pyramidal roof. Pliny in his " Natural History " describes 
this building rather fully, and from his account it would 
have been 140 feet high and have had thirty-six columns in 
the peristyle. The order used was Ionic, it was all built of 
fine white marble, and there were several hundred running 
feet of elaborate carved friezes, the exact placing of which 
is undetermined. 


Picturesque sites, such as steep and rocky hills, were 
common in Greece, and it often happened that these were 
chosen as the sites for temples because of their character 
as the central and strongest part of some city. But apart 
from this, a real preference seems to have existed for 
broken and irregular disposition of the buildings forming 
a group, as of the temples, treasuries, and monuments in a 


sacred enclosure. Thus upon the Acropolis at Athens 
the Propylaia, the Erechtheion, and the Parthenon, and 
the buildings which have been destroyed, as far as we 
know them, were all built at irregular angles with each 
other. In like manner, in the sacred enclosure at Olympia, 
although the row of treasure buildings under the hillside is 
a crowded row, the small oblong structures standing side 
by side on a platform and all facing southerly, yet these are 
set on at least five different angles. Moreover, the larger 
temples within the enclosure have not their sides parallel 
to one another, nor are any two of them set upon the 
same axis nor with their fronts on the same line. At 
Epidauros the oblong temple is not set square with the 
walls of the enclosure nor with those of the great stoa 
which closely adjoins it ; and, moreover, the Tholos is not 
on the axis of any of the buildings whose traces remain. 
At Samothrace the same irregularity of position prevails, 
and four rectangular buildings and one round one are 
found to have stood with what is in plan alone complete 
irregularity. This is strangely contrasted with the ex- 
treme formality and uniformity seen in most of the public 
buildings themselves, as we know them. This regular 
oblong form comes, however, naturally and unavoidably, of 
the extreme simplicity of the plan. If nothing is wanted 
more than two small rooms with a recessed entrance to 
each and a portico around the whole, a parallelogram is the 
natural shape for it to take, and a single broad roof in two 
equal pitches comes equally of the requirements of the 
structure. As soon as this simplicity of requirement dis- 
appears, and it becomes for any reason more natural to set 


the different buildings of a group or the different parts of 
one building on different levels or at varying angles with a 
common straight line, these irregularities are used freely 
and as a matter of course. Picturesqueness was as dear 
to the Greeks as regularity ; what they wanted was effect, 
no matter how obtained. Still, however, there could have 
been no towers, no buildings really lofty in the sense of 
later architectural styles, no gables, no belfries and cupo- 
las, in any Greek city. And a reverence for the horizontal 
line, and for quiet succession of similar parts, was evidently 
in the very heart of their architectural conceptions. 




THE term Roman Art or Roman Architecture must not 
be understood as descriptive of the art of a city or a peo- 
ple. The building and the fine art of the Roman people, 
while theirs was still a small state, having its own un- 
modified and unbroken traditions, have perished. We 
can only suppose that they were very much like the build- 
ing and the art which we know as Etruscan (see the 
introduction), as indeed are the few fragments that re- 
main. These are of massive construction in cut stone ; 
but wooden construction and terra- cotta roofing and 
painted terra-cotta sculpture were also certainly charac- 
teristic of Etruscan architecture, and must have prevailed, 
even in the city of Rome, down to the Sullan dictatorship 
at least. Two or three buildings only in the city of Rome 
retain any trace of even the later Republic, as it was after 
the conquest of Carthage and Macedonia, and the acqui- 
sition of supremacy in the lands of the Mediterranean 
Sea. Nor is it easy to identify any buildings in Italy of 



this epoch as having been designed or modified to meet 
Roman requirements. The Greeks of South Italy and the 
Etruscans went on building in their own fashion, down 
to the times of Augustus, as is instanced by the temple 
at Cori (see Fig. 35). 

What we call Roman buildings are, with the possible 
exception of two or three which may date from the second 
century B.C., those of the imperial epoch, built anywhere 
within the bounds of the Empire. These might be 
erected at the cost of local officers of state, or provincial 
Roman governors, or at the cost of the imperial treasury, 
or by towns or districts ; but they were, with exceptions 
to be noted, of the same general character. Thus a basil- 
ica, a temple, or a theatre, built by a legatus in search 
of popularity in a small city of Gaul or of the East, would 
be as like to one of the great basilicas of the capital as, 
in modern France, a small village church or town-hall is 
like a large city church or the Paris Hotel de Ville. The 
structure would be conceived in the same general way, 
and carried out with similar materials and with the same 
general relation of exterior to interior. The same general 
principles of design, also, would apply to the larger and 
to the smaller structure. This is true also of the Thermae, 
or great bathing establishments, of the imperial palaces 
and villas of private persons, of the aqueducts, bridges, 
theatres, amphitheatres, tombs, triumphal arches, temples, 
and other monumental structures, from the Euphrates to 
the Atlantic. The still surviving spirit of Greek, Egyp- 
tian, or Oriental design in some parts of the Empire is, 
however, to be noted ; though hardly to be treated ade- 


quately here. This is one of the most difficult subjects 
in the history of architecture. 

The Roman administrators had received from their Etrus- 
can and other Italian models a disposition to use the arch 
and the vaulted roof. It is true that they used only the 
semicircular arch, alike for wall openings and for vaulted 
chambers, but this they used with freedom. They had 
also learned somewhere the lesson of strong mortar used 
in great quantities and of masonry of rough stone built 
with it. They had also learned how to make excellent 
bricks, and in what ways to use them. They had learned 
what concrete was, good ways of making it, and what it 
was capable of. Did their lessons in these processes of 
building come from the East, from Babylonia and Mesopo- 
tamia, from the then still existing palaces of Nineveh ? Had 
the Creek architects of Alexandria and other new cities of 
the Macedonian Empire created an earlier Byzantine or 
Graeco- Oriental system which the Romans followed ? 
Whence came the knowledge and skill shown in the 
Pantheon in the city of Rome, built in its present form in 
the early years of the supremacy of Hadrian ? Those 
questions are not to be answered in a satisfactory way. 
The Pantheon, however, stands uninjured in its essential 
features, an example of a perfected system of building and 
ornament. It is a cylindrical tower, without other addi- 
tion than a portico of entrance; the cylinder being 143 
feet in diameter within, with a wall twenty feet thick. 
This wall has, however, large and deep niches hollowed in 
it, but closed at top so that the wall (unless there are con- 
cealed chambers) is solid at the springing line of the vault. 


Here, however, a new row of open chambers begins, and 
lightens the construction very greatly. The vault is a 
hemispherical cupola, having at top an open circular eye 
nearly thirty feet in diameter. The interior forms a single 
large room, lighted from the eye above and somewhat from 
the door, and in no other way. The height within is 
almost exactly equal to the width ; and the cylinder 
occupies just half of this height, the dome the other 
half. The exterior shows a huge cylinder about one hun- 
dred feet high with a low dome-shaped roof rising above 
it ; for the exterior of the wall is carried up outside far 
beyond the springing line of the vault. Now the whole of 
this structure is undoubtedly a solid mass of masonry, 
everywhere composed of small stones laid in great masses 
of mortar, as can be seen in scores of ruined structures in 
Rome. The cupola is as absolutely one piece as a crock- 
ery bowl ; and also it forms one piece with the ring-wall 
which supports it. Everywhere in the walls this masonry 
is faced with brick, and in the vault it is striped with bands 
of brick-work, indicating a preliminary construction of in- 
terdependent arches, acting as a centring or mould upon 
which the stone and mortar masonry was laid. As the 
masonry of the walls was carried up, the brick facing was 
built with it, forming a case to protect it while soft, and a 
smooth facing when it grew hard. The process of build- 
ing the cupola has been a subject of controversy and can- 
not be determined positively, but there seems no doubt that 
the brick skeleton known to exist within its mass had an 
important function in it. The round opening in the top 
of the cupola is held by a huge bronze ring which serves 


to protect the masonry. This ring, probably connected 
with a device for closing or partly closing the great ocu- 
lus, is not absolutely needed in any other way, for no 
structure is as safe as a cupola. This one of the Pan- 
theon does not show a crack ; and although most large 
cupolas have been less fortunate, this is because of earth- 
quakes, or because the attempt to get a very light roof 
had been carried too far. The Pantheon has always been 
a temple, dedicated to several or to all of the greater gods 
of the Latin heaven, perhaps to the gods of the Gens 
Julia, that family from which the first imperial stock 
took its rise, and it differs from all the other ancient 
temples, which are known to us in the fact of having a 
vast interior, where many worshippers could meet. 1 The 
one purpose of its designer was, then, to provide a great 
and stately room, and this he succeeded in ; for even now, 
in its dismantled condition, it is one of the most impres- 
sive interiors in the world. The dome looks immensely 
large ; the height of the whole room seems as great as it 
is, and yet the space horizontally is most imposing ; the 
diffused light is admirable, and the effect of blue sky and 
passing clouds as seen from below through the great open 
eye of the cupola is surprisingly beautiful. When there 
is rain and a cylinder of falling drops fills the middle of 
the great room, a new charm is given to it. If, now, this 
noble interior had been decorated merely by colour, as in 
mosaic or painting; or by means of sculpture, whether 

1 Some buildings, however, combined a certain sacred character, as of a 
temple, with utility as places of meeting and the like, as the Telesterion at 
Eleusis, and some Roman basilicas. 


in the form of reliefs in panels or horizontal bands, or 
in the carving of large surfaces ; or in the form of full 
statuary, groups and single figures " in the round," 
the most being made of the niches, and other con- 
structional diversities of surface, as by moulding their 
angles, panelling, and the like ; or by lining with marble 
of rich colours and veining, as, indeed, was very common 
among the Romans : - this would have been obvious and 
natural. It is in some such way that a Greek would have 
proceeded; it is in this way that Egyptians and Assyrians 
adorned their great structures. But the Roman architect 
of the time of Hadrian had a love for the architectural 
forms which the Greeks had taught him, and which he 
had seen in the Grecian temples of Southern Italy. He 
did not like an interior without columns and entablatures, 
and so, though there was nothing to call for them, he put 
up, in great niches, columns forty feet high, and to explain 
their presence he built all around the rotunda an entabla- 
ture complete in its three members and of full proportion- 
ate size. It is probable that the present interior fitting as 
shown in Fig. 28 is nearly as in antiquity. This entabla- 
ture l is put at the right place for effective division of the 
walls. There is also a smaller group of mouldings at the 
spring of the vault. The great niches are not without 
good reason in the way of decoration. The columns, too, 
divide them in a very pleasing way. But that the lower 
band, the great entablature, should pretend to be part of a 
post-and-lintel structure, while essentially an ornamental 

1 For the use of the entablature and its origin and significance see " Greek 
Architecture," Chapter I. 

FIG. 28. Rome: Pantheon. Built about 120-124 A. D. Isabelle's restoration. 


appendix to a vaulted structure, was a novelty in archi- 
tectural practice. It was hardly less a novelty, that this 
entablature should cross the great niches, with marble 
columns to hold it up, and all for no purpose but the 
further decoration of the great vaulted room. 

The portico of the Pantheon, whether a century earlier 
in date than the rotunda or not, is really Greek in struct- 
ure ; that is to say, it consists of columns carrying an 
entablature, and a gable-roof and pediment upon that. 
The form of this portico is not of Grecian beauty, nor is 
its connection with the huge round tower at all well man- 
aged, but it is fine in detail, with magnificent monolithic 
shafts of granite and Corinthian capitals, and it once had 
a great composition of statuary, filling the tympanum of its 
pediment. The exterior of the rotunda itself was faced 
with slabs of marble for about one-third of its height, and 
with stucco above. The cupola and the stepped slope be- 
low it in short, all parts of the roof were covered with 
bronze plates heavily gilded, and around the eye of the 
cupola there may have been a prominent cresting of some 
kind, as the bronze ring still there suggests. 

There is no other building like the Pantheon ; but large 
cupolas roofing round halls are not rare in the Roman 
world. The great Thermae seem to have had such halls 
for their caldaria, or hot rooms ; indeed, the Pantheon has 
been thought to be the caldarium of the Baths of Agrippa, 
but that is disproved. The caldarium of the Baths of Cara- 
calla still exists as a giant rotunda. That which is now 
called the temple of Minerva Medica was such another, 
but ten-sided, with a large niche in each of the sides, and 


crowned with a circular dome about eighty-three feet in 
diameter. All these, and many smaller hemispherical 
vaults, were built in the same fashion, uniform solid masses 
of masonry made up of broken stone and other material 
held in a mass of strong mortar. 

Besides the cupola, the barrel- or cradle-vault and the 
groined vault were used freely by the Romans : the latter, 
sometimes, on a gigantic scale. A barrel-vault, as built by 
the Romans, is merely a half-cylinder; the roof of an or- 
dinary, round-arched railway tunnel is such a vault. A 
groined vault is made of two barrel-vaults crossing each 
other, their rounded surfaces intersecting in sharp edges 
called groins. These groins (see Fig. 29) start off at the 
abutment or spring of the vault as right-angled projecting 
corners ; but they begin at once to grow more obtuse, soon 
they nearly disappear, and there is no trace of them at all 
at the crown of the vault. To build such a vault there is 
needed a large and complete centring or centre, a roof-like 
structure, generally of wood, having exactly the shape in 
convex form of the concave vault desired. That is to say, 
the centre is a model upon which the vault is built or cast, 
after which the centre is to be taken away. This being 
put into place, within the walls already carried up to the 
spring of the future vault, the Roman constructor went to 
work with bricks set in his strong mortar, and built either 
a thin continuous shell or a network of narrow bands of 
arched work with cross stays between the arches. Then 
upon this brick-work, and encrusting it in the mass, he 
built up his solid vault, six or eight feet thick where the 
span is large, and filled in almost solid at the haunches, all 


of small stones set in a bath of half-liquid mortar. It is no 
longer arched construction at all, although it seems to be 
so, and although it is undoubtedly a development of arched 
construction : it is monolithic ; it is made nearly as we 
make foundations of concrete or in some parts of the coun- 
try whole buildings, by means of a monolithic process, not 
of separate stones and bricks, but by constantly adding 
more of the solid homogeneous mass. 

Groined vaults built in this way cover in the great 
Tepidarium of the Baths of Caracalla, eighty-two feet 
span, of the Baths of Diocletian nearly as large, of the 
Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine, eighty-six feet span, 
and many smaller rooms. The Basilica of Maxentius and 
Constantine, formerly called the Temple of Peace, is still 
to be studied on the northeast side of the Roman Forum. 
Only one-third of it is erect, but a notion of its structure 
and a sense of its unequalled magnificence of size and 
mass can be got from the three great bays which are still 
roofed. The main hall, corresponding exactly to the nave 
of a three-aisled church in the Middle Ages and in modern 
times, was roofed with a groined vault in three squares. 
This vault rose high above the side compartments ; it 
was 125 feet above the pavement, far higher than the 
nave of any English cathedral, and nearly as high as 
Cologne and Amiens, although those buildings are lightly 
built, whereas no Roman structure is more massive than 
this basilica. The great vaults of this and the Baths of 
Caracalla are from six to eight feet thick at the crown. 
The interior decoration of these great halls was a mixture 
of styles, even more remarkable than that of the Pantheon. 


There was the ornament of the vaulted roof, in panels and 
gilded ornaments, and perhaps mosaic, and the lining of 
the walls with splendid marbles ; and there was also the 
curious use of columns and pilasters and horizontal entab- 
latures, employed as mere decorative appliances. Figure 
29 is a partial restoration of the Tepidarium of the Ther- 
mae of Caracalla, intended to show its real construction and 
the way the ornamental architecture is applied. Modern 
familiarity with this use of architectural members ought 
not to blind us to the essential novelty of it when intro- 
duced in the buildings of the Roman Empire. The 
Greeks in their buildings, which were all post-and-lintel 
structures, had indeed used at times, for ornament, a mere 
semblance of upright supports and bands resting on them ; 
but these were used in connection with actual post-and- 
lintel construction, as a natural and obvious kind of 
decoration. The Roman structures which we are now 7 
considering are absolutely without any use of the separate 
vertical post or of the horizontal beam or lintel : they be- 
long to a class of constructions which were at first really, 
and which remain in appearance, arched; that is, they con- 
sist wholly of vaults and their supports, those supports 
being always very heavy piers and walls of homogeneous 
masonry. The Roman princes and governors had Greek 
artists at their command, and the Greek was always a 
thinking man who had ideas and the spirit of realistic 
design : those artists would have worked out a system of 
decoration for the Roman massive-vaulted halls, as they 
did later for the Byzantine light-vaulted churches. But 
the Roman administrative spirit had taken up the idea of 

FIG. 29. Rome : Thermae of Caracalla. Built about 215 A.D. Viollet-le- Due's restoration 
of the great hall (Tepidarium). 


ornamenting by means of a simulacrum of Greek post-and- 
lintel building, and nothing else would do. Accordingly, 
in either of the great halls under consideration, where one 
of the groins of the high roof starts and where two of the 
groins start together, a column with its entablature com- 
plete, and sometimes a pedestal for it to stand on, was put 
in. Figure 30 shows the church of Santa Maria degli 
Angeli, made by enclosing separately a part of the Baths 
of Diocletian. The great granite columns and pilasters 
are the original ones, but, as the floor was raised when the 
church was fitted up, the seeming bases of the columns are 
only of wood adjusted around the splendid granite shafts. 
The entablature and the capitals are repaired in places 
and pieced out with plaster, but there can be no doubt of 
their being parts of the original structure. There is only 
the bare whitewashed vault overhead, without the mosaic 
or the coffering which once adorned it, but except for this 
we have here a characteristic Roman interior, the only 
existing example which can give the intended effect of a 
large and stately one, roofed with groined vaulting. 

Less extensive vaults were used in buildings of many 
sorts. The corridors in the great amphitheatres offer ex- 
amples of barrel-vaults, miles in extent. It is noticeable 
that when two corridors meet, it is generally so contrived 
that one is so much lower than the other that the vaults 
do not intersect, but that one vault is kept lower, so that it 
pierces the wall of the higher corridor. It appears that 
the Roman builders wished to avoid the meeting of any 
two vaults of unequal width, pr of any vaults at any angle 
but a right angle ; and as the meeting corridors could 

Rome : Baths of Diocletian. Built about 290 A.D. Great hall restored in 
sixteenth century as church of S. M. degh Angeli. 


not always meet on these conditions, the vaults were kept 
out of each other's way. 1 Larger barrel-vaults were used 
to roof the temples, Greek in general outside appearance, 
but very Roman within, with which the cities of the Em- 
pire were adorned. Some of these were of considerable 
size. The double temple near the Colosseum, a long struct- 
ure with an entrance at each end and two apses back to 
back, supposed to be the temple of Venus and Rome, 
built by Hadrian, has a width from wall to wall of about 
eighty-eight feet ; but free columns stood along the walls, 
and must have supported the vault, which, accordingly, 
may have had a span of about eighty feet. An equally 
large vault once covered the throne-room in Domitian's 
palace on the Palatine Hill. Other halls, nearly as large, 
among the city of imperial palaces on that hill, are easily 
understood even in their ruined condition as having been 
vaulted either with groins or without. The Thermae of 
the Emperor Julian at Paris, behind the Hotel Cluny, 
still contain a hall forty feet square covered with a groined 
vault, and a similar hall which must have been roofed with 
a barrel-vault. In the Baths of Diocletian are many halls 
still preserving their roofs, apart from the church of S. M. 
degli Angeli. Smaller vaults are to be studied in Le Sette 
Sale and other rooms of the Baths of Titus near the Col- 
osseum, in the small temple or tomb outside the gate of 
S. Sebastian, and called the church of S. Urbano, the so- 
called Grotto of Egeria (really a Nymphaeum) in the same 
part of the Campagna, and in similar ruined structures all 

1 See Romanesque Architecture, Chapters III. and IV., for a different prac- 


over Europe and western Asia. In short, nearly all the 
vaulted buildings throughout the Empire were built of 
rough masonry in one mass, faced either with brick or 
with small roughly dressed stone. The exceptions are 
apparently those buildings only for which large blocks of 
cut stone were really more easy to come by than brick and 
cement in great masses, with workmen enough to handle 
these materials to advantage. 


For it is to be noted that this system of building in the 
solid monolithic mass is not available except where abun- 
dant means exist. A large number of workmen and an 
immense supply of cement, sand, bricks ready made, and 
wood for centres and moulds were needed, and had to be 
safely at hand before the work on such a structure should 
begin. Wherever stone good for cutting was to be had in 
abundance, it might happen that buildings wholly of such 
stone 'would be easier and cheaper to erect than the 
simpler and generally cheaper structures of brick-faced 
rubble masonry. Thus in Syria, the many buildings dis- 
covered and described by the Comte de Vogue are situ- 
ated in a land where excellent stone is easy to procure, and 
where transportation of other materials must always have 
been difficult. 1 These basilicas and government houses 
are generally roofed with wood, and in some cases with 

1 Roman cut-stone building was generally done wholly without mortar, as 
was also the Greek practice. If, however, mortar were used at all in such 
structure, the amount needed would be very small. 




slabs or flags of stone laid flat on walls carried by arches 
(which is not vaulting in any proper sense), but where the 
smaller rooms are really vaulted this is done commonly in 
cut stone worthy of the Etruscans. It is less easy to 

FIG. 31. Nimes, France : so-called Nymph seum. Built about second century A.D. 

understand the cut-stone roof at Nimes (see Fig. 31). 
Here the barrel-vault over the Temple of the Nymphs J is 
standing in tolerable condition ; it is entirely of cut stone 
in large pieces, and is made up of separately built arches 
upon which stones have been laid, filling the open spaces 

1 Formerly called the Baths of Diana. 


between (see Fig. 32). This is a system of building often 
used for bridges ; perhaps the designer of the Nimes vault 
was a bridge engineer, and his system, although hardly 
vaulting in a strict sense, might be made to produce ad- 
mirable interiors. Another form of cut-stone vault is 
found in buildings in Syria. Here, in districts where 
stone is extremely common and all other materials difficult 
to obtain, groined vaults and cupola-vaults were cut and set 
from materials like those of the Nimes barrel-vault. Here, 
too, barrel-vaults were used in combination as freely as in 
Italy, but in buildings of very different plan. The Pre- 

torium at Musmiyeh, undoubtedly 
of the time of Marcus Aurelius, 
though it is possible that the 
vaults were partly rebuilt two cen- 
turies later, is shown in Fig. 33 

FIG. 32. Detail (see Fig. 31). 

as it was drawn by M. Duthoit 

about 1870. It will be seen that the building has a 
square shape below and a cruciform shape above ; that 
the short arms of the cross are roofed by barrel-vaults, 
reminding one of those at Nimes, and that the smaller 
square in the middle of the cross was roofed by a square 

But although vaults were only by exception built of cut 
stone, the exteriors and the interiors of many Roman build- 
ings were so built, from the beginning and down to the time 
of Constantine. The Roman world never wholly forgot 
the traditions of the earlier Italian races ; and the admired 
example of the Greeks must have been always in mind. 
Cut stone or marble was used for some few monuments as 

FIG. 33. Musmiyeh, Syria: so-called Pretorium. Built about 170 A.D. 


the only material, and for many as an outer or an inner 
facing. It is to be observed that when cut stone in large 
dressed blocks was used, it was generally without mortar 
of any kind, the blocks set one upon another with care- 
fully worked beds, allowing of an almost invisible joint. 
Such a stone facing exists in the great amphitheatres, 
such as the Colosseum, and those of Verona, Nimes, Aries, 
and Pola, first in the exterior ring wall and then in the 
principal inner walls, the facing of corridors, etc. ; in the 
theatres, such as that of Marcellus in Rome, that of 
Orange, that at Pompeii and the Odeion at Athens ; in 
parts of the imperial palace buildings on the Palatine Hill, 
in parts of those temples which have a vaulted roof such 
as the temple of Venus and Rome, above described, and 
in bridges and aqueducts. The round tombs of the 
neighbourhood of Rome, of which the best known is that 
of Cascilia Metella, described in all the guide-books, are 
built in this way, almost solid cylinders of masonry, faced 
with cut stone in large blocks. The great mausoleum 
of Hadrian, made, by means of a superstructure added in 
the Middle Ages, a fortress of some strength and called 
in modern times Castello San? Angela, or castle of the 
Holy Angel, is such a structure, on a gigantic scale. It 
differs from the smaller ones in having several rooms in 
the mass of its upper part. The tomb of Caecilia Metella 
has had mediaeval battlements added, to make it serve 
as a fortress somewhat in the same manner: the one and 
the other were finished originally by conical roofs, or 
perhaps by concentric steps, giving a general conical 
shape. It will be seen that it is almost impossible to 


make a decided classification here, for some of even the 
amphitheatres are almost wholly built of blocks of stone. 
It is probable also that many parts of the great Thermae 
and of the Basilica of Maxentius, and other structures 
which are now left mere masses of rough masonry, were 
originally faced with cut stone, and that the facing-stones 
have been carried off as from a quarry. A distinction 
must be observed between such stone facing as is here 
treated of, thick, built with the mass of the wall, or even 
in advance of it as an important part of the structure, and 
the marble veneer put upon the lower part of the outer 
wall of the Pantheon (see p. 58). The latter was put 
up after the building was complete, and secured to an 
original brick facing: it differed from the marble lining 
of the interior of this and many buildings only in being 


Of buildings built almost wholly of cut stone or marble 
except for the roof, having little mortar masonry about 
them, and therefore approaching Greek simplicity of 
structure, the chief are those temples (by far the greater 
number) which were not vaulted, and some, perhaps most, 
of the basilicas. A basilica was a more or less enclosed 
portico ; sometimes walled like a modern hall, sometimes 
open but for screens between the pillars which carried the 
roof. In small towns they were small ; that at Pompeii, of 
medium size, was about 70 feet wide by 200 long, with a 
central nave and an aisle on all four sides of it. We are 
told that these appeared in the Roman Empire only as 



Greek influence grew there. Under the emperors, im- 
mense and splendid ones were built in Rome, such as the 
Basilica Ulpia, built by Trajan, between the Capitoline 
and the Quirinal hills. In these basilicas there may or 
may not have been an outer enclosing wall, or such wall 
may have existed in some places if not in others; and 

ST **' 







3 FORUtt OF 

50 75 100 150 

FIG. 34. Rome: Forum, Basilica, and Temple of Trajan. Built about no A.D. 

Restored plan. 

such outer wall, if it existed, may have had masonry of 
small stones with mortar or concrete in its substance. 
But the building was chiefly a columnar structure. The 
character of the edifice being mainly that of a great cov- 
ered promenade (portions, like the Greek stoa\ it con- 
sisted almost wholly of columns carrying a wooden roof. 
In the case of the Basilica Ulpia (see Fig. 34) the porticus 


was enormous, comprising 108 columns, ranged in double 
row on the four sides of a great inner space, which may 
have been unroofed, but was more probably roofed with 
trusses of timber. That is to say, the rectangular space 
within the outer boundary, whether this was marked by a 
solid, weight-carrying wall or by mere screens between 
the columns, was about 165 by 365 feet; the middle of 
this, about 75 by 275 feet, may have been open to the sky, 
but was probably covered by a roof raised high above the 
other roofs, with a clear-story wall in which were windows ; 
and finally the belt, 45 feet wide, on every side of this, was 
divided into two aisles by rows of columns. This, then, 
was Grecian building in the main, if not wholly. It may 
be noted that the name appropriated to these structures 
was Greek also, Stoa basilica, or basileia, " the royal por- 
tico." All that took the eye was the majestic distribution 
of columns of Oriental or African granite or other splen- 
did material, with rich Corinthian capitals, and above 
these, marble architraves carrying ceiling-beams, or some- 
times wooden girders only, forming part of a gorgeously 
decorated flat ceiling. It is all Greek building, adorned 
to suit a wealthy community which preferred splendour 
to simplicity. 

The temples, most of them, were designed in the same 
way ; at least above the foundations. In temple building 
the example of the Greeks would naturally be followed, 
for the south of Italy was full of Grecian Doric and Gre- 
cian Ionic temples. It is altogether probable that many 
temples were built in the different Italian states after their 
conquest by Rome, and that these buildings were of a 

FIG. 35. Cori, Italy : so-called Temple of Hercules. Built about 80 B.C. 

SEC. Ill] 



transition style. One example remains for us at Cori, 
southeast of Rome and very near Velletri. The front of 
this temple is shown in Fig. 35, and it will be seen that 
the Grecian Doric has been modified in a very curious 
way, delicately and with refinement. 1 This building is 
thought to be of the time of Sulla's dictatorship, or about 
80 B.C. The finest Roman imperial temple of which any 

FIG. 36. Nlmes, France : Maison Carree. Built second century A.D. 

important parts remain is the Maison Carree at Nimes. 
This is almost intact; it is a Corinthian temple, about 
ninety feet long including the portico, resting on a po- 
dium or high substructure (see Fig. 36). The portico of 
six columns on the front and four in return on the sides 
is free ; the cella is about thirty-five by fifty feet within, 
and is roofed with wood. Engaged columns decorate the 

1 See also the profile of the capital, Fig. 12. 



outside of the cella, and these are made to range with 
the free columns, of the portico. The whole is in re- 
fined style, and not without great beauty even in its 
present condition. 

Recent examinations with careful measurements, by Mr. 
W. H. Goodyear, have revealed the unexpected fact that 
what seem the long straight lines of the stylobate and 
entablature are curved, but not in vertical planes, as are 

50 10 20 30 40 50 

FIG. 37. Baalbek, Syria : Temple of Jupiter. Built second century A.D. Restored plan. 

those of the Parthenon. The Roman temple has hori- 
zontal curves ; its plan is not a true parallelogram, but 
each of the long sides curves outward slightly. Here is 
refinement which Roman art has been thought not capa- 
ble of. Similar in plan, though without the engaged col- 
umns, are the temples of Antoninus and Faustina in the 
Roman Forum. The temple of Vespasian, near it, of 
which only a few columns remain, and the temple of For- 
tuna Virilis, near the Tiber, are similar in plan, but of the 


Ionic order. The ruins of scores of temples of this gen- 
eral character are known, such as the hexastyle Corinthian 
one at Assisi, the tetrastyle one at Tivoli, and several at 
Pompeii. Indeed, Pompeii, with its half-dozen prostyle 
temples scattered about the half, or less than half, which 
has been uncovered of a small seaside town, serves to 
show that these shrines were as numerous as the churches 
in modern Italian cities. 

The temple of Jupiter at Baalbek or Heliopolis in 
Syria is nearly twice as long and twice as wide as the 
Maison Carr'ee, but is much ruined. An approximately 
accurate plan is given in Fig. 37, and from this it will be 
seen that the building was peristylar and octostylar, and 
fifteen columns in depth, with no engaged columns break- 
ing the smooth exterior of the cella wall ; the entrance, 
however, is adorned by a double row of columns. A most 
curious feature of this peristyle is this, that the shafts of 
the outer row of columns are everywhere smooth, while 
the six of the inner row of the portico and the two which 
stand within, at the end of the wing walls of the entrance, 
are fluted. As a separate inner epistyle projects from the 
cella, resting upon these eight fluted columns, it appears 
that the deep portico was considered as a kind of pronaos, 
a vestibule to the naos or cella, and in that capacity re- 
ceived a special decoration. In other respects this is a 
most elaborately adorned building. The slightly curved 
roof of the pteroma is deeply carved with a most unclas- 
sical looking pattern in hexagons, lozenges, and triangles, 
with heads and busts in the larger spaces, and the archi- 
trave of the great door is extremely rich. On the whole, 



the work shows good taste ; the Corinthian capitals are 
of great beauty. The interior of the cella of this temple 

FIG. 38. Baalbek, Syria : Temple of Jupiter. Part of interior wall of cella. 

is adorned with Corinthian columns in one order, and 
between them niches in two rows (see Fig. 38). The 


temple of Castor and Pollux in the Roman Forum was 
also Corinthian, and with a complete peristyle of columns, 
and also a pure columnar structure. Such another was the 
temple of Augustus at Ancyra. There is no doubt that 
the lost temple of Trajan and that of Mars Ultor in the 
Forum of Augustus, and that in the Forum of Nerva, were 
also peripteral. In fact, this form, as the more splendid, 
would naturally be given by admiring senates and town 
councils to deified emperors. The magnificent temple 
of the Olympian Zeus at Athens may be considered a 
Roman structure, because completed and probably almost 
wholly rebuilt by Hadrian. This was octostyle and dip- 
teral, and must have been of the very first rank for beauty 
and magnificence. The few circular temples of which 
anything is known were also peripteral. It is customary 
to speak of these as all dedicated to Vesta, but this is 
unwarranted. Half the columns of such a round temple 
still stand in Rome near the lower Tiber bridges ; another 
in somewhat better preservation is at Tivoli. The well- 
known Serapeum at Pozzuoli preserves some traces of its 
former beauty. Remains of a round temple of Vesta have 
been found in Rome near the Forum, and connected with 
the home or palace of the Vestal Virgins. The general 
type of these buildings is a cylindrical cella surrounded 
by a peristyle in the form of a circle. A curious exception 
exists in Baalbek. 

The temple at Rome now called the Temple of Concord, 
which once stood behind the arch of Septimius Severus 
and at the foot of the huge and high building which faces 
the Capitoline Hill on the Forum side, was different in 


plan. Here a cella with the entrance in one of its long 
sides, and with windows, was entered through a porch 
less wide than the cella. The great Temple of the Sun 
at Palmyra was entered in like manner in one of the long 
sides. And we are reminded by these of the Etruscan 
temple plan, which was often square. It would appear 
that the famous temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill 
was entirely Etruscan in plan, with three doorways ; per- 
haps having three shrines side by side under one roof. 
Our general idea of this temple is derived from a fine 
bas-relief of the time of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, now 
in the Capitol Museum, Palace of the Conservators. This 
bas-relief represents the emperor making sacrifice, and in 
the background is the front of a tetrastyle temple with 
widely spaced columns and three separate doors. 

The discussion of the basilicas and the Graeco-Roman 
temples leads inevitably to that of the great decorative 
colonnades, peristyles, and periboloi, which made splendid 
so many cities of the Empire. Those of which the most 
extensive remains exist are at Palmyra and at Jerash, the 
ancient Gerasa, in Syria. The Palmyra colonnade ran 
through the town from northwest to southeast, three- 
quarters of a mile, with others crossing it. It formed a 
great central avenue lined with these sixty-foot columns 
on each side, and having, in parts at least, four rows of 
columns enclosing three passages. A heavy entablature 
crowned these columns ; but the site has been so little 
visited and the archaeological exploration has been so 
slight and untrustworthy that it is not safe to say whether 
there was an upper passage-way or gallery, or any roof. 


Near the centre of the long colonnade an arched structure 
marked the crossing of the chief side colonnades, and a 
similar very stately archway closed the colonnade on the 
southeast, near the great Temple of the Sun. Each of the 
columns was made of several drums of uneven length, and 
one of these drums was worked with a projecting bracket, 
perhaps for a statue or bust (see Fig. 39). Many of these 
columns still stand erect, with their load, and these form 
the most important part of the beautiful panoramic view 
of Palmyra from the Hill of Tombs. Another street 
of columns, Ionic in style, existed at Gerasa, and this 
opened into an extraordinary semicircular or semi-elliptical 
place, an agora or forum, surrounded by similar Ionic 

These partly standing porticoes and peristyles help us 
to understand such architectural compositions as Trajan's 
Forum in Rome, the plan of which is well known 
(see above, Fig. 34), although its superstructures are im- 
measurably less well preserved than those of the two East- 
ern cities. The Forum proper, or open place surrounded 
by a peristyle, was entered by a renowned triumphal arch 
long since destroyed ; and from this was entered the 
Basilica Ulpia, which has been considered above (p. 72); 
the small square open place surrounded by galleries two 
or three stories high, from which the famous pillar of 
Trajan, which these structures enclosed, could be studied 
in its details better than now; the two libraries that 
flanked this small place, and the temple of the deified 
Trajan with its sacred enclosures beyond. The basilica 
formed one part of a series of more or less open porticoes, 

FIG. 39. Palmyra, Syria: Part of the great colonnade. Built probably third 

century A.D. 


all alike used for walking and meeting under the shelter 
of a roof, for business and pleasure ; porticoes capable of 
being separated by screens of bronze, marble, or even 
temporarily of wood, and capable of having parts of them 
set off for certain special purposes at special times. Thus 
the semicircular apses of the basilica are supposed to have 
been used as court-rooms ; but it is not probable that they 
were separated from the basilica by solid walls : low and 
open screens would have sufficed. Curtains, too, may have 
been freely used ; the example of the immense sun-awnings 
of the amphitheatres shows how easily a staff of special 
officers and their slaves could see to the screening off at 
brief notice of any needed portion of the immense roofed 
space at their command. Similar open porticoes formed 
the outer enclosure of the Forum of Augustus, and of the 
Forum of Vespasian or of Peace (Forum Pads). More- 
over, some of the temples were surrounded by peristyles 
facing inward ; that is, by high walls, enclosing a court or 
garden, and faced on the inner side by colonnades ; and 
others were surrounded by open porticoes, consisting in 
their simplest form of two rows of columns carrying a roof. 
The temple of Apollo at Pompeii and the Serapeum at 
Pozzuoli are good instances of one kind ; that of Venus 
and Rome of the other. Figure 40 shows a restoration, 
partly conjectural, but trustworthy, of such a temple and 
surrounding peristyle as those of Pompeii. This would 
almost exactly agree with the plan of the temple of Apollo 
in that town, except that a triumphal arch forms the 
entrance to the sacred enclosure as shown in Fig. 40. 
In these great public promenades the post-and-lintel 


system of building reached the highest development known 
to us. No one feature of it ever attained the refinement 
of the Doric of the Parthenon or the Ionic of the Erech- 
theion, but, in the hands of the able Greeks whom the im- 
perial officers could call upon, and their scholars of the 
East and the West, a flexible, plastic style grew up, capable 
of easy adaptation to many of the needs of the great cities. 
And every such city would naturally present, side by side, 
structures of the genuine Roman sort, containing large 
closed halls, rooms and corridors vaulted in mortar-built 
masonry of small stones, and decorated with a pseudo- 
structural display of columns and entablatures, and other 
structures which we may properly call Graeco-Roman, in 
which the column and its load acting by mere vertical 
pressure were everything, in which mortar was not used for 
the main structure, and in which Greek modes of decora- 
tion, as by fully realized human sculpture, largely prevailed. 


There were also, as we have seen, many buildings par- 
taking of both natures. Among these last there must be 
mentioned especially the triumphal arches things pecul- 
iarly Roman. In these the exterior is always an elaborate 
piece of cut-stone work, 1 with columns and pilasters, a rich 
entablature, and so much attic or superstructure as will give 

1 The phrase " cut stone " must be understood as including marble of different 
kinds, though this is rarely used for solid walling in the city of Rome. The 
stones called peperino and travertine were more used there ; in Pola beyond 
the Adriatic Sea, Istrian stone is used ; in Verona a splendid red marble, as in 
the famous amphitheatre of that city. 




a sufficient appearance of weight upon the arches and 
complete the design. The mass of the building is usually 
rough mortar masonry of the common sort, and in this one 
or more chambers will be found, where the thickness of the 
structure is sufficient. The arches differ greatly in char- 
acter. That admirable monument, the bridge at Saint 
Chamas, over which the highroad to Aix and Marseilles 


FIG. 41. Saint Chamas, near Aries, France : Bridge with triumphal arches. Built 
second century A.D. 

has lain for two thousand years, has at each end a thin 
screen-wall pierced with a round arch and strengthened 
and adorned with Corinthian columns (Fig. 41). These 
are examples of the simplest form of a triumphal arch ; a 
wall with a gateway in it, where no gate is needed for de- 
fence or enclosure, and decorated with architectural details 
and with sculpture. Almost as simple is the Arch of 
Hadrian at Athens ; though this, indeed, partakes of the 


nature of an entrance to an enclosure. 1 The most elabo- 
rate form is that seen in the Arch of Septimius Severus in 
the Roman Forum, about eighty feet wide and nearly as 
high, twenty feet thick, pierced by three archways, and 
with other archways leading from the large central pas- 
sage to the side passages. An excellent example of the 
usual, one-arched type is the Arch of Trajan at Benevento 
in Campania (Fig. 42). This has been but little injured or 
repaired, and is of the best epoch of Roman sculpture. It 
is to be observed that the broad tops of the great arches 
were occupied by elaborate compositions of sculpture. A 
gold coin of Trajan represents what is probably the arch 
at the entrance of that Emperor's great forum (see Fig. 34) : 
it shows on the top a six-horse chariot with two persons in 
it, and six colossal statues besides. That triumphal arch 
appears as a high and broad decorative construction with 
many columns or pilasters with niches between them, and 
but one rather small archway of entrance. None at all 
like that have been preserved to us. Triple-arched 
examples exist at Rome (that of Severus, as above, and 
that of Constantine) and at Orange in France, and at Pal- 
myra, though it is doubtful if this is a triumphal arch with 
a special dedication or merely a showy gateway leading to 
one quarter of the city. There are also some town gate- 
ways, more or less architectural in treatment : three-arched, 
as at Nimes and Reims in France, and at Verona, Aosta 

1 A view of this arch is given below (Fig. 47) . The original design is not 
perfectly understood, and the question of whether the arch formed a gateway in 
a continuous wall is in dispute. Inscriptions on the two faces show that it was 
considered to mark the boundary between the old Greek city and a new Roman 






FIG. 42. Benevento, Italy: Arch of Trajan. Built 112 to 114 A.D. 

and Gerasa; two-arched, as at several of the portals of 
Rome, and at Autun and Treves. There is also at Rome 
the very curious structure known as the Arch of Janus 
Quadrifrons a nearly cubical mass pierced by two barrel- 
vaults which cross one another, so that it presents four 
archways in its four faces. Single-arched triumphal arches 
in fairly good preservation exist at Rome (Arch of Titus, 
much rebuilt, that of Gallienus, that of Drusus, and several 


gates where aqueducts are carried across streets and the 
like, of less moment); at Benevento, as described above ; at 
Ancona; at Rimini (though this is thought to have had 
smaller side passages); at Susa and Aosta in Piedmont; at 
Pola in Istria ; at Athens, as described above ; at St. Remy, 
Carpentras, Cavaillon and Besan9on in France ; on the 
bridge of Alcantara in Estremadura and at Baparra in 
Salamanca ; at El Kasr, in the oasis of Dakhel ; in the 
ruins of the ancient Bulla Regia, Tunis ; and at Tebessia 
in Algeria. With these should be named the beautiful two- 
arched gateway at Saintes, in France (see Fig. 46, below). 


After the triumphal arches in importance come the 
other monumental structures of the Romans ; and upon 
some of these great pains and great sums were expended. 
They have lost much of their charm in losing their sur- 
roundings. Thus the Trajan column at Rome formed an 
important and calculated part of a great composition (see 
the general plan, Fig. 34). The Antonine column was 
very similar to the former, and is evidently a copy or 
imitation of it, unless both are copied from some lost orig- 
inal ; this also stood in architectural surroundings of fit- 
ting dignity, in connection with a large temple dedicated 
to the deified Marcus Aurelius, and other monuments, 
now wholly lost, of the great Antonine emperors. 1 

1 The temple and column of Aurelius' predecessor and father by adoption, 
Antoninus Pius, were immediately adjoining. Here, in the region of the Corso 
and Monte Citorio, must have been another series of imperial fora fit to be 
compared to that of Trajan and its neighbours. 


These two columns are each a hundred feet high, in addi- 
tion to the eighteen or twenty-five feet of the pedestal ; 1 
the shaft of each is of marble in several blocks, the exterior 
covered with a spiral bas-relief from base to capital : the 
capital of each is, very appropriately, a mere ring of egg- 
and-dart moulding below a heavy, square abacus ; the base 
of each is a huge torus or roll-moulding, covered with a 
scale ornamentation of laurel leaves and berries; the cap- 
ital crowned in each case with a cylindrical pedestal carry- 
ing a colossal statue. In each case the pedestal served for 
bas-reliefs of military glory, or Roman symbols, the sculpt- 
ures of the Trajan column being still in place, those of the 
Aurelius column being preserved only in sixteenth century 
representations. In each case the shaft was covered with 
a long scroll of figures in relief, wound twenty or twenty- 
one times around the shaft in a slow spiral, and represent- 
ing the campaigns and conquests of the prince. There is 
a certain lack of fitness in placing a portrait-statue so far 
above the eye, and where the full light of the sky as a 
background will never let its outline be seen unmarred. 
And the figures of the shaft less than three feet high are 
not to be clearly seen in the upper parts. 2 It is on the 
whole a noble conception and nobly carried out, except in 
a certain sculpturesque weakness in the bas-reliefs, which 
are not of the highest quality of Roman descriptive sculpt- 
ure. Other monuments are much less admirable. The 

1 Part of the pedestal of the Antonine column is covered by the modern level 
of the pavement, and the rest has been altered. 

2 The whole of this shaft was painted in bright colours, and it is probable that 
these were so combined as to make the sculpture much more intelligible from a 
distance. Our modern experience does not enable us to judge of this. 

43. Saint Renay, near Tarascon, France : Monuments. Built probab.v third 
century A.D. 


column of Cussy in Burgundy must have been interesting, 
but the usual type is much too nearly like a detached part 
of an organized building to be attractive. The very large 
columns at Alexandria (" Pompey's Pillar") and at Brindisi, 
as they now remain, without their statues and their former 
surroundings, are not valuable as monuments ; and others, 
like that of Phokas in the Roman Forum, are known to be 
mere fragments torn from older buildings. Monuments in 
which some independent architectural design exists are 
not numerous. The one at Saint Remy in Provence (Fig. 
43) is perhaps the most effective : it is also in very fair 
preservation. The tombs of Roman time in the East are 
rather Greek than Roman in design, and need no special 
mention here except as specimens of the complete and 
ready return to Greek forms whenever no practical need 
was to be consulted. 


The stone exteriors of many Roman buildings show 
that curious use of columns and entablatures as mere 
ornaments, to which in interior work attention has been 
called above. The Theatre of Marcellus at Rome gives a 
good instance of this, and of its complete lack of connection 
with the construction (Fig. 44). Here is an outer ring- 
wall of a very large and massive structure. That outer 
wall consists of piers and arches of great thickness and 
solidity, built as to the exterior of blocks of cut stone, in 
this case travertine, and probably once covered with fine 
stucco. The outer face of each pier is rounded out in the 
middle to the semblance of half a column, although the 

FIG. 44. Rome : Theatre of Marcellus. Built about 30 B.C. Viollet-le-Duc's 



joints of the stones run continuously through it. Upon 
this column-like buttress, as it may be called, there is set a 
purely ornamental string-course, imitating an entablature, 
and appearing to rest upon the apparent columns, although 
really a part of the wall and resting on the arches. The 
proportions of base, shaft and capital, and of architrave 
frieze and cornice are those which would have been used 
in a temple or basilica or tomb, where they would have been 
parts of the real structure. It is to be observed that such 
engaged columns are not wholly unknown in Greek build- 
ing ; but, except at the temple of Akragas (see p. 42), they 
are extremely rare, and all the instances that we know 
belong to very late times. In Roman work they occur 
continually. They are a favourite decoration of the walls 
of the cellae of temples, on the outside ; and in such 
cases they are set about as far apart as they would be 
in a real colonnade. In the Theatre of Marcellus the 
same proportions of column to entablature are preserved, 
but the columns are set much wider apart. In fact, the 
whole composition of two adjacent columns, the entablature 
which they seem to carry, the two pilasters set up against 
the columns, and the arch which these pilasters carry, 
has been called the Roman Order. Often a free column 
with a pilaster behind it replaces the engaged column, 
and then the entablature has to project much more. This 
greater projection of a heavy, continuous, horizontal 
member was felt to be an objection, and Fig. 45 shows 
a modification of the scheme, the entablature not con- 
tinuous, but breaking out in what are called ressauts by 
the French writers. This recommends itself to reason. If 




the entablature is to be used as a merely ornamental band, 
it is well to give it emphasis at the points where the 
columns come, and to reinforce and give character to 
the capitals by this crowning of their abaci. But out 
of it came that very odd result seen in Fig. 29, where 
the entablature is set upon the 
capital and there alone, as if it 
were a necessary part of it. 

To return to the Theatre of 
Marcellus (Fig. 44), it should 
be mentioned here, in advance 
of the chronological sequence of 
events, that this decoration by 
means of real arches and im- 
posts, flanked and framed by a 
make-believe post-and-lintel archi- 
tecture, appearing in full devel- 
opment before the Christian era, 
and prevailing for not more than 
four hundred years, was taken 
up again in the fifteenth century, 

3 FlG. 45. Rome : Arch of Constan- 
in direct and Confessed imitation tine. Detail of the entablature, 

of the Roman imperial buildings, 

and since then has never been out of use in Western 
Europe. It is not to be forgotten, however, that this 
imitation of Roman work had primarily a literary and a 
social cause, and was not altogether or chiefly an agree- 
ment of artists to follow what was thought fine in art 
(see the chapters on the Renaissance). Still, there can be 
no doubt that that system of design for walls pierced 


with openings which has been so generally popular for 
four hundred years contains elements of beauty; it tends 
to be dignified, serene, and stately; it lends itself to that 
which is the most loved by persons not very sensitive to the 
delicacies of fine art, the grandiose ; it makes a building 
look costly and like a palace. And it is probable that 
it appealed to the Roman world in the same way ; although 
there is curious evidence that its popularity steadily de- 
clined as the Roman world grew older (see below). 

Another innovation was the free use of the pedestal. 
The need of this must have been evident as soon as 
columns invented as parts of temple colonnades were to 
be used as parts of civic and domestic buildings. Often 
it would be necessary to elongate a supporting member 
beyond all proportion for a column. It was natural to 
have recourse to a column perched upon a square block 
with its own crowning member and base. Still another 
innovation was the free use of pilasters as exclusively 
decorative features, to break up a blank wall into many 
bays. Good examples of this are seen in the topmost story 
of the Flavian Amphitheatre or Colosseum at Rome, and 
in the Temple of the Sun at Palmyra. This feature was 
apparently much less common than it was long afterwards, 
in the neo-classic styles. 


It has been said above that there are many instances 
of a rejection, on the part of the Roman builders, of what 
is generally assumed to be their universally adopted deco- 
rative style. These exceptions are found in all parts of 




the Empire. The double gateway of Saintes in western 
France (Fig. 46), the arched doorways upon the bridge at 
Saint Chamas (see Fig. 41, above), the gate of Hadrian (Fig. 
47) at Athens, the pretorium of the ancient Lambcesis at 

FIG. 46. Saintes, near west coast of France : Gateway formerly standing on Roman 
bridge. Built first century A.D. 

Lambese in Algeria (Fig. 48), the city gate of Perugia, and 
those of Autun, Trier (Treves), Verona, and Rome itself 
are instances of this constant tendency to break away 
from what may have been the orthodox Augustan style, 

9 8 



the style recognized in the capital. The Basilica of Shakka 
and the pretorium or palace at the same place, engraved 
and described in the Comte de Vogue's book, are not later 

FIG. 47. Athens, Greece : Gateway of Hadrian's quarter. Built about 120 A.D. 

than the middle of the third century A.D. No doubt 
the great officers of Aurelian saw them both complete, and 
that warlike emperor may have visited them himself during 
his campaign against Zenobia, which closed in 273. In 




these two structures the system of building in cut stone 
spoken of above (pp. 66 ff.) is carried out completely, and 
here there are no engaged columns, no pilasters used for 


r^ --LCT V^-- 1 



) i 





FIG. 48. Lambese, Algeria : Pretorium of the ancient Lamboesis. Built second 

century A.D. 

decoration, no entablatures pretending to be part of the 
structure of the edifice : everything is designed according 
to the needs of the builders and the conditions of the 
structure. A similar style of building in nearly con- 



FlG. 49. Spalato, Dalmatia : Palace of Diocletian. Built about 305 A.D. 
Arcade of great court. 

temporary structures is shown in Figs. 46, 47, and 48. 
Certainly here the pseudo-Greek system of design is suffi- 
ciently ignored ; but at the same time and in the very 
heart of the Empire the palace of Diocletian was built 
at Salona on the Illyrian coast, and in this the work of 
the innovator is seen side by side with the official system 
of design. In the south outer wall of this vast structure 
there is carried out the recognized formal order of orna- 


mental columns carrying an ornamental entablature, while 
the real openings between are arches. In its north wall 
are columns carrying archivolts which spring directly from 
their capitals, and in the great courtyard (see Fig. 49) this 
last-named feature is repeated all along both sides, and on 
a great scale, while at the end is an entablature resting 
horizontally on the capitals of the columns, but bent into 
an archivolt at the middle intercolumniation. In several 
parts of the palace there are large columns supported on 
boldly projecting corbels, supporting in their turn arches 

It is probable that this disposition to introduce varieties 
of design into the official Roman structures was stronger 
in the third century than in the first. In other words, it is 
probable that a new style was in process of slow and nat- 
ural development. Roman archaeology, in the sense of the 
study of the whole Empire, and not of the city and its sur- 
roundings alone, is still in its infancy, but it is probable that 
if the civic buildings of the third and fourth centuries, from 
Britain and Mauritania to the Euphrates, were compared, 
and their dates ascertained by inscriptions and by the com- 
parison of one with another, it would be recognized that a 
late Roman imperial style was in full process of formation. 


In one respect, however, the architecture as late as the 
middle of the fourth century showed no great change from 
that of the first. The orders which were used in the regu- 
lar Grasco-Roman style of the centre and also in this mixed 


style of the Provinces were the same as those used in act- 
ual post-and-beam construction at the same time. They 
were, all but one, very different from those invented by the 
Greeks. The Roman builders are generally said to have 
devised five different orders: one being copied from the 
Greek Ionic (see p. 22), but badly copied, with much of its 
grace lost ; another very closely copied from the Greek 
Corinthian, and indeed a legitimate development of it (see 
p. 29); two, called the Tuscan and Doric, being only partly 
Greek in origin ; while finally the Composite was a modifi- 
cation of the Corinthian order. It 
would be more historically correct 
to say that the Romans found 
among the Etruscans an order 
which was very plain, an awkward 
modification of the Doric of Greece, 
and that from this the Tuscan and 
the Roman Doric were derived ; 

that the Ionic order they took from the Greeks and 
spoiled ; that the Corinthian order they took from the 
Greeks and improved ; and that, when even this rich order 
proved not varied and fantastic enough, they invented a 
score of modifications of it, one of which we call compos- 
ite. It seems to be admitted that the earliest use of the 
composite is in the Arch of Titus (see Fig. 50). The 
capitals with figures of men and animals in them, all of 
which are Corinthian in general character, may be taken 
as belonging to the Corinthian style, exactly in the same , 
way that the composite belongs to it. Of these varied 
capitals, fine specimens exist in the Lateran Museum, 


probably taken from the Forum of Trajan (see Figs. 51 
and 52). A remarkable keystone in the Arch of Titus is 
decorated with an armed and helmeted figure holding a 

FIG. 51. 

globe, and a capital engraved by Professor Durm has four 
figures of Victory at the angles and four trophies of 
armour in the sides, among the leafage. All this is in 
modification of the Corinthian order and its variant, the 




FIG. 52. 

The Theatre of Marcellus, built 30 B.C., is good early 
Roman work ; the Doric order of that structure may be 

seen in Fig. 44. 
The Tuscan is 
a mere simplify- 
ing of the Ro- 
man Doric. It 
is not easily de- 
fined otherwise 
than as a Doric 
without its tri- 
glyphs and with- 
out any flutings 
of the shaft, al- 
though columns of early Etruscan make are apt to be 
fluted. No Roman buildings of any importance are 
built entirely in Tuscan, and but few in Doric ; each of 
these orders is used mainly for the lowest of several 
stories. The Roman form 
of Ionic suffers greatly by 
the extreme thinness of the 
capital, giving it the look of 
having been pressed flat by 
the superincumbent weight, 
the volutes looking therefore 
as if squeezed out of the 

capital. A kind of mongrel 

T u, FlG -53- 

Ionic is to be seen in the 

temple of Saturn in the Roman Forum (Fig. 53), or this 
might be called a composite of Doric and Ionic. The 




Corinthian order was the favourite one with the Romans, 
and it is beautiful when used as in the Pantheon. Per- 
haps the finest existing building of the pure Corinthian 
order is the temple"' at Nimes called the Maison Carr'ee, 
and already described, although the capitals and columns 
of several great buildings in Rome are equally fine with 
those of Nimes, and much larger. Its sculptured deco- 
ration is very elaborate, and yet it is not overloaded : it is 
restful; there is no Roman work known to us more agree- 
able or more worthy of study (see p. 75). 


Splendid fragments of friezes sculptured in scroll-work 
and in singularly free natural leafage have been preserved ; 

FIG. 54. 

those in the Lateran Museum are the least injured, and 
are very accessible (see Fig. 54). It must be supposed 
that these were all associated with the Corinthian order in 
one of its many varieties. 

Sculpture of human subject is, also, in Roman practice, 
associated with the Corinthian more than with any other 


order. The broad frieze of the Forum of Nerva (" Forum 
Transitorium ") was filled with scenes of incident and 
action, in high relief, and still larger figures decorated the 
attic above the cornice. The Arch of Benevento, built in 
honour of Trajan, shows large surfaces covered with bas- 
reliefs, arranged in two broad bands and several narrow 
ones (see Fig. 42). The Arch of Marcus Aurelius once 
bore the huge upright bas-reliefs representing the Em- 
peror in different scenes of his official life, with soldiers, 
conquered enemies, and other personages. In the open 
arches of the great amphitheatres and between the col- 
umns of tombs, statues were set up ; but these are hardly 
to be considered architectural sculpture. The Roman great 
ones were fond of statues ; they brought them from Greece 
by thousands, and had their own portrait-statues sculpt- 
ured by hundreds, but these were set up on pedestals in 
public and private places, in doors and out of doors, as well 
as in the outer walls of buildings. So far as we know 
Roman architecture, its sculpture was mainly in bas-relief. 
It is to be noted how far this Roman practice went 
beyond the Greek examples in combining representative 
or expressional and decorative sculpture. Figures 42, 43, 
51, 52, and 54 show something of this; but recently dis- 
covered stuccoes, of which many applied to walls and 
vaulted roofs are known since 1883, show it carried still ; 
farther, and we see in these so close a resemblance j 
to Pompeiian and other w r all-painting that it becomes 
tolerably certain that such figure-sculpture was common 
as an ornament. Many instances of it, indeed, are known, 
though most of the buildings and tombs where it was 


found have been destroyed. The question, what develop- 
ment Greek architecture would have had if Greece had 
been peaceful and politically and socially strong, can be 
partly answered by studying what we call Roman art ; and 
this is one of the great charms that that art has for us. 


The chief merit and value of that art is, however, in its 
being the earliest to deal with the interior as a chief 
object. It was the first social architecture in the sense 
that it brought people together under a roof, in large 
numbers and for definite purposes ; and that it knew how 
to adorn the roof that covered and the walls that enclosed 
them within as well as without. The contrast between 
the Egyptian halls, crowded with columns, or the Assyrian 
narrow and passage-like rooms, or the Greek rooms of 
assembly, small and simple or else (as at Eleusis) crowded 
also with columns, and the huge, permanent, vaulted halls 
of the Roman Empire, is impossible to overestimate. In 
this as in other ways the imperial days were the begin- 
nings of modern times. 

These great interiors were adorned with such semblance 
of a column and entablature system as has been described 
above, and by the richness of material in these very col- 
umns and their associated parts, with linings of walls by 
similar rich materials, with relief sculpture, and with paint- 
ing. Wall-painting cannot be treated here (but see p. 109), 
and sculpture has been touched upon. The use of stones 
of great beauty for pilasters and columns, for the lining 


of large surfaces of wall, and for pavements, was peculiarly 
common in the capital itself. To decorate the buildings 
of Rome shiploads of splendid marbles, alabasters, ser- 
pentines, and granites came from the provinces. But 
assuredly what was so common in the capital would be 
not unknown in the provincial cities. Glass was used, 
too, both in mere mingling of colour, as if in imitation of 
marble, and in relief patterns, subjects of human interest, 
plant form, and the like ; very rich tiling in solid opaque 
glass. And it is to be observed that in these decorations, 
as in all Roman practice, to build first, and to add the 
decorations afterward, was the rule. 


A peculiarity of the Roman work was its economy and 
actual cheapness. In comparison with its size and mass, 
all the perfected building of the Empire must have been 
wonderfully inexpensive. The imperial architects brought 
together a large force of men and an abundance of choice 
materiai ; they knew how to finish their structure out of 
hand and have done with it, and how, thereafter, to set to 
work in its decoration an army of plasterers, marble- 
workers, painters, gilders, bronze-founders and chasers, 
and sculptors of marble and of wood. They got their 
money's worth ; there was but little experimenting and no 
delay; delicacies of sentiment and refinements of design 
were not their affair; they worked quickly and economi- 
cally. Their custom of building first and ornamenting 
their buildings afterward would naturally help toward 


these results. It is a curious result of this that Roman 
architecture has prevailed over the European world ever 
since 1550 (in Italy since 1450), and that the architects 
generally have liked nothing so much ; while the archaeol- 
ogists of art, being students of the refined and the expres- 
sional in sculpture, and caring little for building and for 
the stately and the vast, give all their attention to Gre- 
cian remains. Less is known of Roman than of Greek 
architecture, although the Roman remains are more 
abundant, and are scattered over the Mediterranean 
world, and even as far north as England and North 


It is necessary to mention the dwellings of the Romans, 
and to state that they have not much information to give 
us as to the architectural art of the time. Unquestion- 
ably the way in which a Roman atrium or peristyler 
garden was made an architectural work of art would be of 
great use to our studies, if many of such buildings were 
preserved in tolerable condition ; but so far as we know 
them, there are only a few stuccoed columns in Hercula- 
neum and some mosaic-covered columns and niches found 
at Pompeii that can aid us. 1 A fuller study of Roman art 
would require careful analysis of these details. 

The plan and disposition of the rooms of the smaller 

1 The Roman system of decorative painting of interiors is much better 
understood. Moreover, some of the paintings which are preserved suggest 
much concerning Roman decorative work of a more strictly architectural char- 
acter, and a careful analysis of these representations by a competent architect 
may yet provide answers to many questions. 


Roman houses is known to us from Pompeii almost exclu- 
sively. The arrangement of larger residences is to be 
studied at Pompeii, in the ruins of Hadrian's villa at 
Tivoli, on the Palatine Hill at Rome, and in the plans 
made from measurements underground and from inference 
at the famous villa of Herculaneum, where so much splen- 
did sculpture has been found, but which still lies under 
thirty feet of tufa. The development of architecture de- 
pends not at all upon such, peculiarities of planning, which 
are rather of sociological or anthropological interest. 


The gigantic amphitheatres, theatres, circuses of the 
great Empire are to be considered somewhat as we con- 
sider the residences of the time. If we could get to 
know them well, if one of them or even a small part 
of one of them, such as the circus of Nero, or the Cir- 
cus Maximus, or the amphitheatre at Capua or that at 
Verona, remained in its original condition, the aid to 
our architectural knowledge might be considerable. We 
have, at Verona and Pola, and more especially at Nimes 
in France, and, so far as the mere exterior goes, at Rome, 
much of the original ordonnance of columns and entabla- 
tures, and a great deal of the vaulting, the walling, etc. ; 
moreover, there is much to be seen of the masonry of the 
circus of Maxentius, southeast of Rome, on the old Ap- 
pian Way; and these matters have been much before us in 
our previous enquiry. What the finished and fitted-up 
place of amusement would give us, if we could see it, 


would be a comprehension of the Roman scheme of dec- 
oration. The low double wall of the spina, with its long 
platform supporting obelisks, statues, trophies of arms, 
and the conical metae; the wall of the podium below the 
lowest tier of seats ; the towering structure above the 
starting-point of the horsemen and chariots; the imperial 
box, and the topmost colonnade, which, in some circuses 
and amphitheatres at least, dominated the whole open 
auditorium, were all charged with rich ornament in 
marble and bronze, gilded and coloured; and much 
more temporary and movable ornament was added on 
great occasions. All this is lost, and it is only con- 
struction and the general scheme of architectural design 
of the exterior that remain to us of any of these great 
and sumptuous structures. 

The tentative restorations by Gnauth, Schill, Lauser, 
Isabelle, Simil, and Viollet-le-Duc are of great interest to 
students of history, and to students of architectural art 
may be useful as suggestions of what may have been ; 
but the beginner ought not to take them indiscriminately 
as representing ascertained fact. In authenticity they 
differ greatly among themselves. Older restorations - 
those made before 1850, to speak roughly ought to be 
avoided: many of them, notably those of Canina, are ab- 
solutely without value. 




THE word Romanesque means nearly Roman or quasi- 
Roman. It should be used for the arts which were prac- 
tised during the years of the slow disintegration of the 
Roman Empire, while new needs were coming into exist- 
ence, new nationalities forming, and new conditions of all 
sorts taking shape. Logically, the architecture of the fifth 
and sixth centuries, both East and West, should be called 
Romanesque, but there can be no objection to the common 
term Byzantine used for the Eastern architecture and art 
which took its origin in Constantinople, and which reached 
its highest development during those two centuries. The 
word Romanesque, then, is more general, and applies to the 
art of the whole late-Roman world, from the Atlantic 
Ocean to the Arabian desert. Byzantine art is a branch of 
the Romanesque art, with very strongly marked character- 
istics of its own. 



It has been shown in the previous chapter that even 
during the highest prosperity and unity of the Empire, 
Roman art contained within itself many local peculiarities. 
The Nimes Nymphasum (Fig. 31) is an instance of build- 
ings not of characteristic Roman imperial type, being of 
squared and dressed stone, roofed with vaults of dressed 
stone; and having peculiarities of design resulting, it is 
evident, partly from the material used, but more from 
certain influences not now to be traced. Such influences, 
contrary to the central imperial regime, were more free to 
act in Syria than in Southern Gaul, but there is a non- 
Roman element, a touch of medievalism, in each. These 
are instances of a kind of work very common during the 
Empire, though more often used in parts of large buildings 
than in the complete construction of small ones. As for 
details, the buildings named in the last chapter, such as the 
gateway of Hadrian at Athens and the others named in 
connection with it, give evidence enough of a certain 
willingness among the imperial architects to disregard the 
old principle of combining a make-believe post-and-lintel 
structure with real vaulted building. In each of the above- 
named decorative structures the arch itself with its real 
imposts is made the important feature ; in some of them 
there is no " order " of column and entablature at all, in 
others the columns or pilasters are used in a very logical 
way as flanking piers, exactly as the Greek builder used 
his antae, at once ornamenting and making more solid the 
end or an angle of a wall. In other cases there are decora- 
tions of the impost ; that is, they are made to form part of 
the solid mass upon which one side of the arch rests. They 

FIG. 55. Kalb Louzeh, Syria : Church built in the sixth century. 


are becoming parts of the real structure. It seems to be a 
natural instinct of man to make his ornament and his build- 
ing agree. If he has an arch, the primitive builder likes to 
ornament, in an especial way, that part of the wall which 
immediately supports it : if he has a pilaster, either torn 
from an ancient structure or copied or adapted from such a 
structure, he likes to put that pilaster in just such a promi- 
nent place as the impost of an important arch is sure to be. 
The extremely sophisticated work of the Roman imperial 
architects, that system by which the building was done 
by itself and done thoroughly, and afterwards the decoration 
was done by itself and done deliberately, ceased with the 
irresistible supremacy of the imperial officials. As soon as 
the people of the towns were left to themselves, these 
people of mixed races Gallo-Romans, Graeco- Italians, 
Syrian Christians, and the rest began to build in a more 
instinctive and natural way. Where they had good stone, 
easy to cut, they built of cut stone, building with an arch 
the top of every large opening for door or window and 
spanning with an arch the space between each pair of 
pillars in a basilica ; and this arch they made of dressed vous- 
soirs, exactly as the Etruscans had done twelve hundred 
years before (see Fig. 55). Such an arch they would adorn 
with sculpture and mouldings cut in the stone, or with 
scroll-work around its impost ; or, secondarily, by the orna- 
mentation given to the impost itself, perhaps by setting- 
back the wall so as to put a whole column in, as at the 
convent of S. Simeon Stylites, Kalat Siman ; or, at the 
gateway of Deir Siman, shown in Fig. 56, or decorating the 
edge of the wall, thus turning it into an ornamental pier. 


EUROPE 350 TO 750 A.D. 

[CHAP. Ill 

When two arches came together upon a single pillar, it 
would be a square pier, as in the church of Kalb Louzeh, 
(above, Fig. 55), or a round column, or a pier cruciform in 
plan or semi-cruciform, T-shape, as at the church of 
Roueiha, also in Central Syria. Where no arch was 

FIG. 56. Deir Siman, Syria : Triumphal arch built in the sixth century. 

needed, the openings being narrow and the materials 
excellent, columns and lintels were used as in Greek work 
of the time of Pericles or in Roman temples of the time of 
Hadrian, but these columns did not pretend to be of any 
admitted classical order : they were sculptured by the na- 
tive workmen to suit their own ideas (see Fig. 57). When 
it was thought desirable to decorate a large surface of wall 
which was to have few and small windows, the old motive 
of columns or half-columns set up against it and carrying 

SEC. I] 



moulded string-courses occurred to them ; this, indeed, is a 
favourite scheme for rich decoration wherever cut stone is 
being used, but it was used in the fifth century in a very 
non-classical way, as in the apse of Kalb Louzeh and that 
of Kalat Siman (see Fig. 58). All these examples have 
been taken from the buildings in Central Syria discovered 
by the Comte de Vogue's expedition and drawn by M. 
Duthoit, because these buildings have never been renovated ; 
because they have been in ruins for fifteen hundred years, 

FIG. 57. Serjilla, Syria : Capitals of the fifth or sixth century. 

and we can be sure of the actual date of structure and 
details. Chief of these buildings is the astonishing church 
of the convent of S. Simeon Stylites at Kalat Siman in 
Syria, given very fully by M. de Vogue. The building is 
in ruins, and has lost all its roofs, but it still shows as a 
complete piece of Romanesque building and decoration. 
The classical entablature has been completely ignored ; 

Il8 EUROPE 350 TO 750 A.D. [CHAP. Ill 

the archivolts of the smaller arch openings are moulded 
continuously with vertical bands which either stop against 
the sill or are returned horizontally ; the larger openings 
have arches very richly moulded and sculptured, and these 

FIG. 58. Kalat Siman, Syria : Conventual church of S. Simeon Stylites. Part of apse 

built in the fifth century. 

arches spring from imposts which are decorated with 
pilasters and free columns. The church, moreover, is of 
great size; it consists of an octagon of 100 feet span, out 
of which open four arms, each complete with nave and 
aisles, which have stone columns dividing them and large 
and decorative arches in all the eight sides of the great 


octagon. The total length is 340 feet, and the total width, 
or rather the length of the transept from out to out, is 303 
feet. We have then in this church the dimensions and 
stately plan of a great cathedral, and yet there can be no 
doubt that it was built in the fifth and sixth centuries. 
This is the Romanesque of the far East ; a splendid style 
destined to end in nothing. 

Consider now the palace of Diocletian and the curious 
colonnade around the great court (Fig. 49). At the end 
of the court is seen an entablature which bends itself into 
an archivolt over one intercolumniation. Along the sides 
the archivolts come directly on the capitals, and there is 
no pretence of an entablature. Here are two attempts 
at something new in building: the first attempt, that of 
the broken entablature, though made also in many build- 
ings of the Empire, as for instance in Baalbek in very 
magnificent fashion, was to fail and disappear, reappearing 
as a modified form a thousand years later ; while the other, 
the resting of the archivolt directly on the capital, was 
destined to prevail and to be a main feature of Western 
architecture for twelve hundred years. 


With these already existing tendencies toward the new 
and untried in decorative building was joined the demand 
for buildings to supply a new requirement, as indeed the 
Syrian churches above named sufficiently show. The Chris- 
tians, when, in Constantine's time, they were first allowed 
to have places of public worship at will, needed what the 

I2O EUROPE 350 TO 750 A.D. [CHAP. Ill 

Roman world had never needed, halls for congregations 
engaged in public worship. The Roman like the Grecian 
worship had required no interiors for audiences, in any of 
its forms ; the Roman temples would have been of no use 
at all to the Christian bishops. 1 But the Roman basilicas, 
especially the smaller ones, were almost exactly what the 
early church required : they were roofed buildings, rec- 
tangular in form, not very unlike modern churches, of 
which, indeed, they are the prototypes. These could not 
always be spared from their civic use ; but they were easy 
to copy. Another type of structure was more nearly 
original with the Christians, the round or many-sided, 
one-roomed structure needed to enclose the large bap- 
tismal font of the time, in which baptism by immersion 
was practised. The fourth century saw many of these 
baptisteries and many Christian basilicas built. There 
was not much call for new civic buildings at this epoch, 
for the prosperous reigns of the great emperors of the 
previous century had left the Empire well supplied with 
civic basilicas and baths, pretoria and porticoes, fortified 
and triumphal gateways, monuments, palaces, and temples. 
The supply was even in excess of the demand, for the 
population of the Empire was decreasing, except where 
tribes of emigrating Germans or Goths had been wel- 
comed as inhabitants of the depopulated provinces, and 
these half- Romanized strangers did not need at once all 
that had been provided by lavish governors in the past 

1 For the real or apparent exceptions see Chapter II., Roman Architect- 
ure, especially the Pantheon and temple of Venus and Rome ; see also the 
mention of the building at Eleusis, Chapter I. 


There were old buildings needing repair, or half-ruined, 
from which it was easy to take often with the full per- 
mission of the imperial legates shafts of marble or 
granite and delicately carved Ionic or Corinthian capitals 
and bases. Constantine " the Great " himself was honoured 
by a triumphal arch, still standing near the Colosseum, for 
which the sculptures of an arch of Trajan were torn from 
their proper setting, since no sculptors were to be found 
in the degenerate Mediterranean world capable of pro- 
ducing such work. 

The earliest Christian basilicas are those of the reign 
of Constantine, and we know something of the original 
character of several of these. The largest ones, S. John 
Lateran and the great Metropolitan Church of S. Peter 
on the Vatican Hill, were finished before 335 ; S. Lorenzo 
outside the walls and S. Maria in Trastevere are of the 
same time, and S. Maria Maggiore was finished before 
370. S. Paul's outside the walls was built before the 
end of the century. All these are in and near Rome ; 
all but two were begun, if not completed, under Constan- 
tine. Many alterations have been made to these basilicas, 
and yet it is not hard to trace, almost without uncertainty, 
the original plans and the original construction of all but 
S. Peter's. Of this last, trustworthy drawings have been 
preserved. These basilicas are all of the earliest type, 
and their plans should be studied together in Gutensohn 
and Knapp's (Bunsen's) Die Basiliken des christlichen 
Roms. The plan of S. John Lateran, as it was before its 
renovation in the sixteenth century, is given in Fig. 59. 
There was often at the end farthest from the sanctuary a 

122 EUROPE, 350 TO 750 A.D. [CHAP. Ill 

large square forecourt or atrium, surrounded by a cloister, 
taking the place of the narthex, or in addition to the 
narthex. This feature took up so much room that it 
tended to disappear, but it has been preserved in S. 
Clemente at Rome and S. Ambrogio at Milan. Most 
of the basilicas had only one aisle on each side of the 
nave. In some the transept was less strongly marked. 





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FIG. 59. Rome, Italy : Basilica of S. John Lateran. Plan of the original structure built 
in the fifth century A.D. Width within the outer walls about 180 feet. 

On the whole, the common disposition may be stated as 
follows : seats for the bishop and other church officers in 
the semicircular apse ; place for the clergy and others 
conducting divine service in the transept; place for the 
faithful in the nave and aisles, with some tendency to 
separate the sexes, either in different aisles, or by means 
of an upper gallery when one was introduced ; no one 
not baptized admitted within the church; other persons 
left in the atrium or the narthex. The principal altar 

FIG. 60. Rome, Italy: Basilica of S. Clemente; as on the old plan. Rebuilt in the 

eleventh century A.D. 

124 EUROPE, 350 TO 750 A.D. [CHAP. Ill 

was enclosed by a railing or low wall, and the space within 
this tended to grow larger and to become an extensive 
choir or reserved place for the clergy and others who 
conducted the service. The interior of S. Clemente at 
Rome (Fig. 60) is a good instance of this early form of 
Christian basilica. , 

There was no exterior architectural effect; none was 
sought for. Within, marble columns and capitals were to 
be seen often very oddly mated, black polished marble 
shafts from one ancient structure alternating with fluted 
shafts of white marble taken from another; capitals of 
Grecian Doric contrasting with those of Roman Corin- 
thian, as in S. Pietro in Vincoli, Ionic and Corinthian as 
in S. John Lateran ; capitals too small to fit their shafts; 
shafts of unequal lengths, and therefore raised on pedestals 
of differing heights (see Figs. 60 and 64). These shafts 
and capitals taken from ancient buildings were almost 
the only architectural adornment of the interiors. The 
wall which they carried was sustained sometimes by round 
arches, sometimes by lintels ; this wall was pierced with 
plain windows in the clear-story above the aisle-roofs, and 
was as bare as possible left for the painter or mosaicist. 
The roofs were of timber ; the trusses sometimes left visi- 
ble and painted in bright colours, sometimes concealed 
by a flat ceiling. The interiors must have been very plain 
and bare, except where the walls had been painted richly, 
or in later times covered with mosaic, and they were full 
of daylight. For the general effect of one of these interi- 
ors see Fig. 60. 

Contemporary with these basilicas were the round or 


EUROPE, 350 TO 750 A.D. 

[CHAP. Ill 

polygonal churches, some of which were and remained 
baptisteries, while others, like S. Costanza at Rome, took 
or kept only the baptistery form (see Fig. 61). This 
very early church, built in the reign of Constantine and 
not altered in its main structure, has the nave roofed by a 
cupola of masonry and the aisle by an annular vault, and 
has no windows except those of the clear-story (see Fig. 
62). The largest of all these round churches is probably 

S. Stefano Rotondo at Rome, built 
in the fifth century ; but this is not 
a typical example. The church 
near Nocera, in Campania, called 
S. Maria Maggiore, or S. Maria 
della Rotonda, is an excellent ex- 
ample (see Fig. 63). It is to be 
observed that a section through 
the centre of one of these round 
churches corresponds closely to a 
section taken across a basilica 

( p j ^ Jh drcular t 


rises high above the aisles, and is 
the nave. Whether this part is vaulted or roofed with 
wood, it is to be considered not a tower, even when its 
walls rise like those of a tower, much higher than the walls 
of the nave of Nocera, but as the nave of a church with 
the aisle around it, the nave for baptismal service and 
the aisle for the laymen ; and it is noticeable that as these 
churches began to be used for other than baptismal ser- 
vices, a separate choir in the form of an apse was often 
added (see Fig. 63). Basilicas and round churches wen 

o Jtf S6 

FIG. 61. Rome : church of 

S. Constanza; originally a 
tomb-chapel. About 315 A.D. 

/OO ft l0. 

Ill I I I I I I I I t t 

FIG. 63. Nocera, Italy : Church S. Maria della Rotonda. Built probably in the sixth 

century A.D. 

128 EUROPE, 350 TO 750 A.D. [CHAP. Ill 

alike built throughout the Empire during the fourth and 
fifth centuries, but there was a constant tendency to re- 
place the earlier round churches by oblong and rectan- 
gular, or in other words basilica-like, structures which 
were naturally more easy to adapt to the needs of a large 
congregation. When the rectangular church was built, 
the round or polygonal one was kept to serve as a bap- 
tistery, as is still to be seen at the Lateran in Rome and 
at Torcello in the Venetian lagoon. 


It must be understood that throughout western Europe 
buildings were erected without intelligent skill, with 
very inadequate means, and without other possible deco- 
ration than that furnished by the plunder of earlier 
structures. The eastern provinces, within the undisputed 
sway of the Emperors at Constantinople, could build, as 
we have seen, in a somewhat thorough and elegant fashion, 
but the people of Gaul, Spain, and Italy were not so favour- 
ably situated. They had to build with a roughness, a 
negligence, and a lack of finish difficult for us now to 
understand. Figure 64 from S. Lorenzo Fuori le Mura 
(outside the walls) shows how in a basilica in Rome itself 
the ancient materials taken from perishing imperial build- 
ings were utilized, larger and smaller Corinthian capitals, 
Ionic capitals, fluted shafts, spirally reeded shafts and 
smooth shafts, all used in the same small church. Where 
the ancient materials were not available, the small chapels 
and baptisteries were often what we should now call huts, 

FIG. 64. Rome, Italy : Church of S. Lorenzo without the walls. In part of the fourth 

century A.D. 

130 EUROPE, 350 TO 750 A.D. [CHAP. Ill 

and the larger churches, all of which except two or three 
have been swept away to make room for better buildings, 
were, it is clear, wretchedly built. Their walls of poor 
material were very thick, because otherwise they would 
not have stood, the windows small, the roofs roughly put 
together of half-dressed timber from the forest. No style 
of architecture could arise under these conditions ; indeed, 
western Europe was too disturbed by political changes 
and constant destructive wars to allow of a consistent style 
of architecture, and the years from about 450 to 1050 were 
to pass without the appearance of such a style beyond the 
frontiers of the Byzantine Empire. The great decorative 
appliance of the time, mosaic, used freely for wall pictures, 
is one which would naturally take shape in such an epoch. 
Mosaic pictures could be applied to any wall which was 
somewhat protected from the weather. Their beauty of 
colour and of grave and simple lines was one with the 
beauty of painted pictures in manuscripts, which consti- 
tuted the most important fine art of the time. The artists, 
who could neither draw nor model the human figure, and 
who had lost altogether the secrets of Greek composition 
of the classical epoch as preserved under the great Empire, 
were still capable of decorative design of rude character; 
and, moreover, Byzantine manuscripts and drawings, and 
tracings from Byzantine mosaics, must have been brought 
rather freely into the West, where they would serve to 
stimulate design in the direction most obvious and easy. 
Accordingly if we could see a large basilica as it stood in 
the seventh or eighth century, we should see a building 
with plain and blank outer walls except where a fragment 


of sculpture from a Roman building or sarcophagus might 
be built into the work, as now in the walls of S. Mark's 
Church at Venice. The roof of the basilica proper would 
be at a low pitch and covered with plain tiles, the windows 
of the clear-story and of the aisles would be cut through 
the walls without mouldings or ornament of any sort. 
The atrium or great court would be surrounded by a very 
plain covered way, a portico or peristyle, and the wall 
enclosing this on the outside would be absolutely plain, 
without relief or ornament. A mosaic picture here and 
there, with a wooden pent-house roof to protect it, would 
have rather the appearance of an object of worship than a 
piece of decoration. In the interior, the columns separat- 
ing the nave from the aisles would be handsome, and even 
rich in themselves, but without seeming a part of an organ- 
ized and carefully planned structure. The wall resting 
upon these, whether supported by arches or by lintels, 
would be without anything to give shadow or to divide 
it up in an architectural way ; there would be no pilasters, 
no arcades, no mouldings around the windows, no sill- 
courses nor friezes of sculpture. The roof of the nave 
would probably be of plain squared timbers with nothing 
to hide them and without carving or moulding, but they 
probably would be painted in patterns of bright colour. 
Large parts of the plain wall surface would, however, be 
covered with mosaic of small cubes, mainly of glass; 
roughly worked and copied from cartoons very childish 
and unskilled in drawing, but not without decorative effect. 
Moreover, the reading-desk, the pulpit, the wall enclosing 
the choir, the altar, and especially the canopy over the 

132 EUROPE, 350 TO 750 A.D. [CHAP. Ill 

altar, called ciborium, or in later times baldacchino, would 
be more or less architectural in character, and the pave- 
ment of the church would probably be rich with inlaid 
marbles taken from some building of imperial times, and 
badly relaid. 

These basilicas, however, were found mainly in Italy, so 
far as we know. The larger churches of the north were 
made more decidedly cruciform in plan, at least as early as 
the close of the sixth century. It appears from the de- 
scriptions of the time that their interiors were sometimes 
decorated with columns and wall-facings of marble; but 
the whole structure was undoubtedly often of wood, and 
in the regions of great forests they continued to be built 
and rebuilt in that material, even after the eleventh cen- 
tury. There is a tradition that even Chartres Cathedral 
was of wood until about 1050. Meanwhile, each bishop 
and abbot strove to have his church rebuilt in stone, and 
even to have the roofs of the same material. Among the 
churches in any great town one would find many attempts 
at vaulting the aisles, and some at vaulting the wider nave. 
Fear of fire, and perhaps also of robbers who might break 
through the tiles of the low aisle-roofs, would account for 
the constant effort to secure a roof of masonry. Another 
reason was the less dignified and less permanent look of the 
rough timbers, in the many cases where no good carvers 
and painters could be obtained. The skill of the builders 
was, however, insufficient, and the material resources which 
they controlled were inadequate. One contrivance often 
resorted to was to build stout arches across the nave be- 
tween opposite pillars, and to build upon each arch a wall 

SEC. Ill] 




rising in a gable : the roof timbers then rested upon these 
walls instead of trusses of carpenter work (see Fig. 1 38 A 
in which is shown a building of a later epoch roofed in this 
manner). This same device was used in Syria, but with 
walls less widely separated, and carrying flat stone slabs, 
and similar con- 
struction was to 
be employed a 
few years later 
in the great 
mosques of Cai- 
ro, Damascus, 
and Cordova; 
and Spanish 
churches of the 
fourteenth cen- 
tury, such as 
S. Agata of Bar- 
celona, preserve 
the type. 

Vaults, when 
they built vaults, FIG. 65. 
were apt to fall 
down, or had to be supported by props or held together 
by iron ties. A few cases are known to us in which greater 
knowledge on the part of the travelled and instructed 
builders, or an Eastern model to copy, or finally a small 
scale and a massive construction, have saved the stone roof. 
There are several in Italy. Thus at Biella in Piedmont, 
northeast of Turin, is the little structure shown in Fig. 65, 

Biella, Italy: Chapel probably of the eighth cen- 
tury A.D. 

134 EUROPE, 350 TO 750 A.D. [CHAP. Ill 

and which is vaulted in four semi-domes and one square 
cupola with rounded corners; but this building is only 
thirty-five feet in total diameter. Scarcely larger is the 
baptistery of Galliano near Como in Lombardy. Nothing 
seems to be known of the date of this little building, but 
it is of the same design as that of Biella, and is even less 
carefully built. The larger churches have been replaced by 
later buildings, but some of the very small ones still exist 
unchanged in other lands than Italy. One of these is the 
little chapel on one of the islands off Cannes on the French 
Riviera, Isle Saint Honorat de Lerins. This building is 
probably of the seventh century ; it consists of a nave 
about seventeen feet long and wide, which is roofed with a 
simple wagon vault strengthened in the middle by a heavy 
arch concentric with the vault, and beyond this a little 
sanctuary roofed by a square dome and three semi-domes. 
Several other minute chapels of this sort exist, one at 
Montmajour near Aries (see Fig. 66), and one at Querque- 
ville near Cherbourg, both in France ; but in the north no 
vaulted roof of any considerable magnitude has come down 
to us from any epoch previous to the eleventh century. It 
is evident that hundreds of buildings with Roman vaulting 
still intact existed in all parts of Europe in the seventh 
and eighth centuries. Single chambers of Roman thermae 
and pretoria and even of dwellings, such vaulted rooms as 
may now be seen in Paris behind the Hotel de Gluny, 
must have been in use, in great numbers ; their vaulting 
protected from the weather by wooden roofs and thatch 
and thin walling built up where needed to enclose them 
more perfectly. Such a room is still to be seen at Cividale 

FIG. 66. Montmajour, near Aries, France : Chapel of the Holy Cross. Eleventh 
century. Total length over all, 51 feet. 

136 EUROPE, 350 TO 750 A.D. [CHAP. Ill 

near Udine in the extreme eastern part of Venetia, as 
shown in Fig. 67. It is given here as an instance of what 
must have been once a very large class of buildings, the 
churches and chapels put into shape within the remains of 
imperial structures. 


There exist, in many parts of the old Roman Empire, 
buildings of a character very different from those described 
as Romanesque in the last chapter, but known to be of the 
same epoch with them. If the ancient Empire is taken as 
divided in two by the Adriatic Sea, the eastern half Graeco- 
Oriental in character, the western half Latin, then by far 
the greater number of these buildings which we have to 
describe are in the eastern division. Travellers in Italy 
recognize the difference between four or five ancient 
churches in Ravenna, on the eastern coast of Italy, and 
other Italian buildings of the early Middle Ages. 
S. Mark's church in Venice is recognized as having some 
points of resemblance to those Ravenna churches. But 
beyond the Adriatic Sea there are, in Constantinople, the 
great church of Hagia Sophia and that of SS. Sergios and 
Bacchos, and at Salonika the church of S. George, which 
are known to have been completed in their present state 
before the end of the seventh century A.D. ; also in Constan- 
tinople the church of S. Irene and the church of the The- 
otokos ; at Salonika, the church of Hagia Sophia, that of 
S. Demetrios, and that of S. Elias; at Studenica in Servia, 
a church; at Trebizond, the church of Hagia Sophia; 
at Athens, the old cathedral ; and throughout these lands 

FIG. 67. Cividale, Venetia, Italy : Hall perhaps Roman of the fourth or fifth century, 

used as a church. 

138 EUROPE, 350 TO 750 A.D. [CHAP. Ill 

of the eastern Mediterranean a host of minor churches of 
later or probably later date all of which churches are 
akin in many important respects to the churches in Ra- 
venna above-named. All these buildings are called Byzan- 
tine, and the style which is common to them all is called 
the Byzantine style. It is, as we have said in the last 
chapter, a form of the Romanesque, but it deserves especial 
consideration because of its strongly marked peculiarities, 
and because of the beauty of many of the buildings which 
belong to it. On the other hand, as it has had but little 
effect on later European architecture, its chief outcome 
being in the mosques of Cairo and similar Mohammedan 
buildings which lie outside of our subject, it must be treated 

The great prototype of this style is H. Sophia in Con- 
stantinople, built by the Emperor Justinian and partly re- 
built by him after a fire, and finished as now in the year 
538 A.D. How far this church was a new inspiration of 
the builders, reasoned out to meet the requirements of the 
Emperor that a church should be built exceeding all build- 
ings on earth in extent and beauty, and how far it was 
based upon previous monuments, we do not certainly know. 
The buildings which had been built by Greek builders in 
the great cities of the eastern half of the Empire during 
the six centuries previous to this undertaking have per- 
ished. It has been alleged that the church of S. George 
at Salonika existed before the erection of the present H. 
Sophia, and this is probable, but the building has no bold- 
ness of design, and is a small cupola supported on a ring- 
wall pierced by niches. It is evident that very great credit 




must be given to Anthemios, the builder of H. Sophia, and 
his assistant Isidores, for their boldness and skill. It is clear 
that they took a longer step in advance than it is generally 
in the power of man to do in matters of fine art or build- 
ing. Figure 68 is the plan of Hagia Sophia. The great 
dome is low rather than lofty, and 107 feet in diameter ; it 
rests upon four great arches which enclose a square, the 


FIG. 68. Constantinople : Church of Hagia Sophia, rebuilt 566. 

triangles in the corners of the square being filled by what 
are called pendentives. To the eastward and westward of 
this great square are half-domes which cover each a semi- 
circular drum, but this drum is pierced in each case by 
rounded apses, which are again covered by half-cupolas 
penetrating the larger ones. The great dome is pierced 
just above its base by a number of small arched windows, 
and similar windows pierce the semi-domes, both larger 
and smaller ; in fact, a large amount of the light which fills 

I4O EUROPE, 350 TO 750 A.D. [CHAP. Ill 

the interior is taken in this way through the roof. The 
columns shown on the ground plan have none of the work 
of supporting the roof. All the weight of the dome and 
the semi-domes and of the great arches which carry the 
former rests upon the great piers. The columns carry 
arches, which in their turn carry a second row of columns 
and arches. Some of these support the large semicircular 
walls pierced with windows, which fill the space beneath 
the great arches on the north and on the south, and others 
support the semicircles which flank the large semi-domes. 
The floors of galleries are carried by the walls which these 
minor arches support. Figure 69 is a longitudinal section 
of the church, which will give a slight idea of its construc- 
tion and arrangement. 

The smaller churches which are recognized as of the By- 
zantine type have many points of resemblance to H. Sophia. 
In the first place, vaulting is used with the greatest freedom 
and in great variety of form. The Byzantines are tied to 
no such conventional rule as that which forbade the Romans 
to let barrel-vaults of different spans and heights intersect 
one another. The Byzantine builder uses barrel-vaults 
of all sizes and sections, and lets them intersect as they 
will. He uses domes, half-domes, and cupola-vaults which 
are built on neither whole circles nor half-circles necessarily, 
but of such horizontal plan as the distribution of the church 
requires; like those of H. Sophia above, which break into the 
large semi-domes. He supports his vaults, whether. cupola- 
shape or square in plan, either upon continuous walls or 
upon pendentives which, in their turn, are supported by meet- 
ing arches, or finally upon small points of support like the 



142 EUROPE, 350 TO 750 A.D. [CHAP. Ill 

groined vaults of the Romans, but with much greater free- 
dom of arrangement. This freedom of his, of building in 
any way most convenient, is well shown in the immense 
covered cisterns which Constantine and his immediate suc- 
cessors built for the storage of aqueduct water ; halls whose 
roofs are carried on vaults supported by slender columns 
twelve to fifteen feet apart, in long rows. For these vaults 
the builders used cut stone, brick, rough stone and brick 
conjointly, and hollow earthenware vessels ; they built them 
with thin beds of mortar and, equally well, with quantities 
of mortar filling all interstices and making of the whole 
vault a homogeneous shell in the true Roman fashion ; they 
built such vaults without centres, with only partial or guid- 
ing centres, or with full centres in the Roman way ; they 
found means to roof every part of a complicated build- 
ing with its own distinct cupola or barrel-vault or other 
masonry covering, all these working together to pro- 
duce a harmonious effect within. 

One very remarkable result of their method of building 
is seen in their homogeneous roofs. The same shell of 
masonry serves as a ceiling within and as a water-shedding 
roof surface without. There can be no doubt that this 
result was often reached by the imperial Roman builders 
in the roofs of the thermae and basilicas ; but the Byzan- 
tine builders reached the same result at a very slight ex- 
pense of labour and material. The builders of no other 
mediaeval, and of no modern school, have been capable of 
homogeneous roofs except in a few cupolas; and now and 
then in buildings erected at lavish cost, or with nineteenth- 
century building appliances. 



The interiors resulting from this vaulted construction 
were simple, with broad, smooth, unbroken surfaces of wall 
and rounded ceiling. There were few breaks, few projec- 
tions ; no pillars nor horizontal courses projecting from 
the smooth faces of the finished masonry and no mould- 
ings at the angles. Even the projecting corners of the 
great piers rising from the floor to the spring of the vaults 
and the angles of the vaults above, were rounded off 
smoothly instead of being emphasized by means of mould- 
ings in groups or by angle-shafts or pilasters with capitals 
and bases. The decoration which such interiors called for 
was, then, the mere beautifying of the smooth surface. 
For this purpose we must not forget that there were, even 
when H. Sophia was building, no skilled painters such as 
four hundred years before had been at the call of Hadrian. 
Justinian had the Empire from Italy to the Euphrates at 
his command, but he could not get men who knew how to 
paint and carve the human figure as the Greeks and their 
pupils of an earlier time had done. It is a strange and not 
perfectly explained process of decay, this of the artistic 
power of a whole world of men ; but it is actual and cer- 
tain, as the study of the carved sarcophagi and the bas- 
reliefs of Christian subject of the fifth and sixth centuries 
show very clearly. Mosaic, however, with its splendid 
effects of colour enhanced by the semi-vitreous lustre, and 
its rejection of refined delineation, was at the Emperor's 
service. His designers could make splendid decorative fig- 

144 EUROPE, 350 TO 750 A.D. [CHAP. Ill 

ures of great stateliness of pose and of some charm of out- 
line, and the patterns of background and border were very 
rich. His carvers of marble were capable of beautiful 
scroll-work, and this could be cut in low relief in thick 
slabs, or could be incised in such slabs and the incisions 
filled in either with marbles of other colours or with plastic 
composition. The capitals of the columns were carved in 
low relief with exquisite leaf-decoration. In short, the con- 
ditions of what we call barbaric or semi-civilized art were 
all present : a power over ornamental patterns and brilliant 
colours which our modern civilization wholly lacks, con- 
siderable skill in making conventionalized drawings of the 
human figure, which themselves work in with the orna- 
mental patterns and the colour composition, and finally 
very perfect judgment as to the use of these appliances in 
ornamenting large surfaces. With all this very un-Roman 
ornament was combined the favourite Roman device of 
rich material. The walls of H. Sophia are sheathed with 
splendid marbles, and the columns are of porphyry, verde 
antico, cipollino, and other such jewel-like materials, just 
as a palace-hall in Rome would have been adorned three 
centuries earlier. All of this decoration can still be admired 
in the church, except the figures of saints and angels in 
the mosaic of the vaulting, which are covered lest they 
should offend Moslem eyes. 

Other churches were adorned by the same means, so far 
as they were available in each case. Marbles and porphy- 
ries must have been easy to get in Constantinople and in 
other great cities of the Empire. Carving in marble for 
capitals and slabs and inlaying upon smooth surfaces must 


have been arts in constant use. Mosaic, given a new im- 
petus by its use in H. Sophia, must have been common 
throughout the Eastern Empire by the end of the sixth 
century. Accordingly, although little has been done to 
gather information on the subject, churches adorned in this 
way are known in cities and towns throughout the Levant. 
Exterior architecture, on the other hand, is extremely 
slight and devoid of character. It may almost be said that 
no exterior architecture was ever elaborated by the Byzan- 
tine builders of early date. In Ravenna, as in the East, the 
churches of all forms have the plainest brick outsides, with- 
out any architectural pretensions at all. In Ravenna, the 
" orthodox " baptistery called S. Giovanni in Fonte is an 
octagonal tower roofed by a cupola and having a little apse 
upon every alternate side, so as to have a nearly square 
floor; the tombal chapel of the Empress Galla Placidia, 
now SS. Nazario e Celso, is a small cruciform building with 
barrel-vaults and a square tower at the crossing ; S. Vitale 
is a large octagonal church, the nave adorned by rounded 
apsidioles like those of H. Sophia of Constantinople and 
having a well-planned apse within the circuit of the aisles ; 
S. Apollinare in Classe outside the town and S. Apollinare 
Nuovo within the walls are wooden-roofed basilicas with 
round campanili. All these buildings of such different 
shapes and sizes are of the fifth and sixth centuries ; they 
have suffered but little alteration ; they are made beautiful 
with mosaics of unsurpassed decorative effect and are not 
without more purely architectural merit, in their interiors ; 
but their outsides are almost absolutely blank, of the plain- 
est brick-work with openings cut squarely through it. In 

146 EUROPE, 350 TO 750 A.D. [CHAP. Ill 

like manner S. George at Salonika, SS. Sergios and Bac- 
chos at Constantinople, the beautiful basilica of Parenzo in 
Istria, and the cathedral of Torcello in the Venetian lagoon 
with its adjacent church of S. Fosca, -all buildings of the 
years between 500 and 750 A.D., and little changed from 
their primitive form and appearance, are as plain with- 
out as if no one had dreamed of architectural enrichment 
with regard to them, except that at some time mosaics 
have been spread over parts of the outer walls, as at 
Parenzo and at Torcello. 1 

The early Byzantine style is of the greatest interest to 
the student, and one may easily come to feel a special 
affection for it, as for the most deeply satisfying of all 
styles whose buildings are still standing for us to see. It 
has had but little influence upon later European work, 
however. Continued with but little change within the 
limits of the Byzantine Empire, it found its chief and most 
important development in the Mussulman styles of Cairo, 
Damascus, and Moorish Spain ; which are outside of our 

1 There can be little doubt that the decoration of the apse of S. Fosca at Tor- 
cello is of the eleventh century. 




AT Aix-la-Chapelle or Aachen in the province of Rhen- 
ish Prussia stands the building which Charles the Great 
built as a palace-chapel ; the building which gave the town 
its peculiar French name. This building is a round church 
very much like those built in Italy three hundred years 
before, and there is little doubt that we have it nearly 
intact, except that its added decoration has disappeared. 
It has been enlarged, a very impressive late-Gothic choir 
has been added to make a cathedral out of it, and chapels 
of still later date flank the choir ; but the original round 
church remains, and retains most fortunately some of its 
bronze fittings, which show in a very emphatic way how 
classical the church must have been in detail. Figure 70 
is a plan of the original round church. The nave is vaulted 
by a simple octagonal cupola. The complicated vaulting 
.of the aisle it is unnecessary to explain; it has no close 
relation with the vaulting of other buildings of the epoch, 
but is much later in the system adopted. The church 


148 EUROPE, 750 TO 1150 A.D. [CHAP. IV 

of S. Michael in Fulda, northeast of Frankfurt-on-the-Main, 
built before 820, shows, in spite of later modification, its 
original plan. The nave is a cylindrical, tower-like struct- 
ure carried on eight columns with round arches skilfully 
built in the rounded wall, and the aisle is roofed by a half- 
vault ; literally the half of an annular vault, the section of 

which anywhere is like a flying 
buttress. The church of S. 
Gereon at Cologne has been 
more altered than the church at 
Aix-la-Chapelle, and is thought 
by some archaeologists to have 
received its original form in the 
fifth century. If this is so, this 
church may have served as in 
part the prototype for the royal 
chapel at Aix-la-Chapelle, but it 
is as we see it now a Roman- 
esque rotunda-like church with a 
long choir of later date. The 
rotunda, which serves as the 
nave, is ten-sided and of a curious 
oval form with chapels like little 
apses, reminding one of the curved projections from the 
nave of H. Sophia at Constantinople and S. Vitale at 
Ravenna; but all this unique rotunda was remade in the 
twelfth century, and is now a very beautiful late-Roman- 
esque building with Gothic windows of a still later date. 

It would seem that the use of the round or polygonal 
plan for churches of considerable size was a lingering 

FIG. 70. Aachen or Aix-la-Chapelle, 
Prussia : Chapel, original plan as 
built in the ninth century. 

SEC. I] 



relic of the earliest Christian architectural epoch. The 
future of church building was not in this plan, but in the 
long parallelogram made up of nave and aisles, with choir 
in the form of an apse at one end, and generally turned 
toward the east. It is a deduction from the three-aisle 
basilica. Take such a basilica, as in Figs. 59, 60, 64 ; 
enlarge the apse to a length nearly equal 
to that of the nave, and give the transept 
greater length, leaving the ends square, 
the whole cruciform plan of the Middle 
Ages is established. Take the same ba- 
silica plan, and round the two arms of the 
transept into apses as large or about as 
large as the eastern apse, so that the 
whole of the sanctuary end of the church 
is converted into a tri-apsal group (see 
Fig. 71). If now the square into which 
the three apses open be carried up into a 
tower rising above the other roofs, you 
have the Romanesque plan as seen in S. 
Georges de Boscherville near Rouen and 
in the church of S. Martin in Cologne. 
If the same tower be made octagon, you 
have the general scheme developed in the cathedral of 
Florence (see Fig. 166 B). Of these two principal plans, 
the former was destined to the widest popularity, especially 
during the epoch of Gothic architecture beginning about 
1 1 80; but the latter, that is to say the plan with the long 
nave and the short choir-group of apse with rounded 
transepts, was rather the favourite as long as the Roman- 

FIG. 71. S. Satur- 
nin and Quer- 
queville, France : 
Chapels of the 
ninth and tenth 
centuries. Plans. 


EUROPE, 750 TO 1150 A.D. 


FIG. 72. Vignory, France: Church built in the tenth 
century. Plan. Total length, including the apsidal 
chapel, about 170 feet. 

esque or round-arched architecture prevailed in its un- 
changed form. 

In this and in 
all other plans the 
difficulty of vault- 
ing the churches 
was equally great. 
The custom was 
rather to vault small 

parts at and near the sanctuary and to leave the nave 

and often the aisles with timber roofs. The interior of the 

church of Vi- . 

gnory (Haute- 

Marne), near 

Chaumont, fur- 
nishes us with 


details typical 

of the building 

of this period, 

in any place 

and time of 

tolerable peace 

and prosperity. 

The church 

has been re- 
stored, but the 

WOrk was COn- FlG - 73 (see FIG. 72). 

ducted by a competent and conscientious architect, Mr. 
Boeswilwald. Figure 72 gives the plan of this church, 


and Fig. 73 shows the interior arrangement. The east- 
:rn end of the church is vaulted in part ; that is to say, 
:he aisle on both sides and around the semicircular, 
ipse-like end of the choir is roofed with a barrel-vault, and 

ie apse itself with a semi-dome. All the rest is roofed 
with timber, like a southern basilica. The tier of coupled 
irches and short columns alternating with piers indicates 

triforium gallery ; but there is no floor of such a gallery, 
ind the roof of the aisle is visible from below. When 
suiting was undertaken, the barrel-vault was often used 
[or even the high nave, and this was sometimes counter- 
>oised or buttressed by the upper vaults over the aisles. 

'hus in the great and splendid church of S. Saturnin 
[S. Sernin) of Toulouse in the south of France, and in 

lany smaller churches, the vaults over the aisles are half- 
>arrel-vaults, as if a barrel-vault had been cut in halves, 
and one half set up on each side of the nave-vault so as to 
take up its thrust. The close resemblance of this system 
to the true flying buttress system will be noticed in Chap- 
ter V. Figure 74 shows the cross-section of the church 
of Notre Dame du Port at Clermont-Ferrand. The barrel- 
vault was often modified so as to have a pointed or broken 
curve in section, as is seen in the church of S. Eutrope at 
Saintes, on the west coast of France, near La Rochelle. 
This pointed section made the vault a little safer than a 
semicircular section, but it was very hard to keep in place, 
because of the thrust it gave all along the whole length of 
the clear-story wall. The transverse arches which are 
used here are of only slight use in bringing this thrust 
to fixed points ; that is, to the piers between windows. 


EUROPE, 750 TO 1150 A.D. 


Saint-Genou, a little village between Loches and Cha- 
teauroux, has a church of the same epoch which has vaulted 
aisles and a closed triforium gallery with sculptured capi- 

FIG. 74 (see FIG. 76). 

tals of great interest. The church of Germigny-les-Pres 
(Loiret) was such a basilica-like church of the ninth cen- 
tury, and, although destroyed by restoring architects, has 
left behind it an accurate record. 

The same epoch has left for us some very curious re- 

SEC. I] 



mains of building in parti-coloured materials, such as the 
so-called Roman tower at Cologne, the abbey-church of 
Lorsche near Darmstadt, and S. Lubin at Suevres, near 
Blois. This decoration in large mosaic of wall-material 
did not lose its 
charm for the Ro- 
manesque builders, 
and disappears only 
with the establish- 
ment of the organ- 
ized Gothic style. 
The exterior of the 
curious baptistery 
(Fig. 75) at Poitiers 
shows another at- 
tempt at ornamen- 
tation without ar- 
chitectural system, 
by building in frag- 
ments of detail, 
perhaps taken from 
other buildings. 
It reveals a 

FIG. 75. Poitiers, France : Baptistery. Eleventh century. 

nearly complete 

absence of any 

notion of exterior designing; and curiously enough the 

interior wall of the north transept was not dissimilar. In 

other parts of Europe few early churches remain in such 

condition that their general design can be made out. 

There seem to be none in England. The sculpture of 


EUROPE, 750 TO 1150 A.D. 


the whole epoch was exceedingly rude, and found perhaps 
its lowest degeneracy in the seventh century. The inter- 
lacings, plaits, and twists of the goldsmith's work and the 
manuscript illumination of the time were copied in stone 
carving, as a few existing remains prove. 


The year 1050 may be taken roughly as the beginning 
of an era of higher development in Romanesque architec- 
ture. Buildings and parts of buildings which are known 

to be of the 
following 1050 
show a much 
more complete 
and a more or- 
ganized style 
than what had 
gone before. 
Thus in the 

church of Notre Dame du Port at Clermont-Ferrand, 
though there is no doubt that the plan was of an earlier 
date, the greater part of the exterior is of the eleventh 
century, and the belfry-tower and the apse with its radi- 
ating chapels are certainly of the time we are considering. 
These parts of the building though restored are still to 
be taken as of the original design ; there is no reason to 
doubt the fidelity of the restorer's work. The plan (Fig. 
76) shows how chapels, probably of the eleventh century, 

FIG. 76. Clermont-Ferrand, France : Church of Notre Dame du 
Port. Eleventh century. 

FIG. 77 (see FIG. 76). 

156 EUROPE, 750 TO 1150 A.D. [CHAP. IV 

were built around an apse of the tenth century or of an 
earlier time. The exterior decoration of these chapels 
and of' the clear-story wall of the apse, and also the vault- 
ing of these chapels and that of the semicircular aisle 
into which they open, are all of an advanced Roman- 
esque style, although the vaulting of the high nave and 
its aisles is certainly of an earlier date. Figure 77 
shows the system of vaulting adopted. It will be seen 
that it is but a slight modification in principle of the 
Roman groined vaulting (see Figs. 29, 30, and 67). Fig- 
ure 78 is a plan of a part of the aisle running around this 

apse. If this is com- 
pared with Fig. 77, it 
will be seen that the 
barrel - vault which 
roofs this rounding 
aisle is penetrated at 

FIG. 78 (see FIG. 76). each bay by twQ bar _ 

rel-vaults, one above the window and about as wide as the 
main vault, the other between the columns on the church 
side and very much narrower. In order to bring the tops 
or crowns of these arches to a level, the narrow inside 
arches are stilted, or raised on high vertical imposts (see 
Fig. 77, on the left). The exterior shows a great advance 
in orderliness and in maturity of design. The builders 
have a definite and a very clear sense of the architectural 
effect of windows, buttresses, cornices, etc., and the curious 
mosaic of sandstone of different colours has evidently been 
adopted with deliberate purpose as an important feature in 
external decoration. 




The church of S. Front at Perigueux offers us a com- 
pletely different scheme. Whereas the church at Cler- 
mont-Ferrand is of the basilica type, that of Perigueux is 
of the Byzantine type ; in plan a Greek cross with naves 
about thirty-five feet in the clear, as shown in Fig. 79, and 
roofed by a series of cupolas. Figure 80 gives a diagram 

FIG. 79. Perigueux, France : Church of S. Front. Twelfth century. 

of the interior as preserved for us in a drawing made by 
Viollet-le-Duc before the unfortunate restorations of 1865- 


In these two buildings at Clermont and at Perigueux 
the struggle between two great styles is plainly visible. 
The southern and eastern influence, strongly felt in some 
parts of northern and western Europe, made for cupola 


EUROPE, 750 TO 1150 A.D. 


FIG. 80 (see FIG. 79). 

vaulting and plans of no great extension, square, or cru- 
ciform with short arms. So far as the four arms approach 
equality among themselves, the plan approaches the Greek 




cross, as in S. Front and its prototype, S. Mark of Venice. 
What may be called the Latin influence that is, the 
power of the example of Rome itself and its neighbour- 
hood made for the basilica form of church ; and the 
basilica plan called for vaulting with barrel-vaults or 
groined vaults. With the cupola system of vaulting any 
surface could be easily roofed. A chapel of irregular 
shape as well as a 
perfectly square 
apartment could 
receive a cupola 
(see A and B, 
Fig. 8 1 ), where 
it will be seen 
that the penden- 
tives, though ir- 
regular in plan, 
will be no more 
difficult to con- 
struct in A than 
in B. In spite 
of this the tendency was strongly toward the basilica plan 
and the groined vaulting. The cupola system and the 
Byzantine style of church prevailed but in few regions of 
the north of Europe. In the neighbourhood of Perigueux 
and through a considerable part of western France, the 
system of cupolas on pendentives prevailed. The churches 
of S. Etienne (S. Stephen) at Perigueux with a forty-six- 
foot nave, S. Etienne at Cahors with a fifty-foot nave, the 
cathedral church of Angouleme and the churches of 

FIG. 81. 

I6O EUROPE, 750 TO 1150 A.D. [CHAP. IV 

Saint Avit-Senieur and Saint Jean de Cole, in the region 
which now makes the departments of the Dordogne and 
the Lot, are all domed structures, built in evident imita- 
tion of S. Front at Perigueux. Elsewhere in the north 
the basilica plan prevailed, and it is necessary to describe 
the system of groin-vaulting as it took shape in the elev- 
enth century, because it is upon this that the new style of 
church building mainly depends, while to church building 
all other decorative construction was subordinate, a mere 
humble copying of a few of its details. 

The Roman groined vault gave the mediaeval builders 
infinite annoyance because of its powerful thrust and 
because it would seem that they could not make up their 
minds to build buttresses of great projection. The build- 
ing of a buttress two or three feet thick and extending 
six or seven feet out at right angles with the wall was 
expensive, very troublesome as to its angles and its neces- 
sary bonding with the wall, and as to the necessary pro- 
tection at the top against rain. In times of rapid and 
dextrous building it is hard to understand the fumbling 
and awkward way in which such work would be under- 
taken in a thinly settled and impoverished country, devoid 
of workmen of experience and training. The vault itself, 
consisting of small stones held together by weak mortar, 
and made as thin as the builder dared put it up, in order 
to save transportation of material, was a very different 
thing from the Roman groined vault ; less steady, much 
less resistant, but in a sense more elastic. To strengthen 
it and to help the masons in putting up their centring, 
it became customary to build a broad and deep arch across 




the aisle or nave, and to build upon and above this the 
groined vault, not otherwise changed in form from its 
Roman prototype. The vaults of the aisles at Vezelay 
(Fig. 82) are a good instance of this construction. It is 
to be observed that when such transverse arches were used 
to span the aisles 
it was compara- 
tively easy to 
build upon them 
stout cross-walls 
serving as but- 
tresses for the 
high roof of the 
nave when that 
was vaulted. The 
Roman custom 
had been to make 
such groined 
vaults exactly 
square in plan, 
and this was the 
most natural and 
easiest form to 
build. When, FlG - 
however, a broad 
nave was placed between two narrow aisles, and separated 
from them by pillars, which fixed the width of the main 
divisions or bays, it is clear that the compartments of the 
nave would not be square if those of the aisles were so, and 
the reverse (see Figs. 83 and 84). The difficult question 

Vezelay, France : Abbey church. Built in twelfth 
century. A, the transverse arch. 

1 62 

EUROPE, 750 TO 1150 A.D. 


then arose how to vault the oblong compartments. The 
Romans, as we have seen, avoided the difficulty ; nowhere 
in their work could the eleventh century builders find an 
example to guide them. It seems never to have occurred 

FIG. 83. Diagram of vaulting where the aisles are divided into squares. 

to the Romans, nor to their imitators in the eleventh 
century, to use the form of vault which became so common 
in the sixteenth century (see Fig. 85, and compare Figs. 
215 and 234). This form, however, is that which results 
naturally from allowing a small cylinder to meet and inter- 




sect with a larger one. Instead of this plan, which seems 
to modern builders the obvious one, the eleventh-century 
workmen adopted modifications of the one shown in Figs. 
83 and 84. In Fig. 83 it is assumed that the aisles are 

FIG. 84. Diagram of vaulting where the nave is divided into squares. 

divided into squares, and the nave consequently into paral- 
lelograms as wide as the squares of the aisle. The figure 
gives an outline plan of one bay and a perspective view 


EUROPE, 750 TO 1150 A.D. 


FIG. 85. 

of the three vaults seen from below. It will be seen that 
the two vaults of the aisles are made up of cylindrical sur- 
faces ; that is to say, these vaults, like the Roman vaults 
shown in Figs. 29 and 67, are made up of two cylinders 

of equal size which intersect one 
another. The strong lines, drawn 
on the surface of these vaults are, 
it will be seen, straight lines, and 
these show that the surfaces are 
those of cylinders. On the other 
hand, the vault over the parallelo- 
gram of the nave is made up of a 
cylinder meeting another curved surface which is not a cyl- 
inder, as is shown by the strong lines here, which are not 
straight, but curved. The system adopted is farther shown 
in Fig. 86, where, although the arch on AB is a large 
half -circle, as is shown in the ^ ^ 

broken curve, and the arch / \ 

t \ 

on AC a. small half-circle, f \ 

yet the intersections of the 

two vaulted surfaces, that is / 

to say the groins, are made / 

to meet one another at the \ 

centre O. The Romanesque \ 

builders seem to have been 

resolute to keep the plan of 

each parallelogram of vaulting like that shown in Fig. 

86, with the diagonal lines AD and CB representing the 

intersections or groins. Now this could only be obtained 

by giving to the surface of the vault above the triangle 

FIG. 86. 



I6 5 

AOC a shape which the English writers speak of as 
annular, calling such a vault an annular vault, although it 
is not strictly part of a mathematical annular surface. 
The French writers call it, with greater approach to accu- 
racy, voute ellipsoidale ; but it is really a curved surface 
which is not described by any geometrical term. Some- 
times the smaller round arch at AC is raised above the. 
impost, as indicated by the broken lines in Fig. 87, where 
A'C' is the springing line of the round arch, and the 
lines A A and CC denote 

the distance which this '' p ^\ 

* \ 

arch is raised above the / \ 

impost. An arch treated 

in this way is said to be 

stilted. If the small arch 

is raised so high that its 

crown P* comes on the 



FIG. 87. 

same level with the crown 
of the larger arch P, the 
resulting surface of the tri- 
angular vault AOC is extremely complicated and ugly; if, 
on the other hand, the smaller round arch is not stilted at 
all, the clear-story window under it will be low and small 
and the vault insufficiently lighted. The plan usually 
followed was to stilt the smaller round arch somewhat, but 
not nearly so much as to bring P' on a level with P. Fig- 
ure 88 shows the resulting vault where M and N are the 
transverse arches, AC the springing line of the smaller arch 
as in Figs. 86 and 87, P the crown of that smaller arch, 
and X the vault over the triangle AOC in Figs. 86 and 87. 

1 66 

EUROPE, 750 TO 1150 A.D. 


Another system was resorted to in order to avoid the 
difficulty of vaulting a long and narrow parallelogram. 
This system is the one adopted in many German and 
many Italian churches. The vaults are all square in 

plan, or nearly 
so ; the width of 
the nave being 
assumed about 
double that of 
the aisles. Fig- 
ure 89 shows 
this plan, which 

A--.M/ /! X^tVY^AX \ILI is nearly that of 

the vaulting of 
the cathedrals 
of Worms in 
Hesse Darm- 
stadt and Spires 
or Speyer in 
Bavaria. Stout 
transverse arches separate all the squares, and stiffen 
if they do not exactly support them. In such plans as 
these every alternate pillar is pressed sidewise by the aisle 
arches, which act upon one side only, and therefore is in 
danger of being forced out of the vertical and made to lean 
toward the nave. This difficulty was not so great, however, 
as to prevent the common use of the plan in question. 
In the church of S. Ambrogio, at Milan, the same general 
plan is followed, and the aisles are vaulted as at Spires, 
but a great change occurs in the vaulting of the large 





squares into which the nave is divided. Large transverse 
arches cross the nave, and other arches, also of large sec- 
tion and strongly built, are carried diagonally from pillar 
to pillar, as shown in Fig. 90. These diagonal arches are 
carried up much higher than the transverse arches ; in fact, 
they are exactly or nearly semicircular, and therefore their 
crowns rise higher than the crowns of the smaller semi- 
circular arches which cross the nave at right angles. .The 
vault built above these heavy separate arches is a contin- 
uous cupola of 
a shape which 
cannot be ac- 
curately de- 
scribed, hav- 
ing no true 
form. It does 
not rest upon 
the arches be- 
neath, which 
seem to have 
.been put in 
merely to as- 
sist in building 
the wooden 
centring upon 

which the cupola was formed. Another building with 
the same general arrangement of plan is S. Michele 
at Pavia, of which Fig. 91 shows the elevation toward 
the nave of one great bay including two bays of the aisle. 

FIG. 89. 

1 68 EUROPE, 750 TO 1150 A.D. [CHAP. IV 

This elevation may be used with the section 
(Fig. 90) to explain the construction of 
these two churches, as they are 
very similar in every re- 
spect. S. Michele, 
like S. Am- 

is noticeable 
for the great 
difference in size 
of the piers, those 
which carry the 
nave roof, as well 
as their share of 
the aisle roof, and 
those which carry 
the aisle roof alone ; 
although in this re- 
spect S. Ambrogio 
goes a little further 
into extremes than 
S. Michele. Any 
one bay of either 
of these churches 
is a beautiful com- 
position ; the mas- 
siveness of the 
y , /T 20 *;r great piers leads 
11(111 { J ' ! l ., naturally and agree- 

FIG. 90. Milan, Italy: Church of S. Ambrogio, rebuilt J 

in the twelfth century. Part of cross section, with ably to the 
nave and aisles. 




FIG. 91. Pavia, Italy: S. Michele, one bay of nave. Eleventh and twelfth centuries. 

ous vault above, and the lighter piers between them 
cause only a pleasant surprise that they should be found 

I/O EUROPE, 750 TO 1150 A.D. [CHAP. IV 

sufficient for their own task. Any one bay, whether 
looked at on one side only as a single flat composition 
or as the means of covering the whole width of the 
church for the length of about fifty feet, is a fine archi- 
tectural conception ; but it failed to win approval in the 
regions which we now call France, and which, from the 
twelfth to the fifteenth century inclusive, embraced those 
countries of Europe where architectural art was the most 
living and the most progressive. One reason for this is 
that the great bays, forty-six or forty-eight feet from cen- 
tre to centre, reduced the apparent length of the church 
by their smaller number and their greater size. Thus at 
S. Michele there are only two great bays in the length of 
the church, and at S. Ambrogio, which, however, passes for 
a good-sized and well-proportioned basilica, there are but 
four. Another and probably more weighty reason is the 
bad logic which the builders must have observed in such a 
plan ; for why should each alternate pillar differ so widely 
from its neighbours ? Why should not each pillar of the 
row dividing the nave from an aisle be like every other ? 
If these pillars were made exactly alike in themselves, and 
in the work they have to do, the result would be an arrange- 
ment by which the nave would be divided into as many 
separate compartments of vaulting as either aisle ; one to 
one in the whole length of the church. This is the plan 
which was destined to prevail in Burgundy, in Champagne, 
in Picardy, and throughout almost the whole region which 
we now call France. The great churches of western Ger- 
many, such as the cathedrals of Spires, Worms, Mayence, 
and Bamberg, were all arranged on the plan of S. Michele 




and S. Ambrogio ; but the German builders tried to over- 
come the serious objections to this plan ; namely, that it 
diminishes the apparent length of the nave, by making 
each bay proportionally very narrow and very high. Thus 
in Mayence Cathe- 
dral each bay of the 
nave is in width, 
measured along the 
nave, as compared 
with the width across 
the nave, only as seven 
to ten, whereas in S. 
Michele of Pavia the 
relative dimensions 
are nearly the reverse 
of this. In other words, 
one of the nave vault- 
ings is a parallelo- 
gram of seven by ten 
or nearly so, in either 
church, but in the 
Italian example the 
greater length is along 
the nave, while in the 
German example it is 
across the nave. So, 
as regards the height: in either of the Italian churches 
named, the total height to the crown of the vault is less 
than once and a half of the width of a great bay, but 
at Mayence the total height is more than two and a hall 


I I 


FIG. 92. Spires, Prussia : Cathedral. Interior. 
Eleventh and twelfth centuries. 

1/2 EUROPE, 750 TO 1150 A.D. [CHAP. IV 

times that width. Figure 91 may be compared with Fig. 
92 for the importance of this modification. It must also 
be observed that the German churches are generally so 
much longer than the Italian ones, that they have not 
so much to fear the shortening effect of too few and too 
large parts. In Mayence Cathedral the otherwise too 
short nave is immensely lengthened in effect by the square 
of the tower and the two apses which prolong it ; in 
Worms there are five great bays, and here again the tower 
and the apses play their part ; in Spires there are six great 
bays : in fact, all the German round-arched cathedrals had 
great length of nave given them as one of their elements 
of architectural effect. 

The abbey church at Vezelay in Burgundy is as good 
an example as exists of the fully developed Romanesque 
interior, according to the system described above (p. 170), 
in which one compartment of the nave corresponds to one 
of each aisle. Figure 82 gives a view of one of the aisles ; 
in Fig. 93 is given the great nave, seen from the choir. It 
will be seen that the principal vaults are built on the same 
general plan as those of the aisles ; but it will be seen also 
that the vaults of the nave have sunk. The transverse 
arches have been put out of shape to such an extent 
that they are no longer even "approximately semicircular, 
but approach visibly the form called basket-handled, or 
three-centred. In other words, the walls and piers were 
forced apart by the thrust of these very arches, yielding 
under the weight of the vaults and of their own materials, 
and as they spread, the crowns of the arches came down, 
until the whole fabric was endangered. Flying buttresses 




were built, and these restored the equilibrium and saved 
the church, but these were an afterthought. Their style 
is much later than that of the interior. 

It is to be noted that the action of the thrust of arches 
upon the walls of a building is very gradual. For some 

FIG. 93. Vezelay (see FIG. 82). 

months or years all may seem to be safe and in good 
order, and when the effects of the thrust become visible, it 
will generally be too late to save the perfect shape and 
symmetry of the building, although it may be kept from 
falling. Accordingly there are very many buildings of 
the eleventh and twelfth centuries which show the action 

EUROPE, 750 TO 1150 A.D. [CHAP. IV 

of the nave-vaults in an outward slope of their upper walls 
or piers ; the mischief having been stopped by flying 
buttresses built up, or by iron tie-rods put in, in time to 
save the building from entire collapse. 

Many buildings were erected or completed during this 
period of developed Romanesque in which different 
styles of vaulting were tried. Thus the church called 
La Martorana at Palermo was probably not completed 
until about 1140, a time when the beginnings of Gothic 
architecture were showing themselves in the north, as we 
shall see in the next chapter; and yet this church is 
vaulted in an archaic fashion, reminding one of the 
primitive church of Treves in Germany and of other 
buildings of early Christian times. It is a good system 
of vaulting, easy to build, permanent, capable of charming 
decoration by means of painting or mosaic, but involving 
a peculiar plan, divided into squares and rectangles, each 
of which is filled with its own vault, which may be of 
almost any system, and involving also a host of columns 
or pillars at the angles of the squares and rectangles. This 
plan has its prototype in the great cisterns of Constanti- 
nople (see p. 142), and is frequently put to use in later 
styles, incapable as it seems of a considerable development. 
No great style of architecture could grow out of it so long 
as the buildings most in demand were Christian churches, 
because for these a large and unincumbered interior was 
necessary, and that style was sure to win, other things 
being equal, which offered that advantage. 

SEC. Ill] 




The plan of the cathedral of Peterborough in England 
shows how a Romanesque church of large size was con- 
ceived (Fig. 94). Such a church would have its aisles 
vaulted as indicated on the plan as soon as the bishop 
of the diocese could command a very small spare annual 
sum and the services 
of a tolerable master- 
mason. The clear-story 
of the choir and that 
of the nave would not 
be vaulted until the 
resources of the dio- 
cese were considerably 
greater. In the mean- 
time a wooden ceiling 
would be built above the 
clear-story, either flat 
and with bright-coloured 
painting for its only 





FIG. 94. Peterborough, England : Cathedral. 
Plan of part of nave, close of twelfth cen- 
tury. The aisles are vaulted; the nave has 
a wooden ceiling. 

decoration, or carried along the lines of the rafters and 
collar beam in such a way as to seem crowned up 
in the middle, and to leave exposed a small part of 
the roof timbers. Such a roof, however, was frequently 
burned, or in other ways injured, and accordingly renewed 
in a new style. Figure 95 shows the choir of Peter- 
borough Cathedral, which dates from about 1125, to- 
gether with a part of the south transept, and the choir 

1 7 6 

EUROPE, 750 TO 1150 A.D. 


aisle and the gallery on the southern side. The ceiling is 
only indicated in our illustration, as the style of the present 
one is of wood and of 
a much later date. 

Mention has been 
made above 
p. 149) of the 

FIG. 95. "Peterborough, England: Cathedral, choir and south aisle of choir, seen from 

south transept. 

SEC. Ill] 



typical plans which developed themselves from the original 
basilica plan. It was stated that the Romanesque plan 
proper had at the east end three apses, turned to the east, 
north, and south, as shown in Fig. 71. The plan of the 
cathedral of Tournai in Belgium is an excellent instance of 
this typical Romanesque plan. The great square is con- 

FIG, 96. Tournai, Belgium : Cathedral, towers of tenth and eleventh centuries. 

tinued upward in a tower, as explained above (p. 149), and 
this tower, though low, is roofed by a lofty octagonal spire. 
Four slender square towers roofed in like manner with 
square wooden spires are set, two on the northern, two on 
the southern, side, so that the whole central group of five, 
rising high above the nave and above the houses of the 
town, is extraordinarily effective and is unsurpassed by the 

1/8 EUROPE, 750 TO 1150 A.D. [CHAP. IV 

central mass of any cathedral in Europe (see Fig. 96). An 
extremely effective interior was also obtained ; the visitor 
entering by the doors of the west end sees before him the 
long uniform series of the arcades of the nave lighted only 
by small windows, and beyond this the sudden expansion 
both upward and horizontally of the square and the three 
apses rilled with light from numerous and high windows 
which are not obstructed by any interior architectural 
dispositions. When the high altar is placed in the 
middle of this great square, as is now done in the cathe- 
dral of Florence, the most perfect combination of the 
moral and architectural centre points of the church is 

The architectural details of the developed Romanesque 
style are of great interest and deserve analytical observa- 
tion and criticism. They are generally extremely simple 
and obvious, the doorways being the most natural open- 
ings in a thick wall, with very little added ornamentation 
in the way of gables and the like, such as we shall find so 
common in Gothic architecture. Plate I. gives the princi- 
pal front of the cathedral of Angouleme, in which elaborate 
carved ornament is seen combined with a plain structure. 
Figure 97 shows the interior of the galilee of Durham 
Cathedral in the north of England. The zigzag ornamen- 
tation of the arches is peculiar to the Romanesque archi- 
tecture of northwestern Europe. The capitals of the 
clustered pillars are not as rich as many to be found in 
England and on the continent. The attractiveness of this 
building is in the lightness of the structure, very unusual 
for the time. Figure 98 gives a portion of the cloister of 



First half of XII Century; Restored 1870-75. 

SEC. Ill] 



FIG. 97. Durham, England : Galilee of Cathedral. Close of the twelfth century. 

S. Trophime at Aries in southern France, interesting for 
the free use of figure sculpture combined with leafage. 

Windows, so rich in later styles, are small and rather 
plain ; it is but seldom that windows are very noticeable in 

FIG. 98. Aries, France : S. Trophime. Cloister. Twelfth 



Romanesque. Towers are of great interest throughout the 
century 1050-1150, and are particularly splendid toward 
the close of this epoch. That of the church at Vendome 
on the railroad between Paris and Tours, finished about 
1 140 (Fig. 99), is an instance of the highest possible beauty. 
It stands free of the church, which has been rebuilt in the 
Flamboyant style of the fifteenth century. Although the 
arches are bluntly pointed, the tower is purely Romanesque 
in conception and construction. It is well, at the close of 
this chapter, to see an instance of the pointed arch show- 
ing itself timidly in Romanesque work before it had been 
adopted as a constructional feature. In another tower, later 
but not much later, the round arch is preserved through- 
out, while the lightness of construction and the great skill 
displayed are already of the Gothic style. This is the 
central tower of the little church of Vernouillet twenty- 
two miles northwest of Paris, shown in a very accurate 
drawing (Fig. 100). 


The architecture of the Byzantine Empire continued 
much more nearly on the lines of its own past than any 
Western architecture could do. Though with greatly 
diminished territory and resources, the Empire still held 
up the standard of classical civilization until the ruinous 
and fatal capture of Constantinople by the crusaders in 
1203. The church of S. Irene was built in the ninth 
century, and is a building admirable in plan and general 
interior effect, and different from any Western church, 
having a nave roofed by two large cupolas, one of which, 

EUROPE, 750 TO 1150 A.D. [CHAP. IV 

the easterly one, rises higher than 
the rest, as if to mark the neigh- 
bourhood of the altar and sanc- 
tuary. A vaulted aisle surrounds 
this on three sides, and above 
the vaulting of the aisles is a 
great gallery roofed only by the 
high vaults which flank the cu- 
polas. The church of H. Sophia 
at Salonika has three apses at 
the east end and one cupola. 
The church of S. Mark at Venice 
is as purely Byzantine as any 
more Eastern church so far as 
its actual construction is con- 
cerned. At the time of the res- 
torations of 1881-1883, it became 
possible to judge of what the 
church was originally, that is to 
say, before it was sheathed with 
marble, and it was found to re- 
semble in exterior design, as it 
was known to resemble in con- 
struction, the tenth century 
churches of Constantinople and 
Salonika. The church of Hagia 
Theotokos at Constantinople was 
built in the tenth century, and 

FIG. 99. Vendome, France : Tower of the 
[ Church. 1130-1150. 




here a more elaborate ex- 
terior design in coloured 
materials was used, but all 
these churches resemble 
one another strongly. Fig- 
ure 101 gives a plan of the 
Theotokos church, and 
Fig. 1 02 a view of its prin- 
cipal front. The church 
is not large ; indeed it is 
unusually narrow, and be- 
ing fronted with a splen- 
did narthex, five cupolas 
in length, and projecting 
beyond the flanks of the 
church, is perhaps unique 
in the T-shaped plan 
which results from this. 

In Athens and other 
places in Greece, in Treb- 
izond, and in the different 
towns of the Turkish Em- 
pire from Servia to Jeru- 
salem, small Byzantine 
churches continue in use 
to this day, and these have 
been rebuilt at different 
times during the last nine 
hundred years without its 

FIG. 100. Vernouillet, France : Belfry 
of Church. About 1190. 

1 84 

EUROPE, 750 TO 1150 A.D. 


being possible in the present state of our knowledge to 
classify their slightly changing styles with any accuracy. 
Byzantine architecture, containing within itself the possi- 
bilities of exterior effect as well as its well-known interior 

FIG. jo I. Constantinople, Turkey : Church of the Theotokos. Beginning of tenth 


splendour, has been signally unfortunate in the political 
and social condition of the lands in which it is at home. 
Under different but equally unfavourable conditions its 
part in the architecture of the Mohammedan nations was 




FIG. 102. Constantinople (see FIG. 101"). 

played ; and apart from this its only development on a 
large scale has been in Russia, where whim and paradox 
rather than good taste seem to have directed it. Native 
Russian decorative art is not without its merits as a semi- 
Oriental style, centuries old ; and its rough building of 
timber is as well worthy of study as Swiss or Tyrolese 
wooden construction ; but the church architecture devel- 
oped from the later Byzantine cupola churches is appar- 
ently not worthy to rank with the church building of 
western Europe, 






AT the middle of the twelfth century, as we have seen 
in Chapter IV., the church buildings of northern and 
western Europe had assumed a character far more solid 
and enduring, and an appearance far more artistical, than 
those of the eight previous centuries. Moreover, the con- 
stant efforts of the builders toward a complete system of 
vaulting for their church roofs had so far succeeded that 
two systems had reached a certain excellence : first, the 
cupola supported on pendentives, as at S. Front of Peri- 
gueux ; second, the groined vault copied from the Roman 
as to its form, but very much lighter in build and alto- 
gether much less solid and permanent, but also more elas- 
tic, and exerting a continual outward pressure upon the 
walls or piers. About the middle of this century a new 

1 86 

SEC. I] 


I8 7 

feature appears. It will be remembered that the light and 
weak groined vault required a heavy transverse arch thrown 
across the nave or the aisle between every two squares 

^jj^lting fW ftp frfiOi T^ T )i FnrtViprmnr^ a glance at 

the groined vault, as shown in Figs. 29, 30, 67, 82, and 93, 
will show that the masonry at the groin, that is at the 
angle of intersection between the two cylinders which meet 
and intersect one another, would naturally be made more 
perfect and exact than 
that of the other parts 
of the vault. This 
groin or angle of inter- 
section begins com- 
monly at its impost as 
a sharp right angle ; 
and as the vault rises 
toward the crown, 
this angle becomes 
more and more ob- 
tuse, and finally no 
angle at all, lost in the cupola-like curved surface of the 
crown of the vault. Nothing could be more natural 
than to cut the stones which form this groin, and even 
to put them in place, in part at least, without waiting 
for the smaller and less careful masonry of the shell be- 
tween them. Besides the groins, there are the edges of 
the vault coming next the wall, which might also be treated 
with a special care, and the transverse arch across the nave 
or aisle. In the diagram Fig. 103, let it be assumed that 
one of these transverse arches is built above AB and an- 

FIG. 103. 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1150 TO 1300 A.D. 


other above CD, and also that a wall arch is built above AC, 
and another above BD. What, now, could be more natural 
than to build also stout arches above the two diagonals ? 
Having to cut and fit carefully the stone for the four arches 
AB and CD, AC and BD, the builder would be in the 
way of cutting stones for the groins, which then form 

the diagonal arches AD 
\/V- and^C. 

This he would find 
especially desirable as 
a method of proceeding 
in the case of a vault 
on a curved plan, as 
where the aisle turns 
around an apse. Fig- 
ure 104 shows such a 
vault; and the stones 
which form the groin 
are seen to be larger 
than the others and 
carefully cut. More- 
over, and this is a very 
important point, it is 
very easy to erect a wooden centring upon which to lay the 
stones of an arch one foot or twenty inches wide, whereas 
the centring for a groined vault or a considerable part of it 
is difficult to construct, and requires a great deal of excel- 
lent wood and a great deal of skill to support it from below 
in the perfect and unbroken curvature necessary to guide 
the masons and support the masonry aright. Suppose, then, 

FIG. 104. 

SEC. I] 



FIG. 105. 

that all these arches, those which divide the square of 
vaulting diagonally as well as those which enclose it, are 
all built. There will result a vault of which the plan will 
be as in Fig. 105, 
and it is evident that 
there will be four 
open triangles, AOB 
etc. (Fig. 105), each 
of which is of mod- 
erate extent. Obvi- 
ously, it is not so 

hard to put up a c ^ D 

centring for one of 
these triangles, now 
that there are solid stone arches on every side of it. 
Moreover, the lower part of each triangle, where the shell 
of the vault is almost like a wall, requires no centre, 
as will be seen below. The wooden centring may even 

be secured to the stone 
arches when built and 
made safe without any 
supports from below. The 
surface of the vault filling 
D the triangular space AOB 
or BOD, or the like, may 
indeed be very much dis- 
torted in appearance ; it is 
very difficult to represent it by a drawing (see Fig. 106), 
and very difficult to form a clear conception of it with- 
out a model; but to the builders it was one of the 

FIG. 1 06. 


simplest of problems. Look again at Fig. 103, the plan 
of the vaulting square ; if the arch AD is a semicircle and 
the arch AB also a semicircle, it is evident that the crown 
of AD at O will rise high above the crown of AB. There- 
fore the four triangles were of course seen by the masons, 
as they stood looking at the completed skeleton of six 
arches (see Fig. 106), as rising toward their common 
centre O in a sort of cupola. That was the general form 
which their completed vault was to take ; and this fact was 
easy for them to see ; but they had also to lay the stones 
in each of the four triangles, A OB etc., so that each triangle 
would be a little vault by itself. In Figs. 105 and 106 CA 
is a wall arch, CD a transverse arch, CO half of one of the 
diagonal arches. Now, each one of these triangles, AOC 
etc., is to be filled with mason-work of small stones. 
Where this mason-work begins, at the bottom, just above 
the capital of the pillar or shaft which supports it, it 
will be carried up almost vertical ; a wall which can 
scarcely be seen to curve inward. It needs no centring 
for the first ten or twelve courses of stone ; merely a piece 
of board with one edge cut to the right curve to guide the 
masons. The centring will be needed when the triangle 
opens wider and the courses of stone grow longer, while at 
the same time the stones are supported less and less by the 
courses already laid, and hang more and more over empty 
space. It is evident that each one of these courses of 
small stones must itself be arched up, otherwise, when the 
centring was removed, it would fall. Every separate 
course is one member of a vault; every two or three 
adjacent courses form by themselves a vault capable of 

SEC. I] 


supporting itself, bearing at each end upon the stone 
arches previously built (see Fig. 107, in which is seen the 
diagonal arch, with parts of the masonry of two adjoin- 
ing triangles). This is the system of vaulting adopted about 
the middle of the twelfth century and already erected in a 
few of the churches which we still call Romanesque. It is 
characteristic of Gothic vaulting of all epochs and in all 
countries, except at the time of gradual abandonment 

FIG. 107. 

The shell is sometimes built upon the back of the rib 
and sometimes upon skewbacks especially cut to receive 
it (see Fig. 107). 

The fact that the crown of the two diagonal arches was 
so very high above the crowns of the wall arches and the 
transverse arches must have troubled the builders greatly ; 
not because producing complicated or difficult construc- 
tion, but because taking up so much room, and causing 
the timber framing of the outer roof to be set so high, 

192 WESTERN EUROPE, 1150 TO 1300 A.D. [CHAP. V 

with walls necessarily carried up to support it. We have 
seen in the last chapter how they sometimes raised the 
crown of one of the smaller arches by stilting the whole 
arch. This was so unsatisfactory, however, that the 
builders of the small kingdom of France, the " Royal 
Domain " of Paris, and its neighbouring provinces, began 
about 1150 to use the pointed arch. 1 This was a form of 
arch which the crusaders had seen in the East, which had 
been introduced into the vaulting of S. Front -of Perigueux, 
as early as the middle of the eleventh century, and which 
the builders themselves must have been familiar with as 
an ornamental feature used indifferently with round arches 
in small arcades, and the like (see the tower of Vendome, 
Fig. 99). With the pointed arch used for the wall arches, 
AC, BD, Fig. 1 06, and for the transverse arches AB, 
CD, it was possible to bring the crowns of all six arches 
to a level. The builders were not always desirous to 

1 The question, what building or buildings first show the true Gothic vault- 
ing, cannot be considered here, as it would take many pages to treat it properly. 
The reader is referred to Viollet-le-Duc, " Dictionnaire Raisonnd de 1'Architec- 
ture Fran9aise," s.v. Architecture, Construction, Voute, Porche, Chapelle ; to 
the reviews and criticisms on this work by Anthyme Saint-Paul, and to a paper, 
by that author in the Bulletin Monumental, 1875; to Louis Gonse, " L'Art 
Gothique" (Paris, 1894) ; to the works of Eugene Lefevre-Pontalis ; and to C. 
H. Moore, " Gothic Architecture." The " Handbuch der Architektur," published 
at Darmstadt, may be expected to treat this and similar questions thoroughly in 
the volume, not yet published, on mediaeval church architecture. Adamy, " Archi- 
tektonik," and Schnaase, " Geschichte der Bildenden Kiinste," treat the origin 
of Gothic architecture more briefly. The most elaborate treatise on northern 
Romanesque styles, without a knowledge of which the Gothic style cannot be 
rightly understood, is M. Ruprich-Robert's " L'Architecture Normande." Of 
small and popular books, M. Corroyer's two volumes, "L'Architecture Romane" 
and "L'Architecture Gothique," and M. Lechevallier-Chevignard's " Les Styles 
Fran9ais " may be read. 

SEC. I] 



FIG. 108. 

have the crowns come exactly to a level; they preferred 
a slightly concave shape to their vault, and Fig. 106 shows 
a more common form than one which would bring the 
crowns of the four 
arches AB, AC, etc., 
as high as the meet- 
ing of the diagonal 
ribs. Figure 108 
shows still a third 
form according to 
which the triangles of 
the vaulting were sub- 
divided by ribs con- 
necting the crowns of 
the different large arches. Viollet-le-Duc has pointed 
out that this last system was occasioned not so much by 

a desire to decrease 
the size of the tri- 
angles, as by a fixed 
habit of laying the 
courses of stone in 
the filling of the vault, 
as in Fig. 109, so that 
the extra rib at the 
top of the vault was 
necessary to receive 
FIG. 109. the interlacing ends of 

these courses of stone. He points out that this system 
of laying the courses is evidently a reminiscence of 
cupola construction. The other system, that in which 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1150 TO 1300 A.D. 


FIG. no. 

the courses of stone are laid as in Fig. 107, above, and as 
shown in Fig. no, takes its origin, as he points out, from 

reminiscences of Ro- 
man groined vault- 
ing. This latter is 
assuredly the system 
most characteristic 
of Gothic building 
proper ; but both are 
used, and in the 
work of later times 
the builders of very 
complicated vaults 
employed the two 
systems indiscrimi- 

Another plan of 
vaulting is that called 
by English writers 
the sexpartite vault. 
This may indeed 
have been the earliest 
of all forms of Gothic 
vaulting proper; for 
it was approached in 
the days of Roman- 
esque experiments in 

FIG. in. , , . , TT1 

vaulting. When, as 

in Fig. 83, the aisles had been vaulted in squares, and 
the builders were puzzled how to vault the corresponding 


parallelograms of the nave, nearly twice as long in the 
width of the nave as in the distance lengthwise from pillar 
to pillar, one plan which suggested itself was this of the 
sexpartite vault. On AD and BC (Fig. 1 1 1) are the diago- 
nal arches, each supposed to be a semicircle, as in the cases 
above cited. On AB and CD are pointed transverse arches, 
their crowns reaching nearly, but not quite, to the height of 

FIG. 112. 

the meeting-place, O, of the diagonals. Finally, on EF 
another transverse arch is built, more sharply pointed 
than AB and CD, and meeting the diagonal arches in O. 
Figure 1 1 2 shows this arrangement of the arches of con- 
struction, or ribs. There are four smaller and two larger 
triangles to be filled with vaulting. The small triangles 
seem of a very fantastic form, warped and distorted, but 
they were not hard to vault in actual practice. 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1150 TO 1300 A.D. 


There is still another way in which the use of the 
pointed arch was found to be the only solution of a 
difficulty. We have seen in the two previous chapters 
that the Romanesque builders were fond of putting an 
aisle outside of and surrounding a semicircular apse. 
Let Fig. 113 be the plan of part of such an aisle ; B 
and D are columns separating this aisle from the apse, 

A and C are half-columns, 
engaged columns, or corbels 
built into the outer wall of 
the aisle. Now if BC and 
AD are diagonal arches, the 
place where they meet and 
cross one another is no longer 
the crown of either, supposing 
them to be semicircular arches 
as before, but a point far below 
the crown. A very awkward 
looking vault results from this. 
It is perhaps easier and cer- 
tainly better to keep the 
point of meeting at the crown, 
that is to say, to keep the point of meeting higher than 
any other part of the skeleton of ribs, but this could 
only be brought about by entirely giving up the semicir- 
cular arches. In Fig. 113 the adjoining bay or unit of 
vaulting (now no longer a square) is supposed to be 
vaulted by means of the pointed arches erected over 
AB, CD', AC, and BD', and the four half-arches AO', 
B<J, CO', D'O'. This use of half-arches is, of course, 


FIG. 113. 


only practicable where the pointed arch is fully recog- 
nized as the chief member of the construction. The 
pointed arch consists of two curved ribs or rafters meet- 
ing at a point ; let now the builders grow accustomed to 
the thought of the pointed arch as not one single mem- 
ber but a combination of two members, and it is easy 
to take the next step and use the half-arches freely. 
Not two half-arches only, but three on occasion, or any 
odd number, as well as a series of pairs, may meet at a 
common point, and, this principle once established, the 
building of a vault over any horizontal surface, no mat- 
ter how irregular in shape, 
becomes easy. 1 

This, then, is Gothic vault- 
ing, as originating in the 
Royal Domain of France, 
taken up at once in the prov- Fia II4- 

inces dependent on the French crown, such as Burgundy, 
Normandy, and French Flanders, and adopted almost as 
promptly in the countries south of the Loire and north of 
the Somme. The distinctions between the practice of one 
province and another are too minute and too uncertain as 
to their geographical limitations to be insisted on, here. 
This Gothic vaulting is made up of three essential parts : 
first, the skeleton or cage of strong arches described above, 
which arches we call generally ribs ; second, the shell made 

1 The pointed arch considered as made up of two half-arches will, of course, 
have no keystone: it will be built as at A, not as at B (Fig. 114). This is a 
feature of pure Gothic building, and the appearance of a keystone means mis- 
understanding of the style. 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1150 TO 1300 A.D. 


of smaller stones cut like voussoirs, every stone doing its 
part in an arch-construction, the shell of each compart- 
ment having convexity enough and radiation of joints suffi- 
cient to enable it to carry its own weight and that of the 
filling behind ; and third, the filling, rough stone-and-mortar 
masonry, put in anyhow to prevent the arched ribs from 
rising at the haunches and so throwing out the whole sys- 
tem of vaulting. Such a vault exerts a very powerful press- 
ure at four points: A,B, C, D, in Figs. 103, in, and 113, 
above. In the case of a church having a nave but no 

aisles, like the Sainte 
Chapelle of Paris, 
there is no difficulty : 
buttresses were built 
as shown in Fig. 1 1 5 
at A, C, B, D, etc., as 
deep and as heavy 
as necessary. If, 
FlG - 115 ' however, the church 

had aisles, while the vaulting of these aisles was easy 
to keep in its place by means of ordinary buttresses, 
how should the vaulting of the nave be held up ? In 
Fig. 116 the great vault of the nave will exercise a pow- 
erful thrust at A, and, in fact, would not stand a month. 
It is true that a very deep buttress-wall might be built, but 
this would load the arch MN across the aisle, in such a 
way as to increase the thrust of the aisle vault inward, as 
at B, so much as to endanger the safety of the high, 
slender pier between the nave and the aisle. This pier is 
kept in place by the dead weight coming upon it verti- 

SEC. I] 



cally, the weight of the vaults and the roofing of both nave 
and aisle, but the effect of this weight is limited. We 
may do this, however ; we may pierce the buttress-wall at 
F, making, if we choose, a very large opening ; but then 
we must continue the buttress-wall farther out from the 
church ; for, after all, we need a certain amount of mere 
passive resistance, of dead 
weight, to take up all 
these thrusts. Building 
our buttress in this way, 
therefore, we reach the 
conclusion shown in Fig. 
117, in which is shown 
a system of two aisles on 
each side of the nave, and 
a very high and heavy 
buttress-wall with arch- 
ways pierced in it and 
taking up the thrust of 
the clear-story vault, the 
vault of the gallery over 
the inner aisle, and that 
of the outer aisle. With 
this system the vaults of aisles and nave are perfectly 
well stayed up, and the supports between aisles and 
nave are left to the single task of supporting vertical 
pressure, and therefore may be very slight. The half- 
arches shown in Fig. 1 1 7 taken with the pieces of wall 
upon them are called flying buttresses. In Fig. 127, and 
especially in Plates II. and III. the flying buttress is seen in 

FIG. 1 1 6. 

FIG. 117. Reims, France: S. Remy. Section across choir with buttress-system of 

twelfth centurv. 


its more developed form. This new feature is an essenti 
part of Gothic construction ; it appears first as early a 
1 1 60, but is hardly common until a time twenty yjea 

The structure then is completed by the use of flying 
buttresses, and the Gothic system may be described as 
follows : All inner roofs or ceilings to be of masonry 
vaulting, composed of arched ribs which are built first 
and which carry the weight and take the thrust of the 
shells of vaulting between them ; these ribs meeting in 
groups generally of three or five upon points which are 
supported from below by slender pillars ; all sideway 
thrusts taken up by the contrary action of other thrusts 
plus the necessary friction and weight of masonry, excep 
that at the outer perimeter of the building a buttress is set 
up outside, to resist by its dead weight the thrust of the 
outermost group of ribs ; where this buttress would obstruct 
the free space of another enclosure (as where the buttress 
of a nave arch would obstruct an aisle, Fig. 1 1 6) the 
necessary buttress moved away, and set up outside of the 
second enclosure, and the thrust carried across this enclosed 
space overhead by means of a flying buttress. An attempt 
has been made to express all this epigrammatically in the 
phrase " a roof of stone with walls of glass," and this is 
so far just that it is evident that there are no longer any 
walls in the sense of weight-carrying structures. The 
walls of a true Gothic building are merely screens against 
the weather and against intrusion. They may be, there- 
fore, partly or wholly window sash, or they may be re- 
placed, as in the interior of a church, between choir and 

2O2 WESTERN EUROPE, 1150 TO 1300 A.D. [CHAP. V 

choir-aisles, by low screens of carved stone, or wrought 
iron gratings, or tombs, or the mere backs of stalls and 
altar screens. 

The mere supporting of a masonry ceiling on slender 
and isolated uprights was not new ; the immense cisterns 
of Constantinople, built in the early days of Byzantine archi- 
tecture, were of this type of structure. Such a cistern was 
like such a Gothic interior as we shall have to describe in the 
next chapter, except in two respects: first, it had not the flex- 
ible rib-vault; second, the abutments which resist the thrust 
of its outermost vaults were not put outside of its enclosure 
with deliberate purpose, receiving architectural treatment. 

One result of the Gothic structure was great lightness 
and slenderness of interior architecture. Figure 1 18 shows 
one bay of the rounded south transept of Soissons Cathe- 
dral. The slender vaulting shafts which rise from the 
floor indicate the main pillars supporting the vaulted ceil- 
ing, of which indeed the vaulting shafts form part; but 
these piers are only about three feet square in plan, and 
the other columns are slender rods. There is a sharp 
contrast between the architectural effect which is sought 
and obtained here, and that of a great Roman structure, 
such as is shown in Fig. 29 or 30. In the one case great 
massiveness, and, if interior space and height, then space 
and height justified, so to speak, and explained by im- 
measurable weight and strength of the solid parts ; in the 
other case, interior space obtained in an unexpected and 
almost unexplained way, by means of solid parts which 
seem insufficient on an imperfect examination, and yet 
are seen to be doing their work. 

FIG. 1 1 8. Soissons, France: Cathedral. Detail of the 
transept, southern arm. Built about nSoA.D. 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1150 TO 1300 A.D. 



Another result of the Gothic structure is height, great 
in proportion to the horizontal space. This comparative 
height is a necessary result of the plan and arrangement 
of the building, and the means adopted of lighting a large 

interior which 
ing on slender 
the half-sec- 
will be about 
roof. Let B 

is covered by a stone roof rest- 
supports. In Fig. 119 let A be 
tion of a small early basilica: it 
40 feet high to the ridge of the 
be the half-section of a Gothic 
church on the 
same ground plan. 
As glass was 
abundant and the 
decoration of it 
well understood, 
neither of which 
was at all the case 
when the basilica 
was built, more 
window surface 
was called for ; 
and as the windows were at once made highly orna- 
mental, and partly obscured as to the passage of light 
by the richness of the glass employed, the windows 
tended to grow larger still. The aisle 12 feet wide 
would tend to be at least 16 feet high to the springing 
of the vaults; for this brings the capitals of the nave 
columns down to a height of 13 feet above the floor, 
measured to their neck-mouldings : quite low enough ! 
The result is a height to the crown of the nave vault of 61 

FIG. 119. 


feet, and a height to the ridge of the roof of 82 feet. 
This, however, is with a nave only 24 feet wide : enlarge 
the nave to 50 feet wide, and we have a proportion, 
24:50:161:127, and 24: 50:: 82 : 171 feet. Now the di- 
mensions 50 feet in width of nave, 127 feet to crown of 
vault, and 171 feet of total height to ridge are very nearly 
those of the cathedrals of the thirteenth century, and it 
seems unnecessary to seek for their great height in at- 
tributing to their builders a soaring or aspiring temper. 
They built, like other men, to produce what they needed, 
with some reference, as well, to the buildings of their 
neighbours, and with some desire to surpass them. 

The new system, once well established, about 1180, 
must have been seen at once to be capable of a lightness 
and spaciousness o^ interior gffect never ^before attained. 
To the buikters of the time a church existed for its inte- 
rior primarily; the doors being always open, the popula- 
tion going to it several times a day for mass, for 
confession, to listen to sermons, stopping within it to talk, 
making appointments to meet in its corners, treating it 
as the common exchange or in-door forum and basilica 
in one would be apt to look upon any newly discovered 
means of making this interior twice as large with the same 
amount of solid material as a sensible gain to the whole 
community. Moreover, the great churches of the bishops, 
one such in each diocese, the cathedrals, as we call them, 
were in a very special way the objects of great interest. 
The bishops themselves looked upon them as their own 
peculiar domain, a domain which was to be made more 
splendid and more useful than the somewhat similar 


WESTERN "EUROPE, 1150 TO 1300 A.D. 


structures of the monastic orders. Each bishop dis- 
puted in a sense his own lordship over his diocese with 
the lord of the manor, the feudal seigneur; and, as the 
lord's castle stood at a visible height above the town, the 
cathedral must needs rise high within the town walls, 
and, while it gave what the castle could never give, a place 
of resort open to all the people, it must needs attain to 

FIG. 1 20. Noyon, France: Cathedral. Chiefly of 1180 to 1200 A.D. Plan 84 feet 

to i inch. 

an equal or superior external importance. It is to the 
cathedral churches, then, that we are to look for the ex- 
tended and perfected Gothic structure. Figure 120 shows 
the plan of the cathedral of Noyon, chosen as one of the 
earliest of which the general disposition has remained 
unchanged; and also as perhaps the smallest of all the 
highly developed churches. It was all finished before the 
year 1 200, except the west front and except as mentioned in 
the next paragraph. The choir and ring of chapels around 


it are of matured Gothic style, although considered the 
earliest built of all parts of the church. On the other 
hand, the two arms of the transept are still apsidal in form, 
as is also the southern arm of the transept of the cathedral 
at Soissons in the same part of France (see Fig. 118); and 
this rounding of the extremity seems very early; purely 
Romanesque in character. In each case it was undoubt- 
edly the foundations of a previously existing early Roman- 
esque church which were built upon. 

Figure 121 shows the interior of the church of Notre 

Dame, the cathedral of Noyon. It will be observed that 

the pillars of the nave are alternately heavy and slight, this 
arrangement pointing to an original vaulting according to 
the sexpartite system, as in Figs, in and 112. Further- 
more, it will be noticed that the existing vaults are not at 
all of that character, but are built according to the simpler 
and more rational plan as shown in Figs. 105, 106, and 
others, which explain the same system. There can be 
little doubt that the original vaulting was sexpartite, and 
that the present vaults are of later date than the rest of 
the church, which has suffered frequently from fires in 
the wooden roofs. 

Gothic architecture, therefore, was established before 
the close of the twelfth century as a complete style, capa- 
ble of anything. It is customary to speak of it as the 
style of the thirteenth century, however, because the 
greater buildings of the early Gothic style were still 
rising, all through the half -century, 1200-1250. Notre 
Dame of Paris was finished before 1250 as we now see it, 
except the chapels and some other parts of the exterior. 

FIG. 121. Noyon, France : Cathedral. Nave (see FIG. 120). 


Notre Dame of Chartres must have been complete by 
1 240 ; the north tower of course is later and the porches of 
the west front much earlier, and still Romanesque in type. 
S. Etienne (S. Stephen) of Bourges, a marvellous church, 
was not more than ten years -behind the others. Notre 
Dame of Amiens was checked by want of funds, and was 
long in finishing, but its main lines were settled before 
1 240 ; moreover, every part of it as it now stands was built 
before the year 1300. Notre Dame of Reims offers a 
much larger proportion of late work, but even here the 
church is a church of 1220-1240, with later enrichments. 
S. Pierre of Beauvais is of the same epoch ; the choir and 
transept only having been completed. These- six are the 
giant cathedrals of France, and there is only one building 
worthy to be compared with them S. Peter of Cologne, 
which, however inferior in beauty of sculpture and fresh- 
ness of style in its details, reworked and modernized as 
they are, is a perfect cathedral of 1220-1250 as to plan and 
general conception. Two other first-class cathedrals were 
begun, SS. Pierre and Paul of Troyes and S. Juste of 
Narbonne, but only the choir of each was finished in the 
thirteenth century. Of the same epoch are the unequalled 
choir and chapels of S. Julian of Le Mans, the plan and 
general system of Notre Dame of Rouen, the whole of 
Notre Dame of Laon, almost a cathedral of the first class, 
and unsurpassed in artistic charm, the general plan and 
the whole choir of S. Gatien of Tours, and the whole or 
nearly the whole of Notre Dame of Soissons, Notre Dame 
of Senlis, S. Etienne of Sens, and Notre Dame of Cou- 
tances. All of these are cathedral churches, except Sen- 

210 WESTERN EUROPE, 1150 TO 1300 A.D. [CHAP. V 

lis, which has lost that rank; and it is to be noticed 
how, in accordance with the strong episcopal and dio- 
cesan feeling alluded to above (p. 205), these cathedrals 
were begun wholly anew in the new style, all the 
Romanesque structure which had preceded each being 

No such thorough rebuilding was undertaken in the 
case of the parish churches. In some parishes the Ro- 
manesque church was left standing, and remains to this 
day, or has been destroyed in the present century. In 
others the Romanesque church was not replaced by a 
Gothic building until the fifteenth century. From these 
and other reasons the French parish church of the thir- 
teenth century is not so familiar a type as the French 
cathedral ; but it is none the less important. For the 
guidance of modern architects who build churches in 
imitation of the early Gothic style, the parish churches 
are even more often valuable than the great cathedrals, 
because jthey^ are_sc^ diverse^in^ plan and distribution, fre- 
quently being without aisles or without transepts, not 
by failure of resources, but by the original plan ; having 
sometimes central towers, sometimes bell-gables only, 
sometimes bell-towers as separate from the church as 
the Italian campanile. Moreover, ttjfy offer hy tiirn g 

>rojpriate use of sculpture in 

limited amount and the working out of the Gothic ideal 
without sculpture more than here and there a carved boss 
or corbel. They are graceful in proportion beyond the 
smaller churches of other lands. 

Together with the parish churches must be mentioned 


the_ famous Sainte Chapelle 1 of Paris, which was built 
by Louis IX. (Saint Louis) during the years 1243-1247. 
It consists of two separate rooms, an upper and a lower 
chapel. The upper one is an unbroken room about 
thirty-three feet wide by one hundred long, including the 
polygonal east end, and about sixty feet high to the 
crown of the vaulting. The lower chapel is divided into 
a nave and very narrow aisles ; this disposition being 
partly caused by the lowness of the room, about twenty 
feet to the crown. Buttresses of great projection, though 
narrow, rise the whole height of the exterior walls and 
take up the thrust of all the vaults. This structure then 
in its main design is a lofty Gothic church without aisles. 
This masterpiece of Gothic art shows us what the style 
would have been if the nave-and-aisle plan, with high clear- 
story, had not been in use. Most churches built, not on 
that plan, but with a single nave only, were, of course, 
small and simple, but the Sainte Chapelle is of the highest 
development of perfected Gothic. A comparison of this 
building (see Fig. i22), 2 with a great cathedral-church 
like Bourges or Chartres shows how perfectly the earlier 
Gothic was suited to great buildings with ground-plans 
of broken outline, with higher and less high parts, with 
exterior and interior variety, change and series of parts, 

1 The term Sainte Chapelle, or Holy Chapel in a peculiar sense, was used to 
describe a building containing and dedicated to relics of supreme importance, 
such as those of the Passion of Christ. That of Paris was built as an addition 
to the royal palace which stood on the largest island in the Seine, VIsle de la 
Cite, nearly where the Palais de Justice is now ; the Sainte Chapelle marking 
nearly the middle point of the former group of buildings. 

2 Consult also Fig. 115. 

FIG. 122. Paris: Sainte Chapelle. Built 1243 to 1247 A.D. 


and how much it loses when applied to a simple and regular 
structure of no great size. 

Civic buildings were built on the same principles as 
churches, as far as they could be. A small dwelling- 
house would not have vaulted ceilings nor very large 
windows ; and, therefore, all it had of the Gothic style was 
in its detail. A large hall would be vaulted, with pillars 
to carry the vaults in the middle or in two ranks like 
those of a church, and buttresses to take up the thrust. 
Instances will be given of such structures. Where the 
walls had to be very thick and solidly built, as in the 
case of the strong castles which were built all over 
Europe at this epoch, the vaulting would find abundant 
support and resistance to its thrust in the walls them- 
selves. Where the vaulting of a room twenty feet wide 
is resisted by solid walls twenty feet thick, such vaulting 
is indeed perfectly secure; but this has very little to do 
with the true Gothic vaulting in which one vault balances 
and offsets another, and only the lightest possible but- 
tresses are used to take up the thrust of the outermost 

The Gothic style brought with it a world of varied 
detail, both architectural and sculpturesque, the first nat- 
urally resulting from the arrangement and structure of 
the building, the other coming of a development of the 
popular instinct for pure art, such as at certain intervals 
of time surprises the student of art history. Figure 123 
shows how the tracery of the windows lends itself to the 
decoration of the structure both within and without. 
Within it shows dark as a system of bars gracefully com- 

FIG. 123. Reims, France: Cathedral. Window of choir, about 1210 A.D. 


bined and relieved against the light and coloured or gray 
monotone ground afforded by the glass. From without 
it shows light on the dark of the interior; and in this 
external aspect the tracery is combined with the mould- 
ings of the arch forming the window head. Figure 124 
shows one of the bays of the Sainte Chapelle at Paris, 
seen from without. It will be noticed that the exterior 
mouldings of the window arch are first a bead between 
two quirks A, then the re-entrant angle formed by the sur- 
faces of the two stones AB, then a quirk and a pro- 
longed ogee moulding filled with leafage. The mouldings 
of the window-tracery continue and carry out the system 
of convex and concave surfaces adopted. This matter of 
window-tracery will be discussed more fully in Chapter 
VI. ; and the great rose-windows of the gables must be 
left for the same chapter. Meantime, the curious way in 
which the window-tracery affected the architecture of the 
time by serving as an ornament applied to many parts of 
the building, especially of the exterior, is shown in Fig. 
125, one of the gables of Notre Dame of Paris. 

The richest parts of the great thirteenth century 
churches are the doorwaysjjf the west front and the north 
and south fronts of the transept. A great cathedral would 
have nine of these superb doorways, each one enriched 
with elaborate sculpture in high relief or in the form of 
statuary. This sculpture is arranged alike on. the slop- 
ing surfaces of the impost, the receding concentric 
arches of the door-head, the large triangular tympanum 
which fills the door-head and the trumeau or stout cen- 
tral upright which supports the tympanum and receives 

V V V 


FIG. 124. Paris : Sainte Chapelle. Window (see FIG. 122). 

SEC. I] 




FIG. 125. Paris: Cathedral of Notre Dame. Gable of transept about 1260 A.D. 

the swing of the heavy doors. Such a doorway is given 
in Fig. 126. 

The towers carrying spires, which in theory would be 
among the most common features of the Gothic style, are 
not very common of a date as early as the thirteenth 
century. Those that existed have often suffered from fire 

FIG. 126. Paris: Cathedral of Notre Dame. North door of west front, about 1210 A.D. 


which has ruined their spires and pinnacles. The most 
admirable tower of the beginning of the Gothic style is the ; 
southern one of the west front of Chartres, and another of, 
great beauty and of a few years later is that which occu- 
pies the same position in the cathedral of Senlis, a fe\y 
miles northeast of Paris. The design of a thirteenth- 
century cathedral included, however, many belfry-towers 
with spires. Viollet-le-Duc has left us a study of what a 
church of the character of Reims Cathedral would have 
been had it been completed according to the original con- 
ception, which study is reproduced in Fig. 127. 

As for the sculpture, it deals with plant form and animal 
form in abundance, in variety and with great freedom ; it 
combines them in the most unexpected and the richest 
decoration, and it preserves at the same time great merit 
as sculpture. The human figure it takes as one more ele- 
ment of its design, and uses it boldly and well as a means 
of ornament ; moreover, gesture, movement, and pose are 
admirably treated, and drapery, founded upon ordinary 
costume, is handled with great skill. A strong disposi- 
tion towards portraiture, or at least the using of well 
marked individual types, is evident; faces are full of ex- 
pression, and the face is made to conform well to the 
emotion expressed by the attitude. Finally in the master- 
pieces of the time, as in the porch-statues of Reims Cathe- 
dral, there exists a true sculpturesque achievement worthy 
to be considered beside that of the Greeks of Pericles' 
time. As to this matter of sculpture of the human figure 
it is to be observed that two tendencies are at work side 
by side; the figures are needed to help the architecture, 

FIG. 127. 


and they are also, independently of all architectural sur- 
roundings, the work of a sculptor who is eager to excel. 
The Greek of 450 B.C. was not thinking so much of his 
architecture when he modelled a figure ; it was only when 
he took in hand a Caryatid or the like that he was an 
architectural sculptor at all, in the sense in which we 
must use the term of the thirteenth century men. These 
later workmen never forgot their porch, their gable, their 
arcaded gallery ; their sculpture was intended primarily as 
a decoration, and its frequently very remarkable sculptur- 
esque quality came of the practised hand and the creative 
genius which could design and execute that which was 
great in itself and yet greater in the combination of part 
with part. 

There are few remains of domestic architecture of the 
thirteenth century, and of the years from 1 150 to 1200 there 
is practically nothing left. An interesting house-front in the 
town of Saint Gilles (near Nimes in the south of France) 
is Romanesque in style ; but we have already seen how long 
the round arch style lingered in the far south. This build- 
ing, moreover, has been restored in a destructive manner. 
Dwelling-houses of the thirteenth century there are, and in 
the strange bastides, built at command during the later years 
of this century, there are streets and squares faced with 
houses of uniform design, now much altered and defaced, 
but still valuable for purposes of study. The ordinary 
dwelling of the Middle Ages is not of a character to control 
or modify seriously the development of architectural style. 
Small, simple in its distribution, far less elaborate in con- 
struction than the smallest of the chapels ranged around 

222 WESTERN EUROPE, 1150 TO 1300 A.D. [CHAP. V 

:he choir of a large church, with floors framed of wooden 
beams and openings small and low, these dwelling-houses 
are of extreme interest to the inquirer into manners and cus- 
toms and into the history of the people, and have a certain 
charm to the lover of archaic art; but the development 
of Gothic art went on without regarding them, and they 
followed as they could, adopting this and that detail of the 
church architecture in their neighbourhood. The public 
civic buildings of the time are all gone, unless we except 
the Synodal Hall of Sens, which having been nearly ruined 
by alteration was restored by Viollet-le-Duc in authentic 
manner, and the Salle des Etats at Blois, which is a very 
simple and unpretending room with as little architectural 
character as could well be given to the composition with a 
screen of columns carrying a seeming vault of wood-work. 
The great hall of Montargis exists in the engraving of An- 
drouet du Cerceau. Of the Palace on the Island in Paris 
we have foundations, vaulted cellars, plans, and drawings. 
The halls, too, of certain strong castles like those of Coucy 
and La Ferte Bernard can still be traced. All that is 
interesting, however, in the actually existing monuments 
of civil and domestic architecture is to be found in the de- 
tails of their decorative treatment, and none can be cited 
more important than the front of that strange house at 
Reims which is called from the large seated figures which 
fill the niches between its upper windows the House of the 
Musicians. There are four large square-headed windows, 
with mullions and transoms in the upper story, and five 
niches with cusped, pointed heads in the piers. Each niche 
contains a life-size figure, of which all but one represented 


originally musicians playing on different instruments. 
Each niche has a hood-moulding terminating in sculptured 
bosses, and the arcaded cornice above is so laid out that 
one of its pairs of arches springs from a sculptured corbel 
which forms a key-stone to one of these arched hood- 
mouldings ; each one of the five figures, moreover, rests its 
feet upon a large corbel of which a sculptured human fig- 
ure forms the principal ornament. It is of great interest 
to observe how the builders conceded the large square win- 
dow to the comfort of the inhabitants but insisted upon 
the pointed arch where the light was not to be obstructed 
by its spandrels. Figure 128 gives a restoration of one bay 
of this house by Viollet-le-Duc (" Dictionnaire de 1'Archi- 
tecture Fran9aise," article Maison}. The drawing of the 
statuary is largely fanciful and the restoration of the 
ground floor unauthorized, although probable enough. 


Of the lands not included in the modern France, Flan- 
ders, Hainault, and Brabant, and the northern provinces 
of Spain, received the new style in the purest form. The 
advance of Gothic architecture in Spain was slower than 
in western Germany, and much slower than in England, 
but it was peculiar in this, that it was always along the 
lines of true Gothic construction and the design result- 
ing from it. The old cathedral of Lerida is of the years 
1203 to about 1270, and it is a building in the transition 
style, the vaulting good Gothic, and the cloister, the 
porches, etc., built with pointed arches, but the windows 

I "-'' I 

i I 

FIG. 128. Reims, France : " House of the Musicians," about 1260 A.D. Restoration of 



and doorways generally round-arched and the smaller de- 
tails Romanesque. The fine tower is of a much later 
date. At Burgos is to be seen, on the other hand, an 
instance of almost perfect early Gothic, consistently used 
in the vaulting, the larger details and the sculpture of all 
those parts of the cathedral and its cloisters and outbuild- 
ings which are not overlaid or replaced by much later and 
very florid work. What is of the thirteenth century is 
exquisite, tasteful and simple. The porch and doorway of 
the south transept, though not so nobly designed as a fine 
French porch of the epoch would have been, is equal to 
anything in the beauty of the sculptured detail. The 
whole front of this transept is fine, and nothing except a 
certain flatness and lack of relief in the window-tracery 
and the arcades above it can be cited to prove this a work 
of an inferior school. Even finer, because far more stately 
in general design, is the west portal of Leon Cathedral, a 
work worthy to rank with the western doorways of Bourges. 
It may be that the work at Leon was directed by French 
builders and sculptors, but this would in no way particu- 
larize the work or make it less national than many other 
buildings in Spain and elsewhere. The skilled stone- 
cutters of the day went from town to town, as their services 
were called for, and national boundaries in the thirteenth 
century were not as marked as they are now. A master- 
workman from Bourges, Tours, or Paris would be called 
to Auch or Bordeaux ; in one of those towns he would be 
half-way to Leon, and as much out of his native country 
as at Leon. 

The provinces of Flanders and Brabant, which make up 

226 WESTERN EUROPE, 1150 TO 1300 A.D. [CHAP. V 

the greater part of what we now call Belgium, were very 
like the lands to the south of them in their architecture. 
In some fine and decorative arts these provinces were in 
advance of Picardy, Normandy and Champagne, but not in 
architecture. The lovely church of S. Martin at Ypres, of 
1 2 20- 1 230, is but a French church of a few years earlier date, 
and the choir and lower parts of the nave of S. Gudule at 
Brussels are French of the Royal Domain itself in their 
style. Civic and domestic buildings are the special glory 
of a later epoch in these northern lands, but of the thir- 
teenth century there is only to be named as of great im- 
portance the large cloth-hall at Ypres, and this is greatly 
inferior to the later buildings in most respects, though 
very imposing in its mass. 


In Germany the great success of the Romanesque style 
in its later manifestations, the importance of the buildings 
which existed complete or nearly complete in this style, 
such as the cathedrals of Treves, Mayence, Cologne and 
Bamberg, prevented a ready acceptance of the Gothic style 
when offered to the world about 1 1 60, and still more pre- 
vented the development of a national German style cor- 
responding to French Gothic in being an advance on 
Romanesque. The church of S. Martin at Cologne, which 
we have spoken of above as having an ideal Romanesque 
plan, has, covering the great square between the apses, a 
splendid tower, one of the most beautiful in Europe. 
This tower can hardly have been finished before 1175, a 

SEC. Ill] GERMANY 22? 

time when the choir of Notre Dame of Paris was well 
advanced in complete Gothic construction, but this tower 
shows no signs of any modification of the pure Roman- 
esque type. This is the case with the German buildings 
of this epoch, nor is it surprising that the style once devel- 
oped to the degree of perfection attained by this tower 
should have remained unmodified. It is not always in the 
history of architecture that changes go on rapidly. The 
Germans had reached a point with their Romanesque 
churches when the vaulting was on the whole satisfactory 
so long as they did not try to vault aisles running around 
circular choirs, and when the style in other respects an- 
swered all their requirements. The cathedral of Worms, 
built wholly after 1181 and purely Romanesque, is an ex- 
cellent instance. About 1210, however, the cathedral of 
Magdeburg having been entirely destroyed by fire, its 
rebuilding was begun. It is a curious study. No doubt 
the architects had heard of churches built in France with 
pointed arches throughout ; no doubt they saw the superi- 
ority of the pointed arch as being stronger in proportion 
to its width, and liked a novel form. Beyond this their 
adhesion to any foreign principles of Gothic architecture 
did not go. Figure 129 shows the interior of the choir of 
Magdeburg. The large shafts in the angles of the top of 
the picture rise between the windows of the clear-story and 
support the ribs of a single vault. This is an instance 
of a building with pointed arches, built at a time of full 
Gothic development a few miles away to the west, which 
shows no Gothic feeling at all. The piers are massive, 
and in fact the whole enclosure of the choir is really a 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1150 TO 1300 A.D. 


FIG. 129. Magdeburg, Germany : Cathedral. Interior of choir, about 1235 to 1240 A.D. 

solid wall, with arched openings in it instead of a mere 
screen of columns. The essence of Gothic construction is 
absent. In like manner the exterior shows a high clear- 

SEC. Ill] GERMANY 2 29 

story wall without flying buttresses, their place being sup- 
plied by a peculiarly thick wall, reinforced by small, flat 
buttresses, the windows pierced in which wall, so far from 
filling the whole space, occupy about half of it. The 
details of Magdeburg Cathedral are extremely beautiful. 
The capitals are celebrated for their richness of sculpture 
in foliage and animal form as well, and the smaller door- 
ways, of which we give an instance (Fig. 130), are unsur- 
passed by any work of the same epoch in Europe. The 
whole church is one of the most interesting and most 
worthy of close study that we possess. It is German 
Romanesque of a time so late that decorative sculpture 
had reached a high development, and it is built with 
pointed arches instead of round arches, but it is not 
Gothic because not constructed in the Gothic way. The 
church of S. Quirinus, at Neuss., of the same epoch, is 
another instance of this curious style, which cannot prop- 
erly be called a transition style because it did not lead to a 
perfected and complete one. 1 S. Quirinus is Romanesque 
in plan and in vaulting, but the pointed arch is used freely 
in the blind arcades and in a few of the windows. A very 
singular evidence of the undecided and hesitating mood of 
the builders is seen in the extraordinary shapes of some of 
the windows, such as a trefoil combined with a triangle, a 
seven-lobed roundel ending in a narrow rectangle, and the 

It is noticeable that the first building in Germany in 

1 The perfected Gothic of Freiburg (see Fig. 132) and of Vienna, Ulm, etc., 
mentioned in Chapter VI., is not a development of this thirteenth-century work, 
but comes of new study of French examples. 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1150 TO 1300 A.D. 


which the Gothic construction and resulting design were 
fully carried out is one the plan of which is extremely 

FlG. 130. Magdeburg, Germany : Cathedral. Door about 1220 A.D. 

unusual, and not to be identified with the characteristic 
plans of any style. This is the church of Our Lady at 

SEC. Ill] 


2 3 I 

Treves. For the plan of this remarkable structure see 
Fig. 131. This church was erected between 1227 and 
1243. Its exterior shows a lingering of the simple box- 
like forms and absence of the features of organized 
design which were inherited from the Romanesque period, 
but the interior is frankly Gothic even in the matter of 
lightness of vertical supports. Again, and to carry the 
contrast farther, the builders seem to have been as reso- 
lute to avoid the use of 
flying buttresses, as were 
the builders of Magde- 
burg Cathedral; but in 
the interior no signs 
appear of any resulting 
clumsiness of structure ; 
the aisles have been so 
combined with the cruci- 
form nave, that the thrust 
of the nave arches is 
taken up by the vault- 
ing of the aisles. In 
order to bring this about, 
the aisle vaults are raised to an unusual height, and that 
which could not so well be done in a long church of the 
basilica type is managed here, the heavy piers between 
chapels are utilized as buttresses within the enclosure. 
The curious church of SS. Peter and Paul, the cathe- 
dral at Brandenburg, in Prussia near Berlin, although 
generally classed by the German antiquaries as late 
Romanesque, probably because of the heavy piers in the 

FIG. 131. Trier or Treves, Prussia: Church of 
Our Lady. Built 1227 to 1243 A.D. Plan. 

232 WESTERN EUROPE, 1150 TO 1300 A.D. [CHAP. V 

interior, is Gothic in the vaulting and in the spirit of the 
interior ornamentation. Nothing can be more interest- 
ing than the attempt to make a Gothic church at this 
early epoch (before 1295) of a building which had to be 
constructed wholly of brick. All this part of northern 
Germany is full of the most interesting ornamental brick- 
work, which adapts itself readily to the style followed in 
any case. The church of S. Elizabeth of Marburg has 
the peculiarity that the aisles are brought to the same 
height as the nave by means of stilted arches, while yet 
the construction is wholly Gothic. In short, every at- 
tempt seems to have been made by the German master- 
builders to adopt some part of the newly discovered 
system of building; as, for instance, its elastic strength 
and its adaptability, while seeking novel and independent 
styles of decorative design. It is, of course, to be re- 
gretted that none of these experiments were carried out 
to their natural results. The overwhelming influence of 
the rapidly developing Gothic of the kingdom of France, 
with its offshoots in Burgundy, Champagne, Lorraine, and 
Flanders, overcame all these local ambitions in Germany, 
and the great new style was copied at the expense of 
native originality. 

The cathedral of Cologne is, as stated in the previous 
section, completely French in plan and general organiza- 
tion, a natural and instinctive modification of the cathe- 
dral of Amiens. The work went on very slowly, so that 
even the choir, the only part completed in the Middle 
Ages, was not roofed until the beginning of the four- 
teenth century. In consequence of this slowness of build- 

SEC. Ill] GERMANY 233 

ing, the architectural details both within and without are 
of much later date than the plan, and have little of the 
freshness of conception and vigour of thirteenth-century 
Gothic. The church at Freiburg-im-Breisgau is better 
worthy of study as a German Gothic church. It was 
almost entirely built between 1230 and 1288, only the 
chapels and the upper part of the choir being of later 
date. Figure 132 gives a part of the south flank of the 
nave, with the corresponding interior bays, of this beau- 
tiful church. Its marked peculiarity at once arrests atten- 
tion; namely, its lowness as compared with the other 
Gothic buildings we have been considering. Every effort 
seems to have been made to keep down its height, and 
accordingly on a width of nave of nearly forty feet it has 
a height beneath the vaults of only eighty-seven. In 
order to bring about this result the aisles and clear-story 
are kept very low, the vertical jambs of the windows being 
generally shorter than the altitude of the arch which 
springs from them. What was the purpose of this inno- 
vation, if other than mere economy, it is hard to guess. 
One peculiarity of this church it is necessary to dwell 
upon for a moment, the pierced spire, which seems to 
have been built between 1270 and 1300. Spires in Eng- 
land and in Spain, as well as in France, seem to have 
been always considered by the Gothic builders of this 
epoch as roofs, to be pierced by windows much as other 
steep roofs would be. Here, however, is the frank treat- 
ment of a spire as a piece of pure architectural decora- 
tion, the suggestion of a roof but not a roof ; the natural 
and fitting culmination of a lofty tower, but not in a 

FlG. 132. Freiburg-im-Breisgau, Germany: Minster. Detail of south flank and of 
interior. About 1240 A.D. 


proper sense the roof of a tower. The spire of Freiburg 
is made up of an octagonal belfry from which rise eight 
stout ribs or sloping pillars of stone, held together by 
crossbars at intervals, the whole forming the skeleton of 
a slender octagonal pyramid. The open spaces between 
the angle ribs, 13 feet wide at the bottom and diminish- 
ing to nothing, are cut by the crossbars at intervals of 
about 14 feet, and each of these open spaces is filled with 
a panel of pierced tracery. This skeleton construction 
rises to the height of about 160 feet above the octagon 
and terminates a tower the total height of which is vari- 
ously stated at from 365 to 385 feet. The conception of 
a pierced spire pleased the Germans; they return to it 
again and again in the fourteenth century, and later in 
the great tower of Strasburg modified it into still greater 
richness and a still farther departure from the primal con- 
ception of it as a roof. 


The latest English Romanesque 1 is varied and elabo- 
rate, as has been seen in Chapter IV., and is peculiar in 
its tendency to use slender forms, thin pillars, and con- 
siderable decoration, purely architectural in character as 
distinguished from sculpture of natural forms. It is also 

1 The term " Norman " commonly applied to the developed English Roman- 
esque should be avoided in that sense. Norman architecture is that which, on 
the continent, is distinguished from the architecture of the French Royal 
Domain by certain well-marked characteristics ; and so far as the same archi- 
tecture was carried to England, buildings erected there would also be Norman, 
but the evidences of this tendency are few, and they apply to pointed as well 
as to round-arched building. 

236 WESTERN EUROPE, 1150 TO 1300 A.D. [CHAP. V 

peculiar in the large use of the pointed arch, mingled with 
the round arch, in buildings which are still wholly Roman- 
esque in conception and in building. Thus, at Fountains 
Abbey, near Ripon, in Yorkshire, the nave of the church 
is entirely of Romanesque structure, for the walls which 
rest upon the nave arches are simply massive walls of 
homogeneous stone-work, without vaulting shafts, triforium 
or other galleries, or any constructional organization, and 
yet the nave arches which carry this wall are pointed. 
Kirkstall Abbey, near Leeds, in Yorkshire, has similar 
characteristics. The building is as simple in its make 
and conception as a Latin basilica, and is so far archaic 
as a piece even of Romanesque construction that there 
is no visible preparation for vaulting the nave or tran- 
sept. The pointed arches which carry the clear-story 
wall, and which in Fountains Abbey spring from heavy 
round pillars of pure English Romanesque type, at Kirk- 
stall spring from clustered piers, whose mouldings have 
nearly the same section as those of the arches. So far, 
a step seems to have been taken away from Roman- 
esque building toward the elaborate constructional system 
which we call Gothic Architecture ; but the signs of 
progress are confined to this feature ; apart from it, Kirk- 
stall Abbey church is a simple and exquisite piece of 
Romanesque church building. These churches are of 
the years between 1 1 50 and 1 1 70. A curious exception 
to the purely Romanesque character of the buildings 
with pointed arches built during these years is seen in 
the noble abbey church of Glastonbury in Somersetshire. 
The church proper and the very curious Lady-Chapel 


have Gothic vaulting with sharply pointed arches ; the 
transverse ribs heavy and decorated with leafage, while 
the diagonal ribs and wall-ribs are not heavier than 
in French work of the time. Underneath these fine 
Gothic vaults, in which the transitional character is 
marked only by the heavy transverse arches, the high 
windows are of pure Rorrjanesque design with semicir- 
cular arches. There seems to be no doubt that the 
church and the chapel were each built, complete, between 
1180 and 1190. In the Cathedral of Saint David's in 
Pembrokeshire (Wales), similar Romanesque windows are 
found beneath highly developed Gothic vaulting of sex- 
partite plan (see p. 194): but here there is no certainty 
as to the length of time which separated the vaulting 
from the substructure. 

The beautiful choir of the minster at Ripon, in York- 
shire, is certainly of the closing years of the twelfth 
century, with the exception of the vaulting, and with the 
important exception of the two eastern bays. The 
western part of this choir, then, is perhaps as early a 
piece of pure Gothic building as there is in England. 
The transept and the three western bays of the choir 
are admittedly of about 1180, always excepting the 
vaulting itself. The piers, the arch mouldings, the 
vaulting shafts, the triforium, and the clear-story arcade 
are all pure early English Gothic, and the organization 
of the structure is complete ; and yet round arches are 
used as freely here in connection with the pointed ones 
as pointed arches are used in the Romanesque buildings 
above named. This mingling of styles, at least in the 

238 WESTERN EUROPE, 1150 TO 1300 A.D. [CHAP. V 

architectural details, remains characteristic of English 
architecture until a late period of the Gothic develop- 
ment. The earliest English piece of pure Gothic archi- 
tecture is generally admitted to be the extreme eastern 
portion of the cathedral at Canterbury, that is to say 
Trinity Chapel and the nearly circular building adjoin- 
ing it on the east and known as Becket's Crown. This 
work was begun about 1175 by a French architect, who 
was succeeded four years later by one called emphati- 
cally, and by way of distinction, William the English- 
man. In this work round arches are freely used, but 
strangely enough they are used for the great archways 
of the nave, while the pointed arch is used for the 
much smaller openings above. This, however, is not 
the only surprising feature in this exquisite composition. 
The high vaults of this earliest part of Canterbury are 
so far from being Gothic of a strict type that the curves 
made by the shells which fill up the spaces between the 
ribs are almost everywhere circular. In other words, the 
vaults are nearly of the character shown in Fig. 88, 
while yet the rib-work, or in other words the construc- 
tive skeleton of the vault, seems to be as technically 
correct as anything in France. 

The earliest English Gothic vaulting on a large scale is 
probably that of the choir of Lincoln Cathedral, which was 
built about 1210-1235. The first complete Gothic cathe- 
dral is that of Salisbury, built almost entirely, except the 
spire, between 1220 and 1260. In these buildings the 
general tendencies of English Gothic are sufficiently vis- 
ible. In Canterbury there is to be seen that extreme 


Built 1220-40, spire about 1250. View from the S. W. of the Nave and western Transept. 


picturesqueness of detail which combines well with the 
generally small scale of the English churches, and which 
goes far to harmonize the differing styles which in these 
cathedrals are brought into juxtaposition, Romanesque 
with early Gothic, and both with Perpendicular. In Lin- 
coln is seen that disposition to make the vaulting convex 
rather than concave, always common in English work and 
which leads finally to the splendid novelty which we call 
fan-vaulting : and in the pillars, archivolts and spandrels 
especially of the choir, that exquisite delicacy of floral 
and foliated sculpture which is the chief grace of early 
English Gothic. Finally at Salisbury (see Plate II.) we 
have a church carried out complete according to the Eng- 
lish conception ; small in its parts, neither wide nor high, 
nor capable of the effect of grandeur produced by mere 
enclosed space, this partly made up for by great length ; 
extreme diversity of outline produced by double transepts, 
side-porches, sacristy and chapter-house outside of the 
main structure but grouped with it, Lady-Chapel project- 
ing from the east end, a diversity so great that an 
English cathedral often seems many buildings rising one 
beyond another rather than a simple structure. 

It is necessary to dwell upon the English vaulting 
because it is the most essential peculiarity of the style, 
that which separates English work most decidedly from 
that of the continent and has given rise to the opinion, 
held by some, that Gothic architecture in the strict sense 
was not adopted in England. In Fig. 133 let A, B, C, D 
be the four points of support afforded by the nave piers. 
O is the crown of the vault, the point at which the diag- 

240 WESTERN EUROPE, 1150 TO 1300 A.D. [CHAP. V 

onal arches on A, D and B, C meet. At Lincoln cathe- 
dral the ribs AP, BP, CP\ and DP, are built ; these ribs 
are, of course, half-arches, as was explained in connection 
with Fig. 1 1 3. From the points where they meet, P and 
P*, short ribs run to the crown (9, and other ribs are 
carried on in the same direction, to the corresponding 
points in the adjoining squares of vaulting. It is evident 

that in this system of 
vaulting there are more 
ribs than there is any 
need of. The curious 
piece of construction 
made up of the ribs 
AP, BP, PO in Fig. 
1 33 is absolutely without 
utility. The builders 
had fallen in love with 
the effect of the inverted 
half-pyramid of which 
B, O, 0\ in Fig. 133 
is the plan, and which 
is seen so plainly in 
Fig. 135 below. English 
vaulting from this time on is extremely apt to run into 
this curious excess. It is not unpleasing in effect; its 
apparent excess of weight is not disagreeable and may 
indeed be thought to add to the truly Gothic effect of 
a heavy roof on slender supports; but it is not strictly 
Gothic construction. Gothic construction is simple and 
obvious ; it resorts to the readiest means, it is reluctant 


FIG. 133. Lincoln, England: Cathedral. Plan 
of choir vaulting. About 1225 A.D. 



2 4 I 

to use a cubic foot of stone unnecessarily ; whereas this 
and much other English building of the time is sophisti- 
cated, in a sense. 

It must be observed that the English derivations from 
pure Gothic building are very different in spirit and 
character from those which are found in Germany, as 
explained above. The German 
builder was always reluctant 
to abandon the massiveness 
of his Romanesque piers and 
walls ; and his early Gothic 
buildings are of a somewhat 
ugly hybrid character. The 
Englishman, on the other hand, 
was quick to make even his 
round-arched work light and 
graceful, and his transitional 
or semi-Gothic buildings are 
very tasteful. 

The left-hand half of the 
diagram (Fig. 133) shows the 
wholly exceptional vaulting of 
four bays of Lincoln choir. It is a whimsical attempt at 
novelty which led to no results. 

The vaulting of the nave of Lincoln, which is a few 
years later than that of the choir, introduces a new ele- 
ment. The half-pyramids are made more complicated 
still. Figure 1 34 shows this new arrangement. O being 
the crown of the vault, and the ribs OP, OP', sloping a 
little downward from O, the two new centres ^ and S* 


FIG. 134. Lincoln, England: Cathe- 
dral. Plan of nave vaulting. About 
1235 A.D. 

FIG. 135. Lincoln, England: View of nave vaulting (see FIG. 134). 


are put in, the ribs OS, OS', slope at the same angle as 
OP, OP', and the new ribs AS, S', etc., are built. The 
triangle ACS has no rib closing it at top, where the 
two sides arching up from A and C meet ; but the angle 
where they meet, and which extends horizontally from ^ 
to the crown of the wall-arch AC, is horizontal and on 
a level with the point ,51 We have, therefore, a little 
dome-shaped central square, SPS'P*, in each vault of 
the nave. This is certainly a beauty in itself, but the 
number of unnecessary ribs is greatly increased by this 
arrangement, and the apparent weight of the vault is 
increased. See Fig. 135, which shows a part of the nave 
of Lincoln Cathedral, corresponding exactly to the plan 
(Fig. 134). It is evident that the builders loved the com- 
plicated pattern made by the ribs as seen from below. It 
is 'to be observed that the multiplicity of ribs tends to 
bring the vaulting down, near to the eye, and diminishes 
in appearance the already inferior height of the English 

The details, both architectural and sculptural, of the 
English churches of the thirteenth century are pecul- 
iarly worthy of study. They differ singularly from the 
French work of the same period. The forms of the 
windows are peculiar in this, that high and narrow 
windows were grouped together in twos, in threes, and 
in fives, and form in this way the main fenestration of 
a large building at a time when the continental churches 
were lighted by means of large traceried windows. Fig- 
ure 136 gives one of these groups of lancet windows, as 
they are called, from the north aisle of Carlisle Cathe- 

FIG. 136. Carlisle, England: Cathedral. Two bays of north aisle of chc 

SEC. V] ITALY 245 

dral in Cumberland. It will be seen that the wall below 
the wall-arch of the vault, which is called the lunette in 
the revived classical architecture of later times, is treated 
here, as in that later architecture and in contra-distinc- 
tion to the Gothic architecture of France proper and the 
neighbouring provinces, as a wall into which windows are 
to be put in at pleasure, and considerable wall spaces left 
requiring decoration. This figure shows also an inter- 
esting arcade decorating the wall beneath the windows 
and most characteristic in all its parts of the English 
style of the thirteenth century. 1 Both documentary 
and internal evidence point to the existence of French 
and Italian influence, the former in the architectural 
forms, the latter in the sculpture ; but they point also 
to a native school of decorative sculptors, whose work 
deserves a very careful examination and analysis. The 
monument in Salisbury Cathedral, at the angle between 
the south choir-aisle and the eastern transept, is an ex- 
cellent example (see Fig. 137). It was erected to the 
memory of Bishop Giles of Bridport (11262), in whose 
time the cathedral was finished, except the spire. 


Buildings with pointed arches, and with vaulted roofs 
built with ribs in the Gothic style, exist in Italy through- 
out the whole length of the peninsula, and among them 

1 The adjoining bay is shown in Fig. 136 as filled with a fifteenth-century 
perpendicular window occupying the whole height and nearly the whole breadth 
of the space within the wall-arch. The print from which this is copied is of 1839 


FIG. 137. Salisbury, England: Tomb of Bishop Giles of Bridport in the Cathedral. 

1262 A.D. 

SEC. V] ITALY 247 

are some which are known to be early in date. The 
church which is generally considered the earliest piece 
of architecture in Italy, in which the above characteris- 
tics of the Gothic style appear, is that of the abbey of f\j 
Fossanova in the province of Rome, and not many miles 
southwest of the city. In this church a nave of seven 
bays and about thirty feet wide, flanked by low and nar- 
row aisles, a transept without aisles, and a short choir 
of only two bays and almost without aisles, constitute 
the plan. The pillars which separate the nave from the 
aisles are large square piers, each one flanked by slender 
colonnettes ; and the vaulting shaft of the nave, that is to 
say, the colonnette from which the nave vault springs, is 
carried on a corbel about six feet above the floor. The 
main vaults of nave and aisles are built without ribs, but 
the square at the meeting of the nave and transept is 
vaulted with ribs in a domical form and having an eye 
at the crown. The chapter-house is vaulted with ribs 
which spring from pillars made up of slender columns 
(see Fig. 138). As might be expected, the church has no 
flying buttresses. As common in Italy at all times, the 
roofs are of low pitch and the windows very small. In 
short, the church at Fossanova, which was certainly built 
between 1187 and 1208, is in no sense developed Gothic; 
it is Romanesque, with pointed arches, and with the 
additional feature of a rose window in the west front. 1 
The refectory of the abbey of Fossanova is shown in 

1 The very valuable book on The Cathedrals of England and Wales, taken from 
the London journal The Builder and edited by Mr. H. H. Statham, gives the 
assurance that this window has been removed by nineteenth-century restorers 
and early English windows substituted. 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1150 TO 1300 A.D. 


Fig. 1 38 A. There is no pretence at vaulting, but large and 
stout arches are sprung across the whole width of the 
room, and these carry walls upon which rests the low- 
pitched roof. The picturesqueness of the design takes 
one at once to some little town in eastern France. If 

FIG. 138. Fossanova, Italy: Chapter- House. About 1225 A.D. 

this interior is not Gothic in a strict sense, it is at least 
northern in feeling, in spite of the low pitch of the roof 
and the comparatively small amount of window space. 
It will be noted that the church, finished about 1205, the 
refectory about the same date, as near as can be judged, 
and the chapter-house about 1225, are roofed in three 

FIG. 1 38 A. Fossanova, Italy: Refectory. About 1205 A.D. 

2$0 WESTERN EUROPE, 1150 TO 1300 A.D. [CHAP. V 

different ways ; one by groined vaults like an early Ro- 
manesque building, one by the simple device not uncom- 
mon among Romanesque buildings, described on pp. 
132, 133, and one by rib-vaults in the Gothic manner. 
Now it is clear that the builders of such abbeys as Fossa- 
nova were not decided in favour of any style. They were 
experimenting; the great northern Gothic style they 
knew of and would gladly have used, but the old Roman 
groined vault was more familiar to them, and a wooden 
roof on stone arches, cheaper. A most interesting style 
seems to have been on the point of developing itself in 
these abbeys, but some influence, probably the poverty of 
the institutions and the superior importance of the city 
churches, prevented it. 

The ruined church of San Galgano in Tuscany is very 
similar to that at Fossanova in plan, in the arrangement 
of the openings, and in the style of the work, except that 
the architectural sculpture, as in the capitals, is much 
more elegant and highly finished. This church was 
begun in 1218, and was probably completed on the lines 
of the original design, although the work seems to have 
gone^^n~slowly. The greater size of the windows is 
perhaps the only detail which marks this design as more 
nearly Gothic in the strict sense than the church of Fos- 
sanova. The conventual church near Chieti, on the 
Adriatic, and called by the people Santa Maria d' Arbona, 
contains a feature more fearlessly and frankly Gothic 
than either of the above-named churches. This is the 
vaulting of the square at the crossing of the nave and 
transept (see Fig. 139). The diagonal ribs, which are 

FIG. 139. Santa Maria d' Arbona, Italy: Church. About 1210 A.D. 

252 WESTERN EUROPE, 1150 TO 1300 A.D. [CHAP. V 

built with a large eye at the crown of the vault, are 
semicircular. As the transverse arches though pointed 
are very blunt, the crown of the vault is much higher 
than the crowns of these arches. Secondary ribs are 
carried from the crowns of these arches to the central eye, 
the whole forming a very bold and striking piece of vault- 
ing. As all the neighbouring bays are vaulted with diag- 
onal ribs and well crowned up, this is a far more Gothic- 
looking roof than either of those mentioned above; but 
otherwise the church is Romanesque in character, having 
I solid walls beneath the wall-arches of the vault, and small 
^^round-headed windows pierced in these walls. The 
church of S. Martino near Viterbo, northwest of the city 
of Rome, is peculiar in having vaulting of that system 
which we found in S. Ambrogio at Milan, and S. Michele 
at Pavia, that is, with one bay of the nave corresponding 
to two bays of the aisles ; but this combined with pointed 
arches, and a polygonal apse vaulted by means of ribs, 
thrusting against well-marked buttresses on the exterior. 
The archivolts are moulded, though retaining the general 
shape of the outer and inner ring of voussoirs. These 
buildings, though showing strong influence from the 
North, are none of them Gothic in the sense in which 
contemporary buildings in France, Spain, or Flanders, 
are Gothic, and they are contemporary with buildings 
in which the Italian round-arched style is left almost 
unmodified, as in the important church of Chiaravalle, 
near Milan, and others in which there is no attempt at 
vaulting, and no preparations for it, as in S. Fermo of 

FIG. 140. Florence, Italy : S. Maria Novella. Nave. Built about second half of 

thirteenth century. 

254 WESTERN EUROPE, 1150 TO 1300 A.D. [CHAP. V 

The Italian treatment of the Gothic interior, which, as 
has been stated, is always the first thing considered in the 
Gothic style, is well shown in the famous church of S. 
Maria Novella in Florence, built about 1280. Figure 140 
shows the vaulting of the nave and aisles. The difference 
of height between nave and aisles is so little that there is 
nothing to stand for the clear-story except the odd-shaped 
bit of wall enclosed by the arches above and below. The 
clear-story windows are replaced by small bull's-eyes less 
than three feet in diameter. The richer treatment of 
the same Italian-Gothic interior is well seen in the lovely 
church of S. Anastasia in Verona. In this church, heavy 
round pillars separate the nave from the aisles; these are 
carried up to a great height, because here also the aisles are 
high in proportion to the nave ; they carry pointed arches 
decorated by simple mouldings and voussoirs alternately of 
brick and stone. The points of these arches reach exactly 
to the springing of the nave vaulting, so that what corre- 
sponds to the clear-story wall and triforium is, as in S. Maria 
Novella, apiece of wall bounded by curves above and below, 
and decorated by the two small, round windows which 
pierce it, and by bands of painted decoration. Figure 141 
shows the arrangement of this vaulting seen from the nave, 
and the shape of the resulting piece of wall with its windows 
and painted ornaments. Figure 142 is a view of the 
exterior, in which it will be seen that the primitive appli- 
ance mentioned above (p. 198) as having preceded flying 
buttresses, namely, a series of walls built upon arches 
thrown across the aisles, is used here to take up the thrust 
of the nave vault. This view is further useful as showing 

FIG. 141. Verona, Italy: S. Anastasia. One bay of nave. About 1270 A.D. 

2 5 6 

WESTERN EUROPE, 1150 TO 1300 A.D. 


at once many of the features of churches in the Italian- 
Gothic style. The low-pitched roof ; the small windows ; 
the comparatively large size of the windows in the ends or 
fronts of the transepts, which with those in the west fronts 
are more counted on in these churches than the clear-story 
windows ; the plain brick walls 
with arcaded cornices and with 
shallow buttresses marking the 
divisions between the bays, but 
without Gothic panelling, arcading, 
or other reference to the construc- 
tional system ; the window-tracery 


n ff 

^ u JUin (i m rft 

FIG. 142. Verona : S. Anastasia. Last years of thirteenth century except tower. 

consisting of openings pierced in a slab, the openings 
themselves being dwelt upon as forming a pattern in dark 
on light; and finally, the square plain straight bell-tower 
built more or less apart from the church itself : all these 
are to be seen here as well as in any example that could be 
furnished. The style has undoubted charm. There are 
many persons who find it appeal to their sympathies more 
than true French Gothic. Its very lack of finish and of 

>EC. V] ITALY 257 

irganization, its broad plain walls leaving room for paint- 
ings within, and for decorative facing of marble without, 
when the cost could be met, these and such other peculiar- 
ities appeal to the Southerner as against the Northerner in 
sympathy and in taste, and appeal also to the student who 
in art loves painting, let us say, rather than architecture. 
To thoroughly enjoy the architecture of a French cathedral, 
one must have the natural or acquired sense of organism. 
The structure before him must appeal to his sense of what 
is perfectly understood and well thought out as a system 
of building, or he will find it too complex. The Italian 
buildings, with their unconsidered, careless structure, as of ; ^/ 
a style only half understood and not thought impor- 
tant to study out; with their broad, sun-lit surfaces of 
plain wall, and their beautiful details set in here and 
there as if by accident, will please such an art-student 
better than the perfections of Bourges Cathedral or the 
Sainte Chapelle. 

The beautiful and famous church of S. Francis at Assisi 
has its inner wall spaces covered with paintings of great 
decorative value, and in these the pictures of sacred sub- 
ject are framed and set off by borders and friezes of the 
most varied and well-composed ornamental patterns. No- 
where in European art are to be found more successful 
designs in scroll-work and non-natural leafage; and no- 
where is the true value of such ornament, as a frame and a 
foil to representative art, more plainly to be seen. Figure 
143 gives one bay of this structure, showing the upper 
and the lower church. Comparison with northern Gothic 
interiors, as in Figs. 118, 121, and 135, will show the vast 

2 5 8 

WESTERN EUROPE, 1150 TO 1300 A.D. 


FIG. 143. Assisi, Italy : S. Francis. One bay of upper and of lower church. First 
half of thirteenth century. 

difference of conception and of purpose between northern 
and southern builders. 

It must be remembered that the Italians have never 

SEC. V] ITALY 259 

been a building race, in the sense in which the Egyptians, 
the Greeks of 500 B.C., the Byzantines of 500 A.D. and 
the Gallo-Frank populations of 1200 A.D. were building 
races. Under the Roman Empire, engineering skill was 
developed to meet the new needs of a world-wide adminis- 
tration, and to provide lordly structures for it, and Grecian 
sense and power of art were at command. Except during 
those great years, 50 B.C. to 250 A.D., no Italian buildings 
were of any consequence, as buildings, until, in the fifteenth 
century, scientific students of construction began to build 
in a scientific way. Even then skilful building was rare. 
Beautiful sculpture, and painting of royal splendour, found 
a home in buildings put up under the immediate direction 
of the sculptors and the painters themselves, the ablest that 
the world had known since the time of the Greeks; but 
these artists were not skilled builders, they had not the 
building instinct; and the Gothic of Italy became what 
other Italian styles had been before, and were to be there- 
after, better in everything than as a system of organized 
and intelligent building. 




IN the city of Rouen is a famous abbey church, more 
admired by travellers and more insisted on in guide-books 
than even the beautiful cathedral of that city. This 
church of S. Ouen, begun in 1318, was built within the 
course of the fourteenth century, except the west front and 
towers, which are modern and are not even on the plan of 
those originally proposed. Figure 144 gives the plan of 
this church. Plate III. gives a view of the exterior from 
the southeast. The important thing to note in this de- 
sign is the complete organization of the structure. There 
are no hesitations visible, no changes of programme made 
in the course of the work ; the parts grow naturally out 
of each other from foundation to lantern. A curious in- 
stance of the complete method followed by the builders is 

seen in the flying buttresses where the choir and south 


SEC. I] 



transept form their re-entrant angle. The flying buttress 
which takes the thrust of the vault of the south transept 
bears upon the slender shaft of the westernmost choir- 
buttress, and then by another flying buttress upon the cor- 
responding shaft of the next choir-buttress. This second 
slender shaft would be insufficient, but that it is heavily 
loaded and so maintained in place by the weight thrown 
upon it above, consisting of the double flying buttress of 
the great clear-story vault. It will be noticed that not 

FIG. 144. Rouen, France: S. Ouen. Built, except the chapels, between 1320 and 
1350 A.D. West end as originally planned. 

only these small shafts and pinnacles, but also the outer- 
most buttress piers, where they rise clear of the chapel 
roof, are extremely light. These grow larger above than 
they are at the level of the gutter, overhanging on the 
inner side towards the church very considerably, and this 
overhang is most carefully arranged to counteract the out- 
ward thrust of the flying buttresses. It will be seen, too, 
that the great windows of the clear-story fill the whole 
space between the slender piers against which the flying 
buttresses are built. The stone arch which closes these 
window openings at the top is also the wall-arch of the 

262 WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. [CHAP. VI 

vault within ; that is to say, there is no wall whatever here, 
for the triangular spandrels showing above this window- 
arch are merely the outward facings of the mass of ma- 
sonry which fills up the haunches of the vault within and 
keeps that vault in place. There is nothing new as to 
principle in all this. It is the system of the thirteenth 
century carried out in a perfectly legitimate way. In fact, 
the fourteenth century has not much to offer in the way 
of new principles ; the theory of Gothic construction was 
complete in France by 1250, and there seemed nothing to 
be done but to go on and seek for still greater size of 
window surface and still lighter pillars of support. More- 
over, the thirteenth century had built and begun to build 
so many and so large churches that the fourteenth century 
had little to do but to further adorn the finished ones and 
carry the others to completion. 

In undertaking this task of completion and decoration, 
one of the ideas of the fourteenth century was a row of 
chapels along the aisle walls and a ring of them where the 
aisle turns round the choir at the east end. This feature 
is well seen in both its forms at S. Ouen. The little 
building in the extreme foreground of Plate III. is later; 
the chapels we are discussing are those structures built 
in between the buttresses. On the south wall of the choir 
they have square pyramidal roofs, and each has one large 
six-light window. Where the aisle turns round the chevet, 
these chapels take a polygonal form with buttresses at their 
angles and polygonal pyramids for their roofs. Some most 
delicate and subtle specimens of vaulting are seen in these 
radiating chapels, but the principles involved are not novel. 


Built 1318-30; Central tower, Porch and low foreground structure, XV century. 
View from the S. E. of the choir and Transept. 


The lantern of S. Ouen, which takes the place of the 
massive central tower forming a part of some thirteenth- 
century cathedrals, is novel in appearance, but in no re- 
spect different in character from those more massive 
structures. It may be compared with the central tower 
of the cathedral at Salisbury, which is a little smaller in 
plan. The builders of the French cathedrals of the thir- 
teenth century rather avoided the large central tower, but 
the smaller dimensions of Salisbury Cathedral and of 
S. Ouen make such a tower more feasible, and its beauty 
as an architectural feature could never have been ignored. 
Salisbury is unique in the world in this respect, the tower 
having its full size carried up to a considerable height and 
a solid stone spire to roof it, rising to a height of 400 feet. 
What the fourteenth-century architects thought of the 
question is well shown in the case of S. Ouen, where the 
light lantern is kept down to a height of 270 feet. 

It seems that there was not in France, as it then existed, 
one other considerable church built entirely in the course 
of the fourteenth century. The cathedral of Clermont- 
Ferrand was carried on westward from the thirteenth-cen- 
tury choir; the cathedral of Limoges, begun at the east 
end toward the close of the thirteenth century, has its very 
interesting choir and transepts practically of the fourteenth 
century ; and the cathedral of S. Andr at Bordeaux saw its 
beautiful choir and north transept, begun during the brief 
period that the kings of France ruled there (before 1302), 
continued and completed. The wonderful church of S. 
Urbain at Troyes would require a long analysis to fully 
explain its originality and boldness, but it is a work apart, 

264 WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. [CHAP. VI 

not an important step in a general process of development. 
It was never completed. In the farther south some re- 
markable modifications of Gothic art are to be found, 
dating from this epoch ; at Narbonne a choir of immense 
size and great richness was built before 1350; S. Cecile, 
the cathedral at Albi, a fortified church of the most un- 
usual and surprising character, has all its interior of a 
bold and striking Gothic construction, while its exterior 
is almost that of a feudal fortress of red brick. Instead 
of such an exterior as that shown in Plate III., in which 
the clear-story wall rises above the broad roofs of aisles 
and chapels and is surrounded by the elaborate belt of 
flying buttresses, buttress-piers and pinnacles, the external 
wall of Albi rises straight from its foundations, one hun- 
dred and sixty feet at the lowest point of clear vertical 
height. Within this great wall, broken only by slightly 
rounded projections and pierced by very narrow windows, 
there is a broad nave flanked by chapels in two stories. 
The cathedral of S. Nazaire at Carcassonne, of the same 
epoch, nearly repeats the forms of the northern vaulting, but 
with this peculiarity, that the aisles are brought to the same 
height as the nave. It may be thought that this system of 
building was intended chiefly to admit more light into the 
church, or that it was desirable to provide one uniform 
flat roof intended to serve as a platform for machines of 
war; for the cite of Carcassonne is nothing but a fortress, 
and the cathedral stands within fifty feet of the ramparts, 
in a place liable to attack. 1 Figure 145 shows part of the 

1 The present roof of the choir and transepts is built up above the vaults in a 
slight inclination, and is tiled, but it is very probable that it was intended to 

SEC. I] 



eastern face of the cathedral of Carcassonne, including the 
chancel, and it will be seen from this how the fourteenth- 
century workmen undertook the task of building a great 

FIG. 145. Carcassonne, France: Cathedral of S. Nazaire. About 1320 A.D. 

form a flat platform, flagged with stone, for the placing of engines of war in case 
of siege ; indeed, the west end is marked by a strong crenellated wall. The 
cathedrals of Narbonne and Beziers and the church of Les Saintes Maries near 
Aries are strongly fortified. 

266 WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. [CHAP. VI 

hall with pillars to support its vaulted roof, but without 
any difference in height between nave and aisles. We 
have already seen in the case of the Sainte Chapelle 
of Paris how the thirteenth-century workmen composed 
the exterior of a vaulted church without low aisles and 
therefore without flying buttresses. The Carcassonne 
church gives us the same system carried out on a larger 
scale and in the more developed style of eighty years 
later ; for, when the aisle is as high or about as high as 
the nave, the thrust of the nave vault is taken up by the 
aisle vault and it is the latter alone which needs to be but- 
tressed outside. It is rather noticeable that not only have 
the slender uprights of the great windows, the mullions 
between the lights, been reduced to almost incredible 
tenuity, six inches in width and thirteen in depth for a 
clear vertical height of over thirty feet, but the window 
jamb with its mouldings has come down almost to 
nothing. It will seem to most lovers of Gothic architect- 
ure that a great deal is lost in losing the concentric 
mouldings which follow one another, ring beyond ring, 
and draw their delicate lines of shade and shadow around 
the window-heads of the Sainte Chapelle (Figs. 122, 124). 
The reason for the change is of course the complete dis- 
appearance of the wall from the matured Gothic architect- 
ure. The triangular spandrels above the window arches 
being now the exterior face of the solid parts of the vault- 
ing, and there being no wall below them other than the 
sheet of window sash held in light framework of stone 
tracery, it was natural to set this sheet of glass, lead sash, 
iron stay-bars, and stone rods well toward the exterior face 

FIG. 146. Reims, France : Cathedral. Window of nave. About 1240 A.D. 

268 WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. [CHAP. VI 

of the stone spandrels above mentioned. There was then 
only the thickness of a few inches in-and-out, and there 
was practically no width at all no wall space whatever, 
except at top above the pointed arch where mouldings 
could be cut. The window itself rilled all the space be- 
tween two buttresses, and the small mouldings that re- 
mained must be looked upon as part of a constructional 
necessity rather than as a relic of the thirteenth-century 

We must here speak of the Gothic window tracery, for 
although this was but a detail of minor importance in the 
estimation of the artists who conceived it first and those 
who developed it, their minds being fixed on construc- 
tion first, proportion second, and sculpture third, it has 
received a factitious importance in modern thought as 
being the one part of Gothic ornamentation that could be 
accurately copied. The general theory of Gothic window 
tracery is the division of a large window by vertical 
uprights which we call mullions, and the carrying of these 
mullions, as they approach from below the spring of the 
arch, into patterns which shall fill more or less gracefully 
the pointed head of the window. Perhaps the simplest 
form is the one shown in Fig. 146, and the natural elabora- 
tion in case of a larger window is that shown in Fig. 147. 
When the window is of such width that three divisions are 
better than two or four, some such arrangement suggests 
itself as that in the diagram, Fig. 148. Another plan is 
that shown in Fig. 149, where an equilateral triangle is 
arranged beneath the head of the window arch, and the 
central light between the mullions has its arched head 

SEC. I] 



lowered to meet the large triangle. Within these larger 
divisions of the window space smaller subdivisions were 
freely inserted, and these in turn are varied and modified 
by cusps, as they are called. One set of mouldings is used 

FIG. 147. Paris: Cathedral of Notre Dame. Window of a chapel. About 1320 A.D. 

for the largest stone bars of the tracery such as the 
mullions and the arches that spring from them ; a part of 
this set of mouldings is used for the next smaller set of 
window bars, and so on, the cusps having the simplest 
section. The system of combination of the mouldings 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. 


forming these tracery bars is not very elaborate. The full 
group of mouldings is used in the principal parts of the 
tracery; that is, the two arched heads of the main divisions 

FIG. 148. Troyes, France : S. Urbain. Diagram of a window. About 1260 A.D. 


and the large circle which rests upon them and unites with 
them (see Fig. 147), while the secondary bar with a smaller 
cove generates the four subordinate arches and these only, 
and the minor bar, consisting only of a flat and two coves, 
generates the cusps. This systematic use of the mouldings 
is hardly recognized until the fourteenth century; thus 
in Fig. 146 the shaded sections of the tracery bars, if 
compared with the similar sections in Fig. 149, will be 
seen to be much less carefully organized. The beauti- 
ful traceries of the second half of the thirteenth century 
are generally built without any such logical arrangement, 
but inasmuch as the stone tracery of large windows 
is a perishable part of a building, it is apt to be of 
later date than the surrounding masonry, and but little 
remains of early date. The Germans developed this geo- 
metrical laying out of the tracery with great enjoyment, 
and their fourteenth-century churches treat it with great 
respect ; in fact, it makes up a far larger part of the decora- 
tive scheme of the Germans than of the French or English 
architects. The reader may consider in connection with 
this the pierced spires of Freiburg, Thann, and Cologne. 
The windows which held this elaborate tracery were 
commonly blunter in the pointed arch which closes them 
than the windows of the thirteenth century. This comes 
of the curves of the vaults, to which we have repeatedly 
said these great windows closely conform. If an interior 
of the thirteenth century be studied, it will commonly be 
found that, beneath a vault whose wall-arch takes a more 
obtuse form, there will be opened a window with an equi- 
lateral arch, that is to say one whose centres are at the 

FIG. 149. Carcassonne, France : Cathedral of S. Nazaire. Window of transept. 

About 1250 A.D. 


point of tangency of the arch-curve with the vertical 
line of the jamb. This peculiarity disappears of course 
when the window is made to occupy the whole space 
beneath and within the wall-arch of the vault. 

The great rose-windows of the thirteenth century find 
few copies in the fourteenth ; the great churches were 
built, and though here and there a rose-window may have 
had to be remade, such a one was commonly rebuilt again 
in the fifteenth century. The tracery of the rose-windows 
is nearly the same as that of the pointed windows, in its 
system of composition and in the way its mouldings pass 
into, and grow out of, each other. The great rose in the 
north transept of Rouen Cathedral is a work of the early 
years of the fourteenth century, and it consists of ten 
pointed window-heads, which radiate their arches outward, 
and with small triangles filling the spandrels of these 
arches. It is too formal, too unyielding as a design not 
to seem insufficient to the admirable artists who followed 
at a later and more peaceful time, and the change in the 
fifteenth century to the flowing tracery of that time is 
accounted for by the too mechanical accuracy of this 
earlier work. Immediately below this rose-window is a 
pierced gable rising above the great doorway; this gable 
is filled with tracery of which the upper part is entirely 
open and shows beyond it the windows and the broad 
gallery beneath the rose-window. Figure 150 gives the 
design of this gable. These pierced gables, though not 
altogether peculiar to the fourteenth century, are very 
characteristic of that time. 

Of the epoch now under consideration, 1300-1420, 

FIG. 150. Rouen, France: Cathedral. Gable over door of north transept. About 

1340 A.D. 


many more civic buildings exist than of the thirteenth 
century. During the first years of the fourteenth cen- 
tury, years of prosperity under sagacious kings, there 
was much building; and as churches had been built in 
such abundance a few years earlier, it was dwellings and 
halls of assembly that were now in demand. At a later 
time, under Charles V. (1364-80), building was continued 
with some vigour in the towns, and under the unhappy 
Charles VI. the great princes of his court vied with one 
another in the erection of strong castles. We have then 
such buildings as the splendid hospital at Tonnerre, dat- 
ing from about 1305, whose great hall, fifty-eight feet 
wide, roofed with timber in one span, is most interesting 
for the comparison it makes possible with the splendid 
English timber roofs of the same epoch. In these latter 
there is an attempt to avoid the usual and obvious con- 
struction by means of a tie-beam, and to substitute an 
elaborate design of collar-beams and struts, using a great 
deal of timber, and following lines not so much construc- 
tional as decorative. Compare what is said of the roof 
of Westminster Hall (p. 306). In the French example 
a tie-beam stretches from wall to wall, and is held up in 
the middle by a " king-post " ; the ceiling is then semi- 
cylindrical, and consists of wainscoting of the simplest 
kind with wooden ribs, within which nothing of the timber 
work shows except the two principal pieces named above. 
There is a close affiliation between this spacious room, 
whose architectural effect is got from size and proportion 
mainly, and the great interiors of Gothic churches where 
the volume of enclosed space is so apparently out of pro- 

2/6 WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. [CHAP. VI 

portion to the amount of solid material used to enclose 
it. A more decorative hall is the splendid one at Poitiers, 
the one remaining building of the palace of the old lords 
of Poitou. This hall is famous for its chimneys, the 
three great fireplaces which occupy one end of the hall, 
and their flues and chimney-tops, which combine strangely 
with the window in the gable. The greatest achievement 
of the time in the way of architecture, half domestic and 
half civic, is the palace of the popes at Avignon, a gigan- 
tic structure, with many great halls, and the lodgings for 
a multitude of persons, arranged in a stately way around 
two great courts, and enclosed within fortified walls rising 
high above the streets of the town and the scarped rock 
upon which they are built. This is at once a fortress of 
the first class and a stately dwelling. The palace con- 
tains a great many curious pieces of vaulting; but it is 
to be noticed, as was suggested in the preceding chapter, 
that it is no longer strictly Gothic construction when the 
vaults are imprisoned within the ponderous walls of a 
mediaeval fortress. As it has been said of the castles 
(p. 2 1 3), and as is true of the cathedral at Albi, that the 
vaulting might more fittingly be vaults of Roman construc- 
tion than Gothic rib-vaults, so massive are the containing 
walls, so it may be said of the vaulted halls in the Popes' 
Palace, the castle at Pierrefonds, and similar structures, 
that that is not Gothic construction which needs no 
counterpoise, but is held in place by fifteen-foot walls. 

Small houses of the townspeople are not so nearly 
unknown for this period as for the thirteenth century, 
though most of them have disappeared. Figure 1 5 1 gives 

FIG. 151. Chateaudun, France : House. About 1320 A. D. 

2/8 WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. [CHAP. VI 

the front of one drawn by Viollet-le-Duc, in 1841, at 
Chateaudun, near Chartres. 

Decorative timber work was extremely common through- 
out the northern part of what is now France; and this 
system of building was used in small churches and other 
ecclesiastical and civic buildings as well as in dwellings. 
One chapel remains in Troyes, much added to in later 
times, but still perfectly recognizable. A plan and section 
of it have been given by Viollet-le-Duc, and a still fuller 
rendering is in the Encyclopedic d' Architecture. Figure 
152 gives a detail of its construction. 


In Spain the fourteenth century begins with a marked 
advance in elaborate richness of style. One of the first 
buildings of importance built in this century was the choir 
of Gerona Cathedral with its aisles ; but this is, in gen- 
eral style, a thirteenth-century interior. The transept of 
the cathedral of Barcelona was built at about the same 
time, and this involved the construction of the admirably 
simple octagon, which should be compared with the more 
elaborate octagon at Ely, for which see p. 303. The west 
front of Tarragona Cathedral was never carried above the 
porch, except that a fine rose-window was built and its 
frame of deeply recessed mouldings was left projecting 
from the stone wall which holds it, with the evident inten- 
tion of building around it with screen-work and tracery. 
Each of these parts of the front, both porch and rose- 
window, are remarkable for the very free use of mouldings 




in large groups, so arranged as to give broad belts of deli- 
cate combinations of shade and shadow. There is some- 
thing English rather than French in the feeling shown 
here, except that the mouldings are in larger groups than 
the English builders generally employed. 

FIG. 152. Troyes, France : Chapel of S. Gilles. Detail of framing. 1360 A.D. 

The most important architectural work of the epoch 
in Spain, at least for the purpose of our enquiry, is that 
connected with the cathedral of Toledo; viz., the re- 
markable choir with its two aisles, of which the plan is 
given in Fig. 153. It will be seen that the difficulty found 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. 


in vaulting the compartments of a rounding aisle (see pp. 
156 and 196) is got over by alternating triangular compart- 
ments with those of rectangular shape. This had been 


FIG. 153. Toledo, Spain: Cathedral. Choir and aisles. Beginning of fourteenth 

century. Plan. 

tried at Le Mans at a much earlier date, and even in 
the rude aisle of the chapel at Aix-la-Chapelle (see Fig. 
70). The effect of the interior of this great east end 
cannot be shown in any one illustration; Fig. 154 gives a 




small portion of the outer and lower aisle which shows the 
alternation of square and triangular compartments. The 
vaulting of the great nave and the clear-story windows 

FIG. 154. Toledo, Spain : Cathedral. Outer aisle of choir. View. Compare FIG. 153. 

below it are evidently of the earlier part of the century ; 
and the remarkable screen which encloses the choir, a 
splendid composition of niches and canopies, most of them 

282 WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. [CHAP. VI 

having their statues still in place, are of twenty or thirty 
years later. The door of entrance to the north transept 
is probably also fourteenth-century work, as well as the 
extremely remarkable door leading into the cloister. In 
this curious composition, all the sculpture is subordinated 
to the architectural forms in a very unusual way, as if the 
designer had been afraid of interfering with the lines of 
his splayed jambs. Moreover, the carving on the flat sur- 
faces is all heraldic: the lion of Leon and the castle of 
Castile alternating, except that the four shields on the 
lintel at the sides carry rampant lions only, and the central 
shield the quartered coat of the united kingdoms. Except 
for the style of the figure sculpture, such as the Madonna 
on the trumeau, and the singular group beneath her feet, 
representing an entombment, this is an Italian doorway. 
It is a problem which it would be interesting to solve, 
whence came the strong Italian influence not often found 
out of Italy at this epoch. 

In two important churches at Barcelona is to be found 
a plan so closely allied to that of Albi (see p. 264) that the 
resemblance cannot be thought accidental. S. Maria del 
Pi has almost exactly the same plan as Albi, but with eight 
bays in length instead of twelve ; there are no aisles, the 
vaulting of the nave is maintained bysolidTmttress-walls 
which divide shallow chapels, and a solid and unbroken 
wall surrounds the whole, except that the apse has outside 
buttresses. S. Maria del Mar is much larger and has 
aisles as well as a nave ; the aisle-vaults are sustained by 
buttress-walls which separate chapels, and the same sys- 
tem is carried around the apse, so that the bounding wall 




is everywhere unbroken. These Spanish towns are so 
near to Albi that their choosing that unusual type is not 
surprising. What was a need of fortification in the orig- 
inal became in the copies a grand uniformity of exterior 
design, not unpleasing to the southern spirit. 

In French Flanders, the cathedral of Tournai, whose 
splendid Romanesque nave and towers have been described 
above (p. 177), has a beautiful fourteenth-century choir. 
Boldness of construction was carried to an extreme in 
this choir, for it is on 
record that the pillars 
had to be strengthened 
after the completion of 
the vaults. In its present 
condition it is a master- 
piece of delicacy and 
grace. The nave of S. 

Sauveur of Bruges and FIG. 155. Wvorde, Belgium: Church. Fouru 

teenth century. Plan. 

the nave of the cathedral 

at Brussels are of this epoch, but hardly vie with the 
choir of Tournai in beauty. The village of Vilvorde, 
near Brussels, has a characteristic parish church of which 
the plan is given in Fig. 155. The section through the 
nave and aisles (Fig. 156) shows that there is no attempt 
to get light through clear-story windows: the short nave 
is lighted from the west end and the transepts. The choir, 
having no aisles, is treated inside and out nearly as the 
Sainte Chapelle at Paris is treated if the upper chapel 
alone is considered. The largest, and in that sense the 
most important church of the time, is Antwerp Cathedral. 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. 


This has three aisles on either side of the nave ; and, as 
the church is singularly unencumbered by screens and 
enclosures, it affords one of the largest unbroken interiors 
in Europe. Its extreme length is not unexampled about 

I I I i 



FIG. 156. Vilvorde, Belgium: Church. Section across nave and aisles (see FIG. 155). 

325 feet; but its width of 160 feet seems enormous, in 
spite of the six rows of slender piers which support the 
vaulted ceiling. The architectural design of this great in- 
terior is not attractive. The vaulting, indeed, is simple and 
constructional: but the pillars without capitals and the 
large wall-spaces with their formal panelling are cold in 



28 5 

effect. Figure 157 partly shows the curious arrangement 
of the external roofing. The clear-story windows are left 
unobstructed and are made enormously large, and to allow 
of this the aisle-roofs are built with a double pitch, so that 
the whole clear-story wall is left free. This peculiarity is 
found in several Flemish churches, but in Antwerp Cathe- 

FlG. 157. Antwerp, Belgium : Cathedral. About 1360 to 1380 A. D. Section across 

nave and aisles. 

dral alone it is carried farther, the aisle-roof being divided 
into detached hipped roofs, one to each bay. In the choir 
the same result is obtained by means of a flat masonry 
floor which covers the vaulting of aisles and chapels. The 
church of Notre Dame de la Chapelle and Notre Dame 
des Victoires, in the same city, have aisle-roofs hipped in 
one frame. 

286 WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. [CHAP. VI 


The church of S. Katharine at Oppenheim near May- 
ence contains within itself a characteristic specimen of 
German Gothic of the fourteenth century. The flying 
buttress is not introduced on the north side of the choir, 
where a great roof covers nave and aisle alike, but on the 
south side of the choir the construction includes the use 
of flying buttresses of considerable span. The bays of this 
part of the church are of great width ; and, as neither the 
aisle nor the clear-story is very high, some very curious 
results are visible in each. In the aisle the enormous 
windows, seven lights wide and rather sharp in the arch 
for the epoch, are reduced to a vertical impost of less than 
one-third the total height of the window. In the clear- 
story, on the other hand, the windows are narrowed to four 
lights, with the result that a large amount of wall surface 
is built on both sides of these windows, and that this in 
turn is disguised and hidden, as it were, behind a buttress 
of enormous width. To make these clear-story windows 
still higher and sharper in effect, very steep ornamental 
gables have been built on their archivolts, which archi- 
volts are therefore of necessity very broad, projecting far 
beyond the wall, and having huge hood-mouldings orna- 
mented with Gothic foliage as if for a church porch. 
Figure 158 gives three bays of the south flank of the 
choir. The reader should notice the extreme clumsi- 
ness of the linear design ; it seems as if all the 
charm of the fourteenth-century tracery were deliberately 
ignored. Still more formal, but with apparently more 








FIG. 158. Oppenheim, Germany: Church of S. Katherine, part of south flank of nave. 
First half of fourteenth century. 

288 WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. [CHAP. VI 

meaning in the design, is the tracery which forms the 
great rose-window of S. Lorenz of Nuremberg. This 
window is surrounded by a carved border nearly as wide 
as the diameter of the opening and imitating a series of 
canopies as if of niches for statues, a fantastic and un- 
pleasing addition to the window which must pass for 
one more attempt at a novel treatment of Gothic forms, 
most of which attempts were destined to failure. The 
interior of S. Lorenz is unusual in another way; all ' 
the space above the nave-arches up to the very sills of 
the clear-story windows is a smooth stone wall, giving 
perhaps the plainest Gothic interior known. A curious 
feature of this interior is the round moulded capital which 
is so common in England, and which is generally con- 
sidered as an English peculiarity. Another church in 
.Nuremberg, also of the fourteenth century, is the Church 
of Our Lady (Frauenkirche). It is a small church with- 
out aisles, with tall windows with sharp-pointed arches and 
simple tracery. The curious stepped gable of the west 
front is evidently later and replaces in part a tower, 
which seems to have existed where now is the late 
Gothic porch. The most important Gothic church in 
Nuremberg, and perhaps the best interior of characteristic 
German Gothic that exists, is the eastern choir of the 
church of S. Sebaldus (see Fig. 159). This church has 
a west end and towers of an earlier date ; the eastern 
choir is a three-aisled structure, with aisles and nave of 
equal height and nearly equal breadth. The high slen- 
der pillars have no capitals, and the ribs of the vaulting 
spring from the same level, so that the vaulting of the 

SEC. Ill] 



aisles is slightly more acute than that of the nave. High 
windows are arranged between the buttresses; and this 

FIG. 159. Nuremberg, Germany: Church of S. Sebaldus. East end. About 1375 A - D - 

splendid hall with a continuous ceiling, supported by 
slender pillars and with very lofty windows, should be 
compared with the cathedral at Carcassonne (see above, 


pp. 264-5). The essential difference between them is 
that the windows of the German church are narrow, 
occupying less than half the space between the but- 
tresses, so that there is on either side a piece of flat 
wall between the window-jamb and the buttress. Such 
pieces of flat wall are not allowed for in the original 
ecclesiastical Gothic, that of France : they are not a 
part of the style ; and accordingly the builders of S. 
Sebaldus' church have felt that they needed to be 
adorned with canopies and arcading. It is a beautiful 
room both inside and out, but it offers one more instance 
of the singular reluctance shown throughout eastern and 
central Germany to adopt Gothic architecture as it de- 
veloped itself in France, and as it was readily taken 
over by England and Spain and sometimes by the 
Rhine towns. At Erfurt, the nave and the aisles of the 
cathedral form a similar hall ; nave and aisles of the same 
height, and presenting the very curious disposition that 
the nave is the narrowest of the three. Here the win- 
dows are even smaller in proportion to the wall-space 
than in the Nuremberg church, and the buttresses also 
smaller. In fact, for the very great span of the aisle- 
vaults the buttresses appear to be very insufficient (see 
Fig. 1 60), and it w r ould appear that the wall adjoining 
the buttress was relied upon to assist them. It is a 
curiously unskilful, ill-considered piece of construction ; 
the church is very dark, and one longs to be allowed 
to build sufficient buttresses and then to knock away 
the wall between them and attain the result so easily 
and naturally reached at Carcassonne. The choir of 

SEC. Ill] 



Erfurt, on the other hand, is a charming design, a sim- 
ple room without aisles, and with a bold and skilfully 
designed vault worthy to rank with the Sainte Cha- 
pelle at Paris. This choir is the lofty and slender build- 
ing rising from a huge vaulted substructure so attractive 
to travellers and so prominent in all the views of the 
town (see Fig. 161). Its external effect is much aided 
by the singular structure which is interposed between 

FIG. 1 60. Erfurt, Germany: Cathedral. Plan. Choir 1350 to 1355 A.D. Nave 
much later. Choir and nave have different axes. 

the choir and the nave, an oblong mass of building 
which when clear of the roofs resolves itself into three 
octagonal steeples, the highest in the middle. 

S. Stephens, in Vienna, is a really interesting experi- 
ment ; an attempt at modifying the Gothic type which, if 
it did not result in a distinct eastern European style with 
its own peculiar characteristics, is so important in itself 
that it should be minutely studied. Figure 162 gives the 

WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. 


plan of this church, which is of the second half of the four- 
teenth century. The nave, about forty feet from centre to 

FIG. 161. Erfurt, Germany: Cathedral. View of choir (see FIG. 160). 

centre of piers, is flanked by aisles of nearly its own width 
and also of nearly its own height ; for while the nave is 

SEC. Ill] 



ninety feet high, the aisles are sixty-eight feet. With this 
small difference of height there is of course no attempt at 
a clear-story, and the nave-roof is not lighted directly ex- 
cept from the west end. S. Stephens is then a hall with 
columns, like the cathedrals~"at~Carcassonne and at Erfurt, 
the church of S. Sebaldus at Nuremberg; but having 

/O O 30 


I I I I 

FIG. 162. Vienna, Austria : Cathedral of S. Stephen. Plan. The general arrange- 
ment is of the second half of the fourteenth century. 

the central division crowned up as it were just enough to 
tell, when seen from below, as a slight elevation for the 
sake of dignity and to defeat the natural tendency of such 
a roof to seem lowest in the middle. The interior is very 
impressive, but not in the usual sense of a great Gothic 
church, long, high, and comparatively narrow. It is curi- 

294 WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. [CHAP. VI 

ous that the entrances most commonly used are in the 
north and south flank. Entering by one of these, one has 
no sense of crossing the aisle to reach the nave : it is all a 
high and spacious hall of assembly, with only six or eight 
lofty pillars to break it. In like manner, the arrangement 
of windows, two to each bay, and therefore each one com- 
paratively narrow and high, with their pointed arches 
occupying but little of their vertical height, helps the 
effect of a square flat-roofed hall uniformly lighted on 
each side from end to end. This nave is one of the best 
attempts that were ever made to build in the Gothic style 
without being simply Gothic. It is rare that experiments 
of the sort are so successful. 

The beautiful church which serves as the cathedral of 
Ulm, with its octagonal belfries and spires flanking a lofty 
apse and its unfinished western tower, must be taken as 
a fourteenth-century church, although not finished as we 
now see it until a somewhat later time. In this the Ger- 
man love for tracery takes the form of a study in vertical 
parts, large surfaces of the lower wall and its huge but- 
tresses being divided up into high and narrow panels by 
slender mullions which form simple or elaborate tracery 
at the tops of the panels, as if a window were in question. 
Much of this tracery is indeed brought out so far from the 
wall of the tower the enormous buttresses allowing of 
this that it amounts to window tracery: the bars of 
windows through which are seen the wall of the tower with 
the windows which it encloses. The buttresses of the north 
and south flanks of the church are decorated also with panel 
work divided by narrow and deep groups of mouldings. 

SEC. Ill] GERMANY 295 

The west front of the cathedral of Strasburg is the 
culmination of this system of decoration by means of 
slender mullion-bars forming a semblance of window 
tracery. This building seems to have been finished as 
far as the platform, about 216 feet above the pavement 
of the square, in 1365. The whole of this west front 
is carried up to this uniform height by the insertion of 
a square tower-like structure between the north and south 
towers and resting upon the porch, the massive piers of 
which are carried up in connection with the towers them- 
selves, so as to support this unusual third member of the 
western fa9ade. In this way a platform nearly fifty feet 
wide and one hundred and forty feet long is provided at 
the considerable height above mentioned, and upon this 
stands the spire of the north tower, not finished till 1440, 
and at the southern end a small house covering the land- 
ing from the stairs below ; for this platform is a favourite 
place of resort. Nearly the whole of the great west front 
and the north and south flanks of the towers are masked 
by screens of slender mullions carrying tracery and cano- 
pies. These screens included between the buttresses, 
which are narrow and are themselves decorated with 
similar screen work and with vertical panelling, give this 
part of the church the appearance of being enclosed in 
a cage. It is only between the towers, where the forty- 
foot rose-window is opened above the central porch, that 
this effect of bars of a cage ceases. Above the rose- 
window is a long arcade with statues, and above that, 
two simple fourteenth-century windows pierced in the 
middle tower of which we have spoken, so that the real 

296 WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. [CHAP. VI 

towers of the front are distinguished from the mass be- 
tween them by this very cage of tracery. This is the 
more noticeable because it was the designer's purpose 
evidently that his two towers should carry very lofty 
spires, not exactly of the same design as the one erected, 
but even heavier in mass (see p. 354) than the present 
one. It was therefore not his wish to take away from 
the lower parts of his towers the appearance of great 
solidity ; and strangely enough he was able to retain that 
appearance of great solidity in spite of the tracery which 
seems to disguise and conceal the massive walls behind. 
The church is rightly criticised as insufficient in length 
and importance for this prodigious frontispiece, but the 
westernmost structure in itself is of extraordinary interest 
and of a kind of defiant beauty, most valuable as a con- 
trast to the regulated and orderly charm of the structures 
built under dominant French influence. 


In England the fourteenth century was a splendid time 
for architecture. The wars that desolated the continent 
had but seldom an echo north of the Channel, and except 
during the years following the appearance of the Black 
Death, 1 349, the country was peaceful. Even the change 
of dynasty of 1 399 caused but a slight interruption. The 
building of the cathedrals was carried on in the leisurely 
way in which it had begun in the thirteenth century. 
What is called the English Decorated style reaches its 
full development during the first years of the century. 




The celebrated and beautiful central tower of Lincoln 

Cathedral (Fig. 163) is of 1310; it is square and is 

carried up directly from the interior, its walls resting 

upon the great arches at the 

crossing of the nave and the 

western transept. A character- 

istic of the epoch is the rapid 

increase in the number and size 

of traceried windows ; that is to 

say, of large windows divided 

into three, four, five, or more 

"lights," as they are called, or 

subdivisions. The mullions sep- 

arating these lights form the 

ornamental tracery in the win- 

dow head. The examples given 

in the previous section (Figs. 146 

to 149) illustrate these windows 

with geometrical tracery ; that 

shown in Fig. 147 having the 

closest resemblance to the Eng- 

lish windows now under con- 

sideration. There is, however, 

one peculiarity which causes a 

great difference in appearance 

between the French and the 

English examples. The English mullions and tracery bars 

are much broader, and are less deep in the direction of the 

thickness of the walls than the French examples. Thus 

the great English windows of about 1300, such as that 

^ 3 Lincoln, England : cathe- 

dral. Central tower. 1310 A.D. 

298 WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. [CHAP. VI 

of Bloxham, Oxfordshire, and the clear-story of the nave 
of Lincoln Cathedral, are seen to be closely allied, by the 
breadth of their stone dividing-bars, to those English 
windows of an earlier period which were rather groups 
of separate openings than large openings subdivided. 
There are, however, many exceptions to this general rule. 
The great west window of Lichfield Cathedral, though 
not continental in design, has deep and narrow tracery 
bars, and the splendid east window of Lincoln, eight 
lights wide, and exquisitely organized with its parts all 
duly subordinated, is one of the many details in which 
this cathedral approaches the more systematic Gothic of 
the French Royal Domain. With 1320 also begins what 
the English writers have called Flowing Tracery, such as 
that of the nave windows of Beverley Minster (Fig. 164), 
and in the adoption of these wavy and flame-like forms, 
the English architects were certainly in advance of those 
of the continent (see above, p. 273). Indeed, if the dates 
given to some of the Flowing Tracery windows be correct, 
these windows precede by nearly a century the flamboyant 
tracery, which alone can be compared with them. Flow- 
ing Tracery reaches perhaps its culmination in the great 
and beautiful east window of Carlisle Cathedral, nearly 
twenty-seven feet wide and divided into nine lights. 
Figure 164 A gives this splendid window, which, however, 
finds a worthy rival in the west window of York Minster, 
known to have been completed and glazed in 1338. 

It is curious to note how suddenly the waving forms of 
this graceful English invention are deserted for another 
and equally original English style, the Perpendicular Trac- 

FIG. 164. Beverley, England : the Minster. One bay of the nave. About 1330 A.D. 

300 WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. [CHAP. VI 

ery, which begins as early as 1360 (see Figs. 165, 189, and 
189 A). The great east window of Gloucester was prob- 
ably built at the same time with the choir or immediately 
afterward, and this choir is known to have been finished 
about 1350. In this instance the window fills the whole 
space beneath and within the vault, but as it is curiously 
adapted to a slightly polygonal east end, it may be con- 

FlG. 164 A. Carlisle, England: Cathedral. East window. About 1300 A.D. 

sidered wholly exceptional. The famous west window of 
the nave of Winchester Cathedral is known to have been 
built before 1366, and here the traceried window fills the 
whole space within the constructional piers and the vault 
which they carry, and does so in a perfectly normal way, 
there being only a slight blunting of the window arch, 
which leaves a scrap of wall above it and below the vault. 
This is one of the many reasons for the statement often 



made that the Perpendicular is the first thoroughly organ- 
ized English Gothic style. Its characteristics are the low- 
pitched, almost flat roof; the great size of the windows, 
which fill the whole or nearly the whole space between the 
constructional uprights ; the generally complete organiza- 
tion of the vaulting system, with vaulting shafts carried 
up from the foundation ; the more fully developed flying 
buttresses, with wall-strips, against which they abut; and 
the typical, purely English, square tower, crowned with 
an open parapet and with four or eight pinnacles, but 
without spire or visible roof of any kind. Other pecul- 
iarities are less universal, but very characteristic, such as 
the steep slope of the flying buttresses, as in Bristol 
Cathedral, the choir of Norwich Cathedral and Bath abbey 
church, and the continual employment of battlements 
and pinnacles breaking the sky-line where there is no 
visible roof. Churches of a simple kind and of this style 
are very numerous. The choir of Staindrop Church, Dur- 
ham County (Fig. 165), shows Perpendicular windows of 
good style, those of the north flank being of about 1370, 
and that of the east end of the fifteenth century. The 
Perpendicular style was long-lived. It knew how to accept 
and assimilate most varied forms and the richest and most 
diversified architectural details. Its history is therefore 
continuous, and shows a natural development, from 1350 
to the beginning of what we call the Elizabethan style, as 
will be seen in Chapter VII. 

In the matter of vaulting, the English churches grow 
continually more interesting as time goes on. The ribs, 
which we found in Chapter V. to be put in often without 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. 


regard to construction, and for decorative purposes alone, 
are now found to be more significant. It is not indeed 
possible to say that they are all necessary, but at least it 
appears that a skeleton of ribs was built with a view to 
the ultimate effectiveness of the structure. The sim- 
plicity of the original Gothic vault is deliberately aban- 

FIG. 165. Staindrop, England: Church. Choir about 1370 A.D. , except end window, 

which is later. 

doned, but in the place of it a rich and highly architectural 
result is obtained. When such a decorative building as 
the nave of Canterbury is under consideration, it seems 




absurd to complain of it for not resembling the simpler 
work of earlier times. The nave of Winchester Cathedral 
is as fine as that of Canterbury, and deserves the most 
careful study. 

In a few instances an entirely novel attempt is made. 
The Gothic builders undertook that which had not been 
tried before. The most important departure made is the 
case of the regular octagon of Ely. Here at the crossing 
of the nave and transept 
an attempt was made about 
1325 to make a dome- 
like structure conterminous 
with the whole great square 
within, not the clear-story 
walls, but the aisle-walls; 
that is to say, to build an 
octagonal hall as wide as 
the nave and aisles taken 
together, nearly seventy 
feet, the nave, transept, 
and choir to open into 
the four opposite sides of 
this, and the aisles to open into it also by means of 
low archways in the diagonal walls. The vaulting of 
this octagdn is based upon that convex or semi-pyramidal 
arrangement explained in the last chapter in connection 
with Lincoln Cathedral. These half-pyramids are arranged 
as skownJflTthe plan (Fig. 165 A), and the ribs which form 
them stop at the continuous octagonal curb above from 
which the lantern rises. Now, as the whole weight of the 

'O t O 50 

FIG. 165 A. Ely, England: Cathedral. 
Plan of the crossing of nave and tran- 
sept. The vaulting of about 1325 A.D. 

304 WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. [CHAP. VI 

lantern rests upon this curb, it will be seen that the ribs 
are not acting at all as parts of an arch. The theory ex- 
plained above (pp. 196-7), according to which it was half- 
arches which were found to be the essential of the Gothic 
vaulting, would seem to have been carried to the extreme 
in this case, except that these ribs are not doing arch-work 
at all, but are really struts ; and the key of the whole com- 
position is the rigid octagonal curb above alluded to. In 
other words, this is not masonry vaulting in the ordinary 
sense; but that is indifferent, and the world might have 
welcomed the innovation, and developed the idea farther, 
had the result seemed agreeable to the architectural de- 
signers of the time. 1 It is not pleasing, however. The 
otherwise beautiful interior is marred by the abrupt expan- 
sion in the middle, which makes the four arms of the cross 
too slender by comparison, and the brightly lighted octa- 
gon overhead breaks into the dusky stretches of vaulting 
in the harshest way. This is one of the many unsuccessful 
attempts at an original and unexampled system of design, 
and one of the most vigorous and promising of them. 
Many novel experiments in vaulting were made by the 

1 The Gothic builders can hardly be thought of as studying the cupolas of 
the Pantheon at Rome and H. Sophia at Constantinople. Their attempts at cov- 
ering an octagon, as at Ely, or a square, as at Milan (see pp. 320-21), with one 
system of vaults without a central pillar, are not strictly attempts at cupola 
construction. Such as they are, they seem not to have satisfied the workmen of 
the time, for none of them were followed up. The two experiments named 
above, that at York in the beautiful chapter-house, and that at Prague, the 
Karlshofer Kirche, are all interesting, but not one of them had any important 
results. Of these, the Prague example is the most remarkable, over seventy- 
five feet from side to side ; that of Ely is about seventy-two feet from side to 
side, while the other two are much smaller. 




English church-builders of the fourteenth century. One 
of these, from the " Chapel of Nine Altars " in Durham 
Cathedral, is given in Fig. 166. It is curious to see, in 

FIG. 166. Durham, England: Cathedral. Chapel of the Nine Altars. Detail of the 

vaulting, north end. 

work of so late a date, the retention of the very broad 
vaulting rib with its hollow mouldings filled with sculpt- 
ured leafage. A very similar system has been followed in 
the choir-vaulting of the same beautiful church. 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. 


The year 1395 saw the beginning of Westminster Hall, 
one of the most important and interesting buildings in 
Europe, not wholly ecclesiastical in character. It was 
finished, with its noble timber roof, before the close of the 

century. Figure 166 A 
gives half of one bay of this 
roof, which has sixty-eight 
feet of clear width between 
the walls, and rises forty- 
six feet above them to its 
ridge. The walls of West- 
minster Hall are very mas- 
sive, and pierced with win- 
dows which are small for 
its extent. The building 
is therefore not more close- 
ly related to true Gothic 
construction than are the 
buildings of residence or 
of defence erected at this 
time. It is as perfect an 
example as exists of such 
exceptional structures as 
accompany a great archi- 
tectural movement but do 
not form a part of it. What 
it takes out of the Gothic 
system is its high and steep 
roof, its peculiar architect- 
ural decoration made up 

FIG. 1 66 A. London, England: Westmin- 
ster Hall. Part of the roof seen from 
within. About 1398 A.D. O, principal 
horizontal piece which bears upon the 
vertical posts D, and which carries the 
rafters about half-way between the wall- 
plate and the ridge. The vertical posts 
D rest upon the hammer-beams, the ends 
of which are carved into figures of 
angels. A, collar-beam, which is a hori- 
zontal tie. /, /', secondary horizontal 
pieces or purlines. Z, N, P, diagonal 
braces. R, dormer window. 

SEC. V] ITALY 307 

of the pointed arch with cusps, its peculiar sculpture, 
though this is sparingly used, and most of all, its reliance 
upon the actual construction and the constructional put- 
ting together of the parts as a chief means of effect. 


At the beginning of the fourteenth century two very 
large churches were in progress in Italy, the cathedral of 
Florence and S. Petronio at Bologna. In the nave of 
each of these there is much resemblance, so far as the 
interior disposition goes, to S. Maria Novella at Florence, 
described in the last chapter. The same very high pillars 
widely spaced, so that the nave is vaulted in squares and 
so that the nave arches rise high toward the roof, reducing 
the clear-story to a mere series of lunettes ; the same lofty 
aisles corresponding to the nave-arches ; the samejibsence 
of any syj>tejri__of_^aj^ 

mcTeecT composed of clustered piers, but having no exact 
reIatioiT"to the vaulted ribs whicn they carry, all these 
peculiarities are seen here as in the smaller church. Fig- 
ure 1 66 B gives a portion of the plan of each of these two; 
great churches, with which is shown a part of the plan 
of Amiens. The two Italian churches are very similar 
except for the chapels which accompany the aisles at S. 
Petronio. An inevitable result of the vaulting of the nave 
in squares, instead of parallelograms with their length 
across the nave, is that at Florence there are but four bays 
in the length of the nave and at Bologna only six, although 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. 


the latter nave has the unusual length of 350 feet. The 
result of this, again, is the inevitable loss of much of the 
charm of the northern Gothic churches. The apparent 
length is diminished to a surprising and inexplicable 
extent by the great size and small number of the bays. 
Figure 167 shows the interior of S. Petronio; the fact that 

4 + * 

FIG. i66B. Plans, to the same scale, of S. Petronio, B, Bologna, and Cathedral of 
Florence, C, compared with that of Cathedral of Amiens, A. 

the springing line of the nave-arches at the top of the 
great capitals is over fifty feet from the floor, and the 
spring of the nave-vaults more than one hundred feet 
from the floor, is not important to our inquiry, because 
those dimensions do not greatly exceed the dimensions of 
such cathedrals as Amiens, Bourges, or Cologne. What 
is important is the absence of subdivision into numerous 
minor parts, all combined in a systematic and intelligible 

FIG. 167. Bologna, Italy : Church of S. Petronio. Nave. Close of fourteenth century. 


way. If the interior of Noyon (Fig. 121) be compared 
with this, it will appear that the whole side wall of the 
French nave, with its lower arches open into the aisles, its 
gallery, triforium, and clear-story windows in the intervals 
of the vaulting, is replaced in the Italian example by nave- 
arches of just three times the span of the French ones and 
by the same blank, bare, unorganized wall above them 
which we found in S. Maria Novella (Fig. 140). Mere size 
has been of little avail in giving dignity to this great 
interior. With smaller dimensions a French Gothic cathe- 
dral would have seemed larger, and what is more to the 
purpose, would have produced a perfectly satisfactory 
artistical result, impressing the beholder at once with the 
sense of vastness and the sense of perfect grace and har- 
mony ; surprising him by its boldness and yet satisfying 
him as to its solidity. In other words, the French Gothic 
cathedral embodies a complete system of proportion, 
worked out as carefully and grasped as perfectly by~ the 
builders as the system of construction, while the Italian 
interior shows a style half understood and to a great extent 
misunderstood, and the need of years of development 
before it could reach perfection, which years of develop- 
ment were not to be granted. 

Nothing of S. Petronio was ever built except the nave 
with its aisles and chapels. The existing model for the 
completed church shows that it was to have been a Latin 
cross in plan, about 750 feet long over all and covered at 
the crossing of the transept by a gigantic dome. This last- 
feature could hardly have succeeded in the hands of these 
unpractised builders, but in other ways S. Petronio has 

SEC. V] ITALY 311 

much, even in its early and original conception, to interest 
the student of mediaeval building. It has, for instance, 
large and decorative windows ; windows which in them- 
selves are very interesting pieces of Gothic designing. In 
these, the simple outer tracery is of brick-work carefully 
moulded, but very plain, while the inner and more elabo- 
rate tracery is of marble. Other windows there are which 
are much more elaborate, five lights instead of four in 
width, and with all the tracery of marble, but these are 
later in date and inferior in taste. 

The nave of Florence Cathedral shows signs in the 
interior of the elaborate and patient study which marks 
every part of that famous building and its appendages. 
The designer was offended, as he might well have been, 
by the awkward form of the piece of wall above the nave 
arches in so many Italian churches (see Figs. 140, 141). 
To remedy this, he carried a broad band horizontally 
above the nave-arches, which band provides a rather suc- 
cessful system of abutments for the high vaults. The 
lunettes of the clear-story left free above this horizontal 
band are of good proportion, and the double spandrels 
below, though not at all graceful, are felt to be inevitable 
(see Fig. 168). That the nave is in spite of this care on 
the part of its designer a most uninteresting and unattrac- 
tive interior is caused partly by the absence of well-con- 
sidered and well-applied decoration ; for it has neither 
the translucent colour of the North 1 nor the opaque colour 
of Italy, as at S. Francis of Assisi ; partly by the small 

1 There is beautiful glass in the windows, but the surface is relatively 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. 


size and unimportant character of the windows as seen 
from within for a great interior without effective win- 
dows is lost ; and partly by the same faults of proportion 
which we have noticed in S. Petronio. The Gothic style, 
even in this bastard form, reaches no farther than the 

1 i i i i I 

FIG. 1 68. Florence, Italy: Cathedral. Construction of nave. First half of fourteenth 


nave (see Fig. 166 B). To the eastward of the nave comes 
the great octagon with its three apses and the chapels 
which surround them ; a combination of structures origi- 
nally Romanesque in plan, as pointed out above (page 
149), and developed into a series of semi-independent 

SEC. V] ITALY 313 

octagons and parts of octagons, each having its own 
cupola. It is not known exactly what the first designer 
had in mind for the roofs of this tri-apsal sanctuary, but 
it was clearly nothing in the least degree Gothic. 

The tendency to avoid the pointed style and to insist 
upon the round-arched building as a natural development 
of the earlier Romanesque is well seen in a noble build- 
ing of this time, the cathedral church of S. Martino at 
Lucca, built during the first half of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. Here the pillars of the nave are not unlike those 
of the pseudo-Gothic churches we have described, and the 
pilaster, which takes the place of vaulting shafts, differs 
from the similar features in the pointed-arched churches 
only in being somewhat broader and more massive. 
Springing from these pilasters are large and heavy trans- 
verse arches, and the vault which finds much of its sup- 
port in these can hardly be called a Gothic vault (see 
Fig. 1 68 A). It is indeed doubtful whether the slightly 
emphasized ribs are really constructional ribs at all, and 
whether we have not here a revival of the early Roman- 
esque cupola-vault, depending upon the transverse arches 
and the wall-arches for its support; as in the case of 
S. Michele at Pavia (see p. 169). There is an admirable 
triforium consisting of two arches in each bay, sometimes 
round and sometimes pointed, the great arches of the 
nave are semicircular, and, in fact, there is nothing to 
remind one of the existence of northern Gothic except 
the not very characteristic tracery beneath the arches of 
the triforium. A still more decided protest against the 
northern Gothic is seen in the Loggia dei Lanzi, built 

FIG. 1 68 A. Lucca, Italy: Cathedral as completed early in the fourteenth century. 

SEC. V] ITALY 315 

at Florence from the designs of Orcagna about 1375. 
This structure (see Fig. 169) is, in plan, a parallelogram 
roofed in three nearly square compartments. These com- 
partments are separated by immense and solid transverse 
arches, and the archivolts of the great arches of the inte- 
rior and of the wall-arches are deep and show the most 
massive and careful construction. The vaulting ribs also 
are extremely massive, so that the great vaults, about 
forty by forty-three feet, are carried by what seems almost 
a superfluity of support. This, however, is only an addi- 
tional expression of that non-Gothic feeling of which this 
building is so marked an instance. 

In the Loggia dei Lanzi, as in so many other Italian 
buildings, iron ties are used to resist the thrust of the 
vaults. It cannot be said that these ties are absolutely 
necessary. The building is very solidly constructed and 
with excellent workmanship; the great piers are about 
six feet in thickness ; the weight on the haunches of each 
arch is that furnished by twenty feet vertical of solid 
masonry, and this weight might easily have been made 
very much greater at the angles, where especially needed, 
without altering the design, by the simple process of 
building up to the level of the top of the parapet at 
those points. It is unquestionable that these ties are used 
in Italy when not needed. Every one who has observed 
Italian buildings of the middle ages will recall long ar- 
cades of which the inner arches are as elaborately stayed 
as the end ones, with stout iron bars. It has long ago 
become an admitted feature : the bars are put in on all 
occasions and in every place, spanning small arches and 

FIG. 169. Florence, Italy: Loggia del Lanzi. About 1375 A.D. 

SEC. V] ITALY 317 

great, and steadying alike corner pillars with vaults press- 
ing on them in two directions, and pillars equally large 
receiving no thrust that is not taken up and counterbal- 
anced. If, therefore, we assume that this building does 
not absolutely require the iron ties, we have a faultless 
structure and one which deserves, as indeed it commands, 
almost universal admiration. If, however, the ties are 
assumed to be necessary, there is still in this beautiful 
portico the almost complete development of an architect- 
ural style. The needs of Italian builders would have 
been well met by the system of vaulting, the scheme of 
archivolts and clustered pillars and the semi-classic sculpt- 
ure of the elaborate compound capitals with leafage in 
three rows, which leafage surrounds each great pier with 
a belt of ornament, and is not so much a capital as the 
crowning member of a pillar too large to be treated as 
a column. It is in every way to be regretted that the 
Italians did not abandon Gothic architecture at this point, 
and go on to a round-arched style, which would have 
had undoubtedly much of the character of the building 
before us. 

The exterior decorative architecture of the cathedral of 
Florence, and that of the famous bell-tower (see Plate IV.), 
embody another attempt to provide a new architectural 
style for the new conditions. It is clear that nowhere in 
Italy more than in Florence was there felt that longing for 
a style more southern in its characteristics than they found 
the Gothic style to be. The walls, to please the Floren- 
tines, had to be broad and smooth, and unbroken within 
and without. The Gothic structure, with its organization 

318 WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. [CHAP. VI 

showing in every foot of it, did not interest them at all. 
Small windows and few of them ; the interiors treated like 
halls, with their different parts nearly of a height and no 
refined system of proportion governing the heights and 
widths of the different parts ; doorways small and low, and 
opening anywhere, as convenient, forming indeed no part 
of the plan considered as a work of art, all these pecul- 
iarities left the Florentines at liberty to think out some- 
thing in surface ornamentation. Twelve hundred years 
before, the Roman imperial architects had thought out a 
similar problem, and had elaborated a system of surface 
ornament by the use of thin facings of marble, serpentine, 
and alabaster, and still thinner ones of glass coloured in 
the material or moulded in low relief. Now in the four- 
teenth century the Florentines invested the exteriors, first 
perhaps of their baptistery, next of the campanile, and 
finally of the cathedral itself, with a facing of coloured 
marble. The larger surfaces are covered with panel work 
not very minute or elaborate in its parts, but everywhere 
are horizontal bands, upright splays of window jambs, and 
archivolts flush with the wall or in reveal, which members 
are adorned with an inlay of marble so delicate in its parts 
and so elaborate in design as to vie with the mosaic floors 
of the baptistery. In grace of design and in variety of 
pattern these inlays surpass anything of the kind in west- 
ern art. A great deal of sculpture in low relief is used in 
connection with this delicate inlay. These highly decora- 
tive parts are used in connection with the simple panelling 
of the exterior with almost infallible touch. The flanks 
of the cathedral of Florence, nearly devoid of general 


The tower and marble sheathing of the walls are of XIV century. 
View from S. E. of tower and western patt of Nave. 

SEC. V] ITALY 319 

architectural character, are treated with this marble facing 
in such a way and with such consummate skill that each 
becomes an architectural composition of a high order. It 
becomes evident, on comparing the south flank of Florence 
with that of a cathedral like Bourges, that there are two 
architectures left to us from the mediaeval world. It 
appears that the architecture of construction and organ- 
ization, of reason and logic, of perfect proportion and 
harmony of part with part, is but one, and that there is 
also the architecture of huge masses, hardly organized, 
piled up without much reference to the significance of 
their parts, roofs and walls thought satisfactory if they 
give shelter, and then adorned richly with what the arts 
of colour and of form can give after the construction is 

In Tuscany the last word of nominally Gothic art was 
spoken in these buildings of simple form and build, but 
beautiful surface ornament, with sculpture and painting. 
It cannot but be regretted that the style was not allowed 
to develop itself freely, without the violent interruption of 
the classical Renaissance. In the North of Italy, however, 
there are no such regrets to be expressed. Gothic archi- 
tecture in Lombardy said its last word in the most singu- 
lar building in the Peninsula, the cathedral of Milan. 
This building is a cruciform church, with two aisles on 
each side of the nave, one aisle on each side of the tran- 
sept, and an aisle turning around the circular end of the 
choir, and producing a polygonal apse. The system of the 
interior is nearly like that of the churches of S. Anastasia, 
S. Maria Novella and S. Petronio at Bologna, in having 

320 WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. [CHAP. VI 

the clear-story wall reduced to a lunette awkwardly invaded 
by the arch rising from below. In one respect at least it is 
superior to any of those churches ; the number of bays is 
practically doubled, so that the aisle-vaults are in square 
compartments, and the compartments of the nave are 
parallelograms of almost two squares. The awkward 
high-shouldered effect produced by the great height of 
the pillars in proportion to the arches of the nave and 
their superincumbent wall is indeed increased rather than 
diminished by this narrowing of the bays, but that which is 
of much greater importance, the proportions of the church 
taken lengthwise, are greatly improved. In another respect 
the interior is worthy of study. In all such large clustered 
piers, when it is decided to make a ring of leafage to 
serve as a capital of the whole pier, or in any other way 
to end the shaft of the pier at a uniform level, as is gener- 
ally done in Italy (see S. Petronio, and the cathedrals at Flor- 
ence and Lucca, Figs. 167, 168, 168 A), there is the difficulty 
that this crowning member is found to be inadequate. In 
the case of the Loggia dei Lanzi (see p. 317), this difficulty 
was got over by the superimposition of three decided rows 
of leafage. In Milan Cathedral a far more daring expe- 
dient was resorted to. Each pier is surrounded at the top 
by a belt of niches with statues in them. A bold leafy 
band is arranged at the top of the shaft ; this affords a 
support for the statues, and the architectural details of the 
niches rise around the piers and invest them up to the 
line of the springing of the nave-arches and aisle-vaults. 
In the vaulting of Milan Cathedral there is one interesting 
feature, the curious vault at the crossing of nave and 

SEC. V] ITALY 321 

transept, which may be thought to approach success as a 
cupola more closely than any Gothic dome that exists. It 
is far more graceful in its lines than that which covers the 
octagon of Ely Cathedral (see p. 303), and in this case, 
although the span is smaller, the undertaking is bolder, 
because it is a square which has to be roofed, the roof 
being brought to an octagon by pendentives, and this 
crowned by a vault carried on eight ribs leaving between 
the curves of the roof eight equal lunettes. 

It is the exterior of Milan which is the most peculiar 
and puzzling of designs, and one of the least agreeable 
of all important pieces of architecture. It is almost uni- 
versally disliked by students of architecture of all schools, 
and has indeed nothing to recommend it even to popular 
favour but its immense size and the effect of light and 
shade on its buttresses and pinnacles of white marble 
as if upon a snowy mountain. Analysis of its design is 
impossible here, but it may be stated that the fault 
which seems to pervade it is an absolute lack of fine 
proportion. The fa$ade or west front is the worst part, 
and will probably be still less agreeable when the classi- 
cal window- and door-pieces, work of the sixteenth 
century, are taken out as proposed. The best part is 
perhaps the tower which crowns the cupola above 
described, and with curious hollow curves ends in a very 
lofty spire which no observer suspects to be of great 
height. The forest of pinnacles, the thick fringe of 
pointed, gable-like battlements, and the cutting up of 
all the broad surfaces by panelling, in no way disguise 
the clumsiness of the proportions. 

322 WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. [CHAP. VI 

A far better result is reached in the neighbouring cathe- 
dral of Monza, where a fa$ade of white and gray marble 
is arranged in a Romanesque disposition with pointed 
forms. This front is of the years 1360-1390, and shows 
in a curious way the constant and perhaps unconscious 
strivings of the Italians to get back to Romanesque 
forms. This is the more remarkable because the break- 
ing up of the front into five vertical divisions, with the 
sloping lines of what assume to be the roofs of double 
aisles, repeats very closely the lines of the front of Milan 
Cathedral, while the arcaded cornice and fringe of gables 
over the porch are a further suggestion of that florid 
design. The cathedral of Como is a simpler and better 
design as far as its west front is concerned. Except for 
the niches which occupy nearly the whole height of the 
pilaster-like buttresses, this front is Gothic as the Italians 
of the North understood Gothic, and is, without reference 
to style, a simple and well-proportioned front, with no 
fault except that the raised central portion, representing 
the clear-story, has no clear-story behind it, and is with- 
out other reason for being than the proportion of the 
front taken by itself. 

A few miles south of Milan is the famous Certosa or 
Carthusian convent, with a church which was begun in 
1396. This is one of the most successful buildings in 
mediaeval Italy, and more than almost any other makes 
the student regret that the Italians had not the determi- 
nation to resist the Gothic influence and build exclusively 
in their own round-arched style. The original front is 
entirely lost, having been replaced by the superb fa9ade 

SEC. V] ITALY 323 

of 1473 (of which we shall have to speak in Chap- 
ter VII.), but the flanks and east end are all of that 
highly developed Romanesque in which the parts are 
made extremely light. The fact that the interior is with- 
out the iron tie-rods, which are almost universal in Italy, 
goes to show that so much of the Gothic construction 
as is used here has been intelligently applied, and com- 
bined with an exterior v/hich has nothing Gothic except 
its rational disposition of parts. 

Venice, which has no Gothic church specially worthy 
of mention as embodying different principles of design 
from those of the Lombard cities, has a system of civic 
and domestic architecture which must be noted. There 
seems no doubt that the traceried arcades of the Ducal 
Palace were invented especially for that building, the 
sea front having been finished before 1400. These 
afford one of the few instances of the composition of 
the constructional kind reaching its complete architect- 
ural effect at the first trial. Figure 170 shows a part 
of this tracery with reference to its simple and perfect 
constructive character. It will be noticed that every 
part is arch construction of the most complete and well- 
combined sort. Few pieces of civic or domestic architect- 
ure can compare with this. Ordinarily the residences and 
civic buildings of any epoch obtain their exterior archi- 
tectural effect by the mere forms of the main mass itself 
and the placing of the windows. If more than this is at- 
tempted, it is by means of wholly useless appendages put 
on to the building for the mere sake of breaking it up 
into architectural seeming, or by sculpture or colour. 

324 WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. [CHAP. VI 

In the Ducal Palace, however, long open galleries being 
required, the building which contains the large upper 
rooms is carried upon the pillars of these galleries by 

FiG. 170. Venice, Italy : Ducal Palace. Detail of sea front. Second half of 
fourteenth century. 

means of a perfectly successful modification of ordinary 
Gothic window-tracery. This new tracery would have 
been absurdly massive had it not the heavy wall above 
to carry. As it is, it is probably the most successful 

SEC. V] 



piece of civic architecture in 
Europe. The scheme was im- 
mediately adopted unchanged, 
and also with modifications, 
by the builders of private 
palaces in Venice, and the 
style spread to the cities of 
the Venetian dominion such 
as Vicenza and Padua. 

One other development of 
Italian Gothic must 
be named, the 
tombs ; compositions 
which have not their 
equal in the North. 
The wall tombs, in 
which light, cusped 
arches are carried 
on twisted shafts, 
are numerous in the 
churches of the whole 
Peninsula, but by far 
the most important 
out-of-door monu- 
ments are in Verona. 
'There, on the wall 
which encloses the 
courtyard , of the 
chapel of S. Pietro 
Martire, stands the 

FIG. 171. Verona, Italy: Tomb of Mastino II. 
After 1351 A.D. 

326 WESTERN EUROPE, 1300 TO 1420 A.D. [CHAP. VI 

tomb of the count of Castel-Barco ; in the little courtyard 
behind it are three tombs only inferior to the exquisite 
Castel-Barco tomb itself: other such tombs adorn the 
fronts or the flanks of the Veronese churches; and 
the little churchyard of S. Maria Antica contains the 
monuments of the La Scala family, which for two 
hundred years held almost undisputed sway over the 
city. The tomb of Can Grande, who died 1328, is over 
the church door; the tomb of Mastino II. (died 1351) 
stands free, a square monument with four gables (see 
Fig. 171); the tomb of Can Signorio (died 1375) is a 
structure hexagonal in plan and still more elaborate in 
design. The tomb of which we give a cut is a piece 
of ornamental designing which cannot be surpassed by 
any building of Europe. Its sculpture is as fine as its 
general design and perfectly fitted to its plan and 




IN 1422 Charles VII. succeeded to the throne of France 
and Henry VI. to the throne of England. Two years 
before this time Henry V. of England had entered Paris, 
heir of France by treaty as well as by possession of the 
northern and eastern provinces ; but the years after his 
death were marked by the steady decline of English power 
on the continent. The years from about 1435 to 1483 were 
destined to be a great epoch of national growth under 
Charles VII. and his son, the long-headed Louis XI. 
Architecture, which had hardly lived during the hideous 
years of Henry's invasion, came into being again, vigorous, 
strong, and at a point of development not easy to under- 
stand. There had been so little building of importance in 
what was then France during the long lapse of time from 


328 WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. [CHAP. VII 

1340-1420, and so little of what was then built remains to 
us, that it is hard to trace the evolution which culminated 
in the Flamboyant style of 1435. Not very many large 
churches needed to be built; the soil of France was 
covered with churches which political warfare, not con- 
nected now as in earlier and in later times with religious 
controversy, had generally spared. As there were not 
many churches to build, there was not much which was 
new in vaulting; in fact, the great principles of Gothic 
vaulting had been established ; and although it is curious 
to watch the steady divergence of the English and French 
systems of vaulting, it is not important to insist upon the 
changes within the French style. 

The church of S. Germain 1'Auxerrois at Paris (Fig. 172) 
is perhaps the first important building known to us of what 
we call the Flamboyant style, which style was to prevail in 
France for ninety years and to linger even beyond that 
period in the lands which took their inspiration from France. 
The porch of S. Germain with its five arches crowned with 
reversed curves and sculptured finials, and its rose-window 
filled with flowing tracery, is well known to visitors of 
Paris and to all students of architectural illustration, for 
this is the parish church of the dwellers in the Louvre, 
and stands opposite the great colonnade of the palace, with 
only a street between. The interior is less known. In 
the nave vaulting is seen the curious and characteristic 
mark of the time, the absence of capitals from the great 
pillars. This disappearance of the capitals from the prin- I 
cipal pillars can only be explained by the fact that the j 
mouldings of all the vaulting ribs were brought to the same 

SEC. I] 



level for their point of departure. This was a recognized 
principle of the time, and the springing of the five ribs, 
including perhaps fifty mouldings, from the same level, 
would naturally reduce the capital which should terminate 
the vertical pillar to a mere sculptured band. It was felt 

FIG. 172. Paris: Church of S. Germain 1'Auxerrois. First half of fifteenth century. 

that the uppermost course of stone of the vertical pillar 
required ornament no more than any other of its numerous 
horizontal courses, and in those times of reason applied to 
building the logical spirit was sure to prevail over tradi- 
tion. The disappearance of capitals from the impost near 
the springing line of the arch is common in the building 
of the fifteenth century. Figure 173, a detail from the 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. 


cathedral of Narbonne, illustrates this novel feature. Slen- 
derness of supports and general lightness of construction 
could hardly be carried farther than they had been carried 
in the fourteenth century, but perhaps there is a more 
marked insistence upon this lightness as an essential deco- 
rative feature. 

The church of S. Maclou at Rouen is of this epoch, and 
here we have practically the whole de- 
sign of a church as one mind may have 
conceived it, although in actual con- 
struction the spire is modern. It is a 
small church with a very curious polyg- 
onal front. Figure 174 gives the 
pierced gable above the central door- 
way of the west front of this church, 
as it was before the restoration, and 
this gable should be compared with that 
FIG. i 73 . Narbonne, o f R ouen Cathedral (Fig. 150). No 

France : Cathedral. . 111- 

One pier of the choir, better instance could be given of the 
Fifteenth century. extreme development of tracery as a 
principal feature of decorative architecture, which is charac- 
teristic of the time. The gables over the porches can no 
longer be called pierced gables ; they have become mere 
triangles of tracery, which tracery is not filled with glass, 
merely because it is not important to keep out the weather. 
The tracery is designed on exactly the same principles as 
those which govern window-tracery, and, like window-tra- 
cery, this has a decorative value which is perhaps found in 
no other ornamentation which has no reference whatever to 
natural forms. Nothing in the whole history of architecture 

SEC. I] 



can equal it in this respect. The admired interlacings 
of the Mohammedan styles and those of certain outlying 
schools of the Romanesque, together with the curious 
wooden mesh-rebiya work, are as far as is the fret-work of 
the remote East 
from equalling 
flamboyant tra- 
cery in this re- 
spect. It is in 
itself of a wonder- 
ful charm, and it 
is capable of re- 
ceiving a further 
decoration in the 
way of delicate 
floral or animal 
sculpture, as can 
be seen where 
the stone work is 
sufficiently pro- 
tected to allow of 
its being sculpt- 
ured with the 
delicate forms 

Which it requires. Fia I74> R ouen , France : Church of S. Maclou. Gables 
The Staircase tO of porch. Second half of fifteenth century. 

the gallery of this very church of S. Maclou is such a 
piece of adorned tracery, but of later date ; its moulded 
bars are adorned with beasts and monsters, delicate in 
design and rich in fancy, like an Oriental carving in ivory. 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. 


The detail from the cathedral of Evreux, given in Fig. 175, 

is a good instance of such 
combinations of tracery with 

A more massive piece of ar- 
chitecture is the choir of Mont 
Saint Michel, on the Nor- 
man coast, and other similar 
structures are the church of 
S. Jacques at Dieppe, parts 
of the cathedral of Quim- 
per, in Brittany, the beauti- 
ful church of Louviers near 
Rouen, and the lovely tower 
appended to the cathedral at 
Bordeaux, and named, from 
the bishop who built it, Tour 
Pey-Berland. A good exam- 
ple of the simpler work of 
the time is the cloister of the 
cathedral of Narbonne, built 
about 1430: Fig. 176 shows 
one angle of this structure. 
Northern work of this epoch 
was commonly lighter in its 
parts, but the use of mould- 
ings, sculpture, and tracery 

FIG. 175. Evreux, France: Cathedral. 
Buttress of nave chapels. Fifteenth 

was the same. 

The reign of Louis XL 
is, however, the time of the 

FIG. 176. Narbonne, France: Cathedral. Detail of cloister. About 1430. 

334 WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. [CHAP. VII 

real glory of the Flamboyant style. Between 1460 and 
1480 a great number of important churches were built or 
commenced. At Saint-Pol-de-Leon, besides the beautiful 
cathedral, there was built during these years the strange 
belfry-tower of the Kritzker. In this important tower it 
is most interesting to see the rejection by the builders 
of angle buttresses. They have built a tower as square 
and vertical as the Italian campaniles and crowned it 
with a spire and pinnacles. It rises to a height of 240 
feet, and is wholly of granite, but all this lofty and slender 
structure rests upon four columns and four arches, and 
is supported above the church floor like the central tower 
of a thirteenth-century cathedral. 

The Flamboyant seems to reach its greatest excellence 
during this reign of Louis XL, but it is certainly richer 
in its sculpture and in the combination of that sculpture 
with architectural reforms during the years immediately 
following the accession of Charles VIII. (1483), while that 
king was engaged in the invasion of Italy. S. Wulfran of 
Abbeville, northwest of Amiens, is perhaps the most splen- 
did late Gothic church in existence. It seems impossible 
to carry the art of pierced work and tracery farther ; and 
yet, in the hands of the consummate artists who worked 
here between 1488 and 1510, the building keeps the 
appearance of a stone structure and has none of the 
cold look as of a piece of cast iron which we sometimes 
associate, not without excuse, with the florid late Gothic. 
The effectiveness of the whole composition is wonderfully 
helped by the admirable figure sculpture arranged around 
the great buttress piers of the front, in the jambs of the 


doors, in the pediments, and in the pierced gables. It is 
fantastic, it errs on the side of excessive action, con- 
sidered by itself it is like bronze rather than wrought 
stone ; but the architectural designer knew how to keep 
it in hand and to utilize it as the most effective decora- 
tion for his church, the culminating point of the mass 
of florid ornament. The church at Saint Riquier, not far 
from Abbeville, is a later study in the same spirit. This 
church may be said to be imitated from S. Wulfran, but 
it has its own merits, and it is very curious to see in a 
more advanced form the tendencies already visible in the 
Abbeville church. One of these tendencies is seen in 
the abandonment of deep portals ; those at S. Wulfran at 
Abbeville are reduced to only two rows of niches in the 
arch and two large recesses for statues below, while those 
at Saint Riquier are scarcely more than doorways in thick 
walls. Another innovation is the breaking up of the 
fa9ade and the flank by huge tower-like masses, in many 
of which spiral staircases are worked and which are 
ornamented by the simplest panelling. It seems to have 
been felt that this including in the composition of broad 
vertical bands of comparatively simple walling was made 
necessary by the florid character of the general design. 
Certainly nothing like it is to be found in the thirteenth- 
century churches. 

Greatly inferior to these brilliant designs of the North 
are some of the churches in the provinces of the far East. 
That renowned building standing by itself in a lonely 
plain, Notre Dame de 1'Epine near Chalons, is hardly 
worthy to rank with the buildings we have named ; in 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. 


turn to an 


exterior design it is monotonous, it is uninteresting, it 
has almost no sculpture, and its vast mass for it is as 
large as a cathedral has a vexatious look of cold uni- 
formity, as if of a modern Gothic church. It is curious 
and perhaps inexplicable that a serious effort was made 
in the architecture of the interior to re- 

style. To de- 
to describe a four- 
teenth century 
interior, with its 
clustered piers, 
its triforium of 
small arches sup- 
ported on round 
columns, and its 
simple vaulting ; 
but to examine it 
is- to find the 
charm of the true 
fourteenth cen- 
tury work disap- 
pear, while none 

of the flamboyant beauty is there to replace it. The church 
is known to have been built complete between 1427 and 
1472, having been begun in commemoration of a miracle 
whose date is fixed at 1419. The ruined church of S. 
Jacques des Vignes at Soissons, whose enormous fa9ade 
stands like a screen at. the edge of the little town, has 
some of the clumsy immaturity of Notre Dame de 1'Epine. 
On the other hand, nothing can be more complete and 

FIG. 177. Avioth, France : Chapel attached to the village 
church. Fifteenth century. Plan. 

FIG. 178. Avioth, France : Chapel (see FIG. 177). 

338 WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. [CHAP. VII 

delicately finished in architecture than the lanterne des 
morts at Avioth near Montmedy, in the extreme north- 
east of France, a building of 1480. In this instance the 
return to an earlier type in the round columns which 
form the lowest story, architecturally speaking, and which 
carry the florid lantern above, is as admirably managed 
as it was unsuccessful at Notre Dame de 1'Epine. Figure 

177 gives the plan of this admirable monument, and Fig. 

1 78 its exterior, both from Viollet-le-Duc. As the building 
now stands it has no glass in the windows of the octagon, 
and is the worse for this as losing some of its character 
as a closed building. This exquisite lantern is immedi- 
ately attached to a church of the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries, a very curious instance of what would be under- 
taken in a small and poor community which yet was 
ambitious in the way of building. It has almost no orna- 
mentation except the traceries of the windows and one 
rather rich door to the west and one to the south. Seen 
from the northeast the church is as plain and bare as a 
structure on a Gothic plan can be, except always for the 
flamboyant tracery of its large windows. 

Two splendid church towers belong to this epoch, the 
northwestern tower of Chartres Cathedral, and, at Rouen 
Cathedral, the southernmost of the western towers, called 
la tour de Beurre. Other examples, less famous and 
smaller, abound in many parts of France. The well- 
known tower of S. Jacques la Boucherie, in Paris, is of 
the very last years of this epoch ; and so are, at Rouen, 
the towers of S. Laurent and S. Andre and the crowning 
of the north tower of the cathedral. Northern France 

FIG. 179. Albi, France : Cathedral. South porch. Close of fifteenth century. 

FIG. 1 80. Tours, France : Cathedral. Central doorway of west front. Fifteenth century. 

SEC. I] 



contains many admirable towers and parish churches of the 
years 1450-1520, and one church, inferior to none in beauty, 
is in the South, S. Pierre at Avignon. In these build- 

FIG. 181. Eu, France: Village church. Decorative pendant of the choir-vault. 

ings the most striking merit is the complete mastery of 
quaint and varied detail, as shown in the perfect harmony 
which is maintained in the complete work. The porch 

342 WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. [CHAP. VII 

which projects from the south flank of the cathedral of 
Albi (shown in Fig. 1 79) illustrates this skill in the man- 
agement of detail. It is entirely of white stone and is 
relieved against the brownish red mass of the brick for- 
tress-cathedral (see p. 264). Smaller detail, such as 
tracery and sculpture of living forms, is equally well 
used (see Fig. 180, which shows one of the doorways of 
the cathedral of Tours). Figure 181 is a pendant from 
the church of Eu in Normandy. Figure 182 gives the 
beautiful jube or rood screen of the church of the Made- 
leine at Troyes, the date of which is 1508. 

As an interesting building, half-way between the ecclesi- 
astical and the domestic in character, there may be men- 
tioned the charming little chapel of S. Hubert on the 
edge of the great terrace at Amboise. A piece of vault- 
ing of the same epoch in one of the great towers of the 
chateau illustrates what has been said in previous chapters 
on the loss of character suffered by Gothic vaulting when 
held between continuous walls of perfect solidity. 

The house of Jacques Cceur at Bourges is now fairly 
well restored, and is in use as a town hall. It is well 
known by illustrations in all the books. It is an excellent 
study of planning, adapted to an irregular site and to the 
ancient towers of the town wall which it was necessary to 
utilize. The Palais de Justice at Rouen is one of the 
most sumptuous of the civic structures of the time, a mag- 
nificent piece of florid Gothic in which intelligent design- 
ing and good taste have held in hand what would other- 
wise be a great excess of ornamentation. One of the 
gems of the epoch was the Hotel de la Tremouille in 

344 WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. [CHAP. VII 

Paris, destroyed almost within our own times, but re- 
corded by M. Albert Lenoir in trustworthy plates of 
great beauty. Better known than this is the Hotel de 
Cluny, visited by foreigners in Paris for the sake of the 

FIG. 183. Paris : Hotel de Cluny. 1490 to 1520 A.D. Plan. 

museum contained in it; but its architecture is perhaps 
little regarded by them. It is a better type of the stately 
city house of the day than either of the other buildings 
named. Figure 183 gives its plan, in which A and A' are 
the entrances from the street, B the porter's lodge, C a 


346 WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. [CHAP. VII 

covered portico, H and H' rooms of the principal build- 
ing on the ground floor, which are entered from the portico 
C, from the court by the little door/ from the winding 
staircase R, and from the kitchen D, by way of the small 
winding staircase P. The door g leads from the court to 
the kitchen. / is a room, and A' is a loggia opening on to 
the garden G, and a staircase R and the smaller staircase 
,5* give access to these rooms and lead to the upper story. 
Mis a hall of the ancient Roman thermae. Figure 184 is 
a view of the same building. It is as plain as any costly 
house of the day could well be ; perhaps its destination, to 
serve as the Paris home and office of the powerful abbots 
of Cluny, caused it to be treated with less elaboration of 
design than the house of a lay-lord. 

It became very common in the fourteenth century to 
build city fronts of wooden frame rilled in with masonry. 
The upper stories of these houses often but not always 
projected beyond the ground floor. Sometimes two suc- 
cessive projections would be given to the two principal 
stories above the basement, in which case the basement 
would often be made of stone and very massive, making 
an excellent and appropriate contrast with the extreme 
lightness of the work above. Figure 185 gives a house 
in Rouen in which the whole front is in one plane, and 
consists entirely of windows and the panels beneath them. 
The great window of the basement is an admirable instance 
of the proper way to manage a shop front. 

FIG. 185. Rouen, France : House. Second half of fifteenth century. 

348 WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. [CHAP. VII 


The cathedral tower at Antwerp (Plate V.), begun at 
the very commencement of our present epoch, is as fine 
as any steeple in Europe of its class ; that is, of those in 
which all semblance of a roof is given up, and the spire 
is made a mere ornamental finish and culmination of a 
highly ornamental belfry. It should be compared rather 
with the tower of Strasburg than with any within the 
limits of modern France. Antwerp steeple was the work 
of a Flemish-speaking community, and Strasburg of a 
German people who scarcely used the French language. 
Each of these buildings is altered from the French type; 
exaggerated a little, forced a little in design, but each is 
the more interesting for that, and a lover of florid Gothic 
should study them both. The church of S. Waudru at 
Mons and the cathedral church of S. Rombold at Mechlin 
are valuable, on the other hand, for their reserve and 
gravity of design, as if of an earlier epoch. 

The special glory of the Spanish Netherlands, as of the 
border provinces of what was then France, was, however, 
in the civic buildings of the towns. The splendid hbtel-de- 
ville of Brussels had been built, except for its tower, as 
early as 1406. Thirty years later the noble tower was 
begun, and at about the same time the hbtel-de-ville of 
Louvain, near Brussels, on the east, was undertaken. 
It is curious to compare this varied and elaborate structure 
with the far more sedate contemporary town-halls of Douai 
and Noyon, so near at hand, and one of them at least 


The southern spire never finished. The northern one built about 1500-1510. 


Built about 1450-63. 


hardly French, politically speaking, when the town-hall 
was built. The building at Louvain is high and narrow 
(Plate VI.), with three rather lofty stories in its walls and 
four rows of little dormer windows in its steep roof ; it has 
six tower-like pinnacles of considerable elevation, and an 
elaborate system of balconies with pierced and traceried 
parapets. Moreover, a great number of statues of life-size, 
or nearly as large, throng the towers and the piers between 
the pointed windows, and each of these is placed in an 
elaborate Gothic niche made up of projecting canopy and 
richly carved corbelled support. It is a work of extraordi- 
nary beauty and of the highest interest to the student who 
wishes to see what may be achieved by extreme variety 
and richness with minute subdivision of light and shade, 
and with almost no relief of plain surfaces. Most of the 
celebrated town-halls belong to a later time, but this one 
remains unexcelled, perhaps unmatched, in fantastic beauty. 
In Spain, at the beginning of our epoch, there was in 
hand the unrivalled nave of Gerona Cathedral. The choir 
with its aisles and their chapels had been built long before, 
and the discussion as to what the nave should be was 
begun, as Mr. Street has ascertained, in 1416. As the 
proposition was to build a vault twenty-three feet wider 
than the nave of Chartres, and thirty-five feet wider than 
the nave of Westminster Abbey, there was doubt and 
delay, but the vault was finally erected seventy-three feet 
wide in the clear and of a type as simple as that of the 
early thirteenth-century French vaulting. In fact, this is 
a belated piece of thirteenth-century work ; the conception 
of a master mind which was alone in its generation. 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. 


Generally in Spain the Gothic architecture of about 1440 
and of the following years is of extreme interest, and it is 
impossible to more than hint at its varied and fantastic 

grace. The vaulting of 
S. Thomas at Avila is 
peculiar, for so late an 
epoch, in this, that each 
square of the vault is 
raised into an almost com- 
plete cupola. The sub- 
ordinate ribs are not of 
a kind unfamiliar in the 
French architecture of the 
time, but the crowning 
of the centre of the vault 
seems a reminiscence of 
an earlier and less florid 
Gothic. A similar feeling 
of sympathy for earlier 
and less elaborate Gothic 
is evident in the portal 
of the south transept of 
Toledo Cathedral, the 
well-known Door of the 
Lions. This portal is 
later than the church to 
which it is attached ; its forms are those of good four- 
teenth-century Gothic, and only the details reveal its 
late date, probably 1465. This is the more surprising 
when we contrast with it the startling novelty of the 

FIG. 1 86. Valladolid, Spain: Church of S. 
Gregorio. Doorway of cloister. Close of 
fifteenth century. 


West front. Built about 1465-80. 


front of S. Pablo at Valladolid (Plate VII.). This fa 9 ade, 
which is known to be of about 1460, contains features 
of seemingly Italian origin mingled freely with details 
similar to those of the latest French Gothic. It is 
a composition which seems to dispute with its near 
neighbour of S. Gregorio, with the church of Brou, and 
with the convent at Belem in Portugal, the claim to be the 
most fantastic piece of florid Gothic existing, and yet it is 
much earlier in date. . The question, how far the Spanish 
architects deserve the credit of the invention of this 
strange and not unbeautiful architecture, cannot as yet be 
decided with certainty. The church of S. Juan de los 
Reyes at Toledo, though of later date (about 1490), is more 
strictly Gothic in design, and its splendid cloister of about 
the same years (1470-80) is Gothic in everything except 
its minutest details. This cloister with its magnificent 
statuary, at once architectural and sculpturesque, should 
be compared with the church of S. Wulfran at Abbeville, 
in northern France. Figure 186 shows a doorway of this 
epoch ; it is one of the doors of the cloister of S. Gregorio 
at Valladolid. Here there is nothing that is not good 
Gothic of the time, but the outer doorway of the same 
convent contains many of the strange non-Gothic, non- 
mediaeval elements spoken of above, and is even more fan- 
tastic and unexpected than its near neighbour, the portal 
of S. Pablo. The strange thing called the Mudejar style 
may have had some weight in the scale, and the well-known 
arcade of the Palacio del Infantado at Guadalajara shows 
nearly what had become of this style at the epoch, late for 
it, of 1461 (see Fig. 187). It has also been suggested that 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. 


some part of the inspiration of these innovating architects, 
in both Spain and Portugal, came from India by way of 
commercial intercourse. 1 If this can be established, and if 
the date of these examples in the Peninsula is certain, the 

FIG. 187. Guadalajara, Spain: Palace of the Duke of Infantado. About 1465 A.D. 

influence of these buildings on the French architecture 
becomes evident, and an addition is made to architectural 
history. So far as beautiful and satisfactory building goes, 
however, the student remains more at home with purer 

1 See Albrecht Haupt : Baukunst der Renaissance in Portugal. 


work of the same epoch, such as the interior of the Lonja 
or silk merchants' Exchange at Valencia. 

The last section ot this chapter deals with the architect- 
ure of the Italian Renaissance, which was contemporary 
with the florid Gothic of the rest of Europe. In Spain 
and Portugal the direct influence of the changes in Italy 
are to be seen at a much earlier time than in France, Ger- 
many, or England. They are, of course, contemporary 
with many florid Gothic structures ; thus, at Valladolid, 
the two large, square courts of the two ecclesiastical 
colleges, S. Gregorio and Santa Cruz, are of almost exactly 
the same date (1480-1490). In S. Gregorio the work is 
not unlike contemporary work in France, such as the cov- 
ered arcades of Blois ; the shafts of the columns are deco- 
rated with shallow channelling arranged spirally; the 
arches are elliptical in shape and moulded richly ; the 
parapets are of pierced tracery; the water of the roof is 
carried off by gargoyles of mediaeval look ; in the whole 
structure there is not the smallest reference to ancient 
Roman architecture. At Santa Cruz, on the other hand, a 
severe classic feeling prevails : it is evident that such a 
structure could never have existed at such a time but as 
the immediate result of the Florentine architecture of the 
preceding half-century. There is no such phenomenon as 
this anywhere north of the Pyrenees and the Alps. 


354 WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. [CHAP. VII 


In Germany, the middle part of the fifteenth centui 
saw the erection of some splendid church towers. That 
of the cathedral of Ulm and that of Frankfurt on the Mail 
are of about 1450; that of Strasburg, the most famous of 
all and the highest ancient tower in Europe, is a few years 
earlier in date. The spire of the church of S. Mary (Lieb- 
frauen Kirche) at Wurzburg is of 1479; that of Thann in 
Alsace is somewhat later, and that of S. Stephen at Vienna 
is again earlier in date. These buildings are mentioned 
together, although varying in time of construction through 
half a century, because all but one of them are roof-shaped, 
while the spire of Strasburg, like that of Antwerp, de- 
scribed above, is not in any respect a roof to the tower 
which it crowns. These two famous spires are not even 
of the shape of roofs ; each is of the nature of a purely 
decorative combination of bars of stone, resembling Gothic 
window-tracery, except that it is in three dimensions in- 
stead of lying in a plane. Viollet-le-Duc has reproduced 
a part of the original drawing left from the Middle Ages, 
according to which the Strasburg spire would have been 
a higher, a more elaborate, and a far more logical con- 
struction than it is ; but even as the truncated and sim- 
plified design was carried out in stone, it is one of the 
most surprising and fascinating works of the Middle Ages. 
Eight sloping bars of stone carry a forest of pinnacles, 
which are held together by cusped loops of stone, each 
raking series of pinnacles forming a fringe or crest against 

SEC. Ill] GERMANY 355 

the sky. In this way the spire proper is composed ; but 
the light and open lantern below is an essential part of the 
composition, and the whole structure, from the platform of 
the towers to the cross, must be considered as one archi- 
tectural conception. It must be observed that the spires 
of the fifteenth century are generally blunter than those of 
the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and that this tendency 
to a lower angle of slope is more strongly marked in the 
larger towers, S. Stephen's of Vienna being the chief in- 
stance of an acutely pointed spire of large size. The 
spires, which if not roofs are still roofs in shape, are 
pierced with traceried openings either in part or through- 
out their whole extent. 

Apart from the towers, the German development of true 
Gothic architecture is not supremely important in the fif- 
teenth century. It is in the use of other materials than 
the cut stone dear to Gothic art that the German builders 
did wonders at this time, leaving behind them works which 
the modern world has never appreciated rightly. Nearly 
the whole of north Germany is an alluvial plain, in which 
building-stones are rare, and throughout this region a 
brick architecture prevailed, which reached its highest 
pitch, of a somewhat whimsical elegance, about the begin- 
ning of the fifteenth century. A typical example is the 
church of S. Katherine at Brandenburg, on the Havel. It 
is interesting, in this church, to note the earnest desire of 
the builder to maintain the purity of the Gothic interior, 
both in new work of the fifteenth century and in its adap- 
tation to the old, while he allows the exterior to escape 
from all limits of style and revels in gables and open tra- 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. 


eery of baked clay. Many churches of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries are built of brick and terra cotta, but the 
buildings which make the most impression are the civic 
and half-military structures of the time and the private 
houses. Thus at Tangermunde, north of Magdeburg, the 

FIG. 188. Hanover, Germany : Rathhaus. Finished 1455. 

church of S. Stephen is akin in style to the above-cited 
church at Brandenburg, but the visitor is more struck by 
the ramparts of the town, and especially by one or two of 
the gateways, with their round towers, battlements, and 
machicolated balconies of defence, all executed in brick of 
several colours, and wrought into the most diversified 
forms. The fortification of Stendal in the Mark of Bran- 


denburg and of the neighbouring Werben offer similar 
instances of military construction of brick treated in a 
decorative way. The Rathhaus of Hanover is one of the 
most valuable of the civic buildings in brick; it was re- 
stored in a very trustworthy manner about 1870, and is 
put to its original uses, even to the Rathskeller beneath. 
Figure 188 shows the principal building of the Hanover 
Rathhaus, which is made up in the true mediaeval way of 
separately roofed, oblong gabled buildings, adjoining and 
combined in one design. The cities of north Germany 
are rich in private houses of this epoch, many of them 
almost wholly of brick. 

The buildings framed in timber were numerous and 
important in the fifteenth century, but the greater number 
of them have been, if not destroyed, at least changed in 
character by later work. A very large house at Halber- 
stadt may be mentioned as having a certain date of 1 500, 
but after the close of our present epoch, 1520, such build- 
ings are more numerous and finer. 


In England the year 1420 marks exactly enough the 
beginning of that long period of modified Gothic archi- 
tecture which under the later names of Tudor and Eliza- 
bethan was to last far into modern times. More than two 
hundred years later, Gothic forms were still used natu- 
rally and in due order of development ; the Great Rebel- 
lion alone checked the continuous practice of architecture 
according -to Gothic traditions, and even the architects 

358 WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. [CHAP. VII 

of the Restoration tried to perpetuate them. In 1420 the 
Perpendicular style as described in the last chapter was in 
its full development and was practised universally through- 
out England and Scotland. The well-known church of 
Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire, of which the nave alone 
remains, but which is an admitted model of the style in 
spite of some solecisms, is of 1434. This church has a 
lantern or eight-sided light pavilion erected upon its 
square tower, but there are no preparations for a spire. 
The tower of S. Botolph's church at Boston, Lincoln- 
shire, is topped in the same way, and is even more 
celebrated, this being indeed the principal example of a 
church tower of this design. It is probably of the same 
date as the tower of Fotheringhay, although the body of 
the church is much earlier. The lantern at Boston is 
flanked by four large pinnacles erected on the four angles 
of the square tower, and from each pinnacle two flying 
buttresses stretch to the two nearest angles of the lantern. 
This manner of using such purely constructional features 
as mere ornaments is a sign of a certain unreality in the 
work : the true Gothic spirit allows no such vagaries. In 
these towers the eight small pinnacles of the lantern are 
also mere ornaments, having lost even their true decora- 
tive character as forming a third member in the propor- 
tion between tower and spire. Taunton church tower, 
illustrated here from a drawing made before the recent 
restorations, is a perfect type of the more usual perpendic- 
ular tower. This fine tower, shown in Fig. 189, is some- 
what later, and is generally considered to be of about 1 500. 
The late epoch is, however, visible only in some minor 

FIG. 189. Taunton, England: S. Mary Magdalen. Close of fifteenth century. 

360 WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. [CHAP. VII 

details, and the general character of the building is as 
purely perpendicular as if it had been a century earlier. 
This slowness to change is characteristic of the later 
English Gothic, and is, of course, a necessary part of its 
unexampled duration. England is full of churches of 
characteristic Perpendicular style ; some vaulted, many 
more with wooden ceilings. These are all very similar, 
however, in external treatment, with broad low windows 
closed with four-centred arches and filled with perpen- 
dicular tracery, flat roofs and -battlements and pinnacles 
showing against the sky. Such a church is that of Fair- 
ford, Gloucestershire, to which travellers go from London 
to see the splendid stained glass windows of the sixteenth 
century. The tower is heavy and unrefined in style, but 
the body of the church is of great beauty. 

From 1430 to 1500 the vaulting of English churches 
went through some very surprising changes. It grew 
much lower and flatter in curve. Thus if the main rib 
across the nave in a vault of 1425 is an ordinary two- 
centred arch, the vault of 1440 is often drawn according 
to a four-centred curve (see the Glossary, s. v. Arch). 
If, now, such a vault is flattened still more, it tends to 
become a three-centred arch, as in Fig. 189 A, in which an 
interior of about 1465 shows the peculiar vaulting of the 
time as well as the large four-centred windows, filled with 
perpendicular tracery. The Divinity School at Oxford, 
built about 1450, is an instance of a roof whose general 
shape is that of a flat ceiling with ornamental pendants 
formed of deep ribs like those of an umbrella hanging 
from it ; but this whole ceiling is supported by very mas- 




sive four-centred arches which cross the building from 
side to side. This is a curious return to the transverse 
arches of the early Romanesque vaults. Such vaulting is 

FIG. 189 A. Warwick, England : Beauchamp Chapel. Finished 1464 A. D. 

of extremely decorative effect, but is weak and incapable 
of being built in wide spans. 

The next step was in the direction of that curious ten- 
dency of all English Gothic vaulting to develop into a 
series of half-pyramids which has been spoken of above, 

362 WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. [CHAP. VII 

pages 240, 303. Figure 190 shows a part of the outer 
vestibule which leads to the hall of Christ Church Col- 
lege, Oxford. 1 The strong transverse arch is still retained ; 
but apart from this, the system of vaulting is seen to have 
developed itself from half-pyramids to half-cones. These 
half-cones meet a horizontal plane at or near the point of 
the transverse arch in a series of half-circles, and all the 
flat surface between these half-circles is really flat ceiling 
of stone supported by ingenious constructional devices. 
In such vaulting as this the ribs tend to become mere 
decorative features. In Fig. 190 the only ribs which are 
constructional are probably the great transverse arch 
above spoken of and the wall arches, which are seen to 
be four-centred in shape. Probably all the rest of the 
vault is built of rather larger pieces of cut stone with the 
ribs worked on the surface. There is then a marked 
tendency to abandon Gothic vaulting altogether, and to 
reach the desired comparative flatness of roof by resort- 
ing to the use of large blocks of stone requiring great 
skill and command of means for their proper manage- 
ment. Figure 191 gives the construction of the roof of 
S. George's Chapel at Windsor, in which it will be seen 
that the sides of the vault where the curve is more de- 
cided are built with ribs and filled in behind with rough 
masonry in the true mediaeval fashion, while the middle 
part, where the curve approaches flatness, is built of 

1 This vestibule of the hall at Christ Church was not built until the first half 
of the seventeenth century. It is illustrative here of the developed fan-vaulting, 
and it may serve to explain, in connection with Chapter VIII., the extraordinary 
survival of Gothic forms in England. 




FIG. 190. Oxford, England: Christ Church College. Vestibule to the hall. 1640 A.D. 
In imitation of earlier work. 

blocks of stone without ribs. 1 Here, too, it will be seen 

1 Professor Willis, the author of this drawing, points out in the accompanying 
text (Transaction of the Royal Institute of British Architects for 1842) that he 
has omitted the central hollow pendant, and that, therefore, this drawing, though 
taken from the choir, resembles the vault of the nave. 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. 


that the main curve of the vault is three-centred and 
very low in proportion to its span. This fan-vaulting is 
one of the most beautiful of architectural conceptions ; it 
is varied and modified in many ways, but it never fails 
to charm. The three most important interiors that are 
closed in this way are those of S. George's Chapel at 

FIG. 191. Windsor Castle, England : S.George's Chapel. Construction of choir roof. 

About 1510. 

Windsor Castle, the chapel of Henry VII. at Westminster 
Abbey, and King's College Chapel at Cambridge ; but 
beside these there are parts of Gloucester, Oxford, Ely, 
Canterbury, and other cathedrals and numerous minor 
buildings, roofed in this way, of which the cloisters of 
Gloucester Cathedral are perhaps the most notable. 
Probably the most beautiful of all these roofs, as it is 


Walls built about 1450-80. Vaulting about 1510. Interior, Looking east. 

SEC. V] ITALY 365 

the most important in size and dignity, is that of King's 
College Chapel (see Plate VIII.). This interior may claim 
to be the finest in England, and is capable of comparison 
with the most splendid cathedral interiors of the continent. 
The late Gothic of the years from 1440, freely adopted 
for domestic and civic purposes, gives us the style so 
familiar to all in the college buildings of Cambridge 
and Oxford. This is prolonged far into the sixteenth 
century and passes imperceptibly into the Tudor style. 
It has, of course, no influence on the growth and de- 
velopment of architecture, being a mere reproduction, in 
the outer walls of otherwise plain buildings, of the forms 
arrived at in the course of more elaborate work, but it 
expresses to the full that spirit of simple dignity which 
is so characteristic of the English design of this age of 
transition. The timber-framed architecture also, char- 
acteristic in the fifteenth century of England as it is 
of Germany, exists for us in greater quantity of the six- 
teenth century, and the consideration of it had better be 


In Italy the true pointed Gothic style had never been 
thoroughly at home. Undoubtedly one cause of this was 
the indifference of Italians as a people to the purely con- 
structional and highly organized architecture of the 
North; another cause was the dislike of many sculptors 
for a style identified with somewhat rude and semi-bar- 
baric sculpture ; but the chief cause was the presence in 

366 WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. [CHAP. VII 

the cities of Italy of gigantic buildings of the Roman 
Empire, ruined by those who had plundered their mar- 
bles and their metal-work, but far more complete than 
we see them in the nineteenth century. These build- 
ings were of a size and dignity beyond the mediaeval 
buildings of Italy, except two or three half-finished cathe- 
drals ; and their massiveness was, of course, wholly unri- 
valled. Moreover, there clung about them the traditions 
of the undying majesty of ancient Rome. 

When, therefore, men's minds were turned toward a 
revival of classical learning, as they were more and 
more, continually, during the years following 1400, there 
were found some among the younger students of build- 
ing and engineering who were eager to study the Roman 
monuments thoroughly, and with a view to working in 
the same style. These students of building were gener- 
ally sculptors, often woodworkers and inlayers, often gold- 
smiths, often painters. It was perhaps the general rule 
that their skill in the art or handicraft came first in 
their own and the public's estimation : their skill in 
building second, and rather assumed than real. In their 
capacity as sculptors or painters of the figure and of 
biblical or legendary or allegorical subject, antiquity had 
but little direct influence upon them. The movement 
toward greater life and freedom in those arts and a far 
closer study of nature had begun long before. Niccolo 
Pisano, as early as 1250, had made a great step in that 
direction, and Giovanni Pisano and Andrea Pisano had 
followed him. Giotto in 1300 was already a painter in 
the modern sense. In 1420, when our present enquiry 

SEC. V] ITALY 367 

begins, Brunallesco was forty-eight years old, Lorenzo 
Ghiberti was forty-seven, and the great Donatello was 
thirty-nine : their work as sculptors was well begun. 
Among famous painters, Fra Angelico and Gentile da 
Fabriano were in middle life, and Masolino and Masac- 
cio, though younger, were at work. Besides Giotto and 
the Pisani, Simone Martini, Arnolfo di Cambio and Or- 
cagna were dead, and their work was before the world. 
Fine art, as we moderns understand it, existed full of 
knowledge and strength ; still to grow greater before its 
decay should begin, but already great. The painters and 
the sculptors were busy and full of hope and ambition 
in their especial arts. In their practice as yet no influ- 
ence from antiquity was visible except the slight stimulus 
gained from a few sarcophagi and other sculptured frag- 
ments ; works of a low grade which were calculated to 
excite wonder and envy by the dexterity of the ancient 
workmen, but hardly any warm sympathy for the ancient 
art. With their work as builders it was different. There 
was not much doing in the way of fine buildings ; money 
and skill were mainly spent upon fortifications and bridges. 
Moreover, in spite of the splendid neo-Gothic art, which 
was taking shape in and about the cathedral of Florence, 
the Italian students of architecture were dissatisfied and 
restless. Their art, in its half-understood northern form, 
was not to them what sculpture was to Donatello or 
fresco painting to Masaccio, an art worthy of all their 
strength, and demanding it all. They longed for a dimly 
seen revival of the Roman Empire in its architectural 
splendours. The younger men were eager to reproduce 

368 WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. [CHAP. VII 

Roman forms as they found them or conceived them, 
and Roman grandeur as they understood it. 

Among these younger men was Philippo di Ser Brunel- 
lesco, an able sculptor in 1401, and one of those who, in 
that year, had competed in the matter of the third pair of 
doors for the Florentine Baptistery. When Ghiberti had 
been successful in this competition, Brunellesco went to 
Rome to study ancient buildings. Returning to Florence 
at some time before 1415, he proposed to finish the cathe- 
dral by roofing the great octagon (see Fig. 166 B), not as 
it had been contemplated, but in a more classical taste. 
About 1420 work upon this began under his direction, 
and the present cupola was the result. This is one of the 
greatest achievements in architectural art. The cupola 
of the Pantheon at Rome, the largest one known and 
obviously Brunellesco's chief inspiration, is circular, is 
supported by a massive circular wall, and is kept in place 
by enormous masses of masonry piled upon its haunches. 
The dome of the so-called temple of Minerva Medica is 
much smaller, and this, and all other Roman domes which 
Brunellesco could have studied, are of a massiveness 
which he did not try to rival. We have no reason to 
suppose that he studied H. Sophia at Constantinople or 
other Byzantine examples, and no cupolas properly so 
called had been built in western Europe during the 
Middle Ages. Brunellesco's work was a marvel of inven- 
tion and boldness, for his dome, only two feet less in 
diameter than that of the Pantheon, is light and lofty, 
octagonal instead of round, and raised upon a high octag- 
onal drum, which rests upon open arches. This cupola 

SEC. V] ITALY 369 

was calculated, also, to support a terminal structure which, 
built after Brunellesco's death, is in itself a masonry build- 
ing eighty feet high. Later architects, working in the 
same direction, have found it very difficult to make a 
bulging shell of masonry support such a lantern. This 
astonishing feat must have given Brunellesco supremacy 
among the builders of the day, but it does not show any 
marked preference for Roman forms. He had gained in- 
spiration from them in the right way, and in the right way 
had designed and built an original work. In the Pazzi 
chapel, adjoining the church of S. Croce in Florence, the 
Roman details appeared, probably, for the first time (see 
Fig. 192). The vaulting here is Roman in principle; 
that is to say it is built as a single arched shell 
without ribs ; but such vaulting was a commonplace of 
Italian building, and was free to any one to use : the 
Roman imitation appears in the decoration of the surface 
of this vault by coffering in the columns with Corinthian 
capitals, the elaborate system of Corinthian pilasters large 
and small, and the frieze decorated with the strigil orna- 
ment copied from some antique sarcophagus. This is the 
beginning of modern imitative architecture. It is more- 
over the only building, as it appears, in which Brunellesco 
tried to use Roman forms as the Romans had used them. 
Had the church S. Maria degli Angeli in Florence been 
completed, the Roman experiment would have been tried 
more thoroughly in it, but this has remained a fragment. 
In the church of S. Lorenzo, built during Brunellesco's 
life, and that of S. Spirito, built after his death, from his 
plans, both in Florence, the Roman column is used, and a 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. 


semblance of the Roman entablature serves as a kind of 
larger abacus or second capital, but the arches spring 

directly from 
the columns in 
a fashion not 
identified with 
the true official 
Roman style of 
the second cen- 
tury (see Ch. II), 
and the entab- 
lature is so 
slight and small 
as to contradict 
Roman pro- 
portions alto- 
gether. Finally, 
in the front of 
the palace Paz- 
there is noth- 
ing that an 
architect of the 
Roman Empire 
could have 
used. This is 
a palace-front 
of the type fa- 
miliar to us, 
with pointed arches and arcaded cornices, in the narrow 

FIG. 192. Florence, Italy : Church of S. Croce. Pazzi 
chapel. 1420 to 1425 A.D. 

SEC. V] ITALY 371 

streets of the Tuscan towns, but with the details changed. 
The buildings above named are all in Florence, and their 
dates are not so widely separated that they need be distin- 
guished as marking eras in Brunellesco's life. They were 
all built within twenty-four years; except S. Spirito, as above 
stated. With these was built the beautiful Loggia of the 
Foundling Hospital (Spedale degli Innocenti), and that 
of S. Paolo, the first undoubtedly, the second possibly, 
by Brunellesco; buildings altogether mediaeval in form, 
except that the mouldings have been made to conform to 
classic types, and that the columns have a partly classical 

air. 1 

In these buildings the architecture of the Renaissance 
is set before us, complete, as its originators conceived it. 
Serious modifications were to be made, as we shall see 
below, by the irrepressible decorative spirit of Lombardy 
and Venetia, but the Renaissance proper is of Florence. 
Brunellesco is its great originator; but there joined him 
so promptly that they seem to have been notified in 
advance, Michelozzo Michelozzi, who built for the Medici 
that palace which we now call the Riccardi palace, An- 
tonio Filarete, and Leo Baptista Alberti. Of these the 
last is the ideal scholar in architecture, the man of 
thought, the philosopher, the man interested in the lite- 
rary revival. It is in accordance with this character of 
the man that his best known work, the Malatesta Temple 

1 The vaulting of these arcades is not built with ribs, but is solid groined 
vaulting. In Italy, however, this way of building vaults had never been aban- 
doned, and was freely used for structures not decorative in character, and wher- 
ever northern Gothic art was not deliberately copied. 

3/2 WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. [CHAP. VII 

at Rimini, was designed to have a front copied closely 
from an ancient triumphal arch. Brunellesco would 
hardly have done that. As we have seen, not knowing 
what a Roman house-front would be like, he designed one 
for himself in the Pazzi-Quaratesi Palace, developing types 
certainly not classic. When Alberti had a house-front to 
design, he was not satisfied so easily: he could not miss 
this opportunity to use pilasters, and accordingly the 
Palazzo Ruccellai in Florence has three orders of Roman 

FIG. 193. Mantua, Italy: Church of S.Andrea. About 1475 A.D. 

details. Alberti could design independently, however ; 
his front of S. Maria Novella at Florence is an admi- 
rable example of the church-front made decorative by 
mediaeval arcades and inlaying, though not in mediaeval 
patterns. His master-work is undoubtedly the church of 
S. Andrea at Mantua. The plan of this church is what 
is most interesting to the student (see Fig. 193). It is 
evident that Alberti had in mind the massive piers and 
the plain barrel-vaults of the Roman thermae, and felt the 
need of reproducing their appearance, though the actual 

SEC. V] ITALY 373 

ponderous construction was not within his reach. The 
square masses of masonry which divide the larger chapels 
are made to pass for the huge solid piers of a Roman hall, 
though each of them, in the Mantuan church, encloses a 
smaller chapel. Barrel-vaults spring from one to the 
other of these piers and roof the larger chapels, and a 
barrel-vault of fifty feet span roofs the nave. The walls 
are not really very thick, and the true lightness of con- 
struction is seen in the cupola and its lofty drum, which, 
though probably not built during Alberti's life, are cer- 
tainly of the original design. 

The four architects named above were contemporaries 
for some twenty years of active life, and their achieve- 
ments precede by twenty years those of all their rivals 
in the roll of honour of the Renaissance. In one respect 
their example was not followed by their immediate suc- 
cessors, in this, that they avoided as far as might be 
architectural sculpture as a part of their general design. 
They had misread, or Brunellesco misinterpreted for them, 
the record of the Roman monuments. They at the same 
time rejected the splendid architectural sculpture con- 
tained in the later Gothic work of Italy, as at Orvieto, 
Verona, Venice, and Florence, and ignored the large 
panels of relief sculpture, the scrolls and festoons which 
make up the ornamentation of the Roman buildings. 
Brunellesco's most costly building, the well-known Pitti 
Palace, contains absolutely no external sculpture. The 
palaces named above, Pazzi, Riccardi, Ruccellai ; the 
fa9ade of S. Andrea, the interiors of S. Lorenzo and 
S. Spirito, contain nothing in the way of sculpture except 

374 WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. [CHAP. VII 

the acanthus leaves in capitals which the order adopted 
called for absolutely. It is evident that these artists 
had in mind the procuring of architectural effects by 
means of proportion alone. To make a flat wall on a 
narrow street into a work of art by the simple means of 
dividing it by string-courses into horizontal bands and 
then arranging simple windows in those bands in per- 
fectly uniform series ; to produce in a church an interior 
effect of grace and grandeur by the proportioning of 
width to height, column to arch, aisle to nave ; to reject 
at once the constructional interest and the sculpturesque 
adornment of the construction which the Middle Ages 
had bequeathed, all this seemed to them the dignified 
and stately, the Roman, and therefore the only right way. 

When, however, the news of the innovation reached 
the North, the Lombards and the Venetians welcomed 
only a part of it. Michelozzo himself, when from Flor- 
ence he removed to Milan, was compelled to reconsider 
his theory as it stands embodied in the Riccardi palace, 
and to accept architecture with sculptured ornament freely 
used. Fra Giocondo and, after him, Bramante were ready 
to follow in the path pointed out by the Tuscans, but 
insisted upon taking their ornamentation with them; 
and there were less-known artists in the cities of north 
Italy who preferred to mingle with the classic details 
something of that which they had learned in their youth. 
They kept the luxuriance of mediaeval sculpture, though 
they changed its form. They substituted the panelled 
pilaster for the Gothic colonette, and then filled the 
panel with sculpture whose suggestion was taken from 

SEC. V] 



Roman arabesques (see Fig. 194); moreover, as the Gothic 
architects had avoided sculpture other than that applied 
to constructional features, and had rather avoided panels 
of bas-relief put up as we 
put up a picture for the 
sake of the work itself, this 
is what the fifteenth-cen- 
tury men especially affected 
(see Fig. 195). In Venice 
they used circles and 
squares of coloured marble 
to help in this application 
of rich ornament to their 
walls. In Venice and in 
Vicenza they painted their 
external walls. At the 
Certosa near Pavia they 
filled a church-front as full 
as it would hold of de- 
scriptive sculpture ; bas- 
reliefs in which biblical 
and legendary subject were 
freely treated. In the 
Scuola di San Marco at 
Venice they amused them- ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 

Selves with baS-reliefs Of FIG. 194. Certosa, near Pavia, Italy : Church. 
, ., T . Detail of front. About 1475 A - D - 

architecture shown in per- 
spective. In the Bank of the Medici of Milan they filled 
the spandrels with portrait medallions and flanked the 
pilasters of the doorways with statues as like mediaeval 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. 


portal statues as pseudo-classical costume would allow. 
In the Cappella Colleoni at Bergamo they filled what 
seemed to be window openings with colonettes of differ- 
ent elaborate patterns and set upon these a row of little 
pilasters, as if trying for the effect of the mediaeval arcades 
which they had rejected ; and the arcade itself, not to be 

FIG. 195. Arabesque : North Italian work. Beginning of sixteenth century. 

excluded longer, appears in the crowning story. At the 
church of the Miracoli at Brescia the panels filled with 
arabesques, which are freely used elsewhere, cover the 
whole front. In all these buildings and in the cathedral 
of Como, in S. Maria delle Grazie at Milan, in the Casa 
Stanga at Cremona, in the court of the Palazzo Vecchio 
at Florence, and in a hundred other monuments, the 

SEC. V] ITALY 377 

columns and the colonettes have their shafts sculptured 
as richly as it was possible to carve them. 

The Italians have never been an architectural people in 
the highest sense. No great style of architecture has 
originated in Italy ; nothing that can compare with Greek 
or Byzantine, early Egyptian or Gothic. An artistic race 
is not necessarily great in architecture, nor, on the other 
hand, are good builders necessarily good architects. The 
Roman engineers of the Empire were excellent builders ; 
the Italians of the fifteenth century were an artistic race of 
the highest gifts and in the noblest mood of devotion to 
art, their work in painting, from walls to manuscripts, and 
in sculpture, from colossi to sword-hilts, was unequalled by 
any work done since the great times of Greece ; but to 
neither set of men was it given to create a great archi- 
tectural style. The nearest approach to it was probably 
the work of those artists who in Venice and the neighbour- 
ing cities rejected the pointed arch, the ribbed vault, and 
the clustered pier, but kept the mediaeval framework in 
other respects, and adorned this as seemed to them good 
with sculpture of human subject and of pure ornament 
freely intermingled. This school of art may be repre- 
sented, as to its simple type, by S. Zaccaria at Venice, 
built between 1456 and the end of the century. Figure 
196 gives its front, which has the fault, common to so many 
Italian churches, of being a fa9ade only, and not the natural 
and inevitable facing of the wall in which is the principal 
entrance, and this fact alone shows how far away was the 
possibility of a great style of architecture growing out of 
the renaissance work. The front, considered as an inde- 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. 


pendent architectural design, is beautiful and deserves the 
praise which has been lavished upon it. The richer type is 
seen in the fa9ade of the church in the famous Certosa or con- 

FIG. 196. Venice, Italy: Church of S. Zaccaria. Facade. About 1490 A.D. 

vent of Carthusians near Pavia already cited. It is crowned 
with ornament delicately sculptured in relief and also inlaid, 
and among its ornament are many statues and extensive and 
elaborate compositions in relief telling the Bible story, the 

SEC. V] ITALY 379 

legendary stories of the Carthusian fathers, and the memo- 
rials of Giovanni Galeazzo of the Visconti. In this front 
the attempt to combine sculpture with architectural forms 
is as seriously made as in a Gothic cathedral. There are 
a few evidences of uncertainty as to where the richest 
sculpture should be placed and as to how statues could be 
combined with relief sculpture for the double purpose of 
the religious and traditional record and the decorative 
effect. These uncertainties are the inevitable signs of a 
new style taking shape, just as the circular window in the 
square frame made of pilasters and entablature shows the 
undeveloped style. Had this been a building age, and had 
the Milanese of 1475 been an architectural race in the 
sense in which those terms are applied to the year 1250 
and the people of northern France, other buildings of this 
same decorative character would have succeeded to this 
one, and these uncertainties would have disappeared. 
The front of the Certosa Church must have been com- 
pleted as we now see it about 1510, but the design dates 
of course from about the year of its commencement, about 
1490. Ambrogio da Fossano has been credited with the 
design, but it seems established that Omodeo rather de- 
serves the credit of it as far as this can be ascribed to 
one artist. 

The work done by Donato Bramante in the north of 
Italy must be considered in this connection. It is quite 
certain that he built the cupola and the apse of S. Maria 
delle Grazie before the year 1480, and the beautiful porch 
of the same church is probably his as well. This porch 
has been the prototype of a hundred porches and is freely 

WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. 


copied to-day, but no one has tried to rival the beautiful 
design of the choir-end of the church, and the sixteen- 
sided tower which crowns it. Similar many-sided cupolas 
exist indeed, such as that of the chapel adjoining S. Eustor- 
gio built by Michelozzo of Florence about 1475. What was 
to be the ornamentation of the great panels which form 
with the windows a horizontal band around the church 

seems to be wholly un- 

In the main, the archi- 
tecture of the Renaissance 
in Italy is mediaeval in the 
plan and general shape and 
character of its buildings, 
as was inevitable, but a few 
changes are introduced 
which are of peculiar inter- 
est. Some of these are 
pieces of pure reasoning, 
so far as we can judge; 
others may be revivals or 
survivals of earlier prac- 
tice. The plan of several North-Italian churches is 
of the general character shown in Fig. 197, the four 
spaces A B CD being roofed with barrel-vaults, the cen- 
tral square with a higher cupola, the four smaller squares 
with lower cupolas or with groined vaults, and the apse 
with a semi-dome. These churches being generally small, 
a single door of entrance in the wall opposite to the apse 
is thought to suffice. Such a church is S. Fantino at 

FIG. 197. 

SEC. V] 



FIG. 198. Venice, Italy : Church of S. Fantino. Nave about 1510; choir about 1523 A.D. 

Venice, except that here a second square is added, length- 
ening the nave, and that the compartment A is roofed by 
a cupola on pendentives. The interior is shown in Fig. 198. 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. 


A simpler plan is that of S. Maria Nuova at Cortona 
(Fig. 199). 

It will be seen that this plan is exactly that of the 
Pretorium at Musmiyeh (Fig. 33). Another plan is a 
perfect Greek cross in shape, each arm vaulted with a 
barrel-vault, and the central square with a cupola; in 
short, the plan Fig. 197, with the four corner squares 

omitted and the wall en- 
closing the remaining floor 
space in the shape of a 
cross with equal arms. 
The two lovely churches, 
that of the Madonna di S. 
Biagio at Montepulciano 
and that of the Madonna 
del Calcinajo on the hill- 
side near Cortona, both in 
Tuscany, are examples of 
this. Figure 200 gives the 
plan of the first-named 
church, showing its severe 
plainness of treatment. 
The complete dependence 
of its designer is upon proportion, conceived in a 
would-be classical manner. A third plan is a regular 
octagon, each side occupied by a deep niche or recess 
large enough to form a chapel. The best example of 
this is the important Church of the Incoronata at 
Lodi. A porch at one side, where the entrance took up 
one of the eight niches, and an apse at the opposite side 

fO O 


FIG. 199. Cortona, Italy: Church of S. 
Maria Nuova. About 1535 A.D. Plan. 

SEC. V] 



replacing another niche, completed the plan of such a 
church. All these plans, and several others in common 
use, are nearly or quite unknown to mediaeval art, and 
their invention or revival is a sign of the earnest seek- 
ing in Italy for whatever in architecture was non-medi- 
aeval and, therefore, presumably classical. We are never 
to forget that this age of splendid artistic achievement 
was an age absolutely uncritical and absolutely devoid 
of the archaeological sense. 
As for the details of the 
architecture, whether con- 
structional or purely deco- 
rative, the representations 
in paintings and wood-cuts 
of the time must be stud- 
ied, as well as the buildings 
actually erected. This 
would always be a fruitful 
study. Architecture is 
that one form of fine art 
which suffers the most from lack of funds. Nearly 
always in the past, great architectural undertakings 
have ruined those who had to furnish the means for 
them, or else have remained incomplete. The Roman 
imperial administration had unlimited means, and so had 
some of the pre-imperial masters of the Roman world, 
the men who had vast provinces .to deal with and hun- 
dreds of thousands of captives to sell as slaves, Sulla 
and Pompey and the great Julius. In a quite different 
way and for a brief moment of time, the cathedral build- 

FIG. 200. Montepulciano, Italy : Church 
of S. Biagio. 1513 A.D. Plan. 

384 WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. [CHAP. VII 

ers of 1200-1250 seem to have been able to disregard 
the money question. There are few such epochs in his- 
tory, and the years of the Italian Renaissance did not 
make up such an epoch ; all architectural effect was 
hampered by lack of resources. 

In August, 1514, Raphael was appointed, by especial 
brief, architect in charge of the work at S. Peter's. In 
appointing a painter to such a position, mediaeval and 
early Renaissance examples were followed, but during the 
century which had just elapsed the arts had become much 
more differentiated than of old. This, indeed, was inevi- 
table when the work which a painter was carrying on, and 
which he would have to put to one side when he under- 
took sculpture or architecture, was of the character and 
extent of that which Raphael had had in hand for the pre- 
vious six years. Raphael's hand is not very plainly seen 
in S. Peter's, and his work upon the Loggie and the 
vaulted halls of the Vatican are impossible to separate 
into the work of Raphael and that of his predecessors. 
Those predecessors were men of great rank as architects, 
and men whose character as designers in architecture it is 
impossible to mistake. Donato Bramante and Fra Gio- 
condo were still living, and they and their advice and 
instruction, which they seem to have been ready to give 
to the court painter and the pope's especial favourite, 
are to be considered in any analysis of the work ascribed 
to Raphael. Moreover, that great painter was one who 
worked easily as the chief and organizer of a corps of 
skilled assistants. Raphael is said to have made the 
work of Vitruvius his special study at this time, and 

SEC. V] ITALY 385 

it is recorded that he had to do with the translation of 
that book into Italian after the death of Fra Giocondo, 
who, as we have seen above, had interested himself in 
the one book on architecture which had come down 
from Roman antiquity. It must be remembered that 
the work of Vitruvius, " Ten Books upon Architecture," 
is far from being an adequate treatise upon the Roman 
practice in building in the time of Augustus, or upon 
the right way to use Greek models and to follow 
Greek example, or upon theories of construction, or upon 
the history of architecture in the past, or upon abstract 
principles of design, or upon his own experience and prac- 
tice. As a large part of the manuscript is devoted to for- 
tification, to roads and bridges, to water supply and the 
building of aqueducts, and to similar engineering questions, 
and another considerable part to sun-dials, the medicinal 
and hygienic effect of certain springs and rivers, to military 
engines and other such unarchitectural questions, the space 
devoted to architectural design is extremely limited. The 
style is rugged and obscure, and even in our own time 
many passages remain, the exact meaning of which is dis- 
puted. It is certain that to students who did not know 
Greek buildings at all for it seems that even the ruins 
at Paestum had attracted no attention the constant refer- 
ence of Vitruvius to Greek authority and Greek examples 
would necessarily be misunderstood. In an age quite de- 
void of the archaeological sense, and possessing no science 
of archaeology, the attempt to explain the Roman remains 
by means of Vitruvius' manuscript could not fail to end 
in total confusion. What actually took place under the 


386 WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. [CHAP. VII 

direction of Giuliano and Antonio da San Gallo and their 
contemporaries was merely this : they took the work of 
the architects of the early Renaissance who had used col- 
umns and pilasters freely, that is to say, the work of 
such men as Michelozzo, Alberti, and their still living but 
very aged successors, Bramante and Fra Giocondo, and 
began to make it more classical by applying to it the 
examples found in the ruined buildings throughout Italy. 
Thus the Forum of Nerva gave them the entablature 
breaking out into a projection or ressaut at each column 
(see Fig. 45) ; the topmost story of the Colosseum gave 
them an order of pilasters of very great length, tend- 
ing to persuade them that such a row of upright mem- 
bers, equally spaced, might be continued indefinitely; 
the lower stories of the same amphitheatre and parts of 
many other edifices gave them the Roman order as shown 
in Fig. 44; and capitals and other details which were 
found underground were in better preservation than those 
in place in ancient buildings in the city, and were not to 
be disregarded even in their minutest parts. In fact, the 
architects of the early years of the sixteenth century de- 
clared that there should be no more of that independent 
and dashing design in which the Venetians and the Milan- 
ese had been so strong, nor of the more sedate but still 
fresh and novel work of the Florentines and Romans. 
The question now was how to use the ancient Roman 
details, unaltered as far as possible, and to decide just how 
far they might be modified where change was inevitable. 
The employment of Raphael upon S. Peter's, and the 
application of his alert and ready mind to architectural 

SEC. V] 



design, marks this change, in a sense. Raphael was eager 
in directing and suggesting excavations in Rome, and, as 
we have seen, applied himself to theoretical study. The 
fact that he did so in so purely classical a spirit is evi- 
dence of the state of feeling at the time. His few ad- 
mitted genuine architectural works show the condition of 
this feeling from 1515 to 1520, and illustrate the transition 

FIG. 201. Rome: Stoppani-Vidoni Palace. 1515 to 1520 A.D. 

from the rinascimento to the classicismo. Figure 201 
gives a part of the front of the Palace Stoppani-Vidoni in 
Rome between the Pantheon and the river. The whole 
front consists of seventeen bays. It is hard for us, at the 
close of the nineteenth century, to trace the classical 
Roman sources of some of these details. Thus the rus- 
tication of the basement and the balusters which support 
the window-sills, perhaps also the use of the pediment over 

388 WESTERN EUROPE, 1420 TO 1520 A.D. [CHAP. VII 

the small windows in the basement, may easily have come 
from buildings since defaced or destroyed ; for the ruin of 
the antique remains between 1500 and 1750 was continual 
and most disastrous. We may feel tolerably certain that 
the coupled columns and coupled pilasters were an inven- 
tion of the sixteenth century. Probably no ancient Roman 
structure furnished an example of an exterior of house 
or palace, and the sixteenth-century men were puzzled 
by the question how far their walls and piers might 
remain bare and unbroken surfaces. Evidently the 
designer of the Stoppani-Vidoni Palace was afraid of 
a blank-wall surface. He filled the narrow piers of his 
principal story, which had a width between the projecting 
architraves of the windows of only six feet, eight inches, 
with two pilasters on a common pedestal, giving an effect 
of crowding which was certainly not classical Roman. 
The mouldings and their combination and the arrange- 
ment of the order are, however, most carefully studied 
from the antique. This example, then, is offered as an 
instance of the latest Renaissance passing into the neo- 
Roman which was to succeed it. 




THE classical Renaissance in architecture is of course 
wholly Italian in its origin, as has been shown in Chapter 
VII. It is to be seen, completely accepted, in Italy eighty 
years before any decided effect from it is visible in France, 
the Netherlands, England, or Germany, influencing Spain 
meanwhile, but only slightly. After 1510 all the above- 
named lands show traces of that Italian influence, but 
it works slowly, and each people allows it only so much 
weight as this, that they abandon Gothic methods, 
though slowly and reluctantly; and as they cast about 
for new ways of work, admit with great reserve the classic 
style as used in Italy. This condition lasts for more than 
a century; and when we remember how rapidly Gothic 


390 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP. VIII 

methods of building were taken up, as described in Chap- 
ter V., this slow growth of the classical Renaissance in 
architecture is surprising. The reason for it is, that 
whereas in the twelfth century the Romanesque style was 
in use everywhere, and Gothic was but a slight modifica- 
tion of it, commending itself at once, in the sixteenth 
century the Gothic style was in use everywhere except in 
Italy, and the revived classic methods were a complete 
denial and reversal of it. Therefore, though Italian influ- 
ence was always present in the building of northern and 
western Europe from about 1510, it was not predomi- 
nant until much later, and was never accepted without 
question until the reign of Louis XIV. The preference 
of that monarch and his ministers was for the stately 
quasi-Roman colonnades, which seemed to them to express 
the spirit of a powerful modern, centralized state, modelled 
on what they thought a Roman model. The colonnade 
of the Louvre and the palaces of Marly and Versailles 
did what direct Italian influence had never been able 
to do, and brought all northern Europe into uniform 
practice in these matters, so that after 1665 national 
styles tend to disappear, and the one grand would-be 
classic style to prevail alike from Naples to Stockholm. 
This chapter is devoted to the era of transitional styles, 
in which mediaeval independence and Italian influence are 
striving for the mastery. Chapter IX. will describe the 
era of uniformity. 


The march of Charles VIII. through Italy in the years 
1486-88 is generally set down as the event which intro- 
duced the French nobles to the buildings of the Renais- 
sance in Italy. This common opinion is sufficiently 
accurate to be left undisturbed. It was not only the 
imitation of the classic architecture which pleased, in 
Italy, the northern princes, it was also the sight of 
extensive and elaborately planned villas and princely resi- 
dences in city and country, in which comfort and luxury 
had been considered before the needs of fortification. It 
is in accordance with this view that the first important 
step taken in France in the way of non-Gothic architect- 
ure was in the adjustment of some of the old strong 
castles to the requirements of petty local courts and the 
almost complete abandonment of their defensible char- 
acter. In making these changes, suggestions of the new 
Italian art occur; here a doorway ornamented with pilas- 
ters, and a fantastic fronton which might be called a 
pediment, there a series of windows, newly cut through 
the heavy old walls, and adorned with pilasters and entab- 
lature which present a far-away resemblance to Roman 
forms. Such chateaux are to be seen in that well-known 
country on the Loire, concerning which and its pictur- 
esque castles and manor-houses so much has been written. 
Chaumont on the Loire between Tours and Blois, Azay-le- 
Rideau near Tours on the southwest, Chateaudun in La 
Beauce half-way between Blois and Chartres, and, further 


west, Josselin in Brittany, north of Vannes, are all groups 
of buildings of this mixed character. In these, with no 
royal or semi-royal profusion, as at Chambord and at 
Ecouen, the lord of the manor has rearranged his ancient 
manor-house with more or less rebuilding according to 
the classical fancies of the court. With these may be 
compared the chateau of Meillant near Bourges, which, 
although refitted at the beginning of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, was left in the florid Gothic style. Some buildings 
newly built at the same epoch contain a very similar 
mingling of classical forms in a hesitating and uncertain 
fashion, with a general plan and a conception of the 
building as a whole as purely mediaeval as is the greater 
part of its ornamentation. The Hotel de Ville of Noyon 
in northeastern France was built between 1485 and the 
close of the century. All its windows, without exception, 
are of late florid Gothic; the doorways on the court are 
of the same style, and of the same style are the exquisite 
niches for statues between the windows of the upper story 
on the street front, and the band of delicate sculpture 
which separates the stories. Into this Gothic front facing 
on the quiet square is intruded a door-piece consisting 
of two pilasters and an entablature enclosing a doorway 
with a three-centred arch and minor pilasters, and the 
fa9ade is completed by a sort of attic with bull's-eye win- 
dows, and finishing in a classical cornice, above which 
arise dormer windows, pinnacles, and a round pediment of 
completely Renaissance character. It may well be that 
these entirely classical features were added after the close 
of the century ; but the contrast between the late Gothic 


and the early Renaissance forms is frequently shown us 
in that way, a building begun under the florid Gothic 
regime and finished by hesitating adoption, a few years 
later, of details brought from Italy. In other cases 
buildings were begun and completed in the same style 
throughout. Among these, the florid Gothic is for a 
time contemporaneous with a completely realized non- 
Gothic style. Thus the church of Brou, a suburb of 
Bourg-en-Bresse near Macon in southern Burgundy, is 
wholly flamboyant Gothic, without the slightest invasion of 
forms brought from Italy. Although begun about 1510, 
it was not completed until 1536. The Palais de Justice 
and the church of S. Maclou, both in Rouen (pp. 330 and 
342), were not finished until 1535; and the south portal 
of Beauvais Cathedral is of even later date, perhaps as 
late as 1545. All the above-named buildings are florid 
Gothic in style. 

If the buildings undertaken by the Cardinal George 
of Amboise had been completed and had been preserved 
to us, we should have had one or two specimens of the 
classical Renaissance in French architecture of a much 
earlier date than any that remain. Jacques Androuet du 
Cerceau has preserved in one of his books views of that 
remarkable chateau of Gaillon near Rouen in Normandy, 
which, although begun under Louis XI., was continued 
in the Italian taste between 1502 and 1510, and perhaps 
from the designs of an Italian architect. This building, 
in the parts erected for George of Amboise, was clearly 
such a palace as a thoroughly enlightened and very 
wealthy French noble would have dreamed of building 

394 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP. VIII 

at this time : here is an example of what the compan- 
ions of Charles VIII. must have longed for. But of ex- 
isting works of this early period and purely Renaissance 
in character we have only, besides the fragments of the 
chateau of Gaillon, both on the spot and in the court of 
the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, such small structures 
as the tomb in the cathedral of Nantes. This splendid 
altar-tomb is dedicated to the last independent duke of 
Brittany and his wife. The sides are divided into ar- 
cades with splayed archivolts and jambs ; and these and 
the pilasters between the arches are nearly of Italian 
form, and are rilled, in the Italian taste, with delicate 
arabesques. This tomb, the work of Michel Colomb 
and Jean Perreal, was certainly executed before 1508. 
Still more surprising is the tomb erected about 1506 to 
the children of Charles VIII., and which stands in the 
church of S. Gatien of Tours. This is a sculptor's rather 
than an architect's design, but it is of the revived classic 
style in every part, and reminds the student that the 
Renaissance was eighty years old in Italy, though hardly 
born in France. Of the same date is the mutilated tomb 
in the cathedral of Dol on the Breton coast, near Saint 
Malo. This is dedicated to the Bishop Thomas James, and 
was erected in 1507 ; it is in style completely Italian of the 
Renaissance. To find parts of existing buildings as early 
as these monuments and, like them, in the classic man- 
ner, we have to seek for details of those chateaux of the 
Transition of which mention was made in Chapter 
VII. If the splendid chateau of Azay-le-Rideau can be 
proved to be of as early a date as 1510, it is the first 


of these great mansions to show the imprint of the 
Italian Renaissance in its details. The contemporary 
structure at Blois, forming that wing of the castle in 
which the entrance is situated, and called the wing of 
Louis XII., is still transitional in character, and almost 
exclusively mediaeval in its details, although built under 
the direct influence of the court. In the same city the 
dwelling-house called the Hotel d'Alluye is nearly con- 
temporary with Azay-le-Rideau, at least in the year of 
its commencement. The fronts on the court afford as 
good an example as can be given of the earliest French 
building in attempted imitation of the Italian manner. 
There can be no doubt that this front was completed be- 
tween 1510 and 1516, and yet there is absolutely no direct 
reference to mediaeval forms in the details. The general 
character of the arcades, which form the chief decorative 
feature, may be judged by the gallery of Bussy (Fig. 204). 
This, however, has the simple character of domestic build- 
ing; for more elaborate architecture wholly non-Gothic in 
character, one must select such a piece of purely decora- 
tive work as the tomb of Louis XII. and his queen at 
Saint Denis. This indeed is a little later, not having been 
begun till 1516. The magnificent tomb in the cathedral 
of Rouen of the two cardinals George I. and George II., 
of Amboise, is indeed a complete work of the classical 
Renaissance, but it seems clear that it was not begun 
till 1520, nor finished till 1525. 

We are perhaps right, then, in assuming the date 1520 
for the complete victory of the Renaissance in France, 
although, as we have seen, some Gothic buildings were go- 

396 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP. VIII 

ing on during another decade. It is certainly interesting 
to note that this is as nearly as possible a century later 
than the building of S. Lorenzo and the completion of the 
chapel of the Pazzi in Florence (see pp. 369, 370). It is 
a fact of enormous importance in the history of archi- 
tecture that the Gothic art flourished in perfect strength 
and without the invasion of foreign elements for a cen- 
tury 'after Italy had taken up a revived classic style. It 
is also interesting to observe that the classical Renais- 
sance was immediately successful in Italy, whereas in 
France it required forty years to make a beginning. 

In 1526, Francis I. having been more than ten years 
on the throne, there was begun the great country Palace 
of Chambord, on the site of a hunting-lodge which the 
king had purchased. In this immense structure every 
detail is non-Gothic, and is in the main studied from 
Italian forms a half-century earlier in date (see Fig. 
202). The plan and the general masses of the building 
are northern ; that is to say, they are not Italian at all, 
and are the evident result of an attempt to modify the 
French strong castle of the fifteenth century so as to 
make of it an agreeable residence. This is true of the 
plans of the chateaux cited above (p. 391) and of many 
others ; but in Chambord we know that the chateau was 
built from one design and at one time, under the direc- 
tion of a French master-builder, and it is clear that the 
problem was studied not without much aid from experi- 
ence gained in previous buildings. There is only one 
important piece of architecture built in the same style 
and either contemporary with or a few years earlier than 

SEC. I] 



Chambord ; namely, the building of Francis I., in the 
chateau of Blois. 1 The fa9ade which fronts the court 
on the northwest side, with its open stairway tower, is 
very familiar to all lovers of picturesque architecture (see 

FIG. 202. Chateau de Chambord, France: Central mass. 1525 to 1540 A.D. 

Fig. 203). The outside front of the same building, tower- 
ing high above the town, is less known. This long front 
stretches about two hundred and twenty-five feet along 

1 The writer of the notice in the Archives de la Commission des Monuments 
Historiques notices that the emblems of Francis 1 queen, Claude of France, are 
absent from Chambord but common at Blois, and infers that the latter building 
was begun before her death in 1524. 

o 5" 

FIG. 203. Blois, France : Chateau. Part of the building of Francis I. About 1525 A.D. 

SEC. I] 



one side of the square, from which rise the broken rocks 
which carry the chateau. 

The two wings of the chateau of Bussy near the village 
of Bussy-le-Grand, in Burgundy, are of a simple and re- 

FIG. 204. Bussy-le-Grand, France : Chateau of Bussy-Rabutin. Arcade on the court. 

About 1540 A.D. 

fined type of the architecture of Francis I. and show quite 
accurately the fashion in which French architects at this 
early date were dealing with their Italian models. Figure 
204 gives one bay of this charming construction. Another 
and a much less pretentious architectural composition is 



FIG. 205. Varengeville, France: Part of the manor of Jean Ango. About 1545. 

offered us in the buildings at Warengeville, or Varenge- 
ville, near Dieppe on the Normandy coast. In this, which 
is commonly known as the Manoir d'Ango, from its builder, 


a famous merchant of the time of Francis I., there is no 
pretence of stateliness or of that grandeur that comes of 
size and regularity. The buildings of a large farm are 
arranged around a courtyard, from which they are entered, 
and the enclosure itself is approached by a single gateway. 
This simple device for keeping out plunderers of hen- 
roosts, who on occasion might be capable of bolder enter- 
prises, was in favour down to the revolution. The decora- 
tive details of Ango's buildings (see Fig. 205) are, to a 
large extent, obtained by the use of coloured materials, 
brick and light-coloured stone alternating in much the 
same way in which stone of two colours was used in the 
twelfth century (see p. 153). 

It should be kept in mind that two tendencies are trace- 
able, acting side by side and contemporaneously. In some 
buildings the form is somewhat Italian, while the details 
retain much florid Gothic feeling. In others, the form is 
almost wholly mediaeval, while the details are non-Gothic. 
The best instance of the latter tendency is the church of 
S. Eustache in Paris. This church is unique in the com- 
pleteness of its design as of a fifteenth-century florid 
Gothic church, all of whose details have been changed 
into something which is meant to be classical in the spirit 
of the Lombard Renaissance of 1475. The interior is 
beautiful in proportion and organization of its parts, and 
the detail is everywhere interesting. This church is one 
more instance of a fine architectural effect destined to 
have no farther result. 

The beautiful wooden-framed houses of the sixteenth 
century deserve especial notice here, because in them more 




than in the great chateaux is seen a mingling of Gothic and 
semi-classic feeling, the two styles uniting to form one. 

The house at Beauvais 
in rue S. Thomas, and 
another in rue S. Jean, 
are remarkable in this 
respect, and the house- 
front at Rouen on the 
square S. Andre (see 
Fig. 206) also exempli- 
fies this action of the 
classic, or at least the 
non-Gothic, spirit upon 
builders who had them- 
selves worked in the 
Gothic style and were 
still of a mind to retain 
all its freedom of design 
and of construction. 

In complete contrast 
with these buildings is 
the chateau of Ecouen. 
This palace consists of 
three buildings enclosing 
on three sides a square 
court whose fourth side 
was closed originally by 
a r i c h gallery with the 
gateway, now destroyed. 
It was built in the years following 1540 by the constable 

FIG. 206. 

Rouen, France : House, 
sixteenth century. 

Middle of 

FIG. 207. Ecouen, France : Chateau. Begun about 1545. 

404 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP- VIII 

Anne de Montmorenci and under the direction of Jean 
Bullant. The three fronts on the court are of three 
different designs, and each of these is in the main as 
purely a neo-classic design as an Italian building of the 
time. Two features only remind us that this is a building 
of the French Renaissance. One of these is the high roof 
with its large dormer windows (see Fig. 207, which gives 
a part of one of the fronts on the court). The other is the 
marking of the position of the chapel in one pavilion by 
its windows with pointed heads. It is evident that the 
windows are pointed that they may correspond with the 
curves of the vaulting ribs, which are of unusual size and 
projection, this tradition of the pure Gothic style having 
still so much weight whenever a vaulted roof was under- 
taken. The beautiful apsidal chapels of the church of 
Nogent-sur-Seine, near Troyes in Champagne, although 
later in date, form a curious contrast to the gravity of 
Ecouen. In the exterior of these chapels, there are 
strong evidences of lingering mediaeval feeling, and the 
result is curiously like the English Elizabethan style (see 
Fig. 208). The front of S. Etienne du Mont in Paris, 
begun about 1616, is an instance of a more advanced 
classical style compelled to adapt itself to the mediaeval 
structure behind it (see Fig. 209). The late Gothic in- 
terior of this church is partly shown in Fig. 210, which 
gives the elaborate jube or choir-screen, begun in 1600. 
The singular stone roof of the choir of the little church 
at Tillieres (Eure) in Normandy, near Dreux, is a piece 
of bold designing. It consists of stone slabs laid hori- 
zontally upon stone ribs supported by arches (see Fig. 211). 

FIG. 208. Nogent-sur-Seine, France : Church. Chapels of south aisle. Second half 

of sixteenth century. 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. 


Figure 212 is an approximate plan in which each diagonal 
line represents one horizontal rib together with the arch 
which supports it. Viollet-le-Duc names other roofs built 
in this way, but the system was not destined to survive. 
Toward the close of the reign of Francis I., French 

architects became as 
widely known as the 
Italians of a century 
earlier or as those 
Italians whom the 
king had brought 
from Italy. These 
last had been in 
control at Fontaine- 
bleau. The first of 
them was Sebasti- 
ano Serlio, the well- 
known writer on 
architecture, who 
died at Fontaine- 
bleau in 1541. The 
painter Rosso Rossi, 

FIG. 209. Paris : Church of S. Etienne du Mont. r 

West front. Close of sixteenth century. Portico, known in FrailCC as 

1610 A ' D - Le Roux or Maitre 

Roux, and Francesco Primaticcio of Bologna continued 
the work at Fontainebleau, though more in the way 
of interior decoration than of architecture in the usual 
sense. The Frenchmen who succeeded them, and who 
surpassed them in achievement and renown, are espe- 
cially the four architects, Jean Bullant, Pierre Lescot, 


Philibert de TOrme, and Jacques Androuet du Cer- 
ceau, and the sculptor Jean Goujon. All five were 
born about the time of the accession of Francis I., and 

FIG. 210. Paris: Church of S. Etienne du Mont. Rood screen. Begun 1600 A.D. 

although some of their work is included in the reign of 
that prince, yet all are to be considered rather as the 
artists of the brief reigns which followed. When Fran- 

FIG. 211. Tillieres, France: Church. Vaulting of choir. Second half of sixteenth 


SEC. I] 



cis I. died, in 1547, the chateau of Ecouen was complete, 
the new Louvre had been planned by Pierre Lescot and 
the buildings commenced, though the square court had 
not yet been increased to its present size; at Fontaine- 
bleau the buildings on the south side had been finished, 
and the so-called gallery of Francis I. was well advanced, 
and even the grave and severe court fronts of the Hotel 
de Carnavalet at Paris had been completed from the 
designs of Pierre Lescot. The reign of Henry II. was 
marked by the erection of the beautiful belfries of the 
cathedral of Tours, 
though from designs 
of an earlier date, 
the chateau of Anet 
built for Diane de 
Poitiers, and the 
chateau of Villers- 
Cotterets. The tra- 
dition is that it was 
in the chapel of this last-named structure that Phili- 
bert de 1'Orme first introduced those columns which 
seem to have bands around them, being built of drums 
of alternately larger and smaller size, a detail which 
he was proud of and described in his books as " 1'ordre 
fran9aise," and which was used freely afterward in the 
water-side gallery of the Louvre. 

Soon after the death of her husband, Catherine dei 
Medici planned the construction of a palace outside the 
walls of Paris at a place called the Tuileries, from the 
tile furnaces thereabout. Philibert de 1'Orme designed 

FIG. 212. Tillieres, France : Church. Approximate 
plan of choir. See Fig. 211. 


a very large structure enclosing several courts and cover- 
ing much of what is now the Place du Carrousel, where 
the triumphal arch stands; but only the western line of 
buildings was ever begun. Two years later, in 1566, Pierre 
Chambiges began to build that short stretch of building 
leading from the southwestern corner of the old Louvre 
southward toward the river, and which now has the 
Gallery of Apollo in its upper, story. Only the ground 
story of this was built in the sixteenth century. The 
work on the old Louvre went on, and the square court 
was increased to four times its original size, so that the 
two fronts of Pierre Lescot became only halves of the 
western and southern fa9ades respectively. These fronts 
of Pierre Lescot are held, rightly enough, to be the last 
works of the Renaissance proper in France. 

With the reign of Henry IV. and the cessation of the 
religious wars a new style appears, a style of gravity and 
solidity and of a business-like economy of materials and 
workmanship, a style singularly devoid of the fantastic 
charm of Chambord and Blois ; and also without that 
exquisite grace in the employment of the pseudo-classical 
details borrowed directly from Italian art of the second 
period, 1 500 and later, which is to be found at the Louvre 
and at Ecouen. Typical of the style of Henry IV. are 
the Place des Vosges, originally called Place Royale, in 
the far east of Paris, not far from the Bastille, and the 

Place Dauphine on the island in the river, and opening 
immediately upon the Pont Neuf, where Henry's eques- 
trian statue is placed. Claude du Chatillon is the archi- 
tect whom we credit with these designs. Enough remains 



FIG. 213. Moulins, France: Former college of the Jesuits. First half of sixteenth 


412 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP. VIII 

of the original buildings, even of the latter composition, to 
enable the whole to be restored in the mind, or (as has 
been done with success) on paper, as four long rows of 
similar house-fronts of brick and stone, well worked into 
simple and dignified architecture. Of the Place des 
Vosges much more remains intact ; and the pavilion 
where the rue Birague enters the square is an admirable 
specimen of the earliest seventeenth-century town archi- 
tecture. A good example of this class of buildings is the 
hospital of Moulins (Allier), once a Jesuit college, of 
which large building, Fig. 213 shows one wing. The 
Hotel Montescot at Chartres is of this date, about 1610, 
and of the same gravity and simplicity of design. A fai 
more decorative style was co-existent with what is de- 
scribed above ; namely, that style of simple disposition 
and florid ornamentation embodied in the Hotel de Vogue 
at Dijon and the Hotel La Valette 1 opposite the island 
of S. Louis in Paris and fronting on the Quai S. Paul. 
In each of these buildings the same peculiarities exist: 
the almost complete rejection of colonnades and of th< 
systematic use of classical orders in any form, even ii 
the way of flat pilasters ; the opening of windows in th< 
walls simply and in sufficient number for convenience 
and comfort; and finally the investing of this simpli 
exterior with abundant sculpture decoration. It mark' 
the still existing independence of routine and traditioi 

1 The recent restoration of this beautiful dwelling-house seems to have in- 
volved a very complete rebuilding, and it is difficult to be sure of the date of any 
part of the exterior work. Moreover, if the original were designed by Fra^ois 
Mansart, it is later than the Hotel Vogue. 

FIG. 214. Paris: Palace of the Luxembourg. Separate pavilion. About 1620 A. D. 

414 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP. VIII 

in France that the Hotel Vogue' and the pavilions of the 
Place Royale should have been built simultaneously. 

The reign of Louis XIII. is still marked by the erection 
of important private and civic buildings. The palace of 
the Luxembourg in Paris, built for the queen-mother Marie 
dei Medici by Salomon de Brosse, and the southernmost 
building of the Palais Royal, that which surrounds on 
three sides the square court opening on the Place du 
Palais Royal, which was designed by Jacques Lemercier 
for the Cardinal Richelieu, and now serves for the 
meetings of the Conseil d'Etat, are representative of the 
styles of this reign. The one embodies the severe and 
grave style of the time of Henry IV., modified by the in- 
troduction of orders of pilasters, but keeping these and 
all Italianized details in their place as decoration (see 
Fig. 214). The other exemplifies the commencement of 
that more self-conscious, more deliberately formal and 
stately style which was to reach its culmination under 
Louis XIV. 

The churches of this reign (of Louis XIII.) are more 
numerous than those of the previous century ; for, as time 
went on, the mediaeval supply, abundant as it was, began 
to be found insufficient. Of them all, the church of the 
Sorbonne, begun in 1635 by Jacques Lemercier, is certainly 
the most important. Its dome is the earliest example in 
France of a stone dome carrying a stone lantern without 
any concealed devices for taking the weight ; and its front 
in two orders is one of the best instances existing of the 
modern Roman system of design applied to the front of a 
building with clear-story and aisles. The west front of 


S. Gervais had been built earlier than this, but was merely 
a front planted on to a church of earlier date. The church 
of the Val-de-Grace, in Paris, on the south side of the 
Seine, was built partly by Fra^ois Mansart and partly by 
Jacques Lemercier; but the beautiful dome was not built 
until the time of Louis XIV., and is by another architect. 
The church of S. Roch, in Paris, is wholly of the reign of 
Louis XIV., and was designed by Lemercier, who had nearly 
finished the interior before his death in 1654. The, curious 
system of vaulting alluded to in Chapter IV. and shown 
in Fig. 85 is well exemplified by the fine and impressive 
interior of S. Roch (see Fig. 215): At Fontainebleau 
Lemercier built, about 1634, the famous double perron in 
the oval court. At the Louvre the same architect was 
employed upon those two pavilions in the square court 
which made positive and certain the extension of the court 
to its present great size, 410 feet square in the interior. 
These pavilions are those of the middle of the south front 
and the middle of the west front. The original feudal 
castle had occupied a space not exceeding two hundred 
and fifty feet square, external measurement, and the new 
Louvre, as imagined by Francis I. and planned by Pierre 
Lescot, would have had an inner court not much exceeding 
one hundred and fifty feet each way. By adding a pavil- 
ion to the north of Lescot's west wing and one to the east 
of his south wing, and by making these the centres of the 
future west and south fa9ades on the court, a court of four 
hundred feet each way was assured. These dimensions 
have been given because they mark the beginning of the 
modern demand for great size as a chief element in archi- 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. 


tectural effect. A mediaeval cathedral was large, because a 
great deal of room was wanted on the floor, and the other 
dimensions had to conform to this, following the inex- 

FIG. 215. Paris: Church of S. Roch. Interior of nave. About 1660 A.D. 

orable logic of the style. The large building once ob- 
tained, no doubt the townspeople enjoyed its vastness; but 
they would hardly have spent their money for a building 
more than twice as large as they needed. In the case of 


the Louvre, however, the future structure was at once 
much more than doubled in absolute cubic contents, and 
quadrupled in extent, with no obvious purpose but that of 
obtaining the grandeur thought to lie in great dimensions, 
or to be unattainable without them. 


In the provinces lying north of France as ruled over by 
Francis I. and his successors, the florid Gothic style had as 
much tenacity of life as in France itself. In the year in 
which our present epoch begins, two years later according 
to others, the exquisite little Hotel de Ville of Audenarde 
was begun, and this was finished about 1530. It is worthy 
to rank with the larger building of Louvain, described in 
Chapter VII. and shown in Plate VI., which, indeed, it 
strongly resembles both in general scheme and in detail. 
The Hotel de Ville of Courtrai is of the same epoch. In 
this a very slight non-Gothic or anti-Gothic feeling ap- 
pears ; thus the arches of the windows are all semicircular. 
In the town hall of Ghent, built about 1530, a florid Gothic 
like that of Beauvais or Abbeville or the church of Brou 
is triumphant : there is yet no trace of classical feeling. 
The jubes or rood-screens of Belgian churches still retain 
the florid Gothic at later dates than these ; that of Wai- 
court is dated 1531, that of Dixmude is probably of 1540, 
those of Lierre (S. Gummar) and Aerschot are ten years 
later in date, and that of Tessenderloo is known to be 
of 1580. Almost the first important building that can 
be fixed upon as of Renaissance design is the Hotel de 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. 


Ville at Antwerp, 
begun in 1561 and 
finished in three or 
four years ; a build- 
ing thoroughly 
Italian in spirit, in 
intention, in the 
use of classical 
orders, in mould- 
ings, in sculpture, 
rusticated base- 
ment, sequence of 
the orders above 
even the cornice, 
but strongly 
marked by that 
northern economy 
which forbids the 
stones to be much 
higher and the 
parts much larger 
than are needed. 
Somewhat the 
same spirit is visi- 
ble in the chateaux 
of Blois and Cham- 
bord, and it is, of 

FIG. 216. Antwerp, Bel- 
gium : Church of S. 
\ Charles Borromeo- Tower. 

About 1620 A.D. 


course, supreme in the private dwellings of the time. 
The town hall at Antwerp shows it applied to a 
large civic building, and is a valuable study. The 
town hall of Hal near Brussels is of about 1615; its 
design is strongly suggestive of those buildings of the 
reign of Henry IV. spoken of in Section I. of this chapter, 
Place Royale and Place Dauphine. Figure 216 shows 
the little tower of the church of S. Charles Borromeo at 
Antwerp, erected soon after 1614. As a Jesuit church 
it is naturally laden with ornament in a somewhat indis- 
criminate way, but the composition of its main masses is 
well worthy of study. 

In Spain, as has been shown in Chapter VII., an influ- 
ence received directly from Italy was clearly visible at a 
time when in France there were but doubtful signs of it. 
This was natural because the florid Gothic, strong as was 
its hold on Spanish buildings, was still more at home in 
France ; better organized, better understood, a more truly 
national style. Now, with the beginning of the epoch 
under consideration, a Renaissance style is found to exist, 
with much of direct Italian feeling in it, and much also of 
a picturesque and highly adorned style, which is hardly 
French of the time of Francis I., and hardly Lombard of 
the time of Bramante, but partakes of the nature of both. 
In one respect it is inferior to both, in this, that it is 
uncontrolled and that its builders seem to have little sense 
of what may be done and of what must be avoided. Thus 
columns and pilasters are extended to excessive length, 
although side by side with others of reasonable and grace- 
ful proportion. It is not meant that the strict rules for 


the proportions for the classical orders are violated, those 
rules had hardly been laid down with authority in 1525, 
but that pilasters having a height sixteen times their 
width are set up in immediate contrast with others only 
eight or nine times as high as they are wide, all support- 
ing the same entablature. This solecism exists in the 
highly adorned front of S. Domingo at Salamanca. In 
the same town, in the courtyard of the Irish College, there 
are two arcades, of which the one on the ground story has 
engaged columns with shafts extended to ten times their 
diameter, while in the second story the place of columns 
is taken by candelabra much in the style of the French 
work of the time. In both these architectural composi- 
tions there is evident a fine sense of general proportion. 
The parts are well distributed; the fine massive tower 
which looks down upon the court of the Irish College, and 
is probably of the same date, is not more successful in its 
ponderous dignity than are the arcades below in their 
airy lightness; but the details, whether directly taken 
from Italy, or Italian with northern feeling in them, are 
misunderstood. The time has not yet come to consider 
Spanish Renaissance as a matured style. The artists of 
France were more competent to guard every design of 
theirs from barbarisms. Whether they admitted more or 
less Italian influence, they kept a firm hold on the mem- 
bers of their architectural composition. Many buildings 
of this epoch exist in Spain, however, which are without 
fault. The porticoes and arcades of the great courts of 
palaces are important, as is natural in a southern country. 
Figure 217 shows a detail of the Casa Polentina at Avila, 



4 2I 

built about 1550. Two buildings exist in Salamanca, 
each of about the same date as the two mentioned 
on the last page, and each more successful than they as 



FlG. 217. Avila, Spain: Casa Polentina. Detail of court. About 1550 A. D. 

a design. These are the cloister of S. Domingo and the 
porch of the University, both buildings of the Transition. 
In these the artist has shown all the Spanish power of 

422 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP. VIII 

design in masses and has known how to invent or adopt 
architectural details to correspond. The porch of the 
University is an astonishing piece of decorative design. 
It must be considered as a further development of the 
decorative idea seen in S. Pablo of Valladolid, Plate VII. 
A large surface is covered with arabesque ornamentation 
mingled with medallions, heraldic shields, figure subjects 
in busts and full length ; the whole distributed in panels 
divided by upright and horizontal architectural members, 
the scale of the ornament growing larger as the wall 
ascends. It is a triumphant piece of ornamental work, 
and none the worse for being not strictly accountable 
to the canons of any recognized style. The unfinished 
palace of Charles V. at Granada and adjoining the 
Alhambra is a noble piece of simple Renaissance, the 
work of Pedro Machuca, about 1530. Nothing can 
exceed the large unity of the design: a square of a 
little more than two hundred feet is occupied by a 
building of great simplicity of plan, enclosing a cir- 
cular court about one hundred and ten feet in diameter. 
The stairways are in the corners outside of the circle. 
The exterior is but little broken by a projection in the 
middle of each front. It consists everywhere of one 
order of Ionic pilasters raised upon a high rusticated 
basement, except that at the centre pavilions the basement 
is decorated with a Doric order with coupled columns, 
and the upper story has coupled columns instead of pilas- 
ters (see Fig. 218). The court is of corresponding design, 
Doric and Ionic, and has an unusual air of tranquillity 
because of the total absence of arches, the Doric columns 




carrying an entablature, and this the Ionic order above, 
which is similar in distribution. In this design there is 

FIG. 218. Granada, Spain: Palace of Charles V. 1530 A.D. 

no lack of harmony between the details and the general 
design; all has been perfectly felt and understood, and 

424 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP. VIII 

nowhere in Europe is there a finer instance of the use of 
classical architectural forms put to modern use. 

Of the same date is the Ayuntamiento, or town hall, of 
Seville, a building as peculiar in being covered thick with 
carved ornament as the Granada palace is in being free 
from it. It is a Renaissance design of that class which 
admits of arabesques in every pilaster, every frieze, every 
fronton, every architrave; turns columns into candelabra 
or carves their shafts, and tops the door-heads with statu- 
ettes of cherubs. In these respects this building is not 
unlike the front of S. Domingo at Salamanca, but it is 
very much better organized : it is a piece of matured style 
and not of experiment. The word plateresco, or silver- 
ware-like, made up from platero, a silversmith, as Roma- 
nesco is from Romano, has been applied to this florid 
Renaissance work of Spain; 1 it is not without charm, 
and the fanciful sculpture is well held in hand. 

Much later than the above-named buildings is a splen- 
did example of Transition style. This is the crossing of 
nave and transept in Burgos Cathedral: beautiful within, 
to any one who is not too much shocked by styles that 
are neither mediaeval nor classical in their purity, and 
crowned by a cimborio, or central tower, of surprising 
picturesqueness and vigour. All of this is later than 
1539, when the old work fell, it is said to be as late as 
1560, and it is not surprising to find classical details 
used in many parts of it : what is surprising is the suc- 

1 The term is loosely used, at least by non-Spanish writers, and is applied to 
designs of the sixteenth century which are merely bad, that is, immature, and 
with details awkwardly combined. 


cessful use of such seemingly incongruous elements in 
one composition. Only about a decade later is the 
Escorial (1563-1584, according to the usual chronology), 
and in this the most severe and chilling uniformity pre- 
vails. The interior of the church, or chapel of the palace, 
which was also a conventual church in a sense, and a 
building of a very considerable size and importance, is of 
a surprising dignity; it is worthy of study in this, that 
it looks even larger than it is. In the cloister the vault- 
ing of cut stone is exposed undecorated and uncoloured ; 
it is extremely curious to see groined vaulting, such, at 
least in form, as the ignorant ninth-century masons used, 
with its transverse arches, wall-arches, and lunettes com- 
plete but executed in neatly cut blocks. One cannot 
but feel that classical Roman practice on the one hand, 
or Gothic building with ribs on the other, would have 
been a great deal cheaper. Ignorance of what the Ro- 
man method was, and contempt for the Gothic method 
because it was Gothic, make up together the secret of 
this apparent departure from natural and easy methods. 
The seventeenth century in Spain is not a brilliant 
architectural epoch. In general the somewhat florid 
variety of earlier times, which calls upon the archaeologist 
to seek carefully for its derivation and cause, has passed 
into most chilling monotony ; or, if traces of the old facile 
ingenuity remain, these are found in the most incongru- 
ous and unsightly masses used as substitutes for Roman 
orders. Of the few exceptions there may be mentioned 
the buildings at Santiago de Compostela, which adjoin the 
west front of the cathedral, and 'are devoted to the Chap- 

426 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP. VIII 

ter and its Library. It is very curious to see in these 
last-named the Renaissance feeling so strongly manifested 
after a lapse of two hundred years, and also to note that 
independence of Italian example which was so common 
with the earlier and better work, though now combined 
with the poor detail of the seventeenth century. The 
artist in charge of the work must have been a man of 
great natural powers to have got so easily the singular 
grace of proportion seen in the west towers and the 
sombre dignity of the library buildings adjoining. 


The strange thing which we call the German Renais- 
sance cannot be rightly judged by those who insist on 
comparing it with its Italian prototype, or its French, 
Spanish, and Belgian congeners. The student must study 
this curiously simple and yet picturesque architecture by 
and for itself. The buildings are almost always small in 
their parts, inexpensive in their construction, cheap and 
simple in their material. The mediaeval feeling for high- 
ridged and pointed roofs, for dormer windows, turrets 
crowned with spires, belfries, balconies, and a general ten- 
dency toward beetling and overhanging fronts, was still 
present. So far from diminishing, this tendency toward 
picturesqueness of treatment may even be thought to have 
grown stronger in the sixteenth century. The use of 
pseudo-classical details, and even of columns and pedestals 
fairly well copied from Italian models, in no way interferes 
with or hinders the free development of this unruly and 

SEC. Ill] GERMANY 427 

unrestrained designing. A few critically accurate Italian- 
ized designs are to be found, but they form a sharp con- 
trast with the vast majority of structures of their own 
time. To form a true conception of the German Renais- 
sance, one should visit, perhaps, Rothenburg on the Tauber, 
on the extreme western boundary of Bavaria. Here the 
little town seems, except for the alterations around the 
railway station, unaltered since the Thirty Years' War. 
From the low walls one looks out over the green coun- 
try, where no modern suburbs break the sweep of the 
fields up to the very ditch, leaving the ramparts as defen- 
sible as ever, once the embrasures repaired, against 
seventeenth-century means of attack. Within the walls, 
the streets are not very narrow nor very winding, but they 
are what they have always been. The town seems not to 
have been crowded, nor to have tended to outgrow the 
limits of the fortifications. There are no Gothic buildings 
except parts of the churches in the town, nor any modern 
ones, or so, at least, the student will think. The whole 
place is now as it was in the seventeenth century, public 
and private buildings alike. The extremely interesting 
Rathhaus is dated 1572-1590. Its design would seem to 
be of a half-century earlier but that one learns from expe- 
rience how slowly decided modifications of style appear in 
this long period of Transition. In the neighbouring town 
of Dinkelsbuehl are some timber houses, finer than any- 
thing in Rothenburg, where, indeed, the masons had it all 
their own way. The house called "The German House" 
(Deutsches Haus), in Dinkelsbuehl, has four stories in its 
gable and three in the wall below. The timber construe- 

428 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP. VIII 

tion is complicated, with many braces and struts put in 
for ornamental purpose, and the patterns made by these 
are Gothic in character. On the other hand, all the chief 
parts of the framing, such as the uprights and horizontals 
of the windows and those which form the main structure 
of the gable, considered as one truss of the roof, project 
boldly ; and these are carved into terminal figures, pilas- 
ters filled with arabesques, and entablatures worked with 
classical mouldings. Such timber-framed houses as this 
are very common, and their dates are frequently easy to 
fix. The one we have described is undoubtedly of 1542, 
and a later restoration has not disguised or confused the 
character of the earlier work. At Halberstadt are some 
superb wooden houses of 1550. Hildesheim, near Han- 
over, is perhaps the richest town in fine wooden-framed 
houses (see Fig. 219). They are very numerous there, and 
the house of the Butchers' Guild is a marvel of decorative 
effectiveness. This last has been restored recently, with 
all its original colouring carefully reproduced ; and it is as 
important as a piece of architectural colour as it is in form 
and construction. At Duderstadt, near Gottingen, the 
Rathhaus is dated 1528. It is entirely of timber construc- 
tion above the stone basement, and is an excellent type of 
the larger and more important buildings of the time when 
built chiefly of wood. In this instance, three octagonal 
turrets adorn the front, two of them carried on stone cor- 
beling and one on a fantastic semi-Gothic shaft, all of 
which stone-work forms part of the design of the base- 
ment. These turrets are covered with tiling, the walls as 
well as the spires, above the line whence the gables spring, 

SEC. Ill] 



while all their projecting oriel-window-like stories below 
are combined with the visible framing of the walls in one 
design. In this way the line where the gables begin is 

FIG. 219. Hildesheim, Germany : Wooden framed house. Close of sixteenth century. 

emphasized in the strongest way, and the whole design is 
divided into three well-marked bands. It may be thought 
that some classical feeling is shown in this insistence upon 
the horizontal line ; it is certainly a feeling less familiar in 
German Gothic than is to be wished, and in so far the 

430 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP. VIII 

Italian influence may be considered beneficial. At Dan- 
zig, on the Baltic Sea, there are many houses of the years 
1550-1570, some of which are of great beauty, and which 
group admirably in long-continued fa9ades on the streets, 
as in the Langgasse and in the Langemarkt. The houses 
are all of masonry, and have a certain character of stateli- 
ness and elegance, united with the picturesque effect pro- 
duced by their long rows of gables of varying form and 
the somewhat extravagant nature of many of their details. 
The house No. 38 of the Langgasse is indeed distin- 
guished by two entablatures of Roman Doric style, and 
by a frieze of sculpture which has been studied from good 
Italian work of about 1500; but these three pieces are 
used merely as sill-courses for the large windows of the 
front, and have an appearance of support from corbels 
carved with human heads. The door-piece is, however, of 
formal Italian design, with Doric columns and entabla- 
ture. The house adjoining, No. 37, is adorned with pilas- 
ters to which a semblance of Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian 
style has been given ; and these pilasters support entab- 
latures of that curious sort in which the frieze is increased 
to three or four times its normal width, and charged with 
sculpture, but also divided into panels by a sort of pro- 
longation of the pilasters below. Each of these houses 
has a gable of irregular outline, made up of concave and 
convex curves; the one is dated 1563 and the other 1567. 
They are typical of long rows of houses in this and other 
streets. Contrasting with these is a stately mansion of 
about the same date, in which four stories of fairly regular 
order are crowned by a gable most skilfully combined, as 

SEC. Ill] 



to design, with the formal front below. This is a very 
noble house, and the sculpture, which is used with great 
reserve and only where much needed, is fine and well 

FIG. 220. Danzig, Germany: Zeughaus or Arsenal. About 1605 A.D. 

modelled. The Zeughaus, a kind of arsenal of the town, 
is of 1610, and reminds one curiously of the buildings of 
Henry IV. in France, though having so much more of the 
irregular, and in this case excessive, oddity of detail. Fig- 
ure 220 gives a part of one of the fronts of this curious 

432 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. - [CHAP. VIII 

structure, built of brick, with quoins and other details of 
stone. Over all the city towers the really beautiful spire of 
the Rathhausof the Rechtstadt, built about 1560, and wor- 
thily crowning the building of an earlier date, which with the 
spire is entirely of brick. Churches and public and private 
buildings vie with one another to make this city, far away 
on the borders of Poland, one of the most interesting in 
Europe for buildings where a certain independence of 
academic rules has resulted fortunately for the pictu- 
resque effect of separate buildings, groups of buildings, and 
whole quarters of the town. On the other hand, there 
are buildings which affect the not unpleasing formality, as 
if in advance, of the eighteenth century ; and one of the 
gates, the Langgasserthor, is a Roman triumphal arch 
in distribution, adorned with free columns in two orders, 
carrying ressauts of great boldness. The Rathhaus of 
Cologne, built between 1569 and 1571, is an example of 
systematized neo-classic architecture, comparable to the 
Hotel de Ville of Antwerp (see p. 418). The very graceful 
portico of two stories is given in Fig. 221. Of a later 
date is the interesting Rathhaus of Ratisbon, in Bavaria, of 
which a part is given in Fig. 222. The severity of design 
in this forms a curious contrast to the lack of restraint 
seen in so many of the buildings of the time. The impor- 
tant church of S. Michael at Munich (1582-90) is built 
with a groined vault, resembling that of S. Roch, given in 
Fig. 215, except that the minor arches of the lunettes are 
lower, and leave the great barrel-vault almost unbroken 
(see Fig. 223). The fine interior is marred by an order 
and a system of roof-decoration immeasurably inferior to 

FIG. 221. Cologne, Germany: Entrance porch of Rathhaus. About 1570 A. D. 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. 


the corresponding details of S. Roch. On the other hand, 
the main masses are combined in the most logical way. 
Exterior and interior are strictly in harmony, and the 

FIG. 222. Ratisbon, Germany: Door of the Rathhaus. About 1662 A.D. 

severe front is adorned with portrait-statues of the time, 
which are wonderfully appropriate and helpful to the 

The well-known buildings of Heidelberg Castle, " Otto 

SEC. Ill] GERMANY 435 

Heinrichs-Bau" of 1556, and "Friedrichs-Bau" of i6oi,are 
excellent types of the German Renaissance of their time; 

FIG. 223. Munich, Germany: Church of S. Michael. Interior of nave. 1585 A.D. 

and of the same date is the admirable house in the town, 
the inn whose sign is The Knight, " Zum Ritter." One of 
the most curious instances of decorative architecture in 

436 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP. VIII 

Europe is certainly the north front of the Friedrichs- 
Bau, where the architect of the Count Palatine has tried to 
make a large front both formal and fantastic, at once 
academic and picturesque. He has drawn inspiration from 
Venetian palaces, Roman churches, and the earlier efforts 
of his fellow-countrymen, and has produced a mixture 
which must be classed as very bad architecture, its un- 
doubtedly spirited effect coming from the play of light and 
shade on its long succession of sharp-edged masses, as if 
upon a natural cliff. 

A curious contrast to these over-picturesque buildings, 
crowded with details which belong to no recognized style 
and seem to have had no development, but to have sprung 
ready made from a restless brain, are those chateaux 
(Schloesser) so frequent in the remoter parts of Germany 
which have almost no architectural detail at all. Every 
traveller in central and southern Germany will remember 
these huge whitewashed buildings rising from the hilltops; 
there is one of them of 1550 at Fuessen in Bavaria, and 
one of 1650 at Hoernitz near Zittau, on the Bohemian 
frontier; but indeed they are numerous in Germany and 
in Austria- Hungary as well. They are high-walled and 
high-roofed, crowned with turrets and bell-gables ; their 
lofty buildings are arranged around courtyards, which are 
finally enclosed by high walls ; in fact, they are the regular 
descendants of the strong castles of the Middle Ages, and 
those who have visited the Wartburg to see the Luther 
relics can form from that much older building a sufficient 
idea of the seventeenth-century country mansions which 
are under consideration. The strong tendency toward 


picturesque effect, which is characteristic of German work 
at all times, and which leads to fine results in the two cen- 
turies before 1665, is well seen in these wholly unadorned 
and, in a sense, unarchitectural groups of building. 


The epoch of one hundred and forty-five years now 
under consideration covers English history as follows: 
some years of Henry VIII., the disturbed and brief royal- 
ties of Edward VI. and of Mary, the comparatively quiet 
reigns of Elizabeth and of James I., together with fifteen 
years of Charles I., these three making up a time of 
change, growth, and, on the whole, natural and healthy 
progress in architecture ; and finally the disturbed time of 
the civil war, the Commonwealth, and five years of the 
Restoration. It is evident, therefore, that political circum- 
stances encouraged building during only those eighty years 
which form the middle of the longer epoch. During those 
years, what was known as the Tudor style was superseded 
rather abruptly by the Elizabethan architecture, and this 
was continued by what has been called the Jacobean style; 
the reign of Charles I. was marked by serious attempts to 
introduce the completed and regulated Italian architecture, 
but these succeeded only in part, and the Great Rebellion 
closed this era of transition. In 1666 the great fire of 
London, coming only five years after the restoration of 
Charles II., marks well enough the beginning, under Wren, 
of the unquestioned supremacy of Italian methods of 

43^ WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP. VIII 

design, and the beginning of the later epoch treated in 
Chapter IX. 

At no time during this long period was Gothic feeling 
absent. It holds with even greater persistence than in 
France its position as an independent style, and influences 
even more than in Germany the transitional architecture 
which was growing up. Henry VII.'s chapel, mentioned 
in the last chapter, was succeeded by such buildings as 
the hall of Christ Church at Oxford, in which four-cen- 
tred arches are used for the windows, which are filled 
with perpendicular tracery, and the beautiful wooden roof 
.has the same form of the flattened or depressed pointed 
arch for the controlling lines of its design. This building 
has no single classical feature, although it was finished 
about 1530, and was therefore one hundred years later 
than the establishment of the Renaissance architecture 
in Italy. Haddon Hall, in Derbyshire, the favourite place 
of resort for visitors interested in the picturesqueness of 
the Transition architecture, was brought to its present 
shape, in the main, about 1540. It was added to and 
altered in the years following, but its long lines of build- 
ing, one story high above a basement, varied by projecting 
bay windows both square and polygonal, their openings 
filled with a system of mullions and transoms, low towers 
rising at intervals, and the wall everywhere fringed with 
square battlements, which form the sky-line, as no roof 
is visible : all this makes up a perfect example of the 
Tudor domestic architecture, passing into the earliest 
Elizabethan. As late as 1555, S. John's College at Oxford 
shows in its garden-front almost exactly that Tudor- 


Gothic style described in Chapter VII. The four-cen- 
tred arches have passed into three-centred arches in a 
part of the work ; battlements crown the low wall.; the 
roof is rather steeper than usual, and this in England 
means an early style far more than on the continent. 
Some classical sculpture there is upon the oriel-windows, 
and the corbels which carry them are neo-classic in charac- 
ter, but all this is so late in style that it clearly belongs to 
nearly the same epoch as the doorway to the garden and 
the alterations made by Inigo Jones. Such classical 
details as these, if of the same time as the building 
proper, would have to be classified with the tombs, many 
of which exist in English churches of Italian or French 
Renaissance design, and of an earlier date than the Ox- 
ford College. These tombs are of course by continental 
artists, sometimes brought to England by their employers, 
and sometimes sending their finished work. Just as in 
Germany, the classical orders, or some semblance of them, 
were used in porches of buildings which otherwise knew 
no such foreign elements of design, so these tombs were 
easy to bring under the influence of Italian or Franco- 
Italian art, while manor-houses and churches remained 
in the hands of native builders. 

What is called the Elizabethan is one of the most 
curious transition styles known in European history. It 
is like the Tudor style of the reigns of Henry VII. and 
Henry VIII., except that every detail which might have 
a Gothic look is taken out, and scraps of classical detail 
are put in their places, but timidly and with reserve. 
There is in consequence a lack of detail in the earliest 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. 


examples ; thus the so-called Duke's House near Bradford- 
on-Avon in Wiltshire is a small mansion-house with 
gables and picturesque chimneys, and with the walls break- 

FIG. 224. Bramshill manor-house, England: Detail of front. 1609 A.D. 

ing out in numerous bay windows. These bay windows 
and the flat walls are alike pierced with as many mul- 
lioned windows as they can hold, and the building is 
picturesque and attractive when seen from a little dis- 


tance, but it is so devoid of ornament that it seems 
bare on a nearer view. There is no doubt that this 
building is of about 1567, or in other words of the second 
decade of Elizabeth's reign. The system described is 
well shown in the house of Bramshill, Surrey (Fig. 224), 
although this is of somewhat later date. A much larger 
manor-house is the great mansion of Longleat in Wilt- 
shire. In this palace there is no visible roof, and of 
course no gables, but the wall is pierced with windows 
and broken up with bay windows, and those windows 
are rilled with the stone bars, mullions, and transoms 
which superseded Gothic tracery ; in short all below 
the sky-line is treated in as picturesque a manner as in 
the Duke's House itself. The difference is in the some- 
what freer introduction of flat pilasters, one order to each 
story ; but only on the bay windows, which are emphasized 
in this way; and in the use of columns and an entablature 
in the small and unpretending porch. The huge palace 
of Wollaton Hall in Nottinghamshire was built shortly 
after 1580, and this has as many windows as Longleat, 
as picturesque a breaking-up of its walls, and an even 
more mediaeval outline and grouping. On the other hand, 
it has pilasters and entablatures used more freely than 
at Longleat. What is especially of importance in our 
enquiry at Wollaton, is the free introduction of that pecul- 
iar Elizabethan ornament which consists largely of scrolls 
and cartouches, and ignores alike the beauty of Gothic 
and that of Renaissance sculpture. Figure 225 gives one 
of the four angle towers of Wollaton. Certainly this sys- 
tem of ornamentation cannot be praised, but, as an insep- 



arable part of the Elizabethan architecture, which has 
many virtues of its own, these straps and scrolls are 

accepted without disfavour. 
Such manor-houses as those 
named were built all over 
England about this time. 
The great nobles were re- 
placing their feudal for- 
tresses by country houses 
of more habitable charac- 
ter, exactly as was being 
done on the continent. 
Burleigh House, near Stam- 
ford in Lincolnshire, was 
built in 1577; Wollaton in 
1590; Longford Castle in 
Wiltshire in 1591 ; Cobham 
Hall in Kent, 1594-99; 
Hardwich Hall in Derby- 
shire, about 1597; Ingestre 
Hall in Staffordshire, about 
1 60 1 ; Montacute 
House, in Somerset- 
shire, about 1610; 
and Hatfield House, 

FIG. 225. 

Wollaton Hall, England: 
1590 A.D. 

Angle tower. 

in Herefordshire, at 
the same time. All 
these are " Elizabethan," that is, they are not at all classi- 
cal in their general conception : they are mediaeval build- 
ings with Gothic details left out, and with a good deal of 


hesitation visible in every part as to what should be put 
in its place. This is well illustrated by the doorway of 
Gainford Hall in Durham County, shown in Fig. 226. 
A comparison of this with the details of Italian buildings 
of any date/ following 1420 will show the completely non- 
traditional 'character of the classic details employed. In 
these buildings there is a great diversity in the amount 
and character of the classical architecture introduced, and 
this is visible as much in the general design as in the 
details. There is no unanimity, no general acceptance of 
a style which all- may follow. Thus at Longford Castle, 
the celebrated entrance-front has a centrepiece with 
arcades about fifty feet wide ; the arcade on the ground 
floor has four-centred arches of a Tudor appearance, 
springing directly from the capitals of what are meant 
for Roman Doric columns; on the floor above, the arcade 
is so far 'classical that the columns are between the arches 
and carry their own entablature, while the arches them- 
selves are semicircular and spring from Roman imposts, 
but all the minor details are as non-Roman as possible. 
Other parts of this front are almost German in their 
mingling of pilasters of fantastic and non-classical form 
with terminal figures, and the crowning of the whole 
with gables of curved outline. The other fronts of this 
house are Tudor in style, without admixture. 

Of a later date than any of those named above is Rush- 
ton Hall, Northamptonshire; for this, though begun in 
1595, was not finished till 1630, and yet seems to be of the 
same design throughout. In plan it is stately and like a 
great French chateau, the main building surrounding three 

FIG. 226. Gainford Hall, England: Entrance doorway. About 1600 A.D. 


sides of a court, which is closed on the fourth side by a 
one-story structure with a terrace roof, in which the prin- 
cipal entrance is marked by a somewhat decorative arch- 
way. This entrance-front is entirely characteristic of the 
whole structure; no part of it is more classical than this 
or has more to say of an influence from Italy coming di- 
rectly or by way of France. Blickling Hall, Norfolkshire, 
though finished earlier than Rushton, had been begun 
much later; it was built complete during the two or three 
years immediately preceding the accession of Charles I. 
It is a Tudor building throughout, built of brick, with 
stone copings, bay windows, window architraves, and 
quoins; entirely picturesque and non-classic in treatment, 
and absolutely without any use of the Roman orders or 
their imitations, except at the main door of entrance. 
Ashton Hall, at Birmingham, is of the same date and 
the same character. The words used above to describe 
Blickling will serve for Ashton also. 

All the above are mansions of stone and brick built with 
considerable regard to stateliness of effect, as stateliness 
was understood in England and in the country, where the 
conditions were of course different from those of a city 
square in Rome or Paris. Contemporary with them are 
numerous half-timbered houses, in which stateliness is 
non-existent, and a certain homeliness replaces it which is 
most agreeable to the modern lover of home. These 
half-timbered buildings are built with frames of solid oak 
sticks, put together with mortise-and-tenon joints, and 
wooden pins to hold the tenons. The square and trian- 
gular spaces left open between the posts, ties, and braces 

446 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP. VIII 

are then filled with mason-work of some kind, which is 
brought to a smooth surface flush with the face of the 
timber- work. Such a building is Bramhall in Cheshire, 
with a long row of gables on the garden-front. Another, 
and a very celebrated one, is Moreton Old Hall, Cheshire, 
the gable walls of which irregular structure are built over- 
hanging in two or three stages, and whose timber framing 
is even more irregular and unsymmetrical than that of 
Bramhall. Figure 227 gives a part of the garden-front of 
Moreton, showing large bay windows, of which each face is 
topped by a gable and is filled with glazed sash. Still 
another, and a somewhat more carefully planned and 
built, example is Park Hall near Whittington in Cheshire. 
In the city itself of Chester are buildings, dwelling-houses, 
and shops built of the same materials and in the same 
manner, some of them of the years 1600 to 1660, though 
many of them are earlier. There is no difference in the 
matter of elegance and cost of construction between these 
houses of citizens and the mansions of country gentlemen 
which have been described! In all there is the same 
marked simplicity, the same domestic and unpretending 
appearance, as of cottages built for quiet living, and in all 
there is to be noted the same absence of any architectural: 
style. The stone and brick-and-stone mansions are either 
Perpendicular Gothic, or Tudor, or Elizabethan, or Jaco- 
bean; even if displaying a mixture of styles, as is natural 
in a period of transition, they tell the beholder what style, 
or styles they affect. But the half-timbered houses are 
neither Gothic nor post-Gothic in character: the fifteenth- 
century and the seventeenth-century examples can hardly 

.:.< II 

FIG. 227. Moreton Old Hall, England. Garden-front. About 1590. 

448 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP. VIII 

be distinguished ; or not distinguished at all but by small 
details, as of carved ornament around a porch or a hip- 
knob. This simple and in a sense rustic aspect of the 
timber-framed houses, as contrasted with the more gran- 
diose air of such houses as Bramshill and Wollaton, has 
given rise to the theory that the native Englishman, of 
mingled British and Saxon race, is represented in the one, 
and the Norman in the other class of mansion. This is 
perhaps impossible to demonstrate or to maintain seri- 
ously, but at all events the one class of house may be 
taken to represent the stay-at-home land-owner, and the 
other the court noble, who went up to London annually 
and met foreigners, if indeed he did not follow the wars 
abroad. Both classes of houses represent native English 
habits of building in superintendents and workmen alike, 
and in this they are different from the buildings which 
professed architects were desirous of building when they 
could obtain a royal or princely patron. Inigo Jones, a 
Welshman, who had had unusual opportunities of foreign 
study, and who had extraordinary powers of design, recom- 
mended himself to the nobility in the first place as a deco- 
rator and scene painter and organizer of masques ; and at 
last, when he was fifty years old, made it seem to some of 
his patrons desirable to carry out a part of his stately 
designs in the Italian taste. About 1620 what is called 
the Banqueting House at Whitehall, but which is used as 
the Royal Chapel, a stately front, not large but of great 
dignity of design, facing the Horse Guards, was erected ; 
the only part ever built of an immense palace designed to 
please King Charles I. This building is one hundred and 


ten feet long by fifty-five high, and consists of a basement 
with square windows upon which are raised two orders of 
almost exactly the same size and crowned with a high 
parapet. The two orders correspond with two rows of 
square windows, but there is only one story in the build- 
ing. The Banqueting House formed only one member 
of a very long front, and the drawings that have been 
preserved make it clear that Inigo Jones' intention 
was to keep his orders of the same height throughout, 
and to make his entablatures continuous. Nearly all 
designs in the developed neo-classic style of the seven- 
teenth century the Italian or Palladian style, as it is 
commonly called in England presuppose a perfect 
uniformity, in the exterior, without regard to the size 
or distribution of the rooms within. Inigo Jones was 
one of the most skilful of designers, as his less preten- 
tious decorative work shows, but it is clear that he was 
too devoted an adherent of pseudo-classic principles to 
modify a great classic front for such considerations as 
differences of one or two stones within. In this instance, 
as clearly as in any other, is seen the willing abandonment 
by the architects of the seventeenth century of all natu- 
ralism of design and a hearty adoption of the theory that 
architecture was an art that could be mastered only by 
acquiring and mastering settled rules of proportion, 
Whatever the rooms within might be, size or shape or 
purpose, the exterior must not be made to correspond 
with them further than that the designer was free to 
choose between a certain number of formal dispositions 
of the exterior parts. 


450 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP. VIII 

At the same time with the Banqueting House, Jones 
built in London the row of houses on the western side of 
Lincoln's Inn Fields : a long front, forming one single 
design of great beauty in the severe style adopted. A 
single order of pilasters rests upon a moderately high 
basement, and between the pilasters are two stories of 
windows. Of the style followed here there must be some 
account given in the next section, for these novelties of 
the "colossal order "and its concomitants were a hundred 
years old in Italy when they first appeared in England. A 
design simpler in being without the large order of pilasters, 
but in other respects as formal as the above-named build- 
ings, is the south front of Brympton House, Somersetshire. 
Ten years later, about 1630, Jones built the very beautiful 
Corinthian portico at the west end of S. Paul's Cathedral; 
but this structure is known to us only by means of prints 
of the time, for it was destroyed, together with the church, 
in the great fire of 1666. York Gate, which still stands 
in London on the embankment near Charing Cross Sta- 
tion, is all that remains of the buildings of the Duke of 
Buckingham, George Villiers, the favourite of James I. 
and his son Charles. This lovely portal was the water- 
gate of York House. 

At the beginning of the present epoch, the work of the 
Italian architects was still very much diversified. Some of 
them still clung to the traditions of the Renaissance. 
Nearly all were trying to reach a different result, that 

SEC. V] ITALY 451 

is to say, the nearest approach to Roman antiquity; but 
each was working along his own lines of approach. Thus 
at Mantua the Palazzo Te was undertaken in 15 25, under 
the direction of Giulio Romano. The interior details, the 
columns, pilasters, entablatures, and vaulting of the great 
vestibule, or "atrium," are excessively clumsy in design; 
too short, too low, too heavy for a palace interior, and 
the Roman order is abandoned in many points ; but with 
this is united an extraordinary richness of sculpture and 
painted ornament. Above the necking of the columns 
and pilasters almost every raised or prominent part of 
the surface is covered with architectural sculpture, scrolls, 
wave-lines, guilloches, and anthemions, and all the sunken 
panels are filled with painting. In the walls below there 
are statues in niches, and large and small panels rilled 
with figure sculpture in relief. It would not be strictly 
accurate to call this the architecture of a painter, it is 
rather the designing of a man without a delicate sense 
for form and for proportion, and one who thought that 
an appearance of antique massiveness was to be got by 
being clumsy, and that clumsiness could be redeemed by 
decoration. A somewhat similar attempt to be classical, 
without any shrewd sense of what was fine in classical art, 
is to be found in the garden-front of the same building. 
It is to be remembered, however, in awarding praise and 
blame to buildings which are accredited to a single archi- 
tect, as becomes the custom in dealing with the sixteenth 
and following centuries, that nothing is so hard to be cer- 
tain of as the authorship of a large and complex architect- 
ural design. It is as difficult in the nineteenth century as 

452 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP. VIII 

it was in the sixteenth to give credit for a design to any 
one person. The general sketch is made by the master, 
and the details are worked out and the whole design 
brought into shape, perhaps, by his pupils and assistants. 
But no admirer is able to learn who deserves the credit for 
what he admires. Was the force of the design in the 
original sketch, or was this as much of a hindrance as a 
help to those who completed the studies ? It is not there- 
fore with unhesitating blame that we can lay the serious 
defects of this very inferior work of the later Italian Re- 
naissance to the charge of Giulio Romano. 

A few miles to the north, Verona, a city in which 
architectural art has always been marked by purity and 
refinement, buildings of extraordinary dignity were erected 
during the years 1530-1550, this rare virtue being achieved 
by the simplest means. The Palazzo Pompei has a front 
on the street of less than eighty feet. This front consists 
of a high basement very plainly rusticated and pierced 
with round-arched openings, and a single story in which 
round-headed windows are alternated with the columns of 
a Roman Doric order rather strictly treated. The piers at 
the two ends are larger than the others, and in the upper 
story these are fronted with a column and a square pilaster 
of equal projection. The delicate look of the upper story, 
with its rather widely spaced slender and fluted columns, 
is, in a singular way, enhanced by the shutting in of this 
row of columns between the square and solid vertical 
masses of the two pilasters, although these are not larger 
in width or projection in any part than the width of the 
shafts at their base. Minute touches are added to give 

SEC. V] ITALY 453 

lightness above and ponderous mass below ; thus the sills 
of the basement windows are of the full thickness of a 
course of stone, and are not divided into mouldings or 
horizontal lines in any way, but have their projection sup- 
ported by deep corbels cut into plain ogee curves, as if an 
intention to make consoles of them had been abandoned. 
The courses of stone are deeply rusticated, and the sur- 
face is roughly treated with the pointing chisel, so as to 
leave it uniformly vertical but still full of irregularities, 
like those of uncut blocks. This type of palace was cre- 
ated, it may almost be said, by Bramante, as in his design 
for Raphael's house on the Piazza Rusticucci at Rome, 
now destroyed. It is, however, preserved and developed 
by Sammichele ; for, although buildings with a high and 
massive basement and a single richer story above had 
been built in Rome and elsewhere (see the close of Chap- 
ter VII. and Fig. 201), the palaces of the North offer many 
interesting varieties of this design, and Sammichele, who 
died in 1558, is the great master of the style. After his 
death, it was carried on in the Palazzo Bevilacqua, which 
was built from his designs. This is a building far more 
ornate, and with the front pierced with much larger open- 
ings. The windows of the principal story are alternately 
very large and much smaller, and the columns between 
them are brought together in pairs, with a small window 
between the columns of each pair; the basement also is 
broken up with pilasters, a fatal modification. Much 
dignity is lost, and only a doubtful advantage gained for 
external architecture by this development of the style in 
the direction of greater variety. It is pleasant to note 

454 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP. VIII 

that, forty years .later, the simple design of the Palazzo 
Pompei was closely followed, and on a much larger scale, 
in the splendid building which is set against the ancient 
wall of Theodoric, on the southwestern side of the Piazza 
Bra. This beautiful building is now a corn market. It 
is called the Gran' Guardia Antica, and is ascribed to a 
little-known architect, Andrea Milano. The design differs 
from that of the Palazzo Pompei in having unfluted 
coupled columns, and in minor details. It is also on a 
much larger scale, having fifteen bays instead of seven in 
its faade, and having its central portion crowned by a low 
attic. There is no city in Italy in which street architect- 
ure has been more successfully treated in the neo-classic 
style than Verona. 

In Venice, however, the refinement of Verona, or some- 
thing nearly akin to it, is joined to a splendour and rich- 
ness of composition unapproached in the less wealthy and 
splendid city. The Libreria Vecchia or Old Library of S. 
Mark designed by Sansovino was begun in 1536, and more 
than half of the front on the Piazzetta and opposite the 
Ducal Palace was finished by him. At the same time the 
Zecca or Mint, immediately behind the Library and front- 
ing on the sea, was built by the same architect. The Mint 
is a simple and workmanlike building with an exterior 
in two stories above the basement, each story treated 
by itself. The basement is rusticated and pierced with 
round arches like the basement of the Roman and Vero- 
nese palaces which have been mentioned above (pp. 387, 
452, and 453). The principal story is then in the Doric 
order with square windows, and the uppermost story in the 

SEC. V] 



Ionic order with square windows crowned with pediments. 
The columns and pilasters of this front are banded, but not 

FIG. 228. Venice, Italy : Palace Widman. Detail of front. Close of sixteenth century. 

with the elaborateness shown in the buildings of the 
French Renaissance and succeeding styles. 1 The cornice 

1 For this banding, see Fig. 228, a part of the palace Widman, in Venice, 
probably of this epoch. 

456 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP. VIII 

of the Ionic order is carried on a row of corbels, which is 
substituted for the proper frieze of the order so that this 
may serve for the wall-cornice. It is hard to imagine a 
more satisfactory building for civil or domestic purposes 
in a style where variety is avoided and ornament forbid- 
den. The beauty of the Renaissance is not in it, but a 
new beauty all its own belongs to this later and severer 
style. The interior court of the Zecca has its walls 
pierced with much larger openings, it is more elaborate, 
and, indeed, the principal story is reduced to a light 
Roman order with slender pilasters substituted for the 
engaged columns. In contrast with this simple building 
is the superb Library which adjoins it (already named), a 
building which has been called often enough the finest 
thing of its time. Its front on the Piazzetta (see Plate 
IX.) and the smaller front on the sea consist alike of a 
lower Roman order with Doric columns and an upper one 
with Ionic columns, and nothing else except a parapet 
with statues ; but every part is treated with unusual elab- 
oration. In the ground story, the engaged column and 
its two adjoining imposts are reduced to four feet four in 
width, on the fa9ade, and the openings between these 
piers, which are all open arches, are not quite twice the 
width, or about eight feet three. There is therefore not 
much more than room on each side of the engaged column 
for the moulded archivolt which springs from the impost, 
and there is a very small spandrel. The Doric cornice 
is unusually large, and is complete with its triglyphs. In 
the story above, the Ionic columns are raised upon ped- 
estals, and the impost upon each side is much broader 



Part of front on the Piazzetta, Built about 1536. 

SEC. V] ITALY 457 

than below, and comprises a free Ionic column under 
the impost, these smaller columns being also raised on 
pedestals to a height a little above that of the larger 
pedestals. In this way the piers of the upper story are 
made very much wider than those below, wider indeed 
than the windows which alternate with them ; and the 
spandrels are large in proportion. The frieze of the 
Ionic order is increased to a width of more than three 
feet clear, and the decorated mouldings above it broaden 
it still more, thus making of the entablature a very suffi- 
cient crowning feature. So far, there has been described 
a building of elaborate character, and one embodying 
many subtilties of design in the smaller Ionic columns, 
which have their shafts fluted and reeded to contrast with 
the larger columns of the order, and which, as their capi- 
tals are set much lower than the capitals of the larger 
columns, have their bases properly raised higher than 
the larger bases. The mouldings are all extremely sharp 
and delicate. The proportions are of extraordinary refine- 
ment. All this beautiful front is covered thick with sculpt- 
ure arranged and combined with the most elaborate care. 
The smaller spandrels of the lower arcade are filled with 
nude male figures in high relief; the Doric frieze above 
them is filled with flat conventional carving, which would 
be dull enough in another place but serves a good pur- 
pose here as a foil. The larger spandrels above are filled 
with draped and winged female figures, the plumes and 
drapery disposed to fill much of the space, which, more- 
over, is in part concealed by the elaborately sculptured 
Ionic capital, whose very volutes are filled with foliage. 

458 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP. VIII 

The keystones of both arcades are sculptured, lion 
heads and human heads alternating. The broad termi- 
nal frieze contains small ventilation openings treated like 
tablets, and included in a composition of festoons, fig- 
ures, heads, and scrolls, which crowd every part of the 
surface. The pedestals of the parapet carry statues of 
very considerable merit. One is reminded that the 
author of this unrivalled front was a sculptor of the 
highest rank in his day; a man whose work, though ad- 
mittedly of the Decadence, is still to be taken very 
seriously even in its large and independent pieces. Not 
one of the sculptures which he placed during his life- 
time in connection with his buildings, the giants of 
the Giant Staircase, the S. James in the cathedral of 
Florence, the statue over the door of S. Giuliano in 
Venice, the bronze doors of S. Mark's, not one but 
calls for the study and admiration of later times ; and 
the sculptured enrichments of this library are as unique 
in their value as is the delicate and refined architecture 
which surrounds them. Conventional architectural carv- 
ing is freely used to set off this expressional sculpture. 
The Doric capitals are of the richest design, and corre- 
spond to the elaborate Ionic columns described above. 
The delicate mouldings of the archivolts are plain be- 
low, but are enriched in the upper story. The tablets 
which enclose the openings in the great frieze are worked 
in the same way, and are enlarged by foliated scroll-work. 
The offsets in the architrave above, and the mouldings of 
the dentil course and cornice, and the modillions, are carved 
as the regulations ordain, but with unusual delicacy. 

SEC. V] ITALY 459 

The effect of elaborate sculpture upon a front is not 
sufficiently weighed by modern students. Those who 
have the opportunity to see a modern Gothic front in 
England, or a modern classic front in Paris, before and 
again after its carving has been executed, should note 
this important point. The mechanical and copied sculpt- 
ure of many nineteenth-century buildings has caused 
a certain reaction in some quarters in favour of design 
which shall be wholly independent of carving. This 
Venetian front of 1536 may join with the French portals 
of three hundred years before to declare that a building 
with sculpture belongs to a different and better class 
than a building without it. 

There is another curious consideration which this front 
brings up, its probable superiority to anything which the 
imperial Roman world had seen. It is difficult to believe 
that any design made by an architect of the time of 
Augustus or of the time of Hadrian could equal this one. 
It must be remembered that the free and perfect appli- 
cation of sculpture to architecture is of the Middle Ages 
and not of antiquity, so far as we know. In this sixteenth- 
century work we have a piece of abstract designing prob- 
ably superior in refinement to anything which the impe- 
rial architects could produce, and adorned with sculpture 
which is far superior to that which we know as having 
been applied to the exteriors of Roman buildings, which 
sculpture, moreover, is applied to its purpose of adornment 
with a sense of fitness coming of the great traditions of 
four hundred years. 

Venice was the home of splendid architecture at this 

460 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP. VIII 

time, and public and private buildings vie with one 
another in the somewhat artificial and self-conscious ex- 
cellences of a highly taught school. The Logetta, at 
the foot of the great bell-tower of S. Mark's, is by the 
same Jacopo Sansovino who built the Library, and is of 
1540. The huge and stately Palazzo Cornaro, called 
Corner delta Ca Grande, on the right as one ascends the 
great canal ; the splendid front of the Scuola di S. Rocco ; 
the Palazzo Malipiero-Trevisan behind S. Maria For- 
mosa ; the Palazzo Corner-Mocenigo at San Polo ; and 
most important of all, the Palazzo Grimani at San Luca 
which was the post-office thirty years ago and is now 
occupied by the Court of Appeals, a building with one 
of the most dignified fronts ever imagined by a neo-classic 
architect, are all of this time. The front of the Scuola di 
S. Rocco, built about 1536, is shown in Fig. 229. It is 
a belated piece of Renaissance designing, but as fine as 
the buildings of the prime. A number of churches 
should also be named, such as S. Giorgio dei Grechi, 
S. Maria Mater Domini, S. Giuliano, S. Fantino; and 
also those which Palladio designed, such as S. Giorgio 
Maggiore, the Redentore on the Giudecca, the front of 
S. Pietro in Castello, and finally S. Francesco della 

For Palladio, however, and the curious influence 
which he exerted on the architecture of the century 
following his death, especially in England, one must go 
to Vicenza, where the arcaded porticoes of the so-called 
Basilica, the Palazzo Chieregati, the Palazzo Thiene, and 
others, embody what seems to have been his theory, that 

FIG. 229. Venice, Italy: Scuola di S. Rocco. Detail of front. 1536 A. D. 

462 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP. VIII 

architecture is an abstract thing existing independently 
of excellence or poverty of material, of fitness or unfitness 
for the needs of the building, of massiveness or slightness 
of build, of great or diminutive size. It is impossible not 
to recognize the beauty of the Palazzo Thiene: both its 
exterior (see Fig. 230), and its great court offer to the 
student admirable models of the right use of large masses 
and simple details ; but its architecture is a mere stucco 
casting with a rough brick core, and nothing but the 
problem of laying out his masses has concerned the 
designer at all. It is model-making, not architecture. It 
is scenic designing, as when temporary triumphal arches 
are put up on a day of festivity, and not architecture. 
The fronts of churches such as S. Francesco della Vigna 
are criticised in the very guide-books, as not agreeing with 
the interior ; but this, after all, is a small fault, as the chief 
lighting of the interior is easily provided, and the building 
is a simple hall which any front may be thought to suit : 
it is a common fault, too, and all Italy joined with 
Palladio in building its church-fronts as it pleased. The 
front of S. Francesco della Vigna, that of the Redentore, 
and that, so well known, of S. Giorgio Maggiore, seen on 
its island across the broad canal of Saint Mark, are at 
least of solid masonry, and the pilasters, with their capitals, 
are cut out of marble or Istrian stone, not modelled in 
stucco on a brick backing. There is also a difficulty 
overcome, and a serious one, in fronting these nave-and- 
aisle churches which are to have but one central door and 
no windows at all in the front, being, indeed, better as to 
interior effect without light from the front. It is easy to 

FIG. 230. Vicenza, Italy: Palazzo Thiene. About 1556. 

464 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP. VIII 

ridicule these arbitrary assemblages of pilasters on high 
pedestals and pilasters on a low stylobate, as in S. Giorgio 
Maggiore, the entablature of the lower order being cut 
right through in four places by the higher and larger 
pilasters ; but it is a logical working out of the Roman 
theory, and can be defended. The varied aspect in which 
a church presents itself to the eye, the flanks as important 
as the front, and the chancel end even more worthy of 
attention ; the interior, moreover, carrying it over the ex- 
terior always and everywhere, and open to all comers, 
all this prevented the Palladian doctrine of repression 
and ascetic self-denial in architecture from being too 
harmful in church building. It is the matter of domestic 
and civic buildings, where every amateur found all the 
supposed needed rules plainly laid down and easy of com- 
prehension, and architecture was made a plaything, a 
mere matter of setting out fronts as children put together 
dissected maps, it is in this that the Palladian school 
worked its mischief, more in the North than in Italy. 
The celebrated Villa Rotonda near Vicenza (Fig. 230 A) 
is an instance of the simple Palladian recipe applied to 
domestic buildings. In such designing as this, a delicate 
sense of proportion is all that is needed : there is nothing 
to deter the amateur from trying his hand at it, neither 
the difficulties of construction nor the needed mastery of 
sculpture, nor even the labour of planning skilfully. This 
is Palladianism. In Italy it was restrained by the exam- 
ple of the richer schools contemporary with it : Palladio 
could not rule supreme when Sansovino, Scamozzi, Sam- 
michele, and Scarpagnino were at work in the North, his 





rivals in every city, and when Ammanati was building in 
Florence, and Michelangelo carrying up the drum of S. 
Peter's cupola. In the North, however, that orderly and 
systematic code of rules of Palladio's, neatly booked, and 
offering to every one the simplest grammar and accidence 

of architecture, is respon- 
sible for much contented 
tameness in later design. 
It must be remembered 
that the precept and prac- 
tice of Italy in 1560 are 
to be found in the North 
in 1660 and later, rather 
than at any earlier time, 
and that Palladio was not 
much heeded in England 
nor Vignola in Germany 
until our latest epoch, 
beginning 1665. 

The church of S. 
Peter at Rome, as it 
was conceived in the mid- 
dle of the sixteenth cen- 




FIG. 231. Rome: Church of S. Peter. Par- 
tial plan, 
1564 A.D. 

filled with domical chapels. 1 

tial plan, as it was left by Michelangelo. tury, was a Greek CrOSS, 

with the four angles 
All four of the arms of 

1 The church of S. Peter on the Vatican has always, since its foundation 
under Constantine the Great and in all its forms, had its chancel turned a little 
to the north of west, and its entrance fronts therefore the eastern and not the 
western end. 

SEC. V] 



the cross were to be terminated by apses, but the 
eastern one, which was to be pierced by the chief doors 
of entrance, was to be reinforced on either side by 
aisles forming side entrances, and to be extended further 

FlG. 232. Rome: Church of S. Peter. Part of north front corresponding with Fig. 231. 

3535. Dome, 1590 A.D. 

468 WESTERN EUROPE, 1520 TO 1665 A.D. [CHAP. VIII 

east by a considerable portico. Figure 231 gives the plan 
of the western half of this remarkable conception, and 
Fig. 232 a view of it from the north. This view shows 
the design very nearly as it must have been in the mind 
of Michelangelo Buonarroti about 1550, that is to say, a 
year or more after he had taken charge of the work. 
During his lifetime the building was carried up to the top 
of the drum beneath the rounding shell of the cupola, and 
the cupola was built long afterwards from drawings and 
an elaborate model which had been prepared during 
Buonarroti's administration. The cupola itself is double, 
entirely of masonry, the outer shell a little more raised, 
the inner one a little flatter. The stone lantern rests 
partly on the inner, partly on the outer shell. The cupola 
has almost exactly the same diameter as that of the cathe- 
dral of Florence, somewhat less than 140 feet, but it rests 
upon pendentives and not upon a continuous wall, and is 
so far a greater undertaking. These pendentives are not, 
however, very bold, except from their great dimensions; 
the piers which support them are extremely massive, and 
there is nothing daring in the construction except its un- 
precedented scale and the great height to which the dome 
is carried, with the consequent pressure upon the structure. 
The cupola in itself is beautiful, both within and without. 
When seen from the east, as visitors to Rome generally 
see it, it is lost behind the nave built by Carlo Maderno. 
When seen from the north, west, or south, it loses some- 
thing of its effect in not having its form repeated in the 
cupolas which should have been built over the western 
corner chapels ; those of the eastern corners are in place. 

SEC. V] ITALY 469 

The vault of the choir within and of its apse, and also 
the cupolas of the four corner chapels, spring from a line 
nearly corresponding to and a little below the top of the 
large entablature which rests upon the Corinthian pilas- 
ters (see Fig. 232). The attic wall, pierced with square 
windows and carrying the tiled roof, corresponds, therefore, 
very closely in height with the vault itself. The roof is 
close down upon the vault, and bears immediately upon it. 
The square windows in the attic wall light the interior 
through lunettes, the larger windows below light the 
church directly, and the much smaller windows are those 
of staircases and the like. Beneath the large windows are 
great niches in the outer w r all, which are treated architect- 
urally like the windows. All this part of the church is 
simple, logical, carefully thought out in design ; it has no 
unusual or unexpected charm except in the great cupola 
itself; the fascination of the Renaissance is not in it. The 
colossal order of the lower walls is too gigantic, it is hard 
not to feel that the pilasters are great towers in them- 
selves, and are out of scale as mere adornments of a build- 
ing which men are to occupy. The exterior, moreover, is 
cold and bare. Such decoration by means of sculpture as 
we have found at the Old Library at Venice might indeed 
have been impracticable in the case of so vast a building; 
but the building needs something like it, and the money 
spent on the three great bays of the nave and the gigantic 
narthex and principal front, which are worse than useless 
to the church, would have given it the diversified splendour 
which only sculpture could give. As it is, however, the 
church as conceived by Buonarroti and his immediate 


forerunner and his immediate successor, Antonio da San 
Gallo and Vignola, is a noble structure, not depending 
on its enormous size more than is reasonable, and de- 
signed in accordance with its enormous size except as has 
been said above in the matter of the exterior order. The 
later decoration of the interior is in part out of harmony 
with the design. On the other hand Buonarroti's pro- 
posed portico, imitated from the Pantheon, would have 
been even more unfortunate. 

The cities of Italy are full of great palazzi or houses 
of wealthy nobles which were built during the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries. The Farnese palace is the 
most famous of those in Rome : it was completed, by 
Michelangelo Buonarroti, and its court is an elaborate 
piece of designing with Roman orders one upon another. 
The most striking of all these residences are in Genoa, 
where the effect of vestibule, staircase, court, passages 
leading to other courts, and the like, and also the state- 
liness of villas, on hillsides covered with ornamental 
gardens and terraced buildings, have been carried to 
perfection in a certain artificial way. The villa Andrea 
Doria is of about 1529, and its interior is of peculiar 
interest. The villa Cambiaso in the suburb of San Fran- 
cesco d'Albaro is a splendid piece of exterior effect in 
gardens and garden architecture. The Palazzo Sauli, 
the Palazzo Carega, the Palazzo Doria-Tursi, now occu- 
pied by the Municipality, are all of the years between 
1560 and 1570. So many and so large buildings had 
been built, that after 1570 most of the energy of the 
great families was given to the building of additional 

SEC. V] ITALY 471 

wings and courts, but the interesting Palazzo Durazzo 
in the Via Balbi is of 1656, and there are still later 
buildings of the kind as spacious and splendid, but 
impure in style. 

Nowhere in the south of Italy was there as energetic 
a movement in building as in Genoa. In the Roman 
states, as in Venetia, the tendency was toward severe uni- 
formity and an unbending system. 

In 1556 the country palace at Caprarola near Viterbo 
was begun by Jacopo Barozzi, called Vignola. In plan 
and disposition it is a French chateau of the Renaissance, 
arranged as it is around five sides of a court and enclosed 
in a pentagonal fortified wall with bastions. The exterior, 
however, shows the tendency of the time toward formality 
and the reduction of all decorative architecture to the 
use of the orders, of which tendency, indeed, Vignola is 
one of the two great representatives. His treatises on 
architecture, dating from the years 1563-1580, have had as 
much weight on the continent of Europe as Palladio's 
books have had in England ; and, indeed, he is considered 
the embodiment of the academic style. The three 
churches named above as built in Venice by Palladio 
exemplify the strong tendency of the time toward this 
chilling uniformity. The use of the colossal order is 
only one part of this tendency. 

The neo-classic art, as understood by Palladio and Vi- 
gnola, was by no means a victor without contest. At Rome 
the Palazzo dei Conservatori on the Capitol, begun in 
1560, is picturesque in treatment in spite of severe classi- 
cal details (see Fig. 233). In Florence the court of the 




Pitti Palace is almost a work of the Renaissance in vari- 
ety and elaboration ; it was built by Ammanati between 

FIG. 233. Rome : Palazzo dei Conservator!. Closing years of the sixteenth century. 

1570 and 1575. In Florence the bridge S. Trinita, and 
in Venice the bridge of the Rialto, have almost a mediae- 
val feeling in their design, and the Bridge of Sighs shows 

SEC. V] ITALY 473 

somewhat of the same feeling, though as late as 1600. 
At Verona the noble Palazzo del Gran' Guardia, described 
above (see p. 454), is of 1610. Still, however, everything 
tended toward formality and the treatment of architect- 
ure as if its practice consisted of a series of academic 
propositions. The great colonnades of S. Pietro at Rome 
belong to the next epoch rather than to this, but the 
design of these must have been made as early as 1665, 
and their architect Bernini would have begun them earlier 
but for his visit to Paris. 




DURING the years from about 1541, when Pierre Lescot's 
designs for the Louvre were put in hand, to 1665, when 
our present record begins, the practice of architecture 
throughout the north of Europe had been undergoing a 
great change. This change was in the substitution of 
drawings to be closely followed, even in minute details, for 
drawings of general effect used under the direction of the 
maker of them, but allowing of large liberty in the execu- 
tion of the work. For the workman this meant substitu- 
tion of precise accuracy in following drawings for the free 
practice of a traditional art within certain limits set by 
drawings. The latter, the mediaeval way of proceeding, 
was not compatible with the attempted introduction of 
wholly new details nor with the strife among the architects 
as to who should follow most exactly the example set by 



the ancient Roman builders. It is evident to all students 
of the buildings that Chambord might have been built as 
the neighbouring cathedral of Bourges had been built, when 
once the stonecutters had been shown what a pilaster was, 
and how Roman mouldings differed from Gothic ones. 
On the other hand, the court of the Louvre, the front of 
the Tuileries, the contrasting fa9ades of Ecouen, with their 
carefully studied orders, required the exact laying out on 
paper by the architect of details as well as of general 

It is probable that no change so abrupt as this took 
place in Italy. In that region the artist-director had been 
for centuries a much more marked individuality than in 
the North. Individual artistic ability had long been more 
remarkable and more in repute. The painter of panel-pict- 
ures and of miniatures in manuscripts, the chaser of sword- 
hilts, and the designer of stained glass was much more of 
a celebrity in the south than in the north of Europe. Men 
of the simplest lives working in their shops or in the man- 
sions of great nobles for slender pay were still known 
throughout the Peninsula as men set aside from the crowd 
by the possession of trained artistic faculty. The very fre- 
quency of the familiar nickname or abbreviated Christian 
name for the patronymic shows how common this kind of 
celebrity must have been. Moreover, in Italy the Gothic 
architecture and decoration, though prevailing for two cen- 
turies, was never the natural growth of the Italian spirit, as 
the Italian painting and sculpture was. Always when a 
Gothic building was taken in hand in Italy, the superin- 
tending architect came more to the front ; more was put 

4/6 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 

upon him, more was expected of him, than in the North. 
The line, too, between the mason and the sculptor was 
much more sharply drawn in Italy. The simple building, 
the rough, unbroken brick walls, the unorganized structure, 
could be brought into existence by workmen of but little 
skill, while the sculptor was carving the setting of the sin- 
gle doorway. But in the North the workmen on a Gothic 
church worked together in a traditional way very hard for 
us now to understand ; and the traditions, the familiarity 
with certain forms, the habit of combining details in certain 
ways, the knowledge of how decorative effect was to be got 
under certain conditions, all this was matter of common 
knowledge among a large body of workmen, and descended 
from father to son and from master to apprentice. The 
difference is mainly that this traditional way of work was 
confined in Italy to a smaller and more select class, while 
in the North it was more common, more widely diffused, 
and brought no such individual repute to its possessors. 
In Italy modern times for art began in the twelfth century, 
in the North not till the sixteenth. 


Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini, born in 1599, had risen to 
great celebrity in Italy. At the age of thirty he had 
been put in charge of the never-ending work on S. Peter's 
Church at Rome; and he had built additions to the Vati- 
can Palace, besides planning that great Place of S. Peter. 
In 1665 he came to Paris, invited by Louis XIV., at the 
suggestion of Colbert, who became Director of Fine Arts 


the following year, centralizing art as everything else in 
the State was to be centralized during this reign. Levau 
was employed already upon the Tuileries, where he was 
destroying the work of Philibert de 1'Orme, that tri- 
umph of the Renaissance ; and Claude Perrault, who was 
not an architect by profession, had made a design for 
the east front of the Louvre ; Charles Le Brun was the 
king's adviser in everything that had to do with fine art. 
Bernini had sent in advance a design for the eastern front 
of the Louvre facing the church of S. Germain 1'Auxer- 
rois, and, on his arrival, began to propose radical changes 
in the Louvre involving gigantic buildings and com- 
pletely overthrowing the traditional form of the old cha- 
teau begun one hundred and forty years before. His 
designs admitted of no possible modification, for it ap- 
pears that the old man, full of his Italian fame, expected 
the princes of the barbarians to accept his proposals with- 
out question. The king tried to persuade him to remain 
in France, in spite of the rejection of his designs for the 
Louvre, but he returned to Italy after a few months, and 
nothing of his was left in France but the bust of King 

The east front of the Louvre was then undertaken 
according to Perrault's design, and as it now exists. A 
basement, which is pierced by windows of a most feeble 
design, and which is neither massive in the style of the 
Roman and Veronese palazzi (see p. 452), nor yet open 
and light as in the library of S. Mark (see p. 456), car- 
ries a portico of coupled Corinthian columns. At each 
end of the fa9ade a pavilion is placed with very slight 

4/8 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 

projection and no greater height, but with solid walls 
and pilasters instead of the open colonnade ; and these 
pavilions are given a surprising importance and dignity 
by being divided each into two masses with a large open 
niche or bay between with a pair of columns in antis; so 
that the open portico seems repeated in these, and the 
length of the front is greatly extended in effect. A cen- 
tral pavilion of very different character is made up by 
carrying the arch of a great doorway far above the top 
of the basement, and by advancing four couples of the 
great columns to carry a Roman pediment above this 
principal entrance. It may be said that the whole upper 
story, containing two actual stories of the building, is 
fine and dignified in design. The larger and the smaller 
windows in the pavilions are well placed and good in 
themselves. The pediment is well proportioned and in 
harmony with the substructure, which makes of that pro- 
jecting part of the colonnade a vast porch of entrance ; 
the colonnade is excellent in itself and in its relation to 
the end pavilions and the central porch. It is a curious 
instance of the growing estrangement between architect- 
ural design and the industrial art of planning and build- 
ing that the halls behind the colonnade have no win- 
dows opening upon it, as it was found impossible to 
make them correspond with those of the courtyard front. 
Moreover, the colonnade with its pavilions was deliber- 
ately made a good deal longer than the building behind 
it, so that the pavilions projected in awkward blocks of 
building beyond the north and south fa9ades; but on 
the south, new work, directed by Perrault, greatly in- 


creased the depth of the building in that part and 
caused that fault to disappear, so that it may be sup- 
posed that a similar treatment was intended for the 
northern front, though of this there is no record. In 
1670 that new work by Perrault was begun. The open 
portico was not repeated, but an order of pilasters as 
high as the columns of that portico was carried along 
the whole south front, and is a good companion to the 
eastern fa9ade. It is not surprising that the building 
served as an example for the architects of the century 
that was to follow. The " colossal order " of columns 
and pilasters, so high as to take in^ several stones of 
the building, though without example in antiquity, was 
thought eminently fit to serve the turn of would-be 
designers of stately buildings. The next step to take 
was to set the columns and pilasters of this colossal 
order upon the lowest stylobate of the building immedi- 
ately above the ground, and thus to make the order as 
high as the building; and this step was soon to be 

In the meantime, the chateau of Versailles was growing 
far beyond the limits first set to it, as of a hunting seat or 
a country chateau, one of many belonging to the Crown ; 
and in 1670 Jules Hardouin Mansart succeeded Levau, 
and the vast garden-front was begun in earnest. It is 
frequently said that the determination of the king not to 
exceed in height the old hunting lodge of his father, and 
the consequent limitation of the height of the building 
to a basement, a principal story, and an attic, causes cer- 
tain inferiority in the front, its vast length nearly a 

480 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 

quarter of a mile contrasting strangely with a height 
of not more than sixty feet. This, however, is a peculi- 
arity to be stated, and not necessarily blamed. There is 
a certain magnificence in the uniform and not excessive 
height reigning throughout in so great a building, and it 
is by no means certain that the raising of pavilions to the 
height of another story would improve it. It must not 
be forgotten that this garden-front is by no means in one 
plane. The central block projects on the terrace beyond 
the long wings of the palace by actually one-fifth of the 
whole immense length, and the wings again have smaller 
but still very considerable breaks on either side, so that 
the ordinary view of the garden-front on this side is very 
far from being monotonous, and it is only by looking at 
the building along its principal axis, and from a very great 
distance, that the fa9ade can in any way seem flat. It is 
on record that Louis XIV. proposed to crown his great 
structure with a series of high roofs, but that the burden- 
some wars of the years following 1688 prevented this plan 
from being carried out. The fault really to be found with 
the garden-front is, strangely enough, its lack of massive 
dignity. It has too many windows, too large and too near 
together; the arches of the openings are not loaded by 
enough superincumbent wall ; the porticoes with free 
columns, of which there are several in the principal 
story, have not projection nor shadow enough. The 
whole front seems to one who walks along the terrace 
too thin in its walls, too slight in its piers, too feeble 
in its arches, while from a distance the glitter of its 
innumerable windows turns it into a lantern, and one 


remembers with dreadful comparisons the statelier build- 
ings of Italy. 

One important and semi-detached part of the chateau 
deserves, however, much more praise than has been 
given it, the chapel, the design of which dates from 
the very latest years of the century. This is a noble 
building, and would alone immortalize Mansart. It is one 
of the finest things which Europe owes to the completed 
classical revival, and is assuredly the most important 
church of moderate size which was built between 1650 
and the great French Revolution. Other churches will 
be named which are superior in many ways, but this one 
is of consistent design jnside and out. It is construc- 
tional, and its rich and florid ornament is well kept in 
hand and well combined for the best effect, both within 
and without. It is then superior to S. Roch of Paris in 
consistency of design and to S. Genevieve of Paris in deco- 
rative effect, to the English churches of the epoch in 
richness and in the absence of wooden imitations of vault- 
ing and the like, and to the German churches and the 
Italian churches generally in good taste. The Versailles 
chapel has a nave and aisles and a rounded chevet at the 
eastern end, clear-story windows and aisle windows com- 
plete, buttresses, too, and gargoyles to throw off the roof 
water. It has, moreover, that relative height which the 
same system of building led to in the Middle Ages. The 
whole of this mediaeval framework is dressed in the most 
completely worked out late-Roman neo-classic, without 
any renaissance feeling; and yet it is not at all incon- 
gruous. Interior and exterior, requirements of plan and 


482 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 

resulting design, all comport most thoroughly with one 
another. It was quite understood that the king would 
seldom visit the lowest floor, and so the aisles took the 
unusual form of an upper gallery of greater height, and a 
much less lofty basement. The nave pillars, therefore, are 
square below, carrying round arches, and free Corinthian 
columns above, with square pilasters at the angles, carry- 
ing an entablature. From this entablature springs the 
vaulting of the roof, the lunettes of which are filled by the 
clear-story windows. Figure 234 gives the general effect 
of this fine interior. Outside the lower story is marked 
by a basement with segmental-headed windows, borrowed 
from the basement of the Louvre colonnade; but these 
are divided by flat pilasters, and the very massive but- 
tresses break up this basement, and give solidity enough. 
The principal gallery, which forms the upper story of the 
aisles, and which received the king and his courtiers, is 
marked by very high arched windows, divided by the pil- 
asters of a fine Corinthian order. Gargoyles for the roof- 
water, one over each window, break the architrave. Very 
heavy buttresses at the rounded eastern end are decorated 
with corner pilasters of the same order. Above this story 
a parapet with large pedestals, each of which carries one 
or two statues of heroic size, is employed to screen the 
flat roof of the aisle, and the clear-story is treated like an 
attic with a steep roof. There is a good deal of well- 
placed sculpture about the building, and the statues are 
of considerable merit, in the taste of the Regency. 

This chapel, and the Louvre colonnade, are the best 
possible types of the rich architecture of the time, the 

FIG. 234. Versailles, France : Royal chateau. Interior of chapel. 1710 A.D. 

484 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 

architecture in which no cost is spared. 1 The simple 
design of the time is well seen in the great front of the 
Hotel des Invalides in Paris, built about 1670 by Liberal 
Bruand. The fault inherent in the developed late Italian, 
Palladian, Roman, or neo-classic style is seen in this fact, 
that except the classical orders with pediments, parapets, 
attics, and pedestals, no architectural ornamentation is 
in use. Where a building or a fa9ade can be treated at 
considerable expense, there is no difficulty in making it 
attractive by means of colonnades, rows of pilasters, and 
the like, and the experience of three hundred years 
shows that no other architectural adornment is as gener- 
ally popular among European peoples as are these 
classic or pseudo-classic details. But when for any reason 
these orders and their accessories cannot be used, and 
when the nature of the building forbids that insistence 
upon its structural system which we have found in 
the Versailles chapel, there is nothing left but the spac- 
ing of windows and doors, and the arrangement of the 
larger masses of the building. There are none of the 
charming devices of the Renaissance, the panelled and 
sculptured pilasters, the window-framings and the door- 
pieces of unexpected and startling design, the dormer- 
windows which break the cornice and carry the wall up 
into the roof and into the sky, the bold string-courses 
and double string-courses, the columns with sculptured 
shafts, and the candelabra doing duty for columns. All 
this fantastic and graceful decoration is abandoned, and 

1 But see, below, what is said of the Ministtre de la Marine, built fifty years 


the wall-surface is blank and bare, and pierced with equal 
openings at equal distances and not otherwise enriched, 
except where a portico or an order of pilasters is intro- 
duced. There remains indeed proportion, and this is the 
great virtue of the late neo-classic styles ; but indeed pro- 
portion grows in charm as it grows more subtile and unex- 
pected, and the proportion obtainable in the large flat walls 
of a three-story structure is not especially fine nor in- 
spiriting. The Ecole Militaire, near the Hotel des Inva- 
lides, may be compared with that structure in this respect. 
It is thirty years later: it has three porticoes projecting 
from its central mass and its two wings, but except for 
these the vast structure, as long as the garden-front of 
Versailles, has very little architectural pretension. To 
compare with these two buildings the more ornate designs 
of the time is to come back to the other part of the same 
alternative : thus the four fronts of the Place Vendome in 
Paris, built in 1699, and the curved fa9ades on the Place 
des Victoires, a little earlier, offer the familiar row of pilas- 
ters set upon a basement, the pilasters enclosing two or 
three stories of the houses behind them. 

The rich buildings of seventy years later are adorned 
as the eastern front of the Louvre is adorned. There can 
hardly be in Europe a finer example of the late neo-classic 
than the Minisfere de la Marine and its neighbour and 
peer, the row of private houses on the other side of the 
rue Royale, both fronts looking southward on the large 
too large Place de la Concorde. Each front (see Fig. 
235) is over three hundred feet in length, and each con- 
sists of two wings projecting and faced with temple-like 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. 


tetrastyle porticoes and pediments, and a deep portico be- 
tween, with twelve Corinthian columns : an arcaded base- 
ment rusticated and very sagaciously broken to match the 
projections and retreats of the principal story, has the gift 
of looking massive enough in spite of its many openings. 
This design is superior to that of the Louvre colonnade, 
and is certainly unsurpassed by that of any frontispiece or 

FIG. 235. Paris: Ministere de la Marine. One half of south front. 1760 to 1765 A.D. 

fa$ade in Europe ; but it helps establish the general truth 
that the style of the eighteenth century had few resources 
outside of Roman colonnading. Suppose these buildings 
to be free at the back, looking out upon a narrow and 
unimportant street; the northern fa9ades so obtained 
would be flat or slightly broken walls with evenly set 
windows in them, and it would be difficult to imagine 
a system of design which would give them interest. The 
slight decoration of the windows and the medallions and 


festoons, moderately introduced in the two beautiful south- 
ern fronts, are only the more delicate touches given to 
what is already a very rich and splendid design. Orna- 
ments like these would be of no value on very simple 
fa9ades such as those supposed above; and indeed it has 
always been felt that the fronts which are not masked by 
an order of columns or pilasters are better without such 
minor decorative features as the style could still furnish. 
The eighteenth century is more rich in fine churches 
than the preceding years. The designs which are on a 
wholly non-mediaeval system are of course the most in- 
teresting. Even the serious and successful attempt made 
at Versailles to clothe a mediaeval plan in late classic 
decorative style is less worthy of study than the bold ex- 
periments seen in the domical church of the Invalides and 
the church of S. Genevieve. The former should be con- 
sidered almost wholly a magnificent monument erected in 
honour of a state religion. It was built in 1 706, in addition 
to and adjoining an older church dedicated to S. Louis, 
which still stands in the courtyard of the enormous struct- 
ure built by Louis XIV. as- an asylum for disabled soldiers, 
and is still in use in part for that purpose. The new build- 
ing erected by Jules Hardouin Mansart is nearly two hun- 
dred feet square and rises to the height of three hundred 
and forty-five feet ; but in spite of its considerable dimen- 
sions it has but a small available interior, and affords only 
a Greek cross with arms less than forty feet wide, and four 
round chapels covered with cupolas in the four angles of 
the cross. The solid masses are excessively great, and a 
study of the plan makes it evident that a far more massive 

488 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D [CHAP. IX 

superstructure was in the mind of the architect than that 
which the distresses of the later years of the reign would 
allow. This building is famous for its constructive excel- 
lence, and, indeed, it is a piece of well-considered, well-calcu- 
lated masonry up to the top of the drum, and also to the top 
of the second stone cupola which is seen through the great 
ring in the first or innermost cupola. Above that, the outer- 
most dome, which is seen from every part of Paris and the 
neighbouring country (see Fig. 236), is a mere shell of 
woodwork covered with lead, with a lantern of the same 
inferior material. The very objectional form of what 
may be called the aisle-roofs, that is the roofs of the lower 
structure surrounding the great dome, is common to many 
churches of the epoch. It is a mere device for concealing 
the roof altogether and in a sense denying its existence, 
as no means of carrying off the roof-water are visible. 
The vaults are covered by a roof sloping downward from 
the outer wall and from the wall which carries the dome, 
toward a gutter in the middle. At Versailles no such 
wretched deference to a conventional rule exists, but gar- 
goyles as bold as those of a Gothic cathedral carry off 
the water; and at S. Genevieve the outer roof everywhere 
is a visible and a working roof, though it is not of much 
effect in the exterior architecture. 

This last-named church, called also the " Pantheon de 
Paris " since its dedication to the heroes of France during 
the great revolution, and the putting up of the celebrated 
inscription above its porch, Aux Grands Hommes la 
Patrie Reconnaissante, is in form a Greek cross ; though 
the choir and a staircase beyond it at the east end and 

FIG. 236. Paris : Hotel des Invalides. The later church. About 1706 A. D. 

490 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 

the great porch of entrance at the west end make its 
outside dimensions about three hundred and eighty feet 
east and west by two hundred and seventy-five north and 
south. The cruciform-shaped interior has aisles which 
follow nave, choir, and transept alike, and has, combined 
with these, a very unusual and striking arrangement by 
which each one of the four arms is made a domical church 
by itself with a cruciform treatment of its own vaulting. 
At the crossing of the nave and transept four piers carry 
the pendentives of the dome, and it is on record that 
these piers were made too light by the architect Jacques 
Germain SoufHot, and were afterward rebuilt with larger 
section by Jean Baptiste Rondelet under the reign of 
Napoleon I. The cupola is not in itself of very great 
size, but it is of masonry to the top, with this pecu- 
liarity, that the lantern, also of masonry, rests upon the 
intermediate cupola much as that of S. Paul's of London 
rests upon a brick cone. The greatest peculiarity of the 
exterior design is the peristyle of Corinthian columns, 
arranged in circle around the drum and carrying an 
open gallery, so that the cupola itself seems small in 
comparison with the much broader substructure. The 
windowless walls of the church proper are treated very 
skilfully and successfully with a modified Roman pilaster 
system, which gives great dignity and a singularly monu- 
mental character to the building. The most marked char- 
acter of the interior is the admission of daylight through 
the roof alone, and the resulting unbroken wall surface 
which the painters of the nineteenth century are utilizing. 
The Madeleine of Paris is also of this epoch, though 

SEC. I] FRANCE 49 1 

not finished until eighty years after the adoption of 
its design. Large and splendid as it is, it cannot greatly 
interest the student of architecture except as a study 
of light and shade on great masses of columnar and 
trabeated construction. It is the semblance of a Roman 
Corinthian temple, peripteral and octostyle and of 
enormous size, but is entirely built of small materials, 
its columns built up like towers and its architraves com- 
posed of flat arches. Such building is not strictly archi- 
tecture, but is scenic or theatrical work, whatever its cost 
or permanence. The fault of the architecture of this 
epoch, taken together, is, of course, its tendency toward 
the scenic and theatrical, the lack of a sufficient basis 
of utilitarian and constructional necessity; but the Made- 
leine passes the bounds of what is to be received as 
architecture at all. Far more important to our enquiry 
is the Paris church of S. Roch fronting on the rue 
S. Honore. This church, the interior of which is given 
in Fig. 215, was begun in 1653, by Jacques Lemercier, 
and all that is valuable in the church is due to this artist, 
for the front is unimportant. The interior is arranged 
upon a cruciform plan, with clear-story windows in the 
lunettes of the vault. Its design is extremely massive ; 
Roman Doric, with square piers faced by flat pilasters, 
which act as vaulting-shafts. Once the presence of 
heavy piers in the interior admitted, and the conse- 
quent separation of aisles from nave, and the interior 
of S. Roch becomes a model for all artists who wish for 
grave and dignified interior design. Strangely in contrast 
is the interior of S. Sulpice, on the south side of the 

492 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 

Seine: the church which even unobserving travellers 
know from its remarkable front of open porticoes in two 
stories. Although the plan is by Levau and dates from 
the earlier days of Louis XIV., and although the lower 
part of the interior is as severe and in as noble a style 
as S. Roch, the vaulted roof, with its exaggerated, perhaps 
elliptical section, and its wretched applied ornaments, is a 
complete example of the influence of the worst Italian 
taste, that of the school of Borromini represented by 
Oppenordt. This vulgar decoration, which in Italy is 
only worthy of contempt, and is as bad in France when 
applied to the more massive works of architecture, is yet 
allied to the very fascinating interior decoration which is 
called that of the Rococo or Pompadour style. 

After the death of Louis XIV., in 1715, the general 
relaxation from the narrow-minded severity of his later 
days showed itself at once in the architecture of the 
time. The private houses which were built during the 
reign of Louis XV., the first eight years of which were 
the famous Regency, are models of careful and skilful 
arrangement, and are considered by the French as the 
beginning of their own modern system of house-planning, 
which, of course, is widely different from the English 
system. The smaller size and more domestic character 
of the rooms brought with them the decoration in moulded 
and embossed plaster for the ceilings, and in wooden pan- 
elling carved in delicate scroll-work painted white and 
gilded, with pictures of some value set over the doors or 
painted on panels ; which decoration has never since ceased 
to be in special favour in France. This simple style was 


easy to elaborate into something much richer, when means 
were sufficient and the occasion called for it. Thus, in 
the Hotel de Rohan-Soubise, which is now used for the 
National Archives of France, the rooms in which is kept 
the Museum of Manuscripts and Autographs were deco- 
rated about 1736 in a superb style, which combines the 
new eighteenth-century minuteness with some of the 
power shown by Charles Lebrun and his able contem- 
poraries during the previous reign. It is as if the large 
Style Louis Quatorze, as it is seen through all modern 
retouching in the Gilded Gallery of the Bank of France 
and the Gallery of Apollo in the Louvre, had been con- 
sulted by the artists in charge of the Hotel Soubise, who 
learned there what modifications their dainty contempo- 
rary art would need when applied to large apartments. 
Figure 237 shows a part of the oval drawing-room of the 
Hotel Soubise. This rococo style, which it is easy to 
find fault with for its unconstructional system and its 
absence of firm basic lines, exhibits these faults far more 
plainly in the movable objects of the time furniture, 
mirror frames, coffrets, etuis than in even the smallest 
and least architectural pieces of building-decoration ; but 
what is extremely curious is that it is very difficult to find 
in France a building whose exterior in any way corre- 
sponds to the common idea of the Style Pompadour. It 
is curious to note that the external structure of that very 
oval drawing-room is the severe little pavilion shown in 
Fig. 238. In fact, the reaction under Servandony had 
begun before the more florid style had taken strong hold. 
That able man had been appointed director of the decora- 

FIG. 237. Paris : Former Hotel Soubise, now National Archives. Interior of a saloon. 

About 1730. 

SEC. I] 



tions in the Paris Opera House as early as 1728; and 
four years later he began the front of S. Sulpice, in 
Paris, which front was a strong and successful attempt to 

FIG. 238. Paris : Former Hotel Soubise, now National Archives. Exterior of a pavilion 

(see FIG. 237). 

bring back architectural design to classical purity of feel- 
ing. The rococo decorative style may be said to have 
endured fifty years, from 1720 to 1770, but the buildings 

496 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 

which the guide-books speak of as rococo in style are 
generally much earlier in date, such as the front of the 
church of S. Paul ana S. Louis on the rue S. Antoine 
mentioned above. 

The front of S. Sulpice was completed, except the 
towers, between 1732 and 1746. It consists of two stories, 
of which the lower one is a Doric portico between two 
projecting enclosed wings, and of which the second is 
Ionic with arches resting on imposts between the col- 
umns. The whole is on a very large scale, the width of 
the front being about 180 feet, and the towers higher than 
those of Notre Dame. The design was a new departure 
in architecture, and is extremely effective, although there 
is a certain lack of fitness in the large upper galleries, 
which seem intended to hold a crowd. 

Other buildings of late date are, besides the Ministere 
de la Marine and the Pantheon already mentioned, the 
Halle au Ble, near the Louvre, the Mint on the Quai 
Conti, near the Pont Neuf, the church of S. Philippe du 
Roule, 1'Ecole de Droit, near the Pantheon, 1'Ecole de 
Medecine, except its nineteenth-century front, the Odeon 
and the Palace of Prince de Salm, which forms the nucleus 
of the present palace of the Legion of Honour. The sever- 
ity of design familiar to those who know Marie Antoinette 
furniture, in which the delicate ornamentation is contained 
within decided and generally straight bounding lines, is 
present in all these buildings in greater or less degree. It 
is one of the artistic glories of France that the later neo- 
classic architecture, with its constant tendency toward 
excess, never reached any serious degradation such as is 




commonly found in seventeenth and eighteenth century 
buildings elsewhere in Europe. 


In the lands which now form the two little kingdoms of 
Belgium and the Netherlands, the epoch from 1665 to the 
French Revolution 
was not one for- 
tunate for archi- 
tecture. It would 
be unfair to take 
the doorway shown 
in Fig. 239 as rep- 
resentative of the 
ornamental build- 
ing of the time ; 
and yet it shows in 
an unexaggerated 
manner some of 
the tendencies 
against which art 
had to strive ; not 
always successfully. 
There is the same 
false picturesque- 
ness in detail which Fia 239 ' 
we have found too 

Antwerp, Belgium : Doorway of a court. 
1663 A.D. 

common in Elizabethan architecture, and which consists 
in sharp edges and abrupt curvature ; and there is an 

498 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 

excess in the purely architectural forms which the Eliza- 
bethan style was free from. The beauty of the masses 
in the Elizabethan country houses seems not to have 
found its way to the Netherland provinces. The wonder- 
ful charm of sixteenth-century work is gone, and nothing 
is left to replace it except a grave simplicity in many 
buildings both public and private; buildings in which 
indeed there is little architectural art except that which 
lies in tranquillity and not unpleasing outlines. 

The dwelling-houses in the Belgian towns retain, down 
to the end of the reign of Louis XIV. of France, a sin- 
gular independence of the general current of European 
architecture, and dated buildings of this class exist which 
are built with a considerable sense of architectural effect, 
and yet are neither belated Gothic nor revived classic. In 
this they resemble those Elizabethan and Jacobean build- 
ings in England which are the most nearly free from the 
peculiar strap ornament and scroll ornament of the time. 
Such houses exist in Ghent on the quays and in Brus- 
sels on the great squares ; many of them are disfigured 
with misapplied carving, but the simplest are of great 

The church of S. Michael at Louvain is an excellent 
example of a style rarely found in France. It marks the 
later development of that curious, overcharged, and un- 
organized system of decoration which is called the style 
of the Jesuit churches. The great abundance of broken 
curves, short and abruptly terminated lines, and mean- 
ingless added details other than sculpture, could all be 
endured if any general feeling for appropriateness of 

FIG. 240. Louvain, Belgium: Church of S. Michael. Part of front. 1650 to 1660 A.D. 

WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. 


design, or any strong sense of 
proportion, had controlled this 
front (see Fig. 240). 

In Spain, the style which is 
named after Josef de Churri- 
guera was flourishing in 1665. 
It is a belated form of the cor- 
rupt and degraded Italian of the 
Borromini school, but there is in 
it a charm which the Italian work 
does not possess, coming evi- 
dently from the natural ability 
of such designers as Pedro de 
Ribera and Geronimo Barbas, 
and especially Churriguera him- 
self. The newer cathedral, " El 
Pilar," at Zaragoza, is nearly all 
of 1677, and in the same town 
is the church of S. Cajetan, 
with a remarkable fa9ade con- 
sisting of a gable between two 
towers,, The fa9ade of the 
old cathedral is flanked by a 
spirited tower dated 1685, 
while the new cathedral itself 
has one of its towers nearly 
completed, which also is worthy 
of notice. Figure 241 shows 

FIG. 241. Zaragoza, Spain: Old cathedral. 
Tower. Probably about 1685 A.D. 


the tower of the old cathedral, called "El Seo"; that 
is, the church of the see or the diocese. It is entirely 
of brick-work except the great balustrade at the top of 
the basement, and the pinnacles and pedestal, which 
are perhaps later in date. It is of course as heretical 
when tried by the classical laws as any Jesuit church of 
Italy or of Germany, but there is boldness of design about 
it which is not common. The front of the cathedral of 
Santiago de Compostela, which was built between 1680 
and 1700, is still more to the purpose, as showing how the 
Spaniards whom we have named and their fellows could 
treat ornament when applied in excessive and overwhelm- 
ing quantity. This front is covered all over with scrolls, 
engaged columns with carved shafts, and others whose 
shafts have a few large flutes, dwarf buttresses ending in 
volutes, pinnacles of square section and elaborate outline, 
and statues of spirited pose and gesture. All this is 
applied not upon a flat fa9ade ; the west front consists of 
two square towers with an extremely ornate and lofty 
gable between them, and has the unusual addition of two 
enclosed porches, one to the north and one to the south, 
and between these an enormous double perron ; moreover, 
the breaking up of the front with columns carrying res- 
sauts is unusually bold. All this, which it would be easy 
to make ridiculous, is saved by the extraordinary skill with 
which it is handled. Something of the same skilful use 
of inferior ornamental materials is visible in the celebrated 
front portal of the palace of S. Elmo at Seville, the date 
of which is about 1720. The front of the Ayuntamiento 
or town-house at Salamanca of the same epoch shows the 

502 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 

poor details carried farther in the road toward complete 
barbarism; the firm lines of the architecture almost con- 
cealed by the ungainly broken curves and unorganized 
and unarranged rosettes and bouquets. This building is, 
however, saved from entire badness partly by the grave 
arcade which serves as an open gateway between streets, 
and which seems like a work of the Renaissance, and 
partly by a sense of general proportion which has kept 
the larger masses of the building in order. One feature 
common to these able artists of a degenerate time is the 
decorative structure built above the cornice and assuming 
shapes sometimes more like a gable, as at Santiago and 
at S. Cajetan of Zaragoza, sometimes of a bell-gable 
as at Salamanca town-house, sometimes of what seems a 
Roman triumphal arch as in the S. Elmo palace at 
Seville. Sometimes it is pierced so that the statues are 
seen against the sky beyond, sometimes it is massive, and 
pretends to mask a roof; but in any case it is an orna- 
mental adjunct to a front, whether of a church or of a civic 
or domestic building, which is well worthy of study. 

The restraining influence of good taste and native 
power of design which is plainly seen in the buildings 
named above disappears in some structures of the same 
time; that is, from 1720 to 1750. At Granada the Sacristy 
of the Cartuja, or Carthusian Convent Church, is given over 
entirely to mere gimcrack ornament, the underlying prin- 
ciple of which is to leave no straight line or curve of the 
constructional parts unbroken; to pile one irregular and 
formless detail upon another, and to magnify the meanest 
details of inferior metal-work. This evil tendency found 




opposition, and successful opposition, in another body of 
architects, who brought renewed study of actual Roman 
antiquity and a purer taste to their work. The grave and 
manly design of the Royal Palace at Madrid is like the 

FIG. 242. Madrid, Spain: Palace court. About 1730 A. D. 

introduction of the feeling of 1550 into the Spain of 1730. 
The exterior is a very dignified composition, having noth- 
ing but its colossal order to indicate its late date, and no 
serious fault as a design except the too equal division of 

504 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 

its walls horizontally, resulting from the unusual height 
of the basement. The great court with its arcades in two 
stories, all on a very large scale and of a severe Roman 
style, except for the Ionic capitals with their festoons, 
looks like nothing so much as a Roman cortile of two 
hundred years before (see Fig. 242). The charming 
palace at La Granja is, as the guide-books say, a piece 
of pure French Louis Quinze design imported bodily into 
Spain. It is more nearly rococo in style than anything 
in France that we have had occasion to specify, and its 
accessories in the garden and elsewhere are still more 
baroque in character. The interesting triumphal gateway 
called the Alcala Gate, at Madrid, built in 1778, as an 
inscription states, is a design of mixed character. The 
main lines are extremely firm and the main masses 
fortunately combined. There is nothing to consider 
extravagant or excessive but the sculptured details, which 
are indeed unmistakably Pompadour. 


In Germany the epoch opens amid a confusion of exag- 
gerated forms and a constant search for novelty, which 
have an odd effect when displayed within the limits of 
the latest neo-classic style. The same love of the pictu- 
resque, which we have found always characteristic of Ger- 
man work, has now, at the close of the seventeenth century, . 
given up gables and steep roofs and turrets, and shows 
itself in constant efforts to modify the classical orders and 
to use those orders themselves for very non-classic effects. 

SEC. Ill] GERMANY 505 

Thus the great building formerly the palace Czernin at 
Prague, in the suburb Hradschin, built in 1670, has a 
basement about twenty-four feet high, of which the whole 
face is broken into projecting piers ; and the piers and 
recesses alike are built of stone in high courses, every 
stone cut to a pyramid of considerable projection. Upon 
this basement stands an order four stories high, the en- 
gaged, composite columns resting each upon one of the 
piers of the basement, and carrying each a portion of the 
entablature in a ressaut. But in order that the fourth 
story may be lighted with sufficient windows, the entabla- 
ture between the ressaut is entirely omitted except for 
the cornice, and some very irregular consoles which sup- 
port it. Other and equally irregular modifications of the 
.Composite order and of Roman style, even considered in 
the most liberal way, are introduced. Thus the old Ex- 
change (die alte Boerse) at Leipzig, built about 1680, 
is faced with very flat pilasters which are panelled, and 
have a singular sculpture of laurel leaves in the panels 
and capitals bearing some semblance to late Roman Ionic 
capitals. This order is two stories high, and its entabla- 
ture, as well as the panelled pilasters, is out of all custom 
and denies all authority. Even the strange double door- 
piece seems not out of place in this tasteless composition. 
In contrast with these extravagant conceptions are the 
very plain buildings for which no porticoes nor other 
architectural decoration of the style could be allowed, 
and which have nothing but their mass to recommend 
them, lacking as they do almost wholly the charm 
of proportion. One of these is the great palace of 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. 


Schleissheim near Munich, which is devoid of this 
and all other architectural charm. The neighbouring 

country palace of 
Nymphenburg is 
equally uninterest- 
ing, but is also less 
pretentious. These 
structures, dating 
from 1 665 and 1 685, 
are specimens of 
the huge, dull, unat- 
tractive continental 
palaces of which 
some have been de- 
stroyed but many 
remain. They 
show the worst side 
of the classical re- 
vival, combining 
the most unattrac- 
tive exteriors with 
suites of state apart- 
ments bedizened 
with tasteless and 
immoderate orna- 
mentation. A good 
instance of the very 

FIG. 243. Zurich, Switzerland : Town-hall. About 1700. uninteresting 

rior, which though not extravagant is worse, that is to say, 
intolerably dull, is the Stadthaus or town-hall at Zurich, 


built in 1694. Figure 243 gives a detail of this building. It 
may have been thought that a plain building was appropriate 
to a small republican canton, but the complete absence of 
picturesque or other charm is an evidence of the compar- 
ative difficulty of dealing with such structures of moder- 
ate size in the late neo-classic styles. The style is always 
tending either to extravagance or to dulness when its one 
decorative feature, that of the large Roman order, is 
taken from it ; and there are few buildings in which neither 
of these tendencies can be seen to prevail. One such 
building, however, is the beautiful Rathhaus at Magde- 
burg in Prussian Saxony, which building was begun and 
finished during the last decade of the century. Figure 
244 gives a part of this attractive building, in which no 
doubt minor faults can be found, such as the insufficient 
projection of the basement wall with relation to the order 
above, and which has, in its pediment, sculpture which 
would be quite impossible in a public building elsewhere 
than in seventeenth-century Germany, but which is still 
a gem of simplicity and fitness. 

The principal palace of Berlin, the Konigliches Schloss, 
was built nearly complete during the first fifteen years of 
the eighteenth century. It is a typical example of the 
uninteresting palaces so common throughout Germany 
and the adjacent lands. Here and there is a colonnade of 
four or, in the courts, of eight Corinthian columns, not 
badly proportioned, and here and there is a corresponding 
disposition of pilasters with the whimsical peculiarity that 
the pilasters are fluted, while the columns, though not of 
beautiful material, are plain. The courts, with their occa- 

FIG. 244. Magdeburg, Germany : Rathhaus. About 1690 A. D. 

SEC. Ill] GERMANY 509 

sional arcaded galleries and with bolder colonnades, are 
more diversified with light and shade, but even here 
monotonous bigness rules. The exterior, with its long 
rows of ill-designed windows, its porches of columns too 
flat against the wall, and its cornice much too small in its 
details for its great height above the eye, is as unattrac- 
tive as a building of great size and fine material can be 
made, unless by the intrusion of actually monstrous and 
offensive detail. The palace of Charlottenburg near Ber- 
lin is somewhat later. Its interior displays almost every 
variety of rococo decoration carried to extreme, but the 
exterior has a certain beauty of proportion which redeems 
it in spite of its impure detail. There is a colossal order, 
but only of two stories, and this is placed upon a very suf- 
ficient basement. The cupola on its high drum is a little 
heavy for the central building which it crowns, but is good 
in itself; an excellent specimen of the extravagant pseudo- 
Roman style of 1705. There is an old palace at Erfurt, 
once the residence of the governor sent by the Bishop of 
Mayence, and now used for some government purpose, in 
which rococo details are carried as far perhaps as they can 
be in exterior architecture. The pillars on each side of 
the great doorway are colossal telamones, the terminal 
pillars of which are set with an edge instead of a flat 
surface in front. Pedestals above, set in the same fashion, 
support the large scroll buttresses of the window piece, 
above which buttresses end in festoons of fruit, and support 
figures of about life-size in disorderly attitudes. The sills 
of the basement windows project only two inches, but they 
have the seeming support of console brackets which pro- 

$10 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 

ject a foot, and the multifarious details of the exterior are 
all of this general character. This building is of about 
1715. The match for this in absurdity of sculptured orna- 
ment both outside and inside is the old Palace Trautson at 
Vienna. Here, however, the great order above, and the 
basement below, have somewhat more dignity, and the 
sculpture is, therefore, less ruinous in effect. In the same 
city of Vienna, the highest reach of inappropriate design 
exists in the church of S. Charles Borromeo, begun about 
1720. A very well-proportioned portico with six Corin- 
thian columns and a pediment and a cupola on a high 
drum, perhaps not inferior to that of Charlottenburg men- 
tioned above, are lost in a confusion of unmeaning adjuncts. 
The often criticised Z winger at Dresden, of the same epoch, 
should be compared with such ill-conceived building as 
this, because the Zwinger is well and appropriately planned 
and distributed. It is, moreover, full of a fanciful grace in 
its minor parts supported by a really dignified sobriety in 
its principal mass. That principal mass is a structure of 
one Roman order studied from the Old Library at Venice, 
raised upon a rusticated basement ; the two wings of eight 
bays each are divided by an entrance portal studied from 
a Roman triumphal arch and of the whole height of the 
structure. There is nothing baroque about that building 
except here and there a stray detail. The four pavilions 
at the corners of the great court are lighter in style, and 
with slender piers dividing enormous windows, so that they 
are filled with light, as those will remember who have 
studied the collection of casts from sculpture which they 
contain. The slight pilasters, the small spandrels, and the 

SEC. Ill] GERMANY 51 1 

narrow friezes are filled with delicate sculpture which 
would befit rather the interior of a theatre than the outside 
of a palace ; but each one of these pavilions is a graceful 
and pretty building which one can pass day by day and 
not dislike. There are pavilions in the middle of the 
sweep to the east and to the west which are certainly 
more extravagant, and which it is not easy to defend. 
Finally, the long low gallery which encloses the great court 
on the southwestern side is as good a light corridor of open 
arches with a terrace walk on top as any palace can show. 
Certainly neither the architectural detail, nor the sculpture 
of human, animal, and vegetable forms is to be proposed as 
an example to students. The whole school of architecture 
which this represents is abnormal and artificial in the ex- 
treme. It seems to be based on the two contradictory 
theories that Roman columns and pilasters are alone ad- 
mirable as the basis of design, and that these columns and 
pilasters can never be endured unless they are half con- 
cealed, and all their formal dignity destroyed by masses of 
unrelated sculpture. The Catholic Court Church at Dres- 
den is a partial embodiment of this artificial style (see 
Fig. 245). It is the more fit for an example as it is well 
conceived in general masses and in the placing of ugly 
details, and free from such solecisms as the second story 
wall of S. Paul's in London, or the spacing of the Louvre 
colonnade, so as not to allow of any windows behind it 
(pp. 477 ff.). This building is as reasonable and logical as the 
Versailles chapel (see p. 482), however inferior in good taste. 
The very worst type of this false architecture, as the Z win- 
ger is perhaps the best, may be found in the royal gate 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. 


(Konigsthor) at Stettin, 
and this is curious in 
that a severe Roman 
Doric order was selected 
as the frame which was 
to support so ill-de- 
signed and inappropri- 
ate a mass of sculpture. 
The finest interior 
decoration of the ro- 
coco sort, equal to any- 
thing in France, is to 
be found in the two 
great Rhine pleasure- 
castles of Bruhl and 
Bruchsal. A splen- 
did apartment in 
Schloss Bruchsal, 
once a palace of the 
Archbishop of Speyer 
or Spier, is given in 
Fig. 246. Bruhl, a 
former residence of 
the Archbishop-Elec- 
tor of Cologne, is in 
a way graceful in its 
exterior, as well. The 

FIG. 245. Dresden, Germany: 
Catholic Court Church. 1740 
to 1750 A.D. 




FlG. 246. Bruchsal, Germany : Palace of the Archbishop of Speyer. Saloon. About 1760. 

garden-front, of 1725, is simple and not ill designed, and has 
a fine terrace and stairways, as well as a great deal of beau- 
tiful iron-work. It is a curious study to compare with this 


514 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 

really agreeable palace-front the overloaded exterior of the 
Catholic Court Church at Dresden of the same epoch. 
This latter building offers, along with its logical and work- 
manlike plan and construction, as badly managed a colossal 
order and as ugly windows as can be found in any seri- 
ously planned building in Europe (see Fig. 245). As for 

FIG. 247. Stuttgart, Germany: Palace called Solitude. 1767 A.D. 

the palaces, a great number were built in German lands 
during the years 1700-1750, for it seemed as if every 
prince and princeling felt the need of vying with King 
Louis at Versailles. The poorer or the less ambitious 
sovereigns built the expressionless and meaningless pal- 
aces of which there has been mention ; but such buildings 
as that of Briihl and that of Charlottenburg were also 

SEC. Ill] 



FIG. 248. Munich, Germany : Street-front. About 1760 A. D. 

built, and it is necessary to mention the extraordinary 
collection of stately eighteenth-century structures at Pots- 
dam. This town, ten miles southwest of Berlin, has first 

516 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 

the Stadtschloss, or town-palace, then the new palace in the 
Park, with its really extraordinary annex of the " Com- 
muns," or offices, and its orangeries and summer-houses: 
then the villa called Charlottenhof ; and finally the palace 
of Sans-Souci. These are royal palaces ; besides these 
there are public buildings in the town dating from the 
first half of the eighteenth century and very interesting, at 
least when taken together; and some rows of private 
houses of about 1775 are fit to rank with the palaces in 
the stately effect of their long f^ades. Probably in all 
this world of grandiose architecture the best designing is 
in the New Palace, so called, built by Frederick the Great 
about 1760. It is not splendid in material or interior fit- 
tings, but it was a skilful architect who dealt with these 
open colonnades and high-raised porticoes. The front on 
the court and facing the offices is one of the best instances 
in Europe of a colossal order occupying the whole height 
of the building, without any architectural basement what- 
ever. The small country palace called Solitude, not far 
from Stuttgart, is shown in Fig. 247. It is as late as 
1 765, and should be compared with the Rathhaus of Magde- 
burg seventy years earlier in date (see Fig. 244). A good 
specimen of the most elaborate rococo decoration applied 
to a street-front is the detail shown in Fig. 248 from 


King Charles II. returned from the continent and began 
his actual reign in 1660. Whatever hesitation about 
building there had been during the Commonwealth and 


the Protectorate disappeared with the Restoration, because 
there was no longer a visible possibility of a change of 
government. The Archbishop of Canterbury began at 
once to rebuild Lambeth Palace, and erected the great 
hall in a most incredible mixed style. Gothic windows 
with tracery and buttresses with weatherings fill the wall- 
space, but the wall is crowned with a classical entablature 
which breaks around each buttress, and this entablature is 
capped by a pediment at each projecting wing. The notes 
issued by the Society for Photographing Relics of Old Lon- 
don mention this as showing Archbishop Juxton's obsti- 
nate preference for the older Tudor Gothic of the rest 
of his palace, but it has rather the air of a piece of repa- 
ration ; the wholly new parts made classic. Amesbury 
House in Wiltshire was built by John Webb in 1661, and 
the central portion of Cobham Hall in Kent was built in 
1662, and these two buildings are absolutely classic. The 
fault of these two buildings is not in being too fanciful ; 
they are dull; they lack interest. At Cobham, for in- 
stance, four Corinthian pilasters carry an entablature, and 
between the two middle pilasters is a classical door-piece. 
All this is very good and pure, but there is nothing else. 
Twenty-seven plain windows in three stories are pierced 
in a blank brick wall ; they are regularly formed and 
spaced ; there is nothing to offend ; all is tranquil and 
refined, but it is not architecture. Nor would such a 
plain building be named but for the mention it receives as 
typical, and for the fact that it really does typify this 
peculiarity of English work at this time; namely, that the 
classical teaching on the one hand and the Gothic tradi- 

5l8 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 

tion on the other were still so much in a position of antag- 
onism that anything non-Gothic, and with a fragment in it 
of Italian detail, would be at once accepted as sufficiently 
good classical art. It must not be forgotten that the 
Italian Renaissance had never been received in England. 
When classic forms came in, they were those of the 
Cinquecento, the completed and regulated style of Vi- 
gnola and Palladio. Palladio's books and his example were 
of especial weight in England. There was therefore no 
graceful and playful architecture of classical type or of 
classical origin offered to the English in 1665. If an 
English country gentleman wished to build, he had the 
alternative between a traditional Elizabethan or Jacobean 
style, such as country builders might still have been capa- 
ble of, and the Palladian classic style offered him by such 
architects as John Webb, Sir John Denham, and Christo- 
pher Wren. But this last-named style has this peculiarity 
(see p. 460 ff.), that it can do nothing except by means of 
colonnades, or, at the least, of an order of pilasters. An 
inexpensive building must needs be uninteresting. It is 
therefore only the later Italian neo-classic, as practised 
by the architects named above and their successors, which 
ought to be considered in dealing with the architecture of 
this epoch. There are, indeed, the singular Gothic at- 
tempts of different architects, such as the church of S. 
Dunstan in the East, and the western towers of West- 
minster Abbey, but these are of no importance in the 
history of architecture. 

In 1666 was the Great Fire of London, the most com- 
plete destruction perhaps that has ever befallen a large 




town except in ancient warfare. Immediately after this 
there came the rebuilding of S. Paul's Cathedral, and the 
erection of a host of churches and other public buildings, 

FIG. 249. London: Temple Bar. 1670. 

and in all this business Christopher Wren took the largest 
part. Temple Bar, which represented the old city gate 
at Fleet Street, and which was taken down in 1878 for un- 
known reasons, was built by Wren in 1670. Figure 249 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. 


shows its western front. 
No small building gives 
a better idea of Wren's 
design. Indeed, it is not 
often that he had an 
opportunity to build a 
small building entirely 
of cut stone and in an 
elaborate style. The 
churches were built 
hastily and at slight ex- 
pense, and it is one of 
Wren's claims to our 
admiration that he built 
these churches of con- 
siderable size at very 
small cost. The best 
part of them is proba- 
bly their steeples, and 
yet even these are un- 
fortunate in this respect, 
that details entirely 
foreign to the Roman 
style adopted, are al- 
lowed to invade the 
design. Thus in the 
celebrated church of 

FIG. 250. London : Church of 
S. Mary le Bow. Steeple fin- 
ished 1677 A.D. 


S. Mary le Bow in Cheapside, the steeple is certainly 
good in general proportion (see Fig. 250), and the 
transition from the square tower to the circular peristyle 
is well managed and is agreeable both in front and 
when seen anglewise, but the pinnacles which fill the 
corners of the square tower are of ugly form and flanked 
by meaningless scrolls, the reduction in size to the 
smaller peristyle above is managed by the most awkward, 
thin, and flat flying buttresses, and the terminating spire 
is an obelisk with valueless details about its base. There 
is a degree of incongruity in these architectural details 
which no beauty of general proportion can redeem. It is 
probable that Wren's lack of early and lifelong architect- 
ural training for he was a mathematician and astron- 
omer, and a scientific constructor rather than an architect 
in his tendencies told heavily against his success in these 
rapidly designed and hastily constructed buildings. An 
architect by early teaching would also have been more 
unwilling than Wren to roof metropolitan churches with 
lath-and-plaster sham vaulting at a time, too, when the 
French architects whose work he had studied were turn- 
ing vaults of solid masonry. At least it is certain that 
the steeples of his successors, especially of James Gibbs, 
are often superior to Wren's, as they are perhaps equal in 
general excellence of proportion and are more free from 
the serious faults of inappropriateness and lack of harmony 
of parts. 

S. Paul's Cathedral is in its interior a church of unques- 
tionable beauty and merit. The plan of the existing 
church was not, as it appears, Wren's choice, but it is 

522 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 

every way excellent for interior effect. The great octa- 
gon formed by eight piers, and from which spring the 
arches which carry the dome, is a singularly skilful piece 
of planning, and the circle of the drum beneath the cupola 
grows out of the octagon below insensibly and with the 
support of arches whose lightness is surprising. The 
interior cupola itself springs from this drum, which is not 
strictly cylindrical, but slightly conical, the walls and the 
order of pilasters which are so effective when seen from 
below having alike an inward slope (see Fig. 251). Ex- 
cept always S. Peter's, there is no interior of a cupola in 
Europe which is more beautiful and which combines 
better with the church. The nave and aisles are roofed 
with low and flat cupolas, each of which is carried on 
pendentives of unusual sort. In the nave the cupolas are 
as wide as the width of the bays in the direction of the 
length of the church that is to say, east and west; but as 
the compartments of vaulting are oblong, there is a com- 
mencement of a cylindrical wagon-vault which forms a 
lunette on each side and receives the clear-story window. 
In the aisles the reverse arrangement exists, the compart- 
ments having their greater length in the direction of the 
length of the church. The whole interior is marked by 
an admirable proportion between the work to be done 
and the means offered for doing it. The student is not 
driven to long for Gothic lightness, accepting this as of 
a different kind of building; and assuredly this is not 
equally true of the important continental churches, even 
of such good ones as S. Roch in Paris (see Fig. 215). Of 
the exterior it is less easy to speak without reserve. In 

FlG. 251. London: S. Paul's Cathedral. Partial section. 1680 to 1710 A.D. 

524 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 

the first place, the Observer must puzzle out the meaning 
of the high outer wall along each flank, which wall is 
divided architecturally into two stories with a very beau- 
tiful order of Corinthian pilasters for each story. A 
moment's comparison of this with the interior shows that 
the height of the aisle within corresponds with the lower 
story of these two. Of the whole height of the upper 
story, about one-quarter serves to enclose the garret be- 
tween the aisle vault and the roof timbers above, which 
garret would form the triforium in a Gothic church, and 
which in S. Paul's is masked on the interior by a feeble 
row of panels (Fig. 251) above the nave arches. The rest 
of the outer wall stands clear, a mere screen, hiding the 
clear-story windows from without, and enclosing nothing 
but an open area at the top of the building. This is so 
great a solecism, so barbarous a device, that a stickler for 
reasonableness and naturalism in architecture might con- 
demn the exterior at once as unworthy of notice. Indeed, 
the flanks are, as to their design, not architecture, but 
scenic decoration. If one studies them, it must be as a 
piece of abstract architectural designing ; a study of what 
would be good to do if one had a large and long two- 
story wall to treat a palace-wall, or the like. From this 
point of view an exterior such as that of the chapel of 
Versailles (p. 482) is not only superior but of a wholly dif- 
ferent world ; that is really architecture ; and fine as are 
Wren's two orders, they in themselves are not different 
from what one can find widely distributed over Europe. 
What is really fine, as being at once beautiful in propor- 
tion and in detail, and as coming directly from the plan 


and build of the church, is the west front. Here the nave 
in its upper part that is to say, the clear-story is thrust 
forward to form a portico of Corinthian columns with 
pediment ; and in the lower story the nave and aisles to- 
gether, for the whole height of the aisles, unite to form a 
broader portico. The whole width of nave and aisles, 
which is the whole width of the lower portico, is held 
between the two belfry towers, and the order of the porti- 
coes is continued across these towers and all around the 
church, but in pilasters instead of columns (see Fig. 252). 
But the front porticoes are even more admirably adjusted 
to their place and their requirements than the above 
description fully explains. Thus the upper colonnade of 
eight columns in couples has its columns centred upon 
the lower colonnade of twelve columns in couples ; and, 
to retain the accepted classical proportions, the two porti- 
coes are of nearly the same height. The outer columns 
of the lower portico are on the axes of the corner pilasters 
of the bell-towers ; the outer columns of the upper portico 
are on the axes of the pilasters which represent the front 
of the clear-story wall ; between this upper portico and 
the bell-tower is a recess with windows which quite accu- 
rately corresponds to the open area above the aisle, and 
which closes a small chamber built above the western end 
of the aisle, leading to the staircase in the bell-tower. 
All this is brought together with but the very slightest 
forcing of the plan. There is nowhere a more perfect 
piece of adjustment and judicious building in any neo- 
classic style, and if there are anywhere examples of more 
subtile and refined proportion, they are probably struct- 

526 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 

ures which required no difficult adjustment to a com- 
plicated building. The cupola of S. Paul's Cathedral is 
composed as follows (see Fig. 251): the conical drum 
mentioned above carries an inner masonry cupola which 
is about one hundred and five feet in diameter and is not 
hemispherical, but built with a section which would be a 
pointed arch but that an opening twenty feet in diameter 
is made at the summit. There rises from the solid 
masonry at the abutment of this inner cupola two struct- 
ures, first an outer ring-wall, which is adorned with pilas- 
ters and rises about thirty feet, and an inner cone of 
masonry which carries the lantern. The dome that is 
seen from without is, like the dome of the Invalides, 
a fabric of wood covered with lead, and this elaborate 
piece of carpenter work is built up upon the ring-wall 
mentioned above, and which forms the outer tambour or 
drum of the dome, and upon the masonry cone which it 
conceals. Here, as in the Invalides, not only are the 
inner and the outer domes distinct, but the outer dome 
is not even seen from within the church, and no such 
cupolas as these ought to be compared in any way with 
such cupolas as those of Florence and Rome or those 
of Constantinople and Bijapur. But the brick cone of S. 
Paul's has an enormous and heavy stone lantern to carry, 
while in the case of the Invalides the lantern also is of 
carpenter work like the shell of the dome. The lantern 
at Florence is as high as that at London and apparently 
heavier; the lantern of S. Peter's is as high and broader 
and is undoubtedly heavier; and these vast structures, 
each as high as a seven-story house and more massively 

FIG. 252. London : Cathedral of S. Paul. South part of west front (see FIG. 251). 

528 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 

built, are carried by the bulging wall of the dome. That 
Sir Christopher Wren was unwilling to undertake such 
a task as this was perfectly natural ; and knowing what 
we do of his mathematical and constructional knowledge 
and his remarkable power of fitting himself for any task 
he might undertake, we are led to the conclusion that he 
was influenced by the considerations of expense and by the 
consideration that he was about to surpass in thorough- 
ness of build, as well as in size, the church of the Invalides, 
a special monumental structure just finished by the superb 
king of France. 

Another stately building is the work of Wren : so much 
of Greenwich Hospital as is included in the two southern 
or inshore buildings. These have very noble porticoes 
of coupled columns and two cupolas as finely designed as 
anything in the style. Another, and from the point of 
view of stately designing perhaps the finest, is that part of 
Hampton Court Palace which was built for King William 
III. The front is dignified and is unusually interesting 
as a design in spite of its simplicity, and the court front, 
which has three stories of windows above an open arcade 
with square piers, is one of the best compositions which 
can be found in Europe of a flat wall pierced by many win- 
dows. It is in these buildings rather than in the minor 
London churches that Wren's remarkable ability can best 
be judged. It would have required a genius of unexampled 
power and range, and a lifelong devotion to the one busi- 
ness of decorative building, to have been successful with 
forty churches undertaken all at once and all inexpensive. 
This task, which would have been of extreme difficulty in 


any style of architecture, was made almost hopeless by the 
necessity of conforming to the grandiose style of Vignola 
and Palladio. 

Several private mansions of great size and of consider- 
able merit were erected in England during the early years 
of the eighteenth century. The main block of Chatsworth 
in Derbyshire dates from this epoch, the design having been 
settled as early as 1690. It is seldom that a building with 
so little variety in its principal masses is so successful. 
The river front and the two great fronts which adjoin it 
are almost without projections to throw shadows, or differ- 
ences in height to break the skyline. The northern front 
has indeed a rounded tower-like centre rising a little above 
the other levels of the building, and this must have been 
successful in giving a charm to this front before the un- 
lucky north wing was added by Wyatville in 1820. The 
south front has only two very slight breaks recessing 
the centre by a foot or two. The west front with its 
portico and richly decorated pediment is very effective, 
except that the basement on which the engaged columns 
rest greatly needs more solidity and uniformity; it is 
broken in the middle for the doorway and is thus made 
thinner and lighter, instead of more massive in appear- 
ance, than the basement of the pilaster order elsewhere. 
The order, pilasters and columns alike, is Ionic on the 
south and west fronts, and this order includes two stories 
of windows. The rounded projection on the north front 
has an order of Corinthian pilasters and is higher than the 
Ionic order so as to contain three stories of windows. 
There is one thing to be mentioned in the exterior of 


530 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 

Chatsworth, the rather free use of sculpture in the west 
pediment, the frieze and around the windows under the 
pediment in the guise of pendants seconding and enclos- 
ing the architraves. The late neo-classic in England as 
taken from Vignola and Palladio is almost without such 
decoration, but a few instances remain of somewhat elabo- 
rate sculpture, and it is interesting to see this attempt to 
enliven the narrow-minded severity of the stricter style. 
There remains in the heart of London a house, No. 73 
Cheapside, which exhibits similar decoration of a very 
good quality. This front has been published by the So- 
ciety for Photographing Relics of Old London, and is an 
interesting subject for study. 

In Castle Howard, Yorkshire, built between 1702 and 
1720 by Vanbrugh, the larger and more stately country 
mansion is completely typified. In this building, too, there 
is a great deal of sculpture, but confined to the central 
mass ; this sculpture, however, is greatly inferior in taste- 
fulness and beauty to that of Chatsworth. As regards the 
main features of the design, the front of principal approach 
is made up of two wings brought far in advance of the 
main building and of only half its height, and plain in 
treatment, even to nakedness, and of the central building 
itself which has a colossal order of pilasters Roman-Doric 
in style, and a doorway and porch of entrance with Ionic 
columns. This central building repays close examination. 
The pilasters are arranged in couples, and each couple 
carries a ressaut, the frieze of which has its triglyphs, 
though these are absent from the recessed walls between. 
The windows are all in these recessed walls, and the en- 


trance doorway and porch with the large window above it 
is also in such a recess. The narrow pieces of wall be- 
tween the coupled pilasters are occupied by niches with 
statues and decorative vases. The whole design is very 
unusual, and, except that the windows in the side recesses 
are too crowded, very successful ; the view of it amounting 
indeed to a new and pleasant experience to the student of 
the late neo-classic. The park front of Castle Howard is 
as flat as the opposite one is boldly diversified. This park 
front embraces the main building, which has been de- 
scribed above as Doric on one side, and which is Corin- 
thian here, and of two wings one story high and also 
Corinthian. The central mass carries a very well-designed 
cupola which is equally visible in either front, and which 
helps in the easy recognition of this central building as 
one and the same, though with its two fa9ades very dif- 
ferent in treatment. The wings and the centre of the 
park front are treated alike, each with a Corinthian order 
of the whole height of the wall. These two orders are 
therefore very different in scale, the one having less than 
two-thirds the height of the other. This has been ob- 
jected to as an impropriety, but it is easy to see that it is 
in conformity with the practice of both the Greeks and 
Romans of classic times. A large Greek temple and a 
small Greek temple had each its columns and pilasters, 
and indeed its whole order proportioned to the building 
(see Chap. I., Sec. I.), and at Paestum, a.t Akragas, and at Syra- 
cuse these large and small buildings stood near together, as 
indeed they must have done wherever there were more 
temples than one. Moreover, the interior of a large Doric 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. 


temple was divided by 
rows of Doric columns, 
a larger row below and 
a smaller one set upon 
it, so that the Parthe- 
non contained three 
Doric orders designed 
on three different scales. 
The Propylaia at Athens 
has two Doric orders 
on different scales in 
the western front (see 
Fig. 8). The great 
halls of Roman thermae 
were similarly adorned, 
and with Corinthian 
orders (see Fig. 29). 
Authority and example 
are in favour of the 
architect of Castle 
Howard. As to good 
taste, that is another 
matter, and the lover 
of beautiful architect- 
ure would certainly 
prefer the renaissance 
device of an order to 

FIG. 253. London : Church of 
S. Mary le Strand. 1717 


each story, the lower order probably stretching across 
wings and central pavilion alike. 

Parts of the interior of Castle Howard are very stately, 
especially the entrance-hall with a huge Corinthian order 
carrying round arches and vaulted ceilings ; but it is, of 
course, impossible to say how much of this is masonry, 
whether the vaulting is not a plaster shell hung from a 
wooden roof above, as was too commonly the case. A 
still vaster palace for a nobleman was built by Vanbrugh, 
the house of Blenheim, presented by the nation to the 
Duke of Marlborough. It is much less successful than 
Castle Howard. 

James Gibbs was practising as an architect from about 
1710 until his death in 1754, and most of his important 
work has value. The building best known is probably 
that shown in Fig. 253 the church of S. Mary le Strand 
in London, standing where The Strand and Holywell 
Street meet, at an acute angle opposite Somerset House. 
The neighbouring church of S. Clement's Danes, also in 
the middle of The Strand, had been built by Sir Chris- 
topher Wren, but the steeple is by Gibbs, and is a very 
successful design in one of the most difficult of styles for 
a tower. This tower stands, too, on the ground, a virtue 
not always existing in the churches designed by Gibbs. 
S. Martin's in the Fields, opposite the National Gallery, 
also by Gibbs, has, like S. Mary le Strand, a tower which 
does not stand upon the ground. In this case it is set 
upon the roof of the porch. This, however, is not an 
uncommon fault in London churches ; S. Giles' in the 
Fields and S. Leonard's Shoreditch have high towers 

534 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 

standing upon the church roofs, and S. George's, Hanover 
Square, has a somewhat lofty cupola in the same position, 
that is, immediately back of the portico and serving as the 
church tower. Gibbs' other works are less known except, 
perhaps, two really beautiful buildings: the Senate House 
at Cambridge and the Radcliffe Library at Oxford. The 
building at Cambridge was erected about 1725, and, as it 
still exists, is but one wing of a much larger proposed 
structure. It is a very simple and well-designed building, 
with a colossal order and two stories of windows. The 
Radcliffe Library, built about 1740, is a rotunda with an 
exterior order of engaged Corinthian columns, and having 
a lofty cupola. The chief mass of building has two stories 
above a basement, and above these is the entablature of 
the order, and a parapet with a flat roof behind it, from 
which rises the drum of the cupola exactly as the tower-j 
like nave of a round church rises above its aisles. It is a 
manly design, and one of the best classical buildings in 

The English architecture of the reign of George II. and 
of the earlier years of George III., or from 1727 until about 
1780, is homely, generally unpretending, dealing rather 
with interiors than with showy fa9ades, and inspired by a 
certain picturesqueness of detail which makes the stair- 
cases, mantels, ceilings, and other work in wood and: 
plaster singularly attractive. This same architecture was 
transplanted to America and there reproduced under 
different conditions, a great deal of the would-be classical 
detail being worked in pine wood, planed, turned, and 
carved into a semblance of stone architecture. The 


varied woodwork of the interiors was even more free of 
classical influence than in England at the same time, and 
the exposed timber framing, planed and chamfered, shows 
lingering mediaeval tradition. This is what is called in 
the United States Old Colonial architecture, and it has a 
great attraction for modern designers of simple dwelling- 
houses. The same, and a still greater charm, is to be 
found in the English buildings which still remain unal- 
tered, which buildings are sometimes the work of the 
,- architects, Nicholas Hawksmoor and John James, for the 
earlier reign, and John Carr, Sir William Chambers, and 
the brothers James and Robert Adam, for the years suc- 
ceeding 1750. Wood-carving had been raised to a noble 
fine art by the genius of Grinling Gibbons, who died in 
1720, after having adorned S. Paul's Church in London, 
Canterbury Cathedral, and very many private houses of his 
time. Sculpture in marble of his exists, which has great 
merit; but the peculiar reputation that he gained is 
founded upon his decorative woodwork. Although Gib- 
bons left no successor at all his equal in ability or repu- 
tation, he had founded a tradition which remained of 
force until very recent times. The wood-carved interior 
fittings of the time, and even some exterior doorheads and 
the like, are full of vigorous life, which shows how strong 
were the traditions among the more skilful workmen, and 
how closely those traditions succeed, without a break, from 
the English sculpture of the fourteenth century. The 
most important building of size and dignity which was 
erected during those years is Somerset House, in London, 
fronting on The Strand and also on the Embankment. 



FIG. 254. London: Somerset House. Vestibule. Begun 1776 A.D. 

The central mass of the present great structure was built 
from the designs of Sir William Chambers. The general 
character of the design is not different from that of a 
vast number of public buildings erected during the two 


centuries preceding its beginning. A Corinthian order 
is set upon a rusticated basement, and two or three stories 
of windows are put in between the columns. Figure 254 
shows the entrance vestibule of Somerset House, a really 
fine work of its class. Old Burlington Gate, which men 
not old can remember as standing on Piccadilly, where the 
Royal Academy now has its entrance, and the Royal 
Society and other important associations are housed, was 
a structure unusually free and vivacious for the time. The 
design is claimed for Colin Campbell and for Lord Bur- 
lington himself. Other interesting buildings were built 
under George III., but the external architecture of the 
time is unhappily identified with the long rows of stucco- 
fronted houses on Portland Place, Stratford Place, Hamil- 
ton Place, Mansfield Street, and the like. The maxims of 
Vignola and Palladio had been followed almost without 
question by three generations of architects. The obedi- 
ence to these narrow rules had been the ruin of archi- 
tecture as a living art, except where it had been clearly 
impracticable to apply them. A staircase might retain its 
twisted balusters and carved newel, but the exterior of the 
house must have an order of pilasters with a basement to 
support them, whether these forms were made of stone 
or plaster; or, failing this, the front was not to be archi- 
tecture at all, but a flat, smooth surface pierced with 
rectangular holes. 

538 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 


The neo-classic architecture had exhausted all its com- 
binations in Italy before 1665. Those varieties of it 
which Italians could use had all been used. Every pecu- 
liarity of detail and of arrangement which the traditions of 
the Italians and their natural feeling as southerners and 
heirs of antiquity would admit had been tried. The 
picturesqueness of German work of the sixteenth century 
it would never occur to an Italian to try : he could only 
think it a foreign thing, not for him. The elaborate 
refinement of French work, such as that of Lescot and 
Bullant, fanciful and yet delicate detail added to a highly 
organized structure, was not in his way. What the Italian 
could do and would wish to do he had done before 1665: 
as is proved by the fact that he has done nothing different 
since that time. That date has indeed no especial appli- 
cation to Italy; it is fixed for our present epoch by the 
events of France and England : but even an earlier date 
would serve to fix as of the time when the Italian genius 
had worked out every available form of neo-classic archi- 

The colossal order as used in the apse of S. Maria 
Maggiore of 1673, in the front of the Lateran basilica at 
Rome of 1735, in the front of S. Maria Maggiore at Rome 
of 1743, and in S. Barnaba of Venice of 1749, is not dif- 
ferent in any essential way from the order and its use in 
S. Giustina in Venice of 1680 or S. Andrea at Mantua of 
1480. The use of colossi in the way of telamones, appar- 

SEC. V] ITALY 539 

ently a very marked piece of decadenza, is not very differ- 
ent in the villa at Stra on the Brenta of 1780, or in the 
Palazzo Durazzo-Brignole at Genoa of 1 700, from the use 
of the same device at Milan in the Pazzi Palace, a build- 
ing ascribed to Leone Leoni, who died in 1585. The 
church of S. Fosca at Venice is but a lighter S. Lorenzo 
of Florence : though the Florentine church is the earliest 
of all renaissance buildings (see p. 369), and the Venetian 
one is of 1745. The Venetian Palazzo Grassi of 1718, on 
the left as you ascend the great canal (see Fig. 255), has 
but the same disposition of orders in its fa9ade as a hun- 
dred street-fronts of earlier centuries : it is only a little 
colder and harder than work just two hundred years 
earlier in date. The same may be said of the Palazzo 
Flangini, the Palazzo Corner della Regina, the Palazzo 
Pesaro, all on the same great waterway, and of different 
dates from 1670 to 1740. The rustications, the banded 
columns, the modification of the entablature of an order 
to fit a whole front with several orders in its height, the 
decoration of the window and door openings by pediments, 
columns, brackets, etc., the use of arcades and all the dif- 
ferent forms of arcade that could be thought of, every- 
thing, in short, had been tried that was compatible with 
the simple flat wall and low-pitched roof, and with the 
tower and cupola in their southern forms. 

There was no system of construction peculiar to the 
neo-classic art, and therefore there was no steady develop- 
ment from style into style, whether slow, as during the 
Byzantino-Romanesque epoch, or swift, as from 1160 to 
1300, in France and the neighbouring lands. Develop- 


WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. 


ment in the proper sense there was not : each able 
artist thought of one or two new devices, by means of 
which the ancient Roman forms might be more easily 
reconciled to modern requirements. In fact, there was 

FIG. 255. Venice, Italy: Palazzo Grassi. Begun 1705 A.D. 

SEC. V] ITALY 541 

no moment, after the first announcement of a classic 
revival in Florence, about 1425, when all Italian builders 
were working in a traditional way, a spontaneous way. 
The nearest approach to it was the Lombard period, from 
1475 to 1490 or thereabouts, the time when S. Maria della 
Grazie was building at Milan, and the exterior of the 
Scuola di S. Giovanni Evangelista at Venice. Strangely 
enough, it is precisely this one form of neo-classic which 
the later Italians never used. The pilaster with ara- 
besques in a sunken panel, the larger panel of similar 
sculpture set freely in the wall, the disc of coloured 
marble, the light porch with slender columns, the fronton 
which kept no resemblance to the antique pediment, but 
was high and open and filled with sculpture in relief, 
these and the like were avoided by the later architects. 
Except for such brief moments as that one, if indeed 
there were other such moments, any Italian architect 
felt himself free to design according to his own notions of 
how the ancient Roman should be modernized. This 
state of things lasted for three hundred years, or roughly 
from 1489 to 1789, the close of our record. 1 It is indeed 
possible, in most instances, if not in all, to determine the 

1 It was in so far a premonition of nineteenth-century work that each 
designer worked over his drawing-board, making his own designs regardless, 
or nearly so, of traditional way of work. Each man was an artist, and elabo- 
rated his own work of art, being no longer a master-builder overseeing other 
builders in ways familiar to him and to them. 

During the century which has followed 1789, the Italians have still been 
working in one or another form of neo-classic, and, as before, in all forms of it 
at once. In this their practice has been very different from the French, the 
Germans, and the English, who have been busy with bold experiments and 
show wide divergencies of style. 

542 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 

age of a monument within a half-century, from its design 
alone ; but in many cases this is only possible after a 
somewhat minute study of its mouldings and sculpture. 

Is not this an ideal condition of things ? Is it not well 
that there should be no important changes toward, and that 
each man should be free to design as he finds it easiest and 
most natural? It might be so in a different world of men; 
in the world which we know best, healthy life has never been 
separated from growth and what we now call evolution. 
Painting can be seen to be going on through regular evo- 
lutionary changes from school to school, from mood to 
mood, from fashion to fashion ; and painting is now alive, 
a living and struggling art. Architecture is not exactly 
alive ; as a fine art it is not alive ; what is doing in architect- 
ure cannot be compared, as to its fine-art side, with what 
the painters are doing, or the sculptors, or those who are 
working in artistic pottery, or those who are making win- 
dows of stained and painted glass. So far as we know, it will 
only be when the architectural designer stops copying con- 
sciously this or that style of past times that he will produce 
anything worth having. In other words, it is only when 
each designer feels free no longer, and begins to work 
under the influence of his neighbours and contemporaries, 
friendly rivalry and eager jealousy alike spurring each 
man to vie with and surpass his fellows, but always in the 
same line of work as near as he can bring it out, it is only 
then, when the artist is fettered, that art will be free. 

The history of Italian architecture from 1665 to 1789 is 
a history of repetition and copying, and, as it were, a re- 
editing and reissuing of old texts. Here and there some- 

SEC. V] 



thing very novel was done, when a very novel demand was 
made. Thus the epoch begins with the immense porticoes 

FIG. 256. Rome: Colonnade of Piazza San Pietro. Begun 1667. 

of the Piazza San Pietro at Rome ; and assuredly the de- 
signer of those colonnades and corridors deserves credit 
for its plan, if the design of the order is but poor and me- 

544 WESTERN EUROPE, 1665 TO 1789 A.D. [CHAP. IX 

chanical (see Fig. 256). The oval place of S. Peter is 
about six hundred by nine hundred feet ; this is level and 
is half surrounded by the two quadruple colonnades, open 
on every side and consisting of an uniform Tuscan order. 
From this oval the ground slopes steeply upward toward 
the entrance porch of S. Peter's Church, and this sloping 
part of the place is contained between the two enclosed 
corridors. Such a framing in of the open space in front of 
the church was extremely well imagined in view of the 
heterogeneous character of the buildings around it. Even 
the Papal Palace on the right, as one faces the church, 
presents a confused mass of buildings with but little archi- 
tectural character. Bernini's porticoes shut out all these 
incongruous elements of the view, and the very coldness 
and formality of the design may be considered neces- 
sary in connection with the cold and formal church front 
of Carlo Maderno. 

A serious attempt at original treatment of palace inte- 
riors was made by Vanvitelli (van Wittel of Utrecht) in 
the royal palace at Caserta, near Naples. The chapel is, 
indeed, in many ways an echo of the chapel at Versailles 
(see p. 482) ; but we have seen reason to think that the 
interior arrangements of the last named are extremely fit 
for their purpose, and such partial reproduction as is 
visible at Caserta does not exceed the proprieties of de- 
sign. More novel is the bold and well-imagined entrance- 
hall with corridors leading off in different directions, and 
opening upon courts and gardens. Originality there is ; 
but good taste, restraint, a perfect understanding of the 
style, there are not. Good taste and a strong sense of the 

SEC. V] ITALY 545 

proprieties of the style chosen are precisely what the epoch 

The villa Belgiojoso, on the south side of the Public 
Gardens at Milan, and occupied since the Napoleonic 
conquest as a palace for the sovereign and his family, was 
erected about 1790 by Leopold Pollak or Polack. In this 
building there is seen some of that return to simpler early 
forms which constitutes what is called the reaction against 
the Barocco. This tendency is, of course, akin to that 
love of simpler forms which, in France, is characteristic 
of the epoch of Louis XVI. Neither in France nor in 
Italy, however, can the chronological limits be determined 
with any certainty. The characteristic of the time is lack 
of refinement ; and this is shown alike in clumsiness of 
general design and in excess and vulgarity of detail. This 
lack of refinement, indeed, never reached in France very 
great extravagance, at least in exterior design, but still the 
reaction under Servandony and his followers (see p. 493) 
is very visible. In Italy there really was a reign of bad 
taste, against which there was reason enough to rebel. 
The villa Belgiojoso, though late and corrupt in the details 
of the order, and with little merit in the sculpture, is of 
large and dignified design in its general masses. The 
front is divided, as regards its extreme width, into seven- 
teen bays : of these, five bays form the central pavilion 
with projection only sufficient to introduce a single 
additional column in the return wall, and at each end 
three bays form an end pavilion with a pediment and 
with a projection equal to one bay. The whole front, 
pavilions, recesses, and returns alike, is made up of a 



colossal order of two stones resting upon a rusticated 

The eighteenth century was not, however, a time of 
artistic excellence in Italy. Churches, as well as private 
and civic buildings of this epoch, exist in sufficient num- 
ber, but they have little value for the student, being 
almost universally the repetition of old thoughts and old 
conceptions which had done their proper work long 


Abacus (pi. Abaci). The upper- 
most member of a capital. In Grecian 
Doric it is a plain square slab; in all other 
orders and styles it tends to be more or 
less ornamental. See Fig. 10. 

Agora. In Greek cities ; an open 
place, often the market-place. It corre- 
sponds nearly to the Forum in an ancient 
Italian town. 

Aisle. In a basilica or a church of 
the middle ages or of more recent times, 
one of the side divisions, as distinguished 
from the middle division, which is usually 
wider and higher. In a cruciform church 
the nave, the choir, and the transept 
may have each its own aisles. In some 
churches there are two aisles on each side 
of the high middle part, and in a very few 
there are three aisles on each side, as in 
Antwerp Cathedral; see Fig. 157. In a 
few small churches, there is an aisle on 
one side of the nave only. Cf. Choir, 
Clear-story, Nave, Transept, and see the 
plans and sections of churches in Chaps. 
III. to VII. In a round church the 
outer and lower division encircling the 
high central part is considered the aisle. 
Sc:e Figs. 61, 62, 63, and 70. 

Ambulatory. A passage-way for foot 
passengers, usually covered and enclosed; 
especially when architectural in character 
and forming part of a building. 

Amphiprostyle. Prostyle at each 
end ; said especially of a Greek or Roman 
temple. See Fig. 6. 

Annular Vault. See Vault. 

Annulet. A small moulding; espe- 
cially in Grecian Doric, one of several pro- 
jecting mouldings at the base of the echinus. 
See Figs. 1 1 and 1 2. 

Anta (pi. AntEe). A solid pier built 
at the end of a wall to give it stiffness. In 
Greek and Roman architecture it is gener- 
ally treated as a pilaster. See Fig. 8. 

Anthemion. Ah ornament formed 
like a group of flowers, leaves, or the like, 
springing from a common point or from a 
short stem, and generally formal and sym- 
metrical, so that an elliptical or similar 
curve would bound it. The most familiar 
instance is the honeysuckle or palmette 
ornament used in the Corinthian Ionic 

Antis, In. Between antoe; said of 
columns or of a portico, and by extension, 
of the whole porch or vestibule to which 
such columns belong. Thus, in Fig. 6, the 
two porticoes are distyle in antis. 

Aphrodite. In Grecian mythology 
the goddess of love and beauty. The 
Italian deity Venus was identified with 
Aphrodite by the later Roman writers. 
Thus in Homer, Aphrodite is the mother 
of Aineias; and Virgil, while latinizing 
the latter name as Aeneas, calls the hero 
the son of Venus. 

Apollo. In Grecian mythology the 
god of poetry and song, also of healing, 
and often identified with the sun. The 
Romans took this deity into their Pantheon 
without trying to identify him with any 
Italian god. 




Apse. A projecting room or wing of 
a building having its plan rounded or 
polygonal at the outer end. In the early 
Christian churches an apse at one end 
generally contained the bishop's throne 
and the seats of the clergy, and sometimes 
the high altar. In later churches the apse 
is a mere curved ending of the choir, not 
often used in England but commonly on 
the continent. Some churches have several 
apses. See Figs. 33, 34, 55, 58, and 60. 
Cf. Triapsidal. 

Apsidiole. A small apse; especially 
an apse projecting from a larger one, as 
where chapels project from the larger apse 
of the choir. See Fig. 76. 

Apteros. Without wings; said of a 
personage to whom wings are generally 
ascribed. Nike Apteros, the wingless 
Victory of the Greeks, perhaps to be 
identified with the goddess Athene, when 
appearing as a personification of Victory. 

Arabesque. A piece of decorative 
scroll-work or other ornament not closely 
studied from nature. Although the term 
is taken from Arabian, that is, Eastern 
ornament, it is applied generally to work 
of European design. Varieties of Ara- 
besque are seen in Figs. 194 and 195. 

Arcade. Two or more arches with 
their imposts, spandrels, etc., taken to- 
gether. See Figs. 49, 97, 98, and 102. 

Arch. Properly a method of spanning 
an opening by means of heavy wedge- 
shaped solids which mutually keep one 
another in place. The shape is indifferent; 
thus, in Plate X., the uppermost figure is 
as much an arch as any of the others. In 
the practice of masonry it often happens 
that an arch is built with such strong and 
adhesive mortar that the whole becomes a 
solid bar or thick plate, and loses its true 
character as an arch. 

Architrave. In classical architecture, 
the lowermost division of an entablature, 
the epistyle. See Figs. 9, 10, and 15. 

Hence, because this lowermost division is 
supposed to be carried along the upright 
sides as well as the top of a square open- 
ing, any moulded or otherwise ornamented 
band carried around a door, window, or 
the like, on the wall face, or projecting 
from it. See Figs. 218 and 243. 

Archivolt. An architrave modified 
by being carried around a curved opening 
instead of a rectangular one. See Plate 
X., where A, A denotes the archivolts of 
three forms of arches. 

Arris. A sharp edge made by two sur- 
faces meeting so as to form a solid angle. 

Arsinoeion. A building dedicated to 
or associated with a person named Arsinoe; 
especially the round building in Samo- 
thrace, associated with the princess, daugh- 
ter of Ptolemy I. of Egypt. See Fig. 24. 

Artemis. The Greek goddess of chas- 
tity and hunting; also of the birth of chil- 
dren; confused with the goddess of the 
moon, and also with the goddess of the life 
after death. She is the sister of Apollo. 
The Latin writers find her characteristics 
in their Diana. 

Athena or Athene. Goddess of wis- 
dom, refined arts and studies, and scientific 
warfare. The special patroness of Athens, 
as the Greek name of the city, Athenai, 
shows. The Latin writers find her char- 
acteristics in their Minerva. 

Athena Nike. See Nike and Apteros. 

Athena Polias. Athena considered 
as the protectress of the city. 

Atlantes (pi.) . Figures of men used 
as supports or apparent supports. Cf. Car- 

Atrium. In Roman building the prin- 
cipal room of an early and simple house. 
In more elaborate dwellings a small court, 
only partially roofed, the rain upon which 
fell through the opening in the middle. 

Attic. Something built above the 
wall-cornice ; a low story with windows, or 
a mere blank wall, but not a pierced or 



F TH cH 

PLATE X. Illustrations of term " Arch " in Glossary. 



open parapet. The design of a front is 
supposed to be complete without the attic, 
this being often added to form the front 
of rooms which could not be introduced 
otherwise. See Fig. 232. 

Axis. An imaginary line about which 
anything is supposed to be distributed, or a 
number of things arranged. Thus the axis 
of a bay is the middle line of it, all on one 
side of this line being supposed to be simi- 
lar to that which is on the other side. Thus 
the nave and choir of a church are gener- 
ally on the same axis, but Fig. 160 offers 
an exception. 

Ealdachino. A canopy supported on 
pillars, as over an altar. See Fig. 60. 

Barocque. In decoration, irregular; 
unrestrained; in" bad taste because exces- 

Barocco. This is the Italian form of 
Barocque, which see. 

Barrel Vault. See Vault. 

Base. (#) The lowermost part of a 
column. See Figs. 15 and 1 8. (<$) The 
lowermost part of a wall when treated in 
an architectural manner so as to differ from 
the rest of the wall and when smaller than 
the basement. Thus, in Figs. 218 and 
230, the lowermost course of stone in the 
wall may be considered as the base. Cf. 

Basement. The lowest large archi- 
tectural member of a wall, especially of the 
outer wall of a building. The basement 
differs from the base in being a much larger 
part of the wall, perhaps even a whole 
story. Thus, in Figs. 218 and 230, the 
whole wall up to the beginning of the order 
of pilasters may be considered as the base- 
ment. Cf. Base. 

Basilica. Under the Roman Empire 
a public building used for many purposes. 
See Ch. II. In early Christian architecture 
a church of simple form derived from the 
above (see Chs. III. and IV.). See Figs. 
34, 59, and 60. 

Bas-relief. See Relief. 

Bastide. In French building in the 
middle ages, a town erected by special 
order and according to a settled plan. 
Twenty-five of these are named by Viollet- 
le-Duc in his Dictionnaire, s.v. Maison. 

Bay. One of the larger similar divi- 
sions of a building. It is usually taken as 
extending from the axis of one of the main 
supports to the axis of the next. Thus 
Fig. 92 gives two full bays of the nave, 
comprising four of the aisles, and Figs. 91 
and 94 give one bay of the nave, compris- 
ing two of the aisles. Figs. 141, 143, and 
164 give one bay each. 

Bell. That part of the capital of a 
column which is within the leafage or other 
sculptured ornament. Thus, in Fig. 21, the 
bell is the smooth rounded part from which 
the ornament projects. In the Doric order 
the bell has no echinus and has no orna- 
ment. See Fig. n. 

Boss. A small projecting member, usu- 
ally intended for ornament alone, and serv- 
ing as the termination of a string course, a 
hood moulding, or the like. In Figs. 128 
and 164 A, bosses can be seen in the shape 
of human heads, while in Fig. 164 they 
are in the shape of the upper part of the 
human figure. 

Brace. In carpenter- work a piece of 
wood set diagonally to stiffen a frame. 
See Figs. 185 and 219. 

Bracket. Any projecting member 
meant to carry a weight. The term is 
used very loosely. 

Bull's-eye. A circular or oval win- 
dow of small size, usually forming a deco- 
rative part of an architectural composition. 
See Figs. 245, 246, 247, and 248. 

Buttress. A piece of walling used to 
resist the thrust of arches or vaults. The 
use of the buttress became so marked a 
feature in the exterior of Gothic building 
that buttresses are constantly built where 
no need for them exists. See plans and 



views of churches in Chs. V., VI., and VII. 
See especially Figs. 115, 122 and 145. 

Buttress-pier. That part of a but- 
tress which is carried up above the wall, of 
which it forms part below. Rising in this 
way clear of the roof, it receives a flying 
buttress, or serves to weight and steady the 
buttress below. See Plate III. and Figs. 
116 and 117. 

Caldarium. In a Roman building, the 
hot chamber of a bathing establishment. 

Campanile. In Italian architecture 
of any period, since the fall of the Roman 
Empire, a bell-tower. See Fig. 142. 

Candelabrum (pi. -bra) . Originally a 
lamp-stand ; in Greek and Roman art, these 
were treated in a highly decorated way. 
By extension, a decorative composition, 
like the carving on the face of a pilaster; 
a design in which the main lines are verti- 

Canopy. A member used to form a 
small roof or semblance of roof, as in a 
Gothic niche, which see. Also, a roof built 
or suspended over an altar, dais, or the like, 
as an honorary and ornamental feature. 
See Fig. 126, the arched canopies over the 
largest statues. See the top of the balda- 
chino in Fig. 60. 

Capital. The uppermost of the three 
principal divisions of a column. It is 
divided into abacus, bell and necking. 

Cartouche. An ornamental tablet or 
panel, prepared to receive an inscription 
or the like. Heraldic escutcheons which 
are not of shield-shape, but oval or irregu- 
lar, are called by this name. See Fig. 235, 
on each side of the portico with pediment. 
See also Fig. 255. 

Caryatid (pi. Caryatides) . A 
draped female figure, used as a support, 
or apparent support, as replacing a column. 
Cf. Atlantes and Telamones. See Fig. 25. 

Cella. Same as Naos. Cella is the 
Latin word, and is properly applied to the 
Roman temples. 

Centre. (#) Same as centring. () 
A small or partial structure, sometimes a 
mere guiding curve, as of plank used in 
the construction of arches and vaults. See 

Centring. A structure, generally tem- 
porary, put up to receive masonry, such as 
a vault, and to support it until complete. 

Channel. A groove; especially one 
of those cut upon the shaft of a Greek 
or Doric column. They are generally 
elliptical, or at least not circular in sec- 
tion, and are separated from one another 
only by an arris. 

Channelled. Grooved with channels, 
as distinguished from fluted. 

Chapter-house. In English ecclesi- 
astical architecture, a large room for the 
meeting of the chapter, forming an ad- 
junct to a cathedral. 

Chevet. In French architectural lan- 
guage, the choir-end or chancel-end of a 
church; especially applied to the rounded 
eastern ends of large churches. In Fig. 
144, it is the large semicircular east end 
of the church, from which the chapels 

Choir. Originally, the space reserved 
in a church for the clergy and others who 
conduct divine service. In Fig. 60 the 
outer and nearer part is called the choir; 
the part within, where the high altar and 
the baldachino are, is properly the sanc- 
tuary. By extension, that part of a large 
church in which the choir is situated; 
especially, in a cruciform church, the main 
division farthest from the principal en- 
trance and beyond the transept. In Figs. 
1 20 and 144, all east of the transept would 
be called the choir. 

Choir-screen. The wall, arcade or 
grating which separates the choir proper 
from the rest of the church. In Fig. 60, 
the wall is too low to be called a choir- 
screen; the jube (which see) is that part 
of the choir-screen which faces the nave. 



Choragic. Having to do with a cho- 
ragos, or director of an Athenian chorus, 
as in the festivals of Dionysos. Choragic 
monument: a structure put up to com- 
memorate the service of a choragos. There 
were many such in Athens, and it was usual 
to set upon the top the bronze tripod awarded 
the choragos of the year. See Figs. 19 and 

Ciborium. In Italian architecture, a 
canopy or roof on pillars, especially over 
an altar. See Baldachino. 

Cimborio. In Spanish architecture, 
a cupola or canopy; the Spanish form for 

Cinque-cento. The sixteenth cen- 
tury considered as a time of development 
in Italian art. The word is used also as 
an adjective, as cinque-cento design. 

Cit. In French archaeology, a sepa- 
rate and especially a fortified part of a town; 
usually the more ancient part of the town, 
that which contains the cathedral or prin- 
cipal church. 

Clear-story. A raised part of a 
building having windows in its sides above 
the lower roofs. It differs from a lantern 
in being long, with parallel sides as form- 
ing a considerable part of the main struct- 
ure. Thus in Figs. 73 and 95, the upper- 
most windows are those of the clear-story. 
See, also, Figs. 118 and 132. 

Cloister. (a) A covered ambulatory; 
usually carried along the sides of a square 
court. () By extension, the whole court, 
of which the open part is called the Cloister- 

Coffering. Ornamentation of a ceil- 
ing, or of the soffit of an arch, by means of 
recessed panels. See Fig. 28. 

Collar-beam. A piece of timber used 
as a tie, crossing the truss of a roof, 
horizontally, at a higher level than the 
feet of the rafters. Cf. Tie-beam. See 
Fig. 1 66 A. 

Colonnade. A row of columns with 

the stylobate they rest upon, and the en- 
tablature they support. 

Colonnette. A very small column, 
as one of a cluster forming a pier, or part 
of a screen or tomb or piece of furniture. 
Thus in Fig. 130 there are two colon- 

Column. An upright, supporting 
member, usually cylindrical for the greater 
part of its length. It is divided into the 
three parts : capital, shaft and base, which 

Composite Order. In architecture 
of the Roman Empire a variety of the 
Corinthian order. See Fig. 50. 

Concordia. A Roman goddess, a 
personification of friendly intercourse and 
mutual agreement, as between the patri- 
cians and plebeians. The name, when 
given to a Greek temple (as at Akragas, 
see Ch. I.), is of course erroneous. 

Concrete. An artificial stone made 
of small pieces of stone, brick, or the like, 
mixed with strong cement mortar in great 
comparative quantity. The mortar, indeed, 
forms the chief part of the mass, and holds 
the stones, etc., imbedded in it. 

Console. An ornamental detail like 
a corbel, and having a projection as if to 
carry a weight. It is used especially in 
the classical and neo-classical styles. The 
French use the term much more freely, 
and such expressions as console-table have 
been adopted in English. 

Coping. The covering of a masonry 
wall at top to protect it against the weather, 
as by a row of stones each wider than the 

Corbel. A projecting member of stone 
or brick work, or the like, forming a solid 
part of a wall or pier, and arranged to 
carry a superincumbent weight. The cor- 
responding French term, corbeau, is lim- 
ited to a member whose sides are parallel, 
whereas cul-de-lampe is used for one semi- 
circular or polygonal in plan. It would be 



well if this distinction were maintained in 

To corbel out. To build, as with 
bricks, in course, each course projecting 
horizontally beyond the one which sup- 
ports it. 

Corinthian Order. The richest of 
the three Grecian orders, adopted by the Ro- 
mans as their favourite decorative system. 

Cornice. (a) In Greek and Roman 
art, the uppermost of the three members 
of an entablature, which see. () The 
coping of a wall when made to project 
considerably beyond the face of the wall, 
and made into a decorative feature. In 
sense (^) often called wall-cornice. See 
Fig. 164, the horizontal member below the 
pierced parapet, and the sculptured corbels 
which support it. 

Cortile. In Italian architecture the 
large, square or nearly square court of a 
civic or domestic building. 

Course. One horizontal row or layer, 
as of stones or bricks, in a wall or pier. 

Cove. A moulding of hollow or con- 
cave section. 

Cradle Vault. Same as Barrel Vault. 
See Vault. 

Cramp. A piece of metal used to 
hold together blocks of stone in a wall; 
commonly a sort of bar bent at each end 
like a hook. 

Crowned up. Rounded upward, (a) 
On the upper surface alone, as of a deck or 
a road. (3) Of the under surface only, as 
of a ceiling, (c) In the whole mass, as 
when a timber laid horizontally is selected 
or shaped so as to have a slight upward 

Cupola. A vault of the general form 
of a cup. Hence, by extension, a rounded 
or bulging roof, whether high and of great 
projection or low and flat. 

Cusp. A pointed projection from the 
inner edge or surface of an arch, its edges 
being usually curved, and seeming to grow 

out of the main arch insensibly. The 
cusps are the ornamental features of Gothic 
tracery, as in Figs. 124 and 170. 

Cusped. Furnished with cusps, as an 
arch or arched opening. 

Dado. The lower part of the wall, 
generally of a room or a hall, when treated 
as a separate architectural member. 

Decastyle (Dekastyle). Having ten 
columns in front; as a portico or temple. 

Demeter. In Grecian mythology, the 
goddess of plants, especially of plants use- 
ful to man. as of grain and the like, and 
of the fertility of the earth. The later 
Roman writers applied the Greek stories 
of Demeter to the Italian goddess Ceres. 

Dentil. One of the small, square- 
edged, solid projections which, separated 
by vacant spaces of about their own width, 
form a common ornament in classical en- 
tablatures, string-courses, etc. 

Dentil-course. A row or series of 
dentils, as if a square-edged moulding had 
had pieces cut out of it, leaving small, sepa- 
rate, rectangular blocks. 

Dionysos. In Grecian mythology, a 
god worshipped in many capacities, but 
especially as the patron of wine and of the 
drama, which was peculiarly sacred to 
him. The later Greek poets called him 
Bacchos, which, in its Latinized form 
Bacchus, became the Latin name under 
which he was known. 

Dipteral. Having a double row of 
columns; especially said of a temple hav- 
ing two rows of columns outside the naos 
or cella. 

Distyle. Having two columns in 
front; said of a portico or temple. See 
Fig. 6, and the inner porticoes of Fig. I. 
Distyle in antis, see Antis. 

Dodecastyle {Dodekastyle} . Hav- 
ing twelve columns in front, as of a portico 
or temple. 

Dome. Same as Cupola. 

Doric Order. (a} The most impor- 



tant order of Grecian architecture (see 
Ch. I. Sec. I.). () An order developed 
by the Romans partly from Greek, partly 
from Etruscan models; its resemblance to 
Grecian Doric is slight, and the name of 
questionable propriety. 

Dormer-window. A window built 
up from a sloping roof with sides and roof 
of its own; the name being applied to the 
whole structure, like a small house resting 
on the slope of the larger roof. See Figs. 
184 and 207. 

Drip-moulding. A moulding or 
group of mouldings undercut in such a 
way as to cause rainwater to drip from 
it instead of running down the surface. 

Drum. (#) The cylindrical or polyg- 
onal wall carrying a cupola or dome. 
() One of several cylindrical blocks of 
stone which make up the shaft of a 

East End. See Orientation. 

Echinus. (a) The bell of the Gre- 
cian Doric capital, so called from its sec- 
tional curve, which is supposed to resemble 
that of the sea-urchin. () In Roman 
Doric and in some forms of Roman Ionic 
the moulding forming the principal part 
of the bell of the capital, commonly 
sculptured with a simple ornament. 

Echinus Ornament. Same as Egg- 
and-dart Ornament. So called because 
used to decorate the echinus of the Roman 
Doric order. 

Egg-and-dart Ornament. In Greek 
art and the styles based upon it, a sim- 
ple ornament consisting of small egg- like 
bosses, each surrounded by a groove and 
ridge, and alternating with a sharp-pointed 
feature, like an arrow-head, intended to 
give contrast. 

Elevation. In architectural drawing 
the vertical projection according to de- 
scriptive geometry of a building or any 
part of it; especially of the exterior as 
distinguished from the section. 

Elizabethan Style. The style pre- 
vailing in England from about 1550 to 
1610, and, therefore, nearly contemporary 
with the later French Renaissance. See 
Ch. VIII. Sec. IV. 

Engaged Column. () A column 
of which only a part, three quarters or 
less, is left free from a wall or pier against 
which it is set. See Fig. 42. () An 
architectural feature resembling a column, 
but built with the wall in courses of stone 
or brick ; compare Roman order, and see 
Fig. 44. 

Entablature. In Grecian and Roman 
art and in the later classic styles, the whole 
mass of building which rests, like a low 
wall, upon the columns or pilasters, and 
forms the uppermost part of the order. 
It is always assumed to be made up of 
three parts, architrave or epistyle, frieze 
and cornice. In a very few ancient build- 
ings there are fewer than three parts : 
thus in the Caryatid portico, Fig. 25, 
there is no frieze. 

Entasis. The slight convex curve of 
the upright lines of a shaft, as in classical 
architecture. It is most noticeable in the 
Grecian Doric style, its purpose being to 
prevent the natural tendency of a true 
conical form to seem a little hollow. See 
Fig. 9. 

Epinaos. Same as Opisthodomos in 
its first sense ; and same as Posticum. 
Where opisthodomos is used for an en- 
closed chamber, epinaos would be the 
correct term for the porch beyond it. 

Epistyle. Same as Architrave. 

Erechtheus. An early hero of Attic 
legend, to whom, as to Theseus, divine 
honours were paid in Athens. 

Eye. See Oculus. 

Fagade. The front of any building 
which is so designed as to have a front 
especially distinguished from its other 
parts. Thus a Greek temple or a thir- 
teenth-century church has no facade, but 



a modern house fronting on a street has 
generally a fa?ade and no other architect- 
urally treated parts. 

Fan Vault. See Vault. 

Fillet. A narrow flat moulding. 

Finial. The ornamental boss or floral 
ornament which forms the top of a spire, 
gable or pinnacle, or which crowns a win- 
dow where, as in the later Gothic, the arch 
ends in a reversed curve. See Figs. 124 and 

Flamboyant. Having window-tra- 
cery disposed in patterns not strictly geo- 
metrical, but in elongated and pointed 
curves supposed to resemble flames. The 
term is applied by English writers to the 
French Gothic of the fifteenth century, 
but is rarely used in French. See Figs. 
174 and 1 80. 

Flute. One of the grooves in an Ionic 
or Corinthian column; or generally of any 
column except the Grecian Doric. Flutes 
are generally circular in section, and are 
separated from one another by narrow 
fillets. Cf. Channel. 

Fluted. Grooved with flutes, as dis- 
tinguished from channels. 

Flying Buttress. An arrangement 
for transmitting the thrust of a vault 
across a space to a buttress or buttress- 
pier beyond. See Ch. V. Sec. I., and 
Figs. 116 and 117. 

Foliated. Parted into leaves or leaf- 
like divisions ; said of ornament. 

Forum. The Latin term for an open 
place in a town, the place of popular 
assembly, and often the chief market- 

Frieze. The second, or middle part, 
of an entablature; hence, by extension, 
any horizontal band serving an ornamental 
purpose, especially if rich, as a band of 
sculpture in relief. 

Fronton. A modification of the pedi- 
ment used above a door or window, and 
either gable-shaped or rounded or irreg- 

ular, and broken in outline. See Figs. 
207, 213, 218, 230 and 240. 

Gable. In a building with a double- 
pitched roof, a piece of wall which closes 
the end of the roof, and is therefore gen- 
erally triangular. By extension a triangu- 
lar piece of wall or ornamental semblance 
of wall, which rises above a doorway or 
window. The pediment of a Greek temple 
is a low or blunt gable, resulting from a 
low double-pitched roof. 

Galilee. In English building, an 
adjunct or extension to a church; some- 
times a chapel, more often an outer room 
or porch. Only six, or possibly seven, 
rooms now existing are known by that 

Gargoyle. In mediaeval architecture, 
a spout for throwing off rainwater from 
the roofs, etc.; generally of stone, and 
often carved into some grotesque animal 
or human form. See Figs. 175 and 176. 

Gorgerin. The necking, as of a col- 
umn or pilaster; especially, where there 
are two parallel mouldings or groups of 
mouldings separating the bell of the cap- 
ital from the shaft, the space between these. 

Groin. The angle between two curved 
surfaces of a vault. See Vault. 

Guilloche. A running ornament 
formed of two or more ribbons or straps 
which interlace, forming circular openings. 

Gutta (pi. Guttee). One of the series 
of small pendant cylinders or truncated 
cones, used in the entablature of the 
Grecian Doric order. See Fig. 9. 

Hagia. The Greek term, signifying 
holy or saint. As the great church at 
Constantinople is not dedicated to any 
sainted personage, but to the Divine Wis- 
dom, Hagia Sophia, it is a convenience to 
call the church by that name, or abbre- 
viated as H. Sophia. 

Haunch. That part of an arch which 
lies between the crown and the impost; 
one of the two sides or flanks. The 



haunch cannot be exactly limited; it in- 
cludes the greater part of each half of the 
arch. Also the corresponding part of a 

Hephaistos. In Grecian mythology, 
the god of fire and metal-working, identi- 
fied by the late Roman writers with the 
Italian deity Vulcan. By an extension of 
the idea, Hephaistos becomes the creator 
of fine art and the master-builder and the 
patron of artisans and artists. 

Herakles. In Grecian mythology, a 
demi-god, son of Zeus, the personifica- 
tion of physical strength and the righter 
of wrongs. The Romans Latinized his 
name as Hercules. 

Hercules. See Herakles. 

Hexastyle. Having six columns in 
front, as a portico or temple. 

Hip. In a roof of approximately 
pyramidal shape, one of the projecting or 
solid angles. See Hipped Roof. 

Hip-knob. An ornamental project- 
ing member at the apex of a hip-roof. 
By extension, and especially in English 
architecture, a similar ornament in other 
situations, a finial adapted to wooden 

Hipped Roof. A roof which slopes 
from at least three sides toward a point or 
ridge at the top, and which is therefore 
somewhat pyramidal in shape. The solid 
angles or ridges which reach from the 
eaves to the top are called hips, and the 
piece of timber which forms each one of 
these is a hip-rafter. 

Honeysuckle Ornament. The most 
common anthemion used in Grecian art. 

Hood Moulding. A moulding or 
group of mouldings carried above and 
around the head of a window opening or 
door opening. See Fig. 128 in the upper 

Impost. That part of a structure 
which supports one side of an arch; there- 
fore commonly the top of the wall beneath 

the arch, or of a pillar or pier in a similar 

Intercommniation. The space from 
one column to another in any portico or 
colonnade. This may be measured from 
axis to axis of the columns, or between the 
shafts near the bottom, the former being 
much the more usual method of reckon- 

Intrados. The inner and lower face 
of an arch. See I, I, in Plate X. 

Ionic Order. The second of the 
three orders used by the Greeks. See Ch. 
II. Sec. II. 

Jamb. In a doorway or window open- 
ing the surface formed by the thickness of 
the wall. The term refers to the surface 
only, and has no relation to a separate 
member or piece of material. 

Joint. The space between the ad- 
jacent surfaces of two stones, bricks, or the 
like. When filled with mortar it is called 

Jube\ The screen which separates the 
choir from the rest of the church on the 
side towards the nave. Cf. Rood-screen. 

Kekrops ( Cecropi) . The mythical 
first prince of Attica, and founder of Attic 

Keystone. That one of the voussoirs 
of an arch which is put in last and is often 
driven in with blows of a mallet. Cf. 
Fig. 114 and note describing it. 

King-post. In roof- framing, a piece 
of timber which is used to suspend the 
middle of the tie-beam from the head of 
the rafters. It is properly not a post, but 
a tie. 

Krepidoma. In Grecian architecture 
the whole platform of masonry which forms 
the floor, the stereobate, etc., of a building, 
especially a temple. 

Lady Chapel. In English ecclesi- 
astical architecture, a chapel dedicated to 
the Virgin, especially when large and partly 
detached from a large church. 



Lantern. Any round or polygonal 
upright member having many windows in 
its vertical wall or walls; especially (a) 
the culminating part of a cupola. See 
Figs. 232, 236 and 252. () In mediaeval 
art, the uppermost story of a tower when 
lower and less pointed than a spire, as in 
the church of Boston, Lincolnshire, or the 
church of S. Ouen in Rouen (see Plate 

Legatus. In Roman antiquity an 
officer replacing or representing a higher 
officer, especially the governor of a prov- 
ince appointed by the emperor and gov- 
erning in his name. 

Lintel. A piece of material laid hor- 
izontally from one upright support to an- 
other, and bearing a weight by its power of 
resisting cross fracture and bending strain. 

Loggia. A covered and partly en- 
closed place for walking and sitting in the 
open air, especially if enriched and archi- 
tectural in character. See Fig. 169. 

Louvre. A lantern, in the architect- 
ural sense, especially a small one with 
openings to allow of the passage of air and 

Lunette. In vaulting, or the imita- 
tion of vaulting so common in modern 
times, that part of a wall which fills the 
rounded space beneath a vault. 

Machicolated. Having the defences 
usual in the middle ages, consisting of a 
projecting gallery supported on corbels; 
said of a wall or of a building. 

Mars. An Italian deity identified by 
the later Latin writers with the Greek 
Ares, and in this sense the god of war. 

Meta (pi. Mete). In Roman an- 
tiquity anything set up to mark a limit or 
boundary; in the circus a column, or group 
of columns, around which the chariots 
turned at either end. Cf. Spina. 

Metope. In the Doric style : (a) The 
space between the triglyphs. See Entabla- 
ture. The block or slab often used to 

fill this space, sometimes very richly sculpt- 
ured. See Figs. 9 and 10. 

Minerva. A Latin goddess, the 
daughter of Jupiter, and identified by the 
Latin writers with Athena; Minerva Med- 
ica, the goddess considered as patron of 
health and healing. 

Modillioii. One of the ornamented 
brackets which seem to support the cornice 
in the Corinthian entablature. 

Mortise. A small hole, square or 
nearly square, cut in a piece of timber to 
receive a tenon. 

Mortise and Tenon Joint. A man- 
ner of putting together timbers by fitting 
a projection called a tenon on the end of 
one timber, into a hole called the mortise 
in the side of another timber. 

Mosaic. Decorative work done by 
means of small pieces of hard and durable 
material fitted together to cover a surface, 
as of a floor, wall or ceiling. 

Moulded. Decorated by mouldings; 
having its angle or surface varied by being 
worked into mouldings. 

Mudejar Style. In Spanish archi- 
tecture, a modification of the late and 
florid Gothic by the introduction of Moor- 
ish details. 

Mullion. An upright member serving 
to divide an opening, or forming part of 
a framework. Cf. Transom. The mul- 
lions in Gothic windows are the origin of 
the bar tracery which forms so important a 
part in Northern Gothic decoration. 

Mutule. A surface in slight relief on 
the under side of the cornice in the Gre- 
cian Doric order. See Fig. 9. 

Naos. The inner chamber or princi- 
pal enclosed part of a Greek temple. Com- 
pare Opisthodomos, and see the plans of 
temples, such as Figs. I, 4 and 6. 

Nai thex. The enclosed porch or ves- 
tibule of a church, used especially in connec- 
tion with Byzantine and Eastern buildings. 
See Figs. 59, 68 and 101. 



Nave. The principal room in a pub- 
lic building; the large and high part of the 
place of assembly used in two senses in 
Christian church building, (a) The part 
nearest the principal entrance, and forming 
the chief resort of the laity, as distinguished 
from the choir and transepts. () The 
high middle part as distinguished from the 
lower aisles; in this sense the nave includes 
the clear-story, or the clear-story may be 
considered the upper part of the nave. 
As there is no term in use for the middle 
and highest part of the choir or transept, as 
distinguished from the aisles of those parts, 
the word " nave " is sometimes applied 
here, as, the nave of the choir. 

Necking. The lowest part of a cap- 
ital of a column or pilaster; usually a 
moulding, or group of mouldings, around 
the capital, and separating it from the 
shaft. See Figs, n and 12. 

Neo-classic. An imitation of that 
which is classic; said of the architecture 
and decoration in use since the beginning of 
the architectural Renaissance about 1420. 

Niche. A recess or small chamber 
open on one side; by extension, as niches 
are commonly used to receive statues, a 
combination of a projecting bracket or 
corbel which may support a statue, and a 
canopy above which may shelter it; an im- 
portant feature in Gothic architecture. See 
Figs. 128 and 129. 

Nike. In Grecian mythology the god- 
dess of victory, or Victory personified. See 
Athena Nike. 

Nike Apteros. See Apteros. 

North Flank, North Transept, etc. 
See Orientation. 

Nymphaeum. In Roman buildings, 
a temple, shrine or sacred enclosure dedi- 
cated to any nymph, or group or class of 

Obelisk. (a) An upright shaft, square, 
with slightly sloping sides, and with the top 
cut to a pyramid, with the sides much 

more sloping; a decorative object in use 
among the ancient Egyptians. (^) By ex- 
tension, a somewhat similar form occasion- 
ally introduced in neo- classic architecture. 
See Fig. 250. 

Octostyle. Having eight columns in 
front; said of a portico or temple. 

Oculus. A window of circular or 
oval form. See Bull's-eye. 

Odeion. In Greek building, a theatre 
arranged for musical entertainments, called 
by the Romans Odeum. 

Ogee. Curved like the letter S. 

Ogee moulding: a moulding which has 
a section or profile shaped like this curve. 

Opisthodomos. (a) The porch or 
vestibule behind the naos of a Greek tem- 
ple. (^) In a very few temples, an enclosed 
chamber behind the naos; in these cases, 
the porch or vestibule beyond and behind 
the opisthodomos is called the epinaos, or, 
not so properly, the posticum. 

Orchestra. In the Greek theatre, 
that part of the space devoted to the per- 
formers which was occupied by the chorus. 

Order. In classic and neo-classic 
building, (a) The unit of decorative post- 
and-lintel composition; that is, a column 
or pilaster, with its pedestal, if any, and so 
much of the entablature as may be thought 
to go with the column or pilaster, (b*} One 
of the different styles of Greek or of Roman 
architecture, as distinguished by the peculi- 
arities of its order in the sense (#). Thus 
the Ionic order is the style known by its 
order being Ionic in character. 

Colossal Order : An order extending the 
whole height, or nearly the whole height, 
of a building, and corresponding to two 
or more stories within. 

Oriel. A small loggia, especially if 
projecting from the wall of a larger build- 
ing; also a similar projecting apartment, 
when enclosed with glass, in which case it 
is called an oriel-window. The distinction 
is sometimes made between a bay window 



which rises from the ground, and an oriel- 
window which is corbelled out from the 
wall. See Fig. 224. 

Orientation. The system or habit of 
turning the entrance, or the peculiarly 
sacred part of a sacred building, toward 
one point of the compass. Greek temples 
often have their principal entrance at the 
east end; Christian churches have often 
their principal altar and the part reserved 
for the clergy and for divine service, at the 
eastern end of the building. This brings 
with it the arrangement common in Byz- 
antine churches, and almost universal in 
Europe north of the Alps, of having the 
principal entrances and the especially rich 
front turned westward, the two long sides 
and the two arms of the transept turned 
northward and southward, and the apse, 
choir, chancel or chevet, where no en- 
trance is commonly provided, turned east- 
ward. Hence it is customary to speak of 
the front with the great doors as the west 
front and the corresponding sides, etc., 
as south flank, etc., without considering 
whether the terms are accurate in the 
given case. This arrangement is almost 
unknown in Italy. 

Pallas. Same as Athena. 

Panel. Originally a piece of board 
held in place by grooves in a frame which 
encloses it, or in some similar way, so that 
it is free to shrink and expand without 
splitting. By extension, a sunken or re- 
cessed surface, generally having a deco- 
rative purpose. 

Parapet. A low wall, balustrade, or 
railing, intended to keep people from fall- 
ing, as from a roof or terrace. 

Pausanias. A Greek writer of the sec- 
ond century A.D., author of the " Hellados 
Periegesis, or Greek Itinerary." This book 
is the only considerable account preserved 
to us of the Grecian buildings and works 
of art as they were in antiquity, and con- 
tains nearly all the ancient documentary 

evidence that we have concerning them; 
but many very important details are left 

Pedestal. A supporting member, (^) 
set under a column to raise it above the 
stylobate or base line of the building (see 
Figs. 31, 221, 224 and 229), or () for an 
architectural vase or a statue. See Figs. 
216, 233, 235 and 236. 

Pediment. In classic or neo-classic 
building. () The low gable wall at the 
end of a temple or similar oblong struct- 
ure, and rising above the portico. Cf. Gable. 
() The crowning member of an ornamen- 
tal framework around a window or similar 
opening, when approximating to the shape 
of a gable. Cf. Fronton. 

Pendentive. A curved triangular 
piece of vaulting, one of those which 
bring the square or polygonal chamber 
below to the circular form of the dome 
above. Thus in Fig. 69, the large tri- 
angles filled with cherubs are the penden- 

Peribolos. The enclosed space about 
an important building, as a temple; hence, 
a sacred enclosure. 

Peripteral. Having columns on 
every side; said of a Grecian temple. 

Peristomion. In Grecian archaeol- 
ogy, a well-head or well-curb. 

Peristylar. (#) Having a peristyle; 
(<5) forming a peristyle. 

Peristyle. A series of ranges of col- 
umns taken together, whether outside of 
the naos of a temple, or on the inside faces 
of a building upon a court, but always con- 

Perpendicular Style. The style of 
English Gothic prevailing about 1360- 
1480. See Ch. VI. Sec. IV., and Ch. 
VII. Sec. IV. 

Perron. A flight of steps generally 
few in number and out of doors, as leading 
to an external doorway, or to a terrace in 
a garden. 



Pier. A solid upright mass of masonry 
as between two windows or similar open- 
ings, or one of those between the nave and 
aisles of a church, when not a single column. 

Pilaster. A vertical member support- 
ing or seeming to support an entablature 
or arch. A pilaster is always in slight pro- 
jection from a wall or pier, and has only 
one principal face, thus differing from the 
anta, which has two or three faces. 

Pillar. A pier or column; the general 
term for all isolated upright architectural 

Pinnacle. An upright architectural 
member, having generally a decorative pur- 
pose. In Gothic architecture, pinnacles 
are set upon the tops of buttresses and 
buttress-piers to supply additional weight 
where it is needed, as well as for ornament. 
See Figs. 125, 132, 158 and 159. 

Podium. (a) A continuous solid base 
of a wall, or support for a colonnade. () A 
low wall serving as a facing or retaining 

Polias. See Athena. 

Polychromy. Decoration by means 
of several colours combined in a design. 

Pompadour Style. Same as Rococo. 

Portico. A covered porch or open 
building of any size with columns. Often, 
by extension, the row of columns itself, the 

Porticus. In Roman antiquity a porch 
or gallery. The word conveys the idea of 
an open colonnade less absolutely than the 
modern portico. Cf. Loggia and Ambula- 

Poseidon. In Grecian mythology, the 
god of the seas and one of the great gods 
of Olympus; brother of Zeus. The later 
Roman writers identified him with the 
Italian deity Neptune. 

Posticum. Same as Opisthodomos in 
its first sense. Often used for the porch 
outside of the opisthodomos, where epinaos 
would be more strictly correct. 

Pronaos. In Greek temples, the porch 
or vestibule at the entrance of the naos. 

Propylaia. A group of buildings form- 
ing or surrounding a gateway. 

Prostyle. Having columns in front 
only; said of a temple. 

Pseudodipteral. Having the row of 
columns as far from the wall of the naos or 
sekos as if there were a second and inner 
row. Said of any peristylar structure. 

Pteroma. The space between the 
pteron and the wall of the enclosure; also 
all the space from the wall of the enclosure 
to the top step or edge of the stylobate. 

Pteron. A range or row of columns; 
a colonnade so far as the columns them- 
selves and their superstructure are con- 
cerned, but not including the covered space 
between and behind them. Cf. Pteroma. 

Puteal. A well-head or well-curb. 
Cf. Peristomion. 

Quoin. One or many stones or similar 
masses of material which form a corner. 
The term is used for masses that are accu- 
rately cut and set, and form a feature in 
the design. 

Reeded. Decorated by means of con- 
vex ridges set close together; the reverse 
of fluted or channelled; said especially of 
a shaft of a column in classic or neo-classic 

Relief. In sculpture, projection of the 
figures or foliage from a background which 
is not necessarily continuous nor uniform. 

Bas-relief : Low relief, although the 
lowest relief of all, as in coins and medal- 
lions, receives a different name. With the 
article, frequently used for a relief of any 

Ressaut. A projecting member formed 
by carrying the entablature of a colonnade 
out at right angles as if to form a pier or 
buttress, and putting a column or pair of 
columns beneath it. See Figs. 45, 198 
and 229. 

Rocaille. Decoration by what is as- 

5 6o 


sumed to be rock-work or a grotesque com- 
bination of water-worn stones, shells, and 
the like ; by extension, decorations by scrolls 
and curved ribs not continuous but in broken 
parts, which intercept one another, espe- 
cially in the borders of panels and open- 
ings, and accompanied by naturalistic plant 
and animal forms. See Rococo. 

Rococo Style. The style which pre- 
vailed from about 1700 until the appear- 
ance of the Louis XVI. style, about 1770. 
It is marked by abundance of rocaille deco- 

Roll Moulding. A convex moulding 
of large size, sometimes having the sur- 
face carved into the semblance of laurel 
leaves or the like. 

Rood-screen. In English architect- 
ure the same as 'jube,' so called because 
often carrying a cross or crucifix called Rood. 

Rose-window. A large circular wiry 
dow filled with tracery of generally radiat- 
ing character. 

Roundel. A circular window or panel, 
or other such architectural member. 

Rubble. Stones of irregular form and 
size, and masonry made of such stones. 

Sacristy. A room or set of rooms 
attached to a church, and used by the 
clergy and choristers for robing and for 
the storage of church utensils, etc. 

Scale Ornament. An ornament made 
by flat plates overlapping one another, or 
by the appearance of them as in imbrica- 

Scroll. In architectural ornament, 
any spiral or waving stem which gives 
off smaller stems at intervals, or which 
forms spirals or volutes. Scrolls are 
sometimes worked with leaves and flow- 
ers, as in Roman and neo-classic orna- 

Segmental Arch. See figure in Plate 

Sekos. In Grecian building, the inner 
part of a colonnaded structure. As the 

words naos and cella have been used 
so generally for the oblong enclosed parts 
of ordinary temples, the word sekos has 
been applied to such a room when circular 
or of other unusual form. 

Sexpartite. Divided into six parts; 
said of certain kinds of mediaeval vaulting. 
See Fig. in. 

Shaft. The middle or larger part of 
a column. In general, any slender upright 

Skewback. A sloping surface against 
which a segmental or flat arch may abut. 
The term is extended to the mass of mate- 
rial which forms the sloping surface, as a 
stone, or an iron plate with its proper 

Soffit. The under side of a lintel or 
other horizontal member, indicating the 
surface only, and not the piece of mate- 
rial. Cf. Jamb. 

South Flank, South Transept, etc. 
See Orientation. 

Spandrel. () The triangular space 
between the curved sides of two adjacent 
arches and any horizontal moulding or 
band above. (<$) A triangular space be- 
tween the curved side of one arch and any 
vertical member, as a pilaster or frame. 

Spina. In Roman antiquity, a low 
thick wall dividing the arena of a circus 
in the direction of its length, but not ex- 
actly parallel with either side. 

Springing Line. In the mathemati- 
cal drawing (elevation or section) of any 
arch, except a flat one, the horizontal line, 
which passes through the centre or centres 
and which meets the vertical lines of the 
impost at the level where they are tangent 
to the curves of the arch. Hence, by ex- 
tension, an imaginary line which marks 
the beginning of the actual curve, as of 
the intrados. See Figs. 87 and 88. 

Stereobate. The mass of masonry 
upon which the outer walls or colonnades 
of a building rest; the visible and archi- 


5 6l 

tectural part of the foundation; it includes 
the stylobate, which is its upper layer, and 
forms the outer vertical or nearly vertical 
face of the krepidoma. 

Stilted Arch. An arch whose spring- 
ing line is raised decidedly above the ap- 
parent impost, as the capital of a column 
or the like. See Arch, and Fig. 88. 

Stoa. In Greek building, a porch or 
open gallery; very nearly the same as the 
Roman porticus. 

Strap Ornament. Ornamentation 
made by plaited or interlaced bands; by 
extension, a representation in carving or 
painting of such interwoven ornament. 
See Fig. 226. Also by extension, and less 
properly, ornament made up of strap-like 
or ribbon-like members, not necessarily 
interlaced. See Figs. 225 and 226. 

Strigil Ornament. Decoration by 
means of flutes or channels cut parallel, 
but in slightly marked S curves. The 
name is taken from the strigil, the classi- 
cal implement for scraping the skin, as at 
the bath. 

String Course. A horizontal or gen- 
erally horizontal band, usually of orna- 
mental character. 

Strut. In timber framing a piece of 
wood used as a brace or stay, like a post, 
but often not in a vertical position. See 
Fig. 1 66 A. 

Stucco. Plaster used to cover sur- 
faces, especially that which is weather- 
proof and fit to use out of doors. 

Stylobate. The substructure for the 
columns, especially in a Greek building, 
the outermost part of the krepidoma upon 
which the columns stand. See Fig. 9. 

Tambour. Same as Drum. 

Telamones (pi.). Same as Atlantes. 

Telesterion. In Greek archaeology 
a place for initiation. 

Temple. A place especially set apart 
for the worship of a divinity; usually a 

2 O 

Tenon. See Mortise and Tenon Joint. 

Tepidarium. In Roman building, the 
warm chamber of a bathing establishment, 
offering air and water cooler than the 
caldarium, but not cold. 

Tetrastyle. Having four columns in 
front; said of a portico or temple. See 
the north portico of the Erechtheion, Fig. 
14. See also Fig. 35. 

Thermae (pi.). In Roman antiquity, 
public baths, a plural noun not used in the 

Theseus. In Grecian mythology, a 
hero, founder of Athens and the Attic 
state. Divine honours were paid him in 

Tholos. In Grecian building, a circu- 
lar edifice of any sort. See Fig. 24. 

Thrust. The horizontal or diagonal 
pressure exercised by a vault or arch. 
^ Tie-beam. A piece of timber secured 
horizontally across a roof-truss at the feet 
of the rafters to keep them in place and 
prevent the truss from spreading. In Fig. 
1 66 A there is no tie-beam properly so 
called; but A r the collar-beam, is the tie- 
beam for all the truss above it. See also 
Fig. 152, where one end of a large tie- 
beam is shown. 

Tie-rod. An iron rod used as a tie, 
as to replace a tie-beam (which see), or to 
take up the thrust of an arch. See Figs. 
168 A, 169 and 171. 

Torus. A large moulding of convex, 
nearly semicircular, section. Cf. Roll 
Moulding. See, in Fig. 15, the lowermost 
moulding of the base. 

Trabeated. Made up of beams; 
having beams for an important part. 

Trabeated Construction: a system of 
building in which upright posts carry hori- 
zontal beams. All Greek buildings de- 
scribed in Chap. I. are of this character. 
See also Figs. 35, 36, 39, 233 and 256. 

Tracery. In Gothic architecture the 
decorative arrangement of openings and 

5 62 


solids in the head of a pointed window, 
in a pierced gable, or in mere decorative 
relief on a panel. 

Bar Tracery: that in which the patterns 
seem to be composed of the bars which 
form the upright mullions below, and which 
are tangent to one another, or pass into 
one another gradually. See Figs. 124, 
125, 136 (the more distant window), and 

HS-'S - 

Plate Tracery: that in which the open- 
ings are shown as cut through a flat surface 
which is adorned at the edges, with no 
attempt at imitating the interlacing of 
bars. See Figs. 141 and 168 A; but these 
examples are inadequate. 

Transept. That part of a building 
whose greatest length is at right angles or 
nearly so with the main lines of the build- 
ing, especially in Christian churches. The 
transept is properly the whole mass whicj| 
in the early basilicas is next to the apse 
and has the nave and aisles open into it, 
and which in the Gothic churches sepa- 
rates the longer mass of the church into 
two nearly equal parts. Some English 
churches have two such transepts. So 
much of a transept as projects to one side 
beyond the nave or choir should be called 
an arm of the transept, but it is common 
to speak of the south transept instead of 
the south arm of the transept, etc. Cf. 
Orientation. See Fig. 153, in which the 
lower structures of the aisles are carried 
as far to the north and south as the tran- 
sept projects, which, however, would be 
perfectly recognizable from the outside. 
See also Fig. 120, in which the transept 
has rounded ends. See also Figs. 144 and 
155; also for external effect, Fig. 127 and 
Plate III. 

Transom. A horizontal member serv- 
ing to divide an opening or forming part 
of a framework. Cf. Mullion. 

Tri-apsal or Triapsidal. Having 
three apses. Two forms of tri-apsal 

churches are common : one in which an 
apse forms the end of each aisle as well as 
of the nave, the other in which the apses 
project in three different directions, as in 
Fig. 71. In Fig. 72 the three apsidioles do 
not make this a tri-apsal church, because 
they are only chapels and relatively low. 
Cf. Figs. 76 and 144. 

Triforium. In mediaeval church ar- 
chitecture, an open arcade or similar archi- 
tectural feature in the wall of the nave, 
choir or transept above the great arches 
which open into the aisles. By extension, 
the triforium gallery. In Fig. 121, the ar- 
cade of small arches, four to the bay, is the 
triforium. In Figs. 135 and 164, the arcade 
immediately above the nave arches. 

Triforium Gallery. A gallery be- 
tween the vaulting of the aisle and the 
sloping wooden roof above, opening into 
the nave or other high part of the church 
through the arcades of the triforium. The 
triforium gallery is often called triforium. 

Triglyph. In the Grecian Doric order, 
one of the solid blocks resting upon the 
epistyle and supporting the cornice. The 
triglyphs, and the metope slabs between 
them, form the frieze of the order. See 
Figs. 9 and 10. 

Trumeau. The mullion or slender 
pier supporting the tympanum of a Gothic 
portal and dividing the opening into two 
doorways. See Figs. 126 and 180. 

Truss. A framework of timber, es- 
pecially one of the triangular frames which 
support the roof. Fig. i66A shows one- 
half of an extremely complicated truss. 
Fig. 156 shows trusses of very simple char- 

Tudor Style. In English architect- 
ure the style which is identified with the 
reigns of Henry VII., Henry VIII., Ed- 
ward Vl., and Mary. 

Tympanum. (a) A recessed panel- 
like space between constructional mem- 
bers, as the triangular panel of the pediment 



beneath the raking cornice and above the 
lower cornice. See Figs. 2, 5, 35 and 36. 
() the space beneath the arches of a 
portal, and above the actual doorway or 
doorways. Sec Figs. 126 and 130. In 
Fig. 1 80 there are subordinate tympanums, 
and a large one above. 

Vault. A structure of masonry so 
built as to form a roof or ceiling. 

Annular Vai'lt: (a) A vault built 
over a passage, aisle or gallery having a 
curved plan; especially a barrel vault in 
such a position. See Fig. 62. () A vault 
the surface of which is ring-shaped, but 
not horizontal. '. 'hus, if a half-tube is bent 
in the form of an arch, rising above a hor- 
izontal plane, the inner surface of such a 
tube resembles Lome vaults used in Ro- 
manesque work ( ee Ch. IV.) ; and such 
vaults are called annular although their 
surfaces may not be everywhere parts of 
the same tubular or ring-like surface. See 
Fig. 88, where X is approximately an annu- 
lar vault. 

Barrel Vault: A vault which has the 
same cross-section everywhere. Thus, in 
P'ig. 192, the vault on each side of the 

Fan Vault: See Figs. 190 and 191, 
and Plate VIII., and the text describing 

Groined Vault: A vault which is 
made up of cylindrical vaults meeting and 
intersecting one another, and built in a 
solid shell without independent and sup- 
porting ribs. See Figs. 29 and 67. 

Ribbed Vault: A vault built with ribs 
which carry and support the vaulted sur- 
faces, as in Gothic architecture. 

Wagon Vault: Same as Barrel Vault. 

Vaulted. (a) Made of vaulting, as a 
roof, (ti) Covered or roofed by a vault, 
as a room or hall. 

Venus. In the earlier Roman mythol- 
ogy, a goddess of minor importance; after- 
wards identified with Aphrodite, which see. 

Vera di Pozzo. In Venice, a cistern- 
head ; one of the solid blocks of stone or 
marble, pierced with a round shaft verti- 
cally through the middle, and serving to 
protect the mouth of one of the cisterns in 
which is stored the water brought from the 
mainland. Two in the court of the Ducal 
Palace are of bronze. Cf. Puteal and Peri- 

Vesta. In Roman mythology, the 
goddess of fire and of the domestic 

Vitruvius. A Roman architect and 
writer on architecture. His name was 
Vitruvius Pollio, and he lived in the reign 
of Augustus. His work, "Ten Books on 
Architecture," is the only one on building, 
treated technically, which has come down 
to us from classical times; but it is brief, 
and most unsatisfactory as a treatise or as 
a history. 

Volutes. An ornament in the shape 
of a spiral, especially one of the flat spirals 
at the corners of an Ionic capital. See 
Figs. 13, 15 and 53. 

Voussoir. One of the solid bodies, 
more or less wedge-shaped, of which an 
arch is composed. See Plate X. 

Wainscot. Woodwork used in parti- 
tions, lining of rooms and the like. 

Wall-arch. In Gothic vaulting, the 
rib which is built at the extreme outer 
edge of the vault, where the wall or the 
window is, to close the vault on the out- 
side; also the corresponding rib on each 
outer edge of the square or trapezium 
formed by the vault. See diagrams of 
Gothic vaulting, Ch. V. 

West Front, West End, etc. See 

Zeus. The chief of the Greek gods, 
the special deity of the sky, and of light- 
ning and thunder. Olympia and Dodona 
were peculiarly sacred to him. The Latin 
writers found his character and attributes 
in their own Deus Pater, or Jupiter. 



Aachan, see Aix-la-Chapelle. 

Abbeville : Ch. of S. Wulfram, 334, 335, 351. 

Hotel de Ville, 417. 
Adam, James, 535. 
Adam, Robert, 535. 
^Egina, Island of: Ruins, 7, 36, 41. 
Aerschot: Jube in Church, 417. 
Aix-la-Chapelle : Imperial Chapel, now 

Cath., 147 (fig.), 280. 
Aizani : Temple of Zeus, 24. 
Akragas: Ruins, 6, 7. 

Temple of Concordia, 65. 

Temples at, 531. 

Temple of Zeus, 42, 43 (fig.), 44, 94- 

Tomb of Theron (so-called), 47. 
Alberti, Leon Battista, 371, 372. 
Albi: Cath. (S. Cecile), 264, 276, 282,342 


Alcantara : Roman Arch, 89. 
Alexandria : Roman Monument (called 

Pompey's Pillar), 92. 
Amboise : Chateau, Chapel of S. Hubert, 

342 ; vaulting, 342. 

American " Old Colonial" style, 534, 535. 
Amesbury House, 517. 
Amiens: Cath., 209, 232, 307 (fig.), 308. 
Ammanati, Bartolomeo, 466, 472. 
Amphitheatres, Roman, 63, 70. 
Ancona: Arch of Trajan, 89. 
Ancyra : Temple of Augustus, 79. 
Androuet du Cerceau, Jacques, 393, 407. 
Anet, Chateau of, 409. 
Angouleme : Cath., 159, 178. 
Anthemios, 139. 

Antwerp: Cath., 283, 284, 285 (fig.), 

Ch. of N. D. de la Chapelle, 285. 

Ch. of N. D. des Victoires, 285. 

Ch. of S. Charles Borromeo, 419 (fig.). 

Doorway, 497 (fig.). 

Hotel de Ville, 418, 419. 

Tower of Cathedral compared with that 

of Strasburg, 348. 
Aosta: Roman Gateway, 87. 

Triumphal Arch of Augustus, 89. 
Aphrodisias: Temple of Aphrodite, 24. 
Arabesques, 375 (figs.). 
Aries: Amphitheatre, 70. 

Cloister of S. Trophime, 179. 
Artistic Ability, Decay of, in fourth century 

A.D., 143. 

Ashton Hall, see Birmingham. 
Assisi: Ch. of S. Francis, 257 (fig.), 311. 

Roman Temple, 77. 
Assos : Ruins, 7. 

Temple, 37. 
Athens : 

Acropolis : buildings, 49 ; also see 
Erechtheion, Parthenon, Propylaia, 
Temple of Athena Nike. 

Arch of Hadrian, 86, 87 n. (fig.), ,89, 

97> "3- 

Cathedral, the Old, 136. 

Choragic Monument of Lysikrates, 30, 

31 (fig.), 32 (fig.), 34. 
Churches (Byzantine), 183. 
Erechtheion, 2, 23 (fig.) 24, 25, 26 

(fig.), 28 (fig.), 39, 85. 
Odeion, 70. 


5 66 


Athens: Parthenon, 2, 4, 9 (fig.) 37> 85, 
532; description of, 9, 10, 20, 21 ; 
sculpture from, 41 ; compared with 
Temple of Zeus at Olympia, 10 (fig.) . 
Propylaia, 13 (fig.), H (fig-). 532- 
Stoa, or Portico of Attalos, 25. 
Temple of Athena Nike, or Nike Apte- 

ros, 14, 22, 37. 
Temple of Athena Polias, see Erech- 


Temple of Olympian Zeus, 79. 
Temple of Theseus (so-called), see 


Temple of the Winds (so-called) , 32 ff. 
Theseion, 5, 37, 38, 39 (fig.). 
Audenarde: Hotel de Ville (Town Hall), 


Autun : Roman Arch, 88, 97. 
Avignon: Ch. of S. Pierre, 341. 

Palace of the Popes, 276. 
Avila: Casa Polentina, 420 (fig.). 

Ch. of S. Thomas, 350. 
Avioth: Chapel, 338 (figs.). 
Azay-le-Rideau, Chateau of, 391, 394. 


Baalbek : Architectural details, 119. 
Circular Temple, 79. 
Temple of Jupiter, 77 (fig.), 78 (fig.). 
Bamberg: Cath., 170, 226. 
Bapara : Roman Arch, 89. 
Baptisteries, early, 1 20. 
Barbas, Geronimo, 500. 
Barcelona: Cath., 278. 
Ch. of S. Agata, 133. 
Ch. of S. M. del Mar, 282. 
Ch. of S. M. del Pi, 282. 
Barozzi, Giacomo, see Vignola. 
Basilicas, Christian, 120 ff.; see also under 


Roman, their construction, 71, 83, 120; 
see also Rome, Basilica of Maxen- 
tius and Constantine, Basilica Ulpia; 
their uses, 83 ; those of Syria, 66. 
Their simple and unarchitectural char- 
acter, 130 ff. 

Bassai : Ruined Temple, 7, 37. 
Bastides, 221. 
Bath: Abbey Ch., 301. 
Beauvais : Cath., 209, 393. 
Hotel de Ville, 417. 
Houses, 402. 
Belem: Convent, 351. 
Benevento : Arch of Trajan, 87 (fig.) 106. 
Bergama: see Pergamon. 
Bergamo : Colleoni Chapel, 376. 
Berlin: Palace, the Royal, 507. 

Palace of Charlottenburg, 509, 510, 514. 
Bernini, G. L., 473, 476, 477, 544. 
Besanson : Roman Arch, 89. 
Beverley: Minster Ch., 298 (fig.). 
Beziers: Cath., 265 n. 
Biella: Chapel, 133 (fig.) 
Bijapur, Central India : Great Dome at, 522. 
Birmingham : Ashton Hall, 445. 
Blenheim Castle, 533. 
Blickling Hall, 445. 
Blois: Chateau, 418; arcades of, 353; 

Salle des Etats in, 222 ; wing of 

Francis I., 397 (fig.); wing of 

Louis XII., 395, 410. 
Hotel d'Alluye, 395. 
Bloxham : Ch., 297, 298. 
Bologna: Ch. of S. Petronio, 307 (fig.), 

308 (fig.), 310, 311, 312,319. 
Bordeaux: Cath. (S. Andre), 263. 

Tour Pey-Berland, 332. 
Borromini, School of, 492, 500. 
Boston : Ch. of S. Botolph, tower, 358. 
Bourg-en-Bresse : Ch. of Brou, 351, 393, 

Bourges: Cath., 209,225,257,308,319,475. 

House of Jacques Coeur, 342. 
Bradford-on-Avon : " The Duke's House," 

440, 441. 

Bramante, Donato, 374, 384, 419, 453. 
Bramhall, Manor House of, 446. 
Bramshill, Manor Ho. of, 441 (fig.), 44& 
Branchidai : Temple of Apollo, 24, 37. 
Brandenburg: Cath. (SS. Peter and Paul), 

Ch. of S. Katharine, 355, 356. 



Brescia : Ch. of the Miracoli, 376. 
Brindisi : Roman Memorial Column, 92. 
Bristol: Cath., 301. 
Brosse, Salomon de, 414. 
Brou, see Bourg-en-Bresse. 
Bruand, Liberal, 484. 
Bruchsal: Schloss, 512 (fig.)- 
Bruehl: Schloss, 512, 514. 
Bruges : Ch. of S. Sauveur, 283. 
Brunellesco, 367 ff., 372, 373. 
Brussels : Cath., 283. 
Ch. of S. Gudule, 226. 
Hotel de Ville, 348. 
Houses seventeenth and eighteenth 

centuries, 498. 
Brympton House, 450. 
Builders in the Middle Ages, 225. 
Bullant, Jean, 404, 406, 538. 
Bulla Regia: Ruins, 89. 
Buonarroti, Michelangelo, 466 ff. 
Burgos : Cath., 225, 424. 
Burleigh-House, 442. 
Bussy: Chateau, 395, 399 (fig.). 
Buttress-System, 198 ff. 
Byzantine Architecture compared with 

Romanesque, 112. 
Has little regard for exterior, 145. 


Cahors: Ch. of S. Etienne, 159. 
Cambridge : King's College Chapel, 364, 


College Buildings of Tudor style, 365. 
Senate House, 534. 
Campbell, Colin, 537. 
Canterbury: Cath., 238, 302, 364, 535. 
Cape Colonna, 7. 
Caprarola, 471. 
Capua: Amphitheatre, no. 
Carcassonne: Cath. (S. Nazaire), 263 

(fig.), 266, 268 (fig.), 289, 290, 293. 
Carlisle: Cath., 243 (fig.), 245, 298 (fig.). 
Carpentras : Roman Arch, 89. 
Carr, John, 535. 
Caserta : Palace, 544. 
Castle Howard, 530 ff. 

Cathedrals, causes of their popularity in 

the twelfth century, 205. 
Cavaillon : Roman Arch, 89. 
Certosa, near Pavia, 322, 323, 375 (fig.), 

37 8 379- 

Chambers, Sir William, 535, 536. 
Chambiges, Pierre, 410. 
Chambord, Chateau of, 392, 396 (fig.), 397, 

Chartres: Cath., 132, 209, 219, 338, 349. 

Hotel Montescot, 412. 
Chateaudun: Chateau, 391. 

Dwelling, 277, 278 (fig.). 
Chatillon, Claude du, 410. 
Chatsworth, Manor House of, 529. 
Chaumont, Chateau of, 391. 
Chester : Houses in, 446. 
Chiaravalle: Conventual Ch., 252. 
Chieti, Ch. near, see Santa Maria d'Arbona. 
Church plan, the, of the Romanesque and 
Gothic types, 149, 177, 312, 313. 

Under the Renaissance, 380. 

See also Basilica, Baptistery, Round Ch. 
Churches, Parish, of France, 210. 
Churriguerra, Josef de, 500. 

Style introduced by, 500. 
Cividale: Ch. of S. M. in Valle, 134 

Clermont-Ferrand: Cath., 263. 

Ch. of N. D. du Port, 151, 154 (fig.). 
Cobham Hall, 442, 517. 
Cologne: Cath., 209, 222, 232, 308. 
Ch. of S. Gereon, 148 (fig.). 
Ch. of S. Martin, 149, 226. 
Rathhaus, 432 (fig.). 
Roman Tower (so-called), 153. 
Colomb, Michel, 394. 
Colour applied to buildings, see Poly- 


Como: Cath., 322, 376. 
Constantinople : Ch. of H. Sophia, 136, 138, 
139 (fig.), 143, 144, 145, 148, 
304 n., 368, 527. 
Ch. of S. Irene, 136, 181. 
Ch. of SS. Sergios and Bacchos, 136, 



Constantinople : Ch. of the Theotokos, 136, 
182 (fig.). 

Cisterns, 142, 174, 202. 
Cori : Temple, 52, 75 (fig.), and see Fig. 12. 
Corinth : Ruins, 7. 

Corinthian Style, decorative design of 
Greek, 30 ff., 36. 

Roman, 36. 
Cortona: Ch. of S. M. Nuova, 382 (fig.). 

Ch. of the Madonna del Calcinajo, 382. 
Coucy Castle, 222. 
Courtrai : Hotel de Ville, 417. 
Coutances : Cath., 209. 
Cremona : Casa Stanga, 376. 
Cussy : Roman Monument, 92. 


Dakkel, Oasis of: Roman Arch, 89. 
Danzig : City Gate, 432. 

Houses, 430. 

Rathhaus of the Rechtstadt, 432. 

Zeughaus, 431 (fig.). 

Decoration by coloured materials : Roman, 
107, 108. 

Romanesque, 153. 

Italian, fourteenth century, 318. 
Decoration of Interiors, 107. 

Byzantine, 143. 

Christian Basilicas, 1310 

Roman public places of amusements, 

i u. 
Deir Siman : Late Roman Gateway, 115 


Denham, Sir John, 518. 
Dieppe : Ch. of S. Jacques, 332. 
Dijon: Hotel de Vogue, 412. 
Dinkelsbuehl : Wooden framed houses, 427. 
Dixmude : Jube in Ch., 417. 
Dol : Tomb in Cath., 394. 
Doric Style: Buildings, 13. 

Decorative design of, 18 (fig.), 19 
(fig.), 20. 

Has no architectural sculpture, 29. 

Structure of, 15, 16 (fig.), 17 (fig.). 

See Athens : Parthenon. 
Douai: Town Hall (Hotel de Ville), 348. 

Dresden: Ch., Catholic, of the Court, 511 

(fig.), 514- 

Palace "Zwinger," 510, 511. 
Duderstadt : Rathhaus, 428. 
Durham: Cath., the galilee, 178 (fig.), 

305 (fig-)- 
Dwellings: English, eighteenth century, 

45> 53^ 535 537- 
French, eighteenth century, 492. 
Greek, 45 ff. 
Mediaeval, 213, 221, 275 ff. (figs.), 342 

(fig.), 344 (figs.). 
Roman, 109 ff. 
Timber framed, 401, 402 (fig.), 427, 

428, 445, 446. 

E. - 

Ecouen, Chateau of, 392, 402, 403 (fig.), 

409, 410, 475. 
Eleusis: Telesterion, 12, 55 n., I2on. 

Temple of Artemis (so-called), 12 


Elizabethan Style, 301, 357, 437 ff., 518. 
El Kasr : Roman Arch, '89. 
Ely: Cath., 278, 303 (fig.), 304 n., 321, 


Entablature, its construction and nature, 17. 
Ephesus : Temple of Artemis, 24, 37. 
Epidauros : Irregular arrangement of build- 
ings, 49. 

The Tholos, 13, 30, 33 (fig.), 34. 
Erfurt: Cath., 290 (fig.), 291 (fig.), 293. 

Palace, 509. 

Escorial, Palace of the, 425. 
Etruscan Architecture : Buildings, xii, xiii. 

Temple plan, xii, xiii, 80. 
Eu: Ch., 342 (fig.). 
Evreux : Cath., 332 (fig.). 


Fairford : Ch., 360. 
Ferte-Bernard, La, Castle of, 222. 
Filarete, Antonio, 371. 
Florence: Baptistery, 318, 368. 

Bell-tower of Cath., 317. 

Bridge of SS. Trinita, 472. 



Florence : Campanile, see Bell-tower. 
Cath., 149, 178, 307 (fig.), 308, 311 
(fig.), 312, 317 ff., 367 ; Dome of, 
368, 527; Statue in, 458. 
Ch. of S.Croce, Pazzi Chapel, 369 (fig.). 
Ch. of S. Lorenzo, 369, 373, 539. 
Ch. of S. M. degli Angeli, 369. 
Ch. of S. M. Novella, 254 (fig.), 307, 

3io, 3!9> 37 2 - 

Ch. of S. Spirito, 369, 371, 373. 

Hospital of the Innocents, see Inno- 

Innocenti, Spedale degli, 371. 

Loggia dei Lanzi, 314, 315 (fig.), 317, 

Loggia di S. Paolo, 371. 

Palazzo Pazzi-Quaratesi, 370-373. 

Palazzo Pitti, 472. 

Palazzo Riccardi, 371, 373, 374. 

Palazzo Rucellai, 372, 373. 

Palazzo Vecchio, 376. 
Flying Buttress, system of, 151, 198 ff. 

Used as mere ornament, 358. 
Fontainebleau : Chateau, 409, 415. 
Fossanova: Buildings of Abbey, 247, 248 

(fig.), 250 (fig.). 
Fotheringhay : Ch., 358. 
Fountains Abbey, 236. 
Frankfurt (a. Main) : Tower of Cath., 

Freiburg-im-Breisgau : Minster Ch., 229 n., 

233 (fig.)- 

Fuessen : Schloss, 436. 
Fulda : Ch. of S. Michael, 148. 


Gaillon, Chateau of, 393, 394. 
Gainford Hall, 443 (fig.). 
Galliano: Chapel, 134. 
Genoa: Palazzo Brignole, 539. 

Palazzo Carrega, 470. 

Palazzo Doria-Tursi, 470. 

Palazzo Durazzo, 471. 

Palazzo Sauli, 470. 

Villa Andrea Doria, 470. 

Villa Cambiaso, 470. 

Gerasa : Roman Arch, 88. 

Roman remains, 80, 81. 
Germigny-les-Pres : Ch., 152. 
Gerona: Cath., 278, 349. 
Ghent : Houses, seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth centuries, 498. 

Town Hall (Hotel de Ville), 417. 
Gibbons, Grinling, 535. 
Gibbs, James, 521, 533. 
Giocondo, Fra, 374, 384. 
Girgenti : see Akragas. 
Gjolbaschi : Sacred enclosure, 37. 
Glastonbury Abbey, 236, 237. 
Gloucester: Cath., 300, 364; Cloister of, 


Goujon, Jean, 407. 
Granada : Ch. of the Carthusians, Sacristy, 


Palace of Charles V., 422 (fig.). 
Granja, La: Palace, 504. 
Greek Architecture : Buildings of excep- 
tional character, 29, 42 ff. 
Its forms used by Romans as mere 

decorations, 56 ff., 92, 94. 
Principles of design, 48 ff. 
The modern study of, 2 ff. 
Used by the neo-classic architects in 

the same way, 95, 107. 
Greeks, artistic sense of, 21. 

Colonies and possessions of, outside of 

Greece, I. 

Greenwich : Hospital, 528. 
Guadalajara: Palacio del Infantado, 351 

(fig.). H 

Haddon Hall, 438. 

Hal: Town Hall, 419. 

Halberstadt: Wooden framed houses, 357. 


Halicarnassos : Tombs, 47, 48. 
Hampton Court Palace, 528. 
Hanover: Rathhaus, 357 (fig.). 
Hard wick Hall, 442. 
Hatfield House, 442. 
Hawksmoor, Nicholas, 535. 
Heidelberg : Castle, 434, 436. 



Heidelberg Inn, "Zum Ritter," 435. 
Herculaneum : Villa of the Papyri, 1 10. 
Hildesheim : Wooden framed houses, 428 

Hoernitz : Schloss, 436. 
Houses, see Dwellings. 


Ingestre Hall, 442. 

Interior, architecture of the, in the Roman 

epoch, 107. 
Ionic Buildings, decorative designs of, 25 

ff. (figs.). 

Structure of, 27, 28 (fig.). 
Isidores, 139. 


Jacobean Style, 437, 446, 518. 
James, John, 535. 
Jerash, see Gerasa. 
Jones, Inigo, 439, 448 ff. 
Josselin, Chateau of, 392. 

* K. 

Kalat Siman : Convent of S. Simeon 

Stylites, 115, 117 (fig.), JI 8. 
Kalb Louzeh: Ch., 116 (fig.)> H7- 
Kirkstall Abbey, 236. 
Knidos : Tombs, 47. 
Koeln, see Cologne. 


Lambese, see Lamboesis. 

Lamboesis : Roman pretorium, 97 (fig.). 

Laon : Cath., 209. 

Lebrun, Charles, 477, 493. 

Leipzig: Old Exchange, 505. 

Lemercier, Jacques, 414, 415, 491. 

Leon : Cath., 225. 

Leoni, Leone, 539. 

Lerida: Cath., 223. 

Lescot, Pierre, 406, 410, 415, 474, 538. 

Levau, Francois, 477, 492. 

Lichfield : Cath., 298. 

Lierre: Jube in Ch., 417. 

Limoges: Cath., 263. 

Limyra: Tombs, 47. 

Lincoln: Cath., 238, 239, 240 (fig.), 241 
(fig.), 243 (fig.), 297 (fig.), 298, 


Lodi : Ch. of the Incoronata, 382. 
London: Banqueting House (Royal 
Chapel), 448, 449. 

Cath. (S. Paul), the old building, 450 ; 
the later Ch., 490, 511, 519, 521, 
522 (fig.), 524, 525 (fig.),5 2 7> 535- 

Ch. of S. Clement's Danes, 533. 

Ch. of S. Dunstan, 518. 

Ch. of S. George, Hanover Square, 534. 

Ch. of S. Giles in the Fields, 533. 

Ch. of S. Leonard Shoreditch, 533. 

Ch. of S. Martin in the Fields, 533. 

Ch. of S. Mary le Bow, 521 (fig.). 

Ch. of S. Mary le Strand, 533 (fig.). 

Hamilton Place, 537. 

Houses, 530, 537. 

Houses, by Inigo Jones, 450. 

Lambeth Palace, 517. 

Mansfield Street, 537. 

Old Burlington Gate, 537. 

Portland Place, 537. 

Somerset House, 535-537 (fig.). 

Stratford Place, 537. 

Temple Bar, 519 (fig.). 

Westminster Abbey, 349, 518 ; Chapel 
of Henry VII., 364, 438. 

Westminster Hall, 306 (fig.). 

York Gate, 450. 
Longford Castle, 442, 443. 
Longleat Manor House, 441. 
Lorsche: Abbey Ch., 153. 
Louvain: Ch. of S. Michael, 498, 500 


Hotel de Ville, 348-9, 417, 
Louviers, 332. 
Lucca: Cath. (S. Martino), 313 (fig.). 


Machuca, Pedro, 422. 
Maderno, Carlo, 468, 544. 
Madrid : City Gate, 504. 

Royal Palace, 503, 504 (fig.). 



Magdeburg: Cath., 227 (fig.), 229 (fig.)> 

Rathhaus, 507 (fig.)? 5*6. 
Magnesia : Temple of Artemis, 24. 
Mans, Le : Cath., 209, 280. 
Mansart, Francois, 414. 
Mansart, Jules Hardouin, 479, 487. 
Mantua: Ch. of S. Andrea, 372 (fig.), 373> 

Palazzo Te, 45 1 . 

Marburg : Ch. of S. Elizabeth, 232. 
Marly, Chateau of, 390. 
Mayence: Cath., 170, 171, 226. 
Mechlin: Cath. (S. Rombold), 348. 
Meillant, Chateau of, 392. 
Melassa, see Mylasa. 
Metapontum : Ruined temple, 7. 
Michelangelo, see Buonarroti. 
Michelozzo, 371, 374, 380. 
Milan : Bank of the Medici, 375. 

Cath., 319 ff. 

Ch. of S. Ambrogio, 122, 166 (fig.), 
170, 252, 304 n., 320, 321. 

Ch. of S. Eustorgio, 380. 

Ch. of S. Maria delle Grazie, 376, 379, 


Palazzo Pazzi, 539. 

Villa Belgiojoso, 545. 
Miletos, Great Temple, see Branchidai. 
Mons : Ch. of S. Waudru, 348. 
Montacute House, 442. 
Montepulciano : Ch. of S. Biagio, 382 (fig.). 
Morrtmajour: Chapel, 134 (fig.). 
Mont Saint Michel: Ch., 332. 
Monza : Cath., 322. 
Moreton Old Hall, 446 (fig.). 
Mosaic, 109, 130, 131, 143, 145. 
Moulins : Former College of Jesuits, now 

Hospital, 412 (fig.). 
Munich: Ch. of S. Michael, 432 (fig.). 

Street front, 516 (fig.). 
Musmiyeh: Pretorium, 68 (fig.), 382. 
Mykenai, or Mycenae : Gate of the Lions, xi. 

Ruins, x. 

Treasury of Atreus, xi. 
Mylasa : Tomb, 35, 47. 


Nantes : Tomb in Cath., 394. 
Narbonne: Cath., 209, 263, 265 n., 329 
(fig-), 330; Cloister of, 332 (fig.). 
Neuss : Ch. of S. Quirinus, 229. 
Nimes: Amphitheatre, 70, no. 

Maison Carree, 75 (fig.), 105. 

Nymphseum, 67 ff., 113. 

Roman Arch, 87. 
Nocera: Ch., 126 (fig.). 
Nogent-sur-Seine : Ch., 404 (fig.). 
Norman Architecture, i.e., English Ro- 
manesque, 235. 
Norwich: Cath., 301. 
Notre Dame de 1'Epine: Ch., 335, 336, 

Noyon : Cath., 206 (fig.), 207 (fig.), 310. 

Town Hall (Hotel de Ville), 348, 392. 
Nuremberg : Ch. of Our Lady (Frauen- 
kirche), 288. 

Ch. of S. Lorenz, 288. 

Ch. of S. Sebaldus, 288 (fig.), 290, 293. 
Nymphseum: Near Rome, 65. 

At Ntmes, 67 (fig.), 113. 
Nymphenburg Palace, 506. 


Olympia : Ruined buildings, 7. 
Temple of Zeus, 4, 10,41. 
Temple of Zeus compared with Parthe- 
non, 10 (fig.). 
Treasury of the Megarians, 41. 

Other Treasuries, 49. 
Oppenheim: Ch. of S. Katharine, 286 


Oppenordt, Gilles Marie, 492. 
Orange : Roman theatre, 70. 

Triumphal Arch, 87. 
Orders, the, in Columnar architecture, 

102 ff. 

ee Doric, Ionic, Corinthian. 
Orme, Philibert de 1', 407, 409, 477. 
Oxford : Cath., 364. 

Christ Ch. College, Vestibule of Hall, 

362 (fig.) ; Hall, 438. 
College buildings, their style, 365, 438. 



Oxford : Divinity School, 360. 
Radcliffe Library, 534. 
S. John's College, 438, 439. 


Padua: Venetian Gothic, 325. 
Psestum : Basilica (so-called), 12. 
Buildings at, 6, 385, 531. 
Temple of Poseidon (so-called), 9. 
Painters : Italian, precursors of the Re- 

naissance, 366, 367. 
Of the fifteenth century, 367. 
Palermo: Ch. La Martorana, 174. 
Palladian Style: in England, 449-518, 

5 2 9> 537; m Vicenza, 460 ff. 
Palladio, Andrea, 460 ff., 518. 
Palmyra: Great Colonnade, 80, 81 (fig.). 
Temple of the Sun, 80, 96. 
Triumphal Archway (so-called), 87. 
Parenzo : Basilica, 146. 
Paris : Bank of France, the Gilded Gallery, 

Cath. (Notre Dame), 207, 215 (fig.), 

217 (fig.), 227, 268 (fig.), 496. 
Ch. of S. Etienne du Mont, 404 (fig.). 
Ch. of S. Eustache, 401. 
Ch. of S. Genevieve (Pantheon), 481, 

487, 488 ff. 
Ch. of S. Germain 1'Auxerrois, 328 

Ch. of S. Gervais, 415. 

Ch. of S. Louis des Invalides, 487. 

Ch. of S. Madeleine, 490, 491. 

Ch. of S. Paul and S. Louis, 496. 

Ch. of S. Philippe du Roule, 496. 

Ch. of S. Roch, 415 (fig.), 432, 481, 

491, 492, 522. 

Ch. of S. Sulpice, 491, 492, 495, 496. 
Ch. of the Invalides (Domical), 487, 

488 (fig.), 527. 
Ch. of the Sorbonne, 414. 
Ch. of the Val de Grace, 415. 
Ecole de Droit, 496. 
Ecole de Medecine, 496. 
Ecole Militaire, 485. 
Halle au Ble, 496. 

Paris : Hotel de Carnavalet, 409. 
Hotel de Cluny, 134, 344 (fig.). 
Hotel de Lavalette, 412. 
Hotel des Invalides, 484; see also 

Church of the Invalides. 
Hotel des Rohan-Soubise, 493 (fig.). 

Pavilion of, 493 (fig.). 
Hotel de la Tremouille, 342, 344. 
Louvre, 474-479, 485 ; colonnade of, 

390, 477 ff.,482, 511 ; court of, 409, 

410, 415, 486; gallery of Apollo, 


Ministere de la Marine, 484 n., 485 
(fig.), 486. 

Mint, 496. 

Odeon, 496. 

Palace of the Legion of Honour, 496. 

Palace of the Luxemburg, 414 (fig.)- 

Palace of the Tuileries, 409. 

Palace on the Island (destroyed), 222. 

Palais Royale, 414. 

Place Dauphine, 410, 419. 

Place des Victoires', 485. 

Place des Vosges (Place Royal), 410, 

Place Vendome, 485. 

Sainte Chapelle, 198, 211 (fig.), 215 
(fig.), 257, 266, 283, 291. 

Thermae of Emperor Julian, 65, 134. 

Tower of S. Jacques la Boucherie, 


Park Hall, 446. 

Pavia: Ch. of S. Michele, 167 (fig.), 170, 
171, 252. 

Certosa near, see Certosa. 
Pereal, Jean, 394. 
Pergamon : Altar of Zeus, 25, 37. 
Perigueux: Ch. of S. Etienne, 159. 

Ch. of S. Front, 157 (fig.), 159. 
Perpendicular Gothic, 298 ff., 446. 

Its long duration, 357, 358, 362. 
Perrault, Claude, 477. 
Perugia : Etruscan remains, xiii, 97. 
Peterborough: Cath., 175 (fig.), 176 (fig.). 
Pilasters used decoratively by the Romans, 



Plateresco Style, 424. 

Pointed Arch : Earliest constructive use, 

May be considered as two half-arches, 

Should have no keystone, 197 n. (fig.). 

Used decoratively, 181. 
Poitiers: Baptistery, 153 (fig.). 

Hall of Counts of Poitou, 276. 
Pola: Amphitheatre, 70, no. 

Triumphal Arch, 89. 
Pollak, or Polack, Leopold, 545. 
Polychromy, 18, 45, 90, 107, 108, 318, 

By means of coloured materials used in 

the exterior, 153, 401. 
Pompadour Style, see Rococo. 
Pompeii: Basilica, 71. 

Dwellings, no. 

Roman theatre, 70. 

Temples, 77, 83. 
Porticoes, of Roman epoch, So. 
Porto Mandri, see Thorikos. 
Potsdam: Private buildings, 516. 

Royal palaces, 515. 
Pozzuoli : Temple of Serapis, 79, 83. 
Prague : Karlshofer Kirche, 304 n. 

Palace Czernin, 505. 
Priene : Temple of Athena, 24. 
Primaticcio, 406. 


Querqueville : Chapel, 134. 
Quimper: Cath., 332. 


Raphael, 384, 386, 387. 

Ratisbon (Regensburg) : Rathhaus, 432 


Ravenna: Byzantine Churches, 136. 
Chapel of Galla Placidia, 145. 
Ch. of S. Apollinare in Classe, 145. 
Ch. of S. Apollinare Nuovo, 145. 
Ch. of S. Giovanni in Fonte, 145. 
Ch. of SS. Nazario e Celso, 145. 
Ch. of S. Vitale, 145, 148. 

Reims: Cath., 209, 268 (fig.). 

House of the Musicians, 222 (fig.). 
Roman Gateway, 87. 
Renaissance, the : the classical, its causes, 

3 6 5> 366. 

Renaissance Style in Architecture: in 
Italy, 367, 368 ; proceeded by paint- 
ing and sculpture of new character, 
366 ; the earliest architects of, 371, 


In France, 391; completely established, 
395 ; varied details of, abandoned 
by later classic, 484. 

Restorations, suggested for Roman build- 
ings, in. 

Ribera, Pedro de, 500. 
Rimini : Arch of Augustus, 89. 

Malatesta Temple, or Ch. of S. Fran- 
cesco, 371, 372. 
Ripon : Minster Ch., 237. 
Rococo Style, 492, 495, 496. 
Roman Architectural Design : the official 
style and exceptions to it, 96 ft'., 
100 ff., 113, 115. 

Construction, 53 ff., 59 ff., 66, 71. 
Decorative system, 56 ff., 60 ff., 107, 

Romanesque Building, instances of under 

the Empire, 96 ff., 99, 113. 
Compared with Byzantine, 112. 
Growth of during the decay of the 

Empire, 1 14 ff. 

Lingers late in Germany, 227. 
Meaning of the term, 112. 
That of Syria had no permanent re- 
sults, 119. 

Unskilful in western Europe, 128. 
Romano, Giulio, 451. . 
Rome: Arch of Constantine, 87, 94 (fig.), 


Arch of Drusus, 88. 

Arch of Gallienus, 88. 

Arch of Janus Quadrifrons, 88. 

Arch of Marcus Aurelius (destroyed), 

Arch of Septimius Severus, 87. 



Rome : Arch of Titt# 88, 102, 103. 
Arch of Trajan (destroyed), 106. 
Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine, 

60, 71. 

Basilica of S. Clemente, 122, 124 (fig.). 
Basilica of S. John Lateran, 121, 124, 

128, 538. 
Basilica of S. Lorenzo, 121 (fig.), 128 


Basilica of S. M. Maggiore, 121, 538. 
Basilica of S. M. in Trastevere, 121. 
Basilica of S. Paul, 121. 
Basilica of S. Peter on the Vatican, 


Basilica of S. Peter in Vincolis, 121. 

Basilica Ulpia, 72 (fig.), 73, 81. 

Castel di Sant' Angelo, 70. 

Ch. of S. Costanza, 126 (fig.). 

Ch. of S. M. degli Angeli, 63 (fig.). 

Ch. of S. Peter (the new Ch.), 384, 

387, 473, 476; notice of, 466 ff. 

(figs.), 522, 527. 
Ch. of S. Stefano Rotondo, 126. 
Ch. of S. Urbano, 65. 
Circuses (ancient), no. 
Cloaca Maxima, xiii. 
Colonnade of Piazza San Pietro, 543, 

544 (fig-)- 

Colosseum, 70, no, 386. 
Column of Marcus Aurelius, 89, 90. 
Column of Phokas, 92. 
Column of Trajan, 81, 89, 90. 
Fora of the Emperors, 72, 81, 83, 

89 n. 

Forum of Augustus, 83. 
Forum of Marcus Aurelius, 89. 
Forum of Nerva, 386. 
Forum of Trajan, 72 (fig.), 81, 102. 
Forum of Vespasian, 83. 
Grotto of Egeria, 65. 
House of Raphael (destroyed), 453. 
Palace of Domitian, 65. 
Palatine Hill, buildings on, 70, 1 10. 
Palazzo dei Conservatori, 471 (fig.). 
Palazzo Farnese, 470. 
Palazzo Stoppani-Vidoni, 387 (fig.). 

Rome, Pantheon, 53 ff., 57 (fig.), 71, 

304 n., 368. 
Sette Sale, Le, 65. 
Temple of Antoninus and Faustina, 


Temple of Castor and Pollux, 79. 
Temple of Concord, 79. 
Temple of Fortuna Virilis, 76. 
Temple of Jupiter on the Capitol, 80. 
Temple of Mars Ultor, 79. 
Temple of Minerva Medica (so-called), 

58, 368. 

Temple of Saturn, 104. 
Temple of Trajan (destroyed), 79. 
Temple of Venus and Rome, 65, 70, 

83, 120 n. 

Temple of Vespasian, 76. 
Temples not named, 79. 
Theatre of Marcellus, 70, 92 (fig.)> 94, 

95, 104. 
Thermae of Caracalla, 58, 60, 61, 62 


Thermse of Diocletian, 60, 63 (fig.), 

Thermae of Titus, 65. 

Tomb of Hadrian, 70. 

Tomb of Caecilia Metella, 70. 

Vatican Palace, Loggie, 384. 
Rondelet, Jean Baptiste, 490. 
Roofs, homogeneous, 142. 

Timber, 275, 306. 
Rossi, Rosso, 406. 

Rothenburg : Ancient buildings, 427. 
Roueiha: Ch., 116. 
Rouen: Cath., 209, 273, 330. 

Ch. of S. Maclou, 330 (fig.), 331, 338, 


Ch. of S. Ouen, 260-263 (fig.). 

Dwellings, 346 (fig.), 402 (fig.). 

Palais de Justice, 342, 393. 

Tombs in Cath., 395. 

Tower of S. Andre, 338. 

Tower of S. Laurent, 338. 
Round Churches, 124 ff.; see also Bap- 
Rushton Hall, 443, 445. 



Saint Avit-Senieur : Ch., 160. 

Saint Chamas: Arches and bridge, 86 

(fig-), 97- 

Saint David's : Cath., 237. 
Saint Denis : Tomb in the Abbey Ch., 

Saintes: Ch. of S. Eutrope, 151. 

Roman Arch, 89, 97 (fig.). 
Saintes Maries, Les : Ch., 263 n. 
Saint Genou: Ch., 152. 
Saint Georges de Boscherville : Abbey Ch., 


Saint Gilles: House, 221. 
Saint Honorat des Lerins, Island of: 

Chapel, 134. 

Saint Jean de Cole: Ch., 1 60. 
Saint Pol-de-Leon : Cath., 334. 

Kritzker Tower, 334. 
Saint Remy : Roman Arch, 89. 

Roman Monument, 92 (fig.). 
Saint Riquier: Ch., 335. 
Salamanca: Ayuntamiento, 501, 502. 

Ch. of S. Domingo, 420, 424; Cloister, 

Irish College, 420. 

University, 421, 422. 
Salisbury: Cath., 238, 239, 245. 
Salona : Palace of Diocletian (the modern 

Spalato), 100, 119. 
Salonika: Ch. of S. Demetrios, 136. 

Ch. of S. Elias, 136. 

Ch. of S. George, 136, 138, 146. 

Ch. of H. Sophia, 136, 182. 
Sammichele, 453, 464. 
Samothrace : Arrangement of the build- 
ings in sacred enclosure, 49. 

Arsinoeion, 12, 34, 35 (fig.)- 
San Galgano : Abbey Ch., 250. 
San Gallo, Antonio da, 386, 470. 
Sansovino, Jacopo, 454, 460, 464. 
Santa Maria d'Arbona, 250. 
Santiago de Compostella : Cath. and build- 
ings adjoining, 425, 426 ; front of 
Cath., 501. 
Scamozzi, Vincenzo, 464. 

Scarpagnino, Antonio, 464. 
Schleissheim : Palace, 506. 
Sculptors, Italian : precursors of the Re- 
naissance, 366, 367. 

Of the fifteenth century, 367, 371. 
Sculpture applied to Buildings : Byzantine, 

Early Florentine Renaissance neglected 
it, 373- 

Early Romanesque, 153. 

English, eighteenth century, 530. 

French, fifteenth century, 331, 332 ; 
richest toward the close, 334 ; sev- 
enteenth century, 412; eighteenth 
century, 482, 486. 

German, eighteenth, 508 ff. 

Gothic, 210, 219, 282. 

Greek, 17, 21, 25, 28, 30, 36 ff., 

Italian, fourteenth century, 317, 320, 
326 ; sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries, 451, 456 ff. 

Later Romanesque, 178 ff. 

Lombard architects introduced a new 
form, 374. 

Louvain Town Hall, fifteenth century, 


Roman, 58, 87, 90, 102 ff, 121. 

Spanish, sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries, 424. 

See also Arabesque. 
Segesta : Ruins, 7. 
Selinus : Ruins, 7. 

Temple, 12, 37. 
Senlis: Cath., 209, 219. 
Sens: Cath., 209. 

Synodal Hall, 222. 
Serlio, Sebastiano, 406. 
Servandony, Jean Nicolas, 493, 545. 
Seville : Ayuntamiento (Town Hall) , 424. 

Palace of S. Elmo, 501, 502. 
Shakka : Basilica, 98. 

Pretorium, 98. 
Soissons: Cath., 202 (fig.), 209. 

Ch. of S. Jacques des Vignes, 336. 
Soufflot, Jacques Germain, 490. 



Spalato, see Salona. 

Spires, or Speyer : Cath., 1 56, 1 70 (fig.) ,172. 
Spires, pierced, 233. 
Staindrop: Ch., 301 (fig.). 
Stendal : Fortifications, 356. 
Stettin: City Gate, 512. 
Stone, dressed, used by the ancients with- 
out mortar, 9, IO, 70. 
Stra, Villa, 539. 
Strasburg: Cath., 235, 295 ff., 348, 354. 

Tower of Cath., 354, 355 ; compared 

with Antwerp, 348. 
Stucco : in Greek buildings, 44. 

In Roman decorative sculpture, 106. 
Studenika: Ch., 136. 
Stuttgart: Palace "Solitude," 516 (fig.). 
Suevres: Ch. of S. Lubin, 153. 
Sunion, Temple of, 7. 
Susa : Roman Arch, 89. 
Syracuse: Temples, 7, 531. 
Syria : Stone buildings in, 66, 68. 


Tangermiinde : Ch. of S. Stephen, 356. 

Tarragona : Cath., 278. 

Taunton : Ch. of Mary Magdalen, Tower, 

358 (fig-)- 

Tebessia : Roman Arch, 89. 
Temples : Doric, 22 ff. 
Doric Hexastyle, 4. 
Doric Octostyle, 10. 
Greek, 3 ff. ; arrangement of, 7 ; light- 
ing of, 4; in Southern Italy, 73; 
see Athens and other names of 

Ionic Dekastyle, 24. 
Roman, 65, 73 ; their construction, 71 ; 
circular, 79 ; restoration of one, 83 
(fig.) ; see also under Rome, Nimes, 
and Baalbeck. 

Teos : Temple of Dionysos, 24. 
Tessenderloo : Jube in Ch., 417. 
Thann : Tower of Ch., 354. 
Theatres : Greek, 46 ff. 

Of the Roman epoch, 70. 
See also Athens, Odeion. 

Thermae, of Caracalla, 58, 60, 61, 62 (fig.). 

Of Diocletian, 60, 63 (fig.). 

Of Julian, 65. 

Of Titus, 65. 

Those of Rome, 71. 
Thorikos: Portico or colonnade, 12. 
Tillieres: Ch., 404 (fig.), 406 (fig.). 
Timber Roofs : English and French com- 
pared, 275, 306. 

Construction, 278. 
Tiryns : Ruins, x. 
Tivoli : Hadrian's Villa, 1 10. 

Temple, 77, 79. 

Toledo: Cath., 279 (fig.), 280 (fig.), 281, 
282, 350. 

Ch. of S. Juan de los Reyes, 351. 
Tomb, Gothic, in Salisbury Cath., 245 (fig.). 
Tombs : English, of foreign work, show 
classical feeling, 439. 

French, first show classical design, 


Greek, 47. 

Italian Gothic, 325, 326. 

Prehistoric, xi, xii. 

Roman, 70, 92. 
Tonnerre : Hospital, 275. 
Torcello : Cath., 146. 

Ch., 128. 

Ch. of S. Fosca, 146. 
Toulouse : Ch. of S. Saturnin or S. Sernin, 

'5 1 - 

Tournai: Cath., 177 (fig.), 283. 
Tours: Cath., 209, 342 (fig.). 

Cath., belfries of, 409. 

Tomb in S. Gatien, 394. 
Tracery : English, characteristics of, 297, 
298; flowing, 298. 

Flamboyant, 330 ff. 

German fondness for, 271, 294. 

Gothic in general, 215, 266-273 

Italian, 311; of Ducal Palace, Venice, 

323 (fig-)- 

Perpendicular, 298, 300. 
Trebizond : Ch. of H. Sophia, 136. 
Later Byzantine Chs., 183. 



Treves : Cath., 226. 

Ch. of Our Lady (Liebfrauenkirche), 

Roman Gateway, 97. 
Trier, see Treves. 
Triumphal Arches, 85. 
Troyes : Cath., 209. 

Ch. of S. Gilles, 278 (fig.). 

Ch. of S. Madeleine, 342 (fig.). 

Ch. of S. Urbain, 263, 268 (fig.). 
Tudor Style, 357, 365. 


Ulm : Cath., 229 n., 294. 
Tower of Cath., 354. 


Valencia: Lonja (Exchange), 353. 
Valladolid: Ch. of S. Gregorio, 351 (fig.). 

Ch. of S. Pablo, 351, 422. 

College of Santa Cruz, 353. 

College of S. Gregorio, 353. 
Vanbrugh, Sir John, 530, 533. 
Vanvitelli (Kaspar Van Wittel), 544. 
Varengeville : Manoir d'Ango, 400, 401 

Vault, groined, 59, 68. 

Barrel or cradle, 59, 63, 68. 

Made by penetration of larger by 
smaller cylinder, 162, 415. 

Various forms of Romanesque, 161 ff. 
Vaulting : Byzantine, its freedom, 140. 

Fan-vaulting, 360 ff. 

Gothic, begins, 187; supposes a system 
of counterpoise, 213, 276, 342; de- 
veloped, 190 ff.; English, 240 ff., 
303, 305, 36o. 

Italian, use of iron ties in, 315, 317; of, 
fifteenth century, 328. 

Of the Renaissance, 369. 

Romanesque attempts, 132; groined, 
1 60 ff., 1 86; later, i56ff. 

Roman practice, 53, 59, 61 ff., 65; con- 
tinued in Italy, 371 n. 

Sexpartite, 194. 
Vendome: Ch., 181 (fig.). 
2 P 

Venice : Bridge of Sighs, 472. 
Bridge of the Rialto, 472. 
Ch. of S. Barnaba, 538. 
Ch. of S. Fantino, 380, 381 (fig.), 460. 
Ch. of S. Fosca, 539. 
Ch. of S. Francesco della Vigna, 460, 


Ch. of S. Giorgio dei Greci, 460. 
Ch. of S. Giorgio Maggiore, 460, 462, 


Ch. of S. Giuliano, 458. 
Ch. of S. Giustina, 538. 
Ch. of S. Maria Mater Domini, 460. 
Ch. of S. Mark, 131, 136, 159, 182, 


Ch. of S. Pietro in Castello, 460. 
Ch. of S. Zaccaria, 377 (fig.). 
Ch. of the Redeemer (del Redentore), 

460, 462. 

Civic Buildings, 323. 
Domestic Buildings, 323. 
Ducal Palace, 323 (fig.), 324; giants' 

staircase of, 458. 

Libreria Vecchia, 454, 456 (fig.), 469. 
Loggetta of the Campanile, 460. 
Mint, the, see Zecca. 
Old Library, see Libreria Vecchia. 
Palazzo Cornaro, 460. 
Palazzo Corner della Regina, 539. 
Palazzo Corner-Mocenigo, 460. 
Palazzo Ducale, see Ducal Palace. 
Palazzo Flangini, 539. 
Palazzo Grassi, 539 (fig.). 
Palazzo Grimani, 460. 
Palazzo Malipiero-Trevisan, 460. 
Palazzo Pesaro, 539. 
Palazzo Widman, 455 n. (fig.)- 
Scuola di S. Giovanni Evangelista, 541. 
Scuola di S. Marco, 375. 
Scuola di S. Rocco, 460 (fig.). 
Zecca, 454. 

Vernouillet: Ch., 181 (fig.). 
Verona: Amphitheatre, 70, 85 n., no. 
Ch. of S. Anastasia, 254 (fig.), 256 

(fig-), 319. 
Ch. of S. Fermo, 252. 



Verona : Ch. of S. M. Antlca, 326. 
Ch. of S. Pietro Martire, 325. 
Palazzo Bevilacqua, 453. 
Palazzo Gran' Guardia Antica, 454, 


Palazzo Pompei, 452, 454. 

Roman Arch, 87, 97. 

Tombs, 325, 326 (fig.). 
Versailles : Chateau (Palace), 390 ; notice 
of, 479 if.; Chapel of, 481, 482 
(fig.), 484, 487, 488, 511, 544- 
Vezelay: Abbey Ch., 161 (fig.), 172 (fig.). 
Vicenza: Basilica (so-called), 460. 

Palazzo Chieregati, 460. 

Palazzo Thiene, 460, 461 (fig.). 

Venetian Gothic in, 325. 

Villa Rotonda, 464 (fig.). 
Vienna: Cath. (S. Stephen), 229 n., 291 
(fig.), 292 ff.; Tower of, 354, 355. 

Ch. of S. Charles Borromeo, 510. 

Palace Trautson, 510. 
Vignola (Giacomo Barozzi), 466, 470, 471, 


Vignory: Ch., 150 (fig.)- 
Villers-Cotterets : Chateau, 409. 
Vilvorde: Ch., 283 (figs.). 
Viterbo : Ch. of S. Martino, 250. 
Vitruvius, 384, 385. 
Volterra : Etruscan remains, xiii. 


Walcourt: Jube in Ch., 417. 

Warwick: Ch., Beauchamp Chapel, 360 


Webb, John, 517, 518. 
Werben: Fortifications, 357. 
Winchester : Cath., 300, 303. 
Windsor Castle, S. George's Chapel, 362 

(fig.), 363 ^ 

Wollaton Hall, 441 (fig.), 448. 
Worms: Cath., 166, 170, 172, 227. 
Wren, Sir Christopher, 437, 518 ff., 528. 

Churches by, 519 ff., 533. 
Wurzburg : Spire of Ch. of S. Mary, 354. 
Wyatville, Sir Jeffry, 529. 


Xanthos : Tombs, 37, 47, 48. 


York: Cath. ("Minster"), 298, 304 n. 
Ypres : Ch. of S. Martin, 226. 
Cloth Hall, 226. 

Zaragoza: Cath. (El Pilar), 500. 

Cath. (El Seo), 500 (fig.), 501. 

Ch. of S. Cajetan, 500, 502. 
Zurich: Town Hall, 506, 507 (fig.)- 




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By T. M. CLARK, 

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