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With the unpublished Second Part 


Edited by 


the Clarendon Tress 




Printed at the Clarendon Press 
By Horace Hart, M.A. 
Printer to the University 


THE literary works which illus- 
trated the contemporary fame of 
John Evelyn were, with the exception, 
possibly, of Sylva, or Discourse of Forest 
Trees, almost forgotten when the pub- 
lication of his Diary in 1818, reviving 
an interest in the author, recalled their 
names at least from final oblivion. 
B Jore than sixty years had then elapsed 

e the publication of the second 
coLuvTM ast edition (175*^) of Sculp turn - y 


ie book was valued as curious 


a tew antiquaries only, for con- 


earning some scanty references to 
engravers who flourished in the time 
of the author, and the earliest men- 
tion in print of the art of engraving 
in mezzotint, together with an account 
of its origin then generally believed 
to be authentic. 


vi Introduction 

A brief record of the presentation 
of the treatise by its author to the 
newly founded Royal Society, on the 
i oth of June, 1 662, is almost the only 
mention of it in the Diary, and he 
has left no definite information about 
the train of circumstances which led 
him to its composition or the date at 
which it was actually written. But 
the writer of a biographical notice of 
Evelyn prefixed to the second edition 
of the book tells us that it was in- 
tended to form part of a projected 
c General History of all Trades ? , 
which would have included a c full 
view of the several arts of Painting 
in oyl, in miniature, anealing on glass, 
enamelling and making marble paper', 
with the addition of the plan for a 
royal garden and a moral treatise on 
the Dignity of Man. This informa- 
tion the writer professes to have 


Introduction vii 

gathered from an examination of 
Evelyn's unpublished manuscripts, and 
his conclusion is supported by the 
prominent position given in the fore- 
front of Sculptura to the otherwise 
incomprehensibly irrelevant eulogy of 
Signor Giacomo Maria Favi ', who 
is therein accredited with having 
projected a similar encyclopaedia. 

However this may be, Evelyn's 
other contributions to the literature 
of the fine arts, important enough in 
their way his translation of Fre'art's 
Parallel of Architecture (1664) and 
Perfection of Painting (1668) do not 

1 No member of the Fava or Marescotti families, 
whose name and career correspond with Evelyn's 
account, is mentioned in biographical dictionaries or 
even by Fantuzzi, Notice degli scnttori Bolognesi, 
1781-94. Evelyn's notice is taken from the Lettres 
et Discours sur di-verses matieres curieuses (Paris, 1660^ 
Lettre Ixxxiii, p. 644) of Samuel de Sorbire 
(161 ?-7o) 3 a writer now principally remembered as 
the correspondent of Hobbes and translator of some 
of his works. 


viii Introduction 

seem to have been intended to fit 
into any scheme of this kind, and we 
are probably not greatly mistaken in 
assuming that the immediate cause of 
the publication of the book in its 
present form was the author's desire 
to make public the discovery of 
engraving in mezzotint, which had 
been communicated to him by Prince 
Rupert in the spring of irftfo-i. On 
the 2ist of February in that year he 
notes in his Diary ^ < Prince Rupert 
first shewed me how to grave in 
Mezzo Tinto*; and on the ijth 
of March, 'This afternoone Prince 
Rupert shew'd me with his owne 
hands the new way of graving called 
Mezzo Tinto, which afterwards by 
his permission I published in my 
Plistory of Chalcography ; this set so 
many artistes on worke, that they 
soone arriv'd to that perfection it is 


Introduction ix 

since come, emulating the tenderest 
miniatures.' It is difficult to imagine 
how the account of the new art 
c aenigmaticaP as the author well calls 
it given in the sixth chapter of 
Sculptura can ever have set any artist 
to work; indeed, the only source of 
practical instruction in the book is 
the example of the Prince's own 
handiwork with which he permitted 
Evelyn to illustrate it. The author 
certainly wrote ' a less cryptic ac- 

1 This is made clear by a note, for the reference to 
which I am indebted to Professor A. H. Churchj 
F.R.S., in the English translation of Bayle's General 
Dictionary, by Bernard, Birch, and Lockman, 1734 
41, Vol. V. p. 131. This note runs c \Ve have 
now in our hands, communicated by the very 
learned Richard Middleton Massey, M.D. and F.R.S., 
an original manuscript written by Mr. Evelyn, and 
designed for the Royal Society, and intitled Prince 
Rupert's new way of Engraving^ communicated by 
his Highness to Mr. Evelyn. In the margin is this 
note: This I prepared to be registred in the Royal 
Society, but I have not yet ghen it in, so as it still con- 


x Introduction 

count of the method of work, but 
if he ever communicated it to the 
Royal Society, as he announces his 
intention of doing, it has been lost 
or destroyed, for Professor A. H. 
Church, F.R.S., who has most kindly 
had diligent search made for the 
paper amongst the archives of that 
body, assures me that it is not now 
to be found there x . No account of 
the art written by Evelyn has ever 
been published, and it is therefore 

tinues a. secret. In this manuscript he first describes 
the two instruments employed in this new manner of 
engraving, viz. the ffatcher, and the Style ; and then 
proceeds to explain the method of using it.' 

The note in Bayle then gives, in Evelyn's own 
words, the well-known legend of the first idea of 
mezzotint having arisen from a rust-eaten musket- 
barrel, and concludes with an account of the primitive 
imitation of mezzotint produced upon a plate 
grounded with a roulette instead of with a rocker. 

1 It was in the course of this search that the MS. 
of the second part of Sculptura, hitherto unpublished, 
was discovered. It is printed for the first time at 
the end of the present volume. 


Introduction xi 

hardly too much to say that the claim 
which he, in his Diary ^ puts forward 
on his own account to having pro- 
moted the growth of the art is as 
devoid of foundation as that which, 
in Sculp turn, he advances, in favour 
of his patron, to having invented it. 
For, although far from the first to 
detect its falsehood, Dr. Diamond 1 
and Comte Ldon de Laborde* long 
since finally disposed of the legend 
that Prince Rupert was the discoverer 
of engraving in mezzotint, and estab- 
lished the right of Ludwig von Siegen 
to that honour. Were it not that 
the Prince's pupil, Wallerant Vaillant, 
also names him as the originator of 
the process, in the title of a portrait 
of him which he executed, it would 
be impossible not to conclude that 

1 ^frchaeologia, xxvii 3 p. 405. 

2 ffistoire de la gravure en manicre noire, Paris, 1839. 

b 2 the 

xii Introduction 

the fable was the creation of Evelyn, 
whose servile references to members 
of the Royal Family in his published 
works are so curiously at variance 
with the candid descriptions of their 
characters in his Diary. 

Whether the author of Sculp turn 
invented or merely supported an un- 
justifiable statement is now imma- 
terial, since, conflicting literary testi- 
monies having long been cast on one 
side, the c close and attentive study of 
the prints themselves', recommended 
by Chaloner Smith, in his admirable 
summary of the early history of the 
art ', has amply vindicated the fame 
of von Siegen's Royal disciple as one 
who, more than any other of its 
earlier practitioners, perceived and 
enlarged the capacities of the new 

1 British Me-sgotinto Portraits, Part IV, Division 2 3 
pp. xxvi-xxx. 


Introduction xiii 

process. It thus happens that the 
interest of the volume to the his- 
torian of engraving at the present 
day is once more reduced to the 
same single page that containing 
the specimen of Prince Rupert's 
work in mezzotint which excited 
and baffled the aspiring curiosity of 
engravers at the time of its publica- 
tion. With this and a few scattered 
references to contemporary artists 
which have been methodically ex- 
ploited by Walpole and his annota- 
tors, the artistic historical value of the 
treatise may be said to be exhausted. 

Its strongest appeal to the interest 
of modern readers is, in fact, based 
upon other grounds. The dedication 
to Boyle and the solemn presentation 

the Royal Society 1 show that it 

The copy presented is still in the library of the 
Society, but it now lacks the print from the plate 
Prince Rupert. 


xiv Introduction 

was accepted as a serious contribution 
to scientific knowledge in an era of 
unprecedented scientific brilliancy. 
And although it has been preserved, 
principally by the author's personal 
renown, from the oblivion which 
rarely fails to overshadow super- 
annuated technical literature, its in- 
terest is very far from being merely 
personal. For, at the moment of the 
publication of Sculptura^ Evelyn, at 
the age of forty-two, had already 
taken a very prominent place in the 
ranks of the Virtuosi^ or < Ingenious ' 
as they are called upon the title- 
pages of the earlier volumes of the 
Philosophical Transactions of the J^oyal 
Society, during a period when the 
researches of men of this stamp were 
attracting the respectful attention 
of the public, and the sympathetic 
curiosity of Royalty, to a degree 


Introduction xv 

never before and seldom since paral- 
leled in this country. His travels 
in Holland and Flanders (1641), in 
France and Italy (1643-7), and pro- 
longed residences in Paris during 
the following five years, had been 
followed by excursions into many 
districts of England at that time 
rarely visited by Englishmen ; his 
curiosity was insatiable, his taste in- 
discriminatingly catholic. 

How indiscriminatingly catholic the 
pages of Sculptura amply display, 
where, < in one work/ as Sir Thomas 
Browne says of Pineda, Evelyn 
* quotes more authors than are neces- 
sary in a whole world >, involving 
the reader in a cloud of names, 
which were quite evidently nothing 
but names to him, bestowing praise at 
once upon Rembrandt and Claude 
Mellan, while reserving his most 


xvi Introduction 

rapturous approbation for the no- 
torious Sudanum of the latter. If 
we appeal to the Diary in seeking to 
discover what he really considered 
the highest manifestation of art, we 
are led to conclude that an effect of 
salient relief, and what the French 
call trompe-Pceily was in his opinion, 
as in that of most of his contem- 
poraries, the consummate triumph of 
graphic art. A confused recognition 
of this preference may perhaps be 
detected in the fanciful linking to- 
gether of sculpture and engraving in 
this treatise, although this was also, 
doubtless, an inevitable concession to 
the historical methods of that period, 
which presupposed a classical origin 
for any subject considered worthy of 
its attention. 

This delight in the ingenious and 
deceptive is, after all, no more than 


Introduction xvii 

the logical outcome of a system of 
ideas which aspired to include the 
exact sciences and the fine arts 
in one great harmony of knowledge. 
The contributions relating to strictly 
artistic subjects in the early volumes 
of the Philosophical Transactions are 
not numerous, it is true, but they 
exist, and it is perfectly evident that 
no idea of their irrelevancy was 
entertained. In a passage in one of 
these papers a review of Evelyn's 
Perfection of Painting^ 1 as it happens 
the aims of this school of thought are, 
if somewhat obscurely, expounded. 
After assuming that the book c will 
doubtless animate many among us 
to acquire a perfection in Pictures, 
Draughts, and Chalcography, equal 
to our growth in all sorts of Optical 

1 Pbilosofhical Transaction^ No. 39, Sept. n, 
1 66B. 




vT-, .2 

xviii Introduction 

Aydes, and to the fulness of our 
modern Discoveries', it proceeds to 
explain that * Painting and Sculpture 
are ... the fairest Records of Ap- 
pearances whether celestial or Sub- 
lunary, whether Angelical, Divine 
or Humane, and what Art can be 
more useful or more pleasing to a 
Philosophical Traveller, an Archi- 
tect and every ingenious Mecha- 
nician? All which must be lame 
without it.' 

To one who viewed the history of 
art in this light every effort was worthy 
of admiration as it approached or failed 
to approach the deceptive imitation of 
natural appearances. And, in order to 
prove to ourselves how completely this 
was the case, it is instructive to com- 
pare the impression, as set down in the 
Diary, upon a mind predisposed to 
contemplate the masterpieces of the 


Introduction xix 

Golden Age of Italian Art from this 
point of view, with those gathered in 
by a kindred mind from that, at once 
more narrow and more wide-sighted, 
of a century later, as recorded in the 
letters of the President de Brosses. 
The intolerance of de Brosses, his 
bitter contempt for what he chose to 
stigmatize as Gothic, is often absurd, 
but it proceeds from a glowing faith 
in the reality of a standard of taste 
of which Evelyn and his associates 
had not the faintest conception. And 
this awakes a vivid personal sym- 
pathy for his opinions, even when 
they appear to us mistaken; while 
Evelyn, ingeniously endeavouring to 
account for his universal gratifica- 
tion as the solution of a half-under- 
stood scientific problem, deadens our 
interest in everything he admires. It 
is impossible, however, to deny that 


xx Introduction 

as an attempt to bring art criticism 
within the sphere of Natural Philo- 
sophy at a moment in the lifetime of 
Newton, Locke, and Hobbes, Sculptura 
takes a certain place in the history 
of English thought which the actual 
contents of the volume itself might 
scarcely appear to warrant. 

Sculp tura, or the History and Art of 
Chalcography has passed through two 
editions only ; the present is, in the 
main, a reprint of the first, with some 
corrections and additions, < taken 
from the Margin of the Author's 
printed copy,' which were incorpo- 
rated in the second. 

The second edition contains also 
a translation of all the Greek and 
Latin passages, and Memoirs of the 
Author's life. The quotation on the 
title-page from Exodus xxxi, verses 

Introduction xxi 

3-5- (according to the Vulgate ver- 
sion), is given in full. There is no 
device on the title-page. The dedi- 
cation runs : 

To Sir John Evelyn, Bart, 

Fellow of the Royal Society, 

This New Edition 

of the 

History of Chalcography 
written by his Learned Grandfather 

John Evelyn, Esq ; 

is respectfully inscribed 

by his most obedient and 

very humble servant 

John Payne 
March 4, 1757. 

The imprint is 

London, Printed for J. Payne at 
Pope's Head, in Paternoster Row, 

The Bodleian Library possesses a 


xxii Introduction 

second copy of this edition identical 
excepting for the imprint, which runs : 
London. Printed for J. Murray 
(Successor to Mr. Sandby) No. 32, 
Fleet Street, M.D.CC.LXIX. 

The plates illustrating both edi- 
tions are three in number. 

i. The frontispiece engraved from 
a drawing by Evelyn himself by 
A. Hertoc, as he tells us (p. 81). 
Walpole, who gives the name as 
Hertocks, supplies a short list of the 
artist's works, and Redgrave, who 
says he came from the Netherlands, 
adds that he painted some miniatures. 
The place of this frontispiece is taken 
in the second edition by a portrait of 
Evelyn etched, reversed, by Thomas 
Worlidge, from the engraving exe- 
cuted by Nanteuil in idjo. (Diary , 
June 13, irfyo.) 

2. An 

Introduction xxiii 

2. An illustration (p. 121) of the 
contrivance for projecting parallel 
lines on a curved surface. This was 
re-engraved, reversed, for the second 

3. The specimen of mezzotint en- 
graving executed especially for Evelyn 
by Prince Rupert. The subject is 
the head of the Executioner of Saint 
John the Baptist. It is a copy, re- 
duced about one-tenth in size, of 
part of the large plate executed by 
the Prince at Frankfurt in 165-8. 
The large plate, impressions from 
which are exceedingly rare (a repro- 
duction of a fine copy in the Royal 
Library at Windsor is given in the 
Burlington Maga^ine^ vol. ii, p. 270), 
shows the figure of the Executioner 
at half-length holding the sword and 
the head of the Saint ; it is taken, 
reversed, from a picture, at that time 


xxiv Introduction 

believed to be by Spagnoletto, at 
present considered to be the work 
of one of his pupils, formerly in the 
Electoral Gallery at Mannheim, and 
now in the Old Pinakothek at Munich 
(No. 1289). ^ n tne second edition this 
plate is replaced by a copy of it by 

Richard Houston. 




O F 


Ei 'graving in Copper. 

of the molt re* 
heir "Works.; 
T annexed 

g 3 oiMezz 
ids PrincfRupen 
is Trearifi?. 






Having upon your reiterated in- 
ftances (which are ever com- 
mands with me) prepared this 
Treatife concerning the Hijlory ^Chal- 
cography &c. I thought my felf engag^d^ 
to Jignifie to the rest, that may pojfibly 
receive or Satisfaction, or Benefit from it, 
to whom they are obliged for the Publica- 
tion of it. The truth is, as it refpe&s 
the pains which I have taken, it bears not 


the least proportion with my ambition of 
ferving you ; but as you are pleafed to 
judge it ufeful for the encouragement of 
the Gentlemen of our Nation, who fome- 
times pleafe themf elves with thefe inno- 
cent diver/tons ( Collections worthy of 
them for divers refpefts) and, especially >, 
that fuch as are addicted to the more 
Noble Mathematical Sciences, may 
draw, and engrave their Schemes with 
delight and ajjurance, I have been in- 
dufd to think^ it more worthy your Pa- 
tronage, and of my fmall Adventure, 
who profejje to have nothing fo much in 
my dejires, and which I more avow the 
purfuite of, then to employ the whole 
remainder of the life, which God Jhall 
ajjigne me, and that I can redeem from 
its impertinencies, in contributing to that 
great and auguft defigne, which your 



illustrious, and happy Genius do*s prompt 
you to, of cultivating the Sciences, and 
advancing of useful knowledge, emanci- 
pated from the ftrong contentions, and 
little fruit of the former; Envy, and 
imposture of the latter ^4ges. 

Sir, This is not in the leaft to flatter 
you, nor can I have other aime in it, then 
that by your great Example, I might ex- 
cite fuch as (lil(e you) have Parts and 
Faculties, to things that are glorious, and 
worthy of them. Tourftudies are fo ma- 
ture and univ erf al, your travels fo highly 
improved, and your Experience fo well 
eftablijti'di that, after I have celebrated 
the Conversation which results from all 
thefe perfeftions, it is from Tou alone, 
that I might dcfcribe the Character of an 
accompli/h'd Genius, great, and worthy 
our Emulation. But though your modefly 
c 2 do's 


do*s not permit me to run through all thofe 
Tranfcendencies yet^ the World is fuffi- 
ciently inftrufted by what you cannot con- 
ceal) that 1 fay nothing of fervile^ and 
which will not abide the Teft^ fo as I 
have been often heard to exult in the 
felicity of this Conjuncture of ours^ which 
(Jfnce thofe prodigies of f^irtue y the il- 
tuftriousTicho, Bacon, Gilbert, Harvey, 
Digby, Galileo, Peiresky, De Cartes, 
Gaflendi, Bernier \_kis Difciple now in 
Perfia] and the late incomparable Jacomo 
Maria Favi &c.) has produced us nothing^ 
which will fupport the comparifon with 
you, when Ijhall pronounce you (and as 
indeed your merits do challenge it) the 
Phaenix of this latter Age. 

And now that I mention d Signor 
Favi, I will not conceal with what 
^ and joy I lately found his memory 



(which I havefo much^ and Jo often heard 
mentioned abroad^ by fuch as had the 
happinefs to know him intimately) confe- 
crated by the eloquent pen of Monlieur 
Sorbiere, in a difcourfe of his to Mon- 
fieur Vitre, concerning the utility of 
great Travel and Forreign Voyages $ be- 
caufe it approches fo neer to the Idea 
which I have proposed) and may ferve as 
an encouragement and example to the 
Gentlemen of our Nation^ who, for the 
mofl part wander^ and Jpend their time 
abroad^ in the purfuite of thofe vain and 
lower pleafureS) fruitlefs, and altogether 
intollerable. But Sir, I will crowd no 
more into this Epiftle (already too prolix e) 
which was only dejigtfd to accompany this 
piece ^ and fome other ufefull^ and more 
liberal diver/ions of this nature^ which 
I cannot yet produce : But every thing 



has its time^ and when I would redeem 
it to the bejt Advantage^ it it by enter* 
taining it with fome thing that may beft 
declare to all the World^ how greatly I 
account the honour of being eft 

Sir, Your molt humble, 

and Moft obedient 


An Account of Signer Giacomo Favi 
by Monlieur Sorbiere. 

Giacomo Maria Favi of the House 
of the Marefcotti of Boulonia, 
died above thirty five years of age, 
neer fifteen years fince, in the City 
of Paris. It is a Hiftory worthy of 
and that all the World Jhould 
notice of this incomparable Perfon^ 
as that great Wit and polite Philofopher 
Monfieur Sorbiere do*s describe him : 
For as much (fayes he) as it feems to 
be a very great reproch, that neither 
Prince , nor State have hitherto had 
the confideration, or the courage to 
undertake, what one particular perfon 
alone did refolve upon for the uni- 
verfal benefit, and good of the pub- 
lick: For it was upon this deligne, 
that he engaged himfelf exprefsly, 


Account of 

making the moft exacft obfervations, 
and collecting the Crayons, Prints, 
Dejignes, Models and faithful Copies 
of whatfoever could be encountered 
through the whole Circle of the Arts 
and Sciences ; the Laws, and the 
Cuftoms pra&ifed wherever he arived. 
He had already acquired by ftudy a 
thoufand worthy and curious particu- 
lars j He Dejign?d excellently well, 
underftood the Mathematic^, had 
penetrated into the moft curious parts 
of Medecine, and was yet fo far from 
the leaft pedantry; that he would 
(when fo difpoPd) play the Gallant 
as handfomely as any man, and which 
he was indeed able to do, enjoying 
a plentiful Revenue of neer three 
thoufand pounds fterling a year, 
which he ordered to be paid him by 
Bills of Exchange, wherefoever his 


Signor G. M. Favi 

Curiofity fhould invite him. But 
otherwife, truly his Equipage was 
very fimple, and his train reduced 
to one only fervant, which he was 
wont to take in every town where 
he made any ftay. He had already 
vifited Italy > Germany, Poland, Swethen, 
Denmarke, Holland and England, from 
whence he came into France, to go 
into Spain. Finally, he arrived at 
Parts in Anno itf^, with one Bourdoni 
a Sculptor, dwelling neer the Tbuyleries, 
where he no fooner appeared, but he 
was immediately found out, and 
known by all the Virtuoji, and as foon 
enformM himfelf of all that were 
extraordinary, and confpicuous for all 
forts of curiofities, whereof he care- 
fully took notice; but efpecially he 
made an intimate acquaintance with 
one Monjieur Petit, a very rare and 


Account of 

curious perfon, and indeed greatly 
resembling the Genius of this noble 
Gentleman, as being one, who for 
thefe fifty years paft, difcover'd a 
wonderful ardor for the Sciences, and 
a dilligence fo indefatigable in the 
refearch of all eftimable, and worthy 
Inventions, as that it is a thoufand 
pitties (and a thing not to be con- 
ceived indeed without infinite re- 
grette) that this Age of ours could 
never yet approch him. So laudable 
and worthy of praife, has his expenfes 
been upon divers Machines and Experi- 
mentS) beyond the forces of a Private 
Perfon; that had he but been fup- 
ported (as at firft he was by the 
French Kjn& and the great Cardinal 
de Richlieu, under whom he enjoyed 
divers honourable and handfome Em- 
ployments) he had perhaps, amongft 


Signer G. M. Favi 

all the Arts through which he run, 
found out fome Abridgements and Per- 
feftions, new, and altogether ftupen- 
dious ; and as indeed, he has already 
done to admiration, fo far at leaft, as 
his difcretion, and his Affairs would 
give him leave. 

But to returne to our new Demo- 
critus, Signor Favi ; He had made pro- 
vifion of fundry huge Volumes^ which 
were no other then the Dejignes of all 
forts of Inftruments and Machines that 
he had feen and perufed; befides a 
world more which he had fent away 
into Italy : For this curious perfon 
neglected nothing, but went on col- 
lecting with a moft infuperable dilli- 
gence, all that the Mechanic!^ had 
invented for Agriculture, Architecture, 
and the Fabric!^ of all forts of Works, 
belonging to Sports, and to Cloathes, 


Account of 

for Ufe and for Magnificence. There 
was nothing fo fmall, and to appear- 
ance, trifling, which he did not caft 
his eyes upon, and which he had not 
fome hand in, or improved, even to 
the leaft minutite; whither it were a 
divice of fome Hajfie, the Latch of 

Let not ^ & door, a fimple Loc^ the Cover or 
ftifeM* Patin of a Cup, a Drefs, &c. even to 

condcfcention r- I I r l_ n J 

very Tooth-pict^r : lo as he ihewed 

ineftiua no lefs then two hundred Toyes for 

gratia * 

Children to play withall; fourty 
feveral wayes of Plowing the ground, 
a world of Forges and Mills for various 
ufes. He vifited all the excellent 
Workemen and Artifans, and took 
Samples, and Patterns of all their rare 
inventions, and fomething of their 
making. Then for Deceits and Secrets, 
he poflefs'd an infinite number of all 
kinds the moft rare and excellent; 


Signor G. M. Favi 

fome whereof he purchased at great 
prifes, and others he procured by Ex- 
change. He learned the Tongues wher- 
ever he came with extraordinary fe- 
licity, and fometimes would frequent 
the 'Recreations^ and Exercifes of the 
places where he fojourned, which he 
usM to performe with a facillity, and 
addrefs fo gentile, and natural, as if 
he had yet been but a very Youth : 
For by this means he found, that he 
gained the eafier, and more free ac- 
cefle into the bed Companies, fo ex- 
treamely noble, diffintrefs'd and agre- 
able was his fafhion and manner of 
converfation : And though in fundry 
Encounters, and Courts of Princes he 
had been frequently regaPd with very 
confiderable prefents; yet would he 
never receive any from great Perfons ; 
as Chains of Gold, and Medailles y Dia- 

Account of 

monds and Jewels that were offered 
him, unlefs happly, it were fome Title 
of Honour and Prerogative ; as the per- 
miflion to bear an Eagle, or a Fleur de 
lu in his Coat of Armes^ or the like : 
And when he had thus exhaufted a 
Kingdom, or a Place of all that was 
Curious, and made Acquaintance with 
all the Perfons of merit in a State, he 
traveled prefently into another; fo 
as there was hardly a Court to be 
found, where he had not finifhed his 
harveft in three or four months, till 
he arrived at Parts, where indeed, he 
was infinitly furpriz'd, and buiied 
among fuch an innumerable many of 
able, and curious Perfons of all kinds. 
He had four Lodgings in several parts 
of Paris, that fo he might be neer a 
retreat in whatfoever quarter he Ihould 
happen to be in purfuite of Curiojities ; 


Signer G. M. Favi 

for he us'd to go much on foot, and 
alone, becaufe he would not be 
troubPd, nor obferv'd by impertinent 
Servants : But in fine, purpofing from 
hence to travell fliortly for China by 
means of the Portugal, he took fo much 
pains about defcribing, and obferving 
the magnificent preparations which 
were made for the Marriage of the 
Queen of Poland, that he fell lick of 
a Fever and dyed, to the univerfall 
regret and forrow of all that had ever 
fo much as heard of him. And no 
fooner did this fad accident come to 
the ears of the f\ing ; but he lent dili- 
gently to fearch out all his four Lodg- 
ings, to fee, if by any means, ought of 
his Collection could be retriv'd -, but they 
were all immediately difpers'd, and it 
was never found what became of them. 
The Count Marefcotti his Kinsman, 


Signor G. M. Favi 

then at Paris, recovered only that fingle 
Volume, wherein was contained the 
Names, Armes, and Devices of the hands 
of all the Princes of Europe, whom he 
had had the honour to approch : But 
his intention was, as I have been credibly 
informed by one that did often converge 
with him (though Monfieur Sorbiere is 
Jflent of if) after he had traveld over all 
the World (for his dejigne was no lejje 
ample) at^eturne into his Native Country, 
to compile, and publifh a Compleat Cycle 
and Hyftory of Trades, with whatsoever 
elfe hejhould judge of'Ufe and Benefit to 
mankind : But this had been a Charity, and 
a BleJJing too great for the World, becaufe 
it dos not depart from its Ibices, and im- 
pertinencies, and cherijh fuch Perfons, and 
the Virtues which Jhould render it worthy 
of them. A 

A TABLE of the Titles, of the 

CHAPTERS and their feve- 


(AUTHOR'S Dedication An Account of 
Signor Giacomo Favi.) 


Of Sculpture, how derived > and dijlinguijh'd, 
with the Styles, and Inftruments belonging 
to it. Pag. i 


SCulptura and Cdatura how they differ. p. i 

Tomice, Defettores what. a 

Plaiflice y a. The Mother of Sculpture. ai 

Paradigmatice, what. a, 7 

Gypfochiy Colaptice, Lithoxoi, Glypbicc, what. a. 

Anagogice, what. a, 7 

^naglyphice, a its antiquity. 2.1 

Diaglyphice, Encolaptice, what. a, 4. 

Toreutice. a 
Encauftic Art, a, how it occafioned the invention of Brafs- 

Prints. 36 

Proplaftic Art, Protypus, Modulus, Diatretice. and C*/V diatreti y 

what. a 

lArgentum afpemm & puftulatum. 5 

Table and Contents. 

Ebur ptngtte. ? 

Dimidia eminentis. the fame with Eajfo Relievo^ and Mez.z.0 
Relievo. 2 

Scalptus, Scaptus, Scalpturatus. 4. 

Scalpo, Sculpo deriv'd. 4. 

Cdum I6pvos what, and whence deriv'd. 4., j 

Tori, xorAos. j 

Ulijfes fhield, Ac*/rf Fofd, what. j 

Cavatores what, Graphatoret, whence our Englifh Gravers : Sculp- 
ture defin'd. 6 
Inftruments of Graving. Style what. Why fometimes made 
of bone. Scalprum. Ccelum y Cales, Ceeltes. Allufions in Job 10. 
to all the kinds of antient Writing and Graving. 7, 8 
Graphium, y\v(f>ls &c. tyKo\airrj)p, virayuycvs, y\apls, fffii\ij y 
Function, Polifher, Point. 8, 9, 30 
Graving Inftrumenrs fometimes fatal weapons. 8 
Caffianus martyr'd, and Erixion flain with a Graving Style. 8 
Arare camfwrn cereum, Cerei pugillares, undjlylum vertere y what. 9 
Taille douce, Bwrwi, Intaglio,, Bolino, and the difference 'twixt 
Graving and Etching. 9 
@ov\\a a conjecture of the modernc name of a feal, x a P& ffffo > 
the fame with Charath. 10 

Of the Original of Sculpture in general, p. 1 1 


A Dam the firft inventor of Sculpture. p. 1 1 

Books written by Adam. n, ia 

The fall of Adam did not impair his infufed habits. iz 

Sculpture long before the univerfal flood. iz 


Table and Contents. 

Of the Antediluvian Patriarchs. 13 

Sculpture in ftone and brick at Jaffa. ib 

The Celeftial Sciences firft engraven, where, and how long 
continuing. ib 

The books of Seth and Enoch. ib 

Of Cham. ib 

Zoroafter, when he flouriflied, his learning, curiofity and en- 
graving of the Liberal Arts. 13, 14, 
Vicus Mirandula's pretence of the books of Zoroafter, the Magi t 
Sec. 14. 
Sculpture after the Flood. ib 
Sculpture propagated by Noah. Sculpture before tAofes. ib 
Objections anfwered. IJT, ao 
Mercurius Trifmegiftus engraved in ftone many Mysterious 
things. 15- 
Obelisk* erected by Mifra 400 years before Mofes. ib 
How many tranfported to Rome. 17 
The Tables of ftone Engraven by the Finger of GOD. Sculpture 
honoured by God. i j- 
Sculpture abus'd to Idolatry no rational prejudice. ib 
Sculpture elder then Idolatry. 16 
Teraf hin t and 'Penates y what. ib 
Sculpture preferv'd the memory of the dead. ib 
BezAleel, and Aholiab Sculptors. ib 
The facerdotal pectoral. ib 
Graving us'd by the tsgyptians before they invented Letters, ib 
Hyeroglyphicsy what. 1 6, 17 
By whom interpreted. 17 
Amongft the Danes. 2.9 
And AcaditK. 34. 
Horapollinis not A. 17 
Letters by whom invented, and the contest abouc it. ib 
How they were derived to the feveral Nations. 1 8 
Typographical art miftaken by 'Peter Calaber. 17 
Sculpture and Letters Cowans. 18 
Colomns erected by Seth. ib 
Writing with ink in paper a novelty in refpe& of Parch- 
ment. 1 8, 19 
Sculpture on Marbles, Slates, writing on Bark, Leavs, Tabletts, 

Table and Contents. 

of wood, Paper, Linnen, Wax, Ivory and Silk. 18, 19 

Book., our Englifli name for Liber whence deriv'd. 19 

Laws, divine and humane how confign'd of old. id 

Hieronic&y and where preferved. 19 

Writings before Homers not known to the Greeks. 2.0 

Tatian, when he flourifhed. ib 
A paflage cited out of him proving the Antiquity of Recording 

by Sculpture. 2.0 

Hejfods poems engraven in Lead. ib 
Gratians, when they had fculpture firft, and where it was in 

its highest perfection. 2.1 

^chiles and Hercules fhields engraven. ib 

The chariot of the Sun, and Vehicula Cdota. ib 

Enochs prophecy. 2.2, 

Rings engraven, their ufe and dignity. ib 

Intaglias in iron, gold, ftones, &c. ib 

Talifmans and Conftellated fculptures. ib 


Of the Reputation, and Trogrefs of Sculpture 
amongst the Greeks and Romans down to 
the middle Ages / with feme pre ten /ions 
to the Invention of Copper-Cuts, and their 
Imprejfions. p. 2,3 


Sculpture where, and when in its afcendent. 2,3, 24, 18 
Statues to what head reducible. Z4 

Sculptoret lAarmority Mrtv*/, in Gyffum^ &c. ib 


Table and Contents. 

Signa at Rhodes, Athens and other places in what prodigious 
numbers. ib 

Statues, as many as of men. ib 

The conteft betwixt Art and Nature in point of fertility. ib 
Statues, improveable to a politiq, as well as expenceful magni- 
ficency. ib 

'A.iroff<j>payiffiJiaTa. ay 

Pyrgoteles only permitted to engrave the Effigies of ^Alexander 
the great. ay 

The Pi&ures of Queen Elizabeth and other Princes how pro- 
phan'd and abus'd. ay, 16 

^iuguftus would have his figure cut only by Diofcorides, and 
why. -2.6 

Sculpture in what materials moft eminent. a6 

Dipenuf, Prometheus, Ideocuf, Eucirapus, Lyfiftratws, Demophilus, 
Dedalut, Leochares, Policarmus, Myrmecides all famous Sculp- 
tors, ib 
Figulina vafa Calata, why broaken by Cotyt. ir/ 
Hydri* engraven, and Bread, ib 
Gold feldom engraven, and why. ib 
JAentor his curious works. ib 
*Acra.Ut his works. ib 
Boethus's Mafterpieces. a8 
The works of Calami*, *Antipa,ter, Stratonicus, Taurifeti*, *Arifteus, 
Eunictts, Hecates, Praxiteles, Pojtdonius, Ledtu, Zopirut, Pytheus. 


Uedalifts, who moft excellent, and in what Empp. times the 
beft were cut ; when they degenerated. a8, ^o 

Sculpture, when it degenerated in Greece, and Rome. 19 

And whence its decay proceeded. 30, 3 1 

Sculpture, when it arriv'd at Rome. 2.9 

Sculpture and Writing when firft among the Danes and Nor- 
wegians, ib 
Runic Characters. ib 
Graf f ex, what. 30 
Vice, and Avarice, the occafion why fculpture degenerated, 
and is not fince arrived to the perfection of the Ancients. 

3 1 

By what means it may recover. 32 


Table and Contents. 

^Alexander Magnus, ^uguflus, Francis I. Copmo di Medices, and 
Charles the V. celebrated for their affe&ion to Arts. 3 1 

Time and leafure required to bring a work to perfe&ion. 31 

Sculpture and Chalcography antient in China, on what materials, 
and how wrought. 33 

Letters in Europe firft cut in wood. ib 

The Inck-maker for the prefs dignified amongft the 
with a liberal falary, and priviledges, and not accounted 
a Mechanic. ib 

Sculpture found in Mexico, and other parts of America. 34. 

Typography not found out by the Greeks and Romans, to be much 
wondred at, and why. ib 


Of the Invention^ and Trogreffe of Chalco- 
graphy in particular ; together 'with an 
ample enumeration of the moft renowned 
Matters and their works. p. 3 5- 


ENgraving on Plates of Brafs for Prints when firft appear- 
in - 3J 

Typography when firft produc'd in Europe. ib 

Prints in the infancy of this Art. ib 

The Devil a Honochrom. ib 

M. z.. M. C. what they import. ib 


Table and Contents. 

What Sculptors added the year of our Lord to their works. 36 
Who were the firft Gravers of Prints. ib 


The Italian gravers and their works. 36, &c. ad 63 

Mafo Ftniguerra, the firft Print-graver in Italy. 36 

Enameling gave the firft hint for the Engraving of Prints. 36 
The graving of Prints, from how mean a commencement, 

arrived to this perfection. 37 

Eaccio Ealdini his works, and countersign. ib 

^Albert Durer, when he flourifh'd, his incomparable works ; 

conteft with Lucas, and "Mark^^4ntonio t and how precious his 

works. 37, 3 8, 3 9, 40, 63 

L*v Fit Lqufai, his works, emulation of Durer. 39, 40, 63 
Mark^Antonio, when he flourifli'd, his works, conteftation with 

Albert, &C. 39, 42. 

For what vile prints reproved. 4^ 

Raphael Urbin how he honoured the gravings of M. Antonio. 41 
Martine of Antwerp his works, how efteem'd by Michael Angela. 


R. S. what it fignifies. 42 

.Marco *# Ravena his works. 43 

A. V. I. what it imports. 44 

Giovanni Eatttfta Mantuano his works. 46" 

I. B. M. whole name it fignifies. ib 

Sebafliano da Regio's works. ib 

Georgia Mantuano's works. ib 

Etching in Aqua Fortit when firft produc'd. 47 

JDamafcut Symeters. ib 

Vago de Carpi , his new manner of cutting for divers colours, 

and his works. ib 

The works of Batdajjare Verunz,i> Francifco Vartnegiano, Ecccafomi, 

Eaptifta. Vincentino, Del More, Girolamo Cocu. 48 

Giacomo del Cavaglio his works both in copper and ftones. 48, 49 
Enea Vlco de Parma his Medails and other gravings. 49 

The works of Lamberto Suave, Gio. Battifta de Cavaglieri. ib 

The works of Antonio Lanferri, Tomafo Earlachi, Antonio Labbaco, 

Titian, Giulio Buonafoni, Battifta Franco, Renato, Luca Penni, 

Francifco Ularcolini. jo, yi 


Table and Contents. 

The works of Gabriel Giolito. 52. 

The works of Chriftophoro Coriolano, Antonio Salamarca, Andrea 
Mantegna, Propertia de RoJJt (a fculpterefs). ja, 5-3 

Martin Ruota, Jacomo Pal ma, ^Auguftino and Anlbal Carracci. 

J3> J4- 

The works of Francifco Vilamena. jy 

Giovanni Magg/, Leonardo, Ifabella and Bernardino Varafoli. f6 

Cutting, and Engraving in Wood how difficult, and different 

from Chalcography. ib 

The works of Antonio Tempefta, Cherubin <Alberti. 57 

Horatio Borgiani, Raphael Guido, Jovanni Eatt. della lAarca, Camilla 

Grafficoy Cavalier Salimbene y *Anna Vaiana. 58 

Steffano della Bella. 59, 60 

Chart y and Map-gravers. 60 

Medaile Gravers, and Gravers in metal and pretious ftones, &c. 

60, 61, 62. 

The Diamond by whom firft engraven. 62. 

JAedails the knowledge of them how noble and profitable, and 

by what means to attain it effe&ually, Gentlemen of note 

skillfull Medailifts. 6z 

The German and Flemijh Chalcographers y and their works. 

The works of ^Albert Durer. 37, ad 4,1, 63, 8j 

^4ldegrave and his cypher, Hans Sibald Beheeme his mark, Jerom 

Cochy 64., 84., 8 j. Francis Florii, 6f Cornelius Cort y 66. Juftus, Jo. 

~4gid, and Raphael Sadelers, 67, 68. Herman Uuller, 68. Sim. 

Frijiusy "Matth. Miriam, Hans Holbeiny Juftus ^Ammanus 69, 84., 

8j. HoltzJnufeny Hans Brojfehaemer y Virgilius Solis y his eyes put 

out for his lewd gravings ; Hen. Golzjusy 70, 86. Gear. Nmuol- 

ftelleyjo. Matt, and Fred. Greuter y SanredamtSy Cor. Galley 71. Count 

Cloudty SwaneveltSy Pandern t Bronchorjl, lAattham, P. BriV, Nieulant, 

Boetiusy LonderfeliuSy Van Velde, N. de Bruyn y 72,. t^g. Coninx- 

logenfisy Stradanus y Mallery, Bolfuerdy 73. P. Pentiusy Suanne- 

bourgh, Neffey Vojlermany Vorfly 74, ;j. Cfor. ^terf. 7J 

Td For/?, 5"/r Anthony Van Dykg. 36 

Sir P. P. Rubens celebrated. 74. 

The works of P. de Jode t Colaert in fteel ; Sntiderhoef y Jo. Baurs, 

Vander Thulden t 77. *Abr. and Char. Blomaerty KataliSy 78, 79. 

Ferdmandy Verdin y Uriefey Winegardy W. Hondius y Vankeffell y 


Table and Contents. 

Clovet, Caukgrn, 79. Luc. KJlianus, Cor. Vijher, Vovillemont, 
Nolph, Lombart, So. Hertoc, Reinbrand, Wincefl. Hollar, 81, 82. 
Hevelius celebrated, 82,. ^Anna M. a Schurman celebrated, Breugle, 
Oflade, Corn, Clock^ Queborn, Cuflos, Le Delf, Dors, Falck^, Gerard, 
Bens, Moeftuer, Grebber, Geldorf, Hoffer, Gerard, Bens, Chein, Jch. 
d* Egmont, De Vinghe, Heins, Ditmer, Cronis, Lindoven, Mirevel, 
laager, Coccien, lAaubeafe, Venius, Firens, Pierets, Queliniis, Sta- 
chade, Schut, Soutman, Vanulch, Broom, Valdet, Min Her Bifcop, 
83. Deufken, P. Van ^Aelfl, Swart, Jan Van Groennighen, L. Cra- 
nach, Jof. ^Ammanus, Hub. Golzjus. 84. 

The French Chalcografhers and their works, 86, ad 98. When they 
began to be in reputation, 86 

The works of P. Bernard, Nic. Beatrice, 86. Phil. Thomajtnus, Crifp. 
Magdal, and Simon de pas, 87. C/. JAelan, Mauperch, La P outre, 
l/lorin, N. Chaperon, Fra. Verier, ^4udran, Couvay, Peril, 88, 89. 
Chavueau, Noilly, Heince, Begnon, Huret, Bernard, Rogneffon, Rouflet, 
EeUange, Richet, L'^Alman, Quefnel, Soulet, Kunel, Voucher, Eriot, 
Eoulange, ~Bois, Champagne, Charpignon, Corneille, Charen, Cl. de 
Lorain, ^Audran, JAoutier, Rabel, Denifot, LJ^Anne, De la, Rame, 
Hayes, Herbin, David de Eie, ViUemont,Maret, Toutin, 90. Grand- 
homme, Cereau, Trochel, Langot du Loir, L'Enfant, Gaultier, D'Origni, 
P revofl, De Son, Pere, Nacret, Ferret, Daret, Scalberge, Vibert, Ragot, 
Eoijfart, Terelin, Deleu, Mauperch, L^fne, Huret. 91 

Calligraphers. ib 

The works of La Hyre, Goyrand, ib. Golignon, Cochin, Jfr. Sylvefler, 
Rob.Nanteuil, 91, 91, 93. Jot]. Callot, 93, 94, 95, 96. Abr. Bojfe 


Chart Gravers, Cordiers, Riviers, Teroni, &C. 97. Gombouft. 98 

The Englijh Chalcografhers and their works, 98, ad 100. Paine, 
Cfcil, Wright, Mr. Faithorne, Mr. JUarlow, Mr. Gaywood, Light- 
foot, Glover, J. Fellian, 98, 99. Swizj^er. 100 

Medaile Gravers, and for Intaglia's, Mr. Symonds, Ravelins, Re- 
ftrict, Johnfon. 99 

Calligraphers, Mr. Cooker, Grey, Getting, Willingly, &c. ib 

An Invitation to the Englifli Chalcografhers to publifli his Hiajefties 
colleftionj the benefit and honour of it. 100 

The Landfkips, Viewes, Palaces, of England, Levantine parts, 
Indies, &c. together with the Cities, Ifles, Trees, Plants, 
Flowers, and Animals, to be cut in Coffer and reformed, 


*>.\>? : 


Table and Contents. 

were a moft acceptable, and ufeful work. 101 

Painters encouraged to fet their hands to the Graver. xoz 

The ufe of this Collection, ib 


Of 'Drawing and 2)e/igne previous to the 
Art of Chalcography ; and of the ufe of 
Tiftures in Order to the Education of 
Children. p. 103 


MEafure and proportion have Influence on all our 
Action's, p. 103 

A faying of Thomas Earle of Arundel and Sumy. ib 

Drawing of what confequence to the Art of Graving. ib 

Defigne the Bafis of Sculpture, and of many other free and noble 

Sciences. 'O4-> 1O J 

Original Drawings efteem'd, and for what. ib 

Antiquity of what effect. icy 

Defigne and Drawing defin'd, and diftinguifh'd, its antiquity, 

and invention. 106 

Accident and chance fruitful mothers. ib 

Drawing with crayon, pen, &c. the method, and how to be 

performed with fuccefle. 107 

Hatching, what, and how attained by imitating good Uajlers, 

and by what method. 108, 109, no 

Overmuch exactness and finiftiing a fault in Drawing, and 

why, Yolycletus's Canon. 109 

Accurate Defignes with the pen not efteem'd, and why, no Who 

yet excelled in them to admiration. no, in 


Table and Contents. 

Mr. Vander Doufe, Francis and John Clejn, Mr. Francis Carter, &c. 

celebrated. in, nz 

Colours, the production of a middle colour wrought on two 

extreams. 112. 

Rubens, and Van Dykgs firft ftudies in Italy. 113 

Drawing, how neceflary. ib 

Academies ere&ed for the Virtuofi by whom. ib 

For what purpofe and how furniflied. 116, 117 

Greeks, and Romans, how they cherifli'd and enobled men o( 

Art. 1 14. 

Sculptors and "Painters chiefe of the court and retinue to the 

Emperour of Japan. ib 

Courts of great Princes how formerly compofed. ib 

How the antient and moft renowned Sculptors were fome en- 
couraged, and others obfcured. 116 
Painters fhould fome times draw with the pen. 117 
What "Painters made ufe of prints. 117, 118 
And caufed their works to be publiflied. 118 
How to exprefs the fenfation of the Relievo or Extancie of 

obje&s, by the Hatches in Graving. 119 

What fliadows are moft graceful. iz6 

And what Artifts works beft to imitate. ib 

Of Counter- Hatches. ib 

One colour, the ufe, and effecl of it. ib 

Zeuxis ufed but one colour. ib 

What other Painters were Monochromes, and who introduced 

the reft of the colours. 1*7 

Lights and (hades their ftupendious effe&s. ib 

Coloree what it means. ib 

The invention of Chevalier Woolfon to Rlazjm bearing in coate- 

armour by hatches without letters. ib 

Tonus what it imports in Graving. ib 

Of copying after Defignes and painting. 118 

What Prints are to be called excellent. ib 

How to dete& the copy of a Print, from an Original print, i zp 
AcfM Fortis, for what Cravings moft proper. 150 

His Highnefs Prince Rupert celebrated, and the Cravings by him 

publifhed. 130, 131 

The French King an Engraver. 131 


Table and Contents. 

Earle of Sandwich dextrous at Graving. ib 

What Emperours, Phtlofophers, Poets, and other of the noble Greeks, 

and Romans excelled in painting and Graving. 

131, 133, 14,1, 143, 144. 
Never any of the Antients excelled in thefe Arts, but what 

were Gentlemen. 132. 

A Slave might not be taught to Grave or Paint, and why. 133 
Graving accounted one of the Liberal Arts, by Pliny and Galen. 

Children inftru&ed in the Graphical arts for what OeconomicI^ 

confideration. ib 

Martia'the daughter of, the PrincefTe Louife, and Anna. 

A Schurman celebrated. ib 

Great fcholars of late fkillfull in the art of Graving, &c. 133 
How far the art of Drawing conduces to the Sciences Mathe- 
matical, ib 
Dr. Chr. Wren, Elagrave, Hevelius, &c. celebrated, ib 
An Orator ought to be f killed in thefe Arts, and why. 134. 
Of what great ufe, and benefit the art of Graving may be to 

the Education of Children fuperiour to all other inventions : 

135, and how. 138, 14,0, 141, 141, 143 

The Abbot de JAaroles his fmgular affection to, and prodigious 

collections of Prints. *3fy T 3^ 

"Prints more eftimable then painting, and why. 137 

What Gentlemen of quality are the greateft collectors of prints 

in France. ib 

At how high rates the "Prints of the moft famous Mafters are 

now fold. ib 

Collections of "Prints recommended to Princes and great perfons, 

and why. ib 

An Hieroglyphical Grammar. 139 

By whom draughts and "Prints are celebrated for the Inftitution 

of Youth. ib 

La yiartelay taught all the Sciences by cuts alone. ib 

Commenius his Orbit fenfualium piftus celebrated. ib 

The Unrverfal Language how to be moft probably contrived. 140 
PaJJions expreffible by the art of Defigne. I4Z 

An ufefui caution for the Lovers of thefe Arts. 143, 144 


Table and Contents. 


O/ the new way of engraving, or Mezzo 
Tinto, Invented, and communicated ty 
his Highnefs Trine e Rupert. &c. p. 145- 


AN advantageous Commutation for omitting the defcription 
of the Mechanical part of the vulgar Graving. 14,^ 

A paradoxical Graving without Burin, Points or Acpta, fortis. 14.6 
The new MCZ.Z.O Tinto invented by his Highnefs P. Rupert 
^Enigmatically defcribed, and why. 147 


{Corrected in text, with the exception of litteral mistakes, as 
Coffy for Cofy, &c. which do not at all impeach the fence ; and 
are therefore the more pardonable.) 

The Construction of the Rolling Tress' 

Authors, and Books which have 

been confulted for this 





Angelas RocchA. 




Juntas F. 





S. uiuguftinuf. 





Scaliger Jof. 

Baptifta Albcrti. 

Lotus Pompon. 


Biblia Sacra. 

Leon Mberti. 





Boffe A. 




Littleton Adam. 





Cd. Rhodoginus. 








TertaUianus . 














Nazjtanz.en Greg. 













Vermander Car. 








Pica* l/Lirand. 



Pietro Santo. 


Guaricu* Pompo. 










Da Pois. 

Sir H. Wotton. 


Pollux Jal. 

(From the Edition of 
typographical errors have been corrected 
in the text of the present reprint) 






Page ja, line i6"j after engraved, add. from the paintings now 

at Hampton-Court 

Page 6*1, line 3 ; after cut, add (which Jerome Lennier shewed 
me, and, I think, is now in his Majesty's 
Page 68, line a8 j for chosen read executed j line $o,/r executed 

read chosen. 

Page 69, line 19 j after Holbein, dele the Dane 
Page 69, line ii; after Erasmus, add Morise encomium; the 

trial and crucifixion of Christ, 

Page 8 1, line 4.; after fol. add and for my Parallel of Archi- 
tecture better than that of this Treatise 

Page 8z, line 16; after Warwickshire, add Mr. Asbmole's Garter, 
Page 83, line 16 ; to Custos is the following addition: Do- 
minicus Custos, and Wolfgangus Kilian, from 
the paintings of Wickgram and others, The 
effigies of the Duke of Bavaria, with the rest in 
his ^Atrium Heroicum for all the famous persons 
of that century, both of Europe and Asia. 
Page 83, line 18 ; for omit read pass. 

Page 9i, Insert the following note on line zj ; FLORENT LE 
COMTE, in his Singuliaritez. D* Architecture, &c. 
gives a catalogue of the works of NANTEXTIL, 
in which he mentions My Effigy graven by 
this rare sculptor, with this impertinent 
mistake : * YVELIN, dit le fetit mi Lord Anglais, 
ou le Portrait grec ; [arceau'il y a du Grec au has, 
OH il est ecrit aussi Mellora retinete: // est en 
Ovate' (translation follows). 

Page 96, line 4 ; after Thesis, add The Seige of la Rachel in large ; 

Page ico, line 16 j after Majesty, add the Duke of Norfolk 

Page i oa, in the Note; after England, add great-grandfather 
to the present Duke of Norfolk. 

Page 14.6, line ult., Insert the following note on the word 
applicable. This art, since the publishing of 
this [first] edition, is arrived to the utmost 
curiosity and accurateness even of the rarest 
miniatures, in black and white j and takes in 
all subjects : the only defect is, that the plates 
last not so long under the rolling press. 

At the end of the book, the AUTHOR has written the following 
remark : MONIER, a painter of the French 
king's, has published the history of painting, 
sculpture, architecture, and graving, in three 
books; which is translated into English and 
printed London 1699. * n tne l ast chapter 
of the third book, c. az, he treats of TAILLE- 
douce, but little which is not already in 

Or the 





Of Sculpture^ how deritfd, anddiftinguisttd, 
with the Styles, and fnftruments belonging 
to it. 

THofe who have tnoft refined, and 
criticized upon Technical notions, 
feem to diftinguifh what we com- 
monly name Sculpture into three feveral 
Arts; and, to attribute fpecifical differen- 
ces to them all : For there is, befides Scul- 
B ftura 

2, Sculptura, or 

ptura (as it relates to Chalcography) Scalptura 
Lib. i. (ft fiiomedes) and Ctflatura ; Doth which, 
! ' according to Quintilian^ differ from the 
firft ratione materite. For to make but a 
brief enumeration only: It was apply 'd to 
feveral things ; as to working in Wood, or 
Ivory, Tomice, the Artifts, < Defeftores\ in 
Clay, T la/lice, fltft* : in Playfter Taradi- 
gmatice^ the Workmen Gypfochi. In Stone 
cutting Colaptice^ the Artifts Lithoxoi ; and 
laftly, in Metals Glyphice\ which again 
is Two-fold; for if Wax be us'd, A- 
gogice; If the Figure be of Caft-work, 
Chemice^ Anaglyphies when the Image 
was prominent, 'Diaglyphice when hol- 
low, as in Scales and Intaglio! s ; Encolapti- 
ce when lefle deep, as in plates of Brajfe for 
Lawes and Monumental Infcriptions ; Then 
cat. Rodig. the Toreutic 'e; and the Encauflic for a kind 
uft* ao. ^ Enamel ; Troplajlice forming the future 
c . 24. work ex creta, or fbme fuch matter, as the 
Trotypus was of Wax for Ejfirmation, and 
the Modulus of wood ; not to omit the an- 
tient 'Diatretice, which feems to have been 
a work upon Chryftal, and the Calices 'Dia- 
treti (of which fbme where the Poet Mar- 
tial] whether embofs'd or engraven, as now 
with the point of a Diamond, &c. for I can 
onely name them briefly, the field would 


The Hijlory of Chalcography. 3 

be too luxurious to difcourfe upon them fe- 
verally, and as they rather concern the Statu- 
ary Art, Fufile and Tlaftic head, which 
would ferve better to adorne fbme defigne of 
Architecture^ or merit an exprefle Treatife, 
then become the prefent, which does only 
touch the Met all s^ and fuch other materials 
as had not the Figure finifhed through all its 
dimenfions; though we might yet fafely I 
think admit feme of the Greeksfaqg/pftJc's: 
Argentum afperum fe> puftulatum, and, as the 
Latines terme it, Ebur pingue : for fb the />/f? ad 
Poet, Exfojitumque alte pingue popofcit ebur^ Mo 
&c. ManutiuscJ&s them f Dimidi<eminenti<e^ 
and the Italians do well interpret by Bajfo 
and Mezzo Relievo ; hence the Figure is 
{aid Bare, or exjiare : for fb Mart. Stat Ca- 
per^ 2C&&Ju f uenal^ftantem extra pocula caprum. 
As from the fimilitude, and perfection of 
the work,/^;dr<?, Spirare^ calere^ it feemed to 
breathe, and be living, as Fngil exprefles it, 

Excudent alii fpirantta mollius <em. 

And Horace, Et ungues 

Exprimet^ & molles imitabiturtere capillos. 
Ludit Acidalio fed non manus afpera nodo 
Candida non tacit a refpondet imagine Lygdos. 

as Martial. 

For in this manner they us'd to celebrate 

thofe rare pieces of Art, diflincl: from the 

B 2, T)iagliphice 

Sculptura, or 

'Diagliphice, and Encolaptic more properly 
according with our purpofe; and which may 
happly be as well exprefs'd by Ctflatura, and 
from the fignification made a derivative 
CLTTQ TOV ff-KATTTetv to dig, or make incifion. I 
think F'arro may have Scaptus for Ctflatus; as 
Cicero Scalptus, x&&Tlinie,Scalpturatus\ yet 
we rather follow them who derive Scalpo^ 
Sculpo, from yArt</># and yAu0#; becaufe the 
beft Origination is to preferve the foundati- 
on in the antienter Languages, if the muta- 
tion of Letters be warranted, as here in 
ypct0o> Scribo. The word in the Holy tongue 
nnHJ which imports an opening (becaufe 
the Plate, Stone or whatever elfe material 
they ufd aperitur aliqua fui parte^ was fbme- 
where opened when any thing is engraven 
upon it) attefts rather to the former Etymon^ 
and fignification, then to any other materi- 
al affinity ; befides that 'tis alfb transferra- 
ble to thofe who carve with the cheezil, or 
work in Bojfe with the Tuntion, as our Sta- 
tuaries, Goldfmiths and Repairers do. In the 
G/offewe meet with Cxlum Topvo? &c. which 
though fbme admit not, fb freely in this 
L&.S. fence; yet Martial, fpeaking of Embofs'd 
Cups more then once calls them Toreumata. 

Miratus fueris cum prifca Toreumata mul- 
tum. And 

The Hi&ory of Chalcography. $ 

And why may not the Tor/, Brawn, or 
Collops of fat be exprefs'd by thefe raifed 
Figures, and they Twofe plump, and (as 
the French has it) en J?on point, as well as 
7^y//and Fiftile ones ? Some round Cheefcil 
or Lathe perhaps it was ; but we dare only 
conjecture : Others Cozlum a Cado which is 
to beat, flrike, cut or dig ; but by what pa- 
rallel authority of fuch a derivative we 
know not : F'arro yet e Cce/o Heaven it felf, Varro L + 
reaching its Original from the very flars. 
xolhc? is another more confbnant and har- 
monious with the antient y^P Kalangh^ 
which imports to excavate and make hollow 
as it is frequently interpreted, particularly, 
i Reg. 6. 32,, 3^. where, what the Vulgar 
Latine renders Sculp fit; F'atablus makes Ck 7 - 
lavit, a.n&.JuniusIncidit,\)eR. of all correfpon- 
ding with our purpofe ; and fb in the famous 
wrought fhield which Ulyjfes purchafed by 
his Eloquence, Quintilian applies the word, L#. 2. c. 18. 
In Ctflatum cltpei ^chillis , ^ lites funt fa> 
aftiones ; For fo it feems to have been much 
ufed on their Harnefle; Livy reports of two 
famous Armies fb reprefented : Or as more L '- hi ft- 1 > 
allufive yet to our plate, where 'tis faid, C*e- 9 ' 
latura rumpit tenuem Laminam^ if the quef- 
tion be not rather, whither thefe works, like 
the Anctefa Vafa, were not rais'd and em- 
B bofs'd 

Sculptura, or 

bofs'd, thofe expreffions cfflaA fb much 
favouring their Eminency, where he tells 
us, fpeaking of this very Art, ita exolevit^ 
utjbla jam veluftate cenfeaturufqueadeo attri- 
tis Ctflaturis^ nefigura difcernipojjit,timz and 
age had fo greatly defac'd them. 

But may this fiiffice for the Divifion, 
and Denomination of the Art in general ; 
fince the Title which we have made choice 
of, is Univerfally applicable: for fb lo- 
quendi confuetudine in ordinary difcourfe 
Sculptura^ and Scalptura import but one, and 
the fame thing, as Salmajius has well no- 
ted on Solinus: and therefore thofe who 
wrought any of thefe hollow cut-works, 
were by fbme call'd Cavatores, and Gra- 
phatores, fayes that Learned Perfon, whence 
doubtlefs, our Gravers may have deriv'd 
their Appellation. 

By this then it will not be difficult for 
any to define what the Art it felf is; 
whither confider'd in the mofl general 
and comprehenfive acceptation; or, as it 
concernes that of Chalcography chiefly, and 
fiich as have moft Affinity with it; fince 
(as well as the reft) it may be defcrib'd to 
be an Art which takes away all that is fuper- 
fluousoftheSuljeft matter^reducing it to that 
Forme or Body^ which was dejigrid in thel- 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 7 

dea of the ArtisJ. And this, as fufficient- 
ly Univerfal ; unlels in favour of the Tla- 
ftic (which yet does not come under our 
Cognizance) we will rather receive the 
diftin&ion which Michael Angela was us'd 
to oblerve between them, That this laft 
was made by Apportion, which is the quite 
contrary. But indeed, neither the 'Paradig- 
matic, Agogic, or any of the Tlaftic, can Ge- 
nuinely, and in Propriety of fpeech be call'd 
Sculpture, without a Catachrefts and some Vi- 
olence ; fince, nullumjimile eft idem, whither 
applied to the Matter, or the Tools. And 
now we {peak of Inftruments, we fhall find 
that there has been little lefs controverfie 
amongft the Grammarians, touching them 
alfb, then concerning the very Art it felf : 
As whither the yAt/0e7oi/ Style, or Scalprum 
is to be calFd Ctflum, Ctfles, or Ctfltes ; no- 
ted by the Critic shorn that Text in ip. Job. 
Quis mihi det, ut exarentur in Libro Stylo 
ferreo, aut plumbi Lamina, vel Ctflte Jcul- 
pantur in Silice ? (where by the way, 'tis 
obferv'd, that this verfe comprehends, and 
alludes to, almoft all the forts of antient 
Writing and Engraving: Books, Plates, 
Stone, and Stile) and from an old Infcripti- 
on out of Aldus, and G renter. Martial, Au- 
fonius, and the Poet Statius ufe Ctzlum fre- Ef ^ t 56 
quently. B 4 Laborifei'i Sfat * l - 4- 

8 Sculptura, or 

i. 4 Labortferi vivant qua marmora 

but we will be fparing. TAt^V, yhvfalov, 

Theocr. ^ AVQV aS ^funtUSl Alfb gyXfiAfltTTTWO. VTTCtyU- 
Thucyd. ^ ^ y J ' 1. V fl ^ 

yar, hafcevTripiov as much as a-ioriptov favovpyov; 
fo is yA*p/f and AfTov in Tollux. Scalprum^ is 
xoTTfvf fcvtrriip, with the fame Junius Gra- 
phium\ LalUy, Stylus ypafalov, o-TvAoz, 
o-ptfy, in Suidas^ eyxevrpif the fame Tollux ; 
call them Toint, Stile, Graver, Tunttion, 
Tolifher, or what elfe you pleafe, we will 
contend no farther about it ; For thefe In- 
jlruments (as defpicable as they appear) have 
fbmetimes proved fatal and dangerous Wea- 
pons ; as the blefled Cajfianus found by fad 
experience, whofe cruel Martyrdom with 
thefe Stiles is glorioufly celebrated by Pru- 
dentius, wep} (rrs^xivuv Hymn. ix. And thus 
was alfb Rrixion flain, for his unnatural 
affe&ion, by the enraged People, with other 
examples to be produc'd out of Seneca 3 Tlu- 
tarch, Sueton. and others: For, when upon 
feveral of thofe difbrders, o-iipo<f>opelv (or 
the carrying about them any Weapons of 
Iron) was made Capital; they did miC 
chief with thefe Injlruments, till like Chil- 
drens knives, they were converted into 
Bone, which did only ferve them to write 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 
withall, and Arare campum cereum^ to 
plough up their Superinduced Tables^ and 
Cerei Tugillares ; not much unlike to our 
Etching with points, and Needles on the 
Vernifh, in Shape, and ufe refembling them, 
fave where the obtufer end was made 
more deletive, apt to put out, and oblite- 
rate, when they would Sty /urn vertere, which 
our Bumijher (another Tool us'd by Chal- 
cographers) and Tolijher performes. But to 
defcend to the modern names both of the 
Artzn&Inftrument: the French call it in par- 
ticular Tailk douce ^ Sweet, or tender cut ; 
whither wrought with the Burin (for fb 
they tearm the Inflrument which we the 
Graver) or, with Aqua Fortis. The I tali- 
ans, Intaglia^ or ft amp, without Adjunct, and 
Bolino, which is doubtlefs the more antient 
and warantable, as prompting the ufe both of 
the Poinf, Needle^ m& Etchings A. Fortis^ 
by fbme fo happily executed, as hardly to be 
difcern'd from the Bolio^ or Graver it felf : 
But the main difference is this, That with 
the Burine one cuts the peice all at once 
out of the p/ate, immediately ; whereas, 
with the point^ ox ft He, we only cut the J^er- 
nifh, razing, and Scalping as it were, the 
Superficies of the Plate a little, which af- 
terwards the A. F. corrodes and finifhes : 



( / II iiU i 
hi " 

io Sculptura, or 

A rare Invention, new, expeditious, and 
wholly unknown to the pafl Antiquity. 
Burine then from Bolino\ and why not? yea 
doubtlefs, this from BouAAa. the Modern 
name of a Seal, and Inllrument of making 
Seals. To this we might alfb add ZDirr, 
Cheret : And we find Charafch^ and Charath 
of the fame import with %apct<r<7^ and 
%#p#TTft> in the Greek, as Mr. A 'dam Littleton 
has acutely obferv'd in his Complexion of 
Roots \ But leafl too much of this Stuffe 
fhould (as Theocritus on another occafion) 
fHles it, y\v<fxivQv TT^Q^QV Jmell of the 
Burine \ we will here make an end with 
hard names, the Tedantrie and various ac- 
ceptions of the words ; and in the Chapters 
following endeavour to invefHgate the Ori- 
ginal of the sfrth felf, and difcourfe fbme- 
what of the Progrefs it has made, to ar- 
rive at this perfection : For it is not to (hew 
how diligently we have weeded the Cale- 
pines^ and Lexicons (amongft all which there 
is none over fertill upon thefe Arts, or ib 
well furnifh'd as we could have wifh'd) 
but the refult of much diligent collection, 
produc'd out of iundry Authors to meet in 
this Chapter^ for the eafe, and inftruftion of 
fiich as may poflibly encounter with difficul- 
ties in the Courfe of their reading fiich 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 1 1 

books as treat of the Mechanical or more 
Liberal Subje&s ; And, that there might be 
nothing of deficient as to our Institution, 
feeing it behoov'd him that would deduce 
an Hiftory ab origine^ to let nothing efcape 
that was in the leafl or ufefull, or inflru6Uve. 


Of the Original oJJcuJpture in general. 

WE (hall not with Epigenes in "Pliny -, L: 7 . c . 
depofe that this Art had its being 
from Eternity ; becaufe it is not fence, and 
would contradict its invention ; but, if that 
may pafle which St. Auguftine affirmes, that 
the Tro topi aft our Father Adam^ or (as O-L. 18. < 
thers) his good Genius the Angel Raziel^ l ^ D 
w r ere the firft inventor of Letters, Scul- 
pture may derive its Pedegree from the in- 
fancy of the World, and contend for its' 
Pre-eminence with moil of the Antiqui- 
ties which it fb much celebrates. For, that 
there went feveral books about (fb me where- 
of had been long fince read in the Trimi- 
tive Church) bearing his venerable Name ; 
as that which Epiphanius and others cite, 


Sculptura, or 

ex libro Behu, de Tcenitentia Ad<e, Ada Re- 
velatio, <jyc. we have no reafbn to contra- 
dict : And Tho. Aquinas in his Treatife <De 
ente jy ejfentia, {peaks of a Volume of 
Plants defcribed by Adam ; and there are 
Traditions of a whole Natural Hijlory, with 
feveral other works of this moll Learned 
of all Men living, as Suidas doubts not to 
call him; nor do we think that his unhappy 
Fall did fb much concern his rare and innis'd 
Habits, as not to leave him the moft accom- 
plifh'd, and perfe&ly inftru&ed in all thofe 
Arts, which were fb highly neceflary, and 
therefore thus early invented; though 
whither thefe Books of his were fo mira- 
culoufly found out, and prefer v'd by the re- 
nouned Trijmegi&us, we leave to the more 
credulous : But that Letters, and confequent- 
ly Sculpture, was long before the Flood, we 
make no fcruple of: Suidas, whom but now 
we mention J d, is peremptory, afcribing (as 
was affirm'd) both Letters, and all the reft 
of the Jciences to Adam TOVTOV TTAVTA evpq- 
&c. We fhall not add hereunto, what 

the Rabbins affert he compos 'd of the prse- 
cepts given him in Taradife, with the like 
trafh; but pafs from thefe conjectures to 
others of the Antediluvian Patriarchs men- 

tion 'd 

The Hiftory of Chalcography. 1 3 

tion'd by Jofephus^ Cedrenus and fbme o- 
ther Authors, concerning trie Sculptures in 
Sfone, and Brick ', erected at Joppa^ contain- 
ing (as fbme depofe) trie Sideral^ and 
Celejlial Sciences^ proofe againft trie two 
moft devouring and fubverting Elements, 
and lafting fbme thoufands of years after 
the Univerfal Cataclyfm. The ^/Ethiopians 
are faid at this day to glory much in poflef- 
fing the Books of Seth and Enoch^ as thofe 
who have lately written of the AbyJJmes re- 
late. Origen, ^.Augujline^ and Hierom have 
like wife made honourable mention of 
them ; and Tertullian plainly reproves thofe 
who (in his time) thought they could not Terttt i f de 
be prefer ved; Noah^ being himfelf one of habit, 
the great Nephews of Setb ; and the proba- 
bility that thefe Antient Men of renoun, 
would tranfmit to Poflerity the glorious 
Actions and Atchievements which they 
had performed; efpecially Cham (that is 
Zoroafter) a Spirit fb Univerfally curious, 
and flourifhing above an hundred years be- 
fore this publick Calamity. But to apply 
this to the honour now ^Chalcography^ and 
juftifie our defign ; The Author of the Scho- 
lajltcal History upon Genefts fpeaks of this 
Zoroafters ingraving the Liberal Arts on 
fourteen Colomns^ feven whereof he affirms 


14 Sculptura, or 

to have been of Brafle, and the reft of Brick ; 
pudcaffia- The fame is alfb reported by Serenus, where 
m ' he adds diverforum Metallorum Laminis, to- 
gether with fome other Infcriptions\ku& pre- 
fer ved, and which the noble and learned Earl 
of Mirandula in a certain Epiftle of his to 
Marfilius Ficinus boafts to have the pofleffion 
of: His words are thefe, Chaldaici hi Libri 
funt, Ji JLibri font, & non Thefauri : Audi 
infcriptiones : Patris Ezr<e, Zoroaftrzs, & 
Melchior Magorum oracula. In yuibus, fo> 
ilia quoque^ qu<e apudGrtfcos mendofa^ & mu- 
tila circumferuntur, leguntur integra fa abfo- 
luta, fee. The Books (faith Picus) if books 
it be lawful to call them, and not rather 
moft ineftimable Treaflires, are all in the 
Chaldy tongue : Obferve their Titles : The 
Oracles of thofe famous Magi, Ezra, Zo- 
wafterznd Melchior ; in which thofe parti- 
culars alfb which have been carried about by 
the Greeks, maim'd and miferably corrupted, 
are here to be read perfect and intire. 

Concerning the Art of Sculpture immedi- 
ately after the Flood, there are few we fiip- 
pofe make any confiderable queftion, as that 
it might not be propagated by Noah to his 
pofterity ; though fbme there be, that in- 
deed admit of none before Mofes; but what 
then fhall we think of \h&Book of the Warn 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 

of the Lord^ which this iacred Author men- 
tions Num. 21 ? not to infift upon the 88. 
and i op. PJalmes^ by many afcrib'd to fbme 
of the Patriarchs his Predeceflburs. The 
above mentioned Mercurius Trijmegiftus^ 
three hundred years after the Flood, and 
long before Mofes, engrav'd his fecret, 
and Myfterious things in Stone^ as him- 
felf reports; reforming what had been de- 
prived by the wicked Cham ; fome in Let- 
ters, fbme in Figures and Enigmatical Cha- 
racters; fuch happly, as were thofe con- 
tain 'd in the magnificent, and flupendious 
Obelisks erected by Mifra the firft (^Egyptian 
Pharoah, which being at leaft four hundred 
years before Mofes (as the moft indefatiga- 
ble Kirker has computed) does greatly pre- 
fage their Antiquity to have been before that 
holy Prophet. But not to put too much 
flrefle upon fuperannuated Tradition^ this 
we are fiire is of Faith^ and without contro- 
verfy ; That in Mofes we have the Tables of 
Jlone^ engraven by the Finger of GOD him- 
felf ; where the commandement is exprefle, 
even againft the abufe of this very J/tf, as 
well as an inftance of the Antiquity of Ido- 
latry attefting that of Sculpture : THOU 
ANY GRAVEN IMAGE. But this which 


1 6 Sculptura, or 

is indeed the firfl writing that we have Scri- 
pture to vouch for, do's yet prefiippofe En- 
graving to have been of much greater Anti- 
quity : What elfe were the Teraphim ? 
What the PenatesdiLaban ftollen by Rachett 
The Idols ofTerab? or the ^/Egyptian* &c. 
But we forbear to expatiate, onely that 
sc. Sap.c. 14. which is \ryBen. Syrac ibme where in Ecclefi- 
<w.i ,17). a jfj cus deJivere^ t h at t h e Original of Idola- 
try was from images to preferve the memo- 
ry of the Dead ; as in procefle of time by 
the Flatterers of great men it was turn'd to 
be an objecT; of Adoration, plainly inferrs, 
Graving to have been Elder then Idola- 

But now to recover its efteem again be- 
yond all prejudice (however by others a- 
bus'd as indeed many of the befl things have 
been) it was (we know) imputed for a 
31. Exod. fpiritual talent in Bezaleel and Jzholiab^ who 
made Intaglias to adorne the High Priefts 
Pettoral. And we have faid how the c/- 
gyptians reverenced it, as feeming to have 
us'd it before Letters ; or rather their Hiero- 
glypics (importing facred Sculpture) were 
thofe Element s\sy which they tranfmitted to 
pofterity what they efteem'd moft worthy 
of Record ; and not (as fome have ima- 
gin'd) wrap'd up in thofe Enigmatical Fi- 

The Hiftory of Chalcography. 1 7 

gures, the fecrets of their Arts both Divine 
and Secular : For 

Nondum Flumineas Memphis contexerebiblos L 
Noijerat\ feSaxistantum wlucrefqueferxque^ l ' 3 
Sculptaquefervabantmagicas animalia Linguas* 

whence Tacitus calls them Antiquijfimamo- 
numenta memorise humane impreffa Saxis. Such 
as were alfo the Horapottinis note, and all 
thofe other venerable Antiquities of this na- 
ture tran {ported to Rome out of c/g///, in 
no lefs then two and forty prodigious Obe- 
life's, of late interpreted by the indufhious 
Kirker before cited. Suidas attributes the 
invention to the Fatherofthefaithful\ others 
to Theut or Hermes, fome to Cadmus and 
the Thanicians. Bibliander will have Let- 
ters and Sculpture from Adam ; Jofephus 
from Henoch ; Thilo from Abraham ; Eufe- 
bius from Mofes; Cyprian from Satume^ 
where, by the way ; becaufe 'tis faid he did 
Litter as imprimere, Teter Calaber (who much 
affe&s to call him&lfjPomfonzus Ltftus) foo- 
lifhly deduces, that even the Typographic al 
Art was known in the Age of this Hero ; but 
thence (as we faid) it defcended to the 
t~^gyptians by Mijraim, and fb was commu- 
nicated to the Ter/ians, Medes and AJfyrians^ 
c thence 

1 8 Sculptura, or 

thence to the Greeks^ and finally, to the Ro- 
mans from whom it was deriv'dto us, as Peter 
Crinitus in his i ^ th. book deHonefta Difciplina^ 
cap. i. out of a very antient MSS. Bibliotbec* Septi- 
miantf feems to deduce, and thus film me 
them up together. 

Moyfes primus Hebraic as exaravit JLiteras. 
Mente Thoenices Sagaci condiderunt Attic as. 
Quas Latini fcriptitamus^ edidit Nico strata. 
Abraham Syras^ & idem repperit Chaldaicas. 
Ifis arte non minore protulit <^Agyptiacas. 
Gulfila promfit Getarum quas videmus Uteras. 

Now, fhould all this but relate to the ie- 
veral Characters only, it fhall yet ferve our 
purpofe ; fince whoever was the inventor 
of Letters^ was alfb doubdefs the Father of 
Sculpture^ as is apparent, if not by the for- 
mer colomns eredted by Seth (one whereof 
Angelus Roccha in his Bibliotheca Vaticana 
prefumes to have been of Brafle) by feveral 
other inffcances ; the writing with Ink, in 
Taper or Tarchment^ being altogether a no- 
velty in comparrifon to the more antient 
formes and materials fuch as were the Slit- 
Jlones^ or Slates which iucceeded the ftately 
marbles^ and preceeded the thinner leaves of 
Bark y and Tablets of Wood, which from the 


The Htftory of Chalcography. i 

German Silver, fignifying the Fagus or 
Beech-tree, (whofe Fruit do's ftill with us 
retain the name of Buch-masT) were called 
Books, to whatever voluble or folding mat- 
ter apply ed : For before the invention of 
Taper, they us'd the leaves of Palmes, as 
J^arro de Sibylla : then the Rinds of Trees ; 
afterwards flieets of Lead, Linnen, H^ax, 
and Ivory, as Plinie and Fopifcus tell us; 
They writ in Silk amongft the Terfians and 
Chinefes ; and laftly, were invented Tarch- 
ment and Taper. But whether in all thefe, 
or whatever the Subject were (fome few 
latter excepted) it was Itill by Infculping, 
Scarifying, and making a kind of Incifion 
into it ; especially intending to confign to 
pofterity their Lawes, divine and humane, 
Roman, ^Egyptian, or Hebrew : For fb 
of Old. 

..... verba minantia fixo Uetam. 

^/Ere ligabantur \ 

according to the Poet. Thus were the Hie- 
ronic<e prefer v'd in the Temple of Olympian 
Jove, and the Roman Confms'm the Capitol; 
and as by thofe innumerable Infcriptions of 
irrefragable, and undeniable Antiquitie do's 

1 legebantur ed. l. 

c a 

lo Sculptura, or 

We have already computed how pro- 
bable it is, that Sculpture was in ufe in 
^/Egypt fbmewhat before, or at leaft as 
foon as the Patriarch Abraham fet his 
foot there: But the leffe difcerning 
Greeks who receiv'd it from the ^/Egypti- 
ans^ could tell us of no writings of theirs 
extant before Homer^ if we will give 
ear to Jofephus^ before that of Tatian (a 
learned AJfyrian^ and contemporary with 
Ju Bin Marty f)vj\Ltz he affirmesct^'O/c^pfii; 
fjiQvo v TrpearfivTepofstrnv o Mav<n>if, STI Jg TUV Trpo 
'Svyypaipeav, Aivov, 

Movtraiov, ' 

orrtf {is ryv ^TrcipTVjv ct,(f)iKeTo f 'Apio-rect, rdu 
Tlpoxovvqriov TOV ret ' AptpdrTri 
rof, 'Ao-jSaAou Te TOV KevTAvpou 

Te xcti E&pfaio TOU Kvyrpiov, 

CLI TIpo<rfAct,vTiov TOV ' 
&c. Where we have no leffe then feven- 
teen Grecians nam'd elder then Homer. 
There are alfo enumerated the names of 
twenty Argive Kings from Inachus to <dga- 
memnon, which flrongly infers the means 
of Recording by Sculpture and Writing 
to have been very ancient. For fo we 
read that the Poems of Hejiod were 
ingraven in Lead. Ariftotle mentions 


The Hiffory of Chalcography. 
Daphne a certain Devoir efle of Apollo ; 
Sabinus, and T)todorus many others. But 
when, or whoever it were, thence 
(as we faid) it travell'd into Greece, that 
Theater of the Arts, where it fbon arriv'd to 
the fupreamefl height of perfection, when 
being applied to the forming of Figures, it 
was celebrated by all the Witty men of 
thofe, and the fucceeding Ages. Home 
tells us of the engraving in the Shield of A- J 
chilles; Hefiod that of Hercules ; not to 
mention the Sculptures upon the Charriot of 
the Sun, defcribed by the Poet, becaufe it is 
altogether fi&itious, though extreamly in- 
genious, and whence happly they might have 
their Fehicula Ctflata mention 'd by Q.D/r//- 
us. But whither now thefe antient and fa- 
mous pieces were hollow, like thofe of our 
Burme, or the work of our Cheezil and re- 
pair'd Emboflements, might feem a difficul- 
ty to refblve from the frequent interpretati- 
ons we attributed to the yerbe in the former 
chapter ; if what we have here atteiled con- 
cerning the Antiquity of Letters, and con- 
fequently of flat inci/ions, pronounce not for 
its preheminence, however this may appear 
to the more judicious. Add to it, that both 
'Plajlica (whatever others may fancy) unlefs 
we will afcend to the divine figulation of 
thefiril breathing Statue\k& was ever form 'd 

c 3 (and 

22, Sculptura, or 

(and with Tliny^ derive it to be before, and 
the Mother^ Sculpture) and the Anaglyptic 
Art, (not produc'd in the World 'till about 
the time of Belus, and the beginning of 
Gentilifme) were not 'till long alter the ufe 
of Letters^ if Enochs Prophefy were not pre- 
fer ved by unwritten tradition, and the for- 
mer ^0fr^>^/Monuments have other foun- 
dation then the Wit of the Rablins^ which 
we can by no means aflent to in the generall. 
Befides, if we apply it to Intaglio? s in Stone, 
fea/s, and the like, for having been almoft 
coevous with Rings (what was elfe the Sig- 
3 8. Gen. 1 8. ne t which JW0/6 left with his Daughter Ta- 
mar f) it quelHonlels derives its Original 
before any History at prefent extant in the 
World, Divine or Humane, was commit- 
ted to writing : Of which he who has a thirft 
to fatisfie his Curiofity farther, may confiilt 
Gorfeus,Qr For tun. Lice tusde AnnulisAnti- 
quorum\ Where alfb concerning their Scul- 
pture, firfl in Iron^ then in 6V*/, other Me- 
tals and Stones; and of which might very 
much be added, both touching their dignity, 
fignification, and how they came at length 
to be worne ib uni verfally. Something we 
might here likewife infert of their Constella- 
ted Figures, or Talifmarf sjuyn^ fince engraven 
upon certain Inflants and Periods of the Suns 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 

ingrefle into fuch, and fiich particular fignes 
of the Zodiac, treated of by Francis Rueus 
the Thyfitian, Tralianus, and inftar omnium, 
by the learned Gaffarel at large ; but we 
haften to that which followes. 


Of the Reputation andProgreJfe of Sculpture a- 
mongft the Greeks, and Romans down to the 
middle-ages; with fome pretenfions to the 
Invention of Copper-cuts, and their fm- 

WE have now done with the Original, 
and will next endeavour to invefH- 
gate what progrefs it has made amongft 
thofe glorious anduniverfal Monarchs, when 
Sculpture and all other noble Arts were in 
their Afcendent and higheft reputation ; I 
mean the Greeks and the Romans ; For to 
the firft do's Herodotus appropriate the per- 
fection of this art, not admitting it to have 
arriv'd at the latter till about the time of 
Spurius CaJJlus, vi\&n.Baptift<dlberti afcribes 
it to his country men the Tufcans. 

Thofe who have well furvei'd the Natu- 
ral Hiftory diTliny will eafily commute for 
c 4 the 

2,4 Sculptura, or 

the Omiflion, if out of pure indulgence to 
their eyes only, we forbear the tranfcribing of 
at leaft three or four intire Chapters, indu- 
ftrioufly baulking thofe ample and luxurious 
Fields of Statues, as under the Fufile and 
i. 33. c. 8. Tlaiflic head ; becaufe it fuites not with our 
!' -' c i*' P re ^ ent defign and inilitution : For to pafle 
over the Figures in Metal, thofe of Gypfum 
and other materials; The Sculptores Mar- 
moris were fb many, and the Greeks fb ex- 
travagantly fond of their works, that at 
Rhodes alone, that fmall Ifland, were no 
lefle then 73000 Signa; nor were there 
fewer at Athens, Olympia, Delphi and feve- 
ral other Cities, whereof whole Armies of 
them were transferr'd to Rome, after Achaia 
had been conquered by L. Mummius, 
at which period the Greek Arts began to 
Rife, and be in fiich reputation amongft 
them; and This to fb high an excefle, as 
"Pliny records of his Age, that there were 
almoft as many Statues as Men, by a kind of 
noble contention (fayes Sr. H. Wot tori) in 
Element, point of fertility 'twixt Art and Nature, and 
Architect which He, and my Lord Bacon improve to a 

Inftaurat. -. . ni J -i -. 

politique, as well as altogether an expence- 
ful magnificency. It fhall then fuffice that 
we be fparing in thefe Inftances, and keep 
our fel ves to thofe workes in.&Intaglias onl 

The Hiftory of Chalcography. 2.y 

which do neareft approach our defign ; of 
which fort may be efleem'd thofe avoa-Qpei- 
yio-fAATet, mentioned by Tliny^ in which Art 
that famous Tyrgoteles did fo excell, as 
made Alexander the great ordain, that none 
fhould prefiime to carve his Effigies fave 
him only; to paint or call him, befides Apel- 
les and Lyfippus^ 

Editto vetuit, ne quis Je^pr<eter Apellem^ 

Tingeret^ aut alius Lyfippo duceret <era HOT. />/?. 

Forth dlexandri vultumfimulantia. 

Had Queen Elizabeth been thus circumfpect, 
there had not been fb many vile copies mul- 
tiply ed from an ill Painting ; as being call'd 
in, and brought to j^^ar-house, did for fe- where 
veral years, furnifh the Tajlry-men with 
Teels for the ufe of their Ovens. 

We wifh the fame might pleafe his Ma- 
jejly^ and that none fave fiich as for their ex- 
cellent tallent had particular indulgence, 
might any more dare to reprefent his facred 
perfbn in painting or Carving then in his 
Coyne and Royal Signature: For it is ferioufly 
a reprochfull thing only, to behold how it is 
proran'd by the hand of fb many vile, and 
wretched Bunglers (they deferve not the 
name of Workmen) as blulh not daily to 
expofe their own lhame, in fb precious and 
rever'd a Subject : And that the Heads of 






Sculptura, or 

Kings and Heros fhould be permitted to 
hang for Signes, among Cats, and Ow/es, 
T)ogs and AJfes, at the pleafure of every Ta- 
vern and Tippling-houje, we have frequent- 
ly flood in admiration of: But fo did not that 
of Alexander as we noted ; nor would Au- 
guftus make himfelf cheaper, then that 
great Matter of his time, Diofcorides pleas 'd, 
whom he particularly chofe to prefer ve, 
and derive his Divine Effigies to the after 
Ages, and to the honour of his memory, by 
what he left in thofe Signets, and other 
Stones which he cut for that renown'd Em- 
perour. Thus Sculpture began to be moft e- 
minent in Stones and Gemms, Auro, Argento, 
<^/fLre, Ferro, Ligno, Ebore, Marmore, fi- 
tro, &c. As this Author affirmes; where 
difcourfing of the famous Works were 
left by the Matters of note upon record in 
his time, he feems to afcribe the Invention 
to one Dipoenus, and Scyllis ; For we fhall 
not here afcend fb high as Prometheus, or 
fpeak much of Ideocus, Eucirapus, Lyfiftra- 
tus, 'Demophilus, T)edalus,LeocharesSPolicar- 
mus, Myrmectdes, and innumerable others : 
It would be tedious (as we faid) to tran- 
fcribe the names but of the Peices only, 
of all thofe renowned Men whom he 
there celebrates for their engravings on 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 

Armour \ Cups, Rings ^ 6Y#/j-,even to the very 
Figulina F'afa ctflata, fuch as Cotys brake of 
purpofe, leaft fome other unexpefted acci- 
dent or mifchance might put him into p/*. 
paflion, as Plutarch tells the Story : Hydritf^ 
and water pots were thus wrought, and 
Pliny {peaks of the Engraving even of 
Bread: 'Tis yet obfervable, that very few 
were found who took any pleafiire to en- 
grave in Gold (as we conceive) being too 
foft a Metall ; but multitudes that wrought 
in Silvery efpecially, the famous Mentor of 
whofe Work Fairo affirmes he had a piece 
in his pofleflion, which he infinitely valu- 
ed ; for, it feems, he had never finifh'd a- 
bove eight, which were moft of them lolt. 
Two more of his Cups had L. Crajfus the 
Orator^ priz'd at C. HS. Confejfus eft tamen 
fe nunquam his uti propter verecundiam au- 
fum ; fb rich it feems, and magnificent they 
were, that even this great perfon profeiled 
he never durfl make ufe of them out of 
pure modefty, and to avoid the cenlure of 
being thought too Luxurious : Martial de- 
fcribes another, where a Lizard was fb lively 
reprefented, Men were afraid it would bite. 
Inferta Thialtf Mentoris manu duff a 
Lacerta vivit, fe> timetur argentum. 
Next to Mentor, was <Acragus> Boethus, 


28 Sculptura, or 

and Mys, whofe Mafter-piece was expos'd 
at Rhodes ; efpecially thofe glorious rtfit, 
and Goblets of the Bacchanalia, engraven 
by the foremention'd 4cragus, and of Sop 
cage, Cfiafes, and Hunting: Famous alfb 
were Calamis, Antipater, and Stratonicus, 
who engraved the Satyr Sleeping, a flupen- 
dious piece of Art ; Then there flourifh'd 
Tamijeus of Cizicum, Arijlus, Eunicusboth 
of them Mitylenians\ Likewife/ftti/feJ', and 
the renowned Traxiteles about the time of 
Tompy: Tofidonius of Ephejus^ and Ledus 
famous for reprefenting of Battails, &c. To 
be brief (for their Works are endlefs) 20- 
pirus^ who engrav'd the Court of the ^4re- 
opagi in a Cup, and the trial of Ore/test 
After him lived Tytheus and feveral others 
too long here to recite. Nor were all thefe 
Gravers in flat ; but, as we faid, in Relievo 
fbme of them, and more approching to the 
Statuary ; Befides fiich as were excellent 

^ Galba^ jyc. down to the Reigns of 
Commodus^ and Tertinax ; for from Sevems 
it greatly decay 'd, and the moft tollerable 
engravings of the former, lafted but to Ner- 
va y the beft being thofe which were cut, 
and ftamped in the time of Caligula, Clau- 
dius^ and Nero, about which period Sculp- 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 
ture beginning to degenerate in Greece, it 
travell'd and came to Rome now opulent 
and vi&orious. But after thefe, and the for- 
merly recorded by Tliny, there were not 
many who left either Name, or Work famous 
to Poflerity: For, befides that the Monar- 
chy was (bon broken and difbrder'd; the 
later Empp. became lefs Curious, Rich and 
Magnificent ; fb as even in the time of the 
Great Conjlantine it {elf, Arts began mani- 
feftly to degenerate : But, when afterwards 
the Goths and Saracens had broken in upon 
the Roman Empire, and made thofe horrid 
devaltations, they were in a manner utter- 
ly loft; as the Reliques which they left in 
Statuary, Sculpture, Architecture, Letters, and 
all other good Arts do yet teftifie. It is 
true, that the ruder 'Danes, and Norwegians 
had in thefe times their Runic writings, or 
engraven Letters, as in their Rimjioc or 
Trimftaf; fbme fquare or long piece of 
board, or Staff, having an Almanac carved 
on it : So they engrav'd their Letters on 
Bones, either whole, or Sliced, and bound 
up together, like our Tallies; alii) upon 
Jaw-bones of the greater Filhes, taken on 
their Coafts : And Wormius in FasJ. 2)an. 
L. i. chap. 1 8. mentions T>anijh Hierogly- 
phics, on the Tombs of their old Hero's ; 


30 Sculptura, or 

Lyons, Bears, Horfes, Dogs, Dragons, 
Snakes, &c. wrought on trie hardeft Rocks 
together with Runic Characters ; fb as thefe 
Nations feldom travelled without their Gnef, 
or Gr<ef-S<ex^ a kind of point orftiletto, with 
which they us'd to carve out Letters and o- 
ther Figures upon occafion ; but it was yet 
fb rude, and their Guflo fb depravd, that 
they demolifh'd, and ruin'd all thofe goodly 
fabricks, and excellent Works, whereever 
they became Matters, introducing their 
lame, and wretched manner, in all thofe 
Arts which they pretended to reftore, even 
when now they became a little more civi- 
liz'd by the converfation of the more po- 
lifh'd and flourifhing Countries: For it 
was not any general, and imaginary decay^ 
which fbme have conceited to be dirliis'd up- 
on the univerfal face of Nature, that the 
fucceeding periods did not emerge, or at- 
tain to the excellency of the former Ages, 
antient Mafters^ and renowned workes ; 
but to the univerfal decay of noble, and 
heroic Genius 's to encourage them. Trifcis 
satyr, enim temporibus (faies Tetronms] cum adhuc 
nudaplaceretvirtus^yigebant Artes ingeriu<e, 
Jummumque cert amen inter homines erat, nequid 
profuturumfeculisdiu lateret; Itaque omnium 
Herbarum Juccos Democritus expreffit\ & 


The Plittory of Chalcography. 
nelapidumPirgultommque vislateret, tetatem 
inter experimenta confumpfit: Eudoxus quidem 
in cacumine exceljijjimi montis confenuit^ ut 
Aftrorum Ctflique motus deprehenderet : fa> 
Chryfippus ut ad inventionem Jiifficeret, tei 
Helleboro animum deter fit: Ferum^ ntadplaflas 
convertar (which comes neareft our in- 
flance) Lyfippum ftatute unius lineamentis in- 
hterentem inopiaexftinxit\ &Myron,$uzJ>ene 
hominum Animas^ Ferarumquet^Ere compre- 
henderat^ non invenit heredem. At nos p^ino^ 
mus cognofcere, fed accufatores antiquitatis^ 
Pitta tantum docemus <fa> difcimus^ fee. He 
concludes ; Noli to ergo mirari, fipiftura de- 
fee it jum omnibus T)iis Hominibufque formo- 
Jiorvideaturmajfa Auri^ quam quicquid Ky&- 
les, Phidiafve, Graecnli delirantes fece- 

And if thus even in the greatefl height 
and perfection of the Sciences, the eloquent 
Satyrift could find juft realbn to deplore 
their decadence, and cenfiire the vices of 
that age ; what fhall we fay of ours, Ib mi- 
ferably declining, and prodigioufly degene- 
rate ? We want Alexanders^ Augustus's^ 
fuch as Francis the I. Cofimo di Medices^ 
Charles the J^. thofe Fathers, and Mec onus's 
of the arts, who by their liberality and af- 


32, Sculptura, or 

fe6Hon to firtue^ mayfKmulate,and provoke 
men to gallant exploits; and that being 
thereby once at their eafe from the penurie, 
and neceffities which deprefle the nobleft 
mindes, they might work for glory, and 
not for thofe trifling and illiberal rewards, 
which hardly would find them bread, 
Ihould they employ but half that time upon 
their fludies, which were requifite to bring 
their labours to the fupremefl perfection; 
fince according to that faying, ov^ev ruv 
peydhav cicftvc*) yivereti No thing which is great 
can be done without leafure : If a quarter 
of that which is thrown away upon Cards ^ 
T)ice 3 Dogs, Miftrejfes, bafe and vitious 
G a Hanteries^ and impertinent follies, were im- 
ploy'd to the encouragement of arts, and 
promotion of fcience, how illuftrious and 
magnificent would that age be ; how glori- 
ous and infinitely happy ? We complain of 
the times prefent, 'tis ffe that make them 
bad ; We admire the former, 'tis the ef- 
fecl: of our Ignorance only ; and which is 
yet more criminal, in that we have had 
their examples to inflrucl:, and have made 
them to reproch us : Pardon this indignati- 
on of Ours, O ye that love vertue and cul- 
tivate the fciences ! 

To returne to our Inftitution again : Scul- 

The History of Chalcography. 3 3 

pture and Chalcography feem to have been of 
much antienter date in China then with us; 
where all their writings and printed Records 
were engraven either on Copper plates 
or cut in Tablets of Wood, of which fbme 
we poflefle, and have feen more, repre- 
fenting (in ill pictures) Landskips, Sto- 
ries, and the like. Jofephus Scaliger af- 
firmes that our firit Letters in Europe were 
thus cut upon Wood, before they invented 
the Typos <eneos; inftancing in a certain Ho- 
rologium B. Mari^ which he fayes he had 
feen Printed upon Parchment a great while 
fmce : But Semedo would make the World 
believe that the fbremention'd Chinezes H ift. chin, 
have been poflefs'd of this invention about P arc - x - 
fixteen hundred years, fbme others affirme cap * 7> 
3700. However, that they were really 
Matters of it long before us, is univerfally 
agreed upon ; and (it) is yet in fuch efteem 
amongit them, that the very Artizan who 
compounds the Ink for the Preffe, is not 
accounted amongftthe Mechanic profeflors; 
but is dignify 'd with a liberal Salary, and 
particular priviledges. They alfb engrave 
upon ilone, and imprint with it ; but with 
this difference in the working-off; that the 
paper being black, the Sculpture remains 
white. More admirable is that which they 
EVELYN D attelt 

34 Sculptura, or 

atteft was found in Mexico, and other places 
of the new world, where they Hierogly- 
phiz'd both their Thoughts, Hiflories and 
inventions to pofterity, not much unlike to 
the^gff>tzans, though in lefle durable, and 
permanent matter : The fame likewife Jo. 
Laet aifirmes of the Sculpture among the 
jfcaduCj and thofe of JVova Francta ; fb 
natural (it feems) and ufeful was this art, 
even to the leaft civiliz'd amongft the 
Heathens: And there is indeed nothing 
at which we more admire, and deplore, 
then that this facile, and obvious inven- 
tion ; and which would have tranfmitted 
to us fb many rare and admirable things, 
was never hit upon among the Greeks and 
inventive Romans^ who engrav'd fb many 
fnjcriptions both in Biajfe and Marble ; im- 
prefled and publifh'd fo many thoufands of 
medaih^ and coynes as are in the hands and 
collections of the Pirtuoji^ and the bowels 
of the Earth, whereever their conquefls ex- 
tended themfelves, or Eagles difplay'd their 


The Hiftory of Chalcography 3 5- 


Of the invention an d progrejfe of Chalcography 
in particular ; together with an ample enu- 
meration of the mo ft renowned Mafters^ana 
their Workes. 

THe Art of Engraving and working off, 
from Plates of Copper, which we 
call Prints^ was not yet appearing, or born 
with us, till about the year 14^0. which 
was near upon $o years after Typography 
had been found out \>yjohn Guittemberg^ or 
who ever that lucky perfon were (for 'tis 
exceedingly controverted) that firft pro- 
ducM the Invention. There is a collection 
of antientO^fo'j- adorned withfeveral Sculp- 
tures (if fb we may terme thofe wretched 
Gravings in the infancy of this art) where 
the 'Devil is but one great blot (as indeed 
he is the Fouleft of the Creation) 
and the reft of the Figures Monochroms 
as ridiculous and extravagant; though 
ftill as the invention grew older, refi- 
ning and improving upon it. One of the 
antienteft Gravings which we have feen, to 
which any mark is appos'd hath M. 3. and 
Di M.C. 

1 6 Sculptura, or 

M. C. in one of the corners of the plates; 
and it was long that they ufed the initial 
letters of their names, only, and fometimes 
but one ; as in thofe of Lucas. Albert T)u- 
rer did frequently add the year of the 
Lord, and his own age from ten to four- 
teen, &c. performing fuch things as might 
lhame moft of the beft Matters, for the 
true and fteady defign, the incomparable 
proportion, and itroake of his Graver : But 
Ifrael^ Martin Schon^ and the Tedefco (who 
is by fbme firnamed The MafteroftheCan- 
dlejiick^ becaufe of the foulnefle of his Ink) 
were of the very firft, as far as we can col- 
lee!, who publifhed any works of this kind 
under their names, wrought off by the 
Rolling-Prefle, and whofe ilender attempts 
gave incouragement to thofe who have 

George J^afari^ who has been exceeding- 
ly curious in this enquiry, attributes the 
firft invention of this Art to one Mafo Fini- 
gtterra a Florentine^ about anno 1460, which 
exceeds our former computation by 30. 
years ; but then we are to confider by what 
progrefle and degrees ; for it was firft only 
in Silver, to fill with a certain Rncaujlic or 
black Enamel^ which it feems gave him the 
firft hint how to improve it in plates of brafs, 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 37 

which having engraved, he did only fume, 
taking off the impreflion with a moyft pa- 
per and a Rolling pin. This mean com- 
mencement was yet afterwards purfu'd 
by Baccio Baldini a Goldfmith, his Country- 
man, whofe works coming to the fight of 
Andrea Mantegna in Rome, invited that 
great Painter to give him fome defignes of 
his own for his encouragement; and from 
thence it travelTd into Flanders to one 
Martine of Antwerp, whofe works (as we 
obferv'd) were ufually counterfign'd with 
M. the firft whereof were the five wife and 
five foolijh Virgins, and a Crucifix, which 
was fo well cut, that Gerardo a Florentine 
Painter would needs copy it : After this he 
publifhed his four vangclifts, our Saviour, 
and the twelve Apojlles^F^eronica, S. George, 
Chrift before Tilate, an ajfumption of the B. 
Virgin, one of the raref t that ever he did ; 
befides that St. Anthonies temptation, which 
was fo well performed, that Michael 
Angelo (exceedingly raviflied with it) 
would needs wafh it over with his own 

The next that appeared of note was the 

formerly mention 'd and renowned Albert 

*Durer, who flourifhed about the year 1^03. 

and who had performed wonders both in 

D 3 Copper 

38 Sculptura, or 

Copper and Wood, had he once fortun'd 
upon the leaft notion of that excellent 
manner, which came afterwards to be in 
vogue, of giving things their natural diftan- 
ces, and agreeable fweetneffe, the defect of 
Element whichSir^/./^tf/iwdoes worthilyperftrinee 

of Archi- IT. i . if- i T 

tea. both in him, and tome others. But to 
proceed, Albert being very young fet forth 
our Lady, fome defignes of Horjes after the 
life; the Trodigal, S. Sebajlian in little, a 
Nymph raviftied by a Monfter ; a Woman on 
Horjeback, T)iana chaftifing a Nymph who 
flies to a Satyr for prote&ion, in which he 
difcovered his admirable talent and skill 
in expreffing Nudities : A Country man 
and Woman playing on Bagpipes, with 
Poultry, &c. about them. Penus, or the 
temptation of the Stove ; his two St. Chri- 
ftopners, rare cuts. After that, he engraved 
feveral Stamps in Wood, proof whereof 
he gave in the decollation of St. Jo. Bapt. 
with Herodtas^ Pope Stxtus^ St. Stephen^ 
Lazarus^ S. George, a pajfion in great, the 
laft fupper, Chrijls apprehenfion in the 
Garden, defcent into Limbo, and Refur- 
re6Mon, with eight more Prints of this 
fubjecl:, which are held to be fpurious : 
All thefe he publiihed anno i^io. The 
year following, he fet forth the life of our 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 

Lady in twenty fheets rarely conduced. 
The Apocalyps in fifteen fheets, of which 
the Painters have made diffident ufe; 
Chrift bemoaning our fins ; Then applying 
himfelf to grave in Copper again, he pub- 
lifhed his Melancholia, three different Ma- 
donas, with thirty pieces befides concern- 
ing the pajjlon, and which being afterwards 
imitated by that rare Artift Marco Antonio 
(who had procur'd them at Venice) and 
publifhed for Originals (fo exactly it feems 
they were perform'd) did fo infenfe Albert, 
that he made ajourney to Venice exprefly 
to complain of the injury to the Senate, 
and obtain 'd atlaft, that M. Antonio Ihould 
no more be permitted to fet his mark or 
Plagia, which was all he could procure of 
them. Another emulator of Alberts was 
Lucas van Leyden, whom at his returne 
into Germany he found had well neer over- 
taken him for the fweetnefle of his Burine, 
though fomething inferiour of defign : Such 
were a Chrijl bearing the Crofle, and ano- 
ther of his Crucifixion, Sampfon, T>auid on 
a horfe, the Martyrdome of S. Peter, Saul y 
and 'David, the {laughter of Goliah, the 
famous Tiper, Virgil V, and fome other heads, 
all which works did fo inflame his Anta- 
gonift Albert^ that in a laudable revenge, 
D 4 he 

40 Sculptura, or 

he publifh'd his arm'd Cavalier or Dream, 
in which the brightnefle and luftre of the 
Armour and Horfe is rarely conduced: 
Then in the year 1^1 2, he fet forth fix other 
fmallftories ofthepajfion, which Lucas alfo 
imitated, though hardly reach 'd : Then a 
S. George, Solomons Idolatry ; the Baptifme 
of our Lord, Tyramus and Tbisbie, Ahafu- 
erus and Hefter, dec. Thefe again incited 
Albert to publilh that Temperantia^ whom 
he elevates above the clouds, S. Eufiathius 
and the Hart, a moft incomparable cut ; 
his Deaths head in a Scutcheon, and feve- 
ral German Coates full of rare Mantlings 
and invention. Alfo S. Hierom, a Cbrtft 
and twelve Apoftles in fmall : anno 1^23. 
many heads, as that of Erajmus, Cardinal 
Albert^ the Imperial Electors, and his own, 
with divers other. 

Lucas again in emulation of thefe, fet 
forth his Jojeph and four Evangelifts, the 
Angels appearing to Abraham ; SuJ'anna^ 
T>avid praying, Mordecay triumphing; 
Lot, the Creation of Adam and Eve\ the 
Itory of Cain and Abel, viz. anno 1 5*2.9. But 
what procur'd him immortal glory was his 
great Crucifix^ Ecce Homo, and Conversion 
of St. Taut-, in which he exceeded himfelf 
both for the work and ordinance; the 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 41 

diftances being better conduced then Al- 
berts^ and indeed fo well obferv'd, as gave 
light even to fome of the beft Painters that 
fucceeded him; fb much are they obliged 
to this Art, and to this rare Workman: 
He graved alfb feveral Madonas^wt blefled 
Saviour and Apo?iles\ together with divers 
Saints, Armes and Mantlings, a Mountebanc 
and many more. 

But to return now into Italy from whence 
we firft Tallied; in the time of Raphael 
Urbine flourifhed the renouned Marco An- 
tonio^ who graved after thofe incomparable 
pieces of that famous Painter, to whom 
he was fo dear, that the honour he has 
done him to posterity will appear, as long 
as that School of Raphael remains in the 
Popes Chamber at the Vatican, or any me- 
morial of it lafts ; though to speak truth, 
even of this rare Graver, the Pieces which 
he hath publifhed feem to be more eftima- 
ble yet for the choice and imitation, then 
for any other perfection of the Burine\ as 
forming moft of his figures and touches of 
too equal force, and by no means well 
obferving the diftances, according to the 
rules of Perfpeclive, that tendernefTe, and 
as the Italians terme it, Morbidezza, in 
the hatchings, which is abfolutely requifite 


Sculptura, or 

to render a piece accomplifh'd and without 

We have recited above, what he Cop- 
pied after Albert Z>urer ; But being at Rome, 
and applying himfelf to Raphael, he cut 
that rare Lucre ti a of his, which he per- 
form'd fb much to fatisfa&ion, that di- 
vers excellent painters defir'd him to Pub- 
lifh many of their Works : This produc'd 
Urbines Judgment of Paris, at which the 
City was fo ravifh'd, that they decreed 
the Golden apple to Antonio, before the 
fair Goddeffe: Then he fet forth the 
Slaughter of the Innocents, Neptune, the 
Rape of Helena, all of them of Raphaels 
defigning : Alfb the Martyrdome of St. Fe- 
lix in the boyling Oyl, which purchased 
him fo much Fame and Credit; but this 
Excellent Painter would alwayes from that 
time forewards, have one of his Servants 
to attend only M. Antonio's Rolling-prefs, 
and to work off his Plates, which then 
began to be marked with R. S. for Raphael 
Sancio, which was the name of Urbine, 
and with M. F. for Marco Fecit. Of thefe 
there is a /^^defign'd by Raphael, Abra- 
ham and his Handmaid : After this he gra- 
ved all thofe round defignes painted in the 
Vatican by the fame hand ; Likewife the 


The Hijlory of Chalcography. 43 

Caliope, Trovidentia, Juftitia, the Mufes, 
Apollo, Tarnaffus, the Poets ; ^Eneas and 
^nchijes, the famous Galatea, all of them 
after Raphael: Alfo the three Theological 
Ferities, and four Moral, Pax, Chrift, 
and the Twelve: Several Madonas, St. 
Hierome, Tobit, St. Jo. Baptijl, and divers 
other Saints ; befides many prints after the 
Cartoons of Raphael which had been de- 
flgn'd to be wrought in TapeJIry and Arras; 
as the ftory of St. Peter, Taul^ Stephen^ John, 
St. Catharine, and fundry heads to the life, 
&c. efpecially that incomparable one of 
Tietro Aretino the Poet : fbme things like- 
wife being fent by Albert jDurer out of 
Germany to Raphael^ were, upon his recom- 
mendation, afterwards cut by M. Antonio, 
together with the Innocents, a Ccenaculum, 
and St. Cecilia s Martyrdom of Raphaels 
invention: Then he publifh'd his twelve 
<dpoftles in little, and divers Saints for the 
help of painters, as St. Hierome, the naked 
Woman, and the Lyon, after Raphael, Au- 
rora, and from the Antique, the three Graces. 
Marco di Ravenna was one of Antonio's 
Schollars, who had alfb together with Au- 
guftino Fenetiano, the honour to dignifie his 

5 ravings with Raphaels Cypher ; though the 
itter often us'd A. V. I. his own initial 

letters ; 

44 Sculptura, or 

letters ; of both their cutting are a Madona^ 
with a Chriftus mortuus^ and in a large 
fheet the B. Virgin praying, and a Nati- 
vity in great alfo : The Metamorphofis of 
Lycaon^ a Terfumer^ Alexander magnus and 
Roxana^ a Cana %)omini, the Annuntiation^ 
all defign'd by Raphael-^ befides thefe were 
fet forth two Stories of the Marriage of 
Pfyche\ and indeed there was hardly any 
thing which ever Raphael either painted or 
defign'd, but what were graven by one, or 
both of thefe Workmen; belides divers 
other things after Julio Romano^ viz. all 
that he painted in Raphaels Lodge, or 
Gallery in the Vatican ; fome whereof 
are figned with M. R. and others with A. 
V. to {hew they had been imitated by 
others, as was the Creation ; the Sacrifice 
of Cain and Abel, Noah^ Abraham ; the 
Paflage over the red fea; The Promulga- 
tion of the Law ; the fall of Manna^ T)a- 
Did and Goliah^ which alfo M. Antonio had 
publiflied before : as like wife the Temple of 
Solomon^ his Judgment on the Harlot s^ the 
Queen of Sabas vifit, and many other 
Hiftories colle6led out of the Old Tefta- 
ment, all which were publifhed before 
Raphaels deceafe : For after that, Augujlino 
wrought with Baccio Bandinelli^ a fculpter 


The HiStory of Chalcography. 

of Florence, who caus'd him to grave his 
Antonius and Cleopatra^ very rare things, 
with divers other deiigns; as the {laugh- 
ter of the Innocents, divers Nudities, and 
Clad Figures ; not to omit thofe excellent 
and incomparable Drawings and Paintings 
of Andrea del Sarto after which he graved; 
though in the Chrifto mortuo not altoge- 
ther fiicceeding fo well as had been wifhed. 
But to come again to Marco Antonio (be- 
caufe there is not a paper of his to be loft); 
after Raphaels death, did Julio Romano 
publifh fbme of his own defignes in print : 
I fay, after his Death ; for before, though 
he were an excellent painter; yet durft 
he never take the boldnefs upon him. 
Such were the T>uel of Horfes, a Fenus 
which he had formerly painted: The 
penance of Mary Magdalen^ the four 
Euangelifts and fome Bajfi Relievi, with 
many things that Raphael had defign'd for 
the Corridor of the Vatican, and which 
were afterward retouched by Tomajb Bar- 
lacchi: We will not contaminate this di 
courfe with thofe twenty vile defignes of 
Julio cut by M. Antonio^ and celebrated 
with the impure verfes of Teter Aretino^ by 
which he fo difhonour'd this excellent Art, 
as well as himfelf; becaufe it deferved a 


4<S Sculptura, or 

feverer Animadveriion and Chaftifement 
then was infli&ed upon him for it ; though 
to commute for this Extravagancy, he pub- 
lifh'd the Martyrdome of S. Laurence^ in 
which he alfb reformed thofe defignes of 
Baccio Bandinelli to the great reputation 
of the Art of Chalcography. 

About the fame time flourifh'd Giouan- 
ni Battifta Mantuano Difciple ofGiuleo Ro- 
mano ^ who publifh'd a Madona^ his armed 
Mars and P^enus^ the burning of Troy^ an 
extraordinary piece ; his prints are ufually 
fign'd I. B. M. Alfo his three Sheets of 
Battails (cut by fbme other hand), a Phy- 
fitian applying of Cupping Glafles to a 
Woman; Chri&s Journey into <^gfpt, 
Romulus and Rhemus^ the Stories of Tluto^ 
Jupiter and Neptune ; the miferies of Im- 
prilbnment, Interview of the Armies of 
Scipio and Hanibal\ St. John Baptifts Na- 
tivity, cut by Sebajliano de Reggio ; all, af- 
ter Julio Romano. 

Giorgio Mantuano fet forth the Facciata 
of the Popes Chappel, M. Angelos Judge- 
ment, St. 'Peters Martyrdome, the Con- 
verfion of St. Taul^ &c. And fome plates 
were fent abroad about the year 1^30. 
eaten with Aqua Fortis after Tarmejano ; 
For, as ab tere^ deventum ad Tabulas ceratas 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 47 

in writing, the ufe of the TaUmpJe&us Ta- 
ble books, Plumbs lamella and the like ; 
fo hapned it alfo in this Art of Chalcogra- 
phy ; and Etching with Corrofive waters 
began by fome to be attempted with lau- 
dable fuccefs, as in this Recital we fhall 
frequently have occafion to remember : 
But, whither thofe Symeters and Blades 
brought us from T>amafcus, and out of 
Syria, and wrought with thefe fbrong 
waters, might give any light to this expe- 
ditious and ufefull invention, we are not 
yet inform'd; and the effecl: was fiiffici- 
ently obvious, after that of the Burine had 
been well confidered. 

Ugo 1 de Carpi did things in ftamp, which 
appeared as tender as any Drawings, and 
in a new way ofCfiaro Scwo, or Mezzo Tin- 
to by the help of two plates, exactly con- 
ter-calked 2 , one ferving for the ihadow; 
the other for the heightning ; and of this 
he publifh'd a Sybilla after Raphael, which 
fucceeded fo rarely well, that he im- 
prov'd the curiofity to three Colours ; as 
his ^Eneas and dnchifes, defcent from the 
Crofs, ftory of Symon Magus, a T)avid af- 
ter the fame Urbin, and a T^enus do teftifie : 
This occafioned many others to imitate 
him, as in particular, 

1 Vagt ed. I 2 counter-calked ed. i 

48 Sculptura, or 

Baldajfare Teruzzi (who graved the 
Hercules^ Tarnajfus^ the Mufes) and Fran- 
cijco Tarmegiano^ who having fet out T)i- 
ogenes in this guife, a very rare print, in- 
ilrufted Antonio di Trento in the Art, 
who publiftied his Teter and Taul in Charo 
o/curo, the Tyburtine Sybil! and a Madona ; 
but none was there who exceeded thofe 
of Beccafumi ; efpecially, his two Apoftks 
in wood, and the Akhimiji in A^ua, 

Fran. Tarmegiano (whom we already 
mention ? d) may be efteemed for one of the 
firft that brought the ufe of A. Fortis into 
reputation ; fo tender and graceful! were 
fome of his Etching^ as appears in that 
rare T>ejcent of the Crofs, Nativity and 
feveral other pieces. 

Baptifta J^icentino^ and T>elMoro fet forth 
many curious Landskips, 

Girolamo Cocu the Liberal Sciences, &c. 

Giacomo del Cavaglio cut many things af- 
ter Roffo Fiorentino^ as the Met amor phofis of 
Saturn into a Horfe, the Rape of Trofer- 
pine^ Antoninus ^and the Swan ; fbme of the 
Herculean Labours; a book of the Gods 
and their transformations, whereof part 
are after Terino del J^aga^ alfo the Rape 
of the Sabines, an incomparable print, 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 40 

had it been perfeft ; but the City of Rome 
hapning at that time to be in fome difbr- 
der, the plates were loft : He graved like- 
wife for Tarmegiano the Efpoufals of our 
Lady, and a rare Nativity after Titian ; not 
to conceal his admirable talent in cutting 
of Onixes, Chriftals, and other eftimable 

Enea fico de Parma engraved the Rape 
of Helena after old Rojfo, a Vulcan with 
fome Cupids about him: Leda after Mich. 
Angelo : The <dnnuntiation defign'd by 77- 
tian ; the ftory of Judith, the Portrait of 
Cofimo di Medices, &c. Alfb the conteit 
'twixt Cupid and Apollo before the Gods ; 
the Converfion of St. Taul in great, a 
very rare ftamp : The head of Jovanni de 
Medici i Charles the V. and fome rare Me- 
dails which are extant in the hands of the 
Curious: He alfb publifrrd St. George \ 
feveral habits of Countries; The Stem- 
mata or Trees of the Emperours and divers 
other Famous Pedegrees. 

Lamberto Suave fet forth 13 prints of 
Chrift and his Difciples far better graved 
then defign'd, alfo the Refurre&ion of 
Lazarus^ and a St. Paul, which are skilfully, 
and very laudably handled. 

Gio. Battifta de Cavaglieri has cut the 

EVELYN E defcent 

Sculptura, or 

defcent from the Crofs, a Madona and 
many others. 

Antonio Lanferri^ and Tomafo Barlacchi 
graved divers things after Michael Angelo^ 
and procured fo many as were almofl num- 
berlefle : But what they publiih'd of bet- 
ter ufe were divers Grotefcos, Antiquities 
and peices ferving to Architecture^ taken 
out of the old buildings and Ruines yet 
extant, which afterwards Selaftiano Serli 
refining upon, compos 'd the better part 
of that excellent book of his : And of 
this nature are the things publifh'd by 
Antonio JLabbaco^ and Barozzo da Fignola. 

The Famous Titian himfelf left fome 
rare things graven with his own hand in 
wood, befides his Tharo in the great Car- 
toons^ divers Landskips, a Nativity^ St. 
Hierom, S. Francis ^ and in Copper a Tan- 
talus^ Adonis^ alfo in Box the Triumph of 
Faith, Tatriarchs^Sybills^Innocents^ Apoftles^ 
Martyrs^ with our Saviour borne up in a 
Chariot by the four Evangelists, Z)o&ors, 
and Confeffors\ Alfo the B. Firgin^ a St. 
Anna, which he firft painted in charo ofcu- 
ro on the Sepulcher of Luigi Trivifano in 
St. Giovanni e Taola & Venice ^ Samjbn and 
^allila^ fome Shepheards and Animals; 
Three Bertuccie fitting, and encompafled 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 

with Serpents like the Laocoon ; not to men- 
tion what were publifhed by Giulio Buo- 
najbni, and thofe which were cut after 
Raphael, Giulio Romano, Tarmegiano and 
feveral others. 

Baptifta Franco a Venetian Painter, has 
(hewed both his dexterity in the Graver, 
and Aqua Fortis alfb; by the Nativity, 
Adoration of the Magi, Predication of St. 
Teter, Some A#s of the Apojlles, Hiftories 
of the Old Teftament after feveral excel- 
lent Matters : 

Renato did divers rare things after Rojfo, 
as in that of Francis the Firjl his paffing 
to the Temple of Jupiter ; The Salutation 
of the B. Virgin, and a daunce of ten 
women, with feveral others. 

Luca Tenni publifhed his two Satyrs 
whipping of Bacchus ; a Leda, Sufanna and 
fbme things after Trimaticcio : alfb the 
Judgement of Paris, IJaac upon the Altar ; 
a Chrijl^ a Madona Efpoufing of S. Catha- 
rine ; the Metamorphojis of Calijla, Concili- 
um T>eorum^ Tenelope and fbme others in 
Wood. Who does not with admiration 
and even extafie behold the works of 
Francefco Marcolini^. Efpecially, his Gar- 
den of thoughts ; Fate, Envy, Calamity, 
Fear, Trayfe, fo incomparably cut in 
Wood. E 2, Nor 

Sculptura, or 

Nor lefle Worthy of Commendation 
are the Gravings of Gabrielle Gtolito, in 
the Orlando of Ariofto ; as alfo thofe eleven 
pieces of Anatomie made for Andrea, 
fejfalius defign'd by Calcare the Flem- 
ming, an Excellent Painter, and which were 
afterwards engraven in Copper by Fal- 
verde in little. 

Chrtftophero Coriolano graved the heads 
in Safaris lives of the Painters, being af- 
ter the defignes of the fame Safari ; they 
are in wood, and rarely done. 

Antonio Salamanca did put forth fome 
very good things. 

Andrea Mantegna that admirable Painter, 
engraved his Triumphs of Cdfar with 
great Art; as like wife Baccanalias, andfea- 
Gods, a Chrift taken from the Crols, his 
Burial, and Refurre&ion ; which being 
done both in Brafs and Wood, were con- 
ducted with that skill, as for the ibftnefs 
and tenderneffe of the lights, they ap- 
peared as if they had been Painted in 

Nor may we here omit to celebrate for 
the glory of the Sex, Tropertia de RoJJl a 
Florentine Sculptrefs ; who having cut fhi- 
pendious things in Marble, put forth alfo 
Fome rare things in Stampt to be encoun- 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 

tred amongft the Colle&ions of the Cu- 

And about this age, or a little after, flou- 
rifhed Martin Ruota^ famous for his Judg- 
ment after Michael Angelo in a fmall volume, 
much to be preferred to that which is com- 
monly fold at Rome in fb many iheets; 
like wife his St. Anthony and divers more. 
Jacomo Talma has (befides his excellent 
book of Drawing) fet forth many rare 
pieces, very much efteem'd. 

Andrea Mantuan graved both in Wood 
and Copper ; of his were the Triumph of 
our Saviour after Titian^ and fbme things 
in Charo of euro after Gio : di Bologna and 
T)omenico Beccafumi^ whom but now we 
mentioned; alfb the Roman Triumphs in 
imitation of Mantegna^ a Chriflus mortuus 
after dlexand. Cafolini^ &c. 

Finally, towards the end of this Century, 
appeared sluguftino and Annibal Caracci^ 
moft rare Painters and exquifite Engra- 
vers ; for indeed when thele two Arts go 
together, then it is, and then only, that 
we may expeft to fee the utmoft efforts and 
excellency of the Bolino : amongft the fa- 
mous pieces communicated to us by thefe 
Matters, we may efteem the Monetti^ <^/- 

, and ^.Hierom. 

5*4 Sculptura, or 

After Tintoret the large and famous Cruci- 
fix of three fheets in S. Roccos fchool which 
fb ravifhed the Painter : Mercury and the 
Graces, Sapientia, Tax, Abundantia chafing 
Mars away ; The Ecce homo of Correggio, 
S. Francis of Cavalier Fanni: a J^enus in 
little with a Satyr, and fbme other nudities 
with fbmething a too luxurious Graver : S. 
Giujlinas Martyrdom of Taulo F'eronezes, 
S. Catherine, and that renown'd S. Hierom 
of Correggio ; Alfb in Aqua fortis his bro- 
ther Hannibal etched another Fenus ; the 
Woman of Samaria at the well, a Chrift 
in little, and a Madona with the Bambino, 
and S. ^0^# ; The famous xS". Roch and the 
fpitefull coronation with thornes : The 
Chriftus mortuus bewailed by the devout fex, 
the original painting whereof hangs in the 
D. of Tarmas Palace at Caprarvola, and is in 
the Cut one of the tenderft and rareft things 
that can be imagined, abating the vilenefs of 
the Plate, which was moft unfortunately 
chofen, though through that accident, 
rendred inimitable, and never to be counter- 
feited : There is likewife his Magdalen and a 
Landskip touch 'd with the Graver a little ; 
likewife a Sylenus, all of them incomparably 
defign'd, nor indeed, did any of the fore 
celebrated Artifh exceed the Carracci, efpe- 

The Hiftory of Chalcography. 5*5- 

daily Hannibal, for the noblenefle and 
freedom of his poflures, bodies and limbs, 
which he exprefs'd in greateft perfe&ion ; 
We may not omit the Turification which 
he grav'd, and J^ittamena made in large, 
nor the S. Anthony -, the Original whereof 
is in the Palace of Signior Francifco della 
Figna at F'enice, nor laftly the Refureftion 
and the two Genaculas. 

In the time of Sixtus Quintus and fince, 
lived Francifco J^tttamena a rare workman, 
whether conlider'd for the equality of his 
hatches, which he condu&ed with a liber- 
ty and agreeablenefs fuitable to the per- 
fection of his delign (as is fufficiently 
apparent in that famous Plate, which he 
engrav'd after Taulo J^eroneze^ reprefenting 
Chrift in the Temple) or in thofe things 
after the Vatican paintings by Raphael^ 
ibme whereof being never finifhed, came 
into a private hand. The Triumphant 
J^enus on the fea ; Mofes, fome cuts after 
Fredrick^ Barrocch in Aqua fortis^ divers 
Catafalcos of excellent Architecture, Igna- 
tins Lyola\ the ftory of TJyche containing 
many fheets ; a combate of men cafting 
ftones at one another ; and laftly, that la- 
borious and ufefull book, comprehending 
the Hi Storical Columns of Trajan, defign'd 
E 4 by 

5 6 Sculptura, or 

by Julio Romano, and Girolamo Mutiano, 
which at my being at Rome (then quite 
out of print) I procur'd of his Widow 
who was then living, but would not part 
with the Plates out of her fight. 

Giovanni Maggi was an excellent Painter 
and Etcher, as he has fufficiently difcover- 
ed in his rare Terfpe Stives, Lands kjps, and 
his Roma in the Larger Chartoon ; likewife 
in the nine priviledg'd and ftationary 
Churches, with the three Magi who offer 
prefents to our Saviour in aflufion to his 

Leonardo, Ifabetta, and Bernardino Ta- 
rafol, that we may furnifh all the forts of 
Art in this kind, cut exquifkively in wood, 
which is a graving much more difficult ; be- 
caufe all the work is to be abated and cut 
hollow, which is to appear white ; fo that 
(by a feeming paradox) as the Matter 
diminifhes the Forme increafes, as one 
waftes, the other growes perfect. Thefe 
all flourifhed about the year 1^60, and 
left us three little hiflories of the Salutati- 
on, Fifitation, and St. John Baptift : Alfo 
Chrifts wafhing his Difciples feet, and the 
cuts to Caftor Durantes Herbal : Ifabetta, 
who was his wife, publifh'd a book of all 
the forts of Toints, Laces, and Embrode- 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 5-7 

ries, with other curious works for the Ladies, 
being all of her own invention (except the 
Frontifpiece only, which is f^ilamenas) 
and the Plants in the Herbal of the Prince 
Cefi d' Aquafporte, a learned perfbn of that 
Age. Laftly, the fbn did alfo put forth 
Ibme few things of his work ; but was a 
far better Painter in Frefco. 

Antonio Tempefta was a most exact and 
rare designer, for which his works are 
much more eftimable, then for the excel- 
lency of his Points and Needles : he has 
left us of his eflayes in A. F. the Hiftories 
of the Fathers, the twelve Moneths of the 
year, Roma in a very large volumne ; an 
incomparable Book of Horfes, another of 
Hunting, the plates now worn out, and 
retouch 'd with the Bolino : St. Hierom, and 
a Judgement : the wars of Charles the Fifth 
rarely perform'd : the Metamorphq/is of 
Ovid-, the Battails of the Jewes, efpecially 
that of the Amarlakites in great^ the Crea- 
tion and Old Teftament^ Torquato Tajfos 
Jerufalemma Liberata^ the Birds and Faul- 
conry in Tietro Olinas Book, with divers 
others well known, and much elteemed by 
the jTirtuofi. 

Cherubin Alberti has celebrated his in- 
comparable Graver in that prefentation of 


1 j' 

Sculptura, or 

our Lord in the Temple; the Adam expulfed 
out ofParadtfe: In the Tuti, divers Fafas, 
and other pieces which he wrought after 
Tolydoro de Caravaggio and Michael Angelo, 
commonly ibid at Rome, and universally 

Horatio Borgiani cut the Hiftory of the 
Bible in the Teriftyle of Raphael at the Vati- 
can, fb often made mention of, and out of 
which, as from a School of the nobleft 
Science, moft of the great Painters of the 
World have fince taken forth their Leflbns : 
He likewife publifhed fome things in 
Char' Ofcuro, which were rarely height- 

Raphael Guido a Tujcane, engraved many 
pieces after Cavalier Arpino, as the Flagel- 
lation, Romulus, Tcarus^'The AngelusCuftos, 
Ceres, Bacchus, a Chriftus mortuus, and St. 
Andrew the Apoftle after Barroccio. 

Jovanni Baptifta dell a Marca put forth 
many devices of Shields, Armour, Bujls, and 
Trophies cut in wood. 

To thefe we might add thofe excellent 
things of Camillo Grajfico, and Cavalier Sa- 
limbene, Anna F'aiana, with innumerable 
more; But we have yet other fruitful! 
Countries to vifit, to whofe praifes we mufl 
be juft ; only we may not forget the incom- 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 
parable Stephano T>etta Bella a Florentine 
Painter now, or lately living, whofe intire 
colle6Uon in A.fortisis defervedly admir'd, 
and here in particular to be celebrated by 
me, in acknowledgment of fome obligation 
I have for his civilities abroad : And of 
this Artift's works, flowing, and moft luxu- 
rious for invention, are thole things which 
in imitation of Callot he did in little, being 
yet very young : As the Scenes and dances 
of the Horfes at the Marriage of the Duke 
ofTufcany ; Compartimenti, Cart ells, Orna- 
ments and Capricios for Carvers and Em- 
broderers: A book of Gobbi, and divers 
f^ajas, Land skips in Rounds and others : A 
.book of Beasts done exceedingly to the na- 
tural : The principles of Z)e/igne, Heads, 
and other touches very rare and full of 
fpirit, feveral pieces of our Lady, Chrift, 
St. jfojeph, &c. Jacobs defcent into <^>gypt : 
The Proceffion and Expofure of the Sa- 
crament, where there is an Altar of curious 
Architecture inrich'd with feftival Orna- 
ments: The Cavalcado of the Tolonian 
Embajfadour into Rome, with divers other 
proceedings, Pieces of Tolonians, Terfians, 
and Moores on Horfeback breathing a 
rich and noble fancy : Alfo Seiges, Engines 
for War, with Skirmijhes, Land and Sea 

Fights : 

<5o Sculptura, or 

Fights: The Metamorpho/is o Ovid\ The 
Sultana and her fbn taken by the Knights of 
Malta^ and to conclude, (for there is no 
end of his Induftiy) the Profpecl: of the 
Tont Neuf& Paris, then which there is not 
certainly extant a more lively representa- 
tion of the bufie Genius of that Mercurial 
Nation; nor a piece of greater variety as 
to all encounters and accidents, which one 
can imagine may happen amongft fb nu- 
merous a people and coneourfe of Man- 

Laftly (for they were likewife fbme of 
them Gravers in Copper and very rare 
Chakographers) we mult not omit to make 
honourable mention here of thofe incompa- 
rable Sculptors and Cutters of M&&J/J$ 
whither in Gemms or Metals ; fiich as were 
(befides thofe we touch 'd in the former 
chapter) Vittor, Gambello^ Giovanni dal 
Cavino the Tadouan^ and a Son of his ; Ben- 
venuto Cellini 1 , Leone Aretino, Jacopo da 
Treffo, Fred. Bonzagna ; and above all 
Gio. Jacopo^ who have almoft exceeded, 
at leail approach'd the Antients : To thefe 
may we add Giovanni da Caftel Bolognefe^ 
Matteo dal Nafaro, Giovanni dal Cornivole^ 
T>omenica Milaneze^ Tietro Mariade Tejcia^ 
and Ludovico his Son, Falerio 

1 Bmvenuto Cellini] Benevento Cellini edd. 

The Hifiory of Chalcography. 6"i 

Fincentino who had been in England \n. the 
time of Queen Elizabeth, and left a Sar- 
donix which he cut, reprefenting the head 
of that famous Heroine, inferiour to none 
of the Antients: There was likewife Mi- 
chelino, who with the above named Ludo- 
vico, and Fincentino, had fb accurately 
counterfeited the antient Medails, that the 
mofl knowing Antiquaries were often at 
a lofle to diftinguifh them : Such were alfb 
Luigi Arichini, Alejfandro Ctffari called 
the Greek, fo much celebrated for that ftu- 
pendious Medal ion of Taul the Third, and 
the head of Thotius the Athenian which he 
cut in an Ontx, comparable, by the Uni- 
verfal Suffrages, to any of the Antients : 
We could reckon up the works alfb of ma- 
ny of the reft, but it is not requifite, after 
we have given this taft, and would merit 
an exprene Treatife. Likewife thofe of 
Antonio de RoJJl, Cofimo da Trezzo, Thilip- 
po Negarolo, Go/par and Girolamo Mijuroni^ 
Tietro Taulo Galeotto, Taftorino di Sienna, 
not omitting that famous Tharodoxus of 
Milan, Fran. Furnius, and Sever us of Ra- 
venna, &c. whofe works were in Gold, Sil- 
ver, Copper, Steel, Achates, Cornelians, 
Onixes, Chrijlal, Jaf'per, Heliotrope, La- 
zuli, Ametheiftis, &c. yea, and to fhew 


62, Sculptura, or 

how much fome of thofe Modern Matters 
exceeded the Antients, even the Diamond, 
that hitherto infuperable gemme, was 
fubdu'd by the famous Treccia of Milan, 
who with ftupendious fuccefle cutting the 
King of Spams Armes in a Noble Table, 
was the firft that ever engrav'd, or made 
impreffion into that Obdurat ftone. It 
will become fuch to be well acquainted 
with thefe Mailers Labours, and their man- 
ner, who afpire to be knowing, and to im- 
prove their Judgment in Medaitts and In- 
taglias, that neceflary, Ornamental and No- 
ble piece of Learning ; and not only to be 
well skilTd in their way of defign ; but 
to be able alfo to perform fomething in the 
Art themfelves : For liich were those inge- 
nious and Illuftrious Spirits, Geo. Batttfta 
Sozini of Sienna, and Roffo de Giugni of 
Florence, Gentlemen of note; and fuch; 
with us, is our Noble and worthy Friend, 
JZlias .Ajhmole Efq ; whofe Learning, and 
other excellent qualities deferve a more 
glorious infcription. 

Finally, that excellent Medalifl Moun- 
fieur Rot i, now entertain 'd by his Majefty 
for the Mint, and a rare "Workman as well 
for Intaglias in ilone, as Metal, is not to be 
here omitted. 


The Hifiory of Chalcography. 

We fhall fpeak in the next of thofe 
Germans and Flemmings who excelled in 
the Art of Chalcography, not that they 
have exceeded fome of the French ; but, 
becaufe they were before them, and Uni- 
verfally admired : of thefe, the Antejignani 
were the foremention'd Albert T)urer; 
that Prodigie of fcience, whofe works we 
have already recounted upon occafion of 
Marco Antonio^ and therefore fhall here for- 
bear the repetition ; as alfo those of Lucas ^ 
whofe works (confifling in all of about 
Lxx. fheets, and which I have known 
fold for near an hundred pounds Berlin^ 
to one* that as well underftood the value 
of mony, as of that rare Colle6Uon ; he 
being one of the greatefb Merchants of dam. 
Books in Europe) are to be taken blind- 
fold as they fay ; provided the impreffions 
be black, well conferved, of equal force, 
and not counterfeit, as there are feveral of 
them which be ; difcernable only by the 
curious, and accurately skilfull : For fuch 
(amongft others of T)urers) are the Crea- 
tion of Adam^ the ftory of Z.0/, Sufanna^ 
the Crucifix which he cut in a fmall round 
plate of Gold for the Emperours fword, 
and is fixed on the pummel, not before 
mention'd : his arm'd Cavalier and Satyre^ 


6~4 Sculptura, or 

and indeed, almoft all that ever He, or Lu- 
cas graved and fet forth. 

The Works of Aldegrave, who came 
very near Albert, and flourifti'd about the 
fame Age, are worthy the Colle6Hon: 
His pieces are diftinguifli'd by the Cypher 

* A of his initial Letters* in imitation of 
-/GV 2)urer y as likewife the Author of the Jep- 
tem opera mifericordi<e, ftories of the book 
of the Kings, Artemifta, &c. whose gravings 
are counteriign'd with G.P. I.E. publifh'd 
the four Evangelifts, Adam, a Country fel- 
low, a Bifhop, a Cardinal, Satyrs, &c. M. 
the Prodigal fon, the Evangelifts, &c. 
fbme whereof are Copies after Albert, and 
moft of their works done in fmall plates. 

Hans Sib aid Berne hath done wonders in 
thofe fmall figures, flories, and nakeds 
which he publifh'd ; it fhall not be requifite 
to recite here the Catalogue ; becaufe his 
mark I-s-B is fixed to moft of his works, 
though now and then profan'd by the hands 
of others. 

Jerome Coch a Flemming cut a Mojes, 32, 
fheets of the ftory of Tfyche, defign'd by 
one Michael a Painter of the fame Coun- 
try, very rarely conduced: Alfo_Z>tf//7tf and 
Samfm\ The deftru<5Hon of the Thiliftines, 
the Creation of Adam, &c. 27 Stories of 


The Hiflory of Chalcography. 6? 

the Old-Teftatnenf nobly defign'd by Mar- 
tino, and as well graved : Alfb the Hiflo- 
ry of Sufanna : Another book of the Old, 
and New Teflament : The Triumph of Pa- 
tience, a rare Cut : the Heart on the An- 
vile, and divers Emblems full of curious 
Figures ; many facred Triumphs ; Fraud, 
Avarice; a Bacchanalia, and a Mojes after 
Bronzini, in emulation whereof, Gio. 
Mantuano publifh'd his Nativity, an incom- 
parable print ; after which Jerome graved 
for the Inventor, twelve great fheets of 
Sorcerejfes, the Battails of Charolus the V. 
and for F'erefe 1 a painter, the Terfpe&ives 
which pafs under his name, with 2,0 leaves 
of feveral Buildings ; befides the St. Mar- 
tine in a book full of T> evils; For Giro I. 
Bos, the Alchimijl, the feven deadly Sins, 
the lajl Judgment, a Carnoval; and, after 
Francis Floris ten pieces of Hercules La- 
bours, the Duel of the Horatii and Curatii, 
the Combate of the Tigmies and Hercules, 
Cain and Abel, Abraham ; the Deciffion of 
Solomon between the two Harlots, and in 
flimme, all the actions of humane life. 

And now that we mentioned Francis 
Floris of Antwerp, the rare things which 
he publifh'd in ftamp, purchas'd him the 
name of the Flemmijh Michael Angelo. 

1 Dries se ed. 2. ; ? Vriese 

66 Sculptura, or 

Of the fame Country was that incompa* 
rable Cornelius Corf; we will commence 
with \hzjudgment of Michael Angelo which 
he cut in little : Moft of his things were 
after Frederic T.ucchari^ and fome few of 
Raphaels ; befides his Landskips and other 
Cravings, after Girolam Mutiano, which 
are very excellent : Alfo John Baptift, St. 
Hierom, St. Francis , Mary Magdalen, St. Eu- 
Jiachius, the Lapidation of S. Stephen de- 
iign'd by Marco Fenujlo the Mantuan. A 
Akm>/Vf after ThadeoZuccharo, St.s4nne,&.c. 
Alix) a Nativity in great after Tolydore-. 
The Transfiguration; The fchool at Athens-^ 
The Battail of Elephants ; fbme Gravings 
after %)on Julio Clovio, and Titian^ which 
had they been accompanied with that 
tendernefs, and due obfervation of the di- 
flances, that accomplifh'd the fucceeding 
Gravers, had render 'd him immortal, fb 
fweet, even and bold was his work and 
defign in all other coniiderations. We men- 
tion'd Titian ; for about 1^70. Cor. Cort 
did ufe to work in that famous Painters 
houfe, and Graved for him that Taradije 
he made for the Emperour; St. Lazarus 
Martyrdom, Califte and the Nymphs^ Tro- 
metheus^ Andromeda, the fore-nam'd Mag- 
dalen in the defart, and St. Hierom, all of 
them of Titians invention. We 

The Hiftorf of Chalcography. 67 

We come now to Juttus, John, <^gi- 
dius, and Ralph Sadelers, who lived in the 
time of the Emperour Rodulphus, and 
publifh'd their almoft numberlefs labours; 
we can therefore inftance but in ibme of 
the moft rare; fuch as were that Book 
divided into three parts, i . Imago lonitatis^ 
a. Boni & mali fcientia, 3. Bonorum & 
malorum Confenfio, defign'd by Martin de 
F^os\ The F^ejligia of Rome tenderly 
and finely touch'd in 5-0 iheets: The 12, 
Roman Emperour s and Emperejfes afterTi^ 
^ rarely graved by Giles ^ a Madona with 

our Saviour, and St. Jofeph after Raphael, 
Chrijlus Flagettatus, and the head of Ro- 
dulphus II. with various capriccios, and inven- 
tions about it, as alfb that of the Emperour 
Mat Mas, adorn 'd with the chaplet of Medails; 
the calling of S. Andrew, \syjohn and Giles in 
brotherly emulation : Four books of Ere- 
mites admirably conduced by Raphael, a 
c<ena T)omini zfaxTintoret, and another Fla- 
gellation of Arpino's : Divers Landskips, 
The i a Moneths ; the great Hall at Trague, 
the Effigies of Martin de P r os by ^/Egidius; 
The Emperour and Emprefle in their Robes 
of State ; an Adoration of the Magi after 
Zuchari : Adonis and J^enus after Titian : a 
Crucifix after Jac. Talma, a Refurreftion in 
F i great : 

68 Sculptura, or 

great : the rich Epulo, St. Stephens Lapida- 
tion, the Original whereof is at Frist ft: a 
S. Sebaftian^ Thefe by Giles: John engrav'd 
after M. defos a fcholar dtTintorets already 
mentioned, the Creation and many hifto- 
ries out of Genejis : Ralph cut alfo the Life 
of Christ ; the Credo by way of Embleme : 
In, fumme (for their whole collection is 
not to be crouded into this Catalogue) they 
have all of them publifhed fiich incompara- 
ble gravings ; that 'tis the greateft pitty in 
the world, they had not flourifhed in the 
time of the great Raphael, and the good 
Mailers, for they were not only accurate 
and punctual imitators; but gave to their 
works that foftnefle, life, and Cokre (as 
Artifts terme it) which accomplices all 
the reft ; Efpecially, John and Raphael in 
what they graved after Mich, de P~os, Baf- 
fano and others whofe Rufticities they fet 
forth : thofe of ^/Egidius in great, being a 
defcent from the Crofle of Barrocctos inven- 
tion, the other a Flagellation defign'dbyj^ 
pho Tin 1 can never be fufficiently celebrated. 
After the Sadelers appeared Herman 
Mutter with a very bold Bolino, and like- 
wife Janus who graved many things after 
Sprangers, worfe chofen (for the con- 
vulfive and even 'Demoniac poitures) then 
executed. * chs^ino ed. i But 

The Hiftory of Chalcography. 69 

But the imitations of the Graver by Si- 
mon Frijius the Hollander, who wrought 
with the Aqua fortis of the Refiners, are 
altogether admirable and inimitable, the 
{broke and conduct confider'd, had the de- 
fign (excepting thofe of his Birds which 
are indeed without reproch) contributed 
in any proportion to his dexterity. 

After him came the Swiff e Matthew Miri- 
am, who had he perform'd his heightnings 
with more tendernefle, and come fweetly off 
with the extremities of his hatchings, had 
proved an excellent Matter : His works are 
ufefol and innumerable in Towns, Land- 
skips, Battails (thofe efpecially fought by 
the great Guftavus) &c. the Soft Ferni/h and 
feparating A. F. was the inftrument he ufed. 

We have feen fbme few things cut in 
Wood by the incomparable Hans Holbein the 
T>ane, but they are rare, and exceeding 
difficult to come by ; as his licentioufnefle of 
the Friers and Nuns, Rrafmus, the ^Daunce 
Macchabree, the Mortis imago which he 
painted in great, in the Church at Bafil, 
and afterward graved with no leffe art, and 
fome few others : But there is extant a 
book of feveral Figures done in the fame 
material by one Justus Ammannus Tigur. 
MDLXXVIII. which are incomparably 
F 3 de- 

Sculptura, or 

defign'd and cut: In the Epiftle whereof, 
one Holtzhujen a Gentleman of Frankfort 
is commended for his univerfal knowledge, 
and particularly his rare talent in this Art, 
which it is there faid he (hewed, by won- 
derful contrivances at the celebration of 
Martin Luthers Nuptials, and therefore 
worthy to be taken notice of. 

Hans Brojfehaemer befides feveral other 
things, hath cut in wood a triumph of the 
Emperour Maximilian into Neuremberge. 

P'ergilius Solis graved alfo in wood the 
flory of the Bible, and the Mechanic Arts in 
little, but for imitating thofe vile poftures of 
Aretine, had his eyes put out by the fen- 
tence of the Magiftrate. 

Henry Golzius was a Hollander, and 
wanted only a good, and judicious choice 
to have render 'd him comparable to the 
profoundeft Maflers that ever handled the 
Burin, for never did any exceed this rare 
workman ; witnefle, thofe things of his af- 
ter Gafparo Celio, the Gallatea of Raphael San- 
tio, and divers other pieces after 'Poly dor da 
Carravaggio, a Hierom, Nativity, and what he 
did of the A&s of the A pottles, with Th. Galle, 
&c. but he was like wife an excellent painter. 

George Nouvoljlett was of Mentz in Ger- 
many, an admirable Graver in Wood: he 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 
publifh'd that <^/neas in little, and fbme 
Hiftorical parts of the Bible very well per- 
form'd; alfo divers of the Fathers after 
Tempeftd) beiides the Jerufalemma liberata 
of Bernardino Caftelli in Quarto, with 
many Cartels of Armes and Harnefles, and 
fbme Figures to a Breviary -, &c. 

Matbew Greuter publiih'd a curious book 
of Letters, the City of Rome in an ample 
forme, and a large Map of Italy ; the Old 
and New Tejlament, the Church of Straf- 
burge^ an harmony 'twixt the T)ecalo.gue and 
the Lords prayer very ingenioufly repre- 
fented in Picture, with feverall other 
things laudably performed ; But his Ion 

Frederic did infmitly exceed the Father, 
as may be feen by thofe many curious 
Gravings which he has cut after Tietro Be- 
ret in Cor "ton , and the famous Sin drew Saccus 
egregious Painters. 

Sanredamus did publifh many excellent 
cuts, efpecially thofe which he coppied 
after Lucas van Leiden, of which we have 
formerly given a hint for their fakes, who 
are collectors of thefe curiofities, and may 
not happly be yet arriv'd to the judgment 
of being able to difcerne them from the 
Originals ; Alfo fome things after Goltzius. 

Cornelius Galle in his St. Trifcas Baptifm, 
F ^ Tapen- 

72. Sculptura, or 

Tapenheim 's and other heads after /^. T>yke^ has 
fhew'd what he was able to perform, not to 
mention abundance of Frontijpeicesand other 
lefle confiderable of his workes. But the 

Count Cloudt^ a Knight of the Talatinat 
has publifh'd, though very few, yet fome 
ftupendious things, efpecially that of our 
B. Saviours flight into t^Egypt by night, the 
Itory ofTobit, and about three or four more 
worthy of all admiration. 

Swanevelts Hiftory of St. John, withdivers 

Tandem's defcent from the Croffe, 
Matt ham's Chrift and St. John, a Fenus after 
Rotenhamer, Pope Innocent X. &c. 

Bronchorfts rare Etchings, efpecially 
thofe Ruines and Ant kali as of Rome: and 
fiiperiour to all, the incomparable Land- 
skips fet forth by Paul ffri H (lomz of which 
have been Etched in Aqua for tis\>y Nieu- 
lanf) do extreamly well merit to be placed 
in this our Theater: For to be brief, be- 
caufe we can only recite the moil remark- 
able and worthy the collection. Mattham 
is famous for Fruits ; Boettus^ or Adam Bol- 
fuerd for his Rufticks after Bkmaert^ Lon- 
devfelms has taken exceffive pains in his 
Landskips ; and fb has fan F'elde in fome 
few : but above all, Nicholas de Bruyn (after 

1 Goudt ed. i 

The Hiftory of Chalcography 

Conmxlogenfis) is wonderful for 
Bojcage^ and the induftry of his undertak- 
ing works of that large Volume, which 
Theodore de Bry (refembling him in name) 
has been as famous for contra&ing ; though 
both of them of a Dutch heavy fpirit, and 
perfe&ly iuting with the times and places : 
notwithftanding has this latter performd 
fome things in little very laudably: Nor 
with lefle ingratitude, amongft others may 
we forget the Nova reperta of Stradanus 
by Theodor Galle^ who alfo publifhed the 
whole procefle of making iilk of the worm, 
and certain other works in Manufacture, all 
of them reprefented in Sculpture. 

Mallery in his Teccati fomes after Mic. de 
fcs, has performed wonders as to the fubtilty 
and imperceptible duftus of the Graver. 

Boljuert fet forth the Sacra Eremus Afcett- 
carum, after Bkmart and others, but above 
all is he to be celebrated for thofe rare 
heads, and other ftories graved after the 
Paintings of Rubens and fan Dyke^ which 
for their fakes, who are dilligent collectors 
of the renouned perfons of the late Age, 
we fhall not think amifs to mention. Such 
were the Dutchefle of Orleans^ Arch Duke 
silbert^ Juftus Lypfius^ and others after 
Pan Ztyfo, Lejfius and Bellarmine, Jefuites 


74 Sculptura, or 

after T>iepenbec\ after the fame hands did 
"Paulus "Pontius grave the head ofSigtfmmd 
King of jPo/and, Count Timentelo^ &c. at 
\iRubens\ T>onphil\ deGufman,T)onAl e uar: 
Buzan an incomparable cut ; T)on Car. de 
Colunna, Rubens picture bare headed, for 
there is another in a hat : Gafp. de Grayer, 
Simon de P^os\ Maria de Medices, Cdfar 
Alexand. Scaglia, Conft. ffugens the learned 
Father of our moft ingenious Friend Mon- 
fieur Soylecom, fo worthily celebrated for 
his difco veries of the Annulus about Saturne- y 
the Tmdule clock., and univerfal Mathema- 
tical Genius. G of per Gavartius the Law y er ; 
Gafp. Reveftyn ; Guftavus Adolphus King ot 
Sweden, Jacobus de Breuch^ the Princefle 
of Brabanfon^ that rare head of Frederic 
ffenric Prince of Orenge, and his own, with 
many more after f^an Dyke^ befides the 
Jefuit Canifius^ R. Urbin Painter, and o- 
thers whom he grav'd after T>iepenbec^ &c. 
And fince we mention 'd Sir T. Taule Ru- 
bens we may not pretermit thofe many ex- 
cellent things or that great Polititian, a 
learned and extraordinary perfbn, fet forth 
in fb many incomparable Gravings by the 
admirable works of Suannebourg, the above 
named Tontius and Bolfwert, Neffe, Softer- 
man, yorft, and other rare Maflers in 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 

this Art: Such are (to inftance in fbme 
only) his battail of the Amazons ^ St. Roch, 
our B. Saviour compofs'd to Burial, the 
Fight of Lyons, his great Crucifix^ Con- 
verfion of S. Taul, St. Teter in the fhip, a 
Nativity, the Magt\ The bloody Cata- 
ftrophe of Cyrus ; Solomons fir ft Sentence ; 
St. Catharines efjx>ufals, the tribute de- 
manded of our Lord; Sufanna and the 
Elders, St. Laurence Martyred ; the Palaces 
of Genoa ; with divers others to be en- 
countr'd amongft the Merchants of Prints, 
who frequently vend the copies for the origi- 
nals to the lefle wary Chapmen: Chr. Jeghre 
has cut the Temptation of our Saviour in 
wood very rarely performed after this great 
Matter : And befides the former mention 'd, 
Lucas J^ofterman, and Forf? are never to 
be forgotten fb long as the memory of his 
Schollar SvcAnt.F'an Z>fke is famous, for the 
heads of Marqueffe Spinola ; Char, de Malle- 
ry^ Horatius Gentilefcus ; Jo. Count of Na- 
Jaw J fan Milder \ <P. Stevens^ and Cor. 
Sachtleven^ which he engrav'd after a new 
way, of Etching it firft, and then pointing 
it (as it were) with the Burine afterwards, 
which renders thofe latter works of his as 
tender as Miniature^ and fuch are the 
heads of Fan T>yke himfelf, Jo. Livens, Cor. 

7 6 Sculptura, or 

Schut, Corn, de J^os, T>eodat del Mont, Lucas 
van Uden, Jodocus de Momper, Wencejl. Coe- 
berger, Painters; Count de Offono, Duke 
of Bavaria, the Arch-Dutchefle Clara, the 
laft Duke of Orleans, Anton. Connebifon, 
P. Stevens, and many others, together 
with thofe other pieces of Hiftory, viz. 
the Sepulture of Chrift, and S. George after 
Raphael, Magdalene under the Crofle, our 
B. Saviour in his Agony after Carraccio, the 
Sufanna, St. Laurence, and what but now we 
mention 'd after Rubens \ divers heads after 
Holbein, as that ofrajmus, the D. of Nor- 
folk, and others of the Arundelian collection. 

Fan Forft, Competitor with fofterman, 
has likewife graven a number of Heads 
after Vandyke; I {hall only name the learn- 
ed Sr. Kenelme %)igby in a Thilofophical\&- 
bit : our famous Architect Inigo Jones, and 
thofe two incomparable figures of Charles 
the Martyr and his Royal Confbrt the ^Mo- 
ther now living : And to fhew what honour 
was done this Art by the befl of Painters, 

Sr. Ant. Vandyke did himfelf etch divers 
things in A. Fortis\ efpecially a Madona, 
Ecce Homo, Titian and his Miftrefs, JEraJ- 
mus Roterodamus, and touched ieveral of 
the heads before mentioned to have been 
grav'd by Fofterman. 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 

After this great Matters paintings, did 
Peter dejode grave the Effigies ofGenovefa 
Widdow to Car. Alex. Duke of Croi\ 
"Paulus Helmatius^ the Learned Tutea- 
nus ; the Bifhop of Gendt^ the face where- 
of is thought to be Etched by F*. 1)yke him- 
felf; he graved Jo. Snettinx a Painter: 
befides a book of defigning very rare ; and 
the many other prints after his Mafter Golf- 
zius (whofe Difciple he was) which both Te- 
ter, and his Son of the fame name, have en- 
graved for Monfieur Bon Enfant of Taris, &c. 

Colaert graved fbme things rarely mfteel. 
Sniiderhoef\u& engraven the heads of moft 
of the Learned Dutch, after feveral painters, 
with good fuccefle : as thofe of Heinjius^ 
Grotius, Barleus, &c. not forgeting that flu- 
pendious Lady Anna Maria a Schurman^&c. 

Jo. Baurs has defign'd his Battails with a 
fine Spirit, but without care in the etching. 

Zander Thulden publifhed the whole Hi- 
flory Q^UlyJfes, being the work of the Fa- 
mous Trimaticcio at Fontain Bleau Etched 
alfo in A.F. and fb defign'd, as few preten- 
ders to this Art did ever exceed him : And 
fb, as we but lately mention 'd, are the pa- 
pers of the inimitable Suanebourge which 
ftrike a ravifhing effect in all that be- 
hold them, for the admirable tendernefle, 


Sculptura, or 

and rare conduct of the hatches ; efpecial- 
ly thofe which he cut after the drawings of 
Abraham Blomaert, and Rubens. 

But now that we mention Blomaert^ 
whofe works we have celebrated in gene- 
ral, becaufe they fmell fbmething of a 
'Dutch fpirit, though otherwife well engra- 
ven ; There is at Rome (if we miftake not) 
a Son of his named Cornelius, who in that 
S. Francis after Guido Reni, and thofe 
other pieces after the defign of thofe great 
Matters Mounfieur TouJJlne, Tietro Cortone, 
&c. to be feen in the books fet forth by the 
Jefuit Ferrarius, his Hejperides, Flora, 
t^Edes Barberini, &c. hath given ample 
Teftimony how great his abilities are ; for, 
certainly, he has in fbme of thefe ftamps 
arrived to the utmoft perfection of the Bo- 
lino, though ix>me Workmen will hardly 
allow him this Rlogie. But thofe things 
of the incomparable Natalis, a Ligeois, 
(and therefore reckon 'd here amongft the 
Germans) pafs without the leaft contradicti- 
on for the utmoft effort of that inftru- 
ment. Such are that St. Catharines Efpou- 
falls after Bourdon, which feems to be a 
very piece of Painting : The two Mado- 
nas in conteft with Toilly : The Thefts ; 
and the chapter of the Carthujians, all after 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 

the Life arid his own defign, a ftupendious 
work : alfo the heads of Jacob Cat*, one of 
the States of Holl. painted by T)ubordieu ; 
and fbme few things more, as the 
exa&nefs and Curiofity of what he un- 
dertakes requires, fufficient to difcover the 
admirable perfection of this great Artift: 
For we do not mention feveral Frontij- 
pieces which he has likewife engraven, with 
equal Induftry. 

Ferdinand has befides many others, 
graved after the fame Bourdon, the flory of 
Ulyjfes and Andromache : 

Uriefe and F'erden are famous for their 

H^megard his Roman Peffigia, &c. 

William Hondius^ befides thofe things 
which adorn his Mapps, which are the largefl 
Tlanifpheres, has very rarely engraven his 
.own Head, after a painting df r atufykci nor 
with lefle Art has J^ankejfel done that of 
Charles the fifth after Titian : Clovet^ Car. 
Scribonius the Jefaits. 

Caukern has graven the flory of that 
pious Daughter, who gave fuck to her im- 
prifon'd Father; a fight of Boores, with 
divers others after Rubens and Vandyke, &c. 
befides thofe which are extant in Mr. Ogle- 
byes Homer , Bible, my Lord ofJVew Cajiles 


8o Sculptura, or 

Cavalerizzo, Sec. defign'd by T)iepenbec, wliofe 
rare Talent, that Theater, or Temple of 
the Mufes publifhed by that Curioufly 
Learned, and Univerfal Colle&or of 
prints, the Abbot of Fittoin^ (of whom we 
(hall have occafion to difcourfe in the next 
Chapter) do's fufficiently illuftrate. 

Lucas Kilianus has rarely graved the 
Murther of the Innocents ; the Miracles of 
the Fifh ; Annuntiation^ Circumcifion^ and 
fbme Plates in the Hortus Eyftetten/is, &c. 

Fifcher, viz. Cornelius (for there is ano- 
ther who has publifhed divers Landskips) 
hath moft rarely Etched a certain Dutch 
Kitchin, where there is an old Man taking 
Tobacco, whilft his Wife is a frying of 
pancakes : alfb a Fiddler accompanied with 
boy es and girles, painted by Oftade: but above 
all, admirable is the defcent, or Christ us Mor~ 
tuus after Tintoret, both grav'd and Etch'd, 
as indeed, I ftiould have faid of the reft. 

p r o f vtUemont has Etched our Saviours cha- 
fing the facrilegious Merchants out of the 
Temple after the fame Tintoret^ which is 
very rare. 

Nolp the twelve moneths, efpecially the 
boyftrous March. 

Lombart^ many plates for Mr. Oglebyes 
as like wife that induftrious Inter- 

The Hiftory of Chalcography. 8 r 

preters Pi&ure after our famous Mr. Lilly, 
in which he has performed laudably : Nor 
muft I here forget Mr. Hertoc who has 
grav'd the Frontifpiece for EIKflN BAS. in/07, 
and that of this Treatife, with many other. 

To thefe we may add the incomparable 
Reinbrand, whofe Etchings and gravings are 
of a particular fpirit; efpecially the old 
Woman in the furr: The good Samari- 
tane, the Angels appearing to the Shep- 
heards; divers Landskips and heads to 
the life ; St. Hierom, of which there is one 
very rarely graven with the Burine-, but 
above all, his EcceHomo ; defcent from the 
Crofs in large ; "Philip and the Eunuch, &c. 

Wincejlaus Hollar a Gentleman of Bohe- 
mia, comes in the next place, not that he 
is not before moft of the reft for his 
choyce and great induftry (for we rank 
them very promifcuoufly both as to time 
and preheminence) but to bring up the 
Rear of the Germans with a deferving per- 
fon ; whofe indefatigable works in Aqua 
Fort is do infinitely recommend themfelves 
by the excellent choyce which he hath made 
of the rare things furnifh'd out of the 
Arundelian collection ; and from moft of the 
beft hands, and defigns; for fuch were 
thofe of Leonardo da J^inci^ Fr. Tarmenjis, 

EVELYN G Titian, 

82, Sculptura, or 

Titian, Jul. Romano, A. Mantenio, Corregio, 
Perino del Fago, R. Urbin, Seb. del Tiombo, 
Talma, Alb. T)urer, Hans Holbein, Fan- 
dike^ Rubens, Breugle, Baffan, ^/Eljheimer, 
Brower, Artois and divers other Mailers 
of prime note, whofe Drawings and 
Paintings he hath faithfully copied; be- 
fides feveral books of Landskips, Townes, 
Solemnities, Hiftories, Heads, BeasJs, Fouls, 
fnfeffs, yejfels, and other fignal pieces, not 
omiting what he hath Etched after T)e 
Clyne, Mr. Streter, and "Dankert, for Sr. 
Rob. Stapletons Juvenal, Mr. Rofs his Silius, 
c Polyglotta Biblia, the Monastic on, firft and 
fecond part, Mr. *Dugdaks Taules, and Sur- 
vey of IF'arwic kjhire, with other innumera- 
ble Frontifpieces, and things by him pub- 
lifhed and done after the life; and to be 
(eo nomine) more valued and efteemed, then 
where there has been more curiofity about 
Chimeras, and things which are not in Na- 
ture: fb that of Mr. Hollars works we 
may juflly pronounce, there is not a more 
uferul, and inftruclive Collection to be made. 
The learned Hevelius has (hewed his ad- 
mirable dexterity in this Art, by the feve- 
ral Thafes and other Ichonifms which adorn 
his Selenographia, and is therefore one of 
the noblelt inftances of the extraordinary 


The Hiftorf of Chalcography. 83 

ufe of this Talent, for men of Letters, 
and that would be accurate in the T)ia- 
gramms which they publifh in their works. 

The no lefle knowing slnna Maria a 
Schurman is likewife skilled in this Art, with 
innumerable others, even to a Prodigy of 
her Sex. For the reft, we {hall only call 
over their names, after we have cele- 
brated the extravagant fancies of both 
fazBreugles, as thofe of the fe\ r en deadly fms, 
Satyrical pieces againft the Nuns and Friers ; 
with divers Hiftories, Drolleries, Landskips, 
fantaftic Grilles and Grotefaues of thefe two 
rare Rhy paragraph >.r; not farther to tire our 
Reader with the particulars and feveral 
works of Oftade,Corn,Chck, Queborne, Cuftos, 
k T>elfe, (who has put forth the Pourtrai&s 
of many learnedperfons)Z)0r.r, Fakk, Gerard, 
Sens, Moeftuer, Grebber, Geldorp^ Hopfer^ 6V- 
rard^ Bens, Chein, Ach\ d' Egmont, de 
Finghe, Heins, 'Ditmer^ Cronis, Lindoven, 
Mirevel, Kager^ Coccien, Maubeufe, Feni- 
us, Firens, Wierets, Quelinus, Stachade^ Se- 
hut, Soutman, PanukA, Broon, J^aldet, 
Loggan, whom we exprefly omit ; becaufe 
we have introduced a fufficient number, and 
that this chapter is already too prolix. 

Only we would not omit Min Here Bi- 

fcop a learned advocate now of Holland, 

G 2, who 

84 Sculptura, or 

who for his ftory of Joseph and Benjamin^ 
where the cup is found in his fack, and 
thofe other few cuts among the hands of 
the curious, muft not be paiied over in ob- 
livion ; as we had like to have done fome 
of the old, and beft Matters by having 
hitherto omitted. 

T>ruefken his King of the Boors mHunga- 
ria, eaten alive by the Rebels whom he fe- 
duced; with feme other cuts in wood 
known by his mark, which was commonly 
a clufter of Grapes : 

Tieter Fan Aelft, his Cavalcad of the 
Grand Signior to Santta Sophia, and feveral 
Turkifh habits, on which iubjet alfb 

Swart Jan Fan Groennighen hasfet forth 
many remarkable things, Caravanns, T'tlgri- 
mages to Mecha, &c. 

Lucas Cranach, Tiltings, Huntings, Ger- 
man Habits, and the portraits of all the 
Dukes of Saxony to his time : 

Joos Ammanus (whom we already men- 
tion'd) divers of the Mechanic Arts ; not 
omitting all thofe excellent Wood Cuts of 
Hans Schinfiyn and Adam ^f//0refpecially 
this laft, known by the two Capital AA of 
the Go tick forme included one within the 
other, as the D is in that of Albert <Durers. 

Hubert Goltzius has cut in wood a book 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 
of \hzRomanEmpsrours in two Colours; this 
name recals to mind an omiffion of ours 
in ibme of thofe excellent Chalcographers al- 
ready recorded, and in particular, the in- 
comparable imitations of Henry Goltzius 
after Lucas Fan Ley den in the Tajfion^ the 
Chriftus mortuus or Tieta ; and thofe other 
fix pieces, in each of which he fb accurately 
purfues jDurer, Lucas, and fome others of 
the old Matters, as makes it almoft impo 
ble to difcerne the ingenious fraud. 

We did not fpeak of the heads of the 
famous men in the Court of the Emp. fet 
forth by ^/Egid. Sadder ; as Raphael (his 
Brother) had the Bavaria Sanfta^ reprefem 
ting all the Saints of that pious Country. 

Albert 2)urers Teuerdank or Romantic 
defcription of the Amours of Maximilian 
and Maria de Burgundy, the book is in High 
*Dutch\ He has likewife cut Tetrachs Utriuf- 
que Fortune Remedia^ which admirable trea- 
tife being tranflated into the German Lan- 
guage, is adorn 'd with the Gravings of Hans 
Sibald Bheem^ Ammanus, Aldegrave, and 
moil of the rare Matters of that age : Final- 
ly, he has cut the ftories of Apuleius\&$> gold- 
en Ajfe : and fprinkled divers pretty inven- 
tions and Capriccios in an old impreffion of 
Cicew's Efiftlesi And with this recollection 
G 3 of 

85 Sculptura, or 

of what we had omitted in the foregoing 
Paragraphs (to which they are reducible) 
we will take leave of the Dutch Sculptors, 
and paffe on to 

The French, who challenge the next place 
in this Recenfion, for their gravings in 
Taille T)ouce, which began to be in repu- 
tation after Rojfo the Florentine painter 
had been invited and Carefs'd by that 
Worthy and illuftrious Mec*enas of the 
Arts, Francis the firfl: about which 
time Tetit Bernard of Lyons publifh'd the 
flories for the Bible of St. Hierom, per- 
forming fitch things in little, for the De- 
fign and Ordinance,, as are worthy of imi- 
tation: fb greatly he approch'd the An- 
tique in the garb of his Figures, Diftances, 
Archite&ure, and other acceflbries of the 
Storie : We have fbme of thefe engraven 
by this Artift, and printed long fince at 
Lyons, with the Argument under each cut, 
in the Englifh verfe of thofe times, which 
appears to have been done about the be- 
ginning of the Reformation, w T hen, it feems, 
men were not fb much fcandaliz'd at holy 

Nicholas Beatricius a Loraneze graved 
his Horfe conflicts, and feveral books of 
Animals, and Wildbeafls. The Wid- 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 87 

dows fbn raifed to life, the Annuntiation 
after M. Angelo, the Ark of the Catho- 
lick Church after that rare Table of Mofaic 
in S. Teters of Giotto^ &c. 

ThillippusThomafinus labours are worthy 
of eternity, fo excellent was his choice, fo 
accurate his graver ; witnefle the fall of 
Lucifer, the univerfal judgement, the fhip 
we but now mention 'd ; the feven works 
of mercy ; B. Felix, the Miracles of the 
Capucines, the Statues of Rome in little ; the 
labours of many famous perfons ; the bap- 
tifme of our Saviour, after Salviati \ St. John 
the Evangelifl in the boyling Oyle ; St. 
Stevens Lapidation after Ant. Tomarancio ; 
the Magi of Zuccharo; Mary prefented in 
the Temple, offiarroccio ; the fife of St. Ca- 
tha rine; Fama, divers fea Monfters after Ber- 
nardino Tajfero ; and fbme things of Fanni ; 
not to omit his Camea collected from feve- 
ral curious Achates and other precious Hones, 
befides Shields, Trophies, Gordian Knots, 
with variety of inftruments and other works 
too long here to recite minutely. 

Chrijpinus de "Pas and his filler Magdalen 
(whither French or Dutch) have engraven 
many excellent things after Breugle\ efpe- 
daily Landskips; the perfecution of the 
Prophets and Apoftles, with feveral more : 
64 But 

88 Sculptura, or 

But that Lilerum Belgium by Simon de <Pas 
his Father, or Brother (I know not whi- 
ther) dedicated to Prince Maurice of Natif- 
Jaw is a very rare cut. 

Who has not beheld with admiration 
the incomparable Burtne of Claudius Melan^ 
celebrated by the great Gajfendus and em- 
ploy 'd by the moft noble and learned 
Tcireskius ? The Sudarium of St. F'cronica^ 
where he has formed a head as big as the 
life it felf with one only line, beginning 
at the point of the Nofe, and fo by a 
fpiral turning of the Graver finifhing at 
the utmost hair, is a prodigy of his rare 
Art and invention; becaufe it is wholly 
new, and perform'd with admirable dex- 
terity: Nor has he lefle merited for his 
St. Francis^ St. Bruno ; the pointed Magda- 
len, Pope Urbane the Fill, and divers others 
to the life, efpecially thofe of the Illuftri- 
ous Jufliniani, Teireskius, and the feveral 
frontifpieces to thofe truly Royal works, To- 
ets, and other Authors printed at theLoure. 

Mauperch has pubfifhed fbme pretty 
Landslips; La Tautre many moft ufefull 
varieties and Ornaments for Architects, 
and other Workmen; Florid, and full of 
Fanfie ; efpecially the ceremonies at the Co- 
ronation of the prefent French King. . 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 

Morine, has left us a St. Bernard^ a 
his great Crucifix '; fbme rare Heads; e 
pecially that reprefenting our B. Saviour 
and other things in A. Fortis, performed 
with fingular Art, and tendernefle ; as al- 
Ib fbme rare Landskips and Ruines after 
Tokmburch and others. 

N. Chaperon has etched the Xyftus or 
Gallery of Raphael in the J^atican^ with in- 
comparable fuccefle, as to the true draught : 
and fo has that excellent painter the late 

Francis Terier thofe Statues and Bajp-re- 
lievos of Rome, preferrable to any that are 
yet extant. 

Audrans St. Catharine after Titian who is 
not ravifh'd with ? 

Couvajr has engraven the three devout 
Captive Knights, and what may appear 
very extraordinary, ut au<e celant nomina c<e- 
latura aperiat, the firft part of 'Dejpauteri- 
us's Grammar in picture, or Hieroglyphic 
for the Duke of Anjou the now Monfieur. 

Terel has difcovered a particular talent 
for Landskips, if not a little exceeded in the 
darknefle of his fhades : but his ruines of 
Rome are very rare : he has likewife a fon 
that graves. 

The excellency of invention in the Ro- 
mances. and Hiftories adorn 'd by the hand 




Sculptura, or 

of Chauveau is not to be pafled by ; efpe- 
cially thofe things which he has done in 
the Entretienne de Beaux Efyrits ofMon/ieur 
Tie Marefts, and in feveral others. 

But the pieces which Toilly has fet forth, 
may be ranked (as they truly merit) a- 
mongft the greateft Mailers we have hi- 
therto celebrated: fuch as (for inftance in 
a few) That admirable Thefes with the 
Portrait of Cardinal Richlieu ; and in emu- 
lation with the formerly named Natalis, 
(befides the St. Catharine of Bourdon) thofe 
things which he hath grayed after Mtgniar, 
which are really incomparable, alfo divers 
Hiftories after le Brun, &c. 

But we fhould never have done with 
the Artifts of this fruitful and inventive 
Country as Heince^ Begnon^ Huret^ Ber- 
nard ^ Rognejfon, Roujlet^ a rare workman, 
witnefle his Frontifpiece to the French 
Tolyglotta Bible defign'd by Bourdon and 
ktely put forth; Bettange^ Richet^ I'Alman^ 
Quefael, Sou/et, Bunel^ tjie laudable Bou- 
cher^ Briot) Boulauge^ Bqis, Champagne, 
Charpignon, Corneille, Caron, Claud de Lo- 
rain, Audran^ Moutier, Rabel^ T)enifot y 
Laune^ T>e la Rame\ Hayes^ Herbin^ T)a- 
i)id de Bie, yittemont, Marot excellent for 
his buildings and Architeiture ; Tout in y 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 

Grand-homme, Cereau, Trochel, Langot du 
Loir, L Enfant Difciple of Melan ; Gaul- 
tier^ T> y Origni, Trevoft, T>e Son, Terei, 
Nacret, Tenet, T>aret, Scalberge, Libert ; 
Ragot who has graved fbme things well af- 
ter Rubens, Boijfart, Terelin, Z)e Leu ; Be- 
fides Mauperche for Hiftories, U <dfhe \vho 
has grav'd above 300 Portraits to the 
life, and is a rare Artift: Huret, full of 
rich invention ; not omitting the famous 
Gravers of Letters and Calligraphers, fuch 
as are Le Gagneur, Lucas Materot, Frifius, 
1)uret^ Tauce, Le Beaugran, Beaulieu^ Gou- 
genot^ Moulin^ Raveneau, Jea, Jaques de 
His, Moreau, Limojin, La Be, F^ignon^ 
Barbe ffOr and a world of others whofe 
works we have not had the fortune to fee; 
For as heretofore ; fb efpecially at prefent, 
there is no country of Europe which may 
contend with France for the numbers of 
fuch as it daily produces, that excel in the art 
of Chalcography, and triumph with Kk&Burine. 

La Hyre has Etched many things af- 
ter the Antique, as Bacchanalia's and feve- 
ral other. 

Goyrandisfecond to nonefor thofe Towns 
and Ruines, which he has publifh'd, efpeci- 
ally what he has performed in <^/dibus 


Sculptura, or 

Colignon no lefle excellent in his gravings 
after Lincler. 

And Cochin in thofe large Charts and 
fieges of Townes after the Ingeneer Beau- 
lieu: But 

Ifrael Syfaefter is the Hollar of France : 
For there is hardly a Town, Caftle, Noble- 
mans houfe, Garden or Profpect in all that 
vaft and goodly Kingdom which he has not 
fet forth in AF. befides divers parts and 
views of Italy: above all in thofe which are 
etched after the defignes of Monfieur 
Lincler ( whilfl he lived my worthy 
Friend) as the City of Rome in Trojile ; a 
morcel of St. Teters by it felf ; and that 
profpecl: of the Loure^ which laft doth far 
tranfcend the reft of his works, and may 
be efteem'd one of the beft of that kind 
which the World has extant, for the many 
perfe6Uons that aflemble in it. 

There is at prefent Robert Nanteuil an 
ingenious perfbn, and my particular friend, 
whofe Burine renders him famous through 
the World : I have had the happinefle to 
have my Tortraift engraven by his rare Bu- 
rine ; and it is therefore eftimable, though 
unworthy of the honour of being placed a- 
mongft the reft of thofe Illuftrious perfbns, 
whom his hand has render'd immortal: 


The History of Chalcography. 

For liich are the French King, trie Queens 
of Toland and Sweden ; Cardinal Mazerin, 
whofe Effigies he has graven no lefs then 
nine times to the life : The Duke ofJLongue- 
ville; D. of Bouttion, Mantoa, Manjhal 
Thurene; Prefident Jeannin, Molle, Telier, 
Ormejfon, the Archbijhop of Tours, Bifhop 
of S. Malo : L'^bbt Fouquet, and divers 
others of the long Robe : Alfb Monfieur 
Hedelin, Menage, Scuderi, Chapelain, Marol- 
les, and the relt of the wits ; in fiimme, al- 
moft all the great perfbns of note in France. 
But that we may conclude this Recen- 
fion with luch as have moft excell'd in 
this Art, and give the utmoft Reputation 
it is capable of. Jaques Callot, a Gentleman 
of Lorrain, (if ever any) attained to its 
fublimity, and beyond which it feems not 
poffible for humane induftry to reach ; e 
pecially, for Figures in little; though he 
have likewife publifhed fome in great as 
boldly, and malterly perform 'd as can po 
fibly be imagin'd : what a lofle it has been 
to the yirtuofi, that he did not more delight 
in thofe of a greater Volume, fuch as 
once he graved at Florence, do fufficient- 
ly teftifie, and which likewife have exalt- 
ed his incomparable Talent to the fupream- 
efl point: It might not feem requifite to 


Sculptura, or 

minute the works which he has publifhed ; 
becaufe they are fo univerfally excellent, 
that a curious Perfon fhould have the 
whole Collection, (and be carefull that he 
be not impos'd upon by the copies which are 
frequently vended under his name; efpe- 
cially thofe which Monfieur Bojfe has pub- 
lifhed, and which neareft approach him) 
were it not highly injurious to his merit 
not to mention fbme of the Principal; 
Such are his St. Taul, Ecce homo ; the 'De- 
moniac cured, after Andrea Bofcolt ; a Ma- 
dona after Andrea del Sarto ; the four Co- 
m<edians^ all thefe of the larger Volumne, 
and fome of them with the Burine. Alfo 
the paflage of the IJraeittes : St. Lukes Fair 
dedicated to Cofmo di Medices, a moft ftu- 
pendious work coniider'd in all its Cir- 
cumftances, and encounters : fo full of fpi- 
rit and invention, that upon feveral attempts 
to do the like, it is faid, he could never ap- 
proach it; fb much (it feems) he did in 
that piece exceed even himfelf. 

This is alfo well Copied : the Hiftory of 
the B. Virgin in 14 leaves, the A r fo B/es in 
great, the murder of the holy Innocent s^ an 
incomparable work, and almoft exceeding 
our defcription, as to the fmalnefs, life, 
perfection and multitude of Figures expref- 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 

fed in it. The ftory of the Trodigal: the 
life and death of our Saviour in 2,0 fmall 
Ovals very rarely perform'd. The Mar- 
tyrdom of the Apojiles in 16 leaves wor- 
thy of admiration : The paffion of our Sa- 
viour in 7 larger cuts : St. Anthonies tempta- 
tion, prodigious for the fancy and inven- 
tion : St. Manfuetus raifing a dead Prince, a 
Bifhop preaching in a wood : Divers books 
of Landskips and fea pieces: Efpecially 
thofe admirable cuts of his in a book intitu- 
led Traftato di terra Santa^ wherein moft of 
the Religious Places of Jerufalem^ Temples, 
Profpe&s &c. about the Holy Landwz grav- 
ed to the life by the hand of this excellent 
Mafter ; The Book is very rare and never 
to be encountr'd amongft the collection of 
his Prints. The Duke o^Lorrams Palace and 
Garden at Nancy : alfo another paper of a 
Tournament there, both of them moft rare 
things : Military exercifes ; The miferies of 
war in 1 8 leaves very choice: Thebattail of 
Thejeus^ Combat at the Barriere^ entrance of 
the great T>uke with all the Scenes and re- 
prefentations at the Duke of Florences nu- 
ptials: the Catafalco errefted at the Emp. 
Matthias* death : the famous Seige at Ro- 
chel, a very large print: alfo the night 
piece of the Cheats and Wenches at play : 


Sculptura, or 

Mafcarades, Gobbi, Beggars , Gypjyes, Batti 
and 'Dances, Fantafies, Capriccios, Jubilatio 
Triumphi B. J^irginis, which was it feems 
grav'd for a The/is; and finally the Cabaret ; 
or meeting of Debauchees, which (being the 
laft plate that ever he grav'd) had not the 
Aquafortis given it 'till after his deceafe : 
And thus we have in brief pofted over the 
ftupendious works of this inimitable Matter, 
whofe point and manner of etching was 
nothing inferiour, nay Ibmetimes even ex- 
ceeded the moft skilful Burine. But at length 
Sit pudor & finis, I defift, and fhall here 
conclude the recital of the French Chako- 
graphers fo many for their numbers, labo- 
rious in their works, and luxurious of their 
inventions, after we have done reafon to 
Monfieur Bojfe y who has made him felf fo 
well known by his moft accurate imitation 
of Callot, befides the many rare things he 
has himfelf publifhed. It were altogether 
unpardonable, that fuch as would accom- 
plifh themfelves in Etching, fhould be de- 
ftitute of his entire work ; efpecially thofe 
of his latter manner perform'd in fingle 
and mafterly ftroaks, without decuflations 
and crofs hatchings, in emulation of the 
Graver. Thofe Signets, Fkurons, capital 
letters, Tuti, and Compartiments made to a- 


The Htftory of Chalcography. 

dorn the Royal imprejjlons at the Lome are 
worthy of celebration ; becaufe it is im- 
poffible for the neateft Burine to excell his 
points and Efchoppes ; and for that it is to 
him that we have been chiefly obliged for 
a Treatife which we had prepared of the 
pru&icaJ, and Mechanical y&\. of this Art of 
Chalcography, whereof I have already given, 
accompt elfewhere : it is to the fame Mon- 
faur du Bojfe that the world is beholden for 
his ingenuity in publifhing many other rare 
and ufefull Arts affiflant to Architecture, 
c Dyalling,fyuaringofftones, and encountring 
the difficulties of the Free-Mafon, befides, 
thofe excellent Treatifes ofpcrfyeftrve, which 
from the dictates of Mon/leur des Argues, he 
has fb laudably communicated: This, and 
much more we owe to this honeft Mans 
fame and particular friendfhip. 

And laltly, the excellent Chart-Gravers 
may not be totally excluded of this Cata- 
logue ; becaufe it is a particular addrefs, 
and, of late, infinitely improv'd by the care 
of Tavernier, Sanfon, the Jejuit Briets, de 
la Rue, du F'al, graven by Cordier, Riviers, 
Teroni and others ; not forgetting the moft 
induitrious Bleaus of Amfterdam, who have 
publifhedthe Atlas's, and other pieces which 
celebrate their names to polterity; and 

.9 8 Sculptura, or 

fuch an undertaking has the Ingeneere Gom- 
bouft perform'd in his Ichnographical plan of 
Paris lately fet forth, being the refult of 
near a five years continual labour of mea- 
furing, plotting, and obferving, to render 
it the moft accomplifh'd, and teftifie to 
what ufe, and perfection this noble 
Art is arriv'd : This we the more readily 
mention, that thereby we may flimulate 
and encourage the lovers of their Country, 
freely to contribute to the like attempt of the 
above mention 'd Mr. Hollar , and enable 
him to proceed with what is now under his 
hand, for the honour of our imperial City. 
And now it is certainly time that we 
fliould think of home a little, and celebrate 
like wife fbme of our own Country-men, 
who have worthily merited with their 
Graver. And although we may not yet 
boaffc of fuch multitudes by reafbn of the 
late unhappy differences, which have di- 
flurb'd the whole Nation, endeavouring 
to level Trinces, and lay the Mecxnass of 
This, and all other Arts in the duft ; yet 
had we a Taine for his Ship, fome heads to 
the life, efpecially that of Dr. Alabajler^ 
Sir Ben. Rudyard^ and feveral other things ; 
A Qedly and a Wright little inferiour to any 
we have enumerated for the excellency of 


The Hijlory of Chalcography. 99 

their Burines and happy defign ; as at pre- 
fent we have Mr. Fait home JAv. Barlow^Gay- 
<wood, Loggan and others who have done ex- 
cellently both with the Graver, and in Aqua 
fortis, efpecially in thofe birds and beafts 
which adorne the Apologues of ^EJbfe 
publifhed by Mr. Oglebie; and of Mr. Fai- 
//foTra^wehave that Chrift after Raphael; from 
fome excellent Mafter, as big as the life, 
a Madona\ Chr. Jofeph and a Lamb after 
La Hj/rez very good painter ; The Effigies 
of my Lord Vifcount Mordaunt^ Sir /^. 
Tafton, and his Lady, with feveral others 
after Fan T)yke^ Honiman^ &c. 

Lightfoot hath a very curious Graver, and 
fpecial talent for the neatnefle of his ftroak, 
little inferiour to Weir 1 ; and has publifhed 
two or three Madonas with much applaufe : 
Alfo Glover divers heads; as at prefent 
J. Fettian Difciple of Mr. Faithorne^ who is 
a hopeful young man: Laftly,for^d'^/7j'and 
fntagltaswe have Mr. Symonds, Rawlins, Re- 
ftrick^Johnfon and fome others, whofe works 
in that kind have hardly been exceeded in 
thefe later times ; not omitting the induftri- 
ous Mr. Coker, Gery^ Gething, BiUingly^ &c. who 
in what they have publifhed for Letters and 
Flourijhes are comparable to any of thofe 
1 wnx ed. i Malters 


i OQ Sculptura, or 

Matters whom we have fo much celebrated 
amongft the Italians and French for Calli^ 
graphy and fair writing : We have like- 
wife Switzer for cutting in Wood, the fon 
of a Father who fufficiently difcover'd his 
dexterity in the Herbals fet forth by Mr. 
Tarkinfon^ Lobel, and divers other works 
with due commendation, not to mention 
the reft, as yet unknown to us by their 
names, from whofe induftry we are yet to 
hope for excellent progrefle. 

We do therefore here make it our fiiite 
to them, as what would extreamly gratifie 
the curious, and F'irtuoft univerfally, that 
they would endeavour to publifh fuch ex- 
cellent things as both his Majefty and di- 
vers of the Nobleile of this Nation have in 
their pofleffion ; and to which there is no 
ingenious perfon that will be deny'd accefs ; 
fince if their Collections were well en- 
graven and difpers'd about the World, it 
would not only exceedingly advance their 
profit, and reputation; but bring them 
likewife into a good manner of 'Defigning, 
which is the very life of this Art, and 
render our Nation famous abroad, for the 
many excellent things which it has once 
again (by the bleffing of God, and the 
Genius of our moft Illuftrious Prince) re- 

cover'd ; 

The History of Chalcography. ioi 

cover'd ; Efpecially, if joyned to this, fuch 
as exceed in the talent, would entertain us 
with moitLandskips, and views of the Envi- 
rons, Approches and Profpe&s of our 
noblyfituated^/r0/>0//>, Greenwich, Windfor 
and other Partsupon the goodly Thames-^ and 
in which (as we faid) Mr. Hollar has fo 
worthily merited, and other Countries a- 
bound with, to the immenfe refrefhment 
of the Curious, and Honour of the in- 
duftrious Artift : and fuch we farther wifh, 
might now and then be encourag'd to 
travail into the Levantine parts; Indies 
Eaft and Weft; from whole hands we 
might hope to receive innumerable, and 
true 2)e/ignes drawn after the life, of thofe 
furprifing Landskips, memorable Places, 
Cities, Ifles, Trees, Plants, Flowers, and 
Animals, &c. which are now fb lamely, 
and fo wretchedly prefented, and obtru- 
ded upon us by the Ignorant, and for want 
of abilities to reforme them. 

And thus we have (as briefly as the 
fubjecl; would admit) fmifti'd what we had 
to offer concerning the original andProgrefs 
of this noble Art : Not, but that there may 
have been many excellent Mafters omitted 
by us, whofe names were worthy of Re- 
cord ; But becaufe they did not occur, 
H 3 at 

io2 Sculptura, or 

at the writing hereof, and that we have 
already introduced a competent, and fuffi- 
cient number to give reputation to the Art, 
and verifie our Inftitution. For the reft, if 
we have fomewhat exceeded the limits of 
a Chapter (comparing it with thofe which 
did preceed) it has not been without Pro- 
fpect had to the benefit of fuch as will be 
glad of inftruftion how to direct their choice 
in collecting of what is curious, worthy 
their procuring, and as the Italian calls 
them, di buon gufto : For we are far from 
opining with thofe, who fly at all without 
judgement or election. In fumme, it were 
to be wifhed, that all our good painters 
would enrich our collections with more of 
their Studies and Ordonances, and not de- 
fpife the putting of their hands now and 
then to the Graver: "We have given in- 
ftances of great Mafters who excell'd in 
both; and the Draught, if it be good, 
does fufficiently commute for the other 
defefts, or what it may feem to want in the 
neatnefle, and accurate conducing of the 
Hatches ; fince by this means, we fhould 
be ftored with many rare 'Defignes, Touches , 
and Inventions, which for being only in 
Crayone^ are cafiial, and more obnoxious to 
accidents; and can be communicated but 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 103 

to thofe few, who have the good fortune 
to obtain their Papers; and (which is yet 
more rare) the happinefle to under ftand, 
as well as to talk or them. 


Of Drawing, and T)e[ign previous to the Art of 
Chalcography ; and of the uje of Tittures 
in Order to the Education of Children. 

AS the Rules of Meafure and Proportion 
have an univerfal influence upon all 
the A6Uons of our lives; it was a memora- 
ble, and noble faying of a great Per f on of Thomas 
our Nation, difcourfing to us once concern- 
ing the dignity of Painting, and the arts L. 
which attend it : That one who could not T)e- 
[ignea little, would never make an honeft man: 
How that obfervation iucceeds in the ge- 
neral, we have not made it much our ob- 
fervation ; but this we are bold to pro- 
nounce. That he (hall never attain to the 
excellency of a good Chalcographer, who is 
not more then ordinarily skilTd in the fa- 
culty and art of 'Drawing ; a thing fo high- 
ly neceflary, that T>onatettus was wont to 
tell his Difciples (difcourfing fbmetimes 
H 4 con- 

104 Sculptura, or 

concerning the accomplifhment of this Art) 
that to deliver it in a fingle word, he would 
fay, DESIGNS ; becaufe it was the very 
Bafis and Foundation, not only of this, 
but even of all thofe free and noble Scien- 
ces of Fortification, Architecture, Terfpe- 
ffive, and whatfoever alfo pretended to any 
affinity with the Mat hema ticks, as really 
leading the Van, and perfeftive of them all. 
But to treat Methodically of this, or as we 
have already enlarged in the Hiftory and 
Progreffe of Chalcography, and the fur- 
viving labours of the moft renowned Ma- 
tters, would require no lefle time and pains: 
It were indeed a noble, curious, and ufeful 
work, but almoft impoffible to accompliih ; 
becaufe the Original Drawings of the great 
Mafters, being difperfed amongfl the 
hands of the greateft Princes, and men of 
Science only, are preferved with jealoufie, 
and efteem'd, as fo many Jewels of greater 
value, then thofe of Pearles and Diamonds : 
For fbme of them being the very laft 
workes, though but imperfect draughts of 
fo Excellent Artifts; they have for the 
moft part been in greater efteem, then 
even thofe of larger bulke and more fi- 
nifhed; as Tliny inftances in the Iris of 
the Medea of Timomachus, and 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 

fome others ; becaufe (as he there fpeaks) 
fiich touches did even exprefle the very 
thoughts and prime conception of the 
Workman, as well as the Lineaments 
which he prefents us ; and that there is a 
certain compaffion in our Natures, which 
indears them to us, fb as we cannot but 
love, and defire the hands which perilhed 
in the midft of fuch famous pieces : Add 
to this, their inimitable Antiquity, then 
which (according to Qutntilian) nothing inft. i. 8. 
do's more recommend things to us, from a c ' 3 * 
certain Authority which it universally car- 
ries with it ; fo as we feem to review what 
they did of old in this kind ; as if (with 
Libanms) the Gods had imparted fome- 
thing of extraordinary to the Matters of 
the Ages paft, which the nature of man is 
not now capable of attaining. 

Thefe difficulties therefore confider'd, it 
will not be required of us in this Chapter, 
which pretends to celebrate and promote 
the Art of ^Drawing, and 'Defigne, only as 
it has relation, and is an abfblute requisite 
to that of Chalcography ', and to prescribe 
fome directions and encouragements, which 
may prepare and fit the hand with a com- 
petent addfeffe therein. 

Whether J >e/ign, and T>raixin^ were x 

1 Design was, ed. x the 

io6" Sculptura, or 

the produ6Uon of Chance or Excogitation, 
we determine not; certain it is that pra- 
&ife and experience was its Nurfe and per- 
ficient ; by fome thus defined to be A vifi- 
ble exprejjlon of the Hand refembling the 
conception of the mind \ By which Definition 
there are who diftinguifh it from "Drawing 
both as to its Original, and Formality ; For 
'Dejign (fay they) is of things not yet 
appearing ; being but the picture of Ideas 
only; whereas tDrawwg, relates more to 
Copies, and things already extant : In fum, 
as the Hiftorian differs from the Poet, and 
Horace has well exprefled it, 

Tiftoribus atque Toetis 

DC A te Quidlibet audendifemperfuit <equa poteftas. 

We could eafily admit this Art to have 
been the moft antient, and with Thiloftratus^ 
^uyyeveo'TetTov TJJ <f)v<ret,of kin even toJVature 
her feF: But to take it fbme what lower, 
there goes a tradition, that fome ingeni- 
ous Shepheard was the inventor of it, 
who efpying the fhadow of one of his fheep 
on the Ground (interpos'd between him 
and the culminating, or declining fun) did 
with the end of his crook, trace out the 
Trofik upon the dufl : and truly fome fuch 
vulgar accident (for chance has been a 
fruitful Mother) might firft probably intro- 

The Hiftory of Chalcography. 1 07 

duce it; however afterwards fubtiliz'd upon 
and cultivated, till it at length arriv'd to that 
degree of excellency and efteem, which it 
has happily gained, and fo long continued. 

But to quit thefe nicer investigations, 
and proceed to fbme thing of ufe, as it con- 
cernes the Title of this chapter: The firft and 
principal manner of Drawing is that with 
\htpen ; the next with Ovmw, whither black, 
white, red or any of the inter medial co- 
lours, upon paper either white or colour 'd : 
We will not fay much concerning wafh- 
ing with the pencil, or rubbing in the 
(hades with T aft ills and dry Compofitions ; 
becaufe it is not till our T)ifciple be a 
confummat Artift, that he can be edified 
with defignes of this nature, and, after 
which, they are of excellent ufe and effect. 

The pen is therefore both the firft, and 
beft inftru&or, and has then (as all the 
other kinds) attained its defired end, when 
it fb deceives the eye by the Magic, and 
innocent Witch-craft of lights and fhades, 
that elevated, and folid bodies in Nature, 
may feem fwelling, and to be emboffed in 
Tlano, by Art. 

To arrive at this, you muft firft draw 
the exaft lineaments, and proportion of the 
fubjecl: you would exprefle in profile, Con- 

io8 Sculptura, or 

tours and fingle lines only ; and afterwards, 
by more frequent, and tender hatches in 
the lighter places, ftrong, bold, or crofs in 
the deeper. 

By Hatching is underftood a continual 
Series, or fucceffion of many lines, fhorter, 
or longer ; clofe, or more feparate ; ob- 
lique, or direct, according as the work re- 
quires, to render it more, or lefle inlightned; 
and is attain'd by praclife with a fwift, even 
and dextrous hand; though fometimes 
alfo, by the help of the rule and compafs ; 
every man being not an Apelles or Troto- 
genes to work without them. Now the befl 
expedient to gain a maftery in this Addrefs, 
will be to imitate fuch prints, and cuts, as 
are moft celebrated for this perfection : 
Such (amongft plenty of others) are thofe 
of Henry Goltzius : The Sadelers, Harman, 
Sanredam, ^osJerman, and above all, that 
rare book of Jacomo Talma graven by 0- 
doardo Fialetti: Of the more Modern, the 
incomparable Natalis, Nanteutl, Toilly, Cor- 
nel. Blomaert ; Thefe for the Burin : For 
Etching > Ca Hot, Morine and Boffe ; efpecially 
in thofe his latter pieces, which have fo 
nearly approach'd the Graver. After thefe, 
let our Learner defign the feveral mem- 
bers of bodies a part, and then united, 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. i op 

with intire Figures and Stories, till he be 
able to compofe fbmething of his own, 
which may fupport the examination of 
qualified Judges. But the Trpoxdpctyftc*, orfirft 
draughts of thefe, would not be with too 
great curiofity, and the fe veral minutiae that 
appear in many Coppies ; but with a cer- 
tain free and judicious negligence, rather 
aiming at the Original, then paining of your- 
felf with overmuch exaclnefle: foinocerefepe 
nimiam diligentiam, was an old obfer vation ; 
and therefore the antient Painters (fay es^/- 
loftratus) more efteem'd a certain true and 
liberal Draught, then the neatnefs of the 
Figure, as he exprefles it in <dmphiarauss 
Horfe, fw eating after the conflict; fince 
Drawings and Defignes are not to be like 
Tolycletuss Canon, which took its feveral 
parts, from as many perfect bodies, by a 
itudied, and moft accurate Symmetric : It 
fhall fuffice that the prime conceptions of 
our Artift be perform a with lefs conftraint; 
a coal or penfil of black-lead will ferve the 
turn, referving the ftronger, and deeper 
touches for a fecond pafs of the hand over 
your work ; and lalt of all, penning the 
Contours, and out lines with a more even 
and acute touch, neatly finifhing the hatches 
with a refolute, conftant and flowing 
hand; efpecially, as it approaches to the 


no Sculptura, or 

fainter fhadowes, terminating them in 
loft and mifty extreams, and thwarted (if 
you will counter-hate/)) at equal, and uni- 
form intervals (but not till the firft be dry) 
or, if with iingle ftroaks (which to us ren- 
ders the moft natural, and agreeable effects) 
with full, deep hatches, and their due di- 

But it would haply be objected, that 
thefe accurate Delignes of the pen, were 
never efteemed among the nobler parts of 
'Drawing, as for the moft part appearing too 
finnicall, ftiffand conftrain'd : To this, we 
reply ; that the remark is not impertinent, 
as commonly we find by experience : But 
it has not proceeded from the leaft defect 
in the Inftrument, but from that of the 
jlrtift, whofe aptitude is not yet arriv'd to 
that perfection which is requisite, and 
does infallibly confirme, and difpofe the 
hand to whatever it addrefles; affording 
fb great a delight and fatisfa&ion to fome 
excellent Workmen, as that they never 
defir'd to advance further, then this Tri- 
umph of the pen, which has celebrated 
their names, and equaliz'd their renown 
with that of the moft famous Painters : 
For fuch were (in this nature) the incom- 
parable Drawings of T>on Giulio Clovio, 


The History of Chalcography. 1 1 1 

Albert T)urer, Tajfarotto, yea Titian himfelf, 
when the fanfie took him : The foremen- 
tion'd Goltzius, efpecially, for his T>iana 
fleeping, drawn with a pen on a cloath 
prim'd in oyl, which was ibmetimes fold at 
Amfterdam for 2,00 pounds ; and that labo- 
rious, and moft ftupendious work of his, 
now part of his Majesties collection, where 
he has drawn with the pen upon an height- 
ning of Oyl, a Fenus, Cupid \ Satyr, and 
fbme other figures, as big as the life it felf, 
with a boldnefs, and dexterity incompara- 
ble : and fuch are fome things which we 
have feen done by Signior Thomafo a Flo- 
rentine ; our ingenious friend Mr. Zander 
T>oufe (defcended of that noble Janus T)ou- 
Ja, whofe learning, and courage the great 
Scaliger, and Grotius have fb worthily cele- 
brated) now in the Court of England. To 
thefe we add Rob. Nanteuil at Taris, and of 
our own Country-men, thofe eight, or ten 
Drawings by the pen of Francis, and John 
Cleyn, two hopefull, (but now defceafed) 
Brothers, after thofe great Cartoons of Ra- 
phael^ containing the f tories of the jiffs of 
the Apojlles^ where in a fraternal emulation, 
they have done fuch work, as was never yet 
exceeded by mortal men, either of the 
former, or prefent Age; and worthy 


Sculptura, or 

they are of the honour, which his Majefty 
has done their memories, by having pur- 
chafed thefe excellent things out of Ger- 
many ^ whither they had been tranfported, 
or, at leafl intended : There is likewife one 
Mr. Francis Carter (now in Italy) not to 
be forgotten amongft thofe whofe pens 
deferve to be celebrated : But it is not here 
that we are to expatiate far on this par- 
ticular, as deligning a Chapter only, much 
lefs lhall we have leafure to proceed to 
black, and white Chalke (as they call it) 
upon coulour'd paper, in which thofe ma- 
ny incomparable, and Original drawings 
of the old and great Matters are yet ex- 
tant, wherein a middle Colour wrought 
upon two extreams, produces (on an in- 
ftant) that wonderfull, and ftupendious 
roundnefs, and exftancy, which the Pen is 
fb long in doing, though fb infallible a 
guide to its well doing ; that having once 
attain 'd the command of that inftrument, 
all other Drawings whatfoever, will feem 
moft eafie and delightfull : Neither ihall it 
then be requisite to continue that exa&nefs, 
fince all Drawing is but as an Hand-mata 
and Attendant to what you would either 
Grave or paint. 

But by this perfection and dexterity at 

The Hiftory of Chalcography. 113 

firft, did even thofe renouned Matters, 
Julio, Tarmegian, and fometimes Tolydor 
himfelf (not to infiit on Rubens and Van- 
dyke) proceed, whofe Drawings in this kind, 
when firft they made their fludies in Italy, 
were exceedingly curious, and finifheid ; 
though in all their more recent, and matu- 
rer Dejlgnes, rather judicious then exacl:, 
becaufe of that time which fuch minute 
finifhings did ufually take up; and, that 
when all is done, it is itill but a Drawing, 
which indeed conduces to the making of 
profitable things, but is it felf none. 

Yet fb highly neceflary is this of Draw- 
ing to all who pretend to thefe noble, and 
refined Arts; that for the fecuring of this 
Foundation, and the promotion and en- 
couragement of it, the greatefl Trinces of 
Europe have erected Academies, furnifhed 
with all conveniencies, for the exercife, and 
improvement of the J^irtuofi; Such illullri- 
ous and noble Genius s were Cofimo di Me- 
dices, Francis the Firit, Carlo Borromeo, 
and others, who built, or appointed for 
them, Stately Appartiments even in their 
own Palaces, and under the fame Roofe: 
procuring Models, and endowing them 
with Charters, Enfranchifements, and ample 
Honoraries\ by which they attracted to 

EVELYN I their 

114 Sculptura, or 

their Courts, and Countries moft of the 
refin'd, and extraordinary fpirits in all the 
Arts and Sciences that were then celebrated 
throughout the World. 

Nor it feems has it been the fole glory of 
thofe illuflrious Princes to cherifh and eno- 
ble men of Art : the Greek and Roman of 
old had them in fpecial veneration ; but in 
none of their Courts, were men of Science 
carrefled to that degree, as in that we have 
read of the Emperours ofjapons at prefent, 
who does not only entertain, and nobly 
accommodate them, but never ftirs abroad 
without their company. Thefe great men 
/cnp. fayes my * Authour ( meaning Pbyjitians^ 
J B. "Painters, Sculptors, Mufitians, <&c. quos 
proprio nomine appellant Contubemium tie/a- 
rts ) march before the King whither he go 
forth in Litter or on Horfeback ; and being 
ele&ed of Perfons of the greatelt birth in 
his Dominions, they alwayes continue at 
his Court, richly appointed with fallaries ; 
but otherwife, to bear no office whatfbever 
which may in the lealt importune them, 
eofolum elefti, utlmperatori advoluptatem & 
deleftationem consortium pr<eftent^ as being 
therefore only chofen, to recreate and di- 
vert the Prince with their excellent conver- 
fation: Thefe being men of the rareit parts, 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 1 1 5 

and endowments in his Empire, have 
pre-eminence in all places next the King ; 
then come the Guards in the reere, which 
confifl of a more inferiour Nobility : Thus 
farr the Hi&loriani We know not how 
this Inflance may in thefe dayes be inter- 
preted ; but certainly the Courts of Princes 
were in former Ages, compos 'd of men of 
the greatefl virtue and talents above the 
reft, and fuch as poflefs'd fomething of ex- 
traordinary (befides the wearing of fine 
cloaths, and making the bone mine) to re- 
commend them. We infill not on Sculp* 
tors, and painters only, efpecially, as fuch 
men are now for the moft part Vitious, or 
elfe of poor and mechanick fpirits ; but as 
thofe Antient and Noble Genius's were 
heretofore accomplifh'd ; and fuch as of 
late were Raphael, ( Durer, Leon ^Iberti, 7) a 
Finc'^ Rubens, and at prefent, Cavalier Ber- 
nini, &c. perfbns of moft excellent endow- 
ments, and univerfally learned, which ren- 
dred their Fautors and Protestors famous, by 
leaving fuch marks of their admired Virtue, 
as did eternize their merits to after Ages. 

Thus it was, that Myron, Tolycletus, 
Thydias, Lyfippus and others of the 
Antients, procured fuch lafting names by 
their divine labours : They wrought 
for Kings, great Cities and Noble Citi- 
i 2, zens\ 

i [<5 Sculptura, or 

zens : whereas others, on the contrary? 
(Men haply of no lefle induftry and fcience) 
had little or no notice taken of them ; be- 
caufe they received no fuch encourage- 
ments, were poor and neglected, which 
did utterly eclipfe and fiipprefs their fame ; 
fuch as thofe whereof j^itruvius does in the 
Preface to his third book make mention, 
where he fpeaks of Chiron the Corinthian, 
Hellas of Athens, M/agrus of Phocia, Tha- 
rax the Ephefian, befides AriSlomcnes^ Toly- 
cles, Nichomachus, and fever al others, who 
being excellent Matters and rarely en- 
do w'd, perifh'd in obfcurity, and without 
any regard, from the unequal hand and di- 
flribution of fortune, and for want of be- 
ing cherifhed by Princes and great men : 
But to return ; 

In thefe places had they books of 
Drawings of all the old, and Renowned 
Mafters, Rounds, Buffs, Relievos and entire 
Figures, call off from the beft of the An- 
tique Statues and Monuments, Greek and 
Roman ; There was to be feen, the Lao- 
con, Cleopatra, ^ntinous, Flora, Hercules, 
Commodus, Fenus, Meleager, Niobe, &c. 
whereof the Originals a.ri\\}\.extant at Rome-. 
There were likewife divers rare and excel- 
lent Statues, both ofbrajs and marble ; Mode Us 
and divers fragments of Safes, Colomns, 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 

Capitals, Freezes, Cornijhes and other pieces 
moulded from the moil amhentique re- 
mains of the antient famous buildings, 
befides a univerfal collection of Medaitts, 
things Artificial and natural. 

But to recover our Drawing again, as 
it concernes the Art of Chalcography, we 
have already mentioned iuch of the moft 
accomplifh'd Gravers, whofe labours and 
works were propofed for exemplars and 
imitation: Nor let the mofl fupercilious 
painter defpife what we have here alledg- 
ed ; or imagine it any diminution to his 
Art, that he now and then put his hand to 
the pen, and draw even after fome of thofe 
Mafters we have fo much celebrated : what 
Andrea del Sarto has taken out of the prints 
of Albert 1)urer, improving, and reducing 
them to his manner (not for want of in- 
vention, and plagiary like, as all that have 
any knowledge of his works can juftifie) 
has no way eclipfed, but rather aug- 
mented his glory; as on the other fide, 
that divine piece of his, the Chriftus mor- 
tuus, which he gave to be cut by Augufti- 
no F'enetiano-, The Triumphs, f^afas, and 
Anatomies of old Rojfo, by whomfoever en- 
graven, and thofe other things of his af- 
ter T)omenico Barbieri: Tauk J^eroneze did 
i 3 much 

1 1 8 Sculptura, or 

much ftiidy the prints of T)urer, and that 
incomparable painter Antonio Fajfalacci, 
(call'd otherwife Alienfe) made notable 
life of that his prodigious collection of 
Stamps of the moil rare hands : not to recapi- 
tulate what were publifhed by Raphael him- 
felf, and infiniteothers; by which they have 
fufficiently made appear, the value they 
attributed to this Art\ by defiring (as 
much as in them lay) to render their 
works famous to polterity, by thus com- 
. municating them to the World, though 
many times, through the hands but of 
very vulgar, and ordinary Gravers. 

And here we fhould have put a period 
to this Effay, and the prefent chapter, 
as having abundantly vindicated the 
neceffity and worthinefs of 'Defigne and 
2) rawing, as it is previous, and introducto- 
ry to the Art of Chalcography ; had not one 
curiofity more prevented us ; which be- 
caufe it so much concernes the conducting 
of Hatches and itroaks, whither with pen, 
point^ or Graver; pretending (at lealt very 
ingenioufly hinting) to a method, how by a 
conflant, and regular certitude, one may 
exprefs to the eye, the Senfation of the 
Relievo, or extancie of objeds, be it by one, 
or more hatches, crofs and counter, 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. up 

we think not impertinent here to re- 
cite, as briefly as the demonitration will 

The principal end of a Graver that would 
coppy a Defign, or piece compos'd of one, 
or more Objects, is, to render it correct 
both in relation to the ^Draught, Contours 
and other particularities, as to the Lights 
and fhades on the Front, flying or turning, 
in bold, or faint touches ; fo as may belt 
exprefs the Relief e ; in which Gravers have 
hitherto, for the molt part, rather imita- 
ted one another, then improved, or re- 
fined upon Nature; fome with more, 
fome with fewer ftroaks : having never 
yet found out a certain and uniforme 
guide to follow in this work ; fo as to car- 
ry their Itroaks with aflurance, as know- 
ing where they are to determine, with- 
out manifeitly offending the due rules of 

If in truth Nakeds, and other polite 
Bodies were fb formed, as that we might 
detect the courfe, and inclination of the 
Threads, Fibers, and Grain, fo as we per- 
ceive it in Stuffs, Cloth, Linnen and o- 
ther 'Draperies-, nothing would appear 
more facile; for let them aflume what 
ply they will, it does not at all concern 
i 4 the 

i2o Sculptura, or 

the tiflue, Tenor or range of the Threads 
and Wales* (as they call them) which is 
eafily imitated, both as to their inclinations, 
and diftances from the point of fight. 

But fmce we are much at a lofs, and can 
perceive no fiich direction or clue in Nu- 
dities, and other fmooth furfaces, it were 
haply worth the while, to find out fome 
expedient which ihould affift the imagina- 
tion in this affair, and that might encoun- 
ter the difficulty upon other terje and e- 
ven objects, by forming fuch flroaks, and 
directors upon them in our Imagination; 
obferving, that there are fome parts in them 
commonly to be diltinguifhed from the 
Mafs in grofs; for example, the hairs in 
men, eyes, teeth, nails, &c. that as one 
would conceive fuch lines, or hatches on 
thofe Majfes, others may like wife be as 
well fanci'd upon thofe lefler, and more de- 
licate members: 

To erTecl: this, the following Ichonifme is 
thus explained. 

J Wails, 1661. 


Sculptura, or 

Suppofe, in the upmofl Figure of this plate, 
the object (0) to be the reprefentation in 
p&fpe&ivc of the portion of a Bowie, ex- 
pos 'd to the beams of the Sun ; and the let- 
ters c s r t a Frame, or fquare of Wood 
barr'd and fining in even and ftraight lines, 
parallel inter fe. 

Then another Thread, viz. m n. crofling 
them in perpendicular. The frame in the 
mean time fuppos'd to incline towards the 
Bowie 'twixt it, and the Sun, which 
reprefents to you all thefe threads project- 
ing their fhadowes upon the Bowie, and 
the furface where it is fituate. 

Suppofe now the fame upon the Relie- 
vo or Mafe it felf ; it is evident, that thefe 
Threads, in whatever manner you interpofe 
the faid Frame 'twixt the Bowie and the 
Sun, that they will perpetually call their 
fhadowes parallel inter* Je, cutting it as it 
were, into feveral planes, uniforme, and pa- 
rallel alfb. 

You fee likewife in this very Figure, that 
the oblique, and direct fhades o u x y are 
caufed by the cathetus mtn, and the pointed 
curved lines upon the Bowie 0, viz. o z n 1 2. 
&c. are formed by the parallels which 
interfecl: the perpendicular. 

But the fame frame pofited between the 


The Hi ft orf of Chalcography. 12.3 

Sun and a Head in Relievo of white marble, 
or the like (as in the inferiour example) 
will not render the fliadow of the threads 
alike upon all the parts parallel inter Je (as 
in the former) though the fame were fiip- 
pos'd to be cut by like plain, and mutual 
Parallels as was the Bowie 0. However, fo 
fhall they appear, as to hint the tracing of 
parallels on the Relievo^.tt affiit the ima- 
gination of them there, and confequently, 
how to defigne them upon objects made 
after the fame Ordonance in perjpeftive pa- 
rallel, as one may conceive them upon the 
Relievo of an Ordonance in G eometrical paral- 
lel, viz. as in the Figure 0. or to fpeak 
more diltinclly, fuppofing them the lame 
on the irregular, as on the regular. 

Confider then upon the Head, the con- 
courfe of thofe imaginary parallels in per- 
fpeffive, {haded with the pointed lines; 
and how the inter current hatches, which 
they comprehend, purfiie the fame courfe 
and tenor, or perfpeftive parallelisme. 

From thefe in{tances now, it will not be 
difficult how to apply the fame upon all the 
forts of bodies reprefentable by Graving, 
and to comprehend in one's imagination, 
the concurrency and nniforme tenor of the 
particles, as we may fb call them; Only, 


12-4 Sculptura, or 

there is this particular to be obferved, that 
the proje&ure of the threads will not ap- 
pear alike perfpicuous in the deep, and 
fhady parts of Relievos, as upon the illu- 
minated, being loft in the dark : But this 
is eafily fupplyed by the imagination, or 
by holding a loofe thread parallel to the 
(haded, neer to the body of the Figure; 
by which the courfe of the reft may be well 
conceived. And this may ferve to give 
great light to him that fhall either grave in 
Copper, or draw with the pen, for the 
Symmetrically conducting of his hatches, 

determinatively, and with certitude, by 
thus imagining them to be Geometrically 
marked upon the Relievo, or emboffement 
of the Natural, whereever he encounter it, 
and after this conception, to trace them 
out upon his Tlate, or Z>raflg/Mnperfpecl:ive. 
And indeed, that which is chiefly confl- 
derable and ingenious in this, is, that of their 
Terfpeftive-, fince the lhades of the lines (in 
the foremention'd example) which were 
upon the parts more, or lefle turn'd, appear 
to our eye accordingly, with more or lefs 
force, which renders clear a different effecl:, 
as to the fwelling and extancies of the parts, 
then we find it in works where this method 
has not been obferved ; fo as truly, this may 


The History of Chalcography. 115- 

feem to be the moft certain expedient of 
exprefling by hatches, the Relievo of obje&s, 
whether with the Ten, or Burine. And this 
is the fence of a much larger difcourfe, which 
Monfteur du Bojfe has propofed, treating of 
the pra6Hfe of Terfpeftive upon irregular 
Surfaces, and we have thought fit to infert 
into this Chapter ; not only becaufe it is 
new and pretty; but, for that (to us) it 
appears to be of good ufe, and as may be 
feen in fbme of the late heads graven by the 
incomparable Nanteuitte, who had been the 
fole occafion of this ingenious confidera- 
tion, about the time of our laft being at 

But if this (like the diligence of Mecho- 
panes, which Tliny affirmes, none was 
able to underfland but an Artift only) 
feem to be a difquifition more refin'd then 
ufeful ; for that few of our Gravers work 
off from the Round, upon which alone the 
obfervation is practicable; yet ihall it be 
neceilary to admonifh, that (hadowes over 
dark, too deep and fuddain, are not com- 
mendable in thefe works, as feldom fo ap- 
pearing in the life-, and therefore hatch- 
ings exprefs'd by iingle fbroaks, are ever the 
molt graceful and natural ; though of grea- 
ter difficulty to execute ; efpecially, being 


12.6 Sculptnra, or 

any wayes oblique ; becaufe they will re- 
quire to be made broader, and fuller in 
the middle, then either at their entrance, 
or exit\ an addrefle much more eafie with 
the Burin, and the Ten, then with the point, 
Though Monfieur Bojfes invention of the 
EJchoppe, does render the making of this 
Sulcus, much more facile : But to attain 
this Maflerly, and with aflurance of hand, 
our Workmen may do well to imitate 
the Gravings of the Sadelers, F'illamena, 
Suaanneburg, Gaultier; but efpecially 
Claudius Mettan, Nat alts, Toilfy, Nanteuitt, 
Cornelius Blomart, H. Goltzius\ And 
for the Etchers in Aqua Fortis, Callot, 
and *Du Bojfe in fbme of their lafl cuts, ef- 
pecially ; Though even the counter hatch- 
ings alfb, coming tenderly ofl^ and well 
conducted, (fb as 'tis to be feen in fbme of 
the prints of M. Antonio's, C. Cort, <dug. 
Carracio and other Matters) render both 
an admirable and ftupendious effecl: For 
it is in this well placing ofit^hite and black, 
wherein all this Art, and even that of 'paint- 
ing does confif t : Thus Aglaphontes us'd but 
one Colour, no more did Nicias the Athenian 
Painter; and it was this Relievo alfo for 
which the famous Zeuxis became fo re- 
noun'd : not to infift on Heredices the Co- 

The Hiftory of Chalcography. i 

rinthian, and Thelophanes the Sicyonian,*w\vz 
were both of them but Monochromifts; 
and, 'till Cleophanes came amongfl them, 
no diffemblers, as owning no other Co- 
lours but thofe eminent Contraries ; that 
is, the lights and the fhades, in the true 
managing whereof, fo many wonders are 
to be produc'd by this Art, and even a 
certain fplendor, and beauty in the touches 
of the Burin, fo as the very Union and co- 
louring it felf may be conceiv'd without 
any force upon the imagination, as we have 
before obferved in thefe excellent Gra- 
vings of Natalis, Roujlet, and Toilly, after 
Bourdon, and in what Greuter, BJomart, 
and fome others have done after Monfieur 
Toujfin, Guido Rhene, Cortoon, <&c. 

But here by the way, let no man think 
we mean by this Coloree (as they term it) 
in Drawing and Graving, fiich a pofition 
of the Hatches as the Chevalier Wolfon has 
invented, and Tietro Santo the Jejuite 
has follow 'd, to diftinguifh their JBla- 
zons by : But a certain admirable effecl;, e- 
merging from the former union of Lights, 
and ihadowes ; fuch as the Antients would 
expreffe by Tonus, or the Tythagoreans in 
their Troportiom, and imitated in this Art, 
where the fhades of the Hatches intend, 


n8 Sculptura, or 

and remit to the beft refemblance of 
painting, the Commiflures of the light 
and dark parts, imperceptably united, or 
at leafl fb fweetly conduced, as that the 
alteration could no more certainly be de- 
fin'd, then the Semitons, or Harmoge in mu- 
fick, which though indeed differing ; yet it 
is fo gentle, and fb agreeable, as even ra- 
vifhes our fenfes, by a fecret kind of charme 
not to be exprefled in words, or difcerned 
by the ignorant. And this it is, which has 
rendred it fo difficult to coppy after 1)e- 
fignes and Tainting ; and to give the true 
heightnings, where there are no hatchings 
to exprefs them, unlefs he, that Copies, 
Defign perfectly himfelf, and poflefs more 
then the ordinary talent and judge- 
ment of Gravers, or can himfelf manage 
the Pencil. But to return to Trints again, 
we are to underfland, that what the Ar- 
tifts do many times call excellent, does not 
alwayes fignifie to the advantage of the 
Graver-, but more frequently, the 2)e- 
fign, confifting in the lineaments, proportion 
and ordonance, if thefe be well, and ma- 
flerly perform'd, and for which we have 
fb recommended the praclife of this Art 
to our JZngliJh Painters in chap. IF". Though, 
to fpeak of an accomplifh'd piece indeed, 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. up 

it is the refult of integral! caufes only, and 
where they univerfally encounter. 

We do farther add, that for this reafbn, 
copies are in Trints much more eafily 
detected, then in paintings^ and by con- 
fequence, more facile alfo to imitate, as 
ufing all one kind of Inflrument, and fewer 
wayes of expreffion : But if there be a 
difficulty in it, thofe which are Etched in 
A, F. make it mofl eonfpicuous ; both 
becaufe the nature of the plates^ and quality 
of the Waters^ and their operations, may 
fometimes fall out to be fo very unlike: 
But, to difcern an Original print from a 
Copy -print (not to fpeak of fuch plates 
as have been retouch 'd, and therefore of 
little value) is a knack very eafily attain'd ; 
becaufe 'tis almofl impoffible to imitate 
every hatch, and to make the ftroaks of ex- 
act and equal dimenfions, where every 
the leafl defect, or flaw in the Copper it 
felf, is iufficient to detect and betray the 
Impoflure, as in that little T>efcent from 
the crofs of Hanibal Carraccio (already 
mention'd) is perfpicuous, and which it were 
abfolutely impoffible to conterfeit. In the 
mean time, fuch as are profound, and well 
knowing, do eftablifh their Judgments 
upon other particulars of the Art, and the 
very handling it felf. LafUy 

130 Sculptura, or 

LafHy, that A. F. gives a tendernefs to 
Landskips^ Trees and Buildings fuperiour to 
that of the Burine (though that exceed 
infinitely in Figures) may be feen in that 
of IJraels view of the Louvre before recited, 
and in fome other works where there is 
an indufbrious and fhidied mixture, as in 
that fecond manner of Foftermans which 
did fb much pleafe Rubens and Fandyke^ 
even in the Portraits which that excellent 
Graver publifhed after thofe great mens 

It was in the former Chapter that we 
made rehear fal of the molt renowned 
Gravers and their works; not that we 
had no more to add to that number ; but 
becaufe we would not mingle thefe illuftri- 
ous names and qualities there, which we 
purpofely referved for the crown of this 
difcourfe ; we did therefore forbear to men- 
tion what his Highnefs Trince Ruperts 
own hands have contributed to the dignity 
of that Art ; performing things in Graving 
(of which fbme enrich our collection) 
comparable to the greatefl Matters ; fiich a 
fpirit and addrefs there appears in all that 
he touches, and efpecially in that of the 
Mezzo Tinto^ of which we fhall fpeak here- 
after more at large, having firit enumerated 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 131 

thofe incomparable gravings of that his 
new, and inimitable Stile, in both the great, 
and little decollations of St. John Baptift,\ht 
Souldier holding a Spear and leaning his hand 
on a Shield, the two Mary Magdalens, the 
Old-mans head, that of Titian, &c. after the 
fame Titian, Georgioon and others. We have 
alfofeen opiate Etchedby theprefent French 
King, and other great perfons ; the Right 
Honourable the Earl of Sandwich fometimes 
(as we are told) diverting himfelf with 
the Burine, and herein imitating thofe 
Antient and renown'd Heros, whofe names 
are loud in the Trumpet of Fame, for their 
skill, and particular atfe&ion to thefe Arts : 
For filch of old, were JLucius Manilius, 
and Fabius, Noble Romans \ Tacuvius the 
Tragick Toet nephew to Ennius ; Socrates 
the wifeft of men, and Tlato himfelf. 
Metrodorus, and Tyrrhus the Thilofopher 
did both defign and paint ; and fo did Fa- 
lentinian, Adrian and Severus, Empp : fo 
as the great Taulus ^/fLmilius, efteem'd it 
of fuch high importance, that he would 
needs have his fon to be inftru&ed in it, 
as in one of the mofl worthy and excel- 
lent accomplifhments belonging to a 
Prince. For the Art of graving Quintilian 
like wife celebrates Euphranor, a Polite and 
K i rarely 

1 32, Sculptura, or 

rarely endow 'd perfon ; and Tlmy in that 
Chapter where he treats of the lame Art, 
obferves, that there was never any one 
famous in it, but who was by birth or 
education a Gentleman : therefore He, and 
Galen in their recenfion of the Liberal 
Arts, mention that of Graving in particular 
amongft the moft permanent ; and in the 
fame Catalogue number it with Rhetorick, 
Geometry, Logic, AJlronomie, yea Grammar it 
ielf; becaufe there is in thefe Arts fay 
they, more of fancy, and invention, then 
ftrength of hand ; more of the Spirit, then 
of the Body. Hence Arijlotle informes us 
that the Grecians did univerfally inftitute 
jvi>. /. s. their Children in the Art of painting and 
Drawing, for an Oeconomique reafbn, there 
fignified, as well as to produce propor- 
tions in the Mind : Farro makes it part of 
the Ladies Education that they might the 
better skill in the works of Embrodery, 
&c. and for this caufe is his Daughter 
Martia celebrated amongft thofe of her 
fair Sex : We have already mentioned the 
Learned Anna Schurman ; but the Trincefs 
Louife has done wonders of this kind, and 
is famous throughout Europe for the many 
pieces which inrich our Cabinets, exam- 
ples fufficient to vindicate its dignity, and 


The History of Chalcography. 133 

the value that has been fet upon it ; fince 
both Emperours, Kings and Thilofophers, 
the great and the wile, have not difdain- 
ed to cultivate, and cherifh this honoura- 
ble quality ; of old fo nobly reputed, that 
amongft the Greeks, a Slave might not be 
taught it : How pailionately does Teireski- 
us, that admirable and univerfal Genius de- 
plore his want of dexterity in this Art ! 
Baptifta Albert i, Aldus ^ Tomponius Guaricus^ 
T)urer, and Rubens were politely learned 
and knowing men ; and it is hardly to be 
imagin'd of how great ufe, and conducible, 
a competent addrefs in this Art of 'Drawing 
and "Dejigning is to the feveral advantages 
which occur ; and efpecially, to the more 
Noble Mathematical Sciences, as we have 
already inftanc'd in the Lunary works of 
Hevelius, and are no lefs obliged to ce 
lebrate fome of our own Country-men 
famous for their dexterity in this incompa- 
rable Art; fuch was that Blagrave, who 
himfelf cut thofe T>iagramms in his 
Mathematical Jewel; and fiich at prefent, 
is that rare and early prodigy of univerfal 
fcience, Dr. Chr. Wren, our worthy and 
accomplish 'd friend. For, if the ftudy of 
Eloquence and Rhetorick were cultivated by 
the greateft Genius's and Heroic perfons 
K 3 which 

Sculptura, or 

which the World has produced ; and that 
by the fiiffrage of the molt knowing, to be 
a perfect Orator, a man ought to be uni- 
verfally inftru&ed ; a quality fo becoming 
and ufefull, ftiould never be neglected. 
Omnium enim Artium peritus erit Orator^ ft 
de Omnibus ei dicendum eft : He that would 
fpeak well upon all fubjecls, fhould be 
ignorant of none : It was Cicero that taught 
^uintilian the importance of it, where he 
tells us, that in his opinion, no man could 
pretend to be Omni laude cumulatus 
Orator^ a perfect and accomplifh'd Orator 
indeed, nift erit omnium rerum mag- 
narum atque Artium Jcientiam confecutus. 
It is the fentence of that great Man, and 
therefore to be embraced by us, efpecially 
on this occalion; becaufe it was imme- 
diately after he had exprefly inftanc'd in 
Ctflatura & Sculptura^ that of cutting and 
Engraving : for it is worth the obfervati- 
on, that the Ages which did moft excell 
in Eloquence^ did alfo flourifh moft in thefe 
Arts^ as in the time of T)emofthenes and 
the fame Cicero ; and as they appear 'd, 
fb they commonly vaniih'd together; and 
this remark is univerfal. 

But now for clofe of all, and to verifie 
the admirable ufe which may be deriv'd 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 

from this incomparable Art above trie 
reft, let us hear what the learned Abbot 
of F'illeloin^ Monjleur de Marolles has left 
upon Record in the Memoires of his own 
life, Anno 1644. after he had made a very 
handfbme difcourfe (which we recommend 
to all good Roman Catholiques) concern- 
ing Images^ upon occalion of a fuperflitious 
frequenting of a certain renowned Shrine^ 
pretended to have done Miracles at Taris, 
but was detected to be an inpoilure : The 
paflage is thus, 

T)ieu m 'a fait la grace, fee. 

I am (faith he) greatly obliged to God, 
that though I have ever had a iingular af- 
fection to Images, I was never in my life 
fuperftitious ; I have yet made a collection 
fo prodigious, that they amount to no 
lefs then Jeventy thoufand (he adds after- 
wards ten thoufand more), but they are 
all Copper-cuts and engravings of all forts 
of Subjects imaginable. I began to be ad- 
di6ted to this kind of Curioiity but fince 
the year 1641 ; but have fo cherifh'd the 
humour, that I may truly affirm, with- 
out the leaf I exaggeration, that I have 
fome prints of all the Mafters that are 
K 4 any 

Sculptura, or 

any where to be found, as well Gravers, as 
"Defigners and Inventors, to the number 
of above four hundred ; And thefe are 
ranged in books of Charts, and Mapps, Cal- 
ligraphy ^ Architecture, Fortification, Tafticks, 
Sieges, Circumvallations, Battails, Single- 
Combats, Naval Fights, Maritime "Pieces, 
Lands kips, Townes, Caflles, Seas, Rivers, 
Fountains, J^afas, Gardning, Flowers, Ruines, 
Terfpeftive, Clocks, Batches, Machines, 
Goldjmiths Works, forjoj/ners, and Workers 
in Iron, Copper, Embroidering, Laces, 
Grotejque, Animals, Habits of federal Coun- 
tries, Anatomies, Tortraiftures,Cartouches'm& 
Compartiments, Antiques, Bas-relief s, Sta- 
tues, Cataphalcos, Tombs, Epitaphs, Fune- 
ral pomps, Entries, Cavalcados, T)evifes, Me- 
daitts, Emblems, Ships, Cabinet pieces, Trees, 
Fruits, Stones, ^Dances, Comedies, Baccha- 
nalias, Huntings, Armories, Tournaments^ 
Majfacres, Executions, Torments, Sports, 
Heroic and Moral Fables, Histories, Lives 
of Saints, and Martyrs, pieces of the Bible, 
Religious Orders, Thejes, and above ten 
thoufand Tortraifts of renowned Terfons, 
without counting (amongft thefe) a- 
bove fixfcore Volums of Matters whofe 
names he there enumerates Alphabeti- 
cally. This Curiofity (fayes he) I arTe&ed 


The Hi/lory of Chalcography. 137 

from my youth; but did not much culti- 
vate till of late years, preferring it even 
before paintings themfelves (for which yet 
I have infinite elteem) not only for that 
they are more proportionable to my purfe ; 
but becaufe they better become our Li- 
braries : fo that had we a dofen only, that 
were curious of thefe Collections in 
France ; efpecially amongft perfons of con- 
dition (fuch as Monfieur de VOrme, the 
late Monfieur de la Mechinier^ &c.) Taitte- 
Douces would come to be extraordinary 
rarities ; and the Works of Lucas, T>mer^ 
Marks Antony^ and the Tolite Majlers 
which are now fold at four, or five hun- 
dred Crownes a piece, would be then 
valu'd at three times as much; a thing 
incredible, did not experience convince us 
of it; thofe who are touch'd with this 
kind of affection, hardly ever abandon- 
ing it, fo full of charmes, variety and in- 
ftruclion it is. Truly, me thinks, that all 
Trinces efpecially, and great Men (hould 
be ftored with thefe Works, preferrable 
to a World of other trifling Collections, 
and lefs fruitfull; as comprehending fb 
many confiderable, remarkable things, and 
notices of almoft all forts of fubjecls ima- 
ginable. Thus far the Learned Abbot. 


138 Sculptura, or 

But it leads us yet farther, when we 
ferioufly reflet, how capable this Art is 
above all other whatfoever, to infinuate 
all forts of Notions and things into Children, 
and be made an Inftrument of Education 
fuperiour to all thofe Abftrafted termes, 
and fecondary intentions wherewith Majlers 
commonly torment and weary their ten- 
der and weak Capacities: And this we 
have difcover'd by much experience, and 
could here produce examples beyond be- 
liefe in a Child at prefent not fix years 
old, who does both know, and perfectly 
comprehend, fuch things and Actions as 
hardly any at fixteen, fome at twenty 
have yet attained, who purfue the com- 
mon Method of our Grammar Schooles, 
without thefe aids, and advantages: For, 
fince Nihil eft in Intetteftu, quod non prius 
fuit infenfu\ and, that as the :?Whad well 

Segnius irritant animos demijfa per Aurem 
Quam qutefunt Oculis fubjefta fidelibus . 

What can there be more likely to in- 
forme and delight them, dum animus 
majora non capit, then the pi6hires and re- 
prefentations of thofe things, which they 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 

are to learn ? We did mention before 
the Hieroglyphical Grammar publifhed by 
2)r. Cotmay ; and it is well known, how 
Eilbartkts Lubinus in an Epiftle to the 
'Duke of Stetin, has celebrated and con- 
triv'd an Inffcitution of youth by this Art : 
Such as was also the Defign of that Prodigie 
of a Man, La Martelay^ who had already 
collected and digeffced fuch a choice number 
of cuts^ and fb univerfall, as by which 
he more then pretended (for he really 
effe&ed it) to teach all the Jciences by 
them alone, and that with as much cer- 
titude, and infinite more expedition, 
then by the moft accurate method that 
was ever yet produced : What a jpecimen 
of this Jo. Amos Commenius in his Orb is 
Jenjualium piftus gives us in a Nomen- 
clator of all the Fundamental things and 
Aclions of Men in the whole World, is 
publick, and I dp boldly affirm it to be a 
piece of fuch excellent ufe, as that the 
like was never extant ; however it comes 
not yet to be perceived: A thoufand 
pitties it is, that in the Edition publifhed 
by Mr. Hook, the cuts were fb wretchedly 
engraven : I do therefore heartily wifh 
that this might excite fome gallant and 
publick minded perfon, to augment and 


140 Sculptura, or 

proceed farther upon that moil ufefull 
defign, which yet comes greatly fhort of 
the perfection it is capable of, were fbme 
additions made, and the prints reformed 
and improved to the utmoft, by the skill- 
full hand of fbme rare Artift. In the mean 
time, what a Treafiiry of excellent things 
might by this expedient be conveyed, and 
imprefled into the waxen Tables and Ima- 
ginations of children; feeing, there is nothing 
more prepoflerous, then to force thofe things 
into the Rare, which are vifible, and the pro- 
per objects of the eye, Forptffurv, is a kind 
of Universal Language, how diverfe foever 
the tongues and vocal expreffions of the fe- 
ver & Nat ions which fpeak them may appear; 
Solet enim piftura tacens loqui, maximeque 
prodejfe, as Nazianzen has it. 

So as if ever, by this is that long fought 
for Art moft likely to be accomplifh'd : Nor 
can any words whatever hope to reach 
thofe defcriptions, which in a numberlefle 
fort of things, Picture do's immediately, 
and as it were at one glance, interpret to 
the meaneft of capacities : For inftance, in 
our Herbals, books of Injefifs, Birds, Beajls^ 
Fijhes, Buildings^ Monuments, and the reft 
which make up the Cycle of the Learned 
fome of them haply never feen be- 

The Hiftory of Chalcography. 

fore, or fo much as heard of, as ^/Elian does 
upon occafion ingenuoufly acknowledge. 
And what do we find more in requeft 
amongft the Antients, then the Images 
of their Heros and Illuftrious predece 
fors? fuch as Atticus^ and Marcus J^arro 
collected; all which confider'd, we do 
not doubt to affirm, that by the application 
of this Art alone, not only Children ; but 
even Stripplmgs well ad vane 'd in Age, 
might receive incredible advantages, pre- 
paratory to their entrance into the Schoole 
Intelle&ual, by an Univerfal, and choice 
Collection of prints and cuts well defign'd, 
engraven and difpos'd, much after the 
manner and method of the above nam'd 
yillckin, which fhould contain, as it were, 
a kind of Encyclopedia of all intelligible, 
and memorable things that either are, or 
have ever been in rerum Natura. It is not 
to be conceived of what advantage this 
would prove for the Inftitution of Trinces 
and Noble Perfons, who are not to be 
treated with the ruder difficulties of the 
vulgar Grammar Schoole s only, and abftrufer 
Notions of things in the reft of the fciences^ 
without thefe Auxiliaries ; but to be allur'd, 
and courted into knowledge, and the love 
of it by all fuch fubfidiaries and helps as may 
beft reprefent it to them in Tifture, No- 

mend a to r^ 

142- Sculptura, or 

menclator, and the moft pleafing defer ipti- 
ons offenfaal Objefts, which naturally flide 
into their fluid, and tender apprehenfions, 
fpeedily pofleffing their memories, and 
with infinite delight, preparing them for 
the more profound and folid ftudies. 

Seneca indeed feems to refufe ^.Graphical 
Jctettcesthofe advantages which others of the 
T hilofophers have given to them amongft the 
moft Liberal, as reckoning them fomewhat 
too voluptuary for his Stoical humour : yet 
did Socrates learn this very Art of Carving 
of his Father ; ^Diogenes drew the picture of 
Tlato-, and the Orator Mejfatta commends it 
moft highly: But what more concernes our 
prefent inftance, is, that it was by the appro- 
bation of the great Augujlus himfelf, that ^ 
Todius the Mute fhould be diligently taught 
it : We could tell you of a perfon of good 
Birth in England, who (labouring under the 
fame imperfection) does exprefs tnany of his 
conceptions by this Art ofZ)raw?rtg and 2)e- 
Jigning : And if (as 'tis obferv'd) it furnifh us 
with Maximes to difcern of general Defects 
and Vices, efpecially, in what relates to the 
proportions or humane bodies, it is certainly 
not to be efteem'd fo inconfiderable as by 
many it is. Tolygnotus could exprefs thePaffi- 
ons, w\&j4ritides the veryinteriour motions 
of the foul, if we will believe what is recor- 

The Hijlory of Chalcography. 143 

ded: But whither it advance to that pre- 
rogative ; this we read of for certain, (as to 
our pretence for the Education of Children) 
that when L. Taulus demanded of the Con- 
quer 'd Athenians a Thilojbpher\.o> inftru6l his 
little ones, they prefer'd one Metwdorus an 
excellent Tainter before any of the reft : 
What Quintilian fayes of Euphranor is fuffi- 
ciently known ; and if fome great Trinces 
have not difdain'd to take the Tincil in the 
fame hand in which they fway'd the Sceptei 
and the Sword; and that the knowledge of 
this divine Art was ufefull even to the pre- Luitprand. 
fervation of the life of an Emperor (for fiich Hlft< 
was that Conftantinus Torphyrogenitus] it is 
not without examples fufficient to fupport 
the dignity of thefe Arts^ that we have 
with fo much zeal^ recommended them to 
Trinces and Illuftrious Perfbns. 

And now we have but one thing more to 
add before we conclude this Chapter, and it 
is for caution to thofe who fhall make thefe 
Collections for curiofity and ornament only; 
That where we have faid all that we can of 
Tbit^ or any other particular Art^ which 
may recommend it to the favour, and en- 
dearment of great perfons ; our intention is 
not, that it fhould fo far engage them in its 
purfuit, as to take from the nobler parts of 
life, for which there are more iublime and 


144 Sculptura, or 

worthy objects ; but, that with this (as with 
the reft which are commendable, innocent, 
and excellent Company) they would fill up 
all fuch fpaces, and opportunities, as too 
often lye open, expofe and betray them to 
mean complyances, and lefle fignificant di- 
verfions : For thefe was Aratus a great Col- 
lector, nor lefs knowing in the judgement of 
Pictures ; fo was J^tndex and many others. 
namque htec, quo ties Chelyn exuit, illi 
^Defidta eft; hkAoniis amor avocat antris. 
He allowes himfelf thefe relaxations only 
when he is tyred with the more weighty af- 
fairs and concernments : Finally, that they 
would univerfally contend to do fome great 
thing, as who fhould mofl merit of the Sci- 
ences, by fetting their hands to the promote- 
ment of experimental, & ufefull knowledge, 
for the univerfal benefit, & goodof Mankind. 
This, this alone, would render them de- 
fervedly honorable indeed ; and add a luftre 
to their Memories, beyond that of their 
'Painted Titles^ which (without fome fblid 
Virtue) render but their defefts the more 
confpicuous to thofe who know how to 
make a right eftimate of things, and, by 
whofe Tongues^ and Tens only, their Tro- 
phies 2C&&Elogtes can ever hope to furmount, 
and out-lafl the viciflitudes of fortune. 


The Hiftory of Chalcography. 


Of the new way of Engraving, or Mezzo 
Tinto, Invented, and communicated by 
his Highnejfe Trince RUPERT, Count 
Palatine of Rhyne, 

WE have already advertised the Rea- 
der in one of our Tr^liminaries, 
why we did omit what had been by us pre- 
par'd for the Accomplifhment of the more 
Mechanical part of the Chalcographical Art : 
But it was not out of the leaft Delign to 
abufe him in the Title at the Frontif- 
piece of this History ; fince we believed 
he would moft readily commute for the 
defect of a Myftery fo vulgar, to be grati- 
fied with another altogether Rare, Extra- 
ordinary ', Univerfally approvd of, admired 
by all which have confided d the ejfeffs of it, 
and, which (as yet) has by none been ever 

Nor may I without extraordinary in- 
gratitude, conceal that Illuftrious Name 
which did communicate it to me ; nor the 
obligation which the Curious have to that 

EVELYN L heroic 

146 Sculptura, or 

heroic Per/on who was pleas'd to impart it 
to the World, though by fo incompetent, 
and unworthy an inflrument. 

It would appear a Taradox to difcourfe 
to you of a Graving without a Graver, 
Burin, To'int, or Aqua, Fortis; and yet is 
This perform'd without the affiflance of 
either : That what gives our mofl perite 
and dextrous Arti&s the greatefl trouble, 
and is longefl finifhing (for fiich are the 
hatches, and deepefl fhadowes in plates) 
fhould be here the leafl confiderable, and 
the mofl expeditious; That, on the con- 
trary, the Lights fhould be in this the mofl 
Laborious, and yet perform'd with the 
greatefl facility : That what appears to be 
effected with fo little Curiofity, fhould 
yet fo accurately referable what is gene- 
rally efleem'd the very greatefl ; viz. that 
a print fhould emulate even the befl of 
^Drawings Chiaro oscuro, or (as the Ita- 
lians term it) peices of the Mezzo Tinto, 
fo as nothing either of j^ago da Carpi, or 
any of thofe other Mafters who purfu'd his 
attempt, and whofe works we have al- 
ready celebrated, have exceeded, or in- 
deed approch'd; efpecially, for that of 
Tortraits, Figures, tender Landskips, and 
Hiftory, &c. to which it feems mofl ap- 
propriate, and applicable. This 

The Hiftory of Chalcography. 147 

This Obligation then we have to his 
Highnefs PRINCE RUPERT, Count 
Talatine of Rhyne, &c. who has been 
pleas'd to caufe the Instruments to be 
exprefly fitted, to fhew me with his 
own hands, how to manage, and conduit 
them on the plate, that it might produce 
the effects I have fo much magnified, 
and am here ready to fhew the World, in 
apiece of his own Illuftrious touching, which 
he was pleas'd to honour this Work withall, 
not as a Venal addition to the price of the 
Book (though for which alone it is moft 
valuable) but a particular grace, as a Speci- 
men of what we have alledged, and to a- 
dorn this prefent Chapter. 

It is likewife to be acknowledged, that 
his Highnefs did indulge me the Liberty of 
publishing the whole manner, and addrefs 
of this new way of Engraving with a 
freedome perfe&ly generous, and obliging : 
But, when I had well confider'd it (fb 
much having been already exprefled, which 
may fuffice to give the hint to all ingenious 
Perfons how it is to be performed) I did 
not think it neceflary that an Art fo curi- 
ous, and (as yet) fo little vulgar (and 
which indeed does not fucceed where the 
Workman is not an accompliihed 'Defigner, 
L z and 

148 Sculptura, or, &c. 

and has a competent talent in painting 
likewife) was to be proftituted at fo cheap 
a rate, as the more naked defcribing of it 
here, would too foon have expos 'd it to. 

Upon thefe confiderations then it is, that 
we leave it thus (^Enigmatical; and yet that 
this may appear no diffingenuous Rodo- 
montade in me, or invidious excufe, I profefs 
my felf to be alwayes moft ready (Jub fi- 
gillo, and by his Highneffes permiflion) 
to gratifie any curious, and worthy Per- 
fon, with as full, and perfect a T)emon- 
Jlration of the entire Art, as my talent, and 
addrefle will reach to ; if what I am now 
preparing to be refer v'd in the Archives of 
the ROYAL SOCIETY concerning it, be 
not fufficiently inftru&ive. 




f~T\Here is a Treatife of Monfieur 
du Bofles in French, concerning 
Etching in Aqua Fortis, Constrtt&ion 
of the Rolling Prefs, &c. which (with 
fome improvement of the Method) / did 
long Jince interpret^ and deliver to the 
Royal Society, in obedience to their 
Commands: It was my intention to have 
added it to this Hiftory of mine, as 
what would have render d it a more 
accomplijlfd Piece; but, understanding 
it to be alfo the de/ign of Mr. Faithorn, 
who had (it feems) tranjlated the fafl 
part of it, and is himfelf by ProfeJJion a 


1 5-0 Advertisement 

Graver, and an excellent Artift ; that 
I might neither anticipate the Worlds 
exfpeH&tion, nor the Workmans pains, 
to their prejudice, I dejijled from printing 
my Copy, and fubjoyning it to this dif- 
courfe. In the mean time, it is to be 
acknowledged^ that the Author thereof, 
has dij "cover* d his skill fo honestly , and 
intirely, that there feems nothing more 
deferable, as to that particular: And I 
could wijh with all my heart, that more 
of our Workmen, would (in imitation 
of his laudable example) impart to us 
what they know of their feveral Trades, 
and Manufactures, with as much Candor 
and integrity as Monfieur Bofs has done. 
For what could fo much conduce to their 
profit and Emolument? when their feveral 


Advertuemen t 151 

Myfteries being fuhjeiled to the moft 
accurate Infpedtion and Examen of the 
more polite^ and enquiring Spirits, they 
Jhould return to their Authors again fo 
greatly refind and improved^ and when 
(through this means alfo) PHILO- 
SOPHY her felf, might hope to attain 
fo conjiderable a progress towards her 
ultimate Terfeftion. 

End of Tart I. 


DURING a recent search in the 
Library of the Royal Society for 
John Evelyn's promised account of 
the process of mezzotint, an interest- 
ing discovery, or rather re-discovery, 
was made. One of forty-three guard- 
books, containing a large number of 
manuscripts, opens with two papers 
by our author. The first of these, 
occupying four pages, is wholly in the 
handwriting of John Evelyn, and is 
signed and dated by him January irf, 
1 660-1. It contains a conspectus of 
the subjects to be treated in a pro- 
posed c History of Arts Illiberal and 
Mechanick 7 . These Arts are classi- 
M fied 

ii Introduction 

fied into eight groups, of which the 
eighth and last group contains those 
which are termed < Exotick and very 
rare Seacrets '. Almost the last entry 
here refers to Prince Rupert's new 
process of engraving. The second 
manuscript in this guard-book (which 
is labelled * 3. Mechanicks, Trades, 2') 
consists of eight leaves 12 inches by 
7|, the watermark of which is a 
device which may represent a covered 
vase. The leaves are numbered on 
the recto 6f each, 33 to 39, with 37 
in duplicate. The manuscript is shown 
to be complete by the word FINIS on 
the fifteenth page: it begins with 
the description <Booke: II ? ; while 
the heading < Sculptura ? often recurs. 
It is probable that this manuscript 
is the remaining part of that from 
which Evelyn's Sculptura^ Book I, was 


to Tart // iii 

printed in 1662. The paper was 
read before the Royal Society on 
May 14, 1 662.) just one month before 
he presented a copy of his Sculptum 
to that body. It would appear that 
this manuscript originally consisted 
of forty leaves, of which the first 
thirty-two carried the contents of 
Book I. A rough calculation as to 
the number of words in the printed 
pages of the first edition of the first 
Book of the Sculp tura and the number 
in the Royal Society manuscript tends 
to confirm this suggestion. 

The spelling and punctuation of 
this manuscript are somewhat erratic. 
It may well be that it was written by 
an amanuensis from Evelyn's dicta- 
tion. Colour is lent to this sugges- 
tion by the occurrence of three 
blanks in the manuscript representing 
M 2 three 

iv Introduction 

three missing words. These blanks 
have been filled in by words in 
pencil written in a much later hand, 
probably that of Thomas Stack, 
M.D. 1 For under the Presidency of 
Sir Hans Sloane Dr. Stack made, or 
caused to be made, a copy of Evelyn's 
original paper in order that it might 
be inserted in a volume which is now 
in the Sloane MSS. at the British 
Museum. This volume contains a 
copy of the several papers in the 
original Register Book of the Royal 
Society, vol. i, with the exception of 
six, but it also includes three papers 
not to be found therein. Of these, 
Evelyn's <The Construction of the 
Rowling Press, and Manner how to 
worke off the Plates', is by far the 
longest. However, in Dr. Stack's 


1 Elected F.R.S., Jan. ^6 y 

to Tart II v 

transcript there is no hint of the fact 
that he had before him what Evelyn 
intended to form the second and 
concluding part of the Sculp tura. The 
date of this transcript may be fixed 
by the statement on folio 268, 
< Collated Jan: 20: 1732 by T. Stack.' 
The volume in question is Sloane 
MS. 243, in which Evelyn's paper 
occupies folios 1 2 7 b- 1 4 1 b. Until 
the recent re-discovery of Evelyn's 
original paper, Dr. Stack's transcript 
of the year 173! remained the only 
known text. The paper, it seems, 
was never printed. 

One point remains for considera- 
tion. The c Advertisement ' to Book 
II of Sculptura refers to Abraham 
Bosse's Tfaiftt des Manieres de Graver 
en Tattle Douce sur Pairin in such a 
way as to lead one to suppose 


vi Introduction 

that Evelyn intended to offer 
nothing more than a translation of 
the Appendix to that work. On 
comparing the Second Book of 
Sculptura with Bosse's Appendix, c La 
Maniere d'Imprimer les Planches en 
Taille Douce : Ensemble d'en Con- 
struire la Presse ' (pp. 5-7 to 75- of 
Bosse's first edition, 1 64 5-), such sup- 
position is confirmed. The six plates 
with their lettering are exactly de- 
scribed by Evelyn, while the bulk of 
the French text is reproduced in the 
translation. But Evelyn has in some 
degree rearranged the original mate- 
rial, and has made additions, altera- 
tions, and omissions. 

The Assistant Librarian of the 
Royal Society, Mr. A. H. White, has 
been indefatigable in the search for 
Evelyn's missing description of the 


to Tart II vii 

process of mezzotint. And although 
that search has not been successful 
In this quarter, yet to Mr. White is due 
the credit of suggesting the series 
of guard-books as a likely hunting- 
ground, and also of recognizing the 
importance of Evelyn's paper, now 
for the first time printed with the 
permission of the Council of the 
Royal Society. 

According to the Advertisement 
appended to his Sculptura Evelyn 
withheld his adaptation of Bosse's 
Appendix from publication because 
he did not like to forestall the similar 
undertaking of Mr. W. Faithorne. 
But Faithorne published only the 
first part of Bosse's treatise in an 
English version, omitting the Ap- 
pendix with its six additional plates. 


viii Introduction to Tart IT 

NOTE: The six plates, here reproduced 
from the second edition (1701) of A. Bosse's 
4 Appendix ', differ only in one particular 
from the description given by Evelyn of 
his figures; the abbreviations//, and/, of 
the French terms for foot and inch are used 
instead off and i. 




The Construction of the Rowling Tress, and R / a(1 

May 14: 6z. 

manner how to worke off the Tlates : 
By Mr. Evelyn. 


IT is for their sakes; who are many 
tymes remote from the places where 
this convenience is to be found, that 
we have thought good to add this peice of 
the construction of the Rowling-Press ; and 
the Instruments which appertaine unto it; 
and for that it is no where (as we know 
of) published in print by those who have 
translated Mons: Bosses Treatise of Etch- 
ing, to which it is so nessessary an appen- 
dix : But that which has rendred me more 
willing to gratifie some persons who desired 
it, is the great convenience, and allmost 
necessity of having a Rowling-Tress to be 
able to accomplish that new way of engrav- 
ing so lately described and celebrated ; and 


Sculptura: Tart II. 

to persue (as far as my talent reaches) that 
part of the History of Trades promoted by 
our illustrious Assembly. 


Of the Severall fieces belonging to the Row- 

THERE are severall pieces which compose 
the Press, for the printing of engraven 
Plates and Copper cutts ; all which are for 
the most part represented by the next 
figure in Perspective so distinctly, that any 
Joyner or Carpenter of an indifferent under- 
standing may easily comprehend it, with- 
out much discourse : However, that there 
be nothing diffident, take the particulars 
as they follow, together with their exact 

First then provide yourselfe of good and 
well season'd Oak, of which you are first 
to frame the two feet, marked C. D., and 
fower blocks 1. m. to raise, and keep it in 
the firme posture. two pieces like A. B. 
which are called the side-beames, or cheeks 
of the Press ; in each whereof are two 
mortaises cut with arches r. s. t. u. and 

x. y. z. 

To face p. i (Part 77 ) 

The Rvwling Tress. 

x. y. z. pierced quite through in right- 
angles: fower Boxes cutt in like the two 
P. O. And fower other pieces of wood, 
viz. n. q. which they alsoe name blocks, 
and which are made to lodge in the mor- 
taises of the foresayd side-beames, and to 
embrace the Tenons of the Rowlers, as wee 
shall shew hereafter : These fower Boxes 
are likewise to be notched at a. b. and their 
two sides lined with braces of Latten. 
There are alsoe fower spurrs made like I. K. 
which serve to support the side beames : 
Fower pieces call'd the Armes of the Press 
E. F. fower Colomns G. H. whose Tennons 
are mortals 'd into the ends of the feet and 
Armes of the Press. The Pise marked L. 
of which their are two for the traverse 
piece have after to be explained : the Iron 
key to skrue the vice M. 

The head pieces X. Y. to be dove-tayl'd 
into the side-beames of the Press to keepe it 
even above. 

The two Rowlers, the upmost J, the 
neithermost II, these had need be made of 
excellent walnut-tree, well seasoned, and 
voide of the least sap or knott. 

You have now in the next figure most of 
the pieces already explained, assembled and 
formed into a side aspect of the Press : so 


Sculptum: Tart IT. 

that making two such sides, their will need 
onely three or fbwer pieces more (which 
the next figure will present you) to perfect 
its in tire construction. 

And in this we have noted the propor- 
tions marking for a foot and i for an Inch, 
and p for parts or divisions of every Inch : 
to avoyd the repetition: we have alsoe 
represented the two Rowlers, and the two 
upper Boxes AB, together with the two 
neither-most C. and D, as well to describe 
the measures, as to shew that the Rowler 
I ought to have one of its extreames put 
into the arch, and be mortais'd above by its 
tenon ; the other tenons to be placed in the 
mortaise and arch of the other side-beame 
which is opposite to this: then putting 
a block of wood in the mortaise below, and 
upon that one of the boxes ; soe as placing 
one of the Tenons of the Roller viz. II. it 
compass the neck about; you must place 
the other extreame in the very same 
manner, as you did for the upmost Roller 
which is marked I. 

You are therefore to remember that the 
Tenons of the upmost Roller are to be put 
into the boxes of the mortaises together 
with the two blocks, and then to fill or 
wedge in the upper part, to the top of the 


To face p. 4 (Part 77) 

To face p. f (Part 77) 

The Rowling Tress. 

mortaises, as the figure shews. But first, 
as we sayd, the Boxes should be shod with 
latton plates, that the motion or working 
of the tenons doe not weare, and disorder 
the Boxes so as not to be able to play freely : 
The two pieces H. R. and the box Q_ suffi- 
ciently explaine what we meane hereby : 
For the piece H, is the latton plate cutt in 
just proportion for the lining the cavitys 
of the Box which is made to embrace the 
Tenons of the Roller, which being bent 
crooked as R. must be applyd to the said 
cavity, and fastned by the two eares, with 
a couple of nailes, upon the mortaises t u of 
the Box Q^ And in this sort you must 
prepare fower boxes, which before you set 
the Press to worke you must well grease, 
together with the Tenons of the Rollers. 

In this figure, together with its measures, 
you may see how it is mounted and framed ; 
How first, the Traverse P O doe with its 
two Tenons and Vises hold the cheeks or 
side beames fast together. Then the head 
piece or Summer X Y holds the same cheeks 
firmely above, being fram'd square and dove 
tayld into them : or they may [be] fastned 
by skrews with vises, as the traverse P O 
is, and as some presses have it. 

You have likewise described by the prick 'd 


6 Sculptura: Tart II. 

lines how the Tenons of the Rollers lye in 
their Boxes, and the mortaises of the two side- 
beams, alsoe the moulinett or cross (by our 
workemen called the wheele) Qj*, which 
is placed on the square Tenon of the upper 
Roller I, but of that there is an express 
hereafter : 

The Colomne or right fbote y is cutt off 
in this figure onely to discover the place 
where the spur is fastned to the foote, and 
the side-beame : the other three to be set 
in the same manner. But for the more 
accurate explanation of this machine we 
have described below a part of the two 
Armes of the Press in a larger figure, where 
the ends of the piece r r be dove-taild, after 
the small board o o has bin made to slide 
into the Cullis or furrow marked on the 
two Armes m m ; But you must remember 
to make the upper part of the neithermost 
Roller (where the Table or (as our men 
call it) the planke of the Press is to pass) 
higher by an Inch, or thereabouts, than 
the dove-taild piece marked rr, and the 
thin board which it encloses ; for else the 
table will move to stiffely upon it, which 
it ought not to doe. 

Note that Now the Table or Plate of the Press 
^divided (which you have alsoe in figure) should 


To face p. 7 (Part II) 

The Rowling Tress. 7 

have 3 feete, 3 Inches in length, in breadth into ia 
i foote, 9 Inches and about six parts of an pantT* 
Inch ; and in thickness about a Inch and 
a halfe, because sometymes there may be 
occasion to redress and amend it. 

The Roller must be exquisitely turned, 
every way paralelle; and to prevent the 
splitting of the topmost, it will not be amiss 
to feroll the ends with a paire of Iron 
circles, abating the wood to the thickness 
of the ferolls, as is noted by the printed 
lines upon the extreames of the Rolle I. 

The Moulin et, or wheele represented in 
the next figure is made to turne the upper 
Roller, which pressing hard against the 
interposed Table moves it along with the 
same motion, and causes it in like manner 
to turne the undermost Roller, though in 
a contrary motion : 

And here you must be very circumspect 
that the Table or planke passing betweene 
these two Rollers, be equally pressed by 
their surfaces, especially the uppermost, 
and therefore the Table ought to be exactly 
even, and the Rollers turned in forme of 
perfect Cilinders; so as being apply ed to 
the foresaid Table, there may noe light 
appeare betweene the Comissures. 

The figures of the Moulinett or wheele 


Sculptura: Tart II. 

are twice described on this plate, the first 
above, before it be applyed to the Tenon 
of the Roller, and noted with its measures, 
neare the mortaise and upon one of its 
handles : the same is alsoe beneath fastned 
to the Tenon O of the Roller I which 
Tenon and mortaise are made both square : 
a b c d is a peice of wood of about an Inch 
thick, serving onely to fortifie that part of 
the Moulinet which in working beares the 
greatest stress. 

The several! members of the Rolling- 
Press being in this readiness, to fitt and 
adjust the Table and Rollers in their places, 
you must first take out the blocks and the 
boxes which embrace and support the 
Tenons of the upmost Roller, to which 
the wheele or moulinett is to be joyned, 
that thrusting in the Table, or Planke, and 
lifting up the Roller, it may pass under it, 
and lye betweene both the Rollers, with 
its smoother side upmost : This don, put in 
the boxes and blocks againe into their 
places, and then trye if in turning, the 
moulinett, the Rollers doe universally touch 
the imediate surfaces of the Table. Note, 
that the moulinett is made to take ofi^ and 
put on without any stay or pin, being 
made very just to the Tenon O. 


The Rowling Tress. 


The Tress compleate, 'with all its members^ 
represented in Terspective^ together with 
its furniture ', preparation, and working. 

'""THE Table or Planke being thus ad- 
JL justed, to be more sure of its effects : 
you shall spread a sheet of paper upon it, 
and on that a reasonable large plate of 
Copper of equall thickness throughout, and 
lastly upon the plate one or two pieces of 
cloath, and cause it all to pass betweene 
the Rollers ; If the print which the plate 
leaves on the paper doe perfectly corre- 
spond, it shews that the Table is sufficiently 
well fitted : But however it will be requisite 
that in printing off for good and all, you 
have often your eye upon the impression, 
and examine its resemblance to the Archi- 
type and originall : which you shall dis- 
cover by comparing them together ; since 
every the least touch and hatcheur ought 
to appeare black upon the paper. 

Now; albeit we have spoken nothing 
as yet concerning the cloaths The Printers 

EVELYN N black. 

io Sculptural Tart II. 

black, how to prepare the paper and Inke 
the plate: with other particularities that 
follow hereafter : Yet supposing all this 
furniture in a readiness, we will proceed to 
shew how you are to worke off the Plates : 

The Printer standing before the middle 
of the front of the Press, and having his 
feete at B, the greater part of the Table 
towards him; lett him place one of the 
blankets evenly upon it, and then put 
two more upon that; soe as towards the 
Roller, the upmost blankett exceede the 
neithermost a little, and so of the rest how 
many soever. 

These Blanketts thus smoothly layd one 
above another, he turnes the moulinett, 
and the Roller in moving the Table will 
easily surmount the Blanketts* and when it 
has taken hold of about an Inch upon the 
lowermost, let the Printer turne all the rest 
of , the blankets over the Roller, laying 
them exactly smooth and without the least 
wrinkle, as is noted by the letters f x h e, 
after this, lay a dry sheete of paper of the 
same size with that which he hath ready 
moistned and prepared for the impression 
(as shall be hereafter taught) upon the Table 
or Planke betweene the space d e f g, to 
serve as a marge nt to the plate : upon this 


To face p. 10 (Part 77) 

The Rvucling Tress. 1 1 

sheete place the plate which is graved. 
Inked and a little warme, and according to 
the margent it will afford, as the figure 
noted C on the face of the graven plate 
represents, cover it with a sheete of faire 
paper moistned, such as you desire should 
receive the impression ; and upon this lay 
another sheete somewhat moistned with a 
sponge ; this they usually call the macula- 
torie or bottome-paper. 

This don, and spread exactly even, take 
offthe blankets from the Roller very gently, 
and lay them upon the maculatorie, and 
then turning the moulinet softly, with an 
even force, it will pass the Table, together 
with all that you layd upon it, to the 
other side of the frame, as the Ichonisme 

The Rollers thus turned gently, roundly 
and without joulting (which would indanger 
the potching, blurring and wrinkeling of 
the impression) he will find all well, and 
as it ought to be, But in case the Plates be 
any of them of unequall thickness, he may 
rectifie the posture of it, by interserting 
some small morcells of pastborde or course 
paper torne and boulstred in, where the 
inequalities appeare: To proceede then 
The Plate being passed to the side of the 
N 2, Press 

Sculpture: 7 art II. 

Press A, so as the Roller touch onely the 
edges of the blanketts B and noe part of 
the paper, let the workeman goe to the 
same side or end A, and lift up the blanketts 
altogether, turning them over the Roller, 
as we shewed above, and after that the 
maculatorie; Then with the ends of the 
fingers of both your hands, take off the 
paper which lyes imediately upon the 
Plate, but doe it plomb, and gently, least 
otherwise the sticking of the Inke peele 
of any part of it : Then consider the Im- 
pression, if it hath well taken ; Inke your 
Plate againe (as we shall shew anon) and 
place it as you did before on the Table in 
the very same position, laying a cleane wet 
sheete upon it, and on that the maculatorie, 
which you had lay'd upon the blankets 
without any more moistning : Then returne 
the blankets upon it, laying them even 
and smooth, as you did before ; and abiding 
still at A tourning the Moulinet as formerly, 
the plate will pass to the other end of the 
Press B from whence it came : This don, 
following the Plate, take up the blankett, 
maculatorie, paper that is printed, Inke the 
Plate, and governe it as you did before, 
continuing this process as long as you 
thinke fitt. 


To face p. 12. (Part II) 

The Rowling Tress. 

But it will not be impertinent for the 
ease of the Printer, to place a little Table 
neere each end of the Press, yet so as they 
may not incomode his worke; upon each 
of these Tables spread a sheet of cleane 
paper, and on these let him lay the impres- 
sions one upon another, as fast as he takes 
them up from the Plate, viz. those which 
he receives from the end of the Press A, on 
the table next it, and those of the other end 
upon the Table which is placed next to B. 

Then upon the Sumer or head of the 
Press marked C let the paper prepared and 
moistned for the impression lye ready. 

Thus when the Printer has finished his 
taske, and wrought off (as they tearme it) 
as many as he thinks fitt for that day, let 
him with a little oyle of olive and a 
Tampon or morcell of searge, oyle his 
plate, to prevent the drying of the Inke, 
and sticking thereof in the hatches : espe- 
cially in the sumer, and where the weather 
is hott. The same he shall alsoe observe 
when he has quite don with his plates, 
and then see that he fetch it out, and 
cleanse them very perfectly, wrapping 
them up in papers, and securing them in 
a drie place till you have farther occasion 
to make use of, or reprint them. 


14 Sculptum: Tart II. 

It will alsoe be expedient either the 
same evening, or the next morning, to 
hang your impressions upon cleane lines 
wellstretched, taking them from the Tables 
where they lay piled up ; and thus let them 
hang till the next day : when being drye 
and layd againe one upon another they 
may be kept in a Press for that purpose, 
betweene a paire of smooth boards one or 
two dayes; then handling and turning 
them by dozens, sort them as you thinke 
best, and dispose of them according to your 
discreation, for this handling and ordering 
them, does both finish their drying, and 
greatly improve the colour. 


Of the other nessessaries, Instruments and 
appurtenances belonging to the Tress ; and 
touched onely in the precedent chapter. 

BESIDES the Printers Inke, preparations 
of the paper &c., which are set downe 
in chapters apart ; There is appertaining to 
the Press, and mentioned in what went 
before, The blanketts, the cloutes of linnen, 
and the Tampon. And first, the Blanketts 


The Rowling Tress. 

should be made of wollen cloath, or Cotton 
perfectly well full'd, and purged from the 
earth. There are some curious Printers 
who have their Blanketts of a searge which 
is purely fine on both sides of it, and that 
they place next to the Plate with two or 
three other of the more ordinary sort upon 
it; But those white and cleane Blankets 
must neither have list or hemm about them ; 
and it will be convenient to furnish your- 
selfe with Blanketts of two or three sizes, 
some larger than others, according to the 
severall dimensions of Plates and Papers 
which you have occasion to print off: And 
forasmuch as by their frequent passing 
under the Roller, they are squezed together 
and become stubburne, and churlish : you 
shall doe well to spread and extend them 
at night ; and the morning (ere you employ 
them) to wreath, rub, slap and smooth 
them till you have rendred them very soft 
and gentle: Alsoe it will be nessessary to 
have change and store of them to make 
use of, whilst those which are too hard, 
soiled, and full of a certaine glue (which 
the moistned papers doe in tyme infect 
them with) be washed and made cleane. 

You must likewise be provided with 
a good quantity of pieces of old linnen- 


16 Sculptura: Tart II. 

raggs, to be employed about cleansing the 
plates after every impression; These the 
Printers call wiping clouts. The Tampon 
or (as we in England call) Rubber and some 
the ball, is made of good hempen linnen, 
soft and fine, and if it be halfe worne, it is 
the better : having enough of this, roule it 
up together as you would a garter or list ; 
and as closse and hard as you can posibly 
together : and thus shape it like a Painters 
Muller, then take browne thread doubled 
and very strong, and with a small pack- 
needle pierce it in severall places, passing 
through with the thread, and strongly 
quilting it till it being reduced to about 
3 Inches diameter, and 5- Inches thick 
from end to end ; cutt and pare off one of 
the ends of it with a very sharpe knife, 
like a rolle of a saucidge; quilting and 
shaping the other extreame like to an halfe 
bowle, that soe you may the better press it 
downe with the hollow of your hand, 
when you are to use it for Inking of the 


The Rowling Tress. 17 

How to make the Trinters Inke. 

THE Printers black used for our Plates, is 
calTd in French noir <P Allemayne, 
and by our Drugists Keen-rus; it comes 
from Francfbrd, and is sold by the Salters : 
That which is excellent is of a velvet 
colour and somewhat resembling it, friable 
betweene the fingers like the finest chalke, 
or flower : and of these properties it is fitt 
to take notice, for there is a counterfeit sort 
made of Lees of wine burnt, which is no- 
thing so faire, but harsh and injurious to the 

But first, you must take a good quantity 
of the purest nut-oyle and put it into 
a large Iron-pot, to which is .fitted a cover 
which must lye exactly close, Fill it with- 
in 4 or y Inches, and then apply the 
cover: Thus sett it or hang it on a good 
fire, letting it boyle, but be carefull that it 
rise not at the begining, nor yet when it 
doe boyle, least it endanger the house, and 
therefore your eye must be continually 
upon it, to keepe it in motion and stirr it 


1 8 Sculpture: Tart II. 

about with some Iron ladle or spatula; soe 
as being now very hott, it may take fire 
gently of it selfe. or be easily inflamed 
with the blaze of a paper, as wine is burnt : 
When thus it has taken fire, remove it 
from the Trevet, to a corner of the chimny 
perpetually stirring it, yet soe as the burn- 
ing may continue above halfe an hower: 
and this to make the weaker sort : after it 
has thus burnt, clapping the cover upon 
the pot it will be extinguished, provided it 
be very close, other wise you must cast 
a cloath upon it, which will imediately 
suffocate the flame. Then let it coole 
a little, before you poure it into the vessell, 
in which you intend to keepe it. 

When this is don, fill the pott againe 
with more raw nut-oyle, as you did before : 
To make a stronger sort boyling it in the 
same manner, with this onely difference, 
that it be suffered to burne a great deale 
longer, moving and stirring it till it become 
very thick and glewy, filing and drawing 
into threads like a syrupe, which you may 
essay from tyme to tyme, by letting a few 
droops coole upon the plate. There are 
some who boyle an onion, or a crust of 
bread in the oyle, to render it (as they 
thinke) the less greasie. 


The Rowling Tress. 

If the fire (as frequently) have too 
violently seized upon it, cast in halfe a pint 
of fresh oyle : but to prevent all danger, 
you may boyle it abroad in the open aire, 
if the weather be calme and seasonable. 
The Oyle thus prepared, you must grind 
the bkck upon a Painters marble with 
a good large muller; Thus take about 
halfe a pound at a tyme, and bruise it on 
the stone, then put to it about halfe a pint 
of your weakest oyle, (being that which 
you first boiled) or in quantity according 
to that of your black ; for some colour will 
drinke up more than other, and it were 
better to put to little than to much, and 
therefore in grinding, use discretion; for 
the drier it be ground, the better : having 
thus coursely ground it, range and heape it 
up at one of the corners of the marble, or 
some other convenient thing which may 
hold it; then take it in smaller portions, 
and grind it over againe by degrees till it 
be exceeding fine, and range this alsoe 
towards another coine of your stone, and 
when ''tis all thus ground ; spread it againe 
upon the marble, and add to it of your 
strongest oyle about as much as you judge 
may fill a hens egg : Grind and incorporate 
these very well, and reserve it for your 


2,0 Sculptura: Tart II. 

use in some earthen pott glaz'd, covering 
and securing it from dust and ordure ; and 
thus have you the Inke prepared for your 
plates ; which if very much worne or not 
profoundly graven, may have the Inke 
more [diluted] with the weaker sort of 
oyle, discreetly tempered; for the care of 
well making this Inke is soe nessessary, 
that the black being course, or ill ground, 
though the ingredients good, both marr 
the impression and spoyle the plates : Alsoe 
that the oyle be 01 a fitting consistency, 
and not too thin; for then the blacking 
will stick to the hatcheurs, and not on the 

Being thus furnished with Inke, the 
next thing to be provided is a large pan of 
Iron, to kindle and containe the coales in, 
alsoe a kind of Grid-Iron (by our worke- 
men call'd the blacking Iron) which is 
made with feete, upon which to lay the 
Plates when you are to heate them, the 
better to receive the Inke : let the fire for 
this purpose be gentle, and not to violent, 
covered with some Ashes. 


The Rowling Tress. 2,1 


How to prepare the paper for the Tress, Inke 
the Tlates and worke of the Proofs, and 
counter-proofs : with other curious particu- 

TO dip your paper of the largest, and all 
other sizes, you must procure a Tub 
or vessell of a competent bigness, which 
you shall halfe fill with water that is very 
pure and cleane, then having two large 
and strong boards, broad enough to containe 
a sheet of paper displaied, and well planed ; 
let these boards be barred on the other sides, 
that the paper being on it, you may the 
better come with your fingers to take it up, 
by passing them betweene the board and 
the plate upon which it rests. 

Then take ? or 6 sheets of paper spread 
open, taking them up with your hands at 
the two edges, and plunge them into the 
foresaid vessell of water, three or fower 
tymes, according as the stiffning and gumi- 
ness of it requires, perfbrme this dextrously 
and without rumpling: and then earring 
of them gently, lay them smooth and 


Sculptura: Tart II. 

evenly upon the polished side of one of 
the boards ; This doe till you have soaked 
as much paper as you intend to print off 
in a day, placing and heaping the sheets 
thus one upon another : Then ky the 
other board (the smooth side downewards) 
upon the uppermost sheete of the heape, 
soe as it be all contained betweene the 
said boards, lastly set a lusty weight upon 
the top of this board soe as equally to 
[squeeze] the paper, and press out that 
which is superfluous: And thus let it 
continue till you are ready to worke at 
the Press ; which should be the next morn- 
ing if this were done the evening before : 
But if it chance that you have wett more 
paper than you can print off in that tyme; 
let that which remaines be still pressed 
betweene the boards with the next which 
you dip that night ; and then place it 
upmost, to be first spent. The paper 
which is most stiff of the gume in the 
making, should be more wett than that 
which is more weake and limber. 

Having all things in this readiness, place 
the wrong side of your engraven Plate 
upon the grate, or blacking Iron, warming 
it upon the embers till it be reasonable 
hott; then with a cleane cloute, take it 


The Rowling Tress. 2,3 

by one of the corners, and lay it flat upon 
a Table which you ought to place neere 
your pan : Then with the Tampon (which 
we but now taught you to make) dipped 
into the Inke-pott, besmeare the graven 
face of the plate, sliding, rubbing and 
tapping it all over; so as the blacking 
may enter all the stroakes and gravings 
of the Copper. If the tampon be new it 
will require more Inke, than if old and 
often used, which is allready sufficiently 
soaked. When you have thus done, be 
carefull to lay your Tampon in such a 
posture and place, as noe dust or other 
ordure may stick to it, and ifj by dis- 
continuing to use it, you find it grow too 
hard ; pare off the crusted blacking with 
some of the rolle it selfe, doeing as before. 
When your plate is sufficiently Inked, 
take an other cloute (not that which you 
used before) and wipe off the upper and 
grosser part of the blacking, together with 
what may have fould the edges, and the 
pknke about them ; soe as to make them 
very cleane ; then laying aside that cloute, 
and resting the plate still on the Table, 
wipe the palme of your right hand exceed- 
ing cleane with a fresh cloute (which you 
must hold in your left hand) especially the 


Sculptura: 7 art II. 

brawny part which is next to the little 
finger : Then pass your hand firmely over 
the plate, and wiping it, from end to end, 
and cross the other way againe, with the 
same brawny part of your hand; ever now 
and then wiping it with the cloute held in 
the hand which staies the plate upon the 
edge of the Table ; till by this meanes you 
have intirely cleansed the plate from all 
the superfluous Inke and blacking, except 
onely that which is of necessity to remaine 
in the hatchings and stroakes engraven, 
the rest being as cleane and immaculate as 
the margent, or whitest part of the paper : 
Remember also to wipe and cleanse the 
edges of the plate, that it may not leave 
the least staine in the impression; This 
don, lay your plate a little while on the 
grate, and when it is a little hott, take it 
off upon your hands, being before well 
wiped, and carefull that you touch the 
edges and back side of it onely, and soe 
place it upon the Planke of your Rolling- 
Press as we shewed you in chap. 2,. 

But in this worke of cleansing your 
plates, be sure your hand be not sweaty : 
For the rest, the cloute with which you 
wiped off the first blacking whilst it lay 
thick may serve you severall tymes upon 


The Rowling Prtss. 2,5- 

the like occasion provided it be not to hard 
and stif but for that with which you wipe 
your hand, it must be frequently changed, 
and therefore you should be plentifully 
furnished : You shall likewise put an Apron 
before you or something like it, to wipe 
your fingers on> before you take up your 
wett paper, to applie on, and take off from 
the plate before and after the Impression. 

There are severall other observations, 
which would be tedious to deduce, since 
a little judgment and practise will more 
easily supplye them. 

Onely you are to know, that it will be 
sometymes nessessary to place the bknkets 
upon the Planke or Table of the Press first : 
and upon these the Maculatorie, then the 
paper, or what ever else you would have 
receive the Impression, and then you shall 
reverse the plate turning the graven part 
downewards; and upon that 2, or 3 
blankets, to prevent the plate from warp- 
ing, and spoiling the rollers whilst the 
moulinet is turning, passing and printing 
it as before. And this is done onely when 
there is need of redressing the Plate : as 
when you print on Satin &c of which 
more anon. 

One may alsoe make Impressions of 

EVELYN o many 

2(5 Sculptura: Tart IT. 

many other coloures, well ground and 
tempered, as well with the same Oyle for 
the browner colours, as with other made 
thick, purified and cleane from greasiness, 
farr more lively and cleare. 

And for as much as there is some diffi- 
culty in making the black Impression upon 
guilded paper, wheither overlaid with gold 
or silver; you shall onely remember to 
temper halfe a sponfull of oxes gall, to 
a portion of Black of the quantity of an 
Egge, mixing it with a little vinegar and 
bay-salt. But prepare noe more of this 
blacking than you will imediately employ, 
as from two howres to two, (sic), because 
the galle is subject to spoile and corrupt. 

Here Monsr. Bosse having sometymes 
considered prints upon Sattin of divers 
colours, tooke occasion to invent a way 
of making some impressions likewise upon 
colours, which is contrary to what is usually 
practised by our washers of Prints, who lay 
their colours upon the Impression onely. 
And thus it follows. Suppose you have 
a plate graven, and representing a single 
figure onely, and which you would cloath 
with 2 or 3 colours : for instance, the Hatt 
grey, the haire browne, the cloake red, 
the Hose and doublet of one colour, the 


The Rowling Tress. 2,7 

stockings of another, and soe of the 

First of all you must have another plate 
filed exactly to that, soe as being applyed 
one upon another there appeare no differ- 
ence betweene them: then vernishing it 
with your hard vernish, and [hatching] it 
as you have bin taught, taking the Impres- 
sion of the graven plate, freshly wrought 
off upon some thick paper or card a little 
moistned, clap the vernished plate imediately 
upon it adjusting it perfectly to the con- 
tours, and edges which the graven plate 
had imprinted; and thus transpose them 
together upon two blankets, evenly applyed 
upon the Table of your Rolling-Press, then 
lay a or 3 more blanketts upon the said 
Impression and plate, Then turne the mouli- 
nett, and you shall find the figure (which 
was first printed on the paper) will have 
left its perfect Impression upon the vernished 
plate as counterproofes use to doe. This 
performd, grave your vernished plate with 
a very fine poynt, running over onely the 
simple profiles, and out stroakes of the 
hatt, cloake, habitt and other particulars, 
and eate it but shallow with your Aqua 
Fortis; then take off the vernish, and print 
off some of these Pictures upon very white 
o 2, paper 

2-8 Sculptura: Tart IL 

paper, or grosser (provided it be Allum'd) 
or upon trie like matter somewhat thicke, 
and a little moistned, which you may either 
doe by laying it in some humid cellar, or 
betweene your other wett papers for a 
night. These out stroakes being drie, paint 
all the cloake with a red colour, the Hat 
with grey, the haire with browne, and soe 
the rest; then Inking the first more finished 
plate, place the coloured paper on the 
blanketts and the Inked plate precisely, 
and in due posture upon the said paper, 
then 2, or 3 blanketts upon that againe, 
and so worke it off as before, This don, 
you shall find an Impression upon your 
colours, which dos polish and become them 
so rarely, as dos infinitely exceed those 
washings of prints which we mentioned 

But you are now to be taught what it is 
the Printers call a Proofe, and what a 
countre proofe: The proofe is the first, 
second or third Impression of a plate which 
was never before in the Rolling-press, The 
countre-proofe, is made by the same proofe, 
being applyed fresh, and all wett as it is 
evenly upon the Planke or Table of the 
Rolling-press, then lay upon it a wett 
paper, on that the maculatorie, and after- 

The Rowling Tress. ip 

wards the blank ette ; Then worke it ofl^ 
and taking up the leafe, you will find a 
Count re-proore which the proofe hasrendred 
you, though somewhat more faint and 
sweet: And this is ordinarily don, that, 
exactly answering to the posture of the 
originall designe, you may the more easily 
reforme the omissions. 

If at any ty me (for want of caution) the 
Inke become drie in the stroakes and 
gravings of your Plate, you must boyle it in . 
Lie, or else revert the plate upon two Iron 
doggs, and strew about a fingers thickness 
of Asshes finely searsed and tempered with 
water upon the surface engraven covering 
it all over: Then with a little paper or 
straw inflamed underneath, heate the plate, 
till the Ashes and the water boile upon it, 
this will chase out the Inke which was 
dryed in the stroakes, and mixe it with the 
Ashes, which you shall then wash off with 
cleane water, being very circumspect, that 
when you wipe it drie, none of the ashes 
remaine, which may endanger the scrazing 
of it. 

The Printers are sometymes obliged to 
Alume their paper : It is don by dissolving 
a little comon Alume, in faire water upon 
the fire, and by plunging their paper in it, 


go Sculptum: Tart If. 

as you were taught in the other. It is not 
long, since Monsr. Perrier a Bourguignon 
one of the ablest painters of this age, pub- 
lished some papers, which were a little 
browne, wherein the contoures and hatch- 
ings of the figures were printed black, and 
the heightnings white, in forme of medaills, 
which was not onely looked upon as a new 
Invention: But so pleasant and beautifull, 
that it is worth the imitation : The manner 
whereof Monsr. Bosse thus setts downe. 

There must be had two plates of equall 
size, and exactly adjusted, as in those we 
have mentioned before : upon one of them 
grave what you please and finish it ; Then 
print it off upon large paper, or carte ; and 
vernishing the other plate (as you did that 
of which we spake in this chapter concern- 
ing the different colours) place the vernish- 
ed side upon the printed proofe accurately; 
then pass it under the Rollers; and you 
shall receive a counter-proofe upon your 
vernish : upon this grave onely the places 
which you will have heightned, eatching 
them profoundly with the Aqua Fortis, 
unless you will grave them with the Burine, 
which is the surest. This don, the greatest 
difficulty will be the finding of paper and 
oyle that may not contract or impart a 


The Rowling Tress. 31 

yealow or russet upon the white. For this, 
the best is nutt-oyle very cleane, to be 
drawne without fire, and then set in two 
leaden vessells, in the sun, 'till it be come 
as thick as the weake oyle for the printers- 
Inke, of which we have allready spoaken: 
And for the stronger sorte, expose one of 
the vessells a longer tyme. After this, pro- 
cure of excellent white-lead, and when you 
have washed and ground it exactly fine 
and cleane, drie it, and then grind it with 
the oyle somewhat driely; afterwards 
temper it with the thicker oyle, as you 
did the printers black : Thus, having 
Impressions of the first finished plate, black 
or any other colour upon a gross strong 
paper, lay them adrying 10 or 12, dayes. 
Then well moistning or wetting them 
againe, fill the plate destind for the 
heightnings with the white colour which 
you prepared; and having well cleansed 
the engraven places with the cloute and 
your hand, place it accurately upon the 
black impression, and with the blanketts 
beneath and above, worke it off with the 
Roller, as you were instructed in the 

But this says Monsr. Bosse upon con- 
jecture onely, if the good man may not 


32, Sculptum: "P art II. 

have forgotten to have scene the whole 
process more exactly described by Georgio 
Vassari in the first part of the lives of the 
painters, chap 35- where he speakes of 
Vago da Carpi. To conclude 

You may with the same Oyles print for 
a need with white massicot, or other light 
colours instead of white : But first it would 
be essaid whither oyle of Popies now of 
late in request with our great painters in 
England, and other Countries, may not 
succeede better on these occasions, then 
the best which can be extracted from