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5 . 





€berla$;tina Caltntiar 
















I mU of ln*lT*U« iftd fain, tad pUfs, 

Of Hcrviseat, aad alrtk, aad b«nire blaie t 

I tell ml CktiMtmm-mumummgtt acw Tcar't daf, 

Of twelfth. BlgklUBr aad qfWCB, ud children's pUjr : 

I Mil of ValrattMs, mad lrM'l<rT«*B.kaoU, 


ami dnviflf lot 

I trll nf brooka. of blossemi, birda aod bovcri. 
Of Aprii, Maf, nf June, and Juif-floweti i 
i tell of Maf-poles, htfck-earti. waaaaiU. wakea. 
Of bridegrooma, bridei, and of their bridal eakei ; 

I t«U of frorei, of twilUkta, aod I tinf 
The cowl of Hab, and of the falrf-klnf . 







1 «. 



Dea« L- 

YouR letter to me, within the first two months from the 
commencement of the present work, approving my notice of 
St. Chad's Well, and your aft^wards daring to publish me your 

" frigid," with your " proper name" annexed, I shall never f<Mrget 
Nor can I foiget your and Miss Lamb's sympathy and kindness, 
when glooms outmastered me ; and that your pen spontaneously 
sparkled in the book, when my mind was in clouds and darkness. 
These " trifles," as each of you would call them, are benefits scored 
upon my heart ; and 





JIfayS, 1S2& 


Th 18 Tolume 18 a specimen ofa work imdoiakeii for the purpose of form- 
ing a collection of the manners and customs of ancient and modem times* 
with deseriptiye accounts of the several seasons of p<^Nilar pastime. 

Eadi of the three hundred and sixty-five days in the year is distinguished 
by occurrences or other particulars relating to the day» and by the methods 
of celebrating every holyday ; the work is therefore what its title purports. 
The Eveet-Dat Book. 

It b an Everlasting Calendar — because its collection of focts oonr 
ceming the origin and usages of every remarkable day, including movable 
feasts and fosts, constitute a calendar for every year. 

It is a HiSTOET OF THE Yeae — because it traces the commencement and 
progress of the year from the first day to the last. 

It is a History op the Months— because it describes the appearances 
that distinguish each month from the other months. 

It is a History of the Seasons — ^because it describes the influences and 
character of the four quarters into which the year is divided, and the most 
remarkable objects in natural history peculiar to each season. 

It is a Perpetual Key to the Almanack — becaase it explains the signifi- 
cation of every name and term in tlie almanack. 

Its antiquarian and historical notices are calculated to engage the atten- 
tion of almost every class of readers, and to gratify several who would scarcely 
expect such particulars in such a miscellany. The perplexities attending the 
discovery of certain facts, and the labour of reducing all into order, will be 
appreciated by the few who have engaged in similar pursuits. Some curious 
matters are now, for the first time, submitted to the public ; and others are 
so rare as to seem altogether new. 

As regards the engravings, to such as are from old masters, notices of their 
prints are always annexed. The designs for the allegorical and other illus- 
trations, have originated with myself; and the drawings been accommodated, 
and the engravings executed, according to my own sense of subject and style. 
In numerous instances they have been as satisfactory to me as to my readers ; 
many of whom, however, are less difficult to please than I am, and have favour- 
ably received some things which I have been obliged to tolerate, because the 
exigency of publication led me no time to supply their place. I know what 
art can accomplish, and am therefore dissatisfied when artists fitil to 


I may now aTOW that I have other alms than I deemed it expedient to 
mention in the prospectus : — to communicate in an a^^reeable manner, tlie 
greatest possible variety of important and diverting facts, without a single 
sentence to excite an uneasy sensation, or an embarrassing inquiry; and, by 
not seeming to teach, to cultivate a high moral feeling, and the best affections 
of the heart : — to open a storehouse, fit>m whence manhood may derive daily 
instruction and amusement, and youth and innocence be informed, and retain 
their innocency. 

To these intentions I have accommodated my materials under such 
dilBeulties as I hope may never be ezparienced by any one engaged in 
such a labour. To what extent less enbarrassed and more enlar|^ facul- 
ties could have better executed the task I cannot determine ; but I have 
always kept my main object in view, the promotion of social and benevolent 
feelings, and I am persuaded this prevailing disposition is obvious throughout. 
The poetical illustrations, whether ** solemn thinkings," or light dispersions, 
are particularly directed to that end. 

I may now oe pemitted to refer to the copious indexes for the mnltifiuioiis 
ooaftentli of the volume, and to nige the fnends to the undertaking for assist- 
ance towaids its completion. Tto« is scarcely any one who has not said — 
*" Ah ! this la mmtdMng that will do for the Eoery-Doy Book:*' I crave to be 
fiMPamed with that *' something." Others have observed — '* I expected mmu» 
HUNg about so and so in the Bffenf-Dmjf Book J' It is not possible, however, 
that I should know every thing ; but if each will communicate ** something," 
Hm work will gvatify every one, and my own most sanguine wishes. 

AndhenIberleavetooffMrBiyreq>ectful thanksio several correspondents 
who have already furnished me with aoeomts of customs, Ac. which appear 
wider dtfbrsnt algnatupea. Were I permitted to disclose their real names, it 
would be seen t^ several of these communications are fitmi distinguished 
duHtacleri. As a precaution against imposition, articles of that natore have 
not been, nor can they be, inserted, without the name and address of the 
srriter being confWiea to myself. Accounts, so subscribed, will be printed 
with any imtials or mark, the writers may please to suggest. 

FVom the publication of the present volume, a correct ludgment may be 
formed of the nature and tendency of the work, which incidentally embraces 
almost every topic of inquiry or remark connected with the ancient and pre- 
sent stale of nsanners and literature. Scarcely an individual is without a 
«efap-book« or a poetfolio, or a collection of some sort ; and whatever a kind- 
iwartod reader may deem enrioue or interesting, and can conveniently spare, 
I eafwesUy hope and solicit to be fovoored with, addressed to me ai Messrs. 
Hunt and Clarke's, Tavistock-street, who receive communications for the 
spoffk, aftd pifolisii ft in wtMy sheeta, and monthly parts, as usual. 




I KIS i: 

'leDFIMsi in (h ill kroi 

or ihe Waterbearar, It derives 
Fnin Janus, a deity i«presenled b^ the 
Koinaiis with two acM, because be was 
onjuainted with past and future events. 
Cation iDtroduces him into a poeta on the 

Hut, ihe cock ctowi, and yon bright itar 
Trill u, the daj hinudri not far ; 
And itt whcK. biealiog from the night. 
He gildt the weitem billa with ligtiL 
l^ltli hira old Janui doth appear, 
pMping iDtD the future jear, 
n nh >ucli 1 look u »ein> to uj. 

TL> prospect i> not ^ood that way. 

Thni do ve riie ill iighti to lee. 

And 'giinit ourwlrei to prophesy ; 

When the prophetic ttu of (hing) 

A more (ornieuting miKhief bringi, 

More full of lOut-tonneDUng nil 

TIUD din«l mitchieb can twnll. 

That all w 
His Tfven-J face miy shoy di.taHe, 
And frown upon the ilia are pait j 
But thai which Ihii way loolu ii clear. 
And tmilei upon the new-bom j^ar. 
According to the ancient rajtbology, 
Jbpus wBi the pod of giu» and avenues, 
and in that character held a key in his 
right hand, and a rod in his left, to sym- 
boliie hia opening and ruling the year : 
sometimes lie bore the number 300 in one 
hand, and 65 in the olher, the number of 
its days. At other limes he was repro- 
sented with four heads, and placed in a 
temple of four equal sides, with a door 
and three windows in each side, as em- 
blems of the four seasons and the Iwetve 
months over which be presided , 

According lo^'eialegan (Restitution of 
Decayed Intelligence, Ito. t69B, p. 59) 
Ihe Saxons called this moTilii " V)c.\(- 
monai," or Wolf-Ttionth, becsLUM *« 


wolves of our ancient forests, impelled by which he passed thirty years, and died 
hunger at this season, were wont to prowl about the sixth century. Ui5hup Patrick, 
and attack man himself; the inferior ani- in his " Reflexions upon the Devotions of 
mals, on whom they usually preyed, having the Roman Church,'' 1074, 8vo. cites of 
reti.-ed or perishecl from the inclemency of St. Mochua, that while walking and pray* 
the weather. The Saxons also called this ing, and seeing a company of lambs run- 
month *' Aefter-yula,** or After ChrL«tmas. ning hastily to suck their mothers, he drew 
In illuminated calendars prefixed to a line upon the ground which none of the 
catholic missals, or service books, January hungry lambs durst pass, i'atrick again 
was frequently depicted as a man with cites, that St. Mochua having been vi- 
fagots or a wooaman's axe, shivering sited by St- Kyenanus and fif&en of his 
and blowing his fingers. Spenser intro- clergy, they came to an impetuous and 
duces this month in nis Faene Queene : impassable river on their return, and 
Then cany old January, wrapped well wanted a boat ; whereupon St. Mochua 
In many weeds to keep the iM away ; spread his mantle on the water, and Kye- 
Yet did he quake and quiver like to ^uell; nanus with his fifteen priests were carried 
Aod blow his naylcs to warme them if he may; safely over upon the mantle, which floated 
For they were niunb'd with hoMug all the back again to St. Mochua without wrinkle 

day or wetting. 

An hatchet keene, with which he felled wood, SL Fanehea, or Faiiw, is said by Butler 

And fromihe trees did lop th e needlesse spray, to have been an Irish saint of the sixth 

^ — century. Patrick quote»that St. Endeus 

38tttUirp 1 • desiring to become a monk, his compa- 

fA cioM hMimj At all poblie nions approached to dissuade him ; but, 

••«*• J««P^«^ *"***' ^"*" "P^ ^ prayers of St. Faine, aod her 

— , . - . ^*""' . .***'i?*' , , , making the sign of the cross, their feet 

This festival stands in the calendar of ^^^^^ f^ ^ ^* ,, ^^^ immovable stones, 

the chureh of England, as well as in that ^^^^ y^ repentance they were looMd and 

of the Roman catholic church. It is ^^^^ ^fj^jj. ^ -^ 

said to have b^n iwUtuted about 487 ; a. jb^^woL, according to Butler, died 

« first spp«<^ed in the reformed English on the t sTof January, 533, Ssmctimes went 

w'3Lrt il^c ^en mint 'to whom Mek ^"-"^^^^ ^^^ undreswsd to take rest, nor 

day la irduMU4 fa the Roman catbolic ca]«n. ste flcsh meat, but chiefly lived on pulse 

dan, Uie bsmm of Mints will br gUen day by and herbs, thouf^h when old he admitted 

day. aa they aUnd nndrr earh day In Uie last .i^ f i:.,i -i j| nrParhpH ot- 

•dltfonor Ikrir *• Livaa/' by the Rer. Alban *»J€."»eOI a Ullie Oil. lie preacneo, ex- 

Bntier. tv IS vok. svo. On the authority at that plained mysteries, controverted with here- 
work the perioda wUl be mentioned when die tics, and built monasteries. Butler con- 

antnta moat noteo for tneir miracwa mMmsBen, , ■ . * . • .• & «v t_ ■ i 

and aome of thoao mineiea be autod. (hhe^ cludes by relating, that after his death, a 

miraclea will be gifen ; Kirat, from *' The Golden bishop named Pontiau was assured in a 

ly'S*V,'rd^\i^y!*fti~rf?Ch^ Tl'io-o' Fulgentius'. immortality ; that 

HUtory of Britain," bv tho Renedirtine father, his relics were translated to Bourges, where 

fL^rrW' 5^'m'^ TLt^ •*• *^!.*'?•*!L2■* •^•y ^^ venerated ; and that the saint's 

aort iif Cliarlea II., a falio, printed in ISSS.^ | ', • • ^. u u r *». li.- l • 

TWdty. from the ratholic tranaUlion of Che ^ewl U in the church of the Srchbishop S 

"iivM of the 8ainU,** by the R«?. Father Seminary. 
Peter Ribadeneira, prieat of the aodety of ' 

Jeana. aecond edition.X o ndon.ins, t^ola. IbMo ; 

•nd rowthly. frum other aoinvoa which wUI bo *,«•., ,.« . .»,« •^ . ... 

named. By thia mrana Uie reader will be ar- NEW \ F^R*S DAV. 

qnninted with legenda that nrndered the aainta « • . . 

and the celebration of their frativala popnUr. Tlie King of Lint, father of aged Time, 

rar esamplc.tho MJmla in Butler'a LiTca on Uiia Hath brought about that day, which is the 

daf ocenr in the Ibllowini order : prime 

St, Fulgentius ; St. Odilo, or Oion ; To the slow gilding months, wlien r rery eye 

Bt. Ahmckus, or TeUmackua ; St. Eu- Wears symptoms of a sober jollity; 

ffgmdu9^ or Optmd; St, Fanckea, or Fmine ; And every hand is ready tu pivsrnt 

SI. MtfcAaM, or Momemin, mlku Cliaunu$ ; ^*^^ service in a rral compliment. 

St. Moekma^ oUaa Cronan, ofB^Oa. WhiUt some in gol^m letters write their 

fte. JHocAm.. According to Butler, these Some sp^ak aflectioo by a ring or glove. 

Sim Insh sainu. One founded llu. mo- c>r pinsand poinu^for ev'o the pea^iot may. 

mslcry, now the town of Balla. m Con- After bis ruder fashion, be as ga v 

amtufht. The other is said to have founded As the brisk courtly sir,> ami thinks that he 

^SP emlit, mad thirty churches, in one of Cannot, wiitlioai a froas absurdity. 


Be tkis day frogBl, and not apuv hit IrieDd kind feelings in former times ; and w) v 

Some ffift, to show lus love finds not an end should they be unfashionable in our ofv n ' 

With the deceased jw. !>. x>rake observes, in "Shakspeare and 

PooLES s Enc. Parnassus. hisTimes," that the leering in oVihe new 

In the Tolnme of « Elia,'' an excellent y**""* ^' "^^ ^^^f ^\f ^'^ rejoicings, 
paper beeins with « Every man hath two prewnts, and good wishes, was a custom 
binhdavs': two days, at least, in every <>^^l^^^ d"."°? the 16th century, with 
Tear, which set him upon revolving the ^\ regulanty and parade, and was as 
iap^ of time, as it affec^i his mortal dura- «>r^»ally celebrated m the court of the 
tion. The one is that which in an especial pnnce asm the cottage of the peasant, 
manner he termeth ku. In the gnulual ,, ^^ ^J'^ii ■ * ^^^^^^ »." ^1? vduable 
desoetnde of old observances, this custom Encyclopedia of AntiquiUes, ' adduces 
of solemnizing our proper birthday hath 7*"^"* autlionUes to show that congratu- 
nearly passed away, or iTleft to children, f *^^' presents, and visits were made by 
who Jcftect nothing at all about the mat^ ^^ Romans on this day. The ongn, he 
ler, nor undersUnS any thing beyond the ^^fiy'J^'^^ I"" Romulus and Tatius 
cake and orange. But thi biWh of a T^^^^ theusual presents were figs and 
new year is of an interest too wide to be ****^' ^^^^ ^^** lca%)ld, and sent by 
pretermitted by king or cobbler. No one ^l'^"^ /^ patrons, accompanied with a 
frer regarded the first of January with P'^^^^ "T^'^^' which was expended to 
indifference. It is that from which all P^^rchaie the sUtues of deities. He men- 
date their time, and count upon what is ^?'?f *" amphora (a lar) which still exists, 
left. It is the nativity of 6ur comnnm ^•*** ^ inscnption denoting that it was a 
-1^ '' new years present from the potters to 

« Of all sound of all bells-{l>cll», Ae '>'' patroness. He abo instonccs from 

Botf tolimn and toucTiing is the p«l ""•' »" 'nscnpUon w.shing " a happy 

which rin^s out the old ylar. I nirer ^y^J^^ypM; ^n<Aher,v>heTeifeTso» 

bear it without a gathering-up of ir.y Z'!^^i- ^^!i^ ^*^''^^'^ 

mind to a concentration of all the imag^i »«lall,ons, with the laurel leaf, fc, and 

that have been diSused over the Zsl ^^.'' *"»*' °^ .9?^"°^""' another, of 

tweWemonth ; all I hare done or suffef^, 7' l*^ ' T • *"^'.-!»""*'. *i*""*'"8 '» » 

performed.orneglected-inthat t^retted te'npMi«haninscnpt.on,Mr,sh.ngahapny 

£me. I begin to know its worth aS when "*''' y"''.'" ^ 'TZ' i?*" *''" * ^'^ 

, jt-Z. r. 4^.1,^ ,rv^.«^««i .«vi^«« . ^cre continued under the Uomau emperors 

a person dies. It takes a personal colour ; „ ... . _ ..... , , i-i ' .• 

* -. .• 1 fl- ua • -. .^ 4 — until they were prohibited by Claudius, 
nor was it a poetical flight m a contem- v-«. • V , *^ r »u "^ i_ l .^ 
-w^««, «.k^iikl <.«»u;X./^ ^^* *n the early asjes of the church the 
porary, when he exclaimed, g^-, ... -^ - • j.l j-i 
*^ ■" ' Lnnstian emperors received them ; nor did 

• I saw the skirts of the departing year.* J^^y wholly cease, although condemned 

by ecclesiastical councils on account of the 

*" The elders with whom I was brought pagan ceremonies at their presentation, 

op, were of a character not likely to let The Druids were accustomed on certain 

slip the sacred observance of any old in- days to cut the sacred misletoe with a 

5tj!ution ; and the ringing out of the old golden knife, in a forest dedicated to the 

yeu- was kept by them with circumstan- gods, and to distribute its branches with 

c*^ of peculiar ceremony. In those days much ceremony as new year's gifts among 

th^ sound of those midnight chimes, thepeople. 

though it seemed to raise hilarity in all The late Rev. John Brand, in his 
around me, never £iiled to bring a train ''Popular Antiquities** edited by Mr. Ellis, 
of pensive imagery into ray fancy. Yet I observes from Bishop Stillingfleet, that 
then scarce conceived what it meant, or among the Saxons of the North, the fes- 
thouirht of it as a reckoning that con- tival of the new year was obsened with 
cem»l me. Not childhood alone, but the more than ordinary jollity and feasting, 
young man till thirty, never feels practi- and by sending new year*s giAs to one 
cally that he is mortal.*' another. Mr. Fosbroke notices the con- 
Ringing out the old and ringing in the tinuation of the Roman practice during 
new year, with ** a merry new year ! a the middle ages ; and that our kings, and 
happy new year to you !** on new year's the nobility especially, interchanged pre- 
day, were greetings that moved sceptred sents. Mr. Ellis quotes Matthew Paris, 
pride, and humble labour^ to smiles and n^io appears to shov; i\ivlV Wewrj \W es- 


t9rUd new jetr^s ffifU; tod he cites from noft of the peeresses, gtfit rich gowns, 

a BfS. of the pobKc rerenue, anno 5, petticoats, shifts, silk stockings, garters, 

Edward VI. an entiy of ** rewards given sweet-bag8,doublets, mantles embroidered 

on new year's day to the king's officers with precious stones, looking-glasses, fans, 

and servants in ordinary 1551. 5#., and hracelets, caskets studded with jewels, 

to their servants that present the king's and other costly trinkets. Sir Gilbert 

majestic with new year's gifts.'' An Dethick, garter kinff at arms, gave a book 

orange stuck with cloves seems, by refer- of the States in Wuliam the Conqueror's 

ence to Mr. Fosbroke and our early au- time ; Aboolon, the master of the Savoy, 

thors, to have been a popular new year's gwre a Bible covered with cloth of gold, 

gift. Mr. Ellis suggests, that the use of garnished with silver gilt, and plattt of 

this present may m ascertained from a the royal arms; the queen's physician 

remark by old Lupton, that the flavour of presented her with a box ot foreign 

wine is improved, and the wine itself pre- sweetmeats ; another physician presented 

served ftom mouldiness, hj an orange or a pot of green ginger, and a pot of orange 

lemon stuck with cloves being huoff within flowers; her apothecaries gave her a box of 

the vessel so as not to touch the liouor. loxenges, a box of ginger candy, a box of 

Thomas Naogeorgus, in ** The Popish ereen ginger, and pots of other conserves* 

Kingdome,''a Latin poem written in 1553, Mrs. Blanch a Parry gave her majestv a 

and Englished by Bamabe Googe, after little gold comfit-box and spoon ; Mrs. 

remarking on days of the old year, urges Morgan gave a box of cherries, and one 

this recollection : of apricots. The queen's master cook 

The neit to this is Newe yearcsday ■nd »•' Serjeant of the pastiy, presented 

whereon to every frende, her with various confectionary and pre- 

They rostly preseou in do bring, serves. Putrino, an Italian, gave her two 

and Newe yeares giftcs do teade. pictures ; Ambrose Lupo gave her a box of 

These nftcs the husband gives his wife, lute strings, and a glass of sweet water ; 

and lather eke the chiUe. each of three other lulians presented her 

And wuster on jus men botowes ^th a pair of sweet gloves; a cutler 

the like, with favoar mdde. g^^e herVmeat knife having a fim haft 

Honest old Latimer, instead of present- of bone, with a conceit in it; Jeroroy 

ing Henry VIII. with a purse of gold, as Bassano gave two drinking glasses ; and 

was customanr, for a new year's gift, put Smyth, the dustman, presented her m^ 

into the king's hand a New Testament, jesty with two bolts of cambrick. Some of 

with a leaf conspicuonsly doubled down these gifts to Elisabeth call to recollection 

at Hebrews xiii. 4, which, on reference, the tempting articles which Autolycus, in 

will be found to have been worthy of all the '< \\ inter's Tale," invites the country 

acceptation, thouch not perhaps well ac- girls to buy : he enters singing, 

cepted. Dr. Drake is or opinion that the _ 

wardrobe and jewellery of queen Elizabeth If"^' ■• ,T"?^ " ^P"^ "^^ • 

were principaJly support^ by these an- ^r*"' ^^^^ * V ^" ^"'^ • 

nnal ^ntril!uti^ oi new yeaPs day. He 2rV*V" I'^ •» jf-w^ «>ses 

^-^ i;-#. «/ tk-. Zl f ^ ^ t^ Masks for feces, and for aoses : 

citesl.^ of the new year's gifts presented g ,^ brwrelct. neckUce-ambeJ, 

to h^, from the onnnal rolls oublished in Perfume for a lady's chamber ; 

l>er Progresses by Mr, Nichols ; and from Golden qooifr , and stomachers, 

these It appears that the greatest part, if For ray lads to give their deam 5 

not all the peers and peeresses of the Pfns, mod poklnff-Micks of sieel, 

rr^lm, all the bishops, the chief oflkers of What maids hA from head to heel : 

state, and several of the queen's house- Cosae, bny of me, come: come buy, coow 

hold servants, even down to her apothe- ^oy ; 

caries, master cook, seijeant of the pastry, ^» '•«*^ or else yoar lames cry, 

fcc. pve new year's gifts to her majesty ; Coaie, boy, dtc 

eooststing, in general, either of a sum of Dr. Drake says, that though Eliiabcth 

moneys or jewels, trinkets, wearing appa- made returns to the new year's gifts, hi 

lel, «e. The largest sum given by any plate and other articles, yet she took suf. 

of the temporal lords was 30/. ; but the ftaent care that the balance should be in 

Mthbiahop of Canterbury gave 40/., the her own fevour. 

v^btibop of York 30/., and the other No. 4982, in the Catalogue for 18f 4, of 

^gWtuaJ lords 20/. and 10/. ; many of Mr. Kodd, of Great Newport-strcet, is a 

«r iemot^ai lords aad jf rwf officers, and roll of vtUum, ten feet long, containing the 


yMr'tgiAsftoB king JaMH L to Um mbI to Sir Sumoa Stcwaid." lie com. 

pewoo. wlwe BUMS we thMMamention- mences it meirily, and eoe* on to adi it 
ed oo the t*t of Jaouafy 1605, with the Ji "« goe» on lo call a 

D«r ,ear^ gift, that hi. majetty re«9«rf Va>e,en>w>-diritb ivyud ,i.b ffi 

the Hme d.« : the toll a sigMd by Jane* That tell, of win..,-. S^Tandmirth ^ ' 

and certain offioen of his liouse. Tl»*t »UkHMid» mak. about tU Leaith ; 

"'^- Of Chriitmas' sportSy the wMnil bowl 

In a << Banquet of Jests, 1634,^ 12mo^ That tostpup after foz-i' th' hole ; 

there is a pleasant stoiy of Aichee, the ^ bEnd-man-baff, and of tbacare 

king's jester, who, having fix>led many, ^** yoong men have to shoe the mare ; 

was fooled himself. Coming to a noble- SL V^^^.^ '^^ cakes, of pease and beans, 

man, upon new year's day, to hid him ^"*'^** y?™ke tk"* merry scenes; 

good-morrow, Archee receiTed twenty ^?~|»8 >•»"«>. ^k»ch fere-sonnds 

pieces of gold ; but, covetously desiring t^^^''''^!j^!Ti^ ??" «^T?i^ 

iDo«,hesfooktheminhishaJ,aS^ Wt^^^J^J^^^ 

^1 pnthee, Archee, let me see them again. With buxom meat and eap'rimr wine, 

for there u one amongst them I would be Bemember us in caps fnlTcrown'd 

loth to part with ;" Archee^ expecting the And kt oar dty-kealth go nmnd. 

sum to be increased, retumea the pieces ^^a? as ye sit about vonr embers, 

to his lordship ; who put them in his ^^ ^^ ^ ™>^ ^^ "^ Decembers ; 

pocket with this remark, *' I once gave ^^ ^'"^ ^ ^^^> *^ >^ t' appear, 

money into a fool's hand, who had not the -^f ^'"g***"' *o tke instant year; 

wit to keep it." ^^^ ^ ^ bagpipes all address 

Rns were acceptable new year's gifts ^IIi!!?^.*!!!!!^ ^ "TIJ?*^ 

to the ladies, insteid of the woiden slS^ p^iS'S.l'ZJ^' wuh Chrirtmas plays, 

er, whichlhey used tiU the end oHhe ^'^^ ^ ^ '^^^ ^^y*- 
fifteenth century. Sometimes they re« ^^' ^Ui^ in a note on Brand, intro- 

oeived acoinposition in money : and hence ^^<^^ & poetical new year's gift in lAtin, 

allowances for their separate use is still ^^^ ^^ stem Buchanan to the unhappy 

denominated " pin-money." Maiy of Scotland. 

Gloves were customary new year's ** ^^ year's gifts,'' says Dr. Drake, 
gifts. They were more expensive than "^^re given and received, with the mutual 
in our times, and occasionally a money expression of good wishes, and particularly 
piesent was tendered instead : this was *^* ^^ * happy new year. The compli- 
cailed " glove-money." Sir Thomas More, °*ent was sometimes paid at each other's 
as lord chancellor, decreed in favour of floors in the form of a song; but more ge- 
a Mrs. Croaker against the lord Arundel, oerally, especially in the north of £ng< 
f)n the following new year's day, in ^^^ ^^ in Scotland, the house was en- 
token of her gratitude, she presented sir tered very early in the morning, by some 
Thomas with a pair of gloves, containing young men and maidens selected for the 
forty angels. " It would be against good ' purpose, who presented the spiced bowl, 
manners,** said the chancellor, to forsake ^nd hailed you with the gratulations of 
a gentlewoman's new year's gift, and I the season." To this may be added, that 
accept the gloves ; their lining you will it was formerly the custom in Scotland to 
be pleased otherwise to bestow/* send new year'^ gif^e on new year's 

Mr. Brand relates from a curious MS. ere; and on new year's day to wish 

in the British Museum, of the date of each other a happy new year, and m*k for 

15 GO, that the boys of Eton school used a new year's gift. There is a citation in 

on this day to play for little new year's Brand, from the *' Statistical Account of 

^ihs before and after supper; and also Scotland," concerning new year's gifts to 

to make verses, which they presented to servant maids by their masters ; and it 

the provost and masters, and to each other: mentions that ''there is a large stone, 

new year's gifts of verses, however, were about nine or ten feet high, and four 

not peculiar to schoolboys. A poet, the broad, placed upright in a pLain, in the 

beauties of whose poetry are justly re- (Orkney) isle of North Ronaldshay ; but 

marked to be '' of a kind which time has no tradition is preserved concerning it, 

a tendency rather to hallow than to in- whether erected m memory of any signal 

jure," Robert Heirick, presents us, in his event, or for the purpose of administering 

Hesperides, with ** a Wev/ Year's Gift justice, or for religious wonbi^, TV\ft 


writer of this ^the parish priest) has seen ferent apartments, till the Tapoor from the 

fifty of the inhabitants assembled there, burning branches condenses into opaque 

on the first dav of the year, dancing by clouds, and coughing, sneezing, wheeling, 

moonlight, with no other Basic than gasping, and other demonstrations of sul^ 

their own singinr." location ensue. The operator, aware that 

In Mr. Stewart s *' Popular Superstitions the more intense the *' smuchdan,** the 
of the Highlands,'* there is some account more propitious the solemnity, disregards 
of the Candlemas buH, on new year's these inaicatioos, and continues, with 
eve, as introductory to the new year, streaming c^es and arerted head, to iiH 
Tlie term Candlemas, applied to this sea- crease the nimigation, until in his own 
son, is supposed to have originated in defence he admits the air to recover the 
some old religious ceremonies performed exhausted household and himself. He 
l^ candlelight. The Bull is a passing then treats the horses, cattle, and other 
cloud, which Highland imagination per- bestial stock in the town with the same 
verts into the form of that animal ; as it smothering, to keep them from harm 
rises or falls or takes peculiar directions, throughout the year. When the gude- 
of great significancy to the seers, so does wife gets up, and having ceased from 
it prognosticate good or bad weather. The coughing, has gained sumcient strength 
more northern nations anciently assigned to reach the bottle Ma, she administers 
portentous qualities to the winds of new its comfort to the relief of the sufferers : 
year's eve. One of tlieir old legends in laughter takes place of complaint, all the 
Brand may be thus versified— the last line fiimily get up, wash their faces, and re- 
cking out the verse : ceive the visits of their neighbours, who 
If Xew Yeir'i eve night- wind blow*wi/A, amve full of gralulations peculiar to the 
It bctokeneih waraith and growth ; day. Mm mate ckoii orst, *< My Candle- 
Ifirrj/, much milk, ami fish in the lea; mas bond upon you ** is tlie customary 
If iMT/A, much cold, and storms there will be; salutation, and means, in plain words, 
IfrMi, the trees will bear much fruit "You owe me a new years gift." A 
If MorrAnuf, flee it man and brute. point of great emulation is, who shall 

Mr. Stewart says, that as soon as night salute the other first; because the one 

sets in it is the signal with tlie Strath- who does so is entitled to a gift from the 

down highlander for the suspension of his person saluted. Breakfast, consisting of 

usual employment, and he directs his at- all procurable luxuries, is then served, the 

tention to more agreeable callings. The neighbours not engaged are invited to 

men form into bands with tethers and partake, and the day ends in festivity. 

axes, and, shaping their course to the Ridintt ttang^ a custom that will be 

juniper bu»hes, thf^ return home laden observed on hereafter, prevails in some 

with mighty loai^l, which are arranged parts of England on new year's day to 

round the fire to-day till morning. A cer- the present hour. The " stang ** is a 

tain discreet person is despatched to the cowl-staff; the cowl is a water-vessel, 

4emd and living furd to draw a pitcher of borne by two persons on the cowl-stafl^ 

water in profound silence, without the which is a stout pole whereon the vessel 

vessel touching the ground, lest its virtue hangs. ** Where s the cowl-suff r* cries 

should be destroyed, and on his return all Ford'k wife, when she purposes to get 

retire to re»t. Karly on new year's mom- Falstaffinto a large buck-basVet, with two 

ing the Vt^ut-CmMkrickd^ or water from handles ; the cowl-staff, or *' stang," is 

ikt demi mnd living fvrd^ is drank, as a produced, and, being passed through the 

potent charm, until next new year's day, nandles,the fat knight is borne off by two of 

against the s|m>11s of witchcraft, the malig- Ford's men. A writer in the CSentleman's 

nity of evil eyes, and Uie activity of all Magaaine, 1791, says, that in Westmore- 

infertial agency. Tlie qualified highlander land and Cumberiand, on the 1st of Ja- 

then takes a large brash, with which he nuary, multitudes assemble early in the 

profusely a>pers«« the mcupants of all morning with baskets and " stangs,** and 

ipcds; from whom it iii u(»t unuMial for whoever does not join them, whetlier 

him to receive ungratrful remunstrances inhabitant or stranger, is immediately 

against ablutiun. TThis ended, ami the mounted across the ** stang,** and carried, 

dcN»n and windows Wang tliorouKhly shoulder height, to the next puoiic-house, 

dosed, and all cri- Vict ft stL<p|M'd, lie kiiMlles where six|K-nre lilR-nites the prisomr, 

/vibv of ihe r<>ii«(fcJ juoj|>vi, in tht dif- Wviuen are uiicd in this way, and car* 


rjed in baiketo— the sex being priYileged large amount, and the fency articles ez- 
from riding ** stang," in compliment, per- ported in the fint week in the year to 
hapa, to the use of side-«addlea. In the England and other countries, is computed 
same part of the country, no one i^ aU at one-fourth of the sale during the twelve 
lowed to work on new ycsir's day, how- months. In Paris it is by no means un- 
erer industrious. Mr. EUis shows that it common for a man of 8,000 or 10,000 
was a new yearns day custom in ancient francs a year to make presents on new 
Ilome for tradesmen to work a little only, year's day which cost him a fifteenth part 
for luck*s sake, that they might hare con- of his income. No person able to give 
stant business all the year amr. must on this day pay a visit empty-handed . 
A communication in an English journal Every body accepts, and every man gives 
of JannaiT 1824 relates, that in Paris on according to the means which he possesses, 
new years day, which is called k jomr Females alone are excepted from the charge 
^'eiremmef, parents bestow portions on of giving. A pretty woman, respectably 
their children, brothers on tneir sisters, connected, may reckon her new year's pre- 
and husbands make presents to their wives, sents at something considerable. Gowns, 
Caniages may be seen rolling through the jewellery, gloves, stockings, and artificial 
streets with cargoes of 6o»-&0]w, somvenirs, flowers, fill her drawing-room ; for in Paris 
and the variety of ft eateroi with which it is a custom to display all the gifts, in 
little children and grown-up children are order to excite emulation, and to obtain 
bribed into good humour ; and here and as much as possible. At the palace the 
there pastrycooks are to be met with, car- new year's, day is a complete jour de 
lying upon boards enormous temples, pa- flte. Every branch of the royal family is 
godas, churdies, and playhouses, made of then expected to make handsome presents 
fine flour and sugar, ami the embellish- to the kmg. For the six months preceding 
ments whidi render French pastry so in- January 1824, the female branches were 
Titine. But there is one street in Paris busily occupied in preparing presents of 
to which a new year's day is a whole their own manufacture, which would fill 
year's fortune — this is the Rue de9 Lorn- at least two common-sized waggons. The 
bareUy where the wholesale confectioners duchess de Berri painted an entire room 
reside; for in Paris every trade and pro- of japanned pannels, to be set up in the 
fession has its peculiar quarter. For se- palace ; and the duchess of Orleans pre- 
veral days pre<^ing the 1st of January, pared an elegant screen. An English 
this street is completely blocked up by gentleman who was admitted suddenly 
carts and waggons laden with cases of into the presence of the duchess de Berri 
sweetmeats for the provinces. These are of two months before, found her, and three . 
ever}- form and description which the most of her maids of honour^ lying on the car- 
singular fancy could imagine; bunches of pet, painting the \e^ « a set of chairs, 
carr6ts, green peas, boots and shoes, lob- whicn were intended for the king. Tlie 
iters and crabs, hats, books, musical in- day commences with the Parisians, at an 
struroenis, gridirons, frying-pans, and early hour, by the interchange of their 
saucepans ; all made of sugar, and co- visits and bon-bons. The nearest relations 
loured to imitate reality, and all made are visited first, until the furthest in blood 
with a hollow within to hold the bon^-bong. have had their calls ; then friends and ac- 
The most prevailing device is what is quaintances. The co»flict to anticipatt 
called a comet , that in, a little cone oma- each other's calls, occasions the most agree- 
mented in different ways vrith a bag to able and whimsical scenes among these 
draw over the large end, and close it up. proficients in polite attentions. In these 
In tliese things, the prices of which vary visits, and in gossiping at the confec- 
froir. one franc (tenpence) to fifty, the tioners' shops, which are the great lounge 
Lon-bone are presented by those who for the occasion, the morning of new 
choose to be at the expense of them, and by year's day is passed ; a dinner is ^iven 
those who do not, they are only wrapped by some memoer of the family to all the 
in a piece of paper ; but 6o»-6ofi# in some rest, and the evening concludes, like 
way or other must be presented. It would Christmas day, with cards, dancing, or 
not, perhaps, be an exaggeration to state any other amusement that may l>e pre- 
that the amount expended for presents on ferred. One of the chief attractions to a 
new year's day in Paris, for sweetmeats foreigner in Paris is the exhibition, which 
alone, exceeds 500,000 francs, or 20,000/. opens there on new )'eai'% da.*^ , ol vW 
sterling. Jewellery is also sold to a very fiaesi specimens of the Se\ tes cV\\iv^ iii^ivnx- 




factured «l the rovil eflmblisfaiiient ia tht 
neiKhbourhood of Venaulles durisg the 
prbMding year. 

l^ndoubtedly, ncfw ycAr't gifts origin- 
ated in heatlien obeenrmnces, and were 
groesly abused in after ages ; yet latterly 
f hey became a rational and pleasant mode 
of conveying our gentle dispositions to- 
wards those we esteem. Mr. Audley, in 
his compendious and useftil ^ Companion 
to the Almanack," says with trutli, that 
ther are innocent, if not praiseworthy; 
and he quotes this amiable sentiment horn 
Bourne : ^ If I send a new year's gift 
to mv friend, it shall be a token of my 
friendship ; if to my bene&ctor, a token 
of my gratitude ; if to the poor, which at 
this season must never be rocv ol, it shall 
be 10 make their hearts sing wr joy, and 
give praise and adoration to the Girer of 
all good gifts." The Jews on the firtt day 
of their new year gire sumptuous enter* 
tainments, aiid joyftilly wish each other 
** a happy new year. This salutation 
is not yet obsolete even with us ; but the 
new jrear*s gift seldom arrives, except to 
honest rustics ftom their equals; it u 
aeareely remembered with a view to its 
ase but by young persons, who, ^ unvexed 
with all the eares of gain," have read or 
heard tell of such things, and who, with 
innocent hearts, feeUng the kindness of 
the sentiment, keep up the good old cus- 
tom among one another, till mixture with 
the worid, and *' lon^ experience, makes 
them sage,*' and soidid. 

New jrear's dav fn London is not ob- 
served l^ any pi^lic festivity ; but little 
social dining parties are ftequently ibrmed 
amongst friends; and convivial persons 
nia> he found at taverns, and in pnoltoMis' 

ftriouTS, regaling on the occasion. Dr 
orster relates, in his ** Perennial Calen- 
dar," that many people make a point to 
wear some new doches on this any, and 
esteem the omission as unlucky: the 
practice, however, from such motives, 
must obviously be confined to the unin- 
formed. 71ie only open demonstration 
of joy in the metropolis, is the ringing of 
merry peals from the belfries of the nu- 
Meroiis steeples, late <m the eve of the 
■ew year, and until after the chimes of 
the dock have sounded its last hour. 

On new year's dav the man of business 
opens new account-books. ** A good be- 
finnittg makes a good ending." Let every 
Man open an account to himself; and 
•o begin the new year that he may expe<^ 
A»say at its tennioation— it has b«!en a 

roMf year. In the hilarity of die season 
Tel him not forget that to "the needy it is 
a season of di s comfort. 

There is a satisfaction 
In Uoiag a good action : 

and he who devises liberal things will 
find his liberality retnm to him in a ftill 
tide of hsppiness. An economist can 
afford to be generous. ** Give me neither 
poverty nor riches,*' prayed the wise man. 
To him who is neither encumbered by 
wealth, nor dispirited by indigence, the 
stores of enjoyment are nnlockol. 

He who holds tui the OMen Mean, 
Aad lives contentedly between 

The little and the great, 
Feels not the wants 3iat pinch the poor. 
Nor plagues that htnnt the rich nan's door. 

Embitt*ring all bis state. 

The tallest pines feel most the pow*r 
Of wintry blasU ; the loftiest tow*r 

Comes heaviest to the ground ; 
the bohs that spare the mountain's side, 
Uis clond -capt eminence divide. 

And spread the rain nrand. 

The weIl-inform*d philosopher 
Keioices with a wholesome fear. 

And hopes, in spite of pain $ 
If Winter bellow from the North, 
Soon the sweet Spring comes danrii^ 

And Nature laughs again. 

If hindrances obstruct thy way, 
Tbv mtznanimity display, 

And let thy strenstn be seen ; 
Bat oh ! if fortune fill thy sail 
With more than a propitioas gale. 

Take half thy eaavsss in. 


1308. On the 1st of January ia this 
year, William Tell, the Swiss patriot, as- 
aociated himsdf on this day with a bnad 
of bis countrymen, against the tjrranny of 
their oppressors. For upwards of thrsa 
centuries the opposition was carried on, 
and terminated oy the treaty of Wcsl^ 
pfaalia in 1648, dedaring the iudepend- 
cace of Switxerland. 

1651. On the 1 St of January Charles U. 
sras crowned at Scone king of the Scota. 
Charles, when a child, was weak in the 
legs, and ordered to wear slcel-ioolf. 
Their weight so annoyed him that he 
pined till recreation beoune lalMur. An 
old rocker look off the H m i k o Mt^ and 
concealed them ; promising the countess 
of Dorset, who was Charies's tovemaas, 
that slie would taka any UaoM lor the act 


on herself. Soon afterwards the kiog^ 
Cliarles I., coming into the nursery, 
seeins; his boy's legs without the 

angrihr demanded who had done it ^ _, „^ 

was I, ar,** said the rocker, ** who had even for this weather?' (Here the ser- 
the honour, some thirty years since, to at- Tant*s wit and good nature are put to a 
tend on your highness, mjfour infancy^ considerable test, and the inquirer lies on 
when yov had the same infirmity where- thems for the answer.) * Why, Sir . . . 
with now the prince, your rtrj own son . . I think it it.' (Good creature ! There 
is troubled ; and then the lady Gary, is not a better, or more truth-telling ser- 
(afterwards countess of Monmouth) com- vant going.) * I must rise, however — 
manded yomr 9ieei-boaU to be taken off. Get me some warm water.' — Here comes 
who, blessed be God, since have gathered a fine interval between the departure of 
strength, and arrived at a good stature." the servaut and the arrival of the hot 
Clare, chaplain to Charles II., at the time water ; during which, of course, it is of 
the affiur hs4>pened, related this anecdote ' no use* to get up. The hot water 
to old Fuller, who iu 1660, contemplating comes. *Is it quite hot?* — 'Yes, sir.' 
** the restoration," tells the story, and — * Perhaps too hot for shaving : I must 
quaintly exdaims, " the nation is too wait a little V — ' No, sir ; it wiu just do.' 
noble, when his majesty shall return from (There is an over-nice propriety some- 
foreign parts, to impose any other «f«el- times, an officious seal of virtue, a little 
boots upon him, than the observing the troublesome.) ' Oh -^ the shirt — you 
laws of the land, whidi are his own sfocifc- must air my clean shirt :— 4inen gets very 
imgs, that so with joy and comfort he may damp this weather.'—' Yes, sir? Here 
enter on what vras ms own inheritance.^ anotner delicious five minutes. A knock 
The nation forgot the ** steeUboots,'' and at the door. ' Oh, the shirt — very well. 
Charies forgot Uie *^ stockings." My stockings — ^I thmk the stockinn had 

1801. January 1. Hie Union of Great better be aired too.'-— ^ Very well, sir.' 
Britain with Ireland commenced accord- -^Here another interval. At length every 
in^ to act of parliament, and the event thing is ready, except myself I now 
was solemnized by the hoisting of a cannot help tninking a good deal — ^who 
new Toyzl flag on the Tower of London, can? — upon tlie unnecessary and villain- 
accompanied by the firing of guns there ous custom of shaving ; it is a thing so 
and in St. James's Park. On the 3d the unmanly (here I nestle closer) — so effe- 
kin^ received the g^at seal of Great minate, (here I recoil from an unlucky step 
Britain from the lord chancellor, and into the colder part of the bed.) — ^No won- 
causing it to be defaced, presented to him der, that the queen of Fiance took part 
a new great seal for the United Kingdom, with the rebels against that degenerate 
()n the same day, January 1st, 1801, king, her husband, who first aflronted her 
Piazri, the astronomer at Palermo, dis- smooth visage with a face like her own. 
corered a new primary planet, making an The emperor Julian never showed the 
eleventh of that order: he called it Ceres, luxuriancy of his genius to better advan- 
from the goddess of that name, who was tage than in reviving the flowing beard, 
highly esteemed by the ancients of Sicily. Look at cardinal Bcmbo's picture — at 

Michael Angelo*o - at Titian's — at Shak. 

— »— ^ speare's — at Fletcher*s — at Spenser's — at 

Chaucer's — at Alfred's — at Plato's. J 

Usually at thisperiod the rigour of cold could name a great man for every tick of 

15 severely felt. Tne indisposition of /mhi- my watch. Look at the Turks, a grave 

bedM to face its severity is pleasantly pic- and otiose people — ^Think of Ilaroun Al 

tured by Mr.Leigh Hunt, in a paper in the Raschid and Bed-ridden Hassan — ^Think 

Indicator. He imagines oite of those of Wortley Montague, the worthy son of 

persons to express himself in these terms : his mother, a man above the prejudice of 

'^ On opening my eyes, the first thing his time— Look at the Persian gentlemen, 
that meets them is my own breath rolling whom one is ashamed of meeting abo*it 
fjrth, as if in the open air, like smoke out the suburbs, their dress and appearance 
t€ a cottage-chimney. Think of this are so much finer than our own — Lastly, 
symptom. Then I turn my eyes side- think of the razor itself — how totally op- 
ways and see the window all frozen over, posed to every sensation of bed^how 
Think of that. Then the servant comes cold, how edgy, how hard ! how utterly 




differmt fnim an; iliiitK like tlw wum 
mad ciicLinft amplitude, which 

SwMtlj> rMOUinendi Itielf 
Unto our frntle kkh*. 
Add to this, licnuinbed iingen, which 

may help joulo cut youTtelf, ■ 
body, a fhiicn towel, Kud an ewer full of 
icv ; and he that layi there ii nolhinK to 
oppose in all thii, nuly showi, at any tUe, 
ihai he lifts no merit in opposioi; it." 

^pmnatftiitf fJor |^out&. 

Tni« msravinc repmenu simple me* 
Ihndi hy wliith, at thii ih'omri eHjiecially, 
thu health of yauna {•rrtooii may b« 
maintained, and the cunMiluiion inrijio- 
lalvri Two muiiil p^ir^llel barn «( two 
fnt di^taitM from e^ch inher, un round 
ilamUrd* three or four fort hish, firmly 
liiiil in the eround, will ufliird bny* the 
mpiin* ofartively eierling their limbii and 
muicli-K : and it' the rnd> t'f apiile be let 
into iipiHiiilc walli or fa*leiird lo treci, 
Ibe taiys mav he tauehl to climb kiiikU' 
mpM, and liold «0 while swingmK by 
IbttD. The engTUviiic ii pl.ired bi'fnn> 
the rye^of pannd ami leaclietk with Ibe 
tiiipttof diTTctini^ iheir alien lion to tO""- 
tiMlie rtrrriw-*, ai diTenioni for youth, 
tloA ihcy are ntiermi to a Irva- 
111* nn the iiihj('i.-t by Mr. Oiu, ihal may 
tie ufely uied. Ilii judicioua reasitnilii; 
nutt cimTincc rtrry rvadrr of iheit im- 
ponaner 11 ihr tiam|[ eeiieraiion, and 
ihai It ii within the iLeaniof all dauei 
af pmoiM to k-l hoy* ac(]uiie a knoK- 
Mgc of Ih* IvaU repmcoted in (he 

Cclldr of llie late ^lr Joseph llanki may be 
acceptable in llie meulion, and evciic 
paitieular sympathy in persona who re- 
cieate with iliejuiev of the vine: aiabct, 

it may lend to I'lucidalr ihc ci ' ' ' 

roTthy haronel had a c>tsk of w 
too sweet fur imraeduiie ui>e ; lit therefiire 
directed that it should be placed in n cel- 
lar, in order lliat the Mccharme natler it 
containni mifthl tie more perferlly decom- 
poied by BKe. Al Ibcend of three yean, he 
directed hiK butler tcairertaiii the Hale of 
the wine, when, on attemutmit lu open the 
cellgtrdoar.hecuuldnuteflert ii, incaiuip> 


to lue tli€ axe for iU removal, anticipate with cahn delight the entranee 
appeued to hare grown (Tom, or of the new year, and lift his eyes to the 
hare been noorished by, the decomposed living lustres of the firmament with grate- 
particles of the wine: the cask was empty, .fill fwlings. They shine rot their prismatic 
and carried np to the oeiling, where it colours through the cold thin air, keeping 
was supported by the surface of the watch while man slumbeis, or cheering 
fbogiis. _. him^ who contemplates their fires, to pur- 

At the dese of this day he who can poses of virtue. In this season 
reflect with, satisfaction on the past, may 

■ The night comes calmly forth^ 

Bringing sweet rest upon the wings of eren : 
The golden wain rolls round the silent north. 
And earth is slumbering 'neath the smiles of heaven. 

^^^a^amSB BOWRIKG. 

3l3ini9rP 2. the devil answered, to give drink to the 

^^, ^ hermits ; and that tiie phials contained a 

SI. Jfaearia*; S r. Coneordms; St. ^rietjr of liquors, that they might have 

Malard or Alard. ^ choice, and so fidl into temptation. On 

ST. Mmemrim, a.d. 394. Alban Butler the devil's return, the saint mquired how 
says be was a confectioner of Alexandria, he had sped ; and the devil answered very 
who, in the flower of^ his age, spent evil, for they were so holy that only one 
vpwaids of sixty years in the deserts in Theodistus would drink : on this inform- 
Uboor, penance, and contemplatiim. ^ur ation Macarius found Theodistus under 
taim/' nys Butler, ** happened one day the influences of the phial, and recovered 
inwlveitently to kill a gnat, that was biting him. Macarius found the h«id of a pagan, 
Inm ID his cell ; reflecting that he had lost and asked where the soul of* its body 
dbe opportunity of sufiering that mortifi- was : in hell, said the head : he asked the 
cation, be hastened from his cell for the head if bell was deep ; — the head said 
marshes of Scet^, which abound with deeper than from heaven to earth : he de- 
gieat flics, whose stings fierce even wild manded again, if there were any there 
boan. There he continued six months, lower than his own soul — the head said 
exposed to those ravaging insects ; and to the Jews were lower than he was : the 
fuch a degree was his whole body dis- saint inquired if there were any lower 
figured by them, with sores and swellings, than the Jews — the head answered, the 
tlat when he returned he was only to be false Christian-men were lower than the 
known hy his voiee." The Golden Legend Jews, and more tormented : there the 
relates of him, that he took a dead pagan dialogue between the saint and the head 
out of his sepulchre, and put him under appears to have ended. Macarius seems, 
his head for a pillow ; whereupon certain by the Golden Lezend, to have been much 
devils came to affright the saint, and called annoyed by the devil. In a nine days' 
the dead pagan to go with them ; but the journey through a desert, at the end of 
body under the saint said he could not, every mile he set up a reed in the earth, 
because a pilgrim lay upon him, so that to mark his track against he returned ; 
be could not move ; then Macarius, no- hut the devil pulled them all up, made a 
thingafraidybeat the body with his fist, and bundle of them, and placed them at Ma- 
told him to go if he would, which caused carius's head, while he Ia>' asleep, so that 
the devils to declare that Macarius had the saint with great difficulty found his 
vanquished them. Another time the way home again. 

devil came with a great scythe on his St. Adalard, according to Butler, was 

skoulder, to smite the saint, but he could grandson of Charles Martel, brother to 

not prevail against him, on account of his king Pepin, and cousin-german to Charle- 
Tirtoes. Macarius, at another time, being magne, who created him a count : he left 

tempted, filled a sack with stones, and his court in 773, became a monk at Corbie 

bore it many joumies through the desert, in Picardy, died in 827, aged seventy- 
Seeing a devil before him in the shape of three, and wrought miracles, which pro- 

a man, dressed like ^ a herawde,'* with cured his body to be enshrined with great 

his clodiing fiill of holes, and in every hole pomp in 1010, a history of which solem- 

a plual, be demanded of this devil whither nity is written by St. Gerard, who com- 
be went ; and why he had so many phials ? posed an office in St. Adalard*s honour, be- 


CAUM through his intercenion he had nusiion to return to Rome. Whtterer 

been cured of a violeut hettd-«che.— fubject Ovid wrote on, he exhausted ; be ' 

llie same St. Gerard relates seren other painted nature with a masterly hand, and 

jiiracles by St. Adabud of the same nature, his genius imparted elegance to vufgarity ; 

llutler says, his relics are still at Corbie, but he defilea the sweetness of his num- 

in a rich shrine, and two smaller cases, bers by impurity, and though he ranks 

except a small portion g^ven to the abbey among the splendid ornaments of ancient 

of Chelles. Ktermture, he sullied his fiune by the 

-— ^-« g io s s eit immorality in some of his finest 

■UM.1M5 * _i^,^ ^f ,^ w:ii;-.«. was m one hundred and forty books, of 

Account, It IS related of one William „u- k^«i- •k;^- <;«« •«» «•*«/• v;«Lo.r 
,, , ' II- . ,.„, t^ ^ ^.«-^ :« wnicn only tnirty-tive are extant. riTeot 

!i""^' ,T^ „f '.^ niL^. ^Jl «!»•« '«« di«ivered at Worm, in 1431, 
U>e ,e-r 1748 of JJ •»«»?»»• '**"'»^ «h1 M>me fragments are said to have been 
turn or gou^^drmkmg freely of »ew di«»vfred at Herc»lan.uM. Few 

' kVkJ^^I,* IT^' h^r llSf (KT! particulars of hi. life are known, but bia 
man had been oonfined to bis bed for a r" ... . ,-• . . 

year and a hklf, having almoat entirely P™? . ^ i i ™!.!J!i 

WtheuaeofhiLumb.: Onlheeveni^ «* '"""'y **" '*fl"^ """iT.^^ 

^ iL-tShi!^''^',? :r ':£ ^ Jill:;u^w^.f 'aarhisTn"^ 

wit^bir'TShr^W::^ri:^ *? "-^'>' "^IT C''t ^'- """" 
be always took hU dure of the ale. Jit P"*" "X'' «>"K»" to be read by young 

passed round the company ; and, in the ^^' 

end, became much intoxicated, llie con- _i_. 
sequence was, that he had the use of his 

limbs the next morning, and was abte to I" ^« Literary Pocket Book there m 

walk about. He Bved more than twenty ■<>«« H^f^nabU fecU which may be 

years after this, and new had the smallest transplanted with advantage to the reader, 

return of his old complaint." This is a •^y »t » hoped, without disadrantage to 

fiurt worth remembering, as connected the writer of the articles. He says tl»t 

with dirooical complaints. • mwi is infinitely misUken, who thinks 

there u nothing worth seeing m winter- 
time out of doors, because the sun is not 
Chrohologt. warm, and the streeU are mudd^. " Let 
On the 2d of January, a. d. 17, Ovid him get, by dint of good exercise, out of 
the celebrated Roman poet died ; he was the streets, and he sLaII find enough. In 
born at Sulmo on the 2(Hh of March, the warm neighbourhood of towns be may 
forty-three years before the Christian era. still watch the field-fores, thrushes, and 
His fother designed him for the bar, and blackbirds ; the titmouse seeking its food 
he became eminently eloquent, but eveiy through the straw-thatch ; the red-wings, 
thing he wrote was expressed in poetical field-nres, sky-larks, and tit-larks, upon 
nuraoers ; and though reminded by his the same errand, over wet meadows; the 
father, that even Homer lived and died sparrows and yellow-hammers, and chaf- 
in poverty, he preferred the pleasures of finches, still beautiful though mule, glcan- 
imagination to forensic disputation He ing from the straw and chaf in form- 
ffaiMd great admiration from the learned, yvds ; and the ring-dove, always poetical, 
Virgil, Horace, Tibullus, and Propertius, coming for her meal to the ivy-berrics. 
were his friends, and Augustus became About rapid streams he may see the vn- 
his liberal patron, till he banished him for nous habits ami movements of herons, 
sone unknown cause. In his exile he wood-oocks, wild-ducks, and other water- 
was cowardly, and prostituted his pen to fowl, wh9 aie obliged to ouit the froscn 
tetter baseness ; aud though he desired marshes to seek their food there. The 
the death of the emperor, he fowned upon red4>reast oomes to the windows, and 
htm in bis writings to meanness. He died often into the house itsell^ to be i ewaided 
M Tomoe on the Euxioe sea, the place of for its song, and for its for<4aaiad ' pain- 
Air huMmeat, under the reign oSf Tibe- ful' obeequies to the ChildfiB in Iht 
'^ who had mxece^ed Augustus, and Wood." 
^'^'dmfto the noet'f enr/eaties for per- 




Sfamtarp 3. 

Bi. GenevUpe, St, Auierut, Pope. 8t. 
G^rdku. St. Peter Baham. 

St. Genevieee, Patroneee of Paris. 

AlbaD Butler affirms that she was 
bom in 422, at Nanterre, four miles from 
PiariSy near the present Calvary there, 
and that she diea a virffin on this day 
in 512, and was buried m 545, near the 
steps of the high altar iu a magnificent 
chuich, dedicated to St. Peter and St 
P^ul, began l>y Clovis, where he also was 
interred. Her relics were afterwards 
taken up and put into a costly shrine 
about 630. Of course thev worked mira- 
cles. Her shrine of gold and silver, 
covered with precious stones, the presents 
of kings and queens, and with a cluster 
of diamonds on the top, presented by the 
intriguing Mary de Mraicis, is, on cala- 
mitous occasions, carried about Paris in 
procession, accompanied bv shrines 
equally miraculous, and by the canons 
of Si. Genevieve walking bare-foot. 

The mUradee of St Genevieve, as re- 
lated in the Golden Legend, were equally 
numerous and equally credible. It relates 
that when she was a child, St. Germaine 
said to her mother, ** Know ye for certain 
that on the day of Genevieve's nativitv 
the angels sung with joy and gladness, ' 
and looking on the ground he saw a 
penny signed with tlie cross, which came 
there by the will of God ; he took it up, 
and gave it to Genevieve, requiring her 
to b^r in mind that she was the spouse 
of Christ. She promised him accordingly, 
and often went to the minster, that she 
might be worthy of her espousals. "Tlien," 
fays the Legend, " the mother was angr>', 
and smote heron the cheek — God avenged 
the child, so that the mother became blind,'' 
and so remained for one and twenty months, 
when Genevieve fetched her some holy 
water, signed her with the sign of the 
cross, washed her eyes, and she recovered 
her sight. It further relates, that by the 
Holy Ghost she showed many people tbeir 
secret thoughts, and that from fifteen 
years to fifty she fasted every day except 
Sunday and Thursday, when she :ite 
beans, and barley-bread of three weeks 
old. Desirinj^ to build a church, and 
dedicate it to St. Denis and other martyrs, 
she required materials of the priests for 
that purpose. "Dame,'' answered the 
priests, '* we would ; but we can get no 
chalk nor lime." She desired them to go 
to the bridge of Paris, and bring what 
No, 9. 

they found there. They did so till two 
swineherds came by, one of whom said 
to the other, ** I went yesterday after on« 
of my sows and found a bed of lime;" 
the other replied that he had also found 
one under the root of a tree that the 
wind had blown down. St. Genevieve's 

S nests of course inquired where these 
iscoveries were made, and be4ring th^ 
tidings to Genevieve the church of St. 
Denis was began. During its progress 
the workmen wanted drimc, whereupon 
Genevieve called for a vessel, prayed over 
ft, signed it with the cross, and th^ 
vessel was immediately filled ; " so," says 
the Legend, ** the workmen drank their 
belfy ftill," and the vessel continued to 
be supplied in the same way with ''drink** 
for tae workmen till the church was 
finished. At another time a woman stole 
St. Genevieve's shoes, but as soon as she 
got home lost her sight for the theft, and 
remained bliiul, till, havine restored the 
shoes, St. Genevieve restored the woman's 
sight. Desiring the liberation of certain 
prisoners condemned to death at Paris, 
she went thither and found the city gates 
were shut against her, but they opened 
without any other key than her own pre- 
sence. She prayed over twelve men in 
that city possessed with devils, till the 
men were suspended in the air, and the 
devils were expelled. A child of four 
years old fell in a pit and was killed ; 
St. Genevieve only covered her with 
her mantle and prayed over her, and the 
child came to life and was baptized at 
Easter. On a voyage to Spain she ar- 
rived at a port " where, as of custom, ship.«« 
were wont to perish." Her own vessel 
was likely to strike on a tree in the ^%ater, 
which seems to have caused the wrecks ; 
she commanded the tree to be cut down^ 
and began to pray ; when lo, just as the 
tree began to fall, "two wild heads, 
grey and horrible, issued thereout, \% hich 
stank so sore, that the people that v ere 
there were envenomed by the space of 
two hours, and never after perished ship 
there; thanks be to God and this holy 

At Meaux, a master not forgiving his 
sen-ant his faults though St Genevieve 
prayed him, she prayed against him. He 
was immediately seized with a hot ague ; 
"on the morrow he came to the holy 
virgin, running with open mouth like a 
German bear, his tongue hanging out 
like a boar, and requiring pardon." Slie 
then blessed him^ the its^x \%iV \uiii> isA 




the ier>::ttt wa% pardoned. A girl going 
by with t bottle, St. Gen^Tieve called to 
her, and asked what the earned, she 
answered oil, which she had bought; 
but St. GeneTieTe seeing the devil sitting 
on the bottle, blew upon it, and the 
bottle broke, but the saint blessed the 
oil, and caused her to bear it home safely 
notwithstanding. The Golden Legend 
tays, that the people who saw this, mar- 
relied that the saint could see the devil, 
tnd were greatly edified. 

It was to be expected that a saint oi 
•neb miraculous powers in her lifetime 
should possess them after her death, and 
•ecordingly t)ie reputation of her relics 
if Ttry 


Sereral stories of St. Genevieve's mi- 
riculous faculties, represent them as very 
convenient in vexatious cases of ordinary 
occurrence ; one of these will serve as a 
specimen. On a dark wet night she 
was going to church with her maidens, 
with a candle borne before her, which 
the wind and rain put out ; the saint 
merely called for the candle, and an soon 
•s she took it in her hand it was lighted 
again, " without anv fire of this world.*' 

Other stories of her lighting candles 
in this way, call to mind m candle, greatly 
▼eoerated by E. Worsley in a '' Discourse 
(»f Miracles wrought in the Roman Ca- 
tholic Church, or, a full Refutation of Dr. 
Sti11ingfleet*s unjust Exceptions against 
Miracles," ocUvo, 1676. At p. 64, he 
says, *' that the mirmetilou* wax eamdU, 
yet seen at Arras, the chief city of Artois, 
may give the reader entertainment, being 
most certain, and never doubted of Ay 
•ny. In 1105, that is, much above 569 
years ago, (of so great antiquity the can- 
dle is,) a merciless plague reigned in 
Arras. The whole city, evei devout to 
the Mother of Gcx), experienced her, in 
this their necessity, to be a true mother 
of mercy: the manner was thus. The 
Virgin Mary appeared to two men, and 
tajoincd them to tell the bishop of Arras, 
that on the next Saturday towards morn- 
ing she would appear in the great church, 
•nd put into his hands a wax candle 
burning; from whence drops of wax 
should &11 into a vessel of water pre- 
pnied by the bi«hop. She said, moie- 
ovcr, that all the dt»ea.«rd that drank of 
this water, should forthwith he cured. 
TkU irmhf framUed, truljf kappemtd. i >ur 
>^M»ed iidy Mpp^^n^ all beautiful, hav- 

/« her hsMtn m wax randft K*iming, 

which diffused light over the whole church ; 
this she presented to the bishpp; he, 
blessing it with the sign of the cross, set 
it in the urn of water ; when drops ot 
wax plentifully fell down into the vessel. 
The aiseased drank of it, all were cured, 
the contagion ceased, and the candle to 
this day preserved with great veneration, 
spends itself, yet loses nothing; and 
tnercfbre remains still of the same length 
and greatness it did 500 years ago. A 
vast quantity of wax, made up of the 
many drops which fall into the water 
upon those festival days, when the candle 
bums, may be justly called a standing, 
indeficient miracle.'* 

This candle story, though gravely related 
by a catholic writer, as <* not doubted of 
by any,'* and as therefore not to be 
doubted, miraculously failed in con- 
vincing the protestant Stilli'-gfleet, that 
" miracles wrought in the Roman catholic 
church,** ought to be believed. 


1639. A manuscript entitled "Comr 
mentaries of the Civil Wars, from 1638 
to 1648,'* written by Sir Henry Slingsby, 
bart. a royalist, intimates the struggle, 
then approaching, bct\%een Charles I. 
and the nation. He says, "The 3d of 
January, 1639, 1 went to Bramham-house, 
out of curiosity, to see the training of the 
light-horse, for wliich service I liad sent 
two horses, by commandment of the lieu- 
tenant and sir Joseph Ashley ,who is lately 
come down, with special commission 
from the king to train and exercise 
them. These are strange spectacles to 
this nation in this age, that has nved 
thus long peaceably, without noise of 
drum or of shot, and after we have stood 
neuter, and in peace, when all the world 
besides hath been in arms.'* The *' train- 
ing** was preparatory to the war with 
the Scots, the resistance of the commons 
in parliament, and its levies of troops 
to oppose the royal will. 

•• The armouren — ^ 
With busy hammers closing rivets np, 
Gave dreadful note of preparation ;** 

the conflict ended in the death of Charten 
on the scaffold, the interregnum, the 
restoration, and the final expulsion of 
the Stuart race. 

SanuaiT 4. 

51. TitMt^ di'Tiplc of St. IViul. St. Crt^ 
jfory, bi»hop of I^ngrrs St Bifoberi 
Of ilt^f**tt. St Rumon. 


Si. Rmm§tL pressed Ascham witk ha inportance, 
Alb«a BaUertDfenasuSy from William that he sajs, he '^thought to prepare 
«f Malmifauiy, that be was a bishop, some little treatise fer a new-year's gift 
though of what nattoo or see is ooknowD, that Christmas,** but it grew beneath 
and that his name is in the English his hands and became his '^Scheie- 
martyrologT. Ciessy says, that his body master, showing a plain and perfeot war 
was burial at Tavistock, where^ about of teaching the learned languages. 
960, Ordgar, count of Devonshire, fiuher The best ^tion of this work, which 
to EUrida, the second wife of king Ascham did not live to pnblish, is that 
Edgar, boih a monastery '^Tery agreeable edited by the Rev. James Upton| 1743, 
and pleasant, hw reason of the great octavo. The book was first printed kjr 
variety of woods, pastures, and rivers Ascham*s widow, whom wicli her chiC 
ahonnding with Utk/* St. Kumon con- dren he left in distress. It was eai- 
secrated the charch. About thirty jrears nently serviceable to the advancement of 
afterwaids, the monastery was destroyed teachers and pupils, at a period when it 
and burnt bv the Danes. It is memora- was the ftshionto flog. Its most remark- 
hie, that Ednl^ a son of Oidgar, buried able feature is the frownina down of this 
in that monastery, was a man of gigantic brutal practice, which, to we disgrace of 
statue, and of such wonderful strength, our own times, is still heard of in certain 
that going to Exeter, ^^ finding the seminaries, both public and private. The 
gales shot and barred, he broke the good old man says, ^ Beat a child if he 
outer iron bars with his hands, burst dance not well, and cherish him though 
open the gates with his foot, tore the he learn not w€^l, ye shall have him un- 
locks and Iwlts asunder^ and broke down willing to go to dance, and glad to go to 
pastef the wall. his book: knock him always when he 

— ^— draweth his shaft ill, and &vour him 
CnnovoLOOT. again thmwh he &ult at his book, ve 
1568. On the 4th of Jantmrv Roger shaH have him very loth to be in the 
Ascham died, and was bnriecl at St. field, and very vrilling to go to school.'^ 
Sepulchre's church, London. He vras He observes, ** If ever the nature of man 
born in Yorkshire about 1515, and b be given at any time, more than another, 
celebrated for his learning, for having to receive goodness, it lh in innocency of 
been tutor and Latin secretary to queen youne years before that experience of 
Elizabeth, and for having written ^ the evil have taken root in him. For the 
Scbolemaster.^ This work originated pure, clean vrit of a sweet young babe, 
from mention having been made at din- is like the newest wax, most able to re- 
ner that some Eton s<^oIars ^ had run ceive the best and fairest printing ; and 
away from school for fear of beatine." Hke a new bright silver dish never occu- 
Ascfaam expressed his opinion that pied, to receive and keep clean any good 
** young children were sooner allured by thing that is put into it. Therefore, to 
krve^ than driven by beating, to attain love or to hate, to like or contemn, to 
good leaminf^.** He then retired up ply this way or that way, to good or to 
stairs ** to read vrith the queen's majesty : bsud, ye shall have as ye use a child in 
we read then together that noble oration his youth.'' He exemplifies this by a 
of Demosthenes against i¥Lschines, for his delightful anecdote of the young, beauti- 
€dse dealing in his embassy to king ful, and accomplished lady Jane Grey, 
Philip of Macedon ; sir Richard Sack- who shortly afterwards perished by the 
vine cane up soon after.'' Sackville axe of the executioner. Ascham, before 
took Asdiam aside, '^ A fond (silly) school- he went into Germany, visited Broad- 
meutbtr^ said sir Ridiard, ^ before I was eate in Leicestershire, to take leave of 
foIlT fourteen years old, drove me so, her. ^ Her parents, the duke and 
with fear of beating, from all love of duchess, vrith all the household, gentle- 
learning, as now, wli^ I know what dif- men and gentlewomen, were hunting in 
foresee it is to have learning, and to have the park. I found A^r," says Aschaoi, 
httle, or none at all, I feel it my greatest ^ in her chamber, reading Phsedo Platonis 
grief^ and find it mv greatest hurt, that in Greek, and that with as much delight, 
ever came to me, tnat it was so my ill as some gentlemen would read a merry 
ciiaiice, to light upon so lewd (ignorant) tale in Boccace. After salutation^ and 
a schoolmaster. The whole oooversa- duty done, with some o\heT la\k, \ i&Y^ 
uoo W93 werjr interesting, Mmd so im- her, why she would lose suc\\ ipas^Ava% 

31 Tin: EVhRY-OAY BOOK.— JANlAKY 4. w 

in tht park? Smiting, the answered to without measure misordered, that I 

me : think myself in hell, till time come that 

*' * I wist, all their sport in the park is 1 must go to Mr. Elmer ; who teacheCh 

but a shadow to that pleasure that I find me so gentlj, so pleasantly, with sudi 

in Plato. Alas ! good -folk, they never fair allurements to learning, that I think 

felt what true pleasure meant.' all the time nothing, while I am with him : 

** * And how came you, madam,' quoth and when I am called from him, I fall on 

I, ' to this deep knowledge of pleasure ? weeping, because whatsoever I do else. 

And what did chiefly allure you unto it, but learning, is full of grief, trouble, fear, 

feeing not many women, but very few and whole misliking unto me : and thus 

men, have attained thereunto V my book hath been so much my pleasure, 

** ' I will tell you,' quoth she, ' and tell and bringeth daily to me more pleasure 

you a truth, which perchance you will and more, that in respect of it, all other 

marrel at. One of tne greatest benefits pleasures in very deed, be but trifles and 

that ever God gave me, '\% that he sent me troubles unto me.' " 
so sharp and severe parents, and so gentle Surely this innocent creature's eonfe»> 

a schoolmaster. For when I am in pre- sion, that she was won to the love of 

fence either of father or mother, whether learning and her teacher by his gentle- 

I ^peak, keep silence, sit, stand, or go, ness, and the disclosure of her affliction 

eat, drink, be merry, or sad, be sewinc, under tlie sev#r discipline of her parents, 

flaying, danoing, or doing any thing elst*, are positive testimony to the fact, thai 
most do it, as it were, in such weight, our children are to be governed and 
measure, and number, even so perfectly, taught by the law of kindness : nor let 
u God made the world ; or else 1 am so it detract from the force of the remark, 
sharply taunted, so cruelly threatened, that in connection with her artless feel- 
yea presently sometimes with pinches , ings and blameless deportment, if her 
Dips, and bobs, and other ways (which I hard &te call forth a versified efiusio» 
wul not name for the honour I bearlhem) 



Voung, beautiful, and learned Jane, intent 
On knowledge, found it peace ; her vast acquirement 

Of froodness was her fall ; ahe was content 
With dulcet pleasures, such as calm retirement 

Yields to the vise alone ;— hrr only vice 

Was virtue : in obedience to her sire 
And lord ihe died, with them, a sacrifice 

To their ambition : her own mild desire 

Was rather to be happy than be great ; 

For thouich at their request she claimed the crown. 
That tbev, through her, might rise to rule the state. 

Vet, tde bright diadem, and gorgeous throne. 

She vicw'd an cares, dimming the dignity 
CH iMr ooaallied mind, and pure benignity. 

1815. On tlie 4th of January, died they were excluded from the throne of the 
Alexander Macdonald, Esq., who is no people, by the aristocracy and common- 
other way remarkable, than fur a chivaU alty of England in parliament assembled. 
jQua devotion to the fiimily of Stuart. He As evidence of the spirit that dictated 
raised a monument in the vale of Glen- such a memorial, and of the proper feel- 
lanyn, at the head of Loclishiel, in the ing which permits that spirit to be ex- 
county pf Inverness, with a Latin, Gaelic, pressed, in spite of its hostility to the 
and English inscription, to commemo- principles that depO!«iled and continued 
rate the last opea ^orts of that family, the diadem of the commonwealth in the 
fer the recovery of a crown they had custody of the hou>e of Hanover, the in- 
Ivfeitcd by ionumerable breaches of the scripticn on the nionument is placed in 
Um%, and whose aggressions on life and the next column. It stands in English in 
ptvpmtf being tnfftppd, u\\ these words : 



After the cxpuliiou of pope Piui 
\'I. from " Ihe chair of Si. Peter," by 
the French, he fled from his splendid 


ID (oifhl inil bW in 

residences at Rome uid Frascati to ^' 
nice, infirm in health, distressed in cir- 
cumstances, and at the age of seventy- 
fiTe. He subsisted for anhile on the 

froduce of some silver plate, which he 
ad saved from the ruin of his property. 
By the friendly interference of sir John 
Cox Ilippisley. the cardinal's situation 
was made' known to his latf majesty, and 
lord Minio hnd ordei* 10 remit him a 
present of SOOOf., which he received in 
February IBOO, with an inlimatlon that 
he might draw for the same amoi'.iit in 
the July following ; and sir J.C. Hippii- 
ley communicated (o him, that an annuity 
of AOOOl would be at his service, so loii^ 
s circumstances might requiri- it. 
This liberality wax received and acknow- 
±- I L ' ■ .„ -, - L o™j ru- ledged by the cardinal in terms of gniti- 

<bed there m IMT, m the 83d year of h« ,„a^^^de a considerable impre^ssion 
She went to France to head ^., signing p^pe and ' '^ 

npUiKnl Fn 

The ** right line" of the Stuart race ter^ 
■idaled'in iba late canlinal York. Ill 
«u the second son of "the Pretender,'' and 
«as bom at Rome on the 3tjlh of March - 
ITS 5; where be wu happed by the ni 
of Houy Benedict Maria Clemens : 

Id IT-15 he went to Fiance to head 
an army of fifteen thousand men, assent- 
bled at Dunkirk for the invasion of 
England. The b^iile ofCnlloden settled 
" the arduous and unfoittmate entei- 
ptise," which the " amiable and accom- 
plished founder" of ihc monument com- 
' a single transport left 


u lleiirv- Bene- 

dict heard of the affair at Cullodcn. he 
rwumtd lo Rome, euteri^d into priest's 
orderi. and in IT-li wai made a cardinal 
by pope Benedicl KW. It was taunted 

These facts are extracted from the Gen- 
tleman's Maeaiine, (vols. 74 and 77.^ 
which also otn^ervf .<, that " frcm the time 
be devoted himself to ecclesiastical Anc- 
tions he seemed to have laid aside all 
worldly views, till hi- father's death in 
1783, when he had nmlalsMrock, Waring 
on their face his head, with ' 


with 'OdiTi 


I formed, our i 



^t his 

tt pope u™. James II. that he .^ese medals"." From one' in tiie posse^, 
kin?G(.m for a mass ; and .t is ^,^„ ^f ^^,^ compiler of th.s work, ho ,» 

t thai il'^nry Eknedict was belter 

i-.iiajified to like a red-hat and pull on Io"h'i"'rp»'Jrrs' '"^""' 
and off red stockings, llian to attempt 
the conquest of a free proieslanl nation. 



UiV DOOK.-Ml"!*"!' ». 


w«:«k. Ileliodorus required Simeon to ter at the top, so that he could not lie ax- 
be more private in his ;norti6catioDS ; tended onit: he had no seat with him* 
** wiih this riew,'* says Botler, ** judging he only stooped or leaned to take a little 
the rough rope of the well, made of rest, and bowed his body in prayer s« 
twisted palm-tree leaires, a proper instni- often, that a certain person who counted 
ment of penance, Simeon tied it dose these positions, found that he made one 
about his naked body, where it remained thousand two hundred and forty-four 
unknown both to the community and his reverences in one day, which if he began 
superior, till such time as it having ate at four o'clock in the morning and finished 
mto his flesh, what he had privately done at eight o'clock at night, gives a bow to 
wis discovered by the effluvia proceeding every three-quarters of a minute ; be- 
6x>m the wound. * Butler says, that it sides which he exhorted the people twice 
took three days to disengage the saint's a day. His garments were the skins oi 
clothes, and that ^ the incisions of the beasts, he wore an iron collar round his 
physician, to cut the cord out of his body, neck, and had a horrible ulcer in his 
we're attended with such anguish and foot. During his forty days* abstinence 
pain, that he lay for some time as dead." throughout Lent, he tied himself to a pole. 
After this he determined to pass the whole He treated himself as the outcast of the 
ibrty days of Lent in total abstinence, world and the worst of sinners, worked 
and retired to a hermitage for that pur- miracles, delivered prophecies, had the 
pose. Bassus, an abbot, left with nim sacrament delivered to him on the pillar, 
ten loaves and water, and coming to visit and died bowing upon it,in the sixty-ninth 
him at the end of the forty days, found of his age, after having lived upon pillars 
both loaves and water untouched, and the for six and thirty years. His corpse was 
saint stretched on the ground without earned to A ntioch attended by the oishops 
signs of life. Bassus dipped a sponge in and the whole country, and worked mi- 
water, moistened his lips, gave him the racles on its way. So far this account 
euchorist, and Simeon by degrees swal- is from Alban Butler, 
lowed a few lettuce leaves and other herbs. Without mentioning circumstances and 
He p?^sed twenty -six Lents in the same miracles in the Golden Legend, which 
znnner. In the first part of a Lent he are too numerous, and some not fit to be 
prayed standing ; growing weaker he related, it may be observed that it is there 
p.'ayrd >itting: and towards the end, being affirmed of him, that after his residence 
aimo<t exhausted, he prayed lying on the on the pillars, one of his thighs rotted a 
STc-^jnd. At the end of three years he whole year, during which time he stood 
ien his hermitage for the top of a moun- on one leg only. Near Simeon's pillar 
tain, made an enclosure of loose stones, was the dwelling of a dragon, so very ve- 
K.'J^iout a roof, and having resolved to nomous, that nothing grew near his cave, 
live exposed to the inclemencies of the This dragon met with an accident ; he 
w€a(her. he fixed his resolution by fasten- had a stake in his eye, and coming all 
i!:; his right leg to a rock with a great blind to the saint's pillar, and placing his 
i:-. II ciiAia. Multitudes thronged to the eye upon it for three days without doing 
ir.oun:ain to receive his benediction, and harm to any one, Simeon ordered eartli 
r;;.iriy of the sick recovered their health ; and water to be placed on the dragon's 
But as some were not satisfied unless they eye, which being done, out came t}je 
touched him in his enclosure, and Simeon stake, a cubit in length ; when the people 
desired retirement from the daily con- saw this miracle, they glorified God, and 
c-tirfe, he projected a new and unprece- ran away for fear of the dragon, who 
drcted manner of life. He erected a arose and adored for two hours, and re- 
p.iiir six cubits high, (each cubit being turned to his cave. A woman swallowed 
•::2h'.^ en inches,) and dwelt on it four a little serpent, which tormented her for 
yt^ir*: on a second of twelve cubits high many years, tiH she came to Simeon, who 
fjt lived three years ; on a third of twenty- causing earth and water to be laid on her 
two cubits high ten years ; and on a mouth, the little serpent came out four 
founh of forty cubits, or sixty feet high, feet and a half long. It is affirmed by the 
which the people built for him, he spent Golden Legend, that when Simeon died, 
tjie last twenty years of his life. This Anthony smelt a precious odour proceeding 
rKrcasioned him to be called #/y/i/e#, from from his body ; that the birds cried so 
iSe (ireek word #/y/o«, a pillar. This much, that both men atAd be^^Vs rx\td\ 
p.:;?: 'i-A no» exceed three /bet in diamc- that mi jpjjcI came dowu \t\ a cV>M«i \ vVv^\ 


the p«tnarch of Aotioch taking Simeon's tot the third time ; and that he waj bom 

beard to put among hit relics, his hand in this last marriage. He was accus- 

withered, and reinaioed so till molti- tomed, agreeably to the rules of his reli- 

tndes of prayers were said for him, and gion, to observe hsi days with great 

it was healed : and that more miracles strictness, and never to use any other food 

Were worked at and after Simeon*s sepal- than milk, and certain cakes, called by the 

rure, than he had wrought all his life. Hungarians koUatwcken, together with a 

good glass of brandy, such as b made in 

LOXGEViTY. the country. He had descendanU in the 

1724. Jan. 5. An extraordinary instance fifth generation, with whom he sometimes 

of lottgeritv is contained in a letter dated sported, carrying them in his arms. His 

the 29th of January, 1724, from M. Ha- son, though ninet)'-seven, was still fresh 

melbraniz, the Dutch envoy at Vienna, to and vigorous. When field marshal count 

their high mightinesses the states general, Wallis, the commandant of Temeswar, 

and published in a Dutch dictionary, heard that this old man was taken sick, he 

" Het Algeroeen historisch, geographisch caused a portrait of him to be painted, 

en genealogisch Woordenbock,'* by Luis- and when it was almost finished he ex- 

ctus. It relates to an individual who had pired.** 

attained the extraordinary age of one 1808. Early in January, this year, the 
hundred and eighty-/he jezn. shaft of death supplied another case of 
''Czartan Petrarch, by religion a Greek, longevity. At the advanced age of llO 
was born in the year 1539, and died on years, died Dennis Hampson, the blind 
the 5th of Januanr, 1724, at Koftosdi, a bard of Maggiligan, of whom an interest- 
village four miles m>m Temeswar, on the ing account has been given by lady 
load leadinff to Karansebes. He had Morgan, in <<Tlie Wild Irish Girl/' The 
lived, therefore, a hundre<l and *jghly- ** Athenieum," from whence this notice is 
^re years. At the time when the Turks extracted, relates, that only a few hours 
took Temeswar from the Christians, he before his decease he tuned his harp, that 
was employed in keeping his Other's cattle, he might have it in readiness to entertain 
A few days before his death he had sir H. Bruce*s family, who were expected 
walked, with the help of a stick, to the to pass that wa^ in a few days, and who 
tfott-house at Kofrosch, to ask charity were in the habit of stopping to hear his 
from the travellers. His eyes were much music ; suddenly, however, he felt the ap* 
inflamed, hot he still enjoyed a little si^ht. proach of death, and calling his family 
His hair and beard were of a greemsh, around him resigned his breath without a 
whitA colour, like mouldy bread ; and he strnffgle, and in perfect possession of his 
had a few of his teeth remaining. His faculties to the last moment. A kindred 
son, who was ninety-seven years of age, spirit produced the following tribute to the 
declared his father had once been Uie memory of this " aged son of song.** He 
head taller ; that at a great age he married was the oldest of the Irish bards. 

The fame of the brave shall no tonger he sonndcd. 

The last of our bards now sleeps eold in his gravr ; 
Maggiligan rocks, where his lays have rc»oaodcd» 

Frova dark at the ocean, and spurn at the ware. 

For, Hampson, no more shall thy soul-tourhiog finger ^ 
StMd sareet o*tT the striop, and wild melody pour ; 

No more near thv hnt shall the villagers linger, 

While strains nom thy harp warble soft round the shore 

No more thy harp swells with enraptured emotion. 

Thy wild eleams of fancy for ever are fled. 
No ionger tny miastreliv charnm the rade ocean. 
That rolls near the graea tuK that pillows thy bead. 

%'et vifoar and youth with bright visions had fired thee. 
And rose<4mds of health have blown dcrp oa thy eUotk ; 

The songik of the sweet bartis of Erin inspired thse, 
A oi) ufged thee to wander lt|ie laiire!» to seek. 


Yes, oft haat tKoo sang of our kuif» croir«*d witb glory. 

Or. sigkinf , repeated the lorer's fond lay ; 
Aad oft haat thou sung of the bards laoMd ia ttory, 

Wlwse wild notes of rapture hare long fast away. 

Thy grare shall be acreen'd from the blast and the billow, 

Aroond it a fence shall posterity raise ; 
Erin's childrrn shall wet with their tears thy cold pillow. 

Her yonths shall lament thee, and carol thy praise. 

This is the eve of the Epiphany, or of as poor a fiddle, will this eTening strmin 

Twelftb-iiigbt eve, and is a night of pre- their instruments, to charm forth the 

pantion in some parts of England for the rustic from his dwelling, and drink to him 

merriments which, to the present hour, firora a jug of warm ale, spiced with a 

distinguish Twelfth -day. Dr. Drake race of ginger, in the hope of a pittance 

Mentions that it was a practice formerly for their melody, and their wish-^ff was- 

Air itinerant minstrels to bear a bowl sail. Of the wassail-bowl, much ^ill ap» 

of spiced-wine to the houses of the gentry pear before the reader in the after pages 

and others, fraai whom they expected a of this work. 

hospitable reception, and, calling their In certain parts of Deronshim, the 

bowl a wassail-bowl, to drink wassail to farmer, attended by his workmen, with a 

their entertainers. These merry sounds large pitcher of cider, goes t(k the orchard 

of mirth and music are not extinct. There this evening ; and there, encircling one of 

are still places wherein the wandering the best bcniring trees, lliey drink the fol* 

blower of a clarionet, and the poor scraper lowing toast three times : 


^ Here's to thee, old apple-U%e, 
hence thou roayst bud, and whence tlyra mayst blow ! > 

And- whence thou mayst bear apples enow 1 
.« Hats full! capsfiilll 

Bushel — ^bushel — sacks full. 

And my pockets full too ! Huzza !*' 

This done, they return to the house, the apple-trees, pasi»ine by those that are not 
doors of which they are sure to find good bearers, he addresses it in the-4i:yf- 
bolted by the females, who, be the wea- lowing words : 
ther what it may, are inexorable to alien- * Health to thee, good apple-tree, 
treaties to open them till some one has Well to bear, pocket-fuils, hat-fulls, 
guessed at what is on the spit, which is Peck-fulls, bushel-bag-fuUs !' 
generafly some nice little thing, difficult And then drinking up part of the contents* 
to be hit on, and is the reward of him who he throws the rest, with the fiagments of 
first nam^ it. The doors are then thrown the roasted apples, at the tree. At each 
open, and the lucky clodpole receives the cup the company set up a shout/' 
tit-bit as his recompense. Some are so Pennant, in his tour in Scotland, say$ 
superstitious ;is to believe, that if they respecting this cusiom, that after ihcy 
neglect this-custom, the trees vriU bear no^^^bave drank a cheerful glass to their mas- 
apples that y»^-^ TtTthe precejUng-par- ter's health, with success to the future 
ticulars, whi^^re relatMhtfTtfie Gentle- harvests, and expressed their good wishes 
man's Magaziife for 1791, may be added in the same way, they feast off cakes made 
that Brand, db the authority Qt a. Coniish-_. of. xara ways and other seeds soaked in 
man, reU|fe it as a custom with the cider, which they claim as a reward for 
Oevonillift people to go after supper into theit past labours in sowing the grain. 
the orchard, witn a large milk-pan full of " This," says Pennant, " seems to resem- 
cider, having roasted apples pressed into ble a custom of the ancient Danes, who, 
it. " Out of this each person in company in their addresses to their rural denies. 
takes, what is called a clayen cup, that is emptied, on every invocation, a cup in 
an earthenware cup full of liquor, and honour of them." 
funding under sach of the more fruitful ^o also Brand tells us that, in llcie- 

49 ni£ EVERY-DAY B0OK.-JANUAHT 6 44 

fordihire, ^ at tfat appMMicli of erenhig vml of Chrifiiiiat uied in thii part of Um 
on th« TigU of the twelfth day, the fiimi- omintiy to hold tor twenty days, and soom 
era, with their friends and semutts, meet persons extended it to Candlemas.) The 
together, and about six o'clock walk out to ingredients put into the bowl, Tix. ale, 
aneld where wheat is growing. In the sugar, nutmeg, aod roasted apples, were 
highest part of the ground, tweWe small usually called lambs -wool, and the night 
fires and one large one are lighted up. The on which it is used to be drunk (generally 
attendants, hnded by the master of the ia^ on the twelfth eve) was commonly called 
roily, pledge thecompanyio old cider ,which Wassil eve.*' The glossary to the Ex- 
circulates fireely on these occasions. A more dialect has "Watsail — a drinking 
circle b formed round the large fire, when song on twelfth-day eve, throwing toast 
a general shout and hallooing takes place, to the apple-trees, in order to have a 
whidi you hear answered from all the ad- fruitful year, which seems to be a relic o\ 
jaoent Tillages and fields. Sometimes the heathen sacrifice to Pomona.'' 
fifty or sixty of these fires may be all seen Urand found it observed in the ancieat 
at once. This beinc finished, the com- calendar of the Romish church, that on 
pany return home, vmre the good house- the fifth day of January, the eve or vigH 
wiiiB and her maids are preparing a good of the Epiphany, there were ** l^ing* 
•ujpper. A large cake is always prorided, created or elected by beans ;'* that the 
with a hole in the middle. After supper, sixth of the month is called "The Festi- 
the company all attend the bailin (or val of Kings ;** and '* that this ceremooj 
head of the oxen) to the vrain-house, of electing kings was continued with 
where the following particulars are oh- feasting for many days." 
served. The master, ai the head of his Twelfth-night eve or the rigil of the 
friends, fills the cup, (^eralW of strong Epiphany is no way observed in London. 
ale,) and stands opposite the first or finest Tnere Twelfth-day itself comes with little 
of the oxen. He then pledges him in a of the pleasure that it offered to our fore- 
carious toast : the company follow his ex- Others. Such observances have rapidly 
ample with all the other oxen, addressing disappeared, and the few that remain are 
eaoi by his name. This being finished, still more rapidly declining. To those who 
the large cake is produced, and, with much are unacquainted with their origin they 
ceremony, put on the horn of the first ox, allbrd no associations to connect the pre- 
through the hole above-mentioned. The sent with former ages ; and without sudi 
ox is then tickled, to make him toss his feelings, the few occasions which enat>le 
head : if he throw the cake behind, then us to show a hospitable disposition, or 
it is the mistress's perouisite ; if before, from whence we can obtain unconstrained 
(in what is termed the boosy,) the bailiff cheerfulness, will pass away, and be re- 
himself claims the prixe. llie company membered only as having been, 
tlien return to the nouse, the doors of «_— 
which they find locked, nor will they be 

opened till some jovous songs are sung. SStltUHTP 6« 

(In their gaining admittance, a scene of ^ 

mirth and jollity ensues, and which bsts i-t->— - ( CIom iM>Ud«: 

the peatest part of the night." ^v-«f • ^ .«^ gt— p, 

Mr. Beckwith relates in the Gentle- Si. Mtkmiut. Si. Peier, Si. «Vtlm 

man's Mapzine, 1 784. that " near I^eeds, wtom. 

in Yorkshire, when he was a boy, it was St, Peter was a disciple of Gregory 

customary for many fiimilies, on the the Great, the first abbot of St. Augua- 

twelfth eve of Christmas, to invite their tine's monastery at Canterbury, and 

relations, friends, and neighbours, to their drowned in 608 while proceeding on a 

houses, to play at cards, and to partake voyage to France. According to Cressy, 

of a supper, of which minced pies were the inhabitanu buried his body without 

an indispensable ingredient ; and after knowing any thing about him, till " a 

supper was brought in, the wassail cup or heavenly light appeared every ni^bt over 

wassail bowl, of which every one partook, his sepulture," when thev held an inquest, 

by taking with a spoon, out of the ale, a and a count Fumert buried him in the 

roasted apple, and eating it, and then church of Boulogne. From a quotation 

drinking the healths of the company out in Patrick, it ap|>ears that a w«isel who 

of tiM bowl, wishing them a merry Christ- gnawed his robe wa& found dead upon it 

■•a and a happy ntw year. I'llie fc-^ti- for hi.*> siucine^s. 

iMtUday at all public 

45 THE EVERY-DAY fiOOK.-^ANUAllY ^ 4^ 

spirHAMT. transferred to MiUm, and afterwaida, in 

The Rev. Tlioniaa Dodlcy Fosbrc^ 1164, on Milan being taken by tbe em- 

BI. A. F. A. S^ Iw. wboee ** Encydopv- peror Fradtrick, nmented hf um to the 

dim of Antiqnitiet'' hai been already ated aiditnsbop of Cowgney wbo pot tbem in 

from, if tlie antbor of ** Britiih Monach- the prinopal chmch of that city, ** in 

isan, or, Mannen and Cuitomt of tba wfaitt plaeey" taji Creeij, ^tbey are to 

lloiilctandNiintofEngtand,''4to.1817; tbia day celebrated with greitTentration." 

a noat emdite woik, wherein he gives an Patriae quotes a prayer Id fhem fiom the 

aooonnty froeA Dn Cange, of the FetMt of Romish serricey beginning ** O, king Jas- 

ikf SUttr, or CfjfUt ^f the Three Kinge, par, king Meichior, king BalthasuT «nd 

a catholic semoe pafbnned on this day. ne says tint the Salislmry Missal stat« 

'^Thfee priests, dothed as kings, with their offerings to have been disposed of 

their seivints ean3rinff oierings, met from in this way : — ^"Joseph kept of the gold 

diieicnt directions of the chuidi before as mnch as him needed, to pay his Hi- 

the ahar. The middle one, who came bate to the emperor,and also to keepov 

from the easty pointed with Ids staff to a bdy with while she 1^ in diildbed^ and 

star : a diaiogiie then ensned ; and after the rest he gave to the poor. The incense 

kissing cadi other, they began to sing, he burnt to take off the stendi of the sta- 

'Let OS go and inquirer mu whidi the ble diere as she lajr in; and with the 

weeentor b^an a rcsponaocy, * Let the myrrh, oar lady anointed her child, to 

MagiooBt.' A piocession then conoh keep him from worms and disease.'' 

msDced, and at soos as k bena to enter Fmck makes several observatioiis on the 

the nave, a ci^ w u like a star, nanffing be- service to these three kings of Cologne, 

fofc the craai^ was lii^ted up, and point- and as to the credibiliw of their story; and 

ed euft to the Mm, with * Behold the he inquires what good this prayer will do 

star in the east.* TUa being concluded, to Jasper, Mdchior, and BahMsar, when 

two priests^ standing at eadi ude of the another tradition says their names were 

akar, answered, aMwly, * We are thoae Apdlius, Amerus, and Damascus ; a 

whom vou seek,* and drawing a curtain third, that they were Magahth, Galga- 

showed tbem a diild, whom, felling down, lath, and Sarasin; and a fourth, Ator, 

they worshipped. Then the servants Sator, and Peratoras ? which last, Patrick 

made the offerings of gold, frankincense, says, he should choose in this uncertainty 

and myrrh, which were divided among to call them by, as having the more kingly 

the priests. The Magi in the mean while sound, if it had not been that Casaubon 

continued praying till they dropped represents these three, ''together with 

asleep ; when a boy clothed in an alb, Misael, Achael, Cvriacus, and Stephanus, 

like an angel, addressed them with, * All (the names of the four shepherds that 

thines which the prophets said are fill- came to visit our Lord in Bethlehem,) had 

filled.' The festival concluded with been used (and he talis how) for a charm 

chantiuff services, he.** to cure the biting of serpents and other 

Mr. >osbroke adds, that at Soissons a venomous beasts.'' Patrick gives other 

rope was let down from the roof of the prayers to these three kings, one of them 

church, to which was annexed an iron from the *' Hours of the Virgin," and also 

circle, having seven tapers, intended to quotes this miraculous anecdote; that 

represent Ludfer, or the morning tter. one John Aprilius, when he was hanged. 

The three persons honoured by this implored the patronage of the three kings 

service, and called kings, were the three of Cologne ; the consequence of whi<4> 

wise men who, in catholic works, are seems to hare been, that after he had been 

usually denominated the Three Kings of hung three days and was cut down, he 

Cologne. Cressy tells us, that the em- was found alive ; whereupon he came to 

press Helena, who died about the year Cologne half naked, with his halter about 

328, brought thdr bodies from the east to his neck, and returned thanks to his 

Constantinople ; from whence they were deliverers. 



S«b »rf th» MTiir», thai. >l Ihf fioBt ir.d tide 

or the Tirrrrth tiik«->linpi, Hmttcr wild dttmay , 
A* up tbr ■I1pp'r% curb, «r parrmcDE wiilr. 

We (Mk tbr piiMrjTOfik*, to kwp rvrinb-dtj ; 
Wbilr Itdin »Und uhut, in ppr«r1ilcw (r*n», 
Look round— ditc nut p> back — and yet dare nol adi 

In Londoa, with «*cty putncook in 
Ihc »il;, kod t( llw west tad of the 
towD,it ii "high changr" on Twelfth-day ■ 
From the taking down of the thutten in 
the morninfi, he, vti bit meo, with addi- 
liooal aMitianti, male uhI iemale, an 
fblljr o<:cupied by atleodinfr <o the dmt- 
in^ out at lh( window, executing orden 
. of (h« day befiiie, feeei»ing fresh ones, or 
•appiyiof the want* of chance euaiotDcn. 
Rnore duik the importinl arrsnvciDml 
at the window ii comulited. Then Ihe 
pt M lamed on, wiih supemumriary 
~~ — ' ' « andmanibld wai-ligh(i,to 

illuRiiDaie countless caket of all price* and 
dimension*, ihat stand in rows and pile* 
nn the counlen and sideboard*, and in 
the windows. The richest in flavour and 
heaviest in weight and price are placed 
on large and masiy *atTen ; one, cnor* 
mously superior to Uie rest in siir, is th« 
chief object of curiosity ; and all are de- 
corated with all imaKinable itnai^es of 
things animate and inanimate. Stars, tat- 
tles, kin|r>, cuttMgM, dragons, (reeii, fish, 
|»laces, cais, dogs, diurchcs, lions, milk- 
maids knik-bls. scr|ienti, and innumera- 
ble olhei firrai in ■now--.rhile confection- 


uy, fMinitd with variecrated coloors, gliu mering! and there's a imni with a ham« 

ter bj ^ ezcest of light" from miirors mer ! 

against the walls ifiistooned with artificial ttt Bay. Who pinned that wamam to 

* wonders of Flora.** This ^ paradise of the gentleman? Why there's a doMtm 

dainty deTiceSy** is crowded by successire pinned together. 

and successful desirers of the seasonable Couwiryman, Constable ! constable ! 

delicacies, while alternate tapping of ham- ltd Boy, Here comes the constable. 

saen and peals of laughter, from the Hark at him ! 

Ibioii^ surrounding the house, excite Cotut, Clear away from the doon I Let 

anilcs firom the inmates. the automers go in ! Make way 1 Let 

The cause of these sounds may be in- the cakes come out ! Go back, boy ! 

feifcd from something like this passing I3th Boy. If you please, Mr. Consta- 

ootside. ble, Vm going to buy a cake 1 

CsMteM?. Make way, make way ! Const. Go forward^ then 1 

Clear the way I You boyt stand aside ! Man with cakes. By your leave 1 by 

Comm tryman . What U all tkh ; Is any your leave, 

body iff in the shop ! Const, Clear the way I 

\ai Bay. Nobody, sir ; it's oniy Twelfth ^U the Boys, Iluzia 1 huzza ! Mor4 

day 1 people pinned — and ptenty nailed 

2d Boy, This is a pastryeook^s, up! 

sir; look at the window I There they To explain, to those who may beigno- 

staiid ! fFlUd cakes I rant of the practice. On TwelfUi- 

3d Bay, What pretty ones these are ! night in London, boys assemble round the 

4ik Boy. Only see that I inviting shops of the pastrycooks, and 

5ik Bay, Why it's as large as the hind- dexterously nail the coat-taib of specta- 

wbed ofacoach,and howMfcik/ . tors, who venture near enough, to the 

6tk Bay, Ah ! it*s too big to come out bottoms of the window frames ; or pin 

at the door, unless they roll it out. them together strongly by their clothes. 

7th Boy. Wliat elegant figures, and Son^etimes eight or ten persons find them- 

what iiof# of sweetmeats! selves thus connected. The dexterity and 

Qth Boy. See the flowers ; they look force of the nail driving is so quick' and 

almost like real ones. sure, that a single blow seldom fadls of 

Cmtutryman. What a crowd inside ! doing the business eflectually. With- 

^th Boy. How the people of the house drawal of the nail without a proper in- 

are packing up all the good things ! stniment is out of the question ; and, con- 

Countryman. What a beautifitl lady sequently, the person nailed must either 

that is behind the counter ! leave part of his coat, as a cognizance of 

\Oth Bot/. Which? his attachment, or quit the spot with a 

Cotintrifman. Why the young one ! hole in it. At ever}' nailing and pinning 

\Qth Boy. What her ^ oh, xhc's the shouts of laughter arise from the perpe- 

pastrycook's daughter, and the other's trators and the spectators. Yet it often 

ncr mother. happens to one ^^ho turns and smiles 

Conntryman. No, no ; not her ; 1 at the duress of another, that he also finds 

mean her, there. him^^elf nailed. Eflorts at exiiication in- 

lOM Boy. Oh, her ; she^s the shop- crease niinh, nor is the presence of a con- 
woman ; all the pastrj-cooks always trj' stable, who is usually employed to attend 
to get handsome ladies to serve in the and preserve free " ingress, egress, and 
shop ! retyress," sufficiently awful to deter the 

Wth Boy. I say, I say! halloo! here's offenders, 

a piece of work ! Look at this gentleman — Scarcely a shop in London that offers a 

aext to me — his coat-tail's nailed to the halfpenny plain bun to the purchase of a 

window I Ixx)k, look ! hungry boy, is without Twelfth-cakes and 

Countryman. Aye, what? finery in the windows on Twelfth-day. 

All the boys. Ah ! ah ! ah ! Huzza. Tlie gingerbread-bakers — there are not 

Countryman. Who nailed my coat-tail ? many, compared with their number when 

Constable ! the writer was a consumer of their manu- 

12^4 Boy. That's the boy that's got facturcd goods, — even the reduct-d gin- 

the hammer ! gerbread-bakers periwig a few plum-buns 

2d Boy. What me ? why MWV the with sugar-frost lo-day, and coaxinjjly in- 

boy — ;*A^rr ; ard there'- rT?f''^'!n-lK.\ l.nm- fcrpolatc thcin amonsr t)nir n^'w nmdc 


siMt» Wlh ••to, ptrliunetit, and Udiei* same sim, and number each oil te back % 

lingen. Tbeir staple-ware hat leares of taking care to make the king No. 1, aai 

otaraiihid dntrh gilt iturf tn : ihH — p the queen No. S. Then prepare ud, 

iifbc cyiinder-^Md show-glaasee, con number the gentlemen's characters. Caaae 

taming peppermmt-dropa, elecampane, tea and coffee to be handed to your mil* 

•tttaf-iticks»naid-bake,Drandy-baUs,and ors as they drop in. When all are an* 

btuis'-eyes, am caveAiUy polished ; their sembled and tea orer, put as omny ladicif 

loUy-pops are firesh encased, and look diaraciers in a reticule as there are IndnM 

as while ai the stems of tobacco-pipes ; present ; next put the gentlemen's di»» 

and their oandlestidES are ornamented racters in a hat. Then call on a gentle^ 

with fiUets and bosses of writing paper ; man to carry the reticule to the ladies as 

or, if the candles rise from the bottom of they sit, from which each lady is to draur 

mverted glass cones, they shine more one ticket, and to preserve it unopened, 

n>arkling for the thorough cleaning of Select a lady to bc^r the hat to the gen- 

Iheir veoeivers in the morning. tlemen for the same purpose. There will 

How to esl Twelfth-cake requires no be one ticket left in the reticule, and ano- 

recipe ; but how to proTide it, and draw ther in the hat, which the lady and ge»* 

the characters, on the authority of Rachel tleman who carried each is to interdiange, 

Befd's ** Winter ETcning Pastimes," as baring fidlen to each. Next, arrange 

may be acceptable. First, buy your cake, your risitors according to their numbers ; 

Then, before your visitors arriTC, buy the king No. 1, the queen No. 2, and «o 

jrour characters, eadi of which ihould on. Ine king is then to recite the vene 

have a pleasant verse beneath. Neit look on his ticket ; then the queen the verse on 

at your invitation list, and count the num- hers ; and so the characters are to proceed 

ber ci ladies yon eipect ; and afterwards in numerical order. This done, let the 

the number cif sentlemen. Then, take as cake and refineshments go round, and heyl 

menv female characters as you have in- for merriment I 
nied ladies; fold them up, exactly of the 

They come ! they cone ! each blue-eyed sport. 
Hie Twellth-aight king and all his court— 

Tb Mirth fresh crown'd with mistletoe ! 
Music with her merry fiddles, 

Joy ** on light fantastic toe," 
Wh with all bis jests and riddles, 

Siofing and dancing as they go. 
And Love, youag Love, among the rest, 
A welcome -» nor unbidden guest. 

Twelfth-day is now only commemorated nance uf character is essential to the 

by the custom of choosing king and queen, drawing. Within the personal obeerva- 

'^ I went," says a correspondent in the tionofUie writer of these sheets, character 

Universal Magaiinefort 77 V to a friend's l»s never been preserved. It must be 

house in the country to partake of some admitted, however, that the Twelfth-night 

of those innocent pleasures that constitute characters sold by the pastrycooks, are 

a mernf Christmas. I did not return till either commonplace or gross — when gen- 

I had been present at drawins king and teel they are inane ; when humoroue, 

queen, and eaten a slice of the Twelfth- they are vulgar. 

rake, made by the &ir hands of my good Young folks anticipate Twelfth-niglht 

friend's consort. After tea vesterday, a as a full source of innocent glee to their 

noble cake was produced, and two bowls, light little hearu. Where, and whet m 

containing the fortunate chances for the he who would negative hopes of haippt- 

differeot sexes. Our host fiUed up the ness for a few short hours in the ivf- 

tickeU; the whole company, except the spring of life? A gentle spirit in tne 

king and Queen, were to be ministers of London Magazine beautifully sketches a 

state, maids of honour, or ladies of the scene of juvenile enjoyment this evening : 

^hed-chamber. Our kind host and hostess, ** I love to see an acre of cake spread out 

whether by design or accident, became *-the sweet frost covering the rich earth 

king and queen. According to Twelfth- below — studded all over with glittering 

^y ^^» eseh pmrty is to support their fbwera, like ice-planU, and red and green 

-— '^ tW midaigbt/* The mainte- kiioU of fweeimeaX^ and Wlow yellov 




cmled erowDSy and kings and queens, 
and their Daraphemalia. I delight to see 
sooie ot happy children sitting huddled 
all round the dainty iare, eyeing the cake 
and each other, with hoe» sunny enough 
to thaw the white snow. I like to see 
the Razinc^ silence which is kept so reli- 
giously while the large knife goes its 
fooiid, and the glistening eyes which 
feed beforehand on the huge slices, dark 
with citron and plums, and heavy as 
gold. And then, when the " Characters *' 
are drawn, is it nothing to watch the 
peeping delight which escapes from their 
nttie eyes ? One is proud, as king ; ano> 
Iher stately, as queen ; then there are two 
whispering grotesque secrets which they 
cannot contain (those are sir Gregory 
Goose and sir Tunbelly Clumsy.) Ihe 
boys laugh out at their own misfortunes ; 
but the little girls (almost ashamed of 
their priies) sit blushing and silent. It 
is not until the lady of the house goes 
round, that some of the more extravagant 
fictions are revealed. And then, what a 
roar of mirth! Ha, ha! The ceiling 
shakes, and the air is torn. They bound 
from their seats like kids, and insist on 
seing Miss Thompson*s card. Ah ! what 
merry spite isproclaimed — what ostenta- 
tious pity ! Tne little girl is almost in 
teais ; but the large lump of allotted cake 
is placed seasonably in her hands, and 
the glass of sweet wine ' all round ' 
drowns the shrill uichin laughter, and a 
gentler delight prevails." Does not this 
make a charming picture ? 

There is some difficulty in collecting 
accounts of the manner wherein Twelfth- 
niflrht is celebrated in the country. In 
" Time's Telescope," an useful and enter- 
taining annual volume, there is a short 
reference to the usage in Cumberland, and 
other northern parts of England. It seems 
that on Twelfth-night, which finishes their 
Christmas holidays, the rustics meet in a 
large room. They begin dancing at seven 
o'clock, and finish at twelve, when they 
sit down to lobscouse, and ponsondie ; 
the former is made of beef, potatoes, and 
onions fried together ; and in ponsondie 
we recognise the wassail or waes-hael of 
ale, boiled with sugar and nutmeg, into 
which are put roasted apples, — the an- 
ciently admired lambs'- wool. The feast 
is paid for by subscription : two women 
are chosen, who with two wooden bowls 
placed one within the other, so as to 
Uave an f^>€ning stnd a space between 

them, go round to the female part of Aie 
•oeiety in succession, and what one puts 
into the uppermost bowl the attendant 
collectress slips into the bowl beneath it. 
All ve expected to contribute something, 
but not more than a shilling, and they 
are best esteemed who give most. The 
men choose two from themselves, and 
follow the same custom, except that as 
the gentlemen are not supposed to be 
altogether so feir in their oealings as the 
ladies, one of the collectors is furnished 
with pen, ink, and paper, to set down 
the subscriptions as soon as received. 

If a satirical prophecy in " Vox Gra- 
culi,'' 4to. 1623, may be relied on as 
authority, it bears testimony to the popu- 
larity of Twelfth-night at that period. On 
the 6th of January the author declares, 
that '' this day, about the houres of 5, 6, 
7, 8, 9, and 10, yea, in some places till 
midniglit well nigh, will be sucn a mas- 
sacre of spice-br^Ml, that, ere the next day 
at noon, a two-penny browne loafe will 
set twenty pooie folkes teeth on edge. 
'^^'hich hungry humour will hold so vio- 
lent, that a number of good fellowes will 
not refuse to give a statute-marchant of 
all the lands and soods they enjoy, for 
half-a-crown*s worth of two-penny pas- 
ties.*' He further affirms, that there will 
be *^ on this night much masking in the 
Strand, Cheapside, Ilolboume, or Fleet- 

" The twelve days of Christmas," as the 
extent of its holidays, were proverbial ; 
but among labourers, in some parts, the 
Christmas festivities did not end till C^an- 
dlemas. Old Tusser, in his **Five Hun- 
dred Points of good Husbandry," would 
have the merriments end in six days ; he 
begins January with this advice to the 
countiyman : 

When Christmas is ended, 

bid feasting adue, 
Goe play the good husband, 

thy stock to renue : 
Be mindful of rearing, 

in hope of a gainr. 
Dame Profit shall give thee 

reward for thy paine. 

This was the recommendation of prudence 
tempered by kindness ; a desire for dili- 
gence in the husbandman, with an allow- 
ance of reasonable pastime to sweeten 
his labour. «^ 

From NaogeoFgus, in " The Popish 
Kingdome," a poem before quoted, and 
which will be tre(:\uenV\^ TekiTt^ Vo Iw 
If 5 lore regarding our anc'ienX cusXoxfta, "\\ 




» 10 be gathered, that the king of Twelfth- 
night, after the maimer of royalty, ap- 
pointed his offioen. lie himself attained 
his dignity thus : 

Then also etery he m ehelder, 

to his ahtlific. 
Doth make a aiightie caksi that may 

suffice his comasBie t 
ll«f«ia a peouie doth he pui^ 

belbcc it cosoe to fire. 
This he divides according as 

bit hooieholde doth require, 
Abd every peece diitributcth, 

as round shout they stand, 
Which in their names onto the poors 

it given out of hsnd : 
But who M chaunceth on the peece 

wherein the money lies, 
Is counted king amongst them all, 

snd it with thowtes and cries 
Etalted to the heavens up. 

Mr. Fofthroke notices, that " the cake 
-was full of plums, with a bean in it for 
the kinfT, and a pea for the queen, so as 
to determine them by the slices. Some- 
times a penny was put in the cake, and 
the person who obtained it, becoming 
king, crossed all the beams and rafters 
of the house against devils. A chafing- 
dish with burning frankincense was also 
lit, and the odo«ir snuffed up by the whole 
femily, to keep off* disease for the year. 
After this, the master and mistress went 
round the house with the nan, a taper, 
and a loaf, against witchcraft.** 

So Car Mr. KoAbroke abrid^e^ Naogeor- 
gus*s account, which goes on to say, that 

— in these Ja\es betide. 
They iudce whst «%rutlHrr all the yeare 

taair happen and bctiJe.- 
Atciiting to esrh day a month, 

snd at thii pretent lime. 
The youth in every plsre doe Bocke, 

and ■!! sppsrel d fine. 
With pypars thrtNi^^h the itreetet they runoe, 

aiM tinge nt every dore. 

There ciciet are, where boyes and g\ ile^, 

tojtether ttill do runue, 
About thestreete with like, as toone 

a« night bcifinnet to come. 
And bring ahrodc their wastel bowlet, 

who well rewarded bee. 
With eakes and rheeie, and great good cheare. 

and money pleiitroutler. 

(hieen KJixabt'th's I^rogresses by Mr. 

Nichols rontain an entertainment to her 

'at Sudh-y, whi*rein were Meliba-us, the 

kiagof the B<ran, and Nisa, the queen of 

^^M Cat ike cmke : whohalh the kfn^, 

shall l>e King; and where the pemxg ii, 
she shall be Queene. 

^ \i§. I have the pemse, and must be 

" Alei. I have the beane, and King ; ( 
must commande.*' 

Pinkerton's ** Ancient Scotish Poema,^ 
contain a letter from sir Thomas Ran- 
dolph, oueen Eliiabeth's chamberlain of 
the Eacoequer, to Dudley lord I^ioestar, 
dated from Edinburgh on the 15th Janu- 
ary, 1563, wherein he mentions, that Lady 
Flemyng was '* Queen of the Been*" on 
Twelfth-day in that year : and in Ben Jon- 
son*s Masque of Christmas, Baby-cake, 
one of the characters, is attended by *' an 
Usher, bearing a great cake with a bean, 
and a pease.* Ilerrick, the \\nei of oitf 
festivals, has several allusions to the cele- 
bration of this da^ by our ancestors : the 
poem here subjomed, reoognises its cos* 
toms with strict adherence to truth, and in 
pleasant strains of joyousAess. 

TwiLra-NicHT, oa Kino akd QrisMK. 

Now, DOW the mirth comes 

With the cake full of plumt, 
Where beane's the king of the sport hers 

Betide, we mutt kiu>w, 

The pea alto 
Must revell, as queene in the court here. 

Begin then to chu^, 

Thit night as ye u«e, 
Wlio thall for the present delight here. 

Be a king by the lot. 

And who sliall nut 
Be Twelfe-day queene fui the night here* 

Which knawue. let ut make 

Joy-sopt with the cake ; 
And let not a man then be teen here. 

Whounurg'd mill not drinke. 

To the have from tlie brink, 
A health to tlie king and the queene here. . 

Ne\t crowne the bonilc ful. 

With gentle laiiibs-wooU ; 
Adde sugar, nut me};, and gingfr. 

With store of ale. too ; 

And thus ye mutt doe 
Tu make the wa^taile a swinger. 

Give them to the king 

And queene wassailing ; 
And though with ale ye be whet here ; 

Vrt part ye from hence. 

As free from offence. 
As when ye innocent met here. 

A cit Ation by Braiul represents the ancient 
Twelfth- ni;;ht-cukL* tu nave been compoa* 
ed of Hour, liuncy, ginger, and pepper. 
The maker thrust in, at random, a snujl 
coin as she was kneading it. When baked, 
it WIS di\id»d mto as usany parti as thve 


e pcTMCs in tiie fiubfly, aad Mck had drew lott for kingdomi, aad likt kiiw 

hm than. Pbftioiu of it were abo aa- exeirised their temporaiy authority." la- 

stoned to Christ, the Virgin, and the deed, it appears, that the question ii 

tktfee Magi, and were given in alms. - aknost at rest. BIr. Fosbioke affirms that 

"the king of Saturnalia was elected by 

On Twelfth-day the people of Ger- beans, and that from thence came our 

nany and the students of its academies kmgand queen on this day." The coinci- 

«hoie a king with great ceremony and dence of the election by bemu having 

snnptQoos feastings. been common to both customs, leaves 

In France, the Twelfth-cake is plain, scarcely the possibility of doubt thai 

with a bean ; the drawer of the slice con- ours is a continuation of the heathen 

tainittg the bean is king or queen. AU practice under another name. Yet " some 

drink to her or his majesty, who reigns, of the observances on this day are the 

aad receives homage from all, during remains of Druidical, and other supersti- 

Ihe evening. There is no other drawing, tious cerei^pnies." On these points, if 

and consequently the sovereign u the Mr. Fosbroke's Dictionary of Antiquities 

only distingnished character. In Nor- be consulted by the curious inquirer, he 

■Bomdy tfaev place a child under the will there find the authorities, and be in 

table, which is so covered with a cloth other respects gratified, 
that he cannot see ; and when the cake 

, one of the company taking up The Eftiphanif is called TwMtk-dag^ 

the iiit piece, cries out, ^ Fabe Domini because it fidb on the twelfth day after 

rir qui r* The diild answers, ** Pour Christmas-day. Ej^pMany signifies ma- 

boo Dien:" and in this manner the nifestaiion, and is applied to this day 

pieces are allotted to the company. If because it is the day whereon Christ was 

the bean be ibnnd in the piece for the manifested to the Gentiles. Bourne in 

** bon Dieo,^ the king is chosen by draw- his Vulgar Antiquities, which is the sub- 

jBg long or short straws. Whoever gets structure of Brand's Popular Antiquities, 

the beui chooses the king or queen, remarks that this is the greatest of the 

according as it happens to be a man or twelve holidays, and is therefore more 

woman. According to Brand, under the jovially ofaserved, by the visiting of friends 

old order of things, the Epiphany was and Christmas gambols, than any other, 
kept at the French court by one of the Finally, on observances of this festival 

courtiers being chosen king, and the not connected with the Twelfth-night 

other nobles attended an entertainment king and . queen. It is a custom, in 

oc the occasion ; but, in 1792, during the many parishes in Gloucestershire on this 

rerolution. La Fete de Rots was abo- day to light up twelve small fires and 

lished; Twelfth-day was ordered to be one large one; this is mentioned by 

called La FeU de SanM-Culoiiee ; the old Brand : and Mr. Fosbroke relates, that in 

frast was declared anti-civic ; and any some countries twelve fires of straw are 

priest keepiner it was deemed a royalist, made in the fields <' to bum (he old 

The Literary Pocket Book affirms, that at witch,** and that the people sing, drink. 

La File di Rois the French monarch and dance around it, and practise other 

and his nobles waited on the Twelfth- ceremonies in continuance. He takes 

night king, and that the custom was not ^ the old witch *' to be the Druidical God 

sevived on the return of the Bourbons, of Death. It is stated by sir Henry Piers, 

but that instead of it the royal frunily in genl. Vallancey*s " Collectanea,*' that, 

washed the feet of some people and gave at VVestmeath, ** on Twelve-eve in Christ- 

them alms. m^i they use to set up as high as they 

can a sieve of oats, and in it a dozen of 

There is a difference of opinion as to candles set round, and in the centre one 
the arigrin of Twelfth-day. Brand says, larger, all lighted ; this in memory of our 
'* that though its customs vary in different saviour and his apostles, lights of the 
countries, yet they concur in the saine world." Sir Henry's inference may reason- 
end, that is, to do honour to the Eastern ably be doubted ; the custom is probably 
Magi." He afterwards observes, *^that of higher antiquity than he seems to have 
the practice of choosing * king,' on suspected. 

Twelnh-day, is similar to a custom that A very singular fnemmenl m VV\« U\« 

eriited among^ the smdent Greeks and of Man if mentioned by V»aldwn,\TiYv\a 

Jtnmans^ who, on the festival days of . history of that place. He sa.'MV ^^^^^^ 


'tMM, thart b Dot ■ bun unoccupied, and ^emispbere. At Ihc btginniiig of Jmaw- 

tb*t arcry patith bim fiddler* u Ih* aiy the earth ii at iU iNM diaiaacc fro^ 

VoMic ehar)!*. On Twclfth-daf, tba the nn, which i* proved bv iiiea*uriiif 

Udlar Ivr* bii head in aoat* one of the the appai«nt magnitude of that lamiaaif 

gitli' lapi, and a third pciWn aiki, who by ineaiii of an inMrument called a 

•orb a Diaid, or nicb a maid iball mairj, niCTometer, his di»c being now aboot 

naming the girli tbcn pmcnt one after 32 minuiei of a degree ; when 

; ta which be anawcn aecotding at ih« oppouie mmod, or at the bcgin- 
-WD whim, or agtMble to the niog of July, near out llidiuromer, hi* 
« be ba* taken notice of during apparent diameter it only abeut 31 

tbii time of merTimcnt. But whaieTcr mioutei. The coldneM of winter tli 

he ny* ii a* abaohitely depended on u fore doei not depend on the diitann 

an oracle; and if be luppena to couple of the earth from (he >nn, but on the 

two people who have an aTetiion to each Tery oblique ur »linling direction of W 

olbcT, tear* and veution ^cceed the rays ; lest heat felling on any given pan 

-miitb. Thia they call cutting off the of the earth, than when the rayi &II mon 

Mdtei'B bead ; for, after thii, tie it dead direct. From the slanting directioa at 

tat Iha whtle nar." hit rayi (hey pais througli a mor* iam» 

ll appears from tbe Gentleman's Ma- region of the aimospbeie, and are aom9- 

Eitine, that on Twelfth-day 1T31, the what intercepted; wliile another cauaa 

ng amd the prince at tbe ehapri niyai, of i|k cold ii the nhortness of our daja 

St. James's, made thnr offerings at the and the length of our nighu ; tbe saa 

•liar, of gt^, feankiDcenw, and myrrh, continuing only aligui seven hours aud a 

according to custom, and that at night half above the huriiun, while he is ihn m 

ibair majeatie*, Ite. played at haiard tot for about siiteen huun and a h^lC. 
the benefli of tbe groom-poner. These This position uf tlie earth relatively to 

«6eri»gi which clearly originate from the lun ii eiemplifird id the Popubff 

the Romaa cbnrch, and are not analocou* Lectures oi 

nyof tbe church of Eng- at the Ai , 

to be annually made ; with Cateatoo-atrect, by Mr. John Walli», i 

•, however, that the king ii TWeadajr and Tkmdof rveaingi. 

by proay in the penon of eiplan— '- ' ''-' "- - - 

■■-'"--' the b ' ■ 

faniiliarly and beaulifuUy illastrated. bf 

Id other respects tbe procMding* an original and ipleulid apparatus d»- 

■n conducted with (be usual state. viicd and con*triiL'(rd by hu own huda. 

It consiid of ei(c'iisi*e mechaniMn an4 

THE uaMw. numerms brilliant tmn^partncies. Mr. 

^ . Walli*'s lectures on TWiday and ITmrm- 

H|H^P^^HBH^^HQfiHM Jag neit, the IHth and 30th of January 

^ ^^B^H **"' "• """l" '■'* patronage of the 

JP^^ — ^ '^ •-^ nSI ''""' 'U*>'"' "'''^ '1 ' ""'* niode of 

^E I W -■>; '''{Sl^H acquiring aitronnmiml knowlrdgc, ae- 

^b V_/ T ; ' ''^flfiaSl companird liy tin- dcllKhtful gratiftcatioB 

^■E^A^- ^^^^^^^1 of witneiMnic a display ol the beaveo* 

'^^HH^^^^^^H^^^^^m^^^^B more bcwitchini; the mind can cno- 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^W leive. Ladm, and young persona eapa- 

Hidwinicr is over. According t« at- cially, ha>e a deluihliul opportunity of 

trooomical redooutg, we b«*a juit passed being agrmbly entertained bv the novHty 

ihatpuiDl in (be evth'ioibtt, where tbe and beuuty of thi- eihiliition and llv 

north pole IS turned most from (be sun. cluqurnt dnciiptiiins of the enlightened 

Tbu pusilian ii r epr aa e m ed in the dia- lecturer. 

gran alravr, by ine diicction of the 

(Mlainator, or boundaiy lice of light and 

darkness, which u aeen to divide tbe The kollj with id ipj bemea, and 

fkibe mio two «]ual pant ; tbe north lb* " fund ivy," ^tiU klick about our 

•ole, which u the up|ict pole in tbe lioiiws to mainlain the rei-ollectioa of ike 

■fare, and all parts within 33( digfvat, traiDnabla raUiilHs. Lvt ui hope that wc 

b«w( envalapad m cnnstanl darkneai. nuy coiwnitulale each Mlier on havinf , 

Wa naw inee tba ran aMong the star* whilewv kept (bem,ke|ituunielvrt wiiliui 

«r lb* aeaateUalMM CapiworD ur Kft-giat, compass. MerrinMui witbowi dNcrciion 

«atf U M WMMT m aa whok aotttam . w w ahaat Im wbtcb oaiiua i* aurc ^ 


»• • 


pil oi to kmwy dniget t(» 

<tf' rattio Ml ;!!■» tB ibt 
idlneMCBt €f «lr ova, tliit 
twioi fin «id 


m^Tmo. SLCmmi.. 

A if in the calendftr of fhft 
Uliluid on the (bUowifig day. 
imy. He was a leatned 
Beoraing to Butler, he oofr 
lUhfew ▼etsiofi of the Scrip* 
fte mhahitaots of Palefdne, 
ir jten was separated fttm 
pk dniTchy afterwards con* 
fkf md died after nine years 
te; ^ther br iinniiie or th^ 
tfns dagr, in the year 312. It 
^Mr from Batler, that the 
and of St. Ludan, that to.him 
indebced for his dtstinguisb- 
ftm, which ^ Botler howerer 



r^ after .Twelfth-day was so 
vue it was celebnUed io ho- 
I ndt, which is a distaff heid 
dyfiom whence wool is spun 
I a ball below. It seems that 
g of the flax and tow belonging 
nen, was the men's diversion in 
ig of tibe first day of labour 
tai^e da^s of Christmas^ and 
3incn repaid the interruption to 
gtiy br sluicing the mischief 
Hfny* tells us of the custom 

^ Airry» 

^An aiithfnrir mmAU^ 
miratif* i{fttf 


7ik iia§§ ^Jmmmtff 1 77% 

P« ddy, or the morrow aJUr 

Mb. and partly plaj, 
«aS. Distaff 'sdmy: 
epiooghfcoonefree 3rour teame» 
ne home and fother them. 
■ides a spinaing goe, 

he flax, and fire the tow ; 

• • • 

I pailes of water then, 
maides hewash the men : 
VtiMMSt all the right, 
d Christmas sport good-mght. 
at morrow, every one 

r «iB^ when boistenms divert 
t litter ffmtad to die snnplicity 

iki eammd mad tfi^ukdin i^ 'iMi 

Umgrnodk^tkemT ■ ■ ■ • \ 

This it the title of an oetanro tnel ImiIk 
liihed in «" LoodoD^printad fiilr J. MM, 
bookaeiler, in St Martin'aJaM, 1771^ 
It dcaeribei Mrs. Golding, n ekMf 
lady, at Slookwett, in whoaa hmm M 
tianaactioiia iHippcBcd^ as c fNMMi' fn 
noUemisbed hooomiavd dttrMler; \ltk 
niece, Mrs. Paih, as the wile of a fumdk 
at Brixton-causeway, the mother of settf- 
ral children, and well known and r^ 
spected in the parish; Mary Martili 
as an dderly woman, servant to M#. 
and Mrs. Pain, with whom she had ll?ed 
two y^us, having previoiisly lis«d foifr 
years with Mrs. Golding, from whom 
she went into Mrs. Pain's service ; and 
Ridiard Fowler and Sarah, his wife, as an 
hoiWiC;MMttioi% asd sobareonpley who 
livid about opposite to Mr. Pain, aft tbh 
Bikk-ponnd. These were the subseiih|;' 
ing witnesses to many of the Burprifii|fi( 
transactions^ which were likewise wit» 
nesaed by some others. Another pelMlb 
who bore aprindpal part in tkesb aeMieft 
was Anil 'Kotrinson, aged dbcnk U^tf 
years, vrho had lived servant with Mrs. 
Golding Iwt oilr week and three dm. 
The ^astottidring transactions** in Mnr. 
Golding's honse were these : 

On Twelfth-day 1772, about ten o'clodc 
in the forenoon, as Mrs. Golding was lA 
her parlour, she heard the china and 
glasses in the bade kitchen tumble down 
and break ; her maid came to her and 
told her the stone plates were fidling 
from the shelf; Mrs. Golding went into 
the kitchen and saw them broke. Pre- 
wntly after, a row of platas firom th4 
next shelf Wl down likewise, while sho 
was tere^ nd voMTiMW^^m^^i^ 


Mtonifhed her iniich, and mrhile she was to Mr. Gresham's was a tray fii'il of 

thiukinKahuut ity other things in different china, &c. a japan bread-basket^ ionM 

.pUces began to tumble about, some of mahogany waiters, with some bottles of 

them breaking, attended with violent liquors, jars of pickles, ke. and a oicr 

noises all over the house ; a clock turn- glass, which was taken down by Mr. 

bled down and ihe case broke; a Ian- Saville, (a neighboar ofMrs. Golding^s;) 

tttn that hung on the staircase was he gave it to one Robert flames, who 

thrown down and the glass broke to laid it on the grass-plat at Mr. Gresham's ; 

Sieces ; an earthen pan of salted beef but before he could put it out of hif 

ruke to pieces and the beef fell about ; hands, some parts of the frame on each 

all this increased her surprise, and side flew off; it raining at that time, Mrs. 

brought several persons about her, among Golding desired it might be brooftht 

whom was Mr. Rowlidge, a carpenter, into the parlour, where it was put under 

who gave it as his opinian that the a side-board, and a dressing-^lass along 

foundation was giving way and that the with it ; it had not been there lonff beisiv 

bouse was tumbling down, occasioned by the glasses and china which stood on the 

•the too great weight of an additional side-board, began to tumble about and 

loom erected above : *' so ready," says &11 down, and broke both the glasses to 

the narrative, *' are we to discover natu- pieces. Mr. Saville and others being 

nl causes for every thing!'* asked to drink a glass of wine or rum^ 

Mrs. (folding ran into Mr. Gresham's both the bottles broke in pieces befaio 

house, next door to her, where she fainted, they were uncorked, 

and in tlie interim, Mr. Rowlidge^ and Mrs. Golding*s surprise and fear in* 

other persons, were removing Mrs. Gold- creasing, she did not know what to do 

ing's effects from her house, for fear of or where to go ; wherever she and bar 

the consequences prognosticated. At maid were, these strange, destructive cir- 

this time all was quiet; Mrs. Golding*s cumstances followed her, and how to 

maid remaining in her house, was gone help or free herself from them, was not 

up stairs, and when called upon several in tier power or any other person's pre> 

iimea to come down, for (ear of the dan- sent : her mind was one confused chaos, 

serous situation she was thought to be lost to herself and every thing about her, 

in, she answered very coolly, and after drove from her own home, and afraid 

some time came down deliberately, there would be none other to receive her» 

without any seeming fearful apprehen- she at last left Mr. (vrcsham's, and went 

sions. to Mr. Mayliiig*s, a gentleman at tht 

Mrs. Pain was sent for from Brixton- next door, here she staid about three 

causeway, and desired to come directly, quarters of an hour, during which time 

as her aunt was supposed to be dead;— nothing happened. Her maid staid A 

this was the message to ker. When Mrs. Mr. Gresham's, to help put up what few 

Pain came, Mrs. Golding was come to things remained unbroken of her mistress's, 

herself, but very faint from terror. in a back apartment, when a jar of 

Among the persons who were present, pickles that stood upon a ubie, turatd 

was Mr. Gardner, a surxeon, of Cfapham, upside down, then a jar of raspberry jam 

whom Mn. Pain desired to bleed her broke to pieces. 

aunt, which he did; Mrs. Pain asked Mrs. Pain, not choosing her aunt should 
him if the hUxxl should be thrown away ; stay too long at Mr. Mayling's, for fear 
be dmred it miicht not, as he would of being troublesome, persuaded her to 
examine it when cold. These minute go to her house at Rusn Common, near 
particulars would not be taken notice of, Brixton-causeway, where she would en- 
out as a chain to what follows. For the deavour to make her as happy as she 
next circunutance is of a more astonish- could, hoping by this time all was over ; 
ing nature than any thing that had as nothing had happened at that gantlo- 
preceded it ; the blood that was just man's house while she was there, lliis 
congealed, sprung out of the basin upon was about two o'clock in the af^emooo. 
Ihe floor^ and presently afker the basin Mr. and Miss Gresham were at Mr. 
broke to pieces; thm china basin was Pain's house, when Mn. Pain, Mrs. 
the only tiling bruke belonging to Mr. Golding, and her maid went there. Il 
Ofisham ; a bottle of rum that stood by beioff about dinner time they all dined 
it broke at the same time. togeuer ; in Ihe interim Mrs. Goldiag's 
f4» l&iiy» that were removed stmnl was sent to bar housaioset bow 


things remained. When she returned, ■ stood the tumhler, and a c&ndlestick. A 

she told them nothing had happened since 'case bottle then flew to pieces, 
.they left it. Sometime after Mr. and Miss The next circumstance was, a hara, that 

Gicsham went home, every thing remain- hung on one side of the kitdien chimney, 

iag quiet at Mr. Pain's : bat about eight raised itself from the hook and fell down 

o*docfc in the evening a fresh scene to the ground. Some time after, another 

began ; the firrt thing that happened ham, that hung on the other side of the 

wasy a whole tow of pewter dbhes, ehimn^, likewise underwent the same 

cioepc one, fell from off a shelf to the fate. Then a flitch of bacon, which hung 

middle of the floor, rolled about a little up in the same chimney, fell down, 
while, then settled, and as soon as they All the femily were eye-witnesses to 

were quiet, turned upside down; they these circumstances as well as other per- 

were then put on the dresser, and went sons, some of whom were so alarmed and 

-thimi^ the same a second time : next fell shocked, that they could not bear to stay, 
a whole row of pewter plates from off Atallthetimesof action,Mr9.Golding's 

the second shelf over the dresser to serrant was walking backwards and for- 

the grouDd, and being taken up and put wards, either in the kitchen or parlour, or 

on the dresser one in another, they were wherever some of the family happened to 

thrown down again. Two eggs were be. Nor could they get her to sit down 

upon one of the pewter shelves, one five minutes together, except at one time 

.ot them flew off, crossed the kitchen, ^r about half an hour towards the mom- 

-stnick a cat on the head, and then broke ing, when the family were at prayers in th^ 

to pieces. -pariour ; then all was quiet ; but, in the 

Next Mary Martin, Mrs. Pain's ser- midst of the greatest confusion, she was 

▼ant, went to stir the kitchen fire, she got as much composed as at any other time, 

to the right hand side of it, being a large and vrith uncommon coolness of temper 

chimney as is usual in farm houses, a pestle advised her mistress not to be alarmed or 

and mortar that stood nearer the left hand uneasy, as she said these things could not 

end of the chimney shelf, jumped about be helped. 

six feet on the floor. Then went candle- " This advice," it is observeS in thenar- 

sticks and other brasses : scarce any thing rative, surprised and startled her mistress, 

remaining in its place. After this the almost as much as the circumstances that 

glasses and china were put down on the occasioned it. 'Tor how can we suppose," 

floor for fear of undergoing the same fate, says the narrator, *^ that a girl ot about 

A glass tumbler that was put on the twenty years old, (an age when female ti- 

floor jumped about two feet and then midity is too often assisted by superstition,) 

broke. Another that stood by it jumped could remain in the midst of such cala- 

about at the same time, but did not break mitous circumstances, (except they pro- 

lill some hours after, when it jumped again ceeded from causes best known to herself,) 

and then broke. A china bowl that stood and not be struck with the same terror as 

in the parlour jumped from the floor, to every other person was who was present, 

behind a table that stood there. This These reflections led Mr. Pain, and at the 

was most astonishing, as the distance from end of the transactions, likewise Mrs. 

where it stood vras between seven and Golding, to think that she was not altoge- 

etgfat feet, but was not broke. It was ther so unconcerned as she appeared to be." 
put back by Richard Fowler, to its place. About ten o'clock at night, they sent 

where it remained some time, and then over the way to Richard Fowler, to desire 

flew to pieces. he would come and stay with them. He 

The next thing that followed was a mus- came and continued till one in the mom- 

Urd-pot, that jumped out of a closet ing, when he was so terrified, that he 

and vras broke. A single cup that stood could remain no longer. 
upon the table (almost the only thing re- As Mrs. Golding could not be persuad- 

raaining) jumped up, flew across the ed to go to bed, Mrs. Pain, at one o'clock, 

kitchen, ringing like a bell, and then was made an excuse to go up stairs to her 

dashed to pieces against the dresser. A youngest child, under pretence of getting 

tumbler with rum and water in it, that it to sleep ; but she really acknowledged it 

stood upon a waiter upon a table in the was through fear, as she declared she 

oarlour, jumped about ten feet and was could not sit up to see such strange things 

broke. The toble then fell dovm, and going on, as every thing one after another 

along with it a silver tankard belongingto was broken, till there was not above two or 

Mrs. GMing^ the waiter in wrhidi had three cupi and laucers Ten\am\i\% o\k\ qI \ 



considmbleqaanuty of china, Iccwhidi six and aeven o*c1ock oik Tuesday morii- 

wai destroyed to toe amount of tome iog. At Mrs. Golding's were broken llie 

pounds. quantity of three fwils full of glavy 

About fire o*c1pck on Tuesday momUig, diina, eic. Mrs. Paui*s filled two paib. 

the 7th, Mrs. uolding went up to hw The accounts here related are in the 

niece, and desired her to get 'up, as the words of the ^^arrative," whidi bears the 

noises and destruction were so great she attestation of the witnesses before hmb- 

could continue in the house no longer, tinned. The affiur is still remembered by 

Mrs. Golding and her maid went over the many persons : it is usually denominated 

war to Hichard Fowler's: when Mrs. the '* Stockwell Ghost," and deemed 

Gfiiding's maid had seen her safe to inexplicable. It must be recollected, 

Richard Fowler's, the came back to Mrs. however, (hat the mysterious raove- 

Fkin, to help her to dress the children in ments were never made but when Ann 

the bam, where she had carried them for Robinson, Mrs. Golding*s maid-scr- 

fcar of the house falling. At this time vant, was present, and that they wboilv 

all was quiet : they then went to Fuwler's, ceased when she was dismissed. Thougti 

and then began the same scene as had these two circumstances tend to prove thai 

happened at the other places. All was this girl was the cause of the disturbance^ 

quiet here as well as elsewhere, till the scarcely any one who lived at that time 

aaid returned. listened patiently to the presumption, or 

When they got to Mr. Fowler's, he bo- without attributing the whole to witchcraft 

to light a fire in his back room. One lady, whom the editor of the Evtff- 

hen done, he put the candle and candle- Datf Book conversed with several timei on 
stick upon a table in the fore room. This the subject, firmly believed in the witch- 
apartment Mrs. Cffolding and her maid craft, because she had been eye-witness 
had passed through. Another candle- to the animation of the inanimate crock- 
stick with a tin lamp in it that stood by cry and furniture, which she said could 
it, were both dashed together, and fell to not have been effected by human niean»— > 
the ground. At last the basket of coals it was impossible. He derived, however, 
tumbled over, and the coals rolling about a solution of these " impossibilities'* firom 
the room, the maid desired Richard ^e late Mr. J. B ■ , at hi^ residence 
Fowler not to let her mistress remain in Southampton-street, Camberwell, lo- 
there, as she said, wherever she was, the wards the close of the year 1817. Mr. 
same things would follow. In conse- B said, all London was in an up- 
quence of this advioe, and fearing greater roar about the ** Stockwell Ghost** for a 
losses to himself, he desired Mrs. Gold- long time, and it would have made more 
ing would quit his house ; but first beg- noise than the *' Cock-lane Ghost,'* if it 
fed her to consider within herself, for her had lasted longer ; but attention to it gra- 
own and the public sake, whether or not dually died away, and most people be- 
she had not been guilty of some ttrocious Ueved it was supernatural. Mr. B , 
crime, for which Providence w^ deter- in continuation, observed, that some years 
mined to punue her on this side the after it happened, he became acquainted 
grave. Mrs. (tolding told him she would with this very Ann Robinson, without 
not stay in his house, or any other person's, knowing for a long time that she had been 
as her conscience was quite clear, and she the servant-maid to Mrs. Cioldintr. lie 
could as well wait the will of Providence learned it by accident, and told her what 
in her own house as in any nther place he had heard. She admitted it was true, 
whatever ; upon which she and her maid and in due season, lie says, he got all the 
went home, and Mrs. Pain went with them, story out. She had fixed long honte hairs 

Aftrr they had got to Mrs. Golding's, a to some of the crockery, and put wire« 

pail of water, that stood on the floor, boil- under others ; on pulling these, the ** mov- 

ed like a pot ; a box of candles fell from ables" of course fell. Mrs. Ck>lding was 

a shelf in the kitchen to the floor, and they terribly fnghtened, and so were all who 

rollf^ o«it, but none wert broken, and the saw any thmg tumble. Ann Robin- 

Uble in the parlour fell over. son her^lC dexterously threw many of 

Mr. Pain thm HeMfNi Mrs. Golding to the things down, whicli the persons pre- 

send her maid for his wife to come to iieot, when they turned round and atfw 

then, and wh^n sbr wa% f;one a!l was them in motion or broken, attnbuted to 

quiet ; upon h^r return »he was immHi- unseen agency. These specutors w<ere 

•lely discharged, and no disturbances all too much alarmed by their own dread 

kMppeaed M/terwMui»; thu was between of infernal power to euiaiiia any thing. 

m tarn evsry-day booil-january r. to 

1hqrkc|i*ataBC«HiildisUiioe,andioiiie- when the earth is softened in fpring. 
tmmt wovld noi look at die nteniihi leil Shrubs and trees, which are exposed t* 
ihej might free fiesh horrors ; of dieM the open air, hare all their soft and tender 
II Ml*i"H opportunities she availed her- parts closely wrapt up in bods, which bj 
ffUl She {Nit the eggs in motion, and their firmness resist au the power of frost; 
after one onlr feU down, threw the other the larger kinds of buds, and those which 
at the cat. Their tenors at the time, and are almost ready to expand, are further 
sobaeaacnt oonrersations magnified guarded by a covering of resin or gum, 
r of the circumstances beyond the such as the horse-chestnut, tlie sycamote, 
. She took advantage of absences and the lime. Their external covering, 
to loQMB the hams and bacon, and attadi however, and the dosenesi of their inter- 
theia by die skins ; in short, she ef- nal texture, are of themselves by no meaai 
fated all the misduet She caused the adequate to resist the intense cold of a 
water in the pail to appear as if it boiled, winter's night : a bud ietmcktd finnn its 
by slippuig in a paper of chemical pow- stem, encU»ed in glass, and thus protects 
den as sha passea, and afterwards it bub- ed from all access of external air, if sos* 
bled. ** Indeed," said Mr. B , pended from a tree during a sharp fiott, 
** there was a love storr connected with will be entirdy penetoatei^ and its parts 
the case, and when I have time, I will deranged by the cold, while the bods on 
wnie oot die whole, as I got it by degrees the same tree will not have sustained the 
ham the vroman herself. When she saw slightest injury ; we must therefine attri- 
AecAeetof her first feats, she was tempi- bute to the l»pii^|Mrmciplr in vegetables, 
cd to exercise the dexterity beyond her as well as animals, the power of resisting 
wigina i purpose for mere amusement, cold to a very considerable degree: in 
She was astonished at the astonishment animals, we know, this power is merated 
she caused, and so went on from one from the decomposition of air oy means 
thing to another ; and being quick in her of the lungs, and disengagement of heat ; 
sacfiiaBs and shrewd, she puzzled all the how vegetables acquire this property re- 
sin^rfe old people, and nearly frightened mains for fiiture observations to discover, 
ihem to death. Mr. B (£uckled If one of these buds be carefully opened, 
migfatilv over his recollections ; he was it is found to consist of young leaves roll- 
fiKKl of a practical joke, and enjoyed the ed together, within which are even all the 
tricks of Ann Robinson with all his heart, blossoms in miniature that are afterwards 
By his arateness, curiosity, and love of to adorn the spring." 
droOeiT, he drew from her the entire con- During the mild weather of winter, 
fesiioQ ; and *^ as the matter was all over slugs are in constant motion preying on 
years ago, and no more harm could be plants and green wheat. Their coverings 
done," said Mr. B., ** I never talked about of slime prevent the escape of animal 
it much, for her sake ; but of this I can heat, and hence they are enabled to ravage 
assure you, that the only magic in the when their brethren of the shell, who are 
thing was, her dexterity and the people's more sensible of cold, lie dormant. Earth- 
simplicity.** Mr. B. promised to put worms likewise appear about this time; 
down the whole on paper ; but he was but let the man of nice order, with a lit- 
ailing azKi infirm, and accident prevented tie garden, discriminate between the de- 
the writer from caring much for a ^ full, stroyer, and the innocent and useful inha- 
true, and particular account," which he bitant. One summer evening, the worms 
coukl have had at ai\y time, till Mr. Bray- from beneath a small grass plat, lay half 
field's death rendered it unattainable. out of their holes, or were dragging 

— ^— - " their slow leogth** upon the surfoce. 

THE SEASON. They were all carefully taken up, and pre- 

Mr. Arthur Aikin, in his *' Calendar of served as a breakfast for the ducks. In the 
Nature.** presents us with a variety of ac- following year, the grass-plat, which had 
ceptable information concerning the opera- flourished annually with its worms, vege- 
tioos of nature throughout the year. ** The Uted unvrillingly . They were the under- 

plants at this season," he says, *' are pro- gardeners that loosened the sub-soil, 

Tided by nature with a sort of winter- and let the warm air through their en tran- 

* quarters, which secure them from the ef- ces to nourish the roots of the herbage. 
ittis of cold. Those called herbaceous, « Their calm desires that asked but liiile 
which die down to the root every autumn, room," 

are now safely oonoealed ondler-groand^ w^re unheeded, and their usefulness was 
preparing their new shoots to burst forth unkoowD, until their abseivct! was ^^\v. 


^lougt) inonbap 

Tbt &rit UoaJaf after Twelfth^y b 
nilcd PleafA Mondajr, and appean to 
baft received that name becauie it wai 
the 6nt 'day afler ihriilmat that hui- 
bandmcn resumrd the ploagk. Id tomt 
paiu of lh« country, and npccially in ihe 
nofth, tNey dra* ihe plough m procpnioii 
(o the dunn ot ttiP TiUaien and UiwHt- 
people. ].oni;n>pMarpallachfd toil, and 
Ihifty or foity mtn, stripped la ihcir clean 
white ihirti.'but protected fnitD (lie we*' 
tberby iraiilcoau beneath, dra; it alonff. 
Their amu and shouldtra arc decuiated 
with gay-coloured ribbon!!, lied id lar(^ 
knots and bow<, and ihcir hata are sniait- 
cfied in the same way. They are uiually 
iMorapwiird by an old woman, or a hoy 
dmaril up to retiretenl one: she is^ilybt- 
dittned, and called iliv B<uy. SomeiiRiei 
the upon H assisleil by « humorout coun- 
tryman to rvpresenl a/ool. Ileisrotered 
w'lih iititwns, and attired in ikms.wilh a 
dependioi tail, and carries a bui In collect 
noiKv rtum ihc tpectalon. They are 
allentled by music, and Horrit'daneeis 
wben ihcy can he lol : but thcnr ii alwayt 
a tportife dance wiih a few Usscf in all 
tbeir finenr, anil a luperabundancr ofnb- 
bvna. V/befi ihii mrrmnrnt is well in»- 
fiated, li Ii very (ileasini;. Tbt money 
t»ll»rt»i) is tnenl at niirht in cwiiiiialily. 
it mutt Bol be luppoMd, howem, HM 

in these times, the twehe days of Christ- 
mas art devoted ro|iastimc, although the 
custom remains. Fumneily, inilted, hllle 
was done in the field at thii seuon, and 
accflrdinR to "Tusier Itediviirus,~ during 
tbe Christmas holidayi, gentlemen teulctl 
the raiment, and every fanner ft'vted hii 
serranli and ta.<kmrn. Then Phmgk 
Monday reminded them of their busineis, 
and on the morninc of that diy, the men 
and maids strove who should show their 
readineM to cnmmenre ihe labours of the 
year, by risin); the earlipsl. If Ihe plough- 
man could gel his whin, his plough-tlaJT, 
halchrl, or any field implement, bv the 
fireside, before the maid rould f:ei her 
kettle OD, she lost her Shrave-iidr cock to 
the men. Thii> did our rorefalhen strive 
to allure youlh lo their duly, and provided 
them mnm-enl miith as well ,u labour. 
On Hlouph Monday nii;ht the hrnier gave 
ihcm a good supper and atrong ale. In 
some placn. where the pluughman went 
to work on i'lough Mnndiv, If, on hii 
rtlum al nichi, he came witS hi^ whip in 
the kitehen-batch, and crird ■■ (wk in 
pot,*' befbie ihe maid could cry " Cock 
oD ihc daiiehill," he gained a cock for . 
Shtan Tuesday. 

BInmelield's' Ijistor; of Norfolk teml- 
lo clesT the nriEin nf ihe annual prores- 
UMf ea IlMigh Monday. Ancicnily, i 


bgfat nlM lh« PkHighf^h^r ""^ main- a firMpaik in my throat, 1, going over to 

taiDcd bv foU and jooiig peitfoiiK' tifao tte sigii bf the Cop and Can for one 

were hnmoateeBy before imagea in aone pennyworth of ale, there I found lir John, 

thiuiJIiLJ, aad on Fkragh Monday tfa^ and thinking no hnit to any man, civilly 

hadAfoMrtyOdwcMalxMtwithaploacfr mtt tte down to spend my twopence; 

and danoen In set aoney to tappoit the bat iA the end, sir John besan to pick a 

Plmi g Jk U ^ki , The Reformation put out munel with me. Then I started up; 

dMM li||bt>« but the practice ot going thinking to go awav; but sir -John had 

abooK with die irfongh begging for money got me by the top of the bead, that I had 

m— ina, and tne ^ money for Ughi " in- no power to help myself^ and so "by hi| 

cnasca tbc income of the village aldiouse. strength and power be threw me dow^ 

let tfaeeotwof toil make glad their hearts broke my head, my fiu:e, and almost M 

wi/k ** Bailey-wiDe ;'' let them also re- my bones, that I was not able to woik for 

member to ** be merr^ and wise." Their three days ; nay, more than tMs, he pidied 

eldaeqaaintance, '^ Sir John Barleycora," my purse, and left me never a penny, so 

has faftd heovy complaints against him. that I had not wherewithal to support ray 

There is ^ The Arroigmng «mA Indkiiw family, and my head ached to sudi a de- 

•f S» Jonav BABUCTcoaK, JaU. printra gree, that I was not able to work for three 

far ISmotl^ Tosspot.'' Ibis whmisical or four days; and this set my wife a 

little tract describes him as of ^ noUe scolding, so that I not onW lost the 

blood, well beloved in England, a great good' opinion my neighbours had of me, 

SMjupoit to the crown, and a maintainer out likewise raised such a storm in my 

enKHh ridh and poor.** It formally places fomily, that I vras forced to call in the 

him upon his trial, at the sign of the parson of the parish to quiet the raging 

Tkne Lorgfrkemby before '< Oiiver and of my wife's temper. 

Old .Yirk his holy fother,'' as judges. The fFill^ the Weaver.— -l am but a poor 

vritnesses for the prosecution were dted man, and have a wife and a charge of 

under the hands and seals of the said children: yet this knovriog sir John 

judges, sitting *' at the sign of the Three vrill never let me alone ; be is always en- 

wkerry Cempmdont in Bedlam ; that is to ticing me from my woik, and will out be 

say. Poor Robin, Merry Tom, and Jack quiet till be hath got me to the alehouse ; 

Lackwit." At the trial, the prisoner, sir and then he quarrels with me, and abuses 

John Barleycorn, pleaded not guilty. me most basely ; and sometimes he biuds 

LmwjftT S'ouy. — May it please your me hand and foot, and throws me in the 

lordship, and gentlemen of the jury, I am ditch, and there stays with me all night, 

counsel for the king against the prisoner and next morning leaves me but one penny 

at the bar, who stands indicted of many in my pocket. About a week ago, we had 

heinous and wicked crimes, in that the not been together above an hour, before 

said prisoner, with malice prepense and he began to give me cross words : at our 

sevenJ wicked ways, has conspired and first meeting, he seemed to have a pleasant 

brought about the death of several of his countenance, and often smiled in my face, 

majesty's loving subjects, to the great loss and would make me sing a merr)- catch 

of several poor families, who by this or two ; but in a little time, he grew very 

means have been brought to ruin and churlish, and kicked up my heels, set my 

beggary, which, before the wicked designs head where my heels snould be, and put 

and contrivances of the prisoner, lived my shoulder out, so that J have not been 

m a flourishing and reputable way, but able to use my shuttle ever since, which 

now are reduced to low circumstances has been a great detriment to my family, 

and creat misery, to the great loss of their and great misery to myself, 

own families and the nation in general. Stitch, the Tailor , deposed to the same 

We shall call our evidence ; and if we effect. 

make the facts appear, I do not doubt but Mr. Wheatly. — The inconveniencies I 

yoo will find him guilty, and your lord- have received from the prisoner are with- 

ships will avrard such punishment as the out number, and the trouble he occasions 

nature of his crimes deserve. in the neighbourhood is not to be ex- 

Fvlnm, the Blachemith. — ^My lords, pressed. I am sure I have been ofipn- 

Nr John has been a great enemy to me, times very highly esteemed both i« ith 

iD<i many of my friends. Many a time, lords, knights, and squires, and none 

vfc^n I have been busy at my work, not could please them so well as James 

tiirking any hann to aoy man, haviag Wheatly, the baker ; but now the case is 


«ltmd ; m Jdtm Bafk|eoni is the man peum it is &oflt their own g tce J y desires 

Ihii is hidUy oMemea m every plaee. ell these trembles arise, mi aot from 

I am netrlmt poor Joscs Wheatly, and wicked deskns of our own. 

heisiJr JohD Barleyoofm at every ^■'oxA; C!sirf^--Tnily9 we cammt see that yiai 

smd tluit word halh endooe many an ho* are in the imlL Sir John Barknroora, we 

nest man in Engiaod ; for I c&n profe it will show yon eo wnch fiKvonr, that if you 

to be traOt that he has caused many an can bring any person of reputation to 

honest man to waste and consume aU that speak to your character^ the court is dis- 

Jhe hath. F**^ ^^ acquit you. Bring in your eri- 

. The prisoner, sir John Barleycorn, dence, and let us hear what they can say 

being called on for his defence, urged, in your behalU 

that to hb accusers be was a friend, until J%owmu, the Pkmrkmtm^'^Mzy I be 
they abused him ; and said, if any one is allowed to speak my thoughts freely, since 
to oe blamed, it is my brother Matt, Mr I shall offer nothing but Uie truth. 
brother is now in court, and if your lord- Comrt. — Yes, thou mayest be bold to 
ships please, may be eiamined to all speak the truth, and no more, for that ia 
those bets which are now laid to my the cause we ait here for ; therefore speak 
charge. boldly, that we may underitand thee. 
£7o«rl.— Call Mr. Blalt. Ploa^ihiiaii.— Gentlemen, sir John is 
Mmtt appears. of an ancient house, and is come of i| 
Comrt. — Mr. Malt, you hare (as you noble race ; there is neither lord, knight, 
tiare been in court) heard the indictment nor iquire,but they love his company, and 
that is laid against your brother, sir John he theirs ; as long as they don't abuse 
Barleycorn, who says, if any one ought him, be will abuse no man, but doth a 
to be accused, it should be you ; but as j^eat deal of good. In the first place, 
sir John and you are so nearly related tew ploughmen can live without him ; for 
to each other, and have lived so long to- if it were not for him, we should not pay 
gether, the court is of opinion he cannot our landlords their rent ; and then wnat 
be acquitted, unless you can likewise would such men as you do for money and 
prove pmrtelf innocent of the crimes clothes ? Nay, your gay ladies would care 
which are laid to his charge. but little for you, if you had not yoor 
Jfhif,— My lords, I thank you for the rents coming in to maintain them ; and 
liberty you now indulge me with, and we oould never pay, but that sir John 
think it a great happiness, since I am so Barleycorn feeds us with money; and ye| 
strongly accused, tnat I have such learned would you seek to take away his life f 
lodges to determine these complaints. As For shame, let your malice cease, and 
ibr my part, I will put the matter to the pardon his life, or else we are all undone, 
bench. Virst, I pray you consider with Bumck^ the BrtMHr* — Gentlemen, I be- 
yourselves, all traaesmen would live ; and seech you, hear me. My name is Bunch, a 
although Master Malt does make some- brewer ; and I l>elieve few of you can live 
times a cup of good liquor, and many without a cup ofgood liquor, no more than 
men come to taste it, yet the feult is nei- I can without the help of sir John Barleys 
thcr in me nor my brother John, but in com. As for my own part, I maintain a 
such as those who make thb complaint great charge, and keep a great many men 
against us, as I shall make it appear to at work ; I pay taxes forty pounds a year 
you alL to his majesty, God bless him, and all this 
In the first place, which of you all can is mainuined by the help of sir John ; 
say but Master Malt can make a cup oi then how can any man for shame seek to 
good liquor, with the help of a Kood take away hb life. 
brewer ; and when It is made, it will he MiHrem Hottem.^To give evidence 
sold. I pray which of you all can live in behalf of sir John Barleycorn, gives 
without it ? But when such as these, who me pleasure, since I have an oppor- 
complain of us, find it to be good, then tunity of doing justice to so honouraole a 
they have such a greedy mind, that they person. Through hiro the administration 
think they never have enough, and this receives large supplies; he likewise greatly 
overcharge brings on the inconveniences supports t^ Ubourer, and enlivens the 
complained of, makes them quarrelsome oonversation. What pleasnre could there 
with one another, and abusive to their be at a sheep-dipping without his corn- 
very friends, so that we arc forced to by pany, or what joy at a feast without his 
tW» down to sleep. From hence it ap* —iitance? I know him to bt an honest 

n Itffc EVERY-DAY BOOKw-JARtJARY 8. ' rn 

and he nef^abnated toy man, if they the church cf £ogland was the gaint of 

thmed nothim. If yonpvthimtodeathy that name mantioiied yestarday. 
all England ii undone, for there is not o^ O^dm^ 

ed. the lakoaier impoTerished, and the ?">» hotter; -whence, he affiriM, '^ rii« 

h^MimlBUBnriBedl «"« uu: ^ nsuaUy represented in pictures with a 

C^^f^-Gentlem^n of the jmy. you ^T^ riep.rticuh.iies no other mi- 

h.« now he«l what h» y^7illl^ ^^^^^^^Z^.'^'L:^ 

acaittst nr John Barleycorn, and the eri. ""^ . u •« '^.^y*"? *» • «'»»«•• 

. • .^. _,. . ^ i nunir in the air tor the space of an hoor-« 

^i:L5?.Sl*f3^":f:S?f whih^lncon.pUn.em'Sthe.untorthe 

rv^ . p" J*^ vl^ acTcnii ui p„g,t dogj ^^j appear. 

his muesty s loriog sucjects, you are then '^ '^'^ 

to iiid him guilty ; but i^ on toe contrary, . CHmoxou>GT. 

joave of opinion that he had no real . 1821. Anewspaperof January 8, men-« 

mte n ti o u of wickedness, and was not the tions an extraordmary feat by Mr.Huddy, 

immediate, but only the accidental, cause |he postmaster of Lismore, in (he > 97th 

of these erils laid to his charge, then, ac- year of bis age. He travelled, for a wager, 

cofding to the statute law of this kingdom, from that town to Fennoy in a Dungarvoo 

jo« oi%fat to acquit him. oyster-tub, drawn by a pig, a badger, two 

Verdict J Nor guilty. cats, a goose, and a hedgehog; with a 

From this facetious Uttle narrative may '-^^ ^^ "^8**'^P -^'* >^ ^^'- ^ P^" 

i« ^ -. ^ * *u 11 J u- this new mode of posting. 

n^ a cup more of it than will do him __r^ 

t^**'^ Let us turn away for a moment from 

the credulity and eccentricity of man's 

S^tttltfim R feebleness and folly, to the contemplation 

^aiillai|/ o. ^^ u ^g firstling of the year** from the 

St, Lm H mm Hoiidmy at the Exciie<iiier. bosom of Our common mother. The 

Snow-drop is described in the ^ Flora 

Si. Appomnaru. St. Severhuu, St, Domestica" "as the earliest flower of all 

Pegm. St. Fuliim. St. Gudula. St. No- ^^^ ^^^ flowers, and will even show ber 

fkniim ^ead above the snow, as if to prove her 

St. Lueian. rivalry in whiteness ;" as if 

The 5*. Lueian. of the Romish church — Flora's breath, by some transforming power, 

on this day was from Rome, and preached Had chaog'd an icicle into a flower, 
in Ganl, where he suflered death about ^'^' Bmrbautd. 

290, according to Butler, who affirms that One of its greatest charms is its ** coming 

he is the St. Lucian in the English Pro- in a wintry season, when few others visit 

testant calendar. There is reason to us : we look upon it as a friend in adver- 

suppose, however, that the St. Lucian of sity ; sure to come when most needed." 

like pendeat flakes of vegetating scow. 

The early herald of the infant year. 
Ere yet the adventuroas croons darex to blow, 

Beneath the o. chard-boughs, thy buds appear. 

While still the cold north-east ungenial lowers, 

And scarce the hazel in the leafless copse. 
Or ullows. show their downy powder*d flowers. 

The grass is spangled with tny silver drops. C/iOTiottc SmUK, 




8i. Pi9n of Seboite. Si. JWmh Md 
Bmriiis9€. St. Mmtckmm, St. BrithwM. 
BL Felam. St. AdHtm. St, Ftmemg. 

Op the teren Romish saints of this day 
aeaicely an anecdote is worth mentioning. 


1766. On the 9th of January died Dr. 
tliomas Birch, a valuable contributor to 
history and biography. He was bom on the 
23d of November, 1705, of Quaker parents. 
His father was a coffee-mill maker, and 
designed Thomas for the same trade ; but 
the son ^ took to reading,** and being put 
to school, obtained succeuive usherships : 
removing each time into a better school, 
that he might improve his studies ; and 
stealing hoars from sleep to increase his 
knowledge. He succeeded in qualifying 
himself tor the church of England, with- 
out going to the university ; obtained or- 
ders from bishop Hoadley in 1731, and 
several preferments from the lord chan- 
cellor Hardwicke and earl Hardwicke; 
became a member of the Royal Society 
beisre be was thirty years of age, and of 
the Antiquarian Societr about the same 
time ; vras created a doctor of divinity, 
and made a trustee of the British Mu- 
seum ; and at his death, left his books and 
IISS. to the national library there. Enu- 
meration of his many useful labours would 
occupy several of these pages. His indus- 
tiT was amazing. His correspondence 
WIS extensive; his communications to 
the Royal Society were various and 
numerous, and his personal application 
may be inferred from there being among 
his MSS. no less than twenty-four quarto 
volumes of Anthony Bacon*s papers tran- 
scribed by his own hand. He edited Thur- 
loes* State Papers in 7 vols, folio; wrote 
the Lives of Illustrious Persons of Great 
Britain, and a History of the Royal So- 
ciety; published miscellaneous pieces of 
lord Bacon, before unprinled, and pro- 
dnced a large number of other works. 
The first undertaking wherein he engag- 
ed, with other learned men, was the 
'< tacneral Dictionary, Historical and Cri- 
tical,** — a most useful labour, oonuining 
the whole of Bayle*s Dictionary newly 
translated, and several thousand additional 
lives. He was enabled to complete his 
grett undertakings by being a verv early 
riser, and by usually executmg the bu- 
of the morning before most persons 

" jl. 


*< Poetic Vigih," if Baamnn Ba aTC » 

The fkmrH'i bkwm is fiuicd. 

Its glossy leaf grown sere ; 
The kndscape roand is shaded 

By Winter's frown aaslere. 

The dew, once sparkKag lightly 

On grass of freshest greea. 
In heavier drops unsightly 

On matted weeds is 

No songs of joy, to gladden. 
From leafy woods emerge ; 

Bat winds, in tones that sadden. 
Breathe Nature's moomful diige. 

AH sighu and sounds appealing, 
Thfongh merely outward sense. 

To Joyful thought and feeling, 
»ecm now departed hence. 

But not with such is banished 
The bliss that life can lend ; 

Nor with such things hath vanished 
lu truest, noblest end. 

The toys that charm, and leave us. 
Are fancy's fleeting elves ; 

All that should glad, or gricte us, 
EusU within ourselves. 

Eoioyme nt*s gentle essence 
Is virtue's godlike dowtr ; 

Its most triumphant presence 
Illumes the darkest hoar. 

9amiarp 10« 

SI. fTtWmm. St. Jgatho, Pppe., SL 

St. wmum. 

This saint, who died m 1207, was 
archbishop of Bourges, always wore a 
hair shirt, never ate flesh meat, when ht 
found himself dying caused his body to 
be laid on ashes in his hair shirt, worked 
miracles after hb death, and had his relics 
venerated till 1562, when the Hugonots 
burnt them without their manifesting on- 
rades at that important crisis. A boot 
of his arm is still at Chaalis, and o»t 
of his ribs at Paris; so says Butler, 
who does not state that either of thest 
remains worked miracles since the French 

1820. The journals of January relate 
some particulars of a gentleman remark- 
able for the cultivation of an useful quality 
to aneitraordmaryeitent. He drew from 
actual memory, in twenty-two hours, at two 
sittings, in the presence of two welMinowB 
gentlemen, a correct plan of the parish 
ofSr. James»Wcttmnitter,with parts of tfw 


pAralKs o( Si. l^ojr-lii4MNiey St. Aim, anil teoollecting Vhat he bean. The dialogue 

Ik. Martin; whicti pfam eootained erery of a com^j heard ODce, or eyep twice, 

jqnare, street, lane, ooart, alley, market, would, ailer an interval of a few days, be 

chuidv chapel, and all public buildings, entirely new to him. 

mkk< all iteble and other yards, ako _-^. 

cwiy pnblici^in tte pariah, jmd the %SXmtr> 11. 

comers of all streets, with every mmutis, ^•^••w** ^ • * • 

as pump, pwts, trees, houses that pro- Si.^ Tkeodosms. St. Hyghm^, Si\ 

jeet ana inject, bow-windows, Carlton* JBgwhu SL Sahnu$» 

konaty St. James's palace, and the interior Si. TheodoHif 

4if the markets, without scale or reference This saint visited St. Simeon Stylitet 

to anv plan, book, or paper whatever, on his piUar and had his fortune told 

lie did the same with respect to the parish He ate coarse pulse and wUd herbs, nevei 

of St. Andrew,iiolbom,m the presence of tasted bread for thirty years, founded a 

four gentlemen, from eight to twelve, one monastery for an unlimited number ol 

'evening at a tavern; and he also under- monks, dug one grave large enough to 

took to draw the ^viof St. Gil«-in-the- hold the whole community, when he 

_ . - ^ jordingly, 

The plans before alluded to were drawn in prophesied while he was dying, died in 

ihe presence ofJohnWillock, Esq. Golden- 529, and had his hair shirt b«ged by a 

square ; Mr. Robinson, of Surrey-road ; count, who won a victory with it. He 

Uilliam Montague, Esq. of Guildhall; was buried according to Butler, who 

Jir. Allen, vestry clerk of St. Ann's; relates these particulan, in the cave 

John Dawson, Esq. of Burlington-street ; wherein the three kings of Cologne were 

N.\%alker, Holbom; and two other gen- laid to have lodged on their way to 

tlemen. He can tell the comer of any Bethlehem, 
great and leading thoroughfare-street _^.... 

from Hyde Park-comer, or Oxford-street, 

to Sl Paul's; or from the New-road to t t. -j r'''!*i!''i '^'*''^" , , . 
Westminster abbey; and the trade or I" ^ard frosts holes must be broken in 

profession carried on at such comer house, l^t'^^i^^ forms upon fish ponds, or the 

he can tell every public shop of business f^ ^l" ^^^; .^^ " P^^"^ ^ 7^^^ ?• 

in Piccadilly, which consists of two hun- finny ten jmtsnsmg half torpid beneath a 

<lred and forty-one houses, allowing him »?^-fo"ned hole for he ^nefit of the 

only twenty-four mistakii; he accom- ^'\ ^^^ ^^ **^^"^^ ,^, ^^P^ T" 

pii^ this in the presence of four gentle. ^"? ^^^ ^^- ^"^^ ^^*« ^° ^ P^"^ ** 

men, after five o'clock, and proved it be- c»®nu 

fore seven in the same evening. A house 

be;^ng named in any public street, he will At Logan or Port Nessock in Wig- 
name the trade of the shop, either on the townshire, North Britain, a large gali- 
right or left hand of the same, and whe- tcater pond was formed for Cod in 1800. 
ther the door of such house so named is It is a basin of 30 feet in depth, and 
in the centie, or on the right or left. He 1 60 feet in circumference, hewn out 
can take an inventory, from memory only, from the solid rock, and communicating 
of a gentleman's house, from the attic to with the sea by one of those fissures 
the groundfloor, and afterwards write it which are common to bold and pre- 
out. He did this at lord Nelson's, at cipitous coasts. Attached to it is a neat 
Merton, and likewise at the duke of Gothic cottage for the accommodation of 
Kent*s, in the presence of two noblemen, the fisherman, and the rock is surmounted 
He u known by the appellation of ^' Me- all round by a substantial stone wall at 
moiT-comer Thompson." The plan of least 300 feet in circumference. In 
his bouse, called Priory Frognall, Hamp- every state of the wind or tide, winter 
stead, he designed, and built it externally and summer, when not a single boat 
and internally, without any working- dare venture to sea. Colonel M'Dowal 
drawing, but carried it up by the eye can command a supply of the finest fish, 
only. Yet, though his memory is so ac« and study at his leisure the instincts and 
curate in the letention of oojeets sob* habits of the *' finny nations,^ V\^ %X 
mittcd to the eye, he has little power p/* least all the accuracy of xViose u^t ti^V^ 


nlislSy who rarely fimKer than 6ibeniuui remarked, **hM hi b» 
Kieter 'Change. From the inner or back than any o* the rest,*' and by Tirtte ot 
door of the lodge, a winding stair-way this one quality, chases, bites, and mha^ 
conducts to the usual halting place — a wise annoys a whole battalioa of 
large flat stone projecting into the water, gigantic cod, that hawe only, one would 
and commanding a view of every part of fiiink, to open their mouths sind swallcvw 
the aquatic prison. When the tide is him. To supply them with food is aa 
<mt. this stone is left compl<»tely dry, and imoortant part of the fishennan's datv; 
here a stranger perceives with surprise, a and with this view, he must ply ta^ 
hundred mouths simultaneously opened net, and hea? e the line, during two or 
to greet his arrival. three days of every week. He has also 
The moment the fisherman crosses to renew the stock, when the pood 
his threshold, the pond is agitated appears to be getting thin, from the coi^ 
by the action of some hundred fins, tributions levied on it by the cook, 
and otherwise thrown into a state of __ 
anarchy and confusion. Darting from A letter from Cairo, in a journal of 
this, that, and the other corner, the whole January 1824, contains a whimsical eiem- 
population move as it were to a common plification of Turkish manners in thepnv 
centre, elevate their snouu, lash their vinces, and the absurdity of attempting 
tails, and jostle one another with such to honour distant authorities, by the dia> 
violence, that on a first view they actually tinctions of civil society. A diploma of 
seem to be menacing an attack on the honorary member of the Society of Frank* 
poor fisherman, in plice of the creel full fort was presented to the Pacha, at tho 
of limpets he carries. Many of the fish are divan (or council.) The Pacha, who can 
so tame, that thi'y will feed greedily from neither read nor write, thought it was ajfiu 
the hand, anil bite your fingers into the ntan (despatch) from the Porte. He was 
bargain, if you are foolish enough to much surprised and alarmed; but the 
allow them; while others again are so interpreter explained to him that it was 
shy, that the fisherman discourses of their written in the Semptchee (German) lan- 
differeni tetimert, as a thins quite as guage, contained the thanks of the uit^ 
palpable as the gills they bi«athe, or the Ma* (scholars) of a German city named 
tins they move by. One gii^ntie cod, Frankfort, for his kindness to two Xempi- 
which seems to answer to the name of ekee travelling in Ec^pt. 
"^Tom," and may well be described as the But the most difficult part was yet to 
patriarch of the pond, forcibly arrests come ; it was to explain to him that he 
attention. This unfi>rtunatr, who passed had been appointed a member of their 
his youth in the open sea, was taken society; and the Turkish language having 
prisoner at the ace of five, and has since no word for this purely European idea, 
sojourned at I*ort Neisork, for^the long the interpreter, after many hesitations and 
period of twelve years, 'during all which circumlocutions, at last succeeded in ex> 
time he has gradually increased in bulk plaining, *' that as a mark of remct 
and weight. He is now wholly blind and gratitnde, the society had made aim 
from age or disease, and he has no one of their pMrtnere." At these woidt 
chance whatever m the general scramble, the eyes of the Pacha flashed with anger. 
The fisherman, however, is very kind^ to and with a voice of thunder he roucd 
him, and it is affecting as well as curious, that he would never again be the marimer 
to see the huge animal raise himself in of any firm ; that his p^rtnerektp wiih 
the water ; and then resting his bead oo Messrs. Briggs and Co. in the Indian 
the flat stone, allow it to be gently patted trade, cost him neariy .^00,000 hard piaa* 
or stroked, gaping all the while to implore ters ; that the association for the roanufiM* 
that food which he has no other means of tory of sugar and rum paid him nothing 
obtaining. In this pond, cod appears to at all; and, in short, tnat he was com- 
be the prevailing species; Oiere are pletely tired of his connections with Frank 
also blocnin or glassin, haddocks, floan- merchants, who were indebted to him 
den, and various other kinds. Balraon, 23,000,000 of piasters, which be coati* 
Yvhich at spawning time visit the highest dered as completely lost. In his rage, ht 
nvcfs, could not of cour^ obey their even threatened to have the interpreter 
aislincts bere, and accordingly there if drowned in the Nile, for having presumed 
0mfy' one jtpecimea of this lavourita to make offer of a mercantile conacctioa, 
S0k Ja the jjond a/ preseni. As tha against his poaiuve oiders. 


Tlie poor interpreter was confoundedy are worthy of leing one qf iw." '< But 
wid unable to utter a word in his defence, this m the custom/' added Divan Effendi 
At this critical momentyhowevery Messrs. (his Secretary.) " Your Hapgnneu knows 
Femandecy Fambonc, and others who that ihefrieudi (Franks) have many cus- 
have access to the P^u^ interposed ; and toms different from ours, and often such as 
it was some tune before they could reduce are veiy ridiculous. For instance, if they 
his Highness to reason ; his passion had wish to salute a person, they bare their 
thrown him into an hysterical hiccup, heads, and scrape with their right foot 
When his Highness was a little recoyered, backwards ; instead of sitting down corn- 
Mr. Fernandez endeavoured to explain to fortably on a sofa to rest themselves, they 
him that there was no question about bu- sit on little wooden chairs, as if they were 
siaen: that the«lniM»of Frankfort were about to be shaved: they eat the pUkto 
poHCoed of no stock but booksy and had with spoons, and the meat with jnneere ; 
■o capital. ** So much the worse," replied but what seems most laughable is, that 
the Padia ; ** then they are wiUhafUlUy they humbly kiss the hands of their wo- 
(booksdlcTS,) who carry on their business men, who, instead of the vatkmak, (veil,) 
without money, like the Franks at Cairo carry straw baskets on their heads ; and that 
and Alexandria." '* Oh, no, they are no they mix sugar aifd milk with their coffee." 
jdUbfl/ldU, but ulemoMy kiatib»y (autliors,) This last sadly set the whole assembly (his 
physicians, fkUouseoufey &c., who are Highness excepted) in a roar of laughter. 
only engaged in science.'' '* Well," said Among those who stood near the fountain 
he, ** and what am I then to do in tlieir in the middle of the hall, several exclaim- 
society ; I, a Facha of three horse tails V* ed with respect to the coffee with sugar 
** Nothing at all, your Highness, like per- and milky- Ki&Jirler ! (Ah, ye infidels I) 
haps most of the members of their society, In the end the Pacha was pacified, and 
but by receiving you into their society, " All's well that ends well ;" but it had 
these gentlemen intended to show you been better, it seems, if, according to the 
their respect and gratitude." '* That is a customs of the east, the society of Frank- 
strange custom, indeed," cried the Pacha, fort had sent the Pacha the unquestionable 
*^ to show respect to a person by telling civility of a present, that be could havQ 
or writing to him in funny letters — you applied to some use. 

ST« briue's church. its last internal decorations were effected 
On the 11th of January, 1825, a sketch in 1834. In it are interred Thomas 
of this church was taken from a secondr Flatman the poet, Samuel Richardson tht 
floor window in the house No. 11 5, Fleet- novelist, and William Binglev, a book- 
stieet, which stands on the opposite seller, remarkable for his determined 
side of the way to that whereon the and successfol resistance to interroga- 
opening was made by the late fire; and tones by the court of King's Bench---ft 
the subjoined engraving from the sketch practice which that resistance abated 
IS designed to perpetuate the appearance for ever: his latter years were em- 
through that opening. Till then, it had ployed, or rather were supported, by the 
been concealed from the view of passen- kindness of the venerable and venerated 
^ers through Fleet-street by the houses John Nichols, Esq. F. S. A. whose fomily 
destityjed, and the conflagration has been tablet of brass is also in this church.. As 
rightly deemed a favourable opportunity an ecclesiastical edifice, St. Bride's is 
for endeavouring to secure a space <n confessedly one of the most elegant in 
sufficient extent to render the church a the metropolis : an unobstructed view of 
public ornament to the city. To at least it is indispensable therefore to the na* 
one person, professionally unskilled, the tional character. Appeals which will 
^pire of St. Bride's appears more cliaste and enable the committee to purchase the 
f:!f«H:tive than the spire of Bow. In 1805, interests of individuals on the requisite 
it was 234 lieet high,' which is thirty-two site are now in progress, and can scarcely 
fcct higher than the Monument, but be unheeded by those whom wealth, taste, 
having been struck by lightning in that and liberality dispose to assist in works of 
year, it was lowered to its present public improvement The engraved sketch 
standard. ^^'^ ^'^ claim to be more than such a 
St Brii^s drarch was buiU by sir represenUtion as may give a distant 
Christopher Wren, and completed in reader some grounds for detftnnviafk^ 
1680. It has been regeMiedly benuti'Med: whether a vigorous effoit lo s^ve % W\\£- 


tog of thii appnnnca ttom cdcImutc this nootl^ aai ore entitled to iplaci a 
• *rcoi)d time ought r.ot now to be diuIb. Ihii iheM, 
The proceediagii fat thtl purpoie vn ia 

0t. »n^t Oorrt. a«Kkn^ U itifptu*! Sia. II, ISSb. 

^»* f4^ ^...Mg „ /, ,/ ,i.„, -riudt »J l*« Kr. ./ S—*.,. Nw««k« \V,V«t«> 


Thii dirmioD, itwrted to at Wsitingi better man dmn bithop J«nin; Taylot." 

during ihe tueWe i)ij9 of Chhitmas, u CertuDly not ; and tlienfbre aa objectof 

of ancirrt custom, cootiiiuea without to this pastime will do well to irad Uia 

■totciDent during tbe prolongatioii of reaiooingofthewholapusiigeu it stand* 

frwtidly meetinp at this seisOD. Personi at the end of the aicfadCBcon's printed 

»ho are oppoied to this recreation from germon : if he desire fprther, let him pe- 

1 itliiiou* scruples, do not seem to distin- ruse JetMnj Taylor's " adrices." 

I fuiih beWMti its Die and its abuse. Mr. Cards are not here introduced with a 

Aicbdnleon' Butter tafen to the " harm- view of seducing parents to rear their 

leu Hitth and iniioceiit amusements of sons ai gambUn ntd blacklegs, or theit 

ncietr,* in Ui sannon on " Chrisliwi Li- daughters to 

tertr, bc'<>Ot'i*'<Aakeof Qoucester, and "a life of icaiuia], an old teeorcardi ;" 

(be unirutitf of C^bridge,'on his rojal bat to impress upon them the importance 

hi^ncsA iBStdUkm U diancellor, June Of " tiot moroselj refusing to participate 

30, 1S11< The anUcaeon quotes, as ■ in'* what the archdeacoo refen to, as of 

BMe «■ Ihal pitriat in liii sermM, a re- the " harmless mirth and innocent amui»- 

""■*ilWl> paiMge fitMB Jaetoy Tajlor, ments of society.'' Persons who are 

wbo»^ *'llnt nvdi, Su. areof them^ wholly debarred from such amusements 

selTta InrM^ I do net know any reason in their infancy, fmquenlly abuse a plea- 

lo 4oAL Ha can narer be inspected, in sure they hare been wholly reatiained 

any criafwl leiM, to tempt the Dirine fhim, by eicessiTe indulgence in it on the 

yiuiiikiaii, iHiu bj coatil^tnt things K- fint opportunity. This ii human nature : 

_. .__ u_ •_•• — ^ u^ (lie-«»il ap^ let the string be suddenly withdrawn 

-~ '" ""^-nble from from the oTerslrained bow, and the r^ 
lalation of the bow is Tiolent. 

Look at a juvenile card-party — not at 

abith-tokaca abridged, fbe archdeacon that which the reader sees represented in 

RinMKIb'*'Saahaiau»eseDfiaaDtsof one the engraving, which is somewhat varied 

oftAMM My nlons a&d most pro- fiom a de«ign by Stella, who giuuped 

IfiiiiliftfliftBlfliaifllll llm l ll 1 bovs almost as finely as Flamingo mcK 

inyitararMatairf; nordolDmik that delled ttaeir forms— but imagiiM a juienile 

th» ittatl^^ 9t o«t diKipliiiarians can party closely seated raudd a large lebU, 

prodaM Aif airiwl^ of a wiacr.w a vitb a Fope Jeanboafdlh tbemiddh) 
No. 4. 

pendagf^' diiT ar« al betoanble from 
tbeaa taiar*. and dier ta^ be separated 
by thaai anioea, fce,*' Cto the citation, 


each well supplied with mother-o*-pearl Tersaiy, who has slipt a wioiig < 

fish and counters, in little Chinese om»- take it up and play another. Of 

mented red and gold trays ; their &ces and may be said toat they do not 

tlie candles lighting up the room ; their cards, but only play at playing a 

bright eyes sparkling after the cards, Sarah Battle was none of that ore 

watching the turn-up, or peeping into the detested them from her heart an 

pool to see how ricn it is ; tneir g^wing aad would not, sare upon a 

anxiety to the rounds, till the lucky card emergency, willingly seat hersel 

decides the richest stake ; then the shout same tabte with them. She lore 

out of *' Rose has got it I" ^ It's Rose's !" rough-paced partner, a determinec 

** Here, Rose, here they are— take 'em all ; She took ana gave no conceatk 

here's a iot I" Emma, and John, and Al- hated fiiTOurs ; she nerer made a 

fred, and William's hands thrust forth to nor ever passed it over in her ad 

help her to the prize ; Sarah and Fanny, without exacting the utmost k 

the elders of the party, laughinff at their She sat bolt upright, and neithet 

eagerness ; the more sage Matilda check- you her cards, nor desired to m 

ing it, and counting how many fish Rose All people have their blind aid 

has won ; Rose, amazed at her sudden superstitions ; and I hare heard 

wealth, talks the least ; little Samuel, who clare, under the rose, that Hearit 

is too young to play, but has been allowed fiiTourite suit. I never in my lifi 

a place, with some of the '* pretty fish" be- knew Sarah Battle many of the b< 

fore him, claps his hands and halloos, and of it) saw her take out her snuflb 

throws his playthings to increase Rose's it was her turn to play, or snuff : 

treasure ; and baby Ellen sits in ** mo- in the middle of a game, or ring i 

therV* lap, mute from surprise at the *' up- Tant till it was fairly orer. SI 

roar wild," till a loud crow, and the ouick introduced, or connived at, misce 

motion of her legs, proclaim her delignt at conversation during its process : 

the general jo^, which she suddenly sus* emphatically observed, cards wei 

pends in astonishment at the many fingers A grave simplicity was what shi 

pointed towards her, with " Look at baby ! admired in ner favourite game. 

look at baby !** and gets smothered with was nothing silly in it, like thf 

kisses, from which '* mother" vainly en- cribbage — nothing superfluous. 

dcavours to protect her. And so they go iess a truth, she was never great 

on, till callea bv Matilda to a new game, with cribbage. It was an esi 

and " mother" bids them to '^ go and sit vulgar game, I have heard her sa 

down, and be good children, and not puting with her uncle, who was v 

make so much noisf :" whereupon they tial to it. She could never hearti 

disperse m their chairs ; two or three of her mouth to pronounce ' go,' oi 

the least help up Samuel, who is least of a go.' She called it an ungrmn 

all, and ^ mother" desires them to **take game. The pegging teased her. 

care, and mind he does not hXl," Matilda knew her to forfeit a rubber, beo 

then gives him his pretty fish ** to keep would not take advantage of the 

him quiet ;" begins to dress the board for knave, which would have given 

a new game ; and once more they are but which she must have claimei! 

'' as merry as grigs." disgraceful tenure of declaring * 

In contrast to thejoctmd pleasure of his heels.' Sajah Battle was a 

children at a round game, take the pic- woman bom." These, omitting 

ture of " old Sarah Battle," the whist- delicate touches, are her feature 

plaver. " A clear fire, a clean hearth, hand of Eim, '* No inducement," 

ancf the rigour of the game," was her ce- ** could ever prevail u{>on her to 

lebrated wish. " She was none of your Aer favimriU game for nothing. 

lukewarm gamesters, your half^nd-half then hv adds, ** With great dew 

playen, who have no objection to take a the old Udy's judgment on these i 

mukI, if you want one to make up a rub- I think I have experienced some n 

ber ; who affirm that they have no plea- in my life when playing at cat 

sore in winning ; that they like to win motkimg has even been avreeable. 

QPe game, and loae another ; that they I am in sickneM, or not in the best 

can wile away an hour verv agreeably at I sometimes call for the cards, a 

a card-tablt, but are indiMreat whether a game at piquet /or love with mj 

iImj pity or no ; ud will desire in ad* Bndgct^Biidgct Elia ** Cousin 


t ytto Fill ■■jnilicbfiof tbatiy b«MitiAA efcei, and imi a d«Ught&l 

I Imd FHMla, vlioM, wkh *< okl shade in hoc wtithcr. VeMb of all 

iMttle,'' iw najF iMagiae entfliiiig kinds are fieqaemly aioored lo those 

•IB^ udiittiiw down with them te trees, but Lejden beuig an ialnd tovn^ 

rgane. Yoi Bridget and Elia live the gieatet part of those which l^^pened 

wtm times : shs^ fidl of kindness le to be in the Rapenbuig wses cooalij 

0feooihiBgsto£Uaeq^eeiayn----he^- vessels. Several yachts, Hkigipg to 

tjed anAeoMsohegtoBwytyin perties of pUasme from the Hagns and 

plfantj holding converse wSh the other phMMS^ were If upg dose to the 

' eecrand anon, giving as seeaes newly enived vessel, and no person waa 

and Ds Foe wonld admire, aware of the destnistiveoaggo it mntaiaed, 

that Denner and Hogarth A stadant of the aaiversity, who, al 

1MB ftaaa their graves |e point. ahoat a <|iiailer pest loar oVloGk in the 

afternoon, was passing thioo^ a street 

from which there was a view of the Ra- 

jfgHIHirp 12* penlrarg, vrith the eanal and vessels^ 

« ^ .. .V. related the Ibllowiag partionhos to the 

m. 2l5*^S!^ ^•^'^ ^ editor of the Ifeatf^AiMais >-. 

aA SL Mrtd, Tffgrmi. <-. ^i 1^ moment, whsn every thiaf 

L AoMdM Bttefl9^ er BmmaL was perfectly tranqail, and most of the 

ram he was in the service of Oswi, respectable frmiilies were sitting dawn 

MttllorthBmbrians; that at twenty- to dinnsr in perfect secarity, at that 

am old ^ made a pilgrimage to instant, I saw the vessel torn from ita 

•ttanadand carried Akfrid, the moorings; a stream of fire bmst from 

Obwi, badL to the shrines of the it ia aU diiectionSi a thick, blad^ doad 

alhare, became a monk, received enveloped all the sanoonding parts and 

mcjrofSts. Peter and Paul, Canter- darkened the heaveas, whil^ a barst, 

iHVsed it, pilgrimaged again to louder and more dreadfel than the 

bsmifgbt home books, relics, and loudest thunder, instantly followed, and 

m-piefeares, founded the monastery vibrated through the air to a great dia- 

anwonth, went to France for tanoe, burying houses and churches in 

\ to boild a church to it, dbtained one common ruin. For some moments 

» from tbeiKse to glaze it, pil- horror and coostemation deprived every 

ad to Home for more books, one of his recollection, but an univcr- 

aod pictures, built another mo- sal exclamation followed, of '*0 God, 

at Jarrow on the Tine, adorned what is it f Hundreds of people might 

irches with pictures, instructed be seen rushing out of their fidlmg 

oks in ths Gregorian chant and houses, and running along the streets, 

oeremonies, and died on this not knowing what direction to take; 

690. He appears to have had a many felling down on their knees in 

r literature and the arts, and, with the streets, persuaded that the last day 

■iadge superior to the general was come; others supposed they had 

MDt of the religious in that early been struck by lightmng, and but few 

haia rendered his knowledge sub- seemed to oonjecture ihie maX cause. 

t lo the Romish chuidi. In the midst of this awful uncertain^, 

the cry -of **0 God, what is it?*' again 

caaosoLooY. sounded mournfully through the air, but 

'. The 12th of January in that it seemed as if none could answer the 

rendered remarkable by a fetal dreadful question. One conjecture fol- 

ft ai Leyden, in Holland. A lowed another, but at last, when the 

feaded with gunpowder enterett black thick doud which had envdoped 

dre largest csmals in the Kapen- the whole dty had cleared away a little^ 

I street inhabited chiefly by the the awfiil truth was revealed, and soon 

apectable femiiies, and moored to all the inhabitants of the city were seen 

in front of the house of professor rushing to the ruins to assist the sufierem. 

€ die university. In Holland, There were five large schools on the 

aaery street has a canal in the Rapenburg, and all at the time full of 

. freed with a brick wall up to die children. The horror of the parents and 

r.tha street, and with liine trees relations of there youthful victims is not 

on both sides, which produce a to be described or even imagined ; and 


though many of them wen.* saved almoit toUie eye an eTer-varying fcene of diU 

mincttlouilv, vet no one dared to hope fereat occu|>ations. The keel of tlw 

to lee his child drawn alive from under vessel in which the catastrophe com- 

a heap of smoking ruins. menced, was found buried deep in the 

" Flames soon broke out from four earth at a considerable disunce, togc^cr 
diilerent parts of the ruins, and threat- with the remains of a yacht from tlw 
ened destruction to the remaining part Hague with a party of pleasure, whidi 
of Leyden. The multitude seemed as lay close to it. The anchor of the powder 
it were animated with one common soul vessel was found in a field without tht 
in extricating the sufferers, and stopping city, and a very heavy piece of lead at 
the progress of the flames. None with- the foot of the mast was thrown into a 
drew from the awful task, and the multi- street at a great distance, 
tude increased every moment by people One of the most afffctins incidcota 
coming from the surrounding country, the was the fiite of the pupils of Uie different 
explosion having been heard at the dis- schools on the Kapenburg. At the 
tance of fifty miles. Night set in, the destructive moment, the vrife of the 
darkness of which, added to the horrors principal of the largest of them vras 
of &Uing houses, the smothered smoke, standing at the door with her child u 
the raging of the flames, and the roaring her arms ; she was instantljr covered with 
of the winds on a tempestuous winter the filing beams aiMi bncks, the child 
night, produced a scene neither to be was blown to atoms, and she was thfowtt 
described nor imagined ; while the heaiti- under a tree at some distance. Piart of 
rending cries of the sufferers, or the the floor of the school-room sunk into tfaa 
lamentatioiu of those whose friends or cellar, and twelve children were kilM 
children were under the ruins, broke instantlv ; the rest, miserably wounded, 
upon the ear at intervals. Many were shrieked for help, and one was heard to 
•o entirely overcome with fear and call, *' Help me, help me, I will give my 
astonishment, that they stared about watch to my deliverer." Fall^ra and 
them without taking notice of anjr thing, mothers rushed from all parts of the atjr 
while others seemed full of activity, but to seek their children, but after digging 
incapable of directing their efforts to any five hours they found their labour frail- 
particular object.'* less ; and some were even obliged to 

In the middle of the night, Louis leave the spot in dreadful suspense, to 

Bonaptirte, then king of Holland, arrived attend to other near relations dug out in 

from the palace of lx»o, having set out as other quarters. They at last succeeded, 

soon as the express reached him with the by incredible efforts, in bringing op 

dreadful tidings. Louis wis much be- some of the children, but in such a statt 

loved by his subjects, and his name is that many of their parents could not 

still mentioned by them with great recognise them, and not a fiew vrert 

respect. On this occasion his presence committed to the grave without its being 

was very useful. He encouraged the known who they were. Many of these 

active and comforted the sufferers, and children, both among the dead and those 

did not leave the place till he had esta- who recovered, bled profusely, while no 

blished good order, and promised every wound could be discovered m any part 

assistance in restoring both public and pri- of their bodies. Others were preserved 

vate losses. He immediately gave a large in a wonderful manner, and without the 

sum of money to the city, and granted it least hurt. Forty children were killed, 

many valuable privileges, besides ex- In some houses large companies were 

empiion from imposts and taxes for a assembled, and in one, a newly married 

number of years. couple, from a distance, had met a 

Some degree of order having been numerous party of their friends. Odq 

restored, the inhabitants were divided person who was writing in a small roooiy 

into classes, not according to their rank, was driven through a window above tka 

but the %ray in which they were em- door, into the staircase, and lidl to 

ployed about the ruins. lne»e classes the bottom without receiving much bvit. 

were distinsuished by bands of different Many were preserved by the frlUng «f 

eolows tied round their arms. The the beams or rafters m a paitioitar 

widely atcnded ruins now assumed tlie direction, which protected them, waA 

•ftpearaoee of hilb and valleys, covered they remained for many hours, soom fer 

smh mnhitudis of workatn, produoing a wbolt day and nigfat. A rematkahl> 


t tha kiod tuppened, «h«a the 1573, and hj the plague in 1614 luid 

Ddfl ow desitojed b; aa eiplo- 1635, in wbicb ;car 15,000 of the inha- 

r Euupowdei in 1654; a child, • bilants were earned off withiD six moDtht. 

Id, vai (aaad two d>y> aftetwardi la 1415 a conieul wai hunt, and most of 

f an apple, and sittiog noder a the auas penihed id ihe ftunet. Anci- 

with jusl space left for iu body. plosioD of gunpowder, in 1481, dfsuojed 

ithen at a lillle distance were in the council-dianib«r when full of people, 

isdte quite Eaie. At thai time and killed moit of ibe magulrales. 
ite whole of Delft was Aattojfi. The miifoctnne) of this cilj hare fa». 

dcD ii at Uc^e a city, but not so coidc protetbial, and iti fer? name ba« 

tot, u Rotteidam, the Mcond cit; given iIm to a ptm. " LryUn" is " L^ 

Uaod. L'pwaids of two hundred dent" Lrydtn, the name of the C1I7, and 

. wne owothrowD on this occasion. Lifdn, (lo lu&t,) have the lune proaun- 

I dnticfaes and public buildings ; cialion in the Dutch Language. 

ril, or lonn-house, waj aioong ihe 

lie chirp of the crickets from the kit- 

• ImairtJ and ^^fl^OBe dead hodiet chen chimney breaks the silence of xtiU 

akcn from the niim. besides maoy eretiin^ inlhe wiotec. They oume from 

tti aft«r. Upwards of tvo fiaa- the creTJces, when the house is quiet, to 

TCte woundal more or less dani^er- ihc warm hearth, and utiet iheir shnU 

II is remarkable that none of the moaotonoiu oolei, to the discomfiture of 

n of the uniTersii; were either the aerrous, and the pleasure of those 

or woooded, iQough thej all lodge who baie sound miuds in sound bodies. 

ETCBi parts of the city, or whereiet This insect aad the grasshopper an agre«- 

ilmir Ccnliiuutions were imme- ablj coupled in a pleasing sonnet. Tli* 

' be^m, and lar^e sumi raised. " summoniug brass" it speaks of, our 

■^ of Holland gate 30,000 gilden, ewtoiry readers well know, as an allusion 

wqtnen tC.OOO; a very large turn to the sounds usnaily produced fi^msome 

lUected in London. kitchen utensil of metal to assist in swann- 

iea (uSered dteailfiilly by siege in ing the bees : — 
To rir Orajilicfffr md Iht Cridttl. 

Caidupg youi bort op at ibe ietl vi Joov, 

Sufe Ttricc that'i heard amidit the Ian noon. 
When er'n the bea lag at the samnoDiag brui ; 
And nv. wann little hosiekeqiCT, who <£lM 

With thne who think the caodlci come (DO MM, 

Lpnng the fire, and with jmir *ni%imnf tuna 
Kick the glad ailcBt onmenti as th^ put ; 
Ot, iweel and tiof couna, that bdoof , 

Oae u the Mds, the Mfacr to the beuth, 
Both haire yoor ransline ; bolk, thoagh oiall, are tfnmf 

At yonr dear hearts ; and both woe aent m earth 

In dooit and oat, ■ODuan ud wintei, iCrth. L, Uwmt^ 

SanUarP 13. "^» »" <aMar, * poet, wtote asaintt iha 

""' ^ Anans, wa* baniitied for hii orthodoiy, 

■■mMi Lirr Tiwr t^nt. bm returned to his see, worked miiadn, 

inHmttfMUtm. St.Ktmtigerm. ,nd died on the lath ot Jaonary, 3«e. 

St. HUary. Ribadeneira says, that in a certain island, 

I II i 111 of St. HDarj is not, at uninhabitable by .reaaon of Tenemoui 

■C, eAmrred by Ihe Romish church serpents, tliey fled from his holinen ; that 

> ■oerow, but it stands in old ca- be pot up a itake u a booudaiy, com- 

Liad in Handle Holmai's Herald- maoding tbem not to pan it, and they 

^bidMy, whereon it is also placed obeyed; that he raised a dead child to 

Ht|liili calendar, fialler says, he li&, prayed his daughter to de^ and 

Mto M P wctiet a , becaipe bishop of did other astoaiahiH things ; eipecitdly 

^, «M a vammatatan on Scrip- tfUr bii de<»tae, when two merchanti 


at their own oott and by way of yenture, time and har? est, the long va 

oflered an image at his thrine, hut as cme tween Midsommer and Michai 
begrudged the cost of his share, St. Each term is denominated 

Hilary caused the image to diride from festival day inmiediately pr< 

top to bottom, while being offered, keep- commencement; hence we nav 

ing the one half, and rejecting the nig- of St. Hilaiy, Easter, the Ho 

gard's moiety. The Golden Lmnd says, and St. MichaeL 
that St. Hilary also obtained his wife's There are in each term s 

death by his prayers ; and that pope Lpo, caUed diet in btMcOy (days in 

who was an Arian, said to him, *' Thou is, days of appearance in tli 

art Hilary the cock, and not the son of a common bencn. They are usi 

hen ;** whereat Hilary said, *' I am no a week from each other, and 

cock, but a bishop in France;" then said ence to some Romish festiyal 

the pope, ** Thou art Hilary OoUum (sig- ginal writs are returnable on \ 

nifying a cock) and I am Leo, judge of and they are therefore called 

the papal see;** whereupon Hilary re- dm. 

plied, " If thou be L(eo, tnou art not (a The first return in erery tei 

lion) of the tribe of Juda.** After this periy speaking, the first d 

railing the pope died, and Hilary was term. For instance, the oci 

comforted. Hilary, or the eighth day, incli 

8t Fenmka, ^ saint's fmt, (aUs on the 2 

«, ' -.L J • . 1 nuary, because his feast is on 

She was a nun. with a di»ire to live j^^ On the 20th, then, th 

always on bread and wjOer.died in 1497, ^ uke es^i^, or excuses fi 

and was canonixed, after her claim to pearance to the writ • " but," i 

T'^^I^^x. ?»^^*^*^ ^ ^ •***»^ SoneTas our ancestors held 

tion ol^ his holiness pope Leo X. ^^e condition of a freeman to 

51. Keniigem, to do any thing at the precii 

He was bishop of Glasgow, with juris- pointed," the person summoned 

diction in Wales, and, according to But- days of grace beyond the day 

ler, ^ favoured with a wonderful gift of the writ, and if he appear on 

miracles." Bishop Patrick, in his '* I)e- day inclusive it is sufficient, 

▼otions of the Romish Church,'* says, at the beginning of each tern 

^ Sl Kentigem had a singular way of does not sit for despatch of bi 

kindling fire, which / could nerer hare the fourth, or the appearance < 

hit upon." Being in haste to light can- is in Hilary term, for instan 

dies for vigils, and some, who bore a 23d of January. In Trinity t( 

spite to him, having put out all the fire not sit till the fifth day ; W 

in the monastery, he uatched the green fourth falls on the great Rom^ 

bough of an hazel, blesMd it, blew upon festival of Cwrmu ChrisiL T 

it, the bough produced a great flame, and p ea r a m ee day therefore in eac 

he lighted his candles : ** whence we called the first day of the tern 

mav conjecture,'* says Patrick, ** that court siu till the quarto die % 

tinder-boxes are of a later inyention than pearance day of the last retun 

Si. Kentigem's days.** the term. 

In each term there is one da 

THE i.Aw TraMS. the courts do not transact 

Term is derived fmm Termimme, the namely, on Candlemas day, 

heathra god of boundariei, Undmarks, term ; on Ascension day, in'Ei 

and hmits of time. In the early a^^es of on Midsummer day, in Trii 

Christianity the whole year was one con- and on All Saints* day, in B 

tinued term for herinng and deciding term. These are termed Grm 

causes; but after the esubltshment of the inns of court; and Gmm 

the Romish church, the daily dispensa- the two univeraities ; they an 

ticHi of justice was prohibited by canoni- as CoUar days at the king's c 

ral authority, that the festivals might be James*s, for on these days kn 

kept holy. the collars of then respective x 

Ad rent and Christmas occasioned the 

w»»«ef TM^Uon : Lent and Kaster the An (Ad Jinuat^ journal con 

^nng; Pcntecoti the third; and hay- mMka\Atautoi(AtT«\iX\>i«\^* 




»goc, one of the bf men^ne- 
jiiuTtDce of liBiigaedoc He 
1M<I consideruble wealth by 
ich rendered him an object of 
deleiatfoii. One day he wait 
J the gofemment to raise a 

; with the demaiMt, b« pleaded 
nreny : aod resolTed on hiding 
« in roch a manner as to escape 
He dug a kind of a cate m 
oriUi, which he made to lar^ 
Ihai he used to go down to il 


I the e 

lUi a ipring lock 
Bg would fasten of itself. He 
)n^ mused, acd dilig-enl search 
t Wm ; ponds were drawn, and 
jotiOD adopted that could rea- 
Md to his discovery, dead or 
I a short time afler, hii house 

and the nurchaser beK'ining In 
w al'etations, the workmen dis> 

ionr in die wine-cellar with a 
e lock. On going down thejr 
" e IpDg dead on the ground. 

The ipi%a anslnd; vim amml. 
Or seitline in the Aw(<i U Jmat^. 
Through the cirti tlima th<- /Uha litt. 

And wmUjf catnk iht ianmtiiHu fiia. 

The ghm---wormt nurn'roui, cJlar and bliflit, 

lOmmd the Avy htU laU niglil. 

Ai dusk tlie iquilid rvatf itu mcu. 

Like fsaj^TH^K^, Milk o'ei the greea. 

The KtirAHf vmd ihc dun obeji, 

A nd in the tafid tidy plays. 

The /rof has chans'il hii yttbm tat. 

Quiti mattoD-baoei, on ^ma to feart. 
Behold Ihi nmb. how odd their fligtt 
Thev imiute tbt glidimghu. 
And leem /mipilalr h /all. 
At if ihe; hit the piercing ball, 
T)te Imdtr coin on 6bcA dv tit, 
Nor heed tJie Itaiellec paniog bj-. 
In firry rid the nn doth ritt. 
Then ■rsdrr (Ara^ il f/uidi to moimt 

Twin ntrdy nrin, we lee'l with mttow, 

L On seaicfaing brther, Ihej 
! *aA weallli that he had amass- 
I (Opposed, that, when he had 
lis care, the door had by sonie 
■hut afidr him ; and thus being 
e call of any person, he pensh- 
int of food, in the midst of his 

wt fron their calmcbi prrp. 
t Alt OH went paic to btj ; 
I h hmtK hid her head. 
i( Aepherd beaves ± ngh, 
a MTfptng tpma ihe iky. 
r are rfun^. the lArrAri rmtO, 
Im pink-ey'd pimpmrl. 
tm Ibe cjiBTt and itbla crack, 
fijaifU aie on the rack : 
cwith cbaMw fi'm tonnenl her, 
W bed untioeW send ber. 
a* Ake rixcb, the Hd /«c/ cry, 
■rt UUi are UvUng lagk. 
lea are the nartitig Hcint I 
Jia diilaib the U*t. 
Ibc ^ui the ntallew vimfi 
M too. bow lAarp Ik lingj I 
it bcanh. with trhrt pmtn, 

if frsra cilnni3>> r^jU umA 

Sanuarp 14. 

1 Lent Term hegiHu. 

I. Friii. 

>. /taJiu 

SiMat. at. iJarDotcrMinu, $c. 
St. Felix of Nola, an exorcist, and af- 
tprwards a ptiest, was, according to 
Bullet and Ribadeneita, a great tniracu- 
list. He lived under Decius, in 350; 
being fettered and dungeoned in a cell, 
covered with potsherds and broken glass, 
a ic'splendent an^el, 5cen by the saiat 

freed him of his chains and guided faim 
to a mountain, where bishop Maihnut, 
aged and frozen, lay for dead, whom 
Felix recovered tiy praying ; for, straight- 
way, he saw a bramble bear a bunch of 
grapes, with the juice whereof he re- 
coieied ihebiiAop, and takine him on his 
back carried him home to bis diocese. 
Being puraueil by pa<i:ani, lie fled to 

the wall, uhidi spidtts ckn^U with their 
webs befott' tlit pagans ^ot up to it, and 
there lay fur sii months miraculously 
Bupporteij Acconlin^ to the L^^nd, his 
body, for at.'es aftei Ins death, distilled a 
liquor thai cured di^HLSeji. 
In Jaanary, 1784, died saddaiVr vet 


Crisp, ctq., a reUtion of the cekbrafed Dedus to • catvrn, nev which new a 
tir Nicbolu Critp. There wat a retnirk- ralm-tree, that lupptied him with leavr 
Hble 1 ingaUhtjr in the character of this ibr clothing, and nroit for food, till he 

irt'Dtieman. lie was a bachelor, had forty-three yean ofage; after which he 

hctn formerly a broker in 'Change-alley, daily fed l^ a raven till he wae ninetVy 
and maiiy years since had retired from and then died. St. Anthony, in his oil 
business, with an easr competency. His age, being tempted by Tanity, imagined 
daily amusement, for fourteen years before, himself the first hermit, till the contrary 

was going from London to Greenwich, wasreTealedtohiminadream,wherclDi«^ 

aod immediately returning from thence, the neit morning, he set out in aeaidl 

in the stage ; for which he paid regularly of St. Paul. ** St. Jerome relates from 

X*i7 a year. He was a good-humoured, his authors," says Butler, " that he met a 

obliging, and fiMetious companion, al- centaur, or creature, not with the natmt 

ways paying a particular attention, and and properties, but with something of the 

a pronision of compliments, to the la- mixt shape of man and horse ; and that 

dies, especially to those who were agree- this monster, or phantom of the devil, 

able, lie was perpetually projecting (St. Jerome pretends not to dctermiM 

some little schemes for the benefit of the which it was,) upon his making the sign of 

public, or, to use his own &vourite the cross, fled away, after pointing out 

maum, pro bono publico ; he was the in- the way to the saint. Our author fSt 

stitutor of the Lactarium in St. George's Jerome) adds, that Sl Anthony sooo oer 

Fields, and selected the Latin mottoes for met a tatyr, who gave him to undciBtaBd 

the facetious Mn. Henniver, who got a that he was an inhabitant of those dtatOB^ 

little fortune there. He projected the and one of the sort whom the drln<fad 

mile and half stones round London ; and gentiles adored for gods." WiHda^ 

teased the printen of newspapers into neira describes this satyr as with wiithad 

the plan or letter-boxes, lie was re- nostrils, two little horns on his forihmil 

markably humane and benevolent, and, and the foet of a goat. After two dnr 

without the least ostentation, performed search, St. Anthony found St. Paul, and a 

many generous and charitable actions, raven brought a loaf, wh er eopon thtj 

which would have dignified a mora am* took their corporal refection. The Mst 

pie foctuno. morning, St. Paul told him he was , 

to die, and bid him fetch a cloak givca to 

THx wiNTra KOBiir. St. Anthony by St. Athanasius, and wrap 

A laDpliaat to your window comes, his body in it. St. Anthony then knew. 

Who tnisujmir faith, and dan no guile : that St. Paul must have been informed of 

He cUu sdmiiuiire for yoar cramU. the cloak by revelation, and went forth 

And read, his psupoit in your smile. ft^ the desert to fetch it ; but before hia 

For cold and cheerless is the day. return, St. Paul had died, and 8c Anthoaj 

And he has sought the hedges round -, ^^^ ^"^ li<>ns digging hit grave with 

No berry hangs upon the spray. their claws, wherein he buried St. I^ol, 

Not worm, nor ant-egg, can be found. first wrapping him in St. Athanaains's 

c u II 1. * ^ doak, and preserving, as a great treasure, 

For «««i run«.7r!S!l tlJl * !•*:«' *^'^,»»^ ^^^'u^^.^Uerome, 

Thsi wears the scarlet tiomarher. T*"" ^^^^^ ^^Si. Paul »Ufc, praises 

c kmrlyiit SwkUL *"" g^Kneni, may be seen in Kibttdencira. 

SSnUarP 15. ^ ^^^^^^ ^y^^ ^^, him«?lf « Cnto- m 

St Pnl. the fint Hermit. Si. 3tmmrus. the •' Truth Teller," No. 15, introduces m 

Si Mmim. Si. Jokn^ Calybite. Si. iti' to an honest enthusiaxt, discouriiing to ha 

dorr. Si homiiiu. Si. iim, or ifada hearers on the now-dm of the season, 

Sf. Paui, A. P. 342. and other offerings from Flora, to the roll- 

T!ie lifr of St. |»aul, the fir»t hermit, u ing year. •• Picture to your imagination, a 

said, by Butler, to havi: befn written by poor, 'dirty* mendicant, of the order ufSc 

St. Jrromc in 3C5, who received an ac- Francis, who had Ions |>nywl and lasted 

CiHiiit of It frcni St Anthony and othcT». in his sanctuary, and lung laboured in hm 

Art 4mlinK to liim. wht n iweniy-twu year* i^iiden, issuing out on the morning of his 

old, Sl. Paul fled from thr persecution of first pilgrimage, withoui moiM-y and wiib* 


d wuriM m pdtoM^ Dob. BliadMalMof aapiooifeMmla 

if iad i> Ans wotdit "okJi our uwnh pvcMnbcif 1 hvn 

tdiw 1mm af AepMfteftwtMtifad wn^ ta maka iImm itenuag oljaeU of 

tmmi idt giodrie M Mti t i wi ^-' FcOow- tool natnn, dw tiinepiaeM of mj 

M^ I ««e Ml DOduD^ and I giTa yoa idtpoui calendar, and ilw BBnMoa of 

ril; lOBBHdMipaid me ti&a Barnnl, IIm hatfaung ptriod of Bf mortality. 

JM 1 !■*« tafitwed an yon fcod nd Tin* I can 1^ the taper to mu Virgu 
" '* o tMMOwtitgM'AewkitenoW'- 

« do aD tteae tUngi, 1 bne de- of CandleBai ; the Wk'a n 

voUiHTlife m Ae aednooD oftlMee daObdilmidiidneof Oie A 

laiiiilTi iiallr That I ha«« conmhed the Uoe banMl, oT the fcitinl ofSL 

<■ ■did ta«i« rf our dimA fcc yogi Gawge; the lan n iicii ln ijof the Inwgtion 

■fiiittJ iaWiaLliuu aod the good afyow of the Cnat ; the acailet tifduui, of St 

Miiii;lodaae;oa,IbaTC aolddwCB- Jotm the B^ptiifi di^; the while lilr, 

tnadHid oiaent, and hare pid oa dw of the Vmtation of onr I^j ; and tba 
Uit af Madiiilj In the mtm 

IhaneoRedMl tosadiBtfae traMonaor 
Wae^Md Mdmcd &on bn plants the 


Titgia*! hower, of her AaanmplMB ; ai 
' iai,HaitiiiBat,Hd]rBoad,u 

Ever uodfotrf the toe- Jttanlem and the dandelion, and the 

M «^Ht af the bbonr to whidi I had hour of tha ni^ bjr the ■tan."' 
«aMMad mptU, I hare bio^t torn- From kind Mi^ to the ben 

^te iaio Aa ffidcn of tlna pnofj, Ow of the FtaadKan nendieanf ■ 

Uf a( the wBqr and Ae gentian of whidt m miyaappaae 

A« — alain, Ae Bjmp hn n of die hke, put hevd, we ilhntiali 

ami Aa dmr of the arid Imnk; in pmpoce, bj uinexiog the raae, the tulip, 

Ami, I hM*e eaDeded the pSewoct, Ae and Ae pasiioD-flower, after an eograT- 

1b«ntw«tt,dw Itveiwort, andererf otba ing bjacatbolicaitiit,wliohai impiened 

vegeulile ipccik whidi the kind hmd of them with dcroticnal monogiam*, and 

MCnra hnt iprcad orei the globe, and Bjnbolt of bia bith. 
whid 1 km MRsnatcd bj their qv^ilica, 


To KC the MB I* bed, ud M vise, 
like nm bot iBOonM witb ctawing tm, 
BttMinr Iba lai; band* of ifecp that bmuid bin, 
Witb lU kis fan tad D«*«Uii« glaiiB nnud bin : 
fl—iii«m ihe»aaa«nwftiPgktcloBdnar«it, 
like be>M; nritHiig m a ]nnv man'i breut, 
Aai ill Ike winkiag t>m, bet GaDdmaidi, keep 
Adauring nlcBce, vhile tboee lam% ileep, 
SomctinMi ovtMrddit, in lenr idleneu, 
Naatbt doiiv, njisg little, Ainking lot. 
To wcw Ibt Mam thia daOEen npon lir, 

~ ; aad bmU binu, bow ibtj bra. 


WImii nolhtr Autiun filli ibeir beaks with eon, 
Filch'd from the carelcsi Amalthea's born ; 
And how the woods berries and worms |>rovide 
Without their paim^ when earth has naught beside 
To answer their small wants C. I<a 


3flinWrP 16* of the same day, in a country eipoMd to 

•* ^ such astonishiniT* and. al times, almoat in- 

8t. BfsreeUMi, Pope. St. Mmemfhu ike cessant floods of rain.'' 

elder, of Ejo-pt. Sf . #foiiOf«lw. Si. Behold yon bright, ethereal bow, 

Funejf. Si. Henry, Hermit, kc. With evanescent beauties glow ; 

Si. Morceiku, Pope. The spacious arch streams through the sky. 

According to Butler, he was to strict Deck*d with each tint of nature's dye, 

in penance, that the Christians disliked Refracted sunbeams, through the shower, 

him ; he was banished by Maxentius, " for A humid radiance from it pour ; 

his severity against a certain apostate;^ Whilst colour into colour fades, 

■od died pope in 310. ^"*^ blended ligbu and softening ahadca. 

WINTER KAiNBOw IN Ireland. Atbehaom, 

In the first of the " Letters from the « t* • u ir ^ r • i j 

lri.h Islands- in 1823, the writer «ld««- " ^' " » »«f PT *f-f '>[ '^l^J^ 

es to hU friTnd, a d«cription of the niin- »*» Jfjf '!*""»l'"f !^f "^' ""11!*" a 

l)owonthehilUatthi5iia.sonoftl.eyear. ~' K'^''^'" ^!^''^> V^^"*"^ Z^ 

He uyt. - I could wUh (provided I iuld S!S ^ » "^'fTK ^' •«»•«««• 

ensur/ ;on one fine da, in the couiwi of «^ K^"'"'** ^^ '? *T^ V^ •■?: 

the week) that you were W, to enjoy, in ^^^ f^ ™»' *^^ "!*• 

rapid .uicession, and. with all iti wild '**«»'•»'' /7"**"™J «»««»'»') 'T*^ 

miignificence, the whirlwind, the tempest, V^ .^^^ •?«^"* ,K™5 (!»»»•> *? 

■^^ ' fnsM, (anthoianthuro odoratum,) whidi 
8oBt glcaM of suHhine, 'mid leaewing abounds in the dry paMures, and mooa. 
9»^na^ tain sides ; where its withered MnOTrnni^ 
To-day there hare been fine bright in- which it is remarkable that the cattle do 
terrals, and, while returning from a hasty not eat, give a yellowish brovm tint to tke 
ride, I have been greAtly delighted w^th whole pasture. Our bog lands are ovcr- 
Hm appearance of a rainbow, gradually run with the couch, or florin grass, (agra^ 
advanciiig bdbre the loweriiig clouds, lis stoloniferm,) tereral other species of 
sweepmgwith majestic stride across the the affrostis, and the rira. This is, in- 
troubled ocean, then, as it gained the deed, the country for a botanist ; and one 
beach, and seemed almost within mv so indefatigable as yourself, would iMt 
grasp, Tanishing amid the stonn, of which hesitate to Yenture with us acroas the mahy 
it had been tlie lovely, but treacherous, bog,whereyoowould be so well rewarded 
forerunner. It is, 1 suppose, a oonse- for the labour of springing from one knot 
quence of our situation, and the dose of rushes to another, by meeting with 
connection between sea and nuuntain,tbal the frins[ed blossoms of the b<^-bean, 
the rainbows here arc so frequent, and so (menyanthes trifoliata,) the yellow aspho- 
tteculiarly Iteautiful. (K an amaxing del, (narthecium ossifrairum,) the pale bog 
oreadlh, and with colours vivid beyond Ttolet, (viola palustris,) both species of the 
description, I know nut whdher most to pinguicula, sind of the beautiful drosera, 
admire this aerial pheiioinenon, when, the Ka^li^h fly-trap, spreading it& devry 
sujkpended in the western sky, one end of leaves glistening in the sun. I could also 
the bow sinks behind the island of Boffin, point out to you, almost hid in the moist 
while, at the distance of several leagues, recesses of some dripping rock, the pretty 
the «ither rests n\ion the misty hills of miniature frm, (tricnomanes Tunbridgeo- 
Ennis Turc ; or when, at a later hour of the sis,) which you may remember showing me 
day, it has apiwared stretched acioss the for the fir>t time at Tunbndge W'elU : the 
ample itdes of Mulbrea, penetrating far osmunda lunana and rt*galis an* also to be 
into the ^*^p ^lue waters tliat flow at found, with other ferns, mosses, and li- 
lts bast. With ft-ehnir^ of grateful recoU chens, which it is far b^ond my botanical 
lection uw, we may hail tlie repeated visits skill to distinguish. — llie man of science, 
«/ this heavenly mcNsenger, occasionally, to wliatever braoch of natural history hn 
Jt» 4/Ara S3 6* e or fix tjoiu lu th« cuucse atteutioa u dircdad, will lodaedfiiid 


nerer-fiuling loiiica cit gratHlcttkm, in When this has gone sQ roimd, the oon- 

eipkning paths, hitiierto almost nnttod- ductor repeat^Oie ifarst speedy and adds 

dcDy in our wUd codntxy. Scarcely a the following : 

county in En^and is without its pectdiar < In tiie first corner stands a sopeih alater- 

Florsy almost every hill and ererv valley nos, 

hive been subject to repeated, scientific Whose shade, hi the dog-daj8,wui*t let the 

enmination ; while the productions of "^ ^'o™ v*' 

natniey so boontiflilly accorded to pooi * -This couplet having been sent round 

Irdand, ire either unknown or msre- as before, he then adds the following : 

gs'ded.'' * In the second comer grows 

■ A hush which bears a yellow rose : 

A SXAMVABLE DIVEMIO*. Would I might my loVC disckMS !' 

From the many games of forfeits thai ** Vm passes round in like manner: 

nve played in parlours during in-door ^lathethirdcomerJaneshow'dmemsdi 

veMMT, one is presented to the penisal London pride ; 

of fWlMd readers iirom ^ Winter £ven- Let your mouth to your next neighbour's 

mg AaAMn/* oar he appUedf^ 

Am^U Cfardem, And quick to his keying a secret confide." 

•nmeoamnybahm all seated in a «< At thU period of the game eveiy one 

ckd^lhepenonwii^tt to eondnd the mosttellhis right-hand neighbour some 
praposas to the V^b^ i^ repeat, in 

i«M»dwtpecdi he » abcwt toaikei In the fourth round^ after repeating the 
~ it ■ Mitad thm ^ww who coaMril whole of the fennery he condudes thus : 

aaqr auslahe, or juhstitnta one word for * la the fonrih comer doth i^pear 

■Milhv, shall pay a foifett Theplayer Of am a r a nthfc aafowd; 

Hm eoasiMBcca by sqring^ disdietly, BaaiesMlwhispei'dintheear 

tflofjM eone fioB mv aunt Ddm- Mttift aoir be ndd aloud.' 

nh's gulden. Bless met what a fine ^Thoec who nreiliNMpiBintadvrith this 

gardca is my aunt's garden 1 In my game occasionally fed not a little embar- 

amiit% garden tiiere are four comers.' rassed at this conclusion, as the secrets 

The one seated to the player's light is to revealed by their neighbour may be such 

repeat dns, word for word : if his memoiy as they would not like to be published to 

feus he pays a forfeit, and gives up his the whole party. Those who are aware 

tmn to kb next right-hand neighbour, not of this finesse take care to make their 

being pennitted to conect his mistake, secrets vritty, comic, or complimentary.'' 

Ibis is the eldest of the seasons : he 

Moves not like Spring with gradual step, nor grows 

Prom bud to beauty, but with all his snows 
Comes down at once in hoar antiquity. 
No rains nor loud procUuming tempests flee 

Before him, nor unto his time belong 

The suns of summer, nor the charms of long. 
That with May's gentle smiles lo well agree. 
But he, made perfect in his birthday cloud, 

Starts into sudden life with scarce a sound. 

And with a tender footstep prints the ground. 
As tho' to cheat man's ear ; yet while he stays 
He seems ts 'twere to prompt our merriest lays. 
And bid the dance and joke be long and loud. 

LUerary Pocket Book, 1820. 

SamiarP 17* St Anthony, P^rcho/ Monks, 

.9«M«Mw«.|f * • ♦ jjjg memoirs of St. Anthony make a 

A. Anikamfy Patriarch of Monks. Sit. distinguished figure in the lives of the 

8pe m§ip p u 9y E§eu*ippusj and Meletuip- saints by Alban Butler, who states the 

fmM. SU. Snipicius I. and //., Abps. particulars to have been extracted from 

of Bourges. St. Milgithe. St. Net^ '* The Life of St. Anthony/* compiled by 

mm, or NmamUdm. the great St. Athanastus; *< a wotk,** says 


Butler, ** much connnencled by St Gre^ thonghU, that by bemudding and dis* 

g>ry Nazianien, St Jerom, St. Austin," ordering his intellects he miKht make 

c. This statement by Butler, whose St. Antfiony let go his design.*' In hu 

biographical labours are estimated by ca- first conflict with the devil he was yic- 

tholics as of the highest order, and the ex- 1 torious, although satan appeared to him 

traordinary temputions which render the ' in an allunng shape. Next he came in 

life of St. Anthony eminently remarkable, the form of a black boy, and was again 

require at least so much notice of him, as defeated. AAer that Anthony got into a 

may enable the general reader to deter- tomb and shut down the top, but the devil 

mine upon the qualities attributed to him, found him out, and, with a great company 

and the reputation his name has attained of other derils, so beat and bruised him, 

in conseouence. that in the morning he was discovered by 

According to Butler, St. Anthony was the person who brought his bread, lying 
bom in 251, at Coma near Heraclea in like a dead man on the ground ; where- 
Egypt, and in that neighbourhood com- upon he took him up and carried him to 
me:, od the life of a hormit : he was con- the town church, where manv of luf 
tinually assailed by the devil. His only friends sat by him until midnight. Ai»- 
lood was bread with a little salt, he drank thony then coming to himself uid feeing 
nothing but water, never ate before sun- all asleep, caused the person who br o ught 
aet, sometimes only once in two or four him thitner to. carry aim back privately, 
days, and lav on a rush mat or on the and again got into the tomb, ahattiiig 
bare floor. For further solitude he left down the tomb-top as before. Upon this. 
Coma, and hid himself in an old sepul- the devils being very much exasperated, 
chre, till, in 285, he withdrew into the de- one night, made a i;jise so dreadlul, 
serts of the mountains, from whence, in that \h^ walls shook. ** Hiey trans- 
805, he drscf'ndcd and founded his first formed themselves into the sliapes of 
monastery. His under garment was sack- all sorts of beasts, lions, bears, leopards, 
cloth, with a white sheepskin coat and bulls, serpents, asps, scorpions and wolves; 
girdle. Butler says that he " was taught every one of which moved and acted 
to apply himself to manual labour by an agreeably to the creatures which they re> 
aiigel,whoappeared,platting mats of palm- presented ; the lion roaring and seeming 
tree leaves, tnen rising to pray, and after to make towards him, the bull to butt, the 
iome time sitting down again to work ; serpent to creep, and the wolf to run at 
and who at length said to him, ' Do this, him, and so in short all the rest ; so that 
and thou shalt be saved.' The life, at- Anthony was tortured and mangled by 
tributed bv Butler to St. Athanasius, in- them so grievously that his bodiljr pais 
Ibrms us tnat our saint continued in some was greater than before.^ But, as it were 
degree to prav whilst he was at work ; laughingly, he taunted them, aad the dc^ 
that he detested the Arians ; that he would vils gn^ed their teeth. This continued 
not speak to a heretic unless to exhort him till the roof of his cell opened, a beam of 
to the true fiiith; and that he drove all light shot down, the deviu becune speech- 
such from his mountain, calling them ve- less, Anthony's pain ceased, and the roof 
nomous serpents. He wu very anxious closed again. At one time the devil laid 
that after hu decease he should not be the semblance of a large piece of plate in 
embalmed, and beimi one hundred and bb way, but Anthony, perceiving the devil 
five yean old, died in 356, having be- in the dish, chid it, amd the pUte diaap- 
queathed one of his !ihee|>skin^, with the peared. At another time he saw a quan- 
roat in which he lay, to St. Athanasius.'* tity of real gold on the ground, and to 
8o far Butler. show the devil " that he did not value 

St. Athanasius, or rather the life of Su money, he leaped over it as a man in a 

Anthony bvfore alluded to, which, noc- fright over a fire." Having secluded him- 

withstanding Butler's authorities, may be self in an empty castle, uig^ of his ac- 

dnubud a« the pmduct of Athanasius; quaintance came often to see him, but in 

but, however that may be, that memoir of vain : he would not let them enter, and 

St. Anthony is very particular in lU ac- they remained whole dayn and nights 

count of St. Anthony's warfan* with the listening to a tumultuous rout of dvviit 

inftrmal powers. It says th^t hostilities bawling and wailing within. H«* lived in 

commenced when the saint first deter- that state for twenty years, never seeini( or 

mined on hermit ixinie ; ** in short, the de- being seen bv any one, till his friends 

r/j fdjftil a great deal of dust in his broke o|ien Jic door, and ^ the s|iccta 


uaWHi ia ■■■■■■»(' to mb hk body ctlien ht idated th* pnutieM «( the d»- 

IM had bam to bdabevrad hf dariK nl*, tnd bow thay ■(.pcand. He said 

MtkeanMitaM is wUeh it «•• befcra tkat, "to Man tM,i]!^ will npment 

at^BHri_*^ Br«»^ ai^einite fhaiifhi M teil M to towdi the ceUiag, 

■ad proportioMbly broad ; thej ofteu pi»- 
Ic^ to ling pwlmi and cite the acrip- 

lent, u Tsnquiihed. Once, when they 
uue Ihreatenin!; and surrouoding m« 

__^^ _^_ ___„ like soldiers, accaulrd and horsed, and 

^cOer edio lAal we read ; aomEtimei again when they filled the i^ace with 
*•/ atainp, aomedmei they laugh, and wild beasU ukd creeping thin^l «utt( 
'mDCtinc* tb^ bin: bat frhen one re- Pialm xix. 8, aud they were ynsKOlCL^ 
XmI^ ibein atn, tbeo thej weep atid la- rooted. Anolhet tine, vr\wn Vtwi] «^ 


petred with a light in the dark, and said, enemy of louls, who seim on those who 

* We are come, Anthony, to lend thee our are accountable to him, but cannot reach 
light,' I prayed, shutting my eyes, becaose those who are not persuadable by him.** 
1 disdained to behold their light, and His biographer declares that the devils 
presently their light was put out. After fled at his word, as fast as from a whip, 
this thev came and hissed and danced, It appeara from ladv Morgan, that at 
but as 1 prayed, and lay alontif singing, the confectioners* in kome, on twelfth- 
they presently began to wail and weep as day, ** saints melt in the mouth, and 
though they were spent. Once there the temptations of Sc Anthony are easily 
came a devil very tall in appetrancey that digested/' 

dared to say, ' What wouldst thou have Alban Butler says that there is an ex- 

me bestow upon thee V but I spat upon taut sermon of St. Anthony's wherein he 

him and endeavoured to beat him, and, eztob the efficacy of the sign of the cioas 

great as he was, he disappeared with the for chasing the devil, and lays down rules 

rest of the devils. Once one of them for the discernment of spirits. There is 

knocked at the door of my cell, and when reason to believe that he oould not rend ; 

I opened it I saw a tall figure ; and when St. Austin thinks that he did not know 

I asked him, *Whoart thou!' he answered, the alphabet. He wore his habit to his 

* I am satan ; Why do the monks blame dying day, neither washing the din off 
and curse me ? I hav«' no longer a place his Iwdy, nor so much as his leet, odIcm 
or a city, and now the desert is filled with they were vret by chance when he waded 
monks ; let them not curse one to no through vrater on a journey. The jesait 
purpose.' 1 said to him, <Thou art a liar,* Ribadeneira affirms, tliat ^ all the worid 
kc. and he disappeared." A deal more relented and bemoaned his death, for 
than this he is related to have said by hii afterwards there foil no rain from heaven 
biographer, who affirms that Anthony, for three years." 

** having been prevailed upon to go into The Engrmcing of St. Anthony com- 

a vessel and pray with the monks, he, and ^ieiing wiih tkg Devil, in the present 
he only, perceived a wretched and terri- sheet, is after Salvalor Rosa. 

ble stink ; the company said there was 

sonie salt hsh in the vessel, but he per- 
ceived anotlier kind of scent, and while Saints' bodies appear, from the Rombh 

he was speaking, a young man that had writers, to have waited undecompoeed in 

a devil, and wlio had entered before them their graves till their odour of sanctity 

and hid himself, cried out, and the devil rendered it necessary that their mnains 

was rebuked by St Anthony and came should be sought out; and their bodies 

out of him, and then they all knew that were sure to be found, after a fow oentu- 

it was the devil that stunk." — ** Wonder- ries of burial, as fteah as if they had been 

fol as these thtn^rs are, there are stranger interred a few weeks. Hence it is, that 

things yet ; for once, as he was going to though two centuries elapsed before Ad- 

pray, he was in a rapture, and (which is a thony's vras looked for, yet his gmve was 

paradox) as soon as he stood up, lie saw not only discovered, but his boiW was 

himself without himself, as it were in the in the customary pretervatioo. H was 

air, and some bitter and terrible Ijeingi brought to Europe through a mirade. 

sCandmg by him in the air too, but the One Joceline, who had neglected a pil- 

anerU, his giiardianfi, withstood them.^— grimage to Jerusalem, was, therefore, 

" He had also aiiotliei particiiUr favour, sorely wounded in battle, and carried for 

for iut he wait Mtting on the mount in a dead into a chapel dedicated to St. Ao- 

prayin; fNMture, and fierhaps ^raveilcd thpny. When lie began to revive, a mul- 

with Mime iloubt relating to himself, in titude of deviU appeari^d to drau him to 

the niclit-time, one called to him, and hell and one devil cast a lialter alwut hb 

»aid, *.Anthi>ny, ari-e, i;o forth and look ;' neck to stranule him, wherefore St. An- 

«4i he Wfiit mil ziud >uw a certain terrible, thony app4>ared ; the di-viU rifW from Aim 

deiiirni*-fj (H-rMina'jf standint;, and reach- of course, anil he coiiimaiided Joceline to 

ing to the f>lrll|l)^, and v«ini;etl cn'Sture^, perfonn his niljTriiiiii^e.anil to convey his 

and him oritt-hini: out hi> hands; and body fruni tne e^ut ; wheitupon Joci'line 

•omc of tli«'m ^M? ««aw wtM-e stop(N*d by obeye<)« and canitd it to France. When 

bim, and others were fiyint; N'yoiid him ; I*atnck wiotr. thesaiiit*!* beanl was shown 

whereupon the tail on* t;naNheil hi> teeth, at (*olo>;ne, with a part of his hand, and 

Mmti Aathonj perceive«l that it wa> tlie aootlivr piece of hiiu %%a.« shown at lour- 

117 THE XVERT^AY 1)00IL--JA1IUARY 17. tm 

wMf; twDof bit nlict^iiwt^t Antwerp; FBBAcsnre 10 titHis. 

m^ofldbdedteid to h^ Lftdj Morgan desenbci m piettera in 

iMoat fat hit nckck«h» and part ofhis the Brnghese palaoa at Roomy lepreient- 

pateeoat; tbe odiar part of it waa exhi- iiw St. Aotkonv picadiing toi tlia fidwa : 

hiad at Vienna, and tbe rnt of bif body <<The salmon Uk^ at the pisBdier with 

waa ao rnnhiplied about, that there weie an edified fiux, and a cod, with bis op. 

fairi>-boneBenoiigb£Mrtheieniauisofbalfa turned ejes, seems anzion^ seddng m . 

deaen nn can on iied persons. The Romish the new light. Tbe saintTs sermon u to '• 

chudihaa not made sainU of late years, be had in manrof the shops at Rome. 

Bustmo OF BEASTS. ^t. Anthony addresses the fish, * Dearly 

So5to»^i«Mrki, that « tte ««^ ^* ^^X'^ "^nZ^T*^ 

w^^i^L^ik.*^^ KU^L^H^ temptations of the samt Inonepietnre 

SiS^SJ^L SSm^^^ heis^wnbl^theden^^ 

{Sa^SL^^SS^ ma^l; probably atttotmm 

heimidedaU God's creatnres as worthy ' ^•? J* !^ "^ v ' u v. . 
orn^lection»--«icepth^ and tbe deyd a monk would be; 

m^ bate added; unless, indeed, whidi "^ the next picture shows, that 

seems to bsve been the cas^ Anthony re- ' When tbe defil was well, 

gvded fAm as ^ creatures '^ of the dlerU, the devil a monk was he;' 

between whom, and this saint, we baye <<lorSt Anthony, haying laiddowninbia 

seen that the Rer. Alban Butler takes ocxBin to meditate the more secur^, a 

especial care we should not be ignorant parcel of malicious little imps are peeping, 

of the miracnlous conflicts just related. with all sorts of whimsical ana terrific 

Lady Morgan says, that the annual be- £u:es, over its edges, and parodying Ho- 

aediction of die beasts at Rome, in a garth's enraged musician. One abomi- 

chnrch there dedicated te St. Anthony, nable wretch blows a post-horn dose to 

lasts lor some days : ^ for not only every the saint's ear, and seems as much do* 

Roman from the pope to the peasant, who lighted with his own music as a boy with 

kas a horse, a mule^ or an ass, sends his a Jew's-harp, or a sdo-player with his 

cattle to be blessed at St. Anthony's shrine, first ad l^itum,^ 

bat all the English go with their job horses St. Anthony's sermon to the fish is 

sod fiiTonrite dogs ; and for the small given in some of our angling books. If 

efliniug of a couple of paoHj get them this saint was not the preacher to the fish, 

ninUed, sanctifiied, and placed under but St. Anthony of Padua, the latter has 

me protection of this saint. Coach after lost the credit of his miraculous exhort- 

eoaoi dracws up, strings of mules mix with ation, from the stupendous reputation of 

carta and barouches, horses kick, mules his namesake and predecessor. Not to 

are restive, and dogs snarl, while the offi- risk the displeasure of him of Padua, by 

dating priest comes forward from his the possibihty of mistake, without an at- 

little chapel, dips a brush into a vase of tempt to propitiate him if it be a mistake, 

holy water, sprinkles and prays over the let it be recorded here, that St. Anthony 

beasts, pod^ets the fee^ and retires." of Padua's protection of a Portuguese 

Dr. Conyers Middleton says, that when regiment, which enlisted him into its ranks 
he vras at Rome, he had his own horses seven hundred years after his death, pro- 
blest fi>r eighteen-pence, as well to satisfy cured him the honour of being promoted 
Us curiosity, as to humour his ooadiman, to the rank of captain, by the king of 
who vras persuaded that some miMhance Portugal, as will appear by reference to 
would befall them in the year, if they had his military certificate set forth at large 
aoc the benefit of the benediction. in << Andent Mysteries described." 


fT. AVTBOVT*s ri»B. ItiB of tlie difl^mt cran DtMdiooto af- 

Sa. Anthony's ftrv is an inflammatm iemWed in the Aurchymra of St. Bvth^jvi^ 

disease which, in the eleventh oentuir, *om«^» Smithileld, and then St. Anthontf ,1 

raged nolenUy in Tarious paru. Accord- scholars commonly were the best, and«*- 

■ig to the legend, the intercession of St. "^ ^ prizes ; and that when the Imji of 

Anthony was prayed for, when it mini- St. Paul's school met with those of St, 

culously ceased ; and therefore, fit^ that Anthony's, ** they would call them St. 

time, the complaint has been caUed Su Anthony's pigs, and tker anin would 

Anthony's fire. call the others pigeons of raul s ; because 

, many pigeons were bred in Paul's church, 

ST. AVTHOVT s Pio. ^^ Sj Anthony was always figured with 

Bishop Patrick, from the Salisbury a pig following him." 

missal uid other Romish ser?ice-book^ The seal of St. Anthony's Hospital u 

eites the supplications to St. Anthony for London was about the size of a hali^ 

relief from thu disease. Catholic writers crown ; it represented the saint preadiinf 

afirm it to have been cured by the saint's to a numerous congregation, wiui his pig 

relics dipped in wine, which prored a beneath htm. The ller. Mr. Orton, rector 

present remedy. "Neither," says Pa- of Raseby in Leicestershire, was supprnted 

Uick, who quotes the Romish writers, to have been iu possessor by the late Bir^S. 

** did this benefit by the intercession of Ayscough, who adds (in the Gent. Mi^) 

St. Anthony accnie only to men, but to that the hospital of St. Anthony had a giani 

cattle also ; and from hence we are told of all the stray pigs which were trt 

the custom arose of picturing this saint owned. He presumes that, from thtnce, 

with a bog at his feet, because, the same originated the emblem of the saint's pif . 

author (Aymerus) says, on thu animal In this he seems to have been mistaken ; 

God wrought miracles by his serrant." it clearly did not originate in England : 

Patnck goes on to say, that in honour of Patrick^ solution of it is more probable^ 

St. Anthony's DOwer of curing pigs, " they and fery likely to be correct, 

used in several places to Ue a bell about St. Anthony is always represented by 

the neck of a pig, and maintain it at the the old painters with a pig by his side, 

common charge of the parish," from He is so accompanied m the wood-cot 

whence came our English proverb of to hu Ufe in the Golden Legend. Iher* 

«* TnUmf pig,'* or t'Antony, an abridge- are many prinu of him, by eariy masten, 

ment of the Anthony pig. in this way. Rubens painted a fine pio- 

JM remember," says Stow, «* that the ture of the Death of St. Anthony, with 

oAeen diarged with the oversight of the his pig, or rather a large bacon hog, lying 

markeu m this aty did divers times take under the saint's bed : there is a good 

from the market people, pigs starved, or engraving from this picture by Clouwtl. 
otherwise unwholesome for roan's sus- 

these they did slit in the ear. 

One of the proctors for St. Anthonjr's In the British Museum there is a MS. 

(Uoepital) tied a bell about the neck, (of with a remarkable anecdote that would 

one of them,) and let it feed on the dung- form an appendix to St. Anthony's day. 

kiUs: no man would hurt or take it The names of the parties are forgotten; 

up ; but if any gave to them bread, or but the particulars, recollected from acci- 

other feeding, such they (the pigs) would dental neranly are these : 

know, watch for, and daily follow, whining A tailor was met out of doors by a per- 

Cill they had somewhat given them : where- son who requested to be measured mr a 

•pon was raised a proverb, ' Smck am one suit of clothes, to be ready on that spot 

wiUfpttow tmek m ome, md whim ma it hf that day week ; and the stranger gavt 

spfrr (like) m Anikomy jHf .' " If such a him a piece of clelh to make them with. 

P*9 K^^^ to he fet, and came to good From certain circumstances, the tailor 

liking, (as oftentiases they did,) then the suspected his new customer to be the 

proctor would take him up to the use of devil, and communicated his conjectures 

the hospital. to %ftfH0mmsi, who advised him to eae^ 

St. Anthony's school in London, now cM the order, but carefiilly to save every 

r» to decay, was anciently celebrated piece, even the minutest shred he cu 

the proAciency of iu pupils. Stow from the cloth, and put the whole into a 

relaleB,tnat, in huvouth, he annually saw, wrapper with the clothes; he forthtr 

eie tit9 9ft of St. Bartholomew, the Kho- proansed the tailor to go with him on the 

TIIE EVERY-DAY book.~jajjuary la. 


appointed (iay to ihe place where tliey 
■en delitered. When all was tetdy and 
■he day aniv«il, ihey twih went ihilher, 
uul llw penon waiting junilied the tsH- 
loi'l uupicioiH : for be abused the lailoc 
becauM he brongtil a divine, and imme- 
diately ranished in their presence, leav- 
ing itte clolhn and pieces of cloth in the 
pcMsenioD of the tailor, who could not 
lell the devU't cloth to pay himself for the 
muing, for fear of the consequences : 
And here ndi the hutory 
Of tbii wonderful !n;il»ry ; 
from which may be drawn, by way of mo- 
lal, that a tailor ought not to take an or- 
der from a stranger without a reference, 

Samiarp is. 

St. PeUr't Chair at Itpme. St. Paul and 
TMirtf-tii CempaaioHi in Egi/pt. St. 
frUca. St. Drholai. St. Ulfrid. 
The Fitul of St. Peter's chnir is kept 

Slhc Romish church on Ihii day. LaJy 
orjao says thai it is one of the very few 
fiinctions as they are called (fumioni) ce- 
lebrated ill the cathedral of St. Peter, at 
Rome. She briefly describes this cele- 
braiioa, and says something respecting 
Si. Peter's chair. " The splendidly dress- 
ed troops that line the nave of the cathe- 
dral, the variety and richness of lestmenla 
•hich clothe the various church and lay 
digoiUiies, abbots, priests, canons, pre- 
late*, cardinals, doctors, dragoons, sena- 
tor!, and grenadiers, which march in pro- 
cevion, complete, as ihey proceed up Ihe 
Tist ipafe of itus wondrous temple, a 
spectacle nowhcte to bf eiinalled within 

^ CTOCifiies, surroondeii by banners, 
■hI brodiog under the glittering tiaia of 
Ikcefold power, appears the aged, feeble, 
tad wam-out pope, botoe aloft on men's 
Aonlders, in a chair of crinuon and gold, 
Ud envirooed liy •)■*«, (for such th^ 
look,) who waft, from plumes of ostrich 
feathers moiilitMl on ivory wands, a cool- 
Mf sale, to refresh his exhatuted frame, 
loo ^1 for the weight of such hoaonm. 
All &U prostrate, as he paue* up the 
i4niy|i to a imalt chiur and throne, tem- 
Hwily et«cled beneath the chair of St. 
Paur. A wdemn service i* tltea per- 
fanned, hnnannai arise, and twfal vota- 
Htt Bad diplomatic devotees paJade the 
tfcnrT>, with guards of honoiu and nin- 
tmm faotiDt*, wbite £ngliih geotlemen 

and ladies mob and scramble, and crowd 
and bribe, and tight their way to the best 
place they can obtain. 

" At the eilremily of the great nave 
behind the altar, and mounted upon a 
tribune designed or oroamenled by Mi- 
chael Angelo, standi a sort of throne, 
composed of precious materials, and sup- 
ported by four gigati lie figures. A glory 
of seraphim, with groups of angels, ihcdt 
a brilliant light upon its splendours. Thi» 
throne enshrines the real, plain, worm- 
eaten, wooden chair, on whicli St. Peler, 
the prince of the apostles, is said to have 

Kniificated ; more precious than all the 
inie, gold, and fcems, with which it is 
hidden, not only from impimis, but from 
holy eyes, and which once only, in the 
flight of ages, was profaned by mortal in- 

" The sacrilegious curiosity of the 
French broiie through all obstacles lo 
their seeing the chair of St. Peter. They 
actually removed its superb casket, and 
discovered the relic. Upon its moulder- 
ing and dusty surface were traced cnrv> 
ings, which bore tlie a^peaianr^ o( 
letters. The chair was quickly brought 
into a belter light, the dust and cobwebs 
removed, and ihe inscription (for an in. 
schption it was) faithfully copied. The 
writing is in Arabic characters, and is 
the well-known confession of Mahometnii 
(kith, — ' Here ii but one Goo, and M*- 
HiiUET it hit prophet !' It is supposed^ - 
that this chair had been, among the spoab 
of the crusaders, offered to the church 
at a time when a taste for anliquatinti 
tore, and the deciphering of inscripiions, 
wore not yft in fashion. This story has 
1.. 1. -i II'. liushed up, ihc cliair replaced, 
■ ■ ' . 'i\:i the null allowed remember 
the fact, and none but the audacious re- 
peat it. Yet such there are, even at 

St. Pritea. 
This saint's festival stands in the calen- 
dar of the church of England this day, as 
well as in that of the Uomish church. 
Nothing is certainly known of her except 
that rfie was a Roman, and martyred 

about ars. 


In the London journals of Jauuary, 
1824, the following anecdote from a Cat- 
low paper bears the above title : — " A 
Sung lady, who di«d IQ this town, had 
en fome tilH previous to her deatk 

tl3 Tie, KVERY-DAY BOOR.-JANUARr 18. 114 

tttended by a gtBl&emiin of tlie medical eyet on the writing-table, ai thooili it 

profeiuion. (>n Uie evening of her de- chiefly desired to he acquainted wiu tlie 

ceaM% as this (^ntliMnan was fitting in books and papers that lay upon it. TIm 

company with a friend of his, ami in the writer shut and rubbed his ejret, tad 

act of taking a ulass of punch, he ima- again the eyes of the fhce were iiitentljf 

gined he saw the lady walking into the upon him ; watching it, he grasped tM 

room where himself and his friend were candlestick, strode hazily towarat tl» 

flitting, and, having but a few hours be- room door, which is about two feet fron 

fore v»ite<l her, and found her in a djring the pane, observed the fiice as hastily 

state, the shock that his nenres experi- draw back, unlatched the closet door m 

enced was so great, tbat the glass which the landing, was in an instant witbm tlw 

held the punch fell from his hands, and closet, and there to his astonishment found 

he himself dropped on the floor in a fiiint- nothing. It was im^Kissible that the per- 

ing fit. After he had perfectly recorered son could have escaped from the closet 

h.mitelf, and made inquiry alwut the lady, before his own foot was at its door, yet he 

ii was ascertaim'd tliat a few minutes be- examined nearly every room in the house, 

fore the time the medical gentleman ima- until reHectin,; that it was folly to seek 

gined he had seen her iq his friend's for what, he was convinced, had no budily 

apartment, she had departed this life." existence, he returned up stairs and went 

Perhaps tliis vision may be illustrated by to bed, iM>ndering on tlic recollection of 

others. ' the spectre. 


TlieFditorof the^rcr]^/)a|r AooAnow To the precodint; narative the Edflor 

."elates an appearance to himself. adds an account of a sulwequent appari- 

One winter eveninir, in 18*21, he was tion, which he .saw, and for cteater ease 
writiiu: in a Ivick room on an upper floor he writes it in the first ]>erson, as followi : 
of the house No. 4.^, I^dg:itc-hill, where- In January, in*24, one, whose relatkm- 
in lie now resides, lie had l>een so closely ship commaiidefl my affection, was abovt 
eugaired in that way and in reailint^ dur* to leave England with hii family for a 
iiig several prece<linic days, that he had distant part of the world. The day or 
taken every meal alime, and in that room, two preceding hiM departure I passed 
nor did he usually K-* to iM-d until two or with nim and his wife and children. Oar 
three o'clock in the mominff. In the se])aration was es|>ecially jminful ; my 
early pirt of the fmrtirular evening aU mind was distn*sised, and I uot little sleep, 
luded to, his attention had become wea- He had sailed from C»ravesend about three 
ried. Af^er a doze he found himself re- days, and a letter that he had promised 
freshed, and was writin;;when the chimes to write from the Downs had not arrived, 
of St. l*aur<* clock siMinded a quarter to On the evening of the *29th 1 retired late, 
two : l(»ni; In^fore that dead hour all the and being quite wt'aried slept till an tm* 
family hail r^'tinKl to rest, and the house usually late hour the next morning, witb- 
was silent. A few minutes afterwards out a consciousness of having dreamed, or 
he movwl rounil In* ciiair towards the beint;, as I found myself, alone. With 
tin'-place, and op|i««site to a lanre pane of my head on the pillow I opened my eyes 
gla«« winch let the lit;ht from the room to an extraonlinary ap)>earance. Against 
into a cloM-t (tthtTwiM- dark, the door of the wall on the opposite side of ihe room, 
which i»|teiied i]|ion the laiidinu-plact*. His and level with my si«;ht, the person, re- 
rye turiiinu; u|H>n tlie nidss pane, he was tpecting whom I had lieen so anxious, Hj 
amazed by the fjo* of a man anxiously a corpse, extended at full lenfrth,a4 if rest- 
watch in k hi in from the closet, with knit ifig on a table. A greyish cloth covered 
iiiquiriiiK brows. Tlie featun-s were pro- the entire body except the (ace ; the eyes 
miiient and hairtfard, and, though the look were closed, the counten9nre was cndn- 
was somfwhut fciorioiK, it imlicated in- verous, the mouth elongated from tiM 
teau* curiiioity tow ard> tlw motions of the falling of the jaws, and the lips were 
writ IT, rjihrr than any purjwsc of imme- purpled. I shut my eyes, nibbed them, 
diate mischief tr» hiin. The face seemed and gently raising my head continued to 
somewhat to ren-de with a quick motion gaxe on the body, till from weariness of 
wiieii he fir«t saw it, hut frazini; on it with the attitude and exhausted spirits, I 
great earnest iiess It ap|><>a red chiser to the dropped on the pillow, and insensibly 
floss, looking nt him for a moment, and runk to sleep, for periiaps a quarter of ao 
iira with man eager aaiiety bending its hour. On again awaking, the spectre wn 


aMilkefe. I diBB ■race, 4Dd baiiDg meif- he and hU bmily ««« at the place o' 
tbard %ht drcuDUUnce to (oine of nij theit destinabon. Tliii tpedral a-pptmz 
lobemade «nce therelbTe al Ludfrale4iill, beiwven 
irse of the eight and pine o'clock t>( the iDuminE on 
liwtnrcao a perran amrtd nbo had nne Ibe 30in of iaaniry, wu oo indicaljati (>■ 
nwMl with the Tenet to the Down*, (rom bis death, nor would it haye be*n had hi 
vheacc h« had be«n put ashore the morn- died about that tiisG, alibou^ the co- 
imf bcfara^ md nw ifie *hip in full Mil. inadence of the appantion and his de~ 
Uc WW ihe bewei of the letter I had ei- cease would haw been rematkable. The 
pcGMd ftwB the indlTidual aboard, whose rase at Carlow only differs (rom the case 
tfftaztMKt I iwd witnctsed only a tew M Ludeale.hill by the decease of the 
hMH pcenooi to iu being put inio my lady having been eoeral with her ^lectiri 
kaBd* i it <tf coorwieliei-ed no apprehen- appearance to the gentleman who wm 
«»■ thai n^b( faaye been excited by the depreued by her illncis. The face which 
nceot ■pceoc. the wriiw mw looking at hun ftmn a 
" That ih* dead are seen no mote," closet in the dead of ni^l was no like- 
Mid Infac, " I will not undenake to oeu of any one he knew, end he saw 
■aiatatn a^aK the concurrent and uo- each fpe<^tie when his faculties had bfen 
Taried tt a ti aaooj at all agea and of all na- forced beyond their healthful bearing. 
IMi*. Umic ■ »« people-^ ntde or leatti- Under these circumstances, hii eye«gbi 
ed, amn-aff wbon uipaiitions of the dead was not to be trusted, and he lefinei to 
arc bM T^led umI bdieied. This <>pi- vl™'* i'l atlhou^ the speettes were so 
■iaa. whscht perhaps, prevails as far as ntrdordinaiy, and appeared andet sncti 
hiBaa mtare i> diffiised, could become citcumstaocet that probably they will 
^Tcnal ooly by its inith; thos«, thai never be forgotten, 
■cvft bcftid of ooe siKXheT, would never ' 

haie aimed in a tile whidi notLini; l.m CoupltJ with the mciJenlsju*! related, 

..j^::- ■:,-.- ,.■, -, .;. ■> •.■■- T,..-. V:. ■■..■■.. f ■■■ i. ..- ..^ V :',. ,n Ja- 

« - ■ ,■..,..-. . „,,„ced 

■-.r- . ■ ■ ' ' '■■■ 16lh 

md sooe who deny it with their tongues of the tnoBlh, recalls the recollection of 

CBBfcM it by their Ksan." a siagalar circumstance in the bn oC 

No mao is privileged to impogn the Naples. Ute &ct and the facts preaHiiw 

ka0«led^ of emtctices whidi otbera it are related by Dr.Southeyin bis " IJfi 

hare li m e e d froB their cipeiieDce ; hut of NeUon.'' Having spoken of Nelson'i 

k who sees, withoat anenling to reaU' attadiment to lady Hamilton, and hb 

tita, audaciously reject* pootive proof to weariness of the wotfd, Dr. Sontbej pto- 

liJBaiilf where pfaoMipCive MstimaBy ceeds thus : — 

■<whl he uriifirlwj tn moil ■ hr rfaringtj "Well bad it been fbf Nelson if ho 

blsi&es what he k»owi to be indnbita- bad made no other ncrificca to this tut- 

Hy tme, and seaet coofictioas belie the hapf^ altachment than his peace of 

9 hardihood of pretended incre- mind ; but it led to the only blot upon 
dokty. Tliese, it is presumed, woold be his public character. While be stuled 
At acBliBKnts of tLe great author of from Palermo, with the intention of col- 

I Ibc eipteasion of dit- lecting his whole force, and keeping off 

hdicf in him who had witsessed eoectial Maretimo, either to receive leinfcrce- 

; and jel the writer of ^eae ments there, if the French wen bound 

1 pefwnal knowledge upon upwards, or to hasten to Minorca, if that 

ihe suhftct, dedioei to admit thai know- shonld be their destination, otpt. Foote, 
ledge a* good evidence. He would say in the Seahorse, with the Neapc"' 
wtraly weR he to affirm, that when he frigates and some smalt vessels ni 

under hb 

r the carpse-lihe form, and far Bsme coKunand, was left to ad with a 

tBC aflawards, h« had DO misgivings as force consisting of a lew regular Injops, 

la ibe nJctj of bis friend, ft was not of four different nations, and with the 

nntil a lapse of six months that the armed rabble whidi cardinal Rnfb called 

fBsd was reported to have toucfaed at a tbe Christian army. Ua directions were 

certain port m good condition, and this to cooperate to the uttnost of his jkmkt 

WM fcDowed by a Iciter from the indivi- with royalists, at whose heed Ruflo had 

dod biKsdf, wherein ha aCrmed his been placed, an^ he had no other inslnic- 

(ond Wnbh ; be sabsaqueoUy wrote, that lions whatever, Boio advaaciBg vM»- 


««l WT pin* V«l iriyiaf vpon ^ cn^ " Prince Franceico CafMCck4i»> yiwrng 
mj*! w«alot mui^irty whioi prerenled er branch of one of the noblett Nespofi* 
tbsm from atlempting to act upon the tan families, escaped from one of toeM 

olfentire, and ready to take advantage of castles before it capitulated. He waa at 

any Mcident which might occur, a|>- the head of the marine, and was neuhr 

pioacbed Naples. Fort St. Elmo, which seventy years of age, bearing a higm 

^>ft n%ii>«ml« the town, was wholly garrison- character both for proifessional and per* 

ad by the French troops ; the castles of sonal merit. He had accompanied tiM 

UoTO and Nuovo, which commanded the court to Sicily ; but when the revolotioii- 

anchorage, were diiefly deCended by Nea- ary government, or Parthenopsean i«pob-> 

politan revolutionists, the powerful men lic» as it was called, issued an adiel, 

among them having taken shelter there, oidering all absent Neapolitans to retnm^ 

If these castles were taken, the reduction on pain of confiscation of their property, 

of Fort St. Elmo would be greatly ex- he solicited and obtained permission of 

pedit^. They were stiong places, and the king to return, his estates being Tcry 

Utitn was reason to apprehend that the great. Tt b said that the king, when he 

French fleet might arrive to relieve them, gnmted him this permission, warned him 

Rufib proposed to the garrison to capitu- not to take any part in politics ; exprcai- 

late, on condition that their persons and ing, at the same time, his own persoasioB 

property sliould be guaranteed, and that that he should recover his kiitgdom. But 

Ui^ should, at their own option, either be neither the king, nor he himself, ought 

sent to Toulon, or remain at Naples, to have imagined'that, in such times, a 

without being molested either in their man of such reputation would be per* 

persons or £unilies. Tbts capitulation mitted to remain inactive; and it aoon 

was accepted : it was signed by the car- appeared that Caraccioli was again ui 

dinal, and the Russian and Turkish com- command of the navy, and serving under 

mandera ; and, lastly, by capt. Foote, as the republic against his late sovereigo. 

commander of the British force. About The sailors reported that he was forced 

mx and thirty hours afterwards Nelson to act thus : and this vras believed, till il 

arrived in the bay, with a force which had was seen that he directed abl^ the oieo- 

lOined him during his cruise, consisting sive operations of the revolutionists, and 

of seventeen sail of the line, with 1700 did not avail himself of opportunitict 

tfoopa on board, and the prince royal of for escaping when they offered. When 

NafSes in the admiral's ship. A flag of the recovery of Naples was evidenthr 

tnioe was flying on the castles, and on near, he applied to cardinal Roflb, and 

boaid the Seahorse. Nelson made a sig- to the duke of Calvirrano, for protection ; 

Bil to annul the treaty ; declaring that he expressing his hope, that the few dayi 

woold grant rebels no other terms than during which he had been for^d to obey 

tkoae of unconditional submission. The the French, would not outweigh fbr^ 

cardiiMl objected to this : nor could all years of fsitliful services : — ^but, perhaps^ 

the arguments of Nelson, sir W. Hamil- not receiving such assurances asne wiib- 

ton, tmd lady Hamilton, who took an ed, aud knowing too well the temper of 

S'te part in the conference, convince the Sicilian court, he endeavoured to 

\ that a treaty of such a nature, so- secrete himself, and a price was set npoa 

Jtml^ concluded, could honourably be his head. Mora unfortunately for others 

•ft eMe. He retired at last, silenced ht than for himself^ he was brought in alive, 

Nelson's authority, but not convinced, having been discovered in the disguise of 

Capt Foote was sent out of the bay ; and a peasant, and carried one morning on 

the ganisoiis taken out of the castles, board lord Nelson's ship, vrith his hands 

under pretence of carrying the treaty into tied behind him. 

effect, wera delivered over as rabels to ** Caraccioli was well known to dm 

the vengeance of the Sicilian court.— >A British officers, and had been ever highly 

deplorable transaction ! a stain upon the esteemed by all who knew him. Capt. 

memory of Nelsoti, and the honour of Hardy ordered him immediately to bo 

E ng l a n d I To palliate it would be in unbound, and to be treated with all thooo 

vain ; to jnitify it would be wicked : attentions which he feh due to a man 

thora is no alternative, for one who will who, when last on board the Foudroyant, 

■ot sake himself a participator in guilt, had been received as an admiral and a 

b«t to foeocd the disgraceful story with prince. Sir William and lady HamiYtott 
ud with shame. wera in the ship; but Nelson, it is afiia^ 


*Jt iw ■«» «■<> Mcept Tiij own officers, was prcscnl at the exMution. She had 

toin^ die tai^y which eniued. Ilij the raosi devoted atlachmtnt to the Nta* 

own detettnii.ilion was made; and he polilan comt ; and ihe hatred which she 

tuacd in order to the Seapoliun com- fell laajiitt those whom she regarded as 

o», count 'Diani, to asjemble a its enemies, made her, at this limei forget 

ccort-eoaiiul of Nespolilan ofliceri, ot» «hai was doe tothe cJiaracler of he) texy 

boanl the British flag-ship, priKeed im- as well as of her conolry. Here, also, i 

nwdiatelT to tiy the prisoner, and report faithful historian is called tipon to pr<>- 

lo htro, if the charees were proved, what nounce a severe and uix^BaliRed cundemit' 

^ nuA iD e nt he ought to suffer. Theie alion of Nelson's conduct. Had he tba 

proceedings were as rapid as possible ; authority of his Sicilian majestjr fbr prf»> 

C^nccioli wax biou^ht on board at nine ceeding as he did ! If so, why was not 

is the (iMCDcaB, and the tiiai began at that authority produced ! If not, why 

ie». Il lasted two hours; he averred, ia were the proceedings hurried oa wilhout 

hii defence, thai he acted uudei compul- it '. Why was the trial precipitated, so 

sioa, tBTing been compelled to serve as a that it was impossible for (he prisoner, if 

ooBmoo mAUct, till he consealed to lake he had been innocent, to provide the wit- 

[rnmmnd of the fleet. Tin!, the apo!&- no"r-t n-^n Tr::h: h-v ^r^if! dim so t 

pas of lord Nelson say, be failed in *V''. i ... ■ . i.. ,( »heii 

pmvLng. They forget th« the pos;ibilTly ih-' : . i.lcni of 

of provirg it was not allowed liim; for the cuurt against the prisoner was cob* 

he «M kntuvbt to trial within aa hotu lidered ? Why was the execntion hatl- 

aAer he was legallr in arrest; and bow, ened, so u to predade ar.y appetd far 

IB tlm time, was be to cdlect hii wit- merej, and render the pmogstive qC 

neoes ! Ue was foand guilty, and sen- mercy useless ? — Doubtles*, the Britiih 

towed to dcMh ; and Nelson gave orders admiral seemed to himaelf to be actiBC 

that tbe aentcDce should be carried into nnder a rigid sense of jistice ; bat, lo ^jji 

cfcct that evening, U five o'dodc, on other persons, it was t^vions, that he ww 

board the Sidlian liigale La Minerva, hy influenced hj an infatuated attachment-- 

hangiog htm at the fore-yard-arm till a baneful passion, which destroyed his 

nmet; when the body was (o be cut domestichappiness, andooit,in a second ' 

down, and thrown into the lea. Carac- instance, st^ed inefeceahly his public 

oak requested lientenant Paricinson, un< character. 

der wtvise custody he was placed, lo " The body was carried ont to a e<M- 

mtncede with lord Nelson for a second siderable distance, and sunk in the bay, 

trial, — for this, among olher reasons, that with three double-beaded shot, weighing 

cooDi Thum, who presided at the court- 350 pounds, tied to its legs. Between 

martial, was notoriously his personal ene- two and three weeks afterward, when the 

my. Nelson made answer, that the pri- king was on board the Foudroyanl, a 

loorr had been Eurly tried by the officers Neapolitan fisherman came to the ship, 

sf his own conuby, and he could not and solemnly declared, that CaiaccioU 

inteHere : forgetting that, if he felt him- had risen from the bottom of the sea, and 

idf justified in ordering the trial and the was coming, as fast as he could, to N^ 

eiecution, no hnman being could ever pies, swimming half out of the water, 

have qiMstiooed the pronriely of his in- Such an account was listened to like a 

terferit»g on the side of mercy. Carac- tale of idle credulity. The day being 

:wli then entreated ihal he might be shot, lair, Nelson, to please the king, stood out 

— ' I am an old man, sir,' said he : ' I to sea ; but the ship had not proceeded 

ieave no family to lament me, and there- far before a body was distinctly seen, tip> 

fcve cannot be supposed to be very anxi- right in the water, and approaching them. 

C13 about prolonging my life ; but the It was soon recognised to be, indeed, the 

dMgracc of being hanged is dreadfiil to corpse of Caiacoioli, which had risen, 

■e.' When this was repealed to Nel- and floated, white the great weights at- 

M^ be only told the henienant, with tached to the legs kept the body in a po- 

aoA agitation, to go and attend his daty. lilion like thnt of a living man. A net 

As a last hope, CaraccioU asked the lieu- so extraordinary astonished the king, and 

tenant, if he thought an application to perhaps excited some feeling of supersti- 

Uy Hamilton would be beoelkial! tious fear, akin lo regret. He gave per- 

Paikinson went to seek her. She was mission fbr the body to be taken miborc, 

mof lobc seen on lliit occasico, — but she and receive (jiristiM) boriaL" 


Hm kit Dr. Clttl» oMBtmi in hit 9d. 8i. Gmmk9$. 

ligoatofthectbiiiwiDdoWy bjr theiidt 4ih. Si. THm$ 

ofa ncilce rwhowMwnplojftdniftihnig^ HmI. C«ry*w«MiteM. 

MUMMCKt mftu Mui out Of tiM wMor* ft,,— #„„« »y_t »^a. /» .^f i, 

ioTeoaUiLiidiUooiift^wHha^ BmMMfooi. Heil^ff^dii,, 

towaidi tiM ihofo. Nothing ooold be - ^ ^' J*- ^'^mwoji, 

■Mio iMiffriblo: its head and thooldm Screw Mom. TortuhHgid^ 

wm9 nxitiktf tnniiiig fim to one nd^ 7th. Si, KemOgtm, 

llMiitotheothor,withaioleuuiiiidawftii Poctngal laurel. Prunus Luriitmkm. 

MnreHMBty as if impreiaed with ioom ath. Si. Omduh. 

dnadftU leoret of the deep, which, fioiii Yellow Tremella. TrtmeUm deHfumemm. 

Hi watery gtave» it came upwarda to re- o* k «# a#...«£»^ 

leaL'* Dr. Feniar obaerfea. thai <' in r. 9th, at. Mmriam. 

rS;t«B^drJL3^^ ConmiooUurel. Pnma.Lo«nie^ 

ofpefeons which have been immliMd in ^ ,^^ *• '^^^oai- 

water, riae to the foifiMse, and in deep Oorse. Ulex Kutaptgot. 

water ate aoppoitcd in an erect poetaf% 1 1 th. Si. Thtodntku. 

to the terror of nninctnicted tpectatora. Early Mots. Brpum kormmm. 

Mennnng kwkf and gettnres, and even 12tb. St. AremliuM. 

wwda, are fajiplied by the affirighted Hygrometic Most. JWnorte kggromtHm, 

Siyyf^ Til'S^** ^^^•"^ I3th. Si. Feronim. 

fated to die honible apgarmon.'^ TTua VewT^. Ib«,tAoe«l«. 
ii perCBcthr natttial; and it is euy to 

iaagine the emeasife terror of estreoMi „ .^ ^z ^^ ir'^' 

UwJ^m^ ^ — ^ anDcaianoas. inrren strawberry. /yvMrle tlrrlOi. 

^ ^-.-.^ .- ,/^ Ivy. Hmkra helix. 

yDluarp ISI« 16th. 31. MareeOfu. 

Sit. JfiwOet JfM^ .aM^, md Common Dead NetUe. I^mlinn jmijw. 

^■aiiw. AtCtaitet. Si. Hewy. Si. ''^"mi- 

IFnIrtm Ar.B&n7JbMle. Si. Lmtr. i7th. St. Anikonif. 

MiM ifartla Uarii A«» Garden Anemone. Anemone karteneie. 

at Martha wae married to St Maris. « ._.u J^ '* ^'''^' «. _,^ 

ttd with their SOBS, Su. Audi&z and ^<w-«<»tJ>«* Moss. Brymm peOtetditm. 

AbfJMMn^ weee pot to death under Aure- 1 9th. Si. Marikm. 

Wuk (a.». STO.) Botler sajrs, that their White Dead NetUe. Lamimn Mmm. 

sdies wtra tend at Some, in 1500, one 

' three hnndred and twen^ yean tbb gaedbk. 

Ji. In the ^ Flora Domeatica" thei« is a 

DtDiCATTov or fu^wns. IS^Ii!^ quotation from Cowley in proof 

»s»ivATiuji wr riAnrsH* ^t^ ^^ cmpcror Diodcsian preferred hia 

The monks, or the obsenreis of monkish garden to a throne : 

nles^YeoompiledaC^^ Methink. I set great Diodiriwi walk 

•fffcr mA day m the year, and dedi- !» the fidontin gJIdeo'i ooble JiJtT 

Cited endi flower to a particular saint, on Which by hit own imperiil htadtwi .^^ 

•eeoottt of its flowtrbg about the time of I tec htm tmile, methinki, ts he docs talk' 

tim saiaf s fiHttraL Such appropriations With the ambundMf , who come in Tain 

«C n Fhni Dkmiorf thnmghont the T* entice him to a throoe agtia. 

yiari tad wOl be inserted under the suo- " ^h »y friendi," mid he, *' ihoaM te jpa 

caading days, Tboee which belong to "kow 

lbs and the eiriiteen pr«!eding days fai fi? ^ ^fl%^<* T^^ ^ <^^ K*'*'** grew, 

Javmiy am in Oie WloWi^WU- Z^^^S^?' *kat yo. with mt thoald it^, 

' ^ Insn t» that jon ihonld carry mt away ; 

f AVVAftT. And trust am not, ny fricndt, if, tvery dB;y» 

*^" " '■ la tnvmph to the capitol I rode, • 

U. Si. MimmHme. To thaak the god^ and to be thoafht myesif 

GmmmdmL Bm$ H $ tn Ug mrU. pfaneitagod.^ 


To tha aiOor of Um " Vkm Domes- flowers couning Ihe louk bj llieir varied 

tka,'*md toihe Teadcrwbo may not hate loveliness, and liieimellbyTheirilelicucj; 

M«i a vohune ■> acc«ptabk to the culti- latge juicy apples bowing donn (he almost 

TatoT of floweni it would be injuilice to lendnl-sboouwlierefrom ihej miracutously 

eztiacl from iti p>ga« without remarking spring; plants of giant growllt wiib luuU 

iu UMfiilDcss, and etegaocr of compoii- ururoi sliiubi heyond, and hully-liock? 

tiOD. lamenting that " planli often raept Urwcring like painted pinnaelea from iiid- 

mtimely deat^^ftom the igno- denst 

their nunet," the amiable 

— Cu imiginalian bout. 

antbor « re>olTtd to obtain and to com- .j^y jj j^ ^ craZn, «l<mw like ihcH 1 
miioicate sacn information as should be 

reqaisite for the rearii^ aad piesetring il . Dr. Forster, the scientific author of a 
fOTtaile garden in pots; — and hencplor- 'realise on " Almosphenc Pheoomeaa," 
ward the death of any plant, owing to the -^"^ other raluahle woAs, lias included 
cartlessnraa or ignorance of it* DUIM-, mimerous useful observations On the wea- 
shall be bittnght in at the best ai alaml- 'her in his recently published " Perennial 
tiaagkter." ' Calendar," a volume replete with injtruc- 

^^ lion and eDterlaioinenl. He observes, 

The coltiiatjon of plants comrDeiic«& '" '"'• '■'"'" "■'-""■. '"■'! slitr certain atmn- 
with oar xahtMj. If estranged from il "P^eric appearances c 
W the pursoiu of active life, yet, during year 1809, " a hard ai ._ „ _ ._ „ 
a Jew jear»' retirement from the " great <"' """ ""^ sleet came with considerable 
hum" of a noisy world, we naturally Tiolenee from the east, and ^laied every 
recur to a garden as to an old and cheer- *"'B on which it fell with ice; il jn- 
fill fri, rM whom we had forgotten or <-™'ed ™ "»'». encased the trees and 
wslecied, and verify the saying. " ""ce ^ garmenti of people, and even the 
a man and iw.ce a child." There is not plumaf^ °^ l"™*. w that many rooks 
- raw of woman bom " without a sense of »»* o'"'*'^ f<^^ "«« fo™* ^'"g o" '•>« 
plearore v.hen he sees buds bursting into potind, sUff with an encasement of ice. 
leaf; (.jrih vieldinc greea shoots from Such weather, Dr. Fora'er obsef^■es, 
germs ii, iLs warm bosom; while fruit- " has been aptly described by Philips as 
blossoms, tinted «itli ros..-l>U]-lv/;Liid- occurring oftentimes during a morthero 
ing out in clamps from slendec branches; winter ; — 

Ere yet the clouds lei fall Ihi trtunred snow. 

Or windi begun through hai; ikici to blow, 

At evtning a kf«D eajiera breeie arow. 

And the deiceading rain unsullied froze. 

Soon as the lilent thades of nighl withdrew. 

The reddj morn disclosed at once to view 

The face of Nature in a rich disguise. 

And brighteneil every object to my eyes ; 

For every shrub, and every blade of grass. 

And every pointed Ihom, seemed wrought in glass , 

In pearls and rubies rich the bawthon» show. 

While through ihe ice the crimsoa berries glow, 

The thick-sprung reeds the waiery marshes yield 

Seem polished lances in a hostile field. 

The stag in limpid currenls, with surprise, 

Sees crystal bianehes on his forehead rise. 

The spmaditiE oak, Ihe beech, and tow'ring pine, 

Glai'd over, in the freezing ether shine. 

The frighted birds the laltbog branches shun. 

That waie and glitter in the distant sun. 

When, if a sudden gnsl of wind arise, 

He briule faiest into atoms flies ; 

The cracking iH»d beneath Ihe tempest bend*. 

And in • spBugUd afaowei tbe prospect ends. 

PkiHfa, Ltlt.fnmt CaptHkmgpi. 

" Jf may be observed, that in both the Ihe storm. There is somethii>g very re- 
above descriptions of similar phenomena, markably unwholesome in east winds, 
the east wind is recorded as Dringieg up and a change to that quarter often div 


tnrbt the aerroot system and digestive In the truth of these observations as 

organs of many persons, causing head- regards health, he who wnteit this is un« 

ames, levers, and other disorders. More- happily qualified to concur from expo- 

OTer, a good astronomical observation Hence ; and were it in his power, would 

cannot be made when the wind is east : ever shun the north^mtt as his most 

the star seems to oscillate or dance about feaiful enemy, 
in the field of the telescope." 

Sir, the north-east, more fierce than Russian cold* 

Pierces the very marrow in the bones. 

Presses apoo the brain an srid weight. 

And tuperfiows Ufe's current urithi force 

That checks the heart, and soul, and mind, and strength, 

Jo all their purposes, 

Up with the double window-tashes--Hiuick ! 
Close every crevice from the withering blast. 
And st<^ the keyhole tight— the wind-fiend comes ! , 

tttflttt1^t*D ^H) tast-pinocd paper, unmindful of the phy- 

^allUal j/ — ♦ gj^j^j lj^^ which forbids her head revolving 

8t, Ffl^MM, Pope. St. Sebastian. St. fester than the great orbit on which the 

Sutkywuui, St. Feckin. ominous comet flies." 
St. Fabian. 

This saint is in tlie church of England st. agkes* eve. 

calendar; he was bishop of Rome, a. n. Formerly this was a night of great im- 

2M) : the Romish calendar caUs him pope, port to maidens who desired to know who 

^ they should marry. Of such it waa re- 

St. Sebattimn** Doff quired,jthat they should not eat on this 

Is noted inDobbula'sLeUers from Spain, J^y^ ^nd those who conformed to tht 

as within the period that ushers in the car- j^jie^ called it fasting St. Agnes' fast, 
mval with rompings in the streets, and 

rulgar mitth. And on sweet St. Agnei* nieht 

" The custom alluded to by Horace of Pl«*»< yo" ^»*h the prorois* J tight, 

sticking a tail, is still practised by the ^^ husbands, some of lovers, 

boys in the streets, to tlic great annoyance ^hwrh an empty dream di^eis. 

of old Udies, who are generally the ob- "*** Joksok. 

jects of this sport. Chie of the ragged Old Aubrey has a recipe, whereby a 

striplings that wander in crowds arout lad or lass was to attain a siglit of the 

Seville, having tagged a piece of paper fortunate lover. " Upon St. Agnes* night 

with a hooked pin, and stolen unperceiv- you take a row of pins, and pull out every 

ed behind some slow-paced ftrmale, as one, one after another, saying a Pater 

wnpt up in her veil, sne tells the beads Noster, sticking a pin in your slee%-e, and 

she carries in her left hand, £istens the you will dream ot him or her you shall 

paper-tail on the back of the black or marry." 

wmlkinff petticoat called Saya. The whole Little is remembered of these homely 
sang of ranmuffins, who, at a convenient methods for knowing *' all about sweet- 
distance, have watched the dexterity of hearts,** and the custom would scarcely 
their companioo, set up a load cry of have reached the greater number of reacf- 
* lArgalo, lirgalo' — ' Drop it, drcp it'— ers, if one of the sweetest of our modem 
this makes every female in the street look poets had not preserved its recollection in 
to the rear, which, they well know, is the a delightful poem. Some stanias are 
filed point of attack with the nierrv light- culled from it, with the hope that they 
troops. Hie alarm continoes till some may be read by a few to whom the poetry 
friendly hand relieves the victim of sport, of Keales is unknown, and awaken a de- 
wIk»p ipiiniii g and nodding like a spent sire for further acquaintance with 
•of^ tfiis » vain to catch a glance at the beaatics :— 


Tk Err ■/ Si. jtgna. 

Sl.Agna'ETit Ah, bilUr chill il out 

T)w owl, for ill bii ftalhcn, was i -catd ; 

The hart Ump'd Itcmblin^ Ihrooeh Ihe boicn pmn, 

A&d dlcDl wai the flock in ^oolTj Mi . 

They lold her how, upaa Si. Agna' Eve, 
Young lirEtDs miglil have viHoni of delighl. 
Anil ioh aSorin^ bom ibeir loim reecivt 
Upon the bonev'd mlildle of the nigbi. 
If cnemoDies due they did arighl | 
Al, luppeHess la bedlhcy must relife. 
And couch supine their beauliea. lil^ while ; 
Kor look bfbmd, nor sidcwajt, bul tequiic 
Of Hiatca niih upward ejes loi all iliii ihey dnirr. 

Foil of this whim waa ihoaghtful MadeliM 

Out went Ibe Uper u she hniried iu ; 
Its liitle imokr, ID pallid DiaoaihiDc, died: 
She rlDs'd the door, she pauled, all akin 
Tu ipiriti of the air, aud riiioDS wide 
No uttered syllable, or, woe betide ! 
But to bcr heart, her heart wu volnblc, 
PainiDg with etoqaence her balm* side ; 
As ibou^ ■ tODgueleas nigfatiagale thoold iwell 
Her IhiDtt in viin, and die, heart-stifled, la her ilelL 

It high and triple arth'd then wai, 

' ' 1th carrea iioag'riea 

)wen, and buuchca of ktiot gran, 
And diamonded with panes of quaint device 
InDutnerable of ataim and tpleadid dyes. 
As are the tiger-moth'! deep damask'd wingi ; 
And in the midst, 'mang thousand heialdtiei. 
And twilight saints, with dim emblaiomngs, 
A shielded 'scntcheon blush'd wiib blood of queens and kii 

Full on this casement ifaooe the wintry moon. 
And threw warm gules on MaJeliue'i fair breast. 
At down the knelt fur Heaven's giai'c and booni 
Kose-bloom fell oD hei bands, together preit. 
Add on her silver crou toft amethyst. 
And on her haii a glory, like a saint: 
She leem'd a splendid angel, oewl j drest. 
Save wings, for Heaven :— 

Of all ils wreathed pearls her hair she frees ; 
Unclasps her warmed jewels one by one ; 
Loosensher fragrant boddice; bj degrees 
Her rich attire creeps rustling lo her knees' 
Half-hidden, like a mermaid in sea-vreed, 
Peuuve awhile she dreams awake, and sees, 
Ii fancy, fair Si. Agnei in her bed, 

Bnl dares itol look behind, or all the charm is Bed. 
Soon. Irembling in her soft and chilly nest. 
In sort of wakeful iwoon, perpiea'd she lay 
Until the poppied wannth of sleep oppress d 
Her lODlhed limbs, and suul faUgued away i 
Flowo, like a thought, until the morrow day , 
tJiissruliy haven'd both from jay and pain ; 
Clasp'd like a missal where swart Paynims pray 
minded alike from sunshine and from rain. 

At thm^ika nie abooU •hat, wd b« abadtgal^ 


d luUDcd lo ll»( bt«»tbinj. — 

— Rbailnl w»* hti Jirm 

Dy Hit dmk cnrtuM :-— 'l»u kuiiJuigUl cImiid 
IflipoHiblc to mtll M icfd Ilium >~ 

Hr Uwk b(r liolluit tuu, — 
ToKiullaiiui, — uid, in rhaidi thit uikdcirtl Ur, 
Ila pitj'il u utclcKt diUy, long •■ncr mule, 
lu Prurcocc oU'd, " Ll WUc dime aiiu mtic'ir :" 
(JldM to lin car WacblBg ibc iDnltKljr ; — 
Wbwvinth ikoub'd. iht utter*!! •■on now : 
lie («a>'d — ibe panwd quick — ind mdiiuily 
Uu Uut ilTtajred f]>« wtda opn tliuuc i 
Upaii hi> kncabc uuk, pkln M tmooili-KulptutHl >I<iiw. 

Ilcr tfo ocn dptti, but >hr (till liriield, 
Satt itidc avikc. Ibc «i«on of hir ileep : 
'I'lnn <ru ■ Miuhil change, thit nigh cipetl'il 
Tbt UIhci ot h«i (ItTUn HI fart mil deep. 
At obk-b fait Msdcliiic bf^in lo tmy, 
AihI niMn bitb witin* wwili wiili miny ■ ugb , 
WbiW •ml brr !■« uD Poiphjio iKiubl kMp ) 
Wlw Lanll. wilh JniMil liandi lut piitoui t</t, 
Ftviog tu mute at tpM. ibc hML'4 tu dnuDiDgly 

" Ah, pDTfbyro I" niA (Se, " but tin now 

" Madi lusrabl* witb tTvry *wMlnl vu* ; 
" And Ihgw Md «im wtrf tpirilual and rlear : 
■- llvw cbang'd Ihni an ! luw {Wllid, Hull, .ihI drcai i 
" Gin m( tlial niics ■](*<>>• my PiHvbiiii, 
" Thuaa hula (mmortu. Ihiu* rDmp1a<mii|,-» iliar '. 
" Ub. laais m* not in Ibli eicrDil nur, 
" For if ibuu dial, mj lote, I koawoot Hlirir ti> in." 

Itrviind a natal auik Irapiuiou'd !m 
Al Ibnr •olnutumu acranu, he aniw, 
KtbrmI, lluA'd,WKl like a tbriihbiui; itir, 
S(tn 'nud Ibt auphirc btarta'n dctp lepuw, 
IntalKr draaoiKc nrltad,u the loi 
DIcBdiUi itoodoar wilb tb> •ioltl,- 
SolalinB i*rM : Kwaulimr iba ftml-n ind blawi 
Likr lAvi'tiluuni pKilrimg (br tbiip iltii 
A^aalihr i.iuJu»-jmh.h- 

" Hark '. 'li* an cUn-ilofm (ram faciy land, 
" or htfgaid tMaing, bHl ■ boon indird - 
" Ariae — ariae ! tbt mOIUBg u at band ;— 
" Let ua twaj.mj lote, witb happy tbted. — 


lAift DMdIfcttk. 




The son mten Aquuiu on this Aaj, 
though he does not enter it in the vuible 
lodiic unlil the lath of February. 

Ganymede, who succeeded Hebe u 
cup-bearer to JoTe, is bbled lo haye been 
ctari^ed into Aquarius. Canobus of the 
Egyptian zodiac, who wu the Neptune 
of the Eeyplians, with a water-vase and 
mea-'ure, eridently piefigured this con- 
ite'.lalion. They worshipped him ai the 
(loJ of r;ijnv t'reasls, from whence he le- 
pleni^hi.'d the Nile with ffettiliiinK streams. 
.Aquarius contains one hundred and eight 
Stan, ihe two chief of which aie aboitl 
Hteen degrees in height : 
Huhnd, hit ihoulden,aDdliisWidbrrail, 
ClisUD with stars ; and wbraliisam inclinn, 
HJTen of It^hl brigbtra the nateiy track. 


St. AKHf. SI FrKffiionu, ^< 

Hmn, or Fhian. St. Pitbliut. St. 

St. Agntt. 
" She has always been looked upon," 
tar; Buller, " u a special patroness of 
piniy, with the immaculate mother 
of God." According lo him, iibe tiiffered 
mattyrdora, about 304, and performed 

ifMidcfful mindn btfinehv death,«hich 
wu by beheading, wdmi «be wai thirteen 
jews old i whereupon he epjoini femalef 
to a siiv^le life, ai better than a maiiied 
ftne, and says, that her anniTersary " was 
fimnerly » holiday for tlie women in 
England." Kibadeneita relates, ihat shs 
waslohaTe beea burned, and was put into 
the fire for that purpose, but the flame*, 
refiising to touch her, divided on each 
aide, buml some of the bystanders, and 
then quenched, as if there had been 
none made: a compassionate quality in 
fire, of which iron was cot seiuible, lor 
her head was cut off at a single blow 
Her legend further relates, that eight days 
aflei her death she tame lo her parents 
arrayed in white, attended by virgins with 
garlamU of pearls, and a lamb whiter 
than snow ; she is thrrefore usually repre- 
sented by artists with a lamb by li^rsidc; 
though not, as Mr. Drand incautiously 
•ays, " in etwry graphic representation. 
It is further related, that a priestwhooffi> 
ciated in a church dedicated to St. Agnes, 
was very desirous of being married. He 

E rayed the pope's license, who gave it 
im, together with an emerald ring, and 
commanded him to pay his addresses to 
the image of St. Agnes in Lis own church- 
Then the priest did so, and the image put 
forth her nnger, and he put the ring there- 
on ; whereupon Ihe image drew T)er fin- 
ger ae^in, and kepi the ring fast, and 
the priest was conknled to rtiuaia « W 




didor ; ^ and yet, as it is sayd, the rjmge secrmted animals were afterwaids shorn, 

is on the fynger of the ymage ** and palls made from their fleeces ; Ibi each 

■ of which, it is said, the pope exacted of 

In a Romish Missal printed at Paris, in the bbhops from eight to ten, or thirty 

1520, there is a prayer to St. Agnes, re- thousand crowns, and tliat the custom 

markably i>rc^umptiTe of Jicr jiowtn ; it originated with Limes, who succeeded the 

** — • . apostle Peter: whereupon Naogeorgus 


Bat where was ^gnet at that time T 

who offrcd up, and bow. 
The two white lambes? where then was 

as it is used now t 
Yea, where was theo the Popish state, 

and dreadful! mooarcnee 1 
Sare io Saint Austen's time, there were 

no palles at Rome to see, &c. 

In Jephson's *' Manners, Sec. of France 

is thus englished by Bp. 

Agues, who art the Laash's chaste spoaae, 
Eolirhten thou oar ninds within ; 

Not only lop the spreading houghs. 
But root out of us every sin. 

O, Lady, singularly great. 
After this state, with grief opprest 

Translate us to that quiet seat 
Above, to triumph with the blest. 

From Naogeorgus, we gather that in St. 
Agnes' church at Rome, it was custo- 
mary on St. Agnes* Day to bring two and Italy," there is one dated from Home, 
snow-white lambs to the altar, upon which February, 14, 1793. That this ceremony 
they were laid while the Ajnntis was was then in use, is evident from the 16^ 
singing by way of offering. These con- lowing lines : — 

St. Agmit»* Skrine. 
Where each prettv J9«-lanib most gaily appears. 
With ribands studi round oo its taU awl iu ears ; 
On gold fringed cushions they're stretch*d out to eat. 
And piously km, and to cbuich-nusick bleat ; 
Yet to me they sccm'd crying, alack, and alas ! 
What's all this white damask |p daisies and grass! 
Then thcjr're brought to the Pope, and with transport they're kiss'd. 
And receive consecration from Sanctity's fist. 


BletHmj^ of Skeep. 
Stopfbrd, in ^ Pagano-Papismus," re- 
cites tnis oeremooy of the Romish church. 
The sheep were brought into the church, 
and the priest, baring blessed some salt 
and water, read in one comer this gospel, 
^ To us a child is bom," Ice. with the 
whole office, a fiirthing being laid upon 
the book, and taken up again ; in the 
second comer he read this gospel, ** Ye 
men of Galilee," &c. with the whole 
oflice, a fiuthing being laid upon the 
book, and taken up again ; in tne third 
eoner he read this gospel, ** I am 
the good shepherd,** Ice. with the whole 
oAce, a fhithing being laid upoo the 
book, and takn up again; ana in the 
feorth corner he read this foapd, ** In 
these days,^ Ice. with the whole oflke, 
a ftuthmg being laid upon the book, and 
taken vp again. After that, he sprinkled 
ail tha shSap with holy water, sajring, 
«« LtC tha hlcasiBg of God, the Father 
Alaighty, d csctn d and remain upon yon; 
il HiimuMof the Father, and of the Son, 
•ittftha Holy Ghoat. Amen.** Then he 
' iB the iheep with the si^ of the 
nfmtM thnet some Laun Terses, 
AHaraofler ^lod Av»-Mariasy 

sung the mass of the Holy Ghost, and tk 
the conclusion, an offering of iourpcnoi 
was for himself, and another of nam\ 
pence was for the poor. This cereaMsiiir 
was adopted by the Romish church Wf^ 
certain customs of the ancient II 
in their worship of Pales, the goddess 
sheepibkis ana pastures. They 
her to bless the sheep, and sprinkl 
with water. The chief difference ' 
the forms seems to have consisted in thii^ 
that the ancient Romans let the 
remain in their folds, while the 
tlfove them into the church. 


St, Agnet. 
Chnstmas Rose. HeUHanu niftr iart 


THE caoccs. 

Dainty you Dg thing 
Of life !— Thou vent'rous flower, 
Who rrowest throwh the bard, cold 

Of wiouy Spnn^ : — 

Thou various-hned. 
Soft, voiceleH bell, whotc spire 
Rocks ia the traasy leaves like wtit 

la sslitaJe :— - 


14S THEEV£inr-DArBOOK.-jARtlARTM. l« 

Like Paiitncc, thoo mcnt of liis fees ; if coniicted. lie waj Kt 

Art qoit! in U^r ticlh, in the stocks on each of the thret jubse- 

iHinctugllopeUit Vuluibinb qu^n, h,„ket-days in Halifiu, wilh ih* 

it Ktimg > vow. Molpn g,^, „„ hij ,^^^ jf ^^ ^^^^ 

TV r«Da«l hnd. ! portable ; if not, they were placed befofe 

TV d^.«w Sno-drop fcMp. ti. &ce. Tlii* wa, for a terror lo olhm, 

X~ Tl, ■ rid "■ *^" "^ *" '"S'se ="y who had aogh. a^inji 

™-/v'i , lum,to bring accusaliom, allhoqgh after 

> "7" *[" """ ^,' the three market^avs he »a* sure lo be 

A vmpte flDwu cu tell eieculed for the offence already proted 

■n, t. p,„i„„v ,„L.„ upon tiinj. Uui the convict had the m- 

lto»^Pu«,n.,ph«e.^ ^^^ tufaceior. of knowing, thai after he »m 
Cbbosoioct. ■ ■ ' pu' lo death, il was Ihe duty of the eoro- 
17^3. On Ihe 21rt of January. Louis If' '° sammon » JuT. " '""l someiimej 
XVI. ™ beheaded a» Paris, in the thirty. *' ^* jury thai coodeioned h.n>.- lo 
Binth T«r of hi* age, and mneteenth of "°1'"« '"'" "^^ <^"" "( ,'''» ''^^'h- ^nd 
til iti^n, under eircumjtance* which thw«""' "hereof wouU be made i.,lo 
are in the .ecollettion of maoj, and "« Crown-office; "which gracoh* ar»] 
bw-n ... mo». peiwns. A similar in- '^'^ P-^wdi-gs of the coroner m tlial 
«nuft<r! to . he ^iito(.-«, Ihe machine ?°"*r ooghl, one would thmk ,o abate, 
lywhich I*u.»XVI.wai put to death. "" "Iconsidenngmmd, thaledgeoracn- 
^ f.LmerW u«d ,n England. Uwas "°""y"'w*«""'P'<'vokedm»lK.oinat.d 
fcl imr.>duted mlo Frai^. dorin- the P-^J^d'c-^ ?*'«■■»« d^^e ihu laudable 
leroliation. bv Dt. ComoUne. a physician, =""? "pessary custom. So »"ys ihe book. 
»od hence iii name '" '^P"'" "*^*'' A*'"J«"" Wilkii«on 
■ltd Anthony Mitcltell were found euiliy 
TBt H«Lmi ciBBET *sD oiBBET-uw. of Stealing nine yards of cloth and two 
Tbe Ilotory of Halifti in Vorkahire, coI>s> "id on the 30th of Ihe month re- 
12mo. 1T12. sets (brth " a true account ceiied sentence, " lo niBer death, hy 
rf tfceir ancient, odd, cusloroary gibbet- having tlieir heail» severed and cut off 
aw ; an.i their (Kittieular ftjini of Iryin? f™'" •'>ei' bodies at Halifax gibbet," and 
a^ I T..ij'i. 1 ■■! I riiii:r..i;-. lii^- like not 'hey sufffted accordiiiely. Thfe une 
■I'd io any other place in Great Britain." the last persons executed undei Halifax 
Ihe Ha1i£u gibbet was in the form of the gibbel-Law. 

gviUotine, and its RibbetJaw quite as re- The execution was in this manoei ; — 

DBrfcable. The work referred to, which is "^le prisoner being brought to the scaffold 

mon corious than rare, painfully endea- ^y "le bailiff, the aie was drawn up by a 

TOort to prove this law wise and salutary. puUey, and fastened with a pin to the 

Il prevailed only within the forest of side of iKe scaflbld. " Tlie bailiff, the 

Uaidwick, which was subject to tbe I(i7d jurors, and the minisiei chosen by (he 

of the manor of Wakeiield, a part of the prisoner, being always upon the scaffold 

JiKliy of Lancaster. If a felon were with the prisoner, in most solemn manner, 

takni wi:Iiin the liberlyofthe forest with afler the minister had finished his roinit- 

dMii, or other commodity, of the i-alue of terial office and christian duly, if i| wu 

thirteen- pence halfpenny, he was, after a horse, an ox, or cow, &c. thai was taken 

three market-days from his apprehension "ith the prisoner, il was thither brought 

and cor.d em nation, to be tarried lo Ihe "Ion? witn him lo Ihe place of execution, 

Eil-btl. and there have liis bead cut off »"d faslened by a cord lo ihe pin ihat 

from his body. When first taken, he was slay'd ihe block, so that when the lime 

hfwurhl to the lord's bailiff in Halifax, of Ihe execution came, (which was known 

•bo kept Ihe town, had also Ihe keeping by (he jurors holding up one of their 

*f the axe, andiras Ihe executioner at the hands,) the bailiff, or his servant, wbi[^ 

»bbel. This officer summoned a jury of P'lg the beast, the pin was pluck'd out, 

irub-bunchers to try him on the evi- and execution done ; but if there were do 

itner of witoesse* not upon oath : if ac- •>««' it 'he case, then the bailiT, or hif 

qwncd, be n-ai set al liberty, upon pay- »er»anl, cut the rope." 


Cbt i^UCar 0ibbtt. 


1 i)citroy«d. Tliii 

ipeoutoTihc IbrMt of Hard- rn^aTinfc placed aboTC, repRwoli Ittkfl 
I.V.— ™ .V. -,.. ,nj (^ iiuiramnit, freni « (ipire oTh ill an M^ 

vick, wtiidi lihertj, oo ihe easi 

ttw town, dolh Dot extcDd atxiTC ihe map of Yorkshiie, which 

breadth of a >mall river ; on the north brlter than the print of it m the'vM 

riwul MX humlred pace) ; on ihp auuth before cited ^ 

about a eiile ; but on lh« irnl aboul ten 

nilei; — if inch an cicape were nude, Hie worthy aiotbor of ibe IllUlk 

Iben the boilifT of Halifax had no power pltbet-booh leemi bv hii title l» be «•■ 

10 appnhend him ont of bii libert j ; but annred, tbtt the macnine wai limitod t^ 

fr erer Ihe fcloD came agaio into the and to the lolc use and behoof «( hk 

NbertjF erf Hardwkk, and were taken, he diitnct ; but in thii, as in Moa «|W 

wt« ttrttiaVf eiecated. One Lacy, who panicnian, he tmiilaken, ' 

Bwlc Ui evcapa, and lived KTen jrean A Hnall print by AMemTcr, m» tf 

OM of the HbeTty, after that time romini the little Oertnan maitcra, m 1513, «•* 

baldly wilhin the liberty of Hardwid, lying before the writer, r t pi MWli M 

«t« rttAen, and e»ec u lgd npoa hii fcr- nccntion of Manlin, the Roman, bf M 

Iter Tcrdict of ctmdemnalioa, aame ntttmmeM ; tai be haa a daAV 

The rCGOtdi of executiorti by the Ila- print by Pnu, an caily en^^ver of thai 

Uhl ^bbet, before the linie of Kliiabcth, ichool. There are en^rafingi of it ii 

■fV kMt i bat dunng her leign twenty- booki printed lo ewly ai 1510. !■ 

#■» pmwea i mfocd oMdet it, and from Uotlimhcd'* Chrooicte tbcf« b • <M at 


1 mn «Im iui stteapted the life of the riolence orablowonOtkndof tlia 

la Fai*a " Ami and MonuiiKnli," there the mmn's neck into ifae Mock. I have 
a another cxecUian in the nme manner, seen the draught of the UVe heading-iit- 
TKe " naiden" bj whid) James, earl slniment, where the weighty an (made 
•f Uonao, the regent el Soodand, wat heavy for that purpose) was niued op 
put to death fer bich treaion in 15B1, and tell down in snch a riggetted frame, 
ins of this form, and ii laid to hare been which being suddenly let to &11, the 
constiucted by bis order from a model of weight of it was infiicieat to cat off a 
dor that he had seen in EnH;tand : he was man's head at one Mow." 
ibe fint and taM peraon who mfibied by tbb seasoh. 

it in SeotlaDd ; and it Mill cxisti in th« Remarkable inataucei of the uildneN 
puiiament-boue at Edinbur^. In "Ibe of Jannary, 1639, are recorded in tha 
Cloud iimTiliiiiWi, orthe last Speedws pnmnciid utd Londoo journals. In tM 
'""*"' ' c IBSO," there ii first week a man plantiiw a bedve neat 
in Scotland by a HaniMd, in Yotkahira, fcand a blaek- 
Tbe coostitiction of bird'* neil with fmr young one* in H. 
eWM in contemplation fer Hk WeMmotriaDdOanUe sttte*,lhUo* 
the befcCMliiig of lord LoTat in 1747 : be tbe 13th a fine lip* a tia wfaeny was g>- 
1 tbe nation — " My neA m my Ibend in tbe gnitn of Mr. W. White- 
■oon, - he aaid, " and the exccntioaer bead, Stotth End, near Ead-Moor, and 
■ill be mnried to fod it out with about tbe same time a present of tha 
. bi Bie : if they Bwka dw madiine, I same fruit was made by Tnooai Wilson, 
■ppoH tbaj wai ddl it lord Umt'i Esq. Thorns. UnderbaiTOW,toHr. Aider- 
' Baidn." man Smith Wilson, some el them lanter 

I__^^ in bulk than Ae common hawl-nDt. la- 

«-«^.i-„. _j.j deedtbefoiwaidneasoftheseaaon jnthe 
Kandla Botat a k> « Amorr' de- nom, ,ppe^ wonderful. It is stated hi 
Kiibea n taydia qMrter™ ibust— theGiasgowChronideofthelllh.lhaton 
. 'He boueth pUm, a beading -Mock the 7lh, bees were flyinn abort in the gar- 
oed between two supporlera, with an denofRose-mount; onthe9ih,ihetky wu 
ue ptaecd tbonin ; on tbe smisfer side a without a doud; there was scarcely a 
suW, aU proftr.- ITiis agree^e beai^ brealh of wind, the blackbirds were sing. 
mg he figuies as tbe reader aeea it. ing ^ jf welcoTQing the spring ; pasture* 

wore a fine, fresh, and healthy nppear- 
ince ; the nheal-braird was strong, thick 
D the ground, and nearly corerinE tlic 
" ; vegelalion going on in ihe garden 
usual spiina doners mi' ' 

C ranee i the Christinas r 
p, the polyanthea, tlie single or border 
anemone, the hepatica in its varieties, and 
tbe roaierion were in full bloom; the 
Narcissus making its appearance, and the 
crocusses showing colour. Oo the 11th, 
at six o'clock, the ihennomeler in Nelson- 
street, Glasgow, indicated 44 degrees; 
on the gth, the barometer gained the ex- 
traordinary height of 31 'Oi ; on tbe 11th, it 
notme ohaerres, that "this was the was at 308. The Sheffield Mercury re- 
Im' aud Romans' way of beheading o^ presents, that witliin six or seven weeki 
taden, as aome write, though others say preceding tlic middle of (he month, the 
iWynwd to cnt off the beads of snch, barometer had been lower and higher than 
■iib a sharp, two-handed sword : bow- had been remarked by any living iiidin- 
f^ti, this way of decollation was by lay- dual in that town. ()n the 33d of No- 
f -.zi the neck of the male&clor oo the vember it was so low as 2T'5 ; and on 
'-iUk, »nd then setting the axe upon it, the 9lh of January at lip. x. it slonJ at 
■bicb lay in a rigget in the two side- 30-65. In the same place the foilowii^ 
n ; the executioner with meteoroli gical ubservulions were made : 


.43 37 


.30-& , . 

. 30-7 

d of 1834, 

hNOMMcr «n* cnaadii^lj high, cond' 
4eriaf the bad wntbn that had pcmiil- 
«<,aod (he noiiMn of (he atmaaphete. 
Tliwe had bean abMM conaUnt and io- 
•MM*t lain, n* fcw inlcrTtU of bir 
waalhar, wen when the wind got round ■ 
frw poinU to the wart, or the nonhwanl 
of wen : but iDTahabl;, a fcw boun 
wttn, the wwd again got to the loath- 
wect, and the rain coomenccd falling. It 
nMaced ai if a resolution had taken 
Binea in tba kwa of the barotneter. Tbe 
Dnrmeter in London wai at 30-W in 
Mar, 1M4, and neret Toae higher during 
the whob year. 

Stomiarp 22. 

St. ^^Dcent wat afpanhh mattjrr, nid 
to ha*e been toiiMnted bjrSre, m that he 
Cad in 304. Hi* nana i* in the church 
of Eagtand calendar. Butter affirms thai 
ha bMjr wai " thrown in a mar^y Seld 
■■ong inabei, but a crow defended it 
tea wild facaat* and birdi of prej." The 
OfliM Lennd MVt that angdi had 
p of the bodj, that the 
o drive awaj bird* and 
fewb greater than hinuelf, and that after 
he bad ehaied a wolf «nth hii bill and 
bMk, he than tonicd bis brad lowudi 
Aa body, a* if he Bnr*elttd at the keep- 
ing of h by the ai^eta. Ilii relici ne- 
Mnaifly worked minwlei wherever they 
wan kept. For their eolleetion, lepara- 
Hon, and how theytraTellad froin place to 
pbet, •«• Bntler. 
B — ^ t uo ---,iq, Mr. Donee, 

Remeaber oa.S(. Vlacant^ dn 
If that the an Ml beana diiflV- 

Dr. Fonter, in the " Perennial Calen- 
dar," ii at a loss kr the origin of (be com 
■naml, but he thinks it maj have been 
derired bom a notion that the inn would 
nnt shiwi iinnminniiilj nn thr day wburcnw 
the saint wa* burnt. 


IBOO.— On the S3d of Jaauary, in ihw 
year, died George Steerens, £iq. F. B- S. 
F.A.S. He wa* bom at Stepaay. in 
tTSl or iraa, and is beat kn«w*.M the 
editor of Shakipeaie, tbon^ to Aa eefw 
aatility and richness of hit laleata Jiiaii 
numerous tcatimoninli. Ha «afaM^Hd 
the greatest peraercrance in areiy ihiaf 
be undertook. He nerer lekuMd, bat 
•ometimcs broke off favourite iMhite «( 
long indulgence suddenly. In Ihii way 
he discontinued bis daily vistti ta two 
booksellers. Thii, says hti Mniiaplwi in 
the GentlcmBn's Maguine, ha did " tttm 
Biany years' regular allendancd, 1^ ■• 
real cause." It is submitted, h»— wr , 
thai the cause, though unknown taeAm 
nay have been every wiy luilicini and 
praisew<Kthy. He wIm hu i-mimtnTd ■ 
practice that hat srowii into a dMlrtytt 
of bis time and deairtti lu end tt, mint 
snap it in an instant. If he sinre lo abata 
it by degree*, be will liiij himself relax 
iog by degrees. 

"Delusions strong at lw)l hiU bind 
him bst,'' unleas be atliinc. not rhe de- 
termination to destroy, but llip bdi of ilv- 
•tructioB. The wilt oiiJ iln- piiwrr an 
two. Sleevens knew llii>. and ilmueli hr 
had tokeu snuff all hi) iifr. In: nci 
one pinch after he lo-i Ini boi 
Panrs church-yard. Iliil lit ijl 
he minht have taken oin mi-n-, tr 
only another, and anem^TiIi <,i>lj 
bit in a paper, and Ihi n. lie wuubl 
died at he lired_« •ixilf-iaknr. 
Steevans appears to haiT ditrovn 
grand secrM, thai a mai.'t self 
great ettcmy of himself, 
tolerance of self 


ate gone, of great value. 

I literary colleclioot 

« VlacMd bau ri Sol radtt mamor eete." 

il ia IkBi doDt imo Eogtialr by Abraham 

ri^auL DiactTOKT. 

mdalgnnea -ntv-ti , 
Elioot wan iMH^ J 

- J 

■ ■ECTOET. ■ 

Tlii* bring the flnt Akj oI term, lh« 
judga of tbt diflerenl codtU at WctlniD- 
icr, take Ibrit wmti i 



■ L*XT TEBM t<(f». ,p 

The enf^nng repratenU 

>r of the hkll U ibe tin 

; rrom whence it u U 

edbyC.Hoilej. Tbed: 

relot, who ditd in 1 773. 

r of Pennafocl, *. n. 131 
at. M> the Ahwmer, a. d. 619. 
EmiM^ia, a. ». 304. >». Clntml 

tiBc when the 
print Titim whence it u tikea « 

BKtBtminsttr Sail, toftft (ts aiiojw. 


n$ ihopt within the ball are remark- The site of the court of Chancerj if on 
Mf carious from their nttuaioD, and in- the same si4t op the atsps al the end of the 
deed the courts themselves are no less hall, and that of the court of Ring's Bench 
worthy of obsenration. It will be recol- level with it on the left-hand side. It 
leded that the court of Chancery and the is to be noted, that one judge does not 
court of King's Bench, at the upper end salute the seijeanu before the real of the 
were, until the coronation, enclosed from judges begin to salute them, but each Ibl- 
fight and hearing ; in the print tliey are lows the other. Thus whilst the chancel- 
open. This is the print alluded to in the lor is saluting the second seijeant the lord 
▼olume on " Ancient Mysteries," p. 266, chief justice salutes the first, and he sa- 
wherein is cited Ned Ward's remarks re- lutes the second while the chancellor sa- 
fpecting the sempstresses, by whom some lutes the third, the next judge of the King's 
or thfff ibopf were occupiea. Bench ooofC saluting the tet fer}eaal ; 

H k oCanent custom on the first day tod so the judgea proceed fuccefsife^y 

of Ifim ibr the jndm to break&st with and doee to each other, tiU all the nt- 

dMi lofd chanceUor m lincoln's-inn-hall, Jeants hare been sahited. It is fiirther 

aM pioeeed with him in their respeetlre obeenrable, that more extended methpfs 

c4tf iijgei lo WfftmiMter-han. Being ar- fometimes pass between the JiMVtt mad 

liifd al the hall door in Palao^ard, and serteanu who are intimate. 
hffrtai alighted with their c|{pers and In 1895, the 33d of Janoary, whereon 

tmia Deam% thav ft>rmfd a procession Hilary term commences, happening on 

along die haU worn they came opposite to a Sunday, which is a dfat nen, or no day 

the conrt of ComaMn Aeas, before which in Uw, the courts were opened nn the 

flioed the teijeanu al law, who had pre- S4th, when the judges refreahed them- 

▼$«Hly amnged themselves in their lull ttlves in lincoln's-inn-hall with the kid 

mm wiga and gowns, and awaited the chancellor, as usual, and departed al 

ceitflngcf die jndges, who were also in hatfnast twelTc o'dodL. On rediin^ 

tWr mU dnas. Ihen the serjeanu all sir Chailes Abbot, as lord chief Jnadee, 

bowed, and dvdrobciaance being acknow- look precedence of lord Oiflbrdt the 

ktedby dM jndm in like nwnner, the master of the rolls, though he mnka ae & 

1m ehaneaOw, being first, approached baron of the realm, and is depniy spealnr 

iMifst serieant in the mnk, and shook of the house of lords. Ine court of 

hgndi withlhim, saying, *'How d*ye do. Chancery in Weftminste*^hall being under 

bfolher? 1 wish yon a good term;" where- reparation, the chancellor remained m 

Hsetjeant bowed and thanked his Lincoln's-inn to keep his term dmit. 

and the chancellor bowing to For the same reason, the seneanis did 

aeneant again bowed ; and the not range themaelves in the hall H Weal- 

<^anceior lalttted and shook hands with aainster, but awaited the arrival of the 

lie negl aerieani in like BMnner, and so judges of the Common Pleas In theirnwn 

he did with each serjeant present, and court ; the carriages of the jodMf if 

then proeaeded with his officers to his King's Bench turned to dM righl al 

cenrt, Tkt loid chief justice of Kngland top of Parliament-street, and procn 

and eaeh of the puisne judges of the court to the new Sessions* house, where 

of Kiaf^ Benoi, saluting and shaking judges sit until the new court of X 

handf widi each seijeant in the Mroe man- Bench in Westminster-hall shaS hn ^ 

£ Mewed dM chancellor and went into pared, 
coot. Inthesame manner also did the It is further to be remarked, tet lie 

r jnslioe and pubne judges of the SUie liar in Westminster-hall stood, dl 

cenn ef Common Pleas, and entered their very lately, within a short space of Aw 

eDwt al the back of the seijcanU. lastly, wall, and at a tew feet on the ndaenTeid 

the loed diiff baron and the puisne barons side of the court of Common Pleas* flMf. 

cf the Sidbequer, harinff also so saluted Formerly, attorneys stood within ddf ftr 

thtser^MDls, returned bedt and entered the ererjr morning during term, and fMvnd 

cmm of ExdMqner, whidi is at die right the judges for the common ndea, caBed 

hand immaitialsly on entering the hall; aide-bar rulea, as they pasacd to lUr 

fm Wtia^aa to the court Jt Common courts, and by whom they were fitnlad 

Pleas being about midway on the same them as of course. These motions lAVe 

aide of the hall, whither, on the batons been long discontinued ; the rules are 

having retired, the scrjeants withdrew to applied for and olMiAin«Hl at the ruleHilBoe 

before the judges, as rules of course : but each rule sUll en* ' 



pteues t}wl il hat heea gianted upoa a 
" side-bai" motion. 

To rtcur lo tli« mgnrine, which eihi- 

hiu Weatnuniler-hall at no distant period, 

ib ■ (tau T«TT iliasimilar lo its more late 

sppearance- The Dnguial ptinl \iy Mosley 

bean the Ibllowing r«mfied lascription : 

WTwa bob EUl «t. (or c*-i7 flair. 

Ttxt ivn horn nul to go (o law, 

A IkiI^ awcf • > <'"»■; pUc'd gale. 

Will aetre to ipcnd a whole nlttc. 

Rem oSn IW; le oSo move : 
Thn* sku. doDUirm, Ibe derl and aU, 
At Ingth the* bring it U> the kali; 
1W 4ndbl hall bj Huftit nii'd, 
f«iaftjCGtb>d arches praii'd. 

Thr FiMi oiTuH. ihe bolda;. 
Doth nrieui ima<« t.oo\tj -. 
Finl Irau (he couru with clani'roiu bawl 

H'asBrc* fail neuliliu^ cUent't niuc ; 
Tiii fBtm* bn baiiiU«ichier. whiUt Ikat 
Gite* the kiiMl aj^tns njinpb bii hat i 
Ba< mc in lore viih cboiri^iten 
Uia^ liQgiag more thin lav aJTain. 

Bil^^iJU- - I':"-, . ■ ' -1' ''llli'! 

Tlie aiiToc»l^ whose suboi 
w^ur; u Linletl al, ii in ll>« fofemost 

rfathock'i gao,;. This Wieathock 

a Tillaiaout atloraey, who re- 

(IQred tcntesce of death tir his criminal 
and was ordeteii lo be traut- 

I, that I 

.isht l>e i«|uirotl; aod m 
" ■ "' 'roinsier- 

ligniry that 

Ditli a itriir io Ihe shoe 
Ar* «aDicd emplajmenl 
■H^ vw one of the cottotns cf the " good 
■U tn^w," which some of us regret »e 
wen DM hem io. The " choiiiiter " in 
a sorplice, be«nog a torch, was probably 
an« of iLe choir belon|;iQglo \\'esiiDiiisiet' 
abbe;. To his right hand is the " liiii|i- 
iciSKtjcact'with asiick: hisscijcatiul'ip 
^ag dcmud bj the roi^. or cap, be 

wears; tbcMi/ is DowdiiniDiihfd into a 
small circular piece of black sillc Rl the 
lop of the nif, instead of the cap r«pre- 
lented in the engraYing, The fii^ shop, 
on the left, ii occupied by a bookseller ; 
the next by a malbemalical instruntent 
malcer ; then there is mother bookselleT ; 
beyond him a dealer in ariidei of female 
consumption; beyond her a bookseller 
^ain ; and, last on that side, a Mcoud 
female shopkeeper. Oppoute to b*i, 
on the right of the ball, stands a 
clock, with the bands tipufjiaK it lo b« 
about one in the afternoon ; the tint shnp, 
next from the clock, is a bookseller's; 
female, who is a 

and whou line appears lo sustain the 
" tnnioTers '' worn by Ihe beatis of those 
days with " ruffles," which, according lo 
Ned Ward, the sempstresses of Westmin- 
ster-hall nicely " plipal»d,'' to the sati*- 
&ctian of the " young students " learned 
in the law. 

Enotigfa hai, probably, been arid of the 
«)gt««inf, to obuin legard Id h ■« an 
otnoct worth iMrtiee. 

The first d>7 of term Is otcnpied, in 
the common law courts, by the eianu- 
nalion of bail for persons wbo hara been 
arretted, and whose opponents will not 
consent to the bail justifying before a 
judee at his chambera. A versified ex- 
emplilicatioa of this proceeding in die 
court of King's Bench, was written wken 
lord Mansfield waschie^ and Mr. Willea 
a justice of the conrt ; a penon oamed 
Hewitt was (ben cryer, Mr. Min^j, a 
celebrated counwl, still remembered, is 
represenled as opposing the bail piaposed 
by Mr.Baldwin, another counsel: 

BrMitJii. Hewiii,eallTaybir>ii*il,— tel 
Shall now proceed to JDUify. 
Hewiil. Where'iTajlor'ibaU? 
U, B„iL I e*..'l get in. 

L«rd Matufiitd.- For heaven's nkc 

Htwiir Bat whcre's the other T 

Mlm^ay. I nut eicept to both.— Coai- 

SileDce,^«nd if yam knbhip cnve it, 
Aialta (hall read oar aBidant. 

Aiatn,. WJi. PrMIt, late ot Fie«l-*tre«l, 
Uakei oath aad ««itb, thai late h« went 


T« IMt't-plMt, ■• W wM directed learning was eitensWe ; his tVifiiiet greot ; 

By Bttiiee, and ha tbefa expected his application unwearied ; his integrity 

To iad bach baU— b«t aoae could tell unimpeached. In religious principles he 

Where the 6nt baU Uved— i»as an Unitarian Christian and Protest- 

^''^^' rrr^^ ^V r* •»« ; « political principles the friend of the 

^^M^, And th« deponent farther says, ^^.^ jjj^^j^ ^^ Mankind, and the genuine 

I^foo!!dWd'tI'n£^^ constitution of his country. He died 

Hwi Wer obtainedcStificat;. ^ ^JtH?" n^'u T.®I',i5t "^ ^""^ f" ^ 

Whea tc his honse deponent went, ^ »« BunhiU-fields' burvinMround, near 

He Ml bar stories high wis sent, to the grave of Dr. Jebb/' his tutor at 

jLwJk finind a lodging almost hare ; college : " the classical hand of Dr. Parr** 

No foraitare, bat half a chair. commemorated him by an epitaph. 

A table, bedstead, broken fiddle . 

' (Signed) WUIkm Priddk. , ^J V>^ ^« .^?,1»P«." '?. ^J' ^^^^'^ 

Swera at my chambers. **t* Quarterly Magaune/' of good arti- 

Frmmeia Bmikr, cles, is so suitable to this day, legally 

BiimMmy, No afidavit can be fuller. considered, that any one sufficiently in- 

Well/friend, you've heard this affidavit, terested to sympathize with ^ the cares 

Wl&it do you say ? and the fears" of a young lavryer, or, 

Sif BmiL—^^^t, by your leave, it indeed, any one who dares to admit that 

Is all a lie. a lavryer may have Itowels, as well as an 

Milmfmf. Sir, have a care, appetite, will suffer the Confeuiona of • 

What » your trade t Airruter to be recorded here, 

Sif Bmii, A scavenger. 

Miimgmif, And, pray, sir, were you never my first aaicr 

fcaad « A lavryer," says an old comedy 

Banknipc ! which I once read at the British Museum, 

U BmiL 1 m worth a thousand pound. « i, an odd sort of fruit— first rotteo— 

• ^'SS-^ *^**'''^ '^'''^ ^«« green— and then ripe." There is 

In what cooHsting ? ^ "J**^** ^^ ^^J* ''' ^« homely figure. 

U Emit. - Stock in trade. ^* ^"^ yea" of a young barrister are 

mmgm,. And. pray, friend, tell me,-do fP«n^ ^' ™^' ^^™ ^'V' *" *"»«»• 

you know leisure. His talents rust, his temper ii 

What sum you're bail for ? injured, his little patrimony wastes away, 

Sif BmU. Truly no. and not an attorney shows a sign of re- 

Mimgmf, My lords* you hear, — no oaths morse. He endures term after term, and 

have chadi*d him : circuit after circuit, that greatest of all 

I hipe your lordships will — evils — a rank above hb means of support- 

zif**' „. „ , . — : — ^?f* **"^. »» it. He drives round the countir in 

mmgmy* Wei , fnend. now teU me where ^ pct^haise, and marvels what Johnsoa 

1^ Sdi S^. 1 have U/d in aerkenweU *""?? f^ ^^\^^^^f i" ''^ jnotion-that 

TVae teovws. *•» *^ **® P**** ^^^ ** himself. He eata 

JrtiV»r^— Half-a^neadead. (Aside.) ▼•n>*on, and d finks claret ; but he loece t 

ICy lofdsTif you've the notice read, ^°^ flavour of both when he reflects that 

It says Drnke'tpitut. So I desire ' his wife (for tlic fool is married, and 

A little further tiase t' inquire. married for love too !) has perhans just 

Mmidmim, Why, hir. Mingmy, all this va- dined for the third time on a cold neck 

pour ? of mutton, and has not tasted wine since 

mifat. l^e till to oMrrow. their last party— an occurrence beyond 

I^fd Mmn^t id, ' Call the paper, eren legal memory. He leaves the fiea- 

The pieoeding pleasantry came from tive board early, and takes a soKtair 

the pen of the late John Bajmes, Eaq. a walk — returns to his lodgings in the twi- 

YofUure gentleman, who was bom in light, and sees on his table a large white 

AmjII 1758, educated for the law at rectajigular body, which for a moment he 

IVwrily oottsfe, Cambridge, obtained supposes mav be a brief— alas ! it is only 

friiei for pmoeocy in plulosophy and a napkin. He is vexed, and rings to 

•teiieil attainments, was admitted of have it removed, when up comes his 

O i if WM ^ fireetiaed in his profinsion, derk, who is drunk and insolent : he it 

probably have risen to its about to kick him down stairs, but start 

Mx, Nkholt tayt ** his hit loot on rec^mecttng the arretis oC m 


Mlow*! mges; and oontentshiiiisdtf with tied nrand with the Mlliant red t*pe^ 

wondering where the fellow finds the met my eye. He inquired rpspectfiiHy, 

■Mins of mcii extraraganoe. — Then in and with an appeaiance of anxiety, which 

conit nMny are the Tezations of the hrief- marked him to my mind for a perfect 

less. — The attorney is a cruel person to Chesterfield, if I was already retained in 

them — as cniel as a rich coxcomb in a v. ? The rogue knew well enough 

baU-roomy who delights in exciting hopes that I had nerer had a retlbier in my life, 
only to disappoint Uiem. Indeed I have I took a moment to consider ; after making 
oftoi thongnt the communications be- him repeat the name of his case, I grarely 
tween the solicitors and the bar have no assurea him I was at perfect liberty to 
alight resemblance to the flirtation be- receive his brief He then laid the papen 
tween the sexes. Barristers, like ladies, and my fee upon the table; asked ne if 
must wait to be chosen. The slightest the time appointed for a consultatioii 
oy eituie would be equally fetal to one with the two gentlemen who were *' with 
gown as the other. The gentlemen of me** would be couTenient; and finding 
the bar sit round the table in dignified that the state of my engagements would 
composure, thinking just as little of briefe allow me to attend, made his bow and 
as a young lady of marriage. An at- departed. That fee was sacred, and I 
tomey enters — ^not an eye moves; but put it to no vulgar use. Many years have 
somehow or other, the fact is known to now elapsed since that case was disposed 
alL Calmly he draws from his pocket a of, and yet how fresh does it live in my 
brief: practice enables uj to see at a memory! how perfectly do I recollect 
glance that the tormentor has left a blank every authority to which he referred ! how 
for the name of his counsel. He looks I read and re-read the leading cases that 
around the circle as if to choose his man ; bore upon the question to be argued! One 
yoa cannot doubt but his eye rests on case I so beihimked that the volume has 
yoa ; he writes a name, but you are too opened at it ever since, as inevitably as . 
fer criflT to read it, though you know every the prayer-book of a lady's maid proffers 
name on your circuit upside down. Now the service of matrimony. My brief ra-> 
he counts out the fee, and wraps it up lated to an argument before the judges of 
with slow and provoking formality. At the King's Bench, and the place of con- 
length all being prepared, he looks to- sultation was Ayles's coffee-house, adjoin- 
wards you to catch (as you supp*)se) your ing Westminster-hall. There was I be- 
eye. You nod, and the brief comes fly- fore the clock had finished striking the 
ing ; you pick it up, and find on it the . hour ; my brief I knew by heart. I had 
name of a man three years your junior, raised an army of objections to the points 
who is sitting next you : you curse the for which we were to contend, and had 
attorney's impudence, and ask yourself logically slain every one of them. I went 
if he meant to insult you. — '' Perhaps prepared to discuss the question thorough- 
not," you say, " for the dog squints." — ly ; and I generously determined to give 
1 received my maiden brief in London, my leaders the benefit of my cogitations- 
How well do I recollect the minutest though not without a slight struggle at 
cireumstances connected with that case ! the thought of how much reputation I 
The rap at the door ! I am a connoisseur should lose by my magnanimity. I had 
in raps — there is not a dun in London plenty of time to think of these things, for 
who could deceive me : I know their my leaders were engaged in court, and 
tricks but too well ; they have no medium the attorney and I had the room to our- 
betvreen the rap tervile, and the rap rm- selves. Ai^er we had been waiting about 
pude»t. This was a cheerful touch ; you an hour, the door flew open, and in strode 
felt that the operator knew he should meet one of my leaders, the second in com- 
with a face of welcome. My clerk, who roand, less in haste (as it appeared to me) 
is not much under the influence of sweet to meet his appointment, tnan to escape 
sounds, seemed absolutely inspired,and an- from the atmosphere of clients in which 
swercd the knock with astonishing velocity, he had been just enveloped, during his 
I could hear from my inner room the passage from the court. — Having shaken 

murmur of inquiry and answer; and off his tormentors, Mr. walked op to 

though I could not distinguish a word, the fire — said it was cold — ^nodded kindly 

the tones confirmed my hopes; — I was to me — and had just asked what had been 

not long suffered to doubt — my cUent en- the last night's division in the ho i^^e — 

tcredy and the roll of pure white papei when the powdered head of an usher wai 



pMlraiid llvoii^ tiM half open door to 
inaininfw fhif ^ Jones md Wiiliamt was 
mXM OB.** Down weot lk» poker, and 
awar flaw •— with ttreaniiiig robn, 
laavtng me to meditate on the low whidi 
dM ease woaU tustam for want of his 
aiiiitsnrf) at te expeeted discnssion. 
HariDg waited some Inrtber spaee, I 
haaid a rnatUnf of silks, and the great 
■■ ■ ! our commander in chie( sailed into 
the room. As he did not run fool of me, I 
think it possible I mav not have been 
kmsible to him; hot he fomished me 
with no other eridence of the fut. He 
iimpl^treeied the attorney to nroride cer- 
tain additional affidavits, tackea about and 
jailed away. And thns ended the first 
eonsoUation. I consoled myself with the 
thought that I had all my materials for 
WKfwSi, and that from haring had so ranch 
more time for considering the subject than 
the others, I must infidlibly make the best 
■peach of the three. At length the fatal 
day came. J nerer shall forget the thrill 
wuh which I heard — — open the case^ 
and felt how soon it would be my turn to 
Wpnk. O, how I did pray for a lon« 
ipcach I I lost all feeling of rivalry ; and 
would gladly have given him every thing 
that I intended to nse myself, only to 
defer the dreaded moment for one half- 
hoor. His speech was frightfriHy short, 
yet, short as it was, it made sad havoe 
with mr stock of matter. The next 
apeaket s was even more concise, and yet 
my little stock sofiered again severely. 
I then found how experience will stand 
in the place of study. These men could 
not| from the multiplicity of their engage- 
aMnts, have went a tithe of the time upon 
the ease whicn I had done : and y«t they 
had seen much which had escaped my 
rei e arch . At leogth my turn came. I 
was sitting among the back rows in the 
old court of King's Bench. It was on the 
iialday of Micluielmas term, and late in 
the evening. A sort of <Markness visible** 
had been produced by the aid of a few 
candles dispersed here and there. I arose, 
but I was not petcetved by the Judges, 
who had tomed together to consult, sup* 
posing the argument finished. B 
was the first to seeme,and I received ftom 
him a nod of kindness and encourage- 
mairt whieh I hope I shall never fon^ 
na enort was crowded, for it was a 
MMion of soma interest ; it was a 
#MiiU MMM— the ushers stilled the 
km awfol sUenee. I began, 

tterywif oftiM whHefai^liafi)itetta, it 
the upper end of which I was ■taadin|^ 
tumea round ; anl^ in an itostant I hM 
the eyes of seventv ** learned friends'^ 
looking me frill in the fece 1 It is hardljr 
to be conceived by those who hava not 
gone through the oraeal, h€«w terrific is 
this mute attention to the object of it. 
How grateftil should I have been for any 
thing which would have relieved me from 
its oppressive weightr— a bust, a scmpin* 
of the shoes, or a fit of coughing, woula 
have put me under infinite m>ligations to 
the kind disturber. What I said I know 
not; I knew not then; it is the onlf 
nart of the transaction of which I am 
Ignorant; it vras '^a phantasma, o^ 
hideous dream .^ They told roe, however, 
to my great surprise, that I spoke in a 
loud voice ; used violent gesture, and as 
I went along seemed to shake off* my trepi- 
dation. Whether I made a long speedi or 
a short one I cannot tell ; for I nad no 
power of measuring time. All I know 
IS, that I should have made a much longer 
one, had I not felt my ideas, like Mb 
Acre's courage, ooting out of my fingenT 
ends. The court decided sgalnst at, 
erroneously as I of course thought, tot 
the young advocate isalwavs on the right 
side. The next morning I got up early 
to look at the nevrspapers, whidi I ex- 
pected to see frill of our case. In an 
obscure comer,and in a saoall type, I found 
a few words given as the specohas of ay 
leaders: and I also read that^^Blr. 
Allowed on the same side ** 

U04L OLtX. 

It is affirmed of sir William Bbcfc- 
store, that so often as he sat down to tha 
composition of his Commentaries on tha 
Laws of England, he always ordered a 
bottle of wine wherewith to moisten tha 
dnmess of his studies ; and in proof that 
otoer professional men sometimes sdbea 
their cares b^ otherwise disporting them- 
•elves, there is a kind of catch, the words 
of which, having reference to their ait or 
mystenr, do so marvellously inspire them, 
thftt they diant it with more glea thaa 
gravity, to a right merry tune :— 

A wooiaii having settWneDt, 
Married a nsn with noac : 

The <{«cstieB was, he being deal 
H that she Aetf was tewt 



QuMh >ir Jotia PnlL, bar icUlciiinit 

_ SiufntJti ,M xtniiio, 

IE ibe buibaad — bat, him dtad. 

It doth rr.1 

Peiiu. Ptiisa acelabubiia. 

Sanaarp 24. 

A. ThoUf. diMiple of SL Paul. AL 
fiffAt^ A. B. 3M. ». Armw, Ttta cow 
ton. A. itttmdouhu. St. Ctdoc, of 



1731. On the 24lli of January in ihis 
Jtti, the two houses of partiament or- 
dered Kveral of th« directors of the South 
Sea cotnpan)' into the custody of the 
wher of the black rod and serjoanl al 
mitns : this was in consequence of a par- 
liaaienlary inquinr into the company's 
albirs, which had been so managed ns 
to inroUe persons of all ranlis tlirough- 
oot the ViDgdom in a scene of di^Iresi 
UDMiaJlcled by anj similar 
in tngtish annals. 

fTBDied to t company tradiag 
South Seas ; and the South Stst com- 
pany's affairs appeared so proipcrout, 
that, in 1 T 1 B, king George I. being chosen 
goTcrnor, and a bill enabling bim to ac- 
crpi the office having passed both houcea, 
OD the 3d of February, his majesty in 
person attended the bouse of lords, artd 
■are the rojal assent to the act. A brief 
biitoTy of the company's subsequent pn>- 
gren ii interafting al any time, and mo>« 
especially at a |>eriod when excess of spe- 
nuation may endanger priTale happiness, 
and disturb tbe public welfare. 

On the 37th of January, 1719, the 
South Sea company proposed a »cheme 
to parliament for paying off the national 
debt, by taking into its ^nds aL the debt 
wbidi the nation had incurred before the 
year 1716, whether tedeemabte oi irre- 
deemable, amounting in the wbole to the 
sum of 31,664,5511. U. Urf. For Ibis 
the eoDipany undertook to pay to the use 
of Ibe public (be sum of 4,1 56,306/. ; ba- 
ndc* few jeam and a balf' ■ pwcbua ftn 

•U theuumttiet ihtt AevUb»nW«ihaa 
■Dio id fltnd, and wbidi, if lU NbeaJbed; 
wnnld hare amooDlad lo tha turn of 
3^67,503/. ; unoantitig^ with th« abor^ 
menlioned ram, to T,7!3,BO0f. i in cue 
all the anntiitin were not tubacribcd, tbe 
compmy agreed to pay aw pw ceiit. far 
*nd> ODtubicribed anntiitias. 

To tbis amagemetit parliament ao- 
ceded, and an act was pawed lo ratiljr 
this eontraet, and containing full powen «t 
the eompany accordingly. In JArnI fc^ 
lowing South Sea stock raw from 130 M 
300, gndnally advancnl (o 400, dedinad 
to 330, and on the Ttb of JprU was at 
340. Ibia to enconiaged the directory 
that on the latb (hey onencd books at the 
"- -h Sea home for tali 
for a portion of tl 
■mount of 2,350,0001. erery iwi. of 
which they ofletvd at 3001. : it wa* im^ 
mediately subscribed for at that price, to 
be paid for by nine iiutaltnaDts within 
twelTc month*. On the aist, a genetij 
court of the company resolTcd, that thi 
Midronmer dividend should be 10 pat 
cent., and that (be ofercaaid subaeripiion, 
and all other addition* to dieir capital 
before that time, should be entitled to the 
said ditidetMl. This gave to favourable 
« view to tbe apecnlation, that on die 
S8th the director* opened a second tub- 
tcriplion for another million of stock, 
which was presently t^en at 4001. for 
every lOOJ., and the subscribers had three 
years allowed them for payment. On 
the 30lh of .May, South Sea stock rose to 
550. So amaiing a price created a ge- 
neral infatuation. Even the more pro. 
dent, who had laughed at the folly and 
madness of others, were seiied with the 
mania; they borrowed, mortgaged, and 
sold, to raise all the money ihey conld, in 
order to hold the favourite stock ; while 
a few quietly sold out and enriched them- 
selves, PrcdigJouB number* of people 
resorted daily from all parts of the king- 
dom lo 'Change-alley, where the assem- 
bled speculators, by their excessive noise 
and hurry, seemed like so many madmen 
just escaped from cells and chains. All 
thoughts of commerce were laid aside for 
the buying and selling of estates, and 
ttaflic in South Sea stock. Some, who 
had effected sales at high pTe«ituiu,were 
willing to lay out the money on real pro- 
perty, which conseqaenlly advanced be- 
yond its actual value; cautious land' 
owner* justly concloded that this waa the 
time to get money without n*)^ and then*. 

%m THB £V£EY*DAY BO(»L-JAKU^iT U. !•• 

§m% told iMr fnptfty; iboflly After- Ontlie8diorSd|rfMi*fr,tlMfiock«ito 
vnffdt Umjt iMd aa oppoitaoi^ of pur- 640, on the 9th to &M>, and by te IM 
dMMfOMMe, at tow than half the price it came to 400. On the 23d the Bank of 
that had obcaiaed lor their own. England agreed widi the South Sea com- 
Ob the 3d of Jwm^ Sooth Sea stock paoy to circolate their bonds, &c. and to 
nweloSQO. On the 15th, many peisons take their stock at 400 per cent^ in lie« of 
who aeoompaaied the king on his foreign 3,775,0001^ which the company was to 
journey, sold their sto^ which suddenly pay them. When the books were opened 
Ml ; bi^ the diredors promising larger at the Bank for taking in a subscription 
dindends, it got np higher than erer. On for supporting the public credit, the eoti* 
the 18th they opened books for a third course was at first so great, that it waa 
subaeription of nmr millions more stock, judged the whole subscription, which was 
at lOOOl. for eadi lOOl., and before the intended for 3,000,0001., would have been 
end of the month it had advanced to filled that day. But the foil of South Sea 
1 lOOl., between which and lOOOi. it flocto- stock, and the discredit of the company's 
atod throochottt the month of JhUg. On bonds, occasioned a run upon the moat 
the 3d otAmgmi they proposed to receive eminent goldsmiths and bankers, some of 
sobacriptioos for all the unsubscribed an- whom, having lent great sums upon the 
Doities, and opened books for the purpose stock and other public securities, were 
during the ensuing week, upon terms obliged to shut up their shops. The 
which greatly dissatisfied the annuitants. Sword-blade comnany also, who had 
who, eonfiding in the honour of the di- been hitherto the chief cash-keepers of the 
rectofs, had Im their orders at the South South Sea company, being almost drawn 
Sen House, without any previous con- of their ready money, were forced to stop 
tract, not doubting but they should be payment. All this occasioned a great lua 
allowed the same terms with the first upon the Bank. On the 30th South Sea 
•nbeeribers. Finding, to their great inr- stodL fell to 150, and then to 86. 
prise and disappointasent, that, by the ^ It b very surprising,** says Maitland, 
diraotofa' arrangements, they were onlr ^ that this wickea scheme, of French ei« 
lo have about half what they expected, traction, should have met with encouimge- 
■WDT repaired to the Sooth Sea House to ment here, seeing that the Mississippi 
get their orders returned ; hot these beiiie scheme had just before nearly ruined tnat 
withheld, their incessant applications and nation. It is still more surprising, that 
refieetKNis greatlv aflected the stock, inso- the people of divers other countries, noi> 
mvch that, on the 39d of the month, at withstanding the direful efiects of this 
the opening of the books, it fell to 8^. destructive scheme before their eyes, yet. 
The oirectors then caose to the desperate as it were, tainted with our freniy, began 
rcaolntion of ordering the books to be to court their destruction, by setting on 
shnt; nod on the 34th they caused others foot the like projecU : which gives room 
to be opened for a fourth money sub- to suspect,** says Maiiland, ^ that thoae 
aeription for another million of their destructive and fatal transactions weia 
sto», at 10001. for each 1001^ payable by rather the result of an epidemical distem- 
five instalments vrithin two years : this per, than that of choice ; seeing that the 
■nUion waa subscribed in less than three vrisest and best of men were the greatol 
hooiBi nod bore a premium the same suflerers ; many of the nobility, and peri 
afternooa of 40 per cent. On the S6th sons of the matest distinction, were wi- 
the stock, instead of advancing, fell below done, and obliged to walk on foot ; while 
830. Tlse directors then thmight fit to others, who the year before could hardly 
lead their proprietors 4,0001. upon every purchase a dinner, were exalted in thetf 
lOOOJL sto^ for six asooths. 9X 4 per coeches and fine equipages, and possessed 
U ; 1 anni ats beo Be very of enormous estates. Such a scene of 

le- misery appeared among traders, that it 

8 sd > >«r < la DTj yld vras almost unfashionable not to be _ 

bv •« r*8 >^> eim Joe a» bankrupt : and the dire catastrophe waa 

I « k I e. attended vrith snch a number of self-antfw 

1^ B TO VIM wmm jvper * doTs, as oo age can parallel.*' 


Y dIVtacna vn 

Hookp ^he hbtorian of Koase, waa a 

br South Sea bobble. 

Oxford, in a letter 


daled At 1 Tth of October 1732 ; " I can- mciH, and the proeMdi ipolM t« tk* ■»■ 

ooi be said at present lo be m any form lief of vaanj HMMHWtds oT^ilio, who 

of life, bui raiher to bve utem/iore. The had been wholly loiiMd by tiM fpeoiU- 

late epidemical (Soulb Sea) di^ieniiper tim. TbcK dupa of «Terw«cnuwlbUT 

wiied me: I endeavoured to be itcb, and mbplactd eonfidence, mre Smher 

imagined for a while ibal I vns, and am beneBted by a reninioD in ibeir fnout 

in some meuure happy to find myself u of the national claimi on eectaia of the 

thi« instant but jusi worth nolhmg. If Soatfa Sea conipany'i real uwu. Tbee^ 

your lordship, or any of your numerous tent of tfacM donaiioiu to the inftm* 

friends, have netd irf a serranl, with the amoanted to 401. per cent, upon the Kodt 

bare quali6catioaB of beiog able lo read standing in their nanm. 

and write, and to be honest. 1 shall gladly 

nnderlake any employments your lordship otbek bubbles. 

shall not think me unworthy of." Ona contcqoaice of the pnicpetotH ap> 

peatance that the Sooth Sea Kbeme boi^ 

Inino,KNn after the bnistingof the (ill within a Aon period before iti Giiliire, 

Sa«lh Sea babUe, a centleman caUed tale wat a Tariet^ of equally pronutiog and 

in the erening at tte banking-hoiue of delusive progecti. Hieae were denomi- 

Means. Hankey and Co. He was in a nated fraAMcv. Alarmed at the destructive 

co«cfa, but lefbaed to get onl, and desired i*sue of the master-bubble, govenimeat 

thai one ofthepaitnen of the house would issned the (bllowing manifesto; " The 

.- !.!_ Having atcertained that it lords justice! in council, taking into c< 

s tcally one of the ptiDdpab, and not siderBtionthemanyinconvenienMtariiinf 

■"— ^, who appeared, he put tnto hii to the public, froi ' — '''^ 

a panel, very carefaUy sealed op, foot for taisinz ol , 

and daiicd thai it mighl be laid on oite purposes ; and that a gmt many of hi 

a deA, who appeared, he put into his ^ (he public, from Kveral pn^ecti let o 

i__i_ . y carefiiUy s«ded op, foot for tailing of joint-stot^i for variooi 

mighl be laid on oite purposes ; and that a gmt many of his 

tide till he should call again, whidiwoold majesty's subjects have been drawn in t* 

be in the coone of a few d^rs. A few part with their money, on pretence of 

days pasted away^-a few weeks, a few assurances that their neiitiooi, for patentt 

a>onths, bat the stranger never returned, ind charters to enable them to carrj' on 

Attheeod oftbesecond oTlfaird year, the the same, would be granted; lo prevent 

' s af^reed to open this mysterious ^feh imposilions, their eicelleacics at- 

" ■ ■ dered the said several petitions, together 
with such reports from the Boanl of 

staling that it was obtained by the South Trade, and from his majesly'l attomer 

Sea speculation, and directing that it and solicitor general, as had been obtained 

shmld be vested in the hands of three thereon, lo be laid before them ; and, 

tmstees, whose names were mentioned, after mature consideration thereof, were 

and ihe interest apfHopriated to the relief pleased, by advice of his majesly's privy- 

of the poor, which was accordingly done, council, to order that the said petitions be 

llhasbeen calculated.lhal theriseonthe dismissed." The applications ihos ie~ 

origiToal South-sea stock often millions,and jected prayed patents for various fisheries, 

the sa1»ei|Dent advance of the company's for hnuding snips lo let or freight, far 

boT subscriptions, inflated their capital raisin? hemp, flax, and madder, for mak- 

lo nearly three handled millions, lliis ing of sail-cloth, for (ire-assurances, for 

Dnnatoral procedure raised bank stock salt-works, for die making of snufT in 

from lOO/.to 360r. India, from lOOf. to Vii^nia.bc. 
«5t African, fnMDlOOr to aoor York- In d of this salutary . 

bnildingi' shares, from lOJ. to 3051. Lus- herd |. . with an ai"^ - 117 i 

tnng, from 51. 3<. M. lo 105J. English passw < > rro a- 

copper, from SI. to 1051, Welch copper, ed -^ntiuciice. i? eu uien u< 

from 4i. 3*. Sd. to 9SL The Royal Ei- Pre -• < ,., 

change Anniance, from SL St. to iSOI. c vi ] * 

The London Assntance, from 5L to \7SL, ^etr>ium i atKi o auva < 

to the great injnry of the various pur- »■ 1 bv ii » 


T HE KV i at t i PAY WOaL^kimJMt i4i 


tfM^fATe bim 
«ltef* 10 Wag writs oC icira fiicias a^iuiMl 
tilt «liMt«rt or pttMiUof the Yoik-Suild- 

ali comptBT) LastriDg oomfMoiy, Eng* 
eopperi Wtlih eopptr, and letd, and 
•bo agiiinst other cnortcrt or patents 
whic^ bad baeo, or sboold be made use o^ 
or acted onder^ contrary to the intent or 
■Masing of an act pasted tbe last ses- 
ikm of pariiament^ Ite. 

Tbev likewise instructed tbe attorney- 
general to prosecute, with tbe utmost 
sererityy all persons opening books for 
public subecnntions ; or recei?mff money 
upon such suDsoriptioDS ; or muung or 
aeoepting transfers otf or shares upon, 
tndi su&riptions ; of which they gave 
poUic notice in the Gaxettey as ''a &nher 
cantion to prevent tbe drawing of unwary 
persons, for the future, into practices con- 
traiy to law.'' This effectually frustrated 
tbe plans of plunder, exercised or con- 
templated at that period* How necessary 
so vigorous a resistance was must be ol>- 
▼ioQs from this fact, that innumerable 
babbles perished in embyro; besides an in- 
credible number which c<mld be named 
that were actually set in motion, and to 
support which the siuns intended to be 
raised amounted to about 300,000,OOOiL 
tlie lowest advance of tbe shares in any of 
these speculations was above <»nt. per 
cmA^ most of them above iOOL per cent. ; 
and some were raised to twenty times the 
pfice of the subscription. Taking these 
citcnmstances into account, the scanda^ 
loas projects would have required seven 
hundred millions steriing, if such a sum 
could have been realised in the shape of 
capital. To such a height of madness 
bad tbe public mind been excited, that 
even shares were eagerly coveted, and 
baigaiBed for, in shameless schemes which 
were not worth tbe paper whereon their 
proposals were printed, al*>treble the price 
they nominally bore. From a list of only 
a part of those that the air of 'Chango- 
al(ey teemed with, the names of a few are 
here set forth : ^ 

For supplying London with cattle. 
For supplying London with hay. 
For breeding and feeding cattle. 
For making pasteboards. 
For improving the paper roanufiicture. 
For dealing in lace, Hollands, Ice 
For a grand dispensary. 
For a roval fishery. 
For »fUi pool. 

For laakiag gllu»-botttai« 
For eneoura^ tbe broad OlhilMi. 
For disoovermg gold mibes. 
For an assurance against UiioffB. 
For trading in hair. 
For loan offices. 
For dealing ia bops* 
For making of China ware. 
For furnishing funerals. 
For a coral fiuiery. 
For a flying maclune. 
For insuring of horses. 
For making of looking-glassei. 
For feeding of hogs. 
For bujring and selling estates. 
For purchasing and letting lands. 
For supplying London wiih proviaiOBi 
For curing the gout and stone* 
For makin^f oil of poppies. 
For bleaching coarse sugar. 
For making of stockings. 
For an air-pump for the brain. 
For insurance against divorces. 
For making butter from beech-trees. 
For paving London streets. 
For extracting silver from lead. 
For making of radish oil. 
For a perpetual motion. 
For japannina of shoes. 
For making deal boards of sawdoft. 
For a scheme to teach the easting of Bft> 

Joint Stock Comfavibs or tdtS. 

The large quantity of surplus capital 
and conseouent low rate of interest 
during the last, and in the present, year, 
induce its possessors to embark their 
money in schemes for promoting general 
utility. One of the advantaaes resultiac 
firom a state of peace is the influx of 
wealth that pours forth upon tbe countij 
for its improvement. Yet it behoves the 
prudent, and those of small meansi to \m 
circumspect in their outlays ; to see with 
their own eyes, and not through the »#• 
dium of others. The premiums that 
shares in projects may bear in tbe mar- 
ket, are not even a shadow of criterion 
whereon to found a Judgment for invest- 
ment. This is well known to every discreet 
man who has an odd hundred to put out{ 
and he who cunnot rely on his own dis- 
crimination fur a right selection from among 
the various schemes that arc proffered to 
his choice, will do well to act as if none 
of them existed, and place his casli where 
the principal #ill at least be safe, and tho 



. dwwcti small, hr certa: 
pretenti whemM tor 
Rail Road Conipanirs. 
'■liro Banking, Loan, Iniejlnient, 
Anunnce Companies, 

9KtHh and Insh Mine Companies, 
tta I'eitipt Mine Coinpani«a, 
bippine and Dock Companies, 

r-orm HiMxllftneoui CompuiicSt 

loB BnA CoiDpuij, 
■I Brill Company, 
ilaa Marine Bath Compotiy, 
a] Nariooal Balh Compan;, 
■1 WaUDiutei Milk Companj, 

rapolitan Water Compuij. 
iemej Dairy CotnpanT, 
tropoliUn Aldemey Dairy Com- 

h London Milk Company, 
M LoiKlon Hilk Company, 
[«poiitan Milk Company. 

impoodent in the " London Magft- 
ilacUics,tlut''if we named the m- 
ItTtsioDi of the year after (he French 
ionaiy bshitm, by the phenomena 
kbie in them, we should, from out 
race of January, 1835, call it 

ff it has been a iDOntli of most 

■ He 

ie-t«ij, attorney at law, bencTO- 

conceiTes the idea nf directing 
ins capital " lo the formation of " a 
■lock company for the outfit of 
looDS, tlie purchase of herds of 

mad the other requisites for a flou' 
[ hinar rommerce ; Capital On* 
n, dirided into 10.000 sliates of 
Each." The method is iheo related 
nirg an acconnt with a respectable 
ifJiouse, obuining respectable di- 
l, appointing his son-in-Iaw the re- 
ble sectelaiy, the son of a respected 
K the rejpeclable standing counsel, 
■e self-oomioatiOD of the respectable 
ETcmiali H. and Co. as the respect- 
lolicitora. Aiterwards come the 
I (tf raising the bubble, to the admi- 
ot proper persons who pay a de- 
af 3/. per share ; who, when the 

*■ look down," Iry to sell, bul there 
no buTprs." the " quotations are 
«!;" •' second instalment called 
e holders hesiute ; " their ihate> 
Hateif' the ipeculatioD it conif 

ijuenlly deeUrBd Ihitlraled ; and ihere 
being only £10,000 in the bankers'handi 
lo pay " Mr. Hop-die-twiK's bill of 
10,073/. 13.. 4rf. that leipecUble soli- 
cilot iadEfrDiniedoflhesumof73M3i.4cl. 
Thms the nse and Eillofa lesnecuble 

Undoubtedly, among these »ariou» 
scheinei afloat, some will be productive 
of great benefit lo the country ; but it is 
5eriousljf tu be considered whether the 
estimation of some of them in a money 
yiew be not too high, and forced to on 
unclup price by the orts of jobbing ; 

Hisie iuiaDtly and bay, ciia «n 
Refcl Del Monle sharei, Ci mmm 

Another ciiei — No nuDlng plan 
Ijie our* — the Anrlo-Me«ic»n - 


Thrir *d< 

Deficient in uiuiance. 
L»t lam worried, shuei lobny 
In the Canadian company. 

The Milk Asiociatuin, 
The lannclry-men who wash hy iteam. 
Kail- ways. Pearl- fishing, or the icheiar. 

For Inland Navigation. 

„ Atw Mmlilf Mf 

Januarp 25. 

lalMBf It ibe PHhlte OKmi cin]i4 the Ennti 

;:oNVEaslaH or Et. Pavl. St; Jmvm- 
(intu and Maximinui, k. 0.363. St 
PrniKtai,A. n.674. St. Poppo, A. D. 
1048. SI. JpoUo, A. u. 393. SI. 
PabOu, A. D. 309. 



IV C§mtnim •/St. FmtL 

Tlut if a fertiftl in the calendwof the 
drardi of Eaghuid, as well as m that of 
the Bonyih church. 

On this day prognoeticatioiis of the 
months were drawn for the whole year. 
If fair and dear, there was to be nlenty; 
if cloadj or misty, modi cattle womd die; 
if rain or snow fell then it presaged a 
dearth; and if windj, there woald be 

If Saint Pnl'f Day be ftur and dear. 
It don betide a kappwear ; 
Bat if it dtanoe to raow or rain. 
Then will be dear all kinds of grain : 
If douds or mists do dark the ikie, 
Great store of birds and beasts shall die ; 
And if the winds do flj doft. 
Then wan riiall vex the kingdome oft 

mUsford's Nmtmre*s SeereU. 

These prognostications are Englished 
from an andent calendar: thej have 
likewise been translated by Gay, who 

Let no soch Tnlgar tdes debase thy mind. 
Nor Paal nor Swithin rule the douds and 

Tbe latter lines are dlusive to the 
popular superstitions, regarding these 
days, which were before remaned by 
bishop Hdl, who obserres of ajperson 
under such influences, that ** St. Faule's 
day, and St. Swithine's, with the twelre, 
are his oracles, which be dares beliere 
against the dmanacke.'* It wUl be re- 
collected that ** the twelve ^ are twelve 
days of ChrisUnastide, mentioned on a 
preceding day as believed by the ignorant 
to denote the weather throughout the 
year. * 

Cowemiiig this day,B0bme says. ^ How 
it came to have this particular knack of 
foretelling the good or ill fortune of the 
following year is no easy matter to find 
out. The monks, who were undoubtedly 
the first who made this wonderful obser- 
vation, have taken care it should be hand- 
ed down to posterity ; but why, or for 
what reason, tkey have taken care to con- 
ceaL St. Panl did indeed labour more 
abundantly than all the apostles; but 
Btrer that I heard in the sdence of as- 
trology : and why this day should there- 
foft be a standing dmanac to the world, 
than the day of any oUmt laioty 

will be pretty hard to find ovt** 
andent Roinish calendar, much u 
Brand, the vi|ril of St. Fanl is 
** Dies JEgypCiacus;" and he oo 
his ignorance of any reaaon for ca 
^ an Eff)rptian-day.^ Mr. Foabrc 
plains, uom a passage in Duoang 
It was so called becmise there wi 
unludcy days in every month, a 
Paurs Tigil was -one of the f 

Dr. Forster iK)tes, that the lest 
the conversion of St. Paul has 
been reckoned ominous of the fiitui 
ther of the year, in various count 
mote from each other. 

According to Schenkius, cited by 
it was a custom in many parts o 
many, to drag the images of St. Pa 
St. Urban to the river, if there wa 
weather on their festival. 

Apostle-Spoom s. 

St. Paul's day being the first fest 
an apostle in the year, it is an oppo 
for alluding to the old, ancient, ] 
custom, with sponsors, or visit 
christenings, of presenting spoons, 
apostle-spoons, because the figi 
the twelve apostles were chased, or 
on the tops of the handles. Bran 
several authors to testify of the pi 
Persons who could afford it ^ve 
of twelve; others a smaller nurolx 
a poor person offered the gift of on< 
the figure of the saint after whc 
child was named, or to whom th 
was dedicated, or who was the 
saint of the good-natured donor. 

Ben Jonson, in his Bartholomew 
has a character, saying, *' And dl i 
the hope of a couple of apostle -s 
and a cup to eat caudle in.'* 
Chaste Maid of Cheapside, by Mid 
" Oosf^ " inquires, •« What has h< 
her? What is it. Gossip r Wher 
answer of another *' Ootttp " is, *' . 
high-standing cup, and two great ' 
spoons— one of them gilt." Bet 
and Fletcher, likewise, in the 
Gentleman, say : 

Til be a Gossip. Bcwford« 
I have an odd apostle-spoon.** 

Tbe rarity and antiquity of a 
spoons render them of considerable 
as curiosities. A complete set of 
is represented in the sketch c 
opposite page, from a set c 
qtooni UiemMlfes on the writer *i 



The anottlet on this set of spoons are eoings, or on Tisiting the ** hsdy in the 
somewhAt worn, and the stems and ftiaw;^ though they are not now adomed 
bowls have been altered' by the silveiw with imagery, 
smith in eoolbrmity with the prevailiM f LoaaL BifticroaT. 
iashionof thepnaentdty; to4heeye<^ Winter heUalKwe. H eMi nw IftmaHt . 
the antiquary, therefbie, th^ are not so " ■■ 
inleieating as they were btmre (bey tm- ftUtUltD 20* 
d^wyTtiris pAl modernitttfont yet m. Poi^oiT^STpLh. MuOmmL 
mjua state &qr •» ^^jf Jgf^ '^thi tsatov. '^^ 
Their ane m ttie pnnt b exactly that of q^ ^^ter eemet— the eniel astth 
the spooM themielTea, except that the pom bis farioes whiriwind Mb 
stems are oeoesiwily lm-«bortened in Befae hi m and we bitatbe the breath) 
the eim?ing to jet them within the Of Ibmish'd bear*, that bowl to daath : 
page. The stem ofeacb spoori measures Oowahi he oemet from rscks thai bUncb 
exactly three inches and a half in length 0*«r loBd streaoM that never ioiw, 
from the fool of the apostle to the com- Hb lean all ice, bis locks all tnow, 
mencement of the bowl ; the lengUi of •'«* «^^ ''Wa tome huge avaUnche. Imef. 
each bowl is two inches and nine-six- BXAns Ann iees. 
teenths of an inch ; and the height of M. M. M- e trateller in Russia, corn- 
each apostle is one inch and one-iix- municates, through the Gentleman's Ma- 
teenth : the entire lenti^h of eodi spoon is guine of 1785, a remarkable method of 
seven inches and one-eighth of an inch, cultivating bees, and nreserving them from 
They are of silver ; the hghtest, which is ^Heir bousebreakeri, the bears. The Rus- 
St. Peter, weighs 1 os. 5dwts. 9gr. ; the tftns of Bk>rodskoe, on the banks of the 
beariest is St. Bartholomew, and wei^ rifer Ub« deposit the hives within exca- 
1 ox. 9 dwts. 4 gr. ; their collective weiriit ▼ttions tfiat they form in the hardest, 
is 16 OS. 14dwu. 16gr. The hat, or flat stiongtst, and loftiest trees of the forest, 
covering, on the hesd of each figure, is M about five-and-twenty or thirty ie«t 
usual to apostles-spoons, and was pro- lt%h from tbt ground, and even higher, if 
bably affixed to save the features nom the height of the trunk allows it. Ther 
eibcement. In a really fine state tbey hollow out the holes lengthways, with 
are very rare. small narrow hatchets, and with chisels 
It seems from '' the Gossips/* a poem ^^ goufes compl);te their work. The 
by Shiproan, iu 1666, that tbe usage of lofigitudinalapertureofthehiTeisstop|)ed 
giving apostle-spoons* at christenin|iy hy a cover of two or more pieces exactly 
was at that time on the decline : fitted to it, and pierced with small holes, 
•* Formerly, when they u«*d to troal» tO give ingress and egress to the bees. 
Gilt bowls of sack, they gave the bowl ; No meant can be devised more ingenious 
Two tpotmt at least ; an awe Of ieptt or more coBVtnient for climbing the high- 
Tis well if now our own be left." lit and the smoothest trees than those 
An anecdote is related of Shakspeare practised bv this people, for the constnio- 
and Den Jouson, which bean upon the lion and visitation of these hives. For 
usage : Shakspeare was godfather to one this purpose thev use nothing but a very 
of Jon3on*s children, and, after thecfarist- sharp axe, a leatnem stiao, or a common 
ening, being in deeo study, Jonson cheer- rope. The man places mmself against 
ingly asked him, wbv be was so melan- the trunk of the tree, and passes the cord 
choly ! <* Ben,'* said be, '^ I have been round his body and round the tree, just 
considering a great while what should be leaving it sumdent play for casting it 

the fittest f;ift for me to bestow upon my higher and higher, by' jetks, towards the 

godchild, and I have fcsolved it at Ust.* etoeation be desires to attato, and there to 

" I prithee, what T said Ben, •• T fiiitb, nlace bw body, bent as in a swing, his 

Ben,** antweretl Shakspeaiv, ** III give M resting againiit the tree, and preserr- 

him a (luien (tockI Islfee jPf*"*! Vid tmw iSK the ftee use of hb hands. This done, 

shalt trvrislate them."* Tbo wwl Isffen, Im takes bls axe, and at a1x>ut the height 

intended as a play upon lifin, ts the name of his body makes the first notch or step 

for thin iron tinned, of whicfi apoona, and in tbe tree ; then be takes his rope, the 

similar Mnall articles of hoii«i'holdnte« are two ends whereof he takes care to hare 

sometimt-s made. Without Wiu^i aware tied very fa^t, and tlitows it towards the 

of the oricin, it i^ %i\\\ a cuMom with topof the trunk. Placed thus in bin rope 

many {Krrsuns, to i>rv<ieutsnoom atchriii- b? tbe iiiddit of bis body, and resting 



U* fcM ifunit the tree, he ascends 'uy 
■«s ilcps, and eaiil; enablei himself lo 
~ ' ~Le of his fe«i in the notch. He dow 


r till hi: hu cached the 
idtcnded height. He perfurmt ail this 
Willi iftcredible speed kiid acilily. Being 
Biounicd 10 ihe place wheie lie is lo make 

Mid, hj ihe hf tp of ihe ri>pe, which his 
body kcejM in dislensinn, he performs hU 

ncctisary nark with the above-meDtioDed 
tools, which are stuck in hii girdle. He 
also carefull; cuts away all boughs and 
protuberances benealli llie hne, to render 
access as difficult as possible lo the bean, 
which abound in vast niimbers thtough- 
out the fuTuts, and In tpite of all iiatt- 
ginable p recall tiom, do considerable d*- 
mage lo the hives. On iliia accouiii the 
natives put in practice every kind of 
means, not only for delendins thems«lTM 

%iissian Crcc-dimliiris aiOi £cai' Cca$. 


Ami tiMte vorackNit antmftls, bot for their often finely varnished to orotect tKem from 
dettniction. The method most in use the wet and cold, are tne principal bo- 
ooDsists in sticking into the trunk of tanical subjects for obserratioo in Janu- 
the tree old blades of knives, standing up- ary, and their structure is particularly 
wards, scythes, and pieces of pointed iron, worthy of notice; to the practical gar- 
disposed circularly round it, when the dener an attention to their appearance it 
tree is straight, or at the place of bending, indispensable, as by them alone can he 
when the trunk is crooked. The bear has prune with safety. Buds axe always 
commonly dexteriw enough to avoid tbrmed in the spring preceding that in 
these points in climbing up the tree ; but which they open, and are of two kinds, 
when he descends, as he always does, leaf buds and flower buds, distinguished 
backwards, he gets on these sharp hooks, by a difference of shape and figure, easi- 
and receives such deep wounds, that he ly discernible by the observing eye ; the 
usually dies. Old bears frequently take fruit buds being thicker, rounder, and 
the precaution to bend down these blades shorter, than the others — hence the gar- 
with their fore-paws as they mount, and dener can judge of the probable quantity 
thereby render all this offensive armour of blossom that will vpj^eaa :" — 

^X^^SS* Lime$ m BtuU, hy Cmtptr. 

Another destructive apparatus has some When ill thii umform uncoloored fcenc 

similitude to the catapulta of the ancients. Shall be dismantled of its fleecy load. 

It is fixed in such a manner that, at the And flush iuto variety again. 

instant the bear prepares to climb the ^ 'om dearth to plenty, aod from death to life» 

tree, he pulls a stnng that lets go the ma- ^* Nature's progress, when the lectures man 

chine, whose elasticity strikes a dart into i? heavenly truth ; evincing, is she makes 

the animal's breaft. A further mode U ^^ ^^ tnnsjiion. thit there lives and 

I^J"^™*. * f^'^'^r r ^ k"^ "^^.t A «ml in all thing., and that «ml U God. 

the farthest ex remity of abranch of the He sets the brighf procesrion on iu vnT 

tr^. The platform is disposed honxon- And marshals ill the order of the yew : 

tallv before the hive, and there tied fiut H« marks the bounds which winter may not 
to the trunk of the tree with a cord made pug, 

«l bark. The bear, who finds the seat And blanu his pointed fury ; in its case, 

▼ery convenient for proceeding to the Roiset and rude, foldt ap the tender germ, 

opening of the hive, begins by tearing l^niojured, with inimitable irt ; 

the cord of bark which holds the plat- And txp one flowery aeison fides and dic«» 

form to the trunk, and hinders him from ^^««*P« ^ bloonung wonders of the nexL 
executing his purpose. Upon this the ^ Buds possess a power analogous to 

platform immediately quits the tree, and that of seeds, and have been called the 

swings in the air with the animal seated ▼iviparous ofispring of vegetable*, inis- 

upon it. If, on the first shock, the bear much as they admit of a removal from 

is not tumbled out, he must either take a their original connection, and, its actioo 

verv dangerous leap, or remain patiently being suspended for an indefinite tiai^ 

in his suspended seat. If he take the can be renewed at pleasure.** 
leap, either involunUrily, or by his own Oh IHcUm, ^ Camper. 

good will, he falls on sharp poinU, placed The mill^im duthes on the rettlem wheel, 

all about the bottom of the tree ; if he re- And wintons in the pebbly rulf below, 

solve to remain where he is, he is shot ^® ^^^'^ ^^ hind ic there; its utmoit feica 

by arrows or musket balls. ^^ ^^ arrest the light ind smoky mist, 

_; That in iu fill the liquid sheet throws wide. 

FLoaaL DiaccToar. ^^ut^^^^ " **** **"*** **** embroidefid 

White butterbur. Tte^UmgodU. With forms so vinous, that no powers of art. 

The pencil, or the pea, may trace the scene ! 

3anuarp 2;. f^^JS^SLT^J^:; ."'trS?^ 

St, John Ckrpto$iom. Si, JkSm of ^*»I««^'»*k o' ''hat may seem the tpaikliag 

Mans. Si. MmrimM. AmAA^i^^w 1 j ^ 

T«K«rA«nii And Ambs of fairy land. The crystil diwa 

It i. ob^,S'r,.*?rFo™.er'. -IVr- '*"^'* "^ "" "^'^ '^ ^ 

•wwJ Cfclendar," ih.t "Bud. •nd mi. Shoot iMe iuUn of ptllw^Mi •eogth, 

»I7Q triOMOOM 10 their iUky, downy MM*, A»4 pnp iKo pik the; bvt adorocd befcM, 

t85 THB EVERY-DAY BOOK^JANUARY 28, 99, 20. i6# 

fijoeal DimEctomT. lor a tingle book. He improved type- 
Earth Moss. Phoicum emtpitbOMm. m^^ hj nTing it that degree of haid- 
Dedicaied to Si. CfttytoirfoM. '^^^y whi<^ has been a dcaideratum ia 
.._^_ foonderies of this kind ; and discoTered a 
Qttttttftt^ OQ "^^^ method of fiurilitating the process of 
Sanuaig ^o^ melting and casting. From his feundeir 
ST. 4rM»*— Second Commemocation. ^ sent types to Rossia, Sweden, Poland, 
SL CyrU^k.ii, 444. 8t9. Tk^mu, Lew- ^ ^? America. He also imptored 

ll««ay,A.n.540. Blessed Afef^orei; Besides this, his mqmnamU) the orym 

Prinaii of Hungary, a. n. 1271. «^ F^^" ^f V>? ^^ of prmtmg, fi^ 

Si. Pmdimu. a/d. 804. Blessed ""^ed ie mjUenaU of a fiutoir, whiA 

Ckmrkmmgme, Emperor, a. d. 814. tJ^.^"^ ?? manuscript, fie pub. 

Si. G^M^Jd FiC A. n. 830. j^^ ~ ^^^« ^ V^ ^V ^""A^ 
' -« tempt to lUostrate the ongm of playing- 
iU. MMyrtut. cards, the introduction of paper made 
Sereral chorches in Spain are dedicated from linen, and the invention of engraving 
to him. In 777, the queen of Oviedo and on wood in Europe ;** the latter part was 
Asturia presented one of them with a finished, but not published, before hiii 
silver chalice and paten, a wash-hand death. His last publication was a small 
basin and a pipe, which, according to ^Treatise on Binliography,'' &c. pub- 
Butler, is '^ a silver pipe, or quill to sock lished in 1793, with his reasons for re- 
ap the blood of Chnst at the communion, taining ^ present German characters, 
such as the pope sometimes uses —it sucks With the interruption of only five or six 
up as a nose oraws up air.'' hours in the twenty-four, which he allowed 
Chbomoloot for sleep, his whole lifo was devoted to 
x^uKumuMMvj . atudy and useful employment. 
John Gottlob Immanud Bratkop^ a 
celebrated printer, letter-founder, and vlobai* niaEcroaT. 
bookseller of Leipsic, died on this day, in Double Daisy. BeUU peremh ptenui 
the year 1794 : he was bom there No- Dedicated to Si. Margarei o/Hungury. 

vember 23, 1719. After the perusal of a 1 '' ^ * 

work by Albert Durer, in which the shape SAttttAm 2Q 

of the letters is deduced from mathemi^ if ailllal p ^*/» 

tical principles, be endeavoured to fiishion Si. FrancU of Sales, a. d. 1622. St. 

them according to the most beautifhl Sti^fnehu Sevenu, a, d. 420. St.Gllda$ 

modeb in matrices cut for the pur- the Abbot, a.d. 570. Si, GUdat, the 

pose. His printing-office and letter- Scot, a. d. 512. 

foundery acquired very high reputatiwi. This being the anniversary of the king's 

II contained punches and matrices for ^cession to the throne, in 1820, is a 

400 alphabets, and he employed the types HoUday ataUfhe public qficet, except the 

of Baskerville and Didot. Finding Uiat Excise, Stamps, and Customs, 

engraving on wood had given birth to ' ^ * .«__ 

priming, and that the latter had contri- ploral directort. 

buted to the improvement of engraving, Flowering Fern. Otmunda regaUt 

he transferred some particulara, m the Dedicated to Si. FraneU of Sales. 

province of the engraver, to that of the , 

printer; and represented, by typography, ^amijim ^ 

all the marks and lines which occur m if ttJlUarp OV. 

the modem music, vrith all the accuracy kino Charles's marttrdom. 

of engraving, and even printed maps and Holiday at the Public Offlcea ; except the 

mathematical figures with movable types; Stamp*, CoatonM, and Excim. 

though the latter he considered as a mat- Si. Baildldetf Queen of Navarre, a.d. 680. 

ter of mere curiosity : such was also ano- St. Martina. St. j4ldegondes, a. d. 660. 

ther attempt, that of copying portraits by ^L BartinuButy a. d. 114. 

movable types. He likewise printed, st. Martina. 

with movable types, the Chinese charac- The Jesuit Ribadeneira relates that the 

ters, which are, in general, cot in pieces emperor Alexander IV., having decreed 

of wood, so that a whole house is often that all christians should sacrifice to die 

necessary to contain the blocks employed Roman gods, or die, insinuated to S^ 
Wo. 7. 


Martina, that if she wonld confonn to the Lord Orfbrd says, ^ one can icarce 

edict, he would make her his empress conceive a greater absurdity than retain- 

but on herbein^ taken to the temple, *< by ing the three holidays dedicated to the 

a sudden earthquake the blockish idol of house of Stuart. Was the presenration of 

Apollo was broken in pieces, a fourth part . James I. a greater blessing to Eneland 

or his temple thrown down, and, with his than the destruction of tiie Spanitn ar- 

niins, were crushed to death ; his priests mada, for which no festival is established f 

and many others, and the emperor him- Are we more or less free for the ezecation 

•elf, began to fly." Whereupon St. of king Charles ? Are we at this daj 

Martina taunted the emperor ; and the still guilty of his blood ? When im the 

deril, in the idol, rolling himself in the stain to be washed out ? What sense is 

dust, made a speech to her, and another there in thanking heaven for the restora- 

to the emperor, and *< fled through the tion of a family, which it so soon became 

air in a aark cloud ; but the emperor necessary to expel again V* 

would not understand it." Then the According to the " Life of William 

emperor commanded her to be tortured. Lilly, written by himself,*' Charles I. 

The Jesuit's stcries of these operations and caused the old astrologer to be consulted 

her escapes, are wonderfully particular, for his judgment. This is Lilly's account: 

According to him, hooks and stakes did ''His majesty, Charles L, having in- 

her no mischief; she had a fiiculty of trusted the Scuts with his person, was, 

shining, which the pouring of hot lard for money, delivered into the hands of 

upon her would not quench ; when in the English parliament, and, by several 

saol, men in dazzling white surrounded removals, was hud to liamnton-court, 

her; she could not (eel a hundred and about July or August, 1647; for he was 

eighteen wounds ; a flerce lion, who had there, and at that time when my house 

fasted three days, would not eat her, and was visited with the plague, lie was 

Arc would not bum her; but a sword cut desirous to escape fnim the soldiery, and 

her head off In 228, and at the end of to obscure him^lf for some time near 

two days two eagles were (bund watching London, the citizens whereof began now 

her body. " That which above all con- to be unruly, and alienated in affection 

firmeth the truth of this relation,*' says from the parliament, inclining whollv 

Ribadeneira, " is, that there is nothing to his majesty, and very averse to the 

herein related but what is in brief in the army. His majesty was well informed 

lessons of the Roman Breviary, com- of all this, and thought to make good 

manded by public authority to be read nse hereof: besides, the army and par- 

oa her least by the whole church.^* liament were at some odd j, who should 

be masters, l^pon the king's intention 

CnaoxoLooT. to escape, and with his consent, madam 

Whorewood (whom yon knew very well, 
On this day, in the year 1649, king worthy esquire) came to receive m? 
Charles L was beheaded. In the Com- judgment, viz. In what quarter of ihu 
mon Prayer Book of the Church of Eng- nation he might be most safe, and not 
land, it is called** The Day of the Martyr- to be discovered until himself pleased, 
dom of the Blessed King Charles I.;" When she came to my door, I told 
and there is " A Form of Prayer, with her I would not let her come into ray 
Fasting, to be used yearly" upon its re- house, for I buried a maid-servant of the 
currence. plague very lately : however, up we 
Tlie sheet, which received the head of went After erection of my figure, I 
Charles I. lAer its decapitation, is care- told her about twenty miles (or there- 
fully preserved along with the commu- abouts) from London, and in Essex, I 
nion plate in the church of Ashburnham, in was certain he might continue undis- 
tliis countv ; tlie blood, with which it has covered. She liked my judgment very 
been almost entirely covered, now appears well ; and, being herselr of a sharp judg- 
nearly black. The iratch of the unfor- ment, remembered a place in Essex about 
tunate monarch is also deposited with the that distance, where was an excellent 
linen, the movements of which are still bouse, and all conveniences for his re- 
perfect. These relics came into the pos- ception. Away she went, early next 
session of lord Aflibnraham immediately morning, unto Hampton-coun, to ac- 
•Har tb« Atath of the kiiig^*ilri|fAlM anaint his majesty ; but see the mis- 
" " mtoM: he, cither guided by hit own 


approQchiiig hard &te, or misguided by headed January 30^ 1649. After the 
Aslibunihamf.went away in the night- ^ecution, his body was carried to Wind- 
time westward, and surrendered him- sor, and buried with Henry Vlllth, 
self to Hammond, in the Isle of Wight, in the same Tault where his body was 
Whilst his majesty was at Hampton- lodged. Some, who saw him embowelled, 
cotiit, alderman Adams sent hit majesty affirm, had he not come unto this untimely 
one thousand pounds in gold, five nun- end, he might have lived, according unto 
dred whereof ke gave to madam Whore- nature, even unto the height of old age. 
wood. I believe I had twenty pieces of Many have curiously inquired who it was 
that veiT gold for my share." Lilly pro- that cut off his head : I have no permis- 
ceeds thus : ** His majesty being in sion to speak of such things ; only thus 
Carisbrook-castle, in the Isle of Wight, much I say, he that did it is as -ndiant 
the Kentish men, in great numbers, rose and resolute a man as lives, and one of a 
in arms, and joined with the lord Gor- competent fortune. For my part, I do 
iag; a considlerable number of the best believe he was not the worst, but the 
ships revolted from the parliament ; the most unfortunate of kings." 
citizens of London were forward to rise Lilly elsewhere relates, '* that the next 
against the parliament ; his majesty laid Sunday but one after Charles I. was 
his design to escape out of prison, by beheaaed, Robert Spavin, secretary unto 
sawing the iron bars of his chamber win- lieutenant-general Cromwell at that time, 
dow; a small 4hip was provided, and invited himself to dine with me, and 
andiored not hr from the castle to bring brought Anthony Pierson, and several 
him into Sussex ; horses were provided others, along vrith him to dinner. Their 
ready to carry him through Sussex into principal discourse all dinner-time vras, 
Kent, that so he might be at the head of who it vras beheaded the king : one said 
the amnr in Kent, and from thence to it was the common hangman ; another, 
march immediately to London, vrhere Hugh Peters; others also were nomi- 
thoosands then would have armed for nated, but none concluded. Robert Spa* 
him. The lady Whorewood came to me, vin, so soon as dinner ¥ras done, took me 
acquaints me herewith. I got G. Farmer by the hand, and carried me to the south 
(who was a most ingenious locksmith, window ;saith he/ These are all mistaken, 
and dwelt in Bow-lane) to make a saw they have not named the man that did 
to cut the iron bars in sunder, I mean to the fact ; it was lieutenantpcolonel Joice : 
saw them, and aqua fortis besides. His I vras in the room when he fitted himself 
majesty in a small time did his work ; for the work, stood behind him when he 
the ba^ gave liberty for him to go out ; did it ; when done, went in again with 
he vras out with his body till he came to him. There is no man knows this but my 
hb breast ; but then his heart Csuling, he master, viz. Cromwell, commissary Ire- 
IRoceeded no farther : when this was ton, and myself.' — * Doth not Mr. Rush- 
discovered, as soon after it was, he vras worth know it V said I. < No, he doth 
oairTOwly looked after, and no oppor- not know it,' saith Spavin. The same 
tunity after that could be devised to en- thing Spavin since hath often related 
taige him.'' unto me when we were alone.'' 
liDy goes on to say^ ** He was be- 


SHaoTX TtnsDAT regulates most of the list, the introduction of which on the next 

moveable feasts. Shrove Tuetday itself page puts the reader in possession of ser- 

is the next aftey the first new moon in the viceable knowledge on this point, and 

month of February. If such new moon affords an opportunity for affirming, 

should happen on a Tu^ay, the next that Mr. Nicolas's book contains a va- 

Jureaday following is Shrove Tuesday. A riety of correct and valuable informal- 

recently published volume iunushef a tion not elsewhere in a. coW.«cXe^ lQroi>-« 





*' Tmkkt^ Calendmrtf ^./tr ikeuae ^ Hif^ 
Urimm, Antifumri€»^ mmd ike Legal Fro- 
fiuiemy hy N. H, Niatlmt, E$qr 

Mteni Sun4^f is the nearest Sandaj to 
the feast of Sl Andrew, November 
30th, whether before or after. 

Asemuion Day, or Ho^f Tkuradaff, u the 
Thursday in Rogation week, i. e. the 
week following Rogation Sunday. 

Atk Wcdmeadojfy or the firit day in lent, 
is the day after Shrove Tuesday. 

Cmrk^ or Cm Sundajf, or the fifth Sun- 
day in lent, is the fifth Sunday after 
Shrove Tuesday. 

Carj^ CkrUii^ or Body of CkrUt, is a 
Atttival kept on the Thursday after 
Trinity Sunday ; and was instituted in 
the year 1264. 

MotUr Day. The Potehal Sabbath. Tha 
Muchariai, or LortT* Supper, is the 
seventh Sunday after Shrove Tuesday, 
and is always the first Sunday after 
the first full moon, which happens on 
or next after the 21st of March. 

v_. 1^ J (^^'^ ^ Monday and 

£^ 5£S terV *^°''"'^ 

Emker Day, are the Wednesdays, Fri- 
days, aiid Saturdays, after the first Sun- 
day in lent ; after the Feast 6f Pente- 
cost ; after Holy-rood Day, or the Feast 
of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, 
▼IS. 14th September ; and after Su 
Locia's day, vis. 15th December. 

Emkir WeekB, are those weeks in which 
the Ember days fall. 

TV Buehariii. See Easter day. 

Oood Friday, is the Friday in Passion 
Week, uA the next Friday before Eas- 
ter day. 

Holy nmnday. See Ascension day. 

LmI, a Fast from Ash Wednesday, to 
the Feast of Easter, viz. forty days. 

Lor^t Smpptr. See Easter day. 

Law Saiday,\M the Sunday next after 
Easter day. 

Maamday Thunday, is the day before 
Good Friday. 

MiidUmi, or the fourth Sunday in Lent, is 
the fourth Sunday after Shrove Tues- 

Pakm Sumday, or the sixth Sunday in 
j.M|t^ It the sixth Sundav after Shrove 
t^ 4M. See Easter day. 

n* thewedt oexteofoiog 

Penieeoit or fThit Sunday, u the fif- 
tieth day and seventh Sunday after 
Easter day. 

Quinquagetima Sunday, is so named 
ftom its being about the fiftieth day 
before Easter. It is also called Shrove 

Reiiek Sunday, is the third Sunday after 

Rogation Sunday, \m the fifth Sunday a^ 
ter Easter day. 

Rogation Dayt are the Monday, Tuesday, 
and Wednesday following Rogation 

Shrove Sunday, is the Sunday next be- 
fore Shrove Tuesday. It is also called 
Quinquageiima Sunday. 

Soptuageeima^ Sunday, so called from 
its being about the seventieth day be- 
fore Easter, is the third Sunday before 
Lent. - 

Seaageeima Sunday, is tlie second Sun- 
day before Lent, or the next to Shrove 
SundaVy so called as being about the 
sixtietn day before Easter. 

Trinity Sunday, or the Featt of the Holy 

\ Trinity, is the next Sunday after Pen- 
tecost or Whitsuntide. 

IFhit Sunday. See Pentecost. 

wtn-^ m# J fare the Monday and 

2S-!^"S- ^Tuesday foUowing 

IFhii Tueeday \whit sinday. 

Whiteuntide, is the three days above- 

Tha Vigil or Eve of a feast, is the day 
before it occurs. Thus the Vigil of the 
feast of St. John the Baptist is the 23d 
of June. If the feast-day falls upon a 
Monday, then the Vigil or the Eve is 
kept upon the Saturday preceding. 

The Morrow of a feast, is the day allow- 
ing : thus the feast of All SouU, is No- 
vember 2d, and the Morrow of All 
Souls is consequently the 3d of Novem- 

The Octave or Uiae of each feast, is al- 
ways the eighth day after it occurs ; 
for example, the feast of St. Hillary, is 
the 13th of February, hence the ()cuve 
of St. Hittary, is the 20th of that 

In the Odmoee, means within the eight 
days following any particular feast. 


If tM iiIaIA S^pday befoit EMler 8«iday« 




Is Uie ei^Uk Sunday before Easter. 


Is the 9eveutk Sunday before Easter. 


Is the tuFik Simday before Easter, and 

tii# firsi Sunday in Lent, which com- 
mences on Ash Wednesday. 

<<The earliest term of Septuagesima 
Sunday is the 18th of January, when 
Easter day &l)s on the 22d of March ; 
the latest is the '*22d of February, when 
Easter happens on the 25th of April " 


Shepherd in his '* Elucidation of the 
Book of Common Prayer^ satis&ctorily 
explains the origin of these da3rs : 

** When the words Septvagenma, 5;»r- 
agenmMy and Quinquagetima were first 
applied to denote these three Sundays, 
the season of Lent had generally been 
extended to a fiist of six weeks; that is, 
thii^-six days, not reckoning the Sun- 
days, which were always celebrated as 
IntiTals. At this time, likewise, the Sun- 
day windi we call the first Sunday in 
Lent, was styled simply QuadngenmOy 
or the fortieth, meaning the fortieth day 
before Easter. Quadragenma was also 
the name given to Lent, and denoted the 
Quadragenmaly or forty days' fast. When 
the three weeks before Quadragesima 
ceased to be considered as weeks after 
the Epiphany, and were appointed to be 
observed as a time of preparation for 
Lent, it was perfectly conformable to the 
mdinary mode of computation to reckon 
backwards, and for the sake of even and 
rtmnd numbers to count by decades. 
The authors of this novel institution, and 
the compilers of the new proper offices, 
woak) naturally call the first Sunday be- 
fore Quadragesima, Quinquagesima ; the 
second, Sexagesima ; and the third, Sep- 
toagesima. This reason corresponds 
witK the account that seems to be at pre- 
sent most generally adopted." 

There is much difference of opinion as 
to whether the fast of Lent lasted an- 
denUy during forty days or forty hours. 


Common Maidenhair. Aaplenium ifi* 

Dedicated to St. Martina. 

3amiarp 31. 

King George IT. proclaimrd. Ht^iday at th^ Ex* 


St. Peter Nolaeeo, a. n. 1258. St. Se- 
rapion, a. d. 1240. St. Cyrttt and 
John. St. Marcella, a. d. 410. St. 
Moidoe, or Maodhog, alias Aidar, 
otherwise Mogue, Bishop of Ferns, 
A. D. 1632. 

St. Peter Nohueo. 

Ribadeneira relates, that on the 1st of 
August 1216, the virgin Mary with a 
beautifol train of holy virgins appeared 
to this saint at midnight, and signified 
it was the divine pleasure that a new 
order should be instituted under the 
title of Our Blessed Lady of Mercy, for 
the redemption of captives, and that 
king James of Aragon had the same 
vision at the same time,,and *'this order, 
therefore, by divine revelation, was 
founded upon the 10th, or as others say, 
upon the 23d of August." Then St. 
Peter Nolasco begged for its support, 
and thereby rendered himself offensive 
to the devil. For once taking up his 
lodging in private, some of the neigh- 
bours told him, that the master of Uie 
house, a man of evil report, had lately 
died, and the place had ever since been 
inhabited by " night spirits," wherein 
he commended himself to the virgin and 
other saints, and " instantly his admoni- 
tors vanished away like smoke, leaving 
an intolerable scent behind them." These 
of course were devils in disguise. Then 
he passed the sea in his cloak, angels 
sung before him in the habit of his order, 
and the virgin visited his monastery. 
One night he went into the church and 
found the angels singing the service 
instead of the monks ; and at another 
time seven stars fell from heaven, and on 
digging the ground " there, they found a 
most devout image of our lady under a 
great bell," — and so forth. 


Hartstongue. AtpUnium Scolopendium. 
Dedicated to St. MarceUa. 



TlirB came cold Fcbniuj, lilliug 

In an old wiggon, du ht could Dot lide, 

Drawoc of tvo Gitw*. br the muod filling. 

Which thiougfa the fiood bebrc did lorilj ilyde 

And twim away ; yet hid be bj liii lide 

nil plough and hameue St lo (ill ihe ground, 

And loole) to pro of the treev (wfore the pride 

Of halting prime did tnak« them burgeon round. Spnuer, 
Thi* nonih hu Piscet or the fishes for In ihort. wiih wbiuoe'er our hearli mt hoU 
ill wdiocal sigD. Noma, «ho wu choaCQ Are purified, vai Vebtua Ien>ic4 of old i 
by tba Roraui people to >ucce«d Ro- Itumtiamt are from hence, from hence ihi 
mului M their king, and became their _, ,, """• 

leiriilalOT, placed It the «-coiid in tlie Of thuonr month of February came ; 
yea., aa it «maini wi.h u», and dedi- Jn-h-^h*^'!;™""' P»" pf«"!l™»"»«l«; 

<M^ it to Neptune, the lo,d of waten. of r.r-h . h^™^*"* hT^^ 

,, ■ , ' .-L I.. V 1- UfJDCh ai had DO dirrej when their died I 

Ih name ii from the feftr-a, or Feral.a, p„ ^, ..Hgiou. faUim d„i m^ntin, ' 

KKnficC* offered lo Ibe manei of the pnrgalioai eipialtd eierr atain 

t-<-h at th» ^ewon. Orid in hii FuH Oi guilt andnni Irom Greece the dutoa 

Blleiti thi> derivation : came. 

In anneat Umet. puri-alioni bid the Dime But here aili^lcd bj aoolber aane : 

Of Ftirmm , iirioMi ruitami pniTC the unw ; The Greciau held thai pure liutraliom M«ld 

n« pooiiITi hws ihe R« Md;fnv> craT* Ff ace an impioui deed. or guilt of blood 

A loik ..I wool ; in former dan tbej gaye Weak men ; to think that water can make 

To wool the uaiiir of frbrua. '■«"■ 

rrom a Ion* pine. * blaody crime, or any ainful itain. 

■mpln ..f Ihe prittll Ibejf _ _ Maury't OrU. 

A pliant I 
Which n 

Our Saion ancojior 

la called) wbirhiftheprieit demaDd, *tr)w. "called Kehiuary •^^oar-M^, by 
ifpiBcitpatiDlahithaMl; k*l« mtuitig Uw k«lc-wuit, which «• 


cdl tiM eotowurty the graatest poi' he remarks that " if Febniaiy were not 
wmrt in time long past that our anceitocs the precursor of i pring, it would he th* 
wed, and the hrotn made therewith was least pleasant season of the year, Novem- 
thoeof alio called kele ; • for before we her not excepted. The thaws now take 
borrowed from the French the name of place; and a clammy mixture of moisture 
polaf^ and the name of herbe, the one and cold succeeds, which is the most 
m our owne language was called Me, and disagreeable of wintry sensations.*' Yet 
the other wwrii and is this kele-woil^ so ?ariable is our climate, that the Febru- 
or potage-hearbe, was the diiefe winter- ary of 1825 broke in upon the inhabitants 
wuit for the snstenancp of the husband- of the metropolis with a day or two of 
man, so was it the first hearbe that in piercing cold, and realized a delightful 
this moeeth began to yeeld out whole- description of January sparkled from the 
some yong sprouts, and consequently same pen. " What can be more delicately 
gave thereunto the name of S^^rout-kele, beautiful than the spectacle which some- 
The *^ kela ^ here mentioned, is the well- times salutes the eye at the breakfast- 
known kale of the cabbaffe tribe. But room window, occasioned by the hoar- 
the Saxons likewise called this month frost dew? If a jeweller had come to 
'' Solmooath,*' which Dr. Frank Sayers in dress every plant over night, to surprise 
his ** Disqutsitions ** says, is explained an Eastern sultan, he could not produce 
by Bede *' mensis plancentarum," and any thing like the * pearly drops, or the 
rendered by Spelman in an unedited ' sUveiy plumage.' An ordinary bed of 
manuscript ^^pm^ake month,*' l)ecause greens, to those who are not at the 
in the course of it, cakes were offered by mercy of their own vulgar associations. 
the pagan Saxons to the sun ; and *' Sol, will sometimes look crisp and cortugatea 
or ^ soul," signified ** food," or cakes." emerald, powdered with diamonds.*' 
In "« The Months," by Mr. Leigh Hunt, 

TBB msON, 

Sunk in the vale, whose concave depth receives 
The waters draining from these shelvy banks 
When the shower beats, yon pool with pallid gleam 
Betrays its icy covering. From the glade 
Issuing in pensive file, and numng uow. 
The cattle, all unwitting of the change. 
To quench their customsry thirst advance. 
With wondering stare and fruitless search they trace 
The solid margin : now bend low the head 
In act to drink ; now with fastidious nose 
Snuffing the marble floor, and breathing loud. 
From the cold touch withdraw. AwhUe they stand 
In disap^intment mute ; with ponderous feet 
Then bruise the surface : to each stroke the woods 
Reply ; forth gashes the imprisoned wave. 

'^ribmatt) 1 y«^ *»« declares that "her five modern 

'^ '^ lives mention little else but wonderful 

SL Igmatiut. Si, Piomut, a. d. 250. St. miracles." According to the same author, 

Brklgti. St, JdnMM, St. Sigekert JI, ^he flourished in the beginning of the 

King* . sixth century, her body was found in the 

St. Bridget, twelfth century, and her head " is now 

St. Bride, otherwise St. Bridget, con- kept in the church of the Jesuiu at Lis- 

lers her name upon the parish of St. b<^n." This writer does not favour us 

Bride's, for to her its church in Fleet- with any of her miracles, but bishop 1 a- 

street is dedicated. BuUer says she vras trick mentions, that wild ducks swim- 

bom in Ulster, buUt herself a ceU ming in the water, or flying in the air, 

under a large oak, thence called KilWara, obeyed her call, came to her hand, let 

or cell of the oak, was joined by others of her embrace them, and then she let ihcm 

her own sex, formed several nunneries, fly away a^^ain. He also found in the 

and became patroness of Ireland. " But," breviary of Sarura, that when she was sent 

says Butler, « a foil account of her vir- a-milking '^y he- -noiher to make, butter, 

foes has not been transmitted down to us, she gave a^vay aii the milk to the poor ; 

together with the veneration of her name ;" that when the rest of the maids brought 


in their milk the prtyed, and the hotter call the Puriiicatk>B of the virgin^ HMf 

multiplied ; that the halter she gave awav obscnre it with great pomp. It i tands as 

the dirided into tweWe parU, •* as if it a holiday in the calendar of the churdl 

were for the tweWe apostles; and one of England. Naogeorgus thus introdocct 

part she made higger than any of the the day; or rather Bamaby Goose, in 

rest, which stood for Christ's portion ; his translation of that author's, ** fopA 

though it is strange," says Patrick, " that Kingdom :" 

she forget to make another inequality by " Then comes the Day wherein the V«fia 

ordering one portion more of the butter ^ ^ offred Chnit unto 

to be made Bigger than the remaining ^^ father chiefe, as Moyses law 

oj^ in honour Tst. Peter, the prince of j^,,,^^::'^,^r%^,^ 

the apostles. ^^1, ^^^ ,^ women bctre 

, w t^V^V^' ^!;^»^^'^m* u To Chureh. being htlowed there with pemp^ 
In Mr. Fosbroke s " Bntish Monarch- ^a dmidfiil words to heaif. 

ism,'' the obserration of this catholic ce- tliis done.eche man his Candell-%^rtet 
remony is noticed as being mentioned in where chiefest seemeth bee» 

** Emulphus's Annab of Rochester Cathe- Whose Taper greatest may be scene 
dral,'' and by Selden. From thence it ap- and fortunate to bee ; 

pears to hare taken place just before the Whose CandeH bometh cleire and height^ 

octaves of Easter. Austin says, « that it ^ ^ . * wondrous force and might 

used to be sung in all churches from I>otk m these Candeb he. which if 

Easter to Pentecort, but Damasus ordered j.^ JL^^JtTV.^V^^ .t«r«- 

•.. -. V * .* .^.^.:. *:^.^ mty sure beleve that neytlier stoma 

It to be pcrformi^at wrt^n Umes, ^ or Umpest dare Aide, 

whence it was chanted on Sundays from jj^, ^^^„ j^*^^ ,l,i„ y^ y^^^^ 
the ocUtcs of Epiphany to Septuagesima, ^or any Devil's spide, 

and on the Sundays from the octaves of Nor fearefull sprites that walke by night, 
Pentecost and Advent. One mode of nor huruof frostorhaile.'^- 

bunring the Alleluia was this : in the According to " The Posey of Prayers, or 

aabbath of the Septmarenma at Nones, the Key of Heaven," it is called Cmmdh* 

the dioristers assembled in the great ves- fmw, because before mass is said this dar, 

tiary, and there arranged the ceremony, the church blettet her candkM for tkg 

Having finished the last ' Benedicamus,' whole yrar, and makes a procession with 

they advanced with crosses, torches, holy hallowed or blessed candles in the hands 

waters, and incense, carrying a turf (Gle- of the faithful." 

bam) in the manner of a coffin, passed From catholic service-books, quoted 

through the choir and went howling to in ^ Pagano Papisraus," some particulart 

the dobter, as far as the place of inter- are collected concerning the blessing 

ment ; and then having sprinkled the wa- of the candles. Being at the altar, 

ter, and censed the place, returned by the the priest says over them several prayers ; 

tame road. According to a storv (whe- one of which commences thus : ** O Lord 

ther tme or false) in one of the churches Jesu Christ, who enlightenest every 00% 

of Paris, a choir boy used to whip a top, that cometh into the world, pour out thy 

narked with AUehuOy written in golden benediction upon these Candles, and 

letters, from one end of the choir to the sanctifie them with the light of thy 

other. In other places AUdnia was bu- ffrace," Ice. Another begins : *< Holr 

ried by a serious service on Septuagesima Lord, Father Almighty, Everiasting God, 

Sunday." who hast created aH things of nothinr, 

FLoaAL DiftccToaT. and by the labour of be^ caused this 

Liiicr Water Mots. FomthmtU minor, liquor to come to the perfection of a wax 

Dedicated to St, Ignmthu, candle ; we humbly beseech thee, that by 

Bay. Lmtrut iobiiU. the invocation of thy most holy namcL 

Dedicated to Si. BridgtL and by the intercession of the blened 

' ▼irgiOf ever a virgin, whose iestivab are 

^MhrUfliTI 2 ^^ ^^ devoutly celebrated, and by the 

7Ae PvfjflMlfoii. 8i. Lmnremet, Ardi- dies," kc. Then the priest sprinkles the 

biihop «f Canterbury, A. o. 619 candles thrice with holy water, saying 

CAVOLKMAS DAT. ** Sprinkle me with," Ice. and perfumes 

lUi Irtkif tbr fortival whidi calhoUfil t|im thrict with iii^en^. One of tht 


conneratory inrajers begins : ^O Lord Mr. Fosbroke showi, from catholic autho- 
Jcni Christ, bless this creature of wax tc rities, that h'ght-beariDg on Candlemas 
OS thy suppliants ; and infuse into it, by day is an old Pagan ceremony ; and 
th# ▼iitne of the holy cross, thy heavenly from Du Cange, that it was substituted 
benediction ; that in whatsoerer places it by pope Gelasius for tiie candles, which 
riiaU be lighted, or put, the devil may in February the Roman people used to 
depart, and tremble, and fly away, with carry in the Lupercalia. 
all his ministers, from those habitations, Pope Innocent, in a sermon on this fet* 
and not presume any more to disturb tival, quoted in *' Pagano Papismus,'' in- 
them," &c. There is likewise this bene- quires, ** Why do we (the catholics) in 
diction : ''I bless thee, O wax, in the this feast carry candles?'* and then he ex- 
name of the holy trinity, that thou may'st plains the matter by way of answer, 
be in every ]4ace the ejection of Satan, *' Because," says he, '< the gentiles dedi- 
and subversion of all his companions,' cated the month of February to the infernal 
Ice. DnriK the saying of these prayers, gods, and as, at the beginning of it, Pluto 
various bowmgs and crossings are inter- stole Proserpine, and her mother, Ceres, 
jected ; and when the ceremonies of con- sought her in the nieht with lighted can- 
secration are over, the chiefest priest dies, so they, at the beginning of this 
goes to the altar, and he that officiates month, walked about the city with lighted 
receives a candle from him ; afterwards, candles ; because the holy fathers could 
that priest, standing before the altar to- not utterly extirpate this custom, they or- 
wards the people, distributes the candles, dained that Christians should carry about 
first to the priest from whom he received candles in honour of the blessed virgin 
a candle, then to others in order, all kneel- Maiy : and thus," says the pope, '' what 
ing (except bishops) and kissing the can- was done before to the honour of Ce- 
dle, and also kissing the hand of the res is now done to the honour of the 
priest who delivers it. When he begins Virgin." 

to distribute the candles, they sing, '<A PolydoreVergil, observing on the papn 
]i{;ht to lighten the gentiles, and the processions and Uie custom of pumicly 
irlory of thy people Israel.*' After the carrying about imsiges of the gods 
candles are distributed, a solemn proces- with relics, says, '' Our priests do the 
sion is made ; in which one carries a same thing. We observe all these cere- 
censer, another a crucifix, and the rest monies, but I know not whether the cus- 
buming candles in their hands. torn is as good as it is shoviry ; I fear, I 
The practice is treated of by Butler in fear, I say, that in these things, we rather 
his notice of the festival under this please the gods of the heathen than Jesus 
head, *' On blessing of Candles and the Christ, for they were desirous that their 
Procession.'* It is to be gathered from worshippers should be magnificent in their 
him that "St. Bernard says the procession processions, as Sallust says; but Christ 
WIS first made by St. Joseph, Simeon, and hates nothing more than tliis, telling us, 
Anne, as an example to be followed by IVheii thou prayett, enter into thy clout, 
all the earth, walking two and two, hold- and when thou hast thut thy door pray to 
ing in their hands candles, lighted from thy Father, What will then become of 
fire, first blessed by the priests, and sing- us, if we act contrary to his command- 
ing." The candle-bearing has reference to ment ? Surely, whatever may become of 
Simeon's declaration in the temple when he us, we do act contrary to it." 
took Jesus in his arms, and affirmed that Brand shows, from ** Dunstan's Concord 
be was a light to lighten the gentiles, and of Monastic Rules,** that the monks went in 
the gloiy of Israel. This was deemed surplices to the church for candles, which 
sufficient ground by the Romish church, were to be consecrated, sprinkled with 
whereon to adopt the torch-bearing of holy water, and censed by the abbot, 
the pagans in honour of their own deities. Every monk took a candle from the sa- 
as a ceremony in honour of the presenta- crist, and lighted it. A procession was 
tion of Jesus in the temple. The pagans made, thirds and mass were celebrated, 
used lights in their worsnip, and Constan- and the candles, after the ofiering, were 
tine, aiKl other emperors,endowed churches offered to the priest. The monks' can- 
with land and various possessions, for the dies signified the use of those iu the pa- 
maintenance of lights m catholic churches, rable of the wise virgins. 
and frequentlv presented the ecclesiastics In catholic countries the people joined 
irith coffers ^11 of candles and tapers, the priests in their public processions to 


Um drordief, etery indiTidual beiring n her band ; whermt she manrelledy and 

huraing candle, and the churches them- returned thanks to the glorious ▼iigus» 

selves biased with supernumerary illumi* who had not suffered her to be witboot a 

nations at mid-daT. mass on Candlemas-day, and all her liii 

It is to be noted, that from Candlemas kept the piece of candle for a lelio ; aad 

the use of tapers at Tespers and litanies, all they that were touched therewith were 

which prevailed throughout the winter, healed of their maladice and iicknoises. 

ceased until the ensuing All Hallow _ 

Mass; and hence the origin of an old n . • ^i. t. *. 

English proverb in Ray's Collection- wT^'^ " ^® Y^^^ ^^ ancient tiM. 

^^ J; „ ^ "^ We know little of the Umes sung by Ho- 

Throw candle and candlestick away. ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ obligaUon for ao- 

Candlemas candle-carrying remained quaintance with some of the m: nners 

in England till its abolition by an order pertaining to this " great day in the 

in council, in the second year of king calendar. Perhaps, had he not written^ 

Edward VI. we should be ignorant that our forefathert 

' ■ fared more daintily during the Christmas 

The « Golden Legend** relates, that a holidays than at other seasons ; be un. 

lady who had given her mantle to a poor ^^*^® ®^ ^^^ '"*« ^or setting cm the due 

man for the love of our lady, would not go q**autuni of time, and orderly succession, 

to diurch on Candlemas-day, but went into ^® Christmas ever-greens; and live, as 

her own private chapel, and kneeling be- "^\ «* "* have lived, but ought not to 

fore the altar, fell asleep, and had a mira- h^e longer, without being informed, tliat 

culous vision, wherein she saw herself at y** Chnslmas-log iu;iy be burnt until this 

church. Into this vUionary church she .f.^' ^f"^ ""^^ ^ quenched this night 

imagined that a troop of virjfins came, ^^ Christmas comes again. 

with a noble virgin at tSieir head, •* crown- CamUnKat Eve. 

ed ryght precyously," and seated them- -. , ^. . . , , *. ,. 

.4ii^ ;« Jv.^-1 . «Ki« « tw'T^w^ «r «.^.,«» End now the wbite-loafe and the pyei 

selves m order -then a troop of young ^^^ ,^^ ^^ ^.^ Christmas Sw 

men, who seated themselves m like order; ♦*^ » ir^ ' 

Uien one, with a proper number of can- Kindle the Christmas Brand, and then 

dies, gave to each a candle, and to the Till sunne-set let it burae, 

lady herself he gave a candle of wax; Which quencht, then liy it up agen, 

then came St. Laurence as a deacon, and Till Christmas next retume. 

SU Vincent as a subnleacon, and Jesus p,rt must be kept wherewith to teend 

Chnst as the pnest, and two angels bear- The Christmas Log next yeare: 

ing candles ; then the two angels began And where 'lU safely kept, the fiend 

the Introit of the mass, and the virgins Can do no mischiefe there. . , , 

sung the mass ; then the virgins went Utrriekm 

and each ofl^red the candle to the priest. How severely he enjoins the removal 

and the priest waited for the lady to offer of the last greens of the old year, and yet 

her candle ; then *' the glorious queue of how essential is his reason for their qit» 

virgyns" sent to her to say that she was placement : 

not courteous to make the priest tarry so CamJiemas Eve. 

long for her, and the lady answered that j^^ ^.^y, ^^^ Rosemary, aiid so 

the pnest might go on the mass, for i>own with the Baies and Misletoe ; 

she rfiould keep her candle herself, and Down with the Holly, Irie, all 

not offer it ; and the vinrin sent a second Wherewith j-e dresi the Christinas Hall j 

time, and the ladv said she wcmld not That so the stip«rstitious find 

offer the candle ; then *' the qucnc of vir- No one least llranch there left bdund : 

gyns" said to the mess<'nger, " Pray her to ^<» !«*♦ l»o^ «n«ny leaves there be 

offer the candle, and if she will not, Uke Neglected there, maids, trust to me^ 

it from her by force r still she would not ^ "»*"y ^^^^ !•« ^•^^ •«• 

offer the candle, and therefore the mes- Htrritk, 

senger seized it ; but the lady held so Hearken to the gay old man again, and 

last and long, and the messenger drew participate in his joyous anticipations of 

and puUcd so hard, that the candle broke, pleasure from the natural products of the 

and the lady kept half. Then the lady new year. His neit little poem u a col* 

mwoke, aad imnd the piece of candle in lyrium for the mind's eye t 


Sivwa vhii the Rosenary and Bayes, 

DiowA with the MUleto ; 
iHlcad of Hiillyy sow np-raiw 

Hm greeiMr Ba (lir ibow.) 

Thit Holly UAerto did iway j 

Let B« now do —iD ecr e , 
UatiU the dancing Eaater-day, 

Ob Easter^ Eve ^peaie* 

Then jovthfol Box. which now hmth grace, 

Yonr hofuei to renew. 
Grown old, mirender must hii place 

Unto the crimed Yew. 

When Yew is ont, then Birch comes in. 

And many Flowers beside. 
Both of a fresh and frapant kinne. 

To honour Whitaontide. 

Green Boahes then, and sweetest Bents, 

With cooler Oken boughs. 
Come in for comely ornaments 

To re-adorn the nouse. 

Has timeB doahift ; each thing his tume do't 

Eew things iMceod, as Ibmer things grow 

okL Hcrrickm 

Brand dtes a curious anecdote con- 
cerning John Cosin, bishop of Durham, 
on this day, from a rare tract, entitled 
^ The Vanitie and Downefiill of supersti- 
tious Popish Ceremonies, preached in the 
Cathedral Church of Durham, by one 
Peter Smart, a prebend there, July 27, 
1628," Edinborough, 4to. 1628. The 
story is, that ^ on Candlemass-day last 
past, Mr. Cozens, in renuing that popish 
ceremonie of burning Candles to tne ho- 
nour of our lady, busied himself from 
two of the clocke in the afternoon till foure, 
in climbing long ladders to stick up wax 
candles in the said Cathedral Church : the 
number of all the Candles burnt that 
erening was two hundred and twenty, 
besides sixteen torches; sixty of those 
burning tapers and torches standing upon, 
and near, the high Altar, (as he calls it,) 
where no man came nigh.'' 

A contributor to the Gentleman's Ma- 
gazine informs Mr. Urban, in 1790, that 
having visited Harrowgate for his health 
a few years before, he resided for some 
time at that pleasant market-town Rip- 
pon, where, on the Sunday before Can- 
dlemas-day, he observed that the colle- 
giate church, a fine ancient building, was 
one continued blaze of light all the after- 
noon from an immense number of can- 

Brand obserres, that in the north of 

England this day is called te ^Wir^^ 
Feast Day;" and he quotes a linguter 
old custom from Martin*! book on the 
Western Islands, to this effect :-^« The 
mistress and servants of each family dreaa 
a sheaf of oats in women's apparel, put 
it in a large basket, and lay a wooden 
club by it, and this they call Briid's Bed; 
and the mistress and servants cry three 
times, ' Briid is come, Briid is welcome 1' 
This they do just before going to bed. 
In the morning they look among the 
ashes, and if they see the impression of 
Briid's club there, they reckon it a pre- 
sage of a good crop, and prosperous year; 
if not, they take it as an ill omen." 

A Dorsetshire gentleman communi- 
cates a custom which he witnessed at 
Lyme Regis in his juvenile days; to 
what extent it prevailed he is unable to 
say, his knowledge being limited to the 
domestic circle wnerein he was included. 
The wood-ashes of the femily being sold 
throughout the year as they were made, 
the person who purchased them annuaUy 
sent a present on Candlemas-day of a 
large candle. 'When night came, this 
candle was lighted, and, assisted by its 
illumination, the inmates regaled them- 
selves with cheering draughts of ale, and 
sippings of punch, or some other ani- 
mating beverage, until the candle had 
burnt out. The coming of the Candle- 
mas candle was looked forward to by the 
young ones as an event of some conse- 
quence ; for, of usage, they had a sort of 
right to sit up that night, and partake of 
the refreshment, till all retired to rest, 
the signal for which was the self-extinc- 
tion of the Candlemas candle. 

Bishop Hall, in a Sermon on Candle- 
mas-day, remarks, that '' it hath been an 
old (I say not how true) note, that hath 
been wont to be set on this day, that if 
it be clear and sun-shiny, it portends a 
hard weather to come; if cloudy and 
louring, a mild and gentle season ensu- 
ing." This agrees with cne of Rays 
proverbs : 

" The hind had as lief see 
his wife on the bier. 
As that Candlemas-day 
should be pleasant and clear." 

So also Browne, in his '' Vulgar Er- 
rors," affirms, that '' there is a general 
tradition in most parts of Europe, that 


Infcmth the eoldness of racceeding win- pened that thej came while he wis at 

ter from the shining of the sun on Can- prayer, tbev did not interrapt him, hot 

dlemas-day, acoonUng to the prorerbial waited till he had ended, and nerer de- 

distidb : parted without his benediction. He was 

* Si Sol tplendetcat MariA poriiietBtc. discoTcred in his reUrement, imprisoned. 
Major erit glades port (otamquamftiii ante.'" *nd cured a youth who had a fish-bone 

stuck in his throat by praying.** Riba- 

Ihe " Coontiy Almanac" for 1 676, in the deneira further says that ^tius, an ancient 

month of February, Tcrsifies to the same Greek physician, gate the following 
•fleet: n 

<« Fool weather is no news- Receipt far a stoppage in the tkromi : 

haU, rain, and mow, ' '' Hold the diseased party by the 

Are now expected, and throat, and pronounce these words : — 

estceni'd no woe ; Blase, the martyr and servant of Jesue 

Kay, 'tis an omen bad, Christy commands thee to pass up or 

The veoroen uy, down I" 
J! PhoBbtti iJiowi his face xhe same Jesuit relates, that St. Blast 

Uie secondday. ,p.M|..« was scourged, and seven holy women 

C^try^imMnMc.{Feb.)l67B. ^^-^^^ the^lvcs with hU blood; 

Other almanacs prophesy to the like pur whereupon their flesh was combed 

port : With iron combs, their wounds ran no- 

« If Candlemas^y be fair and bright. ^i"? ^«* milk, their flesh was whiter 

Winter wiU have another fUght ; ">*? «now, angels came Tisibly and heaM 

Bat if Candlemas-day be clouds and rain. ^eir wounds as &8t as thev were made ; 

Winter is gone, and will not come again." and they were put into the fire, which 

Hie next old saw is nearer the truth than T^^^ ^^ consume them ; wheiefoie 

either of the preceding; ^ ^!^ ""^"^^ ^ ^^^•^"*' •«* 

-.«^ ^ ^f 3 ' J beheaded accordmgly. Then St. Blase 

• When Candlemis-day is come^and gone, ,^ ordered to be driwned in the Uke : 
The snow lies o n a hot s tone. ^^ y^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^ 

.t/^.^w nLv^r^.v' '* *° ^® middle, and invited the infideb 

FLORAL DiaicTOET. ^ ^ ^.^^^ . ^^ereupou threescore and 

Snowdrop. GalmUhus Nwaiu eight, who tried the experiment, wer« 

Dedicated to the Purifleaiion of the drowned, and St. Blase walked back to bt 

Virgin Marjf, beheaded. 

___ The " Golden Legend" says, that m 

^-« ^ wolf having run away with a woman's 

^^roniflrp 3. swine, she prayed St. Blase that aha 

Holiday at the Escbcqacr. might have her swine again, and Sc 

51. Blase. St. Anscharius, a. n. 865. 2!»*f, P^*^^ lZ\ t^ VT^* ^ 

Si irxr^urmM PatronuM of PliMtPr •"®"'«» *"^ ^^^ ^O" brought the SWIM 

t' M^^^^^fV^tw^ ^^'' ^«" »*>« »^^ i^ ^d Offered tht 

«. Margaret, of England. ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ with some bread aad 

8t, Blase. a candle, to St. Blase. '^Andhe thankad 

This saint has the honour of a place in Cod, and ete thereof; and he sayd to 

the church of England calendar, on what l^r, that every yere she sholde oore ia 

account it is difficult to say. All the ^ chirche a candell. And she dyd all 

fiuts that Butler has collected of him is, ^^ lyf» and she had moche grete proa, 

that he was bishop of Sebaste in Armenia, peiYte. And knowe thou that to tbe» 

receiver of the relics of St. Eustratius, <^d to all them that so shal do^ shal 

and executor of his last vrill ; that he is ^ell happen to them." 
venerated for the cure of sore throaU ; It is observed in a note on Brand, that 

principal patron of Kagusa, titular patron ^ candles offered to St. Blase were said 

of the wool-combers ; and that he vras to he good for the tooth-ache, and fer 

tormented with iron combs, and martyred diseased cattle. 
under Licinius, in 316. ^h^ssb^sss 

Kibaden^ra is more diffuse. He r^ «< j^^ fdloweth good sir lUase. who doth 
Ulas, that St. BlaM lived in a cave, whi- , ^„en Candell firt, 

tbar wild beasU came daily to visit him, j|nd holy water to bi« men. 
jmd ha civad bjr him ; «' and if it hap- wbcieby th^y safely live. 



Bandi oft have seene, 
iwne out of water cleare, 
I one finall blessed bone 
Ut same boly Martyr heare : 
Yod thence to other townes 
r cities £irre away, 
entition doth require 
b earnest kinde of play." 

gin of St. Blase's fiune has baf- 
nquiry of antiquaries ; it seems 
olkd off with the darkness of 
;esy never to be known again. 
o^^ombert this saint is indebted 
imtenance of his reputation in 

for no oth^r trade or persons 

interest in remembenng his 
; and this popularity with a 
much consequence may pos- 

been the reason, and the only 
r the retention of his name in 
ti calendar at the Reformation. 
not in the wane with them, is 

a report in the Leeds Mercury^ 
of February, 1825. The article 
the very interesting particulars 
joined account :— • 

Celebration op 

>F0RD^ 3d FEBRUARY, 1825. 

tennial festival, held in honour 
Blase, and of the invention of 
ling attributed to that person- 
n this day celebrated at Brad- 
jeat gaiety and rejoicing. 
no place in the kingdom where 
is so splendidly commcmo- 
t Bradford. In 1811, 1818, 
ivious septennial periods, the 
as celebrated with great pomp 
y, each celebration surpassing 
ng ones in numbers and bril- 
le celebration of 1825 eclipsed 
seen, and it is most gratifying 
lat this is owing to the high 
of the worsted and woollen 
es, which are constantly add- 
reets and suburban villages to 

ed into Bradford from the surrounding 
towns and villages, in such numbers as 
to line the roads in every direction ; and 
almost all the vehicles within twenty 
miles were in requisition. Bradford was 
never before known to be so crowded 
with strangers. Many thousands of indi* 
viduals must have come to witness the 
scene. About ten o'clock the processioii 
was drawn up in the following order >- 

Herald bearing a flag. 
Wooktapten on horseback, each hmse oi^* 

risoned with a fleece. 

Wonted Spimmen mmd Manmfaeiurere on 

horseback, in white stuff waistcoats, with 

each a sliver over the shoulder, and 

a white stuff sash ; the horses' 

necks covered with nets 

made of thick yam. 

Merchants on horseback, with coloured 

ThreeGuards. Masters'Colours. ThrecGuards. 
Apjtrenticee and Masten' Sens, on horse- 
back, with ornamented caps, scarlet stuff 
coaU, white stuff waistcoaU, and 
blue pantaloons. 
Bradford and KeighUy Band*. 
MacM'bearer, on foot. 
Six Guards. Kino. Quzzir. Six Guards. 
Guards. Jason. PrincessMxdxa. Guards. 
Bishop's Chaplain. 
Shepherd and Shepherdeis, 
Shepherd Swain*, 
Wooltorierg, on horseback, with omamenteil 
caps, and various coloured slivers. 
Comb Mahert, 
Charcoal Bkmert, 
Combers* Colours. 
fFoolcombers, with wool wigs, &c. 
I>yert, with red cockades, blue aprons, %nd 
crossed slivers of red and blue. 

rent trades began to assemble 
lock in the morning, but it was 
:lock before they all were ar- 
marching order in Westgate. 
:ements were actively super- 
j Matthew Thompson, Esq. 
ing was brilliantly beautiful, 
seven o'clock^ strangers pour* 

The following were the numbers of the 
different bodies, as nearly as could be 
estimated : — 24 toooUtaplerSf 38 spinners 
and manufacturers, 6 merchants, 56 ap" 
prentices and masters* sonSy 160 wool' 
sorters, 30 combmakersy 470 vfool-^ombcrs, 
and 40 difers. The King, on this occa- 
sion, was an old man, named JVm.Clougkp 
of Darlington, who had filled the legal 
station at four previous celebrations. 
Jason (the celebrated legend of the 
Golden Fleece of Colchis, is interwoven 
with the commemoration of the bishop,) 
was personated by John Smith ; and the 
fair Medea, to whom he was indebted 
for his spoils, rode by his side. — BISHOP 
BLASE was a personage of veiy bt« 


coming rnwiij, also named John Smith ; Long shall hb n«me in British annab dune, 

and he had enjoyed his pontificate sereral And grateful a^es offer at hw ■hn«»e » 

previous commemoratiiiu ; his chaplain l^ '^"^ ''''' '!^^ '^,^'^\t^liyi^, 

the spinners and manufacturers had a i^ y^ois forms our trade iu work imparts, 

neat and eren elegant appearance, from jn different methods, and by different arts, 

the delicate and glossy whiteness of the Preserves from sUrving, indigents distress*d, 

finely combed wool which they wore. As combers, spinners, weavers, and the rest. 

The apprentices and masters' sons, how- We boast no gems, or costly garments Tain, 

ever, formed the most showy part of the Borrow'd from India, or the coast of Spain ; 

procession, their caps being nchly adorned Our native soil with wool our trade supplies, 

with oitrich feathers, flowers, and knoU While foreijpi countries envy us the priie. 

of various coloured yarn, and their stuff No foreign broil our common good annoys, 

garments being of the gayest colours; Our country s product all our art emoloys ; 

m^^m ^f *\.^I^A^^m^ «. •...^«r«#.«^ Our flcecv flocks abound in every vale, 

some of these dresses, we understand Our bleiiing lamb, proclaim the joyful tale, 

were very costly, from the profusion of g^j^^ notSwin wiih'^us attempt to vie. 

their decorations. The shepherd, shep- ^^^ India's wealth pretend to soar so high ; 

herdess, and swains, were attired in light j^or Jason pride him in his Colchian spoil, 

green. The wool-sorters, from their num- By hardships gainM, and enterprising toil, 

ber and the height of their plumes of Since Britons; all with ease attain the prize, 

feathers, which were, for the most part, of And every hill resounds with golden cries, 

different colours, and formed in the shape To celebrate our founder'* great renown 

of fleur-de-Ua, had a dashing appearance. Our shepherd and our shephenless we crown ; 

The combmaken carried before them the ^^ England's commerce, and for George's 

instruments hen* so much celebrated, ^ *T^^* . .- i i«f«T«'#A 

raised on standards, togcth-r with golden ^*» ^^"^ ^^ ^IlTzZ A^ 
fleeces, rams* heads with gilded horns, », ,. a j 

and other emblems. The combers looked . ^^'<^ ""? ^^'^. afterwards several 

both neat and comfortable in their flow- *'"\« repeated, m the nrincipal streets 

mg witji of weU-combed wool ; and the *"«* ^•^ through which the walcade 

garb of the dyers was quite profwsional. Passed- About five o clock they disported. 
Several well-painted flags were displavo<l, 

one of which represented on one side the ^ , . '''^***' ^'IJ^T^V' . , 

venerable Bishop in fkU robes, and on ^7.** ^»^' ™*^- FonUnahi Anieprt- 
the other a shepherd and shepherdess **** -^ ,. , o^ Ȥ 

under a tree. Another had a paintintr of Dedicated to 5^ BUue. 

MrDFA f^ivint^ up the t^oUen fleece to ■ 

J Asoy : a third had a portrait of the King : 'f f fartlArt) 4 

and a fourth appeared to beloncj to some <^lUlllttlJ/ ^» 

association in the trade. Tlic whole pro- 8t. Andrew Cortini, a. d. 1373. Si 
cession was from half a mile to a mile in Philea$. St, Gilbert. Si. Jame, or 
length. Jo^n^ Queen, a. i>. 1505. St, /ntforr. 

When the procession was ready to oflVIusium, a. n. 449. Si, Remberi^ 
move, Richard Faweett, Esq. vi\io yf^ on Archbishop of Bremen, a. d. 888. 
horseback at the head of the spinners, Si. hfodany of Scotland. Si. Jooepkj 
pronounced, uncovered, and witti great of Leonissa, a. d. 1612. 
animation, the following lines, which it Coe plow in the stubble 
had long been customary to repeat on for dow is the seasoa 

these occasions, and which, if they have For sowing of fitches, 
not much poetical elegance, have the of beanes, and of pei 

merit of expressing true sentiments in Sow runciuals tirorlv, 
simple language :— an^ all that be gray, 

.-.,..., . ... Bat sow not the white. 

Ilail to the day. whose kind auspiaous rays .aic. «%..,.. .u*. u. 

i\ • •!£ .-' 1 /■ 1 • L T»i • till St. Circjjorie s oav. 

Jleign u first to smite on famous bishop Blase I '^ «-. 

To the great author of our combing; trade, ^ 

This day's deTolcd, and due hoiumr's paid ; ►,,»•., ...»r^/vn«. 

To him whose fame thro' Britain's Jje re- ^^**' i.FRicTnR>. 

sounds, Goldil<H-k^. Polytricum d 

7b bim whote goodness to the poor abovwb ; Dedicated to Si, J«jm. 


frbninrp 5. 

ntMurt/Ttuf-ttfiltl. 71b 

f Chtwa. SI. Jvitia, Aicb- 

*. tt. .Mi. St. wa*. ur 

V. t^ B. iiru. 1 

t.r ArtnJ». 

5? .*-rf,U. 

tttntoil Uic rnliame 

^bnian> 6. 

>idk*lnlla.<rt. OdTolAjr. 

^irtiniarp 7. 

_«W, «. n. 102T, Sf. H.Vfcirrf, 
li^of ib« Wat Sii.jn», ». 0. Taa. 
rv« of ll^niclea, *. d. 319. 
, Oth Cent. M. jfuffuftu, 

Nimiw S|"ni|; MtMi. Uihtm Amtmgf- 
Oi-JkttiDd 10 at. JAn ^UmtlU. 

at. .ifiia^u, A. D. ^49. «r. jvhyu 1 

rn^ A. It. 'Ifiii. Jf, TMiim, Wimm^Jk 

A. Ik. MH). St. AattfTi, Abp. or ni1iOrl|,4 
A. D. I'AS. 5t. /IMmrfa or Tunkata <il\ 
IitUniL ST. Hirrmnl w JTlWrAiml; 

vunub ntntrrovT. 
IConnn Km^amt. A'orclain f 
Dnikawx] la Xl. Ajuithn^h. 

^tbninrp 10. 

ft. ScAolattim. i.o. i*3. SI. CUtrt^M 
4lli(.'rlit. .•». WJKwwof MiiUml, *. - ' 
ir,7. SI. ErfclpA, Sctneh Diiliaii. 

MMPicon. T)aph«r Mtxrrcon. 

UBdicolcd M S(, Mu-latftea, 

Di^ic>iti«l lo St. Colerln. 

^bruarp li- 
st, ^furnintii IJalhui, tfc. of A&ica, 

*. 0. 304, !fl..1aiaTiwu. ». D. 507. 
Tkt EmprcD Thcoiiora, a. d. BflT. 

Kei! Primrose. Priwuii (Wnn n»Sru. 
Dedicated to St. Theodora.. 

Jif!jmai*v 12. 

*(. Otnedkl of Anian, a. r, 821. St. 
MlMiat of Anti'jch. *. T', 381. SI. 
Bulaliit of Baicelonai. St, Aittkony 
CaulMt, A. p. 896. 

HILAnrTERU eiKif. 

rUtAL I: 
rMtlnrr 1 CjcUmrn. C^rlmun Conn. 

jTrfjruarp 13. 


5». Cnlkrrlne rf^Wiwi. a.d. 1.103. S(. tW- 
niui, His^(^p. A. II. aifi. St. Pp/ymrrti*, 
«. n. 4flT. St. Oregotli II. Pofur. «. 
■ vt llallia, A. p. Ilia. SI. Ste- Martlnlanw. St. Modomnoe m nont- 
B «r Gt«MllDunl, A.Di.1194. 81. nir* of Oi.Kn^, fliKCent, SI. Slqiken, 
" ' apIVnUw, *. ». HI. Abbot, flth Cent. Boj^r, Abbot, *. n. 




Polyuilhus. J^imiib polj/anllia. 
Dedicated to si, Cat/uriite it Ricci. 

;frbruarp 14. 

I'alcntint. St. Muro, A. n. 433. 
St. Abraiuut, a. i>. 422. St. ,-<<i- 
wNtiH*. Ath Cent. m. Cvnnui, Bishuii 

$1. raleiiliKn. 
Of this siiut, M ci'k>I>raipd amon; 


youni; pecsoni, Utile ii knowD, nra]ii 
tliat Hl- vna a priest of Rome, uid mar' 
tyreil tlicru abuui 370. 

It w^ a cu.siom with tlie uicient Ro- 
nkn juulh lo draw the namei tf ifiils id 
honour of Iheir ((oildeu Febiuab.Juiio 
on lheI5(b of Febiuary, in cichuige for 
which certain Roman catholic |Kiston 
fubsliluted the nama of saint* in hilUli 
ifiveB the day belbnt nuneljr, od the I4ih 
of February. 

Ui^jM i^jlf—oo uivh ■ dav'! 
<ir a/Zduyi m tl<F year, yuu Lsuir, 
It*' monttruu^ ludr to bcio jAp»; 


—tArrtht is!— oh! tticirar Cei 

Two hundred thousand iottvi* bfyoitd that's thr wuy to rpfknn." " Ah. mr 

ibe uiual daily averaic'. anouaily naii* child, ihnt'ii nut thr way lo recknii; viih 

ihrouKh the twiipoiiiiy iia>t.oftirc in Lmi- have tjken«nnMhine into throrrmiaf that 

dnu iin Si. Valentine i Day. " Two hu nu fietraru thi-re : all \*a1rnlitit'- 

hundtrd ihuuwiuil twii|H>nce«," laid an writers are nut m hive, nor are all lin.n 

old i:vDll«naQ a* h>' re^id llti«iD aMarch Valeiitiiii>-writerii ; and n-mrinloT. inv 

■ii.-wi(i:ii>er, "are Diur liunilnd thousuid denr |;irl,that at imi1i'>iiii ihi- Cii:e mirii^ 

pcikci-," — and he wa<i(uiD|[ to nit unthe timi-t cuncral cruel di«niHitinii«. no ihi-n 

amuunt— * Why, id]M,"^^d hiiddUKhier, ant vxiie wlio write V'ali'titiiii-<., and ttiltK 

" thai'* jiul the niiiiiber uf youn,i Ailk.i with liearti for the mrre pleasure nf in- 

IAmt mutl be ia Jure irilh each ulke^— flicHng (Mio." " 1 will ibuw you vriial I 


( tika Ike liint, 119 dea 
il't roll; m ihanw tliu ao good-iiMiirtd a 
nun ibould remain nbadMor- Iracollect, 
that when I could otij juat mn abont, 
von used to be M kind to 

how joa dandled and placed with ne t 
and nnce then, how yon have read to bm 

till I grew up ! Such a 

nan ii the rttf man to M nurried: , 

are eTei7 way domctfic, and >■*■ mUUdf 

jvtmtut get majTied." — " Well, then, will 

w haTe me r* he inquired, with a dieeriid 

igh. " / bare yon? No I Whj, joa 

i too old; but not too oM to find a 

. ... „. ..Je: there are manj ladiet whom we 

I MTttAi ^e," entered the room, know, of vour age, whoU; disengaged; 
d with the Icwic, bat ;ou doa*t pay them an; paiiiadjT 

ka 4mw fiom bi* podtet a luall packet, attention. 

know, of vour age, whoU; 
do •- ^ 

"Heiewu the gentli 

don^ pay them an; parmaur 
..** Her nther intrnpoecd; and 
- ^.-lleman (he addieued pUjrfiillr 
k rib of laid, " It it a little batd, indeed. Out I 
tumM sdmB aiuBial <Mn[rfeld]r enreloped ibonld have tbeae fine complimenU and 
wilk wUleMliii ribbon, omunentea bjr lerere repTowhet at the nme time: bow- 
• Ua loTBi'a kaol at each end, and ido- ever," Uking hei b; the hand, " jon will 
Ab IB Ae middle. Father aad daiufater m^entaod, that it >• poatible I aaqr hare 
fcoA kad « l«^ at the « old bacbrior," paid jMrHraJar attention to a lad; at an 
aad b^ kagUng with them, pot into the age when the aflectiom are wanner; I 
jD^^Iad^ hud the poetical addrcM did ; and I reconciled nytelf to rgection 
Aat Meowpaniad hit rit .- b; courting toy book* and the pleaturei 

ihbl<ml;>(n! ofMrfitnde— 

r to nana'* itariBe, Hut Ihov been crct wikit^ 

bet WMCC ', From ilaodket loft and light. 

And heaid iwtel nmic bniking 

The ibllnen of Ihe aighl ; 
When mil di; MMll wu blrndiog 

With that dcligbtfiil itimin, , 

And night her nleace teniliiii; 
To rivet bucj't chtio ; 

m of TODlhful daji ; 

pleatant a day, 1 

Mt ^m illa«*« ibidf ponae, 

TcbMpacai ihitciTC* the due, 

HaU bat a pradcnt choice. 

Ifa locial friend thoM jo 

Gare the gaj Kene a lacast air! 

Sbe cane — 'twu all teplet*. 
A«d cooM DM geoDine Pandiu. 
The mat cxteasiTt wiih lofice, 

hi gaildcn lonl hmmMI 
No — Mt vilhoisl ■ kindred mate ; 
How then in ibii degta'nte Male, 

C*^ Ban, alone be bleMI 
Bat now the Htut wilbdnwi her aid ; 
Enn^b, Ih J (oD* to Ipbnid ; 

riMiath to mue tbee wii« : 

Ma ■on. that aU Uh'i jori an 
ir (boa thii hint dnpiie. 
Ihb. 13, 183-. 

The origin of • 
fiiit pleatant day in Uie year, wl.el 
teason be regarded, or the mode of ii 
celebration, requirei aome little i 

requires t _ . 
tigation ; nor mult lome of iti pail and 
A FHaU. preient uagn be unrecoided bcie. 

at. VmlnHiu'i Uaniag. 

Hark ! duoagb the laenid uleoce af the night 
Load cbanticker duth uuiul bis ciariou tbrill, 

Hailiag with mih the ir*t pair el'*" of '>;'" 
Which Aoau the dark brow of yon »»Jt«u hill. 



' Brwht ftar of iMni, oh ! leave Dot ?ei Ike irare 
A deck the dewy fronilet of the day.; 
Nor thoa, Avrora, qu>t Tithonus' ove. 
Nor drive retiring darkoeM yet away. 

Ere these my rustic hands a garland twine. 

Ere yet my tongue endite a 8iii|le aong. 
For her I ntean to hail my Valentiae, 

Sweet maiden, fairest of the virgin throng. D^dskf^a MiiuriL 

Attend we upon Eli a. Ilark, bow perfect simplicity of Ming, * Wim^mwwj^ 

triumphantly that noble herald of the my Iher and fortune are entirely at joyr 

college of kindneis proclaims the dajr 1 disposal f or putting a delicate ottcatM^ 

** liail to thy returning festival, old ' Amanda, have you a inltfrif to bestow ^ 

Bishop Valentine ! Great is thy name in But custom has settled these things, and 

the ruDric, thou venerable arch-Aamen of awarded the seat of sentiment lo the 

Hymenl Immortal Go-between 1 who and aforesaid triangle, while its less foftunate 

what manner of person art thou? Airt neighbours wait at animal and anatomical 

thou but a name, typifying the restless distance. 

principle which impels poor humans to ** Not many sounds in life, and I in- 

seek perfection in union ? or wert thou chide all urban and all rural sounds, ex- 

indeed a mortal prelate, with thv tippet ceed in interest a ibiocA at the dbw. It 

and thy rochet, thy apron on, and decent ' gives a very echo to the throne where 

lawnsieeres? Mjrstenous personage 1 like Hope is seated.' But its issues seldom 

unto thee, assuredly, there is no other answer to this oracle within. It is so 

mitred father in the calendar. — Thou seldom that just the person we want to 

oomest attended with thousands and ten see comes. But of all the damoroos 

thousands of little Loves, and the air is visitations, the welcomest in expectation 

Br«sh*d with the hist of rustling wings ; » ^ sound that ushers in, or seems to 

usher in, a Valentine. As the raven him- 
•inging Cupids are thy choristers, and thy Mlf was hoarse that announced the fotal 
precentors ; and instead of the crosier, entrance of Duncan, so the knock of the 
the mystical arrow is borne before thee. postman on this day is light, airy, confi- 
'* In other woids, this is the day on ueiit, and befitting one that < bringeth 
which those charming little missives, good tidings.' It is less mechanical than 
ydeped Valentines, cross and intercross on other days ; you will say, 'That is not 
each other at every street and tumini?. the post, I am sute/ Visions of Love, of 
^ The weary and all for-4pent twopenny Cupids, of Hymens, and all those de- 
•8 postman sinks beneath a load of delicate lightful, eternal common-places^ which 
embanassments, not his own. It is ' having been, will always be ;* which no 
scarcely credible to what an extent this schoolboy nor schoolman can write away ; 
ephemeral courtship is carried on in this having their irreversible throne in the 
loving town, to the great enrichment of fancy and affections ; what are your trans- 
porters, and detriment of knockers and ports, when the liappy maiden, openinf^ 
oell-wires. In these little visual inter- ^ith careful finger, carefiil not to break 
pretations, no emblem is so common as the emblematic seal, bursts upon the sight 
the Aasrf,— that little three-cornered ex- of some well-designed allegory, some 
porent of all our hopes and fears, — the type, some youthful £uicy, not wkhooc 
oestuck and bleeding heart ; it is twisted verses— 
and tortured into more allegories and Lovers all, 
affectations than an opera-hat. What A madrigal, 
authority we have in history or mythology or some such device, not over abandmt 
for plaang the head-quarters and metro- in sense — young Love disclaims it, — and 
polis of god Cupid in this a nat o m i ca l seat not quite silly— tomething between wind 
rather than in any other, is not very clear; and water, a chorus where the shc«)> 
but we have got it, and it will serve as might almost join the shepherd, as they 
^1 ss any other thing. Else we might did, or as 1 apprehend they did, in Ar» 
easilv imagine, upon some other system cadia. 

whidi mi^ have prevailed for anv thing ** All Valentines are not foolish; and I 

whieh our pathology knows t* the con- shall not easily forget thine, my kind 

Iruy, a lover addressing his mistress, in friend (if I may have leate to call yon 


M>) E. & — ^E. B. lived opposite a Toang ** Good morrow to my Valentine, sings 

■uiiden, whom he had 6fteo secfti, unseen, poor Ophelia ; and no better wish, but 

'from ha parlour window in C^«-street. with better auspices, we wish to all £uth- 

She was all jqyonsness and innocence, fill loTers, who are not too wise to despise 

and JQSt of an age to enjoy leceiTing a old legends, but are content to rank 

Valentine, and jnst of a temper to beat theraselves humble diocesans with dd 

the dinppointment of missing one with Bishop Valentine, and his true church.'' 

good koBMNir. £. B. is an artist of no 

oommoQ powers; in the &ncjr parts of 

deiigniBg, pwhapa inferior to none; lus Mr. Douce, whose attainments include 
naoM if known at the bottom of many a more erudition concerning the origin and 
wcl W ciam ted vignette in the way of his progress of £i^;lish customs than any 
pvofeaioiiy but no further ; for £. B. is other antiquarian possesses, must be re- 
wodeil, and the world meets nobody ferred to upon this occasion. He ob- 
katf-way. B. B. meditated how he could aenres, in his ** Blustrations of Shak- 
icp^f this yoaw maiden for many a &- speare," concerning St Valentine's day, 
wow whidi Aft had done him unknown ; that ** it was the practice in ancient 
ibr, when a kindly hce greets us, though Rome, during a great part of the month 
but passing by, and never knows us of February, to celebrate the Lupercalia, 
again, nor we it, we should feel it as an which were feasts in honour of Pan and 
obligation ; and E. B. did. This good Juno, whence the latter deity was named 
aitist set himself at work to please the Februata, Februalis, and Februlla. On 
daaiwcl It was just before Valentine*s this occasion, amidst a vahety of cere- 
day three years since. He wrought un- monies, the names of young women were 
seen, and misnspected, a wondrous work, put into a box, from which they were 
We need not say it was on the finest gilt drawn by the men as chance directed. 
pnpcr with borden— lull, not of coinmon Hie pastors of the early christian diurch, 
Leuts and heartless allegoiy, but all the who by every possible means endeavoured 
picctiest stories of love from Ovid, and tp eradicate the vestiges of pagan super- 
older poets than Ovid (for E.B. is a Mitions, and chiefly by some commuta- 
ackolar.) There was Pyranms and Thisbe, tions of their forms, substituted, in the 
and be sure Dido was not forgot, nor present instance, the names of particular 
Hero and Leander, and swans more than saints instead of those of the women , 
nag in Cayster, with mottoes and fanci- and as the festival of the Lupercalia had 
fol devices, socb as beseemed, — a work commenced about the middle of February, 
in short of magic. Iris dipt the woof, they appear to have chosen St. Valentine's 
This on Valentine's eve he commended day for celebrating the new feast, because 
to the all-swallowing indiscriminate ori- it occurred nearly at the same time. This 
ioe— (O, ignoble trust !)— of the common is, in part, the opinion of a learned and 
post; bat the humble medium did its rational compiler of the 'Lives of the 
onty, and from his watdiful stand, the Saints,' the Rer. Alban Butler. It should 
* Bionmg, he saw the cheerful mes- seem, however, that it was utterly impo5- 
knock, and hf and by the precious sible to extirpate altogether any ceremony 
delivered. He saw, unseen, the to which the common people had been 
happy gtii unfold the Valentine, dance much accustomed : a feet which it were 
about, dap her hands, as one after one easy to prove in tracing the origin of 
the pretty emblenis unfolded themselves, various other popular superstitions. And 
She danced about, not vrith light love, or accordingly the outline of the ancient 
foolish expectations, for she ha^ no lover; ceremonies was preserved, but soodified 
or, if she had, none she knew that could by some adaptation to the diristian sys- 
have created those bright images which tem. It is reasonable to suppose that 
dsfn^hUd her. It was more like some the above practice of choosing mates 
feiiy present ; a God-eend, as our feroili- would gradually become reciprocal in the 
ady pious ancestors termed a benefit sexes; and that all persons so chosen 
leoeived, where the benefector was nn- vrould be called Valentines, from the day 
known. It vrould do her no hann. It on which the ceremony took place.** 
would do her good for ever after. It is Leaving intermediary fects to the cu- 
good to love tkM> unknown. I only give rious inijuiier, we come immediately to 
this as a specimen of E B., and Us mo» a few circumstances and sayings from 
dctt way of dnof a concealed kiadaeas. grave authors and gay poets respecting 


tliti fettiTaly as it is obsenred in our own the coming pleasures of the 

ooantry. It is recorded as a rural tradi- spring. L^dgate, the monk of Bliijy 

tion, that on St. Valentine's day each bird who died m 1440» and is described if 

of thte air chooses its mate ; and hence it Warton to ha?e been ** not only the po«l 

i^ presumed, that our homely ancestors, of his monastery, but of the woria ia 

in their lusty youth, adopted a practice general," has a poem in praise of otteene 

which we still find peculiar to a season Catherine, consort to Henry V^ wheraui 

when nature bursts its imprisonments for he says : 

Seyntc Vnlmtim, Of custome yeere by yeere 

Men have an usannce, in this regioon. 
To loke and lercbe Cupides kalendere. 

And chose theyr choyte, by mte affeccioao ; 

Such as ben wmw with Cupides modoun, 
Takyoff thcyre choyse as theyr tort doth ^Uc : 
But I love oon whicbe eicdlith alle. 

Chaucer iroagioes ^ Nature the vicare happiest of living things at this 
of the Almightie Lord," to address the the birds, thus : 

Foules, take hede of my sentence I pny. 

And lor your own esse in fordring of your need. 

As fiut as I may speak I will me speed : 
Ye know well, how on St Valentine i day 

By my itatnte and through my govemsunce. 
Ye iot chese your Makes, and after flie away 

With hem as I trnmn you with pleasaunct 

Saint Valentine, thoa art fall high on loft. 
Which drivest away the long nights black. 
Thus singen amalU fbules for thy sake. 
Will have they cansi lor to gladdco oft, 
Since each of them reoovered hath hit Make : 
Full blissful may they siog, when they awake. 

Our young readers are informed, that Then all the jocund scene declines, 

the wora ** make** in Chaucer, now ob- Nor woods nor meads deKght -, 

lolete, signified mate. The drooping tribe in secret pines, 

Jago, a poet, who, if he has not soared And mourns th' unwelcome sighL 

H?*^^"^!^ ^ ^^ l^^^ ^ ^ Go. blissful warblers ! timely wise. 

eil|r versification of agreeable, and some- j^' in»tnictive moral tell ; 

times higher feelings, has left us a few jjor thou their meaning Uys despise, 

stanias,whidi harmonize with the sup- My charming A nnabelle ! 
positions of Chaucer : 

^ vum; * T^ ^^ ^®**° Dunton's " British Apollo* 

Si. yiuenilnet Dmf, jinp ^ question and answer: 

'^^'i "^"^^ ■???" •*'•*" Why. Valentine's a day to 

A«ost th«r feathered loves ; A aitress, and our fieidom loae ! 

While each fond mate, with equal pains, m,- j „- ^.^ interpose. 

The tender suit approves. The question with an ^Inswer dM! 

With cheerful hop from spray to spray T^^^ "^v^^!^ ' ^* v.^ 

They sport Jo2kg the Seadsi And couple hke the winged kind. 

In social bliss together strav. Further on, in the same miscellany, is 

Where love or fency leans. another question and answer : 

«n..„.,.,t, a— ;-^ ^ u ** QiMffion. In ehuhkg valentioiet (a 

Tluough Spna^s gay scenes each happy pair ccmlinTto custom^ i« n^ the nnrtr A 

Their fii^tteringlc^ psr-ueT* ^"^ ^ cording to custom) is not the pwty ^ 

Its varioo.char^'did sham, *"^^ '^"^ ^' "T^ ^ ""^ ' 

For ever kind and true. present to the party chosen? 

*' Antwer. We think it more proper to 

Their sprightly notes from every shade say, drmwing of valentines, since tlw 

IVwmutud loves proclaim; most customary way is for each to idle 

ra Winter schariQg blasts invade, his or hereof. And chance cmaoi be 

Ami damp th enhvemng flame. termed choice. Accoiding to this ae^ 


fStnAp the obligalimis are equal, and there- upon a young man whidi the caUs hen. 

fxe H'wis Ibrmerly the custom mutually By this means each has two Talentines : 

t0 prasesty hot now it is cnstomary only hut the man sticks faster to the Talentioe 

ftr the gentlemen.** that is fidlen to him, than to the TiltD- 

' Tfas^drmthtg of valentines is remark- tine to whom he is fidlen. Fortune har- 

ed in Poor Robin's Almanac for 1676, ing^ thus divided the company into so 

nnder St Valentine's day : many couples, the valentines give balls 

" Now Andrew, Antbo- sod treats to their mistresses, wear their 

ny, and William, billets several days upon their bosoms or 

For ValentiDet draw sleeves, and this little sport often ends in 

Free, Kate, JDian." love. This ceremony is practued differ- 

Misson, a learned traveller, who died ^otly in different counties, and acoonl- 

in England about 1721, describes the ing to the freedom or severity of madam, 

amusing practices of ' hiis time: — ^'^ On Vsdentine. There b another kind of 

Ihe eve of the 14th of February, St valentine, which is the first young man 

Valentine's day, the young folks in Eng- or woman that chance throws in your 

.and and Scotland, by a very ancient way in the street, or elsewhere, on that 

custom, celebrate a little fesUval. An ^7** 

equal number of maids and bachelors In some places, at this time, and more 

get together, each writes their true or particularly in London, the lad's valen- 

some feigned name upon separate billets, tine is the first lass he sees in the mom- 

which they roll up, and draw by way of ingy who is not an inmate of the house ; 

lots, the maids taking the men's billets, the lass's valentine is the first youth she 

and the men the mai<u' ; so that each of sees. Gay mentions this usage on St. 

the yoong men lights upon a girl that he Valentine's day : he makes a rustic 

calls his valentine, and eadi <h the girls hoosewife remind h^ good man,— 

I early rate just at the break of day. 

Before the sun had diat'd the stars away ; 

A field I went, amid the morning dew 

To milk my kine,(fbr so should noose-wi vet do,) 

Thee first I spied, and the first swain we see 

In spite of Fortune shall our true-love be. 

So also in the ** Connobseur" there is Shakspeare bears witness to the cus- 
mention of the same usage preceded by torn of looking for your valentine, or de- 
certain mysterious ceremonies the night siring to be one, through poor Ophelia's , 
before ; one of these being almost certain singine 

to ensure an indieestion is therefore likely Good morrow ! 'tis St Valentine's day 

to occasion a dream favourable to the All in the morning betime, 

dreamer's waking wishes.—" Last Friday And I a maid at your window, 

wasValentine's day, and , the night before, I T6 be your valenUne ! 

got fivebay-leaves,and pinned fourof them Sylvanus Urban, in 1779, was informed 

to the four comers of my pillow, and the by Kitty Curious, that on St. Valentine's 

fifth to the middle; and then, if I dreamt day in that year, at a little obscure vil- 

of my sweetheart, Betty said we should li^^e in Kent, she found in odd kind of 

be married before the year was out. But sport. The girls from five or six to 

to make it more sure, I boiled an egg eighteen years old were assembled in a 

hard, and took out the yolk, and filled it crowd, burning an uncouth .ffigy which 

with salt ; and when I went to bed, ate they called a ** holly bov,* and which 

it, shell and all, without speaking or they ha4 stolen from the boys; while in 

drinking after it. We also wrote our another . part of the village the boys 

lovers' names upon bits of paper, and wer^ burning what they called an '^ivy 

roDed them up in clay, and put thein girl,*' whicH they bad stolen from the 

into water : and the first that rose up was * girls. The ceremony of each burning 

to be our valentine. Would you think vras accompanied by acclamations, huz- 

iU Mr. Blossom was my man. I lay zas, and otner noise. Kitty inquired the 

ar-bed and shut my eyes all the morning, meaning of this from the oldest people 

tin he came to our house ; for I would in the place, but she could learn no more 

not have 5een another mao before him than that it had always been a sport al 

lor all the world.*' that season. 


A corresponlenl eommunicalff to the bourlioodanroilarbooii. Hutvatdcoe, 

£«try-i>ayilMA a singular custoD, which says our correspoodeo^ as an emUem, 

prevailed many yean since in the west of that the owl being the hiid of wisdom^ 

England. Three sio^ young men went could influence the feathered race to enter 

out together before daylight on Si. Valen- the net of lore as mates on that day, 

tine*s day, with a clapnet to catch an old whereon both single lads and maidens 

owl and two sparrows in a neighbouring should be reminded that happiness could 

barn. If their were sucoessfiil, and could alone be secured by an earij union, 

bring the birds to the inn without injury On this ancient festiTal, it was formetly 

before the ftttales of the house had risen, the custom for men to make p|«sents to 

they were rewarded by the hostess with the women. In Spotland theae falentine 

three pots of purl in honour of St. Valen- gifU were reciprocal, as indeisd they are 

tine, and enjoyed the pririlege of de- still in some narts. 

mf^i^n^i^g at any oiher house in the neigh- Uurdis calls this 

The day Saint Valentine, 
When maids axe brisk, and at the break of day 
Start op and torn their pillows, curioos all 
To know what happy swain the fates proridc 
A mate for life. Yben follows thick diachaxge 
Of true-love knots and sonnets nicely penned. 

St. Valentine is the loTer*s saint. Not on the ^ two hearts made one,** as a most 

that lovers have more superstition than singular device, and with admired' devo- 

other people, but their imaginings are tion. He then puts it in the trusty poeket 

more. As it is fobled that Orpheus under his frock, which holds the wamm 

" played so well, he moved old Nick ;** so bill, and flogs bis horses to quicken their 

it IS true that Love, ** cruel tyrant,'* moves pace towards the inn, where ** she," who is 

the veriest brute. Its influence raiders ^ his heart's delight,'' has been lately pro- 

the coarsest nature somewhat iuterestinff. moted to tlie rank of under kitchen-maid, 

A being of this kind, so possessed, is d- vicr her who resigned, on being called 

most as agreeable as a parish cage with '^ to the happy estate of matrimoujr^ by 

an owl inside ; yon hear its melancholy a neighbouring carter. He gives her the 

tee-whit tee-who, and wonder how it mysterious paper in the yard, she receives 

got tkert. Its place of settlement be- it with a *' what be this V and with a 

comes a place of sentiment : nobody can smack on the lips, and a smack from the 

liberate the starveling, and it wiU stay whip on the gown. The gods have made 

there. Its mural notes seem so many him poetical, and, from his recollection of 

calls for pity, which are much abated on the a play he saw at the statute-fiur, he tdls 

reoollectioo^hat there are openings enough her that ** love, like a worm in the mnd» 

for its escape. Ihe ** tenoer passion" in has played upon his Lammas cheek** ever 

the two mile an hour Jehu of an eight- since last Lammas-tide, and she knows 

horse waggon, puzzles him mightily. He it has, and that she's his valentine. With 

** sighs and drives, sighs and drives, and such persons and with nature, this is the 

drives and siffhs again," till the approach season of breaking the ice. 

ofthis festival enables him to buy ^ava- St. Valentine, be it repeated, is the 

lentine," with a *' halter" and a *' couple saint of all true lovers of every degree, 

o* hearts'* transfixed by an arrow in the and hence the letters missive to the foir, 

form of a weathercock, inscribed from wooers on his festival,bear his name. 

M v»ti L •# mi. Brand thinks ** one of the most elegant 

•• Vu he vours, if youTl be mme, ;«.,^»«..v-;f . ««•» ♦k;- «ww^.;.» »• u \-^ 

lam your pleasing Valentine." jeunicspnU on this ocomoo, m ope 

J I*. li wm^ *^u^ wherem an admirer reminds his mistiess 

This he gets his name written under by of the choice attributed by the legend 

the shopkeeper, and will be quite sure that to the choristers of the air on this da,^ 

it is his name, before he vralks after his uid inquires of her— 

wagfoo«which he has left to go on, because ei. n i j«# i 

neither thai nor his passi^ am brook Shall«aly you and I forbear 

ioQ^behsnd him, lest any body shoold see, ^^^^ ^ ^f Wmayiita. 

»9amr s mik a two on the road, poodfrs '' • 



fivtytkl witta I tbe praftr 1MU4 
aiiU cojij jioa Tcfete Id take ; 
If 7 hcwt I apdktJLt m vam, 
iSe too .mean present jon disdain. 

Yet aiiiee the solemn time allovt 
To chooia tlie object of oar vowa ; 

»J daae pmss my fltRio» 
lobe jpBia bj anj name. 

A better might' have been sdected from 
the * Migaihie of Mmnxincay'' the 
** Geotleman^' wherein Mr. Urban has 
soneiimes mtraduced the admirers of la- 
dies 10 the admirers of antiquities— under 
wfaidi class ladies nerer come. Thenoe, [ 
ever and anon, as from some high barbi- 
can or watchtower old, ** songs of lores 
and maids forsaken^" hare aroused the 
contemplation from *^ fects, fimcies, and 
recollections^ regarding other times, to 
loTers ** sighing like furnace^ in our own. 
Through SylTanus, nearly a century ago, 
there was pOored this 

/avooslioii of Si. Fklenikie. 

HMle, friendly Smint J to my rdief. 
My heart is atol'n, help ! stop the thief I . 
My lifled breast I seaich*d with care. 
And found £liza larking there. 

Away she started from my new. 
Yet may be caught, if thou parsue ; 
Nor need I to describe her strive— 
Tne frirest, dearest maid alive ! 

Seise her — ^yet treat the nymph divine 
Witb gentle usage, FrnktUiue ! 
Then, tell her, she, for what was done. 
Must bring my heart, and give lur owiu 

9o pleasant, so descriptiTe an illustra- 
tion of the present custom^ requires a 
companion equally amiable : 


Maik'd you her eye's lesistlen glance, 
Tliat does the earaptur'd soal'entrance ? 
Mark'd yoa .that dark blue orb unfold 
TohuDcs of btim as yet untoldl 
And folt you not, as I now feel. 
Delight no tongue ooald e'er reveal 1 

Maik'd Tou her dteek that blooms and 

A living emblem of the rose Y 
Mark'd yoa her vernal lip that breathes 
The bafany fragrance of its leaves 1 
And felt yon not, as I now feel. 
Delight no tongue can e'er reveal 1 

Mark'd you her artless smiles that q>eak 
The language written on her cheek. 
Where, bright as mom, and pare u dew. 
The bosom^s thoughts arise to view 1 
And felt yoa not, as I now feel. 
Delight no tongue could e'er reveal ? 

Mark'd you her foce, and did not there, 
Sense, softnesh swfetnesh ell appear? 
Mark'd you bo* form, and saw not you 
A heart and mind as kwdy tool 
And folt you not, as 1 now fieel. 
Delight no tongue cduU e'er vevtalt 

Mark'd you all this, and you htve known 
The tresoured raptures that I own ; 
Mark'd yon all this, and you Kke me. 
Have wandered oft ber shade to see. 
For jfbu have felt, as I now feel, 
Dehgbt no tongue could e'er renal \ 
High Wycwmke. 

ETCiy lady will bear witness that the 
roll of Talentine poesy is interminable ; 
and it being presumed that few would 
o^ect to a peep in the editor's budget, he 
oTOis a little itiece, written, at the desire 
of a lady, under an engraving, which re- 
presented a girl fostening a letter to the 
neck of a pigeon ^— 


«* ?a» porter oec 4ciit k I'ol^ do moa am r 

Ootstrij^ the winds my courier dove! 

On pmions fleet and free. 
And bear this letter to my love 

Who's for away from me. 

It bids bim mark thy plume whereon 

The changing colours range ; 
^t warns him that my peace is gone 

If he should also change. 

It tells him thou return 'st again 

To her who sets thee free ; 
And O ! it asks the truant, when 

Hell thus resemble thee T 

Lastly, from *^ Sixty-five Poems and 
Sonnets,*' &c. recently published, he ven- 
tures to extract one not less deserving the 
honour of perusal, than either that he has 


No tales of love to yon I send, 

No hidden flame discover, 
I glory in the name of friend, 

Disclaiminff that of lover. "* 

And now, while etch fond sighing youth 
Repeats his vows of love and truth. 
Attend to this advice of mine — 
• With caution choose a Vauntinb. 

Heed not the fop, who loves himself. 
Nor let the rake your love obtain ; 
Choose not the miser for bis pelf. 

The drunkard heed with cold disdain ; 
Hie profligate with caution shun. 
His race of ruin soon is run : 
To none of these your heart incline, 
. Nor cbsose from them a V ALsyrtvi^a 




Bat ilioiild tone generous jp^ih •ppetr. 
Whose honest mind Is f*oid of ut, 

MTho sh«l] bis Mtker's taws fevoe. 
And serre him with a willing hcnrt ; 

Who owns fnr Virtoe for his guide. 

Nor firoB her prtccpis turns Mtde ; 

To him St once jour heart resign. 

And bless jTOur faithful Valemtiks. 

Iliongh in this wilderness below 
Yon sdll imperfect bliss shall ftndy 

Yet such a fniad will share each woe. 
And bid von be to Heaven resign'd : 

WhUe Faith unfolds the radiant prise. 
. And Hope still points be3mid the skies. 

At life's dark storms joull not repine. 

But biMS thcday of VAUiiTiirs. 

IFif atajilNdb. 

A gentleman who left hit snuffbox at 
a friend's on St. Valentine's £?e» 1825, 
received it soon after his return home in 
an envelope, sealed, and superscribed — 

To J^— E , Esq. 

Dear Sir, 
I've just found |)roof enough. 
You are iMf worth a ninch of saiuf; 
iUctive the proof, seal'd up with care. 
And tsirmti from it» that vou mrt, 
Trnkmhrn, 1826 • 


Sir William Blackstoke died on the 
1 4th of February, 1 780. He was bom at 
the bouse of bit ftubcr, a silkman. in 
Cbeapaide, London, oq the lOtb of July, 
1793; sent to the Cbarter-bouse in 1730; 
entered Pembroke-college, Cambridge, 
in 1738; of the Middle Templ% 1741 ; 
called to the bar in 1746; elected re- 
oofder of Wallingtbrd in 1749; made 
doctor of civil law in 1750; elected 
Vioerian iMofoaior of coimiioa law in 
1758; retdmed a repraseaiative to Par- 
liament in 1761 ; manM in 1761 ; be- 
came a justice of the court of Common 
Pleas in 1770. lo the course of his life 
be filled other odices. He was just and 
benevolent ia all his relations, and, on 
the jodidal seat, able and impaitial. In 

aBA literature and jurisprudence he 
8 a distinguidied rank fetr his ^ Con>- 
mentaries on the Laws of England." 
This work origiMted in the Icsal lectures 
le commenced in 1753 : the first volume 
^as publiiiwd in 1759, and the remain- 
lig Unee ia the (our succeeding yean, 
timgh these hit name is popiOar, and 
Ift will remain while law exists. Hie 
Work is not for the la«ryer alone, it ia for 
eveij bodv. It is not so praiaewofthy to 
Af hMfooJ, AM it IS dUeiaethl lo be igno- 

rant of the laws which regulate liberty 
and property. The absence of aU inform- 
atioQ in some men when serving upon 
juries and coroners' inquests, or as con- 
stablesy and in parochial offices, is scan- 
dalous to thenkselves and injurious to 
their fellow men. The'^Commentaiiet^of 
Blackstone require only common capacity 
to understand.. Wynne's " Eunomus** 
is an excellent introduction to Blackstone, 
if any be wanting. With these two 
works no man can be ignorant of his 
rights or obligations; and, indeed, tba 
^ Commentaries'' are so essential, that 
he who has not read them has no claim 
to be considered qualified for the exercise 
of his public duties as an En^ishman, 
He is at liberty, it is true, for the law 
leaves him at liberty, to assume the cha- 
racter he may be called on to bear in 
common with his fellow-citixens ; but» 
with this liberty, be is only more or lets 
than a savage, as he is more than a saTage 
by his birth in a ciTilized country, and 
less than a savage in the animal instinct, 
which teaches t^ self^preservatioo it the 
first law of nature ; ana still fiuther it he 
less, because, beside the safety of othem, 
it may fall to him, in this state of i|iH>- 
rance, to watch and ward the safety of the 
commonwealth itselt 

Blackstone, on making choice of his 
profession, wrote an elegant little poem, 
entitled ** TU Lawyer*^ FmttwtU fe hit 
iViarse." It is not more to be admired 
for ease and grace, than for the strong 
feeling it evinces in relinquishing the 

eeasures of poesy and art, and parting 
r ever from scenes wherein he bad hap- 
pily spent his youthful days. Its conclu- 
sion aescribes his anticipations- 
Lost le the fieM and torn fium ]roi»— 
Farewell! along — a last adieu I 
Me wraagUiw courts and stubborn fav 
To smoke and crowds, and cities draw > 
There wlfish faction rules the day, 
And pride and av'rice throng the way; 
Diseases taint the murky air. 
And midiright conflagrations glare : 
Loose reveuy and riot bold 
In friffhted streeU their orates hold; 
Or waen in silence aU is drowaed. 
Fell murder walks her lonely round: 
No room for peace — no room for you 
Adieu, celestial nymph, adieu) 


Its origin and progress may be traced 
in the rrer engraved on the opposite 


Ziit trtt of Common lab). 


1. The root of the engraTed Tret exhibits £. «. dL 

a di?enity of suits and wtaoas tir Broagbi forwird. ... 1 1 S 

the remedy of difimnt wiooffs. Oipy tbeteof to keep 2 

' ^ lutnictioni to fbremii .0 6 8 

2. The trunk shows the growth of a suit, piifiailiT araing as to proceedings, 

stage by stage, until its coDchision. attending him ia coosohatioii .. 6 8 

3. ne bnmeket from each stage show P*id feestowooUeiiHiraper 4 18 6 

one side, and ^ pfoeeedmgs of tht AttendiSg to file ime 8 4 

defendant on the other. Khng.iT 10 

4. The kavet of each brandi show certain Attending battoa-aiaker, iastineting 

collateral proceedings whereby the hia 6 8 

suit is either adnmccd or suspended. FiidhischaiuM. 2 19 

Having receiTed sanmoos to pro- 

5. Supposing the farm of action suitable ^e^, perasing and conidcnDg 

to the case, and no stay of proceed- game • 8 

ings, the suit grows, on the *' sure Drawing couent, and copy to keep 4 4 

and firm set earth ''of the law, into a Hostage I 6 

^ goodly tree,'' and, attaining to Oopy order theieon and entering .. 3 0' 

execution agaiqst either the plaintiff Appointing consol ut ion as to further 

or the defendant, terminates in eon- proceedings, and attending same W 4 

sumingfire. Ilswman hanng filed a demanar. 

** ^.^^^^ preparing aignaieat sgainst sbbm 8 

Attending Isng arpimif on dsmar* 

A few whimsical miscellaniaf are 8ob» ter, when sane orefraled •«.••• 10 O 

joined, not derogatory from the import- Ptming fiM«man% plea 6 8 

ance or necessity of legiilaiiQm, but Excepting to aaiM .. « •••••• 6 8 

amusingly illustiative of li^Draeflfit in Entering eaceptioBs r*. 3 4 

the sinuosities it has acquired during sac» Bpnung aeHee of aMXion to raawve 

cessive stages of desuetude and cbuge. - *u^ ^nd praparing TaUd okjec- 

Tbose only who know the law are ao- ^ tions to Uy beto t yon • 10 

qnainted with the modes by which nuipe- Same being ofwinlod, consent theie- 

rous deformities in its appUcation have ^^^^ " IlT' of ';;A^1^ 6 8 

originated, or the means Djr which they iJl!^ ^ thTSise ""'"■^*^ ^ 

may be remedied ; while all who espe- ^^iil^ _ m? extr^Jfaiitifei^ 

nence that application are astonifhed a| tion on finduig the soit icBoved 

iU expensiTenen, and complain of it^nth j^o the King's Bench, and that 

Tt»»on, I AoiM move the cowt, when 

A legal practitioner is said to have de- yon promised to obtain a Rule as 

livered a bill containing seTeral cbaiges toon as term commenced, and 

of unmcicilnl appearance, to a dient, who attend me thereon 10 

was a tailor; and the tailor, who had Conferring with you, in presence of 

made a suit of clothes for his professional your attendant, at my houas. on 

adviser, is said to have sent him the fol- ^ ^^^ ""^ ?*!?• •'***" ?" 

r>^ n V -«.-..»..^ man, and e x pr e ss e d 

Gsoaea GaiP^Esn. ^^ disMUisfaction at tbe pro- 

»r. !• SAHrsL SHAax. ceedings had with the luit while 

£, 9. t, oot of my hands ; receiving your 

Attending yon, in confeieooe, con- instructions to demand ol your 

rerning your p ropos ed Suit, con- UmcU that saaie ihould return to 

ferring thereon when you could me, on my paying him a Aim he 

not finally determine .0 6 8 claimed thereon, and received 

Attending you again thereon, when from yno his debenture for that 

found you prepared, and takiag purpose 19 4 

measures accordtugly 6 8 Perusing same, and attending him 

EnteriB| 3 4 in St. GeocgeVfields therewith 

bsCrnctioni and wairaat to woollen- and thereon 10 

6 Paid him, principal and interest • . 2 10 4 

Carried forward. .. .jf I 1 8 Carried forward... .i^l 8 18 

39? T»B GVl»y.J)AY 


■ocbtt»i'6fftQ«Y!f>f«vtWi^ Q 

cdvM frcim jQ«, daM fi«i jT^ 

«r trial •;••••• ••f... 6 6 

lag|mitli^t«oji .•»••••;.. 6 8 
at WiilBUMer atveiil 
_ I ia lnr«^ anl^ wUa «i 

hUfilaBBWdB*..* ••,•• 3 3 

I^fipi..,..M 13 

ilr^inK .MOf^ -HMtiiictia^ to 
Bcfmlar ID* aame .•,.•••••• 13 4 

AttrimgliiroykajawkliaadA^ 6 3 
iWidhyidKliefarapeietalaia..* 3 3 

11ddlbjelaik% Iba ...••• $ 6 

GaniidcfiagaMi^^ijetlM...*.. Q 3 3 
Imaiiwf Iwwnan far Mi ciftiMit 
fa wnM^ wlua k) awmiiii to 

. iliaiiBil jhially .V 6 8 

AtiMldfiBtf ttn anui tkasHA to ^h> ' 
malp te filiMM, aiid abl^^ 

>ia tinaik wHfc Aficatty, 6 f 

Dkmwii^3Qal'.<a8li.««...-.**. 16 
Fair eepy ftc Mt ':.m . ' ' ja paniaa 

andaattla .V7.., 7 6 

Attcndiag him tlieitwtth • 6 3 

FcelobtmiettKtig 6 

Attending lum for tame.. ••.....• 6 8 
"B^nmng and oouidering aaaae, as 

acttled... ...•.•••.« 6 3 

Attending Mr. — — again tng- 

gfstin^ aawndaMnlB 6 8 

Fee to him ap amcDding 5 

Pwwing saoM !« aaienacd 6 8 

F!ab'coi»y,withaBwiidinei^tokaq> 7 6 

S^afii^ 6 

Fair co]>^ for ternoe 7 6 

lliirty-eigfat Yarioaa attendances to 

aenresame ..6 6 8 

Semce thereof 6 8 

Drawing memorandam of service ..050 

Attending to cptaraaaae 3 4 

£oterii^ same 2 6 

Attending yon concerning same •• 6 8 
Accepted serrice of order to attend 
at the theatre, and gaye consent .068 

Betaining lee at boi-offica 1 

Service of aideff on box-keqwr • . . , 6 8 
Self and wife, with six children, 
two of her ooaaina^ her brother, 
and hiaaon, two of my brothers, 
mj aistan-in-lawy three nephews^ 
wu niecesy eadi aftmding for 
feor horns and a half to see the 
Road to Rain, and the Beggars' 
DpciBy eighty-five boon %m a 

Cairifdfonraid«...jCaB 6 10 

f^ou^iiot^:::: » % lo 

half, at 3«. 4dL per honr^-vi^ ^ 

moderSe. 17..... .it 10 

Coach hire there and badi ...••.0 18 
Atleodiog you to acquaint you with ' 
particulars in general, and eoA- 

eernittg settlemfcot paiticttlaily. .06 3 

Instnfctiaaiifor receipt 3 4 

Dfawing receipt ••.•• 6 

Vacationfea ^ 1 1 3 

Rdivsfaiag In ...:...., 013 4 

Panaiftg jiCMpt,apd aaifndiBf aama 3 8 

Fairoo^tfikMp ,0 3 3 

£ogroHipganitanip«.....ff««f Off 

Paid^andpfper.,. % 3 1 

Feeonea£n| ^ • 3 2 

Lettaia and inamfn|;tn ^ ^. 10 

£63 9 

To nvaseraasy variooa, and a great 
▼ariely of divaas, and veiy HMOiy 
letters, messages, and attendancca 
to, from, op, and ^pon, yon and 
yonr agents and othqa, peiMUw^a 
nagotiatioo for afittlement, nr 
too Qomcfons to be a p enti o t ud'y 
and an inHttila deal of traiAla,'tbo" 
taanUesome to tnmbla yon wttliy 
or to be aapreiaed ; without men 
and foithar tnmUe> but which 
yon mast, or can, or shaD,. or 
may know, or be informed o^ . 
what you please— ••••• • 


Item in a BiU qf Ca9U 

Attending A in conference conceromg 
the beat mc^e to indemnify B againat 0% 
demand for damagea, in conaequcnee of 
his driving D'a cart against E'a house, 
and thereby breaking the window of a 
room occupied by F*s femily, and cutting 
the head ol O, one of his children^ ivfaic^ 
H, the surgeon, bad pronounced dan- 
gerous, and advising on the stefa Becea^ 
sary for such indemnity. Attendincr 
J. accordingly thereon, who aaid be ooulo 
do nothing without the c(»cniience of hll 

brother J, who ^'^^ ^^ * ^^^"^ ^^ ^^ 
finend K, but who afterwards consented 
thereto, upon having a counte^>indcm|ut« 
from 1m. Taking instruetioDa for^ ana 
writing the letter acoordingly, but hk 
refused to accede thereto, ia coiaequenoe 
of misconduct in some of the parties 
towards his <)i8tant relation If, oecause 
he had arrested N, who being in custody 
of Q, the officer, at P*a house, was unable 
IP prtvail upon Q and A to become bait 
4ltendiQg m consequtnct u^n %^ ^^ 


theriffy mhtn bt said, if be reoeiTcd an tioe. 3«t not so if there had been no 

undertaking to pve a bail-bond at the disconrse of his justice. — 1 Vin. Ab. 446. 

return of we wnt, the defendant should Acyudged, that the death of a parson 

be discharged. Attending T for under- is a non-retidencyy within 13 Eliz. c . 30^ 

taking accbrdingly, conferring thercou ; so as to sToid his leases. Mott v. Hales, 

but he declined interfering without the Crok. Eliz. 123. 

concurrence of V, to whom he was largely Eden and Whalley's case :— ^ One 

indebted, in whose hands he had lodged Eden confessed himself guilty of mmH^ i- 

several title-deeds as a collateral secuhtr, cv^ton, and that he bad practised the 

and who, it appeared, bad sent the deeds making of quintnmmety ana the 

to his attorney u, for the purpose of pre- pker^t ttonty by whicb all melab misht 

paring a mortgage to W, in trust, for se- be turned into gold and silver ; and also 

curing his demand, and also of a debt due accured Whalley, now a prisoner in the 

to 3l. Attending afterwards on A's Tower, of urging and procuring him to 

clerk T, communicating the result of our practise this art ; and that Wluklley had 

numerous appUcationi, and conferring laid out money in red wine and other 

with him thmon, when he at length in- things necessary for the said art. And, 

formed me that Z had settled the busi- because this offence is only felony, Edco, 

ness. the principal, was pardoned by the ge- 

UgaUUcreaHaHi. ?f^ P^'^^^J but WhaUey, who was 

^ , . 7^ ... but accessary in this case, was e»- 

« To him that goes to Uw, mne things cepted as one of thowj who were in the 

are requisite : 1. A good deal of money— Tower. The question was moved, wh«- 

2. A good deal of patience— 3. A cood thcr WhaUey should be discharged;— 

cause— 4. A good attorney— 5. Good Qomtt, the sUtute of 5 Hen. IV. 4, 

counsel— «. Good evidenc^T. A good which enacU, ' that none should use to 

iunr— 6. A good judge-and lastly, good multiply sold or sUver, nor use the craft 

*'*^^ .,•.-*.. of multimication ; and if any the same 

** Reason u the bfe of the law, uy, ^ that he incur the pain of fekmy in 

the common law itself is nothing else but |]|i, case.'— Qusre— Whether there can 

'*■■**'*• , be any accessary in this new felony >^ 

1 Dyer, 87, 6, Easter Term, 7 Ed. VI. 

If a man says of a counsellor of law. This statute was repealed by the stat. of 

rUn art m dUm^dowm-dUl^, an action 1 Will. <l Mary.** 

lies. So adjudged in Scsiocario, and In the case of moiiopolisMf eahk, there 

agreed ptr toimm CMrMMi.F— 1 Vin. Abb. was cited a commission in the time of 

445. Henry V. directed to three frian and two 

Ha kaik no atara ktm than Mr. C*9 IndL aldermen of London, to inquire whether 

These words being spoken of an attorney, the philosopher's stone was feasible, who 

the court inclined that they vi^ere action- returned it vras, and upon this a patent 

able, and that the plaintiff should have was made out for them to make iU^ 

judgment, though it was obiected that the Moore, 675 ; Dancey*s case 

plauitiff had not declared that C. had ■ 

?-.^'^T?*^"* ^^hJt' ®W *"•?*; According to the Asiatic Researehea, a 

19 Car. U. ^er v, Mor^. The diief ^qu? mode of trying the title of 

iMticewas of wnnion, thatifC.hadno j^ j, pnuAised in Hbdostan :— Two 

buU, the scandaf was thegreater. And ^oles are dug in the disputed spot, in 

tt was DfooouneedMr CTirieai in the same ^^^ of which the plaintiff and defendant's 

caecthattosayofaUwyer thatAtAet lawyer, put one oY their legs, and remain 

M mert k» f Am « 1^, hM been ad- there untU one of them b tired, or com- 

ndftd acUonable.--&d. l«7, pi. 8..- j,^ ^f y^ ^^^ y^^ ^ xnaagi^ in 

Thm IS qum •^•^ tf ^ ^V^ which case his client is defeated. In th» 

*•** »e nio^ vILv**t. • *"** J ^ country it is the WmhI, and not the 

(lb. S lt.b. JM) ; tta taw, doate. ^^k. piu Yatfoot intl U. 

contemplating the possibility of there '^ ^ 
a man in the moon, and of his 


a good lawyer. Profeasional piactice is freqnenHy iha 

kad cAa^Aeron eeaaol Aswr ^ sokject of theatrical exhibition. ''GiovaM 

V mIMumA >c^K>">*^* there being in LMidon'*has aseene before goinf le 

cf Im adminifffatioa of JQ»> trial, with the following 





r, fife «e uae 
\g give Be one poand. 

GioviiiBi, give ne two. 

FIntf Lmmmer. 


the heathens; and it is observed hy 
Brandy that on Shrove Monday it was a 
custom with the bo^s at Eton to write 
vetaes concerning Bacdras, in all kinds 
of metre, which were affiled to the col- 
lege doors, and that Baodras' Terses 
** are still written and fmt up on this day.** 
The Eton practice is doubtless a remnant 
of the catholic custom. 


And BotUng we can do. 

Pint Lmmffer, 
Yon nrast give a fee, 
Beth to 


Yellow Crocus. Crocut If^macnt. 
Dedicated to St. yaknHwe 

Sttmtd Lmwfer, 

And me. 

B9tk Lmc ft r t . 

Fer.oli! the law's a mill 

that without gritt will 

^c^ruarp 15. 

never go. 

(t9 9tfmi Lmmftr} 
LawycTy there are two ; 

(t9jint Lmmfftr) 
And BOW I am without a pound, 
naaks to the law and you. 
For. oh! Ifcelthelaw 
Has dapp'd on me its paw ; 
And. oh ! the law's a miU 
that without grist will never go. 

CoQop iHonliap. 

The Monday before Shrove Tuesday 
is so called because it was the last day of 
iesh-eating before Lent, and our ancestors 
cut their fresh meat into coUops, or steaks, 
bt salting or hangiag up till Lent was 
intJ ; ai^ hence, in many places, it is 
still a custom to have eggs and coUope, 
or slices of bacon, at dinner on this day. 
T1»e Rev. Mr. Bowles communicates to 
his friend Mr. Brand, that the boys in the 
netghboorfaood of Salisbury go about be- 
fcffe Shrove-tide singing these lines : 

Shrove-tide is nigh at hand. 
And I am come a shroving ; 
Pray, dame, something. 
An api^ or a dompliiig. 
Or a pieca of Tnickle citoese 
Of your own making. 
Or a piece of pancake. 

Polydore Virgil affirms of this season 
and its delicacies, that it sprung from the 
feasts of Bacchus, which were celebrated 
B Rome with rejoicings and festivity at 
fia same period. This, therefore, is an- 
•has adoption of the Romish cfamdi from 

5ft. Fmutimiu mad JovU&y a. d. 121. 
St. Sigefride, or Sigfild, of Sweden, Bp. 
A. D. 1002. 


It is communicated to the Every-Day 
Book by a correspondent, Mr. R. N. B— , 
that at Hoddesdon in Hertfordshire, the 
old curfew-bell, which was anciently 
rung in that tovm Sot the eitinction and 
rdi^ting of '< all fire and candle lig)U ** 
still eiists, and has from time immemorial 
been regularly rang on the morning of 
Shrove Tuesday at four o'dod^ after* 
which hour the inhabitants are at liber^ 
to make and eat poaeaibet, until the b|eU 
rings again at eight o'clodc at night. He 
says, uiat thb custom is observed so 
closely, that after that hour not a pancake 
remains in the town. 

Taa Co a raw. 

I bear the fer-off curfew sound. 
Over some wide-water'd shore. 
Swinging slow with sullen roar. 


That the cuHew-bell came in with Wil- 
liam the Conqueror is a common, but 
erroneous, supposition. It is true, that 
by one of his laws he ordered the people 
to put out their fires and lights, ana go to 
bed, at the eight-o'clodc curfew-bell ; but 
Hennr says, in his "History of Great Bri- 
tain,'' that there is sufficient eridence of 
the curfew having prevailed in different 
parts of Europe at that period, as a pre- 
caution against fires, which were frequent 
and fetal, when so many houses vrere 
built of wood. It is related too, in 
Peshall's « History of Oxford," that Alfred 
the Great ordered the inhabitants of that 
city to cover their fires on the ringing of 
the bell at Carfiuc every night at eitht 


o'dockj *wfck* cMlom is ol»ima to Frawii Grose, the well ». 

U «H^ U Crew Tom toUs U m«." (»<•'■'■) P"*'''^ ^ **'■";. ^' v 

Wl«S« Ihe cuffcw » DOW wng ia fc rose enclosed m letter frog lb. tfiTF 

Enaland, it ts usudly at fcor in Ihe Gostling, author of the "W«lk throogli 

moniing, ind «ght in Ihe evening, as at Cante.bury,- wilh > drawiDg of the Mtn- 

HoddMdoo en ShreTe Tueiday. «l, from "hich m engniTing i* made in 

that woik, and whwh m given here on 

Conceniiog the curfew, or ihe in- accouW of its singnlarip. No oth« »- 

(tnunent used to cover the fire, there is preseatatioo of the corfcw axitu. 
from the late Mr. 

" This ntetuil,'' tajn the Antiquaiiui tiquities''M]rs, "an insinnHU of capper 

Repmocj, " is called a coifew, or convre- presumed to have been made Tor covcnof 

/m, from its use, which is that of sud- the ashe*, but of uncertain tue, is e»- 

denly putting o<ii a fire : the method of graved." It is in one of Mr, P.'s rialc*. 

app^ng it was thus ;— the wood and On T. Row'i remurk, who is abo hce-. 

em^kers were raked as cloce as pMiible to lioua on the subject, it may be o U e iwd . 

the b«:k el Iha hearth, and then the cur- that his incliuation to think there never 

B put over them, the open p«it wai aay such implement, is so ftir fiott 

'•eto the back of the diimney ; being warraotable,if thebctbeei 


, thif eonlrivance, the ait being almost rect, that it has not been meDtleoed by 
tMally exdnded, the fire was erf confte my tttoent writer, that the &ir infereace 

rivetted together, as solder wouhl have Hadheconsnlted "Johnson's Dictionaiy," 

bean liable to melt with the heat. It is be would have (bund Ihe curfew itself 

10 inchM high, 18 inches wide, and 9 ciplained at "a cover for a fire; a fire- 

iDcbeideep. TheHev. Mr. GoMling, to plate.— Sonm." So that if Johnson is 

lAon it belongs, says it has been in his credible, and his citation of autboriiies is 

hmily for lime imnemonal, and was al unquestionable. Bacon, no very modem 

wj* called the cuifew. Stimc others of wnier, ii authority for the hct that there 

Ibis kind an still remaining in Kent and was such an im^emenl as the curfew. 

SuBSea." libpioptTtoaddiothif aecouni, 

that T. Row, in dw « Gentleman's Mat*- #wjun-* r»«/« 

tiM,''b«caiMenomentionismade"ofany rooUtU at KtngttOK. 

•articular implement for eatingitithing Ut. P., an obliging contributor, fiir- 

mt be ID any w^ter,'' is incTiMl to bisIms the Etm-Dtf Bo«k with a letter 

tUak "IhwtiMveTwaaanyMBh." Hr. ft«na fVica^deaetiJAivctrf acustoesra 

Arfntoto Ibe " taej^MpmUft af As- tbia day in the vicinity of Leodoo. 



Ropected Friend, I was rather surprised that such a cus> 

IlaEving some bnsiiiess whidi called me • torn should have existed so near Loudon, 
to Kia0toii-«tpc»hTliame8 on the day without my erer before knowing of it. 

bad not gone above four miles, when the ^ S— 

ooachman eadaimed to one of the pas- Third Mouthy 1815. J. B. 

lengmy « It's Foot-ball day f not onder- 

staiMling the term, I questioned him what - 

he meant by it; hit answer was, that I 

would flee what he meant where I was Paneaket and Confeuiom. 

goingd — ^Upon entering Teddington, I 

was not a little amused to see all the in- A« ftt-aa • y«»c»te for J»n»w 7W«tojr. 

habitants securmg the ghiss of aU their bhaii«f«a««. 

front windows from the ground to the 

roof^ some by placing hurdles before them, Pavcaeb Day is another name for 
and some by nailins laths across the ShroTe Tuesday, ftom the custom of eat- 
frames. At TwidLenham, Bushy, and ing pancakes on this day, still generally ob- 
Hampton-wick, they were all engaged in serred. A writer in the ** GenUeman's Ma- 
the same wigr : hmymgto stopa few hours |aiiBe|1790,'' says, that ** Shrive is an old 
at Hampton-wide aim Kingston, I had Saton word, of winch ehnwe is a corrup- 
an opportunity of seeing the whole of the tioii^ and sunifres confession. ' Hence 
custom, which is, to eairy a foot-ball from Sh^Ote iSies&y means Confession Tues- 
door to door and beg money : — at about day, on iHiich day all the people in erery 
12 o'dock the baU k tamed loose, and «mi tlfronghdiit the kioffoom, during 
those who can, kkk it. In the town df the Roinish times, were obliged to con- 
Kingston, sU the diops are purposely kept' fefls thor sins, one by one, to their own 
shut upon that daqf ; (here were ierml jMririi priests, in thnr own^ parish 
baUs m the town, aisd of oouise semal diAicfa ; and that this might be done 
parties. I observed some penmns of re- file flioi%rTegulaily,the greait bell in CTery 
ipectabiHty following the ball : the game ^ti)sh was hmg at ten o'clock, or per- 
lasts about four hours, when the parties haps sooner, diat it might be heard by all. 
retire to the public-houses, and spend the And as the Romish religion has given 
«y they before collected in refresh- way fo a much better, I mean the protest- 
aenls. ant religion, vet the custom of ringing 
I undefstand die corporation of Kings- the great Dell in our ancient parish 
too attempted to pot a stop to this prac- churdies, at least in some of them, still re- 
tiee, bat tne judges confirmed the right of mains, and obtains in and about London 
the game, and it now legally continues, to the name of PaneaJie^U : the usage of 
the no small annoyance of some of the dining on paneakes or fritters, and such 
inhabitants^ besides the expense and like proTisioO, still continues.'' In ** Pas- 
tfouble ihtf are pot to in securing all quil's Palinodia, 1634," 4to. it i^ tberrily 
their windows. obsehred that on this day every stomach 

dll it can hold no more. 
Is fritter-6lled, as well as heart can wish ; 
And every man and maide doe take their tume, 
And tosse their pancakes vp for feare they burne ; 
Aad all the kitciien doth with laughter sound. 
To see the pancakes fall upon the jj^round. 

Tkreihmg the Hen, cemihg its origin is, that the fowl was it 

This singnlar custom is almost obso- delicacy to the labourer, and therefoi^ 

lete, yet it certainly is practised^ evto given to him on this festive day, for spoft 

now, in at least one obscure part of the and food, 
kingdom. A reasonable conjecture con- 

At Shrovetide to sbrovmg, go thresh the fat hen, 
Jf Uindfdd can kill her, then give it thy men. 
Maids, fritters and pancakes inough see you roak^ 
Let dut have one pancake, for company sake. 


S«^ncliTiiMerialu«''FiT«IIundr«d becui, thay follow the •ound, udtomr- 

PoiaU of Good Hutb«iidr7, 1630," 4to. tune* hii hin and hit ben, olbei tiau*, a 

OnlhtohiiuiwUtor,"TuMar RediTiTui, he c&it get behind ooe of them, they 

ITIO," (Bto. June, p. Ij,) moneiei ta Ihreih one Knottier well Mour'dlT; hit 

account of the cuatom. " The ben u thejeat ia, ihe maid* are to blind Uic teV 

kung at a fellow'i back, who hai alio lowt, wbieh they do with their aprona, 

•nine hone bcllt about him, the reit of and the cunning bagngca will ende*r 

the fellows are blinded, and have hough* their iwcethcail* witn a peepinf-holc, 

in theii hand*, with which they chMe whilit the othen look out m ilwrp to 

tbii fellow aod hia ben aboul Mme large hinder it. After thit ihe hea ■■ boil'd 

court or iRiall cnclomTC. He fellow with bacon, and itocc u( 

with hii hen and belli ihiftii^ a* well m fntien are made." 

Cbrtfbing tS^t fit |gm at ^ijrobrtOir. 

Tntaer'i annotator, " BcdiiiTiu," add*, bie cuitom, ii otte of the benefit* wt hMi ' 

alter the ben-lhTCihing. "She thai i* nou nt b* *n>akin|[ tobacco." Old Tont 

•d far Ijing a-bed long, or My otlier mit- hitudf, by a refereoce, denotea that IfcH \ 

tttriage, hath the bril pancake prewnttd wu a ipoit id Eiiei and Snflolk. Mr. , 

lo her, which moil commonly fidli to tbe Brand wa* informed by a Mr. Joata tb^ . 

4o|'i aharc at lait, for no one will own it when he wa* i boy in Walei, Um ^ t 

Iknr doe. Thu* were Touih encour«g'd, that did not lav em» before Shrove Tm^ ' 

■ h a m 'd, and feasted with very hide coat, day wu coniidernT uiclcu, and lo be a* . 

aad a<wmyt their fea*ii were accompani- that day threihed by a man with ■ MIt 

i4l*ilh«*rci*e.TheloaiofwhichU«dft> if he kiUed her he got her for hb pai^ 


9 ^m tttat d|iolte on #brobt Cut^ap* 

Ov Sutrre ^cida;, kt b ccrtaia an- 
(HiC Inrough in Sufibidihire, > hen was 
Hi M bj its owner to be thronn at by 
IkMtf aod hi] companions, according to 
ttl ^raal ctiitam od that day. ThU poor 
1^ ^t<r man; ■ tererc bang, and tnany 
■ iMoka ^xme, weltering in mire and 
blood, reeoTered ipiriu a little, and to 
the unspeakable lurpriae and ailoaish- 
menl of all the company, just ai her late 
muter -was handling hii oaken cudgel to 
fling at her again, opened her moutli and 
uid — "Hold thv hand a moment, hard' 
hearted wretch f if it be but out of 
cariosity, to hear one of ray feathered 
^Wfies utter articulate sounds. — What 
art thou, or any of thy comrades, better 
ftan I, though bigger and strnngci, and 
It liberty, while I am lied W the leg I 
What ait thou, I say, that I may not 
fiTsume to reason with (hee, though thou 
ie*ft- reaMnesI with thyself! What 
We T done to deserve the treatment I 
ki*e luffered Ihli day, from ihee uid thy 


barbarous companions? Whom have I 
ever injured? Did I erer prohne the 
name of my creator, or give one moment's 
disquiet to any creature tinder heaven ' 
or lie, or deceive, or ilander, or rob my 
Fellow-creatures? Did I erer gunle 
down what should have been far the sup- 
port and eorafort (in effect the blood) of a 
wife and innocent children, as thou dost 
every week of thy life? A little of thy 
superfluous grain, or the sweeping of thy 
cupboard, and the parings of ihy cheese, 
moisleoed with the dew of heaven, wu 
all 1 had, or desired for my support ; 
while, in return, I furnished thy table 
with dainties. The tender brood, which 
I hatched with assiduity, and all the 
anxiety and solicitude of a humane 
mother, fell a sacrifice to thy gluttony. 
My new laidegt^ enriched Ihy pancakes, 

Juddings, and custards ; and all tliy most 
elicioua fare. And I was ready myself, 
at any lime, to lay down my life to sup- 
port thine, but the third {Ait of K 4k]. 


Had I been a man, and a hangman, and 

been commanded by authority to take throwing at cocm. 

away thy life for a crime that deserred This brutal practice on Shrove Tuesday 

death, I would have performed my office is still conspicuous in several parts of the 

with reluctance, and with the shortest, kmgdom. Brand affirms that it was re- 

and the least pain or insult, to thee possi- tained in many schools in Scotland 

ble. How much more if a wise provi- within the last century, and he conjec- 

dence had so ordered it, that thou hadst tures " perhaps it is still in use :** a little 

been my proper and delicious food, as I inquiry on his part would have discovered 

am thine r I speak not this to move thy it in £nglish schools. He procceda to 

compassion, wno hast none for thy own observe, that the Scotch scnoolmasters 

offspring, or for tlie wife of thy bosom, '* were said to have presided at the 

nor to prolong ray own life, which through battle, and daimcd the run-away cocks, 

thy most brutal usage of me, is past called fugees, as their perquisitei." To 

recovery, and a burden to me ; nor yet to show the ancient legitinlacy of the nMe, 

teach thee humanity for the future. I he instances a petition in 1 355, fhMn the 

know thee to have neither a head, a scholars of the school of Ilamera to their 

heart, nor a hand to show mercy ; neither schoolmaster, for a cock he owed them 

brains, nor bowels, nor grace, to hearken upon Shrove Tuesday, to throw sticks at, 

to reason, or to restrain thee from any according to the usual custom for their 

fully. I appeal from thy cruel and re- sport and entertainment. No decently 

lentless heart to a future judgment ; cer- circumstanced person however nimd 

tainly there will be one sometime, when his disposition, irom neglect in his child- 

the meanest creature of God shall have hood, will in our times permit one of his 

justice done it, even against proud and sons to take part in the sport. This is a n^ 

savage man, its lord ; and surely our cause tnral consequence of the influence which 

will then be heard, since, at present, we persons in the higher ranks of life can 

have none to judge betvrixt us. O, that beneficially exercise. Country gentle- 

some good Christian would cause this my men threw at the poor cock iSsrmerly : 

first, and last speech to be printed, and there is not a country gentleman now 

published through the nation. Perhaps who would not discourage the shocking 

the legislature may not think it beneath usage. 

them to take our sad case into considera- Strutt says that in some places, it was 

tion. Who can tell but some (aint re- A common practice to put a cock into an 

mains of common sense among the vulgar earthen vessel made for the purpose, and 

themselves, may be excited by a suffering to place him in such a position that his 

dying felloW'«reature*8 last words, to find head and tail might be exposed to view ; 

out a more good-nature<l exercise for the vessel, with the bird m it, was then 

their youth, than this which hardens their suspended across tlic street, about 12 or 

hearts, and taints their morals? But I 14 feet from the ground, to be thrown at 

find myself spent with sjieaking. And by such as chose to make trial of their 

now villain, take good aim, let fly thy skill; twopence was paid for fburthrowiL 

truncheon, and despatch at one man/y and he who broke the pot, and deliverea 

stroke, the remaining life of a niiserubl'e the cock from his confinement, had him 

mortal, who is utterly unable to resist, or for a reward. At North Walsham, in 

fly from thee.*' Alas I he heede<l not. Norfolk, about 60 years ago, some wags 

6nt sunk down, and die<l immediately, put an owl into one of these vessels; and 

without another blow. Header, farewell I having procured the head and tail of a 

but learn compassion towards an inno- dead cock, they placed them in the same 

cent creature, that has, at least, as quick position as if they had appertained lo a 

a sense of pain as thyself. living one ; the deception was successful i 

This article is extracted from the and at last, a labouring man belonging 

'^Gentleman's Mapiiine/* for the year to the towr, after several fruitless al« 

1749. It appeals to the feelings and the tempts, broke the pot, but missed kit 

judgment, and is therefore inserted here, prize; for the owl being set at libcrtT^ 

lest one reader should need a dissuasive instantly flew away, to his great astonisb* 

against the cruelty of torturing a poor meiit, and left him nothing more than 

animal on Shrove Tuesday. the hend and tail of the dead bird, with 

Jfens were (vrmerly thrown at, as cocks the poUberds, for his money and hii 

m9 ttiil, in tome pl9et9. trouble; this ridiculous adventure tj« 


posed bim to the eontiinial laughter of *< The fair cock was not allowed to haye 

the town's peoj^ and obliged him to his stand extended behind, more than his 

quit the place* height and half as much more, nor much 

«x.^« ^ Tu^j^ /T^i. thicker than himself, and he was not to 

Shffing ai Leaden Cocke. ^^^ i^ ^^^j^ ^^ j,^ j^.^ ^^^^^^ 

A eorrespondent| S. W., says, '* It nor to project over the stand ; but frsiv 

Strikes me that the game of pitching at dulent cocks were made extending later-* 

capons, pnctised by boys when I was ally orer the side, so as to prerent Ids 

Jonngy look ila rise trom this ^rt, (the lying down sideways, and with a long 

t hro w i ng at ood^s,) indulged m by the stand behind ; ^e body of the cock was 

ttatnred barbarians. The capons were made thinner, and the stand thicker, hy 

leaden representations of cocks and hens which means the cock bent upon being 

^inAfd at by leaden dumps.^ struck, and it was impossible to knock 

Another correspondent, whose MS. him over." This information may seem 

coltoctioDS are opened to the Sveri^Day trifling to some, but it will interest many. 

Booky has a similar remark in one of his We sdl look back with complacency on 

common-place books, on the sports of the amusements of our chtldnood ; and 

boys. Bfe says^ '* Skjfing at Coeke. — " some future Strutiy" a centuiy or two 

Probably in imitation of the barbarous hence, may find this page, and glean from 

custom of ' shying' or throwing at the it the important difference between thef 

living animal. The * cock ' was a repre- sports of boys now, and those of our 

sedtation of a bird or a beast, a man, a grandchildren's great grandcfaHdren. 
horWy or some device, with a stand pro- 
jecting on all sides, but principallv be- Coeh-flghHng. 
hind the figure. Theee were made of 

lead cost in moulds. Ther were sbyed at ^ The cmelty of cock-fighting was a chief 

with dumps from a smalTdistance agreed ingredient of the pleasure which intox-f 

upon by the parties, generally regulated icated the neople on Shroye Tuesday, 
by the sise or weight of the dump, and Cock-fitting was practised by the 

the iralue of the cock. If the thrower Greeks. Themistocles, when leading his 

orerset or knocked down the cock, he troops against the Persians, saw two 

won it ; if he &iled, he lost his dump, cocks fighting, and roused the courage of 

" Shy for tA».F— This was played at by his soldiers by pointing out the obstinacy 
two boys, each having a cock placed at ^th which these animals contended, 
a certain distance, generally about four though they neither fought for tiieir coun- 
or five feet asunder, the players standing try, their families, nor their liberty. The 
bdiind their cocks, and throwing alter- Persians were defeated; and the Athenians, 
nately ; a bit of stone or wood was gener- ^ a memorial of the victory, and of the 
aDy used to throw with : the cock was incident, ordered annual cock-fighting in 
Won by him who knocked it down, the presence of the whole people. Beck- 
Codes fuod dumps were exposed for sale mann thinks it' existed even earlier. 
en the butchers' shambles on a small Pliny says cock-fighting was an annual 
boaidy and were the perquisite of the exhibition at Pergamus. Plato laments 
apprentices, who made them ; and many that not only boys, but men, bred fighting 
a pewter plate, and many an ale-house birds, and employed their whole time in 
pot, were melted at this season for shying similar idle amusements. Beckmann roen- 
at cocks, which was as soon as fires were tions an ancient gem in sir William Ha- 
h^ited in the autumn. These games, milton's collection, whereon two cocks 
and all others among the boys of London, &re fighting, while a mouse carries away 
had their particular times or seasons ; the ear of com for which they contest : 
■nd when any game was out, as it was " a happy emblem," says Beckmann, "of 
termed, it was lawful to steal the thing our law-suits, in which the greater part 
|dayed with ; this was called emugging of the property in dispute falls to the 
and it vras expressed by the boys in a dog- lawyers. The Greeks obtained their 
|rel: vii. fighting cocks firom foreign countries ; ac- 
"Topstrein. Spin 'em agin. cording to Beckmann, the English im- 
Topa are oat. Smnggin about. P®^ *^^ strongest and best of theirs from 

or abroad, especially from Germany. 
Tops are in. Spin 'em aghL C«sar mentions the Eng\\s!kv c(x^a ta 

Dwps are ovt, ace^ }aa J* Comrnentaries ;*' ^tl\ l3ti«^ eu^Ml 


•odea of coek-figfating in EogUnd b by crowned as king of Christmas, on bone- 

Fitz-StephenSy who died in 1191. He bock, having his hone bedisened with 

mentions this as one of the amusements tinsel and flaunteiy, and preceded by the 

of the Londoners, together with the game twelve months of the year, each month 

of foot-ball. The whole passage is worth habited as the season required ; after 

transcribing. *' Yearly at Shrove-tide, him came Lent, clothed in white and beiw 

the boys of every school bring fighting- ring-skins, on a horse with trappings of 

cocks to their masters, and all the fore- ovster-shells, ** in token that sadnesse 

Booo is spent at school, to see these cocks shulde folowe, and an holy tyme ;'' and 

ftfffat together. After dinner, all the youth in this sort they rode through the city, 

of the city goeth to play at the ball in the accompanied by others in whimsical 

fields ; the scholars of every study have dresses, " makyng mjrrth, disportei, and 

their balls ; the practisers also of all the playes." Among much curious obeenra* 

trades have every one their ball in their tion on these Sbrove-tide mummings, in 

hands. The ancienter sort, the fathers, the '' Popish Kmgdome*' it is affirmedi 

and the wealthy citizens, come on horse- that of all merry-makers, 

back, to see these youngsters contending Pn. *• , 

at their sport, with whom, in a manner, ^hc chiefest mui u he, and one 

they participate by motion ; stirring their . !u"***\ T?* ^T*!* . 

0^ ir«..^fkIL* I« ik^ «;^ ^f *Ko •^:«^ Among the retl, that can finde out 

!!^.u "H^ ^ ^u A !^l ^K ^e fondest kinde of playes. 

youth, with whose mirth and Uberty they Qn him they look, and gize npon, 

Mem to communicate." and Itigh with luttic ch£e. 

Cock-fighting was orohibited in Ene- ^i^^ l^y, ^^ ^U^^^ ^^i^ ft,^^ 
land under Edward III. and Henry VII i., and such like other geare. 
and even later : yet Henry himself in- He in the mean time thinkes Hlwittlfr 
dnlged his cruel nature by instituting a wondrous worthie man, &c. 
cock-fights, wad even James I. took great r. • r -*u i . j .u * * si- 
delight hTthem; and within our own ^^ " ^^J?^/ related, that some of the 

time, games have been fought, and at- ^^ ^^^ ^^^V^^ 5' ^?«**V ""JSTVw ' 

tendki^ solicited by public advertise- oUieiji* d«g««ed as devib, cha^a^lthe 

meet, at the Royal Coi-pit, Whitehall, JT^^ ^ '^™'' "^ "^''^^ ^^ ^frightened 

wlueh Henry Vlll. built. ' the boys: men wore women s clothes, 

Beckmann says, that as the cock roused and women dressed as men, entered th^^ 

PWer, so it was Wld an ecclesiastical duty ''^'^^^;'^ ^' ^"^°^l **^"»^ • «^ ^^ 

« to ^l the people to repentance, or at VP^^eUed as monks, othe« arraved 

least to churchV and therefore, "in the ^^^^^^^. ^ J|»ng«» attended by tbeir 

ages of ignorance, the clency frequently P^afd' and royal accompaninaents ; some 

^led thSmselves the cocki of lie Al- ^"f ««^ " oW foob, pretended to sit on 

miffhtr " °^ ^ hatch young fools ; others wear- 

^ ^* ing skins and dresses, became counterfeit 

OU Skrate^ide Reveli. ***" ?"?, ^''^''^A roaring lions, and 

fMm tjmrwc^me Mxcvztw. raging bulls, or walked on high stUts, with 

On Shrove Tuesday, according to an ^ng» •* ^«*' ^<Jts. m cranes : 

^ J""^'' 1 "^^^ *'* .^^ *^™"^ r% ^^ "^ fil^y fonne of apes, 

abandon^ themselves to every kind of ^^ ^^ ,i,^^ ^J^^ j,^,^^ 

•poruve foolery, as if resolved to have Which best beseeme those papUtet all, 

their fill of pleasure before they were to that thus keep Bmcckua* feast 

J* w 

The preparing of bacon, meat, and the ?^Zul^ 1^^^"^ ^ ^'^^ ^ *" 

BuAing ofsavSurr black-puddings, for ^"a^o^'y niorsel— 

good cheer after the coming Lent, pre- — — ^— ^__ that on 

ceded the day itself, whereon, besides , ^ a cushion loft they lay, 

domestic feasting and revelry, with dice ^nd one there ii that with a flap 

md card-playing, there was immensity ot ^^ ^^^ **»• "»" ^^^7 

nnromiog. The records of Norwich tes- Some stuffed a doublet and hose 

tify, that in 1440, one John Glad man, rags or straw — 

wbo is there called " a man who wis ever whom as a man that Uuly dyed 

trewe and feythfull to God and to the of honest life and fame, 

J^i^'* and coosfantly disportive, made b blanket did they bean aboat, 

• pmbUc disport with bis neighboun, and stroghtwafs with Ike 




They livrl bimvD into the ayre, 

notniirriiig him to fi)l» 
Aad tiiis they doe at diyeis tymei^ 

the dtie o? er tll« 

The Kentish « holly boy," and « ivy girl" 
are erroneonsly tuppoaed (at p. 226,) to 
haTe been carried about on St. valentine's 
day. On turning to Brand, who also 
cites the circumstance, it appears they 
were carried the Tuesday before Shrore 
TViesday, and most probably were the un- 
recogiused Trains of the drest mawkin 
of the '^ Popish Kingdome," canied 
about with various devices to represent 
the ^ death of good living," and which 
our catholic neighbours continue. The 
Morning Chronicle of March the lOth, 
1791, represents the peasantry of France 
carrying it at that time into the villages, 
collecting money for the '' funeral,'* and, 
*' after sundry absurd mummeries/' com- 
mitting the body to the earth. 

Neogeoigus records, that if the snow 
lay on the ground this day, snow-ball 
combats were eiiiibited vrith great vigour, 
till one party got the victory, and the other 
lan away: the confusion whereof trou- 
bled him sorely, on account of its disturb- 
ance to the ** matrone olde," and *' sober 
man,^ who desired to pass without a cold 
salutation from the *^ wanton fellowes.'' 

The " rabble-rout," however, in these 
processions and mockeries, had the ho- 
nour of respectable spectators, who seem 
to have been somewhat affected by the 
popular epidemic. The same author says 

-■ ■ the noble men, the rich 

sod men of hie degree, 
they with common people should 

not seeme so mad to bee, 

came abroad in *^ wagons finely framed 
before" drawn by ''a lustie horse and 
tmtt of pace," having trappings on him 
£rom head to foot, about whose neck. 

and every place before* 

A hundred giogliug belles do hang, 
to make nis courage more, 

and their wives and children being seated 
in these " wagons," they 

behinde themselves do itande 

Well armde with whips, and holding faste 
the bridle in their hande. 

Thus laden and equipped 

With all their force throughout the streetes 
and market place they ron, 

As if foiDc whirlwinde mjid, or tempest 
great from skies should come. 

and thus furiously they drove without 
stopping for people to get cut of their 

Yea, sometimes legges or arms th^ breake, 
and horse and cart and aH 

They overthrow, with such a/SMre, 
th^r in their course 6o/mUf 

The genteel " wagon**-drivers ceased not 
with Ute cessation of the vulgar sports on 

But even till midni^t holde they on, 
their iwstimes for to make. 

Whereby they ninder men of sleepe, 
and cause their heades to ake 

But all this same they care not for, 
nor do esteeme a beare. 

So they may have their pleasure, &c« 

apprentices' B0LID4Y. 

Shrove Tuesday vras until late years 
the great holiday of the apprentices ; why 
it should have been so is eaey to imagine^ 
on recollecting the sports that b(^ were 
allowed on that day at school. The in- 
dulgences of the ancient city 'prentices 
were great, and their licentious disturb- 
ances stand recorded in the annals of 
many a fray. Mixing in every neigh-* 
bourin^ brawl to bring it if possible to 
open not, they at length assumed to de 
terraine on public affairs, and went in 
bodies with their petitions and remon- 
strances to the bar of the house of com- 
mons, with as much importance as their 
masters of the corporation. A satire of 
1675 says, 

Tbey'r mounted high, contemn the humble 

Of trap or foot-ball on a holiday 
In Finesbury-fieldes, No, 'tis their brave 

Wisely t' advise the king and parliament. 

But this is not the place to notice their 
manners further. Tlie successoll to their 
name are of another generation, they have 
been better educated, live in better times, 
and having better masters,w ill make better 
men. The apprentices whose situation 
is to be viewed with anxiety, are the out- 
door apprentices of poor persons, who 
can scarcely find homes, or who being or- 
phans, leave the factories or work-rooms 
of their masters, at night, to go where 
they can, and do what they please, with- 
out paternal caie, or being the creatures 
of any one's solicitude, and are yet ex- 
pected to be, or become good members pf 


VAVCAKis. is supposed to hare htd iU oriffin in the 

A MS. IB tiie British Museum quoted days of chhralry ; when en Italian is 

by Brand states, that in 1560, it was a reported to have come into this part of 

custom at Eton school on Shrove Tues- the country challenging all the parishes, 

day for the cook to &sten a pancake to a under a certain penalty in case of decUn- 

crow upon the school door ; and as crows ing his challenge. All the parishes de- 

usually hatch at this season, the cawing dined this challenge except Scone, whidi 

of the young ones for their parent, beat the foreigner, and in commemoration 

heightened this heartless sport. From a of this gallant action the game was insti- 

question by Antiouarius, in the '^ Gentle- tuted. Whilst the custom continued, 

man*s Magazine, 1790, it appears that it every man in the parish, the gentry not 

is a custom on Shrove Tuesday at fFai^ excepted, was obliged to turn out and 

mintter school for the under clerk of the support the side to which he belonged, 

college, preceded by the beadle and the and the person who neglected to do his 

other officers, to throw a large pancake part on tnat occasion was fined ; but the 

over the bar which divides the upper custom being attended with certain incon- 

from the lower school. Brand mentions veniences, was abolished a few years b^ 

a similar custom at Eion school. Mr. fore Sir Frederick wrote. He further 

Fosbroke is decisive in the opinion that mentions that on Shrove Tuesday there is 

pancakes on Shrove Tuesday were taken a standing match at foot-ball in the parish 

arom the heathen Fomacalia, celebrated of Inverness, county of Mid Lothian, j)^ 

cm the 18th of February, in memory of tween the married and unmarried women, 

making bread, before ovens were invented, and he states as a remarkable fact that the 

by the goddess Fornax. married women are always successfuL 

rooT-BALL. , Crowdie is mentioned by sir F. M. 

This was, and remains, a game on Eden, T*' State of the Poor,'^ as a never 

Shrove Tuesday, in various parts of £ng- ^ling dinner on Shrove Tuttday, with all 

land. ranks of people in Scotland, as pancakea 

Sir Frederick Morton Eden in the are in England ; and that a ring » put into 

** Statistical account of Scotland,'* says that the basin or porringer of the unmarried 

at the parish of Scone, county of Perth, folks, to the fiuder of which, by fair means, 

erery year on Shrove Tuesday the bache- it was an omen of marriage before the rest 

lors and married men drew themselves up of the eaters. This practice on FoMten'g 

at the cross of Scone, on opposite sides ; a Evt, is described in Mr. Stewart's *' Po- 

ball was then thrown up, and they played pular Superstitions of the Highlands,** 

from two o'clock till sun-set. Ine game with little difference ; only that the ring 

was this : he who at any time got the ball instead of beintr in *' crowdie '* is in 

into his hands, run with it till overtaken ** brose," made of the '^ bree of a good &t 

by one of the opposite party ; and then, if iigget of beef or mutton." This with 

he could shake nimself loose from those on plenty of other good cheer being des- 

the opposite side who seized him, he run on; patched, the Bannich Junit^ or**sauty 

if not, he threw the ball from him, unless oannocks" are brought out. They are 

it was wrested from him by the other made of eggs and meal mixed with salt 

party, but no person was allowed to kick to make them ^* sauty," and beinu; baked 

It i^a object of the married men was to or toasted on the gridiron," are regarded bjr 

ktmg it, that is, to put it three times into old and young as a modt delicious treat.'* 

m small hole in the moor, which was the They have a *' charm** in them which en- 

dool or limit on the one hand : that of ables the bighlander to ** spell** out his 

the bachelors was to drown it, or dip it future wife : this consists of some article 

three times in a deep place in the river, being intermixed in the meal-dough, and 

the limit on the other : the party who he to whom falls tlie " sauty bannock** 

could effect either of these oojects won which contains it, is sure — if not already 

the fuae ; if neither won, the ball was married — to be married l)efore the next 

cut mto equal parts at sun-set. In the anniversary. Then the Ikmnich Bramder^ 

course of the play there was usually some or <* dreaming bannocks** tind a place, 

violence between the parties ; but it is They contain ''a little of that substance 

a proverb in this part of the country that which chimney-sweep call soot.** In 

" All is fair at tne ball of Scone. Sir baking them **' the baker mu«t bo as route 

Ffedentk goe» oo to say, that this custom u a stone— one word would desuoy th« 





haa out. 

ilqps off qmtlly to bed, laji his hetd on 
to hiwiofi, and tipecU to see ins sweet- 
limtiBlai rictp^ 

Shakspeuvia King Heniy IV. Mgri^ 
Be iBcnyy be wteny. 

TisBMnyiahallfWlienbeiidi wag aU 

And wdeooe merry Skrovetide. 
Se wtxtjf be ncnyp ck« 

It ii mentioned in the ^ Shepherd's Al- 
"of 1676,1iHa ^ some say, thunder 
on ShroTe Tuesday foretelleth wind, store 
of fhiit, and plenty. Otbera affirm that 
eo mudi as toe sun shineth on that day, 
the like will shine ereiy day in Lent.'' 


Cloth of Gold. Cr&au nUpkureug. 
Dedicated to St S^JHde. 

S^VVBX^ 16. 

8i. Ommmdu. 8t§. JSWu, Jeremjf, htdas, 
Smm m ei, and Darnel, a. d. 309. St. Ju- 
Uama, St. Gregory X. Pope, a. d. 1276. 
Si. Tamco, or Tatta^ of Scotland, a. n. 

B»MT St 111* PaUic OfikcM except tbe Staapi^ 
Cuicofnsa Anil Recite. 

This is the irst day of Lent. It is 
called Aek Wednesday, because in the Ro- 
man catholic church the priest blesses 
ashes on this day, and puts them on the 
heads of the people. These ashes are 
made of the oraaches of brushwood or 
palms, consecrated the year before. The 
ashes are cleaned, and dried, and sifted, 
fii for the purpose. After the priest 
Yarn giren absolution to the people, he 
pnys ^ Vouchsafe ^ to bless smd sanctiiV 
••• theM ashes — that whosoever shall 
flpnnkle these ashes upon them for the 
Ted*mption of their sins, they may obtain 
heaih of body and protection of soul,*' 
Ice. Prayers ended, the priest sprinkles 
the ashes with holy water, and perfumes 
them thrice with incense, and the people 
cominz to him and kneeling, he puts ashes 
CQ their heads in the form of a cross with 
o:her ceremonies. 

Platina, a priest, and librarian to the 
Vitican, who wrote the lives of the popes 
itatcs that Procfaetos, archhiiliop 0/ Ge- 

neva, beinr at Rome on Ash Wednesday, 
he foil at ^e feet of pope Bonifbce VIII ., 
who blessed and gave out the ashes on 
that day, in order to be signed with the 
blessed ashes as others had been. Think- 
ing him to be his enemy, instead of utter- 
ing the usnal form, ^ Remember, O man, 
because thou art dust, thon shalt return to 
dust," Ice., the pope parodied the form 
and said << Remember thon art a Gibelline, 
and witii the Gibellines thou shalt return 
to ashes,** and then his holiness threw the 
ashes in the archbishop's eyes. 

It is observed by Mr. Fosbroke that 
ladies wore friars' girdles in Lent. This 
gentleman quotes, from « Camden's Re- 
mains,'' that sir Thomas More, finding bis 
ladr scolding her servants during Lent, 
endeavoured to restrain her. "Tush, 
tush, my lord," said she, "look, here is 
one step to heavenward," showing him 
a friar's girdle. " I fear me," said he, 
" that one step, will not bring you up one 
step higher." There are various instances 
of belief in tbe virtues of garments that 
had been worn by monlu and ^ais; 
some of them almost surpassing beUef. 

Ash Wednesday is observed in the 
church of England by reading publicly 
the curses denounced against impenitent 
sinners ; to each malediction the people 
being directed to utter, amen. Many 
who consider this as cursing their neigh- 
bours, keep away from church on the oc- 
casion ; which absence from these motives 
Mr. Brand regards as " a folly and super- 
stition worthy of the after-midnight, the 
spirit-walking time of popery." On thw 
eloquent remark, and Mr. Brand is sel- 
dom warmed to eloquence, it may be ob- 
served, that persons far removed from 
superstition and who have never ap- 
proached " the valley of the shadow of po- 
pery," deem the commination of the "Com- 
mon Prayer Book," a departure from the 
christian dispensation, and its injunctions 
of brotherly kindness. 


lilac Primrose. Primuta aeauiU plena. 
Dedicated to St. Juliana. 

ftbrmr^ 17. 

St. Fknian, Archbishop of Constanti- 
nople, A. D. 449. SU. Theodultu and 
Julian. St. Silvtn of Auchy, a. n 
718. • St. Lomon, oi Lunum, t^VitMOi^. 
Si, Fbitau^ Abbot. 


FLORAL DIRECTORY. application brought him nearer to eictl* 

Scotch Crocut. Croeua StmmiUB. lence. By the merit of a sleeping cupid 

PedicateU to SU FUvkaa, from hii chisel, which was stained and 

I I buried by a dealer to be dug up as an 

CHROVOLOGT. antique, and purchased by cardinal 

On the 17th of Februaiy, 1563, died Giorgio under the persuasion that it was 

MichAel Angelo Buonarroti, as an artist one, he was invited to Rome, 
and a man one of the most eminent On the elevation of Julius II. to the 

ornaments of the times wherein he lived, pontificate he desired a mausoleum for 

A bare record of his decease is not suffi- nis remains, and commissioned Michael 

cient. Thousands of readers have heard Angelo to execute it. The design was 

his name; some know his works; few magnificent and gratified Julius. He 

know his character. inquired the cost of completing it, ^ A 

Michael Angelo was bom in Tuscany, hundred thousand aSbwns," answered 
on the 6th of March, 1474. Fascinated Michael ; the pope replied, " 1% mav be 
by art at an early age, he executed a twice that sum," and gave orders accord- 
facsimile of a picture in his thirteenth ingly. The pontiff further determined on 
jrear, which he presented to the owner rebuilding the cathedral of St. Peter on a 
instrad of the original, who did not dis- plan of corresponding grandeur wherein 
cover the deception till a confidant of the mausoleum should be erected. It 
Michael's began to laugh. He afterwards was for the prosecution of this vast struc* 
studied under Ghirlandaio, and at fifteen ture for Romish worship, that Leo X. sold 
drew an outline round a drawing by his the indulgencies against which Luther 
anaster which showed its defects and his inveighed, and by establishing the right 
own superiority. Studying in a garden of private judgment sht-tok the papacy to 
supplied by tlie celebrated Lorenzo de its foundations. While Michael was en- 
Medici with antique statues and other gaged on the mausoleum, Julius caused a 
forms, he saw a student modelling figures covered bridge to be erected by whidi he 
in clav, and emulous of excelling in the might pass from the Vatican to Michael's 
Rame branch, begged a piece of marble, study unobserved. Envy was excited ia 
and the use of implements, from one of the papal dependents by this distinction, 
the workmen employed in makins; oma- and insinuated so much to Michael's disac- 
nents for Lorenzo's library. Wiui these vantage that his unrestrained visits to the 
ha imitated an old head, or mask, of a Vatican were suddenly interrupted. ** I 
laughing fiiun, supplying the deficiencies have an order not to let you enter, ** said 
effected by time, by his own invention, the groom of the chamber : a prelate 
and making other additions. Lorenzo inquired if he knew to whom he spoke ; 
saw it, and good humouredly remarked, ** Well enough,*' answered the officer, 
"You have restored to the old hMn all "and it is my duty to obey my orders." 
his teetli, but don't you know that a man ^ellthe pope," said Michael indignantly, 
of such an age has generally lost some ?" " if he wants mc, he shall have to seek 
As soon as Lorenzo departed, Michael ''me in another place." lie returned home, 
broke a tooth from the upper jaw, and ordered his servants to sell his fumitun 
drilled a hole in the gum to denote that immediately, and follow him to Florenc<* 
it had decayed. Lorenzo at his next and the same evening left Rome, 
▼isit was delimited by this docility, and The pope sent couriers to force ha 
to encourage Michael assigned him an return, but before he was overtaken ae 
apartment in his palace for a workroom, had reached a territory wherein the paial 
seated him at his table, and introduced maudate was without authority. *< 1di> 
him to the men of rank and talent who mediately reiuni to Ilome on pain of our 
daily resorted to Lorenzo, as the munifi- disgrace," was the pope's letter. Michsel's 
cent patron of turning and the arts. He answer was, thai having been expelled 
justified this distinction by labouring his hoUness's antichamber without hav- 
with intense ardour. At .^venteen yean ing merited disgrace, he had left Hone to 
of ase he sculptured in brass the battle preserve his character, and that he vroud 
of Hercules with the Centaurs; a work not return; for if he had hetn deeroel 
ofwhichhesaidat seventy, <« When I see worthless one day, he could be liitr 
it now, I repent that I did not entirely valued the next, unless by a caprice thil 
^mr* mywdf to sculpture." His repu- would neither be creditable to the poie 
Mmq locreMMed with biM aoplicatioo, for not to himself. Having despatched h$ 


popc^ eoorieiB with iliii letter, he pro* rant ofevery thing hot their art ^Thon,'' 
ceraed to Florenoe. To the gOTemmeDt answered the pontifi^ '* hast Tilified him ; 
of this dty Julias wrote: " We know J have not : thou art no man of genius but 
the kamoiir of men of his stamp; if he an ignorant feUow; get out of my sight.'' 
win fetoroy we fnvmiise he shall be nei- The prelate was pushed from the room. 
ther meddled with nor oflfended, and he The pope gave Midiael his benediction, 
shall be reinstated in the apostolic grace.'' restored him to full fiiTour, and desired him 
Midnel was onmored. A second and a not to quit Bologna till he had giTen him 
thiid arrifed, each more impressiTC, and a commission for some work. In a few 
Michael lemained midianged; but the days, Michael receiTed an order from 
Gonfidoniere of Florence, to whom these Julius for a colossal statue of himself 
epistles were addressed, became alarmed in bronze. While it was modelling, the 
and eipostnlated: ^ Yoo haTe done by pope's Tisits to Michael were as frequent 
the pope what the king of France would as formerly. This statue was grand, aus- 
DoC haTe presumed to do; he must tere, and majestic: the pope frimiliariy 
be no longer trifled with ; we cannot asked if the extended arm was bestowing 
make war against his holiness to risk the a blessing or a curse upon the people. - 
safety of the state; and therefore you Michael answered that the action only 
most obey his will." Thus remonstrated implied hostility to disobedience, and in- 
with, MwJiael entertained a proposal for quired whether he would not have a book 
entering into the serrice of the sultan put into the other hand. '' No," said the 
Bajaiet 11., and building a bridge from pope, '' a sword would be more adapted 
Constantinople to Penu The sultan had to my character, I am no book-man." 
even sent hun letters of credit on Flo- Julius quitted Bologna, and left Michael 
tenee and all the cities on his way ; and Angelo there to complete the statue ; he 
appointed escorts of Janizaries to await effc^cted it in sixteen months, and haying 
his arriral on the Turkish frontiers, and placed it in the fiicade of the church of St. 
condnct him, by whatgrer road he pleased, Petronio,ret^meatoRome. This product 
to the Mahometan capital. To diTert of Michael*s^ius was of short existence. 
Michael Angelo from this course, the The prospenty of Venice under united 
Gonlaloniere urged that it was better to councils, and a prudent administration of 
die under the pope*s displeasure than to its affairs, excited the hatred of the Euro- 
lire in the Turkish service; and that if he pean powers. An infamous league was 
were apprehensive for his security at Rome, enter^ into at Cambray for the ruin of 
the government of Florence would send the Venetian government, and the parti- 
him thither as its ambassador, in which tion of its terrritory ; Julius became 
character his person would be inviolable, a party to this alliance, with the hope of 
Michael, urged by these and other reasons, adding Romagna to the' dominions of the 
relented, ami met the pope at Bologna, a church, and retaining possession of Bo- 
eity which had been betrayed to the papal logna. Effecting his ooject, he withdrew 
arms, and taken possession of by Julius in from the league; and by a change of 
great pomp just before Michael's arrival, policy, and a miscalculation of his strength. 
The cardinal Soderini, brother to the quarrelled with Louis XII. who had as- 
Gon&loniere, was to have introduced sisted him in subjecting Bologna. That 
Michael to the pope, but indisposition monarch retook the city, restored the 
constrained him to depute that office to Bentivoglio family, ^hich h q^ b ^en dis- 
a prelate of his household. The pope placed by the papal arms, ara||he popu« 
askanced his eye at Michael with dis- lace throwing dovni Michaers sStue ofthe 
pleasure, and after a short pause saluted pope, dragged it through the streets, and 
nim, ** Instead of your coming to us, you broke it to pieces. With the mutilated 
seem to have expected that we should fragments the duke of Ferrara cast a 
attend upon you." Michael answered, cannon, which he named Julio, but pre- 
that his error proceeded from too hastily served the head entire, as an invaluable 
feeling a disgrace he was unconscious of specimen of art, although it bore the 
having merited, and hoped his holiness countenance of his implacable enemy, 
would pardon v^at had passed. The offi- Michael Angelo resumed Julius's mau- 
cious prelate who had introduced him, not soleum, but the pontiff had changed his 
thinking this apology sufficient, observed mind, and sorely against Michael's incli- 
to the pope, that great allowance was to nation, engaged him to decorate the ceil- 
fo be made for such men, who were igno- ings and walls of the Sixtine cha^l, with 


ptintiDgi in fresco, to the memory of Sixtoi tplendour, and wished them omamMitad 

Vl., the pope's uocle. For the purpose of with gold. Michael answered, *' In thoM 

commencing these paintings, ropes were days gold was not worn, and the charao- 

let through the ceiling to suspend the actS- ters I have painted were neither rich, nor 

folding. Michael asked Bramante the desirous of riches ; they were holy men 

architect, who had arranged this machi- with whom gold was an object of oon* 

nery, how the ceilius was to be completed tempt.** 

if the ropes were suffered to remain ? The Julius soon afterwards died ; and the 

answer did not obviate the objection, execution of his mausoleum was frustrated 

Michael represented to the pope that the by Leo X., to whose patronage Michael 

defect would hare been avoided if Bra- was little indebted. He finished his oele* 

mante had better understood the applica- brated cartoon of the Last Judgment, for 

tion of mechanical principles, and obtained the east end of the Sistine chapel, in 1 541. 

the pope's permission to take down the On Christmas-dav in that year the chapel 

inefhcient contrivance and erect another, was opened, and residents in the moai 

This he eficcted ; and his machinery was distant parts of Italy thronged to see it. 

' so ample and complete, that Bramante In the following year, he painted xk% 

himself adopted it in the building of St. ConversionofSL Paul, and the Crucifixioa 

Peter's. Michael gave this invention to of St. Peter, on the walls of the chapel 

the poor man who was his carpenter in Paolina. In 1546, when he was 72 years 

constructing it, and who realized a fortune old, the rcignini( pope nominated him 

from the commissions he received for architect of St. Peter'*. Michael would 

othera on the same plan. To indulf^ his only accept the appointment on the oon- 

curiosity, and watch the progress of the dition that he received no salary ; that bt 

work, the pope ascended the ladder to the should have uncontrolled power over the 

top of Michael's platform almo:»t dally, subordinate officers ; and be allowed to 

He was of an impt-tuous temper, and im- alter the original design conformably to 

patient to see the general effect fiom below his own judgment. It was necessary 

oefore the ceiling was half completed : to adapt and contract that design to the 

Michael, yielding to his impatience, impoverished stateofthe papal exchequer, 

struck the scaffold ; and so eager were Though numerous im|)edtments were pui- 

men of taste to obtain a view, that before posely opposed to his progress with this 

the dust from displacing the machinery splendid edifice, he advanced it rapidly ; 

had settled, they rushed into the chapel to and before he was 74, be had compltftvd 

gratify their curiosity. Julius was satis- the Famese palace, built a palace on the 

fled : but Michael's rivals, and Bramante hill of the Capitol for the senator of 

among the rest, secretly solicited the pope Rome, erected two galleries for sculpture 

to intrust the completion of the car- and painting on the same site, and threw 

toons to Raphael. Michael had intima- up a flight of steps to the church of the 

tion of these wiles, and in the presence convent of Araceli — an edifice remark, 

of Bramante himself, claimed and ob- able for its occupying the hii^hest part uf 

tained of the pope the entire execution of the hill whereon the temple of Jupiter 

his own designs. He porscvpred with in- Capitolinus formerly sttMnl, and, more 

cessant assiduity. In twenty months esMcially, for GiUion having nius(*d there, 

from the XHimmeucement of *' this stupen- while listening to the ve>pers of the bare- 

dousv^^nient of human genius" it was footed friars, and conceived the first 

complMp, and on All Saints* day, 1.^12, thought of writing hi^ " Hutory of I lie 
the iMHiTifl' liiniM:lf 0{)€ned the chapel in Decline and Fall of the Roman Kmpire." 

|Mrson with a splendid high mass, to In 1550, Julius III. succeeded to the 

crowdn ordef€tee» Miid artists. Whatever pontificate, and Michael to new vexations. 

Juliu» conceived he ha.stem*d with the ilU rivals endeavoured to displace him 

ardour of youth ; he was old, and knowing him for unfitneM in the conduct of St. Pe- 

that he had iiu time to spare, he had so ter's. A committee of architects was 

harasMxl the pi ogress of these cartoons by appointed to investigate the charge, in the 

his eagerness, that the scaffolding was presence of the |iope. The committee 

struck tK-fore they were thorouf^hly com- alleged that the church vantt^d light; and 

pleted; yet, as there w^isnot any thinic of they furnished the canlinaN Salviati and 

importance to be added, .Michael deter- Marcello Cervinu with plan<(, to show 

mined not to undergo the labour of re- that Michael had wailed up a lecess 

^neiiag' lAe mMchinerf, The pope lovad lor thrte cbaptls, and made only tliree 


wmdowt. ^ Otct those win- chamber, and in the preienee of them and 
doiri are to be |Jaced three othen,'' an- his physicians uttered this Terbal will : — 
•wered Midiael. ^ You never said tlmt be- ** My soul I resign to God, my body to 
fMPey" answered one of the cardinals. To the earth, and my worldly possessions to 
this Midiatl indlgnantlv replied, '^ I am my nearest of kin :'* tlum admonishing 
ooCy nettber will I e?er be, obliged to teO his attendants, he said, ** In your passage 
your eminence, or anv one else, what I through this life, remember the sufferings 
ought or am disposed to do ; it is your of Jesus Christ." 
office to see that money be provided, to Thus died one of the greatest artists, 
keep off the thieves, and to leave the and one of the noblest men of modem 
building of St. Peter's to me.*' The pope times. The ceremony of his funeral was 
decided in Michaers favour. From that conducted at Rome with great pomp, but 
time Julius prosecuted no work in paint- hist remains were removed within a month 
ing or sculpture without Michael s ad- to Florence, and finally deposited in the 
vice ; and his estimation of him was so church of Santa Croce at Florence. In 
hi^, that he told him at a public audi- 1 720, the vault was opened ; the body 
ence, that if he died before himself, he retained its original form, Jiabited in the 
should be embalmed, and kept in his own costume of the ancient citizens of Flo- 
palace, that his body might oe as perma- rence, in a gown of green velvet, and 
nent as his works. Soon after the death slippers of the same. 
of Julius III. in 1555, Paul IV., the new According to his English biographer, 
pontiff, expressed his displeasure of the Mr. Duppa, Michael Angelo was of the 
academical figures in the Last Judgment, middle stature, bony in make, rather 
and intimated an intention to ^ reform'' spare, and brc^ shouldered ; his com- 
the picture. Michael^ sent this message plexion good, his forehead square and 
to him : ** What the pope wishes, is vei^ *^ somewhat" projecting ; his eyes haxel 
little, and may be easily effected ; for if and rather small ; his brows with little 
his holiness will oiily ^ reform' the opi- hair; his nose flat from a blow given him 
nions of mankind, thepicture will be inhb youth bv Torrigiano ; his lips thin; 
reformed of itself." This hol^ father his cranium large in proportion to his 
plunged Italy in blood by his vindictive fiice. Within these pages a detail of his 
passions ; and while war ravaged its works will not be sought. The few par- 
plains, Michael, at the age of 82, retreated ticulars mentioned are from Mr. Duppa's 
lor a while to a monastery. On coming quarto life, where many of them are enu- 
fiom his seclusion, he vrrote to Vasari, merated, and outline sketches of some of 
" I have had a great deal of pleasure in them are engraved, 
visiting the monks in the mountains of The portrait of Michael Angelo select- 
Spoleto : indeed, though I am now return- ed by Mr. Duppa, to precede his life, is 
ed to Rome, I have left the better half of engraved by Bartolozzi, frcm a profile in 
myself with them; for in these trouble- Gori's edition of " Condivi's Memoir." He 
some times, to say the truth, there is no says its original was a drawing supposed 
happiness but in such retirement." The to have been made by Julio Bonasoni, 
death of this pope filled Rome with from which Mr. Duppa presumes that ar- 
'' tumultuous joy, and the papal chair tist to have etched a print bearing his name, 
was ascended by Pius IV., in whose pon- and dated in the year 1546. There is an 
tificate, wearied and reduced by the in- engraved portrait dated 1545, without 
cessant attacks and artifices of his ene- any artistes name attached. Mr. Duppa 
mies, Michael, at the age of 87, resigned says, '' of these two prints Bonasoni's is 
his office of architect to St. Peter's ; but much the best ; and although the second 
the pope, informed of the frauds which has a prior date, it appears to have been 
had occasioned it, leinstated him, and engraved from the same original." That 
to induce him to retain the appointment, " original," whatever it was, is no longer 
ensured strict adherence to nis designs in existence. Certainly Bonasoni's print 
until the building should be completed. is better as a print, for it has the grace of 
At the age of eighty-nine a slow fever that master's point, yet as a likeneu the 
indicated Michael Angelo's approadiing print of 1545 seems to the editor of the 
decease. His nephew, Leonardo Buo- Every-day Book to have a stronger claim 
narrotti, was sent for ; but not arriving, to regard ; not because it is of prior date, 
and the fever increasing, he ordered the but because it has more decisive marks 
persons who were in the house into his of character. He conjectures, that the 


WUHjift OM pnnt of 1545 nu; have been vnled fhnn % marU* " origiiML'* WUIe 
executed From ■ buU or tUiue of H^- corrtttmat leenu to tuve been the aini of 

e ii a laboured precUiOD 
1b« contour, and a elott maoDered mai „ . , . 

ing of the fcalDTM, that dencM lh« " on ofthepaiDterBonaioDiiabitctduiig. B^ 

giaal'* to bt** been marble. Thcconjec- nuoorsponrattucompaiatiTeljcoininoii; 

WK U itreDgtheDed bj the bet, that the the ■nonyrooui one is rare ; a copy of it 

eye in the anonjmous print it without from the print in the editor'i powei 

an iiii; a dcficiettc; whidi eiiit« in no siou, is executed on wood, by Mr.T.Wil- 

C^taTed portiait* uuleu they an ei^ lianu, and placed under the i«ader*i eye. 


Midawi! jbigido wis lemarkable for ture ih her nndescribaMe lublimity, lie 
nothing but his gemns. He slept little, achieved with corresponding greatness 
and was abstemious ; he was accustomed and beauty. His forms and their intellec- 
to say, ** However rich I may have been, tual expression are of the highest oider. 
I have always fived as a poor man." He He never did any thine little. All was in 
obtained the repotation of being ]mnid harmony with a mind which he created 
and odd ; for he found little plnsure in of himself by adding fact to faict, by se- 
the society of men from whom he could Tere reading, by close observation, by 
not learn, or whom he could not teadi. study, by seclusion. He was the quar- 
He was pleased by originality of charac- rier, and architect, and builder-up or his 
ter in whatever rank he met with it ; and own greatness, 
cultivated in mature life the society of __ 
persons respected for their talents and Sir Joshua Reynolds speaks with be* 
teaming. When young he endeavoured coming deference of Michael Angelo's 
to acquaint himsuf with every branch of powers.— <<It will not be thought presump^ 
knowledge that could contribute to his tuous in me to appear in the tram, I can- 
improvement. In common with all who not say of his imitators, but of his ad- 
have obtained a deserved eminence, he was mirers. I have taken another course, one 
never satisfied with his performances ; if more suited to my abilities, and to the 
he perceived an imperfection that might taste of the times m which I live. Yet 
have been avoided, he either threw aside however unequal I feel myself to that at- 
the work in disgust, or commenced it tempt, were I now to begin die world 
anew. again, I would tread in Uie steps of that 

He continued to study to the end of great master: to kiss the hem of his gar- 

his life. In his old age the cardinal ment, to catch the slightest of his peifec- 

Famese found him walking in solitude tions, would be glory and distinction 

amidst the ruins of the Coliseum and ex- enough for an ambitious man. He was 

pressed his surprise. Blichael answered, the bright luminary from whom painting 

'^ I go yet to scnool that I may continue has borrowed a new lustre, under whose 

to learn." He lived much alone. His hands it assumed a new appearance, and 

great excess seems to have been indulg- became another and superior art, and 

ence in reflection, and the labours of his from whom all his contemporaries and 

profession. The power of generalizing successors have derived wnatever they 

nets, and realizing what he conceived, he have possessed of the dignifi»l and 

drew frt>m this faAbit: without it some majestic.'* 

men have become popular for a time, but « 

no man ever became great. There are excellent casts from three of 

' Michael Angelo's statues exhibited by 

Grandeur was Michael ' Angelo^s pre- Mr. West at Mr. Bullock's museum, in 

▼ailing sentiment. In his architecture of Piccadilly ; they are, Christ, from the 

St. Peter's, he seems to have been limited church of Sta. Maria at Florence, Lorenzo 

by the impossibility of arriving to excel- de Medici from his monument, and the 

without adopting the ancient styles, celebrated Moses, from the church of St. 

and the necessity of attempting something Pietro, in Vincoli, at Rome. The editor 

great without them ; and to speak with of the Every-day Book has conversed with 

the severity of uncompromising truth he persons who think themselves pupils and 

fuled. Of what else he did in that students in sculpture and painting with- 

science, and he did much, for which he out having seen these I 
obtained deserved renown, there is nei- 

ther room nor occasion to speak. In Michael Angelo had studied anatomy 

painting and sculpture, if he did not profoundly. Condivi, who was his pupil 

^ways succeed in embodying his feel- and one of his biographers, says that nis 

ings, yet he succeeded more frequently knowledge of human anatomy and oi 

dian any other artist since the revival <>f other animals was so correct, that those 

arts; and, as his power was greater who had studied it as a profession all 

than theirs, so he accomplished greater their lives, scarcely understood it so well, 

works. His aim was elevated as that of When he began to dissect he conceived 

the giants who warred against the f&bled disgust from the offensiveness of the 

■ods; in one respect he was unlike them— operation and desisted ; but reflecting that 

he conquered. Majestic and wild as na« it was disgraceful to abandon what others 


coald ichierey Ym retained and pttrsucd impediment^ confer no dignity OD pM 
it to the fullest extent. Perceiving the work on which it is bestowed, pttinting 
utility of Albert Ehirer'fl "Treatise on the and sculpture may be considered without 
Proportions of theHamanBodyy** he deem- giving the preeminence to either: and 
ed it capable of improvement. Its rules since it has been so considered, no painter 
were in his opinion insufficient and too ought to undenralue sculpture, and in 
medianical, and he contemplated a trea* like manner, no sculptor ought to make 
tiie to eihibit the muscles in their Tarious light of painting.'' 
action. A friend, whom he consulted on Great as Michael Angelo was in art, 
the subject, sent him the body of a fine his intellectual character was greater, 
young Moor, which he dissected and " No one," says Mr. Duppa, " ever felt 
made remarks on, but they were never the dignity of human nature with its 
nublished. The result of his anatomical noblest attributes more forcibly than 
Knowledge may be seen in the powerful Michael Angelo, and his disgust at any 
muscular developement of his figures : be riolation of principle was acute in pro- 
left no part undefined. portion to his sensibility and love of 

truth." He despised and shrunk from 

tlie shadow of a meanness : hating the 

Several remarks occur in the course of heartlessness of unmeaning profession, 

Michael Ani^lo's letters coix^emini; his he refi^arded the dazzling simulation 

art. Speakmg of the rivalry between which constitutes the polish of society as 

sculpture and painting, he says, '*The a soul-cloud. With these commanding 

sculptor arrives at his end by taking Tiews of self dignity he poured out his 

away what b superfluous ; the painter feelings to his friend Luigi del Kmoo, in 
produces his, by addioi; the materials 

which embody the representation to the ^ madrigal. 

mind : however, after all, thoy are both Translated bj Robert Sovthej Esq. 

produced by the same intelliirence, and (fY^mMr.Dmppm'sLi/eo/Anekmtijtmgeh.J 

the superiority U not worth disputing ,„ ^^^ ^^ ^^„ ^^ ^^„ ^^^ ,^ ,^ 

about, since more time may be \oH in the j^^ worthless world,-!-iIl htth he chosen lib 

discussion, than would produce the works p^fi 

themselves." At one time, however, For ofkcn'nrait he wear the ktok of eaw 

Michael Angelo regarded painting with When grief is at hit hcirt ; 

less favour than he expresses in this And often in his hours of happier feeling 

letter. It is addressed to Varchi, who With sorrow must bis coaatcnaoce be hang, 

wrote a dissertation on the suhjoci, and And ever hi* own better thoughts coucealing 

sent it to him with an inquir)-, wliich had Mu«l in stupid grandeur's praise be loud, 

divided the amateurs of Florence, as to ^^ ^ **>« '"^o" of the ignorant crowd 

whether painting or sctilpttirc required ^ ^^"' "V}^ ^y^^ tonRiie. 

the most talent. Varchi^ treati^ has TTius much would 1 conceal-that none should 

a • T'il ""/ K^'*"^ convinced M ichael ^^^ ^7cau^ I ha^ for silent woe ; 

Angrlo that he was in error, and with ^^ ^ y^^ ^ , melanchoW proof 

the truth and candour in^cijanible from That tho«e whom fortune favoun it polhites 

such a character he confes^e*! hw mistake, j f^^ ,h« blind and Taithlcss worW doof, 

** (>f the nrlative importance of painting Nor fear ita tnwy nor desire ito praise, 

and sculpture,*' say» Michael Angelo, ** I But chooee my path through solitary ways, 
thmk painting exccllGiit in propcirtion as ■ 

it approaches relievo, and rulirvo bad in It vms one of Michael Angelo's high 

proportion us it partake^ of the character qualities to bear about him an atmosphere 

of a picture, and therefore 1 was used to which the parasite dared not approach t 

be of opinion, that paint in c might be no heaTt-eater could live in it. 
consideriHl as borrowing lit;ht fromscul|>- He justly estimated whatever was in* 

tnre, and the difference hi tween them as fluential in society ; and hence chough be 

the tun and moon. Now, however, since seemed to look down upon rank as aa 

I have read your dissertation, which treats accident of life, he was not regardless of 

the subject philosophically, and shows, its use. To those whom distinctions had 

that those things which have the same raised, he paid the deference accorded to 

cud, are one, and the same, I have their dignities. Yet towards him who 

dnnged my opinion, and say, that, if touched his integrity, he bore a lofty car- 

gimim j v dgmtDif labour, dificultj, aad nage, and wbe» he coodeiceaded to reieal 


the attick, lioiled an impetuous defiance reply. '' Poor fellow,'' said Michael, 
that kindled as it flew, and consumed the ** thou shalt not need another master/' and 
insulting defiuner, though hewereensoon- he gate him two thousand crowns. This 
ced be^nd countless quarterings, or er- was a large sum in those days : Vasari 
mined and enthroned. To the constant says such a donation would only have 
calumny of jealous rivalry, and the daily bmn expected from popes and great em- 
lie of envy and enmity, he was utteily perort. Michael afterwards procured him 
indifferent. When asked why he did not an appointment in the Vatican to take care 
resent the aspersions incessantly poured of the pictures, with a monthly salary of 
upon him by one of his assailants, he aiv- six ducats ; and presenring his regard for 
swered — ^ He who contends with the the old man, Midiael, though at that time 
worthless can gain nothing worth possess- eighty-two years of age, sat up with 
ing." him by night in his last illness. '' His 

death has been a heavy loss to me," he 

Midiael Angelo's temper was " sudden ^'^^^^ ^ Vasari, *< and the cause of exces- 

and quick ;" but his nature was kind and "'^^ fP^y ^"* it Iws also been a most im- 

beneTolenL Inferior artisto frequently ex- p^essive lesson of the grace of God : for 

periaaoed his friendly disposition. He *? ^^ »^<>^ ™e» that he, who m his life- 

sometimes made drawings and modellad *""« comforted me in the enjoyment of life, 

for them. To MinigeUa, a very indiffer- ^y^ofiT has taught me how to die ; not with 

ent hand, he gave the model of a crucifix reluctance, but even with a desre of death, 

beautifully executed, from which the poor ^e ^'/ed with me twentv-six years, grew 

fellow formed a mould and made casts "ch m my Mmce, and I found him a 

of prnpier matke to sell to the country most rare and feithful servant; and now 

pe<mlc. Friendship and esteem for par- «»* ^ calculated upon hu being the statf 

tknfar individuaU oftener induced him to ^"^ ^pose of my ofd age he is tak^ away, 

undertake works than proffers of large ^ ^.^^ m« ??^y^ hope of seeing 

SQUks. Yet he was not indifferent or in- ^^^ ^S^^ "* paradise, 

sensible to a just estimation of his talents , 

when theywere undervalued. ForAngelo ^ 

Doni, a Florentine of taste, he painted a Michael Angelo was never named, 

holy family, and sent it home wJth a note To one who lamented tbat he had no chil* 

requiring seventy ducats for it. Doni dren to inherit his property, Michael ao- 

told the messenger he thought forty were swered, " My works must supply their 

enough ; Michael replied by demanding place ; and if they are good for any thing 

the picture or a hundred ; Doni said he they will live hereafter. It would have been 

was willing to pay the seventy ; Michael unfortunate for Lorenzo Ghiberti, had he 

demanded a hundred and forty, and Doni not left the doors of S. Giovanni, for his 

paid the sum. sons and his nephews have long since 

" sold and dissipated his accnronlated 

-- , J ^t «^«. -•« wealth ; but his sculpture remains, and 

He honoured worthy men in every sta- ^.^ ^^^^.^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^.^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 

uon. His pur^ was open to their neces- „ These "doors- were of bronze, 

sines; he condoled with them in their ^j^^ j^j^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^.^ j^j^^ ^^ 

afflictions, and lightened their oppressions ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^j^^ j^„ 

by his sympathies and influence. To ^,f aise. 

artists and men of talent his liberality ^ ^___^ 
was munificent. He neither loved money 

nor accumulated it. His gifts were the Throughout the poetry of Michael A9- 

free-will offerings of his heart, and hence cpelo, of which there is much in existence, 

its dispensations were unaccompanied by a u>ve is a pervading sentiment, though, 

notoriety which sullies the purity of pri- without reference to any particular ob- 

mary obligation, by exposing the naked- ject. Condivi had often heard him dis- 

ness of its object. course upon it as a passion platonically ; 

. and Mr. Dappa gives the follovring son- 

. 1- V ij J net, translate from the Italian of Michael 

Conversing one day with his old Mid ^^gelo by Mr. Wordsworth, as exempU- 

«uthfiil servant, be saui, « ^'Vbat wi^ be- ^ Midiael's turn of thought ; 

come of you, Urbine, if I should die r « I ^ * ^ 
mnft then sedL amHher master^ was the 


Bt Miouel Avoblo. 

Yet ! hope may with my strong dcare keep ptoe« 

And I be undelnded, unbetnj'd ; 
For, if of oar afections none find erace 

In nght of Hemveo, then wherefore hath God madt 
Hie world which we inhabit 1 Better plea 
Love cannot have, than that in lovine thee* 

Glory to that eternal Peace ia paid. 
Who snch divinity to thee imparts 
As hallows and makes pwe aU gentle hearts. 

His hope is treacherous only, whose love dies 
With beauty, which is vaiying every hoorf 
But in chaste hearts, nninfluenced bv the power 
Of ontward change, there blooms a deathless flower 

That breathes on earth the air of Paradise. 

The pefsontl beaaty and intellectual As an instance, a short noetical suppli* 

tndowments of Vittoria Colonna, marchi- cation, translated by Mr. Dupm into 

oness of Pescara, impressed Midiael An- prose, is remarkable for its seff-know- 

Slo with sentiments of affectionate esteem, ledge and simplicity; it is here sob- 

te admired his genius, and freauently joined:— 
left ber residence at Viterbo for the sole 

mtrpoee of enioying bis society at Rome. ^ Tbihe Sttpremg Behg. 

He addiessed three sonneU and a ma- «My prayen wiU be sweet if thou 

drinl to ber. In ber last moments he lendest me virtue to make them worthy 

ptid ber m Tisit, and told Condivi be to be heard ; my unfruitful sofl cannot 

piered he bad not kissed her cheek, as produce virtue of itself. Thou knowest 

be bad ber hand, for there was litUe hope ^ seed, and how to sow it, that it may 

of bis ever seemg her again. He.penned tpring up in the mind to produce just and 

u epitaph on her decease : the recollee. pJous works : if thou showest not the 

tion of her death constanUy dejected him. fcoiowed path, no one 1^ his own know- 

To the purity of his thoughts, there is ledge can follow thee. Pour thou into my 

m lugh testimony by Condivi. " In a long min^ fi^^ thoughts that may conduct roe 

intimacy, I have never heard from his imhj holy steps; and endue me with m 

mouth a single word that was not perfectly |^ent tongue, that I may alway praise, 

deeoffoos, and had not for iu object to ^x^jt, and sing thy glory." 
otinguish in youth every improper and 

lawlos desire : his nature b a stranger Finally, it may be added, that in an 

to depravity." He was religious, not by age of splendid vice, Michael Angelo was 

the show, but from feeling and conviction an illustrious example of virtue. 

To Michael Amgclo— Immoktal 

Michael I to what thon wcrt, if I could raise 

An atptratioo. or a holy light, 
V/ithin one readrr, I'd essay to praise 

Thy virtue ; and would supplicate the muse 
For nowtn to deck thy rreatoess : so I might 

But urge one youthful artist on to choooe 
A life like thine, I would attempt the hill 

Where well inspiring floods, and thence vronld drink 
Tdl— «i the Pythoness of old, the will 

No longer then cootroU'd by saftse — I'd think 
Alone of good and thee, and vrith loud cries. 

Break the dead slumber of undeemin« man. 
Refresh him with a nsh of truth, surprise 

Uim with thy deeds, and abow him thine was Wadon's pba. 



This todiical Mgn ii *aid to lymbolize 
the fiibery of the Nile, which usually 
oommeDced at this wason of the year. 
According to an ancient iable, it lepre- 
•enU Veoui aid Cujud, who, to avoid 
Typhon, a dreadful snnt with a hundred 
head*, ti«n*fonned uwmielTes into 6ih. 
This Eibuloui monster, it seems, threw the 
whole host of heathen deities into confu- 
Mon. Ilia story shortly is, that as soon 
as he was born, he began to areng;e the 
death of bis brethrm, the giants who had 
warred against Olympus, 1^ rmuming the 
conflict alone. FUmes of fire darted 
in>m his eyes and mouths ; he uttered 
horrid yelb, and so ftighteued the pagan 
eeleatials, that Jupiler himself became a 

n]n,JuDoacaw, Mercury an ibii,Apol)oa 
craw, Bacchus a goat, Diana » cat, Venui 
a fish, he. till Jupiter hurled a rock and 
buried bim under £lna. The idol L^a- 
gon, with a human head and amu, and 
a fish's tail, is aBirmed to be the symboi 
of the sun in Pisces, aitd to allegoriM 
that the earth teem* with eom and freit*. 
The sun generally enten Pisces about 
tlie peiiod of February ; for instance, in 
1BS4 on the leih, in 1815 on the IBth of 
the month. The Romtuis imagined that 
the entrance of the sun into Pisces wu 
attended by bad weather, and gales of 
nncertainty to tlie mariner.* Thomion 
sings, that in 

MnltniDX, the winds It ere, with blunted pwnl. 
Blow boUow-blmtering data the KHilh. Rubdned, 

7^ froil resolve 

I trickling thsw. 

ihine ; Iodk sleet 
A'nd flood) the country roond. The ntrn 
or bandi impiticDt. Suddea from the hi 
OVr rocks and woods, ib bromd. brown ca 
A thouianJ scow-fed tc^rents ihoot at one 
And whrre they rush, the wide rewundin 
Ii left oae ilimv waste- 

sole expense, by several years' labotir, and 
with the assistance of some learned per- 
sons abroad and at home, made collec- 
tions of original paoers aiid letters re 
lating to "Thuanuss History," written 
in Lalin, in order to a new and accurate 
On the IBih of February 1T34, the edition, in 7 *oIs. folio, which was finish- 
houK of commons received a petition ed; that the act of the 8th of Q. Anne, 

from Mr. Samuel Buckley, a learned 

printei ; aettiiig forth that he bad, at his •Dr. tottrnfa tmtam. *M, 

No. 10. 

^febniarp 18. 



for the encouragement of learning, ex- 
tended only to the authors, purchasers, or 
proprietors of the copy-right of any book 
m English, published after the 10th of 
April,l710, and allowed the importation or 
vending of any books in foreign language 
printed beyond the seas ; so that any books, 
nrst compiled and printed in this lUngdom 
in any or those languaaeiy might be re- 
printed abroad and tdd in this lungdom, 
to the great damage of the first printer or 
proprietor : he therefore prayed, that he 
mignt be allowed the same bendSt in his 
copy of the " History of Thuanus,** in 
Latm, for fourteen years. Leave was 
given to bring izi the bill, and it after- 
wards passed into an act. 

The protection of this excellent wofk 
was a justice due to the spirit and liber- 
ality of Mr. Buckley. He had been 
originally a bookseller. John Dunton 
■ays of him, '< He is an excellent linguist, 
understands the Latin, French, Dutch, 
and Italian languages, and is master of a 
great deal of wit : he prints the ' Daily 
Courant,' and * Monthly Register,' which, I 
hear, he translates out of the foreign pa- 
pers himself :**—« mat merit, it should 
teem, in the eyes of old Dunton. 

Mr. Bucklqr was a realhr learned 
printer. The collections for bis edition 
of Thuanus were made by Carte, who 
bad fled to France from an accusation of 
high treason, during the rebellion of 1715 
and while in that country possessed him- 
self of so many materiab for the purpose, 
that he consulted Dr. Mead, the cele- 
brated physician, and patron of literaiy 
men, concerning the undertaking. By 
the doctor's recommendation, it was in- 
trusted to Mr. Buckley, who imported 
the paper for it, wliich, with the mate- 
rials, cost him 2,350/. He edited the 
work with fidelity, and executed it with 

Mr. Buckley was the publisher of the 
** Spectator ,** which appeared in folio 
from his shop at the Dolphin in Little 
Britain, a place then filled with book- 
sellers. At the close of the seventh vo- 
lome this popular work was suspended, 
bat resumed by Buckley in Amen-comer. 
He attained to opulence and respect- 
ability, was in the commission ot the 
peace for Middlesex, and died, greatly 
•Mcemed, on the 8th of September, 1741, 
in the nzty-eighth year of his aire .* 

It is rekled of the great lord chanceDor 

^iBr.MdMA UL 

Hardwicke, that he so highly regarded 
"Thuanus's History,** as to have resigned 
the seals for the express purpose of bemg 
enabled to read it in tne original lan- 
guage.^ It has been computed that a 
person who gave his attention to this 
work for four hours every day, would not 
finish the perusal in twelve months. It 
eomprehends the events of sixty-four 
Years, dunng the times wherein Tliuanus 
uved and flourished as an eminent French 
author and statesman. His English 
biographer quotes, as a character of his 
writings, that, '* in a word, they are cal- 
culated to render those who attend to 
them better and wiser men .*'t 


Wall Speedwell. Vtroniea vhemii. 
Dedicated to Si. Sitmeon of Jerusalem. 

^bruarp 19- 

Si. Bmrbaimg, or BarhoMy Bp. a. d. 682. 

This saint is patron of Benevento, of 
which city he was bishop. Butler rdates 
no miracle of him, nor does it appear from 
hira that an^ other name in the calendar 
of the Romuh church is afltod to this 


A pretty trifle from the Greek is de- 
scriptive of appearances about this pe> 

To • Ladjf on ker Birikdmy, 

See amidst the winter's cold. 

Tender infant of the tpriDg ; 
See the rose her hud untold, 

£f ery sweet b on the wing. 

Hark ! the purple flow 'ret cries, 

Til for thee we haste away, 
Tis for thee we brave the tkies, 
Sailing vn thy natal day. 

Soon thalt thou the pleasure prove, 
Which awaits on virtuous love 

Place us 'midftt thy flowing hair, 
Where each lovely grace prevails. 

Happier we to deck the fair. 
Than to wait the vernal gales. 


Field Speedwell. Veronica ogretHa* 
Dedicated to 5#. Amftofiit. 

• Blbllnr Met. 

f^ TtiE EVERY-DAY BOOK.--F£BR0ARf tOl im 

^tbtUBXV 20. DowAY with licence, and approbation of 

** c • the Ordinary, M.dc.xxxii," relates of'this 

51. lymudo, Bp. &c. ▲. o. 310. Sts. saint, that he was bom in a Tillage called 

Sadoti, Bp. &c ▲. D. 342. Si. Eleu- Lenten, or Litton, near Bristol, with many 

tkerhuy Bp. ▲. D. 532. St. Miktred, Ab- manrels concerning him, and among them 

bess. 5f. JSmekerhu, Bp. A. n. 743. this: — He became a priest, but kept 

Si. UiridL hawks and dogs for sport, till he met a 

beggar who asked alms. Ulrick said, he did 

Si* Mildred. not know whether he had aught to bestow : 

This saint was the first abbess of Min- " Look in thy purse," quoth the beggar, 

ster, in the isle of Thanet, founded by ** and **»ere thou shalt find twopence 

king Egbert about 070, in satisfaction for halfpenny." Ulrick finding as he was toW, 

having murdered his two nephews, Ethel- receiTed thanks, and a prophecy that he 

dred and Ethelbright; to which satisfac- should become a saint, whereupon he 

tion he was " miraculously terrified, by starved and hermitized at Hessleborougfa, 

seeing a ray of bright light dart from the >» Dorsetshire, about thirty miles from 

heavens upon their grave." In 1033, her Exeter. «*The skin only sticking to his 

remains were remutyved to St. Augustine's bones," his daintiest food was oaten-bread 

monastery at Canterbury, and venerated ^^^ water-gniel. He passed many nights 

above aU the relics there, and worked without sleep, never slept but when he 

miracles, as all saints' reUcs did in those ^^^^ no^ J^eep awake, and never went to 

fiivoured times. The churches of St. Mil- ^^^ " b«^ leaning his head to a wall, he 

dred, Bread-street, and St. Mildred in the ^^^^ a short allowance ;" and when he 

Poultry, London, are dedicated to her.* awoke, " he would much blame and chas- 

In St. Mildred's church in the Poultry, *«e his body, as yielding vnto overmuch 

Thomas Tusser, whose " Five Hundred nicenesse." His pillow was ropes of hay, 

PoinU of Good Husbandrie" have been ^s clothing poor, and lined next the skin 

cited in fonner pages of this work, was ^^^ ^ 'ough shin of hair-cloth, till his 

buried, and on his tomb this ^^^ having overcome its uneasiness, he 

wore next his skin an iron coat of mail. 

EPITAPH. In the sharpest cold of winter, having 

Here Thomas Tusser, first put off his iron shirt, he was wont to 

clad in earth, doth lie, ^^ ^^^^ ^ vessel of cold water and recite 

That sometime made psalms. His coal of mail hanging below 

The pointes of Husbandrie : nis knees, he went to the knieht who gave 

By him then leame thou maist ; it to him, to take counsel therein. His 

here leame we must, military adviser persuaded him to send it 

When all is done, we sleepe, to London to be cut ; but he gave the knight 

and tome to dust : ^a payre of sheares." The knight hesitated. 

And yet, through Chnst, the other entreated. " The one falls to 

to Heaven we hope to goe ; ,,^3 ^^^ ^^„ endeavours with 

K n^j^fv'^f^K Ucn4. iron and steale to cut iron and steale, 
shall fand his faith was so.t u 1 .v *u • 1 u * u 

when both their labours tooke prosperous 

^* 171 * k effect ; for the knight, in his cutting worke, 

seemed rather to divide a piece of cloath 

Of this saint, who died the 28th of than a peece of iron." Then the saint, 

February, 1154, Butler says little. "without any sheeres, pulled asunder 

" The Flowers of the Lives of the the little rings of that part of his coate 

most renowned Saiscts of the three cutt off, and distributed them charitably 

kingdoms, England, Scotland, and Ire- to all that desired, by virtue whereof 

land, written and collected out of the best manie diseases were cured.*' Envying 

authours and manuscripts of our nation, guch rare goodness, an infernal spirit, in 

and distributed according to their feasts most horrible shape, dragged him into 

in the calendar, By the K. Father, the church, and ran him round the pave- 

HiEROME Porter, Priest and Alanke oj ment, till the apparition ofa virgin stopped 

the holy order of Sainci Benedict, of the this rude behaviour ; however, the infernal 

Congregation of England, Printed at took advantage of the saint when he was 

.____ ____^_. sick, and with a staff he had in his hand 

« ^ _. , . « A«. c I.A. ga^c l^i™ three knocks on the head, and 

• B-fler-. Ut« of tiie Saint.. departed. The devil U>Tm«iUA Vm ^W 


wvfE ; he cut bim into an intolerable ness, or the fear of eril. Children baTe 

keaty then he gave him an intolerable cold, fallen from careless parents into the hands 

and then he made him dream a dream, of the executioner, in whom the means 

whereby the saint shamed the devil by of distinguishing between right and wrong 

openly confessing it at diurch on Easter- might have become a stock for knowledge 

day before all the people. At length, to ripen on, and learning have preserved 

after other wonders, ^ the joints of his the fruits to posterity. Let not him de- 

inm coate miraculously dissolved, and it spair who desires to know, or has power 

fell down to his knees." Upon this, he to teach — 

foretold hU death on the next Saturday, xhere is m every human heart, 

and thereon he died. Such, and much gome not completely barren part, 

more is put forth concerning St. Ulrick, Where seeds of tnith and love might grow, 

by the aforesaid ** Flowers of the Saincts,'' And Bowers of generous virtue blow : 

which contains a prayer to be used pre- To plant, to watch, to water there, 

paratory to the perusal, with these words. This be our duty, be our care. 

" that this holy reading of their lives may Bowrmf, 

aoe inflame our hearts, that we may follow """^ 

and imitate the traces of their glorious jr*¥«*^tffe«*M 01 

example, that, after this mortalllife, we JTraniarp Zl. 

may be made worthie to enjoy their most st. Sevefianus, Bp. a. d. 452. SU. 

desired companie." German, Abbot, and BandauU or Umk- 

^__.^_^ doaidy A. D. 666. St$. Daniel and Fierda^ 

A. D. 344. fi. Pepin, of Landen, a. d. 640, 


Navehrort, Cynoglosemm ampkaloda. aaEAKFAsr iw cold WEATHEa. 

D^iu^ud to «. Mu^. „ ;:«- ji. "iL^^^X'^^^] 

- secondly, dry toast; thirdly, butter; 

CaaoaotnoT fourthly, eggs; fifthly, ham; sixthly, 

something potted ; seventhly, bread, salt. 

On the 20th of February 1749, Usher mustard, knives and forks, &c. One of 
Oahagan, by birth a gentleman, and by the first things that belong to a breakfast 
education a scholar, perished at Tyburn, b a good fire. There is a delightful mix- 
His attainments were elegant and supe- ture of the lively and the snug in comin? 
lior ; he was the editor of Brindley's down into one's breakfast-room of a cola 
beautiful edition of the classics, and morning, and seeing every thing prepared 
translated Pope's " F.ssay on Criticism ** for us ; a blazing grate, a clean table-cloth 
into Latin verse. Better grounded in and tea-thin«, the newly-washed faces 
learning than in principle, he concen- and combed Iieads of a set of good-hu- 
trated liberal talents to the degrading moured urchins, and the sole empty chair 
selfishness of robbing the community of at its accustomed comer, ready for occu- 
lts coin by clipping. During his confine- pation. When we lived alone, we could 
ment, and hopmg for pardon, he translated not help reading at meaU : and it is ccr- 
Pope's '^ Temple of Fame," and his **Mes- tainly a delicious thing to resume an en- 
aian," into the same language, with a de- tertaming book at a particularly intercst- 
dication to the duke of Newcastle. To ing passage, with a hot cup of tea at one*s 
the same end, he addressed prince George elbow, and a piece of buttered toast in 
and the recorder in poetic numbers, one's hand. The first look at the pai!e. 
These efforts were of no avail. Two of accompanied bv a coexistent bite of the 
bis miserable confederates in crime were toast, comes un^er the head of intensities.'' 
bis companions in death. He suffered 

with a deeper guilt, because he had a ^^^ season. 

hipfaer knowledge than ignorant and un- Hie weather is now cold and mild 

thinking crimii^ls, to whom the polity of alternately. In our variable climate we 

•octety, in its grounds and reasons, is un- one day experience the severity of winter, 

known. and a genial warmth prevails the next ; 

AccomplishiDents upon vice are as and, indeed, such chaii^es are not unfr(>- 

teatttiftil cdouft on a venomous reptile, quently felt in the same day. \\ inttr, 

LtMrning ii a vain show, and knowledge however, at this time breaks advice, and 

iriC6oot the love of good- we have presages of the genial M^asim. 


Ozea, o'er the fonow*!! foil^ sports of the field allured him froa the 

Uxging firm their annual toil ; pursuits of literature at college, and the 

Trim cottages that here and there, domestic comforts of wife and home. 

Spccfcling the social tilth, appear : 

And spires, that as from groves they rise. To ike Ediior. 

?SI ^ *• '»*i»8 hamlrt Bes :. ^o disembnrthen oneself of ennui, «mI 

?S,^^:{L"^';'^rr tofind«tiond«n«sen.en.foreve,yV 

Herds.or niminate, or lave, Jf? %"** y®*^ ** * 8^™»^ desideratum m 

ImmeraiDg in the sUent ware. }>'«• Luckily I have hit on't, and beg 

The sombre wood— the cheerful plam, l^^e> « D«»ng t^e properest place, to 

Green with the hope of future grain : give my recipe in the Everlasting Calen- 

A tender blade, ere Autumn smile dar you are compiling. I contrive then 

Benignant on the farmer's toil, to give myself employment for eveiy time 

Gild the ripe fields with mellowing hand, of year. Neither lively Spring, glowinf 

And scatter plenty through the land. Summer, sober Autunm, nor dreaiy Win- 

Baron Smith. ter, come amiss to me ; for I have con- 

trived to make myself an Universal 

FLORAL DIRECTORY. Sportsmau, and am become so devoted m 

White crocus. Crocus versicolor. P^,« of Diana, that I am dangUng at her 

Dedicated to 5^ Serviamu. ^^^f ^l ^^\ y?f ^^^ without being 

tired of It. In bleak and fix>zen Janrnmy^ 

' besides sliding, skating in figures, and 

^(birUStl) 22. making men of snow to frighten children 

^ ^ ' with, by means of a lantern placed in a 

Tke Chair of St. Peter at Antioch. St. skull at the top of them, I now and then 

Margaret^ of Cortona, a. d- 1 297. SU. get a day's cock shooting vrhen the froet 

TftalBtJM and Lhnneus. St. Baradat. breaks, or kill a few small biids in the 

St. Margaret. snow. In lack of other game, a neish* 

She was a penitent, asked public pardon ^^^^^ ^V<*» 5»r fSp^y ^^ a chicken, ^ot 

for her sins with a rope about her neck, 5?^ pocketed as I saUy out to the club 

punished her flesh, and worked miracles ^»°°^''' ?f«, *""?<* more easily than my 

accordingly.* dairymaid does it, poor things 1 

In Fehruaryy the weather being rainy 

Sts. Thaiaahu and Limneus. or roil J, renders it worth my while to send 

St. Thalasius dwelt in a cavern, « and "^Y ?^^ '^^^ Leicestershire for hunting 
was endowed with extraordinary gifts of ^^" ' ^,^ ^° "?y "^^'^^ *>^"« Skyscra- 
the Holy Ghost ; but was a treLmre un- P.^' "> ^^^ everlasting chestnut Silver- 
known to the world." St. Limneus was \^'^> the only good black m the hunt Sul- 
his disciple, and « famous for miraculous tan and the brown mare Rwmante. to- 
cures of the sick,'' while his master " bore p}}"^' Y'^*l '^*'^°* ^^^ ^°^ **^ the Cock- 
patiently the sharpest cholics, and other ^'^^J * ^^^^^^.^^ 1^5' ^f, * P^ney for er- 

iistemiirs, without any human succour."* ^""^^l ^ P^^^ ^^'^^ P^^ ^^ ^ 

*^ ' •' gage for Melion ; and then from the first 

St. Baradat. purple dawn of daylight, when I set off to 

,-«. -^i-j- *iru* J cover, to the termination of the day with 

This saint lived m a trelhs-hut, exposed ^^ ^ ' t k«-« i^ « r ♦• i 

in thP severities of the weather and ^^""^^ ^ ^^""^ P^^^^^ °^ rational amuse- 

? 1 !i ^^^^J'^'f. ^^ fC r » ' nient. Next month, forbearing March 

clothed in the skins of beasts.* ^^^^^^ j ^^^^ ^ f^^' ^^^^ yj^^ ^^ 

■""■"" are all gone, and at night prepare my 

FLORAL DIRECTORY. fishing tacklc for April, when the verdant 

Herb Margaret. BeUis perenni*. meadows again draw me to the riverside 

Dedicated to St. Margaret, of Cortona. to angle. 

My wife has now rational employment 

for the rest of the Summer in catching 

SPORTTNO CALENDAR. and impaling the various flies of Uie sea- 

A valued correspondent obliges the son against my trout mania comes, which 

Every-Day Book with an original sketch, is usual eariy in May, when all her maids 

hasty and spirited as its hero, when the assist in this flyfowling sport. I have 

. generally been successful in sport, but I 

« Btttiei's Saints. shall never forget my disappointment 


when on throwing in a fly line which wu to a farm}iouse, disguiied as a ratcatcher, 
not baited by myself, I found tliat Sally, and take a slullin^ for ferret work, 
mistaking her new employment, had bait- But now I come to thy shrine, O lorely 
ed my hook wiili an earwig. In June I Septembrta, thou fuirest nymyh in Di- 
neglected my Grass for the same s|K>rt, ana's train, with ^oiling blue eyes as sharp 
and often let it stand till the I lay is and as true as those of a signal lieute- 
spoiled by Swithin, who wipes his wa- nant ; I come to court thee again, and may 
tery eyes with what ought to be my Win- thy path be even paved with the skulls of 
ter s fodder. This gives me rational, partridges. Again I come to dine with 
though troublesome, employment in buy- thee on the leveret *s back or pheasant*s 
ing Hay or passing ofl' the old at market, wings. WeVe wildboars' bladders fbi 
t/u/y, however, affords plenty of bobfish- wine bottles, ramshoms for corkscrews, 
ing, as I call it, for roach, dace, perch, bugles for funnels, gunix>wder for snufl, 
and bleak. I also gudt^eon some of my smoke for tobacco, woodcock's bills for 
neighbours, and cast a linu of an evening toothpicks, and shot for sugar plums ! I 
into their carp and tench ponds. I have dare not proceed to tell you hov^* many 
not, tiiank my stars, cither stupidity 3r brace of birds Ponto and 1 bate the first 
patience enough for barbel. Hut in <lay of shooting, as the lone bow, iii>tv-,id 
AugUMt^ that is before the 12th, I get my of the fowling piece, miglit 1x2 called my 
trolling tackle in order, and am reminded weapon. But enougli rodomontadin,:. 
of my old vermin college days, when I now come to Octofwr. Phea>ants 
shutting my room door, as if I was by all that's volatile ! And then, after 
*' sported in" and cramming Euclid, I them, 1 (;o tn my tailor and order two 
u^icil to creep down to tlie banks of the suits — scarh't for master Reynard, and a 
Cum, and t-la])ping ray hands on my old bottlegreen jacket for the harriers, top- 
rod, With his long line to him, exclaimed, boots, white conleroy inexpresyibles, and 
in true lluratian nieiisure, the only Latin a velvet cap. Then when the clovers ring 
line I ever cited in my life, attain with the hallowed music of liarriers, 

I begin skylarking the gates and setting 

J*rogau€ iouga j^aulcM captarc JoAajtnetm into wind to follow the foxhounds iu 

November, Wlien 

But, oh! the 12th day of ^w/^f«/, that mi j t 

mountain holiday, ushered in by the ring- The d^ky nif^ht rijfes Hnvn the shy, 

in^r of the sheep bell-'tis then that, And ushers in the .norn, 

: L » 1 • r .■ -^i Tne iioundt all Mfihr a Jortal crw. 

*acketed m fustian, with a cun on my -„ . ,. ., . ■ j l- *V 

, , , , ' , . II, ^ And the ilumtsman uinds his kom. 
shoulder, and a )>owder lK»m belted to my 

side, I ramble the ^ou^h highland hills in With throe days in the week chace, and 
quc*st of blttikcocks and red game, get pretty little interludes of hunting with 
now and then a chiince shot at a ntarma- beagles, or of snipe shooting, I manage 
gan, and once V* ini:ed a Capercaille on a to get thiough hecetulK*r to the year's 
T»ine tree at Invercaulil. In hurrjing end. My snuij Winter evenings are 
iiome for the Fimt nf September^ 1 UMially spent in petting ready my guns, smacking 
pass through the fens (if Lincolnshire, and new huntin? ^hip**, «»r trjin^r on mw 
there generally kill a wihl duck or two. lK)ot>, \^hile my old hall furnishes amjjle 
You muAt know 1 have, l>esidesniv|K)int- store rf tmphus ^taus* horns hunted by 
ers, setters, and spaniel>, water «lo.:s of my irreat grandfather, cn)ss Ik»ws, guns, 
every sort. Inderd my dog brushes won on rivaU of P( casus, and all 
ment would astonish Arttun. Tin-rear* sortsofiKh]oldfa>hinn<dv«hip>, horns and 
my harriers KtKk^iHMl, Hiu'.rwo<Mj, acmutrenirnt*', hanu'ini: up all round, 
lusher, .Tcwler, KalKwoutl, and iwinty \%lii(h remind me «1 ihoM' days o! \».re 
more; my pointers, Ponto and Carlo; \%h( n I uniendM-r the old squiVc and' )us 
my spaniels Da^h and OM (iriule; ^portini; cliaplain eashm; hoiiii* «iit >pcnt 
lledj;tlii»>; and Pi»nipy, my water dotfs. horsetail lu"»natlrnd fnmi ilu- di.i^i, It- 
No one, I l*el a crown, has Intter K"}- f'»re I had riddi m aii\ lliinj hut iii\ unk- 
hmmds than Fly and Hart are, m»r a inj; h«»rsf. Tliere tin n luivi- 1 r.iii. 
surer lurcher than (Jrovrller. I say no- aniusiinent ail the vi ar i<iun<I. .\i .i 
tiling of thfHKr inferK.r ** 1 jres," my ter- much ami «ine«ieK du I pr.\j i liin, (» 
rien-— ratcatchini: Busy, Snap, and'Nim- Diana! ur.alrM Diana ut' the rphi siai.«! 
blctoct, with whom, in thv ab^nse of at thy ftrtv^dl 1 ri|inM ni) i>iii imhI v • .i- 
e, 1 go sometimes for a frolic therbeatcn carcass at last, and invoke thy 


totcilaxy ptotection for my old age, thou 
wlio art ihmimgf 8kooU^g9 and Fuking 
pcimifiad, the true Dhfa Tkiformis Si 

Vma taa Ftns cilo, 
Ooui ptf enelos cfo latni innoi, 
Venn iMiqaiM Bnutaatii Ictaa, 

I have tbe honour to remain. 
Yours ever. 

Jack Lawlkimo, 


To • ^ proper new** tune. 


No !— I bate aodung new lo my. 

Why flunt ye wait to bear my story 1 
Go, fst thee on thy trackless way, 

Thims's smny a weary mile bcJbie 
Gel thea to hco, lest some poor poet, 

&iajptar'd with thy phis, shoiald dip 
A pen m iok to let thee know it. 

And (mindful not to let thee slip 
His fingers) bid thy moonship itajp 
And list, what he might have to say 

Tet I do love t)»e !— and if aoght 

The muse can serve thee, will petition 
Her grace t' attend thine airy court. 

And play the part of first musician — 
Bat ««ode," and '< lines," " sddress," and 
•• sonnet," 

** Tb Lima dedicate," are now 
Be^leatiful, that (fie upon it !) 

SwU add no glory to thy brow. 
But tell thee, in such strains ss foUow, 
Ihat thy mild sheen beats Phosphor hollow ! 

That dwa art ** £yrest of the fair," 

Tbo* Phoebus more that's grand posiesMSy 
That tree amd tower reflect my glsie. 

And the glsd stream thy ray confesiesy 
That, when thy silvery beams illumine 

The landscape, nature seems bedight 
Whh loveliness so rare, that few men 

Have e'er been blessed with such a sight ! 
And all such wtoontkime : — but enough 
Of this tame " milk and water" stuff. A 

51. mWurge, 7th Cent 

She was sister to St. Mildred, wore a 
hair cloth, and built the monastery of 
Wenlock, in Shropshire. One day being 
al Stokes, a neighbouring village, brother 
Hierome Porter says, Uiat ** a young 
gallant, lonne to a prince of that coun- 
trey, was soe taken with her beautie, that 
he had a vehement desire to carrie her 
away bv fbroe and marrie her." fit. Mil- 
burge fled from him and his companions 
till she had passed m little brook, called 
Corfe, whidi then suddenly swelled up 
and threatened her pursuers with de- 
struction, wherefore they desisted. She 
ordered the wild geese who ate the com 
of her monastic fields to be gone else- 
where, and they obeyed her as the watefs 
did. Af^ her death, her remains were 
discovered, in 1100, by two children 
sinking up to their knees in her graipe, 
the dust whereof cured leprosi^ restored 
the sight, and spoiled medical practioe. 
A diseased woman at Patton, dripking of 
the water wherein St Milburge/^ bones 
were washed, there came from her sto- 
mach '' a filthie wonne, ugly and horrible 
to behold, having six feete, two homes 
on his bead, and two on his tayle." 
Brother Porter tells this, and that the 
*^ worme was shutt up in a hollow piece 
of wood, and reserved afterwards in the 
monasterie, as a trophie, and monument 
of S. Milburg, untiil by the lascivious 
furie of him that destroyed all goodnes 
in England, that, with other religious 
houses, and monasteries, went to ruine."* 
Hence the " filthie worme*' vras lost, and 
we have nothing instead but the Reform- 


Apricot. Pmniis Armentaca. 
Dedicated to St. Miiburgf. 

^bruarp 2a 

St. Seremu^ ▲. o. 307. St. iii&urge. 
B. Dasitheus. St. Peter Dmmanj Card. 
Bp. A.D. 1072. St. BotsU Frior of 


If ice still remain let those who tempt 
it beware: — 

The frost-bound rivers bear the weigbt 

Of many a vent'rons elf; 
Let each who crowds to see them skata 

Be careful for himself : 

For, like the world, deceitful ice 
Who trusts it makes them me : 

Tis slippery as the paths of vice, 
Aod qoite ss faithless too. 

• Porter's TUmeia si tOMs l^med*. 


atoning %t\oi m Itnt— 91 Custom. 

Ffoin tba nbbalh brftue PiJid-SuihI*;, 
to the lail hour of the Tundaj after 
Eulei, " the Christiani were accuitomed 
l« itoae and beal ihc Jewi,''* and all 
Jew* «bo deiired to exerapt th(iiu«l*et 
from the infliction of thii cruelty, com- 
BDuled for a payment in money. It wai 
likewtM ordained io one of the Caihohc 
MTTJcei, during Lent, that all orders of 
men ihould be prayed for except the 
Jewi.f T>iete tiMRei were iiutituted 
•Dd jultified by a dreadful perTmion of 
•cripture, when rite and ceienony iri- 
WDpbcd over truth and mercy. Iluma- 
nity wu dead, for lupentilioo Molochiaed 
the heart. 

Frau the diipctiioa of the Jewi they 
lun lived peaceably in all natioiu to- 
ward* all, and in all nalimw been peise- 
ntcd, mpriMoed, lorlurcd, and put to 
dtuh, at MtMMurt by mob*. In Eog- 
laadfkiapeoBfpircd with their lubjecta to 

.t_B To tay DochiDg ot the 

lovwB pmaecutioni they eodured 
tiagjaha, lite walli of Lmtdoa 


were repaited with the itoiwt of tbrir 
dwelling which hit baroiu bad pillaged 
and dpstroyed. Until the reign of Henrj 
II., a tpot of ground near Red-ciow- 
itrecl, in London, was the only place in all 
En|[land wherein they were allowed to 
bury their dead. 

In 1363, after the citizen! of Londoa 
broke into their hotuei, plundered their 
property. Bod murdered seien hundred 
of them in cold blood, King nenrr III. 
gave their ruined »ynai[Ogue in Lotnbwty 
to tbe frian called the fatheri of the 
lackcldth. The church of St. dan in 
the Old Jewry was another of their lyna- 
gogues till they were diipoMeued of it: 
were the tufTeriDgs they endured to be 
recounted we *hould ihudder. Our aid 
Eiigliih anccitnn would haie laughed 
any one to deriiion who urjred in a Jew's 
behalf, that he had " eycii," or " handa,'* 
" orrfani, dimension!, mium, aSectiona, 
patsioni ;" or that he wat " (rd with the 
nme food, hurt with the same weapons, 
■ubject lo the tane diseases, heaiti] bj 
tlM wne neun, warmed and cooled h^ 
ihCMIMWtUnaMvmiBin ikxO«^ajL 


im is.* Tbej would have deemed a man century hare not elasped since hatred to 

mad had one been found with a desire the Jews was a national feeling. In 1753, 

topiofethat a bill was brought into the House of 

the poor JmPf Lords ft)r naturalizing the Jews, and 

Id cotponl sofcrance feeb a pang as great relje^ng them from persecnUng di»- 

Am when a ObirtfM dies. abilities. It passed there on the ground 

Tony nothing of their more obTioossuiL iSTJLn^JTllf ^^"*' *^ the public 

ferin^ fcTiSny centuries, the tide of f^^^fSl^^^ !?rx'*^!:^ T^^^^ 

puh^ opinioQ ^laged ag^t the Jew. ~!! P^^^! ^^'^ "^Innon to re- 

JSie«enSr«d i«S«s^y. TTiey weie Z^^^ft^^ '?T^ parts to the 

addressed^ with sneeis and contumely; ^^S^f .1'!'?,^^''*^ commerce, and 

the finser of Tulsar scorn was nointed at *^'**"^ of the kingdom. The corporaUoa 

iImma. tk-w «Jr k....*^ tiiV»..»k •v. of lx)ndon in common council assembled. 

with tones and looks denoUng that only S^^S^"?!.^]" T.'iiff ■ ^l?"*^^ 

a Uttk lower hate sanctuaried their per- ^•J°'f^!r?^' ""^ "^ ^^^"^ ? 

lona. In conTcmtion and in books i^ty ^^. r^if^''" i" r^IS^^f •-, ^ 

wcfeal9.word.andajest. ^ body of London merchants and traders 

««« « 17 ww«, wKi « JO*. ^^ petitioned against it. Certain popu- 
lar orators predicted that if the bill 

A woik printed in 1628, far popular «*» the Jews would multiply so fest, be- 
CBtertainmeat, entitled <* A Miscellany of <^™c ^ "ch, and get so much power, 
Se ii o uMi c ss with Merriment, consisting of ^^ their persons would be rerered, their 
Witty Questions, Riddles, Jests,** &c. tells customs be imitated, and Judaism be- 
this stay as a good joke. A sea captain ^™c the fashionable religion; th^ fiir- 
00 a Toyage, with thirty passengera, being ^^ alleged that the bill flew in the nice of 
orertaken by a riolent tempest, found it prophecy, which declared that the Jews 
necessanr to throw half of them overboard, should be scattered without a country or 
in order to Ughten the vessel. Fifteen fixed habitation till their conversion, and 
of the passengers were Christians, and ^t in short it was the duty of Christians 
the other fifteen were Jews, but in this *<> ^ unchristian. But the bill passed 
exigency they unanimously agreed in the ^^ comrooos after violent debates, and 
captain's opinion, and that he should ^'^cei^ed the royal sanction. The nation 
place the whole thirty in a circle, and ^^^^ instantly in a ferment of horror and 
throw every ninth man over till only execration ; and on the first day of the 
fifteen were left. To save the Christians, "^^ session of jrarliament, ministers were 
the captain placed his thirty passengers constrained to bring in a bill to repeal 
in this order, riz. : frar Christians, five ^^ ^^t of naturalization, and to the fnil 
Jews ; two Christians, one Jew ; three dishonour of the people of England at 
Chrtftians, one Jew ; one Christian, two ^^*t period, the bill was repealed. From 
Jews; two Christians, three Jews; one that hour to the present, the Jews have 
Christian, two Jews; two Christians, one ^^^ subjected to their old pains, penal- 
Jew. He began to number from the first ^*"« disqualifications, and privations. The 
of the fbiv Christians thus : enliirhtenment of this age has dispelled 
CCCC. JJ JJJ. CC. J. CCC. J. C. JJ. ™"ch of the darkness of the last. Yet 
CC. JJJ. C. JJ. CC. J. }^^ errors of public opinion then respect* 
By this device, the captain preserved all ^°? the Jews, remain to be rectified now 
theChristians, and d^cpof all the Jews. ^7 the solemn expression of a better 

public opinion. Formerly, if one of the 

'^■"~" " ancient people" had said in the implor- 

Seldcn says, ''Talk what you will of the ing language of the slave, ''Am I not a 

Jews, that they are cursed, they thrive many and a brother ?** he might have been 

vherever they come : they are able to answered, '' No, you are rK>t a wan, but 

oblige the prince of their country by a Jnr." It is not the business of the 

lending him money ; none of them beg ; Jews to petition for justice, but it is the 

they keep together ; and for their being duty of Christians to be jusL 

hated, my life for yours, Christians hate • 

cue another as much." TTiis was true. In the '^ General 'E.xetnii^ ^w^T ^ 

bat if ir aba tim OtMi three quarters ofsi June 21, 1777, a. '^aigni^\i %Vi!i«^« ^i^aX 


^ the foHowing ciicunistaiioe it not more their illiberal and cruel treatment m 

ridiculous than true ;'* and it proceeds to former timet ; and it wat no leti greti^ 

relate, that tome jexn before, at St4m-> ing to obsenre, that the Jewa themtelftt 

ford, in the province of Connecticut, are becoming partakers of the tpirit of 

America, it was determined to build a the present timea^ by providing for the 

church ; but ** though the church wat education of the poor, which, tiU within 

much wanted, as many people in that a rery few years past, had been too much 

netghhuurbood were at a loss for a place of neglected ; another pleasing feature in the 

public worship, yet the work stood still a meeting was, that it was not an atsem- 

considerable time for want of nails (for it blage of Jews only, but attended by people 

wat a wooden building ;) at last, a Jew of other denominations, both as risitors 

merchant made them a present of a cask, and subscribers. Samuel Joseph, Esq. 

amounting to four hunored weight, and the president, was in the chair. Some 

thus enabled the church to prooeed.*' loyaland patriotic toasts were ^ren, aiK 

Such an act might make some Christians propriate addresses were delivered by 

eidaim, '* Almost thou persuadest me to different gentlemen, and the more fcnous 

be a Jew rather than remain a Jew-op- business, of receiving and announcing new 

pressor under the name of a Christian.*' subscriptions, was much enlivened by a 

It it not, however, on private, but on open good band of vocal and instrumental 

grounds and high prmciple, tliat justice music. Among the subscriptions referred 

ahould spontaneously be rendered to the to, one was of a peculiarlv generous na- 

Jews. The Jew and the Christian, the ture. An unknown hand n»l forwarded 

Catholic and the Protestant, the Enisco- to the treasurer on the two last meetingt 

palian and the Dissenter, the Calvinist a sum of 200/. This year he received io- 

and the Anninian, the Baptist and the structions to clothe all the children at the 

Unitarian, all persons, of all denomina^ expense of the same generous donor. The 

tiont, are willed and empowered by their procession of the children round the hall, 

common document to acts of justice and wat an agreeable scene at this important 

mercy, and they now meet as brethren in meeting. A poetical address in tne lie* 

tocial life to perform them ; but the un- brew language was delivered by one of 

sued claim oftheir elder brother, the Jeip, the boys, and an English translation of it 

b acknowledged no where, save in the by one of the girls, each with propriety 

conscience of every '* just man made per- of accent, and much feeling." 

feet." A record testify iu;; the Ulteral ditpoti* 

— »— ^ tion and humane attention of the Jews to 

To extend the benetits of Education to the welfare of their offspring, is not out 

the children of the humbler classes of of place in a work which notices the pro* 

Jews, is une of the ftrst objects with their gnu of manners ; and it is esiiecially 

opulent and enlightened brethren. The gratefol to him who places it on thit page, 

** Examiner** Sunday newspaper of the 4th that he has an opportunity of evincing hit 

of February, 1R'25, cooperates in their respect for generous and noble virtues, in 

benevolent views b| an article of inform- a people whose residence in all parte of 

ation ]>articuUrly interi'Sting : — the world has advantaged evtry state, and 

''On Friday last, the Jews held their to whose enterprise and wealth, as roer> 

anniversary, at the liondon Tavern, chants and bankers, every government in 

Hishopsgate-street, to celebrate their plan Europe has been indebtecl. Their i^acred 

for the education of 600 boys and 300 writings and their literature have been 

girls, instttutf.'d April 20, 1818, in Bell- adopted by all civilize<l conimunitiet, 

Une, Spitalfivlds. It wat gratifying to while they themselves have lieen fugitives 

contiaNt the consideration in which the every where, without security any where* 

Jews are now held in thit country with They are 

-a people scatter'd wide indeed, 

^'ct from the mingling world distinctly kept : 

Agrs a?o, the Roman standard stood 

Upon their niin», vet have am swept 

O rr Rrnnc her«elf. like an o'erwhelmimr flood, 

Since down Jerui'lem's straett she povr'd her children's blood. 

And aiiU the natien lives ! 

Mr. B«U:% U< 


iftbtUSn 24. applied to Mr. Man, of Barnet, for a 

c4 i#^«#x: ♦u^ A^^-^u. cj B^ ^ ^**'**^ there, but Mr. Jefferson sendinir 

St MattkiOM, the AposUe. 5/#. Majda^ ^im a note acceding to his terms, hi 

nmM. Lucmi, Fkvwn, Julum, Ftcton- ^^^^^ ^ ^efo,^ ^1 Salmon and Dr. 

Abp. A. D. 549. 5^ Ethelbert. King, ^jjh Dr. RumbaU, Dr. Booth, and hU 

Si, Eikelbtrt. son, in bed : in the course of the evening 
He was king of Kent, and, according *»« ^^y " The game is almost up." He 
to Butler, the first christian king. It afterwards informed his son, he had lent 
was under him that St. Augustine found ^ person some money that morning, and 
€iTotir when he landed in England with ^^i^ him to see it repaid. To some 
his monks, and is said to have introduced ^nends he observed, that he should not 
ChristianitT to the English people ; an ^ ^^^S ^i^h them, and desiring them to 
assertion wholly unfounded, inasmuch as ^eave the room he called back his son, 
it had been difiused hither centuries be- ^^ the purpose of saying to him, " I 
fore. Augustine established nothing but f^ve William money for coals this morn- 
monasteries and monkery, and papal ^^S* deducting the turnpike, mind he 
dominaticm. gi^es you eleven and eightpence in 
fiertfaa, die queen of Ethelbert, was a change .when he comes home. Your 
convert, and her spiritual director offici- mother always dines at three o'clock, get 
ated, before Augustine's arrival, in the your dinner with her, I shall be gone 
little diurch of St, Martin, situated just hefore that time — and don't make any 
without Canterbury on the road to Mar- •*>' about me." He died at half-past 
gate ; the present edifice is venerable for ^^^' '^^^ account is from the manu- 
its site and its rude simplicity. ?cript papers of the late Mr. John Almon, 

Ethelbert's power is said to have ex- ^^ possession of the editor. 

tended to the Humber, and hence he is _ ,. . , ,_ 

I often styled king of the English. He Regardmg the season, there is an old 

was subdued to the views of the papacy P^o^erb worthy noticmg: 

by Augustine. Ethelbert foundea Can- February fill dike, be it black or be it white : 

terbury cathedral, and built without the But if it be white, it's the better to like, 

walls of the city, the abbey and church of ^^ Proverb, 

^i. Peter and St. Paul, the ruins of _ 

which are denominated at this day St. floral directory 

Augustine;s monastery and Ethelbert's Great Fern. OAmunda regalh. 

I 7o' u^^ ^T p '""p "". ^^ ^thedral Dedicated to St. Ethelbert. 
I of Rochester, St Paul's at London, and 

other ecclesiastical structures, is ascribed *— — 

tu iiim. He died in 616. Sometimes he 'lFphvt%:ivn 9^ 

is called St. Albert, and churches are jri^UlUrtlf/ ^^. 

dedicated to him under that name. St, Tartuius, a. d. 806. St. Ilciorinns, 

A. D. 284. St. tralburgf Abbess. ^Y. 

Chronologt. CiBsarius, a. d. 369. 

On the 24th of February, 1809, diea o* rar n 

Mr. Jennings, of Galley-lane, near Bamet, ^- f^olburg 

Herts. A few days previous to his de- This saint, daughter of Richard, king 

cease be called on Mr. Wm. Salmon, of the West Saxons, also a saint, became 

tii carpenter, at Shenley-hill, to go with a nun at Winbum in Dorsetshire, from 

him and fix upon a spot for his vault, whence, twenty-seven years after she 

On the Sunday before his death he went had taken the veil, she went to Germany, 

on horseback to Shenley-hill, and stopped and became abbess of a nunnery at 

at the White Horse to have a glass of Heidenheim in Suabia, where her brotlier 

warm wine, with the same intention of eovemed an abbey of monks, which at 

going to Ridge; and afterwards, seeing nis death, in 760, she also governed, and 

the rev. Mr. Jefierson, endeavoured to died in 779. His relics were distributed 

buy the ground, but differed with him in the principal cities of the Low 

lor two guinea!. On Uie Monday, he Countriei, and the cathedral of Canter* 


bury. The catalogue of relics in the the <' Truth Teller** dilates most plea- 
electoral palace of Hanover, published santly in his fourth letter concerning 
there in 1713, mentions some of them flowers and their names. IIetayt"the 
there in a rich shrine. Hutler calls them pil{];rima}^s and the travelling; of the 
** rich particles.** Part of her jawbone, mendicant friars, which began to be con- 
at Antwerp, was visited and kissed by mon towards the close of the twelfth cen- 
the archduke Albert and Isabella in 161.5. tury, spread this knowledge of plants and 
An oily liquor flowed from her tomb, of medical nostrums ^r and wide, 
and was a sovereign remedy, till the Thoui^h many of these vegetable specifics 
chemists and aputhecraries somehow or have been of late years erased from our 
other got their simples and substances Pharmaeopo'ias, yet their utility has been 
into superior rvpulatioTi. Strant^c to say, asserted by some very able writers on 
these victors over relics have never been physic, and the author of these observ»- 
canonized, yet their names would not tions has himself often witnessed their 
sound badly in the calendar : for instance, efficacy in cases where reticular practice 
St. William Allen, of Plough-court ; St. had been unavailinir. Mr. Abemetlnr 
Anderson, of Fleet -street ; St. Cribb, of has alluded to the surprising efficacy of 
High I lolborn; St. Hardy, of Walworth; these popular vecctable diet drinks, in 
St. Fidler, of Peckham; St. Perfect, of his l>o<>k on the ' Digestic Organst.' And 
Hammersmith ; &c. it is a fact, curiously corroborating their 

utility, iliat similar medicines are used by 
THE SCASON. the North American Indians, whose saga- 
It is observed by Dr. Forster in the f '^y ^^ *^?""'^. °"^» ^"^ ''T'*" ^"^™ ""** 
« Perennial Calendar,** that alwul this "^memorial, the use of such various herbi 
season the purple spring crocus, crocus ^ 'nedicines, which the kmd, hospitable 

wriim, now blows, and is the latest of our yL^VCT'"^** *""* ^^ "!""* ^^ ^^'^ 

crocuses. ** It continues throuuh March ™; ^^"'"aw is now making many t^ 

like the rest of the genus, and it varies ^"^"^ ^"'^ ^* diseases.' He then pio- 

with purple, with whitish, and with light ^^^"^ ^° mention certain plants noted by 

blue flowers. Tlie flowers apiwar before *^® '"^"M' ^^ flo^«"'« about the time of 

the leaves are grown to their full length. cerLiin religious festivals : " The snowu 

The vernal and autumnal crocus have *'*?'*» ^'olanthtu mvalU, whose pure while 

such an affinity, that the best botanisU ^^^ P<ndant flowers are the first harbm. 

only make them varieties of the same ^*" ?^ ^P""?^' " "^**^^ ^'^^^ '" «»"« 

genus. Yet the vernal crocus expands «^-'^»«n<*a'? ^ l**^^"*^' an emblem of the 

it5 flowers by the Iwginning of March at PJ>"*'cation of the s]>otle5S virgin, as it 

farthest, often in very rigorous weather, J?'^"^' "^^'"* Candlemas, and was not 

and cannot be retarde«l but by some vio- T""^" ^^ ***^ ^'^^^ ®*" *"®''**"»P *•" 

lence offcrctl ; while the autumnal crocus, '^^^'y* ^'"K formerly called fair maid 

or saff"roii, alike defies the influencr of 2^ ilwhuary, in honour of our lady. 

the spring and summer, anil will not Sir James Fxiward Smith, and other 

blow till most plants begin to fade and ^^}^"^ botanists make this plant a 

run to seed. native of England, but I can trace most 

of the wild specimens to some neighbour- 
On the Seasons of Flowering, by Jrhite. ing garden, or old ililapidated monastery ; 

Say, what impels, amid surrountling tnow, ^'^^ ^ ^^ persuaded it was introduced 

Congvalni, tlir Crocus* flamy hud to glow? into Kngland by the monks suhsequtnt 

Say, what retanU, amid the Summer*!! blaze, to the conquest, anil pn»bably since the 

'llie autumnal bulb, till pale, de<Iining davi? time of Chaucer, who (loe^ not nutice il. 

We may now ln-gin to exj>ecl a succes- this plant fa« well :is that of Chemise 4g 

sion of spring flowers ; «oinetliing new »i"/re fkime) i<i Mill known in iwrts of 

will Ik' o|HMiing every day through the F.urtipe: it fir^t flnwfr> about I -uiy Tide, 

rest of the season." rtr the festival of the Annunciation, and 

hem.r its name. Cnus* Fir»^%iR, Pt^ 

riowrns ^^^, t'ulgariji, which Ingins lo flower 

A writer uader the signature Crito in about tlie Invention of the Cross, Blay 3, 


was also caDed Rogmiion Jlawer, and waste lands near abbeys, and on dunff- 
was carried by maidens in the processions hills, &c. Modem botanists, however 
in Rogation week, in early times. The have ascribed its introduction to gipsies' 
Bonks discovered its quality of producing although it has never been seen among 
mdSk in naning women, and hence it was that wandering people, nor used by thorn 
called wdBaoort. Indeed so extensive as a drug. I could adduce many oUier 
was the knowledge of botany, and of the instances of the same sort. But vain 
Bcdical power of herbs among the monks indeed would be the endeavour to over- 
of old, tnat a few examples only can be shadow the fame of the religious orders 
adduced in a general essay, and indeed it in medical botany and the knowledge of 
appears that many rare species of exotics plants ; go into any garden and the com- 
were known by them, and were inhabit- mon name of marygold, our lady^s seal, 
nts of their monastery gardens, which our ladies bedstrawy holy oak, (corrupted 
Beckmann in his *Oe$kiete der Erfinn into holvhock,) the virgin's thistle, St, 
dmrngtM^ and Dryander in the * Hortus Bamaby s thistle, herb Trinity, herb St. 
KewemsUf have ascribed to more modem Christopher, herb St, Robert, Jterb St, 
hitrodocers. What is very remarkable is, Timotky, Jacob* s ladder, star of Bethle- 
that above three hnndred species of medi- hem, now called omithogalum ; star of 
cal plants were known to^the monks and Jerusalem, now made goatsbeard ; passion 
friars, and osed bv the religious orders fiower, now passiflora; Lent lilly, now 
in general for medicines, which are now dafiodil; Canterbury bells, (so called in 
to he foond in some of our numerous honour of St. Augustine,) is now made 
hooks of pharmacy and medical botany, into Campanula ; cursed thistle, now 
hy new and less appropriate names ; just carduus ; besides archangel, apple of Jo- 
as if the Protestants ot subsequent times rusalemy St. PauVs betony, Basil, St 
had changed the old names with a view Berbe, herb St, Barbara, bishopsweed, 
to obliterate any traces of catholic science, herba Christi, herba Benedict, herb St. 
Limisnis, however, occasionally restored Margaret, (erroneously converted into 
the ancient names. The following are la belle Marguerite,) god*s flower, flos 
some familiar examples which occur to Jovis, Job's tears, our lady's laces, our 
me, of all medicinal plants, whose names lady's mantle, our lady's slipper, monk's 
have been changed m later times. The hood, friar's cowl, St, Peters herb, and 
mrgu^s bower, of the monastic physi- a hundred more such. — Go into any gar- 
cians, was changed into flammula Jovis, den, I say, and these names will remind 
by the new pharmaciens; the hedge every one at once of the knowledge of 
hyssop, into gratiola ; the St. Johns wort plants possessed by the monks. Most of 
(so called from blowing about St. John them have been named after the festivals 
the Baptist's day) was changed into and saints' days on which their natural 
hvpericum ; fieur de St. Louis, into iris ; time of blowing happened to occur ; and 
pabma Christi, into ricinus; our master others were so called, from the tendency 
wort, into imperatoria; sweet bay^ into of the minds of the religious orders of 
lanrus ; our ladtfs smock, into cardamine ; those days to convert every thing into a 
SoUnmoiCs seal, into convallaria ; our memento of sacred history, and the holy 
hiys hair, into trichomanes ; balm, into religion which they embraced." 
Delissa ; ffuir;ort(m, into origanum > crou;- It will be perceived that Crito is a 
/Sm/, into ranunculus ; herb Trinity, into Catholic. IIis floral enumeration is 
viola tricolor ; avens into caryophyllata ; amusing and instructive ; and as his bias 
tritsfoot, into tussilago ; knee holy, into is natural, so it ought to be inofiensive. 
fascus ; wormwood, into absinthium ; Liberality makes a large • allowance for 
naemary, into rosmarinus; marygold, educational feelings and habitual mis- 
hito calendula, and so on. Thus the an- take *, but deceptive views, false reason- 
dent names were not only changed, but ings, and perverted facts, cannot be used, 
k this change all the references to religi- by either Protestant or Catholic, with 
COS subjects, which would have led people impunity to himself, or avail to the cause 
to a knowledge of their culture among he espouses. 

the mouastic orders, were carefully left 

out. The thors apple, datura stramo- Leo the XII. the present pope, on the 

swiH, is not a native of England ; it was 24th of May, 1824, put forth a bull from 

iatruduced by the friars in early times of St. Peter's at Rome. " We have resolved," 

pilgrimage; and hence we see it on old he says, "by virtue of the authority given 


lo vs bjT hea?«n fully to unlock the sacred 8,400 before the ensuing New Yeur^s day. 

treasure composed of the merits, suffer- This time (Christmas, 1824) they had do 

ings, and virtues of Christ our Lord, and more than thirty-six pilgrims at the open- 

of his Virgin Mother, and of all the saints, ing of the holy gate, and in the course of 

which the author of human salvation has Christmas week, that number increased 

intrusted to our dispensation. Let the only to 440. This is explained by the 

earth therefore hear the words of his strict measures adopted in the Italian 

mouth. We proclaim that the year of states with respect to the passports of piU 

Atonement and Panlon, of Redemption grims. The police have taken into their 

and Grace, of Remission and Indulgence heads, that a vast number of individuals 

is arrived. We ordain and publish the roost from all parts of Europe wish to bring 

solemn Jubilee, to commence in this holy about some revolutionary plot. Thcybe- 

city from the first Tes()ers of the nativity lieve that the Carbonari, or some other 

of our most holy saviour, Jesus Christ, Italian patriots, assemble here in crowds 

next ensuing, ami to continue during the to accomplish a dangerous object. The 

whole year 1825, during which time we passports of simple labourers, and other 

mercifully give and grant in the Lord a inferior classes, are rejected at Milan, and 

Plenary Indulgence, Remission, and Par- the surrounding cities of Austrian Italy^ 

don of all their Sins to all the Faithful of when they have not a number of signa- 

Christ of both sexes, truly penitent and tures, which these i)oor men consider 

confessing their sins, and receiving the quite unnecessary. Tney cannot enter t lie 

holy communion, who shall devuutly vi^it Sardinian states without great difficulty, 

the churches of blessed Peter and Paul, These circumstances are deplorable in the 

as also of St. John Lateran and St. Mary eyes of religious men. We are all griev* 

Major of this city for thirty successive ed at this place.*' 

days, providiHl they be Romans or inha- On this, the Journal dea Debais n^ 

bitants of this city ; but, if pilgrims or marks, '^ Notwithstanding the excuse for 

strangers, if they shall do the same for so great a reducti6n of late years in the 

fffteen days, and shall pour forth their number of the>c devotees, it has evidently 

pious prayers to God for the exaltation been produced by the diffusion of know- 

of the holy church, the extirpation of ledge. Men, m 1825, are not so simple 

heresies, concord of catholic princes, and as to suppose they cannot be saved, with- 

the safety and tranquillity of christian out a long and painful journey to Jcrusa« 

people." The*^)ope recjuires "all the earth" lera (Rome.)" 

to *' therefore ascend, with loins girt up, — ^ 

to holy Jerusahfm, this priestly and Floral Dirfxtort. 

royal city." — He requires the clergy to Peach. Amyf^dalu* Prrtlea. 

explain ** the jHJwer uf Indulgences, what Dedicated to St. jyaWurg, 

i< their eflicucy, not only in the remi<<sion — ^— 

of the canonical penance, but also of the iTtbrUflrP 26 

temporal pumshmrnt," and to point out 5,. Alexander. St. PorphfrL, Bishop 

the succour affbnlo^l to those * now pun- ^f ^ a. d. 420. St. Hctor, or nt 

fyinc m the fire of Purcatory. However, |^ 7th Cent 

in Kebruary, injj, one of the public * - jij 

journals ci>ntains an extract from the ^. . , ^'' ^*^^^^^^' . 

French Jonrnal de% Pcbutt, which states , ^"* '* "*^ patriarch of Alexandria so 

that there was *«airreal f.illinu' ofl'in the *^'"«"* "» ecelesiuMical histoiy for hit 

devt>ti(ni of saints and piluriiiis." and it "PV<»"tion to Anus whom, with Su 

proves this by an articU- fmm Rome, Alhanasius and .M.trcellus of Ancyra, at 

d:ite.l January 2.'i, 18-2:., of which the *>" c»l»«c«:«* collpa^ues, he resisted at the 

f )liowin.' i4 a cony : council of Nice, till Arius was banuhMlf 

" n.e munU'T of pil«^rims drawn to ^^ ^^^* onlered to l>e burnt, and an 

J.-nixahni(Romi-)bv the Jubihc ix re- ^ •<*<»"*«»**«* «*''»«^u»<-inc drat h t») any vi ho 

m.irk.iblv small, conipured with form.T «<^«'««'d them. On the death of Si. Alex- 

.liibil.^.; Without a.U.Ttiii- to tho*.. of ■""" in 4-20, St. Athaiiasius succeeded 

j:}(»a .iiid i:i;»o, when ihry h.i.l at li.:wt a *^ '"" patriarchal ch.iir. 

wifV/mn «if pil^'riin> : in 17A0, thvy had iih.s. 

1,300 piL'rinu pn-ented mi x\w 2 Ith i)f The foi:< of Knehiiid have K^n at all 

DecemlKT, at th** iiix-ninu i»f tli.' holy times the ci>mpl.unt oi" fbnigner*. Con- 

^dtc. That fluiubtr was increased to dvinar, the Spanish arabassodor, wbet 




one -mho was going to Soain waited 

on him to ask whether he haci any com- 


'Time is the stuff that life is made of/ 

mands, replied, ** Only my oompliments ^^^ Young 

to the sun, whom I have not seen since ^^ ^ ' , . . „ . 

I came to England/'-Camecioli, the " Begone a^u/yo«r Awtnew, says the 
NeapoUtan minSter here, a man of a good d\al m the Temple : a good ad monition to 
dalof coowsaUon and wit, used to say, » ^^^^' o° ^« pavement below. 
that the only ripe fruit he had seen in The great French chancellor, d'Agues- 
England were routed applet ! and in a seau,employedal/his time. Observing that 
conversation with George IT. he took the madame d*Aguesseau alwavs delayed ten 
liberty of preferring the moon of Naples or twelve minutes before she came down 
to the mtok of Engla^ to dinner, he composed a work entirely in 

- this time, in order not to lose an instant ;« 

the result was, at the end of fifteen years, 
a book in three large volumes quarto, 
which went through several editions. 

Cm meimg m Lady mmlUmg in the Sif ow, 

I saw fiur JuuA walk alone. 

When featherM rain came softly down. 

Twas JovB descendiiig from his tower. 

To court her in a silver shower, 

A wanton flake flew on her brnst. 

As happy dove into its nest. 

But rivall'd by the whiteness there. 

For grief diaaolv'd into a tear, 

And falling to her garment's hem. 

To deck her waist, firose to a genu 


Lungwort. PwkiumarwOJIieimRi, 
Dedicated to Leander, 


Lesser Periwinkle. Fmea minor. 
Dedicated to'^^ nctor. 

^fitbruarp 27, 

S^rvarjs 28. 

Martyrs to the PettUenee in AksMtndria, 
261, &c. 5/. Pt^<eri«#, P^itriarch of Alex- 
andria, 557. Bte. Romanae and Lupi-* 

Ste. Romamu and Lupieintu. 
These saints were brothers, who founded 
the monastery of Condate with a nunnery, 
in the forest of Jura. St. Lupicinus pre- 
St. Leander, Bishop, a. d. 596. St. Ju' scribed a hard regimen. He lived himself 
lion, Chronion, and Beeae. 8t, Tka- on bread moistened with cold water, used 
UheuM. St, Gaimierj or Batdomeme^ a chair or a hard board for a bed, wore uo 
A. D. 650. St. Nettor, a. d. 250. St, stockings in his monastery, walked in 
Ainotk. wooden shoes, and died about 480. 

St. ThaliUme. 

This saint was a weeper in Syria. He 
hermitiied on a mountain during sixty 
yean, wept almost without intermission 
for his sins, and lived for ten years in a 
wooden cage. 

St, Galmier 

Was a locksmith at Lyons, and lived in 
great poverty, for he bestowed all he fot 
en the poor, and sometimes his tools. An 
abbot gave him a cell to live in, he died 
t snbdeacon about 650, and his relics 
wsfked miracles to his fiime, till the Hu- 
fCMBOts destroyed them in the sixteenth 

St. Alaoth 


Purple Crocus. Crocus vemus. 
Dedicated to St. Proteriue. 

Was bailiff to St. Wereburge, became 
an andioret, was killed by robbers, and 
hi^lus relics kept at Stow, near Wedon, 

Five Sundays in February. 

The February of 1824, being leap-year, 
consisted of twenty-nine days; it con- 
tained five Sundays, a circumstance which 
cannot again occur till another leap-year, 
wherein the first of Febiuaxy shaM fail on 


out Memorandum of the Months. 

Thirty days hath September, 
April, June, and November, 
All the rest have thirty and one, 
Except February, which hath twenty-eight 



— Slunljr Mirch with brawi fall ■iFnl; beat 
Antl arnwd Mrengly, rode npoD ■ run , 
The unie which over Kelle^Dtni iwun ) 

Tct ia liii Iliad t ^tde tie lUo bent. 
And in t bag ill toru of wecdi VMine, 

Which on (he eanh he itrewed uhe weol, 

And fill'd her wwnb with fniitlull hope of pmiiihmeiil. 

MtHCB is iTie tkird month of the year ; 
with the ■ncienti it was ihe first: ac- 
COfdinf to Mr. Lei^i Hunt, from Uiid, 
the Komar.a named it from Man, Ihe god 
of war, becuise he wai the failicr of 'heir 
Cnl ptirwe. " Ai lo tlie deity's nature, 
HuiA hai certainty nothing in common 
with it ; for though it aifL-cts to l>e Tery 
nMBti, it 11 one of the best naiured months 
in Vie year, drying up ilie tuperabundant 
moiitore of winter with it< nere« winds, 
and thus restoring un our paths through 
the fields, and piping before the Aowcn 
like a bacchanal. He sometimes, il must 
b« confcMed, u if in a fit of the iplecn, 
kinden the buds which he has d'iod from 
blowing ; and it is allowable in the less 
Tobtut paK of his friends out of doon, to 
obiea (o the fancy he has lor comiDg in 
ttich M eatling mannci fntm the cast. But 
* may be tmty t*id, thU ihe oftdMI JOtt 

meet hint firmly, the ten he wilt iImIh 
youf and the more «miles yon will h>T» 
from tite (air months that follow him." 

Perhaps t!i<; ascription of thtt mODth ta 
Man, by the Romans, was a conplimeM 
to themselves; tliey were the soni of 
War, and might naturally deduce their 
origin from the t>elhg«rent deity, Minern 
waf also patroness of March. 

Ventegan says of our Saxon anoetlon, , 
that " the monelh of March ibey called 
Lnct-menat, that is, according to our new 
orthography, Leii)^h-meneH, because tht 
dayes did then first br^n in leugth la 
exceed Ihe nights. And this mMMA 
being by our anceston so called whra 

qucDily thervwith ihc ancient chrutiaa 
cuitomc of fastini, ihev catted this diift 
seaion of fasting the bil of Unci, htemm. 
of the Lmd-moaat, whereon Uw ant 


vat tt tte time of this ftitiiig alwayec Now, Winter, dispoMeued of ttomu, 

ttil ; and hereof it oometh that we now and wc»k from boisterous rage, 

cal it L*nt, it being rather the &st of ... 

Lent, thogh the former name of Lenet- r": .L""* ™W ?"*« ^*ns* of Spriog, 

montt be long since kMt, and the name of ?*r*i!f w**^*'. "? ??" J^ *° »^„ 

March bornn^ in stadthereori^Mf, Looks bjck, while at his keen and chUItof 

or LaU, howerer, means Sprhfj hence r^ ^ora sickens. 
March was the flfpriiif^month. Dr. Sajrer 
says the Saxons likewise called it Med- 

■mM<A,a word derired by some from one of ifHiSt^ 1« 

their deities, named Bbeda, to whom sacri- „, „_,. . .... ... ., 

Sees were offered in March; others derite « '^^ ^"*S .?P?. *•"• 5?** ?* 

it iroi^ ne^ the Saxon word for cooncU. ^Jfi^'^-J"*^' l* "• "i* ^ 

Man* being the month wherein wan oi ^"^' ^"^"P' *• »• ***• *• ^'»- 

ezpeditions were nsoally undertaken by ***> *' °' ""• 

the Gothic tribes. The Saxons also called _ "' "V"* . 

it Hlgd^momak. from Ugd, which means _, r^^f"^. ^T^iiLiA 

stormy, and in this sense Match was the ^^,^^' •'» P ^'^itgrl^'.'^ 

Storsiy month. !«>•» "{ X«°*»». P""** 'f Carflganshire, 

No B»ing writer discourses so agreea. ^J*"/^ "f ^•El[**^''***^ "" ""f S "» 

hly on the S Months' as Mr. Leighllunt T 5'?. "' ^igh^ ^terwards preached to 

in his btUe vohime bearing that Utle. He ** ^7*T ' ^?'°^^'l?!!!'i; •»*"?»^"«V 

saysof March, that-"Theanimalcreation *^,9<^^r^^ and regetaWw, and drank 

n^ exhibit unequivocal signs of actirity. "■* •^ ^...A •jnod heme «iled 

■nie fcrmer e^nds the raercise of tus tF'V' " *^*^'g'™^' Vi5"j '" 

plough; and. if iair weather continues, Slf ^"SP""**^""'*^^ "L^::^^ 

k^L sowing bailey and oats. Batsand " SuDaTrf confuted and silenced Ae 

i^tiles bml op ttdr winter sleep : the •"*^™* '»»°»f« >-'^, l**?^"'*' "^ 

litttesmehs or sparlings run up thS soiU T^l'^'^^'u After the synod, 

ened rireis to spawn? the fielJ-&re and ^^ ^^'?*"^ f^l"?!!^- j' ^u"?i^"' ^ 

woodcock returito their northern qu«w ''P^ ,•;«»«« ^^*^?*"i ''^^ .•*!,!? 

ten; the rooks are all in motion with »<>» c»l'«l St. Darid's. He died m544. 

building and 
tit ; geese and 

totterinr*fo^'^'mUd'w«t'hw;*"S^ tra^lated toGlastoXTr.*' 

throsUe warbles on the top of some naked ^"^f ~°^. »^* I'l u°'"T? ! T**' 

tree, as if he triumphed over the last lin, ^^ T T""^ .*° ""S ^'^Ti- u .S'*"'^ 

g«ri^ of barrenneSs ; and, lastly, forth is- **"' u^-^'l Tl'^ *^^^ birth was 

iuesAe bee with hi^ ver^ ti^unpet, to P">Pteciedof thirty years before it hap- 

tell OS that there is news of sunshine and ^^ ' ^^« « n j r o* t^ j 

the flower8.-In addition to the last . OneofAe miracles alleged of St. David 

month's flowers, we now have the crown- "» *J' »» *f f^^^*^!", ?!^ •"* T 

imperial, the do^Vtooth violet, fritillaries, '^"'f^ » ^'H" J^?'£i°"*j"^i' *° 'Pf ' 

then.yadnth,.uicis5us,(bendb,g its fac^ napkin under his fee^ and made an oration; 

IT. •* ^J^ i,« \ ^:\JJ^^ ,^S^ «. "lat a snow white dore descended from 

like It, «^f^«'> P^^^^rt' ^^ j^^X ^^^^^ and sat on his shouldeis ; and that 

cnhis, great snow-drop, tulips, (which ^ around whereon he stood r^ under 

turned cten the Dutch to enthusiasts,) and ?® ^?° , f™®^ vif^J^ ^Z 

.;^i^. *>w^.^,k:oi ir., 4i,«;- ^,>.,* »k;^k *"™ ^" >* became a hiU, " on the top of 

ndets,proTerbid for their odojir^^^ which hill a church was Afterwards built. 

in his 

the other 

- -. ^ ^^^, « ^. «^ j,.w..-*.~, W-. they were 

i<mer, in the open air, • whKe sient L?' ^'Jf ' ?ft°?;i:::i^Jrrl™ 
emes and gJQ like the warbling of °f P'»t«. who almost every summer came 

onsic."' *BMlei'>laint>. 

Mo. 11. 


inkmf botta from the OikncTB, ftod wasted way from buiJdnif^ the church of GlasloiH 
the coasts of Cambria. He invited St. bunr he went to Bath, cured an infSection 
Kined to this synod, who answered that of the waters, and by his prayers and be* 
he had grown crooked, distorted, and too nediction gave them the perpetual heat 
weak for the journey ; whereupon ensued they still retain. On the same authority, 
** a double miracle,^ for '* St. Kined hav- St. David's posthumous virtue, in the reign 
ing been restored to health and straight- of king Stephen, occasioned the brook 
ness by the prayers of St. David, by his above the church-yard of St. David's 
own prayers he was reduced again to his church to run wine, bv miracle : the well 
former intirmity and crookedness." After near it, called Pisteldewy or the conduit 
this synod he journeyed to the monastery of David, sent forth milk instead of 
of Glastonbury, which he had built there water. Also a boy, that endeavoured to 
and consecrated, with intent to repair it, take pigeons from a ne»i in St. David's 
and consecrate it a^ain ; whereupon " our churcn at I Jumnons, had his fingers mi- 
Lord ap]}earin^ to him in nis sleep, raculoosly fastened to the stone, tul by his 
and forbidding him to profane the friends' vratching, fasting, and praying 
sacred cevemony before performed, he, in before the altar three days and nights, the 
testimony, with his linger pierced a hole stone fell from his hand. " Manie thou- 
in the bi.Miop's hand, which remained open sands of other miracles have been wrought 
to the view of all men till the end of the by the meritts of this holy man, which for 
next dav*s mass." Defore his death ** the brevities sake we omitt. 1 only desire all 
angel of the lord appeared to him, and true hearted Welchmen allwaies to ho- 
said to him, PrepKire thyself." Again: nour this their great pacrone and protec- 
'' Whe^ the hour of his departure was tor, and supplicate the divine gooanes to 
come, our Lord Jesus Christ vouchsafed reduce his sometimes beloved countrey out 
his presence, to the infinite consolation of of the blindnes of ProtestaMeU, groveling 
our holy father, who at the sight of him in which it languisheth. Not only in 
exulted. More to the same purpose is Wales, but all England over is most fii- 
alleged by the catholic writers respecting mous in memorie of St. David. But in 
him. Such as, that at his death ** being these our unhappie daies the greatest part 
associated to a troop of angels, he with of his solcmnitie consisteth in wearing of 
them mounted up to heaven," and that a greenc leekc, and it is a sufficient theme 
the event was known ** by an angel di- for a zealous Wclchman to ground a qiiur* 
Tulging it." This is Cress^'s account. rell against him, that doeth not lionour 
According to another bioarapher of St. his capp with the like ornament that 
David, he was uncle to the famous prince day." So saith Porter. 
Arthur, or, strictly speaking, half uncle, if This legend has been the theme of sik- 
St. David's illegitimacy be authentic The cessive writers, with more or less of varia« 
same author lelates of him, that on his tion, and much of addition. 

Interiftiom/ar m WKmrnmemi in the Pak of Ewioi. 

Here was H, stranger, that the Pairom S^imt 

Of €"ttmirim past his age of penitence* 

A ■olitary nan ; and here be made 

His hermitage, the rvxits his food, his drink 

Of Hodney'i moantain stream. Perchance thy yoath 

Ha* read, with eager wonder, how the knipht 

Of Wale«, in Ormaadine'i enchanted bower 

Slept the long sleep : and if that in thv veins 

Flow the pare blood of Britain, sere dwt blood 

Hath Howed with quicker inpnlse at the tale 

Of r>iiviD*s deeds, when thro' the press of war 

Hb gallant comrades followed his grtm rre»i 

To conquest. SCranirer ! Hatterill** mountain heights 

And this fair vale of RwlaH, and the utreain 

Of Hodaey. to thine aller-tboufrhta will hm 

More gratefnl, thus anocidCe whli the name 

Of Dwrid, and^he deeds of other days. Ma. SoCTOSr, 


fFettrlng the Leek, 

Mr. Brady, in the " CUtis Calendaria,'* memoiy, an't please T<mr majesty, slid y 

tffinns that the custom of wearing the great-uncle, £dwara, the iJack prince, as 

leek on St. David's day is deri?ed from I have read in the chronicles, fought a 

St Da?id ; who, according to him, caused most prave pattle here in France, 
the Britons under king Cadwallader to K. Henry, They did, Fluellen. 
dbtingoish themselTes nom their enemies F, Your majesty says very true : if your 

durinff a great battle, wherein they con- majesties is remembered of it, the Welch- 

qnered the Saxons by virtue of his prayers men did goot senricein a garden where 

and that regulation. Untbrtunately he leeki did grow, wearing leekt in their Mon- 

lays no ground for this positive statement, mouth caps ; which, your majesty knows, 

and the same misfortune attends almost is an honourable padg^ of the service s 

every representation in his book, which and, I do believe, your majesty takes no 

would really be useful if he had pointed scorn to wear the ^ek upon StuntTavy^s iof^ 
to his sources of information. A work K. H* I wear it for a memorable 

professing to state fiu:t5 without referring honour :/or lama fFelch, you know, good 

to anthotities has no claim to confidence, countryman. 

wlioever m^ be its author. This allusion by Fluellen to the Welch 

For any thing in the shape of ancient having worn the leek in a battle under the 

and autlientic statement to the contrary, black prince, is not, perhaps, as some 

the institution of wearing the leek on St. writers suppose, wholly decisive of its 

David's day by the saint himself, may having originated in the fields of Cressy or 

rest on a Jemrey of Monmouth authority, Poictiers ; but it shows that when Shak- 

or on legends of no higher estimation speare wrote, Welchmen wore leeks. la 

with the historian, than '' The famous the same play, tl.e well-remembered 

History of the Seven Champions of Chris- Fluellen's enforcement of Pistol to eal 

tendom," by Richard Johnson. the leek he had ridiculed, further establishes 

— — — the wearing it as a usage. Fluellen wears 

Shakspeare, whose genius appropriated his leek in the battle of Agincourt, which 

erery thing that his extraordinary faculty it will be recollected takes place in this 

of observation marked for its own, intro- play, and is there mentioned, as well as 

duces this custom of the Welch wearing in the chronicles, to have been ^ fought 

lefls upon St. David's day into his play on the day of Crispin Crispianus," in the 

of Kin^ Henry V. month of October. The scene between 

Enter Pittol to King Henry. Fluellen and Pistol takes place the day 

Pittol. Qui vala? after this battle. 

K. Henry. A friend. Enter Fluellen and Gawer, 

P. What's thy name ? Gotcer. Why wear you your leek to* 

K. H. Harry le Roy. day? St. Dttvid*s day is past. 

P. Le Iloy 1 a Cornish name : art thou Fluellen. There is occasions and causes 

of Cornish crew ? why and wherefore in all things^*— The 

K. H. No, I am a Welchman. rascally, scald, peggarly, piagging knave^ 

P. Knon^est thou Fluellen? Pistol, a fellow look you now of no merits^ 

K. H. Yes. he is come to me with pread and salt yes 

P. Tell him, Fll knock his leek about terday, look you, and pid me eat my leek^ 

his pate it was in a place where I could not preed 

Upon St. Darid'g day. no contentions with him, but I will oe so 

K. H. Do not you wear your dagger in pold as to wear it in my cap till I see him 

]four cap that day, lest he knock /Aiit about once again, and i\ita-~(Enter PittoV^ 

yours. Got pless you, ancient Pistol I you scurvy 

It is again referred to in a dialogue be- knave, Got pless you I 
ti^een Henry V. and Fluellen. P. Hence I X aia(^ualim&\xjaSLitbfc«i&!^ 

FlueUem. Your grandfather of &mous of leek^ 


O, I peseech ycm heartily scunry knave, onions were also deposited in tbe sacred 

at my desires, and roy requests, and my chests of the mysteries both of Isis and 

petitions, to eat, look you, this kek. Ceres, the Ceudven of the Draids ; leekt 

P, Not for Cadwallader, and all his are among the Egyptian hieroglyphics ; 

goats. sometimes a leek is on the head of Osiris ; 

F. There is one goat for you. {etrikee and at other times grasped in an extended 

kim,) Will you be so goot^ scald knave, as hand ; and thence, perhaps, the Italian 

eat it ! proverb, ** Porro eke muee neilm wtrnmo," 

P, Base Trojan, thou Shalt die. ja leek tkat growe in the hand, for a virtne. 

F, I desire you to live in the mean Porrue, a Uek, is derived by Biyant frooi 

time, and eat your victuals ; come there is the Egyptian god Pi-orus, who is the 

sauce for it.--(«frUk«t AtM.) If you can same as the Bm/Ptot of the PhoNiiciaiis, 

mock a leek^ you can eat a leek. and the Bel or BetthoM of the Draids. 

By beating and taunt, Fluellcn forces These accordances are worth an ancient 

Pistol to eat the leek, and on its being Briton's consideration, 

wholly swallowed, Fluellen exhorts him Ridicule of national peculiarities vrms 

^ when you take occasions to see leeke formerly a pleasantry tnat Uie English 

liereafter, I pray you, mock at them, that freely indulged in. Tliey seemed to think 

is alir Having thus accomplished his that different soil was good ground 

purpose,Fluellen leaves Pistol to digestion, for a laugh at a person, and that it 

and the consolation of Gower, who calls justified coarse and insolent remarks. In 

him ** counterfeit cowardly knave : will an old satirical tract there is the following 

you mock at an ancient tradition, begun sneer at the Welch: 

upon an honourable aspect, and worn as a <<A welchman. Is the Oyster that 

memorable trophy of predeceased valour, the Pearl is in, for a man may be pickt 

and dare not avouch in your deeds any of out of him. He hath tlie abilities of the 

your words V mind in potentidy and aetu nothing but 

Here we have Gower speaking of the boldnesse. His Clothes are in fashion 
custom of the Weldi wearing leeks as " an before his Bodie ; and he accounts bold- 
ancient tradition,^ and as *' a memorable nesse the chiefest vertue. Above all men 
trophy of predeceased valour.** Thoroughly he loves a Henrald, and speakes pedi- 
▼eraed in the history of the few reigns pre- vrees naturally. He accompts none well 
ceding the period ^^rein he lived, it is descended that call him not Cosen, and 
not likely that Shakspeare would make a prefers Owen Glendower before any of 
character in the time of Henrv V. refer to the nine worthies. The first note ol his 
an occurrence under the black prince, &miliaritie is the confession of his valour ; 
little more than half a century before the and so he prevents quarrels. Hoe 
battle of Agincourt, as an affuirof •* an- vouchcth Welch a pure, an imconquered 
cient tradition.*' Its origin may be fairly bnguajje ; and courts Ladies with the 
referred to a very early period. storie of their Chronicle. To conclude, 

A contributor to a periodical work* he is prelious in his own conceit, and 
veiects the notion, that wearing i0fA« on Sl upon St. David's day without corn- 
David's day originated at the battle be- parison.*** 

tween the Welch and the Saxons in the Not quite so flouting is a poetical satire 

sixth century ; and thinks it more probable called, 

or Ceres. In which hypothesis, he thinks, ^ I*» come not here to Uuke of Prut. 

there is nothing strained or fer-fetchcd, J^ ?[V"** ^^ Welw^ dw ukc hur root ; 

Msaming that the Druids were a branch Jt^f^",. ** ^^'^'fTJn r^'***^^*^'' 

5^ l^ician priesthood Both were jrjrrn^^rd:::^^^^^^^^^^^ 

addicted to oak worship ; and dunng the j^ u^p of which would Ell a nttie, 

tecreal ntes of Adonis at Byblos, leeke u„t hark you roe now, for a liddell tales 

•nd onions were exhibited in " pots with SaU make a great deal to the crcddit of Wala^ 
•Iher vegetables, and called the gardens 

of that deity.** The icril was worshipped ; 

■ft .Ammlenu (whence the modem tenn of ^a ^#. ..^ .w uj , ■ -.. ^ .. 

I as It was m f^gypt* I^eelte ana beinic a moM »quitttr aiMi UDgwIar pa««i uT 0M 

diokw of A vifr, «l»Mv«iito arr aMH sMay «Mto 
-*— — — -4r, LiaScB , pnait4 Ibr ' — ^^^ 

affMloi^"llMVfe%in. tidk,%i».UU. 




For hnr will tndge toot eires, 
Witli the praise of bur thirteen seers ; 
And make yon as glad and meny. 
At fvorteen pot of perry. 

Xliere are ibar other stanzas; one of 
tbem mentions the Mb ; 

Bat an tlus while was never think 
A woid in nraise of our Welse drink : 
Yet far anu that is a ci^ of bragat 
Anil England seer may cast his cap at. 
And what yon say to ale of Webley, 
Tondge lum as well, yoall praise nun trebly 
As w^l as metheglin, or sjiet, or meatb, 
flail sake it your dagger quite out o* theseath. 

And oat cake of Gnartbenion, 

With a goodly Uek or onion. 

To gire as sweet a rellis 

As e'er did Harper Ellis.* 

In ^ Time*s Telescope,'^ an annual ro- 
hime already mentioned for its pleasant 
Tarieties and agreeable information, there 
is a citation of flouting lines from ^ Poor 
Robin's Almanac,** of 1767, under the 
month of March : 

TW jEnf •ftkit memtk some do keep. 
For honest Taff to wear his i^i ; 
Who patron was, they say, of Wales, 
And smce that time, cats-plutter*a nails. 
Along the street this day aoth strut 
With bur green letk stuck in bur bat. 
And if bur meet a sbentlepian 
Salutes in Welch ; and if bur can 
Disoourse in Welcb, then bur shall be 
Amongst the green-homed Taffy's free. 

The lines that immediately succeed the 
abore, and follow below, are a versified 
record of public violence to the Welch 
character, which Englishmen in this day 
will read with surprise : 

But it would make a stranger laugh 
To see th* English hang poor Taff ; 
A pair of breeches and a coat, 
Hat, shoes and stockings, and what not ; 
All stuffed with hay to represent 
The Cambrian hero thereby meant ; 
With sword sometimes three inches broad. 
And other armour made of wood. 
They drag hur to some jpublick tree. 
And hang hur up in emgy. 

These barbarous practices of more 
barbarous times have disappeared as 
knowledge has advanced. 

tablished in 1714 ; thar celelinite it widk 
festivity in behalf of the Welch charitj 
school in Grays-inn-road, which was 
instituted in 1718 for boarding, doth* 
ingy and educating 80 boys and SS 
girls, bom of Weldi parents, in or with« 
in ten miles of the metropolis, and noC 
having a parochial settlement within 
those limits. This institution has the 
king for patron as prince of Wales, and 
is supported by voluntary contributioiis. 
The ^ Ancient Britons, ' according to 
annual custom, go in procession to the 
royal residence on St. David's day, and 
receive the royal bounty. The society 
are in carriages, and each wears an 
artificial representation of the leek in hia 
hat, composed of ribbands and silver foil. 
They have been sometimes accompanied 
by horsemen decorated in the same war, 
and are usually preceded by marshau^ 
also on horseback, wearing Ueke of larger 
dimension in their hats, unI ornamented 
with silk scar&. In this state they pro^ 
ceed from the school-house to some aaja« 
cent churchy and hear a discourse deliveied 
on the occasion, by a prelate or other 
dignified clergyman, "nie day is con- 
cluded by an elegant dinner under the 
regulation of stewards, when a collection 
is made for the institution, and a hand- 
some sum is generally contributed. 


Leek; Album Poman, 
I Dedicated to St. Daoid. 

St. David's day in London is the An- 
niveivary of ^ the most Honourable and 
Loyal Society of Ancient Britons,'' 

• «< Aa AaUdoU tfaioft McIandMly,** 4to. 10S1. 

St, Ceada, or Chadi Martyre under the 
Lombardi, 6th Cent. St. Smplicnu, Pope 
A. D. 483. St, Afaman, a. d. 620. ai. 
Charles the Good, Earl of Flanders, a. d. 
1124. St, Joavan^ or Joevin, 
St. Chad, A.D. 673. 

His name is in the calendar of the 
church of England. He was founder of 
the see, and' bishop of Lichfield. Ac- 
cording to Bede, joyful melody as of per* 
sons sweetly singing descended nt>m 
heaven into his oratory for half an hour, 
and then mounted again to heaven. This 
vras to presage bis death, and accord- 
ingly he died, attended by his brother's 
soul and musical angels. 

St, Chad'e fFeU 

Is near Battle-bridge. The miraculous 
water is aperient, and was some years ago 
quaffed by the bilious and otlier invalids, 
who flocked thither in crowds, to drink at 


dbe eott of lixpmcey what people of these U. 6d, weekly. You qualify for a aingla 

latter dayi hr '^ the ingenious chemisU' ^it by paying sixpence, and a large 

artt^ can make as eJTectual as St. Chad's glass tumbler full of warm water is handed 

virtues ^ at the small price of one hall^ to you. As a stranger, you are told, that 

penny.'' ** ^t. Chad's well was famous at one time.** 

If any one desire to visit this spot of Should you be inaiiisitive, the dame will 

ancient xenown, let him descend from instruct you^ witn an eaniest eye, that 

Holboni4Mrs to the very bottom of Gravs* ** people are not what they were/' " things 

iq»-Une. On the lefi-hand side for- are not as they used to be,'' and she 

nerly stood n considerable hill, whereon '' can't tell whatUl haopen next." Oracles 

isere wont to climb and browxe certain have not ceased. AVhile drinking St. 

mountain goats of the metropolis, in com- Chad's water you obserre an immense 

aion language called swine ; the hill was copper into which it is ]iourcd, wherein 

the largestneap of cindernlust in the it is heated to due efficacy, and from 

neighbourhood of London. It was formed whence it is drawn by a cock, into the 

by the annual accumulation of some glasses. You also remark, hanjiing on 

thousands of cart loads, since exported to the wall, a '' tribute of t^mtitude*' vcrsi. 

Russia for making bricks to rebuild Mos- ficd, and inscnbe<l on vuHum, beneath a 

cow, after the conflagration of that capital pane of glass sUinud by tlie hand of time 

on the entrance of Napoleon. Opirasite And let into a black fraiiir : this is an 

to this unsightly site, and on tlie right- effusion for value ri^eived from St Chad's 

hand side of the road is an angle-wise invaluable wvAer. Hut, above all, there 

faded inscription : ^ ^ full-sized portrait in oil, of a stout, 

comely personaf^e, with a niddy counte- 
nance, m a coat or cloak, supposed scar- 
let, a laced cravat fiillint? down the breast, 
and a small red ni^zht cap curelnuily 
placed on the head, convoy in cr the idea 
that it w:ui painte<l fur the likeness of 
some opulent butcher who flourished in 
the reign of ciuGeii Anne. Ask the d.imc 
about it, and she refers you to ** Ithunv." 

It stands, or rather deject^ over an This is a tall old man, v,\io wuuld he 

elderly pair of wooden gates, one where- taller if he were not l>ent by years. ** I 

of opens on a scene which the unaccus- am ninety-fuur/* li«' will tell you, ** thii 

tomcd eye may take for the pleasure- present year of our l^ord, f>ne thousand 

ground of Giant Despair. Trees stand as eight hundred and twtiUy-t'ive.** All that 

if made not to vccetate, clipped hcd(;es he has to communicate concemin>; the 

seem willint; to decline, and nameless portrait is, ** I have heard say it is the 

weeds straggle weakly upon unlimited portrait of St. Chad/' Shuulil you vi n- 

borders. If you look upwards you per- ture to differ, he adds, **this 1% the opinion 

oeive paintea on an octagon board of most people who conic heie." Vc»u 

^ I lealtn Restored and Preserved." Fur- may gather tliat it ii his own undouhtetl 

ther on towards the left, stands a low, belief. On ])acin;; the uarden allf\>, 

old-fashioned, comfortable-looking, large and |)ceping at the ]>laees of Pftireiui-iit, 

windowed dwelling; and ten to one, you imagine the whole may h.ive 1mi*u 

but there also stands, at the open door, improved and beautilietl for the 1:lsI tune 

an ancient ailing female, in a black by some countryman of William lll.» 

bonnet, a clean coloured cotton gown, and who came over ami die«l in the .same? 

a check apron; her silver nair only vear with that kinj, and whose works 

in part tucked beneath the narrow border here, in woikI um\ hn\, havelMten follow - 

of a frilled cap, with a sedate and patient, iog him piecemeal ever since. 

Tct, somewhat inquiring look. This is*' the St. Chad's well is searctly known in 

Lady of the JFrff." She gratuitously the neighlKjurho(.Ml, save by its si^u.lN^lrd 

informs you, that ** the gardens" of of invitation and forl):il<linir extmials. 

^ SL Chad's well" arc ** for circulation" An old American loyalist, who ha« liv<-d 

by paying for the water, of which you in I'entonville ever miicc *Mht> lehviliou" 

Vuy drink as much, or a« little, or nothing, forced him to the mother miintry, ciiteni 

M you please, at one guinea per year, to ** totter not \iiise<-n" U'twet n the 

§*• U ^ ^uarteriyi 4«. 64L monthly, or stunted hedgerows; it was the first *' place 


of plMfom* b0 cane to after his arriTal,. 

tudho goei BO wbeie beaideir-'^ every itUtttb 9. 

f hf»g etoe ]• ao altered/' For the aame "^ ^ 

jtason, a tall, apare, thin-feoed man, with Si. Cunegttnde9, Empreas, a. o. 1040. 

doll grey eyea and underhung chin, from Sh, Markmi and Mtfriui, or AUjfrim. 

the neighbourhood of Bethnal-green, Si, Emeterhu, or Madir, vn^ Si. CkiUr 

walks hither fMr his "^Sunday morning's dofdtu. Si. fFmwalof, Abbot, 4, n. 

onroiae,'' to nntiuss a theological point 529. Si. LamaUsM^ 7th Cent 

with a law dflri^ who also attends the . 

place becanae his €aher, ** when he was 8i9. Mmiierbu uni CkeUtUmmi. 

'jpientioe to Mr. the great law atar 

uooer in Chancery-lane in 1776, and Two Spanish saints, fiunous against 

sat writing lor sixteen houis a day, ,ro* hailstorms. When hailstorms come oo^ 

cched. great benefit from the widers, the clergy proceed thus : 

which he came to drink lasting, once a 1. They make a procession to the church* 

week." Such persons from lo^ i^ttach- 3. They put lighted candles 01) the altar, 

ment, and a few male and female atrabi- 3. They sing a hymn to these saints. 

larians, who without a powerful motive 4. They chaunt Uie antiphona. 

would nerer breathe the pure morning 5. They sing the praises of these saints. 

air, resort \p this spot for their health. By the time this chain is linked, the 

St. Chad*8 well is haunted, not frequented, storm finishes. 

A few years and it will be with its water ..-_ 
as with the water of St. Pancras' well, 

whidi is enclosed in the garden of a Chronoloot. 

pm«el«3^n«oldStJw«».'d»rch. On the 3d of March, 1792. died Robert 

^^* Adam, Esq. He was bom at Kirkaldy, 

Hoh Jf'klU. ^ Fifesbire, in 1728, educated at the uni- 

▼ersity of Edinbur^, devoted himself to 

The hohf wells of London hare all de* architecture, went to Italy to study its 

dined in reputation, even to St. Bride^ii undent remains, became profident In his 

well, whose rame gave the n4me of Bride- profession, and rose to its highest ho- 

well to an adjoining hospital and prison, nours : he was appointed architect to 

and at last, attached the name to every their majesties,' ana chosen fellow of the 

house of correction throughout the king- Royal and Antiquarian Sodeties of liDn- 

dom. The last public use of, the water don and Edinburgh. In conjunction with 

of St. Bride's well drained it so much, his brother, Mr. James Adam, who died 

that the inhabitants of St. Bride's parish 20th November 1794, he built some of the 

could not get their usual supply. This finestof our modem mansions. His genius 

exhaustion was effected by a sudden de- and acquirements adorned London with 

mand. Several men were engaged in several stmctures, eminently superior in 

filling thousands of bottles, a day or ti^o beauty to those which arose around 

before the 19th of July 1821, on which him under the direction of other hands; 

day his majesty, king George IV. was but the work for which the Adams are 

crowned at Westminster ; and Mr. Walker chiefly celebrated, is the elegant range ol 

of the hotel, No. 10, Bndge-street, Black- buildings called the AdelpM, This Cfreek 

friars, purveyor of water to the coronation, word, denoting the relationship of brothers^ 

obtained it, by the only means through was conferred in compliment to the 

which the sainted fluid is now attainable, brothers, by whose intdiject and sdence. 

firom the castriron pump over St. Bride's in opposition to long vitiated taste, and 

well, in Bride-lane. difficulties deemed impracticable, these 

edifices were elevated. Itjs related that 

•*— soon after their completion, a dassically 

educated gentleman being present at a 

FLOEAL DiBECToaT. ^^jj^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ intending to toast the 

Dwarf Cerastium. CetiuHmmpwdtum. Messrs. Adams, who were also present. 

Dedicated to 5/. Chad. ^"^^ *°/^« ''Wi^delfhi r and that this 

occasioned a worthy citizen to exdaim, 
^ Bless me! it's a yeiy odd toast; what 

Mr THE EVERT4>AT BOOK/--liABCir ^ 3t8 

drink the liealth of a parcel of houseil ckhiv aTemieby the Adamt to their temoe 
However, oh, oh 1 ah, ah 1 1 tee 1 yes. Test and the adjacent thorooghfiues. Garrick 
oh, the witty rone I WhMty the street s in anxious to secure the commanding comer 
a healthy spot? so it is ; Terjr healthy ! for his friend Becket, wrote a warm- 
Come ni drink its health with all my hearted letter in his behalf to Messrs. 
heart 1— Here's the Adelphi Terrace t Fu Adam. The letter has nerer been pol>> 
stand up to it, (rMy) >nd I hope it will lished, and being in the possession ot the 
never go down t editor of the Kvetf^Drnff Book, he inserts 

' a copy of it, with a correct fke-^hmiie of 

Garrick resided in one of the houses of the commencement and conclusion. This 

the Addphi ontil his death, and was a hasty unstudied note, warm from the 

friend of the Adams, who indeed were feelings, is testimony of Garrick*s seal 

intimate with most of the eminent men for a friend's success, and of his qualifi- 

in art and literature. Before the Adelphi cations as a solicitor to promote it: there 

was finished, the late Mr. Thomas Becket, is in it 

^J^!""^^! ^^. ^ '''''^ ^"^ agracebermdtheieachofart. 

of AdanHrtieety then DinhuDg as a spa- 

I foigol to ipeak to yoa last Saturday about our friend Becket-^We shall all break 

ovr hearts if he is not bookseller to y« Adelphi, & has not y« comer house that is to 

be baih.-*Pray, my dear & very good friends, think a little of this matter, & if you 

en ay^evs happy, by suiting all our conreniences— ^we shall make his shop, as old 

Jaeob Tonson's was formeriy, y« renderous for y« first people in England.— I have a 

little ffHwhnets in this request^I never go to coffee-houses, seldom to Uvems, & 

AoQld ooostanUy Of this scheme takes place) be at Becket*s at one at noon, & 6 at 

wght; as y« monkey us'd to be punctual in Piccadilly. 

When yon left me on Saturday, whether I had exerted my spiriu too much, or gave 

great aloose to my love of drinking with those I like, I know not ; but I na 

;M IcfTiUy with a fit of y« stone, l( had it all yesterday morning, till I was 

^ ,toy«g joyofvywifo& family.— I was 4 hours upon y 

w ai [was. I am weak wh my disorder ; but I could 

with yon again to diy, as if nothing had aU'd me—'tis a oirs'd 

never have that cnme make y peace w«>» heav'n br an ad 

32» TH£ EVERY-DAY BOOK.— MARCCt 4. ^30 

oC fighteoofBeai, Sc bestow that comer blessing (I have mentkni'd) upon Bedcet U 
Us fiunily— tiiii is 7* pia^r Sc pelitioB 

Mr. Becket hdB the « corner blessing^ marched before Ins bdored Po1« m the 

coDferred upon hfan.— He removed into ^ zgaanat the enemy, and as <" he beat 

the boose from another part of the Strand, them before, so he beat them agauu" 

and remained tenant to the ** Adelphi.'* ^ """"■■■""■ 

nntii he letirea into Ml Mall. ^ , , Si^^^J^Jlo^ j:^ » 

On the 4th of March, 1583, died Ber- 

noRAL ni&ECTORT. tt^rd Gilpin. He was bom at Kentmire, 

Golden Fig Maiygold. MetembrimUkt' inWestmoTeland,1517,senttoQuecn'scol- 

miMi aureum. l^^y Oxford, in 1553, read the wntmgs of 

Dedicated to 5^ Cunmnide*. Erasmus, excelled in Ic^^c Mid philosophy, 

and studied Greek and Hebrew ; bemg a 

4Mf;irrfl 4 Catholic he held a public disputation against 
c* /» • • T; r • ^ T>* nro ^^^ Hooper. the Protestant, who was 
f"'^' ^.L«ct«,Pope,A.D.253. martyred at the stake under Henry VHI, 
Si. AdrwRy Bishop, a. d. 874. Appointed to hold a disputation against 
St, Canmity Peter Martyr, another eminent reformer. 
Was bom a prince on the 5th of Octo- ^ho read the divinity lecture in Oxford, 
her, 1458, and died 4th March, 1482. He he diligently studied the scriptures and the 
was second son of Casimir III. king of writings Of the early fathers, and ^^asnot 
Poland ; and, according to Ribadeneira, he sorry to be overcome by the troth.'* Cudi- 
wore under his princely attire a priddy bert Tunstall, bishop of Durham, gave hmi 
hair shirt, fasted rigorously, prayed at night a living, which he shortly afterwards i^ 
till he fell weary and exhausted on the signed, because he desired to travel, and 
bare floor; often in the most sharp and bit- could not hold it while absent vrith peace 
ter weather went barefoot to church at mid- of conscience. " But," saith the bishop, 
night, and lay on his face before the door ; « thou mayst hold it with a dispensation^ 
studied to advance the catholic religion, and thou shalt be dispensed vritnal.'^ To 
and to extinguish or drive heresy out of Po- this Gilpin answered, that when he should 
land ; persuaded his father to enact a law be called on for an account of his stewards 
that no new church should be built for ship, he feared it would not serve his turn 
heretics, nor any old ones repaired ; in a to answer, that he had been '^ dispensed 
particular virtue ** surpassed the angels *^ withal." Whereupon the bishop admired, 
committed suicide;re8igned his soul amidst and '< Father's soul I" said he, ** Gilpin will 
choirs of priests ; had it carried to heaven die a beggar/* He afterwards went to 
surrounded with a clear bright light by Lovaine and Paris, from whence he re- 
angels ; and thirty-six years after his death turned to England in the days of queen 
he appeared in glittering armour and gal- Mary; and bishop Tunstall gave him 
lanUy mounted ; led the Polish army the rectory of Essingdon, by which he be- 
throtigh an impassable river, and con^ came archdeacon of Durbam, and Y^CM^bAdL 
i|Qered the Mnsoovites ; and the next year on scriptural authority ai^gUDtiX tM'^ittea \a 


the diardi. Thoic who hated his integrity bifho]>ric could more enridi him withal T 
and feared his talents, sous^ht his blcxxl by besides that he is free from the great 
insnarin^; controversy. lie aroided vain weight of cares.** Gilpin annually Tiiited 
jangling, and beat his adversaries in solid the people of Ridsdale and Tindaley and 
argument. At one of these disputations, was 'Mittle eke than adored by that half 
carried on in an under tone with bishop barbarous and rustic people." When at 
Tunstall's chaplains, and close behind thQ Rothbury, in these parts, '' there was a 
bishop, who was sitting before the fire, the pestilent faction among some of them 
bishop, leaning his chair somewhat back- who were wont to resort to the church ; 
wards, hearkened to what was said ; and the men being bloodily minded, practised 
when they had done, turning to his a bloody manner of revenge, termed by 
chaplains, '* Fathcr*s soul!" said the them a <fca/i!/y/(.*u<f:" if one faction came 
bishop, ** let him alone, for he hath more to the church the other kept away, inas- 
learnin(; than you all." He was twice ac- much as they could not meet without 
cused of heresy to Tunstall, who abhorred bloodshed. It so happened that when 
to shed blood ; but information being given Gilpin was in the pulpit both parties came 
against him to Bonner, bishop of Londoni to the church ; one party stood in the chan- 
an order was issued for his apprehension, eel, the other in the body of the chureh. 
Gilpin had intelligence of the danger, yet Each body was armed with swords and 
he only provided against it by ordering javelins,and their weapons making a clash- 
William Airy, his house steward, to pro- ing sound, Gilpin, unaccustomed to such 
vide a long garment, that he might go the a spectacle, was somewhat moved, yet be 
more comely to the stake. The sudden proceeded with his sermon. A second 
death of Mary cleared off the impending time the weapons clashed ; the one side 
storm. Not long afterwards,bishopTunst ail drew near to the other; tad they were 
presented Gilpin to the rectory of Hough- about to commence battle in the church, 
ton, a laige iwish with fourteen villages, Gilpin descended, stepped lo the leaders 
which he laooriously served. He built on each side, appeased the tumult, and 
a grammar school, from whence he sent laboured to establish peace between them ; 
students almost daily to the university, but he could only obtain from these rude 
and maintained them there at his own borderers, that they would not break the 
cost. Honoured by the wise, and re- peace while Mr. Gilpin rrmaiiitHl. (In 
spected by the noble, the earl of Bedford this he once more ascended the pulpit, 
aplicitcd from queen Elizabeth the vacant and spent the allotted time in inveighing 
bishopric of Carlisle for Gilpin. A eonf^e against this unchristian and savai^e cus- 
d'rlin was accordingly issued, but Gilpin tom, and exhorting them to forego it for 
resisted tlif dignity ai^ainst all entreaties, ever. Another inciilvnt, further illusirat- 
*Mf 1 hud been chosen to a bishopric ing the manners of the people, will be 
eUtrwhcre,'* liu said, '* I would not have mentioned below ; it may l>e added here, 
ri!fu«ed it; but in Carlisle 1 have many however, that afterwanlst, when he revisit- 
frwndri and kindred, at whom I must con- ed these parts, any one who dreaded a 
ui«e in many thiotrii not witliout hurt to deadly foe, found himself safer in Gilpin's 
ny*L'lf« or else deny them many things, presence than with armed guards. In his 
nui witlioiit hurt to them, which dilficul- younger years, while on a ride to Oifoid, 
ties t liare avoided by the refusal of that Gilpin overtook a youth who was one 
bishopric." IJo waschostMiprovo^t of his while walkini;, and at another tinn% run- 
own Mjucen's) college in Oxfonl, but this ning. He found that th(> lad came from 
advancement he also dccliiietl. Yet he Wales, knew I^tin, had a smattering of 
did thu <iftice and work of a bishop, by Greek, and was bound for Oxford, with 
pri'acliin^, takin;; care of the iMM)r, i>ro- intent to lie a ncholar. ** Wilt thou/* said 
vidiiitf fur tiic necessiiic s of oth*T churcties, Gili)in, '* be contented to eo with me f I 
erLvtiii'4 M:lit»uU, uncoil ra^in;; learned men, will provide for thee." The youth as- 
and ktti'piiig oiivii house to all that sented, Crilpin took him first to Oxford, 
needed. Cecil, lord liu rl«'i{;h, the queen's afterwards to Houghton, where he im- 
secretary, ha vinu visited Gilpin at I Iouk;h- proved him exeeediiiffly in Greek and 
ton, on liiA retuni timards l)urh-.ini, when liebrrw, and sent him at last to Oxford, 
he came to Itainton-itill, rotft^cted his eye This youth wn^ the learned Hugh Rrough* 
upon the open country he had pa^setl, and ton ; he is said lo have n*quited this pro- 
Jookiag earmatly upon (»ilpin*s house, tectum and care by something worw thaa 
jQud^ ''/Jo aoxbuune this man for refusing inconstancy. Gilpin's nature was kind 
M biMhcpnc* WhAi doth he want that a and cbaxwaHv^W VmVfid wk chambciB 


and prisoDfy and dispensed large boon* which it was conoeiTed he had jeopard* 

ties. He was finn in lectitude ; and hence, ized his life, sared him from his enemies 

on one occaaiony when bishop Tunstall and advanced him beyond the reach of 

kad inclined to lus enemies, and insisted their further hate. 

on Gilpin's preadung, sorelj against the After a life excdlent for kindness, cha- 

good man's petitions to be encased, and nty, and fiuthfiil dealing towards the peo- 

repeated refusals, he at length mounted pie intrusted to his care, he died at Uie 

the pulpit, and concluded his discourse bv age of sixty-six worn out by labour in 

denonndng the enormities in the bishop^ n^ doing. 

diocese; looking at Tunstall, he said 

''Lest your lordship should make answer, floral di rectory, 
that yon had no notice of these things Chickweed. Altine media, 
giyen you, behold, I bring them to your Dedicated to St, Catimir. 
knowledge. Let not your lordship say — ^— 
these crimes have been committed by the ^Hflrtl) 5. 
£uilts of others, without your knowledge; „ ^ . . j », » .' 
for whatsoerer either yourself shall do in „ ^, ^''«» ??^ EubuluM, a. d. 309. 
person, or suffer through your connivance ^' Kmrmty or Kenenn. St. Roger, a. d. 
to be done by others, is wholly your own. 1*^* 
Therefore," thundered forth the faithful ^'' Ptnm, 
preadier, ** in presence of God, his ancels This saint, anciently of good repute in 
and man, I pronounce your fadierfaood to Cornwall, is not mentioned by Butler. 
be the author of all these evils ; yea, and, According to Porter he was bom in Ire- 
in that strict day of the general account, I land, and became a hermit there. He 
shall be a witness to testify against you, afterwards came to £ngland,and settling 
that all these things have come to your ^ Cornwall, had a grave made for him, 
knowledge by my means : and all these entered into it, and dying on the 6th of 
men shall bear witness thereof who March, 'Mn the glorie of a great light and 
have heard me speaking unto you this splendour that appeared at the same 
day." GUpm*s adherents, terrified at this instant," was buried at Padstow. «< He 
unexpected and bold address, apprehend- is reported,'* says Porter, ** to have 
ed the worst consequences from the wrought manie wonderfull miracles in his 
bishop's power. " You have," said they, lifetime, which bicanse they tend rather 
"put a sword into his hand to slay you. to breed an incredulous amazement in the 
Ifneretofore he hath been offended with readers, then move to anie workes of ver- 
you without a cause, what may you now tues or pietie, we have willingly omitted." 
expect from him who, being provoked, We have had a specimen of such miracles 
shall make use of his own power to in- as father Porter deemed worthy of belief ; 
jure you by right or wrong.'^ Gilpin an- those of St. Piran which would have caused 
swered, " Be not afraid ; the Lord God " incredulous amazement" in Porter's rea- 
over-ruleth us all ; so that the truth may ders must have been " passing wonder- 
be propagated, and God glorified, God s full." 

will be done concerning me." After din- St. Piran*M day is said to be a fiivourite 
ner, Gilpin waited on the bishop to take ^th the tinners ; having a tradition that 
leave of him, and return home. **It some secrets regarding the manufoo- 
shall not be so," said the bishop, " for I ture of tin was communicated to their 
will bring you to your house." When they ancestors by that saint, they leave the ma- 
arrived at Mr. Gilpin's house, and had en- nufacture to shift for itself for that day 
tered the parlour, the bishop on a sudden and keep it as a holiday, 
cai^t Mr. Gilpin by the hand, and ad- ' 
drened him in these words: — ** Father floral directory. 
Gilpin, I acknowledge you are fitter to be Green Hellebore. Helleborue viridU, 
bishop of Durham, than myself to be par- Dedicated to St. Adrian. 
son of this church of yours ; I ask forgive- — 
ness for errors past ; forgive me, &ther. I IKTnrrfl (\ 
know you have hatched up some chidcens JItlaiiy O. 
that now seek to pick out your eyes ; but St. Chrodegang, Bishop, a. d. 766. B. 
so long as I shall live bishop of Duriiam, Colette. St. Fridolin^ a. d. 538. St. 
be secure: no man shall injure yon." Baldrede. St: liCiyne6«rge, K^fneaunA^ 
13ns tltt inrless integrity ci GUpin^ bgr sad JtMo. St. Cailroe,^i>.VT&* 


A. tlaUitA. TinninKhuu, uicl Preitni, contended ftr 

Bidwp of Gla^Ofr. died in London hu body " Id those dayi when tbna 

A. B. 608, ud hii relici were Aiinous in were no poriih regitten, thoe mincol* 

many chorches in ScOllaod. Bolluidiu ou* powen of wlf-niultiplication after 

layi, " be wai wonderfiilly buried in ihree death, mutt hsTe been ndly perplexingta 

pboei; Meing that Ihree Unnu Aldham, topographer* and antiquuki. 


The " Ncw-cook" of the year ii bom to-di 
V/ilh ■ itroiift luily laugh. *Dd Joyoni ihi 

Upriung, with iu mother, it, in plar, 
Throwi Bovrn oo her ; pnlli hard bad* ■ 

To open them for hlowon ; and it* Toicr, 
Peeling o'er delb, plain*, apljada, and hi| 

Starlle* ill liru^ thing*, till they re}ake 


t intelligi 

lo lOBaliig* grateful, Ihaoki All WiM BcDc&ceoee. 

the Oth of 
March, aiKl latU oinely-lhree dap. 

Aecording lo Mr. Howard, whose prac- 
tical mfemution coDccming the aeaaoni 
it hifUy tahiable, the medium lempera- 
tnre doriM ipHnit ii ricraied, in round 
Bomben, from 40 to 58 degraet. " The 
naan of Ibe leaioa ii 4B.M°— the luo 
tCbctnig I17 hit approach an advance of 
Jt.l9* npon the mean teniperalure of the 
wte<r. Tbk iocreaae i* retarded in the 
Ai^puf c£ lA« ^nog b^ lb« wiada favn 

north to eail, then preralent ; and which 
ferm Iw»4)urIi of the complemeni of the 
seaaoa ; but proportiouatety accelerated 
afterwardi by the »outheriy wind*, with 
which it tcnninald. A itronR erapofS- 
tion, in the Ant iDitance IbTlowed hj 
■howen, often with thunder aitd bail m 
the Ixter, characteriiei Ihii period. !>• 
temperature commonly ri*c«, not bjr a 
iteady increaie from day to day, bnl hy 
— '-*— itarti,fromtbebreakiaf inofn^ I 

■binaapaii pnrioucc 


At sndi tiniesy tlie fspoor appean to be In ^ Syhmm Shetekm/* a new and 

now and then thrown up, in too great charming Yolome by the ladywho wrote 

plenty, into the cold xegion aboTe ; where the ** Flora Domestica," it is ddight- 

being soddenty decompoaedy the tempera- fully obsenred, tluit, ^the yocing and 

tare €ills back for awhile, amidst wind, nyyoos spirit of spring sheds its sweet 

showers, and hail, attended, in some in- influence upon ereiy ^^g : the streams 

stancfs, with frost at nij^t.'' sparkle and ripple in the noon-day sun. 

Our ancestors Taried their clothing ae- and the birds carol tipseyly their merriest 

cordiii^ to the season. Strutt has giTen ditties. It b surely the loreliest season 

the spring dress of a man in the four- of the year.'' One of our living minr 

tcenth century, fimn an illumination in a strels sings of a spring day, that it 

manuscript of that age: this is a copy Looks beautifiil, as when an infimt wakes 

of it. FhxniUsoftilamben; 

and the same bard poetically reminds us, 
with more than poetical truth, that at this 
season, when we 

See life and bliss aroimd us flowing. 

Wherever space or being is. 
The cup of joy is full and flowing. 

Another, whose numbers are dioralled 
by worshippii^ crowds, observes with 
equal truth, and under the influence of 
high feelings, for seasonable abundance^ 

To enjoy b to obey. W&tU, 

Gratefel and salotary spring the plants 

Which crown our numerous gardens, and * 

Invite to health and temperance, in the simple meal, 

Unpoisoned with rich sauces, to provoke 

Th* unwilling appetite to gluttony. 

For this, the buit)ous esculents their roots 

With sweetness fill ; for this, with cooling jnice 

The green herb spreads its leaves ; and opening bods. 

And flowers and seeds, with various flavours. DoitUp 

Sweet is thy coming. Spring ! — and as I pass 

Thy hedge- rows, where from the half-naked spray 

Peeps the sweet bud, and 'midst the dewy grass 

The tufted primrose opens to the day : 

My spirits light and pure confess thy pow*r 

Of bsdmiest influence : there is not a tree 

That whispers to the warm noon-breese ; nor flow*r 

Whose bell the dewndrop holds, bat yielcLs to me 

Predestiningsof joy : O, heavenly sweet 

Dlusion ! — that the sadly pensive breast 

Can for a moment from itself retreat 

To outward pleasantness, and be at rest : 

While sun, and fields, and air, the sense have wrought 

Of pleasure and content, in spite of thought ! Atkemtnam, 

In spring the ancient Romans cele- fertility on the coming of spring with 

brated the Ludi Floralts, These were many ceremonies. The remains of the 

annual games in honour to Flora, accom- Roman festivals, in countries which the 

panied by supplications for beneficent Roman a ,haveb requent- 

influences on the grass, trees, flowers, and ly noticeu ouv ; «nd\i L^ras^^om^ 

other products of the CMrtb, doriog the to ad^ to u >^ r\ 

^fir. The CrcekM^ likewite fMrokti jog (hw su 

930 The EVERT-DAY BOOR^MABai r. 340 

■o appofftioBing every usage in a modem Heigho 1 hcielio ! heigho ! Summer is tt hand ! 

cereiDonj, as to assign each to its proper Winter has lost the game, 

origin. Some may have been common to Summer maintain'd iu fame ; 

a people before they were conquered; Heigho* heigho! heigho! Summer U at hand! 

•thera may have been the grovrth of later The day ivhereon the jubilee takes 

times. Spring, as the commencement of place is denominated der Todten Monntogy 

the natnru year, must have been hailed the dead Sunday. The reason may be 

by all nations vrith satisfaction ; and was, traced perhaps to the analot^y which win- 

midoubtedly, commemorated, inmost, by ter bears tutne sleep of death, %vhon the 

public rejoicing and popular sports. vital powers of nature are suspended. 

CaaoxoLOGr. The conjecture is strcnj^thened by this 

Dr. Samuel Parr died on the 6th of distich in the ballad beforL' quoted : 

March, 1825. jjo^ ^^*^^ vanquishM Death, 

A SPRING FESTIVAL. And Summer's return ensured : 

The Germans retain many of the an- Were Dratk »cill unsabdueu. 

Dual customs peculiar to themselves before How much had we endurvd ! 
the ' 

eancientnatums isnotworthdiscuBsing ^y^^^ ^^j the straw beini? set on fire, the 

Tl,e approach of spniig was there com- apparatus was rolled down a sleep bill f 

memorated with an abundance of dw- ^^^eeably to the intention of iu inven- 

play, Its allegorical character was its most j^„ the blazing wheel was by deisrt^ 

rcinarkable leature. It was called Der knocked to pieces, against the precipices 

ifofWNiTt-^irin«, the acquisition of ^^j and then— winter's efli^, ti the 

into two parties Unc party carried ^^ ^^c original fcr^tiviiy, which it was 

.tcmU'T under the sha|K' of a muii covered ^^^^^ ^^ c<immemonite, is presom.l 

with straw, out of the town, and then, as ^^^^ ^ ,,,^, ,^, ,^f Eis^nac/i. - AU 

a* «a-m>>i •.•..«>.> i>iti> WMilili<« i.Vila. • «L-Illli:l . ... >.> ^ . 

~ '~; • ' . ■ . . ;• spray: 

the j<h:u.i<1 ..x.TUtu.nrrs of winter In ^^ ^ ..,„l.U.,.;.t>cul ,.f th.. >,.uson." 

tho i..f.-in«hilc national lall:uK ctUbrat- pr„,»,,,v „„. Xm^, „, ,„„,. ,,,., 

inj: th<- ai- ithts of !; and sutnmrr, ,,„p Wn ronsc.iii.nt n.x.M th..,,,.. 

fiU«ltheskKs: pt.KT»>.on!.i.ara.Ucl the of thcr former, Imt %vm- ccval in tl,..jr 

jn.a.Jo«, ;.i..J fi. 1,1s. loudly iinplormK the ^^^„^ ,„,, ,,^ ,,,^ „„,y „.„,^j,,, ,,,. .^ 

bl.svn.,'S of :. prolific suniin.rr ; an<l the jjp„, ^u,t„„„ .„,;„ ,;, „,^. ,, ,^.,„ 

jii^ial mrrry-makirs then bmuvsht the 

vutor-LMKl homr in triumph. In the rLou.ui.ini.ioi;>. 

c«nir*»* <if tinii;, ho\*<:ver, tni> o-remonial t.,,,* t ;i., x*.- : .. f» * 

, • , V m . IXfnt Lily. .A«ni«ff»« r*cu(iuHnrrissuM 

U'lilrrwcnl various alti rations. Tlie parts, ' .. .w*;„i.- 

iKfor." iHrM)nilutU were now iHTformiKJ Dedicated to St. CuUtte 
by rtal dramatis ^MTsonr ; one array e<l _«. 
OS upriiiL', and aiKtther as winter, enter- 
tained the siHttators with a combat, ^Hcirrl) 7. 
wherein winter was ultimately vanqiii>h- 

td and stripped of his emWemafical 5'- ThomoM Jtfuintis, a. n. 1271. Stw. 

■tttr«; sprinir, on the contrarv. b*ing Pt-rpetun and Feiicitat, a. d. ioJ. St. 

Uled at victor, was IM in 'tnumph, ''«"'* Anchorit. 

»mid§t theUmd acclamations of the mul- '^''- Pt^rpetun. 

i » $be iown. From this ft*stival This saint i<{ in the < hnrch of Kncland 

M popular hoJIad, composed of CA\en<\M. S\\e ^a» \\\;imied uikI* r tli« 


8i, FmI die Anchoiet awoke people from their sleep and 

This saint was ** a man of profound frightened ^ them out of their nouses. 

ignorance.'' Butler sajs he was named A servant maid in Charterhouse-square, 

^ the simple.'' He journeyed eight days was thrown from her bed, and had her 

into the desert on a Tint, and to become a arm broken; bells in several steeples 

disciple of St Antony, who told him he were struck by the chime hammers ; giieat 

was too old, and bade him return home, stones were thrown from ^e new spire of 

mind his business, and say his prayers : Westminster Abbey ; dogs howled in un- 

be shut the door upon him. Paul fasted common tones ; and fish jumped half 

and prajr^ before the door till Antony a yard above the water. 

opened it, and out of compassion made London had eiperienced a shock only 

a monk of bim. One day after he had a month before, namely, on the 8th 

diligently worked at making mats and of February 1750, between 12 and 1 

hurdles, and praved without intermission, o*clock in the day. At Westminster, the 

St. Antony bid him undo his work and barristers were so alarmed that they 

do it all over again, which he did, without imagined the hall was falling. 

askinff for a morsel of bread though he 

had been seven dm without eating; flobal directory. 

this was to tiy Paul's obedience. Ano- Everblowing Rose. Rota SemperflorenM. 

ther day when some monks came to Dedicated to St Rota of Flterbo* 

Antony for advice, he bid Paul spill tf Great Jonquil. Nareimu latui. 

vessel of hone^ and gather it up without Dedicated to St. FbUx, 

may dost x thui was another tnal of his 

oMdience. At other times he ordered (ffi&ttl) 9. 

him to draw water a Whde day and pour gt. JTrHntet, Widow, a. d. 1440. St. Ore- 

twit agam; to make baskets and pull ^^r^, of Nyssa, Bp. 4th Cent. St. 

am to pwGtti to few and misew |^r- Paehn, Bp. a. d. 373. St. Catherine^ of 

°^^ *^ !?• • *^*^'^^. ^^**^' Bologna, i. d. 1463. 

tnab of his dbedlenee. When Antony ^ 

had tiras exercised hita heplaced bira in ^ "'^ ^'^ '^^** 

a cell three miles from his own, proposed Scots' mists, like Scots* men, are pro- 

him as a model of obedience to nis disci- verbial for their penetration ; Plymouth 

pleii, sent sick persons to him, and others showers for their persevering frequency, 

possessed with the devil, whom he could Tl^« father of Mr. Ilaydon, tlie artist, 

notcure himself, and <*mider Paul," Butler iclales that in the latter portion 

savs, " they never failed of a cure." He of 1807, and the first three or four 

died about 330. months of 1808, there had been more 

, than 160 successive days in which rain, 

floral directory. in ™ore or less quantities, had fallen 

Early Daffodil. NarcUtua PteudonarcU- '" ^^^^ neighbourhood. He adds, in- 

mt simplex. deed, by way of consolation, that in 

Dedicated to St. Perpeiua. winter it only rained there, while it 

__ snowed elsewhere. It has been remarked 

^ I r\ that in this opinion he might be correct ; 

JhMTVJ O. at \esLsi if he compared the climate of 

St. John of God, a. d. 1550. 5/. Felix, Plymouth with that of the western high- 

A.D. 646. Stt. ^poUonins, Philemon, lands. A party of English tourists are 

&:c. A.D. 311. 5/. Julian, Abp. of said to have stopped for several days at 

Toledo, A.D. 690. St. Duthak, Bp. of an uncomfortable inn, near Inverary, by 

Koss, A.D. 1253. Sf. i?o#<i, of Viterbo, the unremitting rains that fall in that 

A.D. 1261. St.Senan, 5th Cent. 5/. country about Lammas, when one of 

Pmlmod, or Saumay, about 589. tbem pettishly asked the waiter, " Does 

_- . , . ,., ^ , it rain here alwats ?'' "Na! nal** re- 

Komish samts are like earthquakes, pijed Donald, ** it tnawt whiles;' i. e. 

therein shocks crowd so fast they cannot sometimes. 

be noted. ' 

yin Earthquake in London. floral directory. 

On the 8th of March, 1750, an earth- Petticoat Daffodil. Narcissus BuUfOCO^ 

qua kf shook ail London. The shock was dhtm. 

at half past five in the morning. It Dedicated to St, Catherine. 


^MTsrrh 10' uld to b&TS been the diT wk««n died 

^WtM^V XV. iirHoghMjddleioBjsnunwiiowMdij 

Arty Martyn o/ St. Stbntt, a. d. 320. English annaU for having ■bundaDdy 

81. DntetotiOu, Abbot, *. n. 380. St. applied London with water, by conducl- 

Maeietioge. ing the New Hiver from Ware, id Hcrt- 

' fanlihire, to the Clerkenwell ■abnib of 

Thel0thofMudi,1703,i*emiMoiitly the mctiopolii. 

C&e first l^ttto of tftt ^to -ROier— from ionBoiu 

lliii u sem immedialcly oq coming bojr aDglbg on the wall, u a poblic-bouie 
whhin new of Sadler's Wells, k place of with tea-ftardena and a ikitlle-f^rouiK), 
dnuoatk eDteitainmenl. After manifold "commonly called, or known by the name 
windiDgt and tunncUingi from it* source, or tigo at, the sir Hugh Mfddleloo, or tf 
the New RiTer passes beneaih ihe Bich in the lir Hugh Myddleion's head," a por- 
the engTBTing, and forms a basin within trait of lir Hugh hangi in front of the 
* Urge walled encloiure, from whence house. To this stream, as the water 
diverging main pipe* convey the water to nearest London favourable to sport, an- 
bU pwli of LoDQon, At the back of the glers of inkiioi note repair : — 
Here " gentle anglers," and thrir rods withal, 

Etsayiog, do the fiaoy tribe inlhralL 

Here bop tlieir peaoy linea and bloodwoms throw. 

And scare, aod catch, the " silly fish" tielo* : 

Backstirklei bite, and luting, up they romp. 

And DOW a nunnow, now a miller'i Utumb. 
Herr too, eiperieoced vouthi of brilpr tait* 

And hicber sin mort, who bait with pule. 

Or pmh beneath ■ grntle'i ihinuigskia 

The bvbed book, and bory it withbi ; 

The more be viiihe* Ibe better, if he die 

Not one will touch him of the Bnny fry ; 

Then doth the "nnlle aagler" Jwy recein, 
Down bnba the fl(>at,the angler wins the prii 


Coneenun^ Sir Hu^ Myddleton there relate that such mnttMi given to t 

will be OGQBsion to speak again. kennel of do^s rendered diem fat, till on a 

sudden their pood looks declined, they 

became lean, and gradually died, without 

GLOVE OF DEFiAVCK ^"v o^li^i' cuuse being assignable for the 

¥ fk rk k mortality, than the impure flesh of the 

/a tke LMmrck, sheep. In such a season, therefore, fami- 

In the notice of Bernard Gilpin, March lies should shrink from the use of mutton 

4y (p. 332,) it is said, *' another incident as from a pestilence. There is no secu> 

further illustrating the manners of the rity, but m entire abstinence. Almost 

Nortkeru Barderen will be mentioned erery hare shot during the same period 

below.'' Tlie obserration refers to a nV had a tainted lirer. Under such circum- 

g^uimr tkftUgmge^ which the arrangements stances Umb should be sparingly used, 

of ikal day could not include, and is now and, if possible, refrained from altogether^ 

inserted. in order to secure mutton at a reasonable 

On a certain Sunday Mr. Gilpin going price hereafter. 
to picneh in those parts wherein dcadltf ___ 

Avrfiprefmilcd, observed a glove hanging 

nn on high in the church. He demanded Chronologt. 

rf the Mstonwhat it meant, and why it ^^gj. John, earl of Bute, died. He 

hong there. The lexton answered, that it ,^ ^me minister soon after the acces- 

WH a glove whiiA one of the parish hung 3^^,^ ^^ q^ Uj . j^^d of all who guided 

1^ there as a challenge to his enemy, sig- ^^e helm of sUte, the most unpopular. 
mi^fiagtherdiiy, that he was ready to enter '^ '^ 

hand to hand, with him or any one " 

.■^.^.2?.Jrlll!^.$l^:! On the 10th of March, 1820, died 

the glove huMclf, and put It m his William Behkk, ^ sculptor, was 

J. Ify ^ ^, when the people honoured by the venerable president with 

to church, and Mr. Gilpin indue ^j^^ means of transmitting hU parting 

time went up into the pulpil, he in his ,^,^, ^^ ^ admirioK world, upon whom 

sermon reprored^ the barbarous custom j^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ l^^ j^^, ^^^^ ^^ ^y^^.^ 

about two 

...-,., . . , . in terms of 

said he, "that there IS one amongst you y^^^^ satisfacuon at^he model, he en- 
who, even in this sacred place halh hanged couraged him to persevere in that 
up a glove 10 lhl^ purpose, and threaleneth ^^^^j^ ^^ ^^ ^j^j^j^ y(^ B^j^^^ ^^ ^j^^ 
to enter into combat with whosoever shall distinguished, bv admirable power of de- 
take It down^ gf^o»<*. ^ ^^.^^'^ ^^V^ siijnanduse of the chisel. To speak of 
down myself. Then plucking out the Mr. Behnes's model as a mere likeness, is 
glove, he showed it openly, and inveighing ^^ -^.^ ^f ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^y^ ^j^^^, 

aeainrt such practices in any man that marks observation, and comprehension, of 

professed himself a Chnslian,endeavoured Mr. West's creat mental powers. The 

TO persuade them to the practice of mutual y^^^^^ ^ -^ ^jj^^^s in marble, in sir John 

love and chanty. Leicester's gallery, is a perfect resemblance 

■ of Mr. West's features, and an eloquent 

memorial of his vigorous and unimpaired 

THE SEASoir. intellect in the last days of earthly exis- 

The memory of man supplies no re- tence. If ever the noblest traits of humanity 

collection ofso wet a «?eason as from Sep- were depicted by the hand of art, they 

tember 1824 to March IBS-S ; it produced are on this bust. Superiority of mind is 

the rot iri sheep to an alarmintr extent, so decidedly marked, and blended, with 

In consequence of the animals being primitive simplicity, and a beaminc: look 

killed in this disease, the mutton is un- of humanity and benevolence, that it 

wholesome for human food, and produces seems the head of an apostle. 

Dortalitv even in dogs, lie ncw»ppen Mr. West wm an American ; be wai 

Hq\ 13. 


bom at Sprini^ld, in Pennnyh'ania, several successive days thus devoted Inm- 

oa the 10th of October, 173B; his self to paintiiiijc. Thv schoohna$ter, how- 
ancestors and parents were '' Friends :'* ever, sent to know the reiison of his ah- 
the family had emigrated from England sence. Mrs. West recollecting tliat she 
with the illustrious founder and leG^i^flator had seen Benjamin going up »tairs every 
of Pennsylvania, Wiu-iam Penn : of morning, and suspecting that it was the 
whose treaty with the Indians for a tract box which occasioned this neglect of the 
of their territory, it is observed, that it school, affected not to notice the mesaage, 
was the only christi<m contract unsano- but went immediately to the garret, and 
tioned by an oath, and the only one never found him employed on the picture. If 
violated.* The first of the family who she had anger, it was changed to a different 
embraced Quaker principles was colonel feeling by the sight of his performance ; 
James West, the fnend and companion in she kissed him with transports of affection, 
arms of the $?reat John Hampden. and assured him that she would intercede 
Mr. West's (genius developed itself very to prevent his being punished. It seemed 
early. Whi-n a child he saw an infant ever the highest pleasure of Mr. West 
smile ill its sleop, and forcibly struck with emphatically to declare, that it was this 
Its lN>auty, seized pens, ink, and paper, kiss that made him a painter, 
which hap|)cnod to lie by him, and en- After numerous indications of uncon- 
deavoured to delineate a portrait ; at this trollable passion for his favourite and 
period he had never seen an engraving or only pursuit, a consultation of ** Friends** 
a picture. He was afterwards sent to was held, on the propriety of allowing 
school in the neighbourhood, and during young West to indulge a taste, which the 
hours of leisure was |>ermitttd to draw strict discipline of the society inhibits :— 
with a pen and ink. It did not occur to 

any of the family to provide him with bet- Sf^*" }'** ^^^^^^ rcsUtless power 

ter materials, till a party of Indians being V^^^ tnO^c Quaker, Mtern mnd pUim. 

amuseil with little benjamin's sketches of ^^^^ ^""^ **»* bloominj paiuUr boy. 

birds and nowet5,taught him to prepare the The destiny he desired was fixed. In 

red and yellow colours with which they 1760 he left Philadelphia for Rome, pur- 

painttnl their ornaments, and his mother sued his studies in the capital of art, 

adding blue, by giving him a piece of visited the galleries and collections of 

inJico, he iMcanie possessed oi the three Italy with an ardour that impaired his 

primary colours. As he could not procure health, came throuuh France to I^ndon, 

campts hair i>enciN, and did not even and was alwut to return to America, ^ hen 

know of ihoir existence, he supplied the sir Joshua R( ynoMs, and Wilson, the 

deficiency by cuttin:: fur from the end of landscape painter, u«;ed their utmost pei- 

the cat's tail. Fn»m the frc<|uc-nl necessity suasions to det:iin him in this country-, 

for repeatinir this denrediition, his father There was only one olwtacle ; he had 

observed the alli-red appearance of his formed an attachment on his native soil : 

favourite, and lainentt d it as the effect of „,. . , ... 

disease; the yountf artist, with due con- ^^l»'"^«««- ^^^ tumd, whatever realms to 

trition. informed his father of the true u* i L * ii*i i* n • •! 

' ,.., His heart, untravcll d, fondly turn d 

cause, and the old i^tMUloman was highly ' 

pleased by his son's iinrennouHness. Mr. *<> ^^^ ^*»<"n '»<? ^^^'^^' Th" difficulty 

Pennington, a merchant of Philadelphia, "^^ overcome, for the lady, .Miss .M„.w v«, 

•truck with the pinius of the child, sent ^a""* over; they were marrietl in Lundon, 

him a box of paints and |)encils, with >n 1764. Tims •'settled,*' m the folio wiiivr 

some canvass, and six entsravings by year Mr. West was chosen a mem U rami 

Grtvlinif. Little West rose with the <>"«* ^^ ^*>« directors of the Stsciety of 

dawn of the next day, carrieil the box Artists, afterwaids incoqwnit^-*! with the 

into the garret, prepared a pallet, betjan l^^.v^'l Aca<lomy, which he assistt^ in 

to imitate the rt«ure« in the enerivings, forming, and over which he afterwards 

omitted to go to school, and joined the presidwl till his death, 

family at dinner,withont mentioning how As an artM his works in the various 

be had been octupieil. In the afternoon collections and tditkvNihr«.u>:hi.iit F.iig- 

he a«ain reUre«l to his garret ; and for *anJ exhibit his lah nts, but aUivo all 

__^^^^_^^^^ ** West's (Jailer)*," now o|)en in New- 

• V ... a. • ... 1%! .1 ■ ^ man-street for public in^'iKction, is an 

#^. f«i.v OMcmblageof testimonials to Uie justm 

94t THE EVERY-DAY BOOKwi^MARCH 11, 12. 350 

of Us iuoe amoDf hit adopted couDtrv- flobal dirsctoet. 

nenu His talent genninaled on the Upright Chickweed. Feroniem tripk^fUot* 

riiom of tlie Atlantic^ but with us it Dedicated to SL DroctovmuB. 

flourished. America at that period was ■ 

DOC snffieieiitly adTanced to cultiTate his Hffarrfl 1 1 

genius : now that she has risen in com- JWoTiy i.1* 

aeroe and the aits, and taken her stand 5«. ^aic^'ns of Cordora, a. n. 859. 81. 

among the nations, she will retain her Sopknniui^ Patriarch of Jerusalem, 

fiiftnre WesUto adorn her greatness. May a. d. 640. St. JBngut, Bishop, 4. d. 

the pcopte of England and America con- 834^ St. Cmutmmthie, 6th Cent. 

with eadi other no more but in works _ 
of peace and good wUl ; and may the in- 

terdiai^ of talented indiriduals from Ch&ovologt. 

each, co o t ri h ot e to the prosperity and 1759. IHipers were affixed in the 

moral grandcor of both countries 1 sTenoes to both houses of parliament. 

As a man, Mr. West's characteristics giving notice that the burners and their 

wete kindness and warmth of heart, serrants intended to destn^ the pheasant 

From accordant feelings, he painted with and partridge eggs, and leirerets, if the 

delight and energy some of the most country gentlemen, who had entered into 

afiecting incidents in the New Testament an association for the preservation of 

histocy. His «* Christ healing the sick" game, did not desist, lliere were sad 

will be remembered by all who saw it, heats at this time between the owners and 

with reverend solemnity. In his ** Christ occupiers of land, from the obnoxiousness 

Reiceted," the various bad passions in the of the game laws, and the severity of their 

malignant spectators and abettors of the execution, 

outrage ; the patient suffering of the great . ■ 

and aU-enduring character ; the sympa« rLomAL nimEcroRT. 

thiiing feelings of his adherents ; and the Cornish Heath. Erica trngumg. 

general accessories, are )rreat lineaments of Dedicated to 5/. ButogtMt. 

the designer's power. His '* Death on the 

Fde Horse/' and more especially the 'fRSXtti 12 

lI^u.^.S'^ P"°^l°^' '""ISr* "*"*M ^ St. Oregory the Great. St. MasimUian, 

^y^^ conception. Ibese are Mr. ^ ^ f ^^f 5^ p^ ^^y^ ^^ L^ 

Mr est s "large' pictures. Some of his about 573 

smaller ones and his sketches, the bidder ^t. 'Gregory the Great. 

studies and lingers over till his limbs and / 

body tire ; and be leaves the large assem- He was prator of Rome in 574, under 

blage of paintings in « West's Gallery" the emperor Justin; next year he became a 

with a conviction, that no artist has yet monk, and by fosting and study so weak- 

fally occupied his place. Perhaps there ^ned his stomach, that he swooned if he 

■ only one who would have designed the did not frequently eat "What gave him the 

«« Death on the Pale Horse" more effec- greatest affliction," says Butler, "was, his 

tlvely, and A^'wouldhave had no compeer not being able to fast on an Easter-eve ; a 

—Mr. Fuseli ; whose compositions are of day on which, says St. John the deacon, 

a higher order than those of any other in * every one, not even excepting litUe chiU 

this country, and vrill be duly estimated dren are used to fast ; whereuoon, by pray- 

when the price set upon hU works cannot mg ^at he might be enabled to fast, he 

be useful to their author. No one is no^ only »*^> ^^ q"»^e w>rgot his ilU 

vihied till he is dead ; after the last sigh ne«s-" lie determined to come to Britain 

has sobbed from the body, comes the Ume to propagate the faith ; but the whole city 

far some to suspect that they had inflicted rose in an uproar to prevent his depar- 

pangs upon its infirmity when living, and ture, and the pope constrained him to re- 

a desire to know more of a man, the main. Pope Pelagius II. sent him as 

nfflings of whose dying pillow the breath nuncio to Constantinople,where Eotychius 

•f their friendship might have smoothed, fell into an error, importing that after the 

snd whom, to the extent of their compre- resurrection glonfied bodies would not be 

hension they might have knovm, if their palpable, but of a more subtile texture than 

little feelings, in a state too easy, had not *»'• \^heieupon, says BuUer, St. Gr#. 

ododed him from their society. goTT was alarmed, and cleasV^ AwL^i;^- 

strated that thiur bodi«i ^o^ \)^ ^uDt^ 


same which they had on earth, and Euty- the wonian was converted, and the rest 
cbius retracted his error : on his return to were confirmed. At another time, tome 
Rome he took with him an arm of St. ambassadors coming to Rome for relics, 
Andrew, and the head of St. Luke. Pela- Gregory took a linen cloth which had 
rius made him his secretary, and after his been applied to the body of a saint, and 
death was elected pope himself. To enclosing it in a box gave it to them, 
escape from the danger of this elevation, While on their journey home they were 
he got himself carried out of Rome in a curious to see the contents of the box ; 
wicker basket, amd lay concealed in woods and finding nothing within it bat the 
and caverns for three dajrs. lie was cloth, returned to St. Gregory complain- 
afterwards consecrated with great pomp, ing that he had deceived Uiem. On this 
and on that occasion sent a synodal epistle he took the cloth, laid it on the altar, 
to the other patriarchs, wherein he de- prayed, pricked it with a knife, the cloth 
dared that ** he received the four councils shed blood, and the astonished •"**^tfa- 
as the four gospels." Butler sajrs, he ex- dors reverently took back the box. Another 
tended liis charity to the heretics, and time one who had been excommunicated 
''tothe very Jews,^ yet he afterwards adds, by St. Gregory for having put away his 
tliat in Africa *^ he extirpated the Donat* lawful wife, bargained with certain sov- 
ists.*' He subscribed himself in his let- cerersand witches for revenge ; who, when 
ters, '< Servant of the Servants of God.^ the holy pope rode through the city, sen! 
lie sent to the empress Constantina a the devil into his horse, and made him 
▼eil which had touched the relics of the caper, so that he could not be held ; then 
apostles, and assured her that miracles with the sign of the cross the pope cast 
had been wrought by such relics, and out the devil, and the witches bv miracle 
promised her some dust-filings of the becoming blind were convertetl, and St. 
chains of St. Paul. He sent St. Austin Gregory baptized them ; yet he would net 
and other monks to convert the English, restore their sight, lest they should read 
(See February 24, St. Ethelbert.) He their magical books again, but main- 
died on the 25th of January, 604.* His tained them out of the church renu. 
devotion to the church was constant ; he After his death there was a famine la 
was learned, enterprising, sincere, and Rome, and the people being falsely per- 
crudulous, and, for the times wherein he tuaded that St. Gregory had wasted the 
lived, charitable, and merciful; It should church property, gathered his writings 
be observed, that he was the author of to burn them ; wherefore Peter, the dea- 
the church-hinging called the Gregorian con, who had been intimate with Gre- 
clkaunt. gory, affirmed, that *' he had often seen 
Many miracles are related of St. Gre- the Holy Ghost in form of a dove upon 
gory, as that going to bless a church St. Gregory's head whilst he was writir.g, 
in honour of St. Agnes, which had and that it would be an insufferable 
been used by the Arians, he caused the affront to bum those books, which had 
reliis to be placed on the altar, whereon been written by his inspiration;" and to 
a hog wcntgrunting out of the church with assure them of this he offered to confirm 
a fearful noise ; whence it was averred it by oath, but stipulated that if he died 
that the devil, who had been served in immediately afti-r he had taken the oath, 
it by the heretic Arians, was driven out they should believe that he had told 
by the relics. Sometimes the lamps were them the truth : this being assented to, he 
miraculously lighted. One day a bright took the oath, and thereupon died, and 
cloud descended on the altar, with a the people believed ; and ** hence the 
heavenly odour, so that from reverence painters came to represent St. Gregory, 
no one dared to enter the church. At with a dove at his ear, to signify that the 
another time, when Gregory was transub- Holy Ghost inspired and dictated what 
itantiating the wafers a woman laughed ; he writ.*** 

he asked her why she laughed ? to which It is also a legend concerning St Grn 

■t length she answered, ^ because yon gory, that when he fled from Rome to 

eall the bread which I made with my own avoid the dignity of popedom and lay bid, 

hands the body of our Lord ;" whereupon a bright pillar of fire descending from hce- 

ke prayed, and the consecrated bread ^en, glittered above his head, and angcb 

Ml flesh to every one present ; and appeal descending and ascending bj 

MmOm^ Baimtt, •■ftsiiifffa's fsiati. 


te tune fieiy pfllar upon him, where- EneeuragtmeniofLitermimres tlie capital 

ton be was '' miiaculoudly betrajfed.'** to be £100,000. in shaiei of J^. to be 

After St. Gregoiy's death there was a increased, if advisable ; sharebolden t» 

kefnit, who had m all his goods, and be allowed to subscribe at pac; eadi 

left the world, and kept nothing but his shareholder to be entitled to a oopj of 

city and this cat he used to play with, erery work published by the society, at 

and hold in hb lap tenderly : one day he two-thirds of the publication price ; in- 

pnved that it might be revealed to him, terest 5 per cent., to be paid half yearly on 

to the joy <^ what saint he should here* the instalments subscnbed ; a deposit of 

after oome; then St. Gregory was revealed £l. per share to be paid on subscribing 

to him, and that he should come to his the remainder by instalments as the 

joy; wherefore the hermit sighed, and dis- extension of the socie^'s concerns 'may 

liked his poverty, because St. Gregory had demand; of the profits one-foiuth to 

poeseased so much earthly riches: and in form a fund for the benefit of authors, at 

revelation it was commanded him to be the discretion of the society ; two-fourths 

qniety because he had more pl^isure in to be divided among the proprietors an« 

stroking and playing with his cat, than nually ; the remaining one-fourth to 

St. Gregory had in all his riches; Then accumulate into a perpetual triennial 

the hoinit prayed that he might have funcLto meet unforeseen expenditure, the 

the like ment and reward with St. Gre- poe^flity of loss, &c. &c. &c. There is 

gory; and in this story, lieth great moral, not one word about the Eneourogememt 

o^LUeraiure beyond the title. This al^ 

DOMESTIC MEDiciKE. scucc is the most intelligible part of the 

Althoogfa this is not a fomily receipt- proposals. 

book, yet a prescription isextracted from Inere was a SoeUiif for tie Emcmt' 

the ** Yea and Nay Almanack for 1678," ragement of Lettmimg, established in 

becsnse the remedy has been tried and ^^y> 1736. The duke of Ridimond 

a p proved^ ^^^^ president, sir Hugh Smithson, (after« 

For the Eyet. wards duke of Northumberland,) and sir 

T ^, Thomas Robinson, bart., were vice-pre- 

In die morning as soon as you nse, ^^^^^^^ ^^ ,^;^ ^^ the eaiT of 

instead of fesUng spittle or aail's tail ^^^^^ ^j ^^ Abercom, Harley, eari 

inb your eyes witfi a hundred broad ^^ ^^^^ ^l Stanhope, lord PeViival, 

pj«c« of your own gold ; and I tell thee p^ ^ead. Dr. Bireh,^aul Whitehead^ 

fciend, It will not only do thy eyes good, ^ard, the professor ai Gresham couHe^ 

bat thy purse also. S^e^ ^^ tVanslator of the Koran, ^ 

Chkoxology. other reaUy eminent men; Alexander 

1689. King James 11. landed at Gordon, the author of " Iter Septentri* 

Kinsale in Ireland, with an army he onale,** a "History of Amphitheatres," and 

brought from France, to assist in the other learned and antiquarian works, vraa 

recovery of the throne he had abdicated. ^«ir secretary. In the December of the 

He afterwards made a public entry into »a™® y^^r Gordon wrote a letter to Dr. 

Dublin, and besieged Londonderry, which Richardson, master of Emanuel college 

rigorously defended itself under the rev. Cambridge, soUcitmg his mtcrference 

George Walker, and suffered dreadful f»^^ ^r. Conyers Middleton, to obtain 

privations till it was relieved, and the for the society the pubUcation of the hfc 

iiege abandoned. He then held a parUa- of Cicero. « They have already entirely 

ment in Dublin, coined base money, and Pa^«^„ *^« ^ay for the reception of aii- 

committed various outrages, till William thors," says Gordon ; "appointed bo<*- 

in. signally defeated him at the batUe of ^^^^ ^^ their service ; settled the regula- 

the Boyne, and compelled him to fly to tions concerning pnnters, and the pnnting 

France. P*'* » '"*°' " "* "°^ nothing te wmUtng 

but to Met out with tome author of genhu 

SOCIETY FOB THE ESfcouaAGEMEHT OF and note.** Dr. Middleton dhose to 

LITERATURE. publish his life of Cicero vrith a book- 

Aroong the prgposals in 1825, a year seller, notwithstanding an army of really 

prolific of projects, there is one for a great names had made all those arrange* 

Joint Stock Company or Society for the ments, and courted him to their en* 

_ couragement. In the outset of this so- 

• Porter's nowers. ciety Mr. Clarke iu a VtUei \o lAx ^^^crarj^^ 


wpre we d bis conTiction, that ** it must and which he thought could be diverted, 

h% at last a downright trmdlng society,** or regulated by new channels and sluices ; 

arid said ** I hope you will take care to be be appeared not to know, that it is an 

oneeftheir printers, for there will certainly ocean of miglity waters, with eountlev 

be • society for encouraging printing, currents and varying tides. Ue proposed 

Mr. Bowyer took the hint, and printed for largesses to indigent writers, and their 

them. Ine security was gooa, because widows and orphans, and ** honorary ft* 

caeh member of such m sodetv is wards " to successful ones. Robertson, 

answerable individually for its debts. Brjrsnt, Melmoth, Johnson, Gibbon, and 

At the end of three years '' Dr. Birch, as many other ** useful and accomplished 

tfftnsurer to the society, handed over to writers," were to have had the ** honorary 

Mr. Stephen le I^ia, his successor in rewards'* of the encouraging society. 

olBce, the astonishing balance of 591. Such honours, such a society was to 

3«. (4^. During that period the society have forced on such men I The doctor's 

had printed only four oooks ; and then, '* hints ** were not adopted, except that 

deeming the assistance of booksellers ne- to relieve the casualties of minor literary 

cessary, they entered into a contract for men, and their dependents, there now 

three years with A. Millar, J. Gray, and eiists the Literary Fund, 
J. Nourae ; afterwards they contracted In the records of former days there is 

with six other booksellers, whose pMts mention of a project for extracting, boi- 

they retrenched : then they became their tling, and preserving sunbeams from cii- 

OWB booksellers ; then they once more had cumbers, for use at that season when sun- 

leoourse to three other booksellers; and beams arc rare, and cucumbers not at all. 

finally, finding their finances almost ex- The projector seems to have inferred, that 

haustcd, they laid before the public a as cucumbers derived their virtue from 

memorial of the Present State of Affairs sunbeams, it would be virtuous in cueum- 

of the Society, April 17, 1748,** whereby bera to return the deposit. Whatever 

it appeared that they had incurred so virtue cucumbers had, it would nut be 

consiaerable a debt they could proceed forced. Experiment, doubtless, disap- 

Bo further.* pointed hope ; the promising project ao- 

Less than fifty yean ago another sorbed the capital advanced, as completely 

society existed, under the very title of as the chohcky vegetables tenaciously 

the Joint Stock Society proposed in 1825* retained the solar rays; and the deposit 

Mr. Tyson, in a letter of June 21, 1770, never found its way to the shareholders, 
to his friend Mr. Gough, the antiquary. Any Society for the Encouragememi of 

mentions that a bequest of £5. was *^ left Literature^ save one, is a fallacy— that one 

at the disposal of the Society for the JFn- is society itself. All interposition in iu 

eourmffmmfmt of Litertaure.-f If the behalf is feeble and doting interference, 

liteiature of the present day owes its A public Joint Stuck Company can neither 

eiistenee to that society, its offspring is create literary talent, nor by divided 

roost ungrmteftil ; the foster-parent is not eflbrts obtain so much ; nor with capital, 

evtn remembered, nor is the time of its however great, reward it so well, as the 

birth or death recorded in any public undivided interest, industry, and unshared 

register. That it survived the bequest purse of the private publisher. 
alluded to, only m very short period, ap- If a Society for tke Encourtigement of 

pears certain ; for in the very next year, Litermture be mstituted, when more in- 

1780, Dr. Lettsom issued "Hints for est a- stitution is threatened, and less insti- 

btishtng a Society for promoting useful tution is necessary, than at any former 

Literature.** The doctor, a most bene^ period, such society will be a hot-bed 

voient man, and a good physician, dis- for the cultivation of little more than 

penscd much charily in private as well as hopefiil weeds. A few literary ekoota 

IB public, and patronized almost every may be set in warm borders, and drawa 

hvmane institution for the rslief and cure up under frame5, tu look handsome, 

•f human infirmity; and hence his e3re but they will not )>ear transplanting to 

was as microscopic in discernment, as his open ground. Tlieir produce will be pre- 

baml was experimental in the healing of mature, of inferior quality, and not repay 

irieli. Literature seems to have been to the trunhic and exp(>n<e of rearint^. If 

ba n a gentle river that he rilled into, left unsheltered, tlie fir>t chill will kill 

■ them. Weak turkere, however well §^ 

tIMd. voured. Will never come to trees. 



The manaTcb of the fbtetl, in naiural 
•nlitade, dhokiag luDihine and dews, un< 
inWrmptal and untainted bj human en- 
ctoMhsasBU, ant' itrikiDg deep root be- 
BMth virgin «vth, ariaiiu, in Alness of 
time^ to nujeMie growth. In like manner 
tlw nlant apirit m man, teeking peace in 
militaij inaginingi, penetiatiog below the 
fcondalioiu of human knowTedse, and 

which are honoured at (ight Tite de- 
mand for talent ia greater than Ibe aupplj. 
What U to be done/— nothing. What 
tan be done ! — nothing. Literature muit 
be let alone. Under bounties and draw- 
backi, it becomei tortuou* and illicit. 

i'« eyes, because 
the work of men'i hands. This self- 
created power, is denominated Genius. 
In an incipient Mate it eTsporates beneath 
the meddling touch, and at maturity soars 
aboTc itt reach. T^ent is ungDvernable. 
It direct! itself, appoints its own tiuslees 
fin uses, and draws drafts upon the public 

iKar* 13. 

jit. Nieephona, Patriaich of ConstanlU 
nople, A. D. 828. St. Eupltratia, a. d. 
410. St. Theophana, Abbot, a. u. 818. 
St. KennoeAa, a. d. 1007. St. GeraU, 
Bishop, A. D. 733. 5f. Motlutemoe, in 
Latin, PnfcAcrJu, Abbot, a.h. 655. 

j)Sfli«£ent #unttap* 

Wiix&st dxSi l^prms antgortjtb— a ^ort* 

M«(b«iii( gaDdn.~BFfTnfan«Bt SaDdij.— On this day boy* went about, ID ancient 

*"• S>md^. ^j^^^ ,^^ ^g villages with a figure of 

This is the fourth Sunday in Lent, and death made of straw ; from whence they 

noted as a holiday in the church <j Eng- were geoerJly dii^ea \s% ^^iw cwimVrj 

land calendar. people, who oiilikcA il «i axi. otci:m.<»i,\ 


appetnnce, while tonae ga?e them money reason of which,** 8a3ri Wheatly, (on 

to get the mawkin carried off. Its precise the Common Prayer) ^ I suppose is the 

meaning under that form is doubtful, Gospel for that day, which treats of our 

though it seems likely to have purported Saviour's miraculously fiVding five thou* 

thedeathof Winter, and to have ueen only sand; or el:;e, perhaps, from the first 

a part of another ceremony conducted by lesson in the morning, which gives us the 

a larger body of boys, n-om whom the story of Joseph entertaining his brethren.* 

death-carriers were a detachment, and It is also denominated Roie 5viidby, from 

who consisted of a large assemblage car- the pope on this day carrying a golden 

rying two figures to represent Spring and rose in his hand, which he exhibits on bis 

Winter, whereof one was called ** Somroer way to and from mass.* 

stout** — On this day at Seville there is an usage 

Apparelde all in grfeoe, and drest evidently the remains of an old custom, 

in youthful fine arraye ; Children of all ranks, poor and gentle, 

The other Winter, claddc in mosse, appear in the streets fontasttcally dress- 

with hears all hoarc and graye.* ed, somewhat like English chimney- 

These two figures they bore about, and svreepers on May-day, with caps of gilt 

fought ; in the fijght Summer, or Spring, got and coloured paper, and coats made of the 

the victory over Winter, and thus was crusade bulls of the preceding year. 

allegorized the departure or burial of the During the whole day tncy make an in- 

death of the year, and its commencement cessant din with drums and rattles, and 

or revival as Spring. The custom described cry ** Saw down the old woman." At 

on March the 6th, (p. 339,) was only a midnight,parties of the commonalty paiade 

variation of the present, wherein also the the strecu, knock at every door, repeat 

boys carried about cracknels or cakes :— the same cries, and conclude by sawing in 

Thus children also beare, with spcares, two tlie figure of an old woman represent- 

their crackaellcs round about-f inj^ Lent. This division is emblemilical 

It is still a custom on Mid-Lent Sunday of Mid-Lent.f 

in many parts of England, for servants and flora l di rectort 

apprentices to carry cakes or some nice Heartsease, riola Tricolor. 

eatables or trinkets, as presents to their Dedicated to 5/. JSvphratia, 

parents ; and in other parts, to visit their 

mother for a meal of furmity, or to receive 4Harf h 1 4 

cakes from her with her blessing. This is w -r-i- /\ * <w:ii 

called going . «o/AmV.: Herrick men- 5r AW. or 3/a/A,Wi^ Quc^n^ 

lions t£is cSstom in Gloucestershire : ^Jf;^ AcvpMimoM, Bishop. JoMfph, ami 

ITe to thee a simnell bnng ^^y^ ^f j^ ^^^^^^ ^^ 

'Gainst thou go'st m mt»ihertng . ** . , .ok olot r 

8o that when she bleiseth thee . ^^^ tk- i^^ k ' i:-* 

Halfthatbleislngthoultgivcme. -1733. The Licise scheme was first 

^ . ai . • r .u n^».- moved in the I louse of Commons, by 

Going m molAmv ? from the Ilomim ,^,„ti ^hich were powerfully tl 

^thohc custom of going to the mother^ ^.^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ ,^^j^ ^^J^ ^^^ ^^ 

^^ ^.^'^I^'ll^^'^.^J^^^^^ the Excise bill brought in. On the 4ih of 

as read a first time, and 

fenogi at the hi^ altar; and thai custom ^ j, ,^^ j,j„ ^ 

rfAeltaniih Church tt «»«"»«» <™«"he Jricdby a majority of 36; the majority 

Mfan., > h«mthen «est,»al celebrated by ^j ^^ ,^^ {^^.J ^^ There *er« 
the ancient Romans, in honour of the -r ■ . . / . j- 

Motherofthe Cod. ok the ides o< March.* P^r!!? .SH'i!?".: JT. ^ .^IS! 

»uuKr«uK "«» "" "« •"'=' 2 *„ k";! town of the kingdom, and Rnat tumuitt 

TV. o<fennp 1 the ahars were .n Iheir j„ ^o^^^ ^^^ obnoxious member. «e.« 

ongu Toluntaiy. and became chuidi pro- ^^^^^ ^„ ,^^., ,^ parliament. 

p«y. At length the pvib pne»t» ««»- ji^^ „e„u„ w„ ^ uni.pular that it was 

pranded witn the church at a certam ^^^ ^^^ ^.^^ droppX* hereon publ« 

nm. and th«^lunt.iy do"»t.°ns of the ^,. „„ift!,U bv peneral illumi- 

IwopU ba«« b«»me the due. known by ^,,^_^ ^ ^^^^^ ,..j„,ci,iB^ 

^'i^*! ^^afSEr^'t--^ i. "57. Adm.r4l John Hync, «cood 

J«*^. «' *'»'*^'y- frfS ^^ «,n of lord Tiscount Torrinpton. wa, shot 

H « crikd R^fr^Omtnl Sund^, "th« ^ ivm^outh, under ihelnlincc d a 

-t^tnkm'm Bntkk Mm amkk am. \ IMSUAfiTi Uttera. 

961 TEi£ EVERY-DAY BOOIL-*MARCH 15, 16. 36S 

court martial, for not haTing done his Cbkoiiologt* 

duty in an action between the British and Forty-four years before Christ, Julius 

French fleets on the 20th of May prece- Cesar was assassinated by Brutus and his 

ding. After he had made hb defence, associates in the senate-house of Rome, ia 

and conducted himself throughout the the 56th year of his age. He is said to ha?e 

trial with coolness and courage, he was so conquered three hundred nations, taken 

sure of acquittal, that he ordered his ' eight hundred cities, defeated three hun- 

coadi to be in waiting to conrey him to dred millions of men, and slain one hun- 

liondon. He suffered on board the dred millions on the field of battle. He 

Monarque with undaunted firmness, walk- was learned himself, and an encourager of 

ing out of the cabin with unchanged learning and the arts. He wrote the 'K^m- 

countenance to the quarteF-deck,wbere the mentaries on the wars . of Gaul," a book 

inarines were stationed to execute the which bears his name, and which would 

sentence. He desired to die with his eyes have been lost in the bay of Alexandria, 

uncovered ; but on its being represented if he had not swam from his ship with his 

that his intrepid looks might intimidate book in one hand, and his arms in the 

the soldiers, and frustrate their aim, he other. His ruling passion was ambition, 

tied a handkerchief over his eyes, and yet he was a slaye to sensualibr; with 

then dropping another, five musket balls talents that might have made him die 

pused through his body, and he fell dead protector of Roman liberty he destroyed it. 

instantly. An historian of the day says 1784. Dr. Thomas Franklin, transla- 

of him, that <' Whatever his errors and in- tor of Sophocles, Phalaris, and Ludan, 

discretions might have been, he seemed to died. He was bom about 1720, and 

have been rashly condemned, meanly given vrrote two tragedies, the ** £ail of War* 

up, and cruelly sacrificed to vile con- wick'' and '' Matilda.** 

siderations.'' It is believed that popular ....... 

fiirr had been excited against tim by ^^^^^ mbectom. 

^anoaa arts, and «peaally by the sup- ColUfoot. Tus.ilago Farfata. 

prenion of important passages in his Dedicated to sr^ocAe^- 

official despatches. He dehvered a paper Tait:„_ Mercury Mereurialit oereimU 
to the nmshal of the admiralty ou the SedicatS' to St. AbraJT 

mommg of his death, wherein he ex- 
pressed his conviction, that he should " 
nereafter be regarded as a victim to divert ;^l3rCil^ 16, 

the indignation and resentment of an in- 5^ j^i^^ ^f Cjli^.ja. SLFitwm, sur- 
jured and deluded people from the proper jj^med Lobhar, or the Leper, 
objects, and that his very enemies be- g^^ Finian. 

lieved him innocent. He was descended from Alild, king o. 

1797. Courtney Melmoth. died at Munster, built the abbey of Innis-Fallen 

Bath, aged 89 yeare ; he translated part of ^^ ^ island on the lake of Loughlane, 

-•Cicero s Works, 'and" Plmy s Epistles,^ ^^^^ ^^ j^ . ^^^^^^r at Ardfinnan, 

and wrote " FiUosbome s Letters, and the j^ Tipperary ; and a thiid at Quin-more 

" Memoirs of a late eminent Advocate; Madoc, m Leinster, where he vras buried.* 
his father was the author of " The great j^ ^ Te\2Xed of St. Finian, that he 

Importance of a Religious Life. visited St. Ruadanus, who had a miracu- 

1803. Fredenck Klopstock, a German i^^g t^ee in his cell, dropping a liquor so 

writer, author of the " Messiah" and other peculiar, into a vessel from nine o'clock to 

woriu, chiefly poetical, died at Hamburgh, gun-set, that it sufficed to dine him and 

aged 80. His funeral was a public one, ^n j^jg brotherhood every day. St. 

and conducted with a marked solemnity, pinian's visit was to persuade St. Ruada- 

denoting affectionate respect for his talents j,yg ^^ ij^^ like other people ; therefore, 

and character. ^jjen St^ Finian came to the tree, he 

PLOKAL DiRECTOET. jig^g^j ^ ^i^^ ^^ ^i^ of the CTOSS, by ri^)s: 

Mountain Soldanel. Soldanella AlptM. ^^^ ^f which the liquor ceased to floW 

Dedicated to SU Maud, ^^^^ nine o'clock; This was in the absence 

— ^T"- p of Ruadanus, who being informed on his 

;fVl9tCu 1^' return, that St. Finian and others had 

SU Abraham^ Hermit, and his ncice, 5*. come to see him, he ordered his senrant 

Jtfery, 4lh Cent 5/. ZacAarf, Pope, 

A. D. 753. « Batlti't Bitetk 


to prepare the miniciiloiifl water dinner as who died in 432. Determined on at- 

usual ; the lervint surprised to find the tempting the conversion of the people, he 

vessel empty, told his master, who bade penetrated to the remotest comers of Ire- 

him to fill it with common water from a land, baptized multitudes, ordained clei^ 

fountain, which he had no sooner done, gy to preside orer them, instituted monkip 

than the water was changed into the. gave alms to the poor of the proTinces, 

liquor that flowed from the tree. St. made presents to the kings, educated 

Ruadanus ordered the man to carry it to children to serve at the altar, held coun- 

St. Finian, who making a cross over the cils, founded monasteries, restored health 

liquor, changed it back to water, and said to the sick, sight to the blind, raised dead 

why is this liquor of a false name given to persons to life, continued his missions 

me f St. Finian's comi)anions urged him during forty years, and died at Down in 

to go and cross the fountain as he had Ulster, where he was buried. Such, in 

cro4ued the tree ; but Finian answered, it brief, is Alban Butler's account, who as- 

would only grieve Ruadanus, who would signs the year 464, for a period wherein 

go to the next bog, and change the water he lived. 

there into the same liquor. In the end, St. Ribadeneira affirms it, as a most &mous 

Finian and his companions persuaded St. miracle, and well known to the whole 

Ruadanus not to work any more miracles, world, that St. Patrick did so free Ireland 

but to live as others did, whereunto he of all venomous beasts, that none could 

yielded. Thus St. Finian having out- ever since breed or live there, and that 

miracled the miracle of St. Ruadanus, and even the very wood has a virtue again!»t 

stopped him from working; the same poison, ** so that it is reported of king*s 

miracle again, departed with his com- college, Cambridge, that being built of 

panions.* • Irish wood, no spider doth ever come near 


1 723. March 1 0, a royal proclamalion Jocelin, a Cistercian monk of Furnoa in 

was iiiued for a thanksgiving for our pre- the twelfth century, wrote *' The Life and 

scrvation from the pla^:ue. Acts of St. Patrick," wherrin he relates 

[It has been lately proved that the many extraordinary particulars, of winch 

pla-;ue is nut contJiKious. Dr. Maclean the fi>w that follow arc specimens : St. 

iH undeistooti to have estahlished the fact Patrick when a child in winter time 

tu the satisfactiun uf government, and it brought hume some pieces of ice, his 

is in cuntcinplation tu re|ical the present nurse told him he had better have brought 

Uw.s i}( quarantine.] home wood, whereupon he hcajHH] to- 

_^ gether the ice, and prayed, and the ice 

-.,.«». ......^^^.w immediately l)ecamo A l>onfire. AfVerthia 

TionAT. PinrrTORY. •• ^ , /. .i j i j * i i.- 

Noddinc lk.ff.,d.l. ,V«rfMn« ««<»». •"' fi'r«":f-'t>"r rf";J. --"'d to njUevc b.. 

Dedicautl to 5/ Mian. """^ "."".T"' ?^'- ' T u P™^' ' "•^."'^ 

^____ him with the si^n of the cross, and so 

restored him to lifi». Then by the same 

JXnSrfM 17. »i|Lrn he freed a cuw from an evil spirit ; 

c« n^s^z^i. 4?j f L r 4 ■ .t recoverwl five cows she had wounded ; 

St. Pmtrirk. St. JoMeph, of Anmathea. .. j u .i i u- ' 

n, g- . , AiiJl ^ '"d, by iiie same means, wl>en his nurse 

SI. (tertrMde. AbiH*ss, a. p. o2G. ...„ ••,' i , if . ' u-. « • 

' ' was 111 and longed for hone)*, he " immew 

St. Patrick, diately changed water into the best 

Apoatle nf Ireland. honey." At another time, when she was 

St. Patrick was burn towards the end conimande<l to clean out some filthy 

of the fourth century, in Kill [ut rick, be- stable!!. .St. |*atriok prayed, and they wif« 

Iwecn Duubriton and (ilasgow. At six- cleam-fl without hand-c. Tlien St. Patrick 

teen hi* was carrieil off" with many of his hiiniielf was carried into slavery, and sold 

father's vawals intu slaver)*, and conipell- fi»r a ki tile ; but the kettlr being placed oo 

ed for six mouths to ke«p cattle on the the fire, the hotter the fire bunied, the 

mountains in Ireland, from whence he colder became the kettle ; whereupon the 

escaped through the humanity* of some seller of St. |»atrick retumM the kettle, 

tulon. He travelled into Ciaul and took .^t. I»;itri<k biick, and the veMel was 

Ilaty, and received his apostolical mission restored to its wonted power of Unlinir. 

IP OOOfeit the Irish, from pope Ctle^tine, Sc. I^atrick desiring to eat meat, obtained 

some pork, and having concealed it 

rhfrifA'hllmHim Cot a couveoient season, prMeally 

966 ^ raE £V£RY.DAY BOOK^lfARCH 17. 164 

he nw a man with eyes before and St. Patrick^ and, ^ O, mimde t31 Ibea 
eyes behindf and asked him why he was unheard and unknown! the ship, without 
so fbnned ; the seer answered, ** I am the any pilot, sailed against wind andstream,'' 
serrapt of God ; with the eyes in my and he made a prosperous TO^yage. At 
liDrehead I see things open to view, with another time, Sl Painck seeing a hundred 
my eyes behind I see a monk hiding flesh men unable to stir a large stone, he, alone^ 
meat in ai u w il to satisfy his appetite pri- raised it up, ami placed it where it was 
▼ately.* Then the seer Tanisned. St. wanted. He was accustomed to stop and 
FitndL repented, prayed for pardon, erect a cross at the head-atone of eveij 
besought for a sign that he had it, was christian who, was buried outside of a 
told by an angel to put the pork into water, burial-place; one day, coming to the 
did as the angel oid him, and the pork graves of two men newly buried, and 
** immedialely became fishes.** Having observing that one of the graves only 
jonmeyed into Britain, he saw a leper had a cross over it, he stopped his cha- 
whom marinen would not carry in their riot, and speaking to the dcAoman below, 
ship, whereon St Patrick took a stone asked him what religion he had been, the 
altar consecrated by the pope, cast it into dead man answered a pagan, St. Patrick 
the sea, caused the leper to sit on it, and inquired why then a cross was put over 
the leper immediately set sail on the stone, Aim, the dead pagan replied, he who is 
kept company with the ship all the voy- buried near me was a christian, and one 
a^e, and got into port with her at the same of your &ith coming hither placed the 
time. St. Patrick, returning to Ireland, cross at My head ; the saint stepped oot 
on approaching the shore, saw a multitude of his chariot, rectified the mistaae, and 
of devils in the form of a globe surrounding went hu way. One F^lge, an idolator, 
the whole island, when he ** raised his sa- strangled the driver of St. Patrick's che- 
ered right hand, made the sign of the riot, in his seat, wherefore the saint cast 
cross, and, unhurt and unterrifi^i, passed his ** holy curse '* at Foylge, who pierced 
he over* Some fishermen in the county thereby, fell dead into hell ; but the devil 
of Leinster, drawinc^ their nets from a entering the dead body, walked about in 
river loaded with fish, St. Patrick asked it, and seemed as if he were Foylge him- 
them for some ; they refused him ; he self, till one day St. Patrick called at the 
nned them, and the river ; and from dead man's house, and asking the femily 
that dav the river never produced fish, where Foylcre was, they answered be was 
Once wtien the chief king of Ireland or> at home, when the saint told them of 
d^red his subjects to prevent St. Patrick Foyljc's death, and that Satan ^ had 
from landine, they set a fierce dog at him, entered into his corpse and occupied it 
V hereupon the dosr stiffened like a stone ; as his own proper vessel," then St. Pa- 
then a gieantic man brandished his sword trick gave notice to the devil to leave his 
ai the saint, the man stiffened likewise, lodtring in Foyl?e*s body, which he did im- 
but repented, and St. Patrick unstiffened mediately, and Foylge was buried. Preach- 
h:m. and baptized him. An old man, inur on a journey to 14,000 men, ''he first 
would not believe St. Patrick's preaching, fed them all with spiritual food," then 
St Patrick asked him whetlier ne \« ould commanding a cow to be kiUed, with two 
be persuaded by a miracle ; the old man stags, and a couple of boars, the people 
said he would, then StiPatrick prayed Jaid ate abundantly, the remnants were 
kis hand on him, ^ and immediately the old gathered up ; and '' thus with the flesh of 
nan became beautiful and young, and five animals, did St. ^trick plenteously 
flourished again, as in his early youth," feed 14,000 men." Once when he was 
tad was so made to believe. Having con- preaching, by way of a strong argument, 
vRted Mbchna, a virtuous swineherd, he raised to life nineteen dead men/ one 
vhile they were conversing together, a of whom had been buried for ten years, 
itaff from heaven fell between them, which Afler that, St. Patrick passing over a river 
Sl Patrick gave to Mocl^na for a Mistoral one of his teeth dropped into the water, 
Rafl^ consecrated him bishop of Edruro, and his disciples could not find it till 
* and the staff is in that church still pre- night, when the tooth in the river shone 
served, and called the flying ftaff.'^ as a radiant star, and being so discovered 
St. Patrick's nephew, St. Lumanus, being was brought to St. Patrick, who on that 
4esiroQS of taking a journey by sea when spot built a church, and deposited his 
wiad and tide were against hian, be tooth beneath the altar. Desiring to ^aoA 
'the sails, tnisted in the ineriti of an impamble mer, end «» Vxnl V»ai^ 


at handj St. Patrick prayed, and diYiding nify that it is held in repnte hy Catholics 
the ri?er, made himself and followers a in a humble rank of life. To what extent 
free passage, then ** he blessed the river, the catholic clergy have instructed this 
and being so blessed, it abounded in class of their flocks, or rather to what ex- 
fishes above all others.'* St. Mel being tent they design to instruct them, is also 
denounced unjustly to St. Patrick, and unknown to a Protestant ; but should the 
preferring to prove his innocence by a higher classes of catholics enjoy the civil 
miracle rather than by an oath, he rights, which the most wise and enlight- 
ploughcd up the earth on a certain hill, ened of their Protestant fellow-subjects 
and took by the ploughshare many and deplore they do not possess, and most 
large fishes out or the dry land ; there- anxiously desire they should possess, it is 
upon St. Patrick absolved him, but lest not too much to hope that it will become 
St. Mel should continue to work miracles the anxious wish, as it is the positive duty 
presumptuously, *' he bade him that he of the catholic clergy to inform the igno- 
should thenceforth plough on the land, rant of their community. An union be- 
and fish in the water.*' St. Patrick had tween the church of England, or any 
a goat, a thief stole it, and ate it, and other protestant church, and the church 
when accused, denied it ; but the goat of Kome, never can take place ; but pro- 
bleatini^ in the stomach of the thief, pro- testant churchmen, and Protestants or all 
claimed the merit of St. Patrick; ana, to denominations, can and will unite with 
increase the miracle, by the sentence of Catholics, if Catholics can and will unite 
the saint, all tlie posterity of the man with them, to enlighten the Egyptian 
were marked with the beard of a goat, darkness, which enslaves the mind worse 
St. Patrick having laboured to con\'ert a than Egyptian bondage. The education 
tyrant, who lau^htfd him to scorn, he im- of helpless infancy, and the fixation of 
mediately converted the tyrant, at^ainst his just principles in youth, form the best se- 
will, into a fox ; which fox went off* with a curity criminal manhood. In this, 
hard run, and could never be found, surely, botli Protestants and Catholics will 
Another time being benighted in the concur, and their earnest cooperation to 
open air, violent rain fell around St. obtain this security will be a firm pledi^ 
Patrick and his companions, but did not that each desires the welfare of each. The 
wet them a drop. On the same night, marked separation of churches and doc- 
tlie driver of his chariot could not for the tnnes cannot much longer separate man 
darkness find the horses to re-yoke them, from man. In the bigottcd and selfish 
on which St. Patrick, drawing his right interests that dam the s<K:ial aflt-ctions, 
hand from his sleeve, and lifting up his there are incurable and daily widening 
fingers, they ** shone even as sun-beams, breaches : the issues alternate and vary, 
and wonderfully illumining the whole but the first high tide of mutual kindness 
country, turned darkness into lii;ht, and will burst the restrictions, and sweep them 
nisht into day— then by the aid of the mway for ever 
radiant miracle, the chariot-driver found __« 
his steed.'* After the death of St. Patrick, 
there was no night for twelve days. S^t* SStritfc'fif SdP# 

These aie some of the miracles attri- 
buted to St. Patnck by Jocelin, whose life This being the anniversary of the day 
of him piibliiihed in <' Dubhn, Printed for whereon St. Patrick died, it is commemo- 
the Hi{)ernia Press Company, By James rated as a high feMival in the catholic 
niyth," is sold in London by Messrs. church ; and it is celebrated to his honour 
Keating and Rrown, Catholic Printers in that countr>-,with every demonstration of 
and Publishers, No. 38, Duke-street, affection for hi^ m<>mory as the apottle 
Grosvenor-square, in one volume 12mo. <^nd patron saint of Ireland, that t warm- 
containing 264 pages, price 2#. 6^. in hearted, enthusiastic, joyous people, can 
boards. possibly express. An eye-witness repi^ 

sents to the editor of the ^rrry-Ooy Boek 

that St. Patrick's dav in Dublin isascene 

To what extent Catholics believe such of festivity and mirtli unequalled by any 

miracles, as have lieen just related is thint* observable in this countty. From 

iisliJBOwn to a Protestant ; but the publi- the highest to the lowest, all hearts seem 

€MtMoa of JocvIid'm works by catholic inspired by the saint *s beneficence. At 

bookMtUen in a cbeap fonn, iccmslo »ig- dv}«bfc«ak flags fly on the steeples, a^ 


the bells nag out inceiimt peab till mid- in the chair, with the duke of Leinster oa 
■igfac The rich bestow their beoerolence his right, and the maiqness of Lansdown 
OB the poor, and the poor bestow their at his left hand : se^nal of the king's 
blessings on the rich, and on each other, ministers and nobility were present The 
SDd on the blessed St.Patrick. The^green report stated, that 400 cmldren were 
muaonal" shamrock is in every hat Sports educated in the school, the funds admitted 
of manly ezerdse exhibit the capabilities of only 240 being doihed, the rest were 
of the celebrated ** sfaiUelah," and before supplied with shiits, shoes, and stockings ; 
niglit many a head gives tc^en of the and the committee earnestly invited m- 
application of its wonderful powers, hy a spection of the schoob from nine till two 
mnaeidar hand. Priestly care soothes every day, except on the sabbath and Mon* 
ifueruloasness ; laughter drowns ca- day. A donation to the charity, from his 
soahy ; iannmerable bright-eyed, rosy- majesty of 100 guineas, was followed by 
cheeked, jaunty lasses d^ce with their others, and by hopes that absent Irish- 
mirth-kmng lads ; old women run about men and Englishmen who could, would 
with diildren in the hoods of their doaks, cheerfolly contribute towards an institution 
to publicly share care-drowning cups ci which on its merits required general sup-' 
sweet consolation with each other; and by port. Speeches from the chairman and 
the union of wit, humour, and frolic, this noble guests, the diancellor of the ex- 
miraculous day is prolonged till afUr the chequer, Mr. <>Connell, Mr. Huskisson, 
morning dawn. and other distinguished characters, 

A popular song on this festal occasion breathed sentiments of universal ^ood 

eontains these verses : will, and must have inspired every indi- 
vidual to kindness, and dfsire of extend- 

Saint Patrick's, the holy and tutelar man ; jng, and cementing, the conciliation so 

p heard cfown hw bosom liKe Aaron's ran : happily commenced between the people 

'hL'Sr of both countries. 

R„\ I !^^*^t*f^^ «f.««^« ««-r !.«». ^.-« ^^ is related that during the dinner, the 

oQt 1 care not trom woence now be i risen _^^^i.i.ji^ii ° i. > 

j^ f^„^ party at the head table were much amused 

The pride of the worid and his enemies by a bottle of gen nine (tTfcg^Opoteen, neat 

scominr, ^ imported from the emerald isle, being 

I vill drink to St Patrick, to-day, in the handed to the chancellor of the exchequer, 

■Doming ! who, forgetting the good of the revenue in 

He's a desperate big. little Erin go brdi ; J^« "^^^^'T f/^^P^^^!^' P"^ * P^^^^^^ <>J 

He will p«don oi5 foUies and promise us }^^ °t"?^*^ ''•^"'"T '"^ ^^ ^^^ "^^ **™^ 

iff^ It with becoming devotion. 

Bv the mass, by the Pope, by St. Patrick, so ^n the forenoon of the same day, the 

'long festival was celebrated at the Roman 

As I lire, I will give him a beautiful song ! catholic chapel in Sutton-street, Soho, 

No saint is so good, Ireland's country adorn- with an unusual degree of splendour. The 

ine; archbishop of Armaerh in nis mitre and 

Then hail to St. Patrick, to-day, in the pontifical robes, oflBciaied as high-priest, 

morning! assisted by the two English catholic 

' bishops, Poynter and Bramston, and one 

In London St. Patrick's day is observed of the Irish bishops, and several of the 
at court as a high festival, and the nobility minor clergy. A selection of music, 
crowd to pay their compliments in honour chiefly from Haydn's masses, was power- 
of Ireland's tutelar saint. For many fully performed by a very numerous choir, 
years it has been selected as an occasion accompanied by a full band ; and after a 
for soliciting and obtaining aid to a great sermon by Dr. Poynter, a collection was 
national object — the promotion of educa- made, to the amount of £65., to assist the 
lion. It is the anniversary of the '^ Bene vo« chapel and the schools attached to it. 
knt Society of St. Patrick," for clothing Order of Si. Patrick. 
and educating children of Irish parents In February, 1783, letters patent created 
who need tbe assistance, by voluntary m brotherhood denominated ** Knights of 
contribution. The festival is attended by the illustrious order of St. Patrick," to con- 
Irishmen of different political parties and sistof the sovereign for the time being, as 
religious persuasions, and many of the sovereign of the order ; and fifteen knights 
highest rank. On this anniversary, in companions, the ^ lieutenant-general and 
1825, ibe nan^uest of LondoadeiTy was genoal gOYcmos fA WnuA^^x ^ Vn^ 

trt .TH£ SV£RY.DAY BOOR^MARCH 18. sn 

deputy or depatiet, or lord's justices, or natiyes, assisted by the tons of Cunedda, 

oiber chief governor or governors'* for the and from the south with the aid of 

time being,(%ciating as deputy grand mas- Urien.*' Thus Wales contends for the 

ters. The statutes of the order of St. Patrick honour of the birth-place of Patrick with 

direct the badge to be of gold, surmounted Scotland, while Ireland has the honour of 

with a wreath of shamrock or trefoil, sur- the saint himself, 

foundinff a circle of gold, bearing the ■ 

motto of the order in gold letters, QuU A LoiUhn BuiL 

•moroftll^ with the date HDccLXXxiity The "Athenaum" affirms the following 

wnerein the order was founded, and en- to be a literal transcript of a letter sent to 

circling the cross of St. Patrick gule»f a gentleman, who had irrnmmqptrd a 

surmounted with a trefoil V€ri, each leaf patient to that eicellent institution called 

charged with an imperial crovm or^ upon the London EUctric&l DUpinmry ;— 

a field ttrgent ; the oadge, encircled with « Xo Mr. G 

ra3rs in form of a star of silver of eight u -^^ 508I. 

points, four greater and four lesser, worn « Sir, 

on the left side of the outer garment. «« Having by your recommendation 
The Shamrock, l>^n receired a patient at the Ijondon 
The shamrock is the trefoil. The FJectrical Dispensary, and being dis- 
Druids used it to cure diseases. The charged this day dead^ I beg leave to re- 
Irish use it as a national cogoizance. It is '^^n my humble and hearty thanks for the 
said that when St. Patrick landed near s&me. 
Wicklow to convert the Irish in 433, tiie " ^"^ ^' ""••" 

paf^an inhabitants were ready to stone Except the No., date, and the word 

him; he requested to be heard, and en- deadf which are ti^ri/toiiy all the rest of the 

deavoured to explain God to them as the letter is frinUd. 

Trinity in Unity, but they could not 

understand him, till pluckmg a trefoil floral Diaacroar. 

from the ground, he said, **Is it not as Sweet Violet. Hola odormtm, 

possible for the Father, Son, and Holy Dedicated to St. Oertrnde, 

Ghost, as for these leaves, to ctow upon Shamrock. Trifolium repent. 

a single stalk," then the Irish were mi- Dedicated to St. Patrick. 

mediately convinced.* 

St. Patrick. :fflHrtb 18. 

The Welch claim St. Patrick. Mr. ^^ Alexander, Dp. of Jeiusalem. a. n. 

Owen in Ins "Cambrian Biography ' ^^^ ^t. Cyri/, Abp. of Jeru;alem. 

afnrms, he was iwm at Abcrllvchwr in j^ ^ ^Qe St Edward Kinir 

Pembrokeshire, South Wales, where there gjg' 3/ jinselm hv of 1 ucca, a' d 

is a church dedicated to him. Tliey call ^qqq ^^ Fridian Erirdiai^orFri^ 

him Padrig, the son of Mawm or Maen- j-., 'n^ ' r t „,.,... ' ^ ./rra ' 

e ^C 1 . 1 r /-, %9 r\ atan, isp. 01 i^ucca, a. i>. o7o, 

wyn, of llie laird of Gwyr. Mr. Owen ' *^ c pj ^ 

cites from the genealogy of the nriti*»h on • • l ,- ,**[ t'. . 
sainu, that, " It was the glory of the em- |»"» !* \he Knglish king who was 
peror Theodosius, in conjunction with stabbed m the back with a datrger, by or- 
tystonnin Uydaw, surnamod the blessed, Y- , ? stepmother, Klfnda, while 
to have first founded the college of Illtyd, J^^^^^ p" . horseback at the rate of 
which was regulated by Balcrus, a man ^^^^ ^="*1«' V" ^^^ '^\'!^^ Purhcclc He 
from liome ; and Padriff, son of Mawrn, f P«rre^ his horjc, which plunged hira 
was the principal of it, before he was car- M!^° * ^'•^P »"y»*'' ^n*^ \*J<^7 ^^ died of 
ried awiy a captive by the Irishman." J" wounds, in 979. Butler "r hit 
In corroboration, Mr. Owen says, it is body was discovered l>y a pillar of lighL 
recorded in the history of Wales, " that *"^, ™"?<* »" ^\aicham church, and 
the Irish were enabled to settle tliem- ^^"^^^ miracles. His name is in the 
felvtt along nearly Uie whole extent of ^^"i"^}" °^ FpK»-^!"l calendar. 
iU coast, in tlie beginning of the fifth J^ » ^? histoncal fact that the wretch- 
oratory, and conunucd there until nearly ~ contriver of king Mwani s murder 
tha mMh of the same era; when they V^V^ ^^ remainder of hrr days in dis- 
opellcd from the north by th$ «»» horror ; and her nightOirought 00 re- 
^ * pose from the afflictions of her conscience. 
I Jlnai totogrtlst, wft obtained • kind of annour formed oC 




eradfixesy wherein dit encased herself 

perfonned penaneet, built monasteries, 

and died universally execrated by the in- 

) dlg;nant people. Hie treachery of the 

crime occasioned a general dbtrust, no 

one would drink wiuiout security from 

Jfim^who sat beside him, that he was safe 

'^hile the bowl was at bis lips ; and hence 

is said to bare originated tne cusiomary 

expression at table of ** I pledge you, 

when one person invites another to drink 


"• Cbeonology. 

1745. Sir Robert Walpole, earl of 
Orford, died, aged 71. 

floral directory. 
Great Leopard Bane. Doronicum Par- 

Dedicated to St CffrU. 


A. Jo9qtk. St. Akmumi, 819. 


The churdi of Rome has canonized Jo* 
seph the spouse of the Virgin Mary, and 
hoDouis him with oflSces and worship of 
various forms. 


720, B. c. the first eclipse of the moon 
on record happened on this day. 

1355. Pressing for seamen to man the 
navy commenced. 

1668. Sir John Denham, poet, died in 
London ; he was born in Dublin, 1615. 

1719. A surprising meteor was seen 
about eight o'clock in the evening^ from 
all parts of England, Scotland, and Ire- 
land. To an observer in St. PaMl's church- 
yard, it appeared a ball of fire as large as 
the moon, of a pale bluish light, and with 
little motion, till in a moment it assumed 
the shape of a common meteor with a 
stream of light, double the diameter of its 
first appearance, emitting a splendour by 
which the smallest print might have been 
read. Its duration was not above half a 
minute, and its greatest light about the 
tenth part of a minute. At Exeter its 
light exceeded that of the sun at noon- 
day, and there it seemed to break like a 
ikvrocket, into sparks of red fire, which 
reflected that colour on the houses, and 
shortly after a report, loud as cannon, 
■ shook the windows, succeeded at the in- 
terval of a minute by about thirty others ; 
" thcj sounded just as the tower guns did 
m Mincing-lane, but shook the houses 
tad windows much more.'' Mr. Vniliton 

calculated the greatest height of this ex<« 
traordinary meteor to have been forty- 
three or fifty-one statute miles : it gradu- 
ally descended lower till it came to De- 
vonshire, where it was about thirty-nine 
miles high, and broke over the sea, near 
the coast of Brittany; its altitude then 
being about thirty miles.* 

floral directory. 
Yellow Star of Bethlehem. Ormiiht^gth 

Dedicated to St. JoteplL 

iKarcib 20. 

St, Cuihtfert, Bp. of Lindisfame, A. n, 

687. St. fFuifran, Abp. of Sens, a. b« 


St. Cnthbert. 

Of this saint there will be mention 


1727. Sir Isaac Newton died ; he was 
bom December 25th, 1642. 

1751. Frederick, prince of Wales, fe- 
titer of king Geor^ III. died aged 44. 

1793. Died William Murray, earl of 
llIansHeld. lie was bom on the 2d of 
March, 1705, and during tliirty years, and 
until his death, presided as lord chief 
justice of the court of King's Bench. He 
was eminent as a lawyer, and dignified as 
a judge. It is said that he altered the 
common law of England, by ingrafting 
upon it the civil law in his decisions. As 
an elegant scholar, of highly cultivated and 
vigorous intellect, he shone in the constel* 
lation of great men, which arose in the 
reign of queen Anne. In eloquence and 
beauty of diction, he outnvalled his 
predecessors, and has not been excelled 
by any successor in the high office he 

1811. Napoleon, son of the late empe- 
ror of France, by the empress Maria 
Louisa, was bom, and received the title of 
king of Home. 

On the 20th of March, the sun enters 
the constellation ^ Artei^ or the Ram," 
which is the first zodiacal sign ; and this 
day is the firtt day of Spring 

By an accident, the remarks relating to 
Spring were hiterted under March 6^ 
instead of this day : and as the error is 
thus particularly noticed, in order as far 
as possible to rectify it, the reader will 
please to consider all that has been said 

• WlikiMi's AcamM«rallclMi«8fu. 17l»t 


€»11w«it<tof Uardi u »pplicat>l« to the on Egyptian monnmenU, ii ii of higtiPT 

twtnllelk (lone. "Hie editor, wbile tic- anliquitj, and ijinboluei that sruon 

koowtrdginf, and en*ing pardon tor a when sheep jrean their lamht. TTte peo- 

TOBtioiu and uopurpostd misrepmenla- pie of ThetM tXem a ram in honour of 

tiou, irill endeavour to Kt a natch upoa Jupiter Ammon, who penonifiei the tun 

himelfin (iiIure,to guard againil aiimi- in Aries, and is represented bjr ancient 

lar accident. scnlplure and coins with the borm of % 

Ariel, or the nm, aa a radiacal tign, ram on his head. The Hebrew* at ihii 

if said to have been derived bjr the Kason iacri6ce a lamb, to commemoraie 

Greeks from the golden Seece brought their deliTetance from Egypt. Ariet, or 

from Cojchi) \n Jason, aboat 1363 yeais the ram, was the «niign of Gad, one of 

brfbrc Chriit ; but as it is a hieroglyphic ^i^" leaden. 

vcBKAL Eoniroi. ,bo^ U,e horiion, aod, conMqnently, a 

IVwtnaiksonther'craaJf^iiiu'.ini. lest time than Iwelve hour* eupaei be- 

nediately following, ate communicated by fore it shines again to us in the momiDg. 

aresfiecled scK^niibc friend to the editor. Besides, Ihe faiSacyof this common sayini; 

Tut If a day of i^re^ consequence in is perceived at once by any one who con- 

iha y«ar, and one that must cxciie many tideii, that the inhabitant of the north 

iMWrialiont in the mind of the aslrono- pole, if there is any inhMbitant tbera, has 

Mer, and of every one who entertains a already seen for some days the sun abort 

dtie rvTtTcnce lur our lacced records. "Die his horiion, and it will not set to him ior 

Mn on ihii day passes the ima^nary line above six months. The day then is nut 

in the he a vens, called the equaior.orequi- equal to the nisht, either in the united 

BDctial; it beingthe middiecircltequalty kingdom, or at the north pole. WeviU 

distant iu every nrt from the itorth or leave to the aitronomer to determine at 

the KMth polct. The line is passed to an what part of the eaith this ciicanuiance 

~ltonGram«iLhhill,at lenminulct really takes place; in the investiga- 

pw nine in the morning ; and, conse- tion of the problem he may encounter 

qaenlly, when it is on the meridian, or lome difficuliiei, of which at pivwot he 

hi higheat point at noon, it will appear is probably not awara. T^e sun crowe* 

to eveiy observer in the united kingdom the equinoctial line at ten minute* past 

at wme diMance from the equator. It it nine ; it was therefore ai in rising suulh 

coamonly nid, that at ihii lime the day of thai line, and at iu s«.-llin^ it wilt ba 

k eqna) to ihc nighl all ihe world over ; north of that line. Tlie line it mark* oui 

tat this is a vuloi anor. The day is not in the heiveni is an arc of a spiral ; bat 

•qwl toihe nigntJB this country \ that it, had it risen and set in ihe equiDocliil 

iMnB Bfpcin EguM tbis twelve houn UiWi ibt tn would htTc btn ciiculat. 




To lea*«, bowercr, the circumstances 
pcciiliarijr i«kti>e to aattoaomy, lei ui 
coDaadar Ihii dftj in utotlwr point of 
new. The toD and the nwon ut ibe 
•egulalonof day«,ud moothi, aod ^ean, 
aA times, tnd leuooi. Every iMtioii in 
ihm woiU pay* WNiie legard to iheii mo- 
doni; and in tbii oountiy they are the 

if bgiitative 
ich liav«be( 

'« been laughed at by our 
. _ . wcs; disregarded by tb« 

chuTdi, ihoagfa taoctioned in its nibrio ; 
■Dd Kt at naught by count of jiutice, 
wbooc openiagi il certain periods depend 
on prescribed appearances in the heavens. 
Of this, hereafter, tufficient proof will be 
giTcn; and, in thus noticing the emin 
of put time*, thete is > cnance, that a 
■taluie of importance, cenaialy,uit has 
been thought worthy of legislation, should 
not be beiealter ntrtaled withont the in- 

ihis time, and not without reason ; for 
ihry bad for it the sBoction of a dirioe 
command. To the Israelites il was com- 
isarHli.<i, that this should be the beginning 
of iheir sacred year, on which the ^eat 
festivals preKribed by their taw should 
depend. Their civil year begins in Sep- 
tember, and they continue to observe the 
ci'mmand, having an almanac founded on 
the compLicaled niolions of the sun and 
moon, whose calculations are if a very 
subtle nature, and whose accuracy iii 
exceeds that of the poliahed nation:! of 
Europe- That the year should be^in 
either at the vernal or the spring equinoi, 
or al the atitumnal equinox, good reasons 
may be given; but for our taking ihefirai 
of January for th« commencement of the 
year, nothing more can be said, than the 
old theme, 

Sie raU, lit juiea, titl pro rsfunw rtlnmiai. 
—Sach is my will, the itui and moon may 
move as they please. 

Except for the refraction of the almos- 
phere, tbe inhabitants of the equator would 
tave at *11 times twelve hours' day and 
twelve hours' night ; the suo being north 
or south of this circle not causing any 
dtSerewe, for tbe equator and ecliptic 
betog both great cirdes of the sphere, the 
two points of intersection must be is the 
same diameter. 

By the almanac it will be found, that 
there are nearly eight days more io tbe 
iMcrval between the vernal and tbe 
aanrnDBl equinox, than betweenihe latter 
■nd the retuin of tbe vernal equinox. 
No. 13. 

As, therefore, from the vernal (o th« 
autumnal equinox, the sun i> on tbe 
northern side of the equator, our summeT 
occurring during this period, gives us an 
advantage of nearly ei^t days, in this 
respect, over tbe southern hemisphere. 
This diSerence arises from the oval or ellip- 
tical form of the earth's orbit. ,Tbe earth, 
therefoie, being at different distances from 
the sun during the year, it is found to 
move with different vtdocities ; moving 
slowest when furthest from the sun, and 

Juickeit when nearest to Ibat luminary. 
L happens Io be at its greatest distance 
Just after our Midsummer, and moving 
consequently slower during our spring 
and summer months ; our summer is 
about eight days longer than that of the 
southern hemisphere, our winter eight 
days shorter than theirs. 

The annexed diagram will exhibit the 
equinoctial condition of the earth; the 
inn's rays at their noon falling veitJcaDy 
10 llie II. habitants of the equator. 

Care ^uitbap. 

Care Sunday is the tiflh Sunday from 
Shrove Tuesday, consequently it is the 
next Sunday before Palm Sunday, and 
the second Sunday before Easter. Why 
it is denominated Care Sunday is very 
uncertain. It is also called Carfe Sun- 
day, and in some parts Carling Sunday. 
A native of Newcastle-upon-Tyne* ob- 
serves, that in that town, and many other 
places in the north of England, peas aAet 
having been steeped a night in water, a~~ 

and are called Callings, " probably a* w« 
call the presents at &irs, birinp." Tn 
this he attaches a query, whether CarUa 
may not be formed from th« old plura4 
termination in ea, as hosea, be." Tlie 
only attempt at a derivation of tbe word 
Core, is, that "the Friday on whkk 


Christ was crucified, is called in German word ceorly the name for a huibandman. 

both Gute Freytag and Carr Freytag ;*' The older denomination of the dmy, then, 

and that the word karr signified a satis- may not ha^e been Care but Cari^mdmf, 

faction for a fine, or penalty * The in- from the benefactions to the evrlet or 

ferc'nee is corroborated, by the church of earlen. These are still the northern 

Roine anciently using rites on this day names for the day ; and the dialect in 

peculiar to Good Friday, whence it was that part of the kingdom is nearer to 

also called Pamon Sunday. It is noted Saxon etvmology. But whether the day 

in an old calendar, that on this day *< a were called Carle or Care Smulajf it is 

dole is made of soft beans,'* which was now little known, and little more can be 

also ** a rite in the funeral ceremonies of said about it, without the reader idling 

heathen Rome/* This " dole*' of soft inclined to say or sing, 

beans on Care Sunday, accounts for the t« Begone dull Care.** 

present custom of eating fried peas on ,«..« 

the same day. No doubt the beans were _. __ 

a very seasonable alms to help out the iw v- i\ ir^V /V ' i_ 

poor man*. lent stock of provisfon. "In %;i.\°j!V ^^^^5^' 

Northumberland the day Is called Carling Dedicate d to St. fFulJhm. 

Sunday. The yeomanry in general steep """"~" 

peas, and afterwards parch them, and eat 418Arr{l 21 

them on the afternoon of that day, call- ^9iai,i.v ^x. 

ing them car/in^t. This is said by an *old St. Benedict , or Bennet, Abbot, a. n. 

author, to have taken its rise from the ^^3- S^- Serapion, called the Sindo- 

disciples plucking the ears of corn, and "^^e> a> d. 388. St. Serapion^ Abbot 

lubbmg tnem in their hands."t Hence -5'- Serapion, Bishop, 4th Age. 8t. 

it is clear, that the custom of eating peas Enna, or Endeus, Abbot, 6th Cent 

or beans upon this day, is only a conti- c d n 

nuation of the unrecolll^ted " dole" of the ^ ,^ ^r^u'''''2^' ^Y/^^'^u. 

Romish church. It is possible, however, ^^""^ ^-^ '^ ^''^ '^^ ^' ^^^*^' 

that there may have been no connection '^^ accounts of distinguished persons 

between the heathen funeral rite of giving of the Romish church written hf its 

beans, and the church donation, if the lat- ecclesiastics are exceedingly curious, 

ter was given in mere chanty ; for there "^^ ^^^- Alban Butler states of St. Bene- 

was little else to bestow at such a time of ^'Ct, that he was bom in Umbria about 

the year, when dried pulse, variously ^®0» ^^nt to school at Rome, and after- 

cookt-d, must have been almost the only ^ards being determined to leave the 

winter meal with the labourer, and a ^orld, " therefore left the city privately, 

frequent one with his employer. <^nd made the best of his way to the de- 

The couplet at the head of this article serts*** Here he remained secreted at a 

Mr. Nichols says he heard in Notting- place called Sublacum, till a '' certain 

hamshiic. Tlierc is another^ pious priest,'* whilst preparing a dinner 

Tid, Mid lilisera °" Easter-day, heard a voice say to him, 

Cariing, pilm, piste Egg dtv. " >'°" ?^ preparing for yourself a ban- 

---,.. , , • quet whilst my servant Benedict at Subla- 

The first line is supposed to have been cum is distressed with hunger.'* Then 

formed from the begmnmg of Psalms, &c. the priest found out Benedict, and invited 

vix Te Jeum— 3/1 i/eus— 3/»«rrCTe mei.J him to eat, « saying it was Easter-day, on 

But how IS It that Care Sunday is which it was not reasonable to ftit.'* 

also call^ Cart Sunday and Carting Sun- Bennet answered, he did not know it ; and 

day ; and that the peas, or beans, of the Alban Builer says, " nor U it to be won- 

day are called cartinge^ Carle, which dered at that he should not understand tlw 

now means a churl, or rude boorish fel- Lunar cycle, which at that Une was 

low, was anciently the term for a working known by very few." Soon after, tome 

countrvman or labourer ; and it is only shepherds found him near his cave, and 

altered m the spelhng, without the slightest " took him for a wild beast ; for he was 

deviauon m sense, from t he old 8axon dad with the skins of beasts, and tbey 

" ■ imagined no human creature could live 

• iirmn«}*»ri>p. Ar.iiq. frfttn Marshal on tiic iftxon among those rocks." From that time he 

Tutmirm.i.'.MiijM.m.. 179*. hegan to be known and visited, and the 

: brand'! f. i.. Amu.i.inw de/il came to him " in the shape of a little 


btodLlnnL'' After this, Benedict rolled thederil out of bim; howhe taw the: 

UmKlf in brim and nettles, till he was of his sister in form of adore; how he 

co i ai a d with blood ; and his fiune spread- foretold his own death ; how he per- 

tag sull Bore abroad, several forsook the formed mirades too masj to be here re- 

woiid to lire with him ; and he became lated ; all which, howerer, may be seen 

am abbot, and boilt twelve monasteries, in the said life of St. B^iedicf, by the 

Ib out of these, a monk becoming sloth- said pope St. Gregory, who it will be 

M, St. Benedict said, ''I will go and remembered iscall^ by way of cUstiDction 

conect him myself;** and Butler says, St. Gregory He Great. 
^ anch iodead was the danger and enor- St. Benedict founded the order of monks 

fluty of this foult, as to require the most under his name. A reader who desires 

speedy and effectual remedy ;** wherefore to be acouainted with its rules may con- 

St. Benedict eonung to the luy monk ** at suit Mr. Fosbroke*s ^'British Monachism,*' 

the end of the divine oflBoe,saw a little Mack who remarks, that monkery is an institu- 

boy leading him by the sleeve out of the tion founded upon the first principles of 

charcli,'*aiM applied the 'Speedy and efiec- religious virtue, wrongly understood and 

tnal remedy" to the monk's shoulders,in the wrongly directed. He then proceeds to 

shape of a eodgel ; and so '^ the sinner was remark, that, ** If man be endowed with 

Ireed from the temptation** of the little various qualities, in order to be severely 

black boy, who was the devil. Then by punished for using them, God is made 

Benedict s prayers a fountain sprune up ; the tempter of vice, and his works foolish, 

aad a aoak cleaving wood with a heog- If voluntary confinement, vegetable eat- 

mg bin, and the iron falling into the ing, perpetual praying, vrearing coarse 

water, by holding the wooden handle in clothing, and mere automatical action 

dK vrater, the iron miraculously swam up through respiration, be the standard of 

to it of its own accord. Such growing ezoelksice, men the best man is only a 

Cune brou^t to Benedict ** many who barrel organ set to psalm-tunes.*' 
dad m purple with gold and pre- 

** He seemed," says Alban Ch roxolog y. 

Bntler, *- indued with an extraordinary ^556. xhomas Cranmer, archbishop 

powier/XMnmandingall nature, and foresee- of Canterbury, vras burnt for heresy at 

mgftitnre events ; he baffled the various Oxford, between Baliol college and St, 

aitifices of the devil, with the sign of the Mary*s church 

craaa ; rendered the heaviest stone light ; ^ corTespondent,LECTOR,communicatcs 

^a short prayer raised to life * novice t^^t there is against the south wall of 

^ ^J^ "?^*^ ^I H ^^^^^ * Camberwell church, an inscription com- 

w^ ;*aiid »ft«joJ« vtonders died, about memorative of " Bartholomew Scott, esq. 

theycar 543,^ed 63. justice of peace in the county of 

Pope St. Gregory, of whom some Surrey," in which he is said to have mar- 

' IS given on his festival, (see ^ied " Maigaret, the widow of the right 

12,) wrote the life and miracles reverend prelate and martyr, Thomas 

of St. Benedict t T^is work of many Cranmer, archbishop of Canterburie.'' 

chapters relates howBcnedictdispwsessed stnpe, (Life, p. 418. b. iii. ch. xxviii.) 

a eerlun dcrk of the devil; how he ^^^^ ^^^ ^^e name of Cranmer's last 

miraculously discovered the hiding of a ^jfe was Ann ; and that she survived 

flagon of wine ; how m a scarcity two him, was living towards the latter end of 

hoodred bushels of meal were miracu- archbishop Parker's time, and « for he" 

loQsly brought to his monastery ; how a subsistence enjoyed an abbey in Notting- 

boy marvellously cast out of his gave, hamshire.'' He does not seem very san- 

was miraculously kept in it by St. Bene- ^j^ ^^^ ^^-^ head, but gives the passage 

diet pairing the host on his body ; how a ^ authority of " a very angry book, 

glass bottle »st dovro on the stones was ^^ against the execution of jusUce in 

not broken ; how an empty tun vros fiUed England by cardinall Alien." Fox, in hU 

with oU by his prayers ; how he gave a ^^tes and Monumentes," says, that 

aaother monk a slap in the face and drove Cranmer's wife vras " a Dutchewonian, 

• A»ui Butler, the En.iiUi biogmpher of St. hynne to the wyfe of Osiandcr ;* and that 

BcwAct, and tiie reu of ihe nints, died in May, Cranmer having " sold hys plate, and 

''tVSt?Gre«>fy'« labour u trmiuteted nder the payed all his debts, SO that no roan could 

tnie of *' The Ufe and Minciea of oar HoHe Fntbcr ask him a gTOte,*' left his wife and children 

c»/*"i£rr''*'~" &»i»**r«i. Wnwd ». unprovided. The marriage of « Bartholo- 



^ ScoU,etq." ifvith Cranmer's widow, and Northumberland. They were Imilt 

was certainly an act of noble disinterested- at equal distances from each other, im the 
oess. He is celebrated for his never- grandest style of antique architectoie. 
dying riitues, and described as a '^ valiant. Such was London in March 1661^, when 
wise, and religious gentleman," of" right it was visited bv the plague, which raged 
worshipful and ancient familie."* with such unabating &tality, that three, 

. ^ four, and Ave thousand of the inhabitaiits 

died weekly. Deaths increased so hat 

FLORAL DXEECTORY. that the usual mode of interment ooaM 

Bulbous Fumitory. FtimarU hmlbow, do longer be observed ; large pita were 

Dedicated to St BenneL dug at HoUywell-mount, and m other 

suburbs of the city, to whidi the dead 
' ' were carried in carts, collected by the ring 

of a bell, and the doleful ctj ^ ** Bring 

^Kflrtb 22. ^"^ 7^^' ^^^'^ "^^ bodies were brooghi 

'^^^ ^ ' out of the houses, and olaced in the carts 

at. BmiU of Ancyra, a. o. 362. Si. with no other covering than rugs or sheets 

Pauly Bp. 51. Lm, A. D. 384. St tied round them, and were thrown into the 

DeograttoM, Bp. of Carthage, a.d. 457. pits in promiscuous heaps. Trade was at a 

St. Catkarina of Sweden, Abbess, a. d. itand, the shops were shut ud, every day 

1381. had the appearance of a sabbath; grass 

CHaoKOLooY. g^«w on the Royal Exchange, and most 

1687. John Baptist Lulli, the cele- ^f. ^ J"^l'^ »^,^ 'J^ ^!]S^^ 

brated musician, diSTage**^^- "^^ might be mistaken for green fields, 

bom at Florence, in 1634, and from being ■ 

Kge to madame Montpensier, niece to ^ut, season. 
^uis XIV. became superintendent of 

music to that monarch. Dr. Forster observes, in his ^ Perm- 

nial Calendar," that about this time soi- 

ders begin to appear in the gardens, far 

___-.,. in winter they are only seen m houjei ; 

Tk€ Pbgue M London. ^^ ^^ ^^e species which inhabits our 

In March, 1665, London abounded in dwelUnes, is quite distinct from the gar- 
wealth and grandeur, in comparison with den spider. These are a very interesting 
its state in former ages. Goldsmiths' shoos tribe of insects, in spite of their ugly ap- 
shone with plate all along the south-side pearance, and the ^neral dislike which 
of the street called Cheapside, then named most persons, especially females, attach to 
Goldsmiths'-row. The dtrand then united them, in common with earwigs and other 
London and Westminster by a range of unsightly insects. Naturalisis have found 
palaces, inhabited by the nobility, with out this curious propensity in sptden, 
gardens in the rear reaching to the that they seem remarkably ftmd of mnae, 
Thames, from whence through watei- and have been known to descend from 
gates they descended by stairs to take the ceiling during concerts, and to retire 
water. Each of these mansions was when the strain was finished ; of which 
named after its owner or occupier ; as the following old verses, firom the ** A»- 
Esses, Arundel, Norfolk, Salisbury, Wor- thologia Borealis et Australis«*' 
cester, Exeter, Hungerford, Howard, York, us :— 

To a Spidsr whick inkabited a Cett. 

Id this wild, groping, dark, and dresrie cove, 

Of wife, of children, and of health bereft, 
I hailed thee, friendly spider, who hadst wove 

Thv maxy set oq yonder mouldering raft : 
Would that the deanlie boaiwiid't foot had left 

lliee Urr^ing here, nor took thy life away ; 
For thou, from out tkU ware old ceiling** cleft, 

Came down each mora to hede my plaintive lay -, 
Joving like me to heare sweetc musick pUy, 
Wherewith I'd fein beguile the dull dark lingering day. 





Pilewort. Fic^rk 
Dedicated Co ST. Cmikarme of Sweden. 


Si. Alpkmuiu TimbmMy Abp. of Lima, 
A. D. 1606. Sir. Vletarkm, &c. a. d. 
484. ST. AMkwU; A. B. 699. 

ST. EMwM. 
This WES ao English benedicUne 
monk of Rippon, who became a hermit, 
and WES boned by St. Cuthbert in St 
Peter^s diiudiy Et Lindis&me. 

1801. Bull, emperor of Russia, was 
strangled at St. Petersburg 


Peeriess DEfibdU. Nareiuus ineompa- 
Dedicated to Si. Alphonsus. 

iH8rd^ 24. 

GMnbridgt Term ends. 

Si. Iremaus, Bp. of Sirmium, a. d. 304* 
Si. Simon, an Infant Martyr. Si. 
WUGmm of Nprwiph. 

Si. Simon, an In&nt. 
The Jew* are said to have murdered 
this infimt in 1472. After having delibe* 
nted al their synagogue in the holy week, 
on the preparations for their passover, 
they came to the sesolutioQ of crucifying 
a chfld on Good Fnday^ and having 
Simon, th^ made him the victim, 
_ around his body while elevated. 
Whenever an act of cruelty was to be 

1726. Daniel Whitby, the learned 
commentator on the New Testament, died. 
He vras bom at Rushden, Northampton- 
shire, in 1638, and was eminent for ability 
and honesty throughout his Ufe. 


Golden Saxifrage. Chrytospknum oppo- 


Dedicated to St. Irerunu. 

ilUirtb 25. 

Ladf Duf. Holiday at the Public Offices, except 
the Excise, Stamp, and Custom. 

The Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary. St. Cammin, Abbot, a. d.653. 

The Roman Catholic festival of the 
Annunciation is commonly called in 
England lady day, an abridgement of 
the old term Oar Lady*t i>ay, or t)ie Day 
of our bletsed Lady. 

This is a <' gaudy day *' in the Romish 
church. Deeming the mother of Christ 
an intercessor and mediatrix, it offers 
innumerable honours and devotions to 
her. Hail Mary / resounds in the masses 
to her praise ; and the worshippers of her 
shrines and resemblances, are excited to a 
fervour of devotion which woiild astonish, 
if it were not known that sculpture, 
painting, poetry, vocal and instrumental 
music, have been added to revive the 
recollection of monkish fiibles^ and early 
impressions in her behalf. 

Ic the AoUlni lefffn)}, a book for- 
merly read instead of the New Testament, 
but now, in degree, supplanted by But- 
ler's more voluminous ana almost equally 

peqMtiated on the Jews, finbles like these 

woe forged, and the borutal passions of iniraculous *' Lives of the Saints," there 

the mob let loose upon the life and wealth is a story in honour of the virgin, con- 

of fiiigitive Israelites. 

Si. ffWiam of Norwidi, a. d. It37, 
Was another of these pretended mar- 
to Jewish hatred. AVeever states. 


oeming a noble and ignorant knight, 
who, to amend his life, entered an abbey, 
but vras so incapable of learning, that he 
could say nothing but Ave Mtnia, which 
^ the Jews in the principal cities of words he continually repeated wherever 
the kingdom, did use sometimes to steal he was. When this knight died he was 
away, and crucify some neighbour's male buried in the church-yanl of the abbey, 
cUd,^ as if it were a common practice, and there afterwards grew out of his 
Saoe protestantism, no such barbaritie^^pve a fair Jleur de He, and in every 
hive been imputed to the Jews. -^Hhwer grew, in letters of gold, the words 

■ -^Kive Maria; and at the miracle, the 

Cbeoeologt. brethren marvelled, and opened the 

1680. The first bombs were thrown sepulchre, and found the root of the Jleur 

wcm the town of Waditendonck in Guel- de Us came out of the mouth of the said 

Mand. The invention is commonly at- knight ; and then they understood that 

^ khnled to Galen, bishop of Munster. he was to be honoured for his sB^^iA ^vf^ 

367 TH£ EVERY-DAY BOOK.— MARCH 25. 388 

tion to the TirgiDy by using the words Ave chargers, who rode forward to dear the 

Mttrm. way, accompanied by such a flourish of 

There is another story in the ** Golden trumpets and kettle-drums, thai it looked 

Legend " of ^ another knyght.'' *<He had at first like any thing but a peaceable or 

a fayre place bisyde the hye wave rt^ligious proceedine. This martial array 

where raoche people passed, whome he was followed by a bareheaded priest, od 

robbed,^ and so he did all his life; yet a white mule, bearing the host in a gold 

he had ^ a good custom'' of saluting the cup, at the sight of which erery bodv fell 

virgin erery day, by saying Ave Maria, upon their knees. The pope used for- 

and so he went on committing highway merly to ride upon the wnite mule him- 

robberies, and saluting the virgin day by self, and all the cardinals used to follow 

day, till his people luiving put '< a holy him in their magnificent robes of state, 

man " in bodily fear and robbed him, mounted either on mules or horses ; and 

the said ^ holy man ** desired to be as the Eminentittimi are, for the roost 

brought before their master,the knight, and part, not very eminent horsemen, they 

seeing him, required him to summon all were generally fiistened on, lest they 

his attendants, which the knight did ; should tumble off. This cavalcade must 

but the ''holy man** objected that one have been a very entertaining sight, 

of them was not present. Then the knight Pius \'I., who was a very handsome 

perceived that his chamberlain was not man, kept up this custom, but the (then) 

there, and called for him ; and when the present pope (Pius VII.) is hx too infirm 

holy man saw the chamberlain, he con- lor such an enterprise ; so he followed the 

jured him to declare who he was, and the man on the white mule, in a state coach ; 

chamberlain being so enforced answered, at the very sight of which, we seemed to 

** I am no man, but am a devil in the form have made a jump back of two hundred 

of a man ;" and he acknowledged that he years at least. It was a huge machine, 

had abided with the knight fourteen years, composed almost entirely of plate-gtas», 

and vratched him night and day, hoping fixed in a ponderous carvea and nit 

the knight might leave off saying the frame, through which was distinctly visi- 

salutation Ave Mtaria, that so he might ble the person of the venerable old pope« 

strangle him, '' and brynge him to hell,*' dressed in robes of white and silver, and 

because of his evil life ; but, because there incessantly giving his benediction to the 

passed no day without the knight saying people, by a twirl of three hnffers ; which 

Ave AfcTM, the devil could not have him are typical of the Father, the Son, and 

for all his long waiting. Then the the Holy Ghost; the last being represented 

knight fell down at the feet of the holy by the little finger. On the gilded back 

man, and demanded pardon of his sins, of this vehicle, the only part that was not 

and the *' holy man commanded the made of glass, was a picture of the pope 

devil to depart; wherefore says the in his chair of state, and the virgin Mary 

'* Golden I^egend," "let us pray to the at hie feet. This extraordinary madiine 

jfloryous virgyn Mary, that sne kepe us was drawn by six black horses, with 

from the devyll." superb harness of crimson velvet and 

The festival of the annunciation is kept gold ; the coachmen, or rather postillioos, 

at Home by sumptuous shows. Tlie author were dressed in coats of silver stuff, ttiih 

of " Rome in the nineteenth Century*' re- crimson velvet breeches, and foil hot- 

lutes the pope's proceedings on the occa- tomed wigs well |>owdered, without hats, 

sion : *' We drove through streets lined Three coaches, scarcely less antiquely 

with expecting crowds, and windows superb, followed with the assistant caN 

hung with crimson and yellow silk dra- dinals, and the rest of the train. Id the 

peries, and occupied by females in their inside of the churdi, the usual tircsoat 

most gorgeous attire, till we made a stop ceremonies went on that take place wbca 

near the church before which the pope s the pope is present. He is sealed on a 
horse-guards, in their splendid full-dre^^hrone, or chair of state ; the oudiiial% 
uniforms, were stationed to keep tHB|n succession, approach and kiss hit haadp 
ground ; all of whom, both oflScers an^^etire one step, and make three bows or 

men, wore in their caps a sprig of myrtle, nods, one to him in front, and one on the 

as a sign of rqoicing. After waiting a right hand, and another on the left; 

short time, the procession appeared, whidi are intended for him (as lh« pcf> 

headed by aiK^ther detachment of the sonification of the Father,) and fi»r tht 

^uMfdB, mounted on prancing black Son, and for the Holy Gboet, on «iilMr 



ude of turn; and all the caidinab havii^ 
gone thioDgh tfeese motioosy and the 
infBnor pricita haviiig kiased his toe — 
tiMt ia, the rroMy embroidered on his 
A oc h igh mass begins. The pope 
kneeb during the eleration of the nost, 
piajs in silmoe before the high altar, 
gets op and sits down, reads something 
oat ola great book which they bring to 
hiiBy with a lighted taper held beside it ; 
and, baring gone through many more 
mack ceremonies, finally ends as he began, 
with giving his benediction with three 
fingers, all the way he goes oat. During 
an the time of this high mass, the pope's 
military band, stationed on the platform 
in finoot of the church, played so many 
dam o wm s martial airs, Uiat it effectually 
pot to flight any ideas of religious so- 

In England, Lady Dmf is only remem- 
bered as the first quarter-day in the year, 
and is therefore only kept l^ tenants who 
tndy pay rent to their landlords. A few 
years ago a country gentleman wrote a 
letter to a lady of rank in town, and sent 
il through the general post with the fol- 

FLORAL DiaccToar. 

Mangold. CiUendtiU OfirhalU. 
Annunciation of V. Mary. 


"The 25th of March, 

•* Foley-place, London.** 

postman duly delirered the letter at 

the boose of Ladg Dm^ for whom it was 


1688. Parochial charity schools, for 
the cdocatioD of the children of poor per- 
were instituted in London and its 


1748. A fire broke out at one o'clock 
in the morning in 'Change-alley, Com« 
hin, London, which raged for ten hours, 
ooosaming all the buildings in "Change- 
aDey and Birchin-lane ; anid in ComhUl, 
from 'Change-alley to St. Michael's-alley, 
iDclading sereral celebrated taTems azid 
ooflee-lKmses, and many Taluable shops, 
indoding five booksellers. There were 
eighty iKNises destroyed by this confl*- 

iHarcl) 26. 

Ozfonl Tern eiMb. 

St, Lmdger, Bp. of Munster, a. d. 609. 
St. BrautiOy Bp. of Saragossa, a. d. 


Now in many situations may be heard 
the cuckoo. Its distant note intimating 
dislike to human approach, conies upon 
the ear as a soft welcome from a shy 
stranger :— 

Hail, beauteous stranger of the grove. 

Thou messenger of spring ! 
How besrea repairs thy mnl seat. 

And woods thy wekoroe sing. 

What time the daisy decks the green 

Thy certain Toice we hear ; 
Hast thou a star to guide thy paUi, 

Or mark the rolliag year ? 

Delightfol yisitant ! with thee 

I hail the thiie of flowers. 
And hear the sounds of mnsic sweet 

From birds amoag the bowers. 

Hie school-boy wandering thro* the wood 

To pull the primroae gay. 
Starts — the new voice of spring to hear. 

And imitates thy lay. 

Soon as the pea pats on its bloom, 

Taon fliest thy rocal rale. 
An annual guest in other lands. 

Another spring to hail. 

Sirect bird, thy bower is erer green. 

Tliy sky is erer clear ; 
Tbou hast no sorrow in thy song. 

No winter in thy year ! 

O ! could I fly, Fd fly with thee ; 

We'd make' with sodal wing 
Our annual risit o'er the glolie. 

Companions of the spring. Lagan, 


Lorid Henbane. Hyotcj^mmu Scopolh. 
Dedicated to St, Brmmlio 

1809. Anna Seward, the friend of Dr. 
Darwin, and recollected fi>r her life of 
lorn, and for her poetry and correspond- 
caee, died in the bishop's palace aft 
lirfafield, aged 66. She was bom at 
Ejan, in Derbysliire. Her poetry is easy, 
rather than vigorous. 

iHardl) 27. 

St. Jokm of Egypt, Hermit, a. o. 394. 
Si. Bvpert^ or Robert^ Bp. of Salu- 

Si. John of Egypt 

Was a hermit, inured l» «liedience by 
an ancient holy anchont, ^wUo mad« 



■imwatei adiyMict fori vhole year,.is Bmler, bjr "the luitre of hi* mimntM, 

if il verc a tiv« plant." He walled him- and the "fanwof bi» predictioiu." 
•elf up at the top of a rock, "from the for- CnaoNOLocT. 

tieth or fortj-ucond to th« ninetieth 1801. The peace of AmicM botwcm 

year of hia age," and "drew tbe admiia- France and England wai rigtied ia 

tion of the wkole world on him," nja France. 

^alm ^unliap. 

'ua i( fCMBeunct caiien ranian ounoay, ana aiier iney wen uiea loey wen p«*. 

Il i* denominated Ptim 5aMdn,bMauie Mrrid to be burned for holy ashes to Iw 

ca thii day the Roman calWic churdi on the headi of the people on dtk We£ 

ordaini boushi or brancbet of palm Ireei oeaday in the following year, a> bafan> 

menUoned (*c« p. 361,) a 
■ Mrawed before ^^injt when he On Paim Sumibt, 'he palm 
mde into Jennalem. In thii monkiih ItaTeaiobeconiecrated bjf th 
proceMkn the boat wai carried npon an prelate or prieil i 




oeeded to consecrate them by a prayer, 
commeoctng ** 1 conjure thee, thou crea- 
tufe of flowers and brandies, in the name 
•f God the Father,** Sec. This was to 
disDlace the derii or his influences, if he 
or tney lurked or were hidden in or about 
the ** creature of flowers and branches.'' 
Then followed a prayer wherein he said, 
with crosses, " We humbly beseech thee 
that thv truth may -f sanctify this crea- 
ture of flowers and branches, and slips 
of palms,or boughs of trees,which we offer," 
Ice. Then the ** creature of flowers and 
brandies" was iumed with smoke of 
frankincense from the censers, and there 
were other prayers widi crossings, and 
they were sprinkled with holy water with 
this supplication: ''Bless -f and sanc- 
tify -f Uiese branches of ^ms, and other 
4rees and flowers," &c. Then the sacrists 
distributed the palms to the abbots, priors, 
and nobler persons, and the flowers and 
leaves to the others. When this w:is 
done the procession moved, and after- 
wards maoe a stand while two priests 
brought a Pagad in which the crucifix 
was laid; afterwards the banner and 
croa»^earers filed off" to the right and to 
the left, and the boys and monks of the 
convent arranged themselves, and, after 
a short service, the priests with the tomb, 
headed by the banner and cross, passed 
between the monks, who knelt as they 
passed. When they came to the dty- 
gates they divided again on two sides, 
and the mrine being put on a table, was 
c jo v w e d with doth. Above the entrance 
of ^ gfttes, in a place handsomely pre- 
paid with hangings, were boys with 
other singers whom the chanter had ap- 
pointed, and these sang, '' Gloria, Laus," 
** Glofy, praise," &c. After having made 
a pfooastion through the city, they re- 
turned to the convent-gate, where the 
shrine vras laid on the table and covered 
with doth, and a religious service was 
performed. The monks then returned to 
the church, and stood before the crucifix 
uncovered, while mass was performed ; 
and after they had communicated, the 
deacon first and the rest afterwards, they 
ofiered their palms and flowers, at the 

It was also an old Roman catholic cus- 
tom OD Palm Sunday, to draw about the 
town a vrooden ass with a figure on it, 
lepreKnting Christ riding into Jerusalem, 

* Fo^KoW* British Monftcb. Brand's Pop. 

and the people strewing palms berore iL 
Googe*8 Naogeorgiu says :^ 

A woodden Aue they have, and 

Image great that on him rides. 
Bat underneath the Asse't feete 

a table broad there slides. 
Being borne on whedes, which ready drest, 

and al things meete therforc. 
The Asse is brought abroad and set 

before the chorche's doore : 
The people all do come, amd bowes 

of trees and Palme* they here. 
Which things against the tempest great 

the Parson cot^ures there. 
And straytwayes downe before the Asse, 

apon hu face he lies, 
Whome were an other Priest doth strike 

with rodde of largest sise : 
He rising np, two lubbours great 

upon their faces fall, 
In strann^ attire, and lothsomely, 

with filthie tune, they ball : 
Who, when agaiue they risen are, 

with stretching oat their haade. 
They poynt unto the wooden knight, 

and, singing as they stande. 
Declare that that is he that came 

into the worlde to save. 
And to redeeme such as in him 

their hope assured have : 
And even the same that long agone, 

while in the streate he roade. 
The people mette, and Olive-bowes 

so thicke before him stroade. 
This being souog, the people cast 

the braunches as thef passe. 
Some part upon the Image, and 

some part upon the Asse : 
Before whose feete a wondrous heape 

of bowes and braunches Iff : 
This done, into the Church he strayght 

is drawne full solemly : 
The shaven Priestes before tnem raarche, 

the people follow fast. 
Still striving who shall gather first 

the bowes that downe are cast : 
For. falsely they beleeve that these 

have force and vertue great, 
Against the rage of winter stormes 

and thunders ^^ashing heate. 
In some place wealthie citizens, 

and men of sober chere. 
For no small summe doe hire Uiis Asse 

with them about to here. 
And manerly they use the same, 

not sufiering any by 
To touch this Asse, nor to presume 

unto his presence nv. 
For they suppose that in tnis thing, 

they Christ do lightly serve. 
And well of him acceplM are, 

and great rewaidss deserve. 

When the wooden ass haA \wcfovtM4 


in the churdi procession, the boys hired man for Playing the prophet ott Pilm 

)ii„j . Sunday. Though Roman catholic ceremo- 

rni- o . 1 J -.k «.:«- ««j i«.vv:«tr nies were generally disused under Henry 

^'^ "^^iK^et S'on^:*"' *"'"' VUL, yet^e decf ed that the bear^^^ 

They take the Asse, and through the streets palms on PaUn Sunday was to be con- 

and crooked lanes they rone. tmued and not cast away ; and it anpears. 

Whereas they common verses sing, that they were borne in England until 

according to the guise, the second year pf Edward VI. In 

The people giving money, hreade, ** Stowe's Chronicle/' by Howei» the prac- 

and egges of largest sise. tice is said tp have been discontinued in 

Of this their gaines they are compelde 1548.* 

the maister halfe to give, jt ^^s likewise a Roman catholic cu»- 

Least he alone without his portion ^^^ ^^ ^^,rt to " our lady of Nanta- 

of the Asms should hve. ^^jj „ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ j^ Cornwall, with 

On the Romish processioning on Palm a cross of palm ; and the people, afler 
Sunday, it is observed by an old writer making the priest a present, were allowed 
that, ''Among % thousand, scarce one to throw the cross into the well ; if it 
knew what this meant. They have their swam, the thrower was to outliTe the 
laudable dumme ceremonies, with Lentin year ; if it sunk, he was not.f 
€ro99€ and Uptide croite, and these two Recently, it is related, that on the Sa- 
must justle til lent break his necke. Then turday before Palm Sunday, the boys of 
cakes must be caste out of the steple, that the grammar-school at Lanark, according 
al the boyes in the parish must he scam- to ancient usage, parade the streets with 
bling together by the eares, tyl al the a palm, or, its substitute, a large tree of 
parish &lleth a lauehyng. But, lorde, the willow kind, taZur eafrta^ in blonom, 
what asses-play made they of it in great ornamented with daffodils, meserwrn, and 
cathedral churches and abbies. One box-tree. This day there is called Palm 
comes forth in his albe and his long stole Saturday, and the custom is suppoaed to 
(for so they call their girde that they put be '' a popish relic of very ancient stand- 
about thevr neckes,) thys must be leashe ing.*'| Mr. Douce, in a manuscript note, 
wise, as hunters weares their homes.-— cited by Mr. Ellis, says " I have some- 
This solempne Syre played Christe's part, where met with a proverbial saying, that he 
a God 8 name. Then another conipanye that hath not a palm in his hand on Palm 
of singers, chyldren and al, song, in prick- Sunday, must have his hand cut off.*' 
sons:, ^be Jewe's part — and the Deacon According to Stowe, in the week before 
read the middel text. Tlie Prest at the Easter, there were great shows in London 
Alter al this while, because it was tediouse for going to tlie woods, and fetching into 
to be unoccupyed, made Crosses of Palme the king s house a twisted tree, or wUke ; 
to set upon your doors, and to beare in and the like into the house of every man 
your purses, to chacc away the Divel."* of note or consequence. 

Dr. Fulke, opposing the Catholics, ob- palm Sunday remains in the English 

serves on their carrying of the host on calendars. It is still customary with 

Palm Sunday, — '' It is pretty sport, that men and boys to go a palming in London 

ycm make the priests carry this idol to early on Palm Sunday morning ; that 

supply the room of the ass on which Christ ig^ by gathering branches of the willow or 

dia ride. Thus you turn the holy mys- sallow with their grey shining velvet- 

tery of Christ*s riding to Jerusalem to a looking buds, from those trees in the vici- 

May-game and pagent-play." lu the nity or the metropolis : they come home 

accounts of St. Andrew Hubbard's pa- with slips in their hats, and sticking in the 

rish, there arc Palm Sunday charges for the breast outton holes of their coats, and a 

following items : In 1520, eightpence for sprig in the mouth, bearing the ^ palm** 

the hire of an angel. In 1535-7, an- branches in their hands. This tiaage 

other eightpence for a priest and a child remains among the ignorant from poor 

tliat played as a messenger : in that year neighbourhoods, but there is still to be 

the angel was hired for fourpcnce. By found a iMuket woman or two at CoTent* 

the churehwardens of St. Maiy-at-hill, in garden, and in the chief markeU with 

1451, fourpence was paid to one Lore- this *< palm,'* as they call it, on the Satur- 

• FroM • **DialogMw cnnreinliif th« c1iyrrr»t ^ _ 

r«vrM4Miym ky the laiBn of Anil ClirU., ISM,** •Brand. t Carci 

tMmm. Qmitmkft^mm. : 5in:UH'a St«tut. Arr. 

39r niE EVEKY-DAY BOOKw— M^MlOl 28, 29. t9e 

day before Palm SoDday, which they sell florax, DiSEcroar. 

to those nrho are witling to bay ; but the Lesser Leopardsbane. Daronicum Plan- 

demand of late yean has been very little, tagineum, 

and hence the quantity on sale b very Dedicated to St, Priseut, 

soall. Nine oot of ten among the pur- 

diasers buy it in imitation of others, they £tLSVtb 29. 

care not why ; and such purchasers, be- ^is. Jonas, Baraehuims, ke. a. d. 327. 

ing Londoners, do not even know the su, Armogattes, j4rekmhmu, trnd Sa- 

tree which prodoces It, but ima^ne it to ^,„^^ ^, i>, 457, Si. £usia»hu, or 

be a "real- palm tree, and "wonder-' they Mtutackhu, Abbot, i. n. 625. Si. 

never saw any " palm' trees, and where GundUnt, a WeUh King, 5th Cent, 

they grow. 5^. Mark^ Bishop, 4th Cent. 


Sweet scented Jonquil. KareUntM Odoms. t315. Raymond Lulie, the roost cele- 

Dedicated to St. John of Egypt. brated chemist and alchymist of his time, 

1 was stoned to death by the natives of 

^HlArCil 28 Mauritania, whither he had gone on a 

t>^»^M mmL» ariH >v»Hi/i^ Mar «l>PO»w mission, at the age of eighty. 

PrtMmt, Malchu, and^Wc«mrfjr, Mar- j,^ attention was directed to chemistfy 

tyn, A.D. 260. St. Surtus III. Pope, ^ ^j^^ ^^^ ^y j^^^ ^ ^. ^^ 

A^440. StGantran, King and Con- ^i^dsom^ with whom he was ^ion- 

feasor, a.d. 593. ^^^j^ enamoured, refused to marry him. 

rL. .V J - *^^o^^' J One day, when he renewed his soUcita- 

On this day m 1380, gunpowder was ^- ,^; ^j^^^^ y^^^ ^^^ j^^^^^^ 

first used m Europe by the \cnetians ^y j, cancer. Young LuUe instanUy took 

against the Genoese. Itspower is said ,4 ^-^^ ^^ resolution to ^re, and if 

by the GennaiM to have been discovered j^j ^ ^^ heart of his mistress. 

«»dentjaiy by Bterthold Schwartz; ^^^ iSe searched with all the ardour, which 

Roger Bacon who died m 1278, certamly ^^^^^^ ^ compassion could inspire. 

acqu^nled with It. GunpowdCT was into the secrets of medicine and chemistry, 

known in India very early, and from thence ^^ ^^ ^^ .,^ fortune to cure, and to 

the knowledge of it was obtained by the ^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ j^^h ^^ ^j^,,^ 

Arabians, who employed it m a l«ttle y^:,^^^f ^^ ^^ church. The inhabitanU 

near Mecca so long ago as the year 690. ^f ^^ ^^^^ ^f Majorca, where he was 

.. ^f^.) ^"^**"* **^"^'' ^^^ engraver, ^ j^ ^236, revere him as a martyr. 
diedatVVestminster. His view of Lon- ^^^^ ^^ l^^^ ^hich decided the 

don m Hovrell's " Londmopolis,^ andthc ^^^3 ^f ^^ ^^^^^^ ^f Yot]l and Lancas- 

nnmerous plates he executed for Dug- ^^ ^^ ^^^^ between Towton and Sax- 

t'^*^^!f''i?^S^y ^T^'f'^Y^'l ton, two villages near York. It com- 

« St. Paul s, " Ongines Jundiciales,'^ ^^^^ •„ ^^^^^ g^^^m at day break, 

and other works have made him well ^^ contested with fearful obstinacy till 

known to the topographer and portrait ^^ ^^ ^^^ afternoon, and terminated in 

collector ; but his " muffs and " insects ' ^ j^j ^f y^^^^ £i h^ and thirty 

are particularly beautiful. His style almost thousand human beings were left dead 

pecuhar 10 himself,is known at a glance by ^„ ^^e field ; of whom the heralds ap- 

the experienced eye ; Gay wood, in por- pointed to number the slain, letumed 

traits, and King, m views, were inferior J|,at twenty-eight thousand were Lancas- 

artists of the same school. Menan m j^^, Edward, duke of York, who won 

tome insects, rivaU him formidably. Hoi- ^^e day, rode from the scene of carnage 

lar's labour was immense as may be seen ^^ york, v^here he ordered die death of 

from Vertues catalogue of his pnnu; yet ^^^^^ prisoners; while Henry VL of 

he often worked at fourpence an hour, and Lancaster, who lost the crown, escaped 

perished in poverty. with great difficulty to the borders. 

1801. Sir Ralph AbercTombie died m " 
Egypt. He received his death-wound on 

the 21st^ during his memorable Tictory floeal DiarcToaT. 

over the Frendi at Alezuidria. Oxelip. Prhmla elatior. 

1802. Pallas, a new planet, was dis- Dedicated to St. Eustasius. 
covered by Dr. Gibers, of Bremen in Fumitory^ Fitm mrm ojficinalh. 

Germany. Dedicated to St. Janet. 


iWartft 30. ;flflarri^ 31. 

St.Jokn Ciimaau. St, Zoximtu, Bishop o- n^;,^.- rfc«*^« \m -* 

of Syracuw, a. d. 660. 5*. ReguiJ, »• f^^T*'"' Deacon, Martyr, a. f>. 484. 
or /Krai; Bishop of SenHs. ^^^ «. ^rociu*, or Ackte^, B»bap of 
«# /i rmL -,^r Antioch, A. D. 250, or 251. 8t. Omw, 

St,JohmClhuu!Hi,k.v. 60S, a. d. 1046. 

Was cavenied as a henoit in a rock ^ 

near Mount Sinai, in Syria, and became Chuonouoot. 

at setenty-fire, al>bot and superior-general ^ ® ^ ^ • ^^ this day the sovereigns who 

of all the monks and hermits of the ^^^ since formed the holy alliance, en- 

country. He admired one of the princi- ^'^ ^"^ at the head of tlie Russian 

pal citixens of Alexandria in Egypt, who, troops. The capitulation of this capital 

petitioning to become a monk, was or- ^^ls succeeded by the return of the Bour- 

dered to remain without the nte, and ^^ to France. 

manifested his obedience by staying there 

for seven years, and begging prayers for 

beewiM he generally cried while he ob 

cooked, and assigned at a reason, that 

" the file he always had before his eyes, SlIERE THURSDAY, 

reminded him of that fire which will bum u j ti. j • • 

aooU for all eternity.'^ It U related that xi.^^^ 'w.P'"^"% ". *'''»y' i"" 

awomanwhohad committed so enormous Th»rsd«qr before Easter ; lU name has 

a sin that she dare not confess it, came to ««««"** «»»• '"^We to anuq«ar«. 

St. John, X bade her write it, and seal ^J^' T**"'*!iT^^k* . . ^^ 

k, and gire it to him, and he would pray ™1»^ "^"k uT"^ '^ t^hnsllo his 

for her; this she did, and shortly kfJt «»'»«P>« to break bread m remembcanee 

St. John died. TTie woman sorely afraid ^' ^"J = ''^^'".^"l "^^^ "-«*to, after 

•hat her written secret would bi read, ''• IT T^^u 'il!.'! *°**' ^.'^ ** 

wept and prayed at St. John's tomb, and •"P^'* ^'*^ ^}^ »«*» ««■ » «»- 

bereed he"^ would appear and tell her o«»«l •«> be denred from the Sason word 

wlurt he had done with the paper; o„ , "««'. ^.»"e'» afterwards became <M»a< 

mm, ana ne sam lo me woman, " «ny , , , t. ' • y L ^ . 

trooblest thou me so much, and the^ 'T,*^',?"" T" ^'.'^"^ *« ^Tl' 

sainu with me? thou sufferest us to have "^ "'" "VJ"* .?»';'*'• l?^ '^" • 

no rest: look here, our clothes are all •?"'^chai^ with household merchan- 

wet with thy tears." Tien he delivered to *"'« = 1 ^. ""^ ^"yi"" '*"* "»' " * •"*'? 

fter the paier, sealed as she had given it !!r"^^"^ "»«»e of osiers small ;' and 

to him, wkT said. " See here, look at the "emck says, 

seal, open the writing, and read it." So " Behold, for us, the naked Kraeas sUy 

she did ; and she found all her sin " de- With imau»di ot roses, for to strew theway." 

freed dean out ;" and instead thereof was _. ..... 

written, « All thy sins are forgiven, and ^e same poet speaks of mmm^ as 

- - - - alms: 

pnt away by the prayer of St. John, my 
•errant.^ Then she returned thanks, and 


All's gone, and death hath taken 

St. John and his two bishops returned to Awmy from us 

Aeir sepulchres. ^'' ••«•"•'«'» thus 

Hie widdowes stand forsaken. 


FLOiAL DiaicToar. Thus then, <' Maundf Tkundmg, the daj 

Rough Carameni. Cmr^Umeni himUa, preceding Good Friday, on which the 

Dedicated to Si. John of CUmaau, aing distributes alms to a certain numbtt 

Lesser Daflbdil. NmrcUnu minor. of poor persons at Whitehall, is so named 

to St. Zoxhmtu. from the munnuU in which the gifts were 


• ■Mkf'tayfiu. 

* Dnntnn's BritUh Aiwllo. 

« ArrMr%rt*n SmrrtTi " G!oM«ry,** vliefrtii ih9 
anthuriiKs bftrfly ctud abowc arv'sei fofth at Uff«. 

401 I7i£ £V£RY-DAY BOOK.— MARCH 31. 40t 

Aocoiding to annual custom, on Maun- among the poor.* James II. U laid to 

dy Thunday, 1814, the royal donations have been the last of our raonarchs wbo- 

were distriboted al the Chapel Rqyal^ performed this ceremony in person. It 

Whitehall. In the mornings ut. Carey, was afterwards performed by the almoner, 

the sab-almoner, and Mr. Hanby, the On the 5th of April, 1731, it being 

tecretaiy to the lord high almoner, Mr. Maundy lliursday, the king being then 

Nost, imd others belonging to the lord in his forty-eighth year, there was distri- 

chamberlain's office attended by a par^ buted at the Banquetting-house, White- 

of the yeomen of tne guard, distributed hall, to forty-eight poor men and forty^ 

to serenty-fiTe poor women, and seventy- eight poor women, boiled beef and shoul- 

five poor men, being as many as the king ders of mutton, and small bowls of ale, 

was years old, a quantity of salt fish, con- which is called dinner; after that, Uoft 

sisting of salmon, cod, and herrings, wooden platters of fish and loaves, viz. 

pieces of very fine beei^ five loaves of undressed, one large old ling, and one 

Dread, and some ale to drink the king's large dried cod ; twelve red herrings, and 

healtlL Bfr. Hanby gave notice that in twelve white herrings, and four haff quar- 

ftiture their cases must be certified by the tern loaves. Each person had one platter 

minister of the parish, by order of the of this provision ; after whidi was distri- 

lord almoner. At three o'clock thej buted to them shoes, stockings, linen and 

assembled again, the men on one side the woollen doth, and leathern bags, with 

chapel, and the women on the other. A one-penny, two-penny, three-penny, and 

procession entered, of those engaged in four-penny pieces of sUver, and shilhngs; 

the ceremony, consisting of a party of to each about four pounds in value. His 

yeoman of the fruard, one of them car- grace, the lord archbishop of York, lord 

lying a large goSi dish on his head, con- high almoner, performed the annual cere- 

taining 150 boffs, with seventy-five silver mony of wa^ung the feet of the poor in 

pennies in eadi, for the poor people, the Koval Chapel, Whitehall, as was foff- 

which was plaoBd in the royal closet, merly done by the kings thenisdves-f 

Iliey were followed by the sub-almoner in This day v^as also called Shere TAars- 

his robes, with a sash of fine linen over day, and by corruption Chare Thursday, 

his shoulder and crossing his vndst. He Shere Thursday signified that it vras the 

was followed by two boys, two girls, the day whereon the clergy were wont to 

secretary, and another gentleman, vnth shere or shear their heads, or get them 

similar sashes, &c. &c., sul carrying large shorn or shaven, and to clip their beards 

nosegays. The church evening service against Easter-day-t In the miraculous 

was then performed, at the conclusion of legend of St. Brandon it is related that 

whidi the silver pennies were distributed, he sailed with his monks to the island of 

and woollen clotn, linen, shoes and stock- sheep,''and otitKerethur9dasfe,^er souper, 

ings, to the men and women, and a cup he wesshe theyr feet and kyssed them 

of wine to drink the king*s health. lyke as our lorde dyd to his dyscyples.'^ 

Anciently, on Maundy Thursday, the Maundy Thursday is nowhere observea 

kings and aueens of England washed and in London except, as before stated, at the 

kisMd the net of as many poor men and Chapel Royal, 
women as they were years old, besides 

bestowing their maundy on eadi. This 

in imitation of Christ washing his dis- 

ciples' feet, ^een Elizabeth performed ^OOtl ^^llJ&P* 

this at Greenwich, when she was thirty- . « „^ . ,. .u «»w« ^^m^ 

1^ ' , . , « • « au^ r^' 4 A Holiday at all th* Poblic Olicea. 

mne years old, on which occasion the feet ' 

of the same number of poor persons were This and Christmas-day are the only twc 

first vrashed by the yeomen of the laun- close holidays now observed throughout 

dry with vrarm water and sweet herbs, London, by the general shutting up of 

afterwards by the sub-almoner, and lastly, shops, and the opening of all the <£urcbes. 

by the queen herself; the person who The davm is av^ened by a cry in the 

washed, making each time a cross on the streets of ** Hot-cross-bims ; one-a-penny 

pauper's foot above the toes, and kissing . . 

It. This ceremony was performed bjr the . G«.tie««i'. Magaaine. 

queen, kneeling, being attended by thirty- t Lanbarde. ^ 

nine ladies and ^ewomen. Clothes. J^^S^* ^' ^"^^- ^^^ ^*^'^' ^^^ 

victuals, and money were then distributed i ooMra Lrgfud. 

niE EVERYDAY BrX>K.^MARCH 31. 404 

Mi two-a-penny buns; one-a-penny, same period in the evening of Good 

iro-a-penny, not-crosvbuns !" This pro- Friday. Those who knew what was 

ceeds nom some little "peep-o'-day boy," good, better than new comers, gave the 

willing to take the " top of the morning'' preference to the " old original royal 

before the rest of his compeers. He nun-house,** which had been a ^n-house 

carries his covered buns in a basket ^'erer since it was a house," and at which 

hanging on one arm, while his other hand '' the kintr himself once ttopped^* and 

is straiffhtened like an open door, at the who could say as much for the other? 

side of lits mouth, to let forth his childish This was tlie conclusive tale at the door, 

voice, and he ^ pipes and trebles out the and from within the doors, of the ** old 

sound" to the extremity of his lungs, original bun-house.'* Alas! and alack! 

Scarcely has he departed before others' there is that house now ; and there is the 

come ; '* another and another still sue- house that was opened as its rival; but 

ceeds,** and at last the whole street is in where are ye who contributed to their 

one ^common cry of bmn»J^ Old men renown and custom, among the appren- 

and young men, young women and old tices and journeymen, and the little com- 

women, big children and little children, fortable tradesmen of the metropolis, and 

are engaged in this occupation, and their wives and children — where are ye ? 

** some cry now who never cried before." With ye hath the fame of" Chelsea buns ** 

The bun- venders who eclipse the rest in departed, and the " royal bun-houses ** 

voice and activity, are young women who are little more distinguished than the 

drive fruit-barrows — ^barrows, by the bye, humble graves wherein ye rest, 

are no more, but of them by and bye. A ._^_ 
couple of these cx-barrow-women trip 

along, carrying a wicker clothes-basket Formeriy « hot-cross-buns " were com- 

between them, in which the " hot-cross- nionly eaten in London by fiunilies at 

buns are covered, first by a clean flannel breakfast, and some families still retain 

or green baiie. and outwardly by a clean the usage. They are of the usual form 

white cloth, which coverings are slowly ^f t^ns; though they are distinguUhed 

and partially removed, for fear of letting from them inwardly by a sweeter taste. 

the buns cool, when a customer stops to and the flavourof all-spice, and outwardly 

buy, or calls them to the door. They by the mark or si^n of the cross. The 

continue their lengthened cry, with a " hot-crwi-bun " is the most popular 

volume of concerted sound, unequalled by symbol of the Roman catholic religion in 

other nvals in the ci)hcmeral Good Fnday fingland that the reformation has left. Of 

trade. These scenes and sounds continue the use of the cross, as a mark or sign io 

till church-time, and resume in the after- papal worship and devotion, most readers 

noon. It partially comn. k.-os on the are aware ; for it has been insisted on by 

evening before Good Friday, but with Roman catholic writers from the days of 

little success. Constantine to Alban Butler himself, who 

fvome thirty or forty yoar^ ago pastr>'- giving examnle of its great virtue on 

cooks and bakers vied with each other 6oo<l Friday, savs, « to add one more in- 

for excellence in making lu.t-rross-huns ; stance, out uf many, St. Teresa assures 

^...^..,^, -J,. ^;"-''- "— '^ ••"- •"*' ner aevocions ; out sne urove nim away 

royal bun-houses. Hefore and along tknce by the sign of the cross, and at 

the whole length of the long front of each, last sprinkled the l)ook with holy water ; 

stood a flat-roofed, neat,woc>den portico or after which he relumed no more."* la 

piazza of the width of the foot-path, be- the houses of some ignorant people, a 

neath which shelter «;^ from summer's Good Friday bun is still kept" for luck " 

heat and winters cold, crowds of per- and sometim«>s there hangs from the 

sons assembled to scramble for a chance ceiling a hard biscuit-like cake of opeo 

of purchasinij " wyal hot cross Chelsea crow-work, baked on a Good Friday, to 

buns, witliin a reasonable time ; and remain iliere till displaced on the nert 

sevf-ral hundreds of square black tins, (;iH>d Tridav bv oneof similar make; anj 

with dozens of hot buns on each tin, were of this the .'dilor of il»e Kviry-Day Hook 

disposed of in every hour from a little -. 

Ahtr »\x in the morning, till after the . Bu.ic'.M.ff.tir Kc ;...». i:n. s»io p.a,-p. 


has heard affirmed^ that it preserves the triangular candlestick with fourteen yel« 

house from fire ;" ** no fire erer happened low wax candles and one white one , 

in a hoose that had one." This an- seven of these yellow candles being on 

doabtedly is a relic of the old supersti- one side, the seven other yellow ones on 

lion ; as is also a vulgar notion in the the other side, and the white wax candle 

west of England, that the straight stripe being at the top. The fourteen yellow 

down the shoulders of the ass, inter- candles represent the eleven apostles, the 

sected by the long one firom the neck to viivin Mary, and the women that were 

the tail, is a ero99 of honour conferred wiUi her at the crucifixion ; the white 

upon him by Christ, and that before Christ candle at the top is to represent Christ. 

rode upon the ass, that animal was not so Fourteen psalms are sung, and at the end 

distinguished. of each psalm one of the yellow candles is 

Hot-cross-buns are the ecclesiastical put out till the whole fouiteen are extin- 

Eul0gi€By or consecrated loaves, bestowed guished, and the white candle alone left 

in the diurch as alms, and to those who alight. After this and the extinction of 

from any impediment could not receive the light on the altar, ** the white candle 

the host. They are made firom the dough is taken down from the top of the trian- 

from whence tne host itself istaken, and gular candlestick, and hid under the 

are given by the priest to the people a^ altar.'' The putting out of the fourteen 

ter mass, just before the congregation is candles is to denote the flig^ht or mourn- 

dismtstea,and are kissed before they are ingof the apostles and the women ; and 

eaten. Tliey are marked with the cross the hiding of the white candle denotes that 

as our Good Friday buns are. Winckel- Christ is in the sepulchre; then a noise 

man relates this remarkable fact, that at is made by beating the desks or books, 

Herculaneum were found two entire and by beating the floor with the hands 

loaves of the same size, a palm and a and feet, and this noise is to represent 

half, or five inches in diameter. They the earthquake and the splitting of the 

were marked by a crott, within which rocks at the crucifixion.* 
were four other lines ; and so the bread In the church of St. Peter's at Rome 

of the Greeks was marked from the ear- on Good Friday, the hundred burning 

liest periods. Sometimes it had only four lamps on the tomb of St. Peter are extin- 

lines, and then it was called quadra. This guisned, and a stupendous illuminated 

bread had rarely any other mark than a cross depends from the immense dome 

cross, which was on purpose to divide of the cathedral, as if it hung self-sup- 

and break it more easily.* ported. But to relate the papal cere- 

The Tenebrde, a Roman catholic ser- monies pertaining to the fast of lent, and 

vice signifying darkness, is performed on its ensuing festival, would fill volumes of 

and before Good Friday^ to denote the this size, and we hasten from the devices 

circumstances and darkness at the cnici- of men to contemplate works which all 

fixion. This is partly symbolized by a his art is incompetent to rival. 

Nature ! to me, thou art more beautiful 
In thy most simple forms, than all that man 
Hath made, with all his genius, and his power 
Of combination : for he cannot raise 
One structure, pinnacled, or domed, or gemm*d. 
By architectural rule, or cunning hand. 
Lake to the smallest plant, or flower, or leaf, 
Which liring hath a tongue, that doth discourse 
Most ekx^uent of Him, the great Creator 
Of all living things. Man's makings fail 
To tell of aught but this, that he, the framer 
Sooght also to create, and faird, because 
NoTife can he impart, or breath infiise. 
To give inertness being. 

• Fo»broke»i Brit. Monmch. HerculmBetiin It will • Butler's MoT«ableFto*t«. 

W f«m*mb«red was overwhelmed and dc«troyedby 
tbc velcaoic eruption of Mount Vesuviui, A. D. TV. 


Hnl rtmc froL Apnl, full orliutylwil. 

And waotoD u > kid whoK bitnr ■ 

Upon m bull ht rode. Ihc umc wl 
Europt flMing thcough Ih' Ar^lick Sudi 
Hii horiuverc giUen «]l wiihgoldi 


With nn>, thmigti which be waded fer h» lovc'i dflijhl. Sfnurr. 

Thit u the fourth month of the year. 
Itt Luin name is AprilU, from aptrio, lo 
open or let forth. The Saxons called it, 
Otttr or Sm*trTwiotMlk, in which moolh, 
■be feait of th« Suon ^[oddess, Eaitrt, 
Mmtttr, or EiMtrr ii laid to haf r been 
celebrated* April, with ux, is aonie- 
tiniea repreaenled as a giri clothed in 
green, with a garland of myrtle and haw- 
tbont budi ; holding in one hand prim- 
-foMi and Tjolet*, and in the other the 
aodaeal lign, Taunu, or the bull, into 
wtudi Mnutellation the lUn enten durins 
thii month. Tie Romani consMraled 
Ibe Brst of April to Vcniu, the godden of 
heanlj, Dm mother of love, the qiteen of 
Im^er, the mitireai of the graces ; and 
Ibe Hoaun widow* and Tirgtiu astembled 
in tb« leap)* of Virile Fortune, and dis- 

closing their personal defbrmKies, prayed 
the goddess to conceal them from their 
bus band I. * 

In this month (h? business of creation 
leems resumed. The vital ipark rekin- 
dles in dormanl existences ; andall thingi 
" li*c, and move, and have their being." 
The earth puts on her liverj to await tltc 
call of her lord ; the air breathe* gently 
on his cheek, and conducts to his ear ihc 
warbling! of the birds, and the odonra «f 
new-boni herbs and Howen ; the greet 
eye of the world " leet and shine*'' with 
bright and gladdening glances ; tbe wa- 
ter* teem with life ; man himaelf feel* t)i« 
renvitying and all-perrading infloeDce; 


S^nra l.-H3a yooltf' Bap. 

at. Bwgi, Bp. A. D. 1132. &. MeUto, 
Bp. A. p. 175. St. GiibtTt, Bp. of 
'"-'- -1, A. D. 1340. 

Od the fii« or April, 17ia, Lord Bo- 
liDjftntAe MaUd, that io the wait, called 
the " glorioiu wais of queen Anne," the 
duke <H Mariborough bad not loit a single 
battle — and jret, tt^ the French hid car- 
ried their point, the luccession to the 
Spaoiih moDarcbv, the pretended cauie 
Ol tbeu wan. Dean Swift called Ihii 
italemeiit " a doe donation for ' AU 
FooW Drngl'" 

On the 6nt of April, 1810, Napoleon 
married Maria Louisa, arcbdachen of 
Austria, on which occasion some of the 
wifgiih Pariiiaiii called hint " kb potato* 
HAwtH," a term which answer* to oar 
jiprU JboL On the occasion of hii nup- 
tials. Napoleon nruck a medaL with Lore 
a thunderbok for iti derice. 

It is customary on Itai* dajr (or bojs to 
practise jocular deception*. When they 
succeed, tbn laugh at the penon whon 
tbrr think they lave tendered ridiculon^ 
aikd exclaim, " Ah ! you April fool !" 

Thirty yeui agn, when bacUes weta 
worn in shoes, a boy would meet a pen> 
son in tbe street with — " Sir, if yon [d^se, 
your shoe's unbueUal,'' and the mometit 
the accosted indlTidual looked toward* 
his feet, tbe informant would ciy — " Ab I 
you April fool r TVenfjF ^ear* ago, 
when buddes were wholly disused, the 
urchin-cry was — " Sir, your shoe's m»- 
tietf ;" and if tbe sboe-weaier lowered hi* 
eyes, he was hailed, as his buckled pm- 
decessot had been, with tbe said — " Ah ! 
you April fool 1" Now, when neither 
buckles nor ttrings are worn, because to 
the ^ear 1825 no decent man " ba* a *i«t 
to his foot," the wi K C i y of tbe day is — 
" Sir, there's somethmg omt of yoor poc- 
ket." "Where!" "lierer "WhatT 
" Yo(u hand, rii^Ah I yon April fcol r 

AH ! you AFRa FOOU 




Or else soma lady is humbly bowed to, rap oil ;** the cobbler receives the money, 

and grarely addressed with " Ma*am, I and the novice receives a hearty cut or 

beg your pardon, but youVe tometking two from the cobbler's strap : if be doey 

on yotir fact J** " Indeed, my man 1 not, at the same time, obtain the informa- 

what is it :*' '* Your note, ma'am — Ah 1 tion that he is " an April fool," he is sore 

you April fool 1" to be acquainted with it on returning to 

The tricks that youngsters play off on his companions. The like knowledge is 

the firti of April are various as their also gained by an errand to some Miop 

fimcies. One, who has yet to know the for half a pint of ^ pigeon's milk," or an 

humours of the day, they send to a cob- inquiry at a bookseller's for the ** Life 

bier's for a pennyworth of the best ** stir- and Adventures of Eve's Mother." 

Then, in-door young ones club their wicked wits. 

And almost frighten servants into 6ts — 

" Oh, John ! James ! John ! — oh, quick ! oh ! Molly, oh ! 

Oh, the trap-door ! oh, Molly ! down b^low !" 

" What, what's the matter!" scream, with wild surprise, 

John, James, and Molly, while the voung ones' cries 

Redouble till they come ; then all tne boys 

Shout " Ah ! you April fools !" with clamorous noise ; 

And little girls enticed down stairs to see, 

Stand peeping, clap their bands, and cry " te-hee !" 

Each gibing boy escapes a different way, 

And meet again some trick, " as good as that,** to play. • 

Much is written concerning the custom Geek is likewise derivable " from the 

of fool-making on the first of April, but Teutonic ^«rA,jocMjr."* 
with this result only, that it is very an- The " April fool" is among the Swedes, 

cient and very general.* As a better Toreen, one of their travellers, says, 

opportunity will occur hereafter, nothing " We set sail on the first of April, and the 

wifi be said here respecting '* fools'* by wind made April fooU of us, for we 

profiession. were forced to return before Shagen." 

The practice of making fools on this On the Sunday and Monday preceding 

day in North Britain, is usually exercised Lent, people are privileged at Lisbon to 

by sending a person from place to place play the fool : it is thought very jocose 

by means of a letter, in wnich is written to pour water on any person who passes, 

" On the first day of April Z!!!'^7 KT^^^'J". ^" ^T ' !*x '""nt 

Hunt the ^ou-Aaioiher mile." ^.*^\ '' ^^^ perfection of w, .f The 

® Hindoos also at their Huh festival keep 

This is called "hunting the gowk f** a general holiday on the 31st of March, 

and the bearer of the " fools' errand" ^^^d one subject of diversion is to send 

is called an " April gowk.'* Brand People on errands and expeditions' that 

says, that gowk is properly a euekoot <u)d ^^ ^o end in disappointment, and raise a 

is used here meiapkorically for a fool ; laugh at the of the persons Mnt. 

this appears correct ; for from the Saxon Colonel Pearce says, that " high and low 

** geme, a cuckoo," is derived geck,\ which ^»n >n »' ; and," he adds, *« the late Sortja 

means ** one easily imposed on." Mai- I^ujah, I am told, was very fond of 

volio, who had been " made a/oo/ " by a making Huli fooU, though he was a mus- 

letter, purporting to have been written by stilman of the highest rank. They cmrry 

Oliria, inquires of her <he joke here (in India) so far, as to send 

letters making appointments, in th« name 
of persons, who, it is known, must be 
absent from their house at the time fixed 
upon ; and the laugh is always in pro- 
portion to the trouble given.'*J 

The April fool among the Fitncll is 
called « fcji poisson b 4vril.'* Their timns- 

* Jamieson. in Narr'a Olonuy. . 
f Kmrthvv. quoted in Brand, « idM . 
t A«ut. Her. in BrmnJ, fruci Maurice 

" Why have yon suffered me to 
—Made the most notorious geek and gull 
That o'er invention play'd on .'" 

OliTia afinns, that the letter was not 
written by her, and exclaims to Malvolio 

''Alas, paor.^/ how have they baffled thee !" 


f A«li. 




formation of the tenn is nor well acoonnted 
for, but their customs on the day are 
similar to ours. In one instance a ^ joke " 
was carried too far. At Paris, on the 
1st of April, 1817, a young lady pocketed 
a watdi in the house of a friend. She 
was arrested the same day, and taken 
befirfe the correctional police, when 
being charged with the ract, she said it 
was an April trick («« poiston tTAvrii,) 
She was asked whether the watch was in 
her custody? She denied it; but a mes- 
senger was sent to her apartment, and it 
was found on the chimney-place. Upon 
which the young lady said, she nad 
made the messenger vn poUion d^Avrtl, 
" an April fool.** The pleasantry, how- 
ever, aid not end so happily, for the 
young lady was joculariy recommended 
to remain in the house of correction till 
the 1st of April, 1818, and then to be dis- 
cfaaiged as wupma&on d^Avril,* 

It most not be forgotten, that the 
practice of " making April fo6l " in Bog- 
tand, is often indulged by persons of 
matorer years, and in a more agreeable 
way. There are some verses that plea- 
mitly exemplify this :t 

TV m Ladt, who threatened to mahe the 
Author am April Fool. 

Why strive, dear girl, to make a fool 

Of one not wise before, 
Vet, baring 'acaped from folly's school. 

Would fain go there no more ? 

Ah ! iff must to school again, 

Wilt thou my teacher be ? 
Ym sure no lesson will be vain 

Ifhicfa thou canst give to me. 

One of thy kind and gentle looks. 

Thy smiles devoid of art, 
Avay, beyond all crabbed books. 

To regidate my heart. 

tlMm need*st not' call some fairy elf. 

On any April-day, 
To make thy bard forget himself. 

Or wander from hb way. 

One thing He never can forget, 

MThatever change may be. 
The sacred hour when first he met 

And fondly gazed on thee. 

A seed then fell into bis breast ; 

Thy spirit placed it there : 
Need 1, my Julia, tell the irst ? 

Thou seest the blossoms here. 

• Mom. Chroo. June 17, 1817. 

♦ Citwl by Bnuud from Julia, or Uot Follio*. 
1709, 4to. 


Annual Mercury. MercmrimlU annua. 
Dedicated to Si. Hugh. 

8i. Fnmeu of Paula. SL Apkm, a. i». 
306. St, Theodotiay a. d. 308. Si. 
NhethUy Abp. of Lyons, a. d. 577. 
Si. Ebboy Abbess, and her companions, 
A. D. 870, or 874. B. Consianiime 
II. king of Scotland, a. d. 874. St 
Bronacha, or Brwmnna, Abbess. 

5/. Fnmrtffof Paula 

Was a Calabrian, and at fifteen years 
old shut himself up in a cave, in a rock 
on the coast. Before twenty he was 
joined by two others, and the people 
built them three celb; the number in- 
creased, and so arose the order of friar 
Minims, which means the least of the 
fnars. Constant abstinence from flesh, 
and all food made of milk or eggs, was one 
of their rules. In 1479, beine invited to 
Sicily, ^he was received there as an 
angel from heaven, wrought miracles, 
and built several monasteries.*' He pro- 
phesied, held burning coals in his hand 
without being burnt, restored his nephew 
to life, cured people of the plague, received 
the host with a cord about his neck on 
Maundy Thursday, died on the 2d of 
April, 1508, aged ninety-one, and was 
buried till 1562 when the hugonots burnt 
his bones with the wood of a crucifix.* 

Besides this, it is related, that the ele- 
ments lost their force against him; that 
he walked upon fire; entered into a 
burning oven without harm ; and made a 
sea voyage on his own cloak instead of a 
ship, and had a companion on board vrith 


According to another account he was 
much worried by the devil. Once while 
he was at prayers the devil called him 
three limes by his own name. Another 
time he was so possessed by the fiend, that 
he had no other way to get rid of him, 
than by stripping and beating himself 
with a hard cord, crying while he did it, 
*'thus brother ass thou must be beates;" 
after which he ran into the snow and 
made seven snowballs, intending to 
swallow them if the devil had not taken 
his leave. Then a whole parcel of devils 
came one night, and gave him a grievous 

• Butler. 



beating ; this was because he lodged in a Oood Friday is the Friday in Patsion- 

cardinars palace, and it occasioned him week, and consequently the Friday next 

to shift his lodging. Afterwards, when at before EoMter-day, 

prayers, he saw upon the roof of the house Easter-day is always the first Sun- 
whole companies of these infernals. He day after the first fiM moon, which hap- 
was a bird-fancier. A bird sat singing on a pens on or next after the 21st of Marco; 
fig-tree by the side of his cell, he called out if the /W/ moon happens upon a Sun- 
it to him ; the bird came upon his hand, day, Eatter-day is the Sunday following, 
and he said to it — '* Sing, mv sister, and Octave or Utaaofa Fea$t. 
praise the-Lord," and tlie bird sat singing TheOctaoeotUtoM of each feast is always 
till be gkve it liberty to go away. Going the eighth day after it occurs ; for exam- 
to Venice with his companions, and hear- pie, the feast of St. Hillary is the 13th 
ing birds singing in a wood, he proposed of January, hence the octave of St. Hil- 
to sing the canonical hours, but the lary is the 22d of January, 
monks could not hear themselves for the t4.fTHXsc Corrections wouU kmvt ietn 
chanters of the gro?e, wherefore, he madtintheakteiiUelf,butagrtai\ 

entreated the feathered choir to be silent, of copies kaving bttn printed^ before ike 

and they remained so till he gare them f^«^ was discovered, it becaime ^cce^rw 

liberty to proceed. At another place ^iJ^lT^ '^ rectt/lcntton. See Nor. 

when he was preaching, he could not be 

heard for the swallows, which were mak- fll^istif^v 

ing their nests ; he said to them—** Sister _ tfl/aSUT* 

swallows, it is time for me to speak ; as Easter-day is distinguished by its 

youVe said enough, be quiet," and so P€C"»ar name, through our Saxon ances- 

they were. It was customary with ">"*» "^^^ ^ ^w ^e^ou of the year held 

him when one of his friars had committed * great festival, m honour of the godden 

a fault to take off the friar's hood, and Eastor, probably the Astarte of the eastern 

throw it into the fire, ftom whence after nations. The French call this fosUval 

•faying there a proper time, he com- ^fff* denred from the Greek ooMsAti, 

manded it to be restored to the friar, and ^"^'c^ »» also denved from the Hebrew 

the hood was then taken out of the fire /»»«?*, meaning passover ; and whence 

without having sustained injury. More to ^« nave the English word patckal, applied 

the like effect, and of equal credibility, is ^o the lamb, which formed part of the 

related of this saint in the Golden Legend, evening meal, the last of which our ta- 

Chronology. viour partook, before his death, with his 

1801. Lord Nelson's victory at Co- t^«l^e missionaries. In Cambridgeshire 

penhagen, when eighteen sail of the line ^he word pasch is still in use, and applied 

were either captured or destroyed. t® a flower which appears at this time on 

■ the Gogmagog hills and its environs The 
floral directory. day is of importance in a civil, as well is 
White Violet. Plola alba. in a religious, li^ht ; for on this daj de- 
Dedicated to St, Francis of Paula. ?^^^ the openings of our courts ot law, 

which take place after it, and the festivals 

iilObtabIt ftait^. f ^^ ^^"7** *>* arranged in confonnity 

• • * J .i. I ,.-, t_^ ^® **• Sy the act of parliament on this 

• ^•S:S"/rEt^*'D:Xk. ii;^ »ubject. ^ ^ rule gWn in conibrmity 

amdmineTtendrd totke\\gt o/**Moveable • Mr. Nicola, obliiriiifly infornu mo, tkmt 

/eatts, the reader wtU please to correct since his " yotltla Hist&riea '• wss priBtod. W 

tkmtUstyifc. by the following stateuunt, hu ascertained that the rule laid down tm 

»• o J • *!. e J * Shrote Tueadmf, in that work, wss not cerrecf. 

ShTin>e Sunday is the Sunday next and that harinf msde some slteratiou in oS 

before Shrove Tut*sday. It is also called •^•^t of a second edition beinf demanded, aa4 

Shrove 7\teaday is always the seventh his corrections, from whence the precediaf Ibt 

Tuesday before Eatter-day. * *• formed. There can scarcely be a donhCAnt a 

A^I-y "^•J;"' f •^••^"^* second edition of Mr. Ntcolas's " SotUta Hie- 

Care, or Carle Sunday is the fifth Sun- tmiem *• will be required speedily, becanm «!• 

day to Lent, and the second Sunday before f«r^ ^ Tables, Calendars, and misc»nanaoi 

Wmmtmr) tJamt information which it contains most be iMlmatfj 

*^rLIZ'«. • I ii J ^r *^^*' not only to the legsl profoesioa. uiSl 

memmy Tlnrsday, also called Chare qvaries. and erery hintorieal and Inpetraphi 

or mm, TTrnHda,, i. th, day befow StTSow '.Sftr^^iS^a.r^Si.^ 

a sevrce of v«for«nee. W. V 

•iir TUE EVERV-DAY fiOOK..-,APRIL 2. 418 

to It in the '< CommoD Prayer-Book/' quenoe was, the issuing of a new writ, 

which of coarse erery body has an oppor- Thus the difference of a few minutes was 

tnnity of seeing, <' Kaster-d4t it ahemft considered fiual to the opening of a 

the fini Sunday after the Full Moon, country court, though the courts of law 

which hmppeme Mpam^ or next oftery the at Westminster had been opened a few 

twemif^fint da§ of March; amd if the months before, when a mnch greater 

All Mocm ht^fen upon « Smndrnff, &tfter- error had taken place with respect to 

di^ It Ue Smmdaif aJUr." Easter-day, on which, asbdbre obsenred. 

One would thiidc, that when sodi pre- the opening of those courts depends, 
cite directiotts had been given, and the To undersuux) this subject we nrast 

state of the moon on any day is so clearly refer back to the origin of this festiTal, 

and easily ascertained, that there would instituted in honour of the resurrection of 

be DO difficulty in following them ; but our saviour, which took place on the 

experience has proved that contrary de- third day alter his execution as a male- 

▼iaiioos from the act of pariiament fector. Friday had been fixed upon as 

have been numerous. These nave been the day of commemorating his death, and 

pointed out at various times, but vrithout as that took place on the day of full 

any effect on the public. In the year moon, the first full moon after the twenty- 

1735, Henry Wilson, of Tower-hill, styling first of March was fixed upon as the re- 

himself mathematician, denounced the gulator of the festivaL The great point 

errofs on this subiect in a very ingenious had in view was to prevent the festival of 

work, entitled ** The regulation of Easier, Easter-day from being observed on the 

or the cause of the errours and differences day of a full moon, but as near to it as 

cootiacted in the calculation of it, dis- circumstances would admit, and in oon- 

-c o f cied and duly considered, shovring— sequence there is a great diflmnce in the 

The frequency and consequence of that times of observing this festival ; it being 

crronr, vrith the cause from whence it specially providra, however, that it 

proceeds, and a method proposed for sbould happen after a full moon. The 

rectifying it, and reconciling the differen- Jews observe their passover by juster 

ces iiwut it, and for restoring the time of rules ; the day for the celebration of it 

celebrating that great solemnity in its taking place on different days of the 

primitive certainty and exactness, and week : but the Christians having fixed on 

that vrithout the difficulty and confusion Friday for the celebration of the fast on 

whidi some have objected would attend the death of our saviour, the Easter-day, 

such a regulation.'' 8vo. on the following Sunday, was accommo- 

Within these few years an error in the dated to it, and both were so fixed, that 
observance of Easter took place, and there could not be a fiill moon on tlie 
on all the almanacs fixing an improper Easter-day, nor for some weeks after it. 
day for its observance, a memorial was In this year, 1825, the full moon 
presented to the lords in council and to occurs at twenty-three minutes oast six 
the prince regent, humbly soliciting their in the morning of the third of April ; 
interference on this subject. It was consequently, according to the act of par- 
noticed also by Mr. Frend, in his " Even- liament, and the rubric of the church, 
ing Amusements ;** and a clergyman of Easter-day ought to be celebrated on the 
- Oxford published a pamphlet on the oc tenth, and the courts of law ought to 
casion. There vras also, we believe, one open, or Easter term begin, on the twenty- 
clergyman, who, disregarding the alma- seventh ; but our almanac-makers 
nac, obeyed the rubric, and read the thought good to fix Easter-day on the 
s ervices for Easter-day, and the Sundays thirtty ai^ consequentlv Easter term is 
depending on it, on very different days placed by them on the twentieth^ on 
from those adopted in other churches, which day it is presumed thu judicial 
It was remarkable also, that in that very proceedings will commence, 
jrear, judge Garrow arrived at Glou- Easter-day is observed all over Chris- 
cester a short time after twelve o*clodL at tendom vrith peculiar rites. In the 
night, of the day on which the assizes were catholic church high mass is celebrated, 
to commence, and the high-sheriff very the host is adored vrith the greatest reve- 
pioperiy representing his scruples, on the rence, and both Catholics aatid Protestants 
legality of then commencing the assises, might be led from it, to a more partieular 
they were delayed till the opinion of the attention to the circumstances %tt«Dd\s 
judges could be taken, and the conse- its foim and suVHanot. TVfe bwA« ^ 

419 THE EVERY-DAY BOOK^APRIL 3, 4. 4*i0 

from the Latin word hatiia, mean- Henry III. who seized his temporalities, 

iog a Tictim, is a consecrated wafer, of a These he regained by replevin, and plead- 

ciieolar form, compcned of flour and ing his cause against the king's deputies 

wtter. Both substance and form are re- bmre Innocent IV. at Rome, a papal 

gaUued by custom of very ancient date, decree confirmed his election. Among 

On the night before his execution, our his clergy he was a strict disciplinarian^ 

laviour took bread, and blessing it, di- and a friend and comforter to the poor, 

vided it among bis missionaries ; but the Preaching a crusade, according to the 

bread be took was not ordinary bread, iashion of those times, asainst the Sara- 

bui unleavened bread, such as is used by cens* be fell sick, and died in the hospital 

the Jews during the passover week in at Dover, called GodVhouse, in 1353, in 

the present days. This bread is com- the fifty-sixth year of his age, and in the 

posed of merely flour and water, no ninth of his episcopal functions. This is 

Maven during the festival of their passover a brief character of^an exemplary prelate, 

being permitted to enter the house of a but the credulous Butler chooses to afiirm, 

Jew. It is a kind of bis<»ut of a circular that three dead persons were restored to 

form, and the kctt thus, by its form and life, and other miraculous cures were 

substance, brings us back to the recollec- worked at his tomb. Father Porter goe- 

cion of the Catholics, and the rite cele- sips a story of a miraculous flow of unction 

brated by our saviour. It is the represent- at his consecration ; of a dead-born child 

at ion of the Jewish cake, or unleavened having been brought to life by his dead 

bread, which is to this day eaten by that merits ; and of the toudi of his old 

nation during the passover week. clothes having cured the diseased, with 

The Protestants nave deviated from this other performances, *' which moved pope 

custom, and in their churches use lea- Boniface IV. to enrol him into the nam- 

veoed bread, without any regard to form, her of the canonized saincts." Such won- 

and they cut it with a knife into small ders have never been performed in our 

pieces, forgetting that our saviour broke davs, and hence late popes have not been 

the bread ; but some use leavened bread, able to make saints. It bibles could be 

and, as they cannot break it, they at- suppressed, and the printing-press d^ 

tempt to imitate our saviour's action by stroyed, miracles and canonizations would 

teanng it in pieces. "come in" again. 

For those who wish to have a more — — ^ 

comprehensive view of this subject, the For particulars respecting EaMter-4mtf 

following works are recommended : Car- and Efuter Monday, see Easter TWrnfajr, 

dinal Bona on the mass; Dean Comber 6th of April. 

on the liturgy ; and above all, the Hebrew 

ritual, which is translated into English, floral dir£CT0RY. 

and to which both Catholics and Pro- Evergreen Alkanet. Anckusa sempervi- 

testants are indebted for greater part of i*i,^. 

their services.* Dedicated to St. Agoft, 

apm 3. gprir4. 

1625. Easter Sunday. The Heturrte- St, letdortj Bishop of Seville, a. d. 636. 

tion. St, Plato, Abbot, a. d. 8ia 

5t9. j4gape, Ckionia, and Irene^ Sisters, Easter Monday 

and their Companions, a. D. 304; St, Holiday at the Public Offices; except Rxcnr 

Riekani. St. Vlpian. St. \ice*as, Ciuto m. and s tamp. 

Abbot, A. d. 824. • ^ 


St, Richard de fHche 1774. oijver Goldsmith died : he was 

Wat bom at Wiche, near Worcester; bom in Ireland, November 29th, 1728i. 
etndied at Okford, Paris, and Bologna ; 1802. Lloyd, lord Kcnyon, lord chief- 

chancellor to the diocese of Can- justice of England, died, aged 69. 

r : was consecrated bishop of 

n an 1245, agaiust the desire of iloral directory. 

Red Crown Imperial. FriiiUaria 

«B " EMt«r" bCMMNMlMlM by ^i^ju 

pft0Avoarv4 Mm editor Willi the «, . 1^^. , .^ 

' I'MJMf ^■Jb«s»** at p. py UcdicAted to St. hidotc. 

43t TU£ £V£RY.DAY BOOKw—EASTTfiR. 433 

Clnrtf 5. ' ^ ** inqoindtn Dunlon's ^ Athenian 

„^ ^ Oiade," « Why does the wm at hi« riiiiig 

Sr.^'iMM^ #Vrm> A.D. 1419. «. O*- pjay more oo £aBter-daT than WhiJ 

ff«JU;Abbo<,A.p.l095. 51. 71i9«npeA, Sondayr The questkia is answend^ 

BWMipiiiIrelaiid,A.D.550. Si.B^iem, thus .^—<' The matter of fed is an old, 

■AWiot. weak, superstitions erroTy and the sob 

£4STKmTuB8DAT. neither plays nor worics ou £aster-di^ 

tk» ftMic OAcoii cacept Bkim, more than any other. It is tme, it may 

flf.^ ..wi rw.». sometimes happen to shine biighler.liMt 

CmmoiiouwT. monung than any other; hut. if it do«,it is 

,, ^ ... purely accidental. In some parte of Bna- 

1605. Jolm Stow, the antiquaiy, died, land they call it the lamb-playing, which 

aged 80. He was a tailor. they look for, as soon as Ae sun rises, in 

1800. The rer. Wilham Mason died, some clear or spring water, and is nothing 

HewasbomatUuU,inYorkshire,inl725. but the pretty reflection it makes iiom 

1804. The rcT.WiUiam Gilpin, author the water, which they may find at any 

of "'Picturesque Tours," '"ReAiaiks on time, if the sun rises clear, and they 

FonH Scenery,'* an « Essay on Pnnts," themselves early, and unprejudiced with 

Ice. died aged «0. £gmcy.'' The folly is kept up by the fact, 

1811. Robert Raikes, of Gloucester, that no one can view the sun steadily at 

died, aged 76. He was the <Mri^inator of any hour, and those who choose to look 

sradqr-w^Miols, and spent his life id acte at it, or at its reflection in water, see it 

of kindneas and compassion ; promotiDg apparently move, as they would on any 

education as a source of happineM to his otherday. Brand points out an allusion 

feDow beings, and bestowing his exertions to this vulgar notion in an old ballad:— 

a«l bounty to b enefit the helpless. ^^^ Dick, die .fa«c« «idi away ! 

FLoaAL DiRECToar. ^\lK"fi^ fSSL'^ 

YeUow Crown Imperial. FritWaruL Impe- * • r *u ./ » •*• l a « » 

fialu Lutea Agam, from the " Bntish Apollo,** a 

Dedicated to St. Vincent Ferrer, presumed qu«rtion to the sun himself 

upon the subject, elicits a suitable an- 

swer * 

<SaS(ter CUSttOmS^^ q, oW wives. Phoebus, say 

jDaactV </ <** ^"- ^"^ ®° Easter-day 

The day before Easter^ay is in some To the muac o' th' spheres you do caper ; 

paru caUed " Holy Saturday." On the 2^*i .*•?'' ^ *T* 

Evening of this day, in the middle dis. .,,, ^V^^ » ^« cause know, 

tricts of Ireland, ^t preparations are ^^'^ y«u We any room ,n your paper. 

made for the finishing of Lent. Many *^' The M wives get merry 

a fat hen and dainty piece of bacon is put ^ ^ With spicM ak or sherry. 

in the pot by the cotter's wife about eight <>» Easter, which makes them lumanca; 

M* »« v^ J . , f Ami whilst ID a rout 

ornine o'clock, and woe be to the persjm ^h^j^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

who should taste It before the cock They fancy we caper and dance. 
crows. At twelve is heard the clapping r i,^ i i. — u^«. 
of hands, and the joyous laugh, i^^ A bit of smoked glass, such as boys 
with " 5AWM or mogk or corrie^^ i- e. ^ »<> ^>«^ an eclipse with, would put 
ami with the Lent : Si is merriment for this matter steady to e^ery eye but that 
a few hours, .*hen they retire, and« rise <*f r'^^^K selWeceptoon, which, after ^l, 
about four o'clock to see the sun dance in superstition always chooses to see through, 
honour of the resurrection. This ignorant Lifting, 
custom is not confined to the humble ]^r. Ellis inserts, in his edition of Mr. 
labourer and his family, but is scrupu- Brand's ''Popular Antiquities," a letter 
loualy observed by many highly respect- f^om Mr. Thomas Loggan of Basinghall- 
mUe and wealthy families, dilferent mem- street, from whence the following extract 
ben of whom I have heard assert posi- 15 made : Mi. Loggan says, ** I was sitting 
tivdy that they had seen the sun dance ^lone last Easter Tuesday, at breakfast, 
OB Eaater morning.* at the Talbot in Shrewsbury, wl I was 
: z — . ^^ „ surprised by the entrance ofaUiw 



chair, liBod with while, and decoialed 
with ribboni uid hvoun of diflctent 
oolonn. lukcdtbem what tbn wanted, 
tbeir answer wai, tbercaine toAwrame; 
il WW the cuitom of ibe place on thai 

DM to oompl<r with a requcat Tcry mo- 
dettlj made, and to a tet of njmpb* in 
their beat apparel, and >e*eral ot them 
under tWMity. 1 wished to lee all the 

nound, tuned the chair about, and I had 
tne felicity of a lalute from e«ich. I UM 
them, I nipposed there wai a In doe 
npon the occasioo, and wai answered in 
the affirmative; and, having satisfied the 
danueli in this retpect, th«j withdrew to 
heave otheia. At this tine I had never 
heard of sudi a custom ; but, on inqtiirj, 
I found that on Easter Mondaj, between 
nine and twelve, the men heave the w»> 

liftteff— an «a«ttr Custom. 

In Lancashire, Staffordshire, Warwick- late Mr. Lywns read lo Ihe Soarty of 

ahitc^andaomeotherpBrtsofEDglandthere Aoiiquaries an eiiricl from a roll in 

wm hit custom of heming or li/H*g hU ctiitody, as keeper of the recorda in 

i-tide. This it performed mostly the tower of London, whieh contains a 

.dcn street, thouel) sotnetimen it is paymenl lo eertain ladies and maida of 

on and tubmitled to within honour for Uking king Edward I. in ha 

People form ioto parties bed at Easier; trom whence it hat been 

I doten or eren more for the pretumed that bo wa» (j/larf on t)w 

-^ »vm tmj OM ajUi o( author^tj ot that custom, which !««"«»« 

r ealort a coMribtilioB Tbt have ^v«lt4 amo™), «a. YUAA^hMMf^ 


out the kingdom. Tlie usage is a tuI^ under the Dame of poik^ p^ittey or pm^ 

commemoratioD of the resurrection which eggs. A communication introduces the 

the fesdTal of Easter cdebrates. subject at once. 

Xft^ltM'orAMoti^difiersa littlein dif- _ ^. _.. ^ . „ 
feieni platts. In some parts the person To the Edaor of the Ever^Dm/ Book. 
is laid horiiODtany, in otners placed in a Sir, 19th March, 1825. 
stttiog position on the bearers' hands. A perusal of the Every-Day Book in- 
Usually, when the ^ttMg or heaoing is duces me to communicate the particulars 
widiin dooiSy a chair is produced, but in of a custom still prevalent in some parts 
all cases the ceremony is mcomplete with- of Cumberland, although not as gene- 
out thiee distinct elevations. rally attended to as it was twenty or S^ity 

A Warwidcshire correspondent, L. S., years ago. I allude to the practice of 
says, Easter Monday and Easter Tuesday sending reciprocal presents of eggs, at 
were known by the name of AaavM^-^sy, Easter, to .the diilaren of families re- 
because on the former day it was custom- spectively, betwixt whom any intimacy 
ary for the men to heave and kiss the subsists. For some weeks preceding 
women, and on the latter for the women Good Friday the price of eggs advances 
to retaliate upon the men. The womens* considerably, from the great demand 
kimwimg disjf was the most amusing, occasioned by the custom referred to. 
Bfauiy a time have I passed along the The modes adopted to prepare the eggs 
meets inhabited by the lower orders of for presentation are the tollowing : there 
people, and seen parties of jolly matrons may be others which have escaped my re- 
assembled round tables on which stood a collection. 

foaming tankard of ale. There they sat The eggs being immersed in hot water 
in an the pride of absolute sovereignty, for a few moments, the end of a common 
and woe to the luckless man that wed tallow-candle is made use of to inscribe 
to invade their prerogatives! — as sure as the names of individuals, dates of parti- 
he was seen he was pursued — as sure as cular events, &c. The warmth of the 
he was pursued he was taken — and as egg renders this a very easy process. 
Sire as he was taken he was heaved and Thus inscribed, the egg is placed in a 
kissed, and compelled to pay sixpence pan of hot water, saturated with codii- 
for " leave and license '* to depait. Deal, or other dye-woods ; the part over 

Conducted as Ufting appears to have which the tallow has been passea is im- 
b»en by the blooming lasses of Shrews- pervious to the operation of the dye; 
bury, and acquitted as all who are actors and consequently when the egg is re- 
in the usage any where must be, of even moved from the pan, there appears no 
the slightest knowledge that this practice discolouration of the egg where the 
is an absurd performance of the resurrec- inscription has been traced, but the egv 
tion, still it must strike the reflective presents a white inscription on a colourea 
mind as at least an absurd custom, *' more ground. The colour of course depend.^ 
honored i* the breach than the observance.'* upon the taste of the person who prepared 
It has been handed down to us from the the egg ; but usually much variety of 
bewildering ceremonies of the Romish colour is made use of. 
choi^ and may easily be discounte- Another method of ornamenting ^ pace 
nanced into disuse by opportune and eggs" is, however, much neater, although 
mild persuasion. If the dwldren of ig- more laborious, than that with the tallow- 
Dorant persons be property taught, th^ candle. The egg being dyed, it may be 
will perceive in adult years the gross decorated in a very pretty manner, by 
follies of their parentage, and so instruct means of a penknife, with which the dye 
their own ofl&pring, that not a hand or may be scraped oflF, leaving the design 
▼oice shall be lifted or heard from the white, on a coloured ground. An egg is 
sons of labour, in support of a superstition frequently divided into compartments, 
that darkened and dismayed man, until which are filled up according to the taste 
the printing-press and the reformation and skill of the designer. Generally 
ensured his final enlightenment and email- one compartment contains the name and 
^Ipiilioii. (being young and unsophisticated) also 

■^^ " the age of the party for whom the egg is 

Eatter Eggt. intended. In another is, perhaps, a land- 

Another relic of the andcut times, are scape; and sometimes \ cupid is found 

the eggs whidi pass about at Etfler week luiting in a thM *. so lihaX VkiMft ^\m» 


eggs'' become very useful auxiliaries to whose advantage it is iutroducedy in good 

the miasiTes of St. Valentine. Nothing part.* 

was more common in the childhood of Patch eggs are to be found at Easter 

the writer, than to sec a number of these in difierent parts of the kinsdom. A 

eggs preserved very carefully in the Liverpool gentleman informs tne editor, 

comer-cupboard ; each egg being the oc- that in that town and neighbouiiiood they 

cupant of a deep, long-stemmed ale-glass, are still common, and called paHg tggi. 

through which the inscription could be One of his children brought to him a 

read without removing it. Probably poite egg at Easter, 1824, beautiluUy 

many of these eggs now remain in Cum- mottled with brown. It had beea 

berland, which would afford as good purposely prepared for the child by the 

evidence of dates in a court of justice, servant, by being boiled hard within the 

as a tombstone or a family-bible. coat of an onion, which imparted to the 

It will be readily supposed that the shell the admired colour. Hard boiling 

majority of pace eggs are simply dyed ; is a chief requisite in preparing the |MmcS 

or dotted with tallow to present a pie- eg^. In some parts they are variously 

bald or bird's-eye appearance. These coloured with the juices of different herbe, 

are designed for the junior boys who and played with by boys, who roll them 

have not begun to participate in the plea- on the grass, or toss them up for balls, 

sures of *' a bended bow and quiver full Their more elegant preparation is already 

of arrows ;** — a flaming torch, or a heart described by our obliging correspondent, 

and a true-lover*s knot. Tliese plainer J. B. 

specimens are seldom promoted to the 

dignity of tlie ale-glass or the comer- -^^— — ^^— — — ^■^■^— 

cupboard. Instead of being handed * Mr.J. B , a native of Maryport in 

down to posterity they are hurled to CumberUod, who obligingly comraonicaUs 

swift destruction. In the process of the above information respecting /»«cA rm 

J- ; *u^ V I J ^»» . u!l J ^ -. m that couotv, has ensured the adoption 

dying they are boiled pretty hard-so as ^f ^i. letter hy subscribing his nam^and 

to prevent inconvenience if crushed in address. 

the hand or the pocket. 'But the strength communications have been received in 

of the shell constitutes the chief glory of great nunil>ers from anooTmous correspood- 

a pace e^rg, whose owner aspires only to ents, but the information many of them coo- 

the conquest of a rival youth. Holding tain, however iutereiting or true, can never 

his egg in his hand he challenges a com- »°*",!f> «'»« ''^~**^" «/^»*^, Ererw- Day Hook, 

.** , ., r LI /\ r »or this reason, that information will not 

pamun to give blow for blow. One of ^n any account l»e iiiKerted, which u Mf 

the eggs is sure to be broken, and its verified by the contributor's uaae and resi- 

shattered remains are the spoil of the dence: as every contributor may have his 

conqueror: who is instantly invested witli n»nie inserted or not, as be uleases, so no 

the title of ** a cock of one, two, three," ?«»« "» o^'i**^*. *« ^J^'^'^X **»? «<*»tor, that tba 

iLC, in proportion as it may have frac- ^"^^^ communicated are from resp«n«bk 

. V* '^ • » '" """^ "^^ sources. Tlie precaution is necessary : and it 

tured his antagonist s ecgs in the conflict, may be proper to add, that all contribuUotM 

A successful ecg« in a contest with one with quotations from an ** old book," ** an 

which had previously gained honours*, excellent author," ♦* a work of authority/' 

adds to its number the reckonins: of its J»J »<> '"rth, are utcUu, when contributors 

^•on»..;.k>,.>i c^. A» «-. «.k;^w :« « foreet to mention names and tillc-paires. 

vanquished foe. An eug which is a J^^.^ .^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^.^^ ^^^^ ^ noticTto cor- 

*'cock of ten or a dozen, is frequently respondents has appeared within the columns 

challenged. A modem pugilist would of the Every- Day Hook, and it is dvsigacd 

call this a set-to for the championship, to be the iast. Such intimations cannot b« 

Such on the borders of the Solway Frith inserted without injury to the uniform ap- 

were the youthful amuMrments of Easter P^^rance of the work; but the y are printed 

m| I ^ onthe wmppem of the J/f<N/A/jr r'trrfi. 

Alonday. CoMMrsKATioNS of local usages or cas- 

Your very proper precaution, which toms,or other useful and agreeable piwrticttU«»» 

requires the names of correspondents who are earne»tly and respectfully solicited; and 

transmit notices of local customs, is com- extracts, or iMTmission to extract, from scarce 

plied with by the addition of my name worksandori^nalmanuscnuts. will be highly 

1 J .ji u I _ ¥ ur ^.- T esteemed. The fn^oun of correspondents 

and address below. In publication I ^.^^ ^^^, „^,„^^ ^,^,, .^dres^es are obviously 

to appear only as your constant ^^^ n,,^, valuable, ancT will receive marked 

I J. B. regard. W. Uonb. 

4« m, f Mow, the editor liopes will 4^,^ LnHgatt-kiU, 

^ 'A mod uken by the leader, fui wtn Mmrck^ leao. 


The terms pace, paste, or pasch, are ball-play before meutiuried.''* Brand 
derifed from patdiolj which is a name cites the mention of a lay amusement at 
giTen to Easter from its being the paschal this season, wherein both tansy and ball- 
season. Four hundred eggs were bought play is refeired to. 
lor eighteen-penoe in the time of Edward 

I., as uypeais by a royal roll in the Siool-balL 

tower ; from whence it also appears they At stool-ball, Lucia, let us play, 

were puzchaaed for the purpose of being For sugar, cakes, or wine, 

boiled and ftained, or covered with leaf Or for a taosy let us pay, 

gold, and afterwards distributed to the "^^^ 1<>^ be thine or mioe. 

royal hooaehold at Easter. They were '^ ^**°"' ™? «^«»^' * winner be 

formerly consecrated, and the rit-ial of At trundliDg of the ball, 

pope Sinl V. for the use of England, ^l Z"^^' ^^°? *^'*" ^^^,«' ^""^ »"^' 

SoSand, and Ireland, contains the form ^"^ ^^ misfortunes all. ^ ^^^ 

of consecration.* On Easter eve and *! /• r. 

Easter day, the heads of families sent to ^^^^> "^"" " ^^^ Ro^»« » Almanack" for 

the church large chargers, filled with the ^^^^' ^*V^ ^^^^^ ^^^^> denoting the 

hard boiled eggs, and there the " creature ^P^''^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^n : 

of eggs" became sacred by virtue of holy Young men and maids, 

water, crossing, and so on. Now very brisk, 

Ban. Bacon. Tansy Puddings. ^^^^"l^-^'^^V""* 

EaUng of tansy pudding is another cus- Mooi-bail tnsk. 

torn at Easter derived from the Rombh A W/ custom now prevails annually at 

church. Tansy symbolized the bitter herbs Bury St. Edmund's, Suffolk. On Shrove 

used by the Jews at their paschal ; but Tuesday, Easter Monday, and the Whit- 

that the people might show a proper ab- suntide festivals, twelve old women side 

horrence of Jews, they ate from a gammon off for a game at trap-and-ball, whidi is 

of bacon at Easter, as many still do in kept up with the greatest spirit and vigour 

several country places, at this season, until sunset. One old lady, named Gill, 

without knowing from whence this prac- upwards of sixty years of age, has been 

tice is derived. Then we have Easter celebrated as the *' mistress of the sport" 

baO-pUtyy another ecclesiastical device, the ^^^ a number of years past ; and it affords 

meaning of which cannot be quite so nujch of the good old humour to flow 

clearly traced ; but it is certain that the round, whilst the men-} combatants dex- 

Romish clergy abroad played at ball in terously hurl the giddy ball to and fro. 

the church, as part of the service; and we Afterwards they retire to their homes, 

find an archbishop joining in the sport, where 

** A ball, not of size to be grasped by one " Voice, fiddle, or flute, 

hand only, being given out at Easter, the ^^ ^^°^^ ^ mute," 

dean and his representatives began an and close the day Arith apportioned mirth 

antiphone, suitea to Easter-day ; then and merriment.f 

taking the ball in his left hand, he com- Corporations formerly went forth to 

menced a dance to the tune of the anti* play at ball at Easter. Both then and 

f)hone, the others dancing round hand in at Whitsuntide, the mayor, aldermen, 

land. At intervals, the ball was ban- and sheriff of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, with 

died or passed to each of the choristers, a great number of the burgesses, went 

The organ played according to the dance yearly to the Forth, or little mall of the 

and sport. The dancing and antiphone town, with tlie mace, sword, and cap of 

being concluded, the choir went to take maintenance, carried before them, and 

refreshment. It was the privilege of the patronised the playing at hand-ball, 

lord, or his locum tenens, to thiow the dancing, and other amusements, and 

ball; even the archbishop did it.^f sometimes joined in the ball-play, and at 

Whether the dignified clergy had this others joined hands with the ladies, 
amusement in the English churches is There is a Cheshire proverb, ** When 

not authenticated ; but it seems that the daughter is stolen, shut the Pepper- 

" boys used to claim hard eggs, or small gate.'' This is founded on the i^t that the 

money, at Easter, in exchange for the mayor of Chester had his daughter stolen 

* Bmnd. « Foshroke's Brit. Monach. from Du Cangp 

t Kosbrokc's Brit. Monsch. Irom Du Cange, '. Coinmunk«ited to iht £vvr|*D«\| B«wkV>'vj ^,^» 


IS she was playing at ball with other forth every Good Fridmfy and erery man 

maidens in Pepper-street ; the youns man did creep unto it that was in the dmrch 

who carried her off, came throu^irh the at that time ; and afterwards it was- bung 

Pepper-gate, and the mayor wisely or- up again within the said image. Etctj 

dered the eate to be shut up : * agreeable principal day the said image of our lady 

to the old saying, and present custom of Bolton, was opened, that eTery man 

agreeable thereto, *< When the steed's might see pictured within her, the Fatbery 

stolen, shut the stable-door.** Hereafter the Son, and the Holy Ghost, meet cu- 

it will be seen that persons quite as dig- riously and finely gilt ; and both the side* 

uified and magisterial as mayors and within her were very finely Tarnished with 

aldermen, could compass a holiday's sport green varnish, and flowers of gold, which 

and a merry-ffo-round, as well as tneir was a ffoodly sight for all the behc^ers 

more humble tellow subjects. thereof. On Good Frida^y there was 

C%»iiur the Church at Easier. marvellous solemn service, in which ser- 

L. S , a Warwickshire correspondent, ▼>p«^^m«» ?ft«' the Postton was sung, two 

communicates this Easter custom to the ^^ **?J "^l'?"^ monks took a goodly large 

Ever^Dau Book ' crucifix, all of gold, of the picture 

"When I was a child, as sure as Easter ^^ °**^ «*7»'^'^f C**"*^ °"*«? «P«>, .^ 

Monday came, I was taken * to see the ?^*' ^1^""? l^V^'P?" * velvet cushion, 

ehildrem clip the churches: ThU ceremony *«^'nj? St. Cuthbert s arms upon l^ aU 

was performed, amid crowds of people «m>ro»dered with gold, bnnging it be- 

and shouts of joy, by the children of the ^"^'^^ ?***?^ "P^*? the cushion to the lowest 

diflerent charity-schools, who at a certain •^P? \° ^* ^Vl'' ^^ there betwixt them 

hour flocked together for the purpose. «»<f.»^oW the said picture of our saviour, 

Tne first comers placed themselv^ hand ""*"? ?^ ^'}^^^ *»^« ^f 't-. And then 

in hand with their backs against the ®"* ®^ ^* said monks did nse, and went 

church, and were joined by their compa- * P^"y *1^ "**°? **'??^ *?*ting himtelf 

nions, who gradually increased in num- "1^° ^^ ^^^ T^^ *»'* *^^ P«t off, 

ber, Ull at last the chain was of sufficient ^^^ reverently he crn^ upon ku kmeee 

length completely to surround the sacred "r)<> the said cross, and most reverenUv 

edifice. As soon as the hand of the last ^\^ ^"^i* * ?"*^ ^^f J*'" t^« <>ther monk 

of the train had grasped that of the first, ^'^ so likewise; and then they sate down 

the party broke up, and walked in pro- ?" ^''*^V *»*[« ^^ ^« !**** c"»*' holding 

cession to the other chur<Ji, (for in tho^e '^ l>«twixt them. Afterward, the pnor 

days Birmingham boasted but of two,) ^^ *^"'» ®t>\' *ta", and did sit him 

where the ceremony was repeated." ?^T? "P®" **", ^?^ ^*^ ^*' ***^^ ^ 

m like sort, and did creep also unto the 

Old Easter Customs in Churc/L ^^ ^"^**» ^^^ *" the monks after him 

T .. IV*- r .u- ^ . . ^'^ <^**P o"^ ^tt^r another in the same 

In Uie celebration of this festival, the manner and order ; in the mean time, the 

Romish church amused our forefiithers by whole choir sinfring a hymn. The se^ ice 
theatrical representations, and extraordi- being ended, the said two monks earned 
nary dramaUc worship, with appropriate the cross to the sepulchre with great re- 
scenery, machinery, dresses, and decora Terence.* 

tions. Tlie exhibitions at Durham appear The sepulchre was erected in the 

to have been conducted with great efTect. church near the altar, to represent the 

In tnal cathedral, over our lady of Bolton's tomb wherein the body of Christ was 

alur, there was a marvellous, lively, and \m for burial. At this tomb there 

beautiful image of the picture of our lady, ^a, a grand performance on Easter-day. 

called the lady of Bolton, which picture In some churches it was ordained, that 

was made to open vriih gimmes, (or hnked Mary Maifdalen, Mary of Bethany, and 

festeninn,) from the breast downward ; Mary of Naim, should be represented by 

and within the said image was vrrought three deacons clothed in dalmaticks and 

and pictured the imase of our saviour amesses, with their heads in the manner 

BMureUously finely gU^ holding up his of women, and holding a vase in their 

taDds, and betwm hia ^Mds was a large hands. These performers came through 

Wr miofix of Chntt, all of gold ; the the middle of the choir, and ■ 

whicli cmcifis was ordained to be taken _^ 

~~7"; l "~" • Mom's Ancient Mjwtetim 

• £hmks% mmk9§<nn, timm ruirr^ W«nlilM. Davtet's ltite», 4c. 


towards the tepulcfare, with downcast sepulchre, out of which thej took a mar- 
looks, said cogedier tlus Teise, ** Who Tellous beautiful image of the resunee- 
will remove the stone for us ?** Upon lion, with a cross in the hand of the image 
tibis a bojy dothed like an an^^ in ubs, of Christ, in the breast whereof was in- 
and holding a wheat ear in his hand, be- closed, in bright crystal, the Aot#, so as 
fare the sepnldire, said, ** Whom do yon to be conspicuous to the beholders. Then, 
seek in the sepulchre f The Blaries an- after the eieratAon of the said picture, it 
swered, ** Jesus of Nazareth who was was carried by the said two monks, upon 
cmctfied.** The hoy-angel answered, a velvet embroidered cushion, the monks 
" He b not here, but is risen f and singing the anthem of ChrUtma remrgent. 
pointed to the place with his finger. The They Uien brought it to the high altar, 
M^-«ngel departed very quickly, and two setting it on the midst thereof^ and the 
pnests in tonics, sitting without the two monks kneeling before the ahar, 
sepolchie, said, ^ Woman, whom do ye censed it all the time that the rest of the 
moont for! Whom do ye seek?" The quire were singing the anthem, which 
middle one of the women said, ** Sir, if being ended, tl^ two monks took up the 
yoo ha:ve taken him eway, say so." The cushKm and picture from the altar, soj^ 
priest, showing the cross, said, ** They porting it betwixt them, and proceeded 
nave taken away the Lord." The two m procession firom the high altar to the 
sitting priests said, *^ Whom do ye seek, south quire door, where there were four 
women T* The Maries, kissing the place, ancient gentlemen belonging to the quire, 
afterwards went from the sepulchre. In appoini»i to attend their coming, hiding 
the mean time a priest, in tne character up a rich canopy of purple velvet, tas- 
of Christ, in an alb, wiUi a stole, holding selled round abcwt with red silk and gold 
a cross, met them on the left horn of the fringe ; and then the canopy was borne 
atetf , and said, ^ fifaiy V Upon hearing by thoe ** ancient gentlen^,** over the 
this, the mock Mary threw herself at his said images vrith the host carried by the 
feet, and, with aloud voice, cried Cad^otn. two momcs round about the church, the 
TW priest representing Christ replied, whole quire following, vrith torches and 
nodding, ** NoU fae toMgert,^* touch wte great store of other lights ; all singing, 
mtL This being finished, be again ap- rejoicing, and praying, till thev came to 
pwed at the right horn of the altar, and the high altar again ; upon which they 
sttd to them as they passed before the placed the said image, there to remain 
akar, ** Hail ! do not l^r." This being till .<4Meiuto»-«^f, when another ceremony 
finiriied, he concealed himself; and the was used. 

women-priests, as though joyful at hear- In Brand's ** Antiquities," and other 
ing this, bowed to the altar, and turning works, there are many items of expenses 
to the choir, sung ** Alleluia, the Lord is fix>m the accounts of different cnurch- 
risen." This vras the signal for the bishop books for making the sepulchre for this 
or priest before the altar, with the censer, Easter ceremony. The old Register Book 
to begin and sing aloud, Te Demm* of the brethren of the Holy Trinity of St. 
The mmJdmg of the eepukhre vras a Botolph without Aldersgate, now in the 
practice founded upon ancient tradition, possession of the editor of the Every-Dmf 
thai the second coming of Christ would Book, contains the following entries con- 
be oo Easter-eve ; and eepmlehre tmmking^ ceming the eejnUehre in that churdi :^ 
and watching it, remained in England ** Item, to the wexchaundeler, for makyng 
tOl the reformation. Its ceremonies va- of the Sejmkre light iii times, and m 
ried in difibent places. In the abbey other dyvers lights that kmgyn to the 
chnrcfa of Durham it vras part of the ser- trynite, in dyvers places in the diirch^ 
vice upon Easter-day, betvrixt three and Ivii*. lO*." In An. 17 Henry VI. there 
fear </dock in the morning, for two of is another " Item, for xiii Upos unto the 
the eldest monks of the quire to come to lyght about the S^mlere, agenst the 
Ike sepulchre, set up upon Good Friday fieste of Estem, weyug Ixxviii lb. of the 
after the Passion, which being covered wich was vrasted xxii lb." Ice. In Ann. 
with red velvet, and embroidered vrith 21 & 22 K. flMi y.VL the fraternity paid 
■Did, these monks, with a pair of silver for vrax and for nghlkvg of the se(Nildire 
OMers, censed the sepulchre on their ^ both yen, xx*. viii'." and they ^thered 
Then both rising, went to the in those years for their sepokhre light, 

xlv«. ix*. This gathering was from the 

Brit. MwiiT*f. frwB D« CMf^ people vrho were present at the repr»- 


sentation ; and when the value of money shows, and at Euster, were of tlicm^Ives 

at that time is considered, ^and also that a most attractive part cf tlie Easter spec- 

on the same day eveiy church in London tacle. Tim paschal or great Easter taper at 

had a Mepulchre, each more or less at- Westminster Abbey was three hundred 

tractive, the sum will not be regarded as pounds' weight. Sometimes a large wai 

despicable. light called a serpent was used ; its name 

Tlie only theatres for the people were was derived from its spiral form, it being 

churches, and the monks were actors ; wound round a rod. To light it, fire was 

accordingly, at Easter, plays were fie- struck from a flint consecrated by the 

2uently got up for popular amusement, abbot. The paschal in Durham cathedral 

trand cites from the churchwardens* ac- was square wax, and reached to within 

counts of Reading, set forth in Coate*s a man^s length of the roof, from whence 

history of that town, several items of this waxen enormity was lighted by " a 

different sums paid for nails for the se- fine convenience.*' From this superior 

pulchre ; ** for rosyn to the Resurrection light all others were taken. Every taper 

play ;" for setting up off poles for the in the church was purposely extinguished 

scaffold whereon the plays were perform- in order that this might supply a fresh 

ed ; for making ''a Juaas ;" for the writing stock of consecrated light, till at the same 

of the plays themselves ; and for other season in the next year a similar parent 

expenses attending the ** getting up*' of torch was prepared.* 

the representations Though the subjects 

exhibited were connected with the inci- EASTER IN LONDON, 

dents commemorated by the festival, yet Easter Monday and Tuesday, and 

the most splendid shows must have been Greenwich fair, are renowned as " holi- 

in those churches which performed the days" throughout most manufactories and 

resurrection at the sepulchre with a full trades conducted in the metropolis. On 

dramatis persona of monks, in dresses Monday, Greenwich fair commences, 

according to the characters they assumed. The chief attraction to this spot is the 

Mr. Fosbroke gives the " properties " park, wherein stands the Royal Observa- 

of the sepulchre show b4'lonpnR to St. tory on a hill, adown which it is tlie 

Maiy Redcliff's church at Bristol, from delight of boys and girls to pull each 

an original MS. in his possession for- other till they are wearied. Frequently 

merly belonging to Chatterton, viz.. " Mo- of late this place has been a scene of rud'e 

morandum :— That master Cannings hath disoixler. But it is still visited by thou, 

delivered, the 4th day of July, m the year sands and tens of thousands from Undon 

of our Lord 1470, to master Nicholas and the vicinity ; the lowest join in the 

Pelles, vicar of Redclift, Moses Conterin, hill sports; others resale in the public- 

Phihp Berthelmew, and Jt^hn Brown, houses ; and inanv are mere spectator*, 

procurators of Redclift heforesaid, a new of what may be called the humours of 

Sepulchre, well guilt with fine gold, and t||(. dav. 

a civer thereto; an image of Go«l Al- On 'Easter Monday, ;H the ven* dawn 

miKhty nsmg out of the same Sepulchre, of day, the avenues from all ivarts lowardi* 

with all the ordinance that lon^eth Greenwich give sii?n of the first London 

thereto; that is to say, a lath made of festival in the year. Working men and 

timber and iron work thereto. Item, their wives ; 'prentices and their .sweet- 

hereto longeth Ileven, made of timber hearts ; black^ajards and bullies ; make 

and stained cloths. Item, Hell made of ,j,eir way to this fair. Pickpockets and 

timber and iron work thereto, with Devils ij,eir female comi>anions go later. Tbe 

the number of thirteen. Item, four kn^hts greater part of the sojourners are on 

armed, keeping the Sepulchre, with their foot, Imt the vehicles for conveyance are 

wea|K)ns in their hands; that is to say, innumerable. Tlie regular and irregwUr 

two spears, two axes, with two shields, stages are, of course, full inside and out- 

Item, four |>air of Angel s winfl;s, for four Me. Hackney-coaches are equally well 

Angels, made of timb€r,andwell-painied. fin^d ; gigs carrv three, not injudinr 

item, the ladre, the crown and vis:i«e, ,1,^ driver; and ther*- are countless ph- 

the M/ with a cross n|>on it well gilt ^.j,,,, chaise^cart^ public pony-chaisem 

with fine Rold. Item, the Holy Ghost and open accommo<lations. InterminfM 

commg out of llevcn mto the S* milchre. ^,th tlu-^r, town^arts, usually emplovfd 

Item, longeth to the four Angels, four .. ... .. ' • 

PfTMkeg.*' TIte lights al the sepuhlue • rn^i.rol, •. Biii. Man..tli. 


in cUTTiiig goodsy are novr fitted up, with Every room in every poblic-hoase is fiiUy 

bcMuds for seats ; hereoD are seated men, occupied by drinkers, smokers, singers 

Mneiiy and children, till the complement and dancers, and the " balls '^ are kept 

oomplete, which is seldom deemed the up during the greater part of the night. 

se till the horses are overloaded. Now The way to town is now an indescrba* 
and then passes, like ** some hure admi- ble scene. The vehicles congregated x 
al,^ a iiill-sixed coal-vraggon, laden with by the visitors to the fair throuffhonf 
eoal-lieaTecs and their wives, and sha- the day resume theii motion, and the 
dowed bj spreading boughs from every living reflux on the road is dense to 
tree thai spreads a bough ; these solace uneasiness. Of all sights the most 
themselves with draughts of beer from a miserable is that of the poor broken-down 
barrel aboard, and derive amusement from horse, who having been urged three times 
critiasing walkers, and passengers in to and from Greenwich with a load thi- 
vehicles passing their own, which is of ther of pleasure^seekers at sixpence per 
onsurpassing size. The six-mile journey head, is now unable to return, for the 
of one of these machines is sometimes fourth time, with «i full load back, though 
prolonged from ''dewy mom*' till noon, whipped and lifled, and lifted and whip- 
It stops to let its occupants see all that is ped, by a reasoning driver, who declares 
to be seen oo its passage ; such as what " the hoss did it last fair, and why shouldn't 
are called the ^ Gooseberry furs," by he do it again.** The open windows of 
the wayside, whereat heats are run upon every house for refreshment on the road, 
half-killed horses, or spare and patient and clouds of tobacco-smoke therefrom, 
donkeys. Here are the bewitching sounds declare the full stowage of each apart- 
to many a boy*s ears of*' A halfpenny ride ment, while jinglings of the bells, and calls 
O !" "A halfpenny ride OV' ; upon " louder and louder yet," speak wants 
that sum " first had and obtained,'* the and wishes to waiters, who disobey the 
iflunediately bestrided urchin has full instructions of the constituent bodies that 
right to ** work and labour*' the bit of life sent them to the bar. Now from the way- 
he bestraddles, for the full space or dis- side booths fly out corks that let forth 
tance of fifty yards, there ana back ; the " pop " and " ginger-beer," and little 
retuminf fifty being done within half party-coloured lamps give something 
time of Uic first. Then there is *' pricking of a joyous air to appearances that fa- 
in the belt,'* an old exposed and still tigue and disgust. Overwearied children 
practised fraud. Besides this, there are cry before they have walked to the half- 
numberless invitations to take " a shy for way house ; women with in&nts in their 
a halfpenny,** at a " bacca box, full o* arms pull along their tipsey well-beloveds, 
ha'pence," standing on a stick stuck up- others endeavour to wrangle or drag them 
right in ihe earth at a reasonable distance out of drinking rooms, and, until long after 
for experienced throwers to hit, and midnight, the Greenwich road does not 
therefore win, but which is a mine of cease to disgorge incongruities only to be 
wealth to the costermonger proprietor, rivalled by the figures and exhibitions in 
from the number of unskilled adventurers. Dutch and Flemish prints. 

Greenwich fair, of itself, is nothing ; the 

congregated throngs are every thing, 

and fill every place. The hill of the 

Observatory, and two or three other emi- While this turmoil, commonly called 
nences in the park, are the chief resort of pleasure-taking, is going on, there is 
the less experienced and the vicious. But another order of persons to whom Easter 
these soon tire, and group after group afibrds real recreation. Not less inclined 
succeeds .till evening. Before then the to unbend than the frequenters of Green- 
more prudent visitors have retired to wich, they seek and find a mode of 
tome of the numerous houses in the vici- spending the holiday-time more rationally, 
nage of the park, whereon is ^^i^liPs more economically, and more advantage- 
•^Boiling water here," or "Tea 1^ ously to themselves and their families. 
Coffee,*' and where they take such re- With their partners and offspring they 
freshment as these places and their own ride to some of the many pleasant viU 
bundles afford, preparatory to their toil lages beyond the suburbs of London, out 
Wme after their pleasure. of the reach of the harm and strife inci- 

At nightfall, " Life in London,** as dent to mixing with noisy crowds. Here 

it is called, is found at Greenwich, the contented groups are joined by rela- 


tioBi or friendty who hare appointed to ed, each joins in merry convmalioii, or 

meet them, in U»e quiet lanei or sunny some one suspected of a singing hc9 

Mds of Uiese delightful retreats. When justifies the suspicion, and '* the jocqiiq 

requisite, they recruit from well-stored song goes rouud,'' till, the fathers being 

junket baskets, carried in turn ; and aAer reminded by the mothers, more than once 

calmly passing several hours in walking possibly, that ^* it*s getting late,*^ they rise 

and sauntering throuah the open balmy refreshed and happy, and go home. Such 

air of a spnng-day, they sometimes close an assembly is composed of honest and 

it by making a rood comfortable tea- industrious individuals, whose feelings 

party at a respectable house on their way and expressions are somewhat, perfai^, 

to town. Then a cheerful glass is order- represented below. 



We*re independent men, with wives, and sweethearts, by our side. 
We've hearts at rest, with health we're bless'd, and, being Easter tide» 
We make our tpring-iime holiday, and take a bit of pleasure, 
And gay as May, drive care away, and give to mirth our lebure'. 

It's for our good, that thus, my boys, we pass the hours that stray. 

Well have our frisk, without the risk of squabble or a fray ; 

Let each enjoy his pastime so, that, without fear or sorrow. 

When all his fun is cut and run, he mav eigoy to-morrow. « 

To-morrow may we happier be for happiness to-day, 
That child or man, no mortal can, or shall, have it to say, 
That we have lost both cash and time, and been of sense bereft. 
For what we've spent we don't relent, we've time and money left. 

And we will husband both, my boys, and husband too our wives ; 

Biay sweethearts bold, before they're old, be happy for their lives ; 

For good girls make good wives, my boys, and good wives make men better. 

When men are just, and scorning trust, each man is no man's debtor. 

IVn at this welcome season, boys, let's welcome thus each other, 
Each kind to each, shake hands with each, each be to each a brother; 
Nest Easter holiday may each again see flowers springing, 
Aad hear birds sing, and sing himsfli; while merry bells are ringing. 



The clear open weather during the According to annual custom on Eas- 
Easter holidays in 1825, drew forth a ter Monday, the minor theatres opened 
greater number of London holiday keep- on that day for the season, and were 
ers than the same season of many pre- thronged, as usual, by spectators of no- 
eeding years. They were enabled to in- velties,which the Amphitheatre, the Surrey 
dulge by the full employment in most bran- theatre, Sadler's- wells, and other places 
dies of trade and manufacture ; and if the of dramatic entertainment, constantly get 
period was spent not less merrily, it was up for the holiday-folks. The scene of 
enjoyed more rationally and with less ex- attraction was much extended, by amuse- 
eess than before was customary. Green- ments long before announced at distant 
wich, though crowded, was not so abun- suburbs. At half-past five on Monday 
dant of boisterous rudeness. ^ It is al- afternoon, Mr. Green accompanied by 
most the only one of the popular amuse- one of his brothers, ascended in a balloon 
ments that remains : Stepney, Hamp- from the Eagle Tavern, the site of the 
stead, Westend, and Peckham fiurs have still remembered '* Shepherd and Shep^* 
been crushed by the police, that < stem, herdess,*' in the City*road. ** The atmo* 
rugged nurse* of national morality ; and sphere being extremely calm, and the sun 
aluough Greenwich fair continues, it is snining brightly, the machine, after it had 
any thing but what it used to be. Green- ascended to a moderate height, seemed to 
wich, however, will always have a charm : hang over the city for nearly half an hour, 
the fine park remains — trees, glades, turf, presenting a beautiful appearance, as its 
and the view from the observatory, one of sides glistened with the beams of that orb, 
the noblest in the world — before you the towards which it appeared to be convey- 
towers of these palaces built for a mo- ing two of the inhabitants of a different 
narch's residence, now ennobled into a planet.'' It descended near Ewell in 
refuge from life's storms for the gallant Surrey. At a distance of ten miles firom 
defenders of their country, after their long this spot, Mr. Graham, another aerial na- 
mnd toilsome pilgrimage — ^then the noble vigator, let off another balloon from the 
river ; and in the distance, amidst the Star and Garter Tavern, near Kew-bridge. 
din and smoke, appears the ' mighty '* During the preparations, the gardens 
heart' of this mighty empire; these are began to fill with a motley company of 
views worth purchasing at the expense of farmers' families, and tradesmen from the 
being obliged to visit Greenwich fair in neighbourhood, together with a large por- 
this day of its decline. * Punch' and tion of city folks, and a small sprinkle of 
his ' better half seemed to be the pre- some young people of a better dressed 
siding deities in the fair, so little of mer- order. The mieness of the day gave a 
riment was there to be found. In the peculiar interest to the scene, which 
park, however, the scene was different; throughout was of a very lively descrip- 
it was nearly filled with persons of all tion. Parties of ladies, sweeping the 
ages : the youne came there for amuse- ' green sward,' their gay dresses, laugh- 
ment, to see and be seen — the old to pay ing eyes, and the cloudless sky, made 
their customary annual visit. On the every thing look gay. Outside, it was 
hiDs was the usual array of telescopes ; a multitude, as far as the eye could see 
there were also many races, and many on one side. The place had the appear* 
tovereiffns in the course of the day chang- ance of a fair, booths and stalls for re- 
ed hands on the event of them ; but one freshments being spread out, as upon 
race in particular deserves remark, not these recreative occasions. Carts, ^njSf 
that there was any thing in the character, coaches, and every thing which qould 
appearance, or speed of the competitors, enable persons the better to ovetlooli Che 
to distinguish tnem from the nerd of gardens, were put into eager requis^jon, 
others ; the circumstances in it that afford- and every foot of resting-foom upon 
ed amusement was the dishonesty of the Kew-bridge had found an anxious ftnd 
ftakeholder, who, as the parties had just curious occupant, In the mean tifae, 
mched the goal, scampered off with the fresh arrivals were taking place from all 
•takes, amidst the shouts of the by-stan- directions, but the douM of dost which 
ders, and the ill-«oncealed chagrin of the marked the line of the London-road, ^ 
two gentlemen who had foolishly com- particular, denoted at once the eagemfst 
mitted their money to the hands of a and numbers of the new comers, A 
ftranger.*'* glimpse in that direction showed the pe- 

' ■■ destrians. half roasted with the sun, i^ 

No. 15. 

443 rUE KVERY-DAY BOOK.— EAST li II. 444 

half suffocated with the dust, still keeping tlic school over which he presides; and 
on their way towards the favoured spot, the boys in the mathematical school carry 
About five o'clock, Mr. Graham having their various instruments. On Tuesday, 
seated himself in the car of his vehicle, they walk in the order of the different 
gave the signal for committing the ma- wards, the nurses walking at the head of 
chine to its fate. She swung in the wind the boys under her immediate care. Ou 
for a moment, but suddenly righting, shot their arrival at the Mansion-house, they 
up in a directly perpendicular course, have the honour of being presented indi- 
amidst the stunning shout of the assem- vidually to the lord mayor, who gives to 
bled multitude, Mr. Graham waving the each boy a new sixpence, a glass of wine, 
flags and responding to their cheers, and two buns. Hjs lordship afierwardi 
Nothing could oe more beautiful than the accompanies them to Christ church, 
appearance of the balloon at the distance where the service is the same as on Mon- 
of about a mile from the earth, for from day. The sermon is on Tuesday usually 
reflecting back the rays of the sun, it ap- preached by his lordship's chaplain.*** 
peared a solid body of ^old suspended m The most celebrated Spital Sermon of our 
the air. It continued m sight nearly an times, was that preached by the late Dr. 
hour and a half; and the crowd, whose Samuel Parr, upon Easter Tuesday, 1800, 
curiosity had brought them together, had against '* the eager desire of paraoox ; the 
not entirely dispelled from the gardens habitof contemplating a favourite topic in 
before seven o'clock. On the way home one distinct and vivid point of view, while 
they were gratified with the sight of Mr. it is disregarded under all others ; a fond- 
Green's balloon, which was seen dis- ness for simplicity on subjects too com- 
tinctly for a considerable time along: the plicated in their inward structure on their 
Hammersmith-road. The shadows of external relations, to be reduced to any 
evening were lengthening, and single and uniform principle ;*' and against 
Hiidst falling dew, certain speculations on " the motives by 

While glow the Heaveni with the last steps ^*»>c*» ^e are impelled to do good to our 

of day, fellow creatures, and adjusting the extent 

Far through their ro«y depths it did pursue to which we arc capable of doing it.*' This 

Its soUtary way.*** sermon induced great controversy, and 

much misrepresentation. Few of those 

SPITAL sruMONs. whocoudemncd it, read it; and many jusli- 

In Ix>ndon, on Easter Monday and fied their icrnorancc of what they detracted, 

Tuesday, the Spitai SermoM are preach- by pretending they could not waste thoir 

cd. •* On Easter Monday, the boys of time upon a volume of theology. Tins 

Christ's Hospital walk in procession, ac- excuse was in reference to its having beeu 

companied by the m;uiters and steward, printed in quarto, though the sermon it- 

to the Royal Exchange, from whence they self consists of only about four and twenty 

proceed to the Mansion-house, where they pages. The notes are illustrations of a 

are jomed by the lord mayor, the lady discourse more highly intellectual than 

mayoress, the sheriffs, aldermen, recor- most of those wh<» live have heard or 

der, chamberlain, town cleik, and other read.f 
city officers, with their ladies. From 

thence the cavalcade proceeds to Christ * vviUon'i HUtory of Chriit*t Hwpiui. 

church whprp thp Kni/nl <C^«.^» ;<> «^ Archdcmcon Btiilcr had Itttn MlMied by Dr. 

cnurcn, wnere ine dpttal :iermon is p»rr to pmnounce the Imi •ppointed vonk aSkr bM 

preached, always by one of the bishops, rrmaiimand hrjuitiAHtlietekctluu. Dr. Butler** 

ud ui antbem .un? by the children. iL. Tf'SSiSiV i" ciSil'.L^f ".h'u^'rSl''^ 

lorosbip alterwards returns to the Man- charictcr, and fr»m its pa^rc ihete paaMgc* •!« 

.iottW. where a pand civic entertain- i"rpr^l'X.SJriSi. ,:;Si'iSSi."iSi:tl 

mCDt If prepared, which is followed by W ■n^n <>' ^'« «««• He has l«ft a chasm io the 

•n elccmnt ball in the eveninir literature of hi* country, which miie of m aMI 

rf^n * ^ »•• uk: trrening. ^„, ^^ HH^ up. As a claaakal adioUr hewmm- 

unfioster luesday, the boys again walk prcmc^-<i««piy tencd in history, ciocciaUy Umc of 

in piweuion to the Man,ion-hou«,, but, SiJ;r.«.rffi.«UcdrWi2.!2SCta/^ 

IDtteaa of tne masters, they are accom- "*<^ extensively and thought more deeply, tham 

WUBMd bv the matron and niir«A« ^^w^ ;"<^* "^tliOM who claim the hlfheit Hiriwy fcme 

Um^w tW ^ll • ^ nurses. Un U that department. Hewaswell%a4incomra««fv. 

JMOaty, iney walk in the order of the thouKh he loved not controrersialiaui forhia htm^ 

Mliooli. etch master being at the head of S.^i^Si^lS^'r^'rClSri^J'TSSftl 

love, and worship a God of low, and yet aw Wt 

• ll«niiB« H«r.i.i '**P^ *"• malinnawt and vindictive passinaa. Ml tkmt 

mmmug rscraia. rrlig.ous dispatet, ^gtinst each other. In pvlHica 


Tlie Spitai Sermon derives its name writer of the last ceotury * speaks of " a 
from the priorj and hospital of '^ our room being crammed as full of company^ 
blessed Lady, St. Mary Spital,** situated as St. Bride^s church upon the singing a 
OD the east side of Bishopsgate-street, Spittle psalm at Easter, or an anthem on 
with fields in the rear, which now form Cicelia s day/' but wiUiin the last thirty 
the suburb, called Spitalfields. This years the Spital Sermons have been re- 
hosiHtal founded in 1197, had a large moved to Christ church, Newgate-street, 
dnuehyard with a pulpit croes, from where they are attended by the loid 
whence it was an ancient custom on Eas- mayor, the aldermen, and the govemon 
ter Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, of Christ's, St. Bartholomew's, Sk. 
for sermons to be preached on the Resur- Thomas's, Bridewell, and Bethlem Hot- 
rection before the lord mayor, alder- pitals ; after the sermon, it is the usage to 
men, sheriflb, and others who sat in a read a report of the number of childien, 
house of two stories for that purpose ; and other persons maintained and reliev- 
the bishop of London and other prelates ed in these establishments; In 1825, the 
being above them. In 1594, the pulpit Spital Sermon on Easter Monday was 
was taken down and a new one set up, preached by the bishop of Gloucester, 
and a large house for the s^oveinors and and the psalm sung by the children of 
children of Christ's Hospital to sit in.* Christ's Hospital was composed by the 
In April 1559, qtieen Elizabeth came in rev. Arthur William TroUope, D. D. 
great state from St. Mary Spital, attended head classical master. It is customary 
by a thousand men in harness, with shirts for the prelate on this occasion, to dine 
of mail and croslets, and morris pikes, with the lord mayor, sheriff, and alder- 
and ten great pieces carried through Lon- men at the Mansion-house. Hereafter 
don unto the court, vrith drums, flutes, and there will be mention of similar invita^ 
trumpets sounding, and two morris dan- tions to the dignified clergy, when they 
oers, amd two white bear$ in a cart,\ On discourse before the civic authorities. In 
Easter Monday, 1617, king James I. 1766, bishop Warburton having preached 
having gone to Scotland, the archbishop before the corporation, dined with the 
of Canterbury, the lord keeper Bacon, the lord mayor, and was somewhat facetious : 
bishop of London, and certain other lords " Whether," says Warburton, " I made 
of the court and privy counsellors attend- them wiser tlian ordinary at Bow (church,) 
ed the Spital Sermon, vrith sir John I cannot tell. I certainly made them 
Lemman, the lord mayor, and alder- merrier than ordinary at the Mansion- 
men ; and afterwards rode home and dined house ; where we were magnificently treat- 
with the lord mayor at his house near ed. The lord mayor told me—* The 
Billingsgate-t The hospital itself was common council were much obliged to 
dissolved under Henry VIII. ; the pulpit me, for that this was the first time he ever 
was broken down during the troubles of hesird them prayed for ;' I said, * 1 consi- 
Charles I. ; and after the restoration, the dered them as a body who much needed 
sermons denominated Spital Sermons the prayers of thp. church,' "f 
were preached at St. Bride's church, * » 
Fleet-street, on the three usual days. A ^« Eoiter Tale. 

■ Under this titltr a provincial paper 

Ji^.l^i^iibilSSri'j'oiiarfbt ™rd?.rn^.?: give* Ae foUo^g detaU:_lD Romw 

ctttd mod hicomipUble integrity, and the most reto- cathollC COUntnes it IS a verv ancient 

5s^s?::2irb'i»*':rwL^.''"j?jmin«'r«7^^ ««•<"» <■?' *« fe^t" to awert ws 

■piciMMM cliaracter. Caution he despised, it vra* not congregation in due SCasOn With What IS 

■lightgr mMur of Unguage when speaking or Tdk, which was becomingly received by 
E^^£Sr„'lSlhXlliS,'r^!S.'2',o^r'of*S2! «;e auditors with pe.16 o(E<uUr bughter. 

r« bf which himself was swept along." Soeh During Lent the good people had morti- 

t?!^Sro'«'S.£fi5S!;;M[i'rd'o*„'!i2?; ^ them.eWe., «k1 pra,ed jo much, 
fkcoioiicAiqucMioas.* More to the ttine effect might that at length they began to be rather 

fcl!!S3frn^brjfX'iSrdKSS£r/-'iSiilf «U.cont«.ted and .ll.t«Dp«ed; w tlutt 

VafrWnd well, he loved truth better;** and hence Dr. the dergy deemed it neoessary to make 

BMlar has houesUy and faiihfuUy sketched zUw ^ i j|^g £^ f^^ f^^ BUlpit for them, and 

.ftcoa^derableweakneMes, which, to a correct judg. * ""'* ***" *^"^ ^ j»wtj»*% w» »«• y 

■11 at , eplarge^he nobility, and heiahtea tha spten 

of fir. Parr's heart and mino. Undcviativg 
Lioiy Is praiseless praise. * Ned Ward In his Dancing School* 

• Rowe. t Mahland. 1 9cow«. t Utttn from a lal* tm\«w(t vmMm. 


thQ» flhre as it were the first impulse proceeded : ' My fourth wish is, that my 
towaras the revival of mirth and cneer- fpreen cap may belong to me for ever, 
fulness. -Hiis practice lasted till the t7th and that whenever I sit down upon it^ no 
and in many places till the 18th century, power or force may be able to drive me 
Here follows a specimen of one of these away/ This also received the fiat, 
talei, extracted m>m a truly curious vo* Thereupon our Lord went his viray with 
lume, the title of which may be thus ren- Peter, and the smith lived some yean 
dered : — Moral and Reiigioua Journey to longer with his old woman. At the end 
Beihiem : cotuuting of various Sermoru of this time ^rim death appeared, and 
for the safe guidance of ail itrajfed, eon- summoned him to the other world. 
verted, and nuMled eouU, hy the Revi ' Stop a moment/ said the smith ; < let 
Father Attanasy, of DiWng, ^' Christ me just put on a clean shirt, meanwhile 
our Lord was journeying -wi9i St. Peter, you. may pick some of the pears on 
and had passed through many countries, yonder tree.' Death climbed up the tree ; 
One day ne came * to a place where there but he could not get down again ; he was 
was no inn, and entered the- house of a forced to submit to the smith's terms, 
blacksmith. This man had a wife, who and promised him a respite of twenty 
paid the utmost respect to strangers, years before he returned. When the 
and treated them with' the best that her twenty years were expired, hp a^in ap- 
bouse would afford. When they were peared, and commanded him in Uie name 
about to depart, our Lord and St. Peter of the Lord and St. Peter to go along 
wished her aul that was good, and heaven with him. Said the smith, < I know 
into the bargain. Said the woman, ' Ah ! Peter too. Sit down a little on my anvil, 
if I do but go to heaven, I care for no- for thou must be tired ; I will just drink 
thing else.' — * Doubt not,' said St. Peter, a cup to cheer me, and take leave of my 
* for it would be contrary to scripture if old woman, and be with thee presently, 
thou shouldest not go to heaven. Let But death could not rise again from his 
what will happen, thou must go thither, seat, and was obliged to promise the 
Open thy mouth. Did I not say so? smith another delay of twenty years, 
why, thou canst not be sent to hell, WJien these had elapsed, the devil came, 
where there is wailing and gnashing of and would fain have dragged the smith 
teeth, for thou hast not a tooth left in thy away by force. < Holla, fellow 1' said 
head. Thou art safe enough ; be of good the latter ; *■ that won*t do. I have other 
cheer.' Who was so overjoyed as the letters, and whiter than thou, with thy 
good woman ? Without doubt, she took black carta^ianca. But if thou art such 
another cup on the strength of this as- a conjuror as to imagine that thou hast 
•urance. But our Lord Mfas desirous to any power over me, let us see if thou 
testify his thanks to the man also, and canst get into this old rusty flue.' No 
promised to grant him four wishes, sooner said than the devil slipped into 
' Well,' said the smith, *■ I am heartily the flue. The smith and his men put the 
obliged to you, and wish that if any one flue into the fire, then carried it to the 
dimbs up the pear-tree behind my house, anvil, and hammered away at the old- 
he may not be able to get down again one most unmercifully. He howled, and 
without my leave.' This grieved St. begged and prayed ; and at last promised 
Peter not a little, for he thought that the that he would have nothing to do with 
imith ought rather to have wished for the the smith to all eternity, if he would but 
kingdom of heaven ; but our Lord, with let him go. At length the smith's guar- 
hifl wonted kindness, granted his petition, dian-angel made his appearance. The 
The smith's next wish was, that if any business was now serious. He was 
<nie tat down upon his anvil, he might obliged to go ; the angel conducted him 
Dot be able to rise without his permis- to hell. Tlie devil, whom he had so 
wmtmd the third, that if any one crept terribly belaboured, was just then attend- 
mt^Ulold flue, hemi^ht not have power ing the gate; he looked out at the little 
19 M out without his consent. St. Peter window, but quickly shut it asain, and 
aWy ' Friend smith, beware what thou would have nothing to do with Uie smith, 
dott These are all wishes that can bring The angel then conducted him to the 
tfiee no advantage ; be wise, and let the gate of heaven. St. Peter refused to 
riaatning one be for everlasting life with admit him. < Let me just peep in,' nid 
th0 b tmm d in heaven.' The ^mith was the smith, ' that I may see how it looks 
iMT Up &t pol out of his way, and thus within there.' No sooner was the wicket 


^fpeoed th«n >h^ nnith throw in his cap, my own property ; I ilxMld lilw to ica 

mod Mid, ' ThoQ knoweM it is my pr*- who dares drive me away from iL' So 

party, I must go and fetch it.' ^^n the smith got into heaven at lut.'' - 

■Uppipg put, he clapped himself down \ ^^_^_ 

upon it, and said, ' now I am sitting on • SiiMiBijOuirtta, Jmrnvj*, Uh. 

There is a remarkable notice by Dr. his way in his cups, and being found by 
E. D. Clarke, the traveller, respecting a some peastmts, they brought him to iing 
cwtom in the Greek islands. He says, Midas, who restored him " to the jolly 
" A circumstance occurs annually at god" Bacchus, and that Bacchus, nate- 
Rhodes which deserves the atlenliou of ful for the favour, conferred on Midaa 
the liteiaiy traveller : it is the ceremony the power of taming whatever he touched 
ofcarryingSileniu in processional Easter, into gold. Others say that Silenus was 
A troop of boys, crowned with garlands, a grave philosopher, and Bacchus art en- 
draw along, in b car, a fat old man, al- terprising young hero, a sort of Tele- 
tended with great pomp. I unfortunately machus, who took Silenus for his Mentor, 
milled bearing testimony to this remark- and adopted bis wise counsels. The en- 
able evarople, among many others which graving is after an etching by Woilidge, 
I have witnessed, of the evislence of from a sardonyx {[em in the possession 
pagan rites io popular superstillons. I of the duke of Devonshire. 

was informed of the &ct by Mr. Spurring, 

a naval architect, who resided at Rhodes, !(blCfI 6* 

:r«,fBSr'^""i3'7J£"0 ' OI.D lADY-DAY. 

•een the procession. The same ceremony S(. Sirhu I. Pope, 2d Cent. iiOPer- 

also takes place in the island of Scio." 'i™ Martin, ». d. 3*S. 3t. y*^*"^' 

It is only necessary here to mention the Pope- *■ "■ *32- ^'- ff^""^' Abbot of 

ci»tom, without adverting to its pro- Eskille, *. n. IMS. St. Pnt*V«.. Bp. 

boble origin. According to ancient fatle, *■ "■ 861 . SI. Cdmi, in Lash CttUaek 

SOenns was son to Pan., the godof sbep- Abp. *.d. 1139. 

berds and banlamen ; other accounts re- CnBOVOLoar. 

prcMnt bim as the son of Mercury, and 1348. Lanra de ffovet died. She 

Ib«ter-&lber of Bacchus. lie ii usually was bom in 1304, and is celebrated for 

described ai a timej old wine-lHbber ; having been heloved by Petrarch, and to€ 

and one itoiy of hun ii, that hsTing lort baving teturaad lua funiHx ^« iaiiEJh^ 




enoe. He fotteted his love at Vaucluse, 
a romantic spot, wherein he had nothing 
to employ him but recollection of her 
duurmSi and imagination of her perfec- 
tions. These he immortalized in sonnets 
ivfaile she lired ; Petrarch survived her six 
and thirty years. 

Francis I., who compared a court 
without ladies to a spring without flow- 
era, caused Laura's tomb to be opened, 
and threw verses upon her remains com- 
plimentary to her oeauty, and the fiime 
she derived from her lover's praises. 

1803. Colonel Montgomery and cap- 
tain Macnamara quarrelled and fought a 
dud at Primrose-hill, because their dogs 
ouarrdled and fought in Hyde-park. 
Captain Macnamara received colonel 
Montgomery's ball in the hip, and colonel 
Montgomery received captain Macna- 
mara's ball m the heart. This exchange 
of shots being according to the laws of 
duelling and proiectiles, Colonel Mont- 
gomery died on the spot. Captain Mac- 
namara was tried at the Old Bailey, and, 
as a man of honour, was acquitted by a 
jury of men of honour. The laws of 
England and the laws of Christianity only 
bind honourable men; men of honour 
govern each other by the superior power 
of sword and pistol. The humble suicide 
is buried with ignominy in a cross road, 
and a flnger-post marks his grave for 

{mblic scorn ; the proud and daring duel- 
ist reposes in a christian grave beneath 
marble, proud and daring as himself. 


Starch Hyacinth. Hyacinthus racemoitu. 
Dedicated to St. Suctus I. 

apra 7. 

8i. JpkrmUm, 4th Cent. St Hegesippus^ 

A. n. 180. St. Aibert, a. d. 1140. 

B. Herman Jo»eph, a. d. 1226. St, 
Fimm of Keann-Ethich. 


1520. Raphael d'Urbino died on the 
anniversary of his birth-day which was in 

1807. Lalande, the astronomer, died 
at Pvisy aged 70. 

rtORAL DiaxcTORr. 

Wood Anemony. Anemone Nemoroea. 

Dedicated to SL Avkraates. 

9pdl a 

hff, Bp. of Corinth, 2d Cent. 

St, JEdeeiuMy a. d. 306. St. Perpetwu, 
Bp. A. D. 491. St. fFaUery Abbot, 
A. D. 1099. B. Albert, Patriardi of 
Jerusalem, a. d. 1214. 


1341. The expression of Petrarch's 
passion for Laura, eained him such cele- 
Drity, that he had a crown of laurels 
placed upon his head, in the metropolis of 
the papacy, amidst cries from the Roman 
people, '' Long live the poet !" 

1364. John, king of France, who had 
been brought prisoner to England by 
Edward, the Black Prince, in his captivity, 
died at the Savoy-palace, in the Strand. 


Ground Ivy. Glecoma hederaeeu. 
Dedicated to St. Dionyeiue, 

aprO 9. 

St. Mary of Egypt, a. d. 421. Tke Ma^ 
eyUtan Martyrs in Africa. St. Eupef^ 
ckiuM. The Roman Captwe$, Martyrs 
in Persia, year of Christ 362, of Sapor 
53. St. fFaUrude, or Fautrndef com- 
monly called VaudrUf Widow^ a. d. 
686. St. Gaucher, or Gautier, Abbot, 
A. Di 1130. St. DottOy Abbot. 

1489. The great lord Bacon died, aged 
66. He fell from distinguished station 
to low estate, by having cultivated hi^h 
wisdom at the expense of every day wis- 
dom. ** Lord Bacon,'' says Roshworth, 
** was eminent over all the christian 
world for his many excellent writings. 
He was no admirer of money, yet he lud 
the unhappiness to be defiled therewith. 
He treasured up nothing for himself yet 
died in debt.'' His connivance at the 
bribery of his servants made ihem hit 
master and wrought his ruin. The cifts 
of suitors in the chancery rendered him 
suspected, but his decrees were so equit- 
able that no one was ever reversed for its 

Let him who lackins^ wisdom desires 
to know, and who willing to be taught 
will patiently learn, make himself master 
of ** Bacon's Essays." It is a book more 
admired than read, and more read than 
understood, because of higher thought 
than most readers dare to compass. He 
who has achieved the '^ Essays*' has a 
master-key to Bacon's other works, and 
consequently every department of English 

1747. Lord Lovat was executed on 




Tower-hill, for high treason, at the age of 
90. He was a depraTed, bad man ; and 
the coolness with which he wroogfat his 
profligate purposes, throughout an aban- 
aooed life, he carried to the scaffold. 

1807. John Opie, the artist, died. He 
WBS bom in Cornwall in 1761 ; self- 
tangfat in his youth he attained to high 
rank as an English historical painter, and 
at his death was professor of painting at 
the Rojal Academy. 


Red Polyanthus. Primula pohfontka rubrm. 
Dedicated to Si. Mary. 

9bpcii 10. 

Si. Bademuiy Abbot, a.d. 376. B. Meek- 
tiUetp Virgin and Abbess, after 1300. 

Low Sunday. 
The Sunday after Easter-day is called 
Low Sunday, because it is Easter-day 
repeated, with the church-service some- 
what abridged or lowered in the ceremony 
from the pomp of the festiral the Sunday 


Pale \'iolet. Viola Tonbrigem 
Dedicated to St. Mechtildet. 

aprfl 11. 

Si. Leo the Greats Pope, a. d. 461. St. 
Amiipttt. St. Guthlake, A. v.7\4. St. 
Maeeaiy Abbot. St. Aid of Eacha- 
raidh. Abbot. 

1713. The celebrated peace of U- 
trecht was concluded, and with it con- 
doded the twelve years' war for the sue- 
to the throne of Spain. 


Dandelion. Taraxacum Den» Leonii. 
Dedicated to St. Leo. 

aprO 12. 

Si. Sabas, A. D. 372. St. Zeno, Bp. a. d. 
390. St. Juliusy Pope, a. d. 352. St. 
VidoTy of Braga. 

65. Seneca, the philosopher, a native 
of Corduba in Spain, died at Rome, in 
the fifty-third year of his age. His moral 
writings have secured lasting celebrity to 
his name. lie was preceptor to Nero, 
who. in tlie wantonness of power ivhen 

emperor, sent an order to Seneca to de- 
stroy himself. The philosopher conspficd 
by opening his veins and taking |>6is6p. 
During these operations he oooverMd 
calmly with his friends, and his' blbdd 
flowing languidly he caused himself to be 
placed in a hot bath, till Nero's soldiers 
oecoming clamorous for quicker extmfttion 
of his life, it was necessary to carry him 
into a stove and sufibcated him by steam.* 
A disting^shed French vn-iterf quotes a 
passage from Seneca remarkable for its 
chhstian spirit ; but this passage is cited 
at greater length by a living English au- 
thor,^ in order to show that Seneca ^as 
acquainted with christian principles, and 
in reality a christian. 

We may almost be sure that it was 
impossible for Paul to have preached ^ in 
his own hired house,** at Rome, without 
Seneca having been attracted thither hs 
an auditor, and entered into personal 
communication with the apostle. There 
exists a written correspondence said to 
have passed between raul and Seneca, 
which, so &r as regards Seneca's epistles, 
many learned men have supposed "ge- 


While Nero followed Seneca's advice, 
Rome enjoyed tranquillity. This empe- 
ror, who was tyrannical to a proverb, 
commenced his reign by acts of clemency, 
his sole object seemed to be the good of 
bis people. When required to sign a 
list of malefactors, authorizing their exe- 
cution, he exclaimed, *' I wish to heaven 
I could not write.*- He rejected flatterers ; 
and when the senate commended the 
justice of his government, he desired 
them to keep their praises till he deserved 
them. Such conauct and sentiments 
were worthy the pupil of Seneca, and the 
Romans imagined tneir happiness secure. 
But Nero*s sensual and tyrannical dispo- 
sition, which bad been repressed only for 
a time, soon broke forth m acts of mon- 
strous cruelty. He caused his mother 
Agrippa to be assassinated, and divorced 
his wife Octavia, whom he banished to 
Campania. The people, enraged at his 
injustice toward ttie empress, so openly 
expressed their indignation that he was 
compelled to recall her, and she retniiied 
to the capital amidst shouts of exultation. 

* Lenprierr. 

t B«yle, Alt. Ferklet, wtt. . ^ «^ .^. 

1 Dr. John Joi»c», *• On Vkvt Tm\^ o\ Oa* vV^xmSS*^ 


Z^t em^ma ^ttabta'd return {rom tfjUt. 

Tbi pMular tiiumpli wu of iliotl do- 
nUiea. Searcclf hmd Octaria rauiced 
bet nok, nrhcD Nero, onder colour of a 

her. Never exile 6Ucd the beaiU of the 
baboldett with more affectius coRipa»- 
moti. The finrt day of OctsTJa i Dupiisdi 
trM the oommencement of her funeral. 
She was broughl under a sad and diinial 
rao^ from whence her father and brother 
had been carried off by poiMn. Though 
« wife, ahe wai treated ai a alave, and 
now liie mffered the imputation of a 
crime more piercing than death itself. 
Add to thii, ihe wu m tender girl in the 
twentieth year of her a^, lurrouitded by 
«ttcei« and loldieiy devoted to her hut- 
bwid'a will, and whom ihe viewed ai sad 
liWi agei of hi* ferocioui nirpoaci. Al- 
mMt bereft of life b; her tears, and yet 
■mwIIUb; to (urrendci henelf to Ihe reit 
ctave, the paeeed the ioiernJ of a 
m ■ I in UDfpeeJwble tenor. At 
J » wu maoiiDMd to her that abe 

> bui while Ae inptond ihki at 

letM her life might be spared, and con- 
jured Nero to reniamber the relatnmabp 
which before marriage they had borae to 
each other, by descent from a revered 
ancestor, she only exemplified the utter 
ioefficaey of crouching to a truculent 
IrranL Her appeals were answered by 
llie seiiure of her ptnon, and the biiMiii^ 
of her limbs ; her Tcius were opened, but 
her blood, stagnant tbmugfa fear, issued 
slowly, and she was stifled in the steam 
of a boiliOK baih. " For this eipcutioa 
the senate decreed gifts and oblations to 
the temples ; a circumstance," says Taci- 
tui, -' which I insert with design, that 
whoever shall, from me or any other 
writer, learn the events of those calamitoM* 
times, be may hold it for granted, that ai 
often as sentences of murder and baniah- 
ment were pronounced by the prinoc, ao 
often were tbanksaiiings by the lalbert 
paid to the deities. ' Evety decree of tiM 
senate was either a new flight of flanaty, 

or the dnga of aicevive I 



^rro aiAr Qc XUimaii Stnatt, 

Ftoid tliu moment Nero 
without distinction ill he pleated, apon 
any idle pretence, and after an iadiscri- 
miiute slaughter of men signal in Dame 
and quality, he became possessed nilh 
a pmion to hen down lirlue itself. His 
enmn would be incredible if the? were 
not so eoonnoos that it is scarcely pos- 
sible imagination could invent atrocities 
of to fool a natnre. He had attained to 
•uch indulgence in bloodshed, that the 
dagger itself was dedicated by him in 
tbe capilol, and inscribed to Jupiter 
yydai, Jore the Avenger. Yet — ■■-'- 
monster one of the consuls elect ' 
dut a temple should be 
C charge of the stale, and consecrated to 
the deified Nero as to one who soared 
above mortality, and was therefore enti- 
tled to celestial worship. This, thotigh 
designed as a compliment to the t3rTant, 
ms construed into an omen of his late, 
" nnce to princes," says Tacitus, *■ dtTitM 
hetKNin are Dcver p«id till they hare 
finally (oisalen all commerce with tatn," 

or, in other words, have ceasad to b« 
useful to them. Suetonitis relates, that 
somebody in conveiMtion saying, " When 
I am dead let fire devour the world" — 
" Nay," rejoined Nero, " let it be whilst 
I am living/* and then he set Rom« 
on Gie, in so barefaced a manner, that 
many of the consular dignitaries detected 
the incendiaries with torches and tow in 
their own houses, and dared not loncb 
them because they were officets of Naro'i 
bedchamber. The hre, during sis ivft 
and seven nights, consumed a pradigiooi 
number of stately bnildiiws, ue public 
temples, and every thing of antiquity thai 
was remarkable and worthy of preserra- 
tion. The common people were driven 
by this conflagration to the tombs and 
monuments for shelter ; and Nero himxlf 
beheld the flames from a tower on th»<op ■. 
of Mxcenas's bouse, and song a ditty on 
the destruction of Troy^ the dress wtiidi 
he used to perftsm in on the publicstage. 
This atmcious want oC fecliw uUMimrivA, 
tbe uyiitg— «t)en> Udl«&'«bte'ftaBA-ww 




bominff/' To divert the hideousness of thii 
crime mm himself, he transferred the guilt 
to the Christians. To their death and torture 
were added cruel derision and sport; '< for/' 
says Tacitus, ** either they were disguised 
in the skins of savage beasts, and exposed 
to expire by the teeth of devouring dogs ; 
or tbtey were hoisted up alive and nailed 
to crosses ; or wrapt in combustible vest- 
ments, and set up as torches, that when 
the day set, they might be kindled to 
illuminate the night.'* For this tragical 
spectacle Nero lent his own gardens, and 
exhibited at the same time the public 
diversions of the circus, sometimes driving 
a chariot in person, and at intervals 
standing as a spectator amongst the vulgar 
in the habit of a charioteer ; and hence 
towards the mi:ierable sufferers popular 
commiseration arose, as for people who 
were doomed to perish to gratify the 
bloody spirit of one man. At length, 
while plotting new and uncommon bar- 
barities, an insurrection broke out amongst 
the troops, and the senate, who had 
tradskd tD hit wishes, and made him a 
tyrant by submitting to be slaves, took 
heart and issued a decree against him. 
He committed suicide, under circumstan- 
ces of such mental imbecility, that his 
death was as ludicrous as his life was 

1765. Dr. Edward Young, author of 
the " Night Thoughts," died. 

1782. Admiral Rodney defeated the 
French fleet under count de Grassc, in 
the West Indies. 

1814. A general illumination in Lon- 
don, on three successive nights, for the 
termination of the war with France. 


Great Saxifrage. Saxifraga crauifolia. 
Dedicated to SI. Zemo, 

fln Cphapj^. 

fWriiien on a cUmHey-bom-d.) 
Here lie entombed 


of a 



in his yoath it is confessed 

discovered sooie sparks 

«f « %bt and volatile nature, 

bat was in maturity 

of a steady and a grateful disposition 

and diffusive benevolence* 

Though naturally of a warm temper, 

and easily stirred up, 

yet was he a shining example 

of fervent and unreserved benignity. 

For though he might have been 

the most dangerous and dreadful 

of enemies, 

yet was he the beat and wannest of 


Nor did he ever look cool 

even on his worst foes, 

though his friends too often, 

and shamefully indeed, 

turned their backs upon him. 

Oh ! undeserving and licentious times, 

when such illustrious examples 

are wantonly made li|;ht of I 

Such resDlendent virtue 

basely blown upon 1 

Though rather a promoter ot a cheerful glas 

in others, 

and somewhat given to smoking, 

yet was he himself never seen 

in liquor, 

which was his utter abhonrenec. 


which ruins most constitntionSy 

was far from spoiling his, 

though it often threw him 

into inflammatory disorders. 

His dap, which were short, 

were ended by a gentle decay, 

his strength wasted, 

and his substance spent. 

A temporal period 

was put to his 6nite existence, 

which was more immediately effected 

by his being seized 

with a severe cold, 

and no help administered, 

in some of the warm days 

of the fatal month of 


His loss and cheerful influence 

are often and feelingly regretted 

by his sincere admirers, 

who erected this monument 

in memory 

of his endearing virtue, 

till that grateful and appointed day, 


the dormant powers 

rf his more illustrious nature 

shall be again called forth: 


inflamed with ardour, 

and with resplendence crowned, 

he shall again rise 


songs of jov and triumph 

o'er the grave. 


Sbnrfl 13« of ^ Taylors, Bricklayen, and Shoe- 
Mom ^ QonWdge TV™ k,*- "^'^^ *"^ «^^8 firooi what Brewery 

^ FT^^^mufm^M Moi-Hr, 7 « <oA ^**^'^ ^^^^'^ ^"^ suppbed with Brown 

SL Hermem^M, Mjrtyr, a. D. 586. Siout. Who was the tiiteUiy Saint of 

Tl^ ®^®' ^- ^^"''"*^' ^« Shoemakers? At what U^ was h^ 

A. D. 1124. feagt celebrated? Who was Saint Swithia » 

i «T r-.: f^iT^^^V 1* c ^ y^»* remember any remarkable Eng- 

1517. &iro taken by the sultan Se- luh proverb respectin/him I ^ 

K^ ^^^ "^""^ ^'^^^^ * .8^^^ V^ of GUead. 

''SyV^ house. Mention the leading topics of 

1748. The rev. Christopher Pitt, the Guide to Health, with some account 

translator of Virgil, died at Blandford in of the Anti-Impetigines — Da%'s EUxir— 

Dorsetshire, utoe he was bom in 1699. Blaine's Distemper Powders — Ching's 

1814. Charles Bumey, Mus.D. F.R.S. Worm Lozenges-and Hooper^s Female 

&c. author of the « Hbtory of Music," ^^^'r^. , ^ r «r rw, , , . 

and other works, which stamp his literary ^ ^: ^'^® characters of Wat Tyler, Jack 

ability, and his scientific character as a J¥^ ^^ sir Francis Burdett. Did the 

musician, died at Chelsea, aged 88. , ^^'^l!!"' ^^ ^® J^^T.^^^^Jer or 

, -5 j^^ ^ ^ ^j^^ occasion did Mr. Leth- 

^s^^s^ bridge's " hair stand on ind** / Correct 

CAMBEIDGE EXAMINATION. dterauT""' ^"^ ^'''' ^^ "^"^ ""^ ^"""^ 

to ^^S^i'ToX^'^nt'T!^^^^^ ^- Enumerate the roads on which do». 

ILST^!^ ^^^ correspondmg ^i^ ^^^ ^ ^ Sundays. Did 

good humour m the persons whose names *u:^ * ^ j ^ r^Z t~^*^/** ^"^ 

tr» m««ifw^n^ ov^JTL^ i^ 'tH ^!1 **"* custom cxteud to Chnstmas-day and 

ingthefilstdayof StibridgeTerm, the ^^^"^^ "^^^ ^^' B«>wnngg wm eie- 

" ^f?™''°1.7*?L ^"^^ "^^ ITT* 8. Distinguish accurately between 

imiutions may be mudi amused by Scullsand Oars-Boat, and knt-Ja^- 

perusal of the original wittiasm. ^^ ^ Donkey-Giiiger, Excisei^, 

Parodjf of a Cambridge ExamituUion. and Supervisor— Pantaloons, Trowsers, 

Utopia UwivEBSin'. Gaiters, and Over-alls. — At what place of 

u?(OECEMB£R 9657. education were any of these forbidden ? 

1 . Give a comparative sketch of the Which ? and Why ? 

principal English theatres, with the dates 9. Express the following words in the 

of their erection, and the names of the Lancashire, Derbyshire, London, and 

most eminent candleninuffers at each. Exmoor dialects — Bacon — Poker — You — 

MThat wMe the stage-boxes ? What were I — Doctor — and Tumpike-gate. 
the offices of prompter — ballet-master — 10. Mention the principal Coach Inns 

and scene-shifter? In what part of the in London, with a correct list of the 

theatre was the one-shilUng gallery ? Coaches which set out from the Bolt-in- 

Distinguish accurately between operas Tun. Where were the chief stands of 

and poppet-shows. Hackney Coaches? — and what was the No. 

2. Wbere was Downing-street ? Who of that in which the Princess Charlotte 
was prime-minister when Cribb defeated drove to Connaught-house ? To what 
MoUneux — and where did the battle take stand do you suppose this removed after 
place? Explain the terms milling — fib- it set her down? 

oing — cross buttock — neck and crop — 11. Give a succinct account, with dates, 

bang up— and— prime. of the following persons — Belcher — Mr. 

3. Give the dates of all the parlia- Waithman — Major Cartwright — Martin 
■cnt9 from their first institution to the Van Butchell — and Edmund Heniy 
period of the hard frost on the Thames. Barker. 

Li what month of what year was. Mr. Ab^ 12. Draw a Map of the Thames with 

bot^ected Speaker? Why wa^heealled the surrounding country, marking parti- 

•* ike tittle nmn in the wig ^* When the cularly Wapping, Blackwall, Richmond, 

Speaker was out of the chair, where was and the Isle of Dogs. Distinguish be- 

tbe mace put? tween Newcastle-on-Tyne, and Newcastle- 

4. Enumerate the principal houses of under-Line — Gloucester and Double 
call in and about London, marking those Gloucester— and the two 'SkAi^kisn»n^. 


Whit eekbnted teicher aoarished at one called <' the king-maker,* was ilafai on 

of thera ? — and who weie his moat emi- the field. 

nent diaciples? I535. Thomas Otway, the dramatic 

13. What were the Tariona sorts of pa- poet, died, at a public-house in the Mino- 
per in use amongst the English? To what ries, of want, by swallowing bread too 
purpoae was wkUed'^roum chiefly ap- eagerly which he had receiTed in ckarity. 
yliad ? mat^was siie T Distinguish be ^^^^ q^ Frederick Handd, th« 
mail tUf aiid ooUege Sizmgs, and sute iUustrious musidan, died. HewaTbom 

^•.r^I^**P'*^''[P*P^M^*i!ri!?- at Halle, in Saiony, in 1684. 

14. ** For every one knows little Mmifs ^ ,« . • t. «.r _. * ^i- 

an M.P.'^ Frag: Com. Inc. ap. Mom. ^793. ToUgo, in the Weit Indies, 

Chnm. vol. 69, p. 1 624. ^^^ ^J ^« English. 

What reasons can you assign for the 1809. Beilbv Porteus, bishop of Lon- 

general knowledge of this fact ? Detail don, died at Fulham, aged 78. 
at length, the ceremony of chairing a ........ 

Member. What were the Hustings! floral niRicroRY 

"Who paid for them T Explain the abbre n^««« ».»...«^ nmrim.r:. 

TiatioM-Matt. M.P. - Tom-Dick- ^^XitpdtlT t^^ 

F.R.S.-L.L.D.-and A.S.S. Dedicate d to St. Lidwinm. 

15. What was the distinguishing title 

of the Mavors of London T Did any the season, 

other city share the honour ? Give a list The Floral appearances of the year are 

of the Mayors of London from Sir accurately descnbed by Dr. Forster in 

Richard Whittington to Sir William Cur- his ^ Perennial Calendar.*' He says, 

tis, with an account of the Cat of the ** In order to ascertain the Tarieties in 

■fint, and the Weight of the last. What the seasons, as indicated by the flowering 

•ia Jaeant by Lord Mayor's day ? Describe of plants, we ought to become accurately 

the ApothmsarM Barge, and eive some acouainted with their natural periods, 

aceovnt of Marrow-bones and Cleavers. ana the average time of flowering which 

16. When was Spyring and Marsden's belongs to each species. I have of late 
Lemon Acid invented ? Distinguish be^ made an artificial division of the seasons 
tween this and Essential Salt of Lemons, of diflerent plants into six distinct pe- 
Enumerate the principal Patentees, espe- riods, to each of which respectively a 
cially those of Liquid Blacking. certain number of species belong. Di- 

17. Scan the following lines — viding then the reign of the goddess of 
Bat for shaving and tooth-drawing, blooms into six principal portions, we 
Bleeding. cablM«in|r and sawing. shall begin with the first in the order of 

Diekv Goaaip. Dicky GoMip b the man ! phenomena. The Primaveral Flora may 

What IS known of the character and be said to commence with the first braak- 

history of Dicky Gossip ? ing of the frost before February ; it com- 

— — prehends the snowdrop, the croeos^ the 

FLORAL DiaECTORT. coltsfoot, all the tribe of daflbdils, nar- 

Gieen Narcisse. NarcUm^ llridiJloruM, ±L*' jll?m!!n\*]l^^^ 

DedicatCKi to St, Hem^i^ilT cT^^i^S,'^ 

■ Equinox Ming also past, and tba Uava 

— f. .. beginning to bud foith amidst a diapl»r 

}3))trU 14* of blossoms on the trees, another period 

l-^' . .. ooT' ir A^ Mi Mot- the Vemal Flora, with tulipi, peeoies, 

^iJ: \1 J «».C«rpi«, Buhop, „„u„c„ii, monk^ poppy, ^libeiX 

sT^J, ^/ff^^^T"' *;.»• «»• andotherl: at tS."me, llSfcUb« 

1^4/ %*•» ' ?"** ^V JS**^' *• "/ »*»P»tcl«» with the golden yell«w^a. 

A. D. 1184. a.Lirf«-i««.orX,jrfirirf,A.D. He whole bosom of earth .« ^^ 

I^j3 — ' ' ' ine wnoie oosom of eartn seems _^, 

Cn aoif ot nr v ^i^^ * beautifol carpet, to soften tbtpatk 

,.*. Tu w ? .^ ^^ ^<>"'' *^ ^»>" delicious seMon. ^ 

1471 . Tbebattle of Bamet was fought and bye, towards the middle of Jone, the 

lA fte warp between the houses of York approach of the Solstice is marked be 

Mad iMOCMtter, and the earl of Warwick, another set of flowers ; and tho aearirt 


ljcluu% tbe imoiui poppies, - tiie . lilies hellebores, aconites, and moaies, belong- 

and TOMS, may be said to constitute the ing to the Hibernal Flora of this drearjr 

Solstitial Flora. As the year declines, season. Thus, in this our temperate cb- 

ihit Aestitftl 'Flora, corresponding to the mate, have we a round of botanical amnse- 

Venial, paints the .garish eyes of the dog- ments all the year, and the botanist 

days with sunflowers, China asters, tro- can never want for sources of recreation, 

poieoli, African marigdds^su^ How different must be the order of pfa^ 

idiicfa lore heat, llie Autumnal Flora, nomena about the poles of the earth, 

answering to the Primaveral, then intro- where summer and winter are synony- 

dnces Michaelmas daisies, starworts^ and mous with day and night, of which Kirie 

other late blowing plants, with their White has given us a very fine descrip^ 

companions, fungi and mushrooms, till at tion :— 
length bleak wmter shows only a few 

Oh the North Pole. 

Where the North Pole, in moody solitude. 

Spreads her huge tracts and frozen wastes around , 
There ice rod piled aloft, in order rude. 

Form a gigantic hall ; where never sound 

Startled dull Silence' ear, save when, profound 
The smoke frost muttered : there drear Cold for aye 

Thrones him, — and fixed on his primeval mound, 
Koin, the giant, sits ; while stem Dismay 
Stalks like some woe>struck man along the desert way. 

In that drear spot, grim Desolation's lair,- 

No sweet remain of life encheers the sight ; 
The dancing heart's blood in an instant there 

Would freeze to marble. Mingling day and night, 
(Sweet interchange which makes our labours li^ht,) 

Are there unknown ; while in the summer skies. 

The sun rolls ceaseless round his heavenly height. 
Nor ever sets till from the scene he flies. 
And IsasJes the long bleak night of half the year to rise. 


1 1' April 21. The Cuckoo, commonly 

8t. Peter Gonzalet, or Tekn, or Elm, April 30. The Martin, commonly seen. 

A. D. 1246. SU, Batilieea and Antutaeia, ^ The other vernal birds arrive between 

1st Cent. St, PatemuMy Bbhop, or Par "»e 15th and 30th of the month.* 

fifr, Pmry or four, 6th Cent. 5/. Munde, * 
Abbot, ▲. D. 962. St Ruadhany A, J), 5S4, 


NATURAL HISTORY. Grccn Stitchwort. SUUaria koloetea. 

Aeermgt ifay of mrwal of Spring BirtU Dedicated to St. Peter Gomale$. 

from a Twenty ycort* Journal, 

April 3. Smallest Willow Wren. Ft" An April Day. 

eoHm pmetorum arrives. Orueinal 

Apra 10. Common WiUow Wren. Fi- _ „ /^ . . ^ 

mriiSalicum arrives. ^^' Emma, on that infut brow, 

April 14. Called Pint Cuckoo Day in ^ Say, why does disappointment low r 1 

Snssic TTie Cuckoo, cucuhu can^, ^Tn wtn^to^^fi^^^ 

~ z , J ' 1 o weep to see a summer snow r ! 

sometimes heard. '^ 

April 15. Called Swallow Day. The q, dry that unavailing tear, 

Qnmney Swallow, Hirundo rustieay ar- The promis'd visit jou shall pay ; 

ims. The skv will soon again be clear, 

April 19. The Sand Swallow. Hirundo For ^tis, my love, an April day. 

f^porM arrives 

April 20. n.. MMtin. mumlo Ur- JI.STT .^15 A£lS!^.*S^liS5: 

Mm sometimes seen. ttminp value upon his contrllmtiofu. 




And we, the min^ retarning light 

Away the transient clouds hath dri^'n, 
The rainbow's arch with colours bright 
- Spreads o'er the blue expanse of heav'n ; 

The storm is hush'd, the winds are still, 
A balmy fragrance fills the air ; 

Nor sound is heard, save some clear rill 
Meandering thro' the Tallies fair. 

Those vernal show'rs that from on high 
Descend, make earth more fresh and 

Those clouds that darken all the air 
Disperse, and leave it more serene * 

And those soft tears that for awhile 
Down sorrow's faded cheek may roll. 

Shall sparkle thro' a radiant smile, 
And speak the sunshine of the soul ! 

While yet thy mind is young and pure, 
This sacred truth, this precept learn- 
That He who bids thee all endure. 
Bids sorrow fly, and hope return. 

His chast'ning hand will never break 
The heart that trusts in Him alone ; 

He never, never will forsake 
The meanest suppliant at his thionc. 

The world, that with unfeeling pride 
Sees vice to virtue ofl preferrd. 

From thee, alas! may tnm'a&de— 
O, shun the fawning, iiattVing herd ! 

And while th' Eternal gives thee health 
With joy thy daily course to run. 

Let wretches hoard their useless wealtl^ 
And Heav'n's mysterious will be doae. 

With fair Religion, woo content, 

Twill bid tempestuous passions cease ; 

And know, my child, the life that's spent 
In pray'r and praise, must end in peace. 

The dream of Life is quickly past, 
A little while we linger here ; 

And the' the Mom be overcast. 

The Ev'niog may be blight and clear. 

I*hnj^ton, D. G. 

An Evening in Spring, 
Now the noon, 
Wearied witli sultry toil, declines and falls 
Into the mellow eve : — tJie west puts on 
Her gorgeous beauties — palaces and halls 
And towers, all carved of the unstable cloud 
Welcome the calmy waning monarch — he 
Sinks gently 'midst that glorious canopy 
Down on his couch of rest— even like a proud 
King of the earth — the ocean. 


apnl 16. 

Eighteen Marti/rt of SaragottOy and 
St./Cncratu, or Engratia, a. v. 304. Si, 
Tmribhu, Bp. 420. St, Frnctuotns, Abp. 
A. D. 665. St. Druotij or Drngo, a. d. 
1186. St. Joachim of Sienna, a. v. 1305. 
St. Mant, or Magnus, a. d. 1104. 

" The Venerable 
" Benedict Joseph Labre, 
^ IFho died in the odour of tanctity, 

"On the 16th of April, 1783." 
If such a creature as the venerable B. 
J. Labre can be called a man, he was one 
of the silliest that ever lived to creep and 
whine, and one of the dirtiest that ever 
''died in the odour of sanctity;** and 
yet, for the edification of the English, his 
fife is translated from the French " by 
the rev. VL James Barnard, ex-president 
f the Eogliih college at Lisbon and 
Vwu General of the London distict.^ 
Fnm tbJM relume it appears that Labre 

was bom at Boulogne, on the 26th of 
March, 1748. When a child he would 
not play as other children did, but mad& 
little oratories, and "chastised his body .^ 
Having thus early put forth " buds of tell^ 
denial and self-contempt," he was taught 
Latin, educated superior to his station^ 
did penance, made nis first general con- 
fession, and found his chief delight at the 
feet of altars. At sixteen yean old, in- 
stead of eating his food he g^ve it away 
out of the window, read pious books as 
he walked, turned the house of his uncle, 
a priest, into " a kind of roonasCeiT| 
observed religious poverty, monkish n* 
lence, and austere penance, and, by way of 
humility, performed abject offices for th* 
people of the parish, fetched promdet 
tor their animals, took care of their cattki 
and cleaned the stalls. The aversion which 
he entertained against the world, indnead 
him to enter into a convent of Carthn> 
sians ; there he discovered that he dis- 
liked profound retirement, and imaginad 
he should not be able to saTt Iw tool 


unless he embraced an order moie austere, presented to his zealous mind the prac- 

Upon this he returned home, added ex- tice of that kind of piety which he after- 

traordinary mortifications to his &sts and wards put in execution" His first step to 

EnyetSy instead of sleeping on his bed this was writing a farewell letter to his pa- 
y oo the floor, and told lus mother he rents, on the 31st of August, 1770, '* and 
wished to go and live upon roots as the from that time they never reoeiTed any 
anchorets did. All this he might have account of him till after his death." His 
done in the Carthusian convent, but his next steps were pilgrimages. First he 
brain seems io have been a little cracked, went to !Loretto ^ from tender devotion 
for be resolved to go into another Carthu- to the Blessed Virgin, whom he looked on 
sian convent, the prior of which would as his mother;^* next to Assissium the birth- 
not admit him till he had studied ' philo- place of St. Francis, where he, *' accord- 
sofhj' for a yeur, and learned the Gre- ing to custom, got a small blessed cord 
gorian chant.^ Church music was very which he constantly wore ;" then he went 
agreeable to him — ^but it vras not so with to Rome where he sojourned for eight or 
regard to logic ; " notwithstanding all nine months and wept ^* in the presence 
his efforts, he was never able to conquer of the tomb of the holy apostles ;" after- 
his repugnance to this branch of study ;" wards " he visited the tomb of St. Romuald 
jet he somehow or other scrambled at Fabrieno, where the inhabitants im- 
through an examination ; got admitted mediately began to look upon him as a 
into the convent ; ^ thought its rules far saint ;*' from theoce he returned to Lo- 
too mild for such a sinner as he looked retto ; he then journeyed to Naples, and 
upon himself to be ;'* and af^er a six had the pleasure of seeing the blood of 
weeks* trial, left it in search of admission St. Jannarius which would not liquify 
into the order of La Trappe, as the most when the French entered Naples, till the 
ri^d of any that he knew. The Trap- French general threatened the priests who 
pists would not have him ; this refusal he performed the miracle that the city would 
looked upon as a heavenly favour, be- suffer, if the saint remained obstinate; 
cause the monastery of §ept-Fonts sur- ** and in short," says the rev. Vicar 
passed La Trappe in severe austerities General of the London district, '* there 
and discipline, and there he became a was hardly any famous place of devotion 
** novice" till the life he fancied, did not in Europe which was not visited by this 
agree with him. " Having a long time servant of God;*' — the Vicar General's 
before quilted his father's house he could sentence had concluded better with the 
not think of returning to it again ;*' and woitls " this slave of tuperttition*^ To 
4X two and twenty years of age he knew follow Labre's other goings to and fro 
not what to do. His biographer says, would be tedious, suffice it to say that at 
that ^ little fit for the cloister, and still one of his Loretto trips some people 
less fit for the world, he was destitute of offered him an abode, in order to save 
the #eans of getting a livebhood; and him the trouble of going every night to a 
bdng now persuaded of what were the bam at a great distance ; but as they had 
designs of God concerning him, he re- prepared a room for him with a bed in it 
solved to follow the conduct, the light, and ne thought this lodging was too sump- 
inspirations of the holy spirit, and to tuous ; and he therefore retired into a 
sabmit himself to all the sufferings and hole '^ cut out of the rock under the 
afflictions which might await him." If in street.** Labre at last favoured the city 
thb condition some one had compelled of Rome by his fixed residence, and sanc- 
him to eat a good dinner every day, tified the amphitheatre of Flavian by 
made him go to bed at a proper hour and making his home in a hole of the ancient 
take proper rest, and then set him on ruins. 

horseoack and trotted him through the In this '< hole of sufficient depth to hold 

fifsb air and sun-shine every forenoon, he and shelter him in a tolerable degree from 

ni^t have been restored ; or if his parents, the weather,*' he deposited himself every 

at m duty they ought, had bound nim ap- night for several years. He employed 

pfentice at a proper age to a good trade, he the whole of every day, " sometimes in 

fluriift have been an useful member of one church and sometimes in another, 

tooctf . ibese thoughts, however, never praying most commonly upon his knees, 

a^iear to have entered Labre*s head, and and at other times standii^, and always 

IB the dilemma represented ^ his love of keeping his body as still as if he were a 

knulity, poverty, and a penitential hfe, sUtue.** Labre*s daily exeicifle in dating 


and lifiOMMrtii reduced him to a help- wjri, " I iwrer hwrd hiicoDfiMi«ob««in 

lew Mate, that a beggar Ji»d compusion acoiifessioDal,onpurpoMthMUMBiw(pW 

OB him and Have him a itcommecidation be lome kind of separaiioii bH««m w- 

n h«pi,a1, where "by .aking medi- The holy father", l.vely reason for lh«,p«- 

.„„js proper Ibr Ills di»orJer, and ^ 
(ubstanlial food, he soon grew well ;" but 
reUpsine into hii " coiiilaot, uniform, 
tad hidden life," be became worse. This 
opportunity of exhibiting Labre's virtuei 
u not neglected by his biographer, who 
ninulely inlbmu us of several particulars. 
111. He was so careful to observe the law 
of sileoee, thai in ihe couree of a whole 
nonlh, scarcely any one coulJ hear him 

lived in ihe midst of a desert. 3dly. 
He led a life of the ([realesl self-denial, 
destitute of every thing, disenija^ed from 
every eaithly affection, unnoticed by all 
mankind, detiring no other riches ilian 
poverty, no other pleasuies than roortili- 
cation, DO other distinction than that of 
beinK llie object of universal contempt. 
4thly. He indulged in rigorous poverty, 
exposed to the viciMiludes und inclemi^n- 
ciei of the weather, without shelter 
•gtiiiM the cold of winter or the heat of 
tummer, wearing old clothes, or rather 
rsgt, eating very coarte food, and for Ihtee 
years living in the " hole in the wall." 
Sihly. To his privationi of all worldly 
goodi, he joinea mi almost continual ab- 
stinence, frequent fasts, nightly vigils, 
lively and insupportable pains from par- 
ticular moHificationi, and two painful tu- 
moun which covered both his kne^, fiom 
ilin^ the whole weight of his body i 

.,._ slivelyre 

I, any history of i: 


Tlius I^bre lived and died ; and here 

it might be supposed would end his m^ 

moirs. liut, no. In whatever odoar be 

lived, as he " died in the odour of nnc> 

them when he prayed. Cihlv. "He look- tiij,'' an enthusiasm seised MMMDmoM 

ed upod himself as one nf tlie greatest of to touch Labre dead, who, wh«nKiaf, 

_= ..__j.v: .L whjr"he 


WIS touchless. Ijbrebeingdi 

chose m' lead a'life of reproach and con- competent to work miradea ; ■eeocduglT 

■cmpt," why he herded " among (he mul- be stretched out his left hand, aad fiia 

titude of poor begears," " why he ciiose hold ou the board of one of Ihe htactti. 

to cover himself with lag^ and latten in- On Easter-day being a holiday, he worii- 

■tead of cntments, why he chose to place ed more miracles, and wonder* man 

a barrier nf disgust between himself and wonderful than ever were wowlend 

mankind," why " he abandoned himself in our days, as may be seen at large, in 

to the bites of disaitreeable insects,' and the afoiesaid volume, entitled — " ThcLik 

wl.y he coveted to be covered with filthy of the venerable Denedict Joseph Labi% 

blotches. whii [JiFil at Rome, in the odour of saD» 

Labre's biographer, who was also his tily." The portrait, from which the en- 

confetiur, says that his " apprarance was craving on this iiage is taken, was pu^ 

disagreeable and forbidding: his tecs wtrre lished immrdiatety after his death bj Ml. 

half naked, his clothes were tied mund Coch Ian. Catholic bookieller.Duke^tf CM, 

the waist with an old cord, his head was Grosvenor-square, from a drawing in Ui 

uncombed, he was badly clothed and possession. 

wrapped up in an old and raec^ cnat, 

and ID his outward appearance be w«med Mirarlr at Somen Tovn. 

iob»dM DM« miserable b««gar iliai I Theautheniiciiy of the follow^ cfti* 

h»d trer seen," Hts biographer futthn «t&itiiiir| ft«l can be verified. ». H— 

THE nr.ity-DAY UUHK.— Al'KTI. Iii. 

1 luidillc-agcd cciilUmdii, li>iij{ nMitlt'l 
In Tinoui diaMdctf, and npeciallr by 
Ibc gout, had M iar cecovered from a 
MTcre attack of the Itlter complaiol, that 
he wu raabled to Ttanit, yet with to liltle 
advantage, liml he could not walk more 
than fifty yanla, aod it took him nearly 
an hour to perfurni that distance. ^Yhllc 
thiu enrccbled liy wITeriiig, and safely 
creeping in great difficulty, on a «unny 
day. along a level footpalli by the side 
of a lield near Somers Town, he was 
alarmed by load cries, inicmiinaled with 
the screams of many foicei behind him. 
I'rom hit intiraiily. he could only turn 
I'-rv sluwly round, and tlieit, to his a»to- 
;..;hnient, he saw, mthin a yard of hi( 

>tanlly leaped the fi 
by terror, continui'd to run with aniating 
celerity nearly ilie whole distance of the 
field, while ibe nnttnal kept its own 
coune along; the road. Tlie gentleman, 
who had thus miraculously recoi'ered the 
use of his le^s, retained his power of 
speed until he reached hii own house, 
where he related the miraculouE circum- 
stance ; nor did his quickly-rcilored fa- 
culty of walking abate, until it ceased 
with his life sereral years aherwards. 
This " miiaculoui cure " ran be attested 
by his suTvifin; relatii-es. 

^omrrsi Colun iHnArlr* 

TdE KALEiDOiL-ort:. ihc universal desire fbr seeing the delight- 
In April, 1818, London was surprised ful and eret-vntyina combinations, pre- 
bj the sudden appearance of an optical benied by each turn of ilie magical cy- 
iDftranM^nt for creating and exhibiting linder. 

biAuttful iorw'. which deri res its name The kaleidoscope was invented by Dr 

Itom *a\si ttfaKtlfiil, oloi " form, and Brewster, to whom, hail its exclusire 

wnrtm la Mr. "nie novelty w»s so en- forinutian been ensured, it n-jst have pro- 

ehastinz, that opticians could not roanu- duced a bandsome fortune in the course 

klunkaleido<copet fail enough, 10 meet of a single ytar. Unha^vH, ftttXli,*^- 
Ko 16. 





tieman was deprived of Il« just reward 
by frsuidful anticipation.* He !<ays, ** I 
thought it advisaole to secure the ex- 
clusive property of it by a patent ; but in 
consequence of one of the patent instru- 
ments having been exhibited to one of 
the London opticians, the remarkable 
properties of t}ie kaleidoscope became 
known before any number of them could 
be prepared for sale, llie sensation ex- 
citea in London by this premature exhi- 
bition of its eficcts is incapable of descrip- 
tion, and can he conceived only by those 
who witnessed it. It may be sufficient 
to remaik, that, according to the com- 
putation of those who were best able to 
form an opinion on the subject, no fewer 
than two hundred thousand instruments 
have boon sold in London and Paris 
duiing three months.*' 

The KalriffoJtiope, 

Mystir trifle, whose jxTfcftion 
Lit'4 in multipiipil n-ti'ciion. 
Let u^ from tiiy sparLiiii:; stcn* 
Draw a few rerie< tion- more : 
III thy magic circle rise. 
All thinj^ men so dearly prize , 
S^rs, and crowns, and i^htl'ring things, 
Sudh as grace the couit^i of kings ; 
Beauteous fi<^res ever twining, — 
Gems with brilliant lustre sliining ; 
Turn the tube ^— how quick they pass- 
Crowns and stars prove broken glass t 

Trifle ! let us from thy store 
Draw a few reflections more ; 
Who could from thy outward case 
Half thy hidden beauties trace 1 
"Who from such extrh(»r show 
Guess the gems within that glow? 
Emblem of the mind divine 
Cased within its mortal shrine ! 

Onre a:r^in — the miwr views 

Thy sparkiiiijr grnis — thy !;ohleo hues— 

And, Ignorant of thy lieauty's c.iuse. 

His own coDcIasions sordid draws , 

Imagines thee a casket fair 

Of gon;eoas jewels rich and rare : — 

impatient his insiitiate soul 

To l>e the owner of the mholc. 

Ht breaks tliee ope. and views within 

Some bits of glas< — a tube of tm * 

Sach are liches, valued true — 

Such 'the illusions meo pursue! 

W. !f. M. 

april 17. 

St. AnicetuM, Pope, 2d. Cent. St. 
Stephen, Abbot, a. d. 1134. Si. 5mi«o% 
Bishop, and other Martyrs, a. d. 341. 


Yellow Tulip. ThZi/ki Sylvtvitrh. 
Dedicated to Sf..foachim of Simna. 

• 0reW9lrr'» lfi«' '»f M. !\ !iil^. «-,• 



Antiquaries are exceedingly puzzled 
respecting the derivation of this annual 
festival, which commenced the fiAeenth 
day after F^astcr, and was therefore a 
movable feast dependent upon Easter.* 
Tliough Matthew Paris, who is the oldest 
authority for the word lioke-dat/, says it 
is *' quindena pasclix,*' yet Mr. Douce 
assigns convincing reasons for taking it w 
tlie second Tuetday after Easter. At 
liock-fiV/c, which seems to have included 
Monday and Tuesday, collections of Hock- 
money were made in v^irious parishes by 
the churchwardens, until the Kefbrm- 
ation.f Tuesday wiLs the piincipal day. 
Hock Monday was for tlie men, and 
Hock Tuesday for the women. On both 
days the men and women alternately, with 
great merriroenty intercepted the public 
roads with ropes, and pull(='d pa.ssengen 
to them, from whom they exacted money 
to l>e laid out for pious uses; Monday 
probably having b<'en (•ri>:inally kept as 
only the vi(;il or introduction to the fes- 
tival of Hock-dav. Mr. Brand unaccouut- 
ably, bccan«<c inconsistently with his pre- 
vious representations respecting the anti- 
quity of the custom of heaving at ^uter, 
derives that custom from the mcff'and 
women Horkintr each other, and coUectiog 
money at Hock-tide. 

It is a tradition that this festival wai 
instituted to commemorate the massacre 
of the Danes in England, under Ethel- 
dred, in the year 1002 ; a supposition 
however wholly un supportable, oecauM 
that event happcneil on the feast of 
St. Brice, in tnc month of November. 
Another and rnoie reasonable opinioo 
is, that the institution celebrated ibe 
final extinction of the Danish power 
by the drath of Hardicanute, nn the 
Sixth day before the ides of June, 1042.{ 

• N«TtVn (:in««ary. 

• .*<!<««' Uiri> fxtract* from ihm •rovvalsw >■ 

: All n'^ It;-f. rf fjtTCiH.«th. 

477 THKKVKUY-!)AV B()«.»K.— APRII IB. 478 

Yety in relation to the loiraer event, beholding in the chamber delectable 
** certain good-hearted men of Coventry*' danciu^, and therewith great thronging 
pttitioned, '^ th^t they might renew their of the people, saw but little of the C6- 
old storial show** of the Hock-tide play ventr^- play ; wherefore her majesty com- 
before queen Elizabeth, ^hen she was on roanded it on the Tuesday followmg, to 
a risit to the earl of Leicester, at his have it full out, and being then accord- 
castle of KeniKorth, in July. 1575. Ac- ingly presented, her highness laughed 
cordin? to *' Laneham's Letter,** this right well. Then too, played the ** good- 
•* storial show" set forth how the Danes hearted men of Coventry** the merrier, 
were for quietness borne, and allowed to and so much the more, because her ma- 
remain ID peace witiial, until on the said jest^' had given them two bucks, and five 
Si. Brvce*s night they were *• all despatch- marks in "money ; and they prayed for 
cd and the realm rid :** and because the her highness long happily to reign, and 
matter did show ** in action and rhymes*' oft to come thither, that oft ihoy miahl see 
how valiantly our Kndish women, for her: and rejoicing upon their ample re- 
loTe of their count r}-, Ivehaved, the *' men w;ird, and triumphing upon their good 
of Coventry" thouirht it might move some acceptance, vaunted t'neir play was never 
mirth in her majesty . *• The thincr/* said so dignitied, nor ever any playef* before 
the>', •^ is grounded in stont', and for px^ so l>eatitied-* 

time (was) wont to be played in our city 

yearly without ill example of manners, 

Cpistrvy or any superstition;*' and they flora i DinirTORY. 

ew no ofcise why it was th-n of late Fr^vi'sCowl. Arum ArUarum. 

taud down, *• unless it was bv the zeal of t^ j- . i . c# c#, i « ^ro;.^,.. 

certain of their prea^rs ; men veiy com- l^^^cated to St, Stephen of Citeaus 

mendable for their bmiviour and learning, 

and sweet in their sermons, but somewhat 

too sour ntffeeaching away their pastime.** SbplTlI 1 B . 

By licelne, therefiTO, they ffot up their e* ^ i» • ^ lo- e# /^ «• 

Hock-tide plav al KeniUirth, Aereiu J^' ^^/l??^'"";' t'''' ]^^' \^,^¥"** 

- capt. CoiV' a p«son here indescribable ^^P* ,V ' '''i , ^"'Jio"* ""' -^^*^'«"'*^' 

without hindrance to most readers, « came ^P' ^^ ^-^'^P'^'^* ^' ^- «38. 

marchine on valiantlv before, clean ^ 

trussed and jiamishcd above the knee, all ^ " RO^o^ o^ y. 

fresh in a velvet cap, flourifhinij with his 1?^"9. The mfamous judge Jeftenes 

ton-sword, and another fonce-master with died in the tower, whither he had been 

him, making room for the rest. Tlien committed by tlie lords of the council, 

proadlv came \hv, Danish knichts on after he had been taken m the disguise of 

hnrs«back, and then the Enslish, each a common sailor for the purpose of leav- 

wiih their alder-pole martially in their ing Kn«:land. He was bom at Acton, 

hand?* The meeting at first waxine warm, near Wrexham, in Denbiglishire, and 

then kindloti with courage on both sides being raised to the bench, polluted its 

into a hot skirmish, and from that into a sanctity by per\ersions of the law. Hit 

blazing battle with spear and shield ; so habits and language were vulgar and dis- 

that, br outrageous races and fierce en- gusting. John Evelyn says, " I went 

ocmnters, horse and man sometimes turn- this day to a wedding of one Mrs. Castle, 

bled to the dust. Th^n thev fell to with to whom 1 had some obligation; and it 

sword and targe!, and did clang and was to her fifth husband, a lieutenant- 

bang, till, the fight so ceasing, afterwards colonel of the city. She was the daughter 

Mowed the foot of both hosts, one after ^^ _- 

tbe other marchings wheeling, forminz in 

TZ ^~ ,^ ,» — 7 a ^ •' t or DraiMUC .Mjiwnrs, uicieiiuy pcnonwv •« 

grislj together, that inflamed on each Coreotry. chiefly with referenced the vebky 

Kde, twice the Danes had the better, but ch«racte». and ^f^Tt^^J^H^J^JUL 

; , ,, J o V • ThomAJi Sharp, of Coventry, wbo, vnn acccM 

at the last were quelled, and so being ^ ^^ corporation nwnwrripta, and to other 

wholly var.ouisbed, manv were led cap- K)qrce»hiih«rtonnexplored,and,aboTeaIl,^th 

we in .riumph by our English ^omcn. ^:^%^^';:,'t Si1..""Sl''.?^X.M'S 

Tbil matter of eood pastime was wrought dram*, than baa derohred upon it from the U- 

arrfier th* window of her highness, who Uur* of any preceding antiquary. 

479 THE EVEKY-DAY BOOK.— aHRII, 18. ^90 

of one Bniton, a broom-man, by his wif(Ef, sentence from burniiifif to telieailiug. 
who sold kitchen-^tufi* in Kent-street, Mn. Gaunt, a widow, near Wappin^. 
whom God so blessed, that the father who was a Bnptist, and spfrnt her tune in 
became very rich, and was a very honest acts of charity, was tried on a charge of 
man ; and this daughter was a Jolly, harinf? hid one Burton, who, hearing 
friendly woman. Tliere were at the wed- that the king had said that he would 
ding the lord mayor, the sheriff, several sooner pardon rebels than tiiosc who har- 
aldermen, and persons of quality ; above bourcd them, accused his benefactress of 
all sir George .leiTeries, newly made lord having saved hi4 life. Shit was burned at 
cniei -ustice of England, who, with Mr. the stake. Tlie excellent William Penn, 
.«.stice Withings, danced with the bride, the Quaker, saw her die, and related the 
■la were exceeding merry ! Tliese g^at manner of her death to Burnet. She laid 
nen spent the rest of the afternoon, till the straw about her for her burning 
€«even at night, in drinkin<: houlth«, speedily, and l)eh:ived herself so heroic- 
taking tobacco, an<l talking much bc-nrath ally, that all melted into tears. Six men 
the gravity of judi^es that had but a day were hanjred at T\buni, on the like 
or two l)eforp condemned Mr. Algernon charge, witiumt trial. At length, the 
Sidney, who was executed the 7th of Dec. bloociy and barbarous executions were 
1683, on Tower-hill, on the single witness so numerous, that they spread horror 
of that monster of a man, lord Howard thro;i}rliout the nation. England was aa 
of Escrick, and some sheets of paper aeaUema : the country, for sixty miles 
taken in Mr. Sidney's study, pretended together, from Bristol to Exeter, had a 
tobewrittenby him, but not fully proved.'* new and terrible sort of sign-posts or 
James II. found .leficries a fit instrument gibbets, bearing the heads and limbs of 
fur his arbitrarvpurposes. After the defeat its butchered inhataibints. Every soul 
of the duke ot Monmouth in the west, was sunk in anguish %nd terror, sighing 
he employed the most sanguinary mis- by day and by night for deliverance, but 
creants, and Jeflferies among the rest, to shut out of all hope, till the arrival of the 
wreak his vengeance on the deluded prince of Orange, on whom the two 
people. Bishop Burnet says, that Jef- houses of parliament bestowed the crown, 
frries's behaviour was brutally disgusting, Jefleries had attained under James 11. to 
beyond any thing that was ever heard of the high ofiicc of lord chancellor, 
in a civilized nation ; "lie was perpe- 
tually cither drunk or in a race, liker a 1794. Died Charles Pratt, earl Cam- 
fury than the zeal of a judge." He re- den, born in 1713. As chief justice of 
quire<l tlie prisoners to plead guilty, on the common ])leas, he wa.s distinguished 
pretence of showing; them f:ivoiir; but he for having discharged the celebrated Jolui 
afterwards showed them no meiry,han<jing Wilkes from the tower By that decision, 
many immediately. He hanged in Severn I general warrants were pronounced illegal ; 
places about six hundred persons. The and for so threat a service to his couutry, 
king had a daily account of Jrffcries* lord Camden received the approbation 
proceedings, which he took pleasure to of his fellow citizens ; they conteiied on 
relate in the drawing-room to fon'i<;n mi- him the freedom of their citit-s, and 
ni:«ters, and at his table he called it Jef- placed his picture in their corptiration- 
feries's campaign. Tpon JeKerifs* return, nails. He was equally distinguishei I for 
he created him a peer of Kneland, by the op|K»sing the opinion of prerogative law- 
title of earl of Flint. Durini; these ycrs in matters of libt?!. At his death he 
•* bio4»tly tistisrt" the lady I.i^le, a noble was lord president of the council. Eirm 
woman of exemplary character, whose of purpose, and mild in manners, he was 
hu«hand had l>een murdered by the Stuart a wise aiul amiable man. It is pleasantly 
party, wuji tried for entertaining two gt>n- related of him, that while Mv( juntire. 
tlemrn of the duke of Monmouth's army ; beingupon a visit to lord Dacre,at Alvdp)-, 
ard though the jury twice brought her in in Essex, he walked out with a tren lie- 
not uiiiity. Jr-OiMies sent them out again man, a very absent man, to a hill, at no 
and a^Msn, nnril, upon his threatening to great distance fmm tlie house, npim the 
attaioi ihk-m of treason, they pronounced top of which %Umm\ the «tocks of the vil- 
her j;iiii!y. Jefi'fric«. iH't'nrc he tried this lage. Tlic chief justice sat down upon 
lady. g(>t the k..ii^ to promi^iC that he them ; and after a while, havinj; a mind 
1^'MiJi] not pjriinn hi r, and the only f.i- to know u-li:it the piini^hmmt was, hr 
*^!j/.'-f:r n^rnrffj u •• tin* rh-fr.*i i-f h'^r '«»»kef| his t-nntpaii.fin to npi n ihcro arrd 

481 THE £V£Ry.DAY BOOK.— APRIL t6. 482 

put liim ID Tliis being done, his friend line and finishing of that which is hero 

took a book from his pocket, sauntered exhibited prove it the productio.i of a 

OD, and so completely forgot the judge master hand. 

and his situation, that he returned to lord " The maid servant must be considered 

Dacre's. In the mean time, the chief jus- as young, or else she has married the 

tice being tired of the stocks, tried in vain butcher, the butler, or her cousin, or has 

to release himself. Seeing a countryman otherwise settled into a character distinct 

pass by, he endeavoured to move him to from her original one, so as to become 

let him out, but obtained nothing by his what is properly called the domestic. 

motion. ** No^ no, old gentleman,*' said The maid seri-ant, in her apparel, is 

the countryman, *' you was not set there either slovenly or fine by turns, and dirty 

for nothing ;'* and left him, until he was always ; or she is at all times snug and 

released by a servant of the house des- neat, and dressed according to her sta- 

patched in quest of him. Some time tion. In the latter case, her ordinary 

after he presided at a trial in which a dress is black stockings, a stufi* gown, a 

charge was brought against a magistrate cap, and neck-hand kerdiief pinned cor- 

Bn false imprisonment, and for setting in ner-wise behind. If you want a pin, she 

the stocks. The counsel for the magis- just feels about her, and has always one 

trate, in his reply, made light of the to give you. On Sundays and holidays, 

whole charge, and more especially setting and perhaps of afternoons, she changes 

in the stocks, which he said every body her black stockings for white, puts on a 

knew was no punishment at all. The gown of a better texture and fine pattern, 

chief justice rose, and leaning over the sets her cap and her curls jauntily, and 

benchy said, in a half-whisper, ** Brother, lays aside the neck-handkerchief for a 

have you ever been in the stocks?" high body, which, by the way, is not half 

*• Really, my lord, never.** — '^ Then I so pretty. There is something very warm 

have/' said the judge, *' and I assure and latent in the handkerchief, — somc^ 

you, brother, it is no such trifle as you thing easy, vital, and genial. A woman in 

represent.** a high-bodied gown, made to fit her like 

1802. Dr. Erasmus Darwin died. He ? case, is by no means more modest, and 

was bom at Newark in Nottinghamshire, J? '""^^ ^^?* lemplmg. She looks like :i 

in 1732, and attained to eminence as a ^f^^ ^^ ^L»« head of a ship ^^ e could 

physidan and a botanist. His decease almost see her ciucked out of doors into a 

was sudden. Riding in his carriage, he ^"^ ^'^^ ^ ^'^^ remorse as a counlc of 

found himself mortally seized, pullld the s"gar-loaves. The tucker « much Setter, 

check-string, ami desired his Servant to ^\^^" ^ the handkerchief; and is to the 

bdp him to a cottage by the road-side. ""^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ T""^ ^"^^^ '^ ^ ^^t^J' 

On entering, they found a woman within, l^\ . ^he one always reminds us of the 

whom the doctor addressed thus, « Did ^Parkler in the 'Guardian ; the other of 

you ever see a man die ?**-.« No, sir."— ^*°"y ^ J<>^P^ Andrews. But to re- 

-Then now you may." Tlie terrified turn :— The general furniture of her oidi- 

woman ran out at the door, and in a few ?"> ^o™' ^J^ ''»*^*»^"? » "^^ «> ™"?'^ 

minutes Darwin was no more. He stre- ^^' ^^" ?^ ^^\ ""^f «^ ^^^ ?"^^ '• 

imously opposed the use of ardent spirits, f"^ need not Ijb d gcribed ; but in a 

fimn cinviJtion that they induced dread. ^"^^"^ ^^ ^>« ^'^!^f^ ^^^ ^^^^' "i 

fbl maladies, especially gout, dropsy, and «>™Pany with a dust^ and a pair of 

insanity; hence his patients were never ^°"fl^"' "?*y ^^ [^""^ l^.'"?,^^ ^^' ?^, 

freed from his importinities, and the few ^"^y^ ^''^ ^ *}™*» thimble, a pair of 

who had courage to persevere benefited *^*^5?"' * ^'^^'^S' *• PT ""{ ^"^ 

bj his advice. ^^'^dl® ™"^^ "^"H^ "^T .^* J'*^' 

' an odd volume of ' Pamela, and per- 

THE MAID SERVANT. haps a sixpcnuy play, such as * George 

Holidays being looked forward to with Barnwell,* or Mrs. Behn's ' Oroonoko.' 

unmixed delight by all whose opportu- There is a piece of looking-glass also in 

nities of enjoying them are dependent the window. The rest of her furniture is 

iqwn others, a sketch of character at such in the garret, where you may find a good 

a season may amuse those whose inclin- looking-glass on the table ; and in the 

ation is not sufficiently strong to study window a Bible, a comb, and a piece of 

the original, and just enough to feel plea- soap. Here stands also, under stout lock 

sarc ill looking at the picture. ITic out- and key, the mighty mystery— the box^— 


contaiiiinj^amoDgother things her clotiiesy round about with his patties, and dabs 
two or three song-books, consisting of the httle piece on it to make up, with a 
nineteen for the penny ; sundry tragedies graceful jerk. Thus pass the mornings 
at a half-penny the sheet : the * Whole Na- between working, and singing, and gig* 
ture of Dreams laid open,* together with gling, and grumbling, und being flatterad. 
the ' Fortune-teller,' and the * Account of If she takes any pleasure unconnected 
the Ghost of Mrs. Veal ;' ' the story of the with her office before the afternoon, it is 
beautiful Zoa who was cast away on a when she runs up the area-steps, or to tht 
desert island, showing how,' &c. : some door to hear and purchase a new song, or 
half-crowns iu a purse, including pieces to see a troop of soldiers go by ; or when 
of country money, with the good countess she hap|)ens to thrust her head out of a 
of Coventry on one of them riding naked chamber window at the same time with a 
on the horse; a silver penny wrapped servant at the next house, when a dia- 
up in cotton by itself; a crooked six- logiie infallibly ensues, stimulated bj the 
pence, given her before slie came to town, imaginary obstacles between. If the 
and the giver of which has cither forgotten maid-servant is wise, the best part of licr 
her or been forgotten by her, she is not work is done by dinnt^r time; and nothing 
sure which ; two little t'uamel boxes, with else is neces>ary to uivc perfect lest to 
looking-(;lass in the lids, one of them a the meal. She telU \xi what she thinkti 
fiuring, the othei 'atriHe from Margate;* of ii, when >hc cuIU it ' a bit o* dinntr.' 
and lastlv. various letiert. square and Tliifre is tlij su:iii: soit ui't-lctjucncc i:i her 
ragged, and directed in uU sorts of s(>cll- other ph^tl^c, * a cu^ui' tta;* hiii i^e old 
ing, chiefly with little letters for capitals, one:?, and tl.o \vaslicrv\oint'n, Inai l:t;r at 
One of them, written by a girl who went that. After tea in gre;it houses, she goes 
to a day school with her, is directed with the otiicr servants to hot cockles, or 
' miss.' — In her manners, the maid ser« What-are-my-thoughts like, and tells Mr. 
vant sometimes imitates her young mis- John to * have done then ;' or if there is 
tress; she puts her hair in papers, culti- a ball given that night, thoy throw open 
vates a shape, and occasionally contrives all the doors, and make use of the music 
to be out of spirits. But her own cha- up stairs to dance by. In smaller houses, 
racter and condition overcome all sophis- she receives the visit of her aforesaid 
tications of this sort; her shaiM?, fortified cousin ; and sits down alone, or with a 
by the mop and scruhbing-hrush, will fellow maid s^r^'ant, to w oik ;t:ilks of her 
make its way ; and exercise keeps her younic niai^ter, or mi^trcN*!, Mr. Ivins 
healthy and rheerful. From the »ame (Kvansj : or else she calls to mind her own 
cause her tem])er is gtxxl ; though she friends in the c«^iintry, where she thinks 
gets into little heats when a stranuer is the co^s and 'all that* beautiful, now 
over saucy, or when she is told not to go she is awny. Meanwhile, if she is lazy, 
so heavily down stairs, or when some she snuffs the cuiuUe with her sci«:<ars ; 
unthinking ]»erson goe» up her wet stairs or if she h:is enrcn moro heartily than 
with dirty shoes — or when she is called usual, she >\\ih< double the usual niiml>er 
away often from dinner ; neither does she of times, an'l thinks thnt tendfr heurts 
much like to be seen scrubbing the street- were Iwrn to ho unh.-ip]>y. Such bein^ 
door-steps of a morning ; and sometimes the maid-^erMint's lite in donry, she 
she catches hendf saying, * drat tluit scorns, when ahrrad, to be any thing but 
butcher,* but immediately adds, 'God a creature of shfcr t-njoymcnt. TThc 
forgive me.* The tradesmen indeed, maid-servant, the ^ailor, and the ^chool- 
wjth their compliments and arch looks, boy, are the tlirfe In-ings that c-rjoy a 
seldom give her cause to complain. The holiday beyond all the rest of the world : 
milkman bespeaks her good humour for and all for the s^me rensnn. — because 
the day with — 'Come, pretty maids.' their inrxptricic. , {.eculianty of life, and 
Then follow the butcher, the baker, the habit of Ik-wi? with p«'r>on» or circum- 
oilman, &c. all with their several smiiks stances or thouciii*: abo\e them, Livf 
and little loiteiings; and when she goes ihtm all. in their way, a cast of the 
to the shops herself, it is for her the romantic. T)i«- most active of money- 
grocer pulls down his string from its getters is a vri>ct able compared with them. 
roller with more than ordinary whirl, and The maid-seivnnt ul.en »he fir^t goes to 
tosses, as it were, his parcel into a tie, — Vauxhall, thinks she is in heaven. A 
for her, the cheesemonger weig^s his theatre is all pleaiturc to her. whatever is 
hutfn with half a glance, cherishes it 701 ng fomara, whether the plavt or tht 

485 TilE EVERY-DAY BOOK.— APRIL 19. 486 

ausic, or the waiting which makes others larities of the monks. St. Dunstan being 

unpotient, or the munching of apples and warned in a vision, drew bim from thence, 

gingerbread nuts, which she and her party and gave him episcopal ordination. In 

eommence almost as soon as they have 1006, he became bisoop of Winchester, 

Mated themselves. She prefers tragedy and was afterwards translated to the see 

totomedy, because it is grander, and less of Canterbury. On the storming of th^! 

like what she meets with in general ; and city by the Danes, he endeavoured to 

because she thinks it more in earnest allav their fury, but they burnt his cathe- 

aiso, especially in the love scenes. Her dral, decimated his monks, and carrying 

ftiTOurite play is ' Alexander the Great, Alphege prisoner to Canterbury', there 

Or the Rival Queens.' Another great slew him on this day in 1012.* 

delight is in going a shopping. She It is storied, that when St. Alphege 

lores to look at the patterns in the win- was imprisoned at Greenwich, the devil 

dow, and the fine things labelled with appeared to him in likeness of an angel, 

those corpulent numerals of 'only 7s«'— > and tempted him to follow him into a 

** only 6s. 6d.'' She has also, unless bom dark valley, over which he wearily walked 

and bred in London, been to see my lord through hedges and ditches, till at last 

mayor, the fine people coming out of being in a most foul mire the devil va- 

oourt, and the * bcasties ' in the tower ; nished, and a real angel appeared and 

and at all eveuts she has been to Astley*s told St. Alphege to go back to pri.4oa 

and the Circus, from which she comes and he a martyr, which he did. Tlic?a 

away equally smitten with the rider, and after his deatii, an old rotten stake was 

sore with laughinc^ at the clown. But it drivon into his body, and those who 

it difficult to say what pleasure she enjoys drave it said, that if on the morrow the 

most. One of the comuletest of all is the stake was green and bore leaves they would 

lair, where she walks tnrough an endless believe ; whereupon the stake flourished 

round of noise, and toys, and gallant ap- and the drivers thereof repented as they 

prentices, and wonders. Here she is said they would, and the body being 

mvited in by courteous, well dressed peo- buried at St. PauVs church, in London, 

pie as if she were the mistress. Here worked miracks.t 

also is the conjuror's booth, where the In commemoration of tliis saint was 

operator himsolt'. a most stately and put up in Greenwich church the follow- 

genteel person all in white, calls her ina: inscription :** This church w;is erected 

'ma'am :* and says to John by her side, in ami dedicated io the plory of God, and 

spite of his laced iiat, * Be good enou'^h, the memory of Saint Alphege, archbishop 

«ir, to hand the card to the lady.' Ah ! of Canterbury, here slain by the Danes." 

may her cousin .turn out as true :is he Curoxolocy. 

fays he is; or may she get home soon ^. , r^ *.. i , « 

enough, and sn.ilin?? enough, to be as ^^.iO. Died, Dr. Nicholas Saunder- 

happy as^ain next tinie.** ^'''"' J'Ucasian professor of mathematics. 

" He was born in IG/iO, at Thurlston, in 

Yoikshiie, lost his si^ht from the small 

n.or.AL DiRixTORY. pox wheu twelve months old, and became 

Musk Narcissc. Xarchsus moitrhittns. so pioficient iu the science of certaintiid. 

Dedicated to St. .^pollonius. "»!** ^"s eminence has rarely been t qualicd. 

177.5. The American war commenced 

"^^^ at Lexington. 

^tll 19. ^"91- I^r. Richard Price died. He 

was born in Glamorganshire in 1732. 

8i> Leo IX. Pope, a. d. 10.54. St. El- Ueveredfor the purity of his private cha- 

phege^ A. D. 1012. 5/. Urtmar, Bp. racter, he is celebrated for his religious, 

A. D. 713. moral, mathematical, and political works 

St. Elphege. throughout Europe. 

Hiis Faint's name in the church of , ^824. Lord Byron died. A letter taken 

Xngland calendar is Alphege. He was f^*^'" ^ "ewspaper several years ago4 re- 

tetwffht up at the monastery of Deerimnt, ^^}^^'^ ^^^^^ residence of this distmguishcd 

in Gloucestershire; afterwards he built character m the islandof Mi tylene, seems 

Kmself a lonely cell in the abbey of Bath. ^^ have esc aped editoria l inquir y, and is 

where he became abbot, -and orreci.-d "i,;;?" * G.r^TiTTi^/n.u 

ftie '* little junketings. '* ?rH cjher i'rrp»- ; o;,,-'^-. \..-.. i.\ »»-»?■. 

4817 THE K\ laiY-DAY fiOOK.-ArUll. t?. 4»8 

therefore subjohied. If authentic, it is, painting. Ttie bed-chamber bad niertly 

iu some degree, an interesting memorial. a large mattiass spread on the floor, wiili 

Mr. Editor, two stuffed cotton quilts and a pillow-* 

In sailing through the Grecian Archi- the common bed throughout Greeoe. In 

pelago, on board one of his majesty's the sitting room we observed a marblt 

vessels, in the year 1812, we put into the recess, formerly, the old man told ui^ 

harbour of Mitylene, in the island of that filled with books and papers, which wert 

name. The beauty of this place, and the th^ in a large seaman's chest in the 

certain supply of cattle and vegetables closet : it was open, but we did not think 

always to be had there, induce many Bri- ourselves justified in examining the con- 

tish vessels to visit it, both men of war tents. On the tablet of the recess lay 

and merdiantmen; and though it lies Voltaire's, Shakspeare's, Boilcau's, ami 

rather out of tlie track for ships bound to Rousseau's works, complete ; V^olney's 

Smyrna, its bounties amply repay for the ** Ruins of Empires ;" Zimmerman, in the 

deviation of a voyage. We landed, as German language; Klopstock's ''Messiah;" 

usual, at llie bottom of the bay, and Kotzebue's novels ; Schiller's play of the 

whilst the men were employed in water- '' Robbers ;" Milton's " Paradise Lost,** an 

ing, and the purser bargaining for cattle Italian edition, printed at Parma in 1810; 

with the natives, the clergyman and myself several small pamphlets from the Greek 

took a ramble to a cave, called Homer's press at Constantinople, much torn. 

School, and other places, where we had Most of these books were filled with 

been before, On the brow of Mount Ida marginal note$, written with a pencil^ in 

(a small mooticole so named) we met Italian and Latin. The '' Messiah" was 

with and engaged a young (vreek as our literally scribbled all over, and marked 

guide, who told us he had come from with slip^i of i>aper, on which also weie 

Scio with an English lord, who Uft the remarks. 

island four days previous to our arrival, Tlie old man said, ** the lord had been 

in his felucca. ** lie cngay^ed roe as a reading these books the evening befiMre 

pilot," said the Greek, '' and would have he sailed, and forgot to place them with 

taken me with him, but I did not choose the oilieis ; but," said he, ** there they 

to quit Mitylene, where I am I iktrly to get must lio until his return; for he is so 

married. He wus an odd, but u very particular, that were I to move one thing 

good man. Tlio cottu'^e uvi:r the hill, wiih(>ut orders, Itc would fiuwn UfXHi me 

facing the river, bc'loii>;s to him, and he fur a week together : he is otherwise vcrv 

has left ar) old man in charge of it; he good. I once did him a service, and 1 

gave Hominick, the wine trader, six hun> have the produce of this faim for the 

drcd xcchines for it, (about 2.50/. English trouble of taking care of it, except twenty 

currency,) ami has rc'i^idod there about four- zechiues which I pay to an aged Arme* 

teen months, though not constantly ; for nian, who resides in a sinuU cottage in 

he sails in liis ft-lacca very of^en to the the wood, and whom the lord broughi 

different i>land.«." here from Adrianople; I don't know for 

Hiiy account exrited our curiosity very what rfaM)n." 

much, and we lost no time in hastening Tlie appearance of the house externally 

to the house where our countryman had was pleasing. The portico in front w^ 

resided. We were kindly received by an fifty paces long and fourteen brctad, and 

old man, who conducted us over the man- the fluted marble pillars with black plinths 

.sion. It c< moisted of four apartments on and fret-work cornices, (as it is now custo- 

the ground floor: an entranct* hall, a mary in (rrecian architecture,) ^ere consi- 

flrawiiiK.roiiin, a sitting parlour, and a derably higher than the roof. Theroof^sur- 

bed r(K)m, with a spacious closet annexed, rounded by a light stone balustrade, was 

Tliey were all simply decorated : plain covered by a fine Turkey carpet, ticneath 

greee-siained walU, marble tables on an awning of si ronn coarse hnen. Most 

either side, a lar^e myrtle in the centre, of the house-tops are ihuN furnished, as 

and a small fountain beneath, which could upon them the Greeks pass their evenings 

be made to play through the branches hy in smoking, drinking lit:ht winei,'such as 

moving a spring fixeti in the side of a '* lachryina Christi/* eating fruit, and cn- 

small broiiie \'cnuK in a leaning ponture; joying the ovrnimr Im^f/e. 

a lanre ctuich nr Mipha completed the On the h-l> hand, as we entered the 

furniture. In tlii' hull >Uhm\ half a do7cn house, a sni.dl streamlet iiliiled away : 

Knchuh lane chaif^. and an cm ply book- cra|ics, oranges, and iime^ were cluMrr- 

t'Ji>€ : ibfTC wirr iw mifrf*!.^, nut a MU^Ie iity: to^ithtr on it« borders, and undrr tlie 



riiade of two fatfge myrtle bushes, a mar- 
ble sest, with an ornamental wooden back, 
was placed, on which, we were told, the 
lord passed manj of his CTenings and 
Bights, till twelve o'clock, reading, writ- 
ing, and talking to himselif. *' I suppose,'' 
said the old man, ^ praying ; for tie was 
Tevy dcTOUt, and always attended our 
church twice a week, besides Sundays.^ 

The view from this seat was what may 
be termed "a bird's eye view." A line of rich 
vineyards led the eye to Mount Caicla, co- 
vered vrith olive and myrtle-trees in bloom, 
and on the summit oi which an ancient 
Greek temple appeared in majestic decay. 
A small stream issuing from the ruins, 
descended in broken cascades, until it 
was lost in the woods near the mountain's 
base. The sea, smooth as glass, and an 
horiion unshaded by a single cloud, ter- 
minates the view in front; and a little 
oo the left, through a vista of lofty ches- 
iiiit and palm-trees, several small islands 
irere distinctly observed, studding the 
light blue irave with spots of emerald 
green. I seldom enjoyed a view more 
Uian I did this ; but our inquiries were 
fhiitless as to the name of the person who 
had resided in this romantic solitude; 
none knew his name but Dominick, his 
banker, who had gone to Candia. ** The 
Armenian," said our conductor, ** could 
tell, but I am sure he will not." — ^** And 
cannot you tell, old friend?** said I. — 
•* If 1 can," said he, « I dare not." We 
had not time to visit the Armenian, but 
on our return to the town we learnt seve- 
ral particulars of the isolated lord. He 
had portioned eight young girls when he 
was last upon the island, and even danced 
with them at the nuptial feast. He gave 
a cow to one man, horses to others, and 
cotton and silk to the girls who live by 
weaving these articles. He also bought 
a new boat for a fisheiman who had lost 
his own in a gale, and he often gaveGieek 
Testaments to the poor children. In short, 
he appeared to us, from all we collected, 
to have been a very eccentric and bene- 
volent character. One circumstance we 
lemmt which our old friend at the cottage 
thought proper not to disclose. He had 
a most beautiful daughter, with whom the 
leid was often seen walking on . the sea- 
shore, and he had bought her a piano- 
Ibrte, and taught her himself the use 
of it. 

Such was the information with which 

we departed from the peaceful isle of 
Mitylene; our imai^nations all on the 
rack, ffuessing who this rambler in Greece 
could be. He had money, it was evident : 
he had philanthropy of disposition, and 
all those eccentricities which mark pecu- 
liar genius. Arrived at Palermo, all our 
doubts were dispelled. Falling in with 
Mr. Foster, the architect, a pupil of 
Wyatt's, who had been travelling in 
E^pt and Grreece, *♦ The individual," 
said he, ** about whom you are so anx- 
ious, is lord Byron ; I met him in my 
travels on the island of Tenedos, and I 
also visited him at Mitylene." — We had 
never then heard of his lordship's fame, 
as we had been some years from home ; 
but ** Childe Harold" being put into our 
hands, we recognised the recluse of 
Caicla in every page. Deeply did we 
regret not having been more curious in 
our researches at the cottage, but we con- 
soled ourselves with the idea of returning 
to Mitylene on some future day ; but to 
me that day will never return. 

• • • • JOIIX MiTFORO. 

The names of Byron and Moore are 
associated for their attainments; they 
were kindred in their friendship. The 
last lines, written by lord Byron, on his 
native soil, were addressed to Mr. Moore : 

My boat is on the shore, 
Aod my bark is on the sea ; 

But ere I go, Tom Moore, 
Here's a double health to thee. 

Here's a sigh for those I lore^ 
And a smile for those 1 hate. 

And, whatever sky's above. 
Here's a heart fur any fate. 

Though the ocean roars around lae, 
It still shall bear ue on ; 

Though a desert should surround me 
It hath springs tliat may be won. 

Were it the last drop in the well, 
As I gasped on the brink. 

Ere my fainting spirits fell, 
Tls to thee that I would drink. 

In that water, as this wine. 
The libation I would pour 

Should be — Peace to thee and thine. 
And a health to thee, Tom Moore. 

Forbearing to estimate him whom the 
low and the lofty alike ajuume to i»ea- 
sure, a passage from his own pen may filly 
conclude this notice :~~ 



Bcautiftil * 
How bcaotifol is all this TisibU world ! 
How glorious in its action and itself i 
But we, who name ourselres its sorerelfus, we, 
Half dust, half deity, alike un6t 
1V> rink or soar, with our mix'd essence make 
A conflict of its elements, and breathe 
The breath of degradation and of pride, 
Coatandlng with low wants and lofty will 
Till our mortality predominates, 
And men are — what they name not to themselvM, 
And truft not to each other. 


flokal directort. 

Ursine Garlick. Allium Urrinum. 

Dedicated to Si, Leo IX., Pope. 

april 20. 

St. j4gn€9, of Monte Pulciano, a. d. 1317. 
St Ser/^ or Servanus, Bp. 5th Cent. 
5/. Jamei of Sclavonia, or lilyricum, 
A. D. 1485. 

Easter Term, 1825, begiriM. 

On this day the sun enters Taurus K 
or the bull, at 9 h. 50 m. a. ii ., at which 
period black cattle produce their oflspring, 
and hence probably the sign is represent- 
ed by the male animal. Tlic Greeks af- 
firmed it to be the bull into which Jupiter 
metamorphosed himself, when he visited 
Kuropa, but this si^n was H^urtd and 
worshipped thnmghout the K;i>t as tiie 
god Apity or a symbol of the .^^un, btlore 
the Gieek zodiac existed. 


With the incoming of sprinsr ihere is an 
outgoing from town, or a wish to do so. 
We all iove what nature proflfers to our 
enjoyment. Now — the hunibl** tenant of 
the loAy attic in the metropolis, cult i>atcs 
a few flowers in garden p<.>ts, within 
the lidcre of the parapet that bounds the 
eye from all things but sky and clouds ; 
and when he can, walks with his wife in 
search of fields where grass v;rows and cat- 
tle feed. Now — the better conditioned 
take a trip a few miles beyond the Mtburbs, 
and all manifest hopes or wishes for pro- 
loDgcd enjoyment of the country in the 
approaching summer. Now — ready fur- 
nisoad cottages and lodginfi:s, which have 
been **to let* tlirouii^hout the winter in the 
▼illagci near the metro|>olis, find admir 
en^ jod 9€fm9 of them find oicupicr^: 

Now — ^the gfood wife reminds her good 
man — " My dear it's very hard, after so 
many years not to be able to afibrd a lit- 
tle comfort at last — ^we can't, you know^ 
live in this way for ever. What a chArm- 
ing day this is. Let us see and get a lit- 
tle place just a little way from town 
against the fine weather comes ; the walk 
there and back will do you good ; it will 
do us all good ; and the expense won't be 
miss*d in the long run.** Now the thought- 
ful and thrifty, and the unthoughtful and 
the unihri{\y, of certain and uncertain in- 
come, begin to plan or scheme where to 
go '* af^cr parliament's up," or in what 
neighbourhood, or on what site, to hire 
or build a house suitable to their real or 
imaginary wants. Now, in other words, 
*< ail the world*' in London is thinking 
how or whore '* to go out of town by ana 

I who a country lif^ admire, 

And ne'er of lur^ii prospeclH tire. 

Salute my friend y>no loves the town, 

Aud hates' to .see a country clown. 

Tiio' v«-e alii.oAt coa^enial be. 

In tJii-s lioueVr we (lisa«;rce ; 

Vou'r** fond t>f bu^sir, din, and smoke. 

Ami things tliatai.vays me provoke. 

Whilst 1 clear rivulets e.vtui. 

That o'er th»-ir pcbbl) cli.inneli roll, 

Itude nioftsy ritcV^ that niKldin;^ stand ; 

Hieh corn tiiat's waxin-^ oVr the Ijnd ; 

Thick shady uroves where rephyrt play 

And cool the Miltry heat of day ; 

Tro fond of every rustir spi»rt. 

And hate— <leteHt a venii court. 

Whene'er I quit the noisy town. 

And to my rural spot get down. 

I find my*«elf auite at my eate. 

And can do whatsoe'er I please ; 

St>metimes 1 study, ^ujntr limes ride. 

Or «troII alon^' the liver's side. 

Or ^uunti-r thmu^'h w>me fertile mead. 

Where lonin^hird- in plenty feed; 

Or rest upr.n a hank of flowers, 

And pa«, *mid*t innorenfr, my hou:^. 



rLOKAL DiBECTORT. byloD, whcrc he died of dninkoioess, in 

Spring Snowflake. Lmteojum vemum, ^^ thirty-second year of hii age. After 

Dedicated to.^. ^^igmet of Monte Pulciano ^ death^all hi& iunHj and infant children 

^ere put to death, hu gencrab quarrelled 

for the empire, and bloody wars distri- 

Sprtl 2 1 . buted the priie in shares to the sanguin- 

'"'^ ary winners. 

Jr. Anteim, Si. Awutathu, the Stnaite, 1 142. Peter Abelard, a learned doctor 

A. D. 678. St, Anastuiius I., Patriarch, of the church died, aged sixty-three. He 

A. D.598. St. Anattaaiusy the younger, was the celebrated lover of the no less 

A. D. 610. St. Beuno, or Beunor, Ab- celebrated Heloise, the niece of a canon, 

bot ofCIynnog,A.D. 616. St. Ewgau, who placed her under Abelard to be' 

or Eneon^ a.d. 590. St. Malrubius, taught philosophy, ofwhom she learned the 

A. D. 721. art of love; and preferring an infamous 

St.AnMelm reputation to the bonds of wedlock, 

«r^^ , .. ^ . T»-j . 1 caused her tutor's ruin. 

Was bom at Aoust m Piedmont, and 

made archbishop of Canterbury, by 

William Rufiis, in 1093. Butler gives a tloral directory. 

circumstantial account of his life and Cvprus Narcisse. Narcitm$ Orienlalh 

writings, from whence it appears that alhu. 

Anselm was a learned and skilful theolo- Dedicated to St. Anielm. 

gian, and conducted his affairs with great 

circumspection and obedience to the 

papal see under William I. and IL, and CItirtf 99 

Henry I.; and that he died on the 21st of Xi^t il ^'^' 

April, 1109, aged seventy-six: he says, 5/*. Sotor and Caius, Popes, 2d Cent. 

''We have authentic accounu of many St. Caro*, Pope, a. d. 296. Sis. 

admirable miracles wrought by this saint .^ Asadea, 2'AarAtf, ^r., Martyrs in Per- 

l.HROiiOLOGY. Alexander, 2d Cent. St. Theodo- 
753. B. c. Romulus commenced the rui, of Siceon. Bishop, a. d. 613. St. 
foundations of Home ; on this day his Opportutia, Abbess, a. d. 770. St. 
brother Remus was slain by Romulus or Leonidea, a. d. 202. St. Rufiu, or 
his workmen, for having ridiculed the Rufin, of Glendaloch. 
stendemess of the walls. Thus raised in ^ ^ j 
blood they becjinie the sanctuary of re- rooks.— ^n Anecdote. 
fugees and criminals, and to increase the Amongst the deliramentaoftbe learned, 
population neighbouring females were which have amused mankind, the follow- 
forcibly dragged \^ithin its boundaries. ing instance merits a conspicuous rank. 
323.B.C. Alexander the Great, son of Phi- Some years ago, there were several large 
lipofMacedon died. When a boy he tamed elm trees in the college garden, behind 
Bucephalus, a horse which none of the the ecclesiastical court, Doctors Com- 
courtiers could manage, and Philip wept mons, in which a number of rooks had 
that the kingdom of Macedonia would be taken up iheir abode, forming in appear- 
too small for such a son. He was under ance a sort of coNroca^ioa of aerial eccle- 
Aristotle for five years; after the assas- siastics. A young gentleman, who lodg- 
fination of his father, he slew his mur- ed in an attic, and was their close niiigh 
derers, succeeded him in the sovereignty, hour, frequently entertained himself with 
conquered Thrace and Illy ricum, destroy- thinning this covey of black game, by 
cd Thebes, became chief commander of means of a cross-bow. On the opposite 
rU the f rces of Greece, conquered Darius side lived a curious old civilian, who, ob- 
and all Minor Asia, subdued Egypt, Me- serving from his study, that the rooks 
dia, Syria, and Persia, visited the temple often dropt senseless from their perch, or, 
of Jupiter Ammou, bribed the priests to as it may be said,. without using a figure, 
salute him is the son of that god, exact- hopp'd the twig, making no sign, nor any 
cd divine honours fiom his army, spread sign being made to his vision to account 
his conquests over India, invaded Scy- for the phenomenon, set his wits to work 
thia, visited the Indian ocean, and laden to consider the cause. It was probably 
with the spoils of Indi?, letunied to Ba- during a pro/Ukta time of peace, and the 

495 Tin: EVERY DAY 11(X>K.^AP]IIJ. 2J. 4f»f. 

doctor having plenty of leisure, weighed to all, and in amply stored wiiii e%-ery 

the matter over and over, till he vras at thing necessary for the suppoit of the 

length fully satisfied that he had made a various families of the earth : it is owing 

great ornithological discovery, that its to the superior intelligence and industry 

{tromulgation would give wings to his of man, tnat lie is enabled to appropriate 

ame, and that he was fated by means of so large a portion of the best giAs of pro- 

tht'se rooks to say, vidence for his own subsistence and 

•• Volito nvus per ort virum." comfort ; let him not tlif^n think it waste, 

__. Mi J <. . 11 *^^*» i" somr instances, creatarc^ inferior 

Hi:* goose-qmll aiid foolscap were quickly ^^ j^j^ j^ ^^^^ ^^e permitted to partake 

in rcquisilioii, and he actually wioic « ^-^^^ j^j^^ ^^^ j^., j^j^ ^,^^, ^y^^^ j,^^,^ 

/refl^iw, statmg circumsiantia ly what he scanty luitaiice ; but, considering them 

himself had seen, and in conclusion giv- o^jy „ i^e tasiers of his full meaU ht 

ing It as the settled conviction of his ,,1,^ endeavour to nnitalc their chcprful- 

mind, that rooA* were subject to „ess, and lift up his heart in gratefulef- 

ihe falling ticknett I fusions to Him, 'who fillcth all things 

SPARROWS. ^'^^ plcnicousness.' " 

Country churchwardens and overseers ^""^ 

are encouraged by farmers to offer re- floral ni rectory. 

wards for the destruction of these merry Wood Crowfoot. Ruwmcnhu Auricomfn 

twitterers, under the notion that they are Dedicated to St. Rufa* 

fell destroyers of their gram. 31 r. Be- 

wick has taken some interest in their be- 

half, by statinv: a plain fact. lie says : AtprU 23. 

•* Most of the smaller birds are sui>- ^, ^ .,. ., ,, . -, 

iMrted psneciallv when vonnff bv a nro- *'' *^*^*"V^'- '^'- ^dulhcrf, Bp. a n 

ported, especiall> v^tien >oiing, u> a pro- ^^^ ^^ Gerard, Up. ^. n. ^W. St. 

fusion of caterpillars, small worms and ti^. «, ? ^- u ■ V i i u . *.U 
iu.<>cl» : on these tl«y feed, and thus they '*"'^' °' '"•"' "l'" '" ''"''""'' "'^^ ^- 
contribute to preserve the vegetable world St. Croroi: tlie Martyr, 

from destruction. Tliis is contrary to the Patron of England. 

commonly receiml opinion, that biids, who wa^ St. (;rorE:e? Butler savs that 




. . J. 1 , — iinople ; that 

•iiR the timo tney art- fowl inp their young, he " spurns " to have U-en the lonnder of 
will destroy ulnnit n.i r iiiui si>n ta- the church of St. George over -hi* 
TLRPM.i*Rs wnaiil Tlity^ likewise tomb" in Palestine; that one t)f his 
feed their young ^ith butterflies and churches in Constantinople gave to the 
other winge<l insects, each of uhnli. if Hellcsi)onl the name of "the Arm of M 
not destroyed in ihis manner, would be (Jporpe ;" that he is honoured as prin^ 
prtHlunivj. of stxcral hundreds of cater- cipal patron .)f saints bv several e;^lfm 
pillars. I-etus not condemn a whole nations jiaiticularly " the GeorKiaiu ;" 
sfKxies of animals because, in some in- ihai iho Hyianline historians relate bat- 
stances v*e have fuund them troublesome ,ics caine*!, and miracles won. bv hii 
or inconviiiient. Of ihi^ ^r are sufti- jnterce^ion ; that he was cclobralid m 

, , , , - proMimed) relics wrre 

nned that, in the destruction of caier- ^,\.^^.,.^[ „, ^ cliurrli :,i I'aris on Us cnnM*. 

pillars, sp:irrows are eminently >ei vice- (ration to St. \; that " he i* *ai,f 

Mile I., vcuetation. and in thni risinct to have bwn a i:r<.at v.Mier:" that he 

alone, theriM* ie;«on to .-suppose, M.ffi- «aj, Hiosen hv our anrestni* the tntrlar 

eiently re-pay the dt-Mriiction they iiinkc .^„„ .,f Ki,..ianri, under the fir»t Norro4n 

in the priKluiT of the gardrn or the firid. i,i„jj, . jh,,, ,hr rourcil at ( )xford in IC?2 

The great labh- ol nature is i^puad alike , omrnandod iii^ fra^t toU- kopt a hnlidtr 

— - -- f»f till- li'.'.r r i.iiik; tlMl I, till* r his Tiann 

• V..,«.i .'■n •fj- .;. i-i- rn«i\:fi «nf rdMarM III. in>* »ii?».'I 



Iht nart noble wder of kntghthood in and forlj jeirs before the ordar of St. 

finrape; tbat thii institutioa wu lifiy Geoive by the ea)pi»«r Frederick IV.; 

jwn before Ibii of St. Michael by Louis and thai " the exlnuiTdinaiy derotiOD ti 

jU. of France, eighty yean before the allChrulendom tolhiinint itanautben- 

order of ibe Golden bleccc by Philip the tic proof bow glorious his triuiDph and 

Good, duke of Burguody, one hundred name have always been in the lAuich.'* 

■nd ninety yean before that of St. Andrew Still who trot St. Georga ? 
t^ James I. of Scotland, and one hundred 

^t- iScorge attU t\)t IBrason. 

b W related of St. Georje,* that be pearance was so horrible, that tbey fled. 

enived M a city of Lybia called Syleue. Then the dragon pursued them ercn to 

Near this city was a atagnant lake or the city itself, and the inhabitants were 

peid Ukc a «ea, whereio dwelt a. dragon, nearly destroyed by his rery breath, and 

who Mts M fierce and venomous, that he suffered so much, that they were obliged 

Mrificd and poisoned the whole country, to give him two sheep every day to keep 

TV people theiefore assecnbltd to slay him from doing them harm. At length 

Imb; but when ibey saw him, his ap- the number of sheep became so small, 

^ that they could only give bim one sheep 

• to flw Coiri™ I,»srnit. e'efj day. and ibey were obliged t* give 

409 THE l.\ KRY-DAY BOOK.— APRIL 23. 500 

hi OS a niftfl instead of the otiicr : at lust, & holy martyr saynt George, is pfttron of 

because all the men mii^ht not be eaten this realme of englond, & the crye of men 

up, a law was made that they should of warre. In the worshyp of whom » 

draw lots to f^ive him the youth and in- founded the noble ordrc of the gartre, Ce 

fants of all ranks, and so the drai^on was :il>o a noble collo'^c in the custel of 

fed with young gentlefolks and poor p(H>- wyndsorc by kync^es of enc^londe, in 

Ele*« children, till the lot fell upon the whiche college is the hert of saint George, 
ing*s daui;:htor. Then the kins; was which Sycfysmoiid the emperour of al- 
very >orTy, and begged the pt^plc to take maync * brought, & gave it for a grrie 
his gold and silver instead of his duugh- & precyous relyke to kyngc lienry the 
ter, which the people Mould not accept, fylth; & also the sayd Sygismond was 
because it \^as accordin<j^ to his own law ; a brotier of the said garter, & also there 
and the king wept very much, and begced is a poco of his heed/* 
of the people to uive the ]uinci?ss ei-ht Butler informs us, that St. Georire. 
days )>efore she should be given to the was l>orn in Cappadocia; that he went 
dragon to be de\ourcd, antl the people with his mother into Palestine, of which 
consented. And when tlu; eii;ht days couittiy she was a native, where she had 
were gonp, the king caused his daughter a considerable estate, *' which fell to her 
to be richly dressed as if she were going son (jeorge,'* who was a soldier, and 
to her biidal, and havinc: kissed her, he became *^ a tribune or c^-lonel in the 
gave her his bles>ing, and the people led army/' wherein he was further promoted 
her to where the dnigon was. St. (ieorge by the emperor Dioclesian, to whom he 
had just come ; when he saw the princess, resigned his commissions and po>ts when 
and demanding why she was there, she that cmpcrur ^aged war against the 
answered, ''Go your way, f:iir young christian reli-j;ion, and who threw him 
man, that you perish not also.'* Tlien into prison for remonstrating against 
acain St. George demanded the reason bloody edicts, and caused him to be lie> 
oif her being there, and why she wept, header]. This is all that Butler relates of 
and endeavoured to comfort her; and him, and this on the authority of what he 
when she saw he would not l>o satisfied, calls '' the account given to us by Mcta* 
she told him. Upon this St. George pro- phrastes/' According also to Butler, 
mised to deliver tier; but she could not Si. George became the patron of the mili- 
believe he had power to do her so ureat tary because he had been military himself, 
a service, and therefore again begged him and his apparition encouraged ** the 
to go away. And while they were talk- christian army in the holy war before the 
iirg the dragon appc'ared, and bi>gan to l>attleof Ant ir)ch," which proved fortunate 
run towards them ; but St. (Seorge being under Ciodfrey of Bouillon ; and also be- 
on horseliack, drew his sword and signed cause his apparition inspirite<l Kichard I. 
himself with the cross, and rode violently, in his expedition against the Saracens, 
and smiting the dragon with his spear, " St. George," says Butler, *' is usually 
wounded him so sorely that he threw him painted on horseback, and tilting at a 
down. Tlien St. George called to the dragon under his feet ; but thia is no 
princess, to bind her girdle about the more than an emblematical figure, pur- 
dragun's neck, and not to be afraid ; and porting that, by his faith and christian 
when she had done so, *' the dragon fortitude, he conquered the devil, called 
folowed as it had liern a mekc berst and the dragon in the Apocalypse." Tltis is 
debonavre ;'* and she led him into the very easily said, but not so easily proved, 
city, which when the people saw, they nor has Butler in any way att'jmpted to 
fled for fear to the mountains and vallies, prove it. To this assertion may be op- 
till, being encouraged by St. George, posed the fact, that St. Michael is also 
they retum<-d, and he promised to slay represented killing a dragon : and the 
the dragon if they would believe and be present writer presumes t.> think, that 
baptiicd. Then the king was baptized, unless there be any valid objection to 
with upwards of 15.000 men, besides mounting an angef on horseback, the 
women and children, and Sf . George slew well-known legend of this an'hanssel »up- 
the dragon, and cut oflfhis Iteail; and the plies the clue to the ]Mt'ional represent- 
people ttKik four carts and drew the body ation of St. (icorge; or, in plain woidtt 
with oxen out of the city ; and the king 

built a church, and dedicated it to our " 

Larlj and St. (icorge— " This bly«yd . <:.ii:,;.,.>. 

y>\ THE KVKKY-rJAY n(X)K.— APRIL 23. 509 

that Si. George and the drafTon are neithcnr feat. The ballad of '* St. George and 

iDore nor \e^ than St. Michael contend- the Dragon," which is not the oldest, 

ing with the devil. Concerning this de- begins with the first and ends with the 

▼ice, however, more cannot be observed last of the following verses, and places 

whhont excluding airious particulars. him above sir Bevis of Hampton, and 

There are many old ballads in honour other heroes of mighty doings in our old 

of the patron saint of England and his romances. 

Why shonid we boast of Arthur and his Kni^ta, 
Knowing how many Men have performed Fiphts? 
Or why should we speak of Sir Lancelot de Lake, 
Of Sir Tristram du Leon, that fought for Ladies Sake ! 
Read in old stoiic^t, and there you shall see, 
How St. George, Sl George, he made the Dragon flee. 

St. George he was for England, Sl. Dennis was for France ; 

Sing Ifoni soil qui mal y pente. 

• • • • • 

Mark Anthony, I'll warrant ye, play*d Feats with .Tigypt's Queen ; 

Sir Eglemore, th»t valiant Knight, the like was never seen ; 

Grim Gorgon's Might was known in Fight ; old Bevis most Men frighted ; 

The MirmiJons and Prrster Johns ; why were not these Men knighted t 

Brave Spinola took in Breda, Nassau did it recover ; 

But St. George, St. George, turn*d the Dragon over and over. 

St. George he was for England, St. Dennis was for France } 
Sing, Honi toit qui mal y pnuc* 

This latter verse is a modem interpola- Advance our standardn, set upon our foes \ 

tion. Percy gives a purer version of the Our ancient u^ord of courage, fair Saint 
old ballad .t Georgf, 

In the romance of the " Seven Cham- Inspire us with the spleen of fiery dragons ! 

pions of Christendom/* St. George's ^^?''},'^'. ^ u- w vtt 

nerfonnanccs exceed that of the other . , . , •' , ., ., i r "^ • 

*7 " . .1 , i. J t_, • ,L^ ^^^^ the Irish were prohibited from using 

cbampioos ; the ballad, bearing the same , . . . ^ , » ,. ^^ ^^ ^.^^ J^ 

*'. -•" r. . » . , I • ' • i:i./ .„o^«*... their favourite battle-cry of Aboo, or 

title, distjntfuishcs him in like manner, .. ^ *• r .u * . 

7 •. : "*^ ., . . u; . fi„k» «.;»K Aher. Every native of that countr>' was 

and It IS there sunj;, that in his fight with . ■ i -^ ,» .u . — "i 

T*" " *- c»> b enjoined against using that word, or 

the dragon, . , , , " other words like or otherwise contrary 

l^Tien many hardy Strokes be d dealt, j^ ^^^ |^i„^., ^^^^ j^j^ ^.^^^ ^nd dignity 

And could not pierce his Hide, ^^^ peace, but to call on St. George, or 

"•f ""J ^Vn^'in'-J i?Hi . ' the name of his Sovereign I^rd, the King' 

In at the Dn:ron » Sine ; * r« • i r *i .■ u • » • • 

Br which he did hi» Ufc destroy, ^ England, for the time beine/ «cc.» 

Which chccr-d the drooping King ; There is also this injunction to the Ene- 

Tfcb cauVd an nnirorsal Jov, I'sh in an old art of war : "Item that all 

Sweet Peals of Bells did ring.) souldiers entcrin;; into battaile, assault, 

Saint Georae was the ancient English skirmish, or other faction of armes, shall 

^^^ Shakspeaie souses it in his ''"e for their common cry and wo^, 

"Rictai III.;" he makes Richmond ff- <'«<"'^« /»'«'«'•''' "^ "?^' '*f" «• 

«» address to hi. soldiery, with <?«'''»'. "hfreby the soldier is much com- 

wuviuuv "« - ji forted, and the eneraie dismaied by calune 

Sowid, dmms and trumpets, bold and ^^ minde the ancient valour of England, 

cheerfully, which with that name has so often been 

God and Samt Otorge, Richmond and vie- ^jctorious.^t So much for the present 

^^' concerning St. George. 

So also Richard, after he receives the His majesty, king George IV., who was 

M«i of Sunley's defection, exclaims, bom on the 12th of August, changed the 

_^_^__« annual celebration of his birth-day, to 

• Cnnmion «f OM B«iiad . 3 vol.. St. Gcorge's-day . 

• Coll O'd I alJrM*. * Bnid/i a«%l» Coll. 

I FocbTAkeS Diet, /^ntia . Cr I." r\ Trrl.n. Diet. t NarrN Glmiary. from Warton, &c- which Glo*. 

f ro»wo*c, *^ I. tary alio ie« flirt hrrtoiicrrnliif St. Oeonsr. 


Fb Tlw naii<Mcliet, UMittltni; to nuitual 
^MOM on itwkini's tuttb^ in p(o- 
iHiiM from HtUbonk io LiHnbvd-«lraet. 
I tJaani ttrelte o'clock, tiM lionei b»- 
a ihc di&rent mad*, with new 
inil llu putmea noil p(»(ln>]'9 
1 liufubiefc, ifTijieil in tlwii ii«<r Kar- 
K MMU uid jukeii, proofed from Laiii. 
■til-cMM 10 Millliaak, uul ilivre dW. 
kt Iha phKC lh« oncho ftr« freit I {>w>ied ■ 
'"'n theaec ihc ptoocMiun iKtngaitaogcd 
'~ ~ to nu)*c about flvo o'clock in thv 
pa.titadud bj the Hcmnil jnutnwn 
■ hombticb. Tho nalli taWrm thtin, 
d with tlM wire* Bttd childrm.fnond* 
raluioni, of the coAcUmea nnd 
'■1* ; while iJit poiil<o]r<i lunoding 
r bugles and cnekiDj thru- whip*, 
-- g nplh» mr. From tli? n)inniuiai> 
B,toO>l o( tlic pnxrcMinn, Ilis Inllt iif tba 
II church«* ring cut meirily, ftnil 
icihoirrajoiclngpcirbilll i( turiria 
t the Oeaenl PoM-omc* lu lAintMnt- 
bccl, from wheuee liie* iparkle aLrntil 
I'to ■)! pam <if the jiinirfom GtmW 

dVi i*l>nrt«n l'i> hod <«nplM«l lh< 
ftfty-eaoond veof ofhii og*. WhaiiqiM* 
lilUd l4 pnii^ him, vhov lupcmniMBl 

l^niu) ■Jl men utknimlrJee < 

quolitt It ■■ muuiu 
man nud evei iiiwa 

dltod with. 

Ihe ir^-: 

• S(ia/"l . 


Uadet tliti liUe a hook iru >T|inM«d in 
IDIA, frain une birlj' iil*c«tvr>d beatiikf 
the lUlf of 

f CI. e. 9jk9 Caljr*. 

Ileri-miiB (0 (he pn&ce uf the rrjtem* 
for lit Tilu* In cuppon uf ihe naiuMii 
ooirrfxwatDd by othWrcnrinu, ihd Shaks- 
pMrC Wiu dmitulv of the tvortiinf ailn- 
bltUrU to him hj> aDine wnten, an t\. 
tnei (with ih« iikUIdi nad*inunl) n 
taken frutn i( a> i ipocliBtii of the «ii, 
and nwrili whicli amw«d v 

• <>-. The 

i-r the 

ntn aiiii n^iariif, i^arli xiih u Uiw 

bowiuei or «u»<tt* In hi* bri|l>i «a'i«t 
MM, ih« beautT of the cauk, and the 

fUKial cMtOaMC Cf die oqaipiiWBt, |M* 

•m a mM ameaUc tpettad* in (voiy 
q* a»d bImiI, thai can ha gnuiAKl fay 
■M^aikl >t«MtiM oo the adiwtaco m h. 
■HhM la Indg uilfMit-ial iniFrrantw bf badi 
Bi* macluAoBni ntaUiihmiui. and 

».,. .... »a« Jhj tk» Soritly iif Aoli- 
qlla^le^ l-j their chuici »r lacnrnwaiian, 
neel at thtir apanioeMi in Sooienel' 
plan, lo dm a jiivtulant, coondl, ai^ 
MMr oOEm lilt the jrut eiMuuiK, and 
Am ttMMlwr.MtoediaK i» Mnmal cm- 

0/ at woaMa (AtfyWHawW trrjimrl* 

ihittenA Utr aarf imj>^. 
A woman tlierr «a* which liad font 
huabaiidt. It ronimad alao (hat bn ftmnh 
huiband dird and wai brought M dwrvh 
upon (be bier,wboBithti woenaafaltewwl, 
and mods graat moan, and waaad vnT 
•orry, intomuch that het neifhboxi 
IhDDHht ilic wDutil iwnwi aiul di« isr aor- 
■tiw ; oheitrute one -f tktT |naaip« i^M 

Id hat and >p*kp tii liar fn lei ear, ■■! 
bade ha £<r Gnili nk* ooisrort boMir 
•od refiani tluil lanrntation, or «!■■ il 
wmIiI liuit bar.aad iiunE'itntmre pDlW 
!■ jia|ianly nf bcr lift- Tv whoai ti^ 
aroMin muwcrtd and aaid •* I wnaiii 


n ibt taae that I an nnw, fat ib«r» «W 
iM on* ol ibn but wIm lh»i I iMlMttd 
II (teiKh, JFOI I waa mH at 

■L lOlfl. Mwurl Cenaolf* do Saavaitra, 

TpaoriebiaMid Sponlaliavtbur.died. Cet. 

mitca WM bom in \i*9: ha ii beii 

^^"J* Ea,land hj hn ■• Don Qaixo*..- 

~ '~ d fiim popnter iheough- 

«Uril tua rcndcitd 

Op the uncdaT w.ibl „ 

n, Stakipcsre died in Rm^hI 
Ibe afiKKcnaij uT bi. T»ilb. 

e«t of my houte ; bbiI buw I aaa aw> of 
no other huband, aad ibMilhre jt Ma* 
ba lUR I have (nat ouae lo ba nl aad 

Bf ihci tale yi> maj aiw. tbM Aa tU 
pmverh la (rat, ibat ii ia w gnat s pif 
to »B a wnnnii waap, aa a fooat Mp 



If Um moai deduced tn tbe noi^-teller 
Mh the tale jatt related ii ntincal <m 
life aei, h dnuU be nmembered, that be 
■vata at a period lAen joke* were homel;, 
■■1 le« Ut tfau in OUT leCned tioia. 
Tb trik now of •< m joke like a trar joke * 
b WHilj peaMUe, milcB tbe ^iplica- 
Ifaa be ia iladf Un^ and Iben it n no 

tbe faanki of the Tbamei 
that when the nran 
rngmatt Ut mh^ how- 
fine tbe weather ma; 

Tain from tbe n 


n twelve, irihejfl; wiM 

n iwcMf -faur 

&« m<mL wUA imrel} occun, it'iec 
be mmij Ibr their wnwemenl. c 
tiaMaf MMM ccitun ipot in a qi 

r old 'wariB on k»- 
many pMgBUatxt of 
«s of animab. Otw 
Ihot: "In a heri of 
Ibey are on their maith tvwaid* 
lum in a mormag-, if tbe boll 
Tan, and keep badt hit eonpanj 
^ go not before him, it il a prof- 
rainj or tempcxtdooa weuber ; 
bat if be be meleaa and let them go at 
nndom, tbe cooliaijr- Or if the; eal mora 
than ordinary, or lick their Imo6 all 
aboat, rain Mlowi feithwith. If tber 
nin to and 60, flin^ng and kicking, and 
extending Ibeir tail*, tempesta nwal^ 

Tbe nmc writer nys that, " If tbe 
iwallow fly low, and near the waters, 
it presaged) 1 ' 

ttii amt no ehioge 

down tbe tide, and in 
takea place. The 
lied by wet, 
heBTj diowei win be 

! presage of tbe ipring.*' 

«ad* remarked, that the 

15A of April, from ine nnul appearance 

Il has been already remarked, t 

of till* remarkable Inid abont that line, 
if called " iwiUow-day." 

napcceodiDg engraving t» copied bom which dinettatwn the felk^ag iatcteit- 

■H vwch illMratet a acioNific and ingnartKolais are also deriTed.t 

niTestigation oon