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Full text of ""Every bird;" a guide to the identification of the birds of woodland, beach and ocean. With one hundred and twenty-four line illustrations"

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EVERY BIRD 



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"EYERY bird; 






A GUIDE TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF 

THE BIRDS OF WOODLAND, 

BEACH AND OCEAN. 



ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-FOUR LINE ILLUSTRATIONS 
BY THE AUTHOR 



REGINALD HEBER HOWE, Jr. 

Member of the American Ornithologists' Union, Member of the Nuttall 
Ornithological Club. 



I 




BOSTON : 

BRADLEE WHIDDEN, 

1896. 



COPYRIGHT, ls-?lfi, 

nv 

BRADLEE WIIIDDF.N. 



TO 

MY YOUNG FRIEND 

HENRY VOSE GREENOUGH 

WHOSE BRIGHT EYES AND QUICK EARS 

HAVE BROUGHT 

MANY A BIRD TO MY NOTICE 

THIS BOOK IS INSCRIBED 



^'How I wonder that men can consent to swelter and fret 
their lives away amid those hot bricks and pestilent vapors, when 
the woods and fields are all so near 1 It would kill me soon, to be 
confined in such a prison house: and when I am forced to make 
an occasional visit there, it fills me with loathing and sadness. 
Ah ! how often when I have been abroad on the mountains, has 
my heart risen in grateful praise to God that it was not my des- 
tiny to waste and pine among those noisome congregations of the 

city." 

Audubon. 



PREFACE. 



Having long felt that the identification of a bird would be 
much less difficult to beginners in the Study of Ornithology, if they 
could have a book in which every genus was illustrated by an ac- 
curate outline drawing of the head and foot, with a description of 
the general plumage void entirely of technical terms, I offer this 
volume to the bird lover. 

The systematic headings enable one to turn quickly to the 
information desired, the species one wishes to identify being found 
under the caption : — Woodland, Beach or Ocean, and their sub- 
headings, according to which the bird belongs. The size of the 
volume, also, makes it a convenient manual to carry with one 
into the field. 

I wish to express my thanks especially to ]\Ir. Edward 
Sturtevant and Mr. Ralph W. Gray for their kindness in letting 
me use many of their specimens from which to draw the illus- 
trations . 



R. H. H., Jr. 



LONGWOOD, 

Massachusetts. 



EXPLANATORY NOTE. 



If the directions given are followed carefully in identifyin/if 
birds — either those observed through the opera glass afield, or 
collected specimens — this manual, it is hoped, will prove of value 
to the bird lover and sportsman. 

First. — Means of identifying living birds. 

Having observed some bird that you are unable to name, 
mark the following pecuUarities, either in your mind or better, in 
your note book : — haunts, general plumage, size, and especially 
the appearance of head, bill and feet ; the head is generally the most 
noticeable. Then glancing at the cuts you will soon be able to 
find your bird or one of its Genus, and then by following down 
the headings you will surely recognize your new acquaintance. 
The time of year will also help to place your bird as of course a 
sunmaer resident would not as a rule be observed in winter. 

Second. — Means of identifying collected specimens. 

The method of identification of the living bird applies also to 
the dead specimen, except that }'ou can determine your bird more 
ra])idly, being able to compare with certainty the plumage and 
the bill and feet with the cut. 

The first four headings — Order, Family, Genus, and Species 
form the classification. The heading Distribution, covers the dis- 
tribution of the bird only in New England. The Date of Arrival 
and Departure are given for Massachusetts, therefore in Rhode 
Island and Connecticut the arrival may be a few days, or weeks, 
earlier and those of departure a few days later, and in Vermont, 
New Hampsliire and Maine, vice versa. The general plumage 



EXPLANATORY NOTE. 



only of the bird is given, as the ah-eady existing manuals contain 
very full descriptions, and the marked coloring and form are 
italicized. The haunts named are the most characteristic of the 
species; but birds are often found in strangely unexpected 
places. 

In this volume there are described in full one hundred and 
seventy-three of the birds most often met with in New England 
and the Appendix contains nearly all other birds known to occur 
within these states. If the volume contained a full description 
of all the New England birds, it would make such a cumbersome 
book that it could not be readily taken into the field. 

The one hundred and twenty-four cuts have been drawn with 
the greatest care and accuracy, and represent every genus of 
the species treated in the body of the book. 

These cuts, it is hoped, will form a substantial means for the 
identification of New England Birds. 

The nomenclature adopted is that of the American Ornitho- 
logists' Union. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



# 




AMERICAN WOODCOCK. 

Genus: Philoliela. 
Species: P. minor. 



No. 1. 

Order: Limicolae. 

Family: Scolopacidas. 

Distribution: 

A summer resident of new England, more common in north- 
ern portions. Has been found in winter in the southern 
portions. 

Date of Arrival: March. 

Date of Departure: Late in October. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts reddish chestnut, gray and black, head marked 
Avith bufl" and black, tail grayish; under parts duller and 
more buff, lighter on chin. Immature showing more gray. 
Peculiarly placed eye. Bill brownish, feet dark reddish. 
Length about 11.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A weird musical spring song given with both voice and 
wings while in the air and a grating cry when upon the 
ground, like ' ' peent ' ' . 

Haunts: 

High dry ground, luw damj) '^ scrub '' and bogs according to 
season. 



1 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 2. 

Order: Galllnae. 
Family: Tetraonidae. 



Quail, BOB=WHITE. 

Genus: Colinus. 
Species: C. virginianus. 



Distribution: 

A resident of southern New England. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts reddish brown, buff and black, forehead and eye 
line white, head black marked, tail grayish ; under parts gray- 
ish buff, waved finely with black, throat band black, throat 
and belly white, flanks chestnut. Female paler, throat buff, 
less black. Bill black, feet pale. Length about 9.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Bob-white or bob-bob-white and a few other low notes. 



Haunts: 



Pasture land, woodland and often thick cover. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 3. 



Partridge. RUFFED GROUSE. 



Genus: Bonasa. Species: B. umbellus and umbel- 

lus togata (The two forms covering difTerent regions.) 

Distribution: 

A common resident of the greater part of New England. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts rusty (umbellus) or grayish (togata), ruff on 
side of neck dark hroicn or black, back marked with black 
and grayish, tail rusty (umbellus) gray (togata) marked and 
with black band ; under parts wliite, breast tawny, brown 
barred, flanks umber barred, throat (umbellus) buff, (togata) 
" marked with dusky." Bill and feet dark. Length about 
17.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Clucking and low brood note. Drumming, probably made 
with its wings beating against its body or the air. 

Haunts: 

General woods and '^ scrub." 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 4. 



CAROLINA DOVE. 



Genus: Zenaidura. 
Species: Z. 



macroura. 



Order: ColumbaB. 
Family: Columbidae. 

Distribution: 

A local summer resident of southern New England, said to 
have wintered in Connecticut. 

Date of Arrival: March. 

Date of Departure: October. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts grayish brown, back and wings olive tinted, 
crown bluish, black spot on side of head, iridescence on sides 
of neck ; under parts dull buff, longest wing feathers dark, 
tail feathers bluish brown, outer feathers barred with black 
and white tipped. Female paler. Bill black, feet carmine. 
Length about 11.75. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Cooing notes and ^' a low chuckle." 

Haunts: 

Farmin<i lands and woodland. 



WOODLAND BIRDS, 




Genus: Circus. 
Species: C. hudsonius. 



No. 5. MARSH HAWK. 

Order: Raptores. 
Family: Falconidae. 
Distribution: 

A common smmner resident of all New England. 

Date of Arrival: April. 

Date of Departure: October, November. 

General Plumage: 

Male, upper parts grayish blue ; under parts -white generally 
marked with bro\vn,rM//(p ichite. Length about 18.00. Female, 
upper parts brown and under parts rusty, brown marked, 
tail gray, marked with blackish. Bill blackish, feet yellow. 
Length about 20.00. 

Song and Other Notes: A curious cry. 

Haunts: Meadows, marshes and fields. 

Note. — Immature hawks are often difficult to identify, as the plumage shows 
great variations. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 6. 



SHARP SHINNED HAWK. 

Species: A. velox. 



Genus: Accipiter. 

Distribution: 

A very common migrant but less common in summer and 
winter. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts brown , old birds showing ashy, white marked on 
back of head and wings, tail paler, dark barred and pale 
tipped ; under parts white, throat and breast barred with 
light reddish brown, the former -^ery finely. Bill dark 
bluish, feet yellow. Length about 12.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Generally silent but have various sharp cries or notes. 

Haunts: 

Woods and farming lands. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



j^^ 7 COOPER'S HAWK. 

Species: A. cooperii. 

Distribution: 

A very common summer resident, occiu'ing rarely in winter 
in southern New England. 

General Plumage: 

Similar to preceding species, ^^^ bird's crown darker than 
back, tail a little rounded. Bill bluish, feet yellow. Length 
about 18.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A loud cry, often repeated in succession. 

Haunts: 

Woods and farming lands. 

isjo. 8 RED TAILED HAWK. 

Genus: Buteo. Sp^"^^- ^' b^^^^^^' 

Distribution: 

A common winter resident and migrant, but breeding uncom- 
monly and locally. 

General Plumage: . 

Upper parts deep brown, white marked, tail chestnut, tipped 
^vith white baiTcd with black, under side gray; under parts 
white, marked with brown, especially across breast or belly. 
Bill blue black, ieet yellow. Length about 24,00. 

Song and Other Notes: 
Various cries. 

Haunts: 

Woods, woodland and flmning lauds. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




RED TAILED HAWK. 



10 WOODLAND BIRDS. 



No. 9. RED SHOULDERED HAWK. 

Species: B. lineatus. 
Distribution: 

A very common summer resident of southern New England, 

rare in winter and in the northern states. 

General Plumage: 

Similar to preceding species. Upper parts brown, marked 
with white and reddish, tail black, white barred, shoulders 
rusty red. Immature without or with less red and black, paler 
wliite and ashy ; under parts white marked with tawny or 
fulvous. Bill bluish black, feet yellow. Length about 
20.00. 



Song and Other Notes: 

'' Kec-o, Kee-o, Kee-o." 

Haunts: 

Similar to preceding species. 



No. 10. BALD EAGLE. 

Genus: Haliaj'etus. Species: IL leucocephalus. 

Distribution; 

A summer resident of northern and a resident of southern 

New England. 

General Plumage: 

Deep brown, head and tail white. Immature with little or 
white wanting. Bill pale, feet yellow. Length about 35.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A wild, weird cry. The male's cry, writes Capt. Bendire, 
sounds like '' cac-cac-cac." 

Haunts: 

Generally about bodies of water in wild country. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



11 




BALD EAGLE. 



12 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 



PIGEON HAWK. 



Genus: Falco. Species: F. columbarius. 

Distribution: 

A common migrant and rare winter resident of southern 
New England. 

Date of Arrival: May. 

Date of Departure: September. 

General Plumage: 

Male, upper parts bluish ash, tail bands, fore crown and wing 
markings whitish ; under parts white or tinted with buff', 
brown marked. Female and immature, upper parts ashen 
brown. Bill blue, feet yellow. Length about 11.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 
Various cries. 

Haunts: 

Woodland and farming lands. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 13 



No. 12. SPARROW HAWK. 

Species: F. sparverius. 

Distribution: 

A common local summer resident of New England, wintering 
rarely in the southern portions. 

General Plumage: 

Male, upper parts, crown ashen blue, generally marked with 
chestnut, rest of head white, black marked, tail white 
marked, black tipped, long wing feathers black, white barred. 
Female upper parts brown, reddish on tail, black ban-ed ; 
under parts white, breast butl", streaked with black or brown; 
larger than male. Bill pale blue, feet yellow. Length about 
10.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Various n®tes and cries. 

Haunts: 

W'oodland and farming lands. 



No. 13. Fish Hawk. OSPREY. 

Genus: Pandion. Species: P. haliastus carolinensis. 

Distribution: 

A common migrant, breeding along the Maine coast and 

about the head waters of Narragansett Bay. 
Date of Arrival: April first. 
Date of Departure: Late October. 
General Plumage: 

Upper parts dark brown, head partially white; under parts 

white, breast marked with brown. Bill black, feet bluish. 

Length about 24.00. 
Song and Other Notes: 

Piercing and often musical cries, repeated when soaring as to 

form a '' so called song.'' 
Haunts: 

Inland bodies of water^ but more commonly found near salt 

water. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




FISH HAWK. OSPREY, 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



15 




No. 14. 



SHORT EARED OWL. 



Family: BubonidaB. Genus: Asio. 

Species: A. accipitrinus. 

Distribution ; 

A common migrant, and formerly breeding along the New 
England coast, probably wintering in Khode Island. Various 
record of winter specimens. 

Date of Arrival: March. 

Date of Departure: December. 

General Plumage: 

Brown, yellowish and white, wings buff barred, black around 
eye. Bill and claws black, legs buff, feathered. Length 
about 15.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 
Generally silent. 

Haunts: 

Marshes, sand dunes along the coast, rare inland. 



16 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 15. 



BARRED OWL. 



Genus: Syrnium. 



Species: S. nebulosum. 



Distribution : 

A resident of all New England. 

General Plumage: 

Brown or dark gray and white, barred, except on belly which 
is streaked. Eyes very dark or black. Bill pale, claws 
darkj legs feathered. Length about 19.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Guttural, varied hoots. 

Haunts: 

Evergreens and often mixed growths. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



17 




No. 16. 



Acadian Owl. SAW-WHET. 



Germs: Nyctala. Species: N. acadica. 

Distribution : 

A common resident of New England, rarer in the southern 
portions. 

General Plumage: 

Warm brown, white marked; under parts white streaked with 
reddish brown, black about eyes. Bill black, claws dark, 
legs buff, feathered. Length about 7.00. 

Song andr Other Notes: 

Love call or notes sounding like the noise made by a saw, 
and a soft cry. 

Haunts: 

Woods, and often seeks holes in trees during the day. 



18 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 17. 



Genus: Megascops. 



SCREECH OWL. 

Species: M. asio. 



Distribution: 

The most common owl resident of New England. 

General Plumage: 

Gray to brick red, breast paler, black marked, small ear 
tufts. Bill pale, claws dark, legs bufi", feathered. Length 
about 9.00. 

Song and Other Notes; 

A tremulous, wavering, moaning hoot or cry. 

Haunts: 

Woods, " scrub," orchard, and often garden. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




GREAT HORNED OWL. 



20 WOODLAND BIRDS. 



No. 18. GREAT HORNED OWL. 

Genus: Bubo. Species: B. virginianus. 

Distribution: 

An uncommon resident of New England in thickly wooded 
regions. 

General I'lumage: 

Brown, rusty, whitish, long wing feathers and tail barred, 
white marking on throat, large ear tufts Bill and claws 
blackish, legs feathered. Length about 25.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Wild unearthly screams and cries, loud hootings and often 
soft low notes. 

Haunts: 

A bird of thickly wooded regions. 



No. 19. YELLOW BILLED CUCKOO. 

(See cut on opposite page.) 

Order: Coccyges. Genus: Coccyzus. 

Family: Cuculidae. Species: C. americanus. 

Distribution: 

A common summer resident of southern New England. 

Date of Arrival: Last of May. 
Date of Departure: Early September. 
General Plumage: 

Upper parts bronze brown, wings marked with cinnamon ; 

under pails while, outer tail iealhers black and white. Bill, 

upper mandible, black, under ^ almost yellow, feet black. 

Length about 12.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

An unmusical kuk-kuk-kuk-kuk, often A'aried. 

Haunts: 

^^'oodland orchard and swamp growths. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



21 




No. 20. 



BLACK BILLED CUCKOO. 



Species: C. erythrophthalmus. 

Distribution: 

A common summer resident of all New England, but more 
common in the inhabited regions of the southern portions. 

Date of Arrival: Last of May. 

Date of Departure: Early September. 

General Plumage: 

Similar to preceding species, red eye ring, outer tail feathers 
tipped with white and showing a little black. Billj black, and 
feet black . Length about 12.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Like those of the preceding species, but perhaps less harsh. 
Haunts: 

Similar to preceding species. 



22 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 21. 

Family: AlcedinidaB. 



BELTED KINGFISHER. 

Genus: Ceryle. 
Species: C. alcyon. 
Distribution: 

A common summer resident of all New England, wintering 

in the southern portions. 
Date of Arrival: April first. 
Date of Departure: Latter part of November. 
General Plumage: 

Upper parts, flanks and band across the breast grayish blue, 

crest darker, wings and tail white marked, broken color, 

lower breast wliite. Female, with a chestnut band often 

broken, which color is also on the flanks. Bill black, feet 

dark. Length about 12.50. 
Song and Other Notes: 

A loud rattle. 
Haunts: 

About rivers, ponds, lakes and brooks, and also bodies of 

salt water. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



23 




HAIRY WOODPECKER. 

Genus: Dryobates. 
Species: D. villosus. 



No. 22. 

Order: Pici. 
Family: Picidse. 
Distributio7i: 

A resident of New England, more common in the northern 

portions. 
General Plumage: 

Black and white. Male with scarlet nape crescent. Bill 

black, feet dark. Length about 9.50. 
Song and Other Notes: A sharp cry and a '^ chuck." 
Haunts: Large woods and forests and secluded orchards. 



No. 23. DOWNY WOODPECKER. 

Species: D. pubescens. 
Distribution: 

A common resident of all New England, most often met 

with in winter. 
General Plumage: 

Black and wliite, outer tail feathers black barred. A small 

edition of preceding species. Bill and feet black. 

Length about 6.50. 
Song arid Other Notes: 

A single sharp note, which is often rapidly repeated. 
Haunts: Orchards and woodlands. 



24 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No, 24. 



YELLOW BELLIED WOODPECKER. 



Genus; Spliyrapicus. Species: S. varius. 

Distribution : 

A sprincj and fall migrant in southern, but breeding com- 
monly in northern New England. One record of wintering 
near Boston. 

Date of Arrival: ]\Iiddle of April, passing through. 

Date of Departure: October. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts brownish yellow, black marked, wings and tail 
black, white marked ; under parts yellowish, flanks blac^k 
marked, crown scarlet, throat in male scarlet, in female white, 
scarlet black bordered. Bill and feet black. Length about 
8.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A mewing cry. 
Haunts: 

Woodland, especially apple and birch growth. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



25 




No. 25. Golden Winged Woodpecker. FLICKER. 

Genus: Colaptes. Species: C. auratus. 

Distribution: 

An abundant summer resident of all New England, wintering 
from Massachusetts southward. 

Bate of Arrival: Latter part of March. 

Date of Departure: November. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts brownish olive, black barred, longest wing 
feathers and tail nearly black, rump white, crown and nape 
ashen, latter with a scarlet crescent; under parts lilac, 
becoming white or yellowish on the belly, black breast crescent^ 
and in male black moustache, and all under parts but throat 
black spotted, under side of wings and tail golden . Bill and 
feet dark. Length about 12.50. 

Song and Other Notes: A love call like flicker-flicker-flicker, a 
loud cry and a merry laugh. 

Haunts: Woodland and orchard, and often about old buildings, 
in which it nests. 



26 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 26. 

Order: Macrochires. 
Family: Caprimulgidae , 



WHIPPOORWILL. 

Genus: Antrostomus. 
Species: A. vociferus. 



Distribution: 

A common summer resident of New England. 

Date of Arrival: Late May. 

Date of Departure: Middle of September. 

General Plumage: 

Mottled, general effect brown, throat and end of outer tail 
feathers in male, white, in female pale brown. Bill black, 
feet dark. Length about 9.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

"Whip-poor-will," which is often "preceded by a click," 
a chatter and soft whistling notes. 

Haunts: 

Nocturnal, seeking retired places during the day. 



WOODLAND BIRDS, 



27 




No. 27. 



NIGHT HAWK. 



Species: C. virginianus. 



Genus: Chordeiles. 
Distribution : 

A local, common summer resident of New England. 
Date of Arrival: May first. 
Date of Departure: Late September. 
General Plumage: 

Mottled, general effect brown, white markings on wings and 

tail. Male has a white and female a reddish'patch onWoat. 

Bill black, feet dark. Length about 10.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A curious grating squeak and a '' booming " sound as they 
fly upwards after a crazy, downward plunge. 

Haunts : 

Generally seen on the wing flying about over the roofs of oui 
cities and towns, or the farming lands. 



28 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 





No. 28. 

Family: Micropodidae. 



CHIMNEY SWIFT. 



Genus: Chaetura. 
Species: C. pelagica. 

Distribution: 

A common summer resident of all New England. 

Date of Arrival- 
First of May, or late April. 

Date of Departure: 
September. 

General Plumage: 

Sooty brown or blackish; upper parts slightly green tinted; 
under parts paler, especially the throaty wings black. Bill 
and feet black. Length about 5.00. 



Song and Other N'otcs: 

A sharp loud twitter or chatter. 



Haunts: 

Wanderers of the air, lighting only by their nests in chim- 
neys and hollow trees. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 29 




No. 29. RUBY THROATED HUMMING BIRD. 

Family: Trochilidae. Genus: Trochilus. 

Species: T. colubris. 

Distribution : 

A summer resident of all New England, breeding commonly 
and locally in Connecticut and Rhode Island. 

Date of Arrival: 

Middle of May. 

Date of Departure: 
Late September. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts green, tinted with golden, wings purplish brown; 
under parts white. Male, flanks green, metalUc ruby-red 
throat, white bordered. Female with ruby lacking. Bill and 
feet black. Length about 3.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A simple insect-like chirp. 

Haunts: 

The garden, orchard and often wooded regions. 



30 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 30. 

Order: Passeres. 
Family: Tyrannidae. 



KING BIRD. 



Genus: Tyrannus. 
Species: T. tyrannus. 



Distribution: 

A common summer resident of New England. 

Date of Arrival: 
Early May. 

Date of Depart we: 
September. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts blackish gray, wings browner, pale edged, 
crown black, centered with flame color, tail black, wliite 
tipped. Bill and feet black. Length about 8.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 
Querulous twitters. 

Haunts: 

Woodland, orchards and gardens. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



31 




No. 31. 



CRESTED FLYCATCHER. 

Species: M. crinitus. 



Genus: Myiarchus. 

Distribution: 

A summer resident of northern and southern New England, 
rare about Boston. 

Date of Arrival: May 1 . 

Date of Departure: October. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts greenish, middle of crown dark; under parts 
yellowish, throat grayish, tail chestnut shaded, wings marked 
with white and reddish. Bill dark above and lower tip, base 
paler, feet black. Length about 9.00. 

So7ig and Other Notes: 

A curious whistle and other soft notes. 
Haunts : 

Orchards and deciduous woodland. 



32 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 32. 



PHCEBE. 



Genus: Sayornis. Species: S. phoebe. 

Distribution: 

A common summer resident of New England, summering 
more commonly in the southern portions. 

Date of Arrival: 
April first. 

Date of Departure: 

Middle of October. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts brownish olive, darker on head; under parts pale 

yellow, flanks ashy. Bill and feet black 

7.00. 



Length about 



Song and Other Notes: 

A song, if so it may be called, uttered when poising on wing 
in the air and a number of chits and lively twitters and 
" pewit phccbe." 

Hau7its: 

Farming lands, about bridges and buildings and woodland. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



33 




No. 33. 



WOOD PEWEE. 

Species: C. virens. 



Genus: Contopus, 

Distribution: 

A summer resident of all New England. 

Date of Arrival: 
Last of May. 

Date of Departure: 

INliddle of September. 

General Plumage: 

Similar to the preceding species, wings white barred. Bill, 
upper mandible black, under pale, feet black. Length about 
6.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A drawling " pewee " and other soft whistles and querulous 
notes. 

Haunts: 

"Woods, rarely to be met in thinly wooded tracts. 



34 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 





No. 34. 

Genus: Empidonax. 



LEAST FLYCATCHER. 

Species: E. minimus. 



Distribution: 

A common summer resident of all New England. 

Date of Arrival: 
Early May. 

Date of Departure: 

Middle of September. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts greenish olive, crown dark; under parts white or 
yellowish, flanks greenish, breast ashy, wing bars whitish. 
Bill dark, feet black. Length about 5.25. 

Song and Other Notes: 

'' Chebec," and a sharp '^titt" and other low guttural notes. 

Haunts: 

Woodland and orchards. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



35 




No. 35. 



SHORE LARK. 



Family: Alaudidae. Genus: Otocoris. 

Species: O. alpestris. 
Distribution : 

Abundant on migrations and wintering from Massachusetts 

southward. 

Date of Arrival: From the north, October. 
Date of Departure: April. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts sahnon, streaked with brownish; tmder parts 
yellow, black crescent on breast and about eye. Belly white, 
outer tail feathers black, white marked. Bill dark, feet 
black. Length about 7.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 



when with us a sharp whistling note. 
Haunts: 

Beaches and marshes along the coast. 



36 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 36. 



BLUE JAY. 



Family: Corvidae. Genus: Cyanocitta. 

Species: C. cristata. 

Distribution: 

A common resident of all New England. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts hlue^ tinted with -purple^ wings and tail with black 
bars and tipped with white: under parts white, ashy on breast, 
with black collar and crescent. Bill and feet black. Length 
about 11.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A clear wliistle, harsh cries and the power of mimicking. 

Haunts: 

Oak, beech, spruce and thick " scrub. ^' 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



37 




No. 37. 



Moose Bird. CANADA JAY, 



Genus: Perisoreus. Species: P. canadensis. 

Distribution: 

A resident of the great coniferous forests of northern New 
England, wandering south very rarely to Massachusetts in 
winter. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts dark ash: under parts grayish, wings, tip of tail 
and all but back of head whitish. Bill and feet black. 
Length about 11.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 
A cry and a chatter. 

Hau7}ts: 

Coniferous forests, about lumber camps and campers' cabins. 



38 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 38. 

Geyius: Corvus. 



AMERICAN CROW. 

Species: C. americanus. 



Distnbutio7}: 

An abundant resident of New England, wintering along the 
coast and inland in southern portions. 

General Plumage: 

Black iridescent. Bill and feet black. Length about 20.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A caw or series of caws, and a curious gobble. 

Haunts: 

Pine, spruce and cedar growths, salt marshes, grain fields 
and river bottoms. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



39 




No. 39. 

Family: Icteridaj. 



BOBOLINK. 



Genus: Dolichonyx. 
Species: D. oryzivorus. 
Distribution: 

A common summer resident of New England, rare on Cape 
Cod. 

Date of Arrival- 
First of May. 

Date of Departure: 
Early September. 

General Plumage: 

In spring, male black, back of neck buff, upper back and 
rump almost white. Female and male at other seasons 
brownish yellow ; upper parts and flanks dark streaked ; 
under parts brownish yellow, wings and tail quite dark. 
Bill and feet black. Length about 7,50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A rollicking, merry song and a metallic characteristic note. 

Haunts : 

Meadows and fields. 



40 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 40. 



COW BIRD. 



Genus: Molothrus. 



Species: M. ater. 



Distribution: 

A common summer resident of New England, excepting the 
elevated portions. AVintering sparingly in southern New 
England. 

Date of Arrival: April first. 

Date of Departure: Late October. 

General Plumage: 

Male, black iridescent, head shaded with brown. Female, 
dirty brown, averaging smaller, under parts lighter, sometimes 
streaked. Bill and feet black. Length 7.50. 

Sooig and Other Notes: 

A pretence at a song and a number of whistles, chucks and 
a characteristic '"chuck-see."' 

Haunts: 

About pasturing cattle, and in general woodland. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



41 




No. 41. 



RED WINGED BLACKBIRD. 

Species: A. phoeniceus. 



Genus: Agelaius. 

Distribution: 

An abundant summer resident of all New England; records 
of wintering in the southern portions. 

Date of Arrival: March. 

Date of Departure: Early November. 

General Plumage: 

Male, black, scarlet patch on shoulders bordered by buff. In- 
mature showing brownish. Female, brownish black, under 
parts ashy, heavily streaked, throat excepted. Bill and feet 
black . Length abont 9.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

'*Quonk-a-ree" and sweet whistle, and a loud chuck. 

Haunts: 

Along rivers, about ponds and marshes and often in dry 
meadows near salt or fresh water. 



42 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 42. MEADOW LARK. 

Genus: Sturnella. Species: S. magna. 

Distribution: 

Rare summer resident of northern but common resident of 
southern New England near the coast. 

Date of Arrival: 15th of March. 

Date of Departure: November. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts brown and bulT and streaked with blackish; 
under parts yellow or golden with black breast crescent] outer 
tail feathers almost white; edge of wing yellow. Bill and 
feet dark. Length about 10.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A plaintive whistle, a merr}- laugh and two single wliistles. 

Haunts: 

Fields, meadows and marshes. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



43 




No. 43, 



BALTIMORE ORIOLE. 



Genus: Icterus Species; I. galbula. 

Distribution : 

A common summer resident of southern but local in northern 
New England. 



Date of Arrival: First week in May. 

Date of Departure : September. 

General Plumage: 

Male, upper back, wings, a part of tail black, wings white 
marked; other parts orange^ breast often flame tinted. 
Female, paler, the orange becoming yellow and the black 
brownish yellow. Bill and feet black. Length about 7.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A whistling song somewhat like the robins, a chatter and a 
curious '' ank." 

Haunts : 

A bird of the elm trees along our town streets and also met 
in orchard, garden, and woodland. 



44 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 44. 

Genus: Scolecopliagus. 



RUSTY CRACKLE. 

Species: S. carolinus. 



Distribution: 

A common migrant, breeding sparingly in northern and 
sometimes wintering in southern New England. 

Date of Arrival: Latter part of March, passing north in late April. 

Date of Departure: October and November. 

General Plumage: 

Male, blackish gray with iridescence, rusty. Female averag- 
ing smaller and showing more rusty or brown, eye yellow. 
Bill and feet black. Length about 9.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A few musical notes and a '' chuck." 

Haunts: 

Scrubby damp country, though often met on higher ground. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



45 




No. 45. Crow Blackbird. BRONZED GRACKLE. 

Genus: Quiscalus. Species: Q. quisculaseneus. The 

majority are probably Bronzed, 
not Purple Grackles. 

Distribution: 

Abundant summer resident of New England, more common 
northward. Have wintered in southern New England. 

Date of Arrival: Latter part of March. 

Date of Departure: October. 

General Plumage: 

Male black, iridescent purple and bronze. Female averag- 
ing smaller and duller. Bill and feet black. Length about 
12.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A '' creaking " sound and other chucks and whistles. 

Haunts: 

Spruces, pines, orchards, and when migrating meadows and 
grain fields. 



46 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 46. 

Family: Fringillidae. 



PINE GROSBEAK. 



Genus: Pinicola. 

Species: P. cnucleator. 
Distribution: 

Irregular, but common winter visitor to southern New Eng- 
land, probably resident in northern portions. 

Date of Arrival: November. 

Date of Departure: March. 

Geneial Plumage: 

Male, slate washed with carmine, back dark. Female and 
immature birds slate, crown and rump marked with chrome 
yellow, wings white marked. 13111 and feet black. Length 
about 8.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A plaintive whistle of two or three notes, a call note and 
low warble. 

Haunts: 

Pine, spruce, asli, and various berry bearing growths. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



47 




No. 47. 

Genus: Carpodacus. 



PURPLE FINCH. 

Species: C. purpureas. 



Distribution: 

Common summer resident of northern New England, often 
wintering in the southern portions. 

Date of Arrival: April first. 

Date of Departure: November. 

General Plumage: 

Male, carmine, back darkly streaked, belly whitish. Female 
and immature birds brownish olive streaked with dusky, belly 
white. Bill and feet dark. Length about 6.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A warbling song and a number of call notes, rendered 
" chink " and " pewee." 

Haunts: 

Woodland country. 



48 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




^^^ 



No. 48. 



AMERICAN CROSSBILL, 



Genus: Loxia. 



Species: L. curvirostra minor. 



Distribution: 

A resident of northern New England, visiting the southern 
portions in autumn and winter, rarely at other seasons. 

General Plumage: 

Male, upper and under parts red, wings and tail almost black. 
Female brownish olive, tinted with yellowish, rump yellow, 
below paler, streaked. Bill pale, feet dark. Length about 
6.00. 



Song and Other Notes: 

A sweet odd song, a chatter, a whistling call note. 



Haunts: 

Coniferous growths. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 49 





No. 49, REDPOLL. 

Genus: Acanthis. Species: A. linaria. 

Distribution: 

A more or less irregular winter visitor. 

Date of Arrival: 
November. 

Date of Departure: 
April. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts fuscous brown, darkly streaked, crown carmine, 
rump rosy streaked with dusky; under parts whitish, dusky 
marked, wings and tail darker, white bars on former. Adult 
male, sides of breast rosy. Bill pale, feet dark. Length 
about 5.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Much like those of the goldfinch, and a few diflerent notes. 

Haunts: 

Especially birch growth. 



50 WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 50. AMERICAN GOLDFINCH. 

Genus: Spinus. Species: S. tristis. 

Distribution: A common resident. 

General Plumage: 

Male and female in winter, olive brown, wings and tail almost 
black, male in summer bright, yellow crown wings, and tail 
black. Female, dusky olive above, yellowish below, wings 
and tail dark. Bill and feet dark. Length about 5.00. 

Song and Other Notes: A sweet song, a flight song like '^ consider- 
able " and a call note. 

Haunts: A bird of the woodland and fields. 

No. 51. PINE SISKIN. 

Species: S. pinus. 
Distribution: 

A resident of northern and an irregular winter visitor to 

southern New England. 
Date of Arrival: Early autumn. 
Date of Departure: Late spring, April to July. 
General Plumage: 

Olive streaked with darker, wings and tail fuscous tinged with 

yellow. Bill and feet dark. Length about 5.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Very much like the preceding species, but less musical. 
Haunts: Evergreen and birch growths. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



51 





No. 52, 



SNOW BUNTING. 



Genus: Plectrophenax. 



Species: P. nivalis. 



Distribution: 

A regular winter visitx^r to New England. 

Date of Arrival: 
November. 

Date of Departure: 
March. 

General Plumage: 

Breeding plumage white marked with black, bill black. In 
winter, brown and white, bill brown. Wings and tail black 
marked with white, feet black. Length about 7.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A plain song and a clear whistle, and a ^' whirr '' uttered 
often on the wing. 

Haunts: 

Alono; the coast and about the sere fields. 



52 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 53. 

Genus: Poocaetes. 



VESPER SPARROW, 

Species: P. gramineus. 



Distribution: 

A common summer resident of New England. 

Date of Arrival- 
First of April. 

Date of Departure: 

First of November. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts brownish gray, much streaked ; under parts 
white, breast and flanks streaked with brown, wings chestnut 
marked, outer tail feathers white. Bill dark, feet pale. 
Length about 6.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A pretty song, generally sung at dusk, and a short cliit. 

Haunts: 

Pastures, fields and meadows. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



53 




No. 54. 
Genus: Ammodramus. 



IPSWICH SPARROW. 



Species: A. princeps. 



Distribution: 

Breeds on Sable Island, a fall and spring migrant, 
"wintering on coast of Massachusetts and southward. 

Date of Arrival: 
Late March. 



A few 



Date of Departure: 
Late October. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts brownish ash streaked with darker ; under parts 
white, breast and flanks faintly streaked with buff and dusky. 
Bill dark, feefpale. Length about 6.25. 

Song and Other Notes: 

While with us a clear chirp. 

Haunts: 

Sand dunes and beaches of our coast. 



54 WOODLAND BIRDS. 



No. 55 SAVANNA SPARROW. 

Species: A. sandwichensis savanna. 

Distribution: 

A summer resident of New England most common in north- 
ern portions. 

Date of Arrival: ISliddle of April. 

Date of Departure: November. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts ashy finch-like, bend of wing and eye line yellow ; 
under parts white, streaked with brown and dusky. Bill 
and feet pale. Length about 5.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A '• call note " song, and a chirp and a chit. 



Haunts: 



Pasture lands, fields and salt marshes. 



No. 56. GRASSHOPPER SPARROW. 

Species: A. savannarum passerinus. 

Distribution: 

A common summer resident of southern New England. 

Date of Arrival: First week in May. 

Date of Departure: First week in October. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts brownish, crown darker, with buff centre line, 
orange aye marks, bend of wing yellow ; under parts yellow- 
ish buff, belly whitish. Bill and feet dark. Length about 
5.25. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A peculiar song and two call notes. 

Haunts: 

Sere sandy fields. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 55 



No. 57. SHARP=TAILED FINCH, 



Species A. candacutus. 

Distribution : 

A summer resident along the coast of southern New England. 

Date of Arrival: 
April. 

Date of Departure: 
October. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts brownish olive darkly streaked, sides of head 
marked with buff; under parts white, breast yellowish 
streaked with black. Bill and feet dark. Length about 
5.75. 

Song and Other Notes: 
A simple song. 

Haunts: 

The salt marshes along the coast. 



56 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 58. WHITE THROATED SPARROW. 

Genus: Zonotrichia. Species: Z, albicollis. 

Distribution : 

An abundant summer resident of northern, often wintering 

in protected localities in southern New England. 
Date of Arrival: 

Last of April. Northward about thi'ee weeks later. 
Date of Departure: 

Early November. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts brownish chestnut streaked with black and bufT, 
crown black, bordered and with a central line of white, which 
does not meet at nape, eye line yellow ; under parts, throat 
and belly white, breast and sides of head ash. Bill dark, 
feet pale. Length about 6.75. ^ 

Song and Other Notes: 

An exquisite song like " Pea-pea-peabody-peabody-peabody," 
and a lisp. 

Haunts: 

AVoodland, sere fields on migration, spruce growth in the 
north. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



57 




TREE SPARROW. 

Species: S. monticola. 



No. 59. 

Genus: Spizella. 
Distribution: 

A very common migrant and winter resident. 
Date of Arrival: Late October. 
Date of Departure: First of May. 
General Plumage: 

Upper parts brownish ash, crown chestnut edged with ivhite ; 

under parts ashen. Bill and feet dark. Length about 6.25. 
Song and Other Notes: A sweet spring song, a low fall song and 

a twitter and lisp. 
Haunts: Sere fields and meadows, marshes and along roadsides. 



No. 60. CHIPPING SPARROW. 

Species: S. socialis. 
Distribution : 

Abundant summer resident of all New England. 
Date of Arrival: Last of April. 
Date of Departure: Middle of October, 
General Plumage: 

Much like the preceding but with a centre breast patch of 

brown. Bill and feet dark. Length about 5.50. 
Song and Other Notes: A monotonous trill and a number of chits 

and chirps. 
Haunts: A bird of the garden and orchard. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



No. 61. FIELD SPARROW. 



Species: S. pusilla. 

Distribution: 

A common summer resident of southern New England becom- 
inix less so farther north. Two records of wintering. 



Date of Arrival: 
Late April. 

Date of Departure: 
November. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts brownish, darkly streaked, crown chestnut^ wings 
white barred ; under parts wliite, breast and flanks tinted 
with brownish. Bill pink, feet dark. Length about 5.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A trilling song and a sharp chirp. 

Haunts: 

Fields and meadows and low ijrowths. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



59 





No. 62, 



Genus: Junco. 



Snow Bird. JUNCO. 

Species: J. hyemalis. 



Distribution: 

A winter resident of southern and breeding in northern New 
England. 

Date of Arrival: 

Late September in southern New England. 

Date of Departure: 

Second week in May. 

General Plumage: 

Slate (rusty in winter), belly white. Bill and feet dark. 
Length about 6.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A lively trilling song, a single and sometimes triple call note 
like " wait-a-bit " and a chuck. 

Haimts: 

Evergreen woods, roadsides and ''stumpy" fields. 



60 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 63. 

Genus: Melospiza. 



SONG SPARROW. 

Species: M, fasciata. 



Distribution: 

Abundant summer resident of all New England; often win- 
tering. 

Date of Arrival: 
Early March. 

Date of Departure: 
Late October. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts brown, marked with black and ash ; under parts 
white, streaked brown and black, forming a patch on centre 
of breast. Bill and feet dark. Length about 6.25. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A sweet varied and expressive song and a chuck and lisp. 



Haunts: 



A bird of the woodland, meadow and garden. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



No. 64. SWAMP SPARROW. 



Species: M. georgiana. 

Distributmi : 

A summer resident of New England; locally wintering. 

Date of Arrival: 
April first. 

Date of Departure: 

First of November. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts reddish brown, marked with black and buff, 
wings and crown shaded with chestnut; under parts whitish, 
tinted with ash and yellowish, belly and flanks buff. Bill 
and feet dark. Length about 6.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A trillinff sweet song and an innumerable number of other 
notes. 

Haunts: 

Swamps and fields, near fresh water. 



62 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 65. 

Genus: Passerella. 



FOX SPARROW. 

Species: P. iliaca. 



Distribution: 

A very common migrant through New England. 

Date of Arrival: 

1 5 th of March to May^ passing north. 

Date of Departure: 

Late October and November, passing south. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts fox red streaked with ashy, wings white barred, 
under parts white, marked Avith streaks of fox color excej)t 
on belly. Bill and feet dark. Length about 7.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A sweet powerful song, a lisp and chuck. 

Haunts: 

Woodland and ^ 'stumpy'^ meadows. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



63 




No. 66, 



Chewink. TOWHEE. 



Genus: Pipilo. 



Species: P. erythrophthalmus. 



Distribution : 

A summer resident of southern New England, rare farther 
north. Two records of wintering. 

Date of Arrival: 
First of May. 

Date of Departure: 
First of October. 

General Plumage: 

Male, black wings marked with chestnut and white; lower 
breast and belly white^ flanks and under tail coverts chestnut, 
three outer tail feathers white marked ; female, black m male 
replaced by brown. Bill and feet dark. Length about 8.50, 

Song and Other Notes: 

A plain song and chewink, 
chuck. 



•to-whee, ' ^ a broken whistle and a 



Haunts: 

Underbrush, woodland and pine slopes. 



64 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 67. 



ROSE BREASTED GROSBEAK. 



Genus: Habia. 



Species: H. ludoviciana. 



Distribution: 

A local but common summer resident of New England. 

Date of Arrival- 
First of May. 

Date of Departure: 
September. 

General Plumage: 

Male, black wings white barred and marked, breast band of 
rose, belly white divided partly by rose, under wing coverts 
rose, rump white. Female, upper parts brownish streaked 
with brown, under wing coverts, orange. Immature male, 
similar but under wing coverts^ rose. Bill pale, feet dark. 
Length about 8.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A beautiful warbling song, resembling the robin's but fuller 
and more finished, and a characteristic harsh call note. 

Haunts: 

"Woodland, orchards and often gardens. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



65 





No. 68. INDIQO BIRD. 

Genus: Passerina. Species: P. cyanea. 

Distribution: 

A somewhat common summer resident of New England, Cape 
Cod excepted. 

Date of Arrival: 
Early May. 

Date of Departure: 
September. 

General Plumage: 

Male, indigo, wings and tail darker. Female, upper parts 
brownish, under paler, sti-eaky. Bill and feet dark. Length 
about 5.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A weak but pretty song and two call notes. 

Haunts: 

Woodland, barberry bushes and general '-'scrub" growths. 



66 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 69. 

Genus: Passer. 



ENGLISH SPARROW. 

Species: P. domesticus. 



Distribution: 

An abundant resident now of all the cities and towns of New 
England. 

General Plumage: 

Male, upper parts chestnut brown streaked with black, crown 
and rump ash, throat, upper breast lores black ; under parts 
dirty brownish. Female, lacking black, back grayer. Bill 
and feet dark. Length about 6.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Incessant twitters, chirps and scolding notes. 



Haunts: 



Streets, buildings, public gardens^ country farm yards, in 
fact everywhere. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



67 




No. 70. 
Family: Tanagridae 



SCARLET TANAQER. 



Genus: Piranga. 
Species: P. erythromelas. 

Distribution: 

Common summer resident of southern New England becom- 
ing much less so in the northern portions . 

Date of Arrival- 
Middle of May. 

Date of Departure: 
September. 

General Plumage: 

Male, bright red, wings and tail black. Female, upper parts 
greenish; under parts yellowish. Bill and feet dark. 
Length about 7.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A pleasing whistling warble and a low '' chip-churr.'' 

Haunts: 

A bird of the woodland and orchard . 



6S 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 71 



CLIFF SWALLOW. 



Family: HirundinidaB. 



Genus: Petrochelidon. 
Species: P. lunifrons. 



Distribution: 

A local summer resident of New England. 

Date of Arrival: 
May first. 

Date of Departure: 
September first. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts deep hXne^ forehead dusky . Rump chestnut . Under 
parts, throat, sides of head and breast chestnut, lower breast 
paler, belly white, tail hardly forked. Bill and feet dark. 
Length about 6.00. 

-Song a7id Other Notes: 
Twitterings. 

Haunts: 

About old barns and farms and in wilder localities about 
cliffs. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



60 




No. 72. 



BARN SWALLOW. 



Genus: Clielidon. 



Species: C. erythrogastra. 



Disiributio7i: 

A common summer resident of all New England. 

Date of Arrival: Last of April, 

Date of Departure: First of September. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts^ deep blue with partial blue collar; under parts 
reddish chestnut, forehead chestnut, lower parts paler; tail 
white marked and much forked. Bill and feet dark. Length 
about 7.00. 



Song and Other Notes: 
Lively twitters. 

Haunts: 

About the old barns through whose doors and windows they 
can readily go out and in. 



70 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 





No. 73. 



WHITE BREASTED SWALLOW. 



Genus: Tacliycineta. 



Species: T. bicolor. 



Distribution: 

Rather common summer resident of New England, abundant 



on miirrations. 



Date of Arrival: 
April first. 

Date of Departure: 
September 15th. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts deep blue; under parts white. Female and 
young, duller. Bill and feet dark. Length about 6.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 
Merry twitters. 

Haunts: 

The garden formerly, but now driven out by the EngUsh 
Sparrow . Flying over the meadows and water on migrations, 
and nesting in orchards and woodland. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



71 





No. 74. 



BANK SWALLOW. 



Genus: Clivicola. 

Distribution: 

A local summer resident. 



Species: C. riparia. 



Date of Arrival: 
First of May. 

Date of Departure: 

First of September. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts brownish; under parts white, brownish breast 
band. Bill and feet dark. Length about 5.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 
Twitter. 



Haunts: 

About sand banks. 



72 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 75. 



CEDAR BIRD. 



Family: Ampelidae. Genus: Ampelis. 

Species: A. cedrorum. 

Distribution: 

A common summer resident of New England more common 
in the northern portions, often wintering in the southern. 

Date of Arrival: 
February . 

Date of Departure: 
November. 

General Plumage: 

Upper and under parts cinnamon brown, head marked with 
blacky belly yellowish, tail tipped with yellow, red ivax often 
wings and sometimes on tail. Bill and feet black. Length 
about 7.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 
" Winning '' note. 

Haunts: 

Tops of bare trees and berry bearing trees, shrubs and 
cedars. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



73 




No. 76. Butcher Bird. NORTHERN SHRIKE. 



Genus: Lanius. 
Species: L. borealis. 



Family: Laniidse. 

Distribution: 

A winter resident or visitor. 

Genoal Flumasre- 

o 

Upper parts bluish gray; under parts wliite, finely marked 
with black, eye stripe, wings and tail black, two latter marked 
with white. Bill and feet black. Length about 10.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A song which has been taken for the mocking-bird's and a 
cunous call note. ° 



Haunts: 

Marshes, fields and farming lands. 



74 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 77. 

Family: Vireonidae. 



RED EYED VIREO. 

Genus: Vireo. 
Species: V. olivaceus. 



Distribution: 

An abundant summer resident of New England. 



Date of Arrival: 

First week in May. 

Date of Departure : 
September. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts olive green, grayish on the head* edged with black, 
and ivhitish eye-line; under parts white, flanks olive tinted, 
eye red. Bill pale, feet dark. Length about 6.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A persistent monotonous song, a ''querulous note" and a 
short note and chatter. 

Haunts: 

A bird of the garden, orchard and woodland. 



WOODLAND BIRDS, 75 



No. 78. WARBLING VIREO. 

Species: V. gilvus. 

Distribution: 

A summer resident of southern New England. 

Date of Arrival: Early May. 

Date of Departure: Middle of September. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts olive green or ashy, depth of shade varying; 
under parts white, tinted with ashy. Bill and feet dark! 
Length about 5.50. 

Song arid Other Notes: 

A beautifully sweet warbling song and notes like preceding 
species, but somewhat more refined. 

Haunts: 

Inhabited localities and woodland 



No. 79. YELLOW THROATED VIREO. 

Species: V. flavifrons. 

Distribution: 

Common summer resident of southern New England . 
Date of Arrival: First part of May. 
Date of Departure: September. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts olive green, paler on rump; under parts, throat 
and upper breast yellow^ belly white, wings white barred. 
Bill and feet dark. Length about 6.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A pleasing warble and a harsh call note. 
Haunts: 

Woodland growths and orchards. 



76 WOODLAND BIRDS. 



No. 80. SOLITARY VIREO. 

Species: V. solitarius. 

Distribution: 

A local summer resident of New England, more common in 
the northern portions. 

Date of Arrival: Late April. 

Date of Departure: September. 

General Plumage: 

U|)per parts j^reenish olive, head bluish, sides yellowish; 
under parts white, wings and tail white marked and barred. 
Bill and feet dark. Length about 5.50. 



Song and Other Notes: 



A sweet warble, a whistle or two, and a call note. 

Haunts: 

A bird of the woodland. 



No. 81. WHITE EYED VIREO. 

Species: V. noveboracensis. 

Distribution: 

A summer resident of southern New England. 

Date of Arrival: Mddle of May. 

Date of Dejpo/rture: October first. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts, olive ashy green ; under parts white, flanks, 
wing bars and ring round eye yellowish, eye white. Bill pale 
and feet dark. Length about 5.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A varied, loud and curious song and various call notes. 

Haunts: 

General woodland. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



77 





No. 82, 



BLACK AND WHITE CREEPER. 



Family: Mniotiltidae . Genus: Mniotilta. 

Species: M. varia. 

Distribution : 

An abundant summer resident of southern New England, 
becoming rare farther north. 

Date of Arrival: 
May first. 

Date of Departure: 
Late September. 

General Plumage: 

Black and white streaked, lower belly white. 
Bill and feet dark. Lencfth about 5.50. 



Female duller. 



Song and Other Notes: 

Two simple songs, and a number of alarm and call notes. 

Haunts: 

The woodland, orchards and general growth. 

Note. — The songs of many of our warblers seem to have a certain "zee" 
quality to them and are difficult for beginners to identify ; the characteristic quality of 
each, after patience and study becomes however, apparent. 



78 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 83. 



GOLDEN WINGED WARBLER. 



Genus: Helminthophila. 



Species: H. chrysoptera. 



Distribution: 

A local summer resident of southern New England. 

Date of Arrival- 
May first to eighth. 

Date of Departure: 
Late September. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts slate, crown yellow, wings barred with yellow ; 
under parts white, throat and face marked with black. 
Female paler, black grayish. Feet and bill pale. Length 
about 5.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A curious song and three call notes. 



Haunts: 

A bird of the woodland. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 79 



No. 84. NASHVILLE WARBLER. 



Species: H. ruficapllla. 

Distribution : 

A common migrant breeding in all New England, but most 
common in the northern portions. 

Date of Arrival: 
May 5. 

Date of Departure: 
September 15. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts brownish olive, head slate, crown chestnut. 
Female, crown ornaments dull or wanting. Bill and feet 
pale . Length about 4.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A plain song and a chip and sharp ^^ crick." 

Haunts: 

A bird of woodland and sparse growths. 



80 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 85, 



Genus: Compsothlypis. 



PARULA WARBLER. 

Species: C. americana. 



Distribution: 

A local summer resident of New Ena;land, being ^' coexten- 
sive witli that of the Us7iea " moss," in or of which, it invari- 
ably builds its nest." 

Date of Arrival: 
First of Maj. 

Date of Departure: 

Last of September. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts slaty blue, back patch yellow • under parts yellow 
with brownish spot. Female paler. Bill and feet pale. 
Length about 4.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A pretty warbling song and a number of ^' chips" and 
"tsips." 

Haunts: 

A bird of the woods and coniferous forests. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 86, 



Genus: Dendroica. 



YELLOW WARBLER. 

Species: D. aestiva. 



Distribution: 

An abundant summer resident of southern New England. 

Date of Arrival: 
May first. 

Date of Departure: 
September first. 

General Plumage: 

Yellow marked on under parts with rusty streaks. Bill and 
feet pale. Length about 5.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A pleasing song and a clear '' chirp. '^ 

Haunts: 

A bird of the orchard, garden and roadside. 



82 WOODLAND BIRDS. 



No. 87. BLACK THROATED BLUE WARBLER. 

Species: D. caerulescens. 

Distribution: 

Common on migrations, breeding in northern New England. 

Date of Arrival: First of May. 

Date of Departure: September. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts slate ; under parts white, throat and sides of 
head black, white patch on wings. Female dull greenish, 
tinted with blue ; under parts whitish. Bill and feet dark. 
Length about 5.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A peculiar unmusical song and a clear '' chirp '' and chatter. 

Haunts: 

General growth. 



No. 88. YELLOW RUMPED WARBLER. 

Species: J), coronata. 

Distribution: 

An abundant migrant, wintering in southern and breeding 
in northern New England. 

Date of Arrival: Last of April. 

Date of Departure: October. 

General Plumage: 

Male; Spring, upper parts ashy, streaked with black, crown, 
rump and side patches yelloiv; under parts white. Autumn; 
male and female and young, brownish, showing yellow 
slightly. Bill and feet dark. Length about 5.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A pretty, simple song and curious call notes, ''chip." 

Haunts: 

In the woodlands and alons the roadsides. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



83 



No. 89. MAGNOLIA WARBLER. 

Species: D. maculosa. 

Distribution: 

Breeds in northern and a common migrant through southern 

New England. 

Date of Arrival: May. 

Date of Departure: Late September. 

General Plumage: • ■, x -i i 

Upper parts dark, rump yellow, crown grayish, forehead 

black ; under parts yellow streaked with black. Female 
duller! Bill and feet dark. Length about 5.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Many different notes and a pleasing song. 

Haunts : 

Woodland growth. 

No. 90. CHESTNUT SIDED WARBLER. 

Species: D. pennsylvanica. 

Distribution: „ „ -.^ ^ ^ i 

A general summer resident of all New England. 

Date of Arrival: Middle of May. 
Date of Departure: September. 

General Plumage: . , , , i , ,. 

Upper parts yellowish, marked with black; under parts 
white crown yellow, two chestnut side streaks, head with 
black'marldngs. Bill and feet pale. Length about 5.50. 

Song and Other Notes: , 

A pretty little warbling song and a series of tsips. 

Haunts: 

A bird of the woodland. 



84 WOODLAND BIRDS. 



^o. 91. BLACK POLL WARBLER. 

Species: D. striata. 

Distribution : 

An abundant migrant breeding in northern New England. 

Date of Arrival: May 1 5 . 

Date of Departure: Late September, 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts blackish olive, crown black; under parts white, 
streaked with black. Female, brownish olive, dark streaked, 
under parts whitish. Rill and feet dark, Length about 5.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A thin monotonous song and a number of short notes. 

Haunts: 

A bird of the evergreens and also of deciduous growths. 



No. 92. BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER. 

Species: D. blackburniae. 

Distribution: 

A migrant through southern and a common summer resident 
of northern New England. 

Date of Arrival: First week of INIay. 

Date of Departure: First of October. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts dark, crown orange surrounded with black; under 
parts white streaked with black, breast and throat orange. 
Female dull, breast yellow, other marking similar to male. 
Bill and feet dark. Length about 5.25. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A simply rendered song and a number of other notes ' ' chip ' ' 

" see-see-see." 
Haunts: 

Evergreen low lands. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 85 



No. 93. BLACK THROATED GREEN WARBLER. 

Species: D. virens. 
Distrihutio7\: 

A common summer resident of New England. 

Date of Arrival: First week in May. 

Date of Departure: September. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts greenish, wings white barred, sides of head yellow; 
under parts whitish, throat and breast black. Female and 
male in fall duller, black indistinct or absent. Bill and feet 
dark. Length about 5.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A persistant singer of a simple monotonous song, numerous 
call notes. 

Haunts: 

A bird of the evergreens but found in other growths. 



No. 94. PINE WARBLER. 

Species: D. vigorsii. 
Distribution : 

A common summer resident of New England, in country 

covered by the pitch pine. 

Date of Arrival: April first. 

Date of Departure: Late September. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts olive; under parts white, breast and throat yellow. 
Female paler. Bill and feet pale. Length about 5.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A drawling song and a few short ' 'chips. '^ 
Hau7its: 

The pitch pine forests. 



86 WOODLAND BIRDS. 



No. 95. YELLOW PALM WARBLER. 

Species: D. palmarum hypochrysea. 

Distribution: 

A common migrant, breeding in Maine. 

Date of Arrival: Late April. 

Date of Departure: October first. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts pale olive, crown chestnut; under parts yellowish, 
streaked with rusty. Bill and feet dark. Length about 5.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A poor songster having a few sweet notes and chips. 



Haunts: 

A bird of low growths. 



No. 96. PRAIRIE WARBLER. 

Species: D. discolor. 

Distribution: 

A summer resident of southern New England, near the sea 
coast. 

Date of Arrival: Middle of May. 

Date of Departure: Late August. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts olive marked with reddish on the back ; under 
parts yellow, black head markings. Bill and feet dark. 
Length about 5.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A peculiar song and a seldom heard note. 

Haunts: 

A bird of the '' scrubby '' growths. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



87 




No. 97. Golden Crowned Thrush. OVEN BIRD. 



Genus: Seiurus. Species- S. aurocapillus. 

Distribution: 

An abundant summer resident of all New England. 

Date of Arrival: 
First of May. 

Date of Departure: 

Last of September. 

General Plumage: 

Uj)per parts olive brown, crown orange, surrounded by black; 
un(ler parts white, breast and flanks marked with brown. 
Bill and feet pale. Length about 6.25. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A strong song, expressed by ^' Teacher-teacher-teacher," two 
call notes, "chuck" and '"chit," and an aerial song at 
twilight. 

Haunts: 

A bird of the woodland and pine woods. 



88 M'OODLAND BIRDS. 



No. 98. WATER THRUSH. 

Species: S. noveboracensis. 

Distribution: 

A common summer resident In northern New England, mi- 
grating through Massachusetts and southward. 

Date of Arrival: First of May. 

Date of Departure: INliddle September. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts olive brown; under parts buff, breast spotted with 
dark brown. Bill and feet dark. Length about 5.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A beautiful melody, beautifully rendered, and a clear ''chip." 

Haunts: 

Along the streams and brooks; generally upon the ground. 



No. 99. LOUISIANA WATER THRUSH. 

Species: S. motacilla. 

Distribution: 

A common summer resident of the two southern New Eng- 
land Slates. 

Date of Arrival: Last of April. 

Date of Departure: Late September. 

General Plumage: 

Similar to preceding species, less marked^ dusky on the breast. 
Length about 6.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A more lovely song than that of the preceding species, begin- 
ning loudly and slowly dying away, and a single call note. 

Haunts: 

Same as preceding species. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



89 




No. 100. 



CONNECTICUT WARBLER, 



Genus: Geothlypis. 



Species: G. agilis. 



Distribution: 

A rare spring and somewhat common fall migrant. 

Date of Arrival: 

First two weeks in May. 

Date of Departure: 
September. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts brownish olive; under parts brownish gray, 
lower breast and belly yellowish. Bill and feet pale. Length 
about 5.50. 



Song and Other Notes: 

" Somewhat like the song of Oven bird," rendered by the 
syllables, "beecher-beecher-beecher-beecher-beecher-beecher, ' ' 
and two characteristic warbler call notes. 

Haunts: 

A bird of the thicket and ground. 



90 WOODLAND BIRDS. 



No. 101. MARYLAND YELLOW-THROAT. 



Species: G. trichas. 

Distribution: 

An abundant summer resident of all New England, winter- 
ing rarely near Boston and southward. 

Dale of Arrival: 
May 10. 

Date of Departure: 
October first. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts olive brown, face black edged with grayish; under 
parts yellow, belly whitish. Female paler and with the black 
and gray lacking. Bill and feet dark. Length about 5.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A clear ventriloquous song and two sharp call notes. 

Hawits: 

The low woodland amonjj the underbrush. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



91 




No. 102. 



Genus: Icteria. 



YELLOW BREASTED CHAT, 

Species: I. virens. 



Distribution: 

A common summer resident of southern New England. 

Date of Arrival- 
First of May. 

Date of Departure: 
September. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts olive green ; under parts yellow, belly white, 
Bill and feet dark. Length about 7.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

An indescribable, peculiar variety of notes and whistles. 

Hau7its: 

A bird of the thicket and low growth. 



92 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 103. 



CANADA WARBLER. 



Genus: Sylvania. 



Species: S. canadensis. 



Distribution: 



Fairly common migrant breeding most commonly in northern 
New England. 

Date of Arrival: 
Late ]\Iay. 

Date of Departure: 
Late September. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts grayish blue, crown black streaked ; under parts 
yellow marked with black. Female with bluish and black, 
duller. Bill and ioet dark. Length about 5.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A pleasing song and a clear chip and low ^' chutt." 

Haunts: 

Low evergreen and swampy woodland. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



93 





No. 104. 



REDSTART. 



Genus: Setophaga. 



Species: S. ruticllla. 



Distribution: 

A common summer resident of all New England. 

Date of Arrival- 
First week in May. ' 

Date of Departure: 
September 15. 

General Plumage: 

Male, upper parts black, spots on the wings and tail, sides of 
breast orange; belly white. Female, brownish green, orange 
in male yellow, under parts white. Bill and feet dark. 
Length abont 5.25. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A varied pretty song and a number of call notes, a '^ chit " 
and " chick. '^ 



Haunts: 

A bird of the woodland and orchard. 



94 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 105. 



AHERICAN PIPIT. 



Family: Motacillidae. Genus: Anthus. 

Species: A, pennsilvanicus. 

Distribution: 

A common miorant, breediniij north of our boundaries. 



Date of Arrival: 
Last of May. 

Date of Departure: 
September 15. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts olive brown; under parts dark buff, breast and 
flanks marked with dusky, outer tail feathers marked wiih 
wliite. Bill and feet pale. Length about 6.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 
A low ^' chirp." 

Haunts: 

Along the sea coast, on the meadows and marshes. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



95 




No. 106. 

Family: Troglodytldae. 



CATBIRD, 



Genus: Galeoscoptes. 
Species: G. carolinensis. 



Distribution: 

An abundant summer resident of New England. 

Date of Arrival- 
First week in May. 

Date of Departure: 
October 1 to 10. 

General Plumage: 

Upper and under parts slate, crown and tail black. Under 
tail coverts chestnut. Bill black, feet dark. Length about 
8.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

An interesting and imitative song containing notes of all 
qualities, a " mew " and soft " chuck." 

Haunts: 

A bird of the thicket and swamp. 



96 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 107, 



BROWN THRASHER. 



Genus: Harporhynchus. Species: H. rufus. 

Distribution: 

Common summer resident of southern New England, rare 
north of Massachusetts. 

J)ate of Arrival: Last week in April. 

Date of Departure: First week in October. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts reddish brown ; under parts whitish, streaked 
with deep brown, throat white. Bill dark, feet pale. 
Length about 11.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A much varied and entertaining song, and a loud, clear 

"chuck." 
Haunts: 

Like the Catbird, inhabiting thickets and swamps, but often 

met with in the " stumpy " meadows. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



97 




No 108. 



Genus: Troglodytes. 



HOUSE WREN. 

Species: T. aedon. 



Distribution : 

A local summer resident of New England, more common in 
the southern portions. 

Date of Arrival: 
First of May. 

Date of Departure: 

First two weeks of September. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts dark brown ; under parts paler, marked with 
dark brownish. Bill and feet pale. Length about 5.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A pleasant song, consisting chiefly of a trill, a " chirp " and 
a lively " chatter.'' 

Haunts: 

A bird of the barn-yard_, garden and orchard. 



98 WOODLAND BIRDS. 



No. 109. WINTER WREN. 



Species: T. hiemalis. 

Distribution: 

Uncommon migrant, ■wintering rarely as far north as Mass- 
achusetts, breeding in northern New England. 

Date of Arrival: 
April. 

Date of Departure: 
October. 

General Plumage: 

Similar to the preceding. Length about 4.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A most beautiful lively song heard only during the summer, 
and '' a sharp tick." 

Haunts: 

In old forests and woods among the fallen logs and underbrush. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



99 




No. 110. 



SHORT BILLED MARSH WREN. 



Genus: Cistothorus. 



Species: C. stellaris. 



Distribution: 

A local summer resident of southern New England. 

Date of Arrival: May 15. 

Date of Departure: September. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts brown marked with white ; under parts white, 
flanks tinged with pale brownish, wings and tail barred. 
Bill and feet pale. Length about 4.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A wren chatter, a plain song having a little trill. 

Haunts: 

A bird of the marshes among the reeds and rushes. 



100 WOODLAND BIRDS. 



No. 111. LONG BILLED HARSH WREN. 



Species: C. palustris. 

Distribution: 

More common summer resident of southern New England 
than the preceding species. 

Date of Arrival- 
Second week in May. 

Date of Departure: 

September. A few have wintered in Massachusetts. 

General Plumage: 

Same as preceding species. Length about 5.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A "persistent singer," and the song '' bears a resemblance 
to that of the House AVren." '' On the whole less musical 
although by no means unpleasing," 

Haunts: 

Much the same as preceding species. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



lOi 




No. 112. 



BROWN CREEPER. 



Family: Certhiidse. Genus: Certhia. 

Species: C. familiarls americana. 
Distribution: 

A winter resident of southern New England, breeding in the 

northern portions. 

Date of Arrival- 
October. 

Date of Departure: 

Late March or April. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts brown, marked with white and ^^ rusty " toward 
the rump; under parts whitish. Bill and feet pale. Length 
about 5.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A pleasing 'Sviry" little song and a series of "lisps" resem- 
bling those of the Golden Crowned Kinglet, but given in four 
almost unnoticed syllables. 

Haunts: 

General growths, elm, oak and birch. 



102 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 113, 



WHITE BREASTED NUTHATCH. 



Family: Paridse. 



Genus: Sitta. 

Species: S. carolinensis. 



Distribution: 

A summer resident of New England, most common on fall 
migration; a winter resident south of Vermont and New 
Hampshire . 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts slaty blue, crown and nape blue black ; under 
parts whitish, tinted with " rusty " on under tail coverts and 
lower belly, outer tail feathers black marked Avith white. 
Female and young paler. Bill and feet dark. Length about 
6.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

'■'■ Quank-quank-quank " and a low whit- whit- whit. 

Haunts: 

A bird of the woods. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. J 93 



No. 114. RED BREASTED NUTHATCH. 

Species: S. canadensis. 

Distribution: 

An irregular migrant, breeding in northern New England. 

Bate of Arrival: 

Latter part of April. 

Bate of Beparture: 

September, October. 

General Plumage: 

Similar to the preceding species, under parts chestnut in 
mature male, black line through the eyes. Female paler 
Length about 4.75. 

Song and Other Notes: 

" Ank-ank-ank '' repeated often for fully a minute. 

Haunts: 

Spruce and balsam woods. 



104 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 





No. 115= 



CHICKADEE. 



Genus: Parus. 



Species: P. atricapillus. 



Distribution: 

A very common permanent resident. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts whitish, crown and nape black, under parts 
white, tinged witli buflf", throat black. Bill and leet black. 
Length about 5.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

'^Chick-a-dee-dee-dee," a sweet "phocbe" and ''day-day-day" 
and various other lively notes. 



Haunts: 

Evergreen^ birch and orchards. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 105 



No. 116. HUDSON BAY CHICKADEE. 



Species: P. hudsonicus. 



Distribution: 

A resident of northern New England, straggling to Massa- 
chusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut. 

General Plumage: 

Light greenish brown, crown darker brown, flanks chestnut, 
throat almost black. Bill and feet dark. Length about 6,00. 



Song and Other Notes: 

*' Their song-note is harsher and more quickly given than 
that of our Chickadees.^' 



Haunts: 

Same as preceding species. 



106 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 





No. 117, 



QOLDEN CROWNED KINGLET. 



Family: SylviidaB. 



Genus: Regulus. 
Species: R. satrapa. 



Distribution: 

Very common migrant and winter resident in fair numbers, 
breeding in northern New England. 

Date of Arrival: 
First of May. 

Date of Departure: 
Late October. 



General Plumage: 

Upper parts yellowish olive ; under parts whitish, a yellow 
patch on the crown, in the adult male centered with flame color. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A three syllable " lisp," rarely in spring a weak warble. 

Haunts: 

A bird of the evergreens. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



107 



^o- 118 RUBY CROWNED KINGLET. 



Species: R. calendula. 

Distribution: 

A common migrant, probably breeding in northern New 
ii^ngland. 

Date of Arrival- 
April 15. 

Date of Departure: 
November 15. 

General Plumage: 

Kesembling the former species except a scarlet crown patch 
in the adult male, the female with it probably lacking Bill 
and feet dark. Length about 4.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A surprisingly loud and sweet song and a low '^ lisp.'' 

Haunts: 

A bird of the woodland, orchard and spruce growth. 



108 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 119. 

Family: Turdidae. 



WOOD THRUSH. 



Genus: Turdus. 
Species: T. mustelinus. 
Distribution: 

A common summer resident of southern New England, rare 

north of jNlassachusetts. 
Date of Arrival: 

Second week in May. 
Date of Departure: 

Latter part of September. 
General Plumage: 

Upper parts cinnamon brown, brightest on the head ; under 

parts whitish, tinged with buff and spotted on the breast and 

flanks with deep brown. Bill dark, feet pale. Length 

about 8.00. 
Song and Other Notes: 

A superb melody, expressed by the words ^' come-to-me," a 

metallic '^ chirp," a low '^ chuck," and "whit- whit." 
Haunts: 

A bird of woodland and swampy growths. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 109 



No. 120. 'Veery." WILSON'S THRUSH, 



Species: T. fuscescens. 

Distribution: 

A common summer resident of New England. 

Date of Arrival: 

First week in May. 

Date of Departure: 

About September 10. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts pale brown or "tawny," shaded evenly from 
tail to head, under parts white, fused with fulvous and marked 
indistinctly with dusky on the throat. Bill light, feet pale. 
Length about 7.50. 

General Plumage: 

A beautiful song, but not so fine as that of the Wood Thrush, 
and a variety of " chirps," '' chips," and soft " lisps." 



Haunts 



A bird of the swampy woods, but often met in dry and pine 
woods. 



no WOODLAND BIRDS. 



No. 121. BICKNELL'S THRUSH. 



Species: T. alici£e bicknelli. 

Distribution: 

Quite common migrant, breeding in the ^^Tiite Mountains. 

Date of Arrival- 
hast week in May. 

Date of Departure: 
Late September. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts olive ; under parts whitish spotted with blackish 
marks, eye ring grayish white. Bill dark, feet pale. Length 
about 6.50-7.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

'' The song is exceedingly like that of the Veery, having the 
same ringing, flute-like quality ; but it is more interrupted, 
and ends diflerently, — the next to the last note dropping half 
a tone, and the final one rising abruptly and having a sharp 
emphasis." The call notes " are a whistled pheu," ''a low 
chuck,'' '^ a pip or peenk," and ''a harsh note." 

Haunts: 

A bird of high altitudes, to the limits of '^ tree growth," but 
breeding " most abundantly among the dwarfed, densely 
matted spruces and balsams." 



WOODLAND BIRDS, 



No. 122. OLIVE BACKED THRUSH. 



Species: T. ustulatus swainsonii. 

Distribution: 

Common summer resident of northern New England, south of 
Vermont and New Hampsliire a migrant. 

Date of Arrival: 
Last of May. 

Date of Departure: 
Late September. 

Date of Departure: 

Upper parts olive ; under parts buff, breast spotted with 
dusky, buff ring around eye. Bill dark, feet pale. Length 
about 7.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Perhaps the most ordinary Thrush song and the following 
notes peculiar to season, '^ chuck," " chit, chit," and a low 
''peep." 

Haunts: 

To be met in orchards, shady hillsides, swampy woodland 
along the country roads. 



1 1 2 WOODLAND BIRDS. 



No. 123. HERMIT THRUSH. 



Species: T. aonalaschkae pallasii. 

Distribution: 

Abundant summer resident of northern New England and an 
abundant migrant in Khode Island, Connecticut and Mass- 
achusetts, breeding sparingly. 

Date of Arrival: 

About April 15th. 

Date of Departure: 
November. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts brownish olive, becoming reddish on the tail; 
under parts white tinged with buff and spotted with dark 
brown. Bill dark, feet pale. Length about 7.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

The most beautiful bird song, having a sacred strain. A 
sharp " chuck " and a " chip." 

Haunts: 

Frequents the fallen leaves and underbrush, and the low pine 
woods. 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 



113 




Ax-MERICAN ROBIN, 

Species: M. migratoria. 



No. 124. 

Genus: Merula. 

Distribution: 

Abundant summer resident of all New England, wintering in 
protected localities as far north as New Hampshire. 

Date of Arrival: 
March first. 

Date of Departure: 
November 15. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts grayish black, darker on head and tail and 
marked with white; ujider parts reddish brown; upper throat 
and under tail coverts white, marked with black. Bill yellow, 
black tipped, feet dark. Length about 9.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A familiar and pleasant song, a " chirp," and loud " shout." 
Haunts: 

Found in all localities and growths. Undoubtedly our most 

common bird. 



114 



WOODLAND BIRDS. 




No. 125. 



BLUEBIRD. 



Genus: Sialia. Species: S. sialis. 

Distribution: 

An abundant summer resident of New England, breeding un- 
commonly along its northern limits. Wintering in Con- 
necticut. 

Date of Arrival- 
March first. 

Date of Departure: 
November. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts brilliant blue; under parts chestnut. Females 
and young birds showing much duller plumage. Bill and 
feet dark. Length about 6.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A half mournful, half cheerful warble, a low call note. 

Haunts: 

A bird of the orchard, garden and woodland. 



MARSH AND SWAMP BIRDS. 



116 MARSH AND SWAMP BIRDS. 



No. 126. AMERICAN BITTERN. 

Order: Herodiones, Genus: Botaurus. 

Family: Ardeidae. Species: B. lentiginosus. 

Distribution: 

A summer resident of New England. 

Date of Arrival: 

Middle of April. 

Date of Departure: 
November. 



General Plumage: 

Upper parts brown, buff and grayish, head slaty ; under 
parts cream buff, streaked with brownish and grayish ; sides 
of neck marked with a sliining black streak. Immature 
deeper buff'. Bill yellowish, edge black, feet and legs yel- 
lowish. Length about 28.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A loud weird ' ' booming ' ' sound . 

Haunts: 

Meadows, marshes and swampy land. 



MARSH AKD SWAMP BIRDS. 117 




AMERICAN BITTERN. 



118 MARSH AND SWAMP BIRDS. 



No. 127. GREAT BLUE HERON. 

Genus: Ardea. Species: A. herodias. 

Distribution: 

A summer resident of New England, most commonly breed- 
ing in the northern portions. 

Date of Arrival: 
April and May. 

Date of Departure: 

September through October. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts slaty, crown black, divided by white, black 
crest, neck brownish gray, in front a line of black, white and 
yellowish, bend of wing chestnut; under parts black, white and 
yellowish streaked, breast with a patch of black and white 
feathers, leg feathers buff. Feet and legs black, upper man- 
dible greenish yellow, under yellow. Immature similar, 
crown black, throat white, black on sides and breast, plumes 
lacking, paler. Length about 45.00 

Song and Other Notes: 

Harsh quawks and croaks. 



Haunts: 



MarsheSj and about bodies of water. 



MARSH AND SWAMP BIRDS. 



119 




GREAT BLUE HERON. 



120 MARSH AND SWAMP BIRDS. 



No. 128. GREEN HERON, 



Species: A. virescens. 

Distribution: 

A summer resident of New England. 

Date of Arrival: 
First of May. 

Date of Departure: 
September. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts green, grayish blue, white and buff, crown and 
eye marking greenish black, other parts of head chestnut ; 
under parts grayish or buflf", throat whitish, front of neck 
lined with white and blackish. Immature paler, blackish 
streaked below, back lacking bluish gray. Bill black above, 
yellow below, feet and legs yellow. Length about 17.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 
A squawk. 

Haunts: 

Marshes and ponds, a solitary bird. 



MARSH AND SWAMP BIRDS. 12] 




BLACK CROWNED NIGHT HERON. 



122 



MARSH AND SWAMP BIRDS. 



No. 129. BLACK CROWNED NIGHT HERON. 



Genus: Nycticorax. Species: N. nycticorax naevius. 



Distribution: 

A very common summer resident of New England, wintering 
in the southern portions. 



General Plumage: 

Upper parts greenish black, becoming ashen behind, white 
crown plumes, forehead, neck and under parts white. Im- 
mature, upper parts grayish cinnamon, white streaked and 
spotted: under parts white, black streaked. Bill black, feet 
and legs yellow. Length about 24.00. 



Song and Other Notes: 
Quawk-quawk. 

Haunts: 

Marshes and swamps, breeding in colonics. 



MARSH AND SWAMP BIRDS. 



23 




No. 130. 



VIRGINIA RAIL. 



Genus: Rallus. 
Species: R. virginianus. 



Order: Paludlcolag. 
Family: Rallidas. 
Distribution: 

A common summer resident of New England. 
Date of Arrival: 

Latter part of April. 
Date of Departure: 

Middle of October. 
General Plumage: 

Upper parts black or grayish black, wings and tail brownish, 

coverts pale chestnut; under parts cinnamon brown, throat 

and face markings grayish white, flanks black and white. 

Bill and feet dark. Length about 9.50. 
Song and Other Notes: 

' " Grunting sounds, ' ' and the male has a love song like ' ' cut- 

cuttu-cuttu-cuttu." Female and young three other notes or 

calls. 
Haunts: 

Marshes or swampy ''scrub." 



124 



MARSH AND SWAMP BIRDS. 




No. 131 



SORA. 



Genus: Porzana. 



Species: P. Carolina. 



Distribution: 

A common summer resident of New England. 

Date of Arrival: 
Late April. 

Date of Departure: 
Late October. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts olive brown, black and white marked, face, 
centre of crown and neck line black, forehead, cheeks grayish 
blue, wings brownish cinnamon, flanks and belly white and 
black. Lnmature, black throat and face lacking, breast 



brownish. Bill and feet dark. 



Length about 8.50, 



Song and Other Notes: 

A whistle and " whinny," and two other call notes. 

Haunts: 

Marshes. 



MARSH AND SWAMP BIRDS. 



125 




AMERICAN COOT. 



126 



MARSH AND SWAMP BIRDS. 



No. 132. 



Mud Hen. AHERICAN COOT. 



Genus: Fulica. 



Species: F. americana. 



Distribution: 

A rare spring and common fall visitor, breeding northward. 

Date of Arrival: 

April, going north. 

Date of Departure: 

September, through October. 

General Plumage: 

Slaty blue, dark above, pale below, wings and under tail 
coverts white marked. Immature, under parts paler, upper 
brownish. Bill white, marked with brown, feet and legs 
greenish black. Length about 15.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 
A '' hoarse kruk." 



Haunts: 



Marshes, reed-covered creeks. 



MARSH AND SWAMP BIRDS. 



127 




No. 133. 



WILSON'S SNIPE. 



Order: Limicolte. Genus: Gallinago. 

Family: Scolopacidie. Species: G. delicata. 

Distribution: A common spring and autumn transient visitor. 

Date of Arrival: Going north April. 

Date of Departure: Going south September and October. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts black mottled with buff, Avings dark, white 
marked, outer tail feathers black and white, others black 
lipped with wliite ; under parts white, neck and breast bull' 
streake() with blackish, " ' - ^ 
feathers black and buff. 
Length about 11.25. 

Song and Other Notes: 

"Scaipes-scaipes-scaipes,''a curious '' drumming,'' probablv 
made by the wings when descending in the air, and a peculiar 
sound " Kuk-kuk-kuk-kuk-kup. 

Haunts: 

Swales, meadows, swamps, rarely salt marsh, but often damp 
woodland. 



flanks black marked, under tail 
Bill brownish, feet and legs brown. 



128 



MARSH AND SWAMP BIRDS. 




No. 134. 



SOLITARY SANDPIPER, 



Genus: Totanus. 



Species: T. solitarius. 



Distribution: 

A common spring and autumn transient visitor in New 
England. 

Date of Arrival: 

Going north latter half of May. 

Date of Departure: 

Going south late July, through September. 

General Plumage: 

In autumn, upper parts dark olive, white marked, outer tail 
feathers wliite, black barred; under parts, white marked on 
flanks and breast with blackish. In winter, upper parts 
brownish, head regions unmarked, breast brownish marked. 
Bill, feet and legs greenish black olive. Length about 8.25. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Softj whisthng call notes. 

Haunts: 

Woodland, rarely salt marshes or beaches. 



t 



BEACH BIRDS. 



129 



130 



BEACH BIRDS. 




No. 135. 



DOWITCHER. 



Genus: Macrorhamphus. Speies: M. griseus. 

Distribution: 

A common transient visitor along the coast. 
Date of Arrival: May, going north. 
Date of Departure: Early July to middle of September, going south. 

General Plumage: 

In summer, upper parts black and rufous, rump and tail 
barred with black and buff, long Aving feathers dark ; under 
parts dull rufous, belly white, marked with black. In winter, 
upper parts brownish ash, rump and tail barred with black 
and white, under parts ashen, belly white. Hanks black barred. 
Immature, upper parts black, under parts buff, marked faintly 
with blackish. Bill and feet dark. Length about 10.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Low notes, and clear '' weet-weet. 

Haunts: 

Mud flats, marshy land. 



BEACH BIRDS, 



131 




No. 136. 



PECTORAL SANDPIPER. 



Genus: Tringa Species: T. maculata. 

Distribution: 

A very rare spring but common autumn transient visitor 
along the coast. 

Date of Departure: 

Late July through October, going south. 

General Plumage: 

In summer, upper parts black, marked with buff, outer tail 
feathers brownish, white edged ; under parts white, neck and 
breast marked with black and bufl". In winter, upper parts 
rufous; under parts showing more buff. Bill and feet 
greenish black . Length about 9,00. 

Song and Other N'otes: 

Thin whistle, "a note that is hollow and resonant,'' like ^'too-u- 
too-u-too-u," and " hollow booming notes " when flying. 

Haunts: 

Damp, grassy fields, rarely beaches. 



132 BEACH BIRDS. 



No. 137. LEAST SANDPIPER. 



Species: T, minutilla. 

Distribution: 

An abundant transient visitor along the coast. 

Date of Arrival: 

Late May, going north. 

Date of Departure: 

Late July to September, going south. 

General Plumage: 

In summer, upper parts almost black, marked with rufous, 
outer tail feathers ashen ; under parts white, breast buff 
tinted marked with tawny. In Avinter, upper parts brownish, 
marked Avitli blackish ; under parts paler. Bill and feet 
greenish brown. Length about 6.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 
Whistle. 

Haunts: 

Beaches, and often grassy meadows. 



BEACH BIRDS. 



133 




No. 138. 



SEMIPALMATED SANDPIPER. 



Genus: Ereunetes. 



Species: E. pusillus. 



Distribution: 

An abundant transient visitor along the coast. 

Date of Arrival- 
Going northward in May. 

Date of Departure: 

Going southward July to October. 

General Plumage: 

In summer, upper parts almost black, marked with ashen and 
buff, rump brownish, tail feathers brownish ash, darker cen- 
trally; under parts whitish marked with blackish. In winter, 
upper parts brownish; under parts nearly white. Immature, 
feathers of upper parts tipped with huiY, breast washed with 
buff, unmarked. Bill and feet nearly black. Length about 
6.25. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Pleasing twittering notes and whistle. 

Haunts: 

Beaches. 



134 



BEACH BIRDS. 




Species: C. arenaria. 
the coast. 



No. 139. SANDERLING. 

Genus: Calidris. 

Distribution: 

A common transient visitor alon_ 

Date of Arrival: 

Going northward late March to June. 

Date of Departure: 

Going southward August to October. 

General Plumage: 

In summer, upper parts blacky buflf and ashen, wings dark, 
white marked, tail brownish, white edged ; under parts 
white, throat and breast yellowisli marked with blackish. 
In autumn, under parts white, faintly marked ; upper parts 
without bufl". In winter, upper parts brownish ; under 
parts clear white. Bill and ieet greenish black. Length 
about 8.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 
" Plaintive whistle. '^ 

Haunts: 

Ocean beaches. 



BEACH BIRDS. 



135 




GREATER YELLOW LEGS. 

Species: T. melanoleucus. 



No. 140. 

Genus: Totanus. 
Distribution: 

A common transient visitor along the coast. 

Date of Arrival: 

Going northward last of May. 

Date of Departure: 

Going southward September through October. 

General Plumage: 

In summer, upper parts black, marked with ashen, tail and 
rump black and white; under parts white, breast black 
spotted, flanks black barred. In winter, upper parts brown- 
ish, marked with whitish; under parts slir^htlj marked. 
Bill blackish, feet and legs yellow. Length about 14.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 
Clear whistle. 

Haunts: 

Beaches, mudflats and marsh. 



36 BEACH BIRDS. 



No. 141. YELLOW LEGS. 



Species: T. flavipes. 

Distribution: 

A rare spring but abundant fall transient visitor along the 
coast. 

Date of Arrival- 
Going north in May. 

Date of Departure: 

Going southward August to middle September. 

General Plumage: 

Similar to preceding. Bill blackish. Feet and legs yellow. 
Length about 10.75. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Like preceding species. 

Haunts: 

Like preceding species. 



BEACH BIRDS. 



137 




No. 142. 

Genus: Actitis. 



SPOTTED SANDPIPER. 

Species: A. macularia. 



Distribution: 

A common summer resident of New England. 

Date of Arrival: 
Late April. 

Date of Departure: 
September. 

General Plumage: 

In summer, upper parts greenish brown marked with black, 
head streaky, outer tail feathers barred with blackish ; under 
parts white, black spotted. In winter, upper parts browner, 
unmarked. Immature, upper parts, brownish marked with 
buff" and blackish ; under parts white tinted with gray. Bill 
yellowish green, brown tipped, feet "reddish yellow.'' 
Length about 7.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A clear whistle " peet-weet." 

Haimis: 

About both fresh and salt water. 



138 



BEACH BIRDS. 




No. 143. 

Family: Charadriidse. 



BLACK BELLIED PLOVER. 



Genus: Charadrius. 
Species: C. squatarola. 

Distribution: 

A common transient visitor along the coast. 
Date of Arrival: Going north early May to June. 
Date of Departure: Going south August through September. 

General Plumage: , 

In summer, upper parts black, wlute bordered, tail white, 
black barred, wings white marked, cheeks, neck under parts 
black, bellv white. In winter, ui)per parts brownish, under 
parts wliite, flanks and breast brownish, head and neck black 
streaked. Immature, as in winter but upper parts black. 
Bill, feet and legs black. Length about 11 .00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Two notes, a clear call and a soft bw note. 

Haunts: 

Sand barSj marshes antl beaches. 



I 



BEACH BIRDS. 



139 



No. 144. AMERICAN GOLDEN PLOVER. 

Species: C. domlnlcus. 

Distribution: 

A transient visitor along the coast, extremely rare in sprin- 
common in autumn. °' 

Date of Arrival: 

May going north. 

Date of Departure: 

Going south late August to November. 

General Plumage: 

In summer, upper parts black, marked with golden tail 
brownish, famtly white barred ; under parts and cheeks 
black, sides of breast white. In winter, upper parts dark 
marked with wliite or yellowish; under parts whitish' 
brownish marked. BiU black, feet and legs bluish brown' 
Length about 10.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Whistle like ''coodle-coodle-coodle*' and '^ tee-lee-lee tw- 
lee-lee-wit, wit-wit, wee-u-wit, chee-lee-u-too-lee-e.^' ' 

Haunts: 

Marshes, upland and sand bars. 



140 



BEACH BIRDS. 




No. 145 



SEMIPALMATED PLOVER. 



Genus: iEgialitis. 



Species: A semipalmata. 



Distribution: 

A common spring and autumn transient visitor along the 
coast. 

Date of Arrival: 

Going north in May. 

Date of Departure: 

Going south August to October. 

General Plumage: 

In summer, upper parts brownish, face, cheeks, an imperfect 
collar black; under parts, face mark, eye ring, white, outer 
tail feathers whitish. In winter, black changing to brownish 
ash. Bill orange, black tipped, legs yellow. Length about 
6.75. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A sharp plaintive call note. 

Haunts: 

Beaches, flats and marshes. 



BEACH BIRDS. 



141 




No. 146, 



TURNSTONE. 



Family: Aphrizidse. Genus: Arenaria. 

Species: A. interpres. 
Distribution: 

A common spring and autumn transient visitor along the 

coast. 

Date of Arrival: Going north in May. 

Date of Departure: Going south August to October. 

General Plumage: 

In summer, upper parts mottled with black, white and rufous, 

under parts 



tail white at each end and with black band: 



white, throat and breast black and white. In winter, upper 
parts blackish, brownish and ashen, back white, rump black 
and white, throat white, breast black edged. Bill black, feet 
and legs yellow. Length about 9.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A clear whistle of one, two or tliree notes. 

Haunts: 

Beaches. 



OCEAN BIRDS. 



143 



144 



OCEAN BIRDS. 




No. 147. 

Order: Pygopodes. 
Family: Podicipidae . 
Distribution: 



HORNED GREBE, 



Genus: Colymbus, 
Species: C. auritus. 



A common transient visitor, rare in winter. 

Date of Arrival: April. 

Date of Departure: October. 

General Plumage: 

In summer, upper parts blackish, wings white marked, crown, 
back of neck and throat jet black, lores chestnut, horns bulT; 
upper breast, front of neck and Hanks chestnut, other under 
parts white. In winter and immature, upper parts bhickish 
ash, under parts glossy white, ashen on breast and throat. 
Bill black, yellow tip, feet black. Length about 15.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 
"Ta-ta-ta." 

Haunts: 

Lakes and ocean. 



OCEAN BIRDS. 



145 




No. 148. 



Pied Billed Grebe. HELL DIVER. 



Genus: Podilymbus. Species: P. podiceps. 

Distribution: 

A common transient visitor, breeding locally. 

Date of Arrival: April, going north. 

Date of Departure: September, October, going south. 

General Plumage: 

In smnmer, upper parts shiny brownish black ; under parts 
white, throat black, upper breast, neck and flanks, brown 
and black mottled. In winter and immature, throat white. 
Bill, in summer, with black band ; in winter and imma- 
ture, band lacking, feet dark. Length about 15.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 

I am unable to find any description of their notes. 

Hau7its: 

Ponds and ocean. 



146 OCEAN BIRDS. 



No. 149. LOON. 

Family: Urinatoridae, Germs: Urinator. 

Species: U. imber. 

Distribution: 

An abundant transient and common -winter visitor, breeding 
in northern New England. 

Date of Arrival- 
hate May. 

Date of Departure: 
September. 

General Plumage: 

In summer, upper parts glossy black, including neck, back 
and wings white spotted ; under parts white, throat white 
marked in places, flanks black, white spotted. In winter 
and immature, upper parts blackish gray ; under parts white, 
gray on throat. Bill black, feet blackish, under side yellow- 
ish. Length about 32.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

A wild unearthly cry and '^ a sort of weird laughter." 

Haunts: 

Lakes, and along the coast. 



OCEAN BIRDS. 



147 




LOON. 



148 OCEAN BIRDS. 



No. 150. RED THROATED LOON. 



Species: W. lumme. 

Distribution: 

A common transient visitor, rarely wintering. 

Date of Arrival: 
April. 

Date of Departure: 
October. 

Geyieral Plumage: 

In summer, upper parts glossy blackish, wings white marked, 
head ashy, front of neck chestnut; under parts white, back 
of neck black, marked with white. In winter and immature, 
like preceding species. Bill black, feet blackish, pale on 
inside. Length about 25.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

'' Harsh cackling notes,'' 

Haunts: 

Lakes and ocean. 



OCEAN BIRDS. 



149 




No. 151. 

Family: Alcidse. 



BRiJNNICH'S MURRE. 



Genus: Uria. 
Species: U. lomvia. 
Distributio7i: 

An irregular but common winter visitor along the coast. 

Date of Arrival: November. 
Date of Departure: March. 
General Plumage: 

In summer, upper parts black, wings wliite marked; under 

parts white. In winter and immature, browner. Bill black, 

feet blackish yellow. Length about 16.50. 
Song and Other Notes: 

A ^'rasping sound not unlike the filing of a saw," they are 

said to utter. 
Haunts: 

A bird of the ocean, breeding on cliffs. 



150 



OCEAN BIRDS. 




No. 152. 



DOVEKIE. 



Genus: Alle. Species: A. alle. 

Distribution: 

An irregular winter visitor along the coast. 

Date of Arrival: 
November. 

Date of Departure: 
March. 

General Plumage: 

Jn summer, upper parts black, browner in front of neck, 
wings white marked • under parts white. In winter and 
immature, throat paler. Bill black, feet reddish. Length 
about 8.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

1 am unable to find any description of their notes. 

Haunts: 

Along the coast. 



OCEAN BIRDS. 151 



No. 153. GREAT BLACK BACKED GULL. 



Order: Longipennes. Genus: Larus. 

Family: Laridas. Species: L. marinus. 

Distribution: 

A winter visitor along the coast. 

Date of Arrival: 
September. 

Date of Departure: 
April. 

General Plumage: 

In summer, upper parts grayish black, wings white tipped ; 
under parts white. In winter, similar, head streaked. 
Immature, upper parts brownish marked with buff, long 
wing leathers dark, a few white tipped, head region grayish. 
tail black and white ; under parts white, ashy marked. 
Bill black, base yellowish, feet yellow. Length about 29.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Various loud noisy cries. 

Haunts: 

A bird of the ocean while with us. 



152 



OCEAN BIRDS. 




GREAT BLACK BACKED GULL. 



OCEAN BIRDS. 153 



No. 154. AMERICAN HERRING GULL. 



Species: L. argentatus smithsonianus. 

Distribution: 

An abundant winter visitor along the coast^ often driven far 
inland by storm. 

Date of Arrival: 
November. 

Date of Departure: 
Last of March. 

General Plumage: 

In summer, upper parts grayish white, wings black tipped, 
other plumage white. In winter, head regions grayish; im- 
mature, upper parts grayish black, buff' marked, long wino- 
feathers dark brown; under parts ashen brown . Bill yellow 
dark band, feet flesh color. Length about 24.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Cries "like akak-kakak." 

Haunts: 

A bird of the ocean and large rivers. 



154 



OCEAN BIRDS. 




No. 155. 



COMMON TERN. 



Genus: Sterna. Species: S. hirundo. 

Distribution: 

A common summer resident along the coast. 

Date of Arrival: May. 

Date of Departure: Late September. 

General Plumage: 

111 summer, upper parts bluish gray, long wing feathers white, 
crown black ; under parts white, lower parts pearly, outer 
tail leathers grayish, rest of tail white. In winter, forehead 
and under parts white; immature, upper parts brownish. 
Bill red, black tipped, feet orange in summer. Bill almost 
black in winter. Length about 15,00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Crying, harsh screams. 

Haunts; 

A bird of the ocean and bay, breeding on sandy islands. 



OCEAN BIRDS. J 55 



No. 156. ROSEATE TERN. 



Species: T. dougaJli, 

Distribution: 

A summer resident along the coast. 

Date of Arrival- 
May. 

Date of Departure: 

Latter part of September. 

General Plumage: 

In summer, similar to preceding, under parts pink tinted 
tail all white. In winter similar to preceding, forehead black 
marked. Immature, upper parts bluish grav, head region 
and upper back marked with buff, gray and blackish : under 
parts white marked with buff. Bill black, reddish toward 
base, feet red in summer. ^^ Bill brownish dusky, feet 
dusky " in immature. 

Song and Other Notes: 

"A single harsh note," " cack." 

Haunts: 

Similar to preceding species. 



156 



OCEAN BIRDS. 




No. 157, 



WILSON'S PETREL. 



Order: Tubinares. 
Family: Procellariidae . 



Genus: Oceanltes. 
Species: O. oceanicus. 



Distribution: 

A common summer visitor after the breeding season in the 
south. 

Date of Arrival: 
May. 

Date of Departure: 

Latter part of August. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts black, wings grayish ; under parts paler. Bill 
black, feet black, yellow webs. Length about 7.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 
'' Kee-re-kee-kee." 

Haunts: 

A true bird of the ocean while with us. 



ii 



OCEAN BIRDS. 



157 




DOUBLE CRESTED CORMORANT. 



158 OCEAN BIRDS. 



No. 158. DOUBLE CRESTED CORMORANT. 



Order: Steganopocles. Genus: Phalacrocorax. 

Family: Phalacrocoracidae . Species: P. dilophus. 

Distribution: 

A common transient visitor along the coast. 

Date of Arrival: 

April and May, going north. 

Date of Departure: 

August through October, going south. 

General Plumage: 

In summer, upper parts brownish, marked with shiny black, 
tail black, rump, head and neck black, crests black bat often 
lacking; under parts shiny black. In winter crests lacking. 
Immature, upper parts brownish, upper breast and neck 
grayish white, gular sack orange. Bill above blackish, below 
yellow, feet black. Length about 30.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

I am unable to find any description of their notes. 

Haunts: 

Outlying rocks and ocean. 



OCEAN BIRDS. 



159 




AMERICAN GOLDEN-EYE. 



160 OCEAN BIRDS. 



No. 159. Whistler. AMERICAN QOLDEN=EYE. 

Order: Anseres. Genus: Glaucionetta. 

Family: Anatidoe. Species: G. clangula americana. 

Distribution: 

A common winter visitor. 

Date of Arrival: 

]\liddle of November. 

Date of Departure: 
INliddle of April. 

General Plumage: 

Male, upper parts black, white marked, head and throat 
shiny black; under parts and spot at bill's base white. Fe- 
male, upper parts ashen, head and throat cinnamon; under 
parts while, upper breast ashen, front of neck white. Bill 
black, yellow tip, feet orange. Length about 20.00. 

So^ig and Other Notes: 

Whistle of wings when flying. 

Haunts: 

Ocean, bays, tide water rivers. 



OCEAN BIRDS. 




BUFFLE-HEAD. 



162 OCEAN BIRDS. 



No. 160. BUFFLE=HEAD. 



Genus: Charitonetta. Species: C. albeola. 

Distribittion: 

A common transient but rare winter visitor. 

Date of Arrival: 
Late March. 

Date of Departure: 
October. 

General Plumage: 

Male, upper parts black, head, neck and throat dark irides- 
cent greenish, white band encircling back of head, tail 
gi-ayish ; under parts white. Female, upper parts dark 
brown, spot on side of head and under parts white, lower 
neck grayish. Bill blackish, feet pale orange. Length 
about 14.50. 

Song and Other Notes: 
" Quack." 



Haunts: 



Rivers, lakes and ocean. 



OCEAN BIRDS. 



63 




OLD=SQUAW. 



164 



OCEAN BIROS. 



No. 161 



OLD=SQUAW. 



Genus: Clsm^ula. 



Species: C. hyemalis. 



Distribution: 

A common winter visitor along the coast. 

Date of Arrival: 
November. 

Date of Departure: 
Middle of April. 

General Plumage: 

Male in winter, upper parts white, blackish band on back, 
wings and spot on side of head blackish, cheeks dusky, long 
tail feathers blackish, belly white, breast blackish brown, 
throat and neck ring white. Male, in summer, top of head, 
neck and back black ; under parts Avliite, black on upper 
belly. Female, in winter, upper parts blackish, grayish 
marked, sides of head and neck whitish, breast dusky, belly 
white. Female, in summer head black marked. Bill black, 
yellow band on tip, leet blackish. Length about 21.00. 



Song and Other Notes: 

''Scolding or talking notes, as o-onc-o-onc-ough , egh-ough- 
egh." 

Haunts: 

A bird of the ocean. 



OCEAN BIRDS. 



165 




AMERICAN EIDER. 



166 OCEAN BIRDS. 



No. 162. AMERICAN EIDER. 



Genus: Somateria. Species: S. dresseri. 

Distribution: 

A winter visitor. 

Date of Arrival: 
November. 

Date of Departure: 
March first. 

General Plumage: 

Male, upper parts white tinted with pjreenish, crown black 
with f^recnish line, middle rump black ; under parts white 
creamy tinged, lower breast and belly black. Female, upper 
parts black, marked with buff, head and neck bu(f, stre deed 
with blackish ; under parts, breast buff, black marked. he]\v 
brownish lightly barred, large rounded culmen. Bill ani 
feet black. Length about 23.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

'■'■ Ila-ho, ha-ho," and quack. 

Haunts: 

Ocean and seas. 



OCEAN BIRDS. 



167 




WHITE-WINGED SCOTER. 



168 OCEAN BIRDS. 



No. 163. WHITE WINGED SCOTER. 



Genus: Oidemia. Species:. O. deglandi. 

Distribution: 

An abundant winter visitor along the coast. 

Date of Arrival: 

Middle of September. 

Date of Departure: 
Mddle of May. 

General Plumage: 

Male, black, white cheek spot and white wing markings. 
Female, dark brown, paler below, white wing marking, 
whitish cheek spot. In winter and immature, similar white 
head marking lacking. ""^Bill orange and vermilion, base 
black, feet bluish red. Length about 23.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 
'' Ker-ker." 

Haunts: 

Ocean and seas. 



OCEAN BIRDS. 169 



No. 164. SURF SCOTER. 



Species: O. perspicillata. 

Distribution: 

A common winter visitor along the coast. 

Date of Arrival: 
October. 

Date of Departure: 

Latter part of April. 

General Plumage: 

Male, black, crown and back of neck white marked. Fe- 
male, dark brown, grayish marks on head; under parts paler, 
belly white. Bill orange, base black marked, feet blackish 
red. Length about 20.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 
^' Quack." 

Haunts: 

Ocean and seas. 



170 OCEAN BIRDS. 



No. 165. RUDDY DUCK. 



Genus: Erismatura. Species: E. rubida. 

Distribution: 

An autumn transient visitor. 

Date of Arrival: 
March. 



Date of Departure: 

October and November. 

General Plumage: 

J\lale, upper parts blackish and chestnut, crown black, 
cheeks and upper throat white, under parts white, throat 
cliestnut. Female and immature, upper parts brownish, 
buff" marked ; under parts white, cheeks and throat grayish. 
Bill and feet dusky. Length about 15.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Various quacks and notes. 

Haunts: 

Alonj; the coast. 



OCEAN BIRDS. 



171 




RUDDY DUCK. 



172 OCEAN BIRDS. 



No. 166. CANADA GOOSE. 



Genus: Branta. Species: B. canadensis. 

Distribution: 

A common transient visitor. 

Date of Arrival: 

IVIarch and April. 

Date of Departure: 

October through November. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts brownish, tail black white marked, side of head 
white, head and neck black ; under parts whitish, flanks 
brownish. Immature, sides of head and throat blackish. 
Bill and feet black. Length about 38.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 
' ' Honk-honk-honk. ' ' 

Haunts: 

Generally observed flying overhead. 



OCEAN BIRDS, 



173 




CANADA GOOSE. 



74 OCEAN BIRDS. 



No. 167. BRANT. 



Species: B. bernicla. 

Distribution : 

A transient visitor. 

Date of Arrival: 
May. 

Date of Departure: 
November. 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts brownish, tail white marked, head and neck 
black, latter white marked ; under parts whitish ; upper 
breast and throat black. Inunature, lacking partial white 
markings. Bill and feet black. Length about 26.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

"Honk" and "hiss." 

Haunts: 

Like preceding species. 



I 



OCEAN BIRDS. 



175 




No. 168. 



NORTHERN PHALAROPE. 



Genus: Phalaropus. 
Species: P. lolatus. 



Order: LimicolaB. 

Family: Phalaropodidae. 

Distributio7i: 

A common transient visitor along the coast. 

Date of Arrival- 
August. 

Date of Departure: 
Late October. 

General Plumage: 



in summer. 



Male, 

markins blackish. 



upper parts black, buff marked, neck 
Female, in summer upper parts grayish 



slate, buff marked, chestnut on front and sides of neck, 
marked with slaty ; under parts white. Male and female, in 
winter, upper parts ashy, wings white marked, neck faint 
chestnut; under parts white marked with grayish. Imma- 
ture, forehead white. Bill and feet dark. Length about 
7.75. 

Song and Other Notes: 

'■'■ Shrill cry, crut-cree-teet," and '' tweet " or '' twick.'' 

Haunts: 

A true bird of ocean and seas. 



RIVER DUCKS 



lt7 



178 RIVER DUCKS. 



No. 169. RED BREASTED MERGANSER. 



Order: Anseres. Genus: Merganser. 

Family: Anatidae. Species: M. serrator. 

Distribution: 

A common transient visitor, rarely wintering. 

Date of Arrival: 
March, April. 

Date of Departure: 

Middle of October, throunfli November. 

General Plumage: 

Male, upper parts white and black, rump ashen marked, head 
black crested, white eye ring; under parts wliile, throat black, 
upper breast with wide rufous band, black streaked. Fuinale 
and immature, crown brownish, rest of head and throat rutbus, 
other parts white and ashen. Bill red, feet orange. Length 
about 22.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 
A ^' croak. " 

Hamits: 

Rivers and ocean. 



RIVER DUCKS. 



179 




RED BREASTED MERGANSER. 



180 



RIVER DUCKS. 



No. 170. 



BLACK DUCK. 



Genus: Anas. 



Species: A. obscura. 



Distribution: 

An abundant transient visitor, breeding sparingly. 

Date of Arrival: 

March and April 

Date of Departure: 

Latter part of August, through October, 

General Plumage: 

Upper parts dark brown, head darker, buff marked ; under 
parts brownish, buff" marked, wing purple black marked. 
Bill greenish, feet red. Length about 22.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

Loud ' ' Quack-Quack-Quack . ' ' 



Haunts: 

Marshes, ponds and often sea. 



RIVER DUCKS. 




BLACK DUCK. 



S2 RIVER DUCKS. 



No. 171. BLUE WINGED TEAL. 



Species: A. discors. 

Distribution: 

A rare spring but common fall transient visitor. 

Bate of Arrival: 
Late April. 

Date of Departure: 

August, through September. 

General Plumage: 

Male, upper parts blackish, buff marked, wings marked with 
slaty blue, head black, white marked, throat and other head 
regions ashen; under parts cinnamon, black spotted. Female, 
and male in summer, upper parts less bully, head brownish 
and grayish, dark spotted; under parts paler. Bill black, 
feet dusky. Length about 16.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 

" Their notes are faint and piping, '^ 

Haunts: 

Creeks. 



RIVER DUCKS. 



183 




PINTAIL. 



184 RIVER DUCKS. 



No. 172. PINTAIL. 



Genus: Dafila. Species: D. acuta. 

Distribution: 

A common transient visitor. 

Date of Arrival: 
April. 

Date of Departure: 

September, October. 

General Plumage: 

Male, upper parts black, white and buff', head and throat 
brown, wings green marked, back of neck black and white 
striped; under parts white, flanks black marked, long 
green tail feathers. Female, upper parts dark brown, buff"- 
marked, head buff' and blackish, throat white ; under parts 
buff", black marked, flanks black and white, under side of 
wings tawny, whitish and black. Bill blackish, feet gray- 
ish. Length of male about 28.00, of female 22.00. 

Song and Other Notes: 
"Quack." 

Haunts : 

Rivers and inland waters. 



I 



RIVER DUCKS. 



185 




No. 173. 



WOOD DUCK. 



Species: A. sponsa. 



Genus: Aix. 

Distribution: 

A common transient visitor, breeding sparingly. 

Date of Arrival: March, April. 

Date of Departure: August, through October. 

General Plumage: 

Male, upper parts brownish green, head marked with white 
and green, throat white, white mark before wings, breast and 
about tail chestnut, breast white spotted, belly white, flanks 
buff, black and white marked. Female and immature, upper 
parts and crown brownish, cheeks ashen, throat regions white, 
flanks ashy brown, buff marked, belly whitish. Bill black, 
red and white, feet yellow. Length about 18.50. 

Song and Other Notes: A "plaintive whistle, oo-eek." 

Haunts: Woodland and inland bodies of water, ponds, rivers and 
streams. 



J 



APPENDIX. 



The following of the Woodland and Marsh and Swamp Birds 
have been placed in the Appendix as they are only accidental, 
extremely rare, or local species in New England. 

The Beach, Ocean and River Birds, such as the ordinary observ- 
er would meet but rarely, ^have also been placed in the Appendix. 

WOODLAND BIRDS. 

1 . CANADA GROUSE, Dendragapus canadensis. Local. 

2. WILLOW PTARMIGAN, Lagopus lagopus. Two records. 

3. HEATH HEN, Tympanuchus cupido. One locality. 

4. PASSENGER PIGEON, Ectopistes migratorius. A few 

stragglers. 

5. TURKEY VULTURE, Cathartes aura. A number of 

records. 

6. BLACK VULTURE, Catharista atrata. A number of 

records. 

7. SWALLOW TAILED KITE, Elanoides forjicatus. One 

record. 

8. AMERICAN GOSHAWK, Accipiter atricapillus. Not 

often seen. 

9. SWAINSON'S HAWK, Buteo swainsoni. A few records. 
10. BROAD WINGED HAWK. Buteo latissimus. Uncom- 
mon. 

187 



APPENDIX. 



11. ROUGH LEGGED HAWK, Archibuteo lagopus sancti- 

johannis. Rare. 

12. GOLDEN EAGLE, Aqidla chrysdtos. Very rare. 

13. WHITE GYR^'ALCON, Fakoislandus. One record. 

14. GRAY GrRFALCO.Vj Faico rusticolus. One record. 

15. GYRFALCON J FaJco rusticolus gyrfalco. Rare, irregular. 

16. BLACK GYRFALCON, Falco rusticolus obsoletus. Rare. 

17. DVCK llAWKy Falco peregrinus anatum. Local. 

18. BARN OWL, Strix prati7iCola. Accidental. 

19. LONG EARED OWL, Asio wilsonianus. Not often seen. 

20. GREAT GRAY OWL, Scotiaptex cinerea. L-regular. 

21. RICHARDSON'S OWL, Nyctala tengmalmi richardsoni. 

Very rare and irregular. 

22. SNOWY OWL, Nyctca mjctca. Not often seen. 

23. AMERICAN HAWK OWL, Surnia ulula caparoch. Un- 

common. 

24. BURROWING OWL, Speotyto cunicularia hypogda. One 

record . 

25. ARCTIC THREE TOED WOODPECKER, Picoides arc- 

ticus. Local. 

26. AMERICAN THREE TOED WOODPECKER, Picoides 

americanus. Rare, local. 

27. PILEATED WOODPECKER, Ceop^tews piZmms. Rare. 

28. RED HEADED WOODPECKER, Melanerpes erythroce- 

phalus. Very rare. 

29. CHUCK WILL'S WIDOW, Antrostomus carotin ensis. 

One record, accidental. 

30. SCISSOR TAILED FLYCATCHER, Mihulus forjicatus. 

Two records. 

3 1 . ARKANSAS KINGBIRD, Tyrannus verticalis. One record. 

32. SAY'S PHOEBE, Sai/omis sa^/a. One record. 

33. OLIVE SIDED FLYCATCHER, Con^opws 6orea/is. Not 

often seen. 

34. YELLOW BELLIED FLYCATCHER, Empidonax flav- 

iveniris. Local. 



APPENDIX, 189 



35. GREEN CRESTED FLYCATCHER, Empidonax vires- 

ccns. Very rare. 

36. TRAILL'S FLYCATCHER, Em-pidonax traillli. Local. 

37. PRAIRIE HORNED LARK, Otocoris alpestris praticola. 

Local and uncommon. 

38. NORTHERN RAVEN, Corvus coraxprincipalis. Rare. 

39. FISH CROW, Corvus ossifragus. Rare. 

40. YELLOW HEADED BLACKBIRD, Xanthoccphalus xan- 

thoccphalus. A few records. 

41. ORCHARD ORIOLE, Icterus spurius. Southern state. 

42. EVENING GROSBEAK, Coccothraustes vespertiniis. 

Very irregular. 

43. WHITE AVINGED CROSSBILL, Loxia leucoptcra. Not 

often seen. 

44. HOLBCELL'S REDPOLL, Acanthis Unaria holbdllii. 

Accidental. 

45. GREATER REDPOLL, Acanthis Unaria rostrata. Not 

often seen. 

46. EUROPEAN GOLDFINCH, Carduelis carduelis. Very 

rare. 

47. LAPLAND LONGSPUR, Ca/carms /apponicws. Local and 

uncommon. 

48. CHESTNUT COLLARED LONGSPUR, Calcarius orna- 

tus. One record. 

49. HENSLOW'S SPARROW, Ammodramus henslowii. 

Local, 

50. NELSON'S SPARROW, Ammodramus caudacutus nelsoni. 

Very rare. 

51. ARCADIAN SHARPED TAILED SPARROW, Ammod- 

dranius caudacutus subvirgatus. Not often seen 

52. SEASIDE SPARROW, Ammodramus maritimus. South- 

ern States. 

53. LARK SPARROW, Chond est es granimacus. A few records. 

54. WHITE CROWNED SPARROW, Zonotrichia leucophrys. 

Not often seen . 

55. BREWER'S SPARROW, Spizella breweri. One record. 



190 APPENDIX, 



56. SHUFELDT'S JUNCO, Juncothyemalis shufeldti. One 

record, 

57. LINCOLN'S SPARROW, Melospiza lincolnii. Notoftenseen. 

58. CARDINAL GROSBEAK, Cardinalis cardinalis. Rare. 

59. BLUE GROSBEAK, Guiraca ccBrulce. Accidental. 

60. DICKCISSEL J Spiza americana. Very rare. 

61. LARK BUNTING, Calamospiza melanocorys. One record, 

62. LOUISIANA TANAGER, Piranga ludoviciana. Two 

records. 

63. SUMMER TANAGER, Piranga rubra. Uncommon. 

64. PURPLE MARTIN, Progne subis. Now local, 

6 5 . ROUGH WINGED SWALLOW, Stelgidopteryx serripennis , 
Local. 

66. BOHEMIAN WAXWING, Ampelis garrulus. Very rare. 

67. WHITE RUMPED SHRIKE, Lanius ludovicianus excubi- 

torides. Uncommon. 

68. PHILADELPHIA VIREO, Vireo philadelphicus . Ex- 

tremely rare. 

69. PROTHONOTARY WARBLER, Protonotaria citrea. A 

few records. 

70. WORM EATING WARBLER, Helmitherus vermivorus. 

Local southern state. 

71. BLUE WINGED YELLOW WARBLER, Hehnintho- 

phila pinus. Southern state. 

72. ORANGE CROWNED WARBLER, Helminthophila celata. 

Rare. 

73. TENNESSEE WARBLER, Helminthophila peregr'ma. 

Uncommon, 

74. CAPE MAY WARBLER, Dendroica tigrina. Very rare, 

75. AUDUBON'S WARBLER, Dendroica auduboni. One 

record, 

76. CAERULEAN WARBLER, Dendroica ccEridea. Ac- 

cidental. 

77. BAY BREASTED WARBLER, Dendroica castanea. Un- 

common and irrenjular. 



APPENDIX. 191 



78. YELLOW THROATED WARBLER, Dendrioca domin- 

ica. A few records. 

79. VALM WARBLER, Dendroica palmarum. Not often seen. 

80. MOURNING WARBLER, Geothlypis Philadelphia. LocaL 

81. HOODED WARBLER, Sylvaniamitrat a. Local southern. 

82. WILSON'S WARBLER, Sylvania pusilla. Not often 

seen. 

83. MOCKING BIRD, 3Iimus polyglottos. Uncommon. 

84. CAROLINA WREN, Thryothorus ludovicianlus . A few 

records. 

85. TUFTED TITMOUSE, Parus hicolor. Accidental. 

86. BLUE GRAY GNATCATCHER, Polioptila cccrulea. 

Accidental. 

87. GRAY CHEEKED THRUSH, Turdus alicice. Uncommon. 

88. VARIED THRUSH, Hesperocichla ncevia. One record. 

89. WHEATEAR, Saxicola ananthe. One record. 

90. BREWSTER'S LINNET, Acanthis brewsterii. One record. 

91. LAWRENCE'S WARBLER, Helminthophila lawrencei. 

Very rare. 

92. BREWSTER'S WARBLER, Helminthophila leucobron 

chialis. A few records. 

MARSH AND SWAMP BIRDS. 

93. LEAST BITTERN, Ardetta exilis. Uncommon. 

94. YELLOW RAIL, Porzana noveboracensis . Rare. 

95. FLORIDA GALLINULE, GaZ/mw/a ga/eam. Uncommon. 

BEACH BIRDS. 

96. STILT SANDPIPER, Micropalama himantopus. 

97. KNOT, Tringa canutus. 

98. HUDSONIAN CURLEW, Numenius hudsonicus. 

99. ESKIMO CURLEW, Numenius borealis. 
100. PIPING PLOVER, jEp-ialiiis meloda. 



192 APPKNDIX. 



OCEAN BIRDS. 

101. HOLBCELL'S GREBE, Colymbus holballii. 

102. EAZOR BILLED AUK, AIca torda. 

103. POMARINE JAEGER, Stercorarius fomarinus. 

104. PARASITIC JAEGER, Stercorarms parasiticus. 

105. KITTIWAKE, Rissa tridadyla. 

106. BONAPARTE'S GVLL, Larus Philadelphia. 

107. G A'Nl^ET, Sula bassaim. 

108. AMERICAN SCAUP DUCK, Aythyamarila nearctica. 

1 09 . LESSER SCAUP DUCK, Aythya affinis. 

110. KING EIDER, Somateria spectabilis . 

111. AMERICAN SCOTER, Oidemia americana. 

RIVER DUCKS. 

112. A3IERICAN MERGANSER, Merganser americanus. 



INDEX. 



Bittern, American 
Blackbird, Crow 

Red winged 
Bluebird 
Bluejay [ 

Bobolink 
Bob WHITE 
Brant 

BuFFLB Head '. 
Bunting, Snow 
Butcher Bird 

Catbird . . . , 
Cedar Bird . . [ 
Chat, Yellow breasted 
Chewink 
Chicadee 

Hudson Bay 
Coot, American 



page 
. 116 
. 45 
. 41 
. 114 
. 36 
. 39 
. 3 
. 174 
. 162 
. 51 
. 73 



. 95 
. 72 
. 91 
. 63 
. 104 
. 105 
126 



Cormorant, Double crested 158 



Cow Bird 

Creeper, Black and white 

Brown 
Crossbill, American . 
Crow, American . 
Cuckoo, Black billed . 

Yellow billed . 

Dove, Carolina 
Dovekie . 
Dowitcher 
Duck, Black 

Ruddy 

Wood 

Eagle, Bald 



40 
77 
101 
49 
38 
21 
20 

5 
150 
130 
180 
175 
180 



Eider, American . 

Finch, Purple 

Sharp tailed 
Flicker . 
Flycatcher, Crested 

Least 

Golden Eye, American 
Goldfinch, American 
Goose, Canada 
Gracklk, Bronzed 

Rusty 
Grebe, Horned 

Pied billed 
Grosbeak, Pine . 

Rose breasted . 
Grouse, Ruffed . 
Gull, American herring 

Great black backed 

Hawk, Cooper's , 

Fish . . 

Marsh 

Pigeon 

Red shouldered 

Red tailed 

Sharp shinned 

Sparrow . 
Hell Diver . 
Heron, Black crowned nigh 

Great blue 

Green 
Humming Bird 



10 Indigo Bird 

(193) 



PAGE 

. 166 

• 47 

. 55 

. 25 

. 31 

. 34 

. 160 
. 50 
. 172 
. 45 
. 44 
. 144 
. 145 
. 46 
. 64 
4 
. 153 
. 151 



. 13 

6 

. 12 

. 10 

8 

7 

13 

145 

tl22 

118 

120 

29 



65 



194 



INDEX. 



Jay, Blue 
Canada 

JUNCO 



PAGE 

. 36 
. 37 



Kingbird .... 30 

Kingfisher . . . .22 

Kinglet, Golden crowned . 106 

Ruby crowned . . 107 

Lark, Meadow . . .42 
Shore . . . .35 

Loon 146 

Red throated . . .147 

Meadow Lark . . .42 
Merganser, Red breasted . 178 
Moose Bird . . . .37 

Mud Hen ... . . . 126 

MuRRE, Brunnichs . . 149 

Night Hawk . . .27 

Nuthatch, Red breasted . 103 

White breasted . . 102 



Old-squaw 
Oriole, Baltimore 

OSi'KEY . 

Oven Bird 
Owl, Acadian 

Barred 

Great horned . 

Screech . 

Short eared 



164 
43 
13 
87 
17 
16 
20 
18 
15 



Partridge .... 4 
Petrel, Wilson's . . . 156 
Pewee, Wood ... 33 
Phalarope, Northern . . 175 
Phosbe . . . . .32 

Pintail 184 

Pipit, American . . .94 

Plover, American golden . 139 

Black bellied . . .138 

Semi palmated . . 140 



Quail 



page 
. 3 



Rail, Virginia 
Redpoll . 
Redstart 
Robin, American 

Sanderling . 
Sandpiper, Least 

Pectoral . 

Semi palmated 

Solitary . 

Spotted 
Saw Whet 
Scoter, surf . 

White winged 
Shore Lark . 
Shrike, Northern 
Snipe, Wilson's 
Snow Bird 

SORA 

Sparrow, Chipping 

English . 

Field 

Fox . 

Grasshopper 

Ipswich . 

Savannah 

Song . 

Swamp 

Tree . 

Vesper 

White throated 
Swallow, Bank 

Barn . 

Cliff . 

White breasted 
Swift, Chimney 

Tanager, Scarlet 
Teal, Blue winged 
Tern, Common 

Roseate 
Thrasher, Brown 



123 
49 
93 

113 

134 

132 
131 
133 

128 

137 

17 

169 

168 

73 
127 
5i) 
124 
57 
66 
58 
(\2 
54 
53 
54 
60 
61 
57 
52 
56 
71 
(i!) 
68 
70 
28 

67 
182 
154 
155 

69 





INDEX. 


195 




PAGE 




page 


Thrush, Bicknell's 


. 110 


Warbler, Golden winged 


78 


Golden crowned 


. 87 


Magnolia 


83 


Hermit 


1*^2 


Nashville . 


79 


Louisiana water 


.' 88 


Parula 


80 


Olive backed . 


. Ill 


Pine .... 


85 


Water 


. 88 


Prairie 


86 


Wilson's . 


. 108 


Yellow . 


87 


Wood 


. 109 


Yellow palm . 


86 


TOWHEK . 


. 63 


Yellow rumped 


82 


Turnstone . 


. 141 


Whippoorwill 


26 






Whistler 


j«;o 


Veery . 


. 109 


Woodcock, American . 


2 


ViREO, Red eyed . 


. 74 


Woodpecker, Downy 


23 


Solitary . 


. 76 


Golden winged 


25 


Warbling 


. 75 


Hairv 


23 


White eyed 


. 76 


Yellow bellied 


24 


Yellow throated 


. 75 


Wren, House 


97 






Long billed marsh . 


100 


Warbler, Blackburn la 


n . 84 


Short billed marsh 


99 


Black poll 


. 84 


Winter . 


98 


Black throated blue 


. 82 






Black tliroated gre 


3n . 85 


Yellow Legs 


136 


Canada 


. 92 


Greater . 


135 


Chestnut sided 


. 83 


Yellow Throat, Maryland 


I 90 


Connecticut . 


. 89 







i 



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